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SEPTEMBER 14, 1960 

Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




IB0938' WASHINGTON : 1960 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 

MORGAN 51. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 




EiiAXK S. Tavenner, Jr., Director 



Synopsis 1903 

Testimony of — 

September 14, 1960 : 

Captain Nikolai Fedorovich Artamonov 1907 

Index i 


Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 
Stat. 812, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United Slates 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 


Rule X 

****** i^ 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Tlie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a wTioIe or by subcommit- 
tee, is autliorized to m.akc from time to time investigations of (i) ttie extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United Stat-es, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
ren:edial legislation. 

The Comm.ittee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of sucl^ books, papers, and docum.ent*!, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
m-ember designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 


Rule XII 


Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Governnieut. 



House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

* * * >K « * • 

Rule X 


1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 

^ I" H* ^P ^F ^F ^r 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
^f ***** * 

Rule XI 


* * * * * Hf it: 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities, 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-Am.erican Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
mem.ber designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

* * * * * ill ill 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 


America's historic mission, sometimes lost sight of in the fast pace 
and distance of the modern world, we can again recall with pride in 
the story of Captain Nikolai Fedorovich Artamonov, former Soviet 
Naval Officer, which is briefl}^ told in the pages of this hearing. That 
mission — the haven of a free land — the receiving of oppressed and 
suffocated spirits from alien soil, is one of the most significant facts 
of our past. The calendar date is different, and the oppression today 
referred to possesses a refinement absent from primitive prototypes, 
but the stinking essence is the same. 

And the cold ambition for world domination, so meaningless and 
yet so recurrent from Genghis Khan to Hitler to Khrushchev, is again 
reflected in Soviet preparation of their youth and their military. 
Captain Artamonov reminds us of this. 

We see further, not only the ordering of physical power, designed 
by Soviet Russia for the conquest of the world, but the preparation 
and employment on a massive scale for conquest by semantics^by 
words and ideas, corrupted, distorted, and perverted from their natural 
meaning and purpose. The strange mixture of fact and fiction, con- 
clusions without established premise, variations upon theme, all mixed 
into a cabalistic jargon of Communist dialectic, leads us to conclude 
that the originators and purveyors thereof are afflicted with a disorder 
of the mind and soul. This underworld of half-truth and intellectual 
fantasy has conditioned the Communist mind like Pavlov's dog. 

But all this contains the seeds of its own destruction. Communism 
cannot survive the light of truth or prolonged inquiry. The intelligent 
mind upon which these arts are practiced will in time rebel as maturity 
is reached. That is also the teaching of Captain Artamonov, for this 
brilliant naval officer fought his way to the truth, and then put those 
false theories and the country of their habitation behind him. 

However, the issue is a deadly one. The Communist evil is capable 

of greater evil, before it will be abandoned by sane people. This is 

also the story of Captain Artamonov as he tells us of Soviet plans 

for surprise attack and total destruction. Essentially, his message 

is one of enlightenment and warning. May we understand, we who 

have ears to hear. 



(Former Soviet Naval Officer) 


United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 


A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 2 :30 p.m., in the Caucus Room, Old House Office 
J3uilcling, Washington, D.C, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Francis E, Walter, 
of Pennsylvania; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and August E. 
Johansen, of Michigan. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., director; Alfred 
M. Nittle, counsel; and Donald T. Appell, investigator. 

The Chairman. We will come to order. 

Call your witness, please, Mr. Tavenner. Have him raise his hand, 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes, I do. 

The Chairman. Will the interpreter, Mr. Alexis Schidlovsky, 
please rise and be sworn ? 

Mr. Schidlovsky, do you swear that you will well and truly interpret 
the questions and answers, so help j^ou God ? 

Mr. Schidlovsky. I do. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Pursuant to law and the rules of this committee, I have appointed 
a subcommittee for the purpose of conducting this hearing, composed 
of Representatives William M. Tuck, of Virginia ; August E, Johan- 
sen, of Michigan; and myself, Francis E. Walter, of Pennsylvania, as 

This hearing today is conducted in response to the duties imposed 
upon us by the Congress of the United States, to make a continuing 
study of Communist activities. This is a necessary and vital area of 
inquiry, for the onslaught of the enemies of freedom grows more vocal 
and impressive in all parts of the world with each passing day. We 
must be informed if we are to cope effectively with the aggressive 
falsehoods of Communist propaganda. Only the truth shall make 
and keep us free. 

60938° — 60 2 1905 


It is not always easy to penetrate Communist double-talk. Mr. 
Khrushchev will quote the scriptures of democracy with the hypocrisy 
of the Devil. He has sowed the fiction of class struggle, so that he 
may reap the personal privilege of class power. He will continue to 
paint a falsely glowing picture of his Communist paradise, but he will 
not let in the light of the western free world to reveal its shabbiness, 
its shame, and the miserable view of tortured souls who are made to 
kneel in worship to the Baal of materialism. 

The proclaimed lust of the Communist dictatorship for power and 
world domination, plainly set forth in their theoretical writings and 
confirmed by their conduct, brings us to the threshold of tlie Dark 
Ages. Their admitted policy of imposition, whether by force or 
deceit, of the atheistic and inhuman views of the few on the many, is 
a shockhig fact of this supposedly civilized day. It is inconceivable 
that all this is taking place in the twentieth century. 

The reasonable defensive efforts of the free world are brazenly 
vilified and misrepresented, a great and calculated noise is raised by 
the Connnunist "cheerleaders," in their effort to quiet our voices and 
to camouflage their plamied aggressions. Tlie Communist use of the 
Big Lie is reminiscent of its adoption by another dictator, the late 
and unlamented Hitler. 

In this hearing today we seek to inform ourselves in mattei-s basic 
to the fulfillment of our duties, which is essential to effective leg- 
islation in this field and for the defense of the country. I miglit also 
add, in this area of informing itself, the Congi-ess is also exercising 
its right of free speech, which belongs to all people here under our 
Constitution and is a necessity even in the legislative process. 

The committee takes pleasure in having here today former Soviet 
Navy Captain third rank, Nikolai Fedorovich Artamonov. Captain 
Artamonov is 32 years old and a native of Leningrad. He served in 
the Soviet Navy from 19-11 until June, 1959, and established a distm- 
guished record. 

Captain Artamonov was given command of a Soviet Red Banner 
Baltic fleet destroyer in September, 1955, v^'liich command he retained 
until he made his way to the West. 

Captain Artamonov has on a number of occasions been singled out 
for special attention and commendation in the Soviet press. Articles 
concerning liim liave appeared in the Soviet Ministry of Defense news- 
paper "Red Star" and the newspaper "Soviet Navy," in wliich he has 
been cited for such things as outstanding performance and leadership, 
for having achieved a very higli degree of competence in antisubma- 
rine training, proficiency for propagandizing party decisions among 
his officers and men, and his destroyer having been chosen as one of 
two Soviet destroyers to pay an oflicial visit to Copenhagen. "We did 
not learn this from Captain Artamonov, but the committee has copies 
of these newspapers with the articles about him. Under the Soviet 
system these articles can be considered as a great tribute to him. 

Captain Artamonov was at Gd^-nia, Poland, training Indonesians 
in the operations of his destroyer from September 1958 until June, 
1959, at which time he escaped to the AVest. 

Listening to this young man's statements about the Soviet military 
and political intentions, strategy, capabilities, Soviet espionage, and 
the present lot of the Soviet citizen, we were reminded again of tlie^ 


arrfrressive and deceitful threat to world peace the Soviet Union repre- 
sents. We believe that Captain Artamonov must speak for himself 
in bringing these points home to the Congress of the United States 
and the American people and to those in the free world and behind 
the Iron Curtain who are willino^ and able to listen. 

Before proceeding I would like to announce the witness has been 
previously examined in executive session. Because of securitv re- 
quirements much of the testimony cannot be dealt with at this hear- 
ing, but there are certain areas of information that we deem of public 
interest and concern and of importance to our study. 

(The order of appointment of the subcommittee follows :) 

September 13, 1960 
To : ilr. Frank S. Tavenner. 

House Committee on Un-American Activities. 
Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the rules of this Committee, I here- 
by appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consist- 
ing of Representatives William M. Tuck, and August E. Johansen, as associate 
members, and myself. Francis E. Walter, as Chairman, to conduct a hearing in 
Washington, D.C., Wednesday, September 14, 1960, at 2:30 p.m., on subjects 
under investigation by the Committee and take such testimony on said day or 
succeeding days, as it may deem necessary. 
Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 
If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 
Given under my hand this 13th day of September 1960. 

[S] Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities 


The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr, Nittle. Mr. Chairman, may I announce that, due to the wit- 
ness' limited knowledge of the English language, his testimony will 
be largely given through an interpreter whom you have already 

Will you state your full name and age, j^lease ? 

Captain Artamonov. Nikolai Fedorovich Artamonov. 

Mr. Nittle. How old are you ? 

Captain Artamonov. Thirty-two. 

Mr. Nittle. I understand that you are a citizen of Soviet Russia; 
is that correct? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes ; correct. 

Mr. Nittle. At the outset, Captain, we should inquire whether 
your presence here today before this committee of the Congress and 
the statements you propose to give are purely voluntary and given 
without force, coercion, or pressure of any kind ? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes. 

Mr. ScHiDLOvsKT. Yes ; he does, 

Mr. Nittle, Are you now at this time a member of the Communist 
Party or a believer in the Communist ideology ? 

Captain Artamonov. No. 

Mr. Nittle. Where were you born ? 

Captain Artamonov. In Leningrad. 

Mr. Nittle. How long did you live in Leningrad ? 


Captain Aetamoxov. Practically all my life except being in the 
Soviet Navy. 

Mr. NiTTLB. Are your parents living ? 

Captain Artamonov. No ; they have died. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. "^Vhen did your father die? 

Captain Artamonov. In 1958. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. When did your mother die ? 

Captain Artamonov. In 1956. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have any brothers or sisters ? 

Captain Artamonov. No ; I have not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat was your last occupation in Russia ? 

Captain Artamonov. I was a Naval officer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What rank did you last hold in the Soviet Navy ? 

Captain Artamonov. Captain, third rank. 

Mr. NiTFLE. Have you severed all connection with the Soviet Navy 
and Soviet life? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you sought asylum in the United States ? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been granted asylum in the United States? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Captain, we would like to trace briefly the 
history of your life and education. "\^'Tiat year were you born in 
Leningrad ? 

Captain Artamonov. In 1928. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat elementary schooling did you have and when did 
it commence ? 

Captain Artamonov. I had 7 years of school in Leningrad from 
1934 to 1941. Then I entered a special naval school where I com- 
pleted my intennediate education. 

From 1945 to 1949, I studied at the Frunze Higher Naval School 
and from the fall of 1955 to the fall of 1956, 1 attended special courees 
for destroyer commanders. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you come to the United States ? 

Captain Artamonov. Last year. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Captain, I believe you have prepared for this com- 
mittee a written statement in Russian which has be^n translated and 
which you desire to give ? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes, I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you give that statement to the interpreter to be 

(Captain Artamonov's statement, as read by his interpreter, Alexis 
Schidlovsky, follows :) 

In front of you is a man who was born and educated in the 
Soviet Union and who lived there for more than 30 years. 
My entire life has been the life of a true Soviet citizen from 
an ordinary Soviet family. 

Since my graduation from the 7-year school in 1941, my life 
has been closely connected with the Soviet Navy. During 
World War II, from 1941 to 1945, 1 attended a Special Sec- 
ondary Naval School, and from 1945 to 1949, I studied in 
the Higher Naval School. After receiving my commission 
I served as a naval officer for 10 years — starting as a watch 


officer, then advancing to the rank of commander of a conil)at 
unit, and finally reached the rank of connnander of a de- 

As for political background, as a child I belonged to the 
"Pioneers ; then in my teens I became a member of the 
Young Communist League — the Komsomol. I eventually 
reached the status of candidate for Communist Party mem- 
bership, and for my last 10 yeai^ in the Soviet Union I was a 
party member. To use Soviet political-agitation language — 
I was a "one hundred per cent Soviet citizen of the new gen- 
eration," unmarred by "capitalist birthmarks," uncorrupted 
by "depraved bourgeois imperialist ideology," and not 
"bought by capitalist money." 

I did not come to the United States because of any connec- 
tions with foreign intelligence — for I had none; nor did I 
make this move because of threats of repercussions for some- 
thing I had done — for there Avere none. On the contrary, I 
was given favored treatment by the Soviet authorities and 
had a bright future ahead of me — having been publicly 
described as one of the brilliant young career officers of the 
Soviet Navy. My defection was also not prompted by the 
prospect of greater material gain or security or an easy life, 
for I gave up what promised to be a successful career in the 
Soviet Union to come here. 

In a very true sense, I am here because of the Kremlin's 
policies. To make this clear, let me describe how my attitude 
toward the Soviet Government developed over the course of 
my life. As a child, I was taught to be ever vigilant, that 
enemies were all about ; if necessary, I should denounce even 
my own father. I witnessed arrests and noted that people 
whom I had known disappeared into the torture chambers 
of the NKVD, but in my immaturity I was pleased that our 
motherland was being made more powerful through this 
crushing of the "enemies of the people." 

Early in World War II, I felt the strong national pride 
of all Soviets, at times mixed with bitterness for our suffer- 
ing. In spite of the hard times caused by the blockade of 
Leningrad and our evacuation from the city, I never once 
doubted the policies of Stalin and our government. My 
friends and I were prepared to do anything for our mother- 
land and our leader. Like any other Soviet citizen, I wel- 
comed our victory with joy and hope for the future. 

But in the Higher Naval School, which I entered just at 
the time of our victory, I began to have my first doubts — as I 
began my courses in "Marxism-Leninism" and political eco- 
nomics. I saw that the Soviet system was constructed with- 
out valid foundations and that there was a great breach 
between the theory of Soviet communism and its practice 
as we saw it every day. Still, as a loyal Soviet I sought to 
justify things by lame analyses of the country's current 


Many other questions were born as a result of my cruises 
abroad, but Soviet propa^janda and political education man- 
a<^ed to quiet tliem, to the point that I often acted as defender 
of party policies in arguments with my father and friends. 

As the years passed my views matured, more questions 
arose, and with them the gradual feeling that my govern- 
ment's policies were wrong. But when I raised questions as 
to why, the usual propaganda answer was : "for the people" 
or "for a brighter future." 

However, after Stalin's death and Beria's trial, and espe- 
cially after the 20th Congress, in the so-called "thaw" period 
when people began to exchange more or less frank ideas, 
answers to many questions became clear in my mind. These 
answers were far removed from the explanations given by the 
Soviet propaganda administration. 

Events in 1956 — especially the revolution in Hungary and 
the unrest in Poland — finally gave rise to the conviction that 
the government's foreign policy statements were untrue. 
They showed the aggressive character of that policy. All 
this was somewhat covered up by conditions inside the coun- 
try, when it appeared that Ivhiiishchev was making an effort 
at bringing the countiy to a normal state, normalizing and 
improving the relationsliip between the government and the 
people and trying to introduce democratic measures and, to 
a certain degree, bring to life the existing constitution. 

But 1957 passed and my illusions about internal policies 
and Khrushchev's pereonality were shattered when Khru- 
shchev praised Marshal Zhukov as a war hero and in 3 
months' time fired him. 

I asked myself: Do the internal and especially the external 
policies conform with the interests of my people? The an- 
swer was : No I 

The Russian people have no use for all this. The Russian 
people are gifted and industrious, mighty and strong. They 
are not interested in wasting their energies and talents by 
solemnizing the dictators of the Kremlin or enslaving other 
nationalities for the sake of the very same dictator. They 
are not interested in surrounding themselves with bereave- 
ment and tribulation for a concept which is profoundly 
antidemocratic and which is bringing misery to them and 
others ; the concept in Avhich no one, especially the leaders of 
the party themselves, believes. 

The question arose — where is my place, what am I to do? 
Should I pursue the "brilliant" career promised me as a naval 
officer ? 

Should I keep on saying things which I myself do not be- 
lieve to be true, things which I know are absolute lies? 

Should I keep on spreading ideologies which I do not share, 
whicli I detest ? 

Should I keep on helping the Kremlin to accumulate more 
and more power, to deceive my people, to dominate my peo- 
ple: and help the Kremlin to perpetrate crimes on an inter- 
national scale? 



But I was an officer; woulclu't I be betraying my own peo- 
ple by running away from them ? 

No. I shall never betray my people and I shall never 
forsake them — I was, I am, and I shall always remain, a 
Russian — but not a Soviet Russian, not a toy in the hands 
of Khrushchev and the company in the Kremlin. 

And now I Avould like to make one comment which I think 
is particularly important. 

Monday, Khrushchev arrives in the United States. He 
says he is going to talk about disarmament. I feel obliged 
to point out from the information which was available 
to me as a Soviet officer and Communist Party member 
that Soviet military strategy is inconsistent with Khru- 
shchev's pronouncements on disarmament. Since February 
1955, Soviet strategy has been based on the doctrine of sur- 
prise attack in nuclear warfare. This doctrine was estab- 
lished in a Soviet military publication wliich is known only 
to officers of Flag rank and above. Several times over the 
past 4 years, it has been said again and it has never been 

This concept was obviously intended to prepare the Soviet 
officers for the starting of such a war by the Soviet Union. 
It was designed as an excuse to be presented to the Soviet 
officers that such an aggression was necessary. No senior 
Soviet officer believes that the United States will attack first. 

I believe that the Soviet dictatorship would undertake a 
surprise attack if she felt that she could win in one stroke. 
Make no mistake — they are power seekers, not political ideal- 
ists. Khrushchev does not wish to wait indefinitely for the 
United States to become a socialist state by evolution ; more- 
over he does not believe this will happen. He would like to 
see it take place in his lifetime. 

In the past months I have tried to draw upon my own 
knowledge and experience to help the West meet the threats 
of the Soviet Government. 

I thank you for the opportunity to be here this afternoon. 
I shall now try to answer whatever questions you may wish 
to ask me. 

Thank you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Captain, I understand that your elementary 
training consisted of the first seven grades of school. 

At the time you attended the elementary school, where were you 
then living ? 

Captain Artamonov. I lived in Leningrad. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you living with your parents there at that time? 

Captain Artamoxov. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the occupation of your father? 

Captain Artamonov. He was a diesel mechanic. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I note in your statement that you have just rendered 
that, as a child, you were taught to be very vigilant and that, if neces- 
sary, you should denounce your own father. 

By whom were you taught that ? 


Captain Artamonov. Actually I was not told pointblank to be 
viffilant or to Avatcli my father, but the whole atmosphere prevailing 
at that time was such as to make people be very watchful, if you par- 
ticularly recall the case of the little boy called Pavel Morozov who 
denounced his father to the Soviet authorities and was considered a 
hero for doing that. 

I repeat actually it was an entire system of education which re- 
quired me to be vigilant. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this idea to denounce your father, if necessary, 
taught in the elementary schools which you attended? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes, I did learn it in school. 

INIr. NiTTLE. In the state of your training at that time, educational 
and moral in the Soviet Union, did this thought that you should 
denounce your own father appear to you at all unnatural or repulsive? 

Captain Artamonov. No, I did not consider such thoughts as re- 
pulsive or unnatural. On the contrary, as I said before, the whole 
system of education in the Soviet Union was such as to encourage such 
acts, and they were actually considered as acts of a hero and they were 
worthy of praise. 

Mr. NiTTLE. After finishing elementary school, I understand that 
you entered the special naval school. How were you selected for this 
preliminary naval training in the Soviet Navy ? 

Captain Artamoxov. I enlisted voluntarily. I was always hoping 
and wishing to become a naval officer and it was one of my fondest 
dreams in childhood to become a naval officer. 

Mr. Ntttle. Where was the special naval school located? 

Captain Artamonov. The special naval school was located in Len- 
ingrad on Vasilevsky Island. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what rank or grade did you finish the special naval 
school ? 

Captain Artamonov. There was no particular rank. This was a 
secondary school, and a graduate was then ready to go to an officer 
scliool or what would be the equivalent of the Naval Academy. 

The special school covered an entire course of general secondary 
education approximately the same as the one given in American high 

Mr. N1TT1.E, After spending 4 years at the Special Secondary 
Naval School, I understand from your statement that you then en- 
tered the Higher Naval School. 

Would you describe that? 

Captain Artamonov. Depending upon the inclinations or talents of 
the graduates of these S])ecial schools, the students were then allowed 
to register in any higher educational school; of course, naval schools. 

There was an entire system of privileges actually granted to such 
students depending upon their inclinations, their talents, and their 
best ability, the best of their abilities. 

Mr. Nirn.E. Did you have any special distinction while attending 
the S{)ocial Secondary Naval School that warranted your attendance 
at the liiglier Naval Scliool ? 

Captain Artamonov. First I received, I was awarded a document 
called a certificate of maturity and then, because of my progress in 
school, 1 was able to eii(or the Frunze Higher Naval School. 


]yir. NiTTLE. What academic standing did you occupy in the lower 
Secondary Naval School? 

('aptain Artamonov.: I was actually assistant to the commander, 
and actually a sergeant major; I would say actually a petty ofiicer. 

jSIr. XiTi'LE. While at the Higher Naval School, were you given any 
political indoctrination as a course of study ? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes. I had a special 2-year course in Marx- 
ism and Leninism, then a special 2-year course in political economics, 
and also a special 1-year course involving political action within the 

Mr. NiTTLE. Upon completion of your Higher Naval School train- 
ing, did you receive a degree or rank in the naval service ? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes, I received the degree or rank of a lieu- 
tenant, and a general degree of a graduate of an institution of higher 
education, higher learning, a higher educational institution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you become in Kussia a member of the Communist 

Captain Artamonov. Yes, I was since 19-1:9. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I would like to have you briefly relate the procedure 
for 3^our induction into the Communist Party and your training in 
that respect. 

While you were attending the elementary schools, did you belong to 
any Communist youth organization in preparation for final entry into 
the Communist Party ? 

Captain Artamonov. I was a Pioneer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you briefly describe what a Pioneer is ? 

Captain Artamonov. The Pioneers are a Communist organization 
for children. According to its structure at the beginning particularly, 
the Pioneers were very closely associated with I vvould say Boy Scouts, 
but, of course, they were entirely imbued with a Marxist ideology. 

Well, you see, I could say that the younger age children among the 
Pioneers received more of a Boy Scout education. The younger re- 
ceived less, and, of course, this lesser amount of Boy Scout activities 
was replaced by a larger volume of political indoctrination and 

Mr. NiTTLE. You stated that later you became a mpml>er of the 

Will you describe that ? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes. You see, the Pionaers are actually 
more, consist mostly of younger children, low^er age children whereas 
the Komsomol is an organization for adolef-cents, youtlis of older age 
groups and, of course, they are much more seriously concerned with 
ideas aimed at forming good Communists. They are more concerned 
with political indoctrination. 

As far as the outward organization and the aims of the Komsomol 
are concerned, it does not differ in any way from the aims and the 
purposes of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTn.E. Following your membership in the Komsomol, T under- 
stand you entered the Communist Party . 

What year was that ? 

Captain Artamonov. Actually I became a full member of the Com- 
munist Party in 19-19. However, in 191:7 and 1918, 1 was a candidate 


Mr, NiTTLE. In a general way, what are the requirements for admis- 
sion to the Communist Party ? 

Captain Artamoxov. Officially speaking, the main requirements 
are to be active in Communist affairs, to know the structure and the 
status of the Communist Party, and to voluntarily acknowledge these 
main directives and purposes of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would your membership in the Communist Party en- 
title 5^ou to any special privileges or in any way expedite your climb 
up the naval ladder of success ? 

Captain Artamonov. Well, not directly. Actually, at the begin- 
ning I didn't get any particular favors or advantages but later on, of 
course, the fact that I was a Communist Part}' member helped. For 
example, I did not know a single commander of any ship in the Soviet 
Navy who was not a Communist Party member. 

Mr. XiTTLE. In the course of your political indoctrination at the 
naval school or in the Communist Party, did you ever receive any 
particular instruction on doctrine with reference to the inevitability 
of war between the Soviet Union and the United States ? 

Mr. ScHiDLOvsKY. Captain Artamonov would like to know if you 
meant that it was during the course of his studies or during the course 
of his naval service that he received such. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let us first refer to the course of his studies. 

Captain Artamonov. Well, the whole theory of Marxism and Len- 
inism is based on the inevitability of a war or actually shows that this 
war is inevitable. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the highest rank that you attained in the 
Soviet Navy ? 

Captain Artamonov. Captain, third-class. 

Mr. NiTTLE. After your graduation from the Higher Naval School, 
what was your first assignment in the Navy ? 

Captain Artamonov. I was a watch officer, commander of the com- 
bat unit of a destroyer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long were you in that assignment ? 

Captain Artamonov. Two and a half years. 

Mr. NiT'rLE. What was your next assignment and when ? 

Captain Artamonov. My next assignment was a deputy commander 
of a destroyer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you serve in that capacity ? 

Captain Artamonov. One year, 

Mr. NiTTLE. ^Vhat was your next assignment? 

Captain Artamonov. I was senior assistant to the commander of the 

Mr. NiTi'LE. How long did you serve in that capacity ? 

Captain Artamonov, A little over 2 years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. AVhat other assignments did you have, generally speak- 

Captain Artamonov. From 1954 to 1955, 1 attended the courses for 
higher commanders, courses given to high ranking officers in charge 
of destroyers. Actually, these courses were called courses for de- 
stroyer commandei-s attached to higher officer courses. 

Mr. NiTTLE. AVliile in the Navy, did you have occasion to learn or 
discuss naval procedures and operations? 

Captain Artamonov. Oh, yes. This was, of course, my duty. 


Mr. NrrrLE. Can you tell us of the activities of Soviet submarines 
or other naval vessels such as trawlers in United States waters? 

Captain Artamonov. Well, of course, the territorial waters of tlie 
United States are very small. They are short, relatively speaking, 
but naturally Soviet submarines are sailing within these waters or 
close to these waters. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what information are they seeking? 

Captain Artamonov. Well, of course, the type of information they 
seek is the usual information of interest to intelligence organizatiojis. 

You see, this type of information is not to be expected from su]> 
marines, which are more actually combat vessels. However, trawlers 
which have been mentioned are something which I can talk about. 

The information which these vessels seek is concerned with combat 
readiness or combat preparations of American naval forces; also the 
composition of the fleet, the structure of the fleet and the type of 
weapons carried by vessels ; the usual locations of patrols, either navy 
patrols or aircraft patrols. 

Of course, of great interest are American measures of antisubmarine 
defense and, naturally, the method of shipment, method of cargo 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Can you tell us whether or not these Soviet trawlers 
that are found in American coastal waters or in the Atlantic are 
fishing vessels or whether they are units of the Soviet Navy ? 

Captain Artamonov. These vessels actually, the trawlers already 
carry a load of fish when they leave their bases. 

The basic purpose is, as I mentioned, to collect information. 

Actually, these trawling vessels constitute a special section of intel- 
ligence. They are equipped with special equipment, machines and 
gadgets for collecting information. 

They have a special crew and they are actually subordinate to the 
naval intelligence, the Soviet Naval Intelligence. 

Air. NiTiLE. Do I understand you to say that they are a Naval 
Intelligence Squadron ? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes, they are designated as Intelligence Divi- 
sions or Squadrons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are the personnel who operate the trawlers actually 
members of the Soviet Navy ? 

Captain Artamonov. The personnel on these boats are actually 
members of Soviet Naval Intelligence. Actually, they constitute an 
essential part of the fleet, the Soviet fleet. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe that in connection with the subject of trawl- 
ers, you mentioned to us the son of Admiral Vasili Yakovlev. 

Could you tell us about him ? 

Captain Artamonov. Well Yuri Yakovlev, son of the Admiral, 
was a navigator on my ship. 

In 1957, he was assigned as a navigator of this intelligence squad- 
ron, and he actually took part in a number of cruises of the ships, and 
later he enrolled as a student at the Military Diplomatic Academy. 

Mr, NiTTLE. ^Yh3it position in the naval service did Admiral Yak- 
ovlev hold ? 

Captain Artamonov. Generally speaking, I can say, in recent 
years he has served as naval attache in London, Chief of Staff of the 


Baltic Fleet, and the latest information I have about him is that he 
served as Chief of the Main Intelligence Directorate, the GRU. 

Mr. Xin^LE. Would you tell us in more detail what the mission of 
these naval trawlers disguised as fishing vessels off our coasts is? 

Captain Artamonov. Their only purpose is to collect information 
to do intelligence work. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what type of intelligence information are they 
collecting with reference to specific installations ? 

Captain Artamonov. The information which I already gave earlier. 

In addition, they are interested in collecting information on testing, 
all testing matters of ships, maneuvers, training exercises, a wide scope 
of intelligence work is their objective which, of course, they, of course, 
can get. 

Mv, NiTTLE. In a prior consultation, you mentioned additional func- 
tions as allocation of various signal stations, routes followed by var- 
ious aircraft operating in the early warning systems, the frequencies 
used by radio and radar stations in the American system. 

Are these among the functions as well ? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes, of course, they do. These objectives fall 
within their range of interest. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you had any access to restricted matter dealing 
with Soviet war plans involving the possibility of unleashing a sur- 
prise attack upon the United States or the free world? 

Captain Artamonov. Actually, I did not have access to any secret 
information or directives concerning such a sudden unexpected attack 
upon the United States but, of course, I know of general broad state- 
ments which were intended to prepare the Soviet military circles, 
Soviet higher officer corps for such a possibility of unleashing a sur- 
prise attack. 

As I have already stated in my introductory statement, the Soviet 
Government is, of course, making preparations for such a possibility 
of surprise attack. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is the doctrine of surprise attack written up in any 
military document that you may have now in your possession ? 

Captain Artamonov. In 1955, Marshal Pavel Eotmistrov pub- 
lished an article which was concerned with factors of surprise. All 
officers were, of course, well aware that this article was not the result 
of Marshal Rotmistrov's own initiative, that he did not write it of his 
own free will. 

In the first place, such an article could not be published in the So- 
viet press. I mean, no Soviet commanders, no Soviet generals could 
publish such an article in the Soviet press and particularly they could 
not publish such an article in the issue which was classified, which had 
a classified nature. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Now, you do have a document here which deals with 
that subject, is that correct ? 

Captain Artamonov. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you explain whether that document is restricted 
matter or a matter of public information ? 

Captain Artamonov. This document I have, which is a journal, is 
available only to higher ranking officers including generals, admirals, 
and the officer corps of the Soviet Armed Forces. 


Mr. NiTTLE. By whom and in what language is that document 
printed ? 

Captain Artamonov. It is published by the Ministry of Defense of 
the Soviet Union and it is, of course, published in Eussian. It is a 

The publication of this journal coincided with the issuing of a num- 
ber of secret directives given by the IMinistry of Defense. 

On page 18 of the Eussian journal entitled "Voyennaya Mysl 
(Militaiy Thought,)" Marshal Eotmistrov writes the following. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Captain, would you kindly point out to the interpreter 
the particular passage that deals with the subject of surprise attack. 

M. Schidlovsky, may I suggest that the witness point out tliat 
passage to you and that you translate it for the record. 

(Marshal Eotmistrov's article translated by Mr. Schidlovsky, 

A sudden attack involving the use of atomic and hydrogen 
weapons and other modern means of warfare assumes at 
present new fonns and is capable of leading to consider- 
ably greater results than in the past war. It can be stated 
directly that under conditions in wliich atomic and hydrogen 
weapons are used the surprise is one of the decisive factors 
in achieving success not only in a battle and in operation, 
but also in the war as a whole. In some cases a sudden attack 
involving a massive use of new weapons may result in the 
rapid collapse of a state, the ability of which to resist is low 
due to inherent defects of its social and economic structure 
as well as its mifavorable geogi-apliical position. (P. 18.) 

Captain Artamonov. The countries or the governments mentioned 
in this passage whose ability to resist is low as a result of basic defects 
in its structure, of course, are meant to cover capitalist countries or 
the United States, not the Soviet Union. 

Another passage which I would like to mention is this one ; 

The duty of the Soviet Armed Forces is not to allow a sud- 
den attack of the enemy upon our coimtr^, * * * and to deal 
the enemy counterblows or even preventive surprise blows of 
a great destructive forc«. For this purpose the Soviet Army 
and Navy have at their disposal all necessary means. (P. 20.) 

And further on in this article, Marshal Eotmistrov writes the 
following : 

Our blows in regard to their speed and force, type of ac- 
tion, timing of their delivery, and services and arms used 
must be a complete surprise to the enemy. (P. 21.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Captain, you have indicated that secret directives have 
been issued to implement the doctrine set forth in that restricted 

Can you tell us whether or not there are designated forces in the 
Soviet Union ready to carry out the policy of surprise attack if 
ordered ? 

Captain Artamonov. As I have mentioned before, the publication of 
this article coincided with the issue of secret directives by the Minis- 


try of Defense of the Soviet Union concerning the possibility of pre- 
paring officers, Soviet officers, for such a possible attack if such an at- 
tack is necessary, and these directives were also concerned with train- 
ing Soviet troops for such an eventuality — for such a possibility, and 
to give the Soviet troops the necessai-y military training for such type 
of action. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Supposing China became unruly and were involved in 
war with one of the democracies, a member of the free world. 

Is it likely that So\'iet Russia, considering its involvement inevita- 
ble, would then unleash a surprise attack under its doctrine as ex- 
pressed in that article ? 

Captain Artamonov. In my personal opinion, of course, I do not 
believe that China would start a war on its own against the demo- 
cracies without prior discussion and coordination with the Soviet 
Union, and, of course, if the Soviet Union does approve such an ac- 
tion on the part of China, the Soviets will not wait for China to at- 
tack first but they will attack first. They will deal the first blow and 
the Chinese will then support them. 

IVIr. NiTTLE. Does the Soviet Government have any confidence in the 
satellite navies and other armed forces ? 

Captain Artamonov. I would say the Soviet Union has a relatively 
very low degree of confidence in their satellites — very little confidence 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us briefly what, in your life in the 
Soviet Union, led you to leave that country ? 

Captain Artamonov. As I have already told you, my decision to 
leave Russia was based on my belief that everything that is being 
said in Russia is not true, that everything actually is based on lies and 
I was attempting when I was a young man to understand what it was 
all about, what was the idea of the Communist system, what was its 
purpose, but I just couldn't understand what it was all about until 
later when I found that actually it just didn't make sense. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you able freely to discuss your views with other 
persons in the Soviet Navy or in Russia generally — your thoughts and 
conclusions about the policies of your government or the propaganda 
of your leaders ? 

Captain Artamonov. More or less, of course, depending upon your 
degree of familiarity, of knowledge of the person with whom you are 
talking, such exchanges, such conversations take place and I, of course, 
took part in them myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Khrushchev is paying a visit to the United Nations 
and announces that he is interested in total disarmament. 

How do you characterize that statement? 

Captain Artamonov. I think it will be another propaganda trick on 
the part of Khrushchev. Khrushchev at the present time is trying by 
all means to weaken or to dull the vigilance or the alertness of western 
countries. However, on the other linnd, I believe that Khrushchev 
probably, if he is able to achieve his aims by peaceful means, will 
probably stick to this policy of attaining his goals by peaceful means 
avoiding all-out war which actually is the essence of the peaceful co- 
existence theme. 

The history of the past few years has shown that not all of Khru- 
shchev's steps or decisions were unsuccessful in this respect. 


Mr. NiTTLE. If the Soviet military power were overwhelming and 
the United Stat-es' insignificant, would Khrushchev preach disarma- 

Captain Artamonov. Well, if Khrushchev believed that the 
strength of the Soviet Union was tremendous, he would, of course, 
deal a stumiing blow to the West. 

]Mr. XiTTLE. Will you explain the significance of the Khrushchev 
doctrine of jDeaceful coexistence? 

Captain Artamonov. After Stalin's death, it became clear that it 
was impossible to pursue the same domestic and foreign policy in 
Soviet Eussia as before. 

For this purpose the doctrine, the idea of peaceful coexistence was 
rapidly elaborated which actually was referred to as originating with 

Now, the purpose of citing Lenin as the originator of the peaceful 
coexistence doctrine was based on the fact that Khrushchev himself 
at that time was an unknown man. He had no authority to com such 
a term of so-called theoretical importance. 

On the other hand, the constant reference to Lenin by Khrushchev 
at that time also strengthened his position in that it established a line 
of succession — in other words, that it showed that Khrushchev was the 
legitimate successor of Lenin and of the Soviet policy. 

On the other hand, the term of peaceful coexistence served a dual 
purpose. At home in the Soviet Union, it made the Soviet citizens 
feel more at ease and it also served, fulfilled another purpose, namely, 
that it put the vigilance, the alertness of foreign countries to sleep 
more or less, so that the foreign countries were reassured by this state- 

Of course, we must remember that Stalin's policy resulted in a clos- 
ing of ranks of the western countries and opened their eyes to the 
dangers of Soviet aggressiveness and also resulted in building the 
organization of NATO as a deterrent to Soviet aggression. 

An advantage of promulgating peaceful coexistence lay in its lull- 
ing the alertness of the West, and causing it thus to stop its rapid 
buildup of armaments. This allowed the Soviets to divert the ex- 
penditures from its own armament effort into more productive effort 
of aggression. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does the proclamation by Khrushchev of the doctrine 
of peaceful coexistence mean in any way that the Communists have 
abandoned the idea of world revolution ? 

Captain Artamonov. Now, of course, Khrushchev and his entou- 
rage have already long ago realized that the world proletariat which 
actually does not exist any more is incapable of achieving a world 

They believe now that world revolution is impossible and they ac- 
tually do not count on it any longer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. One final question. You have lived for many years in 
the Soviet Union occupying a rather high status. You have lived now 
for several months in the United States. Do you or do you not agree 
with Khrushchev that life in the socialist countries, particularly 
Russia, is better than in the capitalist countries, specifically the 
United States? 


Captain Artamonov. Now, as far as my personal opinion is con- 
cerned, of course I prefer to live here, and it is absolutely clear to every 
Soviet citizen that life in Soviet Russia is much worse than in the 
capitalist West. That is something which every Soviet citizen realizes, 
I Believe. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is all we have, Mr. Chairman, for the public ses- 
sion, and the staff has concluded its questioning. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions, Mr. Tuck ? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

The Chaikman. Mr. Johansen ? 

Mr. Johansen. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. Captain Artamonov, I wish to thank you very 
much for the highly significant contribution you have made in this 
grim struggle in which we are engaged. 

It is indeed interesting to note that one of the secretaries from the 
Russian Embassy has been present here throughout the entire hearing 
and I hope that from his appearance he will have learned that, in this 
free society of ours, witnesses are not told what to say and they may 
select any topic they choose to speak about. 

You are excused with tlie thanks of our committee. 

The committee will now adjourn. 

(Whereupon, at 4:20 p.m., Wednesday, September 14, 1960, the 
committee recessed, to reconvene at the call of the Chair.) 




Artamonov, Nikolai Fedorovich 1903-190G, 1907-1920 (testimony) 

Beria (Lavrenti) 1910 

Hitler (Adolf) 1903, 1906 

Khrushchev (Nikita) 1903, 1906, 1910, 1911, 1918, 1919 

Lenin (V. I.) 1919 

Morozov, Pavel 1912 

Eotmistrov, Pavel 1916, 1917 

Schidlovsky, Alexis 1905, 1907, 1908-1911, 1914, 1917 

Stalin (Josef) 1909, 1910, 1919 

Takovlev, Vasili 1915, 1916 

Takovlev, Yuri 1915 

Zhukov (Georgi K.) 1910 


Commiuiist Party, Soviet Union 1909, 1913, 1914 

Frunze Higher Naval School (U.S.S.R.) 1908,1909,1912-1914 

Komsomol {See Young Communist L-eague, Soviet Union.) 

NATO 1919 

Pioneers 1909,1913 

Special Secondary Naval School (Leningrad) 1908, 1912, 1913 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Government of : 

Embassy (Washington, D.C.) 1920 

Ministry of Defense 1906, 1917, 1918 

GRU, Main Intelligence Directorate 1916 

Navy 1906, 1908, 1909, 1914 

Naval Intelligence 1915 

Secret Police, NKVD 1909 

United Nations 1918 

Young Communist League, So^-iet Union (Komsomol) 1909,1913 


Red Star (newspaper) 1906 

Soviet Navy (newspaper) 1906 

Voyennaya Mysl (Military Thought) (journal) 1917 





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