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Full text of "Testimony of Juanita Castro Ruz. Hearing before the committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-ninth Congress, first session, June 11, 1965"

ffl 



HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LI BRARY 






,-^ 



Committee on 
Un-American Activities 
House 
89th Congress 



Contents 
(according to paging) 



1. Testimony of Juanita Castro Ruz ^0^% 

2. Testimony of Wladyslaw Tykocinski ^: ' -^ 

3. Hearings on H.R. I20U7, H.R. IU925, H.R. ^ 
16175, H.R. 171^0, and H.R. 1719^— Bills 

to Make Punishable Assistance to Enemies of 
U.S. in Time of Undeclared War, Part 1 

k. Hearings on H.R. 120^+7, H.R. IU925, H.R. 
16175, H.R. I71UO, and H.R. 1719^— Bills 
to Make Punishable Assistance to Enemies 
of U.S. in Time of Undeclared War, Part 2 

5. Hearings Regarding H.R. I5678, H.R. 15689, ^^^ 
H.R. 157^^, H.R. 1575^, and H.R. l6099, ^^ 
Bills to Curb Terrorist Organizations 



TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-NINTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



JUNE 11, 1965 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

MAR 7 1966 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
5*-988 WASHINGTON : 1965 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price IS cents 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 
EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman 
WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio 



JOE R. POOL, Texas 

RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri 

GEORGE F. SENNER, Jr., Arizona 

CHARLES L. WELTNER, Georgia 

Francis J. McNamara, Director 

William Hitz, Oeneral Counsel 

Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 

II 



DEL CLAWSON, California 

JOHN H. BUCHANAN, Jr., Alabama 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 815 

June 11, 1965 : Testimony of — 

Juanita Castro 822 

Afternoon session : 

Juanita Castro (resumed) 831 

Index i 

lU 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 
Stat. 812, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
* * * 4i « « * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcom- 
mittee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in tJie United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

RUTE XII 
LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Repre.sentatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 89TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 8, January 4, 1965 
* * * * * ^i * 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
******* 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the TJnited States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 

"Fidel's feelings of hatred for this country [the United States] 
in particular cannot even be imagined by Americans. His intention, 
his obsession, to destroy this country is one of his main interests and 
objectives," Miss Juanita Castro, sister of the Communist dictator of 
Cuba, told the Committee on Un-American Activities on June 11, 1965. 
The witness, who fled from her homeland in June 1964, testified that 
Castro, who "has his heart in Peking and his stomach .in Moscow," 
views the United States as the principal obstacle to his plans to take 
over all of Latin America. Therefore, in order to weaken this Nation, 
he is, among other things, attempting to subvert its law and order by 
encouraging expense-paid trips of American students and others to 
Cuba in defiance of U.S. regulations. 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
chaired b}^ the Honorable Edwin E. Willis of Louisiana, received testi- 
mony from the witness, pursuant to a resolution adopted by the com- 
mittee authorizing it to receive sworn statements relating to "(a) 
Communist propaganda activities in the United States conducted in 
support of the Communist regime in Cuba, or for the purpose of ad- 
vancing the policies and objectives of the world Communist movement 
in Latin America generally, (b) the activities of United States citi- 
zens acting on behalf of * * * foreign Communist principals * * *." 

Miss Castro testified that she had worked for the success of the 
revolutionary movement in Cuba since 1953. She traveled abroad 
several times to raise funds for Castro and, in addition, worked with 
civic resistance groups on the island against Batista. Her close family 
relationship to the Castro brothers, Fidel and Kaul, permitted her to 
meet many of the top policymakers of the regime and to become 
aware of the injustices conducted under their "reign of terror." 

The Communist minority in Cuba, she stated, was not believed to 
be dangerous at first. By use of subterfuge and deceit, it was able to 
seize a genuine revolution, enslave the people, surrender it to Com- 
munist imperialism, and thus thwart all hope for peace, justice, free- 
dom, and social progress. On taking power, Castro destroyed free- 
dom of the press and converted the news media to his own ends. 

Churches and religious institutions were destroyed, priests and 
ministers expelled, and only the practice of the "religion" of com- 
munism was permitted. Schools were confiscated and converted to the 
Communist indoctrination of youth. 

Today no one in Cuba has any legal rights, Miss Castro stated. 
Persons out of favor with the Cuban dictator are put to the wall and 
shot. In spite of these conditions, some persons in high government 
posts oppose Castro and plot his downfall. 

Miss Castro testified tliat hei" brother's Communist government had 
brought the Cuban economy down to the lowest level in its history. 
Castro blundered when he destroyed the country's leading industry, 

815 



816 SYNOPSIS 

sugar, claiming that the island had to diversify its economy. All the 
sugarcane plantations and sugar mills were taken over by the govern- 
ment on the assumption that the U.S.S.R. would grant her brother 
whatever equipment was required to establish new industries. But 
the confiscation of sugar mills and the shipment of some of them to 
the Soviet Union paid only for Cuba's imports of Soviet arms, not for 
new industries. 

Castro, the witness testified, had always been friendly towards Red 
China and its "hard line," although the U.S.S.R. exerted great influ- 
ence on Cuba. In the area of Cuba's foreign affairs, she said that 
Castro financed the trips to Cuba of the New York City-based Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba in order to provide American propa- 
gandists who would return home and parrot the "watchwords" (i.e., 
party line) of Cuban Communists. 

Red Cuba has developed several schools for indoctrination and guer- 
rilla warfare activities in Latin America. Students come from all over 
Latin America and, upon completing their courses, return home to 
conspire against and subvert their own governments. In addition to 
supplying Communist revolutionaries in this hemisphere by means of 
its fishing fleet, Cuba's oceangoing vessels are utilized to send aid to 
the Viet Cong, as well as to Chinese and African Communists, Miss 
Castro stated. 

She also said that the Cuban delegation to the United Nations was 
active in espionage work and that, within the United States itself, 
anti-Castro exile groups have been infiltrated. In answer to the ques- 
tion of who were the most ardent supporters her brother had in the 
United States, the witness said that on several occasions she had heard 
Castro "personally mention as his greatest friends in the LTnited 
States Messrs. Herbert Matthews, Carleton Beals, and Waldo Frank." 



TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 



FRIDAY, JUNE 11, 1965 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 

PUBLIC hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10:15 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Cannon House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman) 
presiding. 

(Subcommittee members : Representative Edwin E. Willis, of Loui- 
siana, chairman; Joe R. Pool, of Texas; and John H. Buchansm, Jr., 
of Alabama.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Pool, and 
Buchanan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel; and Louis J. Russell and Philip R. Manuel, 
investigators. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Miss Castro and Dr. Lew, will you please stand, and Miss Montero? 

Please raise your right hands. 

Do you, and each of you, solemnly swear that the testimony or the 
statements you are about to make will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Miss Castro. Yes. 

Dr. Lew. Yes. 

Miss Montero. I do. 

The Chairman. Now, Miss Montero, do you solemnly swear to 
translate accurately and truly, so help you God? 

Miss Montero. I do. 

The Chairman, Pursuant to the rules of the committee. Miss Castro 
submitted to the committee a statement that she desires to make, an 
original statement. The committee has considered it and has agreed 
that she can make it. 

Miss Castro, I understand it is your desire to make an initial state- 
ment. We have considered the statement which you previously sub- 
mitted and the committee, pursuant to the rules of the committee itself, 
has decided that you may make that statement. 

817 



53-988 0—66 



818 TESTIMONY OF JU ANITA CASTRO RUZ 

(Miss Castro read the following statement through her inter- 
preter : ) 

STATEMENT OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 

Mr. Chairman, Distinguished Memhers, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

In the name of the inescapable duty of all individuals and institutions — who 
believe in the ideals of liberty and justice — to act firmly to preserve our Chris- 
tian civilization, I thank you for this opportunity to contribute to that noble 
cause by describing the tragic experience which the Cuban people are suffering. 

I also wish to alert the conscience of those who are concerned about the fate 
of mankind through the personal testimony I can offer concerning the Castro- 
Communist plans for intervention and aggression in the Americas. 

My voice, my actions, and the information I may be able to give on the Com- 
munist plans against all countries of the American Continent are not enough 
to describe the danger facing both the large and the small nations of this 
hemisphere. 

The aggressive Communist system and the pro-Communist minorities that 
serve as its tools in the different countries, as well as in their base of operations 
in Cuba, will never renounce their pui-pose to extend their borders through inter- 
vention and force, though they may appear to be using a different strategy and 
may swear that they are following the "coexistence line." Communism is, and 
will always be, aggressive by its very nature. So are those who act as its tools. 
Its danger is not in diredt relation to the number of followers or agents they 
may have in every country and who comprise a fanatic minority, but rather 
to their continuous activities and their constant lying with the purpose of gain- 
ing followers and using the liberal and progressive-minded individuals who are 
ignorant of the danger to themselves and their countries, and who let themselves 
be led, thus indirectly coinciding with the Communists. 

Those of us who have suffered the inhuman Communist experiment have 
learned this lesson well. 

Those of us in Cuba who believed sincerely in freedom, peace, work, the 
right to happiness, and social progress were used by the Communist minority. 

That Communist minority operaited among the ranks of the Cuban revolution, 
just as it has operated before, and continues to operate now, inside governments 
and institutions that have given it the opportunity to infil'trate them. When the 
Cuban revolution came into power, that minority, which we did not believe could 
be so dangerous, seized the revolution ; enslaved the Cuban people ; surrendered 
the country to Communist imperialism ; and thwarted all hopes for peace, justice, 
freedom, and social progress. 

For this reason we affirm that no one can be a revolutionary, a democrat, a 
liberal, a pacifist, and a believer in progress if one is not an anti-Communist 
also. Communism is the exact opposite of a progressive democracy. By the 
same token, one cannot be good if one is not against evil and those who represent 
evil. 

We musit vigorously oppose Communist minorities. Those who wish to follow 
the example of the ostrich, those who become afraid of them, those who believe 
that they will have no problem as long as they do not oppose Communist minori- 
ties — as is the case with some institutions and governments — that they will be 
able to work for social progress, those who believe this are entirely wrong, and 
they shall be the first victims of these Communist minorities once they come 
into power. 

Those who believe this are using the wrong strategy, and they should learn 
the lessons of history. They should observe carefully the fate of the peoples, 
leaders, liberal thinkers, and all those who profess progressive opinions once 
communism is in power and takes over a country. All of those who did not 
oppose it and were its allies, directly or indirectly, have become its victims and 
so have their nations. 

I am one of that vast number of men and women all over the world who wish 
for freedom, peace, happiness, and social progress to attain a decent life. I am 
convinced — as are all of us who suffered the Communist betrayal — that to achieve 
these goals of mankind we all must be, firmly and courageously, progressive 
democrats as well as anti-Communists. At the same time, we must fight for a 
progressive democracy and against the Communist system, which is both reac- 
tionary and inhuman. 

The people of every nation must have the right to social improvement, freedom, 
work, peace, and happiness. But the only way to accomplish this is through 



TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 819 

social evolution, which is to say through democratic revolutions, like those that 
have taken place in many countries of the free world, among them the United 
States of America. 

This is the process that the Communist minorities are trying to destroy by 
exploiting the honest struggles of those peoples who are trying to achieve greater 
social progress. The reason is that these minorities are completely fanatical and 
serve as the means to esitablish Communist dictatorships. 

The Castro-Communist regime and those of Russia and Red China know that 
firm and courageous democratic action dooms their plans for world domination 
to failure. That is why they loudly repeat, over and over, their fanatic watch- 
words against the actions of deliverance in Vietnam and Santo Domingo. They 
want us to give them a free hand so they can devour peoples and nations. 

Communist leaders, and I know this because of the reaction I personally noticed 
in Fidel Castro, wish nothing better than to be confronted by irresolute and 'timid 
adherents of democracy, liberals, and pacifists. These irresolute and timid 
individuals, they say, are their best allies. 

Fidel Castro, Russia, and Red China are now feeling the defeat of their hopes 
to dominate peoples and nations due to the firm and brave action of the United 
States and their President, who have faced the Communist challenge, putting a 
stop to its advance that had already become open and shameless. Every day they 
took over more and more land. Every day the ambitious minds of the Commu- 
nist International and their tools planned new aggressions. From this day for- 
ward, if this firm action on the part of democracy is maintained, the Communists 
will know that they will not be able to en.slave more peoples and that the time 
will come when those who are in their power shall decide on the positive step 
that will start them along the road to freedom. 

I know that the Vietnamese and the Dominican i)eople, and the Cuban people 
as well, are grateful for the lifesaving action undentaken in Vietnam, and Santo 
Domingo. I know that my people feel no longer forsaken and that they nourish 
the hope that they shall not be alone in their fight to obtain their freedom and 
the social improvement they longed for and which was thwarted by the treason 
and deceit of a Communist minority. A minority that will, whenever given the 
chance, dominate any majority. 

I want to make a humanitarian appeal to save my people and the other endan- 
gered nations. Communist imperialism and its insitrument in the Americas, 
Fidel Castro, are planning to take over this entire hemisphere. This is no secret. 

Firm and decisive action on the part of the Organization of American States 
is necessary, also, on the part of the leaders — as President Johnson has done — 
not only of the leaders but of the people — as the Dominicans have done, as the 
Cubans will do — as shall all of us men and women who love freedom, peace, 
and social improvement. 

All of us, united, must act mth swiftness. The OAS must not hesitate. 
While they hold discussions, the Communist minorities take over still more 
popular movements. They must discuss and approve, in advance, whatever 
action must be taken to support the people and prevent the Communist minorities 
from thwarting their hopes and enslaving them. 

My people, all enslaved people, all the peoples who long for social improve- 
ment in freedom, all the men and women who know the way to achieve these 
goals and know who their enemies are, will welcome this firm and courageous 
democratic action in the same manner they have welcomed President Johnson's 
action and that of the Vietnamese, of the Dominicans, and of my people who, 
unarmed, day in and day out, face the oppression, terror, and crime decreed 
by the inhuman Communist system. 

We must not let ourselves be misguided by the fanatical cries of the Communist 
minorities and of those who unwittingly become their instruments. We must 
listen, instead, to the democratic majorities who approve and support this action 
that will save their nations. 

Miss Castro. Thank you very much. 
The Chairman. Thank you very much, Miss Castro. 
Now the Chair wishes to make this statement. 

This hearing is being held pursuant to a resolution adopted by the 
committee on June 3, 1965. The resolution reads as follows : 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties or a subcommittee thereof, be held in Washington, D.C., or at such other 
place or places as the Chairman may determine, on such date or dates as the 



820 TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 

Chairman may designate, relating to (a) Communist propaganda activities in the 
United States conducted in supptirt of the Communist regime in Cuba, or for the 
purpose of advancing the policies and objectives of the world Communist move- 
ment in Latin America generally, (b) the activities of United States citizens 
acting on behalf of, or in the interest of, foreign Communist principals, (c) for- 
eign travel undertaken by United States citizens in connection with such 
activities and in violation of State Department travel regulations, and (d) the 
activities of the Progressive Labor Movement (and/or Party), and also the 
activities of any organizations and instrumentalities which appear to be affiliated 
with, or controlled or manipulated by, it or any other Communist organization, 
for the following legislative purposes : 

1. To provide factual information to aid Congress in proposing remedial legis- 
lation, in fulfillment of the directions contained in the mandate to the Commit- 
tee by House Resolution 8 of January 4, 1965, and in Public Law 601 of the 79tb 
Congress. 

2. The execution by the administrative agencies concerned, of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 1938, travel control laws (particularly Title 8 
U.S.C. 1185), and regulations issued pursuant thereto, to assist the House in 
appraising the administration of such laws and regulations. 

3. Consideration of the advisability of amending Title 22 U.S.C. 611, by 
extending the definition of the terms "foreign principal" and "agent of a foreign 
principal" so as to remove any doubt as to the true test of the agency relation- 
ship or its application to activities within the intent of Congress as expressed in 
the Act. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the hearings may include any other 
matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any subcommittee 
thereof, appointed to conduct these hearings, may designate. 

Since the time Fidel Castro established a Communist regime in Cuba, 
this country has literally been bombarded with propaganda about the 
nature of the Cuban Government. This committee is not concerned 
with all kinds of propaganda. 

However, Kule XI, paragraph 18, of the rules of the House, which 
spells out the powers and duties of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, states that the committee is empowered to investigate: 

(1) the extent, character, and objects of Un-American propaganda activities 
in the United States, [and] (2) the diffusion within the United States of sub- 
versive and un-American propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries 
or of a domestic origin and attacks the principle of the form of government as 
guaranteed by our Constitution * * *. 

The courts of this country have repeatedly held that these words 
embrace Communist propaganda. Much of the propaganda concern- 
ing the nature of the Castro regime, which I referred to a moment ago, 
is Communist in origin. It has come from the Communist Party and 
from other Communist organizations, such as the Progressive Labor 
Movement. It has also come from fronts established by these Com- 
munist organizations. I have in mind organizations such as the Med- 
ical Aid to Cuba Committee, the Emergency Committee for Disaster 
Relief to Cuba, and the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. The 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee, of course, was for years notorious as 
a pro-Castro propaganda agency. 

For some time now, the committee has been inquiring into the nature 
and origin of propaganda of this type. It has done so in hearings 
concerning the Greater Los Angeles Chapter of the Fair Play for 
Cuba Committee ; in extensive hearings held in 1963 and 1964 on travel 
to Cuba by American citizens in violation of State Department regula- 
tions prohibiting such travel without a specially validated passport; 
in hearings on the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee ; and also in some 



TESTIMONY OF JU ANITA CASTRO RUZ 821 

of the more generalized hearings it has held in the past few years on 
Communist activities within the United States. 

In view of findings of our courts on the nature and objectives of 
the w^orld Communist movement and of the U.S. Communist l^arty— 
and inasmuch as Castro has proclaimed himself a Communist — there 
is certainly good reason to believe that pro-Castro propaganda dis- 
seminated in this comitry by Communist and pro-Communist organi- 
zations can be classihed as "subversive and mi-American" and having 
as its ultimate objective attacks upon "the principle of the form of 
government as guaranteed by our Constitution." 

Hearings held by this committee and by other legislative and mves- 
tigative agencies over a period of many years have produced abundant 
evidence that one of the major weapons of communism — ^perhaps, 
indeed, the major weapon — is its agents' ability to conceal their true 
nature, their all-out commitment to communism, until such time as, 
having achieved their goal, they choose to reveal it. 

Castro succeeded in domg this for a number of crucial years. And 
because of his successful deceit, the security of the United States is 
not what it was 7 or 8 years ago. The Chinese Communists, through 
their concealed agents m this country, mangaged to convince many 
Americans that they were nothing but "agrarian reformers." 

The results of this concept have not only resulted in over 150,000 
United States casualties in the Korean war, a cost of billions of 
dollars to the American taxpayers, and a tremendous weakening of our 
overall national security, but also in the destruction of the freedom 
of the Chinese people, the slaughter of literally millions of citizens 
of that nation, and, as is so evident today, a very real threat to the 
freedom of all Southeast Asia. 

The facts indicate that if freedom is to be preserved here in this 
country — and in any part of the world — and if the advance of com- 
munism is to be halted, the forces of communism must be stripped 
of their mask of deceit and concealment. We must learn the truth 
about w^ho and what organizations, what leaders in all parts of the 
world, are Communist. 

We must learn the truth about conditions in Communist countries. 
The American people must be given reliable information — the trutli — 
so that they will not be tricked into supporting, or being indifferent 
to, the operations of those forces which are bent on the destruction 
of the United States. The half truths, the lies, the distortions in 
Communist propaganda must be revealed. 

It is to the credit of the House of Representatives that it perceived 
this truth many years ago and, therefore, in establishing this com- 
mittee as a special committee in 1938, incorporated in its mandate 
the powers I quoted in the beginning of this statement. 

Today the committee will receive the testimony of Miss Juanita 
Castro, the sister of Fidel. Although not a Communist, she, until a 
relatively short time ago, worked closely with him. She w^as a sup- 
porter of the revolution he led in Cuba. For some time after that 
revolution was completed and Fidel Castro had established himself 
in power, she maintained a relationship with him and other leaders 
of his regime. 

I know of no one w'ho is in a better position to give testimony 
about Castro, his revolution, his government, and the condition to 



822 TESTIMONY OF JUANTTA CASTRO RUZ 

which he has brought his country — testimony that will help this com- 
mittee and the entire Congress in its legislative deliberations and, also, 
the American people in seeing through the cloud of propaganda with 
which various elements have attempted to obscure the truth about 
Cuba today. 

This propaganda has painted Cuba as a land of milk and honey — 
a land with an improved standard of living, with political and reli- 
gious freedom, a land where the people have justice, a land led by a 
man of peace. 

As a matter of fact, we have heard testimony along that line here 
in this very room. Some of those two groups who traveled to Cuba, 
upon their return, made it their business to spread that very thing, 
that propaganda, about the prosperity, the high standard of living, 
political and religious freedom, the land with justice, and Castro, a 
man of peace. 

So I will now read the order of appointment of the subcommittee. 

June 4, 1965. 
To : Mr. Francis J. McNamara, 
Director, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Pursuant to the provisions of tiie law and the Rules of this Committe, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consisting 
of Honorable Joe. R. Pool and Honorable John Buchanan, as associate members, 
and myself, as Chairman, to conduct hearings in Washington, D.C., commencing 
on or about Thursday, June 10, 1965, and at such other time or times thereafter 
and at such place or places as said subcommittee shall determine, as contem- 
plated by the resolution adopted by the Committee on the 3rd of day of June, 
1965, authorizing hearings relating to Communist propaganda activities con- 
ducted in support of the Communist regime in Cuba, and other matters referred 
to in said resolution. 
Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 
If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 
Given under my hand this 4th day of June, 1965. 

/s/ Edwin E. Willis, 
Edwin E. Willis, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-Am,erican Activities. 

Mr. HitZj are you ready ? 
Mr. HiTz. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 
The Chairman. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF JTJANITA CASTRO RUZ (AS INTERPRETED BY YO- 
LANDA LOPEZ MONTERO), ACCOMPANIED BY AIDE, SALVADOR 
LEW 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, please state your full name for the record. 
Miss Castro. Juanita Castro Ruz. 
Mr. HiTZ. Mr. Lew, will you state your name? 
Dr. Lew. Salvador Lew. 
Mr. HiTZ. You are Dr. Lew ; are you, sir ? 
Dr. Lew. I am a Cuban attorney. 
The Chairman, I think you are a doctor of law. 
Dr. Lew. Yes. 

The Chairman. You are an attorney at law? 
Dr. Lew. Yes. 

Mr. HiTZ. Miss Montero, will you state your name ? 
Miss MoNTERO. Yolanda Lopez Montero. 

Mr. HiTz. Would you state very briefly your experience as a trans- 
lator? 



TESTIMONY OF JUANTTA CASTRO RUZ 823 

Miss MoNTERO. Certainly, sir. 1 have been for 11 years translator 
and interpreter at the Berlitz School of Languages in Miami, Florida. 

Mr. HiTz. Thank you. 

When and where were you born. Miss Castro? 

Miss Castro. At Biran, Oriente, Cuba, on May 6, 1933. 

Mr. HiTZ. Are you the sister of Fidel and Raul Castro? 

Miss Castro. Yes. 

Mr. HiTz. How old is Fidel at this time and how old is Raul ? 

Miss Castro. Raul is 35, Fidel is 38. 

Mr. HiTZ. And you would be 32 ; is that correct? 

Miss Castro. Yes. 

Mr. HiTz. What is your education. Miss Castro? 

Miss Castro. I completed elementary education as well as business 
and secretarial education at the School of Ursuline Sisters in Havana. 

Mr. Hitz. What is the education of Raul Castro, the y,ounger of 
the two ? 

Miss Castro. He completed elementary studies. He started high 
school, but did not graduate, and later on entered the University of 
Havana to study administration, for which a high school diploma 
was not required. 

Mr. Hitz. What is Fidel's education ? 

Miss Castro. He completed both elementary and high school edu- 
cation and then graduated from the University of Havana as an 
attorney. 

Mr. Hitz. Miss Castro, were you in Cuba when the revolutionary 
movement against Batista was commenced? 

Miss Castro. I was in Cuba. 

Mr. Hitz. Will you tell us very briefly the extent of your activities 
in that revolution ? 

Miss Castro. From the very moment that the revolution started, I 
did whatever I could, and everything that was required of me, to try to 
help Fidel. 

Mr. Hitz. Please give us the approximate date when that started. 

Miss Castro. Approximately in the year 1953, after an attack by 
Castro on Batista's military barracks in Oriente. 

Mr. Hitz. Were you in Cuba, Miss Castro, when the revolution was 
consummated and Fidel finally became the leader of the new regime? 

Miss Castro. Yes. 

Mr. Hitz. Were you associated with the other leaders of the revolu- 
tionary movement before it had been consummated ? 

Miss Castro. Yes ; I associated with all the groups fighting against 
the Batista dictatorship. 

Mr. Hitz. When did the new regime take power? 

Miss Castro. On January 1, 1959. 

Mr. Hitz. Did you remain in close association with your brother 
Fidel and with the other leaders of the new regime ? 

Miss Castro. "When the revolution came into power, I continued 
the best possible relationship with both Fidel and the other leaders. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman. 

What active part did you take in the revolution, Miss Castro? 

Miss Castro. During the revolution itself, I helped all the differ- 
ent revolutionaries that were fighting against Batista in many ways. 
I traveled abroad and I also worked for civic resistance and, during 
those trips, I collected funds to help Fidel. 



824 TESTIMONY OF JUANTTA CASTRO RUZ 

I returned to Cuba and there I continued to work. And then dur- 
ing the last few months of the revolution against the Batista dictator- 
ship, I had to seek asylum at the Brazilian Embassy. 

Mr. Hrrz. Miss Castro, did you become acquainted with the activi- 
ties of "Che" Guevara in the revolution and afterwards? 

Miss Castro. I knew about "Che" Guevara joining the Fidel forces 
in Mexico and when he started training with them, as well as of his 
activities at the Sierra Maestra together with Fidel. 

Mr. Hrrz. Please name the principal leaders surrounding Fidel 
Castro since he took power. 

Miss Castro. "Che" Guevara, Raul Castro, Rene Vallejo, Sergio del 
Valle, Efigenio Ameijeiras, Carlos Rafael Rodriguez, Bias Roca, 
Lazaro Pena, Dermidio Escalona, Joaquin Ordoqui, Cesar Escalante, 
and Anibal Escalante. 

There are some others, but I really don't remember right now; I 
would have to think about it. 

The Chairman. The ones you named are the principal ones? 

Miss Castro. Yes ; the principal ones. 

Mr. HiTZ. Was Armando Hart close to your brother Fidel since 
the takeover ? 

The Chairman. Mr. Hitz, I understand you to be referring now to 
the leaders surrounding Castro immediately upon his coming into 
power. Are you talking about that period now ? 

Mr. Hitz. Not only immediately afterwards, up until the time she 
left Cuba. 

The Chairman. Oh. 

Miss Castro. Armando Hart was there from the beginning, from 
the time of the beginning of the revolution. 

Mr. Hitz. Miss Castro, we are not asking for an exhaustive list, 
merely to show the extent of your knowledge of the situation and the 
people connected with it. 

Did you know these people and have contacts with them until the 
time that you left Cuba ? 

Miss Castro. I knew some of them; and as to the heads of the 
Cuban Communist Party which I named on that list, I had not met 
them and I had no contact with them. 

The Chairman. Well, I think the record ought to reflect at this 
time— because you asked it two or three times — you fixed testimony up 
to the time she left. Now I think you ought to establish that, at this 
time, for the record, unless you have another plan. I am not guiding 
you. 

Mr. Hitz. Thank you. 

Miss Castro, you had frequent contacts with Fidel, Raul, "Che" 
Guevara, and some of the other chief advisers of Fidel continuously 
from the time that Fidel took over the regime until you left Cuba; 
did you not? 

Miss Castro. Yes, I continued to be in contact with them up to a 
few months prior to my leaving Cuba, with the exception of "Che" 
Guevara. 

The Chairman. And what is that exception ? 

Miss Castro. Well, you asked me about all of them — Fidel, Raul, 
and "Che" — and the reason I didn't see "Che" was simply because I 
had no reason to see him. 



TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 825 

The Chairman. Well, now I think the record again should be clari- 
fied. What do you mean by that — you had no continuous or extended 
contact or no contact at all ? 

Miss Castro. I would like to know if you are referring specifically 
to "Che" Guevara as to contacts. 

The Chairman. Let me explain to you. You said something about 
what you said applies to all except "Che." Well, I do not know what 
you mean by the exception. That has not been explained, whatever 
you had in mind. 

Miss Castro. Wliat I mean by that is that I saw him, but not too 
often. 

The Chairman. That is exactly what I had understood. 

Well, now, that calls for another question and then we will pass on. 
This is preliminary. 

As to the others, am I to understand that you had frequent contacts 
with them ? 

Miss Castro. Yes. I was often in contact with them. 

The Chairman. All right. Proceed. 

Mr. HiTz. Were you also in contact with other lesser government 
officials before you left Cuba ? 

Miss Castro. Yes, I was in contact with quite important officials 
and others that were less important. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, is what you will tell us today based upon 
your personal experiences and observations and contacts with the 
persons you have named and described ? 

Miss Castro. Yes. Most of it ; yes, sir. 

Mr. HiTz. Wlien and under what circumstances, very briefly, did 
you leave Cuba ? 

Miss Castro. I left on June 20, 1964. I went on one of my periodic 
trips to Mexico to visit my sister who resides in Mexico. 

The Chairman. You went from Cuba to Mexico and you came to 
the Ignited States from Mexico; is that correct? 

Miss Castro. Yes. 

The Chairman. And as I understand, you had been accustomed 
with some regularity to visiting your sister in Mexico before? 

Miss Castro. Yes, as my sister has resided in Mexico for over 9 
years, I generally went to see her at least once every year, sometimes 
twice a year. 

The Chair]man. At the time you left Cuba, had you made an effort to 
come to the TTnited States or, if you hadn't, could you have obtained 
permission from your brother to come directly to the United States? 

We are interested in that, because we have been talking for a long 
time about so-called freedom of travel. 

Miss Castro. I could think at no time of coming directly to the 
United States or even asking for permission, as that is impossible; it 
is totally impossible. I had to do what I always did, come through 
Mexico: otherwise, it would have been completely impossible. 

The Chairman. Well, I will ask some more questions about travel 
later on. Let Mr. Hitz proceed with the development of the record 
as he ha=! it before him. 

Mr. Hitz. Miss Castro, what has been your personal relationship 
with your two brothers, particularly Fidel Castro, until your depar- 
ture from Cuba? I stress the word "personal" relationship with 
them. 

53^988 O— 66— -^3 



826 TESTIMONY OF JUANTTA CASTRO RUZ 

Miss Castro. Our personal, family relationship was wonderful 
up to the time when he betrayed and deceived the Cuban people. I 
helped him as much as possible and I completely devoted myself to 
help him during his revolutionary struggle for power in Cuba. I 
accepted no public positions whatsoever, and my reason for doing this 
was that I believed he would do what the Cuban people really wanted 
and needed. 

Due to my close relationship, to being a close relative of Fidel's, 
I could find out about the injustices and about the sorrow of many 
Cubans that were beginning to live under a reign of terror. 

I could liave belonged to the new class; I could have enjoyed all the 
privileges and all the benefits enjoyed by those that belonged to the 
new regime that was being established in Cuba. My Christian and 
my democratic convictions did not allow me to remain silent con- 
cerning all the things that I started to notice. 

I, as I said, could not keep silent, could not remain silent concern- 
ing everything that was happening in Cuba. I am possibly — or rather 
I am personal witness to all these atrocities, to all these horrible things 
that started to happen in my country. I have the moral obligation to 
denounce all of this to the world, to try to help my own country and 
my brothers. 

As I said, I wanted to help my countrymen, the Cuban people. I 
wanted to help them because of my feelings, because of my Christian 
and democratic convictions. They forced me to take this step to 
fight directly against that government headed by Fidel Castro him- 
self. 

I would like to make it veiy clear that my use of the word "broth- 
ers" meant my countrymen, my people, not Fidel or Raul Castro. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, did the people who supported Fidel Castro 
in the revolution expect ultimately to be able to engage in free elec- 
tions ? 

Miss Castro. All the people that helped Fidel and that believed 
him when he promised there would be fre« elections, believed that 
promise that they would have free elections within 18 months after the 
revolution had won. 

Mr. HiTz. Has there been freedom of press, radio, and television 
in Cuba since the Castro regime took over? 

Miss Castro. The first thing that Fidel destroyed when he came 
into power was the freedom of the press, radio, and any other news 
media. All information was suppressed, was grabbed away from, 
stolen from, their own legitimate ownei-s and used for the regime's own 
ends. 

Mr. HiTz. Can the people in Cuba practice religion as they wish ? 

Miss Castro. Any Cuban that wants to live in peace in Cuba has 
to practice only one religion, communism. All churches, all religious 
institutions in Cuba were destroyed. All ministers, priests, and 
agents of churches were expelled from Cuba. 

Mr. HiTz. Has the lot of the Negro people in Cuba improved since 
Fidel Castro took over in 1959 ? 

Miss Castro. Their deceitful policy has used Negroes; the Com- 
munist regime has used Negroes as an important part of their propa- 
ganda. Negroes in Cuba suffer the same persecutions, hunger, and in- 
justice as everybody else because they also oppose the regime. They 
have to flee the island by clandestine means, using boats. 



TESTIMONY OF JUANTTA CASTRO RUZ 827 

I remember one day when I personally was at the Ministry of For- 
ei^ Relations in Havana, when an order arrived from Fidel him- 
self to the man in charge of the passport department as to the effect 
that he had to tear up all passports issued to colored people. This 
is done so that Negroes will not be able to flee the island or to leave 
the island, rather, and tell the truth, tell all the facts about what 
is happening there. 

The Chairman. Mr. Hitz, let me fill in one or two things. 

I know that traditionally the Cuban people are very religious. 
Will you say a little bit more about the general statement you made 
that ministers, and particularly priests, were expelled. What do 
you mean by that? Will you spell that out a little bit? 

Miss Castro. As you all know, communism is the entire opposite 
of religion, and Fidel could not allow the feelings of the Cuban people 
to become — the religious feelings of the Cuban people to become any 
deeper than they already were. 

For example, churches in Cuba have been turned into govern- 
ment offices, into government warehouses. In order to achieve this 
goal, the government had to expel many of the ministers and priests 
from the island. Many of them were arrested and put in jail. 

Some churches remained open in Cuba in order to serve Fidel's 
purpose to make it appear that there was freedom of religion in 
Cuba. 

The Chairman. I w^ant to ask another question because you de- 
veloped it to a certain extent. 

You said, properly, that communism is the antithesis or the oppo- 
site of religion. Now, in addition to the actions with respect to the 
taking over of the churches and the expulsion of priests and minis- 
ters, what about the educational field, the education of the young, 
and the education of those in grammar schools, and so on ? 

Is there any indoctrination going on opposite to religion ? 

You might also, while you are on the subject, develop the family 
relationships, ties, that now exist, if they do exist, under the new re- 
gime, parents and children, and so on. 

Miss Castro. In Cuba there were many schools that w^ere run by 
religious institutions, both Catholic and Protestant. All these were 
taken over by the regime. According to their educational plans, to 
the plans they set up, they could not allow any schools that were run 
by religious people. Catholic, Protestants, Christians in general. They 
have to eliminate by whatever means possible any obstacle that they 
might have in their indoctrination of Cuban youth. 

At that time, or rather, immediately after the Communist takeover, 
all the textbooks that were in use up to then, those that were in normal 
use up to then, Avere substituted. These new textbooks from the very 
first pages taught the children the one thing they could not do was 
to believe in God. 

In these textbooks also appeared all the new words, all the new 
mottoes, all the new names, Fidel, Raul, Guevara, the Communist 
emblem, Nikita, and all those terms used by them, the Communists. 

And so as the school children grew, every single word in their text- 
books was purely Marxism-Leninism. 

Mr. Hitz. Miss Castro, are persons in Cuba since the Castro regime 
took over who are accused of crime, faced by witnesses; are charges 



828 TESTIMONY OF JUANTTA CASTRO RUZ 

brought against tliem ; are they tried before a court and a jury ; and do 
they have a right of appeal ? 

Miss Castro. No one has the right to anything in Cuba. In such 
cases as you mention, most of the people arrested have no right to any 
of these things, to be charged or tried. Many of them are simply taken 
away from their homes or their jobs, taken to jail and immediately in 
front of the wall where they are killed. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman. 

Miss Castro, they do not go through even the formality of a trial ? 

Miss Castro. There are very few instances where, in order to cover 
up appearances, they do take these people before a court. However, 
the trials are prearranged, the sentence is predecided, and not even 
defense counsel has a right to talk to the person that is already 
sentenced. 

Besides, the people that are members of these revolutionary courts 
have not the least idea of what the workings of a court are, what law 
and justice are. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, from what you have told us about conditions 
in Cuba before you left and after Castro took over in regard to no 
elections, the captive press, no opportunity to practice religion, the 
lack of criminal justice as often it is practiced and usually practiced in 
other countries, the absence of the right to leave the country, the treat- 
ment of the Negroes in their exploitation ; what is the feeling of the 
people in Cuba ? 

Miss Castro. The Cuban people, the immense majority of the Cuban 
people, are against the Castro regime. I don't think the Cuban people 
will be able to stand much longer all that terror, all that terrible night- 
mare, that they have been living through for a few years now. 

The Chairman. In that connection, let me ask this question : You 
have expressed your opinion as to the feelings of the people. Is there 
any way that they can make those feelings known? Can they com- 
municate those feelings to the people of the island, to the world, or 
among themselves in groups where speeches and addresses might be 
made? 

Miss Castro. It is very difficult for the Cuban people to express 
these feelings against the Communist regime. That Communist 
minority that is running the country has created an incredible repres- 
sive machine, making the internal struggle more difficult, but not im- 
possible. It is not impossible, because in spite of all this there are 
Cubans in high places in the government who are plotting against it 
and who stay on in the island to try to continue this plotting. 

So we have the case where the government, due to its absolute con- 
trol over the news and information media, has been able to keep secret 
different revoluntionary riots in different places of the island. Some 
of those uprisings that have occurred in several places of the island 
have been immediately put down by the government. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you one question along that line, I 
understand, then, that it is utterly impossible for the people to express 
themselves to the normal news media. 

Miss Castro. Completely impossible. 

The Chairman, Now that leads to this question : In a free republic 
such as ours, we have the right peaceably to assemble, to call a meeting 
in a public building or a courthouse square, and for them in that 
assembly and for their leaders to speak out. 



TESTIMONY OF JUAJSTITA CASTRO RUZ 829 

Now short of a revolution or a takeover, would it be possible for 
that to happen and, if someone were to try peaceably to assemble and 
there to present the other side of the argument, what would happen ? 
Try to explain that. 

Miss Castro. Anyone in Cuba who tries to call a meeting to protest 
against the Communist regime there, we can truthfully say he might 
have about 5 more minutes to live. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman. 

Along the same line. Miss Castro, in the United States we have the 
Bill of Rights, and one of the provisions in there is the right of a 
person not to testify to incriminate himself. Isn't it more or less the 
rule in Cuba that they expect you to incriminate yourself down there? 

Miss Castro. Well, terror has reached such a peak in Cuba that in 
many cases people that have been accused have had to confess to 
crimes they had not committed at all. 

Mr. Pool. They never heard of the fifth amendment in Cuba, then ? 

Miss Castro. For a long time in Cuba no constitution has existed at 
all. Cuba is governed simply by the words and the whim of a man 
and of the Communist Party. 

Mr. HiTZ. Miss Castro, in the light of what you have told us, what 
can you say about the propaganda emanating from Cuba at the present 
time concerning the Castro regime and the ardent support of it by the 
people, particularly the young people? And how is that ac<?om- 
plished ? 

Miss Castro. Well, Cuba has created different indoctrination schools 
also for the training of guerrilla fighters, and there they teach and 
indoctrinate youths from many different countries. 

These youths who supposedly have scholarships, they do — but these 
scholarships are to learn subversion. And in order to harm their 
countries of origin, they are sent back to those countries once they are 
well trained. They are sent back to their own countries so that they 
can start conspiring against the democratic governments that exist in 
those countries. 

Besides, they also use large amounts of money to send written 
propaganda to many different countries, besides all the many radio 
programs that they beam through both long and short wave to many 
different countries, including the United States. 

Mr. HiTZ. Miss Castro, in what does this propaganda effort of the 
Castro regime operate within the United States and how does it do 
that? 

Miss Castro. Well, besides printed propaganda, there is also prop- 
aganda made by American students themselves, American students 
who have gone to Cuba, and also propaganda through Cuban radio 
stations. This propaganda is directed by one Robert Williams, who 
is a fugitive of American justice and who directs his programs toward 
American Negroes; besides, through many other American pro- 
Castro associations who seem to have unlimited amounts of money 
to do this, such as the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 

Mr. HiTZ. Are you acquainted with the so-called student trips to 
Cuba in the years 1963 and 1964, Miss Castro ? 

Miss Castro. Yes, I am acquainted with the details of these student 
trips to Cuba in both 1968 and 1964. 

Mr. HiTZ. Will you tell us what you know about those trips in the 
pattern of the propaganda effort of Castro which you have described ? 



830 TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 

Miss Castro. The trips themselves, or the generalities ? 

Mr. HiTZ. I think we should like some generalities on the trips in 
the 2 years and then we will go into such detail as is warranted at this 
time. 

Miss Castro. Well, in June of 1D63, a group of 59 students visited 
Cuba, invited by the Federation of the University Students of Cuba 
and also the Cuban Institute for Friendship Among the Peoples. 

The reason for these trips, the reason that these young people were 
invited to the country, to Cuba, was for them to return to their country 
and repeat the watchwords of the Communists, in other words, to 
repeat and to act as effective propaganda tools. 

Among this group of 59 students, there were 10 Negro students 
who asked to know how they had done away with racial discrimination 
in Cuba. 

The head of the group of students that visited Cuba was Albert 
Maher, a young man who spoke perfect Spanish. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman. 

Is this Albert Maher from Houston, Texas ? Is that his home ? 

Miss Castro. I really don't know. I only know that he studied, I 
think, at Harvard University. 

Mr. Pool. I think he has appeared before the committee; I think 
that is the one you have identified. His home was in Houston, Texas, 
recently. 

Proceed. 

Mr. HiTZ. Miss Castro, do you know how that trip with those 
students from America was financed ? 

Miss Castro. The expenses of that trip of these students to Cuba 
were paid by the Cuban Government. For this first trip, which was 
quite long, as it took them 5 days to reach Havana, this money must 
have been deposited and given to the students themselves through 
the Cuban delegation before the United Nations. 

They may have been paid through them, through the delegation. 
However, what I positively do know is that the expenses were paid by 
the Cuban Government as some of the officials of that government 
told me so themselves. 

The Chairman. We have received evidence, which is of record, to the 
effect that these students — I am talking about the 59 students involved 
in the first trip — had been specifically and in writing admonished by 
the State Department not to leave. Had you heard about that ? Did 
you know about that ? Or would that have made any difference to the 
Cuban plans if they had known it ? 

Miss Castro. I do not understand the question too well. Would 
you please repeat it, sir? 

The Chairman. We held hearings concerning that trip and we re- 
ceived evidence under oath to the effect that these 59 students who went 
to Cuba in 1963 took that trip despite the advice and the written 
statement given their leader by the State Department not to leave. 

In other words, they traveled to Cuba contraiy to the law and regu- 
lations of Ameri(*a and they knew about it. Now the question is : Did 
you know that, or would that have influenced the Cuban Government 
to tell them, "Well, you better not come under the circumstances"? 

Miss Castro. Exactly the opposite. Fidel and his friends were very 
happy about those circumstances, about the fact that the American 



TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 831 

Government had warned these young people not to go to Cuba. That 
was one more way to laugh at the laws and regulations of this coun- 
try, the United States. 

The Chairman. Now just one more question before lunch. 

You have already testified that these students on both the first and 
second trip went to Cuba as a part of a plan in Cuba to permit them 
to return to the United States and portray the glories of the Castro 
regime. 

Now my question is this : What is the feeling of Castro toward the 
United States? What is the feeling of Castro and the Castro regime 
toward the United States ? 

Miss Castro. Well, Fidel's feelings of hatred for this country in 
particular cannot even be imagined by Americans. His intention, 
his obsession, to destroy this country is one of his main interests and 
objectives. 

The Chairman. Well, we will resume questioning at 1 :30. Would 
that be satisfactory ? 

Let's make it a quarter to two. 

(Whereupon, at 12 :10 p.m., Friday, June 11, 1965, the subcommittee 
recessed, to reconvene at 1 :45 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— FRIDAY, JUNE 11, 1,965 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 1 :45 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, 
chairman, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Pool, and 
Buchanan). 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Proceed, Mr. Hitz. 

TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RTJZ (AS INTERPRETED BY YO- 
LANDA LOPEZ MONTERO)— Resumed, ACCOMPANIED BY AIDE, 
SALVADOR LEW 

Mr. Hitz. Miss Castro, have you completed your answer to the 
chairman's question as to how Fidel Castro regards the United States? 

Miss Castro. Fidel knows that the main obstacle against his plans 
is the United States. 

Many Americans will wonder if Fidel wants to destroy the United 
States through the force of arms, but this is not the only way. He 
mainly wants to subvert order here so that he can finally control all the 
countries of Latin America. 

That is how he wants to weaken the United States, because then it 
will be easier for him to take over all the Latin American countries. 

Mr. Hitz. Miss Castro, what is the basis for what you have said 
about Fidel Castro's feelings about this country? 

Miss Castro. Fidel has quite a feeling of hatred for the United 
States, because the United States is a progressive country where true 
democracy, freedom, and justice exist. 

So I repeat he is trying to use these elements, these fanatics, to sub- 
vert the country. Besides, this country is Fidel's number one enemy, 
the one that will thwart his plans. 

Mr. Hitz. Miss Castro, how do you know that Fidel Castro's feel- 
ings are as you have expressed them ? 



832 TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 

Miss Castro. On several occasions I personally heard Fidel himself 
express his feelings of hatred and loathing for the United States. 

Mr. Hnz, Miss Castro, wlien did it become evident to you that the 
Cuban revolutionary government was actually a Communist govern- 
ment ? 

Miss Castro. Around the middle or end of 1959, I started to worrj^ 
about the road that that revolution was taking, a revolution that was 
supposedly democratic. 

Mr. HiTz. What caused you to believe this? 

Miss Castro. They started by censoring the press. They also started 
to infiltrate the ranks of the revolutionary army with Communist 
leaders. Besides, injustices were really scandalous, and I could see this 
happening every day. 

I knew of the plans for intervention in all schools in Cuba, both 
public and private, Protestant and Catholic. I also knew through 
my contacts in the government that they were planning to expel 
priests and nuns. I knew about these plans several months before they 
put these measures into effect. 

All of this pointed to the fact that the revolution was on the road 
to becoming the worst of all dictatorships and the worst of all systems. 

Mr. HiTz. When did Fidel make known to the Cuban people that 
he was a Communist ? 

Miss Castro. He stated he was a Marxist-I^eninist on December 1, 
1961. At that time, it was unnecessary for him to state this as the 
facts showed it clearly. 

Mr. HiTZ. Is Fidel Castro the person in absolute control of the 
Cuban Government ? 

Miss Castro. The Cuban Government is under the direction some- 
times of Moscow, other times of Peking. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman. 

Can you explain that last answer by maybe infonning the committee 
as to whether or not he works through the embassies of these coun- 
tries ? 

Miss Castro. Well, he must work through those embassies and 
other times through dire-ct orders that he probably receives from 
Moscow and Peking. 

Mr. Hitz. What party does Fidel belong to and what one actually 
controls in Cuba ? 

Mi'^s Castro. Fidel belongs to and directs the United Party of the 
Socialist Revolution in Cuba, PURS. 

The Chairman. May I ask a question ? 

Miss Castro, this is a difficult question for you to answer, but only 
you can answer it. Questions will arise in tlie minds of the American 
public as to whether what you are now saying, and the position you 
have taken for quite a while, are the result of a feeling as a Christian 
person and your love for peace, happiness, or whether, on the other 
hand, it might be the result of bitterness you have developed against 
your brother. 

I wish you would talk about that. 

Miss Castro. I do not feel any bitterness against anyone at all. 
And I am only moved by my deep Christian convictions, my love for 
freedom, justice, social progress, and welfare of the people; I worry 
about my people, who are suffering under such a terror, the type of 



TESTIMONY OF JU ANITA CASTRO RUZ 833 

terror that you ciinnot imagine unless you live under it. I worry 
about the fate of 6 million Cubans, thousands of men who are wasting 
away and dying in prison. For this reason, for this just and noble 
cause, for this one reason which is more than enough, I am doing 
what I am doing now. 

The Chairman. Let me say that you have said it with obvious con- 
viction. 

Miss Castro. Due to my moral and Christian convictions. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, who of the people of Cuba and the officials 
and employees of the government belong to the PURS party ? 

Miss Castro. A small minority belong in the group that directs his 
party; together with Fidel himself, only that small minority directs 
it. They are all proven Communists. 

Mr. HiTz. What influences are exerted by Moscow and Peking on 
the Government of Cuba ? 

Miss Castro. Cuba has become a colony of Communist imperialism. 
The Moscow regime exerts great influence on the Cuban regime. 

Mr. HiTZ. What is the relationship between Peking and the Castro 
government ? 

Miss Castro. Well, Fidel has always shown his feelings of friend- 
liness toward the Peking regime, towards the so-called hard line. He, 
as we say in Cuba, "has his heart in Peking and his stomach in 
Moscow." 

The Chairman. You have described in general terms the conditions 
of terror that exist in Cuba. Now I would like for you to describe 
in your own way the living conditions in Cuba, the Avorking conditions 
in Cuba, the existence of enough money to buy the necessities of life, 
and so on; in other words, the economic conditions, the standard of 
living. 

Miss Castro. The Communist regime has forced on the Cuban people 
the lowest standard of living ever observed in Cuba. Fidel never 
tired of lying to the Cuban peasants, to the Cuban workers, by making 
false promises to them. He promised the moon to everyone and he 
did not keep any of the promises he had made. For example, Cuban 
workers had obtained excellent social improvement that made their 
work easier. None of this was respected by Fidel. In fact, little 
by little, one by one, these rights were taken away by the regime, and 
he turned the Cuban workers into slaves watched over constantly by 
the Communist bosses. 

Cuban workers, who, in their great majority, have to remain on the 
island because they cannot leave for many reasons — because they have 
to live — they have to live on the cinimbs they receive as a salary and 
they have to w^ork extra hours and also do so-called voluntary w^ork in 
order to survive. 

The Chairman. T^t me ask a specific question there. 

What about the labor movement, the force, the power of the unions ? 
Can they meet, can they have a bargaining table where they can 
discuss their working conditions and go on strike, and so on? 

Miss Castro. Workers in Cuba have lost every right, and it is not 
possible for them to bargain on working conditions. There is no right 
to strike in Cuba. Labor unions in Cuba work under the direct orders 
of the Communist Government. 



834 TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 

The Chairman. By the Communist Government, yoii mean the 
Government of Cuba as you know it and Communist Governments in 
Russia and China, and do they colhiborate on those things? 

Miss Castro. When I say Communist government I mean the gov- 
ernment as we know tliem in Cuba, in Moscow, Peking, and all other 
countries that are dominated by the Communists as all these things 
happen in all these countries. 

The Chairman. Now let mo talk about a specific industry. I come 
from Louisiana ; the biggest sugarcane-producing district in the United 
States is in my congressional district. 

I want to talk a bit about life on the farm. 

I know that from the beginning the economy of Cuba has been 
wrapped up with the sugar industry. What liappened to that industry 
since Fidel has been in power ? Has it been improved, have the con- 
ditions changed for the better or for the worse ? 

Miss Castro. When Fidel came into power, he devoted himself to 
the task of destroying the main Cuban industry, which was the sugar 
industry. I remember he said many times that we had to get away 
from a one-crop economy, that we had to diversify, not only on the 
farms but in industry also. 

Not knowing what he was doing, he ordered the destruction of many 
canefields, to the amazement of those that knew that was the worst 
mistake possible. He talked about trying to build up industry in Cuba 
and that Russia would send him w^hatever equipment and machinery 
he might require. 

Besides all of this, also the Cuban peasants to whom Fidel had 
promised more land than just agrarian reform, well, Fidel was very 
far from fulfilling his promises to these peasants. The Cuban peasants, 
all of whom believed in Fidel, like all the rest of the Cubans, saw day 
by day how the wealth of the country, how their own livelihood, 
disappeared. 

The Cuban peasants ai'e one of the groups in Cuba wlio have com- 
pletely refused to cooperate with Fidel. They have absolutely re- 
fused, in spite of all tlireats, to work on the fields. 

The Chairman. Well, before coming to that, what happened to the 
sugar plantations and the raw sugar mills that were operating before 
he took over? I understand they were confiscated. Were they 
divided among the peasants or farmers, or how are they operated now ? 

Miss Castro. All the sugar mills in Cuba, all the sugar cane planta- 
tions, were confiscated by Fidel. There were even sugar mills that 
were dismantled and the machinery sent to Russia as payment for 
Cuba's debts with the Soviet Union for arms. 

He did not distribute the land among the peasants, as he had prom- 
ised, through the agrarian i-eform. He lias forced them to work these 
so-called cooperatives or people's farms. The peasants have totally 
refused to do this and they do not cooperate with Fidel; they do not 
work in the fields. 

Besides, during this last sugar crop, due to the fact that the peasants 
have refused to work, Fidel has been forced to take to the fields all 
the people of Cuba, including students, public employees, even school 
children, so that they would do the work because the peasants refused 
to work in the fields. 

The Chairman. What happened to Fidel's plan to get away from 
a one-crop economy and to grow other crops ? Was that successful ? 



TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 835 

Miss Castro. Fidel has failed in his purpose of diversifying in- 
dustry and agriculture. He has lacked the cooperation of the people, 
who are against Fidel and his regime in Cuba. In one word, Fidel 
has destroyed the national economy. 

The Chairman. How does the production of sugar in quantity 
compare with what it was, say 10 years ago, in tonnage ? 

Miss Castro. Sugar production at present, in spite of the totals 
announced by the government, is lower than it was 10 years ago. For 
example, there is the fact that in 1952 Cuba produced 7 million tons 
of sugar. It was necessary, due to so large a production during the 
following years, to restrict the Cuban industry. But in spite of that 
it still continuect to flourish. 

The destmction of the sugar industry was so large that during 
1959-1960, production decreased to only S^/o million tons. 

The Chairman. I know it is difficult for you to recite statistics and 
I am not going to press that in specific quantities. I will ask you two 
more general questions. 

What happened to Fidel's statement or promise that the Soviets 
would supply the necessary machinery? Did that work out? 

Miss Castro. It was also another lie from his colleagues, the Soviet 
(^ommunists. 

The Chairman. So, as I understand it, the sugar industry was 
wrecked and the promise to have more and better diversified crops 
didn't come about ? 

Miss Castro. They destroyed the main national industry and they 
shall never reach their goal to diversify agriculture. 

The Chairman. Now, another short subject. 

Wliat about the standard of living? By that, I mean the avail- 
ability of money wnth which to buy, and the availability of goods to 
buy, from the point of view of the ordinary citizen of Cuba. 

Miss Castro. Standard of living in Cuba has decreased 100 percent. 
Although there may be some money, although some people may have 
some money, they can do nothing with it because there is no food to 
buy, no clothing, no shoes, no medical supplies. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, may I interrupt you a moment ? I thought 
you said that the standard had increased 100 percent. 

Miss Castro. Decreased 100 percent. 

Mr. HiTZ. Decreased. 

The Chairman. One final question. 

I am impressed with what you have been saying and it is not hard 
to guess that it is the truth. On the other hand, the two groups of 
students who went to Cuba, when they came back, painted an 
entirely different picture. They told the American public that the 
economy was good ; that the beaches and hotels were doing big busi- 
ness ; mercantile stores w^ere prosperous, and so on. 

Now I can see that, perhaps from what they saw, they might have 
been telling the truth in a way. But what accounts for the disparity, 
difference, in your tAvo versions ? 

Miss Castro. Those two groups of students that went to Cuba in 
1963 and 1964, possibly many of them belonged to Communist organi- 
zations in this countrv. They had no chance at any time to see what 
the real facts were. These students that arrived in Cuba for an official 
visit with the Cuban Government, besides their Communist leanings, 



836 TESTIMONY OF JU ANITA CASTRO RUZ 

were received by members of the Student Youth of Cuba and the 
Union of Communist Youth, whose members are trained to do this, to 
receive these people. 

I know in detail of the activities of these students in Cuba, of the 
things they did there. I would like to ask these students who have 
returned here, repeating the things that they heard over there ; those 
students, when they arrived in Cuba, stayed at the hotels that the 
Cubans have prepared for these purposes. 

In order to eat, those students did not require a ration card, which 
the Cuban people require. And even with that, the Cubans cannot 
eat. Those students were taken through Cuba, led by a group of of- 
ficials, and they only went through those places where they were taken. 

Those students possibly had no chance, or maybe they didn't even 
have the interest to try, to go into the home of a Cuban family and to 
ask that family if on that day on which they, the students, had eaten 
so well, to ask them if there was at least a little bit of food on the table 
of that Cuban family. 

The Chairman. Now you mentioned something about ration cards 
for the first time a moment ago. AYliat are some of the commodities, 
either things to eat or things to wear, that the Cuban national must 
have a card to buy? In other words, what is rationed? 

Miss Castro. Everything is rationed in Cuba. Not only food items 
in general, the staples, the basic things in order to survive, but also 
items of clothing, shoes, medicines. Even sugar is rationed in Cuba. 

The Chairman. Sugar ? 

Miss Castro. Sugar. 

The miserable ration received by the people as a family group is so 
small that it will barely serve for just one meal. 

The Chairman. I know you can't remember details, so I will only 
ask an illustration. Does anybody come to your mind so that you can 
relate, for example, what a husband and wife and two or three chil- 
dren, how much of different commodities they are permitted to buy, 
such as meats, rice, sugar, coffee, shoes, and so forth; bread, milk, 
butter? 

Miss Castro. For example, a family of five in Cuba — and I will try 
to be as accurate as possible, because after I left Cuba, quite a few more 
items were rationed — for example, a family of five did not have the 
right to even one quart of milk a day, because in order to obtain this 
tlie family had to number six members. For example, a family of five 
had no right to fresh milk ; instead, they received six cans of condensed 
milk per week. One quarter of a pound of meat a week was all they 
received, and there were many weeks when they did not receive even 
this. 

The Chairman. Now let me make this plain. I am not asking these 
questions to draw an odious comparison between the conditions of liv- 
ing in America and Cuba, but- 1 have brought out these facts to com- 
pare what was related to the American public by those students and by 
others sent here by tlie Cuban regime to propagandize America as to 
the blessings of the Castro regime. That is the only reason I am 
bringing these things out, because those are things directly within the 
jurisdiction of this committee, namely, propaganda and subversive 
activities within the United States, either of a domestic or foreign 
origin. 



TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 837 

Miss Castro. If the American students that visited Cuba at that 
time had had to eat by using tlie ration cards, I responsibly assure you, 
sir, that they would have left C^iba the next day. 

The Chairman. Well, I think that makes my point clear. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, I understand your point, but it led to 
another question in my mind that has to do with this hearing. 

The Communist minority who run the country, are they the only 
ones wdio drive a car and get gasoline and tires and are they the only 
ones who get to go to these resort hotels and are they the ones who have 
the variety of food and plenty of it ? 

Miss Castro. The only ones that have the right to a pleasant life in 
Cuba are the members of this Communist minority. They have good 
cars; they have abundant food, because they do not require ration 
cards. They have excellent clothing; they have shoes; thev can enjoy 
life amp.ly while the people are starving, while the people suffer terribly 
under the barbaric Communist system. And we can say this because we 
can really understand it, only those of us who have suffered the ter- 
rible terror under a Communist system can tmly understand this and 
say these things. 

The Communist visitors, the guests of the Communist Government, 
have no right to make any statements concerning life under a Commu- 
nist system ; they didn't even have the right to state an opinion. 

Mr. Pool. Then they do not need money to be the affluent, aristo- 
cratic people of Cuba under the Communist regime; is that the 
impression ? 

Miss Castro. They are the absolute masters of power. 

Mr. Pool. Thank you. 

Mr. HiTZ. Miss Castro, you mentioned about the stay of the students 
from America in 1963 and that under certain circumstances, if they 
had to use the ration cards, you ventured to say they would leave the 
next day. 

Is it a fact that they stayed about 2 months ? 

Miss Castro. Yes ; those students that visited Cuba in 1963 remained 
on the island for 2 months. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, we have received information in the form of 
testimony that the Cuban Government spent approximately one-half 
a million dollars on the financing of the trip of those students to Cuba 
in 1963. Do you have any information about that ? 

Miss Castro. No, I have none. 

Mr. HiTz. Do you know whether these students visited the missions 
of Russia and the Chinese Peking Governments? 

Miss Castro. I am not certain whether those students that visited 
Cuba in 1963 did meet with the Russians and the Chinese. However, 
the group that went there in 1964 did meet with them. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, to my next-to-the-last question, you an- 
sw^ered that you did not know about the estimate of the amount spent 
by the Cuban Government, as well as the fact that the Cuban Govern- 
ment paid the expenses. 

I would like to ask you : Do you know whether or not the expenses 
were paid, but in an amount that you are not aware of ? 

Miss Castro. What I meant was that I was not certain as to the 
exact amount it might have cost the Cuban Government to pay for 
this trip. 



838 TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 

The Chairman. But your original statement this morning that the 
Cuban Government had paid the expenses is still accurate? 

Miss Castro. Yes ; the Cuban Government did pay for the trips of 
those students to Cuba. 

The Chairman. That leads me to this question : How did you ob- 
tain that knowledge ? Was that through discussions with officials, or 
what? 

Miss Castro. Yes; through officials of the Institute for Friendship 
Among the Peoples, who had to do directly with the trips of these 
students. 

The Chairman. Did I understand you to say this morning that the 
funds somehow had been, or probably had been, channeled through 
Cuban funds out of the IT.N.? Did I understand you to say that? 

Miss Castro. What I said this morning was that I believed that 
these funds were delivered to the Cuban delegation to the United 
Nations. 

Mr. HiTZ. Miss Castro, did selected students of the 1963 group at- 
tend conferences with members of the Cuban Government ? 

Miss Castro. Yes. That group of 59 students that visited Cuba in 
1963, and whose head was Albert Maher, did meet with officials of the 
Cuban Government. Yes; one of the first persons they called on, one 
of the first persons that received them was Fidel, at Varadero Beach. 
They were also received by the President of the Republic, Osvaldo 
Dorticos ; by Armando Hart ; by Bias Roca, editor of the Hoy news- 
paper, official organ of the Communist Party ; by Jose Llanusa, direc- 
tor of the Cuban Sports Institute; by "Che" Guevara, Minister of 
Industry of the Cuban Government. 

The Chairman. I might point out that, although I do not recall 
these names in particular, one from the other, the record does contain 
testimony substantially along the lines you have related. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, please spell the name of Mr. Maher, if you 
know. 

Miss Castro. M-a-h-e-r, I believe. 

Mr. HiTz. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. The first name is Albert ? 

Miss Castro. Albert ; yes. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, what was the reaction of Fidel himself and 
other government officials to this so-called students' trip in 1963? 

Miss Castro. Fidel, as well as the other officials of the Cuban Gov- 
ernment, were very pleased with the visit of these American students 
to Cuba. Besides, they would serve as excellent means of propaganda 
before American public after their return here to the ITnited States. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, I think my next two questions are sub- 
ject 

The Chairman. Before you go to that, may I ask one more question 
as to visits? 

Do you recall, do you know, whether these students, either the first 
or the second group, or both, visited either the Russian Embassy or the 
Chinese Embassy while in Cuba ? 

Miss Castro. I am not certain as to the first group, but I positively 
know that the second group did visit the Chinese Embassy and met 
with a group of Chinese scholarship students. 

The Chairman. That conforms to the SAvorn evidence we have on 
record. 



TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 839 

Now let me test you as to another detail. 

Testimony was received by the committee, also, that at least some of 
these students played ping-pong with Castro. Are you familiar with 
that? 

Miss Castro. I do not know if they played ping-pong. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. HiTZ. Miss Castro, I think my next two questions are perhaps 
susceptible of very short answers, and we are running short of time. 

Can you tell us when Fidel Castro became a Communist or approx- 
imately when, in your opinion ? 

The Chairman. She said that already; in December 1961. 

Mr. HiTz. That was not my question, sir. 

The Chairman. I am sorry. I see the distinction, I am sorry. 

Miss Castro. Officially he stated he was one on December 1, 1961. 
However, through information that I received, I knew that before 
he even reached the Sierra Maestra Mountains he himself, Fidel, had 
already prepared plans for the Communist takeover of Cuba. 

Mr. HiTz. Had he been to Mexico in 1956, to your knowledge. Miss 
Castro? 

Miss Castro. Yes ; he arrived in Mexico in 1956. 

Mr. HiTz. Do you know whether there he met with Communists? 

Miss Castro. Excuse me. He arrived in Mexico at the end of 1955 
and there he made his first contacts with members of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. HiTz. Thank you. 

Now my sex^ond question, I think perhaps can be answered briefly, 
is : Do you know whether or not your brother, Raul Castro, made a 
trip to a Communist youth festival in Europe in approximately the 
year 1952? 

Miss Castro. Yes. He attended a Youth Congress in Europe in 
Febniary 1952. 

Mr. HiTz. With reference to that trip and date or some other, can 
you tell us when, in your opinion, Raul 

Miss Castro. I would like to say that was not February of 1952, 
but 1953. 

Mr. HiTz. Can you tell us with respect to that date and event or any 
other, when, in your opinion, your brother Raul became a Communist ? 

Miss Castro. While Raul was studying at the University of Havana 
was when he first established contact with pro-Communist elements 
and he became more and more enthusiastic about these ideas. 

At that time, Fidel, who had promised our father he would take 
care of Raul, was busy with his own political campaign and he did 
not fulfill his promise to our father, and when political elements came 
to see Fidel 

The Chairman. That was after that? 

Miss Castro. He was running as a representative with the Ortho- 
dox Party. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Miss Castro. Then at that time, Fidel would ask Raul to receive 
the Communists that came to call on him to offer to help with his 
political campaign. 

The Chairman. But Fidel apparently did not want to be publicly 
associated with them. Is that the inference to be drawn, or was he 
really not interested ? 



840 TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 

Miss Castro. At that time, maybe it was not convenient for him or 
maybe he was not interested. In our opinion, at that time, he was not 
a Communist. 

Mr, HiTz. Miss Castro, when did you first learn of the fact that the 
Soviet Union was sending men and military supplies to Cuba? 

Miss Castro. I was informed about the arrival of Soviet troops and 
arms at the beginning of 1962. 

Mr. HiTz. Was it generally known in Cuba that the Russians were 
installing missile bases there ? 

Miss Castro. I don't think all of the Cuban people knew that the 
missile bases were being installed in Cuba. There was a group of us 
people who knew about this. 

Mr. HiTZ. How long did you know of the missile bases there before 
the United States announced it publicly in October 1962? 

Miss Castro. Well, I knew about it in April, May, or June of 1962, 

Mr, HiTZ, Do you know whether any of the missiles had actually 
been removed by the Russians at the time you left Cuba in 1964? 

Miss Castro, When I left Cuba, they may have removed some 
missiles, but I am not certain that this is a fact, 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, do you know whether Fidel hoped to use the 
missile bases in his country as a physical w^eapon or a propaganda 
weapon against the United States? 

Miss Castro. I am sure that those arms, those missiles, would be used 
as true arms against the United States if they still remained in Cuba, 

The Chairman. Let me ask you this question. Most people realize, 
I think, including leaders of the Kremlin, that a nuclear war between 
the United States and Russia would mean the annihilation on both 
sides of hundreds of millions of people and that probably would in- 
clude human beings in Cuba. 

I wonder if you are in a position to say, based on knowledge, what the 
feelings of Castro would be if that should happen ? 

Miss Castro. I don't think the fact that there would be a nuclear 
war would worry Fidel at all. I don't think he would worry even if 
half of mankind were destroyed. 

The Chairman. He certainly would not care if some American 
millions would be destroyed ? 

Miss Castro, That would be the best gift he could ever receive in his 
life. 

The Chairman, Are you pretty sure that the feeling of Castro 
toward the United States is that intense and that self -consuming? 

Miss Castro, I am absolutely certain as to what I am stating. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr, HiTZ, Miss Castro, you have told us that it is a Cuban expression 
that Fidel's "heart is in Peking and that his stomach is in Moscow." 

In the light of that situation, please tell us in what fashion Fidel 
treats and regards these two foreign Communist interests and what 
positions he takes with respect to them. 

Miss Castro. I said that Fidel's heart is in Peking, because on dif- 
ferent occasions he has stated his feelings, his sympathy for the hard 
line of the Peking government, and that his stomach is in Moscow, 
because Cliina cannot supply him with certain items that he requires, 
such as oil. 

Mr. HiTZ. Miss Castro, he is in the situation where these two Com- 
munist forces are competing for his favors and seeking his decision? 



TESTIMONY OF JUAJSTITA CASTRO RUZ 841 

Miss Castro. They must be waiting for Fidel to decide on one or 
the other. 

Mr. HiTz. Do you have any knowledge of the existence of Red 
Chinese and Viet Cong personnel on the island of Cuba for the pur- 
pose of either receiving training from or of training Cuban per- 
sonnel ? 

Miss Castro. Well, I do not know whether there are any Viet 
Cong personnel receiving training in Cuba now, but I do know of 
the help Fidel promised and has sent to the Viet Cong. He expressed 
the fact that he was sorry that Vietnam was not closer to him so 
that he could really offer mucli greater help to the Viet Cong. 

Mr. HiTz. Are there any Chinese delegations in Cuba other than 
their diplomatic missions? 

Miss Castro. I am not certain about this. I am not certain whether 
there might be a military, a Chinese military, delegation in Cuba 
besides the regular diplomatic delegation. 

Mr. HiTz. Are there any delegations of a social or propaganda 
description in Cuba from China? 

Miss Castro. Well, the Chinese delegation has at their Embassy 
the different departments such as the Cultural Department, and so 
forth, that function at any diplomatic delegation. For example, there 
are Chinese scholarship students who come to Cuba in exchange 
operations. There have also been athletes who have visited Cuba, 
Chinese teams have come to Cuba. 

Mr. HiTz. Are you familiar with the existence and the extent of 
espionage being directed against the United States by the Communist 
regime in Cuba? 

Miss Castro. Well, I cannot say in detail as to anji^hing here in 
the United States except that there are agents infiltrated here. I am 
certain of that. This, I know, because I heard many officials mention 
it directly and personally. 

Mr. HiTZ. Do you have any knowledge of espionage or propaganda 
activity directed against the United States on the part of the Cuban 
delegation to the United Nations in New York? 

Miss Castro. I am absolutely certain that one of the main tasks 
of the Cuban delegation to the United Nations is that of espionage. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, what is the principal agency within the 
Cuban Government concerned with spreading the propaganda to the 
United States? 

Miss Castro. The National Printing Office of Cuba, directed by the 
government itself, is the one that is in charge of preparing and sending 
out all propaganda sent to foreign countries, including the United 
States. The Communist Party itself controls and directs all propa- 
ganda and they supervise all propaganda, not only that used in Cuba, 
but that which is sent to foreign countries. 

Mr. Hitz. Are you familiar with the establishment by the present 
Cuban regime of front organizations and fund-raising projects in 
the United States? 

Miss Castro. Well, one of the main front organizations in the 
United States is the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, which was 
founded and is formed in its entirety by Americans. 

Mr. Hitz. Miss Castro, did the Cuban Government, to your knowl- 
edge, assist in the establishment of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee? 



842 TESTIMONY OF JUANTTA CASTRO RUZ 

Miss Castro. Well, the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, which is 
formed entirely by Americans, probably must work in direct con- 
tact with the Cuban Government. 

Mr. HiTZ. Are you familiar with the activities of one Richard Gib- 
son, who formerly headed the Fair Play for Cuba Committee? 

Miss Castro. No. 

Mr. HiTz. To your knowledge, did Fidel Castro meet with any rep- 
resentatives of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee and, if so, what 
was the purpose of the meeting, if you know that? 

Miss Castro. Well, Fidel met with founding members of the Fair 
Play for Cuba Committee, among them Carleton Beals; Waldo Frank, 
a writer; Robert Williams, who at present resides in Cuba. However, 
as to what they discussed, I have no knowledge. 

Mr. HiTz. Did you know of any other members of the Fair Play 
for Cuba Committee ? 

Miss Castro. No; I do not remember any other name offhand. 

Yes; I remember one other name. Bob Taber was another one of 
the members of that committee. 

Mr. HiTZ. Do you knoAv Dr. Martha Frayde, who was the liaison in 
Cuba with an American organization known as the Medical Aid to 
Cuba Committee ? 

Miss Castro. Yes; I did meet Dr. Frayde, but I do not know 
whether she was the liaison with that American group. 

Mr. Hitz. Do you know slie was a Communist ? 

Miss Castro. She is a Communist. She is one of the founders of the 
Cuban Communist Party. 

The Chairman. I think the Chair ought to say that we received 
the testimony of at least tAvo people that I remember, under oath, link- 
ing Dr. Frayde in the same way as confirmed by the present witness. 

Mr. Hitz. Are you familiar with any connections between the Cuban 
Government and Communist organizations in the United States such 
as the Progressive Labor Movement ? 

Miss Castro. Well, some of the members of the Progressive Labor 
Movement visited Cuba in 1964 and they met with members of the 
Cuban Government, so they must be in contact with that government. 

Mr. Hitz. Through whom is this contact maintained, if you know, 
both in the United States and in Cuba ? 

Miss Castro. Well, one of the students that visited Cuba in 1964, 
Edward Lemansky, is one of the organizers of the Progressive Labor 
Movement. 

The Chairman. The Chair might say that the Progressive Labor 
Movement is a tough outfit. 

Mr. Hitz. Do you know whether or not the contacts in Cuba for this 
organization are the Cuban Federation of University Students and the 
Institute for Friendship Among the Peoples ? 

Miss Castro. Well, yes, I know that some of these students called on 
the Union of Communist Youth, on the Federation of ITniversity Stu- 
dents, members of the Institute for Friendship Among the Peoples at 
the time they stayed in Cuba. 

They also met with Robert Williams. They met with some of the 
officials of the Communist regime. 

The Chairman. Just a short question, I don't want to press it. 



TESTIMONY OF JUANTTA CASTRO RUZ 843 

As I recall the record of the hearings on the unlawful Cuban travel, 
it contains evidence under oath that one or more, or some of either the 
first or the last ^oup, held a press conference in Cuba. 

Are you familiar with that ? 

Miss Castro. Well, Edward Lemansky, the head of this second 
group, held a press conference, particularly with Prensa Latina. 

I recall that he made statements condemning the policy followed by 
this country in Vietnam. These students signed a statement in which 
they supported the struggle of what they called the peoples of Viet- 
nam and Venezuela. 

The Chairman. And the statements made at that press conference 
were intended, of course, to be beamed to the United States as well ? 
Did you understand that ? 

Miss Castro. Absolutely. 

The Chairman. And to some people in Cuba, including yourself, 
who knew better, that was known to be just pure propaganda; w^as it 
not? 

Miss Castro. We were absolutely certain that all the activities on 
the part of the students were simply propaganda. 

The Chairman. I say that for the record again, as I have said be- 
fore, to indicate the objectives, the purposes of these hearings to de- 
velop a record concerning propaganda and subversive activities within, 
or intended to come within, the United States, either with domestic or 
foreign origin, which is the subject of our jurisdiction. 

Mr. Hitz. Miss Castro, you have made several references to Robert 
Williams, who you stated was known to you to be a fugitive from a 
criminal prosecution in this country, now living in Cuba, and who 
you said was being used by Fidel Castro as part of his propaganda 
machinery directed against the United States and against other 
countries. 

I would like to ask you a few questions about him and that activity. 

Do you know when Robert Williams came to Cuba and how he 
arranged it ? 

Miss Castro. Well, he visited Cuba in 1960 and he met with officials 
of the Cuban Government and he also gave television and public 
interviews praising the regime. He returned to Cuba by clandestine 
means in the middle of 1961, October or August, I am not certain, and 
he asked for political asylum in Cuba. 

Well, he then stayed in Cuba and started directing a radio pro- 
gram which had as its main purpose to direct propaganda against the 
United States in order to cause racial problems. He visited Commu- 
nist China on several occasions. He met with the student groups that 
visited Cuba. He spoke at several functions that were held in Cuba; 
he was the speaker. 

In other words, he has developed all his activities on the side of the 
Cuban Government and against the United States; all the things he 
does are directed this wav. 

In fact, I remember that, on one occasion when he was present at a 
public function in Matanzas, he stated that if the things he saw there 
were communism, he would share Cuba's fate. I recall that, upon his 
return from a trip to Communist China, he wrote several articles that 
were published in the Cuban Bohemia magazine and I believe some 
were entitled "Stories From an American .'Freedom' Fighter." 



844 TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 

Mr. HiTZ. Is he a Commimist, Miss Castro ? 

Miss Castro. I am absolutely certain that Robert Williams is a 
Communist. 

Mr. HiTz. Is he employed and paid by the Cuban Government ? 

Miss Castro. The Government of Cuba, through the Institute for 
Friendship Among the Peoples, pays Robert Williams' salary. 

Mr. HiTz. Where are his offices ? 

Miss Castro. I do not know exactly where Robert Williams' offices 
are. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, do you have any knowledge of propaganda 
or espionage being directed by the Cuban Communist Government 
against Puerto Rico ? 

Miss Castro. Well, the Cuban Government has always been inter- 
ested in Puerto Rico. Besides, Puerto Ricans have visited Cuba and 
have worked together with the Cuban Government. We have the case 
of Mrs. Laura Meneses de Albisu Campos tind Juan Juarbe Juarbe, 
who have worked and have even fulfilled posts for the Cuban Gov- 
ernment at the United Nations. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, I understood you to say earlier today, and 
I would like you merely to confirm it if it is correct, that you have 
stated what Fidel's feelings w^ere with regard to the United States and 
what fate he would like to visit upon this country. I also understood 
you to say that it was his intention, as well, to some day hope to take 
over the entire Western Hemisphere. 

Please answer first, am I correct in understanding if that is what 
you have said today ? 

Miss Castro. Exactly. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Mr. HiTZ. Miss Castro, do you have any knowledge of propaganda 
and espionage being directed by the Cuban Communist Government 
toward Santo Domingo ? 

Miss Castro. Well, I know of several Dominican individuals who 
have been in Havana receiving training. I also know that in many of 
these instances this Communist minority takes over popular move- 
ments. They take advantage of them until they finally reach power. 

Something like this has occurred in Santo Domingo. 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, did you foresee what has recently occurred 
in Santo Domingo? 

Miss Castro. I visited Santo Domingo on April 6 of this year and 
I warned the Dominican people concerning the Communist plans to 
take over Santo Domingo and turn it into another Communist state in 
the Caribbean. 

Mr. HiTZ. Have you any knowledge of propaganda or espionage 
being directed by the Cuban Communist Government toward the na- 
tion of Panama and the Panama Canal Zone, the latter being admin- 
istered by the United States Government ? 

Miss Castro. Well, for quite a while now all subversion, all infil- 
tration, all propaganda against those countries is being organized. 

Mr. HiTz. Is Cuba used as a training ground for Communist activ- 
ity in the Panama Canal Zone ? 



TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 845 

Miss Castro. Cuba is the main base for training in subversion and 
propaganda and in all Communist activities that are being directed 
against Panama and all these countries. 

Mr. Pool, Mr. Chairman. 

These schools for training these subversives, about how many schools 
are there in Cuba ? Do you have any idea ? 

Miss Castro. Well, there are several of these schools in Cuba to 
train these groups that come from foreign countries on guerrilla war- 
fare and subversive activities. For example, there is one of those 
schools in the Sierra Maestra Mountains called Minas del Frio. 

Mr. HiTZ. In your opinion, Miss Castro, do the positions of Cuban 
exile groups operating from the United States or the Latin American 
countries have any effect upon the policies of the Cuban Government 
or upon Fidel himself? 

Miss Castro. Well, of course. The activities of all of these groups 
that are fighting against the government do affect and worry Fidel 
himself, 

Mr. PIiTz, To what extent, if at all, has the Cuban exile colony in 
the United States been infiltrated by agents of the Castro regime? 

Miss Castro, I cannot state up to what point that exile colony has 
been infiltrated, but I can state that it has been widely infiltrated. 

Mr. HiTz. Do you have any knowledge of Cuba being used as a base 
for the training of guerrillas and terrorists for operations in the 
United States? 

Miss Castro. Well, I repeat that Cuba is the base for training on 
infiltration and guerrilla warfare and I am sure this will be directed 
not only against the United States, but against all the other countries 
that they have already infiltrated and in which there are constant 
problems with these Communist elements, 

Mr. HiTz. Miss Castro, do you know Alberto Bayo ? 

Miss Castro. Yes, certainly I do know Alberto Bayo. 

Mr. HiTz. Who is he and what does he do ? 

Miss Castro. Well, Alberto Bayo was the man who in Mexico 
trained in guerrilla warfare the group which Fidel headed and with 
which he was planning an invasion of Cuba. He is one of the men 
that trains groups of foreign people who are in Cuba to receive train- 
ing, particularly on guerrilla warfare and all types of subversive 
activities. 

Mr. Pool. Mr, Chairman. 

I just want a last question for the record; it really does not con- 
cern what we are getting into. 

What would happen in Cuba if Fidel Castro were killed or died? 
Wlio would take over? 

Miss Castro, I don't know who could take over the power at that 
moment, 

Mr. Pool. They don't have a crown prince, so to speak ? 

Miss Castro. Well, supposedly should anything happen, it is Raul 
who is supposed to take over the government in accordance with 
the way they have organized the Communist Government. 

Mr. Hrrz. Does the Cuban Government, to your knowledge, ship 
arms and supplies to other countries ? 

Miss Castro. The Cuban Government is constantly, through the 
merchant marine and the fishing boats, shipping arms and infiltrating 
many countries. 



846 TESTIMONY OF JUANTTA CASTRO RUZ 

Mr. HiTz. Are you acquainted with the activities of a ship called 
Sierra Maestraf 

Miss Castro. The ship called Sierra Maestra of the merchant ma- 
rine has made several trips to China carrying arms. 

Mr. HiTZ. Have you any information as to whether or not she has 
traveled with arms to Africa ? 

Miss Castro. The ship that is operating in that zone of Africa 
is another ship of the merchant marine called the AraceUo Iglesias, 
but also the Sierra Ma£sfra is travelino; there. 

Mr. HiTz. Is the fishing fleet of Cuba adjusted also for such pur- 
poses? 

Miss Castro. The fishing fleet is the one that is used the most often, 
particularly for activities on this continent. 

Mr. HiTz. Do you know whether the Cuban airlines operates as a 
communication system in the transmission of arms, supplies, and pro- 
paganda ? 

Miss Castro. Well, the Cuban airlines is used through its regularly 
scheduled flights to Mexico and Canada, particularly to distribute 
printed propaganda, but much less for arms and other types of mili- 
tary supplies. 

Mr. HiTz. Does the Cuban Government make use of their dip- 
lomatic facilities as bases for subversion in countries in which they 
have representation ? 

Miss Castro. The main task of all diplomatic delegations in the 
countries in which they represent Cuba is that of subversion and 
propaganda and espoinage. 

Mr. Hitz. Do you have any knowledge as to whether or not the 
Cuban Government's representation at the Ignited Nations in New 
York is used for purposes of propaganda, subversion, and espionage? 

Miss Castro. I am absolutely certain that said delegation is one of 
the most often used for these purposes. 

Mr. Hitz. Do you have knowledge of anv propaganda or espionage 
being directed at the United States from Mexic/O on behalf of the Cas- 
tro government ? 

Miss Castro. I am sure that one of their Embassies, one of the Cuban 
Embassies where they do tlie largest amount of work of this type is 
the Cuban Embassy in Mexico. It is the largest office for subversion 
that thev have in tlie entire continent. 

Mr. Hitz. Miss Castro, do you believe that Cuba is now a captive 
nation of the Soviet Union and the Moscow segment of the interna- 
tional Communist movement or is Fidel still, to a large extent, playing 
Moscow off against Peking? 

Miss Castro. Cuba is the first captive island of the Communist re- 
gimes in the American Continent. 

Mr. Hitz. Does Fidel have confidence in and trust his advisers and 
lieutenants, Miss Castro? 

Miss Castro. Well, Fidel cannot have too much confidence in these 
people as we can see how they are being constantly purged. This is 
only a sample of how the regime really is, internally. 

Mr. Hitz. Miss Castro, do vou think a time will have to come Avhen 
Fidel Castro will be faced with an ultimatum from either Peking or 
from Moscow to determine in which way he desires his lot to fall ? 

Miss Castro. I am sure that sooner or later either Peking or Mos- 
cow will have to give him that ultimatum. He will be faced with it, 



TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 847 

SO that he will have to decide to the side of which power he will go. 

Mr. HiTZ. Do you think Fidel realizes this ? 

Miss Castro. He must realize that. 

Mr. HiTz, You mentioned earlier today the consuming belief and 
attitude that Fidel has that the United States must be destroyed for 
the best interests of himself and for what he believes the best interest 
of Cuba. 

Do you believe that Castro can honestly feel that if the situation 
continued where, apparently from what you say, he is able to enjoy 
the favors of both Peking and Moscow, at least at this time, without 
choosing which side to cast his lot with, that he and Cuba would be 
better off without the United States being a very considerable stabiliz- 
ing force in the w^orld ? 

Miss Castro. His only consuming interest is the destruction of the 
United States, and he is not really interested as to the fact of whether 
the time will arrive when the United States will really be the one to 
control any problems between Peking and Moscow. He is really not 
interested in that. 

Mr. HiTZ. Do you have any suggestion, Miss Castro, as to how the 
Government of the United States might deal economically or diplo- 
matically with Castro in an effort to pull him out of the position in 
which you say he is in the Soviet orbit ? 

Miss Castro. I do not think it is possible for the United States at 
this time to try to remove Fidel from this Soviet orbit. I think that 
is quite impossible. 

To accept negotiations now with the Cuban Communist regime 
would be equivalent to the destruction of all the hopes maintained by 
all the countries that are struggling against the Communists. 

Mr. HiTZ. I have finished, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Buchanan. Miss Castro, I want to thank you for your very 
fine testimony here today. We assure you that there are millions of 
citizens of tliis country who share both your Christian convictions and 
your devotion to freedom ; who are concerned about freedom for your 
country and for people everywhere. I want to ask you to refer back 
to your earlier testimony. When you were testifying as to the role of 
the schools in Cuba, you mentioned the fact that the schools were 
used for the indoctrination of children in Marxism-Leninism. Now, 
how early does this indoctrination begin ? 

Miss C-vstro. They s<^art indoctrinatiiig children in Cuba from the 
age of 3. The first words that these children learn are "Fidel," "Raul," 
"Che," "revolution." These words are used in the textbooks that are 
used to teach the children. 

Mr. Buchanan. Do they go through any progressiA^e stage? Are 
there organizations to which they belong in connection with the 
school ? 

Miss Castro. Yes. At 7, they have to join the Union of Pioneers of 
Cuba, another Communist organization ; and at 12, they belong to the 
Union of Communist Youth. 

Mr. BucTTANAN. Now, one more question along this line. 

You testified earlier that the schools were used to teach atheism, or 
against religion. What about family relationships? Are the schools 
used, for example, to help tench respect for parents ? 

Miss Castro. Well, in Cuba, thev are tryinjr to destroy the family 
unit at its very foundation. The first thing that they teach children 



848 TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 

is not to respect or love their parents. They teach them that the only 
parent they do have is the state. We have even witnessed cases where 
children have denounced their parents after these children had been 
indoctrinated in communism. 

Mr. Buchanan. Thank you, Miss Castro. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, I have a question. 

Miss Castro, is it within your direct knowledge as to whom Castro 
has considered his most ardent supporters in the United States? 

Miss Castro. On different occasions I heard Fidel personally men- 
tion as his greatest friends in the United States Messrs. Herbert Mat- 
thews, Carleton Beals, and Waldo Frank. 

On the several trips that Mr. Matthews has taken to Cuba, he has 
been constantly accompanied by the Cuban security police. 

During Mr. Herbert Matthews' many trips to Cuba, he has never 
tried to get close to the workingman to ask him what the real condi- 
tions are in Cuba, and yet when he returns to the United States, he 
publishes only that which he thinks is convenient or helpful for the 
Communist regime. 

Mr. Pool. Would you further identify Mr. Matthew^s ? Wliat does 
he do ? Wliat is h i s j ob ? 

Miss Castro. Mr. Matthews is one of the editors of the Neiu York 
Tiines. 

Mr. Pool. Have you previously identified Mr. Beals and Mr. Frank ? 

Miss Castro. I know they are journalists and writers, but I do not 
know specifically where they work. They probably work at the offices 
of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 

Mr. Pool. Do you know whether or not they are members of the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee ? 

Miss Castro. They are members of the Fair Play for Cuba Com- 
mittee, founders. 

Mr. Pool. I have no further questions. 

I do want to compliment the witness, Miss Castro, and thank her 
for appearing before this committee ; it is a great help to the committee. 
We appreciate your feeling for humanity. Thank you. 

The Chairman. I have questioned Miss Castro as we went along 
so I don't have any more questions. 

As chairman of this subcommittee, I would like to say this : Miss 
Castro, the people of the ITnited States have been, for the last few 
years, deluged with a flood of propaganda, painting Cuba, as pointed 
out in my opening statement, as a land of milk and honey; a land with 
an improved standard of living, with political and religious freedom; 
a land where the people have justice; and a land led by a man of peace. 

Because of your very identity and background and your firsthand 
knowledge of the subject under consideration, you have, in my opinion, 
done more to penetrate the fog of propaganda than any person I know^ 
of, so far as the Cuban situation is concerned. 

You have laid bare your knowledge under oath. You have spoken 
with conviction, with common sense, and with obvious truth. 

As far as I am concerned, I think you have made a ijreat contribution 
to the people of the free world, to the countries of the Western Hemi- 
sphere, and, in particular, to the ITnited States of America. 

Your testimony now becomes a permanent record of this committee 
and of the House of Representatives of the Congress of the United 
States. 



TESTIMONY OF JUANITA CASTRO RUZ 849 

Incidentally, that permanent record will include the moving state- 
ment that you made this morning in which you said, among other 
things, this, and I quote passages from your statement : 

I also wish to alert the conscience of those who are concerned about the fate 
of mankind through the personal testimony I can offer concerning the Castro- 
Communist plans for intervention and aggression in the Americas. 



Those of us in Cuba who believed sincerely in freedom, peace, work, the right 
to happiness, and social progress were used by the Communist minority. 



Those of us who have suffered the inhuman Communist experiment have 
learned this lesson well. 



We must not let ourselves be misguided by the fanatical cries of the Communist 
minorities and of those who unwittingly become their instruments. * * * 

I do hope, Miss Castro, that the people of my country will profit by 
your lesson and will heed your admonition not to let themselves be 
misguided by the fanatical cries of the Communist minorities and 
of those who unwittingly become their instrument. 

This committee is truly grateful to you for your appearance here. 
As I said, your testimony becomes a part of the permanent record 
of this committee, the House, and of the Congress. And it will cer- 
tainly aid this committee in formulating appropriate remedial laws 
within its jurisdiction and also aid what we call in America the 
watchdog jurisdiction of overseeing execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned with the laws of our country dealing with sub- 
version and internal security. 

In conclusion, may I simply say this, Miss Castro : I hope that your 
devotion to the democratic principles that you so eloquently developed 
as the theme of your opening statement this morning and your obvious 
deep faith in Christian principles and traditions may sustain you in 
years to come. 

Miss Castro. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. Our thanks, Miss Castro, and t^ you, Doctor, and 
to you, Miss Montero, for your patience and your competence and 
great help in being our translator. 

The committee will stand adjourned. 

(Wliereupon, at 4:55 p.m., Friday, June 11, 1965, the subcommittee 
adjourned.) 



INDEX 



INDIVIDUALS 

A Page 

Albisu Campos, Laura Meneses de 844 

Ameijeiras, Efigenio 824 

B 

Batista y Zaldivar (Fulgencio) 815,823,824 

Bayo, Alberto 845 

Beals, Carleton 816, 842, 848 

O 

Campos, Laura Meneses de Albisu. (See Albisu Campos, Laura Meneses 
de.) 

Castro, Fidel 815, 816, 818-835, 838-849 

Castro, Raul 815, 823-827. 839, 845, 847 

Castro Ruz, Juanita 815-817, 818-819 (statement), 821, 822-849 (testimony) 

D 

del Valle, Sergio. (See Valle, Sergio del.) 

Dorticos, Osvaldo 838 

B 

Escalante, Anibal 824 

Escalante, Cesar 824 

Escalona, Dermidio 824 

F 

Frank, Waldo 816, 842, 848 

Frayde, Martha 842 

G 
Gibson, Richard 842 

Guevara, Ernesto "Che" 824,825,838,847 

H 
Hart, Armando 824, 838 

J 

Johnson (Lyndon B.) 819 

Juarbe, Juan Juarbe. ( See Juarbe Juarbe, Juan. ) 

Juarbe Juarbe, Juan 844 

K 

Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeevich 827 

L 

Lemansky, Edward 842, 843 

Lew, Salvador 817, 822, 831, 849 

Llanusa, Jose 838 

Lopez Montero, Yolanda 817,822,831,849 

i 



ii INDEX 

M 

Page 

Maher, Albert (Lasater) 830,838 

Matthews, Herbert (L.) 816,848 

Montero, Yolanda Lopez. {See Loijez Montero, Yolanda.) 

O 
Ordoqui, Joaquin 824 

P 
Pena, Lazaro 824 

R 

Roca, Bias 824, 838 

Rodriguez, Carlos Rafael 824 

Ruz, Juanita Castro. (See Castro Ruz, Juanita.) 

T 
Taber, Bob 842 

V 

Valle, Sergio del 824 

Vallejo, Rene 824 

W 
Williams, Robert (F.) 829, 842-844 

ORGANIZATIONS 

A 

Aracelio Iglesias (ship) 846 



Communist International. (See International III.) 

Communist Party, Cuba. (See Popular Socialist (Communist) Party, 
Cuba.) 

Cuban Federation of University Students 830, 842 

Cuban Institute for Friendship Among the Peoples 830, 838, 842, 844 

E 
Emergency Committee for Disaster Relief to Cuba 820 

F 

Fair Play for Cuba Committee 820, 829, 841, 842, 848 

Greater Los Angeles Chapter 820 

Federation of the University Students of Cuba. (See Cuban Federation 
of University Students.) 

I 

International, III (Communist) (also known as Comintern and Inter- 
national Workers' Association) 819 

M 

Medical Aid to Cuba Committee 820, 842 

Minas del Frio (school) (Cuba) 845 

N 
National Printing Office (Cuba) 841 

O 

OAS. (See Organization of American States.) 

Organization of American States (OAS) 819 

Orthodox Party (Cuba) 839 



INDEX 



PURS. (See United Party of the Socialist Revolution.) Page 

Popular Socialist (Communist) Party, Cuba 824 

Prensa Latina (news agency) 843 

Progressive Labor Movement 820, 842 

Progressive Labor Party 820 

S 

Sierra Maestra (ship) 846 

Student Committee for Travel to Cuba 816, 820 

Student Youth of Cuba 836 

U 

Union of Communist Youth (Cuba) 836,842,847 

Union of Pioneers (Cuba) "_' 847 

United Nations: Cuban Mission 816,830,838,841,846 

United Party of the Soc-ia list Revolution (PUKS) (Cuba) 832,833 

U.S. Government: State Department 820,830 

University of Havana 839 

PUBLICATIONS 

B 
Bohemia ' 843 

H 
Hoy 838 

N 
New York Times 848 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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