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Full text of "Testimony of Walter S. Steele regarding Communist activities in the United States. Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eightieth Congress, first session, on H. R. 1884 and H. R. 2122, bills to curb or outlaw the Communist Party in the United States. Public law 601 (section 121, subsection Q (2) July 21, 1947"

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TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. l.llil. RE^AP^^^€ 

com:"!Unist activities in the united states 



HEARINGS 

■ - BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTIETH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 
ON 

H. R. 1884 and H. R. 2122 

BILLS TO CURB OR OUTLAW THE COMMUNIST 
PARTY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Public Law 601 

(Section 121, Subsection Q (2)) 



JULY 21, 1947 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




UNITED STATES \^ 

GOVERNMiiNT PRINTING OFFICE 
65176 WASHINGTON : 1947 






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^: i' 07 DOCUMENTS 

OUl ? 1947 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

J. PARNELL THOMAS, New Jersey, Chairman 
KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakota JOHN S. WOOD, Georgia 

JOHN MCDOWELL, Pennsylvania JOHN E. RANKIN, Mississippi 

RICHARD M. NIXON, California J. HARDIN PETERSON, Florida 

RICHARD B. VAIL, Illinois HERBERT C. BONNER, North Carolina 

Robert B. Stripling, Chief Investigator 
Benjamin Mandel^ Director of Research 
II 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE REGAEDING 
COMMUNIST ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



MONDAY, JULY 21, 1947 

i House of Kepresentatives, 

COMMITfEE ON Un-AmERICAN ACTIVITIES, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The committee met at 10: 30 a. m., Hon. J. Paniell Thomas (chair- 
man) presiding. 

The Chairman. The meeting will^jome to order. 

The record will show that a subcommittee is sitting, a subcommittee 
consisting of Mr. Nixon, Mr. Vail, and Mr. Thomas, 

The subcommittee will suspend for a few minutes. 
• (Pause.) 

The Chairman. I want to say for the benefit of those who are in the 
room that tlie committee will sit either as a subcommittee or a full 
committee throughout this week. We have a heavy schedule, and due 
to the fact that Congress is in session and it will be necessary for vari- 
ous members of this committee to be on the floor of the House, we 
have made ari-angements within the committee so that there will al- 
ways be one member of the committee here to act as chairman. 

Now. the committee will conduct the hearings during the entire 
week. We will hear 14 witnesses, all of whom will testify concerning 
Communist activities. 

The first witness this morning will be Mr. Walter S. Steele, who is 
appearing before the committee in the capacity of chairman of the 
national security committee of the American Coalition of Patriotic, 
Civic, and Fraternal Societies. ]Mr. Steele is also ap])earing as the 
managing editor of the National Republic magazine. Last Marcli the 
committee held rather extensive hearings on two bills, H. E. 2122 and 
H. R. 1884. which bills seek to curb or outlaw the Communist Party. 
At that time Mr. Steele and his organization requested to be heard. 
However, Mr. Steele became ill and was unable to appear. Since these 
two bills are still pending before the committee, we are affording Mr. 
Steele an opportunity to present the views of his organ'zations on these 
two.bills and also to hear his testimony of the various ramifications of 
the Communist Party of the United States, a subject upon which he is 
well qualified to testify. 

Mr. Steele, will you take the stand and raise your right hand and 
be sworn, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give is 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Steele. I do. 

The Chairman. Mr. Stripling. 

1 



2 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE, CHAIRMAN, NATIONAL 
SECURITY COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN COALITION OF 
PATRIOTIC, CIVIC, AND FRATERNAL SOCIETIES 

Mr, Stripling. Mr. Steele, will you state your full name and present 
address ? 

Mr. Steele. Walter S. Steele. My home address is 2916 Twenty- 
ninth Street NW., Washington, D, C. My business address is 511 
' Eleventh Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Stripling. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Steele. Louisville, Ky., June 2, 1890. 

Mr. Stripling. What is your occupation? 

Mr. Steele. I am managing editor of the National Republic 
magazine. 

Mr. Stripling. Are you appearing before the committee as a rep- 
resentative of any other organization ? 

Mr. Steele. I am. 

Mr. Stripling. What organization ? 

Mr. Steele. American Coalition of Patriotic, Civic, and Fraternal 
Societies, with offices in the Southern Building, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Stripling. Will you explain to the committee just what the 
American Coalition is ? 

Mr. Steele. Tlie American Coalition is a coalition of 84 patriotic, 
civic, and fraternal societies, to which these societies delegate two 
delegates, two official delegates, one of which is the high officer of 
the society, the other is a delegate selected from the body. The coali- 
tion meets once each year in Washington to consider matters per- 
• taining to patriotism. It does not appear on legislation that affects 
industry or labor and such matters that have any commercial slant 
to them. 

Mr. Stripling. Who are some of the present prominent officers of 
the organization ? 

Mr. Steele. Mr. John B. Trevor, of New York, former special dep- 
uty attorney general of the State of New York, chief counsel of the 
New York Joint Legislative Committee Investigating Subversive 
Activities, associate counsel for the subcommittee of the Committee 
on Foreign Relations of the United States Senate (1920), and an 
officer in the Military Intelligence Division of the United States Army 
during the First World War, is president. 

First vice president is Mrs. Grace L. H. Brosseau • 

Tlie Chairman. Pardon me. Did you give the name of the 
president ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes. John B. Trevor. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Steele. Mrs. Grace L. H. Brosseau is first vice president. She 
is a past president general of the DAR, an officer of several of the 
societies on the list I wish to submit as an exhibit — the list of organi- 
zations, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. We would like to have it. Thank you. 

Mr. Steele. And second vice president is Messmore Kendall, past 
president general of the Sons of the American Revolution. 

The third vice president is Mrs. Frederic G. Bauer, past national 
president of the DAR, and associated with many of the societies 
listed. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 3 

The treasurer is Frank B. Steele — who, by the way, is no relation to 
me — secretary general of the Sons of the American Revolution, and 
member of other societies listed. 

The secretary is Mrs. Flpra A. Walker, a member of a number of 
the societies on the list. 

The executive board, of which I am a member, is composed of the 
following: Col. Edward S. Bettleheim, Miss Alice D. Butterfield, Vic- 
tor E. Devereaux, Charles H. Hall, Mrs. Mary J. Love, Hon. Smith 
L. Multer, Mrs. Frank L. Nason, Mr. C. H. Paul, Mr. Perry F. Ramey, 
W. W. Stearns, Hon. Maurice H. Thatcher, former Members of Con- 
gress from Kentucky, Mr. Edson L. Whitney, and Roscoe C. Walker, 
all members an.d/or officers of one or more of the societies mentioned. 
The board of directors is made up of 1 executive officer and 1 member 
of each of the 84 societies. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, is that sufficient identification of the 
organization ? 

The Chairman. I think that you ought to place in the record at this 
point the list of organizations that are either affiliated or cooperating 
with the American Coalition. 

Mr. Stripling. That is the list of 84 organizations which you 
mentioned. Mr. Steele. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. They will be made a part of the record. 

(The list referred to is as follows :) 

Exhibit I ^ v 

Societies Cooperating With the American Coatjtion 

Americanism Defense League. ■ 

American League for Good Government, Inc. 
American Vigilant Intelligence Federation. 
American War Mothers. 
American Women's Legion. 

Associated cliapters, Order of DeMolay of Pennsylvania. 
Associated Farmers of California, Inc. 

California Society, Order of the Founders and Patriots of America. 
Colonial Order of the Acorn, New York Chapter. 
Congres.s of States Societies. 

Connecticut Daughters of the American Colonists. 
Dames of the Loyal Legion of the United States. 
Daughters of America, National Council. 
Daughters of America, District of Columbia Council. 

District of Columbia Commandery, Naval and Military Order of the Spanish- 
American War. 
District of Columbia Society, Order Founders and Patriots of America. 
Eugenics Society of Northern California. 

First Motor Corps Unit No. 12, Massachusetts State Guard Veterans. 
Fraternal Patriotic Americas, State of Pennsylvania, Inc. 
General Court, Order of the Founders and Patriots of America. 
General Pershing Chapter, American War Mothers. 
General Society of the War of 1812. 
Illinois Society of War of 1812. 

Junior Order tFnited American Mechanics, New Jersey. 
Junior Order United American Mechanics, New York, Inc. 
Junior Order United American Mechanics, Pennsylvania. 
Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic. 

Massachusetts Society, Order of the Founders and Patriots of America. 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, Commandery in Chief. 



^ See appendix at end of hearing for list of all exhibits given in this testimony. 



4 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States Comraandery of the 

District of Columbia. 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, Commandery of the 

State of New York. 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, Commandery of the 

State of I'ennsylvania. 
Military Order of the World Wars. 
National Camp, Patriotic Order Sons of America. 

National Commandery, Naval and Military Order of the Spanish-American War. 
National Constitution Day Committee. 
National Council, Sons and Daughters of Liberty. 
National Society, Daughters of the Revolution. 
National Society, Daughters of the Union, 1S61-18G5. 
National Society for Constitutional Security. 
National Society for Constitutional Security, Chapter I. 
National Society of New England Women. 
National Society, Patriotic Women of America, Inc. 
National Society, Service Star Legion. 
National Society, Sons and Daughters of the Pilgrims. 
National Society, Sons of the American Revolution. 
National Society, Sons of the American Revolution in California. 
National Society, United States Daughters of 1812. 
National Society, United States Daughters of 1812, State of New York. 
National Society, Women Descendants of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery 

Company. 
National Woman's Relief Corps. 

New Jersey Society, Order of the Founders and Patriots of America. 
New Jersey State Society, Daughters of the Revolution. 
New York City Colony, National Society of the New England Women. 
New York Society, United States Daughters of 1812. 
Order of Colonial Lords of Manors in America. 

Order of Independent Americans, Inc., State Council of Pennsylvania. 
Order of Three Crusades 1092-1192, Inc. 

Pennsylvania Society, Order of the Founders and Patriots of America. 
Philadelphia Protestant Federation. 
Regular "Veterans Association. 
Rhode Island Association of Patriots. 
Rhode Island Daughters of the American Colonists. 
Rhode Island Society, Order of the Founders and Patriots of America. 
Society of Colonial Wars in the District of Columbia. 
Society of Colonial Wars in the State of New York. 
Society of New York State Women. 
Society of Old Plymouth Colony Descendants. 
Society of the Daughters of the United States Army. 

Society of the Sons of the Revolution in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War. 
Southern Vigilant Intelligence Association, Inc. 

State Council (District of Columbia), Sons and Daughters of Liberty. 
State Council (Massachusetts), Sons and Daughters of Liberty. 
Tax Evils Committee of Council Bluffs, Iowa. 
The Federation of Huguenot Societies in America. 
The Wheel of Progress. 

Veterans of Foreign Wars of United States, Department of Delaware. 
Veterans of Foreign Wars of United States, Morley S. Oates Auxiliary, No. 701. 
Westchester Security League. 

Wisconsin Chapter. Daughters of Founders and Patriots. 
Women's National Defense Committee of Philadelphia. 
Women of Army and Navy Legion of Valor, U. S. A. 

Mr, Stripling. Mr. Steele, for how many years have you been active 
in combatino- subversive activity in the United States? 

Mr. Steele. Well, I began by exposing the IWW as a newspaperman 
specializing in that field, and in 1924 I came to my present position to 
study the other subversive movements that might have sprung up, 
including the Communist Party movement. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 5 

Mr. Stripling. Have you over that period of time assembled con- 
siderable files on the subject of communism in the United States? 

Mr. Steele. I have. I have enormous files on the subject. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you also have files on Fascist activity in the 
United States? 

Mr. Steele. I do ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Have your files ever been used by any of the inves- 
tigative agencies of the Government? 

Mr. Steele. I venture to say that there is not an agency in the Gov- 
ernment that hasn't used my files, and I might say that during the war, 
particularly, I spent approximately 50 percent of my time serving the 
Government. But I want it understood that I have never been an 
agent of the Govermnent. 

Mr. Stripling. All that service was gratuitous on your part ? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you state some of the agencies which used 
your files extensively? 

Mr. Steele. Yes. The FBI, Military Intelligence, I would say 
G-2, and ONI, State Department, Treasury, Civil Service, and the 
various special branches of the Government that were set up during 
the war. There were numerous special branches set up, and I think 
it safe to say that I served all of those departments. I have also served 
congressional committees, police departments. State legislative com- 
mittees, security departments of war industries, labor unions, veter- 
ans' organizations, civil and patriotic societies and associations, editors, 
et cetera. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I believe Mr. Steele has prepared 
testimony, and I suggest that he proceed in his own way to submit the 
views of his organization on the two bills which are now pending 
before the committee and also any information which he has compiled 
on the subject of communism in the United States. 

The Chairman. Do you have a statement, Mr. Steele ? 

Mr. Steele. I do. 

The Chairman. If you care to, you may proceed. 

Mr. Steele. For many years, the American Coalition and the Na- 
tional Republic have supported the continuation of congressional in- 
vestigations of subversive menaces within our country, and at its last 
annual conference, held on January 24, 1947, at the Mayflower Hotel, 
Washington, D. C., a resolution was passed commending the work of 
this committee. The societies represented at this conference have con- 
tinued over a period of years to request that the Congress of the United 
States deprive the Communist Party, as well as any and all other sub- 
versive movements, of its legal status. The following resolution was 
adopted by the American Coalition at its January 1947 convention : 

Whereas it is demonstrable that the doctrines of Marxian socialism, which 
constitute the creed of the Communist Party, contemplate the creation of a 
dictatorship by violence if necessary ; and 

Whereas dictatorship under any form or under any name is utterly repugnant 
to the ideals of the American people : Be it 

Resolved, That the American Coalition, in annual convention assembled, urges 
Congress to take appropriate steps to deprive the Communist Party of legal 
status, or any party which directly or indirectly suggests the use of violence 
for attainment of power ; and be it further 

Resolved, That the Congress be urged to take appropriate steps to deprive of 
civil rights any citizen who acts as the agent of a foreign power or political 
party seeking the overthrow of the Government of the United States. 



6 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

I Avish to submit a copy of this resolution, please. 

Mr. Stripling. It will be received as exhibit No. 2.^ 

(Exhibit No. 2 was received.) 

Mr. Steele. I have carefully studied all the resolutions dealing with 
the Communist menace that have been presented to this Congress, and 
any one and all of them can be endorsed, since the intent of each is 
the same. H. E. 2122 and H. K. 1884, now under consideration, had 
not been introduced at the time of the January convention of the 
American Coalition, and they were not, of course, discussed at that 
time. However, I feel that they are in line with the resolution 
adopted at the convention and the sentiments expressed by the dele- 
gates on the subject. H. R. 2122 deals with the Communist Party, 
and it supports a law which, in effect, would at least cripple its soli- 
darity activities. H. R. 1884 deals with party activities and its fronts, 
its penetration in our schools, and its propaganda sent through the 
mails. 

I wish to take this opportunity to present to this committee evidence 
of the all-inclusive ramifications of the movement these and other 
resolutions are intended to either control or to outlaw entirely. These 
ramifications are so extensive that, while the two^resolutions referred 
to above aiKl others have been presented to this Congress previously 
are definite steps toward the elimination of the menace, much broader 
legislation must be passed. State legislatures will have to pass much 
of the leoislation controllinof the activities of subversive forces. 

Although the Communist Party has already been outlawed as such 
in 12 States which have barred it from the ballot, it continues to 
operate in those States. It has apparently found no trouble in cir- 
cumventing laws by nominating candidates as independents without 
partv label or in forcing its candidates on legitimate party tickets. 
In California where the party is barred from the ballot. Communists 
maintain their second largest section. They ran a Communist as an 
independent in the last State election, and they freely nominate them 
for local office. Communists in Indiana have even changed the emblem 
of the party, originally the hammer and sickle. 

The Chairman. May I interrupt there? 

Then it is your opinion that if the Congress should approve one of 
these bills and enact it into law, to outlaw the Communist Party, that 
the Communist Party would circumvent the law and nothing would 
be gained? 

Mr. Steele. I think that you would set a precedent for the States, 
but imder the election laws, I believe, you will find that the States con- 
trol the ballot, antl,for that reason I don't think that a law by Congress 
itself would be sufficient. Each State would have to follow suit. 

In most States they continue to run their own candidates in elections 
for local posts. They are now pushing for a coalition of leftists, with 
the expectation of forming a major third party. 

You understand, of course, that the Communist Party is set up on a 
National, State, and local organizational basis. There is an over-all 
national organization, under which are district organizations. These, 
in tuin, supervise State organizations. Under them come the section 
organizations and, finally, the local unit organizations. 

I submit herewith the break-down of this set-up, together with the 
names of the leaders and organizers of these movements. It includes 



See appendix, p. 174, for exhibit No. 2. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 7 

the names of some 500 leaders of the Communist Party, with nota- 
tions of the positions they hold in the party and the addresses of the 
National and State headquarters tliereof. It also names the personnel 
of various party connnittees which direct the diverse functions or 
party activity. 

INIr. SxRirLiNG. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Steele has compiled the break- 
down accordino; to States of the various officials of the Communist 
Party. The length of the list is some 10 or 12 pages long, and unless 
the Chair would like to hear the officials of any particular State, I 
suggest that the list be not read but that the entire list be included 
in the record, not as an exhibit, but included in the record. 

The Chx\irman. We will include it in the record at this point. 

Mr. Striplixg. I also suggest, Mr. Chairman, since the committee 
is not going to have Mr. Steele read the list, that if he has an extra 
copy that he make it available at the press table in the event anyone 
with the press would like to take any of the names. 

The CiiAiRMAX. Do you have an extra copy, Mr. Steele? 

Mr. Steele. I brought an extra copy along; yes, sir. 

(The list referred to above is as follows :) 

Communist Party, United States of America 

National headquarters: 35 East Twelfth Street, New York, N. Y. 

Chairman — William Z. Foster 

General secretary — Eugene Dennis (Waldron) 

Administrative secretary — John Williamson 

Treasurer — Vacant j^ince the death of Charles Krumbein 

National secretariat : 

William Z. Foster Gil Green 

Eugene Dennis Gus Hall 

Robert Thompson Irving Potash 

John Williamson Jack Stachel 

Benjamin J. Davis, Jr. Carl Winter 

John Gates • Henry AVinston 

National committee : 

William Z. Foster Gus Hall 

Benjamin J. Davis, Jr. Nat Cohen 

Rose Gaulden Ferdinand Smith 

Mickey Lima Abner Berry 

John Williamson Alexander Bittleman 

Nat Ganley Claudia Jones 

Bella Dodd Alexander Trachtenberg 

James Jackson David Davis 

Louis Weinstock Herb Signer 

William McKie . Irving Potash 

Nat Ross ( South ) Max Weiss 

Fred Blair Lein Harris 

Jack Stachel Hal Simon 

National review hoard : 

Chairman — Ray Hansborough 

Vice chairman — Vacant since the death of Charles Krumbein 

Secretarv — Saul Wellman 

William McKie 
National labor commission : 

Chairman — .John Williamson 

Secretary — William Albertson 

Administrative secretarj' — Robert Minor 

Al Blumberg 

Pat Toohey 
National women's commission : 

Chairman — Elizabeth Gurley Flynn 

Assistant Secretarv — Claudia Jones 



8 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

National Negro commission : 

Chairman — Josh Lawrence 

■ Secretary — Henry Winston 
National groups commission : 

Chairman — Steve Nelson 
National farm commission : 

Chairman — Mas Weiss 
Secretary — Lem Harris 
Organizing commission : 

Secretary — Henry Winston 

Assistant Secretary — Betty Gannett- 
Coordinating Committee, National Maritime Field — ■ 

Al Lannon. 
Jewish Commission : 

Secretary — Moses Miller 

General Secretary — Alexander Bittleman 
Veterans' commission : 

Director — John Gates Leon Strauss 

George Blake Robert Thompson 

Joseph Clark Carl Vedro 

Louis Diskind George Watt 

Irving Goff Saul Wellman 

Howard Johnson Herbert Wheeldin 

Herbert Kurzer Henry Winston 

Carl Reinstein 
Student's commission : 

Director — Marion Shaw. 
Legislative commission : 

Chairman — Arnold Johnson 

Secretary — Robert Minor 
Educational Agit-Prop., and publicity commission : 

Chairman — Jack Stachel 

Secretary — Max Weiss 

DISTRICT AND LOCAX OFFICIALS 

Northeast district, 80 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. 

(States included : Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont) 

Chairman (district) — (Manny) Emmanual Blum 
Secretary (district) — Fanny Hartman 
Chairman (Massachusetts section) — Otis A. Hood 
Committee members for Massachusetts : 

Jack Green 

Hy Gordon (trade union secretary, Massachusetts). 

William E. Harrison 

Arthur E. Timpson (husband of Anna Durlak) 

Joseph C. Figueiredo (Bristol organizer) 
Organizer, Boston — F. Collier 
Secretary-treasurer (district) — Hugo Gregory 
Educational director, Massachusetts — Alice Gordon 

State (Massachusetts) campaign committee — Frances Hood (Mrs. Archer Hood) 
Chairman, New Hampshire section — Elba Chase Nelson 
Labor secretary and Massachusetts organizer^ — Daniel Boone Schirmer 
Chairman (Maine) — Lewis Gordon 

Eastern Pennsylvania-Delatvare District, 250 South Broad Street, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

( States included : Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware) 

Chairman (district) — Phil Bart 

Secretary (district) — Bob Klonsky 
Committee members : 

Tom Nabried Bill McKane 

Bstelle Shohen Jessie Sclmeiderman 

Carl Reeve Sarn Donehin 

Jules Abercaupli John Deviue 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER !5. STEELE 9 

Secretary, thirty-sixth ward (Philadelpliia) — Bill Brockman 
Financial secretary (district) — Ben Weiss 
Organizer, Wilkes-Barre section — Joseph Dougher 
Organizer (district) — Sam Rosen 
Member, labor committee — David Davis 

Westei'ti Pennsylvanw. district, Jflt Grant Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

(Western Pennsylvania) 
Chairman — Roy Hudson 
Secretary — Dave Grant 
Organizer — J. G. Eddy 

Chairman, Lehigh Valley section — Charles Spencer 
Chairman, Lawrenceville section — Matt Cortich 
Organizer, Lawrenceville section — Eleanor Sackter 

Organizer, Jones «& Laughlin Club of Communist Party (Pittsburgh) — Sam Reed 
Youth organizei", Pittsburgh — Mike Hanusik 
Executive secretary (district) — Peter Edward Karpa 
Committee members : 

Joe Godfrey Ben Careathers 

Elmer Kish Gabor Kist 

Dave Grant 

Maryland-District of Colnmhia district. 210 West Franklin Street, Baltimore, 
Md., and 521 Ninth Street NW., Washington, D. G. 

(Maryland and Washington, D. C.) 

Chairman (district) — Phil Frankfeld 

Secretary (district) — Dorothy Blumberg 

Chairman (District of Columbia section) — William Taylor 

Vice chairman (District of Columbia section) — William S. Johnson 

Secretary (District of Columbia section) — Elizabeth Searle 

Treasurer (District of Columbia section) — Mary Stalcup 

Literary director (District of Columbia section) — Casey Gurewitz 

Cumberland organizer — Mel Fiske 

Director, membership committee — Constance Jackson 

District of Ohio, 2056 East Fourth Street, Cleveland, Ohio 

(State of Ohio) 

Chairman — Gus Hall 

Secretary — Martin Chancey 

Organizing secretary — Frieda Katz 

Organizer — A. Krchmarek 
Committee members : 

Gus Hall Carl Guilood 

Abe Lewis Elmer Fehlhaber 

Edward Chaka ' Martin Chancey 

Bernard Marks Mike Davidow 

Robert Hamilton 

Chairman. Cedar-Central section — Abe Lewis 

Chairman, Cuyahoga County section — Gus Hall ' 

Chairman, Cleveland County section — Elmer Fehlhaber 

Secretary. Cleveland County section — Mike Davidow 

Organizer. Toledo section — Nat Cohn 

Organizer. Cincinnati section — Robert Gunkel 

Organizer, Akron section — Bernard Marks 

Minnesota. North Dakota, and F?outh Dakota district, 1216 Nicollet Street 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

(States included: Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) 

Chairman (district) — Martin Mackie (Minnesota) ' 

Secretary (district) — Carl Ross 

Assistant secretary (district) — Rose Tillotson 

Chairman, Hennepin County section (Minnesota) — ^Robert J. Kelly 

Secretary, Pine County, Minn., district — Clara Jorgensen 



10 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

District of Indiana, 29 South Delaware Avenue, Indianapolis, Ind. 

(State of Indiana) 
Chairman — Elmer Johnson 
Secretary — Henry Aron 

Legislative director, Indiana and Illinois — William Patterson 
Committee members : 

Elmer Johnson Benjamin Cohen 

Morris Poi'terfield Imogene Johnson 

Sylira Aron 

District of Michigan, 902 Lawyers Building, Detroit, Mich. 

(State of IVIichigan) 
Chaii'man — Carl Winters 
Secretary — Helen Allison 

National committee representative — James Jackson 
Educational director — Abner Berry 
Youth director — Robert Cummings 
Daily Worker representative — Mabel Mitchell 
Organizer — Fred Williams 
Committee members : 

Hugo Beiswenger Joe Brandt 

Geneva Olmsted 
■Chairman, Ypsilanti, Willow Run section — Thomas Dennis 
Chairman, Flint section — Thomas Kelly 
Chairman, Hamtramck section — Thomas Dombrowski 
Secretary, New Haven — Joseph Gonzales, Jr. 
State literature director — Byron Edwards 
Chairman, Flint — Berry Blossinghame 
Chairman, Michigan Avenue, Detroit section — John Hell 

District of Illinois, 208 North Wells, Chicago, III. 

(States included: Illinois and Kentucky) 

Chairman, Illinois section — Alfred Wagenknecht 

Chairman (district) — Gil Green 

Vice chairman — William L. Patterson 

Assistant secretary — Victoria Kram'er 

Legislative director, Ilinois section — Edward Starr 

Labor secretary, Ilinois section — Fred Fine 

Chaii-man, East Side Chicago section — Claude Lightfoot 

Section organizer — Jim Keller 

Chairman, Communist Party Club section — Paul Robeson 

Oi'ganizer — Henry Davis 

Section organizer. Ninth Congressional District — Ethel Sliapiro 

Organizer, South Chicago section — James Balanoff, Jr. 

Chairman, twenty-eighth ward — Sylvia Woods 

Chairman, third ward — Ishmael Flory 

District of Neto York, 35 East Twelfth Street, New York, N. Y. 

(State of New York) 

Chairman — Robert Thompson 
Vice chairman — Rose Gaulden 
Organizing secretary — William Norman 
Organizer — Donald MacKeiizie Lester 
Director of education — William Weinstone 
Secretary of education — Sam Coleman 
Legislative director — Bella Dodd 
Farm organizer — George Cook 
Youth director — Lou Diskin 
Secretary, legislative committee — Lillian Gates 
Director, industrial section — Ben Gold 
Chairman, Negro committee — Charles Loiiman 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 



11 



Israel Amter 
William Norman 

Elwood Dean 
George Watt 



Maude White 
Cyril Phillips 
Fern Owens 
Theodore Bassett 
John Lavin 
Letty Cohen 
Herb Whiteman 
Oscar James 



Director, veterans' committee — John Gates 

Assistant director, veterans committee — Howard Johnson 

Director, Daily Worker veterans' committee — Joe Clark 

Assistant organizational director — Charles Lohman 

Chairman, Connnnuist Party Club, New York City — Leon Beverley 

Water front organizers — Tom Christensen and Al Rothbart 

Italian section organizer — Antonio Lombardo' 

State secretariat : 

Robert Thompson 
Hal Simon 
Committee members (in addition to above) 
Nat Slutsky (sectional organizer) 
Michael Salerno 
Harlem section : 

Chairman — Benjamin J. Davis, Jr. 
Executive secretary — Robert Campbell 
Administrative secretary — John Lavin 
Industrial section director — Rose Gaulden 
Organizing director — Anselo Cruz 
Organizing secretary — Bonita Williams 
Educational director — Carl Dorfman 
Committee members : 
Bob Campbell 
Bonita Williams 
Rose Gaulden 
Larry Washington 
Leon Love 
Carmen Lopez 
Horace Marshall 
Benjamin J. Davis, Jr. 
Sam Patterson 
New York County section : 

Executive secretary — George Blake Charney 
Membership director — Clara Lester 
Educational director — Rebecca Grecbt 
Executive connuittee members : 
.Tames Tormey 
Louis IMitchell 
Howard Johnson 
Esther Cantor 
Tom Christinsen 
Queens County section : 

Chairman — Paul Crosbie 
Organizer — Dave Rosenberg 
Secretary — James A. Burke 
Educational director — Helen Stuart 
Organizing secretary — Fay Collar 
Sectional organizer — Milton Goldstein 
Bronx section : 

Chairman — Isidora Begun 
Organizing secretary — Bob Appel 
Press director — Bob Alpert 
Educational director — Robert Klonsky 
Assistant educational director — Henry Kuntzler 
Kings County section : 

Chairman — Peter V. Cacchione 

Chairman, women's committee — Margaret Cowl (Krumbein) 
Sectional organizer — Carl Vedro 
Press director — Mickey Langbert 
Essex County section : 

Chairman — Martha Stone 
Manhattan County section : 

Executive secretary — George Charney 
Press director (industrial) — Al Reger 
Brooklyn section : 

Organizing secretary — John White 



Robert Campbell 
Ester Letz 
David Gi'eene 
Evelyn Wiener 
Alvin Warren 



12 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Miscellaneous sections : 

Chairman, Buffalo — Lloyd Kinsey 

Organizer, Buffalo — Nicholas Kosanovich 

Assistant to chairman, Buffalo — Norman Ross 

Chairman, Rochester — Gertrude Kowal 

Chairman, Syracuse — George Sheldrick 

Chairman, Utica — Murray Savage 

Chairman, Schenectady — Harold Klein 

Chairman, Binghamton — Irving Weissman 

Chairman, Tonkers — Edna Fried 

Chairman, Astoria, Long Island — Esther Signer 

Secretary, Nassau County — John Lavin 

Secretary, Coney Island — William Albertson 

Organizing secretary, eastern Nevp York — Morris Smith 

Director, Nassau County- — Jim Faber 

Chairman, Melrose — Joe Jackson 

Xiiterature director, Middletown — Rose Walsh 

Oi'ganizing secretary, Williamsburg — Leon Nelson 

Organizer, Brownsville — Abe Osheroff 

Organizer, Nassau — Sam Faber 

Chairman, Westchester — Herbert L. Wheeldin 

Section organizer — Leon Nelson 

Press director, Bright Beach — Harry Klein 

Organizer, Morrisania — Morris Stillmnn 

Organizer, Allerton — Bernard Schuldiner 

Organizer, Parkchester — Sparky Friedman 

Organizer, Jamaica — Charles Evans 

Northwest district, IOI6Y2 Second Avenue, F^eattle, Wash., and 916 East 
Hawthorne Street, Portland, Oreg. 

(States included : Idaho, Oregon, and Washington) 

Chairman (district) — Henry Huff 
Labor secretary (district) — Andre Renies 
Secretary, Pierce County section — Clara Sear 
Director, People's Vv^orld, Seattle — Marx Blashko 
Committee members (in addition to above) : 

C. Van Lydegraf 

Barbara Hartle 

Edward Alexander 
Chairman, Spokane section — William L. Cumming 
Chairman, Oregon section — Ead Payne 
Secretary, Oregon section — Mark Haller 

District of California, 9.^2 Market Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

(State or California) 

Chairman — William Schneiderman 

Organizing secretary — Loretta Starvis 

State treasurer — Anita Whitney 

State field organizer — Mickey Lima 

State educational director — Celeste Strack 

People's Daily World circulatio]i director — Leo Baro-way __ 

Chairman, youth commission — George Kaye "^ 

Chairman, Jewish commission — A. Olken 

State press diiector' — Ida Rothstein 
' State youth director — Geoi-ge Kaye 

Labor secretaries — Archie Brown and Leon Kaplan 
Committee members : 

John Pittman Loretta Starvis 

Louise Todd Nemmy Sparks 

Ray Thonijison Clarence Tobey 

William Schneiderman George Lohr 

Pettis Perry Mickey Lima 

State political editor — Douglas Ward 

Secretary, water-front section — Herbert Nugent 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 13 

Los Angeles County section : 

Chairman — Neniniy Sparks 

Labor secretary — Ben Dobbs 

Press director — Elizabeth Ricarrlo 

Chairman, minorities commission — Pettis Perry 

Organizing secretary — Dorothy Healy 

Editor, People's Daily World — Sidney Burke 

Chairman Sixteenth Congressional District — Emil Freed 

Section organizer — Alvin Averbuck 

Legislative director — Harry Daniels 

Harbor section organizer — Jim Forrest 

Veterans" director — Merel Brodeky 

Youth director — Phil Bock 

Secretary, Carver Club section — Mort Newman 

Candidate, board of education — La Rue McCormack 

Candidate, councilman — Henry Steinberg — Ninth District 

Candidate, councilman — James C. McGowan — Eleventh District 

Candidate, councilman — Elsie M. Monjar — Eighth District 

Director, West Adams Club of Communist Party — Joe Klein 

Social activity secretary, 62 AD, Communist Party — Ida Elliott 
Northern California section : 

Chairman, San iVancisco section — Oleta Yates 

Legislative director, San Francisco section — Herb Nugent 

Labor director. San Francisco — Leon Kaplan 

Water-front organizer — Alex Freskin 

Educational director, San P^rancisco — Aubrey Grossman 
San Diego County section : 

Chairman : Fnos J. Baker 
Alemeda County section : 

Chairman — Lloyd Lehman 

Labor director — Wesley Bodkin 

Organizer, Ben Davis Club of Communist Party (Alemeda) — Buddy Green 

Trade-union director, Hariet Tubman Club of Communist Party (Ala- 
meda) — Helen Bodkin 
Miscellaneous section : 

President, Santa Monica Club of Communist Party — David Grant 

Chairman, Contra Costa County — Mildred Bowen 

Chairman. Hollywood section — John Stapp 

Press director, East Side Youth Club (Los Angeles) — Libbj Wilson 

Organizer, North Oakland section — George Edwards 

District of Arizona, 716 1^ North Washington Street, Phoenix, Ariz. 

( State of Arizona ) 
Chairman — Morris Graham 
Committee members : 

Lewis Johnson Karl M. Wilson ' 

Chairman, Maricopa County — M. Dallen 

District of New Jersey, 38 Park Place, Neicark, N. J. 

(State of New Jersey) 

Chairman — Sid Stein 

Organizing secretary — Larry Mahon 

Section organize!-, Plainfield — Al Muniz 

Committee members : 

Martha Stone ( Scherer) Joseph Magliacana 

Tom Scanlon El wood Dean 

Irving Glassman Mrs. Gaetana Mahan 

District of Connecticut, 231 Fairfield Avenue, Bridgepoi-t. Conn. 

(State of Connecticut) 
Chairman — Joe Roberts 
Secretary — Mike Rosso 
Committee members (in addition to above) : 

Rudolph Gillespie 

Roy A. Leib 
Chairman Hartford section — Roy A. Leib 
Chairman Nev\- Haven section — Sidney S. Taylor 



14 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

District of Wisconsin, 611 Xorth Secoud Street, Miiu-nitkee. Wis. 

(State of Wisconsin) 

Chairman — Frerl Blair 
Secretary — E. Eiseusclier 
State committee — Slgmund Eisenscher 
Chairman Milwaukee section — G. Eisenscher 
Chairman sixth ward — Joe Ellis 

Secretary Milwaukee section — Clarence Blair (alias Clark) 
Organizer, Milwaukee^James Phillips 

District of Colorado, 929 fierenteeiitli Sttt^et, Dcnrer. Colo. 

(States included: Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming) 

Chairman — William Dietrich 
Secretary— Arthur W. Barry 
Organizational secretary — Tracy Rogers 

District of Missouri, lOJfl NortJi Grand Street. St. Loui.9. Mo. 

(State of Missouri) 

Chairman — Ralph Shaw 
Secretary — Nathan Oser 

District of West Virginia, CJiarleston. W. Va. 

(State of West Virginia) 
Chairman — Ted Allen 

Southern District 

(States included: Texas, Louisiana, Florida, Georgia, Virginia, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Tennessee, Oklahoma, North Carolina, and South Carolina) 

Chairman, Texas— Ruth Koenig, 305 Herman Building, Houston, Tex. 

Executive secretary, Texas — James J. Green. 

Chairman, Houston section — William C. Crawford 

Chairman, Louisiana — James E. Jackson. Jr. 

Secretary, Louisiana — Kay Davis. Godchaux Building, New Orleans, La. 

Chairman, Florida-Georgia- Alex W. Trainor, 1.546 Loma, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Organization secretary, Florida-Georgia — Homer Chase 

Chairman, Virginia — Alice Burke, 102 North Eighth. Richmond, Va. 

Chairman, Alahama-Mississippi-Tennesseee — Harold Bolton 

Secretary, Alabama-Mlssisslppi-Tenne.ssee — Andy Brow^i 

Press director, Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee — Harry Raymond 

Organizer, Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee — INIary Southard 

Chairman, Oklahoma — Allen Shaw 

District organizer. Oklahoma — H. Smith. Oklahoma City. Okla. 

Organizing secretary, Oklahoma — Al Lowe 

Organizing secretary. North and South Caroliqa — Sam Hall 

District of Montana, 2111 Fourth Arnnie Soutli. Great Falls, Mont. 

(State of Montana) 
Chairman — Ira Slebrasse 

Di-'itrici of Nehrasl:a. 'it') KarhacI,- liKildiiu;, Omaha, Nehr. 

(State of Nebraska) 

State chairman — Warren Batterson 

District of Utah. 75 South w(st Tciiiitle Street. Salt Lake City, Utah 

(State of Utah) 

State cliainnan — Wallace Talbot 
State secretary — Joseph Douglas 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 15 

Mr. Steele. Let us consider, as an example, the partial division of 
the party sections in one State — Pennsylvania. This State is divided 
into two districts: One is tlie western Pennsylvania district, which 
operates independently from the eastern section; the other the eastern 
Pennsylvania-Delaware district. It is the latter that I will break 
down. 

There are 22 sections in eastern Pennsylvania. 2 in Delaware, and 
1 in southern New Jersey. Thirteen are in Philadeli)hia and on*:" in 
each of the following localities: Bucks County, Allentown, Reading, 
Lancaster, Chester, Scranton, Wilkes-Ban^e, Minersville, Washington, 
Wilmington, and the Delaware County and Lehigh Valley sections. 
Each of these is broken down into smaller — club — units. In the Michi- 
gan district, Detroit, like Philadelphia, is but one of the sections, and 
the Detroit section is divided into ;>3 units or clubs. Los Angeles, as 
another example, is broken down into (i2 units. In Oregon, a smaller 
State, there are only nine sections. In Washington, D, C, there are 
16 units. 

In my opinion — one which I think is possibly shared by members 
of this committee — the Comnuniist Party is not a political party in the 
true sense of the word. It is camouflaged as such, not with the expec- 
tation of electing candidates to high office but rather for the purpose 
of agitating and propagandizing in behalf of communism and its plot 
to overthrow our Govermnent. The Communist Party plank purports 
to uphold the so-called everyday needs of the masses. Through this 
ruse it hopes to gain sufficient following and strength with which to 
carry out its plans for a revolution when the time is deemed ripe. Its 
machine is kept intact in order to lead the revolutionary overthrow and 
to assume dictatorship of the Government at such time. By posnig 
as a political party, by propagandizing, and by utilizing pressure tac- 
tics, it can also further step-by-step legislation tow^ard Marxism. 
Communists hope to gain the balance of power in certain sections — 
for instance, through the American Labor Party — thereby neutralizing 
candidates on major tickets and forcing them to become defenders 
of the Communist Party, to lead its fronts, and to serve as its agents 
and mouthpieces. The Communists have admitted that this is their 
plan. As proof, I quote at this point from the Manifesto and Program 
of the Communist Party of America, as exposed by the State Depart- 
nien at a Senate hearing on July 9, 1930 : 

Coiumimisiu does not propose to capture the bourgeois parlianieutary state, but 
to conquer and destroj' it. * * * The conquest of power of the state is ac- 
complished by the mass power of the proletariat. Political mass strikes are a 
vital factor in developing this mass power, preparing the working class for the 
conquest of capitalism. 

The power of the proletariat lies fundamentally in its control of industrial 
process. The mobilizing of the control against capitalism means the initial form 
of the revolutionary mass action that will conquer the power of the state. * * * 

The Communist Party is fundamentally a party of action. * * * The Com- 
munist Party directs the workers' struggle against capitalism, developing fuller 
forms and purposes in this struggle, culminating in the mass action of revolution. 

The Communist maintains that the class struggle is essentially a political 
struggle ; that is, a struggle to conquer the power of the state * * * and the 
establishment of a dictatorship of the proletariat. * * * 

I'articipaticm in parliamentary campaigns, which in the general struggle of 
the proletariat, is of secondary importance, is for the purpose of revolutionary 
pi-opaganda only. 

65176—47 2 



16 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Mr. Stripling. You have been quoting from the Communist Mani- 
festo? 

Mr. Steele. The Communist Manifesto of the United States. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

The Chairman. I would like to ask a question. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. This list of clubs that you have there 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What makes you believe that they are Communist 
clubs ? 

]Mr. Steele. I was speaking, Mr. Chairman, of the Communist clubs. 

The Chairman. Are they avowed Communist clubs 'i 

Mr. Steele. Yes ; avowed Conniiunist clubs. 

The Chairman. I see. 

Mr. Steele. Just before the war, you recall, the l^arty was changed 
to an association, and at that time they changed the units to clubs. 
They named each club, like the John Reed Club, and so forth. 

The Chairman. This list that you submitted is of what date ? ' 

Mr. Steele. Is of the present date. 

Mr. Stripling. What 5'ou mean, Mr. Steele, is that the Communist 
Party revamped its entire organizational set-up after the announced 
abolition of the Comintern? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

Mr. Stripling. And now, Mr. Chairman, the Communist Party 
functions as study groups, rather than as cells or sections, as they 
previously did, and their membership records and their financial 
records are paid and kept as such now, rather than into central head- 
quarters as they were at one time ; is that true ? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

Mr. Stripling. Their membership list, financial statement, and so 
forth, would be in the headquarters of each one of these clubs? 

Mr. Steele. The local statements; yes. I would say, however, that 
the sectional office would have a list of the clubs under that section — 
which I think I can prove by documentary evidence later — and that 
possibly the national office has the sectional office records. 

The Chairman. Excuse me. 

The record will show that Mr. McDowell is present. 

Mr. Steele. In testifying before a congressional committee in 1928, 
William Z. Foster, present national chairman of the Communist Party, 
said: 

The Communist Party advocates the overthrow of the capitalist systeip and 
the confiscation of the social necessities of life. * * * I have stated that 
the Connuunist Party advocates the abolition of the capitalist system in this 
country and every other country ; that this must develop out of the sharpening 
of the class struggle. * * * The conquest of power by the proletariat does 
not mean i^eaceful capturing of the ready-made bourgeois state machinery by 
means of parliamentary majority. * * * Our party, different from the 
Socialist Party, creates no illussions amongst the workers that they can vote 
their way to emancipation, that they can capture the ready-made machinery of 
the state and utilize it for the emancipation of the working class. On the con- 
tr;iry, we must utilize this campaign to carry on widespread and energetic propa- 
ganda to teach the woi'kers that the capitalist class would never allow the 
working class peacefully to take control of the state. The working class must 
shatter the capitalist state. * * * No Communist, no matter how many votes 
he should secure in a national election, could become, even if he would, Presi- 
dent of the present Government. When a Comnuinist heads a government in 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 17 

the United States, and that day will come .Inst as surely as the sun rises, that 
government will not be a capitalistic government but a Soviet government, and 
behind this government will stand the Red Army to enforce the dictatorship of 
the proletariat. * * * 

Upon being further questioned with regard to the purposes and 
aims of the Communist Party, Foster stated at that time : 

The Communist Party advocates the overthrow of the capitalist system * * * 
and the Communists of the United States owe no allegiance to the Government 
of the United States or to the American flag. Communists of this and all coun- 
tries loulv upon the Soviet Union as their country, and they recognize only one 
flag, the Red flag. 

Foster described the Red flag as "the flag of the proletarian revo- 
lution." 

Many similar statements have been made by Communist leaders 
from time to time, all of which prove the charges I have made. An- 
other pertinent statement appeared in the pamphlet, A Talk About 
the Communist Party, issued in 1943 by the Workers' Library Pub- 
lishers, one of the official Communist publication houses. This boasts 
of the manner in which a comparatively small movement, such as the 
Communist Party, can influence a large number of people into the 
following of the party. The sfeitement reads as follows : 

The Conuuunist Party represents a coherent set of ideas. * * * The second 
characteristic of our party is that, while being a small well-knit group, thinking 
and working collectively in a way that makes it act different from any other 
party and <lifferent from the masses, at the same time, if it is really functioning 
as the Communist Party, it is always in the closest contact witii the 



masses. 



* * 



Our program is the most powerful thing in the political life of our country 
today, the most powerful thing in tiie world today. We are planting it in America 
so that it grows riglit out of the ground of our country and our comnuinity. 
Our party is strong because of this, strong beyond its numbers, because we grow 
slowly in numbers, we grow by leaps and bounds in our influence. * * * 
We are the ones who always know what we are doing and where we are going. 
* * * We work together, we think together, and this gives us a strength 
far beyond any Individuals. * * * 

In our agitation around these demands (everday needs of workers) we must 
emphasize the absolute necessity for the proletarian revolution. Our strategy 
is to utilize these immediate demands to educate and organize the masses in 
jtreparation for the final revolutionary .struggle, wliich will abolish capitalism 
.iltogether. Reliance on immediate demands would lead us merely to reformism. 
Our party is a revolutionary pai'ty. It aims not simply to ease conditions a bit 
under capitalism for the workers bnt to abolish capitalism altogether. * * * 
The Communist Part.y is a Leninist, Marxist party. It knows how to participate 
in the daily struggles of the workers. It knows how to utilize all these struggles 
to develop class consciousness * * * and thus begin the mobilization for the 
eventual overthrow of capitalism. 

In promoting these "everyday needs" of the people, as a means 
through which the Communist Party and its fronts may gain support 
while building for the revolution, the issues, as a rule, involve ques- 
tions pertaining to yotith, war, working clas.ses, races, farmers, and 
international afl^airs. The Communists also agitate for the socializa- 
tion of industry and professions, for government relief, and for spe- 
cial rights for special groups. They oppose deportations and laws 
which restrict immigration. 

In two of his books. The Russian Revolution and Towards a Soviet 
America, William Z. Foster clearly outlined the ultimate purposes 
of the Communist Party — the creation of a Soviet America which 
woidd be allied with the Soviet Union. In the foreword of The Rus- 



18 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

sian Kevoliilioii. P^oster said. "The revolution is a bitter struggle, 
but I do not despair of the outcome.'* He explained that the program 
of the international Communist movement is "to lead this figlit, in 
good times and bad, to broaden and deepen it until it ends in the over- 
throw of the whole capitalist system." 

Two years ago, in the micl;-t of the acute afterwar crisis, the world revolution 
seemed to be only a matter of a few months : now it may be a question of years. 

Refeience was to the First World War. 
In Towards a Soviet America, Foster said : 

The huildin;::- of Soviets is begun not alter tlie I'evolution, but bot'orc. The Soviets 
are not only the foundation of the future workers" state, but also the main in- 
stnnnents to mobilize the masses for rev()lutit)nary struggle. * * * The 
American Soviet government will be organized along the broad lines of the 
Russian Soviets. * * * The American Soviet government will join with 
other soviet governments in a world .soviet union. * * * The American 
Soviet government wi'l be the dictatorship of the proletariat. * * * The 
leader of the revolution in all its stages is the Comnmnist Party. * * * The 
socialization program will be carried through on the basis of contiscation with- 
out remuneration. * * * Capitalism, it is true, makes a strong and stub- 
born resistance. The advance of the I'evolution is difficult ; its pace is .slow * * * 
but its direction is sure and its movement irresistible. 

The Communist movement, which had reached its peak in the 
United States at the beginning of World W^ar II. following the break 
between Hitler and Stalin, was forced to throw everything it had into 
the war effort in behalf of Russia. As a result, it changed its name 
to the Comnuuiist Political Association and. for ]n'opaganda pur- 
poses and to circumvent the Foreign Agent Registration Act, it 
allegedly severed its ties to the Communist International, which 
Avas months later also dechtred dissolved, and this with American 
Communist approval, although it had previously announced that it 
had severed affiliation w^ith it. 

The ])oint I am making there is that although the Connnimist Party 
of the United States declared that it had severed its connections 
with the Connnunist International one year, the next year it took part 
in voting "the Connnunist International out of existence. 

At that time, the name of the Young Communist League was 
changed to American Youth for Democracy. The names of Com- 
nnniist schools and propaganda publishing centers were also changed. 
Front organizations which had previously been disguised as "peace'- 
and "democracy'' groups sw^itched their activities to "civil rights," 
racial, and foreign fronts. IManj^ of their other fronts were tem- 
porarily shelved, but hundreds of movements for the postwar period 
sprinig up. Still others, already in operation, extended their spheres 
of influence. 

Since tlie Second AVorld War, Communists here not only accelerated 
the activities of these groups, but they have also been building new 
l)ropaganda, agitational, racial, and cidtural movements. We must 
not lose sioht of the fact that manv of these coordinate w4th Red 
activities in the countries to our south and in the Pacific. 

It is my personal opinion that far more dangerous than the Com- 
munist Party itself are its tooLs — the fronts or. as Earl Browder once 
called tliem. "transmission belts" of the Communist movement in the 
United States. Here we have a strong chain, the links of which are 
composed of forces, operating under high-sounding and misleading 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 19 

names, the actual purposes of which are carefully camouflaged. The 
leaders thereof are publicized as "famed" authors, "renowned" pro- 
fessors, "great" scientists, and "widely known" professional men. 
Ever increasing numbers join them. All gradually veer to the party 
line through the pulling of strings by the tireless workers among these 
forces who have party affiliations. The most alarming phase of the 
situation is the manner in which these forces penetrated our armed 
services, the ease with which they obtained sensitive positions, and 
the fact that our Government permits the functioning of a reserve 
unit of an international Red brigade whose loyalty is to another 
power. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Steele, in connection with your statement that 
you consider the tools of the Communist Party to be more dangerous 
than the party itself, based upon your investigations and studies of the 
situation, how many tools of the Communist Party do you think there 
are in the United States? 

Mr. Steele. Do ,vou mean individuals? 

Mr. Stripling. Individuals. 

Mr. Steele. Or organizations? 

Mr. Stripling. Individuals. 

Mr. Steele. Well, it is merely an estimate, 3^ou understand, but I 
would say approximately 5,000,000. 

Mr. Stripling. Five million people who are affiliated or identified 
with the Communist Party in one waj- or another ? 

Mr. Steele. That is, with the party or its fronts. 

Mr. Stripling. Who serve the party purposes ? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. It is very hard to get an exact figure on 
that because there is some duplication ; in one organization there may 
be individuals that belong to another. 

The Chairman. How would you break it down ? 

Mr. Steele. Pardon me? 

The Chairman. How would 3^011 break it down? How many mem- 
bers of the Communist Party and how many fellow-travelers, and how 
many members of the fronts? 

Mr. Steele. There are approximately 100.000 members of the party 
and we have no idea how many candidates there are. We overlook 
the fact that a person that is signed up with the Communist Party does 
not become a member of the party immediately. He becomes a candi- 
date — as you have in Russia, for instance. You have something like 
6,000,000 members of the party in Russia. You have something like 
8,000,000 candidates waiting to become party members. Consequent- 
ly, in this country we find that in their drives they sign a person up to 
the party, but he remains a candidate until he is sworn into the party — 
and I presume that he has to go through a certain test in party work. 
He possibly works more diligently than a party member during that 
period. As to the fronts, I have tried to estimate that on this l^asis : 
We have taken the leadership of the front organizations, and we find 
quite a duplication there, possibly 40 percent, so we have assumed 
that there is 40 percent duplication, maybe 50 percent duplication in 
the memberships, and so we have taken total members of the organi- 
zations as we could obtain them and divided it in half. I think that 
is a very liberal way of estimating it. It is possiblj^ greater than that, 
but at least we are not overshooting the mark. 



20 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

The Chairman. Would you say there are 100,000 Communist Party 
dues-paying, card-holding members, and would you say there were 
100,000 so-called candidates? 

Mr. Steele. I would say "Yes." 

The Chairman. Then there would be 4,800,000 members of front 
organizations ? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

The Chairman. Isn't that the largest figure we have ever received, 
Mr. Stripling? 

Mr. Stripling. I believe that is the largest estimate, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Sit;ele. I want to say this, that we obtained the election sta- 
tistics several years ago from the States, and we took the total of those, 
eliminating in the cases where there was a candidate running State- 
wide, we used that figure. If there was no candidate running State- 
wide we used the top local candidate and if that top local candidate 
didn't overlap another candidate we added other candidates. We ar- 
rived at a figure of 232,000 in the election that year. And ordinarily 
the full vote of the party is never exhibited in an election — which 
statistics show to be true in other countries. 

Evidence has been submitted to this committee which has shown that 
"the Communists have sent men and women, boys and girls to study at 
the Lenin Institute in Moscow where they have received schooling 
in various phases of militant Communist action in order that they 
might engage in such Communist activities here in the United States. 
Witnesses who have appeared before this committee and before com- 
mittees which have held hearings in the past have testified, under oath, 
that they were among those who had gone to Russia for such schooling. 
They admitted that they studied the philosophies of Marxism, Lenin- 
ism, Stalinism, and communism in general, and that they also re- 
ceived instruction in sedition, sabotage, street fighting, conspiracy, bar- 
ricading, and other types of guerrilla warfare. 

One committee which held hearings in 1936. I am certain it was 
the Woodrum committee, found that our WPA had been infiltrated 
by agents who made maps of water mains, cable lines, subway lines, 
and other systems of vital importance, and that these maps had even- 
tually found their way to Moscow. 

Recently a member of this committee discovered that during the 
recent war, photos of our large power projects, war industries, and 
the terrain of important sections of our country had been taken and 
sent to ]\Ioscow. '' 

Back in 1939 I testified before the Special Committee Investigating 
Un-American Activities, and I furnished proof at that time that the 
Communists had opened, in 1937, a "Red School of the Air'' at Bennett 
Field, N. Y., at which scores of young men were being trained by 
the Reds in flying and ground work. This school was under the di- 
rection of the International Workers' Order. I also testified to the 
effect that the Communist Party had organized a Red front army 
training and recruiting school, and that the headquarters of this outfit 
were then located at 95 Avenue B, New York, N. Y. 

I wish to submit at this point as proof of the above statement exhibit 
No. 3. 

(Exhibit No. 3 was received.) ^ 



^ See appendix, p. 174, for exhibit 3. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 21 

Mr. Stripling. What happened to that ? 

Mr. Steele. That was disbanded. 

Mr. Stripling. When was it disbanded? 

Mr. Steele. Shortly after it was exposed before the Committee of 
Congress. 

Mr. Stripling. What happened to the school at Bennett Field? 

Mr. Steele. It was also abandoned a*fter I exposed il, and there 
were several licensed flyers whose licenses were revoked by the Federal 
Government. 

I discovered later that the Communists maintained a ''Ked An- 
napolis" on the Hudson in New York where men were being trained 
in maritime work. .These schools were short-term schools, and when 
1 presented my testimony 80 students were enrolled in the "Red School 
of the Air.'' I was not able to ascertain how many were enrolled in 
other schools. 

Party schools were popular in those days — short-term schools which 
were se})arate from their more public schools — they then operated and 
still operate. These party schools were secret schools, and while I 
have been advised from time to time that they dealt solely with ideolo- 
gies and tactics of revolution, I personally have had only one piece 
of evidence to prove that the latter was the case. I presented that 
evidence when I appeared before the McCormack committee. It de- 
scribed the plan of inciting mutiny in the armed forces, of encourag- 
ing the workers to fight. It outlined the plan for centi^alization of 
party leadership in the revolts they hoped to create, and the plan for 
seizure of the White House and the Capitol. This document was 
seized in a raid on a Communist center in Minnesota, and copies were 
sent to me. This certainly indicated that there had been a connection 
between the special schooling of people from this country in Mos- 
cow and the party schooling and conspiracies in the United States. 

Recently we have uncovered evidence to prove that party schools are 
being revived in this country, and that mass meetings and marches 
are again being emphasized. We understand that classes are being 
held in private homes, and that they are naturally limited to small 
groups. They have also been held in large halls, as have an increas- 
ingly large number of meetings and forums. 

The Nelson Davis Educational Forum 

The Chairman. What was the name of that forum ? 

Mr. Steele. The Nelson Davis Educational Forum. 

The Chairman. I see. 

Mr. Steele. The Nelson Davis Educational Forum is being held at 
this time in Detroit, Mich. Through forums the Reds are able to 
keep their labor-union member contacts. There they meet with them 
"off the job." They have assumed greater importance since some in 
the CIO seem to have suddenly revolted against Communist leader- 
ship. 

Last December 1946, the National Committee of the Communist 
Party met in New York City, at which time it made plans for a resump- 
tion of what it called "party discussion meets" throughout the country. 
The Harlem Leadership School has since been opened. This is a short- 
term school. Two sessions of party schools were held in Oklahoma 
City and Tulsa, Okla., evidence of which I have submitted (Contact). 



22 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

By the way, I thought that was so important that I brought that 
up to your committee, and your committee permitted Mr. Mandel to 
photostat that for your records. It is known as Contact. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

Mr. Steele. Very hard to obtain. 

And I had five issues of the publication in which the school activi- 
ties are mentioned — party school activities. 

The Chairman. Which school is that? 

Mr. Steele. The Tulsa school, the Harlem school, and the Nelson 
Davis Educational Forum. 

Classes of these schools were held on Sundays between the hours 
of 10 : 30 a. m. and 5 p. m. Unquestionably, other classes are being 
held in all sections of the United States. Oregon party leaders, in 
recently denying a charge that they maintained a regular school in 
that State, admitted they were holding sessions of party schools in 
various sections of that State. 

Now, getting back to the military phase of this picture, we find 
that many Communist;^ joined our armed forces after Russia and 
Germany had broken off relations, and Hitler's armies had marched 
on Russia. Prior to that time, you will recall, the Connnunists had 
organized Yanks Are Not Coming Committees and urged the Ameri- 
can people to '"oppose the imperialist war." They had even created 
strikes in our war-industry plants. I am submitting a list of hun- 
dreds of Communists and Communist fronters who served in our 
ai-med forces. 

The Chairman. How many are there in that list? 

Mr. Steele. There are about 2,000 names. 

The Chairman. Two thousand Communists joined our armed forces? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. I don't believe he testified, Mr. Chairman, that 2,000 
Communists joined. He testified as to Communists and Communist 
fronters. 

The Chairman. I see. 

Mr. Stripling. On this list, you say, there are approximately 2,000 
names? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. I assume the committee doesn't want to have all of 
the names read ? 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. Stripling. I would like to ask if this list has been turned over 
to the War Department. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. It was turned over by you to the War Department? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. When was it turned over by you ? 

Mr. Steele. Turned over 2 months ago. 

Mr. Nixon. You said that the names represented 2,000 people? 

Mr. Steele. Approximately 2,000. 

Mr. Nixon. Who belong to the Communist Party or to Communist 
front organizations? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nixon. You included them in the list then if you found that 
they did belong to these organizations? 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 23 

Mr. Steele, Yes. sir; I mentioned the names of the organizations. 

Mr. Nixon. Yon, of course, recognize tlie fact that all people who 
happen to belong to Communist front organizations may not in all 
cases be deliberate sympathizers Avitli the Communist Party? 

Mr. Steele. I agree with you ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Nixon. You Avould also recognize it possible then that some of 
these names might be the names of people who were members of the 
organization but who might not be sympathizers with the party ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes; in a few instances. 

Mr. Nixon. You haven't checked the names to be certain that all 
the people who belong to the organizations were also sympathizers 
with the party ? 

Mr. Steele. No ; I have only checked the organization to determine 
• that it is in direct connection with the party. 

Mr. Nixon. What the list represents then is that, first, everybody 
on that list belongs to tliat organization, which is a Communist front 
organization ? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

Mr. Nixon. And, second, that the organizations have been checked 
by you and to your satisfaction are Communist front organizations? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

The Chairman. I think it is important to keep in mind there, too, 
that a great many people have joined up or belong to one front organ- 
ization and man7>^ times it means nothing, so until we check the names 
and check the organizations, why, it is just another list with us. 

Mr. Nixon. That is the point I wanted to emphasize. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Steele. 1 will say that a great many of these are — I have estab- 
lished that a great many of these are active in the party itself, and 
the bulk of the I'emaincler of them are connected with the Interna- 
tional Workers' Order, and I gave their lodge number in each case, 
the lodge that they belong to in the International "Workers' Order. 

The Chairman. What percentage of those on the list are actual 
members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Steele. Ap»proximately 60 percent. 

The Chairman. Sixty percent? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Some of these unquestionably distinguished themselves. Russia's 
victory depended upon our victory, both in the west and in the east, 
and Russia's battles became our battles. I can best emphasize this 
point by submitting a copy of a letter written by one of these boys, a 
party leader, who had been drafted. He explains that his interest rose 
only when the United States accepted Russia as an ally, and when 
the war was transformed from nn "imperialist war" to a "people's 
war." I submit a copy of the letter herewith. 

(Exhibit No. 4 was received.) ^ 

Mr. Steele. The list of Communists and f routers who served in our 
armed forces during the war sliould be of great value in the event the 
United States and Russia should go to Avar against each other, or if 
the United States happens to become invoh^ed in a war against any of 
Russia's satellite countries. At such a time we may firid ourselves in an 
extremely dangerous position, for here we haA^e a great number of 

* See appendix, p. 174. for exhibit No. 4. '' 



24 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

men trained in our type of warfare, many of whom have inside knowl- 
edge of our technique and operation. Some of them are former mem- 
bers of our OSS. 

Together with this list, I wish to submit a chart showing the set-up 
of an organized regiment, the Veterans of Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 

(Exliibit No. 5 was received.) ^ 

Mr. Steele. This is a part of a world Communist army which has 
been kept intact. It is composed of many Communists who served in 
our armed forces in various capacities. We all know that the OSS, 
with which many of these men were connected, was the so-called super- 
sleuth arm of our intelligence service. This chart indicates that that 
which appears to be a Red Army Reserve, made up of men who saw 
service in the revolution with the Red army of Spain, is actually 
an international brigade. 

Mr. Striplincx. Mr. Steele, you are speaking now of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir ; and the International Brigade, of which it is 
a section. 

Mr. Stripling. The Abraham Lincoln Brigade is the American 
section of the International Brigade? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. It came into being during the war in Spain ? 

Mr. Steele. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. The chart that you are referring to, is that this map 
[indicating] ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Which shows the various units of the International 
Brigade and their leaders? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. z 

Mr. Stripling. In various countries ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you show this to the chairman and point 
out before you continue with your testimony just how the international 
set-up is described there and explain it? 

(Exhibit 5 was exhibited to the chairman by the witness.) 

The Chairman. I think it is important to point out that the date of 
this chart is November 1916. Is that correct? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Where did you obtain the chart? 

Mr. Steele. From the office of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in 
New York City. I am submitting the original here. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you outline for the record the countries in 
which they state they have a unit ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. It is not clear in my mind whether this Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade, or the organization that includes the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade • 

Mr. Stlt.ele. International Brigade. 

The Chairman. Yes. [Continuing:] Is in existence now, or was it 
just back at the time of the Spanish Revolution ? 

Mr. Steele. I will Cover that point, Mr. Chairman. I might say 
that I will submit as proof of my statement the proceedings of the 

' See appendix, p. 174. for exhibit No. 5. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 25 

'Convention of the Abraham Lincoln Brigfade at whicli a good many 
of these individual leaders from other countries were present. These 
are the proceedings of the convention which was held in November 
194G, and at that time this map was published in this report. So 
you have the original here. This is merely proof of my statement. 

Mr. STiurLiNo. In other words, it is your opinion that this Interna- 
tional Brigade of which the Abraham Lincoln Brigade is a unit serves 
as the Red Army Reserve? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Serves today as a Red Army Reserve ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, in what countries. I wish you would name the 
countries. 

Mr, Steele. The organization, the international organization, is 
set up in the Soviet Union, Germany — that is, the Russian-occupied 
section — Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Yugoslavia, Poland, Norway, 
Italy, France, Belgium, England, Denmark, Canada, and the United 
States. 

The head of the Canadian section is Dr. Bethune, who, I understand, 
is serving with the Chinese Eighth Army, which is the Red x\rmy of 
China. 

The head of the Bulgarian section is Dimitrov, who was for many 
years secretary of the Communist International and who is now dic- 
tator of the Bulgarian Government. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Steele, is Dimitrov the same individual who 
adopted the so-called Trojan war policy ? 

Mr, Steele. The same individual. There are two individuals in 
Bulgaria by the same name, but this happens to be the one that was 
with the Communist International. 

Mr. Stripling, Will you continue with your testimony ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, This brigade has organized sections in INIoscow, 
headed by General Rodimtsev, who wears the Lenin Medal of Honor 
for his activities in Spain. Another section exists in Poland under 
General Walter (whose real name is Swierczewski) , of the Polish War 
Department. Artur Dorf, chief of security of the Russian-occupied 
section of Germany, heads a section in that country. The Albanian 
section is led by Colonel Hodza, chief of staff of the Albanian armed 
forces. Dimitrov, current Communist dictator of Bulgaria who for- 
merly headed the Communist International, is in command of the 
section in his country. Heading sections in the respective countries 
are General Nadji, of Tito's Yugoslavian staff; Gallo, of Italy; 
Vaclalis, leader of the warring Communist factions in Greece ; Colonel 
Dispy, of Belgium; Colonel Tanguy, of France; Colonel Hansen, of 
Norway; Colonel Larson, of Denmark; Dr. Bethune, of Canada, now 
active with Chinese Red forces; and Clive Branson, of England. In- 
formation has it that the International Brigade has been recruiting 
nurses in the United States in preparation for renewed action in Spain. 
The brigade is also reportedly recruiting in F^rance and elsewhere to 
strengthen the Greek guerrilla armed forces. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Steele, do 5^011 have any testimony on the ac- 
tivities of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in this country? 

Mr. Steele. I have, following this. 

Mr, Stripling. I think if you would give the committee the testi- 
mony concerning that rather than the international aspect of it. 



26 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Mr. Si'EELE, Yes, sir. 

In the United States, tlie Veterans of Abraham Lincohi Brigade, a 
unit of the International Brigade, is lieaded by Lt. Milton Wolff, for- 
merly with our OSS in Italy. 

The Chairman. That is. at the present time he is the head of it ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir ; he is the head of it at this moment. 

Wolff was known in Spain as El Lobo. It is reported that he was 
in charge of the sabotage school in Albacete, Barcelona. He was also 
political commissar. He was a lieutenant colonel in the Spanish Red 
forces. Milt Felson, another leader of the American section, which 
maintains national headquarters at this time at 55 West Forty-second 
Street, New York, N. Y., was formerly with the OSS in Germany. 
Irving Goff, now head of the veteran activities of the Comnuinist 
Party in the United States, is also active in the brigade. He, too, was 
with our OSS staff in Italy. Among the othcers of this brigade are 
Walter Garland, adjutant connnander. who has been an active Com- 
munist for many years, and who saw service in our armed forces; 
Harold Smith, who fought with the Red forces in Spain, and Jack 
Bjoze, executive secretary. Garland is the leader of another Red 
front veterans' movement 'in the United States — tlie United Negro and 
Allied Veterans, to which I will refer more in detail later on in my 
testimony. Mention of Bjoze is found in the proceedings of the fifth 
convention of the International Brigade, which was held a few months 
ago in New York. 

Those are the proceedings that I sul)mitted. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

Mr. Steele. A portion of the statement reads : 

On his shoulders and for the longest period of time liave fallen most of the 
hardens of day to day * * *. 

Others active in the brigade are Bob Reed, connected Avith the Com- 
munist Michigan Herald in Detroit; Saul Wellman. at the present 
time active in Red circles in Detroit; Bill Bennett, connected with the 
Communist Chicago Star; Joe Dull, of New York, and Harold Smith, 
editor of Liberty, one of the brigade's publications. 

It will be recalled that the recruiting of this brigade in the United 
States was conducted by Communist Party heads in violation of our 
Federal laws. The leaders were arrested, but they were later freed and 
the charges against them were for some unex])lained reason dropped 
by the Department of Justice. Browder recently admitted in a radio 
address that this recruiting was a violation of our laws, and that he was 
amonjr the violators. He declared he would willingly repeat the 
offense. 

Mr. Stripling. You referred to the Volunteers for Liberty. That is 
the official publication of the organization. You don't refer to Liberty 
magazine? 

Mr. Steele. Oh, no. 

Mr. Stripling. So that the record Avill be straight. 

Mr. Steele. No, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. This is the Volunteers for Libertv^ 

Mr. Steele. Yes ; which is the organ of the brigade. 

The Chairman. How long ago were these men arrested? 

Mr. Steele. Shortly after the Spanish war started. 

The Chairman. It wasn't recently? 

Mr. Steele. Not recently ; no. sir. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 27 

t 

The Chairman. Do you know liow inanv persons are in the Abra- 
ham Lincobi Brigade today ? 

Mr. Steele. How many members they have? 
The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Steele. They claim 15,000. They have Friends of the Abraham 
Lincobi Brigade, which is a membership organization, wliich aids 
the veterans" brigade. I am not positive as to how many members they 
claim are in the brigade itself. 

The Chairman. Their headquarters, you say, are 55 West Forty- 
second Street, New York City ? 
Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Barsky, of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, and Paul 
Robeson, both of whom were active in Spain, attended the fifth con- 
vention of the Veterans of Abraham Lincoln Brigade, and they were 
decorated with the Dombrowski Medal by General Walter, of the 
Polish section of the International Brigade. The proceedings of the 
convention, a portion of which I present herewith — exhibit 6 '^ — prove 
without question that it is a branch of an international Red Army Re- 
serve movement, the purpose of which is more than the banding to- 
gether for fraternal or social reasons of those who fought in Spain. 
Now that we have gone to the aid of Greece and Turkey in an effort to 
stem the tide of communism and Russian expansion in the Mediter- 
ranean, we may discover that Italy and Spain are very important to 
the Communists and to Russia in their attempts to stay entirely or to 
force a modification of our activities against Russian expansion and 
Communist penetration of the remainder of Europe, northern Africa, 
and Asia. There is more than a discussion of the Spanish situation 
to be found in the proceedings. In my opinion, the brigade constitutes 
an organized and trained force, operating as a nucleus of a world Red 
Reserve Army. 

Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, Inc., as it is known, was 
incorporated in New York on December 22, 1939, by Fred P. Keeler, 
Jr., who gave his address at the time as 136-1 Sixth Avenue, New York, 
N. Y. ; Paul Williams, 425 East Sixth Street, New York, N. Y. ; Milton 
Wolff (e) , 1794 West Twelfth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; David McKelvy 
White, 60 Clarke Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; and Joseph Francis Rehill, 
24 Grove Street, New York. These were named as directors of the or- 
ganization, the number thereof having been set at five in the incorpora- 
tion papers. All clamied to be citizens of the United States at that 
time. The organization membership is Nation-wide. 
(Exhibit 7 was received.)' 

The Chairman. We will stand in recess until such time as a member 
of the committee returns. 
(Recess.) 

Mr. Bonner. The subcommittee will resume the session. The wit- 
ness, Mr. Steele, will resume. 

Mr. Stripling. The record will show that Mr. Bonner is chairman 
of the subcommittee presiding. Go ahead, Mr. Steele. 

Mr. Steele. The United Negro and Allied Veterans of America, 
to which I have previouslj'^ referred, was organized Januai'y 8, 1946, at 
a joint meeting of 300 veterans which was held in the Harlem (N. Y.) 

' See appendix, p. 174, for exhibit No. 6. 
' See appendix, p. 174, for exliibit No. 7. 



28 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

YMCA. The meeting was sponsored by the United Veterans for 
Equality, the members of the provisional committee of which included 
Hugh Mulzac, Sy Oliver, Walter Bernstein. 

Mr, Stripling. Mr. Steele, in testifying on these names, unless they 
are very connnon names, will you spell them out 'i 

Mr. Steele. I vrill; yes, sir. 

[Continuing:] Millard Lampell, Gilbert Sherman. Ray Robinson,. 
Len Zinberg, and Ben Buroki — New Masses, April 29, 1947. 

The United Negro and Allied Veterans of America claim to have 
approximately 10,000 members in 31 States. The original national 
commander of the group was Kenneth Kennedy, who led the march on 
the courthouse in Birmingham, Ala., in the 1916 election campaign. 
The organization has been active in other disturbances in Georgia, 
Mississippi, and New York. AValter Garland, Communist, and 
Howard "Stretch" Johnson, a teacher at the Jefferson School — Com- 
munist — in New York, headed the New York section. 

West coasters who either sponsored or participated in the activities, 
of this veterans' movement are Charlotta Bass, Angus Hawkins, Fritz 
Lang, Albert Maltz, Carlton Moss, Sy Oliver, Ray Robinson, Norman 
Smith, Michael Uris, Bette Davis, Robert W. Kenney, and Paul 
Henreid. 

Kenneth R. Williams, a representative of the United Negro and 
Allied Veterans of America, was elected a short time ago to the Wins- 
ton-Salem, N. C, City Council. He was recently feted in New York: 
by Benjamin Davis, head of the Harlem section of the Communist 
Party and a member of the New York City Council. 

Lou Heit is a member of the educational committee of this veterans' 
group in California. Bob Rondstadt is the organizer in that State 
among Mexicans. Ruth Johnson is head of the California auxiliary. 
Coleman A. Young is commander of tlie Michigan section. 

Offices of United Negro and Allied Veterans of America in Wash- 
ington, D. C, are located at 925 U Street NW. 

The first national convention of United Negro and Allied Veterans- 
of America was recently held — May 30-June 2, 1917 — at the Fraternal 
Club House, International Workers' Order Center, 110 West Forty- 
eighth Street, New York, N. Y. It was reported that 400 delegates 
attended from 31 States. The following officers were elected at the 
conference: Commander, George Murphy, Jr.; adjutant, Walter Gar- 
land; executive officer, Burton Jackson; finance officer, John Killanes;: 
advocate, Thomas Jones ; vice commanders, Catherine Godfrey, How- 
ard Johnson, Charles Shorton, Aaron Williams, Catherine Overton,. 
Dolphin Thompson, and Edward Ateman ; committeemen, James Fitz- 
butler and Lester Davies. 

The United Veterans for Equality issued a call for all independ- 
ent veteran movements to affiliate in forming a national organization.. 
Such groups as the Brooklyn Veterans' Organizing Committee, the- 
Veterans Against Discrimination, United Veterans of Georgia, Vet- 
erans of World War II, League of Combat Infantrymen, and the Mich- 
igan League of Veterans responded to the call. A national conven- 
tion was subse(|uently held in Chicago in Ai>ril 1046. and the perma- 
nent name of United Negro and Allied Veterans of America was 
given to the group which was formed at the January meeting. 

Supporting the Veterans of Abraham Lincoln Brigade is the Friends; 
of Abraham Lincoln Brigade, with headquarters in New York City- 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 29 

and branches in principal cities all over the country. The national 
oflicers of the friends, according to the most recent records I have 
been able to obtain, include the f ollowino; : Phil Bard, executive secre- 
tary, who was a contributino; editor of New Pioneer and New Masses, 
Communist publications; Paul Crosbie, chairman, who has been a 
trustee of the Political Prisoners Bail Fund, Communist Party candi- 
date for county judge in New York, 1935, a member of the advisory 
board of the United Citizens' Committee of the American League 
Against War and Fascism, 1936, a vice chairman of the American 
Society for Technical Aid to Spanish Democracy, 1937, and a member 
of the executive committee of the American Veterans' Council, 1936 ; 
William D. Lieder, treasurer; and Jack R. Miller, national organizer. 

Sponsors of the Friends of Abraham Lincoln Brigade included 
Helen x\rthur, a member of the Mary Ware Dennett defense committee 
of the American Civil Liberties Union ; John T, Bernard, Farm-Labor, 
Minnesota, sponsor of a mass celebration in honor of "Mother" Bloor, 
Communist, in 1937, and a speaker at a meeting of the North American 
Committee to iVid Spanish Democracy in Chicago on July 21, 1937; 
Muriel Draper, a member of the Advisory Board of Woman Today, 
1937, and a sponsor of the "Mother" Bloor celebration in 1937; Lillian 
Hellman, member of the advisory board of the United Citizens' Com- 
mittee for the American League Against War and Fascism, 1936 ; John 
Housman; Henry Hart, member of the Committee of the National 
Student Forum on the Paris Pact, 1932, the advisory council of the 
Book Union, 1935, Committee of Professional Groups for Browder and 
Ford, Communist Party candidates for President and Vice President 
of the United States, 1936, member of the board of directors of the 
American Society for Technical Aid to Spanish Democracy, 1937; 
Fred Keating; Julia Church Kolar, former head of tlie Descendants 
of the American Revolution ; Arthur Kober ; Archibald MacLeish, con- 
tributor to Common Sense, sponsor of the American Ff lends of 
Spanish Democracy, 1936, board of trustees of New School for Social 
Research, 1937. and a supporter of the American Civil Liberties Union ; 
William Rollins, Jr., a member of tlie League for Mutual Aid, 1936, 
and a member of the advisory council of the Book Union, 1935 ; Carl 
Sandburg, member of the Welcoming Committee for George Russell, 
prominent liberal; Wallingford Reigger; Isabel Walker Soule, ad- 
visory board of W^oman Today, 1936, sponsor of the celebration in 
honor of "Mother" Bloor, 1937, and a writer for Labor Defender, 1937 ; 
Upton Sinclair, member of the John Reed Club, national council of 
tlie League for Lidustrial Democracy, contributor to New Masses, 
member of the national committee of the International Workers' Aid, 
contributing editor of the Friends of Soviet Union Magazine, National 
Committee of the War Resisters' League, member of the American 
Civil Liberties Union, Socialist Party candidate for Presidential 
elector, American Committee for Struggle Against War, honorary 
president of the League Against Imperialism, national committee of 
the Internatioual Labor Defense, and a sponsor of the celebration in 
honor of "Mother'' Bloor; and Donald Ogden Stewart. All the organ- 
izations and publications mentioned above are directly under either 
Communist or Socialist influence. 

I vrill not go further into the Communist connection of other 
personnel of either the Veterans of Abraham Lincoln Brigade or the 
Friends of Abraham Lincoln Brigade, since I am confident this com- 



30 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

mittee has already clone that. I merely wish to emphasize the recently 
uncovered fact that the Veterans of Abraham Lincoln Brigade is a 
section of an international which is closely allied with the Commu- 
nist movement, not only in the United States but also in Russia and 
Russian-controlled countries. I would like to add that a w^oman's 
auxiliary has been added to the International Brigade, of which Nan 
Green (Mrs. Blake) is secretary. This is known as the International 
Brigade Association. 

Veterans Against Discrimination is a section of the Civil Rights 
Congress, which is unquestionably a Communist front, with national 
headquarters in New York City. I will refer to the Civil Rights Con- 
gress more in detail later on in my testimony. 

WIVES — wives of servicemen — was formed in New York City in 
November 1945. At the meeting at which it was organized, held in 
Manhattan Center, there were 250 delegates, from 11 States, and some 
2,000 particii3ants. The outfit propagandized in behalf of the with- 
drawal of American intervention in China. It advocates the breaking 
off of relations with Franco. It is opposed to anti-Sovietism. to what 
it terms fascism at home, racial discrimination. State Department 
interference in the Balkans. In January 1946 it changed its name to 
Veterans and Wives, Inc. It was also known at one time as Wives 
and Sweethearts of Servicemen. 

In November 194G Veterans and Wives elected Naomi Nash and 
Larry Johnson as cochairmen. It maintains chapters in Minnesota, 
Illinois, New Jersey, the District of Columbia, and New York. They 
are being used at this time as the nuclei of a Nation-wide organization. 

The Connnunist Party claimed on June 2, 1947 — Daily Worker — 
tliat of 3,500 recruits in their recent drive in New York, 628 were 
veterans of World War 11. 

Mr. Stripling. In your opinion, this is a Communist front organ- 
ization ? 

Mr. Steele. It is ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Is it your observation that they have consistently 
f olloAved the Communist Party line ? 
. Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. McDowell. Is it your opinion, Mr. Steele, that the organi- 
zation is gaining strength ? 

Mr. Steele. Slowly; very slowly. 

Mr. McDowell. Is it still the Wives and Sweethearts of Soldiers? 

Mr. Steele. It is now Veterans and Wives, Inc. 

Mr. McDowell. It incorporated a rather broad field there. 

Mr. Steele. We realize that, and I think that some of the branches 
of the Government realized that during the war, because the American^ 
Youth for Democracy also oi'ganized a group of what they called 
Sweethearts of Servicemen clubs, and they established centers around 
the recruiting and traininoj centers to pujl some of the boys in, to 
entertain them, and possibly for the purpose of trying to win them 
over to the cause, but I don't know just how successful they were in 
winning them over to the cause. 

Mr. McDowell. Didn't most Army posts qualify that sort of place 
as being out of bounds ? 

Mr. Steele. I think so. For instance, they had one in Washington, 
and that was very close to the center ; the boys came in from the camps, 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 31 

training camps, to Washington ; and I think that was the center that 
they picked, the center of the city, and the center of the training 
area. 

Publishing houses and publications: 

The Agit-Prop — agitation-propaganda — Division is the. most im- 
portant division to the Communist movement in the United States 
of America. It, its fronts and fronters, operate many publishing 
houses and issue 122 publications, millions of pamphlets, bulletins, 
and books which are circulated throughout the country. 

Mr. Stripling. Pardon me, Mr. Steele. Before you move on to that 
■section of your testimony. Mr. Chairman, the witness Jias submitted 
a list here. How many names are there on the list, Mr. Steele ? 

Mr. Steele. Approximately 2,000.^'' 

jNIr. Stripling. People who served, men who served in the armed 
forces, who were either Communists, he claims, or were members of 
front organizations. I believe that the largest list consists of members 
■of the International Workers' Order, men who were members of that 
organization, and who then joined the armed services. He has listed 
here the lodge of the International Workers' Order in which they 
were members. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities and the Special Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities in numerous reports has found the 
International Workers' Order to be a Communist inspired, controlled, 
•dominated organization. In fact, the officials, all of the officials, of 
the International Workers' Order are also very prominent officials 
of the Communist Party. 

However, in the case of these names, I would suggest that before 
such a list would be made public that the committee consider in ex- 
ecutive session first whether or not they would want such a list made 
public, because the mere fact that a man belonged to one organiza- 
tion — namely, the International Workers' Organization — is certainly 
not conclusive that that person may be considered as a Communist, 
and I ask that this list be withheld from the public record until 
the committee can consider it. 

Mr. McDo^vELL (presiding). I agree with your point on that. Of 
€Ourse, the committee has one fundamental duty. We are seeking 
information on enemies of America. We are not trying to smear any 
person — except those people who are enemies of America. Is there 
objection? 

Mr. Bonner. No. I think the suggestion is worthy. 

Mr. Stripling. Then the committee will receive the list, but it is 
not to be included in the public record at this time. 

Mr. McDowell. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Stripling. That concludes your testimony on the Reds as you 
tied it to the armed forces ? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

As an example of the rapidity with which extensive coverage can 
be attained by the Communist Party, I refer to the recent "Don't 
tread on me" campaign waged against this committee of Congress 
by the party and its fronts. During this campaign the party printed 
and circulated 4^/^ million leaflets and 2 million pamphlets. It car- 

''^ List made a part of record, but upon order of the committee is not included in this 
vniume. 

65176—47 3 



32 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

ried 150 advertisements, many full-page ads, in 125 newspapers with 
a total circulation of 10 million, and it made 110 local broadcasts. In 
addition, the campaign was given publicity in the Communists' own 
122 publications. All this propagandizing covered a period within 
the past 2 months. 

The largest of the Red publishing firms is New Century Publishers^ 
Inc., 832 Broadway, New York. It was incorporated December 8, 
1944. The incorporators were Joseph Felshin, 832 Broadway, New 
York City ; Isidore Greenbaum, 207 Fourth Avenue, New York City ; 
and Betty Greenbaum, of the same address. Morris Greenbaum served 
as its agent. The capital stock was set at $20,000. 

I wish to exhibit as proof of that statement the incorporation papers 
of the publishing house. 

(Exhibit No. 8 was received.)^ 

Mr. Steele. Two other publishing houses are International Pub- 
lishers, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y., of which Alex Trach- 
tenberg is president; and the Workers' Library Publishers, also of 
New York. 

The current catalog of New Century Publishers, Inc., lists some 320 
publications for distribution. 

(Exhibit No. 9 was received.)^ 

The Chairman. Listing some 320 publications for distribution? 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

Among the authors of these publications are R. Palme Dutt, 
Clive Branson, Mao Tse-Tung, Emile Burns, Gerhart Eisler, Albert 
Norden, Albert Shreiner, Stanley B. Ryerson, Maurice Thorez, V. 
J. Jerome, Georgi D'mitrov. Eugene Dennis. Gino Bardi, V. M. 
Molotov, Sender Garlin, William Z. Foster, Joseph North, Philip 
Foner, Alex Trachtenberg, John S'euben, S. A. Lozovsky, Alden 
Whitman, Anthony Bimba, C. Todes, Grace Hutchins, Louise 
Mitchell, Moses Miller, Herbert Tark, Robert Friedman, George 
Marion, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, A. B. Magil. Louis E. Burnham, 
Carol King, Robert Minor, Doxey Wilkerson, Robert W. Dunn, 
Jack Hardy, K. D. Lumpkin, W. D. Douglas, Anna Rochester, 
Horace B. Davis, Bruce Minton, John Stuart, Henry Stevens, James 
S. Allen. Elizab'^th Lawson, Francis Franklin, Herbert W. Morals, 
Isobel Cable Mines. Katherine Dupre Lumpkin, Earl Conrad, 
Vincente Lombardo Toledano, Lee Norton, James J. Green, Maxim 
Litvinov, A. Badayev, Joseph Stalin, Hugo Huppert, Professor I. 
Minz, Sergei N. Kournakoff, Hewlett Johnson, Maurice Dobb, Harry 
F. Ward, Andre Marty, D. Z. Manuilsky, Edwin E. Smith, Eugene 
Tarle, Corliss Lamont, Marcel Prenant, Ivan P. Pavlov, Jonathan 
Kemp, A. Landy, Howard Selsam, Jacques Duclos, Ralph Fox, Max 
Weiss, John Williamson, V. Adortasky, F. M. Klingeder, John 
Lewis, H. G. Wells, W. H. Emmett, E. Varga, L. INIendelsohn, J. 
Beauchamp, Jurgen Kuczvnaki, T. A. Jackson, William Gallacher, 
Brian O'Neill, L. Beria, Ella Reeve Bloor, Henry Hart, Ben Field, 
James Steele, Myra Page, Edgell Rickword, Jack Lindsay. Michael 
Gold, Nicholas Ostrovski, Meridel Le Sueur, Sol Funaroff. Harry 
Slochower, Samuel Sillen, Alb?rt Maltz, Richard Wright, Geotlrey 
Trease, Eric Lucas, Alex Wedding, and Langston Hughes, 

« See appendix, p. 174, for exhibit No. 8. 
" See appendix, p. 174, for exhibit No. 9. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 33 

New Century Publishers, Inc., International Publishers, and the 
Workers' Library Publishers distribute their own publications, as 
well as other literature. For this purpose book stores are maintained 
in every large city in the country. The largest of these stores are 
as follows : Mcdern Book Shop, 180 West Washington Street, Chicago, 
111., Sam Hammersmark, charter member of the Communist Party, 
manager; Tom Paine Book Store, 3539 West Lawrence Avenue, 
Chicago; Community Book Store, 1404 East Fifty-fifth Street, Chi- 
cago; Progressive Book Shop, 722 West Sixth Street, Los Angeles; 
People's Book Shop, 722 West Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, AVis. ; 
Workers' Book Shop, 50 East Thirteenth Street, New York City ; Jef- 
ferson School Book Shop, 575 Sixth Avenue, New York City ; Forty- 
fourth Street Bookf air, 133 West Forty-fourth Street, New York City; 
Russian Skazka, 277 West Forty-sixth Street, New York City ; Library 
Book Shop, 321 Kasota Buildinir, Minneapolis; Locust Book Shop,, 
209 South Eleventh Street, Philadelphia; Frontier Book Shop, 826 
Prospect Avenue, Cleveland; Intei-national Book Store, 1400 Market 
Street, San Francisco; New World Book Shop, 413 Karback Block, 
Omaha; Victory Book Shop, 515 Southwest Eleventh Street, Port- 
land, Oreg. ; Modern Record and Book Shop, 216 Halsey Street, 
Newark ; Detroit Book Store, 902 Lawyers' Building, Detroit ; Wash- 
ington Cooperative Book Shop, 916 Seventeenth Street Northwest, 
Washington, D. C, selling Communist books, and believed to be part 
of this system of propaganda; and Modern Book Shop, 1907 North 
Fifth Avenu\ IVrmingham. Ala.; Progressive Bcok Distributors, 
305 Herman Building, Houston, Tex. Other bcok shops located in 
California are the following : Maritime Book Shop, 15 Embarcadero, 
San Francisco ; 20th Century Book Sliop. 2475 Bancroft Way, Berke- 
ley; 20th Century Book Sliop, 1721 Webster Street, Oakland; Pro- 
gressive Book Shop, 1002 Seventh Street, Sacramento; Progressive 
Book Shop, 625 West Sixth Street, Los Angeles ; Victory Book Store, 
635 E Street, San Diego ; Maritime Book Shop, 266 West Sixth Street, 
San Pedro; Walt Whitman Book Shop, 277 East Fourth Street, 
Long Beach; Lincoln Book Shop, 1721 North Highland Avenue, 
Hollywood; Modern Book Shop, 405 West De La Guerra Street, 
Santa Barbara. 

Other Red publishing houses are the Four Continent Book Corpora- 
tion, 253 Fifth Avenue, and Universal Distributors, 38 Union Square, 
botli in New York City. The Reds also operate a book-of-the-month 
club, known as the Book Find Club. They have organized children's 
book clubs and youth record clubs in recent months, and Communist 
publications extensively advertise them. 

In the field of newspapers, magazines, and bulletins, the Communists, 
Red fronts, and fellow-travelers are well represented. Some 122 such 
publications have been unearthed in recent months. 

(Exhibit No. 10 was received.)^" 

Mr. Step-le. They include the following : 

Daily Worker, publislied by Freedom of the Press, Inc., 50 East 
Thirteenth Street, New York City. Benjamin J. Davis, Jr., is presi- 
dent; Howard Boldt, secretary-treasurer; John Gates, editor; Mil- 
ton Howard, associate editor; Alan Max, managing editor; Robert F. 

" See appendix, p. 174, for exhibit 10. 



34 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Hall, Washington, D, C, editor; Bill Lawrence, general manager; 
and George C. Sandy, assistant manager. David Piatt is film editor. 

The Worker, published only on Sunday, has the same management 
and publisher as the Daily Worker. 

New Masses, a weekly publication, maintains offices at 104 East 
Ninth Street, New York City. It is published by New Masses, Inc. 

(Exhibit No. 11 was received.)" 

Mr. Steele. The editor is Joseph North; executive editor, A. B. 
Magil; managing editors, Lloyd L. Brown, Frederick V. Field, and 
John Stuart; Washington, D. C, editor, Virginia Gardner; art editor, 
Charles Humboldt ; assistant editors, Joseph Fisher and Charles Hum- 
boldt; associate editors, James A. Allen, Herbert Aptheker, Richard 
Boyer, Howard Fast, William Gropper. V. J. Jerome, and Albert E. 
Kahn; editorial assistant, Betty Millard; business manager, Paul 
Kaye; field director, Doretta Tarmon; promotion manager, Beatrice 
Soskind ; advertising manager, Gertrude Chase ; circulation manager, 
Carmelia Weinstein; contributing editors, Louis Aragon, Nathan 
Ausubel, Lionel Berman, Alvah Bessie, Dyson Carter, W. E. B. Du- 
Bois, E. Palme Dutt, Philip Evergood, Sender Garlin, Barbara Gilles, 
Robert Gwathmey, Rockwell Kent, Alfred Kreymborg, John Howard 
Lawson, Meridel Le Sueur, Vito Marcantonio, Pablo Neruda, Anton 
Refregier, Paul Robeson, HoWard Selsam, Isidor Schneider, Sam Sil- 
len, James TurnbuU, Charles White, and Doxey Wilkerson. 

Political Affairs, a monthly publication, is published by New Cen- 
tury Publishers, 832 Broadway, New York, N. Y. The editor is Max 
Weiss; associate editors, V. J. Jerome, Alex Bittleman, and Abner 
W. Berry, and Jack Stachel. 

Morning Freiheit is published daily by the Morning Freiheit Asso- 
ciation, Inc., 35 East Twelfth Street, New York, N. Y. The president 
is Ben Gold; treasurer, J. Littinski; secretary, Alex Bittleman. Paul 
Novick is editor. 

People's Daily World is published by the Pacific Publishing Foun- 
dation, Inc., 590 Folsom Street, San Francisco, Calif. Branches are 
located at 516 Wilcox Building, Los Angeles; 1723 Webster Street, 
Oakland, 432 F Street, room 321, San Diego ; (^02 Third Avenue, Seat- 
tle; National Press Building, room 954, Washington, D. C. The ex- 
ecutive editor is Al Richmond; assistant editor, Adam Lapin; Los 
Angeles editor, Sidney Burke; business manager, Harry Kramer; and 
circulation manager, Leo Baroway. Doug Ward is political editor. 
Tara Jean Pettit is the agent in Los Angeles. 

Soviet Russia Today, a monthly magazine, is published by the Soviet 
Russia Today Publications, Inc., 114 East Thirty-second Street, New 
York, N. Y. The editor is Jessica Smith; assistant editor, Andrew 
Voynow; business manager, Donald Schoalman; literary editor, Isa- 
dore Schneider; editorial board, Dorothy Brewster, Robert Dunn, 
Thyra Edwards, A. A. Heller, Langston Hughes, Dr. John Kingsbury, 
Corliss Lamont, George Marshall, Isobel Walker Soule, and Maxwell 
S. Stewart. 

Fraternal Outlook is published monthly by the International Work- 
ers Order, 80 Fifth Avenue, New York. N. Y. The editor is Max 
Bedacht; managing editor, Eugene Konecky; art editor, Phil Wolfe; 
photographer. Pail Eiseman; staff writer, Sam Roberts; president, 

" See appendix, p. 174, for exhibit 11. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 35 

Rockwell Kent; vice presidents, John E. Middleton, Vito Marcan- 
tonio, Louise Thompson, Boleslaw Gebert. and Rubin Saltzman; 
secretary, Max Bedacht ; and treasurer, Peter Shipka; executive sec- 
retary, Sam Milgrom ; and recording secretary, Dave Green. 

The Chart, with offices at 35 East Twelfth Street, New York, N. Y.. 
is issued by the National Organization and Education Commissions or 
the Communist Party of the United States. Jack Stachel is chairman 
of the education commission, and Henry Winston is chairman of the 
organization commission. 

Mainstream is published at 832 Broadway, New York, N. Y., by 
Mainstream Associates, Inc. ; the editor in chief is Samuel Sillen. The 
editors are Gwendolyn Bennett, Alvah Bessie, Milton Blau, Arnaud 
D'Usseau, Howard Fast, Mike Gold, V. J. Jerome, Howard Lawson, 
Meridel LeSeuer, W. L. River, Dalton Trumbo, and Theodore Ward. 

People's Voice — Glos Ludowy — with offices at 5856 Chene Street, 
Detroit, Mich., is a semimonthly publication. It is a foreign-language 
paper, as well, known as Glos Ludowy. The editor is Thomas Dom- 
browski; contributing editor, Jan Kujawa, San Francisco; contribut- 
ing editors, Cornell Z. Zagodzinski, Casimir T. Nowacki, Irene Pic- 
trowski, Grace Nowacki, Walter Bills, Stanley Perry, Blanche Glin- 
ski, John Piorkowski, Martin Darvin, Ted Pniewski, Katherine Gier- 
manski, Jetka Dobrzynska, and Joseph S. Rabowski. 

Railroad Workers' Link is published by the Communist Party at 35 
East Twelfth Street, New York, N. Y. It is a monthly publication. 
The editor is Robert Wood. 

District Champion is published by the city committee of the Com- 
munist Party of the District of Columbia, with offices located at 527 
Ninth Street NW., Washington, D. C. It is published monthly. 
The editor is William C. Taylor ; secretary, Elizabeth Searle. 

Chicago Star is published weekly by the Chicago Star Publishing 
Co., Inc., 166 West Washington Street, Chicago, 111. Members of the 
board of directors are Ernest De Maio, Frank M. Davis, William L. 
Patterson, Grant Oakes, and William Sennett. The executive editor 
is Frank M. Davis ; managing editor, Carl Hirsch ; and general man- 
ager, William Seiinett. Howard Fast is a columnist, and Rockwell 
Kent is contributing editor. 

Teeners' Topics, published irregularly, is an American Youth for 
Democracv publication, with offices located at 150 Nassau Street, New 
York, N. Y. 

Teen Life is published by New Age Publishers, Inc., 163 Pratt Street, 
Meriden, Conn., for American Youth for Democracy. 

Crisis is the newly published organ of the East Pittsburgh section 
of the Communist Party. 

Jewish Life, 35 East Twelfth Street, New York, N. Y., is published 
monthly by the Morning Freiheit Association, Inc. The editorial 
board is composed of Alex Bittleman, Moses Miller, Paul Novick, Sam 
Pevzner, and Morris U. Scha'ppes. Managing editor is Samuel 
Barron. 

Woman Power is published monthly by the Congress of American 
Women, 55 West Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. Members of 
the editorial board are Edna Moss, Bert Sigred, and Eleanor Vaughn. 
The president is Gene Weltfish; executive vice president, Muriel 
Draper; treasurer, Helen Phillips: and secretary, Josephine Timms. 



36 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Facts for Farmers is published monthly by the Farm Research, 39 
Cortlandt Street, New York, N. Y. The editor is Charles J. Coe. 

Facts for Women is published monthly by Facts for Women, Box 
5176, Metropolitan Station, Los Angeles, Calif. The editor is Mary 
Inman. 

Bulletin of Congress of American Women is published monthly by 
the Congress of American Women, 55 West Forty-second Street, New 
York, N. Y. The editorial board is composed of those on the Board of 
Woman Power. 

The Lamp is published monthly by the American Committee for 
Protection of Foreign Born, with headquarters at 23 West Twenty- 
sixth Street, New York, N. Y. 

Student Outlook is published by the intercollegiate division of 
American Youth for Democarcy at 150 Nassau Street, New York, N. Y. 
It is a monthly publication. The editor is Fred Jaffe. 

Michigan Herald is published weekly by the People's Educational 
Publishing Association, 1419 Grand River, Detroit, Mich. The editor 
is Hugo Beiswenger; secretary-treasurer, Rosalie Berry. Beiswenger 
is also president of the corporation. Members of the editorial board 
are William Allen, Beisweno-er. Abner W. Berry, Harry Fainaru, 
Nat Ganley, S. Gordon, and Carl Winter. 

Negro Digest, published weekly at 5019 South State Street, Chicago, 
111., is published and edited by John H. Johnson. Contributing editors 
include Henrietta Buckmaster, Langston Hughes, Carey McWilliams, 
and Mrs. Paul Robeson. 

Our World, is published monthly by John P. Davis, 35 West Forty- 
third Street, New York, N. Y. Contributors are Edward S. Lewis, 
Alphaeus Hunton, Yvonne Godfrey, and Frank Stanley. 

World News and Views is published monthly by H. Bennett, 16 
King Street, Covent Gardens, London. 

Economic Notes is published monthly by Labor Research Associa- 
tion, 80 East Eleventh Street, New York, N. Y. The editor is Robert 
Dunn. 

Action is published monthly by the National Federation for Con- 
stitutional Liberties, 802 F Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

News of World Labor is published monthly by the Committee for 
A. F. of L. Participation in World Federation of Trade Unions, 101 
Henry Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. The chairman is Courtney D. Ward; 
secretary-treasurer, Thomas Wilson ; executive secretary, Allan Ross. 

News on Spain is published monthly by the Veterans of Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade, 13 Astor Place, New York, N. Y. The editor is David 
McKelvy White. 

People's Voice — Harlem — is published by the Powell-Buchanan 
Publishing Co., Inc., 210 West One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Street, 
New York, N. Y. It: is a daily publication. Board of directors, Adam 
Clayton Powell; chairman, Charles P. Buchanan; secretai-y. Max 
Yergan ; treasurer, Hope Stevens ; and Ferdinand Smith. The editor 
in chief is Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.; general manager and editor, 
Doxey Wilkerson; contributing editor is Paul Robeson. 

Action for Today, is published monthly by the Civil Rights Con- 
gress of New York," 112 East Nineteenth Street, New York, N. Y. 
^ Reporter, a biweekly publication, is published by the National Coun- 
cil of American-Soviet Friendship, Inc., 114 East Thirty-second Street, 
New York, N. Y. The editor is William H. Melish. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 37 

Amon^i: Friends is published monthly by Friends of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade, 125 West Forty-fifth Street, New York, N. Y. The 
editor is David McKelvy White ; managing editor, Rex Pitkin. Con- 
tributors include Louis Fischer, Dorothy Parker, Ernest Hemingway, 
Grace Field, Lini Fuhr, Sam Kornblatt, Milly Bennett, and Herbert 
Hunter. 

Amerasia is published monthly by Amerasia, 225 Fifth Avenue, 
New York, N. Y. The editors are Philip Jaffe and Kate L. Mitchell. 

Congress View is published monthly by the National Negro Con- 
gress, o07 Lenox Avenue, New York, N. Y. The president is Max 
Yergen; executive secretary, Edward E. Strong; treasurer, Ferdinand 
C. Smith; secretary, Thelma Dale; labor and legislation director, 
Dorothy K. Funn; director of publicity, Mayme Brown; editorial 
board, W. Alphaeus Hunton, Frederick V. Field, Mayme Brown, and 
Elizabeth Catlett. 

AYD in Action is published monthly by the national staff of Ameri- 
can Youth for Democracy, 150 Nassau Street, New York, N. Y. 

Youth, a bimonthly publication, is published by American Youth for 
Democracy, 150 Nassau Street, New York. 

The Independent, a bimonthly, is published by the Independent 
Citizens Committee of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, Hotel Astor, 
New York. The executive director is Hannah Dorner. 

Soviet Culture, issued irregularly, is published by the Committee of 
the American Russian Institute, 101 Post Street, San Francisco, Calif. 
The chairman is Louise R. Bransten. 

Soviet Sports, issued irregularly, is published by the National Coun- 
cil of American-Soviet Friendship, 114 East Thirty-second Street, 
New York. . The editor is Eric A. Starbuck. 

Salute is published monthly by the Veterans Publishing Co., 19 Park 
Place, New York, N. Y. The publisher is Jeremiah Ingersoll. The 
executive director is Max Baird; managing editor, DeWitt Gilpin; 
circulation manager, Ben Kaufman; and treasurer, Robert L. Soler. 

Boston Chronicle is published weekly at 794 Tremont Street, Boston, 
Mass. The editor is William Harrison. 

Report From Washington is published monthly by the Independent 
Citizens Committee of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, Hotel Astor, 
New York, N. Y. 

Voice of Freedom, 112 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y., 
is published monthly by the International Coordination Council. The 
editor is Richard Storrs Childs; associate editor, Minette Kuhn. 

In Fact, with offices at 280 Lafayette Street, New York, N. Y., is 
published weekly. The editor is George Seldes; associate editor, 
Victor Weingarten. 

Information Bulletin, triweekly, is published by the Embassy of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Washington', D. C. 

Hollywood Independent is published monthly by the Hollywood 
Independent Citizens' Committee of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, 
1585 Crossroads, Hollywood, Calif. The editor is Hollister Noble. 
The editorial committee is composed of Carey Mc Williams, Ann Dag- 
gett, Louis Harris, Robert Wachsman, and John B. Hughes. 

Young Fraternalist is published monthly by the International 
Workers Order, 80 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. The editor is Sol 
Vail- contributors include Bob Wagshol, Barbara Lord, H. Bergoffen, 
Joe Block, Bert S. Mangel, Anna Leone, and Aive Etela. 



38 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

New Times is published semiweekly by Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 
Moscow, Russia. It is distributed in' the United States by the Four 
Continental Book Corp., 1253 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Industrial Journal is published monthly by James J. Boutselis, of 
Lowell, Mass. 

Truth About Soviet Russia is published monthly by Contemporary 
Publishers, 165 Selkirk Avenue, Winnipeg, Canada. The editors are 
Sidney and Beatrice Webb and Anna Louis Strong. 

L'Unita Del Popola, a foreign language — Italian — publication, is 
published by Italian- American People's Publications, Inc., 13 Astor 
Place, New York, N, Y. The editor is M. Salerno; manager, G. 
Altieri. 

T and T — Trend and Times — is published monthly by Louis 
Adamic, Milford, N. J. Adamic is the editor and publisher. 

New Africa is published monthly by the Council on African Affairs, 
23 West Twenty-sixth Street, New York, N. Y. The chairman is Paul 
Robeson; vice chairman, William Jay Schieffelin; executive direcjtor, 
Max Yergan; treasurer, Edith C. Field; and educational director, W. 
Alphaeus Hunton. 

Naroclni Glasnik — foreign language — ^is publishied daily by the 
Narodni Glasnik Publishing Co., 1916 East Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

People's Songs is published monthly by People's Songs, Inc., 130 
West Forty-second Street, New York. " The director is Peter Seeger ; 
board of directors, Woody Guthrie, John Hammond, Jr., Lee Hays, 
Earl Robinson, Walter Lowenfels, Alan Lomax, and Bill Wolff; ex- 
ecutive secretary, Felix Landau ; editor, Peter Seeger. 

German-American is published weekly by German-American, Inc., 
305 Broadway, New York, N. Y. The editor is Gustav Faber. 

Volunteer for Liberty is published monthly by the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade, New York, N. Y. 

Action Bulletin, a weekly, is published by the Civil Rights Con- 
gress, 205 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 

The Letter is published by The Letter, Inc., Denver, Colo. The 
editor is Phil Rino; editorial advisory board, David J. Miller, Reid 
Robinson, Joseph C. Cohen, and Isabelle Gonzalles. 

California Eagle is published in Los Angeles. The editor is Char- 
lotta Bass; Cyril Briggs, Communist official, is managing editor. 

Eteenpain is published weekly by the Eteenpain Cooperative So- 
ciety, Worcester, Mass. The manager is H. Paasikivi. 

Health and Hygiene is published monthly at 215 Fourth Avenue, 
New York, N. Y. The editors are Carl Malmberg and Peter Morell. 
Members of the editorial advisory board and contributors include 
Edward K. Barsky, Norman Bethune, Paul De Kruif, and Arthur 
Kallet. 

Icor is published monthly by the Association for Jewish Coloniza- 
tion of the Soviet Union, 799 Broadway, New York, 

New World is published monthly by the Free Press Publishing 
Corp., Seattle, Wash. The officers are Hugh DeLacy, Terry Pettus, 
and Berta Pettus. The incorporators are Hugh DeLacy, Eugene V. 
Dennett, Marion Carmozzi, George Bradley, Terry Pettus, William 
Dobbins, Irene Borowski, and N. P. Atkinson. 

Ny Tid — foreign language — is published weekly by the Scandi- 
navian Workers Educational Society, 930 Belmont Avenue, Chicago, 
111. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 39 

Protestant is published montlily by Protestant Digest, Inc., 521 
Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. The editor is Kenneth Leslie. 

Headers' Scope is published monthly by Picture Scope, Inc., 114 
East Thirty-second Street, New York, N. Y. The officers are Arthur 
Bernhard, Morris S. Latzen, Leverett S. Gleason, A. E. Piller, George 
Kaplow, and Marion Hart. 

Saznanie is published weekly by the Bulgarian Section of the Com- 
munist Party, 1343 Ferry Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

Science ancl Society, a quarterly is published at 30 East Twentieth 
Street, New York. It is edited by Bernhard Stern, D. J. Struik, Mar- 
garet Schlauch, and Edwin B. Burgum. 

Report on World Affairs is published monthly in New York City. 
Its editor is Johannes Steel. 

Fraternal Outlook is published monthly by the International Work- 
ers Order, 80 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. The editor is Max 
Bedacht. 

Bulletin on Education, irregular, is published by the educational 
departments of the Communist Party in California. 

Indonesian Review is published by the American Committee for 
Free Indonesia, 8706 Melrose Street, Los Angeles, Calif. The editor 
is Charles Bidien ; circulation manager, Peter Simatoepang. 

Additional publications having definite radical characteristics are 
Contact, Negro Affairs, House Confabs, and Towards Tomorrow; 
Slav American, quarterly, published by the American Slav Congress, 
205 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. ; Spotlight, published 
by Stage for Action, New York, N. Y. ; Negro Quarterly, published by 
Negro Publication Society of America, Inc., 1 West One Hundred and 
Twenty-fifth Street, New York, N. Y., editor, Angelo Herndon; man- 
aging editor, Ralph Ellison; contributors, Langston Hughes, Hen- 
rietta Buckmaster, L. D. Reddick, Alfred Kreymborg, Charles Hum- 
bolt, Norman McLeod, and Louis Hara]:) ; Voice of 500, organ of the 
Lincoln Steffens Lodge, No. 500, of the International Workers Order, 
New York, N. Y. ; editor, Simon Schacter, founder of the lodge and 
editor in chief of Guild Lawyer — New York Lawyer's Guild; and 
Germany Today, published in New York City. 

The following are additional foreign-language publications : Mag- 
yar Jove, Hungarian, published in New York and edited by John 
Gyetvai ; Glas Naroda. published in New York, of which Frank Sakser 
is president and Joseph Lupsha is secretary ; Russky Golos, a Russian 
daily published in New York; Armenian Herald — Kraper — published 
triweekly in New York ; Az Ember — The Man — published weekly in 
New York and edited by Ferene Condos ; New Yorke Listy, published 
daily in New York ; Liberacion, a weekly published in New York, of 
which Aurelio Perez is editor ; Bernardo Veda, managing editor ; and 
Carmen Meana, business manager ; El Boricua is published in Puerto 
Rico and circulated in the United States exclusively ; Narodna Volya — 
People's Will — Bulgarian weekly, 5856 Chene Street, Detroit, Mich. ; 
Uj Elore, published in New York by the Hungarian National Bureau 
of the Communist Party; Vilnis Lithuanian — The Surge — published 
in Chicago; Uus Ilm, an Estonian weekly published in New York; 
Puerto Rico Libre, a weekly circulated in the United States ; Radnicki 
Glasnik, published in Chicago weekly, of which Joseph Grachen is 
editor, and contributing editors are Bob Allen, Marijana Dobrinee, 
Flash Dickson, Peter Guzvich, and Jennie Rezich ; Der Arbeiter, organ 



40 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

of the German Language Division of the Communist Party, published 
in New York; Ukrainian Daily News, published in New York; Cul- 
tura Proletaria, published in New York and edited by Marcelino 
Garcia; Hobinmup — Novy ISIir — Russian paper published in New 
York ; L'Unita Operia, published monthly in New York and a foreign- 
language organ of the Communist Party ; Greek-American Tribune — 
Bhma — published weekly in New York and edited by Demetrius 
Christoi^herides ; New Life — Nailben — a Jewish monthly published in 
New York ; Hoboe Bpemr, published in Russia for distribution in the 
United States; Tvomies, Karpatska Rus, Ludovy Dennik, Magyar 
Herald, Slobodna Rechnoradnawola, Romanul American, published in 
Detroit and edited by Harry Fainaru; People's Herald — Croatian — 
published in Pittsburgh and edited by Anton Majnarie. 

The organ of Local 12 of the Comminiist Party is known as the 
Roxbury Voice. It is published in Roxbury, Mass. 

In addition to the publications mentioned herein, propaganda dis- 
tributing centers in New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles carry 
other Communist and Communist Party organs printed in foreign 
countries in foreign languages for distribution in the United States. 

Your World, a monthly magazine, is published in Toronto, Canada, 
45 Avenue Road. 

American Review of Soviet Medicine, pnblislied monthly at 58 Park 
Avenue, New York, N. Y., is edited by Dr. Jacob Heiman. 

The American Review on the Soviet, Russian Teclmical Research 
News, The Soviet Union Today, The USSR in Construction, and 
Soviet Health Care are printed and circulated regularly in the United 
States by the American-Russian Institute, 58 Park Avenue, New York, 
N. Y. Officers of the institute are Ernest J. Simmons, chairman; 
Basil Bass, secretary ; jind John L. Curtis, treasurer. Members of the 
national board of directors include Louise Bransten, Edward C. Car- 
ter, Robert S. Lynd, Samuel J. Novick, Henry E. Siegrist, and Max- 
well S. Stewart. Its executive director is Fred Myers. 

Morning Freiheit celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary a short 
time ago at a large gathering in New York City. Speakers at the af- 
fair were Alexander Bittleman, high up in Communist Party affairs ; 
William Z. Foster, national chairman of the Communist Party ; Moses 
Miller, Ben Gold, Paul Novick, all Communist leaders, some of whom 
are directly connected with Freiheit. The Communist Party extended 
greetings to the publication on the occasion. 

Communists are masters of pamphleteering, and they maintain 
scores of publishing houses and distributing- centers through which a 
continuous stream of agitational literature flows. Approximately 
23,000,000 pamphlets are printed and circulated annually by the 
Communist Agit-Prop Division. These are in addition to the Red 
daily, weekly, and monthly publications. 

Public Affairs Committee, Inc., with offices at 122 East Thirty- 
eighth Street, New York, N. Y., entered the pamphleteering field sev- 
eral years ago. It issues higher quality pamphlets on subjects related 
to those adopted for propagation by the Communist Party. Maxwell 
S. Stewart, former editor of Moscow News, and with other front con- 
nections, is editor of the pamphlet service. Violet Edwards is educa- 
tion and promotion director. Frederick V. Field, of New Masses — 
Communist organ — is a member of the board. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 41 

Ruth Benedict, a member of the East and West Association, and 
Gene Weltfish, a leader in the Congress of the American Women, have 
written pamphlets for the Public Affairs Committee. One of them, 
Eaces of Mankind, was barred by the War Department after Con- 
gress protested against its use in orientation classes of the Army, 
declaring that its aim was to create racial antagonism. 

I list herewith a few of the pamphlets issued by the committee: 
Why Women Work, Labor on New Fronts, Farm Policies of New 
Deal, How We Spend, How Can We Teach About Sex, Security or the 
Dole, Machines and Tomorrow's World, Who Can Afford Health, 
Safeguarding Our Civil Liberties, Read Your Labels, Radio Is Yours, 
For "a Stronger Congress, What To Do About Immigration, and Will 
Negroes Get Jobs. 

The Negro Publication Society of America, Inc., was set up in 
New York on September 23, 1941, for the purpose of issuing propa- 
ganda for distribution among the Negroes. On its staff are Lawrence 
D. Reddick, Arthur Huff Fauset, Maro;aret Osborn, Herbert Apthe- 
ker, and Angelo Herndon, all Avidely active in Communist-front move- 
ments. The incorporation papers,^^ a copy of which I submit here- 
with, show that the following are the directors of the society : Bernhard 
J. Stern, Dorothy Peterson, Rockwell Kent, Harcourt A. Tynes, Alaine 
Locke, Henrietta Buckmaster, Marc Blitzstein, Arthur Huff' Fauset, 
Lawrence D. Reddick, Margaret G. Osborn, Jean Muir, Dashiell Ham- 
mett, Angelo Herndon, and Herbert Aptheker. 

The Allied Labor News Service is an international Communist 
service. It has correspondents in foreign countries, and it serves 
Communist publications. It augments, rather than competes with, 
the Federated Press, which deals with local and national events. 
Correspondents for the ALN Service include William Peters, Bob 
Travis, Remo Marietta, and Israel Epstein. 

Associated Magazine Contributors, Inc., possibly an outgrowth of 
the Mainstream Conference, has recently made its appearance. It 
maintains offices at 68 West Forty-fifth Street, New York, N. Y. 
It is described as a cooperative enterprise, and will publish, among 
other things, a pocket-sized magazine. The following are officers: 
John Hersey, president; Jerome Ellison, vice president; William A. 
Lydgate, secretary; and Maxwell S. Stewart, treasurer. Directors 
include Christopher LaFarge, Robert St. John, John D. Ratcliff, 
and Mortimer S. Edelstein. Initial contributors, in addition to the 
above, are John Steinbeck, Stuart Cloete, Pearl Buck, Margaret Cul- 
kin Banning, Clifford Fadiman, Robert Butterfield, Ernest K. Lind- 
ley, Raymond Gram Swing, Austin Briggs, Rene Robert Bouche, 
Richard Sargent, D wight Shepler, Sam Berman, Alan Dunn, Jack 
Markow, Gardner Rea, Robert Disraeli, Andrew Kertsz, Herman 
Landshoff, and Gjon Mill. 

I wish to again refer to the Washington, D. C, Cooperative Book- 
shop, which if not directly affiliated with the Communist book shops, is 
doing party chores. Chairman of the board of trustees of this book- 
shop is Joseph L. Pierce. Regardless of whether or not it admits it 
is a link in the chain of Communist-controlled book shops, it is cooper- 
ating in the distribution of Communist and Soviet Russian propa- 
ganda. Its current catalog, prepared by Bessie Weissman of the 

" See appendix, p. 174, for exhibit 12. 



42 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

shop, lists the following as "selective" material : Lenin : The Man and 
His Works ; Joseph Stalin : Stalin's Early Writings and Activities ; 
Maxim Litvinoff ; Keligion Today in U. S. S. R. ; Socialized Medicine 
in U. S. S. R. ; Women in the Soviet East ; Russian Youth and the Pres- 
ent Day World; Red Virtue; The Great Conspiracy Against Russia; 
We Can Do Business with Russia ; The Land of the Soviets ; In Place 
of Profit ; From Empire to Socialism ; History of Communist Party of 
the Soviet; October Revolution; Ten Days that Shook the World; 
Soviet Communism ; and New Civilization. 

Reds and Red fronters control many of the publications circulated 
in labor circles. Their writers have taken over the editorial columns, 
and articles are contributed in many instances by outright Communists. 
Most of these publications are served by the Federated Press or the 
Allied Labor News Service, both of which have long been infiltrated 
if not actually controlled by the Communists. A recent addition to 
these services is the Trade Union Service, Inc., with offices in New 
York City. This owns and publishes 15 trade union papers for vari- 
ous CIO unions. Officers of the service include Corliss Lamont, Fred- 
erick V. Field, William Osgood Field, and James Waterman Wise. 
Lamont is the head of one of the largest Red front organizations in 
our country. Frederick Field is equally notorious, and he is on the 
editorial board of the Daily Worker. Wise and William Field also 
have Red front backgrounds. 

The Labor Research Association, 80 East Eleventh Street, New 
York, N. Y., publishes monthly the Economic News, sold and dis- 
tributed through Communist bookshops. The Communist press fre- 
quently quotes from it. The association occasionally issues books 
which are published and distributed by the International Publishers 
of New York, the Communist publishing house. Its releases, service, 
and books are consistently along the Communist Party line, and they 
are as a rule timed with the party's agitation and pressure moves. The 
service is received and widely read by CIO labor-union leaders, since 
it is considered the key to economic and labor issues. Heading the 
association is Robert W. Dunn, widely known in Communist ranks. 
He was prominent in the International Labor Defense, of which he 
was treasurer for many years. He was also active in the American 
League for Peace and Democracy and the Anti-Imperialist League. 
He was connected with Soviet Russia Today and the Workers' (Com- 
munist) Schools. His wife, Russian-borii, has been a columnist for 
the Daily Worker. 

(The list of contributors to five of the major Communist publica- 
tions is as follows:) 

The following have contributed to the Daily Worker and Worker within the 
past few months : 

George Marion Martin T. Brown Milton Howard 

Art Shields Bill Marko James S. Allen 

Ben Field E. Benson Gerhart Eisler 

W. E. B. DuBois William Allan George Marston 

Harry Raymond Abner W. Berry Carl W. Scott 

Samuel Sillen Michael Singer Dyson Carter 

Frank Lesser Joseph Clark Olive Sutton 

David Piatt Arnold Sroog Michael Chicureli 

Lester Rodney Fred Vast Robert Kelly 

Robert F. Hall John Hudson Jones Louise Mitchell 

Mike Lynn Bernard Burton Allan L. Fletcher 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 



43 



Dan Rogers 
Moranda Smith 
Joseph Starobin 
Ted Allen 
Bob Friedman 
John Pittman 
Aaron Kramer 
William Z. Foster 
Olive Mosby 
Eugene Dennis 
Morris Childs 
Pat Cush 



Fi-ederick V. Field 
Hilda Weiss 
Merle Nance 
Otto Wangerin 
Murray Chase • 
Milton Pokorne 
Charles Stein 
Mary Southard 
Ruby Cooper 
Martha Millet 
Walter Lowenfels 
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn 



Mike Gold 
Harold Hickerson 
Joseph Leeds 
Peter J. Cacchione 
Elizabeth M. Bacon 
Jean R. Beck 
Barnard Rubin 
J. Kepner 
Peter Stone 
Fred Vast 
Travis K. Hedrick 



The following have been contributors to recent issues of New Masses ; 



Elizabeth Lawson 
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn 
Ralph J. Peters 
Walter M. Aiken 
Leon Josephson 
Millen Brand 
Vladimir D. Kazakevich 
Joseph North 
Cliarles Humboldt 



Isidor Schneider 
Elfriede Fischer 
Paul Kaye 
Gertrude Chase 
Carmelia Weinsteiu 
Richard O. Bover 
A. B. Magil 
Claude Ashford 
Joseph Foster 



George Morris 
W. E. B. DuBois 
William Auer 
Wilma Shore 
S. W. Gerson 
Dirk Struik 
Eugene Dennis 
Frederick V. Field 



The following are staff writers for People's Daily World : 



George Morris 
Frank Mucci 
Max Gordon 
James S. Allen 
Johannes Steel 
Vivian McGuckin 
Philip Evergood 
Dave Blodgett 
Rol)ert F. Hall 
Bill Mardo 
Eva Lapin 
Jack Young 
Hodee Richards 
Morris Schappes 
Earl E. Payne 
John Pittman 
Lee Coe 
C. L. Rees 
Zlatko Balokovic 
Samuel Sillen 
Jean R. Beck 
Elizabeth M. Bacon 
Patricia Killoran 
Tony Russo 
Emil Freed 
Sam Kutniek 
Ruby Cooper 
Sondra Gorney 
Mason Roberson 
Eric Webber 
William Z. Foster 
Max Gordon 
George Kauffman 
John Steuben 
Mary Hays 
John Stapp 
Philip Murray 
A. F. Wliitney 
Harry Raymond 
Sidney Burke 



Helen Simon 

Art Shields 

Joseph Starobin 

Kathleen Cronin 

A. R. Onda 

William Allan 

Memmy Sparks 

John J. Abt 

Fred Vast 

Allan L. Fletcher 

Elizabeth Gurley Flynn 

Frederick V. Field 

Kilen Taylor' 

Israel Epstein 

Otto Wangerin 

John Hudson Jones 

Merle Brodsky 

Woody Guthrie 

Bill Whacker 

C. F. Frost 

Okey Giggins 

Sid Partridge 

Edwin F. Ufheil 

Hugh Bryson 

Anna Louise Strong 

Travis K. Hedrick 

David Piatt 

Beruice Cai'ey 

Louise Mitchell 

Jack Stachel 

Marcel Dubois 

Al Richmond 

Joseph Clark 

Robert Minor 

Jack Green 

Nat Low 

Robert Kobin 

Jane Gilbert 

Carl Williams 

Mary Thomas 



Walter J. Stack 
Frank Pitcairn 
Mirian Kolkin 
Herb Tank 
Mike Quinn 
Mary Foote 
Wes Bodkin 
Pettis Perry 
Sam Kutniek 
Al Ross 
Philip Bock 
Howard Fast 
Lloyd Lehman 
Lena Epstein 
Ken Howard 
Hildegaard Level 
Ben Levine 
Archie Brown 
Leon Kaplan 
Eric Webber 
Esther Miller 
Walter Lowenfels 
Lawson Milford 
Abner W. Berry 
Dr. Holland Roberts 
George Marion 
John Williamson 
Yvonne Shepherd 
Leon Lee 
Barbara Leigh 
Morris Childs 
Alan Max 
V. F. Coragliotti 
Pete Edises 
Hazel Grossman 
Olive Sutton 
Harry Fainaru 
Albert E. Kahn 
Michael Bankfort 
Alex Treskin 



44 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 



The following have contributed in recent months to Political Affairs : 



Eugene Dennis 
John Williamson 
William Z. Foster 
Lillian Gates 
Joe Roberts 
Donald Freeman 
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn 
Alpheus Hunton 
James S. Allen 
Abner W. Berry 
Alexander Bittelman 
Jack Stachel 
George Phillips 
Nat Ross 
Joel Remes 
George Morris 
John Gates 
Oleta O'Connor Gates 



Dan Stevens 
Horris Childs 
Max Weis^ 
Harry Haywood 
Joseph Starobin 
Robert F. Hall 
Joseph Clark 
John Pittman 
Howard Jenning 
Hugo Gellert 
Frederick V. Field 
Milton Howard 
Hal Simon 
Meir Vilner 
John Stuart 
Stanley Ryerson 
V. J. Jerome 
Henry Winston 



George Blake Charney 

Fred Blair 

James Keller 

Donald MacKenzie Lester 

Anna Long 

Elizabeth Curley Flynn 

Robert Minor 

Roy Hudson 

L. L. Sharkey 

Adam Lapin 

Thelma Dale 

Max Gordon 

Carl Winter 

George Bernstein 

Etienne Fajon 

William Weinstone 

Dan Stevens 

Al Loew 



Mr. McDowell. Mr. Steele, when was this front Tread On Me 
campaign conducted ? 

Mr. Steele. Two months ago. 

Mr. McDowell. With all of the advertising, the printing, and so 
forth, there was, obviously, a very large amount of money spent. 

Mr. Steele. Certainly. 

Mr. McDowell. Do you have any knowledge of the source of that 
money ? 

Mr. Steele. I do not ; no. 

Mr. McDowell. It is my observation, as one Member of Congress, 
that with all of that activity, the propaganda, to berate the committee 
and cause it to be disbanded, or whatever they are trying to do, it has 
been almost a total flop, so far as the effects are visible here in Wash- 
ington. , 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

Mr. McDowell. That would be reflected, if it were reflected, in a 
Congressman's mail. I can recall no sudden upsurge or downsurge in 
my mail. 

Mr. Steele. The only thing I do know about the fund-raising angle 
is that each local section was given a quota of funds to raise, a portion 
of which quota was spent back in that local's territory and a portion 
of which went to the national office for the national campaign. 

For instance, here in Washingion the local was given a quota. 
A part of that was spent for advertisements in local newspapers, and 
I think one broadcast here, and a portion of that went to the national 
office for the national campaign. 

I don't know whether that was the general plan or not, but that was 
the plan here in Washington. I assume it was the general plan, 

Mr. Bonner. The list of magazine articles, the writings which you 
have just recently mentioned, who compiled that list? 

Mr. Steele. Pardon me? 

Mr. Bonner. You just mentioned you had how many — 300 — names 
of writers? 

Mr. Steele. Who compiled the list? 

Mr. Bonner. Yes. 

Mr. Steele. I did. 

Mr. Bonner. Yourself, alone? 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE ^ 45 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. I obtained those from the publications, and 
I wish to exhibit as proof the front cover of all the publications which 
I have listed there. 

(Exhibit received.) 

Mr. Bonner. I just wanted to ask you one or two questions. 
• What did you say about these articles and writers ? 

Mr. Steele. I say that the publications and the publishing houses 
are Communist, the newspapers and magazines I mentioned are 
either directly Communist Party publications or are front or party- 
line publications, and I listed the names of the publications, the ad- 
dresses of them, I submit reproduction of tlie front cover of each, 
and the names of the staff writers in each case, taken from the pub- 
lications. 

Mr. Bonner. And it is your opinion that all of them are 
Communist ? 

Mr. ISteele. Communist or Communist front organs. 

Mr. Bonner. Have you read all of the articles ? 

Mr. Steele. Read all the articles, no; but I have read a sufficient 
number of them to determine that. 

Mr. Bonner. And the purpose of the articles, then, is to build up 
sentiment or feeling for the party line ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir ; for the party line. 

Mr. Bonner. Not having looked at the list of publications, are there 
any outstanding publications, such as tlie Saturday Evening Post 

Mr. Steele. Oh, no. 

Mr. Bonner. Or Collier's Weekly f 

Mr. Steele. Oh. no. 

Mr. Bonner. I don't mean those particular publications, but in that 
category. 

Mr. Steele. No ; none in that category ; no, sir. 

Mr. Bonner. They are just kind of fly-by-night publications? 

Mr. Steele. A good many of them, yes. The Daily Worker has 
been operating for many years, People's Daily World, Political Af- 
fairs, New Masses, and so on. That is the nature of the publication. 
Not legitimate — what I call legitimate publications — or representa- 
tive American publications ; no, sir. 

Mr. Bonner. What is your feeling of the effect of these publica- 
tions? Are there a certain — just certain types or groups in this coun- 
try that just have to liave that kind of literature? 

Mr. Steele. That I couldn't tell you, Mr. Congressman. All I 
know is that they are published and they are circulated and they are 
on the news stands in many cities, and they are purchased, and what 
the purpose of the reader is in buying them I couldn't tell you, be- 
cause I don't know. What influence it has I don't know. 

Mr. McDowell. Many of these are publications in various foreign 
languages? 

Mr. Steele. Some of them are. 

Mr. McDowell. Would you have any opinion on whether the for- 
eign-language papers, fellow-traveler papers, have more influence than 
those written in the English language? 

Mr. Steele. I would think so ; yes, sir. 

Mr. McDo%VELL. You would think tlvey have more influence ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes; because there are such a few publications printed 
in foreign languages that those who like to follow the news from their 



46 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

fatherlands almost have to get it through these foreign-language pub- 
lications, to a great extent. 

Mr. McDowell. It is my observation that even with the outrageous 
falsehoods that are printed daily in the Daily Worker and various 
English-written Communist papers, they are faint compared to the 
things written in various foreign languages, particularly in the Slavish 
newspapers, Communist newspapers. The outrageous utterances that 
are fed to the people of America who are of Slavish descent in these 
foreign-language newspapers is just simply beyond belief. 

That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. You don't mean that all of these foreign-language 
papers 

Mr. McDowell. No; I am talking about Communist and fellow 
traveler papers. The great majority of the foreign-language news- 
papers of America are patriotic American newspapers printed in a 
foreign language. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Steele, in making the study of the publications 
which you have termed as left-wing or Communist publications, isn't 
is true that every Commimist-front organization has either one or two, 
sometimes three different publications? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. • 

Mr. Stripling. And that is the type of publication you are referring 
to here and which you have listed? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, for the benefit of the record, we had 
Mr. Steele submit a list of those publications which we in turn sub- 
mitted to our research department. The research department checked 
them with our files and without a single exception all of them are 
either official organs of what the committee considers to be a Com- 
munist front organization or an outright Communist publication. 

Mr. Chairman, I suggest that you let the record show the member- 
ship. 

The Chairman. The record will show that those present at this 
point are Mr. McDowell, Mr. Vail, Mr. Bonner, and Mr. Thomas. 

Mr. Bonner. How much staff do you have to assist you in compiling 
this information, the data that you bring before the committee? 

Mr. Steele. Well, I might say that I did all the work on this per- 
sonally, except the collection of the publications. I had one man out 
picking those up — there were a great many — and in other places I had 
subscribers to my publication, who I have become intimately ac- 
quainted with, go into the publishing house and get them for me, or 
some member of a veterans' organization — or various contacts that I 
have over the country. But insofar as the study of- the data, I made 
the study personally, and wrote everything that is in the report. 

Propaganda and agitation are major instruments of the Communist 
forces. Consequently, they devise many tools for those fields. One 
of these is the school. Others are pui3lishing houses, publications, 
distribution centers, and camps. Through all of them the Commu- 
nists carry on these important phases of activity. 

One of the oldest of the Red mediums of propaganda is the Com- 
munist school for the training and orientating of new recruits. Under 
the guise of espousing the cause of "workers' education," these schools, 
located in the principal cities of the United States, have corralled not 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 47 

only the sons and daughters of the workers in many instances, but 
they have also taken their toll of those in the middle and upper strata 
of our society. They have opened a field of operation for the leftist 
intelligentsia, many of whom have been shorn of their professorial 
affiliation with public schools, State, and privately operated universi- 
ties and colleges because of their activities in behalf of the Commu- 
nist cause. 

Communist schools originally operated under the name "Workers' 
schools.'' They were directed as a chain from New York City by a 
board set up for that purpose by the Communist Party, members of 
which included highest officials of the party. Starting in 1940, these 
schools, as did all other Communist organizations, underwent a series 
of name-changing, changes in personnel, and changes, to an extent, 
in curriculum. However, a careful study shows that the only major 
changes occurred in the names of the schools, and that the purpose of 
each remained the same. The school faculties are manned with Com- 
munist functionaries, widely known leaders in the party ranks, a 
sprinkling of front ers, and prominent members of the CIO. The 
curriculum has been adjusted only to the extent of the change in 
party-line and international policies of the Communists. 

The largest of the schools are the Jefferson School of Social Science 
in New York City and the California Labor School in San Francisco, 
although other Red schools of considerable size are operated in Holly- 
wood, Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston, Cleveland, and elsewhere. 

More than 6,000 students receive training at these schools annually. 
I wish to submit as proof at this time the catalogs of those schools. 

(Exhibits 13, 14, and 15, were received. )^^ 

The Chairman. Which sets forth the topics and the names of the 
members of the faculty, the purposes of the schools. 

Mr. Steele. The Jefferson School of Social Science is located at 
575 Avenue of the Americas. New York City. It has branches at 
108 Watkins Street, Brooklyn; 3200 Coney Island Avenue, Brooklyn; 
13 Graham Avenue, Brooklyn; 649 Britton Street, Bronx; and 838 
East One Hundrecl and Eightieth Street, Bronx. The board of 
trustees is composed of the following: Lyman A. Bradley, chairman; 
Frederick V. Field, secretary; Alexander Trachtenberg, treasurer; 
Dorothy Brewster; William Howard Melish; Harry Sacher; Mar- 
garet Schlauch; Howard Selsan; Dirk J. Struik; Doxey A. Wilker- 
son; Max Yergan; and Ruth Youno-. Faculty representatives are 
Joseph B. Furst and Myer Weiss. The staff consists of Howard 
Selsen, director; David Goldway, assistant director; Louis Lerman; 
Harold Collins, curriculum; Benjamin Paskoff and Elizabeth 
Freidus, annexes. The staff instructor is Francis Franklin; regis- 
trar, Jette Alpert; librarians, Henry Black, Clara Ostrowsk}^, and 
Ethel Soschin; book shop, David Cohen. 

Officials of the Jefferson School of Social Science claim that since 
its opening under the present name in 1944, "some 40.000 persons 
have taken its courses.'' In one of its documents the following state- 
ment appears: 

The Jefferson School holds that the principles and methods of scientific social- 
ism, developed over the past hundred years by the great theoretical leaders of 



" See appendix, p. 174, for exhibits 13, 14, and 15. 
65176 — 47 4 



48 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

the working-class movement, give full expression to the needs and aspirations of 
all peoples. The application of the scietific approach to the problems of social 
life, the school believes, makes possible the utilization of the laws of social 
development for the achievement of a new social order * * * (Spring, 1947, 
catalog of the Jefferson School of Social Science, p. 5.) 

To further substantiate the claim that the Jefferson School is com- 
munistic, I call attention to the announcement that it will lead off in 
the Nation-wide leftist commemoration this year (1947) of the one 
hundredth anniversary of the Communist Manifesto. Howard Fast, 
Harry Ward, Howard Selsam, Doxey Wilkerson, and Philip Foner 
have been named to play the leading roles in the commemoration. 

This school provides courses for children as well as adults. It 
also maintains a summer camp at Arrowhead Lod^e, Ellenville, N. Y. ; 
a Jefferson School Theater work shop, and a Jefferson chorus. It 
accepts gifts and endowments. It has established a scholarship fund. 
The chairman of the committee on scholarships is Doxey A. Wilker- 
son, a member of the national committee of the Communist Party, 
and editor of the (Harlem) People's Voice. The school conducts 
forums through Seymor A. Copstein and Alan Max. It claims that 
over 5,000 people were taught in its trade union and extension divi- 
sion in 1946. Courses given at the school include the following: 
"The Soviet Union in World Affairs," "Principles of Marxism," 
"Science and Society," "History of the Labor Movement," "Political 
Economy," "Problems of the Negro People," "Prob'ems of the Jewish 
People," "Psychology and the Social Order," "Literature and So- 
ciety," and "History of the Commmiist Party of the Soviet Union." 

"Science and Society," described as "an introduction to Marxism," 
is taught by Elisabeth Lawson, Harold Kirschnar, Isabella Bailin, 
Howard E. Johnson, Harold Collins, David Goldway, Albert Prago, 
Benjamin Paskoff, and Sue Warren. The subject is broken down into 
the categories of social systems and social change, capitalist society, 
capitalist democracy, and Socialist revolution. 

Instructors in "Principles of Marxism" are Elisabeth Barker, Harold 
Collins, Sidney Gluck, George Woodard, Myer Weise, Frances Frank- 
lin, and David Goldway. This course deals with the "fundamentals 
of Marxist-Leninist theory"; the "theory of proletarian revolution, 
dictatorship of the proletariat, and the character and role of a Marxist- 
Leninist Party." 

"History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union" is taught by 
David Goldway. It is described as a study of the "political lessons 
of the history of the Bolshevik Party up to the October revolution." 

"Problems of the Negro People" is taught by Dr. Herbert Aptheker ; 
"The United States as a World Power," by Dr. Philip S. Foner; "The 
Soviet Union" (nature of Socialist democracy and role of the Com- 
munist Party), by Vladimir D. Kasakevich; "The Current Problems 
of Jewish Life," by Morris H. Lipschitz; "Dialactical and Historical 
Materialism," by Harry Martel; "History of Religion" (which course 
will make a Marxist critique of religion) , by Frances Franklin ; "Phy- 
chology," by Ruth Burgess and Samuel Coe; "Psychiatry," by Dr. 
Joseph B. Furst and Dr. Joseph Wortis; "What Is Literature," by 
Dr. Annette T. Rubinstein, Dr. Russel Ames, Seymour A. Copstein, 
and Morris U. Schappes. Among other lecturers are Abraham Unger, 
executive secretary of the New York Chapter of the National Lawyers' 
Guild, and Leonard Leades, educational director of the Furriers' Union 
in New York. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 49 

Courses in story writing, play writing, and the general subject of 
writing are conducted by Louis Lerman, Myra Page, Elisabeth M. 
Bacon, and Lajos Egri. Music and art are taught by Bernard Lebow, 
Mary Menk, Norman Casdau, Gwendolyn Bennett, and Inez Gerson. 
Waldemar Hills, of People's Songs, Inc., directs the schools, "People's 
Songs Work Shop." The Russian language is taught by Eashelle 
Fostenberg, and Spanish is taught by Nedda Broad. Other courses 
offered by the school include dancing, acting, sculpturing, and 
modeling. 

Instructors and guest lecturers at the Jefferson School of Social 
Science are Frances Adler, Eussell Ames, Rosemary Arnold, Herbert 
Aptheker. Elizabeth M. Bacon, Isabella Bailin, Elizabeth Barker, 
Frances H. Bartlett, Gwendolyn Bennett, Cleveland Bissell, Beth 
Blyn, Nedda Broad, Ruth Burgess, Norman Cazden, Lenore Chapman, 
Samuel Coe, Met a Cohen, Harold Collins, Seymour A. Copstein, Eva 
Desca, May Edel, Laios Egri, Edith H. Epstein, Rashelle Fastenberg, 
Philip S. Foner, Francis Franklin, David Freundlich, Joseph B. 
Furst, Ines Garson, Sidney Gluck, Arthur Goldway, David Gold- 
way, Aaron J. Goodelman, Miriam Green, Henry Hansburg, Abra- 
ham Harriton, Syed Sibtay Hasan, Roslyn Held, Waldemar Hille, 
Howard E. Johnson, Vladimir D. Kazakevich, Helen Kingery, Billie 
Kirpich, Harold Kirshner, Frank Kleinholz, Herbert Kruckman, 
Elizabeth Lawson, Bernard Lebow, Ellen Lebow, Louis Lerman, 
Norman Lewis, Morris H. Lipschitz, Harry Martel, Alan Max, Mary 
Menk, Golde Minchenberg, Clara Ostrowsky, Myra Page, Benjamin 
Paskoff, Ralph J. Peters, Judy Peterson, Albert Prago, Louis Relin, 
Sylvia Rosenfeld, Beatrice Roth, Betty Rosa Bowen, Annette T. 
Rubinstein, Morris U. Schappes, Moss K. Schenck, Henry Scherer, 
Marcel Scherer, Edith Segal, Howard Selsam, Ethel Soschin, Max 
Sparer, George Squier, Dick J. Struik, Elaine Swenson, Ruth 
Vinitsky, Sue Warren, Myer Weise, Lillian Wexler, Doxey A. Wil- 
kerson, Beatrice Wiseman, Joseph Wortis, and Dale Zysman. In 
addition, People's Songs, Inc., supplies Pete Seegar, Bob Russell, 
and -Woody Guthrie as instructors. 

The Jefferson School of Social Science is organized as a nonprofit 
institution, and it is supposed that it is accordingly tax exempt. It is 
understood that it enjoys benefits of the GI educational fund of the 
Veterans' Administration. It may be of at least casual interest to 
members of this committee of Congress to know that Dr. Lewis Bala- 
muth, formerly connected with the Federal Government's Manhattan 
atomic power project, has been teaching the rudiments of atomic power 
at this Communist school. It may also be noted that Vladimir D. 
Kazakevich was a member of the Army's special training faculty at 
Cornell in 1943. 

Inasmuch as all Communist schools are set up and operated on the 
same pattern as the Jefferson School of Social Science, I will not go 
into detail in describing the balance of the schools. I will mention 
only the names and addresses of the schools, the officers, members of 
the faculties, and any major peculiarities of the schools. 

The George Washington Carver School is located at 57 West One 
Hundred and Twenty-fifth Street, New York City. Edward Strong, 
organizational director of the National Negro Congress, and for many 
years active in the Young Communist League and the Southern Negro 
Youth Congress, is an instructor at the school. Members of the faculty 



50 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

include Ray Hansboroiigh, Henry Winston, and Max Weiss, all Com- 
munist Party leaders; Paul Robeson, Charles Burroughs, who in 
January 1947 returned to this country after a 17-year sojourn in- 
Russia ; Shirley Graham, Charles Loman, Charles A. Collins, Mayme 
Brown, Elizabeth Adams, Elizabeth Catlett White, Edith Roberts^. 
Hermie Dumont, Norman Lewis, Esther Zolott, Ernest Crichlow, and 
Charles White. The administrative staff is composed of Gwendolyn 
Bennett, director; Mayme Brown, public relations secretary; Eliza- 
beth Adams, librarian; Edith Roberts, registrar; Hermie Dumont,- 
administratj,ve assistant. This school was opened in Harlem in the^ 
fall of 1943. 

Another school which operates in New York City at 13 Astor Place 
is the School of Jewish Studies. It was opened in October 1945. The 
following are on the board of directors : Frederic Ewen, chairman ;. 
Joseph Chromow, treasurer ; Nathan Ausubel, Aaron Bergman, Rabbi 
Abraham Bick, L. Roy Blumenthal, Philip Cherner, Abraham Edel, 
Benjamin Efron, I. Fine, I. Goldberg, Henry Goodman, Maurice 
Grubin, H. Halpern, Minnie Harkavy, Harry Kessler, Samuel Liebo- 
witz, Louis Lozowick, Dr. Raphael Mahler, Fannie Mendelson, Dr. 
Herbert Morais, I. Opockinsky, Sam Peysner, Eli Picheny, Rabbi 
Herman Pollack, Miriam Rosen, Ruth Rubin, Ernest Rymer, Morris 
U. Schappes, Morris Schneiderman, Bernard R. Segal, Judith Spee- 
vak, George Starr, Mildred Stock, Chaim Suller, Jennie Truchman,. 
Menashe Unger, William Vulcan, and I. Wofsy. The administrative 
staff is composed of Chaim Suller, executive secretary; Abraham 
Boxerman, administrative secretary; and Jean Hillis, reg;istrar. 
Sponsors of the school include Paul Novick, Dr. Annette T. Rubin- 
stein, Rose Russell, Rubin Saltzman, Howard Selsam, Ben Gold^ 
William Gropper, Sam Jaffe, Albert E. Kahn, William S. Gailmor, 
Dorothy Brewster, Joseph Brainin, Alexander Bittelman, Gwendolyn 
Bennett, I. B. Bailin, Sholem Asch, Michael Alper, S. Amazov, Joseph 
Bloch, Herbert I. Bloom, Marc Chagall, Abraham Cronbach, Philip 
Evergood, Milton Goell, B. Z. Goldberg, Alexander Goldman, Max 
Levin, Kalman Marmor, Jesse Mintus, Max Perlow, Clara Rabinowitz^ 
Duane Robinson, Raphael Soyer, Max Steinberg, Benjamin H. Tu- 
min, John J. Teffer, Z. Weinper, Louis Weinstock, Joseph Wortis, 
Lester Zirin, William Zukerman, and Meyor W. Weisgal. Among the 
instructors are Samuel Barron, Abraham Boxerman, Vain Hirsch, 
Jacob B. Aronoff, Max Wiener, Morris U. Schappes, Herman Pollack, 
I. Goldberg, Pearl Shapiro, Reuben Paige, Aaron Bergman, Herbert 
Ivan Bloom, N. Buchwald, May Edel, Frederick Ewen, B. Z. Gold- 
berg, Henry Goodman, Albert E. Kahn, Harry Kessler, Raphael 
Mahler, Moses Miller, Herbert M. Morais, Ruth Rubin, Chaim Suller, 
Mark Tarail, Rachel Wischnitzer, Lena Gurr, Valia Hirsch, Frank 
C. Kirk, Annam Kross, Solomon Landman, and Joseph H. Levy. 

The majority of the students attending the School of Jewish Studies^ 
according to the Daily Worker of April 16, 1946 (p. 6), "comes from 
the trade-unions, the International Workers' Order, and Jewish organ- 
izations." The school has an enrollment of 400 students. The school 
offers courses on "The Jewish People under Capitalism, Imperialism, 
and Socialism," "The National Question and the Jewish People," 
"Marxism, the Jews and the National Question," "History of the Jews 
in the American Labor Movement," "The Bible, a Social Analysis,^ 
and "American Jewish Life Today." 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 5-1 

Other schools of lesser import located in New York, yet schools 
^which should receive mention herein, are the following : 

Robert Louis Stevenson School, 346 West Sixtieth Street, the prin- 
cipal of which is Dr. Annette T. Rubinstein, sponsor of the School of 
•Jewish Studies, and a writer for New Masses, a Communist publica- 
tion. It has been reported that on posters advertising the school which 
are hung in New York subways is the notation that students are ac- 
cepted under the GI educational plan. 

School of Stage for Action, the faculty of which includes David 
Pressman and John O'Shaughnessy, teachers of action; Mary Grey 
Barnett, voice; Helaine Bok, dance; Max Miller, radio; and Millard 
Lampell, trade union theater. 

Documentary Film School, 232 West Fourteenth Street; Downtown 
Music School, 68 East Twelfth Street ; Downtown Community School, 
:235 East Eleventh Street. The Downtown Music School was organ- 
ized in 1935. Max Blitzein and Elie Siegmeister are on the faculty. 

The Walt Whitman School of Social Sciences is located at 17 
Williams Street, Newark, N. J. Florence Gerald is the Director. 

The Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art was formerly 
located at 1704 Walnut Street. It is now located on South Twenty- 
:first Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Among the instructors at the school 
are Sam Goldberg, Margaret Patton Cabell, Clara Clark, Eva S. 
Ellis, Elsie Levitan, S. Waldbaum, Nedia Chilkovsky, Allan R. Free- 
Ion, Nathan Shrager, and Claude Clark. Special courses are avail- 
able exclusively to members of American Youth for Democracy. The 
directors are Madelin Blitzstein, Leroy Comanor, Barrows Dunham, 
Arthur Huff Fauset, James J. Fitzsimon, Elizabeth Fraziei', Allan 
R. Freelon, Donald Henderson, Robert Hodes, Jules Link, Alice 
Xiveright, Charles Simon, Saul Waldbaum, and Francis J. White. 
Members of the staff are Cortland Eyer, director; Bern Stambler, 
►executive secretary; Mae Moskowitz, administrative secretary; Saul 
"Waldbaum, chairman, board of directors; and Jules Link, treasurer. 

The Philadelphia school was set up under its present name early 
in 1944. It claims to have enrolled over 2,000 students in the first 2 
years of operation. It maintained -two scholarships — one, the Paul 
Robeson scholarsliip, and the other, the Vincente Lombardo Toledano 
scholarship. Additional instructors are Bebe Alpert, Marion M. 
Astley, Sylvan Balder, Paul Benedict, Hans Blumenfeld, Arthur 
Cohn, Margaret DeRonde, William Drayton, Jr. ; Paula E. Ehrlich, 
Cortland Eyer, Elizabeth Finkelstein, May Forbes, Francis Franklin, 
Marjorie Gammon, E. D. Gechtoff, Paulina Holstein, Harry Levitan, 
Wilbur Lee Mahaney, Jr., Adele Margolis, Mae Moskowitz, Sam 
Nempzoff, Benjamin Schleifer, Betty Schoenfeld, Elsie E. Smith, 
Bern Stambler, Libby Stambler, Winifred Stewart, Malvina Taiz, 
Ben Tarin, and Mrs. Ray Weiner. 

The Samuel Adams School (a People's School for Social Studies) 
is located at 37 Province Street, Boston, Mass. The board of trustees 
is composed of David Alper, Alexander Brin, Angus Cameron, Albert 
Dieffenbach, George R. Faxon, Rev. Joseph Fletcher, Harrison L. 
Harley, William Franklin, Stephen Fritchman, Sarah R. Gordon, 
Margaret Gilbert, William Harrison, Kenneth deP. Hughes, Norman 
Levinson, Grace Lorch, F. O. Matthiessen, Samuel Mintz, John 
Mitchell, William Murdock, Walter O'Brien, Francis O'Connor, 
Mary E. Pahner, F. Hastings Smythe, Dirk Jan Struik, Sol Vail, 



52 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Colston Warne, James Whitehouse, Esther H. Wilson, and Harry 
Winner. Members of the administrative staff are Harrison L. Har- 
ley, director; Clive Knowles and Leslie Arnold, associate directors; 
Florence Castleman, public relations ; Jean K. Davis, publicity ; Mary 
Knowles, secretary; Harry Winner, treasurer; anct David Alper, 
associate treasurer. The school holds summer classes at Camp 
Annisquam, July 13 to August 30, Gloucester, Mass. Courses offered 
by the school are similar to those offered by Communist schools 
throughout the country — Marxism, labor, public speaking, philos- 
ophy, plannino^, writing, racial problems, industrialism, literature, 
art, shop steward training, stage, and economics. It sponsors an 
amateur theater group which is affiliated with Stage for Action. 
The associate director of this is Leslie Arnold. The faculty includes 
Harry Winner, Joseph Weinreb, Clive Knowles, Dirk Jan Struik, 
Goldie Silverman, Rita Schuman, Melvin Rosensaft, Arthur Polon- 
sky, Waldo Emerson Palmer, Mary E. Palmer, Melvin Maddox, 
Warren McKenna, Perry Miller, Evelyn G. Mitchell (UERMWA- 
CIO), John Michail (United Packing House Workers, CIO), S. S. 
Olans, Vincent Ferrini, Guy Albert D'Amato, Samuel Cauman, 
Leslie Arnold, Leo Berman, Voltairine Block, James E. Braxton, 
Vangel L. Misho, and Ernest Wasser. The school promoted the 
appearance of Paul Robeson in Boston June 22, 1947, for its fund 
drive. 

The Abraham Lincoln School in Chicago is located at 180 West 
Washington Street. Faculty members are ISIorris Backall, MicMel 
Baker, Frank Marshall Davis, Horace Davis, David Englestein, Mor- 
ton Goldsholl, Pat Hoverder, Alfonso lannelli, Leon Katzen, Ludwig 
Kruhe, Herschel Meyer, Henry Noyes, William L. Patterson, Fred 
Ptashne, Eleanore Redwin, Boris M. Revsine, Frank Sokolik, William 
Rose, Herman Schendel, Bernice Targ, and Morris Topchevsky. A 
notice appearing in a catalog of the school stated that "prominent 
citizens participating in our efforts" include Paul Robeson, Rockwell 
Kent, Lee Pressman, Howard Fast, Albert E. Kahn, and Henrietta 
Buckmaster. A South Side annex to the school has recently been 
added. It is located at 4448 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago. Dr. 
Waiter S. Neft' is director. Instructors include Albert George, Charlie 
Mitchell, Lester Fox, Geraldyne Lightfoot, Ishmael Flory, David 
Englestein, Irving Herman, Earl Durham, Claude Lightfoot, and 
Walter Miller. Other annexes are at 1225 South Independence and 
2409 North Hoisted. 

The Summer Training Institute of tire Abraham Lincoln School 
will open on Jvily 6 and end August 24 at Covert, Mich. Instructors 
will include Mary Himoff (Neff), Henry H. Noyes, Herman Schendel, 
and Walter S. Neff. Schendel is now the director of the trade-union 
department of the Abraham Lincoln School, and Pat Hoverder is 
assistant director. Schendel is author of some of the school's study 
courses, one of which. Why AVork for Nothing? is violently anti- 
American, militantly pro-Soviet, pro-Communist, and pro-CIO. I 
submit it herewith as evidence. 

The California Labor School, with headquarters at 216 Market 
Street, San Francisco, has branches in Oakland, 2030 Broadway ; and 
Palo Alto, 500 Manlo Drive. The school has been known as the 
Workers' School and the Tom Mooney School. It adopted its present 
name (California Labor School) in August 1942. At that time it 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 53 

boasted of 12 teachers, 15 classes, and 135 students. Today it has 
75 teachers, 133 cLasses, and 817 students. This school has become one 
of the largest of its kind in the country. It is surpassed only by the 
Jefferson School in New York. Its original location was in a loft 
located at 675 Turk Street, San Francisco. It now occupies a five-story 
building, and it has launched a $50,000 fund-raising campaign with 
the expectation of expanding. The staff is composed of the following : 
Director, David Jenkins; educational director, Holland Roberts; 
trade-union director, Irwin Elber; associate trade-union director, 
Sylvain Schnaittacher ; director, Oakland school, Gordon Williams; 
trade-union extension, George Hitchcock; arts, Giacomo Patri; Eng- 
lish, Isobel Cerney; music, Leo Christiansen; social sciences, Jules 
Carson; director, veterans' activities, Andrew Zirpoli; public rela- 
tions, Mary O'Shea; publicity. Bill Turner, Duncan Gallery, Pele 
Edises; librarians, Clara Hanchett, Betty Sibbett, and Donald 
Thayer; registrar, Ethel Cayton; student guidance, Libby Gratch 
and counselors; financial secretary. Mini Katz; general office, Frances 
Wallcave, Jean Werthimer, and Betty Levine. Members of the board 
of directors are Ed Reite, president; G. F. Irvine, vice president; 
Paul Schnur, secretary; Ed Barlow, Jules Carson, Ethel Cayton, 
Isobel Cerney, Leo Christiansen, James Drury, Irwin Elber, Pat 
Fogarty, Hazey Grossman, Bjorne Hailing, Clara Hanchett, George 
Hardy, George Herman, David Jenkins, Mini Katz, Armand 
Keosian, Richard Lynden, Jack Maltester, Randolph INIeriwether, 
Giacomo Patri, Leonard Riave. Holland Roberts, Norma Jean 
Ross, Donald Thayer, and Gordon Williams. The school claims 
that in 1945 and 1946 the trade-union extension division conducted 
classes for 9,500 new union members, stewards, and officers of local 
unions in the CIO and AFL. The school assists in preparing union 
publications — leaflets, pamphlets, bulletins, organizational letters, and 
union newspapers. The school is accredited for veterans' education 
under the GI bill of rights, and accordingly "all tuition, books, and 
other fees are paid by the Veterans' Administration to the school." 

Among the courses offered by the California Labor School are the 
following : "Recent Strike Struggles : Strategy and Tactics," "Labor 
and Third Party Movements," "Advanced Economics : Economic 
Theories of Marx and Keynes," "What Is Coalition," "America as a 
World Power Today," "National and Colonial Liberation Move- 
ments," "Youth in Today's World," "Citizenship," "Negro History 
and Culture," "Social Thinking," "Soviet Union," 1917-47, "Psy- 
cholog;y and the Social Order," "Publicity Workshop for Trade 
Unions," "Russian Language," "Spanish," and "Labor Education 
and Political Action." The school also conducts classes in art, danc- 
ing, theater, journalism, public speaking, parliamentary law, organi- 
zing, shorthand, bookkeeping, choral singing, sculpture, photography, 
and atomic energy. The latter course is conducted by Prof. Frank 
Oppenheimer, who was employed during the last World War on the 
California atomic project. 

The advisory council of the school is made up a professors from 
Stanford University, University of California, San Francisco Junior 
College, San Francisco State College, and the California Labor 
School itself. Members of the educational advisory council are Dr. 
Thomas Addis, Prof. Arthur G. Brodeur, Dr. A. J. Cloud, Prof. Wil- 
liard H. Durham, Prof. E. W. Gifford, Prof. Edward M. Hulme, 



54 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Prof. A. M. Kidd, Robert H. Lowie, Dr. Alexander C. Roberts, Hol- 
land Roberts, Leo Rogin, Dr. Curtis E. Warren (superintendent of 
schools, San Francisco Board of Education), ancl Dr. Baldwin 
Woods. From July 19 to 29, classes will be held at Camp Aselomar. 
Lecturers will include Harry Bridges, Sidney Rogers, and Dalton 
Trumbo. 

Sponsoring organizations of the California Labor School include 
numerous CIO locals, the American Veterans' Committee of Cali- 
fornia, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 
CIO councils, the Communist Party and its various fronts, and local 
leaders of the National Lawyers Guild, and the Joint Anti-Fascist 
Refugee Committee. 

The following are faculty members and lecturers at the school: 
Leon Alexander, instructor of play writing at New Theater School; 
unit manager in Federal Theater. New York ; observer of labor move- 
ments in France, the Soviet Union, and Germany; Mara Alexander; 
drama director. Warehousemen's Union, Local 6 (ILWU) ; American 
Laboratory Theater; Eva Le Gallienne's Group ; Robert Anshen, tech- 
nical director, Vallejo Housing Authority; Victor Arnautoff; Leon 
Bick ; Eugena Bielawski ; Jane Blackmer ; Jessie Elliott Buck ; Dudley 
A. Cameron ; Jules Carson, former political action director, Alameda 
County CIO; Frank Cerda, Isobel Cerney; Leo E. Christiansen; 
Adelyne Cross ; Margaret de Patta ; Philip Eden ; Irwin Elber ; Lincoln 
Fairley ; Fannie Garfield ; Eugenia Gershol ; Louise Gilbert ; Robert 
Goff ; Carleton Goodlet ; Theoclore Garbacheff ; Nick Gregoric ; Hazel 
Grossman; Milton Halberstadt; Gladys Hares; Gail Hazard (directed 
organization of Army newspapers in Canada and Alaska, taught Army 
field newspaper technique of the School for Special and Morale 
Services) ; Edith Kiertzner Heath ; Eleanor Hesthal ; Joan Hinchman ; 
George Hitchcock ; Hans Hoffman ; Charlotte Howard ; Marco Ignacio 
Infante; David Jenkins; Mimi Kagan; William Kauffmann, press 
department, Office of Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, Mexico 
City; Jack Kirtley; Freda Koblick; Adam Lapin, associate editor, 
Daily People's World (Communist) ; Peter Macchiarini, Miriam 
Martins; Helen Miller; Keith Monroe; Philip Morton; Ray Oechsli; 
Giacomo Patri ; Jack Patton ; Jo Pillsbury ; Paul Pinslry ; Edwin Pope ; 
Evangeline Powell; Anton Refregier; Al Richmond, editor in chief, 
Daily People's World (Communist); Holland Roberts; Nora Lee 
Rohr; Benjamin Rosenbluth; Mildred Rosenthal; Sylvain Schnait- 
tacher, labor panel member, WLB; Michael Shapovalov, United 
States Department of Agriculture expert on Soviet agriculture; 
Nathan Siegel; Awan Senario; Joseph Stain; Celeste Strack; Donald 
Thayer : George Vurek ; Henry Wachs ; Tom Weber, formerly on the 
staff of Friday magazine ; Frederick Welch ; Margo Westgaard ; Gor- 
don Williams; Ruth Witt-Diamant ; and Andrew Zirpoli. 

David Jenkins, the $100 a week director of the California Labor 
School, when first accused, denied that he was ever a Communist. 
He later pleaded a lapse of memory, after being shown a transcript 
of a New York voting record which proved that he had registered 
as a Communist there. He also admitted that he had served a 60-day 
jail sentence in New York for Communist (riot) activities. At one 
time Jenkins was Norfolk ( Va.) agent for the CIO National Maritime 
Union, and he was active in circles which enlisted recruits for the 
Red Army in the Spanish revolution. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 55 

Hazel Grossman, an instructor at the school, and a member of the 
board of directors, admitted before a California legislative commit- 
tee that she is the wife of Aubrey Grossman, educational director of the 
Commmiist Party in California. 

Holland Roberts, educational director of the school, admitted that 
he is president of the American-Russian Institute in California. 

The school has received "loans" amounting to around $3,000 from the 
Communist organ, Daily People's World. 

The California State Federation of Labor (AFL) on June 28, 1944^ 
according to an item which appeared on page 5 of its Weekly News 
Letter, issued the following statement : 

Reaffirming its original action, the executive council of the California State 
Federation of Labor unanimously repudiates the California Labor School In 
San Francisco and the California Education Center of Los Angeles as not being 
bona fide labor schools * * * The previous action taken by the council 
was in regard to the Tom Mooney Scliool, which name has now been changed to the 
present one, the California Labor School. 

Recently (1947) the California Department of the American Legion 
adopted a resolution calling on the Board of Education to cancel the 
approval of the California Labor Schools for GI educational benefits. 

In referring to David Jenkins, the Daily People's World stated that 
he warned Negroes and labor of America's rise to a world power, and 
emphasized its bad effect on them. The paper also announced that Al 
Richmond and Adam Lapin would analyze "capitalism in the United 
States, its economic system and foreign policy, and the effect on Amer- 
ican labor." Speaking of Celeste Strack, an instructor in the school^ 
the paper said she would "evaluate socialism in tlue USSR, its solu- 
tion of job and security problems, and the status of trade unions under 
capitalism and socialism." Noted speakers who have appeared before 
classes in the school, according to the paper, include Harry Bridges^ 
Reid Robinson, Vincente Lombardo Toledano, Paul Robeson, Orson 
Welles, I. F. Stone, Max Lerner of PM, and Henry Casidy. 

Instructor of atomic energy at the California Labor School is Dr. 
Frank Oppenheimer, said to be a brother of Dr. J. .R. Oppenheimery 
director of the Los Alamos, Calif,, atomic project. The former is a 
scientist on the project. 

Another prominent California school is the People's Educational 
Center, located at 1717 North Vine Street, Hollywood. The board 
of directors is made up of Willis J. Hill, president; Fay E. Allen, 
Harry Brown, Dr. Frank C. Davis, Sidney Davison. Mrs. Gertrude 
Flatte, Dr. Sanford Goldner, Frank Green, Dorothy Healey, Maurice 
Howard, John Howard Lawson, G. T. Peterson, Albee Slade, and 
William Wolfe. Sidney Davison is the director; Mildred Raskin, 
executive secretary; and Martha Dones, registrar. Members of the 
advisory board are Helmer Bergman, Dr. Leo Bigelman, Ed Gil- 
bert, Sondra Gorney, Robert Lees, Frances Millington, Herbert Sor- 
rell, and Frank Tuttle. The instructors are Jack Agins, Minna 
Agins, who lectured widely on the Soviet Union; Helen Alcalay; 
George Beller; Helmer W. Bergman; Herbert Biberman; Leo 
Bigelman, formerly associated with the Workers' School of Los 
Angeles; Val Burton, writer-producer at Universal; Hugh Camp- 
bell; Joseph Chabot; Emma Lou Davis, Sidney Davison, director of 
the People's Education Center, who was in the United States Navy 
for 4 years; Frank C. Davis, former director of Education, People's 



56 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Educational Center; Guy Endore; Neil Enochs; William B. Ester- 
man; Vocha Fiske, 1946 instructor for AFRA's veteran refresher 
course; Hugo Friedhofer, composing and arranging for major 
studios since the inception of sound; Ted Gilien, formerly combat 
artist, United States Army; Elliott Grennard, articles on jazz in 
Music and Rhythm, PM, and New Masses; Victor Jvaplan, of the law 
firm of Katz, Gallagher and Margolis ; Herbert Klynn ; Robert Lees, 
wh^has been actively writing in motion-picture industry for 12 years; 
Marjorie Leonard; Kenneth MacGowan, dramatic critic from 1910 
to 1923, play producer from 1925 to 1931, and motion picture pro- 
ducer since 1932; Gladys Magy, worked in office of Inter- American 
Affairs; Rose N. Marshall; Alice Miles, Charles B. Millholland, 
author of stage, screen, and radio success Twentieth Century; Freda 
Minowitz, taught for Hillel Foundation in New York, was on faculty 
of Yiddish Scientific Institute, and member of Jewish Education Com- 
mittee of New York; Laurence Morton, has done orchestrating for 
major studios and radio networks, has had articles in Hollywood 
Quarterly; Louis Quinn, radio writer for Radio Hall of Fame 
and Orson Welles, 2 years of writing and directing for Blue Net- 
work in Hollywood; Paquerette Pathe; Frank Pestana; Irving 
Pichel, motion-picture director; Stanley Rubin, wrote, directed, and 
produced Army films, produced at Universal, now under contract at 
Coli^mbia ; Mildred Raskin, executive secretary, People's Educational 
Center; Lillya Sabsay, born in the Crimea, has taught private classes 
in Russian; John Sanford; Leon Saulter; Wilma Shore, short stories 
published in Story, New Masses, McCall's, Accent, and Good House- 
keeping; Michael Simmons, screenwriter, author of 20 feature films; 
Moi Solotaroff, artist, stage designer, teacher, and lecturer; Frank 
Thomas; Milton Tyre, firm of Katz, Gallagher & Margolis. 

The People's Educational Center offers courses in public speaking, 
parliamentary law, labor's key problems, medicine, philosophy, mo- 
tion-picture directing, screen writing, radio speech technique, creative 
writing, story writing, art, photography, dancing, Russian and 
Spanish, and music. 

For several years the Communists have operated the Los Angeles 
Committee of Correspondence. This is a correspondence school and 
specializes in letter campaigns to newspaper editors for publication 
in readers columns. 

In Seattle, Wash., the Reds operate the Seattle Labor School. It 
is reported that it is holding classes in the old Central School Build- 
ing. This school is similar in set up and operation to all schools op- 
erated by Communists and fronters. 

The Highlander Folk School in Monteagle, Tenn., unquestionably 
keeps pretty close to the party line. Its directors, James Dombrowski 
and Myles Horton, are found in the company of Red-f routers. It has 
been a recipient of funds from the Robert Marshall Foundation which 
has so lavishly contributed to Friends of Democracy, American Youth 
Congress, National Negro Congress, Southern Negro Youth Congress, 
and other fronts. 

Members of the executive council of the Highlander Folk School are 
William H. Crawford of the CIO Steel workers' Union, district di- 
rector; Edward F. Gallaghan, vice president of the Hosiery Workers' 
Union ; Paul R. Christopher, CIO regional director, Tennessee ; James 
Dombrowski, listed as secretary of the Southern Conference for 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 57 

Human Welfare; Charles Gillman, CIO regional director, Georgia; 
Carey Haigler, CIO regional director, Alabama; Lucy Randolph 
Mason, CIO public relations director; George Mitchell, regional di- 
rector CIO-PAC : Hollis Reid, legislative board of locomotive fire- 
jnen; Thomas Starling, director Region 8, Auto Workers' Union 
(CIO) ; Aubrey Williams, organizing director of Regional Farmers' 
Union and publisher of Southern Farmer (Montgomery, Ala.), a 
member of the board of directors of the Progressive Citizens' Asso- 
ciation. 

As a guarantee against the possibility of "capitalist poison" getting 
into the veins of Russian youth living in this country, the Soviet 
Union set up its own schools in the United States at which the off- 
spring of Russian diplomats and trade agents are educated. The 
largest of these schools are located at 85 One Hundred and Eighteenth 
Street, New York City; 6 East Sixty-seventh Street, New York City; 
and 810 St. Marks Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. Until recently, such a 
school was operated in Washington, D. C, on Military Road. 

Another angle of activity in the educational field which must not 
be overlooked is the kit for teachers in American schools prepared 
by the American-Russian Institute and the National Council of 
American-Soviet Friendship, both of which have headquarters in 
New York City, with branches in our principal cities. The activities 
of the latter organization wdll be dealt with later on in this testimony. 

Mr. Bonner. None of these schools are State institutions? 

Mr. Steele. No, sir. 

Mr. Bonner. Or denominational institutions? 

Mr. Steele. No. 

Mr. Bonner. They are all privately operated schools? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

The Chairman. Do any of them get assistance from any of the 
States or from the Federal Government? 

Mr. Steele. That is a point that I might mention. The only finan- 
cial assistance that I know of that any of these schools have had is 
the Jefferson School and the California Labor School, so-called labor 
school. They have both obtained approvals for GI benefits. Except 
for that I know of no Federal finance that they have had. 

Mr. Bonner. Have thgse two institutions that you speak of as being 
on the approved list for GI training 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

Mr. Bonner. What kind of courses do they conduct? 

Mr. Steele. I have gone into that very thoroughl3^ You will find 
them in the catalogs there. Courses on Marxism, strike tactics, any- 
thing that goes with the party activities and party line. 

Mr. Bonner. I mean like other schools, do they conduct courses like 
a university would in the States? For instance, Princeton, or any 
other school of that kind, do they have regular diversified courses ? 

Mr. Steele. No, there is nothing listed in the catalogs that show 
diversified courses. 

Mr. Bonner. Still they are on the approved list ? 

IVIr. Steele. Yes. And I inquired of the Veterans' Bureau about 
that and they gave me this explanation, and they said the Veterans' 
Bureau does not get up the approved list. 

Mr. Bonner. I understand. 



58 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Mr. Steele. That the States, some division of the State submits a 
list that has been approved by the State, and the Veterans' Bureau, 
is obligated under the GI bill to set aside that much money. Now, as 
to how many veterans have enrolled in the schools, I don't know, ex- 
cepting that 87 are supposed to have been graduated from the Cali- 
fornia Labor School last week. 

Mr. Bonner. What kind of course did they graduate from ? 

Mr. Steele. That I don't know. The information that came to me 
was by wire and that part of the information was not included, as. 
to what they graduated in. 

Mr. Bonner. How could this committee go about finding out I 

The Chairman. Will the gentleman yield? 

Mr. Bonner. Yes. 

The Chairman. In this pamphlet, put out by the Jefferson School',, 
and it is dated June 1947, is included, among the courses Principle& 
of Marxism No. 1, Principles of Marxism No. 2, Political Economy, 
Imperialism, History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,. 
Development of Modern Economic Thought, and so on. Soviet 
Union Today, World Today, and History of the American Labor 
Movement. 

Mr. Bonner. They have no courses in the professions or the trades. 

Mr. Stripling. In the case of the California Labor College, there 
has been considerable controversy in the State of California and also 
in the Veterans' Administration for the last year and a half over the 
fact that it is on the approved list. Do you have any information on 
that, Mr. Steele? 

Mr. Steele. I know there has been a lot of criticism and, as I stated,. 
I took it up with the Veterans' Bureau and they informed me that it 
was approved by some bureau of the State; they were under obliga- 
tion, under the act, to finance it on that account. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Steele, I noticed in your testimony that you say 
officials of the Jefferson School on Social Science claim that, since its 
opening under the present name in 1944, some 40,000 persons have 
taken its courses. 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

Mr. Stripling. For the committee's information, Doxey Wilkerson 
was the individual mentioned by J. Edgar Hoover when he testified 
in March as being a Government employee employed in the office of 
OPA, whom he insisted should be fired for being incompetent, and 
they refused to fire him, and later Doxey Wilkerson resigned from the 
OPA, stating that he was going with the National Committee of the 
Communist Party and that he was a Communist. That is just for the 
purpose of identification for the record. 

Mr. Steele. I might also state at this time that another former atom 
scientist, by the name of Frank Oppenheimer, who was on the Cali- 
fornia atom project, has been a teacher at the California Communist 
school, teaching atomic energy. 

The Chairman. He is out al the University of Minnesota now. 

Mr. Steele. He is now there. Up until 6 months ago, I believe it 
was, he was teaching at the school in California. 

The Chairman. Mr. Steele, have you been able to get copies of the. 
texts used in these courses? 

Mr. Steele. Yes; some. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER-S. STEELE 59 

The Chairman. Have you been able to get copies of the texts used 
in the atomic energy courses? 

Mr. Steele. No ; I have not. 

If I may digress a little bit, I might refer at this time to Balamuth, 
"who is instructor at the New York school. He was, in September 
1942, 1 believe it was, referred to as having been the head of the cell of 
the Communist Party. I read the following: 

Named in New York legislative committee report following investigation of 
■Communists in State colleges and universities, as an active member and leader 
in tlie teachers' cell operating chiefly out of. City College of New York. The 
report states that he wrote the material appearing in the Teacher-Woi'ker organ 
•of the teachers' cell of the Communist Party in New York. That Balamuth 
was so careful in guarding his connection that hg wore gloves when preparing 
Communist material for mailing, so as to cover up any possibility of fingerprint 
evidence against himself. That he also had his private library walls paneled, 
"With a few sliding panels, back of which he kept his Communist material, so as 
to hide such from any possible unfriendly visitor. 

The Chairman. This is from the report ? 

Mr. Steele. This is from the report. 

Balamuth was also active in American Student Union circles, and 
was on the faculty and an instructor at the School for Democracy in 
1942, instructing in science, the school was with the Workers' School, a 
forerunner of the present Jefferson School in New York City. The 
organization committee of School for Democracy included on it Fred- 
crick J. Fields, A. A. Heller, Alexander Trachtenberg, and others. 
The school was set up particularly to make positions for the scores of 
professors and teachers who were dismissed in a wholesale clean-up 
following the above investigation. 

An interesting sidelight on this angle is that Arthur Steinberg, 
who was mentioned as "Berger" in the Canadian report on atom spy 
ring, is now teaching at a college in Ohio — not a Communist college, 
lout a legitimate college. 

Mr. McDowell. Do you know what college it is ? 

Mr. Steele. It is Oberlin College — it is Antioch College. He is 
listed in the directory. 

Mr. Stripling. What subject is he teaching? 

Mr. Steele. I haven't gone into that, but he is listed here as a mem- 
ber of their teaching staff. 

Mr. Stripling. Suppose you check that during the lunch hour, Mr. 
■Steele. 

Mr. McDo^vELL. To keep the record straight, you said Oberlin 

Mr. Steele. I want to change that. 

Mr. McDowell. It is not Oberlin? 

Mr. Steele. No, sir. There are two colleges there and I get the two 
-confused. This is Antioch College. 

Mr. Stripling. This union in New York of which Louis Balamuth 
was a member, is that local 5 of the American Federation of Teachers? 

Mr. Steele. I wouldn't say positively about that, Mr. Stripling. I 
think that is it, but I am not certain about that. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, that is the local of the A. F. of L. 
which was later expelled by the American Federation of Labor because 
of Communist activity within the local. 

Mr. Steele. At this same college there is a Lewis Corey on the fac- 
ulty, whom I have been told is Louis Corey Fraini, one of the charter 
anembers of the Communist Party and former editor of two Com- 



60 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

munist organs. I think we will all commend the Government for what 
little it has done, but I believe the public would feel more secure if the 
•question of some of the high-ups of this about 140 that were hooked 
up in that Canadian spy ring were apprehended and tried and the 
record cleared up somewhat. 

In other words, I understand that our Government was given a 
list of 140 people in this country, which included Berger, or Steinbergs 
who was under the name of Berger, who were in some way hooked 
up with the Canadian spy ring. So far as I know, I mean, so far as 
the public knows, there has -been nothing done about any of those 
individuals. 

Mr. Stripling, Mr. Steele, would you care to give in open session 
the source of your information as to this 140 ? 

Mr. Steele. I prefer not to. I prefer to give it in closed session if 
permissible. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you consider it a reliable source of information? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, very reliable. 

Mr. Stripling. Very reliable ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you say it was official ? 

Mr. Steele. It was ex-official. I will say it that way. 

Mr. Bonner. What type of school is Antioch College ? 

Mr. Steele. Well, I think it gives sort of a general educational 
course. Congressman. 

Mr. Bonner. Is it a State institution? 

Mr. SiTiELE. No ; it is private. 

Mr. Bonner. Private institution ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bonner. I see. 

Mr. McDowell. Wasn't it originally created to educate freemen? 

Mr. Steele. I am not certain. 

Mr. Bonner. Who ? 

Mr. McDowell. Freemen. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you mind passing the catalog up to the 

committee? i • , 

Mr. Steele. Be glad to. The whole history of the school is there 

in the catalog. 

Mr. Bonner. What do you mean, freemen ? 

Mr. McDowell. If I recall rightly, it was started to educate new 

Neirro citizens after they were freed 'in 1860. I may be mistaken. 
Mr. Bonner. Like Howard University? ^ ^4 

Mr. McDowell. I would say similar. I may be mistaken. One of 

those colleges over there was organized for that purpose. 

The Chairman. We want to be certain. ^ 

Mr Steele. I wouldn't want to testify as to that because I haven t 

studied the nature of the college. I do know there are some very 

fine people on their board of trustees. 

Mr. McDowell. Antioch is at Yellow Springs, Ohio. 

Mr. Steele. Yes. . . n -x* 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Steele, the name Frami, would you spell it? 

Mr. Steele. F-r-a-i-n-i. . 

Mr. Stripling. And what did you say the person's real name is ? 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 61 

Mr. Steele. I say he is going; by the name of Lewis Corey in the 
catalog. 1 am told by a representative of one of the trustees of the 
scliool that his real name is Louis Corey Friani. 

Mr. Stripling. Spell Corey. 

Mr. Steele. C-o-r-e-y. 

Mr. Stripling. Thank you. 

The Chairman. I will say that Antioch College is one of the most 
respectable colleges in the country. I think someone said it was a 
Negro college. I disagree. I don't think it is. 

Mr. Sit:ele. It is not. 

The Chairman. Furthermore, anything said here shouldn't cast 
any reflection on Antioch College. 

Gentlemen, it is 12 : 30. Without objection we will recess to convene 
at 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 30 p. m., a recess was taken until 2 p. m. of the 
same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

^ The Chairman. The meeting will come to order. Mr. Steele, please 
resume. 

TESTIMONY OF WAITER S. STEELE— Eesumed 

Mr. Steele. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I wish to now go into a 
certain phase of the Communist plan of propaganda that is reaching 
into our colleges and universities — that is, not Communist colleges 
and universities but the private colleges and State institutions. In 
this respect, it will be recalled that back in 1936 there was an organiza- 
tion set up in our country in cooperation with certain Russian travel 
bureaus functioning here. This organization made it its special busi- 
ness to recruit professors and teachers, and often advanced students, 
for what was called the American-Soviet Summer Institute of Mos- 
cow. At the institute American educators and students learned all 
about the so-called glories ot the Communist system of government 
and of the "great" leaders of communism. Dr. W. W. Charters of 
Ohio University was at one time leader of the movement in this 
country. The activities of this institute were exposed several years 
ago. 

Our Government has lately attempted, I believe with little success 
and at great expense, to present to the people of Russia, via short 
wave, a description of our form of government and its method of 
operation. We do not attempt, of course, to send representatives 
from America into Russia to explain in detail the manner in which 
our Government functions, and we did not promote excursions of 
Russians to this country to propagandize them. We do not attempt 
to set up a chain of American agitational and propaganda schools 
in Russia, as have the Russians here. We do not organize a myriad 
of front movements on Russian soil to continuously^ propagandize in 
behalf of the United States and against the Communist system of 
Russia. We do not establish in Russia a string of newspapers and 
magazines, and we do not set up publishing houses which would turn 
out millions of pieces of literature in an attempt to undermine the 
Communist system of Russia and advance our ideologies. We 



62 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE • 

would not be permitted such liberties, of course, and we have not 
been able, to any extent, to reach the Russian people even via short 
wave. Why, then, should they assume that they have a legal and 
moral right to put into operation in the United States the most power- 
ful propaganda machine in behalf of Russia and the Communist 
system of government ever conceived ? Why should they be permitted 
to deride our system of government and to advocate the destruction 
of this system and the ultimate setting up of a Soviet America ? 

This field of propaganda has been extended lately by bringing the 
teachings of the Moscow University, so to speak, to the instructors in 
our own schools and colleges. This angle is being handled by the 
National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, which maintains 
headquarters at 114 East Thirty-second Street, New York City. Some 
of the leaders of this outfit were cited for contempt by this committee 
for refusing to furnish ifhe committee with pertinent data regarding 
its activities. 

The National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, within recent 
months, has added many side shows to its pro-Soviet and, accordingly, 
pro-Communist propaganda machine. One of them is known as the 
committee on education of the National Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship. This committee is under the direction of Dr. Herbert 
Davis. I know nothing of the additional connections of Davis. 
Neither do I know anything with regard to his qualifications, if any, 
as an educator, or his knowledge concerning Russia and communism. 
Working with him is Elizabeth Moos, a former Bronx teacher, on 
whom this committee undoubtedly has a background in connection 
with her activities in other fields. She is the executive secretary of the 
committee on education, and I am informed it is she who dpes the 
actual work of the committee. Among the vice chairmen of the 
committee are Frank E. Baker of the Milwaukee State Teachers' Col- 
lege, Heniy Pratt Fairchild of New York University, A. D. Henderson 
of Antioch College, Ernest O. Melby of the University of Montana, 
Holland Roberts of the California Labor School (Communist) and 
Stanford University, and W. Carson Ryan of the University of North 
Carolina. Included in the sponsors of the committee on education are 
the usual run of fronters, such as Max Yergan, Corliss Lamont, and 
H. W. L. Dana, together with the customary few unsuspecting. 

The plan through which the committee of education is now penetrat- 
ing our schools involves the distribution of Kits of Teaching Ma- 
terials on the Soviet Union. These "kits," as they are called include 
a great deal of the propaganda pamphlet material issued by the Na- 
tional Council of American-Soviet Friendship. Other materials used 
in the "kits" are issued by the American-Russian Institute, the Insti- 
tute of Pacific Relations, and similar outfits. The material includes 
such pro-Soviet publications as Soviet Russia Today and Survey 
Graphic. 

Mr. Stripling. Pardon me, Mr. Steele. Do you have any samples 
of the kit that you are referring to ? 

Mr. Steele. I have. However, I don't have them with me. It was 
such a big quantity of material that I didn't bring them with me, 
but I will be very glad to submit one of the kits to the committee, if 
you wish. 

The Chairman. Do that, please. 



Tf:STIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 63 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. The kits contain material for visual educa- 
tion for students, together with water colors by Soviet children, book 
illustrations by Soviet artists, sets of children's books printed in the 
Soviet Union, charts of various kinds, slides for projectors, and pam- 
phlets on Soviet farming, child care, sports, labor, and other subjects. 
The American-Russian Institute and the East and West Association 
are named as sources of additional material. 

A rather extensive Bibliography on the Soviet Union for teachers, 
issued in connection with the committee of education's school-infiltra- 
tion plan, contains List Sources and Supplementary Teaching Mate- 
rials. Therein are named, as further sources, the Soviet Information 
Bureau and the Russian War Relief. Listed as source material are 
the following books : Soviet Communism, The Truth About Russia, The 
Russians, Soviet Power, The Secret of Soviet Strength, Mother Russia, 
U. S. S. R., Russia Is No Riddle, Women of Soviet Russia, Changing 
Man, The Educational System of the U. S. S. R., Soviet Economy and 
the War, Soviet Spirit, Socialized Medicine, Twentieth Century Phi- 
losophy, Seven Soviet Plans, I Saw the Russian People, The Great 
Conspiracy Against Russia, Religion in the U. S. S. R., Lenin, That 
Boy Nikolka, Russia's Story, The People of Russia, Short History of 
Russia, The War of Liberation, Leninism, History of the Communist 
Party of Russia, The Baltic Riddle. Maxim Litvinoff, Against Aggres- 
sion, New Poland, Red Army, Last Days of Sevastopol, Twelve Months 
That Changed the World, An Outline of Russian Literature, Land of 
the Soviets, Russia's New Primer, Heroes of the War, Young America 
Looks at Russia, Building America, and How Man Became a Giant 
(Evolution). The authors of these books include H. W; L, Dana, a 
former teacher in a Communist school in Boston; Ella Winters, 
widely known f router; Anna Louise Strong, former editor of the 
Moscow News; Corliss Lamont; Victor Yakhontoff ; Albert E. Kahn, 
])arty functionary ; Rev. William Howard Melish ; Beatrice and Sidney 
Webb, British Reds ; Albert Rhys Williams ; Hewlett Johnson ; Walter 
Duranty; Vilhjalmur Stefansson; Edmund Stevens; Harry F. Ward; 
Henry E. Segerist, leader in the socialized-medicine campaign ; Edwin 
S. Smith, of the Progressive Citizens' Association and the National 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship ; Rose Maurer ; Eric Starbuck; 
Leo Gruliow; Joseph Stalin; Arthur Upham Pope; Maxim Litvinoff; 
Boleslaw Gebert; I. Mintz; Erskine Caldwell; Vera Micheles Dean; 
Ernest J. Simmons; Wanda Wasilewska; Maxwell Stewart; M. Ilin; 
and scores of other left-wing Americans and Russian leaders. 

Mr. McDowell. Can you tell me the author of Mother Russia ? 

Mr. Steele. Let me see if I can, sir. 

Mr. Striplixg. Maurice Hindus, I believe. 

Mr. Steele. No. I have that in the exhibits here, however. 

Mr. McDowell. All right. 

Mr. Steele. Building America is also endorsed as excellent source 
material by the committee on education. It is suggested that it be 
used by the teachers and professors in our educational institutions. I 
might add here that this book has created a State-wide controversy in 
California, where the Sons of the American Revolution finally suc- 
ceeded in having the book banned in some of the schools. I under- 
stand that the State legislature, through a special committee, is hold- 

65176—47 5 



64 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

ing hearings on the book, and it is expected that its findings will 
result in the barring of the book from all State institutions. 

At this point, I will turn over to this committee for its own informa- 
tion the comphaint of the Sons of the American Revolution, addressed 
to tlie Lieutenant Governor of California, the speaker of the state 
assembly, and to the special committee of the senate of California, in 
which is set forth the charges against this book. I will' submit all in 
a bunch here, if you don't mind. 

Mr. Stripling. All right. 

The Chairman. Mr. Steele, go back just a little bit. It is not clear 
to me just what the connection is between the committee on educa- 
tion and the American-Russian Institute. 

Mr. Steele. The committee on education, in their kits, has propa- 
ganda material on the Soviet Union which is issued by the American- 
Russian Institute. They also list that in the documents that I am sub- 
mitting here as further sources of material. 

The Chairman. And have you told the committee what the 
American-Russian Institute is? 

Mr. Steele. No. I am getting to that shortly, though, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Records and slides circulated by the committee on education of the 
National Council of American-Soviet Friendship were made by Paul 
Robeson (who records among others the Soviet Anthem), Richard 
Dyer Bennett, Sam Morganstern, and others. Ke3^stone Recordings, 
(Communist recorders) produce the records. Soviet posters are also 
included in the kits for American teachers and professors. 

One of the bulletins issued by the committee on education an- 
nounces that summer courses have already been instituted at Boston 
University, William and Mary, Columbia, Cornell, Emery, Middle- 
bury, Pomona, Buffalo, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Pittsburgh 
Universities, and at the Connecticut and Mary Washington Colleges. 

Mr. Stripling. Pardon me, Mr. Steele. You stated Keystone Re- 
cordings. 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. According to your memorandum, it is Keynote, 
Recordings. 

Mr. Steele. Keynote. 

Mr. Stripling. It is Keynote and not Keystone. 

Mr. Steele. Keynote is proper; yes. 

Mr. Stripling. All right. 

Mr. Steele. An ex])lanation is made to the effect that "space does 
not permit listing Russian studies planned next fall." The bulletin 
also states that "social" conferences and institutes have been held at 
the University of Colorado, University of AVyoming, University of 
Washington, and the University of Utah, and that Institutes of Inter- 
national Relations have offered discussion on the Soviet Union at Mills 
College, with Dr. Holland Roberts of the Communist California Labor 
School and Miss Rose Maurer of the committee serving as members 
of the statT. Miss Maurer was also on the staff of the Northwest In- 
stitute held at Reed College (Washing-ton State). Other Institutes 
were held at Antioch College and Friends University (Wichita). 
Workshops and conferences have been held by the committee at which 
the extension of this program in our schools was discussed. One con- 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 65 

ference, held in Philadelphia, had as its chief speakers Corliss Lamont 
of the council and Orest Shevtsov, head of the Young Communist 
movement in Russia. Another conference was held in New York, in 
which Arthur Upham Pope, Howard Wilson, Robert S. Lynd, and 
Frank E. Baker participated. In attendance were approximately 500 
teachers and school administrators. 

The Chairman. When were these conferences ? 

Mr. Steele. These were held last fall. A third conference was held 
in Boston. Herbert Davis, Corliss Lamont, Howard Wilson, and 
Dirk Struik were among the speakers. Dr. Vladimir Kazakevich and 
George Vernadsky took part in a conference held in Cleveland. 

The National Council of American-Soviet Friendship was originally 
known as Friends of the Soviet Union. It was organized as a branch 
of the International Friends of the Soviet Union, the headquarters of 
which were located in Moscow. The original purposes of the Friends 
of the Soviet Union were set forth in a booklet entitled "Tasks and 
Activities of the Friends of the Soviet Union," from which I quote: 

To mobilize the masses for militant action against war and in defense of the 
Soviet socialist state through street meetings, demonstrations, factory-gate meet- 
ings, and the organization of the Friends of the Soviet Union anti-war commit- 
tees in all basic industries * *. *. The attacks on militant workers on hours, 
wages, standard of living, and the attacks on the Soviet Union are parts of one 
whole, of the capitalists' attacks against the working class * * *. 

As a part of this policy of workers' solidarity, the Friends of the Soviet Union 
sends delegations of American workers to the Soviet Union to participate in the 
May Day and November 7 anniversary celebrations. In the campaigns for such 
delegates, the Friends of the Soviet Union enters into close contact with progres- 
sive and revolutionary trade-unions * * *. 

Originally, the officers and members of the boards of the National 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship (Friends of the Soviet Union) 
were all openly Communist Party leaders. After a series of nairte 
changing, which included the American Council on Soviet Relations, 
in January 1943, the final corporation papers were filed, establishing 
it under its present name, the National Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship, Inc. The corporation papers state that the purposes of 
the council shall be "scientific, educational, and charitable"; that it 
shall distribute literature, hold meetings, lectures, and broadcasts; 
that it shall give aid to other organizations or individuals to carry 
on similar activities; that it shall take by bequests, gifts, purchase, 
or lease property, real, personal, and mixed, without limitation as to 
value; that it shall invest any principal and expend any income for 
the above purposes; and that it shall accept membership. 

The incorporators, as listed in the incorporation papers, are Corliss 
Lamont, George Marshall, William Morris, Jr., Dr. Harry Grund- 
fest, and William Howard Melish, who are also named as directors 
of the organization. The incorporation papers provide that at least 
two-thirds of the directors shall be citizens of the United States. 
Harold I. Cammer acted as attorney for the incorporators. 

I wish at this time to file the incorporation papers, as well as other 
material pertaining to the committee on education, as evidence. 

The Chairman. We will accept them as exhibit No. 16. 

Mr. Stripling. The incorporation papers will start with 16. 

(Exhibit 16 was received.) ^"* 

" See appendix, p. 174, for exhibit 16. 



66 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Mr. Steele. The National Council of American-Soviet Friendship 
has set up numerous affiliates. These reach into many fields — the 
American-Soviet Science Society, headed by Dr. L. C. Dunn ; building 
industry committee, Harvey Wiley Corbett, chairman; committee of 
•women, Muriel Draper, chairman; committee on education. Dr. Her- 
bert Davis, chairman ; dance committee, Aanes de Mille, chairman ; 
religious committee, Rev. William Howard Melish, chairman; theater 
committee, Margaret Webster, chairman; and a medical committee 
of which Robert Leslie is chairman. 

The following are the local councils of the National Council of 
American-Soviet Friendship : 

Alabama : Dr. Herbert P. McDonald, chairman, Mobile Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship, 66 North Monterey Street, Mobile. Ala. 

California : Dr. M. Shapovalov, chairman. Peninsula Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship, 740 Creek Drive, Menlo Park, Calif. 

Colorado : Mrs Herbert D. Ulraer, executive secretary, Denver Council of 
American-Soviet Friendship, 667 South Downing Street, Denver, Colo. 

Florida : Dr. Karl G. Knoche, chairman, Jacksonville Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship, 514 Professional Building, Jacksonville, Fla. Rev. A. B. Rol- 
lins, director, Miami Council of American Soviet Friendship, 121 Soutlieast First 
Street, Miami 32, Fla. Mr. Alfredo Rodriguez, chairman, Tampa Council of 
American-Soviet Friend.ship, 1614 Eighth Avenue, Tampa, Fla. 

Illinois : Dr. William Card, executive director, Chicago Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship, 135 South La Salle Street, Chicago, 111. 

Louisiana : Prof. Robert D. Feild, chairman. New Orleans Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship, 1212 Broadway, New Orleans, La. 

Maine : Mr. Raymond H. Galley, Maine Council of American-Soviet Friendship, 
12 Providence Avenue, South Portland, Me. 

Massachusetts : Mrs. Nan Hunter Halperin, Massachusetts Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship, 35 Newbury Street, Boston, Mass. 

Minnesota : Mrs. H. B. Wiesner, executive secretary, Minneapolis Council of 
American-Soviet P^riendship, 1011 East River Road, Minneapolis, Minn. 

New Jersey : Mrs. Reva Finkel, regional secretary, New Jersey regional office, 
310 Washington Street, Newark, N. J. 

Ohio : Mr. Russell M. Chase, Union Trust Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Pennsylvania : Miss Adele Pollock, regional secretary, Pennsylvania regional 
office, 1831 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Miss Reba D. Altman, executive 
secretary, Philadelphia Council of American-Soviet Friendship, 1831 Chestnut 
Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Rev. Irving Murray, Pittsburgh Council of American- 
Soviet Ffiendsliip, Ellsworth and Morewood Avenues, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Wisconsin: Mrs. Paul Link, Madison Council of American-Soviet Friendship, 
Route No. 2, Madison, Wis. Mr. Henry C. Friend, Milwaukee Council of Ameri- 
can-Soviet Friendship, 6185 Plankinton Building, Milwaukee, Wis. 

The Chairman. At this point the record will show that the follow- 
ing members of the committee are present : Mr. Vail, Mr. McDowell, 
Mr. Nixon, and Mr. Thomas. 

Mr. Steele. Officers of the National Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship, Inc., are: Corliss Lamont, chairman; Arthur Upham 
Pope, William Morris, Jr., and Rev. William Howard Melish, vice 
chainnen; Prof. Henry Pratt Fairchild, secretary-treasurer; and 
Richard Morford, executive director. Members of the board of di- 
rectors are: Harland Allen, Zlatko Balokovic, Cyril Bath, Mary 
McLeod Bethune, Harvey Wiley Corbett, John O. Crane, Dorothy 
Douglas, Leslie C. Dunn, B. Z. Goldberg, Thomas L. Harris, Raymond 
C. Ingersoll, Philip J. Jaffe, Leon Kroll, Samuel B. Leavin, Howard 
McKenzie, George Marshall, William L. McFetridge, William Howard 
Melish, John Middleton, Emily Pierson, Adam Clayton Powell, 
Joseph P. Selly, M. B. Sherman, Herman Shumlin, Henry E. Sigerist, 
Vilhjalmur Stefansson, and Hudson Walker. Thomas L. Harris, a 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 67 

member of the board, is executive secretary of the American Russian 
Institute. Over a period of years he has held prominent positions in 
various other fronts. John Middleton, another member of the board, 
is vice president of the International Workers' Order. 

I will discuss the IWO to greater extent later on in my testimony. 
However, it is pertinent to mention at this point the fact tliat members 
of the IWO served as delegates to the national convention of the 
National Council of the American-Soviet Friendship. It is customary 
for the IWO to send 100 delegates to the national conventions of the 
council. I submit herewith three letters as evidence in this respect. 

(Exhibits IT to 25 were received.) ^^ 

Mr. Steele. Now, on the youth movement, please. The bkmt frank- 
ness with which national leaders of the American Youth for Democ- 
racy movement openly admit the Red connections of their organiza- 
tion, yet deny communism when they get in a tight pinch, and the 
boldness with which AYD is setting up housekeeping on the campuses 
of both private and tax-supported institutions of higher learning 
throughout the United States is alarming. 

American Youth for Democracy is waging a vigorous campaign for 
campus recognition in principal universities and colleges, and where 
it is unable to gain this recognition it starts secret "boring from 
within" of other campus societies. The American Youth for Democ- 
racy organization is nothing more than the old Young Communist 
League with an application of cosmetics to conceal the ugly features 
of the old atheistic Red movement, as originally designed by Moscow 
for our youth. Loyal Americans are tired of being duped by Stalinist 
agents who wrap themselves up in high-sounding names while spread- 
ing their poison across the land. Repeated warnings have been 
sounded against American Youth for Democracy, every step of which 
is plotted hj former chiefs of the Young Communist League. 

Several years ago the Young Communist League issued a pamphlet 
called "\^'liat Are the Young Communists, in which the principles of 
the League were clearly outlined. I quote herewith from the 
pamphlet : 

The Young Communist League is the organization of young workers that leads 
their fight against the clanger of another bosses' war and for the defense of the 
Soviet Union. The Y^oung Communist League is not a pacifist organization. It 
organizes and mobilizes the young worliers to fight against war before war has 
started. It also fights for the immediate needs of the soldiers and sailors, and 
calls upon these young workers in the armed forces to unite with the rest of 
the workers • * * 

The Y'oung Communist League, while fighting against war, realizes that wars 
are part of the present capitalist system, and caimot be abolished without the 
overthrow of capitalism. It teaches the young workers that when war is de- 
clared, they must turn their guns against their only enemy, the boss class. * * * 

Tl'.e Young Communist League joins hands with the Communist youth of all 
lands through aflBliation in that mighty revolutionary youth organization, the 
Young Communist International. 

The Young Communist outfit joined in the strikes and other unrest 
which prevailed immediately before the recent World War, and when 
the Chameleon changed its color, even though it remained red, it fol- 
lowed the same tactics operating under the name American Youth for 
Democracy. Now that it is under fire, the AYD shouts from the 
housetops that it is not a Communist organization and holds no rela- 

" See appendix, p. 174, for exhibits 17 to 25. 



68 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

tion to the Moscow household. History — the written record of Amer- 
ican Communists themselves — proves this assertion false. 

Anyone interested in the background of the A YD merely needs to 
refer to the official organ of the Communist Party, the Daily Worker, 
for the facts. On the front page of the October 16, 1943, issue of this 
Red mouthpiece is a report under the heading: "Five thousand jam 
opening of YCL convention." It reads in part : 

Over 5,000 young Americans, many coming from various parts of the Nation, 
packed two halls at Manhattan Center (N. Y.) last night despite a driving rain 
as the Young Communist League opened its historical national convention to 
consider Its own dissolution and the building of a new national anti-Fascist or- 
ganization of youth. 

Earl Browder, then national head of the Communist Party, ad- 
dressed the meeting, as did Max Weiss, then president of the Young 
Communist League; and Bob Thompson, vice president of the same 
organization and now New York State chairman of the Communist 
Party. Oddly enough, despite all claims of the AYD crowd that it is 
not contaminated with Red blood, the guiding lights of the defunct 
Young Communist League immediately became the big shots of Amer- 
ican Youth for Democracy. 

On October 18, 1943, the Daily Worker featured another page 1 
story on the subject, under the heading "Form American Youth for 
Democracy at parley here." The paper reported as follows: 

A new American anti-Fascist youth organization was born at Mecca Temple 
yesterday [October 17, 1943] as 332 delegates, representing 190 community clubs 
and 150 guests and observers, ended an organization convention initiated by 
the Young Communist League. The convention was called into session Satur- 
day [October 16, 1943] evening immediately following the decision of the Young 
Communist League to disband that body. * * * Yesterday the new conven- 
tion decided to name the new organization "American Youth for Democracy." 
■ * * * Elected as cochairman of the new organization were Kobert Thompson 
and Naomi Ellison. * * * Chosen executive secretary was Carl Ross, who 
was chairman of the New York State committee of the Young Communist 
League. * * * Leaders of the convention paid tribute to Max Weiss, national 
president of the Young Communist League and delegate to the American Youth 
for Democracy convention. Weiss explained that he had not accepted the nomi- 
nation for office in the new organization because he plans to retire from activity 
in the youth field. 

Weiss became active immediately in the adult ranks of the Com- 
munist Party. But he certainly left no doubts about American Youth 
for Democracy being of Young Communist League ]iarentage. Just 
prior to the dual convention — the one dissolving YCL and the other 
giving birth to AYD — Weiss wrote an article in the Communist 
(September 1943), another Communist Party organ, which identifies 
itself as "a magazine of the theory and practice of Marxism-Len- 
inism." At the time Earl Browder, the head of the Communist Party 
and now No. 1 book peddler for Russia, was editor. The publication, 
which, like all other Red agencies, has since changed its name, is now 
known as Political Affairs, but still admits that it is "a magazine de- 
voted to the theory and practice of Mixrxism-Leninism." Weiss is 
editor of Political Affairs at the present time. The article by Weiss 
was entitled "Toward a New Anti-Fascist Youth Organization." He 
began the article by saying : 

Flowing directly from the desire of the Young Communist League to make its 
maximum contribution to the mobilization of the masses of youth for the fulfill- 
ment of these tasks, the convention will consider a proposal of outstanding im- 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 69 

portance, a proposal * * * to cliange the program and name of the YCL and 
to broaden its leadership in order to help create a new united anti-Fascist youth 
organization. 

Buried deep in the 14 pages of fine print expounding the future of 
the new organization, "Comrade" Weiss unintentionally reveals, in 
advance, the Red conception of American Youth for Democracy. He 
continues : 

The proposals which are advanced for consideration of the convention are 
such as will speed up the process already under way in the YCL for many 
years, advance it to a higher stage, and thus help to bring into existence something 
qualitatively new. 

For that is what will be the political result of making such fundamental changes 
as those that ai'e proposed. We will actually have, as a result, the beginnings of 
a new organization, and not merely the old organization with some slight modifica- 
tions. 'I Ills does not mean that it will be a new organization that will spring 
"full-fashioned from the brow of Jove." Not at all. 

Officiating as midwife at the birth of the American Youth for 
Democracy and being its parent by virtue of being president of YCL, 
there should certainly be no reason for blood tests to determine lineage 
after Weiss speaks. He said : 

It is the YCL as it exists today which is transforming itself into a new 
organization. 

Of course, the author tries to cushion the blow by claiming that the 
Young Communist League was an "independent" organization, but 
in the next breath he boasts that : 

It is certainly true that thousands of youth who joined the YCL later joined 
the Comnmnist Party, and that many of them became able leaders of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Those who are carried away with the oily words of the defenders 
of American Youth for Democracy as not being a Red scheme for the 
enticement of young men and women of the United States into the 
revolutionary forces will get a rude awakening when advised that in 
this report by Communist Editor Weiss and former head of the Young 
Communist League, he said : 

AH Communists will naturally hope that thousands of youth who joined the 
new organization (AYD) will also later join the Communist Party, and that many 
M'ill become leaders of the Communist Party. 

Lamenting the handicap the Young Communist League experienced 
with its Red appellation, Weiss said : 

The changes that are proposed for the convention will help to remove certain 
obstacles which have, hitherto, impeded the building of a broad anti-Fascist youth 
organization. There can be no question of the fact that the name and program 
of the YCL were such as to imply that membership in the organization auto- 
matically committed one to acceptance of the immediate and ultimate program 
■ of the Communist Party and that they therefore operated to prevent from joining 
it thousands of youth who supported its immediate program and activity. 

The report points to the fact that in the new organization (AYD) 
"there will be full freedom of all youth within the organization who 
desire to study Marxism and the Marxist theory," and looks for the 
brilliant Red lining, saying : 

Communists believe that ever larger and increasing numbers of young people 
:and, in the long run, a majority of American youth will ultimately see that only 
by equipping itself with the science of Marxism can the American working class 
find its proper path to a final solution of all problems 



70 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

YCL required party loyalty. 

By the time its June 1946 convention in New York City was held, 
the AYD claimed clubs on 63 college and university campuses and in 
19 States, with 432 delegates in attendance. It was at this Congress 
that it took a militant stand against military training for the Amer- 
ican Army and for unlimited appeasement of Russia and its satellite 
countries. Greetings were received from William Z. Foster, head of 
the Communist Party; Ben Gold, Communist board member and CIO 
union official ; Senator Pepper, Hugh De Lacy, and other Communists 
or fronters, as well as from Soviet Russia. 

It is not necessary to have any superknowledge to analyze the facts 
and determine that the American Youth for Democracy movement 
was bred, born, and nursed by the Communist leaders, for the birth 
records prove the nativity. 

1. October 17, 1943, the Young Communist League opened "its his- 
toric national convention to consider its own dissolution and the 
building of a new national anti-Fascist organization of youth." (The 
quotes are from the Daily Worker. ) 

2. October 18, 1943, "A new American anti-Fascist youth organiza- 
tion was born" at a "convention initiated by the Young Communist 
League." This turned out to be the American Youth for Democracy. 
(Again I quote from the Daily Worker.) 

3. Max Weiss, national president of the Young Communist League, 
was offered the nomination for president of the AYD, but, according 
to the Daily Worker, he "explained that he had not accepted the nom- 
ination for office in the new organization because he plans to retire from 
activity in the youth field." 

4. Robert Thompson, who presided over the ninth convention of the 
Young Communist League, and who served as secretary of the Ohio 
State Young Communist League, and in 1946 w^as the Communist 
Party candidate for Governor of New York, was elected cochairman 
of the AYD. He is now State chairman of the Communist Party of 
New York. 

5. Carl Ross, executive secretary of the Young Communist League 
of the LTnited States of America and president of the New York State 
Young Communist League, was elected executive secretary and to the 
national board of American Youth for Democracy. 

6. Naomi Ellison, a member of the editorial board of Spotlight, a 
magazine early identified as the organ of the Young Communists, was 
elected cochairman with Thompson, and to AYD's national board. 
Miss Ellison, whose native State is Washington, has been chairman of 
the National Industrial Council of the YWCA. She was sponsor 
of the Red "Peace Mobilization" which later became the American 
Peace Mobilization, an organization on the Attorney General's list of 
subversive Communist groups. She also directed the AYD "Sweet- 
hearts of Service Men's Clubs," organized by the Reds during the war 
near training camps as a means through which they might entice 
servicemen. 

7. Claudia Jones, former editor of the organ of the Young Com- 
munist League, the Weekly Review, and a member of the national 
council of the Young Communist League, as well as State educational 
director of the New York Young Communist League, was elected to 
AYD's national board and editor of its official organ, Spotlight. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 71 

8. Lillian Eoss and Fay Caller, members of the so-called national 
war service committee of the Young Communist League, were elected 
to the national board of the AYD. 

9. Earl Browder, former head of the Communist F'arty, who ad- 
dressed the dissolution convention of the Young Communist League, 
which proved to be merely a name-changing affair, said in the course 
of his speech : 

It will consider a proposal calling for the dissolution of the Young Communist 
League as the first step toward the establishment of a Nation-wide, nonpartisan, 
auti-Fascist youth organization. 

10. Spotlight, official organ of the AYP, is published by New Age 
Publishers, Inc., which was the publishing company of the organ of 
the Young Communist League, Weekly Review. Writers for Spot- 
light, as for Weekly Review, included many of the Nation's best- 
known Communists and Communist-front leaders. The editorial 
management of Spotlight is composed by the majority of those who 
served on the Weekly Review. 

11. AYD, like its predecessor, the Young Communist League, has 
international affiliations. YCL was an affiliate of the Young Com- 
munist International at Moscow. AYD is an affiliate of the World 
Federation for Democratic Youth, organized at a World Congress of 
Anti-Fascist Youth held in London in 1946 at the instance of the 
Soviet Anti-Fascist Youth Committee, composed of members of the 
organization of the Young Communist International, which was cen- 
tered in Moscow. 

12. Vincent Fieri, director of the teen-age clubs of AYD, is a, Penn- 
sylvanian, and was formerly head of the Tom Mooney club of the 
Young Communist League in Philadelphia. 

13. Vivian Levin, director of the intercollegiate section of AYD, 
was formerly student organizer of the southern California section of 
the Young Communist League. Vice presidents include Louis Burn- 
ham, of Alabama, head of the Young Communist League's Paul Revere 
chapter in New York City, leader of the City College of New York 
student strike in 1937, and at present head of the youth section of the 
(Communist) National Negro Congress and the Southern Negro Youth 
Congress. 

14. Mollie Leiber, active in young Red circles, is Midwest chairman ; 
and Muriel Friedman, former Young Communist League member and 
among its foremost leaders in California, has been appointed to Cali- 
fornia leadership of AYD, Ruth Jett of New York City is another 
vice chairman of AYD, and has been active in leadership of a Com- 
munist front among Harlem Negroes. Leiber presented the AYD with 
a gift from Russia in 1946. 

Thus it is conclusively shown that the germ cells were of outright 
Communist concoction. The egg was laid by Communists, hatched by 
Communists, and the offspring has been constantly mothered by Com- 
munists. 

The genealogy of American Youth for Democracy extends back 
through several Red ancestors to the Young Workers' League, which 
was formed in 1922 and was one of the beneficiaries of the American 
Fund for Public Service, more commonly known as the Garland (Red) 
Fund. The first national convention of the organization was held 



72 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

May 13-15, 1922. Prior to that time numerous local Communist or- 
ganizations had been using the name Young Workers' League, and 
the convention adopted the title. The third national convention of the 
Red Youth was held in October 1925, when a revised constitution was- 
adopted and the name slightly changed to Young Workers' (Connnun- 
ist) League. Communist youngsters adopted the name Communist 
Youth League for a. brief period in 1929. 

The use of the name Young Communist League began with the 
August 1, 1939 edition of the Young Worker, -its official organ at the 
time. That name continued until the invention of the latest booby- 
trap, the American Youth for Democracy. At the time of the trans- 
formation. Communists said : 

All Communists will naturally hope that thousands of youth who Will join the 
new organization will later join the Communist Party. 

Red leaders hope for the same success on the campuses of American 
colleges and universities as they had in their American Youth Con- 
gress in 1931. Of that venture the secretariat of the Communist Inter- 
national said at a speech before the Seventh World Congress of that 
organization at Moscow in 1935 : 

Comrades, the Young Communist League of the United States, headed by Com- 
rade Green, went to the American Youth Congress and achieved great success. 
The Congress was transformed into a great united front of radical youth, and 
when somewhat later a second general youth congress was held, our young com- 
rades already enjoyed a position of authority in it. 

In the May 1922 issue of Young Worker, then the official organ of 
the Young Communist League, the following statement appeared : 

We hear the tramp of the young as they come in ever larger masses to the 
banner of the revolutionists. Soon they will conquer. Meanwhile as we view 
the intolerable situation forced upon us by the master class, let this be our slogan 
till that happy May Day comes when we have won for ourselves a workers' re- 
public : "We have loved enough ; now let us hate." 

This steady tramp, tramp, tramp of the young is now echoing with 
more resounding thuds as the clever masters of propaganda in the 
Communist organizations bore their way into our American schools 
and colleges and bit by bit tear down the principles of American Gov- 
ernment and the foundations of American institutions. 

Recently in the Pacific Northwest, Reds were found enticing Wash- 
ington high-school students to AYD headquarters, using dances and 
free athletic equipment as bait. Once inside the headquarters the 
youngsters were confronted with a large-sized picture of Stalin and 
were fed Communist literature. In the Nation's Capital one of the 
AYD clubs has the nerve to call itself the George Washington Chap- 
ter. It was formerly the Seco Club. Another unit in the District of 
Columbia is known as the Sam Banks Youth Club. 

In a document issued late last year by the New York headquarters' 
of American Youth for Democracy, it is declared that : 

AYD has clubs in 20 States, dotting the country from coast to coast. This 
means that a member of AYD is part of something bigger than himself. His 
strength is multiplied, because he is working with thousands of other young fel- 
lows and girls who believe In the same thing he does. 

Of college activity the document boasts : "In colleges all over the 
country you will find AYD fighting for expanded educational facili- 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 73 

ties and democracy on the campus." Of teen-agers it reflects the man- 
ner in which they entice the youth. It says : 

Young people of high-school age like to get together and have a good time. They 
like to dance, to sing, to go on hikes, to dress up Saturday nights, to see shows, to 
participate in sports. * * * AYD meets this problem directly. To put it 
as simply as it actually is, AYD provides a home for teen-agers. 

Then the document elaborates on some of the accomplishments of 
these teen-agers under the AYD tutelage, and they include joining 
strikes on the picket line and in other ways. It says they "forced the 
superintendent of schools (Milwaukee) to withdraw his ban on Negro 
teachers," and their "brilliant fight for minority rights put a crimp in 
police brutality to Mexican and Negro youth" (in California). They 
brag in other documents of having a part in three recent agitational 
marches on Albany, N. Y., and Washington, D. C. 

American Youth for Democracy hides its communism behind sugar- 
coated slogans and appeals. Its constitution states that "any 10 youths 
may apply for a charter," and that the national council is autHorized 
to issue such charter, if it desires to do so ; but that the same national 
council, having complete authority over the organization, may at any 
time cancel a charter of a local or expel any member of the organiza- 
tion, if it is found that the members of the local or an individual has 
acted "against the principles or general welfare of the organization." 
The national council also has the power under the AYD constitution 
to formulate the "policies and program," and to order solidarity with 
other groups. This was the exact set-up of its predecessor, the Young 
Communist League, and it is the present set-up of the Communist 
Party and all other Ked fronts in the United States of America. 

Likewise the "policies and program of action" of the AYD conform 
constantly with the Communist Party line, as did the Young Com- 
munist League. A study of the present policies and program of the 
AYD shows that it is in complete conformity with the present-day 
Communist Party line, even to an all-out defense of the so-called 
"rights" of the Communist Party of Russia and of party leaders. A 
letter written by Leon Wofsy, official of the State of New York section 
of AYD (March 10, 1947) , says, in part : 

AYD is proud to state, at a time when anticommunism is the major instrument 
of reaction in our country, that we subscribe without reservation to the full and 
equal citizenship of Communists with all democrats. Liberals in our country 
cannot pussyfoot about the rights of Communists. * * * The Communists 
who are among those elected to leadership (of AYD) are there because they 
have proven their worth. * * * AYD was born in the midst of the anti- 
Fascist war. Its founders, Communists and non-Communists alike, learned the 
world-wide lesson of unity. * * * rj-^Q initiative of the Young Communist 
League in dissolving its ov.n organization and in helping bring together many non- 
Communist (f routers) youth leaders from imions, student organizations, and 
youth councils must be judged by its merits. * * * 

Outstanding examples of how the AYD line has changed in con- 
formity with the Soviet and (American) Communist Party lines were 
the changes in name of the YCL to AYD at the outbreak of the war, 
of the Communist Party to the Commimist Political Association in the 
United States, and of the Communist International to its separate 
internationals under the misnomer Internationals Against Fascism 
and for Democracy. 



74 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

AYD demanded an "immediate second front" after the fall-out be- 
tween Stalin and Hitler, prior to which the leaders of this movement 
were protesting against war and for peace in the United States of 
America. After the war the AYD went on immediate record against 
military training for the United States, while condoning it for Russia 
and its satellites. It launched out in an immediate campaign reaching 
even into our armed forces for the "immediate return of American 
troops from the Far East" and for the discontinuance of aid to the 
Chinese Central Government. It, like the American Communists and 
Russia, began to try to smear General MacArthur's administration of 
the Far East, charging that he was a "collaborator of Hirohito" and 
with "Philippine Fascists." It charged that President Truman, Sec- 
retary of State Byrnes, and Senator Vandenberg were seeking to place 
the United States in the position of a "dictator among nations" ; that 
the "Wall Street influence behind them" is seeking another war, and 
that this is the "pattern of imperialism that brought forth fascism 
and war." It charges that "economic royalists want us to hate the 
Soviet Union because it is carrying on the fight against fascism, 
principles for which the war was fought," It demands "stop the 
draft," "defeat military training," "stop imperialist interference with 
democratic movements in China, Philippines, and Europe, and expan- 
sionist bases in Latin and South America." It demanded "stop 
Byrnes-Bevin gang-up against the U. S. S. R." These are but a 
handful of its pro-Soviet and Communist demands, which are but 
echoes from Moscow and from New York headquarters of the Com- 
munist Party, the stooge in the United States for the Soviet in all 
matters. 

It may be apropos here to state that one of the foremost leaders of 
the young Red movement has stated within the past years that 
"capitalism is synonymous with fascism ; * * * to stop war and 
to bring about democracy it is therefore necessary to fight capitalism" 
(Russia is described as a "democracy"). Here one has the pattern 
under which the the Reds and their fronters can and do smear and 
undermine and attack all anti-Communists or believers in capitalism 
(our form of government) as "Fascists," and carry on their battle for 
communism under the banner of "antifascism and democracy." 

AYD has issued several organs, and it has a budget of $35,000 annu- 
ally. Its expenditures were reported to have been $26,940 for the 
year ending June 1946. Its publications have included Spotlight, 
AYD News, Teen Ager, AYD News Letter, AYD in Action, and thou- 
sands of cheap pamphlets and leaflets, all printed in New York City by 
known printer of Communist Party propaganda. The principal 
organ of AYD is known currently as Youth. 

A recent issue of the official Communist publication. Political Af- 
fairs, now edited by Max Weiss, features a statement by Marvin Shaw, 
entitled "The Reawakening of the American Student Movement," in 
which American Youth for Democracy is identified as "the major 
progressive student organization." The writer states that "the Com- 
munist clubs on the campus must become increasingly active. * * * 
They have a role in the immediate student struggles that no other 
organization can fulfill." 

Besides the AYD campus and off-campus clubs, operating under 
various names, and in many instances hiding the parent name, AYD, 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 75 

are teen-age clubs, adult clubs, sweethearts of servicemen's clubs, and 
the American youth orchestra. The latter was organized in 1932 by 
the Red youth, and it made its debut in Carnegie Hall in New York 
City. 

AYD locals are usually called youth clubs, and many unsuspecting 
youth are thus enticed into joining, unaware that the clubs are under 
direct Communist control. Among the branches operating in New 
York City are the Hunts Point Youth Club, Bataan Youth Club, Roos- 
evelt Youth Club, Clarity Youth Club, Action Youth Club, Art Action 
Youth Club, Challente Youth Club, AVallace Youth Club, Parkches- 
ter Youth Club, and Allerton Temple Youth Club. Other Red out- 
fits maintaining youth sections and cooperating with the AYD are the 
IWO, Young America Institute, Nature Friends, and Southern Negro 
Youth Congress. The AYD also cooperates with the Inter-Racial 
Friendship Committee. It promotes Youth Citizen Pilgrimages and 
Youth Legislatures. 

The current AYD program to bait new members and to hide its 
subversiveness, includes the collecting of 75,000 signatures to raise 
student veteran subsistence, opposition to Jim Crowism in league base- 
ball, for sending relief to European anti-Fascist youth, opposition ta 
military conscription, defending academic freedom, "standing with 
labor in its resolution to defeat the 212 pending antilabor bills," and 
for "freedom, jobs, and peace for youth." 

At an AYD parley held in New York several weeks ago, it was an- 
nounced that since youth "faces new and urgent problems," and since 
"youth is being invited to fight a new war, not for democracy and 
liberation, but for conquest for the sake of empire and profit for those 
who want an American century," the AYD was instructed to set up a 
stronger force to combat the "war mongers and labor baiters." A 
delegation composed of 15 members of the AYD immediately came to 
Washington, calling on Members of Congress to support the organi- 
zation's demands. 

A mimeographed report to State secretaries of the AYD, issued 
January 8, 1946, calling for a membership drive, reported that in a 
previous 2-week enrollment drive. New York City had 828 reenroll; 
Illinois, 203; California, 299; Maryland, 26; Washington, D. C, 5; 
Ohio, 33 ; eastern Pennsylvania, 53 ; Massachusetts, 12 ; Missouri, 18 ; 
and Michigan, 59. The report pointed to the fact that in every State 
there were from 30 to 2,000 members who should be reenrolled. 

The following officers and council members were elected at the June 
1946 convention of the AYD : 

National Officers 

Cochairmen : Winifred Norman, Vincent Fieri. 

Vice chairmen : Louis Burnliam, Mayer Frieden, John Gallo, Frances Gullotta, 
Ruth Jett, Mollie Lieber. 

Executive secretary : Herbert Signer. 
Secretary-treasurer : Julie Lowitt. 
Education and teen-age director : Vivian Levin. 
Intercollegiate director : Lee Marsh. 

Nationai. Council Members 

Michigan: Abel Lee Smith, Anabel Barahal, Rolf Cahn, Johnny Gallo, Erma 
Henderson (State president). Bob Purdy, Phil Schatz, Robert Oummings (State 
secretary). 



76 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

New Jersey: Douglas Barrett, Evelyn Gordon, "Willie Mae Gordon, Mary 
Adanatzias (director, Essex County). 

New York State: Leo Rifkin, Warren Brown, Paul Robeson, Jr., Joe Buckholt, 
Henry Cooperstock, Roslyn Emerine, Ann Johnston, Bob Kaufman, Buelah 
Kramer, Burl Michelson, Herb Nalibow, Teddy Schwartz, Fitz Squires, Bill Villa, 
Rose Stamler (cliairman. New York intercollegiate section). 

Massachusetts : Barbara Bennet, Ruby Flum, Ginny Kougias, Bob McCarthy. 

Wisconsin : Rubel Lucero. 

California: Bob Zakow, Chuck Bruck, Ralph Johnson, Vicki Landish, Henry 
Leland, Elaine Rose, Betty McCandless, (chairman, Lms Angeles Youth Council). 

Illinois: Iz Cheifetz, Evelyn Fargo, Sam Freidman, Delores Gerrard, Leon 
Gurley, Pat Hoverder. Vernon Jarret. 

Pennsylvania: Werner Marx, Harry Dubin, Cynthia Isenberg, Marcella Sloan, 
Lauren Taylor, Leon Weiner. 

Washington State : Cyril Guis. 

Maryland : Whitey Goodfriend, Wallace Jefferson. 

Ohio : Frank Hashmall, Marvin Lukin, Nathan Marks, Catherine McCastee. 

Minnesota : Alma He.ster. 

Connecticut : Al Marder. 

District of Columbia : Mary Willoughby. 

Missouri : Ray Wolverson. 

Speakers at this convention of the AYD included Harry F. Ward, 
cochairman, Civil Rights Congress ; Kenneth Kennedy, national com- 
mander, United Negro and Allied Veterans ; MoUie Lieber, Carl Ross, 
and Herb Signer. Addresses were also delivered by Luis Mas Martin 
delegate of the Socialist Youth of Cuba ; Bill Stewart, delegate of the 
Federation of Labor Youth of Canada ; and Nada Krieger of Yugo- 
slavia. 

National headquarters of AYD are located at 150 Nassau Street, New 
York, N. Y. Addresses of other sections (incomplete) are: 216 Mar- 
ket Street, San Francisco ; 318 Eighth Street, San Jose ; 1201 South 
Alvarado Street, Los Angeles; and 2321 Fifteenth Place SE., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

The following are a few of the local leaders : Barbara Gould, mem- 
bership director, San Francisco; Kenneth Van Leuven, membership 
director, Los Angeles; Evelyn Fargo, Illinois State director; Erma 
Henderson, chairman, Michigan ; Bob Cunningham, secretary. Michi- 
gan ; Phil Shatz, membership director, Michigan; Douglas Barrett, 
chairman. New Jersey; Clare Hunt, executive director. New Jersey; 
Alma Hester, executive director, Minnesota; Sam Cohen, director, 
Philadelphia; Jacqueline Winibish, membership director, Detroit; 
Henry Leland, county organizer, Santa Clara County, Calif.; Betty 
McCandless, chairman, Los Angeles Youth Council ; Mary Adanatzian, 
director, Essex County, N. J.; Mrs. Bob Mason, membership director, 
Montclair, N. J., Youth Adult Club; Harriet Ratner, director, Mich- 
igan Youth for Democratic Action (affiliate of AYD) ; Leon Straus, 
chairman; Everett Thomas, vice chairman; Frances Galotta, vice 
cliairman; Dez Gallon, vice chairman; Marty Mellman, treasurer; 
Harry Rosen, organizing secretary; Leon Wofsy, executive secre- 
tary, and Rose Stamler, chairman intercollegiate section, New York; 
Muriel Wildman, secretary, Washington-Oregon region (also a mem- 
ber of the executive committee of the Washington Commonwealth 
Federation). 

State and regional offices and heads of the AYD are : Lauren Taylor, 
401 South Twenty-second Street, Philadelphia; Adeline Kolin. 1442 
Griswold Street, "Detroit; Pauli Annoni, 201 North Negley, Pitts- 
burgh ; Celeste Strack, 593 Market Street, San Francisco ; Herb Signer, 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 77 

116 West Jackson Street, Chicaoo; Selma Weiss, 10 East Lexington 
Street, Baltimore; Daisy Lolich, 750 Prospect Street, Cleveland; 
Jack Epstein, 87 Orange Street, New Haven ; Jim West, 225 Halsey, 
Newai k ; and Lil Koss, 13 Astor Place, New York, N. Y. 

Additional leaders and section heads are : Mrs. Kelley Mink, Seattle; 
L/eo Kaplan, chairman State intercollegiate section, Boulder, Colo.; 
Harry Zepelin, State secretary, Tom Paine Club, Boulder, Colo.; 
Irving Sverdlow, president, Tom Paine Club, New York; Naomi 
Baker, chairman, Brooklyn College Club, New York; Ruth Maurice, 
chairman, Hunter College section, New York; Mrs. Ellie Hendrickson, 
organizer, Everett, Wash.; Camille Schweiger, secretary, Washington, 
D. C. ,*Mary Lou McEvers, executive secretary. University of Wash- 
ington unit ; Robert Cummins, executive secretary, Detroit. 

Officers for California elected at the AYD conference which was 
held in Los Angeles in July 1945 were: Jeanette Salve, chairman; 
Meyer Frieden, executive secretary; Lee Herendeen, secretary-treas- 
urer ; Gene Gardner, vice chairman of the college division • Nina Acker- 
man of Mrs. GI ; Robert Zakon of the Teen Agers; and Suzanne Sher 
of Young Adults. Miscellaneous members and leaders in California 
are: Rosabelle Tragin (Hollywood AYD and CIO United Office and 
Professional Workers' Union), chairman AYD Conference on Jobs 
and Youth, San Francisco, Octobsr 21, 1945; Art Pearl and Margaret 
Norie (man and wife), leaders of the University of California AYD 
Club in 1946; Charles and Sophie Keller, West Oakland AYD Club; 
Mr. and Mrs. Rosco Proctor, and Mr. and Mrs. Mike Dorsey, leaders 
in the Coronices Village AYD Club in Berkeley, Calif. ; Barbara Gould 
(stenographer of the interational offices of the ILWU, and social di- 
rector of the AYD Maritime Club in San Francisco), wife of Dow 
Wilson of the NMU, leading member of the club ; Donald Weiss, chair- 
man of the Unity Club of AYD, Los Angeles ; Elaine Rose, northern 
California coordinator of AYD ; Bill Lowe, northern vice chairman of 
AYD and teen age director in the Negro community in Berkeley; 
Jeanette Salve, southern vice chairman and head of Los Angeles execu- 
tive board of the AYD; Reeva Olson, San Francisco AYD secretary; 
Vicki Landish, student secretary of AYD in Los Angeles; Howard 
Rose, State veterans' director of AYD in California in 1945; Julia 
Spector, Berkeley secretary of AYD ; Betty Blake, member California 
State Council of AYD; Phil Schatz, national education director of 
AYD in 1945 ; Bonnie Gandlaush, led AYD modern dance group on the 
University of California campus ; Betty Green, a member of the Na- 
tional Council of AYD and chairman of the San Francisco organizing 
committee in 1944, an active leader in the Young Democrats of Cali- 
fornia, and the wife of Robert Miller Green, former member of the 
California State Legislature and now a member of the San Francisco 
Board of Supervisors. 

The AYD follows the Communist Party-line in all matters, from 
carrj'ing on a fight against so-called Red baiting to supporting the en- 
tire foreign policy of the Soviet Union. It took up the cudgel against 
Argentina, as did the Communists, and it demanded that the United 
States get out of China. It supports the guerilla forces of the Philip- 
pines, and it advocates the Communist stand regarding Korea. It has 
recruited student aid for Tito's rebuilding program, and it has echoed 
the Communist demands on Greece. The seeds of Marxism are being 



78 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

sown in a vital spot — our educational institutions and among our youth 
whose knowledge of the principles of our own Government has in 
many instances been neglected, and to whom falls the responsibility for 
the future of our great land. 

At this point, I wish to submit to the committee various exhibits, 
including the constitution of the AYD, as originally adopted, and 
which I believe has not been amended. I am also submitting a chart 
showing the connections its leaders have had in the past with the Young 
Communist League, and the minutes of a meeting of the AYD na- 
tional board in which is listed its regional headquarters and leaders. 

(Exhibits 26, 27, and 28 were received.) " 

The Teen Age Art Club in Los Angeles is a branch of the AYJ). It 
held an art exhibit in June at the Los Angeles Museum. Marty Lub- 
ner, chairmaii of the AYD in that city, was in charge of the exhibit. 

The Citizens' Committee on Academic Freedom has been organized 
in New York to defend the AYD against possible barring from the 
campus of city and State educational institutions. Stanley M. Isaacs 
is chairman of the committee, and Genevieve Earle and Harold Lenz 
are members. 

The AYD is currently promoting a petition campaign in opposition 
to military training legislation. The petitions being circulated are 
in the form of ballots. These are being distributed at summer schools, 
beaches, bowling alleys, poolrooms, employment agencies, union meet- 
ings, factory gates, youth gatherings, and summer camps. 

I will now discuss another prominent youth organization — American 
Youth for a Free World, apparently the successor of the American 
Youth Congress. American Youth for a Free World was organized 
in 1942, shortly after the breaking up of the (Communist) American 
Youth Congress. It is a coalition of Communist and left-wing youth 
movements, including the Southern Negro Youth Congress (Com- 
munist), American Youth for Democracy (Communist), American 
Communications Association (CIO), National Maritime Union 
(CIO), United Office and Professional Workers of America (CIO), 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers (CIO) , and the National Association 
for the Advancement of Colored People. The majority of the lesser 
leftist movements affiliating with American Youth for a Free ^Yorld, 
among them the Business and Professional Council of the YWCA, 
the Industrial Council of the YWCA, both of which have consistently 
sent delegates to Red front youth gatherings; Junior Hadassah, 
Young Women's Zionist Organization of America, American Uni- 
tarian Youth, Young People's League of the United Synagogue of 
America, Austro-American Youth Council, Armenian Youth of 
America, Czechoslovak National Union of Students, and the Nazarene 
Youth People's Society, were previously affiliated with the Red's 
American Youth Congress. 

Officers of American Youth for a Free World and its delegates 
participated in the World Youth Congress, held in Paris in 1945. 
The congress was almost completely dominated by Communists. On 
the occasion of the third meeting of the Soviet Youth Anti-Fascist 
Committee in Moscow, American Youth for a Free World jDresented 
a scroll of greetings from the American youth organizations to the 
youth of the Soviet Union. It is an affiliate of the World Youth 

*" See appendix, p. 174, for exhibits 26 to 2S. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 79 

Council, established at the International Youth Conference held in 
London in 1942, and also of the World Federation of Democratic 
Youth, established at a youth congress held in London in Novem- 
ber 1945. 

(Exhibit No. 29 was received.) ^'^ 

Mr. Steeijl. AYFW, with headquarters at 144 Bleecker Street, New 
York, N. Y., has sections all over the country — Boston, Richmond, 
Miami, Detroit, Chicago, Seattle, Los Angeles, Houston, and in all 
principal cities and towns in the United States. Oflicers are Martha 
H. Fletcher, chairman of the International Commission of American 
Youth for a Free World ; Beatrice E. Allen, national chairman ; Joseph 
E. Engel, treasurer; Frances Damon, executive secretary, a delegate 
to the recent World Youth Congress. 

The World Youth Council, of which the AYFW is also an affiliate, 
has headquarters in the Grand Building, Trafalgar Square, London, 
England. Vaclaw Palecek, pro-Communist Czechoslovakian, was 
international chairman of the council. In 1943 he toured the United 
States, addressing youth groups in New York, Washington, D. C, 
Boston, Buffalo. Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Indianap- 
olis, St. Louis. Kansas City, Salt Lake City, Seattle, San Francisco, 
Los Angeles, Hollywood, Houston, and New Orleans. He also visited 
Toronto, Canada. He directed 167 discussion conferences in the 
United States with youth-movement leaders. Among those whom he 
directly contacted were Ruth Jett, at the time chairman of the South- 
ern Negro Youth Congress ; Winifred Norman, then chairman of the 
National Council of Negro Youth (Red front) ; and Frances -Damon, 
of American Youth for a Free World. 

Youth conferences were also held in Mexico and other South Ameri- 
can countries. The Mexican conference was greeted by Maj. Gen. 
Eugene Fedorov, president of the Soviet Youth Anti-Fascist Commit- 
tee, an affiliate of the World Youth Council. Frances Damon and 
Martha Fletcher of the American Youth for a Free World attended 
the Mexican conference. 

AYFW, while an affdiate of the World Youth Council, was also a 
section of the American Free World Association, the adult organiza- 
tion headed by ]\Irs. J. Borden Harriman, and the International Free 
World Association, of which J. Alvarez del Vayo is executive director ; 
Louis Dolovet, general secretary ; Frederick C. McKee, treasurer ; and 
Orson Welles, delegate. 

At the time these conferences were being held plans were being made 
for a world youth conference to be held in London at a later date. In 
1943 AYI*\V held a convention with representatives of the following 
organizations in attendance: National Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship (youth committee), American Unitarian Youth, Arme- 
mian Youth of American, Austro- American Youth Council, Czechoslo- 
vakian National Council of America, Free World Association, Girls' 
Friendly Society, Hillel Foundation, International Fur and Leather 
Workers' Union (CIO), Junior Hadassah, National Council of Negro 
Youth, National Federation of Settlements, National Maritime Union 
(CIO), Nature Friends, Slovak Gymnatic Union Sokel, Southern 
Negro Youth Congi-ess, United States Student Assembly, United 

" See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 29. 
65176 — 47 6 



80 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Office nnd Professional Workers of America (CIO), YAVCA, and 
Youth Builders, Inc. Harriet Ida Pickens served as chairman of the 
conference and Frances Damon as executive secretary. Miss Pickens 
has been active in Communist ranks for several years. 

In the meantime the World Youth Council promoted similar con- 
ferences in various European countries. These resulted in the forma- 
tion of the United League of Anti-Fascist Youth of Serka, the United 
Lea^Tie of Anti-Fascist Youth of Yugoslavia, the Finnish Democratic 
Youth Association, the Association of Democratic Youth of Hungary, 
the Fronte della Gioventu of Italy, the United Youth Movement of 
Jamaica, the Panama Federation of Students, the Forces Unies de la 
Jeunnesse Patriotique (FUJP) of France, the Anglo-Soviet Youth 
Friendship Alliance of England, the New Zealand Federation of 
Young Peoi)le's Clubs, Cultural Youth Committee of Bulgaria, United 
Anti-Fascist Youth of Yugoslavia, the Canadian Youth Committee, 
Union of Youth of Tunis, and other youth groups. 

It was about this time that Moscow antl its field forces moved in 
and took over the leadership of these groups. In November 1944: a 
board meeting of the AYD was held in New York City. At that time 
the following resolution was adopted : 

We should cooperate closely with the American Youth for a Free World and 
the World Youth Council of London, particularly in their plans for World Youth 
Week in March (1945) and other activities which will undoubtedly culminate in 
the participation of an American delegation in a World Youth Conference next 
year (1945). 

AYFW later announced that it had received a call to the World 
Youth Conference in January 1945, and it accordingly held a meeting 
of representatives of the youth movements of the United States at 
which was set up a United States arrangements committee for the 
World Youth Conference. The conference was held in London in 
November 1945. The members of the arrangements committee in turn 
elected delegates to the conference. The delegates included Meyer 
Bass of New York City ; Gloster Current of New York City ; Naomi 
Chertoff of New York City ; Frances Damon of New York City ; Law- 
rence Day of Washington. D. C. ; Joseph Engel, New York City ; Elsa 
Graves, Long Island; Elizabeth Green, Boston; Alice Horton, New 
York City ; Muriel Jacobson, New York City ; Esther Cooper, Jackson, 
Ala.; Russell Jones, New York City; MoUie Lieber; Alexander 
Mapp; Lempir Matthews; Elizabeth McCandless; Thomas Neill; 
Ann Postma; Doris Senk; and Olivia Stokes. Frank Sinatra is cred- 
ited by them with having assisted in raising funds to help defray the 
expenses of the delegates to the world conference. 

The American delegates were given special conference training be- 
fore leaving for the conference. In this respect they were addressed 
by Senator Pepper, Congresswoman Emily Taft Douglas, Dr. Bryn 
Hoode (then Chief of the Cultural Cooperation Division of the State 
Department), Vladimir Hurtan ( Czechoslovakian Ambassador), Dr. 
Frank Kingdon, and others. 

The World Youth Conference demanded a youth-rights charter, 
the right of self-determination for colonial and semicolonial peoples, 
loans, and other aid for Europe; vote for 18-year-olds, the right of 
labor to organize, civil liberties for colored people, and freedom of 
speech. It opposed United States control of atom-bomb secrets. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 81 

Throughout the conference the American delegates expressed the 
•hope that from the conference might come a "stronger and more effec- 
tive world-youth organization, utilizing the organizational experience 
and contacts of the World Youth Council, in which a broader repre- 
sentative group of democratic youth organizations may find a basis 
for action on common concern." A constitutional draft commission 
was set up for this purpose. Alice Horton of the United States stu- 
dent assembly represented the American delegation on this com- 
mission. 

Out of the commission was born the World Federation of Demo- 
cratic Youth, with international headquarters temporarily located in 
London. They were later transferred to Paris in order that the group 
might establish closer relations with the two other Red internationals, 
the World Federation of Trade Unions, and the International Demo- 
cratic Women's Federation. 

The following were elected officers of the World Federation of 
Democratic Youth: International president, Guy de Boisson (French 
Communist) ; vice chairmen, Elsa Graves (CIO United Workers' 
Union), Nikolai Mikhailov (Russian Communist), Penery Jones 
(Great Britain), and C. Z. Chen (China) ; treasurer, Frances Damon 
(United States); secretaries, Herbert Williams (Australia), Svend 
Beyer Pederson (Denmark), and Kutty Hookham (Great Britain). 
Council members from the United States were Naomi Chertoff (Junior 
Hadassah), Esther Cooper (Southern Negro Youth Congress), 
Frances Damon (American Youth for a Free World), Elsa Graves, 
Russell Jones (National Intercollegiate Christian Council), Thomas 
Neill (CIO United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers' Union). 
Temporary members of the council: Alice Horton (United States 
Student Assembly) and Gloster Current (National Association for 
Advancement of Colored People. Members at large: Stefan Ignar 
(Poland), Slavko Komar (Yugoslavia), Chen Chia-Kang (China), 
Ignacio Gaillego (Spain, Loyalist), Jiri Hajek (Czechoslovakia), S. 
Sylver (north Africa), Kitti Boomla (India), and Manuel Popoca 
(Mexico) . Adult committee included : Vaclav Palecek, E. Goldstucke 
(Czechoslovakia), Snoh Tanbunyuen (Siam), and Margot Gale 
(Great Britain). 

Yugoslavia sent 13 delegates to the conference, headed by the Young 
Communist League leader, Crozdana Belie. The U. S. S. R. sent 25 
delegates ; the Ukraine, 10 delegates, headed by Valentin Klochko and 
Vassili Kostenko, of the Young Communist League; Sweden, 8 dele- 
gates, including Knut Olsson, of the Communist Youth League^ 
Poland, 20 delegates, with R. Obraczka, president of the Union of 
Socialist Youth; Norway, 11 delegates, led by R. Halverson, of the 
Cotnmunist Youth Association; Lithuania, 5 delegates, including B. 
Lopato, of the Young Communist League; Latvia, 5 delegates, among 
whom was I.'Pinksis, of the Young Communist League; Estonia, 5 
delegates, with A. Meri, of the Young Communist League; Cuba, 7 
delegates, led by A. Dou and W. Hernandez, of the youth section 
of the Cuban Revolutionary Party ; and J. Cravalosa, of the Young 
Workers of Cuba. A survey of the delegates indicates that there were 
not a sufficient number of anti-Communists among tliem to vote down 
any pro-Communist or pro-Soviet resolutions if they had desired to 
do so. 



82 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Following the conference, Doris Senk, Joseph Engel, Muriel Jacob- 
son, Olivia Stokes, MoUie Lieber, and Larry Day, all American dele-, 
gates, visited the Soviet Union. The Young Communists of Moscov/ 
tendered them a royal reception. 

The World Federation of Democratic Youth publishes a magazine 
called World Youth in four languages — Russian, French, Spanish, 
and English. The headquarters of the organization are now located 
at 21 Bis, rue de Chateaudun, Paris, France. 

It has been announced that great preparations are being made for 
a world youth festival to be held in Prague from July 20 to August 7 
this year (1947). A student division of the United States Committee 
for the World Youth Festival has been set up, with offices at the head- 
quarters of American Youth for a Free World in New York City. 
The festival is sponsored by the World Federation of Democratic 
Youth, with the cooperation of the International Union of Students, 
through the Czechoslovakian youth movement. 

(Exhibits 30 to 36 were received.) ^^ 

Mr. Steele. According to Progressive Citizens of America sources, 
the youth section of that group, known as Young Progressive Citizens 
of America, is sending Robert M. Dunlap of Antioch College as a 
delegate to the Prague gathering. The Southern Congress of Negro 
Youth and the Los Angeles Youth Council, both affiliates of the World 
Federation of Democratic Youth, will send delegates. People's Songs, 
Inc., will be represented by Michael Scott and Ernie Lieberman. 
George Walker will be the delegate to the National Negro Congress. 
Rose Marie Ellington will be the delegate to the Southern Negro 
Youth Congress. Among the delegates from the west coast will be 
Letitia Innes of the Los Angeles Youth Project, Richard Taylor of 
the United Student Youth, Jean Innes of the Los Angeles Youth 
IProject, Richard Taylor of the United Student Youth, Jean Gross, 
Paul Levine, and Jane Grodzins, disconnected; Shirley Escobar of 
American Youth for Democracy (California section), Molly Meuhaus 
(Los Angeles student), Dudley Kenworthy, and Bill Hoyt, claiming 
to represent the Los Angeles YMCA; Vince Pieri, A YD head in 
Pennsylvania, will be a delegate. Wendell R. Lipscomb of San Diego, 
wartime flying instructor at Tuskogee, Ala., and now a student at 
the University of California, has been selected the delegate of the 
American Unitarian Youth Congress. 

Young Reds are evidencing considerable interest at the present time 
in a comparatively new youth movement, the National Student Or- 
ganization, which was conceived at a congress of youth held in Chicago 
late in 1946. Jim Smith, of Texas, is chairman of the continuation 
committee of the organization which is setting up the permanent 
group. 

Back in 1944, the National Council of American-Soviet Friend- 
ship set up what was known as the Committee of Women. The 
chairman of this committee was Mrs. Muriel Draper, and the vice 
chairman was Mrs. Elinor S. Gimbel. The committee held a con- 
ference at tlie Hotel Commodore in New York City on November 18, 
1944. The occasion was billed as a Conference on Women of 
U. S. A. and the U. S. S. R. in the postwar world. The Call an- 
nouncing the conference stated, in effect, that since the women of 

>» See appendix, p. 175, for exhibits 30 to 36. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 83 

the world played such important parts in the war, they demanded 
to have an equally important role in the shaping of postwar economy. 
The Call appealed to other women's organizations to send delegates 
to the conference. 

The signers of the Call were Marjorie Post Davies (Mrs. Joseph 
Davies), acting national honorary chairman; and Muriel Draper, 
head of the Women's Coimiiittee, of the National Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship. Mrs. Kuth W. Russ, executive secretary of the 
Women's Committee, was secretary of the conference. 

Three sessions of the conference were held. Principal topics of 
discussion were American-Soviet women's issues, and f)ostwar 
rights for women in the United States. Speakers included Ruth 
Young, Rose Schneiderman, Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Mrs. LaFell 
Dickinson, Dr. Arnold Gesell, Mrs. Sidonie M. Gruenberg, D. Leona 
Baumgartner, and Mrs. Norman de R. Whitehouse. 

(Exhibit 37 was received.) ^^ 

Mr. Steele. Among the sponsors of the conference were the follow- 
ing: Henrietta Buckmaster, Mrs. Bella Dodd, Mrs. Katherine Earn- 
shaw, Mrs. Sidonie M. Gruenberg, Josephine Timms, Ruth Young, 
Muriel Draper, Elinor S. Gimbel, Dr. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Mrs. 
Sherwood Anderson, Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune, Mrs. Jo David- 
son, Mildred Fairchild, Mrs. Frederick V. Field, Cornelia Goldsmith, 
Mrs. Sophie Gropper, Mrs. Sidney Hillman, Mrs. Stanley Isaacs, Mrs. 
Julia Church Kolar, Dorothy Kenyon, Rosalie Manning, Rose 
Maurer, Clarina Michelson, Eleanor Neilson, Mrs. David De Sola 
Pool, Mrs. W. Jay Schieffelin, Margaret Schlauch, Mrs. Frederick L. 
Schuman, Vida D. Scudder, Mrs. Gilbert Seldes, Lisa Segio, Mary K. 
Simkhovitch, Irena Skariatina, Charlotte Stern, Anna Louis Strong, 
Genevieve Taggard, Katherine Terrill, Mrs. Albert Rhys Williams, 
Ella Winters (Mrs. Lincoln Steffens), Mrs. Ellen S. Woodward, Ruth 
Young, and Leane Zugsmith. 

Previously there had been a number of women's organizations set up 
as Communist sections and Communist fronts in this country. Some 
of these had been directly affiliated with the International Congress of 
Women, with headquarters in Moscow. Others were affiliated with 
the Women's International Congress Against War and Fascism. 
Active in the leadership of these Congresses were Ann Pauker, Ru- 
manian Bolshevik head; Mme. Kollantai of Russia; Clara Zetkin; 
Ella Reeve Bloor ; Dolores Ibarruri, better known as "La Pasionaria," 
chairman of the Communist Party in Spain now in exile in Yugo- 
slavia; Anna Mai of Bulgaria; Mme. Eugenie Cotton; Mme. Marie- 
Claude Vaillant-Couturier (Communist) of France; and Elizabeth 
Gurley Flynn ; and others, all Communists. 

Like many of the other internationals, these congresses were shelved 
during World War II because of complications involved in travel, 
holding of meetings, and transmission of correspondence. 

Mr. McDowell. The Mme. Kollantai you just referred to, wasn't 
she ambassador to 

Mr. Steele. Mexico. 

Mr. McDowell. Mexico. 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 



1" See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 37. 



84 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Mr. McDowell. From the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

With the end of the war, however, all international movements im- 
mediately began to reorganize, and national sections in each country- 
were rebuilt and revitalized. Consequently, it was not surprising 
when the women were again called to action in the United States by 
the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. Neither was it 
news when a call was issued for the International Congress of Women 
of the World in 1945. Thus, a year after the conference held at the 
Hotel Commodore in New York (November 18, 19M), by the Na- 
tional Council of American-Soviet Friendship, the International 
Congress of Women convened by Communist forces in Paris (Novem- 
ber 26 to December 1, 1945). 

Cochairmen of the International Congress were Mme. Eugenie 
Cotton and Mme. Marie-Claude Vail] ant-Couturier, Communist mem- 
ber of the French Parliament. Dolores Ibarruri, Communist of Spain 
and now of Yugoslavia, was the keynote speaker. Mme. Nina Popova, 
leader of Communist women in Russia, had a leading part in the 
program, and she was the center of attraction. The delegates from 
the United States to the Congress were Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, 
chairman of the Women's Commission of the Communist Party in the 
United States; Dr. Gene Weltfish; Thelma Dale, member of the New 
York State Committee of the Communist Party ; Susan B. Anthony II, 
active in many fronts; Eleanor Vaughan; Ann Bradford; JVirs. 
Frederic March; Mrs. Gifford Pinchot; Henrietta Buckmaster; Dr. 
Beryl Parker; Charlotte Hawkins Brown; Vivian Carter Mason; 
Jeanette Stern; Muriel Draper; and Elinor S. Gimbel. Eight hun- 
dred delegates were reported in attendance, claiming to represent some 
100,000,000 women in 40 countries. 

Prior to the International Congress held in the same month as the 
National Council for American-Soviet Friendship conference in New 
York City, November 1944, a meeting was held in Paris, similar to 
that held in the United States by the National Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship. The Paris meeting was attended by leftist and 
pro-Soviet women, European leaders from over Europe. It was re- 
ferred to as the conference of the "Initiative Committee," the members 
of which planned the December 1945 International Congress. Previ- 
ously active internationals composed of women Communists were 
discussed at the first Paris meeting. Particular reference was made 
to the Women's Congress Against War and Fascism which was shelved 
following its 1934 Congress in Paris. The Union of French Women, 
a Communist front, served as the tool for the sending out of the Call 
for the 1944 International Congress, according to Clara Bodian, active 
in Communist ranks in the United States. 

Early in 1946, following the Paris Congress and after the return 
of the American delegates, a continuing committee was set up here. 
Members of the committee were : Elinor S. Gimbel, who incidentally 
claims to be president of a local of the Parent-Teacher Association 
in New York City ; Dr. Gene Weltfish, coauthor of Races of Mankind 
which was barred by the War Department from courses in GI orien- 
tation; Susan B. Anthony II, secretary; Dr. Beryl Parker, treasurer; 
members of the board were : Mrs. Grace Allen Bangs, Clara Bodian, 
Dr. Charlotte Hawkins BroAvn, Henrietta Buckmaster, Thelma Dale, 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 85 

Frances Damon, Dr. Bella V. Dodd, Muriel Draper, Katherine Earn- 
shaw, India Edwards, Thyra Edwards, Mary L. Fleddenis, Elizabeth 
Gurley Flynn, Daisy George, Esther Gihvarg, Dorothy Gottlieb, 
Sidonie M. Gruenberg, Mrs. Shippen Lewis, Mrs. Frederic March, 
Vivian Carter Mason, Helen Phillips, Mrs. Gifford Pinchot, Anna 
Center Schneiderman, Natalie Sherman, Josephine Timms, Jeanette 
Stern Turner, Mary Van Kleeck, Eleanor T. Vaughan, Mrs. Stephen 
S. Wise, and Ruth Young. 

( Exhibit 38 was received. ) -" 

Mr. Stef.le. This group eventually became known as the Congress 
of American Women. The international movement is called the 
International Democratic Women's Federation. Appointed as regu- 
lar American delegates to the international, as the exhibit I have sub- 
mitted will show, were Muriel Draper; Vivian Carter Mason of the 
National Council of Negro Women of New York; Mrs. Frederic 
March, representing other fronts; and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, who 
heads the Women's Commission of the Communist Party. Dr. Gene 
Weltfish, Dr. Beryl Parker, and Ann Bradford, secretary of the CIO 
Women's Auxiliary of Los Angeles, are alternate delegates to the in- 
ternational. 

The Congress of American Women, although it was active, was 
not incorporated until January 17, lO'lT. Its incorporators were 
Gene Weltfish, 515 West One Hundred and Twenty-second Street, 
New York, N. Y.; Helen Phillips, 203 Avenue B, Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
Muriel Draper, 322 East Fifty-eight Street, New York, N. Y. ; Joseph- 
ine Timms, 117-14 Union Turnpike, Kew Gardens, New York; Susan 
B. Anthony II, 38 Barrow Street, New York, N. Y. ; and Elinor S. Gim- 
bel, 163 East Seventy-eighth Street, New York, N. Y. 

Bella Dodd, formerly a teacher and Communist Party leader, at 
present in New York City, acted as the notary, and Benjamin M. Zel- 
man as attorney for the organization. 

In the petition for incorporation, it was stated that the Congi^ess of 
American Women was a membership organization to promote the 
welfare of the American women, to take action in defense of legal 
social, and political rights of women; to promote close collaboration 
between the women of the United States with women of other coun- 
tries, to promote the well being, health, and education of children; 
and to gather and disseminate information relating to the status of 
women. 

(Exhibit 39 was received.)-^ 

Mr. Steele. Ann Bradford, a delegate to the International Con- 
gress in Paris, was a sergeant in the WAC during the war. She 
served in the Teletype Communications Division overseas. 

It is interesting to note that Russia sent 40 delegates, headed by 
the Communist, Maj. Zneida Troitskava, to the International Con- 
gress. The delegation from Yugoslavia, was lead by Annica Hoffner, 
active in the fighting ranks of the Communist Red armed forces under 
Tito. Mme Cotton (Communist leader) of France was appointed 
chairman of the International Congress; Gene Weltfish, Dolores 
Ibarruri (Communist), Nina Popova (Communist) of Russia, and 
Yeh Nan of China, vice chairman ; and Mme Marie-Claude Vaillant- 
Couturier (French Communist leader), executive secretary. 

=" See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 38. 
» See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 39. 



86 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Out of the International Congress the so-called Charter for 
Women's Rights, officially known as the Women's Status Amendment 
came. Susan Anthony II of the United States' section is chairman 
of the special commission which has been set up to push this program, 
described as one aimed at "abolishing all laws which discriminate 
against women, and to establish equal rights." Supporters of this 
amendment will oppose "discrimination against women, regardless 
of color and race." They explain that no longer will women be ex- 
cluded from men's affairs. The National Press Club in Washington, 
D. C., is given as an example of such exclusion. The club, it claims, 
permits women to dine in the "small dining room" only. They con- 
tend that "Jim Crowism" is practiced by various organizations and 
clubs, and that "racial discrimination must be abandoned." They 
promise that these conditions will be corrected through the activities 
of the Congi-ess of American Women. They are determined that 
laws in 41 States which require a woman to live in the same house 
with her husband, or suffer the possibility of being sued for divorce 
or separation shall be repealed. Several States limit general con- 
tracts of marriage to a "discriminatory degree," and they charge the 
women announce that these laws shall be repealed. They are also 
going to demand that laws providing penalties for the birth of children 
out of wedlock be repealed. They refer to these as "antiwomen laws." 

(Exhibit No. 40 was received.) ^^ 

Mr. Steele. Another WAC who joined the movement is Corp. 
Evelyn Field who served in New Guinea and Manila, according to 
Communist sources. She complains that when members of the WAC, 
WAVES, and SPARS returned from war service many jobs were 
closed to them, and she charges that employers were not interested in 
their "special skills." This situation will be rectified by the Congress 
of American Women, they claim. 

The congress is appealing to "help the children survive fascism," 
and a program has been mapped out to extend their aims in that direc- 
tion. The Brooklyn, N. Y., chapter, headed by Mrs. Mary J. Melish 
(William H.) has a drive on for aid to Tito's (Yugoslav) youth. The 
congress says it will accordingly support the Pepper maternal and 
child-welfare bill, the Murray-Wagner free medicine and medical 
bill, and the Lanham Act which provides for the setting up of day- 
care centers for children or nurseries. Children's centers would be 
necessary, of course, if the entire program of the Congress of American 
Women is carried out, for it demands the right of women to work at 
any and all professions and trades, manual labor included. There- 
fore, laws which interfere with their aims, laws, and morals which 
hold the home and family together, must be abolished. The women 
infer that women's "apron strings must be untied." 

Upon her return from a Nation-wide speaking tour, Elizabeth 
Gurley Flynn (Communist) reported that everywhere she went, from 
California to New York, she "found women setting up local branches 
of the Congress of American Women." She quoted Ann Bradford 
who had reported on the establishment of branches in Los Angeles, 
Denver, Oakland, and Seattle. 

In an attempt to make women in America more conscious of the 
so-called fight for women's rights, the Congress of American Women 



" See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 40. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 87 

has selected March 8 as International Day, and November 29 as 
Women's Day for annual celebrations. March 8 was first celebrated 
as Communist Women's Day in Moscow. 

The Congress claims that it will be active in the political action field 
in national and local campaigns. It is already taking its place with 
other Communist fronts in various front activities. Its representa- 
tives recently marched on Washington, D. C, storming Congress and 
the State Department in opposition to American aid to Greece and 
Turkey, aid designed to ward off the Communist menace and Soviet 
aggression. The Congress of American Women charge this may lead 
to an "imperialist war" and "American imperialism in the Balkans." 
Members of the congress alst) participated in mass demonstrations in 
Washington, D. C, against the repeal of tlie OPA. 

Chairman of the Committee of Action for Peace and Democracy of 
the Congress of American Women is Muriel Draper; secretary, Anna 
Lee. The chairman of the Commission on Child Care and Education 
is Elinor S. Gimbel; secretary, Dorothy Gottlieb. Chairman of the 
Commission on the Status of Women is Susan B. Anthony II ; secre- 
tary, Mary Murphy. 

National headquarters of the Congress of American Women are 
located at 55 West Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. The na- 
tional president is Gene Weltfish; executive vice president, IMuriel 
Draper; treasurer, Helen Phillips; secretary, Josephine Timms; and 
recording secretary, Thyra Edwards. The following are vice presi- 
dents: Susan B. Anthony II, Ann Bradford, Charlotte Hawkins 
Brown, Henrietta Buckmaster, Dorothy Connolly, Thelma Dale. Mil- 
dred Fairchild, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Elinor S. Gimbel, Mrs. Fred- 
eric March, Vivian Carter Mason, Beryl Parker, Mrs. Gifford Pinchot, 
Ann Center Schneiderman, Mrs. Jeanette Turner, Eleanor Vaughan 
and Ruth Young. Members of the editorial board are Eleanor 
Vaughan and Bert Sigrid. 

(Exhibit No. 41 was received.) ^^ 

Mr. Steele. The Chicago branch of the Congress of American 
Women is lieaded by Mrs. David Davis; Milwaukee, Mrs. Emil H. 
Jones; Brooklyn, N. Y., Mrs. (Mary J.) William Howard Melish. 
The congress issued a call to the following women for the organiza- 
tion of new branches: Mrs. Rosalind Lindsmith, Oakland; Mrs. 
Eugene Parsonnet, Newark, N. J. ; Mrs. Theresa Greenwald, New 
Brunswick; Mrs. Esther Bailin, Bridgeport, Conn.; Mrs. Emma F. 
Baxter, Worcester, Mass. ; Mrs. Miriam Brooks Sherman, Los Angeles ; 
Mrs. Charlotte Backenstein, Des Moines; Miss Doris Bauman, Law- 
rence, Kansas; Mrs. Duke Avnet, Baltimore; Mrs. Rose Tillotson, 
Minneapolis ; Mrs. Lois Blakes, Seattle ; and Mrs. Anna M. Tormino, 
Spokane. 

The Washington, D. C. chapter of the Congress of American Women 
was organized early in 1947. Its first meeting was held on March 9, 
1947, at Pierce Hall, with some 350 in attendance. Among those 
present were wives of the diplomatic representatives of Russia, 
France, Poland, Czechoslovakia, India, Belgium, and The Netherlands. 
Gene Weltfish, president of the American section of the international 
and one of the three international vice presidents, addressed the meet- 
ing. She was referred to as "coauthor with Ruth Benedict" of Races 



^ See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 41. 



S8 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

of Mankind. Mme. Nikolai Novikov, wife of the Soviet Ambassadoi" 
to the United States, was the guest of honor. 

The Congress of American Women is building through State and 
sectional conferences. It held an Eastern Seaboard States Confer- 
ence from June 6 to 8, 1947. Virginia Shull was the acting exec- 
utive officer in charge of the conference. 

The July-August 1946 issue of Soviet Women, organ of the Soviet 
Women's Anti-Fascist Central Committee and of the Central Council 
of Trade Unions of the U. S. S. R., was devoted to an exclusive report 
of the June 1946 executive committee meeting of the International 
Democratic Women's Federation, of which the Congress of American 
Women is a section. The report was written by Nina Popova, who 
leads the Soviet organization, the largest section of the international, 
and one of the vice presidents of the international. 

The report states that special attention was given, at the executive 
committee meeting, to the international's branches in the United States 
and Czechoslovakia. It called attention to the fact that since the in- 
ternational congress, national congresses had been held m Eumania, 
Hungary, Italy, Albania, Greece, Poland, Sweden, the United States, 
Algeria, Australia, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia. The report further 
explained that in the Soviet-influenced countries, such as Yugoslavia, 
Poland, Bulgaria, Albania, Austria, and Hugary, all women's organi- 
zations had united on a national scale to promote the aims of the 
international. The women's organization of Communist-controlled 
northern China, representing 20,000,000 women, has been accepted 
into the international. 

The report referred to the setting up of coordinating committees 
by the federation in many countries. These committees direct the 
program of many women's groups not directly affiliated with the 
international. Among the coordinated activities it claims are the 
^'struggle against the danger of a new war," "against the remnants 
of fascism," "for equal social and economic rights for women," for 
^'break in diplomatic relations with Spain," and for "mobilizatio]i of 
public opinion to counter the onslaught of reaction in Greece." Co- 
ordinating committees have been set up by the international's sections 
in the United States, France, Italy, Morocco, Rumania, and Algeria. 
According to the report, the American section thereby already unites 
over 500,000 women. 

The report reveals that an international drive has been launched 
by all sections of the international to force the UN to recognize the 
International Democratic Women's Federation as a consultative 
organization, as it has the International World Federation of Trade- 
Unions, also under Communist and Soviet control, of which the CIO 
in the United States is the American section. 

The executive committee endorsed the report of the secretariat 
stressing the need of continued recruiting of unorganized women, and 
calling for a concerted action with women's organizations not yet 
affiliated. 

From July 18 to August 25, 1947, was the period set for an interna- 
tional campaign against the Franco regime in Spain. The committee 
warned all sections against "splitting maneuvers of the reactionaries" 
to discourage following of the international's sections. It pointed to 
such obstacles as having confronted the American and British sections. 
The American section, it explained, now has a combined membership 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 89 

■of 500,000, "despite organizational difficulties, reactionary propaganda 
■directed against it by pro-Fascist elements, and attempts to intimi- 
date American women by Red-baiting." The American section's ma- 
jor activities it claims "are centered on the struggle of peace and democ- 
racy, economic and legal equity for women, socialized medicine, and 
democratic education of children." 

The committee reported that among the women's forces joining the 
American section is the Women's Auxiliary of the Congress of Indus- 
trial Organizations. It added that the National Women's Revolu- 
tionary Bloc of Mexico and the Viet Nam Public Welfare Women's 
Organization of Brazil are among those organizations of the Western 
Hemisphere joining the international. Moves are on to take in the 
International Women's Cooperative Guild. 

Among those attending the meeting of the executive committee, in 
addition to the international president and secretary, were Nina Pop- 
ova, of Russia; Olga Miloshevich (Communist), of Yugoslavia; Tsola 
Dragoicheva, of Bulgaria (member of the Political Bureau of the 
Bulgarian Communist Party and deputy member of the Parliament 
of Bulgaria) ; Mme. Handoo, of India; Mme. Vermeche, of the Union 
of French Women; Mme. Gorakova and Mme. Troyanova (Commu- 
nist), of Czechoslovakia; Mme. Jeanne Kormanowa, of Poland; Mrs. 
Vivian Carter Mason, of the United States ; Mme. Alice Sportiss, of 
Algiers; Mme. Marie-Claude Vaillant-Couturier of France (Com- 
munist) ; Mme. Camille Ravera of Italy (Communist) ; Mme. Char- 
lotte Muret of Switzerland; and Elizabeth Tildy, of Hungary. 

A report by Gene Weltfish of the Congress of American Women 
also appeared in the same issue of Soviet Women. In it she spoke 
of the setting up of a provisional committee which called 1,000 repre- 
sentatives of women's trade-union and religious organizations to- 
gether at a meeting which was held on March 6, 1946, in New York 
City, at which the Congress of American Women was organized. The 
report stated that the first organization to affiliate with the American 
section was the women's branch of the Independent Citizens' Com- 
mittee of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, and that women's groups of 
the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial 
Organizations affiliated shortly after. Following the example of 
these groups, the report continues, "a national organization of women 
pilots who have seen service in the United States Army affiliated"; 
and that "Stable local organizations have been set up in Detroit, 
Philadelphia, Washington, D. C, Norfolk, Boston, Chicago, and Los 
Angeles." 

The Weltfish report announced that the Congress of American 
Women will launch a drive in the 1948 political campaign to elect 48 
women, one from each State, to Congress. She stated that the May 
conference of the Congress of American Women called for a break 
in the relations between the United States and Spain, the establish- 
ment of international control over the production and use of atomic 
energy, the strengthening of friendship with the Soviet Union, the 
support of colonial countries in their battle for self-determination, a 
protest against maintenance of a large army and against the intro- 
duction of military training in the United States. The general report 
stated that "Mrs. Weltfish told the executive committee how reaction- 
ary and Fascist organizations in the United States try to slander the 
Congress of American Women and intimidate women by Red-baiting." 



90 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

(Exhibit No. 42 was received.) ^^ 

The Chairman. The Chair would like to make an announcement, 
before the bell rings, while we have so many members of the commit- 
tee here. This is not on the record. 

(Announcement made oif the record.) 

The Chairman. Copies of that may be had from Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. Could we suspend for a moment, Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. We will recess for a minute, Mr. Steele. 

(A short recess.) 

The Chairman. All right, Mr. Steele ; will you resume please. 

Mr. Steele. I wish to include as evidence at this time the Report 
From Moscow, which was brought to me a month ago from Moscow, 
the program of the Congress of American Women, the "original call," 
and the incorporation papers. This is merely submitted as evidence. 

The Chairman. Are you keeping track of the numbers, Mr. 
Stripling? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. We have them all. 

Mr. Steele. The Council of the International met in Prague in 
December 1946, but I have not yet been able to obtain a copy of its 
report. 

Now, Communist activities among Negros. 

The Communist movement among the Negroes in the United States 
is under the direction of the Communist Party and the National Negro 
Congress, together with the Southern Negro Youth Congress. Inter- 
locking and cooperating is the Southern Conference for Human Wel- 
fare and several others I will mention later. The international Negro 
movement by the Communists was originally called the Provisional 
International Trade Union Committee of Negro Workers. This was 
a section of the Red International of Labor Union of Moscow. Ac- 
cording to James W. Ford, Communist party leader, in Economic 
Struggles of NegTO Workers, the Communist Negro drive was started 
in the United States in 1920. The American section of the Inter- 
national was at that time called the League of Struggle for Negro 
Rights. 

The plan and purpose of the Communist movement to use a large 
percentage, of the Negro population in the United States, particularly 
in the South, may best be emphasized by quoting a portion of the 
officially published report of the Sixth Congress of the Communist 
International, held in Moscow in July and August 1928. I quote 
from the statement of the American Negro delegate, listed as "Com- 
rade Jones, USA," who was chairman of the Negro delegation which 
dealt with the problems of the Communist Party of the United States 
in organizing the Negroes for the revolution. It is believed that 
"Comrade Jones" is John Hudson Jones, whose name frequently ap- 
pears in the Worker in connection with activities among Negroes. 
"Comrade Jones" said in part : 

We organized here at the Congress a small subcommittee of the Anglo-Ameri- 
can secretariat which dealt with the Negro question in America. This com- 
mission has done a considerable amount of work, which is, of course, by no means 
complete, but the first steps were made * * *. i have material on this which 
will be submitted to the colonial commission in support of our disagreement, 
together with those drawn up by the Negro commission. 



''* See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 42. 



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TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 91 

This is a very important question and rteserves careful study before definite 
steps are taken in drawing a program or advancing slogans for our work among 
the American Negroes. !Some comrades consider is necessary at this moment 
to launch the slogan of self-determination for the American Negroes; to advocate 
an independent Soviet socialist republic in America for Negroes. There is no 
objection on our part on the principal of a Soviet republic for Negroes in 
America. The point we are concerned with here is how to organize these Negroes 
at present on the basis of their everyday needs for the revolution. The question 
before the Negroes today is not what will be done with them after the revolution, 
but what measures are we going to take to alleviate their present condition in 
America. We have to adopt a program that will take care of their immediate 
needs, of course keeping in mind the necessity for organizing the revo- 
lution. * * * 

The central slogan around which we can rally the Negro masses is the slogan 
of social equality. 

Fifty or more slogans for the so-called "everyday needs" of the 
Negro, which constituted, in fact, Communist propaganda for the 
agitation of the Negro, especially in the South, were adopted. By 
1935 the Communists decided that the slogans had served their pur- 
pose, that of arousing the Negro, and that the real issue could then 
be presented. Consequently, in June 1935, the Communists published 
a document entitled "The Negroes in a Soviet America," in which 
the actual plan was outlined. James W. Ford and James S. Allen, 
Communist officials, were authors of the document. After reviewing 
the success of the slogans, the authors stated : 

As the gains of the revolution are consolidated, these Soviet territories will 
be united to form a new Soviet Negro Republic. * * * s^q must begin to 
organize — begin by organizing, by preparing our forces in our daily struggles ta 
improve our conditions, by learning to take over."^ 

At about the same time another publication made its appearance in 
the Communist propaganda distributing centers. It was published by 
the Communists in the United States. On one of its pages there ap- 
peared a map of the Black Belt, as the Communists call the South, 
which the Reds intend shall first be divided into small Soviets, ulti- 
mately becoming one large Negro soviet republic.^*' 

The following are recent Communist booklets dealing with the Negro 
issue : Lynching and Frame-Up in Tennessee, by Robert Minor ; A 
Southerner Looks at Negro Discrimination, by George Cable, edited 
and with an introduction by Alva W. Taylor, of the Southern Con- 
ference for Human Welfare, published by the International Publish- 
ers; and The Path of Negro Liberation, by Benjamin J. Davis, 
published by New Century Publishers. Davis and Minor, as I have 
previously stated, are members of the National Committee of the 
Communist Party. 

]n The Path of Negro Liberation, a statement is made to the effect 
that only Communists support the "right to self-determination of the 
Negro in the Black Belt area" (p. 10). "Such progressive organiza- 
tions as the Southern Negro Youth Congress and the Southern Con- 
ference for Human Welfare are enjoying an ever wider influence," 
as a result of the ground work of the Communists (p. 19). 

Prominent in the National Negro Congress and active in the Red 
drive among Negroes for many years have been the following : 

Langston Hughes, Max Yergan, Harry Haywood, James W. Ford, 
Mrs. Jessica Henderson, William L. Patlerson, Robert Minor, Benja- 



2= See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 43. 
-* See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 44. 



92 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

mill J. Davis, Jr., Hosie Hart, Herman MacKawain, Bernice DeCosta, 
Dr. Reuben S. Youn^, Charles Alexander, Tom Truesdale, Leonard 
Patterson, William Burroughs, Harold Williams, Merrill C. Work, 
Steve Kingston, Henry Shepard, Dr. Arnold Donowa, James Moore, 
Rabbi Ben Goldstein, Mrs. Mary Craig Speed, Bonita Williams, 
Hanou Chan, James Allen, Cyril Briggs, William Fitzgerald, George 
Maddox, Maude White, Richard B. Moore, and Eugene Gordon. 
Communists are even more strongly entrenched in the National Negro 
Congress through its national committee, the members of which in- 
cluded William Z. Foster, Israel Amter, Earl Browder, and Claude 
Lightfoot.* The State committees were also Communist dominated. 

The Communist hold out the bait of "self-determination of the black 
belts" to Negroes of the country. These belts include, of course, the 
districts most heavily populated by Negroes. Communists promise 
them confiscation of land and factories now being held by white people 
and the turning over of them to the Negroes. Contrary to this promise, 
however, the Communists have admitted, in inner circles, that the 
Negroes are to be segregated in the black belts for the purpose of form- 
ing Negro Soviets. They have also admitted that the Negroes do not 
have any suspicion of this plan and property would not become theirs, 
but the Soviets, under dictatorship. 

The National Negro Congress was organized in 1935 by the Reds. 
From the official proceedings of the National Negro Congress 
(second), held in Philadelphia in October 1937, we learn (p. 10) that 
the congress represented in "true . spirit" the "united front." The 
report stated that the congress "marched in the van of the CIO" and 
"enlists organizers to join the CIO forces." The congress defended 
the Scottsboro Negroes, a pet hobby of the Communist Party. It 
called for reverence to the leaders of the Black Revolution which they 
claim broke out in the eighteenth century. 

Among those extending greetings to the second National Negro 
Congress were John L. Lewis ; Tom Mooney, from San Quentin prison ; 
and I. Maximilian Martin, secretary of the National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored People ; Ben Gold ; and Walter Reuther, 
president of Local 174, of the CIO, United Auto Workers (1937). 
The American Labor Party also sent greetings. Philip Murray, CIO 
official, addressed the congress. 

The delegates to the congress protested to President Roosevelt and 
Postmaster General Farley against the alleged denial of Negroes of 
the rights and privileges of the railway mail services. They claimed 
that the railway union discriminated against the Negroes in the 
service. They also protested against so-called "discrimination" in the 
railway employees unions, in gas, electric, water, city, streetcar, and 
other utility unions. 

Edward E. Strong delivered an address at the Congress on Negro 
Youth and the Fight for Freedom and Equality. Strong was a mem- 
ber of the administrative committee of the American Youth Congress, 
secretary of the Southern Negro Youth Congress. Strong spoke of 
Communist "united front" program. 

A. Philip Randolph, one-time president of the National Negro 
Congress, resigned his position because of the Communist control 
thereof. At the time of his resignation, at a meeting held in Wash- 
ington, D. C, he charged that the Congress was controlled by the 
Communist Party, through which he found it was chiefly financed. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S, STEELE 93 

The theme of the tenth annual convention of the National Negro 
Congress, held in Detroit from May 30 to June 2, 1946, was "Death 
blow to Jim Crow." Delegates to the convention advocated the en- 
actment of a permanent fair employment practice act. They con- 
demned tlie Truman administration for what they charged was aban- 
donment of the 'Big Three unity" and for adopting an "Anglo- 
American policy" in international affairs. They called not only for 
full freedom and equality for the Negro people in the United States 
but also for the freedom and equality of the colonial peoples of the 
world. They demanded an end to the poll tax and the trend toward 
"imperialism" and a "third world war." They demanded jobs and 
security ; health, insurance, housing, and civil rights legislation ; a GI 
bill of rights for Negro veterans and merchant seamen. They de- 
manded close friendship with the Soviet Union. They called for an 
end to the attacks on the Communist Party, and they voted to cooperate 
with and aid in every manner possible CIO unions, especially the 
National Maritime Union. They urged Government ownership of 
natural resources. Only praise was voiced for Russia. 

Approximately 1,000 delegates attended the convention, represent- 
ing about 500 organizations, the Communist Party, various Red 
fronts, and CIO unions. The convention had the endorsement of 
leaders of these movements. Speakers included Paul Robeson ; former 
Congressman Hugh DeLacy; Congressman A. Clayton Powell; 
George Addes, of the CIO Auto Workers Union; Benjamin J. Davis, 
of the Communist Party; Michael J. Quill, of the CIO Transport 
Workers Union ; James Dombrowski, of the Southern Conference for 
Human Welfare; Alan Morrison, formerly of Stars and Stripes and 
publicity "director of the United Negro and Allied Veterans of 
America; Donald Henderson, of the ClO: Max Yergan; Kenneth 
Eckert, of the CIO ; Walter Frisbie, of the Indiana Industrial Coun- 
cil; John Simmons, city councilman of Toledo; Halois Moorhead, 
of the A. F. of L. ; and Dr. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, of the Congress 
of American Women. 

The National Negro Congress maintains headquarters at 307 Len- 
nox Avenue, New York, N. Y. ; but, contrary to the New York laws, 
it is not registered. Sectional offices have been set up at 114 Erskine 
Avenue, Detroit, and 1015 M Street NW., Washington, D. C. Local 
branches have been set up in 78 cities, of course. 

(Exhibit No. 45 was received.) ^^ 

Mr. Steele. Officers of the National Negro Congress at this time 
(1947) are the following: Max Yergan, president; C. Le Bron Sim- 
mons, treasurer ; Revels Cayton, executive secretary ; Thelma M. Dale, 
field secretary; Dorothy K. JFunn, director of labor legislation; 
Arthur Bowman, midwest secretary; vice presidents, Ferdinand 
Smith, Edward E. Strong, Charles Collins, Matthew Crawford, Rob- 
bie Mae Riddick, A. C. Williams, Dr. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, 
Raymond Tillman, Osceola McCaine (Southern Conference for Hu- 
man Welfare) , J. S. Bourne, Frederick Tashma, Walter Frisbee (CIO 
of Indiana), and J. B. Simmons. 

Sponsors of the Tenth Convention of the National Negro Congress 
included S. L. M. Barlow, Forum for Democracy; Harry Bridges, 
president. International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, 

2' See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 45. 
65176 — 47 7 



94 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

CIO; Sophonisba P. Breckenrid^e, School of Social Services, Uni- 
versity of Chicago ; Gwendolyn Bennett, director, George Washington 
Carver School ; Louis Coleman ; Eugene F. Connolly, city councilman, 
New York ; James A. Dombrowski, Southern Conference for Human 
Welfare ; Muriel Draper ; Walter K. Ecklund, Sacramento CIO Coun- 
cil; Arthur H. Fauset, United People's Action Committee, Pennsyl- 
vania; Abram Flaxer, State, County, and Municipal Workers, CIO; 
James W. Ford ; Rev. Stephen H. Fritchman ; Elinor S. Gimbel, Con- 
gress of American Women; Donald Henderson, Food, Tobacco, and 
Agricultural Workers, CIO; Langston Hughes; Stanley M. Isaacs, 
New York councilman ; Dave Jenkins, California Labor School ; Rock- 
well Kent; Canada Lee; William Howard Melish; Samuel J. Novick; 
Mervyn Rathborne ; William J. Schieffelin ; Henry Winston, Na- 
tional Committee, Comnumist Party; Norman Corwin; Robert W. 
Kenny, National Lawyers' Guild; Carey McWilliams; and Mabel K. 
Staupers, National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses. 

According to Communist reports, police raided the meeting of the 
labor division of the congress at the convention, arresting 87 of its 
members. Listed among those it claims were taken to jail were Lewis 
Demby; Hiram McNealey; John Stinson; Ed Tolan; James Walker; 
Joan Ellis, director of Detroit Council of Applied Religion; Chris 
Alston; Art Bowman; Barry Blossinghame ; Pat Raskin, of American 
Youth for Democracy; Hugh Bryson; J. M. Bolin; Anna M. Kross; 
Charles Collins ; Earl B. Dickerson ; Frank M. Davis ; Arthur Fauset ; 
Abram Flaxer; Stephen Fritchman; Elinor Gimbel; Ira Reid; Wil- 
liam J. Scheili'elin ; Oliver Boutte ; and John Howard Law^son. 

Some $60,000 for its legislative program of the congress was reported 
pledged at the convention by individuals, trade-unions, and other left- 
wing organizations. It was officially reported that the Negro labor 
victory committee of New York had merged with the trade-union 
division of the congress. 

An executive board of the National Negro Congress, composed of 
77 members, was elected at the convention. Among those on the board 
are Doxey Wilkerson, Connnunist Party National Committee; Ben- 
jamin J. Davis, Jr.; John Goodman, AFL; Ada B. Jackson; Herbert 
Aptheker; Josh Lawrence, Communist Party National Connnittee; 
Henry Winston, Communist Party National Committee; Hope Stev- 
ens; and Ewart Guinier. 

Newly elected members of the trade-union committee of the con- 
gress are Donald Henderson. William Young, Mervyn Rathborne, 
Raymond Tillman, Marcel Scherer, Hodges Mason, and Charles Col- 
lins. Elected honorary members were M. Fazal Elhai Qurban, of 
the All-India Trade Union Congress, and M. Sidney Pelage, of Paris. 

On April 27, 1947, 100 members of the National Negro Congress and 
other interested individuals called upon President Truman to repudi- 
ate decisively steps to illegalize the Communist Party. The demand 
read in part : 

As Negro Americans we cannot be nnniindfnl that this proposal to outlaw the 
Communist I'arty comes precisely wlien our Federal Government proposed grave 
concern over the democratic rights of people in far-distant parts of the world. 

Their criticism was also aimed at Secretary of Labor Schwellenbach 
because of his proposal to outlaw the Communist Party. Those sign- 
ing the appeal included W. E. B. DuBois, Paul Robeson, Roscoe Dun- 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 95 

jee, Charlotte HiUYkins Brown, Max Yergan, Charlotta A. Bass, and 
Arthur Huff Fauset. 

David Smith is secretary of the Philadelphia branch of the congress. 
The following are a few of the local California officers of the Nation- 
al Negro Congress: Eaymond F. Thompson, executive secretary, Cali- 
fornia (police record in California and Detroit) ; Charles MacMurray, 
chairman of the Alameda County Executive Committee; Matt Craw- 
ford, regional director, Oakland: Charlotta A. Bass (editor, Cali- 
fornia Eagle), president, Los Angeles chapter; Helen Samuels, secre- 
tary, Los Angeles chapter. 

The National Negro Congress held an All-Southern Negro Youth 
Conference in April 1938, in Chattanooga. Edward Strong was na- 
tional executive secretary of that conference. It was reported that 
355 delegates, representing organizations composed of 383,720 Negroes, 
were in attendance. The program adopted concentrated on the south- 
ern aspect of the Negroes, and it was in kee])ing with the program and 
action of the National Negro Congress. This conference led to the 
establishment of the Southern Negro Youth Congress and first served 
as the youth section of the National Negro Congress, cooperating 
with the Young Communist League (American Youth for Democra- 
cy), the American Youth Congress (now the American Youth for a 
Free "World), and the Southern Conference for Human Welfare. 

Esther V. Cooper, executive secretary of the Southern Negro Youth 
Congress, was a delegate to the International Congress held in London 
in October 1945. which led to the setting up of the World Federation 
for Democratic Youth, world Communist movement. 

The Seventh Annual Conference of an All-Southern Negro Youth 
Congress was held in Columbia, S. C, from October 18 to 20, 1946. 
It convened at Fisk LTniversity, with 900 delegates from the Southern 
States in attendance.- A feature of the convention was the setting 
up of a mock government called the Southern Youth Legislature to 
"challenge the old order in the South.'' The so-called legislature 
enacted bills endorsing Senator Pepper and Henry Wallace, bills 
supporting the CIO organizational drive in the South, bills favoring 
e(}ual educational and health facilities, bills against the poll tax and 
discrimination. 

Delegates were present from Haiti, India, and Liberia. Greetings 
were received from Soviet Russia and Yugoslavia. American Youth 
for Democracy sent a special delegation to the conference. Songs 
produced by People's Songs, Inc. were sung. 

In February 1947 the Southern Negro Youth Congress announced 
that it had built many new clubs, among them clubs in Roanoke; 
Montgomery and Birmingham, Ala ; in Anderson, Andrews, ISIamiing, 
and Winnsboro, S. C. ; and one in Jackson, Miss. 

The headquarters of the Southern Negro Youth Congress are located 
at 526 Masonic Temple Building, Birmingham, Ala. It also operates 
a movement called the Southern Negro Youth Educational Fund, Inc. 

At this time (1947) the officers of the Southern Negro Youth Con- 
gress are as follows : Rose Mae Catchings, president : Alton Adams, 
Jr., Edgar Holt, Kenneth C. Kennedy, Barbara Oldwine, Charles 
Rhodes, and Ernest Wright, vice presidents; Esther V. Cooper (Mrs. 
James E. Jackson, whose husband was with the American Youth Con- 
gress and has been chairman of the Communist Party of Louisiana), 



96 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

executive secretary; Louis E. Burnham, organizing secretary; and 
Maenetta Steele, treasurer. 

The executive board of the Southern Negro Youth Congress is 
composed of the following : Sadie Appleby, Mary Kuth Banks, Helen 
Barnett, Mabel Bentley, Sadie Boyd, Fannie Burrell, Dorothy Burn- 
ham, Florence Castile, John Costley, Gaines Culpepper, Norman 
Dixon, Herman Gray, Lynn Gray, Cleo Harris, George Hayes, Lloyd 
Hurst, Bennie Hill, Frank Hutchings, Jr., JVIatthew Jarrett, Eussell 
Jones, Robert Jones, Lawrence Matlock, Naomi Neel, Stella Pecot, 
Alice Person, Odessa Roberts, Theresa Simpson, Grace Tillman, 
Robert Wilson, and Wilson York. 

The advisory board is composed of the following: F. D. Patterson, 
chairman ; Charles G. Gomillion, secretary ; W. A. Bell, D. V. Jemison, 
Mary McLeod Bethune, Jesse B. Blayton, Horace Mann Bond, James 
Dombrowski, W. E. B. DuBois, Roscoe Dunjee, Charlotte Hawkins 
Brown, F. B. Washington, Arthur D. Shores, James Shepard, Ira de 
A. Reid. and Ralph O'Hara Lanier. 

(Exhibit No. 46 was received.) ^^ 

Mr, Steele. The organizing secretary of the Southern Negro Youth 
Congress, Louis Burnham, is a 'graduate of the City College of New 
York. He went south in 1941 to assist in organizing the Congress. 
He was originally connected with the youth section of the National 
Negro Congress. In 1937, he participated in Young Communist 
student strikes at City College. His name often appeared in Young 
Communist publications. He was elected vice chairman of the Ameri- 
can Youth for Democracy at its June 1946 convention, held in New 
York. 

(Exhibit No. 47 was received. )^^ 

Arthur G. Price, a member of the United Negro and Allied Veterans, 
is special projects director of the Southern Negro Youth Congress. 
Incidentally, the Congress is also affiliated with the Council on African 
Affairs, details of which appear later in this testimony. 

Another Negro movement which has every evidence of being Com- 
munist is the Negro Publication Society of America, Inc., with head- 
quarters in New York. This was incorporated in New York on Sep- 
tember 23, 1941, with Herbert Aptheker, Angelo Herndon, Margaret 
Osborn, Lawrence D. Reddick, and Artlmr Huff Fauset as incorpora- 
tors. Reference to this has been made in another section of this 
testimony. 

I wish at this time to submit as evidence information on the organ- 
izations that I have mentioned. 

(Exhibit received.) 

Mr. Rankin. Do you include in your statement the National Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of the Colored People? 

Mr. Steele. Pardon me? 

Mr. Rankin. Do you include in your list there this National Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of the Colored People? 

Mr. Steele. Only where I find them cooperating with the other 
movements. 

Mr. Rankin. It was organized by a man named Spingarn, I believe. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

^^ See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 46. 
2» See appendix, p. 175, for exliibit 47. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 97 

Mr. Rankin. And a man by the name of Spingarn, of New York, is 
the head of it now. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Rankin. A Jew who has no more interest in the Negro than 
the rest of us. 

The Chairman. He might have an interest. Just because he is a 
Jew is no sign that he is against the Negro. 

Mr. Rankin. He hasn't any interest in the Negro. He is out to cause 
trouble. You knew it passed a resolution condemning tliis committee 
and demanding its abolition, did you not ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Rankin. I just wanted to know if you were aware of the fact 
that it is a Communist front organization and used to promote the 
interest of the Communist movement throughout the country. 

Mr. Steele. Mr. Congressman, I have seen a few of its locals and I 
have seen a few of its local leaders involved with other Communist 
fronts, but I haven't personally had any evidence to prove as a 
national organization that it is a front. 

Mr. Rankin. The Booker T. Washington Foundation, which is 
headed by a group of very fine American Negroes asked for an all- 
Negro hospital in Virginia to take care of the load, in order that they 
might have their own doctors, and so forth, as they do down at Tus- 
kegee. Yesterday this alleged National Association for the Advance- 
ment of Colored People sent a telegram to the committee opposing it. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

JSIr. Rankin. I just want to let you know that before there is a line 
of demarcation 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

Mr. Rankin. Between the real patriotic American Negroes and the 
group that is trying to mislead the others into trouble and stir up 
friction for the white people all over the country. Now, you pointed 
out there a while ago one. of the things they had proposed was a Negro 
soviet for the Southern States, didn't you ^ 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir ; I submitted the evidence. 

Mr. Rankin. You have seen their map, haven't you ? 

Mr. Steele, I submitted that. 

Mr. Rankin. You submitted that? 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

Mr. Rankin. You know, judging from what took place in Russia, 
that would mean the murder of practically every white man in those 
States who was not willing to submit to that kind of regime and the 
raping of untold thousands of white women. You are aware of that, 
are you not ? 

Mr. Steele, Of course, that is purely a presumption. 

Mr. Rankin. That is about what happened in Russia, isn't it, when 
they took over ? 

Mr. Steele. I don't know what happened in the Negro soviet over 
there. 

Mr. Rankin. I know, but it wouldn't be any better than the white 
soviet. 

Mr. Steele. I presume not, no, sir. 

Mr. Rankin. You know, in the soviet over there, every man that 
resisted them either was sent to Siberia or was stood before a firing 
line. 



98 . TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Rankin. I just wondered if the people of this country realize 
the danger that these fronts really have to the welfare of this country ? 

Mr. Steele. Well, that is what I think the committee is trying to 
show. 

The Chairman. By exposure. 

Mr. Steele. By exposure. 

The Chairman. No question about that. 

Mr. Rankin. That is exactly what I am asking, too. 

Mr. Steele. I would say any take-over, in any section, would be 
followed by bloodshed, whether it was a Negro soviet or a white 
soviet. 

Mr. McDowell. Of course, INIr. Steele, you probably know the re- 
sponsible colored leaders in America have completelj^ rejected this 
idea. 

Mr. Steele. I understand. 

Mr. Rankin. And they rejected this alleged National Association 
for the Advancement of the Colored People, too. 

Mr. Steele. Now 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Steele, have you finished with your testimony 
on the Communist activities among Negroes? 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Could you give the committee any observation on 
your part as to whether or not the Communists have been making 
any progress and meeting with any success in their efforts to recruit 
the Negroes behind the cause of communism? 

Mr. Steele. From my observations, I think they have made very 
little progress with the masses of the Negro people. I have talked 
to people who are students on that subject and who have studied that 
angle in particular. The claim is — as I understand it — that the 
average colored person is tied pretty closely to his church and that 
while they might win some of them over temporarily, as soon as they 
find out what it is, the majority of them are out of the movement. 
Considering the number of colored people in the country, I doubt 
very much that tliey have made any great inroads. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you consider the National Negro Congress 
to be in the forefront in the effort of the Communists ? 

Mr. Steele. Very definitely so. 

Mr. Stripling. They are spearheading the Communist effort ? 

Mr. Steele. Very definitely so: yes. sir. In fact, the original chair- 
man of that organization, Phillips Randolph, resigned as chairman 
of it because, as he said, he found after he had headed the organiza- 
tion it was absolutely under the control of tiie Communist Party and 
was being financed directly by the Communist Party. 

The Chairman. But you did say the National Association for the 
Advancement of the Colored People was not a Communist front. 

Mr. Steele. I said, insofar as I have found 

Mr. Rankin. He 

The Chahoian. Let the witness answer. 

Mr. Rankin. You are testifying for him, through Mr. Thomas. 

The Chairman. I am asking questions. 

Mr. Steele. I think I have already answered the question, anyhow, 
that I haven't found the national organization as a whole is a Com- 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 99 

munist front. I have found locals and local officers connected with 
the other Red front movements. 

The Chairman. Did yon know the national association had passed 
a resolntion at its recent convention condemning communism? 

Mr. Steele. I didn't know that ; no. sir. 

Mr. Rankin. Do you know it passed one the other day condemn- 
ing this committee ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, I knew that. 

Mr. Rankin. And for the destruction of this committee. 

Mr. Steele. I knew of that, sir. 

Mr. Rankin. Because of its fight against communism. 

The Chairman. There are a lot of other people condemn this com- 
mittee, but that doesn't mean they are Communists. 

Mr. SiTiELE. Now I wish to deal with a new subject, that I doubt 
you have heard very much about. It is a rather dry subject, in a 
way, because it has to do with the cultural front. It has many ramifi- 
cations. From 1930 to 1936, the Communist forces in the United 
States maintained sections of the International of Revolutionary 
Writers and the International or Revolutionary Theaters, through 
which their cultural-front activities were directed. The immediate 
sections thereof were the John Reed Clubs, Pen and Hammer Clubs, 
and the Workers' Cultural Federation. The subdivisions were the 
following : Workers' Music League, Workers' Theater League, Work- 
ers' Radio Club, Workers' Short-Wave Club, National Film and Photo 
League. Workers' Film and Photo League. Young Workers' Dance 
League, Group Theater, and New Theater. The League of American 
AYriters later supplanted the John Reed and Pen and Hannner Clubs. 
These in turn operated through many offshoots. 

Again I refer to what I charge is one of the most important centers 
of Soviet and Communist activities in our country — the National 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship, this time with respect to its 
advancement of present-day Communist "cultural" activities. On 
November 18, 1945, the council held an American-Soviet cultural con- 
ference at the Engineering Societies Building in New York City. 
Scores of Communists ancl fronters attended, together with others 
interested in revolutionary literature, stage, screen, dancing, educa- 
tion, radio, and all other fields of leftist cultural activities. 

Howard Fast was one of the headliners of the conference. In his 
address he made the following statement : "I believe that the Soviet 
writer is armed far better than we are with the tools of understanding 
society."" He referred to our censorship laws which he claimed forced 
concessions on the Avriters. He spoke of the average writer's inability 
to labor through a "welter of contradictions," of his inability to bring 
forth democracy within the framework of an "imperialistic nation." 
He scorned those who could be affected by the cry of communism, and 
he called for writers to battle through such attacks. He often referred 
to the superiority of Soviet literature. 

Arthur Upham Pope presided at the conference. Other speakers 
were Helen Galiagan Douglas, Serge Koussevitsky, Margaret Webster, 
John Hersey, Lillian Hellman, Dean Dixon, and Aaron Copeland. 
Commiinist publications devoted considerable space to this conference. 
Greetings were received from the All Union Society for Cultural 
Relations (of Moscow), of which it is believed that the National 
Council for American-Soviet Friendship is a section. 



100 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Reports of the revival of Communist cultural movements in other 
countries were given prominent space in Communist publications as 
"come-ons" for American Reds in this field. In February 1946 a 
larger American-Soviet Cultural Conference was held in New York. 
Shortly after, Serge Koussevitsky, Morton Gould, Olin Downes, Elie 
Siegmeister, and Margaret Grant called the first meeting of the 
American-Soviet Music Society at Times Hall, 240 West Forty-fourth 
Street, New York. Aaron Copeland presided. 

In April 1946 came William Z. Foster's call for increased action in 
the "cultural" field. At that time he predicted that "the next year 
(1947) will show a. tremendous resurgence of progressive spirit in 
every cultural field." He further stated : 

National cultures are rich with the people's folk songs, their minstrels and 
ballad singers, their poetry, their theaters, their artistic handicrafts ; and more- 
over rising revolutionary social classes, instinctively realizing the importance of 
art as a social weapon, have always forged their own art and used it to chal- 
lenge that of the existing ruling class. Tlie national culture in any given period 
has never been identified with the culture of the ruling class * * * Progres- 
sive artists ai"e raising their voices independently in literature, in the theater, 
and in various other artistic fields. At the same time they are exerting con- 
structive pressures upon the organized, capitalistic cultural forms : the radio, 
the press, the motion pictures * * * Communists and other democratic artists 
should cultivate both these streams of new people's art * * * including the 
publication of books, the production of progressive plays, the promotion of artistic 
and general culture work in trade unions, Negro groups, farmer organizations, 
and other people's groupings ; the development of democratic art projects by the 
local. State, and National Government, the strengthening of publications by the 
left, and the establishment of organized artistic movements * * * The spe- 
cial tasks of the Communists in the development of the new democratic trends 
in our national culture is to enrich them with Marxist understanding and to 
carry them to the people. The Communists must, above all others, be the ones 
to understand the true significance of art as a weapon in the class struggle, and 
to know how to combat all reactionary capitalistic hindrances to the development 
of the new people's democratic art. 

The Red publications widely advertised the two large mass meet- 
ings which were held in New York City and Los Angeles, providing 
crescendo to the drive in behalf of the cultural front. The Los An- 
geles meetin^was held under the auspices of the Communist west 
coast paper. People's Daily World, and it was reported to have at- 
tracted 1,500 people. The New York meeting was held under the 
joint auspices of the Communist organs, the Daily Worker and New 
Masses, at which 3,500 people were reported in attendance. Emphasis 
was placed at these meetings on the building of a "broad Marxist cul- 
tural front" for the "stormy days ahead." 

In July 1946 a cultural frOnt congress was held in Moscow. Nor- 
man Corwin, writer and radio commentator of the United States, 
was the "honored guest." He presented the Moscow International Con- 
vention with the two recordings from the American-Soviet Music 
Society, on which were reproduced special messages from the Red 
leaders in the United States to the Soviet heads. 

An increase in cultural-front activities finally became evident 
with the setting up of Stage for Action, Young People's Records, New 
Theater, Trade Union Theater, People's Artists, Cultural Folk Dance 
Group, Theodore Dreiser Work Shop, Modern Culture Club, Carver 
Cultural Council, Cultural Council, Dramatic Work Shop, Contem- 
porary Tlieater (mobile unit) , Provisional Committee for Democracy 
in Radio, International Programs, Jefferson Chorus, Philadelphia 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 101 

Stage for Action, California Stage for Action, Contemporary Writers, 
American Folksay Group, People's Orchestra, People's Chorus, Book 
Find Club, Challenge Records, Charter Records, Freiheit Gesang 
Farein, People's Artists, Inc., Committee for the Defense of Educa- 
tion, the Keyrlote Recordings, Inc., People's Songs and People's 
Radio Foundation. 

New Masses entered the recording field with transcriptions of 
Songs of the Lincoln Brigade, Strange Fruit, Beloved Comrade, Soli- 
darity Forever, Red Army Sings, and Citizens CIO Album. Tliese 
recordings were offered free with subscriptions to Communist weekly, 
New Masses. 

The American-Russian Music Corporation came into existence. It 
maintains offices at 150 West 57th Street, New York, N. Y. It is 
learned that. this was also set up by the National Council for American- 
Soviet Friendship. 

During this period, the American Authors Authority began func- 
tioning. It was designed to control copyrights. This was sired by 
the Screen Writers' Guild, Hollj^wood Citizens' Committee of Arts, 
Sciences and Professions, and the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization. 
The chief authority was centered under the direction of James M. Cain. 
It is the intention of the Authority to try to force all writers to send 
their manuscripts to the Authority to have them copyrighted in its 
nam§. In one sense it may have been considered a sort of a bureau- 
cratic communistic union; in another, a huge Red monopoly. 

The Compass Record Co. then became active, specializing in Soviet 
recordings. Young People's Record Clubs began to flourish, as did 
Young People's Book Clubs. The International Film Foundation 
of New York announced Julien Bryan film productions ready for dis- 
tribution. International Publishers, the Communist propaganda 
house, issued a series of Young World Books which were propaganda 
about Communist Russia. International Workers' Order films were 
exhibited all over the country. Communist schools"began to organize 
classes in song, stage, screen, dance, writing, and kindred subjects. A 
People's Song School is the most recent addition to the Communist 
cultural scene. 

An "Arts as a Weapon" s^nnposium was held in New York City 
on April 15, 194G. It was headlined by William Z. Foster, Howard 
Fast, Dalton Trumbo, Arnaud D'Usseau, and Elizabeth Cattlett. 
Joseph North and Samuel Sillen were cochairmen of the symposium. 
It was decided at this time that the cultural section in the revolution- 
ary field was to be rebuilt ; that "art was to become a weapon." Only 
a few months earlier Moscow had purged its cultural fronts of the so- 
called "weaklings" who had permitted the "vibrations of world unity 
for victory to dull their drums for revolution." 

Let us now examine the ramifications of the larger of the present- 
day movements specializing in various fields of so-called "culture," 
but which have become part and parcel, in fact, of the Red propaganda 
and agitational machine in the United States. 

People's Songs, Inc., was incorporated in January 31, 1946, in New 
York City. It now has sections in every large city in the United 
States. Affiliated with it are many other smaller movements. It has 
injected itself into CIO, Communist fronts, and Communist schools. 
The incorporation papers list the following as directors and incor- 



102 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

porators : Herbert Hanf recht, 302 West 102d Street, New York, 
N. Y; Peter Seeger, 129 McDoiigal Street, New York, N. Y. ; Lee Hays, 
same address; Daniel Lapidus, 100 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y., 
who appeared before this committee of Congress as attorney for 
Eugene Dennis, secretary of the Communist Party ; and Robert Chii- 
borne, 729 Greenwich Street, New York, N. Y. Joe Brodsky is the at- 
torney for the corporation. The incorporation -papers provided that 
the members of the board should number not less than 5, and more 
than 25. 

The outfit was described as a "membership corporation," the pur- 
pose of which is to stimulate and develop an understanding and appre- 
ciation of worthy American music, songs, cultural and civic traditions, 
and to carry out these objectives on a nonpartisan basis (exhibit 48).^" 

The board of directors includes the following : B. A. Botkin, Tom 
Glazer, Horace Grenell, Woody Guthrie, John Hammond, Jr., Her- 
bert Haufrecht, Bess Hawes, Waldemar Hille, Svatava Jacobson, Paul 
Kent,' Millard Lampell, Felix Landau, E;irl Robinson, Bob Russell, 
Walter Lowenfels, Alan Lomax, Paul Secon, Kenneth Spencer, Wil- 
liam Stracke, Palmer Weber, Alec Wilder, and Bill Wolff. National 
director of People's Songs, Inc., is Peter Seeger; executive director, 
Lee Hays; and editor, Bernard Asbel. The board of sponsors in- 
cludes Sam Barlow, Leonard Bernstein, Marc Blitzstein (who was with 
the War Department on special duty in England). Aaron Copeland, 
Norman Corwin, Lincoln Kirstein, Larry Adler, Moe Asch, C. B. 
Baldwin, Carl Carmer, Oscar Hammerstein II, E. Y. Harburg, Judy 
HoUiday, Lena Home, John Houseman, Burl Ives, David Kapp, Elia 
Kazan, Alain Locke, Lynn Murray, Dorothy Parker, Paul Robeson, 
Harold Rome, Herman Sobel, Louis Untermeyer, Sam Wanamaker, 
Josh White, and Lila Belle Pitts. The advisory committee includes 
Rockwell Kent and Michael Gold. 

People's Songs, Inc., appears to be directly descended from the 
Almanac Singers, which prior to World War II published "songs for 
the workers" (workers as used by the Reds is synonymous with Com- 
munists). The Almanac Singers furnished the songs used by such 
Communist groups as the American Student Union, American Youth 
Congress, International Workers' Order, American Peace .Mobil- 
ization, etc. People's Songs, Inc., is now writing songs and plays, 
promoting choruses and schools for Conmiunist fronts. Many of its 
songs have been adopted by certain left-wing CIO unions, the CIO and 
the National Citizens' Political Action Committee, the Communist 
Party and its units, American Youth for Democracy, Civil Rights 
Congress, the International Workers' Order, Congress of American 
Women, the Southern Conference for Human Welfare, and other Red 
fronts. 

The CIO is also taking its place in Red cultural fields. Not long ago 
a CIO chorus was formed. On May 24, 1947, at Town Hall, New 
York City, the chorus presented a cantata written by Millard Lam- 
pell and Alex North. This was the first public appearance of the 
chorus. 

A few of the many songs produced by People's Songs, Inc., are : Put 
It on the Ground (pay raise song to the bosses), by Ray Glaser and 
Bill Wolfe; Take This Hammer (going home song for GI's) ; Jim 



^" See appendix, p. 175, for exhil>it 48. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 103 

Crow (rticial agitational song), by Bill Oliver; Atomic Energy (anti- 
atomic bomb), by Ray Glaser and Sir Lancelot; We've Got Our Eyes 
on You (political campaign song '"dedicated to your Congressman"), 
by Bernie Asbel; That's Why, by Ray Glaser; Roll the Prices Back, 
by Ray Glaser; On to Sacramento (marching song sung by marchers 
on the way to the offices of the Governor of California on March 20, 
1947), by Mario (Boots) Casetta ; John Hardy (Hardy, a coal miner, 
was convicted of murder during a coal strike in West Virginia in 
181)-i) ; DDT (agitational song against conservatives in Congress, and 
in support of De Lacy. Powell, Marcantonio, and other radicals men- 
tioned by name), by Walter Lowenfels; Walk in Peace (antiwar 
song), by Sir Lancelot; Listen Mr. Bilbo, by Robert Claiborne; Six- 
teen Ton (agitatifmal song for coal miners) ; Except My Daddy's 
Wages (antihigli cost of living), by Ray Glaser; Landlord; Liberal 
Commentator; The Bonnie Laboring Boy; Song of My Hands; Roll 
the Union On ; The Union Man ; Conversation With a Mule ; We Are 
the Guys; Solidarity Forever; The Rankin Tree; Homeless Blues; 
May Day Song: OPA Shouts; Beloved Comrade; Talking Atomic 
Bliies; Look Here Georgia; Free and Equal Blues; Walk in Peace; 
Black, Brown, and White Blues; Beans, Bacon, and Gravy; The Rat 
IS^amed Franco; Voter, Oh Voter, Oh Voter; Bilbo Breakdown; You 
Guys Gotta Organize ; Vote PAC ; Poll Tax Chain ; Picket Line Pris- 
cilla; "Wliatcha Gonna Do When Election Comes?; Inflation Talking 
Blues; Union Maid; Unity Rhumba; Miners: Kids and Wives'; and 
In Spite of Governor Martin. 

Let us consider the type of songs, classified as "worthy American 
songs," which are produced and circulated by People's Songs, Inc. 
One of them is entitled : "'The Preacher and the Slave," set to the music 
of an old Gospel hymn. The words are as follows : 

Long-haired preacher come out every night, 
Try to tell you what's wrong and what's right ; 
' But when asked a-bout something to eat 

They will answer with voices so sweet : 



Refrain 



Refrain. 



You will eat by and by 

In that glorious land above the sky. 

AVork and pray, live on hay : 

You'll get pie in the sky when you die. 

Working^llen of all countries unite, 
Side by side we for freedom will fight ; 
When the world and its wealth we have gained 
To tlie grafters we'll sing this refrain : 



This song was originally written by Joe Hill, reproduced by People's 
Songs, Inc., by permission of the IWW. It is considered one of their 
best songs. Aubrey Haan of the LTniversity of Utah is at the present 
time writing a novel based on the life of Joe Hill. A number of IIVW 
songs have been reproduced for present-day use by People's Songs. 

Another of the People's Songs' "masterpieces" is entitled: "Rag- 
gedy." The following is one of the verses : 

Hungry, hungry are we, 
Just as hungry as hungry can be ; 
We don't get nothing for our labor, 
So hungry, hungry are we. 



104 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

In the other verses the words "raggedy," "homeless," "landless," and 
"angry" replace the word "hungry" used in the first verse, 

A special song was written for use at subscription gatherings for 
the People's Daily World, west coast Communist organ. The first 
verse reads : 

Johnny went to get a subscription, 

Upon a door lie knocked. 
He spoke rigbt through the transom 

Because the door was locked. 
Said Johnny, so persistently, 

"I'm bringing you good news, 
A copy of the People's World 
Will clarify your views." 

A play entitled "Hootenanny" is now being produced by People's 
Songs and Song Work Shops, in which many of the previously men- 
tioned songs are sung. Harry Hay acts as coordinator, and he is sup- 
ported by Earl Robinson and Bill Wolff. Among those included in 
the cast are Murray Gooclson, Sonny Vale, the Berry Sisters, Sir 
Lancelot, Bill Oliver of the CIO Newspaper Guild of Los Angeles, 
Shirley Gray, and Mario (Boots) Casetta, director of the Los Angeles 
Chapter of People's Songs. A check of the records of the majority of 
these individuals will show their direct Communist or front connec- 
tions in many fields. 

People's Songs, Inc., is reaching into labor unions through the or- 
ganization of union choruses. One is the Ford Chorus, composed of 
members of the large Detroit CIO local. Johnny Gallo is recrea- 
tional director of the local and organizer and director of the People's 
Songs project. He is a national officer of American Youth for Democ- 
racy, and he is one of the leaders of its Michigan section. The 
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, railroad unions of 
Chicago, and the Allis-Chalmers CIO strikers were reported to be 
seriously considering forming choruses. 

People's Songs staged a benefit for the Communist Party in New 
York City on November 30, 1946. Its advertisements and press notices 
are to be found in the Daily Worker, New Masses, The Worker, Chi- 
cago Star, Michigan Herald, PM, People's Daily World, and Salute, 
New Theater and the Trade Union Theater are among the groups 
affiliated Avith People's Songs. 

People's Artists is also an affiliate of People's Songs, and it has 
offices in with the latter. It supplies special talent to organizations for 
the purpose of promoting people's songs, shows, and entertainment. 
People's Artists also supplies the entertainment for Communist Party 
gatherings. It took charge of the entertainment at a party meeting 
which was held in New York on April 26, 1947. People's Songs also 
participated. 

A People's Songs concert was sponsored by the American Youth 
for Democracy in Cleveland in October 1946. The Jefferson Chorus, 
organized by the Communist school having the same name, is under 
the direction of People's Songs. The chorus operates under the 
auspices of Stage for Action. The chorus led the strikers in New 
York City in January 1947, and it was referred to as the Jefferson 
Chorus on the Picket Lines. 

The American Folksay Group of American Youth for Democracy, 
in February 1947, was led by People's Songs. The New Theater, 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 105 

m cooperation with Stage for Action and People's Songs is now stag- 
ing Communist plays in New York. One of them is Waiting for 
Lefty. Others are The Cradle Will Rock, The General and the 
Goats, and All Aboard. 

People's Songs was in charge of the entertainment presented at the 
Civil Rights Congress in September 1946. Recordings of People's 
Songs are made by Keynote Recordings, Inc. Among Keynote Re- 
cordings of People's Songs is an album of five records produced for 
use by the CIO-PAC on radio transcriptions. People's Songs pro- 
duced the songs used by the National Political Action Committee and 
Schools for Political Action Technique, launched in 1946. One such 
School was held in Washington, D, C, in June of that year, Peter 
Seeger, Lee Hays, and Allan Max were instructors at this school. 

Millard Lampell of People's Songs, Inc., was one of the organizers 
of the Almanac Singers. He is also chairman of the veterans' com- 
mittee of the Civil Rights Congress, and a writer for the Daily Worker. 
Walter Lowenfels of People's Songs is a Communist Party leader in 
Philadelphia. Dr. B. A. Botkin until recently was archivist of the 
Library of Congress in the American Folk Song Division. 

People's Songs claims a membership of 2,000 in 38 States, with mem- 
bers in Hawaii, Alaska, China, France, and India. 

So important have the songs produced by People's Songs, Inc., be- 
come in Red ranks that the Communist school in Hollywood — People's 
Educational Center, the (Communist) California Labor School in 
San Francisco, the Jefferson School in New York, and the (Com- 
munist) Labor School in Oakland have inaugurated classes in the 
science of agitational song writing. They are taught- by leaders of 
People's Songs, Inc. The Cultural Folk Song Group and American- 
Russian Corporation (distributor of Russian and Soviet Music) are 
other organizations active in this field (exhibits 49 and 50) .^^ 

Leonard Jackson, former director of International Programs, now 
heads the People's Songs booking division. 

People's Songs is now completing a special set of recordings for 
CIO unions. One particular set is being made for the National 
Maritime Union. It is planned that recordings are to be placed on 
all ships manned by NMU members. 

A board of sponsors, recently set up to give People's Songs additional 
momentum in its all-out drive for expansion, includes Larry Adler, 
Moe Asch, C. B. Baldwin, Sam Barlow, Leonard Bernstein, Marc 
Blitzstein, Carl Carmer, Aaron Copeland, Norman Corwin, Oscar 
Hammerstein II, E. Y. Harburg, Judy HoUiday, Lena Home, John 
Houseman, Burl Ives, David Kapp, Elli Kazan, Gene Kelly, Lincoln 
Kirsten, Alain Locke, Lynn Murray, Dorothy Parker, Lila Belle Pitts, 
Paul Robeson, Harold Rome, Herman Sobel, Louis Untermeyer, Sara 
Wanamaker, and Josh White. 

People's Songs has sent delegated representatives to the Prague 
conference of the Communist World Youth Festival, now being held. 
Michael Scott and Ernie Lieberman were selected as its delegates. 

Communist cultural groups are establishing so-called work shops 
throughout the country to promote People's Songs and Stage for 
Action productions. They are also penetrating legitimate work shops 
of culture by planting their ready-made "cultural" wares therein. 

" See appendix, p. 175, for exhibits 49 and 50. 



106 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

People's Artists, Inc., referred to previously herein, maintains oiRces 
with Stage for Action, and also at 11 West Charles Street, New York, 
N. Y. It has sections in the Midwest and far West. Its leaders in- 
clude Paul Bain, Bob Claiborne, Sis Cunningham, Eve Gentry, Cisco 
Houston, Phil Irving, Jane Martin, Brown McGhee, Harry B. Ringel, 
Pete Seeger, and Sonny Terry. Claiborne and Seeger are with 
People's Songs, Inc. In Los Angeles the outfit is referred to as 
People's Artists Bureau. 

Additional cultural movements, mentioned in Communist publica- 
tions, are the Artists League of America and the Cultural Folk Dance 
group. 

The New Institute, with offices at 29 Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., is designed to promote the best way to teach film and radio. 
Members of the faculty are Paul Strand, Irving Lerner, Leo Hur- 
witz, Alfred Saxe, Sydney Myers, Peter Lyon, Donald Winclair, 
and Eva Desca. Donald Winclair is director. 

The International Film Foundation, Inc., 1600 Broadway, New 
York, N. Y., is promoting film plays on Russia. It propagandizes 
among American youth. Julian Bryan is executive director 
{exhibit 51).^^ 

Also active in the play and film field is the International Workers' 
Order which sponsors road shows and film entertainment of an agita- 
tional nature. Short films by Frank Sinatra are also featured. 
Charles Cooper is national director of this branch of IWO activity. 
The IWO film group has recently produced 12 films. The rental for 
these films is kept to a low price. Films available include Health and 
Security for America, a propaganda play in behalf of socialized medi- 
cine; Forward All Together, upholding Negro rights ; The U. S. S. R. — 
The Land and the People, a pro-Russian film; We Are All Brothers, 
adopted from the pamphlet. Races of Mankind ; How To Live With the 
Atom, Up and Atom, Sing and Win, and World Control of Atom 
Energy. 

Challenge Records, Charter Records, Compass Record Co. (distri- 
butors of Soviet recordings), and the Young People's Record Club, 
Inc., are all exploited by the Communists. Young People's Record 
Club has offices at 40 West Forty-sixth Street, New York, N. Y. As 
its name implies, it serves youth at club rates, that is by the month. 
This was incorporated in New York City on July 21, 1946. The in- 
corporators, thought to be "dummy" incorporators, were Blanche 
Thorner, 2911 Barnes Avenue, Bronx, N. Y.; Ethel Radin, 3045 
Twelfth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; and Renee Kaminsky, 752 West 
End Avenue, New York, N. Y. Each held one vshare of stock, and 
they were named "directors until the first annual meeting of stock- 
holders." Two hundred shares of stock were authorized, but no 
other stockholdei'S were mentioned. Abraham L. Pomerantz of 
295 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y., was referred to as tliQ agent. 
The secretary of state of New York found it necessary to process some- 
one in any action or proceeding against the corporation. Levy, Pome- 
rantz, Sciiraeder, and Haudek were the attorneys for the corporation, 
and the corporation offices are at the same address of those of the law 
firm (exhibit 52), 



33 



»- See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 51. 
*" See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 52. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 107 

YounjTf World Books is still another outfit designed to propagandize 
among the yonth. It distributes books on evolution and Soviet and 
pro-Communist themes. 

Headquarters of Contemporary Writers are located at the Hotel 
Albert. 65 University Place, New York, N. Y. Howard Fast and 
Erskine Caldwell are cochairmen. The announced purpose of the 
organization is to "create literature consistent with man's need for 
peace, democracy, and security." In September 1946 it sponsored a 
Forum of Contemporary Writers which was held at the Hotel Capital 
in New York. The object of the forum was to launch an attack against 
William liandelph Hearst and his newspapers. It was sponsored by 
Richard Lauterbach, Howard Fast, Louis Adamic, Henrietta Buck- 
master, Oliver Brown, Dr. W. E. B. DuBois, Bernard Memeroff, 
Maxim Lieber, Dashiell Hammett, William Rose Benet, Sterling 
North, and Quentin Reynolds. Contemporary Writers describes it- 
self "the militant new organization of Marxist and other anti-Fascist 
authors." 

People's Radio Foundation, Inc., with offices located at the Hotel 
Albert, 65 University Place, New York, N. Y., was incorporated on 
November 24, 1944. The purposes of the foundation, as outlined in 
the application for incorporation, are as follows : 

To purchase, construct, ei-ect, equip, furnish, maintain and operate radio broad- 
cast, television, or facsimile stations, network relay stations, or any other method 
for intercoiuiecting radio stations; to purchase or lease real estate and plants 
necessary to carry out above objects, and to manufacture, purchase, or otherwise 
acquire products, materials, goods, wares, equipment, etc., of above objects ; 
and to buy, or otlierwise acquire inventions, processes, trade-marks, or copy- 
rights; and to patent and license, develop, or grant license, etc.; or to buy or 
lease, or otherwise acquire any part of tlie business, good will, or assets of any 
person, firm, or corporation, domestic or foreign, engaged in similar business; to 
stimulate among the radio audience and the public generally an understanding 
and appreciation of worthy American civic and cultural traditions and achieve- 
ments and like contributions made by nationality groups * * * 

Since its incorporation, the foundation has sold stock in the cor- 
poration amounting to tens of thousands of dollars, and I have been 
advised that it has applications made, through dummies, for a number 
of FM stations. It plans to establish FM stations in Seattle, Wash. ; 
Los Angeles; North Canton, Ohio; Lancaster; Philadelphia; Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; Buffalo, New York; Detroit, Chicago, Newark, Butte, 
and other large cities (exhibit 53).-^^ 

The largest stockholders, as of March 1947, of the foundation are 
James Lustig, 50 shares of preferred and 25 common; Jewish People's 
Fraternal Order (Communist), 10 shares of preferred, and 5 of com- 
mon; Fur and Leather Workers" Union (headed by Ben Gold, Com- 
mmiist official), 8 shares of preferred, and 21/2 of connnon; Russky 
Galos (Russian edition of Daily Worker), 30 shares of preferred, and 
15 of common; A. A. Heller (treasurer of Communist school in New 
York, and official of International Publishers, Communist propa- 
ganda agency), 5 shares of preferred, and 2^ of common; Inter- 
national Workers' Order (Communist), 25 shares of preferred, and 
12i/> of common; Paul Crosbie (Communist attorney and party sec- 
tional leader), 5 shares of preferred, and 2i/^ of common; Magazine 
House, 10 shares of preferred, and 5 of common ; Joe Brodsky, 2 shares 

*> See appendix, p .175, for exhibit 53. 



108 . TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

of preferred, and 1 of common; American Committee for Protection 
for Foreign Born (Communist front), 1 share of preferred, and one- 
half of common; Council on African Affairs, 1 share of preferred, 
and one-half of common; Max Yergan, 1 share of preferred, and 
one-half of common; Joseph Weinstein, 10 shares of preferred; Dr. 
Robert Leslie, 10 shares of preferred, and 5 of common; William 
Gropper, 1 share of preferred, and one-half of common ; Harry Kap- 
lan, 10 shares of preferred, and 5 of common; Club Obrero Espanol, 
2 shares of preferred, and 1 of common ; Centro Fraternal Hispano, 
1 share of preferred, and one-half of common; Dental Technician 
Equity, 1 share of preferred, and one-half of common; American 
Communications Association (CIO), 2 shares of preferred, and 1 of 
common. As of June 30, 1946, the assets of the foundation were 
given as $50,420.51. 

Endorsing the People's Radio Foundation, Inc., to the Federal Com- 
munication Commission were the Jewish People's Fraternal Order, 
ICOR, American Slav Congress, Iranian Institute, Thrya Edwards, 
Horace Grenell (Musicians Union Local 802), Samuel Landan, 
Harold Cammer, Louis Weinstock, Howard Fast, and Elie Sieg- 
meister. 

Tlie following are charter members of the foundation : Leon Barzin, 
Joe Brodsky, Charlie Chaplin, Charles H. Colvin, Joseph Curran 
(CIO), Howard Fast, Bernard Fein, Frederick V. Field, Leo Gal- 
lagher, William Gropper, Mrs. Ida Guggenheimer, Leverett Gleason, 
A. A. Heller, Langston Hughes, Albert Kahn, Rockwell Kent, Corliss 
Lamont, Dr. Robert L. Leslie, Ray Ley, John T. McManus, Samuel 
Novick, Arthur Osman, Earl Robinson, Joseph Selly, Arthur Szyk, 
Margaret Webster, and Max Yergan. 

Leon Barzin was connected with Spanish-aid movements in support 
of Spanish Red revolutionists. Joe Brodsky has a Communist record 
too lengthy to list in full here. He was a member of the board of 
advisers of the Communist schools, chief of the legal staff of the Inter- 
national Labor Defense, on the advisory council of Book Union (Com- 
munist), general counsel of the International Workers' Order, on the 
national council of the League of Struggle for Negro Rights (Com- 
munist). His pro-Communist leanings and activities have been 
known to the public for years. He is associated with the National 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship and the Russian War Relief. 

Charles H. Colvin, another charter member of the foundation, is 
associated with the American-Russian Institute, a propaganda agency. 
Joseph Curran, head of a CIO union previously a pro-Soviet and pro- 
Communist, also had a lengthy front record. He has had in the past 
84 front connections in reports dealing with subversive activities. 
Howard Fast, author and writer, has been a sponsor of the (Com- 
munist) American Youth for Democracy, formerly the Young Com- 
munist League. He was connected with the Joint Anti -Fascist 
Refugee Committee, and he was among those indicted by the Federal 
grand jury in contempt of Congress. 

Bernard Fein sponsored the Tallentine Jubilee Committee. Tal- 
lentine was a prominent Communist, and the committee was strictly 
Communist. Frederick V. Field is another character with an exten- 
sive subversive record. He is an editor of the Communist magazine. 
New Masses, and he has assisted in financing and directing many Red 
front movements. Leo Gallagher is a west-coast attorney and a 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 109 

Comiimnist. He was the Communist Party candidate in California 
for attorney general, and he has an extensive Communist and Com- 
munist front background. 

William Gropper, cartoonist for official Communist Party organs, 
has a record of some 60 radical connections. He headed the John 
Reed Clubs at one time. His drawings have appeared in New Masses, 
New Pioneer, The Worker, Daily Worker and Soviet Russia Today, 
all Communist publications. He has been a leader in Communist cul- 
tural fronts for a number of years. He has affiliated with the W^orkers' 
International Relief (Communist) , the Congress of American Artists, 
Workers' Cultural Federation, and American Artists' School. He 
openly supported Earl Browder in his campaign for President of the 
United States in 1936. 

Ida Guggenheimer has a record of 16 Red front connections. She 
was connected with the American League for Peace and Democracy 
(Communist) in 1938, the International Labor Defense, and the Con- 
sumers' Union. Leverett Gleason was among those indicted by the 
Federal Grand Jury for contempt of Congress on March 31, 1947. 
He is publisher of Salute, a radical GI magazine. He has had num- 
erous other Red affiliations. A, A. Heller, Russian-born, has long 
been a contributor to Communist Party activities. He has donated 
approximately $250,000 a year to Communist proj^aganda movements 
and campaigns, and he has been high in Communist Party circles in 
the United States for many years. 

Langston Hughes, a notorious Negro with some 82 Communist 
affiliations, has been particularly active in Negro Communist activi- 
ties. He was originally active in the (Communist) Workers' Cultural 
Federation in 1930, the New Theater League, and the Southern New 
Theater School. He has contributed to the Communist publications 
New Masses, Soviet Russia Today, Labor Defender, Champion, and 
The Anvil. He was active in Spanish Red ranks during the Commu- 
nist revolution in that country, and he is a member of its Red Army 
reserve, the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, a section of the International 
Brigade. He has been prominent in Communist front, the American 
Peace Mobilization, Conference on Pan-American Democracy, League 
of Struggle for Negro Rights, League of American Writers, National 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship, Book Union, and the Ameri- 
can Student Union. One of his poems, a favorite with Communists, 
iscalledPut Just One More "S" in US A (Soviet). _ 

Albert E. Kalm, a Communist functionary, participated in the na- 
tional convention of the Communist Party in 1946. He heads the 
Jewish Committee of the International Workers' Order, and he is 
active in many other Red fronts. He is author of the book, The Secret 
War Against Russia, and also of the Great Conspiracy Against Russia, 
both of which have been widely circulated by the Communists. 

Rockwell Kent, an artist, was formerly a member of the IWW. He 
now heads the International Workers' Order. He supported Browder 
in his campaigns for President in 1936 and 1942. He has been a 
member of the national committee of the International Labor Defense. 
He was active in the American League for Peace and Democracy, the 
Conference on Pan-American Democracy, United American Artists, 
League of American Writers, National Federation for Constitutional 
Liberties, National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, and other 

65176—47 8 



110 ' TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

directly Communist and Communist front groups. He is referred to 
108 times in Government reports in connection with his un-American 
activities. 

John T. McManus heads the CIO Newspaper Guild. Samuel J. 
Novick heads the Electronic Corp. of America, and he has often been 
accused of associating with Reds. Arthur Osman is a CIO union 
leader, and he is listed as having 15 Communist front affiliations. 
Joseph Selly, a CIO union official, has numerous Communist front 
connections. Margaret Webster has been active in Red front circles 
for some years. Max Yergan is a Negro Communist leader in New 
York. He heads the National Negro Congress (Communist), and 
has 78 Communist and front affiliations. Earl Robinson has long 
traveled in Communist circles. He was expelled some years ago from 
a Seattle school. He has 21 Red front designations. He is a close 
friend of Paul Robeson, the Negro singer, who has some 80 radical 
connections. 

The People's Radio Foundation is attacking present-day ownership 
of radio. It is promoting the licensing of FM stations to leftists. 
It is defending leftist commentators and undermining conservative 
commentators. 

There is evidence to show that left-wing CIO unions and Red 
fronters representing certain front organizations have gained control 
of many of the 136 FM licensed radio stations in the postwar period. 
FM stations now operate in 100 cities in 33 States as well as in the 
District of Columbia. It is anticipated that 700 such stations will 
have been licensed by the end of 1947. 

The latest acquisition in this field is a station in Minneapolis, the 
agent for which is Elmer Benson, vice president of the Progressive 
Citizens of America, who has at least 24 Red front citations. A con- 
ditional grant to operate the station is in his name. 

The International Ladies Garment Workers' Union, less radical 
than most unions in the garment trade, is constructing three FM 
stations, licenses for which have already been granted. These sta- 
tions will be located in Chattanooga, St. Louis, and Los Angeles. 
The union has also applications pending for FM stations in New 
York City, Boston, and Philadelphia. 

The Metropolitan Broadcasting Corp., of Washington, D. C, are 
owners of FM Station WQQW which began broadcasting in January 
(1947). On the opening program were Alan Lomax, Gregory Peck, 
Aaron Copeland, Gene Kelly, Earl Robinson, Peter Seeger, William 
Higenbotham, Mordecai Johnson, and others, most of whom are re- 
ferred to elsewhere in this testimony. The incorporators include 
Clark Foreman, Simon Gerber, Dr. Leon Gerber, Samuel Lichten- 
stein, Morris Rodman, A. E. Lichtman, John P. Anderson, Albert 
Youngman, Marcus I. Graham, and Mary J. Keeny, many of whom 
have Red front backgrounds. The radical character of most of those 
connected with the station may point to future trends in the move 
toward producing "thought control" over the air. 

Another FM station operating in Washington, D. C, is Station 
WCFM, owned by the Potomac Broadcasting Cooperative. Presi- 
dent of the station is Herbert S. Wood. I understand that he has 
been a member of the Washington Book Shop (Communist) and 
the Washington Committee To Aid China (sponsored by the Ameri- 
can League for Peace and Democracy) . 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 111 

A move is being made in New York City to set up a new broad- 
casting system, to provide service exclusively for FM stations. The 
group interested in the undertaking is temporarily headed by Ira 
A. Hirschmann, who was a member of the govei-ning committee of 
Keep America Out of War Congress in 1939. He has been a member 
of the board of trustees of the New School for Social Research in 
New York. His other front affiliations are known to this committee. 
Hirschmann is himself owner of a new FM station, WABF, in New 
York City. 

As far back as 1941: the CIO attempted to procure licenses prepar- 
atory to building a Nation-wide chain of FM stations. 

Red fronters, using the air over the established radio systems, 
haven't fared so well. Frank Kingdon, Robert St. John, Johannes 
Steel, and a number of other fronters have been dropped by the various 
stations over which they had broadcast in the guise of news com- 
mentators. Selden Menefee, possessed of an extensive radical back- 
ground, who had a temporary assignment with one of the major broad- 
casting systems as program director, was likewise reportedly dismissed. 
However, individuals such as Norman Corwin and Sidney Rogers and 
others still crowd the airways. 

An investigation was made not long ago of the series known as the 
Fifth Horseman, starring some of Hollywood's top talent. Follow- 
ing its discontinuance, the author, Arnold Marquis, together with Sam 
Moore produced a radio series called A Salute to the U. S. S. R., under 
the sponsorship of the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization. Selden 
Menefee is reported to have joined Marquis in arranging the program 
for the previous series. 

While I have nothing in common with the Senator from Missis- 
sippi, Mr. Theodore G. Bilbo, since I have no way of ascertaining 
whether or not he is guilty of all the thoughts and acts of which he has 
been accused, I wish to call attention to a broadcast which originated 
over Station WMCA in New York City, entitled "The Gentleman 
from Mississippi," by Ira Marion. The play was one of a series 
called New World a'Coming. The role of the Senator was portrayed 
by Will Geer, a Communist, who is currently connected with People's 
Songs, Inc., and Stage for Action, reference to which will be found in 
my testimony. Geer was formerly active in the New Theater League 
(Communist) and the Southern New Theater League. He is the hus- 
band of Hertha Ware (Communist), the granddaughter of the 85 
year old "Mother" (Ella) Reeve Ware Omholt Bloor. Geer was 
arrested for inciting to riot and resisting an officer in San Diego in 
June 1©33. He was active in the Young Communist League in 1938, 
and has been master of ceremonies at various festivals sponsored by 
the I WO. Norman Rose acted as narrator. A "Norman Rose" taught 
at the Workers' School (Communist) in New York in 1931. New 
World a'Coming was produced and directed by Joseph Gottlieb. The 
music was by William Taylor. Members of the cast were David Ker- 
man, Mort Lawrence, Scott Tennyson, AVendell Holmes, Joseph Bo- 
land, Martin Wolfson, and Joan Tompkins. 

In this field of propaganda there has also been set up a Provisional 
Committee for Democracy in Radio. It is sponsored by the Interna- 
tional Workers' Order, and it cooperates with the People's Radio 
Foundation. 



112 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

The People's Kadio Group sponsors radical radio plays, two of 
which are "Hail Columbia" and the "Ballad of Herman Bottcher, — 
Communist GI." 

Another link in the Communist cultural chain is Keynote Record- 
ings, Inc., with offices located at 522 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
It has been in operation for more than 8 years. This outfit propa- 
gandizes through recordings. It has recently extended its efforts in 
issuing albums of records of a Communist propaganda nature. One 
highly touted album is entitled: "Six Songs for Democracy." One of 
the songs was written by Hans Eisler, brother of Gerhart'Eisler, both 
of whom are German Communists. The latter, it will be recalled, was 
heard before a congressional committee not long ago, in the course 
of the hearings he was exposed as n Moscow agent active in Commu- 
nist Party ranks in this country. Hans Eisler is in Hollywood, writ- 
ing music for the movies.^^ 

The songs of Eric Weinert, widely known in Communist circles, are 
also distributed by Keynote Recordings. His song, included in the 
album of records referred to above, is called Song of the International 
Brigade. 

Keynote Recordings has the endorsement of Paul Robeson, Negro 
Conmiunist singer. Recordings of this outfit have been translated by 
Leonard Mins and Anne Bromberger. Mins was formerly with the 
New Deal OSS at a salary of $4,000 a year. He has been connected 
with the League of American Writers, the John Reed Clubs, and he has 
taught at one of the Communist schools in New York. 

Howard Willard, designer of the album cover for Keynote records, 
was among those listed in the Communist organ. New Masses, in 1940, 
. demanding that our Government cease action against Communists for 
violating Federal laws by recruiting soldiers for a Communist army 
abroad, and for other illegal activities. He charged the Government 
with "badgering Communist leaders." 

Aclviiowledgment of services rendered Keynote by the above-men- 
tioned individuals is made in its literature in a statement written by 
Eric Beriiay, who was for many years connected with the Communist 
organ, New Masses. 

In a discussion of Communist activities on the cultural front, we 
must not overlook Red camps. Some years ago there were 27 of these 
camps owned and operated by the Communists as cooperatives. They 
have disposed of some of these camps, but they have made arrange- 
ments whereby their followers can gather at given times at camps not 
under direct control. At least five of the old camps in the east remain 
in the possession of the Reds. They are Camp Beacon, Beacon, N. Y. ; 
Camp Unity, AVingdale, N. Y. ; Camp Kinderland, Hopewell Junction, 
N. Y. ; Camp Wo-Chi, April Farms, Coopersburg, Pa. ; and Camp 
Midvale, N. J. Camp Arrow Lodge is a choice Communist vacation 
spot. It is located at Ellenville, N. Y. The Communists and their 
fronts receive schooling at these camps. They sing Soviet songs and 
dance Russian dances. A Communist camp has been maintained for 
a number of years a short distance from Washington, D. C. Commu- 
nist leaders requently address the classes held at these summer camps. 

Other camps frequented by the Reds are Camp Followers of the 
Trail, Buchanan, N. Y. ; Crystal Lake Lodge, Chestertown, N. Y. ; 

^ See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 54. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 113 

Nature Friends Camp, near Boyerton, Pa.; Camp Aselomar (Cali- 
fornia Labor School); Camp Annisquam (Samuel Adams School); 
and Camp Summerdale, near Harrisburg, Pa. Most of these camps 
operate under the cooperative plan — i. e., they are set up as coopera- 
tives, thereby possibly escaping the heavy taxes ordinary commercial 
camps must pay. For example. Camp Summerdale is operated by the 
Summerdale Co-Operative Health and Recreation Association, Inc., 
as a cooperative association. The offices are located at 411 North Sec- 
ond Street, Harrisburg, Pa. V. F. Salerno is the agent. The camp 
occupies 15 acres of land. A special summer interracial school is 
conducted at the camp. Adult classes are held, and instruction is given 
in radical art, crafts, music, dancing, nature study, games, sports, and 
dramatics. Mrs. Sara Levitz is the treasurer of the association, and 
she maintains offices at 128 Cumberland Street, Lebanon, Pa. Reser- 
vations are made through Elliott Turnage, 1230 North Sixth Street, 
Harrisburg. 

At this point, I wish to digress slightly from the subject of Com- 
munist camps. While I have not in this testimony discussed the co- 
operative field, I pointed to the fact, in the section dealing with publi- 
cations, that New Masses, as an example, is organized under coopera- 
tive and educational membership laws. In past months I have done 
some research on cooperatives, and I have found apartment projects, 
restaurants, grocery stores, camps, canneries, and many other projects 
are owned and operated by the Communists as cooperatives. They 
evidently escape taxation and certain other Federal regulations when 
operating as cooperatives. 

The Voice of Freedom Committee made its appearance in May 
1947. It was created for the purpose of conducting a propaganda 
and agitational battle in behalf of leftist radio commentators, and 
in opposition to so-called reactionary radio commentators. Its head- 
quarters are located at 122 West Seventy-first Street, New York, N. Y. 
The committee poses as an "antiradio censorship" movement. Ac- 
tive with it are William Shirer, Frank Kingdon, Will Geer, and 
William Gailmore. 

Also launched in May 1947 was the Artists Fight Back movement. 
It went into action on June 11 at a mass meeting of leftists held in 
New York City, in time to propagandize when this committee was 
originally supposed to begin its hearings on Red activities in Holly- 
wood. Artists Fight Back is sponsored by ISIainstream, a new publi- 
cation issued by the (Communist) New Century Publishers. The 
committee through which the movement operates is composed of 
Dalton Trumbo, John Howard Lawson, Theodore Ward, and Philip 
Evergood. It says it will oppose the Thomas committee in its attacks 
upon "progressive" artists, meaning "HoUywooders." 

To the cultural front, I may also add Artkino Pictures, Inc., 723 
Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. ; and Russian Music Co., Inc., 121 
Lexington Avenue, New York, N. Y., both of which are circulating 
Soviet propaganda films and music in the United States. 

Although firms or societies operating in New York City are re- 
quired, under law, to file with the county clerk of New York, I have 
been informed that Stage for Action has failed to so file. Stage for 
Action is promoting propaganda and agitational plays from coast 
to coast. In New York City, on September 22, 1946, it produced a 



114 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

satire on the Communist propaganda smear book. The Great Con- 
spiracy Against Russia, by Albert Kahn, a Communist Party func- 
tionary. Paul Robeson and Paul Draper, both of whom are widely 
known in Communist and front ranks, took the leading parts. The 
script was written from the book for the stage by Morris Watson, 
long active in Red front circles and the CIO Newspaper Guild ; and 
Brett Warren. Tickets were sold by New Masses, Book Fair, Work- 
ers' Book Shop, Jefferson School for Social Science Bookshop, Stage 
for Action headquarters, and the Modern Bookshops of New York 
City and Newark, N. J. 

Stage for Action cooperates with People's Songs, Inc., People's 
Radio Foundation, and other Communist fronts. It works with the 
JeAvish People's Fraternal Order (Communist) and the CIO Teachers' 
Union. The "audience membership"' is $5 a year, and $15 up for 
plays (exhibit 55).^" 

Among the plays available are All Aboard (Negro discrimination), 
Foreign Policy Shnitzebank, Freedom ol the Press (the "kept"' press), 
J'xVccuse, J. P. Dropabomb (war makers and unions). Just Plain 
Bowles (inflation dangers). How to Canvass — How Not (election 
technique). Open Secret (atom bomb control), You're Next (civil 
liberties). The Way Things Are (antilynching). The General and 
the Goats (Army and the atom bomb), The Economist (w^age and 
price levels), The Case of an Empty Purse (need for OPA), Talk in 
Darkness (tolerance). Soldier Who Became a Great Dane (military 
red tape), So Upon a Sailing Sea (unorganized workers), Skin Deep 
(discrimination), Dream Job (Army discrimination), and The Man 
on the Street (action against "reactionary" radio commentators). 

Stage for Action promotes plays for Communists and front organi- 
zations, and it is offering its presentations to the general public, evi- 
dently Avith the desire of orientating the people with their propa- 
ganda plays. Stage for Action furnished the entertainment presented 
at the convention of the CIO held in Atlantic City in November 1946. 
It is on the lookout for new performers and new writers who will 
serve as Communist "missionaries." Communist publications reveal 
St^ge for Action has organized a training school for talent for its 
Red plays in New York City. Trade Union Culture is included in 
the course from which the students are expected to form "cultural 
groups" within their own unions. Dome Studios, 430 Sixth Avenue, 
is the setting for the classes. The school has annoimced that its 
faculty includes David Pressman, director and actor; John O'Shaugh- 
nessey, formerly with the old Communist Theater League ; Mary Grey 
Barnett, Millard Lampbell, active in Red C. I. movements ; and Plelen 
Blok. (Exhibit 56).^' 

Stage for Action has established a branch in Philadelphia, known 
as the Philadelphia Stage for Action, at 1227 Walnut Street. Its 
performers entertained at the First Annual Walt Whitman Day cele- 
bration of the Communists in Philadelphia in 1946. Mike Gold of 
the National Committee of the Communist Party delivered a speech 
at the beginning of the program. The following are sponsors of this 
new branch: Howard Bay, Gertrude Berg, Norman Corwnn, Howard 
Fast, James H. Fay, Peter Frye, William Gailmore, John Cassner, 

*" See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 55. 
^' See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 56. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 115 

Elinor S. Gimbel. Michael Gordon, Elizabeth Hawes, Stanley Isaacs, 
Felix Knight, Canada Lee, Phillip Loeb, John T. McManus, Mrs. 
Arthur ISIayer, William Morris, Jean Muir, Minerva Pious, Adam 
Clayton Powell, Lawrence Eeddick, Jerome Robbins, Paul Eobeson, 
Oscar Serlin. Herman Schumlin, James Thurber, Channing Tobias, 
Toni Ward, and Frank Wilson. 

Stage for Action has eight affiliates — in Boston, Philadelphia, 
Washington (D. C), Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Denver, and Los 
Angeles. It has a mobile unit composed of 50 performers, which is 
now launching a tour under the auspices of locals of the United Elec- 
trical Workers, managed by the national office of the union. The 
Furriers Union, Transport Union, National Maritime Union, and the 
Department Store Workers' Union have also availed themselves of 
the services of Stage for Action. 

On Jmie 28, 194:7, Stage for Action gave an entertainment at 408 
Waring Hoad, Elkins Park, Pa. Participants were Bette Itkis and 
Len Keyser. 

The head of Stage for Action in Philadelphia is Ruth Deacon, an 
employee of the Locust Bookshop (Communist) in that city. 

Other left-wing theater units now being set up are the American 
Theater Wing, New Dance League, the Hollywood Laboratory Thea- 
tor (formerly Hollywood Theater Alliance), and the American Negro 
Theater. 

The board of directors of Stage for Action includes Edward 
Chodorov, ohairman; Art Smith, vice chairman; Milton Baron, treas- 
urer; and Alex Leith, exectutive director. Chodorov was active 
in the (Communist) League of American Writers in 1941. 
This was a section of the International of Revolutionary Writers 
of Moscow. He also petitioned the United States Government 
for the release of Earl Browder. He was an officer of the Holly- 
wood Anti-Nazi League immediately following the Stalin-Hitler 
break. This was a Red Front outfit. Alex Leith has been associated 
with the Communist official organ. Daily Worker. Art Smith was 
active 'in the Red espionage forces during the revolution in Spain as 
a member of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade (Communist), and he has 
been prominent in other front circles. 

Among those contributing scripts to Stage for Action is Norman 
Corwin, who recently returned from Moscow where he attended a 
"Red cultural" congress. He has been active in the National Council 
of American-Soviet Friendship. He participated in the Writers' Con- 
gress, called by the Hollywood AVriters' Mobilization, a Communist 
front, in 1941. This was a branch of the League of American Writers. 
Corwin has also been active in the American-Russian Institute, a 
propaganda agency, and the National Wartime Conference of Pro- 
fessions, Sciences, and Arts, which ultimately became known as the 
Independent Committee of Arts, Sciences, and Professions. 

Ben Hecht, who also writes scripts for Stage for Action, has long 
been active in Red ranks. He has been a member of the National 
Citizens' PAC, the American Committee To Save Refugees, National 
Consumers' Federation, and the Exiles' Writers Committee, a sub- 
sidiary of the League of American Writers, and others. 

Other writers of scripts for Stage for Action are Arthur Miller, 
formerly president of the Student Council of New York University, 



116 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

and a member of the American Youth Congress; Millard Lampell, 
active in a number of Red fronts, including GI front circles ; Harold 
Rome of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, the 
American League for Peace and Democracy, and the League of Ameri- 
can Writers ; and Earl Robinson, notorious f ronter. Stage for Action 
recently revised two Russian "experimental movies," The Cloak and 
The Unexpected, for presentation at the Robert Louis Stevenson 
School. 

The purpose of Stage for Action is best explained in its own words: 

The war is over, but the need for action continues. Rumors of war, atomic 
energy, inflation, native Fascist movements, veterans' problems are the stuff of 
today's drama, and Stage for Action will dramatize the answers as progressives 
see the answers. 

An' old Communist play, originally produced by the New Theater 
League (Communist) , has been resurrected by Stage for Action. The 
play is Waiting for Lefty, by Clifford Odets. It will be recalled that 
he was most active in Red ranks from 1935 to 1941. He was an official 
of the (Communist) Book Union, headed by Alex Trachtenberg, prop- 
aganda chief for the Communist Party. He was arrested in Cuba 
while on a Communist agitational jaunt in 1941, and he was asked to 
leave the country. He was active in the American Youth Congress in 
193L7, the New Theater League, and the Southern New Theater School. 
He has defended Communists on numerous occasions. 

A Communist meeting, the Communists' first public meeting in that 
locality, was held in Charleston, S. C, a few months ago. The meeting 
had as its chairman John Green of the Cosmopolitan League. 

The New Writing Foundation was set up at 316 East Sixty-first 
Street, New York, recently. The organization will be active in col- 
legiate and high-school circles. It is particularly interested in stu- 
dents connected with school papers. Stan Steiner of the American 
Youth for Democracy is national chairman. The foundation will pre- 
sent the Theodore Dreiser and Stephen Benet awards. The judges are 
Edwin Seaver, Arthur Miller, Pete Seeger, Aaron Kramer, Alfred 
Kreymborg, and Louis Lerman. 

One of the most important "cultural" events of the year for the Reds 
was the celebration in honor of "Mother" Ella Reeve Bloor on the 
occasion of her eighty-fifth birthday anniversary. "Mother" Bloor is 
a veteran party leader who boasts of a more extensive police record for 
Communist activities than any other Red. This "proletarian" affair 
was held at the fashionable Bellevue-Stratford Hotel in Philadel- 
phia on June 31, 1947. The "mother" of the Communist movement in 
the United States now resides at April Farms near Philadelphia, 
which was originally a "free love" colony. Honorary chairmen of the 
affair included Anna Whitney, another veteran in Communist ranks, 
and now a State official of the Communist Party^ in California; Anna 
Pennypacker of Philadelphia; and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, former 
IWW and now a member of the national committee of the Communist 
Party and the Congress of American Women. Sponsors are Susan 
Anthony II, official of the Congress of American Women ; Dr. Herbert 
Aptheker, instructor at the Communist school in New York; Peter 
Cacchione, Communist head of the Kings County section of the party; 
New York; Ben Davis, leader of the Harlem section of the Communist 
Party; Muriel Draper of the Congress of American Women and a 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 117 

member of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship; 
Howard Fast; Arthur Huff Fausett; William Gropper; Rockwell 
Kent ; Alfred Kreymborg ; Harry Ward ; Gene Weltfish ; Max Yergan ; 
Meridel LeSeuer ; Grace Hutchins ; Ben Gold ; and Will Geer, all Com- 
munists or front leaders. 

Nature Friends, a prominent Communist-supported movement, is 
among the hold-overs of prewar days. It carries on actively with the 
cultural fronts of the Communists. It was founded in Vienna, Aus- 
tria, in 1895, and the sections in this country are branches of the inter- 
national. It is organized in 21 countries. It has some 70,000 mem- 
bers and 400 camps. Fifteen sections are in operation in the United 
States. Two are in New York, one in Rochester, N. Y. ; one in Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. ; one in Newark, N. J. ; one in Patterson, N. J. ; one in 
Philadelphia ; one in Allentown ; one in Chicago ; one in St. Louis, one 
in Milwaukee; one in Detroit; one in Oakland; one in Los Angeles; 
and two in San Francisco. Eastern headquarters are located at 43 
East Eighty-fourth Street, New York, N. Y. Western headquarters 
are located at 143 Albion Street, San Francisco. Max Kurz is general 
secretary. 

Additional Communist fronts which have turned up recently in this 
field are the New Theater and the Trade-Union Theater. These are 
outlets for Stage for Action productions. 

Communists held what they called a Mainstream Cultural Confer- 
ence in New York City in June (1947). They reported that 150 cul- 
tural leaders were present, 100 of whom were from New York. The 
remainder came from other States. Speakers at the conference in- 
cluded Howard Fast, Samuel Sillen, Joseph North, John Howard 
Lawson, Gwen Bennett, Holland Roberts, and Mitch Fletcher. 

It was anounced that the purpose of the conference was to organize 
the progressive cultural theories relating to arts, sciences, literature, 
and all other fields of culture ; "to continue the fight for progressive 
material within the present commercially dominated cultural fields, 
that is, radio, movies, press, and other mediums of expression"; and 
"to work for Government aid of cultural activities." In connection 
with the conference, the following statement was made : 

During the depression we had a Federal theater, Federal writers, and Federal 
arts projects. Now as the depression again approaches, we should do our utmost 
to insure the return of Government-subsidized cultural activities, and this time 
on a permanent basis. 

It was resolved at the conference "to work for the retention and 
expansion of people's cultural mediums by the establishment and pro- 
tection of people's museums, art galleries, progressive press, and maga- 
zines such as Mainstream and New Masses." The conference sharply 
challenged the "theory that building a people's culture is useless until 
working people become fully class conscious." 

Writers and artists (here) can exert considerable pressure, often with good 
effect. Book publishers offer unique possibilities in this respect since they are 
far less under the control of the monopolies. Many editors and publishers still 
remain to a certain extent amenable to the demand for progressive literature. 

The conference announced that a follow-up Culture and People's 
Conference is to be held at the California Labor School in San 
Francisco, August 2, 1947. 

Completion of plans for the International Theater Institute will be 
the task of the international congress to be convened in Paris on July 



118 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

28, 1947. According to Communist sources, under date of July 1, 
1947, Maurice Kurtz, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cul- 
tural Organization official, announced that the congress will be held 
behind closed doors, and that from it would emanate the International 
Theater Institute, under the guidance of individuals from Russia, 
United States, Great Britain, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and 
Cliina. Twenty-six were invited to attend the Paris congress, 14 of 
which had accepted by July 3. The temporary chairman will be 
J. B. Priestly of England. His brother delegate will be Turone 
Guthrie. American delegates who have accepted the invitation are 
Lillian Hellman and Rosamond Gilder. 

Mr. SxRirLiNG. Could you refer back there to the name "Dalton 
Trumbo." 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. What page is that on, do you recall? 

Tlie Chairman. I might add, while you are looking for that, Mr. 
Steele, this cultural field dovetails with the investigation we are mak- 
ing into the Hollywood situation. 

Mr. Steele. Very definitely so, sir. 

The Chairman. And many of the names you mentioned are names 
that were also mentioned to our committee when we were out in 
California. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Those names will be followed up as our investi- 
gators go along. 

Mr. Steele. These very definitely center out of New York and 
Hollywood. 

Mr. Stripling. This Dalton Trumbo you referred to, Mr. Steele — 
I am wondering if he is the Dalton Trumbo who is the writer in 
Hollywood. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, he is. 

Mr. Stripling. He is the same one ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. He is the Hollywood writer. 

The Chairman. Mr. Stripling, I would suggest that you take this 
part of the record and send it out to our investigators in California 
as quickly as possible. 

Mr. Stripling. All right, sir. 

From the incorporators, Mr. Steele, of the People's Radio Founda- 
tion and People's Song. Inc., is there any question but that they are 
Communist-inspired organizations? 

Mr. Steele. No ; none whatsoever. 

Mr. Stripling. Isn't Joseph Brodsky identified with both of them? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. And Samuel Lapedis is identified with both of 
them ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Brodsky and Mr. Lapedis serve as counsel for 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. In other words, these are two new ventures? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

Mr. Stripling. Representing an entirely new technique on the 
part of the Comnumist Party? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 119 

INIr. Stripling. One is to establish radio outlets and the other is 
to disseminate propaganda throngh the medium of recordings and 
through special service features which Peoples' Songs get out. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Has that ever been done before in any concerted vray 
by the party (' 

Mr. Steele. Not so far as the radio is concerned, that I know of. 
They did have their dramatic groups, their different dance groups, 
their theater groups, and so on, but I don't know that they ever hooked 
the radio up with it before. 

Mr. Stripling. Is that in conformity with the announcement from 
Moscow last year that art must be used as a vehicle ? 

Mr. Steele. I winild assume so because when the instructions w^ere 
issued from Moscow, Foster echoed the instructions and immediately 
these fronts began to pop up from the ground. 

Mr. Stripling. Have you ever heard of an organization known as 
Union Films? 

Mr. Steele. I have, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Have you ever heard of a picture called Dead Line 
for Action ? 

Mr. Steele. I have : yes, sir, I have not seen it, but I heave heard 
of it. 

Mr. Stripling. You have heard of the picture? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you know who produced the picture Dead Line 
for xVction ? 

Mr. Steele. I heard who had written it, yes; Marzani. 

Mr. Stripling. Carl Aldo Marzani. 

Mr. Steele. Carl Marzani ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. ]Mr. Steele, what particular significance do you at- 
tach to the concerted effort which the Communists have made^ in the 
last year in the cultural field ? 

Mr. Steele. For one thing, I think they i^lan to advance and to keep 
their contacts with union members. In other words, we find these 
cultural groups are being set up at off-the-factory premises meeting 
places and that the choruses are being organized among the union 
members. 

For instance, the Ford local, the largest local in Detroit, was the 
first one to set up a chorus, composed of the CIO union members. 
I think most people like to sing, a lot of them like to act, and so on. 
I figure that they are planning to keep their contacts with these mem- 
bers, regardless of the Taft-Hartley Act. 

Mr. Stripling. In other words, they have used the medium of enter- 
tainment as a vehicle for their propaganda ? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. To get someone to sing these songs as 
they are w^ritten they have to learn the verses and communism may 
penetrate into some of them — I don't laiow. 

Tlie Chairman. It probably sounds better in song than it does 
otherwise. 

Mr. Steele. I imagine so. It would possibly sound better from a 
brass band, without the words, 

Mr. Stripling. What information do you have concerning the vari- 
ous radio commentators who have affiliated with these cultural groups 
and who have spots, so to speak, on radio networks ? 



120 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Mr. Steele. There have been a number of them that left the radio 
field. Now, I can't say whether they left by force or left voluntarily. 

Mr. Stripling. Who are some of them ? ^ 

Mr. Si'EELE. Well, Johannes Steel was one, 

Mr. McDowell. Johannes Steel, did you say ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes. I think possibly I have a list of them here. 

Mr. Stripling. You made reference to them on page 115 (b). 

Mr. Steele. Page 115 (b) ? Yes; some of them. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

Mr. Steele. Yes ; Frank Kingdon, Robert St. John, and Johannes 
Steel are at least three of them. There is also Selden Menefee, who is 
not a broadcaster, but he was program director of one of the large 
broadcasting systems. I understand he was dismissed. There have 
been several others I understand that have been either dismissed from 
the program or their contracts ran out and were not renewed. How- 
ever, Norman Corwin and Sidney Rogers among others are still on the 
air. 

Mr. Stripling. You consider that Norman Corwin is advancing the 
Communist Party line, in the material which he prepares for radio 
presentation? 

Mr. Steele. I wouldn't say because I have never heard his broad- 
casts, but he is certainly affiliated with all of these cultural front 
movements and he must know that they are promoting the Communist 
line because he has taken an active part in their movements. 

Mr. IMcDowELL. Mr. Steele, what is the purpose of this Nature 
Friends ? 

Mr. Steele. We find they carry on mostly the young Communist 
youth activities in the camp. The purposes of the camp, I presume, 
is to attract youngsters during their vacations. 

Mr. McDowell. They have summer camps ? 

Mr. Steele. They have summer camps. 

Mr. McDowell. I see. 

Mr. Steele. They take them on the hikes. I don't know how. they 
teach them communisim on hikes 

Mr. McDowell. They study birds, bees, and things. 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

Now the International Workers' Order. It is quite possible that the 
International Workers' Order, with national headquarters located at 
80 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y., is one of the main sources from 
which emanate the largest sums of money for the propagation and 
organization of Communist activities and publications in the United 
States. The IWO is set up as a fraternal life insurance movement, 
with State and local branches operating throughout the country. 
These are organized under the assumption that the move- 
ment is purely an insurance movement, and it operates, therefore, un- 
der State insurance charters. It is connected with practically every 
Communist and front group, in one way or another, which springs 
up in our country. 

The IWO was' first incorporated in New York in March 1930, Its 
incorporators were Abraham Epstein, Nathan Shaffer, Meyer Loonin, 
Rubin Saltzman, Joseph R. Brodsky, Elias Wattenberg, Max Stein- 
berg, Paul Novick, Hyman I. Costrell, Hyman Grossman, Morris 
Karofsky, William Weiner, and Samuel Almazoff. The notary in 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 121 

this instance was Fay Siegartel. The order was at the time declared 
a benefit and membership organization with an insurance feature 
(exhibit 57 ).f« 

The principles and purposes of the IWO were enumerated in a 
printed pamphlet issued shortly after its incorporation. I quote, in 
part, from this pamphlet : 

The International Workers' Order maintains that capitalism is bank- 
rupt * * *. The International Workers' Order realizes that the workers 
must organize to advance against capitalism * * * The International Work- 
ers' Order realizes there is no way out for capitalism * * * The International 
Workers' Order views with pride and joy the Soviet Union, which is the only 
country where there is no crisis * * *. The International Workers' Order 
realizes that only under a system similar to the Soviet system there is no exploi- 
tation of the working class * * *. The International Workers' Order there- 
. fore appeals to the workers to join the struggle against capitalism and for a 
system where all power belongs to the working class * * *_ 

The International Workers' Order realizes that the only party that leads the 
working class in the struggle against capitalism is the Communist Party, which 
unites the best and proven members of the working class, and which is bound to 
become even stronger until the moment will come when the workers under its 
leadership will overthrow the capitalist system and establish Soviets. It follows, 
therefore, that the International Workers' Order is part of the battle front of 
the working class * * *_ 

We find that the Communist is the only party that fights for the workers' inter- 
ests. We therefore endorse the Communist Party. We appeal to all workers 
to vote for the Communist Party. We aid the party in its struggles * * * 
It [International Workers' Order] aids in strikes conducted against the bosses. 
The International Workers' Order supports such strikes both with money and 
sympathy and with appeals to its members for aid. We have just said that the 
International Workers' Order is part of the battle front of the working 
class * * *^ _ 

Still another struggle on the calendar of the working class is the struggle to 
defend the Soviet Union. Soon we may be called to fight against the Bolsheviks 
under one pretext or another. It is the task of the International Workers' Order 
to offer the most powerful resistance to these plans * * *. 

The first president of the IWO was William Weiner, an alias for 
Welwel Warzover, former treasurer of the Communist Party, who was 
born in Russia. He was charged at about the time of the arrest of 
Earl Browder with passport violations, but his case never came to trial. 
He paid Sam Carr, head of the Soviet atom spy ring in Canada, con- 
siderable sums of money. Weiner resigned his position as president 
of the IWO in favor of Rockwell Kent. According to the IWO, Kent 
was formerly a member of the IWW. He has had many Red front 
connections. Kent was previously a vice president of the IWO under 
Weiner. The general secretary and director of the IWO, Max 
Bedacht, has been for many years a member of the national com- 
mittee of the Communist Party. He is a German by birth. Peter 
Shipka has been the treasurer of the IWO for some time. Other vice 
presidents include Vito Marcantonio, Boleslaw Gebert, Rubin Saltz- 
■man, Louis Thompson and John Middleton, a member of the board 
of directors of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. 
The recording secretary is Dave Green ; national educational director, 
Peter Chaunt; director of the youth department, Richard Crosscup; 
and editor of its major organ, Fraternal Outlok, Eugene Konecky. 
Organizing secretary is Sam Milgrom. 

Tlie following are State office locations of the IWO: 184 West 
Washington Avenue, Chicago, 111.; 5 Harrison Avenue, Boston, 

8* See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 57. 



122 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Mass.; 139 South Tenth Street, Philadelphia, Pa.; 326 Fourth Ave- 
nue, Pittsburgh, Pa.; 942 Prospect Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio; 2111 
Woodward Avenue, Detroit, -Mich.; 129-431 North Eutaw Street, Bal- 
timore, Md.; 830 Market Street, San Francisco, Calif.; 40 Clinton 
Street, Newark, N. J. Locals are scattered from coast to coast 
(exhibit 58).^'^ 

The paid membership of the IWO, the largest of any organization, 
is estimated at 160,000, with a youth membership of approximately 
26,000. Its assets are listed at $2,774,841.05. Receipts from January 
1, 1940, to January 1, 1944, amounted to $7,180,832.36. Its disburse- 
ments for the same period amounted to $6,029,369.15, $1,828,351.55 of 
this representing traveling, special subsidies, sectional organizers, 
literature, publicity, and conventions, totaled $2,315,529.87. The 
money raised in special campaigns waged by the IWO among its • 
members for the benefit of various Communist and Communist -front 
movements is not listed, of course, in its official report. 

The IWO maintains a front line fighters' fund, undoubtedly made 
up of members who were drafted into the armed forces during the 
war. From September 1941 to April 1944, the fund had collected 
$220,388.34. It used $4,373.45 of its funds as a gift to Poland. The 
Russian war relief was given $11,000. All-over contributions by IWO 
to Russia amounted to $209,822.16; United Spanish Aid, $6,000; Joint 
Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, $13,900; Yugoslavia, $2,000; and 
China, $4,980 (exhibit 59). «' 

Membership in the Baltimore-District of Columbia branch is ap- 
proximately 1,500; Massachusetts branch 4,000; Connecticut 3,500; 
Michigan, 10,000; Los Angeles, 4,000; Midwestern States, 20,000; 
lower New York State, 42,000; upper New York State, 3,900; Ohio, 
18,000; eastern Pennsylvania, 14,500; Pittsburgh, 19,000; San Fran- 
cisco, 1,400; and West" Virginia, 1,500. 

Members of the IWO are of all nationalities : Greek. 1,500, Hun- 
garian, 11,300; Ukranian, 16,300; Slovakian, 14.000; Italian, 10,400; 
Russian, 16,600; Carpatho-Russian, 5,600; Polish, 10,056; Finnish, 
1,226; Serbian, 3,000; Croatian, 9,400; Rumanian, 2,500; -Spanish, 
2,500; Jewish, 44,600; and general, 16,000. 

The IWO is set up on a national and racial basis. It maintains the 
following branches: American-Russian Fraternal Society, president, 
Sam Nikolauk, secretary, Daniel Kasustchik; Carpatho Russian- 
American Mutual Aid Society, president, Peter Kostyshak, secretary, 
Michael Logoyda ; Cervantes Fraternal Society, president, Jesus 
Colon, secretary, Luis Cepeda ; Croatian Benevolent Fraternity of 
America, president, Anthony Gerlach, secretary, Nicholas Rajkoyich ; 
Finnish-American Mutual Aid Society, president, Richard Bjork- 
backa, secretary, Carl Paivio; Garibadli American Fraternal Society, 
president, Mario DTnzillo, secretary, Louis A. Candela ; Hellenic- 
American Fraternal Society, president, George Karafios, secretary, 
Nick Marinos; Jewish People's Fraternal Order, president, Albert 
E. Kahn secretary, Rubin Saltzman ; Hungarian Brotherhood, presi- 
dent, Hugo Gellert, secretary, Emery Komolos Polonia Society, presi- 
dent, Boleslaw Gebert, secretary, Wojciech Haracz; Rumanian-Amer- 
ican Fraternal Society, president, George Vocila, secretary, Mary 
Mila; Serbian-American Federation, president, Michael Vuletich, 



*• See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 58. 
■*» See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 59. 



TESTIMONY QF WALTER S. STEELE 123 

secretar3% Nicholas Baltich; Slovak Workers' Society, president, 
Helen Vrabel, secretary, Charles INIusil ; and Ukrainian-American 
Fraternal Union, president, Michael Tkach, secretary, Walter Riback, 
Tlirou<ih these momentum is given the Communist nationals movement 
(exhibit 60). ^1 

The IWO maintains summer camps, schools, and meeting places 
throughout the country. The nucleus of many Ked front movements 
is composed of members of the organization. These movements have 
been established for the purpose of carrying on an agitational and 
propaganda campaign in behalf of Russian and Communist expan- 
sion policies in Europe and the Far East. I will discuss a few of these 
later on in n\\ testimony. 

The order, as it is called in Communist Circles, organized a move- 
ment to aid the CIO in strikes. This was known as the Fraternal 
Orders Conference. The chairman is B. K. Gebert ; vice chairman, 
Henry Rath; treasurer, J. Gasiunas; and secretar}^ George Witkovich. 

The IWO cooperates in every conceivable manner with the Com- 
munist Party, its publications, its fronts", and activities. In prac- 
tically every issue of Communist dailies one can find a paid advertise- 
ment of the order, and in all other party organs as well. This is one 
way of helping finance the Connnunist movement. On the other hand, 
the order's publications invariably endorse the Communist Party and 
its fronts. Its members, particularly the leaders, take an active part 
m party affairs and activities. 

I submit as evidence of the close cooperation of the IWO with Com- 
munist fronts, several letters written by the officials of the Order to 
its members. You will note that one is addressed to "all district secre- 
taries'' of the IWO, calling for the extensive distribution of the Amer- 
ican Review on the Soviet Union, a pro-Soviet publication (exhibit 
61)^- This carried glowing articles, according to the letter, ccmcern- 
ing the Red Army, speeches by Stalin and Molotov, biographies of 
various Red generals, and so forth. The second letter is addressed 
to "all language and district secretaries— all executives,'' and it asks 
for complete cooperation with the American Peace Mobilization which 
at the time was waging "Yanks are not coming" and "fight against 
imperialist war" campaigns, and picketing the White House at the 
time of the Stalin-Hitler break (exhibit 62). ^^ The third letter, ad- 
dressed to "district and national group secretaries," asks for coopera- 
tion with the Veterans of Abraham Lincoln Brigade and Farm Re- 
search (exhibit 63).** The fourth letter is even more inclusive. It 
acknowledges the IWO offer to distribute printed materials for the 
following fronts : International Labor Defense, National Lawyers' 
Guild, American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, Council 
for Inalienable Rights, Labor Research, Inc., American-Russian In- 
stitute, Institute for Propaganda Analysis, Survey Associates, Inc., 
and National Negro Congress. I previously called attention to the 
fact that the order cooperates wholeheartedly with the National Coun- 
cil of American-Soviet Friendship (exhibit 64).*^ 

I also submit an interoffice memo which outlines the plan to use 
feature articles on the Daily AVorker and the People's Daily World, 

*i See appendix, p. 175, for exhlliit 60. 
" See appendix, p. 175, for exhibit 61. 
••^ See appendix, p. 175. for extiibit 62. 
*• See appendix, p. 176, for exhibit 63. 
** See appendix, p. 176, for exhibit 64. 



124 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S, STEELE 

two Communist organs, in IWO publications, in an effort to interest 
its members in subscribing to them (exhibit 65).*^ I submit a folder 
circulated among members of the order, asking for subscriptions to 
the Daily Worker and the Worker (Sunday issue) (exhibit 66) .-^^ In 
addition, I will present, as evidence, a "call" to the Fourth American 
Writers' Congress, issued by the IWO (exhibit 67).*^ 

The November 1946 issue of Fraternal Outlook (official IWO organ) 
carried a number of endorsements. These included all major pub- 
lications of the Communist Party and those of several national front 
groups, Daily Worker, the Worker, People's Daily World, Freiheit, 
Russky Golos, Eteenpain, Tyomies, Glos Ludowy, Greek-American 
Tribune, Karpatska Rus, Ludov}^ Dennik, L'Unita del Popolo, Mag- 
yar Herald, Narodni Glasnik, Eumanian American, Slobodna Eech 
Narodna Wola. In connection with these recommendations, Fraternal 
Outlook made this observation : 

No other newspaper in America devotes as much space to IWO activities as the 
Daily Worlter. The papers above have helped build the IWO ; that's why thou- 
sands of IWO members are supporting their subscription and circulation cam- 
paigns. 

The IWO publications for some time have been gi en over to na- 
tional front movements, which are organized to a._.,?tf. and propa- 
gandize in behalf of Russia and Communist expai^;/ , f^ffforts in the 
old hemisphere. They devote a great deal of space to the All Slav 
Congress. They also publicize extensively for the National Council 
of American-Soviet Friendship, the American Association for Re- 
construction of Yugoslavia, the American Artists Group, the Council 
for Russian Relief, the National Committee To Win the Peace, ICOR, 
National Negro Congress, American Youth for Democracy, People's 
Mobilization, and other similar groups. 

The IWO conducted campaigns, in conjunction with the Commu- 
nists, agitating for the return of American boys from the Far East. 
They circulate Communist Party campaign platforms, support their 
candidates, raise money for their publications, recruit members for 
the party, and publish and circulate party literature. 

The order raised $50,000 for the Spanish Red forces. It works with 
party sections, has party leaders address its giv^ups, holds joint meet- 
ings with party sections, names its locals ni honor of Commu- 
nists — John Reed Club, Lenin Club, Lincoln Steffens Club, Paul 
Robeson Club, and Henry Barbusse Club. Its members participate in 
Communist parades and attend Communist mass meetings and dem- 
onstrations. Communist party leaders who have addressed its con- 
ventions include Earl Browder, William Z. Foster, Freddy Meyers, 
Robert Minor, William Gropper, Fred Ellis, and John L. Spivak. 
The IWO established a national training school for its organizers. Its 
members join the picket lines with Reds involved in strikes. The 
order maintains birth-control centers. It is the fountainhead of a 
movement to obtain 1,000,000 signatures to a petition to be presented 
to Congress in behalf of free medicine and medical legislation (social- 
ized medicine). In this connection it recently sponsored a movie 
dramatization. The passage of such legislation would release a large 
amount of health insurance reserve money which the order could use 



■•« See appendix, p. 176, for exhihit 65. 
<' See appendix, p. 176, for exhibit 66. 
*« See appendix, p. 176, for exhibit 67. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 125 

to fiirtJier Communist cause. It promoted a campaign to build audi- 
ences for John Roy Carlson, author of Under Cover and The Plotters, 
during his smear lecture tour, by organizing ticket bloc purchasing 
among its members. 

The IWO maintains a large staff of left-wing doctors and opticians. 
It carries on a persistent campaign against congressional and State 
investigations of Communist activities. Its State sections are divided 
into many local lodges. For example, there are 36 lodges in Chicago, 
and some 48 in New York. One branch in Washington, D. C, is known 
as lodge 136, with headquarters located at -±40:2 Georgia Avenue NW. 

Officers of the Negro organizing committee of the IWO are Louise 
Thompson, chairman, and Sam O. Patterson, secretary. A few of the 
sponsors of the order have been Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Henrietta 
Buckmaster, Howard East, Mike Quill, Max Yergan, A. Clayton 
Powell, Vito Marcantonio, and Stanley Nowak. Among its junior 
director is Gerbish Giles. 

Before tlie v\ ar the IWO carried on campaigns against conscription, 
alien registration, lend-lease, "warmongering'' movies, and "imperial- 
ist" war. There is evidence to prove the statement that during the 
war it carriecP^^n propaganda campaigns among soldiers through 
messages sec • ''+V,-in packages and cigarettes which escaped the at- 
tention of th" ' trnment censors. 

The IWO celebrates the anniversaries in the U. S. A. of the Red 
revolution in Russia, and it sends delegates to Moscow to join in its 
celebrations. Nufrierous advertisements of the IWO Avhich have ap- 
peared in Communist organs refer to it as the Class Struggle Fraternal 
Organization. 

The Call for the Seventh Annual Convention of the IWO appeared 
in numerous Communist publications in full-page advertisements. 
The convention was held in New York City on June 16, 1947. Full- 
page advertisements also appear in Communist publications in con- 
nection Avith its campaign for socialized medicine. I submit a copy 
of its recent convention proceedings (exhibit 68).*^ 

At this time the IWO is promoting "cultural shows," particularly 
in industrial district?? • 

The IWO has set v(^- a national training summer school at Camp 
Robin Hood, near San Francisco. Youth from New York, Pittsburgh, 
Youngstown. Cleveland, Detroit, and Chicago are to receive schooling 
in IWO youth leadership there in 1947. Richard Grosscup is in 
charge. 

The Southern California Continuation Committee of the State- 
wide Legislative Conference is composed of the International Workers' 
Order, the American Veterans' Committee of California, the CIO, 
and the Hollywood Women's Council. 

In fact, a brief outline of it shows the wide influence of the IWO 
in California. The California Legislative Council was held in the 
California Junior High School, Sacramento, February 15-16, 1947. 
Chairman of the northern California section is G. F. Irvine, sponsor of 
the Communist organ. Peoples' Daily World fund drives, vice presi- 
dent of the Mooney Labor School (now the California Labor School) 
and prior to that, the Workers' School — all Communists in succession. 
Chairman of the southern section is Reuben W. Borrough, instigator 



^» See appendix, p. 176, for exhibit 68. 
• 65176 — 47 9 



126 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

of the pro-Communist march on Sacramento in February, sponsor 
of the American Youth for Democracy, member of the executive board 
of the Progressive Citizens of America, sponsor of t]ie Peoples' Daily 
World $75,000 sustaining fund drive, sponsor of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade, and a member of the Defense Committee for Harry Bridges 
(alien radical unionist). 

The permanent name of the movement is the State-Wide Legislative 
Committee. Northern offices are at 951 Pacific Building, San Fran- 
cisco, and the southern offices are at 1515 Cross Koads of the World, 
Hollywood. Organizations participating including 16 California sec- 
tions of the International Workers Order (including Jewish Workers 
Fraternal Order, the racial section of which is headed by the Com- 
munist functionary, Albert E. Kahn), 101 CIO California locals, 
42 California locals of the A. F. of L., 11 American Jewish Congress 
(California locals), 16 American Youth for Democracy, California 
locals, 4 locals of the National Negro Congress, 12 locals of the Pro- 
gressive Citizens of America, 6 locals of the Civil Eights Congress, 
the California Labor School, 11 locals of the American Veterans' Com- 
mittee, 2 locals of the Congress of American Women, 10 locals of 
the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1 
Japanese- American Citizenship League, 2" locals of Committee to 
Win Peace, 1 local of the Free World Club, 11 locals of the Townsend 
Club, 2 locals of the Women's International League for Peace, and 
Freedom, 1 chapter of the National Lawyers' Guild, 1 local of the 
Western Cooperative Dairy Union, a score of interracial and inde- 
pendent unions, so-called civic and democratic, mental hygiene, scien- 
tific, and national movements. 

Simon Schacter, a member of the general executive board of the 
Lincoln Steffens Unit of IWO (lodge 500) and editor of the Local's 
organ. Voice of 500, is editor of the organ issued by the New York 
Chapter of the National Lawyers' Guild. 

The IWO is the major force behind Senate Resolution 1320, known 
as the Wagner-Dingell bill, in behalf of the socialization of medicine. 
On July 3, 1947, Ernie Reimer, appearing for the IWO in the hear- 
ings on the bill, w^as forced to admit, while testifying, that he is a 
Communist and a member of the party. The IWO campaigned for a 
million signatures in support of the resolution. 

One of the films released for use b}' the IWO and the CIO is entitled 
"Guaranteed Wages the Year Round" (Facts for Action), an adapta- 
tion of Robert Nathan's report. 

Pearl Fagelson is President of the IWO Jewish People's Fraternal 
Committee in Los Angeles. A. Maymudes is secretary of the IWO 
in that city. 

President of the Philadelphia branch of the IWO is Morris Shaf- 
ritz ; secretary is Sol Rotenberg. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you have any figures there showing the break- 
down of the membership in the various localities ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. How about the Baltimore-District of Columbia 
branch ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes; the membership in the Baltimore-District of 
Columbia branch is approximately 1,500; the Massachusetts branch, 
4,000 ; Connecticut, 3,500 ; Michigan, 10,000 ; Los Angeles, 4,000 ; Mid- 



. - TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 127 

western States, 20,000; lower New York State, 42,000; Upper Xew 
York State, 3,900; Ohio, 18,000; eastern Pennsylvania, 14,500; Pitts- 
burgh, 19,000 ; San Francisco, 1,400 ; West Virginia, 1,500. 

I also have the break-clown on nationals, if you want that. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you know, Mr. Steele, if this International 
Workers Order made a contribution of $30,000 to the Communist 
Party campaign fund in 1936 ? 

Mr. Steele. I understand they did; yes, sir. They have also made 
contributions numerous times to the Daily Worker, Sunday Worker, 
and various other Communist publications. 

Mr. Stripling. The president of the Internotional Workers Order 
was Mr. William Weiner? 

Mr. Steele. That is right. His proper name was Warzower. 

Mr. Stripling. That is right. 

Mr. Steele. He was Russian-born. He adopted the name of Wil- 
liam Weiner. 

Mr. Stripling. And he was president of this organization ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir, up until a short time ago. I am sure that your 
committee brought out the fact that as treasuier of the Communist 
Party at the time also, he was handing out checks from the Communist 
Party fund to Carr, who headed the Russian spy ring in Canada. 

Mr. Stripling. This is an organization with 160,000 members. 

Mr, Steele. Yes, sir Mr. Stripling. With a youth membership 
of approximately 26,000. 

Mr. Stru'ling. All of the prominent officials are also Communists? 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Were. 

Mr. Steele. Were. 

Mr. McDowell. You read there, Mr. Steele, 19,000 in the city of 
Pittsburgh. Did I get that figure right? 

Mr. Steele. That is right; yes, sir; 19,000 in Pittsburgh. 

These are their figures, by the way. 

Mr. McDowell. Is it presumed those 19,000 are Communists or 
fellow travelers? 

Mr. Steele. I don't know. Their money is being contributed to the 
Communist cause and they are electing Communist officials to lead 
their organization. I will let you answer that one. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, does the committee have any addi- 
tional questions on the International Workers Order? 

If not, we can move on to the next section of the testimony. 

The Chairman. Mr. Vail ? 

Mr. Vail. No questions. 

The Chairman. JNIr. McDowell? 

Mr. McDowell. No other questions. 

Mr. Steele. There was just one point I did not want to bring out, 
Mr. Stripling, and that is the fact that the IWO is set up on a na- 
tionals basis. The only reason I wanted to emphasize that fact is 
that my next subject is going to be the movement among the alien- 
born. In investigating the matter, I am certain the IWO units which 
are set up upon a national basis become the nucleus and the source of 
the funds that were split up by the Communists among the alien-born. 

The Chairman. At this point, the record will show that Mr. Munclt 
is present. 



128 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Mr. Steele. Another field in wliich the Communists have played 
and where they have won over many adherents in the United 
States is that of the 40,000,000 foreign-born and first-generation 
Americans. Prior to the entrance of the United States into World 
War II, these alien-fronters were active in the promotion of such 
organizations as American League for Peace and Democracy, Ameri- 
can Peace Mobilization, Yanks-are-not-coming committees, Ameri- 
can Committee Against Aggression, and other similar organizations, 
the purpose of which was to agitate and propagandize in behalf of 
the Russian-German pact. With the break between Stalin and Hitler, 
these same fronters organized scores of "immediate second front" and 
"aid to Russia" movements. As soon as it became evident that the 
Allies would defeat the Axis, they turned their attention to the forma- 
tion of fronts for so-called "democracy," "liberation," and "aid" for 
such. All their efforts fitted in with the Soviet expansion of political 
power policy over Europe and Asia and have given emphasis to 
the move for a Slav and Croatian state. At the same time they or- 
ganized agitational and pressure groups for the purpose of keeping 
our attention on the Western Hemisphere, and to detract our atten- 
tion from European-Asiatic-African problems created b^ Russia. 

For leadership in that program the Communists had developed 
numerous organizations, the most effective of which have been the In- 
ternational Workers Order and the National Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship. I have previously given more or less detailed 
information with regard to these two groups. A third movement 
which has also been active in the alien field is the American Committee 
for Protection of Foreign-Born, with headquarters at 79 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York, N. Y. It was originally called the Council for Pro- 
tection of Foreign-Born, and finally to the name under which the 
group now operates. Founded in 1924, it is of Communist origin. 
While it has carried on agitation for the release from prison of a few 
non-Communists, it has invariably supported the leftist cause. Its 
major activity has been that of agitating for the release of arrested 
alien-born Communists, and furnishing legal aid to them, and to 
fight deportations. 

The offices of the American Committee for Protection of Foreign 
Born are located at 23 West Twenty-sixth Street, New York, N. Y. 
Officials of the committee include Stanley Nowak of Michigan, chair- 
man, and also connected with the International Workers' Order; 
Carol King, counsel (attorney for Communists, including Gerhart 
Eisler) ; Isidore Englander, treasurer; and x\bner Green, executive 
secretary. A few of the sponsors are Edward G. Robinson, Reid 
Robinsoii, Henry E. Sigerest Vilhjalmur Stefanfcison, Donald Ogden 
Stewart, Robert Morse Lovett, and Frederick May Eliot. 

The connnittee affiliates and cooperates with all other fronts in the 
United States, Although Irene Browder (wife of Earl Browder), 
Russian-born, testified under oath a few years ago, when being exam- 
ined before the Department of Justice prior to naturalization, that she 
had never participated in Communist Party activities, the fact is that 
she was in charge of the Communist Party's national front activities 
in 1939, at a time when Russia and Germany were allied and the ground 
was being laid by Russia and the Communist Party for a broader 
national front in the United States to support Russia's postwar claims 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 129 

in the Balkans and Slav countries. Mrs. Browder's statements not 
only prove her denial of party connections entirely false, but they 
likewise show the intense activity of the party in the alien-born field. 
She made two or more appeals and reports to party members regard- 
ing the need and plans of the party's organized efforts in this field. 
These appeals were made in May and September of 1939. In May she 
reported : 

Recently the problems of the national groups have become a special topic in 
the curriculnni of the party schools. The national question, as a general problem 
and in some of its special phases, has long been an organic part of our school 
work. * * * But only of late have we taken up the serious study and direc- 
tion of work among the most important groups of various national origins — the 
Poles, Italians, Germans, Jews — as distinct subcommunities within the broader 
American community life, with tlieir own special aspects and problems. * * * 
Tlio national groups, more strongly socialistic in tendency than the older American 
stock, were not homogeneous, however, and while furnishing many of the best 
pioneers of revolutionary socialism, also brought a wide variety of ideologies, 
opportunistic and anarchistic, as well as openly reactionary. * * * When the 
Comnumist Party of the United States of America arose out of the left-wing 
majority of the old Socialist Party in 1919-21, it found its main base in the 
national groups. * * =;= \ complete revision and reequipment of Communist 
Party work in this field * * * began in 1937. * * * it -^-as made a major 
point at our tenth convention in 1938. * * * 

The largest and most important national groups (in the United States of 
America) are the Germans, Italians, Jews, Poles, South Slavs, and the Spanish- 
language groups of various national origins. * * * Popularization of the 
historic achievements of socialist construction in the Soviet Union is one of the 
central features of all effective work among the national groups. * * * rj^jjg 
role of the Soviet Union as the defender of the peace and of the weak and ex- 
ploited peoples is one which the national groups are prepared to respond to and 
appreciate when it is made clear to them. * * * Every national group is 
important and demands systematic attention of our party. * * * The most 
serious and important task of all, among the national groups, is that of bringing 
together, training, and consolidating a leading personnel which is capable of 
meeting and solving the thousand difficult problems that confront this movement. 
Our party is taking this up in the most serious way. Leading positions in the 
national groups are of first-class political importance. We must have the best 
educated and most capable available in them. * * * We make the same de- 
mands upon the leadership of the national groups that we made upon members 
of the national committee of the party, who must lead the movement. 

In this renewed interest and activity among the alien-born in the 
United States, the Commimist Party was but carrying out the edicts 
of the Communist International, which emphasized, at its 1935 con- 
gress in ]Moscow% the importance of the alien movement in each 
countiy. Dimitroff, then general secretary of the international and 
now dictator of Bulgaria, addressed the congress on this subject. 
While party activities in this field were renewed in 1939, because of 
the war alliance between Russia and Germany it was not intensified 
until the spring of 1942. It was during that year that the All- 
America Slav Congress was formed at a meeting held in Detroit, 
April 25 and 26, in response to an appeal of the All-Slav Congress 
previously held in Moscow (August 10 and 11, 1941). The Detroit 
congress was a culmination of a number of preliminary meetings held 
in variotis key cities having large Slav populations. 

The chairman of the All-Slav Congress which was held in Moscow 
was Lt. Gen. Alexander Gundorov of the. Red Army. Vice chairman 
was Alexander Korneichuk, Soviet writer. The congress was ad- 
dressed by Alexei Tolstoi, Soviet writer ; Professor Zdenek, biographer 
of Lenin and a professor of western Slavic languages and culture at 



130 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

tlie Moscow Institute; Wanda Wasilevska, Polish Communist leader 
and wife of Korneichuk; Johannes Becher, German Communist 
leader; and Frederich Wolf. Of the 20 elected to the executive com- 
mittee, 10 were Russians, and 10 were Slavic Communists. The con- 
gress called on the millions of Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Carpathian 
Ukranians, Bulgars, Serbs, Macedonians, Vlakhs, Croats, and 
Slovenes to "unite against the common enemy of all the Slav peoples." 

The Moscow appeal v/as responsible for the forming, not only of 
the Ail-American Slav Congress, but also of similar congresses in 
Canada, New Zealand, and Latin America. The Latin-American 
congress first met in Montevideo on April 24 and 25, 1941. A second 
Moscow congress was held on April 7, 1942; and a third on May 10, 
1943. 

Simultaneous with the first Moscow congress (August 1941), there 
was a Slav Congress held in Pittsburgh (August 10, 1941). It was 
decided at that time to hold an Ail-American Slav Congress in De- 
troit. John D. Butkovich, national president of the Croatian Fraternal 
Union of the International Workers' Order, was chairman of the All- 
Slav Congress committee. Stephan Zeman, Jr., was made secretary. 
He had previously participated in meetings of the fraternal orders 
committee of the International Workers Order with Butkovich and 
B. K. Gebert of the Communist Party. Prominent among those par- 
ticipating in the congress was Anthony Minerich, Pittsburgh sec- 
tional organizer of the Communist Party who has an extensive police 
record in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, and New Jersey. 

One of the most important of the preliminary meetings leading to 
the Detroit congress was that of the Macedonian-American People's 
League (composed of Greeks, Serbs, Macedonians, and Bulgars), held 
in Gary, Ind. The principal speaker was George Pirinsky of Detroit, 
secretary of the league, whose real name is George Zykoff. ' He is a 
Bulgarian, of about 47 years of age, and he edits a Communist foreign- 
language paper published in Detroit by the name of Saznanie. In 
signing many of his articles, he also uses another alias — George 
Necoloff. He plays an important part in the All-American Slav Con- 
gress. In one of his articles which appeared in the Daily Worker, 
Pirinsky said that the "Bulgarians in the United States must answer 
Dimitroff's call." 

It was evident from the various meetings held in the United States, 
following the Moscow call, leading to the Detroit congress, that the 
heads of the national groups of the International Workers' Order were 
the dynamos in the fronts which sprang up. Among these fronts 
were the Federation of Bulgarian-Macedonian Workers' Clubs, 
Croatian Fraternal Union, Slovak National Alliance, Yugoslav 
Friends of Democracy, Slavonic Committee for Democracy, 
Slovak Women's Society, Serbian National Federation, Polish 
Falcons of America, Slovene National Congress, Bulgarian-American 
Committee, Servian Vidov-dan Council, Slovenian-American Council, 
United Committee of South Slav Americans, Polish-American Trades 
Council, and finally the AU-Americnn Slav Congress. 

Foremost of those active in the movement to establish the All- 
American Slav Congress, in addition to those previousl}^ mentioned, 
were John Kocharsky (Polish) ; Vincent Ujcich (red fronter) ; Leo 
Krzycki,* J. J. Zeman,* Martin Krasich,* Steve Krall,* Anna Biat- 



♦Denotes current national officers of the All-American Slav Congress. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 131 

niak of the International Workers' Order; Slovak Women's Com- 
mittee, Rudolph Martonovic, Charles Korenice of the Slovak section 
of the International Workers' Order; A. Dmytrishn of the Ukrainian 
section of the International Workers' Order; Stanley Nowak, Nick 
Swetnick, member of the Young Communist League; Vladimir Kaza- 
kevich and Nicholas Tarnowsky, at the time coeditors of the Ukrainian 
Dailv News; General Yakhontoff, member of manv red fronts; Leo 
Krzycki; Blair P\ Gunther; W. T. Osowski ; and Vl S. Platk. 

The Slovene National Congress, held in Cleveland in December 
1942, joined with the All- American Slav Congress. Louis Adamic was 
elected chairman, and M. A. Bogdanovich of San Pedro, Calif., was 
elected treasurer. Also joining the congress was the United Confer- 
ence of South Slavic Americans, organized in Cleveland and originally 
called the United Yugoslav Committee. At the Cleveland meeting of 
the Slovene National Congress, a 10-point program was mapped out 
in defense of Tito, as against Mihailovich. It was proposed to turn 
the combined forces loose in an effort to swing public sentiment in 
the U. S. A. in order to influence public officials in favor of Tito. 

The Slovenian-American Council, the Servian Vidov-dan Council, 
and the Council of Americans of Croatian Descent also met in Cleve- 
land, and they joined together in forming the United Committee of 
South Slav Americans, with Louis Adamic as president. He was 
authorized at the time to explore the possibilities of setting up other 
Balkan-American groups. Adamic then became a frequent White 
House guest. 

I will refer briefly, at this point, to other organizations, many of 
which are disguised as liberation fronts, others masked as advocates 
of democratic governments and relief and aid movements, and which 
were set up in the midst of Russian and Allied victories in Europe 
and Asia. 

Macedonian-American People's League, with headquarters at 5856 
Chene Street, Detroit, is headed by Smeale Voydanoff, president, and 
George Pirinsky, national secretary. This outfit agitates in behalf of 
the Greek Communist forces and opposes the Tunisian defense of 
Greece against a Soviet-Communist takeover. 

Armenian National Council of America, 381 Fourth Avenue, New 
York, N. Y., has as its chairman Mark J. Shahinian ; vice chairman, 
Martic Martentz; secretary, Seth Shahen; treasurer, Mesrob Baja- 
kian; and executive director, Charles A. Vertanes. This has carried 
on a campaign in opposition to the American pro])osal to lend money 
to Turkey in an attempt to forestal Russian and Communist threats 
designed against Turkey. 

Joint Conference Against Intervention in Greece was formed in 
answer to the call of the National Council of American-Soviet Friend- 
ship at a meeting held in the Capitol Hotel in New York City on 
March 18, 1917. William Howard Melish is chairman; Nancy Cox, 
secretary. The continuation committee is composed of John Darr, Jr. 
(Christian Council for Democracy), Beulali Warshall (Congress of 
American Women), Steve Krall (American-Slav Congress), Cynthia 
Jones (Council of African Affairs), Arthur Kaufman (American 
Veterans' Committee), James Lustig (CIO United Electrical 
Workers), James Felas (Hellenic- American Vanguards), Milton 
Wolff (Abraham Lincoln Brigade), Frank Ilchuck (International 



132 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Workers' Order), Alex Karanikas (American Council for Democratic 
Greece), and Richard Morford (National Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship). The joint conference was organized for the purpose of 
opposing American foreign policy in aiding Greece against Soviet 
and Communist expasion in Greece. 

The American Committee for a Free Indonesia (Los Angeles), of 
which George K. Anang is vice president, and Ede Kemnitsir is secre- 
tary; the San Francisco Committee for a Free Indonesia, and the 
American Committee for Indonesian Independence (New York) were 
organized in support of the Indonesian revolution. The latter, with 
offices at 23 West Twenty-sixth Street, has the backing of Hugh De 
Lacy, Elmer Benson, Muriel Draper, Frederick V. Field, Dr. Henry 
Pratt Fairchild, W. E. B. DuBois, James Dombrowski (Southern Con- 
ference for Human Welfare), Louis E. Burnham (Southern Negro 
Youth Congress), Dr. Harl R. Douglas (University of Colorado), 
Zarko M. Buncheck (Serbian Vidovdan Council), Henrietta Buck- 
master (Congress of American Women), Zlatko Balokovic (United 
Committee of Southern Slav Americans), and other f routers. 

The Committee for a Democratic Eastern Policy, the headquarters 
of which are located at 111 West Forty-second Street, New York City, 
was created after Dimiti Manuisky, Communist and Soviet-Ukrainian 
delegate to the UN, had warned that "Indonesia may become a second 
Spain" in the event of outside interference with the revolution. This 
committee opposes the American policy toward Greece and Turkey 
as an extension of our policy in China. It calls on Congress to defeat 
such a foreign policy. Executive director is Maude Russell. Gen. 
Evans Carlson, until his death recently, was the president. Members 
of the board of directors are Frederick V. Field, Rev. Stephen H, 
Fritchman, Jack R. McMichael, Arthur Upham Pope, Martin Po])per, 
Ross Terlin, and Max Yergan. Consultants include Philip Jaffe 
and Kate Mitchell of the pro-Soviet magazine, Amerasia, who figured 
in the State and War Departments document theft cases ; and Maxwell 
Stewart, former editor of Moscow News. Sponsors are Zlatko Balo- 
kovic, Elmer Benson, Milieu Brand, Louise jBransten, Char- 
lotte Hawkins Brown, John M. Coffee, Norman Corwin, Hugh De 
Lacy, Martha Dodd, W. E. B. DuBois, Dr. Henry Pratt Fairchild, 
Donald Henderson, Carey McWilliams, Rockwell Kent, Edward 
Chodorov, William Gropper, Albert E. Kahn, Muriel Draper, Leo 
Huberman, William Howard Melish, A. Clayton Powell, Jr., Saul 
Mills, Doxey Wilkerson, Gene Weltfish, Donald Ogden Stewart, Dirk 
J. Struik, Gregory Peck, William J. Schieffelin, Jacob S. Potofsky, 
and Paul Robeson, all of whom are familiar to those who have knowl- 
edge of Red and Red front activities in the LTnited States. 

The American Committee for a Korean People's Party, Korean 
Culture Society, American Committee to Aid Korean Federation of 
Trade Unions, and Korean Independence News Co. were set up to 
protest the American policy in Korea, to demand the recall of Ameri- 
can occupation forces, to 'fight for the release from prison of the 
"Korean democratic leader," to urge the recognition of a Korean 
provisional government, and to sponsor a meeting to effect the "Mos- 
cow decision." These movements have had the cooperation of the 
National Win the Peace Committee of California (a Red front) in 
carrying out their program. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE ] 33 

The China Conference Arrangements Committee, 110 Market Street, 
.San Francisco, emanated from the National Win the Peace Committee 
of California. Gen. Evans F. Carlson (deceased) was chairman. The 
Win the Peace Committee engineered the Red front campaign to 
force the withdrawal of American troops from China. 

The American Friends of the Chinese People, 168 West Tw^enty- 
third Street, New York, N. Y., w^as among the earlier movements 
created b}^ the Reds to influence America's Chinese policy. It cooper- 
ated with the Washington Committee for Aid to China, 1115 Fifteenth 
Street NW., Washington, D. C. American Friends of the Chinese 
People was set up in 1938. Its chairman is Maxwell Stewart; vice 
chairman, Julius Loeb; treasurer, Helen Majlery; organizing secre- 
tary, Esther Carroll; affiliation secretary, Helen Holman; chairman 
of boycott comnnttee, Julia Church Kolar. Included as members of 
the national advisory board are Max Yergan, Robert Morse Lovett, 
Haru Matsui, Mrs. J. C. Guggenheimer, Joseph Cadden, and Thomas 
Addes. 

The American Friends of Czechoslovakia, 8 West Fortieth Street, 
New York, N. Y., is under the leadership of William Jay Schiefl'elin. 
It has a connecting link with various other alien fronts through Dr. 
Frank Kingdon. It began to promote the cause of the Czech Red front 
government in this country in June 1914, before the Tito regime was in 
power, in fact. 

The American Committee for Yugoslav Relief, 58 Park Avenue, New 
York, N. Y., is still another pro-Tito movement. It is headed by Louis 
Adamic, chairman; and Zlato Balokovic, cochairman, both of whom 
are mentioned several times in this report in connection with Red 
front activities. Local branches have been set up all over the country. 
Also interested in this committee are Rockwell Kent, Max Bedacht, 
Walter B. Cannon, Jo Davidson, Mrs. Elinor S. Gimbel, Johannes 
Steel, Dr. Emmanuel Chapman, Mary McLeod Bethune, Lion Feucht- 
wanger, William S. Gailmor, Marshall Field, Mrs. Edward C. Carter, 
and Hugh De Lacy. 

American Relief for Greek Democracy, with headquarters at 111 
West Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y., is headed by Robert St. 
John and Nicholas Cheronis. Mrs. Frank Gervasi and John Vassos, 
vice chairmen ; Costa Couvaras, secretary. Sponsors include Zlatko 
Balokovic, Elmer Benson, Hugh De Lacy, Henrietta Buckmaster, 
Abram Flaxer (CIO Federal Workers' Union), Betty Field (wife 
of Frederick V. Field) , Hugo Gellert, Mrs. Elinor S. Gimbel, William 
Gropper, Langston Hughes, Albert E. Kahn, Rockwell Kent, Albert 
Maltz, Vito Marcantonio, William H. MeTish, Clifford Odets, A. Clay- 
ton Powell, Jr., and Harry F. Ward. Eighteen of its sponsors are 
either directors or sponsors of the National Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship. Seventeen are sponsors of the Committee for a 
Democratic Far Eastern Policy. 

The American Committee for Armenian Rights, 381 Fourth Ave- 
nue, New York, N. Y., elected Robert W. Searle as its secretary, and 
Edwin S. Smith of the National- Council of American-Soviet Friend- 
ship, chairman. This outfit supports the American National Council 
of America, still another front movement active in the United States 
in support of Armenian Soviet Republic. 

The American Committee for Spanish Freedom and the Action 
Committee to Free Spain are only two of the scores of Spanish Red 



134 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

fronts disguised as refugee relief groups operating in the United 
States. The Action Committee, headed by Milton Wolff, prominent in 
the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, has offices at 55 West Forty-second 
Street, New York, N. Y. It has branches in every section of the 
country. The Philadelphia section of this committee held an emer- 
gency conference a short time ago. The speakers were Abel Plenn, 
James Price (CIO), Milton Wolff, and Kaymond Pace Alexander. 
{Lewis O. Hartman is chairman of the American Committee for 
Spanish Freedom. John M. Coffee is vice chairman; Samuel J. 
Novick, treasurer; and Allan Chase, secretary. Menibers of the board 
of sponsors include Johannes Steel, Albert E. Kahn, G. Bromley 
Oxnam, Elmer A. Benson, Jo Davidson, Norman Corwin, Stephen H. 
Fritchman, Mrs. George Marshall, Sol Rotenberg, Morris Shafritz, 
Arthur Huff' Fauset, and Donald Keler. 

The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee maintains offices at 192 
Lexington Avenue, New York, N. Y. Walter Rautenstrauch is hon- 
orary chairman; Edward K. Barsky, chairman ; Richard T. Cox, vice 
chairman, Lyman R. Bradley, treasurer; and Helen R. Bryan, execu- 
tive secretary. The sponsors are Dr. Comfort A. Adams, Rabbi 
Michael Alper, Prof. Joseph Warren Beach, Dr. Henry L. Bibby, 
James L. Brewer, Prof. Harold Chapman Brown, Dr. J. F. Brown, 
Kyle Critchton, Martha Dodd, Muriel Draper, Prof. Henry Pratt 
Fairchild, Prof. Irving Fisher, Prof. Mitchell Franklin, Dr. Marion 
Hathway, Kenneth Leslie, Princess Helga zu Lowenstein, George 
Marshall, Louis F. McCabe, Harvey O'Connor, Rt. Rev. Edward L. 
Parsons, Dr. Max Pinner, Prof. Renato Poggioli, Dr. Francis M. 
Pottenger, Georges Schreiber, Rev. Charles C. Webber, Dr. Mary E. 
Woolley, Max Yergan, and Art Young. The committee has set up 
the following branches : Boston, 14 Beacon Street, Mrs. Gail Kelvin, 
secretary; Chicago, 166' West Jackson Boulevard, Miss Mary Doyle, 
secretary; ; Cleveland, 750 Prospect Avenue, Miss Rutli Keller, secre- 
tary; Philadelphia, 322 South Sixteenth Street, Mrs. Madelin Blitz- 
stein, secretary; Holljnvood, 8505 Sunset Boulevard; Los Angeles, 
206 South Spring Street, Miss Helen M. Fisher, secretary; San Fran- 
cisco, 68 Post Street, Mrs. Marion Owens, secretary; Oakland, 1615 
Broadway, Mrs. Inez Schuyten, secretary; Seattle, Lloyd Building, 
Sixth and Stewart, Mrs. Ruth Kremen, secretary. This committee 
financially supported Gerhart Eisler. It was partially financed by 
the International Workers' Order. 

The Conference on Puerto Rico's Right to Freedom is a Western 
Hemisphere Red front, of which Emanuel Chairman is chairman. 
National committee members are A. Clayton Powell, Ferdinand Smith, 
John Coffee, Irving Potash, Joseph Selly, Saul Mills, Arthur Upham 
Pope, and Johannes Steel. This outfit has propagandized for the 
freedom of Puerto Rico from the United States, and in support of 
other Red demands. 

Other pro-Red and Soviet front organizations operating in this 
country are the Japanese-American Committee for Democracy," 
Italian-American Women for Democratic Action, Greek-American 
Council, Victory Committee of German-American Trade Unionists, 
American-Russian Institute, headed by Thomas L. Harris; American 
Friends of Polish Democracy, Robert M. Mclver, chairman, Louis 
Adamic and Paul Douglas, vice chairman, and Adolph Held, treas- 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 135 

urer; American Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy, Ameri- 
can Guild for German Cultural Freedom, Eumanian-American Al- 
liance for Democracy, German-Americans, Inc., and Council on 
African Affairs; American Friends of Free India, Spanish Refugee 
Appeal Committee, American Society for Cultural Relations with 
Italy, Russian-American Society, and the China Aid Council, Inc. 

Like many other fronts, the Council on African Affairs, 23 West 
Twenty-sixth, New York, N. Y., i's working in the interest of a foreign 
country. It agitates in support of a free Africa, freedom from pre- 
sent government affiliations, as the first step toward Communist and 
Soviet Russian domination. The officers of the council are widely 
known in Connnunist and Red front circles. They are: chairman, 
Paul Robeson; vice chairman, William Jay Schieffelin; executive 
director. Max Yergan; treasurer, Edith Field; education director, 
W. A. Hunton. Members of the council are Leonard Barnes, Mrs. 
Charlotta Bass, W. Y. Bell, S. H. Bishop, R. T. Bokwe, Lida N. 
Broner, Charlotte Brown, Henry A. Callis, J. H. Carpenter, William 
E. Cochran, F. E. DeFrantz, Hubert T. Delany, Earl B. Dickerson, 
Dean Dixon, Roscoe Dunjee, Max Felshin, Kumar Goshal, George W. 
Harris, F. M. Isserman, Vito Marcantonio, George Marshall, Irving 
Potash, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., Thomas Richardson, Doxey Wil- 
kerson. Gene Weltfish, Channing Tobias, William B. Spofford, Jr., and 
Ferdinand Smith. The Council on African Affairs and its leaders 
affiliate with other Communist fronts in supporting issues entirely 
divorced from those for which the council was supposedly created 
(exhibit 69).^^^ 

The Coordinating Committee for a Spanish Republic, 23 West 
Twenty-sixth Street, New York, N. Y., was established to coordinate 
the Red drive in behalf of the Communist and pro-Soviet offensive 
against Spain, Members of the executive committee included Aurelio 
Perez, A. R. Hernandez, Rafael Garcia, Gerardo Fernandez, and 
Antonio Santos. Cooperating with this front were the International 
Workers' Order, Veterans of Abraham Lincoln Brigade, and the Com- 
mittee for Democratic Spain. 

So numerous were these organizations that an International Coor- 
dination Council was set up to keep this huge machine in coordinated 
action. Frank Kingdon, an alien-born radical, is chairman of the 
council. An American Committee for International Information was 
also established for the purpose of "neutralizing propaganda resulting 
from the war." This is under the direction of William Jay Schieffe- 
lin. Frank Kingdon is a member of its board. 

A World Armenian Congress was held in New York City in May 
1947. In attendance were delegates representing three and one-half 
million Armenians in 26 countries. The Congress condemned the 
Truman, doctrines in foreign affairs. Speakers included S. Edwin 
Smith of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, John 
Roy Carlson, and J. Raymond Walsh of Friends of Democracy. 

The Free Italy Society, with offices at 3220 North Broadway, Los 
Angeles, Calif., is thought to be a State unit of a national having the 
same name, the headquarters of which are in New York. Vito Marc- 
antonio is active among this element, and he addressed a meeting of 
the society at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles on December 10, 

«a See appendix, p. 176, for exhibit 69. 



136 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

1946. The four-page flier issued in conjunction with the affair was 
entitled : "Support the Tito-Togliatti Proposals for Trieste." It Avas 
printed both in English and Italian. It called on all Italians to pro- 
test to the Italian Embassy in Washington, D. C, the Secretary of 
State of the United States, and the Council of Foreign Ministers in 
New York. It demanded that Tito and Togliatti (Communists) be 
permitted to settle the future of Trieste. It asked that Anglo-Ameri- 
can representatives to the Big Four 'Council be prevented from "con- 
sidering themselves with vested powers, not only against the Yugoslav 
peoples, but also again the peoples of Italy." It declared that the 
American-British plan was that of "imperialists," aiming to "trans- 
form the Trieste territory into one of their colonial possessions." It 
attacked Secretary of State B3^rnes and British Prime Minister Bevin, 
accusing them of playing the game of so-called "imperialism," and 
suggesting that they be deprived of their powers. 

The dynamo of the foreign angle of Red front propaganda and 
agitational activity in the United States in opposition to the American 
foreign policy in South America is the Council for Pan-American 
Democracy. The council has reflected the Soviet and Communist 
Party line as it affects Soviet interests in South America. It at- 
te]npted to force a change in our policies which may have been con- 
sidered contrary to those of the Soviet. The offices of the council 
are located at 112 East Nineteenth Street, New York, N. Y. Branches 
are active in other cities throughout the United States and in South 
America. The most recent report issued by the council in my posses- 
sion lists Clifford T. McAvoy as chairman ; A. J. Isserman, secretary- 
treasurer; Marion Bachrach, Frederick V. Field, and Joan Madison, 
executive secretaries. The executive committee is composed of Mrs. 
Edmond Barach. John Bright, Louis Coleman, Joseph Curran, David 
Efron, Hugo Gellert, Ben Golden, George Marshall, Charles Recht 
(chief counsel in the United States for the Soviet Government), Max 
Yergan, Ferdinand Smith (member of the national committee of the 
Communist Party), Arthur G. Silverman, Joseph Selly, Ruth Reeves, 
Samuel Putnam, and Herman P. Osborne. The council was formecl 
in March 1939. The conference which was called to set up the council 
was held in Washington, D. C., in December 1938. Sponsors in- 
cluded the usual run of fronters: Louis Adamic, Max Yergan, Max- 
well Stewart, George Marshall, Rockwell Kent, Laiigston Hughes, 
Henry Pratt Fairchild, Evans Clark, and Erksine Caldwell. The 
council has agitated for the freedom of Puerto Rico and for a break 
in relations with Argentina. In the latter fight, the council circu- 
lated a petition signed by Serge Koussevitsky of the National Council 
of American-Soviet Friendship (Cultural Section), John M. Coffee, 
Olin Downes, Theodore Dreiser, Frederic March, Lewis Mumf ord, and 
Bennett Cerf . 

SOUTHERN CONFERENCE FOR JIUMAN WELFARE 

The membership of the Southern Conference for Pluman Welfare 
is composed chiefly of southerners of varied political shades, many 
of whom were unquestionably first attracted by its openly stated pro- 
gram, and with no knowledge of its hidden intent to become, as Earl 
Browder stated, "one of the transmission belts of the Communist 
Party." Plans for the setting up of the conference were made at a 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 137 

gathering of men and women from T of the 13 Southern States, hekl in 
Birmingham, Ahx., on September 6, 1938. Permanent officers and 
standing connnittees were elected and created at tliat meeting. On 
October 15, 1938, Louise O. Charlton, previously chosen general chair- 
man of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare, issued a call 
for the first general conference of the movement, to be held in Birming- 
ham, November 20 to 23, 1938. 

The national committee members elected for the ensuing year (1938- 
39) included a number of prominent men and women, among whom 
were jNIembers of Congress, a Governor, newspaper men, educators, 
and State officials. Sandwiched among them were such fronters, if 
not actual Communists, as John Davis, Mary McLeod Bethune, Clark 
H. Foreman, and a mixture of CIO leaders in the South. As far as 
the officials of the organization were concerned, the left-wing was 
seemingly quite in the minority at the beginning. 

Communist interest in the setting up of such an organization in 
the South dated back to August 1938 when the New South, an organ 
of the party which was edited by Paul Crouch, Benjamin Davis, James 
W. Ford, Ted Wellman, and Henry Winston, was launched. It 
propagandized for certain issues which in time Avere taken over by 
the Southern Conference for Human Welfare. New South, published 
in Birmingham, succeeded the Southern Worker which had been 
published in Chattanooira, tiie editorial board of which was made up 
of Jim Mallory, Robert F. Hall, Paul Ciouch, and Ted Wellman. 

The November 1938 conference of the Southern Conference for 
Human Welfare proved to be more of an institute on issues than any- 
thing else. Because of this, numerous individuals devoid of the Com- 
munist taint were persuaded to participate. In all, 15 vice chairmen 
were elected, one from each of the 13 States, and 2 at large. Also 
elected as general officers were 120 members. One hundred repre- 
sentatives were chosen, 7 from each of the 13 States. The States 
rej^resented at the conference were Ahibama, Arkansas, Florida, 
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklaho- 
ma, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. 

Commenting on the conference, the January 1939 issue of The Com- 
munist stated : 

We can say that the southern conference was a brilliant confirmation of the 
line of the democratic front advanced by Comrade Browder at the tenth conven- 
tion. * * * Comrade Browder anticipated the southern conference in his 
discussions on the national executive committee report. This is no coincidence. 
Our party has for many years given earnest study to the problems of the South 
on the scientific basis of Marxist-Leninist principle. Southern State organiza- 
tions of the Communist Party were represented at the conference by five south- 
ern delegates * * * The southern conference for Human Welfare has given 
a strong impetus to progressivism in the South * * * i,i strengthening this 
movement, our party has before it a great task. On this basis, our party can and 
must proceed to recruit from the progressive ranks many hundreds of new mem- 
bers. * * * 

A call was issued for a second annual conference to be held from 
April 14 to 16, 1940, at the Memorial Auditorium, Chattanooga. 
This time the sponsors did not inckide known Communists or individ- 
uals who had front records. On the program, however, were Mal- 
colm C. Dobbs, Edward E. Strong, John P. Davis, and Myles Horton. 
Officers elected at this conference Avere Louise Charlton, honorary 
chairman; Frank P. Graham, honorary chairman; John B. Thomp- 



138 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

son, chairman; John P. Davis, vice chairman; Clark H. Foreman, 
secretary-treasurer; James A. Dombrowski, executive secretary; and 
Harold Katz, director. 

The third conference was held at Memorial Hall, Nashville, April 
19 to 21, 1942. Addresses were delivered by Frank P. Graham, Dr. 
Arthur Eaper, Homer T. Rainey, and Jennings Perry, a newspaper 
man. Paul Robeson entertained the delegates. By this time 16 
States were represented : Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Ken- 
tucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, 
Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Vir- 
ginia. An executive board composed of 11 members was set up of 
which Mary McLeod Bethune was chairman. Alvah W. Taylor was 
chairman and Ruth Cutler was secretary of the national committee, 
composed of 19 members. 

The Communists were not exactly pleased with the slow leftward 
trend of the movement, for the Sunday Worker of February 9, 1941, 
had explained : • 

The Southern Conference for Human Welfare, despite the apostasy of many 
of its former leaders, has stood for the strategy originally adopted in 1938 and 
confirmed in 1940 * * * The broad movement in Tennessee was not as 
spontaneous as it appeared on the surface. It was one of the consequences of 
the campaign for the repeal of the poll tax conducted by the Communist Party 
in Tennessee and other States since 1935-36. 

In 1939 the Southern Conference for Human Welfare created a 
3'outh branch known as the Young Southerners, officers of which were 
Malcolm C. Dobbs, Helen Fields, Nena Beth Stapp, and Edward 
Strong. Sponsors included the leaders of the conference. In this 
group we find numeious Communists, pro-Communists, and f routers. 

Other annual conferences were helct, of course, each showing a defi- 
nite slide toward the left. By 1945 the officers included a large num- 
ber of leftists. In addition to those previously mentioned, we find 
listed Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Louis Burnham, Helen Fuller, and 
Lillian E. Smith, and some of whom later also assisted in setting up 
the National Citizen's Political Action Committee. Seventeen of its 
present leaders have other Red front records; 10 have openly de- 
fended the Communist heads who have run afoul of the law; 14 
have been affiliated with relief and propaganda agencies in behalf of 
Russia. 

The Southern Conference for Human Welfare has received funds 
from the Robert IMarshall Foundation which has paid out large sums 
to other fronts. One check, dated April 4, 1942, was for $1,000. Its 
activities receive favorable comment in the Daily Worker, the Worker, 
and the People's Daily World. Among its branches is the Washing- 
ton (D. C.) Committee of the Southern Conference for Human Wel- 
fare, 935 G Place NW. The chairman is Virginia Davis, and the treas- 
urer is John P. Anderson. 

The Southern Conference has assailed the FBI and the congres- 
sional committee investigating un-American activities, and it has 
taken part in numerous united fronts with the Communists. Its organ 
is the Southern Patriot, a monthly publication. 

The present headquarters of the Southern Conference for Human 
Welfare are located at 808 Perdido Street, New Orleans, La. The fol- 
lowing are its officers: Clark Howell Foreman, president; James A. 
Dombrowski, administrator; Frank C. Bancroft and Mrs. Edmonia 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 139 

Grant, assistant administrators; Paul R. Christopher, Koscoe Diinjee, 
Virginia Durr, Lewis W. Jones, William Mitch, and Harry W. 
Schacter, A^ice presidents ; E. L. Abercrombie, Mary McLeod Bethune, 
Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Louis Burnham, Sam Freeman, Helen 
Fuller, Percy Greene, R. L. Hickman, Myles Horton, J. C. Jacques, 
Lucy Randolph Mason, Mortimer May, George S. Mitchell, Frank 
Prolil, Samuel Rodman, Mrs. A. W. Simkins, Alvah W. Taylor, John 
B. Thompson, and Charles Webber, board of representatives; Henry 
Fowler, Mrs. Harry M. Gershon, Joseph L. Johnson, Lee C. Shepparcl, 
and Aubrey Williams, ex officio; Melvyn Douglas, Mrs. Marshall 
Field, Kenneth DeP. Hughes, Michael M. Nisselson, Channing H. 
Tobias, Henry A. Wallace, and Palmer Weber, advisory associates; 
Tarleton Collier, secretarj^ ; and J. Daniel Weitzman, treasurer. I do 
not have a current list of State and local officers of the conference. 

Clark Foreman was secretary of the National Citizens Political 
Action Committee in 1944. Eighty percent of its national members 
have records of affiliation with Communist and Communist front or- 
ganizations. Foreman became secretary-treasurer of the conference 
in 1938. John B. Thompson, president of the (Communist) Ameri- 
can Peace Mobilization, was chairman, and John P. Davis of the Na- 
tional Negro Congress was vice chairman at the time. Foreman was 
under Harold Ickes in the Department of Interior when he became 
secretary-treasurer of the conference. 

As I have just stated, Thompson was president of the American 
Peace Mobilization, which was designed to keep the United States out 
of the war while the Stalin-Hitler pact was still in effect. At the 
moment of the break between Russia and Germany, representatives 
of the mobilization were picketing the White House in opposition to 
our entrance into the war. Two hours later the pickets laid aside 
their "anti-imperialistic war" placards, replacing them with "immedi- 
ate second front for Russia" signs. Vice chairmen of the mobilization 
were Theodore Dreiser, Vito Marcantonio, Paul Robeson, Jack Mc- 
Michael, Reid Robinson, and Katherine Terrill. Frederick Field of 
the Daily Worker was executive secretary of the Mobilization, and 
Howard Lee, executive secretary of the Southern Conference for 
Human Welfare, was a member of the national council of the 
mobilization. 

Another Red front antiwar group, set up in August 1940, was the 
Committee To Defend America by Keeping out of War. Thompson 
was also prominently connected with this committee, as was Lee. Mal- 
colm Cotton Dobbs, executive secretary of the Young Southerners, the 
youth section of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare, was 
also affiliated with the Committee To Defend America by Keeping Out 
of War. 

Active in the Emergency Peace Mobilization, from which emanated 
most of the Red front antiwar movements, were Malcolm Dobbs, 
Howard Lee, Edward Strong, and John B. Thompson, all prominent 
in the Southern Conference for Human Welfare. 

John B. Thompson, Charles C. Webber (regional director of the 
CIO in the soutliern district), Malcolm Dobbs, and Don West, all 
members of the conference, were connected with the People's Insti- 
tute of Applied Religion, headed by Claude C. Williams, who has been 
classified by this committee as a Communist, operating under the 



140 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

name of John Galey, former director of Commonwealth College in 
Mena, Ark., which was closed by the State because of its Communist 
teachings. The institute received funds from Soundview Foundation, 
a Communist outfit headed by Joe Brodsk}^ It applied for funds 
from the International Workers' Order, another Communist organ- 
ization. It will be recalled that Brodsky was pay-off man for the 
Communist International some years ago, according to documents 
seized by the British Government in a raid on the Soviet Bureau in 
London. 

Thompson has been connected with the Protestant Digest (The 
Protestant), a Communist antireligious and pro-Soviet organ pub- 
lished by Kenneth Leslie, formerly of Canada. Myles Horton of the 
Southern Conference for Human Welfare is director of the High- 
lander Folk School. His wife, who is associated with him, was for- 
merly affiliated with Communist Theater League projects. James A. 
Dombrowski, administrator of the conference, was in 1944 a member 
of the national committee of the National Citizens PAC. In 1931 
he was with the League for Industrial Democracy. He was a member 
of the (Communist) Anti-Imperialist League, and he has often de- 
fended the Communist Party. He was among the signers of a peti- 
tion sent to President Roosevelt in 1941 upholding the rights of the 
Communist Party. Dombrowski has been affiliated with the National 
Federation for Constitutional Liberties, and he participated in its 
June 1939 conference held in Washington. D. C. He was prominent at 
the convention of the National Negro Congress held in Detroit in 
1946. 

Louis Burnham, member of the board of representatives of the 
Southern Conference for Human Welfare, was a member of the na- 
tional committee of the International Labor Defense, a branch of the 
international with headquarters in Moscow. John P. Davis, connected 
with the conference, was also a member of that committee. He was 
former secretary of the National Negro Congress, and he was connected 
with the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties at the time 
it was active in the fight against this congressional committee. 

Cliarles Webber, a member of the board of representatives of the 
Southern Conference for Human Welfare, is the CIO district organ- 
izer in the South. He was a member of the (Communist) American 
League Against War and Fascism, of wdiich Earl Browder was vice 
chairman and Harry F. Ward was the head. He was executive secre- 
tary of the Methodist Federation for Social Service. He played a 
prominent part in the activities of the American Youth Congress. An 
article which appeared in the New York Times on May 19, 1930, listed 
him as a member of the (Communist) John Reed. Club, which was at 
the time fighting congressional legislation aimed at the outlawing of 
the Communist Party. Webber has been associated with the Joint 
Anti-Fascist Committee. He was among those who attacked the De- 
partment of Justice for its indictment of the Veterans of Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade. On May 11. 1936, Webber called upon the j^outh to 
abolish the capitalist system of government and to establish a planned 
social economy in the United States. He said his plan w^ould rest on 
"social ownership." He has been active in Red ranks since 1930 when 
he was a member of the executive committee of the Anti-Imperialist 
League, a branch of a Communist international. He was secretary at 
one time of the Fellowship of Reconciliation, which advocated the 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 141 

abandonment of our armed forces and our capitalist system of 
government. He supported Harry Bridges in his fight ag^-ainst de- 
portation as an undesirable alien. 

Red front records are available on the following members of the 
Southern Conference for Human Welfare: Koscoe Dunjee, Virginia 
Durr, Lewis W. Jones, Mary McLeod Bethune, Charlotte Hawkins 
Brown, Helen Fuller, Sam Freeman, William Mitch, Lucy Mason, 
Auln-ey Williams, Melvyn Douglas, and Channing H. Tobias. 

In view of the apparent following along the Communist Party 
line of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare, and the activity 
of its members and many of its officers in Communist and front move- 
ments, it may well be considered a ''transmission belt," as it has been 
called by Earl Browder. At least five of the officers of the Conference 
Avere among those initiating the Civil Rights Congress, with which 
I Mill deal next. 

Recently created to augment the activities of the Southern Con- 
feience for Human Welfare, the National Negro Congress, the South- 
ern Negro Youth Congress, and the CIO in the Southern States is the 
Committee To Arid Fighting South, with national headquarters at 
3 Leroy Street, New York, N. Y. This committee was set up on May 
18, 1947. Its cochairmen are Benjamin J. Davis, Jr., Communist 
Party Negro leader in New York; and Millard Lampell, previously 
mentioned in this report. Vice chairmen are Shirley Graham and 
Earl Conrad; secretary, Paul Malcolm Cain; treasurer, James J. 
Jones. 

The publicly announced purposes of the Committee To Aid Fight- 
ing South are to furnish "aid to the Southern Negro Youth Congress 
in the battle against white supremacy'* ; to ''assist in the defense of 
Don West, now charged with libel," "to provide funds for other 
civil rights cases," "to help finance the southern edition of The Worker 
(Communist organ), and to aid "the Communists and other militant 
forces in the South." 

CIVIL RIGHTS CONGRESS 

Over a period of several years the organized movements in defense 
of the Communist Party, its fronts and its leaders have been consistent 
in action and leadership, but the name changing in this field has been 
even more pronounced than in other fields. These organizations, too 
numerous to mention, many of which have been exposed by your 
committee and preceding committees, have undergone recent changes 
in name. Two of the most prominent of these, the International 
Labor Defense and the National Federation of Constitutional 
Liberties, combined with the Metropolitan Interfaith and Interracial 
Coordinating Council of New York, operate now under the name of the 
Ci\il Rights Congress, with national headquarters at 205 East Forty- 
second Street, New York. 

Officers of the Civil Rights Congress are : George Marshall, na- 
itonal chairman, who headed the National Federation for Constitu- 
tional Liberties, and a leader of the Robert Marshall Foundation 
which financially supports mam' Red fronts; Dr. Benjamin E. jMays 
and Harry F. Ward, honorary, cochairmen ; Raymond C. Ingersoll, 
treasurer; jNlilton Kaufman, executive director; Milton N. Kemnitz, 
field director; George F. Addes, Mary Bethune, Rev. Charles A. Hill, 

65176—47 10 



142 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Ira Latimer, Stanley Nowak, LaAvrence Rivkin, and Vincent Sheean, 
vice chairmen; and Benjamin Goldring, secretary, legal committee. 

The National Congress on Civil Rights, at which the Civil Rights 
Congress was born, was held in Detroit on April 27th and 28th, 1916. 
Iniators of the National Congress were the late Col. Evans Carlson, 
Norman Corwin, Dr. Kirtley F. Mather, Carey McWilliams, Edward- 
C, Robinson, Paul. Robeson, Clai'k Foreman, president of the Southern 
Conference for Human Welfare; George I^Iarshall. James G. Patton, 
president of the National Farmers' Union, and Congressman Vito 
Marcantonio. These were joined b^ Dr, Benjamin E. Mays, Jess 
Fletclier, Julius Emspak, Wesley E. Sharer, cochairman of the Chi- 
cago Civil Liberties Committee ; and I'rof . John F. Shepard, president 
of the Michigan Civil Rights Federation. 

The sponsors of the National Congress included Susan B. Anthony 
II of the Congress of American Women, Louis E. Burnham, oigan- 
izing secretary of the Southern Negro Youth Congress ; D. A. Cameron, 
editor of Little, Brown & Co. ; Prof. Emmanuel Chapman, chairman 
of the Committee of Catholics for Human Rights ; Philip M. Connelly, 
secretary of the Los Angeles CIO Council ; Bishop J*. A. Gregg ; Rabbi 
Ferdinand M. Isserman; Rep. Ellis E. Patterson; Michael J. Quill; 
Dorothy K. Roosevelt, executive secretary of the Michigan Citizens' 
Committee; Senator Glen H. Taylor; Max Weber; Louis Adamic; 
Elmer Benson ; Elizabeth Gurley Flynn ; and Francis J. McConnell. 

Signers- of the call to the National Congress were Anna M. Kross, 
Gene Weltfish, Saul MillSj Adam Clayton Powell, Vito Marcantonio, 
Johannes Steel, Lisa Sergio, Joe Curran, Joseph P. Selly, and Hulan 
E. Jack. The call announced that the conference would coordinate 
the action of democratic and progressive forces. Milton Kaufman, 
Louis Coleman of the International Labor Defense, and Milton Kem- 
nitz were elected to the continuation committee. 

Among the local organizations of the Civil Rights Congress are 
the Illinois Civil Liberties Committee, 21 East Van Buren Street, 
Chicago, 111. ; Civil Rights Federation, 609 Hammond Building, 
Detroit, Mich.; Civil Rights Congress of New York, 112 East Nine- 
teenth Street, New York, N. Y., and Civil Rights Congress of 
Califoria. 

The CRC announces that it is "a national membership organization 
formed by hundreds of national and community groups from all 
parts of the country." Its platform is as follows : 

Figbt terror against the Negro people, demanding justice in such cases as 
Colmnbia, Tenn., and Freeport, Long Island ; defend southern workers in their 
right to organize; outlaw anti-Semitism; destx-oy Jim Crow; end the poll-tax; 
abolish the Thoiuas-Rankin Committee; secure a pei'manent Federal FEPC; 
protect the riglits of the foreign-born ; defeat antilabor legislation ; investigate 
violations of labor's rights ; end labor injunctions and police brutality against 
pickets; stop frame-ups of unionists as in Little Rock, Ark. 

Officers of the Civil Rights Congress of New York are: Dashiell 
Hammett, president; James Egert Allen, Howard Dasilva, William 
Howard Melish and Stephen O'Donnell; Meyer Stern, chairman of 
the board; Louis Coleman, executive secretary; Lawrence Rivkin, 
director of organization ; and Robert Freeman, membership director. 
Vivian Schatz is chairman of the Albany, N. Y., section of the con- 
gress. California headquarters are located at 206 South Spring Street, 
Los Angeles. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 143 

The congress recently sponsored a campaign in defense of Gerhart 
Eisler. It is also waging an agitational campaign for the dismissal of 
Attorney General Tom Clark. In 1946 it carried on a nation-wide 
publicity campaign in defense of the Communist Party politically. 
It is now fighting legislative action which might hamper Communist 
activities in the United States, and it is demanding the abolition of 
all congressional and State legislative investigating committees. 

In May the Civil Rights Congress joined the Communists' '"fight 
back" campaign, designed to arouse public sentiment against anti- 
Communist legislation. It engaged in a Nation-wide newspaper ad- 
vertising campaign directly aimed against the Congressional Com- 
mittee on. Un-American Activities, and in opposition to all legislative 
efforts to destroy Communist forces in the United States. Cooperat- 
ing with the Civil Rights Congress in this fight were Franklin P. 
Adams, Prof. Thomas Addis of Stanford University, Stella Adler, 
James E. Allen, Bishop C. C. Alleyne, Zlatko Balokovic (American 
Slav Congress) , Samuel L. M. Barlow, Bishop W. Y. Bell of Georgia, 
Elmer A. Benson (vice chairman of Progressive Citizens of America) , 
Walter Bernstein of the Daily Worker, Prof. Lyman R. Bradley of 
New York University, Prof. S. P. Breckinridge of the University of 
Chicago, Prof. Edwin B. Burgum of New York University, Charles H. 
Colvin, Nick Comfort of the Oklahoma School of Religion, Prof. 
Archibald Cox of Harvard, Prof. W. H. L. Dana of Harvard, Frank 
M. Davis (Associated Negro Press), Adolph Dehn, Prof. Frank 
Dobie of the University of Texas, William E. Dodd, Arnaud D'Usseau, 
Prof. Henry Pratt Fairchild of New York University, Howard Fast, 
Harry Gottlieb, John C. Cranberry (the Emancipator), William 
Gropper (Communist) , Prof. Ralph H. Gundlach of the University of 
AVashington, Robert Gwathmey, J. W. Haywood, Rev. Duncan M. 
Hobart of Mississippi, Prof. Ellsworth Huntington of Yale, Rev. 
Kenneth de P. Hughes, Carol Janeway, Frances Fisher Kane, Rabbi 
Jocob H. Kaplan, Harry F. Ward, Prof. Leroy Waterman of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, Max Weber, Dr. Harry N. Wieman of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, William Zorach, Rev. F. Hastings Smyth, 
Margaret Sanger Slee, Vincent Sheean, Prof. Malcolm Sharp of the 
University of Chicago, Vida Scudder of Wellesly, Prof. Frederick L. 
Schuman, William Jay Schieffelin, Elbert Russell of Duke University, 
William Howard Melish (National Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship) , Jack R. McMichael, Prof. F. O. Matthiessen of Harvard, 
W. H. Manwaring of Stanford, John Howard Lawson, Philip Loeb, 
and others. 

The Civil Rights Congress strengthened the Communist agitation 
against the Taft-Hartley Labor bill barring Communists from union 
leadership. It encouraged violation of the law in all respects. The 
CongTess announced that it would furnish free legal aid to all union- 
ists and unions openly flouting the law. It participated in the legal 
and propaganda battles in behalf of Gerhart Eisler, Eugene Dennis, 
and the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, all of which were cited 
for contempt of Congress and were found guilty. 

Several additional movements have been organized within the past 
few months, the purpose of which is to defend the Communists. These 
include the Committee to Uphold the Constitutional Rights of Com- 
munists. Cochairmen are Benjamin Davis, Jr., and Peter Cacchione, 



144 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

both members of the National Committee of the Communist Party. 
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Ben Gold, and John Gates, also party com- 
mitteemen, are members of the board. 

In the meantime, the use of pressure propaganda has been resur- 
rected by the Communists, i. e., obtaining petitions assailing so-called 
Red hunts on the part of Congress. In this respect, I wish to mention 
only a few of the many thousands of releases assailing these so-called 
Red hunts : 

Five Hundred Unionists Assail Red Hunt of Congress — att.aclied to tliis are 
the names of liundreds of CIO members, a few A. F. of L. leaders, and heads of 
local CIO unions. 

Noted Citizens Rap Attack on Communists — dozen of Red-fronters signed their 
names to this protest. 

Noted Artists, Professionals Back May Day Attack Drive Against Civil Liber- 
ties and for War — the usuaL apologists supported this drive. 

World's Bipgest Local Hits I'ian to Ban Communist Party — this refers to the 
Ford Local. 600 of the CIO. 

Fifty Prominent Americans Protest — the protest was over th(; so-called perse- 
cution of the German Communist-Soviet agent, Gerhart Eisler. Signers of the 
protest include left-wing professors, CIO unionists, and fronters. 

Progressives Protest Ban on Communist Party — about 50 "progressives" signed 
this protest, many of whom are well-known fronters. 

Public Figures Hit Plan to Ban Communist Party — 25 or more CIO and front 
leaders signed this. 

Minnesota Democrats Defend Rights of Communists — several of the delegates 
opposed the resolution adopted by a State Democratic Party convention. 

Bay State Leaders Hit Attack on Communists — 87 residents of the State signed 
this protest, most of whom are known to this committe as a result of their past 
front i^erformances. 

The Communist Party itself has contributed to the concerted at- 
tacks upon this committee and on other congressional and State com- 
mittees which are uncovering the machinations of the Reds and their 
cover-ups by circulating some 4,000,000 leaflets, 2,000,000 pamphlets, 
and several hundred paid page and half-page advertisements in at 
least 125 large city dailies from coast to coast. In addition, it has 
sponsored more than 100 radio broadcasts. 

Unquestionably, the Civil Rights Congress constitutes a coalition 
composed of the Communist Party and all its fronts, organized to 
battle every possible move against the Party and its leaders, as well 
as the fronts which are so active nationally. 

Still another Red front, hatched in the fertile brains of the Com- 
munists and their fronters is the National Committee to Win the 
Peace. Jo Davidson has been its leader since its inception. He has 
been active in Communist circles over a period of years, and he was 
at one time an instructor at the Workers' (Communist) School in 
New- York where he attempted to mold the min.ds of the students to 
the Communist pattern. He has also been alined with the National 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship and the Independent Com- 
mittee of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, another Red front. He 
participated in the National Emergency Conference Against the 
Government Wage Program, set up by the Reds in 1935. Phil Frank- 
feld, at the time head of the Boston branch of the Communist Party, 
and currently the head of the Maryland-D. C. section, was na- 
tional secretary of the conference. Frank Moser, Communist candi- 
date for office in Philadelphia on numerous occasions, was its national 
chairman. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 145 

Davidson was the guiding light of the Win the Peace Conference 
which was held in Washington, D. C, April 5, 6, and 7, 1946, from 
which evolved the permanent National Committee to Win the Peace. 
The late leftist Evans Carlson, an often-used frontier, after his return 
from the war shared the permanent chairmanship of the committee 
with Paul Robeson, an activist in Communist ranks. It will be re- 
called that Robeson forsook the United States to reside in Russia for 
maiiy years. Upon his return to this country he became prominent 
in the crusade in behalf of the Communists. His activities in Red 
circles are extensive. 

The purpose of the National Committee to Win the Peace is rather 
vague, as far as its public statements are concerned. The initial 
committee meeting to issue the Call for the Conference to Win the 
Peace, it is understood, was held in the office of Congressman Adolph 
Sabath on March 5, 1946. The original Win the Peace Conference 
(April 1946) was held in the Department of Commerce Auditorium. 

Some 712 delegates from 27 States attended the conference. Its 
i-eport claims that the delegates represented 55 national movements 
and 26 local chapters of other organizations. Included among those 
listed were the Independent Citizens' Committee of Arts, Sciences, 
and Professions, another of Jo Davidson's outfits; the American Vet- 
erans' Committee, CIO Political Action Committee, 15 Communist- 
penetrated CIO unions, the Red-front Veterans and Wives (formerly 
known as WIVES), National Negro Congress, Federation of 
Scientists, American Association of Scientific Workers, Veterans of 
Equality, Jewish War Veterans, American Jewish Congress, Ameri- 
can Lawyers' Guild, Church League for Industrial Democracy, Inter- 
national Workers' Order, Comnnuiist Party, American Youth for 
Democracy, Southern Conference for Human Welfare, and a few Red- 
captured A. F. of L. locals. 

The keynote address was delivered by Paul Robeson. He said that 
the conference had a "tremendous task" before it, that of forcing our 
Government to "cease its policy of propping up fascism," and of pre- 
venting our Government from hindering the "development of govern- 
ments with new democratic forms." Robeson coulcl only mean that 
the duty of the conference was to sustain the Russian and Communist 
drive for world rule. Former Congressman Coffee of Washington 
scored Franco of Spain, and he demanded a putsch to force a breaking 
off of United States diplomatic relations with Spain. 

Other speakers included Millard Lampell, R. J. Thomas (CIO), 
Russell Nixon (CIO), Congressman Savage, Congressman Sabath, 
former Congressmen Hugh DeLacy and Ellis Patterson, Len DeCaux 
of the CIO News, Max Yergan, Marion Bachrach of the Council for 
Pan American Democracy, Clark Foreman of the Southern Con- 
ference for Human Welfare, Dr. Higginbotham, atomic-energy 
scientist; Ira Gollobin, Mordecai Johnson, and Senator Claude Pep- 
per. They all claimed that we had won a "people's war," and that a 
"people's peace" must be had. They cried against "imperialism" and 
"exploitation." They asked for the withdrawal of American troops 
from foreign countries. They prated against "economic royalists," a 
large standing army, "the war makers and our native fascists," "Am.er- 
ican Vv'orld domination," policies in Latin America, and America's con- 
trol of atomic energy. 

Locals of the National Committee to Win the Peace were set 
up throughout the country. It is evident that the committee was 



146 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

created for the purpose of propagandizing in support of the drive to 
win a pro- Soviet peace, and at the same time to lend aid to the Red 
revohitionary drive in the United States. 

National headquarters of the committee were set up at 23 West 
Twenty-sixth Street, New York, N. Y. Washington, D. C, head- 
quarters are located at 1309 Fourteenth Street NW. Colonel Carlson 
became cochairman in 1946. Vice chairmen are Bertram Alves, Elmer 
Benson, Mary McLeod Betliune, Clark Foreman, Stephen H. Fritch- 
man, JMillard Lampell, Leo Kryczki, Bartley Crum. Marion Bach- 
rach was elected national educational director (exhibit 70).^*^ 

The Southern California Committee to Win the Peace, the last 
remaining branch of the National Connnittee to Win the Peace, be- 
came inactive on June 17, 19-1:7. In its final appeal, this branch 
requested that its units go over as a body into the Progressive Citizens' 
Association. The national staff is winding up the affairs of the com- 
mittee in the offices of Frederick Field in New York City. 

Politically the leftists are in quite a quandary. The Reds and 
members of CIO Red-penetrated unions have gone on record favoring 
a united front in politics through a "strong third (left-wing) political 
party." However, strategists among the fronters seem to be biding 
their time before going out on a limb too far in advance of the 1948 
national political campaign. The PAC has announced that it is 
carefully reorganizing its field rank and program preparatory to 
waging a campaign in 1948, which it warns will start with grass-root 
tactics and will be more aggressive than any previously waged. 

At this point I wish to refer more in detail to the Independent Citi- 
zens Committee, previously mentioned herein. While the last State 
unit of this committee discontinued activities in July in California, 
calling on its members to join Progressive Citizens of America, it still 
maintains its own identity as a section of the PCA. It is now known 
as the Committee of Arts, Sciences and Professions of the Progressive 
Citizens of America. 

The ICCASP was of Communist origin. It was set up by the Reds 
in January. 1945 through their fronter, Jo Davidson, for 30 years a 
Resident of France. He recently returned to Paris which has lately 
become the point from whicli Moscow temporarily directs its interna- 
tional movements. Davidson remained here long enough to teach in 
a Communist School in New York City, and to assist in organizing 
various fronts. His last job was that of coordinating in the organiz- 
ing into the PCA, of which he became cochairman, with the British- 
born Red-fronter, Frank Kingdon. His post has been taken over by 
Robert Kenney of California. 

ICCASP was behind the effort to purge Congress of conservatives 
in the last general election. It set up offices in New York at the Hotel 
Astor, and sectional offices in Hollywood, Chicago, New Haven, Wash- 
ington, D. C, Minneapolis, Detroit, Cleveland, Los Angeles, San 
Francisco, and elsewhere. It operated some 300 locals in all sections 
of the country. It maintained a lobby in Washington, D. C, and in 
many State ca]:)itals, through which it attempted to influence Federal 
and State legislation. 

ICCASP issued many publications, including the Independent, 
Hollywood Independent, Bulletin of Legislative News, and Reports 



'• See appendix, p. 176, for exhibit 70. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 147 

from Wasliingtori. Writers for these publications Avere Langston 
Hughes, Frank Kiiigdon, John Howard Lawson, Sam Farquhar, Carey 
McWilliams, and others Avell known in Communist and R^d front 
ranks. It maintained special committees on art, radio, and the press. 
It set up special committees to support legislation in behalf of sociali- 
zation of medicine and natural resources. 

The officers of ICCASP were Jo Davidson and Frank Kingdon, co- 
chairmen; Fi'ederic March, secretary-treasurer; Herman Schumlin, 
finance chairman; directors: William Rose Benet. Van Wyck Brooks, 
Louis Calhern, Marc Connelly, Morris L. Cooke, Norman Corwin, John 
Cromwell, Bartley Crum, Olivia De Havilland, Moses Diamond, 
Donald Du Shane, Albert Einstein, Florence Eldridge (Mrs. Frederic 
March), Rudolph Ganz, Moss Hart, Lillian Hellman, Howard Koch, 
Jr., John Howard Lawson, John T. McManus, William JMorris, Alonzo 
F. Myers, John P. Peters, Martin Popper, Paul Robeson, Harlow 
Shaple}^, Herman Schumlin, and Carl Van Doren. Hannah Dorner 
was executive director, and Hila Meadow, membership director. The 
character of members of the sponsoring committee more clearly indi- 
cated the Red front design of ICCASP. They included Louis Adamic, 
Mary McLeod Bethune, Henry Pratt Fairchild, Howard Fast, William 
S. Gailmor, Langston Hughes, Canada Lee, Max Lerner, Villi] almur 
Stefansson. 

At the Communist Party convention, held in New York City in 
August lO-lS, special emphasis was placed on the ICCASP by mem- 
bers of the cultural committee of the party. Reference was made to 
the fact that it was one of the organizations in which leading Com- 
munist factions were working with satisfactory results. One member 
of the cultural committee was honored for his pioneer work in setting 
up the ICCASP. The report of the cultural committee, presented to 
the convention by one June Holi'man, stated in part : 

We built the Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences and Pro- 
fessions, and it is of great political import. 

Early in 1946 the ICCASP and the CIO-PAC gave a $12.50 plate 
dinner at the Astor in New York, at which Andrei Gromyko (Russian 
agent) was a speaker. The dinner w^as held on the first anniversary 
of the San Francisco Conference. 

On April 13, 1946, the same clique— ICCASP and the CIO-PAC, 
with 2,000 New Dealers, Communists, pro-Communists, and "One 
W^orlders" — gathered in New York and listened to the political 
proclamation of Henry Wallace. He called for the building of "a 
vigorous political organization in every country." He asked for 
complete cooperation with Russia in all matters. Claude Pepper, 
"Soviet Firster" ; Dr. Frank Kingdon, and others of the same political 
shade also spoke. Organizations such as the (Communist) Interna- 
tional Workers' Order and the Red dominated CIO Fur Workers' 
Union, as well as the Communist Party, purchased tickets in blocs 
at $10 each. 

The officers, nationally and locally, of the ICCASP were for the 
most part individuals with pro-Communist and pro-Soviet back- 
grounds, whose loyalty to the Red cause was clearly indicated by their 
past activities and affiliations. 

Similar organizations existed in other countries, denoting an inter- 
national front in this field. These included the Union Nationale des 



148 TESTIMOiSTY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Intellectuals (France), headed by F. Joliot-Cnrie, a Communist; and 
the Associations of Professionals and Cultural Organizations (Argen- 
tina), under the direction of Dr. Tamborini, a Communist-front can- 
didate for ofRce. 

The conference which met in Chicago on September 28 and 29, 1946, 
to assemble the machinery for the operation of this organization was 
attended by representatives of the National Committee to Win the 
Peace, the Independent Citizens' Committee of Arts, Sciences and 
Professions, the CIO-PAC, the National Citizens' PAC, the Youth 
PAC, the National Farmers' Union, the Southern Conference for 
Human Welfare, National Negro Congress, Independent Voters of 
Illinois, Liberal Voters' League of St. Louis, Progressive Citizens of 
Ohio, Independent Voters of New Hampshire, Progressive Citizens of 
Cleveland, Progressive Citizens of Cincinnati, New Jersey Indepen- 
dent Citizens' League and Oberlin Political Action Committee and 
other left-wing groups. The sponsors of the conferences were the 
CIO-PAC, the Independent Citizens' Committee of Arts, Sciences and 
Professions, and the National Citizens' PAC. These groups combined 
into one organization, the Progressive Citizens of America. Like the 
PAC, this is not a party, but it is the machinery through which other 
parties are to be penetrated, or a third party launched. 

Members of the board of directors, who were appointed at the 
merger meeting, were selected in an equal number from the National 
Citizens' PAC, the Independent Citizens' Committee of Arts, Sciences 
and Professions, and the National Committee to Win the Peace. The 
other organizations were given vice-presidential posts. The Commu- 
nist and the CIO press devoted much space to the merger since the 
movements merging had followed the party line faithfully on national 
and international issues. Harold Ickes, who had been co-chairman of 
the Independent Citizens' Committee of Arts, Sciences, and Profes- 
sions, resigned iimiiediately following the merger. He claimed his 
resignation was due to the communistic views of the movements. 

Frank Kingdon and Jo Davidson were selected co-chairmen of 
Progressive Citizens of America, each having previously served as 
co-chairmen of two of the major merging groups. Both have exten- 
sive front backgrounds. Herman Shumlin, who has a record-breaking 
background of front activities, was elected secretary. Michael M. 
Nisselson, with some 12 Red-front affiliations, was chosen treasurer. 
Executive vice chairmen are C. B. Baldwin and Hannah Dorner. 
Both have participated in Red-front activities in the past. Vice 
chairman are Van Wyck Brooks, Elmer A. Benson, John Cromwell, 
Bartlev C. Crum, Norman Corwin, Clark Foreman, Lillian Hellman, 
Gene Kelley, Robert Kennv, Frederic March, Paul Robeson, Harlow 
Shapley, A. F. Whitney, R. R. Wright, J. Raymond Walsh, Paul 
Tishman, and Marshall Dimock, 

Progressive Citizens of America operates a Young Progressive 
Citizens' Committee, of which Gene Kelly, movie actor, is national 
chairman. Herbert Oppenheimer is executive vice chairman, and 
George Pepper is executive director of its arts, sciences, and profes- 
sions council. Chapters are active in most universities and colleges. 
It has supported the Communist Party line in all issues. The YPCC 
is also an affiliate of the New York Youth Council. Two hundred 
members of its New York chapter were among the 1,000 leftists who 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 149 

marched on Albaii}^ early this year (1947). • Five hundred members 
from 17 States met in Washington, D. C, in Jnne. The YPCC has 
sent delegates to the Communist International youth festival and 
meeting being held in Prague in July ( 1947) . 

Progressive Citizen's political workshops have been set up, at 
Avhich students are being taught its brand of political technique. 

Progressive Citizens of America enters into the political pressure 
propaganda campaigns and marches of the leftist variety. Members 
of its State of Washington section recently marched on the State 
Legislature in support of Red demands. Thej^ were joined by Com- 
munists and other fronters. 

The organization has been particularly critical of current changes 
in tlie foreign i)olicies of the Truman administration, and advocates 
an appeasement attitude towards Russia and her satellite countries. 

Aubrey Williams and Carey Mc Williams are members of the board. 
The movement draws no line against outright Communists or front 
leaders, in fact openly invited them in. 

Progressive Citizens of America published the PCA News Release, 
with offices located at 205 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y., 
and 1916 L Street NW., Washington, D. C. ; and the Progressive Citi- 
zen, published in New York. Ralph Shikes is editor, and Milton 
Meltzer is associate editor. The Washington, D. C, office is in charge 
of Luke W. Wilson, former Orientation Officer in the United States 
Army. 

Executive heads of the women's division of PCA are Helen Rosen 
and Grace Leidman. 

Communists cooperate wholeheartedly in keeping the Progressive 
Citizens of America in the limelight, and the latter utilize considerable 
space in announcing scheduled gatherings in the Communist organs. 
Henry Wallace appears to be the organization's chief mouthpiece. 
The Political Action Committee of the CIO likewise openly cooperates 
with Progressive Citizens of America. 

In States in which the Communist Party has been barred from the 
ballot, the Reds lend their support to socalled "progressive" candi- 
dates sponsored by Progressive Citizens of America. It is to be ex- 
pected that this movement will assume the rote of an iron curtain, 
behind which the Communists will parade in the political field in 
the States barring them from the ballot. 

As an example of the manner in which Red fronters operate through 
Progressive Citizens of America, I call attention to the 22 simul- 
taneous public protest meetings held in New York City earlier this 
year in an attempt to "stop anti-labor legislation." The meetings 
were under the auspices of the movement. Speakers at these meet- 
ings included Norman Corwin. Dorothv Parker. Olin Downes, Wil- 
liam S. Gailmor, Elinor S. Gimbel, Frank Kingdon, Canada Lee, 
Lillian Hellman, Dwight Bradley, Dean Dixon, Henry Pratt Fair- 
child, Goodwin AVatson, Alfred Stern, and J. Raymond Walsh. The 
majority of these fronters and Communists have previously been 
mentioned in this report in various connections. 

In California a propaganda campaign against the Congressional 
Committee on Un-American Activities is sponsored by the California 
section of Progressive Citizens of America and the Communist Party. 
The campaign by the former is headed by Robert W, Kenny, chair- 



150 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

man. The committee is composed of the usual run of Red fronters. 
Advertisements publicizing the campaign appear in the west coast 
communist organ, People's Daily World. 

A political call issued by Progressive Citizens in California ap- 
peared in several issues of People's Daily World. It asked for 10,000 
one-day door-to-door campaigners in Los Angeles in an effort to elect 
a candidate to the City Board of Education. It is rapidly setting 
up chapters throughout the country, using to a great degree the organ- 
izations' locals which were absorbed b}^ it. The California section is 
meeting jointly and openly with such movements as the Communist 
Party, International Workers' Order, National Negro Congress, Na- 
tional Association for Advancement of Colored People, American 
Veterans' Committee, and the American Jewish Congress. A joint 
meeting of these groups was held in California on July 3 (11)47). 

The Hollyv»'Ood Arts, Sciences and Professions Council, a branch 
of Progressive Citizens of America, is active at this time in launching 
a Nation-wide campaign against so-called threats of silencing speech 
and controlling the thought of leftist movements. The council's offi- 
cers and leaders met at the Beverly Hills Hotel in Hollywood, July 9 to 
13 (1947). Among them were George Pepper, executive director of 
the council; Norman Corwin, John Cromwell, Hugh DeLacy, Howard 
Koch, Millan Brand, Dorothy Hughes. Donald Ogden Stewart, Irving 
Pichel, Hume Crony n, Paul Henried, Vincent Price, Roy Harris, 
Albert Maltz, Philip Stevenson, Vera Gaspary, Guy Endore, Arthur 
Lurents, Melvin Levy, Sam Ornitz. Wilma Shore, Arnaud D'Usseau, 
Alfred Noyes, Alexander Knox, Anne Revere, and Selene Royle. 

At a meeting of the National Committee of the Communist Party, 
held in New York City on February 23, 1946, plans were laid for 
the immediate formation of a coalition of left-wing elements into a 
third party. The call, issued by Jack Stachel in behalf of the national 
committee, stated in brief : 

If possible it is preferable that steps toward forming a third party should 
.be taken early in 1947. 

The September 1946 issue of Political Affairs, the mouthpiece of 
the national committee of the party, contains the text of a report for 
the national board of the party, made by Eugene Dennis at the plenary 
meeting of the party on Jtdy 16, 1946. The report stated in part : 

To halt and defeat the offensive of imperialist reaction at home and abroad 
it is necessary for labor and progressive movements to build a great counter- 
offensive, to build up the organized strength of the workers and all popular 
forces. Above all, it is essential to weld the maximum unity of action of the 
political organizations of labor and the trade-unions in alliance with all anti- 
imperialist and democratic groups and elements. 

In this report are listed the so-called democratic forces, considered 
the "essential forces," which must be brought together in a concen- 
trated drive against so-called reactionary^ political trends in American 
domestic and foreign fields of action. These movements, according 
to the report, are among those having "high priority" in Communist 
circles because of their value in building up the "progressive mass" 
movement in the United States. 

The organizations so listed in the report are the following : Southern 
Conference for Human Welfare, National Negro Congress, the CIO, 
National Win the Peace Congress, Independent Citizens' Committee 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 151 

of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, American Youth for Democracy, 
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Con- 
gress of American Women, American Labor Party, National Citizens' 
PAC, American Veterans' Committee, United Negro Allied Veterans 
of America, Farmers' Union, and "other progressive and democratic 
forces." 

I have discnssed the consolidation of these organizations which 
occurred after the issuance of these directions by the Communist Party 
to its forces. I do not know of one organization mentioned in this 
report that failed to participate in the conference held in Chicago at 
which the Progressive Citizens of America was set up. Neither do 
I know of any one of those organizations which is not, in some manner, 
active in the drive against the new labor law enacted by Congress. 
All of them are fighting for the abolition of this committee of Con- 
gress and are opposing the President's loyalty drive among Federal 
employees. 

Immediately thereafter a reorganizing of political Red fronts 
was begun. This resulted in the forming of the Progressive Citizens 
of America, with national headquarters located at 205 East Forty- 
second Street, New York, N. Y. 

]\Ir. MuNDT. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question right there? 

The Chairman. Mr. Mundt. 

Mr. Mundt. Is that the organization, Mr. Steele, of which one Henry 
A. Wallace is a spokesman and member ? 

Mr. Steele. He is, sir ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Mundt. And he is the alleged candidate for president of that 
group ? 

Mr. Steele. Of that group ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Mundt. Do you know anything about the connection between 
that group and a group in California which has recently announced 
through the press that they are inviting him to run as candidate for 
President ? 

Mr. Steele. Well, the group out there is headed by Robert Kenny, 
who headed some of these other fronts which were brought into the 
convention that dissolved those movements and set up the Progressive 
Citizens of America. Jo Davidson was one of the original 
cochairmen. He has gone to Paris. 

Mr. McDowell. The sculptor. 

Mr. Steele. Yes. Kenny has now been elected cochairman of this 
Progressive Citizens of America. 

Mr. Mundt. Is Mr. Wallace doing anything else at the present time 
besides editing — is it — the New Republic ? 

Mr, Steele. He is editor of the New Republic Magazine. 

Mr. ^Iundt. The New Republic. 

Mr. Steele. Not the one I am with, the National Republic. 

Mr. Mundt. There is a great distinction, I am sure, in the editorial 
policy of the two magazines. Do you know anything about the owner- 
ship of the New Republic Magazine, for which Mr, Wallace is editor? 

Mr. Steele, I have the records on that in my office, which I have 
gone into ver}^ thoroughly. 

Mr, Mundt, I have heard it stated — I believe I am correct in this — 
that the New Republic is owned almost exclusively by foreign capital; 
is that correct ? 



152 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir; about 98 percent, I believe. 

Mr. MuNDT. Ninety-eight percent foreign capital. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. Originally, I think the capital was in London. 
I think it is now incorporated in Canada. But I think the mother of 
the original editor of the publication is the one that owns the stocky 
as I understand. She lives in England. 

Mr. ]\IuNDT. Who is she? 

Mr. Steele. Ican'trecallher name. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Straight. 

Mr. Steele. That was one of her names ; yes. She was married two 
or three times. 

The Chairman. Can you supply the committee wnth your record^on 
the New^ Republic ? 

Mr. Steele. I can ; I will be glad to. 

Mr. MuNDT. I expect that stock is selling pretty high in the Moscow 
Board of Trade, [Laughter.] 

At the National Board meeting of Progressive Citizens of America 
in Chicago on June 30 (194(), the organization went even further 
on record in behalf of Marxism wdien it adopted resolutions binding 
it to fight for the socialization of railroads, power, and coal mines. It 
had previously gone on record against President Truman's foreign 
policy, which the PCA criticized as antagonistic to Russia. It had 
openly opposed the Government's drive to oust Communists from 
Federal positions. It condemned the demands for the illegalizatioii 
of the Communist Party. It demanded the renewal of wartime 
bureaucracy. Mr. Wallace, its mouthpiece, issued a statement a short 
time ago to the effect that workers of this Nation "look to Russia 
for inspiration." 

The most recent recruits to the PCA's political front among unions 
are the railroad trainmen and the United Furniture Workers, both 
of which have endorsed a third party and Wallace for President in 
1948. 

Progressive Citizens of ximerica announced in June (1947) that it 
had already set up 387 locals in 22 States, with Massachusetts at the 
top of the list, having 60 locals. New York and California were 
following closely with 50 and 30 locals, respectively. 

People's Songs took its place on the political front in Los Angeles 
on May 19 (1947), on the occasion of Henry Wallace's address oppos- 
ing President Truman's new foreign policy against Soviet aggression. 
The gathering was under the auspices of the Progressive Citizens of 
America. People's Songs presented the Bill of Rights, by Jay Gorney, 
sung by a chorus composed of 27 individuals from the CIO and Red 
cultural front ranks. The People, Yes, by Earl Robinson, was also 
presented. A few days earlier. People's Songs handled the entertain- 
ment for a meeting of the Communist Party at Madison Square Garden 
in New York (May 14, 1947) . It presented Songs of Tom Paine, sung 
by the Greek Partisan Chorus. William Z. Foster, Gerhart Eisler, 
Eugene Dennis, Benjamin Davis, Jr., Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, and 
Roi3ert Thompson spoke. 

Members of this committee of Congress, gentlemen, may have noticed 
a slight change in the wording of the slogans of the Communists, a 
change, in my opinion, which is indeed significant, and which was first 
noticeable at the time Europe became embroiled in World War II. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 153 

The change to whicli I refer is that of the hiying aside, to a great 
degree, of the words "'worker'' and "Communists." In their phice the 
Reds have adopted the words "people's" and "democracy." In this 
respect I call attention to the numerous front organizations, the names 
of which include the word "democracy" or "people's," to many of 
which I have referred in this testimony. And now we have a so-called 
People's Party in the making. 

The People's Party, a new force, maintains national lieadquarters at 
726 Eleventh Street NW., Washington, D. C. The national chairman 
at present is Brig. Gen. H. C. Holdridge (retired). He has also been 
mentioned as cochairman of the Armed Forces Committee of the 
^Vmerioan Veterans' Committee. Treasurer of the Party is Henry J. 
Sutton; secretary, Mrs, Minnie Frost Rands. The incorporators are 
Eleanor C. Curtiss, E. Stephen Gratten (former Communist Party 
leader and candidate for office in Columbus, Ohio), Bessie H. Michel- 
sen, Robert A. Young, and Bessie H. Sheldon. The party claims that 
our free enterprise system is bankrupt, and that the party intends to 
save the Nation through what appears to be its Marxian program, 

Holdridge is mouthing the Red party line in respect to opposition to 
military training, and a general disarmament of the United States. 
He states he is of the opinion that capitalism is decadent. He refers 
to the "drive to run Communists underground" as a "witch hunt." In 
this connection he criticizes the rantings of leaders coming to us "like 
echoes from the Tower of Babel." He is critical of our foreign policy 
in injecting this country in the affairs of nations "from the Dardanelles 
to Korea." He is opposed to "what amounts to a military alliance 
with Turkey," and our "glorified idea of competition" which "has set 
the hand of every man against that of the other." 

Action for Human Welfare became the official spokesman for the 
People's Party in May 1947. This publication, a left-wing monthly, 
is printed in Norwalk, Ohio. The editor is Ray S. Kellogg. AVriters 
for it are Scott Nearing, Elizabeth Miller, Fred Blair, C. P. Bradley. 
In the issue in which the announcement was made that it had become 
the official organ of the People's Party, it denounced President Tru- 
man, calling him "Adolph Truman." The article attacked the Presi- 
dent for following Hitler "step by step." It gloriously defended 
Russia, and boosted Wallace. The publication unquestionably fol- 
lows the Communist Party line. The publication charges that the 
United States suppressed an appeal against Franco; it is critical 
because the United States demanded that Russia return 90 shij^s which 
had been loaned to her; and charges that the United States labels all 
liberal groups unAmerican ; that all leftists and labor groups are called 
foreign agents; that the United States, in a subtle manner, is trying 
to crush trade-unions; that the United States supports corrupt Fascist 
governments all over the w^orld — in Greece, Spain, Iran, Arabia, 
China, and the Philippines; that the United States has railroaded a 
pro-Fascist government into power in Japan ; that the United States 
has announced a program that is openly and blatantly imperialistic. 
In one of its issues, it printed a burlesqite on "How To Spot a Com- 
munist," this taken from an official Communist Party organ. 

Henry J. Sutton, treasurer of People's Party, contributed a signed 
editorial which appeared in Action (May-June issue) in which the 
above accusations appeared. He stated that the editorial policy of 



154 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Action for Human Welfare "will be determined by the People's Party 
in accordance with the stated program of the party." Holdridge 
writes in the July edition. 

The party advocates the substitution of the Federal legislative 
powers by a new branch of government entitled the "Economic branch," 
to consist of a national board of directors, elected by guilds. It also 
suggested that a similar change take place in State government, and 
that the guilds be composed of cooperatives in various lines of trade. 

Meetings of the party strategy board, held in Washington, have 
been attended by certain individuals affiliated with the United States 
Government, as well as those who are known to have in the past had 
Communist Party or front connections. The following, one known 
employee of the Library of Congress, have attended these meetings,. 
Fred Blossom, Bessie Michelson, Eleanor Curtis, Bessie Sheldon, and 
Rowena Apsel. 

I want to refer briefly to this: At the New Jersey meeting of the 
Progressive Citizens of America, the headline speaker there, whose 
name I have buried in here somewhat, stated that if Mr. Wallace was 
not accepted as a candidate b.y the Democratic Party theie would be a 
third party movement organized and that this third party would be 
known as the People's Party. Now, the People's Party has already 
been incorporated here in the District. Their offices are at 726' 
Eleventh Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. McDowell. Are they going to hunt votes here in the District ? 

Mr. Steele. No; this is merely the national headquarters of the 
organization. 

The Chairman. They are going to hunt them in New Jersey. 

Mr. Steele. They are organizing in the various States. The 
national chairman at present is Brig. Gen. H. C. Holdridge, re- 
tired. The treasurer of it is Henry- J. Sutton, Mrs. Minnie Frost 
Rands is the secretary. The incorporators include a former Com- 
munist leader from Columbus, Ohio, and a number of fronters. Two 
weeks ago they adopted a publication called Action for Human Wel- 
fare as the official organ of the party. In that publication announcing 
that it became the official organ of the party was an editorial which was 
pretty critical of President Truman's foreign policy and referred to 
him as Adolph Truman. In other words, the editorial in the organ of 
the party was trying to smear the President as a Hitlerite. The or- 
ganization follows much of the party line throughout. We have 
analyzed that. I have submitted the evidence there to show that. 

The Minnesota Democratic-Farmer Labor Party is among many 
State units which have fallen in line with the PCA and its program 
and its proposed candidacy of Henry Wallabe for President of the 
United States. George P. Phillips is chairman of this affiliate, with 
State headquarters in Minneapolis. Two other affiliates of PCA are 
the Farmers' Union Progressive Alliance, recently formed in North 
Dakota, of which Glenn J. Falbott is president; and the Rocky 
Mountain Council for Social Section, with headquarters in Denver, 
Colo. 

Now as to the labor front. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Steele, in connection wath the Communist in- 
fluence in the labor movement, how many unions, national or inter- 
national unions, do you find Conniiunist influence is predominant in i 

Mr. Steele. Forty. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 155 

Mr. SxRirLiNG. Forty? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stkiplixg. Are they limited to any particular labor organiza- 
tions ? 

Mr, Steele. Yes; they are all CIO excepting one union. 

Mr. Stripling. AVliat union is the exception? 

]Mr. Steele. That was the painters' union, which I think recent- 
ly — since I wrote this — voted Mr. Weinstock, or whatever his name is, 
out of control up there. That eliminates that one. The AFL seems 
to have cleaned house pretty well and have continued to hold the line. 
But many of these other unions, which started out under Communist 
domination, have continued and are today, as the elections come up, 
reelecting their Communist leadership. 

At that point I wish to bring out the fact that Mr. Curraii himself 
says — this is out of his own publication, of March this year : 

Within the union — 

that is the National Maritime Union 

approximately 107 of the 150 elected officials of our union are Communists, who 
are more interested in assuring that your union become a stooge union of the 
Communist Party than they are in keeping it an instrument belonging to the 
rank and file seamen who built it. 

Mr. Stripling. In view of the provisions of the Taft-Hartley labor 
law, Mr. Steele, wdiat will happen in these 40 unions in which you 
claim there is Communist domination ? 

]Mr. Steele. Well, at this time they are ignoring the law. They 
are inviting court suits. I presume what will happen depends entirely 
upon the Supreme Court's opinion of the law, whether it is constitu- 
tional or not. On the other hand, there are a number of unions which 
I think wall just disregard the act and the benefits of the National 
Labor Relations Act, which are forbidden them when they maintain 
Communist leadership, and force themselves upon the employer 
without National Labor Relations Board protection. 

Mr. Stripling-. Do you have any information on the World Fed- 
eration of Trade Unions ? 

JNIr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

I also have the list of delegates that attended the international 
congress. 

Mr. Stripling. You have them listed according to country? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir ; according to country. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I think that list should be included 
in the record, the list of the delegates to the World Federation of 
Trade Unions, according to country, which he says he has. 

The Chairman. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

Mr. Steele. Now, at this time, there is also an international film 
festival, which 3'ou will be interested in, being held in France, by the 
International Federation of Film Workers. American delegations 
have been invited from Hollywood, but since the Congress isn't on 
yet, we haven't had any evidence to show who the delegates will be, 
if any, from Hollywood. But it bears watching, because it is another 
one of the international set-ups which has Communist direction. 

The Chairman. When is the Congress going to be convened? 

Mr. Steele. The date hasn't been set, insofar as I know. The call 
w^as issued in June. It appeared in California Communist Party daily 
newspaper, the only publication it appeared in. 



156 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

The Chairman. People's World. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Steele, regarding the Communist influence in 
labor unions, do you have any evidence that any union has elected an 
officer since the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act? 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Who are Communists? 

Mr. Steele. .Yes, sir. I think you will have to agree that Alexander 
Balint is a Communist. In fact, I think you had him up before this 
committee. He is not only a Communist. He is a fellow that has 
never been naturalized and was finally, I think, refused naturalization 
because of his Communist Party connections. He has been elected 
regional director of the Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Union of the 
CIO, and is secretary of the Cleveland Council. He has quite a Com- 
munist Party and front background. 

Up in New Jersey, I think — your State, Mr. Chairman — early in 
July 1947, the Nutley, N. J., local, No. 447, at the time phone workers 
were on strike, elected Joseph Sprechman, a member of the Communist 
Party, business agent by a vote of 1,100 to 166. There are other in- 
stances referred to in here, but those are two examples, if you will 
accept them. 

Mr. Stripling. In other words, it is your opinion that they will 
challenge the authority of the Taft-Hartley Act? 

Mr .Steele. I don't think there is a bit of a question about it 

Mr. Stripling. Proceed. 

Mr. Steele. Thank you. 

reds on labor front 

With the exposure by this committee and other committees of the 
House and Senate, and in the face of proposed legislation (which 
has lately been enacted), anti-Communist laborites came to the front 
with increased force, and in many instances started cleaning house. 

On the other hand, some of the former front leaders in CIO labor 
unions, in an eifort to protect their own high positions in the unions, 
maneuvered themselves into the anti-Red union side, and even went 
so far as to help oust a few Communists from leadership. 

While there are Communists in high office in the majority of the 
unions formerly under fire because of their Red leadership, these are 
becoming fewer with the passing of time, and Avith the recent enact- 
ment of Federal legislation they will be forced to resign from office, if 
their unions are to enjoy the advantage of laws which protect the 
rights of labor unions. 

It should be remembered, however, that the Red master-minds who 
bored into their unions from the bottom and succeeded in reaching 
the top remain members of their respective unions. 

An example of this is to be found in the National ]Maritime Union. 
Joe Curran, former Red-fronter and head of the union, was respon- 
sible for the ousting of two of the several Comnmnists in the leader- 
ship of the international under his command. A more powerful and 
cunning stroke was his effort a short time ago to elect non-Com- 
munists to replace Reds in port agent positions, powerful posts in 
his union. However, Curran admits that no less than 107 of the 158 
elected officers of his union are Communists. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 157 

It is to be expected that the Communists will bide their time in tha 
unions until another more propitious day. One step left open to them 
now is to organize rank-and-file committees in the unions and new 
movements among the unions outside the unions' jurisdiction, as well 
as outside the plants in which they are employed. I refer to off-the- 
job movements, such as people's songs and choruses, grievance com- 
mittees and anti-labor-legislation committees. The Reds will keep 
their customary close hold on union members, even though they may 
be barred from openly leading them. The danger thus continues. 

It must be noted that the recent propaganda campaign against this 
committee and the passage of labor legislation barring the Reds from 
union leadership has brought to the fore hundreds of CIO leaders 
who continue to play the game, it is now evident, for the Reds. Of 
course, there are certain unions, such as the furriers' union, long- 
shoremen's, riiaritime, transport, and farm unions which it is doubted 
Avill ])a3' any attention whatsoever to any law designed to interfere 
with Red control of their unions. 

In this respect I call your attention to the United Electrical, Radio, 
and Machine Workers' disregard of the newly enacted law prohibiting 
unions from liarboring Communists in official positions. Early in July 
1947 the Nutley, N. J., local. No. 447, at the time phone workers were 
on -strike, elected Joseph Sprechman, a member of the Communist 
Party, business agent by a vote of 1,100 to 166. 

Another example of union challenge to the anti-Communist law is 
the recent reelection of Alex Balint, regional director of the Mine, 
Mill, and Smelter Workers' Union (CIO), as secretary of the Cleve- 
land council. Balint is not even an American citizen. He was refused 
citizenship some years ago. Members of this committee are familiar 
with his long Communist record, since he appeared before the com- 
mittee some time ago. 

There are at least 40 CIO labor unions which have been penetrated 
b}^ the Communists, and in which Communist and Communist front 
leadership still exists, in the national as well as in many of the locals, 
although anti-Communist forces have been gaining a little ground 
therein during the past 6 months. These unions are, namely, the 
United Auto Workers ; International Fur and Leather Workers ; Inter- 
national Mine. Mill, and Smelter Workers; International Longshore- 
men and Warehousemen: National Maritime Cooks' and Stewards' 
Association; National Maritime Union; United Rubber Workers; 
International Fishermen and Allied Workers of America; Interna- 
tional Woodworkers of America; Food and Tobacco Workers; United 
Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America ; Transport Work- 
ers' Union; American Communications Association ; United Furniture 
Workers of America ; United Farm Equipment Workers ; United Office 
and Professional Workers of America; United Shoe Workers of 
America: United Packinghouse Workers of America; United Gas, 
Coke, and Chemical Workers; Cleaners and Dyers LTnion ; Federation 
of Glass, Ceramic, and Silica Sand Workers of America ; National 
Marine Engineers Beneficial Association; Industrial Union Ma- 
rine and Shipbuilding of America: American Newspaper Guild; Na- 
tional Lawyers Guild ; United Retail and Wholesale Department Store 
Employees of America ; United Steelworkers of America ; Stone and 
Allied Quarry Workers of America ; Textile Workers Union of Amer- 

65176 — 47 11 



158 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

ica ; Utility Workers Union of America ; Hotel and Restaurant Work- 
ers of America ; Jewelry Workers of America ; International Moulders 
Union of America; International Hod Carriers Union; Bakery and 
Confectionery Workers of America ; United Public Workers of Amer- 
ica ; and Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 

As an outside-the-union influence I wish to call attention to the 
American Jewish Labor Council, with national headquarters at 22 
Eii st Seventeenth Street, New York, N. Y. 

This was formerly known as the Trade Union Committee for Jewish 
Unity, Chairman of the council is Max Perlow, who is secretary- 
treasurer of the United Furniture Workers Union (CIO). He has 
an extensive Ked front background. 

He has been a member of the executive board of Morning Freiheit, 
the Free Browder Committee, and numerous other Communist and 
front movements. 

Max Steinberg is executive secretary of the council. He has been 
a member of the central committee of the Communist Party, and 
in 1938 he was organizational secretary of the party. 

He was business mannger of Morning Frieheit, and a member of 
the general executive board of the International Workers' Order. 

Additional Communist and Iled-front leaders of the council are 
Abram Flaxer of the United Public Workers of America (CIO), 
with many Reel fi'ont connections, including affiliation with the Ameri- 
can League for Peace and Democracy, American People's Mobiliza- 
tion, and the Free Earl Browder Committee; Joseph H. Levy, vice 
president of the United Office and Professional Workers of America 
(CIO), and a member of the Free Earl Browder Committee, Spanish 
aid movements, and other fronts, Sidney Mason, business manager 
of the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers (CIO), who 
has been active in Red-front movements; Arthur Osman, president 
of local 65 of the United Wliolesale and Warehouse Workers L^nion 
(CIO), who has been connected with the Free Earl Browder Com- 
mittee and the IWO; Irving Potash, manager of the Furriers Joint 
Council (CIO), a member of the staff of Morning Freiheit, leader 
of Red May Day demonstrations, and other Red and front activities; 
Isidore Rosenberg, prominent in the old (Communist) Trade Union 
Unity League and other Red circles; Joseph Selly, president of the 
American Communications Association (CIO), and well known in 
numerous front organizations; M. Hedley Stone, treasurer of the 
National Maritime Union (CIO), and a participant in Red-front 
activities; Meyer Stern, district director of the United Packing House 
Workers (CIO), and former organizing secretary of district 2 of the 
Communist Party; Lpou Sverdlove, manager of ^ocal 1 of the Jewelry 
Workers Union (AFL), and a member of the Free Earl Browder 
Committee and other radical outfits; Louis Weinstock, secretary- 
treasurer of district 9 of the A. F. of L. Brotherhood of Painters, 
and a member of the National Committee of the Communist Party; 
Joseph Winogradsky, vice president of the International Fur and 
Leather Workers' Union (CIO), who took part in the Communist 
Party State convention (New York) in 1938; and Maurice Rosen- 
berg, administrative secretary of the American Jewish Labor Council, 
who held this position in the old Jewish People's Committee branded 
Communist by another congressional committee investigating un- 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 159 

American activities, and which the committee found was under the 
leadersliip of all those now composing the leadership of the American 
Jewish Labor Council. 

Perlow was president of the Jewish People's Committee; Osman 
and Weinstock, vice presidents; Flaxer, Potash, Isidor Rosenberg, and 
Steinberg were members of the national board. Maurice Rosenberg 
was administrative secretary. The Jewish Labor Council was later 
denounced by legitimate Jewish organizations. This is another 
oi'ganization which tolerates Red influence and leadership. 

The Council of Negro Trade Unionists, vrith headquarters in New 
York City, has been active in labor circles within the past few months. 
It has been mentioned in connection with its participation in southern 
affairs. Red control from without is noticeable in this group also. 

Ou May 13, l'J47, the radical left-wing forces among the Negroes of 
California organized the United Negro Labor Committee. The organ- 
izational meeting was held in Oakland, with 125 in attendance. It 
has been announced that the committee v>'ill act in the capacity of a po- 
litical action group, in cooperation with other so-called progressives. 

The chairman is Hursel Alexander, who is at the present time CIO 
Food, Tobacco, and Agricultural Union organizer in Oakland. He 
formerly resided in Omaha, Nebr. At different times he has been 
organizer for the National Maritime Union and the Longshoremen's 
Union. He is reported to have been active also in Africa, India, and 
Pcierto Rico. Alexander joined other leftists in calling a parley in 
California on July 19, 19-17, to launch a campaign in support of the 
Communist organ. People's Daily World. 

Members of the board of the United Negro Labor Committee include 
Lon "^^anier, formerly of New Orleans and reported to be a carpenter 
by trade ; Ethel Benford, a member of the CIO Steel Workers' Union 
Local 1798 ; Camille Arnas, AFL Cleaners and Dyers Local 23 ; Bob 
Neville, Electrical Workers' Local 1412; Alfred Bard, Longshore- 
men's Local 10 ; and Frances Albrier, Dining Car Workers' Local 456. 
Vanier is a charter subscriber to the People's Daily World. 

The Citizens' Conference To Defend Labor, 205 East Forty-second 
Street, room 1515, New York, N. Y., organized the excursion to Wash- 
ington, D. C, to oppose labor legislation before Congress. Those 
making the trip arrived in Washington on May 2G. Frances Borden 
is executive secretary of the conference. Sponsors included Henrietta 
Buckmaster of the Congress of American Women; Peter Cacchione, 
New York Communist leader; Eugene Connolly, active Red-frontier; 
John W. Davis, Jr.; Muriel Draper; Leo Huberman; Langston 
Hughes ; Rockwell Kent, h^ad of IWO ; Carol King ; Ray Lev ; Vito 
Marcantonio; William Howard Melish, of the National Council of 
American-Soviet Friendship ; Mike Quill ; and Alfred Stern. 

(Exhibit 71 was received. )°^ 

On the west coast still another organization has sprung up, the 
Western Council for Progressive Labor and Agriculture, headed by 
Frank Scully, of California. 

John Barnes is secretary; Raymond Ridle, treasurer; directors, 
Bartley Crum, S. K. Bennett, Emil Corwin, Willis Hill, and Frank 
Pellet. 



^1 See appendix, p. 176, for exhibit 71. 



160 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Among the sponsors are Oscar Pattiz, Charles Brown, Peter Kahn, 
Jr., J. M. Alkow, and Robert Opperman. 

Participatino- organizations are the American Commnnications^ 
Association, Retail Clerks' Union, International Ladies Garment 
Workers' Union, Farmer-Labor-Consumers' Association, Southland 
Jewish Organization, and the Berkeley chapter of the American Vet- 
erans' Committee. 

The Western Council for Progressive Labor and Agriculture was 
formed in April 1946. Offices are located at 2003 Grace Avenue, 
Hollywood, Calif. 

At the present time it is protesting the release of radical news com- 
mentators by radio networks, particularly Frank Kingdon and 
Johannes Steel. 

It charges that the plot to have these commentators and other 
liberals fired was instigated by this committee. 

The June "veto the Hartley-Taft bill caravan" from the west coast 
to Washington, D. C, was led by Communists. These included 
Robert O'Conner, of the editorial staff of the (Communist) People's 
Daily World, James E. Gil Ian, and C. E. Devine, who were leaders of 
the Red-instigated bonus march of 1931. Others on the caravan staff 
were Harry Lea, Bill Axelrod, Celia Wilby, Jack Steinhart, Mark 
Robinson, and Tony Nicol. 

In New Yoi'k, a Madison Garden rally against proposed congres- 
sional legislation on labor problems was fostered by Saul Mills, Pliil 
Murray, and Louis Hollender. It was given impetus by the Com- 
munist New York publications, of which there are many. 

A Labor and Citizens' Committee To Uphold Free Elections has 
been formed, with national headquarters at 23 West Twenty-sixth 
Street, New York City. 

Dashiell Hammett is treasurer. Leverett Gleason, Canada Lee, 
Mike Quill, and Harry Reich are officers. Its primary purpose is to 
support the Communist Party and immediately arouse opposition to 
unseating Congressman Marcantonio. 

On the international front in the labor-union field we find the World 
Federation of Trade Unions, with heaf^quarters in Paris. It will be 
recalled that the name of the Communist Party of the United States 
w^as restored, after it had operated during the war as the Communist 
Political Association, and it resumed its prewar status as a militant 
revolutionary movement at the direction of Paris. 

That city has become the cejiter of the three postwar internationals 
which are now in operation — the above, the International Federation 
of Democratic Women, and the World Youth Democratic Federation. 
All were organized at tlie direction of Moscow, and all are directing 
their activities from Paris. 

The Moscow Reds have long striven to perfect a solidarity front 
among tlie unionists of the w^orld. Wliiie they succeeded to an extent 
in this and other fields through previous internationals, they had not 
succeeded to any great decree in harnessing the unionists in the United 
States, France, and England to such a machine. Consequently, they 
have em})loyed every possible trick to bring about the herding of union- 
ists into their fold. 

Prior to the formation of the World Federation of Trade Unions, 
Moscow had put into operation throughout the world what was known 
as the Red International of Union Labor (RIUL) . 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 161 

The leadership was centered, and the international was quartered 
in Moscow, 

Branches in England, France, and the United States were known as 
the Trade Union Unity League. The Reds then began to organize 
industrial unions in various industrial, transportation, and communi- 
cation fields. 

The membership of these was never great in the aforementioned 
countries, but they were powerful cells within any plant or unit of in- 
dustry or trade. 

They were clever in their maneuvering, and often brought out entire 
shops on strike in support of Communist demands. 

Their chief purpose was to create unreasonable demands, raise them 
if attempts were made to meet them, and to prevent, through secret 
designs, settlement of their strikes. The purpose was to keep the 
strikers out until they were affected financially as a result of their 
unemployment, the blame being placed on the so-called bosses. In 
this manner the minds of the workers were poisoned against their 
employers and the "bosses" government, while the Communists gained 
strength and members. 

The Red International of Union Labor claimed some 15,000,000' 
members, 12,000,000 of whom belonged to Soviet Russia's ruled unions. 
In Russia the worker has never been permitted to strike or to make 
demands. Neither has he been allowed to find fault with his "boss,'" 
the government. 

A few years before the birth of the CIO in this country, the Reds 
changed their tactics slightly by abandoning their individual Red 
labor unions. 

The members of those unions were instructed to join the large trade- 
imions. 

They organized what became known as the A. F. of L. rank and file 
committees within AFL unions. 

These rank and file committees made a series of demands on the 
AFL, including a call to discard craft unions and organize industrial 
unions. 

They then attempted to undermine the leadership of those AFL 
unions, as well as the leaders of the federation itself. 

Finally, these rank and file committees called a rump conven- 
tion of the AFL, after their demands were turned down. 

Many of those prominent in the committees were unseated at the 
legitimate convention of the federation, and they immediately ex- 
panded their campaign by demanding the formation of one large 
industrial labor union federation. 

Through the efforts of the Hillman Garment Workers' Union, 
other independent unions, the Red rank and file committees, and 
the United Mine Workers' Union, which was also at loggerheads 
with the AFL, the CIO was established. The Hillmanites took 
ever, although John L. Lewis temporarily held the throne. This 
terminated a 13-year dream of the Hillmanites, and a 15-year dream 
of Moscow. 

Hillman had promised in 1922 that he would direct a drive toward 
the establishment of the one large organization of industrial unions 
within the United States. He had accepted an invitation from 
Moscow to join his union with the Red International. 

65176 — 47 12 



162 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Prior to this, and during the period the Red International of 
Union Labor was in operation, the International Federation of 
Trade-Unions was functioning from Vienna. This was the out- 
growth of an International Trade-Union formed in 1901. The A. F. 
of L. belonged to the IFTU for 2 years, but it withdrew because of 
its extreme leftist tendencies. 

In 1932 the IFTU was represented in 32 countries. The British 
unions had also w^ithdrawn. Citrine of England and Jouhaux of 
France were its international officials. The A. F. of L. rejoined 
the IFTU when, in 1937, it amended its constitution to provide that 
affiliated unions need not be bound to the majority decisions. This 
enabled the A. F. of L. to oppose Red unions within the IFTU. 
Political dissension within the international caused its downfall. 

In 1944 a call was issued for a world congress of labor, to be held 
in London in February 1945, with the thought that the IFTU riiight 
be revived. The congress was attended by 230 delegates from 35 
countries who claimed to represent 60,000,000 unionists. 

Representatives of the CIO attended, but the A. F. of L. refused 
to send representatives. 

A statement appeared in the report of the Congress to the effect 
that the CIO represented 6,000,000 American unionists. 

The left-wing British Trade-Union Congress claimed to repre- 
sent 7,000,000 members in the coalition of British unions. 

Russia claimed a representation of 27,000,000 unionists, and the Gen- 
eral Confederation of Labor in France claimed it represented 4,000,000 
at the congress. 

The number represented by the delegates sent by Russia, France, 
Italy, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Poland w^as sufficient to 
throw the control to the Communists, with Russian Reds, of course, 
dominating the control. At this congress, arrangements were made 
for a second world congress to be held in Paris in September 1945. 

Delegates to the congress adopted the Communist-Moscow party line 
in all of their resolutions. A committee to frame a constitution was 
appointed, and Hillman was miide chairman thereof. An Anglo- 
Soviet-American trade-union committee was set up, the duty of which 
was to influence the British conservative unions and the American 
Federation of Labor in an effort to forge a united front (CIO-AFL 
in the United States) representation in the international in prepara- 
tion for the second world congress in September 1945. Jack Tanner 
and Arthur B. Robert, British leftists, were given the task of promot- 
ing the accord in England and the United States. 

The American Federation of Labor ultimately passed a resolution, 
introduced by Matthew Woll, turning down the proposal to join the 
international. 

The resolution stated the A. F. of L, would refuse to be dominated 
by Moscow. 

Woll had previously led the fight against Soviet and satellite unions 
in other countries in the IFTU. 

However, the Anglo-Soviet committee succeeded in unifying the 
South American union-labor forces, bringing them into the inter- 
national through the Confederation of Latin-American Workers, 
headed by Vincente Lombardo Toledano (pro-Soviet) . 

Leftist union leaders of the Latin- American countries were elected 
to a central committee, thus completing the South American front. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 



163 



The countries bound to the international as a result of the efforts of the 
Anglo-Soviet committee were Mexico, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, 
Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Salvador, Puerto Rico, Haiti, Colombia, 
Ecuador, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Red 
unions in these countries, with the CIO in the United States, formed 
a front in the Western Hemisphere for the Reds' new international. 
The CIO played an important part in the Latin-American consoli- 
dation. 

It might be well to digress briefly at this point. Prior to the Hitler- 
Stalin alliance a meeting had been called to prepare for a world labor- 
union congress. However, with the signing of -the Hitler-Stalin alli- 
ance, the murder of Polish labor leaders, and the ruthlessness of Ger- 
many and Russia in Poland, Finland, and elsewhere, it was deemed 
best to abandon plans for the congress until after the war. After the 
Hitler-Stalin break, Russia had solidified labor, to an extent, through 
its appeal for unity during the war, and began to cash in on it. 

Citrine and other leftist labor leaders from other countries attended 
conferences in Moscow, where plans were made to cash in on this new 
fraternal feeling brought about by the w^ar. Similar meetings were 
also held in London. Moscow was first selected as the scene of the 
proposed international congress, but it was later decided that it should 
be held in London. 

I list herewith the delegates who attended the World Trade-Union 
Congress, which was held in Paris in 1940 : 

Reds on Labor Front 



Abt, John United States 

Aguirre, F Cuba 

Allen, Cliff Great Britain 

Amilpa, Fernando Mexico 

Amr, M Palestine 

An, P. T China 

Anderson, G Sweden 

Androvioranu, 

Maria Rumania 

Annan, J. S Gold Coast 

Antonini, Ramos- Puerto Rico 
Apostol, Gheorghe Rumania 
Arangis, Manual 

R Basques 

Arbid Palestine 

Armador, Arman- 
do Nicaragua 

Asriel, Adolph Rumania 

Assale, M France 

Bakachowa Russia 

Bakkari, I. B Syria 

Balice, Mihai Rumania 

Bara, Albino Chile 

Barrero, Flliberto Colombia 

Baskakov Russia 

Bassova, Mme Do. 

Bernstead Great Britain 

Beresine, V Russia 

Bernasconi Switzerland 

Bertoletti, Gino__ Italy 

Betz Switzerland 

Birar. Cristofor Rumania 

Bjarnason, B Iceland 

Blokzvl, B Holland 



Bondas, Josep Belgium 

Braga, Pedro Car- 

valho Brazil 

Bratfaleno, Victor Rumania 
Bratschi, Robert- Switzerland 
Briones, Victor H- Chile 

Brodier, Jean France 

Brophy, John United States 

Burns, Tom Do. 

Bussey Great Britain 

Butler, M. (or P.) New Zealand 

Buze, Edouard Poland 

Cajewski, Pierre_ Do. 

Carey, J. B United States 

Carva.sal Bolivia 

Casparsson, R Sweden 

Charowa, Raiua Bulgaria 

Cheidl Russia 

Chang, T. F China 

Chester Great Britain 

Choulga, Helene_. Russia 
Christodouiou, M. C.vprus 

Chu, H. F China 

Citrine, Walter Great Britain 

Cofino, Angel Cuba 

Collins, C h a s. 

(observer) United States 

Conley Great Britain 

Conroy, Pat Canada 

C r o i z a t , A m - 

broise Nigeria 

Cesterhuis. H Holland 

Croizat, Ambroise. France 
Curran, Joseph United States 



164 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 



Damianof, Raiko_ Bulgaria 

Dange, S. A India 

Dauguy f' France 

Deakin, Arthur — Great Britain 
deLandaburu, F. 

X United States 

Dejace, Tlieo Belgium 

deLandaburn, F Basques 

Del Rosal, Amaro_ Spain 
deStafano, Ma- 
rino Italy 

Diar, Amaro 

Rosa Spain 

diVittorio, Guis- 

seppe Italy 

deVries, M. J South Africa 

Dudie, Otto Switzerland 

Dumas, J France 

Dvorin, F e r d i - 

nand Czechoslavakia 

Eckerman, Erich_ Czechoslavakia 
Eclisondo, Jean M. Mexico 

Edwards, E Great Britain 

El-Ariss, Musta- 

pha Lebanon 

Erban, Evzen Czechoslovakia 

Falino Russia 

Fara, M. Amr B__. Palestine 

Fawcett Great Britain 

Feliner, Mme. 

J. C South Africa 

Fitzgerald, A United States 

Franco, A. Ruis_ Guatemala 

Frapport, J Luxemberg 

Frayha, Georges. Lebanon 

Garnier, M France 

Gangen, Ingvald- Norway 

Gensen, E Denmark 

Gianijitelli, L Italy 

Gibson, G Great Britain 

Giroda, Donate 

Flores Bolivia 

Gittens, Rupert 

Alonzo Trinidad 

Gonsalez, L I'ruguay 

Goodwin, B Northern Rhodesia 

Grandi, A Italy 

Grant, M. C Sierra Leone 

Green, John United States 

Grewin, J Sweden 

Graciani, Hector— Puerto Rico 
Cuzman, Rodolfo_. Costa Rica 

Haas Switzerland 

Hallsworth, J Great Britain 

Ilarma, E Finland 

Harper, D. M British Guinea 

Harrison, M. M Great Britain 

Hasar, G. M Palestine 

Hatu, Styak, 

Joseph Hungary 

Harustyak Do. 

Haugen, Ingvald— Norway. 

Haywood, A. S United States 

Heiman-Burski, 

Alexandre Poland 

HenafP, Eugene France 

Herrera, Victor M. Salvador 
Hill, Ken Jamaica 



Hill, Kindolfo____ Brazil 

Hillman, Sidney 
(Chairman, dele- 
gation) United States 

Hlavicka, Josef-__ Czechoslovakia 

Hodgson, Sir M__. Great Britain 

Hubbard, H. J. M- British Guinea 

Idelson, J Palestine 

Illiason, L Russia 

Jacova, Tuo Albania 

Jarblum, M Palestine 

Jarman Great Britain 

Jasinski, Casimir_ Poland 

Jensen, Filer Denmark 

Jeony, Dobromil__ Czechoslovakia 

Jiknavorian, S Lebanon 

Jiminez, Ramon C. Dominican Republic 

Jimeuo, Arsenio Spain 

Jmikhov Russia 

Johnson Sierra Leone 

Jouhaux, Leon France 

Jungmann, F Czechoslovakia 

Jura, Josef Do. 

Jurac, J Yugoslavia 

Juraca, Joze Do. 

Kantola, L — , — Finland 

Kariaguine, V Russia 

Karlin, O Sweden 

Karnik, V. B India 

Katio, Adam Yugoslavia 

Khedgiker, R. A__ India 

Kliment, Augustin Czechoslovakia 

KoUo, Etienne Hungary 

Kolnen, A. C Holland 

Kossa, Istran Hungary 

Krier. Antonine_. Luxemburg 

Kuypers (Ku- 
pers), E Holland 

Kuppero Do. 

K u r y 1 o w i c z, 

Adam Poland 

Kuznetsov Russia 

Kuznetsov, M. or 
V. V Do. 

Ladaburu Basque 

Lakinetz Russia 

Lara, Juan C Colombia 

Lawther Great Britain 

Lazarus, Nick (ob- 
server) United States 

Lechi, J Bolivia 

Lecker, M. B Palestine 

Leiros, Francisco 
P Argentina 

Levin, Misa Rumania 

Lindberg, August- Sweden 

Liopis, Rodolfo-- Spain 

Liu, H. T China 

Lizzardri, O Italy 

Loughlin, Dame 

A Great Britain 

I^vnch, Gilbert Ireland 

Lynich, J Do. 

McBride, Jonas 

(observer) United States 

Madariaga, San- 
chez Mexico 

Maglajlio, , Sefket. Yugoslavia 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 



165 



Major, Louis Belgium 

Maybank, F. S Northern 

Rhodesia 

Maldenado, J Ecuador 

Mandro, Dimitr__ Albania 
Manos, Domlngo— Brazil 

Marlvov Russia 

Marouf, M France 

Martinez, J. Ri- 
vera Salvador 

Martorell, Salva- 
dor Spain 

Marty, Bernard— Switzerland 

Medina, B Colombia 

Manson, C. W. P— Gold Coast 
Millan, Alfonso— Mexico 

Millard, C. H Canada 

Miller, IM a r t i n 

(observer) United States 

Modarrek, Ahmed 

El Egypt 

Moix, Jose Spain 

Molla.nder, H Sweden 

Monk, A. B Australia 

Montanios, M i - 

chael Cyprus 

Molino, Lucien — France 
Monmousseau, 

Gaston Do. 

Moukarsel, 

Edouard Lebanon 

Mukerji, A. K India 

Murray, Philip United States 

Mustertiu, Josif — Rumania 
Nahum, Daoud 

Fouad Bg3T)t 

Nak, Dirk Denmark 

Nicola, Giovanni.- Italy 

Nielsen, Einer Denmark 

Nordahl, K Norway 

Nbye, A Gambia 

O'Brien Great Britain 

Ogmundsson, S Iceland 

Oldenbroek 

(ITWF) 

Olsen, Axel — _ Denmark 

Orenstein, M Palestine 

Palenzona, Ro- 

molo Italy 

Pang, K. Y China 

Papworth, A. P Great Britain 

Pena, Lazaro Cuba 

Pena, Ramon G — Spain 

Perez, Bareto Puerto Rico 

Peteers, Rene France 

Petrovic, Dusan — Yugoslavia 
Pfeiferova-Hiav- 

kova Karia Czechoslovakia 

Pinter, Janos Hungary 

Pinter, Janos Do. 

Poboreni.Alexand- Rumania 

Popof, Michail Bulgaria 

Prachoff Do. 

Prakov, Thodar Do. 

Pralyha, G Lebanon 

Pressman, Lee United States 

Quintero, F Panama 



Rabies, I. R Guatemala 

Ratko, Anna Hungary 

Rodriguez, En- 
rique Uruguay 

Rieve, Emil United States 

Robinson, Reid Do. 

Rogova Russia 

Rojas, John Trinidad 

Ross, Michael United States 

Rubashow, Z Palestine 

Ruiz, A Guatemala 

Rusinek, Casimir_. Poland 

Saad, Pedro Ecuador 

Saborit, Andres Spain 

Saillent, Louis France 

Salsch, George Yugoslavia 

Salaj, Djuro- Do. 

Sanchez, Guil- 

lermo Chile 

Sanmugathesen, N Ceylon 

Sanness, John Norway 

Santiago, Enrique. Spain 

Sassi, A Italy 

Schevenels, Wal- 
ter (IFTU) 

Schon, Juraj Czechoslovakia 

Sencovici, Alex- 
ander Rumania 

Sergueieva Russia 

Sexasse, M. S Syria 

Shaika, P India 

Singhe, S. A. 

Wickrema Ceylon 

Small, E. F Gambia 

Soloview Russia 

Srejo, Tomo Yugoslavia 

Stanley, R. S New Zealand 

Sulaj, D Southeastern 

Europe 
Sweeny, Vincent — United States 

Swift Ireland 

Szoznesniak, Jo- 
seph Poland 

Tanner Great Britain 

Tarasov, M Russia 

Teng, F. A China 

Thornton, Ernie Australia 

Toledano, V. Lom- 

bardo Mexico 

Tolelson, I Poland 

Tomas, Belar- 

mino Spain 

Tomas, Pascual — Do. 

Toros, Janos Hungary 

Tournemaine, Ry- 

miond France 

Tsoetkova Russia 

Tubb, H. G Brazil 

Vahlberg, G Sweden 

Vaidialingam, A — Ceylon 

VandenLende, C Holland 

Vargas, Juan Chile 

Vechnikov, A Russia 

Vermeulen, A Holland 

Volan, Elias Norway 

Wallace, Isaao T. 
A Sierra Leone 



166 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Wickremasinghe, Zaharis, Dujmi- 

A Ceylon tru Rumania 

Wilson, Aristides Zapotoeky, A Czechoslovakia 

P Panama Ziade, Cesar Lebanon 

Witaszewski, 'Cas- Ziartides, A.; Cyprus 

imir __« Poland Zing, R. A Australia 

Wunsch, O Czechoslovakia Zugravu, Misu Rumania 

Yousef, Mohamed- Egypt Zupka, F Czechoslovakia 

Later, this international, which has continued to follow the Moscow 
and International Communist line all over the world, was accepted 
as an advisory body to the UN. The Women's International, to which 
I have previously referred, is attempting to obtain similar recognition. 
The international officers of the World Federation of Trade Unions 
are Walter Citrine, of Great Britain, international chairman; Louis 
Saillant, of France, general secretary ; Jacob Potovsky, of the United 
States ; Vasseill Knznetsov, of Russia ; Leon Jouhaux, of France ; Lom- 
bardo Toledano, of Mexico ; Chu Hsueh Fan, of China ; Giusseppe di 
Vittorio, of Italy; and E. Kuppero, of Holland, vice presidents. 
Philip Murray and Jacob Potovsky represent the CIO on the executive 
committee of the international, which is composed of 25 members. 

Delegates attending the Paris congress from the United States, whom 
I have listed above, included Sidney Hillman, chairman of the dele- 
gation; James B. Carey, secretary of the delegation; Allan S. Hay- 
wood, John Green, Joseph Curran, Emil Rieve, Albert Fitzgerald, 
Reid Robinson, Lee Pressman, Tom Burns, John Brophy, and Michael 
Ross. Advisers were John Abt, Len de Caux, and Vincent Sweeney. 
Seated as observers were Martin Miller, Jonas McBride, Nick Lazarus, 
and Charles Collins. 

The general council of the World Federation of Trade Unions met 
in Prague in June (1947). It passed a number of critical resolutions 
regarding the foreign policy of the United States. Frank Rosenblum 
was among the delegates from this country. Nina Popova was one 
of the Russian delegates. 

An outgrowth of the 194G International Film Festival held in 
Cannes, France, is the International Federation of Film Workers. 

This was set up by film union leaders of Great Britain, France, 
Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, and other European countries. 

As far as I have been able to learn, no official union representative 
from the United States attended the festival. 

A call has lately been issued, June 1947, by the International Federa- 
tion of Film Workers for the first congress to be held in Prague some 
time this year. 

The Hollywood film unions have been invited to send representatives 
to the congress and affiliate with the international. 

The proposed agenda of the congress includes discussions in connec- 
tion with the use of films in the maintenance of democracy and peace, 
the protection of film work by copyright, unification of teaching meth- 
ods, the establishment of international cooperation of film workers in 
special branches, and an exchange of technical knowledge. The 
IFFW is slated to become affiliated with the World Federation of 
Trade Unions, according to Communist sources in the United States. 

Other organizations with Commimist support are active at the 
present time which, are stressing questions relative to rent control, 
labor bills, price rises, and housing problems, the Communist line. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 167 

The United Tenants and Consumers Organization, of which Bonita 
Williams is executive director, held a conference in New York City on 
June 6, 1947, at which plans were made to broaden the campaign 
in consumers' fields. Speakers were Benjamin Davis, Communist 
leader in Harlem; Alfred K. Stern, Jeanette Turner, Elsie Spencer, 
and Adelle Lockhart. 

Still another group operating in this field is the Emergency Com- 
mittee on Rent and Housing, headed by Alfred K. Stern, of New 
York. He promoted the march on Washington, D. C, in June, on 
the rent bill, as well as the march on Albany, N. Y., earlier in 1947, 
on the housing issue. He also heads a paper organization known as 
the Emergency Committee for Eent Control. 

Joining his campaign on Congress in June were the Americans for 
Democratic Action (Joseph Lash, New York branch executive direc- 
tor) , National League of Women Shoppers (Julia Algaze of the Con- 
gress of American Women, vice chairman) ; and Congress of Ameri- 
can Women (Virginia Shull, executive secretary) ; National Progres- 
sive Citizens of America (Ralph Sliikes, educational director), the 
National Consumers Association (Helen Hall, chairman of the New 
York City Consumers' Council), United Neighborhood Houses (Mil- 
dred Gutwillig, Consumer Committee chairman) . 

Mr. Stripling. Does that complete your statement ? 

Mr. Steele. That completes my statement, excepting I want to refer 
briefly to some other types of movements. I think you might call 
them Fascist movements, or whatever you choose. There are other 
movements which I consider un-American, although they may not 
be in an}^ manner controlled or guided by a foreign country or foreign 
power. 

These have been guilty of inciting racial hatred, class hatred, or 
religious hatred. 

A movement which was unquestionably organized along these lines 
was the Columbians. As a result of its activities, it lost its charter 
in many States before it was apparently forced to disband completely. 

Mr. McDowell. Mr. Steele, did you say it had disbanded com- 
pletely? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir; in the States of Georgia and Indiana. As to 
other States, I couldn't say. Another organization of the same type 
was the Democratic Nationalists of Minnesota. This was designed to 
spread antiracial and antireligious hatred among youth. This was 
also killed off in that State. 

Mr. McDowell. Mr. Steele, could you tell us how many members 
there might have been in the Democratic Nationalists of Minnesota ? 

Mr. Steele. Insofar as I can find, there were three or four. 
It had just gotten started. When it was raided, this paraphernalia was 
seized, which included revolvers, antiracial, and antireligious propa- 
ganda which was being circulated in Minnesota. 

Mr. McDowell. You say three or four. You feel sure of the number 
of the people ? 

Mr. Steele. No. sir; I am not certain of the number. Understand, 
I only know that the leader was the only one exposed by the arresting 
agents. The report we had was that it was just in its infancy and 
was more or less of a one-man proposition. As to the exact number, 
I don't know ; no, sir. 



168 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

Mr. McDowell. Would it be beyond the realm of possibilities that 
it is all one man ? 

Mr. Steele. It might be ; yes, sir. There was one man arrested and, 
I think, taken before a mental physician to see whether he was all 
there or not. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you have any other organizations ? 

Mr. Steele. Still another group in this category is The State, which 
may be a take-off of Louis the Fourteenth. It is a teen-age movement, 
operated from Jackson, Mich. It sprang up in Michigan. It is re- 
ported that this group has also been broken up. I have no idea what 
the membership of that was, whether it was large or small. But nev- 
ertheless it shows a trend — Columbians, The State, and the Democratic 
Nationalists — which seemed all to be youth movements trending along 
the same Fascist line. 

Mr. McDowell. Could you tell us what The State was for ? What 
was the purpose of the group? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. The State was to operate among teen-age 
youth, for the purpose of racial and religious hatred and to 

Mr. McDowell. What sort of racial 

Mr. Steele. It was both anti-Jewish and anti-Negro. The pro- 
paganda there [pointing] that was seized shows the nature of the 
propaganda they were issuing. 

Mr. McDowell. How about the religious angle? Against what 
religion ? 

Mr. Steele. Well, I considered, when I said, the Jewish religion. 

Then there are adult movements, prominent among which is the 
Ku Klux Klan. Public sentiment, together with the alertness of many 
State officials, has been quite effective recently in discrediting it. It 
has recently lost its charter in California, Georgia, and Virginia. 
Since thejCivil War it has had its ups and downs, but it is still oper- 
ating secretly in several States. During the war it was discovered that 
some members of the Ku Klux Klan, particularly those in its New 
Jersey branch, took part in Nazi Bund gatherings. 

The Christian Front, an adult group, had its fling before the war. 
However, it finally became inactive, although it is reported there have 
been recent isolated attempts to reorganize it, but with little suc- 
cess 

The Chairman. Mr. Steele, may I interrupt there ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. That point that you made, of the tie-in of the Ku 
Klux Klan and the Bund, came out at a hearing that the old Dies 
committee held. 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

The Chairman. At Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

The Chairman. We had one day's hearing on just that question 
alone. 

Mr. Steele. Yes. I have in my photograph files photographs of 
the Klan appearances at the bund meeting. 

The Chairman. Other people, particularly within the past 2 years, 
have been trying to take the credit for unearthing that, but the people 
that unearthed it were the old Dies committee, at the hearing at 
Newark. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. That is a fact. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 169 

Mr. MuNDT. Mr. Steele, are there States in the Union which grant 
official charters to the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Steele. I assume so. I noticed yesterday, I think it was, that 
some minister down in Florida that belongs to the Klan down there 
was arrested in connection with some Klan activities, and so on. 
They evidently are still operating in several States, either without 
charter, secretly or 

Mr. MuNDT. I think there isn't a question in the world but what 
they still operate in some areas in some States, but I was wondering 
whether some States still granted them charters or whether they 
were simply operating in more or less clandestine groups. 

Mr. McDowell. Did you know, Mr. Steele, that the Klan died in 
Virginia many years ago? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. I mentioned that. 

Mr. McDowell. And it died also in Georgia ? 

Mr, Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. McDowell. And this aifair last week in Florida was, the min- 
ister was accused of preaching to a robed group of Ku Klux Klan 
members. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. McDowell. And his congregation brought some sort of a 
charge down there. 

Mr. Steele. I am through, Mr. Chairman, excepting I would like 
to submit my 16 points for legislation. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you have any other Fascist organizations? 

Mr. Steele. Yes ; there is one other organization, called the Amer- 
ican Shore Patrol. 

Mr. Stripling. The American Shore Patrol? 

Mr. Steele. Yes. That was organized and incorporated in 
Alexandria, Va. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you know whether there is any connection be- 
tween that organization and the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Steele. The ritual, of which I have a copy, is exactly the 
same in every respect with the Ku Klux Klan ritual; that is, the 
American Shore Patrol ritual isn't so extensive, but all of the ritual 
appears as part of the Ku Klux Klan set-up. 

Mr. Stripling. All right. 

Mr. Steele, have you heard any information to the effect that the 
Klan is disbanding as such in all of the States and reappearing under 
new names ? 

Mr. Steele. I have had that information ; yes. 

Mr. Stripling. I believe Mr. McDowell, chairman of the Subcom- 
mittee on Fascism, has recently received testimony in that connection. 

Mr. McDowell. That is right. In this American Shore Patrol, have 
you discovered any evidence that it is anywhere but Alexandria, Va. ? 

Mr. Steele. It is incorporated in Virginia. 

Mr. McDowell. Yes; but my question is have you discovered it 
anywhere else but there ? 

Mr. Steele. No, I haven't, and I don't know of anyone else that 
has. In fact, I understand that the organization set out about 2 or 
3 years ago and met with little success because Klansmen didn't want 
to belong to anything but the Klan and they couldn't find new timber 
for this group. As to how many members it has, I have no informa- 



170 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

tion because it is a very secretive group. I have found no one that 
knows a great deal about it, excepting what information I have given 
you. I have been given a copy of their charter and a list of the 
incorporators. 

Mr. McDowell. You know, also, Mr. Steele, that the Subcommittee 
on Fascism, of this committee, is now engaged in a study of activities 
such as you have outlined ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. McDowell. And have been for the last 614 months. We will 
continue. 

Mr. Steele. I think it should. There is just as much danger of a 
revolution from the right as there is from the left. Consequently, I 
think any of these movements that spring up should be gone into very 
thoroughly because the EurojDean pattern was that one menace helps 
the other. 

Mr, McDowell. You agree, Mr. Steele, the issue of fascism here in 
America has been badly clouded by the constant policy of the Com- 
munist Party to call every person who opposes communism a Fascist ? 

Mr. Steele. Yes. 

]Mr. McDowell. To call every industrialist a Fascist. 

Mr. Steele. I have been called one myself. 

Mr. McDowell. To call every employer in America a Fascist. 

Mr. Steele. Yes 

Mr. McDowell. To even call the Congress Fascist. 

Mr. Steele. Yes, sir. 

Mr. McDowell. And to call the Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities a Fascist committee. 

Mr. Steele. That is right. Anything that isn't Communist is 
Fascist, according to them. 

Mr. McDowell. That has seriously clouded the efforts of the sub- 
committee to investigate the situation. 

Mr. Steele. That is right. 

The Chairman. Mr. Vail? 

Mr. Vail. In your opinion, Mr. Steele, has a Fascist movement 
developed to a point in this country where it represents a serious 
threat ? 

Mr. Steele. I haven't found that as yet, but I think it is well to keep 
it nipped at the bud, so to speak. 

Mr. Vail. What is your opinion as to the relative strength of the 
Fascist group as compared with the Communist group ? 

Mr. Steele. Well, if you are speaking of the organized 

Mr. Vail. Organized strength ; yes. 

Mr. Steele. I would say the ratio is about 1,000 Reds to 1 Fascist. 

Mr. Vail. That bears out my own thought, but it doesn't seem to 
agree with the thought of some of the newspapers that have made 
comments on it. 

Mr. Steele, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Vail. That is all. 

Mr. Steele, I am through, excepting I have some recommendations. 

Mr, Stripling, Yes, 

I want to clear up the status of the record, Mr, Chairman, at the 
proper time, because some of the members who were not present at the 
various junctures of his testimony this morning, where the committee 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 171 

took certain action. In order that all members understand the status 
of the record and for the press to understand the status of the record, 
I %Yould like to clear that up. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. Steipling. I would like to ask that the entire statement which 
Mr. Steele has submitted be made a part of the record. However, 
with particular reference to that section dealing with Communists 
in the Armed Services, in which he attached a list of some 2,000 indi- 
viduals who served in the armed forces, that list will not be made 
public by the committee until the committee has had an opportunity 
to study and go into the affiliations of the individual and then de- 
termine whether or not it desires to make it public. For example, 
;Mr. Steele included in the list a number of people who were members 
of the International Workers Order. Now, the International Work- 
ers Order is a Communist front organization, as found by this com- 
mittee and also by Attorney General Biddle, but the mere fact that 
a man was a member of the International Workers Order and was in 
the Army does not necessarily imfjly that that person is a Communist. 
Therefore, I think that that list should not be made public until the 
committee has made some decision about it. 

The Chairman. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

Mr. Stripling. Otherwise, I think the entire statement should 
appear. 

Mr. Steele. The recommendations are : 

Keep our powder dry, our young men trained, our armed services 
modernized and strengthened sufficiently to meet any emergency from 
without, and the National Guard primed for the home front. 

Guard the secrets of the atom bomb and other new implements of 
Avarf are which we and our immediate Allies — England, Canada, China, 
and South American countries — have perfected. Strengthen the 
forces and defenses of these Allies, including Greece, Turkey, France, 
and Austria. 

Expand our intelligence forces in all branches, on the home front as 
well as on the foreign fronts but guard against consolidation of these 
forces into one, permitting each to specialize. 

Continue the policy of giving no further ground to Communist ex- 
pansion in other countries. Petition the various States to outlaw the 
Communist Party, or any offspring of it, from the ballot. Petition the 
States to enact legislation requiring registration of names and ad- 
dresses of members of the Communist Party and all fronts thereof 
operating in the States. » 

Enact Federal legislation requiring officials of the Communist Party 
or any offshoot thereof to file a complete list of names and addresses 
of all national, State, and local officials, organizers, and committee 
members, together with itemized receipts and expenditures, semiannu- 
ally with the Clerk of the House — this information to be made avail- 
able to the public. 

Enact legislation requiring Communist Party officials to file with 
the State Department quarterly the names and addresses of members 
or representatives of the party who are leaving or have left the coun- 
try, and their destination. They should also be required to furnish 
a list of the names and addresses of all individuals arriving from 
foreign countries to engage in party activities or to contact members, 



172 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

directly or indirectly. This information should be made available 
to the public. 

Enact legislation requiring all individuals, publications, and pub- 
lishers carrying on propaganda in behalf of a foreign country or 
foreign cause, to register with the State Department, the information 
to be made available to the public. 

Require an English translation of all messages to or from foreign 
countries, such as cabl£S, sent by agencies with foreign connections, to 
be filed with the Department of Justice whenever intrigue is suspected. 

Require all foreign-language publications circulated in the United 
States to publish in English the names of the oflicers of the publishing 
liouse and the editors, and to print in English all articles which favor 
an ideology of a foreign power in opposition to American ideologies. 

Amend the law pertaining to treason so that it will be effective in 
time of peace as well as of war, and to cover current "fifth column" 
movements which always operate in advance of a foreign armed force. 

Urge the Department of Justice to enforce the Logan Act, and to 
prosecute violators of the act, and of sections 10 and 11 of the United 
State Criminal Code. 

Enact legislation strictly forbidding the recruiting, drafting, or 
acceptance of Communists or fronters in our armed forces. 

Amend laws favoring cooperatives, preventing cooperatives oper- 
ated by Communists or fronters, or cooperatives operated as blinds 
ior communism and Communists from benefiting by such laws. 

Amend insurance laws making it unlawful for any corporation, or- 
ganization, or society operating wholly or in part as an insurance 
benefit to use any of its funds to promote legislation or to promote 
the interests of any political party or any subversive movement, or 
the interests of any candidate or any member of any member of any 
subversive movement. 

Reenact, as separate legislation, the section of the so-called Taft- 
Hartley labor law which bars unions from benefits of the National 
Xabor Relations Act which tolerate Communists in any capacity. 

Petition States to bar Communists and froiiters from the faculty 
of colleges, universities, and all other educational institutions opera- 
ing in all States, and to prohibit the dissemination of pro-Soviet and 
Communist literature and ideologies in our educational institutions. 

Establish a Federal commission to direct investigations of the per- 
sonnel of all Federal agencies and applicants for Government posi- 
tions, empowering the commission to dismiss individuals in the employ 
of the Federal Government who are found to have or to have had 
subversive affiliations, and to bar applicants for such employment 
who have had such affiliations. 

Require the Department of Justice to establish a special division to 
prosecute subversive elements. 

Urge the Department of Justice to prosecute individuals and organ- 
izations violating the Voorhis and McCormack Acts. 

Enact legislation requiring individuals and organizations raising 
funds, whether for relief or otherwise, in the interest of a foreign 
power or cause to register with the State Department, requiring such 
individuals and organizations to file a monthly statement of receipts 
and expenditures, subjecting records to State Department investiga- 
tion, and barring the use of such funds for propaganda or organiza- 
tional activities of a subversive nature. 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 173^ 

Congress should restate its position, through resolution or amend- 
ments to existing laws, with regard to the barring of all Nazis, Com- 
munists, and anarchists from the United States and from becoming: 
naturalized Americans. 

Provision should be made for the revoking of the citizenship of 
any naturalized citizen who becomes active in any subversive move- 
ment following his naturalization. Immigration laws should be 
enforced. 

Congress should prohibit the granting of Federal funds to any Com- 
munist or front school, college, agency, or project for GI education. 

Atomic-energy control should be placed under the War Department, 
where efficiently trained intelligence forces are available to guard its 
secrets. 

The Chairman. Any more questions ? Mr. Mundt ? 

Mr, Mundt. No ; I have no more questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Steele, in behalf of the committee, the Chair 
wants to express its appreciation for your coming here today and 
making the very complete statement that you have. In my 8 years 
with the committee I have never seen a more complete and more docu- 
mented statement on this subject than you have presented here today. 
You are to be congratulated. For all of us, I just want to thank you 
very much. 

Mr. Steele. I appreciate that very much, gentlemen, because I have 
worked very hard and very carefully. I have tried to submit evidence 
to prove my statements, because I know it is a fact-finding committee, 
and that is what you want. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Steele. You want evidence. 

The Chairman. That is correct. 

Mr. Steele. I appreciate very much the attention you have given 
me, and also the press here and the audience. 

The Chairman. Thank you. Anything else, Mr. Stripling? 

Mr. Stripling. That is all. Mr. Chairman, I think you should an- 
nounce the witnesses for tomorrow. 

The Chairman. I just want to announce that tomorrow the first 
witness will be Victor Kravchenko, author of I Chose Freedom, former 
officer of the Ked Army and an employee of the Soviet Purchasing 
Commission in the United States; and Dr. Mladen Giunio Zorkin, 
former member of the Yugoslav diplomatic service in London and 
former officer of the Yugoslav Army. They will be our witnesses 
tomorrow. Mr. Kravchenko is the first witness, to be followed, prob- 
ably in the afternoon, by Dr. Zorkin. 

Mr. Stripling. Will the committee meet at 10 o'clock ? 

The Chairman. The committee will meet at 10 o'clock tomorrow, 
but there will be an executive session at 9 : 45. We stand adjourned. 

(Thereupon, the committee adjourned at 4 : 35 p. m., to meet tomor- 
row, Tuesday, July 22, 1947, at 9 : 45 a. m.) 



APPENDIX " 

Exhibits Presented in Testimony of Walter S. Steele, American Coalition 
OF Patriotic, Civic, and Frateknal Societies, and the National Republic 

Exhibit 

1. List of 84 societies cooperating witli the American Coalition of Patriotic, 

Civic, and Fraternal Societies. 

2. Resolution adopted by the American Coalition of Patriotic, Civic, and Fra- 

ternal Societies at its January 24, 1947, convention, Mayflower Hotel, 
Washington, D. C. 

3. Photostat copy of Red Front, May 1934, issued by Red Front, 95 Avenue B, 

New York, N. Y. 

4. Letter from Pvt. Jerry Trauber to Max Bedacht, formerly general secretary, 

International Workers Order, of which Trauber is referred to as an exe- 
cutive board member. 

5. Chart showing the organizational set-up of the Veterans of Abraham Lincoln 

Brigade, from its publication, Volunteer for Liberty, November 1946. 

6. Copy of Volunteer for Liberty, November 1946. Pages 1, 2, and 10 report the 

proceedings of the Fifth Convention of the Veterans of Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade. 

7. Certificate of incorporation of Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, Inc. 

8. Certificate of incorporation of New Century Publishers, Inc. 

9. 1946 New Century Publishers Catalog. 

10. Mastheads of party and party-line publications assembled by the National 

Republic, Washington, D. C. 

11. Certificate of incorporation of The New Masses, Inc. 

12. Certificate of incorporation of the Negro Publication Society of America, Inc. 

13. Catalog of the Jefferson School of Social Science of New York, N. Y., spring, 

1947. 

14. Catalog of the California Labor School of San Francisco, Calif., spring, 1947. 

15. Catalog of the Peoples Educational Center of Hollywood, Calif., winter, 1947. 

16. Certificate of Incorporation of National Council of American-Soviet Friend- 

ship, Inc. 

17. Photostat of folder of National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, show- 

ing officers, sponsors, affiliated groups, local councils, and local committees. 

18. Bibliography on the Soviet Union, compiled by the committee on education 

of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, Inc. 

19. Copy of letter dated October 19, 1942, from Max Bedacht, general secretary. 

International Workers Order, Inc., to all members of the general executive 
board, referring to the American Council on Soviet Relations. 

20. Copy of letter dated October 29, 1942, from Max Bedacht, general secretary 

of International Workers Order, Inc., to the members of the general execu- 
tive board, referring to the American Council on Soviet Relations. 

21. Copy of letter dated October 27, 1942, from Maxine Wood, assistant director. 

Congress of American-Soviet Friendship, to Max Bedacht, executive secre- 
tary, International Workers Order. 

22. Bulletin of the committee on education, National Council of American-Soviet 

Friendship, volume 1, No. 1, June 1945. 

23. Minimum kit for secondary schools compiled by the committee on education, 

Nation Council of American-Soviet Friendship. 

24. Minimum kit of teaching materials on the Soviet Union, compiled by the 

committee on education, National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. 

25. Photostat of pamphlet. Facts About the Soviet Union, committee on educa- 

tion. National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. 

26. Program of the American Youth for Democracy, adopted October 17, 1943. 

27. Constitution of the American Youth for Democracy. 

28. Chart showing the interlocking connection between leaders of the American 

Youth for Democracy and the Young Communist League. 

174 



TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 175 

29. Report of United States Delegation to World Youth Conference, London, 

November 1945. 

30. Copy of World Youth, monthly magazine of the World Federation of Demo- 

cratic Youth, issue No. 1. 

31. Copy of World Youth, monthly magazine of the World Federation of Demo- 

cratic Youth, issue No. 2. 

32. Call to American Students to the World Youth Festival, Prague, Czecho- 

slovakia, July 20 to August 17, 1947, issued by student division. United States 
Committee for the World Youth Festival. 

33. Preliminary program of the World Youth Festival, Prague, Czechoslo- 

vakia, July 20 to August 17, 1947. Published by the International Festival 
Committee. 

34. Leaflet — an invitation to the World Youth Festival, Prague, Czechosolvakia, 

July 20 to August 17, 1947. 

35. Booklet containing information regarding the World Youth Festival, Prague, 

Czechoslovakia. Published by the International Festival Committee. 

36. Photostat of booklet containing information regarding World Youth Week, 

1946, sponsored by the World Federation of Democratic Youth. 

37. Call to a conference on women of the U. S. A. and the U. S. S. R. in the 

Postwar World, auspices of the committee of women of the National Council 
of American-Soviet Friendship, held on November 18, 1944, Hotel Commo- 
dore, New York, N. Y. 

38. Leaflet, What Is the Congress of American Women? 

39. Certificate of incorporation of Congress of American Women, Inc. 

40. Program of the^Congress of American Women. 

41. Bulletin of the Congress of American Women, July 28, 1946. 

42. Growth of the International Women's Movement, by Nina Popova. From 

July-August 1946 issue, Soviet Women. 

43. Pamphlet, The Negroes in a Soviet America, by James W. Ford and James S. 

Allen, Workers' Library Publishers, June 1935. 

44. Map showing continuous stretch of dense Negro population in the South — ■ 

the Black Belt. 

45. Leaflet, Forward Through Unity to Full Citizenship for Negro Americans. 

Published by the National Negro Congress. 

46. Officers, executive board, and advisory board of the Southern Negro Youth 

Congress. 

47. Pamphlet, Smash the Chains, by Louis E. Burnham. Published by American 

Youth for Democracy. 

48. Certificate of incorporation of People's Songs, Inc. 

49. Leaflet, People's Songs Presents a Hootenanny, February 16, 1947, at Long 

Beach, Calif. 

50. Letterhead of the People's Songs, Inc. ; anniversary issue of People's Songs, 

February-March 1947 ; Song of the Month, CIO News, July 15, 1946 ; Three 
Songs for Centralia, published by People's Songs, Inc. 

51. Announcement — The International Film Foundation announces the release 

of seven Julien Bryan productions, issued by International Film Founda- 
tions, Inc. 

52. Certificate of incorporation of Young People's Record Club, Inc. 

53. Certificate of incorporation of People's Radio Foundation, Inc. 

54. Six Songs for Democracy, published by Keynote Recordings, Inc. 

55. Folder, Stage for Action. 

56. Bibliography of available scripts, compiled by Stage for Action, March 1947. 

57. Certificate of incorporation of International Workers' Order, Inc. 

58. Leaflet, Fraternal Life, issued by the National Organizing Committee for 

General Lodges, International Workers. 

59. Financial Report of the Front Line Fighters Fund of the International 

Workers Order, January 1, 1944. From the report of the general secretary 
to the Sixth Convention of the International Workers Order. 

60. List of nationality group societies of the International Workers Order, with 

officers. From the 8-page rate schedule of the International Workers Order. 

61. Letter dated July 23, 1941, from Peter Chaunt, national education depart- 

ment of International Workers Order to all district secretaries on the 
American Review of the Soviet Union. 

62. Letter dated May 22, 1941, from Sam Pevzner, national education depart- 

ment of International Workers Order, to all language and district secre- 
taries, all executives, on the American Peace Mobilization. 



176 TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. STEELE 

63. Letter dated October 14, 1941, from Sam Pevzner, national education depart- 

ment of International Workers Order, to district and national group secre- 
taries on Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade and Facts for Farmers. 

64. Check list of publications and periodicals issued by the national educatioa 

department of the International Workers Order. 

65. Copy of interoffice memorandum dated June 18, 1943, from Eugene Konecky 

to Max Bedacht re Fraternal Outlook, dealing with the Daily Worker. 

66. Folder, Insurance for Democracy and Jobs, published by the Daily Worker 

for members of the International Workers Order. 

67. A call to the Fourth American Writers' Congress, issued by Sam Pevzner,, 

national education director. International Workers Order, May 12, 1941. 

68. Copy of the Fraternal Outlook, June-July 1947. Official publication of the 

International Workers Order. Information on the 1947 conventions. 

69. Folder — The Job to be Done, issued by the Council on African Affairs. 

70. What CRC Stands For, published by the Civil Rights Congress. Don't Be 

Hoodvpinked by the Thomas-Rankin Committee, What's Behind the Eisler 
Case? published by the Civil Rights Congress. Gerhart Eisler — My Side 
of the Story, published by the Civil Rights Congress. 

71. Report of the First Citizen's Conference to Defend Labor. Announcement 

of Citizen's Delegation to Washington. List of sponsors of the Conference 
to Defend Labor. 

X 



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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

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