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Full text of "Testimony of Oliver Edmund Clubb. Hearings"

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TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 



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HEARINGS 

\ $ . Co>*c»^*S5- Mo"^^^. BEFORE THE 

COMMrrTEE ON UN-AMEKICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SECOND CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MARCH 14, AUGUST 20 AND 23, 1951 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
92467 WASHINGTON : 1952 



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U. S. SUPERallttiwcUi or i)0CUM£WT5 

MAR. 4 1952 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

JOHN S. WOOD, Georgia, Chairman 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, JR., Tennessee CHARLES E. POTTER, Michigan 

Fran'-- S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Loins J. Rttssell, Senior Investigator 

John W. Carrington, Clerk of Committee 

Raphael I. Nixox, Director of Research 

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CONTENTS 



Testimony of Oliver Edmund Clubb: Page 

March 14, 1951 1965 

August 20, 1951 1983 

August 23, 1951 2043 



III 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 14, 1951 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 

EXECUTIVE SESSION 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
pursuant to notice at 10:30 a. m., in room 226, Old House Office 
Buikhng, Hon. Francis E. Walter presiding. 

Committee member present: Representative Francis E. Walter. 

Staflf members present: Louis J. Russell, senior investigator; 
Donald T. Appell, investigator; and A. S. Poore, editor. 

Mr. Walter (indicating the witness). Will you raise your right 
hand? Stand up, please. Do you swear that the testimony you are 
about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help j^ou God? 

Mr. Clubb. I swear. 

TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Russell. Mr. Clubb, will your state your full name and present 
occupation? 

Mr. Clubb. Oliver Edmund Clubb, Director of the Office of Chinese 
Affairs, Department of State. 

Mr. Russell. Wlien and where were you born? 

Mr. Clubb. South Park, Minn., February 16, 1901. 

Mr. Russell. Would you furnish the committee with information 
regarding your educational background, and would you make it as 
brief as possible? 

Mr. Clubb. Educated in several public schools for the primary 
grades. Went to South St. Paul High School, University of Minne- 
sota at Minneapolis, University of Washington at Seattle. I had 
better change the order there. I first went to the University of 
Washington, then the University of Minnesota. Then graduate 
work at the University of Minnesota. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever study in a foreign country? 

Mr. Clubb. In this respect: I prepared a master's thesis in China, 
submitted it to the University of California in China and got a mas- 
ter's degree from it in 1940. I studied, however, at Peking while in 
the Foreign Service the Chinese language, Chinese history, things like 
that for 2 years, but that was a part of my function as a Foreign 
Service officer when I was assigned to the American Legation at 
Peking, as it was then called, in the capacity of language attache. 

1965 



1966 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Russell. Would you furnish the committee with information 
regarding your employment background? 

Mr. Clubb. From the beginning you mean? 

Mr. Russell. Yes. 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. I left high school in 1917 in the spring. En- 
tered the Army after a brief period of work. Was separated from 
the Army in the spring of 1919. Did odd jobs until the fall. Then 
went to the Coyne Trade and Engineering School in Chicago during 
that winter, if I remember correctly. Subsequently took up farming 
with my brother. Farmed for approximately a year and a half I 
should say. Then entered the University of Washington, after again 
having performed odd jobs, if you will, casual employment. Subse- 
quently durmg that summer also I performed casual vacation em- 
ployment. Then took up my studies at the University of Minnesota. 
While at the University of Minnesota I worked summers and I worked 
sometimes during nights. I performed night employment with the 
Rock Island Railroad actually for a period of months while going to 
school daytimes. 

After finishing my period at the University of Minnesota, I under- 
took a certain amount of graduate woi"k at Minnesota, and then, 
having completed that, took the Foreign Service examinations. 
Worked for a while in the post ofRce in Minneapohs during an interim 
period. Then came do^^^l and took the oral exams, still in the spring 
of 1928, and finallv entered upon my emj^loyment with the Department 
of State effective July 1, 1928. 

Mr. Russell. Have a'ou ever been employed by the State Depart- 
ment in Hankow, China? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. Durins: what period of time? 

Mr. Clubb. 1931 to 1934. 

Mr. Russell. Were you also emploj^ed in Peiping, China? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. During what period? 

Mr. Clubb. Three times. The first period was 1929 to 1931. 
That was when I was language attache as I indicated. From there 
I went to Hankow. From Hankow in 1934 I returned to Peiping. 
Peiping, of course, became the name of that town only after the 
capital moved to Nanking. ^^Tien I first went it was Peking. 

I might say that I was transfeired away from Peking effective, 
if I remember rightly, December 1938, but left only in January or 
Februarv of 1939, so that mv second period at Peking was effectively 
from 1934 to 1939. 

The third time I was assigned there was in 1947, and I remained 
there until 1950. I departed from there April 12, 1950. 

I performed, of course, my services at Peking and Peiping in different 
capacities in those three several periods. 

Mr. Russell. Were you ever stationed at any other points in 
China? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. Would you describe those places? 

Mr. Clubb. You mean list them in chronological order? Would 
that suffice? 

Mr. Russell. Yes, and the years, if possible. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1967 

y\v. Cluhb. Shall I start from the beginning so that the complete 
chronology is correct? 

Mr. Russell. Yes. 

Mr. Clurb. Peking 1929 to 1931. Hankow 1931 to 1934. Peking 
1934 to 1939. Nanking 1939. Shanghai 1939 to 1941. In 1941 I 
was assigned as consul at Saigon, detailed temporarily to Hanoi, 
Indochina. Proceeded at the end of November, arrived at the begin- 
ning of December. Was interned in Indochina. Exchanged at 
Lourengo Marques as part of the internee exchange, Anrericans and 
Japanese, in 1942. Volunteered for return service to China and was 
reassigned to Chungking. Stationed at Chungking for 4 months at 
the end of 1942. On detail at Lanchow, Kansu, for 2 months at the 
most at the beginning of 1943. Ihen 8 months at Tihua, Sinkiang 
Province, for the rest of 1943. Four months in the Department of 
State in 1944. After 2 months' home leave then assigned to the 
consulate general at Madivostok, U. S. S. R. Assigned there or 
from there in the fall of 1945, after VJ-day, to Harbin. Was unable 
to proceed directly. Went to Shanghai and was reassigned to Muk- 
den, Manchuria. That v\'as in 1946. 

In 1946 likewise I was assigned, after reopening the consulate 
general at Mukden, to Harbin. I was unable to get to Harbin from 
that direction either and was finally assigned to Changchun, where 
I opened the consulate general there. In 1947 I was reassigned to 
Peking and kept that post until, as I say, April of last year, when, 
after the closure of all of our consular offices in China, including that 
at Peking, I was assigned to the Department of State, where I have 
been ever since. I took up my duties at the Department of State in 
July of last year. 

Mr. Russell. What was the period that you described as having 
returned to the State Department after having been in China for 
4 months? I may not have understood. 

Mr. Clubb. That was in 1944. I had come home on leave in 1940, 
you see. I was intei'ned and then had volunteered for service back in 
China. They needed personnel. And I did not get my next home 
leave until 1944. I N\as ordered home on leave and assigned to the 
Department. 

Shortly after my arrival they assigned me to Vladivostok, and I left 
to take up that post, if I remember rightly, at the beginning of July 
1944. 

Mr. Russell. Prior to 1940 had you returned to the United States 
at any time after having been in China 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. For a period? Would you describe that in accurate 
detail? 

Mr. Clubb. In 1932 and 1937. 

Mr. Russell. Were you emploved by the State Department in 
1932? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. And vou were also employed by the State Depart- 
ment in 1937? 

x^Ir. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. And when you returned to the United States in 
1932 and 1937 you were returning for home leave? 

Mr. Clubb. Home leave; that is correct. 



1968 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Russell. Mr. Clubb, have you ever used aii}" other name than 
the one that you gave the committee? 

Mr. Clubb. No, su". 

Mr. Russell. Are you acquamted with Grace Hutchins or have 
you ever been acquainted with anyone by that name? 

Mr. Clubb. May I say in regard to that question that I have been 
asked a question in regard to Miss Grace Hutchins by the Loyalty- 
Security Board of the Department of State, and so this question 
doesn't come as a surprise to me. I may sa}^ that I never knew 
Grace Hutchins to the best of my belief prior to the time that I 
received that interrogatory, nor had I ever met her. However, in 
connection with trying to discover certain data which would enable 
me to respond to that interrogatory, I visited Miss Grace Hutchins. 
in New York on February 27, 1951. That is, to the best of my 
knowledge and belief, the first time I ever met Miss Grace Hutchifls. 

Mr. Russell. What was the purpose of the visit? 

Mr. Clubb. To ascertain, as I just said, data which would enable 
me to reply to the question which was put forward in the interroga- 
tory; to ascertain whether she knew anything in respect to the allega- 
tion that was made therein. 

Mr. Russell. What was the result of your conversation with 
Miss Hutchins? 

Mr. Clubb. Completely negative. She knew no more about the 
matter than I did, nor could either of us determine the circumstances 
which might have given rise to such an allegation. 

Mr. Russell. Who furnished you with the address of Miss 
Hutchins? 

Mr. Clubb. I looked up in the phone book the address of the Labor 
Research Bureau to which she was alleged to be connected. I didn't 
discover the Labor Research Bureau but discovered the Labor 
Research Association, and on a chance I went to the Labor Research 
Association, asked whether there was a Miss Grace Hutchins there. 
They said there was. And I asked to see her. And it seemed to be 
the person who was described in the question in the interrogatory 
because of the circumstance that she had been in China at an early 
period and she was connected with an organization that seemed ta 
have a name similar to that, in any event, identified in the inter- 
rogatory. 

She said, however, that she had been in China on duty with an 
Episcopal mission from 1912 to 1916. That, of course, was long before 
I had ever gone to China. She said likewise that she had never 
returned to China excepting for one brief trip, which she indicated 
was in 1926 or 1927, which was also before I went to China in 1929. 

I may say that my reply to the interrogatory is at the present time- 
in the hands of the Loyalty-Security Board, which presumably is 
giving due consideration to it. 

Mr. Russell. Do you know whether or not Grace Hutchins has 
testified under oath before the Loyalty Board? 

Mr. Clubb. I do not know that. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever know anyone connected with the now 
defunct Communist publication known as New Masses? 

Mr. Clubb. Not to the best of my knowledge and belief. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever know anyone who used the name 
"Carmon"? 



TESTIMOISTY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1969 

Mr. Clubr. No, sii-. However, in connection with my researches 
on that particuhir suhject I aslunl the member of the Secm-ity Board 
who was chariivtl with handling; my case whetluM- there weie any 
■details that he Could uive me of the alleg-ation which would be helpful 
to me in runnin*; this down. He said that at the time when it was 
alleged tlint 1 called at the New Masses office I asked for a man 
named — — 

^[r. Rttssell. You're — • — ■ 

Mr. Clubb. I beg: your pardon? 

Mr. Russell. You're getting ahead of me. 

Mr. ClT'BB. Yes? Shall I continue with regard 

Mr. Russell. Xo. I will ask you the questions on that. 

Mr. Clubb. 1 see. 

^^r. Ri^ssELL. Tlie answer as it now stands is you never knew any- 
one by the name of Carmon? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. But on February 

Mr. Russell. Well, I will give you a chance to explain it later on. 

Mr. Clubb. All right. 

Mr. Russell. Ai-e you acquainted with Owen Lattimore? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. How long have you known him? 

Mr. Clubb. I think I first met him in 1929 when I went to Peking 
Avhere I believe he was at that time. 

Mr. Russell. Wliat was his affiliation at that time? 

Mr. Clubb. At that time, as I recall, he liad no particular connec- 
tion with any organization that I know of. He had written a couple 
of travel books, resided locally, I supjjose was doing some writing, was 
accepted as a regular member of society there, and I believe subse- 
quently did additional traveling, additional writing. I don't know 
anything of any organizations to which he was attached at that time 
unless it was iii connection with some organization in Inner Mongolia 
which had to do with trading in local products. I am not quite sure, 
but he may have had some connection with something like that 
commercially. 

Mr. Russell. Were you connected with the State Department at 
that time? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. Through whom did you meet Owen Lattimore? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall that. 

Mr. Russell. Do you recall where you first met him? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. However, I may say that he was a frequent 
visitor to the American Legation where he knew, of course, people 
who were rather senior to me, but I might very well have met him 
there some place. 

Mr. Russell. "VMio were those people? 

Mr. Clubb. He knew Minister Johnson; the then — I think his 
position was then Chinese Secretary, Mr. Spiker; both of whom are 
■s,i the present time in Washington. 

Mr. Russell. \Miat is Mr. Johnson's first name? 

Mr. Clubb. Nelson T. Johnson, former Ambassador. 

Mr. Russell. \Miat is Mr. Spiker's first name? 

Mr. Clubb. Clarence. 

Mr. Russell. Is the name spelled S-p-e-i-c-h-e-r? 

Mr. Clubb. S-p-i-k-e-r. 



1970 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever recommend Owen Lattimore for em- 
ployment by the United States State Department? 

Mr. Clubb. Not to the best of my knowledge and belief. In fact, 
I can say categorically 

Mr. Russell. That you did not? 

Mr. Clubb. I can say categorically that I did not. I do not have 
any recollection that I ever recommended Mr. Lattimore for employ- 
ment with the State Department. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever recommend him for employment 
anywhere? 

Mr. Clubb. Not to the best of my recollection. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever discuss his qualifications with high 
officials of the State Department? 

Mr. Clubb. No; I believe not; excepting perhaps in casual con- 
versation. That would be a possibility. But it has to be recalled 
that during the war period when he was connected with OWI and 
made one trip to China in company of State Department officials I 
was not in the State Department, t was at that time in Inner Asia — 
that is, Central Asia — and in the U. S. S. R., and I had nothing to do 
whatsoever with the employment of personnel or their assignment. 
I was here for a brief period in 1944 as indicated, but that was then, 
too, not my function. I was in the Far Eastern Division. 

Mr. Russell. During 1935, while you were on duty at the American 
Legation in Peiping, China, do you recall anything in connection with 
the loss of a passport by Owen Lattimore? 

Mr. Clubb. No; I don't. I didn't handle passports to any con- 
siderable amount at that time, and I just don't recall a case like that. 

Mr. Russell. How do you pronounce the name "T-e-h" in Chinese? 

Mr. Clubb. Teh. 

Mr. Russell. And "W-a-n-g"? 

Mr. Clubb. Wang. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever know anyone by that name — that is, 
the two names I asked you about? 

Mr. Clubb. Teh Wang? Yes. I know of him. He's not, of 
course, Chinese. He's Mongohan. And the term "Wang" in this 
case is not a name. It's a title meaning "prince." Prince Teh. 

Mr. Russell. You say you know of him. What do you know 
about him? 

Mr. Clubb. I know he was one of the Inner Mongohan leaders of 
prominence during the 1930's. 

Mr. Russell. Was he a Communist? 

Mr. Clubb. Not to the best of my knowledge and behef. I never 
heard it stated that he was Communist. 

Mr. Russell. Do you recall whether or not Owen Lattimore ever 
executed an affidavit in your presence to the effect that he had lost or 
inadvertently left a passport which had been issued to him? 

Mr. Clubb. Issued by me to him? 

Mr. Russell. No. 

Mr. Clubb. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Russell. I will restate the question. 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. Do you recall whether or not Owen Lattimore ever 
executed an affidavit in your presence in Peiping, China, in 1935 to 
the effect that he had lost or inadvertently left the passport which had 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1971 

been issued to him in the headquarters of the MongoHan we have had 
under discussion? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir; I don't remember that. It's possible because 
I, of course, performed notarials at that time occasionally, but I don't 
recall the case of his loss of a passport. It could have happened. 

Air. Russell. Do you recaU having seen Lattimore in 1935 while 
in China? Peiping? 

Mr. Clubb. Oh, yes; I have seen him in China. Wliether he was 
there in the particular year 1935 would be a little difficult for me to 
say because I have met him on different occasions in China, but I 
seem to recall that about that period he was in Peiping. 

Air. Russell. But you do not recall the affidavit which he executed 
in your presence according to our information? 

Afr. Clubb. No, sir; but, of course, it would be a possibility, and it 
would be a matter of recorci in the event that an affidavit had been 
executed. 

Air. Russell. Have you ever known anyone by the name of John 
Sherman? 

Air. Clubb. S-h-e-r-m-a-n? 

Air. Russell. Yes. 

Air. Clubb. I don't recall having known anybody of that name. 

Air. Russell. Did you ever meet anyone by that name in China? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall anybody of that name. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever know anyone by the name of Harry 
Berger? 

Air. Clubb. Berger? B-e-r-g-e-r? 

Air. Russell. Yes. Harry. 

Air. Clubb. No, sir; I don't recall that name. 

Air. Russell. Did you ever know anyone by the name of Aithur 
Ernst Ewart? 

Air. Clubb. No, sir; I don't recall that name. 

Air. Russell, Have you ever met anyone by the name of Paul 
Walsh? That is, while vou were stationed in China? 

Air. Clubb. W-a-l-s~h? 

Mr. Russell. W-a-1-s-h. 

Air. Clubb. I don't recall that name. 

Air. Russell. Are you acquainted with or have you ever met 
Eugene Dennis? 

Air. Clubb. No, sir. I know of that name, but I don't recall ever 
having met Air. Dennis. 

Air. Russell. Do you know Gerhart Eisler? 

Air. Clubb. No, sir. I know of the name, of course. 

Air. Russell. Are you acquainted with John Stewart wService? 

Air. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Air. Russell. How long have you been acquainted with him? 

Air. Clubb. I should sa}' ever since he went to Peking as a language 
officer. 

Mr. Russell. Wlien was that? 

Air. Clubb. I'm not quite sure, but I believe it was about 1934 
or 1935. I at that time was in charge of the language program in 
the then Embassy office and knew Air. Service. He was, of course, 
born in China, but I don't recall having met him before that time, 
although it's possible. 

Air. Russell. Are you acquainted with Emanuel Larson? 



1972 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMtTTD CLUBB 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. I know the name, but I do not believe that 
I have ever met Mr. Larson. That, however, I should qualify by- 
stating that it would be more possible that I would have met him 
than any of the other names that you mention, because of the cir- 
cumstance he was around Washington, as I recall, in 1944, and I 
, might have met him here, but I never had any associations with him. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever furnish him any information? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. That I should say of course applies if you 
will rule out the possibility of my having a casual conversation with 
him in the course of meeting him or something like that, but not 
information in the sense of data or documents. 

Mr. Russell. Or confidential information? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever know anyone by the name of Mark 
Gayn, G-a-y-n? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir; not to the best of my knowledge and belief. 

Mr. Russell. Have you ever met Phillip Jaffe? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. Would you recall the circumstances under which 
you met him and, if so, describe the circumstances. 

Mr. Clubb. He was in Pekmg or Peipmg — I'm not sure of the year 
so I can't say which it was then called — and I met him there in a usual 
social way. I met him a number of times but did not associate closely 
■vvitli him, had no intimate relations with him. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever discuss State Department affahs with 
him? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. Of course, in Peking one frequently talked 
about Chinese politics and Chinese developments. Those things in 
general terms I might have had conversations with him about, but not 
confidential State Department affau-s. 

Mr. Russell. Do you recall at whose home you first met him? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. I am afraid I do not. One frequently met 
people in Peking for the first time at some large cocktail party or at 
the club or at the swimming pool, and I regret to say that I can't 
ordinarily remember the circumstances under which I first met those 
people so many years ago. 

Mr. Russell. Did you see him upon numerous occasions or very 
few occasions while in China? 

Mr. Clubb. Few occasions I would say. 

Mr. Russell. Where did you see him most frequently? 

Mr. Clubb. I should say that generally I met him at dinner parties 
or something like that. 

Mr. Russell. Do you recall where any of these parties were given 
or who gave them? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. I am afraid that I do not. It is possible 
that on, say, one or two occasions, a ver}^ limited number, we might 
have had him in our own house as a luncheon guest with other guests. 
I couldn't sa}^ the contrary. But he was out there as a person who 
was interested in China. The community was very small — the foreign 
community — and members of that community tended to run into 
each other occasionally much more frequently say than in Washington 
or New York. 

Mr. Russell. Wlien 3^ou speak of "community," are you referring 
to a particular city or area? 



TESTIMO>ri" OF ui.IVER EDMUND CLUBB 1973 

Mr. Clubu. No, sir. I qualified that. The foreign community. 
The non-Chinese coniinunity. 

Mr. Ki SSELL. Have you ever met Kiehard Sorge? 

Mr. Clubb. Richard 

Mr. Ri^ssELL. Sorge — S-o-r-g-e. 

Mr. Clubb. No. sir. Not to the hest of my knowh'dge. 
Mr. Russell. Do you know \\ho lie is? 
^Iv. Clubb. Yes; I have heard of the Sorge papers. 
Mr. Russell. Whik^ in China did you meet Agnes Smedley? 
Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Rl'ssell. Do you recah when you met her? 
Mr. Clubb. I think it was in 1931. 

Mr. Russell. Do you recaU tlie occasion of the meeting? 
Mr. Clubb. I don't specifically. I discussed that with my wife 
for the reason that her name was set forth in this interrogatory I got 
from the Loyalty-Security Board and it might have been that I met 
her in Shanghai where she was known to Mme. Sun Yat-sen. It 
is thought by my wife, and I think it is a possibility, that I met her 
instead in Hankow where possibly she was a guest of Bishop Logan 
H. Roots. I think that was in 1931. If I met her in Hankow accord- 
ing to this other version, it was probably at a luncheon party givsD 
by Bishop Roots. 

Mr. Russell. Do you recall whether you met her more than once? 
Mr. Clubb. Oh, yes. I have met her a number of times. 
Mr. Russell. Did you ever see her while in tlu> I'^nited States? 
Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 
Mr. Russell. Where? 
Mr. Clubb. In New York. 
Mr. Russell. Under what circumstances? 

Mr. Clubb. She invited my wife and me to a luncheon party. I 
think it was in 1937. At that luncheon party there was another — 
a military man, an American, if I remember. Or, I beg your pardon 
let me correct that. He was an oilman or had something to do with 
the fighting of oil fires. I can't identify him any more than that. 
But, in short, it was a luncheon party at which other guests, or another 
guest, were present. 

^Ir. Russell. Was she a guest in your home while in China? 
Mr. Clubb. She was on one occasion a guest at a luncheon party- 
other guests were present — at our home in Peking. 
Mr. Russell. AYhen was that? 

Mr. Clubb. I'm not sure of the year, but I would put it about 
1936 when she was in Peking. 

Mr. Russell. Mr. Clubb, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 
Mr. Cllbb. No, sir. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever file application to become a member of 
the Communist Party? 
Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Russell. Have you ever been acquainted with David Wliit- 
taker Chambers? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir; not to the best of my knowledge and belief! 
Mr. Russell. Did vou ever know anvone wrho used tlie single 
name "Carl"? 

Mr. Clubb. As his last name vou mean? 



1974 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Russell. As his only name. 

Mr. Clubb. Not to the best of my knowledge and belief. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever have any association with a magazine, 
New Masses? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever visit the headquarters where the 
publication was edited and published? 

Mr. Clubb. That question, as I indicated before, has been put to 
me in the Department of State loyalty security board interrogatory. 
They date it 1932. I cannot remember ever having visited the office 
of the New Masses. In 1932 I was, it is true, back home in the United 
States on leave. I did come to Washington for a consultation, and I 
did make a side trip, the records show, to New York, but it is not my 
recollection that I have ever visited the office of the New Masses, 
although it would be a physical possibility because I was there in 
1932 as well as having been there in other periods. It does appear 
to me that if I had made such a visit I would remember it. 

Mr. Russell. Well, did you ever deliver a message or envelope or 
anything of that nature which had been given you in China to anyone 
in the United States other than some official of the State Department? 

Mr. Clubb. You are referring this question to the New Alasses? 

Mr. Russell. I am referring it to anyone. Do you ever recall 
having been given a message or envelope or document 

Mr. Clubb. Well, people coming home from China are as a matter 
of course sometimes given covers in the sense of a letter that the 
people in China desire the traveler to mail when they reach the shores 
of the United States or a letter of introduction, and I on my own part 
have upon occasion carried letters to the United States for acquaint- 
ances of mine in China and dropped them in the mail to further them 
on their way. 

Mr. Russell. Did you ever deliver any such letters or messages to 
people in the United States which you had received from friends or 
acquaintances in China? 

Mr. Clubb. As far as I recall, the only actual delivery that I have 
ever made would have been of letters of introduction. I have upon 
occasion received from friends in China brief letters of introduction to 
people in the United States, and I have delivered a number of those. 

Mr. Russell. Do you recall to whom those letters of introduction 
were addressed? 

Mr. Clubb. I recall on one occasion getting one addressed to 
[pausing]. Well, I'm not sure that I got a letter of introduction to 
that man. But I am afraid I don't remember specifically any par- 
ticular addressees that might have received these letters of introduc- 
tion. Not at this time. I could check back in my memory and try 
to discover it for you. I know what the interrogatory question puts 
it at; that is, that I brought a letter which was intended for Miss 
Grace Hutchins. And I am prepared to tell you what I know of 
that. 

Mr. Russell. Well, at that time, of that alleged incident, do you 
recall whether or not you did deliver an envelope or a message to 
any individual in the United States who might be a different person 
from Grace Hutchins altogether? 

Mr. Clubb. The case I was about to tell you of was this: I think 
that I had a letter of introduction to Dr. Robert Morss Lovett, who 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1975 

at tlmt time was connoctod, acooixling: to my information, with the 
Now Rcpubhc, and I soem to recall that I called at the New Repubhc 
to deliver that particular letter of hitroduction. 

Mr. Russell. Wlien was that? 

Mr. Clubb. It might have been in 1932 or it might have been in 
1937. 

Mr. Russell. Did vou know Dr. Robert Morss Lovett prior to 
that? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Russell. Do you recall who gave you the letter to Dr. Robert 
Morss Lovett? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. If it has been a letter it would have been given 
1o me, because I am clear in my recollection of this, bj'^ Miss Agnes 
Sniedley, whom you mentioned before. 

Mr. Russell. Why did Miss Smedley want you to meet Dr. 
Lovett? 

Mr. Clubb. She thought presumably that the acquaintanceship 
might be interesting to me. I did not, if I remember rightly, find 
Dr. Lovett. 

Mr. Ri'SSELL. In other words, you did not deliver the letter of 
introduction? 

IMr. Clubb. My recollection was that I went to the office of the 
New Republic and Dr. Lovett was not there but there, too, it's 18 
or nearly 19 years ago and I had no particular purpose other than 
to say "hello" and to make the acquaintanceship of Dr. Lovett, and 
thought no more about it. 

Mr. Russell. Did you subsequently meet Dr. Lovett? 

JMr. Clubb. No, not to the best of my recollection. 

Mr. Russell. You have never knov/n him? 

^Ir. Clubb. Not to the best of my recollection. As I say, my 
mefxiory is that I found that he wasn't there at the time. 

Atr. Russell. But you are positive that there was no letter of 
introduction to Grace Hutchins at that time? 

Mr. "Clubb. By my memory there was not. However, it's, as I 
indicated before, nearly 19 years ago, and all I can give you is a nega- 
tive aspect of that memory. However, as I said, I checked with Miss 
Grace Hutchins, and she purported no previous knowledge or ac- 
quaintanceship of me and saw no reason particularly w^hy I should 
be bringing anything addressed to her from China. 

!Mr. Russell. Have you ever been acquainted with Lee Pressman? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. I don't recall ever having met him. 

Mr. Russell. Have you ever known Solomon Adler? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. How well did you know Solomon Adler? 

Mr. Clubb. Not very well. He was connected with the Embassy 
at Chungking in the capacit}^ of Treasury attache. He was also 
connected with the Embassy, as I recall, at Nanking. And I knew 
him slightl}' through contact with him there. In Chungking, if I 
remember rightly, I may have played one or two games of chess with 
him. That's about all. We frequently met, of course, in the office, 
passing each other in the hall, and I have naturally met him at dinner, 
had conversations with him. However, my stay at Chungking, as 
you will recall, was limited to 4 months, and I was not stationed at 
Nanking at the same time that he was. 



1976 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Russell. In other words, your only acquaintance with him 
would be a period of 4 months? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir; not quite, because I met him also at Nanking,, 
you see, and may have met him in passing. I think he was up in 
Peking mi one or two occasions. But if you wanted to say a very 
limited acquaintance, yes, sir, that's correct. 

Mr. Russell. Upon those social occasions when you met him what 
were the general subjects of converstation? 

Mr. Clubb. The usual events-of-the-day conversation, et cetera. 

Mr. Russell. Did he appear to have an interest in the type of 
work you were doing for the State Department? 

Mr. Clubb. Not a great deal. Aly work generally speaking was 
connected with handling Chinese language matters and doing political 
and economic reporting. His interest was primarily, so far as was 
displayed to me, connected with financial affairs, currency finance. 

Air. Russell. Have you ever know Anna Louise Strong? 

Mr. Clubb. I met her on one occasion onl}", to the best of m^' 
belief, but it may have been two. This was at the time when in the 
postwar period she made a trip to Harbin. vShe passed through the 
post where I was stationed at that time, Changchun, and I met her 
briefly when she was passing through. 

Mr. Russell. Have you ever seen her in the United States? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir; not to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Russell. That is the only time you met her — the one you 
have just described? 

Mr. Clubb. The one, or when she returned from Harbin. In 
short, I may have met her going and coming, if you will. As a matter 
of fact, she was later reported as having expressed sentiments in 
Harbin which were rather antipathetic toward the American Foreign 
Service particularly, but I don't know whether that is correct or not. 

Mr. Russell. Have you ever knowm Katherine Mitchell, also- 
known as Kate Mitchell? 

Mr. Clubb. I believe I have met her, but if I have met her at all 
it was only in passing and, say, on one occasion having been introduced 
to her. 

Mr. Russell. Do you recall where that was — any such meeting? 

Mr. Clubb. No, but if I have met her at all it would have been 
at the Institute of Pacific Relations or some gathering sponsored by it. 

Mr. Russell. Are you associated with the Institute of Pacific 
Relations? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sn. I have been a member of the Institute of 
Pacific Relations, American Council, for, oh, some 20 to 25 years. 
Somewhere in between there. 

Mr. Russell. In other words, you assume that you might have met 
Kate A^Iitchell at an IPR gathering? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, I assume I migh^t have, but I am not certain of that 
belief. The name is rather familiar to me, and I just can't remember 
whether I have met her or not, but I might have. 

Mr. Russell. Have you ever met Duncan Lee? 

Mr. Clubb. L-i-e-k? 

Mr. Russell. L-e-e. Duncan Lee. 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall ever having met Duncan Lee. 

Mr. Russell. Have you ever met Nathan Gregory Silvermaster? 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1977 

Mr. Clubr. Silver 

Mr. Russell. Silv(M-mast(>r. 

Mr. C^UHH. Xot to tlio best of my kn()\\l('(l<i:(\ 

^^l■. RissKLL. Have you oxor mot (ieorge Silverman — Abraham 
Gooi'^re Silvin'man? 

Mr. Cli'bh. Xot to th(> best of my knowledge and beli(>f. 

Mr. Russell. Are you ac(|uainte(l with Fnuleriek \'. Field? 

Mr. C'libb. I have met Mr. Field; yes. 

Mr. Russell. Do you reeall where you met him? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. I think it was at the Institute of Pacific Rela- 
tions. 

Mr. Russell. Do you reeall when? 

Mr. Clubb. I am afraid I don't, but it might have been when I was 
home in 1932. If it was not in 1932, it possibly would have been 1937, 
if he was in 1937 still connected with the Institute of Pacinc Re- 
lations, which is a matter of which I am not quite certain. 

Mr. Russell. Have you ever written any articles for the publica- 
tions of the Institute of Pacific Relations? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. I wrote one relatively recently. That is the 
only one I have ever written for them. 

Mr. Russell. Have you ever been socially acquainted with Fred- 
erick V. Field? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Russell. Are you acquainted with Edward C. Carter? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. Do you recall how you met him? 

Mr. Clubb. Also through the IPR. 

Mr. Russell. Do you recall when? 

Mr. Clubb. Well, it would have been no later than 1932 I believe. 
On the other hand, I don't think it was any earlier than that, because 
I would not have had the occasion as I recall of meeting him any 
earlier than 1932. 

Mr. Russell. At that time he had an official connection wdth the 
IPR, did he not? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. At the time I met him he had an 
official connection with the IPR. 

Mr. Russell. Mr. Appell has some questions. 

Mr. Clubb. You said I would have an opportunity to make that 
one statement. 

Mr. Russell. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Clubb, you were asked if you knew Mr. Carmon. 
Camion's first name was Walt — Walt Carmon. And he was manag- 
ing editor of the New Masses. Did you ever meet Walt Carmon? 

Mr. Clubb. On February 27 of this year I looked him up to try to 
clarify the allegation made in the loyalty- security board allegation. 
That is to the best of my knowledge and belief, and he purported to 
believe the same, the first and only time we had ever met. 

Mr. Appell. The allegation that was made against you by the 
charges of the State Department Loyalty Board, what were those 
charges with respect to the meeting of Carmon and with respect to 
the meeting of Grace Hut chins? 

Mr. Clubb. May I ask for some information and perhaps guidance 
here? The allegation was, of course, made confidentially, and my 
response was confidential, too. Would it be appropriate for me to tell 

92467—52 2 



1978 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

the nature of the allegation in more than general terms and my 
response in more than general terms? 

Mr. Appell. Certainly. Certainly. 

Mr. Clubb. Right. The allegation was, in short, that I had called 
at the office of the New Masses, the office of the editor of the New 
Masses, and had delivered there a sealed envelope for Miss Grace 
Hutchins. The allegation itself did not include the name of Mr. Walt 
Carmon, but I was authorized, if you will, by our regulations, to 
inquire of the member of the loyalty-security board handling the 
case whether there was anything further that he could give me to 
clarify the matter in point, and I asked him whom it was that I was 
supposed to have seen there, and he said that I, according to the alle- 
gation, had asked for Mr. Walt Carmon but had not found Mr. Walt 
Carmon; therefore, I had delivered the envelope to somebody else — 
or the person who was alleged to be me. 

I, therefore, taking these two bits of information. Miss Grace 
Hutchins and Mr. Walt Carmon, made this trip to New York, par- 
ticularly after I could find no other means to ascertain the informa- 
tion that was requisite, and looked up both of them. I looked up 
Miss Grace Hutchins first and then I looked up Mr. Walt Carmon. 
Neither of them, according to their version, knew anything about the 
matter in point. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know that the New Masses was a Communist 
publication? 

Mr. Clubb. At this time? I knew when I — that is, I knew it, of 
course, at this time. Now, just when I first became aware of the fact 
that New Masses was Communist I wouldn't know, but I should think 
it would date back even to the time I was in college. 

Mr. Appell. And you loiew in calling upon VV^alt Carmon that 
you were calling upon the former editor of a Communist publication? 

Mr. Clubb. That's correct. For the simple reason that I looked 
up, after receipt of this interrogatory, the New Masses publication 
for June, July, and August, 1932, and I discovered on their masthead 
the name of Mr. Walt Carmon as managing editor, and the name of 
W^hittaker Chambers as first of the editors on the editorial board of 
six persons I seem to remember. 

Mr. Appell. The offices of New Masses in 1932 were at 63 West 
Fifteenth Street, New York City. Have you ever or did you at any 
time in 1932 call upon any organization located in the building at 
63 West Fifteenth Street, New York City? 

Mr. Clubb. Not to the best of my knowledge and belief, although I 
would not have been able to identify the New Masses by the address 
you have given me. because it is an unfamiliar address. 

Mr. Appell. The person that you actually called upon has related 
that there was a conversation between you and he with respect to 
China, a detailed conversation. Could you have had a detailed 
conversation with someone in the offices of New Masses if you have 
never been there? 

Mr. Clubb. It seems — well, obviously if I had never been there, 
no. It seems to me unlikely that I should have had any detailed 
conversation with anybody connected with the New Masses. In the 
event that I met anybody at that time and they were interested in 
China, I might have talked in general terms on the subject of China, 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1979 

but I would not definitely have given up any confidential or classified 
information or anything in the nature of that. 

Mr. Appell. Well, the point that I am just trying to make is, 
Were you there? Not that you did give anything. 

Mr.' Clubb. I have no recollection of having visited the office of 
the New Masses. 

Mr. Appell. Now, Agnes Smedley, who you say gave you a letter 
of introduction to Robert Morss Lovett, was a contributor to New 
Masses? 

Mr. Clitbb. I noticed that on the masthead. 

Mr. Appell. Could it have been that she had given you a letter 
of introduction to Grace Hutchins that you do not recall? 

Mr. Clubb. I tend to doubt that, because it seems to me that I 
should have recalled the name of Miss Grace Hutchins, if I had ever 
been interested enough to accept a letter of introduction to her, you 
see. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, but the only letter of introduction that you could 
recall of having brought back from China in either 1932, 1937, or 
subsequently was the letter of introduction to Dr. Robert Morss 
Lovett. 

Mr. Clubb. As I say, if there were a letter of introduction, it would 
have been from Miss Smedley. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, but you said that there were others that you could 
not recall to whom they were addressed. 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. I was asked to give positive knowledge. 

Mr. Appell. Could one of them have been Grace Hutchins? 

Mr. Clubb. I tend to doubt it, because the name was so unfamiliar 
to me when I first saw it. 

Mr. Appell. With respect to knowledge of Walt Carmon, you say 
that when you met him recently was the first time that you had met 
him to the best of j^our recollection? 

Mr. Clubb. That's correct. 

Air. Appell. Can you say positively that it was the first time that 
you met him? 

Mr. Clubb. I'd hate to say that when you have had a lapse of 18 
years. However, I may say that he said in cudgeling his memory 
that in the summer of 1932 he had been ill and was not at the office 
of the New Masses. 

Mr. Appell. That is why you didn't contact him when you al- 
legedly arrived there and that you talked to someone else? 

Mr. Clttbb. That presumably would have been an explanation if I 
had called and had looked for him. He wasn't there. But he said that 
after his illness he had proceeded to Russia. Therefore, it does seem 
to be fairly certain that the ph3'^sical possibility of my meeting Carmon 
was rather slight. 

Mr. Appell. Can you say that you were not told by someone in 
China to contact Walt Carmon in 1932 upon your return to the 
United .States? 

Mr. Clubb. I can recall no particulars and no global aspects of 
the matter in point. In short, I just don't recall anything about the 
alleged incident. 

Air. Appell. At the time you delivered the letter of introduction 
to the offices of the New Republic, the letter to Dr. Robert Morss 



1980 TESTIMONT OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Lovett, do you recall any detailed conversation at that office with 
respect to China with anyone when he was not in? 

Mr. Clubb. No, I do not, because, as I say, my recollection was- 
that Dr. Lovett was not there at the time, and if I had called to find 
him and he wasn't there, it seems to me hardly likely that I would 
have entered upon a detailed conversation with anybody. I might 
have passed a few casual remarks to somebody who met me in his- 
absence, but it's iiardly likely that I would have sat down and entered 
upon discussion. 

Mr. Appell. In 1935, Teh Wang — I think that is the way you 
pronounced it — had a field operation in Mongolia. What would that 
field operation of his have been at that time? Do you recall? 

Mr. Clubb. I'm afraid I don't. At that time, 1935,, the Japanese, 
of course, had invaded Manchuria and were pressing down on north 
China. Teh Wang was one of the Mongolian nationalists, and he has 
always been a political and, through his political character, a military 
leader. He might have been carrying on something in the nature of 
an. operation of opposition to the Japanese. That would be my best 
explanation of the question. 

Mr. Appell. Could he be carrying on an operation in the interest 
of the Chinese Communists or Mongolian Communists? 

Mr. Clubb. Highly unlikely in my opinion, because, to the best 
of my knowledge, he has never been associated with communism in 
China. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever contribute any articles to Amerasia? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever supply Amerasia personnel with any 
background information on China? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir, not to the best of my recollection and belief. 
As I reported before, I did meet JaflPe on two or three occasions, and 
I know that he was connected with Amerasia. Our conversations- 
might have touched upon political subjects, but I would not have 
supplied him with any what you would call classified information or 
documentary material on China or any other part of the world. 

Mr. Appell. In China were you acquainted with anyone, any 
person, in the foreign community, settlement, other than the Chinese 
group, whom you knew to be a Communist? 

Mr. Clubb. That is, in any of the places where I was stationed? Is 
that it? 

Mr. Appell. Yes. 

Mr. Clttbb. You rule out, I presume, Soviet diplomatic and con- 
sular officials? 

Mr. Appell. Yes. 

Mr. Clubb. The only people that I can remember offhand who were 
alleged to be Communists but Trotskyist Communists were a couple 
of journalists who visited Hankow in flood year, 1931. They were not 
known to me at that time to be Communists of either camp, but sub- 
sequently it appeared that at least one of them might have been a 
Communist. 

Mr. Appell. Who was that? 

Mr. Clubb. Harold Isaacs. But he is known, as I believe, to be a 
Trotskyist Communist. 

Mr. Appell. Outside of Harold Isaacs, you never met with anyone 
during your tour of duty in Cluna whom you knew to be a Communist? 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1981 

Mr. Clihb. Tlu'ir was that second journalist, as I say, who was 
travohnir with Isaacs at that time, a vSouth African. Both of those 
people were connected then or subsequently with Shanghai news- 
papers. His name was Frank Cdass. I met him. 

Mr. Appell. But other than these two journalists there has been 
no one that you have ever met or associated with whom you knew to 
be a Communist? 

Mr. Cluub. None that I have ever associated with. 

Mr. Appell. Well, I mean socially, at a function. 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. Of course, I have met the Soviet diplomatic and 
■consular officials at social functions and that sort of thing, but foreign 
Communists in China are rather rare. Now, I'd hate to say that I 
have never met another foreign Communist than those two. 

Mr. Appell. I mean that you knew. 

Mr. Clubb. That's right. ' 

Mr. Appell. I'm talking about that you knew to be Communists. 

Mr. Clubb. That's true. But that is the impression I have at this 
time. That is, I can't remember any other foreign Commimists that 
I have met. 

Mr. Appell. Did 3^ou know a woman in China by the name of 
Kitty Harrison? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir; not to the best of my recollection. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know a man by the name of George Morris? 

Mr. Clubb. No. 

Mr. Appell. Also known as Earl Browder? 

Mr. Clubb. Earl what? 

Mr. Appell. Browder. 

Mr. Clubb. No, I have never met Mr. Browder to the best of my 
recollection. I have, of course, as I reported b(>fore, met Agnes 
Smedley, but she by my — as far as my knowledge goes — was not a 
Communist. She said that she was not. 

Mr. Appell. That's all I have. 

Mr. Russell. Mr. Clubb, I have asked you some questions regard- 
ing an affidavit execut(>d by Owen Lattimore regarding the loss of a 
passport. 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Russell. I would like to show you the affidavit which is dated 
February 26, 1935, according to the letter addressed to the Secretary 
of State, and ask you if it in any way refreshes your recollection as to 
the loss of Mr. Lattimore's passport. You will note the affidavit was 
executed before you with your signature on the bottom. 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, that is my signature. 

(The witness examined the document.) 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. Thank you. That seems to be my signature. 

Mr. Russell. But you don't recall the circumstances under which 
the affidavit was made? 

Mr. Clubb. I seem to have some recollection now by virtue of the 
mention of the tobacco pouch, odd as it may seem. But that was, 
after all. in 1935, and perhaps I will be forgiven for having not 
recalled the matter inmiediately. 

Mr. Russell. All right. That's ah, Mr. Clubb. 

Mr. Clubb. Thank you. 

(Witness excused.) 

(Thereupon, at 12 noon, the committee was adjourned, subject to 
the call of the chairman.) 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 



MONDAY, AUGUST 20, 1951 

United States House of Representatr'es, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. G. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met pursuant to call 
at 11 : 15 a. m. in room 226, Old House Office Building, Hon. John S. 
Wood (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives John S. Wood, 
Francis E. Walter, Morgan M. Moulder, Clyde Doyle, James B. 
Frazier, Jr., Harold H. Velde, and Charles E. Potter, 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; Thomas 
W, Beale, Sr„ assistance counsel ; Louis J. Russell, senior investigator; 
Raphael I. Nixon, director of research; John W, Carrington, clerk; 
and A. S. Poore, editor. 

Mr, Wood. Let the committee be in order. 

Let the record show that there are present the following members of 
the conmiittee : Messrs. Walter, Moulder, Doyle, Frazier, Velde, Potter, 
and Wood, a quorum of the committee. 

"\Miom do you have, Mr, Tavenner? 

Mr, Tavenner, The witness this morning, Mr, Chairman, is Mr. O. 
Edmund Clubb. 

Mr. Wood. Is Mr. Clubb present? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Wood. Mr. Clubb, will you stand and be sworn, please? 
Do you solemnly swear the evidence you give the committee shall be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Clubb. I swear. 

Mr. Wood. Have a seat, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr, Tavenner, You are Mr, Oliver Edmund Clubb ? 
Mr, Clubb. Correct. 

Mr. Tavenner, When and where were you born, Mr, Clubb ? 
Mr. Ceubb. February 16, 1901, South Park, Minn. 
Mr. Tavenner, What is your present address ? 
Mr, Clubb. 1635 Madison Street NW, Washington. 
Mr. Tavenner. And what is your present occupation ? 
Mr. Clubb. xVmerican Foreign Service officer. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been employed by the State De- 
partment of the United States Government? 
Mr. Clubb. Since 1928. 

1983 



1984 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Tavf:nner. Will you speak just a little louder, please ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner, Prior to your employmeut by the State Department, 
did you have any other emploj^ment ? 

Mr. Clubb. I entered the State Department innnediately after uni- 
versity. I had had some Arm}' service during- AVorld War I. I farmed 
awhile with my brother, and I had odds and ends of casual employ- 
ment during school vacations, that sort of thing, as I testified before 
the committee on March 14 of this year. 

Mr. Tavenner, Mr. Clubb, you ai-e entitled to representation by 
counsel. Do you have counsel with you ? 

Mr. Clubb. I have no counsel with me, sir. My counsel was busy 
this morning. He might appear later. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it completely satisfactory to proceed in the ab- 
sence of your counsel ? 

Mr. Clltbb. It is quite satisfactory. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational training? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. May I point out — it might save a little time — 
that, in fact, I have already given, that resume to the committee on 
Marcli 14 in my first appearance. I am now prepared to repeat it if 
you wish. 

Mr^ Tavenner. Yes. Will you repeat it? 

Mr. Clubb. I entered the University of Washington in 1922, and I 
transferred in the following year to the University of Minnesota; 
graduated in 1927 ; undertook some graduate work in the fall of 1927 ; 
spent a little time in a research lilu-ary preparing for a Foreign 
Service examination; took a Foreign Service examination in the 
spring of 1928; and entered the Foreign Service in May of that year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will j^ou narrate to the connnittee the exact posi- 
tions you have held, in chronological order, while employed by the 
State Department ? 

Mr, Clubb. Yes, sir. You desire all my appointments, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clubb. In 1928, appointed Foreign Service officer. May 17. 

Departed St. Paul for Washington July 1, and was on service with 
the Department for the subsequent period. 

In 1929, about April, I proceeded to Peking to take up my ])ost as 
language attache. 

In 1931, was made vice consul at Hankow. 

In 1932---do you care for home leaves and things like that ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir; I would like you to state the periods of 
home leaves. 

Mr. Clubb. In 1932, 1 proceeded to the United States on home leave. 

In 1934, 1 was appointed third secretary at Peking. 

Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me a moment. Does the i-ecord show how 
long you were in the United States on vacation in 1932, on home leave? 

Mr. Clubb. I do not have the exact record here, but I arrived about 
June from my post and departed from St. Paul to return to Hankow 
on August 1, 1932. I traveled both ways trans-Pacific. 

In 1934, 1 was made third secretary at Peking, and was subsequently 
made second secretary. 

In 1937, 1 proceeded again to St. Paul on home leave via the Pacific, 
and returned via Europe. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1985 

In 10:V.), 1 proceeded to Nankin<i: as second secretary and consul 
at Shanghai on detail to the Embassy there, which at that time had 
been evacuated in the main by the Nationalist Government, which 
was retreating before the Japanese. 

About September of the same year, 1939, I proceeded to Shanghai 

as consul. . 

In 1940. I had home leave again, proceeding both ways via racihc. 

In 1941. I speut some slioit time in Nanking, on detail as consul 
at Shanghai to relieve a fellow colleague. 

In 1941, 1 was detailed as consul at Saigon, to be stationed at Hanoi 
in Indochina, and proceeded to Hanoi, arriving there December 3. 

A^'ith the outbreak of the war, I was interned; and I spent 8 months 
in internment in Indochina. 

About July of the following year, 1942, 1 was shipped from Saigon 
to Lourenco ^Iar(|ues for exchange and i epatriation. 

I answeied a call for volunteers to return to China and was assigned 
to Chuiiiiking instead of being repatriated. 

I arrived in Chungking about September 1942 and was there acting 
in the post of second secretary. 

I remained in Chungking 4 months, departing in January 1943 
for Lanchow, where I was on detail as second secretary. 

After remaining in Lanchow about 2 months, I was assigned to 
Tihwa in Sinkiang Province. 

Do vou want me to spell those places? 

Mr.TAVENNER. Yes; if you would spell the Chinese words, please. 

Mr. Clubb. L-a-n-c-h-o-w. And T-i-h-w-a in S-i-n-k-i-a-n-g Prov- 
ince. I remained there for the rest of 1943 in the post of consul at 
Tihwa, which consulate I opened. 

At tlie end of the year, December, I was given home leave, and sub- 
sequently assigned to the Department. I left Tihwa in December 
and arrived in Washington in January 1944. I spent some time on 
home leave; then was assigned to the Department. 

I was next assigned, a short time after I arrived there, to Vladi- 
vostok, and departed in early July for that post. I arrived there 
in August, still in the capacity of consul, but became consul general. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where was your post of duty at that time? 

Mr. Clubb. Vladivostok, in Maritime Province of the Soviet Union. 

After the collapse of Japan, I was detailed to Harbin in 1945. The 
Soviet authorities refused me exit by rail, and I endeavored to reach 
my post by ship via Shanghai. At Shanghai my assignment was 
changed to Mukden. 

I arrived in Mukden in INIarch 1940. shortly after the Soviet troops 
had (leparted, and reopened the consulate general as consul general. 

Shortly afterward I again was assigned to Harbin, and departed 
about October en route to that post. I was never able to get beyond 
Changchun, south of the Sungari River; and, with the authority of 
the Department, I opened a consulate general at that point. 

In 1947, I was assigned to Peiping, and proceeded there in October 
to take up my new post as consul general. 

In 1948. t ])roceeded to Washington on consultation, and to my 
home in St. Paul on home leave. 

I departed Peiping about June and arrived back in October 1948, 
one way by the Indian Ocean and back by trans-Pacific. 



1986 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

I remained in Peipino^ during the time of the Communist occupa- 
tion until 1950. Then, after it was decided to close all our offices in 
China after the Communists had taken over, I departed, as the last 
officer present, on April 12, with my wife. 

I reported in June to the Department for consultation. I finally 
took up my duties as Director of the Office of Chinese Affairs on July 
€, 1950. 

I shall be glad to leave a copy of this item with the committee in the 
event you have any need for it. 

Mr. Tavenner. You indicated a moment ago that you had testified 
before this committee on March 14. 

M]-. Clubh. I believe it was before the staff, I suppose. 

Mr. Tavp:n'xkr. It was an executive hearing at that time ; was it not? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that was in 1951? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenxf.r. At the time you ap]^eared here on March 14, 1951, 
jou were asked a question regarding Whittaker Chambers. You were 
asked whether or not you had ever been acquainted with David Whit- 
takei- Chambers. Your reply to this question was, "No, sir; not to 
the best of my knowledge and belief." 

Subsequent to the date of that interrogation, it has been brought 
out that you did meet with Whittaker Cliambers on July 9, 1932. which 
was the pei'iod of time mentioned by Whittaker Chambers that the 
meeting between you and Mr. Chambers took place in the office of New 
Masses. 

For the purpose of the record, I would like to set forth at this point 
the fact that on July IT, 1951, you addressed a letter to the ITcmorable 
John S. Wood, chairman of the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties, in which you enclosed an extract from your personal diary dated 
July 9, 1932, which describes the meeting between Whittaker Cham- 
bers and yourself. After receiving that information, the chairman 
of the committee issued a subpena duces tecum requiring your appear- 
ance again before the committee and to produce all diaries in your 
possession, the entries of which were made during your employment 
with the United States Government. In pursuance to the subpena 
duces tecum which I have referred to, issued on August 9, 1951, the 
original of which I herewith file and ask that it be marked ''Clubb 
Exhibit No. 1," you have produced certain diaries and records; have 
you not? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

(The subpena duces tecum above referred to, marked "Clubb Exhibit 
No. l,"' is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Do 3'ou have them there? 

Mr. Clueb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavexner. In front of you? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you take the two bound volumes first and tell 
us Avhat they are, separately ? 

Mr. ClI'BB. Both of the bound volumes are leather-bound, marked 
^'1932*'; they are alike marked "1932," and each of them bears, inside 
of the cover, the little notation, which might be helpful for identi- 
fication, "In repeating this order quote No. 22888, the Central China 
Post, Ltd., Hankow," which is the organization that prepared the 



.TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1987 

volumes for me. They arc both of them handwritten, and both of 
iliem are mine. Their" dates are, respectively, from January 5, 1932, 
throngh October 18, 1932, and from October 26, 1932, through June 30, 
1933. 

Mr. Tavenner. These are tliaries kept by you and entries made at 
the time iiidicated in the diaries^ 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. Ordinarily I make tlie entry presvnnably the 
same day the event oecuri-ed. Sometime it might be the next day, but 
in any event they are kept currently. However, I might say I was 
never an avid diary-keeper, so in those diaries one sometimes finds 
gaps of days, sometimes of months. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to offer those two diaries for identifi- 
•oation oidy at this time, and have the diarv covering the period Janu- 
ary 5, 1932, through October 18, 1932, marked "Clubb exhibit No. 2" 
for identification onlv; and the second volume, covering the period 
■October 26, 1932, through June 30, 1933, marked "Clubb exhibit No. 
3" for identification only. 

Mv. Wood. They will be so admitted. 

(The documents above referred to were marked, respectively, "Clubb 
Exhibit No. 2" and "Clubb Exhibit No. 3" for identification only.) 

Mr. Wood. I would like to interpose this interrogation at this point : 
Were those diaries kept pursuant to regulations of the Department, 
or voluntarily '? 

Mr. Cltjbb. The}' were kept voluntarily. They are personal diaries. 

Mr. Tan-enner. Pursuant to the subpena, have you also produced 
•other records and diaries i 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. I have diaries which cover, roughly, the period 
from my internment in Indochina up to the time when the loyalty 
process began formally in the Department of State. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVill you give the approximate dates covered by the 
diary ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Tavenner. Just a moment. I notice that the diary is divided 
into two bundles. 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Two or three? 

Mr. Clubb. I should say two. 

Mr. Tavenner. Two? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state the period covered by the firsfcrbundle ? 
I believe it is a bundle of loose-leaf typewritten material ? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. The first one covers the period from 
December 8. 1941 — I am at a disadvantage here, may I say, because 1 
Just put down the month and the day, and I am not always sure of the 
year. If you will permit me a moment. And this has in it elements 
which come right through July 1 of the present year. 

The other bundle covers the period from October 11, 1946, through 
June 12, 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer for identification only the first 
bundle of loose-leaf sheets covering the period from December 8, 
1941, to the present date, and ask that it be marked "Clubb exhibit 
No. 4" for identification only ; and that the second group be offered for 
identification only and be marked "Clubb Exhibit No. 5" for identi- 
fication only, this last bundle beginning with the date October 11, 1946. 



1988 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Wood. Let tliem be so admitted. 

(Tlie bundles of sheets above referred were marked, respectively,. 
"Clubb Exhibit No. 4" and "Clubb Exhibit No. 5" for identification 
only.) 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question at this point? 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Velde. 

Mr. Velde. I believe you said that the diaries which you kept were 
kept of your own accord ? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

Mr. Velde. Of course that has been quite a long time ago, back as 
far as 1932 and 1933. Will you tell the committee where those diaries 
have been kept up to the present time, who has had them in their 
possession ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. The first series of diaries, the leather-bound 
ones, have ordinarily been kept openly on my library shelves of my 
apartment or home where I lived in China, and that was the case- 
when I departed from Shanghai to take up my duties at Hanoi. They 
remained there on my shelves. 

Subsequently, when the war broke out and I was interned in Hanoi 
and the Japanese took over in Shanghai, my apartment was for a time 
vacant, and the diaries and everything else there were in the custody 
of my Chinese servant. Subsequently the Chilean representatives- 
took over control of my apartment. Later the Japanese took over 
control. Subsequently, everything was turned over to the Swiss, who 
were in charge of our interests in Shanghai and elsewhere, and they 
packed the eifects. 

Mr. Velde. When was that? 

Mr. Clubb. Probably in 1942. In short, there was a period of 2 or 
3 or 4 months there after the outbreak of war until the effects were- 
packed by the Swiss. 

Mr. Velde. Did you stop keeping a diary after 1933? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. My diaries, except the loose leaves, were left 
behind me in Peiping when I departed there in April of last year. I 
did that because the Chinese Communists went through us and our 
effects and our clothes with a fine-tooth comb; they searched our- 
pockets, literally, and they took out of our effects a number of objects 
of art, and so forth, and were very interested in documents, letters, 
and so forth. We knew that. Therefore, before I left I burned all 
correspondence other than purely family correspondence, and burned 
other things in the nature of photographs that I thought I sliouldn't 
want them to have. The loose-leaf documents I got out through other 
means than that. In my own o})inion, however, the first leather-bound 
diaries were not especially valuable and not especially dangerous. 

Mr. Velde. Dangerous to whom '. 

Mr. Clubb. Not dangerous to either the United States Government 
interests or to people, because they dated back some considerable 
period of time, and I left them behind in my packing case. When 
this matter of New Masses came up, I ti'ied to obtain from Peiping 
where those diaries were left, the diaries for the period in point. At 
first I was miable to do so for the simple reason the packing cases 
were still in the American consulate general compound, and the Brit- 
ish in charge of our compound did not have free access to them. 
Eventually they requisitioned the compound, and in the course of that 
requisition all personal property, as distinguished from Government 



TESTIMONl^" OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1989 

l)roperty, was (unied over to tho Bi-itish, inchulino- niy packing case. 
As a consequence, the British came into control and were able to send 
t hem to me pursuant to my request. 

Mr. Velde. Do I understand no other diaries were in the packing 

cases ^ Tj T 

Mr. CLur.i5. Yes, but 1 asked oidy for those coveiin«r 1932. But 1 

have other diaries of the same general nature which are still behind 

in Peiping. 

Mr. Velde. And are thev still in charge of the British^ 

Mr. Cluhh. They are stdl in charge of the British to the best of 

my belief. 

I may say, in respect to this, that, as you gentlemen may have 
noted, just recentlv there were two foreigners, one Japanese and one 
Italian, shot in Pe'iping. A large number of others, including Amer- 
icans, have been arrested. Many of the people I have been in con- 
tact with in the past are at present being arrested and shot for reputed 
anti-Communist leanings, and it is of more than usual importance 
at the present time that matters relating to political contacts, par- 
ticularly, should not be made a part of the public record and should 
not get in the public press, because it means the difference between 
life and death for the parties concerned. Ahhough I thought at tirst 
the diaries for the thirties would be of no danger to persons left be- 
hind, now I am not so sure. 

Mr. Potter. Do you think the two deaths you have mentioned might 
have something to do with these two diaries ^ 

]\Ir. Clubb. No, sir, for the simple reason the people executed were 
charged— and I knew them personally — the execution of the two peo- 
ple concerned is reputed or reported to have been due to the circum- 
stance that the Chinese Communists allege that our military attache 
in Taipei, who was stationed with me at Peiping, launched a move- 
ment for the execution of the Chinese Communist Party chairman 
Mao Tse-tung. There was no reference to me that I saw in any of 
the current press reports. 

Mr. Velde. When did you come in possession of these diaries you 
have produced this morning? 

Mr. Clubb. The leather-bound ones, on May 29 of this year. The 
others, because of their higher political nature — they cover the post- 
war period — I have always kept under lock and key. The leather- 
bound ones came into my possession on May 29. I checked them 
immediately, and on June 4 of this year I reported to the Loyalty 
Security Board what I had discovered on the item under discussion, 
the New Masses item. 

]\Ir. A^ELDE. You received those from the British consulate ? 

]Mr. Clubb. From the Peiping British charge d'affaires. 

]Mr. Velde. And you then turned them over to the Loyalty Board ? 

Mr. Clubb. I did not turn them over. I excerpted the pertinent 
items and transmitted them to the Board under cover of a letter. 
In the meantime, my loyalty process, which began in 1950, was still 
in the interrogatory stage, and I transmitted that information to 
them. There had been at that time no hearing. 

Mr. Velde. AVere you acquainted with Prince Teh, T-e-h? 

Mr. Clubb. Teh Wang, yes. I do not know him personally. I 
know whom you mean. 

Mr. Velde. Were you ever assigned to that area ? 



1990 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUlsD CLUBB 

Mr. Ci.TJBB. Yes. I have been in Suiyiian and Chahar Provinces^ 

Mr. Velde. Did you ever meet Owen Lattimore during the time you 
were in those Provinces? 

Mr. Ci.uBB. Not in those Provinces, to the best of my recollection. 
I knew him in Peiping. 

Mr. Velde. That is all. 

Mr. Wood. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

]Mr. Tavexkki:. I have conferred with your counsel concerning the 
production of tlio lest of your diaries. Have you consulted with him 
with reference to it? 

Mr. Ceubb. I have sent a letter to the British charge cl'affaires at 
Peiping, but there lias been no decision reached between me and my 
counsel with regard to it. I had thought to get the attitude of the 
committee, perhaps, after they might have checked to ascertain 
whether there is any further need of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there any deletions in your diary as it appears- 
there at the present time? 

Mr. Clubb. Not in the bound volumes, but theie are certain deletions 
in the others. Those deletions were made by me, and they w^ere made 
in a calculated fashion, before I proceeded to Vladivostok in 1944,. 
because I was proceeding in the capacity of a consular officer, not a 
diplomatic officer, and I was told by people in the Department I could 
not ex})ect immunity in my baggage, and for that reason there were- 
sections I clipped pieces out because they included some things I 
didn't want theni to have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why didn't you keep your diaries in the United 
States rather than take them with you to Vladivostok? 

Mr. Clubb. I didn't think they were important enough. I never 
valued them very highly. I might place a different value on them 
after this is over. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is a little hard to understand why you would 
take diaries to Vladivostok after you had been warned they would not 
have immunity. 

Mr. Clubb. I just clipped a few pieces. If it was a matter of leav- 
ing them behind or clipping a few jDieces, I suppose I decided to- 
clij) a few pieces. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you do that ? 

Mr. Clubb. I suppose immediately before I left. I left early JuIt 
1944, possibly about that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. What disposition did you make of the sheets which, 
you cut out ? 

Mr. Clubb. I didn't discard whole sheets. There are just little 
bits clipped out of the sheets that remain. 

Mr. Tavenner. What disposition did you make of the part deleted ? 

Mr. Clubb. I suppose I burned it. I don't know. 

( Representatives Velde and Potter left hearing room. ) 

Mr. Tavenniir. I have referred to the letter you sent to the chair- 
man of the committee referring to a certain entry in your diary le- 
lating to the meeting with Whittaker Chambei*s at the office of New 
Masses in New York City in July 19;>2. Will you find the entry for- 
me? 

Mr, Clubb. Yes, sir. Doyou wantmetomark it? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, please. 

Mr. Wood. What is the page number ? 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDRHTSTD CLUBB 1991 

Mr. Ta\^nner. The pages do not appear to be numbered. 
Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mv. Chairman, I Avould like to read into the record 
tlie entry which the witness referred me to. It is as follows : 

The most interesting nieetiu.s thus far was that with the New Masses. Their 
so-called "revolutionary origan" is a horrible ras, but Agnes had given me a 
letter of introduction to Walt C'armon and so I went to see. It was a ramshackle 
place to wliicli one went by a rambling, i-ickety staircase. There were many- 
Masses cartoons on the walls. A charming .lewess, typing, who acted as secre- 
tary. She introduced me to .Michael Gold as •'Comrade Clubb," and 1 talked to 
hini awhile while waiting. He spoke of revohition but had no hopes of it for 
the rnitcd States at the present, bemoaning the lack of organizers when the 
tield is prepared and the crops so rii>e for Ihe harvest. He asked of China, 
and then the successor to Walt Carmon. one Whittaker Chambers, a sliifty-eyed, 
unkempt creature, who nevertheless showed considerable force and direction, 
asked me about the Red movement in China. In turn I asked him of con- 
ditions in the United States, hut we didn't talk smoothly. I was, after all, out 
of my bailiwick, masquerading almost under false pretenses, so that I felt too 
mucli like a stranger to show the proper "revolutionary enthusiasm." 

Mr. Clubb. Mr. Cotmsel, may I point out. for the benefit of the 
connnittee, that there were a mmiber of other quotes around several 
of the words, particularly around ''Comrade Clubb," and I believe 
also around "revolutionary organ." I think it is important for the 
record to show that. 

Mr. Taa-exner. Mr. Chairman, the quotations do appear as the 
witneas said, thougli rather indistinctly as to "revolutionary organ," 
but tliey are there, and the quotations do plainly appear around 
"Coun-ade Clubb.'" 

Mr. Clubb. Thank you. 

]\Ir. Doyle. Ma}' I ask counsel to read tliat portion of the entry 
wliich refers to what Gold told Mr. Clubb about revolution? 

Mr. Taa ENNER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clubb. Mux I interject to say 1 think there are quotations 
around "liopes'' also, Mr. Gold's "hopes." 

Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

He spoke of revolution but had no "hopes" — 

and I do see quotation marks around "hopes" but they are rather 
indistinct, but they are there. So I will read that over again : 

He spoke of revolution but had no "hopes" of it for the United States at the 
jiresent, bemoaning the lack of organizers when the field is prepared and the 
crops so ripe for the harvest. 

Mr. Doyle. Thanks. 

Mr. Tavenner. This entry from your diary states that Agnes had 
given you a letter of introduction to Walt Carmon. Who is referred 
to and who is meant by "Agnes"? 

Mr. Clubb. To the best of my knowledge and belief, Agnes Smedley. 

Mr. Tavenner. W^hen did you first meet Agnes Smedley, and 
what were the circumstances under wdiich you met her? 

Mr. Clubb. I am not quite sure of the circumstances, but to the 
best of my recollection I met her first in 1931, and it was either in 
Hankow, where she was a house guest of the Episcopal bishop, the 
Honorable Logan H. Roots, who w^as spiritual adviser to General 
and Madame Chiang Kai-shek, or at Shanghai. If it was at Shanghai, 
it was when I was en route to take my post in Hankow about June 
1931, and if such was the case, I have forgotten the exact circum- 



1992 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

stances of meeting- her, but T would have been in Shanghai only a 
Sihort while. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you request the letter of introduction? 

Mr. C'lubb. I have no distinct recollection of the circumstances 
under which I got the letter of introduction. This entry was made 
May 14 in Shanghai, immediately before my departure, and indicates 
that the day before I left I went out and saw Miss Smedley and got 
various letters of introduction from her. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I interrujjt *. I would like for you to read that 
from your diary if you can find it, ])lease. 

Mr. Clubb. Would the committee like me to read the whole sec- 
tion dealing witli Miss Smedley? It contains a little more than the 
letters. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Clubb. This is an entry over date of May 14, and the indications 
are that our ship departed from Shanghai on May 13. The exact date 
of the meeting, therefore 

Mr. Tavexner. What year? 

Mr. Clubb. 1032. The exact date of the meeting with Miss Smed- 
ley would not l)e quite clear. I apparently wrote one entry for several 
days. It states : 

On the second day in town (in Shanghai) I went out to see Smedley, sick 
in bed with her heart trouble. Slie told me of the affair of last fall and winter, 
the persecution she luiderwent, and how the 14-year-old Chinese girl she was 
nursing is now in jail for distributing anti-Japanese pamphlets in Peiping. A 
day l)efore we left I went out again, got from her (Smedley) letters of intro- 
duction to many interesting peoi>le in New York, and met Madame Sun Yat-sen 
(quiet and apparently calm despite her troubles), who is remaining in town 
on the Noulens case. We discussed for a while the Soviet situation in China, 
then Madame Sun Yat-sen had to leave. ( She had dropped in quite by accident.) 
A Mrs. Hamburger had also dropped in — a left-wing writer. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you have letters of introduction by Smedley to any 
other Communist leader in Xe.w York? 

Mr. Clubb. I had letters of introduction to other people, but ap- 
parently to no other person of that general nature, that is, Mr. 
Walt Carmon. 

Mr. Doyle. I don't know what you mean by "that general nature." 
I am asking you \vhether you had letters of introduction to any other 
Communist leader, known to you to be a Communist leader at that 
time ? 

Mr. Clubb. May I check? 

Mr. Doyle. Please. 

Mr. CuuBB. I have a list here. There is nobody there that I would 
have known as a Connnunist leader, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you make a special trip to New York for the 
purpose of contacting New Masses ? 

Mr. CuuiiB. No, sir. It is apparent that when I came home in 1932 
my orders as I recei\ed them in HankoAv did not cover consultation 
iti the Department at Washington. I believe I must have gotten 
aiithorization some place en route, but my request for the original 
instructions has been fruitless thus far. But when I left China I 
carried letters of introduction not only from Agnes Smedley, but 
several from a Mr. Joseph Bailey, a missionary friend; five from 
Agnes Smedley and seven from Joseph Bailey ; and possibly some 



TESTLMOISrY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1993 

from others as well. Some of these letters were to people in New 
York, :ind some were to people in Dearborn, Mich., Detroit, and Cin- 
cinnati, where I did not go, in fact. 

1932 was a period of severe economic depression, and I was very 
desirous of acquiring new acquaintances and meeting people who 
could tell me about the then conditions in the United States, and I 
came armed with a handful of letters of introduction, most of which 
I did not present. 

Mr. ]MouLDKR. Did you consider that as part of your duties, or in the 
nature of a personal undertaking? 

Mr. Clubb. I have always understood that the desire of the State 
Department is that when we come back we acquaint ourselves with 
conditions in the United States, and it is for that purpose we are 
ordinarily called for consultation in Washington. 

Mr. Moulder. Then you did consider it as part of your official 
duties ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. If I had come back and failed to learn what 
was happening in the United States, I would have considered myself 
derelict. 

Mr. Wood. Whom was your letter addressed to from Miss Smedley ? 

Mr. Cll^bb. Walt Cannon. 

Mr. Wood. Cannon? 

Mr. Clubb. C-a-r-m-o-n. 

Mr. Wcod. Did you see him ? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir, because by indication of the entry in my diary, 
and by the testimony of Mr. Whittaker Chambers before the Senate 
Internal Security Committee on the 16th of this month, Mr. Walt 
Cannon had already left New Masses and was not there. 

]\Ir. Wood. Independently of what your diary shows, do you have 
any recollection of seeing him? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Did you see anyone else but Mr. Gold and Mr. Chambers ? 

Mr. Clubb. Whittaker Chambers and apparently from the diary 
Mr. Michael Gold and the receptionist. 

Mr. Wood. Did you know Mr. Gold ? 

Mr. Cix'BB. No, not to the best of my knowledge and belief. 

Mr. WocD. Did you know Mr. Chambers? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't believe I had met him before. 

Mr. Wood. You said you were armed with seven letters from one 
party and five from Miss Smedley? 

]Mr. Clubb. That is the way is seems to stack up, 

Mr. Wood. Did you contact any of the persons to whom those let- 
ters were addressed, and if so, whom ? 

Mr. Clubb. I think perhaps I did, from a diary entry I made. 

Mr. Wood. Here is the diary. Will you tell us whether you pre- 
sented letters to any of the persons to whom they were addressed ? 

Mr. Clubb. I presented one to a Miss Gughan or Hughan that I 
got from Mr. Bailey. 

Mr. Wood. Who was she? 

Mr. Clubb. She was with Ginn & Co. in New York, 

Mr. Wood. Can you name anyone else? 

iVIr. Clubb. I apparently failed to meet others to whom I had letters 
at that time. 

92467—52 3 



1994 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Wood. I didn't ask those you failed to meet. I asked if you 
met any others? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. If 3^ou will permit me to check. I evidently 
called to present letters to four other persons to whom I had letters 
of introduction variously from Mr. Bailey 

Mr. Wood. Where ? 

Mr. Clubb. In New York, but failed to find them in their offices. 
And on the next day I called on two others who were out of town, 
and I ^ave it up as a had job and returned to Washington. 

Mr. Wood. Whom did you see at Ginn & Co.? 

Mr. Cltjbb. Miss Gughan or Hughan. 

Mr. Wood. Outside of that person and the persons at New Masses, 
you have no recollection of calling on an3^one else to whom you had 
letters of introduction? I understood you to say you had seven 
letters from Mr. Bailey and five from Miss Smedley, and two or three 
from other sources ; is that right ? 

Mr. Clubb. Those from other sources were for people in Dearborn, 
Mich., Cincinnati, and Detroit, all of which places I did not go to. 
One of them was for a person in Takoma Park, Md. I may have 
met her, but there is no reference to her here. 

Mr. AVooD. And you have no independent recollection of meeting 
hei"? 

Mr. Clubb. I think I called to see her. That letter was from Joseph 
Bailey. 

Mr. Wood. I was wondering why, with T and 5, that is 12, and 2 or 3 
others, 15 letters, you were only successful in contacting 2? 

Mr. Clubb. I think that is indicated by a diary entry which I might 
read to you, Mr. Chairman. It is in that same entry that I made 
July 9 : 

Thus far, so far as "contacts" are concerned, my trip has been singularly 
unsuccessful. The chief of those I wanted to see have been out of town — Villard, 
Lovett, Chappell, Sanger. 

Then I say I met Miss Hughan, and I refer to people I had known 
before. 

Mr. Walter. May I interrupt at that point ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. sir. 

Mr. Walter. You mentioned some people there ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. 

Mr. Walter. Who were they? 

Mr. Clubb. Mr. Villard was Oswald Garrison Villard of The 
Nation. 

Mr. Lovett was Robert Morss Lovett of New Republic. 

Miss Chappell was Winifred L. Chappell of Columbia. 

And Miss Sanger was Miss Margaret Sanger. 

]VIr. Walter. And were the letters of introduction to those people 
from Miss Smedley? 

Mr. Clubb. Except to Miss Chappell ; I had a letter of introduction 
to her from Josepli Bailey. Of course in New York I did see a very 
limited number of people that I had known before, but this entry, 
which is made over date July 11, would explain a little further the 
circumstances under which I was presenting letters of introduction in 
New York : 

I chucked the blasted adventure before its end gasped at me. I was unsuc- 
cessful in reaching two more people on Sunday morning, Sieve King and Martha 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1995 

Biphle. So I decided that this thing of running about in the hot sun with 
letters of introduction to iieople with whom 1 should prolmbly liave little oppor- 
tunity of establishiug a valuable intimacy is a very extrava.i;ant fantasy though 
probably more harmless than many other isnis fatuus now being pursued by 
lesser men tiian I. So at noon I threw over the job and went to see the very 
delii-'htful German picture Frulingstraum with so much of the charming melody 
of Schubert. 

Following along that line, here is a comment that I made on August. 
5, having left St. Paul en route back to Hankow on August 1, 1932 : 

The vacation is over and we have started on our return journey, having left 
St. Paul August 1, Monday. We found the vacation good but should spend 
the next one more effectively, with less of nervous dashing about and more 
of leisured loafing with friends and books. I, for one, shall never again go 
in for such an indiscriminate toting about of letters of introduction even though. 
this time the practice had a certain reward in both actual benefits and expe- 
rience. The general picture I wanted, I got, though I feel that I could well 
have done a bit of first-hand investigation for the purpose of lending vividness, 
and color to my picture. 

Mr. AValter. What picture? 

Mr. Clubb. Picture of conditions in the United States. 

Mr. Wood. Whom did you get that picture from ? 

Mr. Clurb. All of the friends and people whom I met in the United 
States, and I met many in the Department of State itself. 

Mr, Wood. But not from the people you had the letters to? 

Mr. Clubb. If those were people who knew anything about the situ- 
ation in the United States and were prepared to discuss it, I would 
have gotten one more little segment — 

Mr, Wood. I am not interested in your conclusions on the subject- 
I am asking what you remember about it. 

Mr. Clubb. I remember that each and every time I am back in the 
United States I try to see people. Some of the people are new. Some 
of the people I have known before. In each circumstance, if I have 
the opportunity I endeavor to obtain something of interest to myself 
with reference to current developments, the current picture, some 
facet 

Mr. Wood. Of course I am not interested in your general meeting 
of people, but people you had letters to from Smedley. Those are the 
ones I am interested in. 

Mr. Clubb. I didn't meet any of themi because most of them were 
apparently out of town. 

Mr. AValter, Why did you describe taking these letters about as 
"adventure"? 

Mr. Clubb. I suppose I was writing very casually and very care- 
lessly. I would not presumably have written that way if I were 
writing in an official report. But to meet new people and get new 
impressions is something in the nature of an adventure, and writing, 
casually and light-heartedly, I miglit have used the word "adventure" 
instead of a technical word which would have been more nearly correct. 

Mr. Walter. AVhy would you describe seeking information as an. 
adventure? 

Mr. Clubb. This had more to do with the presentation of letters o£ 
introduction and meeting new people, I believe, than the actual seek- 
ing of information from them. I have never expected to get from all 
of the people I meet a great deal. Sometimes I get something and 
sometimes I don't. It is rather adventuresome in that respect. 

Mr. AValter. Did you know Miss Smedley was a Communist? 



1996 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Clubb. I have never known she was a Communist, sir. On one 
occasion she has told me she was not. I don't know. Particularly at 
the time she was correspondent for the Frankfurter Zeitung and an 
established newspaper woman. Subsequently she became correspond- 
ent for the Manchester Guardian. That was rather later. I think 
I have the reference. Apparently from May 1928 until August 1941 
she was a correspondent of sorts for the Manchester Guardian. And 
if the committee will permit, I could present them with a photostat 
of her letter of accreditation. 

Mr. Moulder. In your testimony frequently, at least two or three 
times, you referred to the economic conditions or the depression this 
country was undergoing at the time you visited this country from 
China ; and you have also referred to the situation existing over here 
which you were endeavoring to get a picture of to report back to 
people over in China. 

Are we to underetand or believe that at that time there was an effort 
on the part of certain people in China to determine whether or not 
there was a revolutionary movement under way over here, on which 
subject you were trying to obtain information, because in your talk 
with Mr. Chambers that subject was discussed. I was wondering if 
that was the prime object of your obtaining information over here 
on the situation which existed here at that time ? 

Mr. Clubb. I do not remember that I was obtaining that informa- 
tion to carry back to China for the use of other persons. That would 
not have been the case. It would have been for my own use as a 
Foreign Service officer. Naturally, in the office back in Hankow, 
I would have told the people who did not have the good fortune to 
come home on leave that year what I had seen with my own eyes. 

Mr. Moulder. Were they Foreign Service people who were seeking 
information ? 

Mr. Clubb. They were not seeking information. 

Mr. Moulder. Giving you these letters ? 

Mr. Clubb. They were not seeking information channeled through 
me. 

Mr. Moulder. You made menton of the fact that was not a per- 
sonal undertaking, but you considered it part of your official duties, 
when you returned from a trip you wanted to be informed on the 
situation existing here ? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

Mr. Moulder. I am endeavoring to find out if it was in your official 
capacity or if it was personal information you were seeking? 

Mr. Clubb. If I carried it back it would be for my own informa- 
tion and for the information of my friends. 

Mr. Moulder. I am speaking of information you got from people 
to whom you had letters of introduction. 

Mr. Clubb. I got seven letters from Mr. Joseph Bailey. 

Mr. Moulder. Was he an American citizen ? 

Mr. Clubb. He was an Amei'ican citizen and so was Agnes Smedley. 

Mr. Moulder, Were all of the letters of introduction from Ameri- 
can citizens ? 

Mr. Clubb. I am not sure. I may have gotten some from someone 
with the Carlowitz Co., who would have been a German citizen. 

Mr. Wood. How long had you known Miss Smedley before you got 
those letters of introduction from her? 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1997 

Mr. Clubb. About a year. 

Mr. Wood. How frequently had you seen her? 

Mr. Clubb. I had seen her, if I met her first in Shanghai, only once. 
If she proceeded to Hankow in 1931, I could have seen her twice. 
This could have been the second or third meeting. 

But may I present to the committee, because the position of Miss 

Smedley is rather important, a letter of introduction 

~ Mr. Tavenner. Is that from Secretary Hull ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. I wish you would introduce it. 

Mr. Clubb. The cover is a Department of State cover, addressed to 
the diplomatic and consular officers of the United States of America, 
introducing Miss Agnes Smedley, and it is on Department of State 
letterhead, dated May 4, 1934 : 

To the American Diplomatie and Consular Officers. 

Sirs: At the instance of the Honorable Robert F. Wagner, Senator of the 
United States from the State of New York, I take pleasure in introducing to you 
Miss Agnes Smedley, of New York City, who is about to proceed abroad. 

I cordially bespeak for Miss Smedley such courtesies and assistance as you 
may be able to render, consistently with your ofBcial duties. 
Very truly yours, 

CORDELL HtTLL, 

]Mr. Wood. And you say now you knew of no Communist activities 
on the part of Miss Smedley prior or subsequent to the time of these 
letters of introduction ? 

Mr. Clubb. I have no knowledge of her having been a Commmiist. 

Mr. Wood. I didn't ask you that. 

Mr. Clubb. No. I was going to continue. I knew she was very 
sympathetic to the Chinese Communists. She indicated that. A 
book published in 1933 under the title "Chinese Destinies" left no doubt 
about her sympathies for Chinese Communists. And I presume her 
articles in the Frankfurter Zeitung and the Manchester Guardian 
might have reflected tliose sympathies. But I never knew her as a 
member of the Communist Party or as an underground worker or 
member of a spy ring. In short, I never knew of any of that aspect 
of her activities. 

Mr. Wood. In the absence of such knowledge on your part, just 
what prompted her to tell you she was not a Communist ? 

Mr. Clubb. It was an item of information that stuck in my mind 
for some time. I imagine I may have been talking to her about the 
situation in China. 

Mr. Wood. Let us not speculate. Do you know what brought that 
about? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Why do you remember she told you she was not a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Clubb. It is one of those things that stuck in my mind. 

Mr. Wood. Did \o\\ ask her if she was a Communist? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall. I recall she told me she was not a 
Communist, and I don't recall when it was. 

Mr. Wood. Tlie Chappell you mentioned, what is her first name? 

Mr. Clubb. Winifred Chappell. 

Mr. Wood. You met her? 

Mr. Clubb. No. By that diary entry, I failed to meet her. 

Mr. Wood. Was she the one with Ginn & Co. ? 



1998 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Clubb. No. That was Miss Gughan or Hughan. 

Mr. Wood. Did you know Miss Chappell before you were given the 
letter of introduction to her ? 

Mr. Clubb. No. She was apparently connected with Columbia 
University. 

Mr. Wood. Do you know her now ? 

Mr. Clubb. No. 

Mr. Wood. Do you know she has been chairman of the Communist 
front, the Baltimore Book Forum, which also had a membership of 
-other known Communists? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Pardon me for interrupting. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. You made the observation a little while ago that 
upon your return to this coiintr}' the State Department was interested 
in your ascertaining what you could about conditions generally, and 
rather encouraged you to do that. I believe that is the sense of what 
you said ? 

Mr. Clubb. It is a general principle that the State Department fol- 
lows, and, actually, if one in the course of home leave spends too much 
time abroad before coming to the United States, he is subject to 
criticism, because they say home leave is as much to orient yourself to 
home conditions as for rest and recreation. 

Mr. Tavenner. The State Department didn't encourage you to orient 
yourself by going to Communist headquarters or to an organization of 
such repute as New Masses in order to effect that purpose? 

Mr. Clubb. Did you mean to indicate that New Masses was Com- 
munist headquarters ? I didn't know that. 

Mr. Tavenner. I didn't mean to say they were the same. I used 
the word "or." 

Mr. Clubb. Because I didn't go to Communist headquarters. It is 
true I proceeded to New Masses, but I think it is clear from the 
character of my entry in my diary that I didn't spend much time there 
and I wasn't much impressed by those I met. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Your diary says you were impressed more with 
that meeting than any you had attended. It starts off, "The most 
interesting meeting thus far was that with New Masses." So it was 
the outstanding meeting that you had in this so-called effort to orient 
yourself? 

Mr. Clubb. May I state I subsequently read the first paragraph of 
that same entry over date of July 9, which indicated I had been largely 
unsuccessful in meeting people. At this time I had met only one 
person to whom I had a letter of introduction. Miss Gughan or 
Hughan, and the entry indicated I did not have any extended or inter- 
esting conversation with her. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you knew you were going to New Masses 
when you took this letter of introduction there ? 

Mr. Clubb. I think there is no doubt about it. Very probably the 
address on the letter of introduction envelope was given as New 
Masses. Miss Agnes Smedley at that time — I have checked and dis- 
covered — was listed as a contributor to New Masses on the New 
Masses masthead. So undoubtedly she knew Walt Cannon was on 
New Masses. Whether she knew Walt Carmon personally, I don't 
know. He might have been a business correspondent. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 1999 

Mr. Tavexxer. I will return to the meeting at New Masses pres- 
ently. I had intended to get information on another subject before 
returning to that. So let us return to our discussion of a little w^hile 
ago. Tliat is, you produced a letter from Cordell Hull under date of 
May 4, 1984, in which he said : 

I cordially bespeak for Miss Smedley such courtesies and assistance as you 
may be able to render, consistently with your official duties. 

And he said that this letter was written at the instance of the Hon- 
orable Kobert F. Wagner, Senator of the United States from the 
State of New York. 

That letter had no bearing whatever upon your association with 
Agnes Smedley in 1932, because the letter was dated in 1934 ? 

^Ir. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. It had no bearing on your visit to New Masses? 

Mr. Clubb. That is right. 

Mr. Taa-exxer. It is not a clearance, in your eyes, of Miss Smedley 
in 1932, because it was dated in 1934 '? 

Mr. Clubb. I made no pretensions of that, I hope. 

Mr. Taatenxer. Did you actually see Miss Smedley in the per- 
formance of vour duties as an agent of the State Department ^ 

]\Ir. Clubb"; As far as I recall, no. But I may say this : Another 
little bit of information that has stuck in my mind is to the general 
effect that Miss Smedley told me on one occasion that she had some 
support from Senator Wagner back here. 

Mr. Tavexner. 'Wlien did she tell you that? 

Mr. Clubb. I am not sure, sir. 

Mr. Tavenker. Where did she tell you that ? 

Mr. Clubb. I wouldn't be able to say. I think probably it was 
back in Shanghai, and probably about that time. 

Mr. Tavexner. That would be quite a time subsequent to your 
meeting at New Masses ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. I doubt she had told me that in 1931, and probably 
not in 1932. but I am not sure. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Do you know whether it was the practice for the 
Secretary of State, at the instance of United States Senators, to write 
such letters to members of the consular service in the field? 

Mr. Clubb. I believe it is. 

Mr. Tavexxer. That is a thing that is done as a matter of course 
on the request of a United States Senator? 

Mr. Clubb. It would not be, done as a matter of course, I presume, 
if tlie })eople or person involved was in question. 

Mr. Tavexxer. You spoke of Agnes Smedley favoring communism 
in China. Were you drawing any distinction between communism in 
China and communism in Japan or communism in Russia? 

Mr. Clubb. In the sense in which she was interested, if you will 
permit me to try to interpret her feelings, I think you might. She 
was very close to Madame Sun Yat-sen, the widow of the founder of 
the Chinese Republic, and who was revered and beloved by her coun- 
trymen. She liad a deep faith in some of the things advocated by 
Madame Sun Yat-sen, and I imagine she looked at the things in China 
much more subjectively than elsewhere. 

Miss Agnes Smedley was a person of very profound emotions and 
convictions, and I believe she concentrated on a revolutionary situa- 



2000 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

tion which was then growing in China, without much regard to its 
international complications and effects. 

Perhaps I am not making the correct interpretation, but I merely 
wish to indicate I do not think she was quite objective with regard to 
the "Red" movement in China. The word "Red" covered the peasants 
in the fields and others rising in rebellion, and at that time the Nation- 
alist Government had not established control over all of China. It was 
challenged by war lords in the west and southeast ; and as late as the 
spring of 1932 the whole Government resigned and Gen. Chiang Kai- 
shek went into retirement one place, and other members of the Cabinet 
went elsewhere. 

She would have distinguished, I believe, between the so-called Chi- 
nese Communist revolution and Russian communism, but that is 
merely a feeling of mine. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew from her conduct in 1932 that at least she 
was a Chinese Communist? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. I doubt she would have become a member of the 
Chinese Communist Party. At that time the Chinese Communist 
Party was up in the hills fighting for its life. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will change that; rather than being a member, 
that she promoted the interests of the Chinese Communists ? 

Mr. Clubb. I would like to put it in different phrasing, to the effect 
she was interested in and sympathetic to the revolutionary movement 
of which the Chinese Communists were an important part. 

Mr. Tavenner. And she supported that revolution ? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't know that she supported it by other means than 
writing at that time. At the time of the Sino-Japanese War, when 
Chinese Communists and Nationalists joined forces by agreement in 
1937, it is my recollection she went into the hinterland and aided 
Chinese Communists in regard to social services or things like that, but 
I know of no support she gave them other than by her writings. 

Mr, Tavenner. As I understand it, you had seen Agnes Smedley 
only on one occasion prior to the 2-or 3-day period before you sailed 
from China on your return to the United States ? 

Mr. Clubb. That isn't quite right, I probably gave the wrong im- 
pression. But I indicated on the question of when I first met her, that 
I may have met her in Shanghai or in Hankow. In the event I first 
met her in Hankow, I would have met her only once before I went to 
Shanghai en route to the United States, If I met her first in Shanghai 
proceeding to Hankow 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you first meet her? What is your best 
recollection of the first time you met her ? 

Mr. Clubb. I think I probably met her first in Shanghai en route to 
Hankow. Then I seem to recall she was in Hankow at the time of the 
great flood of 1931 or shortly afterward, and she at that time, also by 
my recollection of which I am not sure, was the house guest of an Epis- 
copal bishop, and I probably would have met her at that time. Subse- 
quent to that time I did not meet her until 1932 en route to the United 
States. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to the time you met her in 1932, would you say 
you were well acquainted with Agnes Smedley ? 

Mr. Clubb. I could not, by any manner or means, have considered 
myself well acquainted from one or two meetings. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDJVIUND CLUBB 2001 

Mr. Tavenner. Then what was the occasion of looking her up in 
Shanghai on the way to the United States ? 

Mr. Clubb. Because she was interested in the Chinese revokitionary 
movement and, quite frankly, I began my study of the Chinese revolu- 
tionary movement in 1931. At that time the movement was in its 
beginnings, and most people seemed to believe it was just banditry. 
I believe 1 was one of the first, if not the first, to do a definitive work 
on Chinese Communists. That was done April 1, 1932. I was inter- 
ested in securing all information I could on this movement. 

Mr. Tavexner. As a result of your definitive study, did you arrive 
at the conclusion Communists in China were all agrarians? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. I never used that word. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your conclusion? 

Mr. Clubb. I didn't stop in 1932. I have been a political reporter 
practically all my service in the United States Government, and I 
have reported on Chinese communism down to the present time, 

Mr. Tavexxer. I just asked you the simple question, after your 
thorough study of the subject and your report, what conclusion did 
you reach? 

Mr. Clubb. I set forth very little in the way of conclusions in 1932. 
Much of that report, which I did primarily in my spare time for my 
own edification, was a study of various campaigns which had been 
carried on by the Nationalists against the Communists. I concluded 
only in the finishing sections that there was a revolution in course 
in China and that it covdd not be stopped readily unless there was 
important betterment of the economic conditions then existing in 
China. Those were my conclusions. 

However, to meet your question, I will say that in the course of that 
report I indicated the connection between the Chinese Communist 
movement and certain international aspects of the situation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it the international Communist aspect of the 
situation that you desired to talk over with Agnes Smedley when you 
saw her in Shanghai ? 

Mr. Clubb. I can't remember that I went to her for the purpose of 
discussing any aspect. You will recall she was ill when I first met 
her. On the second occasion we did speak of the Soviet situation in 
China. At that time there had been established in Kiangsi Province a 
so-called Chinese Soviet Government. I am not sure of the exact 
title. It may have been that particular thing that I was discussing 
at the present time when I said "Soviet," because they called them- 
selves the Soviet Government. In other phraseology, we may have 
discussed the Red movement in China. 

In Shanghai the people had more opportunities to get information 
than we did in Hankow, because it was in Shanghai that the Chinese 
Communist leaders had remained the longest. They remained there 
until about June 1931 in the foreign concessions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then I understand you went to talk to Agnes 
Smedley about 

Mr. Wood. The committee will stand adjourned until 2 : 30. 

(Thereupon, at 12:50 p. m., a recess was taken until 2:30 p. m. 
of the same day.) 



2002 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

The hearing reconvened at 2 : 45 p. m., upon the expiration of the 
recess, Hon. John S. Wood (chairman), presiding, and the following 
members of the committee being present : Representatives Francis E. 
Walter, Harold H. Velde, and Charles E. Potter. 

Mr. Wood. Let the committee be in order. 

For the purposes of further hearing, the chairman is setting up a 
subcommittee composed of Messrs. Walter, Velde, and Potter, and 
they are all present. 

You may proceed now, Mr. Tavenner. 

TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB— Resumed— ACCOMPANIED 
BY HIS COUNSEL, GERARD D. REILLY, ATTORNEY 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Clubb, this morning you were advised that 
you were entitled to counsel, and you stated that your counsel was 
absent because of another engagement. Is he present now ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir ; Mr. Reilly. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Reilly. My name is Gerard D. Reilly, of the firm of Reilly, 
Rhetts, and Ruckelhaus, 1120 Tower Building, Washington. 

(Representative James B. Frazier entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Clubb, at the recess I was asking you about 
the purpose of your visit to the home of Agnes Smedley at the time 
that you referred to in your diary in May 1932. 

I believe the substance of your testimony was that you wanted to 
consult her about security movements in China, or, rather, certain 
Communist Chinese movements which indicated a trend toward revo- 
lution. Is that not about the substance of your testimony ? 

Mr. Clubb. If you would permit me to put it in a little different 
phrasing, Mr. Counsel, I should like to do so, because I am not sure 
at this late date, 19 years after, just what, if any particular idea I 
had in mind when I went around to see her. 

However, my diary entry which I read to the committee indicated 
that while there I discovered also there Madam Sun Yat-sen, at the 
lesidence of Miss Agnes Smedley. And then it was indicated that 
the subjects of the Soviets in China was discussed. 

Wliether I had any idea whatsoever of discussing that before I 
went, I wouldn't know now, and I should not be prepared to say that 
I had. 

However, may I point out that, as I said before, I was political 
reporting officer, and that was my job, among certain other jobs, and 
one of the main channels for obtaining information is obviously 
through contacts. One cannot, and one could not, in China, at that 
time, particularly, depend on the press alone. 

And one of my main general fields of contact was journalists. In 
Hankow, for instance, I had contacts with the businessmen; I had 
contacts with missionaries; I had contacts, particularly, with journal- 
ists. 

May I say that one of my main contacts was a very conservative 
journalist, a person who was the editor of the Central China Post, a 
British publication at that time. I believe he is now dead. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2003 

Another contact was a Chinese journalist who has recently been shot 
by the Chinese Communists. 

(Representative Clyde Doyle entered the hearing room.) 

I^Iy relations with the journalists in China have always been extraor- 
dinarily good. And Miss Agnes Smedley was a journalist. And I 
would "have had no reason to feel backward about going to see any 
jouriuilist in China. 

Mr. Tavenner. But, was not the main reason for consulting her the 
fact that she had spent a great deal of time and effort in connection 
with the Chinese Communist movement in China at that time ? 

J^Ir. Clubb. In general, your statement is quite correct, Mr. Counsel. 

Because of the circumstance that that was one of her main fields of 
interest, she would have been a very fruitful source of information to 
me. for such information regarding that particular movement as was 
obtainable in Shanghai. And I, of course, was stationed at Hankow 
at that time, and that undoubtedly would have been one of the impel- 
linjr reasons for my conversing with her. That is true. 

]\Ir. Taa-enxer. AYell, have you used her as a source of information 
prior to this time ? 

Mr. Clitbb. Yes, sir ; I had received information from her. 

Mr. Tamsnner. That is prior to May 1932 ? 

Mr. Clubb. I believe that is true. That is my recollection. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. What was the occasion for that? 

Mr. Clubb. The occasion ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Supplying information prior to May 1932 ? 

Mr. Clubb. ISIay I point out that in Shanghai it was more easy to 
obtain information respecting some aspects of the Chinese Communist 
than in, for instance, Hankow, merely by reason of the circumstance 
that in Shanghai you had certain foreign concessions where the Chi- 
nese Communists for a long time, had kept their headquarters. They 
kept their headquarters there until June 1931 when in a sudden coup 
the Nationalists caught up most of the leaders. After that time they 
were removed. 

Still there were certain periodicals and certain items of information 
that were obtainable in Shanghai that were not obtainable in Hankow. 

And some of those I got and furnished to the Department of State 
in the normal course of my reporting. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Do you mean you got them through Agnes 
Smedley ? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't know how you treat classified information here, 
Mr. Counsel. If I had a classified answer to that, could I ask for it 
off the record, or something like that? 

]\Ir. Tavenner. I am not asking you what information you obtained 
from Agnes Smedley. 

Mr. Clubb. I see. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. That might get into the realm of classified material. 

But the fact that you used her as a source of information, I would 
not think so. 

Mr. Clubb. Right. I did obtain information from Miss Agnes 
Smedley in respect to the revolutionary movement in China, which I 
used for my reports. 

Mr. Ta\t.nxer. Over how long a period of time had you received 
such information? 



2004 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Clubb. I wouldn't be able to say that now, because I am not 
quite sure, you see, when I met Miss Agnes Smedley first. It was in 
1931 that I met her ; that is true. But whether it was at the time when 
I passed through Shanghai en route to Hankow, or whether it was at 
a time of a later visit, I wouldn't know. 

But shall one say that for roughly 1 year prior to the time I met 
her in 1932, I had known Miss Agnes omedley personally, and for 
part of that time I had — or on certain occasions in that period — I 
had received from her certain information. 

Mr. Potter. Were you instructed by your superiors to contact 
Agnes Smedley to get this information? 

Mr. Clubb. Not categorically, I am certain, because theoretically 
they would not have told me in the first instance to become acquainted 
with Miss Agnes Smedley. I presume that I met her socially, some 
way or other in the first instance. 

However may I say this: That my superiors did know of my ac- 
quaintanceship with Miss Agnes Smedley and as far as I recall there 
was never any exception taken to it. 

Mr. Velde. You mentioned that you obtained information from 
Agnes Smedley relative to the revolution. To what revolution were 
you referring? 

Mr. Clubb. The Chinese revolution. 

Mr. Velde. The Chinese Communists against the regime? 

Mr. Clubb. The so-called Red movement in China. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Clubb. At that time it must be remembered that there was no 
unified political control over China. Certain war lords held out over 
west China ; there were certain war lords in the north in the process 
of fomenting the rebellion in 1932. 

In the spring of 1932 there was an actual revolt that broke out in 
the Fukien Province. 

Mr. Velde. This information you obtained you transmitted to the 
State Department here in Washington? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Velde. So they had the information about the Chinese revolu- 
tion as early as 1932 ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Velde. In China? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. If Agnes Smedley was an enthusiastic sponsor of 
the Communist revolution in China, do you not agree that the informa- 
tion that she would give you on that subject would be slanted on the 
Communist side ? 

Mr. Clubb. One collecting information has to weigh it and collate 
it against other material, and I always did. And the information that 
I would send on, I would send on either as a reporting of an actual 
event, when I would try to get the facts, or if I offered an opinion, an 
estimate, a prognostication, I would try to do the best objectively 
that I could. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I do not know that you have given me an 
answer to my question. 

Will you read the question again, please ? 

(The pending question, as heretofore recorded, was read by the 
reporter.) 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2005 

Mr. Clubb. May I consider your first premise, Mr. Counsel ? You 
say "if slie was an enthusiastic sponsor." 

Mr. Taaenner. Have you not told me that she was? 

Mr. Clubb. I think the question was put that she was a supporter of 
the revohition. And I believe my response was as far as I knew she 
had not concretelv supported the revohition excepting, if you will, 
through her writings, until the time of the Sino-Japanese War when 
she went into Communist territory, and performed, I believe, social 
work. 

Therefore, I should, if you will, possibly question your fii*st 

premise. 

But if we were to admit the first premise, and say that she was an 
enthusiastic sponsor, or supporter of the revolution, one surely would 
have to look there for some bias, perhaps. I always look at reports 
to see whether I consider they are biased. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you find that her reports to you were slanted ? 

Mr. Ci.UBU. I think I could give you a fairly illustrative reply in 
respect to that. Her first book, Chinese Destinies, was published in 
1933. And tliat was published at a time when the Chinese Reds were 
making their first advances. They had established there in Juikin, 
Kiangsi Province, and were just at the beginning stage. 

Now, that first book of hers was a pretty good bit of journalistic 
reporting, by my opinion, on the Chinese revolution. And it was 
so judged by the^ press reviews which appeared in the United States 
at that time, in such periodicals as the New York Times, the Saturday 
Eeview of Literature, and others. 

She wrote two books the next year, and in my opinion those next 
two books were not as good, were not as objective. They were more 
subjective than the first one. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you furnish Agnes Smedley with any informa- 
tion relating to the policies of the United States Government or what 
they should be? 

Mr. Clubb. At that time, Mr. Counsel, I occupied a relatively in- 
significant position of vice counsel in the consulate general at Han- 
kow. I performed notarials, handled some shipping, and seamen, and 
did some economic and political reporting, and I would have had no 
knowledge of, call it, information of a high classification. 

The polic}' that I have ahvays followed in talking to press people 
is to be fairly frank and to discuss problems as they may arise; to 
swap information, and the rest of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what I wanted to ask you: To what extent 
did you swap information with Agnes Smedley in return for the in- 
formation she was giving you? 

Mr. Clubb. Your indication was, I believe, that I might have told 
Miss Smedley something in the nature of information which would 
have been classified about the American policy. 

Mr. Tavenner. No, I am just asking you for what you did. I am 
not expressing any opinion. 

Mr. Clubb. Naturally, I exchanged opinions and sometimes a cer- 
tain amount of facts with her as with other journalists. 

At that time we were under no restrictions in respect to our con- 
tacts with journalists, and she was an accredited journalist, a repre- 
sentative of the Frankfurter Zeitung. 



2006 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 



When I went up, for instance, into Sinkiang, if I may relate it 

Mr. Tavenner. And so was Richard Sorge a representative of 
the Frankfurter Zeitung, was he not? 

Mr, Clubb. I don't know that. I understood that he was a member 
of the German Embassy, and spying for the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; but he held a position with that same paper? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't know that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, at this very period in 1932, according to in- 
formation that the committee has, Sorge served more or less as a re- 
cruiting agent for the Soviet spy ring in China. And there is con- 
siderable information in the possession of the committee to the effect 
that she worked very closely with Sorge. 

Did she at any time furnish you or the United States Government, 
to your knowledge, with any information relating to Richard Sorge 
and his activities? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

And may I point out that Sorge was not arrested by the Japanese 
until 1941. And that information respecting him did not come out 
until his execution in 1944. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is true, but Agnes Smedley was operating 
with him in 1932 at the very time that you tell us that she was inter- 
ested in the Communist revolution in China, and it was during that 
very period when you say she was furnishing information to you. 

Mr. Clubb. I don't know a thing about that. And I should assume 
that it would not have become knowledge available to anybody until 
the capture of Sorge at the earliest. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Agnes Smedley ever indicate to you that she 
had any information that would be of value to the United States 
regarding the Sorge spy ring? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Or its activities? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

I don't believe I ever heard the name of Sorge until sometime after 
1944 when he was executed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she ever inform you that there was any organi- 
zation of a spying character which was active in interest against the 
United States? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir; I don't recall any such thing as that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Agnes Smedley ever attempt to recruit you 
in any manner ? 

Mr, Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did anyone else? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. On this occasion when you sought Agnes Smedley 
out on your way to the United States, did you receive any message 
from her before you went to her home ? 

Mr. Clubb. Do you mean in the nature of an invitation, or some- 
thing like that ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Any kind of information. In your diary you state 
that the day after you arrived at Shanghai you went to the home of 
Agnes Smedley. Did you go by appointment? 

Mr. Clubb. I presume I should have called her up by phone from 
the hotel and ascertained whether she was at home. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she call you ? 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2007 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall. I should doubt it, because presumably 
she Avoukhrt know I was in town until I reached my hotel and called 

her. ^ , n 1. 1 

Mr. Tavtsnner. Then you went to her home, and the hrst day, you 
state, according to your diary, that she was sick with a heart ailment? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir ; it was a chronic ailment. 

Mr. Tavtsnner. Did you discuss matters with her that day ? 

Mr. Clubb. The diary entry doesn't indicate that. I should think 
if she were ill I should not have stayed long. She probably would 
have said, ''Come and see me a coui)le of days hence." 

Mr. Tavenner. Doesn't your diary indicate that you did talk to 
her on that particular day about her maid who had been arrested? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, that, in the very slight manner. 

Mr. Tavenner. And her other dilliculties? 

Mr. Clubb. Quite true. But it doesn't indicate there was any ex- 
tended conversation that I can see, an} way. 

:Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you obtain the information that you went 

for? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't know what information I should have gone for. 
As I say, I am not sure at this late date that I had anything particular 
in mind in going around to see her other than having a chat and saying 

hello. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Why would you have called upon her the second 
day when you only had 3 days, or 4 days at the most, in Shanghai ? 

Mr. Clubb. I am not sure why unless she would have said, "I am not 
feeling too well today ; come around a couple of days hence," or she 
might have said at that time. I don't know, "I will write a few letters 
of "introduction for you, if you will, and come back and get them 
before you sail."' 

Mr. Tavenner. That was her idea, to give you the letters of intro- 
duction, or was it yours? 

Mr. Clubb. I can't say at this time, because I don't know. But I 
ordinarily would not ask people for letter of introduction to par- 
ticular people, for the simple reason that I ordinarily wouldn't know 
who were acquaintances. 

And, frankly, it has never been my policy to ask people for letters 
of introduction. But in this particular year, apparently, two people, 
at least, indicated to me, "Well, here are a number of people that you 
might wish to see." 

At that time I was not well acquainted in the East, particularly, 
because of the fact I had never lived in either New York or for any 
longer than 8 months in Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am a little curious about the circumstances under 
which you were furnished letters of recommendation by Agnes Srned- 
ley when you had seen her only about a year before, ancl your only 
■connection with her was that of receiving through the mail informa- 
tion relating to the Communist revolution. I am a little curious to 
understand how, under those circumstances, if there were no others, 
a question should come up about furnishing you with an introduction 
to the editor of a Communist organ, New Masses, in New York City. 

Mr. Clubb. May I note that you said, "letters of recommendation," 
Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Tavenntr. I should have said "introduction." 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. 



2008 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

May I point out that there was only one letter to anybody on any 
organization like the New Masses. 

As regards its status at that time, I am not quite sure. I told the 
committee, or the staff, the committee staif, previously, that I was 
under the impression at that time that it was Communist. It was, 
however, open and operating legally. 

However, subsequent to my hearing on March 14, 1 have done quite 
a bit of research in these subjects, and I discovered that the Fish 
committee in 1930 did not list it as a Communist organ, and that Wil- 
liam Green in reporting to the State Department in 1935 on Commu- 
nist publications in the United States likewise did not list it as a Com- 
munist organ, although he said it was a recipient of benefits from the 
Garland Fund. 

But I would point out that there was nothing at that time which 
would have stopped me from going around to an organ like the New 
Masses. There was no prohibition against it, and I as a political re- 
porter have always been interested in exploring all fields. 
. So I should not have felt that I was doing anything that was out 
of the way. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, there was no uncertainty in your mind about 
the character of the publication and the organization which backed 
it, was there ? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't think so, as I testified before. 

Mr. Tavenner. You told the committee that you had known since 
your college days that it was a Communist-sponsored publication, 
or words to that effect. 

Mr. Clubb. Words to that effect. I believe I said I have probably 
known as early as my college days or thought as early as my college 
days it was Communist, that is true. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Clubb. But, as an example, Mr. Counsel, may I point out that 
I was sent up into Sinjon Province in 1913, and that in all of that 
province I was the only American present. That is 500,000 square 
miles. And the only people around there were Chinese. Red Rus- 
sians — that is, Soviet Russians — White Russians, and the Turki popu- 
lation, and that I have had contacts with Soviet consular officials, 
and that I have had regular contacts with the Soviet consular and 
diplomatic officials in China, and Vladivostok, 

Those people are also Communists. I have never received any in- 
structions from the Department of State or any other place not to have 
contacts with Communists. And I have never felt under any prohi- 
bition whatsoever in that regard, because I assumed that the com- 
mission that I bore from the President of the United States expressed 
enough faith and trust in me so that I could go any place and see 
anybody without somebody feeling that I had given up State secrets, 
so to speak. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, when you first came before this committee, 
and were asked whether or not you went to New Masses offices, and 
met Whittaker Chambers, you told the committee that you were not 
able to recall that you had clone so. 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Or that you had delivered any message, or any 
letter at that time to that address. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2009 

Mr. Clurb. That is correct, 

I believe I reported further that it was physically possible that 
I should have visited the New Masses by reason of the circumstance 
that I was in the United States in 1932, and my checking up had indi- 
cated that I had also been in New York in 1932, but I had no recol- 
lection. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yon mean you had no independent recollection of 
having gone to New York to meet these various people? 

Mr. Clubb. As I believe I indicated to the committee, I remembered 
that in 1932 or 1937 I had carried rather a large number of letters 
of introduction. I wasn't sure at that time which of the 2 years 
it was in. 

I believe I cited the name of Dr. Eobert Morss Lovett as a person 
to whom in 1932 or in 1937 I had I thought a letter of introduction to. 

As it turns out, it was in 1932 in which I had these letters of intro- 
duction. 

Mr. Tavenner. But that you had no independent recollection of 
having called at New Masses? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, now that you have read your diary, does that 
refresh 3'our recollection? 

Mr. Clubb. No more than the diary entry itself, for the very simple 
reason it was 19 years ago. And it is very obvious, at any rate to me, 
that the matter passed out of my mind rather quickly afterward. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean to say that at this moment you have 
no independent recollection of having gone to the office of New Masses ? 

Mr. Clubb. The one thing that I think I remember independently, 
if you will try to separate my memory, is the actual physical character 
of the office itself. I believe I told you that I seemed to remember 
the office of the New Republic. I think now, after having looked at my 
entry, that it was the office of the New Masses I was remembering, 
and not the office of the New Republic. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall independently now of your diary, but 
with your recollection refreshed, that you did endeavor to meet Mr. 
Carmon ? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir; I don't recall that independently. That is 
merely because it is in the diary. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. You recall nothing independently after having re- 
freshed your recollection on what occurred at the New Masses? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. All I could tell you now is what is there in the 
diary entry. It is, as I say, 19 years ago. 

(Representative Clyde Doyle left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, you were called from your home in St. Paul, 
was it ? 

Mr. Clubb. St. Paul ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. To Washington, for a conference in July 1932 ? 

Mr. Clubb. As I indicated, I am not quite sure where* I got the 
final consultation orders. Theoretically, I could have picked them up 
en route, but my original orders, as sent to Hankow, which I did re- 
cover — I do not happen to have them here now — did not provide for 
travel to Washington. It was only for travel to St. Paul. And I 
IH-esume that it was subsequent to that that I received authorization to 
proceed to Washington. 

92467 — 52 4 



2010 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

There is an indication that I did receive, while at St. Paul, the new 
order which cut down our leave time in the United States because of 
the budgetary situation then existing, which you will remember, to 30 
days instead of 60 days, and I may have received at that time the 
authorization to proceed to Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. In regard to the authorization, you know you went 
to Washington ; do you not ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You recall that independently of any record in your 
diary ? 

Mr. Clubb. It is very difficult for me as — may I just point out, ap- 
parently for Mr. Chambers — to separate my memory into compart- 
ments and say what part came from one source and what part came 
from another. I will say this : 

That the reference in my diary to the play. Of Thee I Sing, and a 
reference to certain meetings here in Washington, and a reference to 
meetings with a couple of friends in New York, does stir independent 
recollections which are independent of the diary entries. 

(Representative Clyde Doyle returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. It is a very simple thing as to whether or not you 
remember whether you came to Washington. 

Mr. Clubb. I remember that. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you were on leave in 1932? 

Mr. Clubb. I remember that visit. My original reaction was to de- 
sire all the facts in hand possible before I macle any particularly cate- 
gorical statements, for the very simple reason that I had been to Wash- 
ington several times, and to New York several times, and it is some- 
times rather easy to confuse trips. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, you have checked your itinerary and you do 
know that you went to Washington ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you arrive in Washington ? 

Mr. Clubb. July 4, 1932. 

Mr. Tavenner. And how long did you remain in Washington ? 

Mr. Clubb. Until July 7, 1932. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Then, did you go to New York on the 7th ? 

Mr. Clubb. I went there on the 7th, apparently, I should say from 
the indications, leaving in the morning and arriving there about noon. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall that you came back to Washington 
from New York? 

Mr. Clubb. That is indicated in my diary, and it is also indicated in 
the records of the State Department. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall having come back the second time ? 

Mr. Clubb. I shouldn't have recalled that independently by reason 
of the circumstance that when I got back here I apparently spent one 
short day on consultation and went right on to return. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Now, what was the date of your return to Washington ? 

Mr. Clubb. I left the evening of July 11. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, why was it that you went to New York and 
remained from the 7th until the 11th, before returning to Washington 
and completing your assignment here ? 

Mr. Clubb. May I point out just for exactitude that I apparently 
left New York on the evening of the 10th, arriving on the morning 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDIVIUND CLUBB 2011 

of the lltli, presumably to see people. And, of course, my whole trip 
to Wnshinijton and New York, if you will, was for the purpose of one 
consultation. 

Mr. Wood. He is not asking you what you presumed; he is asking 
you why you did it. 

Mr. (^Lur.B. I am not quite sure at this late date, INIr. Chairman. 
Therefore, I have to speculate somewhat; and my belief, the best of 
my belief, is that I went there primarily to see people, not to go to 
shows, although I went to a couple of shows. 

Mr. Tavexneh. This was at a time, I believe, when compensation was 
being held up because of the condition you described a few moments 
ago? 

Mr. Clubb. Not compensation ; our leave was being cut short. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was leave without pay ; was it not? 

Mr. Clubb. No; leave with pay. We had leave with pay at that 
time, but they cut it short, evidently in that year, to make it 30 days 
instead of 60 days. And I traveled to Washington, apparently under 
orders — my way paid, in short — and I was in Washington on consulta- 
tion status. 

Mr. Tavenner. But your trip from Washington to New York was 
purely personal? 

Mr. Clubb. That would have been personal. 

Mr. Tavenner, And with expenses borne by you ? 

Mr. Clubb. That is quite true. But the cost of the trip to New 
York, particularly in those days, was not, call it, excessive. 

Mr. Tavenner. So, while engaged on your mission in Washington, 
you spent between the 7th and the 10th of July in New York. 

Mr. Clubb. Apparently from about noon of the Tth until the eve- 
ning of the 10th. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you state you went there to see people? 

Mr. Clubb. Primarily, I believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were those the people as to whom you were carry- 
ing letters of introduction? 

Mr. Clltbb. I should think that would be part of it ; but, you see, 
I did see a few other people there at the same time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, had you made arrangements with those other 
people prior to coming to see them ? 

Mr. Clubb. I wouldn't know at this time. But it is evident that 
with the other people, in any event, the people to whom I had letters of 
introduction, I had not made prior arrangements to see them, be- 
cause I failed to see most of them. 

Mr. Potter. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question ? 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Potter. 

Mr, Potter. What was the purpose of these letters of introduction ? 
"UHiat was the necessity of meeting these people that Agnes Smedley 
gave you the letters to meet ? 

Mr. Clubb. There would have been no necessity. It would ha.ve 
been purely voluntary, on the part of the person who gave me the 
letters of introduction and on my part. 

As I indicated in previous testimony, I had more letters of intro- 
duction than I delivered, so to speak ; a large number of people I didn't 
see. 

Mr. Potter. What did you expect to gain by meeting these various 
people ? 



2012 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Clubb. My desire has always been to meet more and more people 
for the particular reason that from contacts I get information, and 
from contacts I also get pleasure. It is part of life to me, as well as a 
part of business. 

Mr. Potter. Were these people reporters or authors or in what line 
of endeavor were they engaged ? 

Mr. Clubb. As I indicated this morning, three of the people 
that I didn't see were Dr. Robert Morss Lovett, Oswald Garrison 
Villard — the first of the New Republic and the second of the Nation — 
and Miss Margaret Sanger, people to whom I had letters of intro- 
duction from Miss Agnes Smedley, but they were out of town; so I 
failed to see them. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you arrived at the office of New Masses, what 
did you do with the letter of introduction which you stated you had ? 

Mr. Clubb. That, I wouldn't remember at this date. But I assume 
that I should probably have left it either with the receptionist whom 
I met first, and who presumably would have told me that iVir. Car- 
mon was no longer there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you any recollection ? 

Mr. Clubb. I have no recollection. 

Mr. Tavenner. That that is what you did ? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you have learned from a conversation 
you have recently had with Mr. Walter Cannon that he had retired as 
editor of New Masses between the time of your sailing from China and 
the time of your arrival at the office ? 

_ Mr. Clubb. That is, I believe, correct, because I sailed in May, and 
his name was on the New Masses masthead for the June 1932 number,, 
but was not on the July 1932 number. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Mr. Carmon at the office of New Masses on the 
date you called there ? 

Mr. Clubb. Not to the best of my recollection, or to the diary entry,, 
or to Mr. Wliittaker Chambers' testimony. 

And may I say that Mr. Carmon told me on this occasion of March 
27, I think it was, when I looked him up in New York to try to get 
more information about this, that he had been ill that summer and 
had been absent from the office for some time, even before, I gather, 
he was formally separated from it. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the absence of Mr. Carmon, you first met Mr.. 
Michael Gold? 

Mr. Clubb. After the receptionist, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. And then after Mr. Michael Gold, then Mr. Whit- 
taker Chambers? 

Mr. Clubb. Apparently, from the diary entry. 

Mr. Tavenner. If you went to New Masses to meet solely Mr. Car- 
mon, whv was it that you remained in order to meet the other officials 
of New Masses? 

Mr. Clubb. As I indicated, I don't remember independently that I 
gave the letter of introduction to the receptionist. Suppose, however,, 
that I did. Then she might have said, "Well, here is Mr. Gold. Would 
you like to talk to him ?" 

I probably would have said "Yes". 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2013 

I don't believe that I could have asked for anybody else on the New 
Masses for the simple reason that I doubt very much I would have 
known who was there. 

But take the second alternative. Perhaps the receptionist did not 
take the letter of introduction; in which event, I would have seen 
Mr. Gold next. And I might have offered the letter of introduction 
to him and said, "Here is something to pass on to Mr. Carmon at 
your convenience." 

In the meantime, possibly we sat chatting a few minutes, and then, 
as Mr. Chambers himself testified, I probably chatted some 15 min- 
utes with him, and then went my way ; and the thing went out of my 
mind, and for 19 yeai^ I probably didn't think of it again. 

Mr. Tavenner! In other words, you did not leave when you found 
that Mr. Carmon was not here, but you stayed and completed an inter- 
view—or, at least, had an interview — with Mr. Michael Gold and Mr. 
Whittaker ChamlDers? 

JNIr. Clubb. I wouldn't call it an interview, Mr. Counsel. I would 
be inclined to say a talk, a conversation. 

]SIr. Ta\t:nner. Let us use your language in your diary. 

Mr. Clubb. All right. 

Mr. Tavenner. "This most interesting meeting." So, you remained 
for an interesting meeting with Mr. Michael Gold, and then later 
with Mr. Whittaker Chambers. 

Now, why is it that you remained for those meetings if your only 
purpose in going there was to present a letter of introduction to Mr. 
Carmon ? 

Mr. Clubb. That was not my only purpose of my trip to the United 
States, may I point out? 

I was very much interested in getting all reactions that I could 
to current political problems in the United States. And I would be 
prepared at that date to listen to the opinions of any particular 
political group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then, that is the real reason why Agnes Smedley 
sent you to New Masses, so that you could get the political viewpoint 
and reasons of the Communist Party in the United States ? 

INIr. Clubb. May I point out she also sent me to Miss Margaret 
Sanger, and to Dr. Robert 

Mr. Tavenner. What is her specialty? 

Mr. Clubb. Birth control, Mr. Counsel, and also the New Republic 
and the Nation. 

Mr. Taa-enner. You did not go to see her, particularly, on that sub- 
ject; did you? 

Mr. Clubb. Naturally, you will recall that I failed to see Miss 
Sanger. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, but your purpose for going there was it in 
order to enlighten yourself upon that subject. 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

As I responded to one of the Congressmen, my interest was, call it, 
a double interest, in establishing new contacts with people in the 
United States. One was a personal, human interest. I was interested 
in people who were, call it, personalities, who might offer me some- 
thing of interest for myself. 



2014 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

I was interested, likewise, in getting current reactions to the prob- 
lems which beset us in 1932. 

Mr, Tavenner. Now, returning to your meeting at the New Masses, 
it was the purpose of your visit there to obtain political opinions 
and political views? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. From the officials of New Masses; is that correct? 

Mr. Clubb. That would have stemmed out of my letter of intro- 
duction. That is true. I would have been interested, one, in meeting 
the person to whom I had a letter of introduction, and, second, if 
I met him, I would assume naturally that he would say something 
in respect to life or politics or something or other that might be of 
interest. 

Now, as I say, some of these experimental approaches to people 
didn't pan out. But I have been like a newspaperman in that respect. 
I have always tried to get contacts in order that I should see whether 
there were some fruitful contacts. 

And I may note that I did see a large number of other people while 
in the United States, particularly while in Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right, in that connection, you begin this entry 
by stating : "The most interesting meeting thus far was with the New 
Masses." 

What other meetings had you attended prior to that date, which 
I think was the 9th of July ? 

Mr. Clubb. May I qualify this by saying that this did not refer to 
a meeting in the sense of a conference, or anything like that, but 
obviously a meeting with people. And my diary entry indicates 
fairly clearly that I had had little success in meeting people up to 
the time that I had gone to the New Masses. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let us see what success you did have. 

My question was: What other meetings did you attend? 

]Mr. Clubb. I wouldn't say I attended any meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Or that you had ? 

Mr. Clubb. I met Miss Gugan or Hugan. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; you told us about that. 

Mr. Clubb. And I met a couple of my friends. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss Hugan was the person who was known to Mr. 
Bailey, a missionary ? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. What other meetings did you have ? 

Mr. Clubb. The only ones that I have noted there are a couple with 
a pair of friends of mine. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, those were just social engagements? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Which took place on the spur of the moment, did 
they not ? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Not prearranged, or not planned ? 

Mr. Clubb. i^ ot so far as I know. 

Mr. Tavenner. You would know, would you not ? 

Mr. Clubb. I think that I should probably not remember, but it 
would be my assumption that when I proceeded to New York I would 
have planned to look those people up, because they were people with 
whom I had had more in the nature of contacts. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2015 

Mr. Tavenner. You evidently were not refening to a social meet- 
ing of tliat character Avlien you referred to, in tlus memorandum, 
''the most interesting meeting thus far." You are not referring to 
social meetings when you say that, are you ? 

Mr. Clubb. I believe I probably was, Mr. Counsel. One must remem- 
be that that diary was not written in the nature of an official report. 
I wasn't being especially careful. I had no idea that it would ever 
become, say, public, or that I should have to write with certain technical 
perfection in order to indicate exactly what I meant. 

And my interpretation of that would be that it was very definitely 
with reference to meetings with people. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right, then tell us more about the meetings 
with people. You told us about the social meetings that you had in 
New York, 

Mr. Club. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. But you told us you had met individuals both in 
New York and in Washington. 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, will you proceed to tell us about those meet- 
ings ? 

Mr. Clubb. I had a dinner with some friends, and there were several 
guests present, apparently. I met, I went around to see a banker who 
was a brother of somebody in Hankow^ that was a German representa- 
tive of Carlo witz, that I mentioned. 

Mr. Ta%'enner. Did you have a letter of introduction to him ? 

(Representative Clyde Doyle left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Clubb. I am not quite sure, but I think I probably should have 
had a letter of introduction, or maybe just a card. 

We frequently, in China, used to give our calling card and say, 
"introducing so and so," and just initial it. And I might have had a 
card from his brother in Hankow. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. Now, if you will proceed with the others. 

Mr. Clubb. May I note that this entry was written on the 9th. I 
had gotten there on the 7th and had apparently, the first half day, gone 
to a concert or something, and saw nobody, and that I had spent much 
of the otlier 2 days running around with these letters of introduction, 
that I had had very few meetings. That is the reason why, presumably, 
I put it in the diary that the most interesting meeting thus far has 
been that at the New Masses. 

Mr. Tavenner. You made the statement a few moments ago that 
you met various people in Washington as well as in New York. 

Mr. Clubb. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. And I wonder if this reference here to the interesting 
meeting also embraced a meeting that you had in Washington ? 

Mr. Clubb. I kind of doubt it, because here in Washington I stayed 
at least two full days. I was on duty the fifth and sixth, and obviously 
saw many people, talked about quite a few things, and from my own 
judgment, I was not drawing that comparison. I was talking about 
New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do remember that independently now, that 
in referring to meetings you were only referring to meetings in New 
York? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir; I don't remember that independently, but that 
is the logic of the situation, call it the inner-logic of it, if you will. 



2016 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have letters of recommendation to persons 
in the city of Washington which yon brought along as you did those 
to persons in the city of New York, or did you have messages to 
deliver to individuals in the city of Washington? 

(Representative Clyde Doyle returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Clubb. I mention the circumstance that I had one letter of 
introduction to somebody living in nearby Maryland. I very pos- 
sibly would have presented that while I was here in the first instance. 

It is possible likewise that I carried along two or three calling cards 
from my colleagues or somebody else. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not asking you what is possible ; I am asking 
you what occurred. 

Mr. Clubb. After 19 years, I can't tell you exactly. I am sorry. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, suppose you tell us this: Won have just told 
us that you carried one card or a letter of introduction to a person in 
Maryland. 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was he? 

Mr. Clubb. Just a minute. [After referring to document.] Ap- 
parently Dr. Elizabeth Goldsworthy. And I had the letter of intro- 
duction from Rev. Joseph Bailey. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have messages to look up any other in- 
dividuals in Washington? 

Mr. Clubb. I have no indication at this date that I had any other 
letters of introduction, and as far as messages are concerned, I am 
pretty sure I didn't carry any messages. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you meet other people here in Washington 
who were friends or relatives of persons you knew in China, and, 
if so, what were the circumstances under which you met? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall having met here in Washington anybody 
who is a relative, but I met many people around the State Department 
who were colleagues, friends, and acquaintances with people. 

Mr. Tavenner. And outside of the State Department? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir ; I met Mr. Lawrence Todd, of the Tass Agency, 
who is a brother of Oliver J. Todd, a hydraulic engineer in China, 
who had been in China for many years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were the circumstances under which you met 
Mr. Lawrence Todd ? 

Mr. Clubb. I am not quite sure of that, but I believe it possible that 
I carried a card of introduction to him, or possibly his brother, Oliver 
J., had told me when I was coming here, written me a letter or some- 
thing, "go around and look up my brother Larry." 

Mr. Tavenner. You say he was a representative of Tass ? 

Mr. Clubb. Tass Agency ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you accompany him to interview any particular 
people ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. I went around with him to the press room of 
the Department of State. This is all indicated by my diary, and not 
by my independent recollection. 

Mr. Tavennfi:. Would you look up your diary entry on the subject? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And point it out to me, please? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And I will just ask you to read it. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDIMUND CLUBB 2017 

Mr. Clubb (after referring to book). This seems to be the part 
about the State Department press room. May I shift this, or shall I 
put a ditferent one in there? 

Mr. Tavenxer. Just read it. 

Mr. Clubb. About the press room? 

Mr. Tavenner. So much of the entry as relates to Mr. Todd, and 
anytliinir else in connection with it that is a part of the same entry. 

Mr. Clubb. May I point out, Mr. Counsel, that some of this is com- 
ments by Mr. Todd on various political personalities, and that sort 
of thin<r, at that time, and I think it would be more appropriate if you 
left that out. I will read— may I read you the pertinent parts respect- 
ing- my travels with Mr. Todd,' and that sort of thing? 

You have the diary and can verify it. 

My. Tavenner. Yes, that will be satisfactory, then, for the present. 
We will, of course, examine the diary completely before we are 
through. 

Mr. Clubb. Thank you. 

I saw Lawrence Todd, brother of Oliver J., and local representative of Tass 
and the United Press in the afternoon. 

]Mr. Velde. What date is that? 

Mr. Clubb. July 7. 

Mr. Velde. Of 1932? 

:Mr. Clubb. 1932. That would have been written, then, after I got 
to New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. But it related to an occurrence which took place 
just before you went to New York ? 

Air. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta^-enner. And it was before the meeting with Tass, at the 
Tass house ? 

Mr. Clubb. Well, presumably I met him at the Tass office, ^or at 
his home, or something. 

Mr. Tavenner. I meant to say before the meeting at the New Masses 
offices. 

Mr. Clubb. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Excuse me. 

Mr. Clubb. And then there is an omission, a description of him 
and some comments that were made. 

And then quoting again: 

So we dined at the Press Club. 

I beg your pardon. That first entry was July 5, it was not the 
7th. I omitted to look at the date. We dined at the Press Club, ap- 
parently, on July 5. 

This is an entry for July 7, which was therefore made in New 
York: 

The morning of the 6th Todd took me to see Skvirsky, head of the Soviet In- 
formation Bureau in Washington. 

And this describes Skvirsky, which I will omit. It indicates that 
Skvirsky's — 

Questions on Soviet China were quick, direct, and to the point. On my side, 
I got him to talk shortly on Soviet trade prospects in the United States of Amer- 
ica, but his general contention that relations must be on a stable basis before 
trade can improve was no news to me. Both he and Todd were certain that there 
could be no recognition under this administration, but they were like agreed that 
a democratic administration would probably reestablish relations. 



2018 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did that gentleman hold? 
Mr. Clubu. Evidently head of the Soviet Information Bureau es- 
tablished in Washington. 

And here is the part where I say : 

I went with Todd to the State Department press room, meeting various 
journalists. Among them, Drew Pearson, with wliom I dined at his very nice 
iome. 

Mr, Tavenner. Who were present at the dinner that you had 
reference to? 

Mr. Cluhb. Mr. Lawrence Duggan of the Latin-American Affairs ; 
Mr. Lockhart, I suppose that is Frank P. Lockhart, who is now de- 
ceased. Those are the only two names I mentioned. 

But I suppose 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Lawrence Todd present? 

Mr. Clubb. No, there is no indication that he was. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not certain I understand the dinner to which 
you were referring. 

Mr. Clubb, Pardon? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not sure that I rinderstand what dinner it was 
that you were referring to at tlie time Lawrence Duggan was present. 

Mr. Clubb. This was a dinner at the home of Mr. Drew Pearson. 

Mr, Velde, May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Wood. I^Ir. Velde. 

Mr. Velde. Was the purpose of the meeting with Mr. Todd to 
discuss recognition of Soviet Kussia by the United States Govern- 
ment ? 

Mr. Clubb. I should doubt it very much. As I say, I knew his 
brother, who is a well-known hydraulic engineer, rather well in 
China, and in the year 1930, I believe it was, I spent one full month, 
my local leave, with Mr. Oliver J. Todd on an irrigation project 
that he was constructing in Suiyuan Province. 

And Mr. Oliver J. Todd and I, and our families, lived in the 
same compound in Peiping. We had close and friendly relations. 

Mr. Velde. Getting away from that, the subject of recognition 
of Soviet Russia was discussed at your conference or meeting ? 

Mr. Clubb. This was apparently — I wouldn't call these things 
conferences. The subject of recognition of the Soviet Union was 
apparently discussed at the time when we went to see Skyirsky of 
the Soviet Liformation Bureau. There was no indication who 
brought up the subject, but even if I had brought it up, I shouldn't 
have thought it out of the way. I should have been interested in 
getting a certain reaction. And some time before that period, you 
will remember. Senator Borah had come out and spoken for recog- 
nition of the Soviet Union, and, in fact, the Soviet Union was recog- 
nized in 1933. 

Mr. Velde. You cannot remember any of the other details of the 
conversation ? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir ; I can't. I am sorry. 

Mr. Velde. With Mr. Todd or Mr. Skvirsky? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir; not 19 years away. I have had too many 
conversations in the meantime. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any general impression as to the con- 
versation ? 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDIMUND CLUBB 2019 

Mr. Ci.UBB. No, I don't. I can't reconstruct that particular 
meetiufj at all. 

Mr. Reili.y. I do not think we have cleared up just which dinner 
•was the one at which you met Mr. Lockhart. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not quite clear on that. I wish you would 
tell me again who it was that dined with you on the several occa- 
sions you have mentioned. I think you have mentioned more than 
one. 

Mr. Clubb. The one dinner that was the subject of this refer- 
ence was apparently at the home of Mr. Drew Pearson. And 
there were present myself, and apparently Mr. Lawrence Duggan 
of Latin American Affairs, and I assume, Mr. Frank P. Lockhart, 
whom I knew. There may have been other guests but those are 
the only names that I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. I understood you to state earlier that you. 
dined with Lawrence Todd, but I may be mistaken. 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir ; I don't believe that. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. You stated you had lunch with him. 

Mr. Retlly. At the Press Club. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the Press Club. 

Mr. Clubb. We went to the Press Club. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. It was the 5th, I believe; the 5th of July. 

Mr. Clubb (after referring to book). Yes, sir; this does indi- 
cate that I had lunch with Dr. Hornbeck and dinner at the Press 
-Club with Mr. Todd. 

Mr. TA^^3NNER. Who else was with you and Mr. Todd at the 
time of the dinner referred to ? 

Mr. Clubb. It doesn't name anybody, so I am not sure, sir, whether 
there was anybody. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Mr. Clubb, it is noted from your diary, if you will 
hand me that, that you were introduced by the receptionist as "Com- 
rade Clubb." 

Mr. Clubb. Which I put in quotes, if I may interject. 

Mr. Tax-enner. AYhich appears in quotations, but nevertheless, it is 
"Comrade Clubb," quotations or no quotations. 

Did you tell her that you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Clubb. I couldn't have, because I wasn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you? You could have if you had chosen 
to. I am asking 3'ou whether you did. 

Mr. Clubb. I am practically certain that I would not have done so. 
That wouldn't have made sense to me. 

Mr. TaaH'^nner. Was there anything in the letter of introduction 
which would have indicated your membership in the Communist Party, 
or your afliliation with it in such a manner that you would be consid- 
ered trustworthy ? 

Mr. Clubb. I am sure not. 

May I point out, that as indicated by Mr. Chambers in his own 
testimony, I came and identified myself as, variously, second secretary, 
or third secretary, or an official of the American consulate general at 
Hankow. If I were traveling about as a Communist I wouldn't go 
around passing out calling cards or information indicating that. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. By the same token, Mr. Clubb, it is hard to under- 
stand how Michael Gold would immediately start out talking to you 



2020 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLTJBB 

about the revolution. According to his own language, as written by 
you: 

He spoke of revolution, but had no hopes of it for the United States at present, 
bemoaning the lack of organizers when the field is prepared and the crop so ripe 
for the harvest. 

By the same token, how is it that Michael Gold would feel at liberty 
to speak to you on that subject if he had no reason to believe that you 
were not entirely trustworthy from the Communist standpoint? 

Mr. Clubb. Of course, Mr. Counsel, I am not quite sure that that 
is the way the conversation began. Now, mind you, I thought that 
thought worthy enough to mark it down. 

But theoretically, and logically, we might have started discussing 
various other things. It is merely because he made this somewhat 
noteworthy statement that presumably I recorded it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not absolutely in keeping with the very first 
entry in your diary, the very first part of it, where you say : 

Their so-called revolutionary organ is a horrible rag. 

Does it not show right on the face of it that the subject of your 
conversation was revolution? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't think so. That would not be my conclusion. 

May I point out, however, in respect to the general situation then 
existing, that the situation was very serious. 

Here is a headline from the New York Times of March 22, 1932 : 

Brandeis viewing crisis "worse than war" urges control of competition by 
the States. 

This he gave in a dissenting opinion before the Court in Washing- 
ton. [Continuing:] 

The people of the United States are now confronted with an emergency more 
serious than war. Misery is widespread in a time not of scarcity, but of over- 
abundance. The long-continued depression has brought unprecedented unem- 
ployment, a catastrophic fall in commodity prices, and a volume of economic 
losses which threatens our financial institutions. Some people believe that the 
existing conditions threaten the stability of the capitalistic system. 

That statement was not alone at that time. You have the Jeffer- 
son Day speeches in Washington on April 13 where Governor Ritchie 
and ex-Governor Cox and ex-Governor Ross and others spoke; you 
have the Jackson Day dinner; you have Roosevelt's well-known talk 
about the forgotten man. 

It was a time of crisis, when people were groping for a way out. 
It was not remarkable that Mr. Michael Gold should have spoken 
about the economic situation in the United States. That was before 
everybody's mind and eyes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, but you have just told us that you, as a mem- 
ber, holding a responsible position in the foreign field would not have 
paraded the fact you were a member of the Communist Party, if you 
had been one. 

I say, by the same token, how is it that Whittaker Chambers and 
Michael Gold felt perfectly free to talk to you on the subject? 

Mr. Clubb. Presumably because I bore a letter of introduction from 
Miss Agnes Smedley which fact would have indicated to them that 
Miss Smedley thought I was worth talking to. 

What happened, that was it. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2021 

Mr. Tavenner. And they felt you were perfectly safe to talk to? 

Mr. Clubb. I am sure that they jjave away no revolutionary secrets, 
Mr. Counsel. There was no secret indicated there. 

Mr. Wood. Pardon me, Mr. Counsel. I thought you stated a while 
ago, Mr. Clubb, that you did not deliver that letter to either Mr. 
Gold or Mr. Chambers. 

Mr. Clubb. Xo, sir ; I said I didn't know whether I had delivered 
it to either Mr. Gold or Mr. Chambers or the receptionist. But I 
would assume that very possibly I left it there in the office, as I ordi- 
narily would — a letter of introduction — if I called at the office. That 
is my habit. 

Mr. Taa'enner. Did anything occur there to indicate that there was 
anything in that letter to show that you were trustworthy from the 
Communist standpoint ? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir ; not that I would recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you read the letter? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't know whether I would have read a letter of 
introduction, but the way that letters of introduction are ordinarily 
given to one, is they are handed to one open and they would say, "Here 
IS 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that handed to you open? 

Mr. Clubb. A letter of introduction would ordinarily be open. It 
would not be sealed. 

Mr. Ta^t:nner. What was this letter? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't know at this date. I assume it was an ordi- 
nary 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you cannot say that you read it ? 

Mr. Clubb. I can't say that I didn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. You cannot say whether it was open or sealed ? 

Mr. Clubb. I cannot, not from my memory at this time. But I 
would assume that it was open, as a letter of introduction. 

Mr. Tavenner. Therefore, you don't know what type of a message 
was inside of it? 

Mr. Clubb. If it were a sealed letter, quite frankly, I would have 
been rather squeamish about accepting it, because of the circumstance, 
as I say. a letter of introduction is ordinarily not sealed. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is speculation, because you do not know 
whether it was sealed or not ? 

Mr. Clubb. You are asking for a positive recollection, and I just 
don't have it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did anything occur there to indicate that Agnes 
Smedley had written in advance of your impending presence there? 

Mr. Clubb. I should think that would have been rather difficult by 
reason of the circumstance that there was at that time, I believe, no 
independent air mail. 

Now, if she had written on the day before I got aboard ship, which 
is apparently the day I got the letter of introduction, it would be 
hardly possible for the letter to catch the ship, and there wouldn't be 
anotlier along for a couple of weeks. 

Therefore, I should doubt it by reason of the circumstances, as I 
say, that a letter could hardly have preceded me unless she wrote it 
when I was still in Hankow, and that wouldn't make much sense, 
either. It seems improbable to me. 



2022 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Tavenner. Had you advised her in advance that you proposed! 
to come to the United States before you left Hankow? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't know that, but very possibly I dropped a letter 
and said that "I am scheduled for home leave this year." That is, 
I might have said something like that in a letter. That would be a 
possibility. 

But vvhether I did, I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do I understand that your position is that Michael 
Gold and Whittaker Chambers had justification in speaking to you 
because of the fact that you liad a letter from Agnes Smedley intro- 
ducing you ? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't think that — this would be my reasoning: I 
don't think they would speak any more freely to me, probably, than 
they would speak to a large number of people. 

But the fact that I had a letter from Agnes Smedley might have — 
I say "might," and I say it advisedly — might have led them to say, 
"Well, here is somebody who is acquainted with Agnes Smedley. We 
know Agnes Smedley. We will talk to this chap." 

]Mr. 1'avenner. When you were introduced by the receptionist to 
Michael Gold as "Comrade Clubb," did you make any statement to 
withdraw that introduction, or explain it? 

JMr. Clubb. I have no independent recollection of the incident, 
apart from the diary, Mr. Counsel, so I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is difficult for me to understand how a person 
being introduced as a "comrade" in the New Masses office to officials 
of that organization could possibly have that escape one's attention. 

Mr. Clubb. Well, it didn't. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Or, the subject of loss of memory, it is very diffi- 
cult to understand that. 

]Mr. Clubb. I don't tlunk that is difficult over a period of 19 years, 
where I dropped around to leave a letter of introduction. 

Mr. Wood. Have you ever been introduced as "comrade" before? 

Mr. Clubb. I doubt it. 

Mr. Wood. Or since? 

Mr. Clubb. I have no recollection of having been introduced as 
"comrade." 

Mr. Wood, If anybody introduced you as "comrade" now, you 
know that the word "comrade" 

Mr. Clubb. Quite. 

Mr. Wood. — is a Communist term, used between members of the 
Communist Party, do you not ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wood. If anybody was to introduce you as "comrade" to a 
total stranger, you would not rectify it? 

Mr. Clubb. May I point out 

Mr. Wood. I am asking you what you would do. 

JMr. Clubb. I think I should probably rectify it if I thought they 
were serious. 

Mr. Wood. Do you think this is serious ? 

Mr, Clubb. If there was serious consequence. I would not have 
viewed that as serious consequences. 

You asked me if I have ever been called comrade since. I think I 
probably have, but that, in the Soviet Union, in a jocular fashion by 
some of my colleagues. We frequently used to address each other in 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2023 

Eiissian by the term "comrade," and we would call other people "com- 
rade." 

Mr. Wood. You were not in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Cltjbb. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. You were in the New Masses office in the United States 
of America, 

JNlr. Clubb. Quite. 

But I am ordinarily rather a polite man, and I don't take issue with 
people who may make a mistake and call me, say, colonel or doctor, 
instead of mister. 

Mr. Wood. Is there not quite a good deal of difference between 
being called a doctor and being called a revolutionary ? 

Mv. Clubb. That is right, but if I had thought that it was of any 
importance, I very possibly would have corrected it, and maybe I 
did. As I sav, I don't have any independent recollection. I can't 
say whether I'did or I didn't. I just didn't note it down in my diary. 

Mr. Walter. It made a sufficient impression on you to put it in 
quotes? 

Mr. Clubb. At that time, correct, yes. 

Wliereas, if I had been a comrade, may I point out, gentlemen, I 
should have hardly put it in my diary and put it in quotes. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Now, you conclude jour entry, Mr. Clubb, by this 

statement : 

I was, after all, out of my bailiwick masquerading somewhat under false 
pretenses. 

What do you mean that you were masquerading somewhat under 
false pretenses? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't know quite unless that has reference to the cir- 
cumstance that they evidently thought I was closer to them than I 
was. But that would be my only interpretation of that. 

Mr. Ta%^nner. But you qualified that by using the word "some- 
what." 

Mr. Clubb. Well, as I say, Mr. Counsel, if I had been writing this 
record for use 19 years afterward, I would have been more careful 
about the terms I used and more exact. I frequently quite frankly 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, that language may be subject to the inter- 
pretation that you were acting as a messenger or courier for some other 
person when you say that you were out of your bailiwick, and that 
you were masquerading somewhat under false pretenses in presenting 
this letter of introduction. Does that refresh your recollection in any 
way? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenxer. But you may have been acting as a courier for any 
other person or group ? 

Mr. Clubb. I should doubt it exceedingly. As I say, I have never 
acted as a courier for any other person or group, to the best of my 
recollection and belief. 

And the diary entry indicates clearly to me that I went there for 
one purpose; to drop off a letter of introduction. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you also carrv a letter of introduction to Grace 
Hutchins? 

Mr. Clubb. Not to the best of my knowledge and belief. And you 
will recall that I proceeded to New York and saw her, let's see, I think 



2024 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

it was February 27 of the current year, and she likewise had no rec- 
ollection of anything like that, and could see no reason why I should 
carry a letter for her. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you known Grace Hutchins before you ap- 
peared at the New Masses ? 

Mr, Clubb. Not to the best of my recollection and belief. And 
you will recall that she was in China in the period from, I believe it 
was, 1912 to 1916, and then left, and did not return to China until 
1927, which was for the purposes of a brief visit, 

I didn't proceed to China until 1929 and there would have been 
practically no physical opportunity for us to ever have met there. 

Mr. Wood. Before we get away from the subject, I would like to 
ask you this question : 

You went in the office of the New Masses as you detailed for the sole 
purpose of delivering a letter of introduction to the particular indi- 
vidual. That is right, is it not? 

JSlr. Clubb. That is my belief, 

Mr, Wood. Is that not your testimony ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

I did indicate likewise that presumably, from meeting this person, 
I hoped 

Mr. Wood, Let us not confuse the issue. You went there for one 
purpose, 

Mr, Clubb. That is right, 

Mr. Wood. That was to deliver to Mr, Carmon, or whatever his 
name was 



Mr, Clubb. Carmon. 

Mr. Wood. Carmon a letter of introduction from Miss Smedley. 

Mr. Clubb. That is right. 

Mr. Wood, That is the only purpose for which you went there ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wood. How would you be masquerading under false pretenses 
in seeking to deliver that letter ? 

Mr, Clubb. Possibly as I indicated, because they might have been 
under some, call it, misapprehension in respect to me. I don't see 
how, but that is the only explanation 1 can offer at the present time. 

Mr, Wood, Does your statement that you were masquerading under 
false pretenses as stated in your diary mean that you were masquerad- 
ing under false pretenses, or they were masquerading under false 
pretenses ? 

Mr. Clubb. No ; it in"^icates clearly that I was masquerading some- 
what under false pretenses. 

Mr. Wood. Very w^ell. How could that be possible if you went there 
for the sole purpose of delivering a letter of introduction ? 

Mr. Clubb. As I say, the sole explanation would be if the reception- 
ist introduced me as, say, "Comrade Clubb" and these other people 
were under any sort of misapprehension. I am just giving you what I 
consider a logical explanation. I don't know, 

Mr. Wood. Then are we to have the inference here that you would 
have gone there for a perfectly legitimate purpose to deliver a letter 
of introduction and somebody introduced you as "comrade," which 
means, "Communist," and you sat there calmly and engaged in con- 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2025 

vei'satioii Avith tliese men without letting- them understand you Avere 
not a Connnunist? 

Mr. CLiiii;. I don't know that I did sit there and let them think I 
was a Counuunist. 

Mr, Wt)oi). That is what yon indicate now, is it not? 

Mr. CiATBB. It is one possible explanation that I offer for using 
that plirase ''masquoradino- somewhat under false pretenses." 

Mr. "Wood. 1 am curious to know what the false pretenses were. 

Mr. Clubb. I am afraid I don't know any more than indicated in 
the diary. 

Mr. Wood. You did then, or you would not have put it in the diary. 

Mr. Clubb. As 1 say, I wrote the diary, Mr. Chairman, frequently 
very carelessly, lightheartedly, sometimes 

Mr. Wood. That does not answer my question. I say, you know 
when you put that statement in your diary what it meant then. 

Mr. Clubb. I nnist have had something in my mind when I wrote 
it down. 

]Mr. Wood. And it is impossible for you now to tell us what that was ? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct, excepting my eifort at making a logical 
explanation for it. 

Mr. Wood. All right. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question ? 

Mr. Wood. Yes. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr. Clubb, you evidently discussed with Mr. Gold the 
matter of revolution in the United States ? 

Mr. Clubb. He made certain statements in regard to it. 

Mr. DoTLE. What did he say about it ? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't know, more than what is in the diary. Congress- 
man. 

Mr. Doyle. Nothing more than the five or six lines in the diary? 

Even 19 years later, what knowledge or present comprehension of 
the effect of whatever he said to you ? I think we are all reasonable 
men, at least we think we are. You made a very important entry 
there. You were seeking information to take back to China for your 
own guidance as an official of our Government. You w^ere seeking 
information about conditions in the United States. 

Evidently he made such an impression on you that you said that 
there was no hope for revolution in the United States at present. 

Did he indicate to you what outlook he had for the future as to 
revolution in the United States ? 

Mr. Clubb. I have no independent recollection, Coiigi'essman. 

]May I point out that this seems to be directed souicwhat to a con- 
sideration of my political beliefs and what possible influence the 
New Masses visit might have had upon them. 

Now, I should like to present as an exhibit, a copy of a speech 
which I delivered before the Hankow Literary Society on February 
14, 1933, in short, less than 1 year after my visit to the New Masses, 
on the subject. Liberalism in the Present World Crisis, in the course 
of which I set forth in some detail my own thinking which w^as of the 
school that I would call liberalism, on the then existing world 
situation. 

This speech was properly reported to the Department of State 
under cover of a dispatch of approximatel}' the same time. I don't 

92467 — 52 5 



2026 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

seem to have it here at the moment, but I should merely like to pre- 
sent it as an exihibit, as an example of my thinking in politics in that 
year. 

Mr. Wood. That will be filed and made available. 

Mr. Reillt. Will that be received ? 

Mr. Wood. That will be received for reference. 

Mr. Doyle. What did you understand for your political knowledge, 
and your seeking more, according to your own words, as to conditions 
in this country ? What was the implication in your mind of his re- 
mark that there was no chance of a revolution in the United States 
at the present? Wliat sort of a revolution? What was he refer- 
ring to ? 

Mr. Clubb. As I say, I don't have an independent recollection at 
this time, so I couldn't tell you what my interpretation at that particu- 
lar period would have been. 

But presumably, he meant something in the nature of a Communist 
revolution, or a violent revolution. There are various kinds of revolu- 
tions. 

Mr. Doyle. Do I understand now that he made that crack to you 
and said that there was no chance for revolution in the United States 
at the present time ; that he bemoaned the lack of organizers, and the 
crop was so ripe for the harvest — those are your exact words in your 
own diary — do I understand from you that that did not make a suffi- 
cient mark on your mind that you would have been worried about that 
remark so as to identify what kind of a revolution he meant ? 

Mr. Clubb. If he had said. Congressman, that there was going to be 
a revolution in the United States, it would have made a considerable 
impression upon me. 

Mr. Doyle. Not to argue with you, but he evidently discussed some- 
thing about when the revolution was coming because he said that the 
crop was ripe for the harvest, and he bemoaned the fact that he did not 
have organizers. Was that not jDutting you on notice as an American 
citizen and a high Government official that the Communists intended 
some form of revolution as soon as they could in this country ? 

Mr. Clubb. I should doubt that I should have considered from his. 
statement that there was any plan for imminent revolution. In fact, 
it would indicate to me that he had no prospect in view of that sort of 
thing. 

Mr. Doyle. It indicates to me that there must have been some 
remark by him talking about lack of organizers and not enough experts 
and not enough workers in the field, not enough people to organize a 
revolution of some sort ; there must have been some remark that that 
might have been a forceful revolution. Was that discussed in any 
way? 

Mr. Clubb. As I say, I beg the committee's ])ardon, but I have no 
independent recollection of that New Masses affair, apart from what 
is in the diary. 

Mr. Doyle. At that time had you previously learned that there was 
a possibility of a revolution by force instigated by the Communists to- 
be in this country ? 

Mr. Clubb. As I pointed out, I believe, even the very conservative 
leaders in the United States at that time were doubtful as respects what 
the future might hold. They weren't going around saying that there 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2027 

Mas- ooiiio- to be u revolution, but there \N-ere lots of people who didn't 
know what was going to haj^pen. 

And as I say 

Mr. DoYLE.*^! remember that period vei y well. I will say, although 
I was considerably younger. 

But is it your opinion now-, from your wide experience, that Soviet 
Russia is interested in promoting and conspiring to instigate a reyo- 
lution by force in this country? You are pretty close to that Soviet 
jncture, I realize, at least inferentially. 

]Mr. Clubr. Congressman, one of the fields that my reporting has 
been naturally on is Sino-Soviet relations and on related problems. 
And I have rei^orted my attitude with respect to the Soviet Union 
in international connnnnism very extensively in classified documents 
to the Department of State. 

And if yon will bear with me, I would say that to commit myself 
publicly and officially in respect to a question like that at this time 
would be very hard on my diplomatic position. 

Mr. Doyle. I assure you that I would not press it, if it is classified. 

Mr. AVooD. Would the gentleman yield? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. "Wood. If there was not some conversation there at the time 
yon were in the office of New Masses about a revolution, why did you 
]nit in your diar}^ "discussing the possibility of a revolution," using 
the words "at the present time"? You used the words "at the present 
time.'' 

Mr. Clubb. As I say, I wasn't writing that to be technically abso- 
lutely correct. Xow, presumably I may have said "now" or "for the 
]iresent decade," or even "in the present century." I don't know what 
"at the present time'' means. 

But the then situation was one in which you had seven, eight, 
maybe more millions of unemployed, and the budget system of the 
New York City government was breaking down, relief was breaking 
down in various places; there was a great deal of misery. 

The bonus army was camped outside of Washing-ton and he, pre- 
sumably, was talking about that situation. And he very possibly said, 
"Well, it is bad. From the standpoint of economics and the social 
conditions it is bad. But there is no hope," he might have said, "for 
revolution at this time." 

And that, I suppose, is perhaps the way I put it down. 

Mr. Tavexxer. In that connection, in the same sentence the lan- 
guage is used, "When the field is prepared and the crop so ripe for 
the harvest." 

When you are speaking of the crops being ripe for the harvest, 
does that not mean the present, at the present time? 

Mr. Clubb. I should think so. 

'Slv. Ta\t:xxer. There is no way of referring that to this decade or 
the next decade. When crops are ripe, they are ripe. 

Mr. Clubb. But. as I say, possibly he had reference to the then 
economic and social conditions which were possibly, from the view- 
point of a revolutionary, something in the nature of a situation which 
should be revolutionary, but he Avent on to say that it is not revolu- 
tionary. That is my interpretation of it. 

Mr. Wood, I think it is most unfortunate that you cannot enlighten 
us any further about what occurred, and the details of what occurred 



2028 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

in the conversation when you put such a significant portion of that 
conversation into your diary. 

Mr. Clubb. I am sorry, Mr. Chairman. I have no independent 
recollection of that long ago. 

Mr. Wood. Had you, prior to that time, been accustomed to dis- 
cussing the question of revolution in this country with other people? 

Mr. Clubb. I doubt that I should discuss a revolution with very 
many people. 

Mr. Wood. I am not asking you what you doubt. I am asking you 
if you had ; if you remember ever discussing it with anyone ? 

Mr. Clubb. I doubt it. I don't remember having done so. In 
terms of 

Mr. Wood. Then may we approach the subject matter of this con- 
versation on the hypothesis that this was the first time that anyone 
had ever suggested to you an open revolution in this country, or par- 
ticipating in one ? 

Mr. Clubb. I have no recollection of anybody talking to me about 
an imminent revolution in the United States. 

Mr. Wood. That is right ; that is a sufficient answer. 

Now, I am just going to ask you, this being, according to your own 
statement, the first time anybody had ever discussed the subject with 
you of revolution in this country, particularly a man in the position 
of an official of the New Masses, which would presumably be in the 
leadership, in the forefront, of such a movement, if it were to take 
place, that that did not make such an impression on your mind that 
you could remember the details of it? 

Mr. Clubb. No, Mr. Chairman; because, as I say, you must refer 
that to the then situation in the United States. And in the course 
of my visit to the United States I talked to many people, friends and 
others, in respect to the then economic situation. Some of them very 
possibly said, "This is practically a revolutionary situation." 

I went to hear political speeches. Some of the speakers may have 
said, "This is a revolutionary situation." 

But to talk of revolution in the sense of there being a plot, or some- 
thing in the nature of a program for a revolution, that, I don't re- 
member having done. 

And, frankly, I don't think that I did talk to anybody along those 
lines. 

Mr. Wood. Thank you, I am prepared to accept that. 

You stated that, and it makes it all the more difficult for me to 
understand when it was discussed in your presence by a man in con- 
siderable force in a movement — and who still is — that it would make 
so little impression on you that you couldn't remember any of the 
details of it afterward. 

Mr. Clubb. His statement was, if you remember, Mr. Chairman, 
negative— to the general effect that there was not going to be a 
revolution. 

Mr. Wood. At this time, at the present, 

Mr. Clubb. Well, I am not one who would have worried so much 
about the future, as the then present. 

Mr. Wood. What has happened since that time shows the fallacy 
of that sort of position, 

Mr, Clubb. May I make a further statement in regard to that?' 

Mr, Tavenner, Yes, 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2029 

Mr. Clubb. I think that in 1932, in the situation that then existed, 
there were very possibly a number of people who would have talked 
about the situation in essentially the same general terms. They 
would have said, "Is this going to lead to revolution, or is it going 
to lead merely to a change? Is it going to develop naturally into a 
recovery? What is going to happen?" 

And i think that some of the outstanding leaders talked along lines 
rather similar to that. 

For instance. Gov. Franklin D. Eoosevelt, in his call of January 
6, 1932, to the New York Legislature for new leadership, said that: 

Not since the dark days of the sixties have the people faced problems as grave, 
situations as difficult, suffering as severe. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Clubb, the trouble is that that kind of people in 
talking about revolution were trying to do something to prevent it. 

Here you were in conversation with people who wanted to promote 
it, and so indicated, according to your written diary. 

Now, you say that did not make a sufficient impression upon you 
so that you would remember the details about it at all, and you passed 
that by. 

Mr. Clubb. As I indicated, Mr. Chairman, after all, he put it in 
the negative form. 

Mr. Wood. "At the present," yes. He bemoaned the fact that 
he did not have sufficient organizing force to put it on at that time, 
leaving the clear inference, as you stated in your diary, when you 
used the words "at the present time," that it was still hanging there 
in the future and they hoped to be able to do it at some other time. 
That is the only inference I can take from that. 

Mr. Clubb. Does the chairman suggest that I should have done 
something about it? 

Mr. Wood. I certainly do. 

Mr, Clubb. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenxer. That brings up this question : Did you report this 
matter to the State Department? 

Mr. Clubb. I doubt it very much. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Have you examined your records to ascertain wheth- 
er or not you made any report of your meeting at the New Masses ? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. TA^'EX^'ER. To your superiors? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir ; I have not. 

May I point out, however, that I was here on leave for the particu- 
lar purpose of getting that leave, and that my function was in the 
field abroad. I was a Foreign Service officer, not a domestic service 
officer. And if I had run across evidences of a positive plot against 
:the United States Government, or something like that, I would have 
■considered it of sufficient importance to take it up. 

But where I come across a negative statement to the effect that there 
would be no revolution, that, surely, would not be one that would 
stimulate me to run around and make a report because my job was 
not domestic police work, but Foreign Service work. 

(Representative Charles E. Potter left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavexxee. The last clause, or the last sentence of your diary 
•entry is this : 

So tliat I felt too much like a stranger to show the proper revolutionary en- 
ithusiasm. 



2030 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Clubb. May I point out, Mr. Counsel, that the ''revolutionary 
enthusiasm" is also in quotes ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, but this "revoluntary enthusiasm," whether in 
quotes, or out of quotes, indicated a very free discussion on your part 
with Whittaker Chambers and Michael Gold on the subject of revo- 
lution. 

Mr. Clubb. I should differ in my interpretation of that, Mr. Counsel, 
with all due respect. The indications are to me that I felt somewhat 
like a fish out of water in the New Masses environment, and didn't get 
very far. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you state that you felt too much like a stranger 
to show the proper enthusiasm. 

Mr. Clubb. Which I put in quotes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Nevertheless, you were receiving it. To some extent 
you were entering upon the discussion. 

Mr. Clubb. Evidently so. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you explain that you were not overly enthusi- 
astic because you felt as a stranger. 

Now, what is your interpretation of that? 

Mr. Clubb. My interpretation is that I felt like a stranger in that 
environment, and not part of it. Therefore, that I couldn't get into 
the swing of things ; I didn't get very far, and left. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, this morning a question was asked you as to 
whether or not you were acquainted witli Owen Lattimore. 

Will you state what the nature of your acquaintanceship was with 
him, and the circumstances under which you met him? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

I first met Mr. Owen Lattimore, I believe, in 1929 or 1930, in Peking, 
China, as it was then called. He was there as a person who had had 
considerable experience as a traveler, and already, I believe, had writ- 
ten one or two travel books. 

I was there as a language officer, and we met, presumably socially, 
but did not at that time establish close and intimate relations. His 
social status, quite frankly, was rather above mine. He had made 
something of the nature of a position for himself already. 

It was not until my return to Peking, that is, I left Peking in 1931 
to take up my position in Hankow, and I believe I didn't meet him 
again until I returned to Peking in 1934, at which time I think the 
Lattimores were there also. 

They seemed to have returned to the United States in the fall of 
1935 and returned to Peking and Inner Mongolia once again in 1935 
and 1936. 

I remained in Peking until 1939. I believe he did not. He returned 
to the United States in about 1937 or 1938, something like that. 

So for part of the period that I was stationed in Peking, he was 
not there. 

Of course, the next time that happened was, if you will, the war, 
and during most of the war period many miles and oceans and cir- 
cumstances separated us. I believe it wasn't until about 1944 that I 
should have had the opportunity of seeing him again. That would 
probably have been here in Washington or in New York prior to his 
trip to Siberia and China in the company of Vice President Wallace. 

The next time I should have met him probably would have been 
been in 1948, when I was home on leave, and then again in 1950. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2031 

Mr. Tavenner. You did not meet liim in the United States when 
you were on your trip here in 1932 ? 

Mr. Clubb. No; I believe not, for the simple reason that in 1932 
he was evidently still studying in Peking and traveling in Inner Mon- 
golia on a Guggenheim fellowship. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever meet him at any time when Agnes 
Smedley was present? 

Mr. Clubb. Not to the best of my recollection. But there would 
have been one occasion when that might have occurred at a luncheon 
in Peking in 1936 or 1937. It is possible that we would have met 
socially all in a group then, because the social community, or the 
foreign conununity in Peking was, of course, very small. 

And quite frankly, we met very frequently. That is, all units of 
the community tended to meet frequently unless they traveled in some- 
what different circles. 

Mr. Velde. By "foreign,"' do you mean the American population? 

Mr. Clubb. American and non-Chinese. That is the term used to 
designate the non-Chinese section of Peking. It would include, of 
course, people like the Dutch, British, French, and others. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Were you acquainted with John Carter Vincent? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. He was senior to me as a Chinese language officer. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your later association with him, if any ? 

Mr. Clubb. In terms of association, we people w^ho are in the China 
language service — and I am, and so is he — tended to meet fairly 
frequently in the line of duty in China, particularly. We would 
frequently meet again in Washington, or at other points. 

I have never been assigned to any place under him directly ex- 
cepting, if I remember rightly, he was for a little time in Chunking 
when I was there in 1942. But that is a recollection which is not 
very strong, and I would have to check it to be quite sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you belong to any organization of which he 
was a member ? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't know of what organizations he is a member. 
If he is a member of the Institute of Pacific Relations, so am I. And 
it is possible that we belonged to some of the same clubs in China, 
such as, for instance, the Peking.Club. 

But I wouldn't know that. 

]Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been a member of the IPR? 

Mr. Clubb. I think for something between 20 and 25 years. I seem 
to remember that I joined the IPR, even before I entered the Foreign 
Service, because I had started my studies of Chinese history and in- 
stitutions before I took the examination, and it is my recollection that 
our professor recommended to us that those of us who were interested 
in the Far East might well join the Institute of Pacific Relations 
which was the then only existing organization of that type for the 
exchange of information about the Far East. 

Mr. Tam^nner. Have you ever contributed to the publications of 
that organization ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. As reported to the committee staff, I con- 
tributed one article, the reference which I gave in the letter I believe, 
of March 14. 

Mr. Taa'enner. Under what name did you write ? 



2032 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Clubb, It wasn't under any name; it was written under the 
initials "JEN", which, in Chinese, is one Chinese crytograph, means 
"A man." 

Mr. Tavenner, Why did you use that designation ? 

Mr. Clubb. Merely because of the circumstance, that as an officer 
who has quite a bit to do with China, and who might, in due course, 
return to China, I thought it somewhat preferable that a somewhat 
critical article not be attributed to me directly. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you given the committee information as to 
the title of the article and when it was published? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. I believe I gave that information to the com- 
mittee in a letter of that date, March 14, 1951, The title is "Elements 
of Instability in China," printed in the Far Eastern Survey of 
October 11, 1950. 

(Representative John S.Wood left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tave'nner. Are you acquainted with any of the activities of 
Agnes Smedley with relation to the IPR ? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. It is my impression that she was not a member, 
but I don't know that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Frederick Vanderbilt 
Field? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. I have met him once or twice when he was 
an official, or member of the IPR. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the occasion for your meeting him? 

Mr. Clubb. I am not quite sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. And what were the circumstances? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't remember the circumstances. I supposed, how- 
ever, that it would have been in the course of one of my several visits 
to New York. It might have been in 1932, this very year under dis- 
cussion. I might not have put down his name. 

But ordinarily, when I proceed to New York, I make at least one 
visit to the IPR just to drop in and say hello to whomever might be 
there, and then go on my way. 

Mr. Taa^enner. Were you acquainted with Philip Jaffee? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir; because he made one trip, at least, to Peiping 
when I was there, and I met him in Peiping. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted M'ith Michael Greenberg? 

Mr. Clubb. Michael Greenberg? I don't remember the name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Anna Louise Strong? 

Mr. Clubb. I met her in the spring, I believe, or fall of 1947, more 
probably the fall, when she passed through Qiangchum, where I was 
acting then as consul general, aboard an army plane en route to Harbin 
in her capacity as journalist. I forget whether I met her both when 
she went up and when she returned, but it is possible that I met her 
twice while she was passing through that place. 

And to the best of my knowledge and recollection, never before 
or since. 

Mr. Tavenner. On the occasions that you have referred to, did her 
action have any bearing upon your assignments or that of others? 

Mr. Clubb. It did. 

Mr. Ta^'enner. In Manchuria? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. Before — I am not sure whether it was before 
or after this meeting, I heard from an Englishman, who was a mem- 
ber of the Chatham House, at a dinner near Peiping whei'e Gen. Yeh 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2033 

Cliioii Yin^. tho Coninninist deleonte or representative, I liud better 
call him, to the executive headquarters in which Americans, Chinese 
Comnninists and Chinese Nationalists were participating;, was' present, 
Miss Stronii- stated, accordin^^ to this Enolishman, to Gen. Yen Chien 
Yin<j that the only pui'pose of the United States Government in re- 
opening or in i)roposini>- to reopen the consulate general at Harbin was 
to spy on the Chinese Communists. 

Aiid she therefore recommended, according to this' report, that 
the Connnunists not permit us to proceed. 

Now, I don't know 

Mr. Taa-enner. That was the post to which you had been assigned? 

Mr. Ci.UBB. That was the i)ost to which I had been assigned. 

Whether or not she made any statements along those lines at Harbin, 
I don't know. But in the conrse of the meeting I had, when she re- 
turned, she had reference to the reasons that the Chinese Communists 
did not desire us in Harbin, pointing out particularly, as my recol- 
lection goes, that we had so very few interests there that patently it 
was not necessary for us to have an establishment there. 

That first information, of course, Mr. Counsel, is second-hand. It 
is not my personal direct information. 

Mr. TxU-EXNER. You stated a little while ago that your professor 
advised joining the IPR. Did you give us his name ? 

Mr. Clubb. I did not. That is my recollection. I seem to recall 
that. His name is Dr. Harold S. Quigley. 

Mr. Tavexner. Were vou acquainted with Harold Isaacs while in 
China ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will vou state to the committee what vou know with 
regard to what your associations were with Harold Isaacs ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

When I went through Shanghai on my way to Hankow, I believe I 
did not meet Mr. Isaacs. That was in 1931. However, in 1931, 
shortly after I arrived in Hankow there was this flood which was 
the biggest in some 20 or more years, if I remember rightly, the very 
streets of Hankow were flooded. 

During that flood Mr. Harold Isaacs, accompanied by one other 
person, arrived in Hankow and I put them up in my apartment. They 
stayed with me for some time under conditions where housing was, 
if I remember rightly, rather hard to get. 

Subsequent to that time there was a certain amount of corres- 
pondence, a limited amount, for a period, oh, I should say, of 1 or 2 
years, and then probably not later than 1934, when I left Hankow, 
by my recollection, the correspondence stopped. I don't remember 
whether there was anything passed beyond that time, but that is my 
impression. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not he was a member of 
the Communist Party, or could he have been a member of it? 

Mr. Clubb. I doubt very much that he was a member, because in his 
writings there was indicated a clear Troiskyist trend. And I am very 
certain that I did not know that he was a Communist at the time when 
he first came to Hankow. If he was ever a Communist, it would have 
been of the anti-Stalinist, Trotskyist group. That is my impression. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Frank Glass? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 



2034 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Tavp:nner. Wheat was his nationality ? 

Mr. Clui:b. South African, I believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. State what your association has been with him ? 

Mr. Cluisb. He was the man who proceeded to Hankow and he was 
the man wlio proceeded to Hankow, as I recall it, in the company of 
Mr. Isaacs. The two of them stayed together in my apartment. 

Subsequent to that time, like with Isaacs, I passed a few letters 
between myself and Mr. Glass. That is, I corresponded with him 
a bit. 

My impression is again that both of those persons, both of whom 
were jouraalists, both of whom were in the first instance connected 
with established newspapei-s in Shanghai and later were connected 
Avith nevv'spaper aaencies, also passed out of my life around about 
1934. 

Mr. Tavenner. What newspapers were each of those men associated 
with ?, 

Mr. Clubb. Mr. Isaacs was connected with, as I recall, the China 
Press, which, I think, was Chinese managed. It may have had some 
American capital in it. 

Mr. Glass was connected with the Shanghai Evening Post and Mer- 
cury, which I believe was American owned. 

Mr. Isaacs, I think, later became Havas correspondent, and Mr. 
Glass, I think, was Tass correspondent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Chau Ting Chi? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir; I was acquainted with him first when he was 
an official of the Nationalist Government and the Central Bank of 
China. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where is he now ? 

Mr. Clubb. I think he is in Peking working with the Peking regime. 

Mr. Tavenner. By that you mean the Communist regime? 

Mr. Clubb. That is right"! 

He arrived there, as I recall, in January 1949, shortly before the 
Communists took the cit}^, to be adviser to the then defender. Gen. 
Fu Tso Yi. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe he has been selected as the proposed dele- 
gate to the United Nations from Communist China in the event of its 
recognition ? 

Mr. Clubb. I am not sure whether he is to be the chief delegate to 
the U. N., or whether it is to one of the U. N. bodies, but I have the 
same impression. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know when this individual entered the 
ranks of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Clubb. Chau Ting Chi ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir ; because the last I saw of him was, as I say, in 
January 1949, when he was working with the Nationalist defender 
of Peking, Gen. Fu Tso Yi. At that time he was acting as a Nation- 
alist official. 

When he later became a regular member of the Chinese Communist 
Party, I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with his father ? 

Mr. Clubb. Could I have his father's name ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I think it is the same name. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2035 

Mr. Clubb. If you will forgive me, it couldn't be quite the same 
name because — I don't recall having met his father unless you were 
to give me the name. It is conceivable. Did the father live in 
Peking? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not certain. 

Mr. Clubb. I seem to re^'all one elderly gentleman Avho was related 
in some way or another to Chan Ting Chi who resided in Peking, who 
might have been his father, in which event I should have met his 
father once, I believe, or twice. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted wdth Kate Mitchell ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir ; I think I met her also, once, at the most, and 
that in the offices of the Institute of Pacific Relations. That is my 
recollection. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman, except 
to say this, Mr. Chairman : 

Neither I nor the stalf have had the diary in our possession, and, 
therefore, we have not examined it, and we may want to recall Mr. 
Clubb after we have examined it, for further interrogation. 

Mr. Doyle (presiding). Then the understanding is that the diary 
is to remain in the possession of the committee staff for inspection ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Or for disposition by the committee. 

Mr. Doyle. And that the witness remains under subpena? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Subject to call at a later date. 

Is that your understanding, Mr. Clubb ? 

Mr. Clubb. If that is the w- ay the committee desires it, that is my 
understanding. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you have any questions, Mr. Velde? 

Mr. Velde. Yes ; I have. 

I spoke to you this morning, Mr. Clubb, very briefly about Prince 
Teh. 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Velde. What do you know about Prince Teh? Was he a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir ; not to the best of my knowledge and belief. 

Mr. Velde. Did he rule over a province in Mongolia? 

Mr. Clubb. Actuallj'^, it was practically the Mongolian part of two 
provinces, Suiyuan and Chahar. 

And at the time of the Japanese incursion into north China he led 
an anti-Japanese resistance movement for a time. It wasn't prolonged, 
but he was anti-Japanese in the beginning. 

Subsequent to that time, after the Chinese Communists came in 
there 

Mr. Velde. When was that? 

Mr. Clubb. The Chinese Communists entered into north China, 
into those two provinces, only after they had reached an agreement 
with the Nationalist government which was in 1937, an agreement 
which arose out of the kidnapping of Chiang Kai-shek in December 
198(). 

The Communists, of course, could not get into northwest China un- 
til rather late in 1935. And in 1936 they performed an invasion of 
Swanse Province. But to the best of my recollection, they had never 
been in Suiyuan or Chahar prior to, as I say, that agreement they 



2036 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

reached with the Nationalists in 1937, and then they began a slow 
movement northward. 

Mr. Velde. What has become of Prince Teh since that time ? 

Mr. Clubb. My understanding is that he has gone into the hills and 
is carrying on an anti- Chinese Communist movement. 

Mr. Velde. I believe it was sometime in 1937, was it, that you exe- 
cuted an affidavit for Owen Lattimore and gave it to him in order to 
enable him to get a passport back to the United States to replace one 
that he had lost while he was consulting with Prince Teh ? 

(Representative James B. Frazier, Jr., left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Clubb. My recollection, Congressman, was that it was 1935. 
May I check this just a moment [referring to document] ? 

By the press release of the committee it was in January 1935 that 
he lost his passport in the headquarters of Teh Wang. 

Mr. Velde. Did you discuss with Owen Lattimore at that time the 
incident of his losing his passport ? 

Mr. Clubb. I doubt it very much, because we were acquainted. He 
would probably have told me what was in his statement. 

You know, we Foreign Service officers, in notarizing a statement like 
that, are merely performing a notary function. We don't even have 
to read the thing; all we do is to recognize that he has sworn to and 
signed it in our presence, and that is all. 

Mr. Velde. You do not know, then, what caj^acity Owen Lattimore 
had in the Province of Prince Teh at that time ^ 

Mr. Clubb. My recollection is that at that particular time he was up 
there on something of the nature of a little trip — just one minute — 
[after referring to paper] apparently in the company of Peter Flem- 
ing, of the London Times. I suppose it was merely to gather material 
respecting the then-existing situation in Suiyuan, where I say the 
Japanese were advancing at that time. 

The Sino- Japanese War, of course, broke out in July of 1937, but 
prior to that time they had driven rather steadily into various parts of 
north China. 

]\Ir. Velde. I do not recall your testimony about when you met Mr. 
Lattimore. Was that in 1932 when you were in Peking ? 

Mr. Clubb. When I first met him ? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Clubb. Probably 1929 or 1930, if he was there in 1929. Permit 
me to check. 

[The witness referred to a document.] Presumably in 1929 when 
he performed travel and study in Manchuria under the Social Science 
Research Council, he would have gone through Peking and I should 
probably have met him then. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Clubb. Later I would have met him then in 1930 when he was 
studying under a Harvard Yenching fellowship, and writing his 
book, Manchuria, Cradle of Conflict, published in 1932. 

Mr. Velde. How long did he stay in Peking when he was there in 
1930, or in the vicinity ? 

Mr. Clubb. Of course, I cannot testify on his behalf but from what 
I would gather, he departed in 1933, when you will note I was not 
in Peking, to attend the Banff Conference of the Institute of Pacific 
Relations, and returned to China only in the autumn of 1934. 

(Representative Clyde Doyle left the hearing room.) 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2037 

Mr. Velde. When did you first realize Agnes Smedley was a Com- 
munist ? 

Mr. Clubb. As I say, I have never known in a categorical sense 
that she was a Comnnmist. In respect to her sympathies for the 
Chinese Communists, as I say, she made no bones about it from the 
beginning. So I should have known it from the beginning, that she 
was sympathetic to what the Chinese revolutionaries, the Keds, the 
peasants, were at that time doing. 

Mr. Velde. Of course, we both realize the difficulty of naming a 
person as a Connnunist, and the difficulty of proving that they are. 
But you are certainly familiar with the actions and the speeches and 
writings of Agnes Smedley, are you not ? 

Mr. Clubb. Not with the speeches. I doubt that I have ever heard 
her make any speech. Her writings, I have read at least two or three 
of her books — three, I believe. 

Mr. Velde. Do you now think that Agnes Smedley was an Ameri- 
can Communist? 

Mr. Clubb. Are you asking me whether I think she was a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. What is your opinion ? 

Mr. Clubb. I should hate to give a judgment on that, in view of 
her statement to me at one time that she was not a member of the 
Communist Party. But in respect to her, call it, orientation, I don't 
think she ever made anv bones about it. 

Mr. Velde. Well, in view of the testimony of Richard Sorge, or 
the confession of Eichard Sorge, in view of the fact that when she 
died she left her ashes to the Chinese Communist army, would that 
not impress you that she was probably a member of the Communist 
Party, or at least very much favorable to Communist causes ? "Wliat 
would that indicate in your mind ? 

Mr. Clubb. Congressman, I am at a little bit of a disadvantage, 
because I haven't had the opportunity to see the testimony of Richard 
Sorge, so I know nothing of it, excepting a couple of general state- 
ments which have been carried by the press. 

In respect to her sending her ashes to the — I forget whether it was 
the Chinese Communists or army, or whether it was to the government 
or to the leader of the Chinese Communist army, I should say that 
that would be a carry-over or a follow-through, definitely, of her 
sympathy for the Chinese Communists and the Chinese revolutionary 
movement. "\^niether it would indicate that she was a member of the 
American Communist Party, I wouldn't know. 

And since that is a legal question, frankly, I should hate to express 
an opinion upon it. It is not my function, so to speak, to determine 
her legal status. 

Mr. Velde. While you were in China, did you ever have occasion 
to meet Earl Browder there ? 

Mr. Clubb. Xo, sir. He left China before I arrived. 

Mr. Velde. Did you know Earl Browder ? 

Mv. Clubb. No, sir. I don't believe I ever met him. 

Mr. Velde. Did you meet Eugene Dennis in China? I think he 
was there around 19-32 and 1933. 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall ever having met Eugene Dennis. I don't 
recall liaving heard that he was in China at that time, at the time 
I was there. He might have been. 

92467—52 6 



2038 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Velde. Then you never have met Mr. Dennis ? 

Mr. Clubb. Not to the best of my recollection and belief. 

Mr. Velde. Have yon ever met Harry Berger ? 

Mr. Clubb. B-e-r-g-e-r? 

Mr. Velde. B-e-r-g-e-r. 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall the name. 

Mr. Velde. How about Sam Darcy ? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall that name. 

May I point out, Congressman, that during the period that I was 
there in the thirties, particularly, the Nationalist Government was 
carrying on a very strong anti-Communist campaig-n, and in the towns 
where I was located, particularly, there were practically no known 
Communists for the very simple reason that anyone who lifted up 
his head stood a good chance of having it taken off. 

That not particularly for the Chinese Communists, but any for- 
eign Communists, no matter what the sex or connection, who might 
have been thought by the Nationalist Government to be connected 
with the plot against the Nationalist Government, would very possibly 
have met something of the same fate. 

Mr. Velde. Agnes Smedley was one of these people I believe you 
suspected of being very pro-Communist at that time ? 

Mr. Clubb. As I indicated, however, she was open and aboveboard 
in re ;pect to her sympathies and closely connected with Madam Sun 
Yat-sen who was a member of the central executive committee of the 
Kuomintang Party ever since 1926. And as far as I know, she never 
carried on any other activities than writing her books, corresponding 
with Frankfurter Zeitung, and later possibly with the Manchester 
Guardian. 

And then, as I said, after the Chinese Communists and Nationalists 
joined forces against the Japanese, performing certain Avork which 
might have been in the hinterland where the fight was going on. 

But I never knew of her participating in any covert or underground 
movement, whether against the Chinese Nationalists or anybody else. 

Mr. Velde. Coming back to your diaries, you have produced cliaries 
here of your experiences in 1932 and 1933 until what date in 1933 ? 

Mr. Clubb. June 30, 1933. 

Mr. Velde. You continued after June 30, 1933, in making entries 
in the diary, did you not ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Velde. And those diaries extended, or those entries extended 
for how long ^ 

Mr. Clubb. I am not quite sure, but I should assume very possibly 
until 1941, or I might have stopped them in 1940. 

Mr. Velde. And where are those diaries at the present time ? 

Mr. Clubb. In Peking. 

Mr. Velde. Who is in possession of those diaries ? 

Mr. Clubb. The British, I assume, are in custody of them. 

Mr. Velde. That is the British consulate ? 

Mr. Clubb. The British charge d'affaires. 

Mr. Velde. Do you happen to know his name ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir ; Lionel H. Lamb. 

Mr. Velde. I understand that you obtained the two diaries which 
you have presented here from the British Embassy, the charge 
d'affaires of the British Embassy ? 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2039 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

Mr. Yelde. Did you make any attempt to secure the other diaries 
which YOU had made ? 

Mr. Clubb. At that time, you mean ? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir; I did not. 

Mr. Velde. Would you be willing to make such an attempt? 

Mr. Clubb. Actually, I have already written a letter asking him in 
respect to the feasibility of getting the whole thing out. I thought 
you meant, sir, had I asked for them at the same time I asked for these 
two, and I had not. 

Mr. Yelde. That is what I did mean, but you are willing to make 
available to this committee under the same circumstances that you 
made these two diaries available, the other diaries which are now in 
the possession of the British Embassy, in case you are able to obtain 
them ? 

Mr. Clubb. I should not quite like to use the word "willing," Con- 
gressman, for the simple reason that the diaries are personal. They 
do have in them quite a bit of political comment and other things, 
which I should prefer, if you will, not to make public property. That 
sort of thing, however, if the committee 

Mr. Yelde. Certainly, Mr. Clubb, we are not inquiring into your 
personal affairs. I, for one, want to oppose any inquiries into per- 
sonal affairs. 

But you must understand, certainly, that your diaries in the hands 
of the British Embassy are not probably as secure with reference to 
political statements as they would be in the hands of this committee, 
or in the hands of the State Department; isn't that true? 

Mr. Clubb. Xo, sir; if I may differ with you. I have complete 
confidence in the British officials who are in custody of my diaries, and 
I am certain in my own mind that they woulcl never invade my 
privacy. 

Mr. Yelde. Do you have more confidence in the British than you 
do in this committee, or in your own State Department? 

Mr. Clubb. Congressman, isn't that a leading question? No, of 
course not. That is not the point. I expressed a preference. How- 
ever, if the committee desires, after checking on my first diaries for 
anything of interest, to have the others, I should be quite happy, and 
as willing as with respect to these, to hand them over. 

Mr. Yelde. Thank you very much. 

Would the same be true of your personnel file in the State Depart- 
ment i 

Provided we are able to obtain the permission of the State Depart- 
ment, would you be willing* that your personnel file be made available 
to this committee? 

j\Ir. Clubb. I believe, Congressman, that the position taken by the 
Department of State and also by the Department of Commerce, is that 
tlie personnel file is confidential. It is not up to me to dispose of it. 

]Mr. Yelde. Well, subject to the State Department's position on this 
matter, would you, yourself, personally, be willing that your file be 
produced for the use of this committee? 

]Mr. Clubb. Do you refer to my efficiency reports, or what? 

Mr. Yelde. Your general personnel file. 



2040 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Clubb. You see, here is the situation : I don't know what my 
personnel file includes. And, frankly, I believe that the regulation 
as laid down by the Department of State is a good one, that they 
have their loyalty and security board which is set up to check the 
loyalty and security and probative value of the employees of the 
Department. 

And I believe, frankly, that that regulation and principle should 
be adhered to. 

Mr. Velde. Then, believing in that regulation, you personally would 
not be willing to have your file submitted ? 

Mr. Clubb. I should prefer not ; that is correct. 

Mr. Velde. I have just been told that your loyalty matter is not a 
part of your personnel file. Would you be willing to have your loyalty 
file produced and brought before this committee for study by our 
investigators ? 

Mr. Clubb. Do you mean the transcript of my hearing ? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. All of it. 

Mr. Velde. Well, including all of your loyalty file. I believe the 
State Department does keep a separate loyalty file. 

Mr. Clubb. You see, part of that file, if I appreciate what you 
mean, a part of that file is held confidential to me also. There is a part 
to which I have no access. 

Mr. Velde. Yes, certainly. 

Mr. Clubb. And that part, as I understand, is governed by the same 
regulation that governs the handing over of efficiency reports, and 
so forth. 

Mr. Velde. Therefore, believing in that regulation, and its enforce- 
ment, you would be unwilling personally to have it produced ? 

Mr. Clubb. I would be. 

Mr. Velde. Unwilling ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. I believe that regulation should be adhered to. 

Mr. Velde. Just one more question: Were you familiar with the 
operations of the Pan Pacific Trade Union ? 

Mr. Clubb. May I make a comment ? 

After this loyalty process is over, I should be quite prepared and 
happy, if the occasion arises, to hand over the transcript of the hear- 
ing which, may I point out, does not include the classified parts. 

Mr. Velde. You do have access to that ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. But that transcript has not yet been com- 
pleted, and has not yet been approved even in the parts that I have 
in my possession, by the committee, because of the circumstance that 
the process is not yet over. The hearing is not yet closed ; it is only 
adjourned. 

Mr. Velde. Did you hear my (piestion that I asked you ? 

Mr. Clubb. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Velde. I will repeat it. 

Are you familiar with the operations of the Pan Pacific Trade Union 
secretariat operating in China? 

Mr. Clui5b. I have a vague recollection that that was connected 
with the period during which there was a Kuomingtang Chinese Com- 
munist coalition wliich started out in Canton in 1924, and finally drove 
to the Yangtze where the coalition broke up. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDIMUND CLUBB 2041 

I believe tliere was a conference held in Hankow to which certain 
delegates went, including, I believe, Browder. 1 know practically no 
more of that than that, because in 1927, which was 2 years before I 
went, that coalition broke up, and all of the Soviet advisers, and the 
people who were connected with the Hankow government, left China 
either by way of central Asia or across country, or by way of Shang- 
hai and ship. 

Mr. Velde. ^Y[\en was this convention that Earl Browder attended? 

Mr. Ci.uBB. I am not quite sure, but it would have been, I should 
have ffuessed, 1926 or 1927. That is the recollection I have. I am 
not sure. 

Mr. Velde. How do you happen to even recall ? 

Mr. Clibb. jNIerely because, as I say, I studied the Chinese revo- 
lutionary movement starting not only with the birth of the Chinese 
Communist Party which was in 192i, but going back to the reform 
movement of 1898, and studying various other revolutionary move- 
ments that had preceded that. 

IVIr. Velde. I believe that is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ta\tenxer. I have one further question. 

Were you acquainted with Solomon Adler? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. sir. He was a colleague of mine in the Embassy 
in Chungking, when I was assigned as second secretary, and he was 
assigned as Treasury attache, was his title. 

Mr. Tav-enner. What was the character of his work? 

Mr. Clubb. He handled the financial matters, did work connected 
with representation of the Treasury, particularly, in the war capital 
of China. 

Mr. Ta\tenxer. Are you acquainted with any Communist affilia- 
tions on his part? 

Mr. Clubb. No sir. And I understand that he was cleared by the 
Treasury Department Loyalty Security Board and I know no more 
than that. 

(Representative Harold H. Velde left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Clubb. I have never had even the slightest suggestion before 
he went before his board that there was anything like that. 

Mr. Tax'enner. I believe that is all I have. 

Mr. Walter (presiding). If that is all the committee will recess. 

Mr. Clubb. Could I ask one question please ? 

Mr. Walter. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Clubb. I should like to check one point that the speech I handed 
over would be made not just available for reference but made an 
actual exhibit as part of the hearing. Would that be possible? 

Mr. TA^•ExxER, The chairman ruled that it would be filed and made 
available, but not as an exhibit. 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, I see. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was the chairman's ruling at the time. 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. 

And then I want to define one thing. 

Mr. Reilly. Excuse me, Mr. Tavenner. I think I interposed 
and asked if it could be received, and I thought his phrase was : "It 
may be received as evidence." 

Mr. Ta\-enner. I think he said, "May be received for reference." 

Mr. Clubb. I believe that is correct. 



2042 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Reilly. I misunderstood him. 

Mr. Clubb. Then I want to make quite certain that it was under- 
stood, the counsel asked me on one occasion, whether there was ever, 
in any of my contracts in the United States, talk of revolution. 

Revolution is, of course, a very wide subject, and particularly in an 
economic and social situation then existing. And it is very probable 
that in the course of my trip I hoped to make clear that some people 
would have said, "This is a revolutionary situation, something must 
be done, that these bonus marchers are going to kick up a row, and 
that the only solution is some revolutionary change." 

That is possible. 

But I have no recollection that there was anything exposed to me, 
or told to me, or that the subject came up on anything in the nature 
of, call it, a plot for revolution, either connected with the American 
Communist Party, or with any other Communist Party. 

That is my recollection. 

I should have to be given the opportunity of carefully examining 
my diary to make sure that my recollection is correct. 

Mr. Walter. Very well. Thank you. 

The meeting stands recessed. 

(Whereupon, at 5 : 20 p. m., the committee was recessed, to recon- 
vene at 10 a. m., Thursday, August 23, 1951.) 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 



THURSDAY, AUGUST 23, 1951 

United States House of Eepresentatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. 0. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
pursuant to call at 4 : 55 p. m. in room 226, Old House Office Building, 
Hon. John S. Wood (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives John S. Wood, Clyde 
Doyle, and Harold H. Velde. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., assistant counsel; Louis J. Russell, senior investigator; 
Courtney E. Owens, investigator; Raphael I. Nixon, director of re- 
search : John W. Carrington, clerk ; and A. S. Poore, editor. 

Mr. Wood. For purposes of continuation of the testimony of this 
particular witness and acting under authority invested in me as 
chairman, I now set up a subcommittee composed of Messrs. Doyle, 
Velde, and Wood. We are all present to hear further testimony by this 
witness, ]Mr. Clubb. 

Mr. Clubb, will j^ou please stand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear the evidence you give this subcommittee 
shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr, Clubb. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF OLIVEE EDMUND CLUBB, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, GERAED D. REILLY 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Clubb, you appeared before the committee on 
August 20, did you not? 

INlr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. TA^^3NNER. And at that time you gave the committee neces- 
sary information relating to your background and employment? 

JNIr. Clup>b. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Since the time of your appearance, additional in- 
formation has come to the attention of the committee which has made 
it advisable for us to recall you as a M-itness. 

I would like to ask you whether or not you have ever been ac- 
quainted with one Karl xVugust Wittfogel? 

Mr, Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you describe the nature of your past associa- 



tions with Mr. Wittfogel ? 



2043 



2044 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Clubb. I first met Karl August Wittf ogel in Peking. That was 
on the occasion of my second assignment to Peking, which dated from 
1934 to 1939. I don't recall exactly whether he was there when we 
arrived, but if not in 1934, it would have been in 1935 or 1936. He 
was there, in short, for a period during our second assignment to 
Peking. Subsequent to that time I met him on several occasions in 
New York, where he is presently located. I am not quite sure how 
many times, but I think I have probably seen him each time I have 
been home on leave, if he was there in 1937. I am not quite sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. If he was in Peking in 1935 and in 1936, what was 
your opportunity for knowing him intimately ? 

Mr. Clubb. I should have had a fair opportunity to know him in- 
timately. Actually, of course, we became acquainted through the usual 
social processes at Peking, parties and things like that. He was inter- 
ested in Chinese economics. I believe before he came to Peking he had 
written some work in German on agricultural economics, which I have 
not read. His then wife — he has another wife at this time — was a 
sociologist, as I recall. We would have met socially, and he had certain 
interests along the same lines as my own in certain fields, Chinese 
economics. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he there in a representative capacity ? 

Mr. Clubb. Not as I know. I think he was there as a scholar. He 
was supposed to have been a refugee, as I recall, from the Nazis. That 
is my recollection. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time you met Mr. Wittfogel, did you know, 
or did he tell you, that he had been a former member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't think I knew that, and I don't think that he told 
me that. I don't have any recollection that he told me that at that 
time. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did he tell you that ? 

Mr. Clubb. I am not sure that he ever told me. Of course it has 
come out recently that he was a member of the Communist Party at 
one time, but I am quite sure we — I mean I and my wife — didn't know 
it in Peking, because at that time people in Peking were not advertising 
their Communist associations. 

Mr. Tavenner. This was in 1935. This was after the time when the 
Nationalists started their movement against the Communists. As late 
as 1935 the attitude was somewhat different, was it not ? Wasn't there 
cooperation between the Nationalists and Communists ? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. That cooperation derived from something in 
the nature of an agreement after Gen. Chiang Kai-shek's arrest in 1936 
and the Sian incident. 

Mr. Tavenner. That Sian incident occurred in December 1936? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner, Weren't you in Peking in 1937 ? 

Mr. Clubb. I came home on leave in 1937, but remained in Peking 
on post until 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you return, during 1937, on leaye ? 

Mr. Clubb. Shortly before the Sino-Japanese War, which would 
have been May or June before I returned to Peking. 

Mr. Tavenner. During 1937 until May, the time of your departure 
for the United States, did you not continue in your associations with 
Mr. Wittfogel? 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2045 

Mr. Clubb. If he was there still, we would have had the normal social 
relations ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. And if that was true, there would have been no 
reason, in May 1937, why a person who was a Communist would not 
have let that be known ; isn't that true ? 

Mr. Clubb. Correct, but it was my return about the end of May 1937, 
not my departure. I departed, I think, about January 1937. 

Mr.' Tavenner. You are using technical terms. I was not. I meant 
•departure from China, 

Mr. Clubb. I departed from China on home leave about January 
1937 and returned to my post the end of May or beginning of June, 
and the Sino-Japanese War broke out July 7, 1937. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have not stated definitely whether or not you 
knew or Mr. Wittfogel told you that he had been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall that he did tell me, and I don't recall that 
I knew. One check on that would be to ascertain whether Dr. Witt- 
fogel at that time was letting it be known generally in Peking that he 
was or had been a member of the Communist Party, and I frankly 
lack that information. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Clubb, Mr. Wittfogel appeared before this 
•committee in executive session on October 17, 1950, and testified he had 
been a member of the Communist Party in Germany from the year 
1920 until 1933, so if you need that information to help aid you in 
your recollection, that is his own statement before the committee. 

Mr. Clubb. Did he indicate whether he let it be Imown publicly? 
Mind you, if I had the recollection I would be quite prepared to give it 
to the committee ; I don't see why I shouldn't ; at that time he evidently 
was no longer a member of the Communist Party, and if he had indi- 
cated he at one time had been a Communist Party member and had 
given it up, I would have no objection to giving that information to 
the committee, but I lack that information. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you were here on August 20 you were asked 
■certain questions regarding your association with Frederick Vander- 
bilt Field. 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. At that time you stated you had met him once or 
twice when he was an official of tlie IPR ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were asked to describe the circumstances sur- 
rounding your meeting Avith Mr. Field, and your answer was as fol- 
lows: 

I don't remember the circumstances. I suppose, however, that it would have 
been in the course of one of my several visits to New York. It might have been 
in 1932, this very year under discussion. I might not have put dowTi his name. 

But ordinarily, when I proceed to New York, I make at least one visit to the 
IPR just to drop in and say liello to whomever might be there, and then go on my 
way. 

Can you recall whether you ever saw Mr. Field during the year 
1937 or at any time subsequent to that date ? 

Mr. Clubb. My recollection of m}^ metting with Mr. Field was that 
it would have occurred earlier, therefore I suggested possibly 1932, but 
it could possibly have been 1937, when I was also home on leave. The 
best of my recollection is I have only met him once or twice at the 
most. 



2046 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the occasion of the last time you met 
with Frederick Vanderbilt Field? 

Mr. Clubb. I am pretty sure it would not have been after 1937. 
I don't know myself when he abandoned the post that he had held with 
the IPE, but it was at the IPR that I met him, I believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. As I have just advised you from readint^ your testi- 
mou}^ on August 20, you were unable at that time to recall the circum- 
stances under which you met Mr. Field. I now show you a photostatic 
copy of a letter dated January 22, 1937, addressed to "Dear Fred" and 
allegedly signed by Karl August Wittfogel, which appears to be a 
letter of introduction to a person named Fred from Mr. Wittfogel. 
Will you examine it, please? The letter reads as follows: 

This is to introduce to you my friend Mr. Edmund O. Clubb, secretary of the 
American Embassy in Peiping. Mr. Clubb is one of the best informed foreigners 
out here in China, who by means of his excellent Chinese and his unusual under- 
standing of the situation gets nearer to its roots than most people do. You will 
find talking with him about the Far East very profitable — and pleasant — indeed. 

Mr. Clubb has taken a very kind interest in my own research work. So I 
would appreciate it very much, if you could help him to get any information 
about the IPR, which he might desire. 

Do you recall ever having had in your possession such a letter of intro- 
duction ? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall that letter, Mr. Counsel, but it would 
look possibly like one I should have carried, unless sent separately, but 
I frankly don't recall it. 

Mr. Tavenner. After your examination of the letter your inemory 
is not refreshed ? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have no independent recollection of it what- 
ever ? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does it not refresh your recollection of the circum- 
stances under which you met a person by the name of Fred? 

Mr. Clubb. Possibly if that Fred is Frederick Vanderbilt Field, I 
called on him at IPE. and presented that letter, assuming I carried it, 

Mr. Tavenner. You have stated you probably met Field in New 
York in 1932 or 1937 ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does this letter not assist you in determining defin- 
itely whether it was in 1932 or 1937 ? 

Mr. Clubb. I would say from looking at that, that it was more 
probably 1937 than 1932. 

Mr. Tavenner. You base your answer solely upon the letter ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Taa^nner. I am asking about your recollection of it. 

Mr. Clubb. I don't have an independent recollection, ]Mr. Counsel^ 
but I might point out the diary entry for my visit in New York did 
not indicate the name of Field and indicated I stayed in New York 
in 1932 only 2 or 3 days, the 8th, 9th, and 10th of eTuly 1932, and part 
of it was a week end. So the logic of the situation would indicate, 
given the letter before you, that it was probably in 1937 I met Field. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have testified when you returned to the United 
States in 1932 you brought with you five letters of introduction from 
Agnes Smedley and seven from Mr. Bailey, a missionary ? 

Mr. Clubb. As well as I remember. 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2047 

]Mi'. Tavenxkr. When you returned in 1937, how many letters 
of introduction did you have? 

JNIr. Cluhh. Frankly, I didn't remember any prior to the time you 
produced that one, because, as I testified before this committee, it 
was in one of those 2 years when I carried quite a handful of letters. 
After that particular year, as indicated by my diary, 1 was less en- 
thusiastic about carrying letters of introduction, but I might on occa- 
sion have had two or three or perhaps four ; harcUy more. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Speaking of the logic of the situation, of which 
you have spoken several times, if this was a letter of introduction you 
carried for delivery to ]Mr. Field, it would indicate this was your first 
meeting with ]\Ir. Field? 

Mr. Clubr. That is right. Otherwise, given knowledge of the 
letter, I would have told Mr. Wittfogel that I already knew Field 
and clidn't need a letter of introduction. If I accepted that letter, 
presumably I had not met Mr. Field before. 

Mr. TA^^•:xxER. This indicates that the letter was to a person very 
close in friendship to Mr. Wittfogel, as he addresses him as "Dear 
Fred." Can you give us some enlightenment on who "Dear Fred'^ 
was? 

Mr. Clubb. Xo. If it wasn't Frederick Vanderbilt Field, I don't 
know who it was, but since the letter refers to IPR, it might have 
been Frederick Vanderbilt Field. 

Mr. TA^TNNER. Did you ever meet Mr. Field after 1937 ? 

'Mr. Clubb. I don't believe so, ISIr. Counsel. I have no recollec- 
tion of having met him any later than that, and I should have met 
him, by my recollection, only once or twice at most, and possibly only 
once. 

]\Ir. Tavexxer. I now hand you photostatic copy of a letter dated 
March 24, 1937, which is addressed "Dear Mr. Field" and allegedly 
signed by Edmund Clubb. Will you examine the letter, please? It 
is a photostatic copy of letter. Is that your signature? 

Mr. Clubb. That is my handwriting; my signature. 

Mr. Tavexxer. It is written in handwriting? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Your handwriting? 

Mr. Clubb. I should say so. 

Mr. Tavexxer. The contents of this letter are as follows : 

Your letter of February 24 was waiting for me when I arrived in Wasliington 
a few days ago — we had stopped ofiC a month en route from China, in St. Paul, 
hence the delay. 

We (my wife and I) plan to be in New York about the end of the current 
month. I will surely get in touch with you soon after our arrival, for I should 
very much enjoy seeing and talking with you again. 

That indicates that you had met JNIr. Field prior to this time, because 
you used the word "again." 

Mr. Clubb. If it said "again." May I check that once more, 
please. [After examining photostatic copy of letter.] That is 
correct. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you explain what other occasion it was you 
had met him? 

Mr. Clubb. I think it could only have been in 1932, in which event 
that letter from jMr. Wittfogel to "Fred" doesn't mean to Frederick 
V. Field, because I was not home between 1932 and 1937. Might I 



2048 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

ask whether there is any indication that Mr. Field visited the Far 
East in the intervening years, 1934 to 1937 ? 

Mr. Tavenner. That was one purpose of questioning you about 
Mr. Field when you were here on August 20. I did not get a clear 
picture from your statement as to where and under what circum- 
stances you met him, and therefore, as far as your testimony was 
concerned, it did not help us. 

Mr. Clubb. I thought it was in New York. 

Mr. Wood. In answer to the direct query whether the body of 
that letter was written by you, you said, "I should say so." Do you 
say so? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. That is my handwriting. I recognize my 
handwriting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does not the production of this letter which you 
recognize to be in your handwriting refresh your recollection about 
an interview with Mr. Field in 1937? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir; I am afraid it doesn't, for the simple reason 
that is quite a few years ago, and I see many people in the course of 
visits to the United States, as well as in the course of my official 
business, and I can't remember conversations that date back that 
far ; but the indication would seem to be that I proceeded to IPR and 
met him there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state to the committee what your pur- 
I^ose was in seeing Mr. Field ? 

Mr. Clubb. Ordinarily when I have proceeded to the United 
States on leave, I went to IPE., as I have stated before, and generally 
it was for exchange of views, development of events in the Far East 
and what was happening in IPE,. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you telling us that from your recollection? 

Mr. Clubb. That is my independent recollection. Almost every 
time I have come to the United States and proceeded to New York, 
I have gone at least on one occasion to the Institute of Pacific Rela- 
tions to say "hello". 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that your present recollection, that you talked 
to Frederick Vanclerbilt Field in that manner when you returned to 
the United States in 1937, that you met and talked to him on that 
subject? 

Mr. Clubb. I- met him once or twice. Whether it was in 1932 or 
1937 or both of those years, I am not sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall meeting him in New York in 1937 ? 

Mr. Clubb. My recollection was that I met him, when I did meet 
liim, in New York, and I thought it was at the Institute of Pacific 
Relations, because that would have been a place where I naturally 
would have met him. 

Mr. Tavenner. Referring again to your term, the logic of the situa- 
tion, the letter which you addressed to Mr. Field in answer to his of 
February 24, 1937, shows on its face that he expected you to be in 
Washington ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. May I make a passing comment ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Clubb. If that were in 1937, in 1937 I proceeded back to post 
via Europe, and I may have been in New York on two occasions. I 
can't reconstruct this immediately, but I proceeded home via Pacific, 
went first to my home, proceeded to Washington on consultation, or 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2049 

may have proceeded to New York en route to Washington and then 
went to New York again, because we sailed from New York after my 
consultation here. So it is conceivable I may have been in New York 
on two occasions in 1937. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your letter to Mr. Field of March 24, 1937, states : 

I will siu-ely get in touch with you soon after our arrival, for I should very- 
much enjoy seeing and talking with you again. 

Does not the logic of the situation indicate you had been endeavoring 
to have a conference ? 

Mr. Clubb. I wouldn't say a conference. He might have asked 
about my plans, whether I planned to be in New York again, some- 
thing like that. 

Mr. Ta-stenner. With reference to your statement that possibly your 
trip to Europe had intervened, I call your attention to the language 
in the letter. You stated : 

I arrived in Washington a few days ago — we had stopped off a month en route 
from China, in St. Paul, hence the delay. 

That would indicate that the time was immediately upon your 
arrival in Washington after having stopped in St. Paul, would it not? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, I think that is correct. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. After having presented these two letters to you for 
the purpose of attempting to refresh your recollection regarding any 
conferences you may have had with Frederick Vanderbilt Field, can 
you enlarge in any way on what you told us about your knowledge of 
Frederick Vanderbilt JField when you appeared before this committee 
on August 20 ? 

Mr. Clubb. Mj recollection still would be that I had met him at 
most once or twice in the course of my life. Possibly I have met him 
three times, but that would surely be the maximum. I don't believe 
I ever had anything more than the most casual contact with him. We 
might have talked about China and the Far East and developments 
there. In 1937 the Japanese had entered Manchuria. 

Mr. Tavexner. You are speaking now only of possibilities ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. I have no independent recollection. 

jNIr. Ta^-exxer. We endeavored to refresh your recollection by use 
of your diary with reference to your meeting with Whittaker Cham- 
bers at New Masses? 

Mr. Clubb. That is correct. 

]\Ir. Tavexxer. Would your diary of 1937 reflect the nature of your 
conference Avith Frederick Vanderbilt Field? 

Mr. Clubb. I would prefer calling it a visit than a conference, be- 
cause I don't think it was formal enough for a conference. I didn't put 
everything in ni}' diary, and didn't always make a daily record, so it 
isn't certain, but there is a possibility I did record I had met Fred V. 
Field. 

]Mr. Tavexxer. And you have already set the machinery in motion 
to obtain your diary for 1937 ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes ; I have asked for it. 

Mr. Tavexxer. And when it arrives you will advise us ? 

Mr. Clubb. I will be quite happy to do so, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Do you recall receiving the letter from Frederick 
Vanderbilt Field of February 24 to which your letter of March 24, 
1937, is an answer? 



2050 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr, Cltjbb. No, sir ; I didn't, but may I say here that I did rather 
feel, as soon as I saw my letter, that he had written once to me, but I 
did not recall having had a letter from him to which this was a reply. 
But that flashed something in my memory. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine your records and advise us if you 
have in your possession or under your control the letter from Mr. 
Field to you of February 24 ? 

Mr. Clubb. I shall be happy to do so. 

Mr. Tavenner. As well as any other letters addressed to you by Mr. 
Field. 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. But may I say, when I left Peiping the Commu- 
nists were in very strict control and were searching our pockets. Be- 
fore I left I burned everything except the most personal family corre- 
sj^ondence and our records of account. But I shall be happy to look. 

Mr. Tavenner. This letter was received by you. in this country, and 
possibly you didn't take it back with you. 

Mr. Clubb. I always carried my letters with me. I didn't leave 
them in trunks. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer in evidence the photostatic copy 
of letter from Karl August Wittfogel of January 22, 1937, addressed 
to "Dear Fred," and ask that it be marked "Clubb Exhibit A." 

Mr. Wood. It will be so received. 

(The photostatic copy of letter above referred to, marked "Clubb 
Exhibit A," is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. And I desire to offer in evidence the photostatic 
copy of letter from Edmund Clubb, dated March 24, 1937, addressed 
to "Dear Mr. Field," and ask that it be marked "Clubb Exhibit B." 

Mr. Wood. It will be received. 

(The photostatic copy of letter above referred to, marked "Clubb 
Exhibit B," is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask a couple questions about the letter of March 
1937. Your wife was with you on that trip back from Europe? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, wife and children. 

Mr. Doyle. And she went to New York with you ? 

Mr. Clubb. Sailed from there with me, and I think she was with 
me all that time when I was in New York. 

Mr. Doyle. The reason I asked, you say in your letter, "We (my 
wife and I) plan to be in New York about the end of the current 
month." This was written the 24th of March. Is that the 27th or 
24th ? Please identify which date that is. 
. Mr. Clubb. That is the 24th. 

Mr. Doyle. Then it was less than a week after you wrote this letter 
than you presumably were in New York? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. And your wife was with you. No doubt you followed 
up the import of your letter and went and called on Mr. Field, you 
and your wife? 

Mr. Clubb. I wouldn't be sure my wife would be along. Congress- 
man. 

Mr. Doyle. Evidently when you wrote your letter you intended 
she should be. I am sure that helps refresh your memory. It wasn't 
too many years ago, was it ? 



TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 2051 

Mr. Clubh. That was M years ai>o. Congressman. 

Mr. Doyle. You have a good memory for pleasant occasions? 

Mv. Clubb. I don't know that that occasion stood out in any par- 
ticuhir way. 

Mr. Doyle. I wonder if it wouldn't, because yon were in the habit 
of goin<i- to IPR at least once when you were home i 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. jNIr, Field was a very prominent member of IPR? 

ISIr. Clubb. I would say I wasn't intimate with him, as I address 
lum "JNIr. Field.'' sign my full name, and refer to a letter from him. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr. Clubb. Very probably, if that letter from Mr. Wittfogel was 
sent by mail, he may have sent a letter to me in Washington, knowing 
I was coming. I don't know. 

Mr. Doyle. You were a month late in arriving in "Washington, so 
I would take the logic to be that you wrote to him almost immediately 
upon arriving in Washington ? 

Mr. Clubb. If I found his letter upon arrival, I presume I did. I 
am reasonably prompt in m}' correspondence. 

INIr, Doyle. What members of IPR did you see in New York in 
1937? 

Mr. Clubb. I wouldn't be able to say who was there in 1937 as dis- 
tinguished from 1910 or 1944. I ordinarily try to see Dr. William 
Holland. 

]\Ir. Doyle. Did you ever meet Dr. Sproul of the University of 
California ? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. I think I met him in San Francisco on one oc- 
casion when I w^as there, and I think he was present wlien they pre- 
sented me with a master's degree from California College in China. 

Mr. Doyle. I would anticipate you met him, because you testified 
<he other day you received a degree from the University of California. 

Mr. Clubb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle, That is all. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Velde. 

Mr. Velde. No questions. 

Mr. Wood. Did I understand you to say that all your reports, when 
jou left China the last time, were taken by the Communists? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir. I stated that when we left, because we had to 
run something in the nature of a gantlet, I burned everything except 
personal family letters and accounts. 

Mr. Wood. You don't mean to suggest the Communists would have 
seized a letter from Mr. Field? They wouldn't have been interested 
in seizing mail from Mr. Field, would they? 

Mr. Clubb. The final days in Peiping we were very busy, and I 
didn't sort letters they might have been interested in and tliose they 
might not. I simply took some letters and threw them in the fire. 

Mr. Wood. And you are leaving with the committee the impres- 
sion that you have no recollection of having received mail from Mr. 
Field? 

Mr. Clubb. I seemed to recall, after I saw my letter, that I had 
received a letter from him. 

Mr. AVooD. Do you have an independent recollection of that now? 
Mr. Clubb. I do not. 



2052 TESTIMONY OF OLIVER EDMUND CLUBB 

Mr. Wood. So it would not be possible for you to give us informa- 
tion as to what he wrote 3'ou ? 

Mr. Clubb. No, but if he wrote in regard to the Wittf ogel letter 

Mr. Wood. You are merely speculating? 

Mr. Clubb. Yes. 

Mr. Wood. You don't know? 

Mr. Clubb. No. 

Mr. Wood. And you say you have no knowledge of the letter written 
Mr. Field by Mr. Wittf ogel? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall having carried such a letter from Dr. 
Wittfogel, but it looks like the type of letter one would carry. 

Mr. Wood. Do you recall talking with Dr. Wittfogel regarding a 
letter to Mr. Field? 

Mr. Clubb. No, sir, I don't recall. 

Mr. Wood. You don't recall discussing it with him? 

Mr. Clubb. I don't recall discussing it with him. 

Mr. Wood. That is all. Until and unless j^ou are notified to return, 
you may be excused. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Wood. And the committee will stand in recess until call. 

(Thereupon, at 5 : 30 p. m. on Thursday, August 23, 1951, the hear- 
ing was adjourned.) 

X 



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