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Full text of "The Territorial papers of the United States"

THE TERRITORIAL PAPERS 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



THE TERRITORIAL PAPERS 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



Compiled and edited by 

Clarence Edwin Carter 



VOLUME XVI 

The Territory of Illinois 
1809-1814 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1948 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. - - - - - Price $3.25 (cloth) 



Publication No. 3087 






PREFACE 



'I'yVT^.The following pages of volumes XVI and XVII of The Territorial 
' Papers of the United States embody a selection of the official papers of 
the Territory of Illinois as found in the Federal archives in Washington, 
, D. C, the greater portion of which are now centralized in the National 
J^ Archives. The files of the Departments of State, War, Interior, and 
■" Justice, and the papers of the Senate are in that depository. While 
p these volumes were in process, the files of the Post Office and Treasury 
Departments were moved to the National Archives and the House of 
r^Representatives papers, which had been in the Manuscripts Division 
^of the Library of Congress, were also transferred to the National 
r\ Archives. Various manuscripts of the Library of Congress other 
^ than the House of Representatives papers and the files of the General 
Accounting Office have also contributed important items to the con- 
tents of these books. And the Illinois State Library has generously 
supplied a number of missing links. The publication of the territorial 
records here presented has been made possible by a succession of acts 
V of Congress approved March 3, 1925, February 28, 1929, February 14, 
• 1936, June 28, 1937, and July 31, 1945. 

Headnotes to the documents identify the sources from which they 
have been taken. In this connection it is necessary for the reader to 
understand that the present series of volumes was in the process of 
compilation and publication antecedent to the beginning of the 
centralization of the Federal archives referred to above, and has pro- 
ceeded simultaneously with the progressive removal and reclassifica- 
"L tion of the official records which previously rested in the various 
departments and agencies of the United States. This fact has made 
^ inevitable certain changes in the forms of citation in headnotes and 
~ footnotes. It is not believed, however, that the apparent lack of 
-^ uniformity of citation will result in serious confusion. In the present 
offering, the forms of citation have been brought into conformity with 
the current classification insofar as that work has been concluded. 

The prefaces to previous volumes of the series of which the present 
one is a part have established the general boundaries of the publication 
as a whole and of each volume, or set of volumes, in particular. Since, 
however, the published papers dealing with a given territory stand 
alone in certain respects and will be used by many persons who will 
' have no occasion to consult other volumes of the series, it has been 
,- deemed essential to repeat for each territory the definitions which have 



VI PREFACE 



open to deal with materials pertaining to this aspect of the history of 
the territories as the occasion from time to time and from territory to 
territory warrants. In any event the documentation of any given 
territory cannot be complete with the Indian phase entirely erased, 
whether in its political or commercial aspects. And although the 
process of selection is at times a painful one, an endeavor has been 
made to avoid as far as possible the element of caprice in its execution. 

In this regard the defense of the territory, with which the territorial 
government was materially concerned, has been considered as possess- 
ing a relationship to administration, at least in some of its ramifica- 
tions. Furthermore, the governor of the territory was also super- 
intendent of Indian affairs within the confines of his jurisdiction, and 
his twofold functions were often closely identified. Events connected 
with one branch of the service not infrequently impinged upon those 
pertaining to the other. For example, the governor's militia powers 
(he was commander-in-chief of the militia of the territory) were plainly 
a part of his executive prerogatives, and papers relating thereto in 
connection with the protection of the territory from Indian attacks 
must be viewed as relevant. The governor was also in nominal con- 
trol of the Indian agencies, and although the men who officered 
these agencies were appointed from Washington, they reported to 
him as well as to their superiors in the Federal Government and were 
subject as well to his instructions under certain conditions. 

The governor was also drawn into close relations with the officials 
of other principal extraterritorial establishments either through joint 
instructions to all territorial, Indian, and military officials, or by 
reason of the necessity of cooperation between himself in his dual 
capacity and the heads of the various establishments mentioned. 
With respect to the Federal military posts within the territory and 
the problem of territorial defense, there was frequent necessity for 
consultation by the governor not only with the Secretary of War 
but also with the commandants of the various posts. The creation 
from time to time of new Indian agencies was, moreover, a forecast 
of the beginning of white settlements over which the territory would 
have jurisdiction. This extension of settlement made it necessary to 
acquire title to Indian lands, in which respect the governor was usually 
either the negotiator or joint-negotiator; in any case documents which 
concern the acquirement of title to Indian lands possess an immediate 
relevancy. It is with this class of papers that those relating to the 
public-land system tend to dovetail. Although the administration 
of the factory system was distinctly extraterritorial, the offices of 
factor and Indian agent were sometimes united, and at all times the 
factories, located at strategic points in the territory, were tangent at 
certain ob\-ious points with the political phases of Indian affairs. 

Finally, there is no hesitation in publishing the truly unique docu- 



PREFACE 



ment which bears no apparent relationship to any other in the various 
categories described above but which nevertheless pertains to the 
territory. 

It should be plain, therefore, that in the application of the foregoing 
procedures comparatively little room is left for random selection. 
The fact of course still remains that as between two documents 
touching the same subject, where there is space but for one, another 
compiler might have fallen upon a different choice. 

With respect to previously published materials on the Territory of 
Illinois, mention should be made of N. W. Edwards's History of Illinois 
and Life and Times of Ninian Edwards (Springfield, 1870), which 
contains a documentary section embodying a considerable number of 
letters and other documents falling within the period under treatment. 
The materials there reproduced were drawn chiefly from papers then 
in the possession of its compiler, not all of which can now be traced. 
The volume contains no index and the documents are not arranged in 
sequential order. An attempt has been made in the present instance, 
however, to cite all the relevant item.s in the work described so that its 
use may be facilitated. 

Another source of importance, based on the Edwards Papers in the 
Chicago Historical Society, is E. B. Washburne's edition of the 
Edwards Papers (Chicago Historical Society Collections, vol. Ill, Chi- 
cago, 1884). The Territorial Papers of the United States, vols. II and 
III (Northwest Territory), and vols. VII and VIII (Indiana Territory), 
form an appropriate introduction to the present work, since Illinois 
evolved from both the territories mentioned. The Territorial Records 
of Illinois (Illinois State Historical Library Publications, no. 3, Spring- 
field, 1901), edited by E. J. James, contains the Executive Register, 
1809-1818, corresponding to the Journal of Executive Proceedings of 
other territories, the Journal of the Executive Council, 1812, and the 
Journal of the House of Representatives, 1812. The first of these 
documents is here reprinted from the original, now in the Illinois 
State Archives, by reason of serious defects in its former printing. 
In the American State Papers series (Gales and Seaton ed.), vol. II of 
Public Lands, and vol. II of Indian Affairs are indispensable. Fre- 
quent use will also be made of Miss Margaret Norton's Illinois Census 
Returns, 1810, 1818 {Illinois Historical Collections, vol. XXIV). The 
imminent publication in the latter series of Dr. Francis S. Philbrick's 
Laws of Illinois Territory will open up an important body of source 
material. For the Wisconsin area, which was a part of Illinois Terri- 
tory until the latter became a State in 1818, the various volumes of 
the Wisconsin Historical Collections embody many pertinent documents 
on Indian relations. 

An index is supplied for each of the present volumes, which it is 
expected will supplement the footnotes in the use of the documents. 



vin PREFACE 



The placement of the papers is chronological, with the exception of 
enclosures, which are usually, though not always, retained with their 
covers. The textual matter is divided for reasons of convenience into 
several parts corresponding approximately to the successive adminis- 
trations in the office of governor. Editorial interpretations of the 
text are excluded. 

C.E.C. 
Washington, D. C. 
September 1, 1948. 



CONTENTS 
VOLUME XVI 

Page 

Preface iii 

Symbols xi 

Part 

One: Papers Relating to the Foundations of the Territory of 

Illinois, 1809 1 

Two: Papers Relating to the Administration of Acting Gover- 
nor Pope, 1809 27 

Three: Papers Relating to the First Administration of Gov- 
ernor Edwards, 1809-1812 43 

Four: Papers Relating to the Second Administration of 

Governor Edwards, 1812-1814 241 

Index 453 



SYMBOLS 

AD autograph document 

ADS autograph document signed 

AGO Adjutant General's Office 

AL autograph letter 

ALS autograph letter signed 

C copy 

CHC Chicago Historical Collections 

CHS Chicago Historical Society 

CS copy signed 

D draft 

DS document signed 

Dup duplicate 

E extract 

GAO General Accounting Office 

GLO General Land Office 

HF House of Representatives Files 

IHC Illinois Historical Collections 

ISL Illinois State Library 

LC Library of Congress 

LS letter signed 

NA National Archives 

OIA Office of Indian Affairs 

GIT Office of Indian Trade 

PO Post Office 

SD State Department 

SF Senate Files 

SG Surveyor General 

SGO Surv^eyor General's Office 

SW Secretary of War 

SWDF Secretary of War Document Files 

TD Treasury Department 

Tr translation 

WD War Department 

WHSC Wisconsin Historical Collections 



PART ONE 

Papers relating to the Foundations of 
Illinois Territory 

1809 



PART ONE 



COMMITTEE REPORT: DIVISION OF THE TERRITORY OF 
INDIANA 

[LC:HF. 10 Cong., 2 sess. : AD '] 

[December 31, 1808] 
M'' Thomas from 

The Committee to whom was refered the resolution to enquire into 
the expediency of dividing the Indiana Territory ^ made the following 
Report. 

That by the fifth article of the Ordinance of Congress for the Gov- 
ernment of the Territory of the United States North West of the river 
Ohio,' it is stipulated that there shall be formed in the said Territory, 
not less than three, nor more than five States; and the boundaries of 
the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of Session, and con- 
sent to the same, shall become fLxed and established as follows, towit: 
The Western State shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio and 
Wabash rivers; a direct line drawn from the Wabash and post Vin- 
cennes due north to the Territorial line between the United States 
and Canada; and by the said Territorial line to the Lake of the Woods 
and Mississippi — 

The Middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the 
Wabash from post Vincennes to the Ohio; by the Ohio, by a direct 
line drawn due north from the Mouth of the Great Miami, to the 
said Territorial line, and by the said Territorial line — 

The Eastern State shall be bounded by the last mentioned direct 
line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said Territorial line: Provided 
however, and it is further understood and declared, that the boun- 
daries of these tliree States, shall be subject so far to be altered, that 
if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have Authority 
to form one or two states in that part of the said Territory which lies 
north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or 
extreme of Lake Michigan — And whenever any of the said States, 
shall have sixty thousand free inhabitants therein, such state shall 
be admitted, by its delegates, into the Congress of the United States, 

• Printed also, with variations, in A.S.P., Misc., I, 945-946. 

2 House Journal, vi, 385. 

= Terr. Papers (N.W.), ii, 48-49. 

314574 — 48 2 3 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



on an equal footing with the Original States, in all respects whatever; 
and shall be at liberty to form a permanent Constitution and State 
Government: Provided the Constitution and Government so to be 
formed, shall be Republican, and in Conformity to the principles con- 
tained in these articles; and so far as it can be consistent with the 
General Interest of the Confederacy, such admission shall be allowed 
at an earlier period, and when there may be a less Number of free 
inhabitants in the State than Sixty thousand. — 

By the aforesaid article it appears to yoiu- Committee that the line, 
fixed as the boundary of the States to be formed in the Indiana Ter- 
ritory — is unalterable unless by common consent 

That the line, of demarkation, which the Wabash affords between 
the Eastern, and Western, portions of said Territory, added, to the 
wide extent of Wilderness Country which seperates, the population 
in each, constitute reasons in favour of a division founded on the 
soundest policy, and conformable with the natural Situation of the 
Country — The vast distance, from the settlements west of the 
Wabash, to the present seat of Territorial Government, renders, the 
administration of Justice, burthensome and expensive, to them in 
the highest degree — The Superior Courts of the Territory are by 
Law established at Vincennes, at which place suiters residing in every 
part of the Territory, are Compelled to attend with their witnesses, 
which to those who reside west of the Wabash, amounts almost to a 
total denial of Justice — The great difficulty of traveling through an 
extensive and loathsome wilderness, the want of food, and other 
necessary accomodations on the road, often presents an insurmount- 
able, barrier, to the attandance of Witnesses, and even when their 
attendance is obtained, the accumulated, expence of prosecuting 
suits, where the evidence is at so remote a distance is a cause of much 
embarrassment to a due and impartial distribution of Justice and a 
proper execution of the Laws for the redress of private wrongs — 
In addition to the above considerations. Your Committee conceive, 
that the scattered situation of the settlements over this extensive 
Territory, cannot fail to enervate the powers of the executive, and 
render it almost impossible to keep that part of the Government in 
Order- 
It further appears to your Committee that a Division of the said 
Territory will become a matter of right under the aforesaid Article 
of the Ordinance, whenever the General Government shall establish 
therein a State Government, and the numerous inconveniences, which 
would be removed, by an immediate seperation, would have a direct 
tendency to encourage and accelerate migration to each district, and 
thereby give additional strength and security, to those out posts of 
the United States exposed to the inroads of a savage, neighbour, 
on whose friendly dispositions no permanent reliance can be placed. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 



Your Committee have no Certain data, on which to asscertain the 
number of inhabitants in each section of the Territory, but from the 
most accurate information they are enabled to collect, it appears, 
that west of the Wabash, there are about the number of Eleven 
thousand, and east of said river, about the number of Seventeen thou- 
sand, and that the population of each section is in a state of rapid 
increase — 

Your Committee after maturely considering this subject, are of 
opinion that there exists but one objection to the establishment of a 
seperate Territorial Government, west of the river Wabash, & that 
objection is based, on the additional expence, which would in conse- 
quence thereof be incurred by the Government of the United States. 
But it is also worthy of observation that the encreased Value of the 
public Lands in each District, arising from the public institutions, 
which would be permanently fixed, in each, to Comport with the 
Convenience of the Inhabitants, and the augmentation of emigrants 
all of whom must become immediate purchasers of these Lands, would 
far exceed the amount of expenditure produced by the Contemplated 
temporary Government, and your Committee deem it always just, 
and wise policy to grant to every portion of the people of the Union 
that form of Government, which, is the object of their wishes, when 
not incompatible, with the Constitution of the United States, nor, 
subversive of their allegiance to the National Sovereignty.* Your 
Committee therefore respectfully submit the following resolution. 

Resolved that is is expedient to divide the Indiana Territory, and 
to Establish a seperate Territorial Government, west of the River 
Wabash, agreeably to the Ordinance for the Government of the 
Territory of the United States, north west of the River Ohio, passed 
on the thirteenth day of July 1787. * 

[E7idors€d] Report (M' Thomas) from the Committee App" on the 
13. instant to enquire into the expediency of Dividing the Indiana 
Territory 31" Decem"" 1808. Referred to a committee of the whole 
House on Monday next ^ — 

♦(being convinced that it is the wish of a large majority of the Citizens of the 
said Terri" that a seperation thereof should take place) [Footnote on the MS.] 

* See memorials, petitions, and resolutions by the inhabitants of Randolph and 
St. Clair counties in the so-called Illinois Country of Indiana Territory, in 1803, 
1805, 1806, 1807, and 1808, urging a division of that territory, printed in Terr. 
Papers (Ind.), vil, 140-145, 544-554, and in Dunn (ed.), "Slavery Petitions and 
Papers", Ind. Hist. Soc. Pubs., II, 483-491, 498-506, 510-512; and resolutions of 
the Indiana Territorial House of Representatives in 1808 to the same effect, 
Terr. Papers, op. cit, pp. 601-602. See also petitions against division, from Knox 
County, in 1807, ibid., pp. 619-622, and from Randolph County, in 1807, Dunn, 
op. cit., pp. 512-515. Earlier reports of committees of the House of Representa- 
tives on certain of these petitions are printed in Terr. Papers, op. cit., pp. 157-158, 
163-164. 

' House Journal, vi, 432. 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



AN ACT FOR THE DIVISION OF INDIANA TERRITORY 

INA:SD, Original Statutes «] 

[February 3, 1809] 
An Act for dividing the Indiana territory into two seperate governments.'' 

Be it enacted by the Senate and Hotise of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled. That from and after the first 
day of March next all that part of the Indiana Teritory which lies 
west of the Wabash river and a direct line drawn from the said Wabash 
river and Post Vincennes due north to the territorial line between the 
United States and Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary govern- 
ment, constitute a separate territory, and be called Illinois. 

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted. That there shall be established 
within the said territory a government in all respects similar to that 
provided by the ordinance of Congress, passed on the thirteenth day 
of July, one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven, for the govern- 
ment of the territory of the United States, North- West of the river 
Ohio; * and by an act passed on the seventh day of August, one thou- 
sand seven hundred and eighty nine, intituled "An act to provide for 
the government of the territory North- West of the river Ohio;" ' and 
the inhabitants thereof, shall be entitled to, and enjoy all and singular, 
the rights privileges, and advantages, granted and secured to the 
people of the territory of the United States, north-west of the river 
Ohio, by the said ordinance. 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the officers for the said terri- 
tory, who, by virtue of this act, shall be appointed by the President 
of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
shall respectively exercise the same powers, perform the same duties, 
and receive for their services the same compensations, as by the ordi- 
nance aforesaid, and the laws of the United States; have been pro- 
vided and established for similar officers in the Indiana territory; "* 
and the duties and emoluments of superintendent of Indian affairs 



' Printed also in 2 Stat. 514-516, and in Verlie (ed.), III. Consts. (IHC, xiii), 
12-14, the latter being based on the former. The differences between the original 
act as approved and these printed versions are numerous, the most important 
consisting of changes in punctuation. 

' The legislative history of the act may be found in House Journal, vi, 472, 476, 
477, 503, 505, 509, Senate Journal. IV, 329, 331, 332, 335, 336, 337. No debate 
is reported in the Senate, but the bill was evidently debated at length in the 
House. See Annals, 10 Cong., 2 sess., 1093-1094, for a summary of arguments 
for and against passage of the bill. 

8 Terr. Papers (N.W.), II, 39-50. 

» Ibid., pp. 203-204. 

11 See ibid. (N.W.), ill, 86-88; ibid. (Ind.), vu, 7-10. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 



shall be united with those of Governor; " Provided, That the President 
of the United States shall have full power, in the recess of Congress, 
to appoint and commission all officers herein authorized, and their 
commissions shall continue in force until the end of the next session of 
Congress. 

Sec. 4. And he it further enacted, That so much of the ordinance for 
the government of the territory of the United States, North West of 
the Ohio river, as relates to the organization of a general assembly 
therein, and prescrbes the powers thereof, shall be in force and 
operate in the Illinois territory, whenever satisfactory evidence shall 
be given to the governor thereof, that such is the wish of a majority 
of the freeholders, notwithstanding there may not be therein five 
thousand free male inhabitants of the age of twenty one years, and 
upwards: Provided, That until there shall be iive thousand free male 
inhabitants of twenty one years and upwards, in said territory, the 
whole number of representatives to the general assembly shall not be 
less than seven, nor more than nine, to be apportioned, by the gover- 
nor, to the several counties in the said territorj', agreeably to the 
number of free males of the age of twenty-one years, and upwards, 
which they may respectively contain. 

Sec : 5. And be it further enacted. That nothing in this act contained 
shall be construed so as in any manner to affect the government now 
in force in Indiana territory, further than to prohibit the exercise 
thereof within the Illinois territory, from and after the aforesaid 
first day of March next. 

Sec: 6. And be it further enacted. That all suits, process and pro- 
ceedings, which, on the first day of March next, shall be pending in 
the court of any county which shall be included within the said 
territory of Illinois; and also, all suits, process and proceedings, which, 
on the said first day of March next shall be pending in the general 
court of the Indiana territory, in consequence of any writ of removal, 
or order for trial at bar, and which had been removed from any of the 
counties included within the limits of the territory of Illinois aforesaid, 
shall, in all things concerning the same be proceeded on, and judg- 
ments and decrees rendered thereon, in the same manner as if the 
said Indiana territory had remained undivided. 

Sec: 7. And be it further enacted, That nothing in this act contained, 
shall be so construed as to prevent the collection of taxes which may, 
on the first day of March next, be due to the Indiana territory, on lands 
lying in the said territory of Illinois. 



" Cf. ibid. (N.W.), ii, 189-190; ibid., iii, 24-25; ibid. (S.W.), iv, 18-19; ibid. 
(Miss.), V, 20; ibid. (Orleans), ix, 405; ibid. (Mich.), x, 6; ibid. (La.-Mo.), xiil, 
92; Rowland (ed.), Claiborne Lei. Bks., ni, 217-218. 



8 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Sec: 8. And he it further enacted, That until it shall be otherwise 
ordered by the legislature of the said Illinois territory, Kaskaskia on 
the Mississippi river shall be the seat of government for the said 
Illinois territory. 

J B Varnum Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Jn° Milledge President of the Senate, pro tempore. 
February 3, 1809. Approved 
Th: Jefferson 

I certify that this act did originate in the House of Representatives. 
Patrick Magruder Clerk. 



RICHARD M. JOHNSON " TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
[NA:SD, Applications :ALS] 

Congress Hall. Feb. 10"" 09 
James Madison Esqr, Secretary of State, 

Having mentioned & recommended, to your Consideration, M' 
Thomas, delegate from the Indiana Territory, for a Judical appoint- 
ment, in the Illinois Territory; & Nathaniel Pope Esq for the office of 
Secretary of s'^ Territory, that duty which I owe to you, & which I 
hope ever to 611 feel— induces me to state in writting, their preten- 
sions to your confidence — 

M' Thomas has been in the Practice of Law, about five years — 
He has served, in the Legislature of the Indiana Territory; & was a 
member when elected to Congress — He has presided in the Indiana 
Legislature four Sessions — I have the best evidence that his appoint- 
ment would give very general Satisfaction in the new Territory — I 
have had no personal acquaintance, with M'' Thomas, untile this 
Sssion. But from the knowledge I have of his character from others 
& what I know myself; I am satisfyed, that he will discharge the 
duties of a Judge, if appointed, with fidelity— & give Satisfaction to 
the people of the Territory— I have very little personal acquaintance 
with Mr Nat. Pope — But no man of his age in the Western Country 
has a higher reputation as to moral character, his abilities or his 
information. He has lived several years, on the west side of the 
Mississippi; but ho has attended the Courts of the Indiana Territory — 
in that part now erected into a Territory — There is no doubt of his the 
Satisfaction, which his appointment would give in the Territory, as 
he is very popular & much beloved by the people there, as I am well 

" A Representative in Congress from Kentucky. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY Q 

informed — I am authorised to Say that M' Boyle would prefer, from 
many considerations, the the Government of the Illinois Territory or the 
office of Judge in the s"* Territory, to the Government of the Mississippi 
Territory — But he wishes it to be understood, that if any person 
should have been thought of, as the Governor of the Illinois Territory, 
he does not expect the appointment, & will gratefully accept a Judicial 
appointment in the new Territory — With Sentiments of high con- 
sideration & real attachment your &c 

Rh. M. Johnson 

[Endorsed] Johnson R. M. Feb^ 10. 1809 J. B. Thomas Judge 
IlHnois 



DAVID HOLMES" TO [THE SECRETARY OF STATE] 

[NA:SD, Applications :ALS] 

[February 10, 1809] 
Dear Sir/ The act of Congress passed a few days ago for the 
division of the Indiana Territory creates the usual Offices for the estab- 
lishment of a Government in the New Territory M'' J B Thomas the 
present Delegate is willing to accept that of a Judge. From the un- 
equivocal testimony the people have given of their confidence in this 
Gentl™ I cannot doubt but that his Appointment to the Office would be 
in every Respect acceptable to them. My acquaintance with M"' 
Thomas is not of long standing Nor can I say more of his learning in 
the law than that Ive understood he practised as an Attorney and 
Counsellor for some Years in the Indiana Territory As a Delegate in 
Congress He has attentively and faithfully discharged his duty His 
conduct as a Gentl" has been Such as to gain the esteem and respect 
of his acquaintances I therefore take the Liberty of recommending 
him to your Attention 

I am with great respect Sir Your ob'** 

David Holmes 
10'" Feh^ 1809 

PS M' Thomas is a friend to the present administration I concur in 
opinion with M"' Holmes Tho Kenan '* 

[Endorsed] Holmes David Feb^ 10 1809 J. B. Thomas to be Judge 
of Illinois Territory 

" A Representative in Congress from Virginia; appointed Governor of Missis- 
sippi Territory, Mar. 7, 1809. 

" A Representative in Congress from North Carolina. 



10 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

BUCKNER THRUSTON,»» JOHN POPE,'" AND BENJAMIN 

HOWARD " TO (THE SECRETARY OF STATE] 

[NA:SD, App!ications:LS >»] 

Washington February 11 "■ 1809. 
Sir Having Reason to believe that M' John Boyle of Kentuclcy 
would accept the Office of Governor of the new Territory of Illinois, 
We take the Liberty of proposing him to you for that Place. 

M' Boyle is too well known, to require any attestations from us 
either to his Virtue or Talents. If however we were to say any Thing 
in Regard to them, we might with great Confidence & Justice speak in 
Terms of Praise of both, as also of his conciliating Manners, his firm 
and decided Character, and his republican Principles manifested during 
a long course of Service in Congress. 

We do not hesitate to declare that we know of no Person who could 
be selected for this important Office, in whom are united more Claims 
to Consideration either as regards the general Government or the 
Territory; for the Welfare of both, & the particular Happiness of the 
People over whom he will preside, in Case of receiving the Appoint- 
ment. We are Sir most respectfully your ob' Servants. 

B. Thruston 
John Pope 
Benjamin Howard 

[Endorsed] Thruston, B. & al: Feb'' 11. 1809 John Boyle to be Gov' 
of Illinois " 



BUCKNER THRUSTON AND BENJAMIN HOWARD TO [THE 

SECRETARY OF STATE] 

[NA:SD, Applications iLS""] 

Washington Feh^ 11'" 1809. 
Sir The Confidence we have in the fitness of M' Nathaniel Pope 
of Upper Louisiana to fill the Office of Secretary in the newly created 
Territory of Illinois induces us to propose him to you for that Appoint- 
ment. M' Pope has resided for some years at S' Genevieve, within a 
few Miles of Kaskaskias the Seat of Government of the new Territory; 
he has been well educated, and his Character stands fair & honorable. 
We have every Reason to believe that he is popular in the Territory 

'» A Senator of the United States from Kentucky. 

'• Do.; Governor of Arkansas Territory, 1829-1835. 

"A Representative in Congress from Virginia; Governor of Louisiana Territory, 
1810-1812. 

"In Thruston's hand. 

'» Boyle was also recommended by Congressman John Rowan, of Kentucky, in a 
letter to the Secretary of State, Feb. 21, 1809 (NA,SD, Applications). 

" In Thruston's hand. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY H 

and that he would be acceptable to the People thereof. We have a* 
a personal Knowledge of IM'' Pope and 3omc one of us a particular 
Acquaintaince with him, which authorizes in our Opinion, the Repre- 
sentations we have made respecting him. We have the Honor to be 
Sir Your mo. ob' Serv't^ 

B: Thruston 
Benj° Howard 
[Endorsed] Thruston B. & al. Feb'' 11. 1809 Nath' Pope Secretary of 
Illinois 



JESSE B. THOMAS " TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
[NA:SD, Applications:ALS] 

Washington 11. Feh.y 1809 

Sir In a recent conversation with M'' John Boyle of Kentucky I 
took Occasion to Solicit him to suffer me to name him to the president 
of the United States as a suitable person to fill the Office of Governor 
of the Illinois Territory; He has since signified to me his willingness to 
Accept that Office should he be Appointed. If it does not interfere 
with Your Arrangements and should you think proper to make M'' 
Boyle Governor of that Territory it would be very satisfactory to me 
and I have not a doubt but it would be pleasing to the people 

I also take the liberty of recommending to your Consideration M' 
Nathaniel Pope as a man everj' way qualified to discharge the duties 
of the Office of Secretary. M"' Pope has for several years resided in 
the Louisiana Territory Within a few miles of Kaskaskia the seat of 
Government for Illinois and having practiced Law in the Courts of the 
Western Di\asion of Indiana has become well acquainted with the 
people of that Country, and very many of them are personally 
Attached to him indeed he is universally esteemed by his Acquain- 
tances He is truly an Amiable Character has been Liberally educated 
and possesses very respectable talents — Should you deem it expedient 
to give him the office I feel Confident that the people of the Territory 
would be Highly gratified.--' 

I have the honor to be Sir your Most obedient &. very Hum*" Serv' 

Jesse B. Thomas 

Hon"'* Jajnies Madison Secretary of State 

[Endorsed] Thomas Jesse B Feb'' 11. 1809 John Boyle Gov^ Illinois 
John Boyle 

" At this time Thomas was Delegate in Congress from Indiana Territory. See 
biographical sketch in Philbrick (ed.), Laws Ind. Terr., 1801-1809 (IHC, xxi), 
cclv. 

" John W. Moss, of Kentucky, applied for the position of Secretary of Illinois 
Territory, Feb. 15, 1809 (NA, SD, Applications); and Joseph Grigsby, of Rock- 
bridge, Va., was recommended for appointment to the same position by Andrew 
Moore, Feb. 11, 1809, loc. cit. 



12 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

JOHN POPE TO [THE SECRETARY OF STATE] 

INA:SD, Applications :ALS1 

[February 25, 1809] 
D' Sir I take the liberty to send you enclosed a recommendation 
of Mr Thomas to the office of Judge in the Illinois Territory '" — My 
acquaintance with him commenced during the present session — I 
believe he is qualified & that his appointment would be very popular 
in that Territory — 

I am very respectfully yours &" 

John Pope 

Senate Chamber— Fe&rMari/ 25'" 1809 — 

[Endorsed] John Pope in favor of J. B. Thomas as Judge in Illinois 
25'" Feby 1809 M' Pope & others recommend M' Thomas as Judge 
of the Illinois Territory ** — 



WILLIAM RECTOR »* TO JARED MANSFIELD 

INA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., ii:ALSl 

Kaskaskia March 4'" 1809.* 
D' Sir Agreeably to the Instructions of the Board of Commis- 
sioners We have laid off & resurveyed as many tracts of the common- 
field lands, as we could with, that certainty that they recommend in 
their letter to me dated June 1" 1808." which letter you will herewith 
receive. We have also resurveyed some of the patented claims alluded 

•• Not present. 

" For appointment to the newly created Illinois territorial bench, William 0. 
Allen and John Johnson, both of Kentucky, were recommended to the Secretary 
of State by John Pope, Mar. 5, 1809 (N.\, SD, Applications); James Priestly, 
of the same State, was recommended by John Boyle, Feb. 27, 1809, and by Pope, 
.John Rowan, and Matthew Lyon, same date, loc. cit.; John Edward King, of 
Cumberland Co., Va., was recommended by Lyon, Feb. 13, 1809, loc. cit.; and 
Walter Reid, of Kentucky, was recommended by Pope, Joseph Desha, and Benja- 
min Howard, Feb. 13, 1809, loc. cit. Judge John Griflin, of Michigan Territory, 
also sought appointment as Judge in Illinois, Apr. 14, 1809 (Terr. Papers, Mich., 
X, 276). 

" For Rector's career as st^rveyor in Indiana Territory, consult Terr. Papers 
(Ind.), VII, index. 

" A previous relevant letter from Rector to Mansfield, dated Feb. 9, 1809, is 
printed ibid., pp. 638-640. The present volume resumes the correspondence as 
affecting what had become, on Mar. 1, Illinois Territory. 

«' Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 13 

to in said letter. Pre\ious to my lea\ing Cincinnati I made an ar- 
rangement with W John F. Mansfield ; to present to you any returns 
I might forward to him & also authorised him to settle with you for 
me & pass to you the necessary receipts, Several, blank receipts I 
signed and left with him for that pui'pose, I have therefore directed 
our Surv'eys together with Connected plans of the Commonfield lands 
to him, with a request that he would lay them before you and do 
every thing necessarj^ in the business. But should he be absent at 
the time M'' Funk reaches your office I hope you will receive, the Sur- 
veys, and cause the necessary receipts from me to you to be filled 
up (which receipts I signed & left with M'' John F. Mansfield), and 
every thing necessary in the business done that I could do were I 
personally present. 

jM' Ftmk has advanced to us Five hundred & Eighty Dollars for 
which sum Elias Rector & myself have given him a draft to you payable 
at Cincinnati, I hope it will be convenient for you to give him a 
Bill on General Findley for that siun. For, the balance of the amount 
of Our work; I wish you to send us by M"' Funk a Bill on the receiver 
at Vincennes. 

We are now engaged in laying off the balance of those lands that 
have been surveyed under the authority of the Governors of the 
Territory. This business we find extremely tedious and troublesome, 
as they are scattered over so extensive a country, and much time is 
unavoidably lost in hunting up the Township lines & connecting our 
surv'eys with them; should the United states continue to withold 
from us, the fees we ask and have earned we shall be compelled to 
abandon the business — for the fees we can receive agreeable to M" 
Gallatins construction of the law is far from being sufficient to defray 
the expences that attend doing the work ^ — 

I have the Honor to be with much respect Your Ob' Hbl^ Serv' 

W" Rector 

I am interested in the above mentioned business & do wish you to 
do as therein requested. Elias Rector 

Jared Mansfield Esq"^ 

[Adrfressecf] The Honbl* Jared Mansfield Surveyor General of the 
United States Cincinnati Ohio p"' M"' Jacob Funk 

" Answered posi, p. 20. 



14 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

COMMISSION OF OBADIAH JONES AS JUDGE ^ 

[NA: SD, Misc. Permanent Comras., C:C1 

[March 7, 1809] 
James Madison, FVesident of the United States of America, 
To all who shall see these presents, Greeting: 

Know Ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the 
Wisdom, Uprightness and Learning of Obadiah Jones, of Georgia,'" 
I have nominated, and by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate do appoint him One of the Judges in and over the IlHnois 
Territory; " and do authorize and empower him to execute and fulfil 
the duties of that office according to Law; and to Have and to Hold 
the said Office, with all the powers, privileges and Emoluments to the 
same of right appertaining during his good beha\'iour, or during the 
existence of the Government established by the act of the Congress 
of the United States passed 3"* February 1809 entitled "An Act for 
dividing the Indiana Territory into two Separate Governments" " 
and the Ordinance of Congress passed on the 13"" July 1787 therein 
referred to; he to reside in the said Territory. 

In Testimony whereof, I have caused these letters to be 

L.s made patent, and the Seal of the United States to be hereunto 
affixed. Given under my hand at the City of Washington the 
Seventh day of March in the year of our Lord one thousand Eight 
hundred & Nine; and of the Independence of the U States of Amer- 
ica the Thirty third.'' 

James Madison 

By the President. 
R. Smith Sec" of State 



" The commissions of the three Judges are here placed in the order in which 
their names appear in the President's message transmitting their nomination to 
the Senate. This order has no special significance. 

"> See Terr. Papers (Miss.), v, 405. 

" Nominated Mar. 6 and confirmed Mar. 7, 1809 {Senate, Exee. Journal, II, 
119, 120). The nomination and confirmation of the other two Judges, whose 
commissions follow, occurred on the same dates, loc. cit. On identical dates 
John Boyle, of Kentucky, was nominated and confirmed as Governor of Illinois 
Territory, loc. cit. Ina.smuch as Boyle resigned the appointment in question, 
post, p. 18, Nathaniel Pope, whose nomination and confirmation as Secretary of 
Illinois Territory also occurred on the same dates as those of the other officials 
mentioned {Senate, Exec. Journal, ii, 119, 120), served as Acting Governor until 
the appointment and qualification of Ninian Edwards as Governor, post, p. 45. 
The initial commissions of Pope and Edwards are printed in the Register, post, 

vol. XVII. 

»- Ante, p. 6. 

" His initial pay as Judge was from Mar. 7, the date of his commission, to 
June 6, 1809, in the sum of $300, at $1,200 per annum (GAG, Misc. Treas., Acct. 
No. 21,924 [1809]). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 15 

COMMISSION OF JESSE B. THOMAS AS JUDGE 

[NA:SD, Misc. Permanent Comms., C:C] 

[March 7, 1809] 
James Madison, President of the United States of America, 
To all who shall see these presents, Greeting: 

Know Ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the 
Wisdom, Uprightness and Learning of Jesse B. Thomas, of the IlUnois 
Territory, I have nominated, and by and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate do appoint him One of the Judges in and over the said 
Illinois Territory; and do authorize and empower him to execute and 
fulfil the duties of that office according to Law; and to Have and to 
Hold the said office with all the powers, privileges and emoluments 
to the same of right appertaining during his good beha\iour or during 
the existence of the Government established by the act of Congress 
of the United States passed the 3" February 1809 entitled "An Act 
for di\'iding the Indiana Territory into two separate Governments!"], 
and the ordinance of Congress passed on the 13 July 1787 therein 
referred to; he to reside in the said Territoiy. 

In Testimony whereof, I have caused these Letters to be 

L s made patent, and the Seal of the United States to be hereunto 

affixed. Given under my hand at the City of Washington the 

Seventh day of March in the year of our Lord one thousand Eight 

hundred & nine; and of the Independence of the United States the 

Thirty third.=* 

James Madison 
By the President, 
R Smith Sees' of state. 



COMMISSION OF ALEXANDER STUART AS JUDGE 
[NA:SD, Misc. Permanent Comms., C:C1 

[March 7, 1809] 
James Madison, President of the United States of America, 
To all who shall see these presents, Greeting. 

Kjiow ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the Wis- 
dom, Uprightness and Learning of Alexander Stuart, of Virginia, 
I have nominated, and by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate do appoint him One of the Judges in and over the Illinois 
Territory; and do authorize and empower him to execute and fulfil 

" Judge Thomas received his initial salary payment for the period from Mar. 7 
to Mar. 31, 1809, in the sum of $83.33 (ibid.. Acct. No. 21,442 [1809]). No 
reason is assigned for the varying periods of pay as between Thomas and the 
other Judges. 



16 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

the duties of that office according to Law; and to Have and to Hold 
the said office, with all the powers, privileges and emoluments to the 
same of right appertaining during his good behaviour, or during the 
existence of the Government established by the act of the Congress of 
the United States passed 3" February 1809 entitled "An Act for divid- 
ing the Indiana Territory into two separate Governments", and the 
Ordinance of Congress passed on the 13 July 1787 therein referred to; 
he to reside within the said Territory. 

In Testimony whereof, I have caused these Letters to be 
L s made patent and the Seal of the United States to be hereunto 

affixed. 
Given under my hand at the City of Washington the Seventh day 
of March in the year of our Lord One thousand Eight hundred & 
nine; and of the Independence of the U States of America, the Thirty 
third." 

James Madison 
By the President, 
R. Smith Sec^ of State 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO SECRETARY 

POPE 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 :LS] 

Treasury Department March 10'" 1809. 

Sir, To prevent difficulties which have been heretofore experienced 
in some of the Territories, respecting the simis appropriated for con- 
tingent expenses, I have thought it proper to apprize you at this time 
of the kind of expenses which are considered as provided for by the 
annual appropriation of three hundred & fifty dollars, and of the 
manner in which you are to receive monies for this object from the 
Treasury and account for the same. 

Office-rent, stationery, and the printing of such blanks as may be 
necessary for the use of the Secretary's office, are the only expenses 
which will be allowed at the Treasury, excluding office-furniture & 
fuel, the printing of laws &c* 

You are authorised to draw on me for one hundred & fifty dollars 
on account of the contingent expenses of the Illinois Territory, for 
which sum you will be charged. At the close of each quarter — viz' 
on the last days of March, June, September & December, in each 
year, you will render an account of your expenditures, each charge 

" Stuart's first salary payment was from Mar. 7 to June 7, 1809, in the sum of 
$300 (ibid., Acct. No. 21,679 [1809]). It will be noted that the Judges' salaries 
commenced as a rule on the dates of their commissions. Cf. Terr. Papers (Ind.), 
VII, 22, n. 42. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 17 

being supported with a proper voucher viz. a bill and receipt. It is 
indispensable that these accounts be rendered regularly, as no future 
payments will be made, unless they shall have been received. 

Your salary will be paid on your draft, at the Treasury: or if you 
shall choose to adopt that mode (as Governor Boyle has done) to 
the Bank of the United States as your Attornies. This last mode 
will be most convenient to this Department, and will have the effect, 
to prevent you from being charged on the books of the Treasury, 
for any advances on account of your salary. 

I am, very respectfully Sir, Your Obed. Serv' 

— Albert Gallatin 

Nathaniel Pope Esq'' Secretary of the Illinois Territory Kaskaskia. 



MATTHEW LYON '« TO JOHN EDGAR " 
[NA:SF, 11 Cong., 2 sess.:ALS] 

Washington March 11*" 1809. 

Dear Col — I have at lenght Seen the Accomplishment of the project 
I formed when at your house, The Seat of Government of the Illinois 
Territory is fixed at the Beatiful Town of Kaskaskias — 

I have Steadily & unceasingly labourd to bring this object about 
& have never been dismayed by repulses. M" Thomas who is ap- 
pointed one of the Judges came opportunely to help out with this 
business when I had got the minds of the members prepared for it. 
Indeed there has been no time since I have been a Member of Congress 
when my power to help in such an object has been so great as in the 
Present Session — altho I have been much heard to in Congress my 
influence with the Executive (if I ever had any) is at this time at low 
ebb — The course persued by the Administration with respect to our 
foreign relations has for some time passed appeared to me improper — I 
have therefore been opposed to them in that respect, I was opposed 
to the Election of M'' Madison, this accounts for my not Mentioning 
your Name for Governor as one of the Oldest Inhabitants & a man 
best acquainted with the Habits & ways of thinking of the people & 
best beloved by them — 

M' Boyle who is appointed is a Worthy well informed well disposed 
man, he will give satisfaction to the people. M'" Thomas I think 
highly of, the people ought to remember his Services with Gratitude. 
Secretary Pope I hear a Good Character of. I respect him much for 

" A Representative in Congress from Kentucky. 

" For an account of John Edgar, merchant and land speculator on a large scale, 
who settled in the Illinois Country in 17S4, see Philbrick (ed.), Laws Ind. Terr., 
1801-1809 (IHC, XXI), cclxiii-cclxv. 



18 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

his brother's sake who is a friend of mine, the other judges I am not 
acquainted with. I recommended none of them on this ground I 
stood it was not necessary. I named A Gentleman from Kentucky 
for a Judge With but little expectation he was not noticed — I have a 
printing press & Apparatus that I have long designed for Kaskaskias 
when it became the Seat of Government — I have a Nephew who lives 
at S' Genevive in Mercantile business he long worked at that press & 
in the printing business. There is nothing to be made by printing a 
newspaper in the Country nor much by any other business they can 
get in such a place as Kaskaskias, more than half the printers who 
set up in the Country fail of Getting a liveing by the trade & either 
go about something else or become journymen in the Cities, yet I 
have hinted to M^Arthur my Nephew that it might be well to set this 
business up at Kaskaskias, if encouraged properly & he knowing how 
to superintend the Economy of it he might hire a Journey man & 
carry it on with out much loss, it would be a Set off to Your Seat of 
Government, & I have said to him "Col Edgar ought to give you a 
lot of Land in Town & his Countenance in trade" — 

I think I shall come & see you in the fall. I hope All your land 
affairs will be settld to the Satisfaction of the people of the Country 
the Commissioners will find themselves under A necessity of finishing 
their duties now & I hope it will be done satisfactorily. I am sorrj* 
M' Backus has lost your friendship. I did think very well of him 
The new Governor is instructed to look into the Complaints against 
the Commissioners & the causes of them, I hope Bakus has had no 
hand in the Murder ^ — 

With my respectful Compliments to Mrs Edgar & to Mess" Morrison 
and all my acquaintance I am Dear Col truely yours 

M Lyon 

Col Edgar— 

[Endorsed\ Mathew Lyons letter Washington March 11*" 1809 5 
Commiss*" had a quarrel with Edgar 3 year befor setlng on his Claims. 



GOVERNOR BOYLE TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
INA:SD, 111. Terr. Papers :ALS] 

Frankfort Kentucky A-pril 3. 1809 
Sir It is with some regret that I find myself placed in circum- 
stances that render it inexpedient for me to fulfill my engagements 
with the Government of the U States in continuing to hold the office 
of Governor of the Illinois territory — I do therefore resign said 

" Referring to the murder of Rice Jones, for which see Hid., p. xciv, n. 2. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 19 

office'' — I shall endeavour to make such arrangements that no con- 
siderable public inconvenience will result from my resignation *" — 

I have the honour to be with great respect & esteem Your ob* St 

John Boyle 

Robert Smith Esq' Secretary of State 



JOHN MASON TO MATTHEW IRWIN « 
[NA:OIT, Supt. Lets. Sent, Bk. A] 

Office Indian Trade Geo: Town 4"" April 1809 
M"' Math" Irwin Philadelphia 

Sir Since the reception of your letter of the 16"" Nov:" I have 
not had the pleasure to hear from you — I address this to you at Philad' 
to learn if you are yet there, and if so when you are about to set out 
for Chicago, as the season has now arrived when you shou'd be on 
your way — 

I am &c &c J M Sup In Tr 



GOVERNOR BOYLE TO [THE PRESIDENT] 
[NA:SD, Resignations: ALS] 

Frankfort Kentucky April 6. 1809 
Sir I owe to you an apology for the resignation of the office of 
Governor of the Illinois Territory which you so lately had honoured 
me with & I had agreed to accept — When I reached this State a 
vacancy had taken place in the court of appeals the spring term of 
which was immediately to commence — Owing to the unexpected 
absence of another of the judges an apprehension was entertained 
unless the vacancy could instantly be supplyed that there would be 
a dissolution of the court & a whole term lost to the State 

" The evidence is sufficiently conclusive from the text of the above letter that 
Boyle resigned the office of Governor rather than declined the appointment; but 
if more proof is needed that he was viewed as Governor prior to the date of the 
letter, reference may be made to the fact that he was actually paid his salary as 
such for the period Mar. 7 to Mar. 31, 1809, in the sum of $138.88 (GAO, Misc. 
Treas., Acct. No. 21,443 [1809]). 

*» After Boyle's resignation. Col. John Allen, of Kentucky, was recommended 
for appointment to the vacant post by John Fowler, of the same State, Apr. 14, 
1809 (NA,SD, Applications). The following applications are also found, loc. cit.: 
Christopher Greenup, of Kentucky, Apr. 11, 1809, and Arthur Campbell, of 
Virginia, Apr. 18 and Apr. 22, 1809. 

" Appointed agent of the Indian factory at Chicago, in 1808, in succession to 
J. B. Varnum, Jr., transferred to the Michilimackinac agency {Terr. Papers, 
Ind., VII, 586, 589). See post, p. 35. 

" Not found. 



20 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Under these circumstances pressed by the solicitude of the gentle- 
men of the bar & by the wishes of my family & friends as well as 
urged by the difficulty the executive had experienced in making a 
proper selection to fill the vacancy I have accepted the appointment — 
I ought also to mention that owing to the peculiar & delicate state 
of my family's health I would not have been able to have gone to the 
Territory for several weeks yet, so that if the vacancy occasioned 
by my resignation can be immediately filled my successor will be 
but a few weeks later than I would have been in arri\ang at the seat 
of the territorial government 

These circumstances will I hope in your opinion furnish some excuse 
if not justifycation for my conduct — 

Pennit me now, Sir, to recommend Ninian Edwards as a proper 
person to fill the appointment of Governor of the Illinois Territory 

He is a man of great talents & of unquestionable integrity — No 
man in the state has a juster claim to an office of that kind. 

He is willing to accept the appointment & will be ready to proceed 
immediately to the territory should he be honoured with the appoint- 
ment — I refer you to M' Pope or M'' Johnson or M' Howard if any 
of them should be at Washington for more satisfactory information if 
required as to M'' Edwards qualifiycations for such an office 

I have the honour to be with great respect & esteem your ob' S' 

John Boyle 

M' Pope has strongly recommended M' Edwards ^ 

[Endorsed] M"- Boyle 6'" April ISOO—Rec" 22" April Resigns the 
Govt of Illinois and recommends M' Edwards to succeed him — 



JARED MANSFIELD TO WILLIAM RECTOR 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Sent: D] 

Cincinnati April 10*" 1809. 
Sir, Your letter of the 4'" of March" was handed^ me by M' French, 
a few days ago. — We are now examining the surveys, you have for- 
warded, in order to ascertain their amount, & as well as their correct- 
ness; of this last I should entertain few or no apprehension, where you 
personally were engaged in the work; though we cannot be so good 
judges of this, much less of the necessity of resurveying so extensively 
at the expense of the U. States as the Commissioners, who know what 
ought to be the Contents of the claims — You mention instructions of 
the board of Commissioners for surveying the those tracts; of which 
you have forwarded surveys. It is certain that instructions or 

" In pencil, possibly in another hand. 
" Antr, p. 12. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 21 

positive Orders are necessary for my security as Pay Master in behalf 
of the U. States; for in this business, I have no Authority, but to 
appoint a Surveyor, whose duty it is to survey such tracts as the 
Commissioners may direct, & to pay for those which in their judgment 
ought to be paid by the U. States. It is evident too, that If I had the 
Authority, I have not the means of forming a judgment in this case, 
Viz, the papers &c. in the hands of the Commissioners. The Com- 
missioner letter of May 22" 1808 to me," I consider as a sufficient 
Voucher, for the payment of your surveys of the Common field lands 
of Kaskaskia, Prairie Duroucher, Cahokia Town Tract, Fort Chartes 
&c — as there enumerated, but the letter of June P' 1808," contains 
no additional Authority, & for the surveying of patented & located 
claims, which may have been confirmed by the Governors, refers to 
the direction of the Surveyor General. I may have advised, but I 
certainly have no authority to du-ect any of these surveys, or if I 
should, it would be of no Authority, & it belongs to the Commissioner 
to say at whose expence the surveys are to be executed — It is a certifi- 
cate of their judgment respecting those, who are to pay for the surveys 
which is wanted, & without this, payment on our part, would not only 
be insecure, but reprehensible & in the judgment of some might be 
considered as wholly disqualifying to an Officer. I heartily wish that 
All the claims could be surveyed by you, at the public expence, & if 
I had the power, according to my present Icnowledge, of the claims, 
should not hesitate, a moment, to direct them thus to be surveyed; 
but I would at the same time follow my own system, of running out 
the Vacant lands into sections & ascertaining their Contents. If 
these patented tracts are run Out now before the Sectional lines, it 
appears to me that their boundaries must be resurveyed, unless you 
have blazed the lines extremely well, & unless they lie together in a 
body, the Object of the U. States will be frustrated, as to the advantage 
of the present Surveys. 

I must therefore, unless you have more Authority, than any 
exhibited to me, request you to suspend the surveying of located 
tracts. If however you Obtain such Authority from the Commis- 
sioner, under the impression of extravagant boundaries in those 
tracts, excessive quantities &c — You can then safely proceed in the 
business. My ignorance of their position will not enable me to form 
a correct judgment of any point concerning them; but for your 
Advantage I will propose another mode. It is this; If those claims lie 
in Any of the following townships Viz. Towns 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 
16, R 3 W. Towns 9, 10 R. 4. W, Towns 8, 9, R 5 W. T 7 & 8 R. 
6 W. Town 7 R 7 W. Town 7 R 8 W. You are at liberty to survey 
both claims & Sections, so as to discriminate the claims from the U. 

« Not found. 
*' Not found. 



22 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

States lands, & ascertain the Contents of the latter. In such case, 
you will have both the surveys of the claims & of the public vacant 
lands at Once. The latter if duly executed, will be paid for in the 
usual Way. The payment of the former must depend on the judgment 
of the Commissioners. I have no orders for any public Surveys, & 
no monies as yet have been credited me; I nevertheless take on myself 
for once, the liberty of attempting thus much, principally with a view 
of encouraging you in your arduous business, & because I know the 
Object of the Secretary of the Treasury to be that of ensuring to the 
public a due discrimination of their lands from those of individuals. 
For pajTnent however of the public surveys, you must wait 'till the 
appropriatins are made, or due authority is given me to pay for them — 
As to the Work you have forwarded, I have reckoned that only, 
which I conceived to be authorized by the Commissioners letter of 
May 22" 1808 — The rest shall be paid for when we have the due 
authority for Surveying from the Commissioner — 

[Endorsed] Letter to William Rector April 10'" 1809 



JAMES GARRARD " TO THE PRESIDENT 
1NA:SD, Applications :ALS] 

Kentucky, April 11'" 1809 
Sir Being informed M"^ Boyle has declined accepting the Govern- 
ment of the Illinois Territory, having accepted the appointment of 
Judge of the court of appeals in this State. I would take the Liberty 
to recommend Ninian Edwards Esq' the present Judge of the court 
of appeals in this State; it but justice to M' Edwards to say he is a 
man of known talents and integrity, and one in whom confidence may 
be placed beyond any kind of doubt, and should he meet your ap- 
probation I entertain no doubt, but he will give compleat satisfaction 
both to yourself, and the people over whom he will be appointed to 
preside. I am Sir with perfect respect y' ob' Serv' 

James Garrard 

[Addressed] James Madison Esq' President of the United States 
Washington [Postmarked] Paris K, 13'" Ap' Free 

[Endorsed] M' Geirard 11'" April 1809 recommends Nenian Edwards 
for the Cover' of the Illinois Territory 

•' A former Governor of Kentucky. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 23 

THE GOVERNOR OF INDIANA TERRITORY TO ACTING 

GOVERNOR POPE 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13:ALS] 

VmcENNES 12"^ April 1809 

Sir Application has been just made to me in behalf of some 
Gentlemen of Kaskaskias to demand James Dunlap the murderer 
of M' R Jones, of the Governors of the New Orleans and Mississippi 
Territories in one of which he is supposed to have taken refuge — 
But with this request I am unable to Comply as the part of the Terri- 
tory in which the murder was Committed has been formed into a 
seperate Government by a late law of Congress in which there is 
an express provision prohibitting the officers of the Indiana Territory 
from exercising any Jurisdiction therein — Of the New Territory you 
have been appointed Secretary and as in the absence of the Governor 
you are invested with all His Authority I beg leave to recommend 
the subject to yoiu- attention 

Lest you may not have received j^our appointment Commission 
I have herewith enclosed you the official paper containing the appoint- 
ment & one containing the division law *'^ 

I have the Honor to be very Respectfully y' Hum Svt 

Will" Henry Harrison 

Hon'* N. Pope Esq' 



JOHN POPE TO THE PRESIDENT 

[NA:SD, Applications :ALS1 

[April 19, 1809] 

Sir I have received a letter from the Hon"" Ninian Edwards the 
present chief justice of the state of Kentucky in which he expresses a 
wish to succeed Mr Boyle in the government of the Illinois Territory, 
for which I beg leave to assure you he is in every respect eminently 
qualified — From some conversation I had with him when in Kentucky 
last year, I believe he would prefer an appointment in the Mississippi 
Territorj' — If such an arrangement could be made, of which I entertain 
no doubt it would in my opinion be weH better to send Major Holms to 
Illinois & the new Governor to the Mississippi Territory — With 
regard to expense of living, duration of the office & difficulty & trouble 
in the administration of the government, the Illinois is much the most 
eligible & I am convinced Major Holms would consent to the change — 
Mr Edwards has serve d filled the Office of judge of our circuit Courts 

*'• Answered post, p. 30. 



24 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

& Court of appeals with great credit to himself & satisfaction to the 
people — He possesses very considerable popular talents — He has 
been a member of our legislature & an elector of President & Vice- 
president of the United States — Although not more than thirty-four 
years of age few men better understand the human character or can 
penetrate with more quickness & certainty the designs of others; 
And I know no man better calculated to watch & counteract the work- 
ings of those choice Spirits in the lower country who are supposed to 
be hostile to the administration & by some hostile to the Union — It 
is perhaps unnecessary to add that he is a decided friend to the present 
administration & has been particularly active for the last eighteen 
months in support of the measures of the government — Had any of the 
Kentucky delegation been here I should have declined making this 
representation to you in his favour, because he is my relative & my 
brother is secretary of the Territory^ — Believing however that he could 
render the ft4mi«i 3t ration government important services in the 
character of governor particularly in the lower country I have complied 
with his request by naming him to you as a candidate for the office — 
With sentiments of the highest I have the honor to be yours «6c 

John Pope 
Wednesday morning — 

[Addressed] The President 

[Endorsed] M' Pope 19"" April 1809 — Recommends M' Edwards as 
governor in the Illinois Territory "—1809. Ninian Edwards. Recomd" 



JOSEPH CHARLESS TO ACTING GOVERNOR POPE 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 :ALS1 

St. Lewis April 20'" 1809. 
Honorable Nathaniel Pope, 

Sir. I take the liberty to Solicit the printing of such public Work 
as may be Wanting for the Territory of Illinois 

I have all the Materials necessary to perform such Work and will 
engage to execute it as well, And on as Moderate terms as it can be 
done elsewhere. And Will, if required, procure a legal character here 
to examine the proof Sheets, or Send them to You (Weekly) for 
revision. 



•' Edwards was also recommended to the President by Henry Clay, Apr. 10' 
1809, in a letter printed in N. W. Edwards, Hist. Ill, p. 27. Clay likewise wrote 
on the same date to the Secretary of State m commendation of Edwards, ibid., 
pp. 27-28. Edwards had, in addition, been recommended to the President by 
William Wirt, post, p. 29. See, in this connection, relevant passages in Wirt to 
Edwards, June 23, 1809, Edwards, op. cit., p. 467, and Aug. 24, 1809, ibid., pp. 
441-442. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 25 

As I am very little known to you as to character or profession I beg 
leave to refer you to His Excellency Gov. Lewis, Hon"" F. Bates or 
Gen. W" Clark. 

Should you employ me as printer for Your Territory, the favor shall 
be gratefully remembered by Sir, Your Obed' Ser' 

Joseph Charless 



JOHN MASON TO MATTHEW IRWIN 
[NA: OIT, Supt. Lets. Sent, Bk. A] 
Indian Trade Office Geo: Town 21«' Apn7 1809 
M' Math'" Irwin Philadelphia 

Sir, Your letter of the 10'" Ins' only reached me two days agoe," 
Gen' Gansevoort in his letters of Ocf last speaking of the Michili- 
mackinac Goods having stored &■= takes occasion to remark that they 
may be sent on in april, I cannot therefore with propriety consent to 
your delaying longer than the end of this month or at fif*t farthest the 
first week in may, as to the advance you ask I am willing to place you 
exactly on the footing you stood when you left hom^e last fall; that is 
by paying up, before you set out again what money may have accrued 
for salary & subsistence money from the time of commencement of your 
compensation say 9'" Sep' to the time you will again leave home and 
thus leave the original $500, paid still as an advance in your hands, 
more, I cannot do & I think you will on consideration find it as much as 
I ought to do, on this principle I shall have to give you about 420 
Dollars 

I am &" &" J M Sup In Tr 



«« Not found. 



PART TWO 

Papers relating to the Administration 
of Acting Governor Pope 

1809 



PART TWO 1 

WILLIAM WIRT TO THE PRESIDENT 

[NA:SD, Applications:ALS] 

Richmond. April 26"" 1809 
Dear Sir, I understand that M'' Boyle has resigned the government 
of the Ilhnois territoiy, and that Ninian Edwards, the President of the 
Court of Appeals of Kentucky, has been thought of and perhaps 
named to you, as a fit successor. Having known M' Edwards, per- 
sonally, from the time he was fourteen years of age until! he grew up 
to manhood and having for several years past maintained an intimate 
correspondence with him, I hope you will excuse me for yielding to the 
wishes of his friends in stating my impressions of his character. 

M'' Edwards is a man of great firmness and boldness of character, 
which is evinced as well by his manner as the cast and tone of his 
sentiments. His mind is naturally strong, acute and discriminating; 
but not much practised on any other subjects than our political and 
municipal institutions. It is capable, however of atchieving any- 
thing, and he has an ardent and determined emulation of spirit which 
scarcely any difficulty could damp or check. In point of integrity 
there is no character more irreproachable; and as to politics, there 
has never been in him the faintest shadow of turning from those 
republican principles which sup- [MS. torn; several words missing] 
and introduced the present. If I am correctly informed, his political 
zeal & intelligence have been eminently active & useful in the western 
country. The honors which he has borne in Kentucky and which 
he has supported with great respectability give him a weight of 
character that would render his appointment acceptable to the people 
of the territory and facilitate the exercise of his authority. In short 
for honesty, sound judgment, enterprize, firmness and that native 
and inherent vigor of mind which qualifies a man so highly for the 

' It fell to Nathaniel Pope, commissioned as Secretary on Mar. 7, 1809, to 
effect the preliminary organization of Illinois Territory, which, according to the 
act approved Feb. 3, 1809, ante, p. 6, was theoretically in existence on Mar. 1. 
The principal steps in the organization of the Territory and the course of Pope's 
brief admmistration until the arrival of Governor Edwards on June 11, 1809, 
may be followed in the Executive Register, post, vol. XVII. 

29 



30 TERRITORIAL PAPERIS 

reclamation and government of a new Territory, like the Illinois, I 
believe that M' Edwards will not be easily surpassed. 

I am. Dear Sir, Yo. obt. Serv' 

W" Wirt 

James Madison Esq'' 

[ETidorsed] Edwards, President of the Court of Appeals of Kentucky. 
1809. (Madison) 

THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO JOSEPH B. VARNUM, JR.* 
[NA:OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. B] 

War Department 26 Ajrril 1809 
J. B. Varnum 

Sir, Your letter of the 18'" of February last addressed to my 
predecessor in office has been received ' — I have also been favored by 
Gen' Mason with a perusal of your letter to him under date of the 
12'" of March.' 

Having maturely considered the subject, it is thought best, both 
as it respects yourself and the public interest that you should be 
charged with the Factory at Michilimacinac; to which place you will 
immediately repair on the arrival of M' Irwin at Chicago, to whom 
you will make over all the public property at that Place, now under 
your direction, with such Advice as may be useful to him in conducting 
the business as your Successor. 

Should the building at Michilimacinac mentioned in your Letter 
to Genl Mason, appear on examination to be well calculated for a 
public Store, you will please to consult with the Officer commanding 
at that Post, on his relinquishing of it, for some other situation, whitch 
it is hoped may be procured, that will equally well accommodate 
him * 

I am &c 



ACTING GOVERNOR POPE TO THE GOVERNOR OF 

INDIANA TERRITORY 

IISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corn, 1809-13 :CS] 

Kaskaskia 27'" April 1809 
Sir I have delayed to acknowledge the rec' of your favour *• by 
M' LaChapelle because I considered it premature to say anything on 
the subject officially of the application made to you to demand James 

' Appointed agent of the Indian factory at Chicago, in 1807, in succession to 
Thomas Hayward, resigned {Terr. Papers, Ind., vn, 451, 460). 

' Not found. 

* Answered July 31, 1809, Terr. Papers (Mich.), x, 281. See also ibid., pp. 
233, 278. 

<« Ante, p. 23. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 31 

Dunlap — I can inform, you that I have rec" my Commission and am 
exercising the Government of the Illinois Territory. The Governor 
has resigned 

No application has as yet been made to me to demand Dunlap. 
Your letter refers me to no documents nor persons — Nor do I know to 
this moment the persons who made the application to you — When the 
subject comes properly before me I will give it due consideration — • 

Yr^ With Sentiments of Esteem & high consideration 

(A Copy) Nat, Pope 

His Excellency Willum H Harrison Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, 



ROBERT ROBINSON TO ACTING GOVERNOR POPE 

[ISL: Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13: ALS] 

Kaskaskia April 28'" 1809 
Sir I am informed you now exercise the functions of Governor of 
this Territory — Under this impression I beg leave to State to you, in 
your Official Capasity, that Charges will be exhibited to you in a 
Short time against Robert Morrison, late Clerk of the Court of 
Common Pleas — Wherefore I desire that you will have the goodness 
to Suspend the appointment of Clerk untill further information 
Your ob' Serv' 

R Robinson 
N: Pope Esq' 

M' Robinson has shown me the above & to it I subscribe most 
wittingly Jn° Rector. 

[Endorsed] Letter from Rob' Robinson &c respecting Rob' Morrison 
Dated 28 April 1809 



RECOMMENDATION OF WILLIAM CLARK AS GOVERNOR 

[NA:SD, Applications:DS] 

[April 29, 1809] 

At a numerous and respectable meeting of the free holders of S' 
Clair County in the Illinois Territory at the house of Robert Reynolds 
in s" county on Saturday 29th April Ano Dom 1809 — Whereupon it 
was adjudged proper that Robert Reynolds, William Biggs, John 
Messinger, William Whiteside, Samuel Simpson Kennedy, Uel 
Whiteside, John Huitt, James Stockton and Joseph Meacham Es- 
quire's be a Committee for said county, to consider report &c — 

1" Resolved unanimously that Robert Reynolds esq. be Appointed 
Chairman and Samuel Simpson Kennedy esq. be appointed Secretary 
of this Committee — 



32 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

2" Whereas this committee having received, authentic information 
that the Hon: John Boyle who was Appointed Governor of this Terri- 
tory has actually resign 'd his said Appointment Therefore resolved 
unanimously that this committee have compleat and entire confidence 
in the fortitude, courage, fidelity and good conduct of General William 
Clarke of Lousiania and beg leave to inform the President of the 
United States, or the Senate thereof (as the case may be) That it is 
our sincere and unfeign'd wish that Gen' Clarke may be appointed to 
Supply the Vacancy occasioned by the above Resignation, And to 
justify our application we beg leave to offer in part the following 
reasons. 1" We have ever considered Gen' Clarke a republican from 
principle and firmly attached to the government, honor and interest 
of the United States — 2"^ Gen' Clarke is our neighbour, and born and 
reared in the Western country, consequently better acquainted with 
our local circumstances than a stranger &c. 3" As the bill for the 
division of the Indiana Territory consolidates the Indian agency of 
the Illinois Territory with the Office of Governor: Respecting which 
we would humbly observe, that Gen ' Clarke's name alone is ef carries a 
reverential awe Amongst the Neighbouring Tribes of Indians — PYom 
which, together with many others we hope he may be Appointed, and 
ourselves Gratified — 

Done in Committee on Saturday the 29th day of April Ano Dom 
1809. At the house of Robert Reynolds esquire Illinois Territory and 
County of S' Clair. 

Rob' Reynolds 
Atteste — Sam S: Kennedy Secretary — Chairman — 

[Endorsed] En" Reynolds & others 29"" April Reed 2" June 1809— 
Recommend Gen' Clarke as Governor of the Illinois Territory. 1809 
W" Clarke Recomd 



WILLIAM SHANNON TO ACTING GOVERNOR POPE 

(ISL: Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13: ALS] 

Kaskaskia 29" April 1809 
Sir I have reasons to believe that James Dunlap, who is charged 
with the Murder of Rice Jones and who has fled from Justice has 
taken refuge in the Territory of Orleans. I hereby request you to 
demand him to be apprehended & secured by the Governor of that 
Territory to the end that he may be brought to Justice — 
Y"&c 

W" Shannon 

Nathaniel Pope Esq"' Secretary of the Illinois Territory and 
Exercising the Government thereof, 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 33 

ACTING GOVERNOR POPE TO THE GOVERNOR OF 
ORLEANS TERRITORY 

[ISL: Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13: CS] 

Illinois Territory KjVSKaskia April 29"" 1809 
Sir An application has just been made to me to demand of you 
a certain James Dunlap, who is charged with the Murder of Rice 
Jones in this Town. It is suggested to me that the said James 
Dunlap, who has fled from justice, has taken refuge in the Territory 
of Orleans — I therefore request you to cause to be arrested and 
secured the said James Dunlap to the end that he may be brought to 
Justice, 
Y"&c 

(A Copy) Nat Pope Secretary of the 
Illinois Territory and Exercising 
the Government thereof 

His Exc"=>' Willum C C. Claibourne Governor of the Territory 
of Orleans 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO GOVERNOR 

EDWARDS » 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. One] 

Treasury. Department. Apn7. 30'" 1809. 
His. Excell^ Ninian Edwards. Governor, of Illinois. 

Sir. As the public Salt Springs on Saline Creek fall within the 
boundaries of the Illinois Territoiy, it is the intention of the President 
to place them under your superintendence.* — 

In order that you may fully understand their present situation, I 
enclose copies of the lease to the present lessees, of a subsequent 
agreement made with them, and of a letter from Gov"' Harrison, dated, 
15 "^ Jan" last.'' 

The object of Government has uniformly been to lessen the price of 
salt, and for that purpose, the following principles had been adopted . 1 : 
To require a very trifling rent, — little more indeed than was necessary 
to pay to the Indians, the annuity in salt, which they reserved when they 
ceded the Springs to the United States. It became however necessary, 
in order to prevent an evasion of the terms of the lease by the Lessees, 
to purchase from them in conformity with a right reserved by the 

' Kdwards did not assume office until June 11, 1809, on which date he published 
his commission, which had been dated Apr. 24, 1809 (Register, yost, vol. XVIl). 

^ Consult Terr. Papers (Ind.), VII, index, under "Salt springs" for the history 
of this issue up to 1809. 

' Not found. 



34 TERRITORIAL PAPERIS 

lease, all the salt they made at a price fixed by that Contract. This 
has been sold again at a small advance, which has been sufficient to 
pay the Agent & defray Contingencies, and had left in the Agents 
hands, on the 10'" day of August last a surplus of $5,153.10 Cents 
applicable to improvements of a permanent nature on the works. — 

2"'" To make it a condition of the Lease that a certain quantity 
of salt should be made annually. This as you will perceive by the 
lease amounts to, 200,000. bushels. But an examination of Mr. 
White's accounts, copies of which are also enclosed, will shew that the 
Lessees had not in the beginning fulfilled that part of their contract. 

3rdiy fjiQ f^x the price of salt at the lowest rate, which bidders for 
the lease would propose. It is now 70. Cents, and is sold again by 
the United States at [blank] Cents per bushel. 

Notwithstanding those efforts on the part of Government, numer- 
ous and encreasing complaints are daily made, all owing to the simple 
fact, that a much less quantity of salt, is made at the Saline, than is 
wanted for the consumption of the adjacent Country. Whence it 
necessarily follows, that as the demands of all the Applicants cannot 
be satisfied, those who are disappointed complain of every arrange- 
ment attempted to produce an equal distribution. And the price 
at which Government sells, being much less than the true market 
price (which last must necessarily, so long as a sufficient quantity is 
not made be regulated by the demand) the salt is again sold by those 
who can obtain it from Gov' at an advanced price. The difference 
between the Gov' and Market price is received by those applicants 
who get the salt, and the forbearance of Gov' in not receiving it pro- 
duces only a partial & exclusive benefit in favor of those few. 

It appears to me from that view of the subject, that our attempts 
to reduce the price by selling the salt below its market value, are 
fruitless and unpopular; and that the object can be obtained in no 
other way, than by encreasing the quantity annually made. To 
that I therefore beg leave to call your particular attention, and as 
the lease will expire in March next, no time is to be lost in preparing 
the plan best calculated to effect the object. For that purpose it 
seems necessary to require a rent more proportionate to the value of 
the lease, and to fix the maximum at which salt may be sold by the 
Lessees at somewhat near, but still below the market price: because 
the payment of an adequate rent, and the permission to sell the ar- 
ticle at near its market value & therefore much above its prime cost 
to the Lessees will be powerful inducements for them to endeavour to 
make the greatest possible quantity. My reasons for proposing that 
it should still be fixed somewhat below the market price, are the pre- 
vention of monopoly, and the hope of a reduction of that market price, 
during the continuance of the next lease. The only other important 
alteration which has been suggested, is to divide the lease, so as to 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 35 

create competition amongst the Salt Makers. The effect of this would 
probably be very beneficial, and the only difficulties are, how a division 
can be made, and whether in every instance, responsible men with a 
sufficient Capital, to erect the furnaces, purchase the Kettles &'=* can 
be obtained. 

The whole subject is referred to you : and you are requested to com- 
municate as early as possible such plan, as, after having viewed the 
premises & investigated the subject, may to you appear most 
eligible.* — • 

I enclose a Copy of a letter written this day to Govt Harrison ' with 
whom you will be pleased to arrange what relates to the payment of 
the Salt annuity, to the Indians. — 

I have &ca 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO MATTHEW IRWIN 
[NA:OIA,SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. B] 

War Department 6 May 09 
Mathew Irvin 

Sir On the 26'" Aug" 1808. the Pres' of the U. S. appointed you 
an Agent at their factory, at Chikago in the Indiana Terr" 

I am &c — 



JOHN MASON TO IS'IATTHEW IRWIN 
[NA:OIT, Supt. Lets. Sent, Bk. A] 

Indian Trade office George Town (Washington) 6'" May 1809 
Mr. Math" Irwin at Philad* 
Sir I have this day received 3^0 u r a letter from Major L, H, 

' The reply to this letter has not been found. But that Edwards wrote at some 
length, not only in regard to the issue of salt-spring leases, but also concerning the 
difficulties currently encountered by the land commissioners at Kaskaskia is 
evident from Secretary Gallatin's answer thereto, dated Sept. 8, 1809 (Edwards 
Papers, CHS, printed, Washburne, ed., Edwards Papers, CHC, m, 46-48). See 
the Secretary of the Treasury to Edwards, Nov. 25, 1809 (Edwards Papers, CHS, 
printed, Edwards, HUi. III., pp. 529-532), respecting regulations governing the 
salines. A copy of this letter is in NA (GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. One). It 
was in answer to "several communications" from Governor Edwards, no one of 
which has been found. See also id. to id., Mar. 14, 1810 (loc. cil., printed, Ed- 
wards, op. cit., p. 532), referring to Edwards's letter of Feb. 5, 1810 (not found), 
containing the lease of the saline to John Taylor, Charles Wilkins, and James 
Morrison. A letter from Edwards to the Secretary of the Treasury, Feb. 9, 1810 
(not found), relating to the disposal of salt by the lessees is mentioned in the same 
communication. With respect to the sale of salt by the lessees, see in addition, 
the Secretary of the Treasury to Edwards, June 29, July 5, July 11, and Aug. 1, 
1810 (Edwards Papers, CHS, printed, Edwards, op. cit., pp. 532-534). Copies 
are also in NA (GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. One). In these letters, relevant com- 
munications from Edwards dated June 5, June 22, June 28, and June 30, 1810, 
are mentioned. No one of these letters has been seen. 

• Printed, Terr. Papers (Ind.), vii, 650. 

314574 — 48 4 



36 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Gansevoort military agent at Albany, informing me that he had al- 
ready forwarded the Goods intended for Michilimackinac and stored 
at Albany last fall, but that if you go on immediately you will yet over- 
take them at Niagra, where the public vessell will be ready to receive 
them immediately after the 15'" May this is then to request that you 
will with the least possible delay go on to Niagra, take charge of the 
Goods for mackinac now at that place and proceed to Mackinac and 
Chicago as instructed last fall, you will as you pass Albany call on 
Major Gansevoort with whom you will find such other dispatches and 
instructions as I may find requisite to forward by mail in consequence 
of the tenor of my last letter I presume this will find you ready to 
move at one days warning and request you will report to me by mail 
the day on which you leave Phila" '" 

I have considered your reasons for an additional advance I had fixed 
for you as reasonable, and consent with reluctance, because in public 
offices there must be rules which individual arrangements ought not 
to interfere with and I must beg you will be cautious on this score in 
future — 

You will please call on Mr. Waterman agent in your city for this 
office who will deliver you a remittance of six hundred Dollars and 
receive your rents therefor" — 

I am &c &c J. M Sup I. T 

Rescript this date Bank of Columbia to Bank of Pennsyl" my favor 
endorsed to you for $600, 

ACTING GOVERNOR POPE TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDFiALS"*] 

Illinois Territory Kaskaskia May 11** 1809 
Sir As the tranquillity of this Territory depends materially 
(perhaps more immediately than any part of the Union) upon the 
result of the deliberations of the next Congress, I beg leave to call 
your attention to it. 

From the best information I could obtain since I have directed the 



'0 Cf . Mason to the Secretary of War, Apr. 18, 1809, Terr. Papers (Mich.), X, 278 

" No reply found. 

"* The original draft of this letter is in the Illinois State Archives, and is printed 
in A.H.A. Repl., 1909, pp. 40.3-404. A comparison of the draft, as printed, with 
the original letter sent as here reproduced discloses some differences. The letter 
sent is much briefer, and omits entirely one paragraph respecting the militia, 
which is deemed of sufficient importance to extract: "A difficulty has arisen 
among the militia of the Illinois Territory, in this, a considerable number volun- 
teered their services to the President of the United States under the act authoriz- 
ing the President to accept the services of thirty thousand volunteers. These 
persons doubt whether the Executive of the Territory has any controul over them, 
either to make them muster with Militia or to call them out when danger threatens. 
This doubt embarrasses me extremely in the organization of the Militia of this 
Territory." 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 37 

affairs of this Territorj', I am strongly led to believe that the British 
emissaries from Canada have been preparing for the worst and in 
the Event of War with England will exert themselves to arm the 
Indians of the Mississippi and Lake Michigan and send them upon 
our Frontier — 

They have been endeavouring to collect all the foregoing Indians 
at Detroit in this month — I cannot imagine what can be the object 
of this convention, unless it is to effect a general combination against 
the United States — 

The British Merchants have deposited at Prairie du Chiens about 
ten or twelve thousand pounds of Powder and an equivalent of Balls 
of various sizes suitable to the guns of the Indians — This amunition 
will be immediately dealt out to the Indians, when War shall be pro- 
claimed. If that resource can be cut off the Indians will not be able 
to do us any immediate injurj-. I therefore suggest the propriety 
of my ha\-ing the Earliest possible adnce of War, (if declared) that 
I may seize upon all British property' in my Territorj^ I mean such 
property as can be useful to the Indians in an attack upon us — This 
is the first considerable deposit of amunition ever made at that 
place by the British — It seems however not to have attracted the 
notice of M"' Boilvain Indian Agent at that post; he must have seen it; 
yet does not mention it in any of his communications to the Gover- 
nor of Louisiana Territorj- — This latter received it from a private 
individual and ad\-ised me to seize the lead & powder and have it 
deposited at fort Belle-\-ue'^ and then detained until we should 
know unequivocally the dispositions of the Indians — But I did not 
think that circumstances justified such a rash and nolent measure 
General Clark, who is Indian Agent for several Nations who would 
be benifited by a distribution of this amunition, thought with me that 
it might be productive of many evils; it might facilitate the coalition 
among the different nations of Indians, so much desired by the British. 
Besides Boilvain ha\-ing bestowed no attention on that fact (to wit 
of the Powder & Ball being there) I did not know that such a step 
ought to be taken upon the information of an indi\-idual. In the 
event of War this Territorj', every foot of which might m.ay be called 
a Frontier, ought to be furnished with arms and amunition; Lead 
can be had here; but Powder is Scarce. I cannot at this moment state 
the strength of the Militia no returns have as yet been made — 
I am with high respect Sir, Yr Ob' Sev' Nat Pope 

The Hon"'' William Eustis Secy of War City of Washington 
[Endorsed] Kaskaskias 11'" May 09 N. Pope Relative to the 
hostile \aews of the Indians & the negligence of ^I^ Boilvain Ask 
gov" Lewis to enquire. Reced 3 June 09" 

" Another name for Fort Madison, on the present site of Fort Madison, Iowa. 
" No reply found. 



38 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

ACTING GOVERNOR POPE TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 :CS1 
(A Copy) Kaskaskia May 11'" 1809 

Sir I wrote you on the 27'" Ult."' advising you that I had taken 
the oath of Office before the honorable Otho Shrader Judge of the 
General Court of the Louisiana Territory This I was advised to by 
M' Boyle, who thought I might take the oaths before any one author- 
ised to administer oaths — 

It is insisted here by some persons of influence, viz Robert Morrison 
& John Edgar that I have not been properly sworn into office and 
that I have no power to act. Of their Motives in saying this I shall 
say nothing, but it is calculated to embarrass me in the organization 
of the Government, & to weaken the confidence of the people in the 
Executive, in these times of danger — 

If you would answer & tell me whether you think me regularly 
sworn into office or if not prescribe the method, you will relieve me 
from no little anxiety — 

Y" With High Consideration 

Nat Pope 

The Hon"'« Robert Smith— Sec" of State of the U. States 

P. S. Not one of the Judges has as yet arrived N. Pope 

[Endorsed] Copy of a Letter to R. Smith Secretary of State dated 
11'" May 1809 and put into the post office 12'" May 1809 



ACTING GOVERNOR POPE TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 

TREASURY 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13:CS] 

(A Copy) Kaskaskia May 11'" 1809 

Sir. I herewith transmit you an ace' for Office Rent, with my 
receipt for the am'. I have resided in this place since the month of 
December last — 

I wish to deal candidly with you. I have lived in a house 
belonging to my Wife's father, who certainly would never have 
charged me any rent — But if a friend should furnish the Secretary 
with an Office for nothing; it being a personal favour it is no argument 
against his charging the Government a reasonable price for the occu- 
pation of it— thereupon I submit to you to allow or reject my Claim — 
I have drawn on you for $150.00 on account of the contingent 
expences of the Illinois Territory — 

"■ Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 39 

It is not in my power to make arrangements with the Bank of the U. 
states to draw my Salary, because I do not know how ^^^ — 
With high Consideration I am Sir Y' Mo' Ob' H"'' Serv« 

Nat Pope 

The Hon"'" Albert Gallatin, 

[Enclosure] 

Expense account and receipt 

Treasury Department of the United States 

To Nathaniel Pope Sec>' of the Illinois T"- D' 

1809 March 31" To Office-Rent from the 7'" March 1809 to this day, 

24 days at $12.00 per Month $9.47 

Received the amount of the above ace' of nine Dollars and forty 
seven cents of Natn' Pope Sec'' of the Illinois Territory, 

Nat. Pope 



ACTING GOVERNOR POPE TO INDIAN AGENTS 
[ISL : Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 : CS] 

Kaskaskia 25'" May 1809 
To Any Indian Agent residing in the Illinois Territory 

Sir Complaint has this day been made to me that divers Citizens 
of St Clair County in this Territory have lost a number of horses 
amounting to eleven or twelve and there being strong reasons to 
suspect that the horses were stolen by some of the Pottawatamies 
and Ottawas, I have authorised tne persons whose names are hereunto 
annexed to pass through the Indian Nations residing in this Territory 
in search of their stolen property; I therefore require you to render 
them any assistance in your power in order to reclaim their property 
and if it is found that the Indians have stolen it, to use your influence 
with the Chiefs of the Nation or Nations to which the Offenders 
may belong to prevail upon them to deliver up the property and in 
case of refusal to procure and transmit to me such Testimony on 
the subject may be in your power — 

The persons whose names here follow are embraced in the foregoing 
and are some of the persons who have lost the horses — 

Jesse Cain Jesse Waddle, Davis Stockton, [blank] Pruit and [blank] 
M'^Faggon 

Y"&c 

(A Copy) Nat Pope 

[Endorsed] Permission to Cain & others to go in search of their 
Horses supposed to be stolen by the Indians dated 25 May 1809 

•"> Answered post, p. 41. 



40 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO GOVERNOR 

EDWARDS 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. One] 

Treasury Department May 31" 1809. 
His Excell'' Ninian Edwards. Governor of Illinois Terr'' 

Sir. Herewith you will receive enclosed, Copies of the last accounts, 
received from Isaac White, U. S. Agent at the Saline near the mouth of 
the Wabash, which with those before enclosed to you, contain the 
whole returns of Salt, received and sold, under the last lease to Taylor 
& Bringman. — 

Iam&" 



CHARLES JOUETT " TO THE ACTING SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD,SWDFlALS] 

Chicago 31" May 1809 
Sir Your communication with its enclosures were received the 14th 
instant " The Laws transmited will be duly attended to. Since my 
communication of the 13'" March '* nothing respecting the Indians of 
my Agency has occured of importance. The Sauks who are under the 
Superintendance of Governor Lewis indicates a disposition for War 
against the United States, as appears they have within a few days 
invited the poutawatamies to lift the hatchet against America." 
I have no reason to believe the Poutawatamies will accept the hatchet, 
and as it respects the Saukes have made the necessary communications 
to Governors Harrison & Lewis, in the mean time do me the honour to 
believe I will minutely watch their movements, I am with the highest 
respect your Obedient Servant 

C JOUETT 

[Addressed] M' John Smith Acting Secretary of War Washington 
The care of M' Johnston. [Postmarked] Dayton June 16'" Free 

[Endorsed] Chikago 31 May 09 C. Jouett Has reced Letter &c of the 
15 March, Relative to the Disposition of Indians — Reced 3 July 09 " 

" See indexes to Terr. Papers (Ind.), vil, and ibid. (Mich.), x, for references to 
Jouett's activities as Indian agent. 

'» Not found. 

" This statement suggests the confusion in which the Indian agents at authorized 
posts were sometimes involved. As a matter of fact, the Sauk Indians residing 
east of the Mississippi were legally within the jurisdiction of the Governor of 
Illinois Territory. Cf. post, pp. 65, 69, n. 33. See also Terr. Papers (La.-Mo.), 
XIII, 488. 

" No reply found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 41 

THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO SECRETARY 
POPE 

[ISL : Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 : LS] 

Treasury department June 8'" 1809. 

Sir, The accounting officers of the Treasury to whom I referred 
the voucher for office rent annexed to your letter of the 11'" ultimo,"" 
are of opinion, that the most regular mode will be for your father 
in law to sign the account & receipt for the money, which he may 
afterwards make a present of to j^ourself or any other person — It is 
proper however to add, that forty dollars p"' annum is considered as 
the highest sum which ought to be allowed for the rent of an office.'"" 

I am, very respectfully Sir, Your Obed. Serv' 

— Albert Gallatin 

Nathaniel Pope Esquire Secretary of the Illinois Territory 
Kaskaskia — 



"• Ante, p. 38. 

'"> Answered post, p. 49, 



PART THREE 

Papers relating to the First Administration 
of Governor Edwards 

1809-1812 



PART THREE 

COMMISSION OF NINIAN EDWARDS AS GOVERNOR 
[NA:SD, Misc. Permanent Comms., C:C] 

[June 21, 1809] 
James Madison, President of the United States of America, 
To all who shall see these presents, Greeting: 

Know Ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the 
Patriotism, Integrity, and Abilities of Ninian Edwards, of Kentucky, 
I have nominated, and by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate do appoint him Governor in and over the Illinois Territory;* 
and do authorize and empower him to execute and fulfil the duties of 
that office according to Law; and to Have and to Hold the said office, 
with all the powers, privileges and Emoluments to the same of right 
appertaining for the term of three years from the day of the date 
hereof, unless the President of the United States for the time being 
should be pleased sooner to revoke and determine this Commission. 
In Testimony whereof, I have caused these Letters to be 
L.s made patent, and the Seal of the U States to be hereunto 

affixed. 
Given under my hand at the City of Washington the Twenty first 
day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand Eight hundred & 
Nine; and of the Independence of the United States of America, the 
Thirty third. 

James Madison 
By the President, 

R. Smith Secy of State 



WILLIAM MORRISON AND JOHN EDGAR TO GOVERNOR 

EDWARDS 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13:LS] 

[June 16, 1809] 
Sir, Impressed with a sense of respect equally due to ourselves and 
the public, we beg leave to approach the first Magistrate of our 
Country — and by a plain statement of facts suggest to your Excellency 

' Nominated June 16 and confirmed June 17, 1809 (Senate, Exec. Journal, II, 
122, 124). See his temporary commission in the Register, post, vol. XVII. His 
active administration commenced on June 11, 1809. See under that date, loe. 
cit., for the beginning of the record of his official acts. 

45 



46 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

that James Gilbreath the present Sheriff is an highly improper char- 
acter to fill that responsible and important office, first, when the 
atrocious murder of Rice Jones Esquire was committed, this man 
possitively refused to accept the warrant for the apprehension of the 
murderer alledging that it was not his duty, secondly, on a late im- 
portant trial he forcebly entered the Jury Room and destroyed papers 
that had been put into the hands of the Jury under the directions of 
the Court — 

Indepei.dent of these sources of complaint we can produce much 
testimony to your Excellency tending to prove the inadequacy of M' 
Gilbreath 's principles to discharge the duties of that office — 

Sir, we are with high consideration your most ob' Humble Servants 

W" Morrison 
J. Edgar 

June le*" 1809— 



THE GOVERNOR OF INDIANA TERRITORY TO GOVERNOR 
EDWARDS 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govt. Corr., 1809-13:ALS1 

ViNCENNES 19 •" June 1809 

Sir Your favor of the 8*" of June '* did not reach me until about 
ten days ago. [MS. illegible] written from Kaskaskias on the 14'" 
Inst.'* arrived last night I must beg you to believe that I would not 
have Suffered a post day to pass without answering your first commu- 
nication if I had no! been informed that there was no probability of 
your being at Kaskaskias when my letter would arrive. I received 
this information from M' Stovl who understood that you were to 
leave Kaskaskias the day after his departure. 

I had however previously to your arrival directed the Agent of the 
Saline to receive your orders. So that I hope no inconvenience has 
resulted from the delay of my answer. 

It would indeed have given me great pleasure if it had suited your 
Convenience to have taken this route to Kaskaskias as well for the 
opportunity it would have given me to Show my personal respect 
for yourself & my friend Major Short as for the facility of arranging 
Certain Matters relating to the Indian Department. I shall leave 
the day after tomorrow fef the on a visit to two of the distant Counties 
of this Territory & shall be absent about 3 Weeks — permit me to hope 
that you will return by this route to Kentucky if you should not be 
able to leave your Territory before my return [MS. illegible] that you 
will do me the favor to Spend a few days with me. — 

'• Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 47 

I have forwarded to Fort Massac by Lieut. Whitlock the goods 
Sent for the Kaskaskias Annuity for the present year Subject to 
your order I have also placed in the Hands of Peter Jones Esq'' of 
this place five Hundred Dollars in Cash being the ballance of the 
Annuity for the s"* Tribe which he will deliver to yourself or the Sec>' 
in your absence — He intends to leave for Kaskaskias in a few days — 

I have heard that you intended to Commence a building Shortly at 
Kaskaskias if so permit me to recommend to you M' Joshua Bond 
of this place as a most excellent Workman and a very respectable & 
Honest man — His Brother & Uncle two of your more worthy Citizens 
reside in S' Clair County. 

I have the Honor to be with high Respect Sir your Himi"' Serv' 

Will" Henry Harrison 

His Exc N. Edwards Esq"' 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO JAMES GILBREATH 
[ISL:Exec. File, 1790 to date:CS] 

Kaskaskia, 28 June 1809 
M' James Galbreath 

Sir. Soon after my arrival at this place I discovered very much 
to my regret that a considerable degree of party spirit di\ided the 
people of this Territory — To guard against the consequences of it — 
to render the streams of justice unexceptionable & pure — to protect 
the equal rights of the good people over whom I am called by my 
country to preside — and inspire them with Confidence in the adminis- 
tration of public justice have been objects that have engaged my 
most anxious solicitude — 

The office you at present hold is one of the most important nature, 
the man who fills it should not only be free from all prejudice bias & 
partialities but should be entirely free from the suspicion of either — 
This is a principle so perfectly correct & so self evident, that it must 
be recognized and admitted by any man who ieeks sees thro any 
unprejudiced medium — Impressed with the force of it and feeling its 
justice, I coiald not hesitate a moment and did not in comeing to a 
determination to remove you — Ab4 while fe^ when I found you a 
partizan — At the same time that I formed this determination in your 
case, from similar motives I also determined that, I would appoint 
no one of the adverse party to fill the office you hold. I therefore 
sent for Maj"' Benjamin Stephenson a gentleman whose long experi- 
ence in the same business rendered him amply qualified, and whose 
worth integritj' and unblemished reputation must render him not 
only a valuable acquisition to the Territory but acceptable to all 
those whose object is to promote the public good. He has arrived. 



48 TERRITO.RIAL PAPERS 

has consented to accept the office of Sherriff and at the same time that 
this letter determines and puts an end to your power to act A com- 
mission issued to him to supply the vacancy — You will therefore know 
to whom to right to deliver y'' papers. 
Y^ Obd' S' 

NiN' Edwards 



WILLIAM KELLY TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

(ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 :ALS1 

[June 28, 1809] 
Sir — Having had the honor of Serving as Adjutant in the Indiana 
Territory during the administration of his Excellency S' Clair — and 
Harrison — And not yet having received my former appointment — 
And being informed that Honor is confered on Michael Jones Es- 
quire — I appeal to you as the fountain of Justice for redress — I 
herewith transmit two Commissions as a proof of my standing with 
the former Executives — 
I am your Excellencies Most obedient and Very Humble Servant — 

William Kelly 

June 28'" 1809— 

THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO MICHAEL JONES 

AND ELIJAH BACKUS 

(NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. One] 

Treasury Department June 30"" 1809 
Michael Jones & E Backus Esq" Land Commissioners Kaskaskia — 

Gentlemen, I enclose copy of an Act authorizing the appointment 
of an Agent for the land office at Kaskaskia, and allowing compensa- 
tion to the Commissioners and Clerk. For the compensation thus 
allowed the Officers are respectively authorized to draw on the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury. I have appointed your present Clerk M' 
Robinson, agent for the purposes intended by the First section of the 
Act. 

I am &" 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO ROBERT 
ROBINSON 

[NA:GL0, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. One] 

Treasury Department June 30*" 1809 — 
Robert Robinson Esq' Clerk of the Board of Land Commissioners 
Kaskaskia 
Sir, In conformity with the provisions of the First Section of the 
enclosed Act, I have appointed you Agent for the purposes therein 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 49 

mentioned, and rely on your Zeal and previous knowledge of the 
claims and of the nature of the evidence heretofore adduced, as suffi- 
cient pledges that no endeavour shall be wanted on your part to repel 
unfounded and particularly fraudulent Claims, To large Speculative 
claims your attention is specially called 
I am &" 



SECRETARY POPE TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 

TREASURY 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 :D] 

Kaskaskia July 4*" 1809 

Sir Yours under date of the 8'" Ult"' came while I was making 
out my return of the Contingent expences of the Illinois Territory'" — 

I have in consequence made an alteration as to the Office-Rent — 
I have charged the Secretary five Dollars per Month, which is the 
lowest price, at which the Secretary can accommodate himself with 
such an Office as he ought to have for his own use & for the Con- 
venience of those persons who may have business in his Office. M"' 
Backus has no agent in this Country except myself, and I have no 
power of Attorney in Writing, but as one of his family I attend to his 
business — He has never been in this Country since I received My 
Commission nay not since Jan^ last — You require me to make my 
return quarterly and that "No future payments will be made unless 
they shall have been received"^ — Now, Sir, it seems plain that I am 
entitled to the usual allowance Whether I produce a receipt or not. 
I state to you that I cannot procure a suitable room for less than 
Sixty Dollars per annum. Suppose that I make an Office of a Room 
in my own house, with Whom am I to make a Bargain and from whom 
to take a receipt? Yet would you refuse to allow me for Office rent? 
I am sure you would not — I could wish that you would satisfy your- 
self as to the usual price of Rooms of that description and let me have 
a credit for so much every quarter — There can be no cheat in it 
because an Office I must have and the Government cannot be injured 
by the arrangement — As to all other Charges they ought to be 
supported by proper vouchers, because they depend upon the con- 
sumption in the Office — • 

Now Sir With respect to my charge of $12.00 per Month for Office 
Rent I beg leave to remark, that at the time I made My return I was 
ignorant of the Object of the appropriation for Office-Rent — ^I advised 
with Gentlemen better acquainted with such affairs than myself, they 
thought it amounted to house rent for the Secretary, as I was not 

"" Ante, p. 41. 

'" Copies of expense vouchers are present with the above letter. 



50 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

convinced that they were correct I determined to try the principle by 
forwarding the Account to the 31" of March, knowing that if the 
appropriation did embrace the Charge that you could correct it — It 
seems to me that the Secretary ought to have two Rooms — one to 
lodge in & the other for the public Papers of his Office — In a Country 
where Society is very rude & the buildings indifferent it is improper 
that the public Papers should be exposed, by being left in a house in 
no one lodged — If I am entitled to two Rooms Sixty Dollars would not 
be sufficient — The forgoing are are suggestions for your consideration 
— But I assure you that forty Dollars are entirely inadequate to the 
object — 

p oint i coniiidcr it the aamo as malcing a Bargain with myoclf — You 
have not instructed me how much of the Ace* already rendered by 
Me will be admitted or Whether any — 

I wish to know whether the Secretary is bound to supply the Gov' 
with Stationary * — 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO CHARLES JOUETT 
[NA:OIA,SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. B] 

War Department 5 July 09 
Ch' Jouett 

Sir Your letter of the !•* April last,' enclosing a Copy of one to 
this Department of the 13 July 1808,' has been received. You will 
please to discharge McDonald from the Service, and in future have 
all the Indian Blacksmith work done by the Artificers of the Garrison 
to whom you will pay ten Cents & one Gill of Whiskey each, per Day, 
on account of the Indian Department, for every Days labor performed 
for the Indians — The enclosed order,' on the commanding officer at 
Chikago will authorise you to call upon him for the purpose — The 
necessary Iron & Steel for the Indian Work, should be supplied by you 

I am &c. 



WILLIAM BIGGS TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13:ALS1 

Cahokia 10'" July 1809 
Sir I arived in this Village this Morning there is no Court held 
here this day I am told next Monday is the term of Court for this 
County, I have dated Sent all the Proclamations you give in my 
Charge to the different officers, Which I Exspect the will all receive 
them by tomorow evening — 

• Answered pod, p. 56. 

• Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 51 

I have had an opportunity of Conversing with Several of the People 
of this County respecting your Sistom of appointing the Militia 
officers, and the all apear to be highly pleased with your plan and 
privilage y©« that you have gave them, please to let me know when 
you will leave Kaskaskia 

I am with respect Sir your Most obed' and Very Hum"'' Serv' 

W. Biggs 



JOHN HAY TO SECRETARY POPE 
(ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 :ALS] 

Cahokia 10'" July 1809 

Dear Sir, I received your favor by M' Biggs Your Information is 
sufficiently Ample as to M' Hays, I really believe you have been 
wrong informed, for I believe I can safely say that M' Hays' name 
will not be found on Any petition whatever, and I really believe that 
of all men in the County he is one of those that meddles the least in 
Party Business — 

he followed my principles, which were, that men of Office should 
keep clear of party business — 

I remain, D' Sir Yours Sincerely 

John Hay 

N. Pope Esq'' 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOHN HAYS * 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book Q] 

Juhj 12 1809 

John Hays P M Cahokia I T 

We omitted accidentally to insert your office in our advertisement; 
it is inserted in the new contract ° 

GG 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
[NA:WD,SWDF:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Illinois Territory 13 July 1809 
Sir Ducoigne the Chief of the Kaskaskia tribe of Indians, has 
formally complained to me of the Kaicapoos haveing killed his wifes 
brother and stolen about thirty horses from his tribe I believe no 
doubt exists of the truth of his charges and he demands the protection 
promised by treaty with the United States — He also complains most 

• A resident of Cahokia since 1793. For biographical sketch, see Philbrick 
(ed.), Laws Ind. Terr., lgOl-1809 (IHC, xxi), cclxxi-cclxxii. 
' Not found. 

314574 — 48 5 • 



U. OF ILL UB. 



52 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

loudly and bitterly of the people of this village selling spirituous 
liquours to his tribe (a thing not prohibited by any law that I have 
seen & which it seems impossible to prevent) Those Indians are 
constantly drunk in these streets and I have told Ducoigne that I 
would positively direct the magistrates whose duty it is to conserve 
the peace & prevent disorder to commit them to jail whenever they 
are seen drunk, with this he seems well pleased, and thinks it may have 
a happy effect. 

I should be happy to know the Presidents wishes on these subjects. 

With the highest consideration I am Y' M" Obd' Serv* 

NiNiAN Edwards 

[Addressed] The Hon'ble Robert Smith Esq' Secretary of State 
Washington City Mail [Postmarked] Kaskaskia July 14*" Free 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskias. — Illinois July 13. 1809 — Governor Edwards 
(addrest to R. Smith Esq'', Sec' of State) Relative to complaints of 
Ducoigne, Chief of the Kaskastia Tribe against the Kaicapoos, for 
having murder'd some of his kindred, and stolen about 30 Horses; — 
he demands the protection of the United States, agreably to Treaty. — 
Rece" Oct' 2" 1809.« 



GEORGE HOFFMAN ' TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

(NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

MICHILIMACKINAC, July 20'" 1809. 
Sir, M' Julian Dubuque at the request of the late John Campbell 
Esq of LaPrairie du Chien acted as Indian Agent there ' — He furnished 
& gave to the Indians the goods &" mentioned in the enclosed 
Account — For which he demands pa>Tnent — The goods forwarded by 
Government for the Indians in that Quarter were last summer in 
consequence of the death of M' Campbell detained & stored at Michi- 

* No reply found. 

' For Hoffman's status as an official in Indiana and Michigan territories, 
consult indexes to Terr. Papers (Ind.), vol. vii, and ibid. (Mich.), vol. X. 

' Campbell was killed on Aug. 12, 1808, in a duel with Redford Crawford, of 
the Michilimackinac Company; the former was on a visit to Michilimackinac at 
the time. For an account of the affair, and other relevant facts concerning the 
appointment of Dubuque to carry on Campbell's duties at Prairie du Chien 
pending action by the Secretary of War, see the following documents in NA 
(WD, SWDF): Hoffman and Abbott to the Secretary of War, Aug. 15, Aug. 17, 
and Aug. 18, 1808, the last-cited letter enclosing Campbell to Hoffman and 
Abbott, without date, requesting them to attend to his affairs in the event of his 
death, and Hoffman and Abbott to Dubuque, Aug. 17, 1808, informing the latter 
of Campbell's death and of his request, with a subenclosure. Governor Lewis to 
Campbell, June 2, 1808, containing instructions; and Hoffman to the Secretary 
of War, Aug. 17, 1808, enclosing a letter from Campbell to the Secretary of War, 
Apr. 7, 1808. Campbell had been Indian agent at Prairie du Chien since 1802. 
See Terr. Papers (Ind.), VII, 519. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 53 

limackinac by Cap* Howard the commanding officer there. Should 
the account of M"^ Dubuque pass in its present shape it will suit him 
to receive the amount of it from either the pay master at the fort near 
river Dumoin a branch of the Mississippi or from the pay-master at 
Detroit — It will oblige a very respectable man, much attached to the 
interests of the U. States, & who has great influence with the Missis- 
sippi Indians, to have his account speedily liquidated & paid — Should 
it be necessary for M"' Dubuque to have his account supported by 
Affidavits or rendered in a different form from that in which it is now 
presented, by informing Samuel Abbott, Esq, of this place, I presume 
your instructions on that head will be fulfilled. 
With the highest respect, sir. Your Ob* S* 

G° Hoffman. 

The Hon: The Secretary at War of the United States Washing- 
ton City Maoinao 

[Addressed] The Hon: The Secretary at War of The United States, 
Washington City. [Postmarked] Detroit 4 August Free 

[Endorsed] Michilimackinac, July 20'" 1809. Geo: Hoffman,— 
relative to sundry Supplies furnished to divers Tribes of Indians by 
Julien Dubuque, who acted as Indian Agent per interim at Prairie du 
Chien, upon the Death of John Campbell, previously charged with 
that Agency: — enclosing a Letter of M"' Dubuque & his Account. 
Rece" Sepf 1=* 1809.' 

[Enclosure: ALS] 

Julien Dubuque to Samuel Abbott and George Hoffman 

Prairie du Chien 13 Juin 1809 — 
Mess" Abbot & Hoffman 

Messie^ — J'ai eu I'honnur de recevoir votre lettre le 22" Sep' 
dernier en date du 17 d'Aouet precedent, par laquelle j'ai appris la 
triste nouvelle de la mort de notres respectable Amie feu John Camp- 
bell, et appres avoir donn^ a sa memoire toutes les marques des 
respects et de regrets que je devois a son triste et a son amitie pour 
moi, je me suis mis a accomplir, Selon le meilleur des mes Connois- 
sance, Ses dernier volunt^ d l^gard de son Emploi comme agent des 
sauvages pour les Etas unies.^ — Quoique dans cet Moment, ma saint6 
etois tres foibles et mes forces presque epuis^ par une Maladie lan- 
goureuse, je ne puivez pas decider autrement que de faire attention 
aux dernier volunte d'un ami respectable, communique par Vous 
Mess" 

Je I'ai done accepts, mais au bout d'un mois et vingt huit jours 
trouvant que la maladie que m'accabl6 augmente de jours en jours je 

• No reply found. 



54 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

me suis adress6 au Gouverner Lewis pour lui prier de mettre quelqu' in 
a ma place, ma demande fut accepts et Mon'' Boilvin k arrivd le 28* 
de Novembre a que j'ai ced<5 tous les papiers qu'ettois alors entre mes 
mains en me de mettant du place d'agent pour les sauvages. — 

Durant le temps que j'ai servi comme agent, la Situation du paix 
etais tres critique, et je fut ia quoUc tft- oblig4— pour tenir les Sauvages 
dans la tranquilite fque la mort du Defunct avoient trouble) de leurs 
faires des Present pour la Montant du Compte ci enclos — N'ayant pas 
d'ordres particulier d cette egard, mais voyant la necessity absolu de 
cette demarche, j'ai pris sur moi meme de le faire dans I'espoir que le 
government des Etas Unis, n'hesiterets pas k confirmer ce que des 
circonstance si critique exig^. — 

Je vous prie bien Messieurs de vouloir vous interesser pour moi 
pour me trouver des moyens de obtenir du Government la paiement 
de Demande que j'ai si bien merits par mes services. — 

En attendant la plaisir de vos reponse J ai I'honneur d'etre avee 
bon coup de Considration votre tres humble et tres obeissant Serviteur 

J Dubuque 

[Addressed] Mess" Hoffman et Abbot Michilimackinac 

[Eyidorsed] Julien Dubuque. — Prairie du Chien, le 13° Juin 1809. 
avec Compte de Fourniture aux Bands de Sauvages, mont' a $307. 

[Translation] 

Prairie du Chien, June 13, 1809. 
Messrs. Abbott and Hoffman. 

Sirs: I had the honor to receive on September 22 last your letter 
under date of the preceding 17th of August, by which I learned the 
sad news of the death of our respected friend the late John Campbell. 
And after having offered to his memory all the marks of respect and 
of sorrow which I owed to his death and to his friendship for me, I 
set myself to accomplish, according to the best of my knowledge, 
his last wish with regard to his employment as the agent of the savages 
for the United States. Although at that time, my health was much 
enfeebled and my strength exhausted by a lingering sickness, I could 
not decide otherwise than to devote my attention to the last wish of 
a respected friend, communicated by yourself. 

I then accepted it, but at the end of a month and twenty-eight 
days finding that the sickness which oppressed me increased from 
day to day, I wrote to Governor Lewis asking him to put some one 
in my place. My wish was granted, and M. Boilvin arrived on the 
28th of November, to whom I have turned over all the papers in my 
hands which gave me the position of agent for the savages. 

During the time I acted as agent, the situation as to peace was very 
critical, and I was obliged — in order to hold the savages tranquil (the 
death of the departed had troubled them) — to make them presents as 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 



55 



shown by the account here enclosed. Having no particular orders 
in this respect but seeing the absolute necessity of this step, I took 
it upon myself to make them, in the hope that the Government of the 
United States would not hesitate to confirm that which critical cir- 
cumstances demanded. 

I beg you, gentlemen, to interest yourselves for me to find for me 
the means of obtaining from the Government the paj-ment of that 
which I have so well merited by my services. 

Awaiting the pleasure of your reply, I have the honor to be with 
the greatest consideration your very humble and very obedient 
servant, 

J. Dubuque 

[Addressed] Messrs. Hoffman and Abbott, Michilimackinac 

[Endorsed] Julien Dubuque. — Prairie du Chien, June 13, 1809. — 
With account of supplies given to bands of savages, amounting to $307. 

[Enclosure: ADS] 

BiU of Julien Dubuque for goods furnished the Indians 



The United States D' To Julien Dubuque- 
Indians at the Prairie du Chien. — 



[June 14, 1809] 
-For Sundries furnished the 



Sundries given to an Indian sent by the Chief of the 
Renards with a Letter from the Secretary of War 
adressed to the Deceased John Campbell"' . 

12'" Tobacco. 6'" Powder & 8 loaves Bread & 1 
Keg Rum to the Renards of the Grand Maqua- 
quitais 

To the Band of the Petite Mequaquitais for To- 
bacco Powder & Provissions 

To the Band of the Rivire Au D'inde .... 

To the Puants " of the Rock River for Tobacco 
Powder Rum et Provissions 

To the Band de Chemin for Powder Tobacco, & 
Provissions 

To the Band of Puants at the Grande Masquatine 
for Tobacco & Provissions 

To the Sawkes in head Tobacco & Provissions . 

To several bands at different times .... 

To Indians of diferent nations, who from time to 
time Visit this place 



Cents 




" Not seen. Cf. Terr. Papers (Ind.), VII, 519. 



"^Or Winnebago. 



56 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

The foregoing account contains a just & true Statement of the 
Amount of different Articles furnished by me to the different Nations 
at this place during the time I was in the service of the United States 
as agent for the Indians in the place of the Deceased John Campbell 
commencing the 22" of September & ending the 20"" November 1808. 

Prairie du Chien 14 June 1809. — 

J Dubuque 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JAMES FINNEY " 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book QJ 

July 24, 09 



James Fenny p m Kaskaskia I. T. 
Bond &c to be executed by John M'Arthur 



GG 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO SECRETARY 

POPE 

(ISL : Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 : LS] 

Treasury Department July 29'" 1809. 

Sir, I have received your letter of the 4'" instant.'^* It is most 
regular that you should transmit a voucher for the pajmienl of 
office-rent; but if you make use of a house or a building of your own 
for an office, you may state that fact quarterly and charge fifteen 
dollars, or at the rate of sixty dollars a year for the rent. 

As you could not have occupied an office before you received your 
commission, and as this was not probably received before the first 
of April, I do not perceive now you can charge for office-rent before 
that day. 

You are authorized to furnish the Governor with such articles 
of Stationary as are nece.ssary for his use in transacting the public 
business of the territory.'^*" 

I am respectfully Sir, your obed' serv' 

— Albert Gallatin 

Nathaniel Pope Esq' Secretary of the Illinois Territory. 



JOHN HAYS TO SECRETARY POPE 

[ISL : Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 : ALS] 

[August 16, 1809] 
Sir I have been Informed that there are Certain Malicious 
persons have sent Depositions to the Governor against me, in Con- 

" See biographical sketch of James Finney in Philbrick, op. eit., p. cclxxi, 

»• Ante, p. 49. 

•"> Answered post, p. 60. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 57 

siquence of two Indians Escaping from Prison. I beg you would be 
so good to Inform the Governor that I am ready to meet those persons, 
and their depositions, at any time he may think proper, the Sooner 
the better, and hope to defeat them to then* own disgrace and my 
own Satisfaction, and Convince the Governor of their false Assertions 
&•— 

Inclosed is my Bond to the Governor 

I am Respectfully Your Obd' Serv' 

John Hays 

Nath' Pope Esq^ 16'" Awg' 1809 



SECRETARY POPE TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
[ISL : Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 : CSJ 
Kaskaskia September 1" 1809 Secretary's Office — 

Sir I herewit h have the honor to transmit you a Copy of the 
Laws passed by the Governor and Judges since the first day of March 
last and also a *Kie report of the proceedings of the Governor in his 
Executive Capacity'^" — 

I regret ainccrcly extremely that it was rot in my power to Make 
the report in my own hand writing — The Clerk I was obliged to 
employ has made many mistakes. A severe attack of the Bilious 
fever which confined me to my bed nearly the whole of Last Month 
and from which I am not now recovered disqualified me from attending 
to any business — 

I have the Honor to be Sir, Your Ob' Serv* 

Nat Pope 

The Honb'^ Robert Smith Secretary of State of the United States 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO MICHAEL JONES » 

AND ELIJAH BACKUS '* 

(NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. One] 

Treasury Department Sept' 9'" 1809 
Michael Jones & Elijah Backus Esq" Land Commiss" Kaskaskias 
Gent" I have received Gov' Edward's Letter containing the result 
of the investigation into the charges against you,'* as those papers 
will not be laid before the President till his return here, towards the 
end of this month, it may be premature in me to express an opinion. 

"° For the proceedings (Executive Register), see post, vol. xvii. 

'3 Jones was first appointed register of the land office at Kaskaskia, Apr. 9, 
1804. See Terr. Papers (Ind.), vil, 185, n. 69. 

" Backus was appointed receiver of the land office at Kaskaskia, Oct. 5, 1804. 
See ibid., p. 201, n. 13. 

" Not found. It was answered by Gallatin, Sept. 8, 1809 (Edwards Papers, 
CHS, printed, Washbume, ed., Edwards Papers, CHC, ui, 46-48). 



58 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

But I think it of primary importance earnestly to recommend promp- 
titude in your decisions and final report. I trust this will be made, 
so as to close the whole business, in time to be laid before Congress at 
the ensuing Session, but let, at all events your report of confirmations 
so far as you have made up your opinion be immediately prepared & 
transmitted; & let this be generally known. I think that it will have 
a vor}^ strong tendency to quiet the public mind, & that it is absolutely 
necessary in order to reconcile the Mass of the inhabitants to the 
General Government. It is indeed an act of Justice due to the 
honest Claimants who have been injured by delays which were not 
in any degree due to them. There is an other subject on which I 
have no right to instruct, but you will permit me to say that, in 
the present distracted state of the territory, I am of opinion that you 
or the Agents interfering in its local politics will be injurious to your- 
selves and to the General Govern' " 

I have the honor to be &C 



ELIJAS BACKUS TO THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY 

(NA:GLO, Kaskaskia, Reg. and Rec. Lets.:ALSl 

Kask" Sevi' 24'" 1809 

Sir, After waiting till the middle of July, at Marietta, for your dis- 
patches; I embraced, notwithstanding my ill health, the first oppor- 
tunity to descend the Ohio, and opened the Commissioners Office, 
about a month since. — 

But I write this letter. Sir, to inform you, that on my arrival, I 
found my Colleague, Co' Jones, to have been taken by a criminal 
process, and bound over to Court, as accessory to the murder of Jones 
(of whom you have heard) — That a Bill of Indictment has been found 
by a Grand Jurj^ four of whom (as I am informed) only were 
acquainted, either with him, or his accusers, or were residents in this 
part of the Country — That he instantly, demanded his trial, altho the 
principal, Docf Dunlap, had not been taken — That after much oppo- 
sition on the part of the prosecution, a day was granted him for trial 
(Friday last) — That on that day, on motion of the Attorney Gen', 
his trial has been deferred to April next, — and that I have no doubt, 
a copy of this Indictment will be forwarded to the President, accom- 
panied with this question "whether it is proper that a man indicted 
for murder, should be continued as a Public Officer" " 

" See Philbrick, op. cit., pp. xciii-xciv, for an account, with citations, of the 
political repercussions resulting from the decisions of the land commissioners at 
Kaskaskia. 

" Rice Jones, son of John Rice Jones, was murdered by Dr. James Dunlap on 
Dec. 7, 1808. Michael Jones was indicted on July 20, 1809, and acquitted Apr. 
10, 1810. See post, p. 95. Dunlap escaped and was never brought to trial. 
Others named as co-conspirators were Backus, Robert Robinson, James Gil- 
breath, James Finney, and Langlois (Philbrick, op. cit., pp. xciv, ccliv). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 59 

A similar indictment has been unsuccessfully attempted to be ob- 
tained against me — 

Lest the presumption arising from these facts should be back" by- 
high authority and make an impression upon the mind of the Presi- 
dent; I give this information, as preliminary to a request, that he might 
suspend, in this case, his judgment till he shall receive a train of depo- 
sitions & documents, which will afford, not only a full, but an over- 
whelming conviction on this subject — 

These documents, are now nearly compleated ; and will be sent by the 
first safe conveyance (I say safe because our dispatches have already 
been plundered from the public mail— 

These documents. Sir, may have a more extended reach, than is 
expected but they will rest on their own basis — 

If indeed your Commissioners have been guilty of miu-der, it is 
agreed, on all hands that they ought to be hung — 

But, if an attempt has been made, to stretch a Board of National 
Officers, on the Plains of Kaskaskia, for the benefit of perjured claims; 
the spectacle is an awful one — 

I am Sir Y' 

E Backus 

Oct' 14'" 1809 
Sir, I am requested by my Colleague to transmit to you the fore- 
going, it being a copy of a letter already sent to you by the Gov" 
Sheriff— 

As the enquiry into the conduct of the Commissioners which (in our 
letter of the 28'" of Dec'' last) '' we requested might be made, has been 
made by the Gov'' in my absence, and transmitted with his report, 
which I have never seen altho it has been, it seems, sent by him to our 
great land claimants at this place; I desire to know 1"' what this report 
is — 2** whether he has transmitted to you the following depositions 
VZ of R Robinson James Gilbreath, J Finney, P Fouke, W. Arundel, 
W" Biggs, H Levins, Louis Seguin, Jerome Danis, J Noval, J. Reynor, 
W Chaffin, T. Todd, C. Cairnes, S Bond Senior & Ju''— T F Perry- 
N Jarrot — John Hay — J Hays — J Manegle — Louis Pillette — A. 
Stallion ''— 

3<* As the Gov'' has informed my family (with whom he resided dur- 
ing his stay here) that his report would not respect me; I wish to know 
whether it does relate to me, & if so whether I am at liberty to reply to 
it — It must be here remarked that I have never yet seen but a part of 
the charges against us & know not their contents — 

'' Not found. 

" No one of these documents has been seen. 



60 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

You must be prepared Sir for a train of documents on this subject 
which will give you some siu"prize — 
I am Sir respectfully Y' hb Sv' 

E Backus 
Hon a Gallatin Esq' 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia Oct. 14. 1809. E. Backus Rec' Pub. monies 
de charges ag' him & the Governor's reports. 



SECRETARY POPE TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
TREASURY 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13:CS1 

A Copy Kaskaskia September 30'" 1809 

Sir I herewith transmit to you my account of the Contingent 
expences of the Illinois Territory from the 1" day of July to this day 
amounting to thirty Dollars and twenty two Cents — Among the 
Vouchers you will find one from M' Backus for the quarter ending 
the thirtieth day of June — 

Being unacquainted with the regulations concerning the Secre- 
taries, I supposed that I was as much entitled to Office rent as to 
my Salary previous to the receipt of my Commission particularly 

i «H» ftet rcaaonably entitled -te any pay ppcviouo to *he receipt ef 
HW Commisjion, which was m April — 
I am respectfully Sir y' ob' Serv* 

Nat Pope 

Albert Gallatin Esq' Sec' of the Treasury 



JUDGE JONES TO WILLIAM H. CRAWFORD 

(GAO:Misc. Treas., Acct. No. 22.721 (1810) :ALS] 

Louisiana Oct' 22, 1809 
My Dear friend I have had the pleasure of but one line from you 
since I left Georgia, I WTote you from Cahokia 3 weeks past, but am 
doubtful whether you will shortly get my letter, as I hear the post 
boy lost his horse & has managed so foolishly as to detain the Mail 2 
weeks longer than was necessary, In my letter I informed you that 
the deed you mentioned was in the hands of M' Cobb, I send you 
enclosed in this, by the hands of Co' Smith, a draft for $300 from 
J, B, Thomas, with his line to me on the occasion, I expected one 
due sooner but am in hopes it will answer — He sent it me on the 
instant of my departure for this place, & I had not time to see him 
again before I started lest Co' Smith should be gone before I got here — 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY gi 

I hereby authorise you to draw in my name for all that is due to me, 
when you leave Washington; or if it is usual to draw for something 
in advance, as I am told it is; for that also; & be so good if home- 
sickness will permit you, as to see Joshua Perry of N. Carolina, 
Franklin County, & make the purchase for me that we talkd of. I 
feel much disposed to have that in reserve, if I should not think fit to 
settle elsewhere for life, — I have been thro' the American bottom; & 
expect in about 8 or 10 days to visit Turkey hill & the Goshen Settle- 
ments; the land, perhaps has no superior , on earth; but I think it is 
a Sickly Country; & as for Society except a very few, "I shall say 
nothing about it"- — The Hill Country I expect is much healthier, & 
the land quite rich, & as to the Inhabitants I expect, to give you some 
of my thoughts about in my next, — I have been 2 days at Co' Smiths 
& have visited some of the lead-mines, I have no doubt of its being a 
healthy country, nor have I any, that a man may make Considerable 
Money with prudence & industry, at least double or treble what he 
could in Georgia if he would pursevere a few years; but in the mean 
time he would be almost banish'd from Civil Society, & have to Buffet 
the billows of barbarism, Co' Smith has been good enough to promise 
to buy 100 Acres of land for me, if he Can, & give me the refusal of 
taking it or not hereafter; it lies about 2 miles from his house, & not 
quite as far from the mines, has a good Spring on it, & about 25 Acres 
cleard, it is excellent land, & he informs me, that he has always been 
able to sell his Com for a dollar per bushel; & devote the the best 
months for digging, to wit, the fall & winter, with little inconvenience 
to his farm after it is once open'd, & those months have prov'd very 
profitable — If I should ever bring my family to this, or the western 
Country, I feel at present , as tho' I should like to make a trial of the 
mines, especially as I am Convinc'd it is healthy; but at the same time 
I should not like to give up my appointment; & altho' it would be a 
breach of the letter of the law, I might Comply with the Spirit of it, 
for I should be nearer to the places of holding Courts than I should 
be, in many parts of the Illinois Territory, not to have recourse to 
president; for Judge Coboum still resides in Kentucky & presides in 
Louisiana! but if I can get a Convenient passage down the river, in 
the spring, I shall probably go by the Natches & thro' the Mississippi 
T, as I return to Georgia; when I hope once more to have the pleasure 
of consulting with my wife & particular friends; before which time, 
I am determin'd Not to be determind possitively what to do in the 
premises — I hope & expect to write to you, & hear from you, much 
more frequently after your arrival at Washington, if the mail does not 
lose itself entirely, — You will know that I am no News-monger, nor 
indeed are there many in Casca; this perhaps is partly owing to their 
being so remote from the margin of Commercial Controversy, partly 



62 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

from private animosity arising from party rage on account of dividing 
the Territory, & partly from disappointment in having their land 
Claims Confirm'd ; & I do not know but native indolence of mind may 
justly lay in her claim for some share — Pray let me know how the 
Georgians as well as the Yankees, seem dispos'd to stand the Second 
Embargo , what is the price of c[otto]n in Georgia, & what for Crops 
are made there; who are elected in Oglethorpe for the assembly, & 
who for County Officers? &c What seems to be the movements & 
views of Napolione & George? does it seem probable, that they will 
ever respect the natural rights of man, & seek the Interest & happiness 
of their Subjects, or that they will rashly pursue the bubble of ambi- 
tion & folly 'till kind Heaven in Compassion to the affliction [of] their 
deluded subjects, stops the breath of their [nos]trils & furnishes the 
earth with a nause[ous] Morsel, & his Satanic Majesty with trouble- 
some Companions? — 

How well I should like to live here, under the impression of being 
useful to my family, if I could but enjoy the privilege of spending a 
few of my heavy evenings with my family, & a few choice friends; 
One tried friend of talents & integrity, is worth more to me than a 
whole Territory of [blank] 

Our Governor has not come on yet but is expected shortly, With 
Sincerest friendship I remain Y" &c. 

Obadiah Jones 

[Addressed] William H, Crawford Esq' Senator in Congress Wash- 
ington City. Politeness Co' Smith. 



PETITION TO MATTHEW LYON BY INHABITANTS OF 
SHAWNEETOWN 

[LC:HF, 11 Cong., 2 sess.iDS] 

[November 13, 1809] 
To the Honorable Matthew Lyon Esq' 

Permit us to Address you as the Organ of our solicitation, situated 
as we are, remote from the seat of Goverment and without the privi- 
lidge of representation, allso permit us to indulge a hope of success 
through the means of your correct and disinterested principles, as 
well towards Citizens, of the United States as to the Citizens, of the 
state to which you particularly Represent. In you whome we have 
the greatest confidence, we desire and believe, our situation and 
rights too; will be appreciated and truly represented, we wish it 
done through you in such a manner as you may deem most propper. 
Apprehensive as we are, that this town is scarcely known to the 
United States goverment. Other than that of the Saline salt- 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 63 

works. We the subscribers inhabitants of this town having been 
indulged by our former governor belonging to the Indianna Territory'-, 
and having made many improvements. We think it hard that we 
cannot be permitted to injoy them, until! the Goverment shall deem 
it propper to receive the benifits themselves. Now it is our wish that 
a town be laid off in lotts, and sold to the Highest bider, or leased by 
Goverment for a term of Years, as we suppose the latter will be the 
plan adopted, for the present. We hope you will make Application to 
the secretary or to the United States, in our behalf, as it appears our 
present Governor is not Authorised to do anything with this place, 
from his answers to the Applicants of this place, we are fearfull that 
some Monopolizing company or set of men may by some means Get 
a lease for the whole of this place, which we think would be an impol- 
itic thing and an ingurj' to the community at large, as the relative 
situation of this place to the Saline Makes it Nessessarj' for two thirds 
of the salt made at that place, to pass through this, which of course 
will be a cause of a Great many people passing, and repassing to and 
from the saline, Who we conceive could be better accommodated, by 
a number than by a few, and as all men are Born with eaqual privi- 
lidges, in the United States. — We think when our situation becom.es 
known, and the situation of this place to Goverment, that there will 
not be a lease Granted to any indi\idual but impartially to any 
persons who may wish to give to goverment the best price. — This 
address is from thirty families now li\4ng on the primeces, there is not 
the least doubts there would be twenty to one, in the course of a very 
short time, it being the only elligible place for a town, on the River 
between the Wabash and the mouth of the Ohio — and the only place 
where a town would be Usefull, to the comunity at large, the improve- 
ments allready made are compact and within the limmits of a single 
sextion of land, and in time this situation would be as elligible for a 
county town, as much so however as Kaskaskia is; both situated on 
the extreme boundery of the Teritorj- one hundred and twenty miles 
from each Other. A Repository is nessessarily required for the 
conveniance of holding large quantities of Salt Grain meat Goods &c 
which is exchanged and conveyed by waggons &c to & from the saline 
and by Boats to the States of Ohio Kentucky Tenesse and the Other 
Teritories. There being no other place where the purchaser and the 
sellar can be so well and eaqually accomodated. Nature seems to 
have declared this place the favour, d spot, The distance from this 
place to the Saline Works is at least twelve or fourteen IMiles — 
Admitting the United States to reser\-e a sufficiant Quantitj^ of lands 
for Wood for the Saline, would not twelve miles all around give a 
sufficiant quantity, it would give them five hundred and seventy six 
squar-miles and it is Well known, that the consumption of wood have 



64 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



not eaqualled one squar-mile pr Year. Could any one imagine that 
there would be a want of wood When sevenety years has matured the 
sublimest Groves in the Whole Country, and on the very lands within 
that limmit, besides much Wood if nessessarj' could be brought With 
much more ease down the saline Crick, than from this place, this 
town may be well supplied With stone coal, there are Beds of it, in the 
banks allso with stones in abundance which serve at present to form 
the Eddy and would answer a valuable purpose in building, this 
Eddy constitutes one of the best harbours, the most conveniant and 
safest of any Other from the Wabash to the mouth of the Ohio for 
all sorts of crafts of any size Therefore there can be no reasonable 
objection to this place becoming a town It is with deliberation we 
pledge ourselves for the truth of these our observations to you — We 
allso pledge ourselves to support our common country its constitution 
and laws with our lives and property. We must beg leave to make 
mention with diffidence least a Misconception be prepossessed from 
misrepresentations that there are amongst our number, both moral 
and Relidgeous as well as many enterprizing and industrious people. — 
Shawneytown noV 13 AD 1809 ^ 



John Robinson 
John Reid 
Robert Dixon 
Ge° Robinson 
Adrian Davenport 
John Davenport 
Marmduke S. Davenport 
John Reburn 
J. G. Whelan 
J, Wilson 
Fred: Delanej^ 
Henry Boyers 
William Akers 
Pierre Moulin 
Henry Kenyon 
Emanuel Ensminger 
Elihu Howard 
John Handlee 
Ephraim Hubbard Sen"^ 
Elias Hubbard 
Augustus Hubbard 
Jacob Zellers 
Samuel Robb 
Saml Moore 
Walker Scanland 



John IManson 
Joseph Love 
Isaac Sibley 
William Coen 
Robert Cox 
Meshake Sexton 
N D Anderson 
Michal Sprinkle 
Reuben Fox 
Abner Wilks 
William west 
John Williams 
Enoch Brown 
Joseph Lang 
John Forester 
Sam' Barks 
John M'Connel 
John Johnston 
W" Morgan 
John Voodry 
Peter Bono 
James Logan 
James Wilson 
Andrew English 



'" This and the succeeding document were evidently submitted by Lyon and 
referred on the same date. See next note. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 65 

PETITION TO CONGRESS BY INHABITANTS OF 
SHAWNEETOWN 
[LC:HF, 11 Cong., 2 sess.: DS] 

[November 13, 1809] 
To the Honorable the Congress of the United States — The Petition of 
the Inhabitants of Shawnee Towti in the IlHnois Territory respectfully 
shews that there are thirty families Settled in said Town on & Near the 
banks of the Ohio River at the place most convenient for the landing 
loading & unloading the Supplies Going to & the Salt comeing from 
the Great Saline belonging to the United States — Your Petitioners 
fvirther State that their Settlements are nearly all on one Section of 
Land & they fear that some Monopolizer will purchase or lease the 
whole Tract & thereby not only defraud the United States out of a 
Great Share of the real Value of the Property but distress your pe- 
titioners by either driveing them from their Settlements or Exacting 
from them Extravagant Rents for their own improvements. Your 
petitioner therefore prays that the proper officers may be authorised 
to lay out the lands in Question into Small Lots from one to two acres 
& put them on Sale to the highest bidder & we as in duty bound &c 

George Robinson for the 
Petitioners 46 in Number — 

SHAWNEETOWN NoV 13'" 1809 

[Endorsed] Petition of Sundry inhabitants of the town of Shawnee, 
Illinois territory. 31°* January, 1810. Ref" to the Committee on the 
Public Lands. 5'" April, 1810. Bill reported.^' M' Lyon ref* lands 



CHARLES JOUETT TO [THE SECRETARY OF WAR] 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Chicago 30^;i Nov. 1809 
Sir I have this moment examined the map of the Ellinoie Territory 
and find its western boundary runs within a very few miles directly 
parallel with the western shore of Lake Michigan, divesting me entirely 
of my powers as an agent, as the Indians & traders who have been 
hitherto in my agency are now within the Ellinoie Territory. This 
fact presents a striking picture of the unimportance of the Chicago 
establishment, under exacting circumstances. I shall however con- 
tinue to discharge my duties, and should any contravention, of the laws, 
take place, sfeali make the necessary communications to the Governor of 
the Ellinoue Territory. Should these facts induce you to discontinue 
my Agency here, I trust you will do me the honor altho to you, a 
personal stranger, to confide to me some other employment, esspecially 

" House Journal, Vii, 207, 349. 



66 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

when you reflect that I have been nearly eight years devoted to the 
services of my Country, and in situations too not without their perils 
and difficulties, Previous to any change taking place in my official 
concerns, I request the honour of visiting you at the seat of Govern- 
ment, from whence I have been absent upward of five years. 
I am your Obediant Servant. 

C. JOUETT 

[Addressed] Gen' James Wilkinson.** 

[Endorsed] Chicago, Nov^ 30'" 1809. C. Jouett— Relative to the 
unimportance of his present Agency in consequence of the new Terri- 
torial arrangements,— &c. Rec" Jan >• 9 '" 1810 ^ 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO JARED 

MANSFIELD 

[NA:GLO,SG,NWT, Lets. Reed., li:ALSl 

Treasury Department Dec" 9'" 1809 

Sir Your letter of 28"" Nov" has been received; '* and the im- 
mediate completion of the surveys of those townships necessary for 
ascertaining & laying out private claims in the Kaskaskia district 
appears proper and necessary. The requested additional credit of 
three thousand dollars with the receiver of public monies at Cincinnati 
has been directed. 

I have the honor to be very respectfully Sir Your obed' Serv* 

— Albert Gallatin 

Jared Mansfield Esq" Surveyor General Cincinnati 

[Addressed] Jared Mansfield Esq' Survey' General Cincinnati 
[Postmarked] Wash" City 11 Treasury Department Albert Gallatin 
Free 

[Endorsed] M' Gallatin's Letter Decemb' 9"> 1809 



MATTHEW IRWIN TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
(NA:WD, SWDF:ALS1 

Chicago 30'" Decern' 1809. 
Sir, I should think my duty as a citizen, but more particularly as 
an officer, badly performed, if, when evils of a public nature exist, 
I did not endeavor to have them corrected. Under this impression, 

^ This address was not written by the same hand as the letter. Presumably 
the letter was forwarded by the Secretary of War to Wilkinson. Obviously, either 
"EUinoie" in the first line or "western" in the second line is incorrect. 

*• No reply found. 

" NA(GL0, Lets, from SG); the relevant portion is printed, Terr. Papers 
(Ind.), VII, 605, n. 97. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 67 

I cannot conceive the power is given to the Commanding Officers of 
garrisons, to compel their dependants to purchase at such Stores as 
may be dictated to them : yet such is the case here ; & under circum- 
stances pecuharly indeUcate. The son of the Commanding officer is 
made the Sutler by his father! The Surgeons Mate, (Docf Cooper) 
is his partner! No check, exists, in their dealings, against extortion! 
A circumstance the more to be regretted; as some of the soldiers who 
conceived they were paying too high for some articles for merely 
observing to their Commanding officer that 'they thought it a hard 
matter they could not purchase at what Store they pleased', have been 
punished! And those, with the exception of one, who have the power 
of punishment in their hands, viz^ the Commanding Officer; ^° The 
first lieutenant ^° (who is the son-in-law of the Comg officer) : & the 
Surgeons-Mate, (forming a Majority of three fourths of the officers) 
have the inhumanity & barbarity to punish those who dare to ani- 
madvert on their injustice. 

If Officers of the Army are allowed to be sutlers, innumerable evils 
will naturally follow. The temtation to extortion is, with ordinary 
minds, irresistible. The soldiers who are to be victims of imposition 
must then, if they have the hardihood to complain, be silenced by 
severe punishments; or, on the Other hand, quieted by indulgences 
calculated to insubordinate them. This garrison presents a striking 
example of such consequences. The subtle unprincipled Soldier is 
here raised to the level of his Officers ; whilst those with less art and 
more honesty are subjects of punishment. 

To give you an idea. Sir, that either a great deal of money is spent 
(and it is generally believed that more than three fourths of the soldiers 
pay is spent at the sutlers); or, that the proffits are immense, a M'' 
Langley of the State of Ohio, offered Docf Cooper $2000 to relinquish 
his claim to the partnership ! 

In making this communication, I can with safety say I have no 
personal animosities against the commanding officer. It would be 
inhuman, wantonly to injure him, as he is old & infirm, & has a large 
family to support & educate. My object, without a shadow of inten- 
tion to injure any one where no cause exists, is, simply, to relate what 
I conceive my my duty impels me to; & to have an end put to an evil 
more pregnant with mischief than can be easily immagined. 

If blame should attach any where, it should be with Docf Cooper, 
who, particularly, as he was entrusted , advised & prevailed on the 
Com* officer to adopt the course he has. Previous to this gentlemans 
arrival here, as I am credibly informed, all was peace & harmony. 
The reverse is now the case — nothing but discord prevails. 

" Referring to Capt. John Whistler. See Jouett's opinion of Whistler. Terr, 
Papers (Ind.), vil, 496. 
" Thomas Hamilton. 

314574 — 48 6 



68 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



As I have not the honor, Sir, of a personal acquaintance with you, 
I feel somewhat diffident in thus addressing you on the Conduct of 
the Officers here; but, for the verity of the facts stated, I beg leave 
to refer you to major Jouett, who informs me he will leave here for 
Washington in Sept' or October next." 

With the greatest respect, I am Sir, Your Most ob' serv' 

Math' Irwin 

The Hon"'* W° Eustis Secretary of war Washington 

I have enclosed a list of prices of such articles as are most in use 
among the soldiery, which, they have to purchase at the sutlers: 
which also embraces the same articles, with the prices, to be had at 
the store of a Citizen — M.I. 

[Addressed] The Hon"" W° Eustis Secretary of War Washington 

[Endorsed] Chicago, Dece' 30"" 1809. Mathew Irvine relative to 
the impositions practised upon the soldiery at the above mentioned 
Post by the connivance of the Commanding Officer with the Sutler; — 
enclosing a comparati"* list of prices of certain articles of consumption. 
Rece" Feb" 19'" ISIO.^ 

[Enclosure] 

A comparison of prices 

[December 30, 1809] 
Comparative Note of Prices at the Sutler's & another Store, at Chicago — 
Dece' 1809.» 
Cooper & Whistler's J. Kinzey's 



Whiskey . . 


50 


Cents quart Whiskey . 


37}^ cents quart 


Tobacco — . . 


75 


" lb Tobacco , . 


50 " lb 


B. Sugar— . 


25 


B. Sugar . . 


16% " 


Black Ball . . 


50 


" Stick Black Ball . 


25 " Stick 


Shoe Brushes , 


, 75 


" pair Shoe Brushes , 


. 50 " pair 


Thread . . 


ey* 


" skain Thread . . 


6Ji " Skain, 



" See Whistler to the Secretary of War, Jan. 26, 1810 (NA, WD, SWDF), 
protesting any representation which might be made by Irwin, factor at Chicago. 
In this connection see Col. Jacob Kingsbury, commander of the 1st regiment, 
stationed at Detroit, Michigan Territory, to the Secretary of War, Mar. 16, 1810, 
toe. cit., enclosing copies of detailed specifications against Whistler, Hamilton, 
and Cooper, among which is Irwin's covering letter to Kingsbury, Feb. 24, 1810, 
enclosing the formal charges. See also Whistler to the Secretary of War, May 
31, June 1, Oct. 1, and Oct. 31, 1809, loc. cit., regarding affairs at Fort Dearborn. 
In the same file is a letter, id. to id., no date, received July 5, 1810, regarding 
Whistler's relinquishment of the command to Captain Heald and concerning his 
quarrels with Irwin, Jouett and others. In the latter regard, Governor Cass, of 
Michigan Territory, attempted to absolve Whistler in a letter to the Secretary of 
War, Apr. 12, 1811, loc. eU. 

2* No reply found. 

" This heading is on the reverse of the enclosure. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY gg 

SECRETARY POPE TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 

TREASURY 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 :CS] 

(A Copy) Illinois Territory Secretary's Office 

January 1" 1810 
Sir I have the honor to transmit herewith enclose y©« my an 
account of the Contingent expences of the Illinois Territory amount- 
ing to twenty seven Dollars and fifty Cents with the Vouchcr3 te 

SUpporu It 

You will oblige me by informing me how my account stands at 
the Treasury' — I am unable to ascertain it myself in consequence of 
my mistake respecting the Charge for Office Rent ^^ — 

I have the Honor to be Sir Yo. Mo. Ob' Serv' 

Nat Pope 

The Hon'"^ Albert Gallatin Esq' 



NICHOLAS BOILVIN ^^ TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:LS] 

Prairie du Chien, Jam. 27'", 1810. 
Honored Sir! Since my last Letter which I forwarded in Septem- 
ber last/' I have had the Honor, to receive Your Letter of the 16 "■ 
Sept:^' a p., and was happy to find that in Regard of the Indians in 
this Quarter some Arrangement should take place, when Governor 
Lewis should arrive at Washington the unhappy Fate which has 
brought this Gentlemen to an untimely Death,^^ has frustrated my 
Hopes, to hear of an Result in the Spring following, as Governor 
Lewis was entirely acquainted with the Situation of this place, though 
I hope to have some Information, as I understand General Clark 
has been at Washington, and might have given some Communication 
on the same Subject. — I find myself in a very critical Situation, then 
I expect not less then Two Thousand Indians here in the Spring, 
they are in great Hopes to receive some News and assistance from 
their New Father. — I can say with Confidence, that I have had the 

^•' Copies of vouchers present. 

^'b Answered post, p. 74. 

»" A Canadian of French extraction, appointed subagent for Indian affairs at 
Prairie du Chien by Governor Harrison, of Indiana Territory, Aug. 18, 1806 
{Terr. Papers, Ind., VII, 384), under John Campbell, who had been appointed 
agent as early as 1802, ibid., p. 519. He was appointed justice of the peace 
under Illinois Territory, and died in 1824 (WHC, II, 150). See also Terr. Papers 
(La.-Mo.), XIII, index, under "Boilvin". 

" Not found. 

'^ Lewis died in Tennessee, Oct. 11, 1809, while traveling from St. Louis to 
Washington {Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., xiv, index; Diet. Amer. Biog., XI, 222). 



70 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

good fortune to bring them on such a footing as they never were 
before, they are quiet and peacable, they are reconciled with our 
Government, and express their Wishes, to go hand in hand with their 
father and live in friendship Some of the Chiefs have a Wish to go 
to Washington to see their New father. Having understood that 
M' Jefferson has resigned, if Government consents to their Proposal, 
Your Honor will please to inform me thereof, to make a Choice of the 
Chiefs, 

The Uncertainty in which I live here, makes my situation also 
uneasy, then I do not know if it is the Will of Government that I 
shall stay here, or be relieved. 

I have made some Purchases of Houses of the Estate of M' Camp- 
bell, in hopes to be of Use to Government, having the House constantly 
full of Indians, but I am at a Lross to commence to repair the Buildings. 
M' Bates writes me that it was regarded that I lived under the 
Government of this Territory, untill other Arrangements are made." 

If this Place is once put on a regular footing, so that the Indians 
may repair hither for some little assistance, now and then to be given, 
they will be hereafter of very Little Expence to the Government, 
and this Place will be the Security of all our frontiers. 

" Referring probably to Frederick Bates, Secretary and Acting Governor of 
Louisiana Territory, to Boilvin, Nov. 4, 1809 (Marshall, ed., Bates Papers, II, 
106-107), containing information of the death of Governor Lewis, and advising 
Boilvin against any action within the limits of Illinois Territory, in which Prairie 
du Chien was located, respecting the Indians residing therein without the direc- 
tion of the Governor of that Territory; or to id. to id., Nov. 2, 1809, t6td., pp. 
103-104, relating that Acting Governor Pope, of Illinois Territory, had complained 
that Boilvin was issuing trading licenses in Illinois Territory, and pointing out 
that Boilvin had no authority in that territory other than as directed by the 
Governor thereof. 

Unfortunately in this early period no clear line of demarcation is discernible 
between the various Governors in their capacity as Indian superintendents or 
between the Indian agents in the different districts. See, for example, respecting 
the jurisdiction of the Governor of Michigan Territory after 1815, Terr. Papers 
(Mich.), X, 576, n. 10. In the period under consideration, the spheres of authority 
of the different officials mentioned seem to have been determined in part by in- 
structions from the home government, in part by the efficiency and vigor of 
individual officers, and in part by natural modes of communication. For example, 
the Green Bay region, which by statute was a part of Illinois Territory, was 
administered in so far as Indians were concerned by the Governor of Michigan 
Territory as will appear clearly from the correspondence published in the present 
volume. Chicago was likewise more closely bound to Detroit than to Kaskaskia, 
and Prairie du Chien generally looked to the seat of government of the successive 
territories of Louisiana and Missouri at St. Louis for guidance. It may be sug- 
gested, however, that this phase of the subject of Indian management remains 
to be clarified as to detail. Cf. post, vol. xvii, under date of Oct. 21, 1816. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 71 

Enclosed I have the Honor to foreward a List of the Different 
Nations which pass by and visit this Place, from which your Honor 
may conclude, the Importance of this Post. 

Having no more to add, I have the Honor to be. Your Honor's 
most Obed' & hble Serv' 

N: BoiLVlN««"* 

The Honorable W Eustis Esq"' Secretary of War Washington. 

[Endorsed] Prairie de Chien, Jan^ 27'" 1810. Nicholas Boilvin,— 
relative to Indian affairs in that quarf — is anxious to receive Instruc- 
tions from Government ; — and encloses a List of Indians who annually 
visit or pass at that station. — Rece* April 11'" 1810.'* 
[Enclosure:DS] 
List of Indians visiting and passing Prairie du Chien 

[January 26, 1810] 
A Ldst of the different Nations of Indians which visit and pass by this 

Place every year, viz' 

Ten different Bands of Sioux consististing from 18. Lodges to 500 
Lodges each Band, without counting those who live higher up the 
River, on the River S' Peter untill the Missouri, the above Ten Bands 
makes only a small Number of them. 

Eight Villages foxes, containing 800. Men. 

Three d" Puants containing 300. Men. 

One Village Fols Avoines, cont: 200 Men. 

and other strange Nations which pass, by such as Outawas. etc: etc: 

N. Boilvin 

Prairie du Chien Janr. 26. 1810. 

[Endorsed] List (Estimate) of Indians who annually pass by or 
visit Prairie de Chien. 



THE GOVERNOR AND JUDGES TO THE SECRETARY OF 

STATE 
[NA:SD, Applications :LS«] 

Kaskaskia 2'> Fehy 1810 
Sir Understanding that it is probable that a Vacancy in the Judi- 
ciary of this Territory will occur by the resignation of Judge Jones. 
We beg leave in that event to recommend Nathaniel Pope Esq' 
as a proper person to fill the Vacancy, and to represent to you as our 
opinion that in legal Science in firmness of Mind, respectability of 

" No reply found. , 

»° In the hand of Judge Thomas. 



72 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Character and Solidity of Understanding he is second to no Lawyer 

in this or any of the adjacent Territories. 

Alex' Stuart 
Jesse B. Thomas 
NiNiAN Edwards 
The Hon*'" R Smith Secretary of State 

[Endorsed] Recommendation by Alex' Stewart J. B. Thomas 
& N. Edwards of N. Pope to Judgeship of Illinois Territory 



PETITION TO CONGRESS BY THE GOVERNOR, 

SECRETARY, AND JUDGES OF THE TERRITORY 

[LC:HF, 11 Cong., 2 sess.:DS] 

[Referred February 7, 1810] 
To the Honorable The Senate and Hotise of Representatives of the United 

States 

We the Governor Judges and Secretary of the Illinois Territory 
beg leave respectfuly to represent to your honorable body that by 
virtue of our several offices we are by law compelled to hold certains 
quantities of land within the Territory that is to say The Governor 
one thousand acres and the Judges & Secretary five hundred acres 
each. Hitherto we have been unable to purchase of Individuals 
any lands on which we are willing to settle ourselves, and if this were 
not the case the titles of Individuals are involved in so much doubt 
and uncertainty that on this account as well as for other reasons which 
we forbear to mention we should greatly prefer to purchase from the 
United States wherefore we pray your honorable body to permit us 
to locate so much land as we are severally compelled to hold upon any 
such terms and restrictions as congress may think right to prescribe 
& we your petitioners as in duty bound will ever pray &c &c 

NiNiAN Edwards Obadiah Jones 

Jesse B. Thomas Nat Pope 

Alex' Stuart 

[Endorsed] Petition of the Governor, judges and Secretary of the 
Illinois territory. 7'" Feby, 1810. Ref** to the Committee on the 
Public Lands. 21" Feb^ 1810. Report made, agreed to, and petition 
rejected, against M' Johnson ref* lands " 

»• House Journal, vii, 222, 239-240. See report, post, p. 74. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 73 

ELIJAH BACKUS TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 

TREASURY 

[NA:GLO, Kaskaskia, Reg. and Rec. Lets.:ALS] 

Kask^ Feh^ 10*" 1810 

Sir Since the date of my letter to you (of two months since," 
to which I have received no answer) I have seen the Governor's 
reports on the charges against us — I cannot but smile at them — Have 
we indeed been more deeply concerned in local politics than is decent 
in our situations as public officers? — 

The documents we shall send you together with the Gov" certificate 
of his having been mistaken will settle this point — No Sir the Gov'' 
has acted from misinformation and will be candid enough to ac- 
knowledge it — The idea is equally ridiculous that the mass of the people 
of this country is opposed to us — The truth of fact is that every man 
in this country will be found to approbate our conduct, except those 
whom it will be our painful duty to prove guilty of perjury^ 

I have Sir drawn on you for three hundred dollars, in part of the 
five hundred due me by act of Congress of last summer's session — We 
have finished our business. Our report will be sent you by dispatch 
next week; and I flatter myself this draught will be honoured — 

I am Sir with feelings of gratitude y'' Obed* Serv* 

Elij" Backus 

Hon' a Gallatin Esq' 

[Addressed] Hon'''* Albert Gallatin Esqr Secretary of the Treasury 
City of Washington [Postmarked] Kaskaskie Feb'' 10*" Free 

[Endorsed] Letter of advice M' Sheldon Kaskaskia Feb. 10, 1810. 
rec" Mar. 15. E. Backus Rec' Pub. monies — de Governor's report — 
advice of a draft for $300— W* N° Mar. 19, 1810. for $300— 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOHN HAYS 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book Q] 

16 Feh'^ 1810 
John Hays PM Cahokia II. Terr'' 

I have received your letter of the 25*" Dec'^&fined the Contractor 
to the extent of the Penalties that he has incurred. 
GG 

»' Not found. 



74 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO SECRETARY 

POPE 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13:LS] 

Treasury Department 17'" Febrtiary 1810. — 
Sir, In answer to your letter of the 1. Jan" last, ^ I have to inform 
you that on the Settlement of your account for contingent expenses 
to the 31. December 1809, there appears to be remaining in your 
hands of the Sum heretofore advanced to you, forty two dollars 
twenty eight cents, to be applied to the payment of future expenses. 
I am respectfully Sir, Y' obt Serv' 

—Albert Gallatin 

Nathaniel Pope Esq'' Secretary of the Illinois Territory 



REPORT OF HOUSE COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC LANDS 
[LC:HF, 11 Cong., 2 sess.iAD] 

[February 21, 1810] 
Report of the Committee on the Public Lands on the petition of the Cover' 

nor, judges and secretary of the Illinois territory. ^^* 

By the ordinance for the government of the said territory it is 
required, that the governor shall have a free hold estate of one thousand 
acres of land within the territory while in the exercise of his office, and 
the judges and secretary five hundred acres each. It appears by the 
statement of the petitioners that they have been unable to purchase 
from individuals any lands on which they are willing to settle them- 
selves, and that the titles of individuals are involved in so much doubt 
and uncertainty that they would prefer to purchase from the United 
States — They pray that Congress would permit them to locate so 
much land as they are severally required to hold upon such terms and 
under such restrictions as may be thought reasonable. 

It appears to the Committee that the case stated by the petitioners 
will not justify a departure from the usual mode of disposing of the 
public lands, especially as it is believed, that the public lands in that 
territory will be offered for sale in the Course of the ensuing summer, 
therefore 

Resolved, That the prayer of the petitioners ought not to be granted. 

[Endorsed] [M'' Morrow.] Report of the Committee on the Public 
Lands on the petition of the Governor, judges and secretary of the 
Illinois territory. 21'*^ February, 1810 Agreed to, and petition 
rejected " 

M Ante, p. 69. 

»«• Ante, p. 72. 

»• House Journal, vii, 239-240. The brackets are on the MS. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 75 

GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Illinois Territory Feby 24. 1810 

Sir I have the honor to inform you that Ducoigne the Chief of the 
Kaskaskia Tribe of Indians for himself and them has requested that 
their annuity should in futui-e be sent to this place and he has fur- 
nished me with the enclosed list of the articles and money which he 
wants.'"' 

In the treaty with those Indians *' the United States have stipulated 
to pay three hundred dollars towards the erection of a church for them. 
This stipulation Ducoigne informs me (and I believe it) has never 
been complied with. And as the major part of the tribe are about to 
remove from this village to the lands reserved to them by the treaty 
it is their wish that the money should now be appropriated to im- 
provements on their land — If this proposition should be acceeded to. 
they wish the money sent out with their next annuity Whenever 
any of the Indians come here to receive their annuities or the Chiefs 
come to pay a visit to the Governor, either as a manifestion of their 
friendship or to adjust any business they expect to be supported dur- 
ing their stay by the United St= and on some occasions they calculate 
on receiving and it is customary to give them some little presents as 
a mark of friendship. With none of those articles usually disposed of 
in this way have I been furnished " — 

Having no precident whatever to guide me here and being but little 
acquainted with Indian affairs — I should be very happy to receive some 
general instructions from you on the subject 

I am with sentiments of the highest respt Sir Yr Mo Obd' S' 

NiNLAj^ Edwards 

The Hon'* William Eustis Esq' Secretary of War Washington 
City 

[Addressed] The Hon'ble William Eustis Esqr Secretary of War 
Washington City Mail [Postmarked] Cincinnati 22 March 1810 
Free 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia 111"'"' Terr: Feb^ 24^" 1810. Gov'' Ninian 
Edwards, — Relative to the Annuities, &c. due the Kaskaskia Tribe 
of Indians, enclosing memorandum of the articles they desire to 
have: — Gov"' E. also requests Instructions relative to Indian Affairs, 
&c. &c.— Rece"" Mar: 31, 1810.« Answ" 

« Present. 

<i Treaty of Aug. 13, 1803. See Terr. Papers (Ind.), vii, 190, n. 84, for citations. 

" See ibid., pp. 360, 447, 568. 

** Answered post, p. 88. 



76 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

WILLIAM RECTOR TO JARED MANSFIELD 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., ni:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Feh^ 24'" 1810, 

D' Sir This will be handed to you by Major Robert Robinson" 
whom I beg leave to introduce to your acquaintance; 

Major Robinson is the United States Agent or Attorney who was 
appointed to oppose the fraudelent claims for land that have been 
exhibited to the Board of Commissioners for this District, and will 
pass through Cincinnati on his way to the City of Washington, where 
he is going to make a Report of the descesions of the Commissioners 
together with his remarks thereon, He wishes to be employed in laying 
off into sections &c a part of the United States lands " — Should you 
have employment for him you may rely on his performing the business, 
with fidelity. He has acted as Clerk, and Translator of the French 
papers for the Board of Commissioners for more than four years past, 
for which he has received from Government, merely what was suffi- 
cient to support his family, which was far from being adequate to the 
important services he has rendered, — He is therefore desirous to 
embark in the Surveying business, under an expectation that he will be 
better rewarded for his Services, I hope you will have it in your power 
to give him employment, he does not wish a large job as he intends 
shortly to resume, the practice of Law. 

I am very respectfully Your Ob* Serv* 

W" Rector 

Gen' Mansfield. 



WILLIAM RECTOR TO JARED MANSFIELD 

[NA:GL0, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., ilirALS] 

Kaskaskia Feh" 24'" « 1810. 

D' Sir I had the satisfaction to receive a letter from Elias Rector 
dated the 22"'' of December *'' at Washington in which he informs me 
that Congress had passed a Law authorising the payment of the fees 
we have asked for Resurveying the Land of individuals *^ 

He also states that M' Gallatin informed him that he had appoved 

" The little that is known of Robinson, other than what is contained in the 
textual matter of the present volume, is noted by Philbrick (ed.). Laws Ind. Terr. 
(IHC,xxi),celxxxi. 

« See Robinson's request in his letter to Mansfield, June 8, 1809 (NA, GLO, SG, 
NWT, Lets. Reed., II). 

" The figure 24 has been written over a single figure. This may explain the 
oddity of the postscript's date, Feb. 17, being earlier than the date of the letter. 

« Not found. 

" Approved Dec. 28, 1809 (6 Stat. 87). See Terr. Papers (Ind.), vii, 661, 707. 
See also the Secretary of the Treasury to Mansfield, Jan.2, 1810 (NA, GLO, SG, 
NWT, Lets. Reed., in), enclosing the act, with instructions to settle the account. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY TJ 

of your plan of laying off into Sections, &c all, those Townships wherein 
there are private claims and that he had written you to that effect. — 
Since which I have been anxiously expecting to receive from you 
written instructions to proceed to subdivide, those Townships general- 
ly. But as yet have received none. 

We have nearly completed the subdivision of the Townships South 
of the Base line (passing through this place) except some of the Frac- 
tional Townships at the lower end of the District a great part of which 
have been so covered with water that it has been impracticable to lay 
them off. But the latter part of the winter, has been remarkably dry 
and I beleive we shall soon be able to finish that work. 

A few days ago I set Nelson Rector to subdividing those townships, 
North of that line, wherein there are private claims and ]\'P Barcroft 
will go to work in the same quarter as soon as he gets his part of the 
work done below the line (which will be in a few days.) You may 
perhaps think me premature in this business inasmuch as I have no 
written instructions from you. But I have been induced to proceed 
as above Stated from the following considerations, which appears to 
me to justify what I have done and I hope & beleive you will approve 
of the course I have taken. 

1°' When I was last at your office you made known to me that you 
had in a communication to the Secretary of the Treasury Suggested 
the propriety of subdividing into sections &c all, the Townships where- 
in there are private claims, and that as soon as the Secretary should 
approve of your plan." I might proceed to do the whole of this work 
I find from Elias Rector's letter that IvP Gallatin, does approve of 
your plan. Consequently I consider myself verbally authorised by 
you to do the business. However I wished very much to have had 
subsequent instructions from, you But the distance from this place to 
the Surveyor Generals office, and the difficulties, that attend a com- 
munication between the two places at this Season of the year, forbid a 
hope that I could get an answer to a letter I might have written on the 
subject, until great part of the season for surveying would have 
elapsed, and I did and now do feel confident that the course I have 
taken, will be approbated by the Surveyor General, ' 

I know it is the wish of Government and greatly the interest of the 
inhabitants generally of this country (who are extremely anxious on 
the Subject particularly the claimants) that the claims of individuals 
should be surveyed out as soon as possible so that emigrants and 
others may have an oppertunity to purchase of these lands or of that, 
which will remain to the United States, for these claims are scattered, 
through the most desirable part of of this Territory, and most of the 
Townships ought to be subdivided before the claims are run out. I 
was apprised that it would be impossible to get good chain carriers &c 

« See ante, p. 66. 



78 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

in this Country. Consequently I brought from Ohio & Kentucky, 
the most of my hands, whom I engaged for a length of time, and if I 
had waited until I got a more formal authority to work North of the 
line I must have paid these hands wages for doing nothing or dis- 
charged them altogether — in either case it would have been a great 
injury to me and would have greatly procrastinated the completion of 
the business 

I have forwarded by Major Robinson to M' John F Mansfield the 
field notes of a part of the work we have done with a request that he 
will make out the necessary returns &c. and forward to me by mail a 
Bill on the receiver at Vincennes for the amount after deducting two 
hundred and Thirty thee dollars for,'" which sum I have drawn on you 
in favor of Major Robinson I presume there will be no inconvenience, 
in paying that sum at Cincinnati only that it will create more trouble 
in making out two Bills — it is with reluctance I give you this trouble, 
but I was obliged, to borrow that sum, of Major Robinson to enable 
me with convenience to go on with my business. Should M"' J. F. 
Mansfeild be absent when Major Robinson reaches Cincinnati, I 
hope you will receive the field notes & pay my draft 

You will perceive from the field notes that some of our Surveys 
does not close as well as could be wished. But the country where they 
lye is so extremely rough that it was impossible to close them better. 
Where Nelson Rector is now Surveying, the Country is more level 
and the Surveys close extremely well 

I beleive I am fully in possession of the Ideas,you entertained respect- 
ing designating, the, publice and private lands on the same plat and 
also the manner of executing the work — but knowing it possible, that 
I may have misunderstood some part; I should be glad you would 
reduce the plan to writing and forwarded it to me as soon as conven- 
ient which shall in all cases be rigidly attended to. 

I have had, from the time I last commenced Surveying and now have 
in my employ as a chain carrier M' James B. M'Call a young Gentle- 
man of respectable connexions, amiable character and great indoustry, 
who is an excellent Surveyor both in Theory and Practice — I should 
be extremely glad to have the privilege to employ M' M'^Call occasion- 
ally ft9 to assist me in surveying for the nature of my business is such 
that great part of my time must necessarily be employed in copjdng 
and arranging the claims of individuals, and some few of those claims, 
in several directions are ft* more than one hundred miles distant from 
this place; so that it is necessary that I should have some person to 
send to make those scattering surveys; &c, M'' M'^Call possesses such 
qualifications as would make him very useful to me and would greatly 

•• Marginal notation: "$233.00—100." 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 79 

facilitate the completion of the business. I therefore hope you will 
permit me to employ him, — please to let me know by letter." 

I have the Honor to be with much respect Your Ob' Serv' 

W" Rector 

Gen* Mansfield 

P.S. On my arrival here the Commissioners told me that they 
would in a Short time furnish me with a Transcript (or rather allow 
me to take it) of all the confirmed claims, within this District but on 
refering to their instructions from the Secretary of the Treasury they 
found that they were directed to keep their descisions from the knowl- 
edge of the claimants (except those relative to the antient Grants and 
such other claims as had been confirmed by the Governors) until 
after their descisions should be sanctioned by Government, — So that 
I can only get a Transcript of the latter description of claims; which 
will create to me much trouble as I must necessarily go over the same 
quarter of the Country twice, and will probably procrastinate the com- 
pletion of the business. However after the Townships wherein these 
claims fall are subdivided it will not take us long to lay off the claims 
that will remain to be Surveyed. In the course of the present season 
I presume we shall be able to lay off all the antient grants & Governors 
confermations and subdivide the Townships wherein they fall, we are 
now going on very well with the business all, enjoying good health and 
nothing as has yet taken place to prevent us from work. We found 
the country below this place extremely rough; The Mississippi 
bottoms being very wide and excessively brushy, and much broken 
with ponds. The country near to the bottoms are very hilly. So 
that in this quater we can get on but slowly. 

Notwithstanding the roughness of this part of the country there is 
within it a considerable quantity of valuable land The lands in the 
bottom between the ponds, is generally high dry and extremely rich 
and a considerable part of the hills near the bottom is rich, and in 
many places, there is sufficient quantities to admit of small farms, this 
quarter is generally well timbered with large and valuable timber and 
is pretty will watered with Creeks brooks, & some Springs of good 
waters 

Your Ob' Serv' W"° Rector 

Feb^ l?*" 1810.— 

Gen' Mansfield. 

Your late plan of Subdividing, the Townships, in which there are 
private claims previous to laying off those claims (except where there 
is a considerable body of claims together) is certainly a good one, for I 
find that the business can be done with more ease and accuracy and 

" No reply found. 



80 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

that it will not cost, the United States but very little if any thing more, 
than it would have done had the former plan been persued, 

I have learned in what Townships, there are such bodies of claims 
and shall avoid them until those claims are run out. 

W.R 

[Addressed] Jared Mansfield Esquire Surveyor Gen' of the 
United States Cincinnati Ohio Fav" P Major R. Robinson 



JONATHAN ROBINSON " TO THE PRESIDENT 
[NA:SD, ApplicationsrALS) 

Washington February 26'" 1810 
Respected Sir I take the Liberty to recommend to your Notice 
the Hon" Stanly Griswold for the Appointment to the Office of a 
Judge of Some one of the Teritories fully believing him to be a 
Gentleman of good abilities of high Integrity and very Meritorious — 
as Very few have done or Suffered more than him in promoting the 
best Interests of the United States and the present Gov' of his 
Country ^ 

I am with high Consideration yours &c 

Jon" Robinson 

James Madison President of the United States — 

{Endorsed] Robinson J. Feb" 26'" 1810 Griswold Stanley recomm" 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO THE PRESIDENT 

[NA:SD, Applications :ALS] 

[February 28, 1810] 
D' Sir. My long acquaintance with Stanley Griswold Esq'" and the 
Solicitude of his numerous acquaintance — emboldens me to depart 
from a rnle to which 1 have generally conform <", — Of not interfering 
to recommend any candidates for Office — 

M'" Griswold and myself were educated at the same time at Yale 
College and our acquaintance has continued ever since. — He is a man 
of Science, and has ever sustained the character of An upright, faithful 
Citizen devoted to the liberties of his Countrj'. — It was owing to him 
that New-Hampshire was revolutionized & the unfortunate dispute 

" A Senator of the United States from Vermont. 

•' Consult Terr. Papers (Mich.), x, index, for a record of Griswold's service 
as Secretary of Michigan Territory. See his letter of application for the Illinois 
judgeship, ibid. (Miss.), vi, 51. After his resignation as Secretary of Michigan 
Territory in 1808, he was appointed U. S. Senator from Ohio, in which office he 
served from May 18 to Dec. 11, 1809. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY gl 

between him & Gov'' Hull has most essentially injured his affairs. 
He has read law with Judge Huntington. 

It is, Sir, my firm belief That should it be the pleasure of the Presi- 
dent to bestow on him a territorial Judgeship, he would be an useful 
& faithful Office and that his appoint'' would be highly pleasing to all 
the leading Republicans of New England.'* 

With great Esteem & Respect Yours 



G Granger 



Feb: 28. 1810 

[Addressed] The President 

[Endorsed] Grlswold S. rec" Feb'' 28*" 1810 



WILLIAM H. CRAWFORD " TO THE PRESIDENT 
[NA:SD, Resignations :ALS] 

Senate Chamber 1" March 1810 
James Madison, President of the United States. 

Sir. By yesterday's mail I rec"* a letter from Obadiah Jones Esq' 
one of the Judges of the Illinois Territory, in answer to one which I 
had written him, stating the probability that an opportunity would 
shortly occur, of removing him to the Mississippi territory In his 
answer he authorises me to accept of the appointment in his name, if 
it should be made, & in his name to sign a resignation of his present 
appointment. 

I am Sir respectfully your most Ob* humb* Serv* 

W" H Crawford 

[Endorsed] 1 & 8'" March M'' Jones resigns his appointment as 
Judge in the Illinois Territoiy and accepts a similar appointment in 
the Mississippi Territory Crawford W" H. March 1" 1810 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO CONGRESS 
[PC: P.M. Letter Book Q:E] 

[March 1, 1810] 
In obedience to the Act of Congress of the 21=* April 1808 concerning 
public Contracts; The Post Master General has the honor of laying 

" There are also other brief letters commending Griswold for the appointment 
in question in NA (SD, Applications), as follows: from J. G. Jackson, Repre- 
sentative in Congress from Virginia, Mar. 1, 1810; Obadiah German and Uri 
Tracy, U. S. Senator and Representative in Congress, respectively, from New 
York, Mar. 2, 1810; Elisha Mathewson, U. S. Senator from Rhode Island, Mar. 
2, 1810; and Jeremiah Morrow, Representative in Congress from Ohio, Mar. 7, 
1810. No additional information is supplied in the letters cited. 

" At this time a Senator of the United States from Georgia. 



82 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



before Congress, the following Statement of all the Contracts which 
have been made in his Department, during the preceding Year, Viz " — 



Routes for carrying 
the Mail 



Number 
of times 
the Mail 
is carried 
p'Week 



Names of Con- 
tractors 



Date of 
Contracts 



Duration of 
Contracts 



Russelville 
Massac 



Fort 
Kas- 



Vincennes 

kaskia 
Kaskaskia - Fort 

Massac 



Once 



fort- 
night 
Once 



Elijah G. Ga- 
lusha 

Jn"> M'Arthur 

Jn° M'Arthur 



June 10 
1809 



do 
do 



1 Oct. '09 
to 1 Oct. 
1811 
do 

do 



480 

880 
770 



All which is respectfully submitted — 
Gen' p. Office 1 March 1810. 



WILLIAM H. CRAWFORD TO THE PRESIDENT 
[NA:SD, Acceptances :ALS] 

Senate Chamber 8*" March 1810 
The President of the United States. 

Sir. Pursuant to the authority given me by Obadiah Jones Esquire 
one of the Judges of the Illinois Territory, I Send you his resignation 
of the appointment of Judge of that territory, and his acceptance of 
the appointment of Judge of the Mississippi Territory lately conferred 
upon him." I am Sir respectfully Your most ob' humb* Serv* 

W" H Crawford 

for Obadiah Jones 

[Endorsed] Crawford W" H. March 8'" 1810 



" Relevant items only have been extracted for the present printing. 

"Other relevant correspondence is printed, Terr. Papers (Miss.), vi, 51-52, 
93-94, 292. Jones participated in the various functions pertaining to the office 
of Territorial Judge from at least as early as July 20, 1809, when he signed the 
territorial laws of that date, to as late as Feb. 24, 1810. According to vol. I of 
the Records of Cases decided by the General Court at Kaskaskia, he was in at- 
tendance at every meeting of the Territorial Court during the September, 1809, 
term, but in none thereafter. The last document to which his signature is attached 
is a recognizance, dated Feb. 24, 1810, ibid., ii, 167. Acknowledgment is made 
to Professor Francis S. Philbrick for the foregoing data. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 83 

THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO THE COMMANDING 
OFFICER AT MICHILIMACKINAC 

[NA:OIA,SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

War-Department March 12'" 1810 
The Commanding Officer at Michilimackinac. 

Sir, Please to deliver to Joseph B. Varnum J"' United States 
Factor, out of the packages holden by you subject to the order of 
John Campbell Esq'' Indian Agent at Prairie de Chien, all Articles 
answerable for the Indian Trade. 

Distinct accounts of the Articles received and of those not received 
by him, with their Invoice prices, should be transmitted to this OfRce. 

Respectfully &c. (signed) W. EusTis 



COMMISSION OF STANLEY GRISWOLD AS JUDGE 

[NA; SD.Misc. Permanent Comms., C:C] 

[March 16, 1810] 
James Madison, President of the United States of America, 
To all who shall see these presents, Greeting: 

Know Ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the 
Wisdom, Uprightness and Learning of Stanley Griswold, late of 
Connecticut, I have nominated and by and with the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate do appoint him One of the Judges in and over the 
lUinois Territory;^' and do authorize and empower him to execute 
and fulfil the duties of that office according to Law; and to Have 
and to Hold the said office with all the powers, privileges and Emolu- 
ments to the same of right appertaining during his good behaviour, or 
during the existence of the Government established by the act of the 
Congress of the United States passed the 3* February 1809 entitled 
"An Act for dividing the Indiana Territory into two Separate Govern- 
ments", and the Ordinance of Congress passed on the 13 July 1787 
therein referred to; he to reside in the said Territory. 

In Testimony whereof, I have caused these Letters to be 

L.s made patent, and the Seal of the United States to be hereunto 
affixed. 

Given under my hand at the City of Washington the Sixteenth day 
of March 1810; and of the Independence of the said United States 
the Thuty fourth. 

James Madison 

By the President 

R. Smith Secy of State 

" Nominated Mar. 9 and confirmed Mar. 16, 1810 (Senate, Exec. Journal, U, 
140, 141-142). 

314574 — 48 7 



84 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

WILLIAM AND ELIAS RECTOR TO JARED MANSFIELD 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iii:ALS] 

Kaskaskia March 23'" 1810. 

D' Sir Your instructions of the 13'" of last month, "• Authorises 
us to Subdivide into Sections &c. all those Townships wherein there 
are private claims — provided that in the Judgment of the Commis- 
sioners that course Should be expedient 

You will perceive from the commissioners certificates, (a Copy of 
which you will herewith receive) that those Gentlemen are not only 
of opinion, that all, the Townships wherein there are claims ought 
to be Subdivided into Sections &c but, that the intermediate Town- 
ships in which, there are no claims should also be laid off into Sections 
«&c, inasmuch as that part of the country, through which these claims 
are scattered is generally will Timbered, Good Soil and near to 
Settlements. Consequently the most desirable part of this District 

In your said instructions you require to be informed by us of the 
Situation of the principal bodies of claims &c. — We have not yet got a 
transcript of all the claims, but those the situation of which we do 
know (which is the greater part of them) are on and near the Mis- 
sissippi River and but few of which are at a greater distance from 
the river than 24 miles, and not many of them set near so far. 

We this day shewed your instructions to the Commissioners and 
requested that they would inform us, where those claims that has 
not yet come to our Knowledge are Situated to which they replied, 
that the whole of the claims, lye on and near to the Mississippi River 
and within the Wooded Country so that we are pretty sure that there 
€k«4 fettt tkft* there are but very few if any claims that lye farther 
from the Mississippi, than those were turned to your office last sum- 
mer, the Situation of which will appear by a referance to the con- 
nected Plats in your office 

We expect to complete the Subdivision of the whole of those Town- 
ships and lay off such private claims as the commissioners have and 
may direct to be Surveyed in the course of the present Season 

We make it a rule never to run a Sectional Line the whole of which 
would fall within a private claim or claims For Example, When we 
commence the subdivision of Township N" 1 North. Range 8 W. 
(see the plat in your office) we shall begin at the comer (in the range 
line) to sections 25 & 36 and run west blazing as we proceed until we 
come to the Eastwardly boundary of Pierre Menards Sur\-ey N" 381. 
here we establish a comer, to fractional Sections N" 25 & 36 and marke 
trees as at other Sectional comers. Then measure along Menards line 
to his North Easterly comer seting down in the field Book the course 
(agreeable to the tme meridian) and distance 

•» Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 85 

We shall then travel along Menard's line till we come to the North- 
westerly corner of William Scotts Survey N° 389 — Then measure 
along Scotts line to the Range line where a comer must be established 
for Fractional Section N° 36, T 1 N R 8 W and for Fractional Sec- 
tion N°31.T1NR7W, it will then in order to fee afefe enable us to 
ascertain the exact quantities, of those fractional sections be necessary 
to measure along the range line to the Township corner, or to the 1/4 
Section post, North of the corner last established. 

We shall then travel to the corner of Sections 24 & 25 from where 
run. West, at 40 chains set 1/4 Sec. post at 80 chains establish a corner 
to Sections 23, 24, 25 & 26 T 1 N R 8 W. Then run South between 
Sec^ 25 & 26, at 40 chs, establish 1/4 Sec, comer and at the inter- 
section with the Northwardly boundary of Menards said Survey 
establish a comer for fractional Sections N° 25 & 26, then measure to 
Menards North Westerly comer, — &c &c &c— 

We shall be careful to do the work with accuracy, and keep the field 
notes in a concise manner and so plain that they cannot be misunder- 
stood — And on the whole we flatter ourselves with the pleasing hope 
of performing the whole of the business you have Assigned to us to 
your entire satisfaction. 

We are with great respect your Ob' Serv" 

W" Rector 
Elias Rector 
Gen' Mansfield. 

[Addressed] Jared Mansfield Esq"' Surveyor General, of U, S, Cin- 
cinnati Ohio, p, mail [Postmarked] March 24" paid 25 Kaskaskia 

[Enclosure] 

Michael Jones and Elijah Backus to William and Elias Rector 

(A Copy.) Commissioners Office Kaskaskia March 23'"^ 1810 

Gentlemen We perseive that the Surveyor Gen' in his Instruc- 
tions to you of Feb^ 13'" last has authorised you to proced to the 
Surveying of such private claims within this District as in the opinion 
of the Commission may be necessary ; as also to subdivide into Sections 
& all those Townships within which there are private claims provided 
this Board should think it expediant — It is our opinion first — that 
private claims ought not to be survey* untill the decision of Gov' 
on our report respecting them be known which it probably will be in 
a few Weeks — Secondly — that the Townships in which private claims 
lie ought to be surveyed & laid off immediately — Thirdly— That 
the inteiTnediate Townships in which there are no private claims 
should be laid off in like manner — Our Ground for this later opinion 
is that the said private claims are interspersed through that part of 
the Country — bounding on the Mississippi which is Wooded, & most 



86 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

of all favourable to Settlement and that these later Townships cer- 
tainly contain much good land, and that land of an inferior quality, 
will be quite as likely to sell speedily as that which is better but at 
a Distance from Settlements — 
We are Gentlemen your Humbl Sev" 

signed Mich' Jones — 
E Backus 
To Mess" William & Euas Rector 



WILLIAM RECTOR TO JARED MANSFIELD 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iii:ALS] 

Kaskaskia March 30'" 1810. 

D' Sir I received per last mail your letter of the 28'" Ult" " 
& in compliance with your wish tendered to M' W" C Greenup, a part 
of work you assigned to me on as liberal terms as I could consistant 
with doing justice to myself which induced him to Accept of it He will 
set out in a few days to perform the business. I shall go with him 
until he gets thoroughly acquainted with the manner of doing the 
work — . 

You entertain a correct opinion of M' Greenup He is capable, 
indoustrious & faithful. 

I conclude from your last letter, that you are of opinion that the 
claims of indi\-iduals occupy a more extensive tract of Country, than 
than they really do. In my letter of the 23"" Ins* " I gave you the gen- 
eral outlines of that part of the country which is interfered with by these 
claims. But since the receipt of your last letter I conclude it would 
be more Satisfactory- to you to be informed of the particular Townships 
& fractional TowTiships wherein there are any claims, And in order to 
afford you this information I have used every means in my power 
to ascertain, what Townships above the Base line are interfered with, 
from which enquiry I find that the whole or nearly the whole of the 
claims are confined to the following Townships and fractional Town- 
ships — (see the next page). 

It is beleived the whole of these Townships have some claims within 
them, but it is possible some of them may not contain any. 

Townships N° 6 South of Ranges N° 2. 5. 6. 7. 8 & 9— W 
Townships N° 5 S. of Ranges N° 7. 8. 9 & 10— W . . 
Townships N° 4 S of Ranges N° 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 & 11 W . 
Townships N° 3 S of Ranges N° 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 & 11 W 
Townships N° 2 S. of Ranges N° 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 & 11 W . 

"> Not found. 
" Supra. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 87 

Townships N" 1 S. of Ranges N° 7. 8. 9. 10 & 11 W 5 

Townships N" 1 North of Ranges N" 7. 8. 9. 10 & 11 W ... . 5 

Townships N" 2 North of Ranges N° 8. 9 & 10 W 3 

Townships N° 3 N. of Ranges N" 8. 9 & 10 W 3 

Townships N" 4 N of Ranges N" 8. 9 & 10 W 3 

Townships & fractional Townships 48 

Fractional Townships 13 

35 

The 13 fractional Townships bounded by the Mississippi River are 
principally taken up with private claims so that we shall have but 
little Surveying to do within them, there are also some other Town- 
ships a considerable part of which is occupied by claims. I presume 
the whole of this business will not much exceed 8 Townships a peice 
for each Company that are engaged in doing the work (Viz Elias 
Rectors Nelson Rectors Elias Barcrofts & my own assisted by W" C 
Greenup.) We can complete the whole of this business by the begin- 
ning or early in June. 

I do not calculate or wish to receive pay for such parts of Sectional 
lines as will fall within those Surveys of individuals for which Govern- 
ment has paid or yet has to pay us for making. But expect to receive 
pay for the Sectional lines that do not fall within that description of 
private Claims and also as much as I should have had a right to 
receive for connecting those claims with the Sectional lines, calcu- 
lating as tho these claims, had been Surveyed the before, the Town- 
ships were Subdivided 

I am convinced, that the loss of lines that will fall within these 
claims will not much if any exceed the extra connecting lines that 
would have been indispensably necessary if these claims had been 
first laid off. Therefore laying off the Townships into Sections 
before, Surveying the claims (except where there is a considerable 
body of them together) is certainly the better plan, for the whole 
buseness is done with more ease expedition & accuracy. — The extra 
connecting lines above spoken of is not the only objection to laying 
off the claims first for where the Country is only laid off into Town- 
ships, much time is lost in hunting up the lines. And it appears to me 
desirable that a tree in each corner of a fractional Section should be 
marked with the number of the Range Township & Section — Should 
the Surveyor General deem this necessary the trouble in most cases 
in connecting the Surveys we have made & marking the comers would 
amount to a resurvey of those claims. But as we established the cor- 
ners of these Surveys by taking bearing trees. I have supposed that 
where, they become boundaries to fractional sections they will serve 



88 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

as such without the additional expence of marking trees in the corners 
near to them — Should you wish trees marked in these comers please 
to signify it to me and it shall be done. 

In your last letter you express some doubts as to the propriety of 
subdividing, those Townships, wherein there are but few claims, 
But have refered the matter to the Commissioners — you will I presume 
before this reaches you receive my letter of the 23'" Ins* covering a 
copy of the Commissioners certificate on that subject by which you 
will see, that those Gentlemen are of opinion that all Townships 
wherin, there are claims ought to be subdivided and also interme- 
diate Townships in which there are no claims for reasons therein 
stated. — Should you however wish any part of this work omited please 
to signify it to me as soon as convenient — I mean any part of the 
Townships in which there are claims — . 

Should you think with the Commissioners, that the intermediate 
Townships ought to be subdiveded, and it is perfectly agreeable to 
you to employ us to do the work we shall be in readiness to attend 
to the business at any time you may direct — we are sensible of the 
many favors you have done in giving us emploj-ment &C &C &C and 
feel truly grateful therefor, and would by no means trouble you with 
Solicitations for further employment unless it should be entirely 
agreeable to you if to give it to us."^ 

I am with much respect your Ob' Serv* W" Rector 

P S. I calculate to be at your office some time in June next. W R 

Gen' Mansfield 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 
[NA:OIA,SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

War-Department April 3"* 1810 
NiNiAN Edwards. 

Sir, Your Excellency's letter of the 24'" of February last has been 
received." The Invoice of Articles which the Kaskaskias wish to 
receive for their present year's annuity, came too late to be acted 
upon. — On the 13'" of February — Goods to the amount of $600 — 
similar to those procured for the Annuity for 1809 — were ordered to be 
purchased for the Kaskaskias annuity for 1810 and to be sent to you 
at Kaskaskia for distribution. For the $400 being the residue of their 
Annuity, your Excellency is authorized to draw on this Department; 
also for One hundred Doll" to be paid to the Roman Catholic Priest 
for 1810— as well as for the $300 due the Kaskaskias by treaty, on 
account of the erection of a Church, stating on the face of each bill, 
the purpose for which it is drawn. 

I am &c. (signed) W. EusTIS 



•• No reply found. 
•Ante, p. 75. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 89 

WILLIAM RECTOR TO JARED MANSFIELD 
[NA:GLO.SG,NWT, Lets. Reed., iii:ALS] 

Kaskaskia April 7'" 1810 

D'' Sir I wrote you on the 30*" of last month." giving you a State- 
ment of all, those Townships, in which (from such information as I 
was able to collect) I supposed there were private claims — Since which 
I have ascertained, that, there are no claims within, the following 
Townships. Viz T 3 S. R 5 W. Townships 2 & 3 S. of Range 6 W— 
There may be some other Townships enumerated in said letter, in 
which there may be no private claims. Should I discover this to be 
the case, the Subdivision of such Townships Shall not be gone into 
until I receive f urther further instructions from you. 

We are going on very well with the business generally but find 
considerable difficulty in completeing the subdivision of some of the 
fractional Townships on the Mississippi near the lower end of the work 
on ace' of the many ponds that are within them. I calculate however 
to get through with that part of the work early in the next Month 

I am, with much respect Your Ob' Serv' W™ Rector 

[Addressed] Jared Mansfield Esquire Surveyor Gen' of the U. 
States Cincinnati Ohio. Mail [Postmarked] Kaskaskia. April 7"" 
1810 25 



A BILL CONCERNING THE TRAPPIST ORDER 
[NA:SF, 11 Cong., 2 sess.iPrinted] 
XLIII. 

In Senate of the United States April 7th, 1810. 

Mr. Brent, from the committee appointed on the subject, reported the 
following bill, which was read and passed to the second reading. 

A BILL Concerning the society of the order of La Trappe. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress Assembled, That the United States 
relinquish to Urban Guillet, for the benefit of the religious order of 
La Trappe, their right, if any they have, to the four hundred acres of 
land in the Illinois territory, situate about four miles from St. Louis; 
which said four hundred acres of land, was a donation from N. Jarrot 
to the said Urban Guillet, and his associates, and upon which they 
have made an establishment, for the gratuitous education of youth, 
in the various branches of literature and mechanical arts. 

Opp a_ A njJ . ha ii -fiirfftrr rnnrfrrJ T'li n f. f ViA qprrrf n r-.7 «f t Vin trrmiirv 

CTtJTjT TTr j:XrtW W TV J tirtrtVr ViKJbVtVlJt, X ilUiU UxttS JL/Vl U tUl Jf^ CtT TmtJ VI UUo»^A J 

DC flu till onocd, find iio is ncrcCTV dircotccl, upon cippiicfition Dcin^ nxo-fl" 
M Ante, p. 86. 



90 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

tO nWttj "to QlflpOOO ©r ftTlQ ftOit tO OPDttn ^jrUlilOty CI HO nl9 ftSSOOl ft t'C9 j tOP 

tbe benefit el their order ©f ta Trappc, ft»ti fe? t^ maintcnanco ef 
*fee catablbliment above mentioned, fetH" thousand aor crf ef public 

lull CI J ftr 1)1 tC pPiCO Or tWO ClOiluF3 JJGP ftCrC '} WiiiOIi 9ftiCt OftlO Sttftri O© 

upon ft credit ef twelve ^'cora, - without intercat; P r ovided, That 44ie 
sai4 , Guillct, ftR4 his aooooiatco, shall l ocate t^ie warrant fef *he 

Sulu x0wP l'iiOU'3ull(i ftOPCy Or ItXIlQ j Ou ftli V txixloOutJCu toXi^ uCuFC3u tj© Or 
ctCljOlXllOS vOClP 9uiU C" tfttWi^triHTOIitTr 

[Endorsed] 11 Cong 2 Sess A Bill concerning the Society of Order 
of La Trappe. 1810 April 7 Read & to 2 Read* April 9 Read 14'" to 
3" Rea' 14'" 3" R. & passed •» 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOHN McARTHUR 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book Q] 

18 April 1810 
John M'Arthur Kaskaskia 111. Terr' 

Your negligence is intolerable — the Mail from Vincennes to S' Louis 
has failed more the past than any preceding winter — I shall rigidly 
exact every penalty that you have incurred, and if the Mail is further 
neglected, I shall undoubtedly place it in other hands. 

G.G. 



ROBERT ROBINSON TO RETURN J. MEIGS 
[NA:SF,11 Cong., 2 sess.:ADS] 

Washington 20th April 1810— 
Sir The following remarks were deemed necessary to an explana- 
tion of my account herewith exhibited — 

On the 1'' item in this account it may be remarked — first that by 
an act of the 26'" of March 1804 the government had provided & 
appointed a national Board of Officers to decide on the Claims — 
Secondly — that that Board, under the peculiar circumstances in which 
it was placed — in a French poppulation — neither of the Commissioners 
understanding the language— many of the papers exhibited and the 
oral testimony to be taken being in French, was compelled to employ 
an interpreter & translator before they could come to a decision on a 
single claim where such evidence was produced — As interpreter I was 
then employed by the Board and I did not hesitate to undertake it 
from the assurances of the Board that the Gov' would make me an 
adequet compensation — It is true that the act organizing the Board 
made no allowance for this part of the business — but as an interpreter 
was indespencable it was believed to have been left to the discration of 

« Senale Journal, iv, 478, 480, 488, 489. In the House the bill as passed by 
the Senate was read twice and committed. No further action is noted. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 91 

the Commissioners; as in the case of a Marshal whom they found it 
necessary to appoint — They were commanded to commence on a cer- 
tain day (1=* of Jan'y 1805) and to finish their reports on a given day — 
but without an interpreter and translator this could not be done nor 
could they progress in decisions— On imploying the interpreter and 
translator for the periods I mention one of two things seems to me to 
result — Viz — Either that the Board or the Government was bound 
in Justice to pay a reasonable Compensation and I presume that the 
Gov' never did intend to cast this weight on Officers whoes Compen- 
sation has been believed to be far below what they really merited — 

I come now to the Second item in my account — as to this permit me 
to remark that after the 1" day of November 1805 notices of claims 
could not be rec"* by the Register of the land office — nor does he seem 
to have been bound to translate any papers which were not at this period 
filed in his office — and it very frequently occured that Claimants 
throu' ignorance or other causes had omitted to have their papers in 
the French language filed and translated and many of these documents 
were by the claimants produced at the moment the Board was about to 
decide on their pretentions — In this as well as in the duty of inter- 
prating will be seen the Oeconomy of the Board; for had they im- 
ployed any other than the Clerk they must have promised such 
compensation to him as would have kept him always near the Board 
during its Sessions — 

The third item is for interprating generally — As to this, it was im- 
possible for the Board to proceed without examinations and re-exami- 
nation of PYench witnesses in Order to ascertain the limits and extent 
of ancient possessions disputes &c and Conflicting Claims; and to 
test the Credability of Witnesses by their own Contadictions 

The duty of interprater became highly important to the United 
States when after a decision had been made by the Board in favour 
of Claimants to a large amount a scene of profligate corruption (scarce 
equaled) was exhibited — About 200,000 acres it was discovered had 
been decided favourable to the Claimants who had obtained such 
decisions by the greatest frauds — Forjery and Perjury — In unraveling 
& detecting such villanies transactions much time & investigation 
were necessary and those imployed in this vile trade as witnesses were 
chiefly ignorant Frenchmen who did not understand English — Indeed 
I found it frequently necessary to imploy an assistant Clerk at my 
own expence while ingaged in these examinations which terminated in 
the rejection of these fraudulant Claims — I have to regret that the 
reports of Board perticularly that relating to testimony is not before 
you as it would verify my claim to be well founded — if any doubts are 
intertained I beg that the Sec'y of the Treas'y may be requested to 
give information on this subject 

On the subject of my 4'" Item permit me to say that I have traveled 



92 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

about 1,000 miles in the worst season of the winter at the Special 
request of the Board as will appear by their Official letter to the 
Sec'y of the Treas'y — an extract of which is before the Committee — 
All which is most respectfully submitted for the consideration of the 
Hon'ble Committee to whom my petition was refered &c 

R: Robinson 
[Addressed] The Hon'ble R J Meiggs Chairman of Com*" Senate 
of the U S: 

[Endorsed] Rob* Robinsons Papers — 
[Enclosure:El 
Elijah Backtis and Michael Jones to the Secretary of the Treasury 
N" 1 [Febrtiary 26, 1810] 

Extract from an official communication of E. BacktLS and M: Jones, 
commissiones in the District of Kaskaskia, to M' Gallatin Sec'y of 
the Treasury of the U: S:— Dated Feb'y 26'" 1810 "— 
"As our dispaches of last year were, you know. Sir, plundered from 
the public mail, we have thought that this, the most important of 
all Our communications, involving not only property, but Character, 
could not be trusted to any other then a Spacial messenger — 

"M"' Robinson (the bearer) the agent for the U: States for this 
District is able to give any further details which may be required ("] 
The above extract is a true copy of the document alluded to now 
on file in the Coumptroller's Office And' Ross, Clk 

[Endorsed] Extract of the letter of the Board of Commissioners to 
M' Gallatin— Feb'y 26'" 1810— 

[Enclosure] 
Account of Robert Robinson 

[April 20, 1810] 
The United States to Robert Robinson D"' 

1" For translating and interpreting the French language at the Spacial 
request of the Board of Commissioners (of land land claims) in the 
District of Kaskaskaskia from the 1" of Jan'y 1805 untill the 30'" 
of April ensuing, the date when the act of March 1805 appointing 
a translator was rec* at the Office — at $1 p' day — . . . $110 
2^ For translating deeds, concessions and &c which not having been 
regularly filed with the Register of the land office and which were 
considered as not appertaining to his Office as translator from the 
30'" of April 1805 untill the 1" of Jan'y 1810— inclusive— . . 50 
3" For interpreting all oral testimony and examining witnesses before 
the Board at their request from the said 30'" day of april 1805 
untill the said 1" day of Jan'y 1810 at $175 per Annum (say 4 
years & 8 months) 793.20 

" Original not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 93 

4'" For transporting the Papers and decisions of the said Board of 
Commissioners from Kask* to Washington by the Spacial Order of 
the Board as per their official letter to the Sec'y of the Treas'y 
will appear — (including all expence and trouble) " 

Contra 

By 30$ allowed and paid William Arundel, as translator and inter- 
preter, (in my absence), — by the Sec'y of the Treas'y — 



PETITION TO CONGRESS BY ROBERT ROBINSON 

[NA:SF, 11 Cong., 2 sess.:ALS] 

[No date, 1810] 
To the Honorable the Senate and house of Representatives of the United 

States — 

The undersigned respectfully represents, that on the first day of 
January 1805 he was appointed Clerk of the Board of Commissioners 
(of land claims) in the District of Kaskaskia; °* and that he continued 
to discharge the duties of that office untill the final adjudication of the 
Claims pending — that the quantity of land claimed may be estimated 
at about 900,000 acres; — that the title Set-up to a considerate portion 
of this land was attempted to be supported by orial testimony which 
the Clerk was ordered to commit to writing; — that the Illinois Country 
was anciently and almost exclusively inhabited by Frenchmen, — that 
it is still so in a great measure; and that it was from some of these 
ancient inhabitants, who, are yet living and who are intirely unac- 
quainted with the English Language, that the Board had to recieve 
testimony on which many of the claimants founded their pretentions — 

That all the papers relative to land-titles from the first Settlements 
in the Illinois down to the organization of the Northwestern Territory 
were written in the French Language and that the Board, under these 
circumstances, found it impossible to proceed without the aid of an 
interpretor and translator — Your memorialist being well acquainted 
with the French Language, and it being difficult to procure an In- 
terprator and Translator, the Board urged him to undertake these 
duties — assuring him at the same time that tho' there was no specific 
appropriation for these Servises the very nature of the Case would 
induce Government to allow a Compensation — 

The Organic law of this Board gave it Power to Subp' and compell 
the attendence of Witnesses; *' yet this law did not point-out the man- 
ner in which it should be done — The Board were then constrained to 
assume a constructive power to appoint a Marshal to execute process — 
they did so; and his fees, as well as the fees of the witnesses by him 

•' No figures are entered here. 

«8 See Terr. Papers (Ind.), vn, 326. 

" See. 4 of act approved Mar 26, 1804 (ibid., p. 177; 2 Stat. 279). 



94 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

summoned have been regularly audited and paid by the Treasury 
Department. 

Your Memorialists respectfully states that in his opinion the same 
reasoning applys with equal force to the appointment and pay of an 
interprator, for as the Board could not proceed without a Marshal so 
neither could they have come to final adjudications without the aid 
of an interprator and translator of the French language— Added to 
these considerations, your Memorialist begs leave to observe, that 
for Simular Servises considerable sums of money have been allowed in 
Louisiana '" &c while no appropriation was made for the District of 
Kaskaskia untill the year 1807 and then only for a specific description 
of papers on file in the Office " — 

Your memorialist further represents that after much difficulty 
the Board came to a final adjudication of the Claims about the last 
day of December 1809, — that as the roads from Kaskaskia to Wash- 
ington are at all times difficult and in the winter almost impass- 
able — as the mail does not at that season perform the rout with dispach 
and safety and as it was important that the reports of the Board 
should reach the seat of Government before the close of the present 
Session, it was resolved that the Clerk of the Board should be the 
bearor of the Reports and this your memorialist has performed (re- 
cently) at considerable expence and trouble which must necessarily 
attend a Journey of 1,000 miles in the depth of Winter — 

It now rests with your Honorable bodies to decide, whether these 
important trusts were to be performed by your Memorialist without 
compensation; or whether in Justice he is not intitled to a merited re- 
ward; and he prays that this his petition may be heard at the present 
Session of Congress, as a posponement untill the next Session would be 
highly injurious to his domestice affairs, and imbarassing in his pecu- 
niary arangements — It is not going beyond truth to State that in the 
discharge of these Official duties, — duties which martialed against 
your Memorialist and the Board the whole phalanx of Fraudulent 
Speculators — he hazarded his life and property — all which he humbly 
conceives may be proved by the Official Communications of Governor 
Edwards and the Commissioners to the Secretary of the Treasury — 

Your Memorialist respectfully prays &c &c 

Robert Robinson 

[Endorsed] 11 Cong 2 Sess: Petition of R. Robinson praying addi- 
tional compensation for certain services.^' Petition of R Robinson. 

" See sec. 6 of act approved Mar. 2, 1805 {Terr. Papers, Orleans, ix, 413; 2 
Stat. 328). 

" See sec. 6 of act approved Mar. 3, 1807 {Jerr. Papers, Ind., vii, 435; 2 Stat. 
447). 

" Robinson was allowed $500 as extra compensation by an act approved May 1, 
1810 (6 Stat. 94). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 95 

MICHAEL JONES TO THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY 
[NA:GLO, Kaskaskia, Reg. and Rec. Lets.:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Afril 21=* 1810. 

Sir On the 10*" Instant I put myself on my Country for trial — 
When the Attorney General (M'' Crettendon) had gone thro' the exam- 
ination of his witnesses, it was percieved by my council that he was 
convinced of the perjuries of those Honorable Gentlemen, Jackaway 
and RejTiolds, they concieved it therefore unnecessary to examine all 
my witnesses & submitted the cause without argument: The Jury who 
had made up their minds at the bar retired, & in a few minuts return'd 
a Verdict of not Guilty — The Court (Judge Stewart) then observed 
"Co' Jones you are discharged — it gives me pleasure to declare that 
the Verdict rendered by the Jury meets the entire approbation 
of the Court" The Judge then address'd the Attorney Gen' — "From 
what has passed before the Court this day upon the trial of this Cause, 
it will be worthy of your consideration whether prosecutions for per- 
jury ought not to be instituted against some of the Witnesses examined 
during the trial" Jackaway in the meantime made his escape, but was 
pursued by the sheriff and brought back, he stands recognized, by the 
Court; to appear at our next term on a charge of Perjury — Actions of 
tresspass on the case have been brought by me against Rob* Morrison, 
William Morrison & John Edgar each in the sum of nine, twelve & 
fifteen thousand Dollars — in order to enable me to prosecute these suits 
with effect, it becomes necessary that I shou'd be in possession of the 
Documents, defamatory of my character, which these Gentlemen 
have from time to time, forwarded to you and the President. Shou'd 
there be no impropriety in forwarding them, you will in that case please 
to send them by mail, under cover to M' Nath' Pope, or shoud M' 
Robinson not have left the City they can be forwarded by him 

I have the Honour to be Sir, your Obed' & Hum' Ser* 

Mich' Jones 

P.S. On the 18*" Instant I drew on you in favour of M' Shaw for 
the amount of an account for Sundries, which I hope will be honored — 
M: Jones 

The Hon' Albert Gallatin Sec" of the Treas^ of the united States 

[Addressed] The Hon' Albert Gallatin Secref of the Treas^ of the 
united of the U States Washington [Postmarked] Kaskaskia April 
28*" Free Mail. 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia Apr. 21. 1810 rec" May 16. Michael Jones 
Reg "■ of the Land Office — result of prosecution against him — wants 
copies of charges made against him — advice of a bill for am* of an 
account transmitted. Answ" May 18. 1810." Authenticated eepy 
wr tjiio pftpcrs tO 00 uiuu'O CO TjrftiismiiTtjCd t^ ^^ipti * 

n Post, p. 102. 



96 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO THE SPEAKER 
OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

[NA:SF, 11 Cong., 2 sess.:ALS] 

Treasury Department Aipril 23. 1810 
Sir, The reports & decisions of the Commissioners appointed to 
settle the claims to lands in the District of Kaskaskia have been 
received, and are too voluminous to be transcribed in time before the 
adjournment of Congress. Understanding that although the subject 
of rejected claims may require investigation, no difficulty was appre- 
hended respecting the claims which have been confirmed, I have the 
honor to transmit a list of them, extracted from the reports above 
mentioned, 
I have the honor to be &c Albert Gallatin. 

The Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

[Endorsed] N» Kaskaskia Sent to HR Ap' 24. 1810. Quire— The 
list within referred to. also— The utility of printing the reports entire. 



ELIAS RECTOR TO JARED MANSFIELD 
[NA:GLO,SG,NWT, Lets. Reed., in:ALSl 

Kaskaskia Avril 26"" 1810 
Dear Sir I have read your letter to W° Rector ''* Containing 
Instructions to him and my self how to perform the work assined us 
&c You therein suggest that we had better proceed Slow or spar- 
ingly — I am sure when you are well Acquainted with the real necessity 
of this works being spedily performed — you will not Oppose the early 
completion of it. It is desirable that this work should be soon done 
for Obvious reasons Viz 1°' The United States would derive grate 
advantage by having the private Claims together with Subdivisions 
of the public Land which lie adjoining them soon Made, as then Land 
in this district might be sold — 2°" The individuals who hold land 
here are anxious for their land to be survey" which will enable them 
to make settlements which would enhance the value of tfe© Land of the 
United States, At present the titles of Land is so uncertain that 
emmigrants are unwilling to purchase Consequently the Country 
remains unsettled All for want of the Surveys being complete I can 
say for myself If I could not proceed with dispatch I had rather aban- 
don the business. Otherwise at the end of 5 or 6 years my fees for 
Surveying would about Meet the expence of the business. It requires 
more money to prosecute this business here than in a thick settled 
Country 

I have no other business or object in this Country but surveying — 

" Feb. 23, 1810 (not found); cf. ante, p. 84. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 97 

which I wish to Complete as soon as I can Consistant with your 
instructions which had & shall allways be my Guide in the work I am 
sensible of your friendship te hi« in assuring Me work when there ai'e 
such a Crowd of Applicants and I hope my attention to and performance 
of the business will meet your Approbation I shall proceed in con- 
formity with the instructions you gave me till the 15*" of June after 
that it is my intention to visit Cincinati where I hope to find you & 
family in Good health &c 
With Considerations of respect & esteem I am your ob* serv* 

Elias Rector 

PS please present my respects to Mistress Mansfield and family 
E. Rector 

Gen' Mansfield 

[Addressed] The Hble Jared Mansfield Surveyor Gen' U. S. 
Cincinati Ohio. [Postmarked] Kaskaskia April 28'" 25 



MATTHEW LYON TO JARED MANSFIELD 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., in:ALS] 

Washington April 29'" 1810 
Dear Sir Congress have authorised you to lay out a Town on the 
banks of the Ohio not exceeding two Sections, Town lotts a quarter 
of an acre, out lots at your discretion '° — I take the liberty to request 
you to Employ my friend Will" Dobbins who lives near Eddiville 
Ken^ to do this job " — I have understood his work heretofore done 
in that way pleased you, he is very Convenient to Shawnee Town 
not more than a large days ride — The bill as it went from our house 
left the size of the lotts with the Secretary & you, & contemplating 
that they would be an acre the smallest we had fixed the price at 
Eight dollars but the Senate fixed the Size at A Quarter for the In 
lotts & left the price Eight dollars Standing so I hope altho the 
Whole of the Sextions may be laid out into lotts, there will be but a 
small proportion of those Eight dollar lotts, as the Out lots are limited 
at no more than 5 $ an Acre — 32 Doll° an Acre is too much for land 
in that Country— On this Subject, I will speak to the Sec" of the 
Treasury — 

Our friend Granger has had a bad Winter he sometimes thought 
of dying he is now recovered, though not in Confirmed health is 
doing business 

" Referring to Shawneetown, provided for in sec. 6 of an act approved Apr. 
30, 1810 (2 Stat. 591). 

" See Terr. Papers (Ind.), viii, 18, 117. 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



I will thank you for a line left for me at Cincinati post office on the 
Subject of Employing Judge Dobbins and with great respect yours 

M Lyon 

I got this Shawney town bussiness done at the request of a large 
number of people *h«fe liveing on the land and as it will be an accomo- 
dation to them to have the lotts soon laid out so that they may 
set their buildings in conformity thereto The sooner it is laid out the 

better 

f 

[Addressed] Jared Mansfield Esq' Surveyor General Near Cin- 
cinatti Ohio State [PostmaTked] M Lyon Free 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO MICHAEL JONES 
[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. One] 

Treasury Departm* 7*" May 1810 
Mich' Jones Esq' Register &c Kaskaskia 

Sir I enclose an Act confirming the decisions of the Commis- 
sioners in favor of the Claimants of Land in the district of Kaskaskia." 

The transcripts of favorable decisions dated 31 decern' 1809 trans- 
mitted by the Commiss" to the Sec" of the Treasury being made by 
the Act matter of record,'* I will cause authenticated Copies of the 
same to be transcribed and transmitted to you. In the mean while 
your own Minutes & copies will enable you to give the necessary 
information to the claimants whose titles are thus confirmed. 

Another Law will be wanted for the purpose of enabling the owners 
of donation & Militia claims to locate & siu-vey their tracts, & for 
also enabling both these and all other confirmed Claimants to obtain 
patents. 

It is highly probable that the Law will in every respect be similar 
to that passed on the S"" March 1807 in relation to the Vincennes 
confirmed claims, and to which I refer you for information." 

In the mean while it is necessary that the tracts contemplated by the 
first section of the Act of 21 April 1806 should be designated by the 
Register & Receiver under the direction of the Secretary of the 

" Approved May 1, 1810 (2 Stat. 607). 

" See transcripts of recommendations for confirmation, submitted by Jones 
and Elijah Backus, the receiver, Dec. 31, 1809, in A.S.P., Pub. Lands, II, 157-174. 
The originals are in NA (SF). These lists of recommendations are under the 
familiar heads of (1) ancient rights, (2) improvement rights, (3) donations to 
heads of families, and (4) militia donations. In the same report and printed 
ibid., pp. 127-156, are lists of rejected claims, with reasons for the commissioners' 
disallowance. The prior history of the land-claims situation in Illmois Territory 
may be traced in Terr. Papers (N.W.), vols. II and ill, and ibid. (Ind.), vol. vii; 
consult indexes under "Land", "Kaskaskia", "Illinois Country", and the like. 

'• Terr. Papers (Ind.), vii, 433-435; 2 Stat. 446-448. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 99 

Treasury according to Law.*" For you know that I disapproved of 
the former selection. In my opinion the Tracts together ought not 
to exceed in quantity the aggregate of all the claims both confirmed & 
rejected which may (supposing Congress should confirm even those 
claims which you have rejected) be located therein. That will 
certainly give sufficient choice to confirmed claims. As to the position 
& boundaries of those Tracts, they should as far as practicable include 
all or the principal part of the improvements made by the owners of 
bona fide claims. For notwithstanding the provisions of the 2" 
Section of the Act of 21 April 1806, perhaps Congress may, as far as 
they may be found within the boundaries of the Tracts to be thus 
laid out, permit a location on the owners improvements. It is neces- 
sary that the selection should immediately be made by you & communi- 
cated to the Secref of the Treasury in order that the Surveyor Gen- 
eral may be instructed to surve}' the same this Season. But I do not 
intend to confirm your choice so as to authorize any location till after 
the meeting of Congress; for this reason amongst others, that you have 
not in j^our decisions actually confirmed or rejected any of the Gover- 
nors confinnations. It results that not a single claim of that kind is 
confirmed by the enclosed Law; & as many are certainly good, it would 
be unjust to exclude such from an equal chance in making locations. 
On the subject of your report respecting Governors confirmations, 
which must necessarily be amended, I will write at large in a few days.^' 
I am &c 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO MICHAEL JONES 
[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. One] 

Treasury Department May 14'" 1810 
Mic' Jones Esq' Register &c Kaskaskia 

Sir As some time may elapse before the authenticated copies of 
the transcripts of favorable decisions confirmd by the last Act of 
Congress & mentioned in my letter of V" ins* *- can be completed & 
transmitted; and as it is important that j'ou should not in the mean 
while mistake what are the decisions thus understood to be confirmed ; 
it is proper to inform you that the Act of Congress embraces & con- 
firms the favorable decisions of the Commissioners 1°' in favor of the 
persons or representatives of persons designated as confii-med in the 
four transcripts of ancient grants, rights of improvements, donations 
to heads of Families, and Militia donations transmitted to the Treas- 

«> 2 Stat. 395. 

*' Answered Tpost, p. 109. 

62 AnU, p. 98. 



100 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

ury, excepting only such persons as had not filed their claims accord- 
ing to Law, and in behalf of whom, as the Commissioners were not 
authorized to decide on their Cases, a special provision must be made 
by Law: 

2"'^ In favor of the rightful proprietors respectively of the Town 
lots, common field, allotments, & commons in the several tracts 
designated in the transcripts of the Commissioners by the name of 
Kaskaskia, Grand Prairie, Prairie du Rocher, Fort Chartres, St 
Philips's, Prairie dupont, and Kahokia, excepting also claims not 
filed. But as there may be some doubt respecting the true construc- 
tion of the Commissioners decisions respecting those Village Tracts, 
I add what appears to me to have been their meaning, with a request 
that if in any respect mistaken, they will state it immediately. It is 
indeed possible that it will be better to apply for a new special law in 
relation to that object. 

I am &c 

Substance of the Commissioners confirmation in relation to Village 
Tracts. 

1 All the following tracts as laid domi in the several annexed plats 
are respectively confirmed to the legal representatives of the original 
Concedees or Grantees from the French Government or India Com- 
pany; the tracts designated by the name of commons being for the 
common use of the inhabitants of the Villages respectively, and the 
Village or town lots, & allotments in the common fields or in the 
tracts divided into Lots, being the respective property of the several 
owners; no regard being had so far as relates to the claims of indi- 
viduals either to any pretended grants from officers of the british 
Government, or to any former special confirmations in favor of indi- 
viduals whether made by the Commiss" appointed &C or by the 
Governors of the Territory: & leaving it to the several individuals 
having claims within the Tracts hereby confirmed, to adjust & settle 
their respective claims & boundaries, that is to say — 

1" The lands contained in the commons, town Lots & common 
fields of the Village of Kaskaskias, as laid down in the plat annexed, 
executed by David Robinson & bearing date 21 Sep' 1807," bounded 
by the river Kaskaskia, by the Missisippi and by the upper line of 
the common field land (as laid down in the plat also annexed executed 
by W" & Elias Rector not dated *^) being eleven & one half arpens 
above the upper line of the Indian Village (so called). 

2 The Claims falling within the Grand Prairie Tract, lying between 
the lower lines of Butchet's & E L'anglois's tracts & bounded as per 
the annexed plat. (Plat neither signed nor dated.*') 

•» Reproduced in A.S.P., op. cit., facing p. 183. 
" Reproduced loc. cit. 
w Reproduced loc. cit. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY IQl 

3 The Lands contained in the common field Village & lower 
commons of Prairie du Rocher including a grant to M'' Boisbrient & 
thirteen Arpens of the grant of seventeen arpens to Chafin & Delisle 
bounded west by the Missisippi, east by the range of Hills, south by 
the northern boundary of the Grand Prairie Tract and on the north 
by the remainder (viz' four arpens) of the tract originally granted to 
Chafin & Delisle, as per the annexed plat signed by W" Rector & 
bearing date Janu'' 29'" 1810 ^ & also the commons being a tract 
lying east of the last mentioned tract thus confirmed, but extending 
in breadth only from the southern boundary thereof to the northern 
boundary of the Tract originally granted to Boisbriant, and in depth 
one league 

4 All the Lands contained in the allotments of the Fort Chartres 
establishm' as laid down in the annexed Plan signed by W" Rector & 
bearing date June 2'* 1809." Bounded southerly by the upper line 
of the Prairie du Rocher common field, northerly by the lower line 
of the grant to Philip Renault out of which has emanated the Village 
& establishment of S' Philips westerly by the Coul6 de Neaud, by the 
base line (so called) established by the french Government, and so 
far as relates to the four upper arpens in front of the Grant to Chafin 
& Delisle which form the lower part of the Fort Chartres Tract, by 
the Missisippi extending in depth eastwardly to the Range of Hills 
only so far as relates to the last four mentioned arpens extending in 
depth eastwardly one league so far as relates to a Tract twelve arpens 
in front lying behind & opposite Fort Chartres originally granted to — 
Boisbriant extending in depth eastwardly fifty arpens so far as relates 
to all the residue of the allotments aforesaid situated south of the upper 
line of the concession of three arpens in front made to Naud : all which 
last mentioned allotments are therefore bounded eastwardly by a line 
parallell to and fifty arpens distant from, the Coul6 de Neaud & the 
base line above mentioned and extending in depth eastwardly to the 
Marais or Ponds Ijang at the foot of the Hills so far as relates to all 
the allotments situated north of the upper line of the above mentioned 
concession to Neaud : But no claim of Lots in the former Village, or 
of commons, or to any of the Lands lying between the Missisippi 
River and the western boundary of the Tract as above described, or 
to any of the lands lying east of the eastern boundary of the same as 
above described is hereby confirmed or recognised — 

5 That part of a grant made to Philip Renault " known by the 
name of S' Phillips as laid down in the annexed plan signed by W° 
Rector and bearing date June 2* 1809 ** bounded southwardly by the 

" Reproduced ibid., facing p. 186. 

^ See commissioners' report on the Renault grant, Feb. 24, 1810, ihid., pp. 
189-192. 
** Reproduced ibid., facing p. 192. 



102 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

upper line of the Fort Chartres allotments extending, in front of the 
Missisippi eighty six arpens & a half, and in depth from the Mis- 
sisippi to the Hills — 

II And all the Lands contained in the Town Lots, common fields 
and Commons of the Villages of Cahokia & Prairie du Pont as laid 
down in the annexed Plans bearing date May 23" 1808 and signed the 
first by W° Rector & the other by Elias Rector are confirmed,** the 
Commons to the common use of the inhabitants of the Villages re- 
spectively and the Village or town Lots and allotments in the common 
fields to the respective claimants now in possession as set down in the 
plats above mentioned; it being also understood that no regard is to 
be had to any special former confirmations either by the Commis- 
sioners appointed &C or by the Governors of the Territory, & particu- 
larly that none of the allotments in the Cahokia commonfield extend 
towards the Missisippi beyond the Rigolet or River LAbb^, the Land 
included between the said Rigolet or River and the Missisippi being 
altogether without the boundaries of the allotments aforesaid."" 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO MICHAEL JONES 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. One] 

Treasury Department 18 May 1810 
Mic' Jones Esq' Regis'' &c Kasskaskia 

Sir Your letter of 21" Ult° has been received " — I hear with 
great pleasure the result of the wicked attempt which had been made 
against j-ou & hope that the parties may be brought to punishment. 
I cannot however consistent with Usage give you the papers which 
had been addressed to the President, and on which the enquiry into 
your conduct was grounded; nor do I believe that they would be of 
any use in the object which you have in view — The Bill drawn by 
you in favor of M'' Shaw founded on an account and vouchers, which 
have been received will be paid when presented. It is proper to 
inform you that a Bill drawn by yourself & M' Backus jointly in 
Octo' 1807 for $67.26, was, through some error, for one dollar more 
than the Vouchers which you sent amounted to, they being for only 
$66.27; this difference of one dollar has been debited to your personal 
account and I apprize you of it that the accounts may be made 
regular, by your next draft for a quarters Salary being drawn for 
$124 — , only, stating either in the Body of the Bill, or in the letter 
of advice, the reason as above, why it is drawn for one dollar less than 
the full amount of a quarters Salary 

lam&C 



" Both reproduced ibid., facing p. 194. 
•0 Answered post, p. 109. 
« Ante. p. 95. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 103 

THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO MICHAEL JONES 

AND ELIJAH BACKUS 

INA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. One] 

Treasury Depart' Maij 23" 1810 
Mic' Jones Esq' Regis' &C Elijah Backus Receiv' &C Kaskaskia 

Gentlemen It appears to me that you have not, in your reports 
respecting Governor's confirmations, sufficiently explained your opin- 
ion, which should have been either a distinct confirmation or absolute 
rejection according to your respective conclusions on each case. I 
therefore transmit Copies of your transcripts in that respect, and 
request that you wall subdivide each of the four transcripts (Ancient 
Grants, Improvements, Heads of Families donations, Militia dona- 
tions) into two seperate transcripts, viz' one of confirmations, the 
other of rejections by yourselves. You will perceive by reference to 
the Act confinning the report of the Vincennes Commissioners,'^ that 
all the Governors confirmations not actually rejected by the Commis- 
sioners were confirmed by Congress; & it is not improbable that the 
same course will be pursued in relation to the Kaskaskia decisions. 
This shews the necessity of correcting your report in the manner 
which I have pointed out : nor does that mode work any injury to the 
Claimants, as it will leave those whose claims, being rejected by you not- 
withstanding the Governors confirmation shall not be finally confirmed 
by Congress, at liberty to avail themselves nevertheless, of the Gover- 
nors confirmation (if conferring an indisputable title) before a Court 
of Law, against any other person to whom the United States might 
sell the Land. 

In the corrected return which you will transmit as early as possible 
to this department you will also be pleased to distinguish the Cases 
in which patents of confirmation were issued by the Governor from 
those where he only confirmed without granting Patents. — 

I beg leave to add a few observations on those Governor's confirma- 
tions, not as may relate to impropriety or Fraud which may have come 
to the knowledge of the Commissioners in any particular Case, but 
only as respects the Governor's powers. 

1 In relation to donations to heads of Families or for Militia services 
he was limited as to location of the claims when allowed, to tracts of 
land laid out in conformity with the resolution of Congress of 20'''' 
June 1788.«^ For the Resolution of 28 Aug' 1788 prescribing a differ- 
ent mode of locating those tracts '* is repealed by the Act of S"* March 
1791 '° — I observe that the Militia donations of 100 Acres are generally 

« Approved Mar. 3, 1807, Terr. Papers (Ind.), vn, 433-435; 2 Stat. 446-448. 
« Terr. Papers (N.W.), ii, 112-115. 
"/6td., pp. 144-145. 
»»/6id., pp. 339-342. 



104 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

located & surveyed. Was this done in every respect in conformity 
with, and within the boundaries prescribed by the Resolution of 20th 
June 1788? 

2 Ancient Grants were defined both by the said resolution and by the 
2" Section of the Act of 3" March 1791 to be such as they had possessed, 
and which had been alloted to them according to the Laws & Usages 
of the Government under which they had respectively settled. It 
follows that unless there was or had been possession besides the Grant 
the Governor could not confirm under that Section. But, what is 
more important, the power in that respect was limited to alottments 
according to the Laws & usages &C. And it seems evident that the 
british Grants (so called) were not allotments, and were granted not 
only contrary to the Laws & usages of the Country, not only without 
authority from Government or superior Officers, but also contrary to 
the public Proclamation of 1763:" so that the parties accepted the 
Grant knowing that there was no authority to make it. — 

3 If any power was vested in the Governor to confirm such grants it 
was under the 4'" Sect" of the Act of 3" March 1791, the words being 
"under a supposed Grant by any Commandant or Court claiming 
Authority to make such Grant" And yet the Commandant Wilkins 
does not even appear to have claimd the Authority. But at all 
events the authority is limited to tracts actually improved and 
cultivated not exceeding to any person four hundred Acres. 

4 The improvement rights which the Governor had a right to con- 
firm were only 1 (under the 2'^ Sect" of the Act of 3" March 1791) 
such as had before the year 1783 been alloted &C (in cases where those 
allotments are not considered as legal & complete grants) 2 such ?s had 
been made under a supposed grant of a Commandant or court. It 
follows first that the Governor had no right to confirm by virtue of 
improvement right, unless that right was supported either by an allot- 
ment made prior to 1783, according to Law & Usage, or by a Com- 
mandant's or Court's supposed Grant: 2dly that in improvement claims 
derived from allotments as above mentioned the quantity confirmed 
might exceed 400 Acres, but that in improvement claims derived from 
Commandant's or Court's supposed grants, the Governor's confirma- 
tion cannot exceed 400 Acres — 

5 By the Act of 7 May 1800 all that part of the north west Terri- 
tory now composing the Territories of Indiana & Illinois, was after 
the 4'" day of July 1800 erected into a seperate territory then called 
Indiana." The Officers (including the Governor) for the new Terri_ 

»« Oct. 7, 1763, Shortt and Doughty (eds.), Docs. rel. Const. Hist. Can., 1759- 
1791, pp. 119-123; Alvord and Carter (eds.), Critical Period (IHC, X), 39-45. For 
a critical study of the proclamation, see Alvord, "Genesis of ihe Proclamation of 
1763" (Mich. Pion. and Hist. Colls., xxxvi, 20-52). 

»' Terr. Papers (N.W.), ill, 86-88. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 105 

tory were to exercise the same powers, perform the same duties &c as 
by the Laws of the U States had been provided & estabhshed for 
similar officers in the north west Territoiy. Nothing in that act was 
to be construed so as to effect the Governm* then in force in the ter- 
ritory north west of the Ohio, further than to prohibit the exercise 
thereof within the Indiana Territory after the said 4'" day of July 1800. 
On that day therefore, all the powers of the Governor of the north 
west Territory ceased in the Indiana Territory; and it is a matter of 
fact that without any other authority Gov"' Harrison did make con- 
firmations in the Indiana Territory. Either these are all null (v/hich 
in my opinion would be absurd) or those of Governor S' Clair after the 
4*" of July 1800 are null. Yet Governor S' Clair's patent to Edgar 
& S* Clair for a tract of 13,986 acres (said to contain more than double 
that quantity) is dated Aug' 12"" 1800 

You will be pleased to observe that the preceding observations are 
not intended to encroach on what is within your own province, viz' to 
decide according to your own view of the subject but merely for the 
piuT)ose of bringing to your recollection some points which might 
perhaps in the great haste with which you were obliged to complete 
your business have escaped your attention '* — 

I am &c 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO GOVERNOR 

EDWARDS 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 2] 

Treasury Depm' 28"' May 1810. 

Sir, Two applications, one by Benj° Wallace & others, and the 
other by Ficklin & Prince, having been made for leasing a supposed 
lead mine, in the Illinois Territory. The President has authorised 
you to lease the same accordingly to the respective applicants, on the 
usual terms. And I now enclose for that purpose the applications 
aforesaid, and a copy of the lease to Gist and Bledsoe. But as under 
colour of obtaining such leases, attempts might be made, solely with 
the intention of getting temporary possession, of valuable and large 
tracts of land, you are requested not to grant the leases unless you are 
satisfied both of the intention of the parties and of the existence of the 
mine. 

I cannot, from the description as given by the applicants, ascertain 
whether the application of both be not for the same tract or mine. 
Should that be the case it is the intention of the President that the 
lease should be in favor of those who made the first discovery or are 
connected with such person. 

I have &ca. 

His Exc ellency N. Edwards Esq. Governor, Illinois Ter^ 

"8 Cf. posi, p. 141. 



106 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

JOHN MESSINGER " TO JARED MANSFIELD 

[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iii:ALS] 

Clinton Hill Illinois Ty. May 28'" 1810 
Sir, — I gratefully received Yo-ors of the 22"* of Feb'' about the first 
of April ' — Just previous to whih, a Young M' Rector Run a line by 
my house, and informed me that they had only those Townships to 
Subdivide, in which there were private claims, as mentioned in 
Yours; which work, as Ht cntionod as You observe, was most proper for 
those to do also, who had the private Claims on hand— Though, at the 
same time, I am so well acquainted with the surveys of private claims, 
in this County, that I would have been willing it had been my lot to 
had a share, near where I live— M' W" Rector in conversation last 
season, observed to me, that he did not wish to undertake any more 
siirvejing, than that, he was then engaged in, which was, the private 
claims & an Indian boundarie, probably; and when I first heard that he 
& his Brother Elias, had several surveying parties in the field and had 
to Subdivid the Townships Survey'd by me, I was, somewhat alarmed, 
as to my hopes of getting any more work, and, although You have 
Politely answered my letter of Jan^ 8'",^ and gave me this consola- 
tion — that You "have as high an opinion of my competency, as that 
of any surveyor ["]; I am Yet fearfull that something has gone wrong 
as it respects me, since my returns of those surveys made by me; but 
perhaps my fears are without a cause — 

I sincerely regret that the present circumstances of my family will 
not permit me to make you a visit this summer, which would be a 
satisfaction to me (as I conceive it) whether I get any more work in 
surveying or not — It appears by the subdivisions in the Townships 
near where I live that the surveyors, have not the same instructions 
as those forwarded to me, which obliged the Chain earners to carry 
a Plumb on all uneven grounds — I was with Young Rector a little 
when running about me, and, observed that his Chainmen did not 
carry a Plumb — he said that the chainmen made allowance on uneven 
grounds of course, the horrizontal measiu-e depended on the Judgement 
of the Chainmen; In consequence, of which (or my errors) they make 
from three to six & H Chains excess on the North of those townships 
that I made the exact measure of Six Miles agreeable to my private 
instructions — The Chain that M' Rector had when here, agrees with 
mine exactly — I have a piece of timber prepared, on which I scribed 
the exact Measure of thirty three feet which corresponds with the 
measure forwarded to me by letter from Your Office, by which I often 

•• For biographical sketch, see Philbrick (ed.), Laws Ind. Terr. (IHC, XXI), 
ccl-ccli. 
» Not found. 
» Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 107 

corrected my Chain while in the field, and my assistant likewise — 
Young Rector applied his Chain to the same measure when with me, 
and it agreed exactly, so the difference of our measure, is not in the 
different lengths of our Chains — If the difference in the measure of 
the external or Township lines, & those of the subdivisions is worth 
notice, time, & accurate examination will determine which is cor- 
rect — For my part I am sure that my instructions and Oath, Obliged 
me to carry a plumb with the chain to determine the horrizontal 
measure on uneven grounds — which I am conscious was strictly 
attended to by my chainmen; for in many uneven places I walked by 
the side of them untill they were well practiced, and the same chain- 
men continued with me through the whole Job ; — They were americans 
and as good in my opinion as can be obtained any where — Should 
you have occasion to write to me again, direct to Clinton Hill Post 
Office St Clair County Illinois Territory — I keep the ofl^ce ' — 

I am Sir very Respectf fully Your Obed* Hum' Ser' 

J Messinger 

Jared Mansfield Eqr 

[Addressed] Jared Mansfield Esq'' Surveyor Gen' Cincinnati Ohio — 
[Postmarked] May 28'" Free J Messinger P M. Clinton Hill-Ill° 
Ty- 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO JARED MANSFIELD 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iii:E] 

Extract of a Letter from the Governor of the Illinois Territory, dated 5*'' 

June 1810 * 

I perceive that a Town is to established at a place called Shawnee 
Town, and although I really feel the greatest diffidence in 6ffering my 
advice when it is not asked for, yet I think I can to you Sir venture to 
recommend that the United States should retain or purchase Lots as 
a necessary appendage to the Saline, for unless great changes take 
place (and I hope they will) Shawnee Town must for a long time be 
a place of deposit for Salt, & the U S are too much interested to deprive 
themselves of the benefit of some proper situation for the object. 

A will also beg leave to suggest for consideration the plan on which 
I would advise that the Town should be laid out. I would have but 
one Street; that should be upon the Margin of the River, It will then 
be on the best & highest Ground; every Lot will be of equal value, 
having an equal advantage of the River, and an equal prospect of 
advantage from all who pass through Town, retaining the Ferry at 
the upper end of the Town where it now is all persons passing to or 

» Reply not found. 

* Enclosed in the Secretary of the Treasury to Mansfield, July 5, 1810 (NA, 
GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., in). 



108 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

returning from the Saline or any place on this side of the Saline would 
have to pass by every Lot in Town. The road leading as it now does 
from the lower end of Town. And moreover every Lot would be 
equally Convenient to the out Lots designed for our support. Upon 
this plan I am confident I could sell the Town for at least five times as 
much as it could be sold for on any other. 
I have the honor &C 



DANIEL SHELDON, JR., TO EDWARD COLES » 

[NA:SD, Misc. Letters :ALS1 

[July 2, 1810] 
Dear Sir, Obadiah Jones a Judge of the Illinois Territory, it 
appears, by the record of his commission at the Depm' of State, was 
appointed a Judge of the Mississippi Territory on the 6'" of March 
last;' and on the 16*" of March, Stanley Griswold was appointed 
Judge of the Illinois Territory in his room.' This arrangement not 
being known at the Treasury, M' Jones has been paid (by virtue of a 
Power given by him for the purpose to Mr. Crawford of the Senate) 
as Judge of the Illinois Territory to the 31st of March last. A bill 
is now presented for payment drawn by M"' Griswold for his salary 
commencing on the 16'" of March last, including consequently, fifteen 
days for which M'' Jones has already been paid. It is stated at the 
Depm' of State, that no evidence exists there of M'' Jones's consent to 
the exchange; and as he could not be transferred to the Mississippi 
Territory without his consent, it is presumed that this must have 
been signified to the President himself. Will you be good enough to 
inquire, & send to the Treasury something upon which we can regularly 
act; either the original letter of M' Jones, or a line from the President 
stating the fact of M' Jones's assent to the transfer. 
I am respectfully Yours &c D' Sheldon j' 

M' Coles. July 2. 1810. 

[Endorsed] M' Sheldon. 2" July 1810 



MEMORANDUM BY DANIEL SHELDON, JR. 

[GAO:Misc. Treas., Acct. No. 23,747 (1811) lALS] 

[July 3, 1810) 
Mem, in relation to the account of Obadiah Jones, as Judge of the Illinois 

Territory, & as Judge of Madison C° Mississippi Territory. 

On the 1" of March 1810, W" H. Crawford Senator from Georgia 
informed the President that he was authorized by M' Jones, upon 

' Private secretary to President Madison ; later a G overnor of the State of Illinois. 
• Senate, Exec. Journal, II, 140. 
' Ibid., pp. 141-142. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 109 

being appointed a Judge of the Mississippi Territory, to resign his 
place as Judge of the Illinois Territory. Accordingly on the 6"" of 
March, M"' Jones was appointed Judge of the Miss' Terr^ and on the 
8'" of March, M'' Crawford in behalf of M"' Jones, resigned the place of 
Judge of the Illinois Terr'' and accepted that of Judge of the Miss' 
Ter^ — The two letters of M' Crawford to the President dated Mar. 
1" & 8'" 1810, have been sent to the Treasury; but at the request of 
the President, are deposited in the Departm' of State to remain there 
on file.'* 

Stanley Griswold was appointed Judge of the Illinois Terrif in the 
room of M'' Jones on the 16"" of March 1810. 

M' Jones ought then to be paid as Judge of the Illinois Ter^ to the 
5"" of March 1810, and from that time forward, as Judge of the Miss' 
Terr^ — But he has already been paid, (by virtue of a power given to 
M"' Crawford) as Judge of Illinois to the 31, Mar. 1810. It will be 
proper therefore, on the settlem' of M' Jones's first account as Judge 
of the Miss' Terr^ to give him credit for his salary as such, from the 
6"^" of Mar 1810, and then to charge him for the amount he has already 
received for his salary as Judge of Illinois from the 6"" to the 31, 
March 1810. M' Griswold's salary will of course commence on the 
16, Mar. 1810. 

No appropriation has been made for the payment of the new Judge 
of Madison C° Mississippi Terr^ which is the place M' Jones now holds. 

D' Sheldon j' 

July 3, 1810 

[Endorsed] Memorandum of M"' Sheldon relative to the Acco' of 
Obadiah Jones one of the Judge's of the Mississippi Territory, to be 
attended to on the settlem' of his first Ace' of Salary, $86.67 to be 
deducted which he has rec" as Judge of the Illinois being his Salary 
from the 6'" to the 31 Mar: 1810 inclusive. 



MICHAEL JONES TO THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY 
[NA:GLO, Kaskaskia, Reg. and Rec. Lets.:ALS] 

Kaskaskia July 13'" 1810 
Sir Your letters of the 7. 14 & 18'" of May, came to hand «— The 
substance of the Commissioners confirmations, in relation to Village 
tracts, is, I believe, correctly stated in your letter of the 14'" on this 
subject M"' Backus and myself will however write to you officially — 
The designation of tracts, in conformity with the act of Congress, di- 
recting the location of unlocated Claims, shall also be made and for- 



'•^n«e, pp. 81, 82. 
8 Ante, pp. 98, 99, 102, 



110 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

warded to you in a Short time ' — I regret sincerely Sir, that it is not 
consistent with usage to transmit to me the libellous communications 
made to you by my persecutors — The letter to you of the 29'" Decem' 
1808, written by John Edgar," contains libellous words, on which my 
attomies have declared, on an Action of Slander — I have therefore 
found it necessary to apply for a dedimus to take your deposition — 
Should you still deem it improper to forward the original, you will in 
that case please to answer the interrogatories annexed to the dedimus, 
as soon as possible after it reaches the commissioners (Thomas Herty 
& Sam' H. Smith) to whom I shall enclose them by next mail; too late, 
I fear, to answer my purposes— A late law, requiring ten days notice 
to the adverse Party, has unexpectedly procrastinated the departure 
of the Dedimus & Documents — The Post-rider, on his rout from 
Vincennes to this place has been found dead — The mail is gone. There 
is much reason to conclude that he has been murdered and staked down 
under water. — Did your transcripts of our Reports on land claims 
come on in this mail? I hope not — If they have been forwarded in 
the mail which has been thus plundered, Other Copies may be sent 
to this office, for we wish not to make public, any documents but the 
transcripts received from you." — 

I am, Sir, very respectfully Your most Ob* & H" S' 

Mich' Jones 

The Hon' Albert Gallatin 

Sir, On the urgent request of my Colleague I add this post- 
script — Should you think any observations of mine on this point 
improper — you must attribute them to the deep feelings impressed on 
my mind by the horrible attempts which have been made against his 
character and life — 

It has not yet been determined in our Court whether a copy of the 
document now requested will be received in evidence — If it should 
not be, I am afraid IVP Jones will fail in his action — I am unwilling to 
believe under the extraordinary circumstances of his situation that 
any document will be withheld to preclude him from that retribution 
which eternal Justice requires — Altho Sir no man can make a merit of 
doing simply his duty; yet it seems to be but a moderate compensa- 
tion to a public officer who has risqued his life to preserve his honesty — 
to escape the Gallows — It seems to be hard that a man who might 
have made fifty thousand dollars without your knowledge, should now 
be refused documents necessary to enable him to recover that prop- 
erty which has been torn from him — for I assure you Sir that my 
Colleague has for the year past been obliged to spend the whole sum 

• Not identified. Cf. post, p. 329. 
'o Not found. 

" The transcript was sent from the Treas' with a letter dated June 27, 1810. 
D.S. [Marginal note on the MS.] 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY \\l 

in defending himself, which it has pleased his Country to allow him 
for doing his duty '^ 
I am Sir &c. E Backus 

[Addressed] The Honorable Albert Gallatin Seer'' of the Treasury of 
the United States. City of Washington pr mail [Postmarked\ Kaskaskia 
July 14'" Free 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia July 13'" 1810— rec. Aug. 9'" M. Jones Reg' 
Land Office — ack^°^ rec' of letters respect^ confirm"^ — has obt" dedimus 
to take testimony of Sec^ Treas^ respect^ charges preferred against 
him — murder of mail carrier & robbery of the mail. 

Please to ascertain whether the mail carrying the transcripts could 
have been this: I believe it impossible. — A.G." 

M' Sheldon 

I have inquired at the Gen' Post office, and they can give no inform" 
on the subject. But it is impossible that a letter sent from hence, 
could have proceeded beyond Vincennes, & there have been taken 
from the post-rider, in time for the circumstance to have been known 
\t Kaskaskia on the 13'" July. The transcripts therefore could 
not have been contained in the mail that was robbed. D.S. 



MICHAEL JONES TO THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY 
[NA:GLO, Kaskaskia, Reg. and Rec. Lets.:ALS] 

Kaskaskia July 23" 1810 
SlE I take the liberty of enclosing to you a letter addressed to 
Thomas Herty Esq", containing a Dedimus " authorizing him and 
Samuel H Smith to take your deposition relative to a letter written 
to you by John Edgar of this place dated 29 Decern'' 1808," which 
you will please to send either of those Gentlemen 
I am very respectfully Sir Your most Ob' S' 

Mich' Jones 
The Hon' A Gallatin 

[Addressed] The Honorable Albert Gallatin Secretary of the Treas- 
ury City of Washington [Postmarked] Louisville Ky 31 July Free 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia July 23" 1810. rec" Aug' 13. M. Jones 
Reg' Land office enclosing a letter for Tho° Herty with a commission 
to take deposition of the SeC Treas''. Sent the letter to M' Herty 
Aug' 13.'" D.S. 

" No reply found. 

'» This paragraph and "Mr. Sheldon" are in Gallatin's hand. 

" Not present. 

»5 Not found. 

" Not found. 



112 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOHN McARTHUR 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book Q] 

17 August 1810 
John M'=Arthur Kaskaskia I. T" 

I regret to be again under the necessity of addressing you on the 
subject of your riders failure^but my duty compels me to notice the 
recent failures, at S* Charles — as well as your permitting the Mail to 
be carried by a man of Color, & contrary to law to that Office; one 
of two Courses you must pursue, either carry the mail according to 
Contract or withdraw from our Service, as remonstrances have here- 
tofore failed, I shall take a stronger measure, if further failures are 
suffered to take place 

GG. 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOHN McARTHUR 
IPO:P.M. Letter Book Q] 

21 August 1810 
John M "Arthur Kaskaskia L T^ 

On the inclosed monthly mail register, I have copied the periods of 
your riders arrival at S' Charles during the Months of March, April, 
May, June & July on comparing the Arrivals with your Schedule it 
will appear during those Months, he never did in any Instance carry 
the Mail according to his Contract. I have directed you to be 
charged for failing to arrive at S' Charles on the 6'" 13'" 20'" & 27 
March— On the 3" 10'" 17'" & 24 of April. On the 1'' 8'" 15'" 22" 
& 29'" May on the 5'" 12, 19'" & 26 of June— On the 3" 10'" 17'" 
24'" & 31'' July— in all 22 failures at $13 73/100 per trip, makes 
$148 6/100 which sum will be deducted out of your pay 

G.G. 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO JARED 

MANSFIELD 

[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., lii:LS] 

Treasury Department August 21"' 1810 
Sir I have received your favor of 24'" Ulf." The laying out of 
the Shawanee town being a species of Service different from the 
ordinary Surveys for which the compensation of three dollars a Mile 
has been fixed by Law, a larger allowance may be made, but you will 
take care that it do not exceed what is reasonable, & what a fair 
compensation for the labour may require; observing to report to me 
at what rate you shall fix it. 

" NA(GLO, Lets, from SG, 1807-1812). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY II3 

From a general view of the credits which have been furnished to 
you on the Receiver at Cincinnati it appears as far as your bills have 
reached the Treasury, that between three & four thousand dollars of 
the credits heretofore given, still remains at your disposition. A 
further credit on that^Receiver for eight thousand dollars is this day 
given. 

I am Sir very respectfully your obed* Serv* 

— Albert Gallatin 

Jared Mansfield Esq' 

[Addressed] Jared Mansfield Esq'' Surveyor General Cincinnati 
[Postmarked] New- York 27 Aug Treasury Departm* Albert Gal- 
latin Free 

[Endorsed] Credit $8000 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Illinois Territory Aug^ 25, 1810 

Sir I have the honor to inform you that I find it extremely difficult 
to organize the Militia of this Territory without the aid of a Brigadier 
General — And utterly impossible to do it according to the present 
Militia Law, or any that I have yet been able to see that could be 
adopted — 

If under these circumstances the President should think proper to 
appoint a Brigadier I beg leave to recommend M' William Rector for 
that appointment. I know no man in this country who has higher 
pretensions. Like any other who could be appointed he would have 
many duties to learn — But I am certain he has capacity to learn them, 
and firmness & intigrety to fulfill them with honor to himseK and 
advantage to the Government — To a modest gentlemanly and un- 
assuming deportment, which has gained him the confidence and at- 
tachment of all parties here — he unites an integrity universally ac- 
knowledged — a sound discriminating mind & a dauntless intrepidity — 

In making this communication I feel no other motive and have no 
other inducement than the public interest. Neither M' Rector nor 
any of his friends know of this recommendation — nor do I know 
either directly or indirectly that he ever thought of the appointment — 
I think no man could stand higher than he does with every officer of 
the Presidents appointment in this Gov' as to the qualities & proper- 
ties I have attributed to him 

I am with the highest resp* Sir Yr M° Obd* Serv* 

Ninian Edwards 

[Addressed] The Honble William Eustis Esq' Secretary of War 
Washington City [Postmarked] Kaskaskia Aug. 25. Free 



114 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia, 111 : T" Aug' 25*" 1810. Gov' Ninian Edwards, 
— stating the insuperable difficulties he meets with in attempting to 
organize the Militia of that Territory for want of the aid of a Brigadier 
General;— and cordially recommends M"' W° Rector for that appoint- 
ment.— Rece" Sept' 12'" 1810.'« 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOHN McARTHUR 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book Q] 

28 Aug'^ 1810 
Jn" M'Arthur PM. S' Genevieve L. T. 

I have just read yours of the 4'" July " — I pray you to make use of 
every effort to discover the murderer, & to bring him to condign punish- 
ment. Take hold of the suspicious person immediately if there is 
danger of his quitting you; if not, obtain if practicable such testimony 
as may render his being held to trial at all Events, do not despair of 
the recovery of the Mail, but spirit up your people in attempts to find it 

G.G. 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Illinois Territory Sept' 1, 1810 
Sir I have the honor to inclose you copies of a petition from 
Charles Relle & Baptiste and Francis Paguier to M' Bates and M' 
Bates' letter to me ^ on the subject: If he is right in supposing the 
application should have been made to me, having no instructions at 
present from your department of any kind relative to Indian matters 
I have nothing to guide me but the [MS. torn] which I find requires 
the previous instructions of the President. Laws of the U. S. Vol. 6. 
p 46 S14 " But I doubt whether the demand ought to be made by 
M' Bates or myself, the offence is against the municipal laws of Louisi- 
ana where if the guilty persons should be delivered up they must be 
tried. Horse stealing is punished here with death— there only with 
whipping — 

I also inclose for the Presidents inspection and to obtain his instruc- 
tions to me the case of Tho' D L. Weeks with Copies of the testimony 
to support it 
With sentiments of the highest respts I am Sir Y' M" Obd Ser* 

NiNiAN Edwards 



"No reply found. 

>• Not found. 

" The letter, dated Aug. 2, 1810, is present; it is printed, Washburne (ed.), 
Edtoarda Papers (CHC), lii, 54; and in Marshall (ed.), Bates Papers (MHS), II, 
149-150. 

" Sec. 14 of act approved Mar. 3, 1799 (1 Stat. 747). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 115 

The Honble William Eustis Esq'' Secretary of War Washing- 
ton City 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia,— 111°'= T., Sept' 1. 1810— Gov' Ninian 
Edwards, — transmitting sundry Documents in behalf of Tho= D. L. 
Weeks — Charles Relle — and Baptiste & Francis Pequier who claim 
from the United States Indemnity for Robberies committed by the 
Indians: &c &c &c— Rece* Sepf 19"" ISIO.^^ 

[Enclosure] 

Petition of Charles Relle and Baptiste and Francis Pequier 

[August 3, 1810] 
To Frederick Bates Esq' Secretary of the Territory of Louisiana and 

Exercising the government thereof 

The petition of Charles Relle as well in his name as in the name of 
Baptiste and Francis Piquer humbly sheweth 

That some time in November last a party of Kickapoo Indians 
came to S' Charles District of S' Charles and took away from the 
petitioners a certain red mare Branded on the right thigh CI which 
he the said deponent appraised to the value of Eighty five Dollars 
being the amount of the sum which he paid for the same 

That on satursday last the 28'" of July last another party of the 
said Kickapoos Indians came to S' Charles district aforesaid & robbed 
from him the aforesaid petitioner a certain white mare branded C, 
and for which said petitioner paid one hundred Dollars 

That on the said satursday last the same party of Kickapoo Indians 
robbed a certain grey mare from one Baptiste Pequier branded on the 
right thigh J. D. and for which said Baptiste paid 100 Dollars and 
that on the same day 28*'' July last, the same party of Kickapoo 
Indians, robbed a certain grey horse the property of Francis Piquer 
Branded on the right thigh JD and for which said Francis paid ninety 
Dollars 

In consequence of which and of the injuries and damages which said 
petitioners suffer from the said robberies, he in his name as well as in 
the names of Baptiste & Francis Piquier applies to you for redress 
and to take the necessary means in order to receive the aforesaid 
horses or the value thereof 

St Louis 3'" August. 1810 

his 

Witness Charles X Relle 

mark 

Baptiste & francis Pequier 
This petition is sworn to be true by Charles Relle N. Edwards 
[Endorsed] Relle &c petition 



" No reply found. 

314574 — 48 



116 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

[Enclosure :ALS1 

Thomas D. L. Weeks to Governor Edwards " 

[No date, 1810] 
To HIS Excellency Ninian Edwards Govenour of the Illinois 

Territory 

Sir On the night of the third of Aprile last a party of Indians 
headed by a noted Chief called Main Pock stole from me on board of 
my perogue property to the value of six hundred and five Dollars 
and fifty four cents & one eighth of a cent, as contained in the list 
herewith presented to you, The place where they stole it is opposite 
the mouth of the Missouri on the East Bank of the Mississippi and 
about Thirty miles below the mouth of the Illinois River, In support 
of my claim I must refer you to the inclosed depositions marked A. 
B. C. D E— 

I am determined to look to the United States for redress and 
therefore pray your Excellency to take such measures as may be 
most effectual in attaining that object— I have the honour D' Sir to be 
your most Ob' Serv' 

Kaskaskia 

Tho' D. L Weeks 
By Nathaniel Pope his agent 

[Enclosures] 

Depositio7i of Louis Brisson 

St. Clair County Sc' [April 30, 1810] 

Personally came before me the subscriber a Justice of the Peace 
of the said county Louis Bisson a trader of Paoria, who being duly 
sworn on the Holy Evangely of allmighty God, deposed and said that 
about the Eighteenth or Ninteenth days of this month at Peoria he 
saw in the possession of Main Pocks (a Peutawatomie chief) wives 
several articles of white womens dresses such as gowns of, homespun, 
callico, peticoats, flowered-muslin, childrens gowns a mans jacket, 
coverlids, one of which was of square of divers colours and other 
articles he cannot at present recollect, also a large demijohn or Big 
bottle that generally contains upwards of 20 quarts. The said 
deponent further saith that those articles struck him to appertain to 
some American family and surmising that perhaps they had stolen 
them he the deponent ft?ke4 taxed the wives of main Pock to have stolen 
them, upon which they replied it was taken out of a canoe they found 
thrown on a sandbar and that they the said women told him there 
was also a quantity of Beacon & other things as Dutch ovens &c which 
articles except some part of the beacon they left in the Canoe, and the 

" This appears to be the original. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 117 

deponent further saith that the women had told him that they had 
taken and found many other articles which they sold about the 
Village & vicinity of Peoria afores" — And further this deponent further 
saith not — 

Louis Brisson 

Sworn to and subscribed to before me at Cahokia this 30'" Aprile 
1810 John Hays J. P 

[Endorsed] A 

Deposition of Jean Baptiste Champlain 

S' Clair County Set [April 30, 1810] 

Personally came before me the subscriber a justice of the peace of 
said county, John Baptiste Champlain, who having been duly sworn 
deposed and said, that on the nineteenth instant at Poiria, he saw 
in the possession of one of Main Pocks wifes the following articles 
Waggon chains chissels, one big iron chissel on which it appeared was 
used to beat a scythe on an old hammer and moreover he saw in M'' 
Labroix a coverlid made in small squares of divers colours a p'' cotton 
cards, a ball of spined cotton a womans hat a flitch of Bacon — which 
articles were claimed and looked upon as the property of Main Pock, 
a Poutowatomie chief who was there camped with his band at M"' 
Labroix's The deponent further saith that by the several articles 
appearing in the possession of the Indians, he the deponent inquired 
of one of the wives of main Pock how they came by those articles 
they answered it was a perogue or canoe they found drifting down the 
Mississippi 

J. B'^ Champlain 

Sworn and subscribed to before me at cahokia this 30*" Aprile 1810 
John Hay J.P 
[Endorsed] B 

Deposition of Joseph Dagenais 

S' Clair Sc' [April 30, 1810] 

Be it remembered that on the 30*" Aprile 1810 personally came 
before me the subscriber a justice of the peace for said County Joseph 
Dagenais, who being duly sworn on the Holy Evangely of almighty 
God deposed and said, that on the 19'" day of this inst — One of the 
wives of Main Pock (a Poutowatomie chief) came to his shop (Black- 
smith) and asked me to cut two Iron chains which appeared to me to 
be waggon chains for the geers, to cut them and make them shorter, 
and put a hook at the End so as to make them answer for a pot-hook 
which I did. They had also three different chissels an old hammer 
and the clevis of a plow They paid me for my trouble, for cutting 
the two chains, by giving the aforesaid, chissel. Hammer & clevis & 



118 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

remaining part of chains — The deponent further saith as he suspected 
they might have stolen those things he enquired of her where she got 
them she answered it was a craft that they found drifting the Missis- 
sippi which they stoped and took — and further this deponent saith not 

Mark of 
Joseph X Dagenais 

Sworn & subscribed to before me the day & year first above 
written. John Hays J.P 

[E?Mforsed] C 

Deposition of Antoine Robidoux 

S' Clair County Sc' [April 30, 1810] 

Personally appeared before me the subscriber Justice of the 
peace for said county Antoine Robidoux who being duly sworn on the 
Evangely of almighty God deposed and said that about the Eighteenth 
& nineteenth day of this instant, At Peoria he saw in the possession 
of Indian Women Wives of main Pock (a Poutowatomie chief) 
several articles of dress of white people such a home spun gowns, 
flowered muslin childrens gowns stockings, mens jackets, callico 
Petticoats, coverlids, one of which was made of small squares of 
divers colours, and other articles he cannot at present recollect — He 
further saith that it struck him that those articles must of belonged 
to some American family — And further this deponent saith not 

Mark of 
Antoine X Robidoux 

Sworn & subscribed to before me at Cahokia this 30'" Aprile 1810 
John Hays.^ — J.P 
[Endorsed] D 

Deposition of James Beeman 

[June 16, 1810] 
Illinois Territory, of the U. States St. Clair County Set. 

Be it remembered that on this day personally appeared James 
Beeman known to be an inhabitant of the said county by John Hewit 
& Robert Pullum now present being aged about Forty years. Before me 
W" Euel Whitesides Justice assigned to keep the peace of said county 
he being duly sworn on the holy evangely of almighty god Deposeth 
and saith that he was present and assisted in loading a pirogue, with 
the reputed household stuff of Thomas D I. Weeks on the 3"" of Aprile 
last at the landing of Eli Langford on the East Bank of the Mississippi 
said county and Territory, opposite the mouth of the Missouri and 
about 30 miles below the mouth of the Illinois River that he seen 
said perogue on the evening of the said 3'" Aprile, made fast by a 
rope to a saplin, that he the said deponent was at said place next 
morning the perogue was gone and by the appearance of a piece of 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY ng 

the rope left fast to the said sapHn that it was actually cut and ac- 
cording to all circumstances and facts this deponent hath no doubt 
but said perogue and cargo was stolen from said place at the said 
time. — The said deponent rclatc a recollects that the said Cargo of said 
perogue consisted generally of the articles set forth in the annexed 
invoice shewed and produced by said Weeks on this date: The said 
deponent further states on his oath aforesaid that he saw Main Pocks 
party of Indians encamped on the East side of the Mississippi about 
one half mile above the place said perogue was loaded, a few days 
before and believes the said Indians moved off at the time the Perogue 
was taken away Question of the Justice "Is it usual that people of 
the neighbourhood, where sad perogue was stolen, to suffer by theft 
from Indians["] Answer by the deponent, I have lived in that settle- 
ment mentioned in the question near two years and have known 3 or 
4 instances of the Indians to steal horses and other loose property — 
And further saith not — sworn to and subscribed before me at Wood 
river this 16"" daj' of June A D. 1810 in the county aforesaid 

James Beeman 
Uel Whitesides J p. (seal) 

[Endorsed] E 

Deposition of Thomas D. L. Weeks 

[June 12, 1810] 
Illinois Territory Randolph County set 

This day appeared before me a justice of the peace for the Territory 
& county aforesaid The above Tho' D L Weeks and made oath that 
the foregoing list is a correct inventory of property ^* stolen from 
him on the night of the 3'''^ Aprils last at Eli Langfords ferry on the 
Mississippi river in the Illinois Territory & oposite the mouth of the 
Missoiu"i and about thirty miles below the mouth of the Illinois River 
and that the prices annexed to each article is just; And further that 
he verily & conscientiously believes they were stolen by a party of 
Pottawatomies Indians headed by a chief of that nation called Main 
Pock which party was encamped about a half a mile above the ferry 
on the Mississippi on that night and were gone next morning. That 
the property contained in the foregoing inventory was in his pirogue 
tied to the shore and that about midnight he discovered it was gone 
and the rope had been cut by some sharp toole. That the deponent 
is informed & believes that a party of Pottawattomies Indians passed 
by portage de sacoux the next morning there disposed of some articles 
which the deponent saw and Knew were in his pirogue when it was 
stolen & he firmly believes it was the same party that was headed by 
Main Pock This deponent further declares that he personally knows 

" Present, but not here printed. 



120 TERRirORIAL PAPERS 

the above Main Pock and saw and spoke to him the same evening 
the goods were stolen & knows he encamped just above the ferry — 
This deponent further declares that he is informed and believes that 
one of the wives of Main Pock was seen in possession of articles re- 
sembling those in the foregoing inventory — This deponent has no 
doubt of their being the same 

Tho. D L Weeks 

Sworn to and subscribed before the undersigned one of the justices 
of the Peace for the county of Randolph at Kaskaskia this 12'" June 
1810. William Arundel 



JUDGE THOMAS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Illinois Territory 5. Sep. 1810. 

Sir I am told by Governor Edwards that he has submited to your 
consideration the propriety of appointing a Brigadier General for 
this Territory, and that he has recommended M"^ William Rector to 
fill the office should it be thought proper to make such an appointment. 

I know nothing of this Gentlemans Talents as a Military man, but 
I have no hesitation in saying that I believe M' Rector is a man of 
undoubted integrity, and of great respectability of character and 
solidity of understanding, and that I know no man who stands higher 
with all parties, in the Territory than M' Rector. 

I have the Honor to be Sir with great respect your most ob' and very 
Hum'" Serv' 

J. B. Thomas 

The Hon William Eustis Esq' Secretary of War. 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia— Sep* 5'" 1810. J. B. Thomas,— in Recom- 
mendation of William Rector for the appointm' of Brig' Gen' of 
Militia in the Illinois Territory:— &c. &c. Rece* Oct" 6'" 1810. 



JOHN EDGAR TO [THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY] 
[NA:GL0, Misc. Lets. Reed., E:LS] 

Kaskaskia 6'" September 1810 
Sir/ The natural obligation which every man feels to defend not 
only his property but (which is of far greater consequence) his fair 
fame and reputation against every attempt made to destroy them; 
will be my apologj- for addressing you in your official capacity, to beg 
your attention to a correct statement of facts and request you to 
render me that Justice which the Commissioners of the Land Office of 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 121 

this District deny me. Before proceeding to this Statement, I will 
beg leave to premise, that until this Country became agitated by 
political disputes (of merely a local nature) in which the Commissioners 
took a very active part, all Testimony relating to land claims before 
them, v.'ere openly taken in presence of the parties; but since that 
event, witnesses on the part of Government were privately examined 
ex parte, without giving the claimants notice to attend, or any oppor- 
tunity either to cross examine the witnesses or support their rights; 
alledging they had your orders to proceed in that manner and keep all 
their proceedings secret — And so cautious were they to obey these 
supposed orders at their sittings since the passage of the Law of May 
1809, that a kind of Serjeant at Arms was constantly kept at their 
Office Door to prevent the entrance of any person not agreeable to 
them — That such orders were given by you I did not, and from your 
known public character and love of justice, cannot believe — 

In 1784 when I came to this Country, where I have ever since re- 
sided, lands were to be bought very low, the Inhabitants attaching 
little value to them, most of their attention being paid to the Indian 
Trade — foreseeing that real property would in time become valuable 
I thought a fair opportunity presented itself of retrieving the losses I 
had sustained, and personal injuries I had suffered during the Revo- 
lutionary \Yar; the whole of my property to the amount of many 
thousand Dollars ha\ing, merely on account of my attachment to the 
American Cause been seized by the British Commanding Officer at 
Detroit, and myself put in irons and sent as a State prisoner to 
Montreal where, I was detained several years, before an opportunity 
occured of making my escape; which I did at the extreme hazard of 
my life from the pursuit made after me; and immediately on my 
arrival communicated to the then Gov Clinton now Vice President of 
the United States, the important Intelligence of the secret Expedition 
then fitting out in Canada under Col St Ledger, for the purpose of 
taking possession and with the connivance of many friends in the 
Country placing Strong Gan-isons in several parts of the now State of 
Vermont — This communication was thought of so much consequence 
that I was sent with it to General Washington at Philadelphia who 
immediately ordered a large detachment under Lord Sterling to op- 
pose the Enemy and frustrate their designs, in which he succeeded — 

The Titles to all the Lands I bought were at the time thought valid, 
but having been brought up to the Sea Service; being wholly un- 
acquainted with legal forms, and ha\ing no legal Characters to advise 
with, I was obliged to trust entirely to my own Judgment, bad as it 
was, not only as to the titles but as to the Conveyances to me. — 

Ha\ing in due time presented my notices of claims and proper 
Documents and proofs in support of them I was in the fall of 1807 
called upon by the Commissioners to attend them at their Office for 



122 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

the purpose of proceeding to the Investigation of my Claims — . I did 
so, when the whole of them (with the exception of a few only which 
were postponed for further consideration) were approved of by them, 
and as they then informed me and I believe, entered in their Books 
as confirmed. — 

In the Spring of 1808 a vacancy occured in the representation from 
this Country to the Assembly of the Territorial Legislature. The 
Commissioners, and myself with William and Robert Morrison took 
opposite sides; they supported Robert Robinson their clerk, and we 
supported with success Rice Jones, the young man who was shortly 
after murdered by one of their partizans From that moment the 
conduct of the Commissioners, especially M^ Backus became visibly 
hostile to us, and Shortly after the Election which took place in 
August 1808 and not before, it began to be reported in whispers that 
the Commissioners would charge William Morrison, Robert Morrison 
and myself with having committed forgery and perjury — Conscious of 
my own innocence and believing that these reports were only calcu- 
lated to widen the breach between the Commissioners and myself, I 
paid no attention to them until March last, when they were so well 
authenticated to have originated with the Commissioners, that William 
Morrison, Robert Morrison and myself wrote them a letter (to which 
no answer has been made) of which the following is a Copy. Viz — 

"Gentlemen/ — Having understood that you have forwarded to the 
proper department your reports on the Claims to lands laid before 
you as Commissioners for ascertaining the titles to lands in the dis- 
trict of Kaskaskia, and that you have in the reports not only rejected 
a number of those claims laid in by us, but also charged us with the 
Crimes of forgery and subornation of perjury and other misdemeanors 
implicating our reputation in a high degree, — we think ourselves en- 
titled to request from you, or either of you without delay, complete 
Copies of all and every the reports you may have made not only in 
Regard to our land Claims, but also in regard to any charges or 
Insinuations you may have made against us either collectively or 
Individually in order that we may be able to make our defence against 
those charges and Insinuations by proper proofs and testimony. — We 
are well aware of your declarations that you had orders to keep your 
reports secret and not divulge them even to the Claimants interested.— 
Whatever might have been the policy of the measure while you were 
exercising the duties of your Office, we cannot think that at this time 
when those duties as well as the office itself are accomplished and 
expired, that any legal or political motive can be adduced against our 
receiving Copies from a public Office, which we conceive yours to be, 
of all papers and reports that are filed and recorded there relating to 
such Claims as we are interested in. — We shall wait your answer until 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 123 

to-morrow Evening before which time we beg you to inform us whether 
the Copies will be furnished or not; if in the affirmative when. — The 
Copies we will pay for whenever they are ready for deliver^'. — We shall 
consider yoiu" silence as a refusal of our demand. — 
Kaskaskia March 22°" 1810. ["] 

Having learned between the date of the above letter and the 16'" 
of last month that they had specified the Stanley cases, I wrote to 
them the following letter Viz.- — 

"Kaskaskia 16'" August 1810.— 
"Gentlemen/ — From reports generally circulated thro' the Territory 
and said to have originated in your Office, I am induced to believe 
that you have in your Official Report to the Secretary of the Treasury 
made several observations tending to accuse me and others of forgery, 
perjurj'' and subornation of perjury. — From the secrecy of your pro- 
ceedings as Commissioners of the Land Office, especially to the parties 
implicated, I have not been able clearly to ascertain on what ground 
those charges had been made, but am informed that some of them 
are founded on the Claims laid in by me as Assignee of Abraham 
Stanley, John Stanley, David Stanley, and Jacob McCarty or some 
of them. — Conceiving the Commissioners Office to be a public one, 
from which all persons interested have right on payment of legal fees 
to procure Copies of all papers and Documents filed therein, and which 
hy law are directed to be preserved by the Register of the Land 
Office — Conceiving also that the Reasons which induced the issuing 
of the Orders bv you said to have been received from the Secretary of 
the Treasury to keep your proceedings Secret, cannot at this time 
when your Official functions are ended as Commissioners of the land 
Office, no longer exist, and that every person whose property and 
reputation is attempted to be so materially injured, ought to be 
possessed of the means of making his defence, I have to request you 
to furnish me with certified Copies of all the depositions filed in your 
Office relating to the above mentioned Claims, stating by whom, the 
day when, place where, and before whom taken. — And also with 
Copies of such parts of your Official reports and observations, as tend 
in any manner to accuse me of any of the above mentioned crimes or 
any other in any degree derogatory to my character and reputation, 
with the depositions or other documents on which those charges may 
have been founded. — These Copies are requested for the purpose of 
enabling me to make my defence and refute the Charges before the 
proper tribunal. — 

"Should you not think yourselves justifiable in giving Copies of the 
whole or any parts of your reports and observations, I at least think 
myself entitled to Copies of all the depositions required. — Any charges 
that may be made for the Copies, I will pay daily, or otherwise, as 



124 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

you may think proper, when they will be called for at the Register's 
Office.— I beg your answer in the course of four days, informing me 
whether you will wholly, or in part comply with my request. — After 
which time your silence will be considered as a refusal." — This letter 
was not answered until Friday Evening the 31'' of the same month, 
when Mr Greenup brought me Copies of five •' Decisions of the Board 
rejecting those Claims marked N" 2003," 2012,^ 2013 =• & 2014 ™ 
with two others marked N" 2046," & 2097 "—together with a letter 
from Mr Robert Robinson Clerk to the Board of Commissioners anf^ 
United States Agent, of which the following is a Copy. — 

" Kaskaskia August 30*'' 1810 
"Sir/ The Commissioners have shewn me a letter of the 16*" 
received from you in which you request Copies of the testimony and 
the decisions of the Board in several cases, which you have in the said 
letter specified I Sir, as Agent of the United States for this District 
make the following reply. — The duties of the Commissioners are not 
yet ended. — They cannot be at an end until the General Government 
has passed its sanction upon their decisions." — It has not yet done 
so. — Of course the powers as well as the duties of the Board are still 
["] iji Esse " — And Sir, you have long known that they have been 
forbidden by the Administration to make public their Decisions in 
any case which has not been acted on by Congress — It is not for me 
to enquire for what reason these instructions were given. — But, Sir, 
as you have demanded Copies of certain decisions which you think 
prejudicial to your Character the Board have, on their own responsi- 
bility, and in Opposition to their directions agreed to supply you with 
them; and in this measure I concur. — We have all been induced to 
this measure. — First because a complaint has been industriously 
circulated thro' this Country that you with other Claimants 
have been condemned unheard — Secondly, because the Stanley 
Claims are cases cited by you (and indeed communicated to the 
Governor) as being cases in which you can defend yourself, and in 
which (if it be possible) the Commissioners have done you injustice. — 
"Now, Sir, the Board of which I am that Member whose particular 
duty it is to look to the Interest of the Nation are willing to meet you 
on this ground; and as you have requested these documents for the 
purpose as you State "of making your defence before a proper 

" But only four numbers follow. 

" A.S.P., Pub. Lands, II, 218. 

" Ibid., p. 147. 

" Loc. eil. 

» Loe. eit. 

" Ibid., p. 239. 

« Ibid., p. 164. These citations refer in part to the so-called "Stanley" claim*. 

" This had already occurred, in an act approved May 1, 1810 (2 Stat. 607). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 125 

tribunal," I will suggest to you, that the place of all others, in which 
you can make a defence with most advantage to yourself (if you are 
an honest man) is the Country in which you have been accused — I will 
further observe that as you are an Officer of this Territory, and as it 
is the duty of the Executive to see that no man unworthy of Office is 
either appointed or continued, the most proper tribunal (in the mean 
time) is, in your case to be found in the Executive of this Colony. Of 
his integrity the Board will not doubt, and you know Sir, that you 
possess his friendship. — 

"Come then Sir, appeal to this tribunal, and let the people of this 
Country see whether you are guilty or innocent — . As I do assure you 
that no man on Earth will be more rejoiced to find you innocent than 
the Board of which I am a member; — and that it is not now too late, 
if Injustice has indeed been done you, to rectify the proceeding; and 
that the Board will do it with the most infinite satisfaction. — You 
will observe Sir, that in the Stanley cases (which you have stated) you 
stand charged, first with having forged the several deeds; and Secondly 
with having supported the Claims with perjured testimony. — With 
respect to the first charge we are told you have produced a letter of 
Attorney from the Stanley family to Abraham Stanley, empowering 
him to execute to you the Deeds on which you have grounded your 
claim. — We invite you Sir, to produce this document. — 

"We have to expect the original, not a Copy. — I further observe, 
that if you indeed have a power of Attorney authorising the Execution 
of the deeds presented to the Board, the tiu^pitude of the Act, will I 
presume in the opinion of the Board, be entirely taken away; altho' 
the deeds may still be said to have been forged by you in a friendly 
way". — When Sir, you shall have cleared up this business now pre- 
sented to you (which God grant you may be able to do) the Board will 
exhibit to you other cases, of which they have a great number, in 
which your character is implicated ; — but we wish it to be understood 
explicitly, that this instance is to form no precedent for others — 
Your violent attempts against the Board will plead its excuse to the 
Government, since they have consented to furnish you with these 
Documents, as the Cases to which they relate have been publicly cited, 
to shew that the Board have done you injustice. — On subjects of this 
nature Sir, you are to expect no answer but thro' the Agent of the 
United States for this District — . 

Having cursorily looked over the papers and findings they contained 
only Copies of rejections (of which I was before apprised) without 
any of the depositions of Witnesses, or the days when, and before 
whom taken (which was material for me to know) according to the 
requisition of my letter to the Commissioners, I then refused taking 
of them, but thinking on more mature reflection, that they might, 



126 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

imperfect as they were, be of some service, I sent for, and obtained 
them early next morning. — Shortly afterwards M' Robinson, (as I 
was informed) waited upon the Governor, with Copies of the same 
papers and a letter requesting him to investigate my conduct and 
character and deprive me of the Commission of justice of the peace, 
the only one I ever held in the Territory of Illinois, notwithstanding 
it was well known I had declined acting as such since last fall, and 
another magistrate had in consequence been appointed in my stead; 
but as I had not formally resigned my commission, and got my resig- 
nation filed in the Secretary's Office, that measure was resorted to 
with the view of punishing me for having dared to make a request to 
the Board. — I must solicit your indulgence while I explain the cir- 
cumstances attending my purchase of the Stanley Claims. — Abraham 
Stanley who resided in Tenessee came to me in 1798 proposing to sell 
his Claim, and those of his father David his brothers John and David, 
and his brother in Law Jacob M'=Carty, from whom he produced 
letters of Attorney. Not being able to agree, we concluded that he 
should give me conveyances of the lands; that I should bear all ex- 
pences of claiming and getting the rights confirmed, and I was to 
reconvey one half of the lands confirmed. — 

In pursuance of this agreement the several Deeds alluded to were 
signed and executed by Abraham Stanley who I then, and until lately 
from my ignorance of legal forms, I thought, I had a right to do so. — 

I am now however informed that they were not properly executed, 
but that Abraham Stanley ought to have executed the whole of them 
(except his own) as Attorney in fact for the others. — This view of the 
subject, will, I hope convince you, that altho' proper legal forms were 
not pursued, that no moral turpitude or improper motive can be at- 
tributed to me in the transaction. — Inclosed you will find Office Copies 
of the letters of Attorney and the Agreement between Abraham 
Stanley and myself. — To the Claims as assignee of Lasonde '* and 
Degagnie I can at this time, when my papers are in the Commissioners 
hands only observe, that those deeds are genuine, and that if I could 
have recourse to them, could prove them so, notwithstanding the 
great pains taken by the Commissioners to prove them otherwise — 
But this is denied me, with what degree of Justice I will not pretend 
to Judge, the common excuse being set up, that they have your orders 
to Justify their Conduct. — As far as in them lies, they fix an oppro- 
brium on my character and deny the opportunity, which every man 
ought to have of trying his right to the lands confirmed by them in 
these Cases, before the proper tribunal. — I must however observe that 
in several instances I made verbal purchases, and afterwards when 
the deeds were made out, sent them by others to get executed; and 

•* The commissioners ruled that the deed from Louis Lasond to Edgar was 
forged {A.S.P., op. cit., p. 160). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 127 

especially by one Philip Rochelblave who now resides near New 
Orleans who got most of those I purchased at Prarie Du Rocher 
where those two vendors resided, executed. — 

From the Copies of the reports furnished me, I find frequent allu- 
sions made to what is there called general testimony, which I am told 
mean depositions taken at St Charles. — I never did approve of and 
will not now pretend to justify them. — But thus far I am safe in 
avering positively that I never was in St Charles in my life until a 
few days past, that I never had either directly or indirectly any hand 
or concern in getting or procuring those depositions. — That I had no 
occasion for or inducement to have them taken, as the proofs furnished 
me by Abraham Stanley, and adduced to the Board, were by them, 
at the time found to be sufficient. And further if within I further aver 
that when M' Backus informed me of those depositions, I requested 
him to pay no attention to any, if such there were as applied to any of 
my claims, and even desired him if any of them went to prove some of 
my claims to destroy them if in his power to do so. — I have however 
been informed that one INPFerson '" also claimed the Stanley lands and 
that he went up towards that Country about the time the Deposi- 
tions were taken. — On the 7"" August 1808, a few days before or after 
the Election Mr. Backus sent me a letter of which the following is a 
Copy Viz. — 

"Col Edgar, — Sir I cannot forbear at this particular moment to 
address myself to you. I should have been silent. Sir, I should not have 
opposed your Candidate had I not believed it necessary to defend my 
own reputation as a public Officer, altho' in point of politics I am in 
favor of the sort of Government which we have for two years past 
petitioned for. — The Curtain is now for ever drawn between your 
friendship and mine. — At this period so dreadful to my feelings, I 
cannot deny myself the melancholy pleasure of assuring you that I 
have at all times, as far as I could do, sincerely endeavoured to sub- 
serve your interest. — That notwithstanding all the severe things you 
may say against me I will always continue to do so. — That I have 
never uttered an Expression disrespectful to your Character and 
never will . — How can I forget the parental kindnesses which you have 
heaped upon me? — How can I forget the (perhaps more) generous 
attentions which M" Edgar has at all times paid to my family? — 
"As I know you feel hostility towards me, I beg you not to send me 
any answer to this." — 

"I am Sir, with much Gratitude and sincere affection — Your Ob 
Serv' 

"August 7'" (Sunday Evening) 1808— "E Backus" 

'' Probably referring to John McPherson; see claim no. 2554, in A.S.P., op. cit., 
p. 153. 



128 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

I have never but once (and that at a dinner table, on general topics) 
exchanged a word with that gentleman, nor since the date of the above 
letter do I know of any Circumstances that could induce him officially 
either to change his opinion of, or charge me with the Commission of 
such heinous offences. — If he had a knowledge of them prior to the 
quarrel, and date of his letter, why not make them known before? 
WTiy keep on such an intimate footing with me? Why write me such 
a letter? or why join in the confirmation of those lands which he has 
since rejected If he has subsequently obtained that knowledge, it 
must have been ex part6 testimony, without giving me an opportunity 
to examine the witnesses, or be heard in my defence, as no testimony 
has, to my knowledge been taken on any of my claims subsequent to 
December 1807. — You will please to excuse me for noticing a peculiar 
circumstance attending the rejection of some of the Stanley Claims. — 
They as well as McCarty's Claims are rejected (see claims N° 2013- 
2014) because the testimony of Cromstock ^° varies from those of the 
other witnesses in support of the Claims, as to the time of the Claimant 
leaving the Country. — And altho' John Stanley in his deposition taken 
before the Board, is contradictory to Cromstock and agrees with the 
depositions of the other witnesses, yet his Testimony in this respect 
could not have been credited by the board; for if it had, the claims he 
testified to, would have been confirmed. — That part however of his 
Evidence (even where he was materially interested) which operates 
against me, is by the Commissioners thought worthy of credit, and on 
the faith of it they condemn me, even unheard, as guilty of forgery. — 

Having given these statements of facts, I shall not pretend to make 
any Comments on them; believing that you too will not condemn me 
unheard ; and that the representations made by the Commissioners to 
my disadvantage, will not prejudice your mind against me — I cannot 
however forbear expressing the hope that you will order not only all 
the testimony, but also the proceedings of the Board of Commissioners 
to be laid open for the use and inspection of all the parties interested 
by their decisions; so far at least as to enable them to know for a 
certainty what testimony was given against them, and what they are 
charged with. — Without this advantage no man can with any prospect 
of success appeal from their decisions, or get any redress. — All I want 
is an opportunity of a fair and impartial Trial before unprejudiced 
Judges — . Since writing the above the within letter and deposition was 
delivered me." — On which it would perhaps not be proper for me to 
make any remarks. — I shall content myself with only observing that 

" Thomas Comstock; see claim No. 2118 (A.S.P., op. ciL, p. 162). 
»' Post, p. 132. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 129 

Mr Penrose will I am sure on application, satisfy you of the truth of 
the information contained in it. — It is probable that Mr James Lowry 
Donaldson ^' who resides in Baltimore will also recollect, and give the 
same information.'' — 

I have the honor to be, with sentiments of high respect and consider- 
ation — Sir Your most obedient humble Servant ■"• 

J Edgar 

[Enclosures] 

Power of attorney by David Stanley 

[April 14, 1797] 
Know all Men by these presents That I David Standlee of the 
State of Kentucky and County of Logan have made ordained Consti- 
tuted and Appointed and by these presents do make ordain Consti- 
tute and appoint Abram Stanlee of the State and County Aforesaid 
my true and Lawful Attorney for me in my name and to my use to 
Act in laying in My Claim for a tract of land in the Elenoy Country 
and by these presents Granting to my Said Attorney my sole and full 
power and Authority to take persue and follow such legal courses for 
the Recovery Receiving and 0[b]taining of the same as I myself 
might or could do ware I personally present — 

In Witness whereof I have hereunto Set my hand and Seal this 
fourteenth day of April one thousand Seven hundred and ninety 
Seven — 

David Stanlee Jun"' (seal) 
Witness present 
John M'^Gough 
Charles Irby — 

Illinois Territory Randolph County Set 

I William Arundel Recorder of the said County of Randolph do 
hereby Certify that the foregoing is a true Copy of the Original on 
file in my Office — 

In Testimony whereof I have hereunto Set my hand and affixed 

the Seal of Said Office at Kaskaskia the eighteen of January 

[l s] in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 

ten and of the Independance of the United States the thirty 

fourth — William Arundel 



3'* A former clerk of the land board in Louisiana Territory. 

" For other examples of Edgar's claims rejected for fraud and perjury, consult 
A.S.P., Pub. Lands, n, index, under John Edgar. See also Philbrick (ed.), Lairs 
Jnd. Terr. (IHC, XXI), Ixxxiii, Ixxxvi, Ixxxviii, xc, cclxv, for citations to proofs 
relative to Edgar's frauds. 

•o No reply found. 



130 T E li HIT O RIAL PAPERS 

Power of attorney by John Stanley 

[April 14, 1797] 
Know all Men by these Presents that I John Standlee of the state 
of Kentucky and County of Logan have made Ordained Constituted 
and Appointed and by these presents do make Ordain Constitute and 
Appoint Abram Standlee of the State and County Aforesaid my true 
and Lawful Attorney for me and in my name and to my use to Act 
in laying in my claim for a tract of land Lying in the Elenoy Country 
and by these presents Granting to my Said Attorney my sole and 
full power and authority to take pursue and follow Such legal courses 
for the Recovery Receiving and Obtaining of the Same as I myself 
might or could do ware I personally present. In Witness whereof I 
have hereunto Set my hand and Seal this fourteenth day of April 
in the year one thousand Seven hundred and ninety Seven — 

John Standlee (seal) 
Witness Present 
Charles Irby — 
John AI'Gough — 

Illinois Territory Randolph County Set 

I William Arundel Recorder of the said county of Randolph do 
hereby Certify that the foregoing is a true Copy of the Original on 
file in My Office — 

In Testimony Whereof I have hereunto Set my hand and Affixed 
the Seal of said Office at Kaskaskia the eighteenth Day of 
[L s] January in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hun- 
dred and ten and of the Independance of the United States 
the thirty fourth — William Arundel 

Power of attorney by David Stanley and Jacob McCarty 

[April 17, 1797] 
Know all Men by these presents That we David Stanly and Jacob 
Mackarty of the state of Tenesee and Robison County do Authorize 
and empower with full Power of Attorney as if we were personally 
present our True and Trusty friend Abram Stanly of Kentucky State 
and Logan County to Receive all our Debts in that State and likewise 
to pay what we owe, and likewise to Act in every part and particular 
for us, and likewise to Act for us concerning our claims of lands that 
we have Emproved in the year 1783 and 1784 and Eighty five as it 
was our Intent from the present time to Establish our Claims as Soon 
as Possible we could hear or See a Regular Order for a Settlement in 
that Same State, as we have now beared that there is a Regulation 
to be in that Country in May. as the Commissioners are to sit and 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 131 

have the Claims Regulated we therefore depend upon our Trusty 
friend to do all for us. Whereunto we have set our Hands and Seals 
This seventeenth day of April one thousand seven hundred and 
ninety Seven — 

Jacob M'Cabty (seal) 
Test — DAvm Stanly (seal) 

Dan' Rogan 
Martin Duncan J P 

Illinois Territory Randolph County Set 

I William Arundel Recorder of the said County of Randolph to 
hereby Certify that the foregoing Page is a true Copy of the Original 
on file in My OfRce — 

In Testimony Whereof I have hereunto Set my hand and affixed the 

Seal of said Office at Kaskaskia the eighteenth day of Jan- 

[L s] uary in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 

and ten and of the Independance of the United States the 

thirty fourth — William Arundel 

Deposition of Abraham Stanley 

[March 12, 1798] 
Know all Men by these presents. That I Abraham Standley of the 
State of Tennesee at present of the County of S' Clair in the North 
West Territory By Virtue of Powers Vested in me By my Father 
David Standley and by power from my Brother John Standley and 
David Standley Jun' and by Powers Vested in me By my Brother in 
Law Jacob McCarty have made a sale in Trust of all our Improve- 
ments Rights on lands in the Illinois Country, to John Edgar of the 
same place for the better purpose of Claiming the same Improvement 
Rights, and getting them confirmed by the Governor of the North 
West Territory By Virtue of These Presents. Sealed with my Seal at 
Kaskaskia the 12'" day of March one thousand seven hundred and 
ninety eight — 

The Condition of the above obligation is such that if the above 
Abraham Standley in case the said DaNad Standley Sen' and John 
Standley and David Standley Junior and Jacob M'^Carty their heirs 
or Assigns do make a Deed of two hundred Acres of land from each of 
their Improvement Rights to John Edgar for his trouble of paying 
every Expence in Getting them Confirmed. On Account of the said 
Abraham Standley, David Standley Sen"' John Standley Jun"' and 
Jacob McCarty then the above sale made in Trust to the said John 
Edgar. By the said Abraham Standley to be void and of none effect. 
The said John Edgar signing two obligations of the same Tenor and 



132 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Date. One which each of the Parties will Keep for the Due perform- 
ance of the Above Signed Sealed and Delivered at Kaskaskia the 
Day and year above Written — 

his 
Abraham X Standley (seal) 

In Presence of 
James Edgar John Edgar (seal) 

William Dunn 

Ilunois Territory Randolph County Set 

I William Arundel Recorder of the said County of Randolph do 
hereby Certify that the foregoing Page is a true Copy of the Original 
on file in my Office — 

In testimony Whereof I have hereunto set my hand and Affixed 

the Seal of Said Office at Kaskaskia this eighteenth Day of January 

in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ten 

[l s] and of the Independance of the United States the thirty 

fourth — William Arundel 



WILLIAM MORRISON TO JOHN EDGAR " 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Reed., M:ALS1 

[Septemher 6, 1810] 

Sir/ when I was last at S' Louis I waited on M' Penrose and 
made the request I was desired to make — he said when M' Donaldson 
& himself came to Kaskaskias about 4 years ago, E Backus Esquire in 
a conversation held with them observed that they were Two young 
fools — that they ought not to go on so rappidly in thier business, but 
ought to take time and make difficulties if none appeard in order to 
get more pay from the Government 

M' Penrose said that he did not like to give a certificate of M"' 
Backus observation, but if call" on in a legal way that he would make 
oath of it — 

I am Sir Y' very Humble Sev* 

W" Morrison 

Sept' 6'"^ 1810 

[Addressed] Co' John Edgar — 

[Endorsed] Sep^ 6— 1810 W° Morrison 

«' Originally enclosed in the preceding. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 133 

[Enclosure] 

Affidavit of William Morrison and John Rice Jones 

[September 6, 1810] 
Illinois Territory Set 

Before me Jesse B Thomas one of the Judges of the said Territory 
personally came William Morrison — (within named) and John Rice 
Jones of Kaskaskia Esq" who severally made oath, the said William 
Morrison on his part, that the within letter contains in substance the 
declarations made to him a few Days ago by Clement B Penrose *^ 
Esq"' at S' Louis — And the said John Rice Jones on his part saith 
that the said mr Penrose about two months ago, made the same 
Declarations -fee in substance to him, excepting that part which express- 
ed his unwillingness to give a Certificate of it, which he did not request 
him to do.^ 

Sworn before me W" Morrison 

J. B Thomas Jn° Rice Jones 



JOHN RICE JONES TO THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY 
[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Reed., i:ALS] 

Kaskaskia 8*" September 1810 
Sir/ Wishing to intrude as little as possible on your time, I shall 
immediately proceed to the business on which I have the honor of 
addressing you. 

on IS'" January 1797 George Atcheson Esquire conveyed to me 
two Tracts of land of 400 Acres each, in Exchange for other lands of 
mine; all of them situate in the now District of Kaskaskia — The lands 
I conveyed to Atcheson have been confirmed, but one of the Tracts 
by him conveyed to me has, as I am informed, been rejected by the 
Commissioners. 

Some weeks since I applied to M^ Mich' Jones Register of the land 
office, to deliver me the original Conveyances of the rejected Claim, 
which I had filed, as Evidence, in his office (pursuant to the Direction 
of the Acts of Congress) at the time notice of the Claim was given 
him — This Application was made, and so expressed at the time, for 
the purpose of enabling me to bring and carry on a Suit against 
Atcheson's heirs, who are wasting his Estate. M' Jones then agreed 
to the propriety of my Request & promised to deliver me the Deeds. 

JK ft rCiT J_^tiy'9 

In a few days, however, he delivered me Copies of them, certified 
as such by him in his official Capacity, at the same time observing, 
that he himself had no objection to deliver me the originals, but that 

" One of the land commissioners in Louisiana Territory. 



134 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

M' Robinson the U. S. Agent had protested against his doing so, as 
you, mentioning your name, had instructed him to suffer no papers to 
be delivered out of the Register's office, untill further orders should be 
received from you. 

From the little legal knowledge I possess, I had thought tho' per- 
haps erroneously that the true Intention of the Acts of Congress, in 
requiring Claimants to present their Evidences of Claim to be recorded 
by the Register, was for the purpose of enabling the Commissioners to 
have the Records of those Evidences in their own possession and power 
to refer to, when they came to decide on the particular claim; and 
that as soon as those Evidences were recorded, or at furthest as the 
Claims had been decided on, the parties had a right to their deeds 
again, except indeed in Cases where there were suspicions of fraud, 
perjury, or forgery, which M' Jones assured me were not entertained 
of me. — If the originals were intended to be kept in the Register's 
office, the laws would not have compelled the Claimants to pay fees 
for recording them. 

Had a suggestion been made that any of my deeds were suspected 
to be forged or fraudalant, or the Claims supported by perjury or 
subornation of perjury I certainly should not have applied for them. 

Being of opinion that any orders you may have given, (if any there 
were on this head) must have been misunderstood or misapplied, I 
take the liberty of informing you of the Circumstance, under the 
Conviction that if any Error has been committed or misconstruction 
of your orders taken place, that they will be immediately rectified. 
I hope, however to be pardoned for suggesting that I cannot believe 
you have given such orders, especially to the Extent put on them by 
M"^ Robinson & the Commissioners 

I do not wish to be understood as attaching blame on M' Jones's 
Conduct in this business, he having (in my opinion) been misled by 
the Protest and assertion of M' Robinson. 

In the prosecution of my Suit ag' Atcheson's heirs, it may be 
necessary for me to have an Inspection of such parts of the Commis- 
sioners Books and proceedings as relate to the rejected Claim, and per- 
haps have them produced in Evidence.^ — This I am told cannot be 
expected, your orders to the Commissioners being positive, to keep 
their proceedings secret. 

I must again express my disbelief of such orders having emanted 
from you. — The fact is however certain, that they are as rigidly 
acted upon as if they had.— My weak capacity cannot think of any 
good reason that can be suggested for keeping secret the proceedings 
of any public body vested with such powers as the Commissioners 
possessed. If their Conduct and proceedings have been fair and im- 
partial, the publication of them to the world cannot but redound to 
their honor and Advantage — At all events, I humbly contend that 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 135 

persons who conceive themselves injured or aggrieved by their De- 
cisions ought to have an Inspection of their books and proceedings, 
the better to enable such of them as wish it to appeal to the national 
legislature, which, in all probability, in whatever manner the suit may 
be determined, will be resorted to in the above mentioned Case, M"' 
Jones one of the Commissioners having informed me, there were many 
favorable Circumstances attending it.*' 

With Sentiments of high Respect and Consideration, I have the 
honor to be Sir, your most obedient humble Servant 

Jn° Rice Jones 

The Honble Albert Gallatin, Esq' 

[Endorsed] Kaskask" 8 Sep'' 1810 J. Rice Jones 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO JARED 

MANSFIELD 

[NA:GLO, Lets, to SG, I] 

Treasury Department, October 12'" 1810 — 
Jared Mansfield Sur'' Gen' Cincinnati 

Sir I had the honour to receive your letter of the 26"" Ultimo " — 
The opposition of the Indians is an unexpected obstacle to which we 
must Submit When in my letter of 11'" July *^ I used the expression 
"to subdi\'ide into quarter Sections" I meant in the manner directed 
by law, that is to say by running the Section lines and making corners 
on said lines for the Quarter Sections, and not by actually running 
the subdividing lines of said Quarter Sections. 

I have &c. 



WILLIAM BIGGS TO THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Reed., B:ALS] 

S* Cair County Illinois Territory 31'' October 1810— 
Sir/ I hope to be excused the liberty I now take in addressing 
myself to you on the Subject of my land Claimes in the District of 
Kaskaskia and the Extraordinary Conduct of the Commissioners 
towards me — 

Prior to the Election of a Delagate to Congress from the Indiana 
Territory in 1808, by the legislature thereof, in which I was Chosen 
as one of the Representatives from this County, both the Commis- 
sioners frequently assured me that the Claims to land in their District 

" No reply found. 

" Not found. But there is a pertinent letter of Sept. 28 in NA (GLO, SG, Lets. 
Sent). 
«5NA (GLO, Lets, to SG, I). 



136 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

which I had entered (seven in number) were all Confirmed by them; 
my proofs having been sufTicient, and that no other testimony was 
necessary to Support them — A few days before the Election of the 
Delegate took place at Vincennes, M' Messinger, the Other Member 
from S* Clair Received a letter from M' Bachus Requesting him to 
Vote in favor of particular persons, Viz. Michael Jones his Colleague 
in office, M' Robinson their Clerk, or himself as Delegate, and at any 
rate prevent the Election of [John] Rice Jones; also Requesting him to 
give me the perusal of the letter and then Consign it to the flames, 
which was done. When the Election came on, we both of us Voted 
against M' Michael Jones, and Consequently voted Contrary to M"' 
Bachus's wishes; but in direct Conformity to those of our Constituents 
and our own opinions — Some time in July or August 1809 I went to 
Kaskaskia and applied to M' Rector, the Public Surveyor to survey 
two of the tracts by me Claimed Situate about 15 miles from Kaskaskia 
and on the East Side of the river of that name; he to my surprize in- 
formed me that one of my these Claims had not been entered on the list 
given him by the Commissioners. I then Applied to M' Michael Jones, 
M' Bachus being out of the Territory to know the reason of the Omis- 
sion — He informed me that that Claim appeared on their Books as not 
having been acted upon. And declined giving me any further Satisfac- 
tion or answer to my repeated enquiries why it was not acted on than 
"that he did not know". — He however the next day gave M' Rector 
verbal Orders to make the Survey, adding, "if the Claim is Confirmed, 
it will be good, if not it will only be so much Money paid for nothing," 
— The Survey was accordingly made — On the 27"" Instant I enquired of 
M' Rector whether he had made a return of the Survey to the Surveyor 
General, who informed me that he thought not, and that he was 
instructed by the Com" not to do so — on the 29*" I Applied to M' 
Jones to inform me what had been done on the Subject of that Claim; 
Who answered he could not tell — On my repeated desire to know what 
was to be done with it, he told me he was willing to go into the Examin- 
ation of it, if M' Bachus would. — The next day I applied to M' 
Bachus and requested to know the decisions made on my Claims, and 
more particularly that one M'' Jones had informed me they had not 
acted on; to which M' Bachus answered, — "that he had got particular 
Instructions from the Secretary of the Treasury, not to, make known 
to any Claimant the Situation of his Claims, untill the Commissioners 
had gone thro their decisions — And further observing that he Shortly 
expected to receive instructions from the Secretary of the Treasury 
to go into the investigation of the Governors Confirmations and that 
he would neither do nor act on any business in the Com" oflTice untill 
he should receive these instructions — 

My Conduct thro life has been Such that I do not beleive any one 
who ever knew me doubted my Honor veracity or integrity — As a 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 137 

proof of my standing in this Country, I will mention my Election and 
Service as a representative from this County during the whole time 
the now Illinois Territory formed a part of the Indiana — And that 
the Commissioners frequently Called on and summoned me to attend 
and be examined on behalf of the United States, to give evidence on 
Claims depending before them, and which my residence in this Coun- 
try (with very few Intervals) Since the year 1781 — enabled me to 
have great knowledge of- — These Summonses I duly attended, and 
my depositions taken, on which the Com" Seemed and I believe, 
placed great Confidence and such was their Confidence, that they 
sent me a General Dedimus to take Depositions on Claims laid in 
before them, to be adduced as evidence before the board, in making 
their decisions, which I frequently acted on, and remitted them- — As 
I understand you came from the back parts of Pennsylvania, perhaps 
you have Some Knowledge of my Brothers Gen' Benj° Biggs of West 
liberty, and Zaccheus Biggs late receiver of the public Monies at 
Stubenville — 

I am persuaded in my own mind that if I had Sacrificed Principles 
and opinion to Interest, and Voted for M"' Michael Jones as Delegate 
to Congress from Indiana, That no difficulty would have been made 
by the Com" with regard to the Confirmations of my Claims. — They 
had before that time assured me they were Confirmed, and no tes- 
timony has, to my knowledge or belief, ever been taken on any of 
them Subsequent to that information — Among many other Circum- 
stances which induce me to form this Opinion and is Convincing on 
my mind is a Circumotanco Conversation which took place between 
me & M"' Henry Levens (who was a friend of mine, and a Partizan of 
the Com" and warm Supporter of all their measeures) — whom I saw 
on my way to Kakaskia to apply to M' Rector to Survey that tract 
of land, whieh this Conversation was substantially as follows — He 
asked me when I meant to get my land on the Kaskaskia river sm^ 
Tcycd , (which is the tract I am now told the Com" have not acted on) 
Surveyed, — To which I answered that I was then on my way to get 
it done by M'' Rector — On this M' Levens said he was afraid I was 
too late— I told him I thought not and enquired his reason for think* 
so — to which he answered, that I had not as many friends in Kas- 
kaskia as I formally had — I then asked him, who was not my friends 
there; he told me the Commissioners were not. That he had heard 
M"' Bachus say that Biggs would have done better in hunting up 
his Improvement over the Kaskaskia river than in Voting at Vin- 
cennes as he had done — And that he had heard M' Micheal Jones 
say that I never should have that land over the Kaskaskia river in 
Consequence of my having Voted as I had done at Vincennes & 
that he had heard these Gentlemen make the above observations, 
when the Intelligence reached Kaskaskia of the result of the pro- 



138 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

ceeding in the legislature, and before I had returned from it — Little 
did I then think that it was possible that M' Levens information 
could be correct; but on my arrival in Kaskaskia and Conversation 
with M' Rector, and one of the Com" I was fully convinced its being 
so — When an Enquiry was instituted at Kaskaskia last summer was 
a year into the Conduct of the Com" by order of the president, I 
was Called on by M'' Michael Jones to attend and give my testimony 
on their behalf adding that if I would not do so Volintarily a summons 
Should be issued for me — To avoid unnecessary trouble I attended 
and give my deposition — On my Cross examination by the person 
appointed on behalf of the petitioners against them, I was obliged to 
relate the Conversation above alluded to between M' Levens and 
myself — 

From the above statement of facts, I think myself Justifiable in 
asserting it, as my firm belief & opinion that impartial Justice cannot 
be exspected by those who opposed the Views or Wishes of the Com" 
who have a party in the country and took very active parts in its little 
local politics — The great question in agitation was the Division of the 
Territory; M' Bachus was for a long time in favor if it, and was 
elected by the people of Kaskaskia and acted as a member of a Com- 
mittee formed from among the different parts of the now Illinois 
Territory for the purpose of entering into Resolutions Expressive of 
the sense of the people at large, and taking every Step in their power 
to obtain that object — A little before the Setting of the legislature 
immediately preceeding the divison of the Territory M' Bachus sud- 
denly Changed sides, and became apposed to it; because, as he told 
me both before and since, he did not wish it to be accomplished thro 
the means of those who exerted themselves in favor of it, meaning 
John Edger and the Morrisons as he told me — altho he was still in 
favor of the Division, if obtained by any Other means — The heat of 
Party then became more Violent and exceedingly so, on the shamefull 
murder of Rice Jones by James Dunlap, one of the Com" warm 
partizans; and it is not known what lengths would have been resorted 
to; — had not the wise and firm but Moderate Conduct of Governor 
Edwards, and The Territorial Judges Considerably alleviated them.** 

I believe Sir that little else is now wanting to render this Territory 
tranquil and happy, but a just and equitable decision on and location of 
their land Claims by unprejudiced Judges on the Spot— few, if any of 
the Claimants have the means or can afford the time to go before 
Congress to support their rejected Claims, and I may with ease assert, 
that a rejection by the Com" however unjust, will in almost every 
case, produce the effect of a final one; and put an end to all their hopes 

♦' Biggs signed a memorial in March, 1808, recommending Baclius for appoint- 
ment as one of the territorial Judges (Terr. Papers, Ind., vii, 543). See also 
ibid., pp. 245, 544, with respect to his support of the division of Indiana Territory. 



ILLINOIS -TERRITORY 139 

and expectations — All I want and all that any one ought to wish for, is 
strict and impartial Justice — this I know will not be denied by the 
Goverment and I cannot doubt, Sir your ready concurence and 
assistance in devising the means of obtaining it for them.*^ 

I have the honor to be, with Consideration and respect — Sir Your 
Most obed' Servent 

W. Biggs 

NB I forgot to mention that the tract of land not aefced upon fey 
Returned to the Surveyor General by the Commissioners, was by 
them given to the Auditor as Confirmed and Consequently taxed to 
the land tax, which I was obliged to pay, or Suffer my interest to^be 
sold by the Shff, according to law — W.B. 

The Hon""'^ Albert Gallatin Secretary of the Treasury Wash- 
ington 

[Endorsed] S» Clair C" Octo 1810 Kaskaskia William Biggs- 
Written 18'" April to Register.*' 



ACTING POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOHN McARTHUR 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book Q] 

31 OcV 1810 
John M "Arthur M. C. Kaskaskias I. T"— 

Inclosed are five Drafts which you will be pleased to collect & receive 
on A/C of carrying the Mail, viz 

On Rufus Eastin for $300— On Trueman Tuttle for 52.41 
" Charles Elliott " 200— " Henry Skinner " 40— 

" Jos" M'Ferron " 50— 

$642.41 
AB. P 



ACTING POSTMASTER GENERAL TO TRUEMAN TUTTLE 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book Q] 

31 Oct" 1810 
Trueman Tuttle Late PM. Fort Massac I T^ 

A Balance of $52 41/100 remains due from you on your A/C as late 
PM. at Fort Massac as will appear by the inclosed Statement, which 
is taken from the books of this office— For that much I have this day 
made a draft on you favor of John M ''Arthur which you will be pleased 

*' No reply found. For official record of six claims entered by Biggs, of which 
three were rejected and three confirmed, see A.S.P., Pub. Lands, 11, 140, 142, 143, 
162, 163, 218. 

" NA (GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 2), but the case of Biggs is not mentioned 
by name. 



140 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

to pay when presented & inclose to me his receipt — The Draft sent 
you on Mathew Adams for $12.99 I presume has been paid — If not 
you will pay that much less of my Draft to M' Jn° M'' Arthur — If any 
of the quarterly balances in the Statement vary from your books the 
difference has arisen from corrections made in the A/Cs on their 
examination here 

AB. J' 



PETITION TO CONGRESS BY URBAIN GUILLET 

(LC:HF, 11 Cong., 1 sess.:ADS] 

[November 29, 1810] 
To the Honorable The Senate and House of Representatives of the 

United States 

the petition of Urbain Guillet & his associates known under 
the name of the Society of La trappe now resident in the Illinois 
territory — 

Respectfully Sheweth that thier association composed at present of 
about thirty members has for its peculiar object the promotion of 
useful Literature, husbandry and Machanical arts, not only among 
the western American Settlers but also among the Neighbouring 
Indians — 

that they have already under their care thirty five Schollars and 
propose to admit as many more as their progressive means will afford 
to maintain & educate (Gratis) in any of the above mentioned pursuits 
to which their respective inclinations Capacities or their parents 
Views may direct them — 

Your petitioner is now possessed of a tract of four hundred acres of 
Land (given by M' N. Jarrot about 9 miles above cahokia) on which 
their present useful establishment has been commenced — this quantity 
is by no means sufficient for such an extensive institution as they 
contemplate — They can with ease employ between three & four thou- 
sand acres, in agriculture, and in the erection of different Branches of 
manufacture for Meadows for their cattle wood for Sundry purpose 
but as all the Lands adjoining to their now establishment belong to 
the United States and your petitioners are unable to purchase from 
Government. 

They humbly pray they may be permitted to Locate & Lay adjoin- 
ing their establishment such a number of acres of Land as They may 
be able to procure from individuals to whom military & donation 
Rights have been confirmed & are not yet Located as will be sufficient 
to employ their Talents & industry & as to you in your Wisdom may 
think proper. 

And Your Petitioners as in Duty Bound shall ever pray 

Urbain Guillet 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 141 

Illinois Territory November. 29'" 1810 

[Endorsed] Petition of Urbain Guillet & his associates of the 
society of La Trappe, now resident in the Illinois territory — 10'" Jan' 
1811. Ref* to the Committee on the Public lands." M' Johnson 
ref " lands 



MICHAEL JONES TO JEREMIAH MORROW 
[LC:HF, 11 Cong., 3 sess.:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Dec' 1=' 1810 
Dear Sir. The Secretary of the Treasury, in his letter of May 
last ,8° promised the Commissioners instructions relative to Governors 
confirmations; since then we have delayed, from mail to mail, the 
investigation of Governors decisions, in hopes of receiving the prom- 
ised instructions, which have not yet reached us — as a preparetory 
step, the agent has calld in some of the most antient Inhabitants, by 
which means we shall be enabled to make some progress in prepareing 
for a revision of such confirmations as may have been surreptitiously 
obtained. But it will become necessary to pass a law expressly 
authorizing the Commissioners to reinvestigate these confirmations — 
I have reason to believe that attempts will again be made, to procure 
our removal from office; and also to procure a division of this dis- 
trict — but I trust. Sir, that any further attempts by the Land jobbers, 
against men who have sacrafised their peace of mind, their Interests 
and hazarded their lives in doing their duty, will have no weight with 
our Government '■ — 

The erection of a new district, or Land office, on the Ohio, within 
the limits of the present, would reduce the emoluments of the officers 
of this district, so low, that no man, possessing common means, would 
hold either. The tract of country that would remain attached to this 
district, is principally covered with private claims; the balance may 
be said to be refuse, and but little of will sell Would it then. Sir, be 
just to have kept us in expectancy for six years, and in the mean time 
imposed on us the most painful duties, for a very inadequate compen- 
sation, and at the close of our arduous labours and sacrafises, deprive 
us of those emoluments which we had a right to consider as annexed 
to our offices — I trust, Sir, that when you are informed of the Geo- 

*^ House Journal, vil, 479. 

" Ante, p. 98. 

" See the Secretary of the Treasury to Edwards, July 16, 1810 (Edwards 
Papers, CHS, printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, pp. 534-535), in reply to Edwards's of 
June 23 (not found), commenting on the reports of the land officers in Illinois anH 
giving his own altitude respectmg the issues involved. 



142 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

graphical situation of this district, you will not feel it a duty to become 
an advocate for the erection of a land office in that quarter — Should 
it, however, be deemed necessary to erect a new district; in that case, 
I would suggest the propriety of moving this office Eastwardly, to- 
wards the Wabash or Ohio, and erect one in the northern part of the 
present District, annexing to that, the tract of Country purchased 
from the Sac & Fox Indians, which now forms a part of this district — 
for let it be understood that the present district extends considerably 
farther northwardly than Eastwardly. But Sir as the present extent 
of this district is not complained of by the people; and as it will be a 
saving of one thousand dollars p'' year to United States, I can see no 
reason for gratifying the few advocates for such a measure who have 
perhaps in view, more the carving out offices for themselves or friends, 
than the convenience of the people. — 

Our claim for the allowance of $500. dollars, as commissioners, for 
the present year, will I hope, meet your sanction This sum bears 
no proportion to the expences which I have necessarily incured in 
defending my reputation and my life against the unparallel'd perse- 
cution that grew out of an honest discharge of my duty — 

I am Dear, Sir, Very respectfully your friend 

Mich' Jones 

P.S., We have inclosed to the sec^ of the Treasiuy a plat of that 
part of our district which has been subdivided into Sections & quarter 
sections — Range 3 W down to Township N° 10 and all the Ranges 
above and North west of N° 10 on the mississippi, as laid down on 
that plat have been disignated by the commissioners for satisfying 
private claims within which all the private claims are situated From 
this it will be seen that should the tract below on the Ohio and Wabash 
be erected into a new district we should have but a very small portion 
of land for sale in our district, and that of a very inferior quality and 
a great part of it uninhabitable — 

Y' M J 

The Hon' Jeremiah Morrow 

[Addressed] The Honble. Jeremiah Morrow Representative in 
Congress Washington [Postmarked] U S. Saline 18*" Dec' Free 

[Endorsed] Letter from Mchael Jones, one of the Commissioners 
for the district of Kaskaskia 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 143 

THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO JOHN GAILLARD 
AND JOSEPH B. VARNUM 

[TDiLetters & Reports to Congress, ser. E, vol. v"] 

Treasury Department December 31" 1810. 
The Honorable The President of the Senate & Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, 
Sir, I have the honor in conformity with the acts of March 26'" 
1804 " and IMarch 3. 1805 " to transmit a copy of the report of 
rejected claims made by the Commissioners appointed for the purpose 
of examining the claims of persons claiming lands in the district of 
Kaskaskia. This consists of a General Report, sundry documents 
thereunto annexed, and four alphabetical lists of the rejected claims 
under the heads of Ancient Grants, Impovement Claims, Donations 
to heads of Families and Militia Donations ,^^ It is provided by the 
act of March 3. 1805, that tlie lands, the claims to which, though 
rejected by the Commissioners were derived from actual possession 
improvement and settlement, shall not be otherwise disposed of until 
the decision of Congress thereupon shall have been made. It will be 
perceived by the report, documents & lists, that either want of proof 
or fraud ai-e the reasons assigned by the Commissioners for the rejec- 
tion of the greater part of that description of claims. In addition to 
the transcripts of decisions made by the Commissioners in favor of 
claimants which were transmitted towards the close of the last session 
of Congress, the Commissioners made several special reports in favor 
of persons claiming towrv lots, out lots, and a common right in the 
commons & common fields of the several villages of the District. 
These reports not being included in the general transcripts of favorable 
decisions, and ha\ing been annexed to the plats of survey of the tracts 
to which they refer, were not discovered till after the adjournment 
of Congi'ess. They are now transmitted together with a special 
Report of the Commissioners on the subject of Renault's claims,*' 
and with the copy of a letter written on the 14'" May 1810 to the 
Commissioners " on the subject of their confirmations to lots and 
commons which were not in every respect distinctly understood. In 
relation to Renault's claims it is proper to state that they embrace 
not only the tracts in Kaskaskia district reported on by the Com- 
missioners, but also some valuable lead-mines in Louisiana. The lots 
are out lots of the former \allage of S' Philip in the District of 

" Printed also in A.S.P., Pub. Lands, u, 123. 
" Terr. Papers (Ind.), VII, 173-184. 
»Ibid., pp. 263-266. 

"Printed, A.S.P., op. cit., pp. 123-156. See reports of House Committee on 
Public Lands, Feb. 15 and Dec. 17, 1811, ibid., pp. 254-255, 257-258. 
"/6id., pp. 174-202. 
"Ante, p. 99. 



144 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Kaskaskia appear, by the report of the Commissioners to have been 
uniformly claimed by persons deriving their title from the said 
Renault. But the claim to other tracts & particularly to the lead 
mines had lain dormant for more than sixty years, from the year 1744 
when he left America, till after the organization of the Boards of 
Kaskaskia and Louisiana. 

The transcripts of favorable decisions confirmed by the act of Con- 
gress of last Session, & the reports of rejected claims as above stated 
do not embrace any claims which might have been prexnously con- 
firmed by the Governors of the North West and Indiana territories. 
On these the Commissioners have made a separate report,** to which 
are annexed lists of those confirmations arranged under the same 
heads as the Commissioners decisions." 

The report and the observations annexed to the claims raised doubts 
respecting the validity or propriety of several of those confirmations 
by the Governor, but the Commissioners have not, as was done by 
those for the district of Vincennes, distinctly stated which of those in 
their opinion ought to be confirmed and which appeared liable to 
objections. A letter was written to them on that subject on the 28"" 
of May last,"* to which no answer has yet been received. Copies of 
the report, lists of confirmations, and letter aforesaid are now trans- 
mitted. 

The act of last session, confirming the favorable decisions of the 
Commissioners has not provided the manner in which the donation 
claims shall be located and surveyed. 

I have the honor to be &" 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO MICHAEL JONES 
AND ELIJAH BACKUS 
[NA:GLO, MUc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 2] 

Treasury Department Jari' 16. 1811 — 
Michael Jones & E. Backus Kaskaskia 

Gentlemen Your letters of of 30 Nov'' & 1 Dec'' have been reC •' 
By that of 30'" Nov' I perceive that you had not received mine of 
23 May 1810 '^ respecting Gov''' confirmations of which I now enclose 
a Copy — It was not my intention to suggest that you should call any 
new evidence on that Subject, but simply from that already in your 
possession that you should subjoin your opinion to each claim 

I am respectfully &c 

" Feb. 24, 1810, ihid., pp. 203-209. 

•• Not printed. 

w Not found. But see the Secretary of the Treasury to Jones and Backus, 
May 23, 1810, anle, p. 103. Apparently the above date of May 28 is a copyist's 
error for May 23. 

" Not found. 

•> Ante, p. 103. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 145 

WILLIAM RECTOR TO JARED MANSFIELD 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iii:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Feh^ 2"" 1811. 

D"' Sir You will herewith recieve, the Field Notes. Plats and 
Descriptions of the following Fractional Townships (\y\vig below the 
Base Line of this place) Viz Townships N" 10 & 11 South Range N° 3 
West Townships N° 9 & 10 S. Range 4 West. 

And also the Field notes and a connected plan of several Surveys 
in the Commonfield of Kaskaskia which I have made agreeably to the 
instructions of the Board of Commissioners as will appear by the Cer- 
tificate on the back of the connected plan. In order to render this 
package more portable I have made out but one set of plats & Descrip- 
tions and have written to M"' John F Mansfield requesting him to make 
or cause to be made the necessary number of copies and file them in 
your office — and have also authorised M"' Mansfield to settle with the 
S. Gen' and receive pay for the above mentioned work and to pay the 
following drafts which Elias Rector and myself have drawn on you 
for Viz. 

One for two hundred dollars in favor of Nicholas Wilson and one for 
One hundred and fifty dollars in favor of William Shannon both dated 
January 12'" 1811 & made payable forty-five days thereafter and also 
one other draft for two hundred and ten dollars and fifty five cents, 
dated the 19'" of Jan'' 1811 and made payable to Thomas Prather 45 
days thereafter. 

In consequence of the Secretary of the Treasury having notified the 
Board of Commissioners that all those Claims for land which was 
confirmed by the Governors of the Territories (and which have not 
been acted on by the Board.) must undergo an investigation by the 
Commissioners.*' They declined giving us a transcript of that de- 
scription of claims (which in fact forms a considerable portion of the 
whole of the claims of this District) I presume under an impression 
that many of them would be revised or set a side — This unexpected 
course will greatly procrastinate the completion of the business and 
will operate very much against our interests. But as complaints are 
unavailing and not very pleasant I will not trouble you with them. 

We are now in possession of Copies of all the claims that have been 
affirmed by the Board of Commissioners and Sanctioned by Govern- 
ment, very many of which have not yet been located consequently 
cannot now be Surveyed. Such of them as, are in a state of readiness 
to be Surveyed we are running out as fast as practicable and are also 
engaged in subdividing those Townships and fractional Townships in 

^ The Secretary of the Treasury to Jones and Backus, May 23, 1810, ante, p. 103. 
This letter evidently foreshadowed the act approved Feb. 20, 1812 (2 Stat. 
677-678), which made such revision mandatory. See reports of the commis- 
sioners pursuant to this act in A.S.P., Pub. Lands, 11, 210-239. 



146 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

which it is Known there are claims and where they will fall, by the 
time the balance of the claims are ready for surveying we shall have 
the business in such a train as will enable us to complete the work in a 
short time. 

I intend to viset Cincinnati as soon as the Surveying Season is over 
and altho my contract with the Surveyor Gen' does not authorise me 
to demand pay for the work we shall do above the Base Line until the 
whole of the private claims are surveyed . I trust the Surveyor General 
will find it consistent with his inclination and rules to pay us for such 
of the work as we may then have executed. Government have thrown 
obstacles in the way that renders it impossible for me to perform, the 
business I have undertaken until those obstacles are removed. If I 
had been put in possession of a transcript of all the claims at or soon 
after my arrival here, I should not have thought of returning any part 
of the work above the Base line, until the whole business was completed 
But since M"' Gallatins instructions to the Commissioners have had 
the effect to put it out of my power to do a great part of the business. 
I hope my expecting pay for that part of the work which we shall 
actually perform will be thought reasonable: I wish you however to 
understand me! that I expect to ensure the completion of this busi- 
ness by such surety as will be fully satisfactory to the Surveyor 
General. Will you be so kind as to inform by a line whether I may 
expect, to receive, pay for such surveying we may do by the time I 
next go to your office." — 

Please to tender my respects to M" Mansfield & Miss Mary 

I have the honor to be with much respect Your Ob* Serv' 

W" Rector 

Gen' Mansfield 

[Addressed] Jared Mansfield Esquire Surveyor Gen' of the U. S. 
Cincinnati 



WILLIAM RECTOR TO JARED MANSFIELD 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., m:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Feb' 3" 181L 
Sir I am fully persuaded that Government ought to pay for 
Surveying all the claims of individuals within this District, whether 
heretofore legally Surveyed or not. 

I have been induced to form this opinion from the following reasons 
Viz Because Government have directed that all the claims shall be 
Surveyed immediately and declare the object is to ascertain the vacant 
and unappropriated lands adjacent thereto. The most of the lines of 
these Surveys, not only serve to bound the claims but also become 

"No reply found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 147 

permanent boundaries to the lands of the United States. Is it then 
reasonable that Government should compel the claimants forthwith to 
Survey their lands when the avowed object is to ascertain and estab- 
lish the lines of the lands of the United States, especially as it is 
notorious that many of the claimants have not the means or power to 
raise money to pay the Surveying fees. 

The Surveyor of these claims, by contract with the Surveyor General 
stands bound in the penalty of three thousand dollars to complete the 
whole of the surveys of the claims within a short period, by which 
contract it appears that the Surveyor General agreeable to the present 
Law on the subject is only authorised to pay for Resurveying those 
claims that have heretofore been legally Surveyed. If then the 
Surveyor should proceed to lay off such claims as have not heretofore 
been Siirveyed agreeably to law, without being employed by the 
proprietors it is evident that he could not recover from them his fees 
for Surveying their lands. 

It cannot then be equitable for Government to require of an indi- 
vidual his Services and the considerable expenditures that is necessary 
to carry on a difficult & laborious business for the benefit of the U. 
States, without renumerating him for those services & expenditiires 

It is well known that the principal part of these claims are scattered 
through, that fertile tract of countiy, that is bounded by the Missis- 
sippi River from M'^Ilmurrays Station, to some distance above Wood 
river (occupying a base on said river of considerably more than one 
hundred miles) and that after the claims are satisfied a great part of 
these lands will remain the property of the United States — It cannot, 
then be politic for Govemm to compel the claimants to pay the fees 
for Surveying their lands, for in that case they would necessarily be 
allowed a reasonable time to do the business in, which in a remote 
country like this (chiefly inhabited by poor people who have not the 
means of raising money) would be several years. Therefore in that 
case the most desirable and valuable part of this Country would be 
kept out of market and in a savage & uncultivated State for a long 
time which it is plain would keep the country in a depressed state, and 
would prevent, considerable sums of money from going into the 
Treasury of the United States, which it is beleived would speedely 
arise from a sale of these lands. 

Should the Surveyor General, think with me, that an Act of Congress 
ought, to be passed providing for the payment of the fees for Sur- 
veying those claims, I hope he will forward to the Secretary of the 
Treasury this statement together with his opinion on the subject, or 
take such other course to procure the passage of a Law to that effect 
as he may deem advisable °° 

" No reply found. 



148 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

I have the honor to be with great respect your Ob' Hble Serv' 

W" Rector 
Gen' Mansfield 

In The opinion expressed in the foregoing letter we most fully agree, 
that the measure proposed is founded both in justice and good policy — 

E. Backus 
Mich: Jones 

[Addressed] Jared Mansfield Esquire Surveyor Gen' of the United 
States Cincinnati Ohio. — 

(Enclosure :ALS1 
Statement of Robert Robinson re Rector's claims 

I have seen M' William Rector's statement on the subject of the 
private Surveys, which are yet to be made in the Illinois & District 
of Kaskaskia — I cannot but think that his claim, under the peculiar 
situation of this Country, is reasonable & I believe that were the Sur- 
veys made at the expence of the U:S: it would be a Saving to the 
Government; as the claimants are not bound to survey; and as it 
must be an object with the U: S: to fix the boundary, as early as may 
be, between private and public property — 

Febr'y 3" 1811— 

R: Robinson AU:S: — 

District of Kaskaskia 

[Endorsed] The opinion of Mj' R. Robinson (United States Agent, 
relative to Land claims) respecting surveying private claims 



WILLIAM DOBBINS TO JARED MANSFIELD 
INA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., ni:ALSl 

Shawts'OE Town Feb" 4'" 1811 

Sir Yours of Nov"^ 2°'* " I had the pleasure to Recive And Note 
the Contents The Corrections Or Amendments you have Recom- 
mended Shall be Scrupulously Attended to And I have not a Doubt 
but that they Will be of Publick Utility And Amongst those Capable of 
Judging Will Meet With Universal Approbation — 

Agreeable to Your Instructions I did Commenc Surveying About 
the first of January But from the Inclemency of the Weather High 
Water & my progress has been Much Retarded But shall Without 
Instructions from you to the Contrary Continue here Untill the Busi- 
ness Is Compleated 

Any Orders Or Communications you May Chuse to Make please 
Direct to this place Many Appear Anxious to Know \Vhen the Lotts 

«• Post, p. 425. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 149 

Will be Sold I Should Thank you for Your Opinion On that Subject 
I Am Sir With Sentiments of Esteem your H.ble Serv' & 

W" Dobbins 
Jared Mansfield Esq"' 

[Addressed] Jared Mansfield Esquire Surveyor General U, States 
Cincinnatti [Postmarked] Shawnee Town February 25"" 25 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO SECRETARY 
POPE 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govt. Corr., 1809-13 :LS] 

TREASxmY Department Feb. 14. 1811. 

Sir, I have received your letter of the 1" of Jan'' last ^"^ with 
your contingent account for the 4'" quarter of the year 1810. 

The Judges of the Territory keep no office except that of their 
Clerk, who must of course provide his own stationary. It is not 
perceived that stationary for any official purpose can be required by 
the Judges. 

A reasonable charge for a screw for the official seal, will be allowed. 

I am respectfully Sir, your obed' Serv' 

—Albert Gallatin 

Nathaniel Pope Esq' Secretary of the Illinois TerritorJ^ 



PETITION TO CONGRESS BY JOHN SINGLETON AND 
OTHERS 

[LC:HF,11 Cong., 3 Sess.:ALS] 

[Referred February 14, 1811] 
To the Senate and House of Represetatives of the United States in Cong- 
ress assembled. 

The Pettition of John Singleton praying that Congress would grant 
him one Sexion of Land at the Mouth of Wood River on the Misissipi 
and the fraction if any then should be lying between the Said Sexion 
and the River for the purpose of laying out a Town in St Clair County 
Illionnoise Territory at two Dollars per acre to be Subject to the 
terms of payment as the other Lands of the United States are when- 
ever the Sales of the other Lands in the Said Township Shall commence 

John Singleton 

We whose names are here unto Subscribed do think that the place 
mentioned in the above Pettition is a convenient place for a Town 
and nessessary for the settlement that there should be one we therefore 
pray that Congress would grant the above Pettition agreeable to the 
Prayer thereof 

"• Not found. 



150 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



James Hall 
Joseph Bartlet 
Benja™ Carter 
Toliver wright 
W" Ogle 

Wm Montgomery 
Rezin Reagan 
John Hamilton 
James Hamilton 
Sam' Rhodes 
Martin Wood 
James Stockton 
Davis Price 
Davis Stockton 
Jacob Whiteside 
John Powel 
John Bateast Allare 
Thomas Gillhim 
Rowland Huitt 
Jn° Robeson 
Joshua Vond 
Chales Desherly 
Samuel Yeaton 
Isaac Gilham 
H Gillham 
Joseph M'Cormik 
Micael Dod 
George Sanders 
Orman Beeman 
Jacob Whitson 
Rydorus C Gillham 
James Gillham 
James Smith 
Davis Whiteside 
John J Whiteside 
J»" B Moore 
W" Rutherford 
John L Whiteside 
David Everitt 
Matthew J Cox 
John Scott 
John Jarvis Jun 
Samuel Scott 
W^illiam Adams 
Charles Warker 
James Pulliam 
W" L Whitesde 

[Endorsed] Petition of John Singleton of the Illinois Territory. 
Feb^ 14. 1811. Referred committee on the Public Lands.**— Pet- 
ti tion 



James Talbott 
Tho' H Talbott 
William Kinney 
Samuel Chears 
Robert Pulleam 
George Moore 
John Rusell 
Martain Prewet 
Phillimen Higgins Sen 
Thos Blankenship 
Sollomon Prewett 
James Prewett 
William Prewett 
Sam' Whilliams 
Uel Whiteside 
John forgeeson 
W" Whiteside 
Absolom AVoolams 
William Gillham Jr 
Isaac Forgson 
Isaac Smith 
Abraham Pruit 
Joseph Edun 
William W Arnett 
John Forgeson 
John Starkey 
Jesse Starkey 
William forgeson 
William Huitt 
William regan 
george harmon 
Upton Smith 
J P Davidson 
William Jones 
Richard Rattan 
Abel Moore 
William Moore 
John Finley 
John Vicary 
Philimon Higgens 
Joshua Talbott 
Arthur Morgan 
Elijah Talbott 
Jacob Clark 
John Primm Jun 
Mich' Masterson 



Mb House Journal, 11 Cong., 3 sess., p. 260. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 151 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOHN McARTHUR 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book Q] 

16 Feh'^ 1811 
John IVPArthur St. Gene\-ieve Louis. Terr^ 

The PM. at Cahokia states that for five Weeks preceding the 25'" 
Dec' last that yovoc rider had not called at his office with the mail — I 
have directed that $100 be retained from your pay until a satisfactory 
explanation be given 

GG 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOHN MESSINGER 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book Q] 

16 Feh'^ 1811 
J. Messixger PM. Clinton 111. Terr'' 

It is the duty of the PM. at Kaskaskia & of every other PM. to 
forward letters to the places to which they are addressed 

GG 



PETITION TO CONGRESS BY INHABITANTS OF THE 

TERRITORY 

[LC:HF, 11 Cong., 3 sess.:DS] 

[Referred February 21, 1811] 
To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 

States in Congress assembled 

The petition of the undersigned inhabitants of the East end of 
Illinois Territory Respectfully sheweth that the have Saw two peti- 
tions signed by a number of the inhabitants of this Territory adressed 
to your Body the one in opesition to the other the first of these we 
obgect to for the reasons aduced by the second to the second we 
obgect for its being so Contracted and Illiberal in asking only a 
faavour for the few that has been so fortunate as to have obtained 
permits from the Regesters of the Land office We your petitioners 
humbly Conceives that in our openions that would be unjust for thare 
is in the temtory a Large number of setlers Especially in this Ende 
of it that had not an oppertunity of obtaining permits none haveing 
been Granted to any that was supposed to be within the boundry 
designated by Governor Harrison for the use of the United states 
saline Lick a boundry of atlest thirty miles Long on the Ohio River 
and Extendin about twenty miles from said River including more good 
Land than Can be shown in as much bounds in any other part of the 
Territory we your petitioners hope that you in your wisdon will Grant 
to Each and Every actual setler on the unsold publick Lands in the 



152 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



Territory one quarter Section of Land including their improvement 
at the price fixed by Goverment or that may hereafter be fixed that 
is if the are able to Comply with said terms if not let it be solde to 
him that will give the moste for it he paying the setler a resonabl 
recompence for his improvement this will be doing Equal Justice to 
all and not Grindig the face of the poor by making Sale of their Labour 
which is as much theirs as any other spcious of property the holde 
you have already Granted and ordered a Town to be Lade of at 
Shawenee Town in said bounc}ry above mentioned we hope you will 
fix and Establish a certain boundry for said Lick sufficient to suply 
the Lick with wood for Ever, and at the Largest Calculation three or 
four miles on Each side of the Saline Creek be ginning as far above 
the woorks as will be thought necessary Extending down to the mouth 
of said Creek which will be amply sufficiant your petitioners further 
prayeth that you would grant to Each man actually setled in the 
boundry Lade of for a town one in and out Lot nearest to their Several 
improvements and also give them the privelege of moveing their 
Houses and fences unto said lots the paying the price for said lots set 
by goverment as a number of them has made Consitherable improve- 
ments and has Laboured under many dificultyes and through them 
the place is become valuable and your petitioners as in duty bound 
will Ever pray &c 



Samuel F Carlisle 
Wm P Cool 
Bamy Braceler 
Henry Kenyon 
J Campbell 
Charles Linn 
Joseph Green 
Charles Ewing 
James Fraziaur 

D, Trimble 

E, A, Keeling 
James Kelly 
Charles Edets 
Simon M. Hubbard 
Charles Stewart 
Abrem Stanley 
Geo, Robinson 
Emanuel Ensminger 
M S Davenport 
Walker Scanland 
Tho, Robinson 
Joshua Sexton 
Adrian Davenport 
Harris Wilson 
Jeremiah Vinson 



Samuel Robb 
John Wilson 
Cronton " Wilson 
John Murphy 
Ossbom Powell 
Mikel Cambell 
Thonton tanby " 
Jeames Linn 
James Smith 
Ruben Cambell 
James Willes 
Jacob Willes 
John Choissen 
William Kinchlow 
Isaac Davis 
John Reid 
John young 
John Davis 
Isaac Morgin 
Enoch Brown 
John Forrester 
John Damewood 
Wardnar Buck 
Fredrick Buck 
Jacob Zellars 



" Reading uncertain. 
•• Reading uncertain. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 153 

A Davenport Jur Alexander Lomax 

Otho Davenport Samuel Mcclure 

William West Alex'^"' Wilson 

John Craw John Robinson Jn' 

James Nathan Alex"' Robinson 

Gabriel Voodrey W" Robinson 

Alexander Druer John Robinson Sn' 

Charles Dmer Ge" Robinson Jn"' 

Ephraim Hubbard Sen'' James Wiseman 

William Akers Samuel Devall 

Robert M'^Mullen John W Langford 

Henry Boyers John Kersey 

Isaac Mclsack Henry Green 

John Reybum Lewis Dewall 

Jonathan Hampton David Uley 
William Standlee 

[Endorsed] Petition of sundry inhabitants of the East End of the 
Illinois territory— 21" Feb^ 1811. Ref'* to the Committee on the 
Public Lands.'" M' Lyon ref"" lands 



PETITION TO CONGRESS BY GEORGE ROBINSON AND 
OTHERS 
[LC:HF, 11 Cong., 3 sess.:ADS] 

[Referred February 23, 1811] 

To the Congress of the United States, The Petition of George 
Robison in behalf of himself & the Inhabitants of Shawnee Town & its 
Vicinity in the fe diana Illinois Territory Most respectfully Represents 
that the Country on & Near the Ohio & Wabash rivers is Surveyed 
& ready for sale. That there are many Setlers on said Lands who wish 
to purchase, they have also many friends in the States Easterly & 
Southerly of the Said Territory who wish to become purchasers of the 
public lands in that part of the Said Territory — That There is but 
one land office in the Indiana Territory which is at Kaskaskias many 
hundred miles from some parts of those lands which are to be offerd 
for sale, That there is a Wilderness of very considerable extent between 
the whole of the said Country & Kaskaskias, which will long remain 
such for want of Wood & Water — That great Inconvenience will 
attend the Setlers aforesaid should they be oblidged to go to Kas- 
kaskias to attend to their Land business there. That this Circum- 
stance will tend to discourage purchasers and very much retard the 
Settlement of the Country as well as the payments for land into the 
Treasury. 

That Congress haveing at their last session Established a Town 
where many of your petitioners live by ordering a portion of the 

" House Journal, Vii, 565. 



154 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

public land to be Surveyed into small lots the price of one of which 
can not be as much as the Expence of going to Kaskaskias to pay 
for it — Your petitioners from these Considerations are induced to 
hope that Congress will see the Necessity of Establishing a land 
office ftt at Shawnee town or some other place in the Illinois Territory 
near the Ohio River — for which as in duty bound we most respectfully 
pray 

George Robison for 
himself & the people mentioned 
in the Petition — 

[Endorsed] Petition of George Robinson, in behalf of himself and 
the people of Shawnee town and its vicinity, in the Illinois territory. 
23-^ Feby. 1811. Ref to the Committee on the Public Lands." The 
petition of George Robison & others praying for the Establishment 
of a Land office on the Ohio River in the Illinois Territory— M' Lyon 
ref" lands 



NICHOLAS BOILVIN TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD,SWDF:LS "1 

Georgetown March 5'" 1811. 

Sir Prairie des chiens is on the left bank of the Mississippi, 
Illinois Territory, about Six miles above the mouth of the Ouisconsin 
and 700 Miles, by estimation above S' Louis tho' the distance is prob- 
ably overrated, as a well manned boat is able to ascend from the latter 
to the former place in about 10 days, but it generally take double the 
time for a loaded boat to perform the Same route. 

The plat of ground on which the village Stands may be Said to 
be an island of about three miles long and about one mile broad; 
but in the Season of low water, the back channel is dry, except 
when it forms a small pond or lake, which may be easily drained — In 
fine the back channel, is nothing more than a Small creek or bayou. 

Prairie des chiens is an old Indian town which was sold by the Indians 
to the Canadian traders, about thirty years ago; where they have 
eversince rendezvoused, and dispersed their merchandize in various 
directions. The Indians also sold them at the same time a tract of 
land measuring six leagues up and down the river, and about six 
leagues back of it. The village contains about 30. or 40. houses." 

" House Journal, vii, 570. 

" A version of this letter, under date of Feb. 2, 1811, is printed in Washbume 
(ed.), Edwards Papers (CHC, ni), 59-63, and in WHSC, XI, 247-253, based on 
what is presumably a draft found among the Edwards Papers in CHS. There 
are a sufficient number of variations between the different versions to justify 
the publication here of the original letter. 

^ At this point there is inserted in the Washbume (Edwards) version the 
short paragraph which in this printing follows Boilvin's first signatttfe. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 155 

[If is one of those I bought at public auction from Nich'Jarot" Esq' 
administrator on the estate of the late M' Campbell agent, the 
property is bounded on the south side by the property of the company 
of Mackinna, on the north side, by the property of M"' Dixon, and 
extends east and west from the river Mississippi to the Bayou S' 
Frist.'^ The improvements on it are: One house sixty feet front about 
twenty five feet deep, covered with bark, One ditto new thirty feet 
by Twenty five, not quite finished, One kitchen and Milk house, and 
two old buildings for Stables, and a Spacious garden about four 
acres fenced in with about 2000 Cedar posts: On the back part of the 
property is a Small iminence which has always been considered as the 
most Suitable place for a fort, Such is the description of the property 
which I acknowledge to have Sold to the government of the United 
States, from whom I also acknowledge to have received five Hundred 
Dollars for the full pajTnent of the Same. 

N: BoiLViN] 

There lives on the tract of land mentioned above about 32 famillies; 
so that the whole settlement contains about 100 families; the men 
are generally french Canadians who have mostly maried Indian wives: 
Perhaps not more than 12 white females are to be found in the Set- 
tlement. 

These people attend to the cultivation of their land, which are 
extremely fertile — They raise considerable quantities of siu-plus prod- 
uce, particularly wheat and corn — They annually dispose of about 
Eighty thousand weight of flour to the traders," and Indians besides 
great quantities of meal, and the quantity of surplus produce would 
be greatly increased, if a suitable demand existed for it — All kind of 
vegetables florish in great perfection and such is the beauty of the 
climate, that the country begins to attract the attention of settlers- 
Different fruit trees have lately been planted, and promise to grow 
well — 

Prairie des Chiens is surrounded by numerous Indian tribes who 
generally depend on it for their supply, it is annually visited by at 
least 6000 Indians, and hitherto they have resorted to the Canadians 
traders for goods; because our own apprehended much danger, in 
attempting to carry on a trade with them: particularly as the Cana- 
dians generally prevail on the Indians either to plunder them, or to 
drive them away. Only one trader of our own ventured into that 
quarter during the last year 

'* Bracketed portion (brackets are editorial) is not found in the Washburne 
version. 

" See A.S.P., Pub. Lands, v, 312. 

" The number of acres by estimation should be stated. [Marginal note on 
the MS.] 

" State the price of grain. [Marginal note on the MS.] 



156 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Great dangers, both to individuals and to the Government, is to be 
apprehended from the Canadians; they endeavor to incite the Indians 
against us, partly to monopolise their trade, and partly to secure 
their friendship, in case a war should breack out between us and 
England — they are constantly making large presents to the Indians 
which the latter consider as a sign of approaching war, and under 
this impression frequently apply to me for advice on the subject 
hitherto I have been able to keep them friendly — 

The United States have it in their power, by the adoption of one 
simple measure, to turn the current of Indian trade on the upper 
Mississippi, and to put an end to the subsisting intercourse between 
the Canadian traders and the Indians. Prairie des chiens from its 
central position is well calculated for a garrison and factory; it affords 
health — plenty of fine timber, and good water, But as the Indians 
are numerous, a garrison at that place will require at least two com- 
panies of men — The Sacs, Foxes and lyowais Can be as well supplied 
at that place as at Fort Madisson '* particularly as they have mostly 
abandoned the chase, except to furnish themselves with meat, and 
turned their attention to the manufacture of lead, which they procure 
from a mine about Sixty miles below prairie des chiens . During the 
last season, they manufactured four hundred thousand pounds of 
that article, which they exchanged for goods. The Sioux and other 
Indians in that quarter have excellent mines, and might be easily 
prevailed on to open them; especially as the profits of this manufac- 
ture are much greater and less precarious, then the laborious pursuit 
of peltries. — A few tools will be necessary for them, and perhaps a 
blacksmith to repair them would be of great use. 

As soon as the Indians in general turn their attention to lead, the 
Canadian traders, will wholly abandon the country, as they have no 
use of that article, at least in the way of commerce, to encourage 
then the manufacture of lead requires only the adoption of the meas- 
ures I have mentioned. The factory at Prairie des chiens ought to 
be well supplied with goods, and lead ought to be received in exchange 
for the merchandise. This trade would be the more valuable to the 
United States, as lead is not a perishable article, and is easily trans- 
ported; whereas peltries are bulky, and large quantities are annually 
spoiled, before they reach the market — Under such a system the 
Canadian trade would be extinguished — 

I have not the least doubt but that William Morris Esq' of Kas- 
kaskia would supply the troops at Prairie des chiens as cheap if not 
cheaper than any body else, perhaps at 35. perhaps at 30 Cents p' 
ration. This gentleman is as able to furnish as any other man in 

" Fort Madison, on the site of the present city of the same name, was estab- 
lished in 1808 by Lt. Alpha Kingsley ("Fort Madison", AnnaU of Iowa, ser. 3, 
lu, 97-110). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 157 

the country, as he is a merchant of extensive business, and has most 
of the people in his debt. At any rate I am convinced that I can 
procure the rations to be furnished at Prairie des Chiens as cheap as 
they are now furnished at Fort Madison — 

I have the honor to be Sir with esteem Your obedient Servant '° — 

N: BoiLViN "«' 

[The ^^ land adjoining the buildings sold to the United States, at 
Prairie des Chiens, aforementioned contains on estimate about Forty 
acres — 

Flour, can always be purchased at Prairie des Chiens at three 
Dollars p CWt — & Com at Seventy five cents p Bushel] 

[Addressed] The Honorable The Secretary War City Washington 

[Endorsed] Georgetown, 5"" Mar: 1811 Nich^ Boilvin — a descrip- 
tion of Prairie des Chiens — stating the advantages which would be 
derived to the U. S. from the Establishment of a Garrison & Factory 
at that place. ReC* 8"" March 1811 file 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO ELIAS RECTOR 
[NA:WD. SW Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 5] 

War Department, March 8. 1811. 
Brig' Gen' Eli as Rector, 

Sir, Enclosed herewith you will receive a Commission as Brigadier 
General of the Militia of the Illinois Territory. You will please to 
notify this Department of your acceptance." 

I am &c — 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO GEORGE ROBINSON 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book Q] 

20 March 1811 
Geo Robinson PM Shawnee Illenois 1^ 

The 2" set of Papers were sent you by mistake. We have settled 
with your Agent Col. Lyon for carrying the mail to Livingston C^ K^ 
& expect you to continue in that service till 1 Ocf 1811 

GG. 



" See the Secretary of War to Boilvin, Mar. 14, 1811 (NA, OIA, SW, Lets. 
Sent, Bk. C, printed, Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., xiv), appointing Boilvin Indian 
agent at Prairie du Chien. 

™ Bracketed portion (brackets are editorial) is in the Washburne version. 

" See the Secretary of War to Edwards, Mar. 12, 1811 (Edwards Papers, 
CHS, printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, p. 535), advising of the former's error in naming 
Elias rather than William Rector, and instructing that the commission be returned 
for correction. 



158 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO LEONARD WHITE 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book Q] 

20 March 1811 
Leon"" White PM U. S. Saline 111' Terr" 

In answer to yours of the 11"" Ulto '^ I have to remark that the 
2" set of Papers were forwarded by mistake 

G. G. 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO MICHAEL JONES 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 2) 

Treasury Department, Afril 18"" 1811. 
Michael Jones Esq'' Register of the Land Office Kaskaskia 

Sir, I wish to obtain your opinion respecting the propriety of com- 
mencing the public sale for lands in your District. Cannot a tract, or 
some tracts be selected particularly along the Ohio sufficiently clear 
of private claims and of which the surveys have been returned? 

Referring you to my letter of 16'" January last,*' I must repeat that 
the Register and Receiver have ceased to exist as a board of Com- 
missioners, and I want only their opinion annexed to each Governors 
confirmation. 

I foresee that the omission on the part of the Commissioners to 
transmit the substance of the evidence in the rejected claims will give 
rise to a new investigation, as Congress for want of that evidence 
cannot form an opinion of the correctness of the Commissioners's 
decision. 

It has upon several occasions been stated to me that claimants have 
been refused their papers or copies of the decisions against them on 
the ground that I had given instructions to that effect. You know 
that my instructions extended only to a prohibition of giving copies of 
decisions, which were liable to revision by the board itself, until the 
business was completed and the reports & transcripts required by 
law had been made to Congress. Without pretending to prescribe 
any rule respecting papers, the safe keeping of which is entrusted by 
law to the Register, and the preservation of which may in many 
instances be essential to support the Commissioners decisions and to 
repel improper claims, I will only observe, that so far as relates to any 
instructions from this Department on that subject, or rather on that 
of communicating the decisions or the evidence on which they rested, 
they have ceased to exist from the moment the reports of the Com- 
missioners were made, and that in those respects the Register must 
exercise his own discretion. 

•• Not found. 
» Ante, p. 144. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 159 

It has been suggested that Commissioners had asserted that they 
acted by my instructions in carrying on the examination of witnesses 
with shut doors. I do not pretend to give any opinion respecting that 
practice which under existing circumstances may have been proper. 
But as no such instructions were given by this Department, I presume 
the report to be unfounded.'* 

I have the honor to be &c. 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA: WD, SWDF: ALS] 

Kaskaskia Randolph Cty Illinois Territory Aipril 27. 1811 
Sir By the last mail I was honored with your letter of the 12 March 
on the subject of the appointment of a Brigadier Genl of the Militia 
of this territory.^' I immediately made it a point to see Elias Rector 
(who is the adjutant genl of the territory) concerning the mistake 
which has occm-ed he informed me that he had not Received any letter 
from you but that if the commission should arrive that he w* immedi- 
ately give it to me for the purpose mentioned by you. Of this you 
need entertain no doubt. And as the mail is so very uncertain, if you 
choose (to avoid delay) to send me a commission for William Rector, 
It shall not be delivered till the other shall be returned 
Very respectfully I am Sir Y" Mo ob' S' 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Honble William Eustis Esq"' Secretary of War 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia. Ill: T: April 27. 1811. Ninian Edwards 
relative to a commission of Brig: General. Rec" May 24, 1811 *° 



MATTHEW IRWIN TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA: WD, SWDF: ALS] 

Chicago 13'" May, 1811. 
Sir, We have had intelligence communicated to us, from some 
confidential Indians, purporting that, in the early part of the ensuing 
Summer, an assemblage of Puttawattamis, Shawanese & Kikapoo 
Chiefs, with their tribes, is to take place at the mouth of the Theakiki 
river *' (about forty-five miles from this place,) which is a branch of 

^ Reply not found. A copy of this letter was sent by the Secretary of the 
Treasury to Governor Edwards, Apr. 18, 1811 (NA, GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 2) . 
85 Edwards Papers (CHS), printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, p. 535. 
8« Answered post, p. 160. 
" Kankakee River. 



160 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

the Illinois; and, after the objects of the meeting are developed, are to 
proceed to the British Garrison at Amherstburgh, which is in Canada, 
18 miles from Detroit. 

It is supposed the assemblage, if it takes place, will owe its origin 
to the Shawanese Prophet; and that the result of it will be hostile (in 
the event of a war with Great Britain) to our Country! This infor- 
mation, I convey to you. Sir, as I received it, without being able to 
answer for its authenticity; but, nevertheless, deem it of sufficient 
importance to communicate; and am. With considerations of Great 
respect, Sir, your most Ob' Serv* 

M. Irwin 

The Hon"'* The Secretary of War, Washington. 

[Endorsed] Chicago IS'* May 1811 M. Irwin, relative to the 
hostile disposition of the Potawattime & other Indians. Rece** 14'" 
June, 1811 »« 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[NA: WD, SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 5] 

War Department May 25. 1811 
Gov' Edwards 

Sir Your letter of the 27"" April ult° has been received.*' I now 
inclose herewith a Commission for W" Rector appointing him Briga- 
dier General of the Illinois Territory, which you will please to have 
delivered to him. 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO GOVERNOR 

EDWARDS 

[NA-.GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 2] 

Treasury Depm' 31" May 1811 
Sir, Your letter of 24"' ult" '* has together with its enclosures been 
laid before the President of the U. S, who has approved the lease of the 
Lead Mine to W" Ficklin. The copy of my letter to you of May 28'" 
1810." on that subject having been mislaid, I will thank you to 
furnish me with a copy, in order that it may be recorded in this Office. 
I have &ca. 
His Excellency Ninian Edwards Esq"^ Gov' Illinois Territory. 

>s No reply found. 
" Ante, p. 159. 
»» Not found. 
•' Avie, p. 105. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 161 

THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO ROBERT 
ROBINSON 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 2] 

Treasury Depmt, June 10" 1811 
Sir, Your letter of 18" ult" has been received.'^ The board of Land 
Commissioners at Kaskaskia ceased to exist as such when their reports 
were made. But I sent them copy of that on Governor's confirma- 
tions not for further investigation, but merely in order that they 
should add, as they ought at first to have done, their opinion on each 
case. Instead of this they had only made a special report on those 
confirmations, tending to discredit them generally, without enabling 
Congress to judge which of them were unobjectionable. I did not 
authorize, for I had not the power to authorize a new investigation & 
the calling of witnesses; nor could I after the reports made as afore- 
said consider you any longer as the Clerk of a Tribunal, not longer 
existing. There could not have been any misapprehension on that 
subject if my letter of 23" May 1810 '' enclosing copies of these Gov- 
ernor's confirmations had been received. As it was not received, & the 
Commissioners of course had no instructions whatever, how these 
could have been misunderstood, or rather why they acted at all, is 
not understood. Still I am perfectly satisfied that both they and you 
acted with a view to the public service & it is therefore my desire that 
youi- advances for witnesses & fees may be reimbursed. If you will 
before the meeting, of Congress transmit an account of the same, it 
will be submitted to the Land Committee, in order that an appropria- 
tion may, if practicable, be obtained. That no further expenses should 
in the mean while be incurred, is evident.'^ 
I am &ca. 

R. Robinson Esq"^ late Clerk of the Land Commissioners Kaskaskia. 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO GOVERNOR 

EDWARDS 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 2] 

Treasury Depm* 22* June, 1811. 
Sir, I had the honor to receive your letter of 10'" ult".'' It 
seems proper from the tenor of the Bond of which you sent me copy, 
that it should be lodged for collection in the Bank of Kentucky, and 
that notice of it should be given to the Lessees. Payment will be 
received at the Bank or at its Lexington Branch 

•2 Not found. 
" Avie, p. 103. 
" Reply not found. 
« Not found. 



162 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Is it explicitly understood that the alteration in the price of salt 
and reduction in the rent are definitively agreed on? and is the price 
of salt reduced accordingly? It does not seem just that a delay in 
signing should leave with the Lessees the alternative of confirming or 
rejecting the Agreement as they please. 

I have &ca. 

His Excellency N. Edwards Sidney Grove, Illinois Territory 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Elvirade" Randolph County Illinois Territory June 27. 1811 

Sir I have the honor to inform you that the party who pursued 
the Indians that committed the murder which I communicated in my 
letter of the 22 Inst " were not fortunate enough to overtake them. 

Since then five Pottawattimies who resided near Peoria were de- 
scending the Missisippi river near one Squires ferry just as he was 
crossing a family in his boat. On discovering the boat the Indians 
immediately made towards it. Squires repeatedly by words and signs 
which could not be misunderstood ordered them not to advance on 
him which proving ineffectual he fired at and mortally wounded one 
of them who by accounts since received was a chief 

Today I have heard of another white man being killed on the 
frontiers, but I do not know that the report is to be relied on. A 
considerable number of Indians from those bands that appear to be 
most hostile are collecting on our frontier near the Missisippi — They 
descend the Illinois in Canoes. 

In consequence of those appeares & unfavorable prospects i have 
deemed as a necessary precaution, I have issued orders to erect a chain 
of block houses in advance of the settlements at about twenty miles 
from each other commencing on the bank of the Illinois river, and a 
sufficient force to be distributed among them, with orders to scout 
from one to another every day, to give notice of all parties who may 
be coming into the settlements & persue the trial 

Those stationed on the bank of the river I have directed to permit 
no Indians to pass who cannot give a satisfactory account of the 
object of their visit— and to effect this it would be very desii-able to 
have a small part of the military force stationed near S' Louis, to 
assist me — 



•< The name of Edwards's home farm, named in honor of his wife (Stevens, 
"111. in War 1812", Trans. III. Slate Hist Soc, 1901^, p. 141). 

" NA (WD, SWDF), enclosing a copy of a letter from William Whiteside, 
June 21, 1811 (present), printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, p. 287, but without the 
enclosure. See Edwards to Whiteside, June 18 and June 22, 1811, ibid., pp. 
284-286, 287-288, concerning measures of defense. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 163 

All the accounts which I have received relative to the Prophet 
agree that he is embodying a considerable force on the Wabash, that 
it is daily increasing, and that his object is to strike one grand and 
decisive stroke as soon as he is prepared. 

These circumstances produce such alarm & distress among the 
people as is difficult to be conceived and I am earnestly entreated by 
them & warmly pressed by the officers of this government to solicit 
the aid & protection of so much of the regular military force as can be 
spared without a material injury to the interest of the United States — 
Many eligible situations for a garrison could be pointed out, and 1 
beg leave to observe, in addition to the above, that no territory can 
be more exposed than this & none is worse prepared to defend itself 
for I do not believe that more than one man in ten is furnished with a 
rifle. 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sr ¥"■ M° Obd' S' 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Honble W" Eustis Esq' War Depart" Washington City 

PS I have the honor to enclose a copy a letter which I yesterday 
rec" under cover from Gen' Clarke '* 

I should be happy if any plan could be devised for supplying this 
territory with arms from the manufactory of the United I would 
agree to be responsible either for them if delivered to me or what they 
would sell for to the citizens — 

I have the honor to be Sir ¥■■ Ob' S' N Edwards 

[Endorsed] Elvirade June 27. 1811 Gov"' Edwards— relative to the 
Indians, asks the aid of a Milita force & arms, inclosing a letter 
to Gen' Clark.— ReC July 17"' 1811 »» 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO JARED 

MANSFIELD 

[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., m:LS] 

Treasury Department July 2>^ 1811 

Sir The Land Commissioners of the Kaskaskia district having 

made their report on private claims, I request, with a view to the 

public sales, that you will state 1. what tract or tracts of land within 

that district have been surveyed and subdivided into quarter Sections. 

" Not present and not seen. See also Edwards to the Secretary of War, June 
7, 1811 (NA, WD, SWDF, printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, pp. 285-286), relative to 
Indian depredations and the need for an interpreter. This was answered June 
26, 1811 (NA, OIA. SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C; NA, WD, SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 5, 
printed Edwards, op. cit., p. 536). 

" Answered July 18, 1811 (NA, OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C), approving calling 
out the militia, but expressing regret at its necessity. 



164 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

2" What portion of the Tract appears from M"' Rectors returns to be 
free of private claims; 3" whether all the private claims founded on 
old grants & settlement rights or otherwise already located have been 
surveyed & the returns thereof made to your office. 
I am very respectfully Sir your obed' Serv' 

— Albert Gallatin 

Jared Mansfield Esq' Surv"' General Cincinnati 

[Addressed\ Jared Mansfield Esq' Surveyor General Cincinnati 
[Postmarked] Wash" City Jul 6 Treasury Departm' — Albert Gallatin 
Free 

[Endorsed] W Gallatins Letter July 3" 1811 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Randolph County Illinois Territory July 6. 1811 

Sir I have the honor to inform you that a Captain of the militia 
whom I had sent out on a scouting party has sent in an express to me 
with information of several other murders ha\'ing been committed 
by the Indians on the frontiers — 

Such is the terror produced by actual and threatened hostility that 
the country exhibits a perfect scene of distress — Whole settlements of 
considerable extent are deserted, many families are moving from all 
parts of the territory to Kentucky and the total loss of many crops is 
inevitable. 

This is the only territory yet attacked it is the least able to defend 
itself and is daily getting weaker from the causes above mentioned 
I therefore hope I may take the liberty to solicit aid from the regular 
army and as many fire arms as can with propriety be allotted us or 
as can be entrusted with me to dispose of in any way for the joint 
advantage of the U. S. and the security of the territory. The people 
have not arms, nor can they buy them, because there are very few 
brought to this country for sale and those are sold at the most ex- 
orbitant prices. 

I have ordered out three companies of the Militia for our defense 
And as the movements of considerable bodies of men always produce 
a great effect on Indians, this may prevent us at present from being 
attacked, but there is no security for peace — 

In fact I ettft btrt consider peace as totally out of the question. 
We need never expect it till the Prophets party is dispersed and the 
bands of Pottowattimies about the Illinois river are cut off. 

Hostility with them is grown into a habit — there is no reason to 
believe that they will make sufficient satisfaction for the murders they 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 165 

committed and the goods & horses which they stole last year or for 
the very agravated and increased instances of similar hostilities in the 
present year, nor do I suppose that the government of the U. S. will 
be disposed to submit to such conduct, since it is evident that the most 
dangerous consequences must result from this kind of forbearance — 

At present we have no cause of quarrel but with those Indians to 
whom I have alluded in this there is nothing to induce other tribes to 
make a common cause with them. By punishing those who have 
aggressed on us we would deter others — By permitting those aggres- 
sions to be repeated and to pass unpunished all other tribes will cease 
to fear us, in which case we would have good cause to fear them, for 
in that situation they are always dangerous, because they then are 
never to be trusted. 

We have no prospect of ever gaining any thing from the prophets 
friendship — We have nothing to fear and much to hope for from 
hostility towards him — for such is the inveteracy of his enmity, that it 
cannot be increased, nor can his disposition to injure and annoy us be 
rendered more operative — (Energetic measures would lessen his 
power of forming coalitions with other tribes by manifesting his 
inability to resist us, and the danger to which they would subject 
themselves by uniting with him).' 

And indeed the situation in which he places us is the most mortifying 
and embarrassing — Whilst he offers us every insult, encouraging the 
villainous outcasts and vagabonds to attack our frontiers, whilst he is 
soliciting coalitions against us, collecting his forces and making every 
preparation with the avowed object of committing hostilities — we have 
not the power of taking any efficient measures to arrest his progress. 

If we do not make preparation to meet him an attack is certain, if 
we make preparation formidable enough to deter him, tho no war 
actually take place, we have to encounter all the expenses, incon- 
veniences & injury to which war with him would subject us — And 
there seems to be no reasonable ground to hope for a change for the 
better. Whilst he is permitted to increase his strength from im- 
punity — This much I have felt it my duty to suggest from the danger 
to which this territory in common with the adjacent ones is sub- 
jected — I forbear to enlarge on the subject, least I might be supposed 
to be too presumptious or to Transgress the rules which the strictest 
propriety and decorum impose on me 

I am at a loss to loiow how the militia of this territory are to be paid. 
The territory is unable to pay them and as there were no troops 
here like there were in the adjacent territories and as this was in 
every point even more defenceless than either the necessity for order- 
ing the militia into service was very obvious yet the measure was not 

' Parentheses on the original; they appear to have been added at some later date. 



166 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

taken without the best advice and the utmost deliberation. The 
mail rout by Vincennes is now considered very dangerous & therefore 
conveyances thro that channel are very uncertain should you 
therefore have any instructions to give me I suggest the propriety 
of sending duplicates one to come tkfe TcDncsao by Russelsville in 
Ky, the other by Vincennes.* 

I have the honor to be with the highest resp' Sir Your mo Obd' S* 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Hon"'* William Eustis Esq' War Department Washington 
City 

[Endorsed] Randolph County Illinois Territory July 6*" 1811. 
Gov' Edwards states the outrages of the Indians, his is the only 
territory attacked & least able to defend — has heard of several 
murders, peace out of the question — thinks the Prophet should be 
punished — has ordered out three companies of Militia — wants aid 
from the Army &c. Rec" Augt. 7'" 1811^ From Gov' Edwards to 
the Sec'' of War Illinois Terr^ July 6. 1811 — relative to Indian Affairs 
in that quarter. — 



NICHOLAS BOILVIN TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

MISISIPIE Riviere a la roc le 1 juliele 1811 a La mine Le 10 
A MoNSiEURE Le Trais honorrable SaicretaireDeGaireW justice 
Monsieur — Depuis que jais Laissez Wachintone dou jais hus 
Lhoneure De recevoire mais EnstucSiont de vous poure La preris du 
Chient je nais hus rien de nouvaux a vous aprandre quil merrite 
votre atenssiont, jais qu aujourdhuis que jarrive dans Le cceure des 
nassiont a La riviere a la roche ou Tous Les Sac et Les renard Sont 
rassembles poure tennire consaiye et Savoire Les nouvelle que ja 
porte poure heux de Leure pere Lamerriquien, il Sont baucoup 
Enyaisu de voire Le Convoy quil me Suis, a La mine au daifent 
dubuc qui a Etez vendus Et adguges a M' more Ede Et Le Collonelle 
Smite Et veulle En prendre possessiont centre La vollontez des 
Sauvage quil Si oppose, dissent quil Lavoit donnfe Sette mine a M' 
Dubuc que poure Sa vie durrente, Et aprais que Sa Leure retournerrais 
a Leure nassiont, je Sui Enbarrasse de La maniere de mi prendre 
poure quil Lhuis Eye point dacsidant quil puise arrivez jus qua Se 
que jaiye recu Des Enstrucs Siont, de vous, que Sil doive Li\Tes I^a 
mine ou nous, que Sais de La pare du Gouvernement quil La Livres 

» See Edwards to the Secretary of War, June 20, 1811 (NA,WD,SWDF, printed, 
Edwards, Hisl. III., pp. 286-287), reporting murders by Indians, the abduction 
of Rebecca Cox, and enclosing the latter's affidavit (present in NA, op. eit., 
but not printed). 

• No reply found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 167 

ponre, LOrse il ni aiiras acune dificultez mais petaitre quelque mecon- 
tantement, tous Les Sioux En Grende caultitez Sont venus amont 
absence a la preris du Chient Et mont atendus Lhongtans poure me 
voire Et Savoire Des nouvelle de Leure pere, Sure Leure SituasSiont, 
voyent que je narrivais poins M' Roc Enterprete que javais Lessez 
a ma plase, Les a renvoyez En Leure donnant quelque provissiont, 
Et il ont Laissez tous Leure pipe Et Leure parrolle a la maisont a la 
Preris du Chien En me priEnt de Leure Envoye M' Roc a mont 
arrive Leure portez Les nouvelle Et une pipe de tabac poure fumes 
Et un peut du Lais de Leure pere qui Est wiskay poure boire un coup, 
jai Suis faChez de ne mi Etre pas trouve vus que que tout Les difair- 
rente nassiont Etois tous rassembles poure tennire Consaiye, baucoup 
de Sauvage Sont alles voire Les En Glais au daitrois vus quil Sont 
demendes de Leure pere LenGlais, mais il ni as aucun Chefe Con- 
sidairres dalles que dois jeune Cout, je vous Ecrirres Le ReSultas de 
mont arrive a la preris du Chient je nais point EnCore reSus Les 
medalle que vous avie ordonnes de menvoy nis Les anuitez poure Les 
Sac Et Renard. Le Generalle Clarke mapromis de vous Envoye Les 
Deux paux dourse que vous mav^e Recommendes Et poure Les 
present Sauvage je vous Les Envoirre Sette hotone Si je vas a 
Wachentone menn^s Les Sioux Et Les autre Chefes que vous mavez 
mordonnerres de faire vennire qui Serras bien naissaite, je ne ferres 
rien que je naiye reSus vos ordre autant que je doit alles En aten- 
dant Se plaisire je vous pris de me croire RP toujoure daivouye a mon 
devoire Et vous pres de me Croire M' Votre trais hunble Serviteiu* 

N: BoiLVEN agen 

arrivez a la mine des pagne Le 10 juliete avec M'' more Ede Et 
Enverront 60 home poure prendre possessiont Dais taire quil avoit 
achettez de feux Dubuc, Les Renard Sont tous rasembles poure 
tennire Consaiye avai que moy a se Sujais il se sont aupossez alhuis 
Laissay prandre Et maime De Le Laissez daibarquez Sure Leure 
taire disent quil venais que poure Leure autez Lepain de La bouche 
de Leure fame Et Enfant, Et que Sil Leur paire Lhuis avoit ordonnes 
de prendre possession quil me Laurais dis Et poure Lorse il ne se 
Sen-ais point oppossez Contre Le Gouvemement, jais hus de La pene 
a arrette une mauvaise afaire tous dune parre que De Lautre vus 
quil Etais dispossez de Se batre Jtous dune pare que de Lautre mais 
Les blans Etois trop feble Le Generalle Clarke vous Ecriras Le Con- 
tonnus vus que jenvoy Les Chefe aLhuis Et au Guvemeur poure 
arrenges Sette afaire Et mais crire Le reSultas Et jarengerres Le 
Reste je voy aussi un prisonnie Sac qui etaes un frens say dans La- 
boisont de veut que jarrive Lhuis qui a Etez a Waschentone il 
Lhuis a° 5 anes qui Se nome Le prense on Wapalla 

N» BOILVIN 



168 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

[Addressed] A Monsieur William y Eustice SaiCrtaire de Gaire — 
Wachentone federale Sitez 

[Endorsed] River la roche 11 July 1811 N. Boilvin detailing a 
differenc between the Indians & certain settlers — also about bear 
Skins & an intended visit of the Indians— Some have gone to See 
the English— will give the result of their visit &c. &c. (vide trans- 
lation inclosed) Rec" 20'" Augt 1811 * 

[Contemporary translation] 

7'" July 1811 

Sir Since I left Washington, where I had the honor to receive my 
instructions from you for the Praire du Chien , I have had nothing 
to inform you of, worthy your attention — I arrived in the heart of 
the Nation at the river la roche this day where the Sacs & foxes are 
assembled to hold a council & to know the news I have brought to 
them from their American Father — They are much troubled at ob- 
serving the convoy which follows me to the mine of the deceased 
Dubuc, which has been sold to M' More ede & Col. Smite , and they 
would take possession of it, in opposition to the will of the Savages, 
who oppose it, saying that they had given that mine to M' Dubec ' 
during his life, after which it was to revert to the nation — I am em- 
barrassed about what method to take to prevent accidents which 
might arise from this, until I have received instructions from you, to 
deliver it up or not, & know the opinion of the Government, when 
there will not be any difficulty, but perhaps some discontent. 

The Sioux in great numbers, came in absence to the Praire du 
Chien , and waited a long time to see me & learn the intelligence from 
their Father about their situation— Seeing I did not arrive, M' Roc, 
interpreter, who I left in my place, sent them back to their homes 
with some provision — They left their pipe & their talk at the house 
at praire du chien , and beged that I would send M' Roc to them on 
my arrival with a pipe of tobacco to smoke & whiskey to drink — I 
am sorry I was not there, as the different tribes had assembled to 
hold a council 

Many Indians have gone to visit the English at Detroit to which 
they were aske^ required invited by their English Father, but no 
considerable chief accompanies them — I will inform you of the result 
on my arrival at praire du chien . 

I have not yet rec"" the medals which you ordered to be sent to me, 
nor the annuities for the Sacs & Foxes. 

Gen' Clarke promised me, to send to you the two bear skins, which 
you wished <fe fey tfeis I«di«ft they are not yet obtained, I will send 
them to you in the fall. If I go to Washington, to conduct the Sioux 

• Answered, Aug. 29, 1811 Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., xiv). 
' Dubuque? 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 169 

& other chiefs as you have ordered me I shall do nothing but by 
your orders before I depart — In waiting your pleasure I pray you to 
believe me Sir always attending to my duty &c.&c. 

Arrived at the mine des paque ° the 10'" July with M' Moore ede & 
about 60 men to take possession of the land which he had bought of 
the late Dubec — The Foxes are assembled to hold a council with me 
upon this subject. They were opposed to letting him take possession, 
or even to suffer them to debark upon their Territory saying, that he 
came there for nothing but to deprive their wives & children of bread, 
and that if their Father had orderd him to take possession, that he 
would have told me — And then they would not oppose the government 
— I had great difficulty, to prevent mischief to both sides — as they 
were disposed to fight on both sides & the Whites were weak — Gen' 
Clarke will write more about this as I sent the Chiefs to him & the 
Governor, to arrange this affair, and requesting them to write me the 
result, & I would settle the rest — I met also a french man, who was 
a prisoner to the Sacs — he was at Washington about 5 years since — 
his name is Wapalla. 

GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Elvirade, Randolph County Illinois Territory Aug*- 11. 1811 

Sir I had the honor last night to receive your letter of the 18 Ulti.' 

As nothing less than the most perfect conviction of the necessity of 

the measure could have induced me to call out the militia. They were 

discharged as soon as I could be satisfied that their services were not 

absloutely & indispensibly necessary — 

The report of the murders mentioned in my letter of the 6 Ulti * 
proved to be unfounded. And in general the little bands who were 
hovering about our frontiers, became alarmed at our movements and 
returned to their villages. In one instance however about the middle 
of last month a small party made an attack upon some people on the 
frontiers but no injury was done. 

I have the honor to inclose you a copy of a talk which is to be 
delivered in a council that I have required to be held on the Illinois 
river ' — This has been sent on by Captain Levering '" who is well 

' D'Espagne? 

^ NA (OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C), in answer to Edwards's of June 20, June 22, 
and June 27. 

8 Ante, p. 164. 

"Present, under date of July 21, 1811; it is printed, Edwards, Hist. III., pp. 
45-47. This action by Governor Edwards was in response to a request from 
Governor Howard and William Clark, of Louisiana Territory, to apprehend and 
punish the murderers of certain white people in the latter Territory. For the 
Louisiana phase of the episode see Terr. Papers (La.-Mo.), xiv. See also post, 
p. 174. 

" Commissioned May 20, 1811 (Register, post, vol. xvil). 



170 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

qualified to discharge the duties required of him. he ascended the 
Illinois in a boat with 8 or 10 oarsmen, and if successfull in the object 
of his mission will be prepared to bring with him the offenders. 

The outrages that have been committed are of the most serious 
nature and I thought it expedient to make the demands contained in 
the talk in the strongest terms. 

Little indeed do I know of Indians but that little induces me to 
believe without a doubt that our best policy is to u.se the most con- 
ciliatory course with those who treat us well — And the most prompt 
and energetic measures with those who treat us otherwise. 

Such measures being right in themselves — just towards the Indians 
and necessary at all times to our safety — appear to me to be equally 
proper whether we are to have peace or war with England In the 
latter case by punishing those who have so seriously aggressed on us 
when we can fight them single handed, the more they would be de- 
tered and consequently the more difficult would it be to rally them 
hereafter against us — 

I can see no reasonable probability of avoiding a confiict with the 
Prophet & his party. They have taken a hostile attitude against us 
and so long as we permit them to continue it, their confidence will 
increase, the seeds of discontent will be sown far and wide and they 
will be continually adding to their strength — 

Their situation is such that they can loose no more by war, than 
by any pacifications which Gov' will be disposed to offer them — They 
set up a claim to land which has been ceeded to the United states and 
they have in the most formal and unequivocal manner declared to 
Gov'' Harrison (a high official organ of the gov') that they will main- 
tain their claim by force, nor are these mere empty declarations, for 
being fully sensible of the danger to which they lead we all know that 
they are preparing to meet it. by collecting forces from various tribes 
and concentrating them on the spot — Now whether the Prophet in- 
tends to make war or not partial war must continue to be the conse- 
quence — The hostility which he excites against the U. S. is the cement 
of union among his confederates And such is the nature of Indians 
that they cannot be collected and kept together under such circum- 
stances without having their minds prepared for war — and in that 
situation it is almost impossible to restrain them from premature acts 
of hostility. 

Were this the only danger it would be sufficient to justify the dis- 
persion of the prophets party. But we cannot I think reasonably 
expect that the Prophet will without a struggle yield up all the fruits 
of his ambition and abandon schemes which he has been so long 
maturing, the promulgation of which has given to him or his brother 
such great consequence among his own and the neighbouring tribes. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 171 

If his object be to keep the land he claims he will not suffer the 
force he relies on for this purpose to be dispersed — If his object be 
glory or ambition he will not pusillanimously surrender it after all 
his vauntings without the utmost effort in his power to maintain 
it — nor will he in this case consent to the dispersion of his warriors 
and thereby render himself unable to make such effort by reducing 
himself to insignificance and contempt. 

In fact there is a crisis approaching between him and us. and it only 
rests with our gov' to decide when it will be most expedient to meet 
it. I have said this much of the Prophet because I have not a doubt 
but that he is the cause of all the mischiefs and vexation te which has 
agitated this territory. 

I have the honor to be, Very respectfully Sir, Yr Mo obd' S' 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Honble W Eustis Esq"' War Departm* Washington City. 

PS. I should be very happy to obtain swords & pistols enough 
for two companies of horse if they can be spared In this Praire 
country they might be very useful. Y' Obd' St.N Edwards 

[Endorsed] Elvirade Aug. 11. 1811 Gov. Edwards forwarding a 
talk for the Indians — Gives good reasons that the Prophet will not 
relinquish his designs without a contest — Wishes swords & pistols for 
two troops of horse. Rec" Sept 3. 1811 " 

[Enclosure] 

Governor Edwards to William Whiteside 

June 8'" 1811 

Sir Continue the party you have ordered out till further orders, 
I presume they will be sufficient for the purpose for which they are 
intended being numerous enough to make discoveries, and resist mere 
straglers — 

Have the Militia under your command immediately classed, and 
prepared to march at a moments warning; order every Captain, at 
least those on the frontiers, to be ready — 

Should any depredations be committed within the bounds of his 
company to repel the attacks or to follow and take those Indians, 
who may commit those outrages Should circumstances clearly 
justify a reasonable belief of an Invasion by any tribe of Indians, you 
will designate such officers & such force, as you may think adequate 
to repel it. And transmit an accoimt thereof to me — 

Should immediate persuit be made after any Indians, who may have 
stolen horses, or committed murders &c. and they be overtaken with 
the property in their possession, or be otherwise clearly assertained to 

" Answered post, p. 173. 



172 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

be the identical persons who committed those offences — your orders 
must be for the men to take them peaceably if possible that they may 
be brought to trial in a legal way, and be made examples of — But if 
they cannot otherwise be taken, to let not a single man escape alive — 

As many men might be disposed to take advantage of the latitude 
here given, I shall request you to select as officers (where it is in your 
power) those in whose discretion you can best confide — 

Enjoin it on the officers not to make an attack upon any party of 
Indians, under any of the above orders without being fully prepared, 
and determined to make it successfully" 

Y'&c. 

NiNiAN Edwards 

[Endorsed] Gov Edwards to Colo Whiteside 



ROBERT HEATH TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[NA:SD, Misc. Letters:ALS] 

Saint Charles 20'" awg' 1811 
Dear Sir feeling a disposition to make some Experiments at a 
salt spring on or near the Mississippi about 100 Miles above St Louis 
in the Illinois Territory at a place called the lost Slie nearly opposite 
the Entrance of salt River I applied to Gov' Ninian Edwards for 
permission to make Experiments or to have a certain term of the 
place " — who informed me by letter that he had nothing to do with 
& that it was out of his power to act, '* & I have since learned from 
an intelegent gentleman that it is the business of the Secretary of 
State — that Superintend such affairs — if so. I ask (under reasonable 
restrictions) a term of said Saline that I may improve Experience & 
if it be lucrative to reimburse my Expence — or that some Subagent 
be authorized to contract & agree with me for that purpose — that 
justice might be certain to be done the Government & well as the 
Citizen by all parties making the arrangment under view of the 
object — it is a long distance from the inhabitant (and population the 
principal benefit to such establishments) in the Indian ranges, though 
on Harrison purchase) No certainty of the quantity or quality of 
the water: and what there is in a praire one mile from timber and 
Salt making no great object here as it sells now at this place & St 
Louis at one dollar per bushel — But if you will permit me to take 
possession and continue it — for three years if I find it my interest I 
will leave to the U States all the improvements & fixture necessarily 

" There is also present a third enclosure with the letter of Aug. 11, 1811, con- 
sisting of the short journal of Captain Hebert, who accompanied Captain Lever- 
ing on his mission to the Kiclcapoo. 

'» Not found. 

'* Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 173 

used in Salt making — or for two years with liberty to remove moveables 
attached to the Establishment, in either case I would Commence 
operations thirty days after your grant reaching me — If this water 
shou'd prove of good Quality and in plenty it will Certainly be of 
the greatest advantage to the inhabitants of Louisiana & Illinois, 
they need something to lighten their burden of Salt Expence &c — it 
may please you appoint some good man to act for you in this affair 
that lives convenient, an answer as soon as convenient " 



Respectfully yours 



Robert Heath. 



[Addressed] James Monroe Sec'y State Washington City — Mail 
[Postmarked] S' Louis Aug' 22°" Free 

[Endorsed] 24. Augt 1811 Rob' Heath — proposes to make salt 
above S' Louis — 24 August 1811. Robert. Heath proposing to make 
salt above S' Louis. 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[NA:OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

War Dept Sept 4*'' 1811 
Gov. Edwards 

Sir I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellencys 
letter of the 11'" of Aug '* inclosing a proposed talk to the Chiefs of 
the Putawattamies 

It appears from returns made to this Dep' that all the Swords & 
Pistols have been issued from the Arsenal at Newport to Gov* Harrison 
& Howard excepting Sixty pairs of pistols. Any part of these which 
may be necessary to equip the Cavalry for immediate Service, may 
be delivered by the Military Store Keeper to the order of Your 
Excellency, on the terms on which the rifles were authorized to be 
issued, by my letter of the 18'" July last. '' 



WILLIAM LOWRY TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[NA:SD, Applications :ALS] 

Balt" 9'" Sep' 1811 
SIR. Understanding that the death of M' Elijah Backus late Re- 
ceiver of the Publick monies for the Land office of the District of 
Kaskaskias has left a vacancy in that office, I take the liberty of 

" No reply found. 

" Anle, p. 169. 

1' NA (OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C). 



174 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

soliciting your interest with the President, to be appointed his suc- 
cessor. 

I have now acted as Deputy Naval Officer of this Port for six years 
past,^ — The unfortunate state of our Foreign trade has so reduced the 
Fees of office, that my proportion for the last 3 years, has been scarcely 
sufficient to support my family. The fixed salary of the oflice I 
solicit, is small, but I understand that living is cheap, and the Country 
delightful, besides I have a daughter married at Kaskaskias, who is 
extremely desirous of my removal to that Climate. 

There are many of my Countrymen (Irish) who I believe would be 
easily induced to follow my example, and remove with their families, 
to a country so favourably spoken of; a circumstance that I suppose 
would be desirable to Government. — It would be strengthening the 
Frontiers, and introducing orderly, and well disposed Citizens among 
many who are turbulent, and difficult to be governed in any Society. 

I hope, sir, that my devotion to the present Government, & my 
exertions to be useful as a Militia officer, may not be altogether un- 
known, and that possibly I might be of some service in the latter 
Capacity, where I now solicit to be sent. 

As I have not the honor to be known to any of the heads of depart- 
ments but yourself, I must rest altogether upon your friendly good 
offices upon this occasion, which in fact I have no other claim to than 
what arises from your own goodness." 

I am, sir, with true respect your ob* hub s* 

W" LOWRY 

[Addressed] The honorable James Monroe esq Sec^ of State Wash- 
ington Free 

[Endorsed] 9 Septem. 1811. William Lowry. — wants appm' as 
Receiver of public monies for the Land office of the District of Kas- 
kaskias. M' Lowry 9 Sep"" 11 solicits to be appointed Receiver of 
publick monies for the land office of district of Kaskaskias — 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Elvirade Randolph County Illinois Territory Sep^ 28. 1811 
Sir, I have the honor to enclose you a letter from Captain Levering 
the gentleman whom I sent on the mission to the Tribes of Indians on 
the Illinois river and its waters together with the speeches of two of 
the principal chiefs which will shew the unfavorable result of the mis- 
sion. — It appears that they either believed that I had threatened to 
kill their women and children, or that they pretended to believe so — 

" John Caldwell, of Indiana Territory, was nominated to the vacant post, 
Mar. 30 and confirmed Apr. 1, 1812 {Senate, Exec. Journal, II, 242). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 175 

In this however they were corrected by Cap. Levering. The Little 
Chief was at first extremely impudent and insulting, having a flag of 
the United States he turned it upside down and suspended it in that 
position at the door of the house he occupied, merely for the purposes 
of insult — This happened before they went into council, and being 
observed by Captn Levering he required that the flag should be taken 
down or its position changed which for one day was refused — He then 
in the most positive manner informed the little chief that if the insult 
was persisted in he would not deliver the talk I had sent but would 
instantly return — This produced the desired effect, and before the 
council was ended the Little Chief became the most submissive & 
complaisant among the Indians who were present — 

Capt° Levering after his return was making out his journal which 
from what I have seen of it. would have contained a great deal of 
useful information but before he compleated it he was taken sick and 
died. 

A severe attack of fever has hitherto prevented me from making 
this communication & the same cause renders me totally unable to 
be more particular at present- — The enclosed papers were received 
when I was extremely ill and I am not able now to review them'' 

I am with the highest respect Sir Yr Mo Obd*^ S' 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Hon"'* W" Eustis Esq" War Department Washington City 

[Endorsed] Elvirade Sept 28. 1811 Gov. Edwards Inclosing the 
result of a mission to the Indians. Rec"* Oct 16, 1811-° 

[Enclosure: ALS] 

Samuel Levering to Governor Edwards 

PlORiA August 12'" 1811 
Sir The arrival of a canoe at this place, from Michillimackinack, 
bound to S' Louis, fortunately furnishes an opertunity of writing to 
your Excellancy 

On our ascending of the Illinois river we soon discovered the appre- 
hensions of the Indians, by the recent disertion of their camps. Noth- 
ing extraordinary occured on our passage to this place, where we 
arrive on the S"* Ins', my intention was to proceed immediately on to 
Gomaux Village , but whilst I was engaged in delivering letters, and 
willing for the men to take some refreshment & rest for a moment; 

" In addition to Levering's letter, there are two other enclosures present: the 
speeches of Gomo and the Little Chief, both under date of Aug. 17, 1811, though 
Gome's speech was probably delivered on Aug. 16. Both are printed, Edwards, 
Hist. III., pp. 47-50, which also contains a full account of Levering's mission, 
ibid., pp. 38-55. 

" Acknowledged post, p. 179. 



176 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

I was informed that an Indian had gone to apprise Gomaux of our 
arrival and call him to Pioria. It then appeared likely to me that 
in going up by water, we should pass him coming down by land I imme- 
diately dispatched a letter (the inclosed is a copy ^■) to Gomaux by 
M' Foumier, disiring him to wait on me. The Indian reached the 
Village before Foumier, and reported that fifty whites armed cap-a-pie, 
had arrive, and the probability was that this was a decoy to entrap 
Gomaux and notwithstanding M' Fourniers representations to the 
contrary Gomaux came with fourteen of his armed men. The next 
morning after another message he appeared in all the stern solemnity 
of Indian usage — 

I read and delivered to him your letter " which I had interpreted, 
He answered that he was glad we had come among them, and would 
immediately return home, the next day prepare and equip his young 
men, so that they might be started the succeeding morning to call 
the Chiefs to counsill. He answered my inquiries respecting the 
number, situation, and distances of the several Chiefs of the Putowa- 
tomies, but I believe he did not answer with candour— I have not 
however hinted a suspicion of this, that my eye, and ear may have a 
free range. He had no knowlege of the Chiefs on Yellow creek! 
He could give me no information of the Putowatomies on the Fox 
river, whether they had a Chief or not! But on further enquiry found 
their Chief resides at Millwackee on lake Michigan, and two days 
after he told me of a Chief on Fox river, by name Po-so-tuck, and 
would endeavor to have him at the councill— 

Perhaps the difficulty of translatin g commimicating the Putowa- 
tomy through the French language, into the English, does measurably 
prevent the meanings, and he might have been under suspicions of my 
being a courier, to spy & gain information for an efficient force that he 
is under considerable dread of other chiefs, there can be no doubt. He 
is unpleasantly situated, he is the nearest to our frontiers except a 
Band of Kickapoos of about 40 to the north & east of this, on his 
opposite quarters, he is surrounded by Tribes that find themselves 
further removed from our vengeance. And in case they wish to 
depredate on us, they pass by him making his nation serve as a cover 
to their retreat Yet by his endeavors he must be our friend, or he 
is a deceitful scoundrel and aflfraid of the Americans 

I set out on the 6'" Ins* to visit him at his village and as he could 
not promise to send for and bring to the councill (in the time I could 
wait) as many Chiefs as I though advisable, I wished to reach his 
Village that evening before the Runners were dispatched to urge the 
necessity of inviting & convening the greatest number of Chiefs that 
was practicable to the Councill the wind being a head could only reach 

" Not present. 
M See ante, p. 169. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 177 

the first Village about dark eight miles short of Gomaux's, where I 
got two Indians to take myself & M"' Fournier in a canoe 4 miles by 
water, & the rest of the way by land, to the Village, where we arrive 
about midnight The Runners were not prepared to set out the next 
day, but start the day after (the S"") 

The next morning (7'"), Gomaux furnishing horses, we set out for 
our Boat, attended by Gomaux the Chief 15 of his men & 4 women & 
were met on the way by an Ottoway Chief just from Detroit who 
joined our party to the Boat — I invited this Chief, Gomaux, and his 
two brothers into the cabin, provided breakfast for the whole, lighted 
pipes & had a long conversation. Gomaux was more communicative 
than at first meeting 

Main-Pock is gone to Detroit. They told me of a variety of talks 
among the Indians which they conjectured to be the occasion of 
Mainpock and so great a number of the Indians from the different 
towns having gone towards Canada They expressed great satisfaction 
at our having been sent on this errand, promised that they would 
exert themselves to get as many to the councill as they possibly 
could, yet they did not calculate on being able to assemble more than 
five Chiefs. But the said nevertheless, whatever number might 
attend or however small, they hoped that I would not hesitate to tell 
tjiem all that I had to say. For that if any Indian was to communicate 
such information to other Indians, he would not gain credit by it, but 
that "they would call him Sugar mouth" — charge him with being 
excited by fears, or moved with treachery. 

Gomaux told me there were two of the stolen horses among his 
people, and that he himself had a third, that he bought for a gun, not 
knowing the property (at that time) to be stolen — That it was likely 
the Chiefs of Sand river would wait until they could collect the stolen 
horses belonging to their Villages & bring them in with them, that 
they would be here in six nights (7 days) from the time of the Runners 
leaving his Village 

Altho it remains a question with me whether your Excellencies 
orders go so far as to authorise me to call on the Chiefs residing out of 
the Territory for offenders, Yet I fain would give that construction 
to them, from a conviction of the necessity of making an impression 
on the minds of the whole of them that it is obligatory on them, and 
is a positive duty, to seek for, and surrender up, all Offenders to Justice, 
so that instant and ample attonement may be made for all depreda- 
tions and offences — I fear the calling on a part of the tribe at one time 
and place — and another part at another time and place, will have a 
tendency (ultimately) to encourage them in their aggressions — For 
even should the murderers be in the Village when an Officer may 
arrive to make a demand of them, they can easily slip out of his way — 
The Indians are all on the alert on the appearance of a stranger among 



178 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

them — They know the Jurisdiction of our territorial Goverments (I 
judge this from the fact of their sliping from one to the other) And I 
have not that confidence in Indians, to suppose that they would not 
aid in securing a retreat to offenders, while they are saying "They are 
not here" 

Indians generally believe that the Americans are from unavoidable 
circumstances their natural enemies, continually intruding on them — 
This together with their natural ambition to have it to say (as they 
continually do in their frolicks) "I am a man Who can gainsay it? 
I have killed an Osage! I have killed a White"! This excites them 
to outrage; and frequently escaping with impunity further encour- 
ages their already but too presumptions hopes of continuing to do 
so — And as even trivial circumstances diffuses more extensive im- 
pressions and effects among Indians than other people, They are lead 
to believe that the Americans are supine & indolent, and their 
suppositions are often not as honorable, nor their consequences as 
favorable to our settlements 

At present the Putowatomies are so far one Nation, that those of 
another name and nation aggrieved by any of them revenge themselves 
on the first Putowatomie they meet, no difference what tribe, or 
whether situated north of the lakes in Michigan, Indiana, or Illinois 
Territories— Yet there are different interests, and opposing ambitions 
and jealousies among the tribes — If it would not be impolitic to unite 
them closer in one interest, I presimie that a demand on the nation for 
offenders, and stolen property to have the disired effect should be made 
by a joint mission from Michigan Indiana, Illinois, and Louisiana, 
whether one man or more. 

The Mission might call their counill at Chicago and have the Chiefs 
to attend from Green bay and north of it, from Michigan, S' Josephs 
the Kankikee, Wabash, Illinois, and its waters, and this would be 
nearly central for the whole. 

Your excellency will observe that I can expect but a small part of 
the Putowatomy Chiefs to meet me in Counill at this time & place 
Gomaux promised to send to Mainpocks Village and if there should 
be no Chiefs there to invite two Elders to the Councill — I expect the 
Little Chief — Also Blackbird an Ottoway Chief These last are allied 
and married with the Putowatomies. Gomaux expects Peso-tuck from 
the Fox river, also one other chief, and if possible (says) he will have 
Migango and the Chiefs from Yellow river. But the probability is 
(according to Gomaux relation) that the Chiefs of S' Josephs, Yellow 
Creek, and Megango, are gone towards Canada 

I expect the Chiefs tomorrow or next day — as soon as they arrive 
we shall go to councill — 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 179 

I enclose two depositions relative to the names &c of the murderers ^' 
in order that your Excell'^ may have it in your power (should you 
deem it necessary) to make a demand of them from the Governors of 
the Territories within whose Jurisdiction they are said to be 

I have the honor to be your Excellencies Most Obedient and very 
hum"' St 

Sam' Levering 

To HIS Excellency Ninian Edwards Esq' 

[Endorsed] Leverings^letter^from Pioria 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 
[NA:OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

War Dept Oct 16'" 1811 
Gov. Edwards 111. T. 

Sir Your Excellencys letters of the 15*" '^ & 28*" of September," 
with their inclosiu-es have been received. 



MATTHEW IRWIN TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
(NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Chicago October 30*" 1811. 

Sir, As several British traders have, in despite of the nonimporta- 
tion law, entered at several parts of the American Territory, with 
British goods for the Indian Trade; & as their names & persons are 
known, & as it is expected they will visit this place next Spring, I 
suggest it for consideration, whether, in case the fact can be clearly 
ascertained that they committed a breach of the non-importation law, 
it would be proper to seize their persons, & have the honor to be, with 
great Respect, Sir, Y"' Mo* Ob* Serv* 

M. Irwin 
The Hon"'« the Sec^" of War, Washington. 

[Endorsed] Chicago Oct. 30*" 1811. M. Irwin suggesting the pro- 
priety of siezing British traders, when violating the non-imp" law. 
ReC Dec^ 10*" 1811 ^^ 

They may be sued for penalties, but cannot be arrested without a 
writ from some court having jurisdiction. I do not know in what 
territory Chickago is? — A. G." 

P.S. Request him to give the information to Collector of Michilli- 
makinac. 

" Not present. 

'* Not found. 

" Ante, p. 174. 

2' Answered post, p. 180. 

" This paragraph and the postscript are in Gallatin's hand. 

314574 — 48 -13 



180 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO WILLIAM ARUNDEL 
(PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

November 6*" 1811 
W" Arundel Esq. P.M Kaskaslda Illinois Ter 

Yours of the IS"" October is received,^ it appears from your letter 
that M' Givens did not arrive at your ofRce untill the 15'" Ult. do 
we understand you correctly, if so, he has given us but a bad specimen 
of his energy, if we allow him four days to pass from Henderson to 
your office, it will make a weeks difference in you correspondence east- 
ward, for he cannot without great difficulty return in three days, which 
he must do to meet the corresponding mails at Henderson — I have 
requested the postmaster of Louisville to procure four portmanteaus 
and forward them to your office, that you may dispose of them for 
the use of this office — The Post Office law points out Postmaster's 
compensation and by that you must be governed — 

GGr— 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO MATTHEW IRWIN 
[NA:OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. CI 

War Dep* 13 Dec' 1811 
M. Irvine Chicago. 

Sir. Yoiu- letter of the 30 Oct' has been receved.* All informa- 
tions of violations of the revenue laws, and all good reasons for sus- 
pecting that any violation is contemplated, which may come to your 
Knowledge, you will without delay, communicate to the Collector of 
Michelemakinac, who by the duties of his office, is empowered to take 
a proper notice of them. — 



JARED MANSFIELD TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
TREASURY 

[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Let. Sent:C] 

Cincinnati December 20'" 1811 
Sir The office of Receiver of Public Monies at Kaskaskia being 
vacant, I beg leave to recommend to you, M' Elias Rector at that 
place, as a proper person, to supply that vacancy, I have had an 
acquaintance with M' Rector, during the greater part of the time, 
since I have resided in this country, have been considerably connected 
with him in Official transactions, His Manners and accomplishments 
are those of a gentleman, His reputation for honor and integrity is 
indisputable, and has always been scrupulously maintained, in all 

" Not found. 
" Ante, p. 179. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 181 

concerns with this Office, His talants and quahfications, I presume are 
fully adequate to the discharge of the duties of Receiver, His residence 
at Kaskaskia has afforded him a good knowledge of the circumstances 
of public Affairs there, as connected with the land business, and his 
entire disconnection with speculation and Abhorance of the Arts 
practised for that Object, would carry with his appointment a peculiar 
fitness, 

I heartily wish success to the appointment of M' Rector as one 
who in my opinion is worthy of it. 

I am most respectfully your Ob' Hble Sev' 

Jared Mansfield 

The above is a true coppy 

Hon Albert Gallatin 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO WILLIAM ARUNDEL 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

December 2S"^ 1811 
W" Arundel Esq' P.M. Kaskaskia, II: Ter 

I have yours of the 2°^ ins' before me,^" we intended some time since, 
to have given an order to the postmaster of Louisville Ky. to send 
you some portmanteaus, but it unfortunately happened, that the order 
escaped our recollection, he is this day instructed to send you five — The 
postmasters of Frankfort & Louisville are instructed to send mails for 
your quarter of the country via Hendersonton, the extreme unpro- 
ductiveness of the post road between Vincennes and the Saline, 
operates against sending a weekly mail on that road — 

G Gr— 



WILLIAM DOBBINS TO JARED MANSFIELD 
[NA:GL0, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., ni:ALS] 

Shawnoe Town Decmher 31" 1811 
Sir/ Yours of the 15th '"» and 17th =' of March I Had the pleasure to 

Receive 

In My Last I flattered Myself And Informed you that I Should 

Compleat the Survey Before I Left this place But High Water And 

a Low State of Health Occasioned By the Severity of the Season 

Compelled Me Reluctantly to Give it Over to Fall 
I Was Again Unfortunate the Sickly Season Commenced There 

Were few In Our parts Escaped I Was Amongst the Unfortunate 

5» Not found. 
s»« Post, p. 425 
" Not found. 



182 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Number As Early As I found Myself Capable of Working I Proceded 
On to Shawnoe But being Weak the Fatigue Brought On Several 
Relapses Which Together With Bad Weather And Other Untoward 
Circumstances Has put it Out of my power as yet to Compleat the 
Same However there is Only the Fractional Part to Survey & the 
Lots to Number, Should the Weather prove favourable I Shall 
Shortly finish the Work Although I had made Considerable Progress 
Before your Last it Was in My power to Extend farther Down the 
River So As to Confrom to your Instructions 

I had taken up An Idea from the Law that yourself and Not the 
Secratary Was the Sole Judge of the plann of the Town How it 
Can Without a Resurvey Be Correct Or Amended By him I am at 
a Loss to Know 

Being a Stranger to What the United States has Generally Given 
their Surveyors for Laying of Town Lotts I Will Thank you for your 
Opinion on that Subject — Before I make Out My Charge — 

I Should Make Out the plan Before I Leave this place But I Can 
Neither procure paper Suitable Nor Any Kind of Paints 

I Will take it as a favour of you to Write me As Early As Con- 
venient 

I am Sir With Sentiments Of Esteem yours Sincerely 

W" Dobbins 

Jared, Mansfield Esquire 

[Addressed\ Jared Mansfield Esquire Surveyor General of the 
United States Cincinnatti [Postmarked] Shawnee Town Jan- 
ary 31th 25 

[Endorsed] Answered Feb IS'" 1812 « 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO WILLIAM ARUNDEL 

IP0:P. M. Letter Book R] 

January 3^" 1811 [1812] 
William Arundel Esq' P.M Kaskaskia Illin. Ter 

We tendered the conveyance of the mail between your office & 
New Madrid at the rate of $117 quarterly to John Hays, which he 
declined accepting. I wish you to find a contractor for that route 
at a rate not exceeding $500 pr annum, for that purpose I have 
enclosed you a bond and contract, when executed I will thank you 
to return them and we will forward a duplicate of the contract to the 

w Post, p. 425. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 183 

contractor, the price offered is much above the ordinary sums paid 
for equivalent services in other places — 

G. Gr— 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOSEPH McFERRON 

[PO:P. M. Letter Book R] 

January 3^" 1812 
Joseph MTerron Esq' P. M Cape Girardeau II. Ter 

As it appears from your letter of the 2°"^ Ult.'^ that M' Hay will 
not carry the mail on the terms we have offered him, we have author- 
ized the postmaster of Kaskaskia to make a contract for that route, 
at a rate not exceeding $500 p' An; untill M' Arundell makes a contract, 
we wish M' Hayes to continue the mail, and we will pay him for the 
service at the rate of $650 p' An : 

G Gr 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO WILLIAM RUTTER AND 

OTHERS 

[PO:P. M. Letter Book R] 

January 9*" 1812 
M'' W° RUTTER & others near Fort Massac II. Ter. 

I hope that circumstances will permit us to send a weekly mail on 
the route pointed out in your address ^* of the [blank] in the course 
of another year — 

G. Gr. 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO CONGRESS 

[PO:P. M. Letter Book R:E] 

[January 9, 1812 "] 
In Obedience to the Act of Congress of the 21°' of April 1808 con- 
cerning public contracts, the Postmaster General has the honor of 
laying before Congress the following statement of all the contracts 
which have been made in his Department the last year, and also 
sundry others contracts agreed upon in the latter part of the year 
1810, which went into operation the last year ^^ — 



" Not found. 

'* Not seen. 

" This date is taken from the position of entry. 

" Relevant items only have been extracted for the present printing. 



184 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 





Number 












of times 










Contractors 


the mail 


Routes 


Date of 


Duration 


^t 


names 


is car- 


Contracts 


of contracts 


2 ^ 




ried pr. 








F ^ 




week 








3-0 

w a. 


Samuel Clark 


fort- 


Eddyville & Cape 


July 6,11 


Oct' 1, 11 


400 




night 


Girardeau 




to Dec 
31, 14 




Joseph R Givens.. 


once 


Henderson & Kas- 
kaskia 


July 6, 1811 


...do 


850 



MATTHEW IRWIN TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS1 

Chicago Jan'^ 19'" 1812. 

Sir, It is the opinion of some persons, conversant in the System of 
Indian Warfare, that, unless the principal chiefs of the different tribes 
of Indians that were lately unpacific should, before the early part 
of the ensuing Summer, treat for a peace, a War, at that time, is not 
improbable. 

Should that opinion have any foundation, a regard for the safety 
of this place would, I conceive, warrant me in recommending, first, 
that, instead of never having more than one day's consumption of 
fuel on hand, the Commanding Officer be ordered to use every effort 
to have a Supply sufficient for two or three months. For should 
hostilities take place, the peculiar situation of this place, would render 
it impossible to obtain that article, without incurring almost certain 
death. Secondly, that the public buildings (about 20 or 30 yards 
from the Fort) be either fortified or destroyed. For, if fire were set 
to them, the safety of the Fort would be endangered. Their Con- 
struction, with an expence of about twenty doll' would render them 
Capable of being defended, & afford, in case of accident happening 
the Fort, an Asylum to the Troops & others. They could be de- 
fended by the settlers. Some irregularities also justify me in pro- 
posing the following: That (but undoubtedly the power, by impli- 
cation, is already given) the said Officer be authorised to stop boats, 
&c. arriving with goods, &c. for the Indian Trade, and hold in Cus- 
tody, unless they are lawfully imported. The omission to do which, 
is the cause of a large quantity of goods & liquors being brought into 
this country, for the Indian Trade. 

That he be authorised to demand of M'' John Kinzie (lately ap- 
pointed by Cap. Heald, the exclusive Suttler to this Fort) by what 
authority he brought from 70 to 80 pieces of Strouds accompanied 
with bankets, powder, ball, &c. &c. to this place. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 185 

Those goods, &c. were brought here, within a few weeks, on horses, 
at different periods. One of the persons employed therein, not hav- 
ing been treated well, avowed that they were smuggled by a British 
Trader (IM' Kinzie's partner) from the Town of Amherstburg, in 
Canada, via River Rouge & thence through the Wilderness to this 
place. Other concurring Circumstances, induce me to believe they 
were smuggled. 

Lastly, that, if an exclusive right is necessary to be given to he who 
supplies the Troops with their Wants, their Com« Officer be ordered 
to regulate the prices thereof, to prevent imposition, &c. The doing 
which would render their situation more comfortable; would prevent 
a further reduction of their number, &, if done impartially, would 
destroy the subserviency of the Officers to the Suttler. Upon the 
latter article, I can make it appear what creates that Subserviency. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect Sir Y' Most Ob' Serv' 

M. Irwin 

The Hon"'' the Sec of War. 

Jav7 22* After a little reflection, I feel, when connected with past 
events, a consciousness that an investigation into that part of my 
letter which relates to Smuggling, as well as to that having reference 
to the Suttling business, might render my situation very unpleasant — 
perhaps dangerous. Nevertheless, I am not certain whether that 
consideration ought to weigh against others of equal — perhaps of 
greater magnitude. — M.I. 

I am happy to find (without his being aware of my ideas upon it) 
that the Surgeons Mate is opposed to the monopoly spoken of in this 
letter. M.I.— 

Jan' 23** I now have it in my power to say, without ha-ving time 
to state particulars, that the monopoly spoken of, is not granted from 
disinterested motives. M.I. — 

[Addressed] The Hon"'' the Secretary of War, Washington. 

[EndcTsed] Chicago Jan^ 19, 1812 i\I. Irwin. States the apparent 
hostile conduct of the Indians — means of defence — officers countenance 
smuggling Repair & render defensible the buildings refer'd to — 
regulate the charges of the Suttler ReC April 4'" 1812 " 



SECRETARY POPE TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
[NA:SD, 111. Terr. Papers: ALS] 

Kaskaskia Jany 28'" 1812 
Sir I have the Honor to transmit herewith My Semi-annual return 
to your department'* — My domestic Misfortimes consisting of the 

»' Answered jiosl, p. 210. 

"Mar. 1, 1811, to Aug. 31, 1811, Register, post, vol. xvii. Also enclosed 
were copies oi laws passed during the same period; these are not present. 



186 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

deaths of my children and the ill health of Mrs Pope have caused 
this delay — 

I have the Honor to be Sir Y' Mo' Ob' & H"'" Serv' 

Nat Pope 

The Hon''" James Monroe Secretary of State 

[Endorsed] Nat Pope (111. Ter) to Secty of State 28 Jan' 1812 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS1 

Elvirade Randolph County Illinois Territory Feby. 13. 1812 
Sir I have the honor to inform you that an express has just arrived 
with a letter from Governor Howard to me covering the enclosed 
communications, which are deemed by him and myself of such im- 
portance, that I shall instantly employ an express to carry them to 
the P. Office at the united states Saline (the mail carrier not having 
arrived — ) to be forwarded to you from thence with the utmost 
dispatch 

1 have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y"^ M° Obd' S' 

Ninian Edwards 

P.S. Governor Howard among other things in his letter says 
"Much information has been received here (S' Louis) corroborating 
the opinions expressed by those agents (Bolvine & Blondeau) I 
expect ere long our frontiers will witness scenes which they have not 
yet experienced and I trust we shall be as well prepared for the event 
as unfavorable circumstances will allow." 

respectfully I am, Y' M" Obd' S' N Edwards 

[Addressed] The Hon'ble William Eustis Esqre Secretary of War 
Washington City 

[Endorsed] Elvirade Feb 13. 1812 Gov. Edwards forwarding copies 
of inclosures, received express from Gov. Howard, relative to the 
threats of the Indians. ReC* March 10'" 1812 '» 

[Enclosures] 

Nicholas Boilvin to the Governor of Louisiana Territory 

Prairie du Chien the 5'" Jan^ 1812 
To Governor Howard 

The news of Gov' Harrisons Victory does not appear to please the 
Indians here. I hope he will follow up his conquest, but if not we are 
badly situated at this place, and are also the frontiers. The 30"" of 
last month arrived here 40 F*uants at my door, they were all armed — I 

" Answered post, p. 197. See Governor Howard to the Secretary of War, 
Jan. 13, 1812 {Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., xiv). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 187 

went out and called them in the Council room— The Chiefs that I made 
last year — Daicaies , good, Indian-Brave fellow, loving the Whites, 
said my ( Father bad news ) we have been killed by the Americans at 
the Shawanies — I answered you probably have deserved it. After a 
few words I told them to go to rest — that next day I would hear them 
and answer them. I give them to smoke & provisions I kept the 
Chief with me — the next day they come to council, and said through 
Roc . Interpreter (the son Caramanis) "We Brave Chiefs & Warriors, 
come and take you by the hand but we have been killed by the 
Americans, we do not think bad of you, because you told us of it last 
fall that there would be an American Army go to the Prophets town, 
to demand the murderers, and that if they should not be given up, 
they would Strike, Therefore Father we know it is not your fault; 
they would have left the Prophet, but many of their people being 
sick, they could not leave them." 

Dacaies the Chief. "My Father — I have come with all these men, 
to take care of them — all you see here are of three Bands, those are 
from Roc river they have always been foolish, and this day they are in 
affliction, I will not answer for them: They are not men of their word. 
This day you have given me a medal; will send for me when you will, 
you shall know what I can do, inform below that they may take care 
of those bad men. — 

The 4'" Jan^ a fox Indian arrived from the mines, with news that 
30 Puants had killed two men of M' Hunts, and burnt down the 
houses, and stole the Merchandize of Hunt & Prior, if it had not been 
for the Foxes they would have all been killed — I am fearful for the 
Americans on the frontiers, I have sent expresses all round me. I do 
not yet know whether Hunt and Prior are in safely — I expect so soon 
as the Soux and followvoins know of it. I shall then with the Militia be 
in security. I shall keep the Militia on foot until I hear from you. 
I have told Major Wilson to write Gen' Clark the same thing — I hope 
you will take a part in our concerns and help us, if not by forces, do it 
by instructions — As for my part I am afraid at this time. I do not 
know how to act — But under the safeguard of the Master of life we 
can hazard all — for two days ago I was dead but I am at present 
living. My wife tenders her respects to M" Howard — Believe me for 
life your Obedient H. Servant 

N. BOILVIN 

True Copy (Signed) 
Maurice Blondeau to [the Governor of Louisiana Territory] *" 

Spanish Mines Jan^ 1812 
Sir I received your letter in which you recommend to mention the 
articles to the Indians in it. At the same time I inform you ef the 
" Or to William Clark. 



188 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

hostilities of the Winnebagoes on the last of December, committed at 
the lower mines 

M' Prior and M' Hunt were saved by the Foxes by saying they were 
Englishmen — two men of M' Hunts were killed, and cut in ever so 
many pieces, their houses and every other article they could not carry 
with them burnt 

After this unfortunate affair hapned, I sent one Fox Indian with 
Wampums, to the Winnebagoes to learn their intention— They took 
the Wampum saying thay had not determined yet if they would go 
to war again the French people or not, but they were determined to 
perish or revenge themselves on the Americans, for what Governor 
Harrison had done to their nation, at the time they went to see the 
Prophet — At present the Winebago Chiefs gather the whole Nation 
to attack Fort Chicago and Madison and the settlement on salt 
River, and below that. They will leave their wintering ground by 
the 15'" or 20"" Ins' for said places 

One of the Fox Chiefs has told me Wampums were sent to them by 
the British to Join other nations of Indians to attack the American 
frontiers. They will not consent to do this and offer themselves, 
now to perish with the White people that are here if the Winebagoes 
should attack this place 

I found it necessary to erect a fortification to defend the lives and 
property of all the Inhabitants living on this Island. The season will 
not permit any one to leave this place — and forces every one to stay 

I am with due respect your most obedient 

Maurice Blandau 

A Copy — (signed) 

Resolutions of Militia Officers of St. Clair County " 

[February 7, 1812] 
At a meeting of the Militia Officers of S*^ Clair County Illinois 
Territory, at Cahokia of the 7'" day of February 1812— Present Col" 
William Whiteside Majors Whiteside & Prewit— Captains— Judy, 
Stallion Short, Whiteside, Hebert, Brazeal Savage and Moore Lieu- 
tenants Pierre Martan, Cook, Gilham & Vaughn Ensigns Pincinneau, 
Wagnor, Mitchell, Grgg Gilham and Whitlock 

Col" Whiteside appointed Chairman and Cap* Jacob Short Secretary 
to this Committee 

1 Resolved, that with pain we look back at the many depredations 
committed by Indians, on our frontier Inhabitants, by stealing horses 



" This and the following enclosure were obviously first-hand enclosures by 
Edwards. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY igQ 

to a very considerable amount, plundering of other property, and by 
the massacre of many of the inhabitants, these many years past with- 
out the least recompense or satisfaction — • 

2 Resolved — that it is also with pain we view the situation of our 
frontier to continue (as usual) unprotected and as much exposed as 
ever to Indian violence destitute of the common defence afforded to 
the neighboring Territories by the parent Government. By having 
regular soldiers stationed on the vulnerable passes of Indians &c 

3 Resolved, that we view with sorrow the breaking up of so many 
fine settlements on the frontier of this county by the peoples moving 
away to other parts of the Union occasioned by the distresses set 
forth in the two first resolutions 

4. Resolved, that it is a sense of this meeting and a conviction on 
these minds that the General Government will give this country the 
necessary protection when a constitutional representation is made of 
their situation and that representation cannot be so well made before 
we have a Delegate in Congress — To which \'iew this meeting requests 
the attention of their fellow citizens, of this Territory in general 

Resolved, that it is the desire of this meeting that the Governor of 
this Territory do use his lawful means to establish the second Grade 
of Territorial Government, as it appears to us that by having a Dele- 
gate in Congress will much help the declining situation of our frontiers, 
and elevate ovir country one stride towards that greatness which the 
God of nature dictated 

Resolved that the aforesaid Resolutions shall be signed by our Chair- 
man and Secretary, and that a copy of the same be sent to his Excel- 
lency Governor Edwards, desiring his approbation and one to the 
Editor of the Louisiana Gazette for publication 

Jacob Short Secretary W"" Whiteside 

Statement of Militia Officers of St. Clair County 

[February 7, 1812] 
At a meeting of the Militia officers of S' Clair County at Cahokia 
on the 7"" of Feb" AD. 1812 

Being from the different parts of said County enables said Officers to 
have a compleet knowlege of the strength situation &c of the various 
divisions of the same which prompts them to make the following 
statement, (with due submission) to his Excellency Governor Edwards 
The general Opinion of the frontier inhabitants are that a general 
and formidable number of the Indians situated on the waters that 
empty convenient to the s"* frontiers, are in an actual state of warfare 
with the U. States, and that the said frontier inhabitants is as much 
exposed to the hostile \'iolence of these savages as any other part of 



190 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

the Union, also that those frontier people do not think themselves 
adequate to meet such attacks as may and is usual and probable to 
be made by such a numerous vindictive army of Bloodhounds, the 
consequence have been almost the depopulation of the (lately fine 
settlements on the waters of Shoal and Silver creeks, and an awful 
appearance of the like on the uper settlements of the Missisippi at 
present 

After duly considering these facts the said Officers think that it will 
be necessary and expedient to immediately order out at least twenty 
five foot militia, to station at the different Blockhouses built on the 
vulnerable situations of said frontier and are of Opinion that such 
force would incourage the people to stay in this neighborhood, and 
make a begining to raise crops in the spring which is now at hand, 
and the usual time to suffer by Indian depredations, it is a convic- 
tion to the mind of said officers, that unless the above request, or 
something else done of the like nature, that the frontier people will 
move away, an idea which must be painful to all friends of their 
country — 

Said officers would wish to be understood: that the said numbers of 
militia men may be support in case the U States send a competent 
army into the Indian country with a competent General, if not it 
will be hard to predestinate the destiny of the frontier people of this 
county and the conferred number is forced on them by a due con- 
sideration of the weight of such service on their fellow citizens 

And with due submission said officers believe it will likewise be 
incumbent on his Excellency to order out the like number of mounted 
Militia men to range in advance of said frontier, to intercept all 
maurading parties of the enemy, but is of opinion that the latter 
service may be kept back until the season arrives when the heat of 
the sun is more favorable to the savage habits of warfare and that the 
guard reqested, be continued without intermission until the appearance 
of Indian hostilities should change. The said officers beg leave to 
offer their service to his Excellency Governor Edwards assuring him 
that they will if necessary risk a sacrifice of their lives and fortunes 
to the service of the territory and honor of the U States, and will to 
the best of their abilities, punctually obey his orders — By order of 
the Board of Officers signed, consisting of the Colonel two Majors 
eight Captains and the Captain of Cavalry six Lieutenants and seven 
Ensigns— by the President and attested by the Judge Advocate 

Rob* Reynolds, Judge Adv' W" WHiTEsroE— president 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 191 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO LEONARD WHITE 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

Fehry 18, 1812 
Leonard White Esq' P.M. U. S. Saline Illin Ter— 

I have received yours of Jany 31'' " and I am surprised at the 
negligence of the contractors, I thank you for the information and will 
be obliged for further attentions in the same way 

G. Gr. 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOSEPH GIVEN 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

February 18— 1812 
M' Joseph R. Given Kaskaskia II — Ter 

In reply to yours of Jany 11," I observe that we cannot con- 
sistently with our duty to the public, consent to the alteration you 
have proposed, if we divide your route in any way, the division will 
inevitably produce a delay, with due exertion your route can be per- 
formed, and it is indispensably necessary that it be regularly & duly 
performed — 

G. Gr. 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO WILLIAM ARUNDEL 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

February 24—1812 
William Arundell Esq' P. M. Kaskaskia II. Ter. 

I have received yours of the 1°' Ult," the contractor is bound to 
convey the whole mail, and if he leaves any part of the mail on the 
road he subjects himself to a penalty, I wish you to apprise the post 
rider or contractor of this circumstance that he may not incur any 
further penalties, I have very little expectation that Congress will 
make any grants of land to support ferries on the road you have 
referred to, — 

G. Gr. 



" Not found. 
" Not found. 
" Not found. 



192 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO MATTHEW LYON 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

February 24—1812 
Col. Matthew Lyon— Eddyville K" 

I fear that this letter will more fully convince you that we are all 
"Crazy in the General Post Office" than the incidents mentioned in 
your letter of the 23'''' Ult." for we have consented to yield to your 
importunity and have established a weekly mail between Eddyville 
and Kaskaskia and directed the contractor to pass by Centerville an 
office that we had accidentally considered to be the same as Salem. — 

G. G'— 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO WILLIAM ARUNDEL 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

February 26'" 1812 

William Arundell Esq' P.M., Kaskaskia — II. Ter 

Your letter of the 4'" " has excited no small degree of surprize, you 
did right in sending on the mail, and I wish you to do so in every in- 
stance that the contractor fails, and to state the sum you pay for each 
trip that we may charge the contractor who has evidenced very little 
disposition to carry his contract into effect, if the Portmanteaus have 
not yet reached you, do upon some terms procure some of a suitable 
size, and I wish you to inform the contractor that he can receive no 
further pay until he satisfies this office, that it was not possible for 
him to prevent the failures complained of. I have ordered a weekly 
mail to be sent from Eddy\-ille " to Cape Girardot ** and I wish a 
weekly mail to be extended from thence to your office, for which 
service you can allow two hundred dollars over and above the sum 
mentioned in my letter to [you] relative to the New Madrid mail, the 
mail from Cape Girardeau to New Madrid is to pass but once a fort- 
night, the Eddyville mail is to arrive at Cape Girardeau every Monday 
by 10 A.M, and it is to depart the same day by 2 P.M, you will of course 
make the mail from your office arrive at and depart from that office 
at the same hours and on the same days that the mail from Eddj'^'ille 
does, may we hear from you on this subject 

G. Gr. 



" Not found. 
" Not found. 
•' Kentucky. 
*^ Cape Girardeau, Louisiana Territory. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 193 

THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 
[NA:OIA, SW, Lets. Sent., Bk. C] 

War Dep' February 28'" 1812 
GovE'" NiNiAN Edwards Elvirade 111. T. 

Sir, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Excel- 
lencys letters of the 18'" " and 25'" of Jany'" No muster rolls of 
militia called out by you in 1811 having been received by this Dept 
no estimate was offered and no appropriation made for paying them. 

Whenever the rolls and vouchers shall be received an estimate will 
be made and submitted to Congress."* 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Elvirade Randolph County Illinois Territory March 3. 1812 
Sir I have the honor to inform you. that from the recent and 
increasing indications of hostility in the neighbouring tribes of In- 
dians. I found it necessary to visit the upper county of this territory 
to put it in an attitude of defense — In my tour (from w" I have just 
returned) I had a conference with Gov' Howard, each of us believing 
our frontiers greatly exposed have ordered out a company of rangers 
and made such arrangements, that they will cooperate with each 
other 

Gov' Howard Gen' Clarke & myself unite in the opinion that we 
have good cause to apprehend a formidable combination of Indians 
and a bloody war — And if there is any confidence to be placed in the 
agents sub-agents, and spies engaged in these territories in the Indian 
Department who have had an opportunity of forming an opinion, no 
other event can be expected. The Prophet is regaining his influ- 
ence — Tecumseh has visited the tribes on our Northwestern frontier 
with considerable success — 

An Indian called (I think) the White Pidgeon lately visited the 
Indians of the Illinois & Missisippi rivers, tried to engage them to 

" NA (WD, SWDF), printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, p. 293, urging that arrange- 
ments be made to pay the militia for their services in defense of the Territory in 
the summer of 1811. 

'" NA, op. cit., printed, Edwards, op. cit., pp. 294-295, excepting an enclosure, 
Whiteside to Edwards, Dec. 4, 1811 (present with the original), relative to the 
location of hostile Indians. In his letter of Jan. 25, Edwards stated he was 
unable to prevent the people of St. Clair County from organizing an expedition 
against the Indians. 

" Answered May 6, 1812 (NA, WD, SWDF, prmted, Edwards, op. cit., pp. 
312-315). 



194 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

attack our frontiers — promised them British protection, and invited 
them to Fort Maulden to receive arms ammunition &' &*= This infor- 
mation has been received through four different channels and the fact 
cannot be doubted 

In part we know he has been successful in his machinations — 

Two more men have lately been killed in this territory — Mj' spies 
a few days ago discovered a trail of Indians leading into one of our 
settlements they persued it and found that the Indians had been 
waylaying the house of one of our citizens — 

Various indications of a similar character have been discovered 
in Louisianna — 

We have receive positive information that the Kickapoos & Potto- 
wattomies lately held a council near Pioria in which it was determined 
to attack our frontiers 

We have been positively assured that the murder of Oniels family 
(ten in number) which I lately communicated fey *li«9e i ndinnn was 
perpetrated by those Indians — In addition to this positive information 
the spies who were sent out immediately report that they persued a 
trail of about twenty Indians from Oniels house — and that it crossed 
the Illinois river— 

If the Indians have hostile views they will certainly be greatly 
encouraged by such multitudes leaving the territory as is daily 
witnessed — Indeed I think, the antient settlements of the country 
will soon become the frontier — And I should be very happy if even 
the small garrison at Massac which is useless there, could be removed 
to this part of the country — 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y"^ M° Obd' S' 

N Edwards 

The Honble Wiluam Eustis Esqre Secretary of War Washington 
city 

[Addressed] The Honble William Eustis Esqr Secretary of War 
Washington City Free 

[Endorsed] Elvirade March 3. 1812 Gov. Edwards Stating the 
e\'idences of hostilities by the Indians— murders committed — Serious 
cause of alarm. Rec" March 24, 1812 " 



No reply found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 195 

MATTHEW IRWIN TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
INA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Chicago March 10'" 1812. 

Sir, I had the honor, on a late occasion, to address you on the 
subject of Indian concerns, & held out the anticipation that unless 
an arrangement were effected with the refractory chiefs, before the 
ensuing Spring or Summer, an Indian War would be the inevitable 
consequence. Perhaps it might be expected that on so interesting 
a subject every information should be communicated tending to 
elucidate it. If such is the fact, nothing, at this time, can be stated 
of a positive character. Were we to credit rumors, we might be 
induced to believe that the Winnibagoes are resolved for War, & 
that the Pottewattamies being intimidated by the Winnebagoes, feel 
themselves constrained to unite with them. On the other hand, if 
we give credit to the declarations of the Winnebagoes (a party of 
whom from the Fox River were here a few days ago) they would 
lead us to believe that they are pacifically disposed. One thing, 
however, is pretty certain, viz' the Chipeway & Ottawa nations, 
hearing that the Winnebagoes & Pottawattomies were hostilely in- 
clined to the Whites, have sent speeches to them, the purport of which 
is to desire them to change their sentiments respecting the Whites, to 
live in peace with them, representing them as friends, & depicting 
the miseries a War would lead to. 

If we wish to know the actual views or sentiments of the Indians, 
we ought to have a confidential Indian employed, whose business it 
should be to scour the country from time to time, & by affecting 
hatred to the Whites, gain if possible, such information as might lead 
to the forming more accurate conclusions as to those Views or Senti- 
ments. This has been practised elsewhere with some success, & as 
we are, during the greater part of the year, nearly environed by 
different tribes, we might possibly succeed as well, or at least be 
enabled to form opinions without having them oftener contradicted 
than confirmed. 

I also had the honor to touch upon some irregularities respecting 
the Suttling business. I did it from a persuation that whenever there 
were persons in the public employ, so lost to virtue as to interest 
themselves in concerns which would not bear the light, that it did 
not become me to be a passive spectator — my feelings not only revolt 
at it, but I feel almost persuaded that it will lead to serious conse- 
quences. 



196 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

One of the inducements (and I have reason to beHeve there is 
another) for appointing a Sutler is, the officers get their Wants sup- 
plied at costs & charges; and, in consequence, it is understood that 
the Suttler may charge those for the soldiery, in such manner, as will 
reimburse him for his liberallity to the officers. 

I shall not. Sir, tire you with a detail of the evils attending this 
business, because on former occasions, I exposed some of them; but 
I cannot help remarking upon the enclosed copy of a Garrison order 
that instead of "The Articles for the trade of the Troops" being 
"furnished on reasonable prices" they have, since the appointment of 
Suttler, been advanced from 25 to 50 p. Ct. 

I hope, Sir, you will pardon me the loss of time this may occasion 
you, & permit me to remain, with great respect. Sir, Y' Mo* Ob* 
& Most hum' Serv* 

M. Irwin 

The Hon"" W. Eustis, Sec^" of war, Washington. 

P.S. 11'" I have lately ascertained it to be an absolute fact that 
Mess" Kinzie & Forsyth, offered a gentleman 400$ per annum to get 
them appointed at Washington the Suttlers for this place. Perhaps 
few men are less deserving of Public favors. It is very well known 
that they (during the Campaigns of Gen'' S' Clair & Wayne) supplied 
the Indians with Balls & Powder. That one of them declared to some 
Englishmen that he had it in his power (during those campaigns) to 
save the lives of some American Prisoners, by giving a few quarts of 
whiskey but that he would not sacrifice his property for the sake of a 
few d — d Americans! M.I. 

[Addressed] The Hon, W" Eustis, Sec" of War, Washington. 

[Endorsed] Chicago March 10, 1812. M Irwin relative to the threats 
of the Winebago & Potawattomie Indians &c. also inclosing a copy 
of the order for the Suttlers. Rec" April 17'" 1812 " 

[Enclosure] 

Garrison order by Nathan Heald 

Fort Dearborn Jan^ 17'" 1812. 
Garrison Orders 

The Commanding officer hereby informs the Soldiers & Citizens 
that Mess" Kenzie & Forsyth are considered as the proper Suttlers 
for this Garrison and so long as they continue to furnish the necessary 



•• No reply found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 197 

articles for the Trade of the Troops on reasonable prices, no Certifi- 
cates of pay due will be given to any other trader. 

(signed) N. Heald Cap' Com"* 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[NA:OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

War Dep' March 11'" 1812 
His Excellency Ninian Edwards 111' Territory 

Sir Your Excellency' letters of the 10'" " 13'" ^^ & 15'" february^' 
were received yesterday. 

By the return mail I have only time to inform you that W" Boling 
Whiteside has been nominated Cap' of the Company of Rangers, for 
the Ilinois Territory — So soon as the nomination is confirmed,^' the 
commission and necessary instructions will be forwarded to your 
Excellency, in the meantime you will make such arrangements for 
organizing the company under Cap' Wliiteside, as you may deem 
expedient and proper. The subalterns will be appointed, as soon as 
suitable persons are recommended. 

Two companies of Rangers, which it is presumed will be raised in 
the State of Ohio, by the time you receive this letter, one company to 
be raised in Indiana, one in Illinois, and one from Kentucky, will it 
is conceived be competent to protect the frontiers, and to accompany 
and assist a detachment of regular troops which will be ordered to 

" NA (WD, SWDF), printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, pp. 300-302, informing that he 
had been unable to prevail on the Kickapoo and Potawatomi chiefs to meet him 
in conference; that the Winnebago were reported ready to attack the frontier; 
and that great numbers of people were leaving Illinois Territory in fear of an 
uprising. 

" Aide, p. 186. 

'' NA (WD, SWDF), printed. Edwards, op. cit., pp. 302-303, stating he now 
believed Harrison's victory would not result in permanent peace, and that British 
agents would continue to try to foment trouble. With the original are the fol- 
lowing enclosures: a copy of Edwards to the President, Oct. 16, 1811, relative to 
Indian hostilities, in which were enclosed copies of resolutions of the people of 
St. Clair County, no date, urging more protection for the frontier; a resolution 
of the militia officers of St. Clair County, no date, relative to the need of regular 
troops in the Territory; and a memorial from the people of the same county, no 
date, asking for protection for the Territory. The original of the letter of Oct. 16, 
1811, with its enclosures, is also found in NA, he. cit., under its date, and is 
printed, with enclosures, in Edwards, op. cit., pp. 288-291; the enclosures are 
printed in A.S.P., Ind. Affairs, I, 802-803. 

" Nominated Mar. 11 and confirmed Mar. 13, 1812 {Senate, Exec. Journal, 11, 
234, 236). 



198 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

establish a post at the Pioria Village.^ A mutual communication 
between the Governors of the States and Territories, appears to be a 
probable means of producing a concert of operations by the force 
which has been and will be provided ^* 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

March ll'" 1812 
Hon"'" N. Edwards, Elvirade Randolph county Illinois Ter. 

I have received yours of the 14'" ^ on the subject of leasing lands on 
the post route which accords with opinions I have frequently expressed 
on that subject and I have forwarded the same to the Chairman of the 
Land Committee — 

G. Gr. 



** In accordance with the request embodied in a second letter from Edwards of 
Feb. 10, 1812 (Edwards, op. cit., p. 299), which also recommended W. B. White- 
side as commander of the rangers in Illinois Territory. In the same connection 
see Edwards to Senator Pope, same date, tbt'd., p. 300. See the Secretary of War 
to Edwards, Mar. 16, 1812 (NA, OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C), embodying instruc- 
tions for raising the company of rangers assigned to Illinois Territory, and trans- 
mitting the commission for the commander of the company, which was in con- 
formity with the act approved Jan. 2, 1812 (2 Stat. 670), authorising the forma- 
tion of six companies of rangers in the northwestern territories. This letter is 
nearly identical with one to Governor Harrison, of Indiana Territory, Feb. 28, 
1812 {Terr. Papers, Ind., viii, 168). See also Edwards to Governor Scott, of 
Kentucky, Feb. 13, 1812, to Governor Howard and William Clark, of Louisiana 
Territory, Feb. 16, 1812, and to Howard, Feb. 27, 1812 (Edwards, op. cit., pp. 302, 
303-304, 310-311). With respect further to the militia situation, see id. to Col. 
Thomas Levins, 1st Illinois regiment, Feb. 21, 1812, and to Col. William Whiteside 
(two letters). Mar. 15, 1812, ibid., pp. 305-306, 309-310, and to William B. 
Whiteside, Mar. 2, 1812, ibid., pp. 311-312, enclosing the latter's commission as 
captain of rangers and embodying instructions. Doubt may be cast on the date 
of this letter as given in the printed version (the original has not been found), 
since the commission, according to the above letter, could not have been forwarded 
from Washington until after Mar. 13. 

" Answered May 6, 1812 (NA, WD, SWDF, printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, pp. 
312-315), a letter of great length, in which is discussed again the conference at 
Cahokia of Apr. 16, 1812, and the hope is expressed of obtaining consent of the 
Indians to construct a fort on the Sainquemon (Sangamon) River where the 
trace crossed from Cahokia to Peoria. There is also additional information con- 
cerning Indian hostilities and the organization of the rangers. This letter was 
answered June 4, 1812 (NA, WD, SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 5, printed, Edwards, 
op. cit., p. 536), in which Edwards was assured the militia called out by him would 
be paid upon presentation of muster and pay rolls, and that the subalterns named 
for the company of rangers would be nominated. 

»° Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 199 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JEREMIAH MORROW 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

March 11, 1812 
Hon"'* Jeremiah Morrow, Chairman of the Land Committee. 

I take the Hberty to enclose the letter of Ninian Edwards Esq' on 
the subject of increasing facihties to aid the progress of the mail which 
requires the aid of your committee *' — What he proposes would be 
useful to this office — 

G. Gr. 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO RICHARD M. JOHNSON 
[LC: HF, 12 Cong., 1 sess.: ALS «»] 

Elvirade, Randolph County Illinois Territory March 14. 1812 

Dear Sir I hope the sincere desire which I feel to serve the people 
of this territory & their having no delegate in congress will be accepted 
as an apology for the trouble which this letter will give you. 

At no time since the first organization of this gov* have the people 
as far as I can learn been better satisfied with their territorial officers 
than at the present juncture. But a variety of different wishes and 
motives have combined to induce them to wish to enter the second 
grade of territorial gov* merely for the purpose of obtaining a delegate 
to congress — which I always supposed might with as much propriety 
have been allowed them without their being obliged to incur for that 
purpose alone the expences of the second grade — more especially since 
if the same rights should be extended to them that are enjoyed by the 
Indiana territory the delgate will be wholly independent of the legis- 
lature — 

The population of this territory as appears by the late census 
amounts to 12.282.'' in the whole of which there does not exceed 
between, two & three hundred freeholders (two hundred and twenty 
I am convinced is the extent of the number.) this is owing to the 
sale of public lands having been postponed much beyond any period 
that was anticipated from the appointment of a register & [receiver 
to this district — 

This very small portion of freeholders have the exclusive right, of 
determining upon the contemplated change of gov* after which they 
alone will have the right to vote for the members of the legislature 
who will be elected for two years with the right to nominate the 

" Letter not seen. 

" Printed also in Edwards, op. eil., pp. 306-309. 

" Referring to the census of 1810, the only extant fragment of which is printed 
in Norton (ed.), III. Census Returns, 1810, 1818 (IHC, xxiv), 1-53. The returns 
thus published, presumed to be wholly from Randolph County, total 7,275. 



200 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Council who will be appointed for five years by which a small minority 
will have the power to fix upon a very large and respectable majority 
of their fellow citizens a course of measures which may not be changed 
however disagreeable to the majority for five years — Even if the 
danger to be apprehended should be considered problematical still 
such are the jealous and independent dispositions of freemen that 
they never will be satisfied to depend for the security of their rights 
upon the mere courtesy of others — 

A number of petitions have been presented to me by the freeholders 
in favor of organizing a general assembly — and not one against the 
measure has been rec" so that I have no doubt that the change will 
very soon take place and I have this day issued a proclamation for 
taking in a formal manner the sense of the freeholders on the subject — 

Under these circumstances I am sure I do not miscalculate 
when I suppose your attachment to republican principles will lead 
you to wish to extend their salutary influence to the people of this 
territory by extendin g endorsing the right of suffrage — It is the more 
just and necessary because it is not the fault of the people that they 
are not freeholders for many of them are able and anxiously waiting 
to buy land as soon as the public sales are open — Those sales will cer- 
tainly commence shortly and the number of freeholders will thereby 
be greatly augmented yet unless immediate provision be made for 
them, they may for the reasons before given be excluded from the 
benefits of representation for five years — 

These considerations also demonstrate the propriety of giving 
the people of the territory the right to elect their delegate to congress, 
as was done for Indiana, whilst this territory was an integral part of 
that — A delegate was designed to represent the whole people of the 
territory & not any particular description of citizens only — except 
as to the right of voting in congress — he stands precisely in the same 
relation to the people of a territory that any representative in con- 
gress does to the people of his district. Why then should the election 
of the one be made by the legislature and the other by the people 
themselves — It is more necessary that the people here should have 
this right secured to them, than any where else, for owing to the 
peculiar situation of this territory, in consequence of the sale of public 
lands being so long delayed, one hundred and thirty freeholders 
having an interest distinct from that of the great body of the people 
feftv© by uniting would constitute the majority of the freeholders and 
could elect the delegate in opposition to the interest and wishes of all 
the rest of a population consisting of 12282 persons — It surely is 
enough that such an inconsiderable mnjority minority should possess 
the power of of legislating for the whole territory — But to secure also 
the additional advantage of a delegate to congress is a reason strongly 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 201 

urged to press into the second gi-ade of gov' before the public sales 
shall open and thereby increase the number of persons who could 
havo ft right te participate in the equal rights of free government — 

Independent of the stron g m favor ef -tfee » ca3urc reasons growing 
out of the peculiarity of our situation in favor of the measure. It is 
strongly recommended by considerations of justice & policy upon 
general principles — Our house of representatives will consist of seven 
members the legislative council of five making in the aggregate, 
twelve — -Whilever these men have the sole right to elect the delegate, 
scenes of intrigue or to use a Kentucky term loggroUing will constantly 
present themselves — which although while they may gratify the 
ambition of indi\-iduals will CoBticually greatly disturb the repose 
and tranquility of any territorial gov' and hazard much of the best 
interest of the best citizens thereof — • 

The situation of the setlers between Kaskaskia and the Ohio most 
cogently demands consideration — The appointment of a register & 
receiver to this district several years ago induced those people to 
believe (as the obvious and common duty of such officers is to sell 
land & receive the money) that the sales v/ould very shortly thereafter 
commence, by which means aed with a view te fe«y ^his iaed they 
were induced to settle on the land they proposed to buy — they now 
constitute at least one third of the whole population of the territory — 
and a great portion of them will become freeholders as soon as the 
sales shall be open — Yet imless Congress interpose to extend to them 
the right of suffrage &c they must be deprived of the benefits of repre- 
sentation — The ordinance & laws amendatoiy thereof require that so 
soon as the Governor shall receive satisfactory CA-idence that the or- 
ganization of a general assembly in the territory is the wish of a major- 
ity of the freeholders — he shall order an election for representatives 
whose number shall not be less than seven nor more than nine and 
these he shall apportion to the several counties in the territory accord- 
ing to the number of free males abo\Te the age of 21 years — at present 
there are but two counties in the territory, so that I must give at least 
four representatives to one and three to the other — This power is 
given to the Governor for the purpose of getting the second grade of 
gov' in operation after which he has no power to apportion the 
representation by taking a member from one or both the counties to 
which he had pre\nously given him. this must depend on the legis- 
lature ef which consits of the representatives of two counties only 
and it is not a safe calculation that they will have magnanimity 
enough to relinquish all that justice would require — the people of 
whom I have spoken as residing between Kaskaskia and the Ohio 
are in Randolph County — will be counted for it in the apportionment 
of representatives and yet will have no vote — -If I seperate those people 



202 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

from Randolph by laying off a new county (which I have only been 
prevented from doing in consequence of their being in legal estima- 
tion intruders on public land.) and should apportion to them their 
share of representatives still I do not know that there is one man 
among them that is qualified to be a representative by having a 
freehold of 200 acres of land, and not more than three or four quali- 
fied to vote by ha\ang a freehold in fifty acres ef km^ which are the 
qualifications fixed by the ordinance — Con\'inced as I am that noth- 
ing more than a fair representation of the situation of the people 
of this territory at the present time to congress can be necessary to 
procure them the justice which their situation imperiously calls for. 
I beg leave in their behalf most earnestly to intreat your aid in pro- 
curing the passage of law to extend the right of suffrage, in all cases 
ift wh i ch ftfty »ew have « right te f^)^ and for the election of the 
delegate to Congress by the people at large instead of by the legisla- 
ture. An early passage of the law alone can secure *e the advantages 
which it may propose, as otherwise the second grade will be forced 
ov[MS. torn] so as to defeat its beneficial purposes 

The business of territories however urgent it is understood is too 
often postponed i» con3cqucncc when they are unfortunately not rep- 
resented because no one particularly feels sufficient interest to take 
upon himself exclusively the trouble of preparing and attending to 
it — If under such circumstances the people should be fortunate enough 
to obtain your aid — I am sure they will feel & be proud to acknowledge 
everlasting obligations to you — 

I would thank you to inform me what may be the prospect of 
having the right of suffrage extended, because should I be assured that 
that event W certainly take place I would certainl y postpone the 
elections a little beyond the period I should otherwise appoint for 
them — I therefore shall be greatly obliged if you can find it convenient 
to write me on the receit hereof 

Y' friend &« 

N Edwards 

[Addressed] The Hon"'* Rich"" M Johnson Esqre Washington City 
Direct to Sidney Grove office [Postmarked] Sidney Grove March 
17*" Free 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD.SWDF:ALS1 

Illinois Territory March the 17. 1812 
Sir I have the honor to inform you that I have received certain 
information of another miu*der being committed by the Indians 
accompanied with the most unheard of barbarity — 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 203 

And some friendly Indians have informed the garrison at Fort 
Maddison that it will shortly be attacked by a combination of Winne- 
bagoes Kickapoos Pottowottomies and Shawnees &".'* 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully sir ¥"■ Mo Obd* S' 

N Edwards 

NB. I write from here — with great inconvenience & hope you 
excuse the form of this communication & the necessary haste with 
which it is written & the paper N E 

\AMressed\ The Honble William Eustis Esqr Secretary of War 
Washington City \Postmar'ked\ Sydney Grove March 17*" Free 

\Endorsed\ Illinois Territory March 17, 1812 Gov. N Edwards- 
informs of another murder by the Indians, and that Fort Madison is 
threatened with an attack Acknowlege the letter. Rec"* April 
4. 1812 »» 



PETITION TO CONGRESS BY INHABITANTS OF THE 

TERRITORY »» 

[LC:HF, 12 Cong., 1 sess.:DS] 

{March 24, 1812] 

To the Honab^^ the Congress of the United States, we your Peti- 
tioners Citizens of the Territory of Illinois beg leave most respectfully 
to represent to yoiu* Honab'° body that by the Law which establishes 
our Territorial Gov* it is provided that a General Assembly Shall be 
organized therein as soon as the Gov'' thereof Shall receive Satis- 
factory evidence that such is the wish of a majority of the freeholders. 
The Said Gov'' in consequence of haveing received many petitions for 
that purpose has issued his proclamation for takeing the sense of the 
freeholders on the subject" and we have no doubt but that the 
measure will succeed — Nor have we any objections thereto. But we 
are anxious that the benefits and advantages thereof Shall extend to 
the whole of our fellow citizens and not to a favoured few 

To obtain which we beg leave to state our Situation to your Hon- 
ab'' body. Our population about two years ago consisted of twelve 

« See also Edwards to the Secretary of 'War, Feb. 18, 1812 (NA.WD.S'WDF, 
printed, Edwards, Hist. III., p. 305), with other information concerning Indian 
hostilities, and referring the Secretary to John Rice Jones, then in 'Washington, 
for advice relative to possible future military establishments in the Territory. 
Edwards also stated that he and Governor Howard had decided to order out a 
force of rangers to protect the frontier. Cf. Howard to the Secretary of War, 
Mar. 19, 1812 (Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., XIV), for additional details. 

" Answered post, p. 210. 

«» Enclosed in a covering letter from Governor Edwards to the Speaker of the 
House, Mar. 30, 1812 (LC, HF). 

" Mar. 14, 1812, Register, pos(, vol. XVII. 



204 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Thousand two hundred and eighty two. of which there are not more 
than between two and three hundred free holders. These have the 
sole right of determining upon the change of Gov' and electing the 
representatives to the General assembly for two years, those repre- 
sentatives will have the right to nominate the council who will be 
appointed for five years. And as no law when once passed can be 
repealed without the consent of the majority of each branch of the 
Legislature the very Small Minority of our population being free- 
holders: will have the power of Governing such an immense Majority 
for five years Altho we should become freeholders — The Legislature 
thus brought into existence by a bare majority of the free holders 
among us will have the sole right of electing the delegate to Congress — 
And we cannot but view with the aversion natural to free men, re- 
publicans and lovers of equal rights every manifestation of a desire 
among our fellow citizens to limit the exercise of all the rights affore- 
said to a flew individuals to the exclusion of the Great body of the 
People many of whom are now Serving their country by opposeing 
the inroads of the Savages and who are in every respect equally 
meritorious. 

Many of us are now freeholders & others would long Since have 
become so if the Sale of public lands had not been unexpectedly de- 
layed ; All are attached to the country and interested in its Support. 

We therefore respectfully Solicit that your Honorable body will 
kindly interpose and extend the right of Sufferage and place us upon 
a footing with our Sister Territories particularly Indiana of which we 
were once a part by permitting the deligate to Congress to be elected 
by the people at large. He certainly was designed as the represen- 
tative of the whole and not a part only— And altho Some of us may 
lose the oportunity of voteing for members of the Gen' assembly in 
consequence of its being about to take place so shortly, Still it will 
be in your power to authorise the people to vote for the Deligate to 
Congress in the fall as the Election cannot take place much Sooner. 
All which we respectfully Submit, And as in duty bound will ever 
pray &c. fee" 

{March 24'" 1812) 

W" Rector Cha' C. Himiphreys 

B. Stephenson John Agen 

Patrick Lamer Michael Smith 

Elias Barcroft Geo Fisher 

Stephen Rector Jacob Fisher 

Sam Rector James Tailor 

N: Rector. Laurance M" M«Closky 

mark 
•• See post, P- 213. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 205 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO WILLIAM ARUNDEL 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

March 25—1812 
W. Arundel Esq' P. M, Kaskaskia II. Ter. 

We are satisfied with the terms of the contract which you have 
entered into with M' Morrison— 

G. Gr. 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO GOVERNOR 

EDWARDS 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 2] 

Treasury Depm* 26*" March 1812 
Sir, I enclose the copy of a letter from M'' Leonard White,'' Agent 
at the United States saline, giving information of certain operations of 
the Lessees adverse to the interest of the U. States; and request that 
you will take such measures as in your opinion are best calculated 
to promote and insure the sale of the U. S; salt, as mentioned 
therein. 
I have &c* 

His Excellency Ninian Edwards Governor of the Illinois Ter" 



PETITION TO CONGRESS BY CITIZENS OF THE 

TERRITORY 

[LC:HF, 12 Cong., 2 sess.:DS] 

[No date, 1812] 
To the Honorable the Congress of the United States 

we your petitioners. Citizens of Illinois Territory and Inhabitants 
of the Land district East of Kaskaskia which has been established 
during your present session.'" 

Beg leave most respectfully to represent to your Honorable body 

That the district recently created contains one third of the whole 
population of the Territory 

That in consequence of the preparations which the United States 
seemed to be making several years ago for the sale of the publick land 
by surveying the same and appointing a register and receiver to the 
district that included it, we were induced to settle thereon with the 
hope and expectation of being able shortly thereafter to purchase the 
Land we occupied and to become freeholders 

No sale however has yet taken place and we have so far been dis- 
appointed — but during our residence in the Territory we have endeav- 

«» Not seen. 

" Approved Feb. 21, 1812 (2 Stat. 684). 



206 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

ored faithfully to fullfill all the duties required of us and have never 
failed to comply promtly with any requisition that has been made for 
our portion of Militia to defend the country against the depredations 
of our savage neighbors — 

To all our privations hitherto we have submitted with patience in 
consequence of their resulting from the peculiar form of government 
adopted for the Territory. But we felicitated ourselves with the 
pleasing anticipation of events that would admit us to an enjoyment 
of the Equal rights of free men. And at the very Instant that our 
hopes seemed likely to be realized, by the prospect of the sale of publick 
Land being shortly opened they are exchanged for a conviction of 
their fallacy without the aid of your Honorable body immediately and 
kindly interposed to relieve us as you will perceive by the following 
plain statement 

By the Law establishing this Territorial Government, it is declared, 
that a General assembly shall be organized so soon as satisfactory 
evidence shall be given to the Governor that such is the wish of a 
majority of the free holders — 

He is then to apportion the representitives who shall not exceed 
nine nor be less than seven to the several counties according to the 
number of free male Inhabitants above the age of Twenty one, nothing 
less than a free hold in fifty acres of Land can authorise any one to 
vote for representatives, who must themselves have a free hold in two 
Hundred Acres and be Elected for two years. Those Representatives 
will have the right to nominate the members of the council who must 
be appointed for five years — 

And the legislature thus constituted will have a right to elect the 
delagate to congress, we beg leave to represent that the freeholders in 
the Territory do not exceed between two and three Hundred and our 
population was about two years past Twelve Thousand two Hundred 
and Eighty two so that your Honorable body can not fail to perceive 
that a bare majority of this very small number of Free holders have 
the power by the exercise of the exclusive right aforesaid, to govern 
the immense majority consisting of the whole of the residue of our 
population for five years — and to deprive us of an Equal representa- 
tion in the legislature 

At present there are but two counties in the Territory and If the 
second grade of Government now take place the Governor must 
apportion the whole of the representatives to these counties And 
there is no power given to him to take them away, and make new 
apportionments when new counties shall be made — This must depend 
upon the Legislature composed of the representatives of the two 
Counties only — and we do not like to rest upon the precarious de- 
pendance of their magnanimously resigning a sufficient portion of 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 207 

their power — At present we are a part of Randolph County must be 
counted for it in the apportionment of representatives — and yet we 
have not a man among us quahfied to be a representative nor more 
than three or four qualified to vote. And before any radical change 
can take place we expect certainly to be included in a new county — 
We are sorry to add that we have two much reason to believe that a 
portion of the present free holders, seeing that the publick sales are 
about to commence and that the number of free holders will conse- 
quently be greatly augmented are disposed to hasten into the second 
grade of Government to exclude us from an Equal participation in 
its benefits and to monopolize the whole power in their own hands 
They have already presented numerous petitions to the Governor 
praying for the change. He has Issued his proclamation for taking 
the sense of the free holders on the subject and we have no doubt the 
measure will succeed 

We therefore pray your Honorable body to extend the right of 
suffrage and authorize the people to elect the Delegate to Congress '• 
without which he instead of being the representative of the whole 
territory may be the actual representative of a small favored minority 
very little exceeding the number of One Hundred what we ask for 
has been granted to our sister Territory Indiania of which we were a 
part " And we beg leave further to observe that If the generous 
interposition thus respectfully solicited shoiJd not be granted at an 
early period It will be too late after the legislature shall have convened 
and elected the delegate. We as in duty bound will ever pray &C &C 

Tho= E. Craig Phill Buckner 

Jo= R: G: Poole Harrison Wilson 

Ja° Ratcliff Jacob Sexton 

Thomas Shannon Joshua Sexton 

Benjamin Talbott James Gobin 

John Davidson Taylor Maulding 

Matter Pearce Charles White 

Thomas Dawson Edmond W Bages 

Thomas Chinoweth Seth Hargrave 

Absalom Ashley William Johnston 

Fr^ Wheatly George Robertson 

Walker Scanland John Summers 

John ormsby William Pate 

Israel Hale John Smith 

William Owens W" H Ramsey 

Dorris Elisha Colbart 

Edward Farley John Wilson 

E Keeling Thomas Wallss 

James [MS. illegible] Alfred Wood 

" See act approved May 20, 1812 (2 Stat. 741-742), which not only extended 

the suffrage as prayed but also provided for the election of a Delegate to Congress. 

" By acts approved Feb. 27, 1809 and Dec. 15, 1809 (2 Stat. 525-526, 554-555). 



208 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



John Morris 
George Jackson 
James Willson 
Alexandre Blare 
david Setz 
Joshua Williams 
Chissom Esters 
Samuel Omelveny 
Alexand Parkison 
Thomas Rose 
Lewis Conkey 
Job Patteys 
W" Patteys 
John Williams 
David Baultinger 
Nathan Young 
John Weeks 
Ja' Ford 
Joseph Upton 
Isaac Hall 
James Hanna 
Tomas Little 
William Ditterline 
William M«Henry 
.'homas M'CoUister 
John Wren 
Joseph Jordan 
Nicholas Wren 
John Morris 
John Stapleton 
Will- Reid 
Joseph Rogers 
Bethel Pue 
John Groves 
Brice hanes 
Carraway Gates 
John Wilson 
J W Buchner 
Thomas Hatfield 
Thompson M Harris 
Morris May 
Robbert Harris 
Enoch Brown 
John Woods 
John Forester 
Ch" Hill 
Elsha Gordon 
James Phipps 
W° Kincheloe 
John Robinson 
Tho» Berry 
Jno, Browning 
Elisha Browning 
Ja" Tramell 



Fr' Jordon 
Richard Riddels 
William M'Kinny 
Samuel Hargrave 
Leo" White 
Sam W. White 
Samuel E H [MS. torn] 
Daniel Diddrick 
Joel Madcalf 
Elias Morgan 
Tho« F Glenn 
Mannuel Madcalf 
John Black 
G B Stovall 
Squire Stovall 
Jacob Nicols 
Samuel Bratton 
Nedham Johnston 
W" Watson 
James Watson 
Elisha Hall 
Andrew Bratton 
Demsy Stanly 
Sphen Stanly 
Abraham Stovall 
John Stovall 
Joseph Fisher 
Plesant Rose 
Lewis Watkins 
Benoney Lee 
Sollomon Redfem 
Samuel Roberts 
Daniel Vinyard 
George Vinyard 
Joseph Estes 
David Goss 
Joseph Riley 
Jery Miah Pixley 
John Palmer 
Abraham Shelby 
Elert Rose 
John Moore 
John Smyth 
Ryly Houdson 
Absalom Estes 
Jn° Vineyard 
Willam Vinyard 
Alexander Clark 
Valentine Cook 
David cooley 
John Woodell 
George Morriess 
Thomas Willson 
George Patterson 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 209 

ANONYMOUS PROTEST AGAINST TRANSITION TO 
SECOND GRADE OF GOVERNMENT 

[LC: HF, 12 Cong., 1 sess.:AD] 

[No date, 1812 c] 

It is a maxim no less just than true in all well regulated Govern- 
ments, that Taxation & representation should be proportionate; the 
very reverse of this maxim will take place in Case the bill before 
Congress allowing an universal Suffrage in the Illinois Territory 
should pass into a law — as That Territory by entering into the second 
Grade of Government, will have a considerable revenue to raise for 
defraying the Expences thereof. And The only object she has, (and 
the only one which has been resorted to in all these Territories,) 
of Taxation is the land held by Individuals, who will have the whole to 
pay, while those who do not possess any will be clear of any additional 
Expence — If then the freeholders onlj' are to pay all the extra Expences 
of the 2"* Grade of Gov' would it not be unjust that those who do not 
contribute to it, should have a voice in the representation — The 
qualification is only 50 acres of land, which at Congress price may be 
got for $75 & from Individuals at a less price, which is surely as little 
a qualific" as could be desired even by the most liberal — 

iinothcr Effect The passage of the law will have the farther Effect 
of extending to unlawful Intruders on the public lands, the same rights 
as those possess who live on their own — It is an undoubted fact that by 
far a majority of the Inhabitants of the Territory are unlawful in- 
truders on the public lands, and that all those li\-ing on the Ohio & 
Miss' rivers below Kaskaskia, are with the Exceptions perhaps of 
4 or 5 of this description, and that they amount to nearly one half of 
the population of the Territory, 

The laws of Congress say that those men are guilty of a misde- 
meanor, & liable to punishment, the passage of this bill into a law will 
in fact countenance the Infraction of the fonner laws and by giving 
them equal rights with other Citizens render their Situation much 
more eligible — It may be said that those Intruders eft pu b li c kftds will 
purchase their lands they Uve on, whenever the Sales of the public 
lands shall take place which it is expected wiU shortly be — A few no 
doubt will do so, but I am convinced that a great majority of them 
have neither the Intention nor the means of doing so, and if we look 
into the history of the popoluation of all the western parts of the 
Countrj% it will be found that the first settlers, (being intruders 
generally,) are but mere birds of passage & as Gov' & population 
advance, move further back — 

By the ordinance of Congress of 1787 it is provided that when' 
there shod be 5000 free male Inhab" of full age in the Territory, 
they should be entitled to enter into the 2" Grade of Gov' & elect a 
Delegate to Congress; but by the Act of Congress for dividing the 



210 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Ind* Territory, they are permitted to enter into this Grade whenever 
a majority of them should think proper, notwithstand'g there may be 
less than 5000 free male Inhab" therein— By the late Census it appears 
there was then about 12250 only in the Territory, since that, on acct. 
of the apprenhion of Indian hostilities the number had greatly di- 
minished ; admitting however there should be the same n° at this time 
as at the time of taking the Census, there cannot be exceeding 2400 
men of full age in the Territory', which is less than half the number 
required by the Ordinance — a few ambitious men however, will have 
the 2" Grade of Gov' & by that means again plunge the Territory not 
only into an unnecessary Expence, but also into that State of ferment 
& Confusion from which she is just emerging & which she was thrown 
into when forming a part of the Indiana Territory, where the 2'' Grade 
of Gov' was imprudently entered into, and which consequently threw 
the whole into a State, almost of Anachy, but certainly of Strife & 
discord 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO MATTHEW IRWIN 
[NA:WD, SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 5] 

War Dep' April 7'" 1812 
M. Irwin Esq' U. S. factor Chicago. 

Sir Your letter of the 19'" Jan'' is received." The officer com- 
manding at Chicago, will be directed to take the necessary measures 
to fortify and guard the public buildings, and to regulate the charges 
of Suttlers. 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 
[NA:OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

War Dep' April 7'" 1812 
His Excellency N. Edwards Kaskaskia 

Sir Your Excellency" letter of March 17'" has been received.'' 
By this time it is presumed that the different companies of rangers 
which have been authorised are in operation and ready to check any 
incursions on the part of the Indians. This force it is hoped will 
serve to remove the apprehensions which have been excited." 

" Antt, p. 184. 

" Ante, p. 202. 

" Answered May 12, 1812 (NA,WD,SWDF, printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, pp. 
319-321, but without the maps which are enclosed in the original), giving a 
detailed report on Indians within the Illinois Territory. There is also another 
letter, id. to id.. May (no day), 1812, ibid., pp. 315-318, containing a description 
of the location of the various tribes of Indians within his jurisdiction and beyond. 
See also id. to id., Mar. 23, 1811 (NA, op. cit., printed, Edwards, op. ci<., p. 311), 
inquiring how the rangers were to be paid, and expressing no doubt of the hostile 
intentions of the Indians between the Lakes and the Illinois and Mississippi 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 211 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO LEONARD WHITE 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

April 7. 1812 
Leonard White Esqr P. M, U. S. Saline Ind T. 

I have reed yours of Feby 28'" '* the contractor who undertook to 
convey the mail between Hendersonton ^' & Kaskaskia so far departed 
from the covenants of his contract, that we deemed it to be our duty 
to place that mail in other hands — 

G. Gr. 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO JOHN CALDWELL 
[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 2] 

Treasury Depm' 16'" April 1812. 

Sir, Enclosed you will receive a Commission from the President of 
the United States, appointing you to be Receiver of public monies 
at Kaskaskia.'" I have to request that you will immediately qualify 
yourself by taking an oath, to support the Constitution of the United 
States, and for fidelity in Office; with a bond executed by yourself 
and one or more good sureties, in the sum of ten thousand dollars. 
The bond and oath to be forwarded to this Office. 

A form of the bond is enclosed, as well as a copy of the law. I am 

&c* 

John Caldaa^ll Esq' Vincennes. 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO THOMAS SLOO 
[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 2] 

Treasury Depm' 16'" April 1812. 

Sir, Enclosed you will receive a commission from the President of 
the United States, appointing you to be a Commissioner for examining 
and enquiring into the validity of claims to land in the District of 
Kaskaskia, which are derived from confirmations made, or pretended 
to have been made, by the Governors of the North West and Indiana 
Territories respectively. 

I am &c* 

A copy of the law is enclosed. 
Thomas Sloo Esq"' Cincinnati. 

'' Not found. 

" The present Henderson, Ky. The route in question was a section of the 
longer post route extending from Hardinsburg, Ky., through U. S. Saline to 
Shawneetown, Illinois Territory, and on to Kaskaskia. 

*■ Nominated Mar. 30 and confirmed Apr. 1, 1812 {Senate, Exec. Journal, ii, 
242). 

314574 — 48 15 



212 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

MATTHEW IRWIN TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD,SWDF:ALS1 

Chicago Ajnil 16'" 1812. 

Sir, On the 6'" inst. a party consisting of about 10 or 11 Indians, 
surrounded a small farm-house which is on the Chicago River, about 
four miles from this Fort. There happened to be in & about the house 
four persons, viz' three men & a boy. one of whom & the boy, seeing 
the Indians were not altogether well disposed, took occasion, under a 
promise to the Indians that they would return in a few minutes, to 
escape. No sooner were they out of danger, then they heard the 
discharge of fire arms & concluded the men they left behind were shot. 
In a few hours after, two men were sent to investigate the fact, who 
confirmed it — adding they were not only shot, but scalped, and stabbed 
in various places. Their names are Liberty White & John BabtisL 
Cardin. The former was a native of New Hampshire, & the other 
of Canada. 

The persons who escaped, aver that the above party belong to the 
Winebagoe tribe, & all young men — armed with guns, tomahawks, & 
knives. In consequence of this transaction, the inhabitants have fled 
from their homes, & now occupy, for their greater secui'ity, the Indian 
Agency house, which has been partially fortified. They form a body of 
13 or 14 effective men, & make frequent excursions, with intention to 
discover unfriendly Indians, & will be in the event of an Indian War, of 
great utility, considering the want of men in the Fort, to this place. — 

The loss of the men above alluded to has created so great a sensation 
that a number of friendly Indians of the Chippeway & Ottawa tribes, 
who resided near this, have been ordered away. Propositions were 
openly made to murder them as well as some French persons (with 
Indian wives) who have, ever since they have been here, manifested 
peaceable dispositions. The principal persons who advised & insisted 
upon such measures being carried into effect, were the Suttler for this 
garrison & his Son-in law — L' Helm. — 

Thinking it would lead to a general Indian War, I have exerted 
myself, & not without effect to subdue this bloodthirsty spirit. 

The business of the Trading house is suspended in consequence of 
the Indians being ordered from this place; nor is it permitted those 
who come from a distance to dispose of their furs, &c. This is a sin- 
gular kind of policy to adopt towards friendly Indians; but it answers 
very well for a few pretended Americans, who, while they can dispose 
people to believe that the Indians are generally unfriendly, reap the 
fruits of it through their agents at other places." — 

I have the honor to be, with great respect. Sir, Y' Mo' Ob* Serv' 

M. Irwin U. S. Factor 

>■ See Nathan Heald to the Secretary of War, Apr. 17, 1812 (NA,WD,SWDF), 
containing a briefer account of the incident related above. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 213 

The Hon"'" W" Eustis Sec'' of War, Washington. — 

[Addressed] The Hon"'" W" Eustis, Washington City [Postmarked] 

Piqua, Oh. May 1=' Free 

[Endorsed] Chicago April 16. 1812 M. Irwin States the murder of 

two men by the Indians, consequent alarm, conduct of the garrison 

&c.— ReC' May 15*" 1812 ^^ 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO WILLIAM ARUNDEL 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

April IT'" 1812 
William Arundell Esq' P.M, Kaskaskia 111. Ter. 

I have received yours of the 30*" Ult, ^^ we agree that you give two 
hundred & seventy five dollars per annum for transporting the mail 
once a fortnight between your office and Girardot, he must meet the 
rider from Eddyville, we can extend the time for performance as 
far as you may judge it necessary. We have again requested the 
postmaster of Louisville to send you four more portmanteaus, No 218 
can be extended as you propose — - 

G Gr 



SUBSCRIBERS TO PETITION TO CONGRESS FROM 
CITIZENS OF THE TERRITORY «* 

[LC:HF, 12 Cong., 1 sess.] 

[Tabled April 22, 1812] 

Charles M^Nabb John Dix 

John M Harrison G D Kramer 

James M^Nabb Thomas Van Swearingen 

William Hambleton John Postelweight 

Samuel Taylor Ephraim Carpenter 

W" Eront W. L. Ney 

W" C. Greenup Louis Seguin 

P. Fouke Ant. Z. Chenet «' 



'» No reply found. 

*" Not found. 

'< This list of autograph signatures is not completely and conclusively identified. 
It is found detached from the petition to which it belonged but it is believed to 
have been originally attached to the petition of Mar. 24, 1812, ante, -p. 203; or it 
may have been attached to a duplicate of the same petition, the text of which 
has disappeared. Both conjectures amount to the same thing. It will be noted 
that there is no endorsement on the petition of Mar. 24, 1812, and that the en- 
dorsement on the back of the present list of names and the corresponding Journal 
entry tally exactly with the petition in question. Only one petition from Illinois 
Territory relating to suffrage during that session of Congress has been noted, if it 
may be assumed that the House Journal is complete in that regard. It is there- 
fore highly probable that the present document is a part of the petition mentioned. 

^ Reading uncertain. 



214 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



W" Bilderback 
Jn" Lucas 
John Haque " 
Matin Brewer 
Francois Colien 
Edward Boles 
John Wilson 
John M. Wilson 
Alexand Clark 
W" Barnett 
Samuel Leard 
John Campbell 
Arch" Thomson 
Sam' Crozier 
James M. Foster 
Jonathan Pettit 
David Pettit 
Joseph M'Courtny 
thom' handcock 
Shadrach Lively 
John Millar 
Jams Lee 
Alex' barber 
Joseph Liveley 
George Belsha 
James Lash ** 
John Bilderback 
James Cury 
James Slater 
William Hammelton 
W" Roberts 
John Fulton 
Cyrus Fulton 
Andrew M'^Cormack 
Daniel Buell 
Thomas Fulton 
David Fulton 
EdW Summers 
Daniel Bilderback 
Joseph Conway 
J. Milton Moore 
Jo' Barton 
Ralph Lee 

Samule Postleweight 
Clement C Conway 
S Lachapelle 
Aaron Burr 
Moses Burr "^ 
George Glenn 
Elias Roberts 



Hugh White 

G. W. Frazer 

Clement Drewry 

David Weyer 

William Thomp [MS. torn] 

Alexander X Carleton X 

John Stublefield 

Preston Brickey 

James Adkins 

Joseph Riggs 

Thomas Roberts 

Silas hathaway 

Robert Morrison 

William fisher 

Tho» C. Patterson 

Hugh J. Maxwell 

J Gilbreath 

P Haralson 

Tho° Levens 

Henr>^ Levens 

Otho Levens 

Owen 

James Leard 

Nath' Hill 

Samuel Vermilion 

William Been 

Raleigh Ralls 

Joseph Eberman 

Stace Mcdonough 

Samuel fulten 

Henry Mill 

John Hill 

James Liveley 

J. Finney 

George Baggs 

Solomon Allen 

John Irwin 

James bages 

Abolom Cox 

William M'Daniel Sen' 

W" M-^Bride 

John Anderson 

David Anderson 

James Couch 

Millentun Couch 

rechard beasly 

James Patterson 

John M'^Bride 

William Little 

Rob« Hill 



" Or Hague; neither name is found in the census lists. 

" Or Tash. 

" Doubtful reading; MS. faded. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 215 

[Endorsed] Petition of sundry citizens of the Illinois territory. 
22^ Ap' 1812. Ordered to lie on the table.'^ M-- Speaker lie on the 
table 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

INA:WD,SWDF:ALS] 

COHOKiA S' Clair County Illinois Territory April 24. 1812 

Sir I have the honor to inform you that I have lately held a 
council with the Pottowattomies Kickapoos Ottowas & Chippewas 
who reside on the Illinois river and near Lake Michagan '' — and have 
some hopes that it may eventuate in peace with those bands — which 
would be very important to us. The means I have employed I hope 
hereafter to be able to show you were well calculated to produce the 
desired effect. But there is very little dependance in the sincerity of 
the Indians — 

Some of the hostile bands are now most certainly approaching our 
settlements with a view to commit depredations — & I set out this 
moment to the frontiers for the purpose of arresting their progress — 
This business has already kept me from home about two weeks and I 
know not when it will be in my power to return — 

The opinion of the celebrated british trader Dixon,'* is that in the 
event of a British War all the Indians will be opposed to us — and he 
hopes to be able to engage them in hostility by making peace between 
the Sioux and Chippawas. two very large nations, and ea^giftg them 
eg' tt9 getting them to declare against us. This he thinks will decide 
those either disposed to be hostile or who are wavering and by intimi- 
dation bring all who are disposed to be friendly into an active coopera- 
tion against us. 

I write in great haste, not having a moment to spare 

Very respectfully I am Sir y M" Obd* S' 

N Edwards 

P.S. I have called out in addition to the rangers a company of 
mounted rifle men — which will be kept out till some other company 
of rangers shall join us. 

I have not had it in my power to recommend proper persons as 
subalterns for Capt Whitesides company — I at first organized the 
company for three months and the men chose their subalterns and 
are well pleased with them Tbe foot Liea' is Wr not knowing those 
men I cd not recommend them — and I had no other applications 
The first Lieu' is W° Savage, 2 Lieu' Isaac Hill— The former from 

^ House Journal, viii, 297. . 

" Held at Cahokia, Apr. 16, 1812. See speech of Edwards to the assembled 
chiefs and Gomo's reply, Edwards, Hist. III., pp. 56-65. 
" Robert Dickson. 



216 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

every infortnation which I have rec"" I can I think very safely recom- 
mend the latter I have heard a favorable account of but I do not 
consider myself sufficiently informed to recommend him — 

The Ensign that has been acting is George Green of whom I know 
nothing except that he is thought to be a brave man— & has the 
approbation of the company — 

Respectfully I am sir Y' Obd' S' N. Edwards 

[Addressed] The Honble William Eustis Esq' Secretary of War 
Washington City [Postmarked] Cahokia 24 April Free 

[Endorsed] 111. T. Cohokia April 24 1812 Gov N. Edwards has held 
a council with the Indians — no dependence to be placed upon them — 
Is about to start to oppose some hostile Indians. Rec" May 23"* 
1812 »* 



MATTHEW IRWIN TO JOHN MASON 

(NA:OIT, Lets. Reed.: ALSl 

Chicago April 28*" 1812. 

Sir, On the 17"" inst." I had the honor to state that "in conse- 
quence of an unfortunate circumstance which took place here, no 
business had taken place with the Indians, since the 6'" inst." Since 
which the facts in relation thereto, have partly been elucidated, & 
Yesterday receiving Ohio papers which inform that a treaty is con- 
cluded with the Indians, & it being confirmed by the Indians them- 
selves," & at this time being visited by Indians of different tribes, 
who profess a great deal of friendship, accordingly the business of 
this Trading house is again resumed, though not, at the particular 
time it was interdicted, without having lost a valuable part of the 
Indian Trade. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect. Sir, Your Mo* Ob' Serv' 

M. Irwin 
U. S. Factor 



Gen' John Mason, Sup* In. Trade, Georgetown, Dis* Col* 

[Addressed] Gen' John Mason, Sup* Indian 
lis* Col« 

[Endorsed] 1812 Mathew Irwin Chicago 28 apl 



[Addressed] Gen' John Mason, Sup* Indian Trade, Georgetown, 
Dis* Col« 



»» No reply found. 
•« See arde, p. 212. 
" There was no Indian treaty in 1812. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 217 

THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS AND 
TO THE GOVERNOR OF KENTUCKY 

[NA: OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

War Department May 2"^ 1812. 
Their Excellencies Charles Scott, & Ninian Edwards 

Sir, I have the honor to inform your Excellency that Colonel 
William Russell of the United States Army will take command of the 
Rangers raised in the States of Kentucky & Ohio, and in the Terri- 
tories of Illinois and Indiana, conformably to the Act of January 2""* 
1812,"' authorizing such force for the protection of the frontiers of the 
United States."'— 



MEMBERS OF THE BAR TO JUDGE STUART 

[NA: SD, Resignations: LS] 

Cahokia May 2. 1812 
Sir The Members of the Bar and Officers of the Court beg leave 
to take this last opportunity of expressing to you their entire satis- 
faction with you in your official Station and our deep regret at the 
prospect of losing you as a friend and Judge 

Accept Sir from us the assurance that in our opinion you have dis- 
charged your Official duties in such manner as to give dignity to the 
Judge and advantage to the Territory. And we have a pleasure in 
Saying to your Honor that we have at all times had entire Confidence 
in the puritj' of your Motives and we have no hestitation in believing 
this opinion to be general in the Territory. 

W" Allen E. Hempstead 

Nat Pope R S. Thomas 

RuFus Easton W" Mears 
John Hays John Hay 

Reuben Anderson 

[Endorsed] Hon Alexander Stuart The address of the Members 
of the bar to A Stuart 1812 



" 2 Stat. 670. 

" See Russell to the Secretary of War, June 17, 1812 (NA, WD, SWDF), 
relative to measures taken for the defense of Indiana and Illinois territories. See 
also Edwards to Russell, same date {loc. cit., printed Edwards, Hist. III., p. 327), 
informing him of the situation on the Illinois frontier; and to the Secretary of 
War, June 23, 1812 (NA, op. cit., printed, Edwards, op. cit., pp. 327-328), advising 
that he had given Russell his views and further informing the Secretary concerning 
the strength of the hostile Indians. 



218 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO THOMAS MARTIN 
(NA: WD, SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 5) 

War Department, May 9'" 1812. 
Th. Martin Esq' M S K ' Newport Ky. 

Sir, On the requisition of the Governor of the Indiana or Illinois 
Territory, you will issue such Arms, Ammunition & Military Stores 
as may be required. You will also take measures for having the Lead 
in Store, manufactured into Musket Balls & Buck-shot.^ — 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

(NA:WD,SWDF:ALS1 

Sydney Grove Post office Randolph County 

Illinois Territory May 12, 1812 

Sir I have just rec* information that the Fox nation of Indians 
have commenced a war with the Winnebagoes and have killed two of 
their warriors — I communicate this information hastily, relying on its 
correctness and believing it would be the very best policy that the 
Gov* of the U. S. could persue under existing circumstances — to 
support the Foxes — 

It is a measure that w* at *h« mme injure and annoy the most fero- 
cious Indians in the world (the Winnebagoes) but its most decisive 
advantage would be to prevent the Foxes & Sacs from joining the hostile 
confederacy against us, and at the same lessen our danger from the 
confederacy as it exists, by dividing its attention & destroying the 
hopes it entertains of eventually bringing all the different tribes into 
it— 

As to the manner of support I will say nothing— only taking the 
liberty to suggest the thought for consideration 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y' Mo Obd* S' 

Ninian Edwards 

[Addressed] The Honble William Eustis Secretary of War Wash- 
ington City [Postmarked] Sydney Grove May 12*'' Free 

[Endorsed] Illinois Territory May 12. 1812 Gov N Edwards. 
Has learned that the Fox Indians have commenced a war against the 
Winebagoes— suggests the propriety of encouraging the same. Rec* 
[MS. torn] 2" 1812 ' 

' Military storekeeper for the 8th military district {A.S.P., Mil. Affairs.i, 387). 

' See the Secretary of War to Edwards, May 13, 1812 (NA, OIA, SW, Lets. 
Sent, Bk. C), briefly informing Edwards of the above instruction. 

» Answered June 4, 1812 (NA.WD.SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 5, printed, Edwards, 
Hist. Ill, p. 536). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 219 

MATTHEW IRWIN TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD,SWDF:ALS] 

Chicago May 15'" 1812. 

Sir, Presuming it would be agreeable to you to be apprised at this 
time whether the Indians of this part are friendly or otherwise dis- 
posed, I have the satisfaction to state that since the late murders that 
were Committed near this by a party of Winibagoes (the facts of 
which I had the honor, on a late occasion, to relate) * everything has 
been tranquil — indeed the Indians north of this as far & beyond 
Millewakee take all occasions to manifest a friendly disposition & 
those settled on the big & little Calumet including those in & about 
S' Joseph continue in the same disposition, and if we may judge from 
the circumstances of their having resisted the importunities of the 
Prophet, we might perhaps not hesitate to believe them. However, 
till we can ascertain it with the greater certainty, we have refused to 
supply them with ammunition or any article with which they might 
do mischief. 

We have been visited occasionally by some Indians who do not 
properly belong to this jurisdiction; whose business was simply to 
declare themselves well disposed; & at this time there is a party here 
consisting of five Sauquies & their Chief whose residence is about 60 
miles this side of Fort Madison. When such parties have come upon 
such business, as well as others belonging to this jurisdiction, we have 
felt it incumbent on us to use every effort to show them the impro- 
priety of the conduct of their fellows, &c. &c. that they might impress 
it upon them. But I am sorry to say that this disposition on our part 
has been opposed by a person whose name is John Kinzie, & who is 
suttler for this garrison. 

This person has embraced all opportunities to inflame the minds of 
the Subalterns against a reconciliation with the Indians, which has 
been carried to such length that the acting Agent has actually been 
obstructed in his intercourse with the Indians. I have been present 
on such occasions when the most improper & indecent expressions have 
been made. At another time Ens° Ronan threatened to shoot the 
Interpreter, & very lately L* Helm swore "he would take the Scalp 
of the Factor". 

I have, sir, on former occasions related to you the blood thirsty 
disposition of those persons & have now to state that a plot was on 
foot, in which, though without revealing the object, they had engaged 
two of the Non Commissioned Officers, a few privates & some settlers, 
to murder the Sauquies above spoken of. I had been apprised of their 
intention by the Surgeons Mate & took timely measures to have it 

« Avie, p. 212. 



220 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

prevented. Such conduct has been carried to such extent, that, in 
conjunction with openly breaking a very important garrison order 
which had been issued a few days before, the Com" Officer, not finding 
a disposition on the part of his Subaltern (Ens" Ronan) to do it, felt 
himself obliged to arrest L' Helm who after making a slight apology, 
was released. 

I do not hesitate to say & it is the opinion of others that all such 
conduct originates through & is supported by Kinzie. His general 
character — the suspicion ever entertained against him since his resi- 
dence in the Indian Country — The many circumstances which have 
come to our knowledge, warrant the assertion. He is the same person 
who, some years ago, in conjunction with a late Com^ Officer, by a deep 
artifice, made out to swindle the former contractor for this place out 
of a large sum of Money & afterward exposed the officer — The same 
who before & since the late battle, has had an agent trading with the 
Prophet & his party. The same who has agents at Millewakee, at 
Rocky or Stony River, at the Peorias & generally throughout the 
Indian Country; All whom have been doing business with the Wine- 
bagoes & others. The same who has at different periods smuggled 
large quantities of goods into this country. The same who on the 
part of himself & the late Michilemackinac Comp" offered to the 
Indian Interpreter a larger salary than he receives from this Trading 
House if he would take measures to prevent the Indians from doing 
business thereat. The same who has rendered the subalterns sub- 
servient to his views by a management which I have, on a former 
occasion, exposed. Indeed, Sir, were I to expose the many circum- 
stances which have come to mine & other persons knowledge con- 
cerning this man, it would be occupying too much of your time & 
perhaps be improper on my part. Those which have already been 
exposed, will, I trust, speak a pretty plain language & shew as I 
think it will, the dangerous Character of the man — particularly when 
I assure you. Sir, that he masks his conduct, &c. under the most 
Clamorous & ardent professions of patriotism for our government, 
which may partly account for his being a Magistrate, but which, he 
says, he has thrown up with disdain. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect. Sir, Y"^ most Obd' Serv' 

M. Irwin, U. S. Factor. 

The Hon"'* the Sec of War, Washington 

[Addressed] The Hon*"" the Secretary of War, Washington. 

[Endorsed] Chicago May 15. 1812 A. Irwin. States that the Indians 
are quiet — The Officers of the garrison turbelent & enraged against 
the Indians. &c. &c. Rec" July 11, 1812. * 

» No reply found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 221 

MATTHEW IRWIN TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Chicago May 15*" 1812. 

Sir, The enclosed copy of a deposition will inform that a person 
who calls himself Jean Francois Reheaum, * was on the latter part of 
last Month, taken up at this place on the supposition of his being a 
British emissary. The Indian guides mentioned in the deposition 
were not, as had been recommended, secured, but suffered to remain 
at a distance from the garrison, &, as might have been expected, made 
their escape, & have without doubt, proceeded to Green Bay. It is 
presumed whatever object is in view in sending those persons to Green 
Bay that the most secret part is confided to the guides. That they 
have a knowledge of the nature of their expedition, is partly to be 
inferred from Reheaum's deposition, as well as from this expression: 
"We are poor & must do something for a living," which was made to 
an imputation as to their being concerned in an unwarrantable 
business. 

It is very well known that the person (M'' Robert Dixon a British 
Subject) whom Reheaum was employed to go in quest of is perhaps 
the most influential man in the Indian Country — particularly with 
the Scious & other nations, with whom he trades. 

Another person whose residence is in Amherstberg (upper Canada) 
who is a British Subject & whose name is Caldwell was seen at S' 
Joseph's, on Lake Michigan, in company with an Indian guide, & 
were bending their course towards the Prophets encampment. I 
have the honor to be with great respect. Sir Y' Mo' Ob' Serv' 

M. Irwin. U. S. Factor. 

After relating the above, I cannot avoid mentioning what befel 
Reheaum after his departure from this place, when, without doubt, 
he presumed himself secm-e in consequence of a promise (and which 
was known to the lowest individual in this place) made him by the 
com* Officer that his person should not be molested if he would reveal 
the object of his mission; which being done, he departed for Fort 
Maiden & had during the morning reached the outlet of the Chicago 
River, when Patrick M'^Gowen (lately a private & employed as a spy 
for the Garrison) presented a musket to his breast which missing fire 
three times, gave him an opportunity of closing with his opponent 
during which he pulled the flint from the musket — thereupon M'- 
Gowen drew a knife & was in the act of Stabbing when the other 
wrested it from him after which he would have proceeded on his 
journey when at a little distance he saw two men concealed, whom 



« May 1, 1812; present. A copy was also forwarded by Governor Howard, of 
Louisiana Territory, June 14, 1812; it is printed, Terr. Papers (La.-Mo.), xiv. 



222 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

he supposed to be murderers which caused him to retreat to the 
garrison A spirited remonstrance was made against such conduct 
& measures, in consequence, taken to assure his safety. 

In this business, Y am inchned to think the Com^ Officer had no 
concern. But whether his Subalterns had none is very doubtful. 
One of whom, as I am credibly informed declared that Reheaum 
should not reach the Calumet & the other immediately replied "111 
join you in it". 

This transaction, as I am informed, has undergone no regular exam- 
ination, although an order had but a few days before been issued to 
prevent the men from leaving the esplinade, and M'^Gowen & the 
other two were at least one mile from it.' M. I — 

The Hon"'" the Sec'" of War, Washington.— 

[Addressed] The Hon"'* The Secretary of War, Washington. 



JOHN CALDWELL TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
TREASURY 
INA:GLO,Kaskaskia, Rec. and Reg. Lets. :ALS] 

Vincennes 20"" 0/ May 1812. 
Sir, I have the honor herewith to transmit to you a Bond executed 
by me with four Solvent Securities,* Conditioned for the faithful 
discharge of the duties of the Office of Receiver of public monies for 
lands of the United States at Kaskaskia together with the Oath 
as Commissioner to examine claims to land in that district & the 
Oath to support the constitution of the United States, which have 
been prepared in obedience to Y" request of the IG"" Ult" 

I have the honor to be with High consideration & respect Your 
Obedient Serv* 

Jn" Caldwell 

Albert Gallatin Esquire Secretary of the Treasury. 

[Addressed] Albert Gallatin Esquire, Secretary of the Treasury 
City of Washington, pr Mail [Postmarked] Vincennes 20 May Free 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia file Vincennes May 20, 1812. rec" June 3* 
John Caldwell Rec' Pub. monies at Kaskaskia, with official bond, and 
oath of office as Land Commiss' Bond is approved A.G' 

Oath and Bond sent to the Comptroller's Office, 4'" June 1812. 
J J Moore 



' No reply found. 

' Not present. 

» Three words and initials in Gallatin's hand. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 223 

GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Elvirade Randolph County Illinois Territory May 22. 1812 
Sir An express from the United States Sahne has just arrived 
with the enclosed communications — which tend to show the embar- 
rassing situation in which I am placed — having no authority from the 
President to call out the militia, and believing the whole country to 
be in imminent danger— Acting however for the best, I shall sanction 
the order of Colo Trammel and continue the men in service till I can 
hear from you upon the subject 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y' Mo Obd* S' 

N Edwards 

The Honble William Eustis Secretary of War Washington City 

[Endorsed] 111. Territory May 22°" 1812 Gov. N. Edwards States 
that Colonel Tramell has called out a company of militia at the 
Saline, incloses Letters on that subject. Rec"" June 5"* 1812'° 

[Enclosure: ALS] 

Leonard White to Governor Edwards 

U S Saline 16"" Matj 1812 
Dear Sir Col Tramell has ordered Cap' Hargraves Volunteer 
company into actual service untill he can hear from you of which he 
informs you by the bearer of this, he was induced to this measure 
from what he conceived to be the perilous situation of the settlement 
above this place, and in fact this place itself which I am induced to 
believe is now critically situated not that I calculate on an attact 
from the Indians, but from the loss of hands should there be a few 
more alarms on the Wabash (such as the people of whom are now 
well calculated to give) I am convinced it would be impossible to 
restrain the hands from leaving the place, In fact the owners of 
hands from Kentucky and Tennessee would in all probability send 
for them tho fear might prevent them from coming themselves which 
has already been the case with some; as the reports reaches them 
with all the agrevations that fiction can invent. 

I have been apprehensive that you might possibly not approve of 
keeping this company out, well knowing your wish to run the Gov- 
ernment to as little expense as possible, but do most sincerely hope 
it may meet your approbation and that they may be kept out which 
I think would intirely ease the minds of the people and am well con- 
vinced save one half of the population above this from deserting the 
Territory a cu-cumstance in itself sufficient to encourage further depre- 

10 No reply found. 



224 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

dations from the Indians who no doubt would take advantage of the 
general alarm as they have already been making observations in the 
settlements lately broken up 
Your Ob' Sv' 

Leo" White 

[Addressed] His Excellency Ninian Edwards Sydney Grove 

[Enclosure: ALS] 

Philip Tramell to Governor Edwards 

U S Saline May 16'" 1812 

Dear Sir Yours of the 12'" came to hand yesterday evening 
wherein you direct me to send out Two spies. Previous to the rec' 
of your letter I started Cap' Hargrave with a party of about twenty 
or thirty men to range on the frontiers of the Wabash, I was induced 
to this measure for the following reasons first from the late depreda- 
tions committed in this and the other Territory. The inhabitants 
on the Wabash are now daily weakening the Coffee Island settlement 
is intirely broken up Cap' Weeks who had a tolerable large company 
now has only two families in his company. Cap' M'Henry has with 
his own exertions kept his settlement from braken so far. But it 
can not be expected he will long be able to do it without the assistance 
of some aid. The inhabitants on the Saline Creek are also consider- 
ably alarmed a number of them have only been kept in the Country 
by the expectation of the Frontiers being shortly guarded by a company 
of rangers. I shall wait for your answer before I countermand 
Hargraves orders Should you countermand those orders I do asshure 
you sir that I think the principal part of the inhabitants near to 
this place will leave the country and that this place will be affected 
by it and probably the works or a part at least will have to stop for 
the want of hands. This I sincerely hope will not be the case, but 
at present I see no Earthly reason to suppose anything to the contrary 

Since writeing the above Cap' M'Henry has sent a messenger to 
this place for some arms. M'Henry has been out with a small party 
reconnoiterring the Country brings information of his ha\'ing dis- 
covered considerable Indian sign about the Coffee Island and some 
bordering on his own settlements 

M' Leach a few days from Vincennes informs me that the Troops 
have marching orders from that place and was to set out on Thursday 
last for Detroit in consequence of which the inhabitants throughout 
that Country were forting 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 225 

I have the honour to be sir with sentiments of esteem You"^ Obt. 
Servt. 

Philip Tramell 
[Addressed] His Excellency Ninian Edwards Sydney Grove. 

[Enclosure: ALS] 

Benjamin Talbott to Governor Edwards 

U. S. Saline 17'" May 1812 
Dear Sir The alarming Situation of this place has induced me to 
address you, There is scarcely a week passes without hearing of some 
depredations being committed in this or the Indianna Territory, from 
the General alarm Co' Tramell has been induced to order out a Captain 
with his company to act as Rangers for the security of this place and 
the adjacent country, which I do ashure you I conceive to be highly 
necessary. I am well convinced, that should there be any depreda- 
tions comitted within Twenty or thirty miles of this place it would 
be impossible to keep the work hands here, they are mostly negroes, 
and their masters have no other inducement for letting them remain 
here but the Am' of their wages, which they no doubt would think 
trifling should they conceive their remaining at this place at all 
hazardous. On the slightest intimation of danger I am convinced 
they would remove them. The Lessees have made arrangements for 
a very extensive push in their business this season, & should they be 
dissappointed in hands they will certainly sustain a considerable 
injury; the greater part of the western Country would certainly be 
considerably affected were the works to be stoped as it is allmost 
the only dependance for supplies of Salt. I suppose the rangers that 
are now in service will be a sufficient Security and quiet the minds 
of the people; and most sincerely hope the orders of the Colonel may 
meet your aprobation. 
Very Respectfully, Your Exc^ Most Ob' Serv' 

Benjamin Talbott 
Manager for the Lessees 
His Excellency Ninian Edwards 

[Addressed] His Excellency Ninian Edwards Sidney Grove 111. 
Territory 



226 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



MUSTER ROLL OF ILLINOIS MILITIA " 

[NA:WD,AGO:DS] 

[May 31, 1812] 
A Muster Roll " of a Company of Mounted Rifle Men Commanded by 
Capt James B. Moore of St Clair County Illinois Territory by order 
of kis Excellency Ninian Edward Governor of Said Territory — 



No 


Names 


Rank 


1 


James B Moore 


Capt. 


2 


Jacob Ogle 


1 Lieut. 


3 


Joshua Vaughn 


2" Lieut. 


4 


Simeon Whitlock 


Ens- 


5 


John T. Lust " 


1 Serg' 


6 


Septimus Mace 


2 ditto 


7 


Thomas Piper 


3" ditto 


8 


Jessee Miller 


4 ditto 


9 


Joseph Ogle 


privet 


10 


Alexander Beraum " 




11 


William Biggs 




12 


Moses Quick 




13 


Isaac Kermack "* 




14 


Philip Teter 




15 


Samuel Watson 




16 


William Gilham 




17 


Pleasant Going 




18 


T. Milton Moore 




19 


W" Lemon 




20 


Ekekial Gillham 




21 


Joshua Tolbut 




22 


John Davidson 




23 


Francis Kirkpatrick 




24 


Thomas Randle 




25 


W» C Davidson 




26 


Aaron Shook 




27 


Samuel Whiteside 




28 


David Robinson 




29 


Joseph Bear 




30 


Hiram Badgeley 




31 


Oath Wilson 




32 


Thomas Tolbut 




33 


Arther Morgan 




34 


Isaac Biggs 




35 


James Tolbutt 




36 


Charles P. Walker 




37 


Richard Wright 




38 


Elijah Hook 




39 


Jessee Bell 




40 


Isrial Robinson 




41 


Henry Mace 





See footnotes at ead o( table. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 227 

A Muster Roll of a Company of Mounted Rifle Men Commanded by 
Capt James B. Moore of St Clair County Illinois Territory by order 
of his Excellency Ninian Edward Governor of Said Territory — Con. 



No 


Names 


Rank 


42 
43 
44 
45 
46 


Simon Vanosdie '° 
Daniel Guice 
Samuel Bonham 
James Kirkpatrick " 
Isom Gillham 


privet 



" This and the three additional rolls printed post, pp. 232, 234, 236, were enclosed 
in Edwards to the Secretary of War, June 30, 1812 (Edwards Hist. Ill, pp. 328- 
329) . The original of this covering and explanatory letter has not been found, nor 
is the copy among the Edwards Papers (CHS). Mention is made in the letter of 
additional accompanying pay rolls, but these are not present. One or more of the 
enclosures here reproduced may also have been enclosed in letters of July 6 and 
July 20, 1812, but these letters are missing. The militia companies, volunteer 
companies, and rangers in question were those called out for special and temporary 
purposes and were in the service of the United States. 

The four muster rolls here reproduced have been compared with the several 
rolls published in Trans., III. State Hist. Lib., 190i, pp. 178-197. The latter 
includes the muster rolls of the following companies: (1) Capt. William Alexander's, 
July 4, 1811-July 29, 1811; (2) Capt. Henry Cook's, for three months' tour, by 
order of Mar. 3, 1812; (3) Capt. John Scott's, Mar. 3, 1812; (4) Capt. Jacob 
Short's, Mar. 3, 1812; (5) Capt. J. B. Moore's (first), Apr. 15, 1812-May 3, 1812; 
(6) Capt. J. B. Moore's (second), July 27, 1812-Aug. 11, 1812; (7) Ensign Samuel 
Whiteside's detachment of mounted riflemen, Aug. 7, 1812-Aug. 22, 1812; (8) 
Capt. Samuel Whiteside's volunteer mounted riflemen, Aug. 22, 1812-Nov. 13, 
1812; (9) Capt. Absalom Cox's detachment from various companies, mustered 
and inspected Sept. 3, 1812; (10) Capt. Thomas E. Craig's volunteer rifiemen, 
Sept. 5, 1812-Dec. 2, 1812; (11) Capt. Willis Margrave's mounted volunteers, no 
date, 1812; (12) Capt. Philip Tramell's (Leonard White's) detachment of mounted 
militia, Oct. 12, 1812-Oct. 31, 1812; (13) Capt. Dudley Williams's company, 
4th regiment, Oct. 14, 1812-Nov. 5, 1812; (14) Capt. Samuel Judy's spy company, 
Oct. 18, 1812-Nov. 12, 1812; (15) Sergt. James N. Fox's detachment of rangers, 
Feb. 17, 1813-Mar. 1, 1813; (16) Capt. J. B. Moore's (third) rangers, Apr. 17, 
1813; (17) Capt. Jacob Short's mounted rangers, Feb. 27, 1813-May 31, 1813; 
(18) Capt. William Boone's mounted rangers, Mar. 6, 1813-June 5, 1813; (19) 
Capt. Nathan Chambers's militia company (foot), Apr. 12, lS13-May 12, 1813; 

(20) Capt. Daniel G. Moore's volunteer infantry, May 9, 1813-June 9, 1818; 

(21) Capt. William Jones's volunteer infantry. May 9, 1813-June 9, 1813; (22) 
Capt. J. B. Moore's (fourth) mounted rangers, June 1, 1813-June 16, 1813; 
(23) Captain Boultinhouse's company (last one called). According to the com- 
piler of these rolls, the musters of the companies of rangers of Capt. B. Whiteside, 
Capt. Samuel Whiteside, and Capt. Nicholas Jarrot have not been found. These 
were the companies in service from Feb. 27, 1813-May 31, 1813. 

No one of the muster rolls thus cited have been found in the files of NA (WD), 
and although the four published in the present volume disclose a certain over- 
lapping of names, both in respect to each other and to those already published, 



314574 — 48 



228 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



Recapitulation 



.1 

CD 

O 


1 


3 




1 


"3 

o 


1 


2 


1 


n 


42 


46 



I do certify on honor that the foregoing Muster Roll exhibits a true 
statement of the men under my Command as being just & true 
this 31" May 1812 

James B Moore Cap* 

NiNiAN Edwards Gov' & Comd' in Chief 

\Endorsed\ Muster Roll of Comp^" of Capt" J. B Moore's Mounted 
Riflemen of 26 Illinois Militia from 17 to 31 May 1812 Muster Roll 26 



THOMAS FORSYTH >« TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[NA:WD, SWDF:^] 

PlORUS 8'" June 1812 
(A copy) 

I have the honor to acquaint you that I arrived here on the 6'" 
Ins* and immediately sent for the Kickapoos, and also to acquaint 

there are numerous names of enlisted men as well as officers in these lists not 
found elsewhere, which explains their present publication. 

" The original muster roll has seven columns but in this printing, for reasons of 
space, only the first three columns are reproduced. The fourth column is headed, 
"date of appointment or enlistment", and contains only one entry, which is 
opposite the name of James B. Moore. This entry reads, "May XT'" 1812"; 
below it are ditto marks. The fifth column headed, "To what time engaged or 
enlisted", is empty, as is the seventh and last column, which is headed, "Remarks 
& alterations since the last muster — ". The sixth column headed, "Names 
present", is the attendance record and duplicates the second column ("Names") 
except for instances which will be indicated by footnotes. 

'» Lusk? 

" Biron? 

" Cermak in other lists. 

'• Vanarsdale in other lists. 

" "James Kirkpatrick" is omitted from the "Names present" column. 

" Forsyth (1771-1833) was a native of Detroit; he was early engaged in the fur 
trade at Saginaw Bay and on the Mississippi, and in 1802 he and John Kinzie, a 
half brother, established a trading post at Chicago. After 1804 Forsyth resided 
at Peoria until 1818, when he was appointed Indian agent in Missouri Territory 
(see Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., xiv). There are nine volumes of his MSS. in the 
Wis. Hist. Lib., and also a large collection in the Mo. Hist. Lib. 

"• Enclosed in Edwards to the Secretary of War, June 16, 1812 (NA, WD, 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 229 

Gomo that I had a letter for him from you. They all arrived here 
yesterday, and I explained your letter to the Kickapoos, thro' your 
Interpreter Mette. 

But I find that the Kickapoos are much changed since I left this 
place to go down to S' Louis as you will see by the evasive answer 
they now send you by Mette. 

About a fortnight ago a number of Miamies have come to this 
country from an Island of woods in Praires commonly called White 
or Lynwood Island , distant from the old Kickapoo towns 25 or 30 
miles — They consist of twenty odd lodges and can fiirnish at least 
from 120 to 150 warriors. These Miamies are only about the half of the 
whole that were at the above mentioned Island — The other half is 
gone to the S. Prophet and will make his number greater and I am 
of the opinion that those Miamies that are gone to the Prophet from 
Lynwood Island have been the Indians who done the mischief on 
Driftwood creek and in the vicinity of Vincennes — I am sure that the 
number of Indians now at the end of this lake consisting of Putowa- 
tomies, Kickapoos, Miamies and Ottoways must exceed six hundred 
warriors and should they be inclined for war, they can in the course 
of eight or ten days draw from Kiankakee river, from the upper 
parts of this river, from Fox river, and from Roche river at least 
600 warriors more which would make an Indian Army of at least 
1200 warriors, exclusive of the prophet's band which is now consider- 
able, and I am informed that they are augmenting daily, as I can 
assure you that the Indians in this countrj^, and the Missisippi, have 
almost weekly intelligence from the S. Prophets town and no doubt 
but the prophet has the same intelligence from Detroit country, from 
this line or method of conveying intelligence, the Indians on the Mis- 
sisippi have news conveyed to them from Detroit Country in the space 
of 15 or 16 days 

Gomo informed me (after I had explained your letter to him) that 
the time was not come to fullfil his promise, and that it was requisit 
to have a general council with the whole of the Putowatomies Nation, 
to come to some determination, that the Indians could not get arms 
nor ammunition at the Factory at Chicago — that he did not know 
what the Indians would do if the traders were withdrawn from among 

SWDF, printed, Edwards, Hist. III., p. 326), which contains a summary of the 
contents of its enclosure, together with a statement of the purpose of the nego- 
tiations in question, namely, to secure the murderers of the O'Neal family, which 
murder occurred Feb. 10, 1812, on the Louisiana Territory side of the Mississippi. 
See Terr. Papers (La.-Mo.), xiv. See also Edwards to the Secretary of War, 
May 16, 1812 (NA, WD, SWDF, printed, Edwards, op. cit., p. 321), advising of 
his discovery that the murder of the O'Neal family had been committed by a 
band of Kickapoo and stating that there was no use to demand the surrender of 
the murderers unless there should be provided a sufficient force to back the 
demand. 



230 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

the Indians the insuing fall — that there must be a change among the 
Indians, otherwise he would abandon them and live and die among 
the White people of this place 

I observed to him the number of Militia that had awived at Detroit 
and the great number of regulars, on their way if not arrived at Detroit 
That the communication between the two countries was stopped — 
That the whole of Detroit river from one end to the other was lined 
with troops to stop the communication of the Indians to and from 
the British Garrison of Maiden. That the Indians could not expect 
any succours from that quarter, he said that he knew all that I told 
him was true and that the Main Poc was at the B. G. of Maiden 
and could not get across the river to return home — 

Some few of the Indians may have a little gunpowder yet left, but 
may suppose if they are not supplied shortly they will be much in 
want of that article in the course of a few weeks, as they are given 
to understand by the traders from Makinac that British goods will 
be allowed to enter the post of Makinac and that all the Indians will 
get their necessary supplies for the ensuing season. The Indians 
whole dependence is on those traders, as they give the Indians exten- 
sive credits in Autumn at very high price, and if an Indian pays half 
of his credit the trader will be sufficiently paid for his powder &c. 
that he may give on credit, as it is generally small articles such as 
cutlary and amunition that is given out on credit to commence their 
hunt in the fall of the year 

Gomo is perfectly aware of the consequences should the passage 
of goods &c be stopped at Chicago and the mouth of this river — And 
I can assure you that it is the only plan that can be adopted, should 
the Indians of this country not fuUfil their promise or be inclined to 
be hostile to the U. States 

I was informed yesterday that the whole body of Indians now in 
the vicinity of this place have been counciling for some time past, 
and no person can find out what they are about — I shall in a day or 
two send a person up to the Village to get what information I can 
and should it be of consequence I shall transmit it to you by express, 
as it would be needless to send any person up to the Village until 
all is over and to find out their descision 

The whole body of the Indians are now busy planting theu- corn, 
but for the want of clear land their fields will be rather small, so you 
see by this they are fixed to remain this season in this part of the 
country — I have agreed with M' Le Clair to make the tour you wish 
him to make, as he could not go alone, he takes his son with him and 
one of his own horses for his son to ride and I have agreed to give him 
two dollars per day and should the Indians steal his horse during the 
tour, Gov' is to replace his horse by giving him another and also to 
be found some provisions. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 231 



It appears that the Indians have scouts out continually for fear 
that the Americans should take them by surprise — I shall watch the 
motions of the Indians, and should any thing hapen worth commu- 
nication I shall acquaint you by express. 

I herewith enclose you a rough scetch of the country about Milwakee 
and heads of Rockey River,^ from which I hope you can form some 
idea of that part of the country " 

I am very respectfully Your Excellencys Most Ob* and very 
humble S' 

Thomas Forsythe 

To HIS ExcELi^ENCY Gov EDWARDS Kaskaskia 
[Endorsed] Forsyth to Gov. Edwards— Letter 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNORS AND 

INDIAN AGENTS 

[NA:OIA,SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

Circular War Department June 11*" 1812. 

Their Excellenys William Hull W° H. Harrison & Nin° 

Edwards — 
Benj F Stickney J. B Varnum & Jn" Johnston Ind. Agents. 

Sir, As a last effort to preserve peace, and to save from destruction 
his Red Children, the President has been pleased to appoint special 
Commissioners to be sent out immediately from Himself, to hear any 
Representations which they may desire to make, and to Communicate 
to the Indians the intention and final determination of the Govern- 
ment towards them. — You will therefore immediately take the neces- 
sary measiu-es and in\ite the Chiefs & head men of the Several Tribes 
within your Agency, to meet in Council with those Commissioners 
and with the Chiefs of other Tribes within the Territories of Illinois, 



2° Not present. 

" This mission to the Kickapoo Indians was conducted under instructions from 
Edwards to Forsyth, May 24, 1812 (Edwards, Hisi. III., p. 323). Further dis- 
cussion of the same undertaking is found in Edwards to the Secretary of War 
May 26, 1812, ibid., pp. 323-325, and June 2, 1812 (NA, WD, SWDF, printed, 
Edwards, op. cit., pp. 325-326). In the latter is enclosed a talk to the Kickapoo 
demanding the surrender of the murderers, which Forsyth carried for delivery; 
it is not printed in the foregoing citation. See also Edwards to the Secretary of 
War, June 29, 1812 (NA, op. cit., printed, Edwards, op. cU., p. 330), advising as 
to the British plan of introducing goods into the Territory, with Green Bay as a 
base, and referring to his own letter to the Secretary of War of June 23 (not 
found), and to a communication from Governor Harrison (not found) concerning 
proposed depredations by a Potawatomi band on the Kaskaskia road. Replies 
to the June 23 and June 29 letters have not been found. 



232 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



Indiana & Michigan, and the State of Ohio, at Piqua Town in the 
State of Ohio, on the first day of August next ensuing." — 



MUSTER ROLL OF ILLINOIS MILITIA « 
[NA:WD,''AGO:DS] 

[June 25, 1812] 
A Muster Roll " o/ a company of mounted Rifle men commanded by 
James B. Moore of 5' Clair county Illinois Territory by order of 
His Excellency Ninian Edwards Gov' of s" Territory 



Names 



Rank 



1 James B. Moore Cap' 

2 Jacob Ogle 1 Lieu' 

3 Joshua Vaughn 2 Lieu' 

4 Simon Whitlock Ensign 

5 John T. Lusk 1 Serg' 

6 Septimus Mace 2 Serg' 

7 Thomas Piper 3 Serg' 

8 Francis Kirkpatrick priv' 

9 John Good ditto 

10 Charles R Matheny ditto 

11 Thomas Randal ditto 

12 Will" C. Davidson ditto 

13 Moses Quick ditto 

14 Will"" Lemmon ditto 

15 Pleasant Going ditto 

16 James Talbot ditto 

17 Hardy Willbank ditto 

18 Hezekial Gilham ditto 

19 ' Hiram Badgley ditto 

20 Philip Teter ditto 

21 Joseph Beer ditto 

" See the Secretary of War to Edwards, June 19, 1812, circular letter (NA, WD, 
SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 5), informing him that war had been declared on Great 
Britain. 

» Cf. ante, p. 226. 

«• The original muster roll has seven columns but in this printing, for reasons of 
space, only the first three columns are reproduced. The fourth column is headed, 
"date of appointment or enlistment", and contains only one entry, which is opposite 
the name of James B. Moore. This entry reads, "June ll"" 1812"; below it is 
the word "ditto" opposite each name. The fifth column headed, "to what time 
engaged or enlisted", contains the single entry, "June 25 1812". The word 
"ditto" appears below this date to correspond with each name in column two. 
The sixth column under heading, "Names present", is the attendance record and 
duplicates the second column. There are no entries in the seventh column, which 
is headed, "Remarks and alterations since the last muster". 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 



233 



A Muster Roll oj a company af mounted Rifle men commanded by 
James B. Moore of 5'' Clair county Illinois Territory by order of 
His Excellency Ninian Edwards Gov' of s^ Territory — Continued 



No 


Names 


Rank 


22 


Joseph Ogle 


Priv» 


23 


John Davidson ^° 


ditto 


24 


Sam' Bonham 


ditto 


25 


Aaron Shook 


ditto 


26 


Rich* Wright 


ditto 


27 


J Milton Moore 


ditto 


28 


David Robinson 


ditto 


29 


James Kirkpatrick 


ditto 


30 


Jesse Bell 


ditto 


31 


Isaac Gilham 


ditto 


32 


Thomas W. Talbot 


ditto 


33 


Mathew Cox 


ditto 


34 


Israel Robinson 


ditto 


35 


Joshua Talbot 


ditto 


36 


Will'" Biggs 


ditto 


37 


Charles P. Walker "^ 


ditto 


38 


John L. Whiteside 


ditto 


39 


Arthur Morgan 


ditto 


40 


Henry Mace 


ditto 


41 


Isaac Biggs 


ditto 


42 


Otho Willson 


ditto 


43 


Simon Vanozdal 


ditto 


44 


Robert Ivy 


ditto 


45 


Isaac Smith 


ditto 


46 


James M^Fadin 


ditto 


47 


Isaac Gilham 


ditto 


48 


David Ackman ^' 


ditto 


49 


Antoine Fouche 


ditto 


50 


T. Blankenship ^s 


ditto 



Recapitulation 





















C 
























a 




3 


.S? 
1 




Sfi 




5 


a 


3 


1 




o 


1 


1 


1 


1 




46 


50 



« Reading uncertain. 

" In the sixth column, Charles F. Walker. 

" Or Ackerman. 

" In the sixth column, Thomas Blankenship. 



234 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



I do certify on honor that the foregoing Muster Roll exhibits a true 
statement of the Men under my command as being just and true this 
25*" of June 1812 

James B. Moore 

NiNiAN Edwards Gov' & Comd'" in Chief 

[Endorsee/] 27 Muster Roll of Capt° J. B. Moore's Comp^ of 
Mounted Riflemen of the Illinois Militia — from 11'" to 25 June 1812 — 



MUSTER ROLL OF ILLINOIS MILITIA » 

INA:WD,AGO:DS] 

[June 29, 1812) 
Muster Roll '" of a Company of Mounted Rifle Men Commanded by 
Cap^ Jacob Short of S' Clair County Illinois Territory by the order 
of Ninian Edwards Governor and Commander of said Territory — 



Names 



Rank 



Jacob Short . 
John Moredock . 
Thomas Swarengin . 
Henry Carr . 



Capt. 
1" Leu* 
2" Lieu' 
Ensign 



Alexander Scott . 
George Mitchel . 
William Arandol 
Robert Middleton 



1»' Ser' 
2" ditto 

3 ditto 

4 ditto 



John Waddle 
William philips . 
Isaac Carmack . 
Jacob Boren . . 
peter Wills . 
Andrew Bankston 
William Steel . 
Charles Ratliff . 
John Bean . 
James Wilderman 



Private 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 



«» Cf. ante, pp. 226, 232. 

" The original muster roll has seven columns but in this printing, for reasons 
of space, only the first three columns are reproduced. The fourth column is 
headed, "Dates of appointment or enlistment", and contains the entry "31" May 
1812" opposite the name of Jacob Short followed by ditto marks. The fifth 
column headed, "to what time engaged or enlisted", contains no entries. Column 
six, under the heading "Names present" is the attendance record and duplicates 
the second column. The seventh column which is headed, "Remarks and alter- 
ations since the last Muster," contains an entry signed by Ninian Edwards as fol- 
lows, "No Rations were furnished"; also against the name of Joshua Vaune, 
no. 46, an entry, "Left the Company on the 14"' of June". The latter entry 
applies also to the seven last names, being so indicated by "Do". 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 



235 



Muster Roll of a Company of Mounted Rifle Men Commanded by 
Capt^ Jacob Short of St^ Clair County Illinois Territory by the order 
of Ninian Edwards Governor and Commander of said Territory — Con. 



Names 



Rank 



Henry Walker . 
Field Jarvis . 
Elijah Hook . . . 
William Walker . 
Daniel M'^Kinny . 
George Wilderman . 
John Briggant . 
Hiram Tidwell . 
Henry Stout . 
Jacob Wilderman . 
Thomas Monney 
John Cooper. 
John B. Wiser . 
David Kanada . 
John Mayens '' . 
James Hendrix . 
Moses Short . 
Abram Crownover . 
W™ Crownover . 
Rubin Middleton . 
William Rittenhous 
Hugh Walker 
Marshel Hawkings ^^ 
Davud Chance . 
John Greenwood 
Isaac Clark . 
WHawl . . . 
Samuel Watson . 
John Davison . 
Alexander Biron 
Peter Rittenhouse . 
Hubbard Short . 
Thomas Levens . 
John Brogley 
W" Briggance . 
Joshua Vaune ''. 
John Scott . 
Peter Wills . . . 
Hiram Arthurs . 
W" Harrenton . . 
Adam Clover 
Daniel Guise ^* . 
Thomas porter . 



Private 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 



31 Myars in the fifth column. 
" Kaucliings in the fifth column. 



" Vaughn. 

" Also spelled Guyes in other lists. 



236 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



Recapitulation 







a 

a 


a 

a 




!". 


J3 


?. 








9- 


13 


■P 


a 


a 




.3 


1? 


73 




o 


^ 


h 


H 


w 


O 


S 


rf's. 


o 


Present for Duty — 


1 


1 


1 


1 


4 


4 




45 




Unfit for Servise — 




















Sick — absent — . . 




















Total. . . . 


1 


1 


1 


1 


4 






45 


53 



I certify on hounor that the forgoing Muster Roll exhibits a true 
State of the Company under my Command and the Remarks Set 
oposite each Name are accurat and just 

Jacob Shokt Capt" 

June 29"" 1812 
NiNiAN Edwards Gov' & Comd' in Chief 

[Endorsed] Muster Roll of Capt° Jacob Short's Compy. of Mounted 
Riflemen from 31 May to 29 June 1812 Illinois Militia Muster Roll 
30 30 Muster Roll of Capt" Jacob Shorts C from 31'' May to 29'" 
June 1812 No. 2 N»2 



MUSTER ROLL OF ILLINOIS MILITIA « 

[NA:WD, AGO:DS] 

[June 29, 1812] 
Muster Roll Muster Roll " of a Company of Militia in the Service of 
the United States Commanded by Capt. Jacob Short being Mounted 
Riflemen of St. C^air County Illinois Territory by the order of Ninian 
Edwards Governor of s* Illinois Territory. 



No 


Names 


Rank 


1 
? 


Jacob Short 

John Moredock 


Cap' 
1 Lieut 


3 
4 


Thomas V Swaringin 

Henry Carr 


2 Lieut 
Ensign 








1 


Alexander Scott 


1 Serg' 


? 


George !Mitchel 




3 


Isam Gilham 


« 


4 


Robert Middleton 


" 



S«e footnotes at end of table. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 



237 



Muster Roll Musier Roll of a Compamj of Militia in the Service of 
the United States Commanded by Capt. Jacob Short being Mounted 
Riflemen of St. Clair County Illinois Territory by the order of Ninian 
Edwards Governor of s* Illinois Territory — Continued. 



No 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

83 

34 

35 



Names 



William Phillips . 
Isaac Carmack . 
Jacob Boren. 
Peter Wills . . . 
Andrew Bankston . 
John Bear . 
James Wilderman . 
W" Rittenhouse 
Henry Walker . 
Field Jarvis 
W^ Walker . . . 
Dan" M "Kinney- 
George Wilderman . 
Hyram Tidwell . 
Henry Stout 
Jacob Wilderman . 
Tho' Marney . . 
John Cooper 
John B Wires . 
David Kennedy 
John Myres 
James Hendrix . 
Moses Short 
Abraham Crownover 
Sam' Watson . 
Peter Rittenhouse . 
Hubbard Short 
Peter Hill . . . 
Adam Clover . 
Daniel Guise . 
Thomas Porter . 
John Estis . 
Samuel Shook . 
Samuel Scott 
David Akeman . 



Rank 



Private 



»5 Cf. ante, pp. 226, 232, 234. 

»• The original muster roll has seven columns but in this printing, for reasons of 
space, only the first three columns are reproduced. The fourth column is headed, 
"Dates of appointment or Enlistment", and contains the single entry, "May S"" 
1812", followed by ditto marks. The fifth column headed, "To what engaged or 
enlisted", has the entry, "May IT"" 1812". Below it are ditto marks to corre- 
spond to each name. The sixth column, under the heading "Names present", is 
the attendance record and duplicates the second column. There are no entries 
in column seven, which is headed, "Remarks and alterations since our Last", 
except the following signed by Ninian Edwards: "No rations were furnished at 
the public expence". 



238 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



Recapitulation 









c 






e 
.2 


^ 






D, 


3 






n. 


■^ 


01 

> 


5 






















u 


ij 


W 


w 


O 


^ 


eu 


H 


Present for duty .... 


1 


2 


1 


4 


» 


.. 


35 


43 


Sick 

Absent 
















•• 


' 


1 


2 


1 


4 






35 


43 



I do certify on Honour that the foregoing Muster Roll exhibits a 
true statement of the Men Under my Command as Muster by me this 
29"" June 1812 

Jacob Short Capt 

NiNiAN Edwards Governor & Commander in Chief 

[Endorsed] Muster Roll of Capt" Shorts Comp^ of Mounted Rifle- 
men of the Illinois Militia from 3" to 17 May 1812 Captn Shorts N° 
1 Nol. 



WILLIAM RUSSELL " TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD,SWDF:ALS] 

ViNCENNES, ye 1" July 1812. 
Sir, The people of this and Illinois Territory's are extremely affraid 
ef the intimodated with the Indian's, and I have had much difficulty in 
quieting them, what danger is is really hard to discover from their 
present moavments. I find from a letter I have recently received from 
Governor Edwards," that their fears still continue to exist: the Gov' 
informes me that a large body has collected at, and near the Peoria a 



•' Col. William Russell, of Kentucky, was an officer in the American Revolu- 
tionary army. He was now placed in command of the several companies of 
rangers authorized to be raised in Ohio and in Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri 
territories, to be known as the 7th regiment. Cf. Trans. III. Stale Hist. Soc, 
190i, p. 71. 

»» Not seen; cf. Edwards to Russell, June 17, 1812 (Edwards, Hist. Ill, p. 327). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 239 

Town on the Illinois river, Indians to the amount of Six or Seven hun- 
dred waiTiors, this alarmes his excellency very much as he informes 
me they can reach Kaskaskias, the place of his residence in four days. 
I find from comparison that the Peoria, is nearer to this spot then to 
Kaskaskas, it is also the opinion of some of the best informed setlers 
near the mouth of the Illinoys river, that their distination was the 
Wabash, by uniting their force with that of the Prophets, at his own 
town. I have however been much at a loss to find out the best moad 
of defence for these scattered frontiers I once had an Idea of dividing 
my little band along the frontier so as only to act as Spies on those 
frontiers, but have since abandoned that moade, and have very drawn 
my attention to those two Strong points \-iz the Peoria, and the 
prophets party paily on the Wabash. I find from the best Information 
I have been able to collect since my arrival at this place, that the frontier 
under my care extends at least five hundred miles in length. I found 
all the Rangers Mounted on My arrival in the teritory's, and indeed 
do not think they could be so eflficient otherwise, as the countiy is very 
level abounding with great peraries, — I have ordered on Cap' Purye's 
company of rangers from Ohio, and also another company of the old 
troops recruited in Ohio, and Kentuclcy to my aid in this place, in 
order to strengthen the Tery^ and also ad a few more troops to fort 
Harrison, so soon as they shall arrive I shall take a range through the 
Illinois with one company, and try to sattisfy those people, as to their 
cituation. I have taken the liberty of ordering on Lieu' Robert Todd 
of the 7'* from Kentucky, to bring on those recruits to this place. If I 
have acted wrong I hope you will give an order to the contrary — I do 
not know how those Indians can subsit in such large bodies for such a 
length of time. It is more then probable, they will make a stroke 
somewhere before long unless they should be waiting to see what 
steps are taken by our govermnent as to great Briton : for should we 
have war with that power, I am of the opinion we may calculate on a 
general war with the Indians. I do not know certainly what the 
governor's answer was from this place to the party of Chief's recently 
at fort Harrison, am led to believe it was not satisfactory to them. 
I have much difficulty in keeping the rangers from falling on the 
friendly tribes, but hope I shall be able to effect it. I have no hesi- 
tation in saying it will take more force to defend the frontier's then 
would be required to burn and drive them of, as my little experience 
informes me, that a party of troops mounted, owing to the facility of 
their moavments can always distroy a Town over our number — I 



240 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

hope Sir these remarks I have made will be pardoned— I have the 
honor, to be with high respect You obd' Serv» 

W Russell 
Col° 7'" Commanding Ye District. 

[Addressed] The honorable, William Eustis Esq"' Secretary of the 
war department, Washington. [Postmarked] Vincennes, 1" July 1812 
Free Mail 

[Endorsed] Vincennes 1" July 1812 Col. W" Russell States that 
he has called in more recioiits from Ohio — Thinks that in case of a war 
with England, a general Indian war will follow ReC* July 14, 1812 " 

»« No reply found. See Russell to the Secretary of War, July 22, 1812 
(NA.WD.SWDF), written from Vincennes, Indiana Territory, stating his inten- 
tion of going to the Illinois Territory as soon as new recruits arrived from Ohio 
and Kentucky, and that after he conferred with Governor Edwards he would fix 
upon a site above the upper Illinois settlements for his military contingent. See 
also id. to id., July 29, 1812, he. cil., announcing the arrival of recruits, the dis- 
patch of a company of Ohio rangers to Illinois, and his intention to follow the 
next day with a company of Kentucky rangers. 



PART FOUR 

Papers relating to the Second Administration 
of Governor Edwards 

1812-1814 



PART FOUR 

COMMISSION OF GOVERNOR EDWARDS* 

[NA:SD, Misc. Temp. Comms., I:C] 

[July 7, 1812] 
James Madison, President of the United States of America, 
To all who shall see these presents, Greeting: 

Know Ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the 
Patriotism, Integrity and Abilities of Ninian Edwards, of Kentucky, 
I do appoint him Governor in and over the Illinois Territory; and do 
authorize and empower him to execute and fulfil the duties of that 
office according to Law; and to Have and to Hold the said Office 
with all the powers, privileges, and Emoluments to the same of right 
appertaining until the end of the next Session of the Senate of the 
United States, and no longer, unless the President of the United States 
for the time being should be pleased sooner to revoke and determine 
this Commission. 

In Testimony whereof I have caused these Letters to be 
L.S. made patent, and the Seal of the United States to be 

hereunto affixed. 
Given under my hand at the City of Washington the Seventh day 
of July a:d: 1812; and of the Independence of the United States of 
America, the Thirty Seventh. 

James Madison. 
By the President, 
James Monroe, Secretary of State. 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[NA:0IA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

War Department July 9'" 1812. 
His Excellency Gov Edwards. 

Sir, Your letter of June 16'" has been received.^ The enclosed 
copy of a letter to Governor Harrison ' will show you how far your 
mutual cooperations are relied on — and the Instructions to Gov' 

' A recess appointment. 

> NA (WD, SWDF), printed, Edwards, Hist. III., p. 326, cited also an«e, p. 229. 
» Copy present, dated July 9, 1812; printed, Esarey (ed.), Harrison's Messages 
and Letters, II, 71. 

243 

314574—48 17 



244 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Scott * will present the means of receiving such additional Support as 
Exigencies may require, of which Governor Harrison & yourself will 
be the proper judges.— 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD,SWDF:ALS •] 

Elvirade, Randolph County Illinois Territory July 21, 1812 

Sir I had the honor to receive by the last mail your letters of 
June 11.' & 19." to the contents of which I lost not a moment in pajnng 
the necessary attention. On the same day I dispatched a messenger 
to Peoria with a talk to the Indians assembled near that place, and 
urged them (by every inducement which I thought likely to succeed) 
to meet the commissioners from the President at Pique Town in the 
State of Ohio. I also enjoined it on my messenger to exert his 
influence with them to the same effect. I sincerely hope they will 
comply with the request. But I can not flatter myself with a belief 
that they will certainly do so. 

As some ef objection might be made on their part to the want of 
timely notice, I requested that they should set out as soon as possible 
and go on even if they should not be able to arrive by the first of 
August. But in this I have not in the least committed the President — 

The Indians have for some time past been in real want of powder. 
They however are induced to believe that they will receive all their 
supplies at the british Fort of S' Joseph between Lakes Huron & 
Superior and the British Traders calculate upon carrying goods from 
Montreal by the way of the Utawas river to that place. It is owing to 
these circumstances most probably that such uncommonly large 
numbers of Inds are collected and collecting on the western borders 
of Lake Michigan. 

I continue to believe that we may expect an attack in this quarter as 
soon as corn gets into roasting ears, which will be very shortly — The 
Indians remain embodied near Peoria and have lately killed about 
twenty head of Cattle belonging to the inhabitants of Peoria that 
village. 

Should Congress have passed a law for raising ea additional companies 
of rangers & it be considered advisable to raise them in this quarter, 

* July 9, 1812, printed, Edwards, op. cit., p. 536. See Edwards to the Secretary 
of War, Sept. 6, 1812 (NA, WD, SWDF, printed, Edwards, op. cit., pp. 340-342), 
stating that he and Harrison disagreed on the interpretation of the above letter. 

» The body of this letter is also printed in Edwards, Hist. III., pp. 331-332, but 
the lengthy postscript is omitted from that version. 

• Ante, p. 231. 

» NA(WD, SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 5); and NA(OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C), 
announcing the declaration of war with Great Britain. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 245 

I could have at least two companies raised and organized in a weeks 
notice. 

The situation of the principal settlements in this territory & Louisi- 
ana in relation to the Indians is such as to require a concert & union 
of operations — for the danger of the one is completely identified with 
the other, which all former experience has proved and which is suffi- 
ciently obvious, from the ee«fee ef -the Missisippi being the great high 
way of the Indians and the residence of those from whom we have most 
danger to apprehend, being either on it, or some other rivers which 
empty into it above S' Louis. And whereever they can transport 
themselves by water they will not travel by land. 

I beg leave to recommend Captain James More of this territory as 
a gentleman well qualified to command a company of rangers. 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir y mo obd' S' 

N Edwards 

The Honble W" Eustis Sec'' of War Washington City 

P S. A Frenchman ' from Milwakee arrived at Peoria about the 
29'" ult. having a short time before been at the Winnebago village — 
he brings information which fully corroborates that given by Majr 
Jarrot,' in regard to the collection of Indians about Lake Michigan 
and on the straits of S' Marys, he gives it as his decided opinion that 
if the British agent at S* Josephs should tell those Indians to raise the 
tommahock they will to a man turn out & make war upon the U. S. 
He says the Winnebagoes are determined to make war upon us as 
long as there remains one of their nation alive. 

Pemwotam the great chief of the Kickapoos has gone to some part 
of upper Canada to see his british father, his object is supposed to be 
to obtain a supply of powder, he took ten of his tribe with him — The 
Indians have lately had a council in which they have all come to a de- 
termination not to surrender a single murderer but to risque the 
consequences of a refusal. 

The Pottowottomies and Ottowas who were with the Prophet have, 
I am infomied lately left him & will of course increase the number 
about Peoria — where they can subsist with less difficulty as the lake 
abounds with fish on which they have been accostumed to subsist — 
and if they should be pressed by want, they can take the cattle belong- 
ing to the inhabitants of Peoria which are numerous enough to supply 
them for a long time 

A short time past ten Indians from the prophets town passed near 
Pioria on their return from the Sacs principal village where they had 

" Antoine LeClair. 

• Nicholas Jarrot to Edwards, June 29, 1812, enclosed in Edwards to the 
Secretary of War, July 7, 1812 (NA.OIA, Lets. Reed., both printed, Edwards, 
Hist. Ill, pp. 330-331). 



246 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

held a council with some Sioux, lowas, Winnebagoes & the Sacs 
themselves. 

On the 13'" Ult. two chiefs Catfish from the Wabash & Conque from 
S' Josephs river (both Pottowottomies, the former the head of the 
band that committed the murders in Louisianna in 1810) arrived at 
the village on Illinois with a talk on which a council was held — Gomo 
the principal chief of the Illinois bands has since told M' Forsyth that 
he was not present at the council when the Prophets messengers spoke 
but was told that part of their talk was very hostile the U. S. and that 
those messengers to that country & to the Missisippi were for no 
good — Immediately after the council runners were dispatched to the 
Winnebagoes & to the Sacs & other Indians on the Missisippi. 

Naib-Woit (a Pottowottomie who was the leader of the band who 
committed the murders, took a prisoner & plundered a great deal of 
property here last years) & his party have left their village on the 
Illinois and have come down the river as is supposed with intention 
to do mischief before they return — 

Main Poque the celebrated Pottowottomie war chief has by this 
time retiuTied from Maiden (where he has been since last summer) to 
his town on the Illinois — 

The Indians certainly contemplate an attack upon Chicago, and 
laugh at the idea of its holding out against the force they with which 
they can attack it — 

You no doubt are informed that about 600 cherokees have latterly 
removed to Arkensaw river in Louisianna.'* Some of the Kaskaskia 
tribe have lately been into that quarter two returned yesterday and 
they inform me that, those Cherokees have proposed to the Shawonese 
& Delawares of that territory to remove and settle with them & unite 
in a war against the U. S. — declaring that in case of refusal they will 
not discriminate between them & the White people. The Kaskaskias 
represent the Shawonese & Delawares as being intirely friendly but 
they entertain no doubts of the hostile intentions of the Cherokees. 

I assure you that nothing is easier than to demonstrate, that this 
territory is now & has been for some time in a more perilous situation 
in regard to the Indians than any other one belonging to the United 
States — The greatest number of Indians from whom there is at present 
any cause to apprehend hostility reside within it. It exclusively 
suffered "^ last year, WFtA Not a year has past for a considerable 
length of time without some depredations being committed in it — And 
if the Indians are for war it is hardly to be supposed that they will be at 
the trouble of passing thro our territory into another better prepared to 
repell them. Nothwithstanding all this, we have no assistance from 
any other quarter — not a man being engaged in service in the territory 

" Cf. Terr. Papera (La.-Mo.), XIV. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 247 

who is not a citizen of it. This I am sure is not a state of things which 
you had contemplated. If it suited the views of the President equally 
well and I should be continued in office here, I would greatly prefer 
that he would allow to me such a force as he thinks proper to furnish 
for the defence of this territory, or that he w* combine its defence with 
that of Louisianna — As it is impossible to have any concert in defend- 
ing the settlements of Indiana and our settlements, they being 
seperated by an immense Praire & about 160 miles apart. 

I may be thought imprudent in urging the certainty of a formidable 
hostile confederacy of indians, and a bloody indian war — particularly 
as I discover Gen' Hull has stated that tranquility is already restored 
to the frontiers — But sir, I have taken great pains to inform myself of 
the vaews of the indians and I know I hazard nothing in giving this 
opinion. 

Their plan is to amuse and deceive us, till they are prepared to 
strike a decisive blow — In candor and honesty I can say nothing less. 
And I am well persuaded you will soon be convinced that it is correct, 
although I shall regret to witness the evidence which will soon demon- 
strate it." 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y' mo ob** S' 

NiNiAN Edwards 

[Addressed] The Hon'ble William Eustis Secretary of War Wash- 
ington City [Postmarked] Sydney Grove July 21" Free 

[Endorsed] Elvirade July 21, 1812, Gov. N. Edwards— incloses 
further evidence of Indian hostility — they threaten Chicago — The 
defence of Illinois better united with Louisiana than Indiana. Indians 
in want of powder — have sent to maiden for some. Rec"* Aug' 1, 
1812. " 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Kaskasku, III Ty July 21. 1812 
Sir Since the mail closed at Sydney Grove I received the letters 
copies of which I have now the honor to transmit to you — for which 
purpose I have this night come down to this place — Comment upon 
them is unnecessary — they sufficiently develope what I have imif ormly 
believed would be the ultimate determination & views of the indians 
and they fully demonstrate the perilous situation of this part of the 
country where there is "" even one place of safety for public papers or 
an>'thing else. Never was a man in a more awkward situation than 
I am — not knowing whether I am reappointed & having no authority 

" Cf. Esarey (ed.), Harrison's Messages and Letters, n, 231-234. 
•* Reply not found. 
"• Not? 



248 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

to act — I will however make the best of a bad situation and I have 
little doubt of being able to rally a respectable force by my own 
personal influence — Many companies from Ky have tendered me 
their services. But even, should the most pressing emergency present 
itself I shall not fail to employ them 

Gov' Howard writes me that he has just received information that 
there are about 1500 warriors now on the banks of Illinois river with 
canoes enough in their possession to transport them down the river " — 

I have rec"* similar information from two other gentlemen of 
respectability. 

I have the honor to be very respectfully Sir Y' Mo Obd* S* 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Honble W" Eustis Sec^ of War Washington City 

[Addressed] The Honble W° Eustis Sec" of War— Washington City 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia July 21. 1812 Gov N. Edwards States 
his expectations that, an Indian war will soon follow, and his difficult- 
ies for want of Authority. Rec" Augt. 7. 1812. '* 

[Enclosures] 

John Kinzie to Thomas Forsyth " 

Mouth of Fox RIVER T*" July 1812 
D' Thomas I am just informed by an Indian that you passed here 
two days since for Chicago & take on me the sending you this by Perish 
to acquaint you that I am on my way to the Piorias. where I shall 
wait your arrival 

Your favor by M' A. LeClere I received at Milwaakee & observe its 
contents, but circumstances have not allowed me to act according 
to your directions, having to leave Chicago for the present, I have 
sent you a letter respecting my unfortunate affair — therefore I must 
not hinge on this subject for the present, but merely answer one part 
of your letter, with respect to information relative to Indian affairs 

I arrived at Milwaakee on the 21'' Ultimo & was suspected by the 
Indians (until my affairs was known to them on the fourth day) 
of being a person sent to spy their country &c They then came for- 

>» Not seen. See Edwards to the Secretary of War, Aug. 4, 1812 (Edwards, 
Hist. III., pp. 332-335), embodying a lengthy account of the situation as of that 
date. The original of this letter has not been found, nor is there a copy among 
the Edwards Papers (CHS). See also William Clark to Edwards, Aug. 16, 1812, 
written from Washington, D. C. (Edwards Papers, CHS, printed, Washburne, 
ed., Edwards Papers, CHC, III, 80-81), recounting his efforts to interest the 
Secretary of War in suppying adequate military forces for the western territories. 

'* Reply not found. 

" Kinzie and Forsyth were half brothers; for the relationship, see Quaife 
(ed.), Askin Papers, I, 306, 307. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 249 

ward & shewed me every act of friendship They took me to the 
councils during my stay at the above Post which was eight days 
A party of Falsovoins from Green Bay conducted by two Chipewas 
who had gone on with letters for M"' Dixon, were then on their way 
to Maiden to see their British father . They made a stay of two days 
at Milwaakee — and had a council with the Putowatomies, Chipewas 
& some other strangers that were present. They presented four pipes 
from the Sieuxs nation and after going through the formallity of 
smoking in them &c &c the Chipeway made the following speach 

My Brothers these Pipes represent the Sieux nation now assembled 
on the Ouisconsin river, by the order of their English father who has 
desired them (the Sieux to listen to his voice and draw near to hand 
to enable him to give them his council. We the Sieux have comphed 
with his request & send by our brothers the Chipewas and Falsovoins 
our answer 

Answer of the Sieux to the British Agent of Fort 

Father we have listened to your words sent to us by your Agent 
and have complied with your request. Your Voice is ours & we have 
sent with your Agent (Red Head) Dixon) thu-ty of our respectable 
Chiefs & Warriors to hear what our father of the Island of S' Josephs 
has to say to us, and we have sent 4 Pipes to you our father at Maiden 
to give you to understand that we the Sieux are ready to receive your 
answers and wait the return both from S' Joseph and Maiden 

Father we are convinced of the truth of your report to us of the ill 
treatment we daily experience from the people (meaning the Ameri- 
cans) and we find a satisfaction that you will step forward & assist 
us"^I was then told that they had no more to say on that subject and 
I withdrew but they councilled most part of the night 

The next day I enquired what number of Indians went on with 
Dixon & was told 30 Sieux 30 Winebagoes, 30 Falsovoins, besides 
Chipewas and others, that they meant to make a short stay& return 
that their object was to determine on the subject of war — That all the 
Indians on the Missisippi was inclined to be hostile to the Americans 
& that Cadot, Dice, & John Askin Jun' were collecting all the princi- 
pal Chiefs from the Grand Portage Fort du lac Superior and Machinac 
on Lake Huron to attend at the Island of S' Joseph this summer, and 
that there & then they will hear the voice of their Father. Those I 
saw appeared in high Spirits The Putowatomies of Milwaakee Fox 
River & Illinois river seem all to be in a ferment, all seem to be anxious 
for the cry of an English War. The Winebagoes seem to be quietest at 
present, owing to a reprimand they got for striking the blow this spring 
on Chicago By this they think the Americans have got the alarm. 
They could have wished to keep the factory open to furnish theu- 
wants to let the usual traders enter so as to be able to be prepared 



250 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

against Spring — In my opinion there will be a universal blow struck 
the ensuing Spring on my way down the Fox river, I stopped at 
several small Villages, all the cry is War. There is very little powder 
in the country — about 3 keggs (150 lb) was distributed to the River 
au Sable (Sandy Creek at the forks of this river) Indians by the 
traders from below to assist in assending the river Chicago with 
Canoes &c &c 

This Sir is the most material information I can give you and should 
I be obliged to return again among the Indians, I shall try to collect 
what in future may come to hand, particularly by the answers of the 
British to the Sieux by the return of the Falsovoins. 

I remain &c &c Signed John Kinzie 

To Thomas Forsythe, Piorias 

Thomas Forsyth to Governor Edwards 

Piorias 13*" July 1812 
Sir Since mine of the 29'" Ult» " I have been at Chicago, and 
understand that all the professions of friendship of the two Putowat- 
omy Chiefs, by saying that the British father requested the Indians 
in general to remain quiet in case of a War is false (it appears that this 
report took its rise from a council that was held at Fort Wayne) when 
twelve different nations agreed to remain quiet in case of a War be- 
tween the British and the U. States. It is so much to the contrary that 
I was informed on my way up to Chicago, that not very long since 
that the whole of the Indians have renewed their alliance and should 
they be attacked in any one part the rest must repair to their assist- 
ance — The Indians in this country send word to the Prophet latterly 
that if he had asked them earlier last fall for assistance, they would 
have given him all the assistance in their power. 

The Indians throughout the whole country are in a state of star- 
vation and very much in want of powder The factory at Chicago 
is shut up but their whole dependence is on the Mackinac traders, 
all which I have explained to you more fully in my last letter — 

Your Excellency will please to observe that my situation at this 
time is very critical some of my good friends the white People have 
given a hint to the Indians of my writing to the Americans by every 
opportunity. An Indian lately upbraided me for so doing but would 
not give his author and told me if I was an American to go down to 
S* Louis & live there I was obliged to deny the charge, and also to 
deny having any friends whatsoever in or about S* Louis — that I 
was not acquainted with a single individual in S* Louis country and 
I said that if the Chiefs should drive me away from this place for any 
lies that might be told them that I would go, and that I would make 

•• Not seen. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 251 

my complaints to the different Governors, and have all communica- 
tions between them and the Traders cut off. by which means the In- 
dians would not be able to procure the necessary supplies the ensuing 
fall & winter, since which I have heard no more on that score." 
Should you at any time have occasion to write me, have the goodness 
to charge the Bearer of such letters not to shew them to any person 
nor to say what business they may be on. They must not mention 
it to any person White or black — for I can assure you that the country 
is full of disaffected persons to our Government, and for what reasons 
I really believe they do not know themselves 

On my way down from Chicago I was told at Sandy Creek, that 
two Sakies had passed by that place from Fort Maiden, that a great 
Chief had arrived at that place from Quebeck, and that another Chief 
still greater was on his way up with a very large quantity of goods 
&c for the Indians " that many troops had arrived at F' Maiden 
with seventy pieces of canon that the Indians were requested to re- 
main quiet, that as soon as the Great Chief would arrive with the 
goods &c. they would then be told what to do. That some of the 
Sakies remained behind until the arrival of the great Chief to bring 
out the news. That the Main Poc was to receive his ammunition 
the day after their departure from F' Maiden and would immediately 
set out for his Village on Fox river and I have no doubt but that he 
will bring a budget with him. Positively they laugh at the idea of 
giving up the murderers and stolen horses, as requested by Catfish a 
Putowatomy Chief from the Wabash and friend of Governor Harrison, 
and the Indians say that when War takes place, the Catfish and 
White Pidgeon two great friends of the Americans must be killed. 
What do you suppose would be the consequence if they knew the 
correspondence between your Excellency and me — when they threaten 
their own people who only tries to keep peace — In my rout to Chicago 
I was told by Indians that the Murders that was committed near 
Vincennes last spring were committed by the same two fellows who 
killed Cap' Coles party in 1810 in Loutre Settlement, L. Territory, 
and their relatives viz Retchekimink and three of his brothers. Ess- 
cot-tin-ni-my and two of his brothers — two Kickapoos and one 
Ottowa making a party of ten persons. Ess-cot-tin-ni-my was the 
partizan. and with his friend Retchekimink, are the two whom I 
allude to having committed the murders &c in 1810 in Loutre Settle- 
ment. L. T. These fellows with all their relations, and others of the 
same stamp have a Village near the river des Iroquois, that falls into 
the Teakakee river, and they have been heard to say that the people 

" Forsyth was in the secret pay of the United States (Kellogg, Brit. RSgime in 
Wis., p. 292). 
>■ Possibly referring to Robert Dickson; cf. loe. cit. 



252 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

about Vincennes, are rather wild, but near the Saline they are not so 
wild. Those fellows have a number of stolen horses, As I passed 
Sandy creek one of the young brothers of Ritchekeemink offered me 
an American horse, saddle and bridle in exchange for some silver 
works, and said he had five more of his own that he had stole from 
the Americans 

I herewith enclose you a translation of M"' LeClere report to me 
of his tour with the expendatures for provisions &c he observed 
to me that it was impossible for him to enquire of the Indians about 
the Geography of the country as they might surmise that he wished 
to get acquainted with their country and pilot the Americans to their 
Villages or communicate it to their enemies. M"' LeClair observed 
to me that the Indians, all through the country that he travelled in 
speaking of the Americans, would always say those people meaning 
that they did not wish to mention the name of an American 

The White Pidgeon a Putowatomie Indian immediately from 
Tepicanoe has brought speaches from the Shawanoes who reside on 
the Glaize river that empties itself into the Miamis of the Lakes, 
to the Indians of this country, requesting all the Indians of this country 
to take up the tomahawk and make war against the U. States. In 
the speach they say, that to remain still they must die, and should 
the Americans overcome them they can only die and it is better to 
die as men at once than die a lingring death. The White Pidgeon 
delivered this speach today to the Miamis near this place and I 
understand that it is to be sent tomorrow or next day to the Sakies 
& other Nations of Indians on the Missisippi 

It appears to me that all their promisses of peace is only to lull the 
U. States until they are ready & when ready they will make a desperate 
effort I have to acquaint your Excellency that some people of this 
place pays no manner of attention to your proclamation respecting 
the selling of liquor — 

A M' Buisson left two Barrels of Whisky here with a person to sell 
for him in his absence to Mackinac and told him to sell everyone, 
and at any time & place and he would answer for the consequence, 
on which another fellow by the name of Binett is gone down to S' 
Louis to buy whisky and powder and no doubt on his arrival he will 
carry on the same business, making the Indians drunk in this place and 
I should not be at all surprised if some lives will be lost particularly 
in this critical time — I have to hope you will pay attention to this 
for you may be well assured that my situation is precarious, what 
will be the consequences if I have to fly from this & leave my property 
to merciless savages. I may and I may not get off with my life, and 
you may well see that it is not for the lucre of my Salary that I serve 
Government to to serve my country and more particularly at this 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 253 

critical period. I herewith enclose you two letters I rec" lately and 
have to beg you keep the names of the writers a profound secret 

I shall leave this tomorrow for Vincennes on the unfortunate business 
of my brother as I mentioned to you in my former letter & shall be 
absent about fifteen days but have requested IVP LeClair to take 
notice of what will pass during my absence & should you have occasion 
to write during my absence please to write to M'' LeClair in french 

I should thank your Excellency if j'ou would have the goodness to 
forward to Gov"' Harrison a letter of introduction as I have not the 
pleasure of his acquiantance — I should also thank your Excellancy 
to acquaint me if you have received an answer from the Secretary of 
War to your letters to him on my business 

I have the honor to be Y"' Excellencies Most Ob' &c 

Signed Thomas Forsyth 

His Excellency Ninian Edwards Esq' &c 

N B. I enclose you a scetch of the numbers of Indians residing in the 
country that lies in the Vicinity of Chicago and Illinois river " T F 

Report of Antoine LeClair 

[July 14, 1812] 

Translation of a Report of M' Antoine LeClair in a Tour from Piorias 
to Chicago — Mihcaakee — Coskquaiyiong, Kitckeicakikee and down Fox 
river to its mouth and from thence to the Piorias 

On the 15*" June I left Piorias and proceeded to Chicago and arrived 
there on the 22"* on my way up the Illinois river, I halted part of 
a day at Sandy Creek, and was informed at that place that all the 
Putowatomies of S' Joseph was to make one great Village — that the 
Sieux had been at Kitchewakikee to brighten the chain of friendship 
with all Indian ^nations and to be informed when would be a proper 
time to commence hostilities, as the Sieux said that they would take 
Louisiana Territory for their share, that one hundred Saukies were 
gone to Fort Maiden to see then- British Father — One of my horses 
being stole I was obliged to hire a horse from an Indian, to take me 
from this place (Chicago) to Milwakee expecting to find my horse 

On the 26'" on my way to Milwaakee I met 26 Falsovoin Indians 
from Green Bay going to Fort Maiden to see their British father, 
that they were sent by (Red Head) M'' Dixon, as their British Father 
wishes much to see them, that on their return they expected to bring 
news of War being declared by the British against the U. States and 
all the Indians would join and that the Americans must fall — that M' 
Dixon had taken many Indians on with him to the British Garrison 
on the Island of S' Joseph, to hear the news of their father at that place 

*' Not present. 



254 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

On 27'" I arrived at Milwaakee and enquired about my stolen 
horse, I was informed that my horse was at the Great Woods on 
Fox river. I was again obliged to hire horses here to go to Cosquo- 
nong, while I was at Milwakee I was informed by the flour an Indian 
Chief of the Putowatomies that all the different nations of Indians 
had made an alliance to make war against the U. States, that the 
Indians was now only waiting for word from the British and that 
matters was so arranged that the Americans would be attacked at 
different places at one and the same time 

On the 30'" I left Milwakee for Coshquonong and arrived there the 
next day. I found this Village much larger than ever it was, as all 
the Winebagoes from the different smaller Villages are all assembled 
here to live together — On my arrival at this place I found the Wine- 
bagoes dancing the War dance, saying they were going to war with 
the Osages, as the Indians in general will not trust any white man of 
any nation But I was informed by a Putowatomie Indian that the 
Winibagoes were dancing to go to war against the Americans and the 
Putowatomie Indians told the same news, that Flour the Chief at Mil- 
wakee told me, also that there was about 300 lodges of Sieux Indians 
on the Ouisconsin river amounting to about 400 or 500 Warriors, 
waiting the word from their British Father to attack the Americans — 

On the 3" July I arrived at Kitchewaakeekee and I was told there 
by a Falsovoin the same news that I heard at Cashqonong. but I 
never could find out what part of the frontier the Winebagoes meant 
to attack as it is seldom known to themselves, until they are on the 
rout. At this place I understood that the Indians were much in want 
of Powder, that the young men are very anxious for war but are kept 
back until the day arrives — that they expected large supplies of powder 
from Fort Maiden by their friends that were gone to that place as also 
that they expected news from thence (Fort Maiden) that would 
regulate them in future 

On the 5'" I arrived at the Great Woods on Fox river (that empties 
itself into the Illinois about 100 miles above this place) and I found 
that my stolen horse had been sent to Milwaakee, to the traders of 
that place as the Indians understood he was my property — I then had 
to send back the horses I had hired & buy a canoe it being too far to 
return to Milwakee for my horses and knowing them to be safe at 
that place — I understood by Indians whom I was formerly acquainted 
with that all their talk is war with the Americans, and were only 
waiting (and that with impatience) for the word from the British, and 
the first place they meant to attack was the Garrison at Chicago— that 
in the mean time they meant to steal all the horses from the Americans 
they could and when ready they meant to go to Chicago, to drive the 
horned cattle some distance off from the Garrison which will answer 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 255 

their purpose for provisions and lay seige to that place — that an Indian 
named Catfish a Putowatomy had lately arrived with a number of 
horses that he and others had stolen from the settlements near 
Vincennes 

I embarked in my canoe in company with my little boy, and de- 
scended Fox river, and arrived at a Village at a place called the little 
Rock and found a number of Indians from the lower parts of this river 
assending to hunt & fish, as the whole of the Indians are in a state of 
starvation & much in want of powder. Those Indians told me in 
substance what I had heard before and observed to me to keep out of 
the way, as the chain of friendship was so well brightened among all 
the red skins from North to South that it would be a war of extermina- 
tion and would not stop while there was an American living — 

On the 8" I arrived at a Village at the Great Rapid it is a large 
Village & it is here that the Main pock sent word to his friends and 
relations to make a Village 

They told me that they had not heard from the Main Poc latterly 
but suppose he must be on his way home, that they are waiting his 
arrival with impatience as they say they have no doubt that he will 
bring the truth and good news of War from their British Fathers, that 
there is only that which keeps him (the Main Poc) back, and expects 
a large supply of powder by the Main Poc, as they sent him word to 
that purpose some time ago — 

The Indians at this place told me the same news I heard up the 
River & elsewhere, and they seem to understand it as well as a child 
does his A. B. C I left that place and nothing of consequence 
occurred on my way to this place I arrived here on the 11*" Inst — 

PiORlAS 14"' July 1812, 

Signed Antoine LeClair 

B. Caldwell to Thomas Forsyth 

[July, 1812] 
Extract from a letter from B. Caldwell to M' Forsyth 

You wish me to have some news from the Wabash I will endeavour 
to give you a sketch of what is going among the Indians as now occurs 
to me but by all means keep it a profoimd secret &c 

Why the Indians are all in agitation anxious for war. but wishing to 
prolong the time if possible by promising to deliver the murderers up. 
provided the Americans will give them time for the Chiefs to execute 
their authority amongst their young men which I have it from some of 
themselves notwithstanding there is a number of friendly Indians but 
what are they against the party thats bent for hostilities 

B.C. 



256 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

MATTHEW IRWIN TO JOHN MASON 
INA:0IA, Lets. Recd.tALS] 

Detroit Augt 6. 1812. 

Sir, I have on former occasions informed you I should leave Chicago 
for this place I therefore left it on the 5'" July & arrived at Mackinac 
on the 16'", being the day previous to its Capitulation to the British, 
& reached this the 2"* inst. 

The packs from the Chicago Trading House (99 in number) have 
fallen with several public letters, directed to me, fallen into the hands 
of the British. 

The quarterly statement ending 30'" June, the Invoice of the 
paclcs & other papers, shall be forwarded the first safe opportunity. 
The last mail from this, fell into the hands of the Indians. There will 
be no safety in leaving this place till they suffer a severe defeat. 
Gen' Hull informs me he has left it discretionary with Ga^ the Com* 
Officer at Chicago as to the propriety of evacuating that post. 

The Indian Traders & a large body of Indians, volunteered, whilst 
I was at Mackinac, to take Chicago, but they were assured it could 
not be done, without orders from head quarters. This day I have 
written to the Sec'' of War. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect. Sir, Y' Most Ob' Serv* 

M. Irwin 
U. S. Factor. 

Gen' John Mason, Sup' In. Trade, Georgetown, Dis' Col' 
[Addressed] Gen' John Mason, Sup' Indian Trade, Georgetown 
Dis' Columbia [Postmarked] Buffaloe 31'" Aug. Free 

[Endorsed] 1812 Math* Irwin Detroit 6'" Aug. Recv" Ans advice 
of the British having taken 99 packs of fur belonging to Chicago 
factory. 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[NA:OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

War Department August 22" 1812. 
His Excellency The Governor of Illinois Territory 

Sir, I have the honor to inform your Excellency that William 
Henry Harrison, Governor of the Indiana Territory, has been ap- 
pointed a Brigadier General in the Service of the united States, and 
will command on the frontier of the Territories. — He has been in- 
structed to communicate with your Excellency relative to calling into 
Service Volunteers & Militia; and I am commanded by the President 
to request Your Excellency to give aid to the Service, & call out and 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 257 

place at his disposal, such portion of the Detached Militia as he may 
require.^ — 

WILLIAM RUSSELL TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
INA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Camp Edwards/' ye 24'" August, 1812. 

Sir, I have fixed on this sight as a proper place for the rangers, 
It being sentrel between the Kaskaskia river and the Mississipia: I 
keep out constantly small ranging parties from this to each river. The 
troops are on the Illert in order to meet events. Two companyes of 
the rangers are at this Camp, Two companys at Vincennes, and one 
in the State of Ohio, all with instructions to range. Governor Edwards 
has sent on to this camp also, two companys of his JNIilitia and says he 
will forward on to me two companys in addition to the above,-' these 
troops he has prevailed on me to train and exercise in the way I 
have taught my rangers, the exercise being easy and Simple, and cal- 
culated for men armed with Rifles and Tomhock's. It is the exer- 
cise that Gen' Waj-ne, taught me prior to his action with the In- 
dian's at the foot of the rapids of the Miami of the lake — My citua- 
tion is rather an impleasant one, being compeled to act entirely on 
the defensive, had I been at liberty I should have burnt some of 
their Towns before this, and that with my small Corps, or perished 
in the attempt — My men are geting sickly since we arrived on the 
waters of the IMississipia. I have not ordered a Surgeon to attend 
them, as the law is silent on that subject. I leave this camp early 
tomorrow for the Mississipia, in order to errect a temporary defence 
for the company of troops under the command of Lieutenants Ram- 
sey and Todd, below the mouth of the Illinois river to guard against 
the Indian's by water. The people in these Territorys believe the 
ranger's have been the salvation of their frontier's in this quarter, and 
approves highly of the plan. 

I find the plan of the rangers, having to furnish their ration's very 
injurous to the Service, as these men have to range the country for 
their provisions, and consequently, from their duty, and at the same 
time it operates against them as they are not furnished with their 
pay, I believe it would been better for the rangers had they been 

20 See Terr. Papers (Ind.), Vin, 187-188, 189-193; Esarey (ed.), Harrison's 
Messages and Letters, ii, 81-101 and passim. See a lengthy letter from Edwards 
to Harrison, Aug. 26, 1812 (Edwards, Hist. Ill, pp. 338-340), in which are raised 
questions of jurisdiction and of command, in the light of the above letter and of 
one from Harrison (not seen). See also the Secretary of War to Governor 
Howard, Aug. 22, 1812, Terr. Papers (La.-Mo.), xiv, and footnote citations therein. 

" A short distance northwest of the present city of Edwards\-ille, 111. 

22 See militia order, Aug. 26, 1812 (Edwards, Hist. Ill, p. 340). 



258 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

furnished with a ration by the Public, even should they had to pay 
25 cents p' ration 

I have the honor to be with high respect your obedient Serv* — 

W Russell Co1» 
7" Commanding ye District. 

[Addressed] The honorable William Eustis Esq' Secretary of war 
Washington. Mail [PostmaTked] Sydney Grove Sept. 1" FYee 

[Endorsed] Camp Edward 24 Aug. 1812 Col. W. Russell States 
the situation of his rangers — wishes to act offensively — it bad plan to 
make the rangers find their own rations. Rec" Sept 17'" 1812. 



NICHOLAS BOILVIN TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
(NA: WD, SWDF: LS] 

Washington Augxist 31. 1812. 
The Hon'* W" Eustis Secretary at war 

Sir About 30 years ago the late M' Dubuc went from Montreal 
to Michillimakinac as a clerc to learn the Indian trade; and with his 
brother Settled on the Mississippi among the Foxes and Sacs — In the 
course of a few years he spent a great deal of money by his generous 
manner of acting, he making many presents to the Indians, and re- 
fusing in many Instances to take their furs in exchange, contrary to 
the custom of traders among them. By that means he gained the 
esteem and affection of the Foxes and Sacs, who seeing him worthy 
of pity, (as they term it) declared they would always look upon him 
as one of their relations and told him: "We have discovered a lead 
mine: in this crater you will find a fine vein of that metal, we give it 
to you during your life time, live with us and we will always take care 
of you. 

M' William Tod on his way to New Orleans where he was going to 
make a contract with the Baron de Carondelet then Governor of that 
province, told M"^ Dubuc, that to erase from his mind all remembrance 
of a quarel which had happened some time before between them, he 
wished to give him some marks of his friendship and how much land 
he wished to have at that place, which might be as valuable as what 
he possessed. M"' Dubuc told him that the Indians had given him one 
square league — M' Tod without the knowledge of M' Dubuc obtained 
from the Baron de Carondelet a grant of six square leagues which he 
made a present of to said Dubuc and engaged him to go to S' Louis, 
from that time the Indians knew not what Dubuc had done with their 
land. After his death, M' Chouteau son as an administrater came 
to sell his property. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 259 

The Indians were opposed to his landing, saying that the land 
belong to them, that no body had a right to take an inch of it. They 
came for me at Dog's Prairie, I went to the place where they were all 
assembled, and held there a long council with them: They exclaimed 
that instead of a friend they had had a traitor among them, who wanted 
to take away the subsistence of their wives and children, that they 
never would consent to their land being sold. I replied that it was 
to pay the debts which he had contracted in the purchase of goods to 
cloath them, that to induce the great spirit to receive him with charity 
his debts must be paid. They then consented with reluctance to let 
his effects be sold, but as soon as the sale was over and the people had 
gone away they sat fire to the house and swore never to give up their 
land untill they were all dead — It would be useless to enter into a long 
detail of what passed at that council, the above is the true substance. 

To raise all difficulties and appease the Indians, It would be well 
perhaps for the government to refund to the owner of those lands 
what they have paid for them and to make a present of them to the 
Indians taking from them a mortgage on the said land — This I am 
sure would satisfy all parties 

All which is humbly submitted to your consideration by Sir Your 
very humble Servant 

N: BoiLViN agent 

[Endorsed] Wash Augt 31. 1812 N. Boilvin relative to a lead mine 
among the Sakes & foxes. Rec"* August 31. 1812 Lead Mine 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
INA: WD, SWDF:ALS] 
Elvirade Randolph Cty III. Ty 5ep' 2, 1812 
Sir Governor Howard writes me that on the night before last he 
received by express from Fort Madison intelligence of the capture of 
Chicago by the Indians on the 16 Ult." 

Colo Bissil also received a letter from Lieut Hamilton confirming 
the above account with the loss on our part of 60 killed and 20 men & 
10 women taken prisoners and giving assurances that three different 
nations of Indians meditate further attacks in 10. or 15. days 
I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y' Mo Obd* Serv* 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Honble W" Eustis Secretary of War Washington City 

" Not seen. For an exhaustive account of the Fort Dearborn massacre see 
M. M. Quaife, Chicago and the Old Northwest, with citations to sources, pp. 211- 
226; this work also includes a number of sources, pp. 378-436. 



260 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

PS. Being recognized as Gov' by your letters & those of the Pay- 
master and others at Washington I continue to act without my com- 
mission. Very respectfully &c N E 

[Endorsed] Elvirade Sept 2. 1812 Gov. N. Edwards States that 
he has heard of the fall of Chicago, expects other posts to be attacked. 
Rec" Sept 22°'' 1812^* 



SECRETARY POPE TO JUDGE THOMAS 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govr. Corr., 1809-13 :CS] 

(A Copy) Kaskaskia Sepl' 3'" 1812 

Sir I had a conversation last evening with Gov' Edwards in 
which he expressed himself in substance as follows "I think that in 
the present state of this Territory a Gen' Court ought not to be held 
in this County or St. Clair — One half of the Militia is called out & are 
ordered to march immediately to the Frontier above Cahokia The 
other half ought not to be called from home to attend Court, for in 
that event the habitations on the frontier will be left too much ex- 
posed He therefore thought it would be well to inform the people 
that no Court would be held at the next Term with many other 
considerations too tedious to enumerate — I told the Gov' that I 
would mention to you & he said that he would be glad that I would — 
It is to be distinctly understood that the Gov' did not intend to 
interfere with you in your Judicial Capacity, it was merely intended 
as an Opinion submitted for your consideration — 

You having requested this communication to be reduced to writing 
I have now done it 

I have the Honor to be very Respectfully y' ob' Serv* 

Nat Pope 

The Hon"'* Jesse B. Thomas 



" No reply found. Other relevant letters from Edwards to the Secretary of 
War (NA, WD, SWDF), are dated Aug. 8 (recounting recent moves of the Prophet 
and stating he had consented to Governor Howard's request to permit the militia 
of Louisiana Territory to cross into Illinois Territory for the safety of the former), 
Aug. 15 (advising, among other matters, that he had been acting as Governor 
since June 21 without a commission), and Aug. 25 (recommending a different 
course of campaign from that proposed by Harrison, and enclosing a copy of a 
letter from Governor Scott, Aug. 20, 1812, which is present). These letters are 
printed, with the exception of the enclosure mentioned, in Edwards, Hist. III., 
pp. 335-338. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 261 

THOMAS FORSYTH TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 
TERRITORY 2"* 

[NA : WD, SWDF, H372 : C] 

Copy of a letter from T. Forsyth to His Excellency Governor Howard 

Peorias 7'" Sept' 1812 

May it please your Excellency, I had the honor of receiving your's 
of the 1" ins*-*" And since my arrival from Chicago which was on 
the 24*" Ult" I had two letters ready in case any person came up from 
S' Louis: but receiving reports that the Indians were coming to 
search for Powder I was obliged to destroy them: And as we were 
forbidden by the Indians from stirring from this place it was impossible 
to send down any person — And when we will be able to get down 
to S' Louis, God knows, as there are Indians continually in this place 
watching our motions. — 

I arrived at Chicago on the IG*"" ult° the day after the dreadful 
slaughter of the poor souls of that Garrison — And I shall give you 
the particulars as I received them from Mr Kenzie my brother who 
was an eye witness to the whole Affair. — Some time in the latter end 
of July Cap' Heald received instructions to get Chiefs of the different 
nations in the vicinity of Chicago to go to the Council at Piqua. 
Mr Kenzie being well versed in Indian Affairs was applied to by 
Cap' Heald to assist him in getting the Chiefs to go to the council. 
Accordingly 17 Chiefs &c of the Potawatimies, Ottowas, Chippewas 
& Winebagoes set out, well satisfied, from Chicago & got to a place 
called Terre coupee, distant from Chicago about 90 miles where 
they met Cap' Wells, Winemege or Catfish a Potawatimy Chief & 20 
or 25 Miamies from Fort Wayne who told them that they must 
retiirn back to Chicago with them (Cap' Wells & party) as the Garrison 
was to be evacuted and the troops to be marched to F' Wayne: 
that all the goods, arms & ammunition which were in the Factory 
were to be given to the Indians as Presents. All returned back to 
Chicago, where they found a very great number of Indians. Cap' 
Heald received from General Hull a letter to evacuate the Garrison 
& march his company to Fort Wayne & from thence to Detroit. 
The number of souls who were to receive presents amounted to 
Seven hundred & sixty odd, among whom there were between 400 
& 500 men. Seeing such numbers and others coming in daily it was 
thought advisable to destroy the arms, ammunition and Liquor — And 
in the course of the night previously to the giving out of the presents, 
the Indians suspicious of something of ihe kind, listened & heard 

"« Enclosed in Howard to the Secretary of War, Sept. 13, 1812. 
"b Not found. 



262 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

the breaking of the heads of the Kegs of powder — The next day 
when the goods were given out the Indians observed, 'there was 
no powder' Cap' Wells said that there was none in the Garrison 
to give. They replied, they knew there was none now as he had 
destroyed the whole, the evening before. Cap' Wells denied the 
charge & a few words passed on both sides. — They took the Goods & 
all finished.^ — On the 14'" ult° a little before sundown an Indian 
arrived with a Belt of Wampum which was sent by the Main Poc 
from Fort Maiden, all painted red with vermillion, acquainting the 
Indians that the British and their allies had had five pitched battles 
with the Americans, and that the British were always successful: 
that Gen' Hull was encamped on the British side of the Detroit 
River, but that he could not get backward or forward: That the 
town & Fort of Detroit was taken by the British, that a vessel would 
be sent out shortly to Chicago to furnish the Indians with arms, 
ammunition & clothing by their British Father, To immediately 
take up the tomahawk and strike the Americans. The discontent 
which prevailed among the Indians on account of their not receiving 
the ammunition, and this news arriving from so great a man as the 
Main Poc made them immediately agree to attack the troops the next 
day after they were clear of the Garrison. — Mr K with others advised 
the Commandant not to evacuate the place but poor Cap' Wells was 
too sanguine — and on Satiu-day the 15'" of Aug' about 10 OClock 
the troops amounting to fifty four Officers & Soldiers, ten Citizens 
nine women & eighteen children left the Garrison to go to Fort Wayne 
When they got about a mile from the Fort, upwards of 400 Indians 
followed them and made a general slaughter, not sparing women nor 
children. The horrid affair was over in the course of an hour. Thirty 
Soldiers including the Doctor & Ensign were killed — 10 Citizens 
(being the whole of that class of People) two women & twelve poor 
cnildren — Twenty four Soldiers including the Cap' & Lieu' (both 
wounded) Six women & six children are Prisoners. Poor Cap' Wells 
is among the slain & was butchered in a horrid manner — his heart 
taken out & divided among the different Bands. Poor Mrs Heald 
niece of Cap' Wells was set down on the ground & the worse that 
a savage brute had his arm lifted up to drive the war club into her 
head, when a young French Lad who had just caught a mule ran up 
& bought the poor Woman. The Indian who claimed Cap' Heald 
gave him his liberty to go with his wife contrary to the wishes of many 
of the Savages. Three Indians were killed dead and three wounded. 
Cap' Heald & Mrs H are both wounded, but luckily they are flesh 
wounds. — They are now both at the mouth of S' Joseph's river at 
a Mr Burnett's where my brother & family also are, with the little 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 263 

remnants of our property — for in this unfortunate affair we have lost 
our all & are totally ruined. — ■ 

After my arrival from Chicago, myself with several others of this 
place went up to Gomo's village to know when we could go down 
to S' Louis for flour, tobacco &°* as I wished to make a pretence 
of this kind to try if possible to sent a letter down, but he gave us 
to understand that it would not do now; that we would have time 
enough some time hence. Since which the Indians have watched us 
very closely. — 

'Mackinac was taken some time in July by a party of Indians & 
Canadians, headed by Dickson whose character you are acquainted 
with & John Askin the Indian Agent of the Island of S' Joseph. That 
Post was taken without firing a gun or the loss of a life on either side. 

I am informed by an Indian from Gomo's today that the Indians 
have received Tobacco from the Main Poc a few days ago, saying, 
that Detroit has certainly fallen (as I [blank] this news with some 
other party of the Main Poc's speech when I with others was at Gomo's 
village some time ago) and for all the Indians to come to him at 
Fort Maiden to get goods &"" this same Indian says that a vessel was 
seen out in the lake near Chicago but contrary winds blew her off. 

When I was at Fort Chicago, the Indians told me that Fort Wayne 
would be attacked about the 20'" of Aug' by a great number of 
Indians under the command of a Potawatimy Prophet of the Elk's 
Heart village — that Fort Madison is to be attacked — as also Fort 
Clark (say Fort Osage) on the Missouri. — Forty Kickapoos left their 
village a few days ago. Report says thay are gone to the Shawanoe 
Prophet. Other reports say they are gone to the settlements on the 
Kaskaskias & that sixty more are to follow in a few days — Perhaps 
they are gone by this. Today a Party of about 300 Indians leave 
Gomo's & Shequenebec's villages to go down to make war against the 
settlements or Block Houses — They are headed by Gomo & Sheque- 
nebec; and he (Shequenebec) has been heard to say that 'the Great 
Spirit will deliver him a Fort. The Shawanoe Prophet's party will 
consist in a short time of 900 or 1000 Warriors, as all the Winebagoes 
from rockey river are going to that place — as also a mmiber of Pota- 
watimies from S* Joseph's. — I saw, when at Chicago, the murderers 
of Coles's party & of the families of vincennes. One of them said 
that as soon as he got home he meant immediately to pay a visit to 
the Vincennes People. — And you may rely, Lf Fort Harrison is not 
well guarded, that the Indians will make a tremendous attack on the 
whole country of Vincennes. I would advise you therefore to ac- 
quaint Governor Harrison to be guarded in every quarter, other- 
wise they will make great havock. You may rely that an Indian War 
is inevitable. 



264 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

The Kickpoos who formerly lived about Portage des Sieux meditate 
an attack on your frontier shortly — Indeed the die is cast and the U 
States may expect nothing but war from the Indians as you will hear 
in a very few days — And unless the whole frontiers of Michigan, 
Indiana, this (say Illinois) and your territory (say Missouri) are very 
well guarded, you may rely that a very great havock will be made on 
the poor People in the several Settlements. Your Excellency is too 
well acquainted with the mode of Indian warfare not to know that 
when they once run they know not where to stop. Vigilance is the 
great point, — and handled roughly in any one place once or twice, 
they seldom return but go elsewhere — Therefore I would advise the 
Governors of the different territories to set, immediately, all in motion 
against the Indians & to make use of every advantage against such 
barbarians which 'God & nature have put into their hands' for your 
Excellency may be assiu-ed that no conciliatory measures will do — the 
time is past for that & a War of extermination must do the business. 
The Sackies, Foxes & Sieux are all waiting to see how their brethren 
come on. When an opportunity offers it will be like a Clap of thunder. 
Take good care of the Sackies! They are deceitful People — 50 of 
them went to Detroit say Maiden last Spring & the Main Poc wanted 
them much to stay; but after they got their presents they all came off 
except ten who are now there and Tecumseh with his 10 or 12 followers 
who went to Maiden for ammunition are also there. Better those two 
men should be there than in this Country. — 

Your Excellency is well acquainted with my situation at this place. 
For God's sake don't mention my name to any person, for if the 
French get hold of it my life is gone. I expect Gomo & his party here 
in two days. After you hear of their doing some mischief, you can 
send up a person by land on the west side of this river; but by no 
means let him come along the water's edge, but keep out from the 
river a great distance — Don't you write by him — let Col" Chouteau 
on mercantile affairs — about his boat he expects from 'Mackinac or 
some other affair — & let him arrive here in the night & come straight 
to my house. lanace Demouchelle or Mettee who lives with Gov 
Edwards, are the only two in your country (whom I know) who are 
fitting for a business of this kmd. Let them take care that there are 
no Indians in my House before they make too much noise. 

Report says that Gomo & his Party will go down a short distance 
in canoes, as they are fearful of falling in with your boat, particularly 
as they understand she has Swivels on board. It is impossible to tell 
what place this party will attack, as they don't know themselves imtil 
they get off. Probably also it may]^consist]|of||more than][300 as^I 
understand that the Fox River Indians are coming down as also some 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 265 

from Millwaker & Sandy Creek. In that case it may consist of 400 

warriors 

In haste, I remain, Your Excellency's most obt Servant 

Signed T. Forsyth 



SECRETARY POPE TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
[NA:SD, ni. Terr. Papers :ALS] 

Illinois Territory Sept' 8"" 1812 
Sir I have the honor to transmit inclosed My Semi annual return 
of the Proceedings of the Governor in his executive Capacity ^^ & 
have the Honor to be very Respectfully Y"' ob' Hum"' Serv' 

Nat Pope 

The Hon"'* James Monroe Sec'' of State Un. States— 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 
Head Quarters Camp Russel Madison County 

Illinois Territory Sepf 21. 1812 

Sir The perilous situation of this territory is now becoming so 
manifest that I am sending off my family to Kentuckey shall secure 
my papers and do the best I can to defend this country with the forces 
I have collected at this place. 

I have not a man to assist me beyond those I have raised in the 
territory except Lieuts Ramsey & Todd and some regulars under 
thier command, and these refuse to obey my orders unless Colo Russel 
shall direct them to do so. On the Recet of your letter on that sub- 
ject, I requested some troops immediately of the Gov'' of Kentucky 
they were promised but not one has arrived. 

Not a man whom I have had in service since the S'" of March has 
received a cent of pay — they are extremely much distressed for the 
want of it and are becoming dissatisfied. And if I can neither get 
money, to pay these I have called into service here, nor Troops else- 
where you must be convinced that I cannot defend the country much 
longer. 

Not doubting your desire to have those troops paid, I beg leave to 
recommend a plan that will prevent your wishes on this subject from 
being disappointed — 

I have a regiment in service, & have prevailed on M"" Pope the 
Secretary to consent to accept of the appointment of pay master to 
it — I have sought a character of high standing hoping thus in conse- 

" Mar. 1, 1812, to Aug. 31, 1812, Terr. Papers (111.), xvii, Register. 



266 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

quence thereof the choice might be approved by you and the neces- 
sary funds be transmitted direct to him — Nothing but patriotism 
would induce him to take this trouble upon himself 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y' Mo Obd' S' 

NiNiAN Edwards 

[Addressed] The Hon"'* William Eustis Secretary at War Wash- 
ington. Free 

[Endorsed] Camp Russell— Sept. 21. 1812 Gov. N. Edwards States 
the impossibility of defending that country unless supported with 
men & money — His troops want pay — M' Pope, the Sec" will be P. 
Master Rec^ Oct. 9. 1812 ^» 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[NA:OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

War Department October 7'" 1812. 
His Excellency Nin" Edwards Gov' of the Illinois Territory — 

Sir, Your Excellency's letters of Sept' 8'" " & 12"' -' have been 
received. General Harrison, who is charged with the defence of all 
the Western Frontier, has, as will appear by the inclosed Extract, -'' 
made Arrangements for the defence of the Illinois, and it is presumed 
he will communicate with your Excellency in relation to his op- 
erations. ^ — 



" No reply found. 

" There is a letter of Sept. 8, 1812, printed in Edwards, Hiil. III., p. 342, which 
is identical with one under date of Sept. 12, 1812, in NA (WD, SWDF), in which 
Governor Edwards, in referring to Harrison's recall of Russell and his forces to 
Vincennes, asks whether the Governor of a Territory possesses any authority 
over the rangers and regular troops within his Territory. There is no letter of 
Sept. 8, 1812, in the files in NA. See, in the same connection, Edwards to the 
Secretary of War, Sept. 6, 1812 (NA, op. eit., printed, Edwards, op. cit., pp. 340- 
342), expressing astonishment at Russell's recall, and stating that he and Harrison 
disagreed on the meaning of the Secretary's letter of July 9, ante, p. 243. 

«» See n. 27, supra. 

" Not seen. 

»» Answered Jan. 2, 1813 (NA, loe. eil., printed, Edwards, op. eit., pp. 345-346), 
stating that Harrison's plan for the protection of the Territory rather than 
Edwards's had apparently been accepted, and reviewing at length the military 
operations in Illinois during the previous fall. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 267 

THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 
[NA:OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

War Department October 24'" 1812. 
His Excellency Ninlvn Edwards Gov"' of the Illinois Territory 

Kask" 

Sir, Your Excellency's letter of the 14'" Instant is received. '' — 

Herewith inclosed you will receive an Extract of a letter from 
General Harrison, which shews that pro\asion is made for such Rein- 
forcements as may be necessary. ^^ — 

Lieutenant 'WTiitlock the District pay Master has funds & Instruc- 
tions " for pajang the Rangers and Militia. '* — 



JOHN MASON TO MATTHEW IRWIN 
[NA:OIT, Supt. Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

Indian Office 27 Oct 1812 
Math" Irwin Esq late factor for the U S at Chicago 

Sir In consequence of the factory at Chicago having been broken 
up by the events of the war, and it being uncertain in the present 
state of things whether it will be re established — I am directed by the 
President of the United States to inform you that after the expiration 
of the present quarter your services as factor cannot be longer engaged 
— that your salary will however be continued untill that time it 
being understood that during that period you consider yourself ready 
to perform such duties, as may be required of you as one of the officers 
attached to this ofRce '^ — 

I am &c &c J, M, S I, T, 

»' NA (WD, SWDF), printed, Edwards, Hist. III., p. 343. The endorsement on 
the letter gives Oct. 14, but the date line on the original is Oct. 4, 1812. 

*- The letter, dated Oct. 15, 1812, is printed in full in Esarey (ed.), Harrison's 
Messages and Letters, n, 179-181. 

" See Robert Brent, paymaster general, to Edwards, July 20, Nov. 7, and Nov. 
19, 1812 (Edwards Papers, CHS, printed, Washburne, ed., Edwards Papers, CHC, 
UI, 78-79, 83-84, 84-85). 

»< Answered Dec. 25, 1812 (NA, WD, SWDF, printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, pp. 
343-345), denying Harrison's charge that he was responsible for the defenceless 
state of the Territory; it is a lengthy vindication of Edwards's policy. 

« See T. Fackle to Bathhurst, no date, 1812 (WHC, xx, 1-12K expressing the 
opinion that it was fortunate for the British that Fort Dearborn had fallen; 
and that the American factory system, though but meagerly supported by the 
U. S. Congress, had been successful to the extent that it seriously threatened 
British control of the Indians. See also Dickson to Jacob Franks, Oct. 2 and 
Oct. 14, 1812, ibid., pp. 291-293, relative to articles for the Indian trade and 
stating that regular troops were expected from England. 



268 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

JUDGE STUART TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
[NA:SD, Resignations :ALS] 

Richmond October 28*" 1812 
Sir — As the time approaches, when the President of the United 
States will have to appoint a Governor in & over the Illinois Territory; 
I think it a duty I owe the public, to state through you to M'' Madison; 
that the gentleman who has fill" that office for the last three years, 
has in my humble opinion discharged the trust confided to him with 
firmness impartiality and wisdom — I should not have taken the liberty 
of saying so much; did I not know with what facility any person may 
be misrepresented who resides at so great a distance from the seat 
of Government — I presume it is unnecessary to add that Governor 
Edwards is a friend to the administration; he was a warm advocate 
for the war when I saw him last — I shall be at the next Gen' Court 
to be holden in Illinois after which I shall tender to the president 
my Commission in consequence of the unhealthiness of the Country 
I am very respectfully 

Alex' Stuart 

[Addressed\ The Hon"' James Monroe Washington [Postmarkedi 
Richmd. Va Oct 31 Free Mail 

[Endorsed] 28 Oct. 1812 Judge Stuart. 



WILLIAM RUSSELL TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Camp Russell, ye 31'' October 1812— 
Sir, This will inform you that I arrived at this place from Vin- 
cennes, after Gen' Hopkins had marched his mounted rifle men up to 
fort Harrison, I took on with me part of three Company's of the 
United States Rangers where I was Joined by Gov' Edwards with his 
mounted riflemen,^* the whole of our strength only amounted to 360 
privates, we penetrated very far in the Indian Country with an 
expectation of Cooperating with Gen' Hopkins, who by appointment 
was to meet us at the Peoria, on the Illinois River, in this we were 
sadly disappointed as we could get no intelligence of his Army, this 
prevented us from doing as much damage to the Indian's, as otherwise 
we could have done; as our numbers were to week to make any delay 
in that quarter as this was farther then any troop's had hitherto 

•• On Oct. 6, 1812, Gen. Samuel Hopkins, who was charged by Harrison with the 
defense of Indiana Territory, ordered Russell to return to Illinois Territory with 
his companies of rangers and to proceed up the Illinois River towards Peoria. 
See Hopkins to Harrison, Oct. 6, 1812 (Esarey, ed., Harrison's Messages and 
LeUers, ii, 162-163). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 269 

penetrated — " We stole a march upon the Selabrated Pemertams 
Town, situated about twenty one miles above Peoria, and immediately 
at the head of the Peoria, Lake, this was a well built Town, and con- 
tained a number of Indian's, between the Town, and river was a 
dismal Swamp in which they immediately flew for shelter, returning 
a few scattering shots, our men nobly persued them through the 
Swamp for three miles up to their waist's in mud and water, and killed 
some of them in the Swamp, and also others as they were crossing the 
Illinois river, the men also persued them to the oposite bank, and 
brought back some of their canoes and several dead bodys — The Gov' 
states, to be upwards of twenty killed of the enemy. This was a 
flourishing Town, with an immence deal of Indian plunder in it, 
togather with a great deal of corn, all of which was committed to the 
flaime's. I believe no less then Eighty horses fell into our hands 
belonging to the Enemy. Several white persons scalp were also 
found amongst their plunder — I had the immediate command of the 
Battallion, and the Supream Command was retaind by his Excellency 
the Governor — On this expedition we were fortunate, we had but four 
men wounded, non of which is mortal. This tour was performed 
from this camp and back to the same place in thirteen days — I am at 
this time trying to permote an expedition in the same quarter, should 
Gen' Hopkin's not decend as low as that point, and for that perpose 
have addressed a letter to his excellency Gov'' Howard. My object 
would be to go up the Mississippia river as high as fort Mason, then 
make a dash across to the Illinois river, this would compleatly ketch 
them of their gard, however to this letter I have as yet received no 
answer — As G. Edwards will give a more full detail of this subject ^ 
then I can do at the present I shall not tire your patience further — 
I have the honor to be with high respect your obd' Serv* — 

W Russell Col" 
7'" & District Commandant. 

[Addressed] The honorable William Eustis Esq'' Washington. Mail 

[Endorsed] Camp Russell 31. Oct 1812 Colonel Russell Stating 
his operations & his destruction of an Indian Town — is about another 
expedition— ReC* Dec'^ 5*" 1812 

" See Shelby to Harrison, Nov. 7, 1812, ibid., pp. 201-202, explaining the 
failure of Hopkins. See also Thomas E. Craig to Edwards, Nov. 16 and Dec. 
10, 1812 (Edwards Papers, CHS, printed, Washburne, ed., Edwards Papers, 
CHC, III, 85, 86-90), relative to the same campaign; in the second letter he 
severely criticizes Thomas Forsyth. 

" See Edwards to the Secretary of War, Nov. 18, 1812 (Edwards, Hist. III., pp. 
69-72), embodying a full account of the expedition. In a second letter to id., 
Dec. 25, 1812, ibid., pp. 343-345, Edwards defends his conduct against Harrison's 
charges of incompetence. 



270 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD,SWDF:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Illinois Ty. Nov^ 8. 1812 
Sir I have the honor to enclose an address from the legislature 
of this territory to the President of the United States ^° — ■ 
I have the honor to be Very respectfully, Sir Y' Mo Obd' S* 

NiNiAN Edwards 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia Nov 8 1812 Gov N Edwards transmits an 
address of the Legislature to the President. Rec" Jan'' 1. 1812 



COMMISSION OF GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[NA: SD, Misc. Perm. Comms., D:C1 

[November 20, 1812] 
James Madison, President of the United States of America, 
To all who shall see these presents, Greeting: 

Know Ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the Pa- 
triotism, Integrity and Abilities of Ninian Edwards, of Kentucky, 
I have nominated, and by and with the advice and Consent of the 
Senate do appoint him Governor in and Over the Illinois Territory; 
and do authorize and empower him to execute and fulfil the duties 
of that office according to Law;*" and to Have and to Hold the said 
Office, with all the powers, privileges and Emoluments to the same 
of right appertaining for the term of three years from the day of the 
date hereof, unless the President of the United States for the time 
being should be pleased sooner to revoke and determine this 
Commission. 

In Testimony whereof, I have caused these Letters to be made 

patent, and the Seal of the United States to be hereunto affixed. 

Given under my hand at the City of Washington the Twen- 

L.S. tieth day of November a.d. 1812; and of the Independence 

of the U States of America, the Thirty Seventh. 

James Madison 
By the President 
Jas Monroe Secy of State 

" Not present. 

*> Nominated Nov. 13 and confirmed Nov. 18, 1812 (Senate Exee. Journal, 
II, 303, 305). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 271 

PETITION TO CONGRESS BY THE TERRITORIAL 
LEGISLATURE 

[NA:WD,SWDF:DS] 

Illinois Territory 30'" November 1812 
We the Legislative Council and House of Representatives of Said 
Territorj' — 

Beg leave to Represent — 

That the firm and Unavoidable Policy that dictated the offensive 
measures against our oppressors (Great Britain) has Subjected our 
frontier to the murderous Tomahawk of a host of the most inhuman 
and ferocious of enemies. A War with a Savage foe is too alarming, 
and awful to be long sustained by a people thinly scattered over so 
Vast a frontier Settlement as ours without a great sacrifice of life 
and property. The alarm of Indian War is indiscribably distressing 
to a people Circumstanced as are the people of this Territory and 
joined to which, our Country is now the Seat of Indian War — 

Being Influenced by the foregoing considerations we take the Lib- 
erty of Recommending that you Represent our Situation to the General 
Government, and Request (the natural guardians of our Safety and 
prosperity) that measures be speedily adopted, which will have for 
their object, the Subjugation or total extermination of those faithless 
Sons of the forest— 

The Commander in Chief of this Territory (Gov"' Edwards) with 
the limited means he Possessed has so far been Successful in preserving 
the lives of our frontier Citizens, that by a well timed and forced march, 
he had the Good fortune to obtain a brilliant Victory over a consider- 
able part of the Kikapoos. Potowatamees and Miamies. at their own 
town on Peoria Lake, But it is to be feared, that the Patriotic Spirit 
which Stimulated many Voluntarily to join his Standard will not 
again perhaps manifest itself, without some positive assurance of a 
corresponding remuniration for the Sacrifice and peril incident to a 
Soldiers life — nor can any effective Operations be carried on without 
an Organised body of mounted Troops habituated to the Indian 
mode of warfare. Acquainted with their IManners and their country, 
and determined on Success. Such men to the number of four com- 
panies could (if sufficient inducement was held out) we are persuaded, 
be raised in our Country By IMajor John Moredock, a Citizen of our 
Territory, who held a Distinguished rank and acted a Meritorious part 
in the late campaign under Governor Edwards, his known Valour and 
fitness for Atchievement of that kind, has gained him the confidence 
of the Bravest and best of our Indian Warriors. With Such men as he 
could Raise in a short time and Officer, it is confidently believed, that 
he could frequently by forced marches and Surprise route out those 



272 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

British blood hounds from their Towns and hunting Camps and 
Compleatly cover our frontier — 

We further presume to observe that those Troops ought to be 
engaged for one year unless sooner discharged. Without pretending 
to dictate, we must observe that a Strong post at Peoria which might 
be erected by those Troops, would Serve (when Garrisoned by two 
Companies of Regulars) as a Rallying point from whence they might 
Occasionally make Incursions into the Indian Towns and hunting 
camps. In the Vicinity of that place, and the Illinois River — 

On Motion Resolved that the foregoing Petition be Signed by the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives and President of the Legisla- 
tive councel and be transmitted to the Governor of this Territory 
Requesting him to forward the Same to our Delegate in Congress to 
be by him laid before the National Legislature— and the President of 
the United States — 

Geo Fisher 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Pierre Menard President of the Council. 

[Endorsed] Petition of the Legislative Council, and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the Illinois Territories. 6'" January, 1813. Ref" to the 
Committee on Military Affairs. 12"" Jan'' 1813. Committee dis- 
charged and ref to the Secretary of War. " Disch ref"" sec War M' 
Bond ref" Military Com 



MEMORIAL TO THE PRESIDENT AND CONGRESS BY 

CITIZENS OF THE TERRITORY 

[NA:SD, ni. Terr. Papers:DS] 

ILINOI Teritory Big Creek Settlement— [December 6, 1812] 
To his Excellency the president, and Congress of the united States 

The Memorial, of the undersigned Citizens of the united States 
Humbly Sheweth — That whereas Many thousands poor Industrious 
Inhabitants, faithful Citizens of the United States, are now Struggling 
under heavy Burthens for the want of a necessary portion of the soil 
of the united States; and whereas many Millions of acres of land, lying 
West of the river Ohio and Mississippi, are unoccupied, and are likely 
to lie so for many Years, unless some provisions are made for the more 
speedy Settlement thereof — you Memorialists solicit that Some More 
favorable measures May be taken, that the poor Industrious people 
may obtain a Sufficient Quantity of land for the support of them and 

*' House Journal, vni, 609, 613. See passage in Edwards to the Secretary of 
War, Dec. 25, 1812 (Edwards, Hist. III., pp. 344-345), containing a criticism of 
the proposal. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 273 

their families to Enable them to enjoy the sweets of liberty and inde- 
pendence and so become useful and loyal Citizens. — Many have hither- 
to been Cruelly oppressed, for want of their equal natural rights: 
many of us. Who fought for Independence, and Sufered every thing 
but death, are now in a State of Indigence, and can not enjoy the 
Common Comforts of life; and the lands for which we have fought, 
are at this time So dear, and money so Scarce that it is Impossible for 
us to purchase (at that rate) a Sufficient Quantity to produce the 
Comforts of life, and enable us to enjoy the realities of Independence, — 

It is impossible for us (without Stooping to the mean paths of 
Intrigue which We Scorn) to remedy ourselves In the present Crisis. 
We humbly Conceive, that the Most grievous Complaints among the 
white people of America have been Occasioned by being Cruelly 
deprived of our original right of Inheritance We Conceive, that every 
free Male Citizen of the united States at 18 years of age and upwards; 
and every female head of a family, ought to be allowed to hold a 
Sufficient Quantity of what is Called Congress Land for their 
Support that no one ought to be allowed to hold more than 200 
acres by Improvement, We humbly Conceive, that if Each Citizen 
aforesaid, was allowed to hold 200 acres of land by Improvement 
at 12}2 Cents pr acre payable In 7 years (without Interest) after 
Settlement, that the taxes arising from them, would Soon produce 
a greater revenue, than disposing of the lands In the present way— 
We also Conceive that being put in possession of freeholds Estates, 
would produce loyalty in each Citizen prevent Rebellions, remove 
animosities. Cement an union, and promote happiness throughout each 
department of the family of the united States We your memorialists 
humbly pray, that this subject May be taken more fully Into Con- 
sideration, be laid before the Senate and Representatives of the 
union, and such Measures taken as Shall be Conducive of the general 
good, Nothing but a compliance with our reasonable requests Can 
emancipate us from Civil Oppression, and raise us to the dignified 
rank of free bom Americans, In hopes of obtaining oiir request, your 
memorialists in duty bound will Ever pray 

December the 6'" Day 1812 

Tho^ Morrow Sn' Jonas Long 

James C Miller William Standley 

Nathan' Turner John Morrow 

Lenard Price Thomas Sumner 

Thomas Rattan Spencer Summer 

John Sumner Dennis Standley 

Abraham Womack Stephen Standly 

Thomas Morrow Jn'' Elisha Hall 

James Hall J' Richard Lee 

John Jorney Steward Claton 

Nathan Story Joseph Plummer 



274 



TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



William Summers 
Joseph Jackson 
Samuel Durry 
Alexander Green 
John Willis 
David Morrow 
James Johnson 
James Morrow Snr 
James Morrow Jnr 
elisha Coulbird 
David Sheely 
Jon Smith 
Benj Walden 
William pitchford 
Abraham Smith 
Amos Chandler 
Daniel Chandler 
Pleasant Rose 
Evans Smith 
Amanuel Madcalf 
Henry Persons 
John Vineyard 
Thompson Haris 
Peter Etter 
James Lee Jnr 
James Lee Snr 
Benjamin Lee 
Joseph Easters 
Chisum Estes 
Daniel Dedrick 
ElsBury Sparks 
Alfred Wood 
Joseph Riley 
Andrew Jackson 
John Morris 
Isom Clay 
John Jackson 
David Tade 
George Jackson 
Ja' M 'Parian 
Ezekel Clay 
Nathaniel Hutson 
Hampton Pankey 
W" Frizell 
Benjamin Browning 
Jeremiah Neel 
Daniel Vineyard 
Joshua Williams 
West Westly 
Samuel Omelveny 



Thomas Morow 
James Russell 
James, D, Russel 
David. B, Russel 
Michl Robison 
Nathan Hearn 
Thomas Boatright 
Stephen Stilly 
John Stilly 
David Stilly 
Randal Casy 
David Self 
Gabrial greathouse 
William Andrew 
David Pusley 
Pleasent Rose 
John Robison 
Jacob Andrewson 
William Morris 
Richard Bennet 
James Lee, Jun 
William Panky 
Da\id Morris 
Erven Morris 
Colemon Hooe 
Nathan P campell 
William Jackson 
James Wilson 
Benoney Lee 
Joseph Estrech " 
Isaac Pyle 
James Lee senr 
John King 

Elleksander Parkenson 
Wiley hutson 
Benjamin Sparks 
James Wilson 
Willim Wilson 
Straingman Modglin 
ASalum Sparks 
Jacob Gross 
Obed Johnson 
John W Womack 
John Stobaugh 
W" Morgan 
David Cooper 
Vance Lusk 
Thomas Wales 
Henry Bateman ** 
Enoch Davis 



" Doubtful reading. 
** Or Boleman. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 275 

Baywell Davis John S. Pattillo 

Nathan Clampet David Taylor 

Thomas Gill George Taylor 

John Vineyard Jacob Self 

Walter M''Coy Nathaniel Armstrong 

Sampson Dunn Larkin Kesterson 

Right Taylor John Tilly 

Nicholas Taylor Peter Hammond 

[Endorsed] Petition of people of the Illinois Territory to the President 
& Congress Dec. 6. 1812 « 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOSEPH POLLARD 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

Dec' 7. 1812 
Mr. Joseph Pollard, Louisville Ky. 

Complaints and such as appear to be well founded, are made 
against the incompetency of your riders and horses on the Kaskaskia 
route, look well to this charge, and to be under the necessity of taking 
this mail out of your hands would be very unpleasant to this office 
and unprofitable to you. 

GGr. 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO GEORGE ROBINSON 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

Dec' 7, 1812 
Geo: Robinson Esq' P. M. Shawanee Town Ind Ter 

I have received yours of Novr 19," if M"' Pollard does forfeit his 
Contract it is probable we may tender you the conveyance of the 
mail to Kaskaskia that is now confided to him — 

GGr 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE PRESIDENT 

[LC: Madison Papers :ALS] 

Kaskaskia Illinois Territory Dec' 9. 1812 
Sir According to the request of the legislature of this territory 
I have the honor to enclose an address from that body to you.''* 
I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y' Mo Obd* S' 

NiNiAN Edwards 
[Addressed] The President of the US 

*' No entry in the Journals of Congress has been seen indicating that the 
memorial was presented. 
« Not found. 

*' Not present. The reference may be to the memorial printed ante, p. 272. 
314574 — 48 19 



276 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JUDGE GRISWOLD 

|PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

Deer 12. 1812 
Hon"'* Stanley Griswold, Kaskaskia II. Ter: 

I am favoured with your letter of Novr 17/' I very much regret 
to leai'n that failures are suffered to take place in the transmission 
of the mail, to guard against such occurrences, I issued two sets of 
circulars one I addressed to the contractors, urging them to a prompt 
and faithful discharge of their duties, the other was addressed to 
Postmasters, requiring them to dispatch expresses, whenever a failure 
or delay takes place, by this time I calculate that one of my circular 
letters has reached M' Arundel,'" and he will then find, that I have 
made it his duty to dispatch expresses, we received intelligence on the 
7"' ins of Pollards negligence and we instantly took measures to put 
him right — 

G Gr 



PETITION TO CONGRESS BY CITIZENS OF THE 
TERRITORY " 

(LC:HF, 12 Cong., 2 sess.tDS] 

[Referred December 16, 1812] 
To the Honorable the Senate & House of Representatives of the United 

States in Congress assembled. 

We your petitioners Citizens and Inhabitants of the Illinois Territory 
respectfully sheweth To your Honorable body, that under the im- 
pression that a Land office would shortly be opened for the sale of 
the Public lands in this Territory we were indued to remove to it 
and have made such improvements as were necessary To carry on 
our respective occupations, depending Entirely on the mercy and 
Equanimity of our Gov^ernment & the Justice of our cause for redress, 
We therefore pray your Honorable body that a Law may pass Giving 
the actual setler the prevalige of entering the Quarter Section of Land 
Includig his impovement paying to the United States the stipulated 
price set on their Lands & in the same way that other Lands that are 
Enterd are paid for and that when a settlement has been made and 
the resident from In ability Does not Enter the Quarter Section on 
which he resides and it shall be sold to the highest bider that the 
purchacer shall be obliged to pay the setler the value of his improve- 
ment and Doo Such other things as to you in your wisdom may seem 
meet and your petitioners as In Duty bound will Ever pray &c 

" Not found. 
" Ante, p. 192. 

•' Enclosed in a covering letter from Governor Edwards to the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, Mar. 30, 1812 (LC, HF). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 



277 



Leonard White 
Ja" Ratcliff 
Tho= Shannon 
Wm West 
Benj" Cummins 
Tho= Robinson 
Geo. Robinson 
John Robinson 
WiUiam Robinson 
Alex"' Robinson 
George Robinson Jun' 
Thompson Harris 
John C Slocum 
Isaac Casey- 
James Ratliff 
Joseph Fisher 
Ritchard Rathff 
Nathaniel Armstrong 
W" Penney 
Jeames Heley 
Hiram Penney 
W" Panky 
John Woods 
Ezekiel Clay 
Richard Stiles 
Wiley hutson 
Wilham Stiles 
Jacob T Swofford 
Lewis Watkins 
John King 
Peter Etter 
Asa Ledbetter 
John Wallace 
James Andrew 
W" Casey 
Edward Haley 
James Fisher 
Rivers Cormack 
Arthur M'^Cree 
Sparling Younge 
Emanuel Madcaft 
Elisha Browning 
Elias Jurdan 
James Gordan 
Aron Neal 
W" Jordan 
David Shelby 
Isaac Shelby 
Wm. Jordon 



Welding Manning 
Ernis Chandler 
Benjamin Talbott 
Bennoney Lee 
Joseph Estes 
Dickeson Garrett 
Chisom " Estes 
James Ford 
W°> Wood 
W° Chisholm 
Bennoney Lee 
David Self 
James Lae 
Manning Rose 
B° Ri Smith 
Georg Ragland 
Thomas Mazes 
Thomas Wilson 
[MS.torn]han Davis 
Edmd Rose 
John morris 
William Mechegee 
Henry Mechegee 
Warner Buck 
Frederick Buck 
John Riche 
Nimrod Talor 
Dennis Clay 
John Mitchell 
W" M-^Coy 
haly Bags 
Joseph Carey 
Isaac Moss 
John Richey 
Enty Richey 
Zekel Macoy 
Walter Macoy . 
Brice banner 
W" Cayton 
Jessie Wadke 
Edward D Prather 
William Whitford 
W-" Daniel 
William Gordon 
Jo° Pumroy 
Humphrey Leach 
William Wheeller 
John Damwood 
John Georg 



»2 See Norton (ed.). III. Census Returns (IHC, xxiv), 250. 



278 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Moris M Rawlings Juvriel Gravlin 

John Choissen " Ezekiel Clay 

Samuel Cermak Mason Harper 

Merril Willis Roger Glass 

William Willis Dudley Glass 

William Ellis Joseph Fisher 

James Morriss Rufus Inman 

John Wilson James CrafTord 

John Robinson David Standlee 

Matt" Thomspon John Wallis 

Ja» M'Farlan W" Ratlif 

Carraway Gates Elisha Ratlif 

Al' ** Wilson David lowry 

Elmo Chaffin A Blair 

John H Cayton Francis Pash 

W" Mekkele John Ratlif 

Henry Kenyon Alen Miller 

William Ellis James Flemming 

William Akers Beja Walden 

James Wright Solomon Redfern 
Jacob Legg 

[Endorsed] Petition of sundry inhabitants of the Inhabitants of the 
Illinois Temtory. 16 Decem' 1812. Ref"* to the Committee on the 
public Lands— 28 Dec' 1812. Report made and bill presented.'* M' 
Bond " ref <• lands 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JAMES RATCLIFFE 

[PO;P.M. Letter Book R] 

December 17, 1812 
James Ratcliffe Esq' P. M, U. S. Saline Ind. Ter; 

I am very much obliged by your communication of Nov"' 20""' and 
measures are taken to correct the negligence of the contractor M' 
Pollard.— 

GGr 



" Doubtful reading. 

>* Home Journal, viii, 580, 597. The report is in LC (HF), and is printed 
A.S.P., Pub. Lands, ii, 751; it was unfavorable to the full extent of the prayer of 
the petitioners. See act approved Feb. 5, 1813 (2 Stat. 797-798). 

»' Shadrach Bond; he was the nephew of the Shadrach Bond who figured promi- 
nently in the Illinois Country during the Northwest Territory and Indiana Terri- 
tory periods, and who died in 1812. Authentic biographical sketches of both 
Bonds are offered by Philbrick in Laws Ind. Terr., 1801-1809, pp. ccxlvi-ccxlix. 
Consult also Terr. Papers (N.W.), II and in, and ibid. (Ind.), vil, indexes, under 
"Bond, Shadrach." The present Shadrach Bond was elected as the first terri- 
torial Delegate to Congress from Illinois, Oct. 10, 1812, and continued as such 
until his appointment as receiver of the land office at Kaskaskia, Apr. 27, 1814. 

" Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 279 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO GEORGE ROBINSON 

[PO:P. M. Letter Book R] 

Deer 17, 1812 
George Robinson Esq"' P. M. Shawanee Town, Ind. Ter, 

I wish you whenever the mail fails, On the route leading from 
Hendersonton to Kaskaskia to dispatch an express for or with the 
mail as the case may be, for each trip twenty one dollars or in that 
proportion for any part of the route, the mail to go through in seven 
days, I pray your attention to this business— 

G. Gr. 



PETITION TO CONGRESS BY JAMES BRYAN & COMPANY 
[LC:HF, 12 Cong., 2 sess.: DS] 

[Referred December 18, 1812] 
The Honorable, the Senate & House of Representatives of the U. S. of 

America in Congress assembled. 

Your petitioners, James Bryan & Co. of the Missouri Territory 
having discovered in the Illinois TeiTitory a mine of Antimony, and 
wishing to work the same, humbly pray that you will authorize by 
law, a lease to your petitioners, of three square miles of the land of 
the U. S. including said discovery, for the tenn of ten years, reserving 
to the U. S. such percentage on the proceeds of said mine, in con- 
sideration of said lease, as to them may seem proper: and your 
petitioners, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

James Bryan & Co 

[Endorsed] Petition of James Bryan & Co. of the Illinois territory. 
18. Decem"' 1812. Ref* to the Committee on the Public Lands. 
M^ Bond, ref* lands.^' 



RESOLUTION OF THE TERRITORIAL ASSEMBLY 

[LC:HF, 12 Cong., 2 sess.:E] 

In General Assembly December 22" 1812 
Whereas from the Establishment of a Land Office in this Territory 
several years ago a general opinion prevail'd that the Public Land 
would shortly thereafter be offered for sale whereby the great Majority 
of the Citizens now residing in the Territory were induced to move 
into it and settle themselves hoping that they would have an oppor- 
tunity of purchasing the Land they occupied before they had made 
such ameliorations thereon as would tempt the Competition of avari- 
cious Speculators in which reasonable expectation they have been 

w House Journal, vin, 583. 



280 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

hitherto disappointed in consequence of the unexampled postpone- 
ment of the sales owing to Causes well understood and which it is 
unnecessary to detail. — And Whereas those good People have made 
valuable and permanent improvements on the Land they thus 
occupied (at the same time that they have serv'd their Country as 
useful orderly Citizens and have risqued their Lives in defending it 
against the barbarous Savages who invaded it) but are now in danger 
of losing the whole value of their Labor by Competition at the sales 
or by the Holders of unlocated Claims being permitted to locate on 
their improvements And Whereas the far greater portion of those 
unlocated Claims are in the hands of a few Individuals who acquired 
them on easy terms and few of whom were to be found among the 
brave Volunteers whose services have lately saved our Country from 
the ravages of a Savage Enemy whilst those Meritorious Settlers 
compos'd the body of those Volunteers And Whereas it is not to be 
supposed that the United States would wish to avail themselves of 
the enhanc'd Value of those Lands from the labor of others And it 
would be manifestedly unjust that it should fall into the hands of 
Speculators or the Holders of unlocated Claims — Therefore be it 
resolv'd by the Legislative Council and House of Representatives that 
our Delegate in Congress be requested to use his best Exertions to 
prevail on Congress to pass a Law authorizing actual Settlers to 
Locate any unlocate<i Claim on their improvements and that each 
and every person holding any unlocated Claims shall be intitled to 
Locate such Claims on unlocated Lands which are in the bounds 
prescrib'd by the Commissioners & within the Settlements and that 
such Location shall join some other Located Lands unless they inter- 
fere with some improvements And whereas by a Law of Congress 
regular Soldiers are allow'd a Quarter Section of Land with Food & 
Clothing and all the necessary Equipments for War exclusive of their 
Wages: it is reasonable & just that the Citizens of our Country who 
furnish their own Equipments and on whose gallantry the safety of 
our Country depends should receive an equivalent Bounty from the 
general Government or if neither of those measures can be obtain'd 
that the said Settlers shall have a right to sue any purchaser or holder 
of unlocated Claims who may purchase or appropriate to himself or 
herself such improvements and recover the value thereof and that the 
Lands so purchas'd or located by such purchaser or holder of an un- 
located Claim shall be held liable for the value of the improvem.ents 
thereon. Resolv'd That this resolution be transmitted to our delegate 
in Congress by the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the 
President of the Council- 
Extract from the Journals of both Houses 

Att: W" C Greenup Clk. H.R 
J. Thomas, C.l.k. L.C. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 281 

[Endorsee?] Resolutions of the legislature of the Illinois territory. 
8 February-, 1813. Ref'^ to the Committee on the public lands.*" 
M'' Bond ref"* lands M' Bond 



KASKASKIA LAND COMIMISSIONERS TO THE SECRETARY 

OF THE TREASURY 

[NA:SF, 12 Cong., 2 sess.:LS «•] 

Commissioners Office Kaskaskia January 4'" 1813. 
Sir, The Commissioners appointed in pursuance of the act of the 
20*" February 1812,'^- for the purpose of enquiring into the validity of 
Claims which were derived from confirmations made or pretended to 
be made by the Governors of the North West and Indiana Territories 
respectively with much trouble and difficulty have performed that 
arduous duty. But before we enter into a detail of the accompanying 
documents, beg leave to obserA-e — That on the 13'" of July last, we 
met at our Office in the Town of Kaskaskia and consulted the law 
under which we have the honor to act; from a view of which it was 
perceived that the Office of agent to the Board was created, who not 
appearing our progress was for sometime impeded and anxiously 
waiting his arrival, but beleiving this Officer had not been appointed 
we determined to proceed to the proposed investigation without his 
aid or assistance — whereupon we came to the resolution to summon a 
number of the most ancient & respectable inhabitants of the several 
villages and settlements and examine them touching the validity of the 
claims before us. From such a course it was perceived the Board 
would be enabled to approve the claims which would be supported by 
that respectable testimony — and such claims as were not thus sup- 
ported should be considered as impeached — But in order that the 
claimants might have an opportunity to adduce further evidence in 
support of such impeached claims, we directed lists " of such impeached 
claims to be made out — apprising the claimants, that the Board would 

"> Uouse Journal, vill, 663. 

" Printed also in A.S.P., Pub. Lands, n, 210. The location of the original is 
offered with a question mark. The text here presented is that of a transcript 
made about 1926, some years antecedent to the removal of the Senate Files to 
the National Archives. The transcript in question bears both a notation indi- 
cating that it was made from the original in SF and also a citation of Parker's 
Calendar of Papers in Washington Archs. relating to the Territories of the U. S. 
(1911), doc. no. 2556, which identifies the document as then located in SF. The 
earlier publication of the same document in the A.S.P., which work was based 
upon papers in SF, means therefore that it has been seen and identified at least 
three times. At the present time, however, the original cannot be located and 
therefore a final check of its com.plete accuracy has been impossible. 

" 2 Stat. 677-678. 

" These lists are filed with the letter [Footnote on the transcript]. 



282 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

receive any testimony, that might he offered until the 25*" of Novembr 
last — and tliis time was afterwards prolonged — and indeed no testi- 
mony that was offered previous to the completion of our Reports has 
been rejected — 

Having premised thus far the Commissioners beg leave to Report — 

N° 1. — Is a list of Claims founded on ancient French Grants, which 
in the opinion of the Commissioners ought to be confirmed." — 

N" 2.1s a special statement of Claims also founded on ancient 
Grants, — confirmed by Governor St Clair, which are submitted to 
the consideration of Congress." 

N° 3. — Is a transcript of Claims, likewise said to be founded on 
ancient Grants — confirmed by the Governors of the North West and 
Indiana Territories, which in the opinion of the Board ought not to 
be confirmed.** 

No" 4. Is a list of Claims founded on Improvement & cultivation, 
which were confirmed by the Governors of the N. West and Indiana 
Territories — and which in the Opinion of the Commissioners ought to 
be confirmed " — 

N" 5. Is a special statement of Claims also founded on improve- 
ment and cultivation ** — 

N° 6. Is the special confirmation of a Claim founded on Improve- 
ment & cultivation — which is derived from a confirmation of a larger 
quantity by Governor S' Clair." 

N" 7. Is a transcript of Claims likewise founded on Improvement 
and Cultivation, confirmed by the Governors of the North West and 
Indiana Territories — but which in the opinion of the Commissioners 
ought not to be confirmed — Although from a view of the testimony 
accompanying this species of Claims it will be perceived that some 
cases have some merit, yet as the Board confined themselves intirely 
to the spirit and meaning of the law governing such Claims, have 
been consequently Rejected by us and submitted to Congress '° — 

N" 8. Contains a list of donations confirmed to those who were heads 
of Families in the Illinois Country (in the year 1783 or 1788) by the 
Governors of the North West & Indiana Territories, And which in the 
opinion of the Commissioners ought to be confirmed " — 

N° 9. Also contains a list of Donations confirmed to the Heirs of 
those persons who were heads of Families in the Illinois (before 1783 
and subsequent to the conquest of the Country in 1778) by the Gov- 

•« Printed, A.S.P., op. cit., pp. 211-212. 

" Printed, ibid., pp. 213-214. 

•• Printed, ibid., pp. 214-217. 

•' Printed, ibid., pp. 217-219. 

«» Printed, ibid., p. 219. 

» Printed, ibid., pp. 219-220. 

" Printed, ibid., pp. 220-226. 

n Printed, ibid., pp. 227-229. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 283 

ernors and which in the opinion of a Majority of [the Commissioners '^] 
ought also to be confirmed " — 

N° 10 & 11. Likewise contains a statement of Donations to those 
persons who were Heads of FamiUes in the Illinois Country in 1783 or 
1788, which were omitted by the late Board under the impression 
that they were Governors confii'mations which have been investi- 
gated by the present, and found to be supported; and which in the 
opinion of the Board ought to be confu'med ^* — 

N° 12. Is a transcript of Donations to the Heads of Families in the 
Illinois Country, which were confirmed by the Governors. — but which 
in the opinion of the Commissioners ought not to be confirmed^From 
a view of the testimony accompanying this class of Claims — it will be 
perceived that some few cases have merit; but as we before observed 
the commissioners in deciding have confined themselves within the 
spii'it and meaning of the Laws governing such claims, therefore have 
consequently rejected them — and submit the same to Congress." 

N° 13. Contains a list of Grants made to those who did militia 
duty in the Illinois Country on the l^' Augt 1790, and which in the 
Opinion of a majority of the Board (for reasons therein assigned) 
ought to be confirmed.'* 

N° 14. A transcript of the same species of claims, which in the 
Opinion of the Board ought not to be confirmed." 

We beg leave Sir, to remark that in our transcript of Improvement 
and Militia Donations we have given no description of their situation 
& boundaries — which we presumed could be of no use either to the 
Government or the Claimants — since most of them have been re- 
surveyed by direction of the surveyor General; which resurveys in 
almost all cases vary the boundaries established by former surveys 
under the authority of the Governors, which we find have generally 
been imperfectly made and the Land vaguely described; and as the 
latter surveys must ultimately Govern, we could see no necessity for 
giving the imperfect description found on our Record. 

By a reference to the lists of rejected claims, transmitted by the 
former Board as well as from a \'iew of our transcripts it will be seen 
that in a number of cases there are adverse claimants, and in some 
Instances three or four persons are found to claim one and the same 
right. — The conveyances too, on which confirmations have been 
obtained from the Governors, have been protested against. But as 
the Board for want of time and the conveyances in many of these cases 

" The transcript bears the notation "omission" at this point; two words are 
supplied from the printed text. 
■3 Printed, ibid., pp. 229-230. 
» Printed, ibid., pp. 229, 230. 
" Printed, ibid., pp. 230-235. 
" Printed, ibid., pp. 235-238. 
" Printed, ibid., pp. 238-239. The original report is in NA (GLO). 



284 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



not being exhibited, the Commissioners were not possessed of Infor- 
mation that would enable them to decide between Individuals. 
They have therefore thought it most adviseable to Report the Claims 
in the names of the confirmees or their assignees as they found them, 
without strictly scrutinizing the validity of the chain of titles, on 
which such confirmations have been grounded. We deem it advisable 
that a Law should be passed reserving the legal or equitable right of 
adverse claimants. All of which is respectfully submitted ^' — 

We have the Honor to be, Sir with high consideration and respect, 
your most Ob' and H""' Ser"" 

Michael Jones 
J"" Caldwell 
Tho' Sloo. 

The Honorable Albert Gallatin Secretary of the Treasury of 
the U. S 



SHADRACH BOND TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
(NA:SD, Applications: ALS) 

Washington City January 5. 1812[3]. 
Sir, I take the liberty to transmit the Enclosed to you, with a 
request that it may be laid before the President of the U. S. 
I am very respectfully yr most ob. Ser' 

Shadrach Bond 
[Addressed] The Hon"'' James Monroe Esq Secretary of State 
Present. 

I Enclosure :LS1 

Alexander Stuart, Shadrach Bond, and E. Hempstead to the President 

Washington City January 5. 1813. 
The Undersigned beg leave most respectfully to State to the Presi- 
dent of the United States: that they Consider Nathaniel Pope Esq' 
Secretary of the Illinois Territory as a Gentleman of the first intelli- 
gence, talents, worth, and integrity. — That the office he now holds 
cannot in our opinion be filled by any one with more ability than by 
him, and that his reappointment to that office will give general Satis- 
faction to the inhabitants of that Territory 

Alex' Stuart 
Shadrach Bond 
E. Hempstead 



" See post, p. 337. See also Jones to the Secretary of the Treasury, Jan. 18, 1813 
(NA, SF, printed, A.S.P., op. ci{., pp. 741-742), enclosing a supplementary state- 
ment of claims not filed with the register within the time limited by law, with a 
recommendation of confirmation. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 285 

[Addressed] His Excellency James Madison President of U. S. 
Present. 

[Endorsed] 5. Jan'' 1813. Mess" Stuart, Bond and Hempstead 
recommend M"' Nathaniel Pope for reappointment as Secretary 
Illinois Territory. 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO WILLIAM ARUNDEL 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

January 6. 1813 
W" Arundel Esq"' Kaskaskia I' T 

I have received yours of December 1": " I am sorry that your 
Post office compensation is not more equal to your services but I 
am governed by the Post Office Law and the Post Office Law points 
out the compensation to Post Masters your services are more arduous 
than most Post Offices & your Official conduct is highly meritorious 
We have no IMaps on hand 

G Gr.^nger 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE PRESIDENT 

[LCrMadison Papers:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Illinois Territory Jany 16. 1813. 

Dear Sir, As no one in this country has been so fortunate as to 
hear from you I am very much inclined to believe our letters have 
miscarried & therefore I trouble you oftener than I otherwise should do. 

The weather is now becoming very moderate and all begin to appre- 
hend much from the predatory incursions of the Indians and their 
allies. Some time ago I wTote you that I had received information 
that Dickson was preparing for a descent upon this country at the 
head of a number of Canadians & Indians from S*^ Joseph &c Yester- 
day I received additional information on the subject which adds to 
the probability of such an event. I have again conversed with Colo 
Menard who assures me that he has no doubt that such an attempt 
will be made — he gets his information from a quarter that I think is 
much to be relied on — indeed I am convinced that there is nearly as 
regular communications between Mackanac & this country as between 
Washington City & it — 

Great quantities of goods have been deposited at Mackinac S' 
Joseph' & I believe at Prairie De Chien — which will enable the british 
to keep up the war between the Indians & us — So long as the British 
war continues, the enemy will not cease to employ the Savages against 
the U. S. and if Upper Canada should be taken by our troops, the 

w Not found. 



286 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

weight of the hostile confederacy must fall upon the Missisippi 
country — The confederacy will last as long as the British can supply 
goods and untill our supplies can substitute those they have been 
accustomed to make — for I lay it down as an undeniable position, that 
British influence is much greater with the savages than ours, & if 
neither of us shall be able to furnish competent supplies their in- 
fluence must of course preponderate and subject us to the continuance 
of a predatory warfare at least — 

If Gen' Harrison succeeds as I hope he will, no doubt it will even- 
tually lead to very beneficial consequences, but prudence requires that 
we should not prematurely anticipate then. British emissaries can keep 
up the hopes of the Indians from whom we have most to apprehend 
and they already have got their supplies. 

Suppose Maiden should be taken, whither will the hostile Indians go? 
Certainly as I have always contended to the country between the 
Missisippi & Lake Michagan — This is not mere conjecture with me, 
for I am in possession of facts which will prove it m^a^ satisfactorily a 
most rational & probable event — Last year Tecumseh with about 12 
Warriors passed on by Fort Wayne to Maiden on his arrival at that 
place he declared himself in favor of the British. Some time after- 
wards the Prophet with about one hundred followers went to Fort 
Wayne, making great professions of friendship &". During the stay 
of the latter Tecumseh dispairing of Maidens being able to hold out 
against us, sent an express to his brother directing him "to send off his 
women & children to the Missisippi country (oiu-s) collect his warriors 
strike a severe blow on the Vincennes settlements and retire to that 
country also where he Tecumseh proposed to meet him The great 
Main Poque «ise proposed to return to the Illinois. The surrender of 
Detroit &" prevented that plan from being executed — Our success in 
that quarter will again renew it — I have other reasons for this opinion 
which I have not time to communicate. The Kickapoos & Miamies 
that I defeated at the head of Peoria Lake run off to Rock river and 
are now with the Sacs a majority of whom I believe to be as hostile as 
any other tribe whatever — Their proximity to us and their numbers 
render them formidable — Too long have we confided in Indian 
professions, the most melancholy consequences have resulted from it. 
& I hope we shall hereafter profit of our experience, for my own part 
I have »o* been deceived as little as any one — -You may rest assured 
that nothing but fear retrains any of them— and with what they w" 
consider a sufliicient support to promise success they would all declare 
against us — the number of those who could attack us conveniently is 
stated in my letter to the Gov of Kentucky a copy of which was trans- 
mitted to the War Department & published in the National 
Intelligencer as well as I remember on the 20"" of Sep' last — 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 287 

Any mistake in the course to be persued in regard to the Sacs will be 
attended with the most disasterous consequences — One half of them 
are acknowledged to be hostile, the other half pretend to be friendly — 
they have been directed to seperate, but this upon the present plan 
will never answer any good purpose — The friendly part are to be 
permitted to approach our frontier whilst the rest are confined to 
their great village three miles above the mouth of Rock river — If any 
depredations are committed, the perpetrators thereof will retire to & 
take shelter with the friendly pail, and it is more than we have a right 
to expect -to suppo se that their conduct will set be so disapproved, that 
the friendly part will not conceal it & afford them protection. If we 
attempt their conduct to carry on an expedition against those who are 
hostile, they will immediately unite with the others — As to myself I 
believe few are friendly some chiefs & old men may be so but neither 
their influence or authority will be sufficient to restrain the others — 
Under these circumstances, The plan I would recommend would be 
either to make the whole responsible for conduct of all, or to bring 
those who may be friendly with their women & children into the interior 
of this country, give them ground to make com & furnish them with 
provisions — this would test their sincaiity, if they refused I w'' attack 
all If they were to accept the proposition, it w"^ be highly advantageous 
by withdrawing so much force from the hostile confederacy, whilst we 
are carrying on war against it — Any other mode of seperating them, or 
discriminating between those who are hostile & those who are friendly — 
will be attended with every advantage to them & every disadvantage 
to us — Surely I may say experience has proved this — They eagh I wish 
you to press this plan, those Indians reside in this territor3% & I could 
effect it — Unless it shall be adopted — what are we to do? The whole of 
the Kickapoos are among them enraged at their defeat & preparing for 
revenge. Are we to remain passive till we receive their meditated 
blow? Are we to let them invade our territory & to be prevented 
from attacking them in their own settlements? And how are we to 
discriminate between them & the Sacs? for the good of this Country 
I beg your attention to this subject, & that you will let us know the 
result as soon as possible— 

We must soon expect desultory attacks at least upon our settle- 
ments — I would advise the employing of a regiment of mounted men 
who should be ready to persue any invaders — and who should be kept 
out constantly in the countiy between us & the enemy. Any other 
species of force they regard not. Witness the number of lives lost in 
Ind" Ty last year while an immense force was in service at Vincennes — 
For defence of the territory I w* not give one reg' of IMounted men 
for ten of infantry, the Indians generally come in detachments to 
their rally points rallying points none of their detachments will ever be 



288 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

too strong for a reg' & by keeping it out it w^ have an opportunity of 
cutting off some and detering others^Upon this plan I have hitherto 
succeeded for two years, and I cannot relinquish my predilection for 
it — The Mounted reg' could afford this protection till a campaign c*" 
move and would then be an excellent appendage to it — and in this 
way it would cost the U. S. less to defend the country than any other — 

I would also employ several armed boats at the mouth of the 
Ouisconsing and in the Illinois river those would probably be suffi- 
cient to prevent the enemy from coming down upon us by water or if 
not they could give us timely notice of their approach. This mode 
transporting themselves they always have and always will prefer in 
this country — fifst it is more expeditious & convenient & it is less 
hazardous than coming in a body thro a country the most of which is 
Praire; where indians never will fight from choice & in which they will 
always be afraid of being surprized so long as they feel the influence of 
fixed habits — 

These I w" adopt as precautionary measures — & I would prepare as 
speedily as possible for a campaigne march to Peoria build a fort, 
thence to the mouth of Rock river, build another fort there and thence 
to the Ouisconsing & erect another there — we should by this means 
completely occupy all the avenues from the lakes into the Missippi 
except one which would be too circuitous to be profitable to the enemy 
or dangerous to us — And we should also have excellent positions to 
command a permanent influence over the indians — that w" be useful! 
to us at all times hereafter. We should have hard fighting to accom- 
plish these objects but peace is not to be obtained without it. The 
advantage of this line of march cannot be fully understood without a 
correct knowledge of the geography of this country— the roads would 
be fine, and the Illinois & Missippi would furnish great facilities in 
making supplies for the army on its march— The three points I have 
recommended to be thus occupied are nearly in a direct line from this 
place — the rout by land to Praire de Chien is thro Peoria — the French 
inhabitants formerly drove their cattle to the former place upon that 
road and Majr LeCont whom you well know among the rest — 

A sufficient portion of mounted men should at all times be used on 
any campaigne because otherwise the indians knowing that they 
cannot be persued will be constantly making attacks on the army 
when it reaches their own country"'— 

I have began to prepare for sending out one company in an armed 
boat under the Command of Francis Menard, who is I think better 
qualified for that service than any other man in this country— I would 
thank you to shew these hasty remarks to M' Hempstead — I have just 
heard of a private conveyance & have written in a great hurry— 

"• Howard to the Secretary of War, Jan. 10, 1813 {Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., Xiv). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 289 

Armed boats on our rivers would be as useful e» eiw rivcraj as ships 

upon the lakes. 
In haste Y' friend 

N Edwards 

The pay of men engaged in the boat service ought to be higher than 
that of mihtia'" — 

[Endorsed] Edwards, ninian 



SHADRACH BOND " AND EDWARD HEMPSTEAD «^ TO THE 
SECRETARY OF WAR 

INA:WD, SWDFrLS] 

Washington City January 18. 1813. 
Sir We enclose for your consideration the remarks touching the 
present situation of the Frontiers of the Missouri & Illinois Territories, 
which our leisure has permitted us to make — We shall be happy to 
learn the result of the deliberations on this subject. 
We have the honor to be very respectfully Y"' Ob' Ser" 

Shadrach Bond — 
E. Hempstead. 

P.S. For the satisfaction of our constituents, it is intended to make 
known to them, the plan submitted for their protection, unless it is 
deemed improper. — 

The Hon' The Secretary of War 

[Endorsed] Washington City Jan'' 18. 1813 Hon M"- S. Bond & M' 
E. Hempstead transmits a detailed account of the frontiers of Illinois 
& Missouri, advice on active campaign against the Indians — a Brigade 
of Mounted Riflemen to be raised. Forts to be established — pro- 
vision to be deposited, Chicago & Macinac to be retaken, Indians 
pursued vigorously &c. Rec" Jan^ 19. 1813 

[Enclosure:DS] 

Shadrach Bond and Edward Hempstead to the Secretary of War 

[January 18, 1813] 
The undersigned beg leave most respectfully to lay before the 
Honorable the Secretary of War, the following observations and re- 
marks, touching the present situation of the Illinois and Missouri 
Territories. — They connect the Statement concerning the Two terri- 

"> In the margin, in Edwards's hand. 

91 Delegate in Congress from Illinois Territory. 

^ Delegate in Congress from Missouri Territory. 



290 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

tories, under the Idea as they are only Separated by the Mississippi 
River, the danger is common to both & that the defence of the Fron- 
tiers of both, can form but one plan, hardly susceptible of division. — 
More especially when it is considered that those great Water courses 
the Mississippi, & Illinois Rivers (on the Missouri River the Indians 
are friendly) and their tributary streams is the common highway on 
which they have passed almost without notice, certainly without 
interruption to the frontiers and fallen upon their defenceless victims. — 

Every appearance, and every fact, unite to establish the beleif, 
that the Savage War will be prosecuted with more vigor, in that quar- 
ter the ensuing spring, than heretofore. — The Success of the Army 
under Gen' Harrison at Detroit, which every friend to his Country 
most devoutly wishes, and reasonably calculates upon, instead of 
averting danger from the frontiers of Missouri & Illinois will most prob- 
ably concentrate the Indian forces and cause those frontiers to be 
attacked. — While the British will keep a watchful eye on the move- 
ments of Gen' Harrison's army, it is not presumable that the Indians 
force would be very serviceable in that quarter opposed to so large 
an Army. And any attempt to regain the possession of Detroit after 
Gen' Harrison had once taken it, it is beleived would be unavailing — . 
The Indians then must be kept in action, and (kept) in the same hostile 
disposition towards the United States. — and some active and vigorous 
attack on some other quarter would more probably be made — There 
could be no immediate prospect of destroying any Settlements and 
waging successful War against any other than the Frontiers of the 
Missouri & Illinois Territories, because they are the most easy of 
access by descending the Rivers, and have no means of defence — The 
more remote settlements would fall an easy prey, and even the great 
Towns could not withstand the Indian attack. — Prairie du Chien 
and Paoria being both in the possession of the British & Indians aflford 
protection to, and are places of rendezvous for the discontented, the 
daring and the con-upt of all tribes — This Hostile, unfriendly Spirit 
is no doubt kept alive by the British Traders, in that quarter, many of 
whom are active intelligent men, as well acquainted with the situa- 
tion — defensive force, and alarm in the Country for its safety, as any 
of the inhabitants— and whose great and resistless influence among 
the Indians, can direct the Murderous Aim & Savage Yell to any 
particular point— The Success of Robert Dickson in the taking of 
Michilimackinac is a most disastrous, but conclusive proof of this. — 
and it is believed that there are many of the same hostile disposition, 
and not much his inferiors in point of talents on our borders. — 

The Country is unable to protect itself against all the bands of Hostile 
Indians (to say nothing of those who hardly profess to be friendly) 
who infest it on every side, and all classes without exception unite in 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 291 



the apprehension of common danger, and the great necessity of asking 
from Government effectual protection — Many have ab-eady aban- 
doned the only Spot of ground they claim in the world — others in 
squads of four, six or eight families build block Houses for their com- 
mon protection, and constantly reside in them. — These cannot raise 
crops sufficient for the sustenance of their families, and must conse- 
quently suffer considerably — and would willingly embrace the first 
favorably opportunitj^ to abandon a Rich Soil & healthy climate, 
where danger was apprehended and no means of warding it oft", for 
poorer lands & a more unhealthj^ climate, where the Savage foe would 
not alarm them: and it is a melancholy fact that unless early and 
efffcienc aid is afforded to those most exposed frontiers — Famine or 
the Tomahawk will most inevitably depopulate a great portion if not 
the whole of it — And the reason is, that most of the Settlers live by 
agriculture, and few v/ithout labouring themselves. This labor is 
necessary to give bread to their Children, and if in the Spring, they 
are obliged to march against their Savage Invaders, or keep on the 
frontiers in bodies to ward off danger from the Inhabitants — few or 
no crops will be raised and distress and famine will complete the sad 
list of Calamities. — 

The last Season the most danger was threatened and existed after 
the Crops were planted, and the prudent calls of the Executives of 
those Territories while it preserved the Country from a General attack 
& afforded competent protection for the time, fell lightly on the 
Volunteers among whom the duties were divided; and they the more 
cheerfully performed a tour of thirty days duty, and often more, 
when it was known that at the completion of their time other patriotic 
men would take their places and that they might then return to their 
usual occupations. The sacrifice though great with some, was equally 
borne by the volunteers, and was most cheerfully submitted to at 
that dangerous period. But if they are obliged to take the field and 
perform actual Service in planting time, the consequent sufferings of 
the gi'eatest portion of the people is not easily imagined, and would 
be most painful to enumerate. 

The Undersigned profess no skill in Military IMatters, but with the 
past sufferings and future dangers of those they have the Honor to 
represent they are deeply impressed. — and perhaps the deep interest 
they feel on these subjects, will plead their apologj' for submitting 
plans, which others are more capable of forming.— 

The War in that quarter ought not to be merely defensive— 
Without offensive operations the frontiers will always be at the mercy 
of those faithless Savages, who while arrayed in hostility against us, 
ought to be entirely conquered or forced to submission — The bare 
burning of an Indian Village, may cause some momentary privation 



292 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

and distress, but in the neighbourhood of the settlements, Revenge 
meets with some barbarous gratifications & plunder soon supplies the 
loss— The destruction of the Savage Hut, is of too little consequence 
to give him much pain, he sleeps as well and as contented under the 
first Tree he comes to — a few hours are sufficient to make another Shell, 
and he retires to better hunting grounds, or revenges the injury he has 
sustained by some wanton act of Cruelty committed upon some 
defenceless family. If the Savage war was prosecuted with Vigor & 
the hostile bands were closely pursued and routed, it is believed that 
these treacherous Sons of the forest, so fatally wielded by the British 
Government and its agents against our peace and happiness would 
soon be taught to feel and fear our arms, and become friendly — 

The force necessary to complete this most desirable object would be 
neither great in number, nor expensive, compared with the magnitude 
of the End to be attained 

Rangers have been thought the most effective species of force for 
those frontiers and have created a kind of confidence in that kind, 
perhaps superior to any other — It is regretted that the raising of more 
companies have not been authorized. And if at this time it could be 
done consistent with the plans and views of the Government, the 
undersigned have no hesitation in declaring their beleif that it would 
have the most beneficial effects — In addition to the four Companies 
of Regular Troop supposed to be there & to the Two companies of 
Rangers, it is supposed that Four Regiments of Mounted Riflemen are 
necessary for those Two Territories — Each Regiment to contain Two 
battalions — each Battalion four Companies, and each Company 
eighty privates — The whole force to be raised for Six Months to furnish 
and equip themselves, and be entitled to the pay of Rangers. — The 
whole to be under the Command of a Brigadier General & field officers 
to be appointed by the President & Senate — The other officers to be 
chosen by the companies respectively and be Commissioned by the 
President — the force to be raised immediately in Kentucky — Missouri 
& Illinois Territories and to be ready to take the field by the Tenth 
day of March next. 

The establishment of a strong fort at Prarie du chien at the Junc- 
tion of the Ouisconsin & Mississippi Rivers, sufficient to hold the 
whole force intended to be raised would from its contiguity to the 
hostile Bands, & being very central as to Indian population at present, 
form the best point for sallying upon the enemy and in addition to 
scouring the country — would keep off the Indians from the frontiers, 
and (in conjunction with the forces proposed to be raised in the plan 
of Col Richard M Johnson of Kentucky if those troops are raised), 
would be sufficiently powerful to retake the Forts at Chicago and 
Michilimackinac, which are of great importance, and give the Com- 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 293 

mand of the lakes to the enemy — Another Fort at Paoria on the 
Illinois River, the Strong fort at Prairie du Chien taken in connexion 
with Fort Mason & Fort Madison each of which could be garrisoned 
by a Company of Regular Troops, would form a line of defence and 
for deposits of provisions arms, ammunition, warlike Stores &c. — 
From these Forts incursions might be safely made into the Indian 
Country be safe places to retreat to when danger pressed upon our 
troops and afford competent protection to both Territories 

Deposits of Pro\isions could be safely made in all of the forts— 
which might prevent some of the misfortunes which happened to 
the Kentucky volunteers in Indiana in that respect — Scouting parties 
might be constantly out driving the enemy in every direction, and 
never be very distant from some one of the Forts — It is understood 
and believed that Governor's Howard and Edwards, and General 
Clarke, are anxious to be actively employed in such an expedition. — 
and would no doubt with their Knowledge of the Indian Country, 
of the Indian force, and of their mode of Warfare carry on the cam- 
paign with energy and Success. — 

In addition to this force, it is proposed to have three Bullet proof 
boats prepared to prevent any descent upon the frontiers by Water, 
(which was attempted the last season and the attempt frustrated by 
one boat of this kind) — Each boat to have one four or six pounder, 
six or eight Blunderbusses and manned with forty men armed with 
Guns & Bayonets. One to be stationed in the Illinois River, another 
in the Mississippi, another in the Missouri — These boats thus pre- 
pared would not be a great expence, and while they would most effec- 
tually prevent an attack by Water, would at the same time if occasion 
required serve to convoy Pro\isions &c to the Forts. — • 

These desultory hints (some of which have been communicated 
to one of us by Governor Howard) ai'e with great deference submitted, 
under the full beleif that this plan (with that of Col Johnston's) if 
caiTied into execution will be productive of the most salutary effects 
not only to those Territories, but to the United States. 

Any verbal communications or explanations on the subject will 
be most cheerfully given, and whether foregoing Ideas meet the Sanc- 
tion of the Government, or not, they most earnestly recommend that 
prompt and efficient measures may be adopted to afford immediate 
protection to those most exposed and defenceless frontiers — 

Shadrach Bond — 
Edw Hempstead 

Washington City January IS'" 1813. 

The Honorable The Secretary of War 



294 TERRITORIAL FAPERS 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO SAMUEL HAMMOND 
(PO:P.M. Letter Book R] 

January 23, 1813 
Col. S. Hammon, St Louis Missouri T" — 

I have received yours of the 23" of Deer ^ the failures which have 
taken place in the mail which passes between Hendersonville K'' & 
Kaskaskia 111 Ter. have been the subject of well founded complaint, 
and have caused great mortification at this office, appreciating the 
great importance of the mail on that line, and with a view to its strict 
regularity, we confided its conveyance to a person who had evidenced 
to a determination to punctually fulfil contracts with this office in 
V* but the person who was rigidly punctual as a carrier or mail con- 
tractor for a number of years in V* has been most shamefully remiss 
in his duty, in the western country his conduct is wholly inexplicable 
to us, We have we believe prevented the recurrence of the evil — 

GG 



WILLIAM RUSSELL TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALSI 

Mount Brilliant, Lexington Ky, Jan^ ye 24"" 1813. 
Sir, Once more I feel compeled to trouble you with a few remarks, 
which I deem my duty. I have traveled over the greater part of the 
Indiana, and the Illinois Territorj'e,s, thus have I been actively em- 
ployed in the discharge of my duty. I find from the most mature re- 
flection as to the saveges in that quarter, it is very difficult to do much 
with them, they are combined in such strength, and these combi- 
nations at so great a distance from our settlements, it is very difficult 
to surprise them and this can only be effected by dysultory attacks or 
a large body of troops to March into the heart of their country, there 
make a stand, with the main body, and send out from this Army, 
bodye's of mounted Corps under Active officers, to push them and 
their women and children hard, then they would be compeled to fight 
us in detail, and it is then they are to suffer. They have already I 
think made choice of their moad of warfare, that is to cut of small 
parties, and to attack on such ground as our troops cannot for their 
own safety opperate for some time — should the government prefer an 
army It is easy to point out the spots of deposit, where pro\'ision could 
be deposited for their reception; and that can be done by the way of 
Illinois or Mississippia river.s. The main body of the Indians appear 
to reside between the Illinois and the Wisconsin rivers, and ti's 
probable with me they will all leave the Wabash, and cross over the 

a Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 295 



Illinois and plant their com this Spring. Should dysultory attacks 
be the choice of government I would recommend an efficient body of 
Mounted rangers to attack one point, and the next time they should be 
herd from, should be entirely, a different rout; this I could have effected 
in several instances this Summer could I had the power to have kept 
them embodyed at one place, and also had an order for so doing — ■ 

I have seen Sir Gov" Edwarde's report directed to your office;^* it 
is not entirely satisfactory to my feelings but shall make but few 
coments on it. I ask you Sir how you are to know how Cap' B. White- 
sides company have been employed this season by his report, he 
states, all the men on the expedition, fifty rangers excepted that came 
on with me from Vincennes were raised in his Territory, this is true 
for Whitsidese's company were certainly raised there, and by your 
order placed under my immediate command, he also makes no mention 
of the company of Regulars under the command of Lieu' Ramsey, 
who has been there this Summer;'^ he in his detail prior to our expedi- 
tion when rangers were kept out on the frontier makes no mention 
of my haveing taken two companys of rangers on his frontier selecting 
a spot for the encampment, keeping out ranging parties, and also 
drilling his militia at said camp, by his perticular request, untill 
ordered away by Gen' Harrison — This I should not have troubled 
you vnth. had the Gov'' done the Government that Justice, for their 
troops they deserved As I hope Sir I shall never have to resort to 
publications to boalster myself up, and if my Acts as an officer will 
not do that, let me fall — After writing to the Governor I had formed 
such a plan for the expedition to the Peoria Town, I went on, and did 
for the Service of my Country accept of a Subbordinate Command, 
when my command was as independant of him, as his was of me — 

I have the honor to be with high respect your obd' Serv' 

W Russell 
Col° 7'" Commandant 

[Addressed] The honorable William Eustis Esq' 



" Referring to Edwards to the Secretary of War, Nov. IS, 1812 (Edwards, 
Hisl. III., pp. 69-72). The original appears to have disappeared; it is, however, 
calendared in NA (WD, SW, Lets. Reed., Bk. 7). No copy is found in the 
Edwards Papers (CHS). See also Edwards's address to the St. Clair County 
militia, Nov. 10, 1812 (Edwards, op. cil., pp. 73-76), relative to their part in the 
Peoria campaign in which the same ground is covered as in the report mentioned. 
In an extract of a letter to Shelby, of Kentucky, dated Dec. 20, 1812, ibid., p. 77, 
Edwards refers to an attempt to deprive him of credit for leadership in the expedi- 
tion referred to, and calls attention to his constitutional duties as commander-in- 
chief of the militia of the Territory. 

"See Ramsey to the Secretary of War, Feb. 17, 1813 (NA, WD, SWDF), in 
which complaint is made of the improper treatment with respect to supplies of 
regulars at Camp Russell. 



296 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



[Endorsed] Lexington Jan» 4". 1813 Col W. Russell States the best 
plan of operating against the Indians — To march an army in their 
country and send out detachments. Complains of the injustice done 
him in Gov Edwards report. Does not intend however to bolster up 
his character with publications Rec" Feb. 10. 1813 "' 



A RESOLUTION OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 
[LC:HF, 13 Cong., 2 sess.:DS] 

[Referred January 25, 1813] 
Whereas the Sales of Public Land will ere long be directed by the 
President of the United States and whereas the Legislature of this 
Territory will avail itself of its Legitimate right of Taxing all Land 
sold unless a composition is entered into by this Territory and the 
United States relative thereto and which in time will place the People 
of the Illinois Territory on a similar footing with the People of their 
sister Territory (now the state of Ohio) By the Act of Congress of the 
30'" of April 1802 *' it will be seen that propositions were made to the 
People of the State of Ohio which induced the Convention to wave 
the right of the State to Tax any Land sold by the United States for 
Five Years from and after the Day of Sale on condition (among others) 
That one Township of Land including the Saline on the Scioto and 
Two Sections including the Saline on the Muskingum should be con- 
vey'd to & become the Property of the state And whereas this Territory 
has and will have similar equivalents to offer to the Genera! Govern- 
ment for the Fee of One Township including the Saline on the Saline 
Creek in this Territory Therefore be it resolv'd by the Legislative 
Council and House of Representatives that the Legislature of this 
Territory in behalf of the People of the said Territory will on their 
part conform to and be bound by propositions similar to those contain'd 
in the aforesaid Act and which said propositions when acceded to 
shall be taken & held as a Compact irrevokable between the United 
States and this Territory *° Resolved that our Delegate in Congress be 
requested to procure a Resolution declaratory of the intention of 
Congress on this Subject and that he use his best Exertions to obtain 
concessions similar in all respects to those contain'd in the Act of 

*• An error. The letter's date is Jan. 24. 

*' Reply not found. 

" 2 Stat. 179-180. 

«• See report of House Committee, Mar. 2, 1813 (A.S.P., Puh. Lands, U, 740), 
denying the prayer of this resolution, on the ground that a compact could not 
with propriety be entered into with a territorial government. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 297 

Congress above mentioned Resolv'd that our said Delegate endeavour 
to procure instructions from the Secretary of the Treasury authorising 
the designation of the Colledge Township reserv'd to the People of this 
Territory by the ordinance and Act of One Thousand Eight hundred 
& four."" And Whereas Labor in this Territory is abundant and 
Laborors at this time extremely scarce so much so that the Lessees 
and others engaged in making Salt at the Saline near Shawney Town 
cannot progress only on a small scale Resolved therefore that our Dele- 
gate be requested to use his Exertions to procure a Law authorising 
the introduction of Negroes into the reserv'd Tract call'd the Saline 
on the Saline Creek from Kentucky or elsewhere to be employ'd within 
the said Tract for any term not exceeding three Years at the expiration 
of which term the Master or Employer of any such Negro or Negroes 
shall be at Liberty to reconduct the said Slave or Slaves to any state 
or Territory where Slavery is tolerated any Act to the Contrary in 
any wise notwithstanding and that if the foregoing requests are not 
granted Be it resolved that our Delegate in Congress be urged to use 
every possible exertion to obtain an appropriation by the General 
Government for opening a Road from Shawnej^ Town on the Ohio 
to the Saline and from thence direct to Kaskaskia and that some suit- 
able person be appointed to superintend the opening of said Road — 
Resolv'd that the foregoing Memorial and resolutions be sign'd by the 
President of the Legislative Council & the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives and transmitted by them to our Delegate in Con- 
gress — 

Geo Fisher 
Speaker of the House of Representatives 
Pierre Menard 
President of The Council 

[Endorsed] Resolutions of the Legislative Council and House of 
Representatives of the Illinois territory. 25*'' Jan'' 1813. The three 
first resolutions ref* to the Committee on the public lands, and the 
remaining two relative to the introduction of negroes in said territory 
to a select Com" of Mr. Bond, Mr. Hawes, Mr. Butler, Mr. Desha & 
Mr. Metcalf." 14 June, 1813. Ref to Mr. Bond, Mr. Alexander 
Mr. Duval Mr. Brackenridge Mr. Tannehill 20 December 1813 
Ref to M'' Bond, M"" Alexander & M'' Montgomery ^'—W Bond to 
Select. 3. 



»" Sec. 5, act approved Mar. 26, 1804 (Terr. Papers, Ind., VII, 178). 
" House Journal, vill, 634. 
« Ibid., IX, 31, 178. 



298 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

EDWARD HEMPSTEAD AND SHADRACH BOND TO THE 

SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:LS"1 

Washington City January 26. 1813. 
Sir Agreeably to your request, we yesterday called at the War 
Office, to learn the result of our late application for the protection of 
the Missouri & Illinois Territories, and were told you was engaged. 
We are extremely anxious on this subject, and would be happy to 
know if any thing has been determined upon.'* 
We have the honor to be very respectfully Sir Yr ob Ser 

E. Hempstead 
Shadrach Bond 
The Hon. The Secretary of War 

[Endorsed] Wash. Jan^ 26. 1813 Hon M' Hemstead & M' Bond 
wish to be informed if any determination has yet been made on the 
proposal to attack the Indians Rec* Jan^ 28. 1813 



JUDGE STUART TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

1NA:SD, Applications :ALS1 

Staunton, Feh^ 13'" 1813 
D' Sir — In consequence of the misfortunes of a brother, sister, & 
my wifes sister, my annual expences will be so increased as to become 
very embarrassing if I continue to reside in this Country. When I 
saw you in Washington the first time I thought my wifes sister & 
daughter entirely independent in consequence of the death of her 
brother; but his estate is most probably insolvent & their support 
therefore devolves entirely upon me— You will pardon me for troubling 
you with this statement; I felt constrained to make it in order to 
account for my apparent fickleness; having determined upon the most 
mature reflection to settle myself in the Missouri Territory provided I 
can obtain an appointment in the Judiciarj^ there — Inclosed you 
will receive an address from the bar composed principally of Lawj'ers 
from the western side of the river; " also an open letter from M' 
Bates the Secretary of the Missoiu-i Territory' to his mother which I 
have not yet had an opportunity of delivering, & being open I pre- 
sume may be shewn without any impropriety — I will also add that I 
have been solicited at different times by many of the officers of that 
Government & some of the most respectable Citizens to apply for an 



" In Hempstead's hand. 

M See Bond to Edwards, Feb. 7, Feb. 13, and Feb. 25, 1813 (Edwards Papers, 
CHS, printed, Washburne, ed., Edwards Papers, CHC, ni, 93-98), relative to the 
results of the joint application of Hempstead and Bond. 

" Not present, but probably the document printed ante, p. 217. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 299 

appointment upon their bench — If I go to Missouri I can take my 
Slaves with me, & I trust will be able to find a situation that will prove 
healthy — If M' Madison should not nominate me to the senate I 
will thank you not to mention the rec' of this letter to any one, the 
delegates from Illinois & Missouri excepted whom I feell assured will 
promote my views if they do not stand committed — I refer you to 
Gov'' Howard if he is in Washington Be so good as to return me the 
inclosed papers when convenient. I shall leave Staunton for Illinois 
on m.onday next — Inclosed is a conditional resignation of my judicial 
appointment in & over the Illinois Territory 
I am your sincere friend 

Alex"' Stuart 

If the Government should stand committed at all, & feel disposed 
to do me a favor; perhaps the successful applicant might prefer my 
situation where the office is held during good behavior to an appoint- 
ment in the Missouri Territory Alex"' Stuart 

The Ho"'" Ja^ Monroe 

[Addressed] The Hon"' James Monroe Secretary of State Washing- 
ton. Mail [Postmarked] Staunton Va Feb 16 Free [Readdressed] 
For the President 

[Endorsed] Alex"' Stuart, Staunton, February 13. 1813. Applies 
for a judicial appointment in the Missouri Territory; and, with a 
friendly valediction from the lawyers of Cahokia, encloses a conditional 
resignation of his judgeship in the Illinois; together with a letter from 
M' Bates, place filled 

[Enclosure :ALS1 
Judge Stuart to the [Secretary of State] 

[February 13, 1813] 
If I should be appointed a judge of the Missouri Territory by the 
President & Senate of the United States; I do in that event tender this 
as my resignation of the office I now hold of Judge in & over the Illinois 
Territory to take effect from the time of such appointment 

Alex' Stuart 
Feb^ 13*" 1813. 

[Endorsed] 1813 Alexander Stuart 

[Enclosure: ALSl 

Frederick W. Bates to Mrs. Caroline M. Bates 

S' Louis April 26. 1812 
My Dear Mother, Judge Stewart of the Illinois territory being 
about to return to Richmond, has been so friendly as to promise that 
he will call on you. I beg that you will receive him with every atten- 
tion in your power. 



300 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

No individual honored with the President's confidence in the 
western country has deser\-ed it better than Judge Stewart. His 
intelligent and upright discharge of the high duties entrusted to him, 
equally with his personal worth, has endeared him to all descriptions 
of people. His departure is looked forward to, with regret- 
He will tell you my situation in this country, better than I can 
write it. — 

I am, my dear & honored Mother, Your ever affectionate 

Frederick Woodson Bates 
Mrs Caroline M. Bates. — 

[Addressed\ Mrs Caroline Matilda Bates 2 miles above Goochland 
C House on James River Virginia 



A BILL CONCERNING SALT SPRINGS 

[NA:SF, 12 Cong., 2 ses8.:Printed] 
XXXVIII. 

In Senate of the United States. February 26th, 1813. 

Agreeably to notice, Mr. Bibb asked and obtained leave to bring in 
the following bill. 
A BILL Concerning the salt springs on the waters of the Wabash river 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled. That for the purpose of sup- 
porting and extending the establishments of salt works at the springs 
near the Wabash river, in the Illinois territory, leased under the 
direction of the President of the United States, it shall and may be 
lawful for the lessee or lessees, their heirs, executors, administrators, 
or assigns, to introduce and employ, within the boundaries of the lease, 
persons held to service or labor under the laws of any state, any ordi- 
nance or act of Congress for the government of said territory to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

[Endorsed] 12 Cong. 2 Sess. S A Bill Concerning the Salt Springs 
on the Wabash river. February 26 Read & to 2" Read* 27 2" Read 
Mar 1 1 Mon June'" 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Elvirade Randolph County Illinois Territory Feb^ 28. 1813 
Sir I have the honor to enclose you a tender of Service to the 
President of the United States by Cap'" Short his officer, and a com- 
pany that he has raised in a few days— this and the other companies 

«' Antials, 12 Cong., 2 sess., 109, 110, 112. No further action is noted. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 301 

whose services have been tendered are ordered into service by myself 
for the present defence of this territoiy. It is impossible to defend so 
exposed and extensive a frontier with any other species of force. And 
if this kind is to be employed experience I can assure you has proved 
that it is best to raise them in the territory, as those who are sent from 
other parts, cannot as easily supply themselves, either with horses 
whenever one fails or dies or anything else — not having the same 
resomxes or credit here. 

I can very conscientiously recommend Capt" Short & M^ Joumy his 
first Lieut, as valuable and well tried officers — the other subalterns 
are highly recommended to me — Cap* Short is a member of our Legis- 
lature — & Lieut Joumy has been a Maj"' in the Militia a long time — 
was a capt" in my expedition to Peoria, & would do honor to a similar 
appointment in the regular army 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Yr Mo Obd' S' 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Honble Sec^ of War — 

[Addressed] The Honble Secretary of War Washington City Free 

[Endorsed] 111. Territory, Feb. 28, 1813 Gov. N. Edwards incloses 
the offer of Capt Short and his Company for volunteer rangers. Rec" 
March 1813 ^• 

[KnclosureJ 

A list of officers and soldiers tendering their services as a company of 
rangers 

[February 28, 1813] 
We whose names are hereunto subscribed as officers and soldiers 
do hereby tender our servses to the prisident of the united States 
as a Company of rangers or mounted Rifle men to Continue in servis 
twelve munths unless soner discharged '* 

Jacob Short Capt John Woods 

Nathaniel Jurney 1 Liut Jacob wildermon 

Andrew Bankston 2 Do Moses Short 

John Jurney — Ens John fry 

John Brigance 1 Sergt John pixley 

George Michel 2 Do Samuel Lee 

Alexander scott 3 Do Robert Anderson 

James wiet — 4 Do Richard Ackes 

Samuel ware Isaac Clark 

John Retherford Eden posey 

John Short Edmon brigmon 

'' No reply found. On Feb. 10, 1813, Edwards also enclosed to the Secretary 
of War the offer of what was probably another company of volunteers; the letter 
is calendared in NA (WD, SW, Lets. Reed., Bk. 7), but the letter itself and its 
enclosure have not been found. 

'" The list is in Captain Short's hand. 



302 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

W" Jumey W" Mekleroy 

John Dunkom jun Daniel Mckinney 

John A Wakefield George fry 

Nicholis Daughter W" Walker 

John Caruthers W'° Burgis 

W" Johnson George wise 

Charles Rivis Henry sely 

Isom Rivis francis Scott 

W™ Edes Jacob Brimlerry 

Alexander Madox Hugh Elexander 

Isaac Darnel John Dunkom senr 

W" More Marshel Hawkins 

Bengemin Cox George Wakefield 

Jacob Kerns Peter wright 

thomas Morris gobert Hues 

Jesse Crownover Vin^-^l^ ^"?" 

Bengemin Chesney Uil Mcneal 

W" Virgin A true Coppy 

John Walker Jacob Short Cap' 



SHADRACH BOND TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
[NA:SD, Applications :ALS] 

Washington City March 2" 1813 
I recommend W° Mears Esq' of Cahokia Illinois Territory as 
aturnney of the united States for said Territory,"' and Phillip Foucke 
Esqr. of Kaskaskia of the aforesaid Territory as Marshal — 

S. Bond — 
The Hon Sec of State 
[Addressed] The Secretary of State [Readdressed] For the President 

[Endorsed] 2 Mar 1813. S. Bond recommends M' Mears as District 
Attorney Illinois — & M' Fouche as Marshal. 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOHN CALDWELL 
(NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 5] 

Treasury Department, General Land oflnice, 6'" March, 1813. 
Sir, Herewith enclosed, you will receive a copy of an act of Con- 
gress, entitled, "An act giving the right of pre-emption in the purchase 
of lands, to certain settlers in the Illinois Territory," ' the provisions 



'• The office of attorney of the United States for each of the territories was 
created by an act approved Feb. 27, 1813 (2 Stat. 806). The same act provided 
for a marshal. 

' Approved Feb. 5, 1813 (2 Stat. 797-798). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 303 

of which are so plain, that it is presumed no observations are requisite 
from me, for your government therein. 
With great respect, &"* 

John Caldwell, Esq'' Receiver public monies, at Kaskaskias, 
Illinois T" 

A similar letter to Michael Jones, register of the Land office, at 
that place. 



COMMISSION OF SECRETARY POPE ^ 
[NA: SD, Misc. Temp. Comms., i:Cj 

[March 7, 1813] 
James Madison, President of the United States of America, 
To all who shall see these presents, Greeting: 

Know Ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the 
Integrity, Diligence and Abilities of Nathaniel Pope, of the Missouri 
Territory, I do appoint him Secretarj^ in and for the Illinois Territory; 
and do authorize and empower him to execute and fulfil the duties of 
that office according to law; and to Have and to Hold the said office, 
with all the powers, privileges and Emoluments to the same of right 
appertaining during the pleasure of the President of the United States 
for the time being, and until the end of the next Session of the Senate 
of the U States, and no longer. 

In Testimony whereof, I have caused these Letters to be 

LS made patent and the Seal of the U States to be hereunto 

affixed. Given under my hand at the City of Washington the 

Seventh day of March a.d. 1813; & of the Independence of the U 

States the Thirty Seventh. 

James Madison 
By the President 
Ja° Monroe Secy of State 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Nothern Frontier of Illinois Territory March 13. 1813 
Sir I have the honor to inform you that I rec" last night (by 
express) information of the murders of a M'' Baltenhouse near the 
little Wabash and of two men by the name of Moore on the waters of 
Muddy river (all of this Ty) by the savages. These & the murders 
I have heretofore communicated together with some other depreda- 
tions, & positive information, will shew I hope satisfactorily not only 

' A recess appointment. 



304 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

the propriety of the measures I have adopted but the absolute neces- 
sity for them. There being as yet none in operation on the part of 
the general government. 

I cannot ascertain the exact number of volunteers that I have 
raised but it is between three and four hundred out of the militia of 
the territory the whole amount of which is about 1500 men ' — Some 
I have ranging on horseback, others are engaged in building fortifica- 
tions and along our most dangerous frontier which is the Nothem 
boundary of all our settlements and extends from the Missisippi to 
the Kaskaskia river, I shall in a very few days have about seventeen 
forts in good order — These measures have so far given confidence to 
the inhabitants, not one of whom talks of removing — But as I know 
of no law that authorises me to employ mounted men (without whom 
I would not pretend to maintain our extensive frontier for one week — ) 
I hope to hear from you as early as possible on the subject — Acting 
without instructions in so critical a conjuncture, besides many other 
embarrassments exposes me to pecuniary responsibilities which taken 
altogether renders my situation very unpleasant — 

I should not have repeated my wishes on this subject, nor should I 
also invite your attention to the claims of the militia of this territory 
to pay for their services were I certain that my former letters would 
reach you - but the uncertainty of the mail rondcr a is so great that it 
cannot be depended on. in this part of the World — I shall continue on 
this frontier as long as my presence may be necessary — 

I beg leave to suggest the propriety of permitting me to raise one 
or two companies under the late law of Congress * for the defence of 
this frontier By fixing such a force in stations at convenient dis- 
tances — the population would increase about them and the frontier 
would soon become the stronger part of tHH* population the ten'itory 
and give stability to our settlements whereas at present if the frontier 
gives ground every part of the population will follow the example and 
this whole territory would thereby fall into the hands of our enemies— 

I have written under every disadvantage — on my knee, in bustle & 
confusion & therefore beg you will excuse whatever you see herein 
amiss 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y' M» Obd' S' 

NiNiAN Edwards 



' See calendared letter of Edwards to the Secretary of War, Mar. 2, 1813 
(NA, WD, SW, Lets. Reed., Bk. 7), reporting that four companies of rangers 
were out in consequence of an imminent Indian attack and asking whether his 
conduct was approved. The letter has not been found. 

* Act approved Feb. 25, 1813 (2 Stat. 804), providing for ten additional com- 
panies of rangers. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 305 

P.S. These Companies who thro me tendered their services to 
the President are now full and they are in Service. Captain James 
Moore whose appointment if compatable wnth the views of the 
President would be very gratifying to this whole Country as well as 
myself has eighty five volunteers — I cannot forbear to recommend to 
you an inquuy into the disposition that has been made of the rangers 
since last fall — & where some of them now are & how they are en- 
gaged — Y" respectfully &c N.E. 

[Addressed] The Hon'ble John Armstrong Secretary of War. 
Washington City [Postmarked] Cahokia 14 March Free 

[Endorsed] 111. T. March 3, 1813 Gov. N. Edwards reports the 
murders lately committed — has in Servdce from 3 to 4,00 volunteers — 
solicits instiTJctions & leave to raise some companies of 12 Months 
men. Rec" April 1813.' 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Nothern Frontier of Illinois Territory near Fort Russel Marc/z 14. 1813 
Sir I have the honor to enclose you some information which I have 
just rec"* Great apprehensions of danger exist in these territories — 
The people of S' Louis & S' Genevieve are fortifying those places — 
Many people are moving from that territory one that I can hear of 
from this — 

My own opinion is that the British have cannon but I have no idea 
that it will ever descend to S' Louis — They m.aj'- bring some of it as 
low as F' Madison — but I am convinced the principle object is to 
fortify Pi'aire du Chien which m.ay become a second Maiden — Whilst 
they are engaged in this object they will press the Indians upon us — 
that they may produce a diversion of our force from that point — and 
if they succeed we will have many difficulties to encounter in conse- 
quence of it — In my letter to the Gov' of Kentuckey of the 20 of 
Aug' last, a copy of which was sent to the war Department ' you can 
see a short account of the different tribes from which a hostile force 
can be raised — 

I am preparing to defend this territorj' against savage warfare 
only — I would strongly recommend bringing the Sauks who are dis- 
posed to be friendly into the interior of our country — If this plan 



' No reply found. 

» Aug. 25, 1812 (NA, WD, SWDF, printed, Edwards, Hist. III., pp. 337-338); 
the enclosure is present with the original, but is not printed. 



306 rERRlTORlAL PAPERS 

is not persued I have no hesitation in predicting that they will to 
a man unite against us ' — 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y' Mo Obd* S' 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Miamies alluded to in the enclosed letter lately resided on the 
Wabash — and I am convinced that the whole of the Wabash Indians 
will remove if they have not already done so to the country between 
Lake Michigan & the Missisippi— they have no other place of 
retreat — N E 

\AddTesBed\ The Hon'ble John Armstrong Secretary of War Wash- 
ington City {Postmarked] Russellville March 29'" Free 

indorsed] Fort Russell March 14 '13 Gov. N. Edwards incloses a 
letter to him, Citizens at S' Louis fortifying themselves — Thinlcs the 
object of the enemy to establish another Maiden at Praire du Chien — 
Rec* April 1813 « 

[Enclosure] 

J. R. Widen to Governor Edwards 

Cahokia March the 10th. 1813. 
Governor. Just at the time Mr Jarrot departed in order to get his 
boat he received two letters addressed to Mr Bolevin who has sent 
them to him so that he might let you know the contents of them 
giving for excuse that he could not write english and less yet trans- 
late Mr. Jarrot having it not in his Power to stop so that he might 
WTite himself because his company was ready for their departure 
begged of me to send you the translation of the two letters, hereafter 
mentioned. One from the Commander of Fort Madison and the other 
from Mr Gates Interpreter at Fort Mason ' as follows — 

Feb'' 27'" 1813. 

At this instant Mr Blondeau (Ind° agent) who has been at this 

place with a number of Sacks, Foxes and Miamies departed for Prairie 

du Chien. as he was too busy he requested me to inform you of the 

Saviges intention. The Sacks of the Village du Blue are always in the 



' See calendared letters from Edwards to the Secretary of War, Feb. 9, Feb. 21, 
and Mar. 8, 1813 (NA, WD, SW, Lets. Reed., Bk. 7), saying that the British 
agent Dickson was organizing the Indians to attack the frontier in the spring 
and repeatedly expressing his fear for the safety of the Territory. The texts of 
the letters cited have not been found. See also Edwards to Howard, Feb. 16, 
1815 (Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., xv). 

• No reply found. 

' On the present site of Hannibal, Mo. For its establishment see Terr. Papers 
(La.-Mo.), XIV. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 307 

same disposition as he informed you some time ago. Those he met 
with here state that a Party of British passed on the ice from the 
Green Bay to the Winding of the Pines (Means Pine turn) in the 
Ouisconsin, and that the Nephew of Mr Frank, is this long while at 
Prairie du Chien and gathers with all speed as many saviges as he can 
He has akeady a great number at his service from various tribes they 
have plundered Mr Bartelotte and Poirier as Americans, that the 
Artilliery waits the melting of the ice in order to descend to the 
Prairie The Puants have lately killed two foxes so the latter are at 
war with the Puants who came and entreated the Sacks to help them 
in this war. but as the inhabitants of the Namirto Village fear the 
British and their allies they reject the proposition of the Foxes and 
we believe them disposed to side with the British as soon as they will 
arive- — among themselves they are veiy much embarrassed, they wish 
the Americans might come the first to them but they say that the 
British are more vigilant than the Americans Mr Frank proposed 
to the young Sioux Chief who arived lately from the United States 
to join the British but he refused with great zeal and Mr Frank 
threatened him — On the Statement of an old Fox. There is appearance 
that a party of Foxes and Sieux are going to give a blow against the 
expedition of Mr Frank, I think we cannot find a better opportunity 
to hinder that expedition if there should only come two or three 
hundred men with the Sacks and Foxes the whole expedition would be 
routed — 

I am &c. Barony Vasques 

The following from Fort Mason dated Feb^ 24 

Sir Having given to the gi'and Chiefs of the Sacks the Counsel you 
have sent me the Chief called Le Bleu Laigle, Lalance Les Deux 
Cours, answered that they had been informed by their people that 
the Sieux of the Ayowa river and the Sieux of the rver du Moins, the 
little and Grand Osages would in a short time come in an Expedition 
against the Sacks and Foxes and they were moreover threatened by 
the Kickapous and Potowatomies. They state moreover that as 
soon as the navigation will admit that the above mentioned enemies 
mean to take the American forts and besides take possession of St 
Louis. If our American Father would take pity on us and put our 
wives and children in place of Safety we should be all for him. The 
three Sacks Le Dardeur, La Prime, and Le Brave are gone with 
Blondeau and are go to our Enemies. The Sacks are divided in four 
Camps ^except ten Lodges they rejected last fall and retired to our 
Foes The Chief Le Bleu delivered up a horse which had been 
stolen from the Americans, and the owner give him two Gallons of 



308 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Whisky and twenty four Pounds of tobacco — This is all what I can 
inform you of at present 
Your Most &c. John P. Gates 

I am with Sentiments of high respect of your Excellency. The most 
hiunble Servant 

J. R Widen 
[Addressed] Gov' Edwards 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book S] 

March 31, 1813 
His Excellency Governor N. Edwards, Kaskaskia 111. Ter. 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Exc'' letter of 
the 2'"' inst,'" the law points out the several postmasters compensation, 
and as a postmaster I cannot increase M' Arundel's compensation, 
however arduous his duties may be, or however faithfully he may 
discharge his duties, he has acted as an agent of this office in forward- 
ing expresses and superintending the several mails that arrive at & 
depart from Kaskaskia, for this service I can allow him a compensa- 
tion not exceeding one hundred and fifty dollars per annum, when I 
have ascertained the time that he began to despatch expresses, and 
the extend of his Services, I shall decide on his compensation. It 
affords, me great satisfaction to learn that his conduct is so highly 
approved of — 

G Gr 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO WILLIAM ARUNDEL 
[PO:P.M. Letter Book S) 

March. 31, 1813 
W. Arundell Esq. P.M. Kaskaskia 111. Ter 

It is a source of great satisfaction to me to find that your official 
conduct is so highly approved of by Gov"^ Edwards, Judge Griswold 
& others, the post office law defines your compensation as a Post- 
master, but as you have acted as agent to this office in forwarding 
expresses &c I think it but just to allow you a compensation for that 
service in a sum not exceeding one hundred & fifty dollars per annum, 
with a view to do you justice, I wish you to state when you took 
a general charge of the mail eastward and how much time has been 
occupied in that service and in other extra official acts. 

G G— 



w Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 309 

JOSIAH MEIGS » TO EDWARD TIFFIN " 
INA:GL0, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814 :LS] 
Surveyor General's Office Cincinnati, 2 April 1813 

Sir I transmit a Copy of a Plan of Shawnee town, the Original of 
which was received at this Office on the 30*" of last month. The 
following is an Extract from a letter of William Dobbins, Deputy 
Surveyor, dated Eddyville July 2^ 1812— 

"There is four hundred & sixty seven lotts, all regularly Marked 
although on the plat some of them are so small that the numbers are 
scarcely legible, you will observe that the lotts marked with black 
are intended for a Grave yard and Church; the reason I laid off so 
many was that they had buried Promiscuously on the Mounts, I 
think in each of the lotts; the surviving friends of the Deceased, all 
appeared anxious that they should be reserved for that purpose. I 
have marked six lotts for the publick square, in order to give it an 
opening & view to the River also to give room for a Market house, 
which will soon be necessary — I presume the loss to the United States 
will be amply compensated by the sales, however you are certainly at 
liberty to curtail if you think necessary. The reason I placed it so nigh 
the upper end, was that the ground in the Center was neither so suitable 
or Elevated as that spot— You will observe two lotts N° 297 & 298 
them I take the liberty to recommend as a seat for an Academy — 
the seat is Elegant and has the advantage of an excellent Spring con- 
venient; there is a number included in the town. But as they all come 
out of the bank I thought it not advisable to mark them down on the 
Piatt. — The streets are all one Chain in width Except Main street 
which is laid off one Chain and a half — 

"There is yet some flat land between the Street and the River, but 
as it Overflows every year I did not think it proper to lay it into 
lotts, but to Reserve it for a Common, — I would suggest to you the 
propriety of laying off and reserving for the use of the Citizens half a 
Chain outside of the in and out lotts to prevent purchasers of the 
United States lands from Inclosing them in. As yet there is a ballance 
of upwards of fifty Acres of the land Appropriated by Congress, Also 
to establish stones or posts on the River, and at the Corner, also have 
the same well marked." 

I have the honor to be very respectfully Yours. 

J Meigs 

Hon. Edward Tiffin, Esquire — 

" Confirmed as Surveyor General in succession to Mansfield, Nov. 16, 1312 
(Senate, Exec. Journal, u, 304). He arrived in Cincinnati Mar. 22, 1813. See 
Terr. Papers (Ind.), vill, 215-216. 

'2 Confirmed as Commissioner of the General Land Office, May 6, 1812 (Senate 
Exec. Journal, u, 263). Relative to the GLO, see Terr. Papers (Ind.), vni, 203, 
n. 21. 



310 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

[Addressed] Honb' Edward Tiffin Commissioner of the General 
Land Office Treasury Department Washington City — 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati 2^ Apl 1813 J Meigs Surveyor Gl with Map 
of Shawnee Town— Ans" 17 Ap"^ N° 5 rec" April 13, 1813 J Meigs 
Surveyor Gen' with plat of Shawnee town 



THOMAS FORSYTH TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
1NA:WD.SWDF:ALS] 

S' Louis 10'" April 1813 
Sir — Being appointed Sub Agent of Indian Affairs for the Post of 
Peorias in the Illinois River, I think it my duty to state to you 
the reason that I am not at present at that place, as also the impor- 
tance of an establishment being made there, or they people who 
formerly resided there to be encouraged to return back and build 
up their Village; they whole of the houses being burned down, except- 
ing two that belongs to two British traders. Mess" Buisson and 
LeMoine. The information I collected at that place before and after 
the commencement of the War, was great, I had got every thing in 
such a train, that I drew information from Makinaw, Detroit, S* 
Joseph River, Chicago, Millwakee and Green Bay and many other 
places, and nothing could stir in the vicinity of these places, among 
the Indians without its coming to my knowledge, which information, so 
collected, was occasionally transmitted by me to they officers of govern- 
ment in this Country; by which means many lives was saved: but more 
particularly in the Month of September last, when upwards of four 
hundred Indians was equiping themselves, to come down on the 
frontiers of this, and the frontiers of Illinois Territory but Governor 
Howards letters to me arrived at Peorias two or three days before 
the arrival of this large body, came down from the upper parts of 
Illinois River, by which means my answers to Gov : Howard gave him 
and Gov : Edwards time, to put the frontiers of both Territories, in a 
state of defence by which means, the whole party of Indians was most 
compleatly foiled, they doing no other mischief than stealing a few 
horses, and robbing a house or two; not being able to take home one 
Scalp, but on the Contrary lost one of their warriours, a thing hardly 
known in Indian warfare. Indians allways profess the greatest 
friendship untill the moment arrives that the mean to make an attack, 
to begin a War; which they allways do, by as great a force as they 
possibly can collect, allways supposing to take their enemies unawares, 
as they certainly would have done in the case above alluded too, had 
it not been for the information that Gov: Howard received from me 



" Poit, p. 318, under date of Apr. 19. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 311 

at Peorias. After the return of this great party, I thought it prudent 
to moave down to this place my most valuable effects and to return 
to Peorias immediately, which I did, but during my absence the 
Piankeshaw and Kicapoo Indians robbed the whole Village of Peorias 
of every article they could carry away; driving they poor people away 
out of their houses, Men, Women & Children naked, and oblidged to 
embark on board of canoes, and abandon the whole, and to crown our 
distress still more, two Boats Commanded by Cap* Craig of Shawanoe 
town, got up to Peorias a few days before I did, and took on board 
of his boats the remainder of our property (the greatest part we never 
got nor do we ever expect to get it) and ourselves prisoners amounting 
to Forty two persons. Men, Women, & Children, oblidging us to 
abandon our Houses, Cattle, Com and Wheat, for no other reason 
than because some Indians fired on they boats; all which provissions 
say 150 (at least) head of horn Cattle, besides hogs, and Com, was 
all destroyed during the last Winter, by the Indians, four houses and 
four bams two of which contained Wheat, was burned down by Craigs 
men, before we left the Peorias. when we were taken prisoners we 
were disarmed, and descending the Illinois, he would not give us 
a single fusee to kill a few ducks, and when anived and discharged 
on the bank of the Mississippi 18 miles above this place, part only 
of our arms were given up to us, the remainder were detained to the 
great loss of the owners, not to mention the abuse we received from 
Craig and his men at different times: I had prevailed on some people 
who were about to leave the Peorias to remain there (prior to our 
being made prisoners by Craig) and I was to return from this place 
to Peorias by land, but a day or two after everything was settled, we 
were all made prisoners, and our property destroyed, and it was 
impossible for me to return alone, since which time I have been at 
this place & regret much our being Oblidged to abandon our situation 
at Peorias.^* Peorias is certainly the most important place in all the 
Indian Country, as the intercourse with the Indians at that place is 
so great, that Indians going to, and coming from Detroit, generally 
call to rest themselves, and get a little tobacco &' for their journey, 
by which means we allways had monthly intelligence from that place, 
and am sure, was I now there, I would be able to collect as much 
information as formerly, and no doubt by that means be able to 
frusterate the designs of they enemies of this Country, but as I have 
already obser\-ed, it is impossible for me to make a stand at Peorias 
alone, but if there was a possibility, of three or four families being 
allowed to go up to that place, I would rejoice and go up with them, 

'* See Craig to Edwards, Dec. 10, 1812 (Edwards Papers, CHS, printed Wash- 
bume, ed., Edwards Papers, CHC, in, 86-90), severely criticizing Forsyth, and 
giving his version of Forsyth's arrest. 



312 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



and run any risk that might happen. Many of the people who 
formerly resided at Peorias wish much to return, but the fear of being 
hindred by Government, and the great want of the common neces- 
saries of life, oblidges them to employ all their time at hard labours, 
to procure a scanty subsistence, for their families. If Government 
would give them the least assistance, almost the whole of them would 
return and I think many more of the same Nation (French) would 
also go up, and the Peorias would be in a little time more respectable 
than ever it was. Two men recently arrived from that country, 
informs me, that, the Potawatimies wish much that their old friends 
(as they Style them) would return and build up the Peorias. 
I have the honor to be Your most Obd' And very humble Serv* 

Thomas Forsyth 

The Honorable Secretary of War City Washington 
[Addressed] The Honourable Secretary' of War City Washington 
[Postmarked] S' Louis April 17. Free 

[Endorsed[\ St. Louis 10 April 1813 Th. Forsyth States the reason 
of his not, now, residing at Peorias— Will repair there so soon as the 
Indians will permit it. Rec" June 1813 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

1NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Elvirade Randolph County Illinois Terty April 12. 1813 
Sir, Within a few days past several confidential agents that we have 
had in different parts of the Indian country for a considerable time 
have returned bringing with them a great deal of important informa- 
tion — Their reports are lengthy and minute but I have only time to 
extract from them the following particulars — 

The Indians who formerly lived about Peoria and on this side of it 
soon after our expedition against them last fall removed to Bureau 
river (which enters the Illinois 60 miles above Peoria) where they 
erected a strong fortification, consisting of five long block houses — 
around which trees are cut down and thick puncheons so arranged as 
to make a complete breastwork with port holes judiciously disposed — 
It is situated at the point of a hill— a large Marsh in front— the river 
in the rear of it and approachable only with any kind of facility on 
one side where the passage is narrow— Two of our agents remained 
at this place several weeks and only left it fifteen days ago — They 
were there informed that ten barrels of powder sent by the British 
had arrived at the Southern extremity of Lake Michagan as a present 
to the Pottowattomies, Kickapoos Winnebagoes Fallsavoines, Sauks 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 313 

& Foxes and that the Black Partridge (a distinguished Pottowottomie 
Chief) had received two barrels for his share — 

That after the battle of Massasinawa '^ the Prophet & his party- 
left the Wabash — went to Detroit and have not returned That Main 
Poque stated that the Americans had enquired after him and wished 
to fight him, that he had accepted the challenge but would first go to 
Detroit for Cannon — That the indians generally stated that the War 
was only going to commence this summer — that they would come 
down and surprize our mounted men who were constantly hunting for 
them — They had latterly held a council, the object of which was to 
ask the british to send them provisions in a vessel to Chicago to last 
them for 12 months — 

Those agents also met with some Sauks from the Missisippi by 
whom they were informed that the Sauks Foxes and loways were 
di%'ided. part being for war with the U. S. and part for peace — That 
the White Pigeons son (a Pottowottomie) had been among them 
assuring them that the British were ready to supply them with 
ammunition clothing & pro\'isions. that if they would not unite in the 
war they would be considered as Americans and that other Indians 
& the British would commence war upon them — 

Those agents also saw White Hair (a Pottowottomie Chief) on his 
return from the Sauk camps on the Missisippi by whom they were 
informed that the Sauks had employed one Brisbois a trader to write 
a letter for them to the British at Detroit, that Sagotria another trader 
was the interpretter, that he 0»^"hite Hair) was the bearer of said 
letter and was on his way to Detroit whither he had been in\'ited to 
receive presents as a reward for having killed Capt" Wells last year 
at Chicago — They were also informed that Dickson went to Lower 
Canada last fall and was expected to arrive at Praire de Chien last 
month — That it was probable that the Indians would make com 
where they made it last year — That the party that has infested our 
frontier for some time past were principally Kickapoos headed by a 
Chief called the Little Deer That those Indians are verj^ much enraged 
& are determined to do all the mischief they can — • 

Just about the time those men left Bureau river the Indians had 
sent out runners to collect all their warriors — and it is probable their 
intention may be to strike some blow before they separate — 

M"' Blondeau sub agent to the Sauks and Foxes has been in the 
Indian Country on the Llissisippi from the 14 of Feb'' till the first of 
this month when he returned to S' Louis — About the 4*'' of March he 
was informed by the Sauks and Foxes that the British had sent for 



" A variant spelling of Mississinewa, a Miami village near the junction of the 
Mississinewa and Wabash rivers (Hodge, Handbook Amer. Indians, I, 910-911). 
For an account of the battle, see Esarey (ed.), Messages and Letters, 11, 269-274. 



314 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

them to go to Chicago to get powder &c and threatened them that if 
they would not declare open war against the Americans they (the 
British) would set all the surrounding nations of Indians upon them — 
That the Sioux declared it was time to make war upon the Americans 
and drive them off their lands. That they had received two pipes from 
the Sioux & others accompanied with talks in which they were in- 
formed that the Indians at Praire de Chien had received from Dickson 
at Macanac ten pieces of Strouding and a proportionate quantity of 
other articles — that they were to collect together at the Praire there 
wait his arrival which would be early in the Spring and then they 
were altogether to make a descent upon S' Louis and other places — in 
all which the Sauks and Foxes were invited to cooperate — and they 
informed M' Blondeau that they were afraid the nations above would 
force them to declare war against the Americans and requested our 
support — 

On the 10'" March another deputation from the Kickapoos and 
Pottowottomies of Illinois river arrived among them inviting them to 
go to Chicago to get ammunition &c and informing them that their 
British father was impatient to see them — He was also informed a few 
days before his arrival at S' Louis that a war party from Rock river 
was on its way to attack the Missisippi settlement & do all the mischief 
they could. 

By every other account that has been received for a long time past 
it appears that all the Indians West of Lake Michagan and on the 
Illinois and Missisippi rivers (except the Sauks & Foxes) have joined 
the hostile Confederacy. 

Of the Sauks and Foxes it is admitted that a part is for war and a 
part for peace — But I give it as my decided opinion that they will all 
soon be against us 

They are threatened by the British and Indians with war if they 
do not join them — while every other means are used to engage them — 
Operated upon as they must be by the double motive of reward and 
personal safety we cannot expect them to remain firm in our interest 
while we neither assume a warlike attitude to inspire them with fear, 
nor carry on intercourse and trade with them to conciliate their affec- 
tions — In fact we are doing no one thing calculated to counteract the 
exertions of the British and therefore I conclude those exertions 
cannot fail of eventual success. 

Supposing those Indians to be hostile it is not safe to calculate upon 
their going to Maiden — All accounts that have been received since 
last fall concur in pro\ang their intention to attack this quarter — 
Those accounts have been so numerous & uniform and so far so well 
corroborated that it begins I think to be time to believe them — 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 315 

Going from the Missisippi to Maiden they must go either by Ma- 
canac or Chicago, the distance itself would make an insuperable 
objection to their going thither in any large body, and leaving their 
women & children exposed. And indeed if such were their intention 
they would soon change it if an army were to march in their own 
country — 

Our frontier continues to be very much harrassed by the Savages — 
We have no men here but those who have been raised in the territory 
except a small party with a Lieut at F* Rusel I have not heard from 
or seen Colo Russel/' I have the command of the volunteers that I 
have raised and have as hard a duty as I believe ever fell to the lott 
of any man — I have not seen my family for seven months — and I fear 
I have little prospect of that happiness unless the territory shortly 
gets some aid— 

I have called in the Kaskaskia Indians it being dangerous both to 
them & the people of the Ty to permit them to support themselves by 
hunting and I am consequently compelled to support them at the 
public expence— 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir V Mo Obd' S* 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Honble John Armstrong Sec^ of War Washington City. 

P.S. Since writing the above I have rec"* the enclosed copy of a 
letter from M'' Roc, a worthy man, & good agent, who has been up- 
wards of 30 years interpretter to the Sioux. The letter is decisive. 
N.E. 

13 April I have just received intelligence of several murders 
having been committed in a few days past. N.E. 

[Addressed] The Hon'ble John Armstrong Secretary of War Wash- 
ington City Free "* 

[Endorsed] Elvirade April 12, 1813 Gov. N. Edwards States the 
result of the information obtained by his agents with the Indians, 
viz. that the British are exciting all the Indians against the U. S. 
and determined to destroy the frontier settlements. Rec* Mav 
1813 " 



" See Russell to the Secretary of War, Mar. 24, 1813 (NA, WD, SWDF), 
relative to the state of the regulars in Illinois and Indiana territories. 

"» See Howard to the Secretary of War, Apr. 5, 1813, with enclosures {Terr. 
Papers, La.-Mo., xiv). 

" No reply found. See Edwards to the Secretary of War, Mar. 27, 1813 (NA, 
WD, SWDF, printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, pp. 346-347), concerning the Indian 
situation in Illinois Territory since his last letter, ante, p. 305, and alleging an 
unjust di^'ision of defense forces between Indiana and Illinois territories. 



316 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

[EncloBurel 

Joseph la Rogue '* to Nicholas BoUvin 

Praire de Chien March 12. 1813 

Sir I am yet alive— God has preserved me untill the present to 
give you all the news I could not write you by any other opportunity 
being in great danger of my life — I am watched on all sides — I trusted 
to M'' Farabeau to read the letters received from you sent by the 
Siou (Red Wing) 

In my absence those letters were seen and copies of them taken 
and sent to Macanac by Duncan Graham who left this a month 
since to bring forces which we expect every day to go and fight 
against the Americans of Illinois — M' Bolvine you will be sur- 
prized — the letters that j'ou had addressed here to M' Brisbois M' 
Bontheleur & M' Fisher — they have taken copies of your letters and 
have sent an express to carry them to S' Peters river to raise all the 
nations to go to War against you and the Illinois — In short Sir, I 
must tell you every thing is against you Americans — All nations in 
general have given their word to the English — The traders together 
are setting them on against you all — That is all I can say for the 
present — and all the information I can give you — 

Sir The remaining of your property that you left here is all lost 
even your cattle have been killed by the Falsavoins — 

M' Bolvine you must believe all that is in this letter 

I am Sir with the greatest friendship possible 

Joseph Roc 

M' Nicholas Bolvine 
(a copy) 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Illinois Territory April 14, 1813 
Sir Last night I received a letter from Colo. Bond informing me 
that you had requested that I should raise tlu-ee companies of rangers 
for this territory " — I have already raised four companies supposing 
that that many at least would have been accepted — I had the honor 
to communicate to you the tender of service by Capt° James B. Moore 
Capt° Samuel Whiteside and Captain Jacob Short & their subalterns 
& companies and I presume from Colo Bonds letter that the commis- 

" Lefi in charge of American interests at Prairie du Chien after the departure 
of Boilvin in the autumn of 1812 (Kellogg, Bril. Regime in Wis., p. 306). 

'• Feb. 25, 1813 (Edwards Papers, CHS. printed, Washburne, ed., Edwards 
Papers, CHC, m, 97-98). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 317 

sions will shortly arrive. — these three companies are accepted by me 
as far as I had any authority to act 

Captain M'Henry has now a company of mounted men in service 
who also tender their services for hectic months — but I suppose from 
the arrangement that has taken place they cannot be accepted and 
therefore I shall decline forwarding their tender — 

M"^ Hempstead who arrived here last night informs me that John 
Murdock is recommended as a Majr to take command of the rangers — 
If that appointment should be made I shall regret it very much on the 
public account for I know he is unqualified for it, in every point of view. 
And I pledge myself officially or otherwise to prove to you that he is 
unworthy of it— In my expedition last year I gave him the command 
of a Battallion — upon the march his conduct was so exceptionable, 
in violating positive orders that he was arrested by Colo Russel — • 
In our attack upon the principal Town at the head of Peoria Lake — 
he was ordered to gain the left flank of the enemy — and for that pur- 
pose to leave the Town to his left — he disregarded the whole arrange- 
ment — and left his battallion and when I ordered him to form it, his 
reply was that he had but two men with him — These things are 
enough but I stand pledged to prove more to you — I am no enemy to 
this man — But every man upon the expedition knew & felt his im- 
proper conduct and under such circumstances I think his promotion 
injustice to others — I did not intend to recommend any man unless 
called on for that purpose — but I feel it my duty to remonstrate as 
respectfully as possible against this appointment and will now recom- 
mend another whose merits and claims of every description are 
superior — Majr Benjamin Stephenson last year commanded the ¥wy 
companies who ha of Captains Moore Whiteside & Short who have 
tendered their services, he was recommended by them — he discharged 
his duty well, now commands & has for some time past commanded 
those companies, he has had considerable experience, is an excellent 
disciplinarian, a most worthy brave & respectable man — & is in every 
respect well acquainted with all the details of his duty — No one can 
deny his superior qualifications, every one who has been in service with 
me will testify to them — and I have no hesitation in saying the officers 
& soldiers would prefer him I do not object to the one appointment 
for the sake of obtaining the other — for I have never been applied to 
to recommend Stephenson, nor does he expect it of me — but objecting 
as I do from motives of public good to the appointment of one — I 
have felt it my duty to name another, against whom no possible 
objection can or will be made by anyone — Stephenson is the brother 
of the late member of Congress of that name from Virg"— he is Sherrifl 
of this County and my brigade Majr — and without his assistance I do 



318 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

not know how I eld have hitherto been able to manage the militia — 
I have done my duty— and am Very respectfully Sir Yr Mo Obd* S* 

NiNiAN Edwards 

[Addressed] The Honble John Armstrong Secretary of War 
Washington City Free 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia April 14, 1813. Gov. N. Edwards reports 
that he has raised 3 comp: of rangers in consequence of information 
from M' Bond that such was the wish of the War Dept. States the 
characters of the officers. Rec" May, 1813 ^ 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOSIAH MEIGS 
[NA:GLO, Lets, to SG, i] 

Treasury Department, General Land Office, 19*" April, 1813. 

Sir, I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, dated the 
second of this month,^' and of the plat of Shawnee town, which 
accompanied it. 

The law which directed the town to be laid out,^^ has provided that 
the whole tract shall not exceed two entire sections of land, or 1280 
acres. But no courses and distances being expressed upon the plat, 
this office has no other means of examining the survey, than the scale 
expressed upon it; namely, one inch to 72 chains; according to which, 
we find the erea of the tract to contain about 1566 acres, being nearly 
half a section more than was appropriated to the object. 

Should you, on examination of the field notes, find that there exists 
no error in the survey, which will account for the difference, nor any 
in the graphical delineation of the plat, a mode must be devised to 
make the survey agree with the law. In that case, I am instructed 
by the secretary of the treasury to state, that in his opinion, the best 
way will be to strike out the out-lots from, N" 1, to number 90, both 
inclusive, which with the streets thereby rejected will, according to 
the plat, amount to 304 acres. This will reduce the tract within the 
quantity appropriated by the law, of which it will fall short about 
18 acres. 

The three tiers of out-lots being rejected, it will be expedient to 
re-number the remaining ones; beginning at the old number 91, 

-" No reply found. See Edwards to the Secretary of War, May 4, 1813 (NA, 
WD, SWDF, printed, Edwards, Hist. III., pp. 347-348), similar in context to the 
above, but containing the names of officers he proposed for the newly organized 
companies of rangers. 

=' Ante, p. 309. 

'-' Sec. 6, act approved Apr. 30, 1810 (2 Stat. 591). See Terr. Papers (Ind.), 
VIII, 18. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 319 

which will then be changed to N° 1; proceeding and returning north- 
eastwardly and Southwestwardly to the last out-lot, which, under 
this system, will become N° 270.— 

To avoid the interferences which otherwise may, hereafter, arise 
between the purchasers of Town-lots, and the purchasers of the 
adjacent public lands, you will please to cause the corners, or so many 
of them as may be necessary, to be properly established. 

You will please to transmit to this ofRce, a copy of the plat, when 
corrected, and retain another copy to be delivered to the register of 
the Land office at Shawneetown, when appointed, 

A furlough has been transmitted to M' Mansfield, and his expences 
will be paid at the treasur>\^ 

I am, &" 

JosiAH Meigs, Esq"' Surveyor-general, Cincinnati. 

For a letter to J. Mansfield, esq"' late surveyor-general, on the 
subject of his furlough, see general letter book, under date of April 
17th, 1813.2* 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD,SWDF:ALS] 

Kaskaskia Illinois Territory A'pril 20. 1813 
Sir The dangers to which this territory is exposed and the neces- 
sity of assistance (unless it be prefered by the Gov' to give it up) 
is no longer a matter of opinion or conjecture — The Indians continue 
to be very troublesome. It is I presume unnecessary to detail their 
savage atrocities — They waylayed the mail carrier & his guard on 
the road from this place to the Ohio — on Simday last — and the lives 
of those men were probably saved by a heavy rain which fell suddenly 
and induced them to ride at full speed past where the Indians lay — 
Yesterday morning the same party made an attempt upon the house 
of a M"' Cox where the mail carrier lodged at which time I believe one 
of our men killed an Ind° — I have two detachments of militia in 
pursuit of them — but it is doubtfull whether they can be successfull 
owing to very high waters — 

The Indians appear to have made incursions into every part of our 
frontier — The mail I think must entirely stop If you should have 
any communications to make to me. it would be best to forward 
duplicates and send by Russelsville (Ky) as well as by the usual 
route — 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y'' Mo Obd' S' 

NiNiAN Edwards 



" Answered ■posl, p. 320. 

" NA(GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 5). 



320 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

[Addressed] The Hon'ble John Armstrong Sec' of War Washington 
City 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia April 20 '13 Gov. N. Edwards Without 
assistance that Territory must be abandoned. The Indians are very 
troublesome — Mails interrupted & letters to him should go by Rus- 
selville Ky— Rec" June 1813 " 



ELIAS RECTOR TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
|NA:SD, Applications :ALSJ 

Kaskaskia April 26'" 1813 
Dear Sir Altho, I have only had the honor of a verry Short 
acquaintance with you at the falls of Ohio and that too several years 
ago, I will notwithstanding take the liberty of soliciting your patronage 
in procuring me the appointment of Register of the Land office which 
is established at Shawney Town in this Territory, Judge Stuart has 
written to you in my favor, which letter letter I presume you will 
receive,^' before this arrives at Washington, Any senice that you 
may think proper to render me in promoting my wishes will be 
acknowledged by Sir your Obt Hble Serv' 

EuAS Rector 
The Hble James Monroe 

[Addressed] The Hon"'" James Monroe Secretary of the U. S City 
of Washington Free 

[Endorsed] 26 April 1813 M' Rector application for Register Land 
Office Illinois Terr'" 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG. 1812-1814:LS1 

Cincinnati, Ohio, May 1" 1813. 

Sir I have this day received yours of April 19." enclosing the 
Plan of Shawnee Town— I have not found the Instructions given to 
M' Dobbins the Deputy Surveyor by my Predecessor. I omitted to 
include, in my letter of April 2,^ the following extracts from M' 
Dobbins letter accompanying his Plat. 

"The Posts I had all made of Mulbeny and Black Locust, which 
was hard to procure: — they were made from two and a half feet in 
length to two feet and four inches, by three in thickness. — Agreeably 

'• No reply found. 
" Not found. 
" AnU, p. 318. 
" Ante, p. 309. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 32I 

to your Instructions I have numbered and marked every lot". — 
"There is yet some flat land between the Street and the river, but as 
it overflows every year, I did not think it proper to lay it into lots 
but to reserve it for a Common. — I would suggest to you the Pro- 
priety of laying off and reserving for the use of the Citizens half a 
Chain outside of the In & out Lots, to prevent purchasers of the United 
States lands from inclosing them in, as there is yet a balance of up- 
wards of Fifty Acres of the land appropriated by Congress; also to 
establish Stones or Posts on the River and at the Corners, Also to 
have the same well marked." 

M'' Dobbins did not transmit to me any Field Notes. — The Meridian 
Line on his Plat, gives the direction of Main Street and its parallels 
North 36° 30' East, and consequently the perpendicular lines are 
North 53° 30' West, He has not inform.ed me whether his inscribed 
Meridian is the true or the Magnetic 

I will endeavour to transmit, by the next mail one plan,^ omitting 
the out Lots, No^ 1 to 90, both inclusive, and another similar to that 
which is returned ; — for your letter and the plan were thoroughly wet 
and much defaced. — The Rain which has fallen here during the last 
month has been more than one Foui'th of the annual quantity; and 
this beautiful River is now almost overflowing its banks. 

I am, very respectfully Yours, 

J Meigs. 

Hon. E. Tiffin. 

[Addressed] The Honorable Edward Tiffin Commissioner of the 
General Land office, Treasury Department Washington City [Post- 
marked] Cincinnati 3 May 1813 Fi'ee 

[Endorsed] Cincinna [MS. torn] May 1813 Josiah M [MS. torn] 
Surv' Gen' de plat of Shawnee Town. N" 6 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

|NA:OIA, SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C =«] 

War Department, May 4. 1813. 
His Ex. Governor Ninian Edwards, 111. Terr''— 

Sir, My Letter of the 4. Ultimo ^' stated the measures taken, or 
directed to be taken, by order of the President in relation to the 
defence of the Territorial Frontier. To these have now been added 
the employment of Colonel Johnson's Riflemen, if General Harrison 

2" Post, p. 329 

3" There is another copy of this letter in NA (WD, SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 6). 

" Not seen. 



322 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

shall be able to dispense with their services on his own line of posts." 
I beg you to convey this information to Brigadier General Howard, 
and to accept the assurance of my very great respect. 

J.A. 
P.S. Your letter of the 27. March was received by the last Mail.'' 



MAURICE BLONDEAU TO BENJAMIN HOWARD 

[NA:WD, SWDF:C «•] 

Copy of a letter from M. Blondeau to his Excellency Gov Howard. — 

Portage des Sieux the 4'" May 1813 
Sir, The Sacs have listened to your council — they have been well 
pleased. — I am arrived with the principal chiefs of their nation — It 
was not in my power to obey youi- Orders — for they are fifty eight 
men and fifteen women. — The only news I have is that Dickson is 
come from Green Bay to Rock River, the IS'" April — from there to 
Prairie du Chien — And he has sent in Agents who descended to 
Rock River, I mean River des loway, the 23" of April with a talk and 
two barrels of powder, which the Sacs, divided from the rest, have 
accepted. They have joined and are coming on with the rest against 
St Louis — We spoke to others — they say they want to remain neutral 
and at peace in the present War. The Blue & the [blank] remained 
at home — The Foxes find difficulty coming down, having no canoes — 
They are all at river des Moines waiting an Opportunity to come 
down. Your's respectfully 

M. Blondeau 

The Band of the red Wing 80 Lodges (Sieux) are coming down to 
join the Sacs & Foxes in peace with us. — 

[Endorsed] Letter of Blondeau 



»' See the Secretary of War to Harrison, June 9, 1813 (Esarey, ed., Messages and 
Letters, u, 468), containing the order for Johnson to report at Kaskaskia. 

»>NA(WD,SWDF), printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, pp. 346-347. See also 
Bond to Edwards, Feb. 7, Feb. 13, Feb. 25, June 7, July 11, Aug. 17, Dec. 10, 
and Dec. 23, 1813 (Washburne, ed., Edwards Papers, pp. 93-98, 101-104, 105-107), 
transmitting relevant information from the seat of government at Washington. 
Cf. Terr. Papers (Ind.), viii, 227-230, 236-238, 255, 262. 

"• An enclosure, in Bates's hand, in Bates to the Secretary of War, May 14, 
1813 (Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., Xiv). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 323 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO WILLIAM ARUNDEL 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book S] 

May 5, 1813 
William Arundel Esq' P.M. Kaskaskias 111. Ter 

Yours of the 5 Ul' is before me ^* I send you $400 to support the 
line of expresses. To which you will pay every attention. The orders 
for gards to accompany the mail must come from the War Office. 
Accordingly as soon as M' Brian '^ sent your letter to this office, I 
sent it to the Secretary at War, with a letter ^* representing the 
necessity of the measure. I hope your Govn'' will continue the guards 
to the mail until he hears from the proper department. I have 
ordered the monies due to W™ Morrison to be forwarded to him. 

The situation of your territory is truely deplorable and I trust th3 
Executive are making every effort for your relief & will do justice to 
your citizens for all their exertions I speak this as an individual, 
having no agency in Government other than the faithful Adminis- 
tration of this Office. Last Friday the enemy burnt Frenchtown on 
Elk River & yesterday Havre de Grace at the head of this bay. 

Yours, 

G. Gr. 

Put in P. Office May 5. 1813 DG.— 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO THE PRESIDENT 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 5] 

Treasury Department, General Land office, 6'" May, 1818. 

Sir, I have the honor to state to you, that M"' Gallatin, immediately 
previous to his departure from the seat of government, communicated 
to me important information relative to the Wabash Saline, in the 
Illinois territory, of which the following is an outline, vizt: — 

"That the lease of the Saline exph-ed last autumn; a circumstance 
which had been overlooked. — He, therefore, advised that governor 
Edwards, who superintends the leasing thereof, should come to an 
understanding with the lessees to continue their lease for one year 
longer, on the same terms. 

"That public notice should afterwards be given, as heretofore, 
inviting proposals foi- a new lease. In making this, it is thought that 
the most important point, is the proper care and saving of fuel. And 
considering the situation of the works, with the new discoveries of 

" Not found. 

" Probably Guy Bryan, a partner of William Morrison. 

»' Not found. 



324 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

salt made elsewhere, it is believed that the object originally in view, 
namely, that of compelling the lessees to make the greatest possible 
quantity of salt, — and of reducing the price of the article to its mini- 
mum, cannot be better obtained than by leasing the the works to those 
who will pay the United States the highest rent." 

Instructions to the foregoing effect had, accordingly, been prepared 
for Governor Edwards, in my office; but at the moment of signing 
them, a letter from the governor was handed to me, which I have the 
honor to enclose.'' 

As I have not before received any communications on subjects of 
this nature, it is not in my power to state any opinion thereon. I can 
only presume to remark, that the arrangement which existing circum- 
stances compelled the governor to make, (subject, of course, to your 
approbation or rejection) may perhaps be so modified, should it be 
deemed expedient, as to meet the ideas held out by M' Gallatin. 

The question of a renewal of the lease, will then remain to be 
decided; and probably the governor's representation of the present 
state of the country, and of the backwardness of other proposers, will 
facilitate a decision on that point. 

Under these circumstances, I have deemed it my duty to defer any 
instructions on the subject till you shall have been pleased to delib- 
erate upon the information contained in the governor's letter, and to 
favor me with such directions as the aspect of the case, now varied 
by his representation, may appear to you to be proper. 

I have the honor, &" 

The president of the United States. — 



THOMAS FORSYTH TO BENJAMIN HOWARD 
[NA: WD, SWDF: C«"] 
Copy oj a letter from Tho' Forsyth Esquire Sub Agent of Indian Affairs, 
to His Excel" Benj* Howard late Gov of Missouri Te" 

St Louis May 7. 1813 
Sir, I have the honor to state to you that I arrived here yesterday 
from the upper part of the Illinois River. — 

On the 12'" ult" I prepared my boat and men, and on the 13'" left 
this to ascend the Illinois River. On the 24'" I fell in with three 
families of Potawatimies at Crow Praire 45 miles above the Peorias, 
who appeared to be very happy to see me. I enquired where all the 
Indians were? I wa.s informed that all the Indians were at or on their 



" Mar. 13, 1813; see post, p. 328. 

"■ An enclosure, in Bates's hand, in Bates to the Secretary of War, May 14, 
1813 {Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., xiv). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 325 

way up Sandy Creek. I moved on in company with those three 
famihes and on the 25"" over took another family, and we all encamped 
together at the mouth of the Vermillion River. In the evening all 
the Indians came to my tent to smoke, and informed me that about 
10"" (April) a belt of Wampum with a letter airived in the Illinois 
River from the British, requesting those Indians to repair to Detroit 
as quickly as possible, and as many as possible. — That a Prophet had 
arisen in England who informed the Great Father of all the British 
and Indians that the Great Spirit was much displeased with the 
Americans. That the Island (America) belongs to the Indians, and 
for their great Father (King of England) to be strong and assist all 
the Indians to drive the Americans out of the Island (America) to 
supply the Indians with all their wants — And that when they fought 
the Americans the Great Spu'it would be on theii- side, and that they 
(the Americans would always be beaten. Thus far the Wampum — 
but no person being able to read the letter , I did not learn its contents 
until my arrival at Sandy Creek. At the latter place I was informed 
by a Corporal Bowen who had been taken prisoner at Chicago that 
he had seen the letter — that it was from 1 he British at Detroit, inviting 
the Indians to go to that place as quickly as possible 

On the 27'" I aiTived at Sandy Creek and the Indians met me at 
the water side & shook me very cordially by the hand, and appeared 
glad to see me — 28'" the Indians held a council & sent for me and 
Mr Le Clair. After being seated and our pipes lighted, Gomo's 
speaker got up & made a short speech thanking me for the pipe of 
Tobacco I brought them — and requesting me to return at any time. 
I pleased to theu- village — that the roads by water and land were 
perfectly open to all their friends at all times: that they were very 
sorry that our property was robbed by the Indians last fall, as also 
for the loss of all our cattle: that they had driven out of their country 
the bad Indians who had committed those insults & that nothing 
of the kind should ever happen again. Gomo informed me that the 
Shawanoe Prophet gone to Detroit with all the Shawanoes. That 
the Winebagoes and Kickapoos were still at the Prophet's village on 
the Wabash, but did know that they were to remain there, but sup- 
posed they would go on to Detroit — That about 400 Miamies were 
on their way to St Joseph's to make a village — That at the change of 
last moon (about 1'*' April) Robert Dickson arrived at Chicago from 
Quebeck — said he was two months travelling from that place — that 
he was in a great hurry — that he had not time to say much, but 
shewed the Indians a belt of wampum of about two fathoms long & 
nine inches wide, that was sent from their Great Father, over the gi'eat 
waters (meaning the King of England) to the Sieux Nation of Indians, 
for them to take up the war club against the United States — And 



326 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

that their great Father would supply all their wants — That his 
(Dickson's) work was not to be the Work of a day — that he would 
descend the Mississippi with the Sieux, until he should meet the 
Spaniards who were coming up that river — that those Indians who 
could not get to Detroit must defend themselves as well as they 
could, & be ready to descend the Illinois River when they heard of 
his (Dickson's) moving down the Mississippi — and all to meet below 
(perhaps near the Portage des Sieux) when they would all go to a 
country where they could get plenty to eat and drink & plenty of 
clothing &" That he had instructions to send in all the Indians 
he could see to Detroit "" — That 1500 Ottowas & Chippewas & others 
had gone to Detroit to drive the Americans away from the Fort of 
the Rapids — That Maiden was stronger than ever & that the British 
had plenty of Soldiers at that place: That the British would take 
many great guns to attack General Harrison's Army — break down 
his fortifications, and the Indians would be able to rush in & kill the 
whole of the Americans — that their Great Father was now standing 
upright with his great war-club in his hand & would never bury it 
until both his white & red children were satisfied. — He (Dickson) 
enquired what the Saukees, Foxes & loways were about — He was 
told that they were divided some for peace some for war. He said, 
he would make them all of one opinion as he passed down the Missis- 
sippi — as his, (Dickson's) party would not consist of five or six, but 
as many hundreds. — that he was sorry he could not tell them more, 
as he had not time, that he must go on to Millwakee and then to 
the Winebagoes on the Head Waters of Rocky River, where he would 
leave his horses and go down R. River in Canoes to its mouth, thence 
up the Mississippi to Prairie du chien where a great many Sieux were 
waiting his arrival — 

I was informed that a very severe battle was faught last winter at 
the river Raisen near Detroit, and had the Americans stood it out a 
little longer, the British & Indians must have been beaten. Gomo 
informed me that he would go, in a few days to Detroit to request the 
British to send a vessel out to Chicago with Provisions and merchan- 
dize for the Indians. The Main Pocque sent for me the morning I 
left Sandy Creek & told me he was that far on his way to Detroit — 
That the British had sent for him & as many warriors as he could 
take with him — That he would Sandy Creek next day (1" May) — 
That he meant to fight the Americans completely this summer & make 
the troubles of the Earth be quiet That after General Harrison's army 
would be defeated, the British & Indians would march up to Fort 

"•> See statement of Robert Dickson, Dec. 3, 1812, and Dickson to Prevost, 
Dec. 23, 1812 (Esarey, ed., Messages and Letters, ii, 235-236, 251-252). See also 
Irwin to Mason, Oct. 16, 1812 (Terr. Papers, Mich., x, 411-415). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 327 

Wayne, destroy that place then to Vincennes & drive the Americans 
over the Ohio — 

A General Council was held by all the Indians of Sandy Creek Kicka- 
poos & Potawatimies & Gomo himself spoke in the name of the whole. 
He said it was the wish of all the Indians present that all the old settlers 
of the Peorias should return & requested me to use all my influence to 
bring them back — Also to speak to Col" Chouteau to get as many 
french families to go up to reside at Peorias, as possible. That if any 
number of families of French would go & live there, the Indians agree 
that they shall have the same rights of hunting & fishing & the same 
use of the land & wood as themselves & promise not to distiirb any 
property belonging to them, but to live as if the whole was one family. 
Gomo made a long speech on the occasion & afterwards spoke to me 
in a private way to request that I would bring back to Peorias, the 
Old settlers — And expressed his fears that the Americans would not 
allow them to go up — but desired me to acquaint him as soon as pos- 
sible whether we should be able to get up to Peorias this ensuing fall 
or not — all which I promised to do. 

I have the honor to be &c &c &c 

(Signed) Thomas Forsyth 

His Excellency Governor Howard.— 

[Endorsed] Letter of Tho= Forsyth Sub Agent 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 
NOTHERN FRONTIER OF ILLINOIS TERRITORY May 9. 1813 

Sir I have the honor to inform you that the day before yesterday 
I received a letter from Gov"' Howard in which he states that M'' 
Blondeau had just arrived from the river Demoin, and M'' Forsyth 
from the banks of Illinois river, he observes that their reports and a 
letter he had received from Majr Starke of F' Madison "all concur in 
the opinion that Dickson had passed along rock river and meditates 
a descent upon our Country" '' — 

The same information is confirmed by a spye I have had in the 
Indian country — and I have this moment rec"" a very ample official 

'8 Cf. Edwards to Shelby, Mar. 22, 1813, and Shelby to Harrison, Apr. 4, 1813 
(Esarey, ed., Harrison's Messages and Letters, II, 395-396, 414-415). See also the 
Secretary of War to Harrison, July 14, 1813, ibid., pp. 491-492, deprecating 
Edwards's fears as expressed in his letters of a possible descent of Dickson upon 
St. Louis. There are numerous relevant letters from Robert Dickson in the Dickson 
and Grignon papers (WHS) ; selections from these are printed in WHC, xi, 273, 
276-277, 278-282, 283-294, 295-303, 306-307, 308-309, 311-312, covering the 
period Aug. 31, 1813, to Apr. 10, 1815. Cf. Forsyth to Howard, May 7, 1813. 
supra. 



328 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

report from M' Forsyth himself which places the fact out of all 
question — 

My own opinion is that the British agents will try to get all the 
Indians they can to go to Detroit, and that they will employ the 
balance in this country — It is impossible for many of the Missisippi 
indians to go there — But I apprehend more from their desultory, 
partizan attacks than from any general combined operations of British 
& Indians — and indeed the former is much the most dreadful & 
destructive — 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y' Mo Obd' S' 

N Edwards 

[Endorsed] 111. Territory May 9 1813 Gov. N. Edwards States the 
reports that an attack is meditated on that Country by the Indians. 
Rec-* June 1813 " 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent. Bk. 5 *»] 

Treasury Department, General Land office, 10*" May, 1813. 

Sir, Your letter of the 13'" March last," to the secretary of the 
Treasury, communicating the understanding which has taken place 
between you and the lessees of the Wabash Saline, that they should 
continue to work it on the old terms, till the will of the president should 
be known, has been received; and M"' Gallatin having left the seat of 
government, in order to proceed on his mission to Russia, it has been 
handed to me. 

I have consulted the president on the subject, and he is pleased to 
direct, that the temporary arrangement made by you, should be con- 
tinued, till you can substitute one which had been suggested by M' 
Gallatin, previous to the receipt of your letter; the nature of which 
you will understand from the enclosed copy of M"' Gallatin's letter to 
me, dated 17'" ultimo." 

I am, & 0* 

His excellency Gov. Edwards, Kaskaskia, Illinois Terr" 

" Reply not found. 

*' Printed also in Edwards, op. cit., p. 537. 

" Not found. 

" Text not seen; cf. ante, p. 323. See also Tiffin to Edwards, Sept. 8, 1813 (NA, 
GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 5, printed, Washburne, ed., Edwards Papers, pp. 104- 
105; Edwards, Hist. III., p. 537), referring to instructions of the Secretary of the 
Treasury, Aug. 25, 1809 (not found), and leaving the lease question to the dis- 
cretion of Edwards, subject to restrictions already given. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 329 

JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
INA:GL0, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814: ALS] 

Cincinnati, May 13, 1813. Surveyor General's Office. 

Sir, I have the honour to inclose a plan of Shawnee Town," reject- 
ing the first 90 Out Lots of the first Plan, and numbering the remaining 
270 Lots agreeably to your directions. It is to be regretted that a 
more particular description did not accompany the Plan executed by 
Mr. Dobbins. 

I presume, on reflection, that it will not be necessary to send another 
Plan similar to the first— This Plan will, I hope meet with the appro- 
bation of the Department. 

I am, with Esteem, and very respectfully yours. 

J Meigs 

Hon. Edward Tiffin, Esquu-e.— 

[Addressed] Hon. Edward Tiffin, Esquire Commissioner of the 
General Land-Office Treasury Department. 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati 13 May, 1813. Surveyor General, with a 
corrected plat of Shawnee Town N° 7 



MICHAEL JONES AND JOHN CALDWELL TO THE 
SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY 

[NA:GL0, Kaskaskia, Reg. and Rec. Lets.rLS] 

Kaskaskia May IS*" 1813. 
Sir In compliance with yoiu- letter of the 7'" of May 1810 " the 
former Board of Commissioners transmited to you a second disig- 
nation of the tract contemplated by the first section of the act of the 
21°'' of April 1806. which in quantity does not much exceed the 
aggregate of all the claims both confirmed and rejected; and includes 
the principal part of the improvements made by the Owners of 
Bonafide claims — This disignation being made in conformity with 
your wishes as expressed in your letter of that date, it was presumed 
would meet your sanction — but as no communication has been 
received from you since on this subject; and having been informed by 
Col° Bond that you deemed the tract too large — we have been induced 
to believe that the Communication containing that disignation did 
not reach you. We therefore enclose to you a platt of that designa- 
tion " — and in relation to which we beg leave to remark — that should 
you be of Opinion that those persons who have actually inhabited & 



« Not present. 
" Ante, p. 98. 
'5 Not present. 



330 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 



cultivated land within this reserve are intitled to the benefits of the 
act giving the right of pre-emption in the purchase of lands to certain 
settlers in the Illinois Territory — Approved on the 5'" of February 
1813 ** — we have no hisitation in giving it as our opinion that the 
reserA'ation herewith submitted, will not do more than satisfy such 
pre-emptioners & the holders of unlocated claims with Cultivable 
land. But should your Opinion be that such Settlers are not entitled 
to the right of pre-emption given by the before recited act, We would 
recommend the exclusion of the following Townships from that 
reservation, to wit. Township N" 4 N in range N° 9 W, also Township 
N° 4 North Range N° 8 W. likewise Townships N" 4, 3, 2, 1. North 
in Range N" 7 West and Township N" 1 South in Range N" 7 West 
to gether with Township N° 7 South in Range N° 4 W. & Town- 
ships N" 7 & 8 South in Range N" 3 west." 

We are very respectfully Sir, your most obed' & Hum' Serv*' 

Mich' Jones 
Jn" Caldwell 

The Hon' Albert Gallatin Sec^ of the Treas'' of the United 
States— 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia, 18 May, 1813. Register and Receiver, 
relative to the reservation for locating Claims. — 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 

[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814 :ALS] 

Cincinnati, May 22, 1813 Surveyor General's Office, 
Sir I have this day received your letter dated May 7, accompanied 

with a Copy of the Land Laws passed in 1811 and 1812.^' 
On a conversation yesterday with Stanley Griswold Esq; Judge of 

the Illinois Territorj', I have been induced to suggest to the Treasury 

Department an alteration of that plan of Shawnee Town of which a 

copy was transmitted on the 13th of this Month. 
In the Plan are several Fractional Lots, viz: 

6, at the E. end of the 1'' Tier, on the River: viz. No. 449—450— 
451—452—453-454— 

7, at the W. end of the 1" Tier; No. 461—462—463^464—465— 
466—467 

4, at the E. end of the 2" Tier; No. 445—446—447—448.— 

4, at the W. end of the 2" Tier; No. 413— 414— 415— 416 - 

6, at the E. end of the 3" Tier; No. 361—362—363—364—365—366. 

6, at the W. end of the 3" Tier; No. 407—408—409—410—411^112. 

«2 Stat. 797-798. 

•' Answered yosl, p. -344. 

"NA (GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv). 



•ILLINOIS TERRITORY 331 

If these fractional Lots are rejected it will probably increase the 
value of the whole Lots in their rear, and indeed, of the whole Town ; 
because, if these Lots are sold, they will probably be occupied by 
persons of no real benefit to Society, and the view of the River will be 
much impeded. — Philadelphia N. York and most other towns have 
been injiu-ed by suffering their river or harbour banks to be too much 
encroached upon — I might have given Cincinnati as another example 
of the same bad policy. The City of Bordeaux is admired for its 
beauty, neatness and convenience; depending, materially, on its 
having a spacious area open between the buildings and the River 
Bank — 

I am with Esteem, & very respectfully, Yours; 

JosiAH Meigs. 

Hon. Edward Tiffin, Esq. 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire Commissioner 
of the General Land Office — Treasury Department Washington City — 
[Postmarked] Cincinnati 24 May 1813 Surveyor General's Office 
J Meigs. Free 

[Endorsed] rec June 1813 J Meigs Surveyor General recommending 
an improvement in Shawnee town 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Elvirade Randolph County Illinois Territory May 2A. 1813 
Sir The inhabitants of this territory particularly to the East and 
South East of Kaskaskia being greatly harrassed by the vexatious 
inroads of the savages, and terrified by repeated instances of their 
bloody ferocity — and ha\'ing myself satisfactorily ascertained the 
rout of their incursions, I determined about the first of this month to 
make the greatest effort in my power to drive them from their hiding 
places, and if possible to intercept them on their retreat — For which 
purpose I put all the mounted men I could raise into motion detach- 
ments of whom moved simultaneously from different points of the 
territory in such a manner as to favor the general design — Three of 
them marched from the counties on the Ohio one up the Little 
Wabash, another up Big Muddy Creek and the third up Saline Creek, 
all pursuing a northern direction the course the Indians had travelled 
in coming in — Another detachment consisting of three companies 
commanded by Major Benjamin Stephenson marched from F"^ Russel 
to the old Kickapoo Town on Mink river a fork of the Sanguemon — 
Two other companies were left to operate between the Kaskaskia and 
Illinois rivers while another in a well fortified boat ascended the latter 
river to Peoria — 



332 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

At the same time that all these different movements were directed 
with a proper regard to the safety and protection of the frontiers — I 
did hope that the companies from the Ohio would be able to start the 
indians and that Stephensons detachment might have intercepted 
them or that some of the detachments might cross the trails and fall 
in behind those who might be coming into the settlements — But an 
attempt which I had made a short time before to execute a similar 
plan which succeeded only partially in consequence of heavy rains & 
high waters by alarming the indians and causing their removal pre- 
vented as much success as otherwise might have been justly hoped for 
from the latter one. It must however be attended with beneficial 
consequences if it should only by increasing the fears of the savages, 
render their \-isits less frequent it may be the means of saving many 
valuable lives and I cannot doubt that it will have this effect at least — 
They appeared to have lately occupied and hastily fied from the village 
and its \'icinity — Every detachment discovered a good deal of indian 
sign — Colo Trammel at the head of one of them persued a party of 
the savages from the neighbourhood of the U. S. Saline to the waters 
of Illinois river when his horses became so fatigued and exhausted that 
he was obliged most reluctantly to quit the pursuit — Another party 
was discovered by a part of Majr Stephensons detachment, but they 
could not be overtaken — The old Kickapoo %'illage is now burnt as 
you will see by Majr Stephensons report to me which I have the honor 
herewith to transmit — 

The kind of ranging which I have adopteti may be deemed very 
hazardous — but were it so there is no other alternative but to en- 
counter the danger or suffer either the continual and indiscriminate 
slaughter of men women and children at their owm habitations or the 
total abandonment of the countrj' — Rangers used any other way 
afford very little more protection than infantry, and the danger is 
not as great as may be immagined — Every since last fall the Illinois 
indians have constantly apprehended an attack upon them & I have 
done every thing in my power to encourage that belief — They col- 
lected together last winter, built & occupied a fort, consumed their 
provisions, had little opportunity of hunting, and have all this year 
been kept out of their best hunting grounds Wherefore the want of 
provisions and not knowing precisely when to expect us must prevent 
them from embodying in any great number on this side of the Illinois 
river. On that river they can subsist on the fish which it abundantly 
affords — 

Captain Jarrot who commanded the armed boat went to Peoria, 
heard the indians shooting on both sides of the river, took an indian 
horse & several canoes and chased an indian in another one who made 
his escape by runing into the bottoms which were over flowed for 
several miles. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 333 

This sufficiently proves the utility of boats & the advantage of 
employing them, they enable a small body of men to keep the 
savages in constant terror & can safely go where it might be imprudent 
to send less than a very large force in any other way. 

With one thousand mounted men and four armed boats I have no 
doubt I could clear the Illinois river of our troublesome neighbours 
and prevent one grain of corn from being raised on it — which would 
produce infinite distress among them, and with it perfect submis- 
sion — We continue to receive evidences of the hostile machinations 
of Dickson on the Missisippi 

Were it proper for me to do so I could point out many substantial 
reasons in favor of an expedition of mounted men from F' Wayne to 
the Indian villages of S' Josephs river and Lake Michagan as auxiliary 
to Gen' Harrisons operations — It would certainly withdraw the 
warriors of the Lake from the british to the defence of their families 
or produce the removal of all the men women & children to Maiden — 
The first would weaken the british force — the last measure would be 
equally destructive by requiring more provisions than they could con- 
veniently command and very probably would eventuate in the disgust 
of both parties at their alliance. 

The tours of duty of the militia that I have had in Service will expire 
in a few days when I shall discharge, and shall not attempt to raise 
any more without instructions — 

From the conduct of the Indians, I am convinced it is their intention 
if possible to take the mail between Kaskaskia & the Ohio — the south- 
ern rout is much the safest 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y' Mo Obd* S' 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Honble John Armstrong Secy of War Washington City 

[Addressed] The Hon'ble John Armstrong Secretary of War 
Washington City 

[Endorsed] Elvirade May 24 1813 Gov. N. Edwards His rangers 
have returned without meeting an enemy — destroyed the old Kicka- 
poo Village— Rec" June 1813 ^' 

[Enclosure: ALS] 

Benjamin Stephenson to Governor Edwards 

Northern Frontier Illinois Territory May 20'" 1813 

Sir In obedience to your orders I commenced my march from 

Fort Russell on the 8'" Instant with a detachment of rangers consisting 

of the Companies of Captains James B. Moore Jacob Short & William 

Boone I kept my course along the ridge that seperates the waters 

" No reply found. 



334 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

of Kaskaskia from those of Illinois and Sanguemon rivers untill I 
arrived at a point opposite the celebrated old Kickapoo Village of 
the Praire — To which I then steered my course and crossing the 
Sanguemon arrived at it on the seventh day of my march being then 
opposite to and within a little better than one days march of Crow 
Praire on the Illinois river forty five miles above Peoria — On ap- 
proaching the Town every precaution was adopted to surprise the 
enemy had they been there but unfortunately we arrived too late — 
none were to be found but from the sign we discovered it was very 
evident that a party of them had left that place not more than three 
or four days previous to our arrival & in its vicinity was an indian 
camp containing fourteen lodges of considerable size that had been 
recently abandoned which together with the Town — we bumt^ — in the 
latter there were some very large houses built in the first style of 
indian archetecture and a considerable number of smaller ones — 
Finding no enemy to oppose us I divided by detachment in three 
parts to return by different routs hoping thereby that some or all 
might intercept some of those savages who had been committing 
murders on our frontiers and had not yet returned to their Villages— 
On my return with Capt Shorts company I crossed Mink river about 
twenty miles below the old Town — and on the dividing ridge between 
that river and Sanguemon was found a new Indian Camp in which the 
lodges were connected for about twenty five yards — Which must 
have been very lately and hastely deserted — some of the lodges not 
being entirely covered & fresh bark and other materials lying ready 
for the erection of others — Much other indian sign was discovered 
but it appeared to have been made about three or four weeks before 
and no doubt can exist that a considerable number of the savages 
had occupied that quarter and were driven from it by the terrer 
which was created by the march of the detachment lately commanded 
by Captain William B. Whiteside — Nothing further occured except 
the discovery of six indians by three of Cap' Moores men on their 
return home — In common with all the officers and men whom I had 
the honor to command I regret that we had no oppertunity of a fair 
conflict with the enemy — Nevertheless I am persuaded that our tour 
must have an important effect in relieving the frontier from those 
Sanguinary savages that have so seriously infested it — Their Villages 
& Camps burnt — the heart of their own country penetrated — They 
must see the danger of and be detered from making their hostile 
incursions by the practicability of our discovering their tracks falling 
in behind them & persuing them into the settlements on which they 
meditate an attack — of the conduct of all the officers I cannot speak 
too highly — that of the men was equally correct — In a very fatiguing 
march thro praires in many parts so wet & miry as to sink the horses 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 335 

to their knees at every step not a murmur or complaint was beared^ 
harmony per\'aded the whole corps — every order was promptly 
obeyed — All were anxious for an opportunity of distinguishing them- 
selves & I believe would have been willing to have gone double the 
distance to have obtained it — The Battalion which I have the honor 
to command, as well as }rourself are convinced that is it impossible 
to keep the savages from our frontier without ranging at a consider- 
able distance out side of the settlements and they are ready and willing 
at all times to encounter all the dangers & toiles that attend it — They 
have no wish to be idle. 

I have the honor to be sir very respectfully your most Ob' & Hum' 
Ser' 

Ben'" Stephenson Major 

To HIS EXCELLENCY NiNIAN EDWARDS Com' in Chief 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOSIAH MEIGS 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv:LS] 

Treasury Department General Land Office. 27'" May 1813. — 
Sir, That part of the public lands in the Illinois Territory which 
lies east of the third principal meridian and west of the district of 
Vincennes, ha\ang been, by the act of 21^' February 1812,^° erected 
into a new land district, the office to be established at Shawnee Town; 
I will thank you for all the information j^our Office can furnish with 
respect to the surveys which have been made in that district. — In 
this Office we have some sketches and outlines of townships, said to 
have been subdivided, but not so exhibited; they, moreover, are 
defective in certain important points, and are on scales too small to 
permit graphical subdivisions of 36 sections in each compleat town- 
ship. — We could enlarge them, it is true; but in that case the fractional 
townships and more particularly the fractional sections would by no 
means be truly represented. In addition to these defects no quanti- 
ties are stated : and in fact that was neither expected nor required in 
them; since they are not official returns. — 

If you can send me a plat of the surveys already made in the 
district, exliibiting the subdivisions of the townships, and the con- 
nection of sectional lines with those of private claims (of which I 
understand there are not more than six or eight) together with the 
connecting lines of the general surs^ey and Shawnee Town — I will 
thank you to do so as early as possible. — The enquiries lately made 
respecting the survey of the district have rendered the subject inter- 
esting. Whether it is at present contemplated to direct any public 

M 2 Stat. 684. 



336 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

sales I have not understood; but much solicitude was manifested two 
years ago, when we were unprepared for them, by many who expected 
to become purchasers. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, Sir Your obedient servant 

Edward Tiffin Commissioner 

JosiAH Meigs Esquire. 

[Addressed] Josiah Meigs Esq'; Surveyor General Cincinnati — 
[Postmarked] Wash" City May 29 Edward Tiffin Treasury Department 
General Land Office Free 

[Endorsed] E Tiffin, May 27. 1813 Rec" June 11. 1813 



WILLIAM SPRIGG TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

INA:SD, Applications: ALS] 

May 27. 1813 
Sir Understanding Some time ago and not hearing the contrary 
Since that a Vacancy might at an early period be expected on the 
Bench of the General Court of the Illinois Territory I beg leave 
respectfully to State that Should it be the will of the President to 
nominate me to Such vacant office he will be at the same time at 
liberty to nominate a Successor to the office I have held under his 
Commission of May 1812." 

I am very respectfully Sir, your ob' Sv' 

W" Sprigg 
Hon"" James Monroe Sec'' of State U. S. 

[Addressed] Hon"" James Monroe Sec" of State U. S. Washington 
City 

[Endorsed] 27 May 1813. Judge Sprigg solicits the appointment of 
Judge in the Illinois Territory in case of a Vacancy. 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE 

[NA:SF, 13 Cong., 1 sess.:LS] 

Treasury Department General Land Office 29'" May 1813 
Sir I enclose the copy of a letter from the Register of the Land 
Office at Kaskaskia,'^ and of three Statements made by him, under 
special circumstances, of claims to Land in that district, the entries 
of which not having been filed in due time, did not come under the 
consideration of the Commissioners appointed in pursuance of the 
act of Congress passed. 20'" February 1812." 

•' As Judge of Louisiana Territory. 

w NA (SF), printed, A.S.P., Pub. Lands, ii, 741-742. 

a 2 Stat. 677-678. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 337 

It may not be improper to observe, that in cases where claimants of 
400 Acres donation, as heads of Families, had previously been con- 
firmed in militia rights of 100 Acres, the late board of Commissioners 
uniformly allowed only 300 Acres on the former account; and their 
decisions were confirmed by Congress — All the cases are founded on 
the 1=' 2°'» & 6'" sections of the Act of S"" March 1791," page 263 of 
the Land Laws 

I have the honor to be very respectfully Sir Your obed* Serv* 

Edward Tiffin 
Commiss' of the General Land Office 

The honorable the President of the Senate. 

[Addressed] The Honorable The President of the Senate of the 
United States 

[Endorsed] 13 Cong. 1 Sess S Letter from the Commissioner of the 
General land office 1813 June 1 Read & to lie" With a large roll 
Series 8 S file This report appears to be perfect. 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE 

[NA:SF, 13 Cong., 1 sess.:LS ««] 

Treasury Department General Land Office 29*" May 1813 
Sir I have the honor to transmit a Copy of the reports of the 
Commissioners appointed under the Act of 20"" Feb'' 1812 for the 
revision of claims to land in the District of Kaskaskia founded on, 

1 Ancient french grants, 

2 Rights derived from improvement & cultivation. 

3 Rights derived as heads of families to donations. 

4 Rights to donations derived from the performance of militia duty, 
which were confirmed by governors of the northwestern & Indiana 
territories respectively. 

In cases where the commissioners appear to have been satisfied that 
the claims were fully sanctioned by the Law, they have in explicit 
terms recommended confirmations of them. The reports relative 
to these are given in numbers 1, 4, 8, 9, 10 & 11 and 13." 

When investigating in doubtful cases, the validity of the confirma- 
tions which had been made by the governors, the commissioners acting 
up to what they conceived to be the spirit of the Law, discovered some 
upon which they could not, satisfactorily to themselves, decide; these 
are, 



" Terr. Papers (N.W.), 11, 339-342; 1 Stat. 221-222. 

'' Senate Journal, v, 311. 

" Printed also in A.S.P., op. cit., pp. 740-741. 

" See ante, p. 281 



338 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

1'* When the oral, traditionary, or written proofs, or documents, 
adduced in support of the claim appeared on the whole to preponderate 
in its favor; but were nevertheless (generally) insufficient to authorize 
their recommendation of its confirmation, consistently with the express 
t^rms of the law. 

2n<iiy When the insufficiency of oral, traditionary, or written proofs, 
or documents, adduced in support of the claim would have compelled 
them to a rejection of it; but that circumstances, which it would seem 
they deemed worthy of consideration withheld them from making an 
absolute decision thereon. 

In both events, they have respectfully left the merits of the respec- 
tive claims to be decided upon by Congres.s — The reports on thfise are 
Riven in N" 2, 7 & 12." 

There are special cases on which the comm" have pronounced an 
unreserved disapprobation and rejection, upon grounds which appear 
to have been considered by them as incontrovertible. These are 

Claims confirmed by governors said to be founded on ancient grants. 
[Claims confirmed by governors] said to be founded on Militia rights, 
which ought not in their opinion to be sanctioned by Congress. On 
examination of the reasons given for these rejections, I find, with 
respect to the first class, that when the original grant, or the evidence 
of Concession, whereon the Governor predicated his confirmation, 
could not be produced — the claimants or their agents were notified 
that further evidence was required : and that, if after such notice the 
titles could not be proved, recourse was had to examination, upon 
oath, of the ancient Inhabitants in the neighborhood of the claim; and 
their testimony seems to have proved that no concession of the lands in 
question was ever known to have been made to the original claimants. 

In this part of the report there are anomalous claims among which I 
find that one has been rejected because a patent had before been 
granted by the governor for the same land to the same assignee under 
other original claimants. That a second has been rejected because 
the commissioners had before confirmed 400 acres out of 1354; for the 
residue of which no concession could be proved — That a third has been 
rejected because it had been previously confirmed to the assignee of 
the Heirs of the original claimant; and the commissioners have there- 
fore left the Heirs to contest their right before a proper tribunal. 
That a fourth has been rejected in forcible terms — It is for an immense 
quantity of land (nearly 14,000 acres) & is the case of Baynton & 
others," mentioned by M' Gallatin in the appendix to the book of 



•• A.S.P., op. eit., pp. 213-214. 220-226. 230-235. 
» See ibid., p. 139. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 339 

Land Laws, pages 26, 27, 28 & 29 & 30. That the fifth & last under 
this head has been rejected on account of fraud pojury & forgery. 

Of the claims under militia rights there are only two which have been 
rejected:' one of them in particular bothjby the former and present 
board of Commissioners.'" The reports relative to these are to be 
found under N°= 3 & 14.«' 

In two cases specially reported in N» 5, the commissioners have 
stated their want of opportunity to enquire into the validity, or to 
prove the invalidity of the governors confirmations.'^ 

Under N" 6 is reported a special confirmation founded on improve- 
ment & cultivation a part of which is claimed by adverse claimants, 
between whom the commissioners are unable to decide; and another 
part by one, with respect to whose title they have not unanimously 
agreed " 

I have the honor to be Sir very respectfully your obed* Serv' 

Edward Tiffin 
Commissioner of the General Land Office 

The honorable The President of the Senate. 

Note. For the papers referred in this letter See N" 180 page — 123 

[Endorsed] 13 Cong., 1 Sess. S Letter from the Commissioner of the 
General Land Office transmitting a Copy of the reports of the Com- 
missioners appointed under the act of 20'" Febr'' 1812, for the revision 
of Claims to land in the district of Kaskaskia May 31" Read & to lie 
Series 8 S. file 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO H. SKINNER 
[PO:P. M. Letter Book S] 

June 1st 1813 
H Skinner Esq Fort Massac, 111 T. 

I am favoured with your letter of april 26th" the contractor is fined 
for his riders negligence — what is the riders name a person of bad 
character should not be intrusted with the mail. I have sent you 
this day one of my circular letters of Nov 18'" 

G Gr 



"o The respective claims, as assignees, of John Edgar and William Mcintosh, 
ibid., p. 238. 

•' That is, comprising both ancient French grants and militia rights, ihid., pp. 
214-217, 238-239. 

»2 Ibid., p. 219. 

w Ibid., pp. 219-220. 

M Not found. 



340 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

COMMISSION OF SECRETARY POPE 

[NA:SD, Misc. Perm. Comms., D:C] 

[June 1, 1813] 
James Madison, President of the United States of America, 
To all who shall see these presents, Greeting 

Know Ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the 

Integrity, Diligence and Ability of Nathaniel Pope, of Kentucky, I 

have nominated, and by and with the advice and consent of the 

Senate, do appoint him Secretary in and for the Illinois Territory; " 

and do authorize and empower him to execute and fulfil the duties of 

that office according to Law; and to Have and to Hold the said 

office, with all the powers, privileges and emoluments to the same of 

right appertaining for the term of four years from the day of the date 

hereof, unless the President of the United States for the time being 

should be pleased sooner to revoke and determine this Commission 

In Testimony whereof I have caused these Letters to be 

L.s made patent, and the Seal of the United States to be hereunto 

affixed. Given under my hand at the City of Washington 

the first day of June A D 1813; and of the Independence of the U 

States the Thirty Seventh. 

James Madison 
By the President 
Jas Monroe Secy of State. 



PETITION TO CONGRESS BY THOMAS SLOO 
[NA:SF, 13 Cong., 1 sess.:DS] 

[Referred June 4, 1813] 
To the H(mordble Senate & House of Representatives of the United 

States of America in congress assembled 

The petition of Thomas Sloo of Cincinnati, in the State of Ohio, 
humbly sheweth: That on the 16'" of April 1812 your petitioner was 
appointed by the President of the United States, a commissioner for 
examining and enquiring into the validity of claims to land in the 
District of Kaskaskia, derived from confirmations made or pretended 
to have been made by the Governors of the North- West and Indiana 
Territories respectively: That in pursuance of said appointment he 
repaired to the District of Kaskaskia and continued in the execution 
of the duties until sometime in January 1813: That your petitioner 
has been subject to much loss of time & of property in performing the 
duties of said appointment, for which the compensation allowed by 

" Nominated May 29 and confirmed June 1, 1813 {Senate, Exec. Journal, II, 
347, 348). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 341 

law is in no wise an adequate recompence. And, your petitioner was 
appointed by the Board of Commissioners to bring on the report of 
the claims to the seat of Government, which service he performed, 
but received no compensation for the same as none was provided by 
law; your petitioner therefore prays that his case may be taken into 
consideration, and such attitional compensation allowed to him as 
he in justice merits: and your petitioner as in duty bound will ever 
pray. 

Tho' Sloo 

[Endorsed] 13 Cong. 1 Sess S Petition of Thomas Sloo of Cincin- 
nati, in the State of Ohio. 1813 June 4 read & referred t6 M"' Morrow, 
Worthington & M"' Tait. 7 June Reported as bill «' 

[Enelosure:DS] 

Statement of Michael Jones and John Caldwell 

[January 5, 1813] 
At the request of the Board of Commissioners M"' Sloo at attended 
at Kahokia and at S' Genevieve for the purpose of taking some 
testimony relative to claims then pending before them. 
Kaskaskia January 5'" 1813 

Mich' Jones \^ 

jN-CALDWELLr^^^^^^^'^^^'''' 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JUDGE GRISWOLD 

[PO:P.M. Letter Books] 

June 7'" 1813 
Stanly Griswold Esq Cincinnati Oh 

My friend yours of may 23'' is before me;'' some weeks since I 
granted M"^ Arrundel a Salary of $150 pr An, Every thing here is 
interesting but I am too pressed to wi-ite 

G Gr 



RESOLUTION BY THE SOCIETY OF TRUE AMERICANS 
[LC:HF, 13 Cong., 2 sess.:C] 

[June 10, 1813] 
In the Clinton Hill branch of the society of True Americans at the 
house of M"' John Messinger on Thursday the 10'" June 1813 

The Society on taking in to Consideration the Law of Congress, 
passed on the 5"^ February last "giving the right of pre-emption to 

«» Senate Journal, v, 312, 314. See act approved July 5, 1813 (6 Stat. 120), 
authorizing the payment of $500 to Sloo. 
•' Not found. 



342 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

certain setlers in the Illinois Territory"," and believing that the 
design of Congress in passing the s" act was generous, and benevolent 
— but humbly concieving, that from some unthought of casualty the 
Law does not in its present structure imbrace fully, that generous, 
and benevolent, design; came to the following resolution, that our 
delegate in Congress, endeavor to have the'said"pre-emption-Law 
amended in some such way as the following, (either by amendment 
or suppliment) That is to say — That such sitlers as hold unlocated — 
Confirmed claims be allowed to cover thier improvements therewith — 
that such as have not such claims, be permitted to purchase of those 
who have, to cover thier improvements with. Or, of Congress, at one 
dollar per acre, and not exceeding half a section — As donations of 
four hundred acres have heretofore been given — we think it not 
unreasonable to ask for the present setlers three hundred and twenty 
— when at one dollar p' acre — that all setlers as have no improvements, 
and all single men who have served, or are now in ser\'ice in the united 
States Rangers, or in the Militia, be also intitled to, not exceeding 
three hundred and twenty acres at the said price, of one dollar p' 
acre by purchase from the United States or by laying thereon any 
unlocated confirmed claims, and we think the revenue, that might 
be collected would soon amount the present price — Then Open 
the Sales of the public lands, and say, when any setlers. Rangers or 
Militia as above Stated purchase of the united states, and pay one 
twentieth part of the purchase Money — let one year be given to 
compleat the first fourth of the whole amount of purchase and the 
remaining three fourths be paid in as many annual payments, as 
have here to fore been given in the Sales of the public lands — we 
presume to say, that unless some such mode be adopted, that from 
our knowledge of the present setlers — not one in twenty will recieve 
any, the smalest benifit from the preemption law — in which case the 
labor of the present setlers, will fall into the hands of any speculator, 
who may purchase the lands, on which thier (the setlers) labor has 
been bestowed; and many poor famelies honest and industrious, will 
eventually be turned out of doors — not being able in forty days to, 
pay up one fourth of the whole of the purchase Money — 

Resolved unanimously that a copy of the above resolution be made 
out, signed by the President and attested by the Secretary, and forth 
with sent to M' Bond our delegate in Congress, requesting him to 
use his utmost exertions to carry the same into efTect, by ha^^ng the 
Law thus modeled — 

Signed Ab"" Iman, President 

True Copy Attested 
James D. Thomas secretary — 

M2 Stat. 797-798. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 343 

[Endorsed] Resolutions of sundry inhabitants of the Illinois territory 
(styling themselves, A Society of True Americans.) 10*" July 1813. 
Ordered to lie on the table. 21" December 1813 Ref to the Com- 
mittee on Public Lands. 26: March, 1814. Report made, agreed 
to, and petition rejected «'— M' Bond to Pub Lands M"^ Bond lie 
on ye Table 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 5] 

Treasury Department, General Land Office, 12*" June, 1813. 

Sir, Your letter of 20th ult" to the secretary of the treasury, '" has 
been handed to me, by which I learn you think it advisable that 
letters to you should be sent, via Russelville. I therefore enclose 
herein a copy of my letter of 10*" instant." 

I am &" E. T. Com' 

I herein enclose a copy of my letter to you of the 10*" May, 1813. 
E. T. Com"- 

His excellency, N. Edwards, Governor Illinois terr'' Kaskaskia, 
via Russelville. 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Elvirade Randolph County Illinois Territory June 15. 1813 
Sir On the 8 Inst I had the honor to receive your letter of the 4 
Ult.,'- that of the 4 of April has not yet reached me '^ which I very 
much regret as it might have saved me the pain of feelings which with 
the difficulty and embarrassment of my situation have been too 
mortifying to have been entirely repressed — I have thought that the 
crisis which has been manifested by testimonies bloody and convinc- 
ing required that I should have had full and explicit instructions, 
instead of which I have yet received none and know not whether my 
conduct is approved or not — I have however the consolation to be- 
lieve, that I can demonstrate the necessity expediency & utility of the 
Course I have persued to any impartial tribunal whenever a fair 
opportunity of doing so shall be afforded me — 



09 House Journal, XX, 87, 180, 365. 

'o Not found. 

" Not found. 

" NA (WD, SW, Lets. Sent, MiL Bk. 7). 

" Not seen. 



344 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Your request with regard to Gen' Howard has been comphed with 
and as he has taken command in this territory '* I shall avail myself 
of the respite it affords me to go to the Southern part of Kentucky to 
see my family from whom I have been seperated nine months. 

If you should have any Communications to make to me I will 
thank you to transmit them to Russelsville — I shall be ready to 
execute your orders with promptitude 

I have the honor to be with very great respect Sir Yr Mo Obd' Serv* 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Honble John Armstrong Secy of War Washington City 
[Addressed] The Honble John Armstrong SecryofWar Washington 
City 

[Endorsed] 111. T. June 15. 1813 Gov. Edwards Has rec'' letter of the 
4'" — expected long since instructions &c — Rec* July 1813 " 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO MICHAEL JONES AND JOHN 
CALDWELL 

(NA:GLO/Misc. Lets. Sent/Bk. 5] 

Treasury Department, General Land office 21'' June, 1813. 

Gentlemen, I have received your letter, dated the 18'" ultimo," 
enclosing a plat of the tract directed to be designated by the law of 
the 21"' April, 1806," for the location of lands in your district, granted 
by virtue of any legal French and British grants, or of any resolution 
or act of Congress. 

With the respect to the question whether those persons who have 
actually inhabited and cultivated land within that reserve, are 
entitled to the benefit of the act of 5'" February, 1813, giving the 
right of pre-emption; I am decidedly of opinion that they cannot, 
legally, make any purchases therein. — 

The act authorising the reservation, prohibits the tract from being 
otherwise disposed of, unless by order of Congress; — and the act giving 
the right of pre-emption provides, expressly, that no lands reserved 
from sale by former acts, shall be sold under its authority. Unless, 
therefore, it should be otherwise ordered by Congress, I think that 



'« Howard was commissioned Brigadier General, Mar. 12, 1813 {Senate, Exec. 
Journal, ii, 356). This was a recess appointment, and he was nominated to the 
same office June 15 and confirmed June 21, 1813, ibid., pp. 355, 373. See instruc- 
tions, Apr. 10, 1813 (Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., XIV). 

" No reply found. 

w Ante, p. 329. 

n 2 Stat. 395-396. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 345 

the townships mentioned by you, should be excluded from the general 
tract. — 

I am, &" 

Michael Jones and John Caldwell, Esq' Register and receiver, 
Kaskaskia, Illinois terry. 



JUDGE STUART TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[NA:SD, Resignations :ALS] 

Staunton July 1°' 1813 

Sir — Circumstances which I cannot Controul have rendered a 
longer residence in the Territory of Illinois highly inconvenient to 
me — I therefore through you, take the liberty of tendering to the 
President of the United States my resignation of the office of Judge 
which I now hold in & over that Territory 

I am very respectfully Your very Hble Serv* Alex' Stuart 

The Hon"'* James Monroe 

[Addressed] The Hon"'* James Monroe Secretary of State Washing- 
ton Mail 

[Endorsed] 1 July 1813. Judge Stuart's resignation Judge Stuart 
resignation 



WILLIAM MEARS TO ACTING GOVERNOR POPE 

[ISL:Exec. Recs., Govt. Corr., 1809-13:ALS] 

Illinois Territory Randolph County Kaskaskia 2 July 1813 
To Nathaniel Pope Esquire Secretary of the Territory aforesaid and 

Exercising the Government thereof 

Sir I hereby inform You that at the last June Term of the Court of 
Common pleas of the County aforesaid three indictment were found 
by the Grand Jury of said County for passing Counterfeit coin in the 
Similitude of the Current Money of the United States of America (To 
wit) Spanish Milled Dollars and that said accused at the time of 
passing said Counterfeit money knew the same to be false and counter- 
feit and thereby intended to & did defraud the person who received 
said counterfeit Money and one of said offenders is now in Custody for 
said offence & the other Two will be shortly arrested in all probability 

This being an offence against the Laws of the United States and 
triable in the district Court of the United States only I at this early 
date inform you that I shall not by virtue of my office of Attorney 
General of this Territory prosecute any of said Delinquents that there 
may be ample time to obtain an attorney to prosecute in behalf of the 



346 TERRITORI AL PAPERS 

General Government by the time these trials will likely come on 
which will be in November next 

With Sentiments of high regard I am Sir Your Excellency's humble 
Ob* Serv* 

W" Mears 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

INA:SD, 111. Terr. Papers:ALS] 

RussELSViLLE Logan County Kentucky July 6. 1813 
Sir The military command in the Illinois Territory having been 
transfered to Brigadier Gen' Howard on the 16'" Ultimo I felt myself 
at liberty to visit my family (at that place) from whom I had been 
seperated about ten months in consequence of my necessary attention 
to the frontiers. I arrived only a few days ago — and am now engaged 
in endeavouring to make an arrangement desired by the President in 
regard to the United States Saline. 

I beg leave through you to request the Presidents permission to visit 
the neighbourhood of Washington, of which however I will not avail 
myself if I should discover that my presence will be necessary in the 
territory — Ten years ago I married in the vicinity of Geo Town since 
which time circumstances have not permitted me to visit that place 
altho' my wife has set an estate there that is going to destruction and 
requires my presence. I have not thought proper to go without con- 
sulting the president — and if the most laborious deligent and painful 
attention to my duties hitherto gives me any claim to an indulgence 
which others have taken without leave I hope to obtain it — I have not 
till the present time been one day absent from my post since the 
Indians first commenced their depredations — and with a constitution 
very delicate indeed I do believe that I have since August last under- 
gone as much fatigue and hardship as any soldier in the army — during 
all which time (altho I flatter myself Bay scrTico s my services have 
been useful) I have not had the consolation to know that they have 
met the approbation of the President — nor indeed have I been fortu- 
nate enough to recei\^e any instructions what to do or how to act during 
the whole time that the Indians have been harrassing our frontier in 
the wars of the present year. I have had to act upon my ovm respon- 
sibility, and with a fortune equal to my wishes I know I might be 
received if my conduct should be disapproved. In a case where the 
safety of the citizens, the honor and interests of our common country, 
my own reputation, and my pecuniary responsibilities all combined 
a sufficient apology at least for my earnestly soliciting instructions, 
for my asking to know whether my conduct was right or wrong ap- 
proved or disapproved, that it might be abandoned if disapproved, 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 347 

or receive the sanction of authority if otherwise — I confess I have been 
mortified at the silence of the Honble Secy of War upon these sub- 
jects — Being however a friend to the administration from principle, 
no cause '^ [MS. torn] conduct could induce me to withdraw my 
humble'^ support from measures which I sincerely approve — and par- 
ticularly nothing shall prevent me from affording all the support in 
my power to the war in which we are engaged. 

For the justice which you have done to my exertions as I have 
learn't thro Judge Stuart & Gen' Clarke, I beg you to accept my most 
unfeigned thanks'" 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Yr Mo obd' S* 

N Edwards 

[Addressed] The Hon"" James Monroe Secy of State Washington 
City free 

[Endorsed] Gov"' Edwards Ninian Edwards July 6 1813. 
Request to be acceded to With reference to his judgment on the 
state of things at the time.*' 



BENJAMIN HOWARD TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Head Quarters St Louis July 9'" 1813 
Sir. The Indians have become extremely troublesome on the 
frontier a great number of horses have been stolen lately from Illinois, 
eleven of the Rangers on the 4*" Inst met about the same number of 
Winebegoes near Fort mason — a conflict took place one of the Rangers 
was killed thi-ee wounded one mortally since dead, two of the Indians 
were killed, I am not informed as to the number of their wounded; 
The Pawtawatimies have returned to the Head of Peoria Lake and are 
settled in their villages which they left last Fall, It will be imposable 
to guard the frontier completely agaenst the inroads of those savages, 
unless I make a movement against them in their villages, which if I 
do I trust will be approved, upon the Subject of erecting a garrison 
at Praire Du Chi en I refer you to my letter of March 1812,*'* I will 
now merely observe that a military Establishment there would con- 
tribute much to restore peace between the U. S. and the Indians, and 
would be necessary even in time of peace to enforce our laws of Inter- 
course with the Indians. I believe I could effect it in Sep* even with 
the means I now have if authorised, the movement would be by water, 

" Another possible reading is "course". 

" Reading of this word is uncertain; the MS. is faded. 

8" Answered post, p. 349. 

'1 In pencil, across the first page. 

8'* Mar. 19, 1812, printed, Terr. Papers (La.-Mo.), xiv. 



348 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Should you approve this I would recommend that your letter on the 
subject should be sent to Vincennes by mail with instructions to be 
forwarded by Express, indeed the Service is suffering owing to the 
delay in bringing on your dispatches and if you were to adopt that 
[MS. torn] generally in your communications to me it would be bene- 
ficial, some of the rangers at Vincennes might be sent and would 
serve as a party of observation as well as an Express, the commissions 
for the Rangers have not come on of which you make mention in 
your letter of the 10'" of April «'" 

I am Sir with high consideration Your Humb* Serv* 

Benj» Howard 

P.S. This goes by the way Vincennes 

[Addressed] The Honb" John Armstrong S. of War Washington 

[Endorsed] H. Q. St Louis July 9. 1813 Gen' B Howard Sug- 
gests an attack on the Indians & the establishment of a post at Prairie 
du Chien The suggestions in this letter approved. Authority to be 
given for establishing a Mil. post at Praire de Chien, letters to go via 
Vincennes with orders to convey them by detachment of Rangers."" 



SHADRACH BOND TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

(NA:SD,'Applications:ALS] 

Washington City July 13'" 1813 
Sir / I take the Liberty through you to recommend to the President 
of the united States, W" Mears Esq"' of the Illinois Territory, as a fit 
Person to fill the office of attorney genral for the said Territory — and 
Phillip Fouck Esq' of said Territory as a fit Person to fill the office of 
Marshal *^ — 
I am sir — respectfully your ob* serv* 

Shadrach Bond — 

[Addressed] The Hon"'* James monroe Sercretary of State — 

[Endorsed] 13 July 1813. M' Bond recommends M"' Mears as 
Attorney and M' Faucke as Marshal in the Illinois Territory M' 
Bond — recommends W" Mears — attorney P" Fouck marshal Illinois — 



•>'• Printed, Terr. Papers (La.-Mo.), xiv. 
»'• Answered post, p. 350. 

" Mears and Foucke were nominated to the respective offices July 26 and con- 
firmed Aug. 1, 1813 (Senate, Exec. Journal, II, 400, 436). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 349 

SHADRACH BOND TO THE PRESIDENT 

[NA:SD, Applications :ALS] 

Washington City Juhj 22" 1813 

Sir, I recommend James Finney Esqr of the Illinois Territory as 
a Judge of the general Court of that Territorj?^ in the Room of Alexander 
Stuart Esqr resigned M'' Finney has filled the office of Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas in that Territory, for a Considerable time to 
general Satisfaction, and will no doubt fill the Place with grate 
integrity and impartiality 

The general dissatisfaction manifested in the Territory on the 
apointment of Judges who will not reside in it has induced me to 
recommend one who reside there for the Place— 

I enclose a Copy of the Presentment of the grand jury as the best 
Proof of the dissatisfaction ^' — 

I am very respectfully Sir your ob' servt — 

Shadrach Bond — 

[Addressed] His Excelency James Madison President of United 

States 

[Endorsed] 22* July 1813. M"' Bond recommends M' Finney as 
Judge in the Illinois Territory — M'' Bond recommends Jas Finney 
as a Judge for the Illinois Territory in the room of Judge Stuart ** — 
James Finney 



THE SECRETARY OF STATE TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

[NA:SD, Dom. Letters, xvi:C] 

29*" o/JmZj/ 1813 
NiNiAN Edwards at Russellsville, Kentucky. 

Sir Your letter of the 6'" instant *° has been duly received. I 
have the pleasure to inform you that the president willingly grants 

" Not present. 

^ Judge John Griffin, of Michigan Territory, sought the appointment in letters 
to the Secretary of State under dates of Mar. 23, June 16, and Sept. 18, 1812, and 
July 2, 1813 (NA.SD, Applications), and Dec. 1, 1812, and Jan. 15, 1813 (Terr. 
Pavers, Mich., x, 417, 425). Stuart's probable resignation had been rumored, 
according to the letters cited, for some months before it actually occurred. See 
also Bond to Edwards, Aug. 17, 1813 (Washburne, ed., Edwards Papers, p. 103), 
in which he refers to complaints concerning nonresidence of the judges, as em- 
bodied in presentments of grand juries of St. Clair and Randolph counties. 
These presentments, according to Bond, were not laid before Congress by reason 
of the objection of the Speaker of the House, who ruled that they had no right to 
come before that body since the juries had not so directed. The presentments in 
question have not been found. See also id. to id., June 7, 1813, ibid., pp. 101-102, 
referring to Stuart's resignation and to the reported intention of Griswold to 
resign. 

8» Ante, p. 346. 



350 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

the permission which you ask of making a visit to Washington in 
Kentucky in the present year, with the understanding, however, that 
the State of things in the Illinois territory at the time is such as in 
your opinion, not particularly to require the presence of the governor." 

— J.M. 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO BENJAMIN HOWARD 

(NArWD.SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 7] 

War Department July 29'" 1813. 
B. General Howard 

Sir, Your letter of the 9"" instant has been received "^ — Your 
arrangements for the protection of the frontier are approved — & you 
are authorized to establish such post & garrison at Prairie du Chien 
as you may deem expedient. — 

Until otherwise advised, letters & packets for you will be directed to 
Vincennes, to the care of the Commanding Officer at that place to be 
forwarded — &you will give the necessary instructions for having them 
transmitted accordingly. — 



COMMISSION OF WILLIAM SPRIGG AS JUDGE 

(NA:SD,Misc. Perm. Comms., D:C1 

[July 29, 1813] 
James Madison, President of the United States of America 
To all who shall see these presents, Greeting 

Know Ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the 
Wisdom, Uprightness and Learning of William Sprigg, of the 
Missouri Territory, I have nominated, and by and with the advice 
and Consent of the Senate do appoint him One of the Judges in and 
over the Illinois Territory;** and do authorize and empower him to 
execute and fulfil the duties of that office according to Law; and to 
Have and to Hold the said office, with all the powers, privileges and 
Emoluments to the same of right appertaining during his good be- 
haviour, or during the existence of the Government established by 
the Act of Congress of the United States passed 3" Feby 1809 entitled 
"An act for dividing the Indiana Territory into two Separate Govern- 
ments", and the ordinance of Congress passed on the 13'" July 1787 
therein referred to; he to reside within the said Territory. 

In Testimony whereof I have caused these Letters to be 

L S made patent and the Seal of the U States to be hereunto 
affixed. Given under my hand at the City of Washington 

" Answered post, p. 354. 
" Ante, p. 347. 

••Nominated June 27 and confirmed June 29, 1813 (Senate, Exec. Journal, 
II, 401, 418). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 351 

the Twenty Ninth day of July A D. 1813; & of the Independence of 
the U States the Thirty Eighth 

James Madison 
By the President 
Ja' Monroe Secy of State 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814:ALS] 

Surveyor General's Office, Cincinnati, Ohio, July 31, 1813 

Sir, Yours of the 17th of this month was received yesterday, *' 
inclosing an informal Statement of the Account of the Chief Clerk in 
this Office for the Quarter ending June 30, 1813. I thank the Auditor 
of the Treasury for pointing out the proper form, and shall, by this 
Mail, forward to him the accoimt corrected. 

By this Mail I transmit Plats and Descriptions of the following 
Townships in the Illinois Territory;*" Viz. 
Townships Nos.— 10— 11— 12— 13— 14— 15— 16— of Range No. I, 

East of the 3* Meridian- 
Townships N" 7—8—9—10—15 of Range No. II. East of 3" Meridian. 
Township No. 10 of Range N° III East of 3<» Meridian 

I have this day assigned to William Rector and Nelson Rector of 
Kaskaskia 47 Townships for Surveying & subdividing into Sections — 
viz: 28 between the 3"^ Meridian & the Mississippi, and 19 East of the 
3" Meridian — in the Illinois Tenitory. I know not how far this 
Office has Credit with the Receiver of Public Monies, in this or in any 
other District; and on this subject I wish to be informed as soon as it 
may be convenient — I have the honour to be very respectfully Yours. 

J Meigs— Surv' Gen' 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire, Commissioner 
of the General Land Office, Treasury Department, Washington City — 
[Postmarked] Cincinnati 2 Aug' 1813 Free 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati 31 July 1813 J Meigs Sm'veyor General M' 
Meigs ought to be requested to transmit an estimate of the cost of 
the surveys which he has now ordered ; and the time when the money 
will be payable for their execution : also, whether he vdll want the 
money at Cincinnati or at some of the more western offices. I pre- 
simie, he understands, from the instructions &c" of his predecessor, 
how to make up & render his surveying accounts." D. S.'^ 

s» NA(GL0,SG,NWT, Lets. Reed., iv). 

•o Not present. 

»' Answered Aug. 12, 1813 {Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., xiv). 

" Daniel Sheldon. 



352 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

COMMISSION OF WILLIAM MEARS AS U. S. ATTORNEY 

[NA:SD, Misc. Perm. Comms., D:C] 

[Au^st 1, 1813] 
James Madison, President of the United States of America, 
To all who shall see these presents — Greeting: 

Know Ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the 
Integrity, Ability and Learning of William Mears, of the Illinois 
Territory, I have nominated, and by and with the advice and Consent 
of the Senate do appoint him Attorney *' of the United States in and 
for the said Illinois Territory: and do authorize and empower him to 
execute and fulfil the duties of that office according to Law; and to 
Have and to Hold the said office, with all the powers, privileges and 
emoluments thereunto legally appertaining unto him the said William 
Mears, during the pleasure of the President of the United States for 
the time being 

In Testimony whereof, I have caused these Letters to be 

L s made patent and the Seal of the United States to be hereimto 

affixed. 

Given xmder my hand at the City of Washington the first day of 

August A.D 1813; & of the Independence of the U States the Thirty 

Eighth, 

James Madison 
By the President 
Ja" Monroe Secy of State 



COMMISSION OF PHILIP FOUCHE AS U. S. MA.RSHAL 

[NA:SD, Misc. Perm. Comms., D:C] 

[August 1, 1813] 
James Madison, President of the United States of America, 
To all who shall see these presents, Greeting: 

Know Ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the 
Integrity, Ability and Diligence of Philip Fouche, of the Illinois 
Territory, I have nominated, and by and with the advice and consent 



" Nominated July 26 and confirmed Aug. 1, 1813 (Senate, Exee. Journal, ii, 
400, 436). 

In GAG (Misc. Treas., acct. no. 28,437 [1814]) is found a statement of the salary 
of William Mears as attorney for Illinois Territory from Aug. 1 to Get. 31, 1813, 
at $250 a year, $62.50; also an auditor's certificate for the period Jan. 1-Sept. 
80, 1818, for $187.50 in favor of Mears, acct. no. 38,092, to be paid John Rice 
Jones assignee; and an accompanying autograph entry by Stephen Pleasonton, 
of the Treasury Department, certifying to the date of Mears's commission. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 353 

of the Senate do appoint him Marshal °* in and for the said Illinois 
Territory; and do authorize and empower him to execute and fulfil 
the duties of that ofRce according to Law; and to Have and to Hold 
the said OfRce, with all the powers, privileges and Emoluments there- 
unto legally appertaining unto him the said Philip Fouche, during 
the pleasure of the President of the United States for the time being. 
In Testimony whereof, I have caused these Letters to be 
L s made patent, and the seal of the U States to be hereunto 
affixed. Given under my hand at the City of Washington 
the first day of August A.D, 1813; & of the Independence of the U 
States the Thirty Eighth. 

James Madison 
By the President 
Jas Monroe Secy of State 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOSIAH MEIGS 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv:ALS] 

Treasury Department Gen' Land Office 4"" Aug. 1813. 
Sir. Yours of the 23'*' ult° °' has been rec"* with plats and descrip- 
tions of the following Townships in the Shawnee district viz' 
Town"" 8 & 16 S. in R. 5 E. of 3'0 Prin' Merid- 





8. 9 " 


" " 3 D° 










16." 


" " 4 «' 










16." 


" " 5 " 








8, 


9, 15, 16 & 17. " 
9 " 
8 & 9 " ' 
7, 8, 9 & 10 " ' 

7, 8&9 " 


" " 7 " 
" " 8 " 
" " 9 " 
" " 10 " 
" " 11 " 








li 


am Sir very respectfully Your Ob* 


Serv' 


for the Commissioner 










Rob* 


King — 



JOSIAH Meigs Esq' Surveyor Gen' U. S. 

[Addressed] Josiah Meigs Esquire Surveyor General U. S. Cin- 
cinnati. [Postmarked] Wash" City Aug 5 Treasury Department 
General Land office Edward Tiffin Free 

[Endorsed] Ed. Tiffin Aug. 4. 1813 ReC Aug. 14*" Ans" do 15*" »«— 



^ Nominated July 26 and confirmed Aug. 1, 1813 {Senate, Exec. Journal, n, 400, 
436). 

«» Not found. 
" Not found. 



354 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO JOHN REED 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book S] 

Aug 16—1813 
John Reed Esqre Belleville 

Enclosed you have a contract to be executed by the person referred 
to in your letter of July 7""' I will thank you to fill up the blank, to 
see the contract executed and when done return it to this Office — 

GG 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[NA:SD, 111. Terr. Papers:ALS] 

Russelsville' Logan County Kentuckey Aug*- 17. 1813 
Sir Last evening I had the honor to receive your letter of the 
29'" Ult.'* from which I learn with regret that my application has 
been misunderstood, as the permission to me is to visit Washington 
in Kentuckey instead of Washington City. 

Whilst I would not avail myself of the indulgence I solicited at any 
sacrifice of the public interest, yet such is the urgency of my business 
that I can not forbear to renew my request. 

It has been usual with all officers of territorial governments to take 
time to adjust their business & make arrangements for their removal 
previous to commencing their residence. When I was appointed my 
presence was required in the territory & I repaired to it immediately. 
Since which time I have not allowed myself the opportunity of 
attending to my private business even iri this state untill about the 
time I wrote to you last. I had then been seperated from my family 
about ten months. I had during that period been engaged in defend- 
ing the frontiers of Illinois territory. I had caused to be burnt 
every Kickapoo village except a small one of five or six lodges — and 
had penetrated fiu-ther into the Indian country than any force had 
gone — and I can safely say that with many difficulties I had en- 
countered as much toil & fatigue as any soldier in Gen' Harrisons 
army — I had not abandoned my post for a day since the first Indian 
dangers commenced — and I should not have left the territorj' at all 
(however painful Hhe seperation from my family) if anything had 
been left for me to do. But about that time according to the plan 
of the Honble Secy of War I transfered to Brigadier Gen' Howard 
the command of the troops that I had raised and at the head of whom 
I had been from about the first of Feb" till the 16'" of June — Since 
my arrival here I have continued to pay an unremitted attention to 
the territory — There is I believe no other Gov" who have not taken 

»' Not found. 
•' Anle, p. 349. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 355 

more time than that which I solicit, and I am well assured their 
business has not more imperiously required their presence, — Under 
these circiunstances I hope I have a fair claim to the indulgence I 
ask if the President can grant it to me consistently with his opinion 
of the public interest. I will not go without his permission (imless I 
resign my office to do so) nor with it, unless the state of things in the 
territory at the time shall be such as not particularly to require the 
presence of the Gov'^ 

I shall have returned to the territory before I could expect the 
honor of receiving another letter from you — M" Edwards will however 
remain at this plaoo and I will thank you to direct a letter to this 
place as she will know best where it will find me — 

I have the honor to be With great respect Sir Y' M° Ob" Serv* 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Honble James Monroe Secretary of State Washington City 

[Addressed] The Honble James Monroe Secretary of State Wash- 
ington City 

[Endorsed] Gov"^ Edwards — Inform him that he may go to Wash- 
ington in Kentucky to settle his private affrs, in full confidence that 
he will not remain longer than due attention to them requires. Aug 
17. 1813. Gov' Edwards.^' 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 

[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814:ALS] 

Surveyor General's Office, Cincinnati, Ohio, Aug. 24. 1813 

Sir Your Letter of August 12, was received yesterday ' — The 
expence of the Surveys assigned to William and Nelson Rector are 
thus estimated. Miles 

William Rector , is to lay off and subdivide into Sections 
&c 5 Townships, each of which will amount to about 72 Miles = 
360 M 360 

To subdivide into sections 27 Townships, of which the ex- 
terior lines have been heretofore run, the Surveying of each will 
amount to about 60 Miles =1620 Miles 1620 

Nelson Rector is to lay off and Subdivide into Sections &c 15 
Townships — the Surveying in each township is about 72 Miles = 
1080 M 1080 

Miles 3060 

3 

$9180 

»» Answered post, p. 362. 

' Printed, Terr. Papers (La.-Mo.), xiv. 

3145T4 — 48 24 



356 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

The two Contracts are dated July 26, and July 29. 1813'— Returns 
are to be made within one Year from the dates. It will be most 
convenient to the Surveyors that Provision be made to meet the 
expence at this Place. 

I have not found particular Instructions relative to Survejring the 
Public Lands, confirmed Claims and donation Claims in the Missouri 
Territory. 

In the correspondence between Mr. Gallatin and my Predecessor in 
this Office I find that the Secretary wholly approved the General 
System which has been pursued. Your suggestion of a new, (or 4'") 
Principal Meridian, touching the mouth of the Arkansas, and a Base 
Line to be run from the Mouth the Ohio westwardly is I think correct — 
it is analogous to the plan which has been pursued hitherto — and it 
is to be lamented that the mode adopted in Surveying the old Seven 
Ranges had not been rigidly adhered to — the Virginia Military 
Reservation and the Region between the Miami River are blemishes 
on the General Map — Last week in obedience to the Order of the 
acting Secretary of the Treasury I designated William Rector, Prin- 
cipal Deputy Surveyor for the Territory of Missouri — his extensive 
practice in Surveying generally, and especially in the District of 
Kaskaskias, with the approbation he had from Col. Mansfield induced 
me to designate him, and I have no doubt the designation will be 
approved. 

I transmit by this Mail, Plats and Descriptions of the following 
Townships; Viz: 

Townships 7—8—9—10 of Range 6. E of 3" Merid" 
do 7—8—13 .... 8 ... . 
do 7—11—12 .... 9 ... . 
do 12 ... . 10 ... . 

I have the honour to be very respectfully Yours — 

JosiAH Meigs, Sur. Gen. 

If all the acts of Congress, relative to the Public Lands, are trans- 
mitted to this Office as speedily as may be convenient, it will be use- 
ful to the Public Interest — The latest act I have seen is dated July 6, 
1812,' and is the last in the Pamphlet which I had the honour to 
receive from you on the 22" of last May. — JM. 

The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire — 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire Commissioner 
of the General Land Office, Treasury Department, Washington 
City.— [Postmarked] Cincinnati 26 Aug* 1813 Free 

* Not present. 

» 2 Stat. 782-783, relative to extending time to purchasers of public lands 
northwest of the Ohio. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 357 

[Endorsed] Platts of all the above Townships are received & all the 
descriptions except of Town" 13 in Range 8. wrote for it 3"* Sep' 1813 
Cincin: 24 Aug' 1813 J Meigs Surv' G' with plats, & an estimate of 
the amo* of Rectors contracts for Surveying. Has Silas Bent resigned? 
M' Sheldon 

M' Bent has been app" a Judge in Missouri. A credit on the Rec' 
at Cincinnati for 9000 D given by SeC Treas^ Sep. Z^ 1813. D. S. 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1 814 :ALS] 

Surveyor General's Office, Cincinnati, Aug. 28. 1813 
Sm, By this Mail I transmit Plats & Descriptions of the following 
Townships, viz; 

Townships 7—8—9 South of Range 1 E. 3* Merid" 
do. 11—12—13—14 do 2 do 
do. 7—13—14—15 do 3 do 

I also inclose Copies of communications made to me relative to 
Shawnee Town — I expect a representation on the same subject from 
Mr. Sloo, which shall be forwarded as soon as received — 
I have the honour to be very respectfully Yours. 

JosiAH Meigs, Sur' Gen. 
The HONOURABLE EDWARD TiFFiN, Esquire — 

[Endorsed] All the above mentioned Plats and descriptions are 
received R K. Cincinnati 28 Aug' 1813 J Meigs Surv' Gen' with 
plats. Ans* 7 Sep' 1813 * 

[Enclosures] 

Judge Griswold to Josiah Meigs 

"Cincinnati, August 14, 1813." 
"Sir When I recently recommended a small change in the Plat of 
Shawnee Town, it was then my full conviction that the Scite itself 
ought to be changed; but not knowing that others would feel an interest 
sufficient to induce them to unite in such a recommendation, I was 
unwilling to move alone in so important an object. I was an eye 
witness to one of the two inundations by which that place was visited 
last Spring — and to the great distresses and losses which were ex- 
perienced — I had before observed, in riding through the woods sur- 
rounding the town the extraordinary height of the water-marks upon 
the trees, which were so visible for the space of about two miles on 
the road to the Saline, that one might imagine himself riding under 
water to the depth of from 12 to 15 feet. But, the last Spring, I saw 

' Post, p. 364. 



358 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

the water itself even at a greater height than had been marked by the 
icy freshes of winter: I rode upon the flood for more than two weeks 
in a keel (boat) over the principal street of the town, lashed to a 
merchant's Store, and|the Boatjwasjupon a' levels with its roof.— An 
attack of ague and fever then compelled me to quit and seek health 
in the highlands of Kentucky. — The flood continued to rise a few feet 
afterwards, and was nearly as long in falling as it was in rising. — A 
second inundation quickly succeeded, when the waters rose as high as 
in the first. — At the time I left the Boat, the waters were about 
midway on the roofs of the houses generally, and quite to the ridge 
poles of several — Being heavy log cabins, they usually did not float, 
till immersed to the last mentioned depth, and I saw about from 15 
to 20 float away. — About 40 in the whole floated off. — It was a merciful 
Providence that the wind did not blow hard in either of the inunda- 
tions, for it had done so, every building of every description must 
unquestionably have been demolished and swept off. I need not 
describe the distresses and losses of the inhabitants — Several were 
sickened and some died; every beast perished which could not be 
taken into Boats, or was not seasonably driven to the highlands; — all 
the fences, with everything around and in the houses which could float 
were taken off; — gardens, grass, and all things which had begun to 
vegetate were destroyed — The time occupied by both Freshes was 
about Ten Weeks — I mean the time that the water lay on the surface 
of ShawneeTown." 

"It is certain that no building can safely be erected on that Scite, 
unless elevated above the surface on a solid foundation of at least 12 
feet in height. — Besides the inconvenience of such an elevation for 
dwellings, stables, stores, &c. the expence would be beyond calculation, 
as there are no stone to be had within a great distance. Nor would 
even a stone-foundation be safe, against such inundations as those of 
last spring, if attended with heavy winds, unless firmly cemented" — 

"There are beautiful situations on the margin of the Ohio, below the 
mouth of the Saline Creek, where a Scite can be laid that can never be 
approached by inundation. Although the distance from the Salt 
Works to such new Scite might be five or six miles more than to the 
Scite of Shawnee Town, yet a material advantage would be gained 
in the superior excellence of the ground for a Road. The ground, in 
that direction is high and dry, whereas in the direction to Shawnee 
Town, there are several bad hills — one Ferry to cross a part of the 
Year, (the Saline Creek) and so much as four or five miles out of the 
twelve , are so low and soft as to be often impassible for waggons, and 
always difficult.— Besides, as a good deal of Salt is, at proper seasons, 
taken down the Saline Creek in Boats, a Scite for its deposit just 
below the mouth of that Creek would be infinitely more convenient 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 359 

than taking it several miles up the river to the present Site of Shawnee 
Town: — and it would be advancing towards the greatest market for 
the Salt which is still below the proposed new Scite, and chiefly up 
the Cumberland River, as the whole State of Tennessee is supplied 
from those works, through that channel — " 

"In short, if the United-States do not take the advantage of laying 
the Scite of a Town in the situation proposed, I have no question that 
some Individual or Individuals will do so as soon as the Lands can be 
purchased — I should consider it a most eligible Speculation.' — " 

"There cannotbe a moment's doubt, that the United States would, by 
laying out a Town there, before Shawnee Town is offered for sale, find, 
in the disposal of the Lots, a manifold reimbursement of all Expences: 
— and still Shawnee Town would probably attract purchasers enough 
to reimburse the extra expences which have been laid out there; as it 
is a fine body of Land, a great road must always go through it, and some 
have particular interests at and near it, and might hope to make it 
something." 

"If any thing should be done by the United States in relation to 
the premises, it is evident that it ought to be done before the Land- 
OfRce is opened; or at least before Shawnee Town is offered for sale, 
as it might be deemed unfair to remove the Scite from thence after 
purchasers have vested their money, and begun improvements at that 
place. — Besides, when the Land-Office is opened, the best Scites else- 
where will immediately fall into the hands of private men." 

"I will only add, that, previousto'the dreadfizl Calamity which befel 
Shawnee Town last spring, I had selected it for my permanent 
residence; but was then induced to abandon it altogether, as did many 
other who had commenced establishments there. Myself, and most 
of those who abandoned Shawnee Town, would' undoubtedly settle 
themselves at any eligible Scite which should be laid by the United 
States in the vicinity I have before mentioned — " 

"The above is respectfully submitted by Yours. &c 

"Stanley Griswold" 

JosiAH Meigs, Sut. Gen. 

William Rector to Josiah Meigs 

(Copy) Cincinnati, Aug. 24. 1813 

"Sir, The inundations that took place at Shawnee Town last 
winter and spring, have, I believe, convinced every person who wit- 
nessed them that the situation is a very improper scite for a town. I 
have not been at that place at the time of high water, but previous to 
the late floods I examined the situation, and observed on the trees 
evident traces of high water; which at that time convinced me, that 
nearly, if not the whole of the bottom where the Town has been laid 



360 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

off, is at times twelve or fourteen feet under water. This being the 
case it is evident that buildings sufficiently strong to withstand the 
floods could not be erected without a very great expence, for there is 
no stone suitable for building near that place. I also incline to 
believe that Shawnee Town, owing to its low and marshy situation, is 
considerably more unhealthy than the banks of the Ohio in that 
quarter generally are. 

"A high, healthy and every way more eligible situation for a Town, 
on Lands of the United States, may be selected a few miles below 
Shawnee Town; and I beg leave to suggest the propriety of Govern- 
ment's causing such a Scite to be immediately selected, and a Town 
laid off, at which the Land-Office for that District should be fixed — I 
have no doubt but the money arising from the sale of the lots would 
more then indemnify the Government for the extra expence of laying 
off the town. I know it is very much wished by several Gentlemen 
that this course should be pursued, who would willingly locate 
themselves at such town, and promote its settlement as well as the 
adjacent Country: but who would by no means be willing to settle at 
Shawnee Town, because they view it as unsafe, on account of the 
Floods, and as a very unhealthy situation. 

I have the honour to be &c. "William Rector" 

J. Meigs, Surv' Gen. 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 

[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814:ALS1 

Surveyor General's Office, Cincinnati, Aug. 28 1813 
Sir I had this day placed in the Post Office copies of Letters from 
Judge Griswold and General William Rector relative to Shawnee 
Town — and I now inclose Copy of a Letter from Thomas Sloo Esq' 
on the same subject, and have the honour to be very respectfully 
Yours, 

JosiAH Meigs, Sur. Gen. 

The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire — 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati 28 Aug' 1813 J Meigs Surv' Gen' with 
representations that the present scite for a Town at Shawneetown is 
improper Ans* 7 Sep'— 13 * 

• Pott, p. 364. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 351 

[Enclosure] 
Thomas Sloo to Josiah Meigs 

(Copy.) "Cincinnati, Ohio, Aug. 27, 1813" 

"Sir In a recent conversation with you on the subject of the 
Scite on which Shawnee Town is laid off, I gave it as my opinion that 
it could never be improved as a town to advantage." 

"From my own obsen^ation while on the spot, I was convinced that 
the Scite was injudiciously selected — I discovered evident marks on 
the Timber that the whole of the bottom had been inundated at 
least twelve feet; and the floods last Spring have placed it beyond a 
doubt. — I am well convinced that no buildings can be erected with 
safety, unless they have a good, substantial stone foundation, at 
least 12 feet above the surface of the ground, as no other foundation 
but stone, and that well cemented would answer; and that material 
especially difficult to procure, it would be impracticable for men of 
moderate property to improve, and when improved either for dwellings 
or out-houses, (for they must all be constructed in the same way) 
they could not be occupied without an immense deal of labour in 
bridging in order to reach their first floor." 

"A suitable scite may be procured a few miles below, completely 
free from inundation; and, I am informed, a much better road from 
the Saline to the river, and avoid crossing the main Saline altogether, 
which at present must be ferried a part of the Season; the difference 
of the distance to the new Scite will not, perhaps, be six miles further 
from the Saline to the River, than to Shawnee Town. When we 
take into view that the greater part of the Salt made at those works 
descends the River, for the supply of the Tennessee and Mississippi 
markets, it is of the first importance to Government as well as indi- 
viduals, to have a safe place of deposit for that article — Point out 
to youself Sir, a Deposite made at Shawnee Town in its present situa- 
tion, of the Salt necessary for the fall and winter consumption of all 
that country — suppose the River low, and no appearance of Rain — 
and in 48 hours inundated from the head-waters, and the hope of the 
Country lost as to that article. — " 

"I think. Sir, on a representation of these facts being made to the 
Government, it will not hesitate in directing the Surveyor General to 
have a proper scite selected." 

"Should the Government contemplate opening the Land-Office 
shortly, no time ought to be lost, as it will take some time to select 
and survey the new Scite, and the Officers will want some time to 
prepare suitable buildings for their Offices. 

"The above is respectfully submitted, by Yoiu"s &c. 

"Tho» Sloo.—" 

Josiah Meigs, Surveyor General 



362 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

THE SECRETARY OF STATE TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 
[NA:SD, Dom. Letters, xvi:C] 

l"o/5ep"1813 
Governor Ninian Edwards 

Sir Your letter of the 17'" of August has been duly received.' 
The president grants the permission which you ask of making a 
visit to this city in the course of the present year, with the under- 
standing however — that the state of things in the Illinois territory 
at the time is such as not particularly to require the presence of the 
governor. 

The object of your request was mistaken, hence the permission 
granted by my letter of the 29*" July ' referred to Washington in 
Kentucky instead of this city. 

— J.M. 



BENJAMIN HOWARD TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD,SWDF:ALS] 

Head Quarters S' LouiS Sejst. 2»°^ 1813 
Sir. I have the honor herewith to enclose you, an estimate of 
provisions as made out by the Contractor — Provi aieRa deposited by 
him at the request of Governor Edwards at Fort Russell; after I took 
command. It was his opinion, that they ought to be transported to 
some other place at the expence of Government, as there were no 
troops there, entitled to Rations. I did not think proper to do so; as 
the provisions had been provided for militia last year, and I had given 
no order to deposit them there, nor to remove them elsewhere. I pre- 
sume Governor Edwards has made some statement on this subject, as 
he knows the circumstances. I think it probable that he may be en- 
titled to some allowance for the transportation. At his request I 
send the enclosed. 
I am with high respect your Humble Serv* 

Benj* Howard 

[Addressed] The Honb '• J. Armstrong Secretary of War Washington 
Mail 

[Endorsed] St. Louis Sept. 2. 1813 Brig: Gen' Howard incloses 
return of provision deposited at Fort Russell by order of Governor 
Edwards— Rec" Oct. 2. 1813 « 



• Ante, p. 354. 
» Ante, p. 349. 

• Answered Oct. 4, 1813 (NA, SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 7). See also Howard 
to the Secretary of War, Sept. 1, 1813, enclosing Harrison to Howard, May 24, 
1813, Russell to Howard, July 24, 1813, and Howard to Russell, Aug. 1, 1813 
(NA, WD, SWDF). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 363 

[Enclosure] 

Inventory of military stores 

[June 12, 1813] 

Inventory of Provisions Remaining in the Contractor Store at Fort Russell 

in the Illinois Territory, when evacuated by a detachment of United 

States Troops Commanded by Cap*' Thomas Ramsey, by the order of 

Brigedier General Benjamin Howard Commanding the eight District 

93 Barrels of salt pork weighing in all 22227 lbs 

Tare pr Barrel 39 lbs 3627 

Neat lbs of pork 18600 

85 Barrels of flour weighing in all 18190 

Tare pr Barrel 18 lbs 1530 

Neat lbs of flour 16660 

3 Barrels of Candles weighing in all 590 lbs 

Tare pr Barrel 18 lb 54 

Neat lbs of Candles 536 

4 Barrels of Soap weighing in all 952 

Tare pr Barrels 18 lbs 72 

Neat lbs of Soap 880 

1 Barrel 34 gallons Vinegar 

1 Barrel 34 gallons Whiskey 

weighing together 675 lbs 675 

Total in lbs 37351 

I do certify that their was Ninety Three Barrels of salt pork Eighty 
five Barrels of flour three Barrels of Candles four Barrels of sope one 
Barrel Vinegar & 1 Barrel of Whiskey on hand in the contractor's store 
at Fort Russell when evacuated by the imited States Troops Com- 
manded by Capt Thomas Ramsey — 

Agent for William Morrison contractor 

John Beaird 
Fort Russell 12*" June 1813 

I do Certify that M' John Beaird was the Contractors Agent and 
issueing commissary to a detachment of United States Troops sta- 
tion'd at Fort Russell under my Command when said detachment left 
that post and that he is a man of Verasity and whose signature may 
be relied on 
Fort Russell June 12'" 1813 

Tho' Ramsey Cap* 
Rifle Reg' Comding 

[Endorsed] Statement of provisions at F Russell 



364 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

BENJAMIN HOWARD TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD,SWDF:ALS] 

Head Quarters S' Louis Sept S"* 1813 
Sir. I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favour of 
the 29*" July, last night.' I shall set out from this to morrow morning 
to Portage de Sieux: from whence I expect to march in two days for 
Piorias, to dislodge the Indians in that neighbourhood, and erect a 
Fort. Your authority to build one at Praire du Chien comes too late, 
to enable me to give the proper notice to the Contractor for furnishing 
rations in time to effect this object, before the River closes in that 
quarter. And a certainty of supplies for a Post so distant and exposed 
is in my view indispensable. But I trust; the establishment of this 
Garrison will be steadily kept in view. Should I succeed in making 
one at Piorias, it's good effects will soon be seen. It affords me much 
pleasure to find this measure expressly approved by you, before I set 
out; although, I considered it authorised by the spirit of your former 
instructions. 

I have given the necessary orders, to the Commanding Officer at 
Vincennes, for the transmission of your letters &c — addressed to me.'" 
I am Sir, with high respect and consideration your Humble Ser" 

Benj" Howard 

[Addressed] The Honb'^ John Armstrong Secretary of War Wash- 
ington Mail [Postmarked] S' Louis Sep' 5 Free 

[Endorsed] H.Q.St. Louis Sept 3. 1813 Gen' Howard— letter to 
erect a Fort at Prairie du Chien, came too late to notify the contrac- 
tor. Is about to establish a post at Piorias — ReC* Oct. 2. 1813 " 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOSIAH MEIGS 

[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., lv:LS] 

Treasury Department General Land Office 7'" Sep' 1813 
Sir Your favors of 28*" Ult" with plats and descriptions of 
Town"" 7. 8. 9 S° of range 1 E of 3" M 
11. 12. 13. 14 " 2 " 
7. 13. 14. 15 " 3 " 
has been received ;'* also that of same date covering copies of letters 
from Mess" Griswold, Rector & Sloo, representing that Shawnee town 
is an unfit Scite for a town in which to establish a Land office (because 
of inundations) ; those communications will be laid before M' Gallatin 

» Ante, p. 350. 

'» See post, p. 370. 

" Answered Oct. 4, 1813 (NA, WD, SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 7). 

» Ante, FP. 357, 360. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 365 

on his return, for the purpose of their being presented to Congress, 
who alone have power to establish a town & land office in another 
Situation. 

I am very respectfully Sir your obed' Serv' 

Edward Tiffin 

JosiAH Meigs Esq' Surveyor Gen' Cincinnati. 

[Addressed] Josiah Meigs Esq'' Surveyor General Cincinnati [Post- 
marked] Treasury Departm* General Land Office Edward Tiffin 
Wash- City Sep 8 Free 

[Endorsed] Edward Tiffin Sep' 7 1813 R" Sep' 17. do Ans. do 18. do " 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
(NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814 :ALS] 

Surveyor General's Office, Cincinnati, Seipt. 18, 1813. 

Sir, Yesterday I had the honour to receive yovu" Letters of the 
3" 1* and 7'" of September.'^ 

A Copy of the Plat and Description of Township 13, Range 8, East 
of the Third Meridian accompanies this. — From information I have 
received I am confident that the Public Interest would be promoted 
by a speedy sale of the Lots at Shawnee Town; and regret that the 
Sale must be delayed — I have received, from the acting Secretary of the 
Treasury, notice, that a Credit of Nine Thousand Dollars, is opened 
with the Receiver of Public Monies in Cincinnati, to enable me to 
pay the amount of late Contracts with William & Nelson Rector — I 
notice the acknowledgement of your having received Plats and 
descriptions of Townships 7, 8, 9 South of Range 1 E. 3" Merid" 
. . . 11—12—13—14 . . . 2 . . . 
. . . 7—13—14—15 . . . 3 . . . 

With the approbation of the Secretary of the Treasury, I have 
appointed William Rector, Esq, Principal Deputy Surveyor for the 
Territory of Missouri; and shall forward to him a Copy of the Act of 
Congress of March 8, 1813, inclosed in your Letter of September 3. — 

I have the honour to be, very respectfully. Yours, 

Josiah Meigs, — Surveyor General. 

This town, and Newport, were brilliantly illuminated last Evening, 
on receiving the intelligence of the Success of our Fleet on Lake 
Erie.— 

The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esq; Commissioner of the 
General Land-Office. 



» Infra. 

" NA (GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv). 

" Supra. 



366 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire, Commissioner 
of the General Land-Office Treasury Department Washington City — 
[Postmarked] Cincinnati 20'" Sep' 1813 Free 

[Endorsed] Cincinn' 13 Sep' 1813 J Meigs S' Gen' regrets 
delay of sales of Lots in Shawnee Town 



WILLIAM MEARS TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
[NA:SD, 111. Terr. Papers :ALS] 

Kaskaskia 16'" September 1813 
Sir I had the pleasure by last Mail of receiving through Your 
Honor the Commission of Attorney of the United States for the 
Illinois Territory '* Please Sir to present my warmest acknowledg- 
ments to His Excellency the President of the United States for His 
nomination of me to the Senate to fill that Office 

A copy of the Laws of the United States cannot I am Satisfied be 
procured here on any Terms I therefore humbly Wish Your Honor 
would please to Send me by first Opportunity a copy of the Laws of 
the United States up to the close of the last Session of Congress with- 
out which indeed it is impossible to advance with precision and Safety 
in the discharge of my duties 
With Sentiments of Esteem I am Sir Your humble obedient Servant 

W° Mears 

To The Honorable James Monroe Secretary of State 



JUDGE GRISWOLD TO JOSIAH MEIGS 

[NA:GL0, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv:ALS] 

[September 18, 1813] 
Where shall be the next station of the Surveyor General's office"! 

That it must be removed from Cincinnati, and westward of the 
state of Ohio, seems evident from the position of the immense body 
of public lands remaining yet to be surveyed and sold. Of this 
indeed government appears to have been apprized, by *he a direction 
given some time since, to remove the office to Vincennes, which 
direction it is understood was suspended from considerations of the 
personal convenience of the highly meritorious officer (Col. Mansfield) 
whom it was desireable to oontinuo retain as Surveyor General of the 
U. States. 

The Missouri Territory & the vast tract above the Illinois river 
would seem to call the station as far west as the Mississippi river, in 

" Ante, p. 352. For biographical sketch of Mears, see Philbrick, op. cit., p. 
ccLxxx. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 367 

case any thing like centrality were to be regarded, of what now is and 
soon will be the land of the U. States, divoato d ef fedktft -fetfcte — But as 
surveys, sales and settlement cannot be expected to progress beyond 
that river in so rapid a proportion as on this side, it would doubtless 
be adviseable to fix the next station of the office not quite so far down. 

Vincennes would be an eligible stand as to distance east of the 
Mississippi, but there are objections to|it. Not to mention its ex- 
treme exposure in Indian wars, it has ceased to be the seat of govern- 
ment of the Indiana Territory and will probably dwindle away and 
not be much resorted to hereafter, except merely for warlike purposes. 
— It cannot be approached by travellers, except in two directions, 
without encamping out some nights for want of settlements on the 
roads. — It is too far above the Ohio river, the great highway of this 
western country. 

Shawneetown, if it were free from the inconvenience of floods, 
would be %be exactly the spot where the next station of the office ought 
to be. And if government should authorize a town to be laid out near 
it (where a scite may be obtained free of the above inconvenience) it 
should be the spot. It would not only be contiguous to the great 
highway of the western country, the Ohio river but it may be easily 
approached by land from all parts of the Mississippi country, on fine 
roads, with good accommodations. And even from the Michigan 
Territory the travel would be more convenient than to go to Vincennes, 
as they would come first to Cincinnati, or some point on the Ohio, and 
then descend in the crafts continually passing down the river. — But 
there will not be much surveying, or sales, or settlement, in the 
Michigan Territory for many years. 

On the whole, Shawneetown and its vicinity are more easily ap- 
proached than Vincennes from every part of the U. S. public lands. 
From the state of Ohio there is no question on the subject; — and there 
is as little room to question it from the greater part of the Indiana 
Territory. From Michigan the same too is the case, as above stated. 
From the vast country of the present Illinois & Missouri Territories 
the same also is true. — The intervening land between Vincennes and 
the Mississippi is almost an entire praira, without wood, water, and 
other necessaries for settlement. It may be considered as the belly 
of the prairas extending from the Ohio to the Illinois river. In pro- 
portion to the extent of a praira, the soil is generally poor, especially 
towards the centre. That tract will not be settled for many years. 
As those prairas extend towards the Ohio river, they become narrower 
and richer, and are interspersed and separated by more timber and 
Uving waters, — till within 20 or 30 miles of the bank of the river, 
where a perfect woodland commences. — The roads and travel to and 
from the western country have of course been mostly through the 



368 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

lower parts, terminating at Shawneetown and other par to points on the 
Ohio not far distant. I am persuaded if the Surveyor General's office 
were established at Vincennes, the greater part of the travel to it from 
all the Mississippi country, would be by Shawneetown and its vicinity. 
Why not then establish the office thoro in the latter region at once? 
|K Excuse the above rough & i mporfoct hasty sketch, from D"^ Sir, 
your obed' servant, 

S. Griswold. 
J. Meigs Esq' S.G. U.S. 

[Addressed] The Surveyor General of the U. States, Cincinnati. 
[Endorsed] Judge Griswold Sept 18. 1813 de Shawnee Town. 



ROBERT KING " TO EDWARD TIFFIN 

[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., ivrALS] 

General Land office 28"" Sepf 1813 
Sir, On examining the plats of the Townships in the Shawnee Dis- 
trict I find so many omissions, and explainations wanting that I can- 
not proceed to make a connected plat. In the first place the section 
lines ought to have the length on each side thereof inserted. 2''"' the 
dividing lines between adjoining Townships, and sections in those 
Townships do not correspond, for instance in the plats you herewith 
receive (v' Town"' 15 & 16 in Range 1 East of the 3'" Meridian) that 
the Southern boundary of Town" 15 appears to have a N. easterly 
direction and all along the line they are fractional sections, of little 
more than half a mile wide; instead of which, they ought to have 
been a mile see 2°" Sec. of the Act 18'" May 1796." (Land laws pa. 
140) you will also find in the adjoining Township N° 16 that the 
north line which ought to correspond with the above, appears to be at 
right angles with the Meridian therefore a triangular vacancy occurs, 
otherwise a bend in the Meridian, which is inadmissible, the western 
tier of Sections in this Township are fractional, whereas the fractions 
ought to fall on the Ohio instead of joining the Meridian which is 
the Basis on which the survey is founded. I find many other Town 
ships in a similar situation therefore should deem it advisable to have 
them all corrected, at least the distances between sections inserted, 
and a connected Map returned to this Department agreeable to the 
11'" Sect" of the Act of 3'^'* March 1803," which provides that General 
and particular plats shall be forwarded to this Department, which 
has always been the case heretofore. 

" Draftsman in the GLO {Register U. S., 1816, p. 7). 
'• Terr. Papers (N.W.), n, 553-554. 
" Ibid. (Miss.), V, 202. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 369 

I enclose a copy of one of M' Freemans ^ returns, from them I 
never found any difficulty, instead of which they are always correct 
and shew the general topography of the country which is very im- 
portant in a general Map. — Those of Shawnee do not even shew the 
connection of the waters. 

I am Sir very respectfully your ob' Serv' 

ROB» King — Draftsman 

[Addressed] The Hon"* the Commiss' of the General Land Office 

[Endorsed] R. King to E Tiffin— 28. Sep* 1813 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOSIAH MEIGS 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv:ALS] 

Treasury department General Land Office Sept' 29'" 1813 

Sir Observing that all the returns you have made of the platts & 
descriptions of townships in the Shawnee town district are incorrectly 
done, and not either agreable to law, or in that correct manner which 
the principal Surveyor South of Tennessee has made his — and from 
which we cannot possibly make a connected plat of the country, I 
am constrained to request that they may be corrected; and in order 
to enable you to see the forms the law requires, I have got oiu- drafts- 
man to copy the return of a fractional township, with its correspond- 
ing explanations, which had been made to this Office from the prin- 
cipal Surveyor South of Tennessee — and which I now enclose to you^' — 

As yoa have made several contracts for surveying, this enclosure 
will enable you to give such instructions to your deputies, that in 
future the work may be moe correctly done, and indeed it appears to 
me, all the work done by deputies ought to be examined and approved 
by you before they are paid off — 

I also enclose a letter from M"' King our draftsman, ^^ pointing out 
the errors and inaccurecies of your returns, which with the forms, will 
be ample instruction for the futiu-e — 

In your last you press the necessity of opening the Sales at Shawnee 
town — but the representations you have here to fore made of the im- 
proper Scite for that town had determined me to bring the subject 
before Congress at their ensuing Session. And indeed was there no 
other reason for postponing the Sales, that of the very embarrassed 



2° Thomas Freeman, surveyor general of the lands of the United States south 
of Tennessee. 
2' Not seen. 
32 Supra. 



370 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

situation of the Country owing to the hostility of the Indians is 
conclusive.^ 

With great respect I am Sir Your ob* Serv' 

Edward Tiffin 

Hon"" Josiah Meigs Surveyor General Cincinnati Ohio 

[Endorsed] E. Tiffin Sept. 29. 1813 



BENJAMIN HOWARD TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD,SWDF:ALS] 

Head Quarters S' Louis Octohr 28'" 1813 
Sir. I had the honor of expressing to you the opinion during the 
last Summer that a movement of troops to dislodge the Indians at 
the head of Peoria Lake was indispensable to guard against that 
presure upon our frontier in autumn which I believed would take 
place,"* it was with pleasure I found the measure approved, In 
pursuance of the plan on the 19'" of Sepf the effective rangers of 
Missouri and Illinois with about one hundred from Indiana two 
hundred and fifty mounted men furnished by the Executives of 
Missouri Tcrritorio a and Illinois were concentrated at Tower Hill 
East of the Mississippi thirty miles above the frontier; in embodying 
those troops the immediate safety of the frontier was steadily kept 
in View by moving detachments in such directions as would enable 
them to discover and dislodge any parties which might be upon our 
borders, the 1st Regt. commanded by Col" McNair was marched on 
the west side of the Mississippi and crossed just below the Rendezvous 
the 2" commanded by Col" Stephenson was marched on the East side 
of the river crossing the Illinois a few miles above its mouth, a detach- 
ment of about 200. regulars under the command of Lieutnt Col" 
Nicholas of the 1st Regt of U. States Infantry at the same time 
ascended the IlUnois in armed boats. It was soon ascertained upon 

» In a letter of Nov. 1, 1813 (NA, GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814), from 
Meigs to Tiffin occurs the following relevant paragraph: 

"It is probable, that, next year, the War will present little or no interruption 
to the business of the Surveyors. — M' Sloo and others wish to see the laws relative 
to preemptions in the Shawnee district — I will thank you to furnish me with a 
Copy. — I hope to see Col. Mansfield in a few days. — We are preparing a General 
Map of the Shawnee District, which shall be forwarded in a short period, with 
such observations as may be useful to M' King — " 

See also Tiffin's communication to the President, Dec. 30, 1813, which was 
transmitted to the Senate, Dec. 31, 1813 (A.S.P., Pub. Lands, ii, 873-876), 
relating to the public-land situation throughout the western territories and 
embodying two lengthy paragraphs on Illinois Territory and in particular on 
Shawneetown and its reconstruction. 

»• Ante, p. 347. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 371 

the arrival of those several detachments at points a little beyond the 
Settlements that the enemy had decended the Illinois to invade the 
frontier, a skirmish took place between some of Col" Stephensons 
command and a party of Indians the latter were driven; from appear- 
ances in the route of the 1st. Regt. some parties had crossed to the 
west side of the Mississippi, upon the approach of the troops I have 
no doubt of the Indians having returned to their canoes in the Illinois 
when they found Lieutn' Col" Nicholas rapidly ascending the river 
and fled before him without injuring a single Citizen believing that 
the frontier would be safe for the moment I marched the mounted 
troops up the Mississippi bottom to Christys creek passing opposite 
the Encampment of the Sac nation who have professed themselves 
friendly but many of whom I believe have taken part in the war 
against us, while others were undecided, at this time Mr Boilvoin 
Indian Agent was in the neighborhood sent by Gov' Clarke to conduct 
them to the Missouri where they had agreed to winter, however un- 
settled their neutrality might have been before, the desplay of troops 
in their vicinity soon confirmed it, they immediately decended the 
Mississippi to the Portage De Sieux from whence they were sent up 
the Missouri, from Cliristys creek the army was marched across the 
Country towards Peoria and on the evening of the 28"" arrived within 
a few miles of the old Village, that night three men were sent to dis- 
cover whether the command of Lieutn' Colo Nicholas had arrived and 
bearing a letter to that officer Stating my position and calling for such 
information in regard to the enemy as he might possess, during the 
night he decended the Illinois to my Encampment, and reported to 
me that the day before an attack was made upon his command at 
Peoria where he had commenced building a Fort agreeably to my 
orders. However the enemy were soon dispersed by a well directed 
discharge of musketry with the aid of a six pounder from two un- 
finished Block Houses, it was evident that the Assailants suffered in 
this attack but to what extent could not be ascertained none of our 
men were killed and one only wounded, on the 29'" the mounted 
Troops arrived at Peoria and so soon as provisions could be drawn 
were marched up the Illinois to the Villages at the Head of Peoria 
the Lake which was the direction in which the enemy appeared to 
have retired from Peoria upon my arrival at those Villages I found 
them deserted from the examination made by reconnoitring parties 
I had no doubt of the Indians having ascended the Illinois in Canoes 
which is so situated from Swamps on both banks that it was impossible 
to pursue them by land, the Villages were destroyed and some property 
of inconsiderable amount taken the army then returned to Peoria 
and remained untill the Garrison was put in a State of defence Shortly 
after my return I sent a detachment in two armed Boats under the 



372 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

command of Major Christy in pursuit of the enemy, this detachment 
ascended the Illinois above the mouth of the Vermillion to the rapids 
and within seventy five miles of Chicago but it was impossible to come 
up with the Indians notwithstanding the great efforts of the com- 
manding officer and his command. Soon after the departure of 
major Christy major Boone was sent with about one hundred men in 
the direction of Rock river to examine whether there were any parties 
in that quarter, he penetrated the country ift northwardly from 
Peoria (in my opinion) within forty five miles of Rock river and re- 
ported that there were several encampm.ents on the Maquoine which 
appeared to have been deserted about the time the army arrived at 
Peoria the mounted troops remained near Pioria from the 2^ untill 
the 15'" of October during which time they were actively engaged 
together with the U. States Infantry in erecting Fort Clarke which 
stands at the lower end of the Lake completely commanding the river, 
this important Fort was erected under many disadvantages, the 
weather being unusually cold for the season, and without the aid of a 
single team the timbers were hauled by the troops a considerable 
distance to the lake (nearly a mile in width) and rafted over, this 
Fort is ccrtflinly unquestionably one of the strongest I have seen in 
the Western Country and certainly highly important to the Safety 
of the three Territories with the defence of which I have been en- 
trusted; on the 15'" the mounted troops moved from Peoria for the 
Settlements pursuing generally a South Course untill they arrived at 
Camp Russell on the 21" Inst where the mounted militia [MS. torn] 
were discharged. The Indiana Rangers on the March were sent 
across from the old Kickapoos ¥ewft3 Towns to Vincennes under the 
command of Capt andre. The safety which was anti c ipat ed to the 
frontier which was anticipated from this movement has been fully 
realized, and the same enemy that has kept our exposed Settlements 
under continual apprehensions of danger was compelled to fly before 
a force in their own country less than that assigned by the Gov' for 
the immediate defence of the frontier. It is with pleasure I acknowl- 
edge the energetic and entelligent execution of my orders by those 
ofiicers to whom I confided the command of detachments and also the 
lai'dable conduct of the officers and men generally during the Cam- 
pagn but more particularly on those occasions (not unfrequent) when 
it was hoped and believed by all that the enemy had determined to 
give us battle 

I am Sir with high consideration Your Humb» Serv' 

Ben J' Howard 
The Honb« John Armstrong 

P.S. I have delayed the transmission of this communication untill 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 373 

I heard of Capt Andre who was sent [MS. torn] direct from the 
Kickapoos Towns to Vincennes, he has reported to me his Safe 
arrival B H" 

[Endorsed] St. Louis Oct. 28. 1813 Brig. Gen' Howard Re- 
porting the result of his expedition against the Indians. Has estab- 
lished a Fort at Peoria ReC Dec^ 1813 '^f 



WILLIAM RECTOR TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD,SWDF:ALS] 

Kaskaskia October 28*" 1813 
Sir I have accepted of the Appointment of Principal Deputy 
Surveyor of the Territory of Missouri, and shall immediately remove 
to, and settle in Saint Louis — It is therefore proper that I now Resign 
the Office of Brigadier General of the Militia of the Illinois Territory 
And beg leave through the Secretary of War to express to the President 
of the United States my grateful acknowledgements for the honor he 
done me, in Confering that Appointment on me,^* 
I have the honor to be with much Respect Your Ob' Serv' 

W" Rector 

P S. The enclosed letter reached me on the 18"" Ins' And is of such 
a Character as to induce me to lay it before the Secretary of War.^" 
The liberty the writer has taken in addressing this letter to me was 
unauthorized and I view it as presumptious. I learn that letters of 
the same nature have been received by most of the Officers of the 
General Government, in this quarter. W™ Rector 

The Honbl* John Armstrong Secretary of War. 

[Addressed] The Honbl° John Armstrong Secretary of War. Wash- 
ington City Free 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia October 28"' 1813 Gen' W" Rector offers 
his resignation as Brig' Gen' of Illinois Militia &c. &c. 



"'' Answered Dec. 31, 1813 (Terr. Papers, La.-Mo., xiv). See also R. M. 
Johnson to Harrison, June 9, 1813, Harrison to the Secretary of War, July 12, 
1813, and the Secretary of War to Harrison, July 14, 1813 (Esarey, ed., Harrison's 
Messages and Letters, 11, 4S7-492). 

" Answered post, p. 397. 

"A letter from John H. Robinson, Sept. 16, 1813 (present), containing an 
invitation to join him in what was presumably an armed expedition against 
Mexico (Texas). Cf. post, p. 394. 



374 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

NELSON RECTOR TO JOSIAH MEIGS 

[NA:GLO,SG,NWT, Lets. Reed., IV:ALS1 

Illinois Territory. T. N" 5. S. R. N" 6. E. Nov' 1'* 1813. 

Dear Sir, I left Shawnee Town on the 28'" day of Oct' for the 
Woods, and have been engaged in Surveying the U. S. lands since 
that time, and shall continue with all possible, energy untill I complete 
my District. 

I rec" a letter from my brother William Rector in which he men- 
tioned your wish in haveing posts set in each mound which may be 
errected &c. I anticipated your wish Sir and should have set good 
Substantial posts at all Sect' & ){ Sec' corners, if you bad not have 
mentioned it to my Brother. I have had no Prairie as yet nor do I 
expect there will be much in my District, but should there be, rest 
assured the corners shall be well established, with mounds & posts. 
The Land which I have surveyed is generally of a good quality & well 
watered ; which will enable persons to make fine farms &c I have no 
doubt but when this part of the Territory, becomes to be settled it 
will be eaqual to any of the settled parts, except the Amei'ican Bottom. 

I have not come across any natural curisiosity' as yet, should I 
meet with any before I finish surveying I will take care of them & 
bring them on to you. 

Be so good as to present my complments to your Family, and for 
y'self accept my most, candid wish for your happyness through this 
expanded & uneaven World 

I am D"^ Sir with much respect ¥"■ obd' serv* 

N: Rector 

P.S. I should be glad to get a letter from you. be so good as to 
drop me a line & direct to Shawnee Town and I shall get it. 
Excuse this scrall as it is late at night & by the light of the fire. 

N.R. 

[Addressed] Josiah Meigs Esq"^ Surveyor General of the U.S. Cin- 
cinati Ohio [Poslmarked] Shawneytown Nov 5'" 25 

\Endorsed\ Nelson Rector Nov. 1. 1813. Rec" Nov 13. Ans" Nov 
16 1813 ^» 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
[NA:GLO, Lets, from SO, 1812-1814:ALS] 

Surveyor General's Office, Cincinnati, Ohio, Nov. 21, 1813. 
Sir, Col. Jared Mansfield, in his Letter to me, dated August 2, 
1813, says, "In respect to the Principles by which the West and North 
deficient or exceeding Quarter Sections are calculated, I would ob- 



•• Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 375 

serve; — that all the other Sections and Quarter Sections of a Township, 
unless sometimes, when an egregious error in the measurement had 
been discovered, have been estimated as full, complete, and legal 
Sections, according to the Law of May, 1800, without any calculation 
of their contents by the length of their boundary lines. — The reason 
of this is, that these Sections, Quarter Sections, &c. are surveyed and 
laid off, full and complete, according to the principles of said Law, 
independently of the magnitude, or even the admeasurement of the 
Township lines, in cases where these are erroneous; but the Sections 
or Quai-ter Sections on the West and North are the mere remnants 
of those complete Sections or Quarter Sections. — Hence, as few or 
none of the Townships, according to the mode of running them by 
the Needle, can be of the precise quantity originally intended, viz: 
Six Miles Square, or Thirty-Six Square Miles, it is obvious that all 
the Sections, &c. must be either exceeding or deficient, adjusted to 
equal divisions of the Town Boundaries, or, that the excess or defi- 
ciency of a Township be comprehended altogether in the tiers of 
Sections on its extreme boundaries. — Now, as to the principle of 
calculating those North and West tiers of Sections, or Quarter Sec- 
tions, there can be no other than that of ascertaining the lengths of 
the boundary lines of each. — The Surveyors have been, I believe, 
always instructed to note these lengths in their Field-Books: — at least, 
all those intersected by the town Boundary, and the Sectional Lines 
extended to it. — The other line, which bounds the Section or Quarter 
Section in the interior of the Township, is assumed of the same meas- 
ure as that of its adjacent Section &c. for the boundary of which it 
was laid oflF." 

In the Plat of the Shawnee District, which was transmitted with 
my letter of the 11*" of this month," I suspect we omitted to insert 
the Scale, of one inch to two Miles. — I give the scale precisely from 

"NA(GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814). The following are relevant para- 
graphs: 

"The Surveys of the Kaskaskias District are I think much more accurate than 
those of the Vincennes District, and those last more accurate than those of the 
state of Ohio, particularly those in the Miami Country, 'where', (says Col. 
Mansfield in his Letter to me of August 2"') 'the grossest blunders had been com- 
mitted previous to my arrival in the Western Country.' 

"You will receive with this a Map of the District of Shawnee, copied from a 
Map of the Kaskaskias District, executed by the late Capt. J. F. Mansfield; — As 
I am in daily expectation of seeing Col. Mansfield, and as it appears probable 
that the Land-Office will not be speedily opened, I trust there will be sufficient 
time to arrange the business with all the precision which can be desired, previously 
to the Commencement of the Sales." 

The letter also contains a lengthy extract of a letter from Mansfield, May 14, 
1807, principally applicable to the Indiana surveys. See similar letter from 
Mansfield to the Secretary of the Treasury, May 22, 1807 {Terr. Papers, Ind., 
VII, 451-456). 



376 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

the original; though it is probable the Draftsman could be at no loss 
for want of it."* — 

I have receive Letters from Nelson Rector, who is now engaged in 
Surveying between the Wabash and the Mississippi; — and from 
William Rector, Principal Deputy Surveyor for the Territory of 
Missouri, who is now at Saint Louis, where he has met with every 
encouragement and assurance of aid and information from Judge 
Bent, and from M' Bates, the Recorder of Land Titles. M"^ Rector is, 
probably, now engaged in the duties of his office — I believe him to be 
the most skilful and able practical Surveyor in the United States— He 
has before him a spacious field; and, though it is a difficult one, I 
venture to predict, that the Surveys in that Territory will be, at 
least, equal in accuracy, if not superior, to any that have been made 
in this invaluable Western World — 

I have the honour to be with Esteem, and verj-^ respectfully Yours, 

JosiAH Meigs, Surveyor General 

The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquu-e 

Surveyor General's Office, Nov. 23, 1813. 

P. S. Last Evening I had the honoiu- to receive your Letter of 
November 12,=* acknowledging the Receipt of Final Certificates, &c — 
and, covering a Copy of the Act of Feb. 5, 1813. relative to the Right 
of Preemption in the Illinois Territory ^— J Meigs. S.G. 

The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire. 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOSIAH MEIGS 
[NA:GLO,SG,NWT, Lets. Reed., iv:LS] 

Treasury Department General Land Office 22'' Nov' 1813 
Sir Your letter of 10'" ins'^" is before me — the remarks of M' 
King applied to the surveys in the Shawnee district, not to the 
Vincennes district. 

It appears by the extract you have given from a letter of your 
predecessor dated 14 May 1807 " that similar remarks on the surveys 
in the Vincennes district were anticipated by him; he regrets the 
inaccuracies that exist in them & states that those mistakes should 
have been corrected had there been time to do so before the com- 
mencement of the sales: As he states, the irregularity of the lines 
spoil the beauty of the maps; but the inaccuracies in the surveys in 



"* Present but not reproduced. 

»» NA(GLO,SG,NWT, Lets. Reed., iv). 

»• 2 Stat. 797-798. 

» Not found. 

»' Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 377 

the Shawnee district are of a more serious nature, the irregularities 
preclude the formation of a connected map, and as the time is not 
fixed for the public Sales in that district you have time to make the 
necessary corrections; referring to my letter of 29'" Sep' last & its 
enclosures '^ 

I remain very respectfully Sir yom- obed' Serv' 

Edward Tiffin 

JosiAH Meigs Esq"" Surveyor General Cincinnati. 

[Endorsed] Ed. Tiffin Nov. 22. 1813 ReC Dec. 3, 1813 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814 :ALS] 
Surveyor General's Office, Cincinnati, December 8, 1813. 

Sir, On the 3"* of this month I had the honour to receive your 
Letters, dated Nov. 22^3 & 2Z?' 

I shall lose no time in endeavouring to make the required Cor- 
rections of the Surveys of the Shawnee District so far as those Cor- 
rections are within my power. — If the General Piatt of the Shawnee 
District, the receipt of which is mentioned in your Letter of Nov. 23. 
shall not prove to be sufficiently correct for the intentions of the 
Government, I doubt whether there can be any other remedy than 
by a Resurvey 

I send with this Vouchers. N" 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — which I judge will be 
deemed sufficiently correct. — 

W" Harris is about commencing the survey of about 40 Townships 
in the late Purchase of General Harrison, Northwardly of the Vin- 
cennes District, in fulfilment of a Contract with the late Surveyor 
General. I suppose the Allies of Great Britain are so far humbled 
that the Surveyors will meet with no interruption. 

I have the honour to be very respectfully Yours 

JosiAH Meigs. Survey' General 

Hon. Edward Tiffin — 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin Esquire — Commissioner 
of the General Land-Office. Washington City — 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati 8 dec' 1813 J Meigs Surv' Gen' with vouchers 
for his Acco'' Ans'' '^ & handed the vouchers to the Auditors Office 16 
dec' 1813 2* 



" Ante, p. 369. 

»3 NA (GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv). 

3* Loc. cU. 

"■ Post, p. 378. 

" The last sentence is written in the margin. 



378 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE PRESIDENT 

[LC: Madison Papers :ALS] 

Kaskaskia III. Ty. Dec' 12. 1813 
Sir I have the honor herewith to transmit to you a memorial 
from the legislature of this territory to Congress in persuance of the 
request contained in the resolution annexed thereto " — • 

I have the honor to be Very respectfully Sir Y' M° Obd' Serv' 

NiNiAN Edwards 
James Madison President of the U. S. 

[Addressed] James Madison President of the U. S. 

[Endorsed] Edwards Ninian Dec. 12'" 1813 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
[NA:WD,SWDF:ALS] 

Kaskaskia III. Ty Dec' 12. 1813 
Sir Being informed by Gen' Rector that he has resigned his 
appointment of Brigadier Gen' I beg leave to recommend the Honble 
Shadrack Bond as his successor believing him v/ell qualified to dis- 
charge the duties of that office and not doubting that his appointment 
would be gratifying to the citizens of this territory 

I have the honor to be Very Respectfully Sir Yr MoObd* Serv' 

NiNiAN Edwards 

The Hon'ble John Armstrong Sec" of War Washington City 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia 111. T. Gov. Edwards Recommend Hon M'' 
Bond for Brigadier of the militia of that Territory. Rec" April 1814 
1814 Hon M' Bond B. Gen. Militia Gov Edwards rec 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOSIAH MEIGS 

[NA:GL0, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv:LS] 

Treasury Department General Land Office 18*" dec' 1813 

Sir Your letter of 8'" Ins' has been received^' & the vouchers 

which it covered have been handed to the Auditor The general platt 

of Shawnee town district does not exhibit the acres containd in each 

sect", it will be necessary that you furnish a schedule of the contents. 

I am very respectfully Sir your obed' Serv' 

Edward Tiffin 
JosiAH Meigs Esq' Surveyor Gen' Cincinnati 



•' Not present. 
»• AnU, p. 377. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 379 

[Addressed] Josiah Meigs, Esq'' Surveyor-general, Cincinnati. 
[Postmarked] Wash" City Dec 19 Treasury Department, General 
Land office. Edward Tiffin Free 

[Endorsed] Ed. Tiffin, Dec. 18. 1813 Rec'' 27— do Ans" 29— do ^^ 



SHADRACH BOND TO EDWARD TIFFIN 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Reed., B:ALS] 

Washington City December 18th 1813 
Sir/ I have received a letter from Col. Michel Jones one of the 
Land Commissioners of Kaskaskia*" he expresses some doubts about 
the Law Passed the 5th of February 1813" granting the right of pre- 
emption to the Settlers in the Illinois Territory, he thinks the second 
Proviso of the first Section of the Law will bar ef all Persons from the 
benefit of that Law, who are settled within the bounds Dissignated by 
the Commissioners for the locating of the unlocated Claimes. I wish 
your opinion on this subject" — 

I am Dear sir, respectfully your obt. Servt. 

Shadrach Bond — 

[Addressed] Edward Tiffin Commissioner of the Land Office 

[Endorsed] 18 decem'' 1813 Shadrack Bond 



MEMORIAL TO CONGRESS FROM INHABITANTS OF 

PEORIA 

[LC:HF, 15 Cong., 1 sess.: DS] 

[December 20, 1813] 
To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 

States, in Congress assembled 

The Memorial and Petition Of Sundry Inhabitants of the Village 
of Peoria on the Illinois River, Humbly Shew 

That your petitioners have resided for many years at Peoria on the 
Illinois River, and being [surrounded by] numerous nations of Indians, 
we were always subject to their insults, by stealing our horses, killing 
our cattle and robbing our fields, often threatening to kill us if we did 
not immediately supply them with their wants by giving them that 
provision &c. that we had to man tain oiu" families; all which we were 
compelled to comply with to preserve peace: but in the Spring of the 

" The endorsement is evidently in error; see reply post, p. 389. 

*" Not seen. 

« 2 Stat. 797-798. 

" Post, p. 388. 



380 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Year 1812, the Indians threw off all reserve and killed our cattle 
at our very doors, and would carry off on their horses the beef to their 
villages, and would tell us that we ought to be contented that they 
[did] not kill us also. After the commencement of the present war, 
[the Brijtish Indian Agent at Maiden directed the Indians to kill and 
destroy all white people residing west of Detroit river. This speech 
was brought from Maiden by a Potawatomie Indian, and was delivered 
to the Kicapoos by the Potawatomie chiefs; the Kicapoos said that the 
Indians must begin at Peoria and kill the whole, but the Potawatomies 
not agreeing to this, we were all saved from the tomahalk and scalping 
knife. After we heard this unpleasant news, we still wished to remain 
in our village, though often upbraided by the indians of giving infor- 
mation of their proceedings to the Governors of this and Illinois 
Territories, all which we were obliged to deny for our personal safety 
altho it was a truth. Those informations so received from us at 
different times by the executives of this and adjoining Territory, was 
the saving of many lives on the frontiers, but more particularly in 
September 1812, when about 400 Indians were embodying to come 
down (and did actually come down) to make a desperate attack on 
different parts of the frontiers, had it not been for information received 
from us by General Howard, then Governor of this Territory, the mis- 
chiefs that such a body of Indians would have done in the settlements 
must have been great; but from this information the Indians were 
completely foiled and returned home without doing any mischief 
except stealing a few horses. We still wishing to hold our ground at 
Peoria, knowing full well the assistance we could render to our country 
in giving information of the movements of the Indians at all times, 
but at a time when there were only a few men in Peoria Village (the 
others having come down to this country on busine.ss) The Kicapoo 
and Piankeshaw indians robbed our houses of all the arms and ammuni- 
tion that were to be found, as also all kinds of wearing apperal; and 
while the few people who were so left at peoria had fled from the 
enraged in[dia]ns two boats, under the command of Captain Craig of 
Shawanoe Town [MS. torn] at Peoria and emptied our houses and 
outhouses of every kind of property that was portable, and put them 
on board of the boats; when we returned to Peoria we asked Capt. 
Craig for our property, some was returned and the remainder detained 
and never returned to us; the Indians having fired on Cap. Craig's 
boats we were all disarmed and made prisoners of by him to the amount 
of forty two, men, women and children: we asked permission to kill 
some cattle and Hogs for our [MS. torn] provision, which Cap. Craig 
refused, and he and his men killed the hogs for their own use, besides 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 381 

burning foui* houses and four bams, two of the bams containing wheat; 
we were brought down prisoners to Savages Ferry (opposite the 
mouth of Missoiu-i) in Illinois Territory, where an order from Governor 
Edwards liberated us, with the loss of a great deal of property, as we 
were obliged to leave at Peoria all our cattle amounting to upwards of 
two hundred head, besides hogs &c. and a large Quantity of Corn, it 
being too late in the season for us to return to Peoria. The cattle 
corn &c. fell into the hands of the Indians who destroyed all the cattle 
&c. besides burning all our houses and outhouses. Thomas Forsyth, 
one of your petitioners farther represents, that for a considerable time 
pre\'ious to this outrage, had been a confidential agent of the govern- 
ment in the Indian department, and continued his residence at Peoria 
where he had been before [estajblished for the purpose of convejang 
private information of Indian movements to the principal Indian 
Agent at this place. At the commencement of the war, others of your 
petitioners had determined to leave Peoria and go to some other place 
of imagined safety : that the said Forsyth foreseeing in such event, the 
necessety of removing also, and having been also, moreover instructed 
to that effect by his superior officers in the Indian department, solicited 
and prevailed with your petitioners to remain at Peoria [MS. torn] 
of their enemies. The caution and watchfulness of your [MS. torn] 
preserved them from the dangers with which they were menaced. 
But at the moment when they were exulting in the success of their 
address and perseverence, the fruits of which had been important com- 
munications to the executives of Illinois and Missouri Territories, 
they are assailed by a military force of their own countrymen, who 
under the most absurd pretexts, rob them of their property, burn 
their houses and insult their persons. With an [MS. torn] caprice or 
wantoness, your petitioners have been taken as prisoners of War into 
the Settlements. There indeed they have been recognized as Citizens 
attached to their Country and who has hazarded every thing in its 
defence." 

We have been liberated, but in the mean time we have been 
stripped of our ordinary means of subsistence, and are now thrown 
upon the World without the common necessaries of Life, and many are 
now living on the generosity of other people. 

Your Petitioners ask that an enquiry may be instituted as to the 
losses which they have sustained and provision made for their relief 
and indemnification. 

And your Petitioners will, as in duty bound, ever pray 

" See Craig to Edwards, Nov. 16 and Dec. 10, 1812 (Washburne, ed., Edwards 
Papers, CHC, ill, 85-90), explaining Craig's side of the aflFair. 



382 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

St. Louis, M" Ter'. December 20'" 1813. 

Thomas Forsyth Francois Racine pere 

antoine Leclaire Louson Pansannoe 

Pollitte Mallier Joseph Garrett " 

Pierre LeVasseur " Francois Racine fils 

Charle Labelle An' Lapanc^ 

Ant°° Bourbonnait Jacque Mett^ 

Francois Buch^ Pierre Martin 
[MS. torn "] ountaine 

[Endorsed] Petition of sundry inhabitants of the village of Peoria, 
on the Illinois River. 5: Feb^ 1814. Ref to the Com" of Claims. 
12: Feby. 1814 Report made & ordered to lie." Feby. 20—1818 
Ref* to the Committee of Claims ** decided against: leave to withdraw 
— M"^ Hempstead ref claims 

Inhabitants of Peoria Petition & Proof. Prays pay for property 
lost and destroyed by our own troops & the Indians. — The proof now 
filed only relates to the Claims of Thomas Forsyth & Kinzie, F. Bouche, 
Antoine Leclere, Felix Fountain; formerly referred to Commitee of 
Claims & now accompanied with other documents — Scott & 20 
Committee Claims 

[Enclosures] 

Statement of the claim of Kinzie & Forsyth 

[October 22, 1817] 
An account of Losses sustained at the late Village of Peoria on the 
Illinois River, during the late War, by the Indians and a party of 
men under the command of Captain Thomas E. Craig of Shawanoe 
Town, being the property of, arid belonging to the late firm of Kinzie 
& Forsyth. — 

2 horses $50 ea. 100 1 ditto . . do 3 do . 3 

1 pair of Oxen 60 1 ditto . . do 2 do . 2 

8 Cows & Calves .... $15 120 2 Common teapots ... 50 1 

2 Cows 10 20 1 Churn 2 

3 heifers 2% years old ... 6 18 1 bra.sswier Sive 2 

4 Calves l^— do — do ... 4 16 1 Grindstone 3 

1 bull . 5 . do . do ... 20 50 p" Earbobs 25 12,50 

20 bushels Corn . . . 100 cts 20 3 Case black bottles ... 50 1,50 

1^^ Acres of Corn & potatoes 1 Small white flint Case bot- 

destroyed by the Indians 50 tie 50 

16 pairs Moco.sins . . 25 cts 4 3 Shot Guns $10 30 

30 dressed deerskins ... 75 22,50 2 Sabers $4 8 

100 lb tallow 10 10 1 Shotbag & powderhorn . . 2 

40 lb Beeswax 12}4 5 1 Log chain 5 

1 Large blocktin teakettle . . 5 2 Axes 250 cts 5 

1 Small Copper Kettle ... 6 1 Round Adz 2 

1 tinkettle with cover contg, 4 1 hoe 1 

Gallons 4 40 lb Bacon 12>i 5 



** Uncertain reading. 

«» Probably Felix; see second paragraph of endorsement. 

" Uncertain reading. 

*' House Journal, ix, 280, 297. 

*• Ibid., 15 Cong., 1 sess., p. 261. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 



383 



An account of Losses sustained at the late Village of Peoria on the 
Illinois River, during ihe late War, by the Indians and a party of 
men under the command of Captain Thomas E. Craig of Shawanoe 
Town, being the property of, and belonging to the late firm of Kinzie 
& Forsyth. — Continued. 



2 drawing knives .... 100 2 

40 fowls 25 10 

1 hammer 50 

1 penknife 1 

24 lb Maple Sugar . 16% cts 4 

1 Old Matruss 4 

4 black bottles 25 1 

1 tramel 1 

1 Crock of Lard 12 lb . . 12^ 1,50 

1 Knife box 1 

12 forks _ _ 12U 1 , 50 

1 pr Ox Cart Wheels Compleatly 

Ironed 50 

1 Ox Cart (old) 4 

1 Keg Whisky 8 Gallons . . 200 16 
1 Quire of writing paper .... 50 

1 broad Ax 2 

1 large Girablet 50 



12 lb feathers 50 6 

1 old Sled 2 

1 Ox Yoke 2 

1 plough 2 

5 packsaddles 100 5 

2 Cupboards $10 20 

3 tables 4 12 

7 Chairs 100 7 

1 bedstead 4 

1 Common desk 6 

1 Small bedstead 2 

1 House 60 feet long and 18 feet 

wide burned by the Indians .400 
1 bakehouse 16 feet long by 12 
wide burned by dittos .... 50 



$1,184,50 



We the undersigned Antoine Leclaire Felix Fountaine and Francois 
Buch^ do solemnly swear on the holy evangelist of Almighty god that 
we have a perfect knowledge that Kinzie & Forsyth had the above- 
mentioned property as is stated in the above account, and that we 
have a perfect knowledge that the Indians did plunder all the houses 
in the late Village of Peoria in the month of October Eighteen hundred 
& twelve and that the Indians did kill all the Cattle belonging to the 
people of s" Village of Peoria, that a party of men under the command 
of Captain Thomas E: Craig of Shawanoe Town did about the first 
of November in the same year plunder the s* houses of s" Village of 
Peoria, and we further state, that the property mentioned in tlie 
above account was taken and destroyed by the Indians and men 
under the Command of s" Craig during the late war, that the above 
account amounting to Eleven hundred & eighty four dollars and fifty 
cents with the prices affixed opposite each article being read over 
and explained to us is Just and true, and the prices not to high — 



Sworn to before me at St Louis 
this 22°'' day of October 1817— 
F. M. Guyola J.P. 



Ant Le Claire 
his 

FRANgOIS X BOUCH:^ 
mark 
his 

FELIX X FONTAINE 

mark 



[Endorsed] Kenzie & Forsyth's Account of Losses 



384 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Statement of the claim of Felix Fountaine 

[October 22, 1817] 
An Account of Losses sustained at the late Village of Peoria on the Illinois 
River, during the late War, by the Indians and a party of Men under 
the command of Thomas E: Craig of Shawanoe Town being the 
property of Felix Fountaine. — 

1 pair Oxen 60 10 do pease 150 15 

1 pair ditto 40 1600 rails 200 32 

6 Cows & Calves . . $15 . 90 24 fowls 25 cts 6 

3 •¥e«H' eW Calves IJ^ year 1 tramel 1 

old 4 . 12 1 Iron Ladle & fork .... 1 

1 heifer 2% Years old . . 6 . 6 1 bedstead 2 

1 horse 30 1 cupboard . 10 

1 feather bed 56 lb . . 50 cts 28 1 table 3 

6 large brass & Copper Kettles 6 Chairs 100 6 

for making Sugar, but much 1 Iron Shovel 1 

used $6 ea. 36 1 Smoothing Iron 1 

3 large tin Kettles for ditto 1 handsaw 2 

much used . . . . $2 ea 6 1 Iron Wedge 1 

2 Ox Carts with good Wheels . 22 1 Iron pot 10 lb . . . 12^ 1.25 
2 Ox Yokes $2 ea 4 1 Wier Sive 2 

2 Churns 100 cts 2 



1 Ax 250 and two hoes . 100 ea 4.50 $496.75 

72 bushels Corn ... 100 cts 72 

We the undersigned do solemnly swear on the holy Evangelist of 
Almighty God that we have a perfect acquaintance of the above- 
mentioned Felix Fountaine having a dwelling and property at the 
Late Village of Peoria on Illinois River and we have seen such property 
as stated in the above account in possession of him the said Felix 
Fountaine and being acquainted that all the houses in said village of 
Peoria were plundered by the Indians and a party of men under the 
command of Captain Thomas E. Craig of Shawanoe Town in the 
year One thousand Eight hundred & twelve we are therefore certain 
that he the s" Fountaine did lose the above mentioned property as 
stated in the above account that we did see in possession of the s" 
Craig's men some of the articles mentioned in the above account and 
we further state that the above account being read over and explained 
to us with the prices of each article we do declare that the above 
account amounting to Four hundred and ninety Six dollars & 75 
Cents is true and Just and the prices moderate and not to high — 

Sworn to before me this 22°" Thomas Forsyth— 

day of October 1817 at S' Louis — Ant Leclaire 

F.M.GuyolaJ.P. ^^^^^^ - g^^^„^ 

mark 

[Endorsed] Felix Fountaine's Account of Losses — Felix Fountaine's 
Ace' of Losses — 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 355 

Statement oj the claim of Frangois Buch6 

[October 22, 1817] 
An Account of Losses sustained at the late Village of Peoria on the 
Illinois River, during the late War, by the India-ns and a party of 
Men under the Command of Thomas E. Craig of Shawanoe Town, 
being the property of Francois Bu^he — 

1 Ox 5 Years old 30 2 pairs Ear-rings — $10 & 5. . 15 

5 Cows & Calves .... $15 75 500 rails 200 10 

1 Cow 10 4 Large brass kettles for making 

5 Calves Vi Years old. . .$4 20 Sugar (good) . 50 

5 horses stolen by Indians during 1 Tin kettle — 5 Gals " . 5 
the War $50 ea. 250 1 ditto — do— 4 do " . . 4 

1 Ox Cart with wheels (old) ... 6 1 do— do —3 do " . . 3 

1 horse do with wheels (new) . . 12 1 Iron pot . . . 12 lb . la'/ 1.50 

48 fowls 25"" 12 1 Iron Oven . . 24 lb . " 3 

1 feather bed 38 lb ... .50 19 1 pair razors with a hone . . 5 

2 old blankets 3 p". . . $2 ea 4 1 Smoothing plane. IJack plane. 

3 old Sheets 10 1 Jointer, and 1 p' Groving 

2 bedsteads for 4 planes being much used . 10 

2 tables " 5 2 Chissels & 2 augers ... 1.50 

1 dresser 2 2 Shot Guns $10. and $3 . . 13 

6 Chairs 100 6 Shotbag & horn 1 

3 knives & 3 forks . . for 1 450 deerskins . . 37)^ ='• ea 168.75 

30 lb Maple Sugar . . 16K 5 

10 bushels Come . . . 100 10 $781.75 

1 Saddle & bridle (common) . 5 

3 Shirts $1 ea & 2 pair trowsers 

$1 ea 5 

We the undersigned do solemnly swear on the holy evangelist of 
Almighty God that we were well acquainted with Francois Buch^ at 
the late village of Peoria on Illinois River and that he did own, and, 
had the property mentioned in the above account at his dwelling at s* 
Village of Peoria and that his house with the others of s" Village of 
Peoria were plundered first by the Indians, & secondly by a party of 
men under the command of Captain Thomas E. Craig of Shawanoe 
Town, and we verily believe and have every reason to be certain that 
the abovementioned property as claimed by s" Buch^ was taken by 
Indians and men under the command of s" Craig during the late war 
as we seen Some of the property in their possession, the above account 
being read over and explained to us, with the prices of each Article, 
amounting to Seven hundred and Eighty one dollars & 75 cts is true & 
Just and the prices moderate and not to high — 

Sworn before me at S' Louis Thomas Forsyth 

this 22'"' day of October 1817 Ant Le Claire 

F. M. Guyola J.P. 



FELLX X FONTAINE 
mark 



[Endorsed] Francois Buch6 Account of Losses- 



386 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Statement of the claim of Antoine Leclaire 

[October 22, 1S17) 
An account of losses, sustained at the late Village of Peoria on the 
Illinois River, during the late War, by the Indians and a party of 
Men under the Command of Captain Thomas E. Craig of Shawanoetown 
being the property of Antoine Leclaire. 

1 pair Oxen 40 2 Vests do 2 ea. 4 

3 Cows & Calves . . $15 ea. 45 2 hats do 5 10 

1 heifer 3 Years old .... 8 4 Check Shirts do . . 100 4 

3 Calves IH year old . $4 12 1 bedstead 2 

1 house 20 feet long by 16 1 Table 4 

teet wide burned by men 6 Chairs 100 . 6 

under the command of T.. 1 Trunk $2 2 

E.. Craig 150 1 Box $4 4 

1 Small ware house about 12 6 knives & 6 forks .... 1.50 

feet Square burned by 1 Tin kettle 3 Gallons ... 3 

same men 12 1 Liquor Case with double 

1 blacksmith Shop 16 by 12 flint Case bottles .... 5 

feet burned by same ... 16 1 Saddle & bridle 15 

1 Ox Cart with Wheels ... 10 Sundry blacksmith & gun- 

1 Pair new Cart Wheels . . 8 smith tools with a quantity 
16 head of hogs ... $4 62 of old & new Iron with 

96 bushels corn. 100 "'• 96 many gunbarrels 100 

3 fat hogs killed in the pen by 2 Axes 250 "'" 5 

Craigs men $6 18 1 Ox Yoke 2 

48 fowls 25 '«• 12 1 Copper kettle 6 

2 feather beds weight 100 lb 1 Lantharn 50 

50 cts 50 1 horse bell 1 

4 large blankets . 150 •«• 6 80 lb Maple Sugar . 16^ •'• 13. 33^ 
2 pair Sheets (old) . $3 ea. 6 1 Cupboard 5 

2 pair Cloth trowsers New 

$8ea 16 $780. 33K 

2 ClothCappeau'sdo$10ea. 20 

We the undersigned do solemnly swear on the holy Evangelist of 
Almighty God, that we are well acquainted that the abovementioned 
Antoine Le Claire did own and had such property as claimed in the 
above account at his dwelling at the late Village of Peoria on Illinois 
River and that we did See his house warehouse and blacksmith's 
Shop burned in the month of November One thousand eight hundred 
and twelve by men under the command of Captain Thomas E : Craig, 
and that his (s" A: Leclaire's) house was plundered by the Indians 
and men under the command of s" Craig during the late war, and that 
we are certain that he the said Leclaire did lose the abovementioned 
articles as stated in the above account and that the property was 
taken by the Indians and men under the command of s* Craig, that 
the above account being road over to and explained to us amounting 
to — -Seven hundred and eighty dollars & 33}^ cents is Just and the 
prices of each article moderate and not to high — 

Sworn to before me a Justice of Thomas Forsyth — 

the Peace this 22'"' day of October ^„.„^^,. v T3^„^.,r,„ 

1817 at S' Louis- FRANCOIS X_^ Boucher 

F.M.GayolaJ.P. ^^^^^ - ^^^^^^^^ 

mark 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 387 

I Francois Leclaire being left in charge of my Father's dwelling at 
the late Village of Peoria on Illinois River in the fall of the year One 
thousand Eight hundred & twelve I do recollect and say that the 
Indians (after being defeated by an Army of Illinois Militia com- 
manded by Governor Edwards at the head of Peoria Lake) did come 
down to s" Village of Peoria and threaten to kill the people of s" 
Village of Peoria, that the Indians did rob the houses of s** Village of 
Peoria and were in the habits of killing the cattle and destroying the 
property belonging to the people of s* Village of Peoria, a party of 
men arri\'ing at s" Village of Peoria under the command of Captain 
Thomas E. Craig of Shawanoe Town they (Craig's men) carried on 
board of two boats (which they had then there at s" Village of Peoria) 
all the property they (the s'^ Craig's men) could find in said houses 
and was portable, that the people of said Village then there were made 
prisoners by s"* Craig and during the time we were prisoners I did see 
several houses and barns (with grain & hay in them) bxu-ned by 
Craig's men that I saw on board of said boats several articls belong- 
ing to the people of s* Village of Peoria that after we were all brought 
away from s" Village of Peoria as prisoners the whole of the remaining 
Cattle were killed bj' the Indians, as I was informed by them (the 
Indians) in the Spring of the year of One hundred thousand Eight 
hundred & thirteen when I went up to Sandy Creek on Illinois River 
in Company with Thomas Forsyth and Others, and I also did hear the 
Indians say that they did burn Kinzie & Forsyth's house & bakehouse 
at s* Village of Peoria, also the accounts of Losses of Felix Fountaine, 
Francois Buche, Antoine Leclaire, and Kinzie & Forsyth at the late 
Village of Peoria during the late War being read over and explained 
to me, I do declare that I verily believe that the whole are true and 
Just and as far as I am a Judge of the prices of similar articles as is 
charged in the accounts of Losses sustained at the s" Village of Peoria 
on Illinois by the Indians and men under the command of Captain 
Thomas E. Craig of Shawanoe town is moderate and not to high — 

Sworn to before me a Justice of ,-, ^ t 

,, ,, . oond n 4- u ^Q^r^ FRANCOIS X LECLAIRE 

the peace this 22°'* October 1817 mark 

at S' Louis 

F. M. Guyola. J.P. 



314574—48- 



388 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

EDWARD TIFFIN TO SHADRACH BOND 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 5] 

Treasury Department, General Land office, 

20'" December, 1813. 
Sir, I have had the honor to receive your letter of 18"" inst.*' and 
I am of opinion, that no persons are entitled to pre-emption rights in 
the districts of Kaskaskia and Shawneetown, but those who have 
Inhabited and cultivated a tract in one of those districts, agreeably 
to the act of 5'" February, 1813. 
I am &" 

Hon Shadrach Bond, house of representatives. 



GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS] 

Elvirade Randolph Cty Illinois Territory J any 4 1814 

Sir In Consequence of authority given me by your predecessor I 
last year called upon the Gov'' of Tennessee for a regiment of infantry 
to oppose the savages of this quarter '^ & having received information 
from him that induced me to expect those troops. I made a requisi- 
tion on William Morrison Esq' the contractor to make a proper 
deposit on the Ohio of such rations as might be necessary for them — 

This moment he has presented me some certificates by which he 
hopes to get pay for some lost provisions in consequence as he says of 
the above requisition. I have refused to sanction them — and am at 
present strongly impressed with the belief that he is not entitled to 
any thing from the Gov' & therefore think it my duty to request that 
payment may not be made to him untill the merits of his claims be 
fairly investigated. 

The whole circumstances attending this case are not so well im- 
pressed upon my mind, as to enable me to detail them satisfactorily 
at this time & I write in haste with a view to make such suggestions 
only as to produce the necessary enquiry previous to any payment 
being made. 

I have the honor to be Very Respectfully Sir Y' M" Ob"' Sev' 

Ninian Edwards 

The Hon'ble John Armstrong Secry of War Washington City 

[Addressed] The Hon'ble John Armstrong Secy of War Washing- 
ton City [Postmarked] Sydney Grove Jan" 4'" Free B. Stephens 
P M. Sydney Grove 

»' Ante, p. 379. 

»> See Edwards to the Secretary of War, Dec. 25, 1812, and Jan. 2, 1813 
(Edwards, Hist. III., pp. 344, 346), respecting his call upon Governor Blount and 
the latter's action. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 389 

[Endorsed] Elvirade Jan. 4 1814 Gov. N: Edwards. Expecting 
1000 Militia from Tennessee, made a requisition for provision on the 
Contractor, who has presented certificates for losses &c, which he 
has refused to Sign follow this advice, Rec"" Jan 1814 ^ 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814 :ALS] 
Surveyor General's Office, Cincinnati, Jan. 4. 1814 

Sir, I received, on the 29th of December, 1813, your Letter dated 
December 18, 1813."— The Schedule of the Contents of each Section 
in the Shawnee District will be transmitted in a few days. 

With this is a Copy of a communication addressed to me by a num- 
ber of the gentlemen of Shawnee-Town. 

I also inclose my Accounts for the Quarter ending December 31. 
1813. The Salary of my Clerk for the Quarter ending Sept. 30, 1813. 
has not been received — and I am not able to accompany this with the 
Voucher & Receipt for my second Clerk, James Sisson, who is in the 
Country — 

I found in the Office a considerable Quantity of several kinds of 
Stationary, and it will be seen by the Account of that Article that the 
expence has been but trifling. 

I received, last Week, a Request, from Elias Rector, dated at Saint 
Louis, December 4. 1813," that I would authorise him to survey 27 
Townships West of, and adjoining the 3"* Meridian — The l"* Sect, of 
the Act 26, March, 1804,'° seems to give the Surveyor General 
sufficient power in this case, but, before I contract for any further 
Surveys in that Region, I wish to have your opinion and advice. 
M' Elias Rector was appointed in the Month of September last a 
Deputy-Surveyor in the Territory of Missouri — with this I transmit 
a Sketch of the tract which M' Rector wishes to Survey. 

Frequent applications are made at this Office for Copies of Records, 
and some of them require considerable time to furnish — I will thank 
you for information whether I am to attest Copies of Record to be 
used in Judicial trials; — whether any fees, in any case of this nature, 
can be, of right, demanded or accepted, — for in this case I am in doubt 
what is my duty. 

I have the honour to be very respectfully Yours 

JosiAH Meigs. S. Gen' 

M Answered Feb. 8, 1814 (NA, WD, SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 7), advising that 
the Governor of Tennessee has been authorized to call into service militia to oppose 
the Indians on the frontier. 

" Ante, p. 378. 

" NA (GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv). 

» Terr. Papers (Ind.), vii, 173-174. 



390 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

The honourable Edward Tiffin — 
feee fef attcJtcd copicn ef rcoordo te fee uocd « judicial trialo, i de aet 

lUld ttH V itt"\' fiUtllOl'lyillc you ttO uOIlluilu I0C9j Ot-lti X rrilliit yOU WiH O© 
SftlC i 1*0 VW OOIii^UrO TT you OOlliOIlU ift dUOil Oii9C9^ 1CC9 llUt/ CaOCCUIII^ fcliO 

fees IcgalU' demanded fey 44i« Clerk ©f *fee Court ef [blank] fof if 
110 lOCi^ fti'c ootitiiiitiCQ J you iiiuy oc imprusscci oy uljcic99 trppiiouLioiirj 
fef oopicg from ^our reoordo. Tfe« fees which ye« receive fef auch 
scrvicot^ you iiiust' ttccouu t lor tO tiio ^r otftt'Cj 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin. Esquire Commiss"' 
Gen. L. Office— 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati Jan'' 4'" 1814 J Meigs with a representa- 
tion that the plat of Shawnee town may be improved — de Fees for 
copies of records — Rector wants to survey certain land Acco*" of last 
quarter " — 

[Enclosure] 

Memorial to Josiah Meigs by citizens of Shawneetown 

[December 24, 1813] 
To Josiah Meigs, Esquire, Surveyor General of the U. States. 

Sir, The undersigned beg leave to represent to you, and thro' you 
to the government, that it is necessary and important for the future 
convenience, accomodation and beauty of Shawanoe-Town, to abolish 
(Previous to the Public Sales) all the two front tiers of lots and frac- 
tions as Surveyed and standing on the Plat of said Town, leaving the 
third tier to be the front adjoining the river. The lots here proposed 
to be stricken off are from N° 413. to N° 467. inclusive, as marked 
on the Plat. 

As reasons for this measure we beg leave to represent, that in the 
Spring of almost every year the Water of the river rises into the space 
now left for a front Street, and interrupts passing; — sometimes it 
comes upon the lots now proposed to be stricken off; — but rarely on 
the lots of the third tier, which is the highest ridge of land in the town, 
and would afford a dry road as well as the best scites for buildings. 
The attrition of the flood-waters is wearing the bank in places, so 
that it is already nearly impassable for Waggons on the present 
highway. 

It is clearly the opinion of the undersigned, that in case the altera- 
tion here proposed should be made, the remaining lots would sell for 
more than enough to indemnify the U. States, so that the loss would 
in fact be a gain to them. Good buildings cannot with safety be 
placed in front of the highest ground, and it would detract from the 

" The canceled paragraph is written in a different hand. 

»• Answered Jan. 18, 1814 (NA,GLO,SG,NWT, Lets. Reed., iv). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 391 

value of the lots on such ground to have lanes and alleys and mean 
buildings only in their front. It is understood, that remonstrances 
were made by Men of understanding at the time of surveying the 
Town-plat against running it so near the river, but without effect. 
The amendment now proposed would bring the plat nearly to what 
was then desired. 

All which is respectfully submitted by, Sir, your very Obedient 
Servants, 

H Oldham — Physician and Innkeeper 

Jephthah Harden — Attorney at Law. 

Willis C Osbourne — Merchant. 

S. R Campbell— Merchant. 

W" Huston— Merchant. 

Tho' E Cray— Merchant. 

Jo' M. Steel — Merchant 

S. Griswold— Judge U. S. Court, 111. Tr^ 
Shawanoe-town (III. Ter^) 24'" Dec' 1813— 

Surveyor General's Office 4*" Jav7 1814. 
A True Copy— S. Gresham Clk. 

[Endorsed] Shawanoe Town Memorial 4*" Jan^ 1814 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO WILLIAM JONES 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk.5] 

Treasury Department, General Land Office, 6"" January, 1814. 

Sir, Although I am well aware, that your official duties press hard 
upon your time, yet, I hope you will pardon the liberty I take, in 
requesting you to be so good as to direct what instructions shall be 
given to Gov. Edwards, of the Illinois Territory, relative to leasing 
the Wabash Saline, as the time is fast approaching when the present 
lease expires. It appears to M' Sheldon and myself, that, considering 
all the circumstances relative to this business, that it will be best to 
direct him to advertise and receive, first proposals for leasing the 
worlds, with this additional clause to be observed, that the lessees 
shall be suffered to sell the salt, in future, at one dollar P bushel, 
instead, as heretofore, at 75 cents; for the people of that country 
may afford to give a dollar for salt, and of course, with such permis- 
sion, to the lessees (of selling at a dollar) the government may obtain 
better terms than the present occupants have offered; indeed, there 
can be no doubt but they will offer more. 

Please say, if you acquiesce in these ideas, or what others. 

With great respect &" 

Hon. W" Jones, Esq"' acting sec'' of the Treasury. 



392 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

SHADRACH BOND TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
[NA:SD, Printing and Distribution of Laws, 1789-1 822 :ALS] 

Washington City January l\ih 1814 
Sir / 1 take the Liberty of requesting you to appoint M"^ Matthew 
Duncan of Kaskaskia Illinois Territory, to Print and Publish the 
Laws of Congress in said Territory — I am dear sir your ob' serv' 

Shadrach Bond 



PETITION TO CONGRESS BY THE METHODIST SOCIETY 

OF ST. CLAIR COUNTY 

[LC:HF,^13];Cong., 2 ses3.:DS] 

[January 17, 1814] 
To the Senate and House of Representatives of United States in Congress 
Assembled. 

The petition of us the undersign" trustees for the Methodist Society 
at Shilo in the County of S' Claire in the Ellenois Teritory in behalf 
of our selves and the Church to which we belong in the Teritory 
afs" as well as Every other branch of the Christian Church therein. 
Humbly Sheweth — That among the many blessings Securd to, and 
injoyd by us under our Constitution that of Worshiping the Supream 
being agreeable to the dictates of our Conscience we Esteem the 
greatest. And in order to the injoyment of the same places are to 
be set apart and houses Erected for the purpose. In which respect 
we Your petioners (as well as other) feel oiu- selves Curtaild in our 
Religious Enjoyments from having build on lands to which we have 
no title, or Scurity from the public for money so Expended. We 
therefore pray that Such Amendments may be made to the law for 
the disposial of public land as may secure to us the object af '', either 
by granting a donation or permiting Religious Society's to Enter Such 
quantitys as may by you be thought Necessary to secure to Each 
the object afs". And we Your Petitioners as in duty bound will 
Ever pray &c. 

17 Jo" 1814. 
Wm Scott Jun' James Scott 

Joseph Ogle Risdon Moore 

Robert Thomas Silas Bankston 

Samuel Redman 

[Endorsed] Petition of the Trustees for the Methodist society, St 
Clair County, Illinois territory. 26, February 1814. Ref" to the 
Com" on Public Lands. 22" March, 1814. Report made, agreed to 
and petition rejected " M' Bond ref" lands 

" House Journal, 13 Cong., 2 sess, pp. 313, 356. The prayer of the petition 
was rejected as "unreasonable". 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 393 

JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 

[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814 :ALS] 

SuTA-eyor General's Office, Cincinnati, Jan 18, 1814 

Sir, I had the honour of receiving, last Evening, your Letter dated 
January 4th.*° Perhaps there may be some misunderstanding of the 
Law relative to District Sun^eyors. The Lands surveyed according 
to Law, have only Sectional Lines run : and Marks , only, for half or 
Quarter Sections. — I have supposed that the intention of the Law was, 
to prevent disputes and dissensions between purchasers, by constitut- 
ing accredited officers, under the name of District Surveyors, who 
should, when required, actually run and mark the Lines dividing whole 
Sections into Halves or Quarters. If this business should be left to 
County Surveyors, or any Surveyors not acting under the authority 
of the United States, it is very probable that disputes would arise, 
not only injurious to the Purchasers themselves, but also to the 
Registers of the Land-Offices, the Surveyor General, and indeed to 
every officer concerned in the business of the Public Lands. 

It is, by Law, made the duty of the Survej^or General to "Furnish 
the District Surveyor with a Copy of the Plat of the Townships and 
Fractional parts of Townships contained in his District, describing 
the Subdivisions thereof, and the marks of the Corners." 

The Deputy or District Surveyor is entitled to receive from the 
purchaser three Dollars for each mile run and marked. 

If I have misapprehended the meaning of the Law, it will not be 
unpleasant; as it will relieve this Office from the considerable labour 
of furnishing Plats & descriptions to the District Sun-eyors. 

I transmit, with this a Schedule of the Fractional Sections and 
Quarter Sections in Ranges No. I to No. VII inclusive, East of the 
Third Principal Meridian — in a few days I shall forward the schedule 
of the other sections of Shawnee Distric t, w\z: Ranges 8 — 9 — 10 — 11. 

By the Law of May 10, 1800," all Sections except the Fractional, 
on the North and West sides of Townships, are to be considered as 
containing the complete legal Quantity — Viz: each whole township 
contains 25 complete legal Sections, each 640 acres 21 complete legal 
Q'' Sections each 160 acres and, 23 fractional Quarter Sections, gen- 
erally exceeding, or falling short of 160 acres. — 

Whenever the Fractions are thrown on Rivers, the order of numera- 
tion varies from that of whole TowTiships, and is easily seen by 
reference to the Plats. 

I have the honour to be very respectfully Yours 

JosiAH MiEGS S' General 

«° Not found. 

«i Terr. Papers (N.W.), III, 89-90 (sec. 3). 



394 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

1804 26 Mar: District or deputy surveyors to be appointed." 

page 167 Subdivisions to be at the expence of purchasers.'' 

11 feb 1805 Boundary lines of sections to be ascertaind at public 
page 168 expence '* — 

169 Returns of Survey' Gen' to be considered as correct, 
& contents of quarter sections as K'" of whole 
sect'." 
" Does section S"* •* repeal that part of the Law of 26 

Mar 1804 which provides for theappointm' of Depu- 
ties to subdivide at exp" of purchasers? 
As the deputies were to be appointed with consent of Sec'' of Treas' 
will it be adviseable to refer the subject for his decision? 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire — Commissioner 
of the General Land-Office Treasury Department Washington City. 
[Postmarked] Cincinnati 20 Jan" 1814 Free 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati 18 Jan^' 1814 J Meigs about appointment of 
district Surveyors Schedule of Fract' Sect' " 



THE SECRETARY OF STATE TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 

(NA:SD, Dom. Letters, xvi:Cl 

21" of January 1814 
Governor Edwards 

Sir Your letter of the 15"" of december 1813 " enclosing one from 
doctor John H. Robinson to yourself, dated the 18'" of September 
with the copy of a printed circular from the same person, addressed 
also to you, was duly received at this office; and I return you my thanks 
for your communication.*' 

I avail myself of this occasion to state, that d' Robinson's views and 
conduct, as disclosed by the letters referred to, are in direct opposition 
to law; and I need hardly add, that they have not the authority or 
countenance of this government. 

I have just written to the governor of the Missouri territory en- 
closing D' Robinson's letters to you, and have requested him to take 
such measures as the law authorizes, to prevent the execution of his 
illegal designs, if he should be found in that territory. For that pur- 

" There is no mention of district or deputy surveyors in the act cited. 

•• Terr. Papers (Ind.), Vii, 174 (sec. 1). 

••2 Stat. 313 (sec. 1). 

"2 Stat. 313-314 (8ec.2). 

«• 2 Stat. 314. 

"Answered Jan. 31, 1814 (NA, GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv). 

•• Not found. 

•• Cf. anU, p. 373, 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 395 

pose he is authorized and requested to employ such professional aid as 
may be necessary. If d'' Robinson should be in the Illinois and not 
in the Missouri ten-itory, you will cause the enclosed letter for the 
district attorney to be delivered, and receive from governor Clark the 
letters forwarded to him, to be used as the ground work of such legal 
proceedings as may be instituted in either territory against d' Robin- 
son.'" 



THE SECRETARY OF STATE TO WILLIAM MEARS 

[NA:SD, Dom. Letters, XVI:C] 

21°' of January 1814, 
The District Attorney of the Illinois territory 

Sir I transmit herewith two letters from d"^ John H. Robinson to 
governor Edwards tending to prove that the former had been engaged 
in the unlawful business of exciting the citizens of the U. S. to the 
invasion of the Spanish provinces beyond the Misisipi. If he should 
be found in the Illinois territory, you will take immediately such 
measures as the law authorizes to prevent the execution of his illegal 
designs. 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814:ALS] 

Surveyor General's Office. Cincinnati, Feb. 1. 1814. 

Sir, I received, on the 27"" of last month, your letter dated Jan. 18, 
1814." 

In the communications made relative to Shawnee Town, I always 
intended to express my opinion that the place was not judiciously 
selected — that, as probably in some future time a considerable town 
would arise below the mouth of the Wabash and above the mouth of 
Cumberland River, it was very desirable that the Government should 
select a spot which should promise health, and particularly, security 
against inundations.^It is my opinion that, as expectations have 
been excited by the Surv^ey & laying out of a Town at Shawnee the 
lots of that town should be offered to sale, the present plan being 
improved, before the sales commence, by striking out the Streets near 
the River. The proposed abolition of those Streets will probably 
enhance the value of the remainder. 

I have never presumed a right to ad^^se, but I think that your 
representation relative to the Public Lands, which I have had the 
pleasure of reading in the National Intelligencer, will convince the 

"> No reply found. 

" NA (GLO.SG.NWT, Lets. Reed., IV). 



396 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Government, that another Scite for a Town in the Illinois Territory 
ought to be selected — 

I have communicated to Mess. William and Elias Rector your 
opinion on the Subjects of their proposals. Several Surveyors are 
now employed in what is called Harrison's late Purchase " — I think 
they are in some danger of interruption, but they are willing to en- 
counter it. 

By this Mail I transmit a Packet of Seven Sheets containing a 
Description of the Contents of Fractional Sections in Ranges VIII. 
IX. X— XI East of the 3d. Principal Meridian — I hope the whole 
Schedule will be found to be correct and agreeable to your wishes. 

We are preparing Copies of Plats and Descriptions of the Quarter 
& Fractional parts of Townships reserved by the Act of March 1. 
1800. for satisfying Warrants granted to Individuals for Military 
Services — and a part will be transmitted by the next Mail. 

I inclose James Sisson's Receipt for the Quarter ending December 
31. 1813^ — I have not yet received the Salary of either of my Clerks 
for the Quarter ending September 30. 1813. — 

I am — very respectfully Yours. 

JosiAH ]\Ieigs 

Hon. Edward Tiffin Comm^ Gen. L. Office — 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire Commissioner 
of the General Land Office, Treasury Department Washington-City. 
[Postmarked] Cincinnati 3 Feb*' 1814 Free 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati 1 feb 1814 J Meigs de Scite of Shawnep 
Town — sends description of fractions & Sisson rec* ans" 11 feb 
handed rec* to Auditor with the SurV Generals Acco' ending 31 
dec 1813 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOSIAH MEIGS 
(NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv: LS] 

Treasury Department General Land Office 1 1 Feb^ 1814 
Sir Your letter of 1" Ins' has been received, with your opinion 
relative to the Scite of Shawnee Town; I shall always be glad to have 
your opinion on such subjects, your superior opportunities of observa- 
tion and information enable you to form a more correct judgment than 
can possibly be formed here upon Local subjects. Seven sheets of 
descriptions of fract. Sections (mentiond in your letter) & M' 
Sissons receipt for his Salary have also been received, the latter has 
been handed to the Auditor — In one of my latest letters I informed 

" In Indiana Territory. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 397 

you that I presumed your Salary was waiting your orders in the Bank 
of Washington 

I am very respectfully Sir your obed' Serv' 

Edward Tiffin 

JosiAH Meigs Esq' Surv'' Gen' Cincinnati 

[Addressed] Josiah Meigs Esq"' Surveyor General Cincinnati [Post- 
marked] Treasury Departm' General Land Office Edward TifRn 
Wash" City Feb 12 

[Endorsed] Ed. Tiffin Feb. 11. 1814. 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO WILLIAM RECTOR 
[NA:WD, SW, Lets. Sent, Mil. Bk. 7] 

War Department Fehy 16, 1814. 
Gen' W" Rector Kaskaskias 

Sir, The President has been pleased to accept your Resignation as 
Brig"' General in the Militia of the Illinois Territory " — 



WILLIAM RECTOR TO JOSIAH MEIGS 
[NA:GLO,SG,NWT, Lets. Reed., iv:ALS] 

United States Saline, Illinois Territory, March 16"» 1814. — 
Dear Sir I arrived here on the 8'" Ins' I came to visit my brother 
Nelson, who on the 1" day of this month, was severely wounded by 
Indians. He was returning from a tour of surveying when he got to 
the North fork of the Saline Creek (about 15 miles from this place) 
he was shot at by at least five Indians, who lay concealed under a 
high bank, not more than twenty five feet from where he was — Three 
Balls struck him, one passed through his left shoulder not far from 
the hollow of his breast — Another struck his left arm about four 
Inches from the shoulder, this fractured the bone very much, glanced 
off and lodged in the flesh where it yet remains, The other Ball glanced 
along the right side of his head taking with it a lock of hair and a 
small peice of skin which left three Bullet holes in a Handkerchief 
that was tied round his head. Another Ball struck his Horse in the 
shoulder, ranged back and came out on the opposite side just below 
the back bone which brought him to his knees, but he instantly 
recovered again — At this critical moment the Savage Monsters, no 
doubt made sure of their victim, for they had got all round and 
within a few feet of him. But he made a desperate effort put spurs 
to his horse and rushed through them. At the same time another 

n Ante, p. 373. 



398 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

party of Indians lay concealed two or three hundred yards further 
along the road, for the purpose no doubt, that in case Nelson by 
accident should escape the clutches of his first assailants that they 
might make sure of him. But he fortunately turned off the road and 
did not pass within less than one hundred yards to where they lay. 
As he passed they discharged their guns at him but without effect. 
In this miserable plight he rode twelve miles to a Fort three miles 
from this place, when he got there, he was so much exausted with 
the loss of blood that he could scarcely stick on his horse. The same 
evening he was brought by men on a litter to this place, since which 
he has suffered very much with his wounds & part of the time very 
high fevers. But I am happy to add that for the two last days he has 
been nearly free from fever & pain, that a supperation has taken 
place in both his wounds, discharge freely and his surgeons say look 
very favorable. I think he is entirely out of danger, tho it will be 
several weeks before he gets entirely well— Such is the opinion of his 
Surgeons. You will perceive that Nelsons escape from the savage 
allies of his Britanic Majesty, was very narrow indeed it comes 
pretty near to what I view as a miracle every body here say it is a 
miracle of the most extraordinary kind. I think there are but few 
men, who under similar circumstances would have escaped the 
Tomhawk & scalping knife 

I hope our Government will take such steps as will effectually put 
down or drive far away from our settlements these perfidious savages 
& cut off all communication between them and our more perfidious 
enemies; the British. It would be a great pity that this beautiful 
& fertile country should be left to be overrun by hostile savages. 
It is tnily afflicting to see the poor fellows who had settled on the 
frontiers in this quarter fleeing with their families & that little of their 
little property which they could collect & take with them from savage 
cruelty — I say it is distressing because these men are all poor depend 
on their labor for a support many of whom have large families and 
no homes to take them to 

Nelson desires me to present his respects to you, and inform you 
that before he received his wounds he had surveyed the exterior 
boundaries of all the Townships in his district, and had subdivided into 
sections &c one Township & part of another. He wishes me also to 
say to you that he is determined to complete the Surveying you 
assigned to him as soon as possible that notwithstanding his ill luck 
he hopes to get the whole done before the expiration of the time 
mentioned in his contract with you. 

I shall try and I expect to succeed in geting some of the Rangers 
stationed so as to protect Nelson While Surveying, which will answer 
a double perpose as at the same time they will afford protection to a 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 399 

number of defenceless inhabitants — Should it be necessary I will 
send one experienced Surveyor to assit him. 

I did expect to have set out for your office about the 20"* Ins* 
but in consequence of this long visit shall not be able to get off till 
late next month, — I shall go prepared to return the whole of the 
surveying you assigned to me in this Territory, and some part of the 
Village tracts of Missouri — I shall set out for Saint Louis in two or 
three days. On my arrival there I hope to receive your instructions 
relative to laying off Townships &c Three weeks before I left S' 
Louis I rec"* from M' Tiffin by mail the Land Laws of the U. S. 
agreeably to your request. 

Will you do me the honor to present my respects to M" Meigs 
and Miss Benjamin — 

I am D'' Sir with much respect Your ob' Serv' 

"VV" Rector 

JosiAH Meigs Esquire 

[Addressed] Josiah Meigs Esquire Surveyor General of the 
United States Cincinnati Ohio. Mail [Postmarked] Shawanoe Town 
March 18"" 17 

[Endorsed] W" Rector March 16. 1814 R [March] 27. An. 
April 4. 



JOHN CALDWELL TO EDWARD TIFFIN 

[NA:GLO, Shawneetown, Reg. and Rec. Lets.: ALS] 

VmcENNES 16"" March 1814. 
Sir, In obedience to your request of the 8'" of December last ''* 
I have the honor to inform you, that I shall leave this Place tomorrow 
& proceed without delay of time to Kaskaskia, in Order to Resume 
those duties which you have been good enough to dispense with for 
some time Past, for which favor I feel truly grateful & beg leave to 
request that you will Accept my Sincere & hearty thanks." 
I have the honor to be Su* Your's respectfully 

Jn" Caldwell 

The Hon"'' Edward Tiffin Commissioner of the General Land 
Office. 

[Addressed] The Hon"' Edward Tiffin Commissioner of the General 
Land Office Washington City PMail Private 

[Endorsed] Vincennes 16'" March 1814 ReC* April 5'" 1814 J Cald- 
well Rec' notifies his return to Kaskaskia — 



" Not found. 

"See Caldwell to TifSn, Nov. 22, 1813 (NA.GLO, Shawneetown, Reg. and 
Rec. Lets.), explaining his request for an extended leave of absence. 



400 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814:ALS] 

Surveyor General's Office Cincinnati, March 19, 1814 

Sir I received, yesterday, your Letter dated 7'" February , 1814." 
— As the Post-Mark is March 7. 1 presume there was a Mistake in the 
Name of the month. 

The Field Notes of Surveys in the Militarj' District are consider- 
ably voluminous — as soon as a Copy can be made it shall be trans- 
mitted. 

I am sorry to inform you, that three of our Surveyors, who were 
occupied in Harrison's late Purchase, (Northerly of Vincennes,) have 
retired, thro' fear of Indian hostility — 

It is said, and I think it is true, that Nelson Rector, who was sur- 
veying on the waters of Little Wabash, has been attacked by Indians, — 
that he is wounded in several places, and that it is feared his assistants 
have been killed — 

The Indians seem not yet sufficiently humbled to permit the Public 
Surveying to progress. — 

I have the honour to be, very respectfully Yours, 

J Meigs. S. Gen.— 

Hon. E. Tiffin 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire Commissioner 
of the General Land-Office Treasury Department Washington-City 
[Postmarked] Cincinnati 21 March 1814 Free 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati 14 March 1814 J Meigs Surveyor Gen' 
Indians have attacked a Sui-veying party 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 

1NA:GL0, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814 :ALS] 

Surveyor General's Office, Cincinnati, March 28. 1814 
Sir, In my letter of the 19th of this month, I informed you of an 
attack made on one of the United States' Surveyors in the Illinois 
Ten-itory. 

I inclose, with this, Extracts from Letters received, last evening, 
from Judge Griswold , and W" Rector ," giving particulars of that 
transaction, the knowledge of which may be useful to the Govern- 
ment. — 

I have, within a few days, conversed with William Harris, one of 
the U States' Surveyors, in Harrison's last Purchase ;— he prudently 
retired from the Woods where he was at work, (near Fort Harrison, 

" NA(GLO,SG,NWT, Lets. Reed., iv). 

" Present, and printed in full from the original, ante, p. 397. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 401 

on the Wabash;) having observed Indians, whose conduct, not being 
decidedly friendly, was, of course, suspicious. 

I have the honour to be, very respectfully. Yours, 

JosiAH Meigs. S. G. 

The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire — 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward TifRn, Esquire 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati 28 Mar 1814 M'' Rector Survey' has been 
wounded by Indians. 

[Enclosure] 

Judge Griswold to Josiah Meigs 

(Copy) (Extract) Shawnee Town, 10, March, 1814 

"On the first instant M"' Nelson Rector left his hands at work on 
his Survey, and set out alone to come in to the Saline about 25 or 30 
Miles with his Field-Notes, with a view to Plat &c — At about half 
way, while riding carelessly along upon the Goshen Road , near the 
Bank of the North Fork of the Saline Creek, wholly unsuspicious of 
Indians, he was saluted with a discharge, from beneath the bank, of 
several pieces, within a very short distance: One ball entered his left 
breast, and passing thro' a small portion of the cavity of his body 
and the left shoulder blade, lodged next to the skin behind— another 
ball struck his left arm, and shattered the bone between his elbow and 
shoulder — a third ball passed thro' the body of his horse near the 
forelegs, beneath the back bone, and above the vitals. The horse 
sprang to a great distance, but providentially M"' Rector kept his 
seat, and the Indians continuing their fire, another ball grazed one 
of his temples, and knocked off his hat. — On turning his eye, he per- 
ceived their mrniber to be from six to ten, but could not tell exactly, 
as his deplorable situation permitted but a slight glance, nor did he 
look at them again — They, however pursued him a good distance, 
and it seems a miracle that he escaped. From the glance he had of 
them they appeared to be Kickapoos , and all young men: his horse 
held out beyond expectation, and brought him to a Fortification 
three miles from the Saline, but, on the way, M'' Rector was obliged 
to use every method to save himself — one arm dangling by his side, 
with the hand of the other he was obliged to grasp the saddle to save 
himself from falling thro' extreme faintness, and other affections 
produced by his wound. In this situation, taking the bridle in his 
teeth, he lost some of them by the stumbling of his horse — he thinks 
that if he had not been on a Spanish Saddle he must inevitably have 
fallen and lost his life. 

The men who went out in pursuit of the foe discovered many traces 
of Indians, but thought it most prudent to hunt up M' Rector's 
Surveyors, whom they found pursuing their business, without any 



402 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

suspicion of danger, and brought them in, with one or two of the most 
exposed families. 

We do not apprehend much danger here, but do not^like the bold- 
ness of these Savages. Their object, however, I think, is Plunder 
rather then War — they have stolen many horses." 

"Stanley Gbiswold" 

J Meigs— 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOSIAH MEIGS 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lete. Reed., iv:ALS] 

Treasury department General Land Office April 1" 1814 
Sir Herewith inclosed you will receive a copy of an Act "Con- 
cerning Shawnee town" " it will be necessary immediately to engage 
some person to carry this Act into effect, forward on one copy of the 
plat to this Office and make out another ready to put into the Hands 
of the Register of the Land Office at Shawnee town, so soon as he shall 
be appointed — this business only retards (I believe) the opening of 
the Land Office, 
with great respect I am Your ob' Serv' 

Edward Tiffin 

JosiAH Meigs Esq' Surveyor General Cincinnati Ohio. 

[Addressed] Josiah Meigs Esq' Surveyor General Cincinnati. Ohio. 
[Postmarked] Treasury Department Gen Land Office Edward Tiffin 
Wash- City Apr 2 Free 

[Endorsed] E. Tiffin April 1. 1814 R 11. A. 13 " 



MEMORIAL TO CONGRESS FROM THE LEGISLATIVE 

ASSEMBLY 

[LC:HF, 13 Cong., 2 sess.iDS] 

[Referred April 2, 1814] 
To the honorable the senate and house of Representatives of the United 
States in Congress assembled — 

The memorial of the Legislative Council and house of Representa- 
tives of the Illinois Territory humbly sheweth, 

That we your memorialists are sensible of the reasonableness of the 
pretensions of a portion of the Citizens of this Territory and we beg 
leave to express our conviction that a law of the United States in 
conformity with the reasonable demands of the following description 
of Citizens will be found to be not only a wise but a Just and humane 



" Approved Mar. 24, 1814 (3 Stat. 113). See sec. 6, act approved Apr. 30, 
1810 (2 Stat. 591). 
» Post, p. 412. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 403 

policy — First — Of those setlers in the Illinois Territory and who 
inhabited and cultivated prior to act of S"" of february 1813 '" on 
public land within the tract reserved by 1806 " for satisfying unlocated 
confirmed claims and who are holders of such unlocated claims — 
Secondly — Of those setlers who also inhabited and cultivated as 
aforesaid within the said reserve and who held no claims^S''' Of 
those who are the proprietors of the confirmed unlocated claims within 
the district of Kaskaskia and who have cultivated prior to the said 
act of 1813 — The first description of Citizens pray for the pre- 
emption in the purchase of not exceeding 400 acres or at their option 
to be permitted to locate any claim or claims in their possession on 
that quantity or any quantity not less than 100 acres including their 
improvements. 

The second description of setlers pray for the preemption in the 
purchase of one quarter section including their improvements, Both 
these description of setlers have been excluded from the benefit of 
the act of 5'" Feb'' 1813 by the proviso therein contained reserving 
from sale any lands which have been Reserved by former acts of 
Congress, Contrary it is presumed to the intent of the Legislature at 
the time of passing that act — • 

The third description of Citizens pray that within the following 
limits (to wit) (Beginneing at the mouth of Muddy with a Township 
line nearest to the said mouth. Thence East to the meridian running 
from the mouth of Ohio, Thence North with the said meridian line to 
the North boundaiy line of Township N" 5, North Thence West to 
the Mississippi, Thence down the Mississippi to the place of Begin- 
ning) they be permitted to enter with the Register such a part of a 
fractional section, section or Township as he may be able to cover 
with any unlocated claim or claims in his possession designating at 
the time of entry the end from which stteh the fraction or excess over 
and above the claim or claims shall be stricken off from such fraction, 
section or Township which shall in all cases be done by running such 
line at right angles with the sectional lines, the expense of running 
such line to be paid by the claimant, and when two or more shall 
apply for the same tract the priority to be decided by the Register by 
lot as in other cases. That the entries shall be made by the holders of 
unlocated claims within three months after notice is given by the 
register 

And that all claims not thus entered at the expiration of the said 
three months shall be considered as funded at the minimum price of 
public land and be received in payment of p«felie lands pifrchased at 
public sale. But that in order to avoid monopoly it is not designed that 
a credit should be extended to any who pay in claims. 

«» 2 Stat. 797-798. 

81 Act approved Apr. 21, 1806 (2 Stat. 395-396). 

314574 — 48 27 



404 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

From a view of the laws granting donations to the heads of families 
and to those who did militia duty in 1790 — and the circumstances 
under which those persons have setled and improved, We your memo- 
rialists beg leave to state that they are the most deserving class of 
setlers in our Country — most of whom have been long setled — are 
the holders of Bona fide claims by purchase and some even hold in 
their own right by virtue of thier having been heads of families in 
1788 or by virtue of their having done militia duty in 1790. These 
improved and cultivated extensively under an impression that they 
might secure their labour by locating on their improvements militia 
donations when confirmed in conformity with the mode pointed out 
by the Governors el the but this right of locating having been unex- 
pectedly taken away by the act of 1806 directing in a special manner 
the locating of all unlocated claims, this law deprived those setlers 
who held claims of the means of securing their labour in the manner 
pointed out by the Governors of the North West and Indiana Terri- 
tories who permitted single militia rights to be located adjoining other 
confirmed lands or on tracts where there were mill seats or any where 
provided the holder or holders would lay five of them together, Dona- 
tions to heads of families were by the resolve of 1788 *^ directed to be 
located within certain parallelograms adjoining the Villages and to 
have been distributed by lot, but this mode became impracticable most 
of the Country adjoining the villages being covered by antient Grants, 
The first description of setlers are proprietors of these claims, which 
under the existing law they cannot locate on any particular spot. 
The Second description setled and opened excellent farms with a view 
of purchasing these claims and locating the same on their improvem- 
ments, or in the expectation of at any rate being able to purchase the 
land from the United States, Now should our prayer not be granted 
and the present law of 1806 be enforced their farm will be swept away 
by the few large land claimants and'perhaps one half of the population 
within this tract would will be driven off and that too consisting of our 
most honest and industrious Citizens 

We your memorialists cannot omit expressing the sensibility and 
sympathy on witnessing our best citizens in such a homeless and dis- 
tressed situation indeed it would be illy requiting their meritorious 
and patriotic exertions in defending for a series of years, the Country 
from the frequent and recent incursions of a ferocious and formidable 
savage enemy. 

As the donation lands were to have been located on the prime lands 
to wit, river bottoms, the holders will not think it Justice after waiting 
upwards of 20 years to be pushed back and to take their several por- 
tions under the present law which admits of but a very limited choice, 
These claims and those of militia Donations together with a few 

•> June 20, 1788, Terr. Papers (N.W.), ii, 112-115. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 405 

improvement rights which have become what is called floating claims 
(the land they embraced having been taken away by neighboring 
claims) amount to about 200,000 acres a great part of these will be 
consumed by the actual settlers if the privilege prayed for is granted, 
and as this course will still further limit land claimants, we beg leave 
to suggest that if a law were to be passed valuing these remaining 
claims at the price stated, directing the Board of Commissioners to 
issue certificates on their ultimate confirmation and permitting the 
holders of their certificates to purchase public land with them at this 
rate, at the auction to be holden where the land shall have been sur- 
veyed within the tract first described, then claimants would be 
satisfied and the public interest would not be likely to suffer since a 
competition among the certificate holders would certainly raise the 
land far above their minimum price. 

We your memorialists are persuaded that the effect of this measure 
would greatly facilitate the population of so important a point of the 
Union; and that in consequence the residuary lands would sell much 
sooner and every description of citizens will be satisfied. — 

Resolved that the foregoing Memorial be signed by the president 
of the CouncU & by the speaker of the House of representatives in 
behalf of the Legislature and that one copy thereof be transmitted by 
the speaker of the house of Representatives to our Delegate in Congress 
with a request that he shall lay the same before the national Legisla- 
ture and that another copy be forwarded to the Secretary of the 
Treasury at the City of Washington 

Geo Fisher 
Speaker of the House of Representativs 
Pierre Menard 
president of the Councell 

[Endorsed] 13 Cong. S 2 Sess. Memorial of the Legislative Council 
& House of Representatives of the Illinois Territory. 10: Jans' 1814 
Ref to the Com" on the Public Lands.^^ 1814 April 2* Read & ref* 
to M^ Brown & others.^ M"' Bond Ref lands 



» House Journal, IX, 206. It was also presented in the Senate by Senator 
Fromentin, of Louisiana, Apr. 2, 1814, when it was read and referred {Senate 
Journal, v, 483). The committee to which the memorial was referred in the 
Senate was appointed Feb. 4, 1814, to consider a similar memorial from citizens 
of the State of Louisiana praying to be confirmed in the possession of certain lands 
located and improved prior to the cession of Louisiana to the United States, 
ibid., p. 429. The committee report has not been seen; but see act approved 
Apr. 12, 1814 (3 Stat. 121-123), relating to the State of Louisiana and the Terri- 
tory of Missouri, and act approved Apr. 16, 1814 (3 Stat. 125-127), concerning the 
Illinois land situation. The latter act was designed to meet the demands embodied 
in the above memorial. 

** There is no relevant entry in the House Journal under the above date. 



406 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

GOVERNOR EDWARDS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

INA:WD,SWDP:ALS1 

Kaskaskia Illinois Territory April 4, 1814 
Sir The information contained in the extracts which I have the 
honor herewith to transmit will no doubt be well understood and 
properly appreciated by you ^ — From several other sources I have 
received correspondent accounts. It is thought that F' Clarke is 
most probably attacked by this time ** 

I have the honor to be Very Respectfully Sir Y' M» Ob"' S* 

N Edwards 

The Honble J Armstrong Sec'' of War Washington City 

[Endorsed] Kaskaskia April 4 1814 Gov. Edwards — transmits 
extracts from letters— Expects Fort Clark is attacked. Rec" April 
1814" 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
[NA:GL0, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814:ALS1 

Surveyor General's Office, Cincinnati. Avril 9. 1814 
Sir, I transmit with this an Account of William Dobbins for Sur- 
veying & Laying out Shawnee Town .*^ Mr Dobbins has executed 
the Orders of Col. Mansfield, the late Surveyor General— There was 
no formal Contract in this case^Tho' the Act of 30. April, 1810,*' 
was imperative on the S' General, yet, in this, as in all cases not 
specially provided for, it is necessary that the proper Officer should 
approve of accounts, before I can, with propriety, give an Order to 
the Deputy Surveyor. 

Mr. Dobbins was considered by Col. Mansfield as an able and faith- 
ful Surveyor, and has, for a considerable time, waited for his compen- 
sation. As M' Dobbins very frequently presses me on this subject, it 
would afford me particular satisfaction to be relieved from his impor- 
tunities. 

I also inclose an Extract of Letter dated Shawnee Town, received 
on the 7'" of this Month, and I avail myself of the permission you have 
given me, to express in this case my firm belief that the Public Good 
will be promoted by speedily opening the Land-Office for Shawnee 
District— The Land Officers ought to have time to erect buildings 
sufficiently secure, before the Sales commence — M' Thomas Sloo, 

*• Not present. 

» See Grignon (at La Baye) to Askin, Sept. 28, 1814 (WHC, XI, 305) reportinji 
such an attack. 

" Answered po^, p. 413 

" Not present. 

•• 2 Stat. 591 (sec. 6). See Terr. Papers (Ind.), viii, 117. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 407 

who, as I believe, is to be the Register of that Office would, if ap- 
pointed, immediately transport by the River, from this place, boards, 
nails and other necessary materials for a proper building. — The expec- 
tation of the Public of that part of the Western Territory has been 
excited, and they are anxious, if not, rather, clamorous, to see the 
Public Promise performed. 

At the present time money is plenty among them — and the Sales 
would be, in my opinion, rapid and extensive. 

I have the honour to be very respectfully Yours. 

J Meigs 

The honourable Edward Tiffin Comm' G. L. Office 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire — 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati 9'" Ap' 1814 J Meigs with Acco'of — Dobbins 
for surveying Shawnee town & letter of S Griswold ab' opening L 
Office there Ans" 19 Ap"" 

lEnclosureJ 

Judge Griswold to Josiah Meigs 

"Extract of a Letter" "Shawnoe Town March 17. 1814" 

"I fear we shall not have the Land Office opened here very suddenly, 
and still there was never more necessity for opening an Office of that 
kind any where. — The chief hindrances appear to be now 

"a Reservation and a Road; which have not been laid out. The 
Reservation is, that of the United States Saline , which has never 
been located , and will embrace some thousands of acres. The Road 
has been obtained, at this Session of Congress, to run from this place 
to the Saline, and from thence to Kaskaskia "' — but I should think 
the Land Officers might be appointed , and ordered on, as they must, 
of necessity erect buildings for their accommodation, and the safe- 
keeping of the Public Monies and Records, none proper for either 
purpose being to be had here — While they were doing that, both the 
Saline Boundaries and the Road route might be fixed. — It is now well 
ascertained where the Reservation for the Saline ought to be laid, and 
nothing is wanted to effect that object instantly but the Power to 
do it. The Land Officers, or any other men of trust might be vested 
with this Power: and, as to the Road , it equally ascertained and known 
here where the route ought to run, till you get beyond the Saline, and 
beyond all the Lands which would be sold immediately — The Land- 

'» Post. p. 413. 

•' A bill to this end, however, did not proceed beyond second reading in the 
House during the current session {House Journal, IX, 197). Actually, a similar 
bill was not passed until two years later. See act approved Apr. 27, 1816 (3 
Stat. 318), authorizing the survey and construction of the road in question. 



408 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Officers might be employed also in directing the route of the Road, 
especially thro' their own District — ■ 

"These things are respectfully submitted to you, that you may 
accelerate the opening of the Land-Office here, should you have an 
opportunity of contributing to so desirable an Object" 

"Stanley Griswold" 

"JOSIAH Meigs Esq; Surv' General Cincinnati" 

[Endorsed] Extract of a Letter. Stanley Griswold to Josiah 
Meigs — 



SHADRACH BOND TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

[NA:WD, SWDF:ALS1 

House of Representatives April \2th 1814 
Sirs/ I will enclose you a letter from Gov' Edwards on the subject 
of Protecting the Missoiui fur Companies — 
I am Respectfully your ob' Servt — 

S. Bond— 

[Endorsed] House of Rep" April 12 1814 Gov. N Edwards to 
Hon M' Bond States that he thinks the Indian war will be of long 
duration & that 200 men could be raised immediately if they & 
officers were allowed to trade wdth the Indian Rec"* April 1814 

[Enclosure :ALS] 

Governor Edwards to Skadrach Bond 

Elvirade Randolph County Illinois Territory Jany 11. 1814 

Dear Sir The anxiety which I feel in common with all the citi- 
zens of this territory to know what course the gov' is likely to adopt 
in relation to the indians renders me very desirous of hearing from 
you which is a pleasure. I have not had since Congress commenced 
its present Session — 

The conduct of the indians at present (whatever may be their 
eventual determination) by no means corresponds with that expecta- 
tion which was generally produced by the success of our northwestern 
army — Of those in this territory Gen' Harrison speaks doubtfully in 
a letter I had the honor to receive from him on the subject of the late 
armistice *' And neither the Kickapoos nor any that reside west of 
Lake Michigan nor about Praire de Chien (a few Pottowottomies 
excepted) have as far as I can learn either come in for peace or mani- 
fested any other disposition to sue for it. Which is a course of conduct 
very contrary to all former experience if they are determined to 

« Not identified. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 409 

abandon their allies. My own impression is that they are not yet 
decided but are resting upon events — And I should think it extremely 
injudicious to disband the companies of rangers untill the safety of the 
frontier is better assured — Indeed if the war with great Britain con- 
tinue I am one of those few who do not count upon as easy and 
speedy a termination of indian war as is generally anticipated— 

The British will not relinquish the furs trade while there is the 
least propect of maintaining it either for the profits it affords or for 
the influence it gives them over the savages — And I assert it as an 
undeniable fact that they can carry on that trade as well from Hudsons 
Bay as from Montreal, and the doubtful right of of the Charter of the 
Hudson Bay Company must sooner or later yield to the policy or 
interest of that nation — 

From Hudsons Bay to the heads of the Missisippi goods can be 
brought more conveniently and with less expence than they are now 
carried from Montreal to several parts of the Northwest — The com- 
munication I here allude to is between the Missisippi and Red River 
which latter runs into Lake Winnepic, the Portage between them is 
scarcely more than ){ of a mile, this rout has been explored by yovu* 
acquaintance John Hay Esq' than whom no more intelligent man has 
ever visited that Country °' — It is a fact, and one too from which 
reflecting men may deduce the most important inferences that the 
regions from which the N W company of Montreal have drawn their 
exoribitant profits are West and North west of a north line from S* 
Louis to the frozen Ocean — I do not intend to enlarge upon this sub- 
ject, for were I to do so — I should probably be considered (as on some 
former occasions I have been — most imfortunately for my contry) 
too visionary — But suppose the British to be excluded from the 
usual channel of the furs trade Is it not presumable at least that they 
will attempt to persue it in some other way? Is it not probable that 
they may succeed if we interpose no obstacles to their success? And 
are we taking a single measure to prevent it? We have assumed no 
attitude of war in the quarter where the danger is to be apprehended 
to deter them, or the Indians. Whilst we are not preparing on our 
part to furnish the latter with any trade or to cultivate any friendly 
intercourse with them to supply that from which we have tempo- 
rarily excluded them — from which defect their very necessities may 
compell them to cooperate with our enemy and by their united 
efforts they may give us great trouble at some future period and 
at least porstpone those advantages that we might derive from taking 
the furs trade into our own hands, the amount of which trade ought 

»3 See Hays to Edwards, Aug. 20, 1812 (Edwards Papers, CHS, printed, Wash- 
burne, ed., Edwards Papers, CHC, in, 81-83), containing the observations re- 
ferred to. 



410 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

not to be estimated at less than two hundred & eighty six thousand 
pounds sterling — 

You cannot have forgotten how well some of my predictions upon 
this subject were fulfilled last year — The British erected some trading 
establishments on a certain part of the Missouri — from which they 
caused the savages to drive a part of the Missouri furs company (our 
own traders) with the loss of several lives & all their property — 
whilst a part of the same company were in like manner murdered or 
driven from another fork of the Missouri by the combined operation 
of the Spanards and Indians — 

It has recently been ascertained that one of the Forks of the Mis- 
souri and the navigable waters of the rio Bravo or rio del norte (by 
the traders called Spanish river) which runs by S* Fee approximate in 
a manner that has not been hitherto understood by any geographer 
who has published on the subject and hence it is that we experienced 
the attacks of both the Spaniards & British at the same time — What 
has been the result? Look at the S' Louis papers — you will see the 
trade is abandoned — it is relinquished into the hands of our enemies — 
the only Company that have attempted to persue it — have been most 
reluctantly compelled to advertise for a meeting thereof for the pur- 
pose of dissolving the association and selling up the concern — None 
other can persue it without the support of gov' Those establish- 
ments of our enimies being of the last year are yet in their infancy — 
they could now be easily crushed — But if they shall be permitted 
to mature themselves — they will acquire a permanency that with our 
means it will be difficult to shake— Is it policy to let them exist? If 
not their destruction is at present very practicable — 

If the gov' would permit the raising a force of two hundred men 
furnish the necessary boats for transportation, be bound eventually 
to pay them as infantry — & permit them and their officers to carry 
on the trade — with Indians — they could be raised in ten days without 
any trouble to the gov' and would be entirely sufficient — This surely 
w"* be better than keeping men stationarj' in forts for purposes not 
as important — It would be a small protection given to the trade 
but an adequate one at present — It would prevent evils from growing 
which otherwise we shall have to exterpate with difficulty — and 
therefore whether considered as a measure of defence or offence is 
strongly recommended by both policy & interest — Combining pay 
from the gov' with support in their trade, the inducement would be 
strong enough to cause men to enlist — a subordination would be 
sufficiently enforced at the same time that the interest of all would 
be best consulted by acting judiciously & correctly in the trade itself 
which would thereby be opened for the eventual benifit of the gov' 
with the least possible expence — In fact the plan would enable us to 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 411 

drive off our enemies at the same time that by our trade we would 
be prepared to make the indians our friends — & to secure to ourselves 
the undisturbed possission of their trade — 

I have mentioned this plan to some of the most intelligent men in 
Kentuckey who highly approve of it & think it necessary — 

CoI° Menard who has been several years at the Rocky Mountain, 
would undertake it upon these terms — he is well qualified for command 
has long been accustomed to intercourse with the indians — possesses 
an excellent understanding — and as you well know is proverbial for 
his probity & generosity — But why should I be even thus particular 
I have no hopes of the plans succeeding and will end this hasty scrawl 
by wishing you every happiness which your present situation is 
susceptible of — 

¥"■ friend 

N Edwards 

[Addressed] The Honble Shadrack Bond Washington City [Post- 
marked] Sydney Grove Jan^ 11'" Free 



SHADRACH BOND, SOLOMON P. SHARP,"* AND WILLIAM P. 
DUVAL «= TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[NA:SD, Applications :LS] 

Representative Chamber 12'" April 1814 
Sir Should the President of the United States, think proper to 
appoint a Commissioner to treat with the tribes of Indians on the 
Northwestern frontier of the Indiania, Illinois, and Mesuri, Terri- 
tories, or any of them that may be disposed to be at peace and amity 
with the United States.'^ 

We the undersigned would beg leave, through j'ou, to recommend to 
the President; His Excellency Ninian Edwards Governor of the 
Illinois Territory, as a person from his intimate acquaintance with 
Indian affairs, well qualifyed for such an appointment. 

With high consideration we have the Honor to be your Hum" 
Serv'= 

S. Bond — 
Solomon P. Sharp 
W" P. Duval 
[Endorsed] N. Edwards recmd 1814 



°* A Representative in Congress from Kentucky. 

'5 Do. 

'"See preliminary instructions respecting future negotiations, in the Secretary 
of War to Governor Harrison, of Indiana Territory, Mar. 3, 1814 (Esarey, ed , 
Harrison's Messages and Letters, ii, 631). 



412 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814 :ALS1 
Surveyor General's Office, Cincinnati, April 13, 1814. 

Sir, I received, on the 11"" your Letter of the 1°* of this month," 
with a Copy of an "Act concerning Shawnee Town". — As soon as I 
can obtain such information as will enable me to give definite Instruc- 
tions to a Surveyor I will cause the Act to be executed. — The land in 
the rear of the present Town of Shawnee is asserted to be unfit for a 
Town. It would be easy to lay off the proposed addition to the Town 
in the manner prescribed in the Act, but the Selection of the two 
Sections , so as to extend the Town to the Highlands in the rear of the 
Town as now laid out, appears to require an examination, which tho' 
it may cause some delay, will be ultimately beneficial to the Public 
Interest. — If the Land-Officers for the Shawnee District were speedily 
appointed, would they not be usefully employed, for a considerable 
time, in examining Preemption claims, which, by the Act of February 5. 
1813, Section 2" °' they are directed to do, previously to the opening 
of the Office. — viz : the Register of the Office — 

Those Gentlemen being on the spot would be able to give valuable 
information to this Office — I have already requested information on 
this subject, from Judge Griswold who has, for some time past resided 
at Shawnee Town. I am very respectfully Yours. 

JosiAH Meigs Surveyor General 

The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire— 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire Comm' of the 
General Land-Office Treasury Department, Washington-City — 
[Postmarked] Cincinnati 14 April 1814 Free 

[Endorsed] Rec** April 25. 1814 J Meigs Surveyor General rela- 
tive to laying off the addition to Shawnee town" — file E T 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL TO DAVID APPERSON 

[PO:P.M. Letter Book S] 

April 14, 1814 
M' David Apperson Shawneetown 111 Ter 

your letter of Mar 12'" ' gave this Office the first information of the 
extreme irregularity of the mail that passes between Hendersonton 
Ky and Shawneetown 111. Ter. that the carrier should fail four times 
out of five is extraordinary. I have directed the contractor to be 
suspended — and he will be debited on the books of this Office for the 

" Ante, p. 402. 

w 2 Stat. 798. 

" Answered post, p. 417. 

• Not found. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 413 

penalties he has incurred — On the first of Mar last M. Arundell of 
Kaskaskias was requested to Assume the conveyance of the mail from 
Kaskaskias to Hendersonton by the first of this month — which we 
trust he has done — and we are confident that he will convey the mail 
agreeably to his instruction and to the satisfaction of the publick '* 

R JMJ 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOSIAH MEIGS 

[NA:GLO, Lets, to SG, I] 

Treasury Department, General Land office, April 19'" 1814. 

Sir, Your letter of 9'" instant,^ enclosing the account of William 
Dobbins, for surveying and laying out Shawnee Town, and a letter 
of Stanley Griswold, relative to opening a land office there, have been 
received. 

The charges of M' Dobbin appear to be very high — The account 
must be certified by you; and although you state that your prede- 
cessor made no formal contract, you may probably obtain some 
information from his letters which are referred to in the account of 
M'' Dobbins: At all events, you are most competent to ascertain 
whether the charges made by him, are reasonable. His account ought 
to have been accompanied with vouchers, for the payments stated to 
be made to his assistants. 

Congress having adjourned, the executive will probably attend to 
opening a Land office at Shawnee Town, in a Short time. I enclose 
M' Dobbins's account, that you may certify it to be correct, if you 
think it So. 

I am, &" 

JosiAH Meigs, Esq'' Surveyor-General, Cincinnati. 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO GOVERNOR EDWARDS 
[NA:OIA. SW, Lets. Sent, Bk. C] 

War Department Ajrril 21" 1814. 

His Exc Ninn. Edwards: Gov"' of 111: T'' 

Sir, I have received the letter you did me the honor to write to me 
on the 4"^ instant,^ & also Thomas Forsyth's Report.* This report 

!• For relevant correspondence concerning the Vincennes (Ind.)-Shawneetown- 
U. S. Saline route, in 1814-1815, see Terr. Papers (Ind.), vill, 281, 336, 337. 
See also Bond to Edwards, Feb. 23, 1814 (Washburne, ed., Edwards Papers, 
CHC, III, 110), describing his efforts as a Delegate in Congress to secure an 
extension of post routes in the Territory; and act approved Apr. 18, 1814 (3 
Stat. 132), embodying an additional route in line with Bond's efforts. 

• Ante, p. 406. 
» Ante, p. 406. 

* Not seen. 



414 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

has been forwarded to Brig' General Howard, who has received orders 
to return to S* Louis, & charge himself with the defence of the Terri- 
torial Governments.** — 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO MICHAEL JONES AND JOHN 
CALDWELL 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 5] 

Treasury Department, General Land office, 22°'' April, 1814. 

Sirs, Enclosed you have a copy of an act of Congress, passed the 
16'" instant, entitled, "An act confirming claims to land in the Illinois 
territory, and providing for their location," to which you will be 
pleased to pay due attention. 

I am, &"' 

Michael Jones, and John Caldwell, Esq" Register and receiver. 
Kaskaskia. 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO LEONARD WHITE, WYLLIS 
HARGROVE, AND PHILIP TRAMMELL 

[NA:GL0, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bl<. 5] 

Treasury Department, General Land office, Apnl 22"" 1814. 
To Leonard White, Wyllis Hargrove and Philip Trammel, 

Esquires: 

Gentlemen, I am instructed to request you, or any two of you, 
to examine the Lands on which, and about where, the United States' 
Saline is situated in the Illinois territory, and make a report to this 
office, that the president of the United States may be properly in- 
formed of the quantity and Situation of such lands as may be neces- 
sary to reserve from the expected Sales, for the purpose of support- 
ing the works for ever. — In making this examination and report, you 
will be pleased to be very particular — :noting the timber on each 
Section — the evenness, or otherwise, of the ground — the necessity 
or practicability of conveying the water on the grounds, in pipes, to 
coal, and where Situated, or wood; relative to the navigation down 
the Saline creek, if practicable, and the depth of water; and, in short, 
every thing calculated to give a comprehensive and particular view 
of the whole, and every part of the premises. 



<• See Howard to the Secretary of War, May 15, 1814, post, p. 422. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 415 

It is desirable this report should be received as Soon as conven- 
ient, as the Land Office is about to be opened there." 
With great respect, &" 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY TO THE PRESIDENT 

[NA:SD, Misc. Letters: AL] 

Treasury Department— 23. April 1814 

The Secretary of the Treasury, has the honor to Suggest for the 
consideration of the President the propriety of opening a land-office, 
as authorized by act of 21. Feb'' 1812, for the sale of the public lands 
in the Shaunee^Town District, Illinois Territory; and to submit for 
his information on the Subject, a Statement prepared by the Com- 
missioner of the Land-office, herewith enclosed — Marked C ' 

The Secretary is of opinion the public interest would be promoted 
by authorizing the sale of those lands — which might commence 
about the 1"' Sepf next — 

Should the President approve of opening a land-office, as proposed, 
the enclosed proclamation,* marked C, is submitted for his approba- 
tion & signature. — and the names in the memorandum, marked E, 
accompanied by the recommendations herewith transmitted marked 
— D are proposed to be appointed to the offices annexed to them 
respectively — 

The Proclamation marked F. for the Sale of the fractional Sec- 
tions around Clarkes grant,' which have been Survayed, & are now 
ready to be offered for public Sale, is also submitted to the President 
for his approbation & Signature— 

[Addressed] The President of the U States 

[Endorsed] Campbell G. W. April 23'^ '14 



' Report not seen. See Tiffin to Edwards, Jan. 10, Apr. 20, and June 18, 1814 
(NA, GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent Bk. 5, printed, Edwards, Hist. Ill, pp. 537-539), 
respecting certain saline leases, and proposed remuneration to Edwards and 
Leonard White for their special services. Certain letters from Edwards are 
referred to which have not been found. 

2 Stat. 684. 

' Not present. 

' Not present. The text of the proclamation which follows is from a different 
source. 

• Not present. It is dated Apr. 25, 1814 (NA, GLO, Exec. Procls., Sale of 
Pub. Lands). Of. Terr. Papers (Ind.), viii, 296. 



416 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

PROCLAMATION OF PUBLIC-LAND SALES 

[NA:GLO, Shawneetown, Reg. and Rec. Lets.: Printed] 

[April 25, 1814] 
proclamation 

By the President of the United States. 

Whereas by the several acts of congress, to wit, 'An act making 
provision for the disposal of the public lands in the Indiana Territory 
and for other purposes,' passed the 26th of March, 1804 "> — 'An act 
pro\nding for the sale of certain lands in the Indiana Territory and for 
other purposes,' passed the 30th of April, 1810 " — 'An act providing 
for the removal of the land office established at Nash\nlle in the state 
of Tennessee, and Canton in the state of Ohio, and to authorise the 
register and receiver of public monies to superintend the public sales 
of land in the district east of Pearl river,' &c. passed the 25th of 
Februarj', 1811 " — and 'An act to establish a land district in the 
Illinois Territory east of the district of Kaskaskia,' &c. passed the 
21st of February, 1812, it has been enacted that a land office shall be 
established at Shawneetown, in the Illinois Territory, for the disposal 
and sale of the town lots and out lots in Shawneetown, and for the 
sale and disposal of so much of the public lands of the United States 
heretofore included within the land district of Kaskaskia as lie east 
of the third principal meridian established by the surveyor general, 
under the direction of the register of the land office and receiver of 
public monies, and that the public sales shall commence on such day 
as the president of the U. States shall by proclamation designate, and 
be kept open for three weeks and no longer — 

Wherefore I, James Madison, President of the United States, in 
conformity with the provisions of the several acts aforesaid, do hereby 
declare and make known, that the public sales for the sale and dis- 
posal of all the town lots and out lots in Shawneetown, and for the 
sale and disposal of all the lands contained in the eastern land district 
of the Illinois Territory, with the exception of such of them as are 
reserved from sale agreeably to to the several acts of congress afore- 
said, shall be held at Shawneetown, in the Illinois Territory, On the 
first Monday in October next, and to continue for and during the three 
following weeks under the superintendance of the register of the land 
office and receiver of public monies. 



'» Terr. Papers (Ind.), VII, 173-184. 
" 2 Stat. 590-591. 
" 2 Stat. 649-650. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 417 

Given under my hand, the 25th day of April, in the year 1814. 

[Signed] James Madison. 
By the President. 
Edward Tiffin, 
Commissioner of the General Land Office. 

A true copy from the original in the General Land Office. John 
Gardiner, chief clerk. 

The Editors of the Lexington Gazette, the Frankfort Argus, and 
the Louisville Correspondent, in Kentucky, and the Editor of the 
newspaper at Kaskaskia, are requested to insert the above proclama- 
tion in their respective papers till the first of October next, and their 
accounts will be paid on being forwarded to the subscriber at Shawnee- 
town. 

Thomas Sloo, 
Register of the Land Office. 
May 17, 1814. 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOSIAH MEIGS 
[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv:ALS] 

Treasury department General Land Office April 25"' 1814 
Sir I have rec'' yours of the 13"" ins' " and in answer thereto have 
to observe that I have appointed by direction of the President three 
persons to examine & report relative to such lands as may be thought 
necessary to reserve for the Saline in the Illinois Territory '* — The 
Register & Receiver are appointed for Shawnee town — Tho' Sloo— 
and Jn" Caldwell & Shadrack Bond in Jn° Caldwells place at Kas- 
kaskia " — The Offices will be opened & the Sales commenced by the 
1" of October at farthest — in the mean time you will please carry the 
Law for enlarging Shawnee town into effect, literally as it stands in 
the Act heretofore sent you — and furnish M' Sloo with a plat of the 
former & latter parts of the Town as also of the Land District of 

" Avle, p. 412. 

" Ante, p. 414. 

" These were recess appointments, the commissions bearing date of Apr. 29, 
1814. The men were nominated Oct. 1 and confirmed Oct. 3, 1814, to the 
positions in question (Senate, Exec. Journal, n, 531, 532). The temporary com- 
missions were transmitted to each of the appointees in a covering letter from 
Tiffin, commissioner of the General Land Office, dated Apr. 30, 1814 (NA, GLO, 
Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 5). See Bond's letter to his constituents, dated at 
Washington, D. C, Apr. 15, 1814 (Washburne, ed., Edwards Papers, CHC, iii, 
114-117), reviewing the action of Congress during the current session with 
respect to legislation for Illinois Territory. 



418 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Shawnee — He M' Sloo will in a few days hear from me, and in the 
mean time he may be peparing himself for his removal '" — 

with great respect I am your ob' Serv' 

Edward Tiffin 

JOSIAH Meigs Esq' Surveyor General Cincinnati Ohio 

[Arfrfressed] Josiah Meigs Esq' Surveyor-general, Cincinnati. [Post- 
marked] Wash" City Apr 26 Treasury Department General Land 
Office. Edward Tiffin Free 

[Endorsed] Received May 6, 1814 J Meigs Ed. Tiffin April 
25. 1814 R. May 6. A. 7 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO JOHN GRAHAM 
[NA:SD, Misc. Letters :ALS] 

Treasury department General Land Office April 27'" 1814 
D' Sir I enclose you by direction of the Secretary of the Treasury 
a Mem" " whereby you will see that the President of the United States 
had determined to appoint Thomas Sloo of Cincinnati to be Register 
of the Land Office at Shawnee town, and John Caldwell of Kaskaskia 
Receiver of public monies at Shawnee town, and Shadrack Bond of 
Illinois Territory Receiver of public monies at Kaskaskia vice John 
Caldwell — If the President has started for Virginia (as I am informed) 
I have to request that you will make out the Executive Commissions 
for these persons and transmit them to Him for his signature, (having 
slipped his memory) — it being absolutely necessary to have them as 
soon as possable — to transmit with the instructions now prepared for 
these Officers 

With great respect I am Your ob' Ser' 

Edward Tiffin 

John Graham Esq' Chief Clk department of State 

[Endorsed] Edward Tiffin Concerning Land Officers. 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 
|NA:GL0, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814:ALS] 

Surveyor General's Office— Cincinnati, May 1. 1814 
Sir, Your Letter of the 19th of last Month inclosing the Account 
of M' Dobbins was received on the 29'" '* — I do not think it possible 
that M' Dobbins can procure Vouchers for the Payments stated to have 



>• Answered post, p. 421, 
•' Not present. 
" ArUe, p. 413. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 419 

been made to his Assistants in laying out the Town — I will however 
endeavour to aid him further — tho' I think if he had used due activity 
his claims might have been settled long ago. In my next I will give 
you Copies of such part of the Correspondence between Col. Mansfield 
and M"' Dobbins as will shew the grounds on which the business was 
undertaken and executed '' — 

I shall in the course of a Week authorise a Surveyor to execute the 
late act relative to Shawnee Town. — If it were possible to leave the 
Office I should prefer a personal attendance and view of that place — 

I received, from my Agent by the last Mail the Quarter Salary for 
myself & Clerks — but nothing for Post-Office & Stationary Expences — 

I have the honour to be respectfully Yours 

J Meigs 

Th HON E. Tiffin 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire Commis- 
sioner of the General Land-Office. Treasury Department, Wash- 
ington-City. [Postmarked] Cincinnati 2 May 1814 Free 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati 1 May 1814 J Meigs will have Shawnee 
town surveyed Dobbins Acco" 



ELIAS BARCROFT TO JOSIAH MEIGS 

[NA:GLO, SG, NWT, Lets. Reed., iv:ALS] 

Kaskaskia, I.T. 2'"» May 1814 
Sir, I take the liberty of addressing you a few lines respecting some 
Surveying. You will please pardon me for troubleing again on this 
subject. But inasmuch as the Surveying in the Missouri Territory 
has not, and the uncertainty when it will commence; combined with 
some sacrafices of a pecuniary nature incumbent on that event, and a 
long and laborious practice as a sub-deputy or assistant Surveyor 
unattended with the emolluments and in fact receiving but a very 
inconsiderable proportion of the price paid by Government for Sur- 
veying to those more fortunate (perhaps more deserving) than myself 
induced me to make this communication and think I have some reason 
to hope for success — 

I beg leave to refer you to the two Bills before Congress which if 
they become laws I presume it will be necessary that a considerable 
deal of surveying should be done as soon as practicable, particularly, 
the one relative to the Donations in this Territory. The bounds of 
the tract to be set apart in which these donation claims are to be 
located agreeably to that Bill, commences at the Township line strik- 
ing the Mississippi River nearest the Mouth of Big Muddy, East 

" Po&i, pp. 425, 426. 

314574 — 48 28 



420 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

with said line to the 3"" principal Meridian, with the Meridian line 
North to the North boundary of Township 5 North. West with said 
line to the Mississippi, and thence down the same to the beginning — 

In this tract of country there remains Twenty Seven Townships 
yet to run out, and divide into sections, to Wit Townships N°' 1. 2. 
3 & 4 South and 1. 2. 3. 4 & 5 North, of the Base line in Ranges 1. 2 
& 3 West of the Meridian. Should not the surveying of these Town- 
ships be already contracted for, I feel willing should you think proper 
to contract with me, to survey personally not less than Ten nor more 
than Fourteen Townships within the time generally limitted for 
performing a work of that extent, or as much sooner as practicable — . 
Also the Bill for laying out a Road from Shawneytown by the way 
of the United States Saline to the Town of Kaskaskia, provided it 
becomes a law and belongs to your department will furnish some 
surveying — I have been thus particular in designating what it occured 
to me would become necessary to survey immediately on account of 
my failing to get Surveying last summer when at Cincinnati in conse- 
quence of not being able to point, out such as I knew to be fit for culti- 
vation &c. In these cases I fancy no such knowledge is absolutely 
required — 

If you should feel inclined to assign me a district of a reasonable 
extent or as much as I shall be able to perform personally not exceed- 
ing the work in 12 or 15 Townships either a part of what I have 
mentioned, or elsewhere should you deem it advisable, you will please 
inform me on the subject and authorise some person to contract with 
me for the due performance of the work 

With much respect Yours &c 

Elias Barcroft 

JosiAH Meigs Esquire Sur' Gen' U. S. 

[Addressed] Josiah Meigs Esquire Surveyor General of the U. S 
Cincinnati Ohio [Postmarked] Kaskaskia 3 May — 20 

[Endorsed] Elias Barcroft May 2. 1814 R" 22. ^ 



EDWARD TIFFIN TO THOMAS SLOO 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 5) 

Treasury Department, General Land Office, 5'" May 1814. 
Sir, I now transmit to you the forms and instructions necessary 
for your government, in executing the duties of your oflSce, with a 
letter of 16'" October, 1804,^' to the Register at Zanesville, and a 



" No reply found. 

" NA (GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. One). 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 421 

Circular to Registers, of the 5'" April, 1802," explanatory of, and in 
addition to them. These last you will be pleased to consider as part 
of your own instructions. 

I am, &" 

Thomas Sloo, Esq' (Register of the Land office at Shawnee town,) 
Cincinnati. 

I also enclose a copy of the rules to be observed in sales of public 
lands sold by reason of failure in completing the payment in five 
years; you will be pleased to record them in your books, and hand 
them to the receiver. 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 

[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814:ALS] 

Surveyor General's Office Cincinnati, May 7. 1814 
Sir I received, yesterday, your letter dated April 25, 1814^ — 
The appointment of the Register and Receiver for the District of 
Shawnee, and of Persons to examine and report relative to the reserva- 
tion for the use of the United States Saline indicate a speedy opening 
of the Land-Office, which will produce more emolument to the United 
States then is generally expected — 

I have instructed M'' William Harris, one of our best Surveyors to 
lay out the addition to Shawnee Town^ — he embarked at this place 
this day — I have requested Judge Griswold and two other reputable 
Gentlemen to give their counsel and aid to M' Harris — and have good 
reason to believe that his return will be acceptable to the Department 
and to the Govenmient — I think he will finish the Survey by about 
the 4'" of July next — I have a General Map of Shawnee District, as 
well as particular Platts of Townships ready for the Register — Permit 
me to suggest the importance of the reservations of the Rights of 
Ferry; at Shawnee Town— I have reason to believe that those Rights 
will give the U States an income which will defray the Expence of 
Surveying the Town — Neither Individuals nor the Territorial Courts 
should be permitted to have any controul on that subject.— 

In this flourishing town, we have a considerable degree of animosity 
existing on account of Rights of Femes — If the Ferries at Shawnee 
are rigidly reserved to the use & benefit of the United States, they will 
be more faithfully and carefully attended, than if under the direction 
either of the Territorial Government or of the future State Govern- 
ment. — On this, however, you will see, at a glance, more than I can 
write — 



-' hoc. cit. 

23 Ante, p. 417. 



422 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

Immediately on the receipt of your Letter I informed M"' Sloo of his 
appointment — He is preparing for his establishment in Shawonee 
Town. 

I have the honour to be, with respect and esteem. Yours. 

J Meigs, S General 

The Honourable Edward Tiffin Esquire 

Major Stanley of this place died this day — 

[Addressed] The honourable Edward Tiffin, Esquire, Commis- 
sioner of the General Land-Office, Treasury Department, Washing- 
ton City — [Postmarked] Cincinnati 9 May 1814 Free 

[Endorsed] Cincinnati 7 May 1814 J Meigs relative to reserving 
Ferries at Shawnee Town. 



JOHN GARDINER " TO ALEXANDER OGLE 

[NA:GLO, Misc. Lets. Sent, Bk. 5] 

Treasury Department, General Land office, 14'" May, 1814. 

Sir, In reply to your letter of 9'" inst.^' to the Commissioner, I 
have to inform you, that the public Sales of the Lands of the United 
States, in the Illinois Territory, will commence on the first Monday 
of October next, at Shawnee Town : one-twentieth part of the purchase 
money must be paid there; the remainder may be paid in the Treasury. 

I am, &" J. G. 

M' Alexander Ogle, Somerset, Pennsylvania. 



BENJAMIN HOWARD TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 
(NA:WD,SWDF:LS] 

Head Quarters, St. Louis, May 15" 1814 
Sir Agreeably to your order of the 6"" ult" ^^ I proceeded to this 
place, and arrived on the 8'" Ins' I found the frontier of Illinois 
almost without protection and Indian depredations commenced at 
different points of the frontier, between Fort Harrison on the Wabash 
to the Missouri River, in last month two men were killed, on or near 
the Missouri: one fifteen miles from the Mississippi in this Territory, 
and two at Fort Harrison. I have been fortunate in raising the three 
Companies of Rangers in Illinois, one marched to the frontier yester- 
day, and the other two today; the term of service of the Missouri 
Rangers expires about the 20'" Ins' and every exertion will be made 
to fill the Companies immediately; the removal of the 1" Regiment 

" Clerk in the GLO, becoming principal clerk of that office in 1816. 
w NA (GLO, Misc. Lets. Reed., O). 
•• Printed, Terr. Papers (La.-Mo.), xiv. 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 423 

from this quarter places me in difficulties which I can hardly hope to 
surmount, at this time there are but seven or eight invalid soldiers at 
Belle- Fontaine and not an officer belonging to the line: At Fort 
Clarke ^' two Subalterns and fifty one men which is about half the 
number which I deem necessaiy to give Complete Security to that 
important Post; by the enclosed Copies of letters from Gov'' Clarke 
you will discover that the detachment sent from Vincennes has been 
placed under his command by Major Taylor and ascended the Missis- 
sippi with him, I refer you to those letters for his Objects, upon the 
subject of his present movement we have had no conversation, as he 
was gone before my arrival, as to the policy of erecting a garrison at 
Praire De Chien we have often conversed and were united in the 
opinion that it would be of much importance, my opinion is unchanged 
upon that subject; you will at once discover from the State of my 
means and the expectations expressed by Govn'' Clarke (in his letter 
of the 5'" Ins' ^) of roqucatin g receiving support from me, that my 
situation is unpleasant in the extreme. I must therefore Solicit full 
instructions as to the course I am to pursue in regard to this establish- 
ment; Lf the Gov* determine to keep it up, which I much desire I would 
recommend that at least four full Companies of regulars should be 
sent on to reinforce it and Fort Clarke as soon as possible, the new 
recruits from Kentucky or Tennessee could be brought on with most 
dispatch, should Gov"' Clarke even arrive there and build the Fort 
without opposition owing to the absence of the British Agents and 
Indians, rest assured that the Garrison will be assailed as soon as they 
recieve notice and can embody the Indians, the situation of this Garri- 
son will be extremely dangerous, both as it respects its defence and 
receiving supplies unless the force I mention is immediately sent on, 
the plan of defending it six hundred miles in the Indian country by 
militia who can only be called out for sixty days, I trust will not be 
resorted to, their time would be almost consumed in going and com- 
ing, besides many other objections to this mode; You will discover 
from Govn' Clarkes letter of the 5'" ins' that there are only sixty one 
regulars with him ; the precise number of other troops I have not been 
able to ascertain, but suppose 200 or upwards engaged only for 60 
days at 20 dollars per month and to be furnished a ration & half a 
day; Lieutenant Kennerly of whom the Govn"' speaks is an officer of 
the troops raised by him, of course when the sixty days expire Lieut"' 
Perkins will be left with 61 men and no officer to assist him, unless 
Gov"' Clarke should engage the men longer, I trust he has before his 
departure communicated to you his objects, and flatter myself that 



" At Peoria. 

2' Present; also a letter of May 8 is present. See Clark to the Secretary of 
War, June 5, 1814 LTen. Papers, La.-Mo., xiv). 



424 TERRITORIAL PAPERS 

instructions in regard to this establishment will be on the way before 
this reaches you; Fort Harrison is now kept up by rangers, however 
useful this fort may have been in aiding the Tippacano expedition 
I deem it of no consequence to the defence of the frontier, it has been 
supported at considerable expense of money and loss of men, I would 
recommend that the troops be withdrawn and employed actively; 
Should you concur with me in opinion, it would save much time if 
Col° Russell could receive an order direct from you, upon the subject; 
I wish to be informed whether the officers of the rangers appointed 
in 1812, are not considered in Service until dismissed by the President, 
or until the law expires under which they were appointed, such has 
been my view of their situtation and I have ordered some to do duty, 
in 1813 as well as at the present; if they are considered in commission, 
I would recommend that I should be authorised to fill their companies 
if the difficulties on the frontier should so encrease as to require them, 
I deem it of much importance to this Counti-y that I should Icnow 
your views upon the subjects of this letter soon; I would advise that 
your communications to me should come by the way of Vincennes, the 
Commanding Officer at that place has instructions to forward them 
by express, 

I am with high consideration your Humble Serv' 

Benj» Howard 

The Honb« John Armstrong Seer" at War 

May 16'" I have just heard of two rangers being lately killed near 
Fort Clarke— 

[Endorsed] H. Q. St. Louis May 15. 1814 Brig. Gen' Howard 
Incloses letters from Gov. Clark informing of his expedition to estab- 
lish a Fort at Prairie du Chien, which he approves. Has filled three 
Comp' of rangers. Four Comp* of regulars will be necessary to 
garrison Prairie du Chien & Fort Clark. Are the Commissions to the 
Officers of rangers in 1812, still good, if so will direct them to fill 
their Comps. Fort Harrison useless Solicits instructions (by the 
way of Vincennes) Rec"* July 1814 



JOSIAH MEIGS TO EDWARD TIFFIN 

[NA:GLO, Lets, from SG, 1812-1814:ALS1 

Surveyor General's Office, Cincinnati, May 16. 1814 
Sir. I have examined the Correspondence between the late Sur- 
veyor General and William Dobbins relative to the surveying and 
lajring out of Shawnee Town, from which Correspondence the fol- 



ILLINOIS TERRITORY 425 

lowing Extracts are made for the consideration of the Commissioner 
of the Gen L. Office — 

"Cincinnati, June 24. 1810" 
"Sir I thought you would be the most proper person to under- 
take that business, (viz of Shawnee) independently of the good 
opinion I had of your character, and of the business you had before 
done — I wish you to send me a Plan which you may think most 
suitable for laying out the Town agreeably to the law. Being so far 
distant, I cannot attend to it personally without descending the 
River; which I think would be unnecessary while you are so near the 
spot." 

"Jared Mansfield" 
"William Dobbins" 

"Eddyville, Sept. 15. 1810" 
"Sir, In my last from Shawnee Town, I acknowledged the Re- 
ceipt of yours of the 24 of June — informed you of the progress I had 
made, and herewith transmit you a plan; &c &" 

"William Dobbins," 
"Col. Jared Mansfield" 

"Cincinnati, Nov' 2. 1810" 
"Sir, I received your letter of the 15th September inclosing a 
Plan for Shawnee Town. — I think it would be proper to make the 
following Corrections viz: 1" — 2'' — 3"^ — &c &c &c 

"Jared Mansfield" 
William Dobbins 

Cincinnati March 15. 1811. 

"Sir. After you have laid out the Town in the manner I have 
directed, you will transmit to me