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Full text of "Ancient Classic Texts before 400 B.C."

Of the Epidemics 
By Hippocrates 



Translated by Francis Adams 



BOOK I 

Section I 

First Constitution 

1. IN THASUS, about the autumn equinox, and under the Pleiades, the 
rains were abundant, constant, and soft, with southerly winds; the 
winter southerly, the northerly winds faint, droughts; on the whole, 
the winter having the character of spring. The spring was southerly, 
cool, rains small in quantity. Summer, for the most part, cloudy, 

no rain, the Etesian winds, rare and small, blew in an irregular manner. 
The whole constitution of the season being thus inclined to the southerly, 
and with droughts early in the spring, from the preceding opposite 
and northerly state, ardent fevers occurred in a few instances, and 
these very mild, being rarely attended with hemorrhage, and never 
proving fatal. Swellings appeared about the ears, in many on either 
side, and in the greatest number on both sides, being unaccompanied 
by fever so as not to confine the patient to bed; in all cases they 
disappeared without giving trouble, neither did any of them come to 
suppuration, as is common in swellings from other causes. They were 
of a lax, large, diffused character, without inflammation or pain, 
and they went away without any critical sign. They seized children, 
adults, and mostly those who were engaged in the exercises of the 
palestra and gymnasium, but seldom attacked women. Many had dry coughs 
without expectoration, and accompanied with hoarseness of voice. In 
some instances earlier, and in others later, inflammations with pain 
seized sometimes one of the testicles, and sometimes both; some of 
these cases were accompanied with fever and some not; the greater 
part of these were attended with much suffering. In other respects 
they were free of disease, so as not to require medical assistance. 

2. Early in the beginning of spring, and through the summer, and towards 
winter, many of those who had been long gradually declining, took 

to bed with symptoms of phthisis; in many cases formerly of a doubtful 
character the disease then became confirmed; in these the constitution 
inclined to the phthisical. Many, and, in fact, the most of them, 
died; and of those confined to bed, I do not know if a single individual 
survived for any considerable time; they died more suddenly than is 
common in such cases. But other diseases, of a protracted character, 
and attended with fever, were well supported, and did not prove fatal: 
of these we will give a description afterwards. Consumption was the 
most considerable of the diseases which then prevailed, and the only 
one which proved fatal to many persons. Most of them were affected 
by these diseases in the following manner: fevers accompanied with 
rigors, of the continual type, acute, having no complete intermissions, 
but of the form of the semi-tertians, being milder the one day, and 
the next having an exacerbation, and increasing in violence; constant 
sweats, but not diffused over the whole body; extremities very cold, 
and warmed with difficulty; bowels disordered, with bilious, scanty, 
unmixed, thin, pungent, and frequent dejections. The urine was thin, 
colorless, unconcocted, or thick, with a deficient sediment, not settling 
favorably, but casting down a crude and unseasonable sediment. Sputa 
small, dense, concocted, but brought up rarely and with difficulty; 
and in those who encountered the most violent symptoms there was no 
concoction at all, but they continued throughout spitting crude matters. 



Their fauces, in most of them, were painful from first to last, having 
redness with inflammation; defluxions thin, small and acrid; they 
were soon wasted and became worse, having no appetite for any kind 
of food throughout; no thirst; most persons delirious when near death. 
So much concerning the phthisical affections. 

3. In the course of the summer and autumn many fevers of the continual 

type, but not violent; they attacked persons who had been long indisposed, 

but who were otherwise not in an uncomfortable state. In most cases 

the bowels were disordered in a very moderate degree, and they did 

not suffer thereby in any manner worth mentioning; the urine was generally 

well colored, clear, thin, and after a time becoming concocted near 

the crisis. They had not much cough, nor it troublesome; they were 

not in appetite, for it was necessary to give them food (on the whole, 

persons laboring under phthisis were not affected in the usual manner) . 

They were affected with fevers, rigors, and deficient sweats, with 

varied and irregular paroxysms, in general not intermitting, but having 

exacerbations in the tertian form. The earliest crisis which occurred 

was about the twentieth day, in most about the fortieth, and in many 

about the eightieth. But there were cases in which it did not leave 

them thus at all, but in an irregular manner, and without any crisis; 

in most of these the fevers, after a brief interval, relapsed again; 

and from these relapses they came to a crisis in the same periods; 

but in many they were prolonged so that the disease was not gone at 

the approach of winter. Of all those which are described under this 

constitution, the phthisical diseases alone were of a fatal character; 

for in all the others the patients bore up well, and did not die of 

the other fevers . 

Section II 

Second Constitution 

1. In Thasus, early in autumn, the winter suddenly set in rainy before 
the usual time, with much northerly and southerly winds. These things 
all continued so during the season of the Pleiades, and until their 
setting. The winter was northerly, the rains frequent, in torrents, 
and large, with snow, but with a frequent mixture of fair weather. 
These things were all so, but the setting in of the cold was not much 
out of season. After the winter solstice, and at the time when the 
zephyr usually begins to blow, severe winterly storms out of season, 
with much northerly wind, snow, continued and copious rains; the sky 
tempestuous and clouded; these things were protracted, and did not 
remit until the equinox. The spring was cold, northerly, rainy, and 
clouded; the summer was not very sultry, the Etesian winds blew constant, 
but quickly afterwards, about the rising of Arcturus, there were again 
many rains with north winds. The whole season being wet, cold, and 
northerly, people were, for the most part, healthy during winter; 
but early in the spring very many, indeed, the greater part, were 
valetudinary. At first ophthalmies set in, with rheums, pains, unconcocted 
discharges, small concretions, generally breaking with difficulty, 
in most instances they relapsed, and they did not cease until late 
in autumn. During summer and autumn there were dysenteric affections, 
attacks of tenesmus and lientery, bilious diarrhoea, with thin, copious, 
undigested, and acrid dejections, and sometimes with watery stools; 
many had copious defluxions, with pain, of a bilious, watery, slimy, 
purulent nature, attended with strangury, not connected with disease 
of the kidneys, but one complaint succeeding the other; vomitings 
of bile, phlegm, and undigested food, sweats, in all cases a reduncance 
of humors. In many instances these complaints were unattended with 
fever, and did not prevent the patients from walking about, but some 
cases were febrile, as will be described. In some all those described 
below occurred with pain. During autumn, and at the commencement of 
winter, there were phthisical complaints, continual fevers; and, in 



a few cases, ardent; some diurnal, others nocturnal, semi-tertians, 
true tertians, quartans, irregular fevers. 

2. All these fevers described attacked great numbers. All these fevers 
attacked the smallest numbers, and the patients suffered the least 
from them, for there were no hemorrhages, except a few and to a small 
amount, nor was there delirium; all the other complaints were slight; 

in these the crises were regular, in most instances, with the intermittents, 

in seventeen days; and I know no instance of a person dying of causus, 

nor becoming phrenitic. The tertians were more numerous than the ardent 

fevers, and attended with more pain; but these all had four periods 

in regular succession from the first attack, and they had a complete 

crisis in seven, without a relapse in any instance. The quartans attacked 

many at first, in the form of regular quartans, but in no few cases 

a transition from other fevers and diseases into quartans took place; 

they were protracted, as is wont with them, indeed, more so than usual. 

Quotidian, nocturnal, and wandering fevers attacked many persons, 

some of whom continued to keep up, and others were confined to bed. 

In most instances these fevers were prolonged under the Pleiades and 

till winter. Many persons, and more especially children, had convulsions 

from the commencement; and they had fever, and the convulsions supervened 

upon the fevers; in most cases they were protracted, but free from 

danger, unless in those who were in a deadly state from other complaints. 

Those fevers which were continual in the main, and with no intermissions, 

but having exacerbations in the tertian form, there being remissions 

the one day and exacerbations the next, were the most violent of all 

those which occurred at that time, and the most protracted, and occurring 

with the greatest pains, beginning mildly, always on the whole increasing, 

and being exacerbated, and always turning worse, having small remissions, 

and after an abatement having more violent paroxysms, and growing 

worse, for the most part, on the critical days. Rigors, in all cases, 

took place in an irregular and uncertain manner, very rare and weak 

in them, but greater in all other fevers; frequent sweats, but most 

seldom in them, bringing no alleviation, but, on the contrary, doing 

mischief. Much cold of the extremities in them, and these were warmed 

with difficulty. Insomnolency, for the most part, especially in these 

fevers, and again a disposition to coma. The bowels, in all diseases, 

were disordered, and in a bad state, but worst of all in these. The 

urine, in most of them, was either thin and crude, yellow, and after 

a time with slight symptoms of concoction in a critical form, or having 

the proper thickness, but muddy, and neither settling nor subsiding; 

or having small and bad, and crude sediments; these being the worst 

of all. Coughs attended these fevers, but I cannot state that any 

harm or good ever resulted from the cough. 

3. The most of these were protracted and troublesome, went on in a 
very disorderly and irregular form, and, for the most part, did in 

a crisis, either in the fatal cases or in the others; for if it left 
some of them for a season it soon returned again. In a few instances 
the lever terminated with a crisis; in the earliest of these about 
the eightieth day, and some of these relapsed, so that most of them 
were not free from the fever during the winter; but the fever left 
most of them without a crisis, and these things happened alike to 
those who recovered and to those who did not. There being much want 
of crisis and much variety as to these diseases, the greatest and 
worst symptom attended the most of them, namely, a loathing of all 
articles of food, more especially with those who had otherwise fatal 
symptoms; but they were not unseasonably thirsty in such fevers. After 
a length of time, with much suffering and great wasting, abscesses 
were formed in these cases, either unusually large, so that the patients 
could not support them, or unusually small, so that they did no good, 
but soon relapsed and speedily got worse. The diseases which attacked 
them were in the form of dysenteries, tenesmus, lientery, and fluxes; 
but, in some cases, there were dropsies, with or without these complaints. 



Whatever attacked them violently speedily cut them off, or again, 
did them no good. Small rashes, and not corresponding to the violence 
of the disease, and quickly disappearing, or swellings occurred about 
the ears, which were not resolved, and brought on no crisis. In some 
they were determined to the joints, and especially to the hip-joint, 
terminating critically with a few, and quickly again increasing to 
its original habit. 

4. People died of all these diseases, but mostly of these fevers, 
and notably infants just weaned, and older children, until eight or 
ten years of age, and those before puberty. These things occurred 
to those affected with the complaints described above, and to many 
persons at first without them. The only favorable symptom, and the 
greatest of those which occurred, and what saved most of those who 
were in the greatest dangers, was the conversion of it to a strangury, 
and when, in addition to this, abscesses were formed. The strangury 
attacked, most especially, persons of the ages I have mentioned, but 
it also occurred in many others, both of those who were not confined 
to bed and those who were. There was a speedy and great change in 

all these cases. For the bowels, if they happened previously to have 

watery discharges of a bad character, became regular, they got an 

appetite for food, and the fevers were mild afterwards. But, with 

regard to the strangury itself, the symptoms were protracted and painful. 

Their urine was copious, thick, of various characters, red, mixed 

with pus, and was passed with pain. These all recovered, and I did 

not see a single instance of death among them. 

5. With regard to the dangers of these cases, one must always attend 

to the seasonable concoction of all the evacuations, and to the favorable 
and critical abscesses. The concoctions indicate a speedy crisis and 
recovery of health; crude and undigested evacuations, and those which 
are converted into bad abscesses, indicate either want of crisis, 
or pains, or prolongation of the disease, or death, or relapses; which 
of these it is to be must be determined from other circumstances. 
The physician must be able to tell the antecedents, know the present, 
and foretell the future- must mediate these things, and have two special 
objects in view with regard to disease, namely, to do good or to do 
no harm. The art consists in three things- the disease, the patient, 
and the physician. The physician is the servant of the art, and the 
patient must combat the disease along with the physician. 

6. Pains about the head and neck, and heaviness of the same along 

with pain, occur either without fevers or in fevers. Convulsions occurring 

in persons attacked with frenzy, and having vomitings of verdigris-green 

bile, in some cases quickly prove fatal. In ardent fevers, and in 

those other fevers in which there is pain of the neck, heaviness of 

the temples, mistiness about the eyes, and distention about the hypochondriac 

region, not unattended with pain, hemorrhage from the nose takes place, 

but those who have heaviness of the whole head, cardialgia and nausea, 

vomit bilious and pituitous matters; children, in such affections, 

are generally attacked with convulsions, and women have these and 

also pains of the uterus; whereas, in elder persons, and those in 

whom the heat is already more subdued, these cases end in paralysis, 

mania, and loss of sight. 

Third Constitution 

7. In Thasus, a little before and during the season of Arcturus, there 
were frequent and great rains, with northerly winds. About the equinox, 
and till the setting of the Pleiades, there were a few southerly rains: 
the winter northerly and parched, cold, with great winds and snow. 
Great storms about the equinox, the spring northerly, dryness, rains 
few and cold. About the summer solstice, scanty rains, and great cold 
until near the season of the Dog-star. After the Dog-days, until the 



season of Arcturus, the summer hot, great droughts, not in intervals, 
but continued and severe: no rain; the Etesian winds blew; about the 
season of Arcturus southerly rains until the equinox. 

8. In this state of things, during winter, paraplegia set in, and 
attacked many, and some died speedily; and otherwise the disease prevailed 
much in an epidemical form, but persons remained free from all other 
diseases. Early in the spring, ardent fevers commenced and continued 
through the summer until the equinox. Those then that were attacked 
immediately after the commencement of the spring and summer, for the 

most part recovered, and but few of them died. But when the autumn 
and the rains had set in, they were of a fatal character, and the 
greater part then died. When in these attacks of ardent fevers there 
was a proper and copious hemorrhage from the nose, they were generally 
saved by it, and I do not know a single person who had a proper hemorrhage 
who died in this constitution. Philiscus, Epaminon, and Silenus, indeed, 
who had a trifling epistaxis on the fourth and fifth day, died. Most 
of those taken with had a rigor about the time of the crisis, and 
notably those who had no hemorrhage; these had also rigor associated. 

9. Some were attacked with jaundice on the sixth day, but these were 
benefited either by an urinary purgation, or a disorder of the bowels, 
or a copious hemorrhage, as in the case of Heraclides, who was lodged 
with Aristocydes: this person, though he had the hemorrhage from the 

nose, the purgation by the bladder, and disorder of the bowels, experienced 

a favorable crisis on the twentieth day, not like the servant of Phanagoras, 

who had none of these symptoms, and died. The hemorrhages attacked 

most persons, but especially young persons and those in the prime 

of life, and the greater part of those who had not the hemorrhage 

died: elderly persons had jaundice or disorder of the bowels, such 

as Bion, who was lodged with Silenus. Dysenteries were epidemical 

during the summer, and some of those cases in which the hemorrhage 

occurred, terminated in dysentery, as happened to the slave of Eraton, 

and to Mullus, who had a copious hemorrhage, which settled down into 

dysentery, and they recovered. This humor was redundant in many cases, 

since in those who had not the hemorrhage about the crisis, but the 

risings about the ears disappeared, after their disappearance there 

was a sense of weight in the left flank extending to the extremity 

of the hip, and pain setting in after the crisis, with a discharge 

of thin urine; they began to have small hemorrhages about the twenty-fourth 

day, and the swelling was converted into the hemorrhage. In the case 

of Antiphon, the son of Critobulus ' son, the fever ceased and came 

to a crisis about the fortieth day. 

10. Many women were seized, but fewer than of the men, and there were 
fewer deaths among them. But most of them had difficult parturition, 
and after labor they were taken ill, and these most especially died, 
as, for example, the daughter of Telebolus died on the sixth day after 
delivery. Most females had the menstrual discharge during the fever, 
and many girls had it then for the first time: in certain individuals 
both the hemorrhage from the nose and the menses appeared; thus, in 
the case of the virgin daughter of Daetharses, the menses then took 
place for the first time, and she had also a copinous hemorrhage from 
the nose, and I knew no instance of any one dying when one or other 

of these took place properly. But all those in the pregnant state 
that were attacked had abortions, as far as I observed. The urine 
in most cases was of the proper color, but thin, and having scanty 
sediments: in most the bowels were disordered with thin and bilious 
dejections; and many, after passing through the other crises, terminated 
in dysenteries, as happened to Xenophanes and Critias . The urine was 
watery, copious, clear, and thin; and even after the crises, when 
the sediment was natural, and all the other critical symptoms were 
favorable, as I recollect having happened to Bion, who was lodged 
in the house of Silenus, and Critias, who lived with Xenophanes, the 



slave of Areton, and the wife of Mnesistratus . But afterwards all 
these were attacked with dysentery. It would be worth while to inquire 
whether the watery urine was the cause of this. About the season of 
Arcturus many had the crisis on the eleventh day, and in them the 
regular relapses did not take place, but they became comatose about 
this time, especially children; but there were fewest deaths of all 
among them. 

11. About the equinox, and until the season of the Pleiades, and at 
the approach of winter, many ardent fevers set in; but great numbers 
at that season were seized with phrenitis, and many died; a few cases 
also occurred during the summer. These then made their attack at the 
commencement of ardent fevers, which were attended with fatal symptoms; 
for immediately upon their setting in, there were acute fever and 
small rigors, insomnolency, aberration, thirst, nausea, insignificant 
sweats about the forehead and clavicles, but no general perspiration; 
they had much delirious talking, fears, despondency, great coldness 

of the extremities, in the feet, but more especially in their hands: 

the paroxysms were on the even days; and in most cases, on the fourth 

day, the most violent pains set in, with sweats, generally coldish, 

and the extremities could not be warmed, but were livid and rather 

cold, and they had then no thirst; in them the urine was black, scanty, 

thin, and the bowels were constipated; there was an hemorrhage from 

the nose in no case in which these symptoms occurred, but merely a 

trifling epistaxis; and none of them had a relapse, but they died 

on the sixth day with sweats. In the phrenitic cases, all the symptoms 

which have been described did not occur, but in them the disease mostly 

came to a crisis on the eleventh day, and in some on the twentieth. 

In those cases in which the phrenitis did not begin immediately, but 

about the third or fourth day, the disease was moderate at the commencement, 

but assumed a violent character about the seventh day. There was a 

great number of diseases, and of those affected, they who died were 

principally infants, young persons, adults having smooth bodies, white 

skins, straight and black hair, dark eyes, those living recklessly 

and luxuriously; persons with shrill, or rough voices, who stammered 

and were passionate, and women more especially died from this form. 

In this constitution, four symptoms in particular proved salutary; 

either a hemorrhage from the nose, or a copious discharge by the bladder 

of urine, having an abundant and proper sediment, or a bilious disorder 

of the bowels at the proper time, or an attack of dysentery. And in 

many cases it happened, that the crisis did not take place by any 

one of the symptoms which have been mentioned, but the patient passed 

through most of them, and appeared to be in an uncomfortable way, 

and yet all who were attacked with these symptoms recovered. All the 

symptoms which I have described occurred also to women and girls; 

and whoever of them had any of these symptoms in a favorable manner, 

or the menses appeared abundantly, were saved thereby, and had a crisis, 

so that I do not know a single female who had any of these favorably 

that died. But the daughter of Philo, who had a copious hemorrhage 

from the nose, and took supper unseasonably on the seventh day, died. 

In those cases of acute, and more especially of ardent fevers, in 

which there is an involuntary discharge of tears, you may expect a 

nasal hemorrhage unless the other symptoms be of a fatal type, for 

in those of a bad description, they do not indicate a hemorrhage, 

but death. 

12. Swellings about the ears, with pain in fevers, sometimes when 
the fever went off critically, neither subsided nor were converted 
into pus; in these cases a bilious diarrhoea, or dysentery, or thick 
urine having a sediment, carried off the disease, as happened to Hermippus 
of Clazomenae. The circumstances relating to crises, as far as we 

can recognize them, were so far similar and so far dissimilar. Thus 

two brothers became ill at the same hour (they were brothers of Epigenes, 

and lodged near the theatre) , of these the elder had a crisis on the 



sixth day, and the younger on the seventh, and both had a relapse 

at the same hour; it then left them for five days, and from the return 

of the fever both had a crisis together on the seventeenth day. Most 

had a crisis on the sixth day; it then left them for six days, and 

from the relapse there was a crisis on the fifth day. But those who 

had a crisis on the seventh day, had an intermission for seven days; 

and the crisis took place on the third day after the relapse. Those 

who had a crisis on the sixth day, after an interval of six days were 

seized again on the third, and having left them for one day, the fever 

attacked them again on the next and came to a crisis, as happened 

to Evagon the son of Daetharses . Those in whom the crisis happened 

on the sixth day, had an intermission of seven days, and from the 

relapse there was a crisis on the fourth, as happened to the daughter 

of Aglaidas . The greater part of those who were taken ill under this 

constitution of things, were affected in this manner, and I did not 

know a single case of recovery, in which there was not a relapse agreeably 

to the stated order of relapses; and all those recovered in which 

the relapses took place according to this form: nor did I know a single 

instance of those who then passed through the disease in this manner 

who had another relapse. 

13. In these diseases death generally happened on the sixth day, as 

with Epaminondas, Silenus, and Philiscus the son of Antagoras . Those 

who had parotid swellings experienced a crisis on the twentieth day, 

but in all these cases the disease went off without coming to a suppuration, 

and was turned upon the bladder. But in Cratistonax, who lived by 

the temple of Hercules, and in the maid servant of Scymnus the fuller, 

it turned to a suppuration, and they died. Those who had a crisis 

on the seventh day, had an intermission of nine days, and a relapse 

which came to a crisis on the fourth day from the return of the fever, 

as was the case with Pantacles, who resided close by the temple of 

Bacchus. Those who had a crisis on the seventh day, after an interval 

of six days had a relapse, from which they had a crisis on the seventh 

day, as happened to Phanocritus, who was lodged with Gnathon the fuller. 

During the winter, about the winter solstices, and until the equinox, 

the ardent fevers and frenzies prevailed, and many died. The crisis, 

however, changed, and happened to the greater number on the fifth 

day from the commencement, left them for four days and relapsed; and 

after the return, there was a crisis on the fifth day, making in all 

fourteen days. The crisis took place thus in the case of most children, 

also in elder persons. Some had a crisis on the eleventh day, a relapse 

on the fourteenth, a complete crisis on the twentieth; but certain 

persons, who had a rigor about the twentieth, had a crisis on the 

fortieth. The greater part had a rigor along with the original crisis, 

and these had also a rigor about the crisis in the relapse. There 

were fewest cases of rigor in the spring, more in summer, still more 

in autumn, but by far the most in winter; then hemorrhages ceased. 

Section III 

1. With regard to diseases, the circumstances from which we form a 

judgment of them are,- by attending to the general nature of all, 

and the peculiar nature of each individual,- to the disease, the patient, 

and the applications,- to the person who applies them, as that makes 

a difference for better or for worse,- to the whole constitution of 

the season, and particularly to the state of the heavens, and the 

nature of each country;- to the patient's habits, regimen, and pursuits; - 

to his conversation, manners, taciturnity, thoughts, sleep, or absence 

of sleep, and sometimes his dreams, what and when they occur;- to 

his picking and scratching;- to his tears;- to the alvine discharges, 

urine, sputa, and vomitings; and to the changes of diseases from the 

one into the other;- to the deposits, whether of a deadly or critical 

character;- to the sweat, coldness, rigor, cough, sneezing, hiccup, 

respiration, eructation, flatulence, whether passed silently or with 



a noise;- to hemorrhages and hemorrhoids;- from these, and their consequences, 
we must form our judgment. 

2. Fevers are,- the continual, some of which hold during the day and 
have a remission at night, and others hold a remission during the 
day; semi-tertians, tertians, quartans, quintans, septans, nonans . 
The most acute, strongest, most dangerous, and fatal diseases, occur 
in the continual fever. The least dangerous of all, and the mildest 
and most protracted, is the quartan, for it is not only such from 
itself, but it also carries off other great diseases. In what is called 
the semi-tertian, other acute diseases are apt to occur, and it is 

the most fatal of all others, and moreover phthisical persons, and 
those laboring under other protracted diseases, are apt to be attacked 
by it. The nocturnal fever is not very fatal, but protracted; the 
diurnal is still more protracted, and in some cases passes into phthisis. 
The septan is protracted, but not fatal; the nonan more protracted, 
and not fatal. The true tertian comes quickly to a crisis, and is 
not fatal; but the quintan is the worst of all, for it proves fatal 
when it precedes an attack of phthisis, and when it supervenes on 
persons who are already consumptive. There are peculiar modes, and 
constitutions, and paroxysms, in every one of these fevers; for example, - 
the continual, in some cases at the very commencement, grows, as it 
were, and attains its full strength, and rises to its most dangerous 
pitch, but is diminished about and at the crisis; in others it begins 
gentle and suppressed, but gains ground and is exacerbated every day, 
and bursts forth with all its heat about and at the crisis; while 
in others, again, it commences mildly, increases, and is exacerbated 
until it reaches its acme, and then remits until at and about the 
crisis. These varieties occur in every fever, and in every disease. 
From these observations one must regulate the regimen accordingly. 
There are many other important symptoms allied to these, part of which 
have been already noticed, and part will be described afterwards, 
from a consideration of which one may judge, and decided in each case, 
whether the disease be acute, acute, and whether it will end in death 
or recovery; or whether it will be protracted, and will end in death 
or recovery; and in what cases food is to be given, and in what not; 
and when and to what amount, and what particular kind of food is to 
be administered. 

3. Those diseases which have their paroxysms on even days have their 
crises on even days; and those which have their paroxysms on uneven 
days have their crises on uneven days. The first period of those which 
have the crisis on even days, is the 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 14th, 20th, 
30th, 40th, 60th, 80th, 100th; and the first period of those which 
have their crises on uneven days, is the 1st, 3d, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 
17th, 21th, 27th, 31st. It should be known, that if the crisis take 
place on any other day than on those described, it indicates that 
there will be a relapse, which may prove fatal. But one ought to pay 
attention, and know in these seasons what crises will lead to recovery 
and what to death, or to changes for the better or the worse. Irregular 
fevers, quartans, quintans, septans, and nonans should be studied, 

in order to find out in what periods their crises take place. 

Fourteen Cases of Disease 

Case I. Philiscus, who lived by the Wall, took to bed on the first 
day of acute fever; he sweated; towards night was uneasy. On the second 
day all the symptoms were exacerbated; late in the evening had a proper 
stool from a small clyster; the night quiet. On the third day, early 
in the morning and until noon, he appeared to be free from fever; 
towards evening, acute fever, with sweating, thirst, tongue parched; 
passed black urine; night uncomfortable, no sleep; he was delirious 
on all subjects. On the fourth, all the symptoms exacerbated, urine 
black; night more comfortable, urine of a better color. On the fifth, 



about mid-day, had a slight trickling of pure blood from the nose; 
urine varied in character, having floating in it round bodies, resembling 
semen, and scattered, but which did not fall to the bottom; a suppository 
having been applied, some scanty flatulent matters were passed; night 
uncomfortable, little sleep, talking incoherently; extremities altogether 
cold, and could not be warmed; urine, black; slept a little towards 
day; loss of speech, cold sweats; extremities livid; about the middle 
of the sixth day he died. The respiration throughout, like that of 
a person recollecting himself, was rare, and large, and spleen was 
swelled upon in a round tumor, the sweats cold throughout, the paroxysms 
on the even days . 

Case i. Silenus lived on the Broad-way, near the house of Evalcidas. 

From fatigue, drinking, and unseasonable exercises, he was seized 

with fever. He began with having pain in the loins; he had heaviness 

of the head, and there was stiffness of the neck. On the first day 

the alvine discharges were bilious, unmixed, frothy, high colored, 

and copious; urine black, having a black sediment; he was thirsty, 

tongue dry; no sleep at night. On the second, acute fever, stools 

more copious, thinner, frothy; urine black, an uncomfortable night, 

slight delirium. On the third, all the symptoms exacerbated; an oblong 

distention, of a softish nature, from both sides of the hypochondrium 

to the navel; stools thin, and darkish; urine muddy, and darkish; 

no sleep at night; much talking, laughter, singing, he could not restrain 

himself. On the fourth, in the same state. On the fifth, stools bilious, 

unmixed, smooth, greasy; urine thin, and transparent; slight absence 

of delirium. On the sixth, slight perspiration about the head; extremities 

cold and livid; much tossing about; no passage from the bowels, urine 

suppressed, acute fever. On the seventh, loss of speech; extremities 

could no longer be kept warm; no discharge of urine. On the eighth, 

a cold sweat all over; red rashes with sweat, of a round figure, small, 

like vari, persistent, not subsiding; by means of a slight stimulus, 

a copious discharge from the bowels, of a thin and undigested character, 

with pain; urine acrid, and passed with pain; extremities slightly 

heated; sleep slight, and comatose; speechless; urine thin, and transparent. 

On the ninth, in the same state. On the tenth, no drink taken; comatose, 

sleep slight; alvine discharges the same; urine abundant, and thickish; 

when allowed to stand, the sediment farinaceous and white; extremities 

again cold. On the eleventh, he died. At the commencement, and throughout, 

the respiration was slow and large; there was a constant throbbing 

in the hypochondrium; his age was about twenty. 

Case ii. Herophon was seized with an acute fever; alvine discharges 

at first were scanty, and attended with tenesmus; but afterwards they 

were passed of a thin, bilious character, and frequent; there was 

no sleep; urine black, and thin. On the fifth, in the morning, deafness; 

all the symptoms exacerbated; spleen swollen; distention of the hypochondrium; 

alvine discharges scanty, and black; he became delirious. On the sixth, 

delirious; at night, sweating, coldness; the delirium continued. On 

the seventh, he became cold, thirsty, was disordered in mind; at night 

recovered his senses; slept. On the eighth, was feverish; the spleen 

diminished in size; quite collected; had pain at first about the groin, 

on the same side as the spleen; had pains in both legs; night comfortable; 

urine better colored, had a scanty sediment. On the ninth, sweated; 

the crisis took place; fever remitted. On the fifth day afterwards, 

fever relapsed, spleen immediately became swollen; acute fever; deafness 

again. On the third day after the relapse, the spleen diminished; 

deafness less; legs painful; sweated during the night; crisis took 

place on the seventeenth day; had no disorder of the senses during 

the relapse. 

Case v. In Thasus, the wife of Philinus, having been delivered of 
a daughter, the discharge being natural, and other matters going on 
mildly, on the fourteenth day after delivery was seized with fever, 



attended with rigor; was pained at first in the cardiac region of 
the stomach and right hypochondrium; pain in the genital organs; lochial 
discharge ceased. Upon the application of a pessary all these symptoms 
were alleviated; pains of the head, neck, and loins remained; no sleep; 
extremities cold; thirst; bowels in a hot state; stools scanty; urine 
thin, and colorless at first. On the sixth, towards night, senses 
much disordered, but again were restored. On the seventh, thirsty; 
the evacuations bilious, and high colored. On the eighth, had a rigor; 
acute fever; much spasm, with pain; talked much, incoherently; upon 
the application of a suppository, rose to stool, and passed copious 
dejections, with a bilious flux; no sleep. On the ninth, spasms. On 
the tenth, slightly recollected. On the eleventh, slept; had perfect 
recollection, but again immediately wandered; passed a large quantity 
of urine with spasms, (the attendants seldom putting her in mind), 
it was thick, white, like urine which has been shaken after it has 
stood for a considerable time until it has subsided, but it had no 
sediment; in color and consistence, the urine resembled that of cattle, 
as far as I observed. About the fourteenth day, startings over the 
whole body; talked much; slightly collected, but presently became 
again delirious. About the seventeenth day became speechless, on the 
twentieth died. 

Case V. The wife of Epicrates, who was lodged at the house of Archigetes, 

being near the term of delivery, was seized with a violent rigor, 

and, as was said, she did not become heated; next day the same. On 

the third, she was delivered of a daughter, and everything went on 

properly. On the day following her delivery, she was seized with acute 

fever, pain in the cardiac region of the stomach, and in the genital 

parts. Having had a suppository, was in so far relieved; pain in the 

head, neck, and loins; no sleep; alvine discharges scanty, bilious, 

thin, and unmixed; urine thin, and blackish. Towards the night of 

the sixth day from the time she was seized with the fever, became 

delirious. On the seventh, all the symptoms exacerbated; insomnolency, 

delirium, thirst; stools bilious, and high colored. On the eighth, 

had a rigor; slept more. On the ninth, the same. On the tenth, her 

limbs painfully affected; pain again of the cardiac region of the 

stomach; heaviness of the head; no delirium; slept more; bowels constipated. 

On the eleventh, passed urine of a better color, and having an abundant 

sediment; felt lighter. On the fourteenth had a rigor; acute fever. 

On the fifteenth, had a copious vomiting of bilious and yellow matters; 

sweated; fever gone; at night acute fever; urine thick, sediment white. 

On the seventeenth, an exacerbation; night uncomfortable; no sleep; 

delirium. On the eighteenth, thirsty; tongue parched; no sleep; much 

delirium; legs painfully affected. About the twentieth, in the morning, 

had as light rigor; was comatose; slept tranquilly; had slight vomiting 

of bilious and black matters; towards night deafness. About the twenty-first, 

weight generally in the left side, with pain; slight urine thick, 

muddy, and reddish; when allowed to stand, had no sediment; in other 

respects felt lighter; fever not gone; fauces painful from the commencement, 

and red; uvula retracted; defluxion remained acrid, pungent, and saltish 

throughout. About the twenty-seventh, free of fever; sediment in the 

urine; pain in the side. About the thirty-first, was attacked with 

fever, bilious diarrhea; slight bilious vomiting on the fortieth. 

Had a complete crisis, and was freed from the fever on the eightieth 

day. 

Case i. Cleonactides, who was lodged above the Temple of Hercules, 
was seized with a fever in an irregular form; was pained in the head 
and left side from the commencement, and had other pains resembling 
those produced by fatigue; paroxysms of the fevers inconstant and 
irregular; occasional sweats; the paroxysms generally attacked on 
the critical days. About the twenty-fourth was cold in the extremities 
of the hands, vomitings bilious, yellow, and frequent, soon turning 
to a verdigris-green color; general relief. About the thirtieth, began 



to have hemorrhage from both nostrils, and this continued in an irregular 
manner until near the crisis; did not loathe food, and had no thirst 
throughout, nor was troubled with insomnolency; urine thin, and not 
devoid of color. When about the thirtieth day, passed reddish urine, 
having a copious red sediment; was relieved, but afterwards the characters 
of the urine varied, sometimes having sediment, and sometimes not. 
On the sixtieth, the sediment in the urine copious, white, and smooth; 
all the symptoms ameliorated; intermission of the fever; urine thin, 
and well colored. On the seventieth, fever gone for ten days. On the 
eightieth had a rigor, was seized with acute fever, sweated much; 
a red, smooth sediment in the urine; and a perfect crisis. 

Case ii. Meton was seized with fever; there was a painful weight in 
the loins. Next day, after drinking water pretty copiously, had proper 
evacuations from the bowels. On the third, heaviness of the head, 
stools thin, bilious, and reddish. On the fourth, all the symptoms 
exacerbated; had twice a scanty trickling of blood from the right 
nostril; passed an uncomfortable night; alvine discharges like those 
on the third day; urine darkish, had a darkish cloud floating in it, 
of a scattered form, which did not subside. On the fifth, a copious 
hemorrhage of pure blood from the left he sweated, and had a crisis. 
After the fever restless, and had some delirium; urine thin, and darkish; 
had an affusion of warm water on the head; slept and recovered his 
senses. In this case there was no relapse, but there were frequent 
hemorrhages after the crisis. 

Case iii. Erasinus, who lived near the Canal of Bootes, was seized 

with fever after supper; passed the night in an agitated state. During 

the first day quiet, but in pain at night. On the second, symptoms 

all exacerbated; at night delirious. On the third, was in a painful 

condition; great incoherence. On the fourth, in a most uncomfortable 

state; had no sound sleep at night, but dreaming and talking; then 

all the appearances worse, of a formidable and alarming character; 

fear, impatience. On the morning of the fifth, was composed, and quite 

coherent, but long before noon was furiously mad, so that he could 

not constrain himself; extremities cold, and somewhat livid; urine 

without sediment; died about sunset. The fever in this case was accompanied 

by sweats throughout; the sweats throughout; the hypochondria were 

in a state of meteorism, with distention and pain; the urine was black, 

has round substances floating in it, which did not subside; the alvine 

evacuations were not stopped; thirst throughout not great; much spasms 

with sweats about the time of death. 

Case x. Criton, in Thasus, while still on foot, and going about, was 

seized with a violent pain in the great toe; he took to bed the same 

day, had rigors and nausea, recovered his heat slightly, at night 

was delirious. On the second, swelling of the whole foot, and about 

the ankle erythema, with distention, and small bullae (phlyctaenae) ; 

acute fever; he became furiously deranged; alvine discharges bilious, 

unmixed, and rather frequent. He died on the second day from the commencement. 

Case X. The Clazomenian who was lodged by the Well of Phrynichides 
was seized with fever. He had pain in the head, neck, and loins from 
the beginning, and immediately afterwards deafness; no sleep, acute 
fever, hypochondria elevated with a swelling, but not much distention; 
tongue dry. On the fourth, towards night, he became delirious. On 
the fifth, in an uneasy state. On the sixth, all the symptoms exacerbated. 
About the eleventh a slight remission; from the commencement to the 
fourteenth day the alvine discharges thin, copious, and of the color 
of water, but were well supported; the bowels then became constipated. 
Urine throughout thin, and well colored, and had many substances scattered 
through it, but no sediment. About the sixteenth, urine somewhat thicker, 
which had a slight sediment; somewhat better, and more collected. 
On the seventeenth, urine again thin; swellings about both his ears, 



with pain; no sleep, some incoherence; legs painfully affected. On 

the twentieth, free of fever, had a crisis, no sweat, perfectly collected. 

About the twenty-seventh, violent pain of the right hip; it speedily 

went off. The swellings about the ears subsided, and did not suppurate, 

but were painful. About the thirty-first, a diarrhea attended with 

a copious discharge of watery matter, and symptoms of dysentery; passed 

thick urine; swellings about the ears gone. About the fortieth day, 

had pain in the right eye, sight dull. It went away. 

Case i. The wife of Dromeades having been delivered of a female child, 

and all other matters going on properly, on the second day after was 

seized with rigor and acute fever. Began to have pain about the hypochondrium 

on the first day; had nausea and incoherence, and for some hours afterwards 

had no sleep; respiration rare, large, and suddenly interrupted. On 

the day following that on which she had the rigor, alvine discharges 

proper; urine thick, white, muddy, like urine which has been shaken 

after standing for some time, until the sediment had fallen to the 

bottom; it had no sediment; she did not sleep during the night. On 

the third day, about noon, had a rigor, acute fever; urine the same; 

pain of the hypochondria, nausea, an uncomfortable night, no sleep; 

a coldish sweat all over, but heat quickly restored. On the fourth, 

slight alleviation of the symptoms about the hypochondria; heaviness 

of the head, with pain; somewhat comatose; slight epistaxis, tongue 

dry, thirst, urine thin and oily; slept a little, upon awaking was 

somewhat comatose; slight coldness, slept during the night, was delirious. 

On the morning of the sixth had a rigor, but soon recovered her heat, 

sweated all over; extremities cold, was delirious, respiration rare 

and large. Shortly afterwards spasms from the head began, and she 

immediately expired. 

Case ii. A man, in a heated state, took supper, and drank more than 
enough; he vomited the whole during the night; acute fever, pain of 
the right hypochondrium, a softish inflammation from the inner part; 
passed an uncomfortable night; urine at the commencement thick, red, 
but when allowed to stand, had no sediment, tongue dry, and not very 
thirsty. On the fourth, acute fever, pains all over. On the fifth, 
urine smooth, oily, and copious; acute fever. On the sixth, in the 
evening, very incoherent, no sleep during the night. On the seventh, 
all the symptoms exacerbated; urine of the same characters; much talking, 
and he could not contain himself; the bowels being stimulated, passed 
a watery discharge with lumbrici: night equally painful. In the morning 
had a rigor; acute fever, hot sweat, appeared to be free of fever; 
did not sleep long; after the sleep a chill, ptyalism; in the evening, 
great incoherence; after a little, vomited a small quantity of dark 
bilious matters. On the ninth, coldness, much delirium, did not sleep. 
On the tenth, pains in the limbs, all the symptoms exacerbated; he 
was delirious. On the eleventh, he died. 

Case iii. A woman, who lodged on the Quay, being three months gone 
with child, was seized with fever, and immediately began to have pains 
in the loins. On the third day, pain of the head and neck, extending 
to the clavicle, and right hand; she immediately lost the power of 
speech; was paralyzed in the right hand, with spasms, after the manner 
of paraplegia; was quite incoherent; passed an uncomfortable night; 
did not sleep; disorder of the bowels, attended with bilious, On the 
fourth, recovered the use of her tongue; spasms of the same parts, 
and general pains remained; swelling in the hypochondrium, accompanied 
with pain; did not sleep, was quite incoherent; bowels disordered, 
urine thin, and not of a good color. On the fifth, acute fever; pain 
of the hypochondrium, quite incoherent; alvine evacuations bilious; 
towards night had a sweat, and was freed from the fever. On the sixth, 
recovered her reason; was every way relieved; the pain remained about 
the left clavicle; was thirsty, urine thin, had no sleep. On the seventh 
trembling, slight coma, some incoherence, pains about the clavicle 



and left arm remained; in all other respects was alleviated; quite 
coherent. For three days remained free from fever. On the eleventh, 
had a relapse, with rigor and fever. About the fourteenth day, vomited 
pretty abundantly bilious and yellow matters, had a sweat, the fever 
went off, by coming to a crisis. 

Case iv. Melidia, who lodged near the Temple of Juno, began to feel 
a violent pain of the head, neck, and chest. She was straightway seized 
with acute fever; a slight appearance of the menses; continued pains 
of all these parts. On the sixth, was affected with coma, nausea, 
and rigor; redness about the cheeks; slight delirium. On the seventh, 
had a sweat; the fever intermitted, the pains remained. A relapse; 
little sleep; urine throughout of a good color, but thin; the alvine 
evacuations were thin, bilious, acrid, very scanty, black, and fetid; 
a white, smooth sediment in the urine; had a sweat, and experienced 
a perfect crisis on the eleventh day. 



BOOK II 

Section I 

Case I. Pythion, who lived by the Temple of the Earth, on the first 
day, trembling commencing from his hands; acute fever, delirium. On 
the second, all the symptoms were exacerbated. On the third, the same. 
On the fourth alvine discharges scanty, unmixed, and bilious. On the 
fifth, all the symptoms were exacerbated, the tremors remained; little 
sleep, the bowels constipated. On the sixth sputa mixed, reddish. 
On the seventh, mouth drawn aside. On the eighth, all the symptoms 
were exacerbated; the tremblings were again constant; urine, from 
the beginning to the eighth day, thin, and devoid of color; substances 
floating in it, cloudy. On the tenth he sweated; sputa somewhat digested, 
had a crisis; urine thinnish about the crisis; but after the crisis, 
on the fortieth day, an abscess about the anus, which passed off by 
a strangury. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probably that the great discharge 
of urine brought about the resolution of the disease, and the cure 
of the patient on the fortieth day. 

Case i. Hermocrates, who lived by the New Wall, was seized with fever. 

He began to have pain in the head and loins; an empty distention of 

the hypochondrium; the tongue at first was parched; deafness at the 

commencement; there was no sleep; not very thirsty; urine thick and 

red, when allowed to stand it did not subside; alvine discharge very 

dry, and not scanty. On the fifth, urine thin, had substances floating 

in it which did not fall to the bottom; at night he was delirious. 

On the sixth, had jaundice; all the symptoms were exacerbated; had 

no recollection. On the seventh, in an uncomfortable state; urine 

thin, as formerly; on the following days the same. About the eleventh 

day, all the symptoms appeared to be lightened. Coma set in; urine 

thicker, reddish, thin substances below, had no sediment; by degrees 

he became collected. On the fourteenth, fever gone; had no sweat; 

slept, quite collected; urine of the same characters. About the seventeenth, 

had a relapse, became hot. On the following days, acute fever, urine 

thin, was delirious. Again, on the twentieth, had a crisis; free of 

fever; had no sweat; no appetite through the whole time; was perfectly 

collected; could not speak, tongue dry, without thirst; deep sleep. 

About the twenty-fourth day he became heated; bowels loose, with a 

thin, watery discharge; on the following days acute fever, tongue 

parched. On the twenty-seventh he died. In this patient deafness continued 

throughout; the urine either thick and red, without sediment, or thin, 

devoid of color, and, having substances floating in it: he could taste 



nothing . 

Explanation of the characters. It is probably that it was the suppression 

of the discharges from the bowels which occasioned death on the twenty-seventh 

day. 

Case ii. The man who was lodged in the Garden of Dealces: had heaviness 

of the head and pain in the right temple for a considerable time, 

from some accidental cause, was seized with fever, and took to bed. 

On the second, there was a trickling of pure blood from the left nostril, 

but the alvine discharges were proper, urine thin, mixed, having small 

substances floating in it, like coarse barley meal, or semen. On the 

third, acute fever; stools black, thin, frothy, a livid sediment in 

the dejections; slight coma; uneasiness at the times he had to get 

up; sediment in the urine livid, and somewhat viscid. On the fourth, 

slight vomiting of bilious, yellow matters, and, after a short interval, 

of the color of verdigris; a few drops of pure blood ran from the 

left nostril; stools the same; urine the same; sweated about the head 

and clavicles; spleen enlarged, pain of the thigh on the same side; 

loose swelling of the right hypochondrium; at night had no sleep, 

slight delirium. On the sixth, stools black, fatty, viscid, fetid; 

slept, more collected. On the seventh, tongue dry, thirsty, did not 

sleep; was somewhat delirious; urine thin, not of a good color. On 

the eighth, stools black, scanty, and compact; slept, became collected; 

not very thirsty. On the ninth had a rigor, acute fever, sweated, 

a chill, was delirious, strabismus of the right eye, tongue dry, thirsty, 

without sleep. On the tenth, much the same. On the eleventh, became 

quite collected; free from fever, slept, urine thin about the crisis. 

The two following days without fever; it returned on the fourteenth, 

then immediately insomnolency and complete delirium. On the fifteenth, 

urine muddy, like that which has been shaken after the sediment has 

fallen to the bottom; acute fever, quite delirious, did not sleep; 

knees and legs painful; after a suppository, had alvine dejections 

of a black color. On the sixteenth, urine thin, had a cloudy eneorema, 

was delirious. On the seventeenth, in the morning, extremities cold, 

was covered up with the bedclothes, acute fever, general sweat, felt 

relieved, more collected; not free of fever, thirsty, vomited yellow 

bile, in small quantities; formed faeces passed from the bowels, but 

soon afterwards black, scanty, and thin; urine thin, not well colored. 

On the eighteenth, not collected, comatose. On the nineteenth, in 

the same state. On the twentieth, slept; quite collected, sweated, 

free from fever, not thirsty, but the urine thin. On the twenty-first, 

slight delirium; somewhat thirsty, pain of the hypochondrium, and 

throbbing about the navel throughout. On sediment in the urine, quite 

collected. Twenty-seventh, pain of the right hip joint; urine thin 

and bad, a sediment; all the other symptoms milder. About the twenty-ninth, 

pain of the right eye; urine thin. Fortieth, dejections pituitous, 

white, rather frequent; sweated abundantly all over; had a complete 

crisis . 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that, by means of the 
stools, the urine, and the sweat, this patient was cured in forty 
days . 

Section II 

Case I. In Thasus, Philistes had headache of long continuance, and 
sometimes was confined to bed, with a tendency to deep sleep; having 
been seized with continual fevers from drinking, the pain was exacerbated; 
during the night he, at first, became hot. On the first day, he vomited 
some bilious matters, at first yellow, but afterwards of a verdigris-green 
color, and in greater quantity; formed faeces passed from the bowels; 
passed the night uncomfortably. On the second, deafness, acute fever; 
retraction of the right hypochondrium; urine thin, transparent, had 



some small substances like semen floating in it; delirium ferox about 
mid-day. On the third, in an uncomfortable state. On the fourth, convulsions; 
all the symptoms exacerbated. On the fifth, early in the morning, 
died. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that the death of the 
patient on the fifth day is to be attributed to a phrenitis, with 
unfavorable evacuations. 

Case i. Charion, who was lodged at the house of Demaenetus, contracted 

a fever from drinking. Immediately he had a painful heaviness of the 

head; did not sleep; bowels disordered, with thin and somewhat bilious 

discharges. On the third day, acute fever; trembling of the head, 

but especially of the lower lip; after a little time a rigor, convulsions; 

he was quite delirious; passed the night uncomfortably. On the fourth, 

quiet, slept little, talked incoherently. On the fifth, in pain; all 

the symptoms exacerbated; delirium; passed the night uncomfortably; 

did not sleep. On the sixth, in the same state. On the seventh had 

a rigor, acute fever, sweated all over his body; had a crisis. Throughout 

the alvine discharges were bilious, scanty, and unmixed; urine thin, 

well colored, having cloudy substances floating in it. About the eighth 

day, passed urine of a better color, having a white scanty sediment; 

was collected, free from fever for a season. On the ninth it relapsed. 

About the fourteenth, acute fever. On the sixteenth, vomited pretty 

frequently yellow, bilious matters. On the seventeenth had a rigor, 

acute fever, sweated, free of fever; had a crisis; urine, after the 

relapse and the crisis, well colored, having a sediment; neither was 

he delirious in the relapse. On the eighteenth, became a little heated; 

some thirst, urine thin, with cloudy substances floating in it; slight 

wandering in his mind. About the nineteenth, free of fever, had a 

pain in his neck; a sediment in the urine. Had a complete crisis on 

the twentieth. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that the patient was 
cured in twenty days, by the abundance of bilious stools and urine. 

Case ii. The daughter of Euryanax, a maid, was taken ill of fever. 
She was free of thirst throughout, but had no relish for food. Alvine 
discharges small, urine thin, scanty, not well colored. In the beginning 
of the fever, had a pain about the nates. On the sixth day, was free 
of fever, did not sweat, had a crisis; the complaint about the nates 
came to a small suppuration, and burst at the crisis. After the crisis, 
on the seventh day, had a rigor, became slightly heated, sweated. 
On the eighth day after the rigor, had an inconsiderable rigor; the 
extremities cold ever after. About the tenth day, after a sweat which 
came on, she became delirious, and again immediately afterwards was 
collected; these symptoms were said to have been brought on by eating 
grapes. After an intermission of the twelfth day, she again talked 
much incoherently; her bowels disordered with bilious, scanty, unmixed, 
thin, acrid discharges; she required to get frequently up. She died 
on the seventh day after the return of the delirium. At the commencement 
of the disease she had pain in the throat, and it red throughout, 
uvula retracted, defluxions abundant, thin, acrid; coughed, but had 
no concocted sputa; during the whole time loathed all kinds of food, 
nor had the least desire of anything; had no thirst, nor drank anything 
worth mentioning; was silent, and never spoke a word; despondency; 
had no hopes of herself. She had a congenital tendency to phthisis. 

Case v. The woman affected with quinsy, who lodged in the house of 
Aristion: her complaint began in the tongue; speech inarticulate; 
tongue red and parched. On the first day, felt chilly, and afterwards 
became heated. On the third day, a rigor, acute fever; a reddish and 
hard swelling on both sides of the neck and chest, extremities cold 
and livid; and livid; respiration elevated; the drink returned by 



the nose; she could not swallow; alvine and urinary discharges suppressed. 
On the fourth, all of the symptoms were exacerbated. On the fifth 
she died of the quinsy. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that the cause of death 
on the sixth day was the suppression of the discharges. 

Case V. The young man who was lodged by the Liars' Market was seized 
with fever from fatigue, labor, and running out of season. On the 
first day, the bowels disordered, with bilious, thin, and copious 
dejections; urine thin and blackish; had no sleep; was thirsty. On 
the second all the symptoms were exacerbated; dejections more copious 
and unseasonable; he had no sleep; disorder of the intellect; slight 
sweat. On the third day, restless, thirst, nausea, much tossing about, 
bewilderment, delirium; extremities livid and cold; softish distention 
of the hypochondrium on both sides. On the fourth, did not sleep; 
still worse. On the seventh he died. He was about twenty years of 
age . 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that the cause of his 
death on the seventh day was the unseasonable practices mentioned 
above. An acute affection. 

Case i. The woman who lodged at the house of Tisamenas had a troublesome 
attack of iliac passion, much vomiting; could not keep her drink; 
pains about the hypochondria, and pains also in the lower part of 
the belly; constant tormina; not thirsty; became hot; extremities 
cold throughout, with nausea and insomnolency; urine scanty and thin; 
dejections undigested, thin, scanty. Nothing could do her any good. 
She died. 

Case ii. A woman of Pantimides, from a miscarriage, was taken ill 
of fever. On the first day, tongue dry, thirst, nausea, insomnolency, 
belly disordered, with thin, copious, undigested dejections. On the 
second day, had a rigor, acute fever; alvine discharges copious; had 
no sleep. On the third, pains greater. On the fourth, delirious. On 
the seventh she died. Belly throughout loose, with copious, thin, 
undigested evacuations; urine scanty, thin. An ardent fever. 

Case iii. Another woman, after a miscarriage about the fifth month, 
the wife of Ocetes, was seized with fever. At first had sometimes 
coma and sometimes insomnolency; pain of the loins; heaviness of the 
head. On the second, the bowels were disordered, with scanty, thin, 
and at first unmixed dejections. On the third, more copious, and worse; 
at night did not sleep. On the fourth was delirious; frights, despondency; 
strabismus of the right eye; a faint cold sweat about the head; extremities 
cold. On the fifth day, all the symptoms were exacerbated; talked 
much incoherently, and again immediately became collected; had no 
thirst; labored under insomnolency; alvine dejections copious, and 
unseasonable throughout; urine scanty, thin, darkish; extremities 
cold, somewhat livid. On the sixth day, in the same state. On the 
seventh she died. Phrenitis. 

Case x. A woman who lodged near the Liars' Market, having then brought 
forth a son in a first and difficult labor, was seized with fever. 
Immediately on the commencement had thirst, nausea, and cardialgia; 
tongue dry; bowels disordered, with thin and scanty dejections; had 
no sleep. On the second, had slight rigor, acute fever; a faint cold 
sweat about the head. On the third, painfully affected; evacuations 
from the bowels undigested, thin, and copious. On the fourth, had 
a rigor; all the symptoms exacerbated; insomnolency. On the fifth, 
in a painful state. On the sixth, in the same state; discharges from 
the bowels liquid and copious. On the seventh, had a rigor, fever 
acute; much thirst; much tossing about; towards evening a cold sweat 



over all; extremities cold, could no longer be kept warm; and again 
at night had a rigor; extremities could not be warmed; she did not 
sleep; was slightly delirious, and again speedily collected. On the 
eighth, about mid-day, she became warm, was thirsty, comatose, had 
nausea; vomited small quantities of yellowish bile; restless at night, 
did not sleep; passed frequently large quantities of urine without 
consciousness. On the ninth, all the symptoms gave way; comatose, 
towards evening slight rigors; small vomitings of bile. On the tenth, 
rigor; exacerbation of the fever, did not sleep at all; in the morning 
passed much urine having a sediment; extremities recovered their heat. 
On the eleventh, vomited bile of a verdigris-green color; not long 
after had a rigor, and again the extremities cold; towards evening 
a rigor, a cold sweat, much vomiting; passed a painful night. On the 
twelfth, had copious black and fetid vomitings; much hiccup, painful 
thirst. On the thirteenth, vomitings black, fetid, and copious; rigor 
about mid-day, loss of speech. On the fourteenth, some blood ran from 
her nose, she died. In this case the bowels were loose throughout; 
with rigors: her age about seventeen. An ardent fever. 

Section III 

1. The year was southerly, rainy; no winds throughout. Droughts having 
prevailed during the previous seasons of the year, the south winds 
towards the rising of Arcturus were attended with much rain. Autumn 
gloomy and cloudy, with copious rains. Winter southerly, damp, and 
soft. But long after the solstice, and near the equinox, much wintery 
weather out of season; and when now close to the equinox, northerly, 
and winterly weather for no long time. The spring again southerly, 

calm, much rain until the dog-days. Summer fine and hot; great suffocating 
heats. The Etesian winds blew small and irregular; again, about the 
season of Arcturus, much rains with north winds. 

2. The year being southerly, damp, and soft towards winter, all were 
healthy, except those affected with phthisis, of whom we shall write 
afterwards . 

3. Early in spring, along with the prevailing cold, there were many 
cases of erysipelas, some from a manifest cause, and some not. They 

were of a malignant nature, and proved fatal to many; many had sore-throat 
and loss of speech. There were many cases of ardent fever, phrensy, 
aphthous affections of the mouth, tumors on the genital organs; of 
ophthalmia, anthrax, disorder of the bowels, anorexia, with thirst 
and without it; of disordered urine, large in quantity, and bad in 
quality; of persons affected with coma for a long time, and then falling 
into a state of insomnolency . There were many cases of failure of 
crisis, and many of unfavorable crisis; many of dropsy and of phthisis. 
Such were the diseases then epidemic. There were patients affected 
with every one of the species which have been mentioned, and many 
died. The symptoms in each of these cases were as follows: 

4. In many cases erysipelas, from some obvious cause, such as an accident, 
and sometimes from even a very small wound, broke out all over the 

body, especially, in persons about sixty years of age, about the head, 
if such an accident was neglected in the slightest degree; and this 
happened in some who were under treatment; great inflammation took 
place, and the erysipelas quickly spread all over, in the most of 
them abscessed ended in suppurations, and there were great fallings 
off (sloughing) of the flesh, tendons, and bones; and the defluxion 
which seated in the part was not like pus, but a sort of putrefaction, 
and the running was large and of various characters. Those cases in 
which any of these things happened about the head were accompanied 
with falling off of the hairs of the head and chin, the bones were 
laid bare and separated, and there were excessive runnings; and these 
symptoms happened in fevers and without fevers . But these things were 



more formidable in appearance than dangerous; for when the concoction 
in these cases turned to a these cases turned to a suppuration, most 
of them recovered; but when the inflammation and erysipelas disappeared, 
and when no abscess was formed, a great number of these died. In like 
manner, the same things happened to whatever part of the body the 
disease wandered, for in many cases both forearm and arm dropped off; 
and in those cases in which it fell upon the sides, the parts there, 
either before or behind, got into a bad state; and in some cases the 
whole femur and bones of the leg and whole foot were laid bare. But 
of all such cases, the most formidable were those which took place 
about the pubes and genital organs. Such was the nature of these cases 
when attended with sores, and proceeding from an external cause; but 
the same things occurred in fevers, before fevers, and after fevers, 
fevers. But those cases in which an abscess was formed, and turned 
to a suppuration, or a seasonable diarrhea or discharge of good urine 
took place, were relieved thereby: but those cases in which none of 
these symptoms occurred, but they disappeared without a crisis, proved 
fatal. The greater number of these erysipelatous cases took place 
in the spring, but were prolonged through the summer and during autumn. 

5. In certain cases there was much disorder, and tumors about the 
fauces, and inflammations of the tongue, and abscesses about the teeth. 
And many were attacked with impairment or loss of speech; at first, 
those in the commencement of phthisis, but also persons in ardent 
fever and in phrenitis. 

6. The cases of ardent fever and phrenitis occurred early in spring 
after the cold set in, and great numbers were taken ill at that time, 

and these cases were attended with acute and fatal symptoms . The constitution 

of the ardent fevers which then occurred was as follows: at the commencement 

they were affected with coma, nausea, and rigors; fever acute, not 

much thirst, nor delirium, slight epistaxis, the paroxysms for the 

most part on even days; and, about the time of the paroxysms, f orgetf ulness, 

loss of strength and of speech, the extremities, that is to say, the 

hands and feet, at all times, but more especially about the time of 

the paroxysms, were colder than natural; they slowly and imperfectly 

became warmed, and again recovered their recollection and speech. 

They were constantly affected either with coma, in which they got 

which they got no sleep, or with insomnolency, attended with pains; 

most had disorders of the bowels, attended with undigested, thin, 

and copious evacuations; urine copious, thin, having nothing critical 

nor favorable about it; neither was there any other critical appearance 

in persons affected thus; for neither was there any proper hemorrhage, 

nor any other of the accustomed evacuations, to prove a crisis. They 

died, as it happened, in an irregular manner, mostly about the crisis, 

but in some instances after having lost their speech for a long time, 

and having had copious sweats. These were the symptoms which marked 

the fatal cases of ardent fever; similar symptoms occurred in the 

phrenitic cases; but these were particularly free from thirst, and 

none of these had wild delirium as in other cases, but they died oppressed 

by a bad tendency to sleep, and stupor. 

7. But there were also other fevers, as will be described. Many had 
their mouths affected with aphthous ulcerations. There were also many 
defluxions about the genital parts, and ulcerations, boils (phymata) , 
externally and internally, about the groins. Watery ophthalmies of 

a chronic character, with pains; fungous excrescences of the eyelids, 
externally and internally, called fig, which destroyed the sight of 
many persons. There were fungous growths, in many other instances, 
on ulcers, especially on those seated on the genital organs. There 
were many attacks of carbuncle (anthrax) through the summer, and other 
affections, which are called "the putrefaction" (seps) ; also large 
ecthymata, and large tetters (herpetes) in many instances. 



8 . And many and serious complaints attacked many persons in the region 
of the belly. In the first place, tenesmus, accompanied with pain, 
attacked many, but more especially children, and all who had not attained 
to puberty; and the most of these died. There were many cases of lientery 
and of dysentery; but these were not attended with much pain. The 
evacuations were bilious, and fatty, and thin, and watery; in many 
instances the disease terminated in this way, with and without fever; 
there were painful tormina and volvuli of a malignant kind; copious 
evacuations of the contents of the guts, and yet much remained behind; 
and the passages did not carry off the pains, but yielded with difficulty 
to the means administered; for in most cases purgings were hurtful 

to those affected in this manner; many died speedily, but in many 
others they held out longer. In a word, all died, both those who had 
acute attacks and those who had chronic, most especially from affections 
of the belly, for it was the belly which carried them all off. 

9. All persons had an aversion to food in all the afore-mentioned 
complaints to a degree such as I never met with before, and persons 
in these complaints most especially, and those recovering from them, 
and in all other diseases of a mortal nature. Some were troubled with 
thirst, and some not; and both in febrile complaints and in others 

no one drank unseasonably or disobeyed injunctions. 

10. The urine in many cases was not in proportion to the drink administered, 
but greatly in excess; and the badness of the urine voided was great, 

for it had not the proper thickness, nor concoction, nor purged properly; 
for in many cases purgings by the bladder indicate favorably, but 
in the greatest number they indicated a melting of the body, disorder 
of the bowels, pains, and a want of crisis. 

11. Persons laboring under phrenitis and causus were particularly 
disposed to coma; but also in all other great diseases which occurred 
along with fever. In the main, most cases were attended either by 
heavy coma, or by short and light sleep. 

12. And many other forms of fevers were then epidemic, of tertian, 
of quartan, of nocturnal, of continual, of chronic, of erratic, of 
fevers attended with nausea, and of irregular fevers. All these were 
attended with much disorder, for the bowels in most cases were disordered, 
accompanied with rigors, sweats not of a critical character, and with 

the state of the urine as described. In most instances the disease 
was protracted, for neither did the deposits which took place prove 
critical as in other cases; for in all complaints and in all cases 
there was difficulty of crisis, want of crisis, and protraction of 
the disease, but most especially in these. A few had the crisis about 
the eightieth day, but in most instances it (the disease?) left them 
irregularly. A few of them died of dropsy without being confined to 
bed. And in many other diseases people were troubled with swelling, 
but more especially in phthisical cases. 

13. The greatest and most dangerous disease, and the one that proved 
fatal to the greatest number, was consumption. With many persons it 
commenced during the winter, and of these some were confined to bed, 
and others bore up on foot; the most of those died early in spring 
who were confined to bed; of the others, the cough left not a single 
person, but it became milder through the summer; during the autumn, 
all these were confined to bed, and many of them died, but in the 
greater number of cases the disease was long protracted. Most of these 
were suddenly attacked with these diseases, having frequent rigors, 
often continual and acute fevers; unseasonable, copious, and cold 
sweats throughout; great coldness, from which they had great difficulty 
in being restored to heat; the bowels variously constipated, and again 
immediately in a loose state, but towards the termination in all cases 
with violent looseness of the bowels; a determination downwards of 



all matters collected about the lungs; urine excessive, and not good; 
troublesome melting. The coughs throughout were frequent, and copious, 
digested, and liquid, but not brought up with much pain; and even 
when they had some slight pain, in all cases the purging of the matters 
about the lungs went on mildly. The fauces were not very irritable, 
nor were they troubled with any saltish humors; but there were viscid, 
white, liquid, frothy, and copious defluxions from the head. But by 
far the greatest mischief attending these and the other complaints, 
was the aversion to food, as has been described. For neither been 
described. For neither had they any relish for drink along with their 
food, but continued without thirst. There was heaviness of the body, 
disposition to coma, in most cases swelling, which ended in dropsy; 
they had rigors, and were delirious towards death. 

14. The form of body peculiarly subject to phthisical complaints was 
the smooth, the whitish, that resembling the lentil; the reddish, 

the blue-eyed, the leucophlegmatic, and that with the scapulae having 
the appearance of wings: and women in like manner, with regard to 
the melancholic and subsanguineous, phrenitic and dysenteric affections 
principally attacked them. Tenesmus troubled young persons of a phlegmatic 
temperament. Chronic diarrhoea, acrid and viscid discharges from the 
bowels, attacked those who were troubled with bitter bile. 

15. To all those which have been described, the season of spring was 
most inimical, and proved fatal to the greatest numbers: the summer 
was the most favorable to them, and the fewest died then; in autumn, 
and under the Pleiades, again there died great numbers. It appears 

to me, according to the reason of things, that the coming on of summer 
should have done good in these cases; for winter coming on cures the 
diseases of summer, and summer coming on removes the diseases of winter. 
And yet the summer in question was not of itself well constituted, 
for it became suddenly hot, southerly, and calm; but, not withstanding, 
it proved beneficial by producing a change on the other constitution. 

16. I look upon it as being a great part of the art to be able to 
judge properly of that which has been written. For he that knows and 
makes a proper use of these things, would appear to me not likely 

to commit any great mistake in the art. He ought to learn accurately 
the constitution of every one of the seasons, and of the diseases; 
whatever that is common in each constitution and disease is good, 
and whatever is bad; whatever disease will be protracted and end in 
death, and whatever will be protracted and end in recovery; which 
disease of an acute nature will end in death, and which in recovery. 
From these it is easy to know the order of the critical days, and 
prognosticate from them accordingly. And to a person who is skilled 
in these things, it is easy to know to whom, when, and how aliment 
ought to be administered. 

Sixteen Cases of Disease 

Case I. In Thasus, the Parian who lodged above the Temple of Diana 
was seized with an acute fever, at first of a continual and ardent 
type; thirsty, inclined to be comatose at first, and afterwards troubled 
with insomnolency; bowels disordered at the beginning, urine thin. 
On the sixth day, passed oily urine, was delirious. On the seventh, 
all the symptoms were exacerbated; had no sleep, but the urine of 
the same characters, and the understanding disordered; alvine dejections 
bilious and fatty. On the eighth, a slight epistaxis; small vomiting 
of verdigris-green matters; slept a little. On the ninth, in the same 
state. On the tenth, all the symptoms gave way. On the eleventh, he 
sweated, but not over the whole body; he became cold, but immediately 
recovered his heat again. On the fourteenth, acute fever; discharges 
bilious, thin, and copious; substances floating in the urine; he became 
incoherent. On the seventeenth, in a painful state, for he had no 



sleep, and the fever was more intense. On the twentieth, sweated all 

over; apyrexia, dejections bilious; aversion to food, comatose. On 

the twenty-fourth, had a relapse. On the thirty-fourth, apyrexia; 

bowels not confined; and he again recovered his heat. Fortieth, apyrexia, 

bowels confined for no long time, aversion to food; had again slight 

symptoms of fever, and throughout in an irregular form; apyrexia at 

times, and at others not; for if the fever intermitted, and was alleviated 

for a little, it immediately relapsed again; he used much and improper 

food; sleep bad; about the time of the relapse he was delirious; passed 

thick urine at that time, but troubled, and of bad characters; bowels 

at first confined, and again loose; slight fevers of a continual type; 

discharges copious and thin. On the hundred and twentieth day he died. 

In this patient the bowels were constantly from the first either loose, 

with bilious, liquid, and copious dejections, or constipated with 

hot and undigested faeces; the urine throughout bad; for the most 

part coma, or insomnolency with pain; continued aversion to food. 

Ardent fever. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that the weakness produced 
by the fever, the phrenitis, and affection of the hypochondrium caused 
death on the hundred and twentieth day. 

Case i. In Thasus, the woman who lodged near the Cold Water, on the 

third day after delivery of a daughter, the lochial discharge not 

taking place, was seized with acute fever, accompanied with rigors. 

But a considerable time before delivery she was feverish, confined 

to bed, and loathed her food. After the rigor which took place, continual 

and acute fevers, with rigors. On the eighth and following days, was 

very incoherent, and immediately afterwards became collected; bowels 

disordered, with copious, thin, watery, and bilious stools; no thirst. 

On the eleventh was collected, but disposed to coma; urine copious, 

thin, and black; no sleep. On the twentieth, slight chills, and immediately 

afterwards was warm; slight incoherence; no sleep; with regard to 

the bowels, in the same condition; urine watery, and copious. On the 

twenty-seventh, free from fever; bowels constipated; not long afterwards 

violent pain of the right hip-joint for a considerable time; fevers 

afterwards supervened; urine watery. On the fortieth, complaints about 

the hip-joint better; continued coughs, with copious, watery sputa; 

bowels constipated; aversion to food; urine the same; fever not leaving 

her entirely, but having paroxysms in an irregular form, sometimes 

present, sometimes not. On the sixtieth, the coughs left her without 

a crisis, for no concoction of the sputa took place, nor any of the 

usual abscesses; jaw on the right side convulsively retracted; comatose, 

was again incoherent, and immediately became collected; utter aversion 

to food; the jaw became relaxed; alvine discharges small, and bilious; 

fever more acute, affected with rigors; on the following days lost 

her speech, and again became collected, and talked. On the eightieth 

she died. In this case the urine throughout was black, thin, and watery; 

coma supervened; there was aversion to food, aversion to food, despondency, 

and insomnolency; irritability, restlessness; she was of a melancholic 

turn of mind. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that the suppression 
of the lochial discharge caused death on the day. 

Case ii. In Thasus, Pythion, who was lodged above the Temple of Hercules, 
from labor, fatigue, and neglected diet, was seized with strong rigor 
and acute fever; tongue dry, thirsty, and bilious; had no sleep; urine 
darkish, eneorema floating on the top of the urine, did not subside. 
On the second day, about noon, coldness of the extremities, especially 
about the hands and head; loss of speech and of articulation; breathing 
short for a considerable time; recovered his heat; thirst; passed 
the night quietly; slight sweats about the head. On the third, passed 
the day in a composed state; in the evening, about sunset, slight 



chills; nausea, agitation; passed the night in a painful state; had 

no sleep; small stools of compact faeces passed from the bowels. On 

the fourth, in the morning, composed; about noon all the symptoms 

became exacerbated; coldness, loss of speech, and of articulation; 

became worse; recovered his heat after a time; passed black urine, 

having substances floating in it; the night quiet; slept. On the fifth, 

seemed to be lightened, but a painful weight about the belly; thirsty, 

passed the night in a painful state. On the sixth, in the morning, 

in a quiet state; in the evening the pains greater; had a paroxysm; 

in the evening the bowels properly opened by a small clyster; slept 

at night. On the seventh, during the day, in a state of nausea, somewhat 

disturbed; passed urine of the appearance of oil; at night, much agitation, 

was incoherent, did not sleep. On the eighth, in the morning, slept 

a little; but immediately coldness, loss of speech, respiration small 

and weak; but in the evening recovered his heat again; was delirious, 

but towards day was somewhat lightened; stools small, bilious, and 

unmixed. On the ninth, affected with coma, and with nausea when roused; 

not very thirsty; about sunset he became restless and incoherent; 

passed a bad night. On the tenth, in the morning, had become speechless; 

great coldness; acute fever; much perspiration; he died. His sufferings 

were on the even days. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that the excessive sweats 
caused death on the tenth day. 

Case v. The patient affected with phrenitis, having taken to bed on 
the first day, vomited largely of verdigris-green and thin matters; 
fever, accompanied with rigors, copious and continued sweats all over; 
heaviness of the head and neck, with pain; urine thin, substances 
floating in the urine small, scattered, did not subside; had copious 
dejections from the bowels; very delirious; no sleep. On the second, 
in the morning, loss of speech; acute fever; he sweated, fever did 
not leave him; palpitations over the whole body, at night, convulsions. 
On the third, all the symptoms exacerbated; he died. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that the sweats and 
convulsions caused death. 

Case V. In Larissa, a man, who was bald, suddenly was seized with 
pain in the right thigh; none of the things which were administered 
did him any good. On the first day, fever acute, of the ardent type, 
not agitated, but the pains persisted. On the second, the pains in 
the thigh abated, but the fever increased; somewhat tossed about; 
did not sleep; extremities cold; passed a large quantity of urine, 
not of a good character. On the third, the pain of the thigh ceased; 
derangement of the intellect, confusion, and much tossing about. On 
the fourth, about noon, he died. An acute disease. 

Case i. In Abdera, Pericles was seized with a fever of the acute, 
continual type, with pain; much thirst, nausea, could not retain his 
drink; somewhat swelled about the spleen, with heaviness of the head. 
On the first day, had hemorrhage from the left nostril, but still 
the fever became more violent; passed much muddy, white urine, which 
when allowed to stand did not subside. On the second day, all the 
symptoms were exacerbated, yet the urine was thick, and more inclined 
to have a sediment; the nausea less; he slept. On the third, fever 
was milder; abundance of urine, which was concocted, and had a copious 
sediment; passed a quiet night. On the fourth, had a copious and warm 
sweat all over about noon; was free of fever, had a crisis, no relapse. 
An acute affection. 

Case ii. In Abdera, the young woman who was lodged in the Sacred Walk 
was seized with an ardent fever. She was thirsty, and could not sleep; 
had menstruation for the first time. On the sixth, much nausea, flushing, 



was chilly, and tossed about. On the seventh, in the same state; urine 

thin, but of a good color; no disturbance about the bowels. On the 

eighth, deafness, acute fever, insomnolency, nausea, rigors, became 

collected; urine the same. On the ninth, in the same state, and also 

on the following days; thus the deafness persisted. On the fourteenth, 

disorder of the intellect; the fever abated. On the seventeenth, a 

copious hemorrhage from the nose; the deafness slightly better; and 

on the following days, nausea, deafness, and incoherence. On the twentieth, 

pain of the feet; deafness and delirium left her; a small hemorrhage 

from the nose; sweat, apyrexia. On the twenty-fourth, the fever returned, 

deafness again; pain of the feet remained; incoherence. On the twenty-seventh, 

had a copious sweat, apyrexia; the deafness left her; the pain of 

her feet partly remained; in other respects had a complete crisis. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that the restoration 
of health on the twentieth day was the result of the evacuation of 
urine . 

Case iii. In Abdera, Anaxion, who was lodged near the with Thracian 

Gates, was seized with an acute fever; pain of the right dry cough, 

without expectoration during the first days, thirst, insomnolency; 

urine well colored, copious, and thin. On the sixth, delirious; no 

relief from the warm applications. On the seventh, in a painful state, 

for the fever while the pains did not abate, and the cough was troublesome, 

and attended with dyspnoea. On the eighth, I opened a vein at the 

elbow, and much blood, of a proper character, flowed; the pains were 

abated, but the dry coughs continued. On the eleventh, the fever diminished; 

slight sweats about the head; coughs, with more liquid sputa; he was 

relieved. On the twentieth, sweat, apyrexia; but after the crisis 

he was thirsty, and the expectorations were not good. On the twenty-seventh 

the fever relapsed; he coughed, and brought up much concocted sputa: 

sediment in the urine copious and white; he became free of thirst, 

and the respiration was good. On the thirty-fourth, sweated all over, 

apyrexia general crisis. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that the evacuation 
of the sputa brought about the recovery on the thirty-fourth day. 

Case x. In Abdera, Heropythus, while still on foot, had pain in the 

head, and not long afterwards he took to bed; he lived near the High 

Street. Was seized with acute fever of the ardent type; vomitings 

at first of much bilious matter; thirst; great restlessness; urine 

thin, black, substances sometimes floating high in it, and sometimes 

not; passed the night in a painful state; paroxysms of the fever diversified, 

and for the most part irregular. About the fourteenth day, deafness; 

the fever increased; urine the same. On the twentieth and following 

days, much delirium. On the thirtieth, copious hemorrhage from the 

nose, and became more collected; deafness continued, but less; the 

fever diminished; on the following days, frequent hemorrhages, at 

short intervals. About the sixtieth, the hemorrhages ceased, but violent 

pain of the hip-joint, and increase of fever. Not long afterwards, 

pains of all the inferior rule, that either the fever and deafness 

increased, or, pains of the inferior parts were increased. About the 

eightieth day, all the complaints gave way, without leaving any behind; 

for the urine was of a good color, and had a copious sediment, while 

the delirium became less. About the hundredth day, disorder of the 

bowels, with copious and bilious evacuations, and these continued 

for a considerable time, and again assumed the dysenteric form with 

pain; but relief of all the other complaints. On the whole, the fevers 

went off, and the deafness ceased. On the hundred and twentieth day, 

had a complete crisis. Ardent fever. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that the bilious discharge 
brought about the recovery on the hundred and twentieth day. 



Case X. In Abdera, Nicodemus was seized with fever from venery and 
drinking. At the commencement he was troubled with nausea and cardialgia; 
thirsty, tongue was parched; urine thin and dark. On the second day, 
the fever exacerbated; he was troubled with rigors and nausea; had 
no sleep; vomited yellow bile; urine the same; passed a quiet night, 
and slept. On the third, a general remission; amelioration; but about 
sunset felt again somewhat uncomfortable; passed an uneasy night. 
On the fourth, rigor, much fever, general pains; urine thin, with 
substances floating in it; again a quiet night. On the fifth, all 
the symptoms remained, but there was an amelioration. On the sixth, 
some general pains; substances floating in the urine; very incoherent. 
On the seventh, better. On the eighth, all the other symptoms abated. 
On the tenth, and following days, there were pains, but all less; 
in this case throughout, the paroxysms and pains were greater on the 
even days. On the twentieth, the urine white and thick, but when allowed 
to stand had no sediment; much sweat; seemed to be free from fever; 
but again in the evening he became hot, with the same pains, rigor, 
thirst, slightly incoherent. On the twenty-fourth, urine copious, 
white, with an abundant sediment; a copious and warm sweat all over; 
apyrexia; the fever came to its crisis. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that the cure was owing 
to the bilious evacuations and the sweats. 

Case i. In Thasus, a woman, of a melancholic turn of mind, from some 
accidental cause of sorrow, while still going about, became affected 
with loss of sleep, aversion to food, and had thirst and nausea. She 
lived near the Pylates, upon the Plain. On the first, at the commencement 
of night, frights, much talking, despondency, slight fever; in the 
morning, frequent spasms, and when they ceased, she was incoherent 
and talked obscurely; pains frequent, great and continued. On the 
second, in the same state; had no sleep; fever more acute. On the 
third, the spasms left her; but coma, and disposition to sleep, and 
again awaked, started up, and could not contain herself; much incoherence; 
acute fever; on that night a copious sweat all over; apyrexia, slept, 
quite collected; had a crisis. About the third day, the urine black, 
thin, substances floating in it generally round, did not fall to the 
bottom; about the crisis a copious menstruation. 

Case ii. In Larissa, a young unmarried woman was seized with a fever 
of the acute and ardent type; insomnolency, thirst; tongue sooty and 
dry; urine of a good color, but thin. On the second, in an uneasy 
state, did not sleep. On the third, alvine discharges copious, watery, 
and greenish, and on the following days passed such with relief. On 
the fourth, passed a small quantity of thin urine, having substances 
floating towards its surface, which did not subside; was delirious 
towards night. On the sixth, a great hemorrhage from the nose; a chill, 
with a copious and hot sweat all over; apyrexia, had a crisis. In 
the fever, and when it had passed the crisis, the menses took place 
for the first time, for she was a young woman. Throughout she was 
oppressed with nausea, and rigors; redness of the face; pain of the 
eyes; heaviness of the head; she had no relapse, but the fever came 
to a crisis. The pains were on the even days. 

Case iii. Apollonius, in Abdera, bore up (under the fever?) for some 
time, without betaking himself to bed. His viscera were enlarged, 
and for a considerable time there was a constant pain about the liver, 
and then he became affected with jaundice; he was flatulent, and of 
a whitish complexion. Having eaten beef, and drunk unseasonably, he 
became a little heated at first, and betook himself to bed, and having 
used large quantities of milk, that of goats and sheep, and both boiled 
and raw, with a bad diet otherwise, great mischief was occasioned 
by all these things; for the fever was exacerbated, and of the food 



taken scarcely any portion worth mentioning was passed from the bowels; 

the urine was thin and scanty; no sleep; troublesome meteorism; much 

thirst; disposition to coma; painful swelling of the right hypochondrium; 

extremities altogether coldish; slight incoherence, f orgetf ulness 

of everything he said; he was beside himself. About the fourteenth 

day after he betook himself to bed, had a rigor, became heated, and 

was seized with furious delirium; loud cries, much talking, again 

composed, and then coma came on; afterwards the bowels disordered, 

with copious, bilious, unmixed, and undigested stools; urine black, 

scanty, and thin; much restlessness; alvine evacuations of varied 

characters, either black, scanty, and verdigrisgreen, or fatty, undigested, 

and acrid; and at times the dejections resembled milk. About the twenty-fourth, 

enjoyed a calm; other matters in the same state; became somewhat collected; 

remembered nothing that had happened since he was confined to bed; 

immediately afterwards became delirious; every symptom rapidly getting 

worn. About the thirtieth, acute fever; stools copious and thin; was 

delirious; extremities cold; loss of speech. On the thirty-fourth 

he died. In this case, as far as I saw, the bowels were disordered; 

urine thin and black; disposition to coma; insomnolency; extremities 

cold; delirious throughout. Phrenitis. 

Case iv. In Cyzicus, a woman who had brought forth twin daughters, 

after a difficult labor, and in whom the lochial discharge was insufficient, 

at first was seized with an acute fever, attended with chills; heaviness 

of the head and neck, with pain; insomnolency from the commencement; 

she was silent, sullen, and disobedient; urine thin, and devoid of 

color; thirst, nausea for the most part; bowels irregularly disordered, 

and again constipated. On the sixth, towards night, talked much incoherently; 

had no sleep. About the eleventh day was seized with wild delirium, 

and again became collected; urine black, thin, and again deficient, 

and of an oily appearance; copious, thin, and disordered evacuations 

from the bowels. On the fourteenth, frequent convulsions ; extremities 

cold; not in anywise collected; suppression of urine. On the sixteenth 

loss of speech. On the seventeenth, she died. Phrenitis. 

Explanation of the characters. It is probable that death was caused, 
on the seventeenth day, by the affection of the brain consequent upon 
her accouchement. 

Case v. In Thasus, the wife of Dealces, who was lodged upon the Plain, 

from sorrow was seized with an acute fever, attended with chills. 

From first to last she wrapped herself up in her bedclothes; still 

silent, she fumbled, picked, bored, and gathered hairs (from them); 

tears, and again laughter; no sleep; bowels irritable, but passed 

nothing; when directed, drank a little; urine thin and scanty; to 

the touch of the hand the fever was slight; coldness of the extremities. 

On the ninth, talked much incoherently, and again became composed 

and silent. On the fourteenth, breathing rare, large, at intervals; 

and again hurried respiration. On the sixteenth, looseness of the 

bowels from a stimulant clyster; afterwards she passed her drink, 

nor could retain anything, for she was completely insensible; skin 

parched and tense. On the twentieth, much talk, and again became composed; 

loss of speech; respiration hurried. On the twenty-first she died. 

Her respiration throughout was rare and large; she was totally insensible; 

always wrapped up in her bedclothes; either much talk, or completely 

silent throughout. Phrenitis. 

Case vi . In Meliboea, a young man having become heated by drinking 
and much venery, was confined to bed; he was affected with rigors 
and nausea; insomnolency and absence of thirst. On the first day much 
faeces passed from the bowels along with a copious flux; and on the 
following days he passed many watery stools of a green color; urine 
thin, scanty, and deficient in color; respiration rare, large, at 
long intervals; softish distention of the hypochondrium, of an oblong 



form, on both sides; continued palpitation in the epigastric region 
throughout; passed urine of an oily appearance. On the tenth, he had 
calm delirium, for he was naturally of an orderly and quiet disposition; 
skin parched and tense; dejections either copious and thin, or bilious 
and fatty. On the fourteenth, all the symptoms were exacerbated; he 
became delirious, and talked much incoherently. On the twentieth, 
wild delirium, On the twentieth, wild delirium, jactitation, passed 
no urine; small drinks were retained. On the twenty-fourth he died. 
Phrenitis . 

THE END