(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Teutonic mythology"

Division _'BL 6 fc(D 

Section...*. §:S^T 

No_ \/.v..t 



TEUTONIC MYTHOLOGY. 



JACOB GRIMM. 



TEUTONIC MYTHOLOGY 



BY 



JACOB GRll 



TRANSLATED FRUM THE EUUKTii EDITION 

WITH 

NOTES AND AFi'ENDIX 



JAMES STEVEN STALL Y13KASS, 



VOL. IV 






H 






V-^O" Vi^'T 



LONDON: GEORGE BELL & SONS, YORK STREET, 

COVENT (lARDEN. 

188«. 



Butlor ,t- Tamicr. 

The Selwood rrmtimi Works 

From^, <ind London. 



CONTENTS. 



VOL. IV. 

PAGE 

SUPPLEMENT [Collcetod from tlio Autlior's post- 
humous Notes, by Prof. K. H. Meyer of 
Berlin] : 

To the Text 1277 

To the Author's Preface in Vol. 111. . 101)9 

APPENDIX by the Author : 

Anglo-Saxou Genealogies ...... 170!) 

Superstitions ........ 17:57 

Spells 184<.> 

INDEX 1^71 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

p. 1, note] Paul. Diac. still uses heathen m the sense of rustici 
(Pertz, Archiv 7, 334). demo heidauin comniane, Diut. 1, 501*^. 
The abbrev. forra held occurs even before Luther : lieide rhy. 
leide, G. Abent. 2, 67. dieser zoginer oder heit, Keller, Fast- 
uachts-sp. p. 823 (like our clirid for MHG. kristen, OHG. 
christani) ; yet the true genitive is retained in Clir. Weise's Erz- 

uarre 190: des jungon lieuJeuf! los werden. Favorite epithets 

of the heathen are " wild, fierce, grim " : wild heathen, wild 
men of the wild heath, Anegenge 23, 61. conf. Rabenschl. 1080. 
Neifen 11, 6. MsH. 1, 152^ die wnotendigen heiden, Kaiser- 
chr. 951. More freq. die iihelen heiden, Diemer 158, 18. 162,2. 
Morolt 376 seq. die hosen h., Diemer 170, 24. 179, 17. der 
iihele h,, Pantal. 1034 der vil arge h. 1847. den h. gramen, 
Servat. 148 (per contra, hypocrita is transl. dunni cristdni, Diut. 
1,239^). Also "dogs," as in Judith 131,39: jjone haeSenan 
huud. Olaf Tryggv. saga, cap. 68: /(it^fZ-heidinn. Svenske 
vis : hednings-/</r?ifL Mor. 418 : den heideuschen ]tn)it. In 

Willeh. 58, 16 the Sarrazin ride on dogs and hogs. Gradually 

milder terms are used: dat domme heidine, Maerl. 3, 128. des 
gclouben gesfe (strangers to faith), Tiirl. Wh. 15*. heidinen die 
sunder ewe (without law) lebeten. Roth. 475. People do not like 
to be taken for heathens : so bin ich niht ein lieiden, Msll. 1, 42"^. 
als ich waere ein heiden 45^. Yet there is pity for them : swie 
sie waren heiden, och was zerharmcn umbe sie, Nib. Lament 437 ; 
and Wolfram, like Walther, speaks of them quite humanely, Willeh. 
450, 15 : " Die nic toufes kiinde Enpfiengen, ist das siinde, Daz 
man die sluoc alsam ein vihe (a sin to slay the unbaptized) ? 
Grozer siinde ich drumbe gihe : Es ist gar Gates hant-getdt, 
Zwuo und sibenzec sprache die er hat,'' they are God's handi- 
work, 72 languages wherein He speaks. 

pp. 2-4.] Heathens in Italy and at Rome as late as Theoderic, 
Edict. Theod. 108. Salvianus de gubern. Dei, about 450, con- 
VOL. IV. ^■" B 



1278 INTRODUCTION. 

trasts the vices of christian Romans and Provincials with the 
virtues of heathen Saxons, Franks, Gepidae and Huns, and of 
heretical Goths and Vandals ; towards the end of bk. 7, he says : 
' Gothorum gens perfida, sed pudica est, Alamannorum impudica, 
sed minus perfida. Franci mendaces, sed hospitales, Saxones 
crudelitate efFeri, sed castitate mirandi ;' and further on: ^Vandali 
castos etiam Romanos esse fecerunt;' conf. Papencordt 271-2. 
The Bavarian Ratolf is converted in 788 : coepi Deum colere, 
MB. 28^, 7. In the times of Boniface and Sturmi we read : Populi 
gentis illius (in Noricum), licet essent ckristiani, ab antiquis 
tamen pagaroorum contagiis et perversis dogmatibus infecti, Pertz 
2, 366. Alamanns, who appear in Italy 552-3, are still heathens 
in contrast to the christian Franks, Agathias 2,1. 1,7. Eginhard 
cap. 7 (Pertz 2, 446) : Saxones cultui daemonum dediti; cuUum 
(lacm. dimittere ; abjecto dacm. cuUn, et relictis patriis caeri- 
moniis. The author of Vita Mathildis (Pertz 12, 575) says of the 
Saxons and of Widukind^s family : Stirps qui quondam daem. 
captus errore, praedicatorum pro inopia idula adorans, christianos 
constanter persequebatur. 

The Nialssaga cap. 101 — 6 relates the introduction of Christianity 
into Iceland in 995 — 1000. Yet at Nerike by Orebro^ as late as 
the 1 7th cent., they sacrificed to Thor on certain rocks for tooth- 
ache, Dybeck rana 1848 p. 26 ; and to this day old women 
sacrifice to rivers, and throw the branch on the stone 2^ 3, 15. vit 
erum liei&ln is said in Olaf the Saint^s time in Gautland, Fornm. 
sog. 4, 187 and 12, 84. In the Norwegian districts of Serna 
and Idre, bordering on Dalarne, there were heathens in 1644, 
Samling (Christiania 1839) 6, 470-1. j^a kunui enge ma'Sr 
Paternoster i Straumi, Wei'lauff. grenzbest. 20. 37. In Sweden 
we hear of Oden's followers in 1578, 1580 and 1601, Geyer Svea- 
rikes hafder 2, 329 ; in a folk-song a woman dreads the heathen 
that haunt the neighbouring wood: Mocka till Thor i fjdll,' 
Arvidsson 3, 504. Thursday was holy in Sweden till 100 or 
150 years ago (p. 191). Relapses into "heathenism were frequent 
there, Hervarars. cap. 20 (Fornald. sog. 1, 512). The secret 
practice of it was called launhlot, Fornm. sog. 2, 243. 

The Slavs in Pomerania heathens till begin, of 12th century. 
A heathen festival near Pyritz, and that of Gerovit at Havel- 
berg, Bavthold's Gesch. v. Pomm. 2, 34. 76. Giesebrecht's Wend. 



INTRODUCTION. 1270 

gescli. 2, 2G5. 309. Heathen Rans, Barth. 2, 100-1. Pribizlaus 
of Mecklenburg baptized in 11G4-, Svantevit's temple destroyed 

1168, Lisch's Meckl. jahrb. 11, 10.97. The Slavs betw. Elbe 

and Oder were Christians for 70 years, then relapsed ab. 1013, 
Helmold 1, IG; adhuc euim (1117) Slavi iinmolabant daemoniis 
eb non Deo 68. The Prussians still heathen after conversion of 

Russians 1, 1. Some Christians in Hungary in latter half of 

10th century, Diimmler's Pilgrim von Passau 'dd seq. Some 
heathens in Esthouia at the present day, Yerhandl. 2, 3G. The 
Lapps were still heathen in 1750, Castren's Reise p. 69. 

Mixed marriages were not entirely forbidden, as Chlodowig's 
example shows. Such too was Kriemhilt's union with the heathen 
Etzel, but she takes care to have her son Ortliep baptized, Nibel. 
1328. 

p, 5.] Between heathen baptism (the vatni ausa, the dicare 
in nomine deorum, Greg. Tur. 2, 29) and christian baptism, 
stands the j^rim-signaz, Egilss. p. 265, a mere signing with the 
cross. Thus, Gestr is 'primsigndr, eigi skirSr,' Fornald. sog. 1, 
314. The pains of hell were made to hang on being unbaptized 

(p. 918). Whoever forsook paganica vetustas (Pertz 2, 342), 

had to renounce the gods : den gote)ie}itfarn = get baptized, Tiirl. 
Wh. 130*. To abjure one's faith was abrenuntiare, abjurare, 
renegare, reneare, Ducauge ; Fr. renier, O.Fr. renoier, MHG. sich 
rernnijlerp.n, Nib. 1207, 1. Lament 494. vernoierteii sich von den 
Kristen, Livl. reimchr. 5719. M. Neth. vernogerde, Karel. 2, 75. 
vernoyert, Pajin 2, 519. 531. vernmjert rh. verghiert, Maerl. 3, 
140. OHG. antrnnneo, ant-trunneo ti&(X-fj7niHeo = apostata, rene- 
gatus, Graff 5, 533. li culvers renoie, Ducange; tornadie, tornadls 
= retrayant. Other phrases; den toiif hin legen, Livl. r. 6129. 
Iclzen varn krist 6385. What is meant by : ' eosque (Hessians at 
Amenaburg) a sacrilega idolorum censura, qua sub qaodam 
christlanitatis nomine male abusi sunt, evocavit' in the Vita 
Bonifacii, Pertz 2, 342 ? probably a christian heresy, as p. 34 1- 
says of Thuringians : * sub nomine religionis falsi fratres maxi- 
mara hereticae pravitatis introduxerunt sectam,' conf. Rettberg 

2, 308. The Abrenuntiations declared the ancient gods by 

name to be devils and iinholds. All heathen merrymaking, espec. 
music and dancing, was considered diabulic, pp. 259. 618-9. 770. 
Feasts, games and customs connected with the old worship were 



1280 INTEODUCTION. 

now diaholi powj)a, gelp inti zierida. Griesliaber's Serm. p. 48 : 
da man singet uud springet in des tievels diensfe ; conf. Aucassin 
ia Meon's Fabl. 1, 385. Fauriel 3, 190. 

p. 5.] The mental pi'otest against Christianity shows itself in 
the continuance of the rough heroic conception of Paradise (p. 
819). The christian paradise was often rejected, as by "Kadbod 
the Frisian, who withdrew his foot from the sacred font, because 
he did not care to give up the fellowship of his forefathers in hell 
and sit with a Httle flock in heaven. Vita Bonif. (Pertz 2, 221). 
Melis Stoke, rymkron. 1, 24., Oomp. the contrary behaviour 
of Gudbrand (Maurer bekehrung 1, 537) and of Sighvatr at the 
baptism of Magnus, St. Olaf's saga c. 119. Waldemar likes 
huntino- better than heaven, Thiele 1, 48. nit ze himelriche sin 
woldich viir dise reise, Roseng, 110. mir waere ie Hep bi ir ze 
sin dan bi Got in paradis, MS. 1, 178^. moht aber mir ir hulde 
(her favour) werden, ich belibe (I would stay) iif der erden alhie. 
Got liez ich dort die werden (worthies), MS. 2, 16^. daz himel- 
riche liez ich sin, und waere bi in iemer wol also, Dietr. drachenk. 
1 3P. waz sol ein bezzer paradis, ob er mac vro beliben von wol 
gelopten wiben ? MsH. 1, 82^. si waere getreten durch Floren 
in die helle, Fl. 5784. si me vauroit miex un ris de vous qu'estre 
en paradis, Thib. de N. 69. kestre ne voudroie en paradis, se 
ele nestoit mie 75; conf. 113. The hered. sewer of Schlotheim : 
• had you one foot in heaven and one on the Wartburg, you^d 
rather withdraw the first than the last,'' Rommel's Gesch. von 
Hessen 2, 17. fall from heaven to earth, Schwein. 1, 95. come 

back from paradise, Chans, histor. 1, 43. Eyvindr, like christian 

martyrs, endures the utmost pains inflicted by Olaf Tryggvason, 
and will not apostatize, Fornm. sog. 2, 167. The Hist. S. Cuth- 
berti says : quadam die cum Onalaf cum furore intrasset ecclesiam 
Cathberti, astante episcopo Cuthheardo et tota congregatione, 
' quid, inquit, in me potest homo iste mortuus Cuthbertus, cujus 
in me quotidie minae opponuntur? juro per decs meos potentes, 
Thor et Othan, quod ab die hac inimicissimus ero omnibus vobis/ 
Twysden 73-4. The heathenism smouldering in many hearts is 
perceptible even in Latin deeds of 1270, Seibertz no. 351. 

p. 5.] A peal of bells was hateful to heathens, and therefore 
to giants, p. 950, to dwarfs, p. 459, to witches, p. 1085. 

p. 5.] Even in christian times the heathen gods are credited 



INTRODUCTION. 1281 

with sundry powers. The idols speak, Pass. 307, 2 seq. Barl. 
342, 8 or hold their peace, Pass. 306, 24. 34. The Livl. reimchr. 
1433 seq. says : 

Die Littouwen vuoren iibcr se, 

daz ist geiiant daz Osterhap, 

als ez Perkune ir ahgot gap (when P. existed), 

daz nimmer so harte gevros (froze) . 
Hence the quarrel between the old and new religions was often 
referred to an ordeal or mirad'e: 'probemus miraeulis, quis sit 
majoris potentiae, vestri multi quos dicitis dii, an mens solus 
omnipotens dominus J. Chr. ' cries the christian priest in Vita 
Ansgarii (Pertz 2, 702) ; and the rain falls in torrents on the 
heathen Swedes despite their praying, while not a drop touches 
him. In Greg. Tur. niirac. 1 cap. 81, the ordeal of loatcr decides 
whether the Arian or Catholic faith be the right one. In the 
lesrend of Silvester, the Jew sorcerer first kills a bull in the name 
of his God, and Silvester brings it to life again by calling upon 
Christ, W. Grimm's Silv. xv. — xx. 

p. 6.] The Romans too had felled sacred trees: 'et robora nu- 
minis instar Barbarici nostrae feri ant imp tine hipennes,' Claudian 
de laud. Stilich. 1, 230. In the same way the Irminsul is de- 
stroyed, and Columban breaks the god's images and throws them 
in the lake (p. 116. 109). Charles has the four captured Sara- 
cen idols smashed, and the golden fragments divided among his 
heroes, Aspremont IP. 45^ — 48^. Idols are broken in Barl. and 
Georg. It is remarkable in Beda 2, 13, that the Goifi himself 
destroys the heathen temple (p. 92 n.). It was a sign of good 
feeliusr at least to build the old images into the church-walls. 

p. 6.]' Heathens, that knew not the true God's name, are not 
always ' wild, doggish, silly,' but sometimes ' die xoerden. heiden,' 
Titur. 55, 4, die wisen heiden, Servat. 19. his sylfes (God's) 
naman, j>one yldo beam aer ne cuJSon, frod fcedera cyn pealt hie j'ela 
tuiston, Caedm. 179, 15. 

p. 7.] Trust in one's own strength is either opposed to trust in 
gods, or combined with it. In the Paereyinga-s. cap. 23, p. 101 : 
* ek trui a, matt minn ok megin ' and also ' ek treystumsk hamingju 
(genius) minni ok sigr-saeli, ok hetir mer )'at vol dugat ' ; conf. 
' trua magni,' Fornald. sog. 1, 438. The OHG. so mir ih ! (Graff 
6, 13) must mean 'so help me I myself.' jNIHG. has milder 



1232 INTRODUCllON. 

forinnlas : sani mir Got and miit selbes lip ! Tristan 215, 2. als 
in (them) Got und ir ellen gehot, Ernst 1711. als im sin manlich 
ellen jach, Parz. 89, 22. ich gelove God ind mime swerde, Karl- 
meinet 122, 34. M. Belieim 266, 22 says : si wolten lif in (them) 
selber stan ; and Gottlielf's Erzahl. 1, 146 makes a strong peasant 
in Switz. worship ' money and strength.' A giant loses his strength 
by baptism, Raaf 39. Doubts of God are expressed by Wolfram : 
ist Got wise? . . . hat er sin alt gemiiete, Willeh. 66, 18. 20. 
hat Got getriwe sinne, Parz. 10^, 30. Resisting his will is 'ze 

himele klimmen und Got enterben,' En. 3500. On men who 

pretend to be gods, see p. 385 n. 

p. 7n.] God is threatened and scolded, p. 20. With the 
mockery of Jupiter in Plaut. Trin. iv. 2, 100 agrees the changing 
of his golden garment for a woollen, and robbing ^sculapius of 
his golden beard, Cic. de Nat. D. 3, 34. FrrSj^iofr said: *enda 
vir'Si ek meira hylli Ingibiargar enn reiSi Baldrs,^ Fornald. sog. 2, 
59 ; and pulled B.'s statue by the ring, so that it fell in the fire 
86. King Hrolfr already considers O^in an evil spirit, illr audi, 

1, 95. Dogs were named after gods by the Greeks also ; Pollux, 

Onom. 5, 5 cites Kopa^, "Apirvia, Xapcov, AvKirTa<;. A dog named 
Locke, Sv. folks. 1, 135. Helbling's Wtmsch is supported by a 
Wilte in Hadamar v. Laber 289 and Altswert 126, 23. Sturm in 
Helbl. 4, 459 may have meant Thunder. The lime-bitch is called 
Heila, Hela, Dobel 1, 86. Nemnich 720. AIke is Hakelberend's 
dog, Zeitschr. des Osn. ver. 3, 406. A Ruland about 1420, and 
Willehrelit, Ls. 1, 297-8, are exactly like men's names. Many 
names express the qualities and uses of the animal, such as WacJcer, 
still in use, and leading up to old Norse, Saxon, Skirian and 
Suevic names, Grimm's D. Sag. 468 ; its dimin., Wdckerlein, Weck- 
lierlin, Wickerlcin, Fischart's Spiele 246. 491. Is Wasser, the 
common name of peasants' dogs in the Mark (Schmidt v. Warn, 
253), a corrup. of Wacker? Wackerlos, Vernim, dogs in Frosch- 
meus. Ebb. 5^fl'^"f7er7miuKeisersb.bilg. 140-4-5. Fondling names 
are Harm, Ls. 2, 411. Holle im Crane p. 30, Bdrlin, Garg. 258^ 
Zuckerl. Jucuudiss. 54. To the Pol. grovii-zwierz, bait-hound, 
Linde 1, 779^ answers our Hetzeholt, Nic. v. Jeroschin 30, 12. 
Bello, Greif, Pack-an, Pack-aitf (Medic, maulaffe 647), Suoche, 
Fichard 3, 245, explain themselves ; also the Boh. greyhound 
Do-let, fly- to; 0. Norse Ho2^p and Hoi, Hrolfkr. saga, Hopf in 



INTRODUCTION. 1283 

Ealensp., Est ah I (es-tu-la?), Moon 3, 39i-5. Ren. 25355. Not 
so clear is Strom iu Fritz Renter's Journ. to Bclligen 2, 98 ; is it 
'striped'? or conn, with Sfrlnii in Helbl. 4, 45G from striunon, 
to roam ? Sinafz in Laber 358 must be conn, with scJimufzoi, to 
counterfeit the hare's cry, Schmoller 3,-179. Trogen, Sv. iifvcnt. 
1,51 is our Fiih'l, trusty. Gnnnr, Fornakl. sug. 1, 87. Gifr, Geri, 
two dogs iu Fiolsviuns-mal. S7iali, Marknssou ] 74^ Guldtand 
Norske event. 2, 92. Yrs<t, FornalJ. sug. 1, 22, Ursa in Saxo. 
Bettelmann in Biirger 474'' and StaJlmeister iu Tieck's Zerbino 
express social rank, conf. MaJvoimi, Ken. 1664. It were too bold 
to conn. Lepplsc.h in Pauli Sch. u. ernst 77, with Samr = Lapp, iu 
Nialss. 71, or Goth, Goz with the nation so called (Michel's hist. 
des races maudites 1, 355. D. Sag. 454) ; more likely that the 
Silesian sheepdog's name Sachs (Weinhold) meant Saxon ; conf. 
J{oh. BodroJc, an Obodrite. King Arthur's dog Cabal, Nenn. 78. 
Oiprldn, dog's name in MsH. 3, 305''*-. 

p. 8.] Christ aud the old gods are often worshipped together. 
People got baptized and believed in Christ, en hcto a Thor til 
allra storneSa. Widukind (Pertz 5, 462) tells, an. 965, of an 
'altercatio super cultura deorum in convivio, Danis affirmantibus 
Christum quidem esse deum, sed alios ei fore majores deos, qui 
potiora mortalibus signa ct prodigia per se ostentabant.' ^thel- 
bert of Kent let heathen idols stand beside christian altars, conf. 
Lappenb. Engl, gesch. 1, 140. The converted Slavs clung to 
their old superstitions, Dietmar (Pertz 5, 735) says of the !«acred 
lake Glomuzi : ' hunc omnis incola p/»s quam ecclesias vcneratur 
et timet ; ' and at Stettin a heathen priest was for raising an altar 
to the god of the christians side by side with the old gods, to 

secure the favour of both, Giesebr. Wend, gesch. 2,301. It 

is only playfully, and with no serious intention, that the Miuue- 
song links the name of God with heathen deities : 

Ich hau Got und die minneclicheu M'lnne (love) 

gebeten fleliche uu vil manic jar, 

daz ich schier nach wiser drier sinne 

vinde ein reine wip. , MS. 1. 184". 

Venus, vil edeliu kiinegin, 

inch hfit Got, vrowe, her gesant 

ze freudeu uns in ditze lant. Frauend. 233, 26. 

The longer duration of heathenism, especially of Woden-worship, 



1284 INTRODUCTION. 

among tlie Saxons, is perceptible in the legend of tlie Wild Host, 
in many curses and the name of Wednesday. There also the 
custom of Need-fire was more firmly rooted. The Lohengrin p. 
150 still rebukes the unbelief of the wild Saxons. 

p. 11.] Where there was worship of springs, the Church took 
the caput aquas into her department, Eudorff 15, 226-7. In 
that spell where Mary calls to Jesus, 'zeuch ab dein wat (pull 
off thy coat), und deck es dem armen man fiber die sat (over the 
poor man^s crop),^ Mone anz. 6, 473, a heathen god is really in- 
voked to shield the cornfield from hail. Quite heathenish sounds 
the nursery rhyme, ' Liebe frau, machos tiirl auf (open your door), 
lass den regen ^nein, lass ^raus den sonnenschein,'' Schmeller 2, 
196. Spots in the field that are not to be cultivated indicate their 
sacredness in heathen times, conf. gtideman's croft in Scotland, 
the Tothills in England, Hone's Yearb. 873-4. To the disguised 
exclamations in the note, add co AdjjbaTep ! and the Armoric tan, 
fire ! Villemarque's Barzas breiz 1, 76; conf. Pott 1, Ivii. 

p. 12.] To these old customs re-acting on the constitution, 
to the pelting of idols at Hildesheim and Halberstadt on Lcetare- 
day (p. 190. 783), add this of Paderborn : ' In the cathedral-close 
at P., just where the idol Jodute is said to have stood, something 
in the shape of an image was fixed on a pole every Loitare 
Sunday down to the 16th century, and shied at with cudgels by 
the highest in the land, till it fell to the ground. The ancient 
noble family of Stapel had the first throw, which they reckoned 
an especial honour and heirloom. When the image was down, 
children made game of it, and the nobility held a banquet. 

When the Stapels died out, the ancient custom was dropped.'' 

Continu. of M. Klockner's Paderb. chron. The Stapel family 
were among the four pillars of the see of Paderborn ; the last 
Stapel died in 1545, Erh. u. Gehrk. Zeitschr. f. vaterl. gesch. 7, 
379. Compare also the sawing of the old woman (p. 782), the 
gelding of the devil, the expulsion of Death (p. 767), the yearly 
smashing of a wooden image of the devil, and the ' riding the 
black lad' in Hone's Yearb. 11 US, Dayb. 2, 467. 

p. 12.] The Introduction ought to be followed by a general 
chapter on the contents and character of our Mythology, in- 
cluding parts of Chaps. XIV. and XV., especially the explanation 
of how gods become men, and men gods. 



1285 



CHAPTER IL 
GOD. 

p. 13-15.] The word god is peculiar to the Germanic lan- 
guages. Guitecl. 1, 31 : terre ou Ion claime Dieu got. On 
goddess see beginning of Ch. XIII. din rjothelt occurs already 
in Fundgr. 2, 91. In the Venetian Alps, God is often called 
cler got with the Art., Schmeller^s Cimbr. Wtb. 125. Is the Ital. 
iddio from il dio, which does not account for iddla goddess, or is 
it abbreviated from domen-e(?-(7/o, which, like 0. Fr. domnedeu, 
damledeu, damredeu, comes from tlie Lat. voc. domine deus ? 
Conf. Diez, Altrom. Sprachdenkm. p. G2. 

Got is not the same word as guot, though the attempt to iden- 
tify them is as old as OHG. (yet conf. the Pref. to E. Schulze^s 
Gothic Glossary, xviii.) : 'got unde r/uo^ plurivoCa sint. taz (what) 
mit hole wirt, taz wirt mit kuote,' Notker's lioeth. 172. Almost 
as obscure as the radical meaning of god is that of the Slav, 
bogh, some connecting it with Sanskr. b'agas, sun, Hofer's 
Zeitschr. 1, 150. In the Old-Persian cuneiform writing 4, 61 
occurs bagilha, dei, from the stem baga, Bopp's Comp. Gram. 
452 ; Sanskr. bhagavat is adorandus. Ilesychius has ^ayalo'i, 
Z6v<i (ppv'yio^ (conf. Spiegel's Cuneif. inscr. 210. Windisch- 
mann 19. 20. Bopp, Comp. Gr. 452. 581. Miklosich 3). Boh. 
buze, bozatko, Pol. boz^, bozfjjtko, godkin, also genius, child of 
luck. Boh. buzek, Pol. bozek, idol. 

Beside guda, gods, John 10, 31-5, wo have gnpa, Gal. 1, 8. 
The change of )j to d in derivation is supported by afgudei iui- 
pietas, gudalaus impius, gudisks divinus. Neuter is daz apgot, 
Mos. 33, 19. abgote sibeniu, Ksrchr. 65. appitgot, Myst. 1, 229. 
Yet, beside the neut. abcotir, stands appetgute (rh. krote), Troj. 
kr. 27273, and abgote, Maria 149, 42 ; also masc. in Kristes 
biichelin of 1278 (cod. giss. no. 876): 'bette an dm apj)itgot.* 
abgotgobide in Haupt 5, 458 is for abgotgiuobida. In the 
Gothic J}6 galiuga-guda for et'SwXa, 1 Cor. 10, 19. 20, where the 
Greek has no article, we may perceive a side-glance at Gothic 
mythology ; conf. Lobe gloss. 76^. The ON. guiT is not always 
idolum merely, but sometimes numen, as god" (ill, omnia numiua, 
Sajm. 67^ siti Hakon meS hoiSin gob, HAkonann. 21. g<inff, 



1286 GOD. 

usually latrjitus, is a contemptuous term for a numen etlinicornm ; 
conf, geyja, to bark, said of Fre3'ja, p. 7 note. 

Our gotze occurs in the Fastn. Sp. 1181. 1332, where the 
carved ' goezeu ' of the painter at Wiirzburg are spoken of. 
Gods' images are of wood, are split up and burnt, Fornm. sog. 2, 
163. V. d. Hageu's Narrenbuch, 314. Platers leben, 37. So 
Diagoras burns his wooden Hercules (Melander Jocos. 329), and 
cooks with it; conf. Suppl. to p. 108 n. Agricola no. 186 ex- 
plains digbtz as ' a stick, a log, painted, drenched with oil,' Low 
Germ, oligotze ; but it might be an earthen lamp or other vessel 
with an image of the god, Prohle xxxvi. In Thuringia olgotze 
means a baking. 

p. 15.] To the distortions of God's name may be added : gots 
hingender gans ! Geo. v. Ehingen, p. 9. j;ofz verden angstiger 
schwininer wunden ! Manuel, Fastn. sp. 81. Er. Alberus uses 
' hocks angst,' H. Sachs ' botz angst.' Is potz, botz from bocks 
(p. 995) ? Similar adaptations of Dien, Raynouard sub v. dens ; 
culhieu, Meon 4, 462. Ital. sapristi for sacristi. 

p. 15.] The addition of a Possess. Pron. to the name of God 
recalls the belief in a guardian-spirit of each individal man (p. 
875). The expressions not yet obsolete, ' my God ! I thank my 
God, you may thank your God, he praised his God, etc.,' in 
Gotthelf's Erziihl. 1, 167 are also found much earlier : hevet 
ghesworen hi sinen Gode, Reinaert 526. ganc diiiem Gote be- 
volen, Mor. 3740. er lobte sinen Got, Greg. 26, 52. durch 
iniieinen Gott, Ecke (Hagen) 48. saget iuivem Gote lop, Eilh. 2714. 
daz in min Trehtin lone, Kolocz. 186. gesegen dich Got viin 
Treldin, Ls. 3, 10. je le fere en Mondieu croire, Renart 3553. 
28465. Meon 2, 388. son deahle, Ren. 278. 390. Conf. ' Jiino- 
nem meam iratam habeam,' Hartung, genius. 

The ' God grant, God knows ' often prefixed to an interroga- 
tive, Gi'am. 3, 74, commits the decision of the doubtful to a 
liigher power; conf. 'were Got, Gott behiite,' Gram. 3, 213-i. 
Got sich des wol versinnen kan, Parz. 369, 3 ; conf. ' sit cura 
deum.' daz sol Got niht en-wellen, E^. 6411. daz enwelle Got 

von himele, Nib. 2275, 1. nu ne welle Got, En. 64, 36. Other 

wishes: so sol daz Got gebieten, Nib. 2136, 4. hilf Got, Parz. 
121, 2. nu hilf mir, hilfericher Got 122, 26; conf. ' ita me deus 
adjuvet, ita me dii ament, amabunt,' Ter. Heaut. iv. 2, 8. 4, 1. 



GOD. 1287 

Got liiiete din, Purz. 124, 17, etc. Got halde iuch 138, 27. 
Got Ion dir 156, 15. Got troeste inch des vater rain 11, 2. 
Got gi'iieze iuch, I\v. 5997. The freq. foi-mulas ' God bless thee, 
greet thee/ addressed espec. to wine. Often in MHG., ' be it 
God who': Got si der daz wende ; der in ner' (heal); der una 
gelucke gebe, Er. 8350. G900. Hartm. Erst. b. 1068.— [Many new 
examples of ' wilkomen Got und mir' are here omitted.] sit mir 
in Gate wilkomen. Pass. 3i, 92. im und den giifeu (gods) wille- 
komen, Troj. kr. 23105. God alone: Got willekunie liero von 
Berne, Dietr. Drachenk. 60". Me and my wife : willekomen 
mir und ouch <Jer frouiven mtn, MS. 1, 57*^. bien venuz miner 
fromven nude mir, Parz. 76, 12. 

The Supreme Being is drawn into other formulas : dankent 
ir und Gufe, Lanz. 4702. des danke ich dir undo Gate, Flore 
5915. Got und iu ze minnen (for the love of), Greg. 3819. nu 
laz ich alle mine dine an Godcs genade unde din, Roth. 2252. 
To intensify an assertion : ich fergihe (avow) Got unde in, Griesh. 
pred. 2, 71. nein ich und Got, Ls. 2, 257; like the heathenish 
* Oden och jag.' daz er sicli noch Got erkennet, Walth. 30, 7. 
Got und ouch die liute, Greg. 271. Got und reht diu riten do 
in ze heile, Trist. (Massm.) 176, 26. 177, 2. We still speak of 
complaining to God and the world. One could not but love 
her, * da half kein gott und kein tevfel,' Hofer, Lorelei 234. 
So, ' to her and love ' : ich han gesungen der vil lichen und 
der Minne, Neifen 13, 37. frou Minne und ir, vil saelic wip 20, 
33. ich wil dir und deincm gaul zusaufen, Garg. 240^. 

p. 17.] God has human attributes: par les iaus Dieu, Ren. 
505 ; so, Freyr litr eigi vinar augnm til )?in, Fornm. s. 2, 74. 
par les pies quide Din tenir, Mcon Fabl. 1, 351. wan do Got 
hiez werden ander wip, do geschuof er iuwern lip selbe mit siner 
hunt, Flore 2, 259. The Finns speak of God's heard. He wears 
a helmet, when he is wrapt in clouds ? conf. helot-helm, p. 163, 
Grimnir pileatus, p. 146, and Mercury's hat; den Gute.'i helm 
verbinden, MsH. 3, 354''; couf. the proper name Goiahelm, 
Zeuss trad. Wizemb. 76, like Siguhelm, Friduhelm. As Plato 
makes God a shepherd, Wolfram makes him a judge, Parz. 10, 
27. God keeps watch, as 'Mars vigilat,' Petron. 77; conf. 
Mars vigila, Hennil vigila (p. 749). He creates some men him- 
self: Got seihe worht ir siiezeu lip, Parz. 130, 23; gets honour 



1288 GOD. 

by it : ir sclioenes libes hat Got ieraer ere, MS. 1, 143^* ; shapes 
beauty by moonlight : Diex qui la fist en plaine lune, Dinaux^s 
Trouveres Ai-tesiens 261 ; feels pleasure : dar wart eiu wuof, daz 
ez vor Got ze himel was genaeme, Lohengr. 71. iu (to them) 
wurde Got noch (nor) diu loerlt iemer liolt, Dietr. Drach. 119'"^. 
So in O.Norse: Yggr var )?eim ll&r, Seem. 25P; conf. ' unus 
tibi hie dum propitius sit Jupiter, tu istos minutos decs flocci 
feceris/ and the cuneif. inscr. * Auramazda thuvam dushta biya/ 
Oromasdes tibi amicus fiat. 

p. 17-8 n.] God's diligence : examples like those in Text. 

p. 18.] Many new examples of God's ' anger, hatred, etc' are 

here omitted. Unser gote sint so guot, daz si dinen tumben 

muot niht rdchen mit einer donre-strale, Barl. 207, 13. ' Got haz 
den lesten ! ' sprachen die da vluhen hin (God hate the hindmost, 
cried the fugitives), Ottoc. 76^*. so in Gut iemer hazze, MsH. 3, 
195*^. daz in Got gehoene, dishonour, Lanz. 3862. er bat, daz 
Got sinen slac iiber in vil schiere slitege, very soon smite, Turl. 
krone 92 ; conf. 6eo/3\a/3)]<;, Herod. 1, 127. Got velle si beide, 
make them fall, Iw. 6752. ich wil daz mich Got velle und mir 
schende den lip, Flore 1314. Got si schende, MsH. 3, 187^. fort 
mit dir zu Gottes hodeii, Weise comod. 39. Got recli' ez iiber sin 
kragen, Ottoc. 352^^. so muoze mig Got wuorgen, Karlm. 368. 
nu hrennet mich der Gotes zan (tooth) in dem fiur, Todes gehugde 
679. so entwiche mir Got, Flore 5277. Got ist an mir verzaget, 
Parz. 10, 30. ist Got an siner helfe hlint, oder ist er dran he- 
fovhet (deaved, daft), 10, 20. die gote gar entsUefen, Albr. Tit. 
2924. 

p. 20.] The irrisio deorum, ON. goS'-gd (Prof. liii. and p. 7n.) 
reaches the height of insult in Laxdsela-s. 180. Kristni-s. cap. 
9 ; OHG. hot-sceUa blasphemia, MHG. gotes scheltcr. Conf. the 
abusive language of Kamchadales to their highest god Kutka, 
Klemm 2, 318. nu scliilte ich miniu abgot, scold my false gods. 
Lament 481. sinen zorn huoh er hin ze Gote: ' riclier Got un- 
guoter ! ' Greg. 2436-42. so wil ich iemer wesen gram den 
goten. En. 7985. The saints scold (as well as coax) God, 
Keisersb. omeis 12*^. wctfen schrien iiber (cried shame upon) 
Gotes gewalt, Wigal. 11558. Got, da bistu eine schuldec an (alone 
to blame), Iw. 1384. Charles threatens him : Karles tenga a 
Dieu, si confust son voisin, 'jamais en France n'orra messe a 



GOD. 1289 

matin, ' Aspr. 35*. he, saiufc Denis do France, ta somoUh'a et dorz, 
((iiant faiiz tes homes ligcs tiens en est li gran torz, Gnitccl. 2, 
15(3. nerat iuwer gote an eiii sell und trenket si, drench them, 
Wh. 1, 8o^. trijwet (believes) als danu 8. Urban auch, wenn er 
uiht scliafft gnt wein, werd' man ihn nach den alton branch 
werffen in bach hinein, Garg. pref. 10. In the Ksrchr. 11-737 
Charles threatens St. Peter: und ne mache du den blinden hinte 
niht gesunden, din lu\s ich dir zestore, dinen widemen ich dir 
zevuore. God is defied or cheated : hiss Gutt selhst koinpt (to 
punish us), haben wir vogel und nest weggeraumbt, Garg. 
202^ 

p. 20-1.] More epithets of God. He is hardly ever ad- 
dressed as dear ; but we find : an sinen Helen abgoten. Pass. 306, 
20. ir llehen gote 38, 41. der zarte Got, Ls. 2, 285-6. Griesh. 
22 (5. 9. 17 of Christ), der siicze Got von himel, Griesh., etc. 
in svasugod', Saem. 33*. tugenhafter Got, Wh. JO, 16. Got der 
geivdre, Fundgr. ii. 90, 41. Jtere is said of heathen gods, angels, 
emperors: ein Venus here, MS. 1,55*. Jidlig dryhten, Beow. 

1366. God sees, tends, blesses, loves, rewards, honours, 

pities, forgets: Got der miieze din j^flegen. Herb. 6160. Got 
gesegene uns immer mere 7732. Got segen inch, Got Idne dir 
8092. Got minne dich, Eracl. 644. Got miieze mich eren, 
MsH. 1, 59^. daz raohte Got erharmen, Wigal. 5342. als im 
Got ergaz, forgot, Herb. 15669. so min Got ergaz, Troj. kr. 
14072. des (him) hat Got vergezzen, der tivel hat in besezzen, 

Warnung 343. Our God-forgotten, God-forsaken. The poor 

are Godes volk, Diut. 1, 438 ; sine aerme, Maerl. 2, 230 ; daz Gotes 
Jier (host), Gute frau 1492; hence proper names like Godesnian, 
Trad. Corb. 291, Godasmannus, Pol. Irrain. 93*', Kotesman, Trad. 

Juvav. 131. The Gen. Gotes intensifies the adjs. poor, wretched, 

ignorant, pure : owe mich Gotes armen, Nib. 2090. ich vil Gotes 
armiu, Gudr. 1209, 1. ich Gotes arme maget, Dietr. Drach. 
die Gotes ellenden, Ernst 3176. der Gotes tamhe, Ilelmbr. 85. 
der Gotes reine, Marienleg. 189, 428. 

p. 22.] Earthly titles given to God : der edel keiscr himelbaere. 
Tit. 3382. That of the king of birds : Gott der hohe edle adlcr 
vom himmel, Berthold 331. The M. Lat. donmus is not used of 
God, who is always Dominus, but of popes, kings, etc., Ducango 
sub V. O. Fr. dame dieii, dame de, Roquef. sub v.; Vrov. da mi 



1290 GOD. 

drieu, damri deu, doiaini dleus, Raynouard 3, 68; on dame conL 
p. 299 n. Wallacli. dumnedeit for God, domii for sir, lord. Slav. 
knez, hniaz, prince, is applied to God in Wiggert's psalms, conf. 
kneze granitsa in Lisch urk. 1, 9. So ava^, avaaaa are used of 
kings and gods, espec. avaKe<i of the Dioscuri, and the Voc. dya 
of gods only. 

p. 22.] God is called Father in that beautiful passage : ]7onne 
forstes bend Feeder onlaeteS, Beow. 3218. Brahma is called 
avus paternus, Bopp^s gloss. 217% and Pitamaha, great father, 
Holtzra. 3, 141. 153; conf. Donar as father, p. 1G7. In the 
Miirchen, God becomes godfather to particular children : in KM. 
no. 126 he appears as a beggar, and gives his godson a horse, 
in the Wallach. miirchen 14 a cow. The fays, as godmothers, 
give gifts. The grandmotJier travels all over the earth, Klemm 2, 
160; conf. anel, haba (p. 641), zloto-haha, gold-grandmother; 
viother (p. 254). 

p. 22.] The Saxon metod, ON. midtndr may be conn, with 
Sanskr. mdtar, meter and creator, Bopp's Comp. Gr. 1134, and 
mata, mother, creatress ; conf. Ta/jii,a<; Zev<i. 

p. 23.] In Homer too, God is he that pours : Zeus creates, 
begets mankind, Od. 20,202. But Zeus p^^eet vScop, II. 16, 385. 
Xiova, II. 12, 281. Poseidon ;^eev dxy^vr, II. 20, 321. Athena 
•jqepa %e£'e, Od. 7, 15. virvov 2, 395. koXKo^ 23, 156. x^P''^ 2, 
12, etc. Conf. p. 330, and 'Athena ^/ce K6fMa<;,' let her hair 
stream, Od. 23, 156. God is he, ' der alle bilde giuzet/ Diut. 2, 
241 ; der schepfet alle zit niuwe sel (souls), di^ er giuzet unde git 
in menschen, Freid. 16, 25. the angel 'giuzet dera menschen die 
sele in,^ Berth. 209. God is ' der Smit von Oherlande, der elliu 
bilde wol wiirkeii kan,^ MsH. 2, 247^. He fits together: das 
filege Got, Rab. 554. Got /uec/^ mir'z ze guote, Frauend.422, 22. 
do bat si Got vil dicke filegen ir den rat. Nib. 1187, 1, like our 
eingeben, suggest, sigehafte hende (victorious hands) fuege in 
Got der guote, Dietr. 8082. do fuogt in (to them) Got einen 
wint, Rab. 619; conf. Gevuoge, p. 311 n. The Minne also fits, 
and Sffilde (fortune) : dir fiiegct sselde daz beste. Tit. 3375 ; our 
' fiigung Gottes,^ providence. God destines, verhenget, MS. 1, 
74* (the bridle to the horse) ; OHG. firhengan (even hengan alone), 
concedere, consentire. He carries, guides : Got truce uns zu dir 
in das lant (so : the devil brings you), Dietr. and Ges. 656. mich 



GOD. 1291 

liab selbtT gewUet her Got vuu liiinel, Keller's Erziilil, tjl.y, 11. 
We say 'go with God/ safely, avv Oetp j3aivet<i, Babr. 92, G. 

p. 23.] Though IJerthold laughs at the notion of God sitting 
in the sky, and his legs reaching down to the earth, as a Jewish 
one, there are plenty of similar sensuous representations to be 
gleaned out of early poems, both Romance and German : ' Deo 
chi maent sus en ciel,' Eulalia; etc. alwaltintir Got, der mir zi 
lebine gibot, Diemer 122, 24. wanti Got al mag und al guot wil 
99, 18. God is eternal : qui fu etiest et iert, Ogier •4102. 

p. 21-.] To explain the Ases we must compare aJinra-mazdat^ 
(p. 981 n.) and Sanskr. asiirci spiritual, living. Sva lati ass )>ik 
heilan i haugi, Fornald. sog. 1, 437. Rin ds-kunn, Saem. 248*. 
nornir dskungni- 188*. A fri^la is called dsa IdoiT, Forum, sog. 9, 
322, fair as if sprung from Ases ? ]>a vex mer dsmcgin, iafuhatt 
up sem hiiniun, Sn. 114. dsmegir, SaBm. 94''. dsmod'r opp. to 
jotuumoSr, Su. 109. dsa bragr stands for Thur, Sa3m. 85''. Some- 
times ds seems to mean genius, fairy : in Nials-s. p. 190 a Svin- 
feUs-ds or Sncefells-ds changes a man that lives with him into a 
woman every ninth night ; the man is called ' hrud'r Svinfells-as, 
arnica genii Svinfelliani. Here also mark the connexion of as 
with a mountain (fell for fiall ?) . The Saxon form of the word 
is also seen in the names of places, Osene-dred, Kemble no. 1010 
(5,51), and Osna-brugga (conf. As-brA, rainbow, p. 732). Note 
the OHG. i\jyr-rt?i.s, spear-god, Fulcli-ans, Haupt's Zeitschr. 7, 529. 
That Ansivarii can be interpreted 'a diis oriundi ' is very doubt- 
ful. Haupt's Ztschr. 5, 409 has 'des bomes as' prob. for ' ast ' 
bough, which may indeed be conn, with 'as' beam, for it also 
means gable, rooftree, firmament, ep^a, fulcrum. Varro says 
the Lat. dra was once dsa, ansa, sacred god's-seat, v. Forcellini. 
Pott 1, 244, Gr. D. Sag. p. 114. The Gr. alaa (p. 414) seems un- 
connected. Bopp 43'^ connects isvara dominus with an Irish ae«- 
fhear aesar, dens, from Pictet p. 20 ; but this contains fear, vir. 

p. 26.] ' Hos cousenfes et coviplices Etrusci aiunt et nominant, 
quod una oriantur et occidant una' says Aruobius adv. gentes 
lib. 3 ; does he mean constellations ? conf. Gerhard's Etr. gotth. 
p. 22-3. Does dtliinga brautir, SaGui. 80'', mean the same as usa, 
cognatorum ? 

p. 26.] As consulting ragin appear the gods in Sanskr. rdga- 
nns and Etrusc. rasena. The Homeric Zeus too is counsellor. 



1292 GOD. 

fjbijarfop, fxrjTieTa. ' consilio deorum immortalium, coJKswesse deos 
immort/ says Ca3sar B. Gall. 1, 12. 14. The pi. regin occui's 
further in Ssem. 32''. 34^ nyt regin. 36^ vis regin. Hakonar-ai, 
18 rd& oil ok regfij?. Saem. 248^ dSlg-rdgnir. Also rogn : liopt, 
bond, rogn, Sn. 176. ^ wer gesaz bi Gote an dem rate da diu 
guote mir wart widerteilet ? ' allotted, Ms. 2, 180^. Just as im- 
personal as the Gen. pi. in OS. r^^ajio-giscapu sounds another in 
Haupt^s Ztschr. 2, 208, where Mary is styled ' kuneginne aller 
magene,' virtutum. 

p. 26n.] The appearing of gods is discussed at p. 336. Saxo, 
ed. Miiller 118, speaks of sacra denm agmina. The gods live 
happy: deoriim vitam apti sumus, Ter. Heaut. iv. 1, 15. deiis 
sum, sic hoc ita est, Hecyra v. 4, 3. The beautiful and blithe 
are comp. to them: ])yckir oss Offinn vera, Hak.-m. 15; conf. 
Asa-bio's above, ge her fiir als ein gotinne, Renn. 12277. en 
wif ghelic ere godinnen, Maerl. 2, 233. alse ochter God selve 
comen sonde. Lane. 31321. Conf. the beauty of elves and angels, 
p. 449. The I. of Cos seemed to produce gods, the people were 
so handsome, Athen. 1, 56. Paul and Barnabas taken for Mer- 
cury and Jupiter, Acts 14, 12. 

p. 27.] On sihora armen conf. Massm. in Haupt^s Ztschr. 1, 
386 and Holtzm. in Germania 2, 448, who gives variants; sihora 
may have been equiv. to frauja. Sigora-frea in Cod. Exon. 166, 
35. 264, 8 is liter, triumphorum dominus. A warlike way of 
addressing God in Nib. Lament J. 672 is, himelischer degen ! 

p. 28.] At the end of this Chap, it ought to be observed, that 
some deities are limited to particular lands and places, while 
others, like Zev'? iraveWrjvio'i, are common to whole races. Also 
that the Greeks and Romans (not Teutons) often speak indefinitely 
of 'some god^: /cat xi? ^609 rjyefj,6vevev, Od. 9, 142. 10, 141. 
Tt9 fie dewv 6\o(f)vpaTo 10, 157. ddavdrcov 09 rt? 15, 35. Ti9 
^eo9 eaai 16, 183. Tt9 (T(f)Lv to'S' eecire deoiv 16, 356. fj fiaXa 
Ti<; 6eo<; evhov 19, 40. Kai rt9 ^eo9 avrbv iveiKoc 21, 196. 24, 
182. 373. Solemnis formula, qua dii tutelares urbium evocaban- 
tur e civitatibus oppugnatione cinctis ambiguo nomine si dens, 
si dea, ne videlicet alium pro alio nominando aut sexum confun- 
dendo falsa religione populum alligarent, conf. Macrob. Sat. 3, 9. 
Nam c'onsuestis in precibus ' sive tu deus es sive dea ' dicere, 
Arnob. 3, 8. Hac formula utebantur Romani in precibus, quando 



WORSHIP. 1293 

sive terra movissefc, sive aliud quid accidisset, de quo ambige- 
batur qua causa cuj usque dei vi ac numine effectuiu sit, conf. 
Gellius 2, 20 ibique Grouovius. 



CHAPTER HI. 
WORSHIP. 

p. 29.] For veneratiou of a deity the AS. has both weorffscipe 
reverentia, diguitas, aud weord'iing ; the Engl, worship, strictly 
a uoun, has become also a vevh= weorcfidn. The christian 
teachers represented the old worship as diohnles (jclp inti zierida 
(pompa). In Isidore 21, 21. 55, 5 aerlos stands for impius. 
Beside the honouring of God, we find ' das Meien ere,' Ms. 2, 
22^ aud 'duvels ere, Rose 11200. D. Sag. 71. Gote dlenen, Nib. 
787,1. ov forchte (feared) den Heilant, Roth 4415. Heartfelt 
devotion is expr. by ' mit innedichen muote,' Barl. 187, IG. an- 
dacldliche 187, 3G. 14. mit dem inneren gebete. die anddht fuor 
zum gibel aus, Wolkenst. p. 24. 

p. 29.] Among most nations, the Chinese being an exception, 
worship finds utterance in prayer aud sacrifice, in solemn trans- 
actions that give rise to festivals and hightides, which ought to 
be more fully described further on. Prayer and sacrifice do not 
always go together : betra er ubedit enn se ofhhjtit (al. ohlotlt), 
SaBm. 28'^. The Chinese do not pray, and certainly, if God has 
no body and no speech, we cannot attribute an ear or hearing to 
liim, conseq. no hearing of prayer. Besides, an almighty God 
must understand thoughts as easily as words. Prayers, the 
utterance of petition, gratitude and joy, arose in heathenism, and 
jn-esuppose a divine form that hears. Odysseus prays to Athena: 
kXvOl yu,eu, vvv 8^ irep fiev aKovaov, iiret 7rdpo<i ovttot axovaw; 
paiofxevov, Od. G, 325. 13, 35G. kXvOi, ava^ 5, 445. II. IG, 514 ; 
Poseidon and Apollo are addressed with the same formula. Gods 
are greeted through other gods : Veneri dicito multam meis 
verbis salutem. Plant. Pocu. i. 2, 195. But, besides praying 
aloud, we also read of soft muttering, as in speaking a spell, 
Lasicz 48. dprjaKevetv is supposed to mean praying half aluud, 
Creuzer 2, 285. Latin precari (conf. procus), Umbr. persni 
VOL. IV. C 



1294 WORSHIP. 

(Aufrecht and Kirchlioff 2, 28. 167) answers to OHG. f ergon 
poscere, precari, N. Cap. 153^ Sanskr. prach, Zend, pereg. Hases 
persnimu/ tacitus precare^ pray silently, 'kutef persnimu/ caute 
precare, A. and K. 2, 168-9. 170. Sanskr. j ap = suhmissa voce 
dicere, praesertim preces, Bopp 135^; conf. jalp loqui, Lith. 
kalbu: faveas mihi, murmure dixit, Ov. Met. 6, 327 (p. 1224). 
' gebete kduen/ chewing- prayers, occurs in Bronuer's Life 1, 
475; 'stille gebete thauen/ distil, in Gessner's Works (Zurich 
1770)2,133. ' gehetvrumen,' put forth, Gudr. 1133, 1. heten 
und Mmehprehen, Gefken beil. 116. daz gebet ist ein sliezer 
bote (messengei-) ze himele, Ernst 20. Or, prayer resounds : daz 
din bete erhlinge, Walth. 7, 35. precibus deum pulsare opimis, 
Ermold. Nigell. 2, 273. Prayer gushes out, is poured out : alse 
daz gebet irgie, Ksrchr. 2172. M.Neth. gebed utstorten, Soester 
fehde p. 597 ; now, bede sforten, preces fundere, like tranen st., 
lacrimas fundere. gepet ausgiessen, MB. 27, 353. 

p. 29.] Other words for praying: Grk. Seofxac I need, I ask, 
iKerevco and XlaaofMut, beseech. ON. heita a einn, vovere sub 
conditione contingenti : het a Thor, vowed, Oldn. laseb. 7 (conf. 
giving one&eli to a partic. god, OSinn, p. 1018-9). OHG. hareii 
clamare, anaharen invocare, N. Boeth. 146. OS. grotian God, 
Hel. 144, 24. 145, 5. Does TvpoaKweu) come from Kweco I kiss 
(as adoro from os oris, whence osculum), and is it conn, with the 
hand-kissing with which the Greeks worshipped the sun; rrjv x^^P"' 
KuaavTe<i, Lucian 5, 133; or from kvwvI conf. irpoaKvve';, fawn- 
ing flatterers, Athen. 6, 259, see Pottos Zahlmeth, 255. jiaTrd- 
t,ea6ai is also used of dogs fawning upon a master. 

p. 30.] A suppliant is not only betoman in OHG., but heteman 
in MHG. Hartra. biichl. 1, 263. Prayer, our gebet, is a fem. 
bete : mine flehe und mine bete, die wil ich erste senden mit 
herzen und mit heiiden, Trist. 123, 22 (praying with hands, 
folded?). The MHG. b'eten is always joined with an, as prepos. 
or prefix : an welcheu got er baete, Servat. 1347. ein kreftige 
Stat, do man diu apgot anebat, Karl 10*. Is it used only of false 
gods ? conf. Pfeiffer^s Barl. p. 446. 

p. 30.] The MHG.y?e/(eii supplicare takes the Dative: deme 
heiligin Geiste vlen, Wernh. v. Nieder-rh. 37, 17, etc. But 
with the Accus. : den toren flehen, Freid. 83, 3. alle herren 
flehen, Walther 28, 33. fleha ze \\\me\e frumen, N. Boeth. 271 ; 



WORSHIP. 1295 

couf. 'gebet vrumen' above. Evx^adai also takes a Dat. : Aii, 
Oil. 20, 97. Ad/jvr) 2, 2(51. Lloaethawvi 3, '1:3. iirevx^aeai, jipTe- 
fiiSi 20, (30 ; coiit". €V)(^fj (or eV ey^i^at?, ev X07069) Trpear/Sevecv, 
(fipotfitd^ofMai, JEsch. Einn. 1. 20. 21. 

p. 31.] Cau Goth, alhfron and OIIG. eiscon be from aigan, and 
mean wish to have ? OHG. diccan occurs ia MUG. too : digete 
gein Gote, Altd. bl. 2, 149. an in gedijet, prays, Kdh. Jesu 91, 
4. nitdi'rdige supplicatio, Serv. 3445. 

p. 31.] Postures in prayer. Standing: diu sfrt an ir gebete 
in der kapellen hie bi, Iw. 5886. an daz gebet sfdii, Zappert 
p. 23. Bowing : diofo ginigen, bend low, O. iii. 3, 28. sin nigen 
er gein liirael gn-p, made his bow, Parz. 392, 30. Hagen bows 
to the merwomen. Nib. 1479, 1. As the road is kindly saluted, 
so contrariwise : ich wil dem wege iemer-raere sin vient swa dil 
hin gast, be foe to every way thou goest, Amur 2347. The 
Finnic kumarran, bending, worship, is done to the road (tielle), 
moon (kunlle), sun,(piiiwalla), Kalew. 8, 103. 123. 145. diu bein 
biegen = pray. Cod. Vind. 159 no. 35. On kneeling, bending, conf. 
Zapp. p. 39. ze gehete gcvie, Ksrchr. 6051. ze Gote er sin gebete 
lie, Pantal. 1582. er viel an sin gebet, Troj. kr. 27224. viel 
in die bede, int gebede, Maerl. 2, 209. 3, 247. do hup er ane zu 
veniende : wo irae daz houbit lac, do satzte her di fuze hin, Myst. 
1, 218. legde hleor on eord'an, Caedra. 140, 32. Swed. bunfaUa, 
to kneel in prayer. During a sacrifice they fell to the ground 
ptTTToi/re? €<i fo)8a<?, Athen. p. 511. The Ests crawl bareheaded 
to the altar, Estu. verh. 2, 40. Other customs : the ludians 
danced to the Sun, Lucian, ed. Lelnn. 5, 130. Roman women, 
barefoot, with dishevelled hair, prayed Jupiter for rain. The 
ha,nds of gods are kissed, conf. irpooKwelv. In contrast with 
looking up to the gods, avw j3\eylra<;, Moschus epigr., the eyes 
are turned (nya// from sacred oV)jects. Odysseus, after landing, is 
to throw back into the sea, with averted look, the Kpi]8€/j,i'ou lent 
him by Ino, avroi'ocrc^t Tpatricrdai, Od. 5, 350. Tap(3)]aa^ 5 ere- 
pco(re /3aX,' Ofx/Mara, fxi] ^€09 eirj, 16, 179. 

p. 32.] Uncovering the head: huic capite velato, illi sacri- 
ficandum est nudo, Arnob. 3, 43. pilleis capitibus inclinarent 
defmdis, Eckehardus a.d. 890 (Pertz 2, 84). tuot iiwere kngelen, 
(ihe, und bitit Got, Myst. 1, 83, 25. son chapel nstc, Ren. 9873; 
conf. 's clnippli liipfe, Hebel 213. halme und ouch diu liuetelin 



1296 woESHip. 

diu wurden scliiere ab genomeD, Lauz. G838. sineu Itelni er ahe 
bant (unbound), und sturzt' in u£ des scliildes rant ; des hiietels 
wart sin lioubet bloz, Avau sin zuht war vil groz, Er. 8963. In 
1 Cor. 11,4. 5, a man is to pray and prophesy with covered 
head, a woman with uncovered, see Vater's note. Penance is 
done standing naked in water, G. Ab. 1, 7 ; conf. Pref. Ixx. The 
monk at early morn goes to the Danube to draw w^ater, wash 
and pray, Vuk ii. 7, beg. of Naod Simeun. The Greeks went to 
the seashore to pray : TrjXefia'X^o'; S" cnidvevOe klcov eVt dli'a 
BaXdaar]^, Od. 2, 260. /Sf/ S' ciKecov irapa 6lva .... aTrdvevOe 
KiMV rjpdO^ 6 yepato'; ^AttoWwvl dvaKrt, W. i. 34. 

p. 33.] Arsenius prays with 'uplifted liands from sunset to 
sunrise, Maerl. 3, 197. in crucis modum coram altari se sternere, 
Pertz 8, 258; conf. ordeal of cross. Praying 'mit zertdnen 
armen, zertrenten armen, Zellw. urk. no. 1029. 775. Hands are 
washed before praying : y^elpa'i vi.-^d/Li€vo<i 7roXif)<; d\6<;, in the 
hoary sea, Od. 2, 261. 12, 336. Helgafell, )?angat skyldi engi 
ma'Sr opveginn (unwashen) lita, Landn. 2, 12. 

p. 33.] Xdpi<i, gratia, is also translated anst. Goth, anstdi 
audahafta, gratia plena ! OHG. fol Gotes ensfi, 0. i. 5, 18. 
enstio fol, Hel. 8, 8 ; conf. * gebono fullu ' in Tat., and AS. mid 
gife gefylled. For ginada Otfried uses a word peculiar to him- 
self, eragreldi, Graff 2, 412. The cuneif. inscr. have constantly: 
* Auramazda miya upastam abara,^ Oromasdes mihi opem ferebat ; 
*vashna Auramazdaha,^ gratia Oromasdis. 

p. 34.] Other ON. expressions for prayer: blota^Si OSinn, ok 
bi'Sr hann lUa a sitt mal, Hervar. saga c. 15. orerSom augoni 
lUi& ockr jnnnig, ok getit sitjondom sigr. Stem. 194^^. mal ok 
raanuvit gefit ockr maerom tveim, ok laeknis-hendur meSau 

lifom, ibid. As the purpose of prayer and sacrifice is twofold, 

80 is divine grace either mere favour to the guiltless, or forgive- 
ness of sin, remission of punishment. Observe in Hel. 3, 18: 
thiggean Herron is huldi, that sie Hevan-cuning ledes dleti (ut 
Deus malum averteret, remitteret), though Luke 1, 10 has merely 
orare, and 0. i. 4, 14 only ginada beitota. He is asked to spare, 
to pity : rXvOh Od. 3, 380. 16, 184. cf>€[Seo 8' ^fiioov 16, 185. 
av he tA.e&)<? yevov, Lucian 5, 292. ' taivu ainomen Tapio,' be 
entreated, Kalev. 7, 243; conf. roSe /xoc Kpgrjvov ii\8(op, II. 1, 41. 
Od. 17, 212. (Kl. schr. 2,458.) 



woBSHip. 1297 

Tlio Hindu tilso looks to tlie E((st at early uioniing prayer, 
lienco he calls tiie South daxa, daxima, the right. lu praying 
to Odin one looks east, to Ulf west, Sv. forns. 1, 69. tsolem 
respiciens is said of Boiocalus, Tac, anu. 13, 55. Prayer is 
directed to the sun, N. pr. bl. 1, 300, and there is no sacrificing 
after sunset, Geo. 2281. On the other hand, ' Norffr horfa dyr ' 
occurs in SiBtn. 7''. Jotunheimr lies to the North, Rask afh. 1, 
83. 9 1. D. Sag. 981-2. 

p. 35 n.] Mock-piety : wolt ir den heiligen die z<ihen (toes) 
ahbcissoi ? Bi'ontier 1, 295. alle heiligen freshen wollen, Elis. 
V. Orl. 251. gotze-sclilecker, Staid. 1, 467. In thieves' lingo a 
Catholic is tolefresser, hllderfresser , Thiele 317". magliavutts, 
gotzenfresscr, Carisch 182^. Whence comes Ital. bachettone ?- 
conf. bigot, Sp. beato. die alto tempelfrete, Spil v. d. 10 jungfr. 
in Steph. 175. du rechte renne umiue id alter, you regular Run- 
round-the-altar. Mono schausp. 2, 99. frommchen, as early as 
Er. Alberus Praec. vitae ac mor. 15G2, p. 90". 

p. 35.] On Sacrifice, conf. Creuzer synib. 1, 171. 'opphir = 
vota,' Gl. Sletst. 6, 072. Gifts = sacrifices, p. 58. si brahten ir 
()J)fer und antheiz, Diemer 179, 25. In Latin the most general 
phrase is rem divinam facere = sacrificare ; we also find commo- 
vere, obmovere, Aufr. u. Kirchh. 2, 105. Victima, the greater 
sacrifice, is opposed to hostia, the less, Fronto p. 286. To ' ohJu- 
tiones fiir alien gebilden (before the statues and shrines), ut tenor 
est fundationis, cedens pastori ' (found, at Riiden, Westph. 1421, 
Seibertz Quellen d. Westf. gescli. 1, 232) answers the Germ. 
niiswKjii visitatio, oblatio, Graff 1, 1068, from wison, visitare. 
?<;i.sofZ = oblei, visitatio, Schmeller 4, 180. The Swiss now say 
wisen for praying at the tombs of the dead, Sfald. 2, 455. 

p. 35.] On blot, blast)' see Bopp's Comp. Gr. 1146. Goth. Gup 
bhjtau, Deum colere, 1 Tim. 2, 10. In ON., beside gods' sacri- 
fices, there are tVfa blat, p. 418, dlsa blot, p. 402 [and we may 
add the blot-risi on p. 557]. blat-haiig and starblaf, Fornm. 
sog. 5, 164-5. sleikja blat-bolla, Fagrsk. p. 63. A proper name 
Blotmdr, ace. Blotma (-mew, the bird), Landn. 3, 1 1 seems to mean 
larus sacrificator, = the remarkable epithet blatevogel, a.d. 1465, 
Osnabr. ver. 2, 223 ; or is it simply ' naked bird ' ? conf. spott- 
vogel, speivogel, wehvogel [gallows-bird, etc.]. ON. bl6tcar>jr 
= prone to curse, for biota is not only consecrate, but execrate. 



1298 WORSHIP. 

p. 37 n.] Mit der hlofzrn liaun, H. Saclis iii. 3^ 58*'. eine 
breite hlotze, Chr. Weise, Drei erzn. 194. der weidplotz, hunting- 
knife, fJotzer, Vilmar iu Hess. Ztsclir. 4, 86. die hluote, old 
knife, Woeste. 

p, 37.] xliitheiz a vow, but also a vowed sacrifice, as when 
the Germans promised to sacrifice if tliey conquered, Tac. Ann. 13, 
57, or as the Romans used to vow a vet sacrum, all the bii'ths 
of that spring, the cattle being sacrificed 20 years after, and the 
youth sent abroad, Nieb. 1, 102. ir obfer unde antheiz, Diemer 
179, 25. geheton wtg-weorcfunga, Beow. 350. aer];on hine deaS 
onscegde, priusquam mors eum sacrificaret. Cod. Exon. 171, 32 ; 
conf. MHG. iuwer lip ist ungeseit, a<^aro^, Neidh. 47, 17. What 
means OHG. freldan ? [frehan ? frech, freak ?]. N. Boeth. 226 
says of Iphigenia: dia Clialchas in friskinges wis frehta (Graff 3, 
818) ; conf. ON. frett vaticiniura, diviuatio (Suppl. to p. 94), and 
AS. ^on blote oSSe on fyrhte,' Schmid 272, 368, where fear or 
fright is out of the question. 

p. 38.] AS. cweman, also with Dat., comes near fullafahjan : 
* onsecgan and godum cweman,' diis satisfacere. Cod. Exon. 257, 
25. Criste cweman leofran lace 120, 25. Like AS. bring is OHG. 
antfangida, victima, Diut. 1, 240. What is offered and accepted 
lies : Tlieocr. epigr. 1, 2 uses KelcrOat of consecrated gifts. 

p. 39.] To AS. Idc add Idcan offerre, conf. placare. Jdc 
onsecgan. Cod. Exon. 257, 30. Idc xenium, donum, Idcdaed 
munificentia, Haupt^s Ztschr. 9, 496^. 

p. 39.] On dirap'^^aL conf. Pausan. 1, 31. Callimach. hy. in 
Del. 279. Another definite term for sacrifice seems to be the 
obscure Goth, daigs, massa, Rom. 11, 16 [is it not dough, teig, 
a lit. transl. of (pvpajxa ?] Wizot survived in MHG. too : frone 
ivizut, Servat. 3337. Massmann derives Imnsl from hin|?an ; 
Kuhn in Berl. Jb. 10, 192 — 5, 285 from hu to pour, which = ^i/eii' 
ace. to Bupp 401. huHi^Jjada a7rev8o/j,ac 2 Tim. 4, 6. imJninslags 
aairovSa 3, 3. nfsneipan — Oveiv, kill, Luke xv. 23-7. 30, and 
itfsnipans immolatus, 1 Cor. 5, 7 plainly refer to cutting up the 
victim. Hunsaloa in the Ecbasis may be either hunsal-aha 
(-water) or huns-alah (-temple), Lat. ged. p. 289. 290. 

O.Slav. treba = \ihiitio, res immolata, templum ; trhhishclLe ^oa^o^. 
' qui idolothyta, quod treho dicitur, vel obtulerit aut mandu- 
caverit,' Amann Cod. mss. Frib. fasc. 2, p. 64. O.Boh. tfeha, 



WORSHIP. 1299 

Riiss, frcba, sacrifice. O.Sl. trehiti, Pol. trzebic, Serv. friahiti, 
jiiirify; coiif. the ])l.ice-n:ime Trehhin, Juiit^m. 4, G20''. Pol. 
tnii'la, potrzcha, oportet, it is needful. Serv. potreba, Bob. 
pothfba, need ; conf. Litli, rofrimpits and Antrimp, Afrimp, 
Hanusch 21G-7. D. Sag. 328. Sacrifice is iu Lett, lobars, 
Bergm. 142 ; iu Hung, aldomds, Ipolyi 3il. 

p. 40.] The right to emend aibr into tibr is disputed by 
Weigand 1997; conf. Diefenbach's Goth. wtb. 1, 12. Ou ricppa 
see my Kl. Schr. 2, 223; Umbr. tefro n. is some unknown part 
of the victim, Aufrecht u. K. 2, 294. 373. May we connect the 
Lett, sobars, plague-offering ? Some would bring in the LG. 
zpfer ( = kafer), see Campe under ' ziefer/ and Schmell. 4, 228; 
conf. OHG. arzibor, Graff 5, 578, and ceepurhuc, n. prop, in 
Karajan. Keisersb., bros. 80*^, speaks of umjesuber ; we also find 
uiiznff'r vermin, conf. n)ulz, uneatable, i.e. vermin, Mone 8, 409. 
The Grail tolerates no umjezibere in the forest. Tit. 5198. The 
wolf is euphemistically called loigezufer, Rockenphil. 2, 28. The 
geziefer in the pastures of 'J^yrol are sheep and goats, Hammerle 
p. 4. 

With OHG. tviJian, to sacrifice, conf. the AS. luig-weord'ung 
above, and Lith. wtiliin, ago, facio, Finn, walhutan. 

p. 41.] The diversity of sacrifices is proved by Pertz 2, 243, 
diversos sacrificandi rifus incoluerunt; and even by Tac. Germ. 
9 : deorum maxime Mercurium colunt, cui certis diebus huinanis 
quoque hostiis litare fas habent. Herculem ac Martem concessis 
animalibus phicant. pars Suevorum et Isidi sacrificat. 

To a sacrifice the god is invited, is asked to join : KaXeet tov 
deov, Herod. 1, 132. iirtKaXiet, r. 6. 4, 60. i'mKaKiaavTe<i r. 0. 
acpdl^ovcrt 2, 39. The gods are present at it, Atheu. 3, 340-L 
Why bones are offered to the gotls, Hes. theog. 557. primitiae 
ciboriim deo offerenda, Athen. 2, 213. The rising smohe and 
sfi'amare pleasing to gods, Lucian^s Prometh. 19. eV 8e dvfxdrwv 
"H.(f)aiaTO<; ovk eXafMire, Soph. Antig. 1007. Men sirengiluni the 
gods by sacrifice, Haupt's Ztschr. 0, 125. They sacrifice to 
Weda (Wodan), crying : * Wedki taeri ! ' dear Weda, consume! 
accept our offering, Schl. -Hoist, landeskunde 4, 246. The god 
gives a sign that he accepts : \>a, komu ]?ar hrafnar tljugandi ok 
gullu hatt, as a sign ' at OSinn mundi p<'git hafa blotit,' Porum. 
sog. 1, 131. 



1300 WORSHIP. 

p. 42.] Part of tlie spoils of war given to the God of the 
Christians, Livl. Reimchr. 2670— 73. -3398 to 3401. 6089.4696. 
11785. 11915. ' hriluien, p/er^ und rische man' are to be burnt 
in case of victory 4700. 4711. If vidima is from vinco, it must 
have been orig. a sacrifice for victory, ON. sigur-gioi, victim. 
The ehren-gancj in Mlillenh. Schl.-Holst. s., p. 108 was once pi'ob. 
the same. 

p. 42.] In expiatory offerings the idea is, tliat the wrath of 
God falls on the victim : clearly so in the scapegoat, Levit. 16, 20. 
Griesh. pred. 2, 119; conf. Grimm on the A. Heinr. p. 160. 
Also in the plague- offering at Massilia, Petron. c. 141. 

p. 42.] Forecasting the future by sacrifice : ante pngnam mise- 
rabiliter idolis immolavit (Decius), Jorn. c. 18. 

p. 42.] Sacrif. til drs also in Fornm. sog. 10, 212 : siSan ger'Si 
uaran mikit ok hallaeri, var |?a J^at raS tekit at ]?eir hlotu&u Olaf 
konung til drs ser. With Halfdan's sacrifice conf. the eKaTo/x- 
(^ovia offered by him who had slain 100 foes, Pausan. iv. 19, 2. 

p. 44.] Human Sacrifice seems to have been an ancient practice 
in most nations, as well as the burning of live men with the dead. 
On the other hand, capital punishments wei'e unknown or rare. 
Hercules, ad quem Poeni omnibus annis Inimana sacrificaveruut 
victima, Pliny 36, 5. Men were sacrif. to Artemis, Paus. 7, 19; to 
the playing of flutes, Aufr. u. K.'s Umbr. Sprachd. 2, 377. In 
lieu of it, youths were touched on the forehead with a bloody 
knife, 0. Jahn on Lycoreus 427 ; conf. the red string on the neck 
in the ' Amicus and Amelius.^ God, as Death, as old blood-shedder 
(p. 21), asks human victims. Hence they ai-e promised in sickness 
and danger, for the gods will only accept a life for life, Gesta 
Trevir. cap. 17, from Cass. B. Gall. 6, 16. For sacrificing a man 
on horseback, see Lindenbl. 68. Adam of Bremen (Pertz. 9, 
374) says of the Ests : ' dracones adorant cum volucribus, quibus 
etiam vivos litant homines, quos a mercatoribus emunt, diligenter 
omnino probates ne maculam in corpore haheant, pro qua refutari 
dicuntur a draconibus.' While a slave-caravan crosses a river, 
the Abyssinians, like the Old Franks, make the gods a thank and 
sin offering of the prettiest girl, Kloden's Beitr, 49. In spring a 
live child is sacrificed on the funeral pile, Dybeck^s Runa 1844, 
5 : i ]7ann tima kom hallaeri mikit a Rei^gotaland. enn sva geek 
irettin, at aldri mundi ar fyrri koma^ enn peim sveini vaeri blutat, 



WORSHIP. 1301 

cr aelSstr vaori ]'ai' i landi, Hervar. saga p. ibi, conf. lot. On the 
two Gallelms horns is pictured a mau hokling a child-victim. Saxo, 
ed. ]\[uller 121, says of Fro at Upsala : 'Jtumanl generis hostias 
mactare aggrcssus, foeda suporis libanienta persolvit ; ' he changed 
the vefcreiii ]ihiiti(»ils morem. To the ' sacrare aciera ' in Tac. Ann. 
13, 57 (p. 104G n.) answers the ON. valfela, Hervar. s. 454. Traces 
of Child-sacrifice especially in witch-stories (p. 1081), such as 
tearing out and eating the heart. Bones collected and offered 
up, conf. the tale of the good Lubbe p. 52G, and the villa of 
Opferhein, now Opferbaum near Wiirzburg, see Lang's reg. 3, 101 
(year 1257). 4, 291 (year 1285). 

p.lG.] An ajiiwmZ sacrifice was expiatory when offered to the 
invading plague, p. 610. 1142. Only edible beasts sacrificed: 
' cur non eis et canes, ursos et vulpes mactatis ? quia rebus ex his 
(leos par est honorare coelestes, quibus Ipsi alimur, et qnas nobia 
((d victiim sui numinis benigaitate dignati sunt,' Arnob, 7, 16. 
On (?o;/-sacrifice see p. 53. The colour and sex of an animal were 
important (p. 54), conf. Arnob. 7, 18 — 20; and in a female, 
whether she was breeding 7, 22 ; whether it had hair or bristles 
(p. 75), conf. ' dem junker, der sich auf dera fronhof lagert, soli 
man geben als off der hube gewassen (grown) ist niit federn, mit 
borsten,' Weisth. 3, 478. In buying it, one must not bai-gain, 
Athen. 3, 102. The skin was hung up and shot at, p. 650. 

p. 46.] The people by eating became partakers in the sacri- 
fice, conf. 1 Cor. 10, 18 : ou^t ol ia6iovT€<i Ta<; dvaia<; KOivtovol 
70V dvcnaa-TTjplov elcri ; p. 41. 

p. 47.] On sacrificing Horses (p. 664) and its origin, see 
l^opp's Gl. 24", asuaniedJid ; conf. Feifalik on the Koniginh. MS. 
103. Tyndareus made Helen's wooers swear on the sacrif. horse, 
and then bury it, Pans. iii. 20, 9. Horses sacrif. by Greeks to 
Helios ib. 5, Ov. Fasti 1, 385; by Massngeta) to the Sun, Herod. 
1, 216. White horses thrown into the Strymon 7, 113. llli 
(Moesi) statim ante aciem immidnto equo concepere votuin, ut 
caesorum extis ducum et litarent et vescerentur, Florus IIG, 21. 
May the Goth, a'lhvatundi, ^dro^, refer to sacrifice ? and was 
the horse burnt with thorn-bushes, or was the fire kindled by 
rubbing with them ? 

The ora in the passage from 'J'acitus might mean men's heads, 
yet conf. p. 659. It has yet to be determined how far the bodies, 



1302 WORSHIP. 

Jiorses and arms of the conquered were offered to gods. To dedi- 
cate the ■wicges-erwej spoils (Diemer 179, 27), seems Biblical. 
Shields and swords offered up to Mars, Ksrchr. 3730. The 
Serbs presented the weapons of slain enemies, Vuk Kralodw. 88. 

p. 47 n.] Uorsefiesh eaten by witches (p. 1049) ; by giants, 
Mullenh. 414. Foals eaten, Ettn. uuw. doctor 338—40. The 
Wild Hunter throws down legs of horse, Schwartz p. 11. Plica 
Polonica atti'ibuted to eating horseflesh, Cichocki p. 7. 

p. 49n.] hisses sacrificed by the Slavs, Biisching 101-2. Cos- 
mas speaks of an ass being cut into small pieces ; see Vuk's pref. 
to Kralodw. 9. Ass-eaters, Rochholz 2, 267. 271. Those of 
Oudenaerde are called hickefreters, chicken-munchers, Belg. Mus. 
5, 440. 

p. 49.] Oxen were favourite victims among the Greeks and 
Romans : toI S' eVt divl 6a\daari<i lepa pe^ov Tavpov<; Trafxp.eXava'? 
'EvoauxdovL Kvavo'y^a iT-p, Od. 3, 5 ; namely, nine bulls before each 
of the nine seats 3, 7. Twelve bulk sacrificed to Poseidon 13, 
1 82. To Athena pe^(v ^ovv r/viv evpii/jbircoTrov (lS/xy]T7]V, rjv ovitm vtto 
^vyov i]yay€V avrjp. ttjv tol iyoo pe^fo, '^pvadv Kepaoiv 7r6pi')(^eva<; 
3, 382 ; conf. 426. 437, miratis cornihus hostiae immolatae, Pliny 
33. 3, 12. Perseus offers on three altars an ox, cow and calf, Ov. 
Met. 4, 755. hovem album Marti immolare et centum falvos, Pliny 
22, 5. nioeos tanros immolare, Arnob. 2, 68. At the ' holm- 
gang' the victor kills the sacrificial bull, Egils-s. 506-8. rauff 
hann i nyju naufa hU&l, Ssem. 114^'. The wise bird demands 'hoi, 
horga marga, ok gnU/iijnuJar I'ljr' Ml''. In Sweden they still 
have God's cows; does that mean victims, or priestly dues? A 
loaf in the shape of a calf is julkuse, Cavallius voc. verl. 28''. 37''. 
A sacrificial calf, Keller's Altd. erz. 547. The names Farrenherg, 
Buhlemons seem derived from bovine sacrifices, Mone's Anz. 6, 
236-7. A cow and calf sacrif. to the plague, p. 610 ; a Mack ox with 
ivhite feet and stai-, Sommer 150; conf. the cow's head, Wolf's 
March, no. 222. A red cow, kravicu buinu, Konigsh. MS. 100; 
cord, rote ha.lbela dne mdl, Griesh. 2, 118 (from Numb. 19, 2). 
diu roten rinder, Fundgr. 2, 152. Mone in Anz. 6, 237 remarks 
justly enough, that agricultural nations lean more to bovine sacri- 
fices, warlike nations to equine. Traces of bull-sacrifice, D. Sag. 
128-9. 32. 

p. 50.] To majalis sacriviis answers in the Welsh Laws ' siis 



WORSHIP. 1303 

coeiiah's quae servatiir ad coenam regis/ Leo Malb. Gl. 1, 83. Varro 
thinks, ' ab siiillo geuere pecoris iiniiiohvuJi initiuin primuin suin- 
tuin videtnr/ Ke Rust. 2, 4. porci duo menses a mam ma noii 
dijunguntur. porci sacre-f, purl ad sacrificiurn ut immolentur. 
porci lactentes, sacrcs, delici, nefrendes 2, 4. (Claudius) cum 
regibus foedus in foro icit, iiorca caesa, ac vetere fecialiuni prae- 
tatione adhibita, Suet. c. 25. duo viHimde iiorcinae, Seibertz no. 
30 (1074). A j'riscliliiig at five schillings shall stand tied to a 
pillar, Krotzenb. w., yr 1415 (Weisth. 3, 513). The gras-frisch- 
Ihig in Urbar. Aug., yr 1316, seems to mean a sheep, MB. 34'', 
305. friscJiig, frisclilliig, a wether, Staid. 1, 399. opferen als 
eiuen friskinc, Mos. 19, 8. ein frishinc (ram) da bi gie, Diemer 
19, 19. With friscing as recens natus conf. <r(f)ayal veoO/jXov 
/SoToO, yEsch. Eum. 428. King Hei"Srekr has a giiltr reared, with 
12 judges to look after it, Hervar. saga c. 14 (Fornald. s6g. 1, 
463) ; conf. the giafgoltr, Norw. ges. 2, 127. 

p. 52.] "Apva fieXatvav e^evajKare, Aristoph. Ran. 84-7. Men 
sacrif. a ram, and sleep on )7.s- liidf, Pans. iii. 34, 3. Goats sacrif. 
to Juno : al'yo(f)dyo<; Hprj 15, 7. Nunc et in umbrosis Fauno decet 
immolare lucis, sen poscet ag)io, sive malit JiaeJo, Hor. Od. i. 4, 
12 ; conf. bidental, Suppl. to p. 174. A boy of nine kills a black 
gnat with white legs and star, over the treasure, and sprinkles 
liimself with the blood, Soramer's Sag. p. 140; a goat with golden 
liorim 150-1. 179. * diu osterwiche get iiber dahein geiz' says 
Helbl. 8, 299 ; does it mean that only lambs, not goats, are eaten 
at Easter? A Idack sheep sacrif. to the devil, Firmenich 1, 206'' ; 
a sheep to the dwarf of the Baumann's cave, Gudeke 2, 240. The 
Prussian g oat-hall oiving is described by Simon Grunau in 1526, 
Nesselm. x. Lasicz 54; conf. Tettau and Tetnme 261. A ho- 
goat sacrif. tvitJi strange rites in Esthonia on St. Thomas's day, 
Possart 172. 

p. 52] Dogs sacrif. in Greece, Paus. iii. 14, 9 ; in Uinbrin, Auf. 
und K. 2, 379. To the nickelrnan a l>lack cork is yearl}'' thrown 
into the Bode, Haupt 5, 378. Samogits sacrif. cocki^ to Kirnos, 
Lasicz 47. When Ests sacrif. ^cock, the blood spirts into the fire, 
the feathers, licad, feet and entrails are thrown into the same, tlu? 
rest is boiled and eaten, Estn. ver. 2, 39. aKVfivovi 7rafji/j.e\dim<; 
aKvXdKcov rpL(T(Tov<; lepeuaa'i, Orph. Argon. 962. The bodies or 
skins of victims hung on trees, p. 75 — 9. 650. in alta pinu votivi 



1304 WORSHIP. 

cornua cervl, Ov. Met. 12, 26G. iacipiam capfcare feras et reddere 
pinu cornua, Prop. iii. 2. ]9. 

p. 55.] That the victim should be led round was essential to 
every kind of lustration, Aufr. u. K.'s Umbr. spr. 2, 263, KijpvKe'i 
S' dva aarv decov leprjv eKaro/jL/Sijv ^yov, Od. 20, 276. 

p. 55.] Small sacrificial vessels, which participants brought 
with them, are indie, in Hak. goda saga c. 16, conf. 'ask ne 
eski,' ibid. An altar with a large cauldron found in a grave-mound 
near Peccatel, Mecklenb., Lisch 11, 369. On the Cimbrian 
cauldron in Strabo, see Lisch 25, 218. Out of the cavern near 
Velmede a brewing-cauldron was lent when asked for, Firmenich 
1, 331^' [so Mother Ludlam's cauldron, now in Frensham Church] ; 
old copper kettles of the giants were preserved, Faye 9. 

p. 57.] Former sacrifices are indicated by the banquets at 
assizes and after riding the bounds, A victim's flesh was boiled, 
not roasted^ though roasting and boiling are spoken of at the feast 
of Bacchus, Troj. kr. 16201-99, For distribution among the people 
the victim was cut up small : the ass, p. 49; the gadda into eight 
pieces, Sv. folks. 1, 90. 94; Osiris into fourteen pieces. Buns. 1, 
508. Before Thor's image in the GuSbrands-dalr were laid every 
day four loaves of bread and sldtr (killed meat), Fornm. sog. 4, 
245-6 ; conf. Olafssaga, ed. Christ. 26. Gruel and fish are offered 
to Percht on her day (p. 273); meat and drink to Souls (p. 
913 n.); the milk of a cow set on the Brownies' stone every 
Sunday, Hone's Yrbk. 1532, 

p, 57.] SvLoke-oferings were known to the heathen : incense 
and bones offered to gods, Athen. 2, 73. thus et merum, Arnob. 
7, 26. Irish tusga, usga, AS. star, thus, staran, thurificare, Haupt's 
Ztschr. 9, 513'', At each altar they set 'eiue risten flahses, ein 
wahs-keizelin und wirouches korn,' Diut, 1, 384. Also candles 
alone seem to have been offered : candles lighted to the devil and 
to river-sprites (p. 1010. 584). Men in distress vow to the saints 
a taper the size of their body, then of their shin, lastly of their 
finger. Wall, march, p. 288; conf. 'Helena (in templo) sacravit 
calicem ex electro mammae suae mensura,' Pliny 33. 4, 23. The 
shipwrecked vow a candle as big as the mast. Hist, de la Bastille 
4, 315 ; so in Schimpf u. Ernst c. 403; otherwise a naviculacevea,, 
or an argentea anchora, Pertz 6, 783-4; a ' wechsin haus' against 
fire, h. Ludwig 84, 19; or the building of a chapel. Silver 



WORSHIP. 1305 

l>lou<jlis and alilpi^ ofrored (p. 59 n. 2G In.), D. Sag. 59. Pirates oder 
a tentli part of their booty, p. 2ol ; coiif. evravda tm vao) Tpn'ipovi 
avcLKenat, ■)(^a\Kovv efifioXov, Pans, i, 10, k Stones are carried 
or thrown on to a grave (otherw. branches, Kleinia 3, 29tj : on 
Brenumd's grave by pilgrims, Karlm. 138. To sacrifice by stone- 
throwing, Wolf, Ztschr. 2, Gl ; to lay a stone on the herma, 
Preller 1, 250 ; a heap of stones lies round the henna, Babr. 48. 

0. Miiller, Arch. § GO, thinks these kpixala were raised partly to 
clear the road. Darius on his Scythian expedition has a cairn 
raised on the R. Atiscus, every soldier bringing a stone, Herod. 
4, 92. Jvach pilgrim contributes a stone towards building the 
church, M. Koch, reiso p. 422. J. Barrington, Personal Sketches 

1, 17-8, tells of an Irish custom : By an ancient custom of every- 
body throwing a stone on the spot where any celebrated murder 
had been committed, on a certain day every year, it is wonderful 
what mounds were raised in numerous places, which no pei"son, 
but such as were familiar with the customs of the poor creatures, 
would ever be able to account for. Strips of cluth are hung on 
the sacred tree, F. Faber 2, 410. 420; the passer-by throws a twi(j 
or a rag on the stone, Dybeck IS^S, p. 6. 4, 31 ; or nalar 4, 35 ; 
the common folk also put pennies in the stone, 3, 29, and throw 
bread, money and eggshells into springs 1844, 22. si het ir 
opfergoldes noch wol tAsent mai-c, si teiU ez siner seele, ir vil 
lieben man. Nib. 1221, 2 (p. 913 n.). 

p. 57.] Herdsmen offer bloody victims, husbandmen frnifs of 
the earth, D. Sag. 20. 21. ears left standing for Wodan (p. 154 
seq.) ; a bundle o^ jlax, WolPs Ndrl. sag. p. 209 ; for the little 
vioo<)L\\\{e flax- stems or a tiny hid of stalks of flax, Scliouw. 2, 
360-9. sheaves of straw made for the gods, Garg. 129''. The 
Greeks offered sIdlJis and ears, Callim. 4, 283 ; hie placatus erat, 
seu quis libaverat uvam, seu dederat sanctae spicea serta comae, 
Tib. i. 10, 21 ; tender oak-leaves in default of barley, Od. 12, 357. 
The Indians had grass-offerings, Kuhu rec. d. Rigv. p. 102, as the 
pixies received a bunch of grass or needles. Firstfruits, OaXvaia, 
to Artemis, II. 9, 534. The flower-ofl'ering too is ancient, being 
one of the Indian five, viz. reading the Vedas, sprinkling water, 
burning butter, strewing flowers and spraijs, hospitality, Holtzm. 
3, 123. The Sanskr. .se.ya = reliquiae, flores qui deo vel idolo oblati 
sunt, deinde alicui traduntur ; couf. the ilower-offering of Saras- 



1306 WOESHIP. 

vati, Somad. 1, 120-1, and * Hallows an ofiferiug to tlie clouds, 
Of kutaja the fairest blossoms/ Megliaduta 4. For Greece, see 
Theocr. epigr, 1. The offering to ' Venus ^ is hluomen und 
vivgerlin, Ksrchr. 3746. In Germany they danced round the first 
violet, p. 762. The people call a stone in the forest, three miles 
from Mai'burg, ^opfer-stoin,^ and still la,j flowers and corn upon it. 
A rock is crowned with flowers on Mayday, Prohle^s Unterhai'z no. 
347. 263. The country folk on the Lippe, like those about the 
Meisner, go into the Hollow Stone on Easter-day, Firm. 1, 334 ; 
they think of Veleda, as the Hessians do of Holda. The same 
day the villagers of Waake, Landolfshausen and Mackenrode 
troop to the Schweckbauser hills, where an idol formerly stood, 
Harrys i. no. 4. 

p. 59 n.] Ael/3ov 8' aOavdroiai Oeoh, Od. 2, 432. olvov eK'^eov, 
^8' €v)(^ovTo 6eol<i, II. 3, 296. Before drinking, they poured some 
on the ground to the gods 7, 480 ; whereas the Scythians spilt 
no loine (Lucian Toxar. 45), and the German heroes drank minne 
without spilling any, D. Sag. 236-7. poculis aureis memoriae de- 
functorum commilitonum vino mero lihant, Apul. Met. 4 p.m. 131. 

p. 61.] St. John's and St. Gertrude' s minne : later examples 
in Godeke's Weim. Jb. 6, 28-9, and Scheller 2, 593. postea 
dominis amor S. Johannis ministretur, MB. 35% 138. potum 
caritatis propinare, Lacomblet 487 (yr. 1183). dar truoc man 
im sand Johanns minne, Otfcoc. 838"'. Johannes Hebe, J. minne 
trinken, Weistli. 1, 562-4. trag uns her sant Johans min, Keller 
erz. 32. si trinkent alsamt sant Hans min 34. In Belgium they 
said : ' Sinct Jans gelei ende Sind Gertrous minne sy met u ! ' 
Men pray to St. Gertrude for good lodging, Bschenb. denkm. p. 
240. In Wolkenstein 114, minne sanct Johans means the parting 
kiss. A wife says at parting : setz sant Johans ze bilrgen (surety) 
mir, daz wir froelich und schier (soon) zuo einander komen, 
Ls. 3, 313 ; conf. drinking the scheidel-kanne, Liintzel Hildsh. 
stiftsfehde 80. In ON. ' bad \i\ drecka velfarar minni sitt,' Egilss. 
p. 213. People give each other John's blessing at Christmas, 
Weisth. 1, 241-3. The two Johns are confounded, not only by 
Liutpr. (Pertz 3, 363), but in the Lay of Heriger : Johannes 
haptista jjincerna (cupbearer), Lat. ged. des MA. p. 336. 

p. 63.] On the shapes given to pastry, see p. 501 n. The forms 
or names of oster-flade (-pancake), 2^f('^^^^l<^i (patellata), oster- 



TEMPLES. 1307 

stuupha (-scone), p. 781, ficriwiz (Graff 1, llOt), are worth 
studying. Giintlier G47 : * before this sacred fire thy image now 
is brought' reminds one of Voetius's straw figure set before the 
hearth. 

The Carnjimj-ahout of divine images was known to the ancients : 
Syriam deam per vicos agrosque circumferre, Lucian de dea Syria 
10. Lucius cap. 36. circunigestare deam, Apul. p.m. 194 — 6. 
The Northmen of GuSbrands-dah* carry Thor's image out of his 
house info the Thing, set it up, and bow to it, St. Olafs s., ed. 
Christ. 23-6. The men of Delbruck carried about a false god 
llilgerio on a long pole, Weisth. 3, 101 n. May Ulrich of Lich- 
tensteiu's progress as Dame Venus be explained as a custom 
dating from the time of heathen progresses ? That also was 
'at Pentecost/ from April 25 to May 26, 1227; Whitsunday 
fell on May 30. 

Here ought to be mentioned the sacred festivals, whose names 
and dates are discussed in D. Sag. 71-2. ' Festa ea Germanis nox 
(it was sideribus inlustris, i.e. illnnis, new-moon), et solemnibus 
epulis ludicra,' Tac. Ann. 1, 50 ; conf. Germ. 24, where the 
sword-dance is called ludicruin. Beside feasting and games, it 
was a part of the festival to bathe the goddesses, p. 255. 



CHAPTER IV. 

TEMPLES. 

p. 67.] For names compounded with alah, see Forstemann. 
Halazes-stait in Ratenzgowe (Hallstadt by Bamberg), MB. 28, 98 
(yr. 889) seems a misreading for IlalaJtcs-stiit ; and Halazzes-stat 
28, 192 (yr. 923) for Halahhes-stat. For the chap, in Baluze 1, 
755 has Halax-st&t, where Pertz 3, 133 has again Halaz-stat, 
but Bened. more correctly Alaga-sUit. But even Pertz 3, 302 
has Halax-stat. Dare we bring in the AS. ealgian (tueri) and 
the Lat. arcere, arx ? D. Sag. 319. Pictet in Origines 1, 227 
connects alhs with Sanskr. alka. What means ' alle gassen und 
allien' in the Limbg. chron. p.m. 5? With the Alois in Tacitus 
conf. the Scythian KopaKoi, (f)iXLoc BaifjLove<i = Orestes and Pylades, 
Lucian's Toxar. 7. D. Sa<r. 118. 



1308 TEMPLES. 

AS. weoli, templum: iveult. gesohte, Cod. Exoii. 244, 6. Doners- 
we in Oldenburg seems to mean D.'s temple ; and 'Esch.-wege in 
Hesse may be a corrup. of Esch-wehj though ace. to Forstem. 2, 
111 it was already in the 10th cent. Eskine-wag, -weg ; conf. 
Wodenes-wege, p. 152 and OSins-ve, p. 159. Even in OHG. we 
find ire for wih : za themo we (al. parawe) ploazit, Gl. Ker. 27. 
In ON. Vaudils-re, Sasm. 166'\ Fros-v/, Dipl. Suecan. no. 1777; 
Gotii-tt'i (Gote-vi) 1776. It is said of the gods: valda veom, 
Saem. 41'\ SkaSi says: fra minom veovi oc vungom, 67^. Val- 
hallar til, ok vess heilags 113^ ; does vess belong to ve, or stand 
for vers? In S^em. 23'' (F. Magn. p. 255 n.) ' alda ve iarSar/ 
populorum habitaculum, is opp. to utve = utgar-5a, gigantum 
habitacula. The Goth, veihs, sacer, OHG. ivili, is wanting in OS., 
AS., and ON. Coie-wili, nomen monasterii (Pertz 7, 460), is 
aftei'w. Gottweih; conf. Ketweig, Beham 335, 31. Chetewic in 
Gerbert (Diemer's Pref. xx.i.). 

p. 68 n.] Ara = dsa, ansa, is a god's seat, as the Goth, hadi, 
OHG. i)etti, AS. hed mean both ara and fanum, D. Sag. p. 115. 
it=otZ-gereordu (n. pi.), epulae, Caedm. 91,27. ad apicem gemeinen 
gimlet, MB. 29^ 143 (yr. 1059). giimpeffe, Hess. Ztschr. 3, 70 ; 
conf. Gombetten in Hesse. Does the OHG. ehanslihti (Graff 6, 
789) mean ara or area? 0. Slav, himir, ara, idolum ; conf. Finn, 
kumarran, adoro, incliuo me. On other Teut. words for altar, 
such as ON. stalli and the plur. Jiorgar, see D. Sag. 114-5. 

p. 69.] OHG. Itaruc seems preserved in Harahes-heim, Cod. 
Lauresh. 3, 187, and in Hargenstein, Panzer's Beitr. 1,1; conf. 
Hercijnius. AS. Besiuga-/<mr/(, Kemble no. 994. ON. hatim- 
brcSom liorgi roe^Sr, SjBm. 42^. hof mun ek kiosa, ok Jiiirga 
raarga 14P. Thors-ar(//i, -aerg, -harg, now Thors-hiilla, Hildebr. 
iii. D. Sag. 115. The hof sometimes coupled with horgr occurs 
even in MHG. in the sense of temple, temple-yard : ze hofe geben 
(in atrium templi). Mar. 168, 42. ze hove giengen (atrium) 169, 
30. den liof rumen (temple) 172, 5; conf. ON. hofland, temple- 
land. Munch om Skiriugssal 106-7. D. Sag. 116-7. Likewise 
garte, tun., pi. tunlr, iviese, aue (p. 225) are used for holy places, 
Gr. dXao<i. 

p. 69.] OHG. pnro, AS. hcaro, are supported by Idj^arida = 
nemorosa, which Graff 3, 151 assoc. with kiparida ; by AS. 
bearewas, saltus, Haupt's Ztschr. 9, 454'', and ' bearo sette, weobedd 



TEMPLES. 1309 

worlito,' Ca)Jin. 172, 7. Lactautius's ' imtistes neinoruiu, luci 
sacertlos ' is rendered * hoarwcs bigenga; londahaarwes weard ' 
207, 27. 208, 7. Names of places : Farawa, Neugart^ Cod. dipl. 
no. 30 (yr. 7G0) ; BarwUhsi/ssel, Miilleuii. Nordalb. stud. 1, lo8 ; 
ON. Bareij. The OHG. za themo paniioe, Diut. 1, 150 is glossed 
on the margin by ' to deme lioea althere, to demo sideu althere/ 
Goslarer bergg. olo. 

p. 69 u.] UilG. luoc, specus, cubilc, delubruni, Graff 2, 129. 
in Inakirum, delubris, Diut. 1, 530*. 16k, lucus, Graff 2, 128. Iq 
Kudolf s Weltcbr. occurs heteloch., lucus, pi. beteloecher, Notker's 
Cap. 143 distinguishes the kinds of woods as loalden, forsten, 
lolieii. The Vocab. optiin. p. 47" has : silva wilder wait, nemus 
schoener wait, lucus dicker wait, saltus holier wait. Mi)umisen, 
Uuterital. dial. 141, derives Incus from luere, hallow. There are 
Jiurats named after divine beings: Frcckeuiiorstj Givekanhorst 
(conf. Freckastein, G'lvehansten. ok |>ar stendr enn Thorstoinn, 
Landn. ii. 12). It conies of forest-wor.ship that the gods are at- 
tended by wild beasts, Wuotan by wolf and raven, Froho by a boar. 

p. 69.] Worshipping in the still and shady grove was practised 
by many nations. ' Thou hast scattered thy ways to the strangei-s 
under every green tree' complains Jeremiah 3, 13. kKvtov 
ak<TO<^ Ipov jiOrjvaLr}<;, Od. 6, 321. ev aXaei hevopi^evTt ^oi^ov 
^AiroWcovo'i 9, 200. dXaea Ilepae(^ovairi<i 10, 509. aXcro? viro 
aKtepov eKarvi^oXov 'A'rroWwvo'i 20, 278. Athenaeus 4, 371-2, 
celebrates the cool of the sacred grove, inhorruit atram majestate 
nemus, Claudian in Pr. et Olybr. 125 (on nemus, see p. 648). in 
tiio luco etfano, Plant. Aulul. iv. 2, 8. lucus sacer, ubi llesperi- 
dum horti, Pliny 5, 5. itur in antlquani sllvam, stabuhi alta 
ferarum, JEn. 6, 179. nunc et in uiiibrosls Fauno decet iramolare 
lucis, Hor. Od. i. 4, 11. uec magis auro fulgentia atque ebore, 
quam lucos et in iis silentia ipsa aduramus, Pliny 12, 1. pro- 
ceritas silvae et seci*etum loci et admiratio umbrae fidem numiuis 
facit, Seneca ep. 41. As the wood is open above, a liole is left in 
the top of a temple, conf. the Greek hypaethral temples: Terminus 
quo loco colebatur, super eum foramen patebat hi /t^c^o, quod nefas 
esse putarent Terminum intra tectum consistere, Festus sub v. ; 
conf. Ov. Fasti 2, 671. Servius in /En. 9, 448. The Celts un- 
roofed their temples once a year {cnroaTeyd^.), Strabo 4, p. 198. 
A grove in Sarmatia was called akievfxa 6eov, piscatiira dei, Ptol. 

VOL. IV. D 



1310 TEMPLES. 

3, 5. The Abasgi in the Caucasus venerated groves and woods 
{dXar} Kol vXas;), and counted trees among their gods, Procop, 2, 
471 ; couf\ the prophetic rustle of the cypresses in Armenia (p. 
1110). Evenin the Latin poems of the MA. we find : A moris ne/nns 
ParadisuSj Carm. bur. 162. circa silvae medium locus est occultus, 
ubi viget maxime suus deo cultus 163. In Eckhart 186, 32 the 
Samaritan woman says, * our fathers worshipped under the trees 
on the mountain.' In Troj. kr. 890 : si wolden gerne husen ze 
walde uf wilden riuten. Walther v. Rh. 64^ : in einen schoenen 
griienen wait, dar diu heldeytsche diet mit ir abgoten geriet (ruled?). 
In stories of the Devil, he appears in the fored gloom, e.g. Ls. 3, 
256, perhaps because men still thought of the old gods as living 
there. Observe too the relation of home-sprites and wood- wives 
to ti-ees, p. 509. 

Worshipping on mountains is old and widely spread; conf. as, 
ans (p. 25), and the Wu.otsin&-h ergs, Donners-6t;r;/s. Three days 
and nights the Devil is invoked on a mountain, Miilleuh. no. 227. 
Mountain worship is Biblical: 'on this mountain (Gerizim),' 
John 4, 20; see Raumer's Palest, p. 113. 

p. 73.] Like the Donar's oak of Geismar is a large Jioli/ oaJc, 
said to have stood near Millhausen in Thuriugia ; of its wood was 
made a chest, still shown in the church of Eichenried village, 
Grasshof's Miilh. p. 10. 

p. 74.] On thegathon, see Hpt's Ztschr. 9, 192, and Wilmans' 
essay, Miinst. 1857. summum et principeui omn. deorum, qui 
apud gentes tlieguton nuncupatur, Wilkens biogr. of St. Gerburgis; 
conf. Wio-and's arch. 2, 206. tagaton discussed in Hitter's christl. 
phil. 3, 308. It is Socrates's Sat/j.6uiov, Plato's to ayadov, the 
same in Apul. apolog. p. m. 278. Can thegatJio be for theodo, as 
Tehota is for Thiuda ? Forstem. 1, 1148. 

p. 75.] The holg luood by Hagenau is named in Chmel reg. 
Ruperti 1071, D. Sag. 497. fronwald, Weisth. 1, 423. On the 
word hannwald conf. Lanz. 731 : diu tier (beasts) bannen. 
Among holy groves was doubtless the Fridewald, and perh. the 
Spiess, both in Hesse, Ztschr. f. Hess, gesch. 2, 163. Friffesledh, 
Kemble no. 187. 285; Oswudu 1, 69 is a man's name, but must 
have been that of a place first. The divine grove Glasir with 
golden foliage, Sn. 130, stands outside ValhoU ; Stem. 140^^ says 
HiorvarS's abode was named Glasis lundr. 



TEMPLES. 1311 

p. 75.] The adoration of the oak is proved by Velthcm's Sp. 
liisfc. 4, 57 (ed. Le Lioug, fol. 287) : Vau ere t'l/ken, die men 
anebede. 

In desen tiden was ganginge mede 
tusschen Zichgen ende Diest ter stcde 
rechte bi-ua te-inidden wcrde, 
daer dedo menich ere bedeverde 
tot ere eijhen (dat si u cont), 
die alse een cruse gewassen stuvt, 
met twee rayen gaende ut, 
daer menich quara overluut, 
die daer-ane liinc scerpe ende staf, 
en seide, dat hi genesen wer daer-af. 
Som liepense onder den bom, etc. 

Here is a Christian pilgrimage of sick people to a cross-shaped 
tree between Sicken and Diest in Brabant, and the hanging 
thereon of bandage and staff upon recovery, as at p. 11G7. 1179 ; 
conf. the heathen osciUa (p. 78). The date can be ascertained 
from Le Long's Velthem. 

p. 77.] ' Deos nemora incolere persuasum liabcnt (Samogitae) 
. . . . credebat deos mtra arbores et cortices latere ' says Lasicz, 
Hpt's Ztschr. 1, 138. The Ostiaks have holy woods, Klemm 3, 121. 
The Finnic 'Tharapita' should be Tkarapila. Castreu 215 thinks 
-pila is bild, but Kenvall says tluirapilla = ]iorned owl, Esth. tor- 
ropil, Verhandl, 2, 02. Juslen 284) has polio bubo, and 373 
tarhapollo bubo. With this, and the ON. bird in Glasis lundr, 
conf. a curious statement in Pliny 10,47 : in Herc^nio Germaniao 
s(dtu invisitata genera alitiim accepimus, quarum plumae igniuriL 
modo cvllnceant noctibus ; conf. Stephan's Stoflief. 116. 

p. 78 n.] Oscilla are usu. dulls, puppets, OHG. tocchun, Graff 
5, 365. They might even be crutches hung up on the holy tree 
by the healed (Snppl. to 75). But the prop, meaning must be 
images. On church walls also were Joung offerings, votive gifts, 
rarities : si hiezen diu weppe hdheii in die kirchen an die ynilre, 
Servat. 2890. 

p. 79.] A Celtic grove descr. in Lucan's Phars. 3, 309 ; a 
Norse temple in Eyrbyggja-s. c. 4. 

p. 80.] Giefers (Erh. u. Rosenkr. Ztschr. f. gesch. 8, 261 — 



1312 TEMPLES. 

285) supposes that the templum Tanfanae belonged at once to the 
Cherusci, Chatti and Marsi ; that Taufana may come from tanfo, 
truncus (?), and be the name of a grove occupying the site of 
Ereshurg, now Oher-Marsherg ; that one of its trunci, which had 
escaped destruction by the Komans (solo aequare lie makes burn- 
ing of the grove), was the Irmensnl, which stood on the Osning 
between Castrum Eresburg and the Garls-schanze on the Bruns- 
berg, some 4 or 5 leagues from Marsberg, and a few leagues 
from tlie BuUer-horn by Alteubeke, the spring that rose by 
miracle, B. Sag. 118. 

p. 80.] To the isarno-dori in the Jura corresp. Trajan's Iron 
Gate, Turk. Bemir Jcapa, in a pass of Dacia. Another Temir Jcapa 
in Cilicia, Kocb Anabas. 32. Miiller lex. Sal. p. 36. Clausura is 
a narrow pass, like QepfxoTTvkaL, or irvKai alone ; conf. Schott's 
Deutschen in Piemont p. 229. 

p. 85.] As castrum was used for templum, so is the Boh. 
hostel, Pol. hosciel for church. Convei'sely, templum seems at 
times to mean palatiutn; conf. ' exustum est palatiinn in Thorn- 
burg ' with ' exustum est famosum templum in Thornburg,' Pertz 
5, 62-3, also ")ihovnh\xYg castellum et pudatium Ottonis ^ 5, 755. 
The OS. rahud is both templum and palatium. Beside ' casulae' 
= fana, we hear of a cella antefana (ante fana?), Mone Anz. 6, 
228. 

p. 85.] Venieus (Chrocus Alamann. rex) Arvernos, deliibrum 
illud quod Gallica \mgVi2i vassogalate vocant, diruit atque subvertit; 
miro enim opere factum fuit, Greg. Tur. 1, 32. The statement is 
important, as proving a difference of religion between Celts and 
Germans : Chrocus would not destroy a building sacred to his 
own religion. Or was it, so early as that, a cliristian temple ? 
conf. cap. 39. 

p. 85.] Expressions for a built temple: '/(o/atti hann i 
tuninu, ser J^ess enyi merhl, j^at er nu kallat tr'uUasheld',' Laxd. QQ. 
sal, Gratf sub v.; der sal, Diemer 326, 7. AS. reccd, OS. rahud, 
seems conn, with racha, usu. = res, caussa, but ' zimhoron tliia 
racha,' 0. iv. 19, 38 j conf. wih and wiht. Later words : pluoz- 
hus, hloz-hus, Graff 4, 1053. abgot-hus fanura 1054. The Lausitz 
Mag. 7, 166 derives chirihhd, AS. cyrice, from circus. 0. SI. 
tzerhy, Uohr. 178; Croat, czirhva, Carniol. zirhva, Serv. tzrhva, 
0. Boll, cjerheiu, Pol. cerhieiv (conf. Graram. 3, 156. ^Pref. to 



PRIESTS, 1313 

Scliultze xi. Gniff i, -ISJ). The sanctuary, ON. griffastaffr, is not 
to be trodden, Fornm. sog. 4, 186> beast nor raan might there be 
harmed, no intercourse should men with' women have (engi viSskipti 
skyldu karlar vi5 konur ega )>ar, Fornald. sog. 2, 63. 

p. 86.] Heathen places of worship, even after the conversion, 
were still royal manors or sees and other benefices endowed with 
the estate of the old temple, like Ilerhede on the Ruhr, which 
belonged to Kaufungen, D. Sag. 589. Mannh. Ztsclir. 3, 147. 
Many manors (also glebe-lands ace. to the Weisthiimei-) had to 
maintain ' eisernes vieh, fasel-vieh,' bulls for breeding (p. 93). 
Iti Christian as in heathen times, holy places were revealed by 
si'T^ns and wonders. A red-hot harrow is let down from heaven 
(Sommer), like the burning plough in tlie Scyth. tale (Herod. 4, 
5), D. Sag. 58-9. Legends about the building of churches often 
have the incident, that, on the destined spot in the wood, light a 
were seen at night, so arranged as to show the gi'ound plan of the 
future edifice. They appear to a subulcus in the story of Ganders- 
heim, Pertz 6, 309-10 ; to another, Frickio by name, in the story 
of Frecl-enhorst, where St. Peter as carpenter designs the figure 
of the holy house, Dorow. i. 1, 32-3 ; couf. the story at p. 54 and 
that of Wessobrunn, MB. 7, 372. Falling snow indicates the 
spot, Miillenh. 113 ; conf. Hille-suee, Holda's snow, p. 268 n. 304. 
Where the falcon stoops, a convent is built, Wigand's Corv. 
giiterb. 105. The spot is suggested by cows in a Swed. story, 
Wieselgren 408; by resting animals in a beautiful AS. one, 
Kemble no. 581 (yr 974). 

p. 87.] On almost all our German mountains are to be seen 
footmarks of gods and heroes, indicating places of ancient worship, 
e.g. of Brunhild on the Taunus, of Gibich and Dietrich on the 
llartz. The Allerhatenberg in Hesse, the 'grandfather-hills' 
elsewhere, are worth noting. 



CHAPTER V. 

PRIESTS. 

p. Qdi.'] Religion is in Greek evcre^eia and OprjaKcia (conf. 6pr)- 
(TKevo), p. 107). KaT eva6^eiav = pic, Lucian 5, 277. Religio = 
iterata lectio, conf. intelligere, Lobeck's Rhematicon p. 65. It 



1314 PRIESTS. 

is rendered iu OHG. glosses by heit, Hattemer 1, 423; gote-dehti 
devotio, cote-dehtigi devout, anadaht intentio, attentio^ Graff 5, 
163. Pietas, peculiarly, by ' heim-minna unde mdg-minna,' Hatt. 

I, 423. Gredhcheit, Servafc. 762, is sham-piety, conf. p. 35 n. 
' Dis fretus ' in Plaut. Gas. 2, 5 = Goto forahtac, 0. i. 15, 3. 

p. 88.] Gudja, gocfi, seems to be preserved in the AS. proper 
name Goda. Kemble 1, 242. For ap'x^iepeix;, Ulph. has aulium.ists 
gudja, Matt. 27, 62. Mk. 8, 31 ; but auhumists veiha, Joh. 18, 13. 
The priest hallows and is hallowed (p. 93), conf. the consecration 
and baptism of witches. Gondul consecrates : nu vtgi eh })ih 
undir oil ]?au atkvaeSi ok skildaga, sem OSinn fyrimaelti, Fornald. 
sog. 1, 402. The words in Lactant. Phoenix, 'antistes nemorum, 
luci veneranda sacerdos,^ are rendered by the AS. poet : bearwes 
higenga, wudubearwes iveard 201 , 27. 208, 7. The priest stands 
before God, evcvvrt, tov 6eov, Luke 1,8: giangi furi Got, 0. i. 4, 

II. The monks form ' daz Gotes her,^ army, Eeinh. F. 1023. 
The Zendic dthrava, priest, Bopp Comp. Gram. 42. Spiegel's 
Avesta 2, vi. means fire-server, from atars fire, Dat. athre. Pol. 
xiadz priest, prop, prince or sacrificer, Linde 2, 1 1 64'' ; conf. 
Sansk, xi govern, kill, xaja dominans. 

p. 89.] Eitiart priest : ein eivart der abgote, Barl. 200, 22. 
Pass. 329, 56, etc. eivarde, En. 244, 14. prestor und ir eiue 
VI ester 243, 20. 

p. 89 n.] Zacharias is a fruud gomo, Hel. 2, 24. Our kluger 
mann, Muge frau, still signify one acquainted with secret powers 

of nature; so the Swed. 'de Molcar,' Fries udfl. 108. The phrase 

'der guote man' denotes espec. a saci-ed calling: that of a priest, 
Marienleg. 60, 40, a bishop, Pass. 336, 78, a pilgrim, Uolr. 91. 
Nuns are guote froiven, Eracl. 735. kloster und guote liute, 
Nib, 1001, 2, etc. die goede man, the hermit in Lane. 4153-71. 
16911-8, etc. So the Scot. ' gudeman's croft' above; but the 
name Gutmans-hausen was once Wotenes-husen (Suppl. to 154). 
Bons-lwmmes are heretics, the Manichseans condemned at the 
Council of Camber}'- 1165; buonuomini, Macchiav. Flor. 1, 97. 
158. The shepherds in 0. i. 12, 17 are guote man. Engl, good- 
man is both householder and our biedermann. Groa is addressed 
as goff kona. Seem. 97*^; in conjuring: Alrun, du vil guote (p. 
1202n.) 

p. 89.] Christian also, though of Germ, origin, seems the 



PRIESTS. 1315 

OTIG. heif-Jiaft sacerdos, from licit = ordo; hence, in ordinem 
sacrum rccoptus. MHG. lirUhnfin liute, sacerdotcs, Fundgr. 1, 
9 i ; conf. eithafte herren, Ksrchr, 1 1 895. AS. g^Jymigen, reverend, 
and espec. religiosus, Homil. p. 344. 

p. 90.] Agatliias 2, 6 expressly attributes to the heathen Ala- 
manus of the 6th cent, diviners (/u-avreiv and j^prjafjioXoyoi^) , who 
dissuade from battle ; and princes in the Mid. Ages still take 
clergymen into the field with them as counsellors : abbates pii, 
scioli bene consiJiarii, Rudl. 2, 253. Ordeals are placed under 
priestly authority, Saem. 237-8. In the popular assembly the 
priests enjoin silence and attention : silentium per sacerdotcs, qui- 
bus turn et coiircendi jus est, imperatur. Germ. 11. In addition 
to what is coll. in Haupt's Ztschr. 9, 127 on 'lust and unlust,' 
consider the facitus jjrecari of the Umbr. spell, and the opening 
of the Fastnachts-spiele. 

p. 91.] The Goth, propjan, uspropjan transl. /u,i;eti/ initiarc, and 
yvfjLvd^€iv, exercere GDS. 819; may it not refer to some sacred 
function of heathen priests, and be connected with the Gallic 
druid (p. 103Gn.), or rather with pru&r (p. 423)? Was heilac 
said of priests and priestesses ? conf. ' heilac huat,' cydaris, Graff 
4, 874; Heilacflat, Cod. Lauresh. 1, 578; Heilacbrunno, p. 587; 
Heiligbar, p. 667-8. Priests take part in the sacrificial feast, they 
consecrate the cauldron : sentu at Saxa Sunnmanna e-ram, hann 
kann helga hver vellanda, Saem. 238"; so Peter was head-cook 
of heaven, Lat. ged. des MA. p. 336. 344. Priests maintain the 
sacred beasts, horses and boars, Herv.-s. cap. 14 ; conf. RA. 592. 
In beating the bounds they seem to have gone before and pointed 
out the sacred stones, as the churchwardens did afterwards ; they 
rode especially round old churches, in whose vaults an idol was 
supposed to lie. Priests know the art of quickening the dead, 
Holtzm. 3, 145. They have also the gifts of healing and divina- 
tion : taTp6fiavTi<;, ^sch. Suppl. 263. 

p. 91.] In many Aryan nations the priestly garment is ivhite. 
Graecus augur pallio candido velatus, Umber et Romanus trabea 
purpurea amictus, Grotef. inscr. Umbr. 6, 13. Roman priests 
and magistrates have white robes ; see the picture of the flamen 

^ The yudiTis interprets dreams, entrails, flights of birds, but is no speaker of 
oracles, xpV<^l^o\6yoi, Pans. i. 34, 3. [lu Plato's Tima>U8 72 B, /tdtats (fr. fxaivofj.ai) 
is the inspired speaker of oracles.] 



1316 PRIESTS. 

dialis in Hartung 1, 193. Schwenck 27; amictus veste alba 
sevir et praetor, Petron. 65. The Cimbrian priestesses in Strabo 
are \ev^ei/j,ove<i (p. 55-6), and the Gothic priests in Jorn. cap. 10 
appear in candidis vestibus. The Gallic druids are arrayed in 
white (p. 1206), the priest of Gerovit in snow-wJiife, Sefridi v, 
Ottonis p. 128 (Giesebr. Wend, gesch. 1, 90). In the Mid. Ages 
too white robes belong to holy women, nuns, die goede man met 
witten clederen. Lane. 22662-70. 

The Gothic irileati (Kl. schr. 3, 227. GDS. 121) remind us of 
the ' trxn, geneva, inleorum, quibus sacerdotes utuntur : apex, tutii- 
lus, galerus' in Suetonii fragm.. p. m. 335. The picture of a 
hearded msi,n in Stalin 1, 161-2, is perhaps meant for a priest. 
The shaven hair of Christian and Buddhist monks and nuns is 
probably a badge of servitude to God ; GDS. 822. 

p. 91.] Snorri go^i, like the AS. coifi, rides on a mare, 
Eyrbygg. s. 34 ; and the flamen dialis must not mount any kind 
of horse, Klausen ^n. 1077. Hartung 1, 191. Possibly even 
the heathen priests were not allowed to eat things with blood, 
but only herbs. Trevrizent digs up roots, and hangs them on 
bushes, Parz.- 485, 21 ; in a similar Avay do Wilhelra the saint and 
Waltharius eke out their lives, Lat. ged. d. MA. p. 112. 

p. 92.] Among gestures traceable to priestly rites, I reckon 
especially this, that in the vindicatio of a beast the man had to lift 
up his right hand or lay it on, while his left grasped the animal's 
right ear. The posture at hammer-throwing seems to be an- 
other case in point, RA. 65-6, GDS. 124-5. Kemble 1, 278 

thinks coifi is the AS. ceofa, diaconus. 

p. 93.] Christian priests also are called ' God's man, child, 
kneht, scale, deo, diu, wine, trut,' or 'dear to God,' conf. Mann- 
hardt in Wolf's Ztschr, 3, 143, Gotes man (Suppl. to p. 20-1). 
Gotes H«f = priest, Greg. 1355, Reinh, 714; or = pilgrim, as 
opp. to welt-kind (worldling), TVist. 2625. der edle Gotes hneht, 
said of Zacharias and John, Pass, 346, 24, 349, 23. 60 ; of the 
pilgrim, Trist. 2638, Gotes riter, Greg, 1362. ein warer Gotis 
scale, Ksrchr. 6071, OHG, Gota-cZeo, Gotes-f?fo, fern, -diu (conf. 
ceile De, culde, servant of God, Ir. sag. 2, 476). der Gotes trut, 
Pass. 350, 91. Among the Greek priests were a'^yld&oi, Lucian 
dea Syr. 31 ; conf. the conscii deorum, Tac. Germ. 10. Amphi- 
araus is helovcd of Zeus and Apollo, i.e. he is /jlcIi'ti';. On his 



PRIESTS. 1317 

ileath Apollo appoints another of the same family, Od. 15, 245. 
253. 

p. 93.] If priesthood could be hereditary, the Norse goSi 
must have been free to marry, like the episcopus and diaconus of 
the early Christians (1 Tim. 3, 2. 12) and the Hindu Brahmin. 
Not so the Pruss. wauUot or waidler, Nesselm. p. xv. and p. 141. 
To appoint to the priesthood is in ON. si(jna goiToiii, or gefa, 
though the latter seems not always to imply the priestly office : 
l>eir voro gumnar guiTom signaSlr, Siiem. 117''. gf'fi'^n 05ni, 
Fornm. sog. 2, IGS. enn gaf haiin (Brandr) giid'anum, ok var 
hann kallaJSr Guff-hranar, Fornald. sug. 2, 6; his son is GuS- 
mundr, and his son again GuSbrandr ( = OHG. Gota-beraht) 2, 7. 
Does this account for divination being also hereditary (p. 1107) ? 

p. 93.] The god had part of the spoils of war and hunting 
(p. 42), priest and temple were paid their dues, whence tithes 
arose : hof-hdlr is the toll due to a temple, Fornm. s. 1, 268. On 
])riestly dwellings see GDS. 125. 

p. 94.] German divination seems to have been in request 
even at Rome : haruspex ex Germania missus (Domitiano), hJuet. 
Doniit. IG. Soothsayers, whom the people consulted in particular 
cases even after the convereion, were a remnant of heathen priests 
and priestesses. The Lex Visig. vi. 2, 1 : * ariulos, arunjnce.t, 
vaticinantes consulere,' and 5 : ' execrabiles divinorum irronun- 
fiatioiies intendere, salutis aut aegritudinis responsa poscere.' 
Liutpr. 6, 30 : ' ad ari.olos vel ariolas pro responsis accipiendis 
ambulare,' and 31 : 'in loco ubi arioli vel ai'iolae fuerint.' 

The ON. spa-ma ffr is called rilff-spahr, Saem. 175*, or fram-vtss 
like the prophet Gripir 172". 175*. ]>u. fram um ser 175"'''. -farit 
t'l- |)az ek furvuaac 175''. ]>\\ ijll um scr orlog for 17G''. Gr-ipir 
lijgr eigi 177**. Gevarus rex, divinandi doctissimus, industria 
jiracsagiorum excultus, Saxo Gram. p. 115. (conf. p. 1034. 
IIOG). The notion of oraculum (what is asked and obtained of 
the gods), vaticinium, divinatio, is expr. by ON. frett : frettir 
sogSu, Stem. 93". fretta beiddi, oracula poposci 94". geek til 
ficttar, Yngl. 21 (Grk. -^pacrOai no deep, inquire of the god). 
Conf. frehtau, Suppl. to p. 37; OIIG. frcht meritum, frtlitic 
meritus, sacer; AS. fyrht in Leg. Canuti, Thorpe p. 1G2. 

p. 95.] German women seem to have taken part in sacrifices 
(p. 5Gn.); women perform sacrifice before the army of the Thracian 



1318 GODS.' 

Spartacus (b.c. 67), who had Germans under Lira, Plutarch Crass. 
c. 11. The Eomans excluded women, so do the Cheremisses, p. 
1235-6; the Lapps and the Boriats, Klemm 3, 87. 111-3. 

p. 95-6.] A druias GalHcana vatlcinans is mentioned by Yopis- 
cus in Aurel. 44, in Numer. 13-4; by Lainpindius in Alex. Sev. 
60. Drusus is met by a species harharae mnlieris humana amplior, 
Suet. Claud, c. 1. Dio Cass. 55, 1. Chatta muHer vaticinans Suet. 
Vitel. c. 14. Veleda receives gifts : Mumius Lupercus inter dona 
missus Veledae, Tac. Hist. 4, 61, A modern folktale brings her 
in as a goddess, Firmenich ], 334-5. On Albruna conf. Hpt^s 
Ztschr. 9, 240. Of Jeltha it is told in the Palatinate, that she 
sought out and hewed a stone in the wood : whoever sets foot on 
the fairy stone, becomes a fixture, he cannot get away, Nadler p. 
125. 292. Like Pallas, she is a founder of cities. Brynhild, like 
Veleda, has her hall on otmoantain, and sits in her tower, Vols. s. 
cap. 25. Hother visits prophetesses in the waste wood, and then 
enlightens the folk in edito moniis vertlce, Saxo Gram. p. 122. 
The lohite lady of princely houses appears on a tower of the castle. 
The witte Dorte lives in the toiuer, Mullenh. p. 3i4. When mis- 
fortune threatens the Pedaseans, their priestess gets a long beard, 
Herod. 1, 175. 8, 104. Women carve and read runes : Kostbera 
kunni shil rmia, Saem. 252% reist runa 252^\ Orny reist riinar a 
kefli, Fornm. s. 3, 109. 110 (she was born dumb, p. 388). In 
the Mid. Ages also women ai-e particularly clever at writing and 
reading. RA. 583. 

p. 98.] To the Norse prophetesses add Groa volva, Sn. 110, 
and Gondul, a valkyr, Fornald. s. 1, 398. 402, named appar. from 
gandr, p. 1054. 420. Thorgerffr and Lya are called both horcja- 
hrucfr, temple-maid, and Holga-hru&r after their father Holgi, 
p. 114. 637. A Slav pythonissa carries her sieve in front of the 
army, p. 1111-2; others in Saxo Gram. 827; conf. 0. Pruss. 
waidlinne^ Nesselm. pref. 15. 



CHAPTER VL 

GODS. 

p. 104 n.] TheGoi\\.manleika,0^(j.mannali]iho (conf. dz-'Spta? 
fr. avi^p man), lasts in MHG. wehsine manlich, Fundgr. 2, 123. 



GODS. 1319 

guldin manlich, Servat. 2581. 'apud manJicha,' where the image 
stands, Notizenbl. Q>, 1G8. 

p. 105.] Though Tacitus mentions no image in human shape, 
but only signa and formae {effigiesque et signa quaedam detrada 
Jim's in proelium ferunt, Germ. 7, conf. vargr hangir fyr vestan dyr, 
ok drupir orn yfir, Saem. 41'') ; — yet the expression' nfr/Henipsum, 
si credere velis,' used of the divine Mother in her bath, cap. 40, 
does seem to point to a statue. 

p. 106.] In the oldest time fetishes — stones and logs — are 
regarded as gods' images, Gerh. Metron. p. 26. Gr. to ^pera<i\n 
the Tragic poets is a god's image of wood (conf. etKouv), though 
Benfey 1, 511 says 'of clay;' ^oavov, prop, graven image fr. ^eeo 
I scrape, often means a small image worn on the person, e.g. the 
Cleo in Pans. iii. 14, 4; ayaX/xa, orig. ornamcmt, then statue; 
^(t)Btov, liter, little-animal 15, 8. Statues were made of particular 
kinds of wood : ^oavov dyvov, of the vitex agnus-castus 14, 7 
(conf. ramos de nobilissimo agno casto, Evag. Fel. Fabri 1, 156-7), 
as rosaries of mistletoe were preferred, cum paupere culta stabat 
in exigua llgnens aede deus, Tib. i. 10, 20. Irish dealhh, deilbli, 
deUhhin, deilhhog, imago, statua, figura. Beside the Boh. modia, 
idolura (fr. model ? or fr. modliti, to pray ?), we find balwan, block, 
log, idol, Pol. halwan, Miklos. hal'van', Wall, halavanii, big stone 
(p. 105 n.), which Garnett, Proceed. 1,148, connects with Armoric 
' peiilvan, a long stone erected, a rough unwrought column.' 
OHG. avara (p. 115-6) stands for imago, statua, pyramis (irman- 
siil), pyra, ignis, Graff 1, 181 ; conf. Griaclicf^-avara (p. 297) ; OS. 
avaro filius, proles, AS. eafora. The idea of idolum is never 
clearly defined in the Mid. Ages : the anti-pope Burdinus (a.d. 
1118-9) is called so, Pertz 8, 254-5. Even Beda's 'idoUs servire' 
2, 9 is doubtful, when set by the side of 'daemonicis cultibus 
servire ' 2, 5. 

p. 107.] On Athanaric's worship of idols, conf. Waitz's Ulfila 
p. 43. 62. Claudian de B. Getico 528 makes even Alaric (a.d. 402) 
exclaim : Non ita di Getici faxint manesque 'parentutn ! Compare 
the gods' waggon with sacer ctirru.f in Tac. Germ. 10 and Suppl. 
to 328-0 below. Chariots of metal have been found in tombs, 
Lisch Meckl. jb. 9, 373-4. 11, 373. 

p. 108.] That the Franks in Clovis's time had images of gods, 
is proved furtiier by Remigius's epitapli on him: Contempsit ere- 



1320 



GODS. 



dere mille Numiua, quae variis horrent portenta fiijurls. On the 
other hand, Gregory of Tours's account (1, 34) of the Alamann 
king Chrocus in the 3rd century compelling St. Privatus in Gaul 
to sacrifice to idols, is vaguely worded: Daemoniis imniolare com- 
pellitur, quod spurcum ille tam exsecrans quam refutans ; on 
Chrocus conf. Stalin 1, 118. 

p. 108 n.] Old idols in churches were placed behind the 
organ (Melissantes orogr, p. 437 — 9) in Duval's Eichsfeld 341, 
'An idols' chamber was in the old choir/ Leipz. avant. 1, 89 — 91 ; 
'the angels out of the firewood room/ Weinhold's Schles. wtb. 
17'^; fires lighted with idols, conf, Suppl. top. 13 — 15. Giants'' 
ribs or hammers hung outside the church-gate, p. 555 n.; urns 
and inverted pots built into church-walls, Thilr. mitth. i. 2, 
112—5. Steph. Stoflief, p. 189, 190, A heathen stone with the 
hoof-mark is let into Gudensberg churchyard wall, p. 938. 

p. 113.] The warming (baka), anointing and drying of gods' 
images is told in FriS);iofs-s. cap. 9 (p. 63). But the divine 
snake of the Lombards was of gold, and was made into a plate 
and chalice (p, 684), The statua ad humanos tactus vocaUs, Saxo 
p. 42, reminds of Memuon's statue. Some trace of a Donar's 
image may be seen in the brazen dorper, p. 535. On the arm- 
rings in gods' images conf. the note in Miiller's Saxo p. 42, Even 
H. Sachs 1, 224'^' says of a yellow ringlet : ' du nahmst es Gott 
von fiissen 'rab,' off God's feet; and ii. 4, 6^: ihr thet es Got von 
fiissen uemmen. Four-headed figures, adorned with half-moons, 
in Jaumann's Sumlocenne p. 192 — 4, On nimbi, rays about the 
head, conf. p. 323 and Festus : capita deorum appellabantur fas- 
ciculi facti ex verbenis. Animals were carved on such figures, as 
on helmets ; and when Alb. of Halberstadt 456^ transl. Ovid's 
'Ilia mihi niveo factum de marmore signum Ostendit juvenile, 
gerens in vert ice picum,' Met. 14, 318, by ' truoc einen speht ilf 
fiiner ahseln,' he probably had floating in his mind Wodan with 
the raven on his shoulder. Even in Fragm. 40"^ we still find : 
swuor bi alien gotes-bilden. 

p. 114 n.] Gods' images are instinct with divine life, and can 
move. Many examples of figurea turnituj round in Botticher's 
Hell. Temp. p. 126. One such in Athenaeus 4, 439; one that 
turns its face, Dio Cass. 79, 10: sacra retorseruut oculos, Ov. 
Met. 10, 696; one that walks, Dio Cass. 48, 43. iBpooeira ^oava 



GODS. 1321 

Kal Kiveerai, Lucian ed. Bip. 9, 92. 120. 378; deoriim smlafisc 
siumlacra, Cic. de divin. 2, 27. siniul.icniiii Apollinis CuiiiMiii 
qiKifridiio flf'vif, Augustiii. Civ. Dei 3,11; Lanuvii slimdacrinn 
Junonis sospitae lacrimasse, Livy 40, 19; lapidmn //e/'f.s- = statua- 
rum lacriinae, Claudian in Eutrop. 2, 43. simulacrum Jovis 
cachiuunm rcpeute edidit, Suet. Calig. 57. Flames burst out 
from bead aud breast, Herod. 6, 82. An Artemis drops her shield, 
Paus. iv. 13, 1. Not Only are they spoken to (interdiu cum Capi- 
tolino Jove secreto fabnlabatur^ modo insusurrans ac praebeus 
invicem aurem, modo clarius, nee sine jurgiis, Suet. Calig. 22), 
but they answer. Being asked, Wisue ire IJoinaui, .Juno?' she 
nods and says yea, Livy 5, 22. 

The same in Teutonic heathenism, Thor's imago uHilks and 
talks, Fornm. s. 1, 302. As Thorger^S's image bends its liand 
to keep the gold ring on, Mary's does the same, see above, and 
Ksrchr. 13I42-2G5-323. Vine. Beliov. 25, 29 foil, by Heinr. de 
Hervord ad an. 1049. A Virgin sets the Child down, and kneels 
to it, Marienleg. 228; the Child is taken from Jier, Pass. 144, conf. 
Ges. Ab. 3, 584. A i\Iary receives a shot, and saves the tnan it 
was aimed at, Maerl. 2, 202. A Crucifix embraces a worshipper, 
Keisersb. seel, par, 75^; bows to one who has forgiven his mortal 
foe, Sch, u, Ernst 1522 cap, 628; 'dat cruce losede den voef, unde 
stotte ene,' kicked him, Detm. 1, 7. An image ?n7es the perjurer's 
hand oflT, Sch. u. Ernst c. 249 ; sj^eaks, Alexius 444, 490. Maerl, 
2, 201 ; and tarns round, KM. 1 (ed. 2) xlix. The stone visitant 
in Don Juan nods and walks, Gods' images fall from heaven 
ace. to the Scythian legend ; so does the figure of Athena, Paus. 
i. 20, 7. Or they are stolen from abroad, dii evocati, e.g. a 
Juno (Gerh. Etrusker p. 31), and Artemis from Tauris, Schol. to 
Theocr. ; conf. Meiners 1, 420-3. So, in the Mid. Ages, relics 
were stolen. Again, idols are loashed, bathed, Schol. to Theocr. ; 
conf. the Alraun, p. 1203. They were even solemnly burnt; thus 
in the Boeotian daadals, every GO years, 14 oaken images of Hera 
were consigned to the flames, E. Jacobi's Hdwtb. d. Gr, u, Rom, 
mythol, 394, 

p. 115,] The numbers three aiul four in conn, with gods' 
images occur even later still. At Aign on the Inn near Rottal- 
miinster, next the Malching post-house, a St, Leonard's pilgrim- 
age is made to five brazen idols, the biggest of which is called the 



1322 GODS. 

Worthy. The peasants say none but the worthy man can lift it. 
If a youth after his first confession fails to lift the figure, he goes 
to confession again, and comes back strengthened. The festival 
is called The three golden Saturday nights in September. A girl 
proves her virginity (also by lifting?). The Austrians have a 
Leonard's chapel too, yet they pilgrim to Aign, and say ' he is 
the one, the Bavarians have the right one,' conf. Panzer's Beitr. 
2, 32 — 4. A nursery-tale (Ernst Meier no, 6, p. 38) describes a 
wooden sculpture in the shape of a horse with four heads, three 
of which belong to Donner, Blitz and Wetter, evidently Donar, 
Zio and Wuotan. 

p. 118.] Similar to the irmen-pillar with Mercury's image in 
the Ksrchr., is a statue at Trier which represented Mercury flying, 
Pertz 10, 132. The Lorsch Annals make Charles find gold and 
silver in the Irmenseule. There are also stories of mice and rats 
living inside statues, Lucian somn. 21; in Slavic idols, says 
Saxo ; the Thor that is thrown down swarms with large mice, 
adders and worms, Maui-er bek. 1, 536. What Rudolf of Fulda 
says of the Innlnsul is repeated by Adam of Bremen (Pertz 9, 
286). ' irmesuwel der cristenheit,' Germania 1, 451, conf. 444. 
The Roman de Challemaine (Cod. 7188, p. 69) describes the war 
of the Franks with the Saxons : 

En leur chemin trouverent un moiistier 

que li Saisne orent fet pieca edifier. 

une idole y avait, que les Saisnes proier 

venoient come dieu touz et gloirefier. 

quar leur creance estoit selonc leur fol cuidier 

quele les puist bieu sauver jousticier. 

Neptusnus ot a non en lonneur de la mer. 

One is reminded of the lofty Irmiusul by the story of an idol Lug 
or Heillug, 60 cubits high, in the Wetterau, Ph. Dieffenbach 291 
(heiliger loh ?). 

p. 121.] On Caesar's ' Sol et Vnlcamis et Lunaj' see GDS. 766. 
The Indiculus comes immediately after the Abrenuntiatio, in 
which Thuner, Woden and Saxnothave been named ; its Mercury 
and Jupiter therefore stand for German gods, as indeed several 
German words are used in it : nod-fyr, nimidas, frias, dadsisas. 
The Abrenuntiatio requires you to give up the trilogy Thuner, 



GODS. 1323 

AVoden, Saxnot, and all the unliolics that ave their fellows ; so 
there ivere three heathen gods, and more. On the trilogy conf. 
Pref. li. liv., and in Verelius, sub v. blotskap, the passage out 
of the Trojamanna-s. p. 34, where Brutus invokes Thor, Obin and 
Gfi/joii. 

p. 122.] Saxo's way of looking at the Norse gods is noticed 
p. oSl-5. The thunder-god, who is Thoro at p. 41, and Thai' at 
p. 103, he once names Jupiter. Besides, he has Pluto and Bis = 
Othiuus as ValfotSr 3G. 140-7 ; and Proserpi/ia = Hel, 43. 

p. 123.] Lepsius, Einl. p. 131, says the Egyptian week had not 
7, but 10 days. ' Nine days' time ' is a common reckoning among 
savages, Klemm 2, 149. To nundinae corresponds ivvrnxap, yet 
Nieb. 1, 308, and 0. Miiller Etr. 2, 324 think the Humans had a 
week of 8 days. The seven-day week is Semitic, was unknown 
to Greeks or Romans, and rests on a belief in the sacredness of 
the number 7 ; conf. Nesselm. on the origin of the week (Kunigsb. 
deutsche gesellsch.. May 22, 1845). Titurel 2753 : 

Die sieben stern sieben tugende haltent, 

Die muozen alle mensche liabeu, die da zit der tage walteut. 

The Provencal names of days in Raynouard sub v. dia. 0. Fr. 
de-mierkes for mercre-di, de-venres for vendre-di ; conf. Roquef. 
suppl. V. kalandre. 

p. 125.] MHG. 1. Sunnentac, MS. 2, 190''. Amur 1578. 

1009-21. Griesh. 114. 141. sitntac, Pass. 299,68. 81. II. 

mdidac, Fraueud, 32, 11. maentags 82, 1. III. aftennaeiitaci, 

Hiltzl. lxviii\ aftermontag, Uhl. volksl. p. 728. zistag and 
z I ntita g, Wackern. Bas. hss. 54-7; also Schweiz. geschichtsfr. 
1.82-3. 161. 4,149. cius^a^, Wei.sth. 1, 759. z instag, Bietv. 
drach. 320''. Justinger 59, Keisersp. zistig, Tobler 458. eritag, 
Fundgr. 1, 75. MB. 27, 89* (1317). 132=* (1345). Lang reg. 
4, 711* (1300). Gratzer urk. of 1319, etc.; but ibid, erchtag, 
1310. Schwabe tintenf. 19. 56. erdag in Hartlieb, Superst. H., 
cap. 31-2. erichtag, Beheim, 76, 16. H. Sachs 1, 206'^. Hutten 

3, 358. eretay in Guben, 48, 32. IV, mitivoche, Bas. hss. 57. 

viittocJie, Diemer, 357, 5. von de»i mitechen, Tund. 44, 27. des 
mittichen, MB. 27, 90 (1317). 27, 98 (1321). der midechen, 
Gratzer urk. of 1320, mitich, mitichen, 1338. midechon, Griesh. 
2, 48. ' an dem nehsten guctemtag (!), Schreiber 1, 486 (see p. 
124 n). V. Records of the 14th cent, waver betw. donrcsdag 



1324 GODS. 

aud donredag. Bunrstao, Pass. 67, 87, etc. dilnderstag , danders- 
tag alw. in Conr. of Weinsbg. dorstage, Schweiz. gescliichtsfr. 
3, 260 (1396). Danredagh, Maltzau 2, 6. Hpt Ztscbr. 5, 406. 

donredagh, Maltzan 2, 45. VI. phincztag, Beheim 78, 8. MB. 

27, 131" (1343). vritach, Griesli. 2, 48. frehtag, Giutzer urk. 
of 1310. des vriegtage.% S. Uolrich, 1488. 

p. 125.] OS. These have to be guessed from the follow- 
ing later forms : I. sundacJi, Ssp. soiidag, Pom. 1486. Klempiu 

488. II. mandag, ibid. 111. dhisdag, Coin. ui'k. of 1261. 

Hofer no. 5. dinstag, 1316, ib. p. 112; di/nsdais, p. 277. dince- 
dagh, Pom. urk. of 1306, p. 354. dinscdag, Magdeb. urk. of 
1320, p. 142. dinstagli, Quedl. of 1325, p. 17'.). dlngstdag, 
Ravnsbg. urk. of 1332, p. 258. dijnstag, Siebertz no. 652. 6y8 
(1315-43). dlnxtdiig, Ditm. landr. of 1447 ed. Michels. p. 32. 
dynsthedach, Detmar 2, 287. dinschedacJi, Weisth. 3, 88. 90. 
dyngstedag, urk. of Maltzau 2, 270. dincsedagh 2, 34. dlnghe- 
stedaghes, dingsted., dynsted., dyngesd. 2, 179. 210. 207. 142. 
dinxstednges, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 405-406. dingstedag, Hammer- 
broker recht. Did any Low German district in the Mid. Ages 
retain Tisdag ? Scarcely : all seem to have forms beginning 
with din, agreeing with Nethl. dinsdag, and corrup. from the 
older disendach ; hence our present dienstag. Dinstag appears 
as early as 1316 at Schleusingen, 1320-2 at Erfurt (Hofer p. 120. 

146. 153). dingesdag, Klempin 488. lY. gaduisdag, gudens- 

dag, Hofer no. 6. 7. (1261-2). des mitweliens, Maltzau 2, 88. 
in deme mitwekene 2, 113. des mydwehen, Hpt Ztschr. 5,406. 
des middewekenes, Hofer 166 (in 1323 at Halberstadt). mitd- 
wekenes 370 (in 1331). 7nedewekes 360 (in 1324). middeweke, 

Klempin. Y.dnuresdacJi, Ssp. (ionrec^a^/, Klempin. dunredagh., 

urk. of Maltzau, 2, 6. Hpt 5, 406. donredagh, Maltzan 2, 45. 

VI. vridach, Ssp. frigdag, Klempin. VII. siinavent, Ssp. 

2, 66 (one MS. satersdach). sonnavend, Klempin. saterdag is 
Nethl. and Westph., not Saxon, satersiag, Seibertz 724^* (1352). 
satirsdacli, Marieulieder. Hpt 10, SO- 1, saterstag, Spinnr. evang.. 
Coin 1538, title. In Freidauk 169, 15, one MS. changes ' suones 
twQ ' \n.\,o satersdacli. soterdag , Ywrnemoh. 1,30P; surreschteg 1, 
495 at Bupen. 

M. Nethl. 1, sondacli, Decker's Lekensp. 1, 38. II. 

maendach, Decker ib. HI. dinxdach, Decker, disdag desdag, 



GODS. 1325 

Coremans p. 49, disendaiijhes, Hedu p. 443. De klerk 1, 804. 

diseiulach, Ulil. 1, 415. IV. woonttdach, Decker. V. donre- 

dach, Decker, donderdach, Lane. 13970. VI. vn'dach, Decker. 

den vrindach, Lane. 25310. sfniKhigliefi, Maerl. 3, 28 1, sfrindaechs, 

De klerk 1, 708 in 1303." VH. saterdach, Decker. In the 

Leveu van Jezus p. 27-8. 74-5. 234 the Jewish notion of Sab- 
bath is lamely rendered by saterdach. 

p. 12G.] Fris. III. tiliHdl, tmh'ii, Ilpt Ztschr. 1, 107. 

VII. A fuller form ' ' sn-avend ^ occurs in the Gen. snavendcx, 
Anhalc urk. of 1332, Hofer 163. 

North-Fris. forms in Ontzen, p. 38. IV. Weadansdal, 

Landeskunde 4, 248. Wlujsdau in Silt, Miillenh. 1G7. V. 

Tiirsdel and Tiisdci. VII. 2/(, = evening, eve, as in ' gude e'en 

to ye,' Shaksp. good-<'?i. 

AS. IV. Mercoris die, hoc est Wod^iesdag, Kenible 5, 94 

(in 844) . 

OE. III. tweisdai'e. IV. inensdaie, Garner, Procdgs. p. 232. 

ON. in Gnla]?. p. 9. III. Ti/sdagr. IV. Od-ensdagr. V. 

porsdagr. VI. Freadagr. VII. pcatd'agr. 

SwED. 1. siUDinndagJir, ostg. (conf. p. 126 n.). VII. 

Ibghxirdagh, ostg. 

Noiiw. IV. mekedag. VI. Freadag, Dipl. Norv. vol. 3, no. 

787 (in 1445). 

Jut. IV. Voensdag, vuinsdan, Molb. dial. 653. VI. Frcia. 

VII. Luora, Foersom, p. 12. 

Angl. IV. Vo)isdaw. 

p. 127 n.] On the Roman altar in Swabia, see Stalin, 1, 111. 
On the circle of planetary gods, Lersch in Jb. d. Rheinlande iv. 
183. V. 298 — 314, The 8 figures on the altar may signify the 
gods of nundinae. The Germ, week has Odin in the middle, his 
sons Tyr and Thor next him : Mars, Mercury, Jupiter. 

p. 129.] Snorri too, in his Fornmli, has interpretations and 
comparisons with the Bible and classical mythology. Freyr he 
identifies with Saturn (p. 217). 

p. 130.] The Ests, Finns and Lapps name the days thus : — 

Est, 1, piiJiJiajiddw, holy day. II. esmaspddic, first day. 

III. teisipddw, second day. IV. Iceslindddel ^ mid-week. V, 

' The Slavic ned^lia, orig. Sunday, now means week. 
VOL. IV. E 



1326 WODAN. 

neli/apddw, fourth day, YI. rede (redi), fiist-daj ? VII. lau- 
jmdw; })oolpadw, half- day, 

Finn. 1, sunnuntai. II. maanan. III. tiUtai. IV. keski- 

wiycko. V. tuorstal. VI. pe^-i/andai ; is this Perun's day dis- 
placed (couf. Perendan below)? or, as the Finns have no F, a 
corrup. of Fredag- ? [Prob. the latter, conf. Peryedag; and the 
Fiuus are fond of addiug an N.]. VII. lauivandai. 

SwED. Lapp. 1, ailek. II, manodag. III. tisdag. IV, kasha 

ivakko. V, tuoresdag. VI. peryedag. VII. lawodag. 

NoRW. Lapp. 1. sod)io helve. II. vuosarg. 111. maiigeharg. 

IV. gashvokko. YL. fastoheive fast-day, and per ijedag. 



CHAPTER VII. 

WODAN. 

p. 131.] The name of the highest god, whom the other gods 
serve as cliildro)i their father (Sn. 23), often occurs in OHG., like 
ITerrgott much later, as a man's name: Wotan., Schannat 312, 
Woataii 318, Wnotan 342. 386-9. Langobardic glosses have 
Odan and Godan, Hpt Ztschr. i, hU7 ; conf. Goddri 5, 1. 2. In 
the Abren. we find Woden ; perh, Wedan too is OS. (Suppl. to 
154) ; on Wodan conf. Lisch Meckl. Jb. 20, 143. AS., beside 
Woden, has Othan (Sup. to 5) ; Offon, Sal. and Sat. 83 ; Eow&en 
(p. IGl n.). Nth Fris. Wede, Wedke, Miillenh. 167. Wedkl taeri ! 
Landesk. 4, 246. For Norse O^inn, once Oddiner, conf. Munch 
on Odd's 01. Tr. 94. Aadon, Yngl. c. 7, Does Audiin in Norw. 
docs, stand for 05iu ? Oden in Ostogtl. = hin onde, Almqvist 
371^. In the Stockh. Adress-calender for 1842, p. 142, are 
actually two men named Odin. Rask, Afh. 1, 377-8, takes the 
Lett. Vidvut for the Vodan of the Vides (Lettons), while Vogt 1, 
141 makes Wldewud, Waidewud a Prussian king. With Vat in 
the Orisons, conf. Viiodan in the Valais, of whom M. C. Vullie- 
min relates in his La reine Berte et sou temps, Laus. 1843, p. 3 : 
' Un jour on avait vu Wuodan descendre le Rhone, telle etait du 
nioins la croyance populaire, I'epee uue dans une main, un globe 
d'or dans Fautre, et criant rigou haiouassou (fleuve souleve toi) ! 
et le fleuve s'clevant avait detruit une partie de la ville.' On my 
inquiring (through Troyou) if the name in the story was really 



WODAN. 



1327 



Wuodan, the answer was distinctly Yes, and the town destroyed 
was Martigny. Carisch 182'' has viift idol, which some derive 
from vultus, voult, face, or portrait, others from votuiii ; couf. 
magliavutts (Sup. to 35 n.). 

p. 132.] Wuotan from watau, like 6eo^ from deecv, Sansk. 
vddanaH, Schleicher in Kuhn's Ztschr. 4, 399. He stands closely 
conn, with weatlter, OHGr. wetar, aer, aether, and wind (Sup. to 
115) ; he is storm, byr, furia, wild hunter, uma, Ymir, Jumala, 
spirit ; ho is also called Ofnir, Vafu^r, Vafj^riiSnir. But why ia 
Stem. 3'' does OSina give ond, and Hoenir 6S, when surely OSinn 
should o-ive oh ? The Bav. tvndelih is known to H. Sachs : das 
es aiifwudlet gruu in griin (of herbs) v. 377'^. wudelt das kraut 
auf, V. SIS" ; conf. Wuotlhjoz, Wodtlyeat, p. 367 u., and Woden's 
relation to Geat, p. 164-5. We can put him on a par with Zeus, 
Indra, Loptr : cit]p, ov av Ti-? oi'o/xdaeie kuI Aia, Meineke's Fragm. 
com. 4, 31. yEschylus in Earn. 65U says of Zeus: ra 8' aXka 
rrdvT civoi re koI Karon arpecficov rlOrjaiv, ovSeif dadfiaivoiv /xevei. 
Zeus merely touches, hreathes upon lo, and she conceives Epa'phof< 
(the touched), ^sch. Prom. 849 — 851. e| iiracpi]^ /c«| eVtTrz/otav 
Ji'o?, ^sch. Suppl. 18. 45. icfjavTcop 312. 6eiaL<? eTmrvoiai'i 
iraveraL 576. Ducange sub v. Altanus has a peculiar gl. Aelfrici : 
Altanus Voden, quae vox saxonice Wodanum sou Mercuriura 
sonat (conf. p. 162 n.). In Wright 17'' ' Altanus poden,' otherw 
I'oden is tarho ; altanus auster is a wind. On Woldan see Hpfc 
Ztschr. 5, 494. 

p. 132.] With Otfried's gotewnoto conf. a Schlettst. gl. of 
the 9th century: 'sub tyranno, under themo gudowoden.' Der 
u'ileterich, Servat. 2853. ein tobender ly., Barl. 254, 21 ; conf. 
gwyth, p. 150 n. In the Eifel the wild host is called ]Vudes-\\eev, 
!ind a savage monster of a man Wuodcs-woor, Schmitz 1, 233 
In the Wetterau band of robbers was one Werner Wuttwuttwatt, 
Schwenker 574. Pfister 1, 157. 162. 

p. 133.] It is not Svid'r, gen. Svinns, but Svi(T<ir ok SviSrir, 

gen. Scid'ars, in Sa3m. 46''. Sn. 3. 24. 195, Beside valfa&lr, 

hnrfa&'ir (p. 817), OlSiun bears the names Herjann, Herteltr, 
Gnnunrr, Lex. myth.6il^ couf. Eerjam dts, Ssem. 213*^. piigc^l 
O. ok i folk umskaut 5". valr Id par a. sandi vitinn enum 
eineygja Friggjar faSmbyggvi (ibi caesi in arena jacuere, dedicati 
unoculo qui Friggae amplexibus delectatur), Sn. 1848,236. 



1328 WODAN. 

Non liumile obscurumve genus, non funera plebis 
Pluto rapit vilesque animas, sed fata potentum 
Implicat, et claris complet Phlegethonta figuris, 

Saxo Gram. 36. The hoar's head in the Alamann order of 

battle is expressly acknowledged by Agathias 2, 8 (Stalin 1, 160). 
p. 134.] With Paul the Deacon's account conf. the older 
setting in the Pro!, leg. Rotharis in Hpt Ztschr. 5, 1. There 
Woda.n and Frea- remind you altogether of Offlnn and Frigg in 
the Grimnismal. 0. is called Sigr-hofundr, Egilss. 640, and his 
dwelling Sigfilnir, Yngl. 5. Sn. 15. 

p. 136.] On name-giving, ON. uafn-festi, see GDS. 153-4. 
With nUcfscidlf conf. Valaskialf, p. 817 n. Does OHG. Bnghen- 
scelp belong here? Cod. Lauresh. no. 2597. The Gl. Sletst. 
15, 7 have scelb fornice, also those in Hpt Ztschr. 5, 196. sceljy 
fornix, Graff 6, 479. hlscilbit in clida, Diut. 1, 342 ; and clida 
belongs to hliS, OHG. hlit, operculum. The Lex. myth. 434 
explains Hli'Sskialf as porta coeli tremens. 

p. 136-7 n.] God's chair means also the rainbow (p. 733) ; 
God's little chair, among the Lausitz Wends, the corpse-bird 
(p. 1134). The German mllrchen of the Tailor who climbs the 
Lord's chair, of iron-booted Ferdinand, of faithful John and 
strong Francis, who arrive at a heaven with many doors (conf. 
WolPs Deut. mar. u. sagon no. 5, KM. no. 3, 35, Miillenh. mar. 
no. xii.), resemble the Greek notion of Zeus's throne and the 
several doors through which he attends to the prayers, vows 
and offerings of men, Lucian's Icaromenippus, c. 25-6. 

p. 138.] Wnnsch, wish, seems akin to Sansk. vangh,sh, vdnch 
opto, desidero, Bopp Gl. 31 5^ Pott 1, 235, which Bopp thinks 
identical with Welsh gwanc, desire. Wish in O.Fr. is soiihait 
(p. 951n.) and avel, pi. aviaux, Ren. 25131, 26828. plus bel lui 
nestuest .s-0H/iaiV?ier, Ogier 1, 140. Wnnsch is god of bliss and 
love who wishes, wills and brings good to men. We still speak 
of God as the giver of all good, all gifts, Kl. Schr. 2, 327-9. 
Wunschen is to romance, exaggerate, imagine : sam ez gewilnschet 
waere Rab. 240. ob ieman wilnschen solde. Nib. 281, 3. 780, 1. 
und der nu w. solde, Ecke 202 (Hagen). Also to wish into 
being, create, Wigal. 327. 887. 5772. so viel nur immer Gott 
Vater w. kann, Zingerle 2, 64. mit wunsch, by divine power. 



WODAN. 1329 

'I'ifc. 317j and conversely vcrivilnschcn to annihilate, wiinschcn 
lernen, to learn conjuring-, Miillenli. 395. 402, [Of wniiscJi as 
the Ideal, a page and a half of examples is here omitted.] 

p. 141.] 117.s/i personified appears most fretj. in Ilurtmann, 
which is the more remarkable, as he o-ot no promptinj^ from his 
French original. The last line on p. 138 : 

der Wunsch het in geineistert so, Greg. 1097. Er. 2710. 
only reminds us partially of a French poet, Thib. de N. 95 : 

beneet soit le malsfre 
qui tele la fist naistre ; 

while Chrestien's Erec has nothing similar, either here, or in 
describing the horse (Hartm. Er. 7375), or the palace and twenty 
ladies (8213-77) ; and where Hartm. boasts of his Enite : 

man sagt daz nie hint gewan 

ein lip so gar dem Wunsche glich, Er. 330, 

Chrestien's Erec 407 has merely : 

que tote i avoit mis s'entente 

nature, qui faite I'avoit (conf. vv. 415. 425). 

Presently, however, in his : 

ich waene Got sinen vliz • 

an si hate geleit 

von schoene und von saelekeit, Er. 338, 

where Chrestien had said, v. 429 : 

onques Dex ne sot faire miauz 
le nes, la bouche, ne les iauz, 

Hartm. draws nearer to his prototype again. His Wunsclics 
gewalt often occurs in later writers : 

beschoenen mit Wiinsches gewalte, Flore G927. 

ir lip aller wolgcstalt 

gar in des Wiinsches gewalt, Meleranz. 87G8. 

WunscJies gewalt han, Berth. 239. 240. 

hie Wunsches gewalt, hie Hep ane leit 

in immerwerender sicherheit, Heinr. Suso in Die ewige 
weisheit. 
But the phrase becomes more and more impersonal: 



1330 WODAN. 

si hat an ir iviinsch gewalt, Altsw. 98. 
au im lit der wunschgewalt, Dietr, drach. 41''. 
drier tviinsche gewalt, MS. 2, 145'^ (KM.^ 3, 14G-7). 
geben mit alles tounachps geivalt, Pass. 298^ 1. 
aller wtlnscJie gewalt, Ulil. volksl. 1, 21. 

conf. i^ovaia<; rv^^elv irapa rov Aio<; alW]aacr6ai otov eTriOv/xel, 
Athen. 3, 24. [Another page and a half of examples is here 
omitted.] 

p. 143 n.] Even Wolfram in Wh. 15, 7 has ' des Witnsrhes 
zil' ; and des Wunsches iHiradis actnally occurs in Barl. 52, 8 
and in the Rudolf. Vilmar p. 64. 

p. 143.] Wish is the meting, moulding, casting, giving, 
creating (p. 22, 104 n. 139), figuring, imaging, thinking, faculty, 
hence also imagination, idea, image, figure. There is about Wish 
something inward, uttered from within : der Wunsch tllttet, 
Troj. 3096, uz tiefer sinne grunde erwilnschet mit dem munde 
2960. Apart from the passage in the Iliad, %api9 answers to 
wunsch, not only in Lucian's Pro Imag. c. 26 p. 52 : k6/j.7]v ralf 
xdpi(Ttv anreLKaae, but, as God imparts wishing, it is said of 
Hermes : 09 pd re TrdifTwy dvOpcoTrcov epyocac X''^P''^ '^'^* Kuho^ 
oTrd^ec, Od. 15, 319. Beside des Wunsches auo and heilwac, we 
have also a wunscJtsee and wniiscJihrunne, Prohle's Unterharz. s., 
no. 345; a Wiijischberg in Panzer's Beitr. 1, 116, Wein^clieithoi-cli 
in Hpt Ztschr. 1, 258, IVitnschilburg in Henricus Pauper 115, 
WiinscJielburg a village near Glatz. ' Joannes Wiuischclhcrg doctor 
vixit circa an. 1400,' Flacius cat. test, verit. 782, in Zai-ncke's 
Univ. Leipzig 764 an. 1427,888 an. 1438. A Wiinschmichelhach , 
Baader's Sagen no. 345 ; a Wiinschensnlil near Marksuhl, Thuriu- 
gia ; a 'super Wiinsclie' and Wimscheulorf, Rauch 2, 198. 200. 

p. 143-4.] Forstemann has no name Wiinsc, Wunscio, which 
would mean wisher, adopter, but Karajan quotes Wensco and 
SigiwiiuJi (for Sigiwunsc, conf. Sigtyr), and Sigewnses-holz about 

Eichstadt (for Sigiwunsces-holz), MB. 31, 363, year 1080. 

The Oshmeijjar are called nunnor Herjans, OSius meyjar, Su. 
212". Oskopnir might be connected with it and explained as 
' stragem, campum eledionis aperieus ' from opna aperire, of 
which the Vols, saga c. 18 makes iiskaptr. Beside the Wnscfred 
of Deira, a later one is mentioned by Beda 138, 19. 153, 5. 



WODAN. 1831 

p. 145.] As Wuotan sends wind and weather, and stills tlie 
stormy sea, it is said of the christian God : daz er uns alle tage 
dienet rait weter ioch mit loint, Dieraer 89, 18. In Parzival, 
Feirefiz ascribes it to Juno that she daz weter fnocte, fitted 750, 

5 ; dem Juno ie gap segels hi ft lol , 7 ; sege.lweter faogte l(jl , 3. 

]i' i/ijgr be terror, yggdraslll means the horse of dread, the storm- 
courser, perhaps the rushing god himself, as we know that OSiun 
bears the surname Yggr, and is always figured, as the rider in the 
air, the furious huntei-. In that case Yggdrasi.Is askr (Pref. li.) is 
the stonnful god\s ash. OSinn is also Hropfr, alte damans, conf. 
OIIG. hnioft, clamor, Graff 4, 1137: Hroptr glaSr, Hpt Ztschr. 
3, 154; Hruptatj'r, p. 106. And the surname i^arjua-Ziyr, i^arma- 
gu(T may not bo out of place hero, as deus vecturarnm nauticarnm, 
from farmr, onus nauticum. Mefhujr, Saam, 272" is perh. conn, 
with mafr, seamew. Other by-names are Fengr, iSsem. 184^. 
Vols, saga c. 17, p. 157; Svafnir, Stem, 93"; Fiolnir, Sasm. 
10\ 46''. 184\ Vols, saga c. 17, p. 157 and conf. 136. 193. 200. 
323. He is 'inn reginkunngi baldur i bryujo,^ Sagm. 272''. 

p. 145.] Similar expressions for dying are : AS. UniJiten 
ftecean, Beow. 373. ON. kenna einom attunga brautir til Ocfivs 
tandit, Saem. 80^. far till Oden, Geyer 1, 123; conf. gefa O&ni, 
Landn. 5, 10. The miser collecting treasures is said in Sweden 
to tjena Odeii, Geyer 1, 123. Kl. schr. 3, 197. 

p. 145 n.] The conception of OSinn as an evil being is clear 
in the ON. 'hvaffd O&ins Idtnm V quid hoc mali est? shoi'tened to 
MivaJSa latum,' quid hoc rei esc? Wormius mon. dan. p. 11 ; lat 
is amissio, mors ; conf. our ' was des teufels ? ' Fornm. sog. 3, 
1 79 has ' ofcignucbr sendr af Odiii' mischief sent from 0. ; Offinn- 
divU 11, 151 periculosus, insociabilis, difficilis, is interpr. ' illr 
viSfangs' 12, 430; OO'iiinda'la 6, 374 periculum, infortunium, 
interpr. ' vandraeJSi, vandamal, naudsyn' 12, 430. Dicll itself is 
mansuetus, afFabilis. 

p. 147.] Opsin's outward "appearance is alluded to in many 
other places; hinn einei/gji Friggjar faJSm-byggvir, Sn. 1848 p. 
236. He is Ileiigikiaptr, labeo, cui pendet maxilla, Sn. 146 (p. 
1075 n.); IIar})ar&r, Flaxbeard, from hor, linum ; to SigurSr 
appears the Loigheard, and helps him to choose Grani, V(3ls. c. 
13. GDS. 688-9. To Saxons ' Othinus os pileo ohnuhens ' answers 
his surname Gri)unir larvatus, from grima. As 'Grimnir' he 



1332 



WODAN. 



shews himself to men in the guise of a beggar to try them, e.g. to 
GeirroSr; as ' Gestr blindi ^ to HeiSrekr, as 'GfingraSr' to Vaf- 
]?rii5air. Compare the German miirchen of the old Beggar- 
woman, KM. 150, whose clothes begin to burn, as Grimni's did. 
In the case of HeiSrekr, Gestr guesses riddles for another, as the 
miller or shepherd does for the abbot, Schmidt 85 — 9. Again 
OSinn appears as the one-eyed hondi Hrani, and bestows gifts, 
Hrolf Kr. saga c. 39. 46 (Fornald. s. 1, 77. 94). The Fornm. 
s. 5, 171-2 says : 'hann var stuttklaeddr, ok hafSi sidan hatt ni-Sr 
fyrir andlitit, ok sa ogerla asjonu hans ; skeggjaSr var haun ; ' 
conf, the hlind (one-eyed ?) Hatt, Sv. ilfventyr 1, 363. GDS. 
578. Swed. legend gives Obinn a pointed hat, iiddehatt, which 
agrees with the peculiar shape of certain tombstones, wedge- 
shaped, like a man-trap. But he is called liauga-drottinn, 
Vitterh. acad. handl. 14, 73. Now uddehatt is usu. a dwarf's 
hood or cape of darkness ; hence also he appears as ' lord of 
dwarfs.' At the same time the hat is a wishing-hat and Mer- 
cury's hat. He appears as an old man, or as a hunter on Jiigh 
horse with three hounds which he gives away to a youth ; and 
a Smaland story expressly names him Oden, Sv. folkv. 1, 212. 
Oammal graman gives advice, but may not stay beyond cock- 
crow, Arvidsson, 3, 3. Similar is the one-eyed witch, Norske . 

event. 141-2. In Germany too we can now find many traces 

of this divine apparition. A Graymantle, a Broadhat often turns 
up in nursery tales, see Haltrich p. 10. 39. 44; an old man 
fetches the children, p. 4. He appears as Old One-eye 45. 55, 
as Stone-goat 44, Wild-cat 63. God comes in the guise of an old 
beggar, stands godfather, and gives gifts, KM. no. 26 ; or as a 
grey-hearded manniJcin, Frommann's Muuda. 4, 328 ; conf. the 
eld beggar-woman, KM. no. 150; as One-eyed Flap-hat, Alsatia 
1856 p. 131. A grey smith heals, Hpt Ztschr. 1, 103. In St. 
Martin's cloak and hood Simrock.sees Wuotan's wishing-cloak, 
Martinsl. xvii. 

p. 147.] When OSiun hurled the spear, then, says the 
Voluspa, was the first war in the world. He is geira drottinn, 
Egilss. 639. geiri nndaffr oc gefinn Offni, S8em.'27''. marka sik 
Od'ni, p. 1077. Under Otto III. a man in a dream, after taking 
a pious vow, was transfixed by two lances of the martyrs Crispin 
and Crispiuian, Pertz 5, 787. The giant Ode7i in Sv. afvent. 455 



WODAN. 1333 

(some versions oinit the name) possesses costly things, as the 
god does his spear. Out of such notions sprang the OLIG. names 
Keraiis, FolcJums, Hpt Ztschr. 7, 529. Is this spear more like 
Apollo's destructive dart, or the sceptre of Zeus (p. 080) ? Is 
the name of the Lombard royal line of GnnijiiKji; conn, with 
Gungnir ? GDS. G87-8. 

p. 148 n.] lu Herod. 4, 15 Aristeas is called Apollo's raven, 
i.e. priest, as Porphyry tells us the Magians called the priests of 
the Sun-god ravens. Three ravens fly with St. Benedict, Paul. 
Diac. 1, 20. In Goethe's Faust 12, 127 the witch asks Mephis- 

topheles : But where are your two ravens ? Doves sit on Gold- 

Mariken's sJioiilders, Miillenh. 403, A dove sits on the head and 
shoulder of a boy at Trier, Greg. Tur. 10, 29; one perches three 
times on the head of St. Severus, Myst. 1, 226-7, another settles 
on St. Gregory's shoulder 1, 104. 

p. 148.] Flugu hrafnar tveir of IlnUcurs oxhnn, Jlmjlnn til 
hauga, eun a hrae Mun'uin, Su. 322. The ravens daily sent out 
return at dogurSanuali 42 ; conf. F. Magnusen's Dagens tider 
p. 42. fara Vicfris r/re;/ valgiorn um ey, Sa^m. 151". hrafnar tveir 
tlugu me^S |>eim alia lei^S, Nialss. 80. On Odens foglar, Odens 
svalar, see Sup. to 159. 

p. 148.] Offin-Ncptunus resembles both Poseidon and Zeus, 
who rise out of the sea as bulls. O^inn shows himself to Olaf as 
a boatman, nokkva macfr, Fornm. s. 2, 180; and, as the man in 
tJie boat, fetches Sinfiotli's body, Vols. c. 10. Like him are the 
divine steersman in the Andreas (Pref. xxiv. xxv.), and the 
thirteentli man who steers the twelve Frisians, who has the axe on 
his siioulder, throws it at a well-spring, and teaches them justice, 
Richth. 439. 440. Yet we also come upon OtSinu ILiikar as a karl 
af hiargi, Saera. 183-4. 

p. 149.] Byr, Burr is OSin's father, p. 348-9. gefr hanu 
(0.) byri broguom, Saem. 113"'. A fair wind, ON. oska-hyrr, is 
in the Swed. rhyming chron. unsko bijr. Even the German may 
very likely have had a ivunsch-bur as well as wunsch-wint, for we 
find in Pass. 379, 19 : in kam von winde ein ebene biir, die in die 
segele da sluoc. 201, 29 : do quam ein also geliche biir. 380, 
78 : daz in wart ein guote biir. On the other hand : so er den 
icint ze ivunsche hat, Er. 7795. wnnsches iveter, Urstende 125, 85. 
Got schuof im sauften siiezen wint, Ernst 5, 238 (Sup. to 145). 



1334: WODAN. 

The liimmliscJie hind makes guten wind, Osw. 9Q0-b. 1220; but 
also the storm wind 1137. 2731. To the Greeks it was Zeus 
espec. that sent a fair wind : Aioq ovpo^, Od. 15^ 207. Zev^; oupov 
'iaWeu 15, 475. Zev<i evdve/xo';, Paus. iii. 13, 5. Also a'Ep/u,ri<i 
aepLo<; is named ' inter deos qui ad pluviam eliciendam a mago 
advocantur,^ Cass. Dio 71, 19; and Hermes or Tlieuth. was the 
Egyptians' rain-god 71, 8 (Sup. to 175). 

p. 150.] With the AS. dialogue betw. Sat. and Sal., conf. 
Kemble's Salomon p. 323 : Mercurius gigas. In Altd. Bl. 2, 190 
the other dialogue is entitled ' Adrian and Ritheus,' and contains 
the words: 'saga me, hwa wrat bocstafas aerest? ic ]>e secge, 
Mercurius se gigant.' In Smaland there rides a man resembling 
O^inn, with fiery breatli, and a rune staff in his mouth, Hpt 

Ztschr. 4, 509. Theuth not only invented letters, but dice : 

TTeTTe/a?, Kv^ei'a'^ as well as ypd/jL/nara, Plato's Phasdr. 274. 
And OSiuu is not only the finder of runes, but lord of dice- 
throwing. An ON. dicer's prayer is (Sup. to 1234) : at ]?u 
Fiolnir falla latir, ^af er eh hasta haun ! F. Magn. lex. myth. 646 
(riolnir = OSinn, Sup. to 145). And there was a proverb: ]m ert 
ecki einu i leik, ef Offinnstyffrjyih. On the Devil as dicer, conf. 
p. 1007. Players invoked Thorr and O^inn, Frigg and Freyja 
together with Enoch and Elias, Christ and Mary, F. Magn. lex. 
myth. 646. 

p. 150 n.] On Gwi/dion and Don see Villemarque's Bardes 
bretons 388. The milky way was also called ' Arian rod merch 
Don,' Davies's Mytliol. 205. Leo in Hpt Ztschr. 3, 224 derives 
Gwydion from gwyd, mens, /^e'vo? (p. 162 n.),like OSinn from ON. 
od'r, mens. The Irish dia Geden, Gael, di ciadain, ciadaoin may 
indeed be expl. as ceud aoine, first fast; but see O'Brien 168''. 

The sentence in the Prol. legis Salicte : 'Mercurius Trismegistus 
primus leges ^;gyptiis tradidit,' comes from Isid. orig. 5, 3. 
Tervagan, Tervigant may have to do with Treheta, Gesta Trev. 
(Pertz 10, 131). 

p. 154.] On Wodenes-herg, -hiiscn, -wege conf. Forstem. 2, 
1566. in Wodeneswego Pertz 8, 604; de Wodnneswege 8, 676. 
Vndenesvege, Lisch, Orzen 2'', 161; Gudenswege, 2'', 136. Again, 
Wodonesherg, Lacomb. l,no. 97. 117. TFi7anes-6erc (Wuotanes?), 
Cod. dipl. Juvav. 95 (an. 861). ihns Merourii, Fredegar c. 55. 
Then, ]V6de7isbeorg, Kemble 5, 78. 137. Woddanheorq 3, 457. 



WODAN. 1335 

W6nhUnc 3, 415. 5, 112. 291. W6ncnmh 5, 7S. 137. Wij,hies. 
dene 5, 238. Wodnesdh 3, 403. 413. 452-5-G. 460-4-G. 5, 215. 
238. Wonlond b, 235. 6, 355. Wrjddes geat 5, 78. 137. 
Woniifoc 3, 227 (Kl. Schr. 2, 57). Wondc, quercus Jovis 3, 458. 
Won-alre (-alder) 4, 459. But how are Wonrcd, Wonrediufi, 
Beow. 5925-38 to be explained ? OS. Wefansjieckia for Wcdanes- 
speckia (-bridge, wooden bridge), Liinzel 12. 53. Nth Fris. 
]Ved('s-Jioori, M'ens-Juxj, ]Vi)iis-]ioij, Miillenli. 1G7. Other names 
in Nordalb. stud. 1, 138. Wcadanask, Jb. f. Schlesw. -hoist, 
landesk. 4, 248. Woisfeth in Holstein, OS. Wodenstorp, now 
^Vunstorf (Kl. schr. 2, 58), can ace. to Forstem. 2, 1578 be traced 
back to AV^ungeresdorf. Wvninsdoi-p, Caes. Heisterb. 9, 18. 
Wofene^-husen, Trad. Fuld. Dronke 38, 221. Cod. Fuld. no. GIO 
p. 274, now Gutmanns-hausen (Dronke 237"). A Wons-Jaisen in 
Weimar, and one near Nidda, Landau's Wetterau 218. Wonsaz, 
Banib. verein 10, 108. A Wonsees betw. Baireut and Bamberg; 
yet conf. 'in der ivonsoss/ MB. 27, 141, and loonsassen, Schm. 4, 
80. Kl. schr. 2, 58. A Sigeboto de Wnontcn-geseze (Wuotanes ?) 
in j\lB. 11, 167. About the Fichtelgebirge lie also Wunsicdd 
(Wotanes-sedal ?), Woh.^ijelini, Woiisr/rJidit, \Vouds(jp]idn, H'oAz/.s- 
gehaig, a village on the Neunberg by Mistelgau, Baireut, Panzer's 
Beitr. 2, 101. ' flumen quod vulgo Wot'niprnvno dicitur,' Sin- 
nacher, 2, 635. TFa/au-brunnon, Lacomblet 1, no. 103. 

p. 154.] OSinn is a rider; hence called Airiffi, he who rides 
up ? (as Thorr is III6rri(Ti, p. 167n.); conf. also Yggdrasils askr 
and the stoiy of the World-tree, p. 960. The llervarar-saga 
(Fornald. s. 1, 480) has a riddle on OSinn and Sleijmir. On a 
rune-stone in Gothland is supposed to be carved ' Oden and his 
eight-legged Sleipnir,' Dybeck 1845, 91. The horse is often 
mentioned with him: ' om Oden och Jians Ji ("wi tar ' they say in 
Upland and Gothland ; in Smaland they speak of ' Odeus ffdll 
och kruhha,' Riiiif; conf. the 'hunter on high horse,' Sup. to 147. 
A horse with six legs in Haltrich 35-6 ; with clgld 49; an eight- 
legged talking sun-steed 101. 

p. 155 n.] ' Odinus pasci't eqiiof; sues in JoUvni iiiclKsns/ Pall 
Vidalin 610 ; conf. ' i biilg binda,' Vestg. lag. p.m. 48. veit ec 
at ec heck vindga meitSi a, naetur nllar nio, geiri unda^r ok gelinn 
OJSni sialfr sialfum mer, Sa)rn. 27"' (see note on KM. no. 146). 
Charles also splits a stune before the battle, Wiichter's Heidu. 



1336 WODAN. 

flenkm. 42-3 ; conf. the story of the Swedish general 45, aud 
that of Hoier, Beuecke's WigaL 452. In Irish legend too the 
divine hero Fin Barre has his horse shod by a mortal smith, and 
juggles the fourth leg in, Ir. sagen 2, 85 ; conf. Kl. schr. 2, 450. 
p. 157.] In the district of Beilngries, Bavaria, the bunch of 
ears is left for the Wandl-yanl, and beer, milk and bread for the 
WmuU-huiLde, who come the third night and eat it up. If you 
leave nothing, the beaver (bilmer-schnitt) will pass through your 
fields. In the last cent, they still kept up a harvest-feast called 
WaudJs-wahe, setting out fodder for the black steeds of Waudc, 
while they drank and sang : — 

heilige sanct Maha, 

beschere iibers jahr meha, 

so viel koppla, so viel schcickla, 

so viel ahrla, so viel tausend gute gahrla. 

If the reapers forgot, they were told : ' Seids net so geizig, und 
lasst dem heilgen S. Miiha auch was steha, und macht ihm sein 
stadala voU ; ' conf. the less complete account in Panzer's Beitr. 
2, 216-7. Three stalks are left for Oswald, three ears tied three 
times round with flowers, viz. the cornflower (centaurea, blue), 
the hlotze (red poppy, papaver rhoeas), and camomile. The red 
poppy is also called Miedei-magn (Mary's mohn). Panzer 2, 
214-5-6. Schra. 2, 555. 608; in Swabia, Her-got's kitele or 
man tele. The Russians leave a sheaf standing for Volos (Veles), 
'toward Volos's beard, (borod).' 

p. 159.] Od"ins-ve occurs (988) in ' episcopatus Otlienes- 
wigensis,' Lappenb. Hamb. urk. no. 5. Oii-sjo, Oden-sjo in 
Skane, liostanga-socken, lies over a submerged castle named 
Odinsgard (see the story in Sup. to 946), Dybeck's Runa 1844, 
32-3. In Ons-kdlla were washed the old men that threw them- 
selves down the cHfF, Geyer 1, 115. Onsdnger in Smiiland. 
Odens-hrunn in Upland, Wendel-socken, Dyb. Runa 1844, 90. 
With Woden xoorhte weos, conf. Woldan hewing his church-door, 
Wolfs Ztschr. 1, 69. OSinn, unlike Thorr, hardly ever occurs 
in names of men : Raaf 235-7 gives Odhankarl, Odhinkarl. 

p. 159.] On the plant-name Woden-tuugtl, -star, see K. 
Schiller's Ndrd. pflanzenn. 32 ; conf. 'Epfxov ^di<i, Mercurii 
SLirculus, 'filix, and 'EpfJLOv /Bordvcov, herba murcuriali.s, Diosc. 4, 



WODAN. 1337 

183-8. Several birds were sacred to OSinn : ' Icorpar, krdhar, 

skatar bor man icke skjuta, emedan de ilro Odeiis fuglar, detn 
ban vid OlofsmJissan Jutr hos sig i atta divjar, da ban plocker 
ocb tager en stor del af dem. Ardea nig-ra, en teuiligen stor 
fogel af biiger-slilgtet, kallas Odens svala,' Raiifj see Sup. to 
p. 148. 

p. 160.] Wcens-ht suggests (ilf-liSr, p. 207. Kl. scbr. 2, 58. 
Who off a thief has cut the thumbs, To bim good hick in throw- 
ing comes, Garg. 192". Do they say anywhere in Scandinavia 
Odensfinger, Onsfiuger ? Ace. to F. Magn. lex. myth. fioO the 
liing.f were sacred to OSinn and Mercury ; conf. the Tables of 
Blood-letting. 

p. 162.] Od'inn, Thorr, Frcijr in Snorri's Edda 131 answers to 
Od'inn, Asahragr, Freyr in SsBm. 8b^ ; and invocations in Swed. 
folk-songs give him the first place : ' bjiilp uiig Othin, thu kan 
hlisf .' bjiilp mi Ulf och. Asnier Grij ! ' Arvidss. 1, 69. The same 
iu Danish: Miielp mig Othin, dii kan best! hielp mig Ulf og 
Asmer Gribf Syv 48. Asmer Gvi = Asa-grivi ; conf. 'hielp nu 
Oden Asa grim ! ' Arvidss. 1,11. 

p. 162 n.] On Zeus Tpiro^ and Tpiro'yeveia, conf. Welcker's 
Trilogie 101-2. At banquets the third goblet Avas drunk to 
Zeus : TO Tpirov tm ^coT)]pi, Passow s.v. acori^p. Athena Tplrrj, 
Babr. 59, 1 . ' 

p. 162.] 0«inn = Z/ar, Ssem. AQ^ ; = Tafnlidr W' ; = ])nffi 46\ 
But where do we find Toeggi outside of F. Magu. lex. myth. 
644? conf. Egilss. 610, where we can scarcely read Thriggi 
for Tveggi, On the Sansk. Ekatas, JDoitas, Tritas see Kuhn 
in Hofer 1, 279. 281-9. Zend. Thraetaono, Thrita, Spiegel's 
Zeudav. 7. 66. Thraetaono = Feridun, = the threc-guivercd, says 
Leo 3, 192-5 (1st. ed.). 

p. 16o.] ON. Vili [weak decl., gen. Vilja] would be Goth. 
Vilja, OHG. Willo. The strong gen. in ' broSr Vilis,' Egilss. 
610 is evid. a slip for Vilja, though we do find the strong nom. 
Vilir in Yngl. saga c. 3. May we conn. Vili with the Finn. 
veil, Lap. vi'iJjd, Alban. /3t\a, frater ? GDS. 271. 

p. 163 n.] Munch 1, 217 thinks MiUiothin arose from mis- 
understanding metod ; to me it is plainly Fellow- Othin, like our 
mit-regent, etc. Saxo's Ollerus is the Eddie Ullr, as is clear 
from his using a bone for a ship, Saxo p. 46. Yet Ullr seems a 



1338 



THUNAR. 



jumble of Saxu's Ollerus and Snorro's Vilir, Yngl. c. 3 (Kl. schr. 
5,425): skip JJllar, Sn. Hafu. 420 = skioldr; ash' Ullar 426. 
Ydalir, liis hall, Seem. 40''. UlJei- sagr, F. Magu. lex. 766. 
Ullar InjIU, Sa^m. 45''; hrinfjr JJ. 248"; U. sp/i = Baldi- 93«, 
Ullr is Thur^s stepson, Su. 31. 101-5; boga-, veiSi-, oudr-, 
skialdar-as 105. 

p. 165.] I miglit have spoken here of OSin's relation to his 
wife Friijij, p. 299, and to Sha&l, whom the Yngl. saga c 9 calls 
his wife. 



CHAPTER VIII. 
THUNAR. 

(Conf. Kl. Schr. 2, 402—438.) 

p. 166.] Donar stands related to donen extendere, expansion 
of the air (Hpt Ztschr. 5, 182), as t6i/09 to Telvw, yet tonare is in 
Sansk. stan, resembling arevrwp, ar6po<; and our stohnen, Kl. 
schr. 2, 412. In AS., beside Tlnmor, of whom there is a legend 
(p. 812-3), we have also Dhor, Sal. and Sat. 51. So the rubric 
over John 5, 17 has J?anyes-dseg, while that over John 5, 30 has 
J?urs-dseg ; and the Norman Dudo calls him Tliiir, Wormius 
mon. 24. The Abren. has Thnner, dat. Thunare. MHG. still 
dunre, Pass. 227, 81. Dietr. drach. 110''. de9,dunres sun (Boaner- 
ges), Pass. 227, 59 (Kl. schr. 2, 427). For the compound Svved. 
toi'don, Dan. torden, the Norw. has thordaan, Faye 5, the Jemtl. 
torn, Almqv. 297, Westgotl. thorn and tann. In the Dan. milrchen 
Torden-vejr means Thor, as Donner-ivetter in Germ, curses stands 
for Donar. The Swed. Lapps call the thunder- god Tlermes, 
Klemm 3, 86-7, Ostiaks Toruini 3, 117, Chuvashes Tora, Tor, 
Yakuts Tanara, Voguls Torom, Rask^s Afh. 1, 44. 33. 

p. 167.] ON. reid' is not only vehiculum, but tonitru : lystir 
reid' (al. ]n*uma), Gula]?. Hafn. 498. Norw. Thorsrela tonitru, 
Faye 5. Danish critics regard Ohuporr as a different being from 
Asa]?6rr, and as belonging to an older time; yet Sn. 25 places 
them side by side, and looks upon Thor too as Oku]>6rr, conf. 78. 
He drives a chariot ; conf. the Schoneu superst. about Thor, 



THUNAE. 1339 

Nilsson -i, •iO-4.^ Ill Ostgiitl. the aska is called goa ; wlieu it 
thunders, they say 'goa gar/ Kaleu 11''; (JojJ<ir kor, Alinqv. 347, 
but also (joi)ior gar 384, and horiihouden giir 385. In Holland : 
' ouze lievo Heer reed (drove) door de lucht/ Father God is 
rolling d'brenta (milk-vessels) up and down the cellar steps, 
Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 54. Can the old hittel-har (kettle-car ?) of the 
giant with two goats refer to Donar's chariot ? Miillenh. 447 ; 
conf. Kl. schr. 2, 422. Thorr carries a basket on his back : meis, 
iarnmeis, Sasm. 75". Sn. 111. OIIG. meisa, Graff 2, 874. 

p. 167.] God thunders : die blikzen und die donrelege sint 
niit gewalte in siner pflege, MS. 2, 166''. Zeus raises tempest: 
ore re Zti>s^ XalXaira reivr], 11. 16, 365; 'what doth Zeus?' 
meant how's the weather? 0. Miiller's Gr. gescli. 1, 24. 
Jupiter, alles weters geivalt het er, Ksrchr. 1152 (p. 630). In 
France : ni oistau nes Damledeu tonant, Aspremont 22''. nes 
Bell fonaiit ni poistau oir, Mort de Gar. 145-9. noissiez Deic 
tuiiant, Garius 3, 205 ; conf. ' si gran romore facevano, che i tuoui 
non si sarieno potuti udire,' Decam. 2, 1. When a thunderstorm 
comes on, men say : ' schmeckste paar uchsel ? merkste a 
schoindl?' Weinh. schles. wtb. 82; ' ecce ubi iterum diabolus 
ascendit!' CaBs. Heist. 4, 21. The Russians shout words of in- 
sult after the retreating tempest, Asbjornsen's Hjemmet 193. 

p. 163.] Thunder is God (or the angels) lAaijing at howls : 
uns Herr speelt hegehi, Schiitze 4, 161. die engel hegehi, 
Miillenh. 358 ; conf. the skittle-playing in the Odenberg, p. 953. 
Or it is anger, and the thunder-bolt his rod, Pol. bozy pnjten. 

p. 168.] The same Taranis is in the Vedas a surname of Indra 
the thunder-god, he that passes through, from taran = trans; 
and so Perun may be conn, with irepa (but see p. 171, and Kl. 
schr. 2, 420). Welsh taran thunder, Gael, tairneack, tairaeaiuich, 
also turrann. Taranucnns, Mone's Bad. urgesch. 2, 184. In 
Burgundy a town Tarnodurum, whose later name Toniierre and 
* le Tonnerrois/ Jos. Gamier 51, prove that the notion of thunder 
lay in the old name; conf. Kl. schr. 2, 412. 

p. 169 n.] Thorr heitir Atli oc asabragr, Sn. 211-'', conf. Atli 
208*. The Lapps call their Tiermes aiyekc, and his deputy 

' The surname!? Hlorri&i, Stem. 211", and Eindri6i need not conflict with the 
statement that Thorr walks or else drives (p. 1(57 n.). In Sn. 101 he is called fostri 
VhKjnis ok llloru (p. 1S7. 257). In Sn. Formali 12 Loride is called Thor's aou, and 
Luricus Thurs fostri, who has a wife (Jlora. 



1340 THUNAR. 

yunkare, stor-yvnJcare, Klemm 3, 86, the Ests their Pikker wana 
essa, old father, Verh. 2, 3G-7 ; and the American Indians their 
Supreme Being the grandfather, Klemm 2, 153. With the 
mountains Etzel, AUvater we may perh. associate a high mountain 
Oefschan, Helbl. 7, 1087 (now Oftscher), from SI. otets, voc. 
otche, father; conf. Kl. schr. 2, 421. 

p. 170 n.] The St. Bernard or Great Bernard is called 
Montjoux, K.T). 1132. On the jugum Penniniim, deus Fenninus, 
see Zeuss 34. 99. Dieffeub. Celt. 1, 170. Several inscriptions 
' Jovi Painiiio, Peniiio' in De Wal no. 211 — 227. A Mount of 
joy in Meghaduta 61 ; in Moravia the Radosf, joy. Finn, ilo-kici, 
stone of joy, Kalev. 3, 471. 

p. 171.] Comes ad Thinieresherhc (yr. 1123), Erh. 150; apud 
Thnneresherg 133. Sifrit de Tonresherc (1173), MB. 33% 44. 
Sifridus de Donresherch (1241-58) 33% 68. 90. Of a dragon it 
is said : er hete wol dri kiele verslunden (swallowed) und den 
Dunresherc, Dietr, drach. 262^^ (str. 834), vom Donresherge, Hpt 
Ztschr. 1, 438. A Donnersherg by Etteln, S. of Paderborn. AS. 
T)unresled, Kemble 3, 443. 4, 105. 5, 84. Bimresfeld 3, 394. 
5, 131, conf. 6, 342. Donereshrionio, Ztschr. f. Hess, gesch. 1, 
244. 

p. 171.] With Slav, grom, hrom (Kl. schr. 2, 418) put our 
LG. grummehi of distant thunder, Ir. crom, cruini thunder, Fr. 
grommeler growl; also Lith. graiija it thunders, ffvowiinmas 
thunder. 

p. 171.] To Lith. Perlninas musza, Nesselm. 411'', and P. 
grauja, grumena 286% add the phi-ases : Perhuns twyksterejo (has 
crashed), P. uzdege (has kindled); Perhuno szowimmas (stroke), 
P. growimmas (peal), P. zaibas (flash) ; perJctinija thunderstorm. 
The Livl. reimchr. 1435 says of him : als ez Perhune ir abgot gap,- 
daz nimmer so harte gevro^. Near Battenhof in Courlaud is a 
Perkunstehi with legends about it, Kruse^s Urgesch. 187. 49; a 
Perkuhnen near Libau. Pehrkones is hedge-mustard. The Lapps 
have an evil god or devil perkel, iiergalak, Finn. jjerheJe, Kalev. 
10, 118. 141. 207. 327 (Sup. to 987). 

p. 172.] In Finn, the oak (tammi) is called God's tree, pim 
Ynmalan, Kalev. 24, 98. 105-7. 115-7; conf. Zeus's oak p. 184, 
robur Jovis p. 170. Ju-glans, Aio<i /3ttXavo? = castanea, Theophr. 
3, 8. 10. Diosc. 1, 145. The oak beiug sacred to Thorr, he slays 



THUNAR. 



1341 



the giants that take refuge under it ; under the beech he has no 
power over them. It has been remarked, that lightning pene- 
trates twenty times as far into the oak as into the beech, Fries 
bot. udfl. 1, 110. 

p. 172.] A Swed. folksong (Arvidss. 3, 504) makes Thorr 
live in the mountain: locka till Thor i fjiill. Beside Fivrgv in' s 
daughter Frigg, another daughter lorff is called Obin's wife, and 
is mother of Thorr. But if Thorr he = Fairguni, he is by turns 
Obin's father and OSin's sou ; and he, as well as Frigg, is a child 
of earth (iorb), Kl. schr. 2, 415. GDS. 119. 

p. 173.] Of Enoch and Elias, who are likewise named together 
in the ON.' dicer's prayer (Sup. to 150), we read in Fundgr. 
2, 112 : 

sie hant och die wal (option), 

daz sie den regin hehabin betalle (keep back rain) 

swenne in gevalle (when they please), 

unt in abir Idzin vliezen (again let flow) ; 

ir zungin megin den himel besliezen (shut up) 

unt widir uftuou (open), , 

so si sich wellint muon. 

The Lithuanians call Lady-day Eh/ios diena, Ilijios diena, on 
which it begins or ceases to rain. They derive it from ilyia, it 
sets in (to rain) ; is it not rather Ellas' s day ? Elias legends of 
Wallachia and Bukowiua in Schott. 375. Wolf Ztschr. 1, 180. 
On his battle with Antichrist conf. Griesh. 2, 149. 

p. 174.] 'Rominem fulgure idum cremari nefas ; terra condi 
religio tradidit, Pliny 2, 54. Places struck by lightning were 
sacred with the Greeks, and were called rjXvaia, evifkyata, be- 
cause the descending deity had visited them. They were not to 
be trampled : hoc modo contacta loca nee intueri nee calcari 
debere fulgurales pronuntiant libri. Atom. Marcell. 23, 5. One 
peculiar rite was thoroughly Etruscan : such a spot was called 
bidental, because a two-year old sheep was sacrif. there, Festus 
sub vv. bidental, ambidens. 0. Miiller's Etr. 2, 171 ; the railing 
round it was puteal, and may be compared to the Ossetic skinpole : 
bidental locus fulmine tactus et expiatus ove, Fronto 277. Cattle 
struck dead by Ughtning are not to be eaten, Westendorp 525. 

p. 175.] veTo^;, Umbr, savitu, Aufr. u. Kirchh. 2, 268. ve 6' 

VOL. IV. P 



1342 THUNAE. 

apa Zev<; Trdvvvy^o^, Od. 14, 457. Atlien. 4, 73. tov AC ak7}6o}'^ 
Q)/jbr]v Slu KoaKLVov ovpelv, Avistoph. Clouds 373 ; conf. imbrem 
in crihrum gerere, Plaut. Ps. i. 1, 100. Jto? ofu./Spo'i, Od, 9, 
111. 358. ovre IleXoTrovvrjO'iOi'i vaev 6 de6<;, Paus. ii. 29, 6. Au 
Egypt, magian conjures the air-god Hermes {tov aepiov) for rain, 
Cass. Dio 71, 8. Inclra, who has the thunderbolt, is also god of 
rain; when he disappeared, it rained no more, Holtzm. 3, 140. 1, 
15. In Dalecarl. skaurman ale, the shower-man rides = it thun- 
ders, Almqv. 258 j conf. Goth, skura vindis = XatXa-\/^, OHG. sctlr 
tempestas, grando, AS. scur procella, nimbus, ON. skitr nimbus 
(Kl. schr. 2, 425). 

p. 175.] Another rain-procession in 1415, Lindenbl. 301. 
Petronius^s ' uvidi tanquam mures' is like our MHG. in Eracl. 
142^ : so sit ir naz ah sine mus (from Enenkel), wet as a drowned 
rat. A prayer of the legio tonans, likewise under M. Antonine, 
brings on torrents, Cass. Dio 71, 8. A Hungarian prayer for rain, 
Ungarn in parab. 90; others in Klemm 2, 160 (Kl, schr. 2, 
439—458). 

p. 176.] Pikker, Kalewipoeg 3, 16. 23. 358. 16, 855. fikker- 
taati 20, 730. On'pikker and pikne see Estn. Verb. 2, 36-7. He 
is the avenging thrice-nine god, that appears in the lightning, 
and with red-hot iron rod (raudwits) chastises even the lesser gods, 
who flee before him, like the giants before Thor, to human hearths 
2, 36 — 38. Pikne seems an abbrev. of pifkdinen, tonitru, which 
occurs in the Finnic form of the Esth. prayer for rain, Suomi 9, 
91, and comes from pitkd longus ; pitkdikdinen longaevus, the 
01d=:Ukko, says Castren myth. 39, or perhaps the long streak 
of the lightning. On Toro, Toor, Torropel see Estn. Yerh. 2, 92. 

p. 176.] Ukko blesses the corn, Peterson 106. In a waste 
field on the coast of Bretagne St. Sezny throws his hammer, and 
in one night the corn grows up into full ripe ears around it, 
Bret. Volkss. by Aug. Stober, prob. after Souvestre. 

p, 177.] The Thunder-god must be meant in the story of the 
red-hoarded giant and the carriage with the golden lie-goat, Wolf 
Ztschr. 2, 185-6, With the N. American Indians both Pahmi- 
oniqua and JhdcJiinc-hid (red thunder) are men's names, Catlin 
tr. by Bergh. 136, 190-1, 

p, 178,] The three phenomena of lightning are described as 
simultaneous in Hes, Theog. 691 : Kepavvol i/crap a/xa ^povrf} re 



THUNAR. 1343 

Kul daTepoirf} iroTeovro. Distinct from fiilgur is a fourtli notion, 
fuJgurafio (sine ictu). 

p. 178.] Fidgiir is called hJUci^, as late as Justinger. Blixhenj, 
now the ruined castle of Plixl)ur<^ (Piickhs-perckli in old docs.), 
stands in the Miiuster valley near Colmar, oppos. a dwarf's moun- 
tain, Scliopflin Als. dipl, no. 1336. des Snellen blickes tuc, Freid. 
375. Inmelhlicke, Servat. 397. 1651. Eoth. 3536. In Styria, 
himlatzen to lighten, treterhliche fulgura, Hpt Ztschr. 8, 137. 
wetterleich, Stalder 2, 447. hab dir das p/a6 feuer ! 11. Sachs 
ii. 4, 19". blue light in thunderstorms, Schwab's Alb. 229. 
Lightning strikes or 'touches': mit blitz gerilhri, Felsenb. 1, 7. 
It arises when sparks are struck with the fieri/ axe, p. 180". 
813; af ])eim liomom leiptrir qvomo, Ssem. 151". Kpovl^rjq d(f>L6t 
■\}ro\6evTa Kepavvov, Od. 24, 539. dpyrJTi, KepavvM 5, 128. 131. 
frisnlcnm fulgur, Festus, Varro ap. Non. 6, 2. Sen. Thyest. 
1089. igues trlsulci, Ov. Met. 2, 848. Ibis 471. tela trlsidca, 
Claudian iii. Cons. Hon. 14. genera fulminura tria esse ait 
Caecina, consiliarium, anctorUatis et statits, Am. Marc. 23, 5 ; 
conf. O. Miill. Etr. 2, 170. The Etruscans had nine fulgurating 
gods 2, 84. In Romanic, lightning is cameg, form, also calaverna, 
chalavera; straglilsch, sagietta, saetta lightn. that pierces, also 
liitscherna (lucerna?). Lith. zaihas lightn., Perknno zaihas streak 
of lightn., from z'ibeti to shine, Nesselm. 345. Mere fulguratio, 
summer-lightn., distant, feeble, that does not strike, the Finns 
call Kalevan tulet, K. valkiat, i.e. Calevae ignes, bruta fulmina 
autumnalia, or kapeen tulet, genii ignes. Lightning is named 
iTvp Aio^, ^ehv. fire of God. 

p. 178 n.] Blecken, plechazan, heaven opening, reminds of tlio 
Bastarnae, who thought, when it lightened, the sky was falling 
on them, Livy 40, 58 ; conf. Duncker p. 84. In Servian songs 
viuni/a, is the vila's daughter, groni her brother. Mi'sets, moon, 
marries Munya, Vuk 1, 154 n. 229—231. 

p. 178.] Tonitrus is toniris chlacclia, Ilattem. 3, 598''. ion- 
nerklapf, Justinger 383. 'thunderclap words,' Fr. Simpl. 1, 231. 
dozes klac, Parz. 379, 11. Troj. 12231. 14G93. donrescal, Fundgr. 
2, 116. toimerbotz, Garg. 270''. 219'', from donerboz. ON. 
skrugga tonitru, conf. skroggr fulminans. Dan. tordcnskrald, 
tordenbrag. LG. grummel-wier, -schmir, -taaren (-cloud), Lyra 
103. 117, see Sup. to 171. We say thunder rollt, groUt [if 



1344 THUNAR. 

distant, grotninelt]. As liglitn. is a bird's glance, thunder is 
the flapping of its loings, Klemm 2, 155. Zeus's eagle holds his 
lio-htnings, and an eagle raises the storm-wind, p. 633 ; conf. the 
bird of Dawn. 

p. 179.] F'uhnen is OHG. donarstrdla, Grafif 6, 752 and 
laucmtdiU, Gl. Jun. 191. Graff 2, 707. hlic-schoz mit (or, an) 
dunr-slegen, Pass. 89, 49. 336, 9. des clonres schuz, Freid. 128, 
8. donrestrdl der niht enschiuzet, Turl. Wh. 11", dornstrdl, 
Griesh. 151. die donerhlicke, Fundgr. 1, 73. donreshlicke, Freid. 
123, 26. des donrisslac, Fundgr. 2, 125. 'ob der doner z'aller 
frist slilege, swann ez hlckzend ist,' if it struck every time it 
lightens, W. gast 203. swaz er der heiden ane quam, die 
sluoc er alse eiu doner sau, Eother 2734. do sluog er also der 
tlioner, for dem sich nieman mac bewarn, Diemer 218, 8. scMtr- . 
slae, Helbl. 8, 888. wolkenschoz, Lanz. 1483. weterwegen, Pass. 
336, 10. 2. OHG. droa, drewa is both minae, oraculum, and 
fulmen, ictus, Graff 5, 246 ; because lightn. is a bodeful phenom- 
enon ? 0. Fr. es foldres du ciel, Ogier 1, 146. foudre qi art, 
Guiteclin 2, 137. Le tunnerre a sept differentes formes pour se 
manifester aux Polognots.. II tombe en fer, alors il brise tout ; 
en feu, il brule ; en sovffre, il empoisonne; en genuille, il etouffe; 
en poudre, il etourdit ; en pierre, il balaye ce qu'il environne ; 
en bois, il s'enfonce oil il tombe, Mem. Celt. 2, 211. 

p. 180.] On tlnmderholts see the 9th Bamb. Bericht p. 111. 
Beside donnerstein, we have wetterstem, hroUenstein. Again : 
Herre Got, und liezt du vallen her ze tal ein stein, der mir 
dersliiege, Suchenw. 78, 175. A fragment of thunderbolt healed 
over in the hand imparts to it enormous strength, Hpt Ztschr. 3, 
366. A donnerstral of 2\ cwt. hangs in Ensheim church, Garg. 
2 1 6^ Vestgotl. Thors-kcijl (-wedge), Swed. Thor-viggar (-wedges), 
Sjoborg's Nomencl. f. nordiska fornlemningar 100. Indra's bolt 
and flash are svarus, from svar, sky, sun, Benfey 1, 457 ; conf. 
rjXvaia, Sup. to 174. Like elf-shot is the Sansk. ' vitulum veluti 
mater, itsi fului en Maruies sequitur,' Bopp Gl. 364"; conf. mugi- 
entis instar vaocae fulmen souat 262''. Athena alone knows the 
keys to the thunderbolt chamber, ^Esch. Eum. 727, like Mary 
in the nursery-tale of the forbidden chamber in heaven. Lith. 
' Perkuuo kulka,' P.'s ball. Servi strelitsa, arrow. 

p. 181.] Miolnir reminds of SI. vi'luiija, molnia aa-TpwrrTj, which 



THUNAR. 1315 

Miklos. 50 derives from mleti, coutererc. The hamtncr is the 
simple, world-old implemenb^ indispensable to nearly every trade, 
and adopted by not a few as a symbol. At boundaries the "1 | 
hninarsrnarh was deeply graven, a cross with hooked limbs ; ' L 
afterwards a crossed oak served for a landmark, Kl. sclir. 2, 4c{. 
55. In blessing the cup (signa full) the sign of the hammer was 
made: hann gerSi hamarstnark yfir, Hak. guSa saga c. 18. Thor 
me^ tungum hamrum is also in Landstad It. Thor's image has 
a great hammer in its hand, 01. helga s. ed. Christ. 2G. Fornm. 
sog. 4, 245. That the hammer was portrayed and held sacred, 
is shown by the passage in S;ixo, ed. Mull. 600 : Magnus, inter 
cetera traeophorura suorum insignia, iiiKsitafi 'ponderis viaJleos 
quos Joviales vocabant, apud insularuni quandam prlscn virorum 
relujione cultos, in patriam deportandos curavit. That was betw. 
1105 and 1135. In Germany, perh. earlier, there were hammers 
and clubs as emblems of Donar on the church wall, or built into 
the town-gate ; to which was linked a barbarous superstition 
and a legend of the cudgel, Hpt Ztschr. 5, 72. To the same 
cycle belong the tales of the devil's hammor, which is also called 
donnerhnld, kammerhuhly Miillenh. 268. 601 ; conf. p. 999. Pikne 
carries lightn. as an iro7i rod, see Sup. to 176. 

p. 181.] Thorr a foe to giants, p. 531. As Wodan pursues 
tlie subterraneans, so he the giants. They will not come to the 
feast where Tordenvoir appears, p. 189. 537. In Schonen, when 
it lightens, it is Thor flogging the trolls, Nilss. 4, 40. der (tiovel) 
wider unsih vihtet mit viaren (viurinen, fiery) strdlen, Diemer 
337, 9. 

p. 181.] Hamer sla bamer, sla busseman dot! Miillenh. 603; 
conf. Hermen sla dermen, p. 355. bim Jinmmer ! Corrodi Pro- 
fesser 16. 58. Vikari 11. turamcr und hammer. Prof. 96. 'May 
heaven's forJced lightn. bury you 10,000 fathoms underground ! ' 
du widertuo ez balde, oder dir nimet der donne.r in drin tagen 
den Up, Wolfd. 331, 3. 4 (Hpt Ztschr. 4). A Danish oath is 'ney 
Thore gad!' Warmii Mon. Dan. 13. dass dich der Donnerstag 
(Thursday = Thor), Ph. v. Sittew. 2, 680. donnstig ! du donnsfigs 
bub! Gotthelf's Erz. 2, 195-6. The Lithuanians, says JEn. 
Sylvius, ascribe to Percnnnos a great hammer, by means of which 
the sun is rescued from captivity, ^^n. Sylv. in den Kurliind. 
send. 2, 6. N. Preuss. prov. bl. 2, 99 ; conf. Tettau u. Temme 



1346 



THUNAIi. 



28. Lith. ' kad PerJcuns pakiles deszimt klafterin tave i zeme 
itrenktu ! " may P. arise and strike thee 10 fathoms into the 
earth, Schleicher ber. der Wiener acad. 11, 108. 110. The Etrus- 
cans ascribed the hammer to Mantus, Gerh. 17. 

Beside the hammer Thorr had his megin-giarcfar, fortitudinis, 
roboris ciugula, and iarn-greipr, chirotecas ferreas, Sn. 112-3. 
er hann spennir ]?eim (iDegingior^um) urn sik, j^a vex honum 
ds-megn half a, Sn, 26. ]?a spenti hann megingidr&um 114. 
This belt of might reminds us of Laurin 906. 890. 1928: ze- 
brecheut sin gudelin. do hat er von zwelf man hraft. A girdle 
imparts strength and tvudom, AVigal. 332, and shews the right 
road, 22-3. A girdle that stills lamger, Fierabras 209; conf. the 
hunger-belt. A vidoriae zona in Saxo ed. Miill. 124. Like Thor's 
girdle is the blue hand in Norske folkev. no. 60, p. 365. 374-6, 
Miillenh. Schl. -hoist, mar. 11. Moe's introd. xlvi. 

p. 183.] In the Alps the salamander, whose appearance be- 
tokens a storm, is called wetttr-giogo, Schott's Germans in 
Piedmont 300. 346. A female stag-beetle carries red hot coals 
into houses (Odeuwald). 

p. 183 n.] The harha Jovis is held to have healing power, Caes. 
Heisterb. 7, 15. Jovis herba, hiis-loeTc, Mone's Quellen 289^ 
hh-louch, Mone 8, 403. donder-loeh, crassula major, Mone's Qu. 
283'\ diindar-luk, Djbeck 1845 p. 61. Jovis caulls, semper- 
vivum magn., Diosc. 4, 88. AS. panor-wyrt, barba J. ; house- 
leek planted on cottage-roofs. Honeys Yrbk. 1552 ; conf. p. 1214. 
The Swiss call the donnerbesen hexenhesen, witch\s broom. Staid. 
2, 42. Nemnich calls glecoma hederacea donnerrche, gundrebe. 
The donnernessel, urtica dioica, resists thunder. Finn. TJkon- 
tuhiiio, fungus, femes; JJ. nauris, rapa; TJ. lummet, caltha palus- 
tris ; Z7A;/iO?i-lehti, folium (lappa). Jovis colus, zJi09 rjXaKaTTj, 
clinopodium, verbena, Diosc. 3, 99. 4, 61. Jovis uaadius, cata- 
nance, herba filicula 4, 132. iepa rov 6eov (f>r]yb<i at Dodona 
Pans. 1, 17. Jovis arbor, Ov. Met. 1, 104. A tJmnder-tree in 
Tyrol, Wolf Ztschr. While redbreast and beetle attract light- 
ning, the wannenweihe repels it, p. 674. It was a universal 
practice to ring the church-bells to drive the thunder away, i.e. the 
heathen god, ibr bells are Christian. With the Thracians shoot- 
ing was a safeguard against thunder and lightning (p. 20), as 
elsewhere against an eclipse, p. 707. 



THUNAR. 1347 

p. 184.] Note the Henneberg superstition about the haber- 
geiss or himmelsziege, plialangium opilio, a spider (Maler Miiller), 
iu Bruckner's Henneb. 11. By horsgok was formerly meant a 
real horse, Runa 3, 14-5, The heaven's-goat is in Finn, taivaan 
vuoJti; slie hovers between heaven and hell, bleating in the air, 
Schiefn. Finn. wtb. 012. Another Lith. name for it is daiKjaas 
ozi/s, Nessehn. 31, and Lett, relirhoii ohsols, Possart's Kurl. 228. 

The H^misqvi-Sa calls Thorr kafra drottlnn ; his goats are 
fann-gniostr and tann-grisnir, dente frendcns, as Lat. nefrendes = 
arietes (or porci) uondum frendentes, that have no teeth yet. 
Tanngniostr (tooth-gnasher) is also a man's by-name, Kormaks. 
54. 134-0. 

p. 1 86.] Donerswe, Ehrentraut's Fries, arch, 1, 435. Hpt 
Ztschr. 11, 378. de Donrspah, Notizenbl. 6, 306. It seems 
Tkuris-16 in Trad. Corb. is not Thonares-16, but giant's wood, 
p. 521 ; yet AS. Thunrcsled, Kemble 3, 443. 4, 105. 5, 84. 243. 
Scand. ThdrsJeff, Molb. dipl, 1, 173; why not Thors- ? In 
Sweden are Thorsby, Thorshdlla, Thorslunda, Thorstuna, Thorsvi. 
Tliorsaker, Thormng, Thorsas, TIlovso. On Thorstuna, -aker, conf. 
Schlyter Sv, indeln. 32, Thoyseng in Funen, Tliorsliui iu Schles- 
wig, Miillenh. 584. In Norway Tliurseij, Thorsnes, Thorshof, 
Munch om Sk. 107. Tliorsnes, Landn. 2, 12, took its name from 
a pillar with Thor's image being drifted thither. Thors]iarg = 
Thorshiilla, Hildebr. tom. 3. Thorshorg, Gutal. 94, a limestone- 
mountain 317. Tliorshafn in Fiiroe. 

]). 187.] To the few German proper names compounded with 
Dollar, add Bonarprelit, Hpt Ztschr. 7, 529. Albdonar is conn, 
with the plant albdona. In Kemble no. 337, for * Thoneulf ' read 
ThoneruJf. The Sax. Chron., yr. 920, has ±)iirci/leL An 0. Irish 
name Turdcalhhach ( = Thoro similis, says O'Brien) is worth 
noting. ThurhdJli in the lleidarvigasaga. King Toril, whose 
lightning scorches the sea, burns up forests and devours the city 
(llpt Ztschr. 4, 507-8), is apparently Thor himself; perhaps 
Torkil ? for Thorild is fem. ; conf. Thorkarl, p. 181 n. 

p. 187.] Thor's by-name of Vhigthorr, Sajm. 7U" ; Elndri&l, 
Sup. to 107, foot-note. He is hard-hugabr, Sasm. 74'', as the 
iotun is hardra^r, p. 528. Again, fostri Vingnis ok 7//orit = f6stri 
Jllorrid'a, Sup, to 107. larffar burr, earth's son, Sa3m. 70". 08*. 
157; Fidrgij))j ar huvv, Hlod'yvjar hniT, Yggs barn 52". Is Vcorr 



1348 THUNAR. 

the same as verr, vir ? conf. AS. weor, but the ON. modification 
would be viorr. 

p. 188.] ThoiT^ imagined as a son (in the Edda he is either a 
youth or in the prime of manhood), does not accord well with the 
'old great-grandfather.' In Ssem. 54^ he is a sveinn, but in 85'' 
Asahragr. Are we to suppose two Donars, then ? That in the 
North he may have been feared even more than O'Sin seems to 
follow from the fact that so many names of men and women 
contain his name, and so few that of Odin. 

p. 189.] His sons by larnsaxa are Magni and Mo&l, Sn. 110 
(conf. p. 823), he himself being endowed with as-megin and as- 
mod'r. larnsaxa is elsewhere the name of a giantess. He calls 
himself Magna fa'Sir, Stem. 76'^. His daughter becomes the bride 
of Alvis 48^'*'; is she Thru^r, robur, whom he had by Sif ? Sn. 
101-9. He is himself called J^riWugr ass, Seem. 72^. Jjruffoaldr 
go'Sa 76^; and his hetxnraer priid'ha^narr 67^. 

p. 191.] Neither the log-pelting at Hildesheim (with which 
conf. 'sawing the old woman,' p. 781-2) nor the ivheel-rolling 
near Trier (Hooker's Mosel-ld. 1852, p. 415) can be connected 
with Jupiter. The latter ceremony, mentioned first in 1550 and 
last in 1779, took place thus. On the Thursday in Shrove- week 
an oak was set up on the Marxberg (Donuersb., Dummersb.), 
also a wheel. On Invocavit Sunday the tree was cut down, the 
wheel set on fire and rolled into the Moselle. A wheel, especially 
a flaming one, is the sj^mbol of thunder, of Donar ; hence the 
lords of Donnersherg, burg-vassals to Cochheim, bear it on their 
coat-of-arms, Hontheim 2, 5, tab. v., likewise those of Roll (thun- 
der), while those of Hammerstein have three hammers in theirs. 
The signum of German legions, the 14tli and 22nd, was the rota: 
there is a tile with 'Leg. xxii." and a six-spoked wheel stamped 
on it. Mainz and Osnabriick have such a wheel on their 
scutcheon, Mainz as escutcheon of the legions (Fuchs's Mainz 2, 
94. 106). Krodo in Bothe's Sassenchr. carries a wheel (p. 206 n.). 
Has that heraldic wheel anything to do with the term rddels- 
fuhrer, ringleader ? 

p. 191.] On keeping Thursday holy, see especially Nilsson 4, 
44-5. tre Thorsdags-qvixUaiV, Dyb. Runa 4, 37. 43. Cavallius 1, 
404. In Swedish fairy-tales spirits appear on t]torsdags-natt, a.nd 
bewitch. If you do any work on Trinity Sunday, the lightning 



zio (tiw, tyr). 1349 

will strike it; hence women are unwilHnf^ to do needlework tliat 
day, Hpt Ztsclir. 3, 360. Similar desecration of holidays by weav- 
ing, spinning or knitting is often mentioned; Servat. 2880 : 

wir sazen unde wfiben, 

do die lautliute erten disen tac . . . 

schiere runnen diu weppe von bluote, 

daz ez nns des werkes erwante. 

A poor girl spins on our Lady's day, the thread sticks to her 
tongue and lips, Maerh 2, 219. Of women spinning on Saturday, 
see Miillenh. 168 ; they that spool flax in church-time on Sunday, 
turn into stone, Reusch no. 30. Spinning was forbidden on 
Gertrude's day and Berchta's day, p. 270-3 ; among the Greeks 
on Bacchus's day, p. 911. Nevertheless the yarn spun on such 
holy days has peculiar virtues, p. 1099; conf. the teig-talgen, 
dough-kneading on Holy Saturday night, Superst. G, v. 191. 
Yet again : Si quis die Dominico boves junxerit et cutn carro 
ambulaverit, dexteruin bovem perdat. Lex Bajuv. vi. 2, 1. 



CHAPTER IX. 
ZIO (TIW, TYR). 

p. 194.] In Umbrian the nom. was still Juv, dat. Jure, voc. 
Jnpater, Anfr. u. Kuhn Ztschr. 1, 128: Jnveis luvfreis, Jupiter 
liber, Mommsen 139. What of Finn, taivas, coelum ? or even 
Quvpo<i, the Assyrian Mais (Suidas) ? A divergent form, ' vater 

Zi' in Miillenh. nr. 410. Dyaus is not only coelum, but a 

Vasu-god, who for stealing the cow Nandini has to go through a 
human life, Holtzra. 3, 101 — 6. Parallel with the ideas belonging 
to the root div, are those developed out of Sansk. sur, splendeo : 
s}ira deus, suvja sol, svar coelum. 

p. 194.] Spiegel, Zendav. 6, connects 6e6<i with dhi. Lith. 
dievas god, dcive goddess, dievaitiz (godkin) thunderer, dicvaite 
(goddesskin) rain-goddess; conf. Pott's Etym. forsch. 1st 
ed. 56-7. Beufey's Orient 1, 510. 

p. 195.] Wackernagel in Hpt Ztschr. 6, 19 retains Tuli^co = 
duplex, and explains it as zwittcr, two-sexed, just as Lachm. 
makes tuisc = bimus, two years old ; and ^liillenhoff agrees with 



1350 zio (tiw, tyr). 

them 9, 261. In tliat case Tuisco would have nothing to do with 
Ziu, and Tacitus must have indicated the marvellous hermaphro- 
dite nature. It is a question whether Zio, Tio have not per- 
petuated himself in the alarm and battle cries zieter, zeter, 
tiodute, tianut! and in zm dar ndher, Pai'z. 651, 11 ; see Gramm. 
3, 303. EA. 877. Leo in Hpt Ztschr. 5, 513. Again, did zie, 
tie (assembly) originally mean divum, as in ' sub divo, dio ' ? 
The Prov. troubadours have sotz dieti = suh divo, under the open 
sky, Diez's Leb. d. Troub. 1 66-7 ; yet it may mean sub Deo. 

p. 195.] From div splendeo (Lith. zlheti) come div, diva 
coelum, and divan, divasa, divana, contr. diiia, dies, Bopp Gl. 
168. lu Caes. B. Gall. 6, 18 Diespiter is called Dispater, abl. Dite 
patre, 0. Miill. Etr. 2, 67 ; conf. Dissunapiter, p. 225. The 
Etruscan panels have sometimes Tinia for Tina. 

p. 198.] The Germani sacrificed to their Mars for victory: 
vestita spoliis donabere qiiercu (Mavors), Claudian in Ruf. 1,339. 
huic praedae primordia vovebantur, huic truncis suspendehantur 
exuvide, Joru. 5. hostiles suspendit in arbore cristas, CI. in Ruf. 
1, 346. Kuhn finds many points of comparison between Wuotan 
and the Roman Mars, whom he takes to have been originally a 
god of spring. Mars = Marutas is a by-name of Indra, Hpt 
Ztschr. 5, 491-2. To Tyr Viga-gud' corresponds 'Mars des wige 
got' in En. 5591. Troj. 8140. 8241. Ms. 2, 198^ : Mars strUes 
got. Christian writers suppose an angel of victory marching in 
the front of battle : coram eo (Ottone imperatore) angelus penes 
quern victoria. Mars is a mere abstraction in Erm. Nig. 2, 2: 
straverat adversos Marsque Deusqne viros, and Pertz 8, 228 : jam 
per ordinatas omni parte acies Mars cruentus cepisset frendere ; 
conf. p. 2U3. 

p. 198.] Zieshurc, Augsburg, Hpt Ztschr. 8, 587. DiiispnrcJi, 
Lacomb. 83 (yr 904), Tashurg 205 (1065), Diushnrg, all = Duis- 
burg, Tliietm. 5, 3. 9. Duseburg, Weisth. 4, 775. A Boeshurgh 
in Gelders; Tussherg, Tysse)iberg, Wolf Ztschr. 1, 337. Desherg 
near Vlotho, Redecker 59. Desenherg, Biesenherg ; Tistede, Hamb. 
liber actor. 331-2. Tiisvad, Tiiswath, in Jutl., Molb. dipl. 1, 9. 
Zirelberg near Schwatz in Tyi'ol, H. Sachs i. 3, 251'"^; conf. p. 
298, Zisa, Zisenburg, GDS. 541. 

p. 199.] Add Tived, Tisved, Tivebarh, Dyb. 1845, 50-9. MHG. 
zidclbast, Gervinus 2, 233 ; couf. Zigelinta, p. 1193. 



zio (tiw, ttr). ' 1351 

p. 200.] The very old symbol of the planet IMurs c? stood 
appareutly foi* the wiir-god's shield aud spear. Here T^v reminds 
us of Obinn and his Giinguir, p. 147. With tire tdctiian conf. 
tlifcest tdcen, Cod. Exon. 236, 13; sigortdcen 169, 3. sigorestdcen, 
fri&otdcen circumcision, note on Elene 156. Caedm. 142, 29. 

p. 202.J Judges often held their court ou Eitag, see Kaltenb. 
1, SGo"-'', 580*; aud judgment may mean war, decision, KA. 
818-9. Was a sword set up in the court? On Famars, Fanmars 
see GDS. 529. 619. 

p. 204.] The triuity of the Abrenunt. requires a gud, not a 
mei'e hero ; for that reason if no other, Sahsnot must be Mars, 
or at lowest the Freyr of the Upsal trinity. With Saxnedt 
compare larnsa.va, ^J^hor's wife, Sn. 110. In Pomerania they 
still swear by ' doner sexeii/ in Bavaria ' meiuer seclmen,' Schm. 
o, 193-4 ; conf * mein six I ' 

p. 205.] On the divine Gliera see GDS. 612. Lucian supplies 
additional proofs of the Scythian worship of the sword; Toxaris 
38 : ov /xd jup TOP 'Avefxov Koi top 'Akivuki^v. Scytha 4 : dWd 
7rpo<i Aklvukov Kal Za/j-oX^iSo^, roiv irarpwcov ijfily Oeoyp. Jupiter 
Trag. 42 : ^KvOai Aklvukt) 6vovre<i kuI &pdKe<i Za/jb6\^LSc. Conf. 
Clem, Alex, admon. 42. GDS. 231. Priscus, quoted in Jorn. c. 5, 
ed. Bonn 201, 17. 224, remarks on the sword: Apfo<i ^L(f)o<; oirep 
6i' lepbv Kal nrapd twv ^KvOiKOiV ^aatXecov Tip,ciop.€vov, ola Si) 
TOi e<p6p(p Tcov TToXe/jicov dvaKei/uLevov, ev roi-i irdXai d(j)avLa 6 P]y at 
■X^p6voi<;, elra Bid /3o6<i evpedijyai. The Mars of the Alans is men- 
tioned by Lucan 8, 223 : duros aetcriti Alartis Alanos. The 
worship of lance aud sword among the llomans is attested by 
Justin 43, 3 : Nam et ab origine rerum pro diis imniortalibus 
veteres hastcus coluere, ob cujus religionis memoriam adhuc deo- 
rum simulacris hastae adduntur; aud Suet. Calig.,24: tres gladius 
in necem suam praeparatos Marti ultori addito elogio consecravit. 
Caesar's sword, preserved in Mars's temple at Cologne, was pre- 
sented to Vitellius ou his election, Mascou 1, 117. Later they 
knelt before the sword at a court-martial, Ambruser liederb. 370; 
couf Osw. 2969 : 

do viel er nider uf siniu kuie, 
daz swert er an sin hant gevie, 
und zoch ez uz der scheide. 



1352 zio (tiw, tyr). 

der helt des iiiht vermeit, 
daz ort (point) liez er nider. 

To Svantevitj Saxo ed. Miill. 824 gives a com^pfcitae grandifatis 
evsis. The Indian Thugs worship on their knees an axe or bill, 
which is mysteriously forged, Ramasiana (Calcutta 1836.) 

The war-god has also a helmet, witness the plant named 'J4/?eo<? 
Kvvrj, Tjjr-hiahn, p. 199. 

p. 206.] Hre^-cyninges, Cod. Exon. 319, 4, said of the wicked 
Eormanric, and therefore probably from hreS, hreSe, crudelis (p. 
290); while Hred'gotum 322, 3 answers to ON. Eei-Sgotum. ' Bed 
red brengt raed raed,' where the Walloon has ' Mars, Mars,' 
Coreman^s Annee de Fane. Belg. 16; conf. Ret-monat, p. 290. 
We are not warranted in referring Hro^rs (or hro'Srs) andscoti, 
Hymisq. 11, to Tyr. 

p. 206 n.] Zeuss 23 believes in Krodo, and thinks Beto in 
Letzner is the same. Crodio, Cod. Lauresli. 1634; Crodico 
1342. Croda, Kemble 1, 143; Creda 1, 159. 177. Erode duvel, 
p. 248. I am not sure but that Nithart's KrotoJf (Hpt 117) has 
after all a mj^thical sound, and it is followed by a similar compli- 
ment Uetelgoz, p. 367 n. Krathahotld in Liintzel's Hildesh. 51. 
Kreetjpfuhl, Kreetkind, DS. 1, 415, A ' rivus Krodenhek,' Falke's 
Trad. Corb. 612. Krottorf in Halberstadt country, conf. Krotten- 
stein for Donnerstein. 

p. 207.] Simrock thinks T;^r is one-handed because a sword 
has only one edge. Does a trace of the myth linger in ' swa ich 
weiz des ivolves zant (tooth), da wil ich hiieten (take care of) 
miner hant,' Freid. 137, 23 ? or in the proverb 'brant stant as 
dem dode (Tio ?) sme rechte hant,' Wolf Ztschr. 1, 337 ? Conf. 
the Latin phrases : pugnare aequo, pari, certo, anclpite, duhio,vario, 
proprio, sno Marte. Widukind has coeco Marte 1, 6, like coeco 
furore 1, 9. When fighters see the battle going against them, 
they leave off, and acknowledge eo? Trpo? top 6ebv acplaiv 6 a'yoiv 
'yevono, Procop. 2, 641. The fickleness of victory is known to 
the Od. 22, 236 : ouirco Trdy^v SiSov erepaXKea vlkijp (conf. ' ein 
Hie-und-dort,' Geo. 5748). Victory and luck are coupled to- 
gether : sig und saelden geben, Albr. Tit. 2920-33. an sig u. 
saelden verderben 2929. 

p. 208.] Companions of Mars : circumque atrae Forniidinis 



FRO (freyr). 1353 

ora, Iraeqne Tnsidiaeque, dei comitatus, agnntur, Aeu. 12, 335. 
Lncfus comitatur euntem (Tisiplioueii), Eb Pauor et Terror, trepi- 
doque Iiisaiiia vultu, Ov. Met. 4, 485. Bellomi, Favor, Furmido, 
Claud, in Ruf. 1, 342; Metus cum fratre Pavore, De laud. Stil. ; 
Impetus horribilisque Midas, In Pr. et Olybr. 78. Seifj-uTa iravLKt'i, 
]Vocop. 2, 550. pauicus terror, Forcell. sub vv. pan, pauicus. 
A pnuic fuUage-rustling frij2^ht, Garg. 25G''. So the Wend, volksl. 
2, 2(3G* make Triakh, StrakJt dwell in a dismal haunted spot ; SI. 
trialih, frias, tremor, is perh. the Goth. ];lahs. The Finn. Jiammo 
= genius horroris, horror. There is an ON, saying: ' Ottar er 
fremst i tlocki Jul flj^a skal ' ; is that from otti, timer? conf. the 
Ottar in IlyndluliocJ. ' Thii skaut (shot) ]?eim sheik i bringu ' 
' skaut skelk i bringu ok otla,' where skelk and otta are 
accusatives of skelkr and otti, timer. Goth, agis disdraus ina, 
awe fell upon him, Luke 1,12; conf. AS. BrSga and Egesa, Andr. 
xxxii. and diu \\^\\i-cgese, Diemer 26G, 23. OHG. gefieng tho 
alle forhta, fear took hold of, T. 49, 5. There is personification 
also in the Homance ' uegus neu pot ir, si uos torna espavers, Albig. 
4087. A different yet lively description is, 'so that the cat ran 
up their hacks,' Garg. 256''. 218^ Beside Hilda-Bellona (p. 422) 
appears a male Hildufr, Saem. 75'', like Berhtolt beside Berhta. 

p. 208.] Tyr, who in the HymisqviSa accompanies Thor to 
the abode of Hymir, calls the latter his father, and Hymi's con- 
cubine his mother ; he is therefore of giant extraction ; conf. 
Uhland's Thor 1G2-3. Is this T^r not the god, as Simrock sup- 
poses him to be (Edda, ed. 2, 404) ? 



CHAPTER X. 

FRO (FREYR). 

p. 210.] The Yngl. 13 calls Freyr veraldar god, Saxo calls 
Fro deorum satrapa. Goth, frduja stands not only for Kupio<i, but 
for ^eo<?. The Mouachus Sangall. says (Pertz 2, 733) : tunc illo 
verba, quibus eo tempore superiores ab inferioribus honorari 
demulcerique vel adulari solebant, hoc modo labravit : ' laete vir 
domlne, laetijice rex ! * which is surely 'fro herro ! ' OS., beside 
fro, etc., has the form _/rao/io, He). 153, 1 ; if it had a god's name 
Fro, that would account for Fros-d, i.e. Fro's aha, ouwa, ea. 



1354 FEO (fretr). 

AS. Las other compounds, freabeorht (frealibeort) limpidas, Lye 
and Hpt Ztsclir. 9, 408* ; freatorht limpidus 9, 511% conf. Donar- 
perht ; frearaede expeditus (frealirasde, Lye); freadreraan jubilare, 
freabodian nuntiare ; a fem. name Freavvare, Beow. 4048. In 
Lohengr. 150, zuo dem fr6n = to the holy place. ON. has also a 
frdnn nitidus, coruscus. From Fris. frana may we infer a fret 
dominus ? Bopp (Gl. 229^') conjecfc. that frauja may have been 
frabnja, and be conn, with Skr. prabhu, dominus excelsus ; yet 
irpau';, mild, seems to lie near [Slav.prav rectus, ^eqnns, praviti 
regere, would conn, the meanings of probus, Trpafo'i, and franja], 

p. 212.] Freyr oc Frei/ja, Saem. 59. He resembles Bacchus 
Liber, Aiovuao'; 6 'EXeudepto'i, Pans. i. 29, 2, and Jovis lufreis, 
liber. From his marriage with Ger^r (p. 309) sprang Fiolnir, 
Yngl. 12, 14. Saxo ed. M. 120 likewise mentions his temple at 
Upsal : Fro quoque, deorum satrapa, sedem liaud procul TJpsala 
cepit. Froi gives food to men, Faye 10. The god travelling 
through the country in his car resembles Alher, who with larded 
feet visits the upland pastures (alpe) in spring. Wolf Ztschr. 2, 
62 ; conf. Carm. Burana 131* : ' redit ah exilio Ver coma rutilante,' 
and the converse : ' Aestas in exilinm jam peregrinatur,' ibid, 
(like Summer, p. 759) ; ' serato Yer carcere exit,^ ib. 135. 

p. 213 n.] On the phallus carried about in honour of Dionysos 
or Liber by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, see Herod, 2, 48. 
Hartung 2, 140. <f)aWol eardat ev roicn irpoirvkaLOiaL hvo Kapra 
fieydXoi, Lucian De dea Syra 16, where more is told about phalli, 
conf. 28-9. An ' idolum priapi ex auro fabrefactum ' in Pertz 
5, 481. Phalli hung up in churches at Toulouse and Bordeaux, 
Westendp. 116. The 0. Boh. for Priapus was PHpehal, Jungm. 
sub v., or Pn'pegala, Mone 2, 270 out of Adelgar in Martene 1, 
626. Sloven, hnrenet, Icurent, Serv. kurat. 

p. 214.] GnJlinJnirdi, conf. gnlli hyrstum, Sn. 104. There is 
a plant gullborst, which in German too is ehtrwurz, boarwort, 
p. 120S. The Herv. saga c. 14 (p. 463. 531) in one passage 
assigns the boar to Freyr, in the other (agreeing with Saem. 114") 
to Freyja. Perhaps the enormous boar in the OHG. song, Hat- 
tem. 3, 578, and the one that met Olaf, Fornm. sog. 5, 165, were 
the boar of Freyr. In thrashing they make b. pig of straiu, Schm. 
2, 502, to represent the boar that 'walks in the corn^ when the 
ears ripple in the breeze, conf. AS. garsecg, ON. lagastafr; 'the 



FRO (feeyr). 1355 

wild sow ia the corn/ Meier scliw. 149. Rocholtz 2, 187; ' de 
villcii swtne lapefc drupe,' Sclianibacli 118''. 

p. 215.] On eofornimhul conf. Andr. and EI. 28-9. Tristan 
has a boar-shield, 4940. CGI 8. Frih. 1944; ' hevedes of wild- 
bare (boars) ich-on to presant brought,' Thorn. Tristrem 1, 75. 
Wrasn, vvraesen (Andr. 97) in Fred-tvrdsniim is vinculum, and 
Freyr 'let/sir or hopfom (bonds) hvern,' Saena. 65* (conf. p. 1231). 
A helmet in Hrolf Kr. saga is named Hildisvin and ITi'ldigdltr. 
Does ' Helmnot E lent her' in Walthar. 1008-17 conceal a divine 
Fro and Liher ? 

p. 215.] On the hoar's head served up at Christmas, see 
Hone's Tab.-bk 1, 85 and Everyday-bk 1, 1619-20. guldsvin 
som lyser, Asbjo. 386; the giant's jtol-galt, Cavallius 26; jid-hos, 
sinciput verriuutn, Caval. Voc. Verland. 28''. 

p. 216.] Sktd'hlad'iiir is from skiS, skiSi, asser, tabula; Rask, 
Afh. 1, 365, sees in it a light Finl. vessel. Later stories about it 
in Miillenh. 453. The Yngl. saga gives the ship to OSiun, but in 
Sfem. 45'' and Sn. 48. 132 it is Frey's. 

p. 217.] Freyr is the son of Nioi-d"/- and Skad'l, who calls him 
' enn frodi afi,' Ssem. 81\ She is a giant's, piazi's, daughter, as 
GerSr is Gymi's ; so that father and son have wedded giantesses. 
The story is lost of Freyr and Beb', whom Freyr, for want of his 
sword, slays with a buck's horn or his fist, Sn. 41 ; hence he is 
called bani Belja, Sasm. 9''. Freyr, at his teething, receives 
AJflicim, Stem. 40''. 

Many places in Scand. preserve the memory of Freyr : Froso, 
Norw. dipl. ; conf. Frosd, Sup. to 210. Frojrak (Freyrakerj, 
Dipl. norv. 1, 542. Froslund, Dipl. suec. 2160; Froswi 1777; 
Frbsberg 2066. Frosaker in Vestmanl., Dyb. i. 3, 15. Schlyter 
Sv. indeln. 34. Frdslo§-' in Zealand, Molb. dipl. 1, 144 (yr 1402). 
Froskog in Sweden, Runa 1844, 88. Frosunda, Frosved, Froson, 
Frotuna, Froliinda, Frojeslunda, all in Sweden. Frotunum, Dipl. 
suec. 228. Fri/eJed, in Jonkopings-liiu is styled in a doc. of 1313 
(Dipl. suec. no. 1902) Frdle or Froale; a Froel in the I. of Goth- 
land appears to be the same name, in which Wieselgr. 409 finds 
led = \e\^, way; may it not be eJed, eld, fire? Niar&arliof ok 
Freijshof, Munch om Sk, 147. Vroinio, now Vronen in West 
Friesl., Bohmer reg. 28. Miillenh. Nordalb. stud. 138. A man's 
name Fr cysteine is formed like Thursteinn. 



1356 FRO (feeyr). 

p. 217.] Nior'Sr is called meuis vani, innocuus, Sffim. 42*. 
Sa3m. 130"^ speaks of ' Niar'Sar doetur niu ; ' nine muses or waves ? 
conf. Heimdall's 9 mothers. NiorSr lives at Noatun on the 
sea, and Weinhold in Hpt Ztschr. Q, 40, derives the name from 
Sansk. tiira aqua, ntradlii oceanus ; add Nereus and Mod. Gr. 
vepov. Schaffarik 1, 167 on the contrary connects Nior"Sr and 
Niorunn with Slav, nitr terra. Or we miffht think of Finn, nuori 
juvenis, rniorus juventus, niiortua juvenesco, Bsth. noor young, 
fresh, noordas youth ; Lap. nuoi' young. Or of Celtic neart 
strength, Wei, nerfh, Hpt Ztschr. 3, 226; Sabine i\^ero = fortis 
et strenuus, Lepsius Inscr. Umbr. 205. Coptic neter god and 
goddess. Buns. Egy. 1, 577. Basque nartea north, and Swed. Lap. 
nuort borealis, not Norw. nor Finn. That he was thought of in 
conn, with the North, appears from ' inn nor&ri Nior-Sr,^ Fornui. 

sog. 6, 253. 12, 151, where Fagrsk. 123 has nerffri. Places 

named after him: Niarffeij, Landn. 2, 19. Niar&vih 4, 2. 4. 
Laxd. 364. * NiarffarJogr, 01. Tr. c. 102. Fornm. s. 2, 252 (see 
12, 324). Munch's Biorgyn 121 ; al. Mar&a-lbg, larffar-log. Is 
the Swed. Ndrtuna for Nard-tuna ? and dare we bring in our 
Nurtenhy Gottingen ? Thorlacius vii. 91 thinks niarff-lds in Seem. 
1 09*^ means sera adstricta, as niarcf-giord is arctum cingulum 
[niarS- = tight, fast, or simply intensive]. What means the 
proverb ' galli ev a, giof Niard'ar' t NiorSungr ? Gl. Edd. Hafn. 
1, 632''. 

p. 218.] Rask also (Saml. afh. 2, 282-3) takes the Vanir for 
Slavs, and conn. Heimdall with Bielbogh. I would rather sup- 
pose a Vanic cult among the Goths and other (subseq. High 
German) tribes, and an Asic in Lower Germany and Scandi- 
navia, Kl. schr. 5, 423 seq. 436 seq. ' Over hondert milen henen, 
Daer wetic (wot I) enen wilden Wenen/ Walew. 5938 ; appar. an 
elf, a smith, conf. Jonckbloet 284. 

p. 219.] Odin's connexion with Freyr and NiorSr, pointed 
out on p. 348, becomes yet closer through the following circum- 
stances. Obinn, like Freyr, is a god of fertility. Both are said to 
own SkiSblatSnir (Sup. to 216), both Ger^r, p. 309. Fiolnir, son 
of Freyr and GerSr, is another name of OSinn, Sa3m. 46'' (p. 348). 
SkaSi, NioiS's wife and Frey's mother, is afterwards Obin's 
spouse. 



PALTAR (balder). 1357 

CHAPTER XL 
PALTAR (BALDER). 

p. 220.] Ace. to Saxo, ed. M. 12 i, Ilothcrns is son to Hoth- 
brodus rex Sueciae, and brother to Atislus (the ASilsof Yngl. s.); 
Nanna is daughter to Gevarus (OHG. Kcpaheri), and no goddess, 
indeed she rejects on that ground the suit of the divine Balder. 
Balder seems almost to live in Saxony or Lower Germany ; the 
Saxon Gelderus is his ally and Hother's enemy, and shares 
Balder's overthrow. Balder has come to Zealand, apparently 
from Saxony ; he never was in Sweden. Saxo makes Nanna 
fall to the lot, pot of Balder, but of Hother, who takes her with 
liim to Sweden. Balder, mortally wounded by Hother, dies the 
third day. The tale of king Bolder's fight with king Hother is 
told in Schleswig too, but it makes Bolder the victor, Miilleuh. 
373 ; conf. the tale of Balder and Rune 606. 

p. 221.] Paltar also in MB. 9, 23 (year 837). ' Baldor servus,' 
Polypt. de S. Remig. 55*. Baaldaich, Neugart no. 289. Litb. 
baltas = white, good (conf. Baldr inn go d'i, Sn. 64), baltorus a 
pale man ; and the notions white and quick often meet, as in Gr. 
(J/3709, Passow sub v. 

p. 222.] A god Baldach is named in the legend of St. Bar- 
tholomew (Leg. aur. c. 118), also in tlie Passional 290, 28; but 
in the Mid. Ages they said Baldach for Bagdad, and Baldewins 
for Bedouins. Svipdagr, MengloS's lover, is the son of Solbicirt 
(sun-bright) and Groa. To the proper names add Ostertnc, whicli 
answers best of all to Bccldcer/^ dies ignis. Conf. also the Celtic'! 
Bt'l, BeJeuns, p. 613. 

p. 222.] Baldr's beaming beauty is expr. in the saying; fatt 
er liott il Baldri ; but what means the Icel. saw : /o^i^hefir Baldr 
at Baldri, Fornm. sog. 6, 257 ? From his white eyebrow — a 
feature ascr. also to Bodvildr, ' meyna brd-hvUo,' Saem. 139'', and 
to Artemis \evKo<^pvv7} — the anthemis cotula is called Ballerhro, 
Fries, udfl. 1, 86; conf. Dyb. 1845, p. 74. Ho gives name to 
Balderci^ \^^^Q, Kemble, 5, 117 (863), and Baltcres eih, oak. 

On Breid'ahUh, conf. p. 795 ; add ' in manigen breiten blicJcen,' 
Tr. kr. 42475. Midsummer was sacred to Balder, and the Chris- 
tians seem to have put St. John in his place. The mistletoe, 

VOL. IV. o 



1358 PALTAR (balder). 

with wliich he was slain, has to be cut at that time, Dyb. Runa 
1844, 21-2. Do the fires of John commemorate the burning 
of Balder's body ? In Tegner's Frithiofss. xiii., Baldersbal is 
lighted at Midsummer. — ' Hvat maelti (spake) OSinn, aSr a bal 
stigi, sialfr i eyra syni (in his son's ear) ? ' Saem. 38''' ; otlierw. 
' i eyra Baldri, a'Sr hann var a bal borinn ? ' Fornald. sog. 1, 
487. Conf. Plant. Trinum. 1. 2, 170: ^ sciunt id quod in aiirem 
rex reginae dixerit, sciunt quod Juno fabulata est cum Jove,' i.e. 
the greatest secrets. 

p. 224.] Ho&r is called Baldurs bani, B. andshoti, Seem. 95^' "^^ 
he is brought and laid on the funeral pile (a bal) by his slayer 
the newborn Vali, ibid. The Edda does not make him out a god 
of war, nor does the ON. hoSr mean pugua ; but, the AS. liead'o 
does (Kemb. Beow. vol. 1, and in hea'Solaf, Beow. 914), so does 
the Ir. Crath. In Saxo, Hotherus is a Swed. hero, and not blind, 
but skilled in the bow and harp (ed. M. Ill : citharoedus 123) ; 
he is favoured by wood-nymphs, and gifted with wound-proof 
raiment and an irresistible sword. Is the Swed. tale of Blind 
Hatt, Oavall, 363, to be conn, with him ? Consider Hadolava, 
Hadeln, Hatheleria, Hadersleben ; and Hothers-nes (now Hor- 
sens ?) in Jutland is supposed to be named after him, Saxo 122. 
An AS. HeaSobeai'd, like Longbeard. 

jfferwo^risin Sogubrot (Fornald. s. 1, 373) called ' bazt hugaSr,' 
and ■ like Helgi/ i.e. comparable to Helgi. In Beow. 1795 he 
is named immed. after Sigemund ; he falls into the power of the 
Eotens, and brings trouble on his people; again in 3417 he is 
blamed. Does HermoSr mean militandi fessus ? OHG. Heri- 
muot, Herimaot (never Herimuodi), is against it. Hermudes porn 
in Kemb. Chart. 3, 387 ; ' terra quae Anglice Hermodesodes nun- 
cupatur,' Chartol. mon. S. Trinitatis (Guerard S. Bertin 455). 

p. 224.] The spell is given p. 1231-2. On Phol, see Kl. 
schr. 2, 12—17. F. Wachter in the Hall. Encycl. 1845, art. Pferd, 
pronounces jjJiol the plur. of a strong neut. noun phol, a foal. 
Thus : ' foals and Wodan fared in the wood.' But the poem 
itself uses for foal the weak (the only correct) form volo ; and 
what poet would think of naming the god's horse or horses 
beside, and even before, the god himself ? Again, was ever a 
running horse said to fahren ? 

p. 226.] Pfalsau is called Pjoals-owa, MB, 4, 519 (circ. 1126); 



PALTAR (balder). 1359 

rhols-hon 4, 229; and rhoJs-u 4, 219. 222-3. Fhtds-omia, No- 
tizenbl. 6, Ul. Fhols-oice, Bair. qnellen, 1, 279. To tlio 'eas' 
enumcr. in Hpfc. Ztsclir. 2, 254, add ' des Winti^ches ouwe,' Gerh. 
2308; 'der juncfrouwen lor.rf,' I\v. G32G (Guest 196^ lille at 
piiceles) ; Gotis-werder in Prussia, Lindenbl. 31. 150. With 
r/ioles-piunt couf. other names of places also compounded with 
the gen. case: Ebures-piunt, Tutilis-p., Ileibistes-buuta (Fin, 
Wirceb.). 

p. 226.] r/ahlhronn by Lorch, Stiilin 1, 85. Toldhorn on the 
Devil's Dike, Wetterau, p. 1022-3. Johannes de Palehorne, yr 
1300 (Thiir. mitth. iv. 2, 48) ; is this our Paderborn ? and may 
that town, called in L. German Padelborn, Palborn, Balborn, be 
one of Balder's burns? Balhorn in the Palatinate, AYeisth. 1, 
778-9. BaJde-hunien, -home, BGhmer's llcg. 231-2, yr 1302. 
Heinrich von Pfds-^vuiidt, surgeon, brother of the Teut. Order 
about 1460. Polborn, a family name at Berlin. In H. of Fritz- 
lar, January or February is VoJhorne, conf. the man's name Voll- 
horn, Fiilleborn, also Faidhorn, GDS. 798. [Plenty of Ful-burns, 
-becks, brooks, -meres, -hams, etc. in Engl.] A Pal-gunse (and 
Kirch-gunse) in the Wetterau, Arnsb. urk. no. 439; de phal- 
gunse, p. 267; palgunse, p. 298. P/io///ra(?(', Thiir. mitth. vi. 
3, 2. Pfidnrode, 4, 47. QQ. Fuleshutle, Lappenb. urk. no. 805. 
812, yr 1283-4, now Fulhsbilttel. Bahlerdee in Schleswig is 
supposed to contain Idle refugium, and appar. answers to the 
place named Balderl fnga in Saxo, ed. M. 119. 

p. 227.] That Plwl (Kl. schr. 2, 12) is a fondling form of 
Balder, Paltar, seems after all extr. probable; the differ, of initial 

does not matter, as Liudolf becomes Dudo. Beside the Celtic 

Bel, we might conn. Phol with Apollo, as an a is often prefixed 
in Grk. Or with pol in 'Pol; edepol ! ' by Pollux. Or with 
jilioI,fid = hoaT, p. 996, seeing that eburespiunt answ. to ])holcs- 
jiiunt. Sup. to 226. In Gramm. 3, 682 I have expl. vuleuod, 
1-iunus, Gl. Bern., Diut. 2, 214>, by fol, fou, stultus. A hero 
Phohis in Ov. Met. 12, 306. On the Ethiop king Phol, see Hpt 
Ztschr. 5, 69. 

p. 228 n.] On fy7/r = 0IIG. Wol, see Hpt Ztschr. 7, 393 ; bet- 
ter to conn, it with Goth. Vu1}jus 8, 201 ; yet see Sup. to 163 n. 

p. 229 r.] The whirlwind is called Pulhoidchen, Pidhaud, 
Schamb. 161 ; conf. infra, p. 285 n. 632-6. Beside Boylsperg, 



1360 OTHER GODS. 

we find BoyJhorv, Mittli. Tliiir. Ver. v. A, CO. Fuld, see p. 
992 u. In ReinwaW's Henneb. Id. 1, 37 we find the phrase 'to 
have (or take) something for jour foil' means ' to lie on the bed 
you have made.' Ace. to the Achen mundart 56, the weavers of 
Aix call cloth made of yarn that they have cabbaged /o//c/i^, fiill- 
chen [filch? Goth, filhan, to hide]. In Kammerforst, the old 
ban-forest near Trier, which none might tread with gesteppten 
leimeln (nailed shoes), dwells a spirit who chastises wood-spoilers 
and scoffers : his name is Pulch, still a family-name in Trier. 
And the hill outside the city, down which the wheel used to be 
rolled into the Moselle (Sup. to 191), is Puhherg. Near Wald- 
weiler is a PGhlfeh, and in Priim circuit a Pohlbaoh. 

p. 229.] Forseta-Iund (-grove) in Norway, Munch's Beskriv. 
483. 

p. 231.] YiWa, Forsazi in pago Lisgau (Forste near Osterode?) 
in a charter of Otto III.^ yr 990, Harenberg's Gandersheim Qlb. 
Falke 483. Walterus de Forsaten (Forste by Alfeld), Falke 890, 
yr 1197. In Saxonia, in pago qui vocatur Firihsazi, Einhard's 
Ann., yr 823 (Pertz, 1, 211) with the variants : firihsati, fiuhsazi, 
frihsazi, strihsazi, firiehsare, rirsedi j in Ann. Fuld. (Pertz 1, 
358) Firihsazi. The deriv. conjectured at p. 232 n., from fors, 
cataract, seems the safest, GDS. 757. 

p. 232.] Later stories of fishermen and sailors at Eehjohind, 
and the carrying about of an image of Sfc. Giet, are in Miilleuh. 
no. 117. 181. 535 ; conf. p. 597. Similar names, often confounded 
with it (see Fornm. sog. 12, 298), are : Ealogaland, now Helgoland, 
in the north of Norway, and the Swedish (once Danish) province 
of Hill] and, called in Alfred's Periplus EalgoJand. Ought we 
to write Halgoland ? conf. Heli, p. 388. 



CHAPTER XII. 

OTHER GODS. 

p. 234.] Beim&aUr is expl. by Leo, vorl. 131, as heim-dolde, 
world- tree. If cZ instead of d" were correct, it might contain the 
AS. deal, dealles (note to Andr. 126). Heim-Sall vicfhunnari enn 
voriTr meS go^um, Siem. 85% the sverd-as in Eiminhiorg, reminds 



OTHER GODS. 1361 

(if the angel guarding Paradise witli a sword. El. 755, &c. Hi.s 
blowing a horn when Surtr approaches recalls " the last trump" 

d'ut-haurn, Ulph.), 1 Cor. 15, 52. A Ulm'dcs-herc in Mone's 

Anz. 6, 228 ; a Heofcn-feld in Northumb., Lye sub v. Ileim- 

c^allr is called Vindler, Su. 105, Yiudlerc in Resen. Of Finnish 

gods, Ahti or Leamiiukilineu has the sharpest ears, Kalev. 17, 7 

(Anshelm 3, 64 speaks of hearing the grass grow). II. is son 

of OSinn by 9 mothers, Su. 211". Laxd. saga p. 392; does it 
mean his father had 9 wives ? The Romans called their Liber 
bi-mater; conf. the name Quatremere. 

p. 234.] Rtgr is sUgaiid'i, gdngaiidi, Sa3m. 100". 105*. In 
Yngl. p. 20 he is the first Danish king; his sou Danpr has a 
daughter Drott, the mother of Di/ggvi, and a son Bagr. Saem. 
lOG'^ names ' Danr ok Danpr' together; conf. F. Magn. lex. 
p. 670. 

p. 235.] Bragl is bcckskrautucFr, scamuorum decus, Srem Gl"*; 
brother of Dagr and Sigriin 164; pi. hraguar dat. bruguum, 
simply viri 152". 

p. 236.] A Burnaclcer in Forstem. 2, 4 ; Inoiitaclcer in H. 
Meyer's Ziirch. ortsn. 523. Weisth. 1, 119; hence prob. the man's 
name Briinacker in Kour. v. Weinsb. 3, 4. 

p. 237.] The eager on the Trent, Carlyle's Hero-worship. 
AS. eagor ; in Bailey's Diet. eu(;«;-= flood-tide. The Finnish 
sea-god, with beard of grass, sitting on a water-lily, is AJifu, 
Ahti, gen. Akin, Kalev. 22, 301. 29, 13. 15; conf. my KI. schr. 
3, 122. 

p. 238.] Like Oegi's helm is the ExlteJiner stein on a hill in 
tlie Kellergebirge, Hess. Ztschr. 1, 245. On Grimr oegir, see p. 
1017. In the helmet Mit ein Jiiltcgrin/ Dietr. drachenk. 11; 
galeae viinaci, Claudiau in Prob. et Olybr. 92; tervibilem galeam, 
Virg. Aen. 8, 620. 

]). 238.] Oegir is a iotunn, H^ni. 3; a bcrglui 2. The ON. 
ogn, f., = terror and ocean; ugnar liomi = go\d, Saem. 152"; 
ogurlig Oegisdottor 153" ; (>/i'»iicr/- = Oegir, Egills. 618. What 
means Otv/i,s-/<c/»ir, Sajm. 121-5? Egishiba, Agisfadinra, Ilpt's 
Ztschr. 8, 588 ; Agat^ul on L. Zurich 2, 536, formed like Agadora 
(Eider, p. 239 ?) ocgisandr, sea-sand, Barl. 26, 20. 

p. 240.] nics da3ttr a vi5 blesu. her er sjor kallaSr Illcr, 
])\i at hann Idyr allra minnz, Sn. 332; lil5'r = egelidus, tepidus. 



1362 OTHER GODS. 

OHG. lao, lawer, Graff 2, 294; Ir. l!r, Conan 33-4-9. 93. 192-3. 
Diarmid 87. 112-4-0 ; also lear, Leartbonn, T. 7. 

p. 242.] As Lofji, the ' villi-eldr/ Sn. 60, is son to giant 
Forniotr, so is LoJci a son of giant Farbauti. The eating-match 
betw. Loki and Logi is like that of Herakles and Lepreus, Athene. 
p. 412. Pans. 5, 5. Prometheus is chained to the rock by 

Hepheestus, Loki by Logi. Loki, ' sa er flestu illu rae'Sr,' is 

hateful to the gods : er ull regin oegja, Thorl. sp. 6, 38 ; sa inn 
laevisi Loki, Ssem. 67''; in folksongs 'hokeleve,' Wieselgr. 384-5, 
in Danish ' Loke lejemand/ conf. the name Liuuiso, Liuiso, Trad, 
fuld. 2, 32-43 ; in Norweg. ' hin onde,' Hallager, as Oden is in 
1. 828 ; for Lokkens havre we have ' den ondes hafre, Dybeck runa 

1847, 30-1. There is a saying: 'leingi geingr XoA-/! oh Thorr 

( = lightning and thunder), lettir ei hriSum,' the storm lasts. 

Rask thinks the name akin to Finn. lohJii, wolf; some may think 
it an abbrev. of Lucifer ! Uhland takes Loki to be the loclier-rip, 
concluder of all things, as Heimdall is originator. To Logi conf. 
Hdlogi for Holgi, Sn. 128. 154. F. Magn. lex. p. 981. 

p. 243.] ' Ik bede di grindel an deser Jielle/ Upstandinge 553, 
seems almost to mean a personal devil. 

p. 243 n.] It is true, another race of rulers beside the Ases is 
imagined, one of whom, Gi/lfikmg of Sweden, sets out a,s gangleri 
(pilgrim) to spy out the Ases (Sn. 1. 2. 2, &c.), but is cheated by 
them. But this is an imitation of Eddie lays, which make OSinn 
as gangleri and gangraSr travel to the giants, and talk with them. 
Ssem. 31-2; conf. xle^ir'cS journey to Asgard, and his dialogue with 
Bragi, Sn. 79, &c. 

p. 245.] In Sgem. 37*^ Fenrir pursues Alf-roSull, which must 
mean the moou, the ' sun of the elves ' ; conf. ' festr mun slitna 
ean Frecki reipa,' Stem. 7-8. ' man obundinn Fenris-ulfr fara,' 
Hakouarm. 23. ' LoJci llSr or bondum,' Snem. 96^ {conL iij tun n 
losnar8''; is this Loki or Surtr ? Loki is Igegiarnliki apeckr, 

monstro similis 7'''). Loki is caught by piazi, Sn. 81, and 

expressively chained 70 (conf. Stem. 7^^) ; so is Fenrir 33-4-5 ; 
conf. the chained giant (Suppl. to 544), chained devil (p. 1011), 

chained Kronos (p. 832 n.). Loki's daughter Hel esp. makes 

it likely that he too was common to all Teut. nations. 

p. 247.] AS. sdtor-lad'e, panicum crusgalli, is a grass like the 
dypcoaTL<; sown by Kronos (Suppl. to 1192). One is reminded of 



GODDESSES — EARTH. 1353 

Satnrni (lolinin by 'Lf/c///'?' sedens in dolio,' Upstandinge p. 41, 
and ' des tiuvels vaz* Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 327. What means the 
ON. scaturnir, Sn. 222" ? 

p. 218-9.] Delias pp. 41. 50 cites Icrodenduvcl, krudtm-heukcr, 
krodeu-kind ; is the first out of Botho ? In a Hildesheim MS. 
of the 16th cent., Frosch-meus, we read: * pravi spiritus, id est, 
de kroden duvels' in contrast with the good holdes. In Hh. 

VIII* : ' misshapen as they paint the h'oden teufftJ.* Jor- 

nandes de regn. succ. p. m. 2 has the pedigree ' Saturuus, Picus, 
Faunus, Latinus'; conf. p. 673 and GDS. 120. 



CHAPTER Xlir. 
GODDESSES. 

p. 250 n.] The MHG. gotinne is in Sasm. l\b^ gydja, yet in 
114'' ey truSi Ottarr a dsynjur, and 61*heiHr acsir, heilar dsynjor! 
conf. Travre? re deol iraaaire Oiaivat, II. 8, 5. 19, 101. Od. 8, 341. 
This word goddess acquired a lower sense, being used by the 
people for fair dames and pretty lasses, Liudpr. antap. 4, 13. 
* Ermegart Wimel-gotin,' Riickert's Ludwig 97. What is the 
gotin in Nithart MSH. 3, 288% who goes ' unter dem fanen uz 
dem vorst, wol geammet' and is led out on the green under blue 
skij (baldachin), apparently by peasants at an old harvest-festi* 
val ? conf. fee, Suppl. to 410. 

p. 251.] OHG. ero, earth, answers to Ssk. ird, Ir. ire, GDS. 
55. TeJlu(< might be for terulus, as puella for puerula, but the 
gen. is telluris, conf. Ssk. tala, fundus. Humus is Ssk. xama. 
Tula, called irpoirofiavTi'i in -^sch. Eum. 2, corresponds to Ssk. 
gari!^, go, cow (p. 665), the cow being mother of the world (p. 559) : 
w 7?) Kal 0601, a frequent Attic invocation. ON. fuhl is unper- 
sonal, yet is greeted in Sasm. 194*: heil su hin fioln^ta fold! 

GDS. 60 (p. 254). Jo/cT, earth, is called lonakr's tree-green, 

oak-green daughter: dottur Onars vrSi-groen, Sn. 123; eiki- 
groent Onars flioS, Fornm. sog. 1, 29. 12, 27. She is daughter 
of night in Saem. 194": heil nott ok nipt! but who is eord'an 
hrocFiir, Cod. Exon. 490, 23 ? I6r5 is also mother of I\Ieili, Thor's 
brother, Saem. 76"; lor^ = F{orgijn 80" (p. 172). Of Ehidr and 



1364 GODDESSES. 

her relation to OSin : ' seid Yggr til Riadr/ Y. amores Rindae 
incautamentis sibi conciliavit, Sn. 1848. 1, 236. Is AS. hruse 
(terra) contained in gnisehanh) turf -bench, Schm. vou Wern. 
114? 

p. 25 In.] At Attila's grave too the servants are killed: 'et 
ut tot et tantis divitiis humana curiositas arceretur, operi depu- 
tatos trucidarimt, emersitque momentanea mors sepelientibus cum 
sepulto/ Jorn. cap. 49. The Dacian king Decebalus buries his 
treasure under the bed of the Sargetia, Cass. Dio 68, 14. Giese- 
brecht supposes the Wends had the same custom. Bait. stud. 11, 
28-9. 

p. 252.] Nerthus is the only true reading, says Miillenhoff, 
Hpt's Ztschr. 9, 256 j Ertlius is admissible, think Zeuss and 
Bessel. Nerthiis answers to Ssk. Nritus, terra, Bopp 202'' ; conf. 
C. Hofmann in Ztschr. der morgenl. ges. 1847. A thesis by Pyl, 
Medea, Berol. 1850 p. 96 derives it fr. LGr. nerder, nerdrig, conf. 
vepTepo^. Her island can hardly be Riigen (p. 255-6), but perhaps 
Femern or Alsen, says Miillenh., Nordalb. stud. 1, 128-9. Her 
car stood in the grove (templum) under a tree, Giefers. ' Nerthus, 
id est. Terra maier' strongly reminds of Pliny's mater deiun 18, 
4 : quo anno m. d. advecta Bomam est, majorem ea aestate messem 
quam antecedentibus aunis decem factara esse tradunt. 

p. 258.] Though the people now imagine fru Gode, Goden, 
Gaiiden as a frau, there appears now and then a de Jcoen (king) 
instead, Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 385. Legends of fru Gauden in Lisch, 
Meckl. jrb. 8, 203, &c. Niederhoffer 2, 91 (conf. p. 925-6-7). 
Harvest-home still called vergodensdel in Liineburg, conf. Kulin 
and Schwartz p. 394-5. The Vermlanders call Thor's wife god- 
mor, good mother. Rask, Afh. 1, 94 derives ON. G6i fr. Finn. 
hoi (aurora). GDS. 53. 93. 

p. 254] Priscus calls Attila's wife Kpe/ca 179, 9, 'PeKav 207, 
17, which easily becomes Herka. Frau IlarTce a giantess, Kuhn 
146. 371. Fru Earhe, Arhe, Harfe, Havre, Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 386, 
5, 377. Sommer 11. 167-8. 147 (conf, frau Motie, 12. 168. 147). 
A witch's daughter HarJca, Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 255. Haksche, like 
Godsche for Gode, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 377. Harke flies through the 
air in the shape of a dove, makes the fields //•2(///*/</, carries a stool 
to sit on, so as not to touch the ground, Sommer p. 12; this is 
like Herodias (p. 285) and the wandering woman (p. 632. 1058). 



KERTHUS. GAUDE. HARKE. CERES. ISIS. 1365 

p. 254 n.] Moinraseu 133 derives Ceres, Oscan Kerrcs, from 
creare ; Hitzig Pliilist. 232 connects it with ^ri.s = Sii; I witL 
cera and cresco. For Demeter the Slavs have zeme laate, mother 
earth; a dear mother, Hke {7rvpo<i) (f)iX7]<; Aij/j.rjTpo';, iEsop (Corais 
212. de Furia 367). Babr. 131 ; conf. A7j/xi]T€po<; ukti'j, II. 13, 
323, and ' das liebe koru, getreidelein,' Gram. 3, 065. GDS. 53. 
The Earth's lap is like a mother's : foldan sceat ( = scl)00sz), Cod. 
Exon. 428, 22. eorSan sceata eardian 496, 23. eorSau sceatas 
hweorfan 309, 22. grund-bedd 493, 3. 

p. 255.] Ou the goddess's progress see Suppl. to 252. AVith 
her bath conf. the purifying bath of RJiea (Preller 1, 409), whose 
name Pott would explain by eupe6a = Ssk. urvi fr. uru = varu, 
Kuhu's Ztschr. 5, 285. The lacntio Bercci/nthiae is described by 
Augustine, Civ. Dei 2, 4; conf. Vita Martini cap. 9 (W. Miillcr 
]>. 48). The imago of Artemis was washed in seven rivers flow- 
ing out of one spring, Pref. to Theocritus ; the alraun and ali- 
rurana were bathed. 

p. 256 n.] The LG. farmer's maxim, ' Mai-mand kold un nat 
Fiillt scliiinen un fat, is in Swedish ' Mai kail Fyller boudens 
lador all,' Runa 1844, 6. A similar saw in Bretagne about St. 
Anne, Lausitzer mag. 8, 51 ; how is it worded in French ? 

p. 257.] On Tan/ana see my Kl. Schr. 5, 415, etc. GDS. 
231-2. 336. 622. 

p. 263.] From Rodulf's account was probably taken the 16th 
cent, notice in Reiffenberg's Phil. Mouskes, tome 1. Brux. 1838 
app. p. 721 : ' Sub Alexandre, qui fuit sex annis episcopus 
(Leodiensis) et depositus in Cone. Pisae an. 1135, fuit quaedam 
jirodigiosa seu ilemoninca navU, quae innixa rotis et ■^nmjlce agitata 
maliguis spiritibus attractu funium fuit Tungris inducta Los- 
castrum. Ad quam omnis sexus appropinquans tripudiare et 
saltare cogebatur etiani nudo corpore. Ad eam feininae de mane 
stratis exilientes accurrebant, dum dicta uavis citharae et aliorum 

instrumentorum sonitu resonaret.' Weavers, whom Rodulf 

makes prominent in hauling and guarding the ship, have some- 
thing to do with navigation : in their trade they ply the schiff 
(shuttle), and that is why they were called marner, Jiiger's Ulm 
}). 636-7. About carrying ships on shoulders Pliny has another 
passage 5, 9: 'ibi Aethiopicae couveniunt naves; namque eas 
jyllcatiles hameris transfcniut quoties ad catarractaa veutum est.' 



1366 GODDESSES. 

Also Justin 32, 3 : ' Istri naves suas hnmeris per juga montium 
usque ad littus Adriatic! maris transtuleriint.' 

Additional traces of German ship-processions and festivals. In 
Antwerp and Brabant, near the scene of that old procession, there 
was about 1400 ' eine gilde in der blauwer scuten,' Hpt's Ztschr. 
1, 266-7. At Shrovetide sailors drag a ship about, Kuhn's Nordd. 
sagen p. 369. At the Schonbart-running in Niirnberg, men in 
motley used at Shrovetide to carry Hell round, including a ship 
and the Venus Mount ; see Hist, of Schonb.-run. at N., by the 
Germ. Soc. of Altdorf 1761. Another ship-procession in Hone's 
Everyday-book 2, 851. In the * Mauritius und Beamunt,' vv. 
627 — 894, a ship on wheels, with knights and music on board, is 
drawn by concealed horses through the same Rhine and Meuse 
country to a tournament at Cologne ; it is afterwards divided 
among the garzuns (pages), v. 1010. Is the idea of the Ship of 
fools travelling fr. land to land akin to this ? especially as Dame 
Venus 'mit dem strowen ars' (conf. Hulda's stroharnss, p. 269n.) 
rides in it, ed. Strobel p. 107; ' frau Fenus mit dem stroem 
loch,' Fastn.-sp. p. 263. Consider too the cloud-ship of Magonia 
(p. 639), and the enchanted ship with the great band of music, 
Miillenh. p. 220. The ' wilde gjaid' comes along in a sledge 
shaped like a ship, drawn by naughty maidservants, who get 
whipped. Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 32-3. Nursery-tales tell of a ship 
that crosses land and water, Meier 31. Schambach 18. Prohle's 
Milrchen nos. 46-7. Wolf's Beitr. 1, 152, &c. Finn, march. 2, 
P. Berchta is often ferried over, and of O^inn the Solarlio'S 77 
(Saem. 130^^) says : OSins qvon rcer d iard'ar ski'pi. 

p. 264 n.] At Shrovetide a plough was drawn through the 
streets by maskers, Biisching's Woch. nachr. 1, 124, fr. Tenzel. 
H. Sachs says, on Ash- Wednesday the maids who had not taken 
men were yoked in a plough; so Fastn.-sp. 247, 6-7 ; 'pulling 
the fools' plough' 233. 10. Kuhn conn. py?woc, plo'jr, Lith. 
plugas with the root plu, flu, so that plough orig. meant boat, 
Ssk. plava, Gr. irXocov. 

p. 265 n.] Drinking-bowls in ship shape ; argentea navis, 
Pertz 10, 577. A nef d'or on the king's table, Garin 2, 16-7; 
later examples in Schweinichen 1, 158. 187. An oracle spoke of 
a silver ploughshare, Thucyd. 5, 16. 

p. 265 n. 2.] Annius Viterb., ed. ascensiana 1512, fol. 171'^'' : 



ISIS. HOLDA. 1367 

'ergo vciiit (Isis) iu Italiiim et docuit fnimentariara, molendi- 
nariam et panificani, cum ante glande vescerentur .... Viterbi 
prirai paues ab Isiile coufecti sunt, item Vetuloniae celebravit 
Jasius uuptias, et panes obtulit prinios Isls, ut in V. antiquitatum 
Berosus asserit. porro, ut probant superiores quaestioues, Vetu- 
lonia est Viterbuni.' The Lith. Kruniine wanders all over the 
world to find her daughter, and teaches men agriculture, Hanuscli 
245. The year will be fruitful if there is a rustling in the air 
during the twelves, Soramer p. 12 (Snppl. to 254). 

p. 2 67.] Goth, hitljjs propitius is fr. hil]?an, hal};, hul]7un, to 
bow (s. Lube). Ilolle, Holda is a cow's name in Carinthia. In 
Dietr. drachenk., str. 517-8, &c. there is a giant called HnJIe, but 
in str. 993 : 'sprancten fiir /roH;6'?i Zf»//eji der edelen juncfrowen 
fin.' In Thuringia frau Wolle, Rolle, Sommer 10-1. Holda in 
Cod. Fuld. no. 523. Frau Ilolhi in Rhenish Franconia, From- 
mann 3, 270. 'Die Roll kommt ' they say at Giessen, 'die 
Bulla ' also beyond the Main about Wiirzburg, Kestler's Beschr. 
V. Ochsenfurt, Wrzb. 1845, p. 29. Frau IloUe also in Silesia. In 
Up. Sax. she was called frau Uelle, B. vom abergl. 2, 66-7; frau 

Ilolt in Wolfs Ztschr. 1, 273. The very earl led mention of 

Holda is in Walafrid Strabo's eulogy of Judith, wife of Louis 
the Pious : 

Organa dulcisono percussit pectine Judith ; 

si Sappho loquax vel nos inviseret Holdn, etc. 

p. 267 n.] With Kinderm. 24 conf. the variant in KM. 3, 40 
seq., Svenska afv. 1, 123 and Pentam. 4, 7. Much the same said 
of the dialas, Schreiber's Taschenb. 4, 310 (Suppl. to 410). 

p. 270.] When fog rests on the mountain : ' Dame H. has lit 
her fire in the hill.' In Alsace when it snows ; ' d' engele han 's 
bed geraacht, d' fedre fliege runder;' in Gegenbach 4-27: 
'heaven's feathers fly'; in Nassau: 'Dame H. shakes up her 
bed/ Kehrein's Nassau p. 280. Nurses fetch babies out of 
frau Ilolleu ieich. In Transylvania are fields named Fraii-hohhi.' 
<iraben, Progr. on Carrying out Death 1861, p. 3. She washes 
her veil, Prtihle 198. Like Berthe, she is queen or leader of 
elves and holdes (p. 456), conf. Titania and Dame Venus. 
' Fraue Bcrcht, fraue Holt ' occur in the Landskranna (?) 
llimelstrasz, printed 1484, Gefkeu's Beil. 112. In the neigh- 



1368 GODDESSES. 

bourhood of the Meisner, Dame H. carried off a rock on her 
fhumh, Hess. Ztschr. 4, 108; a cave is there called Kifz-Kammer, 
perhaps because cats were sacred to her as to Freya (p. 305). 
On the Main, between Hassloch and Griinenworth, may be seen 
' fra Hulle ' on the Fra Halleiistciii, combing her locks. Who- 
ever sees her loses his eyesight or his reason. Dame Holle rides 
in her coach, makes a whirlwind, pursues the hunter, Prcihle 15G. 
278. 173, like Pharaildis, Verild (357 n.). Legends of Hulle in 
Herrlein's Spessart-sag. 179 — 184. A frau Hollen-spiel {-gume) 
in Thuringia, Hess. Ztschr. 4, 109. The Haule-mutter (mother 
H.) in the Harz, an old crone, makes herself great or little, 
Harrys 2, no. 6. Prohle278; conf. jFIanZe-manuerchen (dwarfs) 
in KM. no. 13. She is a humpbacked little woman, Sommer 

p. 9 ; walks with a crutch about Haxthausen, Westph. Again, 

queen Holle appears as Jiouselceeper and henchwoman to Fi-ederick 
Barbarossa in Kifhauser, exactly as Dame Venus travels in 
Wuotan's retinue, Sommer p. 6. In Up. Hesse ' meatt der Holle 
larn ' means, to have tumbled hair or tangled distaff, prob. 
also night-walking : the Holle at Wartburg looks like a witch, 
Woeste's Mitth. p. 289 no. 24 ; conf. ' verheuletes haar,^ Corrodi 

professor 59, and a man with shaggy hair is called holle-liopf. 

With her sfroharnss conf. strciwen-ars, Suppl. to 203. Careless 
spinners are threatened with the venvunschene frau, Panzer's 
Beitr. 1, 84 : she who does not get her spinning over by Sun- 
day will have Holle in her distaff to tangle it ; conf. the Kuga 
(p. 1188-9). 

p. 272.] The Huhlarsaga, tale of the sorceress Huldr, is told 
by Sturle ; conf. the extract fr. Sturlunga in Oldn. laseb. p. 40. 
Huldre-iveh in Norway means a soft vegetable material like 
flannel; and in Faye 42 Huldra is clothed in green. The hiilder 
in Asb. 1, 48. 78. 199 has a cow's tail; here it is not so much 
one hulder, as viani/ huldren that appear slnghj. So in the 
M.Nethl. Rose 5679 : ' hidden, die daer singhen ' ; are these 
mermaids ? In Sweden they have a hylle-fru and a Wddi-moder, 
Geyer 1, 27; conf. Dybeck 1845, 56. 

p. 273.] The name of Ferahta, the bright, answers to Selene, 
Lucina, Luna, therefore Artemis, Diana. Hence she takes part 
in the Wild Hunt, accompanied by hounds, like Hecate ; hence 
also, in the LG. Valentin und Namelos, Berta has become Clarliia 



HOLDA. BERHTA. 13G9 

[oonf. St. Lucij, frau Lutz, p. 271-n.]. Tho Litli. Luxma is vow 

like Berlita and Hokla : she is goddess of earth and of weaving. 
Slie appears in a liouse, helps the girls to weave, and gets through 
a piece of linen in no time ; but then the girl has to gaess her 
name. If she guesses right, she keeps the linen ; if not, the 
huime takes it away. One girl said to the laumo : * Laume Sore 
peczin auda duna pelnydama/ 1. S. weaves with her arm, earn- 
ing bread. Her name was Sore, so the girl kept the linen, 
N. Preuss. prov. bl. 2,380. Schleicher in Wien. ber. 11, 10 1 
seq. says, tho laume is a malignant alp (nightmare) who steals 
children, is voracious, yet bathes on the beach, helps, and brings 
linen: a distinct being (11, 96-7) fr. the laima spoken of on 
p. 41Gn. Nesselm, 3.>3''. 

p. 273 n.] Werre is akin to Wandel-muot, Ls. 3, 88. 1, 
205-8 : fro IVandehnuot sendet ir acJieid-samen fseeds of divi- 
sion) 2, 157. in dirre witcn werlde kreizen hat irre-sdmen (seeds 
of error) uns gesat ein frouwe ist Wendelnmot geheizen, MS. 2, 
108''; conf. the seed sown by death (p. 848) and the devil (p. 
1012). frou Wendelmiwt hie liebe maet mit der viirwitz sesrens 
abe (dame Ficklemind here mows down love with curiosity's 
keen si the), Turl. Wh. 128^ 

p. 274.] The ineal set ready for Bertha resembles the food 
offered to Hecate on the 30th of the month, Athon. 3, 194; cer- 
tain Jish are 'Ekuttj^; ^pcoTUTu 3, 14G-7. 323. Filling the belly 
with chopped straw : conf. tho hris)nagi, Laxd. saga 226. As 
the ivJilte ladij prescribes a diet for the country-folk (Morgenbl. 
1847, nos. 50 — 52), tliey tell of a dame Borgtjahe (loan), wlio 
gave or lent money and corn to needy men, if they went to 
her cave and cried * Gracious dame B*.' ; conf. OHG. c/iorn-gepa 
Ceres, .sdjxo-kepa saticena, Gibicho ; 2<;m-gebe, MB. 13, 42. ofi- 
geba (890 n.). Nycolaus von dem crumen-ghehe, an. 1334, 
Henneb. urk. ii. 13, 30. 

p. 277.] Borta, like Holda, is called mother in the Swed. 
marchea p. 366, gamla B., trollkiiring. In one Swed. tale a 
fair lady walks attended by many dwarfs ; the room she enters 

is filled with them, Wieselgr. 45t. Like the Thuringian 

Perchta, the devil blows out eyes, Miillenh. p. 202 ; care breathes 
upon Faust, and blinds him; conf. the curse, 'Your eyes are 
mine,' N. Preuss. prov. bl. 1, 395, and ' spiiltle zwstreichen. 



1370 GODDESSES. 

a?(/streichen (stroke them shut, stroke them open),' Meier's 

Schwab, sag. 186. After the lapse of a year the woman gets 

lier child back, Miilleuh. no. 472 ; so does the man in the wild 
hunt get rid of his hump (Suppl. to 930) ; conf. Steub's Vor- 
arlberg p. 83, Bader's Sagen no. 424, and the Cheese-mannikin 
in Panzer 2, 40. On Berhta's share in the Furious Hunt, see 
p. 932. 

p. 277.] In S. Germany, beside Bertha, Berche, we find 'frau 
Bert, Bertel, Panzer's Beitr. 1, 247-8. The wild Berta wipes her 

with the unspun flax. At Holzberndorf in Up. Franconia, 

a lad acts Eisen-berta, clad in a cow's hide, bell in hand ; to good 
children he gives nuts and apples, to bad ones the rod 2, 117. 

p. 278.] To the Bavar. name Stempo we can add that of the 
Strasburger Stampho, an. 1277, Bohmer's Reg. Rudolfi no. 
322 ; conf. stempfel, hangman, MS. 2, 2^ 3«. In Schm. 3, 638 
stamp\ilanz = h\\ghQdir, 2, 248 s/g»ipe?i-/tar = flax ; conf. Yon d. 

Hagen's G. Abent. 3, 13-4. Beside Trempe, there seems to 

be a Temper, Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 181, perhaps sprung out of 
Quatember in the same way as frau Faste (p. 782 n.), ibid. 1, 
292. toWe trompe (tram pel ?), Rocken-phil. 2, 16-7. In favour 
of S having been added before T is Scliperclita for Perchta, 
Mannh. Ztschr. 4. 388. As Stempe treads like the alp, she seems 
ident. with the alp-ci'ushing Muraue. 

p. 279.] In Salzburg country the Christmas-tree is called 
Bechl-hoschen, Weim. jrb. 2, 133. 'in loco qui dicitur Berten- 
ivisiin/ Salzb. urk. of 10th cent.. Arch. f. ostr. gesch. 22, 299. 
304". Outside Remshard near Giinzburg, Bav., is a wood * zu der 
dime (girl).' The dinie-weibl used to be there in a red frock 
"with a basket of fine apples, which she gave away and changed 
into money. If people did not go with her, she returned weep- 
ing into the wood. ' Here comes the diriie-iveihl' said children, 
to frighten each other. Seb. Brant p. m. 195 knows about 
Bdchtenfarn, B.'s fern. 

Berchtolt is a common name in Swabia, Bit. 10, 300. 770; 
conf. Berchtols-gaden (now Berchtes-g.), Prechtles-boden-alpe, 
Seidl's Aimer 2, 73. The white mannikin is also described by 
Bader no. 417. 

p. 280.] When Malesherbes was talking to Louis XVI. of the 
fate in store for him, the king said : ' On m'a souvent raconte 



BERHTA. OSTARA. 1371 

dans mon enfance, que toutes les fois qu'un roi de la raaison des 
Bourbous devait mourir, on voyait a minuit se promener dans les 
j^aleries du chateau uue grande femme vctue de blanr,' Mt'm. de 
Besenval ; conf. * de witte un swarte Dorte/ Miillenb. p. 343-4 ; 
and the Khuj-mnttcr p. 1135. The same is told of the Ir. banstghe, 
pi. mna^i'jlie, O'Brien sub. vv. sithbhrog, gruagach. 

p. 281.] The image o^ reine Pedauque, Prov. Pedauca (Rayn. 
sub V. auca), stands under the church-doors at Dijon, Nesle, 
Xevers, St. Pourcin and Toulouse. The last was known to 
llabelais : ' qu'elles etaient largement pattues, coinme sont les 
oies et jadis a Toulouse la reine Pedauque.' This statue held a 
spindle, and spun, and men swore ' par la quenouille de la reine 
P./ Paris p. 4. So queen Goose-foot was a spinner ; yet her 
goose-foot did not come of spinning, for the spinning-u7t€eZ was 
not invented till the loth cent., Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 135. Berhta 
cum maijno pedc, Massm. Eracl. 385. Heinricus Gense-fnz, MB. 
8, 172. cagots with goose-foot or duch's-foot ears, Fr. ^Michel's 
Races maud. 2, 12G-9. 13G. 144-7. 152. M. C. Yulliemin's La 
reine Berte et son temps makes out that Berte la fileuse was 
wife to Rudolf of Little Burgundy, daughter to the Alamanu 
duke Burchard, and mother to Adelheid who married Otto I. ; 
this Berta died at Pay erne about 970. To the white damsel is 
given a little white lamb, Miillenh. p. 347. 

p. 285 n.] The whirlwind is called sau-arsch, nuicken-arsch, 
Schmidt's Westerwald. id. IIG; in Up. Bavaria san-v:cde. When 
it whirls up hay or corn, the people in Passau and Straubing cry 
to it: ' sau-dreck ! du schwarz /arte/ (pig) ! ' Seiv-zagel, a term 
of abuse, H. Sachs v., 347**; conf. pp. G32. 996. In an old Lan- 
gobard treaty the devil is porcorum possessor, 

p. 291.] Ostara is akin to Ssk. vasta daylight, vasas day, 
ushas aurora, vastar at early morn ; conf. Zend, ushastara eastern, 
Benfey 1, 23. Lith. auszta it dawns, auszr in ue aurora; Aiisca 
(r. Ausra), dea occumbentis vel ascendentis solis (Lasicz). Many 
places in Germany were sacred to her, esp. hills : Austerkopp, 
Osterk. in Waldeck, Firmen. 1, 324'', conf. Astenberg 325*; 
Osterstube, a cave, Panz. Beitr. 1, 115. 280; Osterbrunne, a 
christiau name: ' ich 0., ein edelknecht von Ror,' an. 1352, 
Schmid's Tubingen 180. Her feast was a time of great re- 
joicing, hence the metaphors : * (thou art) miner freudeu uster-tac 



1372 GODDESSES. 

(-day)/ Iw. 8120. mines herzeus ostertac, MS. 2, 223\ 1, 37''. 
der gernden ostertac, Amgb. 3* ; conf. Meien-tag. It is a sur- 
name in the Zoller country : dictus der Ostertag, Mon. Zoll. no. 
252-7. Fridericlies saligen son des Ostertages, no. 306. 

The antithesis of east and west seems to demand a Westara as 
goddess of evening or sundown, as Mone suggests, Anz. 5, 493; 
consider westergibel, westermane, perh. westerhemde, wester- 
barn, the Slav. Vesna, even the Lat. Yespera, Yesperugo. 

p. 29C.] On the goddess Zisa, conf. the history of the origin 
of Augsburg in Keller's Fastn. sp. p. 1361. About as fabulous 
as the account of the Augsburg Zisa, sounds the following fr. 
Ladisl. Suntheim's Chronica, Cod. Stuttg. hist., fol. 250: 'Die 
selb zeit sasz ain haiduischer hertzog von Swaben da auf dem 
slos HillomomU, ob Yertica (Kempten) der stat gelegen, mit namen 
Esneriiis, der wonet noch seinen (adhered to his) haidnischen sit- 
ten auf Hillomondt ; zu dem komen die vertriben waren aus 
Yertica und in der gegent darumb, und patten in (begged him), 
das er sie durch (for the sake of) seiu gotin, Zysa genannt, mit 
veld begabet und aufuam (endow and befriend) .... Da sprach 
hertzog Esnerius : wann ir mir swerdt pei den gottern EdelpoU 
und Hercules und pei meiner gottin Zisa, so will ich euch veldt 
geben, &c.* 

p. 298.] With Glsa may be conn. Cise, a place in the Grisons, 
Bergm. Yorai'lb. p. 43, and ' swester Zeise,' Bamb. ver. ] 0, 143-4 ; 
Zaissen-perig, Zeisl-perg, Archiv. i. 5, 74. 48. Akin to Clsara 
seems Ctzuris (Zitgers), a place in Rhsetia, Pertz 6, 748*; Zeizn- 
risperga, Zeiszaris-p., Heizzeris-p., Zeizaris-pergan, Zeizanes-perge, 
NotizenbL 6, 116. 143. 165. 138. 259. How stands it finally with 
Desenherg, which Lambert calls Tesenb.? Pertz 7, 178. Conf. 
other names in Mone's Anz. 6, 235, and Disibodo, Disibodenberg, 
Disenb., Weisth. 2, 168. 

p. 299 n.] i^roMtye heizt von tugenden ein wip (called a /raw 
fr. her virtues), Ulr. v. Lichenst. 3, 17 : 

als ein vrou ir werden lip (her precious body) 

tiuret (cherishes) so daz sie ein wip 

geheizen mac mit reinen siten, 

der (for her) mac ein man vil gerne biten (sue) ; Kolocz. 129. 

p. 301 n.] A Swed. folksong, not old, in Arvidss. 3, 250 has : 



CISA. FREYA. GERDR. 1373 

' Fruja, du beromde fni, Till Impa bind oss uugctu ! ' Friija often 
= Venu3 iu Bellm. 3, 120. 132-5. M. Netli. vraei, pulcber. vri 
= vio, Pass. 299, 74. 

p. 304.] On the etyrn. of Freya and Frigg, sec my Kl. scbr. 
3, 118. 127. In a Norweg. tale, stor Frigge goes with the cattle 
of the elves, Asb. Huldr. 1, 201 ; conf. 20G. Vrelio is fonnd in 
Belgium too, says Coremans 114-5. 158; a Vi^eheherg 126. Fre- 
l-enteve, Pertz 8, 776. Fricconhorst, an. 1090, Erh. p. 131. For 
Fruikc in Ilpt's Ztschr. 5, 373 Kuhn writes Fail; which may 
mean whirlwind, 0^. Jinl-(i. 

p. 306. Frcj/a and Freyr are both pVesentat Oegi*s banquet, 
but neither his GerSr nor her OSr, Saom. 59 ; yet she is called 
Ocfs met/ 5'', and IIuoss and Gersemi (p. 886) may be her children 
by 05r, When Sn. 354 calls her Oc^ins friffit, he prob. con- 
founds her with Frigg (p. 302) ; or is OSiun Mars here, and 
Freya Venus ? On the distinctness, yet orig. unity, of the two 
goddesses, see my Kl. schr. 5, 421-5; was O^r the Vanio name 

of OSinn ? 426-7. To her by-name Sijr the Norw. plants 

Siunjuld (Syr-gull?), anthemis, and Sirildrot prob. owe their 
names, F. Magn. lex, myth. p. 361 ; while Saxo's Syritha is rather 

SigriSr, conf. Sygrutha, Saxo 329. GDS. 526. Freya's hall 

is Sessrynmir, Sessvarnir, Sn. 28; as the cat was sacred to her, 
we may perh. count the Kitzliammer on the Meisner (Suppl. to 
270) among her or Holda's dwellings ; conf. cat-feeding (p. 1097). 

p. 307 n.] Maui, men is akin to Lat. monile. Dor. fxdvo^, 
lxdvvo<s, Pers. fxaviuKr}'^, fiaviuKov, Ssk. mani. Pott 1, 89. As incu- 
ijldd' expresses a woman's gladness over her jewel, a Swiss woman 
calls her girdle ' die freude/ Staid. 2, 515-6. 

p. 309.] On FuUa, Sanna, Sindgund, sec Kl. scbr. 2, 17 seq. 
GDS. 86. 102. Fulla wore a gold headband, for gold is called 

h.-.fuSband Fullu, Sn. 128. S6l is daughter of MundilfGri (p. 

703), wife of Glenr (al. Glornir), Sn. 12. 126, or Dayr, Fornald. 
s6g. 2, 7. Fru Sole, frii Soletopp occurs in pop. games, Ai'vidss. 

3, 389. 432. Skaffl, daughter of piazi, wife of Ni6rSr and 

mother of Freyr (gen. SkaSa, Sn. 82. Kl. schr. 3, 407), aft. wife 
of OiSinn and mother of Stemingr, Yugl. c. 0. 

p. 309.] In Sn. 119 Gerdr is Offin's wife or mistress, rival 
to Frigg. There is a Thurycrffr horgabrue^r. A. Frogerflia, come 
of heroic race, Saxo Gram. b. 6, Similar, if not so effective as 
VOL. IV. H 



1374 GODDESSES. 

Ger^^s radiant beauty, is the splendour of otlaer ladies in Asb. 
Huldr. 1, 47 : saa deilig at det sklnnede af hende ; in Garg. 76'' : 
her 'rosen-bliisame' cheeks lit up the ambient air more brightly 
than the rainbow ; in Wirut die welt : 

ir schoene gap so liehten scMu 
und also wunneclichen glast, 
daz der selbe pallast 
von ir libe (body) erliuhtet wart. 

p. 310.] On Syn and Vor, conf. F. Magn. lex. 358-9. Then 
the compds. Hervdr, Gnnnvor ; OHG. Cundwara, Hasalwara, 
Graflf 1, 907; AS. Fred-ivaru, Beow, 4048. I ought to have 
mentioned the ON. goddess Ihnr, fern., though ilmr, suavis odor, 
is masc. 

p. 310.] Namia in the Edda is ' Nejys duttir/ Sn. 31. 66, and 
Nepr was Odin's son 211. Saxo makes her a daughter of Gevar 
(Kepaheri), see Suppl. to 220. Ssem. 116^ speaks of another 
Nanna, ' Nukkva dottir.' Is ' nounor Herjans/ the epithet of the 
valkyrs, Sasm. 4'', conn, with Nanna ? 

p. 311 n.] Fuoge and Unfuoge are supported by the following : 
er was aller tugende vol, die in diu Vuoge lerte (virtues that 
decency taught him), Pass. 165, 2. diu Fiiegel, Fileglerln, Ls. 1, 
200-8. wann kompt Hans Fug, so sehe und lug (look), Garg. 
236^. daz in JJufaoge niht ersluege (slew him not), Walth. 82, 8. 
Unfuoge den palas vloch, Parz. 809, 19. nu lat (leave ye) der 

JJnfuoge \v strit 171, 16; conf. fUgen (Suppl. to 23). Quite 

unpersonal are ; zuht unde fuoge, Greg. 1070. ungevuoge, Ei". 
9517. 6527. swelch fiirsten so von lande varn, daz zimt ouch irti 
fuogen so, daz si sint irs lieiles vro, Ernst 1800. 

p. 311.] Gefjon appears in Lokasenna ; conf. p. 861 n. Does 
hov-gpfn mean lini datrix ? Stem. 192''*; or is it akin to Gefn, 
Gefjon ? 

p. 312.] Snoriz raraliga Ban or hendi gialfr d^r konungs. 
Seem. 153^. miok hefir Ran ryskt um mik, Egilss. p. 616. Ean 
lends Loki her net, to catch Andvari with, Sasm. 180. Fornald. 
sog. 1, 152. In the same way watersprites draw souls to them 
(p. 846). Later she is called hafs-fruu : ' h., som rader ofver alia 
Jivilka omkomma im sjon (perish atsea)/ Sv. folks. 1, 126. 'Blef 
sjo-tagen, och kom til hafsfrnu' 132. 



NANNA. FUOGE. RAN. HEL. 1375 

ez ist ein geloub dcr alten wip, 

swer in dem wazzer verliust den lip (loses his life), 

daz dcr si voii Got vcrtrlhen. Karajau ou Teiclmor 11. 

p. 313.] Slou I hel, Vilk. s. 515. i hel drepa, Sa3m. 78\ bita 
fyl til hdl'ui (bite a foal dead), Ostgota-lag 213. hiifiit );itt leysto 
heljo or, Ssem. 181''. Hel is a person in Sa3in. 18S'' : ' er ]?ik Tld 

hafi ! ' in Egilss. G13 : ' Niurva nipt (Hel) a nesi stcndr.' The 

fara til lleljar was German too (conf. p. 801-2) : Adam vuor ziio 
der lielle, und sine afterkumen alle, Ksr-clir. 9225. zc Jinlle varn, 
Warn. 2447. 3220. 3310. ze helle varn die liellevart, Barl. 323, 
28. /arcji zuo der hell = die, Seb. Brant's Narr. 57, 9. ze helle 
varn. Ring 55*^, 27; nu var du in die hell hinab, das ist din haus 
30; ir muost nu reuschen in die hell 20. ichwoltemich w>-s/q^l'Ji 
han zno der htUe (Helle), Troj. kr. 23352. von der hell loider 
komen (come back fr. hades), Brant's Narr. p. m. 207. in der 
hell ist ein frau an liebe (without love), Fastn. 558, 13 ; spoken 
of Hellia ? or of a dead woman ? Helle speaks, answers the devil, 
Anegenge 39, 23. do sprach diu Helle, Gricshaber 2, 147-8. 
Bavarian stories of Held in Panzer's Beitr. 1, 60. 275. 297. Ob- 
serve in Heliand 103, 9 : ' an tliene suarton hel ' ; conf. p. 804. 

p. 315.] Sic erimus cuncti postquam nos aufcret orcns, Petron. 
c. 34. rapacis Orel aula divitem manet herum, Hor. Od. ii. 18, 30. 
at vobis male sit, malao tenehrae orci, quae omnia bella devorafis, 
Cat. 3, 13. versperre uns (bar us out) vor der helle munt, Kara- 
jan 44, 1. dcr hellisch raclien steht ofFen, H. Sachs i. 3, 343*=. 
diu Helle gar uf tet (opens wide) ir munt, Alb. v. Halb. 171''. 
nu kan daz verjluochte loch nieman trfnllen noch (that cursed hole 
no man can fill), der wirt ist so gitic (greedy), Martina 160, 17 ; 
conf. ' daz verworhte hoi ' 172, 41. Yet MsH. 3, 233'' has : davou 
so ist diu helle vol 0. v. 23, 265 : 

then tod then habct fuutan Hell has found Death, 
thin hclla, ioh tirsluutau. And swallowed him up. 

Did Otfrid model this on 1 Cor. 15, 54-5 : 'Death is swallowed 
up in victory. Death, where is thy sting ? Hades, where 
thy victory ? * Observe the Gothic version : * ufsaggquij^s var)> 
dajipus in sigis. hvar ist gazds ]>eins, daitpu? hvar ist sigis 
j'eins, halja ? ' It is a Christian view, that death is swallowed up ; 



1376 CONDITION OF GODS. 

but most of the Greek MSS. have Odvare both times, the Vulgate 
both times mors, whilst Ulphilas divides them into daupii and lialja, 
and Otfrid makes hell find and swallow death. To the heathens 
halja was receiver and receptacle of the dead, she swallowed the 
dead, but not death. One Greek MS. however has davare and ahr} 
[suggested by HosealS, 14? 'Ero mors tua, Mors I morsus 
tuus ero, In feme ! 'IjMassva. 63^^ ; and a St; ?, infernus, in Matt. 
11,23. Luke 10, 15. 16, 23 is in AS. rendered helle. So in Irish 
the two words in the Epistle are bais (death), uaimh (pit) ; in Gael, 
bais and uaigh (grave). The Serv. smrti and pakle, Lith. smertie 
and pekla, smack of the Germ, death and hell; conf Hofer's 

Ztschr. 1, 122. Westerg. in Bouterwek, Csedm. 2, 160, sub' 

V. hel, identifies it with Ssk. kala, time, death, death-goddess, 
and Kail, death-goddess. 

p. 315 n.] Hellevot is a n. prop, in Soester's Daniel p. 173. 
The following statement fits Helvoetsluis, the Rom. Helium : 
Huglaci ossa in i^/^e«^ fluminis insula iibi in oceanvm prorumpit, 
reservata sunt,^ Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 10. 



CHAPTER XIY. 

CONDITION OF GODS. 

p, 318.] The heathen notion of the power of the gods is esp. 
seen in their being regarded as wonder -ivorhers, who did not sink 
into sorcerers i\\\ Christian times; conf. p. 1031. GDS. 770. The 
giants on the other hand were looked upon, even by the heathen, 

as stiqnd, pp. 526-8-9. The longevity of gods (long-aevi, lanc- 

libon, Notk. Cap. 144) depends on simple food and a soul free 
from care (p. 320-4). So thinks Terence, Andr. 5, 5 : ego vitam 
deorum propterea senipiternarii esse arbitror, quod voluptates 
eorum propriae sunt; and the dwarfs ascribe their long and 

healthy lives to their honesty and temperance (p. 458). 

Amrita (Somad. 1, 127) is derived by Bopp, Gl. 17% from a priv. 
and mrita mortuus, hence immortal and conferring immortality ; 
and a-ix^poaia (279^) fr. a-fxpoaia, /3poT6<i being for fxpoT6<;. 
Various accounts of its manufacture in Rhode's Relig. bildung d. 
Hindus 1, 230. It arises from the churning of the ocean, says 
Holtzmann 3, 146 — 150, as ambrosia did from treading the wine- 



FOOD. IMMORTALITY. 1377 

prcss^ K. F. Hermann's Gottesd. ultli. p. -301.. Doves carry am- 
brosia to Zeus, Od. 12, G3 ; conf. Athen. 4, 317. 321-5. Ambrosia 
and nectar arc handed to goddess Calypso, whilo Odysseus par- 
takes of earthly food beside her, Od. 5, 199. Moiraieatthe sweet 
heavenly food of honey (p. 415 n.). Even the horses of gods have 
in their manger ambrosia and nectar, Plato's Phaadr. 24'7. Yet 
the gods eat white oX^ltov, meal (Athen. 1, 431), which Hermes 
buys for them in Lesbos. Ambrosial too is the odour shed around 
the steps of deity (Suppl. to 327 end), of which Plautus says in 
Pseud, iii. 2, 52 : 

ibi odos demissis pedibus in coelum volat j 
eum odorem coeuat Juppiter cotidie. 

What nectar is made of, we learn from Athen. 1, 1 17-8, conf. 
166. ^coporepov veKrap, Lucian's Sat. 7. purpureo bibit ore 
nectar, Hor. Od. iii. 3, 12. Transl. in OHG. by standi, stenche, 
Graff 6, 696 ; in some glosses by seim, and if seim be akin to 
al/xa, our honig-seim still shows the affinity of honey to blood 
(pp. 468. 902) ; consider the renovating virtue of honey as well as 

blood: dev Saelden houic-seim, Engelh. 5138. The spittle of 

gods is of virtue in making blood and mead (p. 902), in brewing 
ol (ale): hann lagSi fyri dregg hraJca sinn, Foi*nald. sog. 2, 26. 
Kvasir is created out of spittle : so came Lakshmi out of the 
milk-sea, Holtzm, 1, 130, as Aphrodite from foam, Sri from milk 
and butter 3, 150. 

p. 320.] The belief of the Greeks in the Immortality of their 
gods was not without exceptions. In Crete stood a tomb with 
the inscription : ' Zens has long been dead {Tedveoi^ iraXat), he 
thunders no more,' Lucian's Jup. tragoed. 45; conf. p. 453 u. 
Frigga's death is told by Saxo, ed. M. 44 ; dead Baldr appears 
no more among the gods, Sasm. 63** ; then Freyr falls in fight 
with Surtr, T^r with Garmr, Thorr with miSgarSsormr ; OSiim 
is swallowed by the wolf, Loki and IleimiSall slay each other. 
Duke Julius 302-3. 870 (in Nachtbiichlein, 883), says he has 

heard that the Lord God was dead (the Pope ?). OJSinn and 

Saga diinlc, Sa)m. 41*; HeimSall drinks mead ll**, and always 
' gladly ' : drecka gl6& 41 ». dreckr glaffr 4P (p. 324). Thorr eatx 
and drlnlcs enormously, Saom. 73^ Sn. 86, aud a Norweg. tale of 
his being invited to a wedding. 



1378 CONDITION OF GODS. 

p. 321.] Of a god it is said: prjiSLca eOekwv, Od. 16, 198. 
p'rjtSiov denial 211; of Circe : peia irape^eXOovaa, Od. 10, 573. 
Zeus can do the hardest things, ovhev dadfiatvcov fievei, ^sch. 
Eum. 651. In Sn. formali 12, Thorr attains his full strength at 
twelve years, and can lift te7i heat's hides at once. Wiiinamoinen, 
the day after his birth, walks to the smithy, and makes himself a 
horse. 

p. 322,] Got ist noch liehter (brighter) denne der tac (day), 
der antlitzes sich bewac (assumed a visage) 
nach menschen antUtze. Parz. 119, 19. 

It is a mark of the Indian gods, that they cast no shadow, never 
%vhik, glide without touching the ground, are without dust or 
siveat (their garments dustless), and their garlands never fade, 
Iloltzm. 3, 13. 19; conf. Bopp^s Nalus p. 31. Even men, going 
into a temple of Zeus, cast no shadow, Meiuers's Gesch. d. rel. 1, 

■427. OSinn appears as a ' mikli ma^r, herd'imihill,' Fornm. 

sog, 2, 180-1. God has a heard : bien font a Dieu hai-he de fue.rre, 
Meon 1, 310. faire barbe de pa'dle a Dieu, Diet, comique 1, 
86-7, Finn, to see God's heard = to be near him, Kal. 27, 200. 
Vishnu is chatur-bhuja, four-handed, Bopp's Gl. 118^; Siva 
three-eyed, ibid. p. 160-1. Zeus too was sometimes repres. with 
three eyes, Paus. ii. 24, 4; Artemis with three heads, Athen. 2, 
152, The Teut. mythol. has none of these deformities in its 
gods ; at most we hear of a Conradus Bri-heuptl , MB, 29'', 85 
(an. 1254). Yama, the Indian death, is black, and is called hala, 
niger, Bopp's Gl, 7P, Vishuu in one incarnation is called 
Krishna, ater, niger, violaceus, Slav, cherniji (Bopp 83"), so that 

Cherni-bugh would correspond to Krishna. The beauty of the 

gods has already been noticed p. 26 n. ; that of the goddesses is 
sufficiently attested by giants and dwarfs suing for them : prymr 
wants Freyja, piassi I'Sun, and the dwarfs demand the last favour 
of Freyja. 

p. 323,] Numen, orig, a vev^ia, nutus, means the nod of deity, 
and deity itself, as Festus says (eJ, 0, Miiller 173, 17) : numen 
quasi nutus dei ac potestas dicitur. Athena also ' nods ' with her 
eyebrows: eV o^pvcri, vevae, Od, 16, IQi. Diu (frau Minne) 
lomJcet mir nu, daz ich mit ir ge, Walth, 47, 10; and Egilss, 
p, 305-6 has a notable passage ou letting the eyebrows fall, Les 



STRENGTH. BEAUTY. ANGER. JOY. 1379 

sorcils abessier, Aspr. 15''. sa (si a) les sorcils levez, Paris expt. 
J). 104-. ThoiT shakes his beard, Saiin. 70". 

The align-, Jiatred, vengi'iincf of the gods was spoken, of on 
p. 18-9. They punish misdeeds, boasting, presumption. .Their 
eiii'i/, (^66vo<i, is discussed by Lehrs in Kilnigsb. abb. iv. 1, 
]3o seq. ; conf. OeXyetv (Snppl. to 331). tmu tlvo^ <p9ovepoiv 
8aL/jb6i/Qjv fxij-^avrj <yeyov€, Procop. 2, 358. t>}? tu^t;? o (fi96vo<i 
2, 178. irry]peta 8ai'/uo»'o<? = tantalizing behaviour of a god, 
Jjucian pro lapsu in saint. 1. Loki loves mischief when he brings 
about the death of Baldr. So the devil laughs to scorn : der 
tiuvel des lachet, Diut. 3, 52. smutz der tiuvel, welch eiu rat ! 
llelbl. 5, 89. des mac der tiuvel lachen 15, 148; couf. tlie 
laughing of ghosts (p. 945). 

p. 32 k] Radii capitis appear in pictures. Not. dign. orient, 
pp. 53. IIG. Forcellini sub. v. radiatus. Ztschr. des Iless. ver. 
■>, 366-7. aarpaTii^v eihev iKXu/j,\lraaav airo tov TratSo'j, saw 
lightning flash out of his son (Asklepios), Paus. ii. 26, 4. do 
quam unser vrove zu ime, und gotliclie scMiie gingen liz irme 
antlitze (fr. Mary's face), D. myst. 1, 219. 

p. 325.] The Homeric gods are without care, avrol Se t 
uKTjSie'i elalv, II. 24, 526 ; they are blessed, serene, and rejoice in 
their splendour. Zeus sits on Olympus, Kuhel yaicov (glad of his 
glory), repTTi-Kepauvo^: (delighting in thunder), and looks down 
at the smoking sacrifices of those he has spared. Ares too, and 
Briareus are KvSei yaiovre^;. A god feels no pain : ecrrep Oe6<; yap 
iariv, ovK ala6)]a€Tac, Aristoph, Frogs 631. So Gripir is ' tjhid'r 

konongr,* Saam. 172''. The gods Jangli : yeXQ)<i 5' iir avTw 

Tot? 6eo2<i eKcvqOri, Babr. 56, 5; risiis /oi;is = vernantis coeli 
tempcries. Marc. Cap. (conf. giant SvasuSr, p. 758). snhrisit 
crudele pater (Gradivus), Claudian in Eutr. 2, 109. Callaecia 
visit Jloribus .... per herbamy7'^/•c/^• rosae, Claud, laus Serenae 
71. 89. risenint Jlorib as amnos, Claud. Fl. j\Iall. 273; conf. laugh- 
ing or sneezing out roses, rings, etc. Athena too is said to 
/.LeiBay, Od. 13, 287. 

p. 327.] For gods hccomiiuj visildc Homer has a special word 

.ivapy/j'i : ■)(^a\e7rol 8e 6eol ^aivecrOai ivapyel<;, II. 20, 131. deol 

(paii'ovrai ivapyel<i, Od. 7, 201. 16, IGl. evapyi]<i rjkde 3, 420. 

ivapyt]^ a vyy ev6fj,evo<;, Lucian's Sat. 10. Gods can appear and 

vanish a6' tlivij please, without any outward means: dwarfs and 



1380 CONDITION OF GODS. 

men, to become invisible^ need the tarn-hat or a miraculons herb. 
No one can see them against their will : t/? av Oehv ovk eOekovia 

o(f)6dX/jioi(TLv iSoiT 7] evff 7] €v6a KLOvra; Od. 10. 573. As a 

god can hear far off: K\vei he koL trpoawOev ojv 6e6<i, ^Esch. Eum. 
287. 375 ; as 'Got und sin muoter selient dur die steine/ MS. 2, 
] 2" ; so gods and spirits enter locked and guarded chambers 
unperceived, unhindered, Holtzm. 3, 11. 48. Dame Venus comes 
'dur gauze muren,' p. 455-6; the Minne conducts 'durch der 
kemenaten ganze ivant/ through the chamber's solid wall, Frib. 
Trist. 796. St. Thomas walks through a closed door, Pass. 248, 
26-7. Athena's messenger elcrrjXde irapa k\7]18o<; i/juavra, Od. 4, 
802. Trapa xXTjlSa XidaOrj 4, 838. Loki slips through the hora 
Su. 356 ; and devils and witches get in at the keyhole. 

Examples of sudden appeava^ice, p. 400 ; disappearance, p. 
951-2. OSinn, Honor, Loki in the Faroe poem, when invoked, 
immediately appear and lielp. Sudden appearing is expressed in 
ON. both by the verb Jwerfa : ]?a Aya?/ Fiolnir, Volsungas. c. 17; 
and by the noun svipr, Fornald. sog. 1 , 402. Stem. 157". der engel 
von himele sJeif, Servat. 399, do sih der roith iif bouch, der 
engel al damit flouch, Maria 158, 2. erfiio)- in die liifte hin, die 
wolken in bedacten, Urstende 116, 75 ; conf. 'riSa lopt ok log,' 
and p, 1070-1. der menscJiUch scMn niht bleib lang, er fuor 
daliin, Ls. 3, 263. Homer uses avatcraeiv of Ares and Aphrodite: 
avat^avre, Od. 8. 361 ; and the adv. alyp-a as well as Kapiraklfiwi 
and KpaLTTvd, II. 7, 272. When Ovid. Met. 2, 785 says of Min- 
erva : ' haud plura locuta fugit, et impressa tellurem reppulit 
hasta,' her dinting the ground with her spear expr. the ease of 
her ascent. Their speed is that of wind : rj 8' dvefxov w? ttvou] 
iireaavTO (of Athena), Od. 6, 20. sic effata rapit coeli per inania 
cursum diva potens, vnoqne Padum translapsa voJatu, castra sui 
i-ectoris adit, Claud, in Eutr. 1, 375. Eros is winged, Athen. 5, 
29. Winged angels, pennati pueri (p. 505). Vishnu rides on 
Garuda, Bopp's Gl. 102". IndraandDharmaas vulture and dove, 
Somadeva 1, 70. Holtzm. Ind. sagen 1, 81. Though Athena 
appears as a youth in Od. 13, 222, as a girl 13, 288, her favourite 
shape is that of a hird : opvi'i S' w? dvoTrala BceTTTaro 1, 320. 
As vultures, she and Apollo settle on a beech-tree, and look 
merrily on at men, II. 7, 58. As a sivaUovj, she sits on the roof- 
tree amid the fighters, and thence [xjy^oOev i^ 6po(})7]^) uplifts 



DISGUISES. EQUIPAGE. 1381 

the regis, Od. 22, 297; so Loulii sits a hvJc on tlie window of 
the smithy (Suppl. to 338), and the eagle in tlie dream efer' eVt 
irpov^ovrt fj,e\u0p(p, Od. 19, 541; conf. the vulture, who the 
moment he is named looks in at the door, IMeinert's Kuhl. 1G5. 
1G5. Bellona flies away a />//•(/, Claud, in Eutr. 2, 230; Gostr, 
i.e. Obin, as a valr (falcon], and gets a cut in his tail, Fornald. 
sog. 1, 487-8. Athena arrj Se Kar avrlOupov K'XicrLrj';, Od. 16, 
159 ; si mache sich schoen, unci go herfiir nls ein <j6tlnne zuo (lev 
tilr, Renner 12227. When the unknown goddess steps inside 
the door, her stature reaches to the roofbeam, /xeXtiOpov Kvpe 
Kuprj, then in a moment she is recognised. Hymn to Aphrod. 
174, to Ceres 189. A woman's spirit appears to a man in a 
dream : si San hvarf hun a brott ; Olafr vaknaSi, ok ];6ttist sia 
svlp konunnar, Laxd. 122. siSan vakna'Si He^inn, ok sa svipinn 
af Gondul, Fornald. siig. 1, 402. svipr einn var |?ar, Sa)m, 157". 

Fraijravce and hriijktness emanate from a deity, Schimraelpfeng 
100-1. Hymn to Ceres 276 — 281 (Suppl. to 318) ; a sweet smell 
fills the house of Zeus, Athen. 3, 503. So with the Hebrews a 
cloml, a mist, or the [/lory of the Lord fills the house of the Lord, 
1 Kings 8, 10-1 ; 2 Chron. 5, 13. comarum (of Venus) grains 
odor, Claud, de nupt. Heaven breathes an odor suavitatis, that 
nourishes like food, Greg. Tur. 7, 1. The bodies of saints, e.g. 
Servatius, exhale a delicious odour (p. 823) ; conf» the flowers that 
spring up under the tread of feet divine (p. 330). The hands 
and feet of gods leave their mark in the hard stone, so do the 
lioofs of their horses (Suppl. to 664). Gods appear in human 
form and disguise, O^inn often as a one-eyed old man, a beggar, 
a peasant, to Hrolf as Hrani bondi (Hrani is a hero's name in 
Ilervararsaga, Hani in Saxo). 

p. 329.] The Indian gods ride in chariots, like the Grk : Indra, 
Agni, Varuna, etc., Nalus 15-6; 7 steeds draw the car of Silryas 
the god of day, Kuhn's Rcc. d. Rigveda 90. 100 ; Ratri, night, 
Usa, aurora, are drawn by kine. Plato in Phasdr. 246-7 speaks 
of the gods' horses, chariots, charioteers, of Zeus driving a winged 
car. Selene is appealed to : ttot MKeavbv rpeire ttcoA.ou?, Theocr. 

2,163. a<Trepe<i, evKifKoio kut dvTvya Nukt6<; oiraSoi 2, 166. 

The German gods occasionally drive in star-chariots, or the stars 
themselves have a chariot, pp. 151. 723 n. ; conf. the car-pro- 
cessions p. 336; the sun too drives a chariot: Sol vurp hendi 



1382 CONDITION OF GODS. 

inni boegri um liimini6J;^r, Sasm. I'' (who is Vagnarunni in Egilss. 
610, OSinn or Thorr?). But riding is the rule, tliougli Loki says 
to Frigg : ec.jjvi reS, er ]m ri(?a. serat siSau Baldr at adliim, Sfetii. 
03^ ; even beasts ride in the Beast-apologue, Renart 10277-280- 
4G0-920. 

p. 330,] When Athena sits with Diomed in his war-chariot, 
the axle groans Avith the weight : Becvtjv '■^ap ci'yev 6eov avhpa 
r apioiTov, II. 5, 888, When Ceres nods, the cornfields shake : 
aunuit his, capitisque sui pulcherrima motu concussit gravidis 
oneratos messibus agros, Ovid Met. 8, 780. 

p. 331.] The gods appear in mist or cloud: Jehovah to Moses 
in a pillar of fire, Deut. 31, 15. diva dimovit nehidam, juvenique 
apparuit ingens, Claud, in Eutr. 1, 390. (Tritonia) cava circum- 
data mibe, Ov. Met. 5, 251. The raerminne comes '^rait eime 
dunste, als ein wint," Lanz. 1 81 ; in the legend of Fosete the god 
vanishes in a caligo tenehrosa, Pertz 2, 410. A cloud descends, 

and the angel steps out of it, Girard de Viane p. 153. Gods 

and dgemons are said to OiXyetv, hoodwink, delude (conf. p. 
463-4 of elves, and Suppl. to 322) : dXXd jxe Sai/jbwv 6e\yei, Od. 
16, 195; of Hermes: uvhpwv o/ju/xara OeXyei, II. 24, 343: of 
Poseidon : 6e\^a<i oacre ^aeivd, II. 13, 435 ; of Athena : tou? he 
TIaX\.d<s 'Adi^vair) OkX^ei koI /j,r}Ti€Ta Zev<i, Od. 16, 298; ded 
diXyec 1, 57; but also of Circe and the Sirens, Passow sub v. 
6iXjo). Hera holds her hand over her protege, virep-^eipla, Paus. 

iii. 13, 6. They take one by the hair : ari) h" oinOev, ^av9yi<i 

Se KOfxr/^ eXe IlrjXeLcova, II. 1, 197; by the ear: Kp6vo<i irpocr- 
eXdwv OTTLaOev Koi tov coto? fiovXa^6/ui€vo<;, Lucian^s Sat. 11. 

p. 331.] The Grecian gods sleep, Athen. 2, 470; yet Ssk. 
deus = /i7;tT a somno, Bopp's Gl. 26". A sich god is healed by 
incense, Walach. miirchen p.. 228. They are fond of play : 
c^iXoiralyixoveq ydp kol ol deoi, Plato Cret. ed. bip. 3, 276. The 
kettledrums of gods i-esound from heaven, and flowers rain down, 
Nalus p. 181. 238 (conf. OHG. heaven is hung full of fiddles); 
'it would please God in heaven (to hear that music),' Melander 
2, no. 449. Got mohte wol lachen (at the tatermenlin), Renn. 
11526. Conf. the effects of music on mankind: when Salome is 
ill, there come ' zwene spilman uz Kriechen, die konden generen 
(heal) die siechen mit irem senften spil, des konden sie gar vil,' 
Morolf 1625; ' I have my fiddle by me, to make sick people well 



SLEEP. SONG. LANGUAGE. 1383 

ami rainy weather jolly,' Goethe 11, 11; the tinkle of bells a 
euro for care, Trist. 308,24. 39. 411, 9; song-birds cheer the 
tot-riuwesa3re, Iwein 610. Aucassiu's lay drives death away, 
]\Ieou 1, 380. With the comforting of bereaved SkaSi and 
Demeter conf. Wigal. 8475 : ' sehs videlcrre, die wolden im sine 
swasre (heaviness) mit ir videlen vertribeu,' and Creuzer's Symb. 
4, 460. Athen, o, 334. It was a Lith. custom to get the bride 
to laugh, Nesselm. sub v. prajfikinu. N. Preuss. prov. bl. 4, 
312. A king's daughter, who has a fishbone in her throat, is 
made to laugh, Meon 3, 1 seq. The gods love to deal out largess, 
are datores, largitores, esp. Gibika (p. 137) ; conf. borg-geba 
(Suppl. to 274), oti-geba (p. 890 n.) ; they are ur-rjcfnar, ijl- 
ffefnar, crop-givers, ale-givers, Hostlong ii. 2, 11 (Thorl. sp. G, 
34. 42. 50. (jS). 

p. 334.] Gods' language and men's, Athen. 1, 335. Lobeck's 
Aglaoph. 854. 858—867. Heyne on the first passage quoted, 
II. 1, 403 : quae antiquiorem sermonem et ser.vatas inde appella- 
tiones arguere videntur. Like ON., the Indians have many words 
for cloud, Bopp's Gl. 16^ 209". 136'^. 158^; but do not attribute 
a separate language to the gods. Yet Somaveda 1, 59. 64 names 
the four languages Sanskrit, Prakrit, Vernacular and Dwmonlc. 
The Greek examples can be added to : n\ayKra<; S' r/rot rd<; ye 
0€ol ixdKape<i KaXiovcrtv, Od. 12, 61. dvr^rol "Epcora, uOdvaroi he 
Urepoora, Plato's Phoedr. 252. Tr}y S' ^A(^pohiTt)v KiKX/jaKovai, 
Oeol re kcli dvepet, Hes. Theog. 197. The different expressions 
attrib. to nioi and goJs in the Alvis-mal, could no doubt be taken 
as belonging to different Teut. dialects, so that A[cn)i should 
mean the Scandinavians, God'ar the Gotlis, and sol for instance 
be actually the Norse word, swina the Old Gothic, CDS. p. 768. 
Kl. schr. 3, 221. 

p. 335.] The Norse gods are almost all married; of Greek 
goddesses the only real ivife is Hera. Gods fighting with heroes 
are sometimes beaten., and }int to flight, e.g. Ares in Homer; and 
he and Aphrodite are ivounded besides. Now Othin, Thor and 
Balder are also beaten in the fight with Hother (Saxo ed. M. 
118), nay, Balder is ridicnlus fugd (119) ; but wounding is never 
mentioned, and of Balder it is expressly stated (113) : sacram 
corporis ejns flrmifatcm ne ferro quidcm cedere. 

p. 335.] Apart from Brahma, Vishuu and Siva, the Indians 



1384 CONDITION OF GODS. 

reckoned thirteen minor gods, Bopp's Gl. 160^. The former were 
younger gods, who had displaced the more elemental powers, 
Kuhn's Rec. d. Rigv. p. 101. Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 126; conf. 
' got ein junger tor ' (p. 7 n.). Yonng Zeus, old Kronos, Athen. 

I, 473. cot croni, deus recens, Graff 4. 299. The new year 
(p. 755). GDS. 765. 

p. 336.] Mountain-heights are haunts of the Malay gods also, 
Ausld. 1857, 604\ 7reTpa,hai^6vaiv avaaTpoc^r'j, M&ch. Eum. 23. 
Oli/mpus descr. in Od. 6, 42 — 46. To the rock-caverns [at Ithaca] 
gods and men have separate entrances, those by the south gate, 
these by the north 13, 110-1-2. The Norse gods live in Asgard. 
HreiSmarr cries to the Ases : haldit heim he^an, be off home 

from here! S^em. 182''. They have separate dwellings, but 

near together ; conf. the Donar's oak near Wuotan's mount 
(p. 170). J)dr (i Baldurs-hage) voru md7^g gocf, Fornald. sog. 2, 
6'3. Indian gods too have separate abodes : urbs Kuveri, mons 
K. sedes, Bopp's Gl. 19^^. 85^'. Aco^ avXtj, Lucian's Pseud. 19. 

Significant is the ON. : hefir ser um gerva sali, S^em. 40-1-2. 

The gods sit on thrones or chairs (p. 136), from which they are 
entreated to looh down in pity and protection : ^ei)? Se jevvrjTcop 
cSoc, ^sch. Suppl. 206. eVi'Sot S' "Aprefxi^ a'yvd 1031. llta vinar 
augom. The gods' houses are marked by gates, Hpt^s Ztschr. 2, 
635. 

p. 337.] The gods often have a golden staff, with which they 
touch and transform : '^^pvcreir} pd^So) €Trefjt.dacrar' 'AOvvq, Od. 
16, 1 72. 456. 13. 429 ; Circe strikes with her staff, Od. 10, 238 ; 
conf. Hermes' rod, the wishing-rod (p. 976) and other wishing- 
gear. Shiva has a miraculous bow, so has Indra ace. to the 
Vedas. Apollo's bow carries plague; conf. OSin's spear (p. 147). 
In Germ, milrchen the fays, witches, sorcerers carry a ti'ans- 
figuring staff (p. 1084). 

Gods are regarded by men as fathers, goddesses as w.others 
(pp. 22. 145. 254). They delight in men, avhpdaL repiro/jbevoL, 

II. 7, 61 ; their kindly presence is expr. by the Homeric a/x0t- 
/Saivo) : 6? XpvaTjv d/ii<pi^e/3T]Ka<;, II. 1, 37. 09 "Icr/xapov d/x(})t- 
/Se/Si^Kei, Od. 9, 198. They love to come down to men; conf. 
Exod. 3, 8: Kare/Srjv, descendi, hwearf (p. 325) ; they stop their 
chariots, and descend to earth, Holtzm. 3, 8. Nalus p. 15. 
yraesentes caelicolae, Cat. 64, 383. Like the Ind. avatara is a 



AGE. ABODES. ARMS. AID. 1385 

Oeov iTrtBi]iJ,ia (visitation), Lucian's Conviv. 7. G0J3 are not 
oinniproseutj they ai-e often absent, they depart, Athen. 2, 470. 
Jupiter says : summo delabor Olympo, et deus humana lustro sub 
imagine terras, Ov. Met. 1, 212. In the Faroe lay, OSinn, Hoenir 
and Loki appear iiistantlij. (Appearing to a man can be expr. 
by looking under his eyes, Etm. Orendel pp. 73. 45. 83. 102.) The 
passage : di liute wanden (weened) er ivaere Got von himel, Griesh. 
2, 48, presupposes a belief in God's appearing (p. 26 n.). so 
ritestu heim als ivaer Got do, Dancrotsh. namenb. 128, and : if 
God came down from lieaven and bade him do it, he would not, 
Thurneisser 2, 48. At Whitsun the street was hung with 
tapestry: als ochter God selve comen sonde. Lane. 31321. God 
(or his image) loves a place where he is made mucli of: Got 
mohte lieber niht gesten uf der erden an deheiner stat, Helbl. 15, 
584 ; ' here dwells der liebe Gott,' p. 20 n. His return to heaven 
is expr. by : 'do vuor Got ze Jdniele in deme gesuneclicheme bild,' 
Diemer 7, 19; conf. 'ego in coelura migro,* Plaut. Amph. v. 2, 

13. Gods send messengers, angels, those of Greece Hermes, 

Iris, etc., who escort men (p. 875), and inspect and report the 
goiugs-on of the world, says a pretty Servian song by Gavrai. 
It is worth noting in the prol. to Plaut. Rudens, that Arcturus 
shines in heaven at night, but walks the earth by day as mes- 
senger of Jove. Gods assist at christenings (Godfather Death), 
weddings, betrothals, Holtzm. 3, 8 ; and Mary too lifts a child 
out of the font, Wend, miirch. 16. They hallow and bless men 
by laying on of hands : vigit ocr saman Varar Jiendi, Saem. 74''. 
Apollon und Tervigant, ir beider got, hat sine hant den zwein 
geleit vf daz Jioubet, daz si helfe unberoubet und geliickes 
(unrobbed of help and luck) solden sin, mit gutlicher helfe schin 

geschach daz ir, Turl. Wh. 112"; like a priest or father. Gods 

deal with men in their sleep : a rib is taken out of sleeping Adam, 
to make Eve ; Athena sheds sweet sleep over Penelope, while 
she makes her taller and fairer, Od. 18, 188; Luck comes near 
the sleeper, gods raise up the fiillen hero, II. 7, 272. Their 
paltrij-looking gifts turn out precious (Berhta's, Holda's, Riibe- 
zahl's) : the leaves turn into gold, the more fittingly as Glasir the 
grove of the gods bears golden leafage. 

p. 338.] Metamorphosis is expr. by den lip verkHren, Barl. 
250, 22. sich kerte z'einera tiere 28. OJSinu viSbrast 1 vals liki. 



1386 HEROES. 

when HeiSrekr and Tyrfing attack him, Fornald. sog. 1, 487. 
Loki changes into a mare, and has a foal (Sleipnir) by SvaSilfari, 
Sn. 47. falsk Loki i lax liki, Sa3m. 68\ Sn. 69. Heim^aUr ok 
Loki i sela likjum, Sn. 105. Loki sits in the window as a 
bird 113; conf. Athena as a swallow on the roof-beam (p. 326). 
Louhi as a larh (leivonen) in the ivinclow (ikkuna), Kal. 27, 
182-5-8. 205. 215 (conf. Egilss. p. 420), or as a dove (kyyhky) 
on the threshold (kynnys) 27, 225-8. 232. Berhta looks in, 
hands things in, through the window (p. 274) ; the snake looks 
in at window, Firmen..2, 156. Louhi, pursuing Sampo, takes the 
shape of an eagle, denique ut (Jupiter) ad Trojse tecta volarit 
avis, Prop. iii. 30, 30. Jupiter cycnus et candidorum procreator 
ovorum, Arnob, 1, 136 (pp. QQQ. 491). In marchens a hear, eagle, 
dolphin, carries off the princess. 

p. 338.] Gods may become men as a punishment. Dyaus 
having stolen a cow, all the Yasu gods are doomed to be born 
men. Eight of them, as soon as born, return to the world of 
gods ; the ninth, the real culprit, must go through a whole 
human life, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 102-6. 

p. 339.] Real names (not merely epithets) of gods often 
become abstract ideas in Sanskrit. Indra, at the end of a com- 
pound, is priuceps, dominus, Bopp 40*^; Sri is prefixed to 
other names reverentiae causa, as Sriganesa, Srimahabharata 
357*. In ON. one as can stand for another, as Bi-agi for OSinn 
in the saw, ' nioti bauga sem Bragi auga,' Egilss. 455. So 
Freya, Nanna, T^r, Baldr become abstract terms (p. 220-1) : 
haldr bryn|?ings, b. fetilstinga, Fornm. sog. 6, 257. 12, 151*. enn 
nor'Sri niijrffr 6, 267. geirjiicir^/- = heros, Stem. 266^. Conf. 
Gates intensive (p. 19). 



CHAPTER XV. 

HEROES. 

p. 341.] On demigods, great gods, djfimones, conf. Boeckh^s 
Manetho, p. 488 ; semidei, heroes, Arnob. 2, 75. The hero has 
superhuman strength, ON. hann er eigi oinhamr, Fornm. sog. 3, 
205-7 ; einhamr, einhama signif. mere human strength. It is 
striking how the Usipetes and Tenchtheri glorify human heroes 



HEROES. 1387 

to Caesar, B. G. 4, 7 : * we yield to none but the Sucvi, for whom 
the immortal (jods are no match.' 

p. 343.] To vir, OHG. loer, are prob. akiu the Scjth. ol6p, 
Fin. uros, Kal. 13, (34. 21, 275. 290; conf. ^Qrv.urosh (p. 369 n.). 
GDS. 23G. Aug. Civ. Dei 10, 21. K. F. Herm. Gottesd. alt. 
p. 69. M. Neth. helt as Avell as helet. Stoke 3, 4. Notker's 
hertwga, AS. heardingas, El. 25. 130, recall Boh. hrdina, Pol. 
hardzina (hero), conf. Boh. hrdj^, Pol. hard^^, Russ. gordyi 
(proud), Fr. hardi, G. hart, herti (hard). Arugrim's eleventh 
and twelfth sons are called Haddingjar, Fornald. sog. 1, 415-6-7. 
GDS. 448. 477. himelischer degen in the Kl. 1672. degenin, 
heroine, Renn. 12291. With iingant conf. the name Weriaut 
freq. in Karajan. Jesus der Gotes wigant, Mos. 68, 10. Kdmpe 
may be used of a giant, Miillenh. 267. 277; beside cerapa, the 
AS. has oretta, heros, pugil. Is not ON. Jietja (bellator) strictly 
wrestler, fencer ? conf. OHG. hezosiin, palaestritae, Graff 4, 1073. 
GDS. 578. With OHG. wrecchio, AS. wrecca [whence, wretch, 
wretched] , agrees best the description of the insignes in Tac. 
Germ. 31 : Nulli domus aut ager aut aliqua cura ; prout ad 
quemque venere, aluntur prodigi alieni, contemptores sui. Dio- 
med is dvijp apiarof;, II. 5, 839. Heroes are rog-h'irtingar, briglit 
in battle, Haralda-mill 16. Serv. yundk, hero, ijundshtoo, 
heroism; so MHG. die mine juugelinge, Fundgr. 2, 91, conf. 
Nib. 1621, 2, and the heroic line of the YngUngar (p. 346). Ir. 
trean hero ; also faolcJiu hero, strictly wild wolf, falcon, and 
Welsh gicalch, falcon, hero; conf. Serv. urosh (p. 369 n.). 

p. 344.] Heroes derive their lineage fr. the gods : SigurSr 
ormr i auga is expressly Od'uis aettar, Fornald. sog. 1, 258 ; the 
Scythian Idanthyrsus counts Zeus his ancestor, Herod. 4, 126; 
and Zeus does honour to Menelaus as his son-in-law, yaiu,j3pd<{ 
Jio?, Od. 4, 569. They oxe friends of the gods: Zeus loves both 
champions, Hector and Ajax, II. 7, 280 ; there are ' friends of 
Ares ' and a ' Frey's vinr.' They can multiply the kindred of 
the gods. Jupiter's children are reckoued up in Barl. 251, 37 
seq.; Alexander too is a son of Jupiter Anmion or Nectanebus by 
Olympias. 'Galli se omnes ab Dite patre prognatos praedicant ; 
idque ab druidibus proditum dicunt,' Caes. 6, 18. Dietrich 
descends fr. a spirit, Otnit fr. Elberich, Hogni fr. an elf, and 
Merlin fr. the devil. 



1388 HEROES. 

p. 345.] As Teutonic tradition made Tuisco a ' terra editus/ 
tlie American Indians have a belief that the human race once 
lived inside the earth, Klemm 2, 159. Though Norse mythology 
has no Mannus son of Tuisco, yet it balances Go^heimr with a 
Mannheimr, GDS. 768, couf. Yestmanland, Sodermauland, Rask 
on Alfred's Periplus 70-1 ; and Snorri's Formali 12 places a 
Munon or Meimon at the head of the tribes. He, with Priam's 
daughter Troan, begets a son Tror = Th6r, fr. whom descends 
Loritha = H16rri5a, conf. Fornald. sog. 2, 13. GDS. 195. The 
American Indians have a first man and maker Manitu, Klemm 

2, 155-7. On the mythic pedigree of Mannus and his three 
sons, see GDS. 824 seq. 

p. 346.] Ingo was orig. called Ango, says Mannhdt's Ztschr. 

3, 143-4. He is the hero of the Ingaevones, who included the 
Saxons and formerly the Cheruscans, consequently the Angles, 
Angern, Engern (GDS. 831. 629. 630), whose name is perhaps 
derived from his. 

p. 350.] Did Dlugoss in his Hist. Polon. draw fr. Nennius ? 
Jrb. d. Berl. spr. ges. 8, 20; conf. Pertz 10, 314. 

p. 350 n.] Ascafna-burg, fr. the rivulet Ascafa = Ascaha, is 
likewise interpr. in Eckehardus' Uraug. as ' Ashen-hurg ab 
Ascanio conditore,' and is a castellum antiquissimum, Pertz 8, 
259. 578. On Asc and Ascanius conf. p. 572. 

p. 351.] The old Lay of Patricius 19, ed. Leo. p. 32-3, has 
Eirimoi)i (Erimon). Heremon in Diefenb. Celt. 2^, 387-9. 391. 

p. 355.] A communication fr. Jiilich country says, Herme is 
used as a not very harsh nickname for a strong but lubberly man. 
But they also say, ' he works like a Herme,' i.e. vigorously ; and 
legend has much to tell of the giant strength of Herme ; conf. 
Strong Hermel,KM. 3, 161. Herman, Hermanbock, Maaler 218''. 
Firmen. 1, 363'' : ' to make believe our Lord is called Herm.' 
Lyra Osnabr. 104: ' du menst wual, use Hergott si 'n aulen 
Joost Hierm.' It is. remarkable that as early as 1558, Lindner's 
Katziporus 0, 3^ says of a proud patrician, who comes home 
fuller of wine than wit : ' he carries it high and mighty, who 
but he ? and thinks our Lord is called Herman.' On the rhyme 
' Hermen, sla dermen,' suggestive of the similar ^Hamer, sla 
bamer, sla bussemau doet ' (p. 181-2), couf. Woeste pp. 34. 43. 
Firmen. 1, 258. 313. 360. 



INGO. HERMAN. MILKY WAY. lUING. 1389 

p. 357 n.] Other foreign names for the Milkii Way. American 
Indian: the way of ashes, Klemm 2, IGl. In WaUach. fairy- 
tales, pp. 285. 381, it comes of spilt straw that St. Venus 
(Vinire) has stolen from St. Peter. In Basque : ceruco esnebidea, 
simply via lactea, fr. eznea milk. Td<; ei? ovpavbv -^vx^v vofii^o- 
fjieva<; 6hov<;, Lucian's Encom. Demosth. 50. Lettic : putnu 
zela-ch, bird-path, Bergm. GO (so 7r6po<i olwvoiv, aether, ^sch. 
Prom. 281) ; also Beeva yahsta, God's girdle 115, or is that the 
rainbow? (p. 733). Arlanrod is also interpr. corona septen- 
trioualis, though liter, silver-circle. For the many Hungar. 
names see WolPs Ztschr. 2, 162-3. 

Other Teutonic names. East Fris. dat melJqmth, and when 
unusually bright, liarniswUh, Ehreutr. Fries, arch. 2, 73. With 
(jaJaxia they seem to have conn. Galicia ; hence to Charlemagne, 
at the beginning of the Turpin, appears James Street, leading from 
France to Galicia. In Switzld : der weg uf Eom, Stutz 1, 106. 
\Vestph. : miilenweg (Suppl. to 924), also widrstrafe, weather- 
street, Woeste p. 41 ; so in Jutland veirveien, Molb. Dial. lex. 
646, as well as arlcen 18. To ON. vetrarbraut, winter- way, 
corresp. the Swed. v Inter g atan ; conf. Gothl. kahhjofu, Almqv. 
432, unless this be for Karl's-gate. Do siuuiuiipad, sterrono 
strdza, wega wolkono in Otfrid i. 5, 5 mean the galaxy ? conf. the 
path of clouds, Somadeva 2, 153-7. 58. 61. Journ. to Himavan 
1, 106. Heer-strasze (-gasse), viz. that of the ' wiitende hear,' 
in Meier's Schwab, sag. 137-9 ; herstrasz, Mone 8, 495 ; Up. 
Palat. hyrstrausz, heerweg, Bergm. 115-8. 124; helweg (p. 801-2). 
Most import, for mythol. are : frauen Hidden strasze, vron Ililden 
straet, Fharaildis sidus (p. 281-5) ; also 'galaxa, in duutsche die 
Brunelstraet,' Naturk. von broeder Thomas (Clariss's GheraerD, 
p. 278). 

p. 361.] As we have luuaringes-weg and Eurings-strasz by 
the side of Iringesweg, so in oldish records Eurasburg castle is 
called Irlngeshnrg, Schm. 1, 96. Irinc is in Nib. 1968 a young 
man, 1971-89 a markgraf and Hawartes man, and in the Klage 
201. 210 ze Liitringe geborn. On the meaning of the word 
conf, pp. 727. 1148. Kl. schr. 3, 234. F. Magnus.sen in his Pref. 
to Rigsmal connects (as I had done in my Irmenstrasse 1815, 
p. 49) the Ericas of Ansgar and the Berich of Jornandes with 
liigr, as also the Erilcsgata ; conf. the devil's name gammel Erich 

VOL. IV. I 



1390 HEROES. 

(p. 989). That Ericli was a deified king is plain from a sentence 
in the Vita Anskarii cited above : ' nam et templum in honore 
supradicti regis duduni defuncti statuerunt, et ipsi tanquam deo 
vota et sacrificia offerre coeperuut/ 

p. 363 n.] Suevi a monte Siievo, Chr. Salern., Pertz 5^ 512. 
a Suevio monte, Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 493. GDS. 323. 

p. 365.] On the castra IlercuUs by Noviomagus, Ammian. 
Mai'c. 18, 2. With the giant bones of Hugleich at the Rhine- 
mouth (Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 10) we may even conn, the Herculis 
columna which stood there (p. 394). On Here. Saxanus, Mann- 
hdt's Germ, mythen p. 230 ; on the inscriptions, Mythol. ed. 1, 
p. 203. Herculi in Petra, Gruter 49, 2. TreSlov Xi^wSe? on the 
Rhone, Preller 2, 147. Wolfram's Wh. 357, 25. 386, 6. 437, 20. 

p. 366.] Like Castor and Pollux, there appear in Teut, tales 
two youths, angels, saints, in a battle, or putting out a fire (Suppl. 
to Pref. xliii. end) : ' duo jiivenes candidis circumamicti sfolis, 
animam a corpore segregantes, vacuum ferentes per aerem/ 
Jonas Bobb. in Vita Burgundofarae (Mabillon 2, 421) ; conf. p. 
836-7. duo juvenes in albis, putting out a fire, in Annal. Saxo p. 
558. Chronogr. Saxo in Leibn. 122 fr. Einh. Ann., Pertz 1, 348. 
Again, the angel wiping the sword in Roth's Sermons p. 78, and 
the destroying angel. Lithuanian legends have a giant Alois, 
Kurl. sendungen 1, 46-7. Jahj eSa Jalkr, Sn. 3; jalkr = senex 
evii'atus, says F. Magn. 

p. 367 n.] Note, in the Pass. 64, 41 : ein nmotegoz unreiner = 
Wuotilguz : conf. ' wiiefgusz oder groz wasser,' Weisth. 3, 702. 
and ' in wuefgussen, eisgussen und groszen stiirmen, 3, 704. 
Also p. 164, and Witetes, Wiietens, Schm. 4, 203. GDS. 440. 
774-5. 

p. 368.] Sifjiis O'Sin's son, Sn. 211». So is Hildolfr, ibid., 
' Harbarb's lord/ Seem. 75'', OHG. Hiltwolf. So is Sigrlami, 
Fornald. sog. 1, 413, and has a son Svafrlami. So is Nefr or 
Nepr, Sn. 211% and has a daughter Nanna 31. 6Q. So is Sce- 
mingr, Sn. 211% Semtngr in Ilervarars., Fornald. s. 1, 416; conf. 
Sdmr, 8dms-ey, Rask's Afh. 1, 108. The name of (7ai(/r, OSin's 
son or grandson, is conn, with giezen (pp. 23. 105n. 142. 164. 
367) ; on Gautr, Sn. 195. OSinn is called Her-ganlr, Egilss. p. 
624, oXdiXi. gautr, Sa3m. 95''. 93''; conf. Caozes-pah, -prunno (-beck, 
-burn), Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 530. 



SCEAF. GIBIKE. VALSING. BILLING. 1391 

p. 370.] The accounts of Sccaf \n AS. clironicles arc given by 
Thorpe, Beow. p. •!•. In tlie same way Beaflor sails alone in a ship, 
a bundle of straw under his head, Mai 35-9, arrives 51-3, sails 
away again 152 ; the ship gets home 180, 39. Horn also comes 
in a ship, and sends it homo with greetings. A Polish legend 
says of Piast : qui 'primus ajipiilerlt in navicula, dominus vester 
erit, Procosius p. 47. As the swan-childreu can lay aside the 
swan-ring, so can the Welfs the loolf -girdle or whelp-skin. Klemm 
2, 157 has a remarkable story of beautiful children slipping off 
their dog-shin. 'Skilpunt' in Karajan's Salzb. urk. must be fur 
Skilpunc. O^inn is a Skilfingr, Saera. 47. Did the/ and h in 
Scilfing, Scilbunc arises out of v in slciJdra? The Goth, skildus 
has its gen. pi. skildive. 

p. 371.] Kl. schr. 3, 197. To the Gihi.dien-sfcine enunier. in 
Hpt's Ztschr. 1, 573, and the Gehiches-horse in Weisth. 3, 344 
(borse, Graff 3, 215), add Geveken-Jwrst, Moser 8, 337. Dorow's 
Freckenh. 222, and AS. Gijicancumh, Kemble no. G-tl (yr. 984). 
The Nibel., which does not mention the Burgundian Gibeche, 
has a fiirste or kiinec Giheke at Etzel's court 1283, 4. 1292, 2. 
The Lex Burg. 3 says : apud regiae memoriae auctores nostros, 
id est, Gibicam, Godomarem, Gislahariiim, Gundaharium. Greg. 
'J'ur. 2, 28 : Gundeuchus rex Burgundiouum ; huic fuere quatuor 
filii, Gundobaldus, Godegisilus, Chilpericus, Godomarus. 

p. 371.] The diffusion of the Fo/sinigfa-saga among the Anglo- 
Sax, is evidenced by * Vdhiiig ' and ' Viilses eafera' in Beow. 1747- 
87. The Yolsungs have the snake's eye (Suppl. to 392, mid.). 
The tale of Siiufritz is told in Bader no. 435. 

p. 371 n.] Mars s eg union, vinmts, StixVxn 1, 112. Gliick 150 
aajs, scgo)no in nom. DeWal.no. 246 (1847). Can it be the 
same as rjyefiwv, dux ? 

p. 373.] OSinn himself is called hdhlindi, and Helbliudi is 
the name of a %volf (p. 246). Beaflor is said to have give birth to 
a wolf, Mai 132, 9; conf. the story of the 12 babies named Wolf, 
Miillenh. p. 523, and that of the blind dogs, Pliny 8, 40. 

p. 374.] nihuig, MB. 9, 10 (yr. 769). Hermann Billing, Hel- 
mold 1, 10. Billuug in the Sasscu-chrou., conf. Forstemann 1, 
258. 2, 225. Oda, grandmother of Henry the Fowler, was the 
daughter of a Prankish noble Billnng and Aeda, Pertz 6, 306. 
tome Billiugis-hugp, Gl. to the Ssp. 3, 29 ; conf. regulus Obu- 



1392 HEKOES. 

tritorum nomine Billug, Helm. 1, 13. What means ' pillungs 
ein w6iiic verrenket ' in the Hatzlerin 180^ 37 ? 

p. 376.] In EigIs-perge,MB. 28, 2, 173 (Passau urbar.). Juxta 
portam quae de Eigeles (at Cologne), Lacomblet 318, yr. 1134. 

p. 378.] The Heldensage p. 288 has two sons of Wielaud, 
[full] brothers : Wittich and Wittich von der aue ; conf . Lat. 
Silvamis, a forest-god of secondary rank : Silvani lucus extra 
murum est avius crebro salicto oppletus. Plant. Aul. iv. 6, 8. 
Ought we to read Viltinus for Vilkinus ? Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 446. 
Schott conn. Wate withWuotan, Introd. to Gudr. Ivi. To things 
named after Wieland add the Wielandstein, Schwab's Alp. p. 136 
seq. ; after Galans a pratum QaJandi, now Prejelan in Bourgogne, 
Garnier's Pagi Burg. p. 83, Dan. Velants-2irt, also velamsrot, 
vendelsrot, Dyb. 1845, 49. 50. On TFieZefs-kinder conf. Schm. sub 
V. Valfo'Sur vel framtelja, patris artem (mysterium ? ) enarrare, 
Saem. 1^. Another point of likeness betw. Wieland and Hephces- 
ios is, that both are masters of forging dwarfs (p. 471-2). Their 
handiwork was famous: epyov 'H(f}aiaroto, Od. 4, 617. 15,116. 
ou? "H(f)ai,aT0<i ereufe 7, 92. 

p. 380.] 'Mime the oid^ in Bit. 138 seems to have a short i, 
and can hardly belong here, Karajan in Verbrvid. von S. Peter 
has Mimilo, Mimistein. To Mimigerneford (conf, Ledebur's 
Bructeri p. 328), perhaps from an adj. mimi-gern, and Mimidun 
(Mimidomensis = Mindensis, Lappbg no. 25 ; Mimende on Weser, 
Schrader's Dyn. 104), add a third Westph. locality Mimegersen, 
now Memsen in Hoya country, Lappbg no. 48. Again, Mimmelage 
near Osnabriick. Mimirherh, perhaps Mimisberh, Pertz 8, 776. 
The names Memeln-brun, -born, Memel-born, Memilsdorf, 
Henneb. urk. 2, nos. 153-6. 169. 1, 166. 125, and Memeleu-born 
(Melborn by Eisenach), Thiir. Ztschr. 4, 210 suggest the Munis 
hrunnr of the Edda. With Mimingus, silvarum satyrus, agrees 
the sword's name in En. 5694; conf. Mumminc, Upstdge 137, 
(Muma in Thidrekss. 65). There are yet to be considered Sock- 
mimir, Saem. 46'^ ; Iloddmtmir who dwells i holti 37 ; Mimsvinr, 
Mimisvinr, Egilss. 641. Like Minii's head is Virgil's head which 
prophesies, MSH. 4, 246. A head of brass prophesies in Val. 
et Ourson c. 25 ; enn spinnen-lioofd in the Dutch transl. arose 
perhaps from taking tete d'airain for t. d'araigne. Heads often 
speak in churches, F. Magn, Edda-laere 2, 264. 



WELAND. MIMI. TELL. DEIFICATION. 1393 

p. 383.] On Tell conf. l^uhtner's Rog. p. 197 iin.l Siimor in 
the SolothurnerWtb. 1815, p. 198. Th. Platter 87 (abt 1532) 
names him Wilhelra Tiill, and Garg. 180*^ Wilh. nell, while Rabe- 
lais 1, 23 does not mention liim. A picture of Tell in Schwzb<,''s 
Memorial 116». Some stories make the son shoot the apple off 
the father's head. Schiiheichel is at this day a family-namo at 
Bonn, Sirarock's Edda p. 396. 

Many single heroes remain to be considered, such as Poppo 
the strong, Hpt's Ztschr. 3, 239, conf. 8, 3i7; Jhujldch 5, 10. 
Also lines of heroes : stirps Immidingorum (Saxon) et Brbonum 
(Bavar.), Pertz 8, 22G. 

p. 383.] The god must stand at the head of the line, because 
he passes for the /a//ier and gramljatJier of the men. Still there 
remains an enormous difference between gods and men j hence in 
Saxo, ed. M. 117, the (earthly) Nanna rejects the suit of Balder: 
nuptiis deum raortali sociari non posse, quod ingens naturae 
discrimen copulae commercium tollat . » . . supernis terrestria 
noil juijnri. 

p. 385 n.] Saxo calls Othin, Thor, etc. merely opinative, not 
nafui-dUter deos (ed. M. 118), and Balder a scmiJeiis (conf. p. 
340) ; whereupon P. E. Miiller om Saxo p. 51 remarks: Odin 
lived neither before nor after Christ. Old Conrad in his Tro;. 
Kr. 858 — 911 is not quite of that opinion: 'si wdren liute als 
ir nu sit, wan daz (they were men like you, only) ir krefteclich 
qewalt was michel unde manicvalt von lif intern uud von steinea 
.... ouch lepten gnuoge (lived plenty) bi der zit, die zonberaere 
waren, und wnnder in den jflren mit gougelwise worhten (with 
jugglery wrought).* How the old gods were degraded into 

conjurors, is shown p. 1031. Of the deification of men there 

are plenty of examples : ' daz kint waere mit den gotcn ein got,' 
Pass. 298, 27. The heathen adore Sigelot as a god, Rol. 198, 21. 
Ipouildon v:\][ bo a god himself, Tit. 3057. 4147-GO. er woldo 
got hien erde sin, Diemer 139, 24. als er iz waere got 131, 22. 
niin wirde gelich den goten steic, Turl. AVh. GO". Of Caligula : 
' wart hi so sot, dat hi wihle wesen god, onde hi seido opeubare 
dat hi Jupiters breeder ware,' Maerl. 2, 23G, conf 333. ' Gram- 
baut, roi de Baviere, se nommoit dieii en terre,' and called his 
castle Parndis, Belle Helene p.m. 23. The Mongols practise the 
xoorship of ancestors, deific. of rulers, Klemm 3, 191-5; also vene- 
ration of saints and relics. 



1394 HEROES. 

p. 392.] The Greeks required heaufy of form in lieroes as well 
as gods, Lucian's Cbarid. 6. 7. Of Cliarlem. it is said : anges 
resemble du ciel ius devole, Aspr. 2 P. Heroes share the lofty 
stature of gods. Of Hiigldcus the legend says : quera equus a 
duodecimo anno portare non potuit ; cujus ossa in E,heui fiuminis 
insula, ubi in oceanum prorumpit, reservata sunt, et de longinquo 

venientibus pro miraculo ostenduntur (Suppl. to 365). Many- 

handedness is often mentioned. Ancient men with four hands, 
four Jeet, and two faces, Plato symp. 189, /om?' ears 190. ef 'yap 
■^etpe<; eKaaTcp air wpuccv ataaovro, Orph. arg. 519. Men with 
8 toes, 6 hands, Megenb. 490, 2. 30 ; conf. gods and giants 
(p. 527). From the three-handed and three or four-elbowed 
Heime (Germ. 4, ] 7) perh. the Heimenstein takes its name, about 
which there is a folk-tale, G. Schwab^s Alb pp. 161 — 165. A 
story about ' so Heyne, so,' who helps to raise a treasure, in H. 
V. Herford, Potth. p. 93 ; conf. Brisinga-men (p. 306). A three- 
headed figure on the Gallehus horn discov. 1 734 (Henneb., plate 

2). Most akin to the gods seem those heroes who are favoured 

with a second birth (p. 385). The fact of many heroes' names 
being repeated in their descendants may have to do with this 
belief, GDS. 441. But Helgi and Svava are genuine endrhornir, 
SEem. 148. 169. 159^ As late as in MS. 1, 97'^ we read : ' sturbe 
ich nach ir minne, und ivurde ich danne lehende, so wurbe ich 
aber umbe daz wip (I would woo her again).' Contrariwise MS. 
1, 69^ : ' so bin ich doch uf anders niht gehorn.' Solinus says 
Scipio was another of the Tinhorn, and was therefore called 
Caesar, Maei'l. 1, 401 ; conf. the Lay of Mimmeriug tand, Danske 

Vis. 1, 100. Kama, son of the Sun, was horn with earrings 

and a coat of mail, Holtzm. 2, 123-9. 136. wart ie man mit 
wdfen gehorn. Krone 10534; conf. 'born with a fiddle.'' To 
phenomena occurring at the birth of a hero, add the storm that 
attended Alexander's, Pseudocallisth. p.m. 12. Alcmena tests 
Hercules with snakes, which he kills lying in his cradle, as 
Sigmund does Sinfjiitli by kneading the dough that had snakes 
in it, Vols, saga c. 7. Kullervo, when 3 'flights old, tears up 
his swathings, Castren 2, 45. In the Sv. folks. 1, 139. 140, the 
child walks and talks as soon as born. Of the grown-up hero's 
strength the examples are countless. Tied to an oak, he pulls it 
up, Sv. forns. 1, 44. Danske V. 1, 13; Beowulf has in his hand 



FIGURE. EQUIPAGE. SNAKE'S EYE. 1395 

tlio strength of thiriij, Beow, 75G. They eat and drhilc enor- 
mously, like Thorr (Suppl. to 320) ; so Hammer gra, Sv. forns. 1, 

Gl-2, conf. the giant bride 1, 71-2. Syv. 49. Heroes have 

beaming (jodlike eyes, snake's eyes, ormr t auga ; so have kings, 
Saxo, ed. M. p. 70. A slog's son (Sigur^S's and Brynhild's grand- 
son) is called SigurSr ormr-i-avga, gen. SigurSar orms-i-auga, 
Fornald. s. 1, 207. 273. 2, 10-4. Fornm. 1, 115. His step- 
brothers say : eigi er oss i augum ormr ne frdnir snahar, Fornald. 
1, 2G8 (conf. orm fraiin, Heimskr. 7, 238. SjBm. Hafu. 2, 13). 
SigurSr OMns aettar, j'eim er ormr I aiuja, Fornald. 1^ 258. 
Aslog prophesies of her unborn sou : ' enu a ]?eim sveini raun 
vera ))at mark, at svci muu ]nkkja, sem or)nr liggi um auga 
sveiuiuum ' — a false interpretation, for uot the eyebrows coiling 
round, but the inner look [l auga) was meant, Fornald. 1, 257. 
In Sa3m. 187* he is called ' inn frdn-eygi sveinn.' brann Bryn- 
hildi eldr or augom (fire flashed from B.'s eyes) 215''. amuu 
(ininaces) eru augu ornii }?eim enumfrdna (Volundr) 150''. Jtvoss 
era a?<7u i Hagals ]>}^ju (Helgi in disguise) 158''. We still say : 

something great shines out of his eyes. GDS. 120-7. Other 

heroes show other marks : on Ilagen's breast is a golden cross, 
Gudr, 143-7. 153; betw. Wolfdietrich's shoulders a red cross, 
llugd. 139. 189. Valentin and Namelos have also a cross hetw. 
fJte sJiualdcrs, like the mark of the lime-leaf on Siegfried's back, 
where alone he is vulnerable (as Achilles was in one heel), Nib. 
815, 3. 4. Swan-children have a gold chain about the neck, the 
rcali di Franza a niello on the right shoulder, Reali 6, 17. p.m. 
344; conf. the luolfs-zagclchen betw. the shoulder-blades (Suppl. 
to 1097). Of the Frankish hero Sigurd, the Vilk. saga c. 319 
says: * hans horund var sva hart scm sigg villigaltar ; sigg may 
mean a bristly skin, and seems conn, with the legend of the 
bristled Merowings.^ In cap. 146 we are told that Sigurd's skin 
grew hard as liorn ; and in Gudr. 101, that wild Ilagen's skin 
hardened through drinking the monster's blood. No doubt the 
original meaning was, merely that he gained strength by it. The 
great, though not superhuman age of 110 years is attained by 
Hermanaricus, Jorn. c. 24. We read in Plant, mil. glor. iv. 2, 
86 : meri bellatores gignuntur, quas hie praegnates fecit, et pueri 

' Thorpe (ad Cod. Exon. p. 511) sees the Merowings iu the North-Elbe Maurun- 
gani and AS. Myrgingas. Might not these Myrgingas be those of Mercia ? 



1396 WISE WOMEN. 

annos octivgentos vivunt. The gods bestow blessings, the heroes 
evils, Babr. 63. 

p. 392.] Strong Franz also holds converse with his hiowing 
steed, Miillenh. p. 422. The hero talks with his sivonl as well as 
his horse, Sv. forns. 1, 65. Klage 847 seq. Wigal. 6514. Drach- 
enk. 161*. Vilkinas. pp. 54. 160-1. The dying hero would 
fain annihilate his sword, e.g. the Servian Marko and Roland, 
Conr. Eol. 237, 3. 

p. 394.] Where a god, devil or hero sits, there is left a marlc 
in the stone. Their hands and feet^ nay, their horses' hoofs, leave 
marks behind (Suppl. to 664). ons heren spronc, Maerl. 2, 116. 
Stone remains wet with a hero's tears : hiute (to this day) ist der 
stein naz, da Karl ufFe saz^ Ksrchr. 14937. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

WISE WOMEN. 

p. 396.] Helen^ as daughter of Zeus and Leda, as half-sister 
of the Dioscuri, is ali-eady half divine ; but she is also deified for 
her heavty, as her brothers are for bravery, Lucian 9, 274. Flore 
says of Blancheflur, whom he supposes dead, 2272 : 
iuch liet Got ze einer gotinne 
gemacht in himelriche 
harte wiinnecliche. 
Women have the further advantage over the harder sex, of being 
kind and merciful, even giantesses and she-devils (Suppl. to 
530). 

p. 397.] Soothsaying and magic are pre-eminently gifts of 
women (p. 95). Hence there are more witches than wizards: 
' where we burn one man, we burn maybe ten women,' Keisersb. 
omeis 46''. A woman at Geppingen had foretold the great fire^ 
Joh. Nider (d. 1440) in Formic. 2, 1. 

p. 398.] Woman-worship is expr. in the following turns of 
speech [Examples like those in Text are omitted], ich waen, 
Got niht so guotes hat als ein guot wip, Frauend. 1, 6. ert altos 
vrouweu ende joncfrouwen, Rose 2051. van vrowen comt ons 
alle ere, Walew. 3813 ; for one reason : wir wurden von frowen 
geborn, und manger bet gewert, Otn., cod. Dresd. 167. daz wir 



WOMAN-WORSHIP. 1397 

voii den licbon froliii fin alsamen [zcr werltc] konicn sin, M. 
Beheiin 275, 19. Eenn. 122G8. 

p. 400.] The hero devotes himself to a lady's service, she will 
have him for her knight : idi ivil in z' eirne ritter han, Parz. 352, 
2 k ' den ritter dieustes biten,' ask for his service 3G8, 17. diuf! 
ritters 353, 29. min ritter und der di)i 358, 2. Schionatulander 
has to serve Sigune * unter schiltlichem dache,' under shield-roof, 
'i'it. 71, 4, he was ' in ir helfe erborn ' 72, 1; and this relationship 
is called her fellowship 73, 1. 

do versuocht ich 'n, ob er kunde sm 

ein fr tun f, daz wart vil balde schin. 

er gap durcli mich (for me) sin harnas enwec . . . 

mange aventiure snoht' er hioz (bare, unarmed), Parz. 27, 13. 

The knights wore scutcheon or jewel, esp. a sleeve, or mouwe, 
stouche (parts of a sleeve), ' durch (in houour of) die frauen,'' 
The lady is screen, shield and escort to the knight whose sword 
is in her hand, Parz. 370-1. * ich wil in strife hi in stn' says 
Obilote to Gawan 371, 14. Captives must surrender to the con- 
(jueror's lady-love 394, 16. 395, 30. 396, 3 ; she is thus a warrior 
like Freya, a shield-maiden (p. 423-4). The sleeve he wears as 
favour on his shield has touched the maiden's naked arm, Parz. 
375,16. 390,20. Er. 2292 seq. En. 12035 seq. ; a shirt that 
has touched the fair one's form is the knightly hauberk's roof, 
Parz. 101, 10; conf. ' es gibt dir gleich, naizwan, ain kraft, wen 
du im an den rock riierest (touchest his coat),' Keisersb.'s Spin- 
iierin f. 3''. Schionatulander nerves him for the fight, and wins 
it, by thinking how Sigune showed herself to him miroJied ; which 
she had done on purpose to safeguard him in danger, Tit. 1247 — 
50. 1497. 2502. 4104. 4717. 

Sed in cordibus milites 

deiiingnnt nostras fades, 

cum serico in palliis 

colore et in clipeis ; Carm. Bur. 148*^. 

Sifrit geddht an daz kiissen daz ver Krimhilt im hate getan, 
da-von der degen kiiene (champion bold) ein niuwe kraft gewan, 
Koscng. 1866. Man sol vor erste an Got gedenken in der not, 
Dar-uiicli gedenke an die siiezeu miiudel rot, Und an ir edelu 



1398 WISE WOMEN. 

minne, diu verjagt den tot, Kolm. MS. 73, 37. 42, 46. For 

'thinking of/ see my Diet. sub. v, andaclit (devotion). The 

ladies too call out to their champion, or they wish : ' The little 
strength that I have, I would it were ivith yon I ' As you like it, 

i. 2, Woman's beauty can split rocks : von ir schoene miiese 

ein fels erkrachen, MsH. 3, 173". It heals the sick : der sieche 
muose bi in genesen, Dietr. Drach. 350''. sol daz ein siecher ane 
sehn, vor froide wurde er schier gesunt 310''. ir smieren und ir 
lachen, und solde ein siecJie das ansehn, dem miieste sorge swachen 
70^. A flight to the ladies saves a man : hie sal die zuht vore 
gan, nu he under den vi'owin ist komin, 4626 ; conf. 4589. A 
lady's tread does not hurt flowers : ich waen swelhe trat diu 
kiinegin, daz si niht verlos ir liehten schin, Turl. Wh. 97''. 152^. 

p. 400.] Sin pflagen (him tended) ivtse frouwen, Gudr. 23, 3 ; 
they are called blessed maids in Steub's Tirol p. 319. 

p. 401.] The OHG. itis (Kl. Schr. 2, 4 seq.) is still found in 
MHG. In the Wigamur 1564 seq. a maiden is called id-is (mis- 
printed eydes, for it rhymes wis, pris 1654-90. 1972) ; she has a 
liinetree with a fountain of youth. Again, Itishurg, Dronke 4, 22 ; 
Idislind, Trad. Wizenb. (printed Dislith), Pertz 2, 389. Dis in 
Forstem. 1, 335; is Gifaidis 1, 451 for Giafdis ? Curtius in 
Kuhn's Ztschr. connects itis with aOrjvr}, but where is the s ? I 
prefer to see in it the shining one, fr. indh = lucere, edha, edhas 
= lignum (Kl. schr. 5, 435). AS. ides = fveo\icn meowle, Cod. 
Exon. 479, 2. Both meowle and maivi have likewise their place 
here ; conf. Menenloch, Panzer's Beitr. 1, no. 85. Kl. schr. 3, 108. 

p. 403.] ON. disir appear as parcae : ' vildu sva disir,' so 
willed the fates, Hostl. (Thorl. 6, 6) ; talar disir standa ]7er a 
tvcer hlicFar, ok vilja Jjik sdran sid, Ssera. 185*. Sacrif. off. to 
them : disablot, hletu& disir, Egilss. 205-7. var at disa hlSti, 
reiS hesti um disar salinn, Yngl. 33. Of the suicide : heingdi 
sik i disarsal, liervarars. p. 454 ; for ser i disar sal 527. iodffis, 
Sn. 202. Grendel's mother is an ides, Beow. 2518. 2701. On 
Vanadis and her identity with the Thracian moon-g'oddess Bendis, 
see Kl. schr. 5, 424. 430 seq. 

p. 403.] Brynhild's hall, whither men go to have their dreams 
interpreted, stands on a liill, Vols. c. 25 ; conf. hyfjaberg (p. 1149). 
voUi leiM, divinatricis tumulus, Laxd. 328. An old fay has not 
been out of her toioer for fifty years, Perrault p. m. 3. Of 



ITIS (DIS). ALRUNA. NORN. 1399 

Veleda and the Goth. Waladamarca in Jorn. c. 48 we are reminded 
by the wise horse Falada in the fairy-tale (p. G59), and by Velen- 
tin : valantinne, volantiiinc alternate in Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 4-37. The 
volar TO&m about: ek for i skog volvu lihi, Fornald. s. 1, 135; 
]n\. var volvan 1, 139. Sosm. 154''. Other prophetesses in Nialss. 
p. 194-9: Seeunn kerling, hon var frocf a,t morgu ok framsyn, eu 
jni var hon gomul miok ; she wanted the weed removed, else it 
would cause a fire, which came true. In Fornm, s. 4, 46 : vtsinda- 
hona, sA er sagJSi fyrir orlog manna ok lif ; conf. p. 408. 

p. 405.] Wackernagel in Hpt's Ztschr. 2, 539 thinks a/torunas 
= /<aZ{orunas = helliruua. A cave of the Alrann in Pauz. Beitr. 
1, 78 — 80. mandragora aJruna, Mone's Anz. 8, 397. 

p. 400.] My resolution of ON. norn into Goth, navairns, death- 
goddess (Kl. schr. 3, 113) is opposed by Miillenhof in Hpt's 
Ztschr. 9, 255. The ' Nahanarvali ' may have been noru-wor- 
shippers, Navarna-hali, Goth. Navarne-haleis, ON. Norna-halir, 
GDS. 715. 806. Perhaps we ought to look to the Swed. verb 
nyrna, warn, inform, Sv. folkv. 1, 182-3. In Faroe they say 
nodn, nodnar, for norn, nornir, as they do kodn, hodn, badn, for 
korn, horn, barn, Lyngbye 132 ; so Nodna-gjest 474. That 
NiLrnherg contains norn is the less likely, as we find it spelt 
Niiern-hevc, MSH. 3, 296^ A^((ere?i-berc, Walth. 84, 17. Nornhurn 
seems a corrup. of Nordenborn, like Norndorf, Nornberg, also in 
Up. Germany. Conf. the Fris. Non, Ehrentr. Fries, arch. 2, 82 ; 
NurnJiari, Karajan 83, 6. 

p. 408.] Two Germ, truds, Muss and Kami, take their names, 
like the three Norns, from simple verbs, Panz, Beitr. 1, 88. 
OHG. wHvt, fortuna, Gl. hrab.964* ; conf. giwurt, ungiwurt, Graff 
1, 993-4, and perhaps Goth, gavairpi, n. AS. seo tvip-d gcwcarff, 
Caedm. 168, 3. hie Wyrd forsweop, Beow. 949. With 'me J^ast 
Wyrd ginccvf (wove) ' conf. * wigspcda gewiofu (webs),' Beow. 1347 
(p. 415). In Kormakss. p. 267 comes UriTr at hrunnl ; conf. 
UrSar lokur, Ssem. 98^ Urbr oSliuga 214" is like'dis Skiol- 

dunga.' The Norns shape our destiny, shapa: dmlig nora 

sliop oss i ardaga 181"; in Faroe : tea heava mear nodnar sJcapf, 
Lyngbye 132. In Graff 6, 662, ' steffara = parca ' is for scefara; 
scepfarun = -pa,Tca.e, Gl. Schlettst. 6,457; they ' sceppen 'a men- 
schen leven,' Limb. 3, 1275. Vintler v. 146 (see App. Superst. 
G} speaks of gach-scJiepfen, Pfeiffer's Germ. 1, 238 j conf. Finn. 



1400 WISE WOMEN. • 

luonnotar, virgo creatrix, esp. ferri, fr. luou to make : ' koline 

neitta luonnotarta/ tres sunt virgines naturae creatrices. Norns 

are of various lineage. Seem. 188*: 

sundr-hornar miok kugg ek at nornir se, 

eigo'S ]7aer aett saman, 

sumar ero ds-kungar, sumar d/Z-kungar, 

sumar doetr Dvalins (some, daughters of D., a dwarf). 

p. 409.] On nornir, volvur, spdkonur, hldkdpnr conf. Maurer 
284. tha thria iviifer, Elirentr. Fries, arch. 2, 82. die drei heil- 
rdtJiinnen, Panz. Beitr. 1, 56-7-9. 283. Slav, tri rojenice or 
sujenice, Valjavec 76 — 91. Boh. sudice, judges, fem. (p. 436). 
Nornir nd-gongJar, nau"S-gonglar, Seem. 187^, conf. ed. Hafn. 173 ; 

note the tqfra-norn (p. 1033). The Norns travel: konur ]?aer 

foru yfir land, er vo7yur voru kalla"Sr, ok sog'Su monnnrxx for log sin, 
arferS ok a^ra hluti, ]>& er menn vildu visir ver^a. J?essi sveit kom 
til Virvils bonda, var vdlvunni J^ar vel fagnat, Fornm. s. 3, 212. 
volvan arma 3, 214. Norns, parcae, fays come to the infant's 
cradle, and bestow gifts ; so does frau Saelde in Erec 9900. A 
gammal gumma prophesies at the birth of the prince, Sv. folks. 
1, 195 ; three mor (maids) get bathed by the girl, and then give 
gifts 1, 130 (in our Germ, tale it is 3 haulemannchen). 

p. 410.] Saeva Necessitas 

clavos trahales et cuneos manu 
gestans ahenea, Hor. Od. i. 35, 18. 

Si figit adamautinos 

summis vorticibus dtra Necessitas 

clavos. Hor. Od. iii. 24, 5. 

diu grimme Not, Er. 837. merkja d nagli Naud', S^m. 194^. 
Riinar ristnar: d Nornar nagli 196* [clavo, not fingernail) ; conf. 
Simplic. ], 475 (Keller) : when Needs-be rideth in at door and 
windows. 

p. 411.] Of Greek mythical beings C(il;/pso comes nearest the 
fays, being goddess and nymph ; and in MHG. the goddess Venus 
is 'diu feine diu ist entslafen,^ MS. 2, 198% while a fay is often 
called goddess. ' gotinne = fee,' Hpt's Ztschr. 2, 183. der gotinne 

land, der g. hende, Frib. Trist. 4458. 4503. In Petronius we 

already find a personal (though masc.) fatus : malus f. (ilium 



NORN. FAY. FATA MORGANA. 1401 

])erdi(lit) c. 42. lioc inilii elicit f. nious, c. 77. On tlic house of 
the tria fata in the Furuni, conf. Gregorovius's City of Rome 1, 
o7l-2-o. In tlio Engiidin they arc called fcdas, feus, also 
yii/mpJias and dltihis : they help in loading corn, bring food and 
drink in silver vessels ; tJiree dialas come to the spinners, 
iSchreiber's Taschenb. 4, 306-7. 

p. 412.] On the tria fata see Horkel's Abli. p. 298 acq., conf. 
the tJiree maidens in F. v. Scliwabeu : twelve white maidens in 
Miillenh. p. 348. Fays, like elfins, are of unsurpassed beauty : 
schoener danne ein veine, Trist. 17481. plus hlancJie que fee, 
Orange 5, 3059. plus helc que fee ne lerine 5, 4725. pus bela 
quo fdda, Ferabr. 2707. do hiaiitc resaubloit fee, Marie 1, 100. 
They hold feasts, like the witches (p. 1045-0). In an old poem (?) 
p. 104-5, three fays prophesy at the birth of Auberon, son of 
Jul. Ca3sar and Morgue, when a fourth comes in, p. 100 (p. 82 of 
the prose). The fates are gifting a newborn child, when the last 
one hurries up, but unfortunately sprains her foot (sbotatose lo 
pede), and lets fall a curse, Pentam. 2, 8. 

p. 413 n.] Fata Morijana {■& ' FemurgCui diu riche ' in Lauc. 
7185, Fdmorgdn in Er. 5155. 5229, Feimurgdn in Iwein 3422. 
The ' Margnel, ein feine' in Er. 1932 is the same, for she answers 
to the Fr. ' Morgain la fee.' She is called ' Murgnein de elwinne,' 
Lanz. 13654. 19472. 23264; ' Femur g a die kluoge,' Tit. 4376; 
while Wolfram treats the word as the name of a country (p. 820 n.). 
On the other hand, Trist. 397, 14 : gotlnne \iz Avehui der feinen 
lant (fay's land) ; Er. 1930 : der wert Avalon, Fr. Tile d'Avalon. 
Does this go back to an old Celtic belief? Michelet 2, 15 men- 
tions hoJij hiaids who dispensed fair weather or shipwreck to the 
Celts. 

p. 414 n.] Alcra seem akin to t'cro?, etcro? and et^euai : iao<; 
ecpially distributed, Kara Caa ex aequo, kut alaav convenienter, 
aequo. 

p. 415.] Instead of KaruKXcoOe^ in Od. 7, 197 Bekker reads : 

dcrcra ol alaa Kara K\o)6i<; re ^apelai 
yeivofxei'cp vyjaavTO \tv(p — 

joining Kara to v}']aavTO. Lucian's Dial. mort. 19 : ^ Molpa Kal 
TO e^ "PX^** ouTO)? iiTLiceKXoiaOaL. Conf. iTTCKXcodo) used of gods 
and daemons (Suppl. to 858). Atropos was supposed to bo in 



1402 WISE WOMEN. 

the sun, Clotho in the moon, Lachesis on earth, Plut. 4, 1157. 
For a beautiful description of the three Parcae (pai'ca, she who 
spares ? Pott in Kuhn 5, 250) see Catullus 62, 302—321 with 
ever and anon the refrain : Currite, ducentes subtemina, currite,. 
fusi ! also vv. 381—385. 

Niihila nascenti seu mihi parca fuit. Ov. Trist. v, 3, 14. 
Scilicet hanc legem neiites fatalia parcae 

stamina bis genito bis cecinere tibi. v. 3, 25. 
duram Lachesin I quae tarn grave sidus habenti 

fila dedit vitae non breviora meae. v. 10, 45. 
Atque utiuam primis animam me ponere ciinis 

jussisset quaevis de trihus una, soror ! Propert. iii, 4, 28. 
Tres parcae aurea pensa torquentes. Petron. c. 29. 
Daz het in vrowe Chloto so erteilet ; 
ouch was vil gefuoc vro Lachesis daran. Turl. Krone 7. 

Servian songs tell of a golden thread (zlatna shitza), that un- 
winds from heaven and twines about a man, Vuk 1, 54 (Wesely 
p. 68). 57-8. 

p. 416.] German legend is full of spinning and weaving 
women : kleit daz ein luildiu feine span, Troj. ki\ 2895. ein 
feine worhte den mantel, Altd. bl. 2,231; and fays weave mantles 
in Charlem. p. 105-6. paile que fist fere une/ee, Auberi 37. in 
the cave sits an old spinster, Kuhn^s Westph. I, 72. Asbiorn. 
1, 194; conf. the old ivehsier, Rhesa dainos 198. Geliiche span 
im kleider an, Frauenl. 115, 15. There are usnaMj tho-ee togetlter : 
tres nymphae, Saxo p. 43 (ed. M. 123). drei puppen. Firm. 2, 
34. die drei docken, H. Sachs i. 4, 457*^. die drei Marien, 
Kindh. Jesu, Hahn 68. Uhland's Volksl. 756. lb. 1582, 332. 
tliree Marijs protect from fire, Panz. Beitr. 1,67. three spinning 
Marys, Uhl. Vksl. 744. tJiree old luives on a three-legged horse, 
Miillenh. p. 342. the tras f eyes, Alsatia. 1853, p. 172-3. Many 
stories of three women in ivJiite or black, esp. in Panzer^s Beitr. 
1, 2. 11-4-6-8. 25-8. 35-6-8. 46-8; they stretch a line to dry 
the wash on 1, 1. 9. 11-7. 25. 59. 129 n. 271-8; sing at the birth 
of a child 1, 11 ; become visible at 8un-wend-tag (solstice), 1, 
38-9. 75. 84. Near Lohndorf in Up. Franconia a lad saw tliree 
castle-maidens walking, two had kreuz-rocken (-distaff's) with nine 
spindles spun full, the third a stiihles-rocken with nine empty 



FATES. FAYS. VALKYRS, 1403 

ones; anil the others said to licr, 'Had you but covered your 
spindles once, tlio' not spun tliein full, you would not bo lost.' 
VaiVA. Beitr. 2, 13G. A beautiful Moravian story tells of fJirrc 
maidoit; who marched, scythe in hand, mowing the people down ; 
one, being lame, cannot keep up, and is laughed at by the other 
two. She in her anger lets men into the mystery of healing 
herbs. Kulda (d'Elv) 110. 

p. 418.] Jupiter sends out Victoria, as OSinn does vaJhyrs, 
Aug. Civ. D. 4, 17 (p. 435-G). Their name has not been found 
yet in OHG., though Schannat, vind. 1, 72 (yr. 1119) has WaJ- 
Icarie, femina serva. With the skiald-ineyar conf. schild-knecht, 
who keeps his lord's shield and hands it to him, as they to OSinn. 
Maidens guarding sliield and liehnct occur in the M. Neth. Lane. 
1G913. conf. 16678. 17038. Their other name, liiahn-nieyar is 
made clearer by Jiild und hialmi, Saam. 228% liialm geta ok 
onhney verJSa 242*. The valkyr is named folkclfr 192". So, 
inegetllchiu wip help Charles to conquer, Ksrchr. 14950 seq. ; 
diu megede suln dir dine ere widergewinnen 11954 ; der megedo 
sigenunft 15029. Aurelian led in triumph ten captive GotJiic 
amazons, Vopisc. in Aurel. 34. Lampr. Alex. 6320 calls the 
Amazons nrlouges wip. Paul Diaconus mentions a fight betw. 
Lamissio and the Amazons for the passage of a river. Adam of 
Bremen 4, 19 speaks of 'amazons and cynos-ceph<xli ; ' conf. P. 
Diac. 1, 15. hunt-houhito in Graff. The Krone 174G9 tells of 
' der mcide lant,' land of maids. 

p, 418 n.] Hun var vitr kona ok vinsael ok sJconhigr mikill, 
Fornm. 3, 90 ; lion var skoriuujr mikill, virago insignis, Nialss. 
c. 96 ; and Glaumvor is skorungr, Vols. c. 33 (Kl. sclir. 3, 407), 
skarilngr, Vilk. c. 212; but in c. 129 skarungr = hero. Conf. 
skur, f. = barba, scabellum, commissura ; skar, m. = fungus, inso- 
lentia. OHG. scara = acics, agmen; scaraman, scario. 

p. 419.] Where is the garment mentioned, in which OJSinu 
hid the thorn for Brunhild ? Saem. 194'* only says ' stack liana 
svefn-]>orni ; ' Vols. c. 20 ' stack mik svcfn-}>orni ' ; Sa3m. 228^ 
' lauk liann mik skioldom ok hvitom.' On 6;^'//i(Z/t'-sft)aes, see 
Michelet 1, 461. 

p. 420.] Brynhildr or Sigrdnfa jiUs a gohld (fyldi eitb ker), 
and brings it to Sigurd, Saam. 194''. Vols. c. 20. A white lady 
with silccr goblet in M. Koch's Reise d. Oestr. p. 262. A maiden 



140-1 WISE WOJIEN. 

bauds tlie liorn, and is cut down, Wieselgren 455. Subterraneans 
offer similar drink, Miillenb. p. 576; and a jatte bands a horn, 
wbose drops falliug on tbe borse strip biin of bair and bide, 
Euna 1844, 88. 

p. 42].] Nine, as tbe fav. number of tbe valkyrs, is confirmed 
by Seem. 228% wbere one of tbem speaks of atta sijstra. To our 
sui-prise, a bero Granmar turns valki/rja in. Asgard, and bears 
nine wolves to Sinfiotli, Saem. 154^. Fornald. 1, 139 ; conf. AS. 
wylpen, wulpiu = bellona. 

p. 423.] Tbe valkyrs ride tJtrough the air (p. 641), like Venus 
(p. 892) : a tbing aft. imputed to witcbes (p. 1088, &c.). Ticelve 
ivomen in tbe wood, on red horses, Fornm. 3, 135. By tbe ex- 
pression HIackr for, Hlock seems to bave tbe task of conducting 
tbose fallen in battle to OSinn or Freyja, Egilss. p. 226. Is 
Gondull akin to gand ? Gl. Edd. torn. 1 : ' gdnduU = nodu\ns' ; 
so tbat Odin's by-name Gondler, Sasm. 46^', would mean ' tricas 
nectens.'' Tbe Eota in prose Su. 39 is Eotho in Saxo M. 31 C. 
An OHG. name Hilticomd, ad pugnam veniens, Cod. Fuld. no. 
153 (yr. 798), describes a valkyr ; conf. Hruodicoma, no. 172; 
ON. Hildr und hialmi, Seem. 228^ ; AS. hilde tvoman. Cod, Exon. 
250, 32. 282, 15. Thrucfr is likewise a daugbter of Tborr. 
Heilab-trud, Trad. Fuld. 2, 46. trute, Pass. K. 395, 77. frau 
Trutte, Prset. weltb. 1, 23. tbe drut (p. 464). 

p. 423.] May we trace back to tbe walkiirie wbat is said to 
Brunbild in Biter. 12617 ? ' ir waret in iur alten site komen, des 
ir pflaget e, daz ir so geryie sehet strit,' you love so to see strife. 
Brynbildr is ' mestr skorungr' (p. 418 n.). In Vilk. p. 30 sbe 
is called 'bin rika, bin fagra, bin mikillata,' andber castle Segard. 
In tbe Nibel. sbe dwells at castle Isenstein on tbe sea; is called 
des tiufels wip (or brut), and ungebiurez wip, 417, 4. 426, 4; 
Avears armour and sbield, 407, 4, tbrows tbe stone running, and 
burls tbe spear; is passing strong 425, 1. 509, 3. 517, 3, and 
ties up king Guntber on tbeir wedding-nigbt. 

p. 424.] Like tbe shield-maidens are Fenja and Menja, of 
wbom tbe Grottasongr str. 13 says : i folk stigum, brutum 
skioldu .... veittum goffum Oothormi liff. Clariue dubs ber 
Valentin knigbt, Stapborst 241. Tbey strike up brotberbood 
witb tbeir proteges; so does stolts Signild, Arvidss. 2, 128 — 130; 
conf. tbe blessed (dead ?) maiden, wbo marries a peasant, Steub's 



WISE WOMEN. Ii05 

Tirol 319. The valkjrs too have swan-shifts, S;ein. 228": \C-l 
hami vara hugfullr kouungr atta systra und eik horit (born uuder 
oak) ; conf. Cod. Exon, 4i3, 10. 26 : wunian under dc-treo ; and 
Grottas. str. 11 : varum leikur, vctr niu alnar fi/rir lord' neffan. 
The wish-wife's clothes are kept in the ociktreny Lisch 5, 8 1-5. 

p. 425.] Bryuhildr first unites herself by oath to young Aijiiar, 
and helps him to conquer old Hialmguunar, Saem. 191 ; conf. 
17-4''. 228» (Vols. c. 20), where it says 'eiSa seldak* and ' gaf ec 
ungom sigr.' After that she chose Sigurd : sva er ek hau>i mer 
til mauns. Vols. c. 25. Such a union commonly proved unlucky, 
the condition being often attached that the husband should never 
anlc the celestial bride her name, else they must part ; so with 
the elfin, with Melusina, with the swan-knight. Also with the god- 
dess Ganga, who had married Santanu, but immediately threw the 
children she had by him into the river, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 95-9. 
On the union of a hero with the ghostly vila, see GDS. 130-1. 

p. 429.] Valkyi's are to a certain extent gods stranded on the 
world in Indian fashion. They stay 7 years, then fly away to the 
battle : at vifja vvja, visere proelia, Seem. 133 ; so in the prose, 
but in the poem orlog drygja (p. 425). The wtsiu wip in the Nibel. 
are also called merwip, din wilden merwip 1514-20-28, and Hagen 
hows to them when they have prophesied. 

p. 431.] The hut of the forest-women in Saxo p. 39 vanishes 
with them, and Hother suddenly finds himself nnder the open sky, 
as in witch-tales (p. 1072). Ganglcri heyrSi dyni mikla hvern 
veg fra ser, oc leit ut a hlib ser : oc J?a er hann sez meirr um, jni 
stendrhannutl a slettum velli, ser ]>a onga holt oc onga borg, Su. 
77. Such vanishiugs are called sion-hverfingar, Sn. 2. 

p. 433.] Eolz-wip, Otn. Cod. Dresd. 277; conf. dryad, hama- 
dryad (p. 053). To cry like a wood-wife, Uhl. Volksl. 1, 119: 
schre als eiu wildez wip owe ! Lanz. 7892. The wild woman's 
horn, gestiihl (spring, stool), Wetterau. sag. 282 ; wilde fiiinlcin, 
Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 59 ; daz w'dde vrouweUn, Ecke 172. In Sehliich- 
tern wood stand the wild houses, wild tahle, often visiteJ by the 
wild folk, Buchonia iv. 2, 94-5; a wiUemannches haus and tisch 
(table) near Briickenau, Panz. Beitr. 1, 180; conf. daz wilde ge- 
twerc (p. 447). Wood-wives are also called dirn-weihel (Suppl. to 
279), and carry apples in their basket, like the raatronae and 
Nehalenuiae. At flax-picking in Franconia a bunch plaited into 

VOL. IV. K 



1406 WISE WOMEN. 

a pigtail is left for the hulz-frdule (as part of a sacrifice was laid 
aside for nymphs, Suppl. to 433 u.), aud a rhyme is spoken over 
it, Panz. Beitr. 2, 160-1. witte iviwer in the forest-cave^ Kuhn^s 
Westf. sag, 1^ 123. The rauhe (shaggy) woman appears in the 
wood ixt midnight, Wolfdietr. 307-8 (Hpt's Ztschr. 4) ; the mother 
of Fasolt and Ecke was a rauhes weih (p. 483). Zander's Tanh. 
pp. 7. 17 speaks of wald-schdlMein Cupido. Does Widuhlnd, a 
very uncommon name, mean wood-child ? conf. Widukindes 
speckia, Liinzel 22. 25. 

p. 433 n.] Weaving naiads inOd. 13, 107. Fountain-nymphs, 
daughters of Zeus, are worshipped by Odysseus and in Ithaca 13, 
856. 17, 240; a part of the sacrifice is laid by for them 14, 435. 
/Sa)/i.o9 vvfi(f)dQ)v 17, 210. 

p. 434 n.] The reluctance of Proteus is also in Yirg. Georg. 
4, 388 — 452 ; the same of Vertumnus, Ov. Met. 14, 642 seq. 
Pi'opert. iv. 2. 

p. 435.] Ez ne sint inerminne niet. En. 240, 4. ein wise mer- 
minne, Lanz. 193. 5767. 3585. 6195. als ene merminne singhen, 
Eose 7896. A captive merwoman pro^yJiesies ruin to the country 
as far inland as she is dragged, Firmen. 1, 23. Miillenh. p. 338. 
Queen Dagmar hears the prophecy of a hav-fru, D.Y. 2, 83 — 85 
(in which occurs the adage : vedst du det, saa vedst du mer). 
The mermaid of Padstow, exasperated by a shot, curses the har- 
bour, and it is choked up with sand. For Melusine the common 
people say mere Lusiue. Danish songs have maremind trndi mare- 
qvinde. ' waltminne = lamia,' Gl. florian. Fundgr. 1, 396. lualt- 
minna = echo (p. 452), lamia,' Graff 2, 774. widuminua, Cassel 
ortsn. p. 22. 

p. 436.] The vila builds her castle in the clouds, her daughter 
Munya (lightning) plays with her brothers the two Thunders, Vuk 
nov. ed. 1, 151-2. She sits in ash-trees and on rocks, singing 
songs; talks with the stag in the forest; bestows gifts, and is a 
physician (p. 1148), Vuk 151. 149 n., no. 114. 158. She resem- 
bles the devil too ; holds night-dance on the hill (Vuk sub v. 
vrzino kolo), teaches pupils to lead clouds and make storms, de- 
tains the last man. The vilas are likest the white ladies (Suppl. 
to 968). With kliktati conf. Lith. ' ulbauya volunge,' the wood- 
pecker whines, and MS. 2, 94'' : ' ir klol'ent als umbe ein fulen 
bourn ein speht,' as woodpecker about a plumtree. 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1407 

CHAPTER XVII. 
WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

p. 430.] Augustine CD. 8, 14 divides animate beings into 
tliree classes: 'tripertita divisio animaliuin in deos, liomines, 
daemones. Dii excelsissimum locum tenent, homines infimum, 
daemones medium ; nam deorum sedes in coelo, liominum in terra, 
in aere daemonum/ The vettar have more power over nature 
than we, but have no immortal soul, a thing they grieve at (p. 

517). Fries, bot. udfl. 1, 100. The Goth, aggilm, OHG. engil, 

is not a convenient general term for these middle beings, for it 
conveys a definite Christian sense. Iw. 1 391 uses (jeiat for dae- 
mon : ein unsihtiger geist. Genius means having generative power, 
Gerh. Etr. gods pp. 15. 52. Another general term is ungethum, 
Schweinichen 1, 261-2. Spirits are also xingehener (p. 914) : die 
uhelemingeluuren, Ges. Abent. 3, Gl. 70-6 ; elbische w»{7c/a'(ire 3, 
75. The Swed. ra too seems to have a general sense : sjo-rd, toml- 
rd, shog-rd, rdand, Jlnnsi 1844, 70; conf. as (Suppl. to 24 and 
498). Mod. Gr. arixdov, Fauriel's Disc. prel. 82, must be 
aToiyelov clement, conf. to aTOi-)(^elov tov iroTaixov 2, 77. 

p. 442.] The Vidovali, Vidohali are Goth. Vaihte-haleis, OX. 
Vaetta-halir, fr. vict, wiht, wight, and the same people as the 
Nahanarvali (Suppl. to 406). GDS. 715. Can voihtshe fr. vaiau 
to blow, and mean empty breath ? In Hpt's Ztschr. 8, 178 ' iht 
(ie-wiht) iibles' is half abstract, like Goth, vaihteis ubilos; whilst 
'eines boesen wichtes art' in Lanz. 3693 (conf. 1633) is altogether 
concrete; so are, * diz ungehiure wiht/ Ges. Abent. 2, 129; dat 
vule wicht, Rein. 3660; dat dcin proper suverlec wechthen (girl), 
Verwijs p. 33 ; 0. Engl. tmV///i' = being, wife, Nares's Gl. sub v. ; 
illar vaettir, Fornm. 4, 27; ill racttr ok cirm, Fornald. 1, 487; 
rog vaetfr, Soem. 67-8; 6-vaetir, malus daemon, our ini-weseu. 
Jand-vaeUir are Saxo's 'dii loci praesides' 161. dii vettrarnc, 
Dybeck 1845, p. 98. uppa vegnar vadtir, ex improviso, Bioru 
sub V. vcginn (slain). The Norweg. go-vejter, good wights, whence 
the gu-vitter of the neighbouring Lapps, answer to our gHt>' widitc, 
guie holden (pp. 266. 456. 487); de guden holden, Gefken's Beil. 90. 
124-9. A 15th cent, description of tlie Riescngebirge has 'umb 
des icediirdien odcr lergm'unHns willen,' Moue'a Auz. 7, 425 ; is 



1408 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

this word akin to wicht, as well as ar-weggers (p. 454 n.) which 
might mean * arge wichte/ malicious wights ? ^ Weckerlein is a 
dog's name, fr. wacker (brisk, wide-awake). Wihtelin, p. 441 n., 
may mean simply a puppet, like tocke, docke : bleierne (leaden) 
holder-z wergHii, Garg. 253\ A vfichtel-stuhe in Sommer p. 24, 
a wichtelen-ZocA in Panz. Beitr. 1, 42. Like wiht, das ding stands 
for nightmare, Prsetor. Weltb. 1, 27, as bones coses does for boni 
genii, Alex. 289, 24, and M. Lat. creatiira for something, wight, 
Ducange sub v. 

ON. lajnd, f., pi. hyndir, is genus, ens, Sasm. 1\ 6*. 118''; hynsl, 
Jcijnstr, res insolita; Swed. hijner, creaturae, Runa 1844, 74.^ 
Akin to this word seems MHG. hunder, creature, being, thing, 
also quaint thing, prodigy : was chunders ? Wackern. lb. 506, 
30; conf. 675, 39. (576, 28. 907, 7. 909, 17. solhez hunder ich 
vernam, MSH. 3, 195^ tiuvels kicnter, Rol. 223, 22. der tiuyel 
und allez sin kunder. Tit. 2668. du verteiltez k., Ges. Abent. 3, 
25. bestia de funde so sprichet man dem k.. Tit. 2737. verswin- 
den sam ein k., daz der boese geist fuort in dem rore 2408. ein 
vremdez k., MSH. 3, 171^ ein selts^ne k., Walth. 29, 5. ein 
triigelichez k. 38, 9. diu oedenk., MSH. 3, 213*. das scheusslich 
kunter! Oberlin 846''; but also 'herlichiu kunder,' Gudr. 112, 4. 
einer slahte k., daz was ein merwunder, Wigam. 119. maneger 
slahte k., Wh. 400, 28. aller slahte kunterlich, Servat. 1954. k. 
daz uf dem velde vrizzet gras (sheep), Helmbr. 145. der krebez 
izzet gern diu Jcunterlin im wazzer, Renn. 19669. OHG. Chun- 
teres frumere. Cod. Lauresh. 211, M. Neth. conder, Brandaen 33. 
1667. dem boesem %mhmider, Dietr. 9859, formed like ON. 
ovaettr; conf AS. tudor, progenies, untydras, monstra, Beow. 221. 

p. 443.] OHG. ' faunos = a/p,' Hpt's Ztschr. 10, 369. MHG., 
beside alp (do kom si rehte als ein alp uf mich geslichen, Maurit. 
1414), has an exceptional alf: so tum ein alf . . . was nie so alf 
(both rhym. half). Pass. 277, 69 and 376, 6. der unwise a// 302, 
90. einhelfeloser a//387, 19. der tumme a//482. 12. der to- 

rehte aZ/'684, 40; conf the name OlfaJf, Karajan 110, 40. Perh. 

a nom. 'diu elbe' is not to be inferred fr. the dat. Mer elbe' in 

' Ar-weggers is a name for earth-wighis : ar-beren = erd-beeren, p. 467, 1. 3 ; and 
iceg-lm = ivilit-lin p. 449, last I. — Trans. 

- Skry7)isl, monstrum, Vilk. s. 35, skrimsl, Fornm. 4, 56-7, used like kynsl. 
Ihre says, skryinsl = ]atebra, Dan. skriimsel terriculamentum ; Neth. schrom terror, 
ON. skraumr blatero; Skrymir (p. 541). 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1409 

MS. 1, 50'', as Pfeiffor p. 75 says the Heidelb. MS, reads ' von dtni 
elhen' The dwarf ia Orendel is Allan; a name ElbJtri ia Diut. 2, 

107 ; a monntaiu-sprite ^/6er in Schm, 1, 47. With the above 

01 fa If cont 'ein rehter o/// Roseng. xiii., which comes near MUG. 
ulf, pi. iilve, but disagrees in its consonant with alp, clbe. On 
the other hand, *du dip, du dolp ' in H. Sachs i. 5, 525'' agrees 

with the latter; so does Olben-herg, Hess. Ztschr. 1, 245. The 

quite reg. M. Neth. a// (p. 463, last 2 11.) has two plurals: (1) 
alren in Br. Gheraert v. 719. met alven ende elvinnen, Hor. Belg. 
6, 44; and (2) elven in Maerl.: den elven bevelen, Clarisse's Gher. 
p. 219. There is also a neut. a//" with pi. elver; conf. the names of 
places Elver-sele, Elvlnnen-herg. A large ship, e//-schuite, Ch. yr. 

1253 (Bohmer's Reg. p. 26, no. 190) is perh. fr. the river Elbe. 

AS. celfinni means nymphae, dun-ceZ/iujiioreades, wudu-a;//i»Hedry- 
ades, \v2Qtev-ceIjinne hamadryades, sa,c- celjiyine naiades, feld-celjiniie 
maides, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 199. The Dan. assimil. oi^ ell en for elven 
occurs iudep. of composition : ' ellen leger med haunom,' mente 
captus est, Wormius Mon. Dan. p. 19. ellev ild = '^ or w. huldrin, 
Asbiorns. 1, 46-8. 105. iudtagen af huldren 1, 99. To olpefriitsch, 
&c. add elpendrotsch, Grater's Id. undHerm. 1814, p. 102; Up. 
Hess, 'die ilmedredsche' ; Fastn. 350 dlpetriill ; conf. trotsch 

iNIone's Anz. 6, 229. The adj. from alp is elbisc/i: in elhischer 

anschowe, Pass. 97, 15. ein clbisclie ungehiure, Ges. Ab. 3, 75. 
ein elbischez as 3, 60. elhischer gebaere 3, 68. ich sihe wol daz 
du elbisch bist 3, 75. 

p. 444 n.] For the Alps there occur in the ^lid. Ages ' elhou 
=^alpibus,' Diut. 2, 350''. uber elve, trans alpes, Rother 470. 
uber alhe keren, Servat. 1075. zer wilden albe klAsen, Parz- 190, 
22. gen den wilden alhen, Barl. 194, 40. 

p. 444 n.] Welsh gwion = elf, fairy. On bansh i, henshi see Hone's 
Every Day b. 2, 1019, O'Brien sub v. sithbhrog (Suppl. to 
280). beansiijlie , Leo's Malb. gl. 37, aujhe 35. Hence the name 
of an elvish being in the West of Engl., iiixij, pexij, piehij, Scotch 
paikie, Jamieson 2, 182, and pixie, Suppl. 219. For the cole- 
pixif, at fruit-gathering time, a few apples are lefc on the tree, 
called in Somerset i\\e pixh^ -hording (fairies' hoard), Barnes sub 
V. colepexy. Picsy -ridden, i.e. by night-mare; pixy-led, led astray. 

p. 445.] The distinction betw. Cxlfar and duergar appears also 
in Seem. 28* : for dlfoni Dvalinn, Dainn dvergom. By Alfheinir 



1410 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

Rask understands the southernmost part of Norway, Afh. 1, 
86-8; by dvergar the Lapps 1, 87. Loki, who is also called difr, 
is sent by OSinn to Andvari or Andpcari in SvartdJfaheim, Sn. 
136; so Plutarch 4, 1156 derives daemons from the servants of 
Kronos, the Idaean Dactyls, Corybantes and Trophoniads. 
Curiously 01 afr is called digri Geirsta"Sa-a//?', because he sits in 

the grave-mound at Geirsto^, Fornm. 4, 27. 10, 212. Both 

(libs, alps and the Lat. albus come (says Kuhn in Hpt's Ztschr. 
5, 490) fr. Ssk. ribhus ; conf. thie wiznn man = angels, 0. v. 
20, 9. die iveissen miinnel, Weise's Com. probe 322, Vishnu on 
the contrary appears as a black dwarf, Meghaduta 58, and again 
as a brown shepherd-boy 15. Dwarfs are created out of black 
bones, ' or bldm leggjom,' Saem. 2^^. Migrating dwarfs are either 
white or black in Panz. Beitr. 1, 14. Still I think it speaks for 
my threefold division, that the elves made by witches' magic are 
also black, wJnfe and red, where red may stand for brown, though 
hardly for dockr. In charms too, the ' worms ' equivalent to elves 
are always of those three colours ; an Engl, spell names ' fairies 
white, red and black,' Hone's Yearb. 1534. And horses black, 
brown and white turn up in the fay-procession. Minstrelsy 199. 

p. 446.] The dwarf Andvari dwells in SvaHdlfaheim, Sn. 136; 
Sn. ]6 makes some dwarfs live in the ground (i moldu), others in 
stones (i steinum). 

447.] For dcergr, Sasm. 49^ has durgr. LS. twarg, Westph. 
twiark, L. Ehen, querge, Firmen. 1, 511 ; Up. Lausitz querx 2, 
264. ' gituerg = nsinu.s vel pomilio,' Gl. Slettst. 29, 43. eiu 
wildez getwerc, Er. 7395; getwergelin 1096. daz tzwerk, Keller's 
Erz. 632, 3. wildiu getwerc, Goldem. 5, 1. Sigen. 21, 9. Ecke 
81, 5. A deed of 1137 is signed last of all by ' Mirabilis nanus 
de Arizberg, nepos imperatoris Heinrici,' MB. 4, 405 ; was his 
name Wiudertwerc? (a Mirabilis near Minden, yrs. 1245-82, 
Wigand's Wetzl. beitr. 1, 148. 152. Henr. Mirabilis, D. of 

Brunswick, d. 1322. Earth-mannikins do spin, Sup. 993; but 

their favourite line is smith-ivork ; they are ' hagir dvergar,' 
Saem. 114^. Knocker's are little black hill-folk, who help to 
knock, and are good at finding ore. Hone's Yearb. 1533. The 
thunderbolt was also elf-shot, conf. Alp-donar (p. 186-7). As 
smiths with cap and liammer, the dwarfs resemble Vulcan, who 
is repres. with hat and hammer, Arnob. 6, 12 ; conf. Lateranus 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. Mil 

(Siippl. to 511). D\vai-f:3 were worked on ladies' dresses, dcenjar 
a 6x1 nin, Sa3m. 102^. 

p. 41.7 11.] The kon; dwarf, dim. korrik, is black and u«,'ly, 
with deep-set eyes and a voice muffled by age, Schreib. Abh. v. 
slreitkeil. p. 80. Welsh gwarclicll, a puny dwarf, gwion, elf, 
fairy, gwyll, fairy, hag. Lith. karla, harVde. Serv. malioutza, 
manijo, little-oue, star-mall, old little-one, kepetz. 

p. 4-48.] The worship of elves is further attested by the difa- 
blot performed in one's own house, Fornra. 4, 187. 12, 81; a 
black lamb, a black cat is offered to the huldren, Asb. Huldr. 1, 
lo9. In Dartmoor they lay a bunch of grass or a few needles in 
the pixies' hole, Atheuceum uo. 991. The alp-ranke is in AS. celf- 
punc, OIIG. alb-duno, like a kerchief spread out by the elves ? (p. 
121G) ; alf-rank, amara dulcis, Mone's Anz. 6, 448. Other plants 
named after them are elf-blaster, elf-ndfuer, Dyb. Runa 1847, 31. 

p. 451 u.] Tlie adage in the Swiss dwarf-story, ' sillben. tho, 
sdlben gha' (conf. issi teggi, p. 1027), is found elsewhere : Norw. 
'sjol gjort, sjol ha,' Asb. Huldr. 1, 11; Vorarlb. ' selb to, selb 
ho,' Vonbun p. 10; ' salthon, saltglitten,' Wolfs Ztschr. The 
goat's feet suggest the cloven hoofs of satyrs, for dwarfs too' dart 

through the wood on pointed hoof,' Dietr. drach. 140*. The 

ill effect of curiosity on men's dealings with dwarfs comes out in 
the following: — A shepherd near Wonsgehilu saw his dog being 
fed by two dwarfs in a cave. These gave him a tablecloth, which 
he had only to spread, and he could have whatever food he 
wished. But when his inquisitive wife had drawn the secret 
from him, the cloth lost its virtue, and the zwergles-hninn by 
Wonsgehilu ran blood for nine days, while the dwarfs were 
killing each other, Panz. Beitr. 2, 101. 

p. 451.] Angels are small and beautiful, like elves and dwarfs; 
are called geonge men, Ca3dm. IIG, 28 ; woman's beauty is comp. 
to theirs, Walth. 57, 8. Frauend. 2, 22. Hartm. bk. 1, 14G9. 
Percival 'bore angel's beauty without \i:ings' Parzif. 308, 2.^ 
And dwarfs are called the fair folk (p. 452) ; sgon-aunkeu, Kuhn's 
Westph. sag. 1, 63. Alberich rides 'als eiu Gotes engel vor dem 
her,' Ortnit 358. die kleiuen briute (she-dwarfs), vrouwen also 
dlu bildo getan (done like pictures), Alex, and Antiloie (Hpt's 

> Pennati piieri already atteiul Veuus in Claudian's Epitb. Talladii ; angels flit 
round the tower, I'ertz 0, 4Ji*. 



1412 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

Ztschr. 5, 425-6) ; conf. ' Divitior forma, quales audire solemus 

Na'ides et Drijades mediis incedere silvis/ Ov. Met. 6^452. On 

the other hand^ Hogni, whose father was an alb, is pa/e and du}b 
as bast and ashes, Vilk. c. 150; changelings too are ugly (p. 
468). We read of dernea ivihti (p. 441) ; and the red-capped 
dwarf is hlack, Runa 3, 25. Dwarfs have broad brows and long 
hands, Dybeck 1845, p. 94; g7-6ze arme, hurzin bein het er nach 
der getwerge site, Wigal. 6590 ; and the blateviieze in Rother 
seem to belong to dwarfs, by their bringing the giants costly 

raiment. Dwarfs come up to a man^s knee, as men do to a 

giant^s : ' die kniewes hohen .... die do sint eins kniewes 
hoch,' Dietr. drach. 299«. 175"''. 343''. Dietr. u. ges. 568. 570. 
Often the size of a thumb only : pollex, Pol. paluch. Boh. palec, 
ON. j^umlimgr (Swed. pyssling : 'alia min fru mors pysslirigar,' 
Sv. folks. 1, 217-8; ON. pysslingr, fasciculus), Lith. nyksztelis, 
thumbkin, wren, Kl. schr. 2, 432-3. In Indian stories the soul 
of the dying leaves the body in the shape of a man as big as a, 
thumb, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 1, 65. Ruhig says the O.Pr. barz- 
duckai is not fr. pirsztas, finger, but fr. barzda, beard, the sub- 
terraneans being often repres. with long beards. MHG. names 

for a dwarf : der Icleine mann, Ernst 4067. der ivenige man, Er, 
7422. Eilh. Trist. 2874. der tvenige gast, Er. 2102. iveniges 
7nennel, Frib. Trist. 5294. ein gar weniger man mit einer giildin 
krone, Ecke 202. ein wenic tiuirgelin, Alex. 2955. der kurze 
klelne, der Heine reche, Dietr. drach. 43''. Q8^. der wunderldeine, 
Altsw. 91. Serv. star-mali, old little-one. An unusual epithet, 
applied also to slaves and foreigners, is 'le puant nain,' Ren. 
4857. The Elf-king sits under a great toadstool, Ir. march. 2, 
4 ; and whoever carries a toadstool about him grows small and 
light as an elf 2, 75. The little man afloat on a leaf in Brandaen 
is on a par with the girl sailing over the waves on the leaves of 
a waterlily, Milllenh. p. 340 ; conf. nokkeblomster (p. 489). 

p. 453.] Hills and woods give an echo : OHG. gnlm, Diut. 2, 
327"; MHG. f/aZ and hal, Deut. myst. 2, 286; widergalm, Tit. 
391 ; die stimme gap hinwidere mit gelichein gahne der wait, Iw. 
618. They answer : conscia ter sonuit rupes, Claud, in Pr. et 
Olybr. 125; resjionsat Athos, Haemusque remvgit, Claud, in 
Eutr, 2, 162 ; daz in davon antworte der berc unde ouch der tan. 
Nib. 883, 3; ein gellendiu fluo, Lanz, 7127; si schrei, daz ir der 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1413 

wait cnfsprach, Bon. 49, 71 ; daz im der berc entgegenhnl, Er. 

7423. ON. dvergmdli qvaJS i liverjum harari, Fornald. 3, 629 ; 

dvergmalenn, Alex, saga 35. 07. AS. wudu-mrcr, botli eclio and 
nympha silvestris. The woodman calls fr. the wood, Megenb. 16, 
20. Bocler's Superst. of the Esths p. 146 gives their names fen- 
the echo: sqiiiut-eye, wood's rcplij, elf-soli's erg ; Possart p. 103-4 
says, the mocking wood-elf mei>i halias makes the echo (Suppl. 
to 480). Echo is the silvan voice of Fauuus, Picus (couf. wood- 
pecker and Vila), Klauseu pp. 844. 1141 ; the Mongols take a 
similar view of it, Petersb. bull. 1858, col. 70. In the Jr. 
marchen 1, 292 echo is not ' muc alia,' but mucalla or alia hair, 
Gael, mactalla, sou of the rock, Ahlw. Oisian 3, 330. 

As the ON. saga makes Huldra queen of dwarfs, Swedish 
legends have a fair lady to rule the dwarfs ; even a king is not 
unkuown, as the bergknng (p. 466). The English have a queen 
of fairies, see Minstr. 2, 193 and the famous descr. of queen Mab 
(child, doll ?) in Rom. and Jul. i. 4; conf. Merry W. of W. v. 4. 

Add Morguein de elvinne,Ijanc. 19472. 23204-396-515. 32457. 

In German opinion kings preponderate. The Sorla])attr makes 
Alfrigg a brother or companion of Dvalinn, while Sn. 16 asso- 
ciates Alpiofr with him, Fornald. 1, 391 ; conf. ' in dem Elperichis- 
loke,' Baur no. 633, yr. 1332. 'der getwerge kiinec Bilei' has a 
brother Brians, Er. 2086 ; Grigoras and Glecidolun, lords of der 
twerge lant 2109. Another is Antilois (rhym. gewis), Basel MSS. 
p. 29^. On the name of the dwarf-king Luartn, Luaran, see 
Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 531 ; Laurin, Baur no. 655; a Lauriyis in the 
Roman des sept sages (Keller's Dyocletian, introd. p. 23 — 29). 
With Gibich conf. GehJiart, Miillenh. p. 307; kiug Piper, or 
Pippe koug 287. 291-2. Again, the Scherfenberger dwarf, DS- 
no. 29 ; Worblestriiksken kiug of earthmannikins, Firuien. 1, 
408 — 410. Albr. v. Hall), fragin. 25 speaks of a got der ttverge. 

p. 453 n.] The lament * Urban is dead ! ' sounds like the 
Vorarlberg cry * TJrhans (old Jack) ist todt' (conf. Urian, ur- 
teufel, p. 989, and 'the devil's dead,' p. 1011-2), Yonbun p. 4 ; 
od. 2, pp. 2. 7. Fromra. Mundart. 2, 505. Kilian is dead, 
Winkler's Edelm. 377; Salome is dead, Panz. Beitr. 2, 40. 
' Eisch, Pingel, Pippe kong, Pilutje, Vatte, Kjnd ist dot,' Miillenh. 
nos. 398 — 401. Habel is dead, Preusker 1, 57. nu iir Plagg dod, 
Runa 1844 p. 44. nA er Ulli daubr, Fornm. 1, 211. 01. Tryggv. 



1414 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

c. 53. In a Cornish legend a beautiful slie-dwarf is buried by 
the little folk in Leland church near St. Ives amid cries of Our 
queen is dead ; couf. Zeus is dead, buried in Crete, thunders no 
more, Lucian's Jup. trag. 45. 

p. 454.] The dwarf's names Dciinn, Ndinn (mortuus) raise the 
question whether elves are not souls, the spirits of tJie dead, as 
in Ssk. Indras is pita Marutam, father of the winds = of the dead, 
Kuhn in Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 488-9. Of the dwarf Alvis it is asked : 
hvi ertn fair urn nasar, vartu i nott med' nd ? Seem. 48*. Dvalinn 
alfr, Ddinn dvergr; Dvalinn sopiens, Durinn somnifer 28". And- 
vari, son of Oinn 181* means perh. cautus (Suppl. to 461). 
Finnr reminds of Fin in the Norrland story (p. 1025), and of 
father Finn in Miillenh. p. 300. Bivor may be conn, with dwarf 

Bibunc in Dietr. drach. Germ, names of dwarfs : Meizelin, 

Dietr. dr. 196''. Aeschenzelt, Ring 233-9. Eans Bonnerstag, 
Miillenh. p. 578. Rohrinda, Muggastutz, Yonbun pp. 2. 7; conf. 
Stutzamutza, Orossrinda, Wolffs Ztschr. 2, 60. 183. 

p. 455.] On the arweggers see KM ^. 3, 195. Dwarfs live 
in holes of the rock : stynja (ingemiscunt) dvergar fyrir steins 
durum, Seem. &\ Dvalinn st65 i steins dyriim, Hervar. p. 414. 
They like to stand in the doorway, so as to slip in when danger 
threatens. A dwarfs hole is in ON. gauri, Vilkin. c. 16 (the 
pixies' liouse or hole in Devon, Athen, nos. 988. 991). They were 
called vegghergs visir, Saem. 9*. In Sweden, herg-ra, bergraet, 
Kuna 3, 50, iord-byggar 1845, 95, di sma undar jdrdi 60, hoj- 
hiergs-gubhe, conf. tomte-gubbe (p. 500), god-gubbe. In Norway, 
hou-boer, dweller on a height. In Germany too, wildiu getwerc 
live in the mountain beside giants, Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 521; ' der 
hort Niblunges der was gar getragen uz eime lioln berge,' Nib. 
90, 1 ; a wildez getwerc is surprised ' vov eime holen berge,' Er. 
7396; 'si kument vor den berc, und sehent spiln diu getwerc,' 
see the dwarfs play, Dietr. dr. 252'', conf. 213''; twerge dwell in 
the Hoberg, Ring 211. ' Daemon subterraneus truculentus, berg- 
teufelj mitis, bergmenlein, hobel, gicttel;' again, ""deemon me- 
tallicus, bergmenlein,' for whom a ' fundige zech ' was deposited, 
Georg Agricola de re metall. libri XII. Basil. 1657, p. 704^ 

Gan uf manegen ruhen berc, 

da weder katzo noch getwerc 

mohte iiber sin geklummen. Troj. kr. 6185. 



lb 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1415 

The term holders-mdnnclien im bolilers-locb, Beclisfc. 3, 129, 
must come fr. biiliel, collis ; conf. OIIG. puliiles perc, Gralf 3, 
1-2 and tlie name Bohler. Wend, ludkoiva <jora, little folk's hill, 
Volksl. 2, 2G8'*. in montaiiis (Prasiorum) pygnuei traduntur, 
Pliny 6, 19. People show the twargcs-Iacker, tvilllckex-ldcker, wul- 

iveckers-locJcer, vninnfu-kcs-gatter, Kuhn's Westph. sag. 1, 03. 

They also live in g race -mounds, Lisch 11, 306, in cairns (sten- 
rcis), and under men's houses and barns, Frics's Udfl. 109. These 
are likewise the resort in summer of the courriquets of Bretagne, 
who sleep on the hearth all the winter. But they cannot endure 
men's build in g stables over their habitations, which the muck, 
sinking through, would defile, Miillenh. p. 575. 297. Kuhn, nos. 

329. 303 and p. 323. Asb. 1, 150-1. Dybeck 1815, p. 99. ^ 

The name of Subterranean is widely spread : dat nnner-ersch, 
das iinncr-eersclie, in Sylt-oe onncr-erske, Miillenh. 4-3S. 393. 337. 
•de unner-Hrschen near Usedom. In digging a well, men came 
upon their chinmen, and found quite a houseful, Kuhn in Jrb. 
der Berl. ges. 5, 2-47. erdmdnnel, erdweibcl, Panz. Beitr. 1, 71. 
Lith. kaukas, earth-man, kaukaras, mountain-god; conf. semmes 
deewini, earth-gods, Bergm. 145. In Fohr and Amrum onner- 
bdnkissen, in Dan. Schleswig unner-vces-toi, iinner-bors-toi, unners- 
bocs-toi (toi = zeug, stuff, trash), Miillenh. 279. 281. 337. Elves 
inhabit a Rosegarden inside the earth, like Laurin, where flower- 
picking is punished, Minstr. 2, 188. 192. 

p. 456.] Venus is called a feine (Suppl. to 411), een broosche 
eluinne, Matth. de Castelein's Const van rhetoriken, Ghendt 
1555, p. 205; conf. the Venus-Minne hovering in the air, and 
travt'lling viewless as a sprite (p. 892). 

p. 458.] De guden holdeu are contrasted with the kroden 
duvels (Suppl. to 248-9). Min vara Jioldo, verus genius, Notk. 
Cap. 81. Is holderchen the original of iilleken, iilkcn, Bait. stud. 
12*^, 184, and iillerkens, Temme's Pom. sag. 250?=^ linjlingr = 

^lulduma-Sr, Aefint^ri 105. The Norw. Iiuldre/olk, Asb. 1, 77 

and Faroe huldefulk, Athen. no. 991, are of both sexes, though 

' Two maidens came to a peasant when ploughing, and beggod him to leave off, 
they were going to bake, and the sand kept falling into their dough. He bargained 
for a piece of their cake, and aft. found it laid on his plough, Landau's Wiiste orter, 
p. L38. So fairies in Worcestersh. repay compliant labcrurers with food and drink, 
Athen. 

2 Anceg(iers is perh. to be explained by arwegget = arbeit, Firmen. 1, 3G3, and 
means workers; conf. weckerchen, wulwecker. 



1416 WIGHTS AND EL\'ES. 

the females are more spoken of : a female is called Imlder, Asb. 
1, 70, a male huldre-Jcall (-karl) 1, 151. Dybeck 1815, 56 de- 
rives hyll-fru, liijl-moer fr. hyld, elder-tree. The good nature 

of dwarfs is expr. by other names : Norw. grande, neighbour, 
and Asb. 1, 150-1 tells a pretty story of the imderground neigh- 
hour. Might not the ' goede kinder' in Br. Geraert 718 come in 
here ? A guoter and a pilwiz are named together, Hagen's Ges. 
Abent. 3, 70; ' der guotaeri ' is the name of a MHG. poet. Lith. 
baiti zmones, the honest folk, Nesselm. 319^ As dwarfs im- 
part to men of their bread or cake, help in weaving, washing 
and baking, and serve in the mill (Panz. Beitr. 1, 155), they in 
return make use of men's dwellings, vessels, apparatus. So the 
pixies in Devon, Athen. no. 991. In winter they move into men's 
summer-huts (sheelings), Asb. 1, 77, 88. They can thrash their 
corn in an oven, hence their name of bacJcofen-trescherlein, Gar. 
4P; once the strazeln were seen thrashing in an oven six together,' 
another time fourteen, Schonwth 2, 300. 299. They fetch men 
of understanding to divide a treasure, to settle a dispute, Pref. 
xxxiii.-iv. Conteslnd. 2, 8. Somad. 1, 19. Berl. jrb. 2, 265. Erfurt 
kindm. 26. Asb. p. 52-3. Cavallius no. 8. Wal. march, p. 202. 
KM. nos. 92. 133. 193-7; couf. pt. 3, ed. 3, pp. 167-8. 216. 400 
(conf. dividing the carcase among beasts, Schonwth 2, 220. 
Nicolov. 34. societas leonina, Beinh. 262). They let a kind 
servant-girl have a present and a peep at their wedding, Miillenh. 
326-7 (see, on dwarf's weddings, Altd. bl. 1, 255-6. Naubert 1, 
92-3. Goethe 1, 196). Hafbur goes into the mountain and has 
his dream interpr. by the eldest ' elvens datter,'' Danske v. 3, 4. 
They dread the cunning tricks of men ; thus, if you take a knife 
off their table, it can no longer vanish, Lisch 9, 371. The man 
of the woods, or schrat, like the dwarf in Rudlieb, cannot endure 
a guest who blows hot and cold, Boner 91. Strieker 18 (Altd. w. 

3, 225). If on the one hand dwarfs appear weak, like the one 

that cannot carry Hildebrand's heavy shield, Dietr. u. Ges. 354^^ 
491. 593, or the wihtel who finds an ear of corn heavy, Panz. 
Beitr. 1, 181 ; on the other hand the huldre breaks a horse-shoe, 
Asb. 1, 81, fells a pine and carries it home on her shoulder 1, 91. 
And in Fairyland thei'e is oio sickness, Minstr. 2, 193 ; which 
accords with the longevity boasted of by dwarf Rudleib xvii. 18, 
conf. Ammian. 27, 4 on the long-lived agrestes in Thrace. 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1417 

p. 459.] The tlwarfs retiring' before tlie advance of man })ro- 
duce, like the Thurses, Jotuns aud Ilunes, the impressiou of a 
conquered race. In Devon and Cornwall the pixies are regai-ded 
as the old inhabitants. In Germany they are like Wends (the 
elves like Celts?), in Scandinavia like Lapps. Dwarfs are 
heathen : ' ob getoitften noch getwcrgen der beder kiinec wart icli 
nie/ of either dipt or dwarf, Biter. 41 5G. The undcrgrounders 
fear not Wode, if he Lave not washed ; conf. Miillenh. no. 500 
(p. 458 u.). They can't abide hell-rimjing, Firmen. 2, 2G4^, they 
move away. In mocing they leave a cow as a present, Dybeck 
1845, 98. The subterraneans ferry over, Miillenh. p. 575 ; wich- 
tels cross the Werra, Sommer p. 24 ; three wichtels get ferried 
over, Panz. Beitr. 1, 116; conf. the passage of souls (p. 832). 
As the peasant of the Aller country saw the meadow swarming 
with the dwarfs he had ferried over, as soon as one of them put 
his own hat on the man's head ; so in the Altd. bl. 1, 256 : when 
the hel-clothes wei*e taken off, ' do gesach he der getwerge me wen 
{usunt.' When the peasant woman once in washing forgot to put 
lard in, and a wichtel scalded his hand, they stayed away. The 
iilleken fetch water, and leave the jug standing. Bait. stud. 12''. 
184. 

p. 461,] Ostgotl. ttlcof, troll-sJcot, elf-shot, a cattle-disease, also 
elf-hldster, Dyb. 1845, 51 ; conf. ab-gust, alv-eld, alv-skot, Aasen. 
Their mere touch is hurtful too : the half-witted elhen-trotsche 
(p. 443) resemble the ' cerrifi/ larvati, male sani, aut Cereris ira 
aut larvarum incursatioue auimo vexati,' Nonius 1,213. Lobeck's 
Aglaoph. 241. Creuz. Symbol. I, 169 (ed. 3). The sick in Ire- 
land Sire fair g -struck. The name Andvari, like the neut. andcar, 

can be interpr. ventus lenis, aura tenuis, though Biorn tx-auslates 
it pervigil (Suppl. to 454). With Vestri, Vuiddlfr is to be conn. 
* Vestralpus Alamannorum rex,' Amm. Marcell. 16, 12. 18, 2; it 
is surely westar-alp rather than westar-halp, in spite of AS. west- 
healf, ON. vestnMfa, occidens. Erasm. Atberus' Diet, of 1540 
remarks : ' mephitis, stench and foul vapour rising out of swamps 
or sulphurous waters, in nemoribus gravior est ex densitate sil- 

varum.' In the Dreyeich they say ' der alp feist also.' The 

looks of elves bewitch, as well as their breath : eft ik si entsen, 
Val. and Nam. 238*. byn yk nu unizeti ? Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 390. 

p. 462.] Elves can get into any place. The alfr enters the 



1418 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

house 'at lalctvm dyrum ollum/ Foruald. 1, 313. They steal up 
softly, unpcrceived : ' se geit op elben-tehnen,' she walks on elf- 
toes, they say about Magdeburg. 

p. 463.] They can make themselves invisible : daz analutte 
des siJb pergentcn (self-hiding) truge-tievels, N. Boeth. 42. ein 
unsilitiger geist, Iw. !I391. The invisibility is usually effected by 
their head- covering, the nehel-Jcappe, Ettn. MaulaflFe 534. 542. 
Altswert 18, 30. in miner nehelkappen, Frauenl. 447, 18; or 
hele-htippel, Winsb. 26, 5. Winsbekin 17, 5; and the secret 
notches in it are called hdppel-snite 17. 18. ' nacJd-rahen und 
nebel-ldipel ,' Katzmair p. 23-8 (yr. 1397). It seems they also wear 
a fire-red tschople, Vonbun p. 1 ; and a subterranean has the 
name of Bedheard, Miillenh. p. 438. The huldre-hat makes in- 
visible, Asb. 1, 70. 158-9, like the thief's lielmet ; the hat is also 
called hvarfs-liatt, and the boys who wear it varfvar, Hpt's 
Ztschr. 4, 510-1 ; conf. ' hverfr |?essi alfr sva sem skuggi,' Vilk. 
c. 150. The courriquets of Bretagne wear hvge round hats. Men 
cry to the dwarfs, 'zieht abe iuwer helin-Jdeit I ' Altd. bl: 1, 256. 
Like our dwarfs, the little corijhanfes in antiques wear Jtats, Pans. 
3. 24, 4. Not only Orcus^s helmet, but his coat was known, for 

the Romans called the anemone Orci tunica, Dioscor. 2, 207. 

Conversely, dwarfs become visible to those who anoint their eyes 
with dwarf-salve, as in the story of the nurse who put the oint- 
ment to one of her eyes, and could see the subterraneans, till 
they tore out the eye, Asb. 1,24-5. Miillenh. p. 298, Dyb. 1845, 
94. Poems of the Round Table give dwarfs a scourge, where- 
with to lay about them, Lauz. 428. 436. Er. 53. 96. Iw. 4925. 
Parz. 401, 16. Even Albrich bore 

eine geisel swaex'e von golde an siner hant, 

sihen hnbpfe swaere hiengen vor daran, 

damit er umb die hende den schilt dem kiienen man 

sluoc so bitterlichen. Nibel. 463-4. 

In Possart^s Estl. p. 176 the giants carry whips with millstones 
tied to the tails. 

p. 465.] Old poetry is full of the trickery of dwarfs, who ai-e 
hiindic as foxes, endelich, Dietr. drach. 17, ' endelich und Icec,' 
'brisk and bold,' 346^'. bedrogan habbind sie dernea wihti, Hel. 
92, 2. du trilgehaftez wiht, Barl. 378, 35. uiis triege der alp. 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1419 

Hagen's Ges. Ab. 3, GO. eUs-ghedroch, Beatrijs 73G, eUs-ghe- 
drvchte, Maerl. (Clarisse's Gheraert p. 219). Waloweiu 5012. 
enliorde ghi uoit seggben (beard yc ne'er tell) van aUs-gedrocJife, 
Hor. Belg. 6, 44-5. Deception by gbosts is also getrucnisse, Herb. 
12833. ungiliiure drugi-dinc, Diemer 118, 25. 121, 3. May we 
conn, witli ahcgetroc tbe M. Netb. avondtronlic ? Belg. mus. 2, 
110. In App., spell xlii., an alb bas eyes like a teig-trog (lit. 
dougb-trougb), Gcfivds, fantasma, is better expl. by AS. dwaes, 

stultus (Suppl. to 916) tbau by SI. diisba, soul (p. 826). 

Oppression during sleep is caused by tlie alp or mar (p. 1216) : 
mich drucket beint (to-nigbt) der alp, Hpt's Ztschr. 8, 514. kom 
rebte als cin alp vf mich geslicben, Maurit. 1414. Tbe Irnd 
])resses, Dietr. lluss. miircb. no. 16, couf. frau Trude (p. 423). 
Otber names for incubus : stendel, Staid. 2, 397 ; rdtzii or schrdtzel, 
PraBtor. Weltb. 1, 14. 23 (p. 479) ; Fris. wodridcr, Elirentr. 1, 
386. 2,16; LG. waalnitcr, Kriiger 71^. Kuhu's Nordd. sag. 
uos. 338. 358. p. 419 (conf. Walscbraud in tbe M. Netb. Bran- 
daen) ; Engl, hng-rodc, -ridden, W. Barnes ; picny-riddeu (Suppl. 
to 444; tbe pixies also, like the courriquets of Bretague, tangle 
the manes of horses, and tbe knots are called ^ixy -seats, Athen. 
no. 991) ; Pol. ana, Bob. tma, Y'va. painayainen, squeezer, Ganan- 

der 65. Schroter 50. Other names for plica: Upp. Hess. 

Holleliopj), at Giessen morloche, mahrklatfe, Judenzopf. A child 
in Diut. 1, 453: 

batte ein siechez houbet (sore head), 
des batten sirh verlouhct 
di lidrlocke alle garewe. 

And Sibilla (antfahs) bas hair tangled as a hoisc's inane, En. 
2701. Scandinavian stories do not mention HoUe's tuft or tail, 
but they give the huldres a tail. This matted hair is treated of 
by Cas. Cichocki de hist, et nat. plicae polonicae, Berol. 1845, who 
adds tbe term gwozdziec, liter, nail-pricking, cramping. 

p. 465.] Dwarfs ride : diu phert din si riteu waren geliche 
groz den schdfen, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 426; conf. Altd. bl. 1, 256. 
Dwarfs mount a roe, Ring p. 211. 231. Fairies ride, Minstr. 2, 
199. Pixies ride tbe cattle at night, Athenaeum nos. 991. 989. 
Poike in a red cap rides a wltite goose, Buna 1844, 60, as the 
pygmgei rode on partridges, Athen. 3, 410. The ancients kept 



1420 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

dwarfs and dogs, Atlien. 4, 427, as men in the Mid. Ages kept 
dwarfs and fools. Giants, kings and heroes have dwarfs in their 
retinue, as Siegfried has Elberich, and in Er. 10. 53. 95. 995. 
1030 a knight has a getwerc riding beside him and laying on 
with his scourge; he is called Maledicur, and is aft. chastised 
with blows 1066. Elegast goes a thieving with Charlemagne. 
In Wigalois a maiden comes riding, behind whom stands a dwarf 
Avith his hands onher shoulders, singing songs 1721 — 36; another 
getwerc has charge of the parrot and horse 2574. 3191. 3258-87. 
4033. On the train of a richly bedizened dame ride little black 
spirits, giggling, clapping hands and dancing, Caes. Heitstei^b. 5, 
7 (Suppl. to 946). 

p. 467.] While the Devonsh. pixies make away with turnips 
(Athenajum no. 991), our German dwarfs go in for peas, erbsen ; 
hence the name of thievish Elbegast is twisted into Erbagast : 
' I adjure thee by thy master Erbagast, the prince of thieves,' 
Ztschr. f. Thiiriug. gesch. 1, 188. These thievish dwarfs may be 
comp. to Hermes, who steals oxen as soon as he is born. Hymn 

to Merc. Dwarf Elberich overpowers a queen, and begets the 

hero Otnit. An alb begets Hogiu, Vilk, c. 150. The story of 
' den bergtagna' is also told by Dyb. 1845, p. 94. Dwarfs ai-e 
much given to carrying off human brides and falling in love with 
goddesses, e.g. Freya. The marchen of Fitchers-vogel is also in 
Prohle's M. f. d. jugend no. 7, where he is called jieder-vogel ; 

conf. Schambach pp. 303, 369. Little Snowdrop's coming to 

the dwarfs' cottage, and finding it deserted, but the table spread 
and the beds made, and then the return of the dwarfs (KM, no. 
53) agrees remarkably with Duke Ernest's visit to the empty 
castle of the beak-mouthed people. When these come home, the 
master sees by the food that guests have been, just as the dwarfs 
ask 'who's been eating with my fork?' Ernst 2091 — 3145. 
And these crane-men appear in other dwarf stories : are they out 
of Pliny and Solinus ? ' Oerania, ubi pygraseorum gens fuisse 
proditur, Cattiizos (al. Cattucos) barbari vocant, ci'eduntque a 
gruibus fugatos,' Pliny 4, 11, conf. 7, 2. Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 294-5. 
Even the Iliad 3, 6 speaks of cranes as avhpdcn irvynaloicn (j>6vov 
Kal KYjpa (^epovaaL. On dwarfs and cranes see Hecatseus fragm, 
liist. Gr. 1, 18. The Finns imagined that birds of passage spent 
the winter in Dwarfland ; hence lintukotolaincn, dweller among 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1 121 

birds, means a dwarf, Renvall sub v. lintu : conf. tlio dwarf's 
name lindukodoiimies, birdcage man. Duke Ernest's fliglit to 
that country reminds of Babr. 26, 10 : (^ei^oi^ev eU ra JJvy/xaiwu. 
As the dwarf in Norse legend vanishes at sunrise, so do the pixies 
in Devonsh., Athenm. no. 991. In Swedish tales this dread of 
daylight is given to giants, Runa 3, 24-. Sv. folks. 1, 187. 191. 

p. 409.] The creature that dwarfs put in the place of a child 
is in ON. skiptmigr, Vilk. 167. 187 ; in Icel. umshiptlnijr, kominn 
af rdfura, Finn. Joh. hist. eccl. Islandiae 2, 369 ; in Helsing. 
lilting (Ostgut. moling), skepuad af mcirdade barn, Almqv. 39 1'' ; 
in Smaland illliere, barn bortbytt af trollen, litet, vanskapligt, 
elakt barn 351. In MHG. icchsolhalc, Germ. 4, 29 ; tuehselkalp, 
Keller 468, 32 ; wchseJkiud, Bergreien p. 64. In Devon and 
Cornw. a fainj changeling, Athenm. no. 989. Kielhropf is in 
OHG. chvl-chropf in the sense of struma, Graff 4, 598. To this 
day, in some parts, they say kielkropf for what is elsewhere called 
grabs, grilhs, wen, either on the apple or at the throat, and like- 
wise used of babies, Reinwald's Id. 1, 54. 78. 2, 69 ; also bntzigel, 
Adamshutz 1, 18 (p. 506-7), conf. kribs, gribs (p. 450 n.). 
Luther's Table-t. 1568, p. 216-7: ' weil er ini h-opf kielt.' 
Schm. 2, 290 : Icielhopf. The Scotch sitltich steals children, and 
leaves a changeling behind, Armstr. sub v. (Leo's Malb. gl. 1, 37). 
In Lithuania the Lannie changes children, hence Laumes apniai- 
1/y^as = changeling. Hoh. podwrznec. YJendi. p feme nh : flog him 
with boughs of drooping-birch, and he'll bo fetched awa}-, Volksl. 
2, 267-S. Similar flogging with a hunting-whij), Sommer p. 43; 
conf. Prastor. Weltb. 1, 365. It is a prettier story, that tiio 
dwarfs would fain see a human mother put their babe to her 
breast, and Avill richly reward her for it, Firmen. 1, 274*^. The 
joke of the ' miillers sun ' (p. 408 n.) recurs in the MHG. poem 
of ' des muniches not,' Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 434.. Other stories of 
changelings in Miillenh. p. 312-3-5. DS. 81-2. Ehrentr. Fries, 
arch. 2, 7. 8. 

The singular method of making the changeling blurt out his 
age and real character is vouched for by numberless accounts. 
A dwarf sees people brew in a hiilmer-dopp (hen's e^^ pot, 
see eier-dopp, p. 927), and drain off the beer into a goose-egg 
dopp, then he cries : * ik biin so oelt as do Bchmer woclt, unn hetf 
in myn liiebn so 'n bro nich seen,' Miillenh. no. 425, 1 and 2 

VOL. IV. L 



1422 ■WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

(Behmer goU in Liscli's Jrb. 9, 371). A Swed. version in Dybeck 
'45, p. 78. '47, p. 38. Tiroler sag. in Sfceub p. 318-0. Thaler in 
Wlf s Ztschr. 1, 290. Prohle p. 48. A Lifch. story in Schleicher, 
Wiener ber. 11, 105. 'As many years as the fir has needles,' 
Vonbun G. ' IVe seen the oak in Brezal wood ' seems old, for 
the Eoman de Ron itself says of Breceliande forest : ' vis la forest, 
e vis la terre/ Note to Iw, p. 263. That elves attained a great 
age, comes out in other ways ; thus Elberich is upwards of 500, 
Ortn. 241 . 

p. 470.] Elves avoid the sun (p. 444 n.), they sink into the 
ground, they look like flowers, they turn into alder, aspen or 
ivillow-houghs. Plants that grow in clusters or circles, e.g. the 
Swed. hvit-sippan, are dedic. to them, Fries bot. udfl. 1, 109 ; 
so the fairy queen speaks out of a clump of thorns or of standing 
corn, Minstr. 2, 193. Their season of joy is the night, hence in 
Vorarlberg they are called the night-folk, Steub p. 82 ; esp. Mid- 
summer Night, Minstr. 2, 195, when they get up a merry dance, 
the elf -dans, Dybk '45, 51, taking care not to touch the herb 
Tarald 60. The elfins dance and sing, Miillenh. p. 341. Who- 
ever sees them dance, must not address them : ' They are fairies ; 
he that spenhs to them shall die. I'll wink and couch ; no man 
their works must eye,' Merry W. of W. 5, 5. When the subter- 
raneans have danced on a hill, they leave cii-cles in the grass, 
Keusch's Add. to no. 72 ; so the hoie-mannlein, who take their 
name fr. Iwien, huien to holla, dance rings into the gi-ass, Leopr, 
32-4. 107. 113-8. 129. Schonw. 2. 342. These circles are called 
fairg rings, and regarded as dwellings of pixies, Athenm. no. 991. 
The Sesleria coerulea is called elf-grds. Fries bot. udfl. 1, 109; 
the pearl-muscle, Dan. elve-skidl, Nemn. 2, 682. Elves love to 
live beside springs, like Holda and the fays (p. 412) : der elvinnen 
fonteine, Lane. 345. 899. 1346-94; der elvinnen horn 870. 1254. 

p. 472.] Dwarfs grant wishes : 

ein mann quam an einen berch (came to a hill), 

dar gref hie (caught he) einen cleinen dwerch ; 

uf dat hie leisse lofen balde (might soon let go) 

den dwerch, hie gaf em wunsche loalde (power of wishing) 

drier hande (3 things). Cod. Guelferb. fab. 109. 

They are wise counsellors, as Antilois to Alexander ; and very skil- 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1423 

fill. Dwarf P(U'o/c/ in Cleomades and Vulentin makes a wooden 
horse, that one can ride through the air (like Wieland and DasJalus) . 
Not akin to Pakulls, is he ? ' ^lanec spaeJiez were E/i worht ein 
ivildez twerc, Der listig Pranzopil,' Wigam. 2585. Dalnxlvlfr is 
tlie name of a sivord made by a dwarf, Sn. IGA; and Elberich 
forged the rliKj^i, Ortn. 17G. In Wigal. G077 it is said of a 
harnasch : 

er. wart von einem wibe It was by a woman 

verstoln einem getiverge Stolen from a dwarf 

alrerst uz einem berge, Out of a mountain erst, 

da ez in init lisfeii (jar Where he it with cunning quite 

het geworht wol drizecjar. Had wrought full 30 year. 

The Westph. schun-aunken forge ploughshares and gridirons of 
trivet shape, Kuhn's Westph. sag. 1, 66; conf. the story in Fir- 
men. 1, 274^ The hero of the Wieland myth (HS. p. o2o) acts 
as Hepheestus or a smith-dwarf (p. 444). 

p. 476.] Bilwiz : called pi'/twtz, Mone's Anz. 7, 423 ; hilliciz, 
iinholdcn, Schleiertuch p. 244 ; Cuonrad de pilwisa, Chr. of 1112. 
MB. 29% 232; Ulweisz, Gefken's Beil. 112; ' Etliche glaben 
(some believe) daz kleine kind zu pilweissen verwandelt sind/ 
have been changed, Mich. Beham in Mone's Anz. 4, 451 ; conf. 
uuchristened babes (Siippl. to 918). In Lower Ilesse : 'he sits 
behind the stove, minding the hiwlfzercJwn,' Hess. jrb. '54, p. 
252 (al. kiwitzerchen). berlewitz (p. 1064). an Walpurgs abende, 
wan de piileicesen ausfahren, Gryphius Dorur. p. 93 ; sprechen, 
ich wer gar eine hi'deweesse 90 ; sie han dich verbrant, als wenn 
du ein piileweesser werst 52; conf. palause (p. 1074 n.). In 
Gelders they say : Billeivits wiens goed is dat ? also Pilleivits, 
Frlllewitfi. The Lekcnspiegel of Jan Deckers (of Antwerp, comp. 
1330) says, speaking of 15 signs of the Judgment Day (iv. 9, 19. 
dc Vries 2, 265 ; see GI. p. 374) : 

opten derden dach twaren 
selen hem die vische barcn 
op dat water van der zee, 
of si hadden herden wee, 
ende merminnen ende heclwlten 
ende so briesschen ende criten, 



1424 • WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

dat dat anxtelic gescal 
toteu liemel climmen sal. 

With beelwiten conf. the rvitten helJen, Gefk. Beih 157. Bil- 

witzes have then* ' liar verfilzet/ matted, Barl. 384, 361 (such 
hair and a shaggy skin Wolfram imputes to Cundrie and her 
brother Malcreatiure, Parz. 313,17.25). They conjure : 'con- 
jurers, waydelers, piiwitten, black-artists ' are named together in 
a decree of grandmaster Conr. v. Jungingen, Jacobson's Quellen 
des cath. kirchenr. urk. p. 285. The Ulmerschnitf, otherw. 
hibersclinitf, performed on Easter or Whitsunday, Panz. Beitr. 1. 
240 ; called J urchschnitt in Leopr. p. 19, conf. Sommer's sag. 
p. 171. Clementis recogn. 2, 9 (ed. Gersd. p. 44). 

p. 478.] Roggen-muhme : called corn-angel, steals children, 
Somm. pp. 26. 170. Buhigo frumenti is called aurugo in Pertz 
8. 368, lointhrant in Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 201. Did the Romans call 
the god of coim Robigo or Bohigus ? the Greeks had an Apollo 
epvai^iO'i, mildew-averting, fr. epvallSr], robigo. A W.Fland. 
corn-spell denounces the corn-boar as a duivels zwynfje, Hpt's 
Ztschr. 7, 532. The Slavs have a similar field-sprite, a corn-wife, 
who walks at noon : pripolnica, phpolnica, fr. polnyo, midday, 
or dziwica, as in Polish, Wend, volksl. 2, 268; she carries a sickle 
(conf. p. 1162). Hanusch p. 360-2. 

p. 480.] OHG. .'jcm^m = faunos, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 330. Gl. 
Slettst. 6, 222. Graff 6, 577. scra/e7^ = larvas, Dint. 2, 351". 
The tale of the scJiretel and the water-bear is also in Hpt 6, 174, 
and reappears in the Schleswig story of the water-man and bear, 
MuUenh. p. 257. In Up. Franconia the schretel is replaced by 
the huhfraidein, who, stjiying the night at the miller's in Bern- 
eck, asks : ' Have you still got your great Kafzaus ? ' meaning 
the hear. The man dissembles ; the wood-maiden walks into the 
mill, and is torn in pieces by the bear. Beside schretel we have 
the form srete, Mone's Anz. 7, 423 ; conf. srezze vel srate. der 
schratnig, A^onbun p. 26-7. d' HchrdttU hand a'g'soga, the 
s. have sucked it dry, when a baby's nipples are inflamed or 
indurated, Tobler 259\ Schrdtels weigh upon the sleeper like 
the alp, Gefken's Cat. p. 55. schrata, scliratd, butterfly, Schm. 
Cimbr. wtb. 167. Fromm. 4, 63. Pereinschrat, Ranch 2, 72; 
Schratental and Schrazental side by side 2, 22; so, with the 



W^GHTS AND ELVES, 14'25 

Scratman already cited, wo find a ' servus iiomino Scr(i::i)ia)i,' 
Dronke's Trad. Fuld. p. 19 ; conf. sch ratele-mamd, Auobiuin 
pertiuax, death watch in Carinthia, Froinm. 4, 53. schratzen- 
locher, -holes, Pauz. Beitr. 1, 111. in Sclirazeswanh, MB. 35», 

109. Graff G, 575 has walt-screchel = ^'ei\xm, silvestres homines; 

and Schin. 3, 509 distinguishes fr. schratl, schrattcl an Up. Palat. 
schraltcl, schrdcliel, which he refers to schrach, schroch, scraggy, 
])any. A scherzen, schrezen to bleat, Schm. 3, 405, is also worth 
considering. The schriichel is charged with tangling horses' 
manes. ScJinuiHiz is appar. of different origin : Rudbertus 
.'ichraivaz, MB. 28'', 138 (yr 1210) ; Rubertus nhorawaz 29^ 273 
(yr 1218). The Swed. nhratt is both fatuus and cachinnus ; Finn. 
kratt'i genius thesauri; ON. ,s/i;rrt^i = iotunn, Su. 209''. skratta- 
vardi, Laxd. 152. The Dan. lay of Guncelin has: ' og hjelp nu 
modcr Skrat ! ' Nyerup's Udvalg 2, 180. Sv. forns. 1, 73. On 
altvil, which corresp. to the Engl, scnit, hermaphrodite, see 

Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 400 and Suppl. to 498. The Esths call the 

wood-sprite mets hallas, forest-elf, who is fond of teasing and 
who shapes the echo, Possart's s. 163-4; conf. the Finn. Ililsi, 
Kidlerru (p. 552). Ir. geilt, wild or wood-man, conf. Wei. gwyllt, 
wild. But the Pol. Boh. wood-sprite horuta is orig. feminine, 
inhabiting the fir, like the Greek dryad, hamadryad. Homer 
speaks of sprimj and mountaln-nijmphs, Od. 6, 123-4, and nymphs, 
daughters of Zeus, who stir up the wild goats 9, 154. Hama- 
(h-i/ads are personified trees, Atheu. 1, 307. So CatuU. 59, 21 : 
' Asian myrtle with emblossomed sprays, quos llamadryades deae 
ludicrum sibi roscido nutriiod humore.' Pretty stories of the 
tree-nymph in Charon, Fragm. hist. Gr. 1, 35; others in Ov. 
Met. 8, 771 ; the forest-women in line 746 seq. are descr. more 
fally by Albr. v. Halberstadt 280-1. 

p. 480.] The schrats appear sltujly ; more finely conceived, 
these wood-sprites become heroes and demigods (pp. 376. 432). 
The Kaizemeit of the Fichtelgebirge suggests Kalzaus of the 
preced. note. Ruhezagel, Riibczahl, a man's name as early as 
1230, Zeuss's Herk. der Baiern p. 35, conf. Mone's Anz. 6, 231 ; 
a Ilcrmannus Ituhczag'd in Dronke's Trad. Fuld. p. iSo ; Rieben- 
zahl in a 15th cent. MS., Moue's Arch. '38, 425 ; Riebenzagel, 
Praetor. Alectr. 178-9; Riibczal, Opitz 2,280-1; '20 acres in 
the RilhcnzagU/ Widder's Pfalz 1, 379 ; conf. s>i.\\\-zagH, Hasin-za/, 



1426 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

Arnsbg urk. 410. 426. Stvlt-zagrJ, n. pr., Lang reg. 5, 107 (vr 
1166). 

p. 483.] Garg. 119'^ names togetlier were-wolves^ pilosi, gout- 
men, dusen, trutten^ garausz, bitebawen. On dusii couf . Hattemer 
1, 230-1. Add the judel, for wliom toys are deposited, conf. 
Sommer^s Sag. 170. 25; 'he makes a show^ as if he were the 
giltle.' H. Sachs 1, 444'' ; ein gilttel (gotzO; idol ?), Wolfdietr. in 
Hagen^s Heldb. p. 236 ; hergmendlein, cohcle, giitltin, Mathesius 

1562, 296''. They are the ljQ,t. f annus, whose loud voice the 

Romans often heard : saepe faunorum voces exauditae, Cic. de 
N.T). 2. 2; fauni vocem nunquam audivi 3, 7; faunos quorum 
noctivago strepitu ludoque jocanfci .... chordarumque sonos, 
dulceisque querelas tibia quas fundit, Lucret. 4, 582 ; visi etiani 
audire vocem ingenfem ex snvimi cacuminis luco, Livy 1, 31 ; 
silentio proximae noctis ex silva Arsia ingentem editam vocem, 
8ilvani vocem earn creditara 2, 7. On Faunus and Silvanus see 
Klausenpp. 844 seq. 1141. Hroswitha (Pertz 6, 310) calls the 
forest nook where Gandersheim nunnery gets built ' sUvestrem 
locum fannis nionsfris-qne repletum.' Lye has ivudewdsan. 
(-wasan ?) = satyrij fauni, sicurii, Wright 60* ivudeiodsan — ^cz.Y\\ 
(correctly) vel invii, O.E. ' ?i, ivoodwose — ^^n.tycvL^' {ivdsa elsewh. 
coenum, lutum, ooze, ON. veisa), conf. ' wvdewiht = ]a,m\ei' in a 
Liinebg glossary of 15th cent. In M.Neth. faunus is rendered 
volencel, Diut. 2, 214, fr. vole, foal; because a horse^s foot or 
shape is attrib. to him ? conf. nahtvole (Suppl. to 1054). Again, 
fauni are night-butterflies ace. to Du Meril's art. on KM. p. 40. 
The faun is also caWed fantnsma : 'to exorcize the fantasima,' 
Decam. 7, 1. fantoen, Maerl. 2, 365. Other names : wait- 
man, Iw. 598. 622; also in Bon. 91, where Striker has ivalt- 
schrat ; ivalt-tSre 440; walt-geseUe, -genoz, -gasf, Krone 9266-76, 
wilder man 9255 ; wilde leute, Bader no. 9261. 346. With them 
are often assoc. wild women, loildez ivip, Krone 9340 ; ivald- 
mincJien, Colshorn p. 92 ; conf. loildeweibs-hild, -zehnte, a rocky 
height near Birstein, Landau's Kurhessen p. 615. Pfister p. 271 ; 
holzicelhel-steine in Silesia, Mosch p. 4. The wild man's wife is 
called /a»^^a, Zingerle 2, 111 (conf 2, 51. Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 
58) ; fanggen-ldclter, -holes 2, 53 ; in Vorarlbg feng, fenggi, 
fengga-mdntschi, Vonbun 1 — 6. Wolf's Z. 2, 50; conf. Fiiiz 
(Suppl. to 484). The ON. ivld'r may be malus, perversus, 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1427 

dolosns, conf. Goth. iuviuJs, OS. iuwiel, OIIG. iiiwittcr dolosus, 
ivicigiarii, SitMii. 138''. In Syryiiu. t;(>y6-a = silvae geuius, fr. vor, 
silva. 

p. 484-.] Of iviSjur aiul iaruviiSjur little is known, but tlio 
skogs-ra akin to them was supposed to live in trees, and any 
wrong done to him brought on sickness, Fries's Udll. ], 109 ; he 
dies with the tree, conf. walt-minne (p. 434), hamadryas. The 
skograt has a long tail, Dyb. Runa 4, 88 ; skotjeroa and sjugnroa 

boast of their deeds and wealth 4, 29. 40. The wood-wives in 

Germany wail and cry (pp. 433. 1135): 'you cry like a wood- 
wife,' Uhl. Volksl. 149. The holz-frau is shaggy and wild, over- 
grown with moss, H. Sachs 1, 273. The Flnz-weihl on the Finz 
(Bav.) is spotted, and wears a broad-brimmed hat, Panz. Beitr. 
1, 22 (Fenggi in preced. note). Fasolt's and Ecke's mother is a 
ranht's weih, Ecke 231. The holz-weibl spin till Michel* comes 
out, Mosch. p. 4. They dread the Wild Hunter, as the sub- 
terraneans flee from Wode, Miillenh. p. 372-3. The wild man 
rides on a stag, lling 32'', 34. The Hunter chases the moos- 
weibla or loh-jungfer (p. 929), and wild men the blessed maids, 
Steub's Tirol p. 319 ; in the Etzels hofh. the wonder-worker 
pursues Fran Sa^lde (p. 943), as Fasolt in Ecke IGl — 179 (cd. 

Hagen 213 — 238. 333) does the wild maiden. Men on the 

contrary are often on good terms with them : at haymaking or 
harvest they rake a little heap together, and leave it lying, for 
' that's the ivood- ma idea's due.' In pouring out of a dish, when 
drops hang on the edge, don't brush them off, they belong to 
the moss-maiden. When a wood-maiden was caught, her little 
man came running up, and cried : ' A wood -maiden may tell 
anytliiug, barring the use you can make of drip-water/ Panz. 
Beitr. 2, IGl. A thankful little woodwife exclaims: ' bauern- 
blut, du bist gut,' Borner p. 231. To the hnsh-<jraiidinothrr on 
the Saale corresp. the Esthonian foreat-fatJicr, tree-host, BiJcler 
146. 

p. 485.] Dwarfs and woodwives will not have cummin-hirad, 
Firmen. 2, 264''. A wood-maiden near Wousgehei said to a 
woman : ' Never a fruitful tree pull up. Tell no dream till you've 
tasted a cup (lit., no fasting dream), Bdke no Fridaifs bread, And 

God, etc' Panz. Beitr. 2, 161. That wood-mannjkins and 

dwarfs, after being paid, esp. in gold or clothes, give up the 



1428 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

service of man, comes out in many stories. The wichtels hj 
Ziirgeslieim in Bavarian Swabia used to wash the people's linen 
and bake them bread ; when money was left out for them because 
they went naked, they said weeping : 'now we're paid off, -we 
must jog ' ; couf. N.Preuss. prov. bl. 8, 229. Bader no. 99. 
Tonbun p. 9 (new ed. 11—15). Panz. B. 1, 40-2-8. 156. 2, 160. 
The same of hill-mannihins , SteuVs Tirol p. 82 ; fenggamdntschi, 
Vonbun p. 3; nork, Steub p. 318; futtermdnnchen, Borner p. 
213-6 : Hob, Hone's Tablebk. 2, 658 and Yearbk. 1533. A 
'pixy, who helped a woman to wash, disappears when presented 
with a coat and cap. Pixies, who were helping to thrash, dance 
merrily in a barn when a peasant gives them new clothes, and 
only when shot at by other peasants do they vanish, singing 
' Kow the pixies' work is done, We take our clothes and off we 
run,' Athenm. no. 991. 

p. 487.] The huorco sits on a tree-stump, Pentam. 1,1. Ari- 
osto's descr. of the orco and his wife in Orl. fur. xvii. 29 — 65 is 
pretty long-winded : he is blind (does not get blinded), has a 
flock like Polyphemus, eats men, but not women. Ogres keep 
their crowns on in bed. Petit poucet p.m. 162-3. Aulnoy p. m. 
358. 539. Akin to orco is the Tyrolese wood-sprite norlc, norhele, 
lorh, Steub's Tirol pp. 318-9. 472 and Hhset. 131 ; conf. norg = 
pumilio ia B. Fromm. 3, 439, norggen, lorggen, norggin, ndrhlein, 
Wolf's Ztschr. 1, 289. 290. 2, 183-4. To Laurin people call: 
'her Xorggel unterm tach ! ' Eing 52^2. The Finn. Hlisi is 
both Orcus (hell), giant and wood-man. The Swed. skogsnerte, 
sJcogsnufva in Fries's Udfl. 110 is a beautiful maiden in front, but 
hollow (ihalig) behind; and the skogssnua is described in the 
same way, Euna, '44, 44-5. Wieselgren 460. 

p. 488.] Ein rnerminne. Tit. 5263. mareyninne, Clarissa on 
Br. Gher. p. 222. Nennius says the potamogeton natans is called 
seehoJde ; conf. castas fontium (Suppl. to 584) and the hoJlen in 
Kuhn's Westph. s. 1, 200. to aTOL-)^eloi' rov Trorafxau, Fauriel 2, 
77. Other names: wilder ic a zzenn a )i, Krone 9237 ; daz mericip, 
who hurls a cutting spear at the hero, Eoseng. xxii. ; sjo-ra, Dyb. 
4, 29. 41. On the hafsfruu see Suppl. to 312. 

p. 489.] Nikhns, neut., Diut. 3, 25. Karajan 80, 4. ni/kus 
even in a Wend, folksong 2, 267*. ??zc/(essa = lymphae, N. Cap. 
52. nickers, Br. Gher. 719. Van d. Bergh p. 180 thinks nikker 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1429 

is for nitjcr : 'zoo zivart als ecn nikkcr'; but tlio iJi-a of black- 
ness may have been borrowed from tlio later devil, nockei's, 
Gefken's Bail. 151. 108. nlcJcd-mann, Ilpt's Ztscbr. 5, 378; 
couf. too the ON. Niickvi, Scorn. IIG*. The supposed connexion 
of the K. NecJcar with nicor, nechar is supported by the story on 

p. 493-4. Esth. vessl hallias, Finn, ivcdcn Jiahlia, aquae domi- 

uus, Possart p. 163; conf.'Ahto (Suppl. to 237). The siren, 
whom Conrad calls ivasser-nixe, is also called cajoler, Boh. lichophs 
(p. 436 n.), and ocJiechnle, Jungm. 2, 903, wochechule fr. lichotiti, 
ochochulati, to flatter. Spriug-nixeu (f.) are the Swed. kdJlraden, 
Sv. folks. 1, 123. A pretty Silesian story of the wasser-lisse in 
Firmen. 2, 334 ; does this represent wazzer-dieze ? The Lusch in 
Gryphius's Dornrose is Liese, Elisabeth. 

p. 490.] The nymphaea is in Gael, haditis, AS. ed-docce, Engl. 
wiiter-docJi, Bav. docke, wasscr-dockeJcin (tocke, doll, girl), conf. 
seeblatt (p. 654), Swed. ndck-rus-hlad. On ndckrosor, Dybeck '45, 
64-6; necken har sin boning bland neckroserne, och uppstigande 
pa dess blad auuu stundora i man-skens-natten med sitt striinga- 
spel tjuser ahoraren. Fries bot. udfl. 1, 108. The water-maiden 
sits on leaves of the waterlily, Miilleuh. p. 340 ; a nix-bitten 
(-biUten) meadow near Betziesdorf, Hess. Ztschr. 1, 245. The 

Syryiin. kuli = genius aquae, kuli-ciuri = digitus ejusdem. 

Merwomen prophesy, sometimes deceitfully, like Iladburc in 
till! Nibel. "When a hav-frn is saying sooth to quccu Dagmar, 
the phrase is used : ' vcdst du det, saa vedst du mer,' D. V. 2, 
83-4-5. In Mecklenbg. the icafer-vwtii sends her prophetic voice 
out of the water, Lisch 5, 78. A spectre foretelling death shows 
itself on the Danube whirlpool, Ann. Altahenses, yr 1045 (Giese- 
brecht p. 75) ; conf. the soothsaying merwomen (p. 434). 

p. 491.] The Scotch kelpie takes the shape of a Jwrse, whose 
]iresence is known by his nicker (neigh); he draws men in, and 
shatters ships. Or he rises as a bull, the ivaterlnU ; the same is 
told of the water- shell I/, and the Danes have a water-sprite Dam- 
hcsf, Athenm. no. 097. The nixe appears as a richly caparisoned 
fixd, and tempts children to mount her, Possart's Estl. p. 163. 
This horse or hull, rising out of the sea and running away with 
]ieople, is very like Zeus visiting Europa as a bull, and carrying 
her into the water; conf. Lucian, ed. Bip. 2, 125. The water- 
mom tries to drag you in, she wraps rushes and sedge about your 



1430 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

feet when bathing, Lisch 5, 78. The merminne steals Lanzelet 
from his mother, Lanz. 181 ; conf. Sommer p. 173. 

p. 493.] The merman is long -bearded; so has 'daz mervvunder 
einen hart lane, griienfar und ungeschaffen/ Wigam. 177; its 
body is 'in mies geivunden/ Gudr. 113, 3. The mermaid combs 
her hair, Miillenh. p. 338 ; this combing is also Finnish, Kalev. 
22, 307 seq. The nixe has but one nostril, Sommer, p. 41. The 
water-nix (m.) wears a red cape, Hpt^s Ztschr. 4, 393, blue breeches, 
red stockings, Hoffm. Schles. lied. p. 8. The beauty of the nixen 
(f.) is dwelt upon in the account of the wasserliiss, Gryph. 743, 
and the ivasserlisse, Firmen. 2, 334. They have ivet ajyrons, 
Somm. p. 40-5. Wend, volksl. 2, 267^ The nixe dances in a 
patched gown, Somm. p. 44. The sea-maiden shows a tail in 
dancing, Runa 4, 73. Their coming in to dance is often spoken 
of. Panzer 2, nos. 192-6-8. 204-8. Like the sacrifice to the fosse- 
grim clothed in grey and wearing a red cap, Runa '44, 76, is the 
custom of throwing a black cock into the Bode once a year for the 
nickelmann, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 378 ; and like his playing by the 
waterfall is Ahto's seizing Wainamoinen's harp when it falls into 
the water, Kal. 23, 183. 

p. 494.] On river sacrifices conf. p. 596. Nixes (m.) demand 
their victim on Midsum. day, Somm. p. 39 : ' de Leine fret alle 
jar teine ; ' ' de Rume un de Leine slucket alle jar teine,' Schamb. 
spr. p. 87. ' The Lahn must have some one every year' they say 
at Giessen. 'La riviere de Drome a tons les ans cheval ou homme,' 
Pluquet's Contes pop., p. 116. In the Palatinate they say of the 
Neckar: when it is flooded, a hand rises out of it, and carries off 
its victim. On Midsum. night the Neckar-geist requires a living 
soul ; for three days the drowned man can nowhere be found, on 
the fourth night he floats up from the bottom with a blue ring 
round his neck, Nadler p. 126. At Cologne they say : Sanct 
Johann wel hann 14 dude mann, siben de klemme, siben de 
schwemme (the seven that climb are workmen on scaffoldings) ; 
conf ' piitei qui rapere dicuntur per vim spiritus nocentis,' Tertull. 
de Baptismo (RudorfF15, 215). 

p. 496.] The injunction not to beat down the price (p. 495 n.) 
occurs also in a story in Reusch's Preuss. prov. bl. 23, 124. In 
buying an animal for sacrifice you must not haggle, Athen. 3, 102; 
the fish aper must be bought at any price, 3, 117-8. 'end lienem 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1431 

vituli, qaauti indicatus sit, jubent magi, vulla prrfil cimctatlone,' 

Pliiiy 28, 13. Lashing the water reminds us of a uix who 

opens tlie way to his house by s^nifiiig the water with a rod, Somm, 
pp. 41. 02 ; Idood appears on tlie water, U). 171; an apj^h as a 
favourable sign, Hotrm. Schles. lied. p. 4. Grendel comes ivall-- 
iiKj hy niqht, as the rakshasi is called ' noctu iens,^ Bopp's Gloss. 
188«. 198^ 

p. 498. J Ra is neufc., dof. raet ; also raand, rddrottuing, Sv. 
folks. 1, 233. 74 (Suppl. to 430). Souls kept under inverted pots 
by the water man occur again in KM. no. 100 and Miillenh. p. 577. 
Neptnniuf;, Neptenius is also transl. altvil, Homeyer's Rechtsb. 
14. Watersprites ivail, or in other ways reveal their presence : 
the sjo-mor moans, Dyb. ■'45, 98; conf. 'gigantes gcmnnt sub 
aquis,' Job 26, 5 ; ■^vlk e/ieWov tov Trora/xov 8ca/3aLveiv, to Sai- 
fxovLov re koI to elco66<; arj^aZov /xoi jlyveaOaL iyevero, Plato's 
Phajdr. 242. A tradition similar to Gregory's anecdote is given 
by Schonwerth 2, 187. 

p. 500.] Penates were gods of the household store, penus. 
Lares were in Etruscan lasfs, Gerh. Etr. gotter p. 15-6; Lasa = 
Fortuna. A legend of the lar familiaris in Pliny 36, 70. Was 
there a Goth. 16s = domus, and did Luarln mean homesprite ? 
Lares, penates, OHG. husyota or herdgota, Graff 4, 151. Home- 
sprites are called hus-hiechtken, Miillenh. p. 318, haus-puken ; 
Russ. domovoy ; tomtar, Dyb. 4,26; Finn, tonttu, Castren 167. 
On Span, diiende, duendecillo conf. Diez's Wtb. 485 ; couroit 
comma un luti7i par toute sa demeure, Lafont. 5, 6. A genius loci 
is also AgatJiodaemon, Gerh. in Acad. ber. ^17, p. 203-4; conf. 
the bona socia, the good holden, the bona dea, bona fortuna and 
bonus eventns worshipped by the country folk, Ammian. Marc. 
582-3. The pnik lives in cellars, Mone's Schausp. 2, 80-6; "niss 
puh, niss png, Miillenh. pp. 318. 325; nhebuk, niske^^Jcs 321-4. 
MLG. imk (rh. striik, buk), Upstand. 1305. 1445. Lett, puhkls, 
dragon, kobold, Bergm. 152; cont pixy. 

p. 502 n.] So, ' laughing like pixies.' [Other expressions 
omitted.] 

p. 503.] To the earliest examples of kobold, p. 500 n., add 
Lodovicus cabohhis, yr. 1221, Lisch, Meckl. urk. 3, 71 [later ones, 

including Cabolt, Kaboldisdhorpe, &c., omitted]. To speak 'in 

koboldes sprache' means very softly, Hagcn's Ges. Abent. 3, 78. 



1432 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

A concealed person in Enenkel (Ranch 1, 316) says: ich rede in 
cJiowohz wise. Lessing 1, 292 : the kohold must have whispered 
it in my ear. Luther has kobold in Isa. 34, 14. cohel, der 
schwarze teufel, die teufels-hure, Mathesius 1562, 154''. Gohe- 
liinis, a man's name, Mone's Heldens. 13. 15. Hob, a homesprite. 

Hone's Tablebk 3, 657 (conf. p. 503, n. 1). May we bring 

in here the klahauter-msin, Miiter-man, Miillenh. p. 320, a ship- 
sprite, sometimes called halfater, Mahater-mgiU, Temme's Pom. 
sag. no. 253, Belg. Jcahoter-msiU ? Nethl. couhouton, Br. Gher. 
719. The taterman, like the kobold, is painted: " malet einen 
iatermanj" Jungeling, 545. 

p. 505.] At Cologne they call homesprites Jieizemcinncher, 
Firmen. 1, 467. Kuecht Heinz in Fischart's Spiel. 367, and 
knecht Heinrich. A tom-cat is not only called Hinze, but Heinz, 
Henz, and a stiefel-knecht (bootjack, lit. boot-servant) stiefel- 
henz (boot-puss), coming very near the resourceful Puss-in-boots. 
The tahbij-cat brings you mice, corn and money overnight; after 
the third service you can't get rid of her, Miillenh. p. 207. A 
serviceable tom-cat is not to be shaken off, Temme's Pom. sao-. 
p. 318. Hous&-goblins, like the moss-folk, have in them some- 
thing of the nature of apes, which also are trained to perform 
household tasks, conf. Felsenburg 1, 240. The Lettons too have 
a miraculous cat Biinzis or Uunkis, who carries grain to his 
master, Bergm. p. 152; conf. the homesprites Hans, Pluquet's 
Contes pop. 12, Hdnschen, Somm. pp. 33-4, 171, and Good 

Johann, Miillenh. p. 323. On the Wolterkens conf. Miillenh. 

p. 318. In Holstein they call knecht Ruprecht Roppert 319, 
with whom and with Woden Kuhn compai'es Bohin Hood, Hpt's 
Ztschr. 5, 482-3. For the nisl-en, and the nis, nispnh, nesslmh 
consult Miillenh. 318-9. The home-sprite, like the devil, is 
occas. called Stepchen, Somm. 33. 171; and hdstl y, BUI y blind, 
Minstr. 2, 399. 

p. 506.] The spirits thump and racket, Goethe 15, 131. 
KJopferle (knockerling) rackets before the death of one of the 
family with ^vhicli he lives, G. Schwab's Alb. p. 227. ' Was fur 
v'm p)oUeT-geist Itandtiert (bustles) durch die lichten zimmer ? ' 
Giinth. 969 ; plagegeist, Musoeus 4, 53 ; rumpel-geist, S. Frank's 
Chron. 212''; ' ez rumpelt staete /ur sich dar,' Wasserbar 112; 
bozen or inumaniz in the millet-field, Reimdich 145; alpa-butz, 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1433 

nip daemon, Von bull p. lG-7-8. 'Quoth tho inotbor : Nit gang 
liiunsz, der iiiionDiel (or, dor rmui) ist diisz ; for tlie child fcaroth 
tliG vinnnntl (mau)/ Keisersbg's Bil<j^r. 16G*^. To vennummen 
and verbutzen oneself, H. Sachs i. 5, 534°. Not only Rumpehfilf, 
but Knirfih'r, Gehhart, Tepcntlren (Miillenh. p. 306-7-8), THfvll 
Tare (Sv. folkv. 1, 171) must have their names guessed. Other 
names : Kiojerl, Zingerle 2, 278, Sfutzlawutzla, Wolf's Ztschr. 
2, 183. 

p. 507.] Tho huizen-hdnscl is said to go in and out through 
the open gutter, as other spectres pass through the city mont, 
Miillenh. p. 191. Buzemanne>i, a place in Franconia, MB. 25, 
110-1; riifzninns, ib. 218. 387. Lutbertus qui hndde dicitur, 
Gerhardus dictus hndde, Sudeudf. pp. 69. 70. 89 (yr. 1268), 
hutzf'n-anfUfz, mask, Anshelm 1, 408. Garg. 122''; hxdzen- 
Ixhiider, Ansh. 3, 411; does hutzcn, lyutzoi strictly mean to mask 
oueself ? The Swiss bijog, bogJc, brooij = ma,sk, bugbear. Staid. 1, 
202. 230 ; bdijgen-weise, a Shrovetide play, Schreib. Taschenb. 
'40, 230; bugijhnan, Lazarillo Augsb. 1617, p. 5 (?). BriJug 
seems akin to bruogo, AS. broga = terror, terriculamentum. 

p. 508.] On the Fr. folht, conf. Diefenb. Celt. 1, 182. The 
f<det allows the peasant who has caught him three wishes, if he 
will not show him to the people, Marie de Fr., Fables, p. 140. 
The far fad et de Poissy comes out of the fireplace to the women 
who are inspecting each other's thighs, and shows his backside. 
Reveille-matin, p. ra. 342. ' Malabron le luiton,' Gaufrey, p. 169. 
O.Fr. rahat = \ni\\\. ]\I.Neth. rehas, Gl. to Lekensp. p. 569. In 
Bretague, Puulpikan is a roguish sprite, repres. as husband of 
the fay, and found in Druidic monuments. Lett, kehms, l-v]niu\^, 
goblin, spectre; also hdln'fi, Bergai. 145. Is gijfze, Uhl. Volksl. 
754 a goblin ? 

p. 511.] ' UiidcJce howls ' = it is stormy, Hildesh. stiftsfehde 
pp. 48. 91. Falke thinks the whole story of Hodeke is trumped 
vp, Trad. corb. 135. Jliitchen is a little red mannikin with 
sparkling eyes, wears a long green garment, Somm. pp. 26-9. 
30. 171. In Voigtland they tell of the goblin Puhip-Jinf, who 
once haunted the neighbourhood of Pausa, always worked hard 
as a miller's man, and played many a roguish trick, Bechst. iu 
Nieritz volks-kal. '46, pp. 78 — 80. The same Pw»?j>-hut iu 
"Westphalia, Kuhu's Westf. sag. 2, 279; mentioned even in Insel 



1434 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

Felsenbg, Nordh. 1746, 2, 366—370. About Miiuster they dis- 
tinguish between timjD-lnUe and lang-hilte : the former are small, 
wrinkled, hoary, old-fashioned, with three-cornered hats ; the 
latter tall, haggard, in a slouched hat. Timp-hat bestows posi- 
tive blessings, long-hat keeps off misfortune. They live mostly in 
the barn or a deserted loft, and slowly turn a creaking windlass. 
In fires they have been seen to stride out of the flames and strike 
into a by-way. Conf. the homesprite Dal-hopp, N. Pr. prov. bl. 
1, 394. Elsewhere they live in a corner heJtind the oven, under 
the roof-heam, or in gable-holes, where a board is put out to 
attract them, Miillenh. pp. 321-2. 332-5-7. Hpt's Lausitzer sag. 

1, 56 seq. The goblin sits on the hearth, flies out at the chimney, 

shares the peasant^s room, Somm. p. 27-9. Spirits in the cellaj', 
over the casks, Simplic. 2, 264-5 ; conf. Abundia (pp. 286. 1056). 
The goblin carries things to his master, but can only bring a 
certain quantity, and will change masters if more be demanded, 
Somm. p. 27 (see p. 512), He fetches milk from other men's 
cows, like the dragon, the Swed. bare (p. 1090) and the devil; 
here he encroaches on the witch and devil province. He helps 
in milking, licks up the spilt drops, Miillenh. p. 325. Goblins 
curry down and feed the cattle, and have their favourite beasts, 
Somm. p. 36-7; hence the name fatter-mdnncheu, Boruer's 
Orlagau p. 241-3. A homesprite bier-esel in Kuhn's Nordd. sag. 
no. 225, conf. pp. 423. 521. They speak in a tiny voice, 'in ko- 
boldes sprache,' Miillenh. p. 335. Hagen's Ges. Abent. 3, 78 ; 
and yet : mit grozer stimme er do schrei 79. As nothing was 
sien of king Vollmar but his shadow, so is Good Johann like a 
xliadow, Miillenh. p. 323. They are often seen in the shape of 
a toad, pp. 355. 330, also as toni or tabby cat (Suppl. to 505). 
The Albanians imagine their homesprite vittore as a little snake, 
Hahn's Lieder 136. A good description of the kobold in Firmen. 

2, 237-8. The herb agennund, Garg. 88'', seems conn, with 
Agem.und, the house- daemon in Reinardus. 

p. 511.] The homesprite being olKovp6<i, agathodaemon (p. 
485-6), there is milk, honey and sugar set on the bench for him, 
as for the unke, Schweinichen 1, 2(51. In the Schleswig-Holstein 
stories they must always have i^ap or groats, with a piece of 
butter in. The goblin has the table spread for him, Somm. p. 32. 
Napf-hans is like the Lat. Lateranus, Arnob. 4, 6; Lateranus 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1435 

ihuii est focorum et genius, adjectusquo hoc nomine, quod ex 
latcrculis ab liominibus crudis camiuorum istud exaedificetur 
genus . . . per Immaui generis coquinas currit, inspiciens et 
exploraus quibusnam lignorum generibus suis ardor in foculis 
excitetur, habitudinem fictilis contribuit vascidis, ne flammarum 
dissiliaut vi victa, curat ut ad sonsuni palati suis cum jocun- 
ditatibus veuiant rerum incorruptarum sapores, et an rite pul- 
menta coudita sint, praegustatoris fungitur atque experitur officio. 
Hartung 2, 109 says it is Vulcanus caminorum deus ; certainly 
Yarro in fragm. p. 2G5 ed. Bip. makes \'ulcan the preserver of 
pots : Vulcanum necdum novae lagenae oUarum frcutgaittar ter 
precatur (couf. p. 417). 

p. 512.] A goblin appears as a monk, Somra. pp. 35. 172-3. 
AVith SJieUijcoat conf. Schellen-moriz 153-4. Honiosprites de- 
mand but trifling wages, as in the pretty story of a serving 
daimon who holds the stirrup for his master, guides him across 
the ford, fetches lion's milk for the sick wife, and at last, when 
dismissed, asks but five shillings wages, and gives them back to 
buy a bell for a poor church, using the remarkable words: magna 
est mihi consolatio esse cum filiis hominum, OaBsar Ileisterb. 
5, 3G. On the Spanisji goblin's cucuruclw tamano, observe that 
the lingua rustica already said tammaua for tarn magna, Nieb. in 
Abh. d. Berl. Acad. '22, 257. 

p. 513 n.] The alleriirken is a puppet locked up in a box, 
which brings luck, Miillonh. p. 209; conf. 'he's got an oaraunl 
inside him,' KM. 183 (infra p. 1203). AV'ax figures ridiculously 
dressed up, ' which we call glilcks-mdnnchen,' 10 ehen, p. 357 ; 
conf. the gJiiches-pfennig, Prediger miirchen IG, 17, also the well- 
known dacatcn-kacker, and the doll in Straparola (5, 21). KM^. 
3, 287. 291. The Monoluke is a wax doll dressed up in the 
devil's name, Miillenh. p. 209 ; conf the dragedukke, a box out of 

which you may take as much money as you will. A homcsprite 

can be bought, but the third buyer must keep him, Miillenh. 
p. 322. One buys a, poor and a rich goblin, Somm. p. 33. Such 
sprites they made in Esthonia of tow, rags and fir-bark, and got 
the devil to animate them, Possart's Esthl. p. 1G2 ; more exactly 
described in the Dorp, verhandl. i. 2, 89. iSo the shamans make 
a fetish for the Samoyeds out of a sheep-skin, Suomi '40, 
p. 37-8-9. 



1436 GIANTS. 

p. 516.] On the manducus, see 0. Miiller's Etr. 2, 101 (couf. 
p. 1082). ' Quid si aliquo ad ludos me pro manduco locem? quia 
pol clare creplto dentibus,' Plaut. Eud. ii. 6, 52. This too is the 
place for schcmen: ' als dakten sich die schamn (1. schemen) e, do 
si dm hint schraJcten 7mt,' to frighten children with, Jiingl. 698. 
Are schemen masks ? conf. '.schonbart ' for schem-hart, OHG. 
scema = larva, persona, like hage-bart, Schra. 3, 362. Graff 6, 
495. On Buprecht see Kuhn in Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 473. von den 
sogenandten Rapjwrten, die sich ' bunt und ranch untereiuander 
anziehen,' or ' einen raiichen pelz,' 3 erzn. 369. Knecht Ruprecld 
(or Krampus, Khxubauf, meister Strohbart) is St. Nicolas's man, 
Ziska's Oestr. volksm. 49, 110. HoUepeter, Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 194. 
'dich miiez der Semper machen g'sunt,^ the devil have the curing 
of you ! Ring 14"^, 5. To him corresp. old Grumbus with the 
rod, Firmen. 2, 45, and Fiele Gig (fidele geige ?) of the Kuh- 
landcheu, described in Schlegel's Mus. 4, 119. Walloon ' hans- 
crovfe, valet de S. Nicolas,' our Hans Buckel (croufe = bosse), 
Grandgagu. 1, 271. As Niclas has a man, Gargantua has a drole 
in his retinue, Mem. celt. 5, 393-4. Our knecht Ruprecht is Russ. 
huJao, Gretsch p. 109, Lett, huhbidis. His Styriau name of Klaub- 
avf resembles the luinterklaub, Wolkenst. p. 67. A sooty face 
belongs to the phallophorus also, Athen. 5, 254. St. Peter, who 
may be regarded as Ruprecht's representative, when journeying 
with Christ, always behaves as a good-natured simpleton. 

As people sacrificed to forest-women (p. 432), so they did to 
subterraneans, Miillenh. p. 281. On feast-days the Ossetes place 
a portion of the viands in a separate room for the homesprite to 
eat; they are miserable if he does not, and are delighted to find 
a part of them gone, KohFs Siid-rusal. 1, 295. A Roman setting 
out on a journey took leave of the familiaris : 'etiam nunc saluto 
te, familiaris, priusquam eo,' Plaut. Mil. gl. iv. 8, 29. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
GIANTS. 

p. 518.] In some ways men, elves and giants stand related as 
men, angels and devils. Giants are the oldest of all creatures, 
and belong to the stone-age. Here we have to make out more 
fully, that giants and titans are the old naiure-(jods. 



GIANTS. 1437 

p. 520.] Mere descriptive epithets of giants arc : der graze 
n?a», Ernst 469. 4288; der michel man, Lanz. 7705; der michel, 
der grozt', Altd. bl. 2, 149. So of their country : nnlmndigcz lant, 
Both. 625, and der riesin lanile 761 ( = iotun-heim, p. 530) ; of 
their nation : vnkiindigiu diet 630. The ON. iotunn, AS. coten 
is supported by the dimin. Etenni (?). Is Eftovnii (for Oxionas) 
in Tac. Germ. 46 the same word ? Hpt's Ztschr. 9, 256. Surely 
liethenesherg , hedeneshg, hettesnasmont, etanashg in Chart. Sithiense 
158. 80. 160-2 are not heathen's hill nor hiitenbg? Gmff 1; 
370 has Entinesburc (conf. p. 525). Eteneslnhn, Dronke 233". 

Leo in Vorles. iiber d. gesch. d. Deut. volks 1, 112 agrees 

with me in tracing the word to ON. eta, AS. etan ; conf. mann- 
aeta (p. 520n. and Suppl. to 555), the giant's name Wolfes mage 
(Suppl. to 557), and a giant being addressed as ' du nvgaeher 
fmz!' Dietr.drach. 238^ Ssk. Jcravydd, Bopp's Gr. § 572. Finn, 
turilas, tursas, turras = e(Zr/a;, gluto, gigas; and this is confirmed 
by the two words for giantess, sijojatilr, lit. femina vorax, fr. sjun 
= edo, and juojotar, lit. femina bibax, fr. jiion = bibo, Schiefner's 

Finn. w. 606-8. Schafarik 1, 141 connects iiitun, jiltte with 

g^tn in Massageta, Thussagete (p. 577n.). Tliorlacius sp. 6, p. 2 !• 
thinks iotar, iotnar, rii^ar are all one. Rask on the contrary 
distinguishes J'dtnnheimar (jjitternes land) from Juflavd (jvdernes 
land), likewise Jotunn (gigas) from Juti (a Jute), Afh. 1, 77-8. 
GDS. 736; he takes the iotnar to be Fhms (more exactly Kvaener), 
and Jotunheimar perhaps Halogaland, Afh. 1, 85-6; but in a 
note to Sasm. 33 he identifies the iotnar with the Eistir. Swed. 
jdtte ochjattesa, Cavallius 25. 467. Jetfha, Jettenherg may be for 
Jeccha, Jechenberg, as Jechelburg became Jethelberg. Jefene- 
hnrg, Getenburg occur in deeds of the 13th cent., Wipperm. nos. 
41. 60. Jetfcnbach on the Hundsriick, Heifer's Urk. p. 37. The 
giant's munching, ' mesan/ p. 519, should be nn'san, OHG. 
muosan. 

p. 522.] It seems that pi/rja Y\oh in Sa3m. 82'' does not mean 
torridorum gens, but stands for jnirsa, j'yrsa. With Dan. tosse 
conf. cZ //.s.sT- troll, Sv. forns. 1, 92-8. Grendel is called a pyrfi, 
Beow. 846. As the rune purs in ON. corresp. to Jxirn in AS., we 
have even in ON. a giant named Bol-^or??, Sasm. 28\ Sn. 7 ; 
should it be Bal]>orn, fire-thorn ? It is strange that Alvis, though 
a dwarf, says : pur><a liki )>ycci mer a ]>er vera, Sa3m. 48'\ OHG. 

VOL. IV. M 



■1438 GIANTS. 

durisls = B[tis, Hpt's Ztsclir. 5, 329^ Gl. Sletst. Q, 169. ' mtere 
von eime tursen/ KM.s 3, 275. In Thuringia the tlmrschemann, 
Becbst. Miirch. 63. We still say ' der torscli.' To the Austrian 
families of Lichtenfels, Tiernstein, liauheneck and Rauhenstein 
the by-name turse, Lat. turso, was habitual in the 12 — 15th cents., 
Heilig-enkr. 1, 32. 46. 127. 179. 2,14.26. Women were called 
>tursin, see Leber's book. Tursemul, peasaut^s name, MsH. 3, 
293''. 'in thurisUun; Falke's Trad. Corb. 100-1. 354. Saracho 
p. 7, no. 81, ed. Wigand 281-4. 420; tursen-ouive, etc. Mone's Auz. 
'G, 231 ; Thyrsentritt, E. of Lechthal, Steub's Rhiit. 143 ; Tirschen- 
tritt, Dirschentritt, Giimbel's Bair. Alpe pp. 217. 247; Bursgesesz, 
Landau's Wiiste orter in Hessen p. 377 ; Tilrschenwald in Salzach 
-dale, M. Koch 221; TiirshuinM, Weisth. 4, 129. Renvall has 
Finn, tursas, turras, turrisas, turri = g\Si\it, timlas = homo edax, 
vorax; meritursas, Schroter p. 135. Petersen p. 42. GDS. 122-3. 

Dionys. Halic. 1, 21 thought the Tvpf)'>]voi were so called be- 
■<;ause they reared high towers, Tvpaec<;. That agrees with the 
giants' buildings (p. 534-5). 

p. 524.] On Hunen-beds and Hunen, see Janssen's Drentsche 
oudheden pp. 167—184, conf. GDS. 475. Does the Westph. 
'/ie7i?ie-kleid, grave-clothes, mean hiinen-kleid ? or hence-going 
clothes, as in some parts of Westphalia a dying man's last com- 
munion was called henne-kost ? 'Als ein hiiine gelidet,' having 

giant's limbs, Troj. kr. 29562 ; Jdune is often used in J. v. Soest's 
Marg. Von Limburg (Mone's Anz. '3i, 218); Ortleip der Jdune, 
Ls. 3, 401; 'der groten liunen (gigantum),' B. d. kon. 112. 
Strangely the Idilinen in Firmen. 1, 325 are dwarfs, subterraneans, 
who are short-lived, and kidnap children, though like hiinen they 
live in a hill; conf. the Tdimiershes, Kuhn's Westf, sag. 1, 63-4. 
As the ON. hunar is never quite synonymous with iotnar and 
]?ursar, so the heunen are placed after the giants as a younger 
race, Baader's Sag. no. 387. GDS. 475. 

p. 525.] Other examples of AS. enf : gelyfdon (believed) on 
decide entas, AS. homil. 1, 366; on enta hlave (cave), Kemble 4, 

49 ; on cntan blew 5, 265. Uiitincs-hurc, Graff 1, 370 ; Enzins- 

perig; MB. 2, 197; Anzin-\&r, Hess. Ztschr. 1, 246, like Ruozel- 
mannes var, Mone's Anz. '36, 300; ad giganteam viam, entishen 
wee, Wien. sitz. ber. 4, 141 ; von enten swarz unde gra kan ich 
nit vil sagen, KM. ^ 3, 275. 



GIANTS. 1439 

p. 525.] Mercury is called ' se 'JU'jand ' (p. 1 l-O) ; die ghigante, 
gigante, Rose 5135-82. Biorn writes gujr, Aasen 152^ has jygger, 
gyvr for gygr (conf. ' ze Givers/ Suppl. to 061) ; giogra, Faye 
6. A giant is called kdmpe, Miilleuli. pp. 207. 277. Otos and 
Ephialtes, gigantes though not Cyclopes, are sons of Poseidon, 
and the cyclop Polyphemus is another. Ace. to Diut. 3, 59 and 
the Parz. and Tit. (p. 090 n.), monsters were born of women who 
had eaten forbidden herbs. 

p. 526.] Does Hrisberg stand for Wrisberg ? Liintzel's Hil- 
desh. 23. rieaen-ldnt, Laurin 2053. 2509. 2004-, and enzen-kint, 

like menschen-kind, son of man. A Luhhes-stcin in Miillenh. 

no. 303, p. 272; Lilpperts-grah, Vilmar in Hess. Ztschr. 4, 79; 
Liippenhart, Liippental, Mone's Anz. 6, 229; die Lnphode, 
Prohle's Unterharz p. 212, conf. luppe, poison (p. 1151). ON. 
leifi, gigas, oleifi, humanua ; rumr, vir immauis, gigas. Whence 
comes /r('j7t'» e = gigantes ? Graff 5, 512. 

p. 526.] G(/> = oreas, Sc^m. 143'' (Suppl. to 525). Other 
terms for giantess : fdla, Ssem. 143'' (conf. p. 992) ; hCda 143''. 
144*; Gn&r in Sn. 113 is the name of a gygr, and her staff is 

named Qn&arvolr 114. Troll is both monster and giant : ertu 

troU, Vatnsd. 292 ; |>u j^ykki mer troll, Isl. sog. 2, 365 ; half -troll, 
Nialss. c. 106. 120; trolla-shog, Landn. 5, 5; tr'6lla-skei&, curri- 
culum gigantum (Suppl. to 85); in Faroe, trolla-bofn is giants' 
land. Trollnjgr, Trollagrof, Werlauff's Grenzb. 16. 22. 35. Michel 
Beham had heard ' troll ' in Denmark and Norway, says Mone's 
Anz. 4, 450 ; but the word had been at home on German soil long 
before that : vor diesem trolle, Ortn. 338, 2 ; er schlug den trollen 
Liederb. (1582) 150; eiu voller troll 215; wintertrolle, Mone's 
Anz. 6, 230 ; ' exsurge sede, tu trolgast, cito recede ' says a verse 
of the 14th cent., Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 403; einen dndgast laden, 
Weisth. 1, 552; de Drulshaghene, Erhard p. 144 (yr 1118); he- 
trullvf, Tit. 5215 (Kl. schr. 4, 336). But whence comes the Fr. 
drolc, form, draiile? It is rather a goblin like the M. Neth. 
drollcn, Belg. mus. 2, 116. Kilian sub v.; conf. Gargantua's 
drole (Suppl. to 516). 

p. 527.] Mglzinum kalnay, giants' hills, viylzijnum kapay, 
giants' graves, Kurl. send. 1, 46-7. Boh. obor appears as hobr in 
Wend, volksl. 2, 268». On the giants' name Volot, Velet, Wele- 
tabus, Wilz, conf. p. 1081 n. The ytyavTe^ of the Greeks lived in 



1440 GIANTS. 

Thrace, Paus. 1, 25 ; conf, the Ariraaspi and Cyclopes, and the 
Ind. raksliasas (p. 555). To the Hebrews the Rephaim, Anakim, 
Nephilim were giant nations, Bertheau's Israel, p. 142-3-4. 

p. 528.] The size of giants is expressed in various ways. 
Tityos, son of Earth, covers nine roods, Od. 11, 577; Otos and 
Ephialtes in their ninth year were eVveavrj^^et? in breadth and 
ivveopyvioi in length 11, 307 (conf. ^Evi,avro<; reTpc'nnj'yy^, mean- 
ing the 4 seasons, Athen. 2, 263). Dante, Inf. 31, 58 — 66 poeti- 
cally fixes the stature of Nimrod at 90 palms, i.e. 54 feet, which 
comes to the same as Ephialtes's 9 fathoms. ' Cyclopen hoch 
som die tanhounie,' tall as firs, Ksrchr. 357; 'ir reicht. in kume 
an die hiie (ye reach scarce to their knees), sie tragent Jcldfter- 
langen hart,' beards a fathom long, Dietr, u. ges. 621. Ovid's 
picture of Polyphemus combing his hair with a harrow, and 
shaving with a sithe, is familiar to us. Met. 13, 764. 

Giants have many heads : the sagas tell of three-headed, six- 
headed, nine-headed trolds, Asbjornsen p. 102-3-4; o. seven-headed 
giant in Firmen. 1, 333^; another is negenhopp (9 head), Miillenh. 
p. 450 ; conf the three-headed wild woman in Fr. Arnim's March. 
1, no. 8, and Conradus Dri-heuptel, MB. 29% 85 (254). Pol. 
dziewi^-sil, Boh. dewe-sil, dewet-sil (nine-powei'ed) —giant. The 
legend of Heimo is in Mone's Unters. p. 288 seq., conf. Steub's 
Rhat. p. 143. Ital. writers of the 16th cent, often call giants 
quatromani ; giants with 13 elbows in Fischart's Garg.; BiJfinger 
in Swabia are families with 12 fingers and 12 toes; ' cnm. sex 
digitis nat.i,' Hattemer 1, 305^; conf. ' sextus homini digitus 

agnatus inutilis,' Pliny 11, 52. Even the one eye of thecyclops 

is not altogether foreign to our giants : in a Norweg. fairytale 
three trolds have one eye between them, which goes in the middle of 
the forehead, and is passed round, Jiiletriiet 74-5; conf. KM. no. 
130 (such lending of eyes is also told of the nightingale and 
blindworm, KM. ed, 1, no. 6). Polyphemus says : Unum est in 
medio lumen mihi fronte, sed instar ingentis clypei, Ov. Met. 13, 
850 ; these one-eyed beings the Greeks called Jq/klopes, the 
Romans coclites : coclites qui altero lumine orbi nascuntur, Pliny 
xi. 37, 35 ; decem coclites, ques montibus summis Rhipaeis fodere, 
Enn. in Varro 7, 71 (0. Midler p. 148) ; conf. Goth, haihs, 

fiov6(f)6a\im,o<i, coecus, Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 11. A tail is attrib. to 

the giantess Hrimger^r, Saem. 144*. Giants, like dwarfs, are 



GIAIITS. 1441 

sometimes descr. as hlaclc : ]>rainu scarti )>urs, Isl. sog. 1, 207, 
conf. Svart-bcifSi ; a black and an asJt-groj giant in Dybeck 4, 41. 
25. As Urungnir's head and shield were of stone, Hymi's haus 
(skull) is hard as stone, SaBm. 56''. Thor's wife, a giantess, is 
named Jarnsaxa. The age of giants is the stone-age. 

p. 528.] The adj. nadd-go/yi, Ssem. 98^, seems also to express 
the unbridled arrogance of the giant : riseiimaezic, der werlte 
widersaezlc, Bit. 7837. The Gr. Aa-rridai, are braggarts, and akin 
to the Kentaurs. • 

p. 529.] The llth cent, spell ' tamho saz hi herke .... tiimh 
Inez der here,' etc., reminds one of Marcellus' burd. p. 29 (Kl. 
schr. 2, 129. 147-8) : stupidiis hi monfe sedehat ; and conf. Affen- 
berg, Giegenberg, Gauchsberg (p. 680-1), Schalksberg. Note 
that the iotunu too is called dttntunr apa, simjarum cognatus, 
Saim. 55^*. The Frozen Ocean is named Dumbs-haf. Biurn says 
the ON. stuvir = giga.s (dummy?); conf. g^gr, giugi (p. 525). In 
Fornm. sog. 1, 304 the heathen gods are called blindir, daiijir, 
dumhir, daucTir. 

p. 530.] On Forniotr see GDS. 737. hin aldiia (gj^gr), Sa3m. 
5^^. Giants' names : Or-gemlir (our ur-alte), 'prud'-gemUr, Berg- 
gemlir (var. -gelniir). The vala has been taught wisdom by the 
old giants, she says : ec man iotna dr ofhonia, ]?a er forSom 
uiik froedda hufSo, Saem. P. The good faith of giants is re- 
nowned : eoteua treowe, Beow. 2137; so Wainamoinen is called 
the old (wanha) and faithful (waka) and true (totinen), Kalev. 3, 

107; so is God (p. 21). Polyphemus tended sheep, and the 

Norse giants are herdsmen too : 

sat ]?ar a haugi oc slo horpu 

g^gjar hir^Sir, glaffr Egdlr. Saem. 6^. 

Gj^niir owns flocks, and has a shepherd 82*^. Thrymr strokes the 
manes of his horses, just as the Chron. Trudouis (Chapeaville 2, 
1 74) speaks of 'manu comara equi delinire.' Giants know nothing 
of bread or fire, Fr. Arnim's Milr. 1, no. 8; the Finn, giants do 
icithoidfire, Ueb. d. Finn, epos p. 39 (Kl. schr. 2,98). Yet they 
have silver and gold, they even burn gold, Dybeck 4, 33-8. 42 ; 
their horses wear iron rings in their ears 4, 37. 43. They not 
only bring misfortune on the families of man, but bestow luclc 4, 
36, a.udfrulffuliiess 4, 45. Esp. is the (jiantea^, the giant's wife. 



1442 



GIANTS. 



sister, mother, merciful and helpful to heroes (pp. 555. 1007-8). 
Altd. w. 3, 179. Walach. miirch. p. 167. 

p. 531.] A latish saga distingu, betw. Jotunheim, governed 
by Geirro^r, and Risaland, by GolSmundr, Fornm. s. 3, 183. The 
giants often have the character of older Nature- gods, so that 
i6tnar = gods, Seem. 93^ The Serv. divovi, giants (Vuk's Pref. to 
pt. I, of new ed.) either means the divine (conf. p. 194) or the 
wild ; conf. divliy = ferns [Slav. div = wonder]. When in our 
kinder-miirchen nos. 5. 81-2 the tailor, the cari(rr or the gamester 
intrude into heaven (WolPs Ztschr. 2, 2—7), it may well remind 
us of the titans storming Olympus; conf. p. 575 on angels and 

giants. Giants form ties of love with gods and heroes : thus 

Polyphemus is a son of Poseidon, Od. 1, 71 seq. HrimgerSr the 
giantess wishes to pass a night with the hero. Seem. 144% Hke 
the witch in fairytales and Marpalie in Wolfdietrich. Freyr 
burns with love for Ger^r, OSinn spends three days in the moun- 
tain with Gunnlod, Gefion the asynja has sons (bull-shaped) by a 
giant, Sn. 1. Yet hostility betw. gods and giants is the rule : 
that these would get the upper hand, but for Thor's enmity to 
them, the Edda states even more distinctly than the Swedish 
proverb : 

mikill mundi £et iotna ef allir lifSi, 

v^tr mundi manna und MiSgarSi. ScBm. 77^. 

Conf. Tliors 'pjdska ett qvinno troll baktill ihaligt, som tros fly 
for blixten in i ett hus, der askan dji star ned, Almqv. 464'' 
(pjaska = a dirty woman). The giant again is ds-grui, terror 
asarum. 

p. 532.] ManagoU, Pistor. 497. Managold, Neug. 77. 355. 
On the myth, conf. Kahn in Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 134. With Fenja 
and Menja, who grind until the cuckoo calls, conf. the mill-maids 
and cock-crow, Gr. epigr. 2, 56. 

p. 532.] Fornald. sog. 1,469 says: ' austan at Ymis dyrum'; 
and of Ullr : ' Ullr reiS Ymesver, enn OSinn Sleipni'; did the 
horse belong to Ymir ? Frosti, JohnU, horses' names, Rask's 
Afh. 1, 95. Esth. lalhna isa, wana Tahhava, Bocler 148. If 
Ymir comes fr. ymja, stridere, it is akin to Goth, iumjo, turba, 
noisy crowd. The noise, the roar of giants is known to MHG., 
see Dietr. u. Ges. 391—4. 458. 470 ; is that why they are likened 



GIANTS. l-i43i 

to bcllowiiiEf bulls? R:isk in Afli. 1, 88 derives tbc names of 
Tffrkir and Jffrkjd fr. Finn, hilrha, ox; but we have also a (rerm. 
giant ILirja, Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 250, conf. Herka (p. 25:)) and next 

note, end. Giants are beings of Night: those of India grow 

stronger than heroes at twU'Kjht, and twice as strong in the n'njht, 
Holtzra. Ind. sag. 2, 152. A Schleswig giantess is ' die scliwarze 
Greet,' black Meg, Miillenh. pp. 157. 2G9. 273-5; on the other 
hand a queen Margarcta, pp. 342. 14. 18. 

p. 533.] The Greeks also make giants live on rocJcn and //(7/.s-, 
Od. 9, 113-4. They are animated stones, or consist partly of 
stone, or they turn into stone. The giant in Miillenh. p. 442 has- 
a stone heart. HrimgerSr, surprised by daylight, stands i steins 
Hkl, Si\3m. 145"'; conf. the Swed. tales in Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 503-4. 
Bader no. 486. Hati iutunn sat a herrji, Sa3m. 143'^ (Suppl. to 
530). The gfgr lives in caves of the rock (hellir) ; as Bryuhildr 
fares to Hel, a g^gr cries to her : ' skaltu i goguuin gauga eigi 
grlotl studda gar&a mina ! ' through my stone-built garth; and B.. 
answers : ' bregSu eigi mer, hrnffr or steini,' bride of stone, Sajm. 
227 (see p. 551). ' fiuna j^eir i helli nockvorum, hvar j/iy;//' sat, 
lion nefndiz Thock,' So. 68. A giant's cave up in the wild moun- 
tain, Trist. 419, 10 — 20. Ber(j-hid = g\wa.i is also in Laudu. 4, 12, 
and Sa3m. 52 ; conf. hergcs gnoz, Er. 8043. Huhergs-githhe 
(p. 536-7). Finn. hiUio, rupes, = Goth. halliis, ON. hallr, hence 
haltva, gigas ; another Finn, term for giant is vuoren vcikl, power 
of the mountain. To J^nssln of hiargl corresp. Tdssehc7'gs-k.]{\ttcr\, 
a place in Viirmelaud, Rask's Afh. 1, 91-2. Note the term berr/- 
rinder, mountain-cattle, for Gefjon's children by a giant are oxen, 
Sn. 1. One giant is called huh-tod, cow-death, Miillenh. no. 328; 
conf. Ilcrkir, llerkja in preced. note. Giants appear as ivolves, 
Sn. 13. 

p. 534.] The giantess pelts with stones, the giant wears a 
stone crown, Braunschw. miirch. p. 64. Iron will not bite the 
giant : ' troll, er )?ik hUa eigi iarn,' Isl. sog. 2, 364. He can only 
be floored with gold, hence Skiold wraps gold about his club, 
Saxo 8. Grendel too is proof against iron sword : ' j>ono synsca- 
"5an asnig ofer eorSan irenna cyst, gii&hiUa nan gretan nolde, Beow. 
1596. Arnliotr in Hervarars. has league-boots, like the ogre in 
Petit poucet; they denote the swift pace of the giant, hence 
Diut. 1, 403: 'hine fuor der herre, ilende also ein rise duot 



1444 



GIANTS. 



(speeding as a giant doth), der zuo loufe smen muot ebene hat 
gesetzet/ 

p. 5o5.] Curious old strndnres are ascr. to giants or heathens : 
' enta burg, rison burg/ Elene 31, p. xxii. Even Tristan's cave 
of love is called a giant's huildlng, Tristr. 419, 18; conf. ' etenes 
bi old dayn had wrought it,' the house in the ground, where 
Tristan and Isolde lay, Tristrem 3, 17. Hunen-wdlle are pointed 
out betw. Etteln and Alfen (Paderboru). The Orientals attrib. 
old buildings to a people called Ad, Hammei-'s Rosenol 1, 3G ; the 
Celtic legends to Finn. All those large cairns, and remarkable 
peaks like St. Michael's Mount and the Tors, are the work of 
giants. Pausanias ii. 25, 7 mentions a KUKXcoirooy epyov, dpyayv 
XtOcov, the smallest of which a pair of mules could not move. 

Ti/rrhenians build towers (Suppl. to 522 end). In 0. Fr. 

poems the builders are giants or heathen Sarrasins or famous 
men of old: la roche au jaiant, Guitecl. 1, 90. 158; un jaiant le 
ferma qui Fortibiaus ot nom, Renaus 177, 7; Sarrasins build, 
Garin in Mone's HS. 219. 251; el mur Sarrazinor, Albigeois 
68-35; el jjaZa/s montent que firent Sarrasin, Garin 1, 88; la 
tor est forte de luevre as Sarrasins 2, 199 ; croute que firent 
Sarasins 1, 57-9; as grans fenestres que f. S., Mort de Garin p. 
146. Gain builds a tower, Ogier 6644-66; rocJie Oayn, Garin 1, 
93-4 ; or the giant's building is traced to Jul. Cmsar, to Gonstan- 
tine, Garin (Paris 2, 53). Chron. fontan. (Pertz 2, 284) ; conf. 

the work by Jul. Ccesar in Thietmar 6, 39. A legend of the 

great cauldron which the giants were 20 years digging in silence, 
is told in Halbertsma's Tongvallen p. 54-5. Stone-heaps in the 
woods the Finn calls hiiden pesiit, giants' nests or beds, Kurl. 
send. 1, 47; a giant's bed already in II. 2, 783. The brazen 
dorper is like the huge metal figure that stands on a bridge with 
a rod of steel, barring the passage, Dietr. drach. 57". 61"''; old 
Hildebrand says, Mch klag ez dem der uf der briicken stdt ' 62"; 
they all misdoubt the monster 68*^. 74-5 : ' der alter groeste viez 
(rhy. liez), daz in der tiufel wiirge ! er was groz unt dabi lane, 
sin muot was ungetriuwe; er si lebende oder tot, er ist ein rehter 
boesevviht,' be he alive or dead, he is a bad one 83^'' (on viez, see 
Grauim. 1, 187). 

p. 538.] The Gothland hoghergs-guhhe must have got his 
name fr. Huherg in the I. of Gothland, Molb. Tidskr. 4, 189. In 



GIANTS. 1445 

Esthonian legend blocks of granite are Tuihu's maidenx' apron- 
dtones (Kallewi neitsi polle kiwwid, Possarfc p. 177). What was 
told of giants, is told of the devil : Onco upon a time, say the 
men of Appenzel and the Black Forest, the devil was flying over 
the country with a sackful of huts : the sack happened to tear, 
and out fell a cottage here and a cottage there, and there they 
be to this blessed hour, Schreibor's Taschenb. '41, p. 158. 

p. 540.] Eaters of flesh give place to soioers of corn, hunters to 
husbandmen, Klemra 2, 25. Giants consider themselves the old 
viasters of the land, live up in the castle, and look down upon the 
peasant, Haltrich 198. In the I. of Usedora they say (Kuhn in 
Jahrb. d. Berl. ges. f. d. spr. 5, 24G) : ' en risen-mJiken hiitt auk mal 
enen knecht met twei ossen unnen haken (plough) in are schurte 
(her apron) packt, wil iir dat liitte %v6rm durt hatt (because she 
pitied),' etc. Similar stories of the eartli-worms who crowd out 
the giants are told in many parts of Sweden, Dyb. 1842. 2, 3. 
4, 40. '44. p. 105. '45. pp*^, 15. 97. '47. p. 84. Raiif's Osterg. 
33; in Sodermanland, Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 506; in Schleswig, 
Miillenh. p. 279 ; in the Mark, Hpt 4, 392; in Westphalia, Fir- 
men. 1,322; in S. Germany, Bader nos. 375.387. Panzer 2, 
G5 ; couf. Walach. march, p. 283. 

p. 541.] Stories of the giant clearing out his shoe or shuki)i(j 
the sand ont of his holsken (wooden shoes) are in the Ztschr. d. 
Osnabr. ver. 3, 230-5. Firmen. 1, 274\ The giant feels three 
grains in his shoe. Hone's Daybk, 2, 1025. Dutch tales to the 
same purpose in Halbertsma's Tongvallen p. 55-6. 

p. 543.] Near Duclair (on the Seine, towards Normandy) 
stands ' la chaire de Gargantua : I'etre mysterieux qui I'occupait 
pendant la nuit devait ctre un gcant, que les peuples ont personi- 
fie sous le nom de Gargantua,' Revue archeol. xiv. an., p. 214. 
On G., conf. Bosquet pp. 177. 182. 193-4; with his seat conf. 
devil's pulpits and their legends. 

p. 541-.] Giants fling hammers at each other, Miillenh. no. 
586. Panzer pp. 104. 114. Firmen. 1, 302. Raiif p. 38. 
Hiinen plaij at howls, Bait. stud. xii. 1, 115, like the heroes in the 
mount (p. 953), like Thurr (p. 545) and the angels (p. 953 n.). 
Another Westph. story of giants baking bread, Firmen. 1, 302. 
372 ; they throw tobacco-pipes to each other, and knock the ashes 
out 1, 273. A giant is pelted with stones or cheeses, KM. no. 20. 



1446 GIANTS. 

Dyb. 4, 46. Cavall. 1, 3. 9; conf. the story from Useclom (Kulin 
in Jrb. d. Bevl. ges. f. d. spr. 5. 246). A captive giant is to be let 
go when he's pulled all the hair off a cow's hide, but he mayn't 
pluck more than one hair in 100 years, Wieselgi'en 459. 

p. 549.] Similar huildiiig stories in Miillenh. nos. 410-2. 
Faye p. 13. A Bavainan tale of the giant builder, in which a 
hammer is hurled, Ober-bair. arch. 5, 316-7. A horse brings the 
stones, like Svad'llfari, Haltricli 29 ; conf. old Bayard at Cologne 
cathedral. 

p. 551.] The giantesses spin like the fays, even giants spin, 
Firmen. 1, 323. In the Olafssaga Olaf fights the margygr, and 
brings away her hand as trophy, Fornm. sog. 4, 56-7-8. Med- 
hearded Olaf is called Olafr liSsiarpr a Jidr 4, 38. His pipuga 
sl'dgg could also be explained as the Dan. pip-shidg, first beard. 

p. 552 n.] Instead of the words in Danske v. 1, 223 the 
Ivtimpe V. 155 has : sprang til f in te-sten lede og sorte. In Norske 
ev. 1, 37. 2, 28 (new ed. 162. 272) : flyve i flint, with anger. 
Norw. Lapp, gedgom, I turn to stone, am astounded. MHG. 
luurde ich danne zuo eime stehie, Herb. 8362 ; conf. ille vir in 
medio /i<?i amoi-e lapis, Propert. ii. 10, 48. Conversely : in haeten 
sine grozen liste uz eime herten steine getragen, Mor. 1562. 
Many Swed. tales of giants whom the fii'st beam of sunrise turns 
into stone, Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 503-4. Cavall. 27. Norske ev. 162. 
The mighty king Watzmann is believed to be a petrified giant, 
Panz. Beitr. 1, 216. Frau Hiitt turns into stone because she has 
rubbed herself with crumbs, DS. no. 233; people sink into the 
ground because they've trod on a wheaten roll, Giesebrecht's 

Bait. stud. 12, 126. Esp. are a hride and bridegroom often 

turned into stone, DS. no. 229. Miillenh. pp. 108-9. 595. 
Giesebr. Bait. stud. 12, 114-5. 126, These 'bride-stones' are 
also known to Norweg. legend, Faye p. 4 ; nay, we find them 
in France in the noce petrifiee, Michelet 2, 17, and even in the 
Wallach. march. 117. Once a shepherd, his sheepdog and slieep 
were changed into stone by frau Wolle, because he had rejected 
her petition for bread, Somm. p. 11. The Wallachians have a 
similar story of an old woman, her son and her sheep, Schott 
114-5; so have the Servians, Vnk's Wtb. p. 15'\ Heinr. v. Her- 
ford ad ann. 1009 relates after Will, of Malmesb. (ace. to Vincent 
25, 10) how people in a Saxon village disturb the Christmas festi- 



GIANTS. 1447 

val by sino-iiif^ nnd dancing in a churchynrJ, and liow tho priest 
dooms them to dance a whole year; in time they siidc up to their 
hips iu tho ground, till at tho end of tho year tliey are absolved 
by his Grace of Cologne. Tho placo is in some MSS. called 
CoJovize ; surely these are the men of Golbcke who danced with 
what they took for stones, DS. no. 232. A 15th cent, version of 
tho story iu Altd. bl. 1, 54-5. 

p. 553.] Stromj Jack is sometimes named der starke Ilannel 
(perh. Ilermel), Siegthal p. 106. Finn. Iliisi, gen. Hiiden, Hii- 
denpoika = wild man of the woods, giant, Salrael. 1, 242. Lapp. 
Wddda, Eiita is a malign deity, Suomi '44 p. 30. The Esth. 
tale of KaUewepoe(j is given more fully in Poss. Estl. p. 174-5. 
Lonrot, who has collected from GO to 70 giant- stories, relates in 
Kruse's Urgesch. p. 177: In the sea near Abo stands a hugo 
slone, which tho Finn, giant Ktdcvanipoihi hurled at tho firnt 
cliinrh that was built. He was going to the church himself, when 
be met a man with a sackful of worn shoes, and asked him how 
much farther it was. The man said, 'Ton see, I've worn all 
these shoes through on my way.' Then K. took up the stone and 
slung it, but it missed the mark and fell into the sea. 

p. 555.] ON. ' iotunn sa er Brusi heti, hann var mikit troll ok 
mann-aeta,' Fornm. s. 3, 214, OHG. raan-ezzo, MHG. man-ezze ' 
(p. 520 n.), AS. mon-a3ta, Lith. vyrede, viros edens. The Poly- 
phemus legend is widely diffused, e.g. Sinbad on his third voyage 
punches out the eye of a man-eating giant ; conf. the story of 
Eigill, Nilsson 4, 33. MiiUer's Sagenbib. 2, G12. As the Oghu- 
zian cyclop takes the arrow for a gnat, so in our Ring p. 241 : 
'ich waen, mich hab ein fleug gestochen.' Similar tales in Konr. 
v. Wiirzbg, MS. 2, 205". Altd. w. 3, 178; esp. coarse is the ver- 
sion in the Leipzig MS., Altd. bl. 1, 122—7. For the giant, later 
stories substitute a murderer, Moneys Anz. '37, 399. 400 ; a ruh- 
ber, AVal. march, p. 167-8-9. Poets of the 13th cent, make 12 
schachEere (robbers) enter the dwelling of a tnrs, who eafs up 11 
of them, MSS. 2, 331"'. Ou the merciful giantess, conf. p. 1008. 

p. 556.] A giant gets hlgrjer as he rises out of tho ground, 
and siimUer as he sinks in again, Miillenh. p. 266. Giants often 
take the shape of an eagle (p. 633), e.g. Hrajsvelgr, Suttilngr, 
Thiazi, Sn. 80-1 ; they are born as wolves 13. The story of tho 
Hying giantess trespasses ou Beast-legend, Upt'a Ztschr. 4, 502-3. 



1448 CREATION. 

p. 557.] Our Court-poets have preserved here and there a 
genuine feature of the folklore about giants : Tristan taking the 
giant's Jiaiid with him (16195) is like Beowulf bringing away 
Grendel's, Again, the old giant-father carrying the heroes up a 
hill (Daniel in Bartsch xxviii.) occurs not only in Hero-legend, 
but in Folktale, Mlillenh. p. 266. Then, the giants of the 
Trutmunt in Goldemar carry long poles, Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 521 ; 
Runze swings a tree over his shoulder, Wolfd. 510 ; one giant is 
named Boumgarte 493, 3. Asperian is styled the giants' spile- 
man, Eoth. 2161. In Lancelot 17247 seq. are noticed the 
giants' ogen verTceren, tanden criselen, lioft qnelcen. A giant couple 
in Ecke 7 (Hagen 5, 8) bear the names vro Eilte and her Grime, 
conf. Grimr and Hildr, Vilk. saga c. 16. Note the giants' 
names in Dietr. drach., Glockenhoz, Fidehistoz, Rilmedeniualt, 
Schelledenwalt, Bltterhuch, Bitterhriit, Hohermuot, Klingelholt ; a 
Grandengrus, Grandgriis 118'*. 126'' looks Romance, like Grand- 
gosier (great gullet) in Gargantua. Wolfes-mage (-maw) reminds 
of the manservant Wolves-darm (-gut) in Helbl, 1, 372, and of 
the Ssk. Urkodara (wolf's belly), Hitzig 308. Norse names : 
Ruth i Shut, Rolf i Topp, Hand i Handol, Elling, Staff, Dyb. ■'45, 
97-9 (see p. 557). The connexion between giants and gods has 
been pointed out, Suppl. to p. 531. 



CHAPTER XIX. 
CREATION. 

p. 558 n.] Conf. Idnent werden (p. 746 n.) ; zekein, Wernh. v. 
Niederrh. 11, 18. Schelling takes chaos to be the Roman 
Jawws = hianus, after Festus sub v. chaos. The material sense 
is also found in the expressions * ingunnen werden,' secari, N. 
Arist. 95; ' siti ingunnen' cloven, Diemer 97, 26; M. Neth. 
ontginnen, secare, Fergut 3461. 3565; conf. Hpt's Ztschr. 8, 
18—20. 

p. 559.] For the notion of creating, the AS. has the word 
frumsceaft, prima creatio : God h frumsceafta fred, Csedm, 195,9. 
The Gothic renders Kriaa by gashifts. On our schopfen, bilden, 
bilde giezen, see p. 23 : waere ich nie gehildet, had I never been 
shapen, Tit. 3283. Creature in the Bible is in OHG. hant-tat, 



CREATION. 1449 

manii factum, N. Ps. 18, 2; MUG. hanf-gefnf. Haug thinks 

Ymir the Pers. Gajomars, Giitt. Anz. '53, p. 19G0. The birth 
from ftft or legs seems to be remembered in an O. Fr. poem : 
Fanncl, whom his mother had conceived out of the smell of 
flowers, touches his thirjh with a knife that had just cut an apple; 
the thigh conceives and bears St. Anne; conf. Brahma's creation 
(p. 571). Ukko yuinala rubs his hands, presses them on his left 

knee, and makes three maidens, Kalevala 9, 39 — 4i. Giants 

come before the Ases (p. 530-2) ; the vala sings, 'ek man iot)i(i 
dr ofborna,' Saem. 1*; and Saxo divides matheraatici into (1) 
(jigantes, (2) 7na^i = Ases, (3) homines. The Indians say the cojv 
is mother of the vjorhl, and must not be killed, Holtzm. Ind. 
sagen 1, 05. Of Bur's three sons, who create man, it is said in 
Sasni. 1'': hio&am ypto, orbes extulerunt, they set on high the 
globes of heaven (p. 701). 

p. 5G0n.] The Indian myth also accepts a creation out of the 
egg, heaven and earth being eggshells, Somadeva 1, 10; conf. 
the birth of Helen and the Dioscuri out of eggs. 

p. 561.] Ash- and EmJiJa are known as Es and Imlia among 
the Yenisei Ostiaks, Castren's Reise in Sibirien. The division 
into ond, offr and Id ok Utr is also found in Plutarch 4, 1154: 
* spirit, soul and body.' 

p. 5G1.] To giants, men appear as dwarfs : they nickname us 
earthworms, and the giant's daughter takes the ploughman for a 
worm or beetle (p. 54-0). As dwarfs are made out of maggots in 
the Edda, so are men out of ants in Ov. Met. 7, G42 ; conf. the 
way bees are brought to life (p. G96). As fire is generated by 
rubbing wood, so are anitnals by ridibing the materials (Suppl. to 
1100). Hiisi makes an eJg out of various stuffs, Kalev. 7, 32 seq. 

p. 567.] The two AS. accounts of the crention of man (p. 565, 
text and note) derive blood from fire, whereas the Emsig Code 
derives it from water, as the Edda conversely does water from 
blood. '\lhe eight imr Is vi ere known to the Indians also (Suppl. 

to 571. The Fris. heli, ON. heili = brain, resembles Lat. 

coelum, Gr. koLXt) kolXlu, GDS. 681. Godfrey of Viterbo's com- 
parison of the head to the sky, of the eyes to the lights of heaven 
is repeated in Walther 54, 27 : Mr houbct ist so wiinnenrich, als 
ez una liimel welle sin, da liuhtent zwene sterncn abe ; ' and in 
MS. 2, 189'' the eyes are called stars; conf. hiinmel nnd gaiime, 



1450 CREATION. 

Hpt^s Ztsclir. 5, 541. A tear (tlirane) is called in MHG. mers 

trail, wages tran, Gramm. 1, 170. The Edda accounts for tlie 
taste of sea-water bj the grinding of salt out of the quern Grotti. 
A tear bites, like salt ; BuKpv, lacruma [and tehero, teai-as, zahre] 
comes from dak, to bite. The Etym. magn. 564, 45 says : Evi^o- 
plcov Be j3vvT]v TTjv ddXaaaav Xeyef olov — nTo\vrpo(^a SaKpva 
l3uvT]<; — TOL'9 aXw; ^ovXafievo^ elirelv. Bup7] = ^Ivco, GDS. 300. 

p. 570n.] An Esth. song in Herder p. m. 112 tells of one 
who shaped him a wife out of wood, gilded her face, aud silvered 
her shoulders. The Egyptian notion as to the origin of the first 
man comes very near that of the Bible : Ptah or Neph is picto- 
rially repres. ' turning the clay for the human creation,^ Wilkin- 
son's Egyptians p. 85. 

p. 570.] Another Ind. story of the creation in Suppl. to 560 n. 
The Pers. doctrine is, that heaven and fire were first created, 
then mountains, then plants, then beasts. From the horns of the 
first ox sprang fi'uits, from his blood grapes, etc., Gorres 1, 
232-3. The description of Atlas in Ovid's Met. 4, 657 agrees 
with the Teutonic myth of creation far more closely than the 
notion current among the Greeks. He lets Atlas be converted 
into a mountain-chain : hair supplies the forest, his shoulders 
and arms the hills, his head the summit, his bones the stones. 

p. 571.] The older Ind. myth makes the great spirit, onahdn 
atma, produce the first man out o^ water ; Prometheus too forms 
men of earth axidi water, Lucian's Prom. 13; ace. to Horace, 
Od. i. 16, 13, he tempers the given ' limus ' with every possible 
ingredient, conf. Babr. QQ. The Greenlanders think the first 
man was made of earth, and the first woman of his thumb, Klemm 
2, 313, as Eve was of Adam's rib ; so Dakshus was pulled out of 
Brahma's toe (Suppl. to 559). The eight parts occur even in the 
Eigveda, Kuhn in Hofer 1, 288. 

p. 573.] For analogies in language between man and tree, see 
Pott's Zilhl-meth. 234 — 6. Ash' and other masc. names of trees 
indicate man, and femin. names woman. Aslcr, Embla begin 
with the same vowels as Adam, Eve; conf. Es, Imlia (Suppl. to 
561). 

The term liid-stam, nation, is taken wholly from the vegetable 
kingdom, Otfr. iii. 12, 7. Plants and rocks are not dead, they 
speak : Bpvb<i kuI Trerpa? uKovetv, Plato's Phsedr. 275. Men 



CREATION. 



1451 



arise out of trees and stones or mud : O mxis niinirum et rohore 
iijiti, Stat. Theb. 4, 339 ; qui, rujito rohore nati, compositive Into, 
nulloshabuereparentes, Juven. 0, 12 (conf. dieleiniiueu, p. 5G9n.). 
IMcMi <,n-o\v out of lyines iu Nouuus (Reiuli. Kohler, Halle '53, 
]!. 21-) ; jCi werdent solich lent von homen nit geborn, Wolkenst. 
Gl ; siiier spiez-genoze sweimet einer von dem ohcrden hirhouine, 
Ben. 419 ; ' Where people come from ? think I don't know that? 
they're torn off trees when young,' Ayrer's Fastn. IGO^; not 
sprung from a hazel-hush, Schelmufsky, 1, 51 ; his father was 
drowned on the nut-tree, his mother carried the water up in her 
apron (sieve), Bruckner's Henneberg 17; a child is exposed on 
an ash, and is found there, Marie de Fr. 1, 150 — ^1. In a Finn, 
fairytale a foundling is called puuhaara, tree-branch; conf. our 

Fundevogel on the top of a tree, KM. no. 51. Ace. to Greek 

legend there were only gods at first, the earth bristled with 
forests, till Prometheus made men, Lucian's Prom. 12 ; conf. the 
Prom, legends in Schiitze's Excursus i. to ^sch. Prom.; yet 
Zeus also makes men spring out of the ground for ^acus on 
his lonely isle, Paus. ii. 29, 2. The throwing of stones, which 
turn into men, is descr. in Ov. Met. 1, 411; the stones are 
styled ossa parentis 1, 383. 393, as ^schylus and Sophocles call 
rocks the bones of the earth. This sowing of stones reminds one 
or)nana-seps = \a6^, Koafioq (p. 793). The Saxons, named after 
sahs (saxum), are called in the legend from the Eisenacher 
Pechtbuch in Ortloff p. 700-1 Kieselingc, petrioU ; conf. ' kisila 
irquiken zi manne,' quicken flints into men, 0. i. 23, 47. Giants 
spring out of stone, and spring into stone again (pp. 532-3. 552) : 
'eine, di slug ich aus eime steine,' Fundgr. 2, 518; 'nun sihet 
man wol, dasz er nicht aus einem steine entsprungen ist,' Galmy 
230 ; ' dasz ich ans keineni stein gesprungen/ Schade's Pasq. 76, 
87 ; ' many a man fancies he is sprung from a diamond, and the 
peasant from a flint,' Ettn. Uebamme 15; 'gemacht aus kisling- 
plnt; flint-blood (also, donkey's rib), Fastn. 680, 26. 32. For 
other legends of the origin of nations, see GDS. 780. 

p. 57G.] Ace. to Plato's Symp. 190 B, there were at first three 
sexes : upper, 6i)\v, dvBpojvvop, descended from sun, earth and 
moon. It is an important statement in Gen. 6, 4, that the sons 
of God (men) came in unto the dawihters of men (giantesses). 
Popular legend very remarkably derives dwarfs and subterraneans 



1452 CREATION. 

from the fallen angels, Ir, elfenm. xiii. ; the ' good people ' are 
not born, but dropt out of heaven, Ir. march. 2, 73 ; the same with 
the huldren in Norway, Asb. 1, 29. Thiele 2, 175; while Finn. 
Joh. Hist. eccl. Isl. 2, 368 says of the alfs : * quidam enim a Deo 
immediate et sine parentum interventu, ut spiritus quosdam, 
creates esse volunt; quidam vero ab Adamo, sed anteqnam Eva 
condita fuit, prognatos perhibent.' A N, Frisian story has it, 
that once, when Christ walked upon earth, he blessed a woman's 
five fair children, and cursed the five foul ones, she had hidden; 
from these last are sprung the under grounders, Miillenh. p. 279. 
The same story in Iceland, F. Magnusen's Lex. 842^. Eddalaren 

3, 329. 330. Faye, pref. xxv. The giant too is called valandes 

ham, Trist. 401, 7. Even the devil tries to create {Suppl. to 
1024). The Ind. Visvakarma, like Hepha3stus, fashions a woman 
at Bi-ahma's bidding, Somad. 1, 173. On ages of the world, and 
their several races, conf. Babrius's Prologue, and the statue 
(p. 792 n.). Ovid, in Met. 1, 89 — 127 assumes four ages, golden, 
silver, brass and iron. GDS. 1 — 5. In the age of Saturn the 
earth-born men went naked and free from care, lived on the fruit 
of trees, and talked with beasts, Plato's Politicus 272. 

p. 581.] UaXaiol \6<yoL of deluges {KaraxXva/iol';) are ment. 
by Plato de Leg. 3, 677. The form sin-vluot is still retained in 
Mauritius 692, also sm-fluot in Anegenge 22, 17. 24, 13, but sint- 
vluot already in 25, 18, smt-waege 23, 54, swi^-gewaege 25, 7. 
Luther still says sind-^at, not siindflut. By the flood the race of 
giants is extirpated, Beow. 3377 — 84. As it subsides, three ravens 
are let fly (p. 1140) ; conf. the verses in the Voluspa on the fall- 
ing of the waters : 'falla forsar, flijgr dm yfir, sa er a fialli fiska 

vei^ir,' Sffim. 9''. In the American story of the Flood the 

people likewise take refuge in a ship, and send out animals, the 
beaver, the rat, Klemm 2, 156. DeuJcalions Flood is described 
in Athen. 1, 409 and the first book of Ovid's Metamorphoses; 
conf. Selig Cassel's Deuk. p. 223. 246. In Lucian's account also, 
all the wild beasts are taken into Deukalion's ark, and live in 

peace together, Luc. de Saltat. c. 39. The Indian narrative 

of the Flood is ' taken from the Bible,' thinks Felix Neve (De 
I'orig. de la trad. Ind. du Del., Paris '49) ; the rapid growth of 
the fish resembles that of Jormungandr when thrown into the 
sea, Sn. 32, and of the snake who wishes to be taken to the sea, 



ELEMENTS. 1453 

Kloinin 2, 162; Mauus himself signifies man, Kuhn's Roc. (3. 
Rigveda p. 107. On the other Ind. story, that of Satijdvrataa, 

see Poller's Mythol. des Indous 1, 244 — 7. German tales of a 

great flood are told in Vonbun p. 14 — 16 (conf. p. 982-3). Our 
people still have a belief that destroying water will break out of 
mountains, Panz. Beitr. 1, 276-7. German legend makes the flood 
stream out of the giant's toe, as it does out of Wiiinilmuinon's t( e 
in Runo 3. The dwarf-story from the Rhine district in Finuen. 
2, 49 seems founded on that of L. Thun, US. no. 45 ; the dwarf 
reminds one of the angel who lifts his hand holding a cloth over 
the city, Greg. Tur. 10, 24. 



CHAPTER XX. 

ELEMENTS. 

p. 582.] Before the new gods came, there prevailed a primi- 
tive worship of Nature (p. 335), to which perhaps Caesar's ' Luna, 
Sol, Vulcanus' is to be referred; we know the giants stand for 
primal forces of nature, for fire, air, water, sun, moon, day and 
night, conf. Plato's Cratyl. 397. 408. And long after, in the 
AVarnung 2243 seq., there still breaks out a nature-worship, an 
adoring of the bird's song, of flowers, of grass. All mythologies 
make some gods represent the elements : to the Hindiis Indra 
is god of the air, Varuna of water; to the Greeks Zeus was 
the same thing as aether, aiir. The Persians worshipped the 

elements, not human-shaped gods at all, Herod. 1, 131. The 

Indians admitted Jive elements : fire, water, earth, aether (akusui 
and wind (vaya). The Chinese thought metal an element of its 
own. Galen sets down /o?<r; warm, cold, dry, wet (can we make 
these attributes represent fire, earth, air, water ?). How the four 
elements run into one another, is described in MS. 1, 87"; H. 
Sachs knows ' die vier element,' 1, 255 ; *erde und wazzer nider 
swebet, viur und luft ze berge strebet,' says Frcid. 109. 24; conf. 
Renu. 6115. Animals live in all four : 'swaz get, vliuzet, swebet,' 
MS. 2, 183*. Men bewailed their sorrows to the elements, to 
earth, to fire (p. 642). 

VOL. IV. N 



1454 ELEMENTS. 



1. Water. 



p. 584.] People sacrificed to groves and springs : blota-Si 
lundin, Landn. 3, 17; bl6ta^i /omn 5, 5 (p. 592) ; and Sgem. 44" 
sa.js : heilog votn liloa (calent). The Hessians sacrificed Hignis 
etfontibiis,' Pertz 3, 343. The Samlander and Prussians denied 
the Christians access to groves and springs lest they should 
pollute them, Pertz 9, 375; conf. Helmold 1, 1. Prayer, sacri- 
fice and judgment were performed at the spring, RA. 799. 
' Porro in medio noctis silentio illas (feminas) at7/oji^es aquaru'm 
in orientem affl,uentes juxta hortum domus egressas Herwardus 
percepit; quas statim secutus est, ubi eas eminus colloquentes 
audivit, nescio a quo cnstode fontiiivi responsa et interrogantes et 
expectantes,' Gesta Herw. Saxonis, yr. 1068 (Wright^s Essays 1, 
244. 2, 91. 108. Michel's Chron. Anglonorm. 2, 70). An Engl, 
song has 'I the wel woke/ Wright's Ess. 1, 245; this is the 
ceremony of waking (watching by) the well. On the Bode in the 
Harz they still offer a hlack hen (?) to the river-god. Before 
starting the first waggonload from the harvest field, they throw 
three ears into a running stream ; or if there is none, they throw 
three ears into the oven-fire before the waggon enters the stack- 
yard; if there was no fire, they light one. This is a Bavai'ian 
custom, Panz. Beitr. 2, 213. In Hartlieb's book of all Forbidden 
Arts we read that lighted tapers are set in front of water drawn 
from three running streams before sunrise, and man legt clem, 
tvasser ere an, sam Gott selber (see p. 586). The Romans 
cherished the like reverence for water: 'flumini Rheno pro salute,' 
De Wal. no. 232 ; genio loci et Rheno pro salute,' no. 233 ; ' deus 
Rheni,' no. 234. They greeted the bath with hare head on enter- 
ing and quitting it, and placed votive gifts by the side of springs, 
Rudorff's Ztschr. 15, 216; they had even ministri fontis 15, 217. 

p. 585.] As pncnno comes from prinnan to burn, the Romans 
spoke of torrens aqua, from torrere to broil : ' subita et ex abdito 
vasti amnis eruptio aras liabet,' Seneca's Ep. 41; conf. the context 
in Rudrs Zts. 15, 214. It is said of St. Furseus (d. 650) : ' fixit 
haculum suum in terram, et mox bullivit fons magnus,' Acta 
Bened. p. 321. The divine steersman in the Frisian Asegabuch, 
on touching land, /iw^5 an axe into the turf, and a spring bursts 
up, Richthofen 440. A horse's hoof scrapes open a well (Suppl. 



WATER. 1455 

to G64. n.). Brooks gush out of Achelous's ox-hcnd, Sopli. Trach. 
14. A well springs out of an ass's jawbone, Judg. 15, 19. 'D6 
spranc ein brunne sa ze stete uz der diirren molten/ Servatius 
1382, when the thirsting saint had 'made a cross.' A spring 
rises where a maiden has fallen down, Panz. Beitr. 1, 198. A 

giantess produces water by another method, Sn. (1848) 1 , 2SG. 

The Finns have three rivers formed out of tears, Kalev. 31, 190 ; 
healing fountains rise from the sweat of a sleeping giant, Kalevi- 
poeg 3, 87-9. Tiherimis is prettily described in Claudian's Prob. 
et Olybr. 209 — 265 ; * Rhenus projeda torpnit nrna,' in his Rufin. 
1, 133. The nymph holds in her right a marhle howl, out of 
which runs the source of the rivulet, Opitz 2, 262 ; she jjoiirs the 
Zacken 263, where the poet uses the phrase ' sprlnrj-kammcr der 
flUsse'; so in Hebel pp. 12. 38 the baby Wiese lies in silver 
cradle in her crystal closet, in hidden chamber of the rode. At 
Stabburags well and grotto (Selburg diocese) the people see a 
spinning maiden who weaves veils for brides, Kruse's Urgesch, 
pp. 51. 169. 171. OHG. Minga, chl!nhl = tovrens and nympha ; 
conf. nixe, tocke (p. 492 n.) . 

p. 586.] At the restoration of the Capitol it is said of the 
Vestals : aqua vlvis e fontibus amnibusq^ie hausta perluere, Tac. 
Hist. 4, 53. Springs that a saint has charmed out of the ground, 
as Servatius by his prayer, have healing power : ' die mit dehei- 
nen seren (any pains) waren gebunden, genade die funden ze 
demselben urspringe,' Servat. 1390. Such medidnal springs 
were sought for with rushes, out of which flew a spark, Ir. milroh. 
2, 76-7. The notion that at holy seasons watrr titrns info wiiir, 
prevails in Scandinavia too, Wieselgr. 412. Wells out of which 
a saint draws yield wine, Miillenh. p. 102-3 ; so in Bader no. 338 
wine is drawn out of a spring. The well loses its healing power 
when an ungodly man has bathed his side horse in it, Miillenh. 
no. 126; the same after a noble lady has washed her litfle blind 
dog in it, N. Pr. prov. bl. 2, 44. On the contrary, fountains be- 
come holy by goddesses bathing in them, e.g. those in which Sita 
bathed, see beginn. of Meghadiita. Whoever has drunk of the 
well of Reveillou in Normandy, must return to that coimtry, Bos- 
quet 202. 

p. 587.] Holy water is only to be drawn in vessels that cannot 
stand, but must hang or be carried, and not toudi the ground. 



1456 ELEMENTS. 

for if set down they tip over and spill every drop (so the pulled 
plant, the fallen tooth, is not to touch the ground, Suppl. to 
658 n.). Such a vessel, futile, was used in the worship of Ceres 
and Vesta, Serv. ad ^n. 11, 339. Schol. Cruq. ad Hor. AP. 
231. Forcell. sub v.; and by the Scots at the Well of Airth, 
where witnesses were examined. Hone's Daybk 2, 686, 867, 
Metal vessels of the Wends, which cannot stand, have been found 
in several places. Bait. stud. 11, 31-3-7. 12, 37. The Lettons, in 
sacrificing, durst not touch the goblet except with their teeth, 
Hpt's Ztschr. ], 145. The hot springs at Therraopylas were 
called %uT/3ot = ollae, Herod. 7, 176; conf. olla Vulcani. 

HeUcbrunno, 'M'B. 28^, 63; heilicpruuno 1\, 109. heilighrunno, 
29% 96. HeUchnino, Chart. Sithiense p. 113. . Hellchninno, a 
brook in the Netherl., Waitz's Sal. ges. 55. On Heilbronn, see 
Eudorffs Ztschr. 15, 226; conf. nohiles fontes 15, 218. ' Helgi 
at Helgavatni,' Landn. 2, 2: Helgavatn, JJr&arvatn 3, 2.3. 
Other prob. holy springs are Pholeshrunno (p. 226), Gozeshrunno 
(Suppl. to 368). A Swed. song names the Helge TJiors kdlla in 
Smaland, fr. which water is drawn on Holy Tlinrsday night to 
cure blindness. Others are enumer. in Miillenh. p. 595. Mary 
is called 'alles lieiles ein Inter bach' or ' heiJes bach' Altswert 98, 
23. 73. When the angel had troubled the water in the pool of 
BethesJa, whosoever then first stept in was made whole, John 5, 
4. Rivers were led over graves and treasures (p. 251-2 n.). 

p. 588.] A youth-restoring fountain is drunk of in May before 
sunrise, Tit. 6053. Another jungbrunnen in the poem of Abor, 
Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 6. 7 and one in Wigamur 1611-5 by a limetree. 
M. Neth. joocht-borre, youth-bourn, Horae Belg. 6, 223. The eagle 
renews his youth at a fountain ' cliocli-iyrunnen/ Karajan 32, 12. 
98, 5 ; conf. Griesh. Pred. 1, 29. 

p. 590.] More about Scandin. 'pilgrimages to springs in Wie- 
selgr. 389. 411. A Span, song tells of picking flowers on the 
Guadalquivir on Midsiim. morn, Hone's Daybk 1, 851. At War- 
saw, June 24, the girls throw wreaths of roses into the Vistula, 
and watch with joy or sadness their various ways of floating down 
the stream. This resembles the Midsum. custom of the Cologne 
women descr. by Petrarch, which Braun also in No. 23 of the 
Rhein. Jrb. traces to Christianity. The Schweiz. arch. 4, 87 says 
Petrarch first came to Germany in 1356, but his letter describing 



WATER. ll-")? 

the ceremony is dated 1330; in 1327 lie saw Laura at Avij^non, 
and then set out on his tour while yet a youth. Whom does he 
mean by the Kpiritiis j^ierii of the Rhenish city ? Alb. jMagnus 
lived and taught at Cologne, but died in 1280; his pupil Thomas 
of Aquino also taught there for a time. Duns Scotus came to C. 
in 1308, and died there; Meister Eckhart (d. 1329) was at C, so 
was his pupil Tauler. The University was not founded till 1388. 

p. 590 n.] Stieler p. 1402 mentions the following Easter 
custom: * llabent Borussi wcvhum scJimaJi-odeni, qnod significat 
obviam quarto post tres dies Paschales oriente die venientes 
virgis caedere, sicut juventus nostra facit quarto post ferias Nata- 
litias die, et kindelen vocaut in memoriam innocentium pucrorum. 
schviach Borussis ferulam notat.' It is really more correct to 
derive the word from smagac, to flog (see Weinhold in Aufr. and 
Kuhn 1, 255) than from smigust, ablution. Easter rods adorned 
with many-coloured ribbons are called schnach-ostern, Jrb. d. 
Bcrl. ges. f. d. spr, 10, 228-9. In Moravia schmeck-ostern, Kulda 
(d'Elv.) 114. Weinhold's Schles. w. 85 distinguishes between 
scJtmag-ostcr and dijiigns. 

p. 591.] In Norman stories, springs run Jr\j when misfortune 
is nigh. Bosquet 201. Salt and medicinal springs dry up as soon 
as money is asked for them, Athen. 1, 288. A countryman died 
of consumption after a cool draught from a spring; and immedi- 
ately it ceased to flow, Hpt's Ztschr. 3, 361 . When a new spring 
breaks out, it is a sign of dearth, ibid. By the rising ov falling of 
water in the Tilsgraben the inhabitants foretell a good or bad 
harvest, Harrys no. 2; conf. Miillenh. p. 104. When Wartha 
flats in Werra-dale have gone nuflooded six years running, the 
farmer can eat off silver the seventh year, they say (Again : when 
the beaver builds his castle high, the water that year will run 
high too, Dobel's Pract. 1, 36'^). In Styria the hungerhrunncn 
are also called hungerlaken. Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 43. At different 
periods the Nile had to rise different heights— 22, 10, 14 or 12 
yards [?] — to meet the wants of the country, Herod. 2, 13. 
Strabo p. 788. Pliny 5, 10. Parthey's Plut. on Isis and Os. p. 2 13. 

p. 592.] Whirlpool is in OHG. snarl, sjiirhil = yoviex, GralF 
G, 897; szm/m = vorago in aqua, G, 873; huerho 4, 1237. Gr. 
'X^dpvl3Si,<;, Pott in Kuhn 5, 255. Scrv. kolocrat, vortex (lit. 
wheel-turn) and huk, waterfall's roar (bukati, mugire). ' aitwindo 



1458 ELEMENTS. 

(vel storm) = gurges, eedewiude = vortex,' Vocab. ms. Yratisl, ; 
aitveinda = gurges, Diefenb, 271^. Finn, 'korvalle tulinen koskeii 
pjhiiu wirran pyortelielle/ lie went to the finj ivaterfall (Sw. eld- 
tors), to the holy flood's whirl, Kalev. 1, 1*77; conf. 6, 92. 7, 785. 

794-8. 17,101.314. 22,10. 26,198. Waterfall is in OHG. 

uazarcJdmga = njmY>ha,, Graff 4, 504; wazard iezo = nymTpha, 5, 237. 
wazzerdurh? uenster? cataracta. Trier, ps. 41, 11. Windb. ps. 
41, 11 ; laufen. Staid. 1, 444. Gr. Blvo<i and Bivr]. The passage 
in Plutarch's C^sar stands : iroTajjiSiv Slvai'i koX pevfiuTcov iXiy- 
fi,ol<i KoX ■\^6(^oL<i. Homer has irorafio'; dpyvpo-Slvij'i, II. 21, 130; 
he pictured waterfalls as horses flying headlong : ')^apuhpai, piovaat 
e^ opicov iirl Kap 16, 392. 'Tis a being below stirs up the whirl- 
pool, Leopr. 106; Loki dwells in Franangrs-fors, Ssem. 68. Sn. 
69. At the Donau-strudel a spectre gives warning of death, 
Ann. Altahens., yr 1045; conf. the women in the Nibelg. 

p. 596.] The Greek rain-goddesses are the Hours, who guard 
the cloud-gate of Olympus, opening or shutting, and by rain an^ 
sunshine ripen the fruits. The Hora has a goblet, which she 
rinses at the fountain, Theocr. 1, 150. Men also sacrificed to 
Zeus and Hera, when short of rain. Pans. ii. 25, 8. Ge (earth) 
is repres. in a picture, imploring Zeus for rain 1, 24. The Lith. 
diewaitis is god of thunder, dewaite sziventa goddess holy, g. of 
rain. The Esths call hoarfrost * mother of mist,' Bocler 147. In 
Germany, as late as the 13th cent., dew was honoured as a bene- 
volent being, Parz. 748, 28 : * geert si luft unde ton, daz hiute 
morgen uf mich reis.' Dew drips from the manes of airy steeds : 
of Hrimfaxi, Ssem. 32^^; of the valkyria's horse 145*^ (conf. p. 

641). The ceremony reported by Burchard is also quoted in 

M one's Gesch. des heident. 2, 417 from Martin's Relig. des 
Gaules. The Servian and (ace. to Schott) Wallachian custom of 
uTajjpirig round reminds me of the Hyperborean votive ofi'erings 
wrapt in ears of corn and carried by two virgins, Herod, 4, 33. 
Creuzer 2, 117. Were the maidens themselves wrapt up? and 
can the five 7rep(f}€pee<i who escorted them be conn, with the rain- 
maiden's name Tropirripovvat conf. GDS. 865. In the new ed. of 
Vuk's Diet, the dance and rain-song are called prporyshe and the 
leader inpatz. When a priest touched the fountain with an oaken 
bough, the rain-cloud rose out of it, Paus. viii. 38, 3 ; so the 
French maire dips his foot in the well of Barenton. In Algeria, 



WATER. 1459 

whea there is a long drought, they throw a few Marabouts into 
the river, like the Bavarian water-bird, GDS. 5t. Kl. schr. 2, 
445 seq. 

p. 598.] Nero was going to measure the Alcyonic lake with 
ropes, Pans. ii. 37, 5. The story in Thiele 3, 73 about sounding 
the lake is Swed. also, Runa '44, 33. L. Wetter cries : ' milt min 
liingd ! ' Wieselgr. 459. On the Esth. worship of water, conf. 
Kreutzwald's Pref. to Kalewipoeg xii., and his and Neu's Myth, 
lieder 113; at 114 occurs the hauling up of a goat's skull. 

p. GO I.] To the river is sacrificed (pp. 45. 494) a reindeer, 
Castren's Reise 342. In wading through clear water you utter 
a prayer, Hesiod's Erga 735 ; in crossing a river you take an 
auqndum, Rudortf 25, 218. Water-ordeals in the Rhine, RA. 
935; conf. the Fontinalia, UxxdS 15,221. Lake and river are 
often personified: in Irish fairytales (1, 86 — 89. 2, 144 — 152) 
the lake is lod out, and is carried away in a many-cornered cloth. 
'Three loud laughs the river gave,' Fleming 373. There is a 
myth of a wood or mountain sprite, who scatters rivers into dust. 
Praetor. Katzenveit p. 102 — 6; conf. the stieheiule hrugge, Habsb. 
urbar. 94, 4, i.e. a devil's bridge. In Denmark, on the approach 
of spring, they say of a god or genius : 'kaster en ivarm steen i 
vandet,' F. Magnusen's Lex. 958 ; do they mean Thor ? 

Curiously the MB. 13, 18. 42 speaks of an Adalbero filius 
Danubii; 13, 90 Alberus filius Banuhii ; 13, 96 Gozwinus de 
Danuhio, Albertus et Engelbertus de Danubio. And the Saale, 
Neckar, Lahii, Leine are introd. as persons (p. 494 and iSuppl.) ; 
conf. Hebel's personific. of the Wiese. 

With the notion of ouwe, eci conf. AS. /to?»i=mare profundum, 
though ON. hohur means insula, and OS. holm even coUis. The 
Celts too had holy islands, Mone's Heident. 2, 377 — 380. 

Our meer (sea), neut., though Goth, marei and OS. mart are 
both fem., OHG. meri, m. and n., has in it something divine : 
et? aKa Slav, Od. 11, 2 and elsewhere. Ocean is in Lettic deewa 
■uppe, God's river, Bergm. 66. To the sea men sacrificed : * nostri 
quidem duces mare iugredientes immolare hostias fiuctibus con- 
sueveruut,' Cic. de Nat. D. 3, 20. Homer furnishes it with a 
back, va)T09, which need not imply a beast's figure, for even OHG. 
has ' mers buosen, mers barm,' bosom, Grafi" 3, 154. It can be 
angry with men : daz wiide mer ist mir gram. En. 7659 ; das 



1460 



ELEMENTS. 



wasser gram, das hose mev, Diocl. 7336; de sture se, Partonop. 95, 
27. It is wild, it storms and raves: saevum mare, Tac. Hist. 
4, 52; iiber den ivilden se, MS. 1, 72^; daz luilde mer, Troj. kr. 
6922, etc.; des wilden wages fluot, Gerh. 3966, etc.; daz tuhende 
mer, Troj. kr. 5907, etc. ; daz xviietunde mer, Servat. 3260, etc. ; 
la mer hetee, Ogier 2816, Prov. 'mar hetada,' Rayn. sub v.; de 
ruskende see, Uhl. Volksl. 200-1 ; das wibende ivahende wasser, 
Garg. Ill; sid wjBter, Ctedm. 7, 2. The Fris. salt, like aM, 
means both salt and sea, Ssk. lavanamhhas, mare salsum, Welsh 
hallfor, salt sea, Ir. muir salmhar, AS. sealt weeter, Cgedm. 13, 6. 
Why the sea is salt, is told in Sn. 147. The sea is ^ttre, she 
tolerates no blood, Anno 227-8, just as the ship will have no dead 
corpse, Pass. f. 379^ She 'ceased from her raging' as soon as 

Jonah was thrown in. Real proper names of the sea are : Oegir 

(p. 237), conf. AS. waster-e^esa, and ' diu freise der wilden unde,' 
Tit. 2567; Gijmir, conf. gymis leod' qveSa, Yngl. sag. c. 36; 
Brimir, akin to hrim ; and Oeofen (p. 239). Names of particular 
seas : wendilmeri, endlhneri, lehermeri, Graff 2, 820. To Alfred, 
ivendelsce is the Black Sea, only a part of the Mediterranean ; daz 
tiefe wentelmere, Diut. 3, 48 ; loeiulelse, Tundal 42% 4, and often in 
Morolt; ivendelzee, Bergh's Ndrl. volksr. p. 146. Then : lehermer, 
Wb. 141, 20. Tit. 5448. 6005. Amur 1730. Fundgr. 2, 4. Hpt's 
Ztschr. 7, 276. 294. Wigalois sub v.; in dem roten lehermer, 
Barl. 262, 16; lahenner, Ernst 3210; leverse, Walew. 5955; lever- 
zee, Y. d. Bergh 103. 127. With this term conf. the irXevficov 
6a\dTTio<i, sea-lung, of Pytheas; F. Magn. traces this lung to the 
dismembered Ymir. For garsecg, conf. my first ed., Vorr. xxvii., 
and Hpt's Ztschr. 1, 578. Dahlmann in Forsch. 1, 414 explains 
gars-ecg as earth's edge; Kemble, Gl. sub v. secg, as homo jaculo 
armatus ! For garsecg in the Periplus, Rask writes garsege, but 
explains nothing; conf. Csedm. 8, 1. 195,24. 199,27. 205,3. 
Beow. 97. 1024. The ON. lagastafr is at once sea and sown 
crop, S^m. 50-1; Gudr. 1126-8 has 'daz vinstermer,' sea of 

darkness. Lastly, Diimhs-haf, Daucfa-liaf, Fornald. sog. 2, 4. 

The sea advances and retires, has ehh aud jiood (on ' ebb ' conf. 
Gramm. 3, 384 and Kl. schr. 3, 158) ; on the alleged Fris. aud 
Sax. equivalents malina and lidana, see Gramm. 3, 384 note. 
The ON. kolga and olga = aestus maris : ' er saman qvumo holgo 
systir (fluctus undantes) ok kilir langir,' Saem. 153^ Ebb and 



WATER. FIRE. 1461 

flood are in Grk. cifXTrcoTif; and fja^la, Pans. 1, o; in Irish con- 
traiht and rohart, Zeuss 833. The sea-waves are often treated as 
living beings : 'da nCunen ez die unden, dlu nine ez dt:r andern {jfip, 
nnde truogenz verro so hinab/ the waves caught it, passed it one 
to the other, etc., Pass. 313, 73. Hhvee 'plunging waves are three 
witches, and get wounded; the waterspout is also a witch, IMi'illenh. 
p. 225. On the nine waves, conf. Passow sub. v. rpiKvixla, irevra- 
KVfjbia : ' ev TpiKv/jiiai<; (pepofMevo),' Procop. 1,318. In a storm it 
is the ninth wave that sinks the ship, Wright 1, 290 after Leo 
AUatius ; it also occurs in Ir. sagen u. march. 1, 86. ON. sl:aji = 
unda decumana, probably uo more than a very high one, from 
skefla, acervare. 

2. Fire. 

p. 602.] Fire is a living being. With quec-fiur conf. qtiecJciu 
Held, Ernst 2389. You can kill it : trncidare ignem, Lucr. 6, 1 16. 
You can wake it: aeled ivcccan, Caedm. 175, 26; bselfyra majst 
weccan, Beow. 6281. It is wild : conf. ' wildfire ' (pp. 603. 179) ; 
Logi viUi-eldr, Sn. 60; Hans Wilds-feiver, MB. 25, 375; ein 
wildez t't'«r sluoc in daz dach, Troj. kr. 11317; daz wilde fiur 
spranc uz den vlinzen herte 12555 ; daz grimnie wilde Jiuwer, Rab. 
659 ; daz starke w. f. 698 ; daz iv. f. uz den swerten spranc 412 ; 
daz grimme f. als ein loup uz den huof-isen stoup (spirted out of 
the horse-shoes), Dietr. 9325 ; daz/. y\ouc freislich uz helmen u. 
uz ringen 8787. It is a devouring beast : stnidende (desolating) 
f^r, Cgedm. 154, 15; brond (gleS) sceal fretan, consume, Beow. 
6024. 6223; in pahidum ignis, in faatar (fodder) dcs fiures, Diut. 
1, 496*; dem viure geben ze mazze, as meat, Fundgr. 2, 131. It 
is insatiable, like hell or avarice, Freid. 69, 5; the fire saith not 
'it is eiiougJi/ Prov. 30, 16; eld, celed (fr. alan, nourish) means 
ignis pastas, the fed and steady flame ; conf. in he dufidrcov 
"H<f)aiaTo<; ovk eXa/xTre, Soph. Antig. 1007. It licks : Lith. 
' ugnis laizdo pro stogi^,' at the roof; conf. tunga, tungal (p. 700); 
seven kindlings or seven tongues of flame, Colebr. Essays 1, 190. 
It snatches, filches : f^^-res feng, Beow. 3525 ; so \'^v beoiS pcof, 
Ine 43, like Loki and the devil. It plays: leikr bar hiti, Sajm. 9'*; 
leiki yfir logi ! 68'' ; leikr yfir lindar-tvicTi 192»; Idcende lig. El. 579. 
1111; lar (fire) snpe7' turrim saliit, Abbo do b. par. 1, 518. It 
flies up like a red cock (p. 670) : den rothen halin zura giebel 



1462 ELEMENTS. 

ausjageii; ScTiottel 1116'^; der 7'otJte hahn kiiiht aus dem dach, 
Firmen. 1^ 292^; der gelbe halin, yellow cock 1^ 208**; conf. hldcan 
fyres, ignis pallidi, Caedm. 231, 13 ; fire glitters with seeds of 
gold, Holtzm. lud. sag. 3, 194 ; faces aiireas quatiunt comas, 
Catull. 59, 92. It travels, nigram viam habeus, Bopp's Gl. 83*. 
Holtzm. 3, 194. In the Edda it is brother to the wind and sea; 
so Ssk, pdvaka, fire, is lit. cleanser, fr. pu (Suppl. to 632, beg.), 
Bopp's Vocal. 205, conf. Gramm. 126 (new ed. 213-6), and 
pavana, wind, is from the same root, Bopp (conf. Gramm. 124) ; 
besides, fire is called vayusakhi, wind's companion. It flows : daz 
viur^oz, Livl. reimchr. 5956; in Holstein, when a fire breaks out, 
they call it hot rain, Schiitze 4, 340 ; and the ON. hripud'r, fire, 
Ssem. 40* seems to be fr. hripa, perfluere. 

There was a time when fire was unknown, for the giants have 
none (Suppl. to 530) : ' fiure was in tiure ' dear, scarce, to them, 
Gudr. 104, 1. That time is still remembered in Kalevala 16, 
247-8 (Castren 1, 195) and our nursery tales. Fire belonged to 
the gods ; it was stolen by Prometheus, and given to men. Ace. 
to a Finn, song it is created : an eagle strikes a fire for Wiiina- 
moinen, Petersb. Extract 3. Other traditions make a little bird 
(reblo, troglodyte) bring it from heaven, Piuquet p. 44. Bosquet 
220. A contrast to the fireless time is the Dan._ arild-tid, fr. 
arild, fireplace (ild, fire), Swed. aril, focus, Westg. arell, Helsing. 
areld. 

p. 603.] Fire is holy : ignis sacer meant lightning, Amm. 
Marcell. 23, 5 ; conf. igne felici, Grotef. Umbr. 7, 5. Fire is 
called sacrifice-eater, Holtzm. Ind. s. 1, 24-6, and four times in 
Bopp's Gl. 401*^; eldr sa er aldri slohnad'l was called vigffan eld, 
Landn, ed. nov. p. 336. Being often found a hostile power, it 
was used in cursing, or was conjured by a spell. Other Fr. forms 
of cursing are: male fiambe t'arde! Ren. 201Q2;feu arde son 
musel! Berte 116; conf. Holland to Yvain p. 222. The fire-cry 
in E. Gothland was : kumbdr elddr Ids, Ostg. lag 229. Fire-spells 
are given in Moneys Anz. 7, 422-7. A fire is adjured in these 
words : ^ brand, stand als dem dode sem rechte hand ! ' be still as 
the dead man's hand. Wolf's Ztschr. 1, 337. If you can charm 
a fire, it jumps behind you while you do it, and you must run for 
your life (Meiningen), Hpt's Ztschr. 3, 363. Remigius pitis afire 
to filglit, and locks it up, Flodoardus 1, 12. White angels quench 



FIRE. 1463 

a fire (Suppl. to xliii. end, and to 3GG. Fire can be stifled with 

clotlies that have been worn some time, whereas in a Liittich legend 
the earth-fire attacks some men who wear new unwashen smocks, 
and is flogged with ropes, rods and sticks, WolPs Ndrl. s. no. 407. 
To an outbreak of helle-viur, which cannot be stamped out, you 
must sacrifice a knight in gorgeous array, Ksrchr. 1 138-41. 1160 — 
72. 1229; he tries while on horseback to .^j^eak away the fire, 
but falls and breaks his neck, Der Causenmacher, a play, Leipz. 
1701, p. 152-6, and pref. A fire put out by means of a horse, 
Tliiir. Ztschr. 2, 605. To extinguish a fire, a woman in childbed, 
whose feet must not touch the ground, is carried to the fire, and 
uttering mystic spells throws a new-baked loaf into the flames 
(Austria). On quenching fires and driving out cattle, see Tettau 
and Temme's Pr. sag. 263. There are people who see a fire bwn- 
ing beforehand : you must then take out the beam they indicate, 
or conjure the fire into an oak with a bung, Miillenh. p. 570. 
Ossiau speaks of pulling out oaks, so that^ire springs out of them. 

Fires leap out of the ground like water. Pans. ii. 34, 2 : ein 

michel vuwer sich truoc iif (uz ?) der erden viunde (mouth). Pass. 
359, 58 ; als vlurm urspringe (fiery springs) da waeren ensprungen, 
Lanz. 2590. Burning mountains may be seen on seals of the 
14th cent., MsH. 4, 280*, conf. Pyrmont, Brennenberg. Fire 
struck out of a helmet may be caught on a schoup (truss of rye), 
Er. 9206. Eggs put out fire: 'holt lescid van eia, wadi ne bren- 
nid ' ; ovorum autem tantam vim esse dicunt, ut lignum eis 
perfusum non ardeat, ac ne vestis quidem contacta aduratur, Gl. 
Argentor. Diut. 2, 194". Milk, camel's milk quenches fire, Ferabr. 
3348. 

p. 603.] The Indians had three sorts of fire : common, celestial, 
frictile, Holtzm. lud. s. 3, 112. In Oegir's hall was ' lijsi-guU 
fyrir elds-lios,' Sa3m. 59. Out of helmets and swords came fire 
and light: ob in das fiures zerinuet (when short of fire), daz 
kuunen sie wol suochen in helni-spange. Tit. 3222 ; among the 
Ases the sword gives light, Sn. 79 ; it shines in the dark, Landn. 
1, 5; 'sin swert hiez si in bar nemen sunder sin gewant . . . 
daz er'z mit im naeme, so 'r in die helle quaeme, in die vinster- 
nisse, daz er im gewisse damite liuhten solde,' En. 2858 (she 
bids Aeneas take his naked sword, that when he came into hell's 
darkness, he should ligJit him therewith). Virgil, it is true, 



1464 ELEMENTS. 

makes Aeneas draw Lis sword (vi. 2G0. 291), but not to give 
lioflit. Asfain : ' zucli liervor din sivert, du. tragfe 'z in diner hand 
har, unde Unlite dir damite' 3172. Nothing of the kind in Vir- 
gil. Flint-eld is struck over cattle, Dybeck's Runa ^44, 7. If 

sparks fly out of a beam that is being hewn, it betokens fire to 
the house into which it is built, Miilleuh. p. 570. 

p. 607.] Wildfire is described in Miede's Hasenmelker p. 43. 
Needfire must be rubbed by two brothers, or at least two men of 
the same Christian name, (Fischer's) buch vom Abergl., Leipz. 
1791, p. 177. Some new facts are coll. by Colshorn 231-2. 
350-1. The Mecklenbg custom is described by Lisch 6'', 127; 
that of the Moravian shepherds by Kulda (d'Elv.) 123-4. A 
giant rubs fire out of stones, Rother 1041 (ace. to two readings). 
The notten held on Midsum. Night, and twice mentioned in the 
Acct bk of Frankfort city, yr 1374, points to the supposed root 
hniudan. 

p. 608.] Swed. accounts of gnid-eld (rubbed fire) run thus : 
' Genom gnideld tagen i en ekesticke (piece of oak) frau ett snore 
(string) som sa liinge dragits fram och ater (pulled to and fro) i 
en hus-dorr, till-dess det blifvit antandt (kindled), och derefter 
3 ganger ansyls ford omkring personen, samt med ett serdeles 
formuliir signad, bei'okas och botas sjuka kreatur (cattle besmoked 
and cured).' Again: 'For samma andamal borras hal (hole 
bored) uti en ek, hvaruti genom en pinne eld guides, dermed 
antandes 9 slags trad, ofver livilken kreaturen bora ga ' ; conf. 
Suppl. to 1089 (?). 

p. 609.] Cows or calves are sacrif. elsewhere too, to protect 
the herd from plague: ^ Niir Icalfvorne mycket bordo, skall man 
villdsamt fatta an vid hufvudet framslappa honom ifrau kjotten, 
och honom verkeligen hals-hugga ofver fahu-straskeln/ Eiiiif. A 
live cow is buried in the ground against murrain, Wieselgr. 409 ; 
or one of the herd under the stable-door (p. 1142) ; conf. WolPs 
March, p. 327, where a cow's head is cut off and laid in the loft 
(seep. 1188). 

p. 610.] In Ssk. needfire or wildfire is called rub-fire, and is 
produced by rubbing a male and a female stick together, Bohtling 
1, 522, conf. 1, 404. Ace. to Kuhn's Rec. d. Rigv. p. 98, it is 
rubbed out of the arani (premna spinosa). Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 122 ; 
is this the aihvatundi ? Weber's Ind. stud. 2, 4 says it comes 



FIRE. 14G5 

out of Pnuuiva, the bow and arrow of self (the lotus-flower). The 
Arabs call the old-fashioued fire-rubbiug sticks zend and zendet, 
the first being the upper and male, the second the female or lower 
one with the hole iu it ; striking steel and stone together is 
reckoned a barbarism, Riickert's Hariri 1, G48-9. Finn, liela- 
valhja (fr. hela, the spring festival), ignis nou ex silice, sed ex 
lignis duobus vi coufricatis elicitus ; also klUcan-valki/a, rub-fire, 
Kenvall 1, 04. 

p. 611.] K 'perpetual fire was kept up by the Israehtes, Levit. 
6, 12-3; and is still by Parsees and Guebers, as among the 
ancient Persians. Such a fire burned on the altar of Athena 
Polias at Athens, Pans. i. 26, 7, and in the temple of Pan in Ar- 
cadia, viii. 37, 8. Famous oracles maintained ever-burning fires, 
as that of Delphi, whose priests in time of war conveyed the sacred 
flame to Platcea, Plut. Numa cap. 9 ; conf. Valckenaer on Herod. 
6, 108 ; so the fires of Delos were carried to Lcniuos, Welckor's 
Aeschyl. Trilog. p. 247 seq. We know the undying fire of Hestia, 
Yesta. Colonies took i\\e\v sacred fire with them from the mother- 
city ; if it happened to go out, there alone could they light it 
again, Larcher on Herod. 1, no. 360. Wachsm. Hell, alterth. i. 1, 
102. ii. 2, 118. Miiuter's Rel. d. Carth. p. 49. The Samogitians 
nourished a perpetual fire, Lasicz. 56. On the eternal lamp in 
the worship of Mary, see Lange's Abh. v. d. ewigen lampe (Verm, 
schr., Leipz. 1832) pp. 191— 20 1. 

p. 614.] Toland's Hist, of Druids (quoted in Hone's Yrbk 876 
seq.) supposes three healtmes in the year. May ], Midsum. eve, 
Nov. 1. The first of May and of Nov. were called beltan, says 
Villemarquc's Bardes Bretons p. 386-7. GDS. 108. On Bel, 
see Diefeub. Celt. 1, 185, Stokes 349. Jamieson (Daybk 2, 659). 
The great and little Bel, Meier's Schwab, sag. 297. On Bella inc, 
Belton eve, see Stewart's Pop. superst. 258 seq. Brand's Pop. 
Antiq. 1, 337. Stokes 349. Michelet 1, 452 seq. Ir. sag. u. 
mlirch. 1, 275-6. 2, 479. The May fire is also called hoelkerz, 
coelcerth, Villem. B.B. 232. 385-6-7, but he does not explain the 

word ; elsewh. coel is omen, fides, and certh signum. An Ar- 

moric folk-song speaks of eight fires, and of the father-fire being 
lighted in May, Villem. Barzas breiz I, 8; Hone's Daybk 2, 659. 
866 puts the chief fire on Midsum. Day. Sainbhuinn means Nov. 1 
(O'Brien: samhainn = AUiiallows-tide). The Druidic November- 



1466 ELEMENTS. 

fire was also called tlachdgha, tine tlaclidgha, O'Brien sub v. 
The sacred fires are thus described in O'Connor's Proleg. 1, 24 : 
'duos ignes splendentes faciebant druidae cum incantationibus 
magnis supra eis, et ducebant greges quos cogebant transire 
per eos ignes '; conf . O'Brien sub v. bealtine. Horses' heads were 
thrown into the May-fire in Ireland, Hone's Daybk 2, 595 (as 
into the Midsum. fire in Germany, p. 618). 

p. 617.] On Easter-fires, conf. Woeste p. 288; dat osterfilr an- 
hoiten, J, v. Scheppau's Oster-pred. p. 8 ; das ostermaen-lucJiten 
in Wilster-marsch, Miillenh. p. 168. Even in S. Germany, e.g. 
about Abensberg in Lower Bavaria, they used at Easter time to 
burn the ostermann. After service at church a fellow lighted a 
candle, ran out into the fields with it, and set the straw Easter- 
man on fire. A Paderborn edict of 1781 abolished the Easter- 
fire, Wigand's Pad. and Corv. 3, 281. 1, 317. Instead of hocks- 
thorn (p. 616 n.), Groten's Gesch. v. Northeim 1723, p. 7 says: 
' On this hill the hocks-horn was held within the memory of man.' 
The Easter squirrel-hunt in the Harz (p. 616) reminds of the 
Lay of Igor (Hanka p. 68), where every householder pays a 
squirrel by way of tax. Akin to Easter-fires are the Walburgs 
(Mayday) fires, Miillenh. p. 168 : in Riigen, on Mayday eve, took 
place a molkentoverschen hernen with fire-bladders (p. 1072 n.), 
conf. Osnabr. verein 3, 229 ; on the Hundsriick the young men 
and boys are allowed to cut wood in the forest on St. Walburg's 
eve, Weisth. 2, 168. 

p. 620.] The sol-stitlum is in Homer Tpoirrj rjeXloLo, Od. 15, 
404; afx^l depiva<i rpoirci'^, Procop. B. Goth. 2, 13 ; aix^l rpoTra? 
')(^eilxepLvd'i 3, 27. The Bavar. records have sunwenden, sunhenden, 
the Aleman. sungihten : 'ze sungihten' Weisth. 1, 293. 304. 
316 — 8; ze singeht 1,325; nach. sung ehten 1,669; ze sungiden 
1, 322-3; zu sungihte 1, 708; zu singihten 1, 745; singiht-tag 1, 
727; sungeht-tag 1, 669; singehtag, Namenbiichl. p. 114. The 
AS. sungiht, solstitium, stands in Menolog. for June 24 ; Schilter 
on Konigsh. p. 458 has the whole passage. MHG. dri tage vor 
snnegihfen, Lanz. 7051 ; conf. hette-gdJit, N. Cap. 46, kivch-giht 

(-going, Oberlin). Vor der sunnewenden, Bamb. reht. ed. 

Zopfl 154 ; ' hiute ist der ahte tac nach sunewenden, da sol daz 
jarzit enden.' Iw. 2940. 

Midsummer was a great time for meetings and merrymakings : 



FIRE. 146T 

'ze einen swiewenden da Sifrifc ritters namen gewan/ Nib. 32, 4 ; 
* vor disen snnewenden' Siegfried and Kriemhilt visit Worms 
G70, 3. G9 1, 3 ; and it is during the wedding festivities at Mid- 
summer that Siegfried is killed, as may be fairly inferred, if it is 
not expressed. The wedding in the Heunenland is to take place 
' zen naehsten suncivcndeu' 1424, 4; and the heroes arrive at 
Etzel's court 'an sunewenden dbent' 1754, 1. On Midsum. day 
the Zurich people carry their hot pottage over the water to 

Strassbnrg, Gliickh. schiff, v. 194 seq. On sunw end-fires, see 

Panz. Beitr. 1, 210 seq. Sunwent was corrup. into summit, 
simmet-fenr, Leopr. 182 ; simentfener, H. Sachs 1, 423^; sommer- 
feur, Albertini's Narrenhatz 100; 8. Joliannis-fiirle, Germ. 1, 
442. A sage remark on the sonwend-flre in Firmen. 2, 703 ; 
feuia hupfa z' Juhanne, Schuegraf der willdler p. 31. Always a 
lad and lass together, in couples, jump over the fire, Leopr. 183 ; 
some wantonly push others in, and spread their coat over the hot 
coals, Gesch. V. Gaustall (Bamb, ver. 8, 112). At Vienna, com- 
mon women, loose girls, danced at the Midsum. fire, Schlager's 
Wiener skizzen 1, 270. 5, 352. Fiery wheels are driven in 
Tyrol and Hungary, Wolfs Ztschr. 1, 286-7. 270-1, and in Aus- 
tria. Duller p. 46-7 ; conf. the joy-fires of Swiss herdsmen in the 
Poster-nights, Staid 1, 209. 210. Prohibitions of the Midsum. 
fire, Kaltenback's Pantaid. 98". 104\ 

p. 624.] On Engl, bonfires, see Hone's Daybk 1, 827. 846. 
851-2. Brand 1, 299 seq. In France embers taken home from 
a John's-fire, in England any live coals are a protection against 
magic. Hone's Yrbk 1553. Brising, the Norweg. for Midsum. 
fires, may be akin to bris = flamma, brisa = flam mare (Aasen), conf. 
brasa, our prasseln, to crackle. Midsum. fires flamed in Sweden 
too, 9 sorts of wood being used, and 9 sorts of flowers picked 
for posies, Runa '44, p. 22. Wieselgr. 411. In Spain they 
gathered verbenas in the dawn of St. John's day, and lighted 
fires, over which they leapt, Ilandbk of Sp. 1, 270". A St. John's 
fire in Portugal is descr. in the Jrb. d. Berl. sprachges. 8, 373. 
' John's folk ' is what the Letts call those who bring John's- 
wort (hypericum, and raggana kauli, witch's bones), and sing 
songs, Stender's Gram. p. 50, Diet. 85" ; on St. John's morning 
a wreath of flowers, or hawthorn, is hung over the doors, Fr. 
Michel's Races maud. 2, 147. In Esthonia thev light a John's 



1468 ELEMENTS. 

fire^ and gather a bundle of sweet- smelling herbs; these the girls 
put under their pillows, and what they dream comes true, Pos- 
sart's Esthl. p. 172. On the Zobfen-herg in Silesia (fr. Sobota, 
sabbath) the Slavs kept their sohotky, Schafarik 2, 407 of transl.j 
it is also called ' mons Slesie, mons czobothus/ conf. Dietmar (in 
Pertz 5, 855). Moravia too has its John^s fires, Kulda (in d'Elv) 
111-2. Plato de Legg. 19, 945 speaks of a festival following the 
summer solstice. 

p. 62o.] To Ovid's picture of the Palilia, add that of Tibullus 
ii. 5, 87 : 

at madidus Baccho sua festa Palilia pastor 
concinet : a stabulis tunc procul este, lupi ! 
ille levis stijJidae solemms potus acervos 
accendet, jiammas transilietqiie sacras. 

p. 628,] In Christmas-fires, mark the practice of saving up 
the half-burnt yule-log, Gefken's Cat. 56. Other fires are the 
Shrovetide fire, Stalder 1, 356, and the so-called hoop-driving 
(burning wheel) in Up. Swabia on the first Sunday in Lent, the 
N. Frisian hilhen-hrennen on Febr. 22, see Miillenh. p. 167. 

p. 630.] Old examples of illumination : Joli. Chrys. Or. in red. 
Flaviani c. 4 : oirep ovv eTrotija-are arecpavoicravTe^ T't]v ayopav 
Kol Xu^vov^ a\lrai>Te<i. Greg. Naz. Or. de red. Athanasii 21 p. 

391 : €0) Xiyeiv . . . iraaav (jicor] KaraarpaiTTOfxevriv ttoXlv. 
Choricii Gazaei Orr., ed. Boissonade '46 p. 101 : crKeveai Be 
<^&)To<? elpyaafiivoL'; eixpTj/xovfMev toi)? evep'yeTa<i. splendida fuit 
illuminatio ; vios is fuit veterum diebus laetis ac festis. Ann. 
Worm. 1251 (Bohm. Font. 2, 168): regem incensis candelis et 
campanis pulsatis singulis diebus festivis denunciare. Trees 
of candles were carried in processions, Liinzel's Stiftsfehde 
135-6. 279; vil liehtes gap da manec rone, Tiirl. Wh. 99 '' 
(conf. Seem. 22'^: med brennandom liosom oc bornom vicFi). The 
Ksrchr. 91 has brinnende olvaz. Walth. 28, 14 speaks only of 
ringing bells : ir werdent hoh enpfangen, ir sit wol wert daz wir 
die gloggen gen iu liuten. 

3. Air. 

p. 632.] Wind is in Ssk. anila = a\>efio<;, also pavana, cleanser, 
fr. pu, like pavaka, fire (Suppl. to 602). So in Finn, tunli ventus, 



AIB. 1469 

tuli ignis; conf. ' des Ji}(wcrs winf,' Giulr. tOO, 2, and vlmr-roler 
wint, Nib. 1999, 2. An OHG. suep^n6v, Graff 6, 856, ON. s!;// 
= motus repentinus, vibratio. As Wodan is tlie all-pervading 
aether, Zeus is equiv. to aer: drjp of av rt? ovofidaeie koI Ala, 
Frag. Philem. in Meineke 4, 32 (Euripides has miker for Zeus). 
In Latin also, Jupiter stands for aer, Valcken. ad Herod. 2, 13; 
conf. 'plurimus /u/)i7er = michil Ixij't,^ air, Gl. Sletst. 6, 467; 
and Servius ad Aen. 1, 51 says Jimo was taken to mean air. 
The Greeks sacrificed to Boreas, Xen. Anab. (Koch 92). The 
Scythians worship dv€iMo<; as cause of life, and the sword as that 
of death, Lucian's Tox. 38. GDS. 222. 459. The Finns call a 
fjuiXaKia (calm) Wainiiraoinen's way, Vdindmoisen tie or kulku: 
the god has walked, and all is hushed; he is named Suvantolainen 
fr. suvanto, locus ubi aqua quiescit. The Norse Andvari is a 
dwarf, but also ventus lenis, contrarius ; conf. Bifilcfi, Sskabyrr 
(pp. 149. 637), Wiietelgoz (p. 367 n.), |?oden (Suppl. to 132 end). 
In the Mid. A^es Paul and John 'habent dii ze himile weteres 
gewalt,' Ksrchr. 10948; they are the ■weather-lords, and their 

day (June 26) the hail-holiday, Scheff. llaltaus 111. Walt- 

i';/?i^ = auster, Mone's Anz. 8, 409, because it originates in the 
forest. The winds have a home : Vindheim vi"5an byggja, Saem. 
10*. Wint, Winf^^oz, Wintesbal? are prop, names, Graff 1, 624. 
Wind is the windhund (greyhound), Kuhn in Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 
131, as Donner, Sturm are names of dogs. Wind is worshipped : 
' des solt der luft sin geret (air be honoured) von spers krache,' 
Tit. 2, 2 ; ' er neic gegen dem ivinde der da wate von Gotlinde,' 
bowed to the wind that blew fr. G., Helmbr. 461 ; ' sta bi, la 
mich den iviiit anwaejen (let the wind fan me), der kumt von 
mines herzen kiineginnen,' MS. 1, 6''. Wind is spoken of as a 
person, it goes, stands still : spiritus ubi vult spirat, ' der wint 
waeje als er welle,' blow as he would, Barl. 257, 11 ; ' vloch (flew) 
waer die wint ghebut,' bade, Maerl. in Kiistner 18''. Winds ride, 
Ahlw. on Oisian 2, 278. They guide people : ' quel vent vos 
gide?' Ren. 2127. 3728; 'quel vent vos viaine ? ' 2675; 'quel 
vent vos mene et quel ore'?' 2654 = whence come you? conf. 
'what devil, cuckoo brings you here?' (p. 1013). They are 
wild, Trist. 2415. Greg. 646. 754. Renn. 22962; angry: 
erzuniet sind die liifte,' Dietr. u. ges. 393 ; ' die llifte soldeu 
ziimen' at the height of the towers, Servat. 84. The air groans, 
VOL. IV. . 



1470 ELEMENTS. 

mutters, grunts: ' grunzet fone ungewitere/ N. Cap. 58; 'grot 
wint ende gesoech,' Lane. 3899 ; ' die winde begunden swegelen,' 
began to pipe, Servat. 3233 ; conf. ' up dem windes home,' 
Weisth. 3, 231. On Fonn, Drifa, Mioll, see GDS. 685. 

p. 632.] Of the wind's hride : mit einer windes-hriute wurden 
sie getwungen, Servat. 2302; in nam ein windes-brut 2844; 
flugen vaster dan ein w. h., Engelh. 4771 ; daz diu w. b. gelit, 
Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 381; gelich der windesbriute, Troj. kr. 33571. 
Lather says windsbraut for ventus typhonicus. Acts 27, 14. Old 
glosses have nimphus, nimpha, stormwind, Graff 1, 625 ; is this 
a misapplication of nimbus ? or a congener ? In France they 
speak of the whining of Melusine (p. 434), who in Bohemia passes 
for a goddess of wind, and to whom they throw flour out of the 
window for her children (Suppl. to 636) ; conf. the whimpering 
of the Vila, and the weeping of the Esth. tuuleema, wind's 
mother, Bocler 146-7. Is the Swiss harein, Staid. 2, 21, fr. 
OHG. haren = clamare, Graff 4, 578, or fr. char6n = queri 5, 465 ? 

Other expressions for wind's bride : ivind-gelle = Yenti pellex 

(sne-gelle), Hpt's Zts(?hr. 6, 290. Rocholz 2, 408 ; Bavar. ivind- 
gdsperl, Swab, wind-gdspele, Leopr. 101. 120; Bavar. windsch- 
brach, -bravsz, Panz. Beitr. 2, 209; sau-hegel, Rocholz 2, 187. 
OHG. wanda = iViTho, Graff 1, 761; ON. roka, turbo. Other 
OHG. terms: ungistnomi = &tve^\i\x^ (MHG. iwi^es^um, vehementia 
aeris, Superst. H. cap. 77) ; ungewitiri = tempestas, procella, 
Graff 1, 630; arapeit = do. do. 1,407; /iei/^t = tempestas, Windb. 
308. 313; i«isf = procella, tempestas, AS. Ust; with treip = agehat 
(nubila ventus), Graff 5, 482, conf. ON. drifa, snowstorm, drifa 

orva, a storm of arrows. Heralds of winter were ' twer und 

surin bise' MS. 2, 193^^; contrary wind is in MHG. twer or twere, 
and ON. And-pvari, Andvari is said to be that as well as a 
dwarf's name; conf. 'von luftes geduere,' Himelr. 292 (Hpt's 
Ztschr, 8, 153), ' die winde sluogen in entwer,' Hpt 7, 378-9. A 
hurricane, squall, flaw, is called Jldge in Pass, and Jeroschin ; 
windes vldgen, Marienleg. 84, 21. 87, 8 ; die wint ene vlaghe 
brachte. Rose 13151. Maerl. 3, 189; Dut. vlaag, Gothl. flag a, 
vindflagd, Almqvist 42 2^^ ; 'rotten und sturmwinde,' Luther's 
Letters 5, 155. In Slavic it is vikhr, Pol. wicher. Boh. wichr; 
Lith, nmmaras, vesulas, whirlwind (conf. our provinc. ' eilung,' 
M. Neth. ylinge, Wessel's Bibel p. 7, with ON. el, jel, nimbus). 



AIR. 1471 

The Greeks had aeWa, OveWa, XaTXaylr, Ital. fortnna di raare = 
storm. 

p. 633.] Zlo resembles Mars and Indras, the god of winds and 
of souls, who with his Maruts or spirits of storm makes war on 
the giants of darkness, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 488-9. G, 131. Wuotan, 
the god of the Wild Hunt, sweeps like the storm through 
open doors (p. 926-7, etc.). Hodeke howls (Suppl. to 511 beg.). 
Both wind's bride and devil are called sow-tail (p. 996) or hammer 
(p. 999) : conf. sau-hegel, Rocholz 2, 187 ; in Bavaria wind-saii, 
Zingerle's Oswalt 83 {alyi<;, goatskin, hurricane). Frau Fiuk or 
F7-ick also acts as goddess of wind, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 376. 6, 131 ; 
conf. the fahrende mutter, Wolf's Ndrl. sag. no. 518. At a 
village near Passau they call the whirlwind mueml, aunty : 
' mueml ist drin ! ' (m. is also toad); or else schratl, Schm. 3, 
519. 522. The hurricane has hands: ' nu bin ich sturmwinden 
alrerst in die hant gevarn/ fallen, Trist. 8848. 

p. 635.] Was there a wind named Vorwitz (prurient curiosity)? 

do kam ein wint geflogeu dar, 

der ist virwitz genant, 

in hant die meide wol erkant 

unde ouch die vrouwen iiber alle lant. Renn. 84. 

san kumt her virwitz geraut 

und loeset den raeiden uf (unlooses) diu bant. Renn. 268. ^ 

Conf. ' der fiirivitz, so jungfern theuer machet/ Simplic. 1, 568 ; 
' hine fi/rwit hrcec,' Beow. 464. 3966, 5565; vurwitz segens, Turl. 
Wh. 128* (Suppl. to 273 n.) ; 's sticht's der wunderwitz, Hebel 
157; furwitz, der kramer (huckster), Uhl. VolksL 636. OHG. 
firiwizi is also portentum, mirificum, Graff 1, 1099; 'man saget 

mir von kinde, daz kerne uns von dem ivinde,'' Erlosung 2440. 

As the North had its storm-giant Hraesvelg, Kl. Grooth's Quick- 
born calls a tempest ' de grote und de liitge windkcrl ' ; conf. 
' Gott fiieget den wind/ Rabenschl. 619; 'der Gotes geist daz 
(saz ?) uf des luftes vederen, Aneg. Hahn 4, 72. Aio\o<;, ^iXoq 
aOavdrotaL deolai, Od. 10, 2 ; Ketvov jap Tafxirfv ave^uiv TToirjcre 
Kpovioiv, 10, 21. Virgil's -^olus sits in a hollow mountain, and 
Juno begs wind of him, ^n. 1, 52. 64; conf. KM. no. 89 : *weh', 
weh', windchen ! ' blow, blow, Windie. 

' Conf. Xufft-fwvos, fuii'Tjj' \vtiv. Tibi (Hymenaec) virgines zonula solvunt sinus. 
Catnll. 59, 53 ; zonam solvere virgineam 65, 23. 



1472 ELEMENTS. 

Eagles were fixed on gables or the top of a tent pretty often : 
le grant tref Karlemaine font contremont lever, 
par desor le pomel font I'aigle d'or poser, 
par devers Montauban en fist le chief torner. 

Renaus 151, 2 — 4. 

A golden eagle on the top of the castle, Auberi 73 ; high on the 
tent ' ein guldin ar/ En. 9160. On the inroad of the ' Welschen ' 
in 978, conf. Giesebrecht'a Ofcto II. p. 48, In Kalevala, torn. 
2, 12 (1 ed. 17,341): 

du min dm, min skona fogel, 

vand (turn) at annat hall ditt hufvud (head), 

tillslut (shut) dina skarpa ogon ! 

A golden eagle on the roof in Athenaeus 2, 259 ; and observe, 
that aeroii is both eagle and gable. The Basque egoa, south 
wind, is akin to egoa, egaa, egala, wing, Pott 2, 190. In Goethe, 
winds wave their noiseless wings. Thunder-clouds are also 
likened to the wide-spreading root of a tree, and called ivind- 
wurzel (-root), a sign of hurricane, Schmidt v. Werneuchen 131. 

p. 636.] The wind is fed with rags or tow, which is thrown to 
it, Leopr. 102. In Austria too they offer meal in a bread-shovel 
out of the attic window to the storm, saying (Popovitch sub v. 
wind) : 

nimm hin, mein lieber wind, 
trag heim deinem weib und kind, 
und komm nimmer ! 

Instead of giving the wind food, a woman says ' I'd rather stab 
the dog dead,' and throws a hnfe into the yard (p. 632 n.) ; conf. 
M. Koch's Reise in Tirol p. 87-8. Winds were thought of as 
meal-devouring dogs, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 373-6. 6, 131 ; conf. 
Hodeke's howling (Suppl. to 633). In a storm at sea a dove 
appears, flies three times round the ship, one man puts out his 
arm and ' de cauda ejus tres tulit pennas, quas mari intinguens 
tempestatem compescuifc,' Venant. Fortun, vita Radegundis, Acta 
Bened. sec. 1, p. 332. The Gr. OveXKa snatches away, Od. 20, 
63-6, like the Norweg. northwind. To hurtful winds black 
lambs were sacrificed, to fair winds white, Aristoph. Ran. 845. 
Virg. ^n. 3, 120. For a favourable wind a he-goat is hung on 



AIR. 1173 

the mast, Hone's Yrbk 1553. On Irish wind- worship, see Conan 
111 — 5. 

p. 637.] Divine, semi-divine or diabolic beings excite wind 
(Suppl. to 145) : Got fiieget den wint, Rabenschl. 619; in Sorv. 
songs God is implored for wind, Vuk ii. 561. 1089. i. 369 (no. 
511). 370 (no. 513). 322 (no. 455) ; Christ is appealed to, Sv. 
vis. 2, 167. The saints invoked in a storm are called wazzer- 
heilige, water-holies, Marienleg. p. 85 ; the martyrs Paul and 
John * hant da ze himele iveferes gewalt' Ksrchr. Diem. 335, 1. 
Scrdwunc in Hpt's Zeitschr. 6, 290 seems the name of a weather- 
giant; Fasolt chases a woman in the mountains, Ecke 167, as 
Wuotan does; conf. 'mein sohn Windheim/ Wolf's Ztschr. 1, 
311. Is there a special meaning in ' der wint von Aspriane doz,' 
whizzed, Roth. 4226 ? ' Folks said it wasn't a natural wind, 
they believed there wasn't a tufel left in hell, they was all from 
home, trying to bluster us out of our wits,' Stolle 1 70 ; conf. 
'quel vent vos guie ' etc. (Suppl. to 632 end). Oxen with their 
horns dig the tempest out of a sand hill, Thiele 2, 257. Miillenh. 

p. 128. With Wodan oska-hyrr conf. Suppl. to 149. ON. hi/r, 

Dan. bar, fair wind. Low Germ, seamen's words are bo, a sud- 
den and passing squall, bolges wetter, donnerbo, regenbo, hagelbo. 
Slav, buria = TproceWsi, Miklos. p. 6; Serv. bura, Russ. bnrdn, 
hurricane, conf. ^opia<i. Boreas helps the Greeks, Herod. 7, 189. 
On Juno, see Suppl. to 632 beg. Can OSin's name of Vid'rir be 
akin to AS. kwid'a, hweod'ii = vi\ira, lenis, /itaeo^ria?i. = murmuraro ? 
The Slav, pogoda is in Lith. pagada, fair wind, fair weather. 
Mist in ON. is called kerlingar vella, nebula humi repens. 

p. 639.] With the provisions of the Lex Visigoth., conf. the 
Indiculus Superstit. (in Pertz 3, 20) de tempestatibus and corni- 
bus et cocleis, and the passage fr. Seneca in Wolf's Ndrl. sag. 
p. 693 about xa\a^o-^vXa/ce<;, hail- wardens ; iv riraif: ')(a\a^dv 
is said of Zeus, Lucian 7, 51. 

p. 640.] The passage fr. Bartholom. Anglicus is also in Hpt's 
Ztschr. 4, 494-5, where Wackernagel understands Winlandia as 
Flnlandia; and it is true the Finns are said to make JidJkyngved'r, 
Fornm. sog. 4, 44. In a Lapland epos a maiden has three sorts 
of magic knots ; she unties the first, wind fills the sails and the 
ship gets under way; then the second and the third, followed by 
storm and shipwreck; conf. Klemm 3, 100. Such wind-knots a 



1474 ELEMENTS. 

woman on the Schlei and a witch of Fohr know how to make, 
Miillenh. p. 222-5 ; conf, the sailor's belief about wind in Temme's 
Pom. sag. 347-8, and the Hollen in Gefken's Catal. p. 55. In 
Gervas. Tilb. p. 972 ed. Leibn. (Liebrecht p. 21), is a story 'de 
vento chirothecae Archiepiscopi Arelatensis inchiso, et valli ventis 
imperviae illato.' 

p. 641.] The aa-Ko^ of ^olus, Od. 10, 19, is also in Ovid's 
Met. 14, 224 : ^olon Hippotaden, cohibentem carcere ventos, 
hovis inclusos tergo ; and 14, 230 : dempsisse ligamina ventis. 
Eight whirlwinds are hidden in a cap, Schiefner's Finn. m. p. 611 
[a formidable 'capful of wind']. Conf. setting the cap this way 
or that in Sommer p. 30-1, and Hiitchen, Hodehe. 

p. 641.]' Hail is called in Ind. marutphala, fruit of the Maruts, 
Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 489 ; an ON. name for it is stein-o&l, in saxa 
saeviens, Egilss. 600, an OHG. apparently scrawunc, Hpt 6, 290. 
On mildew, conf. Schmeller 2, 567. Ace. to Jungm. 1, 56^^, hahy 
(grannies) are clouds heaped up like hills. Our people ascribe 
the rising of mountain mist not to animals alone; at the Kif- 
hauser they say : ' Oho, Kaiser Friedrich is brewing, there'll be 
soft weather,' Prsetor. Alectr. pp. 69, 70. 

p. 641.] To the Greeks it was Zeus that shed the snow, II. 12, 
280-1 ; evicpev 6 Z€v<i, Babr. 45, 1. '^Die toren (fools) sprechent 
{in winter) snia sni ! ' Walth. 76, 1. 

4. Earth. 

p. 642.] Ssk. dhard, Gr. %ftj/)a, Bopp's Corap. Gr. p. 304. Ir. 
tir, Lat. terra, 'akin to torreo, and signif. the dry,' Pott 1,270. 
Another Ssk. word is hsham, Bopp's Gl. 92"*. ON. haud'r, neut., 
Saem. 120-6-7. Goth, grundus fr. grindan, as our mel, malm, 
molte (meal, dust, mould) are fr. malan ; scholle grund. Ph. v. 

Sittew. 601. Epithets applied to the earth's outside : da,z preita 

wasal, Musp. 63; sid folde, Csedm. 154, 5; on rumre foldan, 
Exon. 468, 25; evpda xOdiv, conf. Wh. 60, 28. Altd. bl. 1, 388. 
Eracl. 2153; uf der scibligen (round) erde, Diemer 214, 23 ; uf 
der moltigen erde. Mar. 157, 39; diu vinster erde. Tit. 5120; in 
der roten erde, Karaj. 93, 10; um ein wenig rothe erde, Simpl, 1, 
575; eorSe eal-grene, Csedm. 13, 3; Guds grona jord, Sv. folks. 
1, 126. Does Herra viva' in Marcellus no. 24 mean grassy? 
conf. viva flamma (p. 611 n.). But the Earth is also liebe erde. 



EARTH. 1475 

Schweinichen 1, 104; diu siieze erde, Wernher v. Ndrrh. 35, 9 ; 
hm forna fold, Saein. 55''; * sicht wic die heiliy erd/ looks (black) 
as earth, H. Sachs v. 308'', conf. a-rro ya<; dyLa<;, Athcn. 3, I9 4 ; 
Swed. ' Guds grona jord,' our ' Gottes boden,' Chapbk of Hurn. 
Siegfr., Pol. maulaffe p. 231, Weisen's Com. probe 39; we say 
'Hide in God's earth for shame!' Dying is called ze grunde 
gan ; conf. ' daz ich bezite werde dlr (jeltch,' soon be like thee, 
Wb. 60, 28; *sich aus dem staiihe machen/ make oneself out of 

the dust, scarce. The earth will take in liquids : fold seal viS 

flodi taka, Saera. 27''; but ' hi not beuiraet (robs) der erde den 
magetuom,' maidenhood, Mos. 10, 28 ; dannoch was diu erde ein 
maget, Parz. 464, 13. Earth bears not on her breast the man of 
blood: 'ja solte raich diu erde umbe dis mort niht en-tragen/ 
Ecke 143 ; ' mich wundert daz mich diu erde geruochet Iragen' 
still deigns to bear, Greg. 2511; 'den diu erde niht solde tragen,* 
Wackern. lb. 588, 3. Strieker's Klage 38 ; conf. ' daz inch die 
erde niht verslant,' swallowed, Waru. 3203 : ' terre, car ouvrez, 
si recois moi chaitis ! ' Garin 2, 263 ; ' heald ]>a nu hriise ! ' Beow. 
4489. So the witch may not touch the bare earth (p. 1074), holy 
water must not touch the ground (Suppl. to 587) ; whereas to the 
saint she offers herself as a seat: 'diu erde niht en-dolte daz er 
biio"e sin gebeine (tholed not that he bent his limbs), si hot sich 
her engeine, daz er als uf einem stuole saz,' Servat. 1592. On 
earthquakes, see p. 816. Men confided secrets to the earth, 
Lother u. Mailer 36-7 : ' si klagten so senliche, daz in daz ertrlche 
mohte g'antwiirtet han,' would fain have answered them, Mai 41, 
21 ; they made their plaint to the stone, Lisch's Meckl. jrb. 5, 100. 
Miillenh. p. 37, or told their tale to the dead wall, Arnira's March. 
1, 70. 

Much might be said on gold, silver, iron. To the Finns iron 
(rauta, Lapp, route) is brother to water andjire, Kalev. 4, 29, and 
is born of virgin's milk. There is liquid gold and milk in amrita 
(p. 317). Gold is called Froffa midi, Egilss. p. 450, 6gnarliomi = 
oceani lumen, Saem. 152*, and viunnfi/lli or munntal iiitna, Sn. 
83; conf. 'morgeustund hat gold im mund,' though F.^lagn. derives 
those words fr. mund = hand. Gold placed under a dumb woman's 
tongue makes her speak, Fornm. s. 3, 117 — 9; gold is tempered 
in dew. Tit. 3698 (Tigrisgold, 4348). On dragons' and griffius' 
gold, see pp. 978. 980. 



1476 ELEMENTS. 

p. 643.] For Ssk. Jchusa, Bopp in Gl. 78*. 86'' writes kusa 
I find a reincurni also in Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 364, reinegras = B]ga,, 
Sumerl. 54. Putting earth or turf on the head secures against 
magic, Panz. Beitr. 1, 240-1. Kuhn's Nord. s, p. 378. 

p. 644.] Emigrants took earth as well as fire out with them 
(Suppl. to 611) ; conf. the strewing of earth in the Old Saxon 
legend. porhaddr var hofgoSi i prandheimi, hann fystist til 
Islands, ok tok a^r ofan hofit, ok haf'Si roe's ser hois-moldina ok 
sulurnar, Landn. 4, 6. 

p. 644.] Demeter meets Jasion in the thrif allow, the fruitfullest 
cornland : ixi'yri (j^iXoTrjri Koi evvfj veim evi rpiiroXw, Od. 5, 127, 
conf. Hes, Theog. 971 and veio^ Tpl7roXo<i, II. 18, 541; OHG. 
drisl-a, GDS. 53. 61-2. 

p. 645.] A mons sanctus near Jugenheim is mentioned in a 
record of 1264; conf. svetd gord = 'M.t Athos ; an opo'i lepov of 
the Getae named Koi'yalcovov, Strabo 7, 298; a holy mount &i]Kr](f 
in Pontus, Xen. Anab. iv. 7, 11. The mountains named grand' 
father are discussed in Hpt's Ztschr. 1, 26. Two adjacent moun- 
tains in Lausitz are named by the Wends wrn^j boh and hjely hoh, 
black god, white god. Wend, volksl. 2, 285. The Ossetes 
worship their highest mountains (brakabseli, fair mountains), 
KohFs S. Russia 1, 296. 

p. 645.] The notable passage on roch- worship in Landn. 2, 
12 is as follows : ^ hann (Thorolfr) hafSi sva mikinn dtrunad' a 
fialli |?V3, er sto^ i nesinu, er hann kalladi Helgafell, at )?angat 
skyldi engi ma'Sr opvegiyin Uta ; ok sva var ]7ar mikil friffhelgi, 
at Jjar skyldi engu granda i fialliuu, hvarki fe ne monnum, nema 
sialft gengi brott. pat var trua J>eirra porolfs fraenda, at |?eir 
doel allir % fiall'd (al. codex : J>a \>e\v dcei, mundi ]7eir iJialUt hverfa 
allir).^ And 2, 16: ' hof Su mikinn dtrunad' d holana — truSu 
]?eir |7vi, at |?eir doei i holana' (hull ■= tumulus, colliculus) ; conf, 
' dying {vanishing) into the mountain.* The Icelander Kodran of 
Vatnsdal had a stone at Gilja, to which he and his fathers sacri- 
ficed ; they imagined the dr-ma&r lived inside it, from whom 

fruitful years proceeded, Kristnisaga c. 2. Stones prophesy, 

Norske ev. no. 30 ; they are washed, anointed, honoured, F. Magn. 
Lex. p. 961. When winds are conti'ary, sailors wash a blue stone, 
and obtain a fair wind ; they also take oaths upon it. Honeys 
Yrbk 1553. People liueel naked before the holy stone. Hone's 



EARTH. 1477 

Daybk 1,825. 2, 1035. They creep through hollow stones (p. 
1 166), they go into hollow rocks to present offerings (p. 58) ; conf. 
the Gibichen-stones, the pottle-stones with pits and holes, Giesebr. 
Bait. stud. 12, 114. 128. 'Do his quae faciunt super petras' is 
the heading of cap. 7 of Indicul. Superst. On stone-worship among 

Celts, see Michelet 2, 16-7. In Swed. tales and spells a stone 

is always ' jonl-fast sten,' one fixed in the earth, Runa ^44, 22 ; 
a iarffjMom steini st65 ec innan dyra, Saem. 99''; tiWenjord- 
fasten sten, Sv. folks. 1, 217. Sv. iifventyr 1, 282-4-8. 305; 
AS. earbfiest. But we also hear of the ' wahsender biihel,' grow- 
in"' hill, Lanz. 5132 ; and a Slov. riddle, 'kai rat^te bres korenia 
(what grows without root) ?' has the answer * kanien/ stone. A 
distinction is also drawn between walgende and vaste-ligende 
steine, Leyser 129, 35; usque ad iv ago den stein, Mon. Zoll. no. 
1, tvagonden stein, no. 12 ; gnappstein, Stalder 2, 519; Dan. rokke- 
stenc, Schreiber's Feen 21. These stones by their rocking are 
said to bring on thunder and rain, 0. Miiller 2, 340. Stones are 
often landmarks : zu dem grawen stein, Weisth. 1, 242, an dem 
blauen stein 2, 661. 

p. 646.] Giants and men turn into stone (p. 551-2) ; stones 
have sense and feeling. It is true we say ' stone-deaf, stone- 
dead,' siille sara die steine, Karl 92\ 94», and Otfried iv. 7, 4 
calls them unthrdte, pigri ; yet in Luke 1-9, 40 ' the stones would 
cry out;' the stone holds fast, Miillenh. p. 142-3. The pierren 
(/e ?nt/iU(7 move at midnight, conf. the turning-stones in the Ir. 
march. 2, 37 — 44; the stone turns round on Christmas night, 
Harrys 1 no. 34 (conf. Heusinger p. 20), or when bells ring, 
Dybeck 4, 43. Men complain to stones as they do to earth (p. 
642) and fire (p. 629), as if to elemental gods. The stone you 
complain to changes colour, the white turns red, the red blue, 
Wiichter's Statistik pp. 13. 156. 'Si klagten, daz sich die 
miirsteine mohten kJiehen herdan,' Klage 977 (so : ' si ruoften, 
daz diu erde unter in sich mehte haben uf getan,' opened under 
them 1073) ; * stahel, vlins u. stein sih muosen von dem jamer 
kliehen,' Tiirl. Wh. 3''; 'klage, diu flinse het gespalten,' split 
tlints, Tit. 3765; 'von ir schoene miieste ein vels erkracheu,' 
MsH. 3, 173» [similar examples omitted] ; ' hiute ist der stein 
naz, da Karl uffe saz, vil heize weinunde,' to-day the stone is wet, 
whereon K. sat hotly weeping, Ksrchr. 14937. Stones relent iu 



1478 TKEES AND ANIMALS. 

the story of Hoyer, Wigal. p. 57—9. 452. Bait. stud. xi. 2, 191. 
A stone will not let a false man sit on it, ' uf der Eren (eren ? 
lionoui'^s) steine sitzen/ Lanz. 5178 seq. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

TREES AND ANIMALS. 

p. 647.] As Freidank 10, 7 says that angels are immortal, 
that of men the spirit is immortal, but the body mortal, and of 
beasts both body and soul are mortal; so Berthold p. 364 allows 
being to stones, being and life to plants, feeling to animals. 
Schelling says, life sleeps in the stone, dozes in the plant, dreams 
in the beast, wakes in man. The Ssk. a-ga, na-ga (non iens) 
= tree, hill, Bopp's Gl. 2\ 189\ So in the Mid. Ages the line is 
drawn between ' ligendez und lebendez,' Diemer 89, 24. Notker's 
Boeth. speaks of bourne and chriuter (trees and herbs) diu fone 
saffe lehent, and of tniliving lapides, metalla. In Esth., beasts 

are ellayat, living ones, and plants kasvias, that which lives. 

Not only do wild birds grieve at man's lament, Waltli. 124, 30, 
and beasts and fishes help him to mourn, Ges. Abent. 1, 8, but 
* elliu geschefede/ all created things. May, summer's bliss, heath, 
clover, wood, sun and Venus, MS. 1, 3''; * gi bom, gras, lof unde 
kriit (leaf and hei-b), helpet mi skrigen over hit (cry aloud) !' 
Marienklage 386. Grass and flower fret at misdeeds, and mourn, 
Petersb. extr. fr. Kalev. p. 25, and in folksongs wither up. 
Bluomen brehent u. smierew^, MS. 1,44''; do daz spil ergangen 
was, do lachten bluomen u. gras, Hagen's Ges. Abent. 1,464; 
die bourn begunden krachen, die rosen sere lachen, ibid. Flowers 
on the heath quarrel : ' do sach ich bluomen striten wider den 
griienen Me (clover), weder ir longer waere,* which of them was 
taller, Walth. 114, 28 ; du bist kurzer, ich bin langer, also stritens 
uf dem anger bluomen unde Me 51, 35 ; vil maniger hande bluomen 
Mp (chid), MS. 1, 35*^; bluomen hriegent umb ir schin, Lohengr. 
p. 154; bluomen lachent durch daz gras, der kurzer, dirre longer 
was, Dietr. drach. 1067; conf. Kl. schr. 2, 157. They have their 
rules, Altd. w. 1, their precedences, their meanings and language, 
conf. the Flower-games (Suppl. to 909). Tree-worship was 



TREES. 1479 

highly developed among the Indians and Greeks. The Hindus 
with elaborate ceremonies marry trees to one another, esp. the 
mango and tamarind, shrubs like the rose and jessamine, even 
tanks and stones, Sleeman's llambles and Recoil. [Horace : vitem 
viduas ducib ad arbores]. Woycicki, Germ, ed, p. 111-5. For 
Greeks, see Botticher. The Germans wake tree as well as corn, 
Ziugerle 691 ; biiumchen, sclUaf mcJit,fra.\i Holle kommt . . . 
bilumchen, wach auf, neujahr ist da, Somm. 162. 182 ; the forest 
sleeps at New-year, P. Dieffenb. Wetterauer sag. p. 274; conf. 
Gerhard's hymn : ' Nun ruhen alle walder.^ Tree-tops wave, and 
carry messages, Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 161; 'the birches know it 
still,' Gellert 3, 388. Trees blossom at a happy event, and wither 
when, a death is near, Sueton. Galba 1 ; and like the Emperors, 
the Greeks had family-trees. Volsung's tree, barn-stockr, stood 
in the hall. Vols. cap. 2 ; conf. our ' genealogical tree.' 

1. Trees. 

p. 649.] Akin to nimid is vernemet = ^a,nnm ingens, Venant. 
Fort. 1, 9. Diefenb. Celt. 1, 83-4 : silva quae vocatur nemet, 
Gliick p. 17; 8/3u-i/eyLt6T09, Strabo 567. GDS. 497. Zeuss's Die 
Deut. derives nemet fr. neamch = coelum, and sees in it a ' sub 
divo,' therefore a contrast to wood. A Vocab. optim. p. 47* 
renders silva wilder wait, nemus schoener wait, lucus dicker 
wait, saltus holier wait. 

p. 651.] The Lapps shoot hllndfold at a suspended bearskin, 
Klemm 3, 14. Dyb. lluna 4, 92. The Araer. Indians hang up 
a bison-skin on a high pole to the Lord of life, and then cut it 
up into small pieces, Klemm 2, 164; likewise a deerskin 2, 179. 
Skins of sacrifices are hung up by Tungiises, Ostiaks, Boriats, 
Cherkesses, 3, 106. 125. 114. 4,91. The golden fleece of the 
ram was nailed to an oak, Preller 2, 211. 

p. 651.] That is a pretty story of the holy oak, whoso falling 
leaves people do not touch. When it is cut down and burnt, a 
dog appears in the ashes, and makes the people take all the ashes 
back to where the tree stood, Firmen. 1, 358. The oak as a tree 
of plaints occurs in Megenberg, Hpt's Zschr. 4, 255. Messages 
are delivered to a holy oak, Livy 3, 25. Its great age inspired 
respect : * so long as oak and earth do stand,' Weisth. 2, 225 : 
' while the tree is in the ground and the acorn thereon/ 3, 779 ; 



1480 TREES AND ANIMALS. 

j'ai vu le gland et la gaule, Barzas br. 1, 28. 32. On oak and 
beech, see Dyb. '^o, 78-9 ; conf. ttjv iraXaiav (prjyov, Soph. Trach. 
171. ^ Af fornum Jyolli' ex antiqua pinu, Sn. ed. ^48, 1, 308 ; but 

'af eikirotu' 310. The ash was also holy: fraxinus quern 

imperiti sacrum vocant, Kemble 5, 103 (yr 854). It is hostile to 
snakes, Panz. Beitr. 1, 251-2. Pliny 16, 14 ; conf. askr Yggdra- 
sill, and note, p. 796. There was a spell, that gave a hazel-rod 
the power to flog people in their absence ; in the Atharva-veda a 
branch of agvattha has the power of destroying enemies ; conf. 
the hazel-wand as wishing-rod (p. 975). Hasalwara is a proper 
name. Cod. Lauresh. 809. Lett, lasda, lags da, Li th. lazda = cory- 
lus, baculus ; Lazdona = avellanarum deus, god of filberts. 

p. 653.] It is dangerous to build where an elder-tree has stood, 
Praetor. Weltb. 1,16. Of the ronn, rowan, a sacred tree, we 
read in Dyb. '44, 9 : ronnen sade till mannen : ' hugg mig ej, 
da bidder jag,' hew me not, or I bleed, Wieselgr. 378 ; conf. the 
Pruss. tale in Tettau and Temme p. 259, and the Finn, clopua, 
arbor vitae, 'non caedenda in pratis.' The evil WecJcholterin 
(juniper) is mentioned in the Herpin, Hagen's Ges. Ab. 3, xi. 
The Serv. for juniper, borovitza, is from bor, fir, Lett, paegle, 
because it grows under the fir; and the Swed. tall (fir, pine) is 
not to be hewn either : do so, and on turning round you'll see 
your house on fire, Dyb. 4, 26. 44. Neither is the hawthorn, 
Nilsson 6, 4. 

p. 653.] Have we any Germ, stories of spirits that live in the 
erle (alder) ? Goethe's Erl-hing seems taken from the Fr. aulne, 
aime = B]nvLS and daemon. Kalis passes out of Nala into the 
Vibhitaka, which is regarded as haunted after that, Bopp's Nalus 
p. 153. Holtzra. Ind. sag. 3, 72. To the fig-tree the Indians 
present oS"erings, which are consumed by crows, sparrows and 
cranes ; hence their name of sacrifice-eater. Like the maiden in 
the pine, the gods are said to live between hark and tree, Lasicz 
46 ; conf. creeping between wood and bark (p. 1085). Iw. 1208 : 
sam daz holz under der rltiden, alsam sit ir verborgen ; 0. Engl. 
Iw. 741 : als the bark hilles the tre; 0. Fr. Iw. p. 146: li fuz 
qui est coverz de lescorce qui sor lui nest (nait). A holy oak 
grows out of the mouth of a slain king, Harrys 1 no. 55. 

p. 654.] In choosing a twig [for a wishing-rod ?] it is important, 
first, that it be a new shoot, the suraer-late (p. 975), and secondly. 



ANIMALS. 1481 

that it look to the east : a ba'Smi vi"Sar |?eim er luta austr limar, 
Saera. 195". Flowers were invoked: es sten dri roseu in jenem 
dal, die rufent, jungfrau, an, Uhl. Volksl. 87. sauctas gentes, 
quibus haec nascuntur in hortis numina ! Juven. Sat. 15, 10. 

2. Animals. 

p. 655.] Beasts are commonly regarded as dumb : stumbcz 
tier, Iw. 7767, storame beste, Lane. 18849. 32919, daz un- 
sprechende vihe, Warnung 2704; conf. muta animalia, Dan. 
umiileude beest, ON. omala; * der lewe zeict im unsprechenden 
gruoz/ Iw. 3870. They are ignorant : tier vil ungewizzen, Er. 
5843, Yet they not only show sympathy, like stones and plants 
(Suppl. to 646-7), but in urgent cases they, like dumb children, 
find their tongues ; witness Balaam's ass, and : armentaque vulgo 
ansa loqui, Claudian in Eutrop. 2, 43 ; attonito pecudes pastors 
locutos 1, 3. Oxen talk, Panz. Beitr. 1, no. 255. Nork 12, 377 ; 
ox and ass converse in the Bret, volksm. 87-8, but only for an 
hour once a year, between 11 and 12 on Christmas night, N. 
Preuss. prov. bl. 5, 468. Bosquet p. 221. Beasts can see spirits : 
Balaam's ass saw the angel with the sword. Numb. 22, 23 — 33 ; 
the dogs see the goddess, horses and hounds are ghost-seers 
(p. 667), Panz. Beitr. 1, 118; nay Athenaeus 3, 454 says all birds 
were men once. 

p. 656.] Conf. Ferd. Wachter's art. Pferde in the Halle 
Encycl., and the beautiful Serv. wedding-song (Vuk, ed. nov. 15, 
no. 23. Wesely p. 55). Sleipnir is the son of Loki, a god, and 
SvaSilfari; from him is descended Sigurb's Grani, Vols. c. 13, 
and Grani has 'mans vid,' Far. qvad. 156. A sagacious trusty 
steed occurs in Walacli. miirch. no. 17, one that gives advice in 
Sv. sag. 1, 164; and in German, still more in Hungarian fairy- 
tales we have wise, helpful, talking horses, Ungr. tatos s. Ispolyi 
(conf. p. 392). Skinfaxi is a cow's name in a Norweg. tale, Asb. 
Huldr. 1, 202. 

p. 658.] Nott rides on Ilrinifaxi, Dagr on Skinfajc-i. The 
Indians thought curly hair on a horse a lucky sign, Bopp's Gl. 
34*. The horse offered up by kings at the asvamedha must be 
wJdte. To ride a white horse is a privilege of gods, kings and 
heroes, Pind. Pyth. 4, 117 : XevKtinroov Trarepoiv. A stallion with 
three white feet and two glass eyes is in Weisth. 2, 618. 



1482 TREES AND ANIMALS. 

p. 658 n.] Helbl. 15, 293 : ein heng-est der noch nie gras an 
fulzande en-beiz. A Fulizan in Ring 49^ 38. 49^ 31 . The Serv. 
for fiilizant is xdrebetiak, foal's (zub underst.). . A horse keeps 
his foal-teeth till his third year, then cuts his horse-teeth, 
dentes equini, quos nonnisi trimis caballis natura concedit, Pertz 
8, 214; jouenes polains, quatre dens ot jetes, Ogier 2412; dentes 
equi, qui primi cadunt, alligati facilem dentionem praestant, 
Forcell. sub. v. dentio. 

CoUo igitur molli dentes nectentur equini, 

qui primi fuerint pullo crescente caduci. Serenus sam. 1040. 

The same of a child's teeth : pueri qui primus ceciderit dens, ut 
terram non attingat, inclusus in armillam et assidue in brachio 
habitus, Pliny 28, 4. GDS. 154. 

p. 659.] To Swed. gndgya corresp. ON. gneggja. Seem. 144% 
AS. hnagan, neigh. The Dan. vrindshe is our brenschen, wren- 
schen, frenschen ; conf. ivrene hengst. Lex Sal. p. xxviii. Ssk. 
vrinh, barrire, Bopp 32*^. Norw. Dan. humra, a low humming 
neigh. In Lanz. 474 : ez begunde sin ros tveien, trasen unde 
schreien ; in Garg. 240^ : rihelen u. hinnewihelen, 77'' : hinne- 
wiheln. Is wihelen akin to Prov. evelhier, Ferabr. 3613, and the 
horse's name Valentin, Ital. Vegliantino? In Gudr. 1395 : ' man 
horte ein ros ergrinen ' when the battle began. Bellona spuman- 
tium ad bella equorum hinnitii aures arrigens, Pertz 2, 169. 

p. 660.] Vedrebbe un teschio d' asino in su un -polo, il 
quale quando col tnuso volto vedesse verso Firenze, Decam. 7, 1. 
Remember too the gyrating eagle on a roof (p. 633-4), and the 
dove over a grave (p. 1134-5 n.). 

p. 660.] As to horses' heads on gables, see Miillenh. p. 239. 
Panz. Beitr. 2, 180. 448-9 ; they protect the rafters from wind 
and weather. Lith. zirges, roof-rider, from zirgas, horse, Nesselm. 
549 ; also ragai, antlers, 426 ; conf. capreoli, tigna ad firmandum, 
and AS. Heort, Heorot, name of the house in Beowulf. 

p. 664.] The Boriats dedicate to the herdsmen's god Sul- 
bundu a horse, on which he rides at night, and which they find 
all in a sweat in the morning, Klemm 3, 115, The horses ridden 
by spirits or night-wives have stirrup, cord and wool in their 
sides, and are covered with drops of ivax, Kaisersb. Om. 42*^. 43*. 
Kalmuks also consecrate a horse to the god, and let it run loose, 



ANIMALS. 1483 

Lodebour 2, 49. Horses scrape up gold, like that of Raramels- 
berg-, or a fountain, like Pegasus; conf. Panz. Beitr. 1, 38-9. 
163. 18G. 201. The hoof-prints of a god's horse in stone were 
believed in by the Romans : Ergo et illud in silice, quod hodie 
apparet apud Regillum, tanquam vestigium ungulae Castoris equi 
esse credis, Cic. de Nat. D. 3, 5. A sacred white horse walks on 
water without wetting his feet, Polier 2, CIS. 

p. 664.] Foremost of victims stands asva, a horse-sacrifice is 
asvamedha, Bohtling, 1, 520-4. The significance of a horse's 
head appears in many other customs : it is played upon (pp. 849. 
1050-71), thrown into the Midsum. fire (p. 618), stuck on a pole 
or tied on a person at Christmas, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 472-4 ; in 
fairytales it works miracles, Miillenh. p. 422, often serves as a 
bridge 34. 146. 544, is nailed up under the town-gate (Falada's), 
and wooden ones are set on gables (p. 660). GDS. 151. 

p. 665.] Sacred oxen of Artemis are mentioned in Plutarch's 
Lucullus p. m. 606. Harekr keeps a hlotnaut in the forest, 
Fornm. sog. 3, 132. On the bull's head in the scutcheon of 
Mecklenbg, see Lisch, Meckl. jrb. 10, 15 seq. 

p. 666.] Oxen dig up a hurricane with their horns. A bull- 
calf is reared to fight the dragon, DS. 142, Miillenh. p. 238. 
Thiele 1, 125. Nandini is of all kine the best : he that drinketh 
of her milk remaineth young 10,000 years, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 
99. 100. 'The black cow crushes him, has trodden him' means 
' he is weighed down by want and care : ' so trat ihn audi die 
schwarze kuh, Ambraser lieder 147; stor blaa stud, Norske cv. 1, 
111; conf. Ilungar. 'has not yet trod the black cow's heel,' 
Wolf's Ztschr. 1, 271-2. Beside the cow's name Auffhumla, we 
have designations of oxen, as freyr, iormunrekr, reginn, Sn. 221* 
(ed. Hafn. 587). 

p. 666.] A most ancient and fierce rjoltr, worshipped by the 
people, Fornm. s. 4, 57-8 ; conf. eburSrnng (p. 727). Wacker- 
nagel in Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 280 puts a different interpret, on the 
verses preserved by Notker; but conf. the boar of the Swed. 
folktale, that goes about grunting with a knife in his back (Hpt 
4, 506-7), and the Dan. legend of Limfiorden (Thiele 1, 131) : A 
sorceress gave birth to a pig, and he grew so big that his bristles 
stood up above the forest-trees (Notk., burste eben-ho forste), and 
he rooted up the earth so deep that the sea flowed in to Gil the 



1484 TKEES AND ANIMALS. 

dike; conf. swine-dike (p. 1023). Arooting black hog foretells 
the fall of the city, Miillenh. p. 105 ; a Malb. gloss calls the boar 
diramni, earth-plougher, Leo 1, 75. GDS. p. 57. With Ovid's 
descr. of a boar, Met. 8, 284 seq., conf. Alb. v. Halberstadt 
p. 269, where the tiisks are an eln lane (Notk., zene sine zuelif- 
elnige), which is not in Ovid; ' dente minax ' we find in Rudl. 
16, 90. Vishnu in one incarnation appears on the sea as a boar. 
A white goat is reckoned wholesome in a horse's stable, Leopr. 
226. 

p. 667.] The dog is named among sacrificial beasts (pp. 48. 
53), Kuhn's Westph. sag. 2, 138 : he belongs to Hecate, Klau- 
seu's yEn. 1137. The dog knows Odysseus in his disguise; 
bitches can scent a Faunus : ' ab ea cane quae femina sit ex 
primipara genita Faunos cerni,' Pliny 8, 40, 62 ; only a dog 
with four eyes (nellisilm), i.e. with spots over his eyes, can see a 
devil, Estn. verb. 2, 90. A dog will bark before a haunted rock, 
Dyb. 4, 25. Dogs go mad if you give them the bones of the 
Easter lamb, Keisersb. Om. 52^. Peter's dog appears in the 
legend of Simon and Peter, AS. homil. p. 372-4. Pass. H. 175. 

p. 669.] A name similar to Vetrlicfi is Sumarli"Si, Fornm. s. 3, 
205 ; conf. Gramm. 2, 505. Other poetic names for the bear in 
Sn. 175. 221, e.g. iorekr, equos fugans. To Samoyeds and Ostiaks 
the bear is a god, Castreu 235. 342 ; the Finn, oldo is born in 
heaven, and brought to earth in a golden cradle ; ' to climb on 
the bear's shoulders' means to go to heaven ; his foam has virtue, 
and should be taken up, Kalev. 13, 236. 254. As OSinn has two 
wolves, the Finn. Pahonev has great bloodhounds in his service, 
Salrael. 1, 193. It is believed in Scotland that deer can see 
spirits, Arvids. Ossian 1, 238. Fells aurea pro deo colitur, Pliny 
4, 29, 35; cats are poisonous, ace. to Berth, of Regensb. 303; 
Unander connects fres with our viel-frass, glutton. A story in 
Klemm 2, 159 makes out that the house-building beaver was 
once man. 

p. 670.] A bird demands that men shall sacrifice to him (p. 
672) ; conf. the Lettish bii'd-cultus (p. 77), Giesebr. Bait. stud. 
12, 128. 139. The 'servitium consuetum in blado et volatilibus,' 
Ch. a. 1311. MB. 30^, 61 need not refer to sacrifice ; it may be a 
mere tribute in corn and poultry. An angel is sent in the shape 
of a bird, see Gudrun and Sv. vis. 1, 232-4-5. As wind is repres. 



ANIMALS. 1485 

under the form of an eagle, so the aar makes air aud shade (p. 
1 133), aud the cock perhaps weather, conf. the weathercock. 

p. 071.] To the Dan. metaphor corresp. the Low Germ. ' de 
raude han kreide ut den dack,' Firmeii. 1,202'*. Cockcrow announces 
day: iirel 8' aXeKTcop ijfiepau ecrdXTTicre, Lucian's Ocypus 114. A 
set phrase in fairytales is : " lou gal cante, e foughe jhour,' Diet, 
langued. 224; 'cokkes crewe ande hit was daie,' Sevin sages 2536; 
tliaz huan gikundit dages kuufti, 0. iv. 18, 3i ; do krat der han, 
ez was tac, Altsw. 67, 3 ; skal ek fyrivcstan vindhialms bruar 
AcJr sahjofiiir siijrpio(T ceki, Saera. 166. It scares away spirits : 

Feruut vagantes daemonas 

laetos tenebris noctium 

(jallo canente exterritos 

sparsim timere et cedere. Prudentii Hym. ad galH cantiim 10. 

A rod and a grey cock crow to the spirit, Minstr. 3, 48, also a 
white and a (jreji, 2, 468. A black hen is sacrificed to the hill- 
mannikins (p. 1010). A Hack cock that was hum lame takes the 
spell off an enchanted castle, Miillenh. p. 351. Out of a cock's 
i"^^ is hatched a dragon, Leopr. 78. Of the longest tail-feathers 
of a cock pull out the riijht one, and you'll open any lock that you 
touch with it, walk invisible, and see everything, Luciani Soma. 
28-9. A cock with lohite feathers is cut up, and carried round 
the vineyard against the wind. Pans. ii. 34, 3. Sacred cocks in 

Athen. 3, 445. The cock on the steeple was already interpr. 

by the Mystics 1, 199 of the Holy Ghost. In Arabic it is called 
abul-yaksan, father of watchfulness. Pel. Paber in Evagat. 2, 219 
thinks : ' Christiani crucem cum gallo ex institutione prima habent 
in culminibus suarum ecclesiarum ' ; while the Saracens have 
' lunam cornutam vel supinam, quia gallus erecto coUo et cauda 
stans speciem habet supinae lunae.' 

p. 672.] To Ostiaks the eagle is holy, Klemm 3, 122 ; to 
Indians Garuda is king of birds, Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 137; aquila, 

angla = Jovis ministra, Grotef. Inscr. Umbr. 6, 8. The hawk 

was sacred to Apollo, Schwartz p. 16-7. Od. 15, 520: KipKO'j, 
usu. lepa^, and the Egyptians esteemed it a holy bird, GDS. 

51. On fj^arrowhawk and kestrel see Suppl. to 675. Like 

Jhiginn and Muninn, the AS. hyge and myne habitually go to- 
gether, Pref. to Andr. xxxix. Ravens follow the hero : ' Huraldi 

VOL. IV. p 



1486 TREES AND ANIMALS. 

ver fylgSum siz or eggi komun/ Lasebog 112*; two ravens are 
guardian spirits, Geser Khun 278. The raven, like the eagle, is 
-displayed on flags (p. 1112) ; he is to the eagle as the wolf to the 
bear (or lion). More about the raven in Schwartz p. 42-3. 

p. 672.] The swallow, OHG. sualawa, AS. swealewe, ON. 
svala, Dan. svale, Lapp, svalfo. Goth, svalvo ? hruzda? Dae. 
crusta, Lith. kregzde, Gr. '^^^eXiScov, Lat. hirundo for ■)(^eptSa)v, 
')^pi8(i)v, Wallach. rendurea, Alban. delenduse. Lett, besdeliga. 
.Slav, lastovice, vlastovice, Serv. lasta, lastavitza, Russ. lastochka. 
Finn, piiasky. Est. paastlenne. Hung, fetske. The swallow, co? 
''Adrjvaia, is the first to pluck a borrowed plume out of the Ko\oi6<i 
(daw), Babr. 72, 16 ; in prose however (Cor. 188) it is the owl 
(yXayf). Mary's needlewoman, who stole the ball of thread, was 
turned into a swallow, on which the white spot shows the ball, 
Wieselgr. 478. Kunn, like Procne, is changed into a ' swallow ' 
ace. to one reading, though the usual reading is ' hnot,' nut. The 
swallow's young are born blind, Dyb. '45, 67; ^ if one of their 
chicks grows blind, they fetch a herb, lay it on, and restore the 
sight ; hence the herb's name of chelidonium,' celandine, Dioscor. 
2, 213 ; and Megenb. says the same about schellwurz (Suppl. to 
1194). 

p. 672.] The swan, OHG. alpiz, MHG. elbez, AS. ylfet, SI. 
labud, lebedi; Gael, eala, ealadh, Ir. ala, eala, Wei. alarch, eleirch. 
' Ulfa ]>ytr mer |:>6tti illr vera hia songvi svana,' Sn. 27; ylfete 
song, Cod. Exon. 307, 6; see p. 436 and Schwartz p. 43-4-6. The 
Finns call their youtsen a holy bird, pyha linu, Kalev. 8, 73. 

p. 673.] The stork is called odohoro in Slettst. Gl. 36, 33 ; 
otfer, otdifer, Altswert 71. In Lower Germany : adehar langben, 
hdlehat langben, hnepper (rattler) langben; in Groningen aiber, 
eiher ; in Gelders uiver, heiluiver, also heilehaot, albaor, Simrock 
no. 335-6 ; heilehate, Hor. Belg. 7, 27**; ' to call the stork heilhott 
and otterivehr,' Froschmeus. Ji vii''. Can we trace it to a Goth, 
addja-baira, egg-bearer, or addje-baura, egg-born ? Kl. schr. 3, 

147. 164. Outzen pp. 1. 2 says, adebar = spring's herald. The 

Esth. for stork is tone kurg, Finn, nalkakurki, hunger-heron ? 
Lith. gandras ; Lett, swehts putns, holy bii'd, and melnspi-ahklis^ 
black rump ; Pol. bocian and Boh. bocan for the black stork, Pol. 
czapla and Boh. cap for the white; this last is also Boh. 'bohdal,' 
God-given, dieudonne, Morav. 'bogdal, bokdal'; conf. evae^i- 



ANIMALS. 1487 

armov ^Hov, ^sop. Fur, 70. Babr. 13, 7 ; candidao aves, Joni. 
c. l-l. The Slavic has also the congener of our stork in str'k, 

Miklos. p. 87, Russ. sterkh, Serv. shtrk. A stork foretells the 

(lowiifall of a city, Join. c. 42. Procop. 1, 330; another saves 
his father, Babr. 13, 8. Storks are men, says the Spinrocken- 
evang. Samst. llj. In striking harmony with Wolfram's eulogy, 
the stork in Babr. 13, 5 says : ov aTropou Kara<^9eLpoi. 

p. 675.] Ovid too has a statue 'gerens in vertice Picnm,' Met. 
14, 314; on Picus, see Klausen 844-5. 1141. Both picus and 
pica seem akin to -rrotKiXo^, variegated ; or picus and s-pecht, 
pecker, go together. Tiio Greek for woodpecker is TreXe/ca?, fr, 
ireXeKuv, to hack, ireXeKv^;, hatchet; Staid. 1,263 has tann-bicker, 
= picus martins; Lith. volunge, wood-hacker, is the greenpecker 
Lith. genys, Serv. zhunia, are also names of the woodpecker; Lett, 
dsennis, dsilna, is the bee-eater. The Russ. diatel, Pol. dzieciol, 
Boh. datel (woodp.) seems conn, with dzieci^, ditia, deti (child), 
perhaps because he was considered a foster-father, as Picus was 
to Romulus. The Swiss merzafiilli is in the Hennebg dialect 
shortened into a simple merz : ' der merz hackt dich,' Hpt's 
Ztschr. 3, 360. Beside kliktati, used of the woodpecker's whine 
(and of the vila's cry, p. 436), we have totrkati = pulsare in arbore, 
ut picus facit. Lith. ulbauya volunge, the woodp. whimpers, wails. 
Ukko created the konkelo (greenp.), Peterson 12. Ron vail sub v. 
The pecker kind are treasure-birds (p. 973). Kuhn thinks the 
woodp. is conn, with fire. What is the meaning of ' han ich iu 
den spcht erschozzen ? ' Hpt 6, 501. 

p. 675.] The Kparroxchawh, Boh. krahug, krahulcc, krahuljk = 

falco nisus, Pol. krogulec, Linde 1134''; Hung, karoly, karvoly. 

The OHG. for kestrel, ^oannoweho, ivanmmivechel, Graff 1, 643, 

wannewechel in Ziemann, sounds remarkably like the Lett, vchia 

vannags, sparrowhawk, lit. holy hawk, for Lith. vanagas is hawk, 

vanagelis little hawk. Garg. 279'' has the exclamation : ir 

ivannenicdher ! This is the name they still give in Swabia to a 

small bird of prey : they hang little tubs or baskets {wannen) 

outside their houses for it to build in, and think the house is then 

proof against lightning. Mono 7, 429. Frisch 2, 422 has wanne- 

weihe, accipiter tinunculus, and other furms.^ Does our weihe, 

' Tinunculus is no doubt from tina, a vessel very similar to wanne ; see Victor 
Hehn's " Migrations of Plants and Animals," Engl, transl. (Swan Sonnenschein) 
p. 487.— Tkansl. 



1488 TEEES AND ANIMALS. 

wio, wiho (milvus, kite) mean sacred bird ? conf. wivo : * milvos 
laedere capitale est ' in England, says Leo v. Rozmital 40. 
GDS. 50. 

The owl prophesies (p. 1135). The Greeks held it sacred, as 
bird of night, bird of victory, bird of Athena. The Amer. 
Indians worshipped it, Klemm 2, 164; and conf. the Esth. 
tharapila, horned owl (p. 77). Runes were marked 'a nefi vglo/ 
as well as 'a arnar nefi/ Saem. 196". On strix, o-Tpcj^, see pp. 
1039 n. 1045. 

p. 678. J The cuckoo, by calling out his name, awakens joy, 
hence his Finn, name of ilo-kdki, joy-cuckoo, Kalev. 14, 226, 
munaiset kakeni 5, 196-7 (like Swed.troste-gok) ; yet also sorrow- 
cuckoo, Castren 292 ; six gold cuckoos, kuus on kullaista kakea, 
Kalev. 14, 31 ; the sun like a golden cuckoo climbs the sky 27, 
265. Lapp, jaka, Syrian, kok. Ssk, kokila. Pott's Zahl-meth. 
229. Mark our exclamation 'heida-guguk ! ' Schulmeisters- 
wahl 50-1. 83. ORG. fols, cuckoo, Graff 3, 517, has never been 
explained. On the cuckoo, see Reusch in N.Preuss. prov. bl. 5, 
321 — 343; on the gucker, peeper, Leopr. p. 79. Shaksp., at 
the end of Love's Lab. Lost, quotes a verse on Spring and the 
cuckoo, and one on AVinter and the owl. The cuckoo is summer's 
warden : swylce geac mmiaff geomran reorde singeS sumers weard, 
serge beodeff. He prophesies to unplighted maidens, conf. Runa 
'44, p. 10; 'waz der kukuk hiure sane,' this year sang, Mone's 
Schausp. 131. 

p. 680.] Zitefogel, a prop, name, Mone's Anz. 3, 13. The 
peasant's time-hird is the raven, Kalenb. p. m. 284-7. In Wilt- 
shire the people sing : ' The cuckoo's a fine bird. She sings as 
she flies. She brings us good tidings, And tells us no lies. She 
sucks the small birds' eggs To make her voice clear, And the more 
she sings " cuckoo," The summer draws near. The cuckoo comes 
in April, Stays the month of May, Sings a song at Midsumvier, 

And then a goes awaij.' An Ukrainian song of the cuckoo in 

Bodenstedt 57. Ace. to a Germ, song of the 16th cent., the 
cuckoo 'hat sich zu tod gefallen von einer hohen weide (willow).' 
The New Zealanders, like the Poles, esteemed the cuckoo a god 
(catua), Klemm 4, 371. 

p. 681.] On the sceptres of Egyptian gods sits the kuku- 
pha's head, Bunsen 1, 435; conf. the figure at 315. 591 with the 



ANIMALS. 14H9 

kukuplia-scoptrc, Pindar's Pytli. 1, 10 ai^a o-kuttto) ^to?, ami 
tlie variant in EdJa, Hafn. 2, 202 Gunj^nis ugla. The plates to 
I'ortz Scr. 8 show a bird jtcrched on the sceptres of the Germ, 
kings Henry IV. and V. (conf. the eagle on Arthur's sceptre, 
Lane. 30791). The cuckoo is the bird of wedlock and fecundity, 
that is why he has ten wives given him, Firmen. 2, 243*. For 
Notker's ' ruoh/ Ps. 57, 11, both Graff l, 1150 and Hattemer 

write ko\ih. A Gauchs-perk occurs in Tirol, urbar. August, a. 

1316. MB. 34". 3G0; Gogeleherrj, Panz. Beitr. 1, 28; Gor/gles- 
herg, Steub's Rlijit. 47 ; the Swiss name Guggenbiihler pre- 
supposes a Guggen-hiihel (-hill) ; Gifgenherg in Up. Rhon and 
near Hersfeld, Hess. Ztschr. 1, 245; conf. Tumbo saz in berge 
= Stupidus in monte sedebat = giant. Henn von Narrenherg, 
Seb. Brant p. m. 131 ; an Affenherg near Niirnberg, Ettn. 
Unw. doct. 698 ; a Monkey's mountain [Jebel Tsatut, the anc. 
Abyla] on the African coast opp. Gibraltar. On affenberg, 
schalksberg, see Kl. schr. 2, 147. Gen dera affen-tal uzwaten, 
Hadamar 444, 4; der affen zit, Fragm. 14\ 

p. 682.] The cuckoo is reckoned a vilf>er, who when the leaves 
come out in spring, dare not eat his fill, for fear they should run 
short : ' so der goucli daz erste loup gesiht, so getar sich's gesaten 
niht, er viirht ez im zerinne/ Freid. 88, 3 : more fully in the 
Welsche gast 114*: conf. Freid. Ixxxvii. In Ssk. he is called 
' ab alio nutritus,' Bopp's Gl. 209''. Gothl. gank-pigd, en fagel 
som tros ligga ut gokkens iigg, Almqv. 425'\ He eats the hedge- 
sparrow's eggs, and puts his own in her nest, Freid. 143, 21. 
144, 1 — 10; this is a fact of natural history, Dobel 1, 60. Schu- 
bert's Lehrb. p. m. 315. Eckerm. Gespr. mit Goethe 3, 211 — 5. 
When grown up, he is said to devour his (foster-) parents, ibid. 
208, and iu winter to become a bird of prey. He begins pretty 
early to stand for the devil : ' knkuk Jiiure unde vert /' this year 
and last, an old hand, Ilelbl. 4, 800 ; ' des wirt guot rat, kukuk ! ' 

8, 1234. Instead of the hoopoo, the wripurk takes the place of 

servant to the cuckoo: Finn, kiien piika, cuculi ancilla, is transl. 
'jynx torqnilla' by Renvall, 'curruca' by Juslen. The wryneck 
is said by Nemnich (sub v. jynx) to come a fortnight earlier than 
the cuckoo; Swed. gok-tyta, Wei. gwas y gog, cuckoo's hand- 
maid. The hittern and the hoopoo were once cowherds, Lisch 
^leckl. jrb. 5, 77. The kibitz, kywit, peewit, which plays a 



1490 



TREES AND AKIMALS. 



prominent part in tLe marchen of the Juniper-tree, is called 
giritz in Stalder ], 44.8: ^in plover's reedy swamp (giritze-ried) 
enchanted maidens fly/ Other tales of the lapwing in Nares's 
Gl. sub. V. The polytrichum comra, is in Finn. Jcden j^e^fce^, 
cuculi securis; gauch-heil (pimpernel ?), which is not in Graff, 
and is sometimes called hiihnerdarm, morsus gallinae, is in M. 
Nethl. guychd-hoijl, Mone 6, 448. 

p. 683.] The dove, a holy bird to the Syrians, was in Ssk. 
called kapota and pribu, Gr. TrepicrTepd, Lat. columba and 
palumba, Slav, golubi, Lith. karvelis, balandis, conf. pp. 828. 
1134-5 n. Kl. schr. 5, 445 seq. Women speaking a foreign 
tongue were called doves, says Herod. 2, 57. Song-birds seem 
to have been called wait-singer, Geo. 5849 ; their joy and grief 
were alluded to (p. 750-4). The nightingale passed for a mes- 
senger of Mary, Leopr. 79. ' Some say the lark and loathed toad 
change eyes,' Rom. and Jul. 3, 5. The wren, Lith. nyksztelis 
(thumbling and wren), Wei. dryw (druid and wren), is called 
^ petite poulette au bon Dieu,' Bosquet 220-1.^ Disturbing the 
redbreast brings lightning on the house 221 ; she covers the face 
of a murdered man with leaves, Hone's Yrbk. 64 ; on the red- 
fail, see Leopr. 80. The meislin (tit) has an angel to himself, 
Keisersb. Brosaml. 19*^; hunting the baum-meise is severely 
punished, Weisth. 1, 465. The Finn, tiainen. Est. tihJiane, is 
helpful, and understands beer-brewing, Schiefner's Finn, march. 
614. Kantel 1, 110. A legend of the ichite sparroiv in Rom- 
mel's Hess, gesch. 4, 710 from Winkelm. Chron. p. 585. On the 
hingjisher, see Gefken's Beil. 113. 

p. 685.] Transformation into a snaJce occurs in many fairy- 
tales. The cast slough of a snake is called senedus serpentis in 
Pliny and Marcellus no. 46 (Kl. schr. 2, 134. 150), agreeing with 
ON. elli-helgr from elli, eld ; e.g. at kasta ellibelgnum = vernare. 
There is a beautiful legend about the snake in Klemm 2, 162-3 ; 
it lives for ever, 154. Its appearing is mysterious, so is its 
vanishing, ' des slangen sluf,' Freid. 128, 7. In Ssk. it is called 
the creeper, wriggler, breast-walker, uraga, Bopp 52^ ; conf. 
Genesis 3, 14. The Ind. serpent- sacrifice lasts for years, it com- 

' Why is the wren called king in the Gr. ^acriKiaKos, Lat. regulus, It. reattino, Fr. 
roitelet, and Germ, zaunkonig ? because of his golden crest ? And is zaunkiinig a 
transl. of re-at-tino, the zaun (liedge) being an adaptation by folk-etym. of tinus 
(laurustinus) ? — Transl. 



ANIMALS. 1491 

pels all snakes to come up and throw themselves into the fire, 
Holtzm. 3, 172-3. '186-8. In the Parthenon at Athens lived a 
serpent sacred to the goddess, and had a honey-cake offered to 
it every day, llerod. 8, 4-1. To the Romans also the anguis was 

holy, Klausen p. 1014. A caduceus with figures of snakes in 

Pliny 29, 54 (12) ; and snake-figures may be seen on the Stutt- 
gart todtenbiiume. A serpent on a helmet was called eziJemon, 
Beneke sub v. ; ' ezidemon daz edel kunder/ Tit. 3311. Lohengr. 
p. 12, where his friedelinne (lady-love) is also alluded to. The 
word is traceable to agatho-daemon, the Egyp. miraculous ser- 
pent kneph, Gerhard in Acad. Berl. '47, p. 203. Beside saribant 
and serpant we find a sarapaiidi-a-test, serpent's head, Parz. 50, 
5. 68, 8. As Ofnir and Svafnir are the names of two snakes, and 
at the same time by-names of OJSinn, so Hermes is closely allied 
to the agathodasmon, Gerh. as above 204 ; and divine heroes,, 
descended from OSinn, also inherit the ' snake in the eye ' (p. 
391). Serpents lick the ears of the sleeping Melampus, and on 
waking up he understands the speech of birds as they fly past, 
and ever after of all beasts that foretell the future to man. 
Prophetic Cassandra too, and her brother Helenus, had their ears 
licked clean by snakes. 

p. 687.] The Greeks called the Jiome-snahe olKovpo^ 6(f>i<;, 
genius loci, Gerh. in Acad. Berl. '47, 203; the Albanian vlftore is 
a homesprite, imagined in the form of a little snake, Hahn's 
jjiedcr 136; the Samogitian g iuoif on, hlack snakes, are fed and 
worshipped as household gods, Lasicz 51-5-6. That of milh- 
th'inhhig belongs also to the snake-stories in Vonbun p. 24. 
Bader nos. 98. 106 (on the mocken, p. 686 n., see Schmeller 2, 
549. Stalder 2, 212. Diut. 2, 84). Snakes had drink given 
them, Athen. 4, 364 ; one that sucked milk out of the breast, iu 
Lucian's Alex. 7. With the Pomeran. story of a gnake creeping 
into the pregnant woman, conf. Vopisci Aurelian. c. 4: * pueri 
ejus ^;e/<.'t'7?j. serpentem plerumque cinxlsse, neque uuquam occidi 
potuisse; postremo ipsam matrem, quae hoc viderat, serpentem 
quasi fdmlUii rem occidere noluisse'; and Spartiani Sever. 1: 
' dormienti in stabulo serpens caput cinx'it, et sine noxa, experge- 

factis et acclamantibus familiaribus, abiit.' More tales about 

the ' schlaugen-A;ro/i/t ' in Vonbun 24-5. Woeste 50; about the 
king of snakts in Miillenh. p. 355. Panzer 1, 183 ; the Ssk. 



1492 TREES AND ANIMALS. 

VdsiiJcIs, rex serpentum, Bopp's GI. 158^ Holtzm. 3, 143-5. 
196-7. 157. 163. A Swed. story tells how tlie ormar elect a 
king, Dyb. '45, p. 100. A serpent-king has 12 heads; he that 
hews them off, and carries them about with him, is everywhere 
victorious, Reusch no. 74 and app. When an orm is challenged 
to fight, he keeps the engagement, Dyb. '45, p. 95-6. An adder 
comes carrying a stone in his mouth, Gesta Rom. ed. Keller 
pp. 68. 152 ; conf. snake-stone, unke-stone (p. 1219-20). Under a 
hazel on which mistletoe grows, lies a snake with a precious 
stone on his head (p. 1207). The vouivre wears but one eye in 
the middle of her forehead, and that is a carbuncle ; when she 
stops to drink at a fountain, she lays it aside ; that's the time to 
possess yourself of the jewel, and she is blind ever after. The 
vouivre flies through the air like red-hot iron, Mem. des antiq. 6, 
217; the like in Bosquet p. 204-6-9. 'Des Montags nach S. 
Peters tach, so alter wurmichleiche ze wazzer gat,' Rec. of 1286 in 
Gemeiner's Regensb. chron. 1, 423 ; Fafnir also skrei^ til vatz, 
Sn. 138. Vols. c. 18. Snakes love to lie beside a spring, Aus- 
land '57, p. 832''; but the ash-tree has a spite against the snake. 
Panzer 1, 251. 351. 

p. 688.] The serpent's healing potver is heard of pretty early : 
* if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of 
brass, he lived,' Numb. 21.9. Slaver from the mouths of three 
colubrae runs into the healing, strengthening dish that has been 
cooked, Saxo ed. Mull. pp. 123. 193 (in two different stories) : 
two snakes are black, one white. Eating of the white snake 
makes you know the language of beasts, p. 193. DS.^ no. 132. 
KM.3 3, 27 (conf. p. 983 and Suppl. to 689. 690). On the other 
hand, venom drips from the eitr-orm, Saem. 69 ; snakes are made 
to suck their poison in again with their ' cleinen munden,' Pass. 
310, 20. A Celtic story of the anguiniim (ovum) made of ser- 
pent's drivel is given in Pliny 29, 3, 12. On magic wrought by 
means of snakes, conf. Spalding, Abh. d. Berl. acad. ; on the 
snake as a bindge, and the term bridge's-tail, bruarspordr, see 
pp. 978. 732 n. 

The toad also (krote, Gramm. 3, 364) is a venomous beast 
available in magic : she carries a stone in her head (p. 1220) ; 
she sits on fungus and on mushroom, hence the one is called 
IcriJtenstul, toadstool, Dut. i)addestoel, LG. paddenstol, and the 



ANIMALS. 1493 

other iveiss-kriJtUng. Austrian names, besides krot, are ]K'j)|)iii^', 
braitling, noting, brotze, auke, Hofer 2, 47. 175; in Bavaria the 
male is braste, broz, bratz, Schm. 1, 274, the female hoppin, 
heppin, also muml (aunty), and women are called heppin in con- 
tempt 2, 221. Add wetterkrote, donnerkrote, blitzkrcite. 

p. 689.] JpuKcovis fr. hepKw, as o^i? fr, the lost otttw : 'sharp- 
sio;htedas a iindwurin,' Soester Daniel p. 141 ; Gal. (Zt'arc = lacerta. 
Dragons are akin to snakes, hence the ' niultitudo serpentum cum 
magno dracone/ Greg. Tur. 10, 1 ; conf. snake-charming and the 
old dragon in Lucian's Philops. c. 12. Dragons worshipped by 
the Esths, Adam. Brem. (Pertz 9, 374); portrayed on bronze 
kettles, Lisch in Meckl. jrb. 7, 35—38, 14, 326—330, interpr. by 

Giesebercht, Bait. stud. 11, 50-1. A dragon is called ormr inn 

frani, Sffim. \12>^. 189''; MHG. tievels hole, Wigal. 5080, tievels 
fnlt 6443 (in 6453 rather the giantess). The hvit-orviMves under 
the roots of the oak, Dyb. '45, p. 78 ; but they like best to lie on 
gold, which is therefore called linnar logi, Sasm. 181* ; the dragon 
that brings you money behaves like a homesprite (p. 511 ? 1020). 
The dragon's fire-spitting may have arisen from confounding the 
kindred notions of fire and poison, Miillenh. in Hpt's Ztscbr. 7, 
428. A Welsh dragon story in Peredur, Villem. Contes 2, 193. 
Like snakes and toads, those 'worms 'also carry stones, but in 
their belly, and so many that you could build half a tower with 
them, Dietr. u. ges. 300. The dragon lives 90 years in the 
ground, 90 in the limetree, and 90 more in the desert. Van den 
Bergh p. 73 ; these stages of development were evid. suggested 
by the changes of the caterpillar and butterfly. 

p. 690.] Dragons are hated : ' lei&ari enn raanni hverjom enn 
frdni ornir med firom,' Sa^m. 85" with the note: 'vermes, in 
Speculo regali, vocantur leidendi, odia, quasi res detestabiles.' 
Therefore heroes make war upon them : Apis comes to Argos, 
and shuis the dragon's brood, ^sch. Suppl. 262 — 7. There are 
ways of guarding against them, and of killing them : Iddsvorm in 
Mors is a venom-spitting worm; he can blow through seven 
church walls, but not through knitted stockings, Molb. Dial. lex. 
43. Again : ' for att en orm med siikerhet shall kunna dodas, 
ritas forst kring honom en ring med ars-ganinial Jiassel-kjdpp, 
innau han slas,' Riiilf. Coats of mail are hardened in dragon's 
blood: gehert in traken bluote, Ecke 24; ganz al umbe den rant 



1494 TREES AND ANIMALS. 

schilt gemacliet von gold und drachenbluot, Wigam. 2105 ; swert 
gehert iu drachenbluot, Draclienk. 11. It is said of Alexander: 
' gebeizet was sin brunie in eines ivurmes hluote, liurnen was siu 
veste/ Diem. 209. Massm. 1300 seq. Another sword tempered 
in dragon's blood, DV. \, 265. SigurSr, after eating FdfnVs 
heart, understood the language of birds ; Gudrun had eaten some 
too, Seem. 211 ; conf. ' quin et inesse serpenti remedia multa 
creduntur . . . ut possint avium scrmones intelligi/ Pliny 
29, 4 (Suppl. to 638). 

p. 691.] In Serv. also smnh, serpentis genus, Boh. smylcati, 
serpere, ON. smiuga ; Syrian, zmey, snake,. Gabelentz p. 8. 
FinJies too deserve attention : Athen. 3, 30-5-6 speaks of a lepo^ 
L-)(6v';, they were beasts of Artemis and Hecate % 194; conf. 
Berhta's herrings (p. 273). 

p. 692.] For chafer there is even an Egyp. clieioer ; OHG. 
cJiwat-chever (dung-beetle), scarabseus, Graff 4, 378, siui-chever, 
brucus, N. 104, 3i; Westerw. vaai-ldeher, Bavensb. eckern- 
schdfer ; AS. cynges cafertun, aula regia, ^Ifr. Homil. 122. 
Keverlinge-hnvg and Sceverlinge-huvg, Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 559 ; ' pre- 
dium chdver-loch' (loh?), MB. 8, 405. 500 (yr 1160), Miodie 
kefer-loh' 8, 510, AS. ceafor-ledh, Kemble nos. 570. 1088. Conf. 
OHG. muggi-stat, Graff 2, 654; brem-garten, brem-stall, Schm. 
1, 258; bre-garten = kitchen-garden, says Hofer 1, 113; Pre- 

garten, a place in Styria, Ranch 2, 191. The other terra ivibel 

occurs in the adjs. luihel-val, wibel-var, pale, Herb. 6880. 12867, 
A Welsh gioibeden, musca, gwiblo, to fly, swarm. Kdv9apo<i 
KOTTpov cr(f)aLpav iroirjaa'i, ^sop. Fur. 223. ^lian. Hist. anim. 
10, 15. Arist. Hist. anim. 5, 19 (conf. Lucian 8, 428). The 
Cod. Exon. 426, 11 has : 'is l^aes gores sunu gonge hrgedra, ]7one 
we tvifel wordum nemna^ ; ' in the same way bees are supposed 
to spring from putrefaction (p. 696), flies from the devil's rotting 
tongue, Walach. miirch. 285 ; and cliuleih, scarabseus, horse- 
beetle, kielecke or stagbeetle (Schm. 2, 269) seems to have arisen 
out of chuo-leih, and to rest on a belief about the beetle's origin 
(from cow-dung?), Gramm. 2, 503; conf. scm-leih, monstrum. 

p. 693.] The lucanus cervus (conf. H. Miiller^s Griechenth. 
446) is in Finn, tammiliarhd, oak-ox, Serv. yelaii, cervus volans, 
Engl, stag-heetle, stag-^y, Fr. escarbot, Swiss gueger, cerambyx, 
ho\z-boc]i, feuer-bock, Staid. 1, 445; feuer-kdfer in the Harz, 



ANIMALS. 1495 

where they wrap him in moss, letting the horns stick out, and 
strike at liiin l)liii(1fold one after the other (a3 elsewhere at the 
cock) ; whoever hits him, takes him home (and has luck, or some 

honour by it ?). ON. has also torff-\]jill, Drophiug. saga p. 10 : 

Ho si/nder sagas forlatas (ten sins forgiven) deu soni vJinder om 
eu 2>(i rijijg lig^jande tordi/fvel, liuna '44, p. 8; conf. an Irish tale 
of the daol, Conau 124, and Schiefner on tarwas pp. 4. 5. The 
Finn, furila, tnriJa^ denotes a voracious insect that spoils fruit 
and grass, either melolontha or gryllus inigratorius, says Ren vail; 
but the same word means giant, conf. our heimo. Any one that 
sees the wern, mole-cricket, shall get off his horse to kill it, for 
it nibbles away the roots of the corn; to him that does so, the 
farmer owes a loaf of bread. The AS. eord'-ceaforas = tanv\, i.e. 
scaraba3i terrestres, was doubtless modelled on the passage in 
riiny. 

p. G93 n.] Hung, cserchugdr, niaybug, lit, oak-chafer, oak- 
worm ; Pol. chrabiiszcz, chrzj^szcz, Boh. magowy chraust, lluss. 
sipli, 0. SI. sipl, Dobrowsky Inst. 271. Prov. bertals, bertaus, 
Mahn p. 59. Finn, lehtimato, leaf-worm, melolontha, Swed. 
lofraatk. Osnabr. eckel-tiewe, Lyra 23, also eik-scAawc, Miinsterl. 
ecker-tiefe, Ravensb. eckern-sc/ta/lr; Milrk. Pom. zehrelinke ; 
Swiss hngareje, Staid. 1, 239. Walloon : halowe, ahalowe, hiese a 
ha I owe = ha,nnetou, fr. baloier = voltiger, and bizer, OHG. pison ; 
pisewurm = oestrum. Finn, nrolainen, a, large beetle, tiros = vir, 

heros, Serv. ?<7-os//. = picus, heros. Chafers carry a mirror about 

them : children in the Wetterau hold a cockchafer in their hands, 
and sing, ' Mennche, weibche, weis' mer emol (do show me) dein 
spigelche ! ' the outspread wings ? The elben are chafers, chry- 
salids, butterHies, spirits and holden (conf. pp. 1073-4. 1155-G). 
The kuhold sits in the box in the shape of a beetle or humblebce, 
Sommer 33-4. 171-2. Panzer 2, 173. Rochliolz 2, 238-9; the 
Dan. skrukke-fro/(Z is an insect too, but a wingless one. The 
I'entam. 3, 5 tells of a, faij that plays with a sweetly humming 
chafer (scarafone). 

p. G95.] The coccinclla, Ind. Tndragopa, Indra's cowherd, 
Bopp 40". Schiefn. on tarwas p. 5; Finn, lenn'uikdincn, \\\\\c\i 
sometimes means the beautiful hero Lemmenkiiinen ; Engl. 
God'lmightifs cow, Barnes ; sunnenliind, sun's child, Schiitze 4, 
225 ; Austr. sonucnhilhtl, sun's calf. Goldwicil, cicindela, Diut. 



1496 TREES AND ANIMALS. 

2, 94. Boll, shmecko (little sun), shmecnice, coccinella, also llnlca, 
Pol. stonli^i. Serv. huhe and mam, Mary ; the girls set it on 
their finger, and repeat a rhyme, Vuk p. 9'\ Lith. dewo yautis, 
God's ox, God's birdie; so the glowworm is with us liehe Gotts 
Jammje, Alb. Schott, the dragonfly nnser Uehen frauen rossel, 
horsie, Gadespferd, God's horse, Schiitze 2, 6, but also DeviVs 
horse, needle and hairpin (p. 1029), Staid. 1, 276, and eye-shoofer 
1, 119 ; Finn, fnonen koira, death's dog. Boh. hadi hlava, snake's 

head. The butterfly, Gael, eunan-de, bird of God, Ir. Gael. 

dealan-de and Gael, teine-de, both fire of God, Ir. anaman-de, 
anima Dei ; conf. Swed. liaring-KJiil, old woman's soul, Ihre 2, 
529 {see p. 829). Arm. balafen, nialafen, vielven ; halafennik 
done, petit papillon de Dieu. A butterfly-song of Hanoverian 
Wendland sounds like the ladybird-song: ' Bottervag el, sott di, 
Vilder unn moder ropt di, Mul unn nese blott di ', thy mouth 
and nose are bleeding; otherwise ' Mldsclionke, midsclionhe, sott 
di,' etc. A children's song at Liiben calls the butterfly ketelboter, 
kettle-mender, Firmen. 3,480. 

p. 697.] Bees live among men, and the joys and sorrows of 
the family ai-e duly reported to the beehives, Bosquet 217, esp. 
the death of the master, 'if you wouldn't have all your hives 
waste away within year and day ' they say in Miinsterland. The 
same thing in Wilts, Berks and Surrey. Bees foretell the future 
to man (p. 1136) : a bumblebee in the box gives notice of spring, 
Panzer 2, 173. 'Apes furtivae ' do not thrive, Pliny 19, 7, 37. 
Bosq. 217. Their home is carefully prepared: ' istud vas lacte 
et bona herba linivimus,' Acta Bened. sec. 2, p. 133. They have 

come down from the golden age, Leo's Malb. gl. 1, 119. Ssk. 

names for the bee are viadhu-pa, madhu-hara, madhu-llh, honey- 
drinker, -maker, -licker; Abrah. a S. Clara calls them mett- 
siederl, mead-boilers, Schm. 1, 165. (Kl. schr. 2, 369). Gr. 
dvOr^hoov, flower-eater ; but she drinks water too, ace. to a law- 
phrase iu the Weisthiimer; conf. 'die bin netzen,' to water the 
bees, Fischart's Gesch. kl. 87*. A pretty name is ' pini-suga 
(bee-suck) = thymus,' I.e. heath. Finn. me]tiJd!skanerva = c\ino- 
podium vulg. A queen-bee settles on the lips of a favoured 

person, Sv. folks. 1, 78. Their origin is miraculous: ' diu jne 

ist maget, wird ane Inleichiu dine geborn,' the bee is maiden, 
born without nuptial doings, Predigten hrsg. v. Kelle 40. ' Der 



ANIMALS. l-i97 

Veldtbau/ Stmsbg 1556, bk 15 cap. 1 relates after Varro do U. 
R. 2, 5 how bees spring out of the decaying body of a dead bull. 
Miklosich brings both h'tchcia, 2^chcl6 = apis, and byk = taurus, 
under boukati = mugire (the hum of the bee?). The Gl. Saloin. 
make wasps come from the rotten flesh of asses, drones from that 
of mules, hornets from that of horses, and bees from that of calces, 
conf. Diut. 2, 19-i : t7r7ro<i ippifxevo^; a(f>r}K(ov yeveal'i iart, Lessing 
9, 146 fr. Aeliau 1,28; and bees proceed from the carcase of 
the lion slain by Samson, Judg. 14, 8. An account of the genera- 
tion of hornet and bee in Schroter p. 136. Peterson, p. 55. In 

the Walach. Miirch. 284 the white bee turns black. As the 

bee in Germ, weaves (wift, wabe), in Lith. she sews (pri-suti) : 
' bittes daug pri-siiwo,' the bees have stitched a good piece on. 
Bees build: evda Tidai/3a)a<7ov(Tt fiiXicyaai, Od. 13, 106; they 
build a wax palace, Stier's Volksm. 24. On the church wall at 
Folsbach was carved a hummel-nest, because the people had 
carted stones to it as diligently as the bumblebee gathers honey, 
Panz. Beitr. 2, 173. A man in Elsass having stolen the Host 
and thrown it in a field of standing corn, it hung balanced on 
three stalks, and bees came and built their waben (combs) round 
it, and over it was reared a chapel, that of the Three Ears ; conf. 
Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 533. Predigermiirch. 10, 12. Boyes Rodolphi 
de H. p. 257. In Cses. Heisterb. 9, 8 the bees themselves build 
a chapel over the Hostie. 

In Virgil's Georg. 4, 68. 75. 106 the sovereign of the bees is 
called rex, and 4, 4. 88 dux, ductor ; * emeu fiirsten (prince) hant 
bien,' MS. 1, 84"; ' volgheden, alse haren coninc doen die bien,' 
Maerl. 3, 343; * alsam diu bin zuo den karn mit froiden valient, 
ob ir rehter wisel (var. wiset) drinno si,' MS. 2, 3*; Flem. ' JwntiKf 
der bien,' Hpt. 7, 533 ; Hennebg. ' der hddherr, der weisel,' 
Bruckner. Cherkess psheh, prince, Klemm 4, 18. The Samogits 
allowed bees a god of their own, 7?a/u7o.s', and a goddess, Austhela, 
Lasicz 48. On the other hand, the Vita S. Galli (Pertz 2, 7) 
sajs: in modum parvissimue matris apis, conf. mater aviorum 
(p. 1242); hieiien-mntlcr, Haltrich 121. Their honey is not 
everywhere sweet : to yap p-iXi iv uTraai toU TpaTre^ouuTo^i 
X^(i)pioL<; TTiKpov yiverai, Procop. 2, 46 !■ ; p-eXi IIovtlkov iriKpov 
earc Kal dv^es, Dio Chrysost. Or. 9 (ed. Keiske I, 289. 29U). 

The devil appears as a^?//, so does Loki (p. 999). Spiders are 



1498 SKY AND STARS. 

akin to dwarfs (p. 471). Out of all herbs the bee sucks sweetness, 
the spider poison. Yet may the spider be of good omen too ; 
thus the kind enchantress climbs to the ceiling a spider, and 
drops down a woman, Arnim's March. 1, 52-7 ; couf. hick-spinner 
(p. 1136). Cobwebs fluttering on tlie ceiling betokeii luck and 
a wedding, Lisch 5, 88 ; conf. the fortune-telling spider's head 
(Suppl. to 380 end). Lastly consider the myth of Minerva and 
Arachne. 



CHAPTER ZXII. 
SKY AND STARS. 

p. 700.] Himmel comes from hima = tego; the root appears 
without suffix in O.Swed. himi-rike; Bopp again would derive it 
from kam = splendere, Gl. 168'', but this kam in Gl. 65^ means 
amare, which is more likely to have had the orig. sense of shelter, 
cover; and OHG. himil already included the meaning laquear, 
lacunar. AS. ' scop heofon to hrofe,' and hrof is roof ; * so himil 
thehit thaz lant,' 0. ii. 7, 4 ; ' mit dem himel was ich bedacht,' 
bethatched, Tragemund. We still say ' the sky is ray decks 
(ceiling, coverlid), the earth ray bed/ or ' the sky is my hat,' as 
the ON. calls it * foldar Jiattr/ earth's hat. The sky is a vault, 
hence ' uuder heofones hwealf,' Beow. 1146. It may burst open : 
* ich wande der himel waere enzwei,'' in-two, when it thundered, 
Dietr. Drach. 122*. 143' (on the comparison of heaven to the roof 
of the mouth, see Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 541). A variation of the idea 
in the ON, ' und himin-skautom,' under the skirts of heaven. 
Saem. 173''. Norweg. hibna-leite, Jdmna-leite = laoT\zon, Germ. 

Jcinun, hunming. After death we may go to Imntnel (not heven) ; 

but the sun, moon and stars in L. Saxony stand in heven (not 
himmel) ; heven-scher, scudding clouds, Brera, Ndrs. wtb. 4, 645. 
Heven seems more the aether, the ' radur, rodor ' of next paragraph. 
In Austria they call heaven hlo-landl, Blue-shire ; and OHG. vjiih 
= Olympus, supernum. 

OS, radur, AS. rodor (nor^-rodor. Cod, Exon. 178, 33) can 
hardly be conn, with Ssk. rodas, coelum et terra, Bopp 295''. 
Does the (perh. kindred) word dJf-rd&aU, m., Saem. 37", mean the 



SKY AND STARS. 1499 

moon ? With AS. sceld-byrig counecfc another expression of 
Ca3dmon's, 182, 22 : da'g-scealdes hleo, day-shield's (?) roof. 

p. 701.] Ssk. iard, f., Zend, star, Gr. dcTTijp, Lat. stella fr. 
sterna, is oxpl. by Bopp, Vocal. 179 as that which is strewn over 
the sky; by Benfey 1, GGl as that which strews its beams, from 
root stri. With sJdns, Pott 1, 127 compares Litli. swidus, shin- 
ing, and ai8i]po<;. It belongs more likely to sido, consido, as 
perhaps even stella and star are conn, with f;fa, stand ; conf. stal- 
baum, and ' er (Got) sitzet nf den h'uneUsteln ' rliy. zeln, welu, 

MSH. 2, 236''. MS. 2, IGG''. -In Vermlaud, ^<»v/eZ = star, 

Alraqv. 391''. Helsingl. 403"; in Augermanland, ton[iel = \i\ViXie, 
Alniqv. 3U7''. In several languages, Hame is called tongue, be- 
cause it licks; in Irish the stars are rinn, which answers to the 
Gael. roinn = tip. In Fundgr. I, 145 a constellation is called 
licJd-vaz, lamp. 

The OIIG. girusti of the stars agrees with AS. liyrste geruu, 
rodores tungel, Ca3dm. 132, 7; 'each star sat in his own little 
chair,' KM. 31, 138; ' when it thunders, you're afraid a iron will 
tumble out of heaven,' Garg. 181''; the Xafjurpa rpdire^a tou 
TjXiov, sun's bright table, Aesop 350. The sun has a tent : 
' undir rociuls tiildi/ Hervar. s. p. 438 (conf. Psalm 19, 4). The 
stars are considered sons and daughters: 'da mohten jiDxjiu 
siinneliii wahsen uz sim liehten schin,' little suns grow out of, 
Wh. 254, 5 (p. 703 end) ; 'eina dottur berr alf-roe)ull,' moon (?) has 
a daughter, Saem. 37». In Lett, songs the stars are i^aules meitas, 
sun's girls, deeva deli, sons of God, Biittner nos. 15. 18 (1842). 

p. 7U3.] The sun is ' der werlde schin,' MS. 1, 54"; ' der 
herschein,' Fromra. Mundart. 4, 98. 113 (but see Suppl. to 731) : 
se ceffda gleam. Cod. Exou. 178, 31 ; beurht bedcen Gudts, Beow. 
1134; sktnandi gocf, Saem. 45". 195"; lied&o-sigel, sol e mari 
progrediens. Cod. Exon. 48G, 17 (conf. p. 223). Three suns are 
spoken of in Nialss. c. 131 end: til |)ess er J^riar solir era af 

himni. 0. MuUer thinks sol and i]\to<; come fr. one fundam. 

form Savelios, see Schmidt's Ztschr. 2, 124 (Kl. schr. 3, 120); 
Etr. nsil, Sab. aiiscl. Bopp's Comp. Gram. 42, 1318-9 derives 
the Zend, hvare and Ssk. sura, siiri/a, sun, fr. svar, svarga = 
sky ; is Suryas the same word as ?;\to9 (for afijXco^) and sol ? 
(Pref. liv., GDS. 301). We might also conn, the Goth, siiuil with 
sauls = columna (KI. schr. 3, 120). The sun is descr. as a 



1500 SKY AND STARS. 

W/e<?Z in Ksrchr. 80 ; daz rat der sunnen, Mysfc. 2, 180. Evel, 
hweol is also the spinning-wheel, and in Finn, the sun is called 
God's spindle, Kalev. 32, 20 (its usual name is piiivii, sol and 
dies, but also aurinko) ; conf. the constell. Frejja's-spindle, 
and Tertullian's pectines solis, GDS. 107. Before the sun there 
stands a, shield ; if it fall, it will set mountain and sea ablaze : 

Svalr heitir, hann stendr solo for, 

scioldr scinanda go'Si ; 

biorg oc brim ec veit at brenna scolo, 

ef hann fellr i fra. Stem, 45^, 195^. 

Ennius (in Varro 7, 73) calls the sun caeli cUpeus, and the notion 

is Slavic too, Hanusch 256. On the sun as an eye, conf. Kuhn 

(in Hofer 1, 150), Passow sub vv. o/xfia, oj)da\fx6<i. Li solans 
qui tout aguete. Rose 1550. The sun's eye hidden in the well 
seems to be referred to in such names as Simnehriinno near 
Ddsseldorf, Lacombl. 1, no. Q^ (yr 874) ; Sonnenhrunne, Mone's 
Anz. 6, 227; Snunebrunnen, Sonnehorn in Saxe Gotha, Dronke's 
Trad. Fuld. pp. 42. 61 ; Sunneborii, Landau's Hessengau 181 ; 
Simihorn near Gelnhausen ; Simnohnmnon, Werden's Reg. 236, 

and ougenbrunne 6, 230; conf. Forstemann 2, 1336. To AS. 

ivnldres (jim, heofones gim. Cod. Exon. 174, 30, corresp. the Ssk. 
<liei dominus, diei gemma = so\, Bopp 27^ Other AS. terms are : 
t'olca fri&candel, Caedm. 153, 15, Jieofoncandel 181, 34; rodores 
riindel, Beow. 3l4d, ^voruldcandel 3926; wyncandel, Cod. Exon. 
174, 31. 

p. 704.] The Letts regard the sun and moon as sister and 
brother, Bergm. 120; in Dalecarlia the moon is called unkarsol, 
Almqv. 261 (is not that Lappish, the junkare's sun?). Goth. 
mena, OHG. mdno, AS. mona, ON. mdni, all masc. ; Carinth. 
monef, Lexer's Kilrnt. wtb. Yet also : ' din maenin beglimet,' 
V. Gelouben 118 (glimo, gleimo, Graff 4, 289); din maeninne, 
^[F. 122, 4; diu mdninne, Diemer 341,22. 343, 11. 342, 27; 
'der sun {sunnc) und diu maeninne,' Karaj. 47,8 (Ksrchr. 85- 
90). MHG. din sunne, Hpt 8, 541. Diemer 384, 6; in Rolleuh. 
' der harte raond, die liebe sonn.' The Augevins on the contrary 
called ' le soleil seigneur, et la lune dame,' Bodin's Rech. sur 
I'Anjou 1, 86; so in Ksrchr. 3754 'der herre' seems to mean the 
sun, but in contrad. to v. 3756. The forester kneels to sun, 



SKY AND STARS. 1501 

moon and God, Baader iii. 21 ; ' the worship'd sun' Rom. and Jul. 
i. 1. Men prayed towards the sun, N.Pr. prov. bl. 1, 300; they 
salute him (pp. 737. 749), esp. when rising: o Ze eiarTtjKec fJiixP'' 
e&)? iyevero KalyXia dvecr^ev eireiTa (a-)(eTO ainoyv, Trpocreffa/xevo? 
Toj i)\l(p, Plato's Symp. 220. A feast of tho siai was held in 
Dauphint', Champoll. Dial. p. 11. On the Tartar worship of the 
sun, see K. Schlozcr 32-3. Among Tunguses an accused man 
has to walk toward the sun, brandishing a knife, and crying : 
' If I am guilty, may the sun send sickness to rage in my bowels 
like this knife !' Klemm 3, 68. Serv. * tako mi suntza !' Ranke 
p. 59. We still say, when the sun shines warm, ' he means well 

by us,' Felsenb. 4, 241, The Moon is called in Ssk. nisapati, 

noctis dominus, or naxtrem, idrdpati, stellarum dominus ; in Pol. 
ksiezyc, lord of night, and he is shepherd of the stars (Suppl. to 
722). The moon is invoked against anger : 'heiptom seal mdna 
lived'ia, Sffim. 27''; and is asked for riches. With the German's 
naiVe prayer to the moon to ' make his money more,' conf. a 
Swed. one in Wieselgr. 431. Dyb. Runa '44, p. 125, and the 
* monjoclitroger,' Wolf's Ztschr. 2, CO. To avert the moon's 
evil influence, the Bretons cry to her, 'tu nous trouves bien, 
laisse-nous bicn !' When slie rises, they kneel down and say a 
pater and ave, Cambry 3, 35. 

p. 705.] The sun and moon have gods assigned them : Bac- 
chus is sol, Ceres luna, Macrob. Sat. 1, 18. Virg. Geo. 1, 5. 
Ace. to F. Magnusen, Freyr is sol, Freyja luna ; and four names 
of Freyja, ' Mardoll, Horn, Gefn, S}>^r,' or ' Siofu, Lofn, Vor, 
Syn' are the moon's phases. Lex. myth. 357-9. Christ is often 

likened to the sun, Mary to the moon. Our saying, that 'die 

Sonne scheint, der mond greint,' is old : M.Neth. ' seder dat die 
maen gren,' Potter 2, 104; MHG. 'diu sunne beschinet, diu 
maenin heglimet/ V. Gelouben 118 (Suppl. to 704). 

p. 707.] In Pohjola, sun and moon get stolen ; the sun is 
delivered fr. captivitu by Perkun's hammer, N. Pr. prov. bl. 1, 
299. Kl. schr. 2, 84. 98 ; conf. ' donee auferetur luna,' Ps. 72, 7. 
In eclipses the demon Rahus threatens the sun and moon, Kuhn 
in Hofer 1, 149. Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 151 ; a dragon tries to 
swallow the moon, Caes. heisterb. 3, 35, yr 1225 (Kaufm. p. 55) ; 

the Swed. sol-ulf is Dan. sol-nlv, Molb. Dial. p. 533. But the 

sun may withdraw his light in grief or in anger : 

VOL. JV. Q 



1502 SKY AND STARS. 

Sunna irbalg sih (was indignant) thruto suslichero dato (deeds), 
ni liaz si sehau worolt-thiot (-people) tliaz ira fronisga lioht, 
li'uiterquani in thrati (disgust) thera armalichun dati. 

Otfried iv. 33, 1. 
ioh harto tliaz irforahta. 0. iv. 33, 14. 

The sun hides his face before a great sorrow, e.g. at the death of 
Christ, or that of Von Meran : ' ez moht diu liehte sunne ir schin 
da von verloru han,^ Wigal. 8068. Hrab. Maurus in Wh. Miiller 
pp. 159. 160. A fine deseript. of a solar eclipse in Pindar, Frag. 
74 Boeckh, 84 Bergk. On superstit. practices at the eclipse of 
989, Thietmar of Mersebg says 4, 10: ' sed cuuctis persuadeo 
Christicolis, ut veraciter credant, hoc non aliqua malarum inean- 
tatione mulierum vel esio fieri, vel huic aliquo modo seculariter 
aJjuvarl posse.' 

The daemon that dogs the moon is called by the Finns capeet ; 
the capeen try to eat her up, Hiiirn p. 37-9; Juslen has ' capet, 
eclipsis lunae.'' Now Renvall sub v. Icavet, gen. kapeen, pi. 
kapeet, gives only the meanings 'deemon, genius,' couf. Peterson 
p. 31 ; but sub v. kuuniet he has 'moonlight, genius myth, lunae 
inimicus.' Compare that ' deducere lunam et sidera tentat ' 
(Suppl. to 1089 end), to which is added: ' Et faceret si non aera 
repidsa sonent,' Tibull. i. 8, 21; aera verherent, Martial 12, 57; 
cum aeris crepitu, qualis in defect ii lunae silenti nocte cieri solet, 
Livy 26, 5; conf. Plutarch 4, 1155. 

In lunar eclipses the Ossets shoot at the moon, believing that a 
malignant monster flying in the air is the cause ; and they go on 
firing till the eclipse is over, Kohl's S. Russia 1, 305 ; conf. the 
legend in Caes. heisterb. Horn. 3, 35 (Mainzer's Ztschr. 1, 233). 

p. 709.] The chamje of moon is called ' des manen wandelkere,' 
Parz. 470, 7, 'd. m. wandeltac ' 483, 15, ' d. m. wandel' 491, 5. 
The period of her shining is expr. by : So dem manen sin zit In 
der naht herfiir git,' Er. 1773. By new moon we mean the true 
conjunction of sun and moon; but the Greeks reckoned the 
vou/u,r]VLa from their first seeing the young moon at sunset, there- 
fore some time afcer conjunction, K. F. Hermann's Gottesd. 
alterth. p. 226. Full moon is reckoned in with the 'afbriiken 
maan^ [i.e. bruch, wane], Goldschm. Oldenb. volksmed, 144. 
OHG. mdnot-feng Ida = neomema, calendae, Graff 3, 415, conf. 



SKY AND STARS. 1503 

fengari p. 701 n. ; ana/ang vidnoJii^, N. 80^ 5; MIIG. oiii niuwer 
maue hat nacli wunsche sich gestalfc, er bat gevangen liarte wer- 
declicbe/ begun most wortbily, MS. 2, 99". Welsh blue n- new ijdd, 
first of the new. The Esths hail the new moon with: 'Moon, get 
old, let me keep young!' Bocler's Ehsten 143. Full moon: 
eia vol I er 7Hdne, MS. 2,, 83^ ; ho if i/hle, Molh. Dial, lexic. 'Nova 
luua est cornnta, unde plena rotunda est,' N. Booth. 171 ; from 
the moon's horns it was but a step to the inoon's cow, Pott 2, 252. 
The oath of the Febm-court (RA. 51) has: ' helen und hodea 
(conceal) vor sunne, vor mane, vor alle wedermane' ; what means 
this last word ? The sun is imagined standing in the east, the 
moon in the west : ' cisten for sol, og cesien for maane,' Asb. og 
Moe 2, G seq. 

p. 711.] Taga blod emclhm (let blood betw.) mj och iiedan, 
Folks. 1, 111. Swed. nedmurk is the Gr. vv^ crKOTOfjbtjvLo^, Od. 
14, 457. Superstitions about ned and ny, ned-axel and ny-tilnd- 
ning, Raiif 110-6. In Dalecarlia, new moon is called dvdcand, 
Almqv. 20'!^; in the Edda, halfmoou is 'inn skarS'l mdni/ Saem. 
13 i'', as indeed Perkuns chops the moon in two, Rhesa 92. 192. 
The Scand. ny is MHG. daz niu ; thus Diemor 3tl, 22 : 'also si 
an daz niu gat, und iewederen (each) halben ein horn hat' ; then 
342, 27 : ' diu mjininne gat niht ze sedele, an cleme nlii noch an 
deme iuedele' ; but again 311, 21 : 'diu maniune cJinimp wirt 
unde chleine.* A statute of Saalfeld, like that of Miilhausen, says 
(Walch 1, 1 4) : ' wer da mife uns hierinne in der stat sitzet nuwe 
unde loedil ( = a month), u. kouft u. verkouffc.' ' Nen u. voile des 
monds,' Ettn. Unw. doctor 435 ; ' so hat Luna zwei angesicht, 
das ein gen New u. Abnew gricht,' Thurneisser's Archidox. 147 ; 

' vollmond, bruch oder vollschein/ Franz. Simpl. 2, 301. 

Waxing and waning are ' waJii^oi unde swlnen,' Barl. 241, 24; 
M. Neth. ' wassen ende ivancn,' Rose 4638, conf. p. 709 n. [and 
Engl, wan, wane, want, wanhope]. An Ind. myth of the waxing 
and waning moon in Holtzm. 1, 5 — 8. KM.^ 3, 401. The moon 
changes about so, his mother can't cut out a coat to fit him, KM.^ 
3, 347. Pint, in Conviv. sept. sap. Aesop. Fur. 396. Corais 
325. Garg. 135\ 

p. 712.] Is wedel akin to Ssk. t"iJ//u = hina ? Bopp 321''. 
Passages quoted in preced. note contrast it with new moon; so 
'bolter im wadel gehouwen,' Hpt's Ztschr. 3, 90 ; but 'a hole in 



1504 SET AND STAKS. 

his schedel (skull) hewn in had ivcdel,' Uhl. p. G58. Ambras. 152. 
On wedel, good and bad wedel, and wedeln to wag, see Liliencron 
in Hpt 6, 363-4-8. Kuhn's Ztschr. 2, 131. Wadal = hjaoipe9, 
fasciculus hysopi, Diut. 1, 494*. 

p. 715.] The reverse of what Caesar says about the Germans 
(de B. Gall. 1, 50) is told by Pausauias i. 28, 4 of the Lacedae- 
monians, who would only fight at full-moon. Silver and gold are 
brought out at newen man, Sup. G. 108. ' Quaedam faciunda in 
agris potius crescente luna quam senescente; quaedam contra, 
quae raetas, ut frumenta et caeduam silvam. Ego .ista etiam, 
inquit Agrasius, non solum in ovibus tondendis, sed in meo capillo 
a patre acceptum servo, ne decrescente luna tondens calvus tiam,' 
Yarro RR. 1, 37. Moonlight makes rotten, and barrel hoops cut 
by it will rot sooner, Athen. 3, 7 ; worms get into wood not 
rightly hewn : ' holzer die man nit zu rechter zeit des mons und 
monat gehauen hat,^ Petr. Mihi 108''; ^si howent raif (they cut 
hoops, the rascally coopers) an dem niwen man,^ Teufelsnetz 
11127; elder to be cut by waxing or waning moon, Gotthelf's 
Schuldb. 14 ; more food taken, or less, ace. to the moon, 
Bopp^s Gl. 122''. Without moonlight, herbs lack scent and 
flavour, Holtzm. Ind. s. 1, 6. 8 ; ' tes mdnen ton ist anagenne, 
unde samo saphes undo marges' [Moon's dew is regeneration, 
the seed of sap and marrow ?], N. Cap. 25. Drink out of a jug 
that the moon shines into, and you'll be moonstruck [lunatic, 
sleep-walker ? ], Stelzhamer 47. 

p. 720.] The moon's sjwts are also descr. as a stag, Hitzig's 
Philist. 283. In a Greenland story, while the Moon pursues his 
sister the Sun, she dabs her sooty hands over his face ; hence the 
spots, Klemm 2, 314. The New Zealand view is, that they are 
like a woman who sits plucking Gnatuh 4, 360. The Ranthum 
people think the man in the moon is a giant, standing upright at 
ebb-time, and stooping at flood, Miillenh. p. 360 ; but also in the 
same neighbourhood he is a sheep-stealer or cabbage-thief, as in 
Holland, no. 483 ; conf. the Wallachian story in Friedr. Miiller 
no. 229, and the Westphalian in Woeste 40. In the Ukermark 
he carries a bundle of pea-straw, Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 390 ; ' und 
sprechend die laien, es sitz ain man mit ainer dorn-piird (thorn- 
load) in dem monen,' Megenb. 65, 22. Ettner's Med. maulaflfe 
speaks of a bundle of wood to fire the moon with. ' Burno, nom 



SKY AND blAKS. 1505 

d'un voleur, que les gens de la campagne pretendeat etre dans la 
luue/ Grandgaguage 1, 8G. Ace. to Schott, the Old-Chinese 
tradition makes a man in the moon continually drive his axe into 
the giant tree kuei, but the rifts close up again directly ; he 
suffers for the sins he committed while an anchoret. At Wallen- 
hausen in Swabia they used to ride races for the dorn-biischele : 
three lads would start for the goal, the two foremost got prizes, 
and the third had a bunch of thorns tied on his back. In Bavaria 
the reapers leave a few ears standing, and dance round them, 
singing : 

heiliga sanct Mdha, 

bescher (grant) ma a annasch gahr (year) meha 

60 vil korntla, so vil horntla, 

so vil iihrla, so vil gute giihria, 

so vil koppla, so vil schockla ; 

schopp dicli st'idala, schopp dich stadala ! 

O heiliga sanct Mdha ! 

The stalks tied together represent St. Mtiha's stadala (stack), 
which they stuffed full of ears; only wo must observe, that in 
Bavaria the moon is called md, not maha, Panz. Beitr. 2, 217 
(Suppl. to 157). The Kotar on p. 719 n. was a herdsman beloved 
by the goddess Triglava, who put him in the moon. Finn. 
kunfar =\noon, Kalev. 22, 270. 26, 296 or moon-maiden, from 
kuu, moon, Est. ku, Morduiu. ko ; and kuumet is the pursuer of 
the moon, Peterson p. 31-3. In Brother Gheraert ed. Clarisse 
p. 132 the man in the moon is called ludergehr ; conf. the Saxon 
hero Liudeger in the Nibeluugen, and Gtideko's Reinfried 90. 

p, 720.] The sun dances at Easter (p. 291). The Indians say 
the sun dances, and they in imitation salute him with dancing. 
Lucian. de Saltat. cap. 17. 

p. 722.] The stars are said to glister, twinkle, sparkle : 
sternen glast, MS. 2, o**; ein steruen hlic, flash, Parz. 103, 28. 
The morning stars break out, like fire : swenne der morgensterne 
ie friieje uf brast, MS. 2, b^ ; an der sterren brunste, burning. 
Dint. 1, 352 ; sterre enbran u. schein, took fire and shouo 1, 351 ; 
conf. N. Cap. 97. The sinking, * rushiug down ' of stars is in 

Grk ai<ja€Lv, Eurip. Iph. Aul. 9. In Hungary 280 native 

names of stars have been collected, Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 160. 



1506 SKY AND STARS. 

Magyar Myth. 582 ; several names occur in Ossiau, Alilwardt 2, 
265. 277. 3, 257. Arfvidss. 1, 149. 206 ; Armenian names in 
Dulaurier's Chronol. armen. ^59, 1, 180-1. Stars were in- 
voked^ as Hesperus in Bion 11 ; they were messengers of gods, 
as Arcturus in the prol. to Plaut. Rudens ; they do errands for 
lovers, Vuk no. 137. Stars are hind or hostile: quaeritis et caelo 
Phoenicum iuventa sereno, quae sit stella homini commoda, quae- 
que mala, Prop. iii. 21, 3; interpreting the stars is spoken of 
in MS. 1, 189^; Prov. astrucs (astrosus) meant lucky, and mal- 
astrucs dis-astrous; 'her star is at the heat (brunst). 
till their stars have cooled down (versaust, done blustering),' Ph. 
v. Sittew. p. 614. Stars take part in a man's birth (p. 860) and 
death (p. 721). They have angels to wait on them, Tommaseo 
1, 233. For the misdeed of Atreu'^ God changed the courses of 
all the constellations, Plato's Polit. pp. 269. 271. 

The stars are the moon's flock, she leads them to pasture, 
Spee p. m. 163. 210. 227. A Serv. song, Vuk no. 200, says : 

od sestritze zvezde preodnitza, 
shto preodi preko vedra neba 
kao pastir pred belim outzama. 

What star is meant by preodnitza (pei'currens), 'who walks 
athwart the sky, as a shepherd before his white lambs ' ? conf. 
no. 362 : 

osu se nebo zvezdama, 
i ravno polye outzama; 

i.e. heaven sows itself with stars, and the wide plain with lambs. 
So in Pentam. 3, 5 (p. 310) : quanno esce la luna a pascere de 
rosata le galinclle (Pleiades). 

On sJiooting stars, see Humb. Kosmos 1, 393; they are called 
stern -fiirwe (-furbish), Mone 8, 497 ; Austr. stearn-raispn, clear- 
ing the throat, stearn-schnaitzn., snuffing, Stelzh. 135 — 144; 
Gael, dreug, dreag. A star falls from heaven into the maiden's 
lap, Miillenh. p. 409 ; conf. ' nou cadere in terram stellas et 
sidera cernis ? ' Lucr. 2, 209. They are harbingers of war, of 
dying, Klemm 2, 161 ; says the folksong : ' Over the Rhine three 
stars did fly. Three daughters of a widow die,' Simrock no. 68. 
A comet is ON. Juila-stiarna, Ir. hoid-realt, tail-star, Ssk- 



SKY AND STARS. 1507 

dhumalcetu, fumi vexillum. The Indians call the tail elephant's 
tooth, the Chinese a broom, Kosmos 1, lOG. In Procopiua 1, 167 
the star is ^i(f)ia(i, sword-shaped, or 'rrwyoyvia';, bearded. It fore- 
tells misfortune; hence 'we name it the dreadful scourge of God,' 
zorn-rute, anger- rod, Lucae Chron. 249 ; ' et nunquam caelo 
speciatnm iinpnne comcten,' Claud. B. Get. 243, crine vago 2 t-7. 

p. 723.] The Greeks called Mercury XtlK^wv, Jupiter ^aedcov, 
Saturn ^aivcov, Venus $o)cr-^6po<? = Luci-fer, and Mars IIvp6€L<i, 
five planets in all; conf. Cic. de Nat. D. 2, 20; so the third day 

of the week was Tlvpoei'^, the fourth XriX^wv. The evening 

star was also called tier-stem, ' darumb daz die wilden tier dan 
herfiir gent (wild beasts then go forth) auz iren walden und 
holeru,' Oberl. 1(339. Similar is the Lith. ziverinne fr. zweris, 
fera. Boh. zwjfetnice, wild star, evening star ; conf. AS. swdna 
steorra. Another Boh. name temnice, dim star, is like MHG. 
tunkelsterne. Welsh gweno, evening star, Venus. The Lith, 
has also xvahaninne, evening star, auszrinne, morning star, beside 

ziverhwe mazoyi for Mars, and zwerinne dideyi for Saturn. 

The day star, ' der Uclde tage-sterre' of Albr. v. Halb, (Haupt 
11, 36(3), is Serv. danitza, Boh. dennice, Russ. dennitza ; ' dev 
hringe-tag ' in Scherfer's Grobian 75 is modelled on luci-fcr. 
Der morgensterne, swenne er uf gat, und in des luftes triiebe lat, 
Iw. 627; der niorgenstern frolockt reht, ob er brinne, Hiitzl.3*; 
ik fornerae des morgensternes slack, Upstand. 750 ; ' some say 
the devil has taken the daystar captive, hence the cold and ill 

weather,' Gutslaf's Wohhanda p. 265. The polar star, ON. 

hiara-stiarna ; OHG. leite-stei-re, loadstar, Graff 6, 723; MHG. 
leite-stcrne, Trist. 13660,^ also mcr-sterne, stella maris, Griesh. 
2, 13 ; cathlinn der jiut in Oisian 2, 334 ; in 0. v. 17, 31 ' Polonan 
then stetigon,' nom. Poloni ? conf. polunoci [pure Slav, for mid- 
night !] =septentriones, Graff 3, 334. The Lapp. /y'»o/c? = pains 
and stella polaris, because it stands firm as a stake ; Americ. 
iclika. chagatJia, star that goes not, Klomm 2, 161. 

p. 724.] Ace, to Sa3m. 76* it was Thorr, not OSinn, that threw 
Thiassi's eyes into the sky. Theodosius was changed into a star, 
Claud, de 3 cons. Hon. 172, de 4 cons. 428. John the Baptist's 

* Leijt-gestirn in tho Wetterau (Hofcr's D. urk. (10. Schmidt's Gesch. d. grossh. 
Hessen 1, 241) is spelt in tho Cod. Lauresh. 3128—30. 24'J. 2.50-2 Leit-kestre, 
Leit-castre, Leiz-castro, and Las therefore nothing to do with star. 



1508 SKY AND STABS. 

head was placed in the sky (p. 284-5), so was that of Rahu, 
Holtztn. Ind. s. 3, 151. 

p. 725.] Ssk. rxds pi., the shiners (the 7 sages), rxas sing., 
the shiner = ap/cTo?. Indra^s car is made of the seven sages; 
the constell. may also be called vdJumam, waggon, Kuhn in 
Hofer 1, 159. 161. Holtzm. Ind. s. 1, 30. The Grt Bear repres. 
the British Arthur (confounded with Arcturus), and the Lyre is 
his harp, Davies's Mythol. p. 187. All the luminaries ride in 
cars: 'luna rotigerae vagationis,' Kemble 5, 195 (yr. 931). 
Charles luain is over the chimney, 1 Henry IV. 2, 1 ; der wageii 
ist ob dem hus, Keisersb. Brosaml. 70® ; der himelswagen schon 
die deichsel riickwiirts drehet, Scherfer's Grobiau ed. 1708, p. 72. 
An 0. Belg. riddle asks who it is that has to go round on the 
Roodestraat all night in a coach without horses, and appears in 
the morning : ' Bruno heeft een' koets ghemaekt Op vier wielen, 
zonder peerden ; Bruno heeft een' koets ghemaekt. Die alleen 
naer Brussel gaet;' meaning the coach in the sky, Ann. de la 
Soc. d'emul. de la Flandre occid. '42, 4, 368. Geticum plau- 
strum, Claud, de B. Get. 247; and Alanus ab Insulis (d. 1202) 
in his Anti-Claudiau makes allegorical females construct a 
heavenly car, Cramer's Gesch. d. erzieh. p. 204. Festus sub v. 
septentriones, septem boves juncti. Varro 7, 74 : hoves et temo. 
Ov. Met. 10, 447. Ex Ponto iv. 10, 39 : plaustrum. Gl. slettst. 
1, 2: Virgilias, sibinstirne j and 6, 392. 479: Majae, Pliadas, 

sibinstirnes. Ir. griogchan, a constell.; Gael, griglrean, Charles 

wain, otherw. crann, crannarain (p. 729 n.) ; griglean, griglean 
meanmnach, grioglachan, Pleiades. Ir. camcheachta, plough, 
ploughshare, seven stars of the wain. Finn, otaoa or otavainen, 
ursa major, is distingu. fr. vdhd otava, ursa minor ; yet otava can 
hardly belong to ohto (ursus). In Kalev. 28, 393-4 otavainen and 
seitsentdhtinen (seven stars) are used as if synonymous, and both 
have shoulders. The Lapp, sarw is both alces, elk, and ursa 
major ; in Ostiak too the constell. is called los, elk (Klemm 3, 
128), and has a head and tail. In Greenl. it is tukto, reindeer, 
Klemm 2, 314. Fabricius 504^. In American, iclika shachpo is 
supposed to be an ermine with its hole, its head, feet and tail, 
Klemm 2, 161. The Arabs call the two end stars of the bear's 
tail mizar and benetnash, and the third, which is the pole of the 
wain, alioth; the remaining four make the axles. 



SKY AND STARS. 1509 

p. 727.] Orion's belt, Lut. jiujula, jtKjnlae : * nee Jugulae, 
neque Vesperugo, uequo Vergiliae occiduut/ Plaut. A. i. 1, 119; 
also i'lisiti and ensifer, Forcell. sub v. ensis : ' nitiduinqae Oriouis 
eiiscin, Ov. Met. 13, 29-4. lu Westgotl. Frijge-rakken and 
Jacobs staf ; ON", jishihallar, F. Magn. Dag. tid. 105. ' Orion 
constell. a I'usticis vocatui' baculus S. Petri, a quibusdam vero 
tres Mariae,' Gl. Augieus. in Mone 8, 897; in bchleswig Muri-ruk 
and Peri-pik, Miillenh. no. 484. Finn. Kalevan miekka, Kalevae 
ensis, also VdiiidiniJiseii miekka or vikate (sitlie), Schiefn. on Cas- 
tren p. o29 ; Lapp, iiiall, nidlla, which usually means taberna, 
repositorium; in Greenl. the belt is named sicktut, the bewildered, 
being seal-hunters who lost their way, and were caught up and 
set among the stars, Klemm 2, 814; conf. the Lappish legend 
about the Pleiades, below. 

p. 729.] Of the 7 Pleiads only six are ever seen, Ilumb. 
Kosm. 8, 65 ; quae septem dici, sex tamen esse solent, Ov. Fast. 
4, 171 (see p. 728 n.). AS. GI. ' pliadas, sifunsterri/ Oehler 359. 
Fr. Vestoille poussiniere, Rabelais 1, 53 ; las couzigneiros, Diet. 
Languedoc. 127. The Hung., beside fiastik, has hdeveny. In 
Serv. miirch. pp. 15 and 87 appears a girl with the golden hen 
and chickens, conf. Vuk no. 10 ; the Wallach. story tells of a gold 
cluck-lioi and Jive cJiick.-f, Schott p. 242.^ Syrjiin. voijkoJzijiai, 
lit. night-star. The Lith. and Finn, notion of the constellation 
being a sieve reminds me of Lucian's Timon 8, where the quak- 
ing earth is compared to a shaken sieve. The Pleiades are 

called in Xorweg. Lapp, nieid-gicrrcg, fr. nieid = virgo, and 
gierreg = samling af en rets besiddere ; but in Swed. Lapp. 
sutfjeues ranku (Lindahl 40G. 443^), i.e. fur in frost : the sky, 
taking pity on a man whom his master had turned out of the 
house in the depth of winter, covered him with this constellation 
(F. Magn. in Dag. tider p. 103 gives /jo/c^-a = heart, which Lin- 
dahl has not under tsakke). Greenl. kellukturset, hounds baiting 
a bear, Klemm 2, 314. Fabricius 188"; conf. Welsh y tiur ttwdws, 
the close pack, i.e. Pleiades, and eburdrung (p. 727). The Amer. 

Indians worship this constell., Klemm 2, 112. 153. 173. 

Similar to the Lith. name for the Kids, viz. * ploughman and 

' The lost lamb is looked for at the morniugstar, evoningstar, moon and son, 
Lith. in Khesa p. 2'J0-l-2 ; couf. p. 707-8, and 'coming to the sun, and asking him,' 
Hjm. in Cerer. 0-i. 



1510 SKY AND STARS. 

oxen/ is the Serv. vohtyara (fr. vol, ox ?), a star that ploughmen 
know, for when it rises they look out for their oxen. Cassiopeia 
is Lith. jostancUs, no doubt fr. josta, girdle. The Hyades, AS. 
raedgastrau. Lye: 'the five in the head of Taurus^; raedgaesnan, 
Gl. Epin., redgaesrum, Gl. Oehl. p. 33G. The Lyre, Boh. liaus- 
licky na nebi, fiddle in the sky. 

p. 731.] The constellation of the Bear is made out from the 
animal^s head, back and tail. A star with the shape of a child. 
Pass. 24, 30 seq. ; conf. the sun as a spindle (Suppl. to 703 mid.). 
Most natural of all was the making of stars out of beaming eyes 
(p. 565-G-8), as in the story of Thiassi and the New Zealand one, 
Klemm 4, 354-5. 388. 

The northern lights (aurora borealis) are called heerhrand, heer- 
sehein, Frommann 4, 114 (Suppl. to 703 beg.) ; Swed. norr-sken, 
Dan. nord-h/s ; Gael, jlrchlis, na fir chli'se, the merry dancers, 
Welsh y golcuny gogleddol. Finn, the fox's fire ; conf. Gesta 
Rom. c. 78, and note to Keller's Sept sages ccxx. 

p. 734.] On names of the rainbow, see Pott in Aufr. and 
Kuhn's Zts. 2, 414 seq. The ON. As-bru is OS. Osna-hruggo, 
Massm. Egsterst. 34. Zeuss p. 11; regenbogen-^rncZce, Firmen. 
2, 45. Ir. and Gael, hlogha hraoiii, Carraigth. 54. The ON. 
hriiar-spordr, bridge's tail, is further illustr. by a MHG. sporten, 
caudae vulpium, Griesh. 1, 125. 2, 42. The rainbow is called a 
messenger in Fornm. sog. 9, 518: grarr regen-hocTl Hnikars sto^ 
a grimmum Gondlar hinni |7egna. Pliny 24, ] 3 (69) : ' coelestis 
arcus in fruticem innixus'; more plainly 12, 24 (52) : ' tradunt, 
in quocunque frutice curvetur arcus coelestis, eandem quae sit 
aspalathi siiavitatem odoris existere, sed si in aspalatho, inenar- 
rabilem quandam '; and 17, 5 (3) : ' terrae odor ... in quo loco 
arcus coel. dejecerit capita sua.' Another superstition is, that a 

treasure lies hidden at the foot of the rainbow, Panzer 1, 29. 

Duller p. 35 cites the name xoetter-maal (county Guttenstein), 
which I find nowhere else; regenhonm = \Y\B, Gl. Sletst. 39, 320. 
Finn., beside taivaan-haari, heaven's bow, has vesi-haarl, water 
bow, TJkon-h., safeen-h., rain bow. To the Greenlander the rain- 
bow is the hem of a god's garment, Klemm 2, 327. The Poles 
have d^ga, bow, corresp. to Russ. Serv. duga, but not in the 
sense of iris, which they call tecza. The Lettic has also deeva 
yohsta, Bergm. p. 124, and the Lith. dangaus szlota, heaven's 



DAY AND NIGHT. 



1511 



broom. Sclimeller 2, 190 has 'die hiind-hliu', rainbow/ conf. 
lri.s, who gives her name to both rainbow and flower (Pernnika, 
Suppl. to 121Gn.). Ssk. In>ln felnm, Bopp 43». The Tartars 
make a feast when the rainbow appears, Kurd Schlozer p. 11. 

The Pohjan-daughter sits on the air-bow (ilraan wempele), the 
sky-bow (taiwon kaari), iveaviwj, Kalev. rune 3 beg. There also 
sit the sun (Paiviitar) and moon (Kuutar), to listen to the song 
of Wainiimoinen 22, 17, spinning gold the while, till the spindles 
drop out of their hands 26, 296. Ammian. Marcell. lib. xx., end : 
' Et quoniam est signum permutationis aurae . . . igitur apud 
poetas legimus saepe, Irini de coelo mitti, cum praesentium rerum 
verti necesse sit status.' 



CHAPTER XXIir. 
DAY AND NIGHT. 

p. 737.] On the origin of v/J-ap, rif^epa, Bopp thinks differently, 
see Gr. 505. With Dagr as a mythical person conf. Baldosg, 
Swefdseg; of his son [or father] Dellingr it is said in Fornald. 
sog. 1, 468 : 'uti fyri Dellings dyrura/ under the open sky. The 
Edda makes night precede and produce day, conf 'nox ducere 
diem videtur,' Tac. Germ. 11. 

In spite of Benfey, the Ssk. nis and nakt seem to belong to 
one root. In GDS. 905 I have traced our nacht to nahan. The 
Ssk. rajani seems akin to Goth, riqis, Ir. reag, AS. racu (p. 813 
end). Other words for night: Ir. oidhche, aidche, Zeuss 257, 
Gael, oiche ; Finn, y'u, Est. o, Hung, cj, Lapp, iya, ya ; Basq. 
gaiia, ganha, arraha, zaroa. The Greek language has a separate 
name, vvKT6<i d/uLoXyo^;, for the last third of the night, when 
dreams are true (p. 1146 mid.); [but also the first third, when 
Hesperus shines, 11. 22, 317]. 

p. 737.] Day and night are holy : T)cb? Bla, Od. 0, 151. 306; 
mit Got und dem heiligcn tag, Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 536-7 ; so mir der 
heilige dach 1 107,46. 109, 19; so mir Got u. dat helhje lichi ! 
254, 19; so mir dat heilige licht ! 57, 1. 105, 30; summer (so 
mir) der dach, der uns alien geve licht! 14, 50. 119, 1. 69, 21 ; 
God ind der gode dach 7, 41. 21, 40. 65, 55; so mir der gode 
dach, so uch der g. d. ! 33, 39. 219, 62; durch den guden dach 



1512 DAT AND NIGHT. 

69, 21. 196, 3. 312, 63; so mir der guote tac ! Ges. Abent. 3, 
227 ; als mir helf der g. t. ! 3, 243 ; dor dere van den goden dage, 
Lane. 44948; bi Gode ende bi den goeden dage, Walew. 155; 
Reinaert, coming out of his hole, ' quedde den scJiouen dach', 
Eein. 2382 ; ' Saint Jourdhuy/ Theatre FraD9. 2, 47; qui parati 
sunt diei maledicere, MB. 26, 9 (n. 1256), conf. 'we geschehe dir 
(woe betide thee), Tac, daz du mich last bi liebe langer bliben 
niht ! ' Walth. 88, 16. Of a piece with the above adjurations is 
our ' as sure as the daij stands in heaven ' ; OHG. theist giwis io 
so dag, O. v. 12, 33; MHG. ich weiz ez warez als den tac, Trist. 
6646; 'daz ist war so der tac,' Diemer 78, 8. 

p. 738.] Day appears as a personality independent of the sun: 
'Awake the god of day,' Haml. 1, 1; ' hoer tag, den nieman 
bergen kan,' Spiegel after Altsw. 191; quasi senex tabescit dies, 
Plaut, Stich. V. 1, 8, conf. the Plautian phrase ' diem com- 
burere'; mit molten den tag austragen, Burc. Waldis 272^; eya, 
tach, weres du veile, Haupt 1,27; herre, wa is (how goes) der 
tach? En. 297, 18; ez was hohe uf der tach 300, 13 ; waz wizet 
mir der tach (got to say against me), daz er niene wil komen? 335, 
14; alt und junge wanden, daz von im der ander tac erschiue, 
Parz. 228, 5. 

Uchaisravas, the heavenly steed of day, emerges from the 
ocean, Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 138—140. 

Hunc utinam nitidi Solis praenuntius ortum 

afferat admisso Lucifer albus eqiio. Ov. Trist. iii. 5, 55. 

'AvLKa irep re ttot' oypavov eTpe)^ov Xttttou 

'Aa) rav poSoira'^vi' aii ^ ilKeavolo ^ipoLcraL. Theocr. 2, 174. 

The shining mane of day agrees with the ancient notion that 
rays of light were hairs ; Claudiau in Prob. et Olybr. 3 addresses 
the sun : 

Sparge diem meliore coma, crinemque rej^exi 
blandius elato surgant temone jugales, 
efflantes roseum frenis spumantibus ignem ! 

Compare too the expression Donnerstags-pferd, Thursday's horse. 
p. 738.] The sun rises: er sol rami up, Fornm. s. 8, 114. 
Sv. folks. 1, 154, 240. Vilk. s. 310; rinnet ufe der sunne. Diem. 
5, 28 ; errinnet 362, 26; der sunne von dir ist uz gerunnen, MS. 
1, 28*. Lith. ut'zteha saule, up flows the sun, fr. teketi; light 



DAT AND NIGHT. 1513 

also flows and melts asunder, conf. ' des tages in zeran' Wigam. 
3840. ' ^lorne, da diu sunno ufgat, u. sich iibcr alle berge lat/ 
Dietr. drach. 345''; swa si vor dem bergo vfijat, MS. 1, 193*', 
conf. M. Neth. baren, ontpluken (Suppl. to 743) ; e diu sunne 
ufstige, climb up, Dietr. dr. 150"; dei sunne sticht hervor, Soester- 
felide (in Eramingh.) 664; die sonno begonste risen, Rein. 1323; 
li solauz est levez, et li jors essaucicz, Guitecl. 1, 241; * des 
morgens, do de sunne wart,' came to be, Valent. u. Namel. 243'' ; 
'wan dei sunne anquam,' arrived, Soester-f. (in Em.) 673, hrirht 
an 627. 682; 'diu sunne nftrat,' stept up. Mar. leg. 175, 47. 60; 
de Sonne haven de bane quam, Yal. u. Nam. 25 7**; diu sunne 
was nf ho, Frauend. 340, 29 ; bi ivachender sunnen, Keyserrecht. 
Endemann p. 26. 

p. 740.] Er sack die sonne sinlicn, Lane. 16237 ; diu sunne 
under sane, Pass. 36, 40; die sonne sane, soe yhlnc onder, also 
soe dicke bevet ghedaen, Walew. 6110 ; so der sunne hinder geijat 
(LG. hintergegangen ?), MS. 2, 192''; von der sunnen ufgange u. 
znogange, Griesli. 2, 23; hinz diu sunne zuo gle (went-to) 122; 
do diu sunne nider gie (went down), Nib. 556, 1 ; diu sunne was 
ze tal gesigcn (sunk), Wh. 447, 9; ouch eiget diu sunne sere gegen 
der abentzite (sinks low toward eventide), Trist. 2512 ; alse die 
sonne dalcn began, Lane. 16506; alse hi di sonne daJen sach, 
Maerl. 3, 197; o sich diu sun geneiget (stooped), MSH. 3, 212'''; 
zu dal di sunne was genigen, Diut. 1, 351 ; des abends do sich 
nndersluoc diu sunne mit ir glaste, Pass. 267, 51 ; diu sunne ie 
z6 ze tale schoz (downward shot), Alb. v. Halb. (Haupt 11, 365) ; 
der sunne ze abent verscein, Rol. 107, 23. Ksrchr. 7407 ; = die 
sunne iren schin verluset (loses her sheen), Keyserr. Endcm. 

p. 210; metter sonnen-scede (discessu), Limborch 8, 206. On 

couchor, colcar, collocare, solsatire, see RA. 817: einz vif soleil 
cochant, Aspr. SO** ; * und solar siot,' till set of sun, Saem. 179''; 
' untaz siu sizzit,' until she sitteth, Fragm. 29, 14; e die sonno 
gesdsse, Weisth. 2, 453 ; bis die sonne gesitzt 2, 490 ; in sedil gdn 
= obire, Diut. 2, 319\ 

(Sunne) gewited on wcst-rodor. Cod. Exon. 350, 23 ; west on- 
liylde swegelbeorht hinne setl-gonges fus 1 74, 32 ; bis die sonno 
wider der forste gibel Bchinet, Weisth. 3, 498. Norw. ' solen be- 
gyndte at helde mod aas-randen,' Asb. Huldr. 1,1, and ' solen stod 
i aas-kanten,' 1, 27, went towards, stood at, aas's edge; for this 



1514 DAY AND NIGHT. 

and for gidhamarr, conf. F. Magn. Dagens tider p. 15 and Bopp^s 
Gl. 25^: ' Asta, nomen montis occidentalis, ultra quem solem occi- 
dere creduut; ' it came to mean sunset, and at last any downfall : 
' Day sinks behind the best of mountains, Ast,' Kuruinge 563. 
1718. 2393. Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 183-4. (Pott in his Ziihlmeth. 
264 derives asta, sunset, fr. as = deiicere, ponere); 'diu sunne an 
daz gehirge gie/ Ecke 110; eVt elvai rfKuov eirl rot? opecn, kol 
oviro) SeSvKevai, Plato^s Phsedo 116; ichn geloube niemer me, daz 
sunne von Myceiie ge, Trist. 8283 (Mycen® in Argolis, Sickler 
p. m. 283-4). In a rocky valley of Switzerland, at a certain hour 
once a year, the sun shines through a hole in the viountain-wall, 
and illumines a church-steeple ; conf. the sun shining into Belsen 

church, Meier's Schwab, sag. 297. 'Do diu sunne ze gadeii 

solde gan,' Morolt 1402 ; de sunne geit to gads, Brem. wtb. 1, 
474 ; rfKid KoifMUTai, Wieselgr. 414 ; de sunne woU to bedde, 
Firmen. 1, 329. M. Neth. 'die sonne vaert henen thaerre rusten 
waert,^ Maerl. 3, 124; umb jede abendzeit, ehe die sonne zu haiine 
kompt, Brehme B. 1"; 'Moidla (girls), geit hoim ! Die sun geit 

110 ; Kriegt koene koen tanzer, Wos steit ihr den do ? ' ' Eh 

die sonne zu genaden get,' Weisth. 1, 744. 2, 492 ; e die sunne 
under zu genaden gienge 3, 510. Does the Goth, remi-sol, rimi- 
sauil, mean the sun at rest ? Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 640 ; quant li 
solans ganclii (tottered), Mort de Garin 144. Note the phi'ase in 
Walewein 8725 : ' Doe begonste die sonne gaen Te Gode van den 
avonde saen ; ' conf. Esth. * piiaw lahhiib loya,' the sun goes to his 
Maker = sets. The light of sunset is thus expr. in MHG. : 'diu 
sunne z'dhunde schein,' to evening shone, Karl 3525. 

p. 742.] ON. glacfr = mtens and laetus, and we say 'beaming 
with joy ' ; so the beaming sun is called ' Glens beSja Guff-blid',' 
God-bHthe, Edda Sn. Hafn. 1, 330. 8unne)ifroJi (or Sunnenfro, 
Mohr's Keg. v. Fraubrunnen no. 381, yr 1429) may mean ' glad 
as the sun,' or ' of the sun,' as in Boner 6G, 42. A maiden in a 
Swed. song is named Sol-fa gr, var. Solfot, Arfv. 1, 177. 180; at 
^ZttcZ/ft sig = to set, Sv. iifvent. 342. At evening the sun's bow 
goes to joy : illalla ilohon, Kalev. 27, 277. Ace. to Hagen's 
Germ. 2, 689 the sun has a golden 'bed, lies, sleeps on gold: als 
di Sonne in golt geit, Arnsb. urk, no. 824, yr 1355; gieng die 
sonn iin gold, Giinther 783 ; de sunne ging to golde, Ges. Abent. 
2, 319 ; singt als die sonne fast zu golde wolde gehn, Scherfer 



DAY AND NIGHT. 1515 

105. The sua in rising out of the sea, crackles, Ossian 3, 131 ; 

and the imago of the zolotli bdba (golden granny) utters tones, 
Hanusch p. 1G7 ; like Memuon's statue, Luciau's Philops. 33. 

p. 743.] Oannes (the sun) di])s in the sea every evening, 
Ilitzig's Philist. 218. 

'Jf/io? S' r/eXiof /jLerevcacreTO ^ovXuToySe, Od. 9, 58. II. IG, 779. 
HeXio^ fiev eTreira veov Trpocre/SaWei' apoupai 
€^ aKoKappeirao ^aduppoov ^ flKeavolo 
ovpavhv elaavMv, II. 7, 421. Od. 19, 433. 
H.e\io<; 8" avopovae, Xittwv irepiKaWia XcfjLvtjv, 
ovpavhv e<? iroXu-^^aXKov, Od. 3, 1. 

Occidao lota profuiulo sidera mergi, N. 221. * Sage me, for 
hwam seine seo sunne swa reade on aerne morgen ? Ic ])e seege, 
for )>am |)e heo cymb up of pee re see,' Altd. bl. 1, 190 ; nu gengr 
sol i egi, Alex, saga p. 1G3. The sun bathes at night, Ilpt's 
Ztschr. 4, 389. N. Fr. prov. bl. 1, 298; ' do begund' ez werden 
naht, und shlcli diu sunne nach ir aht u^nbe daz norJen-niere, als 
V,' crept round the northern sea, Geo. 0001 ; weil die sonne nie- 

dertnnkt, Schmidt v. Wern. 181. But the sun also goes into 

the forest. Swed. ' solen gar i skogen ' : sol glitt i akog, Folks. 1, 
155 ; ntir sol gick i skug, Cavall. 1, 96 ; ' sipan sol iir uudi dpi,' 
got behind the trees, Oestg. 175 (F. Magn. Lex., sub v. landvidi, 
gives a differ, explan. of vide, vi}7i) ; ua nu ned, du sol, i gran- 
skog, Kalev. Castr. 2, 57. Finn, kule (kulki) piiivva kuusikolle ! 
Kalev. 19, 386. 412 ; conf. 'Not yet the mountain, but only those 
houses are hiding the sunshine,' Goethe's Eleg. What means 
' bis die sonne uf (^en i)einapfel kommt,' (Weisth. 3, 791) ? till he 
gilds the fir cone ? 

Unz sich der tac ufniackte, Hagen's Ges. Abent. 2, 367 ; der 
tac der sleicJi. in (crept to them) balde ziio, MS. 1, 171''; der tac 
der scJilticlit wie eiu dieb, liiitzl. 23''; der tac ndhen begunde 
nach sinem alten vuude, Tiirl. W. 125''; die dach qaam, die nitt 
ondont, Maerl. 2, 236, so that he never stands still. The day 
says: * 1 /are away, and leave thee here,' Uhl. 169; der tac wil 
niht erwinden (turn back, leave off), Wolfr. 8, 18; der morgen 
niht erwinden wil, den tac nieman erwenden (keep off) kan, MS. 1, 
90''. ' Do der tac erschein,' shone out, Parz. 428, 13. 129, 15 ; d. 
d. t. vol erschein, Er. 623; der tac sich schouwen liez, Livl. 3299; 



1516 DAY AND NIGHT. 

do der morgen sich nf-Uez, und si sm entsuoben, Pass. 30^ 79 ; si'ch 
der tac entsloz (unlocked), Urstende 118, 61 ; der tac sich uz den 
wolken bot, Tiirl. Wh. 67*; do si gesalien den morgen mit sime 
lielite ufstnchen, die vinstre nalit entwiclien von des sunnen 
morgenrot, Pass. 36, 51 ; der tac luhte schitere (thin), Serv. 3237. 
Dager var Ijus, Sv. folks. 1, 129. La nuis sen va, et li jors es- 

clari, Garins 2, 203. 'Der tac sich anzilndet' kindles, Hiitzl. 

36*; dat hi den dach sach baren, Walewein 384; die men scone 
hareyi sach, Karel 1, 376. 2, 1306. 594; dat menne (den dach) 
haren sach 2, 3579, der tac sich hete erhart, Eracl. 4674 : sach 
verharen den sconen dach. Lane. 44532. 45350. Also ontpluken : 
' ontploc haer herte alse die dach' her heart flew open like the 
day, Karel 1, 1166. Walew. 3320. 7762; conf. 'sin herte ver- 
lichte als die dach,' Walew. 9448 ; ontspranc die dach, Karel 2, 
593; die dach ufeyi hemcle spranc, Walew. 6777. 4885; Fr. Me 
jour jaillit ; ' mocht der tac herspriessen, Hofm. Gesellsch. 59 ; 
Lett. 'deena pZaz/.&s^,' sprouts, buds. The day stirs: dag rinii, 

0. i. 1 1, 49 ; naht rinit, 0. iii. 20, 15 ; lioht rinit, 0. i. 15, 19. ii. 

1, 47. The day is rich, powerful : ' guotes ist er niht ricUe{r) 
wan als des liehtes der tac,' than the day is of light. Cod. Vind. 
428, no. 212 ; reicher dan der tac, Uhl. 1, 196. Other expres- 
sions for daybreak : 'die Nacht die weicM/ gives way, Lb. 1582. 
42; Niht forS gewdt, Cod. Exon. 412, 12; diu nacht gemachlich 
ende nam, Frauend. 485, 1 1 ; uns ist diu naht von Mnnen, Wolfr. 
Lied. 8, 16; unz uns diu naht gerilmet, Hahn's Strieker 10, 35; 
so lange bis die schmiede pinken, u. der tag sich wieder vor- 
zeiget, Ettner's Vade et occide Cain, p. 9. It is finely said in 
the Nib. 1564, 2: 'unz daz (until) diu sunne ir liehtez schinen 
hot (held out) dem morgen iiber berge ; ' als der morgenrot der 
vinstern erde lieht erhot, Mar. 169, 28 ; unz der ander morgenrot 
der werlde daz lieht hot, Serv. 1839; ouch schein nu schiere der 
morgenrot, den diu sunne sante durch vreude viir (Dawn, whom 
the sun sent before him for joy) daz er vreudenriche kiir vogeln 
u. bluomen brahte, Tiirl. Wh. 69*. Simpler phrases are : do 
begundez liuhten vome tage, Parz. 588, 8 ; gein tage die vogele 
sungen, Mai 46, 16. For descrying the dawn they said : ' nu 
Jcius ich den tac,' choose, pick out, espy, Walth. 89, 18 ; Ms den 
morgen lieht 88, 12 ; den morgenblic crkos, Wolfr. Lied. 3, 1 ; 
als man sich des tages entste, Wigal. 5544. 



DAY AND NIGHT. 1517 

p. 744.] Day is like a neighinf^ steed : 
Velox Aurorae nuntius Aether 

qui fiKjat li'mniiH stellas. Claudian'a 4 cons. Hon. 50 1. 
He cleaves the clouds : der tac die wolken spielt (split), MS. 2, 
167*. So the crow with flapping of her wings divides the night, 
lets in the light ; with her and the AS. Dceg-hrcfn we may assoc. 
the ON. names Dag-hvelp (quasi young day) and Dag-ulf, For- 
stem. 1, 328. 

p. 744.] Day is beautiful : heau comme le jour, plus beau 
que le jour ; ils croissoient comme le jour, D'Aulnoi's Cab. des 
f. 243; wahsen als der tac, S. Uolr. 328. So der morgen enstdf. 
Herb. 8482 ; do der tac werdpn began, En. 11280; die naht let, 
ende het waert dach, Karel 2, 1305 (conf. die nacht let, die hem 
verwies, Floris 1934) ; der tac ist vorlianden (here, forthcom- 
ing), Simpl. 1, 528 ; do gienc uf der tac (went up), Wh. 71, 20 
[Similar examples omitted] ; uuze Vz beginue ufgdn, Diem. 174, 
5 ; es giengen nicht 14 tage in^s land, Schelmufsky, conf. p. 633* ; 
der tac gdf von Kriechen, MSH. 3, 426*. Diu naht gie hin, der 
tac herziio (or, der morgen Iter, der raorgen quam, Pass. 47, 89. 

329, 53. 307, 68 [Similar ex. om.]. Day comes rapidly: 

comes vpon the neck of you, Dobel 1, 37*; an trnt der ostertac, 
Pass. 262, 16 ; als der suntac an geliff 243, 1 ; do der ander 
morgen uf ran, Serv. 3410; der tac gejiozzen ham, Troj. kr. 29651 ; 
der tac kommt stolken, Hatzl. 26'' ; der tac kam einher walken 28* ; 
er die mane sinke neder, ende op weder rise die dach, Karel 2, 
1 194. He pushes his way up : do dranc uf der tac, Rosen-g. 627 ; 
hegnnde uf dringen, etc. [Similar ex. om.] ; do siben tage vor- 
drungen, Kolocz 162; des fages wize osteni durcli diu wolken 
dranc, Wigal. 10861. He w up : des morgens, do der tac uf 
was, Fragm. 4P; nu was wol uf der tac, Eu. 7252 ; ez was hohe 
uf den tac 11146 ; do was ez vcrre uf den tac 10334. 

p. 745.] The day may be hindered from breaking : ' Wliat 
have I done to the day ? Who has led him astray ? ' En. 1 384 ; 
H. Sachs iii. 3, 68* (ed. 1561), 48'^ (ed. 1588) says of a ' day- 
stealer ' (idler) : * wilt den tag in der multer nnihtragen ? ' carry 
him about in thy trough, OHG. muoltra. There is a key to the 
day, Sv. vis. 2, 214. Vlaemsche lied. p. 173 ; the key of day is 
thrown into the river, Uhl. 171 ; ' Had I the day under lock and 
key, So close a prisoner he should be ^ 169 (conf. the day's 

VOL. IV. B 



1518 DAY AND NIGHT. 

answer). The sun is caught in a noose, ho cannofc continue his 
journey, and has to be ransomed, Klemm 2, 156. 

A phrase used in Wirzburg comes very near the Romance 
jpoindre : ' der tag spitzt sich schon,^ points, perks, pricks itself 
up, H. Muller's Griechenth. 44 ; IHyr. zora 'pnca, the dawn shoots. 
With a la pointe du jour, conf. ' matineret a punta (V alha,' Mila 
y Funtals 159. OHG. striza=jubar (sub ortu), Graff 6,760; 
hicis diei spiculum in oriente conspiciens, Kemble no. 581, p. lUG ; 
* der tac diewolken spielt/ spht the clouds (Suppl, to 744). 

p. 747.] The dawn is accompanied by oioise, esp. by agitation 
of the air : ich waen ez tagen welle, sich hebet ein hileler wint, 
Nib. 2059, 2 ; diu luft sich gein dein tage z'vuhet (air is drawn 
towards day), diu naht im schier entfliuhet, Tiirl, Wh. 65*. We 
must conn, aurora and avpiov (morrow) with aura, avpa (bi'eeze) ; 
and AS. morgen-.nveq may be akin to sivegel (p. 746). 'Sol ek 
sa drinpa dyn-heimum i,' solem vidi mergi in oceano ? mundo 
sonoro ? Stem. 125^. The Hiitzlerin 30* speaks of the gewimmer 
(whine, moan, droning) of daybreak; ' far an eirich gufuai viear 
a,' grien o stuaidh nan ceann glas,^ ubi oritur sonore sol a fluc- 
tibus capitum glaucorum, Tighmora 7, 422 ; Ssk. o-avi means sol, 

rava sonus, ru sonare. Alba is the lux prima that precedes 

the blush of dawn, Niebuhr 2, 800 ; it is like Matuta, Leucothea. 
Burguy's Glossaire 350* explains 'par son' before ' I'aube ^ as 
'par dessus, tout k la pointe^; It. suW alba. Our anbrechcn 
contains the idea of noise : daz der tac uf prach, Diemer 175, 7 ; 
de dach up brah, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 399. Detm. 1, 50 [Sim. examp. 
om.] ; clay breaks in through the windows, Felsenb. 3, 458 ; ich 
sihe den morgensterue ilf breJien, MS. 1, 90^ conf. Lith. brekszti, 
to glimmer, dawn; ervpit eras, Walthar. 402; Taube creva, Mcon 
1, 291. The noise of daybreak is sometimes to be expl. by the 
song of the wakening birds : ' der tac wil uus erschellen/ ring 
out, Ges. Abent. 1, 305 ; der siieze sclial kunt in den tac, Mai 
93, 33 ; biz sie erschracte (startled them) d^r vogel-sanc 93, 32. 
With the Span. ' el alva se rie,' conf. Turn. v. Nantes 42, 4 : 
' diu sunne in dem himel smieret,' smiles. Crepusculum pre- 
supposes a crepus, which must belong to crepare, as yfretpof; murk 
is akin to '\lr6(f)o<{ noise, see Benfey 1, 617 seq. Bopp^s Gl. 91. 

p. 748.] Bopp's Gl. 53'' connects vhtvo with ushas, from ush 
to burn, as ahtau with ashtan ; die ucht is still used in Germ. 



DAY AND NIGHT. 



1519 



Bohemia: Uhti-h{ta = orcr[a, Gl. sletst. 6, 436, is explained by 
Wackernagel as dawn-petition, Ilaupt 5, 32 !•. Diluculo is rend, 
in OHG. by: in demo unterliicheUnrie, Windb. ps. 260; fruo 
unterluchelliigen 206; dcujemleme, Ps. Trev. 206 ; an demo dal'dhe 
260; pUiothe, Dint. 1, 530». Falowendi, fahendi = crepasc\ih\m, 
GrafF 3, 496-7 (falo = fiilvus, pallidas) ; prima luce = in der urnich- 
den, Ilor. Belg. 7, 36^ for which AS. has w6ma (p. 745), beside 
glommung, (/a?.f/ri«i = crepusculura (may wo connect 'as de dach 
grtemelde ' ? Fromman 4, 265). ON. byrting ; and with dags- 
inhi is conn, the Fr. female name Bnin-matln = A.m'OTa,, Diet. 
2, 325, misspelt Brnmatin, Meon 3, 447. MLG. dager'mge = 
diluculum, Detm. 1, 178. 2, 546. 

The personi6c. of Tagarod is also indicated by the men's 
names Daghared, Trad. Corb. 226, Bagrlm 394. The word is 
fem. in Gotfr. Hagen 65 : an der dagerolt ; but the masc. pre- 
ponderates, both here and in morgenrot (see quotations from 
Mar., Servat., and Tiu-l. Wh. in Suppl. to 743 end) ; yet ' die 
rotbriinstige morgenrot,' H. Sachs's Wittenb. nachtigal. ' Der 
tag graut,' turns grey, dawns ; conf. ' es grant mir/ it frightens 
me : dos tages blic was deunoch gra, Parz. 800, 1. 'Jifiepa afi(pi> 
TO XvKavye^; avTo, dies circa ipsum diluculum est, Lucian s 
Somu. 33 ; Arab, dhenebii-ssirhan, wolfs tail, the first glimmer 
of dawn, that sweeps over the sky, then disappears, leaving a 
deeper gloom behind, Riickert's Hariri 1, 215. 

p. 748.] Does the obscure word morgen actually mean break- 
fast ? Finn. murkina=jentaculum, breakfast- time. Morning, 
like day, climbs up and is high, hence the name of Dietrich 
der Ilochvwrgen, Ranch 1, 413. Greek avpiov op6po(;, to-morrow 
morning; /3a6u<: opdpo^, Arist. Vesp. 216. Plato's Crito 43 and 
Prot. 310. Luke 24, 1. 

p. 748. J The sense of downward motion in abend is con- 
firmed by ' diu sunne begunde senken u. aben (sinking and 
offing) togclich,' Heinz v. K.'s Kitt. u. pf. 5. AS. cw![d = 
conticinium, ON. qvcid ; conf. Goth. a?ta'2aZ = quies. ON. ]nhn = 
crepusculum, AS. glom. The ON. rockur = crepusculum (p. 813) 
is in Swed. skijmming, Dan. skumring, LG. schenimer, schummcr- 
licht ; conf. Boh. and Russ. sumrak, and the name Simrock [su- 
mrak, su-merki = half-mirk, subtenebrae, fr. mrak, morok = 
mirk] . ON. sliocra, twilight, Olaf helg. s., ed. Christ. 47, 25. 



1520 DAY AND NIGHT. 

Diu tunlde, evening twilight, Osw. 2013-71 ; OHG. tunchall, 
Graff 5, 435. Swed. tysmorh, Dan. tusmorke crepusculum (p. 
814 n.). Vesperzit, so diu .s?(?i72,e schate git (gives shadow), Mar. 
158, 7; couf. hvcrero r rje\io<;, aKtoiovTo re irdcrai ajvcai, Od. 
11, 12. 15, 185. Twilight is also eulen-fiucld, or simply eule, 
owl, Firmen. 1, 268. Si bran ti/schone sam der abentrot, MS. ], 
34^ ON. qvolJrod'i, aurora vespertina. ' Abentrot, der kiindet 
Inter mcere,' Walth. 30, 15. Modern: ' abendi'oth gut wetter 
bot,' or ' ab. bringt morgenbrot,' or ' der morgen grau, der abend 
roth, ist ein guter wetterbot,' Simrock's Spr. 20. 19. 7099. 
On the other hand : EvdyyeXo'i fxev, (oairep rj 7rapoi/j,ia, ' Ew'^ 
jiiwiTo /iiT]Tp6<i evcf)p6p7]<; irdpa, Aesch. Agam. 264. 

p. 749.] Ssk. usas aurora, dual usasa, Bopp's Gl. 53'' ; Lat. 
aurora for ausosa ; Att. eo)?, Ion. 77069, Dor. aco?, 2Eio\. av(o<; ; conf. 
Ostara (p. 290). The blush of dawn is expr. in Ssk. by nari.r, 
the virgins, Gott. anz. '47, p. 1482. In Theocr. 2, 147 the 
goddess rosy-armed is drawn by steeds (Suppl. to 738) ; 'con- 
stiteram exorientem aurormn forte salutans' Cic. de Nat. D. 1, 
28 (conf. Creuzer p. 126). On the Slav. lutrl-hogh as god of 
morning, see Myth. ed. 1, p. 349 n. 

p. 750.] The origin of ' Hennil, Rennil, wache !' in the Mark 
is still unexplained. Observe, that tales are told of Strong 
Hennel as of Strong Hans, and that lionidlo, ace. to Wend, 
volksl. 2, 270% actually means a shepherd's staff. Like that 
shepherd in Dietmar, the Roman fetialis, when about to declare 
war, entered the sanctuary, and waved the shields and lance of 
the god's image, crying, ' Mars, vigila ! ' Hartung 2, 168. Serv. 

ad. Aen. 8, 3. Both in France and Germany the watchman, 

the vrone wehter (MSH. 3, 428"'), blew the day in with his horn ; 
his songs were called tage-lieder, auhades. ' La gaite corne, qui 
les chalemiaus tint,' Garin 1, 219; les gaites cornent desor le. 
mur anti 2, 117. 158 ; la guete cuida que laube fust crevee, il tret 
le jar, et Imche et crie, Meon 1, 195 ; et la guete ert desus la porte, 
devantlejor come et/re/eZe 1, 200. 'Der waldaere diu tage-Uet 
(pi.) so lute erhaben hat,' Walth. 89. 35 (see Lachm. on W. p. 
202); den tac man kiindet dur diu horn (pi.), MS. 2, 190''; diu 
naht was ergangen, man seite ez wolde tagen. Nib. 980, 1 ; 
wahter hiiet hoh enbor, MS. 1, 90''; er erschelt ein horn an der 
stunt, damit tet er den liuteu kunt des tages kunft gewalticlich. 



DAY AND NIGHT. 1521 

Ls. 3, 311. He cries : Mcli sich in her (jdn (I see liim como on), 
(ler mich wol erfrouwen mac, her gat der liohte sclioeue tac/ 
ibid. ; smcrghens alse die wachter blies, Floris 1935 ; der nus den 
t;ig herUles, Liederb. of 1582. 28, anhlies 238; der wechter blost 
an, Keisersp. Brosatnl. 25** ; * the watchman blows the rest,' Eliz. of 
Or]. 502 ; the warder or ' hausmann ' blows the day off, he comes 
of liimself, Drei Erzti. p. 4 to ; ' dor wechter ob dera haden,^ the 
guard over the coach-boot. Did watchmen carry a mace called 
morgenfitern ? see Hollberg's Kllefte Jnni 5, 9. Frisch 1, C70 says 
it was invented in 134-7. 

p. 750.] Day is beautiful and joi/oiifi : der tac schoen u. grise 
sin lieht beginuet meren, Troj. kr. 9173 ; daz lieht mit vrexuhn uf 
trat. Pass. 329, 54. On the contrary, ' das abcndroth im westen 
welkt,' fades, pales, Schm. v. Wern. 253. The morning star is 
harbinger of day (p. 752 n.) : daz im der tage-sterre vruo hioite 
doi tac, Ksrchr. 7885 ; daTtjp dyyiWwu (pdo<;, Od. 13, 94. 

Birds rejoice at his coming : i^viku 6pvtde<i aaoxri, rnrpcoroi, 
Charon. Fragm. 34''; 6 6pv(,<; ttjv ew kuXwv, Athen. 4, 36 : daz 
cleine siieze vogellhi lean dingen (reckon) uf den morgenschin, u. 
sich des tages friiuwen muoz, Troj. kr. 20309; nam diu naht ein 
ende, die vogel des niht wolden durch iemans freuden swende 
verswigen, wan sie sungen als sie solden (would for no man's 
pleasure hush, until, &c.), Tit. 5364; noch siiezer denne dem 
voglin morgens vrone, Frauenl. Ettm. p. 27 ; de voghcl den dach 
smorghens groettc, als hine sacli. Rose 7832 (conf. ' den kleinen 
vogellin troumet uf esten,' dream on the boughs, MS. 2, 166''). 
Cock-crow announces day : i^ipyecrOac ijSr] dXexTpuovcov aSovTwv, 
Plato's Symp. 223 ; der han hat zwir (twice) gekraet, ez nahet 
gen dem morgen, MS. 2, 152*; as de hanens den dag inkreggeden 
(crowed-in), Lyra p. 114. 

p. 752.] The swift approach of Night, its falling, sinking, is 
expr. in many turns of speech : cz tagct lane (slowly), u. nahtet 
drat, Teichn. 70 ; als die nacht mit alter gcivalt (all her might) 
herein brach, Drei kliigste leute 146. That night breaks in, 
wlieroas day breaks forth, has been remarked by Pott 1, 236; yet 
Goethe says ' die nacht hricht an,' Faust 126 ; cum nnx inrxicret, 
(irrog. Tur. 10, 24; wie die nacht herhrach, Katzip. ci"* ; biss das 
der abend hereindravg (pressed in), Fischart's Gl. schif 1131; 
forth of each nook and corner crowds the night, Goethe ; do vicl 



1522 DAT AND NIGHT. 

sin gaeber abent mi, Trist. 314 ; diu nalit nu sere zuo gold, Tiir], 
^\ h. 20'^; die ti. riickt mit gewalt eiii, Maulaffe 5G9 ; die n. rasche 
quam, Hpt's Ztsclir. 5, 338 ; es scldesst (et scliiitt, it shoots) in 
den abend, Schutze 4, 33. Night came upon the nrck of us, 
Ungr. Simph 65. Ettn. Apoth. 877; 'die n. stosst an,' bumps 
against, Weisth. 1, 305; ' it was avent, de n. anstoet/ Reineke 4, 
1. 'Niht hecom,' supervenit, Beow. 230; conf. et<? oKev e\6r) 
BeteXo<; o^jre Bucoi', a/CLdcrij B' ept/SoyXov apovpav, II. 21, 231; r/877 
fyap KOL e7r)]Xv66 SeteXov rjpiap, Od. 17, 606 ; as de aveut in't JiDi.f 
kem, Miillenh. p. 201 ; trat de n. an, Weisth. 3, 87; die n. hetritt 
ihn (tramples) 3, 457; conf. 'wan sie die n. hetrift,' hits 3, 785, 
and ' bis die dammerung eintrat,' Felsenb. 4, 63. 2, 599, herein 
tn'.ft,' steps in 4, 144 ; ' die naht hinzuo geschreit/ strode up to, 
Troj. kr. 10119; ' ndhct in diu naht,' nears them. Nib. 1756, 1 ; 
' en hadde die n. niet ane gegaen,' not come on, Karel 2, 934 ; do 
diu naht (der abent) ane gie, Lanz. 3210. Flore 3197. Diemer 
27, 4. Frauend. 342, 30. Iw. 3904; gieng der abend her, Gotz 
V. Berl. 82 ; hie mite gienc der abent hin, u. diu naht heran lief 
(ran). Pass. 47, 84 ; diu vinstere n. her ouch swanc, als si in ir 
loufe lief 36, 41 ; als diu n. hin gelief 81, 86; diu n. kumt daher 
gerant, Dietr. drach. 336'\ 

Again, night sinks, bends, falls : der abent was zvo gesigen, 
Diut. 1, 351 ; ist diu naht herzuo gesigen, Troj. kr. 11718; diu 
n. siget zuo, Dietr. drach. 154*; uns siget balde zno diu n., Lanz. 
709; diu n. begunde sigen an, Morolt 1620. 3963; dm n. siget 
an, Dietr. dr. 327'^; diu 11. vast uf uns neiget (bends), Hatzl. 

192, 112. Or day sinks, and night clinibs : do der tac hin 

seic, diu n. herzuo steic, Dietr. 9695; biz der dach nider begunde 
sigen, inde die nacht up-stigen, Karlmeinet p. 18 ; li jours va a 
declin, si aproclie la nuit, Berte 54; li jors sen va, et la nuis 
assert, Garins 2, 157 ; la nuiz va, aprochant, si decliua le jor, 
Guitecl. 2, 169; nu begund diu sunne sigen, u. der abeutsterue 
stigen, Zwei koufni. 180; ez begunde sigen der tac, Er. 221; 
a la hrune, a la cJiute du jour. Similar are the phrases : der tac 
was iezuo Idn getveten. Pass. 27, 7; der tag gieng zu dem abend, 
TJhl. 1, 246; conf. ' dagr var a sinnum,' inclined to evening. 
Seem. 104'\ In the same way: der tac hiemit ein ende nam, 
diu vinster naht mit triiebe ham, Pass. 19, 3; der tac sleich 
hin, u. leant diu naht, Freib. Trist. 4705 ; ja swant (vanished) 



DAT AND NIGHT. 1523 

<ler tac, \i. ivuoJik (grew) diu luilit, Heinz v. Konst. Ritt. u.. jif. 
7; conf. Lat. aduUa nocte; do der tac verswant, G. frau 2013. 
21-27; LG. Mie lett dagen u. awinen* ' schemmcrn u. dagcn/ 
Strodtm. 200. 238. Brera. wtb. 4, G'M ; 'do der tac zerstoeret 
wart von der vinsfcerm'sse groz, u. dlii n, Jierzno ffcjloz,' came 
flowing up, Troj. kr. 10489 ; der tac cjeflnze hia 8519; do der t. 
WR^erffdn, Diemer 149, 25; ' als der t. was gclegen,' lain down, 
Krnst 4679 ; 'do dor t. lie mneu schiii,' let be, left off, Troj. kr. 
1 1095 ; ' der t. sin ivnnne vcrhU/ his bliss forsakes, MS. 2, 192'' ; 
der t. sin Ueht vcrldt 2, 496"'; der t. Idt sinen fjlafit, Troj. kr. 
8480 ; do des tages Heht verswein, Bark 368, 3 ; siSSan <xfen- 
leoht under beofenos hiidor heholen weorSeS, Beow. 821 ; der tac 
'jieng mit freuden hin, do diu naht ir triiebeii schin liber al 
die werlt gespreite, Gerh. 4931; asfensciraa /ord geivdf, Caedin. 
147, 30; der tac begerte urloubes (took leave) mit liahte, Tit. 
3743. 

Night catches, grasps: din naht hegrifet. Tit. 3752. Dietr. 
dr. 97*. Heinr. Trist. 4650; die nacht hevet mi hier hegrepen, 
jNIaerl. 3, 157; unz si hegreif diu naht, Wolfd. 302, 1; unz daz 
si da diu n. hegreif, Mai 39, 5 ; die nacht kompt gesIicJten, Ld. 
1582, 53. Night covers, spreads her mantle: )?a com a3ftcr 
niht on last daege, lagu-streamas ivredh, Cajdin. 147, 32; 'ja 
waene din n. welle uns nicht zveni mtv,' will not guard us more. 
Nib. 1787, 2; die nacht war //ir augen, Drei kluge leute 147; 
evening was at ike door, Pol. maulaffe 171 ; der abend all bereit 
ror der hand, Schweinichen 1, 87; do man des abindis inisuoh, 
Athis C*, 153. 

Night was deemed kateftd, hostile, Benfey 2, 224 : Grk BelXr], 
Se/eXo? evening is akin to SetX-o? timid, SetSco I fear; conf. vv^ 
cXoi], Od. 11, 19, uaht-eise horror noctis, and Shaksp.'s ' grim- 
.looked night.' The Lith. ' naktis ne brolis, night is no nmn's 
friend' occurs already in Scherer's St. Gall. Mss. 34": die 
lacht niemand ze freunde hat, and in II. Sachs 1, 233', On 
the other hand : 'la nuit porte avis,* conf. to sleep upon a thing. 

p. 752.] 'Night has the vietorij won' is also in iioseu-g. 
1119; der tac vortreip diu vinstcr naht, Frauend. 31-4, 31; per 
contra: diu n. den t. hot versiciDit 271, 25. A full descr. of 
night's victory, with ' her du.sJci/ buiiner hung on all high towers/ 
in Ls. 3, 307. 



1524 SUMMER AND WINTER. 

p. 753.] The notion of night's (/loominess preponderates : 
dW 7]T0i vvv fi€V TretOco/xeOa pvktI fxeXaivrj, Od. 12, 291. OS. 
tJiiustri naht^ Hel. 133, 4, etc.; de dustere nacht, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 
393; in dero naht-finstri bechlepfet, N. Cap. 13; diu vinsier 
n., Frauend. 339, 30, etc.; diu fot-vinster n., Lanz. 6538; diu 
swarze n., Herb. 7964. In thieves' liiigo, scJiwarz — night ; 
diu triiehe n., Wh. 2, 10. Swiss ' Jcidige nacht/ pitch-dark. 
Staid. 2, 98 (kiden = ring out, pierce) ; bei eitler naht, Abele's 
Gerichts-h. 1, 39] . Uhl. Volksl. 683 (Ambras. Ldrb. 1582, 377). 
AS. 'on wanre niht/ pale, Beow. 1398; niht wan under wolc- 
num 1295; couf. OS. wanum undar wolcnuna, Hel. 19, 20, morgan 
wanum 21, 1 ; niht-helma genipu. Cod. Exon. 160, 12 ; nceadu- 
helma gesceapu scrid'an cwomon, Beow. 1 293 ; ON. prima, larva, 
means also conticinium, quando omnia quasi obvelata caligine 

videntur. In voller nacht (pleine nuit), Schweinich. 3, 59. 87. 

234; ' die gp.schlagenevi./ stricken, hushed, Matth, Pred. v. Luth. 
p. 27. Philand. 2, 83; helohen n., Eein. 2271 (illunis ?) ; nuit 
close, Babou 219; schon weicht die tiefe n., Goethe 12, 242 = 
succincta nox, Sid. Apoll. Epist. 3, 8; ciXV 6t€ Srj rpL^a vvKr6<{ 
irjv, yLiera h' aarpa ^e^iJKei, Od. 12, 312. 14, 483, conf. the seven 

parts of night. Fernowls Dante 2, 229. Night is long, vuf 

paKpi), Od. 11, 373; often called intempesta nox, unseasonable 
(for work) : dum se intempesta nox jpraecipitat, Cato de Mor. ; 
conf. the ON. adj. niol, Ssem. 51» (AS. neol, neowol=prona ?). 
But also ev(^p6v7), the kindly (comforting?), Hes. Op. et D. 562 ; 
OHG. Mstillandi naht, Diut. 1, 251; 'do was diu siieze n. fiir,* 
gone by, Lanz. 1115. On inodraned, see Hattemer 1, 334. The 
midnight hour is fittest for deciding the fates of men (p. 858-9). 



CHAPTEE XXIV. 

SUMMEPv AND WINTER. 

p. 754.] Winter is called bird-killer, oIcovoktovo^, Aesch. 
Agam. 563, and ' der vogele not,' MSH. 1, 53^ A M. Neth. 
poem (Kartl 2, 133) says : ' so dat si ten naesten Meye metten 
vogelen gescreye porren moghen,' may march out mid the songs 
of bii-ds ; ' wie der Meie vogelin vroene macht,' gladdens, elevates, 
MS. 1, 31^ 



SUMMER AND WINTER. 1525 

p. 755.] SI. iar (spring) =y(T (year), says Miklos. 110; Zoud. 
ydre (year), Pott 2, 557. Bopp, conf. Gratnin. p. 568. Kuhn's 
Ztschr. 2, 260 connects yer with wpa, hora. Bekker in Monats- 
ber. '60, p. 161 says eap for fiap = ydr. We may also conn. 
eap with rjpi (early), as our friihling with friih. Kuhn thinks 
ver is for ves, Ssk. vasantas (spring); conf. vasas, vasara (day), 
vasta (daylight). Ssk. vatsara (year), Bopp's Gl. 306''. Finn. 
vtiosi (year), Esth. aast, conf. Lat. aestas ; in Kalev. 1, 248 
vitosi year, and kesd summer, seem synonymous. Ssk. samd, 
annus, is fem. of saraa, similis, Bopp and GDS. 72 seq. Lenz 
(spring) is also laugsi, lanxi, lanzlg, Staid. 2, 156; somer ende 
leutin, Rose 7326. 

p. 755.] Change of season, change of year is expr, by * diu 
zit hat sich verivandelot,' MS. 1, 78^; conf. 'in der ztte jdren,' 
years of time, Mai 107, 18. To the Egyptians the year sails 
round, whilst in German ' unz itmb Jaim, daz jar,' Otnit 809; ein 
nmhe-gmdez jar, Trist. Frib. 1070; ein mand in (a month to 

them) des jares trit, Pass. 162, 58; das rollende jahr. In gui- 

I'an-neuf, gui is mistletoe (p. 1206); conf. our Germ, cries: 
' drei hiefen (3 blasts on the bugle) zum neuen jahr ! ' Schm. 2, 
156; 'gliickseligs neues jahr, drei hiefen z. n. j.!' Frisch 1, 452"= 
from Besold. New-year is expr. by 'so sich daz jar geniuwet 
hat,' in springtime, Warnung 2291; or ' wanu daz jar auz- 
cJntmpt,' out comes, Gesta Rom. Keller 99; do das jar auskom, 
Weisth. 3, 650; but also by the simple ' New.' 

p. 756.] The idea of the whole year is now and then per- 
sonified, both in wishes and otherwise: Got gebe uns wunnecliche 
jar, Reinh. ace. to var. 2248 (ms. P.K.) ; guot jar gange si an 
(encounter them), Kistener 1188; conf. iibel-jar, mal-anno 
(p. 1160 end) ; do das jar auskom, Weisth. 3, 650; ehe ein jahr 
in das land kommt, Drei Erzn. 266; ehe zwei jahre in's land gehn, 
Pol. maul. 8; daz vunfte jar in gie, Trist. 151, 27; that jar 
furdor skred (strode), Hel. 13,23 (conf. KS. forff gcwdt dcncg-rimes 
worn (numeri dierum multitudo), Csedm. 60, 1, see ' daeg-r. 
worn' 80, 20. 156, 51); le bonhomme Vitnnre, Mem. de I'acad. 
celt. 4, 429. In the Bacchica pompa 'Evuivto'^ appears as a 
giant with four elbows (T€Tpa7r7?;^u9, 4 cubits high?), bearing 
*Amalthea's horn, Athen. 5, 198 (Schw. 2, 263). 

p. 757.] Also in Hel. 14, 10: 'so filu winiro endi sumaro* 



1526 SUMMEE AND WINTER. 

means tlie same as AS. fela missera ; but 5^ 1.2, where ZachariaS 
says he was ' tuentig wintro ' old when he married Elisabeth, 
and has lived with her 'antsibunta (70) wintro/ he is 90 years 
old, and luintar stands for year. The AS. midwinter, ON, 
mi^vetr, appears in M. Neth. as meclewinter, Lane. 13879, midde- 
wlnler 23907. A computation of sumor and lencten, Andr. & 
El. p. xxiv. Leo's Rectitud. 212-3. The ON. dnegr is Swed. di/gn. 
Gudrun says in Seem. 232'' : 'for ek af fialli fimm doegr taU&' 
fared I from the fell 5 days told ; conf F. Magn. Dagens tider, 
p. 28. The sacreduess of Mulsummer and Midwinter, of St. 
John's day, sunnewende (p. 617) and yule, favours the dual 
division : on the night of St. John, vigils are kept in field and 
lawn under gold-apple tree, Molbech no. 49. Norske eventyr 
no. 52. KM. no. 57. 

p. 758.] As to a connexion between Tacitus's three seasons 
and Wodaii's three inogresses, see Kuhn in Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 493. 
It seems to speak for the three seasons, that often only three 
assizes are recorded in a year ; and still more, that three great 
sacrifices were offered, in autumn til ars, in winter til groSrar, in 
summer til sigrs, Yngl. s. cap. 8; trihus temijorihus anni, Lacomb. 
no. 186 (yr 1051). Gipsies divide the year into two and six 
seasons, says Pott 1, QQ. The Persian, like the Spaniard, had 
two springtimes, for Fasli in the Giilistan speaks of the Shah 
Spring, Shah Summer, Shah Autumn, Shah Winter, and Shah 
New-year (newrus) = March, who reintroduces the spring. ON. 
haust, Swed. Jidst,is, an abbrev. of herbist, haerfest [Scot, hair'st], 
see Gramm. 2, 368. In Up. Hesse also they call spring auswarts, 
Vilmar's Hess. Ztschr. 4, 52. 

p. 761.] Spring is expr. by the phrases : ez was in der zite 
alter hluomen ursprinc, Flore 5529 ; so die bluomen enspringent 
153; von den bluomen wie sie sprungen 821 ; conf. flos in vera 
novo, Pertz 5, 735. More vividly personal ai-e the adjs. in: * der 
lange friihling,' E. Meier's Schwab, march, p. 303 ; ' vil lieber 
Sumer, der Hebe S.,' MS. 1, 167''. MSH. 3, 212^; diu liebe 
sumerzit, MS. 2, 108'^; diu liebe sumer-wunne, Dietr. 381 ; 
saelige sumerzit, MS. 2, 108'' (our ' die liebe zeit ') ; and even 
'der lieilige sumer,' Myst. i. 312, 2. To which is opposed 'der 
Zeu% winter,' MSH. 3, 215''; ' die fell e winter,' Rose 53. 62. 
Both seasons come and go : ' ira yvers, si revenra estez,' Orange 



SUMMER AND WINTER. 1527 

2, 75; OS. slcred the wintav ford, Hel. 6, 13; liiems saeva transiU, 
Cann. biir. 193 ; swanne der winter abe gienc, uncle der sumcr 
ane vienc, Alex. 5091; Neth. die winter ginc in hant, Maerl. 2, 8 
(like : binnen dien ginc die nacht in hant, Lane. 46927) ; als die 
winter inginc, Lane. 3G014; geld der winter dalier, Gotz v. Berl. 
240 ; der vorder Winterldauh herwider hat gehauset sich auf 
seinen alien sitz, Wolkenst. 67; iiu ist der leide winter Jile, Ben. 
390; der sumer ist comen in diu lant, MS. 2, 83*; pis kiimt der 
sunier here, Otnit (V. d, Ron) 29 ; unz uffen S. Urbans tac, danne 
gat der sunier in, H. Martina bl. 250; si jehent, der sumer der 
si Jiie, MS. 1, 07'' ; es gcct ein frischer freier sommer da herein, 

Bcrgreien 71 ; ver rcdit optatum, Carm. bur. 178. Or, instead 

of Sutinner, it is Mag, as mai-gesdss means summer-pasture, 
Stalder 293 ; als der Meie in gat, Warn. 1887; an S. Pliilippen- 
tage, so der Meie alrerst in gat, Frauend. 03, 13; alse die Mey 
in quam, eutie April orlof nam. Lane. 23434; 'da hat uns der 
Meie sinen krdni (wares) erloubet, ze suochen, swaz wir siner 
varwe geruochen,^ to pick what Ave please, MS. 2, 107*; des 
Meien blic, Tit. 32, 2 ; do man des liehten Meigen spil mib 
siner bliiete komen sach, Troj. 6889 ; Meie, die heide griieze ! 
MS. 2, 167''; der Meie hat die heide geeret 2, 52*: * der winder 
twanc die heide, uu griienet si im ze leide,' to spite him, Ben. 
453 ; flower-leaves, whereon ' der May sein dolden (umbels) 
lionget,' Suchenw. 46, 28; des liehten Meien schar (company) 
stat bt'kleit in purpur-var (-hue), MSH, 3, 195''; flowers are 
'des Meien kiinne,' MS. 2, 22% and ' siimer-geraete' 1, 194''; 
uf Walpurgen tag xv. gebunt Mei-gcrten (-switches), Weisth. 

3, 497 ; * giezent nur den Meien under ougen ! ' sings a girl in 
MS. 2, 74''; does it mean 'put the garland on me'? Mai, dein 

gezelt (pavilion) gefellt mir wol, Wolkenst. 110. -May has 

power: ich lobe dich, Meie, duier kraff, MS. 2, 57"; des Meies 
virtuit, Uhl. 1, 178 ; gen wir zuo des Meien horli-gezite (hightide), 
der ist mit aller siner krefte komen, VValth. 46, 22 (Lachm. is 
wrong in note to Nibel. p. 0). So: in der sumerlichen maht, 
Parz. 493, 0; der sumer mit siner kraft, MS. 1, 37" ; des Meien 
kraft sie brahte dar, der was der mCdaere (painter), Blicker 79 ; 
der winter twinget mit siner kraft, MS. 1, 37''; des Aberellen 
kraft, Hpt's Ztschr. 6, 353, and so of all the months. With 
power is blended goodness: des Meien giiete u. kraft, Muscatbl. 



1528 SUMMER AND WINTER. 

in Altd. mus. 2, 189; ze veld u. uf der heide lac der Mai tnit 
ainev g (let e, Hatzl. 131, 6. Sucheuw, 46, 15; des Meigen giiete, 
Hatzl. 159, 584. Troj. 16213; conf. thera zifci guati (Suppl. to 
791) ; der Meie hete do gevrout (gladdened) mit der liehten 
kiinfte sin (his coming) diu wilden waltvogelin, Partenopier 45, 
18 ; sumer, du hast manege giiete, Lachm. Walth. xvii. 7. Summer 
brings bliss : si jehent, der sumer der si hie, diu wunne diu si 
komen, MS. 1, 67*^; 'heia siimer wunne, swer uus din erbunne ! ' 
grudge us thee 2, 6'd^ -, sit die siimerw. alrerst begunde nahen 2, 
74''; eristkomen wider mit gewalde, den der Meige hat vertriben; 
sumerw. ist im entrunnen (fled before him) balde, der ist vor im 
niht gebliben, Frauend. 507 ; sumerw., nig dem siiezen Meigen, 
MS. 2, 22^* ; der sumerw. giiete, Flore 165; zur somerw., Baur 

no. 718. The Germ. Summer or May stands on a par with 

the Scand. god Freyr returning from exile (p. 212-3), as indeed 
Maia, Flora, Aprilis were goddesses to the Romans. A tree 
breaks into blossom when a god settles upon it : 

seht ir den bourn, der da stat, 
der loubes vil u. bluomen hat, 
' eln got hat sick da nider geldn (let himself down), 
an den (without him) mohte ez niht organ, 
ez ist bi namen Tervigant. Geo. 2162. 

The poet of the Warnung sings : 

nu minnet (ye adore) bluomen unde gras, 

niht in der (not Him who) sin raeister was; 

wip unt vogel-gesanc 

unt die liehten tage lane, 

der sache jegeliche (all such things) 

nemt ze einem himelriche. Hpt's Ztschr. 1, 495. 

And still more distinctly : 

einer anhetet (one adores) daz vogel-sanc 

unt die liehten tage lane, 

darzuo bluomen unde gras, 

daz ie des vihes spise was (cattle's food) ; 

diu rinder vrezzent den got (oxen gobble your god); ibid. 1, 500. 

Green foliage is the garment of May and Summer : quoique le bois 
reprenne sa rohe d'ete, Villera. Bardes Bret. 215; sumer-Zc/eiY hat 



SUMMER AND WINTER. 1529 

er ir gesniten (cut out), MS. 2, 47''; der Sumcr wil riclicu 
iiianigcn bourn mit loubes unit (leafy dross) 2, 83"; lieide u. angci- 
liabeut sich bereitet mit der schoeusten wdt, die in der Meie Lat 
gesant (wliich May has sent them) 2, 83* ; herbest, der des Meien 
wdt vellet von den risen (cuts fr. the twigs) 2, 105"; vil richfr 
wdt, die Meie hat 1, 192* ; sich hate gevazzct (collected) der wait, 
u. schoeniu kicit gein dera sumer au-geleit (put on), Maurit. 1G8 1 ; 
in Meigeschem walde, Tit. 143, 1 ; solutis Ver nivibus virideni 
monti reparavit amictuin, Claud. B. Get. 168. 

p. 7G2.] Winter is a ruthless ruffian warrior: 'spiteful W.'s 
envy Ms complained of, MS. 1, 192"; 'der (tn/e Winter twanc,' 
oppressed, ibid.; der W. hant (also twanc) die heide 2, yS"** ; nu 
ist der bliieuden heide vo(jet (tyrant) mit gewalt lif uns gezoget, 
lioert wi'er mit winde hroget (blusters) 1, 193'''; des leideu 
\Vinters iiherlast, der si verwazen (be cursed) u. sin roup ! 2, 20''. 
AVinter has an ingesinde, retinue, Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 311; des 
Winters wdfen tragen (weapons carry), MsH. 1, 328*. But May 
is armed too, and fights him : mein ros schrait (my steed strides) 
gen des ^laien schilt, Wolkenst. 115; diu sunne dringet liehtem 
Meien dur den griienen schilt, der von loube schaten birt (brings 
leafy shade) den kleinen vogellin, MsH. 1, 150''. His fight with 
W. is descr. in detail in the Song of battle betw. Summer and 
W., Uhl. Volksl. p. 23. The AS. already has: j^a wa)s W. 
Hcacen, fsBger folden bearm, Beow. 2260 (yet see p. 779 n.) ; 
brumalis est ferita rabies, Archipoeta p. 76 ; Winder, wie ist nu 
din kraft worden gar unsigehaft (unvictorious), sit der Meie 
sinen schaft hat lif dir verstochen, MSH. 3, 195"^; fuort micli 
durch des Meien Jier (host), der mit ritterlicher wer den W. hat 
erslagen (slain), Hiitzl. 131, 51 ; winder ist nider valt (felled), 
Wiggert 37 ; hin sont wir den W. jagen (chase away), Conr. v. 
Ammenh. extr. W. p. 51 ; wol hin, her W., ir miiezt ie ze rilme in 
hergen, Frauenl. 369, 16; der sumerwiinne den strit Ian (drop the 
strife with), Flore 150. Haupt on Neidh. 45, 12 takes Aucholf 
to be for oukolf in the sense of krotolf (p. 206) ; yet also Goth. 
auhj6n = turaultuari might be brought in. The names Maihom, 
Meicnrts (Closener 68) point back to old customs; the island 
Meigen-ouicc, now Meinau, perh. to an ancient site of the spring 
festival. 

p. 762.] A sweet May-song in Wolkenst. no. 63, p. 173 : liet, 



1530 SUMMEK AND WINTER. 

da si mite enpfdlioi den Meigen. To welcome the spring is in 
ON. ' ])kfagna ^exr sumri/ Maurer 2, 232 ; alle die vogel froeliche 
den Sumer singende e}ij)hant, MS. 1, 2P; entphahen die wunig- 
lichen zit, Diut. 2, 92 ; ontfaet den Mei met bloemen, hi is so 
schone ghedaen, Uhl. Volksl. 178; sleust uns auf (unlock) die tiir, 
u. lest den Sumer Itereui, Fastn. sp. p. 1103; ir siilt den Sumer 
griiezen, u. al sin ingesinde, MSH. 3, 202* ; Meie, bis (be) uns 
willehomen, MS. 1, 194''; wis (be) willekonien, wunneclicher Meie 
1, 196''. May and Summer are distinguished: sint willekomen /ro . 
Sumerzit, sint will, der Meie \, 59^* ; ich klage dir, Meie, ich klage 
dir, Sumerwunne 1, 3'\ 

' In den Meien riden ' was a real custom, Soester fehde p. 660. 
The men of Mistelgau near Baireuth sent envoys to Niirnbg. to 
fetch Spring. They were given a bumblebee shut up in a box 
(Suppl. to 697) ; but curiosity led them to peep in, and the bee 
escaped. They shouted after it 'na Mistelgau ! ' and sure enough 
the long rain was followed by tine weather, Panz. Beitr, 2, 173; 
conf. Herod. 1 , \Q'2, where a country has the spring taken out of 
its year. 

p. 763.] The coming of Summer is known by the opening of 
flowers, the arrival of birds : der sumer ist komen schone ilher mer 
hat uns ze lande briiht ein tvunnidichez her, MSH. 3, 226% as in 
Ssk. spring is called kusuvidkara, florum multitudinem habens ; 
do man die sumerwunne bi der vogel reise erkande, do loste der 
Mei die hluomen uz den tiefen banden 3, 229'* ; der sumer ist mit 
silezem sange schone erwecket 3, 24P ; doch kam ich uf ein heide, 
diu was liehter bluomen vol, daran moht man schouwen wol, ob 
der 3Jai ze velde lac, Ls. 1, 199. Nithart leads the Duchess, with 
pipers and fiddlers, to where he has thrown his hat over the (first) 
viol ; kneels down and raises the hat, ' ir lat den sumer schinen,' 
MSH. 3, 202^^ ; 's ersti velgerl brock i' dir z'liab, Firmen. 2, 798, 
and Voss goes in search of the first flowers as spring-messengers, 
Goethe 33, 148 ; the first buttercup and hvitsippa used to be 
eaten, Dybeck '45, 68-9, conf. the first 3 cornblussoms, Superst. 
I, 695. 1018. Tussilago, coltsfoot, is called sommer-thiirleln 
(-doorlet) and Merzblume, because it springs up immed. after the 
snow has thawed ; also filius ante patrem, filia ante matrem, 
Nemnich 1515 ; Nethl. zomer-zoeljes (-sweetie) =galanthus nivalis. 
Clover too is called summeriiower , visumarus, Kl. schr. 2, 159. 



SUMMER AND WINTER. 1531 

p. 7G3.] Chelidonium, celandine, so called because it comes 
with the swallow itnd withers at his going", Dioscor. 2, 211. A 
spi-ing song in Luciau^s Tragopod. 43 — 53 (ed. Bip. 10, 4) makes 
blossom, swallow, and nightiuyale heralds of spring ; if you see 
the first ploughman ply, the first swallow fly, &c., Sup. I, 108G ; 
usque ad aduentum hiruudlneum vel ciconinum, Sidon. Apoll. 2, 
14; ciconia redeuntis anni jugiter mintiatrix, e']\c\ex\^ tristitiam 
hiemis, laetitiam verni temporis introdiicens, magnum pietatis 
tradit exemplum, Cassiod. Van 2, 14; Maien-bule, sommergcck, 
Diet. 2, 50G sub v. biihl : conf. ' kunden vogel rehte schouwen, 
so lobten sie ze frouwen fur die lieJifen siiinerzU, MS. 1, 84". 

p. 769.] Schwartz de Apoll. 33 compares Apollo's fight with 
the dragon to that betw. Sicminer and Winter. The song in 
Wiggert p. 37 says : 

Winder ist nider valt (felled). 

Winder, du bist swer sam ein bli (heavy as lead), 

Sumer, du kanst den Winder stillen (bring to reason). 

In the Nethl. song of battle betw. 8. and IF. (Hor. Belg. G, 125 
— 146) Venus comes and reconciles the ' brothers ^ ; yet, at the 
very end, it says Winter has had to he hilled — evidently the ending 
of an older song. Other pop. songs of summer in Firmen. 2, 
15. 34. On the Eisenach sonuner-gewinn, see Wolf's Ztschr. f. 
myth. 3, 157 and Hone's Daybk 1, 339 (conf. the May fetched 
by May-boys in Lynckcr p. 35-6) ; the straw Winter is nailed to 
a wheel, set on fire, and rolled dowuJiill, Daybk 1, 340. In Fran- 
conia the girls who carry Death out are called deatli-inaidens, 
Schm. 1, 464. In Jever they have the custom of ' meiboem 
setten,' Strackerjan p. 75.* 

p. 781.] By the side of May appears the Mag-bride, Kuhn's 
Sag. pp. 384. 513, otherw. called hiihli, fastenhiihll, Staid. 1, 
240. '\!\\e plighted yair HYQ sought for, Somm. p. 151, conf. 180; 

* Our people's h^ve of a forest-life, which comes out esp. at the summer-holiday, 
is shown in the following passages : ze u-alde gie, Kindh. .Jcsu 101, 12 ; (dancing on 
the meadow before the wood) reigen viir den wait an eine wise lauge, MS. '2, ;3;3'' ; 
ze holze loufen, reigen 2, 56" ; daz dir ze wahle stilt der fuoz (for a dance), Wius- 
bekin 29, 4. Haupt p. 78. Massm. Eracl. p. 609 ; wir suln vor Aiscva. fiirholz Ugen 
durch der bluonien smac u. der vogel gesauc, Wigam. 2172 ; ich wil vor disem 
walde ein hochzit machen, u. herladen u. bitten frouwen u. ritter stolz an diz 
(jriiene fiirholz 2in ; vor dem walde in eime tal da sach man swenze blicken,.die 
megde wurfen ouch den bal, MS. 2, 56^ ; vil schOne ze walde, an dem werde, hebent 
sich die tenze 2, 57''. 



1532 SUMMER AND WINTER. 

the Swedes call her midsummars-hrud, Wieselgr. 410. Dk. Pot- 
ter's Der mi'nnen loep 1, 30-1. Antonius de Arena (a Provence 
poet, d. 1614) de villa de Soleriis (Souliers), Lond. 1758 informs 
us : ' Cum igitur nunc se offerat hilarissimus mensis Mains, quo 
tempore omnes populi voluptati et gaudio, laetitiae et omni solatio 
indulgere solent, ut inquit gloss, et ibi doctores in 1. unica, C. de 
mayauma, lib. xi, tunc enim apparent herbae frondesque virentes 
et garritus avium, corda hominum laetificantes ; Bononiae, et in 
nostra Provencia, ac hie Avenione, in viis reginas pro solatio 
faciunt, quas viri coguntur osculari. Item in dicto mense Ma'io 
amasii, in signum amoris et solatii causa amicarum, altissimas 
arhores plantare solent, quas Maws appellant ' ; conf. Forcell. sub 

V. majuma. At Lons le Saunier and St Amour the prettiest 

girl is chosen to be ni/mphe du printemps, is adorned, garlanded 
and carried round in triumph, while some collect gifts, and 
sing : 

etrennez notre epnusee ! 

voici le mois, le joli niois de Mai, 

etrennez notre epousee 
en bonne etrenne ! 

voici le mois, le joli mois de Mai, 
qti'on vous amhie ! 

In Bresse (now dept. Ain) the May-queen or May-bride, decked 
with ribbons and flowers, walks first, led by a young man, while 
a May-tree in blossom is carried in front. The words of the song 
are : 

voici venir le joli mois, 

I'alouette plante le Mai, 

voici venir \e joli rnois, 

I'alouette I'a plante. 

le coq prend sa volee 

et la volaille chante. 

See Monnier's Culte des esprits dans la Sequanie. In Lorrain 
too he is called ^o/i Ma. 

The Italians danced at the spring holiday, Donnige's Heinr. VII, 
191 ; conf. the May-feast as descr. in Machiav. Stor. Fior. 1, 109. 
149. In ancient Italy, under stress of war or pestilence, they 
vowed a ver sacrum, i.e. everything begotten and born that spring. 



TIME AND WORLD. 1533 

Niobuhr 1, 102. Tlio Servian Wliitsuu queon in called kralitza, 
Vuk sub V. 

p. 782 u.] Yiov f rone vasten, Meinauer's Naturl. p. 8 ; in dcr 
fronfasten, iu den froufasten, Keisersb. Om. 42-3. Did they have 
a matron go about muffled at that season ? Er. Alberus in Fab. 
39 says of a disorderly dressed female: 'sie gieng gleichwie eiu 
fassenacht' ; die I'leho f rate fast)uicJit u. den jaufj he rrii von fron- 
fasten, Bienenk. 4'J^. 

p. 784.] Does an AS. riddle in Cod. Exon. 417-8 refer to the 
fli/iutj summer ? ' spiuueweppe, daz sumors zit im gras M griieneu 
wisen lit/ Albr. v. llalb. 124''. An Ital. proverb traces the 
spring gossamer to three Marys (see p. 41Gn.): ' ve' quant' 
ha,nno Jilato questa notte le tre Marie!' conf. ludiculus 19: ' de 
petendo (pendulo ?) (|uod boni vocaut sanctae Mariae/ and 
Nemn. sub v. lila divae virgiuis. Miidchen- or Mattchen-somnier 
is supp. to mean Matthias' summer, from its appearing on that 
saint's day. Yet we read : de metten hebbt spunnen, Miillenh. 
p. 583. Now Metje is Matilda, Brem. wtb., and we actually find 
a ' Gobelinus de Kodenberg dictus MecJitllde-sumer/ Seibertz 2, 
286 (yr 1338). Matthidia in Clemens' liecogn. becomes Mehthild 
in Ksrchr. 1245. Flying gossamer is called in India marudd- 
hvaija, Murut's flag, Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 490. 

p. 780.] In England on May 1 the liohhy-horse is led about, 
and also a bear, Haupt 5, 474 ; conf. the erbes-biir, Somm. p. 
155-6. Flngster-hloemen, Pinkster-hlomen, Whitsun- flowers, is 
the name given to the merry processionists at Jever, Strackerj. 
p. 70, and in Westphalia, Firmen. 1, 359. The Whitsun sleeper 
is nicknamed pfinst-Ulmmtl (-looby) also in Mone's Schausp. 2, 
371 ; in Silesia rauch-jilis, Berl. jrb. 10, 224. In Kussia the lie- 
abed on Palm Sunday is scourged with rods, Kohl's Russ. 2, 186. 
On taudragil see GDS. 509. 



CHAPTER XXV. 
TIME AND WORLD. 

p. 791.] Wile, stunde, Grafi" 4, 1224, zit, wile, stimde, Uolr. 
1554, and stand, weil, zeit, Wolkenst. 161 stand side by side; so 
our ' zeit u. iceile wird mir laug,' I feel dull. Wile occurs even 

VOL. IV. s 



1534 TIME AND WORLD. 

with a numeral : unz (until) drie wUe komen liin, Servat. 2652. 
As Xp6vo<; was a god, and Katp6<; is called a graybeard, Tom- 
niaseo 3, 15. so is diu wile personified, conf. ivil-scehle, pp. 857 n. 
863; ' der wile nigen/ bowing to w,, MSH. 1, 358'^; undanc der 
Vfile sagen, Kl. 274; gcrt si (honoured be) din ivile unde dirre 
tac, Parz. 801, 10; sae^tc wile, saelic zit, MSH. 1,296% conf. 
AS. saeZ = felicitas and tempus opportunum ; gistuant thera ziti 
guati = mstahat tempus, 0. iv. 9, 1, conf. des Sumers giiete, p. 

760 n. Above all, there is ascribed to Time a coming, going, 

striding, advancing, drawing nigh, entering. Ssk. amasa time, 
from ain to go, B.opp, see Gramm. 491-2 ; Lith. amzis, Armor. 
ainzer, Kyrar. amser, Ir. am. The Lat. seculum is fr. sec to go, Ssk. 
sac fr. sak = sequi (or secare ? Pott, 2, 588). The OHG. dihsmo, 
conn, with Goth. ];eihs, means processus, successus, advance, 
Graff 5, 111. M. Neth. tiden — ire, Lekensp. 622. Gramm. 1, 
978; diu wile liete sich vergangen, Osw. 3443 ; die tit gJiinc vort, 
MaerL 2, 364 ; J?a seo tid gmvdt ofer tiber sceacan, Ctedm. 9, 1 ; 
tho ward thiu tid cuman, Hel. 3, 14. 23-4. 25, 22 ; ein paar 
stunden kommen in's land, Weise's Lustsp. 3, 198 ; es giengen 
nicht drei tage in's land, Jucundiss. 36 ; ehe zwei jahre in's land 
_f/e/;e?i, Pol. raaulaffe 4; thiu tid was gindliit, Hel. 121, 21 ; ndhtun 
sih thio hohun giziti, 0. iv. 8, 1 ; zit wart gireisot, 0. i. 4, 11 ; 
' swie sich diu zit Imop,' arose. Tit. 88, 4 ; die tit, die nooit noch 
glielac, Rose 353; weil jetzt die zeit helgeneigt, Bichst. hexenpr. 
85 ; thio ziti sih bibrdhtun, 0. iii. 4, 1 ; tho sih thiu zit bibrdhta, 
O. iv. 1, 7 ; do. sih de tid brdchte, Sachsenchr. 205 ; do sik 
brdclden dusent u. twehundert jar 226 ; forS baero (1. baeron) 
tid, Csedm. 8. 31 ; nie sich diu zit also getruoc, Trist. 13, 34; sih 
hadde de tid gedragen, Sachsenchr. 213 ; our ' what future time 
might bring with, it,' Irrg. d. liebe 248; ' dde. zeit bringt's.' 

p. 792.] Stiinde, hour, often stands for time: ^ja gie in diu 
stxinde mit grozer knrz-icile hin,' their time went by with much 
pas-time. Nib. 740, 4; nach des Merzen stunden, Gudr. 1217, 3. 
But the OS. werolt-stnnda = n-\\\ndi\i^, Hel. 76, 5. 159, 11. The 
M.Neth. also expressed a moment by 'en stic' Rose 1952, and 
by the phrases : ' biz man geruorte die bra,^ while one moved the 
eyelid, Servat. 342; biz ein bra die anderu ruorte 3459; also 
schiere (as fast as) diu ober bra die uideren geriieret, Hpt's 
Ztschr. 2, 213. 



TIME AND WORLD. 1535 

p. 793.] Voss ill Luise p. m. 220 ingeuioiisly derives wcrlt, 
world, iV. werlen, to whirl. The World is often apostrophized 
by Walther 37, 24. 38, 13. 122, 7. In Ssk. the ages of the 
world are 7/ ?<7a, the two last and corrupt ones beiug Dcapara's 
and Kali's, Bopp's Damay. p. 2GG. The men of the golden age 
are themselves called golden, Lucian's Saturn. 8. 20 (ed. Bip. 3, 
38G) ; conf. our SchlarafTenland, Cockaign, GDS. 1.2. So in 
Ssk. the plur. of luka (uumdus) = homines ; and OHG. AS. ferah, 
feorli have * mid ' prefixed to them, answering to mitil-gart, mid- 
dau-geard : OHG. midfiri, mittiverihi, AS. mldfeorwe. Manascps 
seems to corresp. to the Eddie ahhi ve iard'ar. Stem. 23'', popu- 
lorum habitaculum, terra ab hominibus inhabitata (F. Magu. p. 
255 n.), to which is opposed uive= iif<jar(Tar, gigantum habitacula. 
And the Gael, siol, seed, often stands for people, men. 

p. 794.] Ssk. loka, mundus, fr. 16c, lucere ? conf. Lat. locus, 
Lith. laukas = campus J ^ disa sconiui werlt ' in Notk. Bth. 147 
transl. pulcrum mundum. The Hindus also held by three worlds: 
heaven, earth and hell, Iloltzm. Ind. s. 3, 121 j madhi/ama loka 
= media terra, quippe quae inter coelum et infernuni, Bopp's Gl. 
256"'; or simply Madhijama, Pott 2, 354. The Greeks too divided 
the world into ovpav6<;, r^aia, rapTapo^, Hes. Theog. 720 (see 
Suppl. to 800). ON. hcimr terra, himiim coelum, hoimir in- 
fernus ? Ileimr is opposed to hcl, Sa)m. 94'' ; liggja i milli heims 
ok heljar, Fornm, s. 3, 128 means to have lost consciousness. 
0. V. 25, 95. 103 puts all three in oue sentence: ' in cvdn joh in 
hlmile, in ahijrunde ouh hiar nidare.' Distinct fr. middjiuiganls, 
earth, is Goth. mipgards = medium in the compound mi)'garda- 
vaddjus, fieao-Totxov, Ephes. 2, 14. 'This mijddel-erde,' Ali- 
saunder p. 1 ; iz thisu worolt lerta in mittcmo iro ringe, 0. iv. 19, 
7; ert-rinc, Dicmer 118, 23. 121, 1 ; der irdUhe ring, Mar. 191, 
10. Earth is called diu gruntveste, Rother 3G51; OHG. crunffesti 
fundameutum, Graff 3, 718. ' Daz hd vergieng,' the world 
perished, Wolkenst. 180. In the centre of the world lies an 
old stone, under it the measuring chain, Temmo's Altmark p. 33 ; 
conf. navel-stone (p. BOG). Other names : der maere mercgarte, 
Karajan 22, 15; der irdlshe gihel, Mar. 15G, 40; daz Irdishe tut 
174, 31. 

The world-snake has its head knocked off by a throw of Thur's 
hammer, Su. (ji. Even Fischart in Gosch. kl. 31'' says : ' When 



1536 TIME AND WOELD. 

Atlas wanted to shift the globe to his other shoulder, to see what 
the great fish was doing' whereon the world is said to stand;' 
conf. Leviathan (p. 998). 

p. 795.] The world is called ' der vrone sal/ lordly hall, Diemer 
297, G, which usu. means heaven; but 'der sal' 326, 7 seems 
to be temple. On the other hand : ' diz jamertal/ vale of sorrow, 
Renn. 896 ; diz dmertal, Griesh. Pred, 2, 101 ; in ditze chlageUche 
tal, Mar. 148, 2. 198,33; dieses ja?)ime>-u. htimmerthal, Schwei- 
nichen 1, 17; ' varen uz disem ellende,' misery, Griesh. 2, 15; 
uz disem uhdeii ivojtale, Diem. 301, 2 ; in disem angst-liause, 
Drei erzn. 270; von dirre snoeden luerlt, Frib. Trist. 33. 

p. 795.] There are several heavens : ace. to Diut. 3, 41 te)i, 
at first, but after Lucifer^s fall only nine. The Finns too have 
tiine heavens, taivahan yheksiln an, Kal. 10, 190. 28, 308-9; vor 
froeide zuo den hhneln (ad coelos) springen, MS. 2, 47^. 

p. 800.] The World-tree is called ashr Yggdraslll in Stem. 3'', 
but Yggdrasills ashr in 8*. 44-5. 89^^; conf. the Low Sax. legend 
of the ash (p. 960). Again : miotvi&r kyndiz (is kindled). Stem. 
8^; miofvid'maeranfyrir mold ne&an 1^ ] which is rendered arbor 
centralis, for '»ii'o^ = medium, says Magnusen. But E-ask reads 
myotviSr, and other expositors miotu'Sr. Is miotuSr the tree the 
same as miotuSr, God (p. 22) ? Again : ' it aldna tre,' Saem. 8^; 
peril, also the word aldiirnarl, seculum servans 9*^ signifies the 

same world-tree. The snake gnawing at the roots of the ash 

must mean mischief to it : well, Gei'm. superstition likewise places 
enmity between snahe and ash, Panz. Beitr. 1, 251-2. 351-2. A 
somewhat doubtful legend tells of a world-old drnden-banni on 
the top of the Harberg near Plankstellen in Franconia, that its 
leaves fr. time to time shed golden drops, milk oozed out of its 
roots, and under it lay a treasure guarded by a dragon ; on the 
tree sat a great black hird, who clashed his wings together and 

raised a storm when any one tried to lift the treasure (?) • 

Similar to the passage quoted from Otfried is another in iv. 27, 
19: 

tho zeintun (pointed to) tuorolt-enti sines selbes henti, 

thaz houhit himilisga munt, thie fuazi ouh thesan erdgrunt, 

thaz was sin al in wara umbikirg in fiara 

obana joh nidana. 
But 0. has nothing about hirds. Neither has the legend on the 



TIME AND WOELD. 1537 

Wood of f lie Cross; but it mentions the spring and the serpent. 
It makes Scth look in at the door of Paradise and spy a sjjnng, 
which parted into the four rivers Pison, Gihon, Tigris and 
Euphrates ; at the source of the Euphr. stood a withered tree, 
with a great serpent coiled about it; its root ran deep down into 
hell, on its crown lay a newborn babe in swaddling-bands. The 
serpent is he of the forbidden fruit-tree, but he answers to 
NiShoggr, the four rivers or springs corresp. to the three of the 
Edda, the diihl on the tree-top to the eagle, and the roofs of 
both trees reach down to Jiell. But the wood of the Cross only 
comes of three pips off this tree, which grow up into three other 
trees. Now where did this legend spring up ? and may some 
JieatJien features huve been adopted into it ? The Leg. A urea c. 
Gi is very brief. 

With the Oriental fable of the mouse gnawing at the root of 
the bush in the well, ought to be conn, the Indian myth of the 
thin stalk of graxs hanging over a precipice, and unceasingly 
gnawed by a mouse, Holtzni. 3, 114. The widely spread fable 
above has even been painted, Mone 8, 279 ; couf. Beufey's 
Pantsch. 1, 80. 2, 528. Liebr. on Barlaam p. 330-1. 

p. 801.] Gehenna is supposed to mean vale of sorrow; pi. 
gehennac, Arnob. 2, 14. Arab, iahennem, Pers. gehinnovi ; the 
Tni'ks, too, retain it in the Koran as jehenne, the abode of ehlis, 
diabolus. "Ahrj^, ciid7]<i is expl. as the invisible (god), fr. atS?;?. 
Hades is addressed as a person : wi'af 'AtSij, Soph. Trach. 1085; 
so is the Hebrew Sheol, b)i^p, biit Gesen. 731'' [see Hosea 13, 
1 i, and 1 Cor. 15, 55]. Lueian de luctu 2. 3 descr. Hades as a 
vast and dark subterranean abyss, encircled by the fearful streams 
of Cocytus and Pyriphlcgethontcs, and to be reached by sailing 

over the Acherusian bog. Dietrich in Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 305, 

says NiflJtel is a place of torment too ; yet holl in Fischart's 
Garg. 202", is still a mere dwelling place : das (wie dort ge- 
schriben steht) 'ein so weite holle find man kaura, da all die toden 
hetten rauin.' Did he take that fr. the passage in Widukind ? 
Simple dying is called faring to hell ; hence the Norse expres- 
sions hel-rciff {e.g. Brynhildar), and fara til Jlcljar (p. 313). It 
sounds purely local in ' si ist in der h>dle hegraben/ buried in 
hell, Kschr. 2530. 

p. 801.] Leonidas at Thermopylae bids his men break their 



1538 TIME AND WORLD. 

fast, for they will sup in the realm of the dead : hodie apud 
inferos coenabimus. ' ThorgerSr segir hatt : engan hefi ec natt- 
ver-S haft, ok engan niun ek fyrr enn at FretjJK,' not sup till I 
sup with F. (yr 945), Egilss. p. 603 ; ' lifiS heilir herra, ek man 
hid O&iii gista,' to-day guest with OSin, Fornald. s. 2, 366 ; conf. 
the passage fr. Saxo in Suppl. to 818 (Kl. schr. 5, 354 seq.). 

p. 802.] De olde helweg, Urk. of 1518 in Wigand's Corv. 
giiterb. 229; helleivege, hellehnochen 241. Bruckner derives the 
Henueberg ' hillvveg, hillwehr,^ boundary, fr. hiil (for hagel). 
Herweg means also the Milky Way, Woeste 41 ; Hans Helwagen, 
MB. 25, 314 (yr 1469). 316. 384. 

p. 803.] Hellia lies low. Beside the root of a tree of para- 
dise Seth looks into hell, and sees his brother Abel's soul. It is 
curious that Brynhild on her hel-reicf drives through the JiciUs 
of a giantess, Sasm. 227. Diu tiefe helle, MS. 2, 184''. Hpt's 
Ztschr. 2, 79. In the same sense death is called deep : an tliene 
iliapun clod, Hel. 136, 1, and conversely 'in der bitteron hella,' 
Grieshaber 2, 33. 44. 65. 76. 97. 108. 122; and 'diu helle diu'st 
ein bitter hoi,' MSH. 3, 468", when usu. it is death that is bitter. 

The Greek underworld had an opening, through which Pluto 

descends when he has carried off Proserpine, Pans. ii. 36, 7, 
while Dionysus leads Semele out of hades across the Alcyonian 
lake ii. 37, 5. The Teut. hell has likewise a gateway (mouth), 
which is closed up with a grating : fyr nd-grindr neSan, Stem. 
68^. 86^; hnigin er hel-grind, when the grave-mound opens, 
Hervarars, p. 347. OS. htUl-porta, Hel. 97, 17; thiu helliporta, 
0. iii. 12, 35; antheftid fan hell-doron, Hel. 71, 9; de doir 
vanner hellen mot aupen wesen, Slennerhinke, beginn. There is 
a Ilullthor-spUze in Salzburg, M. Koch's Eeise 315. Der helle 
invart is a hole at which all the dead went in. En. 2906 — 15 ; 
dringet in daz helletor, Hpt 2, 69 ; diu riuwe (ruth) stet fiir der 
helle tor, Warnung 316. 

p. 804.] OHG. helli-sf7-ou7n = rudenfi, torrens inferni, Graff 6, 
754 ; HiJll-haJcen, hell-hook, was the name of a whirlpool in the 
Ehiue ; Fischart's Gliickh. schif 429. 

p. 805.] Plainly Christian are the following notions : ' minne 
hat uf erde hus, ze himel ist reine fiir Got ir geleite, minne ist 
allenthalben wan ze lielle,' love is everywhere but in hell, Tit. 51 ; 
helle-viur, -fire, Kchr. 1138; daz vnnster viur, MSH. 1, 298''; 



TIME AND WORLD. 1539 

' ich hun Jlwcr \\. vinsfer zo der zeswcn unt ze dcr winsfer,' to 
right and left, Todes gehugede CGI; der heWe Jiwerstdt, Warn. 
72; in der belle brinncn u. brdfcu, Griesli. 2, 7(5. 108. 123. Yet 
the heathen fancy of fires darting out of opened grave-mounds, 
and of hauga-eldr in general (Foi'nald. s. 1, 437), seems conn, 
with hellfire. On the other hand we hear of helle-rj-o.s^. Tod. 
geh. 902. In pop. speech, hell is any dark hole or corner : the 
tailor throws pieces of cloth * in die holle,' the prentice jumps up 
'aus der lioUe' (fr. behind the chest), and makes for the door, 
Pol. maulaffe 4 ; kroch nach der holle 6 ; geh hinter'n ofen in die 

hell, H. Sachs i. 5, 495''. The Christian hell has a pool of 

pitch and brimstone : bech unde swebel, Diemer 313, 9 ; von deme 
bechen 303, 22; beh-welle 298, 29. 303, 27; die swarzen pech- 
velle (]. -welle), Tod. geh. 680 ; die bechwelligen bache 899 ; mit 
bechwelliijer hitze 929. In the miirchen of Dame Holle the gold- 
gate and 2)iich-gate stand opposed, like heaven and hell. Again : 
in dem swebel, Warn. 200; in den swebel -stisy en (-lakes) baden, 
Servat. 3541 ; diu helle stinchet wirs danne der fule hunt, Kara- 
jan 31, 8; infer le puant. Thib. de Nav. 150; puajine, Gaufrey 
p. XXX. The stench of hell may have been suggested by the 
noxious fumes that rise out of clefts in the earth. 

p. 806.] Greek opinion placed Tartarus not inside the earth, 
but an immense way off it. A brass anvil {')(a\Keo<i uKfAcov) falls 
nine days and nights fr. heaven, and touches earth on the tenth ; 
it takes nine more to reach Tartarus, Hes. Theog. 722 — 5 ; but 
Homer makes Hephaestus fall fr. heaven in one dag, II. 1, 592. 
The Lat. Avernus is Gr. a-opvo^, bird-less, ' quia sunt avibus 
contraria cunctis,' Lucr. 0, 742. An AS. word for hell is scrccf, 
cavern, Cfedm. 212, 10. MHG. cibis, Roth's Dicht. pp. 10.23; 
' daz abgrunde' also occurs in Rother 4434; ^in der helle grunde 
verbrunne e ich,' I'd sooner burn, MS. 1, 56"; an grand grim- 
maro helliun, Hel. 164, 5; der fiirste liz helle abgriinde, Walth. 
3, 12; de hellcgrunt, MB. 5, 138; der bodengnint (bottom) der 
helle, MS. 2, 147''. In Russ. however [beside the more usual dd 
fr. aST/f] it is called bez-dnd, bottom-less, like a-^vaao^. Conf. 
der erde vohniinde (fullamunt), Gute frau 2022 ; der erden bunder 
(ON. puudari), Hpt's Ztschr. 2, 131. 

p. 806.] On the Delphian navel as earth's centre, see Pott's 
Ziihlmeth. 207 ; Zeus ascertains it by sending out eagles or 



1540 TIME AND WOELD. 

ravens. To the Irisli too earth's navel was a stone, Lappenb. in 
Allg. encycl. d. wiss., art. Irland 49''. A stone in helles-grunt 
occurs in Ulil. Volksl. 1, 8 ; the dillo-stein is the stone 'den kein 
liund llberbal, kein wind iiberwehte, kein regen ilbersprehte/ p. 
7 ; ilber d'hell-plata springen, Vonbun p. 65. Dillestein means 
bottom-stone. 

p. 807.] The underworld has its waters, streams : sa hon ]?ar 
vad'a, ]7raunga strauma menn meinsvara, Seem. 7''; Va&gelmi va'Sa 
181^; in der helle haden, Engelh. 6050; ze helle haden, MSH. 2, 
259\ 260^^; in den swebel-sewen (brimstone lakes) haden, Servat. 
3541; sele hesonfet (drenched) in hellepine, MS. 2, 150''. Hell 
is a well, a helle-ptizze (-pit), obene enge (narrow at top), nidene 
wit, Wernh. v. N. 41, 5 ; da diu unerfulte hntze des ahgrundes uz 
diezen, Todes geh. 896 ; lielle-sot, MSH. 3, 463'' answers to the 
AS. sed&m the text ; HeJIeJcessel, -kettle, a family name at Bonn. 
Susl in cwisftnsle is appar. the ON. sysla, negotium, cura, labor, 
passing over into snpplicium, as verk into verkr, dolor ; conf. 
suslhona, hell-foe, Ctedm. 305, 1. 

p. 807.] Hell is said in AS. to be wyrmsele and unjrmwm be- 
wunden, Judith 134, 49. 57 ; ]?aer bi"S fyr and loi/rm, Caedm. 212, 
9; uz diseme wurmgarten, Diemer 295, 25. There also dwells 
the Jiell-hound (p. 996-7. Suppl. to 815) There were punish.- 
ments in hell for heathen heroes too : Sigur'Sr Fafuisbani has 
to heat an oven, and Starka'Sr *hefi dh!a-cld,' Fornm. s. 3, 200; 
conf. St. Patrick's Purgatory by Th. Wright xi. and 192. 

p. 809.] Leo in Hpt's Ztschr. 3, 226 has a Gael, mtidsindl , 
mutatio, which I have not found in any dictionary. He only 
gets it out of ninth, mutare, and apuil, spolium; but the OS. 
mndft2-)clles mcgin (like iar'Sar megin) requires a material sense. 
That of wood, tree, is supported by Sseni. 9'': 'geisar eimi vi'S 
aldurnara,' the fire rages against aldurnari, i.e. Yggdrasill ? 
(Suppl. to 800 beg.). Lapp, mvora, muorra [Mong. niodo] = 
arbor; but Syrianic and Perraic mu, Votiak muziern = \B.x\di, 
Rask's Afh. 1, 39. Finnic, beside maa, seems to have moa, w.ua, 
Castren's Syrian. Gr. p. 149. 

p. 810.] Surtr is a giant, not a god: S. oc in svdso go&, 
Ssem. 33*^; S. ok aesir 188*; Surta sefi 8^ is supp. to mean fire. 
Domesday-bk has a man's name Sorfehrand. With Surtr conf. 
Slav, tcliort, cert, czarf = devil [tchorny, czerny = black], p. 993. 



TIME AND WORLD. 1541 

i\Iuspellz synir liafa cinir scr fjlking-, er su hi'ort miuc, Sn. 72 ; tlie 
field on which tliey encounter the goils is called Vvjriffr, Saera. 
33", Sn. 75, and also Oshopnir, Sa^ni. 188". 

p. 810.] The world is destroyed by fire. The Indians spoke 
of ' the penal fire of the Last Day/ Holtzm. Ind. s. 2, 90 : * de- 
sfrvcfii'o as the L. D.' 2, 86. 99. An Ionic dance was called 
Koa/xoD €K7rvpo)cn<;, Athen. 5, 288. At Home one foretold 
* ignem de coelo lapsurum finemque mvudi afforc/ Capitolini M. 
Anton. 13. The Celts believed the end of the world would be 
by fire and wafer : iTriKpanja-eiv Be irore Kal irvp Kal v8(op, 
Strabo 4, 45. 198: Gael, hrafli, nltimnm orbis incendium ; r/u lei 
J'hrath, in aeternum, unquam ; conf. Ossian 3,433. AS. oJS hafles 
cyme, till fire's coming = end of the world, Cod. Exon. 200, 28 : 
nnz an die stunde do allez sol verhrinnen, Karajan 50, 15 ; grozer 
schal, als ol din werlt da hrvnne, Wigal. 72G2 : din jamertac wil 
schiere komen, u. hrennt dicJi darimibe iedoch, Walth. G7, 19. 

p, 812.] On Antichrist, conf. Griesh. Pred. p. 150-1 ; ich wene 
nu ist aniicrist den heiden cumen ze helfe, Gr. Hud. 14, 9 ; 
deable antccris, Meon 3, 250; I'ame emporteirent Pilate et 
anticris, Aspr. 9'\ Miillenhoff in Hpt's Ztschr. 11, 391 does not 
see so much affinity betw. the Muspilli and the Edda. 

p. 814.] Beside aldar rule, ragna rok, we have Jno&a riJk, Saem. 
28'', tiva rok S6''^\fira r6k 49% /or?^ rdk 63". AS. ram is Ssk. 
rajani, night (Snppl, to 737). To this Twilight of the gods 0. 
Schade in his sixth thesis refers the saying : ' it is not yet the 
evening of all the dai/s.' 

p. 81*5.] The stars fall from heaven (Suppl. to 817), the 
rainbow breaks down. Atlas holds the vault of heaven on his 
shoulders, it must fall when he removes them : quid si nunc 
caelum mat ? Ter. Heaut. iv. 2. The Celts €(fiaaav BeBiivuL 
/j,i]TroT€ 6 ovpavo<; auTot? i^ireaoi, feared the sky would fall on 
them, Arrian's Anab. 1, 4. GDS. 459. 460. Germ, superstition 
tells of a little bird (tomtit) that holds his little claw over his 
head when ho sleeps, to shield it in case the sky fell in the 

night. The ship Naglfar is conn, with Naglfari, the hu.sb:nid 

of Nott, Sn. 11 ; it takes as long to build as the iron-rock to wear 
away, which the woman grazes with her veil once in 100 years; 
conf. the coic's hide being picked clean by the giant (Snppl. to 
514). It was an AS. belief also that the Itellhuund was fought 



•1542 TIME AND WORLD. 

with : ' si be toren of hellehundes toSam/ teeth, Kemble no. 715, 
yr 1006; kellelmnt, MS. 2, 147'' (Suppl. to 807. p. 996-7). The 
Last Judgment is like the tribunal of Minos in the underworld, 
Luciau^s Jup. confut. 18, and the judgment of souls of the 
Mongols, Bergm. 3, 35; conf, Michael's balance (p, 859). AS. 
notions about the end of the world are preserved in Cod. Exon. 
445. 

p. 817.] The Archipoeta's poem on the fifteen signs is in Hpt's 
Ztschr. 3, 523 — 5. The signs vary in the different accounts, see 
Sommer in Hpt 3, 525 — 530. Wiedeburg p. 139. Lekensp. 
Deckers 2, 264. Diemer p. 283— 7. Grieshaber p. 152. Moneys 
Schausp. 1, 315 seq. MSH. 3, 96''. The 12th sign in the Latin 
poem above is : fixae coeli penitus stellae sunt casurae (the same 
in Griesh.) ; in the Asega-book the 13th : sa fallath alle tha 
stera fon tha himule; conf. Seem. 9'*: hverfa af himni heiSur 
stiornur. The common folk held by other prognostics besides : 
vyhen it strikes thirteen and the hens take to crowing, the Judg- 
ment-day will come, Hpt 3, 367. The earth quaked, ON. ior'S 

diisad'h, Sa3m. 24l'>. The Greeks ascr. the phenomenon to Posei- 
don, Herod. 7, 129, or some other god: rr]v iroXiv rod 6eov aei- 
<TavTo<i, Paus. i. 29, 7, elsewh. to Typhoeus, Ov. Met. 5, 356 ; its 
cause is discussed by Agathias 5, 8. The Lith. god of earth- 
quake is Drehkullijs, Nesselm. pp. 154. 208, fr. drebeti, quake, 
and kulti, strike. A New Zeal, story of earthquake in Klemm 4, 
359 ; the earth is carried by a tortoise 2, 164. 

p. 818.] The valkyrs conduct to heaven, as the Hours opened 
the cloud-gate to Olympus. So too the angels fetch away dying 
heroes : la vos atendent li anges en chantant, contre vos ames 
vont grant joie menant, Asprem. 22'* ; lame emporterent li ange 
en chantant 28*. A cliff in Blekingen is called Valhall, and at 
two places in Westgotland are Valhall, Vahlehall : they are the 
hills fr. which old men tveanj of life threw themselves into tlie 
lake or brook running below, in which they were washed. Such 
water bears the name of Odens-killla : in taking possession of 
them, the god first washed or bathed them; conf. Geijer 1, 115 

(Suppl, to 832). Brave men goto ValhoU : sa var atruna^r 

hei-Sinna manna, at allir |?eir er af sdrum andadisk, skyldu fara 
til Valhallar, Fagrsk. p. 27. A servant goes not to V. except in 
attendance on his lord, Fornald. s. 3, 8. Vdpna-ping goes on in 



, TIME AND WORLD. 1543 

v., for which a son fits out his father by burying his weapons 
with him, Nialss. c. 80; ' )nl vart valkyrja at AlfiiiSur, mundo 
einJierjufaWir ber'iaz uin saJiar pinar,' were ghid to be struck down 
for thy sake, SjBm. 15 i''. When Hakon died a heathen and was 
buried, liis friends gathered round his grave, and in heathen 
fashion saw him otf to Valholl : maelto |?eir svtl fyrir grepti 
hans, sem heicJiuna manna var siSr til, oc vlsocTo honom til Val- 
halhir, Ilakonars. c. 32. lude vota nxincupat (Riugo), adjicitque 
preccm uti Haraldus, eo vectore (equo suo) usus, fati consortes ad 
Tartara antecederet, atque apud praestitem Orci Vlntonem sociis 
hostibusque placidas expeteret sedes, Saxo Gr. 1 t7; conf. the 
pniijer of Waltharius 11G7 : hos in coelesti mihi praestet sede 
videri. Valhull is also called Jid Jiljll, high hall (though only 
the dat. occurs : lidva hullo, Sasm. 24'\ 30''. Sn. 3) ; and Hropts 
siijtoptir, Soem. lO''. 

p. 819.] The souls of kshatriyas slaiu in battle arrive at 
ludra^s heaven, and are his guests, Bopp's Nalas 20 i ; to warriors 
fallen in fight the gate of heaven is open, Holtzm. Ind. s. 2, 65 ; 
conf. ' en infer vont U hel cevaller qui sont raorts as toruois et as 
rices guerres,^ Aucassin in Meon 1, 355, Both AS., OHG. and 
]\[HG. phrases point to a heavenly castle : Godes ealdorburg, Dei 
palatium, Cod. Exon. 441, 8: rodcra ceanter, coelorum urbs 441, 
10. A minute description of the himiUs<je Godes bnnj (Hpt's 
Ztschr. 3, 443-4) says : diu burg ist gestiftet mit aller tiuride 
meist edller geist (jimmon, der himel niercijriezon, der burge funda- 
menta, die porte ioh die mure daz sint die tinren sfeina der Gotes 
furist helido. A similar house, glittering with gold and light, 
occurs in a vision, Greg. Tur. 7, ] ; ir erbe soldo sin der Jilmel- 
hof, Ludw. d. fromme 2478. 

p. 820.] Heaven is ' der himclische sal/ Todes gehug. 942 ; 
der vrdiie sal, Diemer 301, 3 ; der freuden sal besitzen (possess), 
Tit. 5788; conf. freuden-tal besitzen, in conti'ast with rinwcn-tal 
3773-4; it is true a castle is also called freuden zil, goal of joy, 
Wigal. 9238. 11615; hverfa kmun-vega (pleasure's path) = to die, 
Egilss. 622. The Mecklenburg noble, who reckons on a merry 
drinking-bout with Christ in heaven, is, by another account, fr. 
Pomerania, N. Pr. prov. bl. 3,477; conf. ' hn samlnt in (along 
with them) drinchit er den win,' Diemer 103, 5 ; s'aurai mon 
chief em paradis fiori, ou toz jors a joie, fcste e deli, Aspr. 18"; 



1544 TIME AND WOKLD. 

iv fiaKupcov vijcroa Triveiv fiera rwv rjpuxov, iu tm 'HXvcnu) \et- 
fiMVi /caTUKeL/jievo^, Lucian's Jup. confut. 17. 

p. 820 n.] The reading I proposed in Parz, 56, 18 is now 
verified by MS, d ; conf. here ze Famorgdn 496, 8, ze Fdmiivgdne 
585, 14, and ' Famorgan hiez daz lant,' Tiirl. Wb. 24% see 37^ 

De glasenhurg upriden, Uhl. Volksl. p. 16. The glass mountain 
turns up in many legends and raarchen : Miillenh. p. 386-7. 
Ehrentraut's Fries, arch. 2, 162. Sommer's March. 99 seq. 
Bechstein's Sag. p. 67. Akin to the glass castle is the cloud- 
castle : mons WoJMnbiirg, Cees. Heisterb. 2, 318; conf. Bohm. 
Cod. Francof. 247 (yr. 1290). Lacomblet's Arch. 2, 11. 19. 
Weisth. 2, 713. The Vila builds a castle on the cloud with three 
gates, Vuk, nov. ed. p. 151. It says in Kalev. 2, 25 : tunlehenTio 
teen tupani, build rooms in the air ; conf. the air-castle on the 
rainbow (p. 732-3). 

p. 821.] Ssk. desas, land, Zend, paradaeshas, fairest land, 
Benfey 1, 438; tov TrapaBeiaov = hortum, Lucian^s Somn. 21; 
the garden of the Vandal king is called Trapdheia-o^ , Procop. 1, 
382, conf. 434. Jr. jmrrathas, O.Sl. poroda. The earthly para- 
dise is the Eose-garden, conf. its descript. in a Pommersf. MS. 
(Hpt 5, 369). iloseng. 1028. Tit. 6044. Another terra is 
'saltus wunnilo/ Lacombl. no. 65 (855); conf. 'lust-wald,' pleasure- 
park. Weinhold. in Hpt 6, 461 after all connects neorxena Avitli 

noma. The Slav, rai, paradise, Miklosich 73 would derive fr. 

rad", glad, as nai fr. nad". Boh. raghrad or rai-grad, paradise- 
garden, later hradiste (castle), a plot encircled by a round wall, 
in which the Slavs held feasts and games, and sang songs ; so 
the gral-hofe, grale. Herod. 3^ 26 calls "Oacri? a /xaKupcov v^cro?, 
a green island in the sea of sand. ' A land flowing with milk 
and honey,' Exod. 3, 8. Mar. 160, 17, like Cockaign, Lubber- 
land, which even the Greeks knew of, Athen. 2, 526 — 533 [Hor. 
Od. ii. 19, 10: vini fontem, lactis rivos, lapsa melki]. Conf. 
milk, honey and blood as food for gods and drink for poets (pp. 
317. 415 n.) ; mellis lacus et fluraina lactis erupisse solo, Claud. 
Stil. 1, 85. 

p. 823.J 'HXvo-ia are places which lightning (the sun) has 
struck, Benfey 1, 457 : iv rep 'HXuaiu) Xetfxojvi, Jup. confut. 17; 
conf. Plutarch 4, 1151. OHG. sunna-felt, elysium, Graff 3, 516 ; 
sunno-feld, helisios campos, Gl. Sletst. 6, 271. AS. heofen-feld, 



SOULS. 1545 

coelostis campus (p. 234) ; Tlejhift'ld, locus in at^ro Nortluun- 
brousi. Oil uacpoSeXo'i, Kom. albucns, see Dioscor. 2, lUO, with 
whom Tlieophi-astus agrees, while Galen descr. the plaut very 
differently, see Spreugel on Diosc. 2, 481. 

Like the chihlreu in our miirchen, who fall through the well 
on Dame Holla's meadow, Psyche haviug jumped off the high 
rod-, 'paulatim per devexa excelsae vallis Huhditiie jlorentis cespitif 
gremio leuiter delabitur/ and then finds herself in a heavenhj 
[irove, Apuleius lib. 4 in fine. Like the gardois of the llesperides 
is the 'Insula j^c'^iontm, quae fortnnata vocatur/ v. Merlini p. 
393; coiif. the sacred apple-wood, Barzas breiz 1, 50-7. 90, and 
' fortunatorum insulas, quo cuncti, qui aetatem egerunt caste 
suam, convenlant,' Plaut. Trin. ii. 4, 148 ; eV fiaKclpoov vrjaoi,^ 
7]p(oo)v, Lucian's Demosth. euc. 50. Jup. conf. 17. Champ 
flortj, la tanra Diex son jugement, quaud il vieudra jugier la 
gent, O.Fr. life of Mary in Lassberg's ZoUer p. 74; an der 
viateii (prato beatorum), Flore 2326. AS. grene ivougas. Cod. 
Exon. 482, 21; ]?es wang grena 426, 34; )>one greium luong 
ofgifan 130, 34. H. Sachs iii. 3, 84*^ still speaks of paradise as 
the green valley. Welsh gwgnfa, paradise, strictly white happy 
laud. The dead shall go to Helgafell, Eyrb. c. 4; conf. the 
earthly paradise closed in by high mountains. Tod. gehug. 970 — G. 
The 'goJS-boriun Go&niuralr' in the far off realm of paradise, 
Seem. 153'', is Granmar in the Vols, saga, conf. Granmars synir, 
Saem. 155*^. 

p. 823.] Viffarr would in OHG. be WUheri, Graff 4, 080 ; 
but Vid'arr, Witheri is more correct, conf. Stem. 42* : hris, gras^ 
viS. 'There is a saying about him : VltFarr, er gu5 enu i Gorcium, 
hann er lika i GriudarskorSum. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

SOULS. 

p. 826.] ^vx^) auima and vov^ mens are distiuct, Plutarch 4 
1154. Beside the fem. seele, we find a neut. ferah with much 
the same meaning: OHG./era/i = anima, Graff 3, 682 (but smala 
yij-j7a' = vulgus 083) ; that ferah was af them folke, Hel. 169, 
28, i.e. departed fr. amoug men. Pers. fervor, spirits, souls. 



1546 SOULS. 

Zend, fravashayo, Benfey's Monatsn. 63-4. 151. To the fem. 
soul stand opp. the masc. ahma, atum, (/e/s^^spiritus (p. 401^ 
1. 7). At the same time the animae as well as animi are winds, 
uvefioL, as the SI. duhh and dusJid are fr. dykh-ati, du-uuti, 
spirare. Hence : animam exlialare_, Ov. Met. 6, 247^ animam 
ebullire^ Petron. 62. 42 ; den geist aufgeben^ g-ive up the ghost, 
Albr. V. Halb. 123''; der cidem (breath) zuo den luften fuore, 
.Ksrchr. 13400. It was feared that a soul passing away in a storm 

would be blown to pieces by the wind, Plato's Phsedr. p. 77. 

The soul fares, slips out : stirb lib, sele var ! Herb. 14040 ; diu 
sel waer im entsJifen, Tundal. 44, 31 ; diu sel sich uz den liden 
(limbs) zoch, als der sliufet uz dem gwande (garment), Servat. 
3464 : so sill diu sele enhindet von mennesklicher zarare. Mar. 
153, 5 (Fundgr. 2, 153) ; 'nu breche Got ir seler. hant !' is inscr. 
on a tombstone, Wackern. W. v. Klingen p. 22 ; wenn mir die 
selfleuszt (flows) von des leibes drauch, Wolkenst. 263; von mir 
wolde diu sele sin endrunnen (run away), MS. 2, 52^; dren (fr. 
three) genh dei seile ut den viiint (mouth), Soest. felide p. 625. 
The soul escapes through the gaping wound : Kar- ovTafjbiurjv 
OL>reiXi]v, II. 14, 518, conf. 17, 86; -(/^f^r/ XeXocire, Od. 14, 134; 
is seola was gisendid an suotltan iveg, Hel. 169, 27, and what is 
more striking : than im that lif scrid'i (abiret), thiu seola hisunlci 
(mergeretur, elaberetur), 169, 21; conf. Karajan 32, 15 of the 
eagle : im sunhit sin gevidere (plumage, to renew itself?). Souls, 
like elves, sail over the water ; and the Indian elves are dead 
men, Ssk. marut, Kuhn in Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 488-9 ; conf. Nainn, 
Dainn (p. 453). The Lith. iveles f. are manes, and luelukas 
spectres, Nesselm. 61-2 (Suppl. to 913 end, 968). 

p. 828.] Souls are of tJcree kinds, those of angels, of men, of 
beasts, says Dietm. of Mersebg (Pertz 5, 739). Curiously, how- 
ever, each man is credited with tJoree souls, two of which perish 
with the body, but the third survives : hustogue sujjerstes evolat, 
Claud, de 4 cons. Honor. 228 — 235. Men's souls {■y^v^ai) go 
to the underworld, their bodies {avTov<i, like selb = mia lip) 
become the prey of dogs and birds, II. 1, 4. Of lovers it is 
thought, that tlieir souls intermarry ; the notion must be old, 
for we find it in H. v. Veldeke : wir sin ein lip und ein geist. 
En. 6533, and still more clearly in H. v. Morungen : iuioer sele 
ist meiner sele frowe, MS. 1, 57''; conf. ' ich wolte nit, daz miii 



SOULS. 1547 

sele uz des hcstcn meuschen wunda fucrc,' i.e. pass out of his 

mouth, Berth. 208. On the worship of souls, sec p. 91:3. It 

is said of tlie soul : von im fuor ein tjJdst (flash) saui eiu brinnen- 
der louc, Rol. 228, 21 ; the soul of Mary sJti)ics in passing out 
of her body, Hanpt 5, bib ; souls in parting are seven times 
whiter than snotc, Myst. i. 136, 21 ; cz miiegcn wol z\v6 sule sin, 
den ist ir wize her geleit, und klagent ein ander ir arbeit, Ls. 2, 
270. In a Lett, song the dead call theuiselv^es rashani, beautiful, 
Biittner no. 89 ; conf. the meaning of selig, blessed. When the 
soul parts fr. the body, a sweet scent is perceived, Wh. 69, 12 — 1 5. 
Flowers grow on a virgin's grave, Athen. 5, 495, lilies out of 
dead men, Zappert pp. 29. 31. On lovers' graves two trees spring 
up : det vtixte tvenne triid uppii deras graf, det ena tager det 
andra i famn, Arvidss. 2, 11. Vines grow out of the mouths of 
the dead. Tit. 5790; fice roses bloom out of a dead man's head, 
Maerl. 2, 308. 

sin tiost doch valte (felled) den edeln Mor, 

daz er die bluomen mit bluot begoz (bedewed) : 

die gate des valles sere verdroz (vexed the gods), 

daz der minnasre sus belac (lover so ill bestead) ; 

und waeu daz viir (I ween that from) den selben tac 

nach der aveutiure sage 

daz selbe velt niht wan (nothing but) rosen trage, 

so groz wart al der gote hlage. Tiirl. Wh. 36'^. 

Drops of blood turn into yellow flowers, as a herb grew out of 
Ajax's blood, Konst en letterb. '43, p. 76'* ; mannabod (sambucua 
ebulus) near Kalinar sprang fr. the blood of slain lieroes. Fries 
Bot. udfl. 1, 110. The ivcgeiuarte is also called wegeiritt, Hansel 
am iveg, feldblume auf der wegscheide, Meinert's Kuhl. p. 6 ; 
we(/t'/)/o_7e = heliotropium. Mono 8, 40L 

p. 829.] Poles with 2^igcons on them were set up over Lom- 
bard graves, Paul. Diac. 5, 34 (Kl. schr. 5, 447) ; scle alsam ein 
tube gestalt. Pass. 391, 37. Souls fly away in the shape of doves, 
Schbnwerth 3, 37. Zappert p. So. St Louis CO, 25. Baader 
iv. 32 [' When the Persian fleet was wrecked off Mt Athos, ivhite 
pigeons were seen for the first time in Greece,' Charon of Lamps, 
in Athen. 9, 394 ; see Victor Helm's AVauderings of Plants and 
Animals p. 258-9]. 'Det kommo tvd dufvar af himmeleu ned 



1548 SOULS. 

(down) ; niu' de foro upp, sa voro de ire,' when they flew up 

again, they were three, Sv. vis. 1, 312-5. 373. A sennrin bleib 

icli ewiglich, und wann ich stirb, wird icli a scJiwalbn, Aimer 1, 
58. Souls fly about as ravens, Michelet 2, 15 ; they swarm 
as little ducks, Klemm 2, 165; night-owls rise from the brain of 
a murdered man 4, 220. The story of Madej is given more cor- 
rectly in Wend, volksl. 2, 319, conf. Walach. miirch. no. 15. In 
Egypt, hieroglyphs the sparrowhawk with a human head is a 
picture of the soul, Bunsen's Dingbilder 126. Every soul, after 
parting from the body, hovers for a time betwixt the earth and 
the moon, Plut. 4, 1154. 

p. 829.] The soul is winged, Plato's Phasdr. 246-7-8 ; it loses 
and then recovex's its wings 248-9, conf. Gerhard^s Eros, tab. 1 
and 5 ; "^v^V ^' ^'^ peOecov Tnaixevq "Alho^he ^ej3i]Kei, II. 16, 
856. 22, 361 ; "^v^rj B" r]VT oveipa dTroTrra/xevr] TrevroTT/Tai, Od. 
11, 222. Lucian's Encom. Demosth. c. 50 says of the dying 
orator : aTTeinr], evolavit. 

The larva, the butterfly is called 6 ve/cuSaXo?. Swed. Icdring- 
sjdl, old woman's soul = butterfly, Ihre 2, 529. Ir. anamande, 
anima dei = butterfly ; conf. the Faun as night-butterfly (Suppl. 
to 483 mid.). When a moth flutters round the candle, the Lithu. 
women say somebody's dying, and the soul is going hence, N. Pr. 
prov. bl. 5, 160. 

p. 829.] The soul runs out of the sleeper as a mouse, cat, 
weasel, snake, hutterflij. Yama draws the soul out of a dying man 
in the shape of a tiny mannikin, the, man turns pale and sinks, 
and when the mannikin comes back, he thinks he has been asleep, 
Holtzm. Ind. sag. 1, 65. The soul slips out of the mouth as a 
little child, Gefken's Beil. pp. 6. 15 and plates 11. 12. It was 
believed in Germany as well, that a dying man's Iteart could 
pass into a living man, who would then show twice as much 
pluck : so Egge's heart seems to have passed into Fasolt, 
Diether's into Dietrich (Ecke 197-8), each time into a brother s 
body ; conf. the exchange of hearts betw. lovers, Wigal. 4439. 
8813. MS. 1, 166^ and the marriage of souls (Suppl. to 828). 
The exchange of figures, the skijjta litum oc homum (Suppl. to 

1098 end) is another thing. On the similar doctrine of 

transmigration taught by Pythagoras, see Plato's Phasdr. 248-9. 
Pheedo p. 82. Ov. Met. 15, 156 seq. O'Kearney 133. 160. 



SOULS. 1549 

Gods, by way of punishment, aro born again as men (Suppl. to 
338), men aro changed into beasts corresp. to their character, 
e.g. by the wand of Circe, RA. p. xiv. Claud, in lluf. 2, 482 scq, 
Thorir hjortr is pursued by a hunter and his hound ; struck by 
a javelin, he falls to the ground, but out of his ho'hj springs a 
stag, which again is hunted down by the dog, and killed after 
a hard struggle, Maurer's Bekehr. 1, 295-6. Animals too have 
had many souls, like Lucian's cock. 

p. 830.] Good souls for a time hover on Hades' verdant mead, 
Pint. 4, 1154. The soul feeds on the field or meadow of truth, 
d\T]6eia<i ireBlov, \€ifi(i)v, Plat. Phaedr. 248 (in the train of God, 
crv/jiTropevdelaa OeS, it looks upon truth, ibid.). On the green 
grass the soul sits down, Fcifalik Musp. p. 5. ' He is going to 
die' is expr. by 'ho is just fluttering away.' Souls of the dead 
haug over a, precipice by a slender stalk, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 174. 
' A medicine that sent her soul up to the tip of her tongue' 
Rommel 4, 771. Vulgo dicitur, quod triginta animae super 
acumen acus possunt sedcre, ChmePs Notizenbl. 6, 386, fr. Nicol. 
V. Siegen's Chron. yr 1489, ed. Wegele '55, p. 344. How many 
souls can sit on a nail, Wigand's Arch. 4, 321. 

p. 832.] Souls are received, drawn on, by Wuotan, Frouwa, 
Ran and Hel, by the watersprites, by angels and elves, by the 
devil (pp. 1001 beg. 1017). Near the places named Valhall there 
is often an Odens-hlUa (Suppl. to 818 beg.), as if Oden, before 
admitting souls, should bathe them in the clear stream, as the 
Greeks thought souls were cleansed in the rivers of Hades, and 
took the draught of oblivion in Lethe. ' Oden som kom upp ur 
Odens-Jcammare eller Asne-kafve, som ligger in Asne-sjo (fordom 
Oden-sjij), at viilja de slagne pa Bravallahed, och fora dem j^a ctt 
gnUskepp' (Riiilf) ; conf. the story of fla/ci, Yngliuga-s. c. 27. 
Old sea-kings were supp. to be buried in a golden ship, Miilleuh. 

no. 501. A funeral pile is built up in a .sJiip, Saxo Gr. (ed. 

Miiller) p. 235 ; conf. the ship-mounds thrown up over the dead, 
Worsaae's Vorzeit p. 81-7. A death-ship in 13eow. 3t; a swan- 
ship carrying a corpse, Keller's Romv. 670. Jacob's body crosses 
the sea in a ship without sail or rudder, Pass. 220, 41 seq. 
Maerl. 2, 341-2, where note the phrase : si bevalen Gode te sine 

stierman. In Friesland souls are supp. to sail over in eggshells; 

people break their empty shells, for witches get into them and 

VOL. IV. T 



•1550 SOULS. 

plague tlie soul on her passage. Halbertsraa reminds me verbally 
of the nail-parings (pp. 814. 1138-9 n.) and shoelace cuttings, Sn. 
73 j the breaking of eggshells is still enjoined by superstition. 
An angel leads a shipful of souls, Dante's Purg. 2, 40 seq. The 
boatman Tempulagy ferries souls over the lake, Klemm 2, 165. 
On the Etruscan Gharun (Gerh. p. 17) and the passage- 
money, see Lucian^s De luctu 10. BoeckVs Inscr. 2, 103-4. 
GDS. 681. Money is placed under the tongues of the dead, three 
grains of corn under the dead Adam's tongue. In Germ, skele- 
tons, coins are actually found in the mouth, Mainzer Ztschr. 1, 
342-3. Lindenschmitt^s Todtenlager pp. 16. 51. Haec Stygias 
referant munera ad undas, et calldos numerent igne trientes, 
Liudpr. Antop. 2, 26. Green apples were also put in the hands 
of the dead, Vuk no. 137. 

p. 834.] On Procopius's account of the passage of souls to 
Brittia, see Wei-laufF's Procop. p. 7, who himself on p. 10 seq. 
takes 'Brittia* to be Jutland, 'Britannia* Gt. Britain, and 

' Thule ' Scandinavia. En passant le lac de Vangoisse, elle vit 

uue bande de morts, vetus de blanc, dans de petites barques, 
Villemarque's Barz. breiz. 1, 169. 

p. 835.] A sharp bridge leading across the Purgatorial fire, 
and the souls flying into it black and coming out white, are 
mentioned in Walewein 4958. 5825. 5840 (V. d. Bergh 102-3). 
Over de lank-hrugge fard = he dies, Narragonia 123''; conf. the 
sivord-hridge (p. 1082). Angels conduct over the rainhow-hridge. 
The Arabian bridge of souls is named Sirdt, Rlick. Hariri 1, 
229 ; the Chinese too have a bridge of soids, Maltebrun's Precis 
3, 527. Old-Irish legends about it in O'Donovan p. 440-1. The 
cow driven across the bridge by the soul in the Tundalus-legend 
reminds of the red coio being led over a certain bridge before the 
great battle by the Nortorf eldei'-tree, Miillenh. no. 509. The 
Greenlanders believe the soul has to cross an abyss, where turns 
a narrow wheel as smooth as ice, Klemm 2, 317; this is like the 
wheel in Wigalois p. 250 seq. 

p. 836.] On the death-shoe, see Mtiller's Sagabibl. 2, 171. 
Mannhardt's Ztschr. 4, 421 ; conf. Vicar's shoe, Sn. 31. 73 ; 'sal 
ii den, i denne \\e\vaevL fatike gjeve sho, han tar inkje (he need not) 
barfott gauge in hvasse tynnermo (al. paa hvasse keklebro)/ Nor- 
weg, draumkvae 36. A dead woman ' walks,* until her shoe, 



SOULS. 



1551 



which they had forgotten to burn, is found and tlirown in the 
fire, Lucian's Philops. 27 ; conf. Indicul. sup. ' do ligneis pedibus 
vol manibus, pagano ritu/ The IMackfoot Indians, like Lithu- 
nnians and Poles, believe the soul has to climb a steep mountain, 
Klemm 2, lG()-7. 

p. 838.] Aninia de corpora exivit, et paradld jannam iutroivit. 
Vita Mathild. c. 16. 18. Prayers to St. Michael are said over the 
corpse : di reinen guzzen ir gebet Senie Mirhahele zu droste siure 
sole, Diut. 1, 426 ; Michael is ' trost allir selen,' Roth. 4438 : he 
brings the soul 'in Abraham's barm,' Hpt's Ztschr. 3, 522, conf. 
Pfeiffer's Wigal. p. 310. Other angels may come instead of 
Michael : venerunt duo juvenes, candidis circumamicti stolis, ani- 
niani a corpore segregantes, vacuum ferentes per at-rem, Jonas 
lk)bb. in Vita Burgundofarae (Mabillon 2, 421) ; conf. the Gemini 
(p. 366). 

Got sante eine engellisclie schar (angelic band), 
die namen do der selen war (care, chai'ge) ; 
si empfiengen (received) an der selbeu stunde 
iegeliches (each one's) sele von shiem munde (mouth), 
unde vuorten wirdecliche (worshipfuUy) 
si in daz ewige himelriche. 

Oswalt 3097. 3455. 

Out of an old man that is dying the antjels take the soul as a 
young child (Suppl. to 876 end) ; ir emjel vil wol wisten, war 
(well knew where) ir sele solten komen, Klage 922. Angels 
rejoice over Christians falling in fight, and devils over heathens, 
because they get their souls, Turl. Wh. 22-3 ; two youths (angels) 
and two black devils sit by the bedside of the dead, Griesh. 1, 93 ; 
angels and devils take the souls of schacher (assassins ?), Moue's 
Schausp. 2, 321-2. The soul first lodges with >S'^ Gerdnid, then 
sails over the leher-meer (liver sea), Gryse Ee 1111''; conf. Gef- 
kcu's Catal. p. 54. 



1552 DEATH. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

DEATH. 

p. 840.] Deatli as messenger of Deifcy is called der heilig tod, 
H. Sachs i. 5, 528^. 1, U7^. Deatli receives, fetches, escorts : 
san in der tot entphienc, Uolr. 1253 ; er hat den tot an der hant 
(p. 818); her moste haven den tot, Hpt's Ztschr. 2, 183. We 
still say ' du kannst dir den tod davon holen/ it may be the death 
of you, and ' mit dem tode abgehen,^ but more commonly without 
the article : ' mit tode abgegangen ist,' Mohr's Reg. ii. no. 234 (yr 
1365). MB. 25, 392. 453 (yr 1480) ; conf. ?m'i tod verscheiden, 
H. Sachs (Goz 2, 16. 19), mit tode vaUen, Nib. 2219, 3. Yet 
again ; si heliben mit dem grimmen tode 1555, 3. Er braht ir (of 
them) vil manegen dahin, da er iemer wesen soldo, Gudr. 889, 
4 ; conf, ' si-ne kumt niht her-widere ' 928, 2 ; ' der tot der hat 
die unzuht, daz er nieman deheine fluht zuo sinen friunden haben 

lat,' has the ill manners to allow no flight, Klage 1581. Deatli 

is a departing; the dead is in OS. called gifaran, Hel. 169, 27, 
in Qi^.fram-genginn, Sgem. 83*; AS. 'he geivdt,' died, Homil. 1, 
330, ' hseide forff-sid'od; had gone off, Beow. 3105; than im that 
lif scriffi, Hel. 169, 20. Gr. otx^aOai to be gone, olxo/J'evo^ = 
Oavoiv. Gl. sletst. 8, 35 renders moriebatur by 'towita, vel Mna- 
zoh.' Ssk. 'preta, gone = dead, Bopp 37''. Dying is called uz 
varrv, faring out, Wels. gast 5436; (he is daust, drnn-:en, o\xt = 
dead, Stelzhamer 166. 175); vervarn, Walth. 23, 23. MS. 2, 
138''; 'fordferde, obiit,' AS. chronol.; er ist an die v art {journey), 
diu uns nach in alien ist vil unverspart, Walth. 108, 6. In the 
Ludwigslied ' Jdna-vart,' hence-faring, is opp. to Hiier-wist,' 
here-being; ich red daz uf min hin-vart, MSH. 3, 298''; er 
swuor uf sin Jiinvart 30P; bis auf mein liinefart, Bergreien 127 ; 
die teste fart fa.rn, Suchenw. xxxiv. 105; zuo der langen vart, 
Lanz. 1949 ; up mine langhe vaert, Reinh. 2213; ON. long gdnga, 
Ssera. 222''; on longne weg, Cod. Exon. 173, 24; zuo der langen 

hcrvart, Ksrchr. 6304; des todes hervart, Mar. leg. 54, 14. To 

join the great host (p. 847) ; conf. ol TrA-e/ove?, plures = mortui, 
'quia ii majore numero sunt quam vivi ^ ; qui abierunt in com- 
munem locum, PI. Casina, prol. 10 ; verscheiden, depart, Renn. 
21093; our ' drauf gehen ' ; freude kin, leave joy, Parz. 119, 15; 
swenn er dise freude Idt, Wels. gast 4908 ; Idtaz, Islend. sog. 2, 



DEATH. 1553 

1G6. 174; af(jehen gadulingo gimang, Hel. 17, 17; nianno drum 
iKjeben 103, 4 ; forUt manno droin 23, 7 (conf. suhtc im erlo 
gimang endi manno drum 23, 33); die werlt er bcgab, Diut. 3, 89. 
67; daz lebeu Icglbt den lip, Maria 23; von. ztte g an, StsLnhnh. 
661 ; aer he on-weg hiourfe gamol of geardura, Beow. 526 ; hwearf 
mon-dreamum from 3433 ; geendode eorSan dreamas, AS. 

chronol. ; lif-ivynna brecan, Beow. 157. Dying is also called 

staying, being left : bllvet doot, Maerl. 3, 325 ; ' billban, mortuus,* 
T. 135, 24. O. iii. 23, 55. Graff 2, 47; our ' gehHebcn,' lefb 
(dead on the field). Or it is descr. as perishing, ol oXcoXore^, as 
going down to the dust, %^6i/a Svuai, II. 6, 411; varen onder 
vioiule (mould), Maerl. 3, 61 ; voo' ter moude o, 152; HI iard'ar 
hnlga (bend), Alfskongs-s. cap. 13; coni. bet ter moude/ Lane. 
44032 ; manger la terre, mordre la poussiere. The Greeks called 
the dead SrjfnjTpei'ov;, gone home to Demeter (earth), Plut. 4, 
1154; lieim-varn, W. gast 5440; went, was gathered, unto his 

fathers. Fara til heljar = mori (p. 802); gen T6te7iheini f&ven, 

Braut 55, 6; fara i disar sal, Fornald. sog. 1, 527 (conf. heingja 
sik 1 disar sal 1, 454) ; fara i lios annat, to other light, Sajm. 
262»; sokien lioht odar, Eel. 17, 17; de hac luce transire, Lex 
Burg. 14, 3; Esth. ihna minnema, go to the other world; conf. 
fXTjKiTC ovra iv <pdei, Soph. Philoct. 415. An f rid u faran (go to 
peace), tliar er mina fordron dcdun, Hel. 14, 22. For dying is a 
going to sleep : den langen sldf sldfen, Kolocz 285 ; daz in (hiui) 
der hmge shlf gevie (caught). Ring 246; conf. vf einem stro 

ligen, MS. 1, 25". The dead go to God : Drghten sacean, 

Beow. 373; si sin vor Gotes ougen (eyes), Trist. 18668; fore 
Meotiides cneowum (knees). Cod. Exon. 164, 19; 'beholding 
God's mouth and beard,' Kalev, p. 34 ; Gote liete gebotcn iiber 
in, Ges. Abent. 1, 298 ; wenn der grim tot iiber in gebiut, Ls. 3, 
124; * God came with his mercy,' Schwein. 2, 167. 184. 252. 

Various peculiar expressions : ' er hat im den namen beno- 

men,' taken the name (life) fr. him. Nib. 1507, 4 : viricandoten 
(change) disen Up, Ksrchr. 6318; des lebenes ferwandelen, Diut. 
2, 290; den lip, daz leben, verwandcln. Cod. Vind. 428, no. 154; 
'tgelach moeten bftalcn, have to pay the piper, Maerl. 2, 238 ; er 
ist verschlissen, slit up, Vict. Jacobi 88; Esth. 'lay down the 
breath.' Life is expr. by ' der sale \calden,' Ben. Beitr. S^, and 
death by 'he is tor selen gcdcgen,' Michelseu Lub. oberh. 42 ; 



1554 DEATH. 

seeltogen, Haupt 3, 91; our ' todes verbleicheD/ turn pale of 
death. The word spalten, split, is often used in conn, with death: 
sin houbet ime endriu spielt (split in 3), enniuniu (into 9) sich sin 
zunge vieltj Eeinh. 2243; sin houbet gar zes_pieU, Lampr. Alex. 
6922 ; daz herze ir in dem libe spielt, Herzmaere 520 ; bans hoved 
hrast udi ni sftjhlcer, DV. 1, 157; we say the heart brealxs in 
death, bursts with grief. 

p. 841.] The Ind. Yama is god of justice, of death and of the 
underworld, Bopp's Nalas pp. 20h 264; in this last capacity- 
he is named Kala, the black, Bopp's Gl. 74''; he answers to the 
Pers. JemsJtit, Zend. Yimu. Yama sends his messengers, who 
conduct to his dreary dwelling, Kuruinge 1296, 1360. 1643. 
Holtzm. Ind. s. 2, 101 ; conf. the death-angels, Rosenol 1, 56-7, 
the angel of death and destroying angel (p. 1182). How the 
Tartars keep off the angel of death is told by K. Schlozer p. 32-3. 
Hermes with his wand drives the souls of the suitors to the 
asphodel mead, Od. 24, 1 — 14. 99 — 101. As Hermes is sent to 

men, so is Iris to women. Death drags men away from their 

houses, their buildings : thus Protesilaos leaves his widow a half- 
finished house, So/xa rjfiireXtj'i, II. 2, 701. Apollo and Artemis 
come regularly and kill ofi' the old people with painless darts, 
dyavoc'; ^eXeeaai, Od. 15, 410-1 ; rrjv ^aXev 'Apre/uiL<i lo'^eaipa 
15,478; alhe fiOL w? fiaXaKOV Odvarov iropoL ApT€/j,t,<; arjvi] 18, 
202. 20,60-1. 80. Charon ferries over the water; so the devil 
is repres. with an oar in his hand, Woeste p. 49. ' Vallen in des 
Todes ivdge,' balance. Warn. 1650; ' uf des Todes wage sweben,' 

be poised 3318. Death is sent by God : Got der sende an 

mlnen leiden man den Tot \ MS. 1,81^; 'sin wip diu schriet 
wafen fif den Tot, er si entsldfen daz er'n niht welle bestan,' cries 
fie upon D., he must have gone to sleep, that he won't tackle the 
man, Teichner 75 ; do ergreif in der Tot, do er im sin zuokunjt 
enbot (while he to him his arrival made known), so daz er in 
geleite, Greg. 20. He knocks at the door : bereite ze uftuonne 
deme hlopphaere, Uolr. 1329; so in Berno, 'ut pulsanti posset 
aperire.' He comes as a young man : der jiingelinc, der geheizen 
ist Tot, Ls. 2, 373. The Lapland Yabnien akha, uxor vel avia 
mortis, sits in a subterr. cave, and was worshipped as a divine 
being, Lindahl's Lex. 82'' ; ich selbe sol hin in daz hoi, Fraueul. 
114, 8; des todes liole (p. 853, Gossip Death's cavern). 



DEATH. 1555 

p. 812.] With mors conf. Zend, merethyu, Bopp's Comp. Gr. 
46 ; schmerz, smart is expl. diflfereutly by Beufey 2, 39. A Norso 
word for dead is damn (p. 453 end); conf. Finn. Taonl=\xxov^, 
Pluto; Tuonen koira, death's dog = dragonOy ; Tuonela = ovens. 
Vruss. (jail as, moi's (the Lith. galas, finis ?). Esth. s(tr??i = mors, 
Finn, surma. Hung, haldl, Finn, kuolema, Votiak hiilem, Lapp. 
yahmen. Death is the brother of Sleep, who is also personified : 
the dead sleep. It is said of the dead vala : sefrattu fyrri, Ssem. 
95'^; Kocfi7]aaTO ')(a\.Keov vttvov, II. 11, 241. As sleep is called 
the sandman, death is in Esth. called earthman, sandman, lliua 
annus, Sand- Jack, Uw a peter, Sand-peter; conf. Alf. Maury's Du 
persounage de la mort, Revue Arch. 4th year, pp. 305 — 339. 

p. 844. J Death comes creeping : mors ohrepit, PI. Pseud, ii. 
3, 20; mors imminet, et tacito clam venit ilia pede, Tib. i. 10, 
34; da kam der Tot als ein diep, u. stal dem reinen wibe daz 
leben uz ir libe, Wigal. 8032 ; der Tot kumt geslichen als ein diep, 
Cato 397 (mutspelli also thiof ferit, Hel. 133, 4); der Tot 
erslichet, wins by stealth, Warn. 3109 ; der tot hat mich erslichen, 
Hugdietr. Fromm. 5; er ist mir na' (jesUclien (crept after), der 
mich kan machen hla (blue), Muskatbl. 18, 36; der T. sUcht 
vasts herein, Steph. Stofl. 174 ; daz euch nicht ubersleiche der T. 
mit seim gereusch, Wolkenst. 31. M, Nethl. : crt die Dot belope, 
Maerl. 3, 191. Dir ist vil nahe der Tot, Ksrchr. 5084. 11298; 
conf. AS. nea-laecan (Suppl. to 846 end) ; swie mir der T. vf 

dem riickcn waere, on my back, MS. 2, 46''. Death is invoked 

by men weaiy of life : er rlef (cried) nach dem tode, Ksrchr. 
1724; Tot, kum u. toete mich! Dioclet. 4732 ; nun kum Tot! 
Hartm. 1, biichl. 292; kum Dot ! Mar. kl., after Arnold 28. 440 ; 
conf. iXdeTQ) iM6po<i, Aesch. Suppl. 804 ; Yama, come, release 
me, Holtzm. Kur. 723 ; kom T., brich mir daz herz enzwei, 
Hagen's Ges. Abent. 1, 301; we dir T., kam her, u. nim uns alle 
hin, Mai 150, 12. 155, 4. 162, 4. 161, 13. 178, 27; recipe me ad 
te, mors, amicum et benevolum, Plaut. Cistell. iii. 9 ; nu kum, 
gi'immeclicher T., u. rihte Gote von uns beiden, MS. 1,17''; kum 
ein kleines t'uddein, u. fiir mich balde von hinnon, Bergreieu 
84; wo bist so lang, du grimmer T. ? komb I H. Sachs iii. 1, 
227*^; mors, cur mihi sera venis ? Prop. iii. 4, 34, conf. Soph. 
Philoct. 796; ritp om die dot, dat si qua)ne, Lane. 35711 ; dat se 
deu dod beide schulden unde baden, dat he uiht etisilmede (delay). 



1556 DEATH. 

wen dat lie queme, unde on (fr. tliem) dat levend to hand neme, 
Everh. Gandersh. 487* ; weiz Got^, her Tot, ir viiiezet her, Apollon. 
235; nim micli T., brich T. min herze ! Altd. bl. 1, 288-9 ; owe 
T., wes mid est (shunnest) du ? Ls. 1, 99 ; we T., zwiu sparst du 
micb ? Mai 43, 10. W. v. Rheinau 190'-^; eia T., rnohtes du micli 
getoeten I ISteph. Stofl. 181 ; wallan Dae^, wela DaeS, ]7at ]fa 
me n'elt fordetnen, Kg Leir 160, 20; he dex, la mort m'enuoie! 

Guitecl. 2, 148; T., nu ouge dich ! Hag. Ges. Ab. 300. 

Death comes to give warning ; he may come to terms or he put 
off the first two times, but not the third. Similar to the tale in 
Straparola 4, 5 is that of Pikollos, Hanusch p. 218. Death siht 
an, looks at a man. Warn. 28 ; he beckons or points, Ruf s Adam, 
1421. 

Death takes men away, like Hild and Gund (p. 422) : diu kint 
fileret bin des Todes wint. Warn. 1648; daz in der T. hat hin 
genomen, Ulr. Trist. 20. Frib. Trist. 32 ; Secundillen het der T. 
genomeji, Parz. 822, 20; der T. hat mich begrifen (gripped), 
Hugdietr. Oechsle 10; e iz der T. hegvife, Diemer 348, 9; do 
ergreif den vater ouch der T,, Gregor, 1 9 ; begrift iuch da der 
T. 413 ; Den hat der T. verzimmert, boxed up, Suchenw. 16, 
167; des Todes zimmer 19, 17 ; conf. diap dodes daln (Suppl. to 
803) ; todes muor, Tiirl. Wh. 16^. Death, like the devil, has jaws, 
a throat, to devour with : vallen in des Todes giel (gullet) , Karl 
72^* ; si liefen dem Tod in den rachen (ran into the jaws, Theiln. 
der Serbeu (?) p. 23 (yr. 1685) ; conf. 'ir welt in gewissen tot,' 
certain death, Wigal. 6061 ; in den tot riten 6153; we say ' de7i 
in den tod gehn.^ 

p. 845.] Death rides, as the dead lover fetches his bride away 
on horseback, Hpt's Altd, bl. 1, 177. Miillenh. no. 224; and so 
far back as Ssem. 168'* : mdl er mer at ri&a roffnar brautir, aSr 
salgofnir sigr];ioS veki (ere the cock crows) ; conf. des Todes wip, 
Eugelh. 3402 n. ; ich gezime dir (I suit thee) wol ze ivihe, Er. 
5896. Like the Schleswig Hel (Miillenh. no. 335), Wode also and 
the wild hunter ride on a three-legged horse; Wode catches the 
subterraneans, ties them together by their hairs, and lets them 
hang on each side of his horse, Miillenh. p. 373. On Boeotian 
tombstones the dead man stands beside the horse, with the in- 
scription : 77p&)9 xaipe, K. F. Hermann's Gottesd. alterth. § 16, 
20. Charos ranges the babes on his saddle, see GDS. 140-1. 



DEATH. 1557 

p. SiQ.] Death takes prisoners. Yama leads away the vmn- 
itikln he has pulled out of the dying man, tied to a rope which he 
carries about, Holtzm. Ind. s. 1, Gi-5. Rochholz 1, 89 ; ob mich 
der Tot eiihindet, Wh. GS, 22. Death throws his net over us, 
Steph. Stofl. 174; in des Todes vallen (snares) beklemmet, 
^lart. 11''; kameu zuo des Todes vaUe, Livl. 1808; in des Todes 
h}</<i (ambush), Kl. 1356; der Tot im daz leben stal, Ottoc. 86"; 
die in (fr. them) het der T. verstolen, Wigal. 9213 ; in het vil 
iiach (well-nigh) der bitter T. mit siner kraft (jezucket Jiiii (tugged 
away) 5956 ; sin leben het geziickct der T. 5129 ; der T. ziicket 
(rhy. niderbiicket), Wolkenst. 31 ; unz si der T. ersnellet (till 
d. snaps her up), Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 331 ; der T. hiit mich 
ergangen, Ecke 58; do nu der T. her drang, St. Louis 60, 17; 
thaz tod uns sus gi-angti, sus naher uns gijiangi, O. iii. 24, 14, 
i.e. brought us to such straits, so nearly caught us ; der Tod 
rauscht her behend, r. durch die hecken her, B. Waldis 149". 163". 
Death as conqueror stands over the prostrate dying man : des 
Tot gestet uher in selben, Pfaffenleben 33; conf. Dietr. 1669: die 
sine (his men) stuondcn iiher in. The dying have faUen due to 
Death, become his men; hence we say ' ein mann (ein kind) des 
Todes ' : sonst war er ein mann des Todes, Zehn ehen p. 226 ; 
conf. Dodis vuoter (food) werden, Fundgr. 2, 108; des Tudcs 
■v|>(7 (sport), Wigal. 10743, den Tot lahoi (with fortifications), 

ibid. The dying man ivrestles with D., Sanders p. 44; mit 

dem grimmen Tode ranc, Servat. 1771; mit dem T. hat sineu 
j/^'>-a7tc, Warn. 174 (the devil wrestles too: mit wem die tievel 
haben gerungen, Renn. 10727) ; iiberwunden (vanquished) sich 
dem Tode ergehen (surrender), Wigal. 7662. Death is armed : 
A.S. luiga wa^lgifre. Cod. Exon. 231, 8; wiga nealaeceb 164, 4; 
dedd" nealaede, stop sttdgongum strong and hrebe 170, 17; wir 
ligend auf des Todes spiez (spear). Ring 253. He shoots arrows, 
like Charos (Kindt 1849 p. 17) : wccl-filuin, Cod. Exon. 171,15, 
xvid-stradmn 179, 11 ; lif in sleif des Todes hagcl (hail), G. schui. 
158; in hat benomeu des Todes scJnIr, ^Vh. 256, 6. He is a 
hunter, MSH. 3, 177". He is likened to a tliorn : darinne der tot 
als ein dorn in dem Meien hliicte, Wigal. 7628. He has a legal 
claim upon man : gait der dot haer scout (solvit morti debitum), 
Maerl. 1, 430 ; we say ' to pay the debt of nature.^ 

p. 847.] Death has an army : ' der Tot fuort in die gemeinen 



1558 DEATH. 

vartj' the common jouruey, Ottoc. SO'*; '^ der T. gebiutetsine her-^ 
vart' army's march, Barl. 397, 32. His badge, his tdcen (SuppL 
to 200), is the paUid hue: des Todes zeichen ia llehter varwe, 
Nib. 928, 3. 2006, 1; des T. z. wirt schiu (is displayed) in 
swarz-gelber varwe. Warn. 128; des T. gilwe (yellow), MS. 2, 
166^. Those who are veig, fey, may thus be known, Belg. mus. 
5, 113. On the contrary, in Wigal. 6151, a red cloth tied to a 
spear betokens that a man shall ride to his death that day : 

An eiu sper man im do bant 
einen samet der was rot ; 
daz bezeichent daz er in den tut 
des tages riten solde. 

Proserpine devotes the dying to Orcus by cutting a lock of hair 
off them : 

Nondum illi flavum Proserpina vertice crinem 

abstule^-at, Stygioque caput damnacerat Oreo. JEtn. 4, 698. 

Iris is sent down to Dido : 

Devolat, et supra caput astitit : ' Hnnc [crinem] ego Diti 

sacrum jassa fero, teque isto corpore solvo.' 

Sic ait, et dextra crinem secat, omnis et una 

dilapsus calor, atque in ventos vita recessit. -^n. 4, 702. 

p. 848.] Death mows, Lett, nahwe plavj, Bergm. 69 ; des 
Tudes sichel, Wolkenst. 278. He is a sitheman, Shah-nameh, 
v. Gorres 1, 105-6; conf. the 3 maidens that mow the people 
down with their sithes, Kulda in D'Elv. 110. 

p. 849.] Death is commonly called the grim, Diemer 87, 9. 
14. Servat. 1771-92. Hahn's Strieker 11 ; der Tut in mit 
grimme suochte, Diut. 1, 407 ; ' der grimme tot,' the name of a 
sword, MSH. 3, 236^; der grlmmecltche tot, Hagen's Ges. Abent. 
1, 300; der aige tot, Ernst 1954; der iibel tod, der bitter. Ring 
6'^,12. 54\26. Fr. ' ynale mort;' ez ist niht loirsers danne dei' 
tot, Er. 7935 ; der hide dot, Hpt's Ztschr. 2, 197 (like the devil) j 
die felle Dot, Maerl. 2, 133; der gewisse T6t, Helbl. 1, 109^ 
Wigal. 6061. 6132 ; er was des gewissen Todes, Diemer 218, 14; 
' gewis sam der Tot,' sure as d., Lanz. 5881 ; ja weistu rehte alsavi 
den T,, Flore 3756 ; ich weiz ez ivdrez (true) als den T., Trisfc. 



DEATH. 1559 

110. 17751. 19117. Ulr. Trist. 19G4; der gemeine T., Ilalin 78, 
20. 91,48. Greg. 3709. Sclnvabensp. p. 179; der (jemebiUche 
T,, Klage 534; 6dvaro<i ofxolo^;, Od. 3, 236; qui omnes mauet, 
couf. Etr. Mantus fr. manere, Gerh. pp. 17. 50. 

p. 850,] Dominus Blicero is called Bleher \n Coremans 109; 
dass euch der blickars reut ! Garg. 134"'; der hlasse menschen- 
fruits (pale mau-muncher), Fleming p. 142 ; our kuuchler, knocli- 
enmaun, Bony. Death was depicted with frightful aspect : an 
siuem scliilde was der Tot gemdlt vil grusodiche, Wigal. 2998 ; 
couf. des Todes scJiihl-gemaele, Tit. 2G89, the Harii (p. 950), and 
the death's-head hussars. On the tomb near Cumae the 
skeletons are put in a dancing posture, Olfers in Abh. der Acad. 
'30, pp. 15. 19—22. 

p. 852.] 'Friend Haiii is not so easy to buy off,' Hans Wurst 
doktor nolens volens, Fraukf. and Leipz. 1779, p. 39; 'and there 
Friend Ilaijn did the sexton a kindness,' viz. his wife dies in 
childbed, Kindlebeu, Wilib. Schluterius, Halle 1779, p. 114. 
Jean Paul uses the word in Q. Fixlein p. 170, and Lessing 12, 
505 (yr. 1778). But I now find in Egenolfs Sprichw. bl. 321'' 
(under ' sawr sehen ') : 'he looks sour, he looks like Henn the 
devil.' The other phrases are all borr. fr. Seb. Frank ; this one 
is peculiar to Egenolf's collection. Conf. ' Heintze Pik, de dood,' 

^'. d. Bergh 155. Death stretches the limbs : als sie der Tot 

gestracte, Ernst 3011 ; ddvaTO<; TavrjXeyij'i, laying out at length, 
Od. 3, 238. 11, 171 seq. ; 'an deme Streche-foisze,' a place, 
Arusb. Urk. no. 493, yr. 1319. Bleckezahn is also in Fleming 
p. 421.. 

p. 854.] Similar to the expression in H. Sachs, but not so 
figurative, is the phrase : ' der tot uns zuclie daz leben,' jerks the 
life fr. us, Renn. 20389. Hagen's Ges. Ab. 1, 299. On the life- 
candle, see Wackernagel in Haupt G, 280 — 4; daz leben ist 
unstaete, wan ez erleschet der Tot als ein lieht, Altd. bl. 2, 122 ; 
the devil (here meaning death) is to come for a man when a 
wax-taper has burnt down, Miillenh. p. 180. On the lurch of Eros 
(whose other attribute, like Death's, is the bow), and on his 
relation to Psyche, see Gerhard's Eros pp. 5. 15. 32. KM.^ 3, 

70. Death is a godfather; see also Phil. v. Sittew. 2, G73-4. 

lu the same way the hoberges-guhbe, the man uf the mountain 
(miner?) is asked to be godfather (p. 189), Miillenh. p. 289 [lu 



1560 DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

Shaksp. tlie jury who convict are godfathers] . As a godfather, 
it matters much whether you stand at the head or foot : hopp- 
vadder, stert-vadder, Schiltze 4, 194-5. The Slav, story of 
Qodmother Smrt in Wolf's Ztschr. 1, 262-3 may be conf. with 
our marchen of Gevatter Tod, KM. no. 44 and note. On the 
life-or-death-giving look of the bird charadrius, see Plut. Sympos. 
V. 7, 2. Physiol, in Kai^ajan p. 104. 

p. 855.] On the marchen of Death and Jack Player, see Pref. 
xvi. xli. The Lith. Welnas is called in Lasicz 48 vielona, deus 
animarum. Beside the Finn. Tuoni, there is mentioned a death- 
god Kalma, Schott's KuUervo pp. 218. 235. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 
DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

p. 856 n.] The Gothic for felge, fey, is daup-uhlis [eTndavdrio^), 
conf. ON. daiid' yfi'i, morticinium. Faeges for^siS, moribund! 
decessus, Cod. Exon. 182, 34; wyrd ne meahte in. faegum long 
feor gehealdan 165, 18. Die vege dot, Karel 2, 733; veige eben 
todt, Klage 536-9. 1304 ; sit lie man bi den veigen vil der pfaffen 
uf dem sande (left with the dying many priests), Gudr. 915, 4; 
si was ze friieje leider veige, Flore 2163; da vielen (fell) die 
veigen, Ksrchr. 4909. 7078 ; da gelagen die veigen, 5247. 7803 ; I 
' die veghe es, hie meet ter moude,' who fey is, must to mould, 
Walew. 3876 ; ni si man nihein so feigi (no mortal), 0. i. 11, 10 ; 
da was der veige vunden (found, hit), Trist. 403, 8; conf. der j 
veige rise 401, 18; ir sit veige gewesen, Wien. merfart 410. 438 ; 
unz der man niht veige en-ist, s6 erneret in vil kleiner list (so 
long as he is not fey, a little skill will set him up), Iw. 1299. 

p. 857.] Destiny rules over the highest of gods : virep Se rf/? j 
Ke(f>a\f)'i Tov Alo^ elaiv ^flpac Kal Molpat, Paus. i. 40, 3. It is 
expr. by the following terms : ON. skup let lion vaxa, Sism. ' 
249'\, OS, giscapu mahtig gimanodnn, Hel. 10, 18; thiu herhtan ■ 
giscapu gimanodun 11, 17; regano-giscapu gimanudan 103, 3; ; 
conf. torhtlico tidi gimanodun 3, 11. Dan. den kranke skjebne, , 

DV. 1, 123; conf. den kranke lykke 1, 195. ON. orlog, OHG. | 

iirlac, MHG. urliuge, urlouc, Gramm. 2, 790; voru nii endut p'au ' 
dlog, Hervarars. p. 488; and the Sax. compds orlag-liulla, orleg- 



DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 1561 

ha-'il. ^IHG. ivU-saelde : diii wihaelde ie inuoz irgan, Ksrchr. 

3493. 3535; conf. 3122-5. 3130. Lanz. 1(502. Fundgr. 1, 398; 
ein ubel wllmolde, Ksrchr. 1757. Also the uucompounded icUe : 
so hab dill u-Uo undauc ! Biter. 11933; sin v)ile und sin tac, 
Ksrchr. 3557; ' xvile u. stunde walzent al-umbe/ fate and the 
hour roll round, 3G00. 3587. We say 'his hour lias struck.' 

p. 858.] The hour of birth and destiny is determined on by 
night : ndtt var i boe, nornir qvamo, j^ar er auSIingi aldr umskopo, 
Stem. 149"; diu niir wart bescheiden (she was destined for me) 
von den nahtweiden, do si crste wart geborn, Krone 4840. 

Even in early times destiny is placed in the hands of gods : 

Zevq B" avTo<; ve^ei 6\(3ov OXvjxttlo'^ dvdpcoTroicnv 

iadXo2<; r/Sk /caKolacv, o7r&)<? idiXrjo-iv, eKdar(p. Od. G, 188. 

KaK-)] Alo'^ alaa. Od. 9. 55. 

dvepo'^ u) re Kpoviwv 

6X/3ov eTTLKXcoar] yafxiovTc re yiyvofjbivq) re. Od. 4, 207. 

ov /jlol TOiovrov eTreKXciicrav Oeol oX/3ov. Od. 3. 208. 

0)9 yap ol eTreKXcoaev rd ye Saificov. Od. 16, 64. 

The last three passages have iTrcKXcodo) (I spin for), the term 
gener. used of the Fates. 

p. 859.] The weighing of destinies, performed by Zeus in the 
Iliad, is called 'weighing of souls' by Welcker, Cycl. 2, 189, just 
what Christian legend ascribes to St. Michael : 

Sant Michel richtet uf sin wage (holds up his balance), 

und henket sich der valaut dran (though the devil hangs on), 

doch schaffet er niht, der swarze man, 

wan sin sleeken ist umbsus (his trickery is in vain). 

Cour. V. Dankrotsch. Namenb. 118. Berthold p. 17. 

p. 8G0.] The stars have influence esp. on birth : tarn grave 
sidus habenti, Ov. Trist. v. 10, 45; vonar-stiarna flaug, |;a var 
ec foeddr, burt fra briosti mer. hatt at hun flo, hvergi settiz, svu 
bun maetti hvild hafa, Ssem. 126"^ ; 'because their star is at Jieat, 
or it has cooled down (versauset)/ Phil. v. Sittew. Soldatenl. p.m. 
149. Other omens attending the conception and birth of a child 
are mentioned in Pref. xliv. xlv. 

p. 862.] In the unavoidableness of fate there is something 
cruel and grudijing. The luckiest and best men perish at last : 



1562 DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

sit sturbens jdinerUche von zweier edelen frouwen nit (women's 
jealousy), Nib. 6, 4; wie liebe mit hide zejimgest lonen lean (love 
may reward with woe at last) 1 7, 3 ; als ie diu liebe hide ze aUer- 
jungisU git (turn to woe) 2315 ; eg koma mein eptir munuS, Snsm. 
129^; conf. these views of the world's rewards, and Lehrs' Vom 

neide p. 149. To the possession of costlij things is attached 

misfortune and ruin. In the tale of Tyrfing it is the splendid 
sword that kills; conf. the fatal sword (p. 205). So the horse of 
Sejanus proved a fatal steed, Gellius 3, 9. Lehrs' Vom neide 
p. 154. To the same category belong the Nibelung's hoard, the 
alrann and gaUows-man (p. 513 n.). And a union with goddesses 
and fays makes men unhappy (p. 393). 

The Norse fatalism comes out in : ' ingen man ar starkare an 
sittode/ no man is stronger than his fate, Sv. folks. 1, 228. In 
Vestergotland and Schonen they say : det var hanom odt, GDS. 
125-6. M. Neth. dat sin sai, dat moeUin, Karel 2, 1561. MHG. 
poets have: daz geschach u. muose sin, Tiirl. Wh. 29"^; wan ez 
solt et sin, Parz. 42, 6; ez muoz also wesen. Nib. 1482, 1 ; swaz 
geschehen sol, daz geschiJit, Urstende 104, 48. Helmbr. 1683. 
OS. that it scolda giwerthan so, bethiu ni mahtun si is bemithan 
(avoid), Hel. 150, 19. 152, 4. Fr. tot avenra ce quen doit avenir, 

Garin 2, 201. AS. n'a^s ic faege ]>a git (I was not fey yet), 

Beow. 4289 ; conf. ' ez sterbent wan (none but) die veigen die 

doch vil libte heime da muosen sterben. Tit. 1799; nieman 

•■.eterben mac (can die), unz im kumt sin tester tac, Kl. 103 ; nieman 

ersterben mac, e im kumt sin endes-tac, Lanz. 1613. Ego vero 

nihil impossibile arbitror, sed utcunque fata decreverunt ita cuucta 
mortalibus evenire, Apul. p. m. 87; mir geschiht niht, wan mir 
geschaffen ist, ez muoz nu sin, MSH. 3, 80; ist ez dir heschafhi, 
Helmbr. 1297 ; muoz ez wesen, u. ist dir heschaffen, Laber p. 200; 
sei es uns mit heil heschaffen, Wolkenst. 178; heschaffens gliick, 

Ambras. lied. p. 224-5-7. Mir ist niht heaht, Flore 1184; diu 

ist dir erahtot (intended), Griesh. 2, 18 ; dem si rehte eraht6t ist 

2, 19. Ih ward gihoran zi thiu, O. iv. 21, 30; wer zuo drin 

helhling ist geborn, Diut. 1, 325; ze drin seller pi ien geborn, Renn. 
15886 ; dur sane (for song) bin ich gehorn, MS. 1, 53^ ; er wart 
zer fluht nie gehorn, Wh. 463, 19; ich wart in dine lielfe erhorn, 
Tit. 72, 4 ; Christianchen ist nicht fitr mich gehoren, Gellert 3, 
168. We say ; es ist mir avgehoren. Til lykke lagt, DV. 3, 5 ; 



DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 15G3 

Dan. 'cr clot saa ht</d, saa faacr ilet saa blivc'j ez gvt kcincin 
anders dau itn wirt iifgehit, Mich, lieham's Vom unglauben 4 

[necessity is laid upon me, 1 Cor. 9, IG]. * Swaz dir enteile is 

getan, des enwirt dir niht beuoinen/ you can^t fail to have, En. 
82, 6. 87, 21. 117, 1 ; deme si heschert was, c si wurdo geborn, 
En. 3993 ; nieman gelouben sol an daz wort ' ez ist ime heschert,' 
Germania 3, 233"; dcm galgen heschert, Renn. 1G815; est iu 
heschert, n. en-inac niht anders sin, Flore 4588; uns wirdet 
cuuogiz kespirre ioh pfskerit N. Arist., heslcerit undo hesJcihet 94 ; 
waz ist uns beiden heschert u. heschciden. Herb. 14054. We say: 

es ist mir heschieden, verhdngt, hestimmt, geschicht. Lith. 

lemtas, ordained ; was einem geordnet sei, deni entrinne man 
nicht, GotthelPs Erz. 1, 292; es sei so geordnet, u. was sein muss, 
muss sein 1, 284; zugeschrempt, Keisersb. Von koufleuten 89''. 

Geistl. lewe 50*=; ez ist mir sus gewant,V-iivz. 11, S. More 

antique are the phrases : 

ov '^/('ip 7r(D9 KaraSvao/xeO^ a-)(yv^evoi izep 

€L<; 'AiSao 86fMov<;, irplv ixopaifjiov ^jfxap iireXOr]. Od. 10, 174. 

fiotpav 6' ovTivd (f)T]/xi Trecjivyfiivov efxfxevai avSpMV. 11. G, 488. 

AS. g33 |?a wyrd swa hio seel, Beow. 905 ; so habed ira wnrd- 
giscapii Metod gimarcod, Hel. 4, 13, conf. 18, 10. 45, 14. 

p. 8G3.] Weal and luck are all but personified in the phrases : 
kum, gliicJi, u. schlag' mit haufen drein, Docen's Misc. 1, 279; 
ein garten, den gliick u. heil hmvef, Mohr reg. v. Frauenbr. no. 
38G, yr. 1434 ; heil, walde iz ! Dint. 1, 353 ; des helfe mir geliicke ! 
Nib. 1094, 4; mine helpe God ende goet geval ! Walew. 28G ; 
an's mi God ende goed geval ! Karel 2, 3609 ; min heil, nu Huge 
(prosper) ! Altsw. 14, 31. 9G, 4; Silvio volgete gruz heil. En. 
13138; die wile (meanwhile) sin heil vor gienc, 7251 ; to snatch 
the luck that teas going to another, Uuw. dokt. 358 ; those that 
luck jyipes to may dance, Docen's Misc. 1, 282 ; when God and 
good luck greet him, Simpl. 1, 536; daz in daz heil verjluochet 

(curses him), Hartm. 1, biichl. 782. Without personification: 

si liezen die vart an ein heil, 3297 ; waoro daz an minora heile, 
MS. 1, 193''; vart iuwer straze (go your way) mit gnotem heile, 
Iw. 832; ze heile homen, MS. 1, 75*; heiles vurt waten (wade 
the ford of), Suchenw. xxxiii. 35 ; guotcs mannes heil, Hpt's 
Ztschr. 2, 179; ich trowe mime heile, Nib. 2102, 4; mime heile 



1564 DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

ich gar verteile, MS. 1, 83'''; du malifc min heil erwenden (canst 
thwart), Walth. 60, 18; ich danhe 's mime heile, Nib. 1938, 4; 
conf. min saelde si verwazen (cursed be), Mai 174, 4; min saelde 
ich verfiaoche, Flore 1182; ich ziulie ez itf (I lay it all upon) 

die s. min, Lanz. 3162 ; doch ziirn ich an die s. min 4300. 

More pecuhar are : ' wilnschet daz mir ein heil gevalle,' befall, 
Walth. 115, 5; conf. M. Neth. gheval, luck, Huyd. sub. v., and 
our Veldeke's 'daz si mere (increase) min geval' 1, 2P; des 
heiles slilzzel (key) in verspart freude, Altd. bl. 2, 236; verlorn 
het er daz heil, Alex. 3389. ' Wiinschen lieiles vunt,' a find of 
luck, Altd. bl. 1, 339. MS. 2, 190-\ MSH. 1, 357". Mai 64, 10. 
Haupt 7, 117; lieiJe bruoder, froiden vunt, Dietr. drach. 303''; 

der Saelden vunt, MSH. 1, 359-^ ; glilckes vunt 351''. Gliick, 

heil and saelde are named side by side : doch so was geliiche u. 
Sifrides heil. Nib. 569, 2 ; heili joh sdlida, O. Ludw. 5 ; man 
saget von gluche u. von sdlden, Herb. 6770; so moht ime geliiche 
u. heil u. saelde u. ere iifrisen, Walth. 29, 31 ; geliiche iuch miieze 
saelden wern (may fortune grant), Parz. 431, 15. Geliiche is 
distinguished fr. heil, Herb. 3238. 15465; conf. tu^t?, /.totpa, 
€ifiapfievv, Lucian 3, 276; dea, Fortuna, PI. Pseud, ii. 3, 13. 

There is a white fortune and a hlach, a bright and a darh : thiu 
herhtim giscaim, Hel. 11, 16. 23, 17; ]?a heorhtan gesca>ft, Cfsdm. 
273, 20. 

Eia, gliicke ! eia, heil ! 

nu hast du mir daz sivarze teil (black side) 

allenthalben zuo gekart (toward me turned) ; 

mir sint die wizen ivege verspart (barred), 

da ich wilen ane ginc (whereon I whilom went) . 

Herb. 15465—69. 

Frommann p. 321 understands this of the moon's light or dark 
disc, and seems to derive the ' wheel of fortune ' altogether fr. 
the lunar orb. Conf. Lett. ' ak mannu haltu deenu ! ' my white 
day, Bergm. 76 (see p. 1138). 

p. 864.] Of Saelde's vigilance I have some more examples 
[Omitted] : min S. erwachet, Ls. 2, 509 ; swer si nu soldo schou- 
wen, des S. was niht entsldfen, Tiirl. Wh. 46^ And the same of 
Luck and Unluck : hadde mi min gheluc ghewaect, Marg. v. 
Limbg 1, 1226; our nnluch ivahes, Giinther 1014; my Inch is 



DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 1565 

fast asleqi 212 (couf. Dan. Men Icranlce lykke,' DV. 1, 195 ; dea 
Iraiike skjehne 1, 123). M. Noth. die Auentnre wacid (p. 911) j 
envachet sin p/a/ie^, Chrou. in Senkenb. 3, 459 ; /or^tutM/i ejus 
in malis tautum civilibus vigilasse, Amm. Marc. 14, 10, conf. ' at 
vos Salus servassit, Plant. Cist. iv. 2, 7(3. The Laima (Suppl. to 
877) also sleeps and wakes up, Biittner no. 701. Luck is coaxed : 

sc, geliicke, i^c, Waltb. 90, 18. Similar phrases: min weinen- 

der scJtade (hurt) wachet, MSH. 1, 102"; sknde vaker, Aasen's 
Ordspr. 210; 'to wake a sleeping sorruio/ Oedip. Colon. 510. 
OX. cfkja Naucr, Ssam. 194'^ (var.), like vekja vvj 105\ Vreude 
diu ist erwachet, diu ie verborgen lac (lay hid), MS. 2, 99* ; conf. 
v:ach auf, fried, Fastu. 39, 1 ; bi werdeu man (to noble-minded 
men) so ivachent wihes gilete, MS. 1, 190"; ir giiete u. bescheiden- 
heit ist gen mir entsldfen 1, 20"' ; ir gendde (favour) mir muoz 
wacJten 1, 33"; wil ir diu (niinne) ze herzen nahen waclien, MSH. 
1, 310''. Nemesis, vengeance, sleeps and wakes. •' A place where 
a certain danger ivaked,' Serb. u. Kroat. 10. 

p. 8m.] Fortuna, like Ver Sfelde (Hagen's Ges. Ab. 1, 409), 
waits long at the door, and is not admitted, Dio Cass. 04, 1 ; mir 
ist verspart (barred) der Saelden tor, "Walth. 20, 31 ; der S. tur 
entsliezen (unlock), Dietr. drach. 179"; conf. lipt's Ztschr. 2, 
535 and dream-gate (Suppl. to 1140 beg.). In the same way: 
* sliuz mir u£ der vrijuden tor,' unlock me the gates of joy, MSH. 
1, 350'; gein dera siiezen Meien stent ofifen fruiden tor, MS. 2, 
108"; der frijiden tor ist zuo getan (shut) 2, 198"': thro' portals 
wide poured joy into her house, Gotthelf 2, 203 ; thy luck comes 
in at everij gate, Fabricius's Haustafel (V. f. Hamb. gesch. 4, 

480) ; der gendden tor, Hpt 4, 520. Exulatum ahiit salus, 

Plaut. Merc. iii. 4, 6 ; ' des solt in Saelde ivichen,' quit them, 
Albr. Tit. 2344 ; diu S. mir entwiclie, MS. 2, 20"; conf. 'da unse 
heil von uns trat,' Pass. 40, 80 ; ' heill er horjin.,' gone, Vols. c. 
11 ; 'la Fortune passa, elle part a ces mots,' Lafont. 5, 11 ; con- 
versely : ' zuo gienc daz unheil,' on came mischief (Suppl. to 879). 
Saelde von uns vonit, Athis F, 20 ; S. wont im bi, u. vont, Heinr. 
Krone 50*^; dar Saelden ane genge, Hpt 4, 525; daz dicli daz 
geliicke ange, Diocl. 4370. 8759 ; alles gliick wehete (blew) dich 

an, Unw. doct. 017. Luck approaches one who sleeps at the 

well-side, Babr. 49, 2 ; predestined luck comes overnight, Am- 
bras. 247 ; conf. ' falling asleep betw. two lucks, Altd, bl, 2, 175j 

VOL. IV. U 



1566 DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

an Saelden wunsches arm entsUfen, Tit. 1248. Ipsa^ si vellet, 
Salus his circumfusa, ut vulgo loqiumur, eos salvare non posset, 
Liutpr. Legatio 13, Er was uf der Saelden wege, Ernst 1843; 
conf. 'so verst uf gelucJces ban/ MS. 1, 88''; hohe getrat ze Sael- 
den, Mar. 164, 30 ; icli kan si wol erjagen (hunt her down) : si-ne 
welle sich mir me versagen (refuse me more) dan si sich deheime 
(any one) versagte, der si ze rehte jagte, Greg. 1529. ' Ir Saelde 
diu sack sie an,Mooked on her, Mar. 187, 20; we say 'smiled 
upon,' conf. ri-jv rvxv^ 7rpo(T/j,€iSi,(aaav, Lucian's Asin. 47, Fortuna 
arridet. ' Ich muoz ir gruuz verdienen,' earn Fortune's greeting, 
Greg. 1527; Got u. das gluck grilszet, Simpl. 1, 536; daz mich 
vro Saelde erhande (recognised), MS. 2, 99''; so volgt dir S. nach, 
MSH. 3, 224*^; min fro S., wie sie min vergaz (forgot me), Walth. 
43, 5. ' Einer geliicke erslichet, daz der ander niht wol kan 
erloufen,' one creeps up to her, another can't run her down, MSH. 
3, 297«; das gliick erschleichen, Fischart's Gesch. kl. 95^ Uhl. 
Volksl. 584. Ambras. 102 ; ' luck wants to be boldly galloped 

up to,' Polit. stockf. p. 240. ' Geliicke ist uns verswunden,' 

vanished, Altd. bl. 2, 150 ; * wie in geliicke floch,' fled, Ottoc. 
713=»; 'vrou Saelde Mret mir den nac,' turns her neck (back), 
Frauenl. 447, 22; fortuna malefida, Rudl. 1, 11; fortuna vetiis, 
1, 66 ; vrou S. ist ivilder dan ein rech (roe), MSH. 2, 315% conf. 
'geliicke lief entwerhes,' ra,n athwart, Troj. 12598; S. wird 2:>flitcJce, 
Kolocz 100; daz iviltwilde geliicke springt, MS. 2, 147^ ' In der 
Saelden huote varn,' travel in her keeping 1, 88* ; wisen uz vrou 
S. huote, MSH. 1, 339''; conf. ' cum fortuna ludere,' be her play- 
mate, favourite, Pertz 2, 79. ' Der Saelden sfahe, da suit ir 

inch an stiuren/ staff whereon ye shall lean, MSH. 3, 462"; sitzen 
iif der S. Mr 1, 93^^ (MS. 1, 36") ; daz inch vro Saelde laze luider- 
Mren (send you back), Troj. 9359; wie dich diu S. fuorte (led), 
Hpt 4, 524. ' Diu S. mich an sich nam, si riet mir,' advised me, 
Wigam. 4119; 'den ir S. daz geriet/ for so her luck advised, 
Wh. 451, 4; 'daz sie diu S. tuon hiez/ what S. bade her do, 
Eracl. 54; 'dar sin 8. hat erdaht,' wherever his luck thought 
good, Parz. 827, 17. 'Diu S. ir mit flize p/ac,' carefully tended 
her, Wigal. 8950 ; vrou S. ir stiure gap siner ammen (bestowed 
her gifts on his nurse), diu sin phlac, do er in der wiegen (cradle) 
lac,' Er. 9898 ; von der Saelden gehe, Altd. bl. 2, 218 ; nii het diu 
vrowe Saelikheit allen-wis an in geleit (on him set) ir vil staetigez 



DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 1507 

marc, Greg. 10G3 ; der Saelden gundes teil, Krone 4833. Er 

sitzet in S. vogel-huse, Reun. 10512; kaemo icli lif der S. sfnnl^ 
Purtenop. 93; der. S. dach (roof), MS. 1, 191''; daz uns decko 
diner S. van (flag), MSH. 1, 339''; eutsliezen lif (unlock) der S. 
schnn, Dietr. dracli. 94''; aller S. grunt 105\ 303''; der S. .sv// 
(rope) 239''. 257"; der S. vaz (cask), Hag. Gea. Ab. 1, 461 ; sich 
daz (beware lest) din muot iht trunken ge von des geliickes stoufe 
(bowl), Frauenl. 116, 19; von gold ein S. vingerUn (ring), Lanz. 
4940; daz golt der S., Tit. 4914. 5028; Saeldenherc, Mone 1, 

346. 7, 319. Der S. zwic (twig, Suppl. to 977) ; ein zici daran 

diu Saelde hliiejet, Hpt 4, 527; sin S. hlilete, Wh. 463, 9; ez 
griicnet miner Saelden rts (twig), Winsbekin 6, 4; wo sein gliicks- 
grasl grauit, Stelzhanier 36; geliicko ist wUen hie gesdt (widely 
sown), Dietx'. drach. 187". It is prettily said: das gliick abbla- 
ien (disleaf), Fastn. sp. 1143, as if to pluck off the flower of luck ; 
'luck brings roses/ Ldrb. of 1582, 225; grozuiecbtig Jirut-knrh 
voll gliick (huge hamperfuls), Fastn. sp. 884, 24, coiif. ' geliick 
in eineui kreben (korb, basket) fiuden,' Hatzl. 85'' ; der Saelden 
stiicke (pieces, items?), Parz. 734, 24; hat-er darzuo der S. swerf, 
Altd. bl. 2, 229; der S. slac (blow), Iw. 4141, couf. ' ue nos 
Fortuna sinistro cum pede prosteruat,^ Gesta Witigowonis 477; 
' at first she can't take in her luck, by and by she'll snap at its 
fists,' Schoch's Stud. D 3''; der S. swanz (tail) hat dich umbe- 
vangen, Ilpt 4, 520. ' Der S. ton sin herze hat genetzet,' S.'s 
dew has drenched his heart, MSH. 3, 173'' ; ' bliss comes dewing 
down,' Goethe 14, 74, conf. * alles heils ein luier bach,' limpid 
stream, Altsw. 98, 23 ; ' luck snows upon us in large flakes,' 

Phil. V. Sittew. 2, 665. Observe the plur. saehlcn, like ' heillir 

horfuar' (p. 864-5 n.) : then, sal idon intfallan, 0. ii. 4, 89; er 
mohte sineii saelden immer sagen danc. Nib. 300,2 ; waerc 'z an 
den s. min, Roinh. 436. In Tyrol (15th cent.) n, frau Selga rides 
at the head of the nightly host, Germania 2, 438, but she may 
be the selige, blissful, not our Saelde. Conf. the Indian goddess 
of prosperity Sri, Holtzm. 3, 150, the uyadij Tvxv, the bona 
Fortuna, Gerh. in Acad. ber. '47, p. 203-4. 

p. S69.] Oa fortune's wheel see Wackernagel in Upt 6, 13t 
seq. Cupid also has a wheel: vorsor in Amoris rota raiser, 
Plaut. Cist. ii. 1, 4. Fortunae sinistrorsum sibi rotam volvero 
seutit, Pertz 8, 235, conf. the image in Carm. burana p. 1 ; 



15G8 DESTINY AND WELL-EETNG. 

voluhilis rota transeuntis muudi, Kemble no. 761 (yr 1038) ; rata 
fatalis in Hemmerlin, Reber p. 2o6 ; videns fortunatUj ut solet, 
liuUcra ro/a reciprocare, Eckehardi casus S. Galli (Pertz 2, 88). 
The mere turning of the wheel denotes the mutability of fate, 
Fauriel's Poesie Prov. 3, 509. Serb, march, no. 42, p. 198. 
Meghaduta ed. Schiitz p. 41 str. 107, and the passage fr. Plu- 
tarch, ibid. p. 109. 

Geliicke ist sinewel (spherical), Wh. 246, 28 ; der liute heil isfc 
nngewegen u. sinwel, Bit. 12440. Fortune rises and falls, like a 
ivlieel in motion, Meghad. 108; daz rat ^ev fro Fortune, Turlin^s 
Krone 7 : Marie, du heiles u. geluclces rat, Hpt 4, 523 ; dat rat 
van avonturen, Rein. ed. Will. 6183; mir get der Saelden schibe 
(wheel), Engelh. 4400 ; do unser scliihe ensamt gie (together went), 
Warn. 3048 ; wil mir der S. schibe gan, als si dicke (oft) hat 
getan, Dietr. drach. 12 ; gelilckes rat umbe triben, Troj. 13322 ; 
als sich keret (turns) des geliickes rat, Pass. 32, 62 ; in bezoch 
der werlde geliickes rat 856, 15; si vuoren (rode) uf geliickes 
rade, Flore 845, conf. ' auf gelukes chohen varen,' Suchenw. 27, 
115 ; ich lige ievoLev under gliickes rade, MS. 2, 194'"'; ic was te 
hoghe gheseten (sat too high) op dat rat der aventuren, Marg. v. 
Limb. 1, 185 ; Woldemares schive in groten lukken hadde lopen 
(run), Detm. 1, 99; geliickes balle. Tit. 2368; ungliicke daz ge 
si an (befall them), darzuo der taster (infamy^s) schibe miieze in 
alien gen in hant ! Dietr. dr. 143 ''. 

Saelde is sometimes called blind : sprich nilit ' Saelde si blint,' 
des si niht ist, Cato 442 ; sia maletou (her they painted) 'plinda, 
Notk. Boeth. 42 ; and avonture is blind, Rose 5067, or blind- 
folded 5858. Notker in Boeth. 43 translates ' deprehendisti coeci 
numinis ambiguos vultus ' by ' nu bechennest tu daz analutte des 
sich pergenten (skulking) truge-tieveles.^ To Gotfrid^s ' glesin 
gliicke ' add the 'fortuna vitrea ' of the Archipoeta p. m. 237. 

p. 869.] Der Saelden hint, Freid. 134, 2 ; Gabriel salutes 
Mary as such, MSH. 3, 18^ ; frou Saelde und Eeil, ir kint. Krone 
15827. 23094, conf. 'sit in the middle of God^s lap,' Drei kl. 
leute 159; mignon, Lafont. 5, b ; frou S. ir stiure gap siner 
ammen, diu sin phlac, do er in der wiegen lac (in his cradle lay), 
Er. 9898. 'Der Saelden bote,' messenger, Pantal. 172; Selden- 
hiit, Urk. of Hanover; des si min Saelde gein im bote, Parz. 416, 
4. Like Saelden bote are also : Triuwen bote, Eugelh. 6332 ; 



DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 1500 

Emi bote, honour's in., Frauend. l-S?, 10. 1-70, 28; dcr E. hohh', 
Atliis C 82. Er. 90G2 ; der E. kiuM, Encrelli. 4152; der 8. 
holde, Lanz. 190G ; der S. hih-genoz, houseniatp, Wli. o, 125"; 
der 8. schol, Er. 2401; der Unsaelden kncld, Hartm. 2, biichl. 
626; der fiirste sdden herre, Heldenb. (1500), 110'', et passim. 

p. 873.] O^fmu Fortunn, a kind of Vonus, there is a legend 
in Altd. bl. 1, 297. With Fortunatus conf. Faustus. The 
iinshing-hat carved out of a finger-nail, Schiefner on Kalewipoeg 
pp. 146. 154, resembles Nagl-far (p. 814). On the miraculous 
making of cloths, see Rommel 2, 342 fr. the Ann. Erf. in Menken 
3. There is frequent mention of a girdle that gives strength 
(Suppl. to 182), the strength of 12 men, Laurin 1066. 2441, or 
allays hunger, Ferabr. 2752. 2800 ; ON. htngurband, oar .srhmacht- 
rleine. Saxo ed. Miillor 114 mentions an ' arm ilia possessoris 
opes aKgeresoVita,,' a ' tunica far rum spernens ' 118, an ' insecahilis 
vestis' 122; conf. the grounng mantle in Lanz. 5812, the seamless 
coat, the Kpy'jSefxvov of Ino, Od. 5, the hreod-net hroden, Beow. 

3005, the hread-poclcet inWigal. 4469. 5843. Discordia makes 

herself invisible by a ring, Troj. 1303-24, and the like magic lies 
in the ring with a nightingale in it, Morolt 1305; conf. the 
ring of Gyges, Plato's Rep. 359. 360. Seven-league hoofs, bottes 
de sept lieues, Perrault 167. Aulnoy 367. St. Columban has a 

ivishing-staf {p. 97(j). If Amalthea (Athen. 4, 345.371) and 

Fortuna have a horn-of-plenty, ' Fortuna cum cornu pomis, ficis 
ant frugibus plena,' Arnob. 6, 25 (conf. * nam haec allata cornu- 
copiae est, ubi inest quicqnid volo,' Plaut. Pseud, ii. 3, 5) ; so has 
our old Otfrid i. 10, 5 a horn heiles, and Wolkenst. p. 61 a Saelden- 
horn, conf. Gif-horn. It is an odd thing to speak of sitting down 
on the bull's horns, i.e. pillars, of toealth, Pentam. Liebr. 2, 112. 

To make a ivishing-net, you burn a small boat, and sow flax 

in the ashes, which shoots up in two days, is picked, baked and 
braked in two days more, and spun, knitted and stitched in 
another two days, Kalev. 26, 188 ; conf. Schroter p. 19. Wishing- 
dice in H. Sachs ii. 4, 114^ On the stone of victory, see p. 1220. 
Indra's spear that never misses, that of itself comes back to the 
hand, and even when he lends it to others, returns to his hand 
(Holtzm. Ind. s. 2, 137-8. 155), and the javelin that Jlies bach of 
its own accord (Ov. Met. 7, 684), are like Thoi-'s hammer, like 
the sword that gives victonj in Saxo ed. Miill. 115, like the one 



1570 DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

that hiriiidisltes itself in Dybeck ii. 28, and rare qui ne faiit 

in the 0. Fr. Trist. 1716-45. The Ssk. manorailia, wheel of 

thought, may be the same as the wheel in Wigalois, conf. Saelde's 
wheel and her glove, Krone 22855. 23093. Similar to Sld&hlad'nir, 
the navis plicatilis (p. 216), is a tent in Lanz. 4898 seq., which 
folds up, and can with ease be carried by a maiden. In the laud 
of the y^thiops ' est locus apparatis epulis semper refertus, et 
quia ut lihct vesci volentihus licet, tjXlou rpuTre^av appellant, et 
quae passim apposita sunt affirmant innasci subinde divinitus,' 
Pomp. Mela 3, 9; see Herod. 3, 17-8, where the earth itself 
covers the table with meats overnight; conf. the city wherein 
the blessing should abide, Gellert 1, 194 ; before the Oral all 
manner of meats and driuks stood ready, Parz. 238, 10. 239, 1 
(the Gral suffers no vermin in Salvaterra, Tit. 5198; the name 

Graalanz as early as lOtli cent., Irmino 49''). A wishing-tree 

that bears clothes, trinkets, etc., and wine, Meghadhiifca ed. Schiitz 
p. 25-7 ; like the tree in our fairy-tale, fr. which the child shakes 
dresses down. The wishing-cow Kdma-duh means ' milkable at 
will,' Bopp's Gl. 70^ Weber 5, 442 ; ace. to Hirzel's Sakunt. 
\bo Nandini is, the lucky cow that grants all wishes; add the 
ass that utters gold, peau d'ane, and the hen that lays golden 
eggs. On the contest for %oisliing-gear, see Pref. p. xxxiii. 

p. 874n.] On liicl-y children and their cauls, see Roszler 2, 
xcv. xcvi. and 337. KM."" 3,57; wir bringeu allesamen ein rot 
i(;a7?imesc/i uff erden (pellem secundinam), das muss darnach der 
man (husband) unter die stegen vergraben, Keisersp. Wannen- 
kremer 109^^. In AS. the caul is heafela, hafela, Andr. p. 
127-8 n. ; MHG. hiletelm, hatwdt, Hpt 1, 136-7, Undhdlgel, Mone 
8, 495, westerliufe in the Ritterpreis poem, westerhuot, Karaj. 27, 
6 ; conf. the westerivdt preserved in churches, N. Cap. 83, and 
the baptismal shirt of healing power, Dresd. Wolfdietr. 160-1-2 ; 
stera, vaselhorse, pellicula in qua puer in utero matris involvitur, 
Hoifm. Hor. Belg. 7, 19''. Lith. namai kudikio, child's house, 
Nesselm. 414. ON. Hlo'Sr is born with helmet and sword (p. 
389). GDS. 121. 

p. 876.] Every man has an angel of his own, but so have 
some beasts, Keisersp. Brosiiml. 19^ Agreeing with Ceesar 
Heisterb., the Pass. 337, 46 says : daz einer iegelichen menscheit 
zwene engel sint bescheiden : eiueu guoten, einen leiden iegelich 



DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 1571 

raensclie bi \m luU. Every man has //I'.s candle in the shi/, IIj)t 
4, 390 (see Suppl. to 722 end). Do sprach der engel luoUgetdn : 
* ich was ie mit dir, unt woldest nie gcvohjcn mir (obey mo) ; 
von ubele icli dicli clicrte (turned), daz beste ich dich Icrte/ 
Tund. 46, 60; ich bin der engel, der dhi j^Jligct, Ges. Abent. 2, 
255; wil du dhicm cngcl schenken (win), Griesh. 2, 50; angleuif 
Domini te semper praecedat, comitetur ac subsequatur. Vita 

Mahthild. c. 20. In Otfr. v. 4, 40 the angel says to the 

women : ja birun wir in wara iu eigene gibnrd = yonr servants. 
The angel is called wisaere, director, Helbl. 7, 249. 331, an in- 
visible voice 7, 2G3. 293. 355 ; dii hast gehurt ein stimme, die 
sin engel sprach. Pass. 1 58, 79 ; (der werlde vluot) manigen hin 
verdriicket, ob in dar-uz niht ziicket (plucks him out) sin engil 
mit voller kraft, 337, 41. The angel rejoices over his protege, 

MSH. 3, 174^. The heathen think an old Christian has a 

young one inside him, and when he is dying the angels take a 
bahij out of his mouth, Ottoc. 440-1 [see a mosaic in the cath. 
of San Michele Maggiore, Pavia] . On English guardian-angels, 
see Stewart's Pop. superst. 4, 16-7 ; on Indian, Somadeva 2, 117. 
Hermes is an escort, 7royu,7rato9, to men, Aesch. Eum. 91. 

p. 877.] Biarki's iear-fylgja is in Petersen's Hedenold 1, 
210-3 ; a similar hear in Fornald. sog. 1, 102-5; Gunnar's fylgja, 
the hiarndyr, in Nialss. c. 23. As swans are guardian-angels, 
ravens are a kind of attendant spirits to heathens : Haraldi ver 
fylg^om (p. 671). On 'gefa nafn ok fylgja lata,' see GDS. 

153-4. Ilamingja means luck, Fornm. sog. 4, 4i; goifa ok h. 

4,26; i hamingju iaxdl, in the riot, full swing, of luck, Biiirn 
sub V. taut; ef hamingja fglgir, 7, 280 ; fylgjor hans hofSo 
vitiad' HeSins, Sa3m. 147*. Gliim's dream of his father-in-law's 
/(. appearing as a dis, who towered above the hills, is in Vigagl. 

sag. c. 9. Engl, fetch : ' I had seen her fetch/ Hone's Daybk. 

2, 1011-3-6-7; in some parts of Scotl. fije for fetch 1019; 'to 
see his double 1012; xviff, waff, wraith, swarth 1019-20. Ir. 
taise, Conan 105 ; conf. Willi. Meister, where some one sees him- 
self sitting ; the wliite ladg, the bansliie. 

p. 877.] The Slav, dobra sretia, Vuk 3, 444, sretia = \vick 788, 
looks very like Ssk. Sri, Bopp 356'' [but s-ret-ati = convenire, 
ob-ret-ati = invenire, etc.]; sretia is bestowed by U-sud, destiny. 
'I am fhij luck, thy brother's luck,' Serb, miirch. no. 13. The 



1572 DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

Lettic Laima, Nesselm, 351, is distinct fr. Laume 353; Lith. 
also Laima = Gk. Aaifico, Lat. Lamia (p, 500 n. Suppl. to 864 
mid.) : Laima leine sauluzes dienat^, Rhesa dain. p. 10. She is 
comp. ill Bopp's Gl. 29Q"- to Lahshmi, abundantiae et felicitatis 
dea. 

p. 879.] Misfortune comes, goes: chumet ein nnheil, Kai-ajari 
5, 2. 19, 15; zuo gienc in beiden daz unheil, Diut. 2, 51, conf. 
daz leit gieng ire zuo 2, 50 ; hie trat min tingelucke fiir, Parz. 
688, 29 ; unglilch wechst iiber nacht, u. hat ser ein breiten fusz, 
Mathesius (1562) 279"; Swed. quick som en o-hjcka. Trouble 
does not come alone; nulla calamitas sola; das ungluck was mit 
gewalt da, Herbenst. 330; t' on-geval dat es mi bi, Karel 1, 699 ; 
on-spoet (unspeed) comt gheresen. Rose 8780; unlieil unsir ramit 
(creams, thickens), Athis F 21 ; ^ where has misfortune had you, 
that you look so gory? ' Reise avant. (1748) p. 107 ; unheil habe, 
der iz haben wil ! En. 12859; si hat des ungelucks jeger mit 
seinen henden umbfangen gar (U.''8 hunter has her tight), 
Keller's Erz. 157, 10; sie reitet ungelilcke (rides her), Beham 
in Wien. forsch. p. 47*^ ; unfal reitet mich, Ambras, lied. 92, 9 ; 
conf. Death riding on one's back (Suppl. to 844 beg.) ; was euch 
unfal geit, Murner 2832 ; JJnfalo in Theuerdk ; im-gevelle, Flore 
6152 ; unlieil mich fuorte an sinen zoumen (reins), Engelh. 5502 ; 
riet mir min unheil (advised me), Er. 4794 ; undauc begunde er 
sagen ('gan curse) sime grozen unheile, Kl. 403 L. ; sin ungelucJce 
schalt, Lanz. 1951; 7?im JJnscelde, Nib. 2258, 1; Unsoilde si 
verwazen ! Helmbr. 838; Unselden-hrunne, Mone' a Anz. 6,228; 
JJnscelde ist heiles vient (foe), Flore 6158; ' misf. is at the door, 
in blossom,' Fromm. 4, 142; ungeliiches zivic (twig). Cod. pal. 
355, 116" [the oppos. of Saelden-zwic, wishing-rod, Suppl. to 
977 beg.]; ung. ivinde, MS. 1, 84''; thut ein migeluch sich 
aufdrehen (turn up), H. Sachs iii. 3, 8"^. The shutting misf up 
in an 'eicher' is like fencing-in the Plague and spectres, 
Miillenh. p. 196; the devil too gets wedged in a beecli-tree, 
Bechst. March. 42 ; si haben unglilck in der kisten (trunk), 
Fastn. sp. 510, 8. 



PERSONIFICATIONS. 1573 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
PERSONIFICATIONS. 

p. 880.] Like tlio Gr. -rrpoaw-TTov is the Gotb. Uulja, Matth. 
0, 17, couf. Gal. 4, 19. I have fouud MUG. schtn = €tSo<i in two 
more places: des lewen scJitii, Bou. G7, 42 ; sinea schi)i, (image), 
Lanz. 492G. Personification does not give rise iramed. to proper 
names, for these tolerate no article (Gramm. I, 405. 595), but to 
such names as ' der Wunsch, diu St\3ldo, der Hunger.' 

p. 884.] To personified elements I have to add the Slav, 
Fogoda (p. G37), conf. Byr; Ignis, Aqua, Mr, Veritas in Scherz 
u. Ernst (1522-50) cap. 4, (i555) c. 354. H. Sachs i. 255; 
Frosti, Logi, Skldlf (tremor), Yngl. sag. c. 22. We say of Snow, 
'there's a new neighhonr moved in overnight' (pp. 532. 761). 
' Ilrhii and Forst, hare Jdld-stapan lucon leoda gesetu,' Andr. 1258 
and Pref. p. xxxv. The Esths worship Cold (kiilm) as a higher 
being, Peterson p. 46. Finn. Hi/ijto, Ugytdmdinen = ge\a; 
Aen/amdinen is the wrathful genius of severe cold. MHG. Rife 

(p. 7(31). Was 'die Ileide,' the heath, thought of as a person? 

she blushes for shame, Walth. 42, 21. Men blessed the Way, 
and bowed to it (p. 31 n.). The name of HUn the asynja is 
echoed back in AS. Iilin, Cod. Exon. 437, 17, as the name of a 
tree. The George in Reinbot's allegory is a child of der Snnne 
and din Rose, and is called R6sen-kint. On N5^ji and NiJSi, see 
above (p. 700). With the two femin. names of mouths in AS., 
Hrede and Edstre, conf. the Roman Maia, Flora, Aprilis, who are 
goddesses in spite of the months Mains and Aprilis being masc. 

p. 887.] The sword, the biter, is often made a person of. 
Ssk. asi-pntri = c\i\ter, lit. Sword's daughter; conf. ON. sultr 
(p. 888). KM.3 3, 223. The ON. cdr, awl, is brother to the 
dwarf or the knifr, Sn. 133. Does 'helm ne gemunde hyrnan 
siSe' in Beow. 2581 mean 'the helmet forgot the coat of mail' ? 
On rhedo, see GDS. 606. Strange that a warrior's garb is in 
l^cow. 903 JTrce&hn laf, but in 4378 [/L-e]cr/t'.s lafe; conf. herge- 
wLlte, RA. 568. A ship on touching land is addressed as a living 

creature (p. 1229?). It is a confirmation of Brisinga men, 

that the OS. Throt-manni, monile gutturis, is the name of the 
town Dortmund, and Uoltes-meni, monile silviB, Trad. Corb. no. 



1474 PEESONIFICATIONS. 

321, afterwards called Iloltes-minne 384, is the present Holz- 
iniudeu. With H}ioss is perh. to be conn, the OHG. female 
name Neosta, Forstemann 1, 960; ON. kvenna linoss^mmt. 
Mann-r/ersimar occurs in Thidr. saga p. 153. What means the 
M. Neth. 'want haer met gersemen doeken''? Rose 11001; is 
giirs-uma the truer division of the word? Gramm. 2, 151. 
Light is thrown on the maiden Spancje by aitff'-spanng ilngri, 
feminae juvenculae, Kormakss. p. 180 ; conf. mouwe— maiden and 
sleeve, fetter (Kl. schr. 5, 441), erenherga, both shirt and Erem- 
berga, scldlt-vezzel (-fetter) = scutiger, squire, Oswalt 3225. In 
the same way as Hreda, Hnoss, Gersemi, Menja (p. 306-7) and 
the Rom. Garna, dea cardinis (Ov. Fasti 6, 101 — 168), are to be 
expl. the gods' names Lola aud. Grentil. A beautiful woman was 
often compared to some goddess of female ornament : Jiodda Sif, 
hodda Freyja, liringa Illin in Kormakss. 26 means simply a lady 
adorned with rings. On the same footing as the goddesses of 
nuts, bees, dough, etc. cited by Lasicz p. 48-9 stand the Puta, 
Peta, Patellana, Viabilia, Orbona, Ossilago, Mellonia in Arnob. 
4, 7. 8, and the goddesses of grains in Augustine^s De Civ. D. 
4, 8 (Rhein. jrb. 8, 184) and many more in the same author; 
conf. Robigo, Rubigo (p. 477 end). 

p. 887.] Men greeted the player's die, bowed to it, Jiingl. 389. 
On Deems, see Meon 4, 486-7. Hazart geta arriere main, Ren. 
18599; Hasars, Myst. de Jubinal 2, 388-9. Dcapava et Kali 
sunt nomina tertiae et quartae mundi aetatis, et daemones harum 
aetatum, Nalus p. 213, conf. Holtzm. 3, 23-9 and Pref. xi. ; the 
dice-playing of Yuzishthira and Sakuni was celebr., also that 
of Nala and Pushkara, Holtzm. 2, 1—11. 3, 23-9. MHG. 'her 
Pfenninc,' MS. 2, 148\ 

p. 888.] Victory is personified in the AS. phrase : Sigor eft 
ahwearf cesc-ttr wera, Cgedm. 124, 25. Similarly : ' deme Orloge 
den hals breken,' break the neck of battle, Detmar 2, 555 ; 
' EederJein brother to zenhlein' (hader, zank = quarrel), H. Sachs 
i. 5, 538^^; 'der Reiuel beiszt,^ repentance bites, Luther 9,472''; 
* der Zorn tritt,' anger steps, Pantal. 86. On ^6^o<;, Favor and 

the like, see above (p. 207-8). Goth, snau ana ins Hatis, 

e(f)6aa6v eV avTOV<; rj opyi], 1 Thess. 2, 16 ; 'an dem hat Haz bi 
Ntde eiu kint,' in him hate had a child by envy, MS. 1, 75^; 
kamen uf des Ntdes trift, Pantal. 754. Envy, like ^dovo'i, is a 



PERSONIFICATIONS. 1575 

(laDiiion ; there was a form of prayer to keep him off, Lehr's Votn 
iieide 144 seq. ; Finn. Kati, genius iuvidiae ; we say ' Envy looks, 
peeps, out of him.' The OHG. Inwiz, masc, may be the same, 
though the lloman Inuidia is feminine. ON. Topi oc Opi, Tlusull 

oc Opoli vaxi )?er tar me"S trega, Saem. 85". 7TX.o{)to9, the 

god of wealth, is blind ; the Ssk. Kuvera is ugly, with three legs 

and eight teeth, Bopp 78" ; Btcheif, Er. ] 584. Hunger, se 

|'eod-scea«5a hreow ricsode, Andr. ] IIG, conf. our ' hunger reigns '; 
Hanger is the best cook, Freid. 124, 17; der H. was ir beider 
koch, Wigam. 1070; Honghers cameriere. Rose 4356; der H. 
koch, der iVa/j^^c'/ kiichen-meister, Siinpl. 25; we say ' ScJimal- 
Juins is head-cook here'; bald legt sich ScJini. in das zimmer, 
Giinther 1050, conf. 'Iter BIgenot von Darbion, her Bilnne-hahe, 
MS. 2, 179"; do lag er uf daz Jiungcr-tiiocli (-cloth), Fragm. 22"; 
am }i anger-tuch neen (sew), H. Sachs ii. 2, 80"^, etc. (Goz 1, 192. 
2,52); der Hunger spilt (gambols), Suchenw. 18, 125; da vat 
Frost u. Durst den H. in daz har, u. zieheut (clutch II. by the 
hair, and drag) gar oft in al dur daz hus, MS. 2, 189"; il est 
Herhot (affame), Trist. 3938; ther Scado fliehe in gahe ! 0. ii. 

24, 37. Sleep, as well as death, is called Sandmann (Supp. 

to 842) : can it possibly mean one who is sent? conf. 'do sant 
er in den sldf an,' Anegenge 15,47; but the other is called 
Peclimann (pitch-man) as well, Schm. sub v., and Hermann, 
"Wend, volksl. 2, 209". Sleep, a brother of Death, comes in the 
shape of a bird (p. 331), and sits on a fir-tree (see Klausen p. 30), 
like the sun sitting on the birch as a bird, and lulling to sleep, 
Kalev. rune 3. A saint says to Sleep : ' com, gnaet knecJit, com 
hare dan ! Maerl. 3, 197. Sleep looks in at the window, Kante- 
letar 2, no. 175; he walks quietly round the cottages, and all at 
once he has you, Hebel p. 223 ; den ScJilaf nicht austragen, i.e. 
not spoil one's peace, Hofer 3, 89. Deus Ris^is, Apul. p. m. 105. 
111. Selp-hart, Wackern. lb. 902. Renn. 270. Virwitz (Suppl. 
to G35 beg.). 

p. 890.] Attributes of gods come to be regarded as separate 
beings, and then personified (Lehrs' Vom neid p. 152), esp. as 
females. Copia was set before the eyes in a * simulacrum aeneum, 
cornu copiae Forfunae retinens,' Marcellini comitis Chron, p. m. 51. 
Care is a neighbour: yeiTove^ KapSla^ ^iptiJLvat, Aesch. Septem 
271; conf. 'ist zwivel (doubt) lierzun uaeligebra*.* Necessitij (diu 



1576 PEESONIFICATIONS. 

Not) parts, Nauff'r skildi, Kl. sclir. 112-3; si vahten als den 
liuten touc (as became men), die ez diu grimme Not bat, Er. 837; 
conf. 'als in min wariu sculde bat,' as my just right bade him do 
1246. Der Rat (advice), masc, has children by 8cham, Treue, 
Walirheit, all fern., Helbl. 7, 50, A host of such personifications 
(Fides, Patientia, Humilitas, Superbia, Luxuria, Sobrietas, etc.) 
we find already in Prudentius (circ. 400), esp. in his Psychomachia, 
with due epic embellishraeut; conf. Arnob. 4, 1: Pietas, Con- 
cordia, Salus, Honor, A^irtus, Felicitas, Victoria, Pax, Aequitas. 
The Zendic has two female genii, Haurvatat and Amereiat (whole- 
ness and immortality), often used in the dual number, Bopp's 
Comp. Gr. pp. 238 — 240. The World is freq, personified (pp. 
792n. 850), and even called 'frau Spothilt,' Gramm. 2, 499. 

Otfr. iii. 9, 11 says: 'so wer so nan biruarta, ev frvma thana 
fnarta/ whoso touched, carried off benefit, as we talk of carrying 
off the bride; frum u. ere, Hpt's Ztschr. 7, 343-9. Cervantes in 
D, Quix, 1, 11 says finely of Hope, that she shews the he'tii of her 
garment : la Bsperanza muestra la orilla de su vestido. OHG. 
Oiikepa, MB. 13, 44. 46. 51 Otegebe, Outgebe ; conf. Borg-gabe 
(Suppl. to 274). 

Such phrases as 'he is goodness itself rest on personification 
too : vous etes la bonte vieme. Avec la biaute fu largesce sa suer 
at honors sa cousine, Guitecl. 1, 116. 

p. 892.] Personifications have hands and feet given them, 
they dwell, come and go. The Athenians have the goddesses 
Yleidoi and IdvayKaiT] (persuasion, compulsion), while in Andros 
dwell Ilevir] and ji/j.rjxaviv (poverty, helplessness), Herod. 8, 111. 
'AXtjOeca (truth) has fled alone into the wilderness, Babr. 127. 
Aesop 364. Another name for Nemesis was JiSpdareta, unescap- 
ableness. Exulatum abiit Salus, Plaut. Merc. iii. 4, 6 ; terras 
Astraea reliquit, Ov. Met. 1, 150; fugere Pudor Verumque 
Fidesqae 1, 129; paulatim deinde ad superos Astraea recessit 
hac comite, atque duae pariter fugere sorores, Juv. 6, 19; Virtue 
goes, and leads Luch away with her, Procop. vol. 2, 407. 

Aller Freuden fileze keren (turn) in den helle-grunt, Warn. 
1206; gewunnen si der Froiden stap, Dietr. dr. 200''; diu mac 
mir wol ze Froeiden huse geschragen (var., mich wol ze Fr. h. 
geladen), MS. 1, 9=^; conf. Fr. tor (Suppl. 866 beg.). Krutchina, 
affliction, jumps out of the oven, Dietr. Russ. march, no. 9. 



PERSONIFICATIONS. 1077 

Carri/ing Fro-muot on the hands resembles the lecallo iinpcraim-is 
et novae ■»»7>/((t', EA. 433. ' Froi)iuf-loh emu feris ibi iiutritis' 
must be a bear-garden^ Drouke's Trad. Fuld. p. 03. Uaupt iu 

Neidh. 135 thinks Fromuot is simply Cheerfulness. Gherech- 

tlchcit, die sware was, vio tachterst, Kose 5143; couf. Frauenlob's 
poem on GcrccJdigkcit, Hpt's Zeitschr. 6, 29. j\J!)ine, Trouiue es 
ghevloeu, Rose 5141 ; diu Triwe ist erslageu, Tud. gehugde 268; 
Treu ein wildbret (head of game), Schweiuicheu 1, 13; ver 
Trlnwe, ver Wdrheit, Helbl. 7, 38; der Triuweu Miise (cell), 
Eiigelh. G295; der Tr. bote G332 ; in Tv. pjlege (care), Winsb. 8, 8, 
couf, ' der Ziihte sal ' good breeding's hall 8, 7 ; St. Getruwe 
(trusty) and Kilmmernis (sorrow), Mone 7, 581 — 4; iiieman wil 
die Wdrheit herbergen, Miillenh. no. 210; Fax terras iugreditur 
hahitu venusto, Archipoeta ix. 29, 3. 

p. 893.] Der Eren bote and E. holde (Suppl. to 8G9) ; fronwen 
E. aviis, Frib. Trist. CI ; daz Ere sin geverte si, Tiirl. AVh. 125''; 
fro E. und ir hint, MS. 2, 151''; an Eren strdze gestigen, Pass. 
47, 80 ; Ere liz j>fade gedringen, Ben. 450 ; in der Eren tor koraeu 
551, 26 ; sin lop (praise) was in der E. tor, Frauend. 81, 14; sitzeu 
lif der E. hanke, Gr. Rud. 11, 20; saz iif der E. steine, Lauz. 
5178, conf. Er. 1198. Wigal. 1475; der E. hiine hat iibei-daht, 
Eugelh. 230; der E. dadt, kranz, Rauch 1, 819; verzieret uu 
der E. sal, Walth. 24, 3; uz frou E. hamer varn, MS. 2, 151*; 
der E. tisch, Suchenw. 4, 152; der E. jtjiilege, Amgb. 2"; in der 
E.forste, Gold, schra. 1874, conf. 'in der Sorgen forste,' Engelh. 
1941 ; der E. krone treit (wears), Roseng. 908; treit der E. scliilt 
914; der E. zwi (bough), Hpt 4, 546; er ist der E. wirt (host), 
MS. 2, 59*; mantel, da frou Ere hat ir briiste mit bedecket, 
Amgb. 18''; ver Ere, Wapenmartin 6, 55. 

Vro Minne, MS. 1, 10". Tho girl's question about Minne is iu 
Winsbekin 34, 8; der Miniien bode, Partenop. 80-4-6. 101 ; der 
M. kraft, Ulr. v. Lichtenst. 35, 15; diu Minne stiez uf in ir krefte 
ris (thrust at him her wand of power), Parz. 290, 30; der Minnen 
stricke (toils), MS. 1, 61*; Minne u. WiKheit, Flore 3740; frau 
M. presents herself to two maidens as teacher of love, with a rod 
(einem tosten) in her hand, and gives one of them blows, Hiitzl. 
165; a woman appears as M.'s stewardess 159*. Can Liehten- 
stein's progress as gueen Venus be conn, with a mythical custom 
(p. 259) ? ' Vron, Mate (moderation) is en edel vorstinue,' 



1578 PERSONIFICATIONS. 

Potter 1, 1870; ]\[dz, aller tugende vrouwe, Pantal. 120; Maezic- 
lieit bint iif die spen (to teach the baby temperance?), Suchenw. 
xl. 144; Zaht, Maze, Bescheidenheit, Mai 17G, 13; Zucht u. Schame 
stant an der porte, u. huotent, Hpt 2, 229 ; ze hant begreif sie 
diu Scham, Anegenge 17, 31. 18, 22 ; diu Biiiwe was sin frouwe, 
Parz. 80, 8; der Eiwe tor 649, 28; diu Vuoge, Filegel (p. 311 n.). 
A fairy castle under charge of Tugent, its 8 chambers with 
allegoric names painted by Scelde, is descr. in Geo. 5716 seq. 

p. 895.] The entire Roman de la Rose is founded on allegories ; 
and in such there often lies a mythic meaning. Before sunrise on 
Easter morn, appears the maid beside the fountain mid the flowers, 
Hiitzl. 160'"^; the lady that appears is approached but once in ten 
years 143. 376; under a liinetree in the wild wood, the fair huhj 
wasJies her hands 143'^ ; a dwarf in the forest leads to the three 
Fates, H. Sachs v. 333'', or the icihl lady leads one about 1, 272<='i. 

In the Trobadors a singing bird allures the poet into a 

wood, where he finds three maidens chanting a threnody, Diez's 
Leb. d. troub. p. 145. Fran Wildecheit leads the bard by her 
bridle-rein to a level ground beside a brook, where Dame Justice, 
Mercy etc. sit judging, Conr. Klage der kunst; in his Schwan- 
ritter, Conrad says wilde aventiure. A poet snatches up his staff, 
comes upon a fair flowery field, where he meets the Minne-qneen, 
Hagen^s Grundriss p. 438, or to a lovely child by a forest-fountain 
442. There is a similar description in Helbl. 7, 28 : the poet in 
the raorniug reaches a wild rocky waste, sees two ladies in white 
veils, Joy and Chivalry, wailing and ivringing their hands; he 
helps them to their feet when they faint, but now the Duchess 
of Karnten is dead, they will go among men no more, they live 
thenceforward in the wild. Again, in Ls. 2, 269 : on a green field 
the poet finds Dame Honour fallen to the ground in a faint, also 
Manhood and Minne : they lament Count Wernher of Honberg. 
Or take the Dream of seven sorrowing dames in MSH. 3, 171 — 3 : 
Fidelity, Modesty, Courtesy, Chastity, Bounty, Honour and Mercy 
bewail the Diiringer and Henneberger ; conf . the ' siben 
iibelen wibe, Vrdzheit, Unkiusche, GrUekeit, Zorn, Nit, Trdcheit, 
ILoffart,' Diut. 1, 294 — 6. The ladies lamenting the death of kings 
and heroes remind us of the klage-frauen, klage-miltter (p. 432), 
and the ivood-wives ill-content with the world (p. 484). At the 
end of Euripides's Rhesus the muse mourns the princess death ; 



PERSONIFICATIONS. 1579 

in Od. 24, GO the nine micses coino round tlio corpse of Achilles, 
and bewail his end. The lonely tower as the habitation of such 
being's occurs elsewh. too, as ' tnrris Alethlae' iu the Archipocta; 
couf. ' Mens bona, si qua dea es, tua me iu sacrarla douo,' Prop. 
\v. 2i, 19. 

p. 89G.] Diu Schande (disgrace) vert al iiber daz hint, ^ISH. 
3, 'i-48''; so hat diu S. von ir vluht, Kolocz. 129; ver S., llenn. 
122.;)!; swa vro Ere wol gevert, daz ist vro Schanden \eit, MS. 
2, 1 72 ; iu S. hoi verkluset 2, 147'*. Unere ladeu (invite dis- 
honour) iu daz has, Uebel wip 815; Untrluwen bant, Wigal. 
10043; Unniinne, MS., 1, 102"; Ungendde (ill-will) hut mich en- 
pfangen ze ingesinde (for inmate) 2, 51''; Unb III {iuinstice) knocks 

at the door, Fischart in Vilniar p. 4; diu Werre (p. 273 u). 

Wendelmiiot (Suppl. to 273 n.); conf. 'froive Arninot (poverty) 
rauose entwichen, von ir huse si floch,' fled, Er. 1578; ez hefc 
diu (jroze A. zuo im gehuset in den glet, diu A. mit jamer lit, 
AV'igal. 5G91 ; sit mich diu A. also jaget. Pass. 352, 89; das una 
schou reit (rode us) fniu AnniU, H. Sachs i. 5, 523*^; conf. ' reit 
mich gross UngeduU,' impatience 524'^; fniu Ulend, iliitzl. 157-8 
(there is a Fr. chapbook about bonhomme Misere). Missewende 
von ir sprach, daz ir teil da niht en-waere, MS. 1, 84"*; Misse- 
vende diu im niht genaheu mac 1, 85". AVe, wer wil uu Sorgen 
walteu ? diu was min sinde (housemate) nu vil mauegen tac 1, 
103'*. 

p. 898.] ^r]/j,7] de6<f, Hes. Op. 761 -2; ^dfxa carries rumours 
to Zeus's throne, Theocr. 7, 03, There is a Lat. phrase : scit 
Fama, scit cura deiim, Forcell. sub v. scio. i^a/uaque nigrantes 
succiucta pavoribus a/ds, Claud. B. Get. 201 ; volat fama Caesaris 
velut velox equus, Archipo. ix. 30, 1. Rumour is to the Indian 
the song of a bij-jlown bird, Klemin 2, 132; a species of Angang 
therefore (p. 1128). Another phrase is: fama enianavit, Cic. 
Verr. ii. 1, 1 ; manat tota urbe rumor, Livy 2, 49. So in German: 
daz maere wit erbrach, Pass. 285, 20. 71, 41 ; daz ni. was erschullen, 
Mai 228, 22. Lanz. 9195; von dem uns disiu vi. erscJiellent (these 
rumours ring), Ecko 18; daz in. erscJtal in diu lant iiberul, ez 
en-wart nild also begraben, Kolocz. 85 ; daz vi. xiz scJuil (rang 
out), uz quam, Herb. 14372-4; dese mare ute schot, Maerl. 2, 
203. 3, 340; alse die mare dus (abroad) lU sprang, Hpt 1, 108; 
daz maere breitte sich (spread), Herb. 502. 1320. 17037, or: 



1580 POETEY. 

wart hreit 2460. 13708; daz m. nil luiten began, Tiirl. Wh. 28"; 
die mare ghinc harentare, Maerl. 3, 190. Kastn. 2, 1768; daz 
maere witen hi-eis (circulated), Servat. 1856 ; die niemare liep 
(ran), Walewein 9513. 11067. Lane. 35489; nymare lopt, Lane. 
28165 ; doe J'lep die niemare dor al dit lant 25380. 47053 ; die 
mare liep verre ende sere, Maerl. 3, 193 ; es komen neue maer 
gerant, Wolkenst. 63 ; daz m. witen umme trat, sicli umme truoc, 

Pass. 221, 93. 169, 32. In the same way: word is gone, Minstr. 

3, 92 ; sprang |)£et word, Homil. 384 ; dat ivord lep, Detm. 2, 348. 
358. 392, dat ruclde lep. 2, 378. 391. We say the rumour goes, 
is noised. Viel schiere vlouc (quickly flew) daz maere, Ksrchr. 
957. 8415; sin m. vlouc witen in diu lant, Pass. 204, 24; von 
ir vlouc ein m., Trist. 7292; daz m. vlouc dahin, Troj. 13389; 
Bchiere vlouc ein m. erscliollen, Tiirl. Krone 68 ; do jinoc daz m. 
iiber mer. Herb. 13704; harte snel u. bait flouc daz m. ze Rome, 
Pilat. 398 ; diu starken m. witen vlugen, Servat. 459 ; diu m. vor 
in heiva. jiugen, 2393; do flug en diu m. von huse ze huse, Wigal. 
34, 3. So: der seal (sound) Jiouc in diu lant, Rol. 215, 7 ; des 
vlouc sin lop (praise) iiber velt, Hpt 6, 497; daz wort von uns 
fliiiget iiber lant, Herzmtere 169 ; ON. su fregn flygr. More 
striking is the phrase : diu maere man do vuorte (led) in ander 
kiinege lant, Nib. 28, 3. Instead of maere : frou Melde, Frauend. 
47, 29. Ksrchr. 17524; Alelde kumt, diu selten ie gelac (lay still), 
MS. 2, 167=^; M., diu nie gelac, MSH. 1, 166^; if., de uoch nie 
en-lac, Karlm. 159, 43; dri jar so lac diu ill.. Tit. 824; vermart 
in M., Lanz. 3346; M. brach aus, Schweini. 2, 262. Der wilde 
liumet was viir geflogen, Troj. 24664 ; nu fluoc dirre liumt geliche 
iiber al daz kiinecriche, Walth. v. Rh. 136, 43. jR'itmor = maere, 
Rudl. 1, 128. 2, 80. 121. 173; Rumour speaks the Prol. to 
2 King Henry IV. Lastly : ' quidi managa bigunnun ■wahsan ' 
reminds one of the growth of maere. 



CHAPTER XXX. 
POETRY. 

p. 900.] On the connexion of the idea of composing with 
those of weaving, spinning, stringing, binding, tacking, see my 
Kl. schr. 3, 128-9.^ The poet was called a smith, songsmith; in 

' Deilen unde snoren, Sasseuchr. p. 3 ; die leier schnuren ^to string) in Spee 299. 



POETRY. 1581 

]^gveda 94, 1 : liuncce liymnum Agn'i venerabili, cnrrnin vehd 

I'aher, paramus meute, Bopp's Gl. 260''. With scuof, scop, 

poeta, conf. OHG. scoph-sauc, poesis, Graff 6, 253 ; schnpfpfich 
(-book), Karaj. 86, 6; in den schopf-huochen, Ernst 103; conf. 
Lacbtn. on Singing p. 12 ; marrer scopf Israhel, egregius psaltes 
Isr., Dint. 1, 512". With ON. shdUl-shrpr should be men- 
tioned an OHG. scaldo, sacer, Graff 6, 484 ; conf. Gramm. 2, 
997. Holtzm. Nib. 170. The Neth. schouden is U.'Neth. scondeii. 

With the Romance terminology agrees ' ■po'6s\s=findinge,' 

Diut. 2, 227''; daz vand er (indited), Helmbr. 959; die vinden 
conste, ende maken verse. Franc. 1919; de maJcere, die de rime 

vant (invented) 1943; er vant dise rede, Mone '39, p. 53. ■ 

AS. (Jidda, poeta, can be traced in other Aryan tongues : Ssk. 
gad, dicere, loqui, gai, canere, gatha, gita, cantus; Lith. giedoti, 
sing, giesine, song, Lett, dzeedaht, dzeesma ; Slav, gudu, cano 

fidibus, gihJl, psaltery, Dobrowsky p. 102. On the Celtic 

Z>ar(7, see Diefenb. Celt. 1, 187; hardi, vntes druidae, Strabo p. 
197 ; Bret, bardal, nightingale. Ir. .searthon, chief bard. 

p. 901.] On the effects of song we read: |?aer waes liceleffa 
dream, Beow. 987; huop ein liet an, u. wart fro, Hartm. 2, biichl. 
554; emenfroUch geigen (fiddle him into mirth), Wigal. p. 312, 
conf. 332. We often meet with AS. ' giedd wrecan,' Cod. Exon. 
441, 18; s6-5 gied wrecan 306, 2. 314, 17; |7£et gyd dwra^c 316 
20; )7e ]?is gied iwrcece 285, 25 ; conf. vroude ivecken, Tiirl. Wh. 

iieb. 

p. 905.] The poet or prophet is vvix^oXtjitto^, seized by the 
nymphs (muses), Lat. lymphatus. He is god'-mdlugr, god- 
inspired, Sa3m. 57'' ; Gylfi gaf einni farandi konu at launura 
skemtiinar sinnar. . . . en sil kona var ein af Asa aett ; hon 
er nefnd Gefiuv, Sn. 1. Gandharva is a name for the musical 
spirits who live in Indra's heaven, Bopp 100''. God sends three 
angels into the world as musicia7is ; and av gel- fiddlers were a 
favourite sul)ject in pictures. We have the phrase : ' der himmel 
hiingt voll geigen.' 

A'ra.s-t> = anhelitus creber, Sn. 69; see Biorn sub v. qvasir. 

Inditing is also expr. hy fiicgen (to mortise), richtcn (righteu), Hpt 6, 407 ; richtere. 
Roth. 4853 and concl. ; herihte.n, Freid. 1, .3; eines mezzen, Dietr. I'JO; wirken, 
Herb. 641; daz liet ich anhefte (tack on) fif dine gnade voile, Mar. 148, 5 ; der diz 
maere anschreip (jotted down), Bit. 20l)t;. The M. Neth. ontbindi-n = trAualate, 
Maerl. 3, 73. 48 ; in dietsce wort nnth. 3.?2 ; in diotsch onbende 2'28 ; in dietsche 
ontb.. Rose 29. Walew. 6 ; conf. AS. onband beado-rune, Beow. 996. 

VOL. IV. X 



1582 POETRY. 

Odin's spittle makes beer ferment (p. 102511.); 'spittle that 
speaks drops of blood,' KM. no. 56, note. Lisch in Meckl. jrb. 
5, 82 ; a door, when spat upon, answers, Miillenh. p. 399, conf . 
fiigls lirahi (p. 682 beg.). On 'blood and snow,' see Dybeck '45, 
p. 69 : som hlod pa sno. The entire Mid. Age had a story run- 
ning in its head, with a playful turn to it, about a child made of 
snow or ice. The 10th cent, already had its 'modus Liebinc'; 
an O.Fr. poem of the same import is in Meon 3, 215, a MHG. 
in Ls. 3, 513 and Hpt 7, 377; in Scherz u. Ernst c. 251 (1550, 
183) the child is called eis-schmarre, scrap of ice, conf. Burc. 
Waldis 4, 71 and Weise's Erznarren p. 23. Franciscus makes 
himself a wife and child of snow, Pfeiffer's Myst. 1, 215. Who- 
ever drank of the dyri miodr (precious mead), the honey mixt 
with Kvasir's blood, became a shflld : thus the poet prays for a 
single traiten (tear) out of the Camente's fountain, Trist. 123, 
38. 

OSinn gains O^hi^oerir fr. Suttiing, who then pursues him ; so 
Wainamoinen, after winning Sampo, was chased by Louhi in 
eagle's shape (p. 873). OSinn himself says in Havamal 23'' : 
' O^hroerir er uu uppkominn a alda ves iarSar,' and in 24* it is 
said of him : ' Suttiing svikinn hann let snmbli fra, ok graetta 
GunnloSu. Other names for the drink: y<7f/-'?/»//, Egilss. 656 ; 
Yggjar midcfr 657 ; Vi&ris full 665 ; Vi&ris pyfi 608. With arnar 
leir (eagle's dung) conf. leir-sTcdld, muck-poet, Dan. sJcarns-poet, 
Olafsen's Prize essay p. 5. Like the mead, Player Jack's soul 
is distrib. among gamesters. 

Like ivod'-bora is soff-bora, also vates. The d in Goth, veitvods, 
testis, seems to exclude it, yet d and ]> are sometimes confounded. 
F. Magnusen transl. Ocfkroeri ingenii excitator ; Bicirn makes 
hrceri obturaculum lebetis. On the relation of 05r to OSinn, see 
Suppl. to 306. 

O^inn bestows the gift of poesy on StarkaSr. ' Apes Platonis 
infantuli mel labiis inferebant,' John of Salisb. de Nug. cur. 1, 
13. When St. Ambi-ose lay in his cradle, a swarm of bees settled 
on his month. The Muse drops nectar into the shepherd Ko- 
matas's mouth, and bees bring juice of flowers to it, Theocr. 7, 
60 — 89. Whom the Muses look upon at birth, he hath power of 
pleasant speech, Hes. Theog. 81 — 84. The gods breathe upon the 
poet, Ov. Met. 1, 2-3-4. 



POETRY. 



1583 



p. 906.] To Hesiod temVuKj hua})^, tho Muses hand a spray 
of lanr(>l, and with it the gift of song, Theog. 22— oO. In Lucian's 
Rlict. praec. t he being a shepherd phicks leaves on Helicon, and 
there and then becomes a poef. The muses come at early morn : 

Mirabar, quiduam misissent mane Camenac, 

ante meum stantes sole rubente torum ; 
natalis nostrae signum raisere puellae, 

et manibus faustos ter crepuere sonos. Prop. iv. 0, 1 . 

Conf. the story of the Kalrank poet, Klemm 3, 209. 210, and 
poor shepherds' visions of churches to be built (Suppl. to 86). 
GDS. 821. 

p. 908.] The first lay in Kanteletar relates tho invention of 
the five-stringed harp (kantelo) of the Finns. Kalev. 29 de- 
scribes how Wiiiniimoinen makes a harp of various materials. 
Kullervo fashions a horn of cow's bone, a pipe of bull's horn, 
a flute of calves' foot, Kal. Castr. 2, 58. When Wiiindmijinen 
plays, the birds come flying in heaps, Kalev. 29, 217, the eagle 
forgets the young in her nest 221. When Wlpnnen sings, the 
siiH stops to hear him, the moon to listen, Charles's ivain to 
gather wisdom, wave and billow and tide stand still, Kalev. 10, 
449_457 ; conf. Petersb. extr. p. 1 1. In the Germ, folksong the 
uurfer stops, to list the tale of love, Uhl. 1, 223-4. 

Den ene begyndte en vise at qvilde, 

saa faart over alle qvinder, 

strlden strom den stiltes derved, 

som forre vor vant at rinde. D V. 1, 235. 
A song makes tables and benches dance, Fornald. sog. 3, 222. 
IvM. no. 111. Sv. fornvis. 1, 73. Stolts Karin with her singing 
makes men sleep or loake, Sv. vis. 1, 389 or dance 394-6. For 
the power of song over birds and beasts, see DV. 1, 282. Sv. 
vis. 1, 33. Ou Orpheus, see Hor. Od. i. 12, 7 seq. ; conf. the 
Span, romance of Conde Arnaldos. 

p. 909.] Poets assemble on hills (as men did for sacrifice or 
magic), e.g. on the Wartburg : an pui, on on corone les biaus 
dis, Couron. Renart 1676. Does the poet wear garlands and 
flowers, because he was orig. a god's friend, a priest ? The jeux 
lloraux offer itowers as pri::es for son(j : violeta, aiglantina, flor 



1584 SPECTRES. 

dal gauch (solsequium). The rederijkers too name their rooms 
a.ftev flowers ; is it a relic of druidic, bardic usage ? 

p. 911.] The ON. Saria reminds one of the Gr, ^y'jix'n, of 
whom Hes. 0pp. 7G2 declares : 6eo<i vv Ti<i iari Koi avTij. She 
converses with O'Sinn, as ^d/j,a conveys rumours to Zeus (Suppl. 
to 898 beg.). Musa is rendered mngertii, Barl. 252, 7; Madete 
musas, daz waren sengere^i (rhy. eren)/ Herb. 17865; but again, 

'muse' 17876. Aventiure answers to bona fortnna (bonne 

aventure), bona dea, bonus eventus, Pliny 36, 5. Varro RR. 1, 
1; vrouwe Aventure, Lane. 18838; in the Rose the goddess 
Aventure = Yortuna. 5634, who has a wheel 3933. 4719. 5629. 
5864; t' hits der Avenhoren 5786. 5810-39 ; jonste de Avonture, 
Stoke 1, 39; maer d' Aventure was hem gram, Maerl. 3, 134; 
den stouten es hout d'' Aventure 2, 46, like ' audaces fortuna 
juvat ' ; alse di die Av. es liout 2, 93 ; der Aventuren vrient, 
ibid. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

SPECTRES. 

p. 913.] In Mone 6, 467 men are divided into living, hover- 
ing, doubtful and dead. Souls that cannot find rest in Hades 
and returning wander about the grave, are mentioned in Plato's 
Phgedo p. 81. The dead were worshipped: sanctos sibi fingunt 
quo.^Itbet mortuos, Concil. Liptin. Feasts were held in honour of 
them, as the 'Pers. ferver-feast, Benfey's Monats-n. 151, the Russ. 
corpse and soul feasts, Lasicz 58. Souls were prayed for, Benf. 

Mon. 168-9, conf. soul-masses. Nib. 1221, 2. To near (not to 

remote) ancestors the Indians offered up food and drink, Bopp's 
Gl. p. 143'' n. 198\ 79''; conf. Weber on Malavik 103. One of 
these sacrifices was udaka -karman, water-libation for the dead, 
Bohtl. and Roth's Wtb. 1, 908 ; so %o>)i' 'x^eladai Trdcrt veKvecrai, 
viz. meal, wine and water were poured into a hole, Od. 10, 517 — 
520. 11, 25 — 29. The souls eiiger]y drink up the blood of victims, 
which restores them to their senses, Od. 11, 50. 89. 96-8. 148. 
153. 228. 390. The shades live on these libations, Luc. de luctu 
9. The Lith. weles fem. means the figures of the dead, Mielcke 
1, 321 ; to the Samogitian goddess Vielona a particular kind of 



SPECTRES. 1585 

cake was offered : cum inortui pascuiitur, Lasicz 48. 50. Food 
and driiil: is laid on the <i;rave for the souls, Pass. 10(3, 84 — 93. 

On inaiiefi, Mania, see Gerh. Etr. g. 10; ' in sede Manium' = 
in the bosom of the earth, Pliny 33, 1. On lares, see Lessing 8, 
251 ; dometsticus lar, liamingia, Saxo Grram. 74. 

p. 915.] Geheuer, not haunted, is also expr, by diclit, tight. 
Sup. I, 708: nu bin ich ungeJiinre, Wigal. 5831; I asked mine 
host, was he sure no xingeheuer walked the stable, Simplic. K. 
1028 ; it is unclean in that house, Niirnberger 11. In Notker 
' manes ' is transl. by unholdon, in AS. by hell-ivaran (habi- 
tantes tartarum). 

Spuken (haunt, be haunted) is also called wafeln, Kosegarten 
in Hofer 1, 377; AS. wafian, ON. vafra, vofra, vofa, MHG. 
ivaharen. ON. vo/ti = spectrum ; AS. wcufer-mjue, OHG. wahar- 
i-iu?u' = spectaculum, GrafE 0, 129. Kl. schr. 5, 437. The dead 
lie ' Iteilir i haufji,' at peace in the cairn, Hervar. p. 442 ; sva 
lati ass {^ik (God leave thee) Itellan I haayi 437. They appear in 
churches at nii/ht or in the dawn, and perform services, wedding, 
burial, etc. ; the sight betokens an approaching death. Dietmar 
(Pertz 5, 737-8) gives several such stories with the remark : ut 
dies vivis, sic nox est concessa defunctis ; conf. the story in 
Altd. bl. 1, 100, a Norweg. tale in Asbiornsen's Huldre-ev. 1, 
122 and Schelliug's Last words of the vicar of Drottning. As 
Wolfdietrich lies on the hler at night, the ghosts of all whom he 
has killed come and fight him, Wolfd. 2328—34 ; conf. Ecke 23 
(differ, told in Dresd. Wolfd. 327—330) ; also the tale of the 
ruined churclc with, the coffin, Altd. bl. 1, 158. KM.'- no. 4. In 
the Irrgarteu der Liebe the cavalier sees at last the ghosts of all 
his lovers, p. 010. Such apparitions are said to announce them- 
selves, sich mehlen, anmelden, Schm. 2, 570. Schonleithner 10. 
Conf. Diet. sub. v. * sich anzeigen.' 

p. 915.] To ON. ajytra-gdnga add aptr-gongr, reditus, Eyrb. 
174. 314; gonger, Miillenh. p. 183. For ' es geht um ' they say 
in Bavaria ' es weizt dort,' Panz. Beitr. 1, 98. Schm. 4, 205-0 ; in 
Hesse ' es wandert' in the Wetterau ' es luannert,' conf. wanken, 
Reineke 934; Neth. ivaren, rondwaren, conf. *in that room it 
won't let you rest,' Bange's Thiir. chron. 27*". The ON. draugr 
is unconn. with Zend, drucs, daemon, Bopp's Comp. Gr. p. 40. 
p. 910.] Instead of talamasca, we also find the simple dala, 



1586 SPECTRES. 

larva, moustrum, GrrafF 5, 397 ; talniasche, De Klerk 2, 3474. 
The Finn, talma (limus), talmasca (mucedo in lingua), has only 
an accid, resembl. in sound. AS. dwimera, spectra, lemures, 
larvae nocturnae, gedwimor, praestigiator, gedwomeres, nebulonis, 
gedwomere, necromantia, Hpt 9, 514-5. The MHG. getwds agrees 
(better than with Lith. dwase) with AS. dwaes, stultus, for getwds 
means stultus too, Eilh. Trist. 7144. 7200. 7800. An ON. 
shrdveifa, fr. veifa, vapor, and slcrd obliquus ? Vampires are 
dead men come back, who suck blood, as the Erinnyes suck the 
hlood of corpses, Aesch. Bum. 174 [or the ghosts in the Odyssey]; 
conf. the story of the brown man, Ir. march. 2, 15. 

p. 918.] The Insel Felseub. o, 232 says of iviJl o' wisps : 
' from the God's acre rise yon flames, the dead call me to join 
their rest, they long for my company.' ON. Itroi-lios, corpse- 
light, In\evar-Uos, hrcevar-eld. Vafr-logi, flickering flame, is seen 
about graves and treasures in graves (pp. 602. 971) ; conf. 
Sigurd's and Skirni's ' marr, er mic um inyrqvaii beri visau 

vafrloga,' Ssem. 82*. Wandering lights are called ' das irre- 

ding ' = ghost, Schelmufsky 1, 151 ; der ftuer-rnann, Pomer. story 
in Bait. stud. xi. 1, 74; hriinniger mann, Staid. 1, 235; laufende 
faclcel, Ettn. Unw. doctor p. 747. AS. dwds-liht. M. Neth. 
dwaes-jier, Verwijs p. 15; lochter-mane,ls\\A\e\ih. p. 246. Wend. 
hhuhdk, Wend, volksl. 2, 266*^ ; Lith. haltwykszle, Lett, leeks 
ugguiis, false fire ; Lapp, fjolonjes, Lindahl 475^^ ; conf. KM.^ 3, 

196.- On girregar, conf. Beham (Vienna) 377, 21; ' eiuen 

girren-garren enbor-richten, einen teuflischen schragen mit 
langem kragen,' Hag. Ges. Ab. 3, 82. The kobold's name 
Iskrzyckl is fr. SI. iskra, spark ; and in Hpt 4, 394 the lilcJite- 
mdnnclben behave just like kobolds. In the Wetterau feurig 
gelin means, to be a will o' wisp. 

Unbaptized children are cast into the fire, Anegenge 2, 13. 11,. 
'5. 12, 12; they go to Nobis-kratten, Staid. 2, 240; they shall 
not be buried in the holy isle (p. 600 n.) ; vile si da vuiiden 
luterlicher kinde vor der helle an einem eude, dti die muder waren 
mite tot. En. 99, 12, whereas ' osteti (ab oriente) schulen diu 
westir-barn in daz himilriche varn,' Karaj. 28, 12. Uuchristeued 
babes become pilweisse (p. 475), as untimely births become elbe 
(p. 1073); the unbaptized become white letlches. Bosquet 214, 
or kaukas, Nesselm. 187*^. 



SPECTRES. 1587 

p. 920.] The Lut. fiirla is fr. furore, OIIG. purjun, Diet. 2, 
534; it is rendered //<?//m'm/ui, Gralf 1, 881 ; hcU-wiitcrin, Schade's 
Pasq. 100, 0. lOo, 25. 117, 79 with evident reference to Wuotaii 
and wiiten to rage. Uns ist der tiuvel nalien bi, oder daz wiiefende 
Iwr, Maurit. 1559 ; erst hub sich eiu scharmutzeln (arose a scrim- 
mage), wie in eim ivilden heer, Ambras. Hed. p. 151. Uhl. 1, 657. 
Other names for the Wild Host : die wilde fahrt, Wolfs Ztschr. 
1,292-3; in Styria, das wilde (jjaid (hunt) 2, 32-3; in Bavaria, 
das gjoad, wilde cjjoad, Panzer 1, 9. 16. 29. 37. Qi. 85. 133; in 
Vorarlberg, das narld-volk or wiietlius, Vonbuu p. 83; der wilde 
jjiger mit dem w'uthis heer, Gotthelfs Erz. 1, 221 ; in the Eifel, 
Wudes ov Wodes heer,WoWs Ztschr. 1,316. Firinen. 3,244''; 
jo('ja(jd,joja<jd, Osnabr. mitth. 3, 238 — 2-40. 

p. 924.] Als im der tiuvel jagete ndch, Livl. reimchr. 7274. 
The devil is called a weideman, hunter, Merwund. 2, 22, and in 
return the wild-hunter in the Altmark is a hvll-jeger, Hpt 4, 391. 
* Hark, the wild hunter, passing right over us ! The hounds 
bark, the whips crack, the huntsmen cry holla ho ! ' Goethe's 
Gutz V. B. 8, 149, conf. 42, 175. Fischart in Lob der laute p. 
lOO had already made an adj. of the hunter's name : Heckelhergisch 
geschrei, biiSen u. blasen des jiigerhorns ; conf. supra (p. 924, 
1. 2) and Hachelberg in the Rheinharts-wald, Landau's Jagd p. 

190. Another version of the Hackelherg legend is given by 

Kulm in Hpt's Ztschr. 5, 379; conf. supra (p. 146-7). Can this 
be alluded to in a stone sculpture let into the wall of Diesdorf 
church (Magdeburg country), representing a man whose left leg 
is appar. being wounded by a sow? Thiiring. mitth. vi. 2, 13 
and plate 7 no. 5. Somewhat different is the story of the one- 
eyed wild-sow, whose head laid on the dish gives the master of 
the hunt a mortal wound, Winkler's Edelm. 371. The whole 
myth resembles that of Adonis, and the Irish story of Diarmuid 
na mban p. 193. H. D. Miiller (Myth, der Gr. stamme ii. 1, 113) 

compares it to that of Actason. Dreaming of the hoar, Rudl. 

16, 90. Waltharius 623; a boar wounds the Sun in her cave, 
Kudbeck quoted in Tenzel and Mannliug p. 205. Hachelberg 
inust hunt for ever : alhie der lib, diu .vj/e dort sol jagcn mit 
ILirren (his hound) ewiclichen, Laber 568. Of him who hunts 
//// the Judgmcnt-dag, Firmenich 1, 344. Miillenh. p. 584. In a 
Westph. folktale picked up orally by Kuhn, giants call to 



1588 SPECTEES. 

Hakelherg for help, he raises a storm, and removes a mill into the 
Milky- way, which after that is called the Mill-way. In Catalonia 
they speak of 'el viento del cazador,' Wolf's Ztschr. 4, 191. In 
Frommann 3, 271 Holla and HacJcelbernd are associated in the 
wild hunt, unless Waldbriihl stole the names out of the Mythology ; 
in 3, 273 a ' Geckenbehrnden ' of Cologne is brought in. Tut- 
osel is fr. titfeji, bo-are, Diut. 2, 203'' ; tutco rj ^Xav^, a souo tu tu, 
Lobeck's Rhemat. 320. 

p. 927.] The wild hunter rides through the air on a schimmel, 
white horse, Somm. p. 7 ; conf. scldmmel-reiter p. 160. Fillbuj 
a hoot with, gold occurs also in a Hessian marchen, Hess. Ztschr. 
4, 117, conf. Garg. 241=*; shoes are filled with gold. Roth. 21'^; 
a shoe-full of money. Panzer p. 13. 

The wild hunter is called Ooi, Kuhn's Westf. sag. 1, 8, and the 
diirst in Switz. is sometimes gatdlder, Staid. 2, 517; do they 
stand for Goden ? Dame Gauden's carriage and dog resemble 
the Nethl. tale of the hound by the hell-car, Wolf p. 527. 

p. 930.] A man went and stood under a tree in the wood 
through which the wild liunter rode. One of the -party in passing 
dealt him a blow in the back with his axe, saying, ' I will plant 
my axe in this tree ; ' and fr, that time the man had a hump. 
He waited till a year had passed, then went and stood under the 
tree again. The same person stept out of the procession, and 
said, ' Now I'll take my axe out of the tree ; ' and the man was 
rid of his hump, Kuhn's Nordd. sag. no. 69 ; conf. Berhta's 
blowing (p. 276-7), a witch-story in Somm. p. 56. Schambach 
pp. 179. 359. Vonbun p. 29 the schnarzerli {o6 in ed. 2). WolPs 
D. sag. no. 348-9. Panzer 1, 17. 63. 

In the Fichtel-gebirge the wild hunter rides without a head, 
Fromm. 2, 554 ; so does the wolen-jUger, jolen-jdger, Osnab. 
mitth. 3, 288 — 240 ; also the wild h. in the Wetterau, Firmen. 2, 
101 ; he walks headless in the wood betw. 11 and 12 at noon, 
Somm. p. 7; the wild h. halts at one place to feed horses and 
hounds, p. 9. In Tirol he chases the 8alg-frdulein, Wolf's Ztschr. 
2, 60. 35; he baits the loh-jungfer, Somm. pp. 7. 167; so giant 
Fasolt hunts the little wild luoman, Eckenl. 167. 173. 

p. 931.] Houses with their front and back doors exactly 
opposite are exposed to the passage of the Furious Host (Meiuin- 
gen), Hpt 3, 366; conf. the open house-door (p. 926-7), the 



SPECTRES. 1589 

sitting over the door (p. 91-5 eud). 'J'be lidl-jdger* s cry ' Wil ji 
mit jagoi (hunt with us) ? ' is also French : * part en la chasse ! ' 
Bosq. 69. The story fr. W. Preussen is like a Samland one in 
Keusch no. 70. 

lu Swabia the wild hunt is also called the mutige heer, Schwab's 
Schwab. Alp p. 312. Leader of the Muthes-hcer is Linkenbold, 
who in the Harz is called Leinhold, ibid.; there is a LinlcenholdK- 
lucJtle (-hole) there. However, in a Swabian poem of 148(3 
beginning ' Got mercurius,' the wild hunt is called ' das wilde 
wufitss-licr.' A frau Matte roams in Thuringia. 

At Ottobeuern lovely manic used to be heard at Christmas 
time. If any one put his head out of window to listen, and to 
view the march of Wuete, his head swelled to such a size that he 
could not pull it in again. The full delicious enjoyment was had 
by those who kept snugly behind closed doors. The procession 
passed along the fron-weg up the Guggenberg, or into the devil's 
hole at the Buschel, where a treasure lies guarded by the poodle. 
On this delicious tnusic of the night-folk, see Vonbun p. 35. 

p. 933.] Unchristened infants are the same as the subterra- 
neans anc^ moss-folk, whom Wode pursues and catches, conf. 
p. 483 and Miillenh. p. 373. The child's exclamation, ' Oh how 
warm are a mother's hands ! ' is like those of the gipsy-woman's 
child, ' There's nothing so soft as a mother's lap ' and ' there's 
nothing so sweet as a mother's love,' Miillenh. no. 331 ; Lith. 
inotinos rauhos szwelnos, mother's hands soft, Mielcke 1, 284. 
Kraszewski's Litva 1, 389. In Germ, fairy-tales the dead mother 
comes in the night to nurse her children, KM.^ 3, 21 ; conf. 
Melusine, Simr. p. 80. Miillenh. no. 195-G-7; hvert fell blSd'ngt 
a hriost grami, Saein; 167^; a similar passage in Laxd. saga p. 
328. 

The wild host, like the dwarfs, get ferried over ; the last that 
lags behind is girded with a rope of straw, Panz. 1, 16 4. 

p. 935.] De la danza aerea a que estiin condenadas las Hero- 
diadas por la muerte del bautista. Wolf's Ztschr. 4, 191. In 
Wallachia D/na (Ziua)= Diana with a large following hunts in 
the clouds, and you see where she has danced on the grass ; she 
can strike one lame, deaf or blind, and is esp. powerful at Whit- 
suntide, Wal. miirch. 296. 

p. 936.] An Eckeluirt occurs also in Dietr. 9791. On the 



1590 SPECTRES. 

Venusherg, see Simr. Amelungen-l. 2, ol5. We find even in 
Altsvvert 82: dirre berc was /ro Venus, conf. 80, 9. 83, 7. H. 
Sachs has Venusherg iii. 3, 3^> (yr 1517). &> (1518). 18'' (1550). 
A witcli-trial of 1620 says: auf Venesberg oder Paradies fsiveu, 
Mone 7, 426. There is a Vemishg by Reichmannsdorf in Gril- 
fenthal distr. (Meiningen), near Saalfeld. A M.Neth. poem by 
Limb. 3, 1250. 1316 says Venus dwells in the/ores/. The earliest 
descript. of the Horselberg is by Eoban Hessus in Bucol. idyl. 5, 
at the beginn. of the 16th cent. : 

Aspicis aeiio sublatum vertice montem, 

qua levis occidui deflectitur aura Favoni, 

Horrisonuvi Latio vicinus nomine dicit (by a Latin name), 

qui Nessum bibit undosum A^erarimque propinquum. 

Isthoc ante duas messes cum saepe venirem, 

iguarus nemorum vidi discurrere hirvas 

saxa per et montes, tanquam nocturna vagantes 

terriculamenta, et pueros terrere paventes, 

quas lannas dicunt quibus est exeviptile lumen, 

quas vigiles aiunt extra sua liniina lyncas 

esse, donii talftis, nee quenquam cernere nee se.* 

Conf. Victor Perillus^s poem on the Horselberg, yr 1592 (Jrb. d. 
Berl. spr. ges. 2, 352-8) ; it is called Easelberg and Horselbg in 
Bange's Thiir. chron. 1599, p. 57-8. Songs about Tanhiiuser in 
Uhl. no. 297, and Mone's Anz. 5, 169 — 174 ; a lay of DanJiduser 
is mentioned by Fel. Faber 3, 221. 

p. 937.] At the death of our Henry 6, Dietrich von Bern 
appears on horseback, rides thi-ough the Mosel, and disappeai'S, 
HS. p. 49. Li the Wend, volksl. 2, 267'' the wild hunter is 
called Jjyter-bernat, Dyter-benada, Dyke-bernak, D yke-hj adnat . 
In one story 2, 185 he is like the Theodericus Veronensis whom 
the devil carries off. Diter Bernhard in Dasent's Theophilus 80 ; 
brand-adern (barren streaks) on the plains are called by the 
Wends Byter-bernatoivy pud, D.'s path. Yet, ace. to Panzer 1, 
67 it is a fruitful season wlien the wilde gjai has been ; and whex'e 
the Rodensteiner has passed, the corn stands higher, Wolf p. 20. 
The wild host goes clean througJi the barn, Panz. 1, 133. 

p. 939.] As early as the First Crusade (1096) it was asserted 
that Carl had woke up again : Karolus resuscitatus, Pertz 8, 



SPECTRES. 1591 

215; coiif. the kaiser iu the Guckenberg iieur Gerniiiul, liader 
no. 434, aud the Karlsberg at Niiruberg, uo. 4^1. 

p. 940.1 Ou ScJinellert.s, see Panzer 1, 194 and the ecerhid'uttj 
hunter of Winendael, Kunst en letterblad '41, p. 68. Reiffenb. 
Renseign. 214. The setting-out of a carriaye ivith three wheels 
aud a long-nosed driver is descr. in the story of the monks cross- 
ing the Riiine at Spire, Meland. 1, no. (564 (p. 832). Copiue eqnes- 
tres are seen near Worms in 1098, Meland. 2, no. 59 ; battalions 
sweeping through the air in 1096, Pertz 8, 214; couf. Dionys. 
Halic. 10, 2 ; higher up in the clouds, two great armies marching, 
H. Sachs iii. 1, 227«. 

p. 943.] Something like Heme the Hunter is Home the 
Hunter, otherwise called Harry-ca-nah, who with the devil hunts 
the boar near Bromsgfove, Worcest. (Athenaeum). The story of 
the Wunderer chasing Frau Saelde is in Keller's Erz. p. 6; conf. 
Fastn. sp. 547. Schimpf u. ernst (1522) 229. (1550) 268. 

p. 946.] Where Oden's lake (On-sj6) now lies, a stately 
mansion stood (herre-giird), whose lord one Sunday went a hunt- 
■inif with his hounds, having provided himself with wine out of 
the church, to load his gun with, and be the surer of hitting. 
At the first shot his mansion sank out of sight, Runa '44, 33. 

Here the huntsman is evid. Ode)t himself. Among the train 

o( Gnro rysserova ( = Gudron the horse-tailed, Landstad pp. 121. 
131-2) is Sigurd Snaresvend riding his Grani (Faye 62). The 
members of the troop go and sit over the door : the like is told 
of devils, who lie down in front of lit-hiui<er where drinking, 
gaming, murdering goes on, Berthold p. 357 ; and of the 
Devil, who sits during the dance, H. Sachs 1, 342"''; ^ setz nur 
die seel auft iiberthiir' iii. 1, 261 ; sein seel setz er ufE iiber thiir, 

lats mit dem teufel beissen, Simpl. pilgram 3, 85. Northern 

names for the spectral procession are : oskareia, haashaalreia, 
juletkreia, shreia, Asb. og Moe in the Univ. aunaler pp. 7. 
41-2; jidaskrei'i, juliiskreid'iy onherei, oskorrei, aahjarei, jolareiae, 
Aasen's Prover 27-8.31; conf. Thorsreib (p. 166) and husprei, 
hesiirei, thunder. Lapp, julheer, Klemm 3, 90. 

p. 949 n.] The very same is told of Orvarodd as of Oleg, 
Foruald. s. 2, 168-9. 300; couf. a Transylv. tale in llaltrich's 
Progr. p. 73. 

p. 950.] On Holda's sameness with Fricka, see Kl. schr. 5, 



1592 TRANSLATION. 

416 seq. The Gauls too sacrificed to Artemis, Arrian de Venat. 
c. 23. 32. Hecate triviorum praeses, Athen. 3^ 196 ; men took 
a sop with them for fear of the cross-roads 2, 83, for Hecate's 
hounds 7, 499 ; 'EKarr)^ helirvov means the bread laid down where 
three roads met, Luc. Dial. mort. 1 and 22 (note on Lucian 2, 
397) ; feros Hecatae perdomuisse canes, Tibull. i. 2, 54. 

p. 950.] The appalling guise of the Harii (GDS. 714) recalls 
our death^s-head cavaliers. At the outset of the Thirty-years 
War there were Bavarian troopers called Invincibles, with black 
horses, black clothing, and on their black helmets a Avhite death's- 
head ; their leader was Kronberger, and fortune favoured them 
till Swedish Bauer met them in Mecklenburg, March 1631. 
Frederick the Great had a regiment of Death's-head Hussars. 
In recent times we have had Liitzow's Volunteers, the Black 
Jiigers, the Brunswick Hussars. Does a coat-of-arms with a 
death's-head occur in the days of chivalry ? We read in Wigal. 
80, 14 : an sinem schilde was der Tot gemalt vil grusenliche 
(Suppl. to 850). Remember too the terror- striking name of the 
legio fulminatrix, Kepavvo^oXa. Secret societies use the symbol 
of a death's-head; apothecaries mark their poison-boxes with the 
same. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 
TRANSLATION. 

p. 952.] Verwi'uischen is also exsecrari, abominari. 0^. farwci- 
tan, devovere, OYLGf. farwdzan, tvithar-hadzan, recusare, Graff 1, 
1087. As abominari comes fr. omen, so far-hudtan fr. hvdf, 
omen (Suppl. to 1105 n.). Beside the Fr. souhait (which Genin 
Recr. 1, 201 would derive fr. sonhait, as convent fr. convent, 
etc.) we have also ahait in Thib. de N., and the simple Jiait = 
luck, wish. For its root, instead of OHG. heiz, ON. heit, we 
might take the Bret. Iiet, Gael. ai^ea6- = pleasure. De sohait, de 
dehait, Guitecl. 1, 169. 

Disappearing (verschwinden) and appearing again are a(^avr) 
•yevkadai and (pavepov 'yeverrdai, Plato's Rep. 360. Frequent is 
the phrase ' to vanish under one's hand ' ; conf. the clapping of 
hands in cases of enchantment (p. 1026) : thaz thu hiar irwunti 



TRANSLATION. 1593 

mir uutiir fjipvu ht^nfi, 0, i. 22, ll.; vcrswant den luten under den 
handen, Griesh. Sprachd. 26 [Late examples omitted] ; ze hant 
verswant der kleine, Ortnit 141, 4; vile schiere her verswant von 
stnen ougen zehunt, daz her en-weste, war lier bequain, En. 2621 ; 
vor iren oiigen er virswant, Hpt 5, 533 ; verswant vor stn.en ovgrn. 

Krone 29606 [Simil. ex. ora.]. Der engel sa vor im verswant, 

Wh. 49, 27; do der tiuvel hin verswant, Barl. 3027; do der 
winder gar verswant, Frauend. 409, 17; solde cin wip vor leide 
sin verswupden MS. 1, 81'' ; der hirz vorswant, Myst. 1, 233; in 
den wint gahes (suddenly) verswunden. Mar. 159, 7 ; daz ver- 
swant mitder luft, Pass. 369, 91 ; der engel mit der rede verswant, 
Hpt 8, 171 ; the devil says ' ich tnuoz verswinden,' MSH. 3, 
174*: ' vo)i hinnan stet min begirde (desire). Got miieze dich in 
huote Ian ! ' alsus swein diu gezierde, Diut. 2, 251-2 ; Sant. Ser- 

vace do versivein, Servat. 3317 [Ex. ora.]. Voer ute haren 

ogen, Karel 2, 990 ; de duvel voer done alse en roc (smoke) te 
scouwene ane, Maerl. 2, 237; Var-in-d'wand, N. pr. ring 33'', 
30. 36<=, 28. 36. To begone = OHG. huerhan, ON. hverfa : OSinn 
hvarf l^a, Saera. 47 ; oc nu liverfnr ]?essi alfur so sem sknggi, 
(as a shadow), Vilk. c. 150; brottu horfinn, ibid. ; /?(5 j?a hurt, 

Fornald. s. 1, 488, conf. seijkvaz, sink away, Saem. 10''. 229''. 

The translated sleej'), like Kronos p. 833 n. ; Gawan falls asleep 
on a table in the Grals-halle, and awakes next morning in a moss, 
Keller's Romvart 660. Vanishing is often preceded by thunder : 
ein grozer slac, Heinr. u. Kun. 4215. Erf. miirch. 84. 160; 
' there came a crash (rassler), and all was sunk and gone,' Pauz. 
1,30; Gangleri hears a thunder, and Valholl has vanished, he 
stands in the fields, Sn. 77. 

p. 953.] The shepherd Gyges steps into a crack of the earth 
made during storm and earthquake, finds a giant's corpse inside 
a brazen horse, and draws a ring off its hand, Plato's Rep. p. 369. 
Translation is imprecated or invoked in the following phrases : in 
te ruant montes mali, Piaut. Fjpid. i. 1, 78; /cara r/}? 7>/9 Suvai 
Tjv'^onTjv, Lucian 3, 156. 5, 202; ^avelv fxoi t>;i' yyjv Tjv^ofirjv 9, 

68. 8, 18. Oedipus is swallowed up by the earth, Oed. Col. 

1662. 1752; conf. ' slijyping in like the schwick' (p. 450 n.) ; die 
hifte mich vemlunden, Hpt 5, 540 ; \aav edrjKe, II. 2, 319 ; Xt'^o? 
e^ avdpdi'Kov yeyovivac, Lucian's Imag. 1 ; der iverdc z'einem 
steine ! MS. 1, 6* ; hon (GoSruu) var buin til at springa af harmi. 



1594 TRANSLATION. 

Saem. 211 ; du-ne hetest ditz gesproclieo, du waerst benamen ze- 
hrochen, Iw. 153. We talk of bursting with rage (p. 552 n.), i.e., 
in order to jump out of our skin : er wolte aus der haut fahren, 
Salinde 13. 

p. 958.] A translated hero is spoken of as early as 1096 : Inde 
fabulosum illud confictum de Garolo niagno, quasi de niortuis in 
id ipsum resnscitato, et alio nescio quo nihilominus redivivo (before 
Frederick I. therefore), Pertz 8, 215 (Suppl. to 939). Frederick 
is supposed to lie at Trifels in the Palatinate also, where his bed 
is made for him every night, Schlegel's Mus. 1 , 293. Then the 
folktales make Otto Redbeard also live in the Kifhauser, and give 
him frau Halle for housekeeper and erraudwoman, Soramer pp. 1. 
6. 104 ; he gives away a green twig, which turns into gold, p. 2 ; 
in the mountain there is sldttle-'pla.ying and ' schmarakeln,^ p. 4. 
A legend of Fredk Redbeard in Firmen. 2, 201*. A giant has 
slept at the stone-tahle in the mountain these 700 years, Dyb. 
Runa '47, 34-5. Not unlike the Swed. folktale of a blind giant 
banished to an island are the stories in Runa '44, pp. 30. 43. 59. 
60 : in every case the belt given is strapped ronnd a tree (conf. 
Panzer 1, 17. 71. 367), but the other incidents differ. Such 
giants call churches de livita hlock-ma,rrnr)ia 4, 37, and the bell 
bjellelco, Dyb. '45, 48. '44, 59 ; the blind grey old man reminds 
one of Oden. Ace. to Praetor. Alectr. p. 69, Kaiser Frederick 

seems to have cursed himself into the ' Kiphiiuser.' On the 

Frederick legend, see Hpt 5, 250—293. Closener p. 30-1 (yr 
1285). Bohmer's Reg., yr 1285, no. 830, conf. 824-6. Kopp's 
Rudolf pp. 736—749. Detmar 1, 130 (yr 1250). Of Fredk 
the Second, the Repgow. chron. (Massm. 711) says straight out : 
' bi den tiden sege-men dat storre keiser Vrederic ; en del volkes 
segede, he levede ; de twivel warede lange tit; ' conf. ibid. 714. 
Another name for the auricula is berg-kaiserlein ; does it mean 

the wonder-flower that shows the treasure ? Fischart's 

Geschicht-kl. 22^ says : avff deni keyser Friderich stan ; Schiller 
120^^ (?) : und nebenher batten unsere keile noch das gefundene 
fressen ilher den alien kaiser zu pliindern. Phil. v. Sittew. 
Soldatenl. 232 : fressen, saufen, prassen aiif den alien keyser hinein. 
Albertini's Narrenh. p. 284; heuraten auf d. a. k. hinein. 
Schmeller 2, 335-6 : immer zu in d. a. kaiser hinein siindigen, auf 
d. a. k. hinavf s'nndigen, zechen, i.e. without thinking of paying. 



TRANSLATION. 1595 

p. 961.] The sleeping Fredlc reminds one of Kronm^ slrepimf 
in a cave, and hinh briuginfr him ambrosia, Pint. De facie in orbe 
luuae 4, 1152-3 (seep. 833 n.). Artluir too and the knig-hts of 
the Grail are shut up in a mountain, Lohengr. 179. Lanz. G900. 
Garin de L. 1, 238; si jehent (they say) er lebe noch hiute, Iw. 
14. llaynouard sub v. Artus. C^esarius heisterb. 12, 12 speaks 
of re.K Arduriin in Monte Giher (It. moute Gibello) ; conf. Kaufm. 
p. 51 and the magnot-mouiit;iin ' ze Givers,' Gndr. 1135-8. 5G4 
(KM.s 3, 274). Other instances: kon!fj Dan, Miillenh. no. 505; 
the count of Flanders, Raynouard 1, 130"; Marko lives yet in 
the wooded mountains, Talvj l,xxvi. ; so does the horse Bayard. 
On the search for Svatopluk, Sivatopliika hledati, see Schafarik 
p. 804. 

p. 968.] The roldie lady's hmirh of keys is snake-bound, Pan- 
zer 1,2. A white maiden with keys in Firmen. 2, 117; drei ivitte 
jnmfern, Hpt 4, 392 ; tJiree white ladies in the enchanted castle, 
Arnira's March, no. 18 ; conf. the Slav, vilas and villy, spirits of 
brides who died before the wedding-day, who hold rinor-dances 
at midnight, and dance men to death, Hanusch pp. 305. 415; 
dancing uu'Uis, Mailath's Ungr. march. 1, 9; Lith. lue'les, fio-ures 
of the dead. 

p. 969.] A certain general plants an acorn to make his cnf]iii 
of, Ettn. Chymicus 879. There is some likeness betw. the story 
of Release and that of the Wood of the Cross, which grows out of 
three pips laid under Adam's tongue when dead. That the pip 
must be brought by a little bird, agrees with the rowan saplinf 
fit for a wishing-rod, whose seed must have dropt out of a bird's 
bill (Suppl. to 977 beg.), and with the viscum per alvura avium 
redditum (p. 1206) ; conf. the legend of the Schalksburg, Scliwab's 
Alb. p. 32. You must fell a tree, and make a cradle out of it • 
the first time a baby cries in that cradle, the spell is loosed, the 
treasure is lifted, H. Meyer's Ziiricher ortsn. p. 98 ; conf. the tale 
in Panzer 2, 200. 159. Other conditions of release : to draw a 
waggon up a hill the wrong way, to buy a -piece of linen, to hold 
the white lady's hand in silence, Reusch p. 437 ; with your mouth 
to take the key out of the snake's mouth, Firmen. 1, 332; to kiss 
the worm, or the toad, or the frog, wolf and snake, Miillenh. p. 
580. Somm. Sagen p. 21. Meyer's Ziiricher ortsn. p. 97. 

p. 971.] Men do bur j treasures in the y round : the Kozacks 



1596 TRANSLATION. 

are said to keep all their money underground; thieves and 
robbers bury their booty, dogs and wolves pieces of meat. The 
Marsians buried the Roman eagle they had captured in a grove, 

whence the Romans dug it out again, Tac. Ann. 2, 25. The 

treasure is called leger-hort, Uenn. 17687. 2505; O'N. taurar = 
thesauri, opes reconditae. ' Shags not the treasure up toward 
me, That shining there behind I see?' Goethe 12, 193. The 
treasure blooms, Fanzev 1, 1 ; 'for buried gold will often shift 
about/ Irrgart. d. liebe 503; the cauldrons sink three ells a year, 
Dybeck 4, 45. Once in 100 years the stones off the heath go 
down to the sea to drink, and then all treasures of the earth lie 
open, so that one need only reach them out ; but in a few winters 
they come back, and crush those who don't get out of the way in 
time, Bret, march. 88 — 93. The treasure suns itself. Panzer 2, 
16. 30. It cools (gliiht aus), MiilJeuh. p. 203-4. Treasure-gold 
turns to coal, Lucian's Tiraon 1, 110. Philops. 7, 284 ; conf. the 
legends of Holla, Berhta, Fredk Barbarossa and Riibezal. The 
coals of a glowing treasure turn to gold, Reusch no. 25-6-7. 
Glimmering fire and coals of a treasure, DiefFenb. Wetterau p. 

275. Signs of a treasure : when a hazel bears mistletoe, and a 

white snake suns himself, and treasure-fire burns, Reusch no. 15. 
Where treasures lie, a blue fire burns (Hofmannswaldau), or light 
finds its way out of the earth, Leipz. avent. 2, 40 ; it swarms 

with insects, etc. (pp. 692-4). The treasure-lifter is stript and 

plunged up to his neck in water in a tub, and is left till midnight 
to watch for the coming of the treasure, Cervant. Nov. de la 
gitanilla p. m. 106. A beshouted treasure sinks, Wetterau tale 
in Firmen. 2, 100; conf. AS. smc = thesaurus, opes. Some good 
stories of treasure-lifting in Asbiornsen's Huldr. 1, 142-3-4. 
Ghosts have to give up buried weapons : saemir ei draugum 
dyrt vapn bera, Fornald. s. 1, 436. A connexion subsists betw. 
treasures and graves : the hauga eldar, grave-fires, indicate 
money, Egilss. 767. The hoard doeswo^ diminish: sin wart doch 
niht minre, swie vil man von dem schatze truoc, Nib. 475, 12. 

p. 972.] The wonder-flower is said to blossom either on Mid- 
summer night alone, or only once in 100 years. If any one, 
having spied it, hesitates to pluck it, it suddenly vanishes amid 
thunder and lightning; conf. britannica (p. 1195-6), fern (p. 
1211). Preusker 1, 91-2. Before the eyes of the shepherd's 



TRANSLATION. 1597 

inaii a irmitler-Jiower ijyoim up suddenly out of the ground ; he 
])ulls it, and sticks it in his hat; as quick as you can turn your 
liand, a </rey mannildn stands there, and beckons him to follow ; 
or else, the moment the flower is stuck in the hat, the whitn hidij 
appears, Firmen. 2, 175, The wonder-flower gets caught in the 
slioe-buckle, Somm. p. 4, as feruseed falls into the shoes (p. 
1210), and also ripens or blossoms on Midsum. night, pp. 4. 165. 

It is called scldiiss^elhliime, Panzer 1, 8S3, wnn.(Jerhliiiii«;, 

Wetterau. sag. p. 281.. Phil. v. iSteinau p. 77 ; Pol. dziwaczeh, 
Boh. diwDJk, wonderflower. The three hlne flowers effect the 
release, Firmen. 2, 201\ A Schleswig story makes it the yellow 
flower, and the cry is: Forget not the best, Miillenh. p. 351. 
Another formula is: ' vvia meh as da verzotarist (squanderest), 

cm sa minder host,' Vonbun p. 5. As early as the 15th cent. 

vercfisse min nit occurs as the name of a flower, Altd. w. 1, 151 ; a 
gloss of the time has : vergiss-rnei n-nicJit alleluja, Mone 8, 103 ; 
vergis-man-nicht gamandria, ibid. Vergiss nit mein is a blue flower, 
Uhl. 1,60. 108. 114-6. 129; bliimlein vergiss nit mein, KTa.hYa.s,. 
liedb. pp. 18. 251. Bergr. 37. 70; bllimelain vergiss ni main, 
Meinert 34; vergiss mein niclit, Meiiante's Gal. welt p. 70. 
Swed. fdrgdt-mig-ej, Dybeck '48, 28 ; Boh. uc-zapomenka, Pol. 
nie-zapominha, Russ. ne-zahudka, conf. Weira. jrb. 4, 108; das 

bliimlein wuuderschcin, Goethe I, lb9. The Ifel cut of him 

that hurries away, Firmen. 2, 176. In a story in Wiichter's 
Statist, p. 175-6 the wounded heel never heals. A proverb says: 
'Tis what comes after, hurts your heel. 

p. 974.] The spring-wurzel is in OHG. spriiic-wurz, lactarida, 
lactaria herba, Graff 1, 1051, or simply spriuga 6, 397. Does 
pid^rit, diderit (usu. diterich, picklock) also mean a spring- 
wurzel? Firmen. 1, 271. The springw, or wonderflower is 
sometimes called bird's nest, Fr. nid d'oiseau, plante aperitive, 
vulneraire, qui croit au pied des sapins ; it opens boxes (folktale 
in Mone 8, 539), and makes invisible, DS. no. 85. Again, it is 
called zweiblatt, bifoglio, and is picked off the point of bifurcation 
in a tree ; does it mean a parasite-plant like the misletoe ? It 
must have been regarded as the nest of a sacred bird : thus of 
the siskin's nest it is believed that the bird lays in it a small 
precious stone to make it invisible, Hpt 3, 361 ; conf. Vonbun's 
Vorarlbg 63; Boh. hnjzdiijk, ophrys nidus avis, ragwort, Pol. 
VOL. IV. Y 



1598 TRANSLATION. 

gniazdo ptasze (see Linde 1, 728''). On the gyeen-pecker, Fr. 

pirerf, see Am. Bosq. p. 217-8, and haum-heckel, Musaus 2, 108; 
picos divitiis, qui aureos monies colunt, ego solus supero, Plant. 
Aulul. iv. 8, 1. On the legend of the shamir, conf. Hammer's 
Rosenol 1, 251. Altd. w. 2, 93. Pineda's Salomon (Diemer 
p. 44), samir. Diem. 109, 19 ; ihanir, Gerv. Tilb. Ot. imp. ed. 
Leibn. p. 1000; th am ur, Y inc. Bellovac. 20, 170; tamin, Maerl. 
in Kastner 29*. In Griesh. Predigt. p. xxv. is the story of the 
ostrich 2, 122. 

p. 977.] The Swed. slag-ruta is cut off the Jiijg-rdnn, bird's 
rowan (or service) tree, whose seed has fallen fr. the beak of a 
bird, Dybeck '45, 63 ; it must be cut on Midsummer eve out of 
mistletoe houghs, Runa '44, 22. '45, 80. Dan. onske-qvist, Engl, 
divining-rod, finding -stick. Germ, names : der Saelden zwic, 
Altsw. 119. 127, conf. ungeliickes zwic (Suppl. to 879 end); 
glucks-ruthe, Lisch in Meckl. jrb. 5, 84 ; wilnschel-ruote sunder 
zwisel (without cleft), MSH. 2, 339''; wunschel-ris , Tit. 2509. 
5960-82, w. iiber alle kiineginne, 1242, wiinschel-herndez ris 
1728; alles heiles wiinschel-ris, Troj. 2217; mins heils wilnschel- 
ruote, Altsw. 118; der wiinschel-ruoten hort, Dietr. drach. 310*. 

Nu hat gegangeii miner kiinste ruote, MSH. 3, 81". The idea 

of the wishiug-rod was not borrowed fr. Aaron's magic wand ; 
on the contrary, our poet of the 12th cent, borrows of the former 
to give to the latter : Nim die gerte in dine hant, wurche zeichen 
manikvalt ; ze alien dingen ist sie guot, swes so wunsget din muot. 
Not a word of all this in Exod. 7, 9 ; the wishing-rod however 
did not serve the purposes of harmful magic. Conf. the virgula 
divina, Forcell. sub v. ; Esth. jpilda, GDS. 159. The wishing- 
rod must have been cut at a fitting time and by clean hands, 
Kippe die wippe 1688, D 4'' : it is a hazel-rod, and hoiy, Voubun 
pp. 6. 7. 64; a hazel-bough, Fromm. 3, 210; a white somer- 
laden heslin stab, Weisth. 3, 411. 461. Stories of the wishing- 
i*od in Kuhn p. 330. Miillenh. p. 204 ; of the old wiiuschel-stock, 
ib. no. 283. On the manner of holding it, see Hone's Yearbk 
1589. It is called schlag-ruthe because it anschlagt, hits [the nail 
on the head] ; hence slegel, cudgel? conf. Parz. 180, 10 — 14, 
and the hazel-rod that cudgels the absent (Suppl. to 651 end). 

p. 977.] One must drive a white lie-goat through the stable, 
to lift a treasure that lies thei-e, Hpt's Ztschr. 3^ 315. 



TRANSLATION. 1599 

p. 080.] The deril is by the treasure, and he is blind too, like 
Plutus (Suppl. to 993). The Ssk. Kuvera, a hideous being, is 
god of wealth. Bit- is the satne as dirif-, Pott 1, 101. When 
money is buried, the devil is appointed watchman, Miillonli, p. 
202-3, or a grey vvm on a three-legged white horse guards it 102. 
Finn, aarni or kratti is genius thesauri, conf. mammelalnen below. 
AS. wyrra hordes hi/rde, Beow. 17G7. Fafnir says : er ek a arfi 
Id (on the heritage lay) inikloin mins fo^or, Saem. 188'' ; meiSan 
ek um menjom lag, ibid. * Lanuvium annosi vetus est tutela 
drnconis ; ' maidens bring him food : 

Si fuerint castae, redeunt in eolla parentum, 

clamantque agrioolae 'Fertilis annus erit ! ' Prop. v. 8, 3. 

Dragons sun their gold in fine weather, Euna '44, 44, like the 
white maidens. Some good stories of the roving dragon in 
Miillenh. p. 206 ; conf. the dragon of Lambton, Hpt 5, 487 ; be 
is also called the drakel, Lyra p. 137, the wheat-dragon, Firmen. 
2, 309. The u. prop. Otwurtn. in Karajan begins with oi = ead, 
conf. 6t-pero. Heimo finds a dragon on the Alps of Carniola, 
kills him and cuts his tongue out; with him he finds a rich 
hoard : locum argento septum possedit, in quo aurea mala habuit, 

Mone 7, 585 fr. Faber's Evagatorium. W. Grimm (HS. p. 

385-6) thinks the ring Andvara-naut was the most essential part 
of the hoard, that in it lay the gold-engendering power and the 
destiny, but German legend put in its place the wishing-rod ; 
note however, that such power of breeding gold is nowhere 
ascribed to Andvara-naut. Sigurd first gave it to Brunhild 
(Fornald. s. 1, 178), then secretly pulled it off again (187). 
Siegfried in the German epic, after winning the treasure, leaves 
it in charge of the dwarfs, does not take it away therefore, but 
gives it to Chriemhilt as a wedding-gift, and as such the dwarfs 
have to deliver it up, Nib. 1057 — 61. Once it is in Giinther's 
land, the Burgundians take it from her, and Hagen sinks it in 
the Rhine 1077, 3; conf. 2305-8. Hagen has merely hidden it 
at Lochheim, intending afterwards to fish it up again, conf. 1080. 
So likewise in Saem. 230 : ' Gunnar ok Hogni toko )?a gullit allt, 
Fafnis arf.' On the fate bound up with the gold-hoard in the 
ON. (and doubtless also in OHG.) legend, see Hpt 3, 217. Finn. 
mammt^lainen, mater serpentis, divitiarum subterranearum custos 



1600 DEVIL. 

(Kenvall) reminds one of ON. mddir Atla^ serpens, Saetn. 243*'. 
Golden geese and ducks also sit underground on golden eggs, 
Somm. sag. p. 63-4. 

p. 981.] In some stories it is the old man in the mountain 
that, when people come in to him, crops their heads hald, Somm. 
p. 83 ; then again the spectres wish to shave the heard of a man 
as he lies in bed, Simpl. K. 921. 930. In Musaus 4, 61 both get 
shorn. 

p. 983.] With Lurlenherge conf. ' iiz Lurlinherge wart gefurt 
sin stolze eventure,^ Ritterpr.^', and Lurinherc, Graff 2, 244. Or 
Burlenherg might be the Birlenberg of Weisth. 4, 244. On the 

sunken or de Toulouse and or de MontpelUer, see Berte 20. ■ 

Sinking is preceded by a crash (Suppl. to 952 end) : heyr'Si hann 
dyna mdhla, Sn. 77 ; there was a hang, and all was sunk and 
gone, Panz. 1, 30 (in Schm. 3, 125 a loud snore) ; then comes a 
crack, and the castle once more is as it was before, Kuhn's Westf. 
sag. 2, 250 ; a fearful crash, and the castle tumbles and dis- 
appears, Schonwerth 3, 52. Near Staffelberg in Up. Fran- 

conia lies a great pond, and in it a great fish, holding his tail in 
his mouth ; the moment he lets it go, the mountain will fly to 
pieces and fill the pond, and the flood drown the flats of Main and 
Rhine, and everything perish, man and beast, Panz. 2, 192. A 
little clond. on the horizon often announces the bursting-in of the 
flood or violent rain, Miillenh, p. 133. 1 Kings 18, 43-4 (Hpt 8, 
284). An angel walks into the sinking city. Wolf's Niederl. sag. 
326. Of the foundling Gregor, who came floating on the flood, 
it is said : der sich hat vernmnen her, Greg. 1144. After the 
flood, the baby is left up in a poplar-tree, Miillenh. p. 132. In 
the legend of the Wood of the Cross also, a newborn child lies on 
the top of a tree. On the name Bold, see GDS. 758. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 
DEVIL. 



p. 986.] Schwenk's Semiten 161 says the Devil is a Persian 
invention. On Ahuromazddo, see Windischm. Rede p. 17-8 ; the 
cuneif. inscriptions have Auramazda, Gr. 'flpofjida-Orj^;. Ahura is 
the Ssk. asura, Bohtlg555; and Benfey in Gott. gel. anz. ^62, 



DEVIL. 1601 

p. 1757 conn, mazda with Ssk. medhas, medliam = vedlulin. The 
lud, asura is evil, the deva good ; the Pers. ahura is good, the 
da^va bad ; so heretics repres. Ahriman, the devil, as the first- 
born sou of God, and Oruiuzd or Christ as the second. The 
Yezids worship the devil mainly as one originally good, who has 
rebelled, and may injure, may at last become a god again, and 

avenge himself. Lucifer falls out of heaven (p. 24 1) ; the 

angels fall three nicjhts and days fr. heaven to hell, Ca9dm. 20, 12; 
sie Helen drl tage voile, Karaj. Denkm. 42, 9; Heplia3stus falls a 
whole daij fr. Olympus to Lemnos, II. 1, 592. As God creates, 
the devil tries to do the same ; he sets up his chapel next the 
church (p. 1021) ; he also has 12 disciples ascr. to him, Berthold 
o21 ; conf. devil's pupils (Suppl. to 1024). 

p. 987.] Ulphilas translates even the fern, r] 8cd^o\o<; by 
diabula, pi. diahulus, slanderers, 1 Tim. 3, 11. Among corrup- 
tions of the word are : Dan. knefvel, snefvel, Molbech's Tidskr. 6, 
317; Arab, ehlis, ihlis ; prob. our own ' der tausend ! ' conf. 
dusii (p. 481) and daus. Diet. 2, 855. Lith. devalus, devulus = 
great god, Nesselra. 140*. Devil, Devilson occur as surnames : 
Cuonradus Diaholus de Rute, MB. 8, 461. 472 ; Jilii Tlnfelonis 
(Suppl. to 1019 end) ; Beroldus dictus Diaholus, Sudendorf's 
Beitr. p. 73, yr 1271 ; Cunze gen. Dnjlls heuhit, Arnsb. urk. 787. 

The Finn, perkele, devil, Kalev. 10, 118. 141. 207. 327 and 

happ. perkel, pergalek (Suppl. to 171 end) are derived fr. piru, 
cacodaemon, says Schiefn. Finn, namen (511. 

SatiDias in Diemer 255, 10; sataadt in Hpt 8, 155. 355 (the 
odious s.). Karaj. Sprachdenkm. 52, 3; a pi. satanasd in O. v. 
20, 4. The word sounds like scado (p. 989), skohsl (p. 1003), 
above all like ^^tetere, Saturn (p. 247). 

p. 991.] Der tievel gap den rat (advice), wander in bezeren 
ne hat, Fundgr. 2, 87 ; als ez der tiufel riet. Nib. 75(5, 9 ; der 
tiuvel mir daz rtet, Frib. Trist. 2207. The devil is called nilit 
guotes : we say ' it smells liere like no good things'; Lett, ne 
labbais, the not good; Lapp, pahahes, the bad one. He is called 
der vbel dtem (breath), Fundgr. 2, 18; unreine saghe untwaK, 
Bruus 324-5; conf. Swed. Oden hin onde. Hire's Dial. lex. 123"; 
der arge tumbe, Martina 160, 23, as we say ' stupid devil ' ; arger 
wild, Diut. 1, 470 ; der sure wirt (sour host), Ilelbl. 2, 587 ; \xz 
des bitteren tiefels halse (throat), Griesh. 52; den leiden duvelen 



1602 DEVIL. 

(odious (3.), Hpt 2, 197 ; der leidige tifel, Mos. 52, 18 ; leding, 
Cavall. Voc. Verland 40" ; U'jing, laje, Wieselgren 385 ; liothan, 
Dybeck '45, 72; der greulich hat dich herein getran (brought), 
Uhl. Volksl. p. 801. Lith. hesas, devil, conf. haisus, grim. 
Finn. paJta, pahoillinen, devil ; Esth. pahalainen, pahomen, 

Salmelainen 1, 179. 193. 234. In Scand. the devil is also 

called sham, sJcammen (shame), Ihre's Dial. lex. 149*^. Djb. '45, 
3. 55. 77. Is he called the little one? 'whence brings you cier 
liitzel here ? ' Gryphius's Dornr. 56, 8. The live, bodily devil, or 
simply '' der Inbhaftige/ the veritable, Gotthelf s Kaserei 356 ; 
fieiscliechter leihliafter teufel, Garg. 229'' ; ich sei des leihhaftigen 
butzen 244''; der sihtige tiuvel. Berth. 37; des sihtigen tufels 
kint, Dietr. drach. 212'\ 285''; conf. vif maufe, Meon 3, 252; 

ainz est deables vis, M. de Gar. 178. Antiqiius hostis occurs 

also in Widukind (Pertz 5, 454) ; our Urian resembles Ur-hans, 
Old Jack (Suppl. to 453 n.); u-tiifel, Gotth. Erz. 1, 162. 177. 253. 
275. 286, ur-tenfel 2, 277 ; d' oude sathan, Maerl. 2, 300; de uald 
knecht, de uald, Miillenh. p. 265. The household god of the 
Tchuvashes, Erich (Gotze's Russ. volksl. p. 17) recalls ' gammel 
Eric' ON. a>u^sA*o^t = diabolus, hostis; ther widarwerto (un- 
toward), 0. ii. 4, 93. 104; ware = diabolus, Graff 1, 980; helle- 
ivarc, Diut. 2, 291 ; conf. ON. vargr, lupus, hostis (p. 996). Der 
vient, Pfeiffer's Myst. 1, 131 ; der vint, Helbl. 1, 1186; der leide 
vient, Leyser 123, 11. 38; laff-geteona, Beow. 1113, is said of 
sea-monsters, but it means ' hateful foe,' and might designate the 

devil. Der helsche die/, Maerl. 2, 312 ; der nacht-schade, said 

of a homesprite, Rochholz 1, 295 (Kl. schr. 3, 407). Ein unhuld, 
Hagen's Heldenb. 1, 235. With the fern, unholdd in OHG. 
hymns conf. ' daz wip, diu unholde,' Pass. 353, 91 ; in TJnhulden- 
tal, Bair. qu. 1, 220 ; and the Servian fern, vila in many points 
resembles the devil. TJherfengil, uharfangdri, praevaricator, 
usurpator, seems also to mean the devil in contrast with angels, 
Hpt 8, 146. 

p. 992.] Der ubele vdlant, Diemer 302, 28; der v., Karaj. 
89, 14; diu vdlendin. Cod. pal. 361, 74*=; vdlautinne, Krone 9375. 
9467 ; diu ubele v., Mai 170, 11 ; disem vdlande gelich 122, 21 ; 
dill 'urhiusche der vdlande 172, 16; ein vil boeser vdlant, Tiirl. 
Wh. 136'': swaz der v. wider in tet (against them did), Welsch. 
gast 5177; des vdlandes spot (mock), Warn. 2426; des v. hant 



DEVIL. 1003 

1358. The word occurs in the Erec, not in the Iwein, Hpt's 
Fret". XV. I find Conr. of Wiir/,b<^ lias not altogether forborne 
its use: der leide vdlant, Silv. 4902 ; wilder v., Frauenl. 382, 15 ; 
der v, miiez si stillen 123, 19. It occurs but once in M. Neth. 
poets : die quade valande, Walew. 8945 ; (distinct fr. it stands 
caeliant = vaillant 96i7, ojidi fallant, valiant, Lane. 21461. 24G43). 

Du poser feilant, Fastn. sp. 578, 21 ; boser volant 926, 11 ; 

volandes man, Hpt 5, 20. 31 ; der schwarze voland, Miilmann's 
Geiszel 273; der volland, Ayrer 340*; vohuit in witch-trials of 
1515 (WolPs Ztschr. 2, 77); dea sol der bose voland holeu ! 
Lichtwer 1758, 128. In the Walpurgis-night on the Blocksberg 
Mephistopheles calls himself junker V^oland, squire V., Goethe's 
Faust, p. m. 159. In Thuringia (at Gotha) I heard 'Das glab 
der Fold, ! ' devil believe it. Volundr, Wayland seems unconn. 
with valant, whose v. is really an /'. 

p. 993.] The devil is lavie in a Moravian story (p. 1011), the 
same in Wallachia, Fr. Miiller nos. 216. 221; conf. Thor's lame 
goat (p. 995). He is blind, Lith. aldaiis ; his eyes are put out 
with melted lead (p. 1027). He is black: ne nos frangat demon 
ater. Chart. Sithiensc p. 8; tenebrosiis hostis, Miinter's Tempelh. 
158; der swarze meister, Hpt 1, 277; von dem tiuvel hoert man 
wol, wie er swerzer si dan kol, u. ist doch unsihtic (yet invisible), 
Ls. 3, 276; die swarzcn helle-warten, Servat. 3520. In Tirol and 
the Up. Palatinate he is called gran-iouzl, Schm. 4, 208. He 
wears (jreij or (jveen clothes (p. 1063), and, like the dwarfs, a 
red cap, Miillenh. p. 194. The African Negroes paint the devil 
white, Klemm 3, 358. 364. 

p. 995.] The devil's Jtorn partly resembles the hone in Thor's 
head (p. 373) ; conf. ' gehurute helle oh.seii,' horned ox of hell, 
Hpt 8, 151. 236. He has a tail: 'tied to the devil's tail,' 
Keisersb. xv. Staft'ely 41-3. 59. Schiirtlin p. 226; the troll too 
has a tail, D3/b. Runa '44, 73, the Norvv. huldre a cow's tail. He 
has a liens and a horse's foot, Lisch's Meckl. jrb. 5, 94, a horse's 
foot and a man's, Miillenh. p. 197. Deoful ivam and wlife-leds, 
Andr. 1170. 

p. 997.] The devil has horns and cloven feet. Wolf's Ztschr. 
2, 63; his goat's feet peep out, Mone 8, 125, as goat's feet and 
claws are ascr. to dwarfs (p. 451 n.) ; daemones in specie capra- 
rum, Acta Bened. sec. 1 p. 33; devil as stein-geisz [wild goat, 



1604 DEVIL. 

Capricorn ?J, Haltricli p. 44.. Pfeitf. Genu. 1, 484 ; die bos teufels 
zujen (she-goats), i.e. witches, Kellei-'s Altd. ei-z. 192, 22. With 
' hockfi lid' agrees 'des tiuvels ylit/ limb of the d., Pass. 377, 24 
(Suppl. to 1019 end); box-scheis habe ir sele ! Lindenbl. 123; 
'to pluck a Jioru out of the devil,' Garg. 17*^. Here belong the 
surnames Hellhock, HoUbock, Denkschr. der k. k. acad. 5, 20. 

The devil is named Sau-reussel (sow's snout), and finds bells. 
Ph. DiefFenb. Wanderung p. 73; duivels zwtntje (pigs), Hpt 7, 
532 (Suppl. to 478). The hog for breeding is called //tA/, Weisth. 
2, 528. There is a hero's name, JJr-swin, Dietl. 5253 ; conf. 
ur-ber, ur-kiimpe, ur-sau, ur-schwein. The devil is called a luhs, 
lynx, MS. 2, 6''. 7"; a hare, Panz. Beitr. 1, 137; an ape, because 
he apes God (Suppl. to 1024 beg.). 

The devil was 'der vil ungehiure Jielle-wol/,' Hpt 5, 520; die 
helle-wargen 7, 376 ; abstrahis ore liipi, Erm. Nigell. 4, 370. 
GDS. 329. 333. 

Helle-Juiut = Cevhevu.s, Gl. sletst. 4, 32. Renn. 289; der libele 
hint, Diemer 309, 22, der helle-lmnl, der hunt verwazen (accursed), 
314, 2. 13; vuor der iibermuote Inuit also tiefe an den helle-grunt 
4, 2d; nit-liuid, dog of spite, Helbl. 2, 264; devil seen in dog's 
shape, Pass. 203, 59. 

p. 999.] Ace. to Gryphius's Sonett. 1, 1 the devil is called 
hollen-rahe ; he appears 'in swarzer vogele hWde,' Ksrchr. 4314; 
der hollische geier, vulture, Meiuert p. 165; das hat sie der geiei- 
gelernt, Lessing 2, 446; die hollische agalaster (magpie), der 
satan, Pol. maulaffe 195, conf. Parz. 1 ; JteUe-goucJi, Krolewicz 
3879, conf. the cuckoo and his clerk (p. 681-2) ; de bunte Jciwit 
hahl se ! Hauenreyerey 1618 A v''; fort juw (brings you) de 
Jdivit nu weer her? B viii^ He has goose-feet, crow's feet, Thiir. 
mitth. vi. 3, 67. 70. 

The serpent in Paradise was wi'ongly supposed to be the devil, 
Schwenk's Semit. 162. He is called der Untivurm, Mar. 148, 28; 
der aide lidle-trachG, Pass. 13, 23. 101, 47; der hellewurm 106, 27 ; 
celidras, Erm. Nigell. 2, 191, fr. 'x^6Xv8po<i, water-snake. Leviathan 
is transl. in AS. by sce-draca ; he is descr. ' cum armilla in 
maxilla,' Vom geloub. 601, and there is ' ein rlnc ime in sine 
nasen gelegit' 541; conf. 'in des tiuveles drozzeii,,' throat, Rol. 
244, 29 ; den hat des tiuvels kiinve (jaw) verslunden, Warn. 540. 

Belzehup, Karaj. 52, 3; Behehuc in Fragm. of Madelghis ; 



DEVIL. 



1605 



Beschnc, Walew. 8244; druhhs fern, as a fly, Spiegel's Avesta 
124. A spirit is shut up iu a [ilass as a jiij, MS. 2, 13-4, or in 
a box, Leipz. avaut. 2, 41 ; tlieie is a decU in the f/Zr/.v.v, both in Ihe 
legend of Zeno in Bruns, and in that of the schohir and robber 
iu H. V. Herford, yr 995 and in Korner. 

p. 1000.] The devil as a liaiiinwr (sle<re), Kemble's Sal. and 
Sat. 140, 177. He is called Htvtvierlriv, Auibras. lied. 142. As 
Donar's hammer gradu. becomes a fiery sword, it is also said : 
ein Jiarcc .sivert der tiuvel hat, Hpt 5, 450 (p. 812. Suppl. to lOlo 
end). The devil roUiiuj like a viilUtotie resembles the, troll rolling 
like a ball, Nilssou 4, 40. 

p. 1002.] The devil is 'der aide helleivarte,' Pass, 23, 18. 
Iiclle-wirt 99, 1 1, der aide hellewiht 293, 94 ; er rehter helleschergen 
(loach, Mai 156, 40; Juiliescherje, Tit. 5468, 5510; helleschenje, 
Helbl. 2, 603 ; hellejiur, Berth. 56 ; tliere is a man's name, Eelll- 
tamph (-smoke), MB. 14, 424; der/Vtcs^ liz kelle abgrunde, Walth. 
3, 12, as we say 'the prince of darkness.' With hellcamve (p. 
i>93) connect the prop, names Helcrapho, Bohmer's. Font. 2, 185, 
and Herman der Jtelle)igrave, hellegrave, Mon. zoller, no. 305 
(yr 1345). no. 306. 

The devil dwells in the North : cadens Lucifer . . . traxit 
ad inftrnl sulfurea stagna, in gdlda aquiloiiis parte poneus sibi 
tribunal ; hunc ferocissiinum Inpum Agnus mitissimus stravit, 
Habau. Maur. De laud, crucis, fig. 10 ; ' (Lucifer) chot, wolti sizzin 
nordin,' Diem. 94, 16; entweder zu den genadin oder den 
uiujenddin, sive ad austrum sive ad aqnllonem, Leyser 135, 34. 
In the N. lies Jotun-heimr (p. 34), and the devil is considered a 
giant, as Loki and Logi are of giant kin ; onskar honom (wishes 
him) liingt nurdan till f jails (at the devil), Sv. vis, 2, 163, 

Tiiey say in Smiiland, 'drag till IJackeufjalls ." Cavall. p, 25^ 
On IMIa, Heldu-fiall, see Bartholin p. 356—360; fewr im 
llecLdbenj (Mt Hecla), Fischart in Wackern. 2, 470. 

By desser kerken buwet (builds) tie diivil einen Nobis kroch, 
Agricola's Sprikworde (1528) n. 23 bl. 14"; indtis-hans, Mone 8, 
277; in nobis hans, da schleget das hellisch fewer zum fenster 
hinaus, Er. Alberus's Barfusser Miinche Eulenspiegel u. Alcoran 
(VVittemb. 1642) bl. E 4 ; 'so fare they on to nobishaus, where 
flame shoots out at the window, and bake their apples on the sill,' 
Schimpf u. ernst (1550) c. 233; 'hush, thou art now in nobis- 



1606 



DEVIL. 



hauss' = -pnrga,tory, H. Sachs (1552) iii. 3, 44''«' ; ir spart's (the 
Reformation) in Nohiskrng, Fischart's Dominici leben (1571) Xo^. 
Nobis Krucke, Meland. Jocoseri. (1626) p. 548; 'send down to 
nohuhrug,' Simpl. 3, 387; * How Francion rideth in a chair into 
the Nohiskrug (abyss, dungeon)/ Hist, des Francions (Leyd. 
1714), Tab. of cont. ix. In Celle they sing the cradle-song: 
muse-katzen, wo wut da hen ? ik wil na nahers krauge gaa. On 
Nabers-kroch, Nobels-krug, see Kuhn in Hpt 4, 388-9. Leo 
(Malb. gl. 2, 42) derives 'nobis' fr. Jr. aibheis, abyss; aibhistar 
is said to mean devil. 

p. 1004.] AS. scocca is found on German soil too : Adalbertus 
sciicco, Annal. Saxo (Pertz 8, 690). Seyfriden dem steppekchen, 
MB. 16, 197 (yr 1392). The devil's name Barlabaen is also in 
Walew. 9741; Barlibaen, Limb. 4, 959; Barnebaen, Barlebos, 
Barlebaen, V. d. Bergh 11. 12. 275-6; borlebuer, said of a boor, 
Rose 2804. The word frlmurc in Tiirl. Wh. 136% femurc in 

Cod. pal., reminds of Femurgan (p. 820 n.). Names of devils : 

lasterbalc, schandolf, hagendorn (conf. p. 1063), hageUiein, Ber- 
thold 56 ; ein tiuvel genannt lesterlinc, Hag. Ges. Abent. 2, 280 ; 
Idsf erlein, scherdel, Fastn. sp. 507-8-9. Does ON. /ioLsA;i = satanas, 
still very common in Iceland, mean senex procax ? Swed. ' hin 
hide/ the devil ; Vesterb. snogen, the bald, Unander 36, conf. 
kald-kopf in Gramm. 2, 374 ; Ostgot. skaminen, skrutt, skrall, 
Kalen 17'' (Suppl. to 991 mid.). In Vorarlberg ^omer and holler 
are devils' names, Bergm. p. 94, jammer otherwise denoting 
epilepsy, convulsion (p. 1064). 

Euphemisms for the devil (p. 987 mid.) are: the God-be-ivith- 
us ; Meister «Ste/<-tZtcA-yVtr (look out, mind yourself), Ettn. Unw. 
doct. 241 ; Et-cetera, Ital. ceteratojo. Gipsies call God devel, and 
the devil beink, Pott p. 67. The Dan. gammel Erik is in Norw. 
gamle Eirik, gamle Sjur, Aasen 124^^. On Hem7neilin, see Suppl. 
to 1000; Martinello (p. 1064). Pinkepank in Hpt 6, 485. 
Schimper-schamper , ScJiimmer-schemm er. 

p. 1006.] The devil appears as the hunter in green, Schleicher 
213, as Green-coat in witch-stories, KM. no. 101. In Ostgotl, 
Oden means devil. His army is called a swarm : des tivelis 
geswarme, Rol. 120, 14; der tiuvel hat uzgesant sin geswarme 
204, 6; geswerme, Karl 73'^; des tiefels her (host), Griesh. 2, 
26. Verswinden sam ein kunder, daz der boese geist fuort in 



DEVIL. 1607 

dem rore (reeds), Tit. 2408; der teufel fiihrt in wildes gerohricht, 
H. Sachs V. 3-i4-5-6. 

p. 1009.] De olle rlesen-mo(hr, Miilleuh. p. 444, the yiani'n 
old grandmoilter 450, Brusi and his tnother ivorse than he, 
Fornm. sog. 3, 214, all remind us of the devil's mother or grand- 
mother : des iibeln teufela muoter, Wolfd. and Saben 487 ; u 
brachte hier ter stede die duvel ende shi rnoeder mede, Karel 2, 
4536 : frau Fuik is held to be the devil's grandmoth&i', Hpt 5, 
373 ; ' yes, the devil should have had him long ago, but is wait- 
ing to find the fellow to him, as his grandmother wants a new 
pair of coach-horses,' GotthelPs Swiss tales 4, 51 ; der tiifel 
macht wedele drus, u. heizt der grossmutter den ofe dermit (to 
light his granny's fire with), Gotth. Erz. 1, 226 ; de diivel und 
ock sin moder, Soester Daniel 8. 1 1 ; 'if you are the devil, I am 
his mother,' Praet. Weltb. 2, 64 ; * who are you, the devil or his 
7nother?' Simpl. 1, 592; conf. 'ist er der tufel oder sin wip?' 
Dietr. dr. 159^; des tiuvels mwo^er u. sin wip, Hiitzl. 219^; diu 
ist des tiuvels t(;tp. Nib. 417, 4; des iibelen tiuvels hrid (bride) 
426,4. Mai 172, 10. Conf. Death's mother (p. 840-1); 'from 

Jack Ketch to Jack's mother he went,' Pol. colica p. 13. To 

the pop. saws about sun and rain, add the N. Frisian : ' when it 
rains and the sun shines, witches are buried at the world's end.' 
There are many devils: steht in tausend, teufel namen auf! sauf 
(drink) in tausent t. namen ! Diet. 1, 230. 

p. 101 1.] The devil demands a sheep and a code, Cass. Heisterb. 
5, 2; or a black he-gout, Miillenh. p. 41, a hlach cock and he-cat 
201, a black and a white goat 203. With the curious passage fr. 
H. Sachs agrees the following : Of a heretic like that, you make 
a new-year's present to Pluto, stuck over ruith bo.v, Simpl. 3, 5. 
p. 287. Boar's heads and bear's heads are still garnished so, and 
even Asiatics put fruit in the bear's mouth. 'The devil shall 
yet thy bather be,' Froschm. J. 2" (Suppl. to 247). 

p. 1012.] A stinking hair is pulled out of Ugarthilorus ; seven 
hairs off the sleeping devil or giant, like the siben locke (Luther, 
Judg. 16, 19) off Samson's head, Renn. 6927. Diu helle ist uf 
getan, der tiufel der ist uzgeldn (let out), Dietr. dr. 211''. 121*. 
143"" ; Lucifer waere liz geldn, Tirol in Hpt 1, 20 ; 'tis as though 
the fiend had burst his fetters, Eliz. of Orl. p. 270; le diable est 
dechaine, Voltaire's Fred, le gr. 23, 118. With the phrase 



1608 DEVIL. 

' the devil's dead,' conf. ' Ulli er daubr' (p. 453 n.). Other ex- 
pressions : des tiavels Inoder — esca, diaboli, MSH. 8, 227*^; 'the 
d. may hold the candle to one that expects the Hke of him/ 
Niirnberger 254; 'of the d. and the charcoal-h timer,' Fastu. sp. 
896, 12; 'looked like a field fidl of devils,' Zeha ehen 177; 
* we avemje the devil on ourselves/ En. 1147; thieves go out 
in odd numbers, so that the d. can't catch one of them, Ph. 
V. Sittew. 2, 686 — 690; c'est VJiidoire da diahle, eiue teufeh- 
(jeschichte. There was a Geschichte voiii Jtenher, Gotthelfs Uli 148. 

p. lOlo.] The devil's seed occurs also in Dietr. dr. 281'' and 
Boner's Epilog- 51. His sifting: hinet riteret (tonight riddles) 
dich Satanas alsam iveize, Diem. 255, 10. Fundgr. I, 170. His 
snares : wie vil der tubil ilf uns dout (tendiculas ponit), Hpt 5, 
450; 7rayl<; is in Gothic either hlamma, 1 Tim. 3, 7. 6, 9 (ON. 
hl6mm = fustis), or vruggo, 2 Tim. 2, 26; des tivels netze, Mone's 
Anz. •'39, 58 ; des tiefels halze, Griesh. 2, 93 ; des tiuvels swert, 
Ls. 3, 264 (p. 999 end) ; daz vindet der tiuvil an siner videlu, 
Renn. 22629. 

p. 1014.] As Wuotan and angels carry men through the air, 
so does God, but much ot'tener the devil (p. 1028) : sit dich Got 
hut her getragen, Hiitzl. 167, 43 ; der arge vdlant truoc in dar, 
Laur. 822 ; noch waen (nor dream) daz si der tiavel vuorte, Livl. 
1425 ; der t. hat in her braht, Greg. 1 162. der t. hat mir zuo 
gebraht, Helbl. 1, 641. iuch brahte her der tievel uz der helle, Hpt 
1, 400; die duvel brochte hu hier so na. Rose 12887 ; nu over ins 
duvels geleide, Karel 2, 4447 ; in trage dan wider der tiifel, Diocl. 
5566-89; welke th^yeZ bracht u dare? Lane. 1528; brochte jou 
die duvel hier? Walew. 5202; conf. ' waz ivunders hat dich her 
getragen ? Wigal. 5803 ; welch tivelhet dich hiutehin ? Halm's 
kStricker 14. We say ' where's the d. got you ? ' i.e. where are 
you? wo Jidt dich der henker ? Fr. Simpl. 1,57. The Greeks 
too said: tov S' apa reo)? /xev aTTijyayev oiKaSe Bai'iJicov, Od. 16, 
370; Tt9 8ac/jbU)V roSe 7ri]/j,a TrpocTTj'ya'ye ; 17, 446; dXXd ae 

Salficov otKuS' vTre^ajujot 18, 147. To the curses add: der 

tiavel ueme ! Herb. 6178 ; daz si der tievel alle ersla ! Archipo. 
p. 233 ; our ' zum teufel ! ' conf. ' woher zwm t. ? ' Eulensp. c. 
78 ; louf za deiu t., wa du wilt 89. Like our ' red heard, devil's 
weird ^ is the phrase : ' dieseryitc//.^, der auch euer hammer ist,' 
Raumer's Hohenst. 2, 114 fr. Hahn's Mon. 1, 122. The devil 



DEVIL. 1609 

Jaiifjhs to see evil done, hence : di's mac dcr tiiivcl Jncltpn, Helbl. 
4, 41-7 (Suppl. to 323 end) ; *yon muko the devil laiKjli with your 
lies/ Garrr. 102\ 

p. 1015.] The devil 'over-comes us' like a nifilitinarf. In a 
tale of the 10th cent., he callin*^ himself Ni t Jiar f, ^oins the histrio 
Vollarr, invites and entertains him and his fellows, and dismisses 
them with presents, which turn out to be cobwebs the next 
morning, Hpt 7, 523. Strerigthenintj a neriative by the word 
'devil': den tenfel nichts deugeo, Eiiz. of Orl. 447 j der den 
tiifel niitzschit (nihtes ?) kan, Ls. 2, 311; conf. ' hvaSa Od'lnti 
Ifitum ? ' (Suppl. to 145 n.) ; our ' the devil (nothing) do I know ; ' 
teiifeh wenig, Ph. v. Sittew. Soldatenl. p. 191, our ' verteufelt 
wenig.' Does ' das hat den teAifel gesehcn ' in Lessing 2, 479 mean 
''seen nobody' or 'that is terrible'? Welches- teufd ( = who?), 
Berth, ed. Gtibel 2, 11. With 'drink you and the devil ! ' conf. 
' heft hu de duvel dronhen ghemakt ? ' Rose 13106. With ' the d. 
first and God after' agrees : in beschirmet (him protects neither) 
der titivel noch Got, Iw. 4635. 

p. 1016.] The Jewish view o^ possession may be gathered fr. 
Matth. 12, 42 — 45; other passages and an Egyp. fragment are 
coll. in Mannhdt's Ztschr. 4, 256 — 9. Possessed by devils is in 
Goth, anahahaidans (fr. haban) fram ahmara unhrainjaim, Luke 6, 
18; MHG. ein beheft man, demoniac, Uolr. 1348; hehaft, Diemer 
324, 25. Servat. 2284; ob du heheftet bist, MS. 2, 5» ; heheftete 
lute, Myst. 1, 135. 147; ein hehefter mensch, Renn, 15664-85. 
5906 ; sint mit dem tievel haft, MS. 2, 82'' ; mit dera iibelen 
geiste hehaft, Warn. 350 ; der tievel ist in dir gehaft, Ecke 

123; tinfelhafte diet (folk), Barl. 401, 25. Wc say behaftet or 

besessen : mit dem tiuvel wart er besezzen, Ksrchr. 13169; der 
tivel hat in besezzen, Warn. 34-4; obsessiis a daemone, Bohm. 
Font. 2, 323; fiuvel-winmr, Servat. 783; tiuvel-sUhfir 1079; 
gevangen mit dem tiuvel, Fragm. 36* ; des boteu ich zuo's wirtes 
raaget mit worten ban gebnnden, MS. 2, 11"; die den viant hebben 
in, Maerl. 3, 234-. ON. ]ni hefir diofulinn i J)inni liondi, Vilk. s. 
511, i.e. he makes thy hand so strong; daz iuwer der t. miieze 
pflpgen (tend) ! Herb. 2262 ; der t. miieze in walden 9747 ; daz 
iuwer der t. walde 14923. 18331 ; der t. miieze walden iuwer 
nntriuwe 16981 ; var in einen rostuschaer, Helbl. 7, 744; vart 
in ein gerihte, sliefet in den rihtaere 7, 750. A devil says: 



1610 DEVIL. 

sine ut intrem in corpus tuum, Ca3s. Heisterb. 10, 11 ; an evil 
spirit, whom the priest bids depart out of a woman (yr 1463), 
asks leave to pass into others, whom he names, M. Beh. 276-7; 
hem voer die duvel in't lif (body), Maerl. 2, 293; der tiuvel var 
im an die swart, Helbl. 15, 434; reht als waere gesezzen der 
tuvel in daz /ierze sin, Dietr. dr. 117*; en scholden dre soven 
diivel darum hestan, Kantzow 2, 351 ; nu friz in dich den tiufel 

der din suochet, MS. 2, 135^. 'The d. looks out of her eyes,' 

H. Sachs 1, 450''; der t. aus dir kilt, Kell. Erz. 327, 15, kal 328, 
23 (and the reverse : Got uz ir jungen munde sprach, Parz. 396, 
19) ; der t. ist in dir gehaft, der fiJit uz dinem lihe, Eckenl. 123. 
Devils in the body ai-e like the narren (fools) inside a sick man, 
who are cut out as the devils are cast out. The devil is driven 
out through the nose with a ring, Joseph. Antiq. 8, 2. 5. Diseases 
wait for the patient to open his mouth before they can pass out, 
Helbl. 7, 101. Mit dem Bosen cnrieren, adjuvante diabolo aegros 
sanare, Leipz. avantur. 1, 271. Virtues also pass in and out, 
Helbl. 7, 65. 102. 113. 

p. 1017.] As the gods diffuse fragrance, legends medieval and 
modern charge the devil with defiling and changing things into 
muck and mire : der tiuvel scMze in in den krasren ! Helbl. 5, 
107 ; Sathanae posteriora petes, Probra mul. 220 ; welcher t. uns 
mit den Heiden hete heschizen, Morolt 3014; der t. lauft u. 
hofiert zugleich, Simpl. 178; cacat monstra, Reinard. 4, 780; die 
seind des teufels letzter furz, Rathschlag in Parnasso (1621 4to, 

p. 33). The devil lies and cheats: der truge-tievel (p. 464), 

conf. ' driugr var Loptr a,t livga, Sn. ■'48. 1, 29; ein tiuvel der 
hiez Oggewedel, der ie die ersten luge vant, MS. 2, 250'' ; dem t. 
ans hein lilgen. Pother 3137. He is called 'des nidis vatir 
Lucifer,' Diemer 94, 20. 

p. 1019.] Making a covenant with the devil, Keisersb. Omeiss 
36-8 ; he bites a finger of the witch's left hand, and with the 
blood she signs herself away; or he smites her on the face, 
making the nose bleed, Moneys Anz. 8, 124-5. The deviPs mark 
(p. 1077); hantveste (bond), damide uns der duvil woldi bihaldin, 
Wernh. v. N. 61, 33. He will make his servant rich, but re- 
quires him to renounce God and St. Mary, Ls. 3, 256-7. An old 
story told by the monachus Sangall. (bef. 887) in Pertz 2, 742 : 
Diabolus cuidam pauperculo .... in humana se obviam tulit 



DEVIL. 1011 

specie, pollicitus iioii mediocriter ilium esse ditanduin, si societatis 
vinculo in perpetnum sihi deleijisnet aihiecti. A similar story in 
Thietraar 4, 41 speaks of prope jacere aud servire. One has to 
ahjnre God and all the saints; the d. comes and gives tlw, on fit, 
Bexenproc. aus Ursenthal p. 214-0. Roaz liat bcidiu sole und 
leben cineni tirvel gehcn, der tuot dnrch in wunders vil, cv filegH 
im allez daz er wil, Wigal. 3050-9. 7321 — 0; when R. dios, the 
devils come and fetch him 8130. Giving oneself to the d. for 
riches, Berth, ed. Gobel 2, 41 ; wil er Got verkiesen unde die sele 
verliesen, der tubel hilfet ime derzuo, daz er spate und fruo tuou 

mac besunder vil manicfalden wunder, Alex. 2837. Kissing the 

devil (pp. 1005 last 1., 1007 last 1., 1071) ; dich en-vride der tievcl 
(unless the d. shield thee), du-ne kanst niht genesen. Nib. 1988, 2. 
The d. fetches his own, as OSinn or Thorr takes his share of souls : 
der hel-scherge die siiien an sich las (gathered his own unto 
him), Loh. 70. The child nnhorn is promised to the d. (p. 1025), 
Altd. bl. 1, 290-7, as formerly to OSinn : gafu Offni, Fornm. 
sog. 2, 108; conf. gefinn Ocfni sialfr sialfum mer, Saem. 27^. 
With Bearskin couf. the ON. hiarn-olpn-ma&r, Kormakss. p. 114 ; 
the Hung, bearskin, Hungar. in parab. p. 90-1 ; Volundr sat a 
herfialli, Soem. 135''; lying on the bearskin, Schweinich. 2, 14; 
wrapping oneself in a bear's hide, KM. no. 85 ; getting sewed up 
in a bearskin, Eliz. of Orl. 295. 

One who is on good terms, or in league, with the devil, is 
called devil's comrade, partner, fellow: valantes man, Rol. 210, 
7; des tiveles higen 150, 4 ; der tiuvels bote, Hpt. 0, 501 ; t. kneht, 
Iw. 0338. 0772; ein tubels knabe, Pass. 172, 59. 175, 10. 290, 
27; our ' teufels-kind,' reprobate; filii Tiufelonis habent Tiufels- 
grub, MB. 12, 85-7; Morolt des tiuvels kint, Mor, 2702; wuren 
ie des tivels kint, Trist. 220, 18. The polecat, Lith. szeszkas, is 
called devil's child, because of its smell? iltisbalg (fitchet-skin) 
is an insulting epithet. Hdle-kint, Griesh. 2, 81 ; des tiuvels 
genoz, Trist, 235, 29 ; slaefestu, des t. gelit (lith, limb)? Pass. 377, 
25; alle des tievels lide, Hpt 8,109; ineinhnmi diaboli, Ch. yr 
1311 in Hildebrand's Svenskt dipl. no. 1789 p. 15 (p. 997). 
What does dtivelskuker mean ? Seibertz 1, 031. 

p. 1024.] The devil has in many cases taken the place of the 
old giants (pp. 1000, 1024) ; so the Finn, hiisi gradually deve- 
loped into a devil. One Mecklenbg witch-story in Lisch 5, 83 



1612 DEVIL. 

still retains the giant where others have the devil ; conf. KM.^ 3, 
206-7. The devil that in many fairy-tales appears at midnight 
to the lone watcher in a deserted castle, reminds one of Grendel, 

whom Beowulf bearded in Heorot. The devil mimics God, 

wants to create like Him : he makes the goat, KM. no. 148, and 
the magpie, Serb, march, no. 18; conf. March, of Bukovina in 
WolPs Ztschr. 1, 179. 180. He builds Bern in three nights, 
Pref. to Heldenb. Where a church is built to God, the d. sets 
up his rJtapel hard by : in the play of Caterina, Lucifer cries to 
the devils, ' habet uch daz kapellichen vor den greten,' ad gi'adus 
ecclesiae, Stephan p. 172. In tales of the church-building devil 
they make a wolf run through the door ; conf. a song in Uhland^s 
Volksl. p. 812 and the story of Wolfgang in M. Koch's Reise413. 

S war just ein neu-gebautes nest, 
der erste bewohner sollt' es taufeu ; 
aber wie fangt er's an ? er lasst 
weislich den pndel voran erst laufeu. 

Wallenstein's Camp, p.m. 33. 

Mephistopheles hates hells, Faust p.m. 433. Tales of devil's 
bridges in Miillenh. p. 274-5 ; such a one is also called ' die 
stiehende briicke,' Geschichtsf., heft 7 p. 36. 

There is a deviVs stone near Polchow in Stettin district, on 
which the d. takes his noonday nap on Midsura. day ; it becomes 
as soft as cheese then, and the evil one has left the print of his 
limbs on the flat surface. Bait. stud. xi. 2, 191. xii. 1, 110. A 
devil's chamber lies between Haaren and Biiren (Paderborn), 
Devil's hitcJiens, Leoprechtiug 112-3-7. A field named teufels- 
riitti, Weisth. 1, 72. The Roman fortifications in Central and 
S. Germany are also called pfal-heclie, pfal-rain, jiful-ranke ; 
Er. Alberus fab. 25 ha,s ^wl-grahen, Jaum. Sumloc p. 17; die boll, 
poU-graben, conf. the iron pohl, Steiner's Main-gebiet 277-8; 
bidiveg, ibid. ; ivul, wulch in Vilmar's Idiot. 102, conf. art. Pfahl- 

inaver in Hall, encyclop. It seems these Roman walls were not 

always of stone or brick, but sometimes of ^9/a/e (stakes) : Spar- 
tian, as quoted by Stalin, speaks of ' stipitibus magnis in modum 
muralis sepis funditus jactis et connexis'; and Moneys Bad. 
gesch. 2, 5 mentions ' pali,' our pfdle. Near the Teufels-mauer 
is situated a Pfalds-buck, Panz. 1, 156, and in the Wetterau a 



DEVIL. 1013 

pohl-hnrn (Ukert p. 281), just like Pholes-hnmno (p. 226). Oa 

the other liand the devil's wall is not only called schioein-graheii, 
but also .svn(-,'?/ra.?.s-e, Stalin 1, 81-5.97. Ukert p. 279 ; and if 
the former is said to have been ' tlirown up by a (jnckel-hahn 
(cock) and a schwein,' it puts us in mind of the boar that roots 
up earth, and bells out of the earth, Firmcn. 2, 148; conf. supra 
(pp. 660. 990) and the ploughing cock (p. 977). ' In beren-loch, 
daz man nempt des tiifels grahen,' Segesser 1, 045. On a giant's 
wall in Mecklenbg lies a teufels hack-ofeu (Ukert p. 314), just 
as the people call grave-mounds ' baker's ovens,' ibid. p. 280. 
Other places named after the devil in Mone's Anz. 0, 231. 

p. 1024.] 'Devil take the hindmost/' Garg. 190^ conf. 
sacrificing the last man to Mars 227". So the vila consecrates 
12 pupils on vrzino kolo, and the twelfth or last falls due to 
her, Vuk sub v. vrzino kolo (Suppl. to 986 end). The same with 
the 12 scholars at Wunsiedel, Schonw, 3, 50, and the student 
of Plesse 3, 20. Again : ' wa sit ir ze sclmole gewesen ? hat iu 

der /'//eZ vorgelesen ? ' lectured to you, Dietr. dr. 157''. The 

devil's taking the shadow reminds us of the schatten-busze 
(shadow-penance) in German law. The Indian gods cast no 
shadow, which is as it were the soul of a man, Klemm 2, 309. 
Catching the shadow is also Wallachian, SchuUer's Argisch 17. 
Miillenh. p. 554. Winther's folke eventyr p. 18. Icel. story of 
Sgemund, Aefintyri p. 34-5. Chamisso's legend is known in 
Spain: ' hombre que vendio su sombra,' Mila y Foutals 188. 

p. 1028.] The hushing of the child in the legend of Kallund- 
borg church is the same as that of the giant's child (p. 54S). 
Similar stories in Schonwerth 3,61. Miillenh. p. 300-1. A rock 
that is carried past, croivs and puts the devil out in his building, 
Somnier p. 53. Schonw. 3, GO. Disappearance takes place after 
thrice clapping the hands, Dybeck 4, 32 (nos. 31 and 33). With 
the story of ' self done, self have,' conf. p. 450-1 n, ; the tale of 
the water-nix and Selver-gedan, Hpt 4, 393 ; the Engadine story 
of the diala and the svess, Schreiber's Taschenb. 4, 306. Vonbuu 
pp. 5, 6 (ed. 2 p. 8); the Lapl. story of giant Stallo, Nilsson 4, 
32 ; and the Norse one of Egil, ibid. 4, 33. Miill. Sagenb. 2, 
612. 

p. 1029.] The division of crops between the peasant and the 
devil is also in Miillenh. p. 278. ' To raise com and turnip' is 

VOL. IV. z 



1614 



MAGIC. 



the formula of agriculture : ' ryj^ia undir ruglii ok rovum,^ rye 
and turnips, Ostgot. lagh pp. 217. 220. 

p. 1029.] The dragonfly is called devil's horse : Finn, pi n(i)i 
hevoinen = daemouis equus, pirum piika = da,emoms ancilla. A 
priest's wife is the devil's hrood-mare, App. Spell, xxxiv. Nethl. 
duivel's-kop (-head) = typha, our tuttil-kolbe, deutel-kolbe. 
Teufels-rohr, conf. Walth. 33, 8. Devil's thread is ace. to Vilmar 
the cuscuta epilinum, called rang in the Westerwald. A farm 
named duvel-hites gidol, Seibertz 391 (1280). 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 
MAGIC. 

p. 1031.] Got wunderaere, Gerh. 4047; Got, du iv., Ad. v. 
Nassau 230; Got ist ein iv., Helmbr. 1639; Krist w., Walth. 5, 
35 ; Got wundert, Engelh. 455. 491. 

Nil mohte iuch nemen wunder, 

waz goto waren bi der zit ? 

si waren liute, als ir nu sit, 

wan daz ir krefteclich gfewalt 

was michel undo manecvalt 

von kriutern und von steinen. — Troj. kr. 858. 

(what were gods in those days ? Men like you, except that their 
power over herbs and stones was much). All gods are magicians, 
ibid. 859 — 911 ; Terramer calls Jesus a magician, Wh. 357, 23 : 
Thor's image speaks, walks and fights, but hij the devil's agency, 
Fornm. sog. 1, 302 — 6j a statue of Freyr gets off the chariot and 
wrestles 2, 73-5 ; tiuvele wonent darinne (inside them), Rol. 27, 

8. The grdl makes men magic-proof even to the fifth of kin : 

die edel fruht vom grale, unz an die funften sippe keines zoubers 
strale traf in weder rucke, houbt noch rippe. Tit. 2414. Mathe- 
matici are classed among magicians ; thus Cod. ix. tit. 18 treats 
* de maleficis et mathematicis' ; mathematicus = hirail-scowari, 
stargazer, Diut. 1, 505*; math. = tungel-witega, steor-gleaw, 
Hpt's Ztschr. 9, 467'' ; vaticinatores et mathematici, qui se Deo 
plenos adsimulant, Jul, Pauli sentent. 5, 21. 



MAGIC. 101. 5 

p. 103 t.] The bad is llie nut r'ajht : es gelifc nlcht nut rr'clilca 
(h)i(jen 7Ai; 'das ich soldier frawca sei, die mit bosm ntnchi'ii 
uinbgen/ Bodmer's Rheiiig. 421- (yr 1511). ON. fordajd'it-skaiir, 
fordred'a-verk (misdoing) =veneficium ; /or(Z<^^'/>-.s7'//;r, Gutalag 77; 
fonhcpn, Ostg. lag 225. AS. indn-forddulldn = mii\ei\c\, H(?ovv. 
1120. Gl. to Lex 1 § 2. Dig. de obseq. par. (indiguus militia 
mdicandus est qui patrem et matrem maleficos appellaverit) : boo 

est qui matrem dixerit afTactorafria'm. OHG. zonpar, Graff 5, 

580-1-2. MliG. don selben zouber, Hartm. biichl. 1, 1347, daz 
xouber 1318. Daz z. = magic potion: mir ist zouher gegeben, 
Herb. 758, and : Circe kunde trenke geben, sulich zoicher, sulcho 
spise 17631. M. Lat. zohr'ia f., Mone's Anz. 7, 424; mit zouhr,- 
varn, MS. 1, 73\ Curiously in the Dresd. Wolfdietr. 162 : keiu 
z. dir kan (/ewliiketi (rhy. triuken) ; tover en ontfoerdene irii, 
Karel 1, 1469 ; si zigen in zouherliclier dinge, Trist. 272, 2 ; 
zouber-liste, Eracl. 1062 ; zouherliste tragen, MS. 1, 78'', z. ban 

99^ Umme-gan (go about, meddle) mit toverye und wyckerie, 

Burmeister's Alterth. 25 (yr 1417) ; tovern u. loykken, ibid. ; 
wiiken, Bruns Beitr. 337 ; ivlckerie, bote, ivicJtelie, Geihen's liei\. 
141, toverie, ivickerie 124. Welsh gwiddan, witch. OHG. wicJwn 
saltare, gesticulari, Graff 1, 708 ; couf. Hpt 3, 92. AS. liweoIcr = 
augur, /«(//(? hweoler, fr. hweol, wheel. Lett, dcewaredsis who sees 
God and discovers hidden things, conf. devius (p. 471). Butt- 
manu 2, 256 derives xpaco, I divine, fr. grabbing, grasping; conf. 

Gripir (p. 471). ]Veis-hexeii, Gryph. Dornrose 90, 27; iviza- 

nunc, divinatio, wizzigo, vates, Gl. Sletst. 6, 699; eiu n'i;:zai] 
f/etyrte)-«, MS. 2, 189'*; vitka liki fara, Saem. 63"; Engl, wizard. 
ON. yan, 'magia,' Bicirn ; but 'inconsultus gestus,' Nialss. p. (583''. 
AS. liwata = om\nB., divinationes. Can. Bdg. 16 (Suppl. to 1107 
beg.). ljQ.t. veratric, soothsayer, sorceress ; yerare, to say sooth, 
conf. veratriuii, hellebore. Lith. wardyti, to work magic. ON. 
salt eitt sag(Sak, I said a sooth, Sasm. 226''. OHG. wdr-secco, 
divinator; der ivarsager tut mir warsagen, H. Sachs ii. 4, 12'', 
unser iv. 13'', the one who practises in our village, as among 
Finns and Lapps, Suomi '46, p. 97-8. Fara ti\ fiolknnniiira Fiuna, 
Fornm. s. 2, 167; kynga, magica, Laxd. 328; in Cavall. Voc. 
verl. 38^ /''//"f/, sickness. Leikitr, witches, versiformes, Grottas. 
11. Betw. Lauterbach and Grebenau a diviueress was called e 
bid kcnd, a blue child. 



1616 MAGIC. 

p. 1037.] Spoken magic, spell, is in MHG. galster, Lanz. 
7011; mit galster-liste, Fundgr. 2, 100; gaUtern, Staid. 1, 417. 
Gdrminator, carminatrix, MB. 16, 242 (yr 1491). Vermeinen, 
bewitch, Schm. 2, 587; vermaynen ad oculos, dentes, Mone's 
Anz. 7, 423; verschireu, fascinare, Diut. 2, 214''; verschieren, 
hesiroyen, Miillenh. p. 560 ; verruoclien u. vermeinen, Ges. Abent. 
3, 78; homines magicis artihiis dementare, Lamb. p. 214 (yr 1074). 
Kilian has ungheren, work m?ig\c, unghers, maleficus, ungher-hoere, 
malefica, unghers eyeren volva, q. d. manium sive cacodaemonum 
ova. Van den Bergh p. 58 has Fris. tjoenders en tjoensters, wizard 
and witch. Ougpente, fascinatione, Gl. Sletst. 25, 149. 

ON. seiffr, magic : Gunnhildr let seiff efia, Egilss. 403 ; seid'- 
stadr or -stafr, Laxd. 328; conf. Lapp, seita, Castren's Myt. 
207-8. Boiling of herbs (p. 1089), of stockings (p. 1093j. 

MHG. die huoze versuochen, try remedies, charms, Morolf 
916; silhte hilezen, heal sickness, Freid. 163, 16 ; de tene hoten, 
cure toothache, Hpt 3, 92; hoeten, Gefken's Beil. 151. 167; 
hoterie 124. 175-7; zanzela, work magic, Mielcke 36". 

Lupperie, Gefk. Beil. 109. 112; Idchenie, Troj. kr. 27. 234; 
ldc]ie)iaere 27240, conf. 963 ; stria aut herbaria, Lex Alam. add. 
22. 

ON. hdlvisar konor, witches, Saem. 197'' (p. 988) ; fraffi, 
scieutia, esp. magia nigra (snppl. to 1044). 

Nethl. terms for sorceress, witch : nacht-loopster (-rover), weer- 
makster, weather-maker, Inister-vinh, mntterer in secret, grote Jcol, 
great horse; op Icol rijden, work magic, Weiland sub v. kol; in 
ma anwot sein, be bewitched. Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 54. Necroman- 
ticus habebat cucullum ac tunicam de j^'i'l^'^ cuprarum, Greg. Tur. 
9, 6 ; conf. indutus pellibus 10, 25. 

Tlie AS. dry, magus, comes not fr. Sp{}?, oak (p. 1215 end), 
but fr. Ir. draoi, with a pi. draoithe, of which the Romans made 
druidw, Leo's Malb. gl. 1, 23. Davies in Celt. res. had derived 
it fr. Wei. derwydd. Spells were read out of a book : sin zouber 
las, Pass. 171, 25; ein pfaffe der wol zouber las, Parz. 66,4; 
' ich han von allem dem gelesen daz ie gefloz u. gcflouc ' says the 
soothsayer, Troj. kr. 19057; in den swarzen buochen lesen, 
Ksrchr. 13234. Finn, lukia, to read, but in the Runes always to 

conjure, Castr. Pref. p. x. Ze Dolet ich niht lernen wil von 

der nigromanzie, MS. 2, 63^; zu Toletum die ars necromantica 



MAGIC. 1017 

lernen, Cies. Heisterb. 5, 4, conf. Jubinal's Mysteres 1, 39G ; 
noch so leriiet man die list in einer stfit ziio Tolet, diu in His- 
pauien stet, Herb. 562, couf. Fromtn. p. 225 and ze Dolet (p. 1018 
bo^.) ; ein stat heizet Persidd, da erste zouber wart erdaht, Parz. 
(557, 28. The travell'uuj scJiolars roam fr. school to school, and 
learn black art, H. Sachs ii. 4, 19*^; conf. devil's pnpils, disciples 
(p. 1024). Cain lerte siniu chint (taught his children) dei zouber 
dei hiute sint, Diut. 3, 59. 

p. 1038.] MHG. ?i6'2en = augurari : stWle Hezen, Er. 8687; ich 
kun vliegen u. verliezen, MS. 1, 89"; sdhs-luzzo, magus, Hattemer 
I, 259**. Zouherse too is sortilega, Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 72 ; kanstii 
von zouber meisterschaft, die wlrf an aie (throw it on her), 
Laurin 1675. With 8wed. tjusa to conjure, conf. Dan. kysc, 
terrere. 5(«-/ = sortilegium, hitrfen, conjure, divine, Gefken 99; 
conf. Lith. burtas lot, hurll prophesy, hurtininlias lot-caster, and 
Lett, hurt witches, burtneks sorcerer. The lot speaks : ' al dar- 
nach daz loz geseit ; seit ez ivol, misse-seit ez,' as the lot shall say, 

yea or nay, MS. 1, 156\ Gongulares list, 0. iv. 16, 33; caucu- 

lare, magus, Hpt 3, 382 ; mit goucgeles liste, Fundgr. 2, 99, 
goucgeldre list 99. 100 ; de gouchelare, MB. 8, 482 ; ein govkel, 
Eracl. 1110; gokelt onder den hoet, Ferg. 2772; under 'm huot 
gaxkehi, Suchenw. 29, 45. May we take it as conn, with gouch, 
gowk, cuckoo ? the Dan. for gowk and conjure are gjog and 
gojgle, but the OHG. koiilb and koukalon. Frere Barbarin in 
Flores practises sleight-of-hand, and is called encanteor. ON. 
,sio?i-/M)cr/4/i^ar = praestigiae, Sn. 79; AS. gedwimor, gedw}jmor = 
fantasma, praestigium. 

There is an old word, OHG. Jdiodar, AS. /i/eocro?* = souus, vati- 
cinium, ON. hlioff merely sonus ; OHG. hJeodar-sdzo hariolus, 
necromanticus, hleodar-sizzeo, hleodar-sezzo ariolus, hleodar-sdza 
vaticinium, Graff 6, 302-4; lioder-sdza, Hattemer 1, 261; in 
cervulo = in lioder-sdza , coragius = //otZ/r-.s-dzo, Gl. Sletst. 23, 3. 8; 
conf. Superst. A ; the diviner then sits in a chair ? The sahs- 
liizzo, magus, Graff 6, 91. 2, 322, appar. divines witli a knife or 
sword. 

p. 1039.] Magic is ascribed chiefly to ivomen. Priestesses, 
prophetesses, were old, grey-haired (p. 96-7) : Sibylla ' saz au.tf((s 
(unkempt) an irme bete-hus,' En. 2694; groz u. grd was ir daz 
bar, u. harte verworren (tangled) als einea pferdes mane 2098 ; 



1618 MAGIC. 

daz ))iies lokehte liienc ir liz den oren 2708. Neapol. scirpiu, 
brutta Strega, fr. scirpus, a kind of rush. A wiinder-altez wip 
interprets the dream upon her oath, Walth. 95, 8; vielle sorciere, 
Meon 3, 159; a soothsaying /osfer-^not^e?-, Arvidss. 2, 5; kerltnga 
villa, Saem. 169; alter wibe troume, Tiirl. Wh. 82"; 'a devil- 
ridden root-delver, spell-speaker, and wizzened old herb-hunter,' 
Garg. 189", Ir. caiUeach means a veiled woman, old woman, 
witcli. Herdsmen too are sorcerers: "^ for, you see, we shep- 
herds, cut off from the world, have our thoughts about many 
things while the silly sheep are grazing/ Voss's Idyls 9, 49. 

p. 1041.] IIegitisse — e\iVL\emdieB, lujgtis^stviga., Gl. Jun. 378, 
381; /(azz't'.sa = eumenides, Gl. Sletst. 6, 273; haghetissen, Br. 
Gheraert 717, conf. /iezos?f?i = palaestritae, Graff 4, 1073. Hage- 
disse = lizard (OHG. egidehsa), Gemmula Antwerp, in Hoffm. 
Horae Belg. 7; in the Ring 210-1 it is called lidxe, 219 both hdxe 
and unhold. Is the Lith. hehsze, harlot, formed fr. hexe, as 
keksztas fr. heher, a jay ? In the Ring p. 230 a witch is called 
Hdcliel, sorceress; conf, ' hdgili, sta ! ' stay, little witch, 57. The 
Swiss liagme = la.ejie (Staid. 2, 10) may hark back to OHG. hali- 
sinSn subnervara [hamstring, cut the hdclise, hough], for a witch 
vnnerves (comedere nervos, p. 1081 last 1.) ; conf. Fris. hexna, 
hoxna, hoxne = poples. 

p. 1042.] O^inn is called galdrsf6&r, S^em. 94". The Vilkina- 
saga names a sorceress Ostacia, who learnt magic of her step- 
mother (see p. 1055). Other names of witches in SkaUlskap. 
234. A sorceress is a vala or volva : seicf-da&r mikill, |>6ttust 
menu ]>a vita, at ]?ar mundi verit hafa v'uln leiffi nockud (sagae 
tumulus), Laxd. p. 328. She is also called /o/;^; flugcf a. Hei^ar- 
skog, Fornm. 3, 122; Nethl. nacht-loopster, grote hoi (Suppl, to 
1037 mid.) ; conf. roer&l sin gand,/dr at sei^a, Vilk. saga c. 328. 

p. 1044.] Gera seid'-h.iall mihinn ; appar. a platform to hold a 
good many : ]7au foerdust j^ar a upp i'tll (all), ]>au kvaSu Y^r froeffi 
sin, en ]?at voru galdrar, Laxd. 142. 

p. 1045.] For masca, the Lomb. Glosses have iiasca, Hpt's 
Ztschr. 1, 556; conf talamasca (p. 915). With striga connect 
o-Tpiy^ owl, who waylays children, and is kept off by hawthorn, 
Jv. Fast. 6, 130 — 168; crrpiyXa in Leo Allatius ; aTiy\o<; {j6r)<i) . 
DC. Another word for mask is sdioa-hart, Sclim. 3, 362. 
Oager's Ulni p. 526 : nu sitze ich als ein nchempart truric, Renn 



MAGIC. 1G19^ 

17998; srpiua =\iivvii, Graff 6, 495-6; LG. scheme in Voss ; 
Netlil. ticlteon, sclienie, sliudow ; conf. sclieine in Frauenl. 174. 

p. 104(3.] Oil rlierrlohunjus, see Malb. g\. 2, 153-4. Miillon- 
liotl' (ill Waitz p. 287, and Mone's Anz. 8, 452) compares it with 
tlie K€pvo(f)6po'i of the mysteries. A Tyrolese legend tells of 
roving night-wives and their cauldron, Germania 2, 438. In our 
nursery-tales witch and old cook are the same thing, KM. no. 51. 

Lisch's Meckl. jrb. 5, 82. On a hill or mountain named kipula, 

or kipivuori, kipumiiki, kipuharja (sorrow^s mount, hill, peak), 
stands Kivutar before a cauldron (kattila, pata), brewing plagues. 
In Kalev. 25, 181, is mentioned a parti- coloured milking-pail 
(kippa), 182 a copper bushel (vakka), 196 kattila. Ace. to 
Renvall a witch is panetar, panular. A butterfly is called kettel- 
hiifer (-heater), and whey-stealer, milk-thief (p. 1072). 

p. 1047.] A salt-work is a sacred gift of God, and protected 
by the law of nations, Rommel 8, 722. Salt is laid on tables 
and altars : sacras facite mensas salinorum appositu, Arnob. 2, 
67; salinum est patella, in qua diis primitiae cum sale offere- 
bantur. Egyptians hated salt and the sea ; their priests were 

forbidden to set salt on the table, Plut. De Iside 32. The 

interchange of H and S in Jial and sal is, ace. to Leo (in Hpt 5, 
511), syntactic in the Celtic tongues, and Gael, sh is pron, h. 
Hnllstadt is more corr. spelt Hallstatt, M. Koch's Reise 407. 
Ssk. .sara = salt. Lat. halec, herring, is akin to aX.?, salt, GDS. 
300 [So SI. seldX, ON. sild, herring, means salt-water fish ; but 
Tent. hdriug = heer-?iB,c\\, bee. it goes in hosts, shoals, Helm's 
Plants and Anim. 41 1]. 

p. 1050.] Witches eat horseflesh, Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 67. The 
pipe at the dance of trolls inside the hill is a horse-bone, Afzelius 
2, 159; conf. a Pruss. story in N. Preuss. prov. bl. 1, 229. 

p. 1051.] The Witches' Excursion takes place on the first 
night in May, Lisch's Meckl. jrb. 5, 83. Wolf's Zts. 2, ijS. 
' The Esth. witches also assemble that night,' says Possart p. 
161 ; others say the night of June 23-4, i.e. Midsum. Eve. 
'They ride up Blocksberg on the first of Mat/, and in 12 days 
must dance the snow away ; then Spring begins,' Kuhu in Hpt's 
Zts. 5, 483. Here they appear as elflike, godlike maids. 

p. 1053.] Witches' Mountains are: the Briii-h-lspery, Wolfs 
Zts. 1, 6; several Blocksbergs in Holsteiu, Miilleuh. p. 564; 



1620 



MAGIC. 



Brochenshurg, Dittm. Sassenrecht 159. GDS. 532; the unliol- 
denperg near Passau occurs already in MB. 28^ 170. 465. 'At 
the end of the Hilss, as thou nearest the Duier (Duinger) wood, 
is a mountain very high and bare, named uf den bloszen zelbn, 
whereon it is given out that witches hold their dances on Wal- 
purgis night, even as on Mt Brocken in the Harz/ Zeiler's 
Topogr. ducat. Brunsv. et Luneb. p. 97. Betw. Vorwalde and 
Wickensen (Brunswk) stands the witches' mount Elias. Near 
Briinighausen is Kuheshurg, already named in the Hildesh. dioces. 
circumscr., conf. Liinzel p. 31-8, which Grupen calls Kokesbnrg, 
named after the devil's Jcitchen. Witches' hills in Holstein, and 
their trysts in N. Friesland, are in Miillenh. no. 288-9. A witch- 
mtn near Jiilchendorff, Mecklenbg, Lisch 5, 83; is Koilberg 
another? Gefk. Catal. 111. In Sommer pp. 56. 174 the 
Brocken is called Glo deer sh erg. Similar places are the Franco- 
nian Pfetersherg near Marktbiirgel, and the Alsatian B'dchelherq, 
conf. huhilesherc, pilckelsherg, Graff 3, 135; for other trysts of 
witches in Elsass, see Alsatia '56, p. 283. Dwarfs as well as 
witches haunt the Heuberg or Hoperg, Ring 211 ; witches' horses 
flew over Hoperg 234. In Tirol they meet on the SchlernJcofel, 
Zingerle's Hexenproc. 37; seven more places are given in his 

Sitten 32 and Alpenburg 255. 262. In Bleking the Swed. 

trysting-place is called Jungfru-kullen, Wieselgr. 398; in fairy- 
tales Bld-Jculla or Heckenfjell, Cavallius 447-8. The vila holds 
her dance on the mountain-top (vr), vrzino Iwlo ; there also she 
initiates her pupils, Vuk sub v. vrzino kolo. ' iesogora seu 
Bloksbarch/ Ceyuowa 13, exactly translates Kalenberg, fr. lijsy 
bald, Linde 2, 1318-9. Finn, kipida or kippumdki, see Peterson 
p. 72-3 (Suppl. to 1046). In Moravia the witches meet on Mt 
Bddost, a Slavic mont-joie, Kulda. In Persia another name for 
Mt Demavend is Arezura, where daevas and wizards assemble, 
Spiegel's Avesta 2, cxiv. 

p. 1054.] In Vilk. cap. 328 'roerdi sin gand' seems to mean 
'rode into the air.' There is a dwarf named Gand-dlfr, Saem. 2^, 
and a valkyrja Gondul (p. 421). The Hachel i-ides on a ivolf, 
Ring 230-7; witches fly on goats, 210-1. Matth. v. Kemnat 
names unholde and nachthusser together; does the word contain 
thusse, durse ? In Passion 4, 85 it says : daz ist ein naht-vole, 
den guoter werke tages-lieht lat gesehen wenec iht. The Vatns- 



MAGIC. 1621 

(loel.i p. lOG cap. 2(3 thus descr. a sorceress and lier extraordinary 
turn-out: )?ar fer )>a Liof, ok hefir hreitiUga uin sik buit, huu 
IjafSi rekit fotlnn fram yjir hofafflt, ok for iifuij, ok retti hoJ'aiSii 
lit d milium fotanna aptr ; ofagurligt var henuar aiignabragil, 
liversu hun gat \v\ trollsliga skotit. Verlauff' s note p. 107 says, 
the (old) GuIl))oris saga cap. 17 descr. the similar figure cut by a 
sorceress, to dull the enemies' weapons. 

p. 1061.] Troll-dances descr. in Afzelius 2, 158-9. A remark- 
able story in Lisch's Meckl. jrb. 5, 83 tells of a giant giving a 
feast on a mountain, and tkumblings dancing on the table before 
him ; the rest is like other witch-stories. H. Sachs v, 343"*' 
says witches hold their dances and weddings on a great beech-tree. 
A musician comes upon a witches' dance, and has to play to 

them, Firmen. 2, 383-4. AS. niht-genge, witch ; conf. naht- 

egese, naht-eise (note on Andr. xxxii) ; nacht-ridders, Br. Gher. 
715; nacht-volk, Voubun p. 34-5. Wolf's Zts. 2, 53 ; glauben, 
die liite des nachtes farn, Gefk. Bail. 24; ON. Ndtt-fari, a man's 
name, Landnam. 1, 1 ; varende vrauicen = witches, Belg. mas. 2, 
116. Br. Gher. 717; ausfahrerin, Judas erzsch. 2, 107; naht- 
^Vaiwe in Mone 8, 408 means midwife; iiacht-frala is the plant 
mirabilis jalappa, belle de nuit, Castelli 205. The Thessalian 
witches also fly by night : c^aal he avrrjv koX Trereadac r*}'? PVKTO'i, 
Lucian's Asin. 1. In Servia the magicians and their pupils 
travel with the vila. The unhuld fetches bottles of wine out of 
cellars, H. Sachs i. 5, 532''. A story in Pertz 2, 741 of a pilosus 
who fills bottles. 

p. 1061.] Z>dse looks like AS. tiwaes, fatuus ; but in Reinaert 
7329 dasen, insanire, rhymes with verdwasen, so it can hardly be 
the same word as dwasen. The Gemm. Antwerp, (in iloffm. 
Hor. Belg. 7) has fiase = peerts-vlieghe, hornet, and in the Mark 
they still speak of a dasen-schwarin, Schmidt v. Wern. 276-7. 
MHG. ' daesic hunt,' Frauenl. 368, 2. Heimdall is culled hornpi/t- 
valdi, Saem. 92'\ 

p. 1064.] Other herb and flower names for the devil and for 
witches in Wolf's Zts. 2, 64. Schune is even OHG. : Scouea, a 
woman's name. Grdsle, Kreutle, Rosenkranz, Keller's Frz. 195. 
The elfvor change into flowers or branches by day (Suppl. to 470 
beg.). Is not the devil also called Uagedorn, like the minstrel 
in Berthold 56 ? Is Linden-tolde (-top) a witch ? King 235. 



1622 MAGIC. 

Tho devil often makes a handsome figrure : daemon adolescentis 
vevusti speciem induens, Caes. Heisterb. 5, 36; hence the names 
Frisch, Spring-ins-feld, Fledcr-wisch, Schlepp-hans (yr 1597), 
Thiir. mitth. vi. 3, 68-9. The ' siehen Jlederwische (goosewing 
dusters)' are witches, Panz. Beitr. 1, 217; aWer Jlederwische u. 
viaikiifer-fliigel gesundheit (health) ! Franz. Simpl. 1, 57. 49 ; 
hinaus mit den flederwischen ! Ung. apotheker 762. Other 
names : Zncher, Paperle. Names of devils in the Alsfeld Passion- 
play are coll. in Hpt. 3, 484—493. 

p. 1069.] Witches take an oath to do the devil's will; see in 
Geschichtsfreund 6, 246 the remarkable confession of a witch of 
Ursernthal (yr 1459). The devil's bride sits up in the tree with 
her * kalt-samigen stink-brautgam, Garg. 72^ ; devil and witch 
hold dance and ivedding on trees and boughs, H. Sachs v. 343''°. 
In records even of the ]2th cent, occur such surnames as ' Oscu- 
lans diabolum, Basians daemonem, Deraonem osculans, Bese 
diable/ Guerard^s Prolegom. to the Cart, de Chartres p. xciv. 

What does 'osculans acnionem' there mean ? Tres mulieres 

sortilegae Silvanectis captae, et per majorem et juratos justiciatae 
(yr 1282) ; the bishop claims that they belonged to his juris- 
diction, Guer. Cart, de ND. 3, 341. And even before that: 
Judices tanquam irnalejir.am, et magum miserunt in ignem, Caes. 
Heist. 4, 99; this was at Soest, beginn. of 12th cent. In Eng- 
land : Proceedings against dame Alice Kyteler, prosec. for sorcery 
1324 by Eich. de Ledrede bp. of Ossory, ed. by Th. Wright, 
Lond. '43, Camd. Soc. xlii. and 61. A strega of 1420, who 
turned into a cat, Reber's Hemmerlin p. 248. About the same 
time Wolkenstein p. 208 says of old women : 

zauberei und hiij)el-spiel, 

das machen si nit teuer (not scarce) ; 

es wird doch ie eine versert 

mit einem heissen feuer. 

' Y'\\ fewers zu ! ist der beste rat (plan) ' thinks Matth. v. Kemnat 
p. 117; while on the contrary H. Sachs 1, 532^ saw clearly that 

des teufels eh' und reuterei (weddings and ridings) 

ist nur gespenst und fantasei (mere dreams) ; 

das bock-faren kumpt aus misglauben (superstition). 



MAGIC. 1623 

All Miinl. treatise on Witclies and Witclicraft l)y G. GiH'oid 

1 ()(».'} has been reprinted for the Percy Soc. '42. The burniii(]r 

and strewing of the ashes is found as early as Rudl. 0, 49 : Rogo 
jne ouinburatis, iu- nquam, chicrem jariatift. Fornin. sog. 2, lOo : 
Klauf hann ]>& por i skiiSur einar, lagcSi i eld, ok hroitll at osku, 
siSan fekk liann ser log uokkurn, kastaSi |>ar a oskunni, ok gerJSi 
af grant, j^ann grant (jafhcvDi hlaud'um hionliini (ai. grey hiinduni); 
conf. supra (p. 189). 

p. 1075.] The witcli holds up her h^ff hand in taking the oath 
to the devil, Geschiehtsfr. 0, 24(3. On the nature of the vidvli 
printed on her by the devil, see Mone's Anz. 8, 124-5. The 
Greeks too believed that the Thessalian sorceresses anointed 
themselves with a salve, Lucian's Asin. 12-3. Apuleius p. m. 
116-7; vil kunnen salhen den Imbel (tub), das si obiian aiisfarii 
(fly out at the top), Vintler (Sup. G, 1. 180). A witch is called 
forh-ridt-r, Garg. 47* ; she rides calves and cows to death (p. 1048 
mid.) ; she has wings, Miillenh. p. 212. The witch's or sorcerer's 
Hight through the air is the god's ri&a lopt ok log (air and tire) ; 
conf. the skipper and his man sailing on water, air and land, 

jMiillenh. p. 222. In the midst of the witches the Devil sits 

on ii piflor ( = irmensul), Mone's Anz. 8, 130; he sits with them 
on the free, holds dance and wedding on trees and boughs (Suppl. 
to 1069 beg.). There are banquets of witches, as there are of 
fays : their viands are tasteless as rotten timber, or they suddenly 
change to much ; so all the food the Huldre brings turns into 
cow's dung, Asb. Huldr. 1, 49. 51. Sometimes the devil plays 
the drone-pipe, Thiir. mitth. vi. 3, 70. With the young witch 
set to mind the toads, conf. the girl and three toads in Lisch's 

Jrb. 5, 82. Witches turn the milk, skim the dew, lame the 

cattle, and brew storms. The mischief is chiefly aimed at the 
corn-fields and cattle (p. 1106): they draw milk out of a knife, 
Asb. Huldr. 1,176. Wolf's Zts. 2, 72. Mullenh. p. 222; they 
stretch a string, and milk out of it, Moue 8, 131, or cut a chip 
out of the stable-door for the same purpose 5, 452-3 ; they milk 
•out of an aivl or the neck (handle-hole) cf an, axe, Keisersb. 
Omeiss 54% illustr. by a woodcut; the senni milks out oi four 
taps in the wall, Fromra. 2, 565. Witches make butter by churning 
water with a stick, Miillenh. p. 224 ; they 'filch people's milk fr. 
them,' M. Beham in Mone 4, 454 ; they are called molken-tocor, 



1624 MAGIC. 

Mone's Schausp. 2, 74 (Upstandinge 1116) ; conf. App., Spell 
xx;x.vii : ' Up thro' the clouds aad away, Fetch me lard and milk 
and whey!' Witches gather dew, to get people's butter away, 
Miillenh. p. 565; conf. AS. dedw-dnas, Csedm. 3795 (Bout.), 
Grein 101; towe daz gelesen wirt (gathered dew), Notk. Cap., 

conf. thau-scldepjper, tau-dragil (p. 786). They darn peace or 

no peace into the bridal bed ; they plait discord in, by plaiting 
the pi How -feathers into wreaths and rings, Miillenh. p. 223. 
Hence the tales about the old wife that's worse than the devil : 
' in medio consistit virtus, like the devil between two old wives,' 
Garg. lOO*". An old woman having caused a loving couple to fall 
out, the devil was so afraid of her that he reached her the pro- 
mised pair of shoes at the end of a stick. Witches ' nemen den 
mannen ir gseln,' M. Beham in Mone 4, 451. Grasping, beating, 
stroking, blowing, breathing, eyeing are attrib. to witches (p. 

1099), as they are to healing women. In their magic they use the 

hands of unborn babes, Fastn. sp. p. 1349. Thieves cut the thumb 
off an unborn child, and light it : as long as it burns, every one 
in the house sleeps ; spinam humani cadaveris de tecto pendunt, 
and nobody wakes, Cses. Heist. 6, 1 ; ' du haddest ok ens deves 
dumen bavene henghen an de tunne' is said to the cheating inn- 
keeper, Mone's Schausp. 2, 87 (a thief taken at Berlin in 1846 
had a green herb sewed into her petticoat, her herb of lack she 
called it) ; wigeyneilit kbit [unbetrothed ?] are employed in sorcery, 
Ksrchr. 2102. 2590; conf. Mecta ex structis ignibiis ossa,' Lach- 
mann's emend, of Prop. iv. 5, 28. It is 'thought that the alb 
(nightmare) cometh of untimely births' M. Beham in Mone 4, 
450. These are divided into black, white and red (Hpt. 4, 389), 
which seems to support my division of elves into black, light and 

brown. The caterpillar devil's cat (Staid. 1, 276) reminds one 

of katze-spur, a hairy caterp. so called in the Palatinate ; conf. 
Russ. gusenitza, Pol. wasienca. Boh. hausenka, Langued. diablotin; 
ON. brondungr, variegata, Swed. kdlmask. The butterfly is 
caXled pfeif -mutter, Schm. 1, 30, ffun-trager, Alb. Schott 291 ; 
conf. pipolter, fifolter. The witch is delivered of will o' wisps, 

Thiir. mitth. vi. 3, 69. Witches carry magic in their hair, 

therefore we cut it off: this already in M, Beham's Wien p. 274; 
conf, the weichselzopfe (plica Pol.). The witch chains her lover, 
the devil, with yam spun in a churchyard, Thiir, mitth. vi. 3, 70. 



MAGIC. 1025 

Witches ^^0^// on water, as GoSiAn says of* liorself: ' liAfo inik, 
lu^ dit'Txffo havar barer/ Seeni. 267"; 'hon matti eigi sikqva,' slie 
might not sink 265. The unsightly German witch is paralleled 
by the Finn. Pohjan akka harvahammas (thin-toothed), Kalev. 
2, 187. 205. 5, 135. 

p. 1077.] Heathen features are the witches' consumption of 
horseflesh or even man's flesh, also their dislike of bells. With 
the witch's blood-marl-, and with Death's mark, conf. ' stakitis 
{(TTLy/xaTa) Friiujins ana leika bairan,' Gal. 6, 17. It is remark- 
able that a witch cannot weep; she has watery eyes, but sh(>ds 
no tears. In the Tirol. Inquis. (Pfaundler p. 43) : sie sprotzt 
rait den augen, ireint oJme thrdnen. Exactly the same is said of 
Thock : * Tliock mun grata Jjitrrurn tarnm (with dry tears) Baldrs 
balfarar.' Here the witch answers to the giantess, 

p. 1080.] To lie under a harrow defends you fr. the devil : 
stories in Miillenh. no. 290. Firmen. 1, 206''. He that puts a 
piece of turf on his head will not be seen by witches, Panz. Beitr. 
1, 240-1. Wearing Gundermann's garland makes vou see 
witches, Soram. p. 58. The priest can tell witches by their round 
hats, Ceynowa p. 14. 

p. 1082.] Pol. iedzona means old witch, eater of men, esp. of 
children ; conf. iedza, a fury. Wicked women with white livers 
are also known in France, white-livered men in Schambach 123*. 
Witches poke straw into the heart's place : )^er i briosti liggr 
halmvisk, j^ar er hiartat skyldi vera, Fornm. s. 2, 208 ; Walther 
Strdwinherz, Schreiber's Frib. urk. 2, 161. In Petron. c. 63 : 
strigae puerum involaverant, et supposueravt stramenfitium vava- 
tonem ; and just before : videt manuciolnm de stramentis factum. 
At a witches' feast, boys were usually killed, boiled or roasted, 
and eaten up ; which reminds us of heathen practices, and those 
of giants. Such killing, cooking, and eating of children is an 
antique and vital feature, KM. nos, 15. 51-6, conf. supra (pp. 
1045 end. 1058 — 60). Kettle and cooking are a part of magic. 

p. 1083.] A beast crawls into the sleeping woman's mouth 
Wolf's Ndrl. sag. 250, and note p. 688; or a snake creeps out of 
it, Walach. milrch. p. 103. A white mouse slips into the dead 
man's mouth, Somm. p. 46 ; ' but alas, in the midst of her song 
a red movsie popt out of her mouth,' Faust p. m. 165 ; a bee flies 
out of one's mouth, Schreib. Tascheub. 4, 308. As the white 



1626 MAGIC. 

mouse runs up the i;amparfc ia Fiscliart's play, so witches indoors 

run up the lunll to the rafters, Process v. Ursernthal. With 

the iron bridge of king Gunthram's dream, conf. the sword- bridge 
in the Rom. de la charrette pp. 23. 8i (Suppl. to 835). When 
the witch is setting out, she lays a broom or a halm of straw in 
the bed by her sleeping husband, Mone 8, 126, With OHG. 
irprottan, tranced, connect ' inbrodin lac,' Lachm. Ndrrhein. ged. 
p. 9, and * in hiinr.ebrilden gelegen,' Reim dich p. 52. Our 
entziickt is in MUG. ' gezuchet ■a.nme geiste,' Diut. 1, 466; als in 
zuckete der geist, Uolr, 1331. We also say 'rapt, caught up, 
carried away.' 

p. 1083.] With the Servian starting -spell agree the Moravian, 
Kulda in D'Elvert 92-3. German formulas in Mone 8, 126. 
Panzer 1, 251. Mlillenh. no. 291. Lisch's M. jrb. 5, 85. With 
them compare : ohen liinaus, nirgens an I Callenb. Wurmld (?) 8(j ; 
hid oben aus, luid niergend an, Agricola's Spr. 217. Kl. red. 
(? 1565) 113^^; liei op hei an, stott nernich an, N. Preuss. prov. bl. 
], 229. The cry of pursuit is in Schonw. ], 139; so Asclien- 
piister (Cinderella) cries : ' behind me dark, before me bright ; ' 
Scand. lyst foran, og morkt bag, Norske event. 1, 121 ; Ijust for 
mig,m'6rld efter niig, Sv. iifvent. 1, 410. 427; hvidt fremun, og 
sort bag, Abs. 421. But ' herop og lierned til Monsaas,' Asb. 
Huldr. 1, 179, is another thing. An Engl, spell for faring to 
Elfland is: 'horse and hattock f ivith my top!' Scot. bord. 2, 
177-8. Volund's speech: ' vel ek, verSa ek a fitjom ! ' is appar. 

a flight-formula, for he soars up immed. after, Seem. 138^. 

When a sorceress anoints her shoulders, wings sprout out, Stier's 
Ungr. march, p. 53. Faust uses a magic mantle to fly up; conf. 
the remarkable tale of a dwarf who spreads out his cloah, and 
lets a man stand on it with him, H. Sachs i. 3, 280'"^. 

p. 1085.] llie good people (p. 456) cut themselves horses out 
of switches, Erin 1, 136. The magic steed must be bridled with 
bast, or it runs away, Reusch p. 23-4. In Pacolet's wooden horse 
one has only to turn the tap to right or left, Val. et Orson c. 26 
(Nl. c. 24). A hose-band tied round the shank lifts into the air, 
Eliz. of Orl. 505. 

p. 1086.] The German witches too are hindered in their ex- 
cursions by the sound of bells. If they are late in coming home, 
and the matin-peal rings out from a church, their career stops as 



MAGIC. 1627 

if paralysed, till the last toue lias died away. The witch abuses 
the hell, Panz. Beitr. 1, 20. 

p. 1089.] ' Carmine yrandincs averterc,' is as old as Pliny 17, 
28. Hail beiniTf in grains, it is strewn out by bushclfuls : t»}? 
;y;a\a^?;<? ocrov /j,e8ifivot, ■)(^i\ioi Sia<rK€Baa6t')TQ)(jav, Lncian's Icaroin. 
26. ' You hail-hoilcr ! ' is a term of al)nse, Mone's Scliansp. 2, 
274. German witches scatter a powder with cries of (illes schauer, 
alles schaiier ! The day before Walburgis ni<^ht, a merry cobbk'r 
mocked his maid : ' Take me with you to Peter's mount ! ' When 
evening fell, there came a storm, nigh shook his doors and 
shutters down ; well knew the cobbler what it meant. The 
Esths know how to produce cold : if you set two jugs of beer 
or water before them, one will freeze and not the other ; see 
Wulfstan's journey. The weather must he well boiled : if the pot 
is emptied too noon, your labour is lost, Mone 8, 120. 130. The 
Kalniuks have the same kind of weather-making, Klemm 3, 204. 

Witches boil apple-blossoms, to spoil the fruit crop, Mone 8, 

129. Dull on the fir-tree pours out hail, Panzer 1, 20. Says an 
old woman dripping wet, ' I've had this weather in mi/ back this 
fortnight.' When the huntsman heard that, he struck her over 
the hump v/ith a stick, and said, ' Why couldn't you let it out 
sooner then, old witch as you are ? ' Simplic. 1, 287. Witches 
make stones roll (ein riibi gan) into the hay and corn fields ; also 
avalanches, Proc. v. Ursernthal 245 — 8. The shower-maidens feed 
on beshowered (lodged) corn. Panzer 1, 88. Hence Ph. v. Sittew. 
and the Fr. Simpl. 1, 53. 68 call the witch ' old weather ; ' elsewh. 
she is Jiagel-anne, donnerhagels-aas (-carrion), 7 Ehen p. 78; 
tihower-breeder, fork-greaser. Witches are ivcatJter-'malierK, Wolf's 
Ndrl. s. 289. A witch drops out of the cloud, Bader uos. 337. 
1 (')9. The Servian vila leads clouds (vode oblake) and makes 
weather, Vuk sub v. vrzino kolo ; she teaches her pupils the art. 
Our Germ, phrase, ' the old tvives shake out their petticoats ' = it 
snows, suggests the Wallachian witch who thrcjws off her petti- 
coats. The Indians of Surinam say their sorcerers havt? thunder- 
storms, violent showers and hail at their command, Klemm 2, 

ItitS. The 0. Fr. poets name heathen kings ' roi Gaste-ble,' 

Guillaume 4, 179. 256 and 'roi Tempeste,' 4, 257. 26; conf. 
Miitzner 257 and Tampaste in Wolfram's Wh. 27, 8 (rhym. with 
Faussabre for Fauche-pre, or ble ?) 46, 20. 344, 7. 371, 3. 412, 



1628 MAGIC. 

39. A Tliessalian sorceress fetches the moon down from the 
sky, and shuts her up in a box, Aristoph. Clouds 749. At 
vos, deductce quibus est fallacia lance, Propert. i. 1, 19; tunc 
ego crediderim vobis et sidera et amnes posse cytacaeis ducere 
carminibus i. 1, 23; illic et sidera primum prgecipiti deducta polo, 
Phoebeque serena non alitor diris verborum obsessa venenis 
palluit, Lucan. Phars. 6, 496; cantus et e curru luiiam deducere 
tentat, et faceret si non aera repulsa sonent, Tib. i. 8, 21 ; hanc 
ego de coelo dncentein sidera vidi, i. 2, 45 ; te quoque, Luna, 
traho, Ov. Met. 7, 207; in hac civitate, in qua mulieres et lunam 
deducunt, Petr. c. 129. 

In Esthonia the witches knead stalks of rye together, and re- 
peat a spell over them ; unless the knots are soon found out and 
burnt, the crop is sure to fail, Possart p. 164, conf. 162. 

p. 1091.] In transforming, the sorcerer touches with his staff: 
pdjSScp eTTt/jLacraeadat,, Od. 13, 429, conf. 16, 172. Venus touches 
the mouth of Ascanius with her feather, En. 802 ; and Dido 
catches it (the magic) from his lips 815. Mice are made out of 
fallen pears, but without tails, Firmen. 1, 276**; conf. the red 
mouse (Suppl. to 1083 beg.). Young puppies made, Simpl. 2, 
296-7 (ed. Keller), conf. 328. Ace. to Kenvall, hjiira is the Finn. 
jMxra, genius rei pecuarige lac subministrans; conf. Lencquist 
De superst. 1, 53. Castren 167-8. Ganander's Myth. Fenn. 67, 
even Juslenius sub v. para. In Angermanl. it is called bjara, 
Almqv. p. 299 ; in Vesterbotten, see Unander sub v. hara; the 
Gothl. vocab. in Almqv. p. 415 describes it as smdtroll med tre 
hen. Esths make a homesprite out of an old hroom, Verh. 2, 89 ; 
did Goethe take his Apprentice fr. Lucian's Philops. 35-6 (Bipont. 
7, 288) ? Even a man is made out of wood, and a heart put in- 
side him ; he walks about and kills, Fornm. s. 3, 100. 

p. 1093.] Wax-figures were placed on doors, at cross-roads, 
and on the graves of parents, Plato De legg. 1 1 , 933 ; in another 
passage (of Plato ?) Anacharsis speaks of Thessal. sorceresses 
and their ivax-fignres ; the waxen image of Nectanebus, Callisth. 
p. m. 6. At a synod of 1219 Archbp Gerhard of Bremen con- 
demns the Stedingers as heretics, charging them with ' quaerere 
responsa daemonum, cereas imagines facere, a phitonissis requirere 
consilium, et alia nefandissima tenebrarum exercere opera,' Su- 
dendPs Eegistr. 2, 158; ' quaerunt responsa daemonum, cerea 



MAGIC. 



1629 



<iiii ( 



'«/(RT<t faciunt, et iu siiis spurcitiis erroneas consulunb pliito- 
nissas/ Bull of Greg. 9 (1233), ibid. 2, 1G8. On wax-fjures, see 

Osuabr. verb. 3, 71. M. Lat. invtdtuor, praestigiator qui ad 

artes magicas yu//u.s effiugit ; invultare, fascinare, Fr. envoulter, 
Ducange sub vv. invultare, vultivoli. They tried to copy the 
features of the man they were going to bewitch in the wax or 
clay puppet ; they solemnly baptized it, gave it sponsors, and 
anointed it. When they pricked it witli a needle, the man felt 
a sharp pain ; if they pricked the head or heart, he died. They 
tried to have an Easter candle out of the church, to do the work 
by. Sticking needles into a wax-figure occurs in Kemble's 
Chartae, Pref. lix. Ix., and the story in Miillenh. p. 233 ; conf. 
imago argentea (Suppl. to 1 175 end). Ferebatur immjinem quan- 
dam ad instar <H(iiti, ex Egipto adlatam, adorare ; a qua quotiens 
responsa quaerebat, necesse erat homicidium aut in summo festo 
adulterium procurare ; conf. Pertz 10, tOO and the thiePs thumb 

(Suppl. to 1075 end). GiUtiiuj out the footprint answers to 

TTjpelv TO ixvo<i Koi d/jLavpovf, vestigium observare et delere (blur), 
by planting one's right foot on the other's left print, and 
one's left on his right, and saying : iTn^e^r/Kd <toc, kul vTrepdvo) 
elfxi, conscendi te, et superior sum ! Luciau's Dial, meretr. 4. 
GDS. 137. 

Things that make invisible are : the tarn-helm (p. 463), the 
bird's nest (Suppl. to 974), the right-hand tail-feather of a cock 
(to 671 mid.), fern-seed (p. 1210), the ring, rather the stone in 
the ring (p. 911), Troj. 9203. 9919, and the sonnenwedel (helio- 
trope) laid under a stone, Mone 8, 614. 

p. 1097.] Pliny 8, 34: Homines in lupos verti rursumquo 
restitui sibi, falsum esse existimare dobemus. Unde tamen ista 
vulgo infixa sit fama, in tantum ut in maledictis versipelles habeat, 
iudicabitur. An OHG. name Werlwolf occurs already in the 9th 
cent., Hpt 12, 252, and in Samland the name Waricolf. A ivcr- 
ivoJf in It. Sachs ii. 4, 16% nieerwolf, beer wolf in Ettn. Unw. doct. 
671. Wenvatz (watz = brood-hog) is a family name at Droi- 
eichenhain; is it formed like werwolf? Loups (jaroas, Bosquet 

p. 223 seq. To change yourself into a fux, wolf or cat, you 

use an ointment, Proc. v. Ursernth. ; or shift the buckle of a 
certain strap to the ninth hole, Reusch in Preus^. prov. bl. 36, 
436 and 23, 127. GDS. 152 ; conf. the old leather strap, 

VOL. IV. A- A 



1630 MAGIC. 

Firmen. 1, 213. People with a wolf-girdle are ulf-heffnar : is 
that comi. with our heiden, heiden-wolf for unbaptized child, in 

Waldeck lieid-olleken ? Papollere '60, p. 8. By putting a slip 

of wood (spruoccolo) in one's mouth, one becomes a she-bear, 
and man again on taking it out, Pentam. 2, 6. If you dash 
grass against the stem of a tree, wolves spring out of it, 
Remigii Daemonol. (1598) pp. 152. 162. Sigefridus dictus wolf- 
vel, MB. 1, 280, but wolvel (Wolfel ?) 8, 458. The gods send 
Idun a wolfskin : vargs-hehj seldo, let ifaraz, lyndi breitti, Ssem. 

89\ Were- wolf stories in Miillenh. nos. 317— 320. Firmen. 

1, 363. 332. 212-3. Lekensp. 2, 91-2. ON. i varg-skinns olpu, 
Fornm. s. 10, 201 (olpa, ulpa = toga, vestis). A were-wolf may 
be known by a ivolfs-zagelclien (-tail) betw. the shoulder-blades, 
Reusch no. 75 and note; by a little ' raugen ivolfs-zagel' grow- 
ing out of the back betw. the shoulders, Pi-euss. prov. bl. 26, 435. 
117. 172. 

p. 1098.] The witch appears as a, fox, Schreib. Taschenb. 4, 
309 ; as a three-legged hare, Somm. Sag. 62 ; as a kol-svort hetta, 
Fornm. s. 3, 216. 220. Sv. forns. 1, 90 seq. Men protest : ' by 
catten, die te dansen pleghen tswoendaghs I ' Belg. mus. 2, 116. 
If a girl has fed the cat well, the sun shines on her wedding-day, 
N. Preuss. prov. bl. 3, 470. Good stories of witches in Miillenh. 
pp. 212 — Q; also that of the cat's paw being chopt off, its turning 
into a pretty female hand, and the miller next morning missing 
it on his wife, 227; and that of the witch who is ridden as a 
horse, who is taken to the farrier's to be shod, and lies in bed 
in the morning with horse-shoes on her hands and feet 226. 600. 
Mone 8, 182. So in Petron. c. 62 a were-wolf has been wounded 
in the neck ; presently a ' miles ' is found in bed, having his 
neck doctored : intellexi ilium versipellem esse, nee postea cum 
illo panem gustare potui. The ofreskr in the evening sees a bull 
and a bear fighting ; the next day two men lie wounded in bed, 

L indn. 5, 5. Transformation into a bear or fox, a swan or 

raven, is frequent. In Walewein 6598: teneu vos verhrehen ; 
and 785 : versciep hem. ' Er entwarf sich zu^ he changed into, 
Myst. 1, 214, etc. A bride turns into a swan, Miillenh. p. 212 ; 
a man becomes a hawh oy falcon, and comes flying to the tower, 
Marie 1, 280, conf. 292. Women often change into toads : wesen 
eue padde, en sitten onder die sille, Walew. 5639 ; gienge ich als 



MAGIC. 



1631 



oin l-v'tc gut, n. soldo bi eime zAne giin, Herb. 83G4. 1 must 

liore remark, that vpr^Td at (j'nJtnm in ON. tales does not mean 
turnint^ into a swine, but rnnninf^ about wild like a boar, Ver- 
laufFon Vatnsd. p. 106-7. The magicians and enchantresses in 
our fairytales often change men into wolves, bears, cats, dogs or 
swine ; the witches of a later time liave no longer the power. 
Circe's formula, when turning men into !<wlnc by a stroke of 
her rod, was : epyeo vvv avc^eovhe, Od. 10, 320. The Lapland 
sorcerers sund bears, wolves, foxes, ravens, to do mischief to 
men : such beast is then called tiUe, Lindahl 474'*. 

It is a different thing when two -persons exchange figures. This ON. 
shi-pta Htuui or Iwnium, sliipta litom ok Utom, vixla liium is appar. 
effected by mere will, without spell or clothing, e.g. betw. Sigurd 
and Guunar, Seem. 177-8. 202-3. Vols. sag. c. 27, betw. Signy 
and the sorceress. Vols. 7. It happens esp. among born brothers, 
who are so like as to bo taken for one another ; but in the 
Nib. 337, 3. 429, 3. 602, 2 by the tarnhut which makes in- 
visible. In the same way the wrong wife or lover is smuggled 
into bed at night, as Brangaene for Isot, conf. Berthe au grand 
pied and the Fabliau of the hair-cutting. A later and coarser 
version of this is the mere exchange of clothes. 

p. 1099.] Magic lies in the nails : des zoubers ort-habe (seat) 
ligt an den nagelen, Geo. 57''. Magic is fixed in the hair : con- 
sider the elf-lock, elf-knot (p. 464) ; witches have all the hair 
shaved off them, see story in Klerara 2, 168. M. Beheim 273, 
26. 274, 7. Magic is taken out of the hair, Wolfdietr. 548; 

conf. wolfs hair above. Magic can onake us proof against 

sword and bullet, shot and stroke ; e.g. by a thread of silk, RA. 
183. One so made proof is called a frozen man, Ettn. Unw. doct. 
641. 653. 683, iron man, ON. harff-glorr, poison-proof, Saem. 170; 
Kyrtil hitti eigi iarn, Landn. 2, 7. 3, 4. The wound-spell makes 
invulnerable ; but it can be nGutrulized by first hiding a knife 
in the ground and then wounding with it : this is called unloosing 
the .^pell, H. Sachs v. 347"= (conf. ' digging something in for a 
man,' iii. 3, 7''), and the exorcist hanntuch-macher, hart-inacher, 
Gutslafs Wohh. 207. 337. Othello 3, 4 has a magic kerchirf 
wrought by a ftibijl : ' the worms were hallowed that did breed 
the sillc' A St. George's shirt is made of yarn that was spun on 
a Suturdaij, Superst. G, v. 182. 



1632 MAGIC. 

p. 1100.] Witches are accusedof grasp ivg, strohing, dazzling: 
' she made a clutch at me that will last as long as I live/ Bod- 
mann's Rheingau p. 425, yr 1511 ; or 'ein boser angrifF, bciser 
schlag, herz-griff.^ They tread the cattle; they ' bringen einen 
wehthum zu halse/ they learn you what dazing (hoodwinking) 
means, Bodm. Rh. 908, yr 1505. Magic is wrought by rubbing : 
the rubbing of wood brings forth a squirrel, of chips a marten, 
of leaves a bee, of feathers a flight of grouse, of wool a flock of 
sheep, Kalev. 13, 160. 220. 280. 17, 328. 467 ; conf. the marchen 
of the three brothers, who rub feathers, hair and scales, and 

immed. eagles, bears and, fish come to their aid, Widely 

spread is the belief in the magic of the eye, Grenzboten ^60, no. 
26. BXifjbfia, avaiTvorj and 6(p6a\/x6<i ^daKavo'i are already in 
Plutarch's Sympos. v. 7; nescio quis teneros ocidus milai fascinat 
agnos, Virg. Eel. 3, 108. Engl, evil eye, Ir, the balar, Conan 
p. 32 ; the blink o' an ill ee, Hone's Dayb. 2, 688. His diebus 
ei (Chilperico) Alius natus est, quem in villa Victoriacensi nutrire 
praecepit, dicens ' ne forte, dam publice videtur, aliquid mali in- 
currat et moriatur,' Greg. Tur. 6, 41. MHG. tiuerhe ougeyi. On 
the evil eye, see N. Pr. pro v. bl. 1, 391 — 3 ; der blich slangerr 
toetet, wolve schrecket, struz-eiger (ostrich-eggs) bruetet, uzsatz 
(leprosy) erwecket, u. ander krefte hat gar vil, Renn. 18016; 
men spit in a pretty girl's face for fear of the evil eye, Ir. march. 
2, 64. 

p. 1101.] Sa ze haut ir roter munt einen tiisent stunt (times) 
so schoenen [rosen, underst.) lacliet, MS. 1, 11*. The name 
Rosenlacher is in Michelsen's Lub. oberh. 271. Baur's Arnsb. 
158; conf. 'ad Ruozinlachan,' Notizbl. 6, 68. 'To laugh roses,' 
Athen. 5, 498. It is derived fr. heathen beings of light, Mann- 
hdt's Germ, mythen 149. 439; camillen-bluomen strouwen, swen 
so lieplich laclien wil ir munt, MSH. 3, 212''. 

p. 1102.] A hiss makes you forget everything, Miillenh. p. 
400. Pentam. Liebr. 1, 231 ; so does a bite of the apple, Norske 
folke-ev. 2, 47. Helen, like Grimhild, makes a magic potion, 
mingling spices with the wine, Od. 4, 220 — 230 ; so does Circe 
10, 235. The Faroese still call the draught of oblivion ouminni, 
Qvad. p. 178. 180. The Servians make their voda zaboravna of 
mountain-herbs, Vuk 2, 612-3. Conf. <f)i\Tpov, love-potion; 
mein-blandinn mio^r. Vols, saga c. 25 ; scheidel-tranc gebruwen. 



SUPERSTITION. 1633 

Amg-b. 15". Incendia inter epulas nominata aqiiia sub inensis 
profusis ah-ominamur, Pliny 28, 2. 

p. 1103.] Silence is a safeguard against magic: Saxo's ' ne 
hicanto t'ffamine maleficiis locum instruerent' (p. G59). Incanta- 
tions are in Serv. iirotzi, gen. uroka, Boh. aurok, couf. Jungin. 
sub V. ne-urocny, ne-uroka [reku, I speak]. The Slav, formula 
against bewitching is 'kamen-mira' [stone of peace?] ; conf. 
seines zeichens, ikres zeicliens, Schmidt's Westerw. id. 335, and 
the phrases : salva venia ! God forefend (save the mark) ! 
When a man looks startled, the Serv. formula is : ' zatchudio-se 
prebiyenoi golieni,' he's amazed at his broken leg, Vuk sub v. 
zatchuditi-se, and Sprichw. p. 87. When something painful or 
mischievous is said, the answer is : ' u uashega tchabra gvozdene 

ushi/ our tub has iron ears (handles), Sprichw. p. 33i. On 

spitting as a protection from magic, see Schwenk's Roui. myth. 
399. The cyclop, when admiring his own beauty, spits in his lap 
three times, to avoid baskania : w? /jltj jBaaKavdoi Be, rpt? et? 
i/jbov eTTTvcra koXttoV ravra 'yap apyald fie KOTUTTapl'j i^edi- 
6u^€v, Theocr. 0, 39. The cock-pigeon spits on its young to keep 
off sorcery, Athen. 3, 45G-8 ; et eum morbum mihi esse, ut qui 

me opus sit insputaner ? Plant. Capt. iii. 4, 21. An ear of 

corn protects from magic: ags vib fiolkj^ngi, Saem. 27''. In the 
threshold of the house-door you bore a hole, put in hollowed herbs, 
and peg them in with a harrow's tooth, Mone G, 460 (p. 1078). 
Throw a,fire-steid over anything ghostly, and you are master of it, 
Dybeck '44, 104— G; conf. the power of the eU-stal over the 
giant, Cavall. 1,39; ild-staalet, Folke-ev. 2, 82; & Jlint-eld is 
struck over the cow, Dyb. 4, 27 and over enchantresses 4, 29 ; or 
a knife is flung '44, G3. 4, 33, A magic circle is drawn : gladio 
circa illos ciroilum fecit, monens sub interminatione mortis, ut 
infra circulum se cohiberent, CaDS. Heist. 5, 4. On Indian sorcery, 
conf. Ceutral-blatt '53, 255. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

SUPERSTITION. 

p. 1105.] Gr. BeiatBaifMcov superstitious, Beia-iBai/jLovla super- 
stition. Tac. Germ. 45 speaks of the snperstitio of the Aestyaus. 
Pott 1, 157 derives the word fr. stare super, to stand htj or before 



1634 SUPEKSTITION. 

the god or altar. Wend, vih-a faith, pHviera, psiviera super- 
stition [Russ. suye-verie]. With the Swed. vidske-pelse agrees 
in part the OHG. unscaf superstitio, unscajithho superstitiose, 
Graff 6, 453 ; there are also impiderpi 6, 219 and uhirfenkida, Gl. 
Sletst. 25, 327 both = superstitio; uharwintelingun superstitiose, 
Mone's Anz. ■'35, 89. AS. ofertaele superstitiosus, Lye. Later 
words : gelouheUn, Krolewitz 3753 ; swacher glouhe, iingeloube, 
Er. 8122-39. We have also J^ohler-glaube, collier's faith, and in 
the Quickborn honer-glohe. Superstitiones reHgionis rubigines, 
Garg. 187''. Ou superstition, see Nilsson 6, 3. Hes. 0pp. 705 — 
826. 

p. 1105 n,] Klemm 3, 201-3 divides magic into explorative 
and active. A foretoken, presage, is in Lat. portentum from 
portendo, osteiitiim from ostendo, 7nonstrum from monstro 
[moneo?], Cic. Div. 1, 42 and Forcellini ; prodigia coelestia, 
prope quotidianas in urbe agrisque ostentantia minas, Livy 2, 42. 
OH.G. fora-ponchan, fore-hea.cou, fora-zeichan, foretoken; Mzeichen, 
Windb. Ps. 323. 367. Signs appear before the Judgment-day, 
bef. a death, a dearth, a war. To curse all signs, Hebel 332. 

p. 1107.] OHG. drewa oraculum, droa fulmen, Graff 5, 246. 
AS. hwdt omen, divinatio, also hwdtung, OHG. hvdz (p. 951), 
conf. hwdtend iris (p. 1216 n.) ; fugel-hv;dte divinatio per aves. 
AS. hwetton hige, hael scedwedon (on the voyage), Beow. 407; 
OHG. heil-scowunge augurium, Graff 6, 556 ; hel-scouwinge, Par- 
tonop. 20, 13 ; heilge scowede augurium, Sumerl. 2, 41 ; hel- 
scowinge, Bilderdyk's Yerscheidenh. 3, 143. Frauenl. p. 142 
uses hilnden for prognosticate. Again luesen, choose = look out 
for (in ref. to weather, Gramm. 4, 848), conf Swed. tjusa (p. 
1037). Children esp. are used in divination and casting lots; 
conf. pitre ddldren, Superst. H, cap. 55-6-7. 83. 

p. 1107.] A remarkable method of acquiring the gift of divi- 
nation occurs in the Swed. drs-gdng, Hpt's Ztschr. 4, 508 seq. 
Both that and the power of healing are passed on from women to 
men, from men to women, conf. Firmen. 1, 318. Sommer's Sagen 
p. 171. As in Superst. I, 996, so in Miillenh. 399 the gift of 
spirit-seeing is transferred by treading on the left foot and 
looking over the rigid shoulder. Prevision is the faculty of 
presentiment intensified to actual seeing and hearing : Siforeseer, 
t'orepeeper beholds funerals, armies in march, battles, also unim- 



SUPERSTITION. 1635 

portant things, such as a harvest-wagon that will upset in the 
yard iu ten years^ time, the figures and clothing of servants yet 
unborn who are lifting him off the ground, the marks on a foal 
or calf that shies to one side ; he hears the tap of the hammer on 
coffin lids, or the tramp of horse. These vorklekers always 
perceive with only one sense, either sight or hearing: they cannot 
hear what they see, nor see what they hear. They are wltcJi- 

seers, god-seers, devil-seers. In ON. a ghost-seer is ofreskr, 

Landn. 3, 14. 4, 12. 5, 5 (p. 3i4); or does ' ofreskir menu s;i 
)>at' iu these passages mean that even o-fresk men could see 
it ? for Biorn Haldorson (sub vv. freskr, ofreskr) maintains that 
//•t\s7iT is the seer, and ofreskr the non-seer; which seems right 
enough, provided that freskr means cat-sighted, from fres (felis). 
Our nursery-tales tell of these cat-eyed men with an eye for 
mice, KM."^ 3, 198; then there is the giant who gets cat's eyes 
put into his head. Another term is fronsk, som uatten til en 
hoitids dag, isiir Jule-natt, kan forud-sige det til-kommende, 
Molb. Dial. lex. 138. Frem-si/n is to be acquired by smearing 
with riisormsod, or by looking at a funeral procession through 
a skagle-oiet, Moe's note. 

p. 1109.] On sieve-running, see Miillenh. no. 272. Tett. and 
Tern. Preuss. sag. p. 284. Erbe-sib crispula, a plant's name, 
Suraerl. 56, 37. To detect the thief, a Jioop is driven, Panzer's 
Beitr. 1, 210 ; three plates are laid for him, containing bread, salt 
and lard, Hpt 7, 538 ; dishes shaken, and froth^ observed, Tett. 
and Temm. p. 200. Bait. stud. xii. 1, 37-8; * when in a sivord 
he sees the stolen tiling,' Troj. kr. 27412 (the sword holds in it a 
spirit, Ffauenl. p. 142-3 : ich hate in eime swerte von Tiventiure 
einen geist, daz er mir solde kiindcn). Prophesying from icicles, 
Panzer 2, 549; by throwing a Bible open (an early practice), 
Greg. Tur. 4, 10. 

p. 1110.] The lot is cast : leton tan wisian ]>X se tan gehwearf 
Andr. 1099. The ' temere ac fortuito spargere' of Tacitus is 
like ON. ' hrista teina,' to shake the twigs, as in Sa3m. 52": 
hrisfo teina, ok a hlaut sa. M.Neth. si worpen cavelen, Jesus c. 
229, conf. 'jacere talos in fontem,' Sueton. Tib. 14. Kudortf 15, 
218. Goth, hlauts imma urraim, t'Xa;^e, Luke 1, 9. GDS. 159; 
ez was in so gevallen, Livl. chr. 5724, ez was im wol gevallen 
1091, in was der span gevallen wol 2183, in viel dicke wol ir span 



1636 SUPERSTITION. 

7239; dat lot viel, Maerl. 2, 169, die cavele viel 2, 60. We say 
' to whom the happy lot Ims fallen.' 

The Scythians too divined by sticks, Herod. 4, 67 and Nicander 
(Ur. Sk. p. 659); the Alani, Amm. Marcel. 31, 2; the early 
Saxons, Beda 5, 11 {mittunt sortes, hluton mid tdman) ; the 
Frisians, whose Lex Fris. tit. 14 says : teni lana munda ohvolufi. 
So the Greek suppliants bear in their hands XevKoaTe^€L<{ 
veohpe-movi KXdSnuq, Aesch. Suppl. 333, avv rotaS' l/ceroyv 
ey^ecpiSiot'; epLoareTrroLai, KXdSotai 22, XevKoa-Tecjielf; iKTrjpia^ 
191, Kkdhotai veoSp67roi<; 354 («:A,aS-09 is hlaut-s, hloz) ; ep/oj 
arecpetv, Plato Rep. 3, p. 398. Hermann's Gottesd. alt. p. 105-8 
(raw wool is laid on the stone, Pans. x. 24, 5). The Slavs cast 
lots with black and tvhite sticks, Saxo (Miill. 827), and divined by 

the odd or even lines in ashes, ibid. Drawingr lots with willow- 

leaves, Ettn. Maulaffe 703 ; with stalks of corn, Vuk no. 254. 
RA. p. 126; sortiri ex sitella (bucket), Plaut. Casina, see Forcell. 
sub V. sitella ; ' sors Scotorum,' Dronke's Gl. Fuld. 12. There 
were lot-hooks to divine by : diz loss-huoch ist unrehte gelesen 
(wrongly read), Wiener mer-vart 556 ; a loz-huoch in Cod. Vind. 
2976 (Hoffm. 209). 2953 (H. 366) ; loss-hiichlein, Ph. v. Sittew.; 
losseln and lossel-huch., Schm. 2, 504; lossel-ndchte, Frisch 1, 
623 ; losslerei, losslerin. 

p. 1111.] On this motion of houghs, from wliich the Armenians 
divined, see N. Cap. 20. M.dchen viar uz den spachen (p. 1121 
mid.); conf. Superst. H, c. 80, in dem fewre sehen; D, 38r. and 
140r., /wr-sehen. With ' der tisch in der leant' conf. ' mensa 
volae,' Finn, onvenpoytii, luck^s table, fr. onni = fortuna. 

p. 1112.] The Romans also spoke of drawing water in. a sieve: 
cribro aquam, Plaut. Ps. i. 1, 100 ; imbrem in cribro, Pliny 28, 2. 
Our 'emptying the pond with a sieve,^ Sommer's Sag. pp. 13, 
94. 

The Gauls prophesied from the o-</)aSacr/u.o? (convulsions) of one 
devoted to death, when his hack was pierced with a sword, Strabo 
4, p. 198; the Cimbrians from the blood and entrails of their 
sacrificed prisoners 7, p. 294, Lat. exti-spicium. The Malays 
also divine from the entrails of slaughtered beasts, Ausland 
'57, p. 603''. 

p. 1113.] An ein scludder-hein er sach (looked), 

des quain sin herze in ungemach (became uneasy). 



SUPERSTITION. 1(537 

Er sprach : ' die Littouwen liden not, 

inin bnioder ist geslagen tot, 

eiii lier (army) iu minem hove lac (luis lain) 

sit; gester bis an disen tac ! ' 

Daz bein hat raanigem sit gelogen (lied). 

Livl. cbr. 3019, Ocellos habeas in ,s'^'fi/((//cs = liunieris, Pertz 8, 
385; expositioue ossium spatuJae ala in suis .spat ul is , Y v[dcr\cus 
imp. De arte ven. 1, 26. Inspection of slionlderblades is known 
to Kalmuks (Klemm 3, 199), Tunguses and Bedouins (3, 109). 

p. 1115.] The Romans also divided pisces into squamosi and 
non squamosi, Festus p. 253. W. Goethe's Diss. p. 19. In 
Levit. 11, 9 and Dent. 14, 9 fish that have fins and scales are 
pron. eatable; conf. Griesh. 146. 

p. 1117.] The rat wishes the cat joy when she nvepzes, Avada- 
nas 2, 149, 150; 7rTap/j.6<i eK twv he^iMv, Herm. Gottesd. alt. 
p. 18G; "Epcore^ eTreirTapov, Tlieocr. 7, 96; haec ut dixit. Amor, 
sinistra ut antea, dextra steniuit approbationem, Catull. 44, 17; 
atque, ut primum e regione mulieris, pone tergum eius maritus 
acceperat sonum titer )iutationis . . . solito sermone salutem ei 
fuerat imprecatus, et iterato rursuin, Apul. Met. lib. 2, p.m. 211, 
The ' Got helfe dir ! ' is also in Myst. i. 103, 10 ; swer ze vremden 
niesen sich rimptet (crumples up), daz ist ouch verlorn, Ettn. 
Frauenl. p. 70. 

p. 1117.] Einging in the ears: e^ofx^ei ra SiTa vplv, Luc. 
Dial. mer. 9 ; aures timiiunt, Pertz 9, 265; sine oren soin/Jie)!, 

Walew. 9911. Sviiercilium salit, a good omen, Foicell. sub v. 

superc. On prophetic jerks in fJic limhs among Orientals, see 
Fleischer in Rep. of Leipz. acad, d. w. '49, p. 214. 

p. 1119.] The spells in Burns's Halloween are for discovering 
one's future lover. On Christmas Eve the sleeping fowls begin 
crowing, if a girl is to be married soon, Firmen. 2, 377. ]Vii.ii 
may be poured instead of lead, Mone's Anz. 7, 423 : ceram in 
aquam fundere, Lasicz 56. 

p. 1119.] Ang(tng, what meets you on setting out, ecodev, 
mane, eV up-^fj, iv 6vpai<i, cttI rfj TrpcoTrj e^oBo), is significant. 
M. Neth. eu goet ghemoet, Rose 2715; gude u. bose mutfe, Gefk. 
Beil. 100. Swed. mof, mote; hiks-niot, ey'\\ meeting. Gr, Si;?- 
dvT7}T0<; [^ill-met by moonlight, proud Titania] = boding ill; so 



1638 SUPERSTITION. 

Sv<i-K\r}S6viaTo<i [fr. KXrjSdov, omen]. A titulus in the Salic Law 
treats ' de suj^ierventis vel exspoliationibus.'' 

p. 1124.] On angang among the Thugs, see Convers. lex. d. 
geg. iv. 2, 55 ; on the Greek belief in it, Lucian's Pseudol. 17 (ed. 
Bip. 8, 72) and Eunuch. 6 (Bip. b, 208). Theophr. Charact. c. 
16 (conf. Kopp De amuletis p. 42). ' Consider too, that the Jiiy Id 
and Sony of all the birds look favourable ; if these be not joyful 
signs, 1 have clean forgot the art; no bird of black feather, no 
raven, starUng, crow nor ouzel have I seen. Three merry men 
have met me, three men named John. Not once have I stumbled, 
and wellnigh do I believe the stones move out of my way or 
flatten them before me. The folds of my garment hinder me 
not, neither am I weary, every mother's son greeteth me, no dog 
hath harked against me, Wirsung's Cal. J 2*^. To run across one's 
path is always bad, Biittner's Lett, lieder p. 255. 

p. 1126.] Meeting an old woman is called kariny-mote, Afzel. 
2, 148. * Unlucky to meet a red-haired 'woman bef. any one 
else in the morning,' O'Kearney 182. ' The hrst thing that 
meets me, were it even a parson, a beggar or an old woman,' 
Goethe in Weimar jrb. 5, 458 ; wizzet, wera der (unsaelige lip) 
anegenget an dem morgen fruo, deme git ungeliicke zuo, Walth. 
118, 16 (conf. 'also wol ir g'anegenget was,' Diemer 206,23). 
Doch han ich ie gehoeret wol, daz man die priester schiuhen sol 
(should shun) ze s6-getanen sachen, Heinz v. Kost. Kitter u. pf. 
oO'S ; on the other hand : swer in zuo einem male gesach, der 
waude sin viirwar (hoped verily to be) deste saeliger ein jar, Gute 
frau 970. Who looks at early morn under the fair one's eyes is 

safe from son-ow all that day, Hatzl. 148''. For hunters the 

skogs-rd, for fishers the hafs-fru is unlucky meeting, Afzel. 2, 148. 
150. No woman with spindle or distaff may tarry in my lord's 
mill (banu-miile), Weisth. 2, 25. To meet one that is lame of tJie 
right foot, or gelded, or effeminate, is unlucky, Lucian 5, 208 ; 
conf. Brod^ei Misc. in Grtevii Thes. 2, 509 ; (eunuchus) pro- 
cedentibus omen, Claudian in Eutrop. 1, 125. Parsons' journeys 
are a sign of rain. Praetor. Alectr. 163. About meeting a black 
or a wliite monk, see Spinnr. evaug. Friday 10; about a sworci 
being handed by a woman, ibid. Wednesd. 20. 

p. 1128.] The Lapps carefully observe what beasts they meet, 
Klemm 3, 90. There are beasts which are not to be named in 



SUPERSTITION. 1639 

the morning : ala'^ito drjptwv riov irpwia^t u>pa<i ovofiaadiivai, Bua- 
k\t]8ovl(tt(i)p, Luc. Amores 30. Meeting with a /tare bodes no 
good, Wolf's Deut. sag. no. 370; turn thee home if a hare run 
across thy path, Keisersb. Vom lewen Q'd"^'. On the hare and the 

wolf, Lappenberg's Euleusp. p. 144. The encounter of a wolf 

estimated variously : ' Sed gravius mentes caesorum ostenta la- 
j^oruin horriticant ; duo quippe lupi sub principis ora, dum 
campis exercet equos, violenter adorti agmen, et excepti telis, 
inmiane ve\atu, prod I ij in ni mlramque nofani diixere fatnri,' Claud. 

13. Get. 249. ' Sei weren einen luulf op dem wege vangon 

(caught), dei quam utem holte gegangen, des freuedcn sei sik all 
int gemein,' all rejoiced, Soester fehde p. (307 ; ' the colonel held 
this briisii with the wolves to be a good omen that they should 
yet further come upon unlooked for booty,' Simpl. 2, 74. Men 
wish the ivanderiug fox luck on his journey, Ettn. Unw. doct. 
240. Do wart en catte lopende vor dem here (army), Detm. 1, 
154. 

The iceasel is changed into a fair lady, Babr. 32 ; it is called 
vvfi,(J3i,T^a, Lobeck's Path. 360 ; other names in Nemnich sub. v. 
mustela. Does froie in Reinh. clxxii. answer to It. donnola, or 
is it conn. w. M. Neth. i'?*a«ie = pulcra, venusta ? conf. damoiselle 
htlette, Lafont. 3, 17. In the Renart it is caWed. fetit porchaz, in 
the Reinaert dene hejach. ON. hreisikuttr is ermine. Auspicio 
hodie optumo exivi foras, mustela murem abstulit praeter pedes. 
Plant. Stich. iii. 2, G. A legend of the mustela in Marie 1, 474. 

p. 1129.] "Opvi<i came to mean any auspicium, whether of 
birds or not, Aristoph. Birds 719 — 721. A bird-gazer oicui/ta-T?;?, 
II. 2, 858; opvida^ ji'Mvai, Od. 1, 159; Stayvayvai 'jni]aeL<; opviOcov, 
Pans. i. 34, 3; olojvaiv aa(f)a etSco?, Od. 1, 2U2 ; 6pyi6a<; Kpivwv, 
Hes. Op. 826. ' Telemus Eurymides, quera nulla fffellerai ales,' 
Ov. Met. 13, 770; nunc ave deccptus falsa 5, 147; 6f<?-otajvt(rT09, 

Luc. Eunuch. 0. OllG. fogalrarta augurium, Jogalrarton 

augariari, Graff 2, 536; fojilrartod auspicium, Gl. tSletst. 22, 3. 
AS. fxujel-hwdte augurium (Suppl. to 1107). Boh. koh, koba, 
divination by flight of birds ; koha, knha, falcon. Not every bird 
is adapted for divination : 6pvi6e<; Si re ttoWoI vtt av<yu<i rjeXioio 
(f)oiTO)a\ ovSe re Traj'xe? evalcnp,oL, Od. 2, 181 ; fugl froff-hugadr, 
ISaem. 141"; parra, comix, picas, pi<:a are augurales, Aufrecht in 
D. Zeitschr. 1, 280. Men watched the flight as well as the 



1640 SUPERSTITION. 

bong, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 2, 44; quae voces avium? quanti per 
iuane volatus ? Claud. 4 cons. Hon. 142 ; die ferte dero fogelo, 
unde dero singenton rarta, unde die heilesoda dero in rihte fure 
sih Jliegenton, N. Cap. 17; ir vogel in vil wol sane, Livl. 7240. 
The Malays pi-ophesy from the Jlig]it and cry of birds, Ausl. 'hi, p. 

603-4, and war and husbandry are determined by them. Uf 

einem tacli (roof) stuont ein lira, si schrei vast ' ha ha ha ha, narre 
bistu da ! ' fool that you are, V. d. Hagen's G. Abent. 2, 449 ; ez 
hab ein swerziit hra gelogen (lied), MS. 2, 80"; chant sinistre et 
criard du corbeau, Villemarq. Bard. bret. 167. On the language 
of ravens and crows, and on birds divided into castes like men, 
see Monats-ber. d. acad. ■'59, p. 158-9. Bulletin de Petersb. ■'59, 

p. 438. Auspicio, avi sinistra, Plant. Epid. ii. 2, 2; qua ego 

hunc amorem mihi esse avi dicam datum ? Plant. Cas. iii. 4, 26 ; 
(lira avis, Sueton. Claud. 22. Pulcherrimum augurium, odo 
aquilae iietere silvas et intrare visae (signif. 8 legions), Tac. Ann. 
2, 17; a Servian song addresses the high-soaring far-seeing 
eagles, Vuk 1, 43 no. 70 (Wesely p. 64). Fata notant, stellaeque 
vocant aviumque volatus, totius et subito malleus orbis ero, 
Richerius 4, 9. Bohraer's Font. 3, 51. Luther says somewhere: 
If thou see a little bird, pull off thy hat, and wish hira joy, 
Schuppius 1121; ichn' weiz waz vogels Icegn in t;/o(7, Jeroschin 
132^ 

p. 1 131.] A flight to your rigid is lucky, to your left unlucky, 
(iDS. 982 seq. Parra dextera, comix dextra,2jicus sinister, Grotef. 
Inscr. Umbr. 6, 5. 7. 

Tuv?^ 8' olcovotat raiwTTTepvyeaai, KeXevei^ 

Trebdeadai, rayv oi>ri /xerar/DeTTOyu,' ouS' dXeyt'^a), 

e'ir eirl Be^C iwai Trpo? 'ilw t 'HeXLOv re, 

eLT eV upiaTepa Toiye ttotI ^ocpov rjepoevra. II. 12,237. 

The Greeks often mention the eagle: 

eTreTTTaro Se^to? (right hand) opvi'i, 
aiera (eagle) dpyijv XV^^ (pipcov ovvx^eaai TriXcopov 
rjiJ-epov i^ avXrj'i. Od. 15, 160. 

avrap 6 rolaiv upiarepb^ (left hand) i'fXvOev 6pvi<i, 
aleTO'i vy^nreTT]';, e;^e Se Tpi')pQiva ireXeiav. Od. 20, 242. 

Tft) 8' aierot) (two eagles) evpvoira Zev<; 



* SUPERSTITION. 1G41 

{jy^oOeu eK /copv(f)fj^ 6peo<; TrpoeijKe irerecrdai. Od. 2, J4G • 
and tlieu : he^io) (right hand) i]i^av 8id r oUia, k.t.X. lot. 
Again, tlio lunch : 

eVeTTTaTO Se^to? 6pvL<^, 
K('pKO<i (hawk), ^AttoWcovo'^ Ta-^v<i ayye\o<;, iv he iruhtaaL 
Tt'XXe ireXeiav hy^cov, Kara he Tzrepa xevev epa^e 
p.ea(n]yu<i V7)6<; re kul aurov TijXe/xd^oco. Od. 15, 528. 

The flight of the mouse-haivk is carefully scanned by the Kal- 
niuks, Klemm 3, 202. We read of 8e|to9 €p(ohi6<i (heron) in 
Hipponax, Fragm. 50, of Se^ir) acTTr] (woodpecker), Fragm. (32 ; 
ardeolae (herons), altero oculo carentes, optimi augurii, Pliny 11 
37. 52. Ilrafn fl^gr austiin af ha meiSi (tree), ok eptir houotn 
orn i sinni ; Jyeim gef ek er//i (to that eagle) efstum bra^ir, sa 
mun a blobi bergja minu, Hervar. cap. 5; hrafn qva5 at hrafni, 
sat a ham meibi, Usern. l-AO''. Similarly : ]>-d qvaS J;at krdka 
(crow), sat qvisti a (on bough), Sa9m. 106'*; cornU avis divina 
imbrium imminentium, Hor. Od. iii. 27, 10. Herm. Gottesd. alt. 
§ S8 ; rostro recurvo turpis, et inferuis tenebris obscurior alas, 
(iiispiciuni veteri sedit ferale sepulcro^ Claud, in Eutrop. 2, 230 ; 
nuper Tavpeio quae sedit cuhnine cornix, ' est bene ' non potuit 

dicere, dixit ' erit,' Suet. Domit. 23. Martens vdgelken, Fiv- 

meuich I, 130. 140; Sunte Maartens veugelfje zat al op een 
heuveltje met zijn rood rood rokje, Halbertsma's Tongvallen p. 
45; Engl, martin, liirundo minor, Nemn. p. 164; Fr. mariinet, 
le petit martinet. There was a society of Afartins-vogel in Swabia 
in 1367, Landau's Ritter-ges. p. 15.* Dos vogerl aum tannabam 
(fir) sfelit auf oamn fuss, hat a zetterl ira schuaberl, von meinm 
dearndel (girl) ann gruss, Seidl Aimer 1, 24. The chdfaka drinks 
nothing but rain, catching the drops as he flies ; he brings luck 
when ho flies on your left, whereas most birds signify good on the 
right, Max Miill. Meghaduta, p. 59. 

p. 1132.] 'H ctIttt} (a pecker) kuI ei ri tolovtov opveov he^ia 
7rp6<i e/jcora? (paiveTai. Eyo) fiev, to AevKLTnre, he^irj ct/ttt; / 
Didymus apud schol. Aristoph. Av. 704; ireTofieaOd re yap Kai 
TolaLv epcoa-L avveafiev, Av. 704, conf. Meineke's Choliarabi p, 
122-3. Pics en numbre impair, signe de malheur. Bosquet 219. 

' nene hant, Viudlcr in Hpt 9, 70 ; uf die alien Jujiit zierlieh gcmaclit, Gcitz v. 
Berlich. ed. Zopfl p. 14 ; kiinigiu biu ich dcr newen luind, J. v. MorsLeim, beginn. 



1642 SUPERSTITION. 

On the starling's flight, Ettn. Maulaffe 704. Allan, espece 
d'oiseau de proie, prob. de vautour, Fauriel^s Albig. p. 664. 

The heathen Arabs bef. Mahomet : one who has gone out turns 
back immed. on seeing a raven. Yet it is a good sign it' a pair 
of ravens, onessaud and messauda (m. and f . for lucky) cross one's 
path in e^ual flight ; else a croaking raven is called the bird of 
parting, bee. he foretells a separation. There is a bird whose cry, 
heard from the right, brings blessing to a house : it is called 
saJcioii, saknnta, afterw. hapnyala, Kuhn on Vrihaddevata p. 117. 

p. 1133.] The over-flight of some birds is significant : 

Zwoa schnee-weissi fduherli (dovelings) 

sjint iibawdrts g'flogn, 

und hiaz hat mich mein dearndl (girl) 

schon wieda bitrogn (fooled me again). Seidl Aimer 34. 

Pigeons also fan the king while he dines, Athen. 2, 487. 
Again : 

Ob im vant er einen am (eagle), 

des schoene was seltsaene ; 

er was im, in waene (I ween), 

gesant von Gote ze gemache (comfort) : 

mit einem vetache (wing) 

treip er im den hift dar (fanned the air), 

mit dem andern er im schate bar. Servat. 1330. 

Albert. Magn. De falcon, c. 4 : ' Ego enim jam vidi qui sine 
ligaturis intrabant et exibant, et nobis comedentibus super 
mensam veniebant, in radio solis se extendentes coram nobis, quasi 
blandirentur nobis. ^ While Marcian sleeps, an eagle flies above 
him, giving shade, Procop. 1, 326. A shading peacocJi's tail is 
worn by ladies, Yilk. saga c. 213 and Vuk 4, 10; a peacock fan, 
Claud, in Eutr. 1, 109 ; pfaeivine huote, Kolocz. 184 [on 'peacock 
hats from England,' see Hehn's Plants and Anim., Lond. '85], 
With ominnis hegri connect ' iwer iegeslichen hat diu heher 
(OHG. hehara) an geschriet ime walde,' the jay has cried a spell 
over you all, Wh. 407, 11. 

p. 1 134.] A sihle singing on your right brings luck, Biittn. 
Lett. lied. pp. 248. 266. The sight of the first wagtail is signifi- 
cant, Klemm 2, 329, and to Kalmuks that of the snake 3, 202-3. 



SUPERSTITION. 1643 

The iioi'a^liino^ of horses, sneezing of cats, howling of dogs, each 
is an omen : tlir liet <liu kafze nihfc genorn, Helbl. 1, 1392 (Suppl. 
to 1 1 15) ; on the howling of dogs, see Capitolinns in Maxim, jun. 
c. o. Pausan. iv. 13, 1. 

p. 113G.] Leo in Thiir. mitth. iv. 2, 98 connects the Goth. 
}irinva-(h(b6 with divan and daiiha, deaf [Helm's Plants and 
Anim. 258]. 'Bubo habet nomen a voce sua, et moratur in 
cavernis petrosis vel muris antiquis, et differt a noctiia solum in 
magnitudine, quia est major ea, et bubo dicitur letalin vel moi-- 
talis, quia mortem annuntiat, unde dicunt quidam naturales, quod 
sit animal habens dilectionem naturalem ad hominem, et prop- 
terea ponit se supra vestigium hominis, et post mortem festinat 
ad amandum cadaver, et dicunt aliqui'quod generetur ex medulla 
spiuae in dorso hominis,' Stephan's Stofl. 118. 

Ter omen 
funerens bubo Jefali carmine fecit. Ov. Met. 10, 453. 

Tectoque profanus 
incubuit b\tbo, thalamique in culmine sedit. 6, 431. 

Infansto biihone, Claud, in Eutr. 2, 407; a bubo prophesies to 
Agrippa, Joseph. 18, 0. 19, 8 (Horkel p. 494) ; bubo, cartae funvbris^ 
lator, Marbod's Carm. 1577. Hipponax in Meineke's Choliambi 
p. 112 calls its Kpiyr) (screeching) veKpGiv djjeXo'i re kul Kijpv^. 
As the Lett, vhpi^, hoopoo, is a bird of ill-omen, our linwe (bubo) 
heralds a speedy death in the Herod story, Pass. 157, 51 — 72. 
159, 76 — 83; der leidic huwaere, der naht-hilwer, Albrecht's 
Ovid 177**. 345*; trurie als ein unjlaetec huwe, Renn. 17993. 
The screech-owl, kauz or kduzlein, cries : ' Come along, come 
along ! ' that's twice the death-bird has called to me, Kehrein's 
Nassau 41 [To Russian children the owl cries shubu, (I'll have 
your) fur-coat]. The same kind of thing is the scnwut on the 
tree, Maerl. 2, 323. 348 and the voijlein kreide-weiss (chalk- 
white), Musaeus 5, 28. The word khuj-mutfer reminds of 

Berhta, of the white lady, the fyltrja and the l)anshee, bansighe 
(pp. 279. 280). On the Wendish waiter, God's Utile chair, see 
Wend, volksl. 2,269''. Somm. p. 109. A death is foretold by 
' la poulo qui chante en coq,' Hosq. 219. Other omens of death 
are : When the dead in churches are seen or heard at night 
by the living, it bodes a new event to these, esp. death : quando- 



1644 SUPERSTITION. 

cunqiie a viventibus liaec audiuntur vel viJentur, novum aliquid 
sigoatj Pertz 5, 738. The same if you hear a grunting or sawing 
at night 5, 738-9 ; conf. deathwatch, next paragr. 

p. 1136.] The wood-worm we call todteu-tihr is termes pulsa- 
torius, the Engl, deathwatcli. scarabaeus galeatus pulsator, Hone's 
Yrbk 823; ich hor ein wiirmlin klopfen, Garg. 278''; the death- 
smith who tJiumps in window frames and walls, Gellert 3, 148. 
Finn, yum i and seindrantio, wall-smith; conf. the tapping home- 
sprites. 

p. 1136.] Swarms of bees betoken a fire : molitasque examen 
apes passim que crematas, perbacchata domos nuUis inceyulia 
causis, Claud. B. Get. 241. Bees that fasten on you, Aeliau's 
Var. 12, 40. Pliny 8, 42 ; *bee-swarms and spiders, Botticher's 
Hell. temp. 127 ; ea hora tantae aranearum telae in medio populi 
ceciderunt, ut omnes mirarentur ; ac per hoc significatura est, quod 
sordes hereticae pravitatis depulsae sint, Paul. diac. 6, 4. A 
flight of small birds, a shoal of salmon, are a sign of guests, 
Justinger 271. 379. The aider-beetle flying south is lucky, north 
unlucky, Kalewipoeg, note on 2, 218. 

p. 1137.] Other omens of death are bloodtj weapons, a rusting 
knife, KM. no. 60; but also flowers, Altd. w. 2, 187. Hpt 3, 
364. Corpse-candles, mists in churchyards, prefigure a dead 
body, Hone's Daybk 2, 1019 ; an expiring lamp is a sign of 
death, Altd. w. 2, 186 (weather also was foretold by dicinatio ex 
lucernis, Apuleius ed. Ruhnk. lib. 2, p. 116). Elmus fire, Sant- 
elnio, blawe lieclder, Staden's Reise p. 102 ; uf dem maste dar 
enboben [enhoben?] ein vackeln-licht so schone quam, Marienleg. 
p. 87. A crackling flame may denote a blessing : 

Et succensa sacris crepitet bene laurea flammis, 
omine quo felix et sacer annus erit. Tibull. ii. 5, 82. 

So to Kalmuks the fizzing of meat when roasting, and the self- 
lighting of an extinguished fire, Klemm 3, 203 ; retulerunt qui- 
dam de ipso {abbate Sangallensi) agonizante, qiiod audierant 
voces pla7igentium et bullitionem caldariorum (yr 1220). 

The room-door opens of itself when there is a death, Lucae 
260-9. When a bo'ard or shelf tips over, it is called death-fall, 
Bair. kinderlehre 23. ON. fall er farar heill ; in lapsu faustum 
ominatiis eventum, Saxo Gr. 73. On the other hand, stumbling, 



SUPERSTITION. H)45 

tlie foot catching, is of ill-omen in Eiirip. Horacl. 726 scq. ; ter 
pedis of end signo est revocata, Ov. Met. 10, 452 ; sed, ut fieri 
assolet, ainlstro pede profectum me spes compendii frustrata est, 
Apuleius p. m. 80. Getting up too early, wrongly, is fatal : si 
waren xe vruo des morgens nf-gestdn, die muosten da daz leben 
Ian (lose), Livl. 1255; sumelich ze vruo hate des morgens ilf- 
(/estdn, der muoste da ze pfande Ian den lip 3859. 

p. 1137.] The notion that sevvdl rars on one stalk signify 
peace, is apparently derived fr. the Bible, Gen. 41, 22; a stalk 
with 15 ears, Weller's Anm. 1, 221. A double ear is Lett. 
ifummis, dim. yummite, Biittner 2818. Good hap or ill is fore- 
seen by tying together two ears of standing corn, and seeing 
which will shoot up higher, Dybeck '45, p. 52. Pilgrimages to 
Our Ladij of the Three Ears, Keisersb. Brosaml. 56''. 

p. 1138.] Things found are esp. operative for good or harm, 
e.g. four-cornered, four-leaved clover, Simplic. 1, 334. L. Sax. 
sagen no. 190; a ivhole grain in the loaf, Serenus samon. 935. 
Things inherited, Miillenh. no. 315; begged, Wolf's NdrL sag. 
p. 414 ; worn (pp. 602-3. 1093) ; rings made o^ gibbet irons, Luc. 
Philops. 17. 24; fingers of a babe unborn (p. 1073n.). 

p. 1139.] Goth, dagain. vita ijj = dies observate, Gal. 4, 10. 
'H/jiepa /xeXuLva, fi,7] Kadapd, uTTO^pd'i (fr. (ppd^co), see Lucian's 
Pseudologista (/; -rrepl t/}? (i7ro(ppd8o^) , couf. ed. Bip. 8, 434; so 
d7ro(f)pu8€<i TTvXat, Porta Scelerata 8, 58. Dies fastus, mfastus, 
iiefandus, nefarius, iufandus, per quem nefas fari praetorem ; 
dies inaiispicatus, a ter. Henry IV. died on a Tuesday, die 
Martis, qua etiam cuncta sua praelia, paganico nirairum auspicio, 
porpetrare consuevit, Pertz 8, 240. Napoleon avoided Fridai/s, 
Wieselgr. 473. AS. nellab heora jnng wanian on Monandceg for 
angiune j^aere wucan, AS. hom. 100. 

p. 1 140 n.] With Wisantgang conf. Wisantes-steiga, AVisantes 
wane (Neugart). Should we read Wolf-bizo (-bit), or Wolf-bizo 
(-biter), like baren-beisser, bullen-beisser (-dog)? Cattle Icilled 
or bitten bij wolves, are wholesome flire, Spinnr. evang., Friday 9. 
Gr. XvKu^pcoTo<i, and Plutarch discusses 'why wolf-eaten mutton is 
sweeter,' Symp. 2, 9. Woljieip Graff 1, 850 ; Woljieibsch, Kopp's 
Gesch. d. Eidgen. 2, 557 ; Wulfevingr, Gosl. berggesetze p. 339 ; 
Ulricus dictus Woljleipsch, der WvlHcipscho, Ch. yrs 1260—65. 
Neugart nos. 972. 981. 990-5 ; Inpi praeda, Marcellus no. 53. 
VOL. IV. ^ ^ 



1G46 SUPERSTITION. 

p. 1141.] Juveues . . . uiissurura se esse, in quas dii de- 
dissent auguriis sedes, ostendifc, Livy 5, 34. The Hirpini were 
led by the wolf, hirpus, the Picentini by the pecker, picus, the 
Opici by the hull, ops ? Wackern. in Hpt 2, 559. Mommsen's 
Rom. gesch. 1, 76. Bull and sow as guides, Klausen's Aen. 
1107; cows indicate where a church is to be built, Wieselgr. 408 ; 
luilcli-cows show the site of the future church, a black hull that 
of the castle, Miillenh. p. 112-3; a heifer leads Cadmus to the 
spot where he is to settle [two milch-kine bring the ark, 1 Sam. 

6, 7] . The Franks are shown their way by the B,une, Guitecl. 

2, 35 ; a wliite hart walks before them as God^s messenger, Ogier 
1, 12; and a Westphal. family-name Beasford (Deeds in Moser) 
points to a similar event. A Delaware climbed through the 
mouth of an underground lake into daylight, killed a stag and 
took it home, then the whole tribe moved to the sunny land, 
Klemm 2, 159. A horse points out the place for a church, Miillenh. 
p. 111-2. Mules show where the convent of Maulbronn in the 
Black Forest is to be founded. A hare guides. Pans. iii. 22, 9. 

Bavens are indicators, Miillenh. p. 113; the three in the 

Icelandic narrative, flying off one after another, strongly remind 
us of Noah. The dove guides, Hrosvitha Gandesh. 253. 261 — 6. 
A vision reveals that a hird sitting on the top of the hill will fly 
up, and must be followed : it flies on before, then alights, and 
pecks the ground on the spot where stones may be quarried to 
build the church with, Pertz 6, 310; doves guide Aeneas to the 
golden bough, Aen. 6, 191—211. The lark, Pans. iv. 34, 5; the 
clucking hen at Bremen, Brem. sag. no. 1 ; the Jieathcock rising, 
Schiiren's Chi*on. p. 3 ; fribolum de ansere quasi dominam suam 
deducente, Pertz 8, 215 yr 1096, conf. Raumer's First Cms. 1, 69. 

p. 1144.] In a dike threatened by the sea a child is buried 
alive, Miillenh. no. 331. Thiele in Danmarks folkes. 2, 63. 
Honsdam in Flanders, V. d. Bergh 261 (Kl. schr. 2, 73). Fair 
weather was obtained by walling up a peck of harleij and a howl 
of water, Rocken-philos. 6, 88. A Konigsberg story tells how 
they took a fallen woman^'s child, a year and a half old, set it 
down in a hollow stone, with a slice of bread-and-butter in each 
hand, and then walled it in, leaving only an opening at the top ; 
in the morning the child was gone, but after that the building 
of the wall wont on unhindered, N. Preuss. prov. bl. 465. At a 



SUPERSTITION. 1G47 

place called the Nine-ways, as many boys and girls wore buried 
alive by the Persians, Herod. 7, 114. Vortigern's tower keeps 
falling down : ye shall wet the foundation-stone with the blood of 
a 1)01/ born of woman without man, Merlin 1, 67. 72-5; under it 
lie two dragons, 1,91; conf. Thib. de Navarre 2, 160. Like the 
girl inclosed in Coponhagen wall is the child who is set before a 
table with apples, and kept shut up in the cave for a year, 

Miillenh. p. 354. It is an oft-recurring feature, that what is 

built in the (lay is pulled down in the night, as in the Bamberg 
legend of the cathedral toads. Bait. stud. 10, 32-4. Hanusch 186. 
Miillenh. pp. 112-3. 128. 177. 542; troll ned-refvo ora natterne 
hvad som byggdes om dagen, Wieselgr. p. 408 ; a wall is torn 
down 15 times, Somra. p. 9 ; much the same is told of the tower 
at Enger, Redeker's Sagen p. 41. 'Tradition says, that as fast 
as the workmen built it up by day, it would at night be carried 
off by invisible hands, and placed on the spot where it now 
stands' (a Devonshire leg.), Chambers's Pop. rhymes 14". Con- 
versely, a wall broken down by day grows again overnight, 
Miillenh. p. 349 ; conf. the tree that is cut down, and sprouts 
again (p. 960). 

p. 1145.] 0. SI. s"h", Serv. san, Kuss. son, Pol. Boh. sen, 
Lith. sapnas, dream. Lith. megns, Lett, meegs, Pruss. maiggus, 
somnus, Russ. migdfl, wink. ON. dur levis somnus, nubes 
somni; hofugr hlundr, sopor, Ssem. 93''; er |>er svefn hofugt ? 
Laxd. 120. ' Troume sint trilge' says the proverb in the Hiitz- 

lerin 126-7; traum irug, Frankl. 21. 46. OHG. troum-sceido, 

-sceidari, -interpreter, lit. divider, Graff 6, 439 ; conf. viroKpi- 
vaa-dac, Od. 19, 535. 555; ia/naii dreymir fyrir veSrum, Vols, 
saara c. 25, and dreams are still made to refer to rain. AS. 
swefen-racu, -interpretation, sivefen-raccere, -expounder. Slav. 
gaddti, guess, somnia conjicere; Swed. gissa drommen ; ' elvens 
aldste datter ' is to guess the dream, DV. 3, 4 ; nu hefi ek Jygddan 
draum |>inn, Gunnl. s. ormst. c. 2 ; den troum hetinien = (\enier\, 
MS. 2, 115». Griesh. 1, 98; ontbinden, untie. Rose 6134; con- 
jectnra, Plaut. Rud. iii. 1, 20. Cure. ii. 1, 31. 

p. 1146.] A dream comes out, appears; rann up en somn, 
Sv. vis. 1, 299; wie der troum wolte uzgen, Griesh. 2, 133; 
dfr traum ist aus, Ayrer 177**. Fichard's Frankf. arch. 1, 130. 
There is a gate of dreams, Hpt 2, 535 ; eV oveipeirjai irvX-ijcTt,, 



1648 



SUPERSTITION. 



Od. 4, 809 ; iv 7rv\ai<; opeipeiatt;, Babr. 30, 8 ; conf. the myth in 
Od. 19, 562 — 9. A dream-vision, o-v/rt?, comes repeatedly and 
flies away, Herod. 7, 12. 14-5. 17-8-9. A dream appears, 
Griesh. 1, 98. Flore 1102; erscheine mir'z ze guote, Reinh. 73; 
hence ' einen troum er gesacli,' Ksrchr. 5473, troum irseheii 2921. 
AS. hine gemette, there met him, he dreamt, Csedm. 223, 20; 
gemeted wear's 225, 21 ; assistit capiti, Claud. De b. Gildon. 329 n. 

' Der troum ergienc/ came about, Ksrchr. 611 ; 'din troum 

irge dir ze heile ! ' turn out well, 1373; we say 'comes true.' 
OvK ovap, dW" virap, not dream, but truth, Od. 19, 547. 20, 90 ; 
virap i^ oveipov, Pindar; iwer troum wil sich enden, Flore 1117. 
A dream is a messenger of God : sagde im an svefne, slapandium 
an naht, bodo Brolitines, Heliand 21, 12. Dreams are heavy and 
Jiglit : Starke drdmme, DV. 3, 3 ; ' ob iu nu ringer getroumet,' 
milder, better, Ben. 438. A beautiful dream is weidenliche, feast- 
ing the eye, Ls. 1, 131 ; muowent uns troume ? Ksrchr. 2948. 

Dreams of birds are esp. frequent : mir (Uote) ist getroumet 
liinte (last night), wie allez daz gefilgele in disme lande waere tot, 
Nib. 1449, 3. Vilk. c. 336; mir troumte hinte in dirre naht, 
zwen falken vlugen mir uf die hant, Morolt 2876 ; a dream of a 
raven and an eagle, Orendel Ettm. p. 92, and the like in Gunnl. 
s. ormst. c. 2. Fornald. sog. 1, 420. Penelope dreams of an 
eagle killing her pet geese, Od. 19, 536; conf. Aesch. Persae 205. 
Darzuo miieze im von eierii (of eggs) sin getroumet, i.e. bad 
dreams, MS. 2, 152''; swer sich zuo lange wolde sumen, deme 

muoste von eiern troumen, Tiirl. Wh. 87*. Dreams of bear 

and boar hunting, Tit. 2877-8 ; of a boar, Krone 12157, a dragon, 
Rab. 123-4. Dreaming of beasts may be traced to Guardian- 
spirits and Transmigration, says F. Magn., Edda-1. 4, 146. 
Dreams of a tree growing up, Ruodl. 16, 90, of a shipivreck. Krone 
12225, a burning house, Lachm. Ndrrhein. ged. 18-9, a bridge, 
Kl. schr. 3, 414, a tooth falling out, Keisersb. Bros. 48"; mir'st 
getroumet ab der guoten, MS. 2, 115". 

p. 1147.] 'Der lor-boum habet tia natura, ube sin ast (if a 
branch of it) lif'en slafenten man geleget wirt, taz imo war 
troumet,' he dreameth true, N. Cap. 13. The dream 'under a 
tree ' in Mar. 155, 21 may be for rhyme's sake alone : 'als einem 
man der da gelit, begrifen mit swai-em troume, slafend unter 
einem boume,' conf. troum, boum, Wigal. 5808. A dream in a 



SICKNESSES. 1649 

inijstye comes true, Fornm. s. 10, 1G9. The first dream in a new 

house is important, Giiuther 640. Night is clescr. as svefn- 

(jdman, draurn-nioruii., iSajm. 51\ Dreams before the dawn are 
true : Lenore starts up at dawn fr. heavy dreams ; ' ir getroumde ' 
at ' tage-rdt,' after Mian-krat,' En. 5234; ' troumen gein dem 
tiKje,' towards day, Bit. 9GoO ; 'in the vwniing hour, that is called 
the time of golden sleep,' Fastn. sp. 1302; mir troumde ndch 
mitternacht, wie mir der dume swaere (that my thumb festered), 
und der nagel abe waere, Eracl. 3712 ; conf. ivapye^ oveipov 
vvKTo^ dfioXyS, Od. 4, 841. Lilia dreams on her luedding -night, 
Gesta reg. Francor. in Mone's Anz. 4, 15; der erste traum treugt 
nit, er ptiegt wol wahr zu werden, C. Brehmen's Gedichte J 1"'. 

p. 1147.] On dreaming of a treasure on the bridge, see Kl. 
schr. 3, 414 seq. One is waked, out of a dream by cry of dismal 
crow, Walth. 95, 1, by the crowing cock, the calling servant, Ls. 
1, 149. Do taget ez, und muos ich wachen, Walth. 75, 24: ende 
ic outspranc, ende doe wart dach. Rose 14224; and with that I 
woke, Agricola G24, and after that it dawned 625 ; do krate der 
ban, ez was tac, Altsw. 67, 3. To speak out of a dream : ich en- 
sprich ez niht nz eime troume, Parz. 782, 13 ; ir redet uz eime 
troume, Reiuh. p. 202. He fought (in a dream), Lachm. Ndrrh. 
ged. p. 18-9. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

SICKNESSES. 

p. 1150.] Apollo is called laTpo-fiavTi^i, Aesch. Eumen. 62 ; 
Apollo Grannus was invoked by the sick, Stalin 1, 67. 112. 
Wise leeches were Kasiapa, Holtzm. 3, 164-5; lajns lasides, 
Aen. 12, 391 ; Meges, Miyrj^, Forcell. sub v.; Dianoecht, Keller on 
Irish MSS. p. 93. The Greeks venerated the Scythian Toxaris 
after his death as |ei/09 laTpo^, Lucian's Scytha 2 ; Za/j,6X^i8o<; 
larpoL, Plato's Charmides p. 156. The grey smith appears to the 
sick man in his sleep, and with his pincers pulls the nails and 
spear out of his hand, foot and side, Hpt's Ztschr. 1, 103. An 
angel reveals the remedy in a dream, Engelh. 5979, 5436 ; an 
angel visits the sleeper, and gives a willow-bough to stop the 
murrain, Miillenh. 238. iiaints heal (p. 1163 end ; Pref. xxxviii.) 



1650 SICKNESSES. 

GDS. 149. Women are often skilled in leecli craft : Angitia 

instructs in herbs and healing, Klausen 1039. As Wate became 
a leech through a wildes wijj, a herbalist traces his art up to 
' Tiiadame Trote de 8alerne, qui fait cuevre-chief de ses oreilles, 
et li sorciz li penden a chaaines dargent par desus les epaules '; 
she sends her men to all countries in search of herbs, 'en la 
forest d^Ardanne por ocirre les bestes sauvages, et por traire les 
oignemenz/ Rutebeuf 1, 256 (Another herbman calls himself 
hunter of Arden-wood 1, 470). ' Unde communiter Trotida 
vocata est, quasi magistra operis ; cum enim quaedam puella 
debens iucidi propter hujusmodi ventositatem, quasi ex rnptura 
laborasset, cum eam vidisset Trotida, admirata fuit, etc.^ Medici 
antiqui (Venet. 1547) 75*; she is named in Chaucer^s C.T. 6259. 
Ace. to Jocher she was a physician of Salerno, but the book De 
morbis mulierum was written by a doctor who used her name. 

Othinus puts on female disguise, calls himself Vecha, and 

passes for a she-doctor, Saxo Gram. ed. M. 128; conf. AS. tvicce, 
saga (p. 1033). Three nymphs prepare a healing strengtheniug 
food for Balder, Saxo Gr. ed. M. 123 (vigoris epulum 194). 
Queen Erka is a leech, Vilk. saga c. 277 ; aud Crescentia is en- 
dowed with healing power (p. 1152). The meer-frau in the Abor, 
like the Scotch mermaid, gathers the healing herb on a mountain, 
Hpt. 5, 8, Fdmurgdn knows herbs, makes plasters and salves, 
Er. 5212. 7226. Iw. 3424. There was a leech named Morgan 
tud, says L. Guest 3, 163; but that is the name of a healing plant 
3, 164 ; conf. Ben. note to Iw. 3424. Isot, diu kiinegin von 
Irlande, diu erkeunet maneger hande wurze u. aller kriute kraft 
u. arzatliche meisterchaft, Trist. 175, 32. The wasser-jungfer 
knows healing herbs, Firmenich 1, 23 ; a meer-weib gives help in 
childbed, Miillenh, p. 340. En gumma sade, hon kiinde viQ de 
gamles shrack, men trodde dem ej ; hon viste huru man kunde fa 
hjelp af dem, men att det var syndigt, Fries's Udfl. 1, 108. The 
wilde frdulein knows the root that will heal a wound, Ecke 1 73 — 
5. At Staffelbach the wood-'iaaidens came out of the wood, and 
cried to the people : ' esst bimellen und baldrian, so geht euch 
die pest nicht an '; therefore at harvest a bunch is left standing 
for the wood-mannikin. The vila of the woods is a liekai'itza, 
and demands a heavy fee, she is angry if you refuse, and poisons 
you, Vuk no. 321 ; conf. 2, 50 and the jpere-jungfer with her 



SICKNESSES. 1051 

licalintr fountain, Alsatia '55, p. 21G (a place in Tluiringia was 
called 'in siiezor heiliiige,' Graff 4, 867). The name of the 
Norse Eir reminds one of 'I/ao?, 7/j09 Mtpo? [so called because 
he carried messages], Od. 18, 0. 7. 73, and oi'^Ipa the divine 
messenger. To Hi/fja-hcrg corresponds the Finn. Kijiu-makx, 

A7/'»-vuori, Kijm-lmri^, mount of pain. Women heal, they 

bind up wounds, Roquefort on Marie 2, 198—202; frowcn die 
die tiefen wunden ir lieben vriunden bunden, Servat. 1779; 
do senten (segenten, blessed) im die wunden die froawen al ze 
hant, Rosen-g. 1997 ; dede si sine wonden wel besien ere jong- 
frouwen, diere vroet ane was, Lane. 22651 ; a virgin knows ' der 
crude cracht,' power of herbs 11999; a woman gives a magic 
salve, Ecke 155-6. Herdsmen, shepherds can heal men, for they 
are expert in treating cattle, Varro RR. 2, 1. When a patient 
dies, his doctors are killed, Clreg. Tur. 5, 35. 

p. 1152.] A physician was in Fris. called Utze ; ON. Ukna ok 
/ae/rna = lenire et mederi, Sfora. 236« ; Gael, liagl i, vfhence Leo 
in Malb. Gl. 1, viii. derives all the others; Scot. Ughiche, physi- 
cian; OHG. lacJiitiiom, medicine. AS. from, medicus, Matth. 9, 
12; conf. ORG. frnmi thaz wib, heal the woman, 0. iii. 10, 19, 
thia fruma neman 14, 50, fruma firstelan 14, 39. OHG. grdvo, 
chirurgus, Graff 4, 313; Fris. greva, Richth. 786. MHG. wi^e 
man, V. d. Hagen's Ges. Abent. 2, 121. On our arzf, arzitei, 
see Graflf 1, 477; arzenare, N. Boeth. 217; arsatere, medicos, 
Lane. 42631, ersatre von wonden 1988; arzatinne, Trist. 33, 38 
(what is diet-arzt, Garg. 72'^ ?) ; arza-die, Ksrchr. 7483-93 ; 

erzejiie, Wh. 60, 23. Leo in Malb. Gl. 2, 38 derives OHG. 

htp2)i from Gael, luibh, herba; si machent uz krut ein gestiippe 
(pulverem), daz ist guot ze der Inppe, Hatzl. 217": Swed. lafja, 
liika; lofjor, medicamenta ; lofjersha, vis qvinna, Altnqv. 390; 
Iithh-rin, venefica, Mone 7, 424. Diu zouuerlicha hant, herbi- 
potens manus, N. Boeth. 197 ; diu chrintcr unde diu gift-hant der 
Circe 198; hant-gift, Mone 7, 423-4. Tit. 4518; so glonbent 
eteliche an boese hantgift, Berth. 58; der Saelden /(., Silv. 534; 
edel /(. geben, Troj. 11188 ; silre h. 25043 ; dats goede hmfgifk, 
Rein. 0906; elsewhere hantgift is strena, etrenne ; leidiu h., Troj. 
12334. The Lex Salica 19 says: si quis alteri lierbas dederif 
Inhere, ut moriatur. The sense of 'poison' is evolved out of 
each of these three words, from herba (lubi?), from dare (gift). 



1<^)52 SICKNESSES. 

from hibere (potio) ; for potio, liter, a drink, has become the 
Fr. liaison; conf. 'a enherher (to poison) m^aprist jadis une 

Juise/ Berte p. lOo. Ducange sub v. inherbare. A berbman 

ov quack was called in Bavaria wald-hansl, wald-mann, Schm. 4, 
iJd-4 ; wiirzler umb Bingen, Garg. 172'', Jcrautnirer 188^\ teuMs- 
gerittene wurzel-telberin, abgeribene hraut-graserln 189% alraun- 
delberin 104^ 'Swiss women get their 100 herbs on Donnersherg 
in the Palatinate, said they were stronger there than in Swiss- 
land,' Eliz. of Orleans p. 283 ; ich waiz ain mairiii, diu vil mit 
(lem kraut wiirkt, Megenb. 386, 32. Old wives pick herbs on 
John's day betw. 12 and 1, for then only have they power ; with 
the stroke of 1 it is gone ; they grow on Pilgerberg alone, 
Miillenh. p. 222. Knit ternpern, Hartm. biichl. 1, 1307. Troj. 
10635; ein temperie als wir gemischet nemen, Wh. 420, 2; luft 
iempern u. mlschen, MS. 1, 87^^. Another verb is OHG. lochon, 
prop, mulcere, fovere : ir eigut siuchi gllohot, 0. v. 20, 76; conf. 
LciojbLat, laiuco, fovere, orig. said of wounds. 

p. 1152.] Our kropf (goitre?) is called king's evil, because it 
was cured by the king's touch ; ' those who have it, on drinking 
from the Count of Habsburg's hand, are made whole,' Reber's 
Hemmerhn p. 240. Schimpf u. E. 1, 27. It seems a godfather 
could cure his godchild of some diseases: ' godfather undfoars 
tooth in urgent cases are too weak' (p. 658 n.). Among 
American Indians the knowledge of healing herbs descends from 
father to son, Klemm 2, 169; the family of Diokles can cure 
disease and disablement. Pans. iv. 30, 2. Health is regained by 
touching the hem, also by magic, song : Serv. baijati, incantare 
morbum, dolorem. To feel the pulse is in MHG. die ddern begri- 
I'en, MS. 2, 23''; conf. ein ddern grifen, Reinh. 2018; si mar/iie 
mit dem vinger am dder-sld n (throbbing), Eracl. 3033; der kraft- 
ddern slac, Barl. 188, 22. 

p. 1153.] ^Nomina morborum vernacula ' in J. Fr. Low ab 
Erlesfeld's Univ. medicina pract., Norimb. 1724. Sickness is 
siuche, Uolr. 1038. 1109. En. 10833; MLG. suke ; MHG. 
siechtuom, diu suht, Fundgr. 2, 46; gesiihte, Warn. 2192; siech 
vommgesiihte, Walth. 20, 4. Fragm. 46''; ersocJite, Hpt 8, 167; 
■werlt-siech, En. 12908; die siecheu u. die iveichen, G. schm, 494, 
conf. ON. veikr, infirmus. veiki infirmitas, AS. ivdc, Engl, iveak. 
iSiec ende ongedaen, Lane. 15338. Unmahtt, invaletudines, 0. iii. 



SICKNESSES. 1G53 

0,2, nnninJiti, itifiniu 'J, 5; OlIG. nl vvic ni tone, noii valet; 
MHG. nild en-mac, aegrotel, Hageu's Ges. Ab. 3, 63 ; daz ich 
iiie ne mac, Ksrchr. 821 ; umjewalt, invaletudo, En. 10230-551 ; 
Slav, ne-diuj, morbus ; Boh. ne-mosh, Russ. ne-mOtcli, infirrnitas. 

Unvarnde, aeger, Tiirl. Wh. 00''. The contrary : wolcarnde 

u. gesuut, Iw. 3430. OHG. kimnf, MHG. gesimt, M. Neth. 
iji'sont (sound, well), hence uugesiinf, Poor iieiur. 375. Unganzt, 
iulirmitas, 0. iii. 4, 34, gauz, integer, 2, 22. 32 ; M. Neth. gans, 
whole, gaiisoi, to lieal, Maerl. 1, 313. 2, 359. Jesus p. 13G; 
geneseii, and gansen side by side, Maerl. 1, 313. The grand word 
for sauus is Goth, lidils, OHG. hell, ON. he'dl, OS. hel, AS. hdl, 
Engl, whole ; sanari is Goth, hails visan, gahdiluaii, while salvari 

is Goth. OHG. ganisan, AS. gcnesan with Ace. (p. 1244 n.). 

' Ghenesen ende becomen,' Maerl. 3, 97 ; OHG. chiimig, infirmus, 
chnmida, morbus. M. Neth. evel, our iihel [so, king's evil]. AS. 
ddl ne yldo, Beow. 3469, from dd, fire, heat? (Suppl. to 1166 
end) ; ddl obSe iren 3692 ; ddl obSe ecg 3523 ; ddlig, aeger. 
Dan, mninden, iimdnen, an indefinite disease, Molb. Dial. lex. 
p. 630, conf. ON. omynd, monstrum, forma laesa. What means 
' lagi daivalunti/ 0. iii. 2, 7, moriens ? (Graff 5, 346). Dole ich 
diz gebende, Ksrchr. 12704; conf. ON. afhendi, tenesmus, Dan. 

hindsel, constipation. More general are OHG. suerido = suevo; 

ouc-suero, viaga-suero, Graff 6, 888. OHG. iveivo, woe, pain; 
manegen iveii vertreip, Servat. 1077. AS. ece, ache, toff-ece. 
AS. co(T, coffe, morbus, pestis ; bdn-cofTa, m., Cod. Exon. 163, 23. 
MHG. *er lent,' he is laid up, Parz. 251, 16; die geligrigen, 
infirmi, Mohr's lieg. Frauenb. nos. 328. 235 ; die suht ligen, 
Hpt4, 296. Gramm. 4, 620; mi legar bifeng, Hel. 135, 12; 
legar-fast 121, 16; bette-rise, ligerlinc, Griesh. 116. 124; bet-rise, 
Urstende 123, 69. Servat. 3180 (is pet-ritto in the Strasb. spell 
the same thing ?) ; an rese-bette ligen, St. Louis 90, 13 ; le gisant, 
jucens, Lafont. 5, 12; conf. 'so stiiende ich ilf von dirre not, u. 
waere iemer me gesuut, Walth. 54, 9. Peculiar is OHG. ivi)ine)i, 
furere, laborare morbo, gewinnen (the fever), conf. ON. vinna. 
In Cassel they say aufstiitzig for ill : ein pferd aufstiitzig worden, 
Cav. im irgarten 53. 

p. 1154.] Sickness appears as a divine dispensation in vovaoq 
Ai6<i, Od. 9, 411 ; ir ware diu s,\x\\tgescehen, Fundgr. 2, 46. Sick- 
ness seizes: appwaro^; is infirmus; our an-gegrijj'en ; mich hut 



1654 



SICKNESSES. 



ein siech-tage hpgrifen, Diocl. 6016 ; in err/ reif dm misel-subt, 
Poor Heinr. 119; angrifen von einem boesen wind, von einem 
teufels kind, Mone 6, 470; gesuhte bestet uns (tackles us), Hpt 
1, 272; do begunde ein suche ramen der vrowen, Pass. K. 425, 
20; wcerc ingewod, morbus invasit, Cod. Exon. 163, 29; him 
faeringa adl ingewod 158, 21. Our an/all (attack), morbus; 
anveUig, infectious, Mone 8, 499. Goth, ' vas ana-habaida brinnun 
mikilai,' Luke 4, 38 ; da wolt' mich ban ergrwmm.en, ich weiz niht 
ivaz, Hugdietr. Fromra. 146 ; in stiez an einiu kelte, Fragm. 19^ ; 
in Mecklenbg, if a man is taken ill at harvest time, they say 
' the harvest-goat has gestoszen (butted at) him ' ; den hete der 

siechtuom so begint (rhy. kint), Uoh-. 1523. The contrary: 

den siechtuom uberwinden (win over), Wigal. 6991 ; unz der 
siechtuom vom im fldch, Hpt 5, 278; diu suht entwekh (ran 
a.way) 8, 188. Iw, 3446; so muozen dir intwiclien dine suhte, 
Ksrchr. 838 ; daz gesiiht begund in jiiehen, Ecke 176; diu suht 

von ime^oz, Diemer 325, 7. The vovaot approach men avro- 

/xaTot, and crcyfj, iirel (pwvrjv efetXero fXTjTieTa Zev<i, Hes. 0pp. 
102. Mulierculae plures .... a daemoniis vexantur (yr 1075), 
Pertz 5, 128. The witch cooks, brews diseases ; so does the 
Finn. Kivutar (Suppl. to 1046); she is called ' kipia neito,' 
Schroter 34, * kipu tylto, kipulan nato,' Peterson 75, ' kipunen 
eukko,^ Kalev. 25, 96. 179; worrying grey dogs howl around her. 
Pet. 74; she weai's gloves and shoes of pain, Kal. 25, 183-4. In 
Lith. they say ' ligga ne sessu/ the sickness is no sister, does not 
spare. 

p. 1155.] Febris for fervebris, ferbris ; Gael, fiabhar ; MHG. 
biever, Freid. 74, 9. Dea Febris, Aug. Civ. D. 2, 14. 3, 12. 25. 
AS. ddl )>earl, hat and heorogrim. Cod. Exon. 160, 30; ban- 
cofa (idle on-celed 159, 15; ddl me innan cele 166, 5; conf. Gael. 
teasach, febris, fr. teas, calor, fervor. Dei heizen fieber lascht er 
do (he leashes them ?), Diem. 325, 5 ; sottar brimi, morbi aestus, 
Egilss. 637. Hippocrates often has vvp for Trupero^ : irapdevov 

TTvp eXaySe 3, 6 {p/vvalKa plyo'; eXa^e 1, 5). The OHG. rito is 

Norw. rid, Aasen 379'^; are we to conn, it with ON. lirid', pro- 
cella ? Lye too, by the side of riderocT, febris, gives lirid'-ddl, 
hriffing, febris, hri&ian, febricitare ; conf. ' in bestuont der minne 
scliilr,' Parz. 587, 13, and Herbort 12836 calls the minne an 
elbisch viure : Biten winnanti, febre laborans, Graff 1, 876; rite 



SICKNESSES. 1655 

\ouh firher, Diut. 3, 45; der ritiiije, febricitaas, Griesh. 115; so 
hat ir ere den riden, Hpt 1, 437. M. Neth. rede aud redlne, 
Mone's Ndrl. lit. 335. Belo^. mus. 10, 52; bevaen met enen rede, 
Macrl. 3, 188. 168. 237-8; viel in den r. 3, 269 ; quam mi an de 
r. 3, 78 ; hadde enen groten r. 2, 79 ; genasen van den r., Hpt. 
1, 104: den vierden r. (febr. quartan.), Franc. 2882. Nii muze 
der hide ride Fnk'Arde vellen ! Karlm. Lachm. 110; schiltte in 
der rife ! Pass. 45, 32 ; habe den riden u. die snhi umb dinen 
lials ! Morolf715; das sie der jar-rit scliut ! Garg. 242"; die 
cods rid ene ! Walew. 6164; conf. Gl. to Lekensp. p. 573; das 
dich ge der schiitler an ! 11. Sachs iii. 3, 8'' ; kam sie an der 
frorer, Altd. bl. 1, 56 ; ' break the neck of the fever,' Ettn. Unw. 
d. 792. Fever rides a man, as poverty does, H. Sachs i. 3, 245*=. 
In Boner's fable the rite is made a butterfly ( = alp, night- 
mare), no doubt, that he may the better converse with the fiea ; 
conf. Fastn. 36, 55. Keller's Erz. 330. Like Petrarch, H. Sachs 
i. 483 has a dialogue betw. the zippcrlein (gout) and the sjjider 
(Kl. schr. 5, 400 seq.). The spell in Bodra. Rheing. alt. p. 710 
speaks of ' 72 riten ' ; that in Mone 7, 421 of ' 77 ritten' ; Kulda 

132 of ' 99 fevers.' Other names for fever: M. Neth. koorts, 

febris, saghe, Rein. 391. AS. gedrif ; drif. MHG. der hegir ? 
Flore 1005; to die of a schliricje fever, Garg. 241", conf. schlir, 
ulcer 259*, scliUr-geschivnr 236''. At Louvaiu fever is called quade 
mester. OHG. it-dac, febr. recidiva, Graff 6, 773, it-slaht 111 ; 
avar-sfurz, relapse; conf. ' modica j^ulsatun febre,' Greg. Tur. 2, 
5. ' Winter uud siimer' are a disease (cold and hot fits of ague 
alternating ?), St. Louis (Ruckert) 59, 28. 80, 21. Lat. quer- 
quera, shivering fit. MHG. quartanie, febr. quart., MSH. 3, 
178''; kar t an ie, WsiTth. kr. str. 51. Gr. r)TrLa\o<i, Luc. Philops. 
19. In 0. Fr. they said 'trembler la fievre,' Meon 3, 88. Rute- 
beuf 1, 290. Renart 10150. Lith. paszta-kiele, fever-bird (kiele, 
siskin). Lett, drudsis vinnu yahi, fever rides him, Bergm. 08. 
Der rufe mche, Myst. 1, 104. Flares heatae Marine, erysipelas, 
Ducange sub v. floras; Ital. rosalia. 

p. 1156.] Gout, OHG. giht, farglht, Graff 4, 142; vor zorne 
si daz giht brach, Mai 69, 2 ; daz mich diu gild zubrociiiu hjit, 
Ivsrchr. 2776. 4293, conf. ' die alten do der huoste (cough) brach, 
V. d. Hag. Ges. Ab. 2, 290 ; swen negt (whom gnaws) daz giht, 
Renn. 9897; swie daz giht in stunge, Helb. 1, 70; da ist si 



1656 



SICKNESSES. 



miiende daz gegihte, Ulr. Trist. 1512; in die gichter fallen, Eliz. 
of Orl. 41 ; vergiht, Todes geli. 548. Servat. 728. 786. 1573. Hpt 
6, 493. Austr. 'kalt vergicht/ arthritis vaga ; icht, Hpt 1, 104. 
:N ethl. jicht ; die jude, Maerl. 2, 79; juchtech, paralyticus 2, 112. 
317. 338; do vil em datjodute in de been, Detm. 2, 482 ; is this 
gout or terror ? (the hul-, angina uvularis, is allayed by the spell : 
' Hode-joduth ! I cannot gulp the pot-hook down/ Lisch's Meckl. 
jrb. 6, 191 ; the hetsch, or the heller-gschoss bumps against me, 
H. Sachs iv. 3, 76°; den heschen gewinnen, Suchenw. 18,238; 
hesche schlucken) ; unz in do sluoc daz podagra, Ksrchr. 5854. 
ON. oA;/(7-eZ(Zr, Fornm. s. 3, 200; AS. ecilma, cecelma, podagra, 
deaggede, deag-wyrmede, podagricus, deaw-ivyrm, podagra. Ko- 
synties, petits cousins, Belg. mus. 8, 183. Boh. dna, gout; Pol. 
dma, prop, blast, breathing upon. 

p. 1157, line 6, a short pai-agr. was omitted from the text, viz. : 
" A burning tumour at the finger-nail {'7rapo)vv)(^i<i) is called the 
worm, the runabout worm, the unnamed (bee. one was shy of 
uttering the creature's name), the evil thing; Engl, ringworm 
[mistake for whitlow ?], Scot, ringwood, for which R. Chambers 
quotes two spells (see Suppl.).''] The flying gout travels: fon 
farejuhim and fori fretma, Richth. 246, 14. Daz wilde viure, ignis 
sacer, is called Antonien feuer, Antoni feuer, Ettn. Unw, d, 136-7, 
Tonges-feuer (Tony's f.), Fischart, Antonien rach, plag, erysipelas, 
skin-inflammation ; bee. the Saint and his monks received such 
patients into their hospital? conf. Keisersb. Omeiss 52. AS. 
han-cod'e, ossium morbus, ignis sacer. Gi oW\\. jiaug-ild, erysip, on 
the face, Almqv. 423% conf. ON. flog. M. Neth. de rode guchte, 
Maerl. 2, 290, gutta rosea; now raze drup, our roth-lauf, St. 

A. s fire. Typhus carbuncularis acutissimus is called landslip, 

devil's shot. ' Of sacred fire are several kinds : one about a 
man's waist is called zoster (gii'dle), and kills if it bcgirdle him,' 
Pliny 25, 11 (26, 74). For this gout we find the names mane- 
wurm, Jidr-wurm, Fundgr. 2, 238. The name of gichter (gouts) 
is also given to cramps and spasms. Staid. 1, 443. A tumour 
at the finger-nail is in Plattd. y?^ [ivliit-low, white fire?], der 
ungenannt wurm, Mone 6, 462; AS. ivyrm, see Gra.mm. 1, 416 
ang-niigle, ongneil ; die uiigenannten. Staid. 2, 423; bos tJiier 1, 
207. Elves suck at children's fingers and toes by night, Dyb. 
Runa '48, p. 33. 



SICKNESSES. 1657 

p. 1157.] Apoplexy is in Grk TrXTjyr) Oeov. Lidi. sfabas. Got 
gebe deu lioiden sinen slac ! Livl. chr. 5220 ; lieb .shxjJtcne Goilti 
•pliKjhe, Miierl. 2, 348 ; plag di de rurlntj ! Midlenli. p. 191 ; daz 
herlin (f'r. bern, to strike?) ; der tropf, Karaj. Kl. deiikm. 4G, 14. 
51, 4; das dich die driin (glanders) riir ! H. Sachs v. 364^; liab 
(\\v driis u. das herzeleid ! v. 3G7; hab dir die driis in's herz 
hineiu ! v. 344" : conf. dros (p. 1003 mid.). 

p. 1158.] Epilepsy: diu vallunde suht, Servat. 1572. Uolr. 
1092. Ksrcbr. 6491; din vail ende suJit brach, Hpt 8, 185; fani-a 
\erha. fallanda ewele, Riclith. 246; dat grote evel, Hpt 1, 104; 
das hochste, Ettn. Maul. 307. On the Khun Mts, das arm werk, 
Schm. 4, 139. Sloven, svetuja Bdlanta bolezen, St. Valentine's 
evil. Litli. nfimirr litis, falling sickness. In the Wetterau, das 
thun. Austr. die frais, whence Serv. vras. OHG. xoinnanti, 
epilepticiis, Graff 1, 876. Das dicli der tropf schlag ! Fiscliart. 
Nethl. drop, dntp, marlcs-tropf, Mone 6, 470. Icel. flog (Suppl. 

to 1234). Goute r\e avertinz, Rutebeufl, 257; avertin de chief 

1, 471 ; male goute les eulz li crieve (put out his eyes) ! Trist. 
1919. Ren. 1702; male gote te crieve loil ! Ren. 21198. 25268; 
la male gote aiez as dens ! 14322. Ducange sub v. gutta quotes 
many kinds ; avertin, esvertin, Meon 1, 391. OHG. mdnothmlino, 
moon-sick, lunaticus, Graff 1, 443 (out of its place). Concidere 
ad lunae incrementa, KarairiiTTeiv 'jrpo<i ttjv ae\i)vr)v, Lucian's 
Toxar. 24. Nasci = lentigo, Graff 2, 1105. As there are 77 
noschen, so * 77 sorts of zahn-rosen,' Hpt 4, 390 ; * 77 shot and 
77 plagues/ Superst. spell xxxix. ; ' 77 worms/ Mone 6, 462 ; 
sihen sulite darzuo nemen, Kschr. 6076, wielde 6095. What is 
the unnamed disease? Moneys Schausp. 2, 373. 

Our ohn-macht, fainting fit, is called un-maht, Er. 8825. Roth. 
3015; si kam in nnmaht, Flore 1055, vor i(nm. si uider-seic 
(sank) 1223; in wnm. vallen, Reinh. 593 ; OllG. m\r Mimahtct, 
N. Boeth. 131 ; si vielen in unkraft, Kl. 1562 ; haer begaven at 
die lede, so dat si in onmacht seek, Karel 1, 128 ; therfe begaf haer 
alte male, so dat si sech in ommacht 1,241 ; viel in onmaht, Lane. 
17215; viel in ommacht, Maerl. 2, 222; von dmaht si niderseic, 
Flore 1224; si kam in dm. 1230; diu dm. vaste mit im ranc 
(wrestled hard), Hpt 5, 277; dm., Engelh. 6303; zwo dmehte si 

enpfienc, Gute frau 1650; ahJcraft, H. Sachs v. 349''. Viel in 

marmels, Troj. 10742; mannels hingeleit, Oberl. de Conr. herbip. 



1658 SICKNESSES. 

52. Si lagen iu tinsinne, Kl. 1978. 1566-71 ; vergaz der sinne 
1563; do verlos ich alle mine sinne, MSH. 3, 207''; unversunnen 
lac, Kl. 2092. Wh. 4G, 27. 61, 19; si viel hin unversunnen, 
Parz. 105j 8. Se pamer, pasmer, Ferabr. 2801, se plasmet 3640, 
plasmage 2962. We say, my senses forsook me ; animus hauc 
reliquerat, Plaut. Mil. gl. iv. 8, 37. Si lac iu einem twahne, Er. 
6593 ; daz im vor den ougen sinen veryie (passed away) siinne 
unde tac, Laurin Ettm. 829 ; er viel vor leide in unmaht^ er-n' 
weste ob ez waere tac oder nacht,'Re\n\\. 595. Sendschreiben p. 53; 

er was uz siner gewalt, Herb, 10500, conf. 10604. Mir ge- 

swindet, Gramm. 4, 231 ; daz ir geswand, Sclireiber 2, 64 ; ir was 
geswunden, Fragm. 42*^ ; ira geswant, Flore 2178. 2241; swinden, 
Jiingl. 656. JBesclnveimen : AS. swima, deliquium, Engl, swoon ; 
Jiedfod-sivima, my Jiead swims. Wan in daz houbet diuzet von 
gesiibte. Warn. 2192; ime entsweicli, Reinh. 564; beswalt, 
Partonop. 18, 13. 34, 14; ontmaect, Lane. 12042. The con- 
trary: er liam zuo sih, Flore 1066, zuo ir selber ham 1232. 
Schreiber 2, 64; zuo im selben quam, Gr. Rud. H'' 13; zuo ime 
selvin bequam, Roth. 3035^ conf. Lanz. 1747; biz er bequam, 
Wigal. 5796 ; doe hi bequam, Maerl. 2, 222. Lane. 17216 ; was 
vercomen weder, Kai-el 1, 158; sin herze im widertrat, Pass. 192, 
65; herze gewinnen, Servat. 3431; sich versinnen, Parz. 109, 18. 
Wh. 61, 29 ; sich widere versan, Er. 8836 ; er wart verriht, 
Flore 2230, kam ze gerechen 2231 ; do si wart ze witzen, Kschr. 
11925. Our ' bei sich sein^; sumne ego apud me ? Plaut. M.G. 
iv. 8, 36. 

p. 1159.] ON. qveisa, colica, conf. Goth, qaisv, (b8i<i (Suppl. to 
1212 end; grimme muoter, Mone 8, 495; bdrmuter, Garg. 182^ 
bdrvatter 69''; wdrwund, Staid. 2, 435. Dysentery, der rote suche 
Myst. 1, 105 ; er gewan den durchgang, Diocl. 4645 ; Nethl 
roode-loop, dysent. (not our roth-lauf). On uzsuht, see Gramm 
2, 794; der rothe schaden, Staid. 2, 306. Gotthelf's Sag. 5 
160-1; M. Neth. menisoene, melisoene, Maerl. 3, 177; 0. Fr 
menoison. Lung disease : daz swinde ? Myst. 1, 104. Schm. 3 
539; OHG. serweii, tabescere, Graff 6, 271. 281 ; Swiss serbet 
Staid. 2, 371; sch w ie)iig, Youhnn in Wolffs Zts. 2, 54; swin 
seyen, Mone 6, 461; schwin, scliwein ; verzehrendes wesen, con 
sumption, Leipz. avant. 1, 142. 

Stitch in the side, pleurisy : ON. tac, OS. stechetJio, Hpt. 5, 



SICKNESSES. 1059 

200, Our (lirm-wlnih (twisting of bowels), coiif. Litli. klynas, 
iliaca p;issio ; miserere. 

Dropsy : Swed. manatU-htJf, maii-JcaJf, coiif. the story of the 
' frater Salernitanus/ Aegid. de medic, p. 1G7. 

p. 1159.] Abortus: ON. konnnni leystiz hofn, foetus solvc- 
l)atur, abortuni fecit; Bavar. Jiiiischliiigon is said of a cow, Sclim. 
3, 452 ; die frau liat mit dem fiinften kiiide umgeworfen, Claudius 
in Herder's Remains 1, 423. Goth. Jitau, our kreisseu, to have 
throes: zimhern, parturire, Hag. Ges. Ab. 1, 12. Throes are 
called a>hlve<i or ^oXal, throws of Artemis, Procop. 2, 57G (Suppl. 
to 1177 mid.). 'To give birth to' we express by 'come down 
with, bring into the world,' or simply hrituj, Schweiuichen 1, 38; 
Swiss froJilen, trollen, zerf alien, fall in pieces (come in two), 
Staid. 1, 307; ^iE.G . ze, kemenaten gdn, Hugd. 107. Mar. 163, 
22 ; ON. at hvila, Vilk. sag. c. 31 ; die frau soil zu stuhl [Exod. 
1, 16]. Es fieng an zu kruchen, Garg. 102''; die halken knackten 
schon, da Jiel das ganze haus, C. Brehmen's Ged. (Lpz. 1637) 
H 3^ J 3'' ; conf. O. Fris. heiiene hurch, bone castle (womb), 
Richth. 623''; fallen and in zwei stilck hrecJien, Diet, sub v. 
fraueubauch ; se is dalbraken, broken down, Scbiitze's Hoist, id. 
1, 196; gliickliche niederbrechung, safe delivery, Claudius in 
Herd. Rem. 1, 383 ; si i.st entbicnden von ir not, Mai 129, 2. 
Schutten, iverfen, used of animals. 

p. 1160.] If the newborn infant cries, it has the heart-disease, 
and is passed three times between the rungs of a ladder, Temme's 
Altmark p. 82 ; blatt und gesper, blatt u. herzen-gesper, Mone C, 
468-9; ir tuo daz herze vil we, Hag. Ges. Ab. 2, 178; der klam, 
Kolocz. 185, angina ? fr. klemmen, to pinch. ' Der herz-wurni 
hat sich beseicht ' of cardialgy and nausea; stories of the heart- 
ivorm in Frisch 447''. Ettu. Hebamme 890. O'Kearney 180. 
A Stockholm MS. informs us : ' Wanneu ein vrowe entfangen 
hevet, so pleget gemeiuliken bi der vrucht to wassene (grow) ein 
worm, dei hevet vlogele alse ein vledermues (bat) unde einen snavel 
as ein vogel, unde dei worine wesset op mit (der) vruht ; unde 
wan dei vrowe geberet hevet, al-to-hant over cleine dageu stiget 
(climbs) Jiei op to deme herten der vrowen, unde dan to lesten so 
hellet (holds) hei der vrowen herte, also wan men menit dat dei 
vrowe genesen si, so stervet dei vrowe rokelose, dat men nicht 
eu-weit wat er scbellet (ails her).' If expelled with the fa3tu3 : 



1660 SICKNESSES. 

' dei op^e done assche ivesset, dei vruclit lieit gemeinlikeu kutfen- 

slotel.' Si viemient li ver es cors, qui vnontent jusquau cuer, 

et font raorir d'une maladie c'ou apele mort-sobitainne, Ruteb. 1, 
257. ' Grew ia his heart the zage-wurm/ shrink-worm, Burc. 
Waldis 174*; die ivurme ezzent uns daz herze, Diemer 290^ 10; 

the miser's heart-worm, Festiv. of Conan 180. Bulimus, vermis 

lacertae in stomacho hominis habitans, Oehler's AS. gl. p. 276; 
bulimuSj werna, Diut. 168. Wurme wuohsen in ime houbet (in 
their heads), Kschr. 715. 852; Hhe luorin in man or beast, that 
we caWfoztun (?)/ Mone 8, 406. 

Toothache, MHG, zan-swer, Freid. 74, 10 (Kl. schr. 2, 115). 
Headache caused by cross black elves, Hpt 4, 389. Spasms in 
head and breast with cough are called tane-weczel, J. Lindenbl. 
p. 167 (yr 1404), conf. hauer-wefzel, Gr. jSij^. Tana-weschel is 
personified in Fastn. sp. 468. ON. qvef, cough, cold in head. In 
the Wetterau : krammel im hals, rasping in throat ; woul, violent 
catarrh, conf. OHG. ivuol (1181-2). 

p. 1160.] Gelesulit vl. ficli, Diut. 3, 45. Marcellus no. 100; Jih 
in the chest, Mone 8, 493 ; bleeding, running vig 8, 409. ON. 
gula, moi'bus regius, jaundice; morbo regio croceus eifectus, Greg. 

Tur. 5, 4. MHG. misel-suht, Servat. 728. 1570; musilsuht, 

Ksrchr. 4293 ; hiez (bade) die misels. ahe-gdn 726. 4067 ; misel- 
siech, Urst. 123, 69. ON. lik-J?ra, lepra, Fornald. s. 3, 642. 
Biorgyn p. 107; likjjrdr, leprosus. M. Neth. packers, leprosus, 
Maerl. 2, 227; lasers, lazers, Kausler's Altn. denkm. 1,482-3; 
OHG. horngihruoder, leprosi, Graff 3, 301 ; MHG. made villic, 
made-rvellic, aissel-villic, Myst. 1, 418 ; 0. Slav, prokaza, lepra, 
Miklos. 34; Gael, lohliaracli, muireach, leprosus. The Lex Rotb. 
180 has Meprosus aut daemoniacus,' and 233 ' mancipium lepr. 

aut daem.' The SI. triid is in Jungm. tetter, ringworm, in 

Miklos. 94 dysenteria, hydropisis. OHG. liruh, scabies, conf. 
Graff 4, 1155; AS. hnif, ON. hrtifa. Citir-Ius vel ritdige, GL 
Sletst. 25, 169; citaroli, Graff 4, 1155; tetra-Jic, Hattemer I, 
2Q2^ ; zetern., flechte, Hpt 4, 390 ; AS. teter, Engl, tetter, 
impetigo ; Austr. zitterich. Gr. XeLyijv impetigo, SI. Ushdi, 
Serv. lita.i. A kind of itch is in Austr. hamJiakl, woodpecker. 

ON. skyrhiugr, Dan. skjorhug ; schorhock, Garg. 149^; scJtar- 

hock, scorhiit, scorbutus. AS. J^eor on fet, in eagum. The hurzel 
is a contagious disease, Augsb. chr., yr 1387. Mono 6, 257; 



SICKNESSES. 1661 

burz>.'l, <jHnhHf::el, Friscb 1, 157. 383. SI. kratel, an ailment 
that makes one leg shorter, Vuk sub v. ; MHG. ir beiu (legs) 
diu habent die muchen, Fraueni. p. 192, our maiike, malauders, 
Frisch. A bleeding boil is called hund schiittler, Panzer 2, 305 ; 
daz yn daz knallen-nbel angee ! Fries's Pfeiferger. p. 118 (yr 
1388). 

p. 1160.] Eutre sui en iiiaJ an, Aspr. 15". 

p. 1163.] Smallpox: Serv. /cr((.s-^<'. Die blattern (pocks) fuhren 
auf, Lpz. avant. 1, 271. Urschlechten, urschlichien hlattern, conf. 

urslaht, Gramm. 2, 790. The story of a daemoniam meridi- 

anum is told by Caes. Heisterb. 5, 2. The ' destruction that 
wasteth at noonday' is trans, in AS. psalms ed. Thorpe p. 253 
on midne dcege mcere deoful ; in Wiggert's Fragm. p. 3 von theme 
dluuele miftentageUcheu ; in Windberg ps. p. 431 vone aneloufe 
unde tiuvele deme miftertaijelichen; in Trier ps. von aneloufe 
unde deme divele mitdendegelicheme ; conf. the midday mannikin, 
evening mannikin, Borner 249. Pahipohiitza, Wend, volksl. 2, 
268; conf. metil and kuga (p. 1188). At noon the gods take 
their siesta, the ghosts can range freely then, and hurt mankind ; 
a shepherd in Theocritus will not blow his reed while Pan takes 
his noonday nap. With the spell of * the hiinsche and the dragon,' 
conf. ' rotlanf und drach,' Hpt 7, 534. ' God send thee the fever, 
or the boils, or the liiiiinch!' so prays the peasant against his 
fellow man, Keisersb. Sins of the lips 38". 

p. 1163.] There are healing drinks, magic driuks: drinc of 
main, potus corroborans, Erceldun's Tristram 2, 40-2 ; drinc of 
might, philtrum 2, 48. 51; conf. ominnis dryckr (p. 1101); // 
looendris, Trist. ed. Michel 2106 (for 3 years) ; Engl, love-drink, 
Fr. boivre damour 2185. A sick man is fiddled back to health, 
supra (p. 331) ; into his trifling wound she blew, Gellert 3, 426. 
A blind king is cured by washing in the ivater of a chaste wife, 
Herod. 2, HI. H. Estionue's Apol. pour Herodote. Keisersb. 
Omeiss 52*^. (Pref. xxxviii). 

p. 1165.] Ich kan die leute viessen, Gryphius's Dornr. 90 ; 
meten, Gefk. Beil. 167: 'the third woman declared he had lost 
the measure, and she must measure him again,' Drci erzn. p. 361 ; 
berouchen u. mezzen, Hag. Ges. Ab. 3, 70. Is this alluded to in 
* ich viizze ebener dan Gctz, diu uie dehein man iibermaz ' ? 
Helbl. 3, 327 ; messerinnen, Ettu. Maul. 657. Carrying -a jewelled 

VOL. IV. c c 



1662 SICKNESSES. 

chain about one is a remedy, Bit. 7050 — 55 (Suppl. to 1218 
mid.). 

p. 1166.] Whether a man is troubled with the white folk, is 
determined thus : Take 3 cherrii twigs, and cut them into small 
pieces, saying, 'one not one, two not two, etc' up to nine, till you 
have 81 pieces ; throw these into a bowl of water, and if they 
float, the patient is free of the white folk ; but if some sink, he 
is still afflicted with them in the proportion of the sunken sticks 
to the swimming ones. In Masuria, N. Preuss. prov. bl. 4, 
473-4. 

p. 1166.] We pour water on one who has fainted: daz man 
mit hrunnen si verguz, unde natzte-se under'n ougen, Kl. 1566 ; 
si lac in unsinne unz (senseless till) man mit wazzer si vergoz 
1978. Wet grass is laid on those that swoon, Ls. 2, 283. To 
strike a^re, or to puff it, is good for a burn in the foot, erysipelas 
and sore eyes, Miillenh. p. 210. 

p. 1168.] Poenit. Ecgb. (Thorpe p. 380): (|?a did) jst wega 
gelffitum ]?ui"h Jja eor&an tih&. Creeping through hollow stones, 
Antiqv. ann. 3, 27 ; conf. Kuhn on Vrihaddevatii in Weber's Ind. 
stud. 1, 118-9. Holluw round stones are fairy cups and dishes, 
Scott's Minstr. 2, 163. These are often ment. in old records : 
ad d'urecJielen stein (yr 1059) MB. 29^^, 143; p^tra pertusa, Procop. 
2, 609 ; pierre percee, Schreib. Taschenb. 4, 262-3 (Kl. schr. 2, 42). 

At Lauenstein a ruptured child is pulled through a S2>lit oak 

bl/ its fjodfaDters bef. sunrise ; the more carefully the tree is then 
tied up, the better will the rupture heal ; but no one will have 
that oak, for fear of getting the rupture. The same thing is done 
with a young maiden a.sA, Barnes p. 326. Sometimes the hair 
merely is cut off and passed through, Meier's Schwab, sag. 528. 
A horse is cured by putting a silver penny inside the split of 

an aspen or hazel, Mone 6, 476. In England they often pull 

a sick child through an ash, Athnm '46, Sept. 5, no. 984. They 
tie the tree up with thick string, or drive nails into it. Trees so 
nailed together are often met with in the woods : one was found 
full of nails, Hone's Tablebk 2, 466 ; conf. the Vienna ' stock am 
eisen,' Ziska's March, p. 105. If you have the toothache, walk 
silently into a wood on a Thursday morning, take a nail with you, 
pick your teeth with it, then drive it into a tree, Nilss. 4, 45. 
There is a tree near Mansfeld studded all over with nails, DS. 



SICKNESSES. 



16G3 



no. 1-87. In England a child that has the hooping cough is 
drairib three times through an opening in a hawthorn hedge. 
Apala, afflicted with a skin-disease, offers a Soma-sacrifice to 
Indra, who in token of gratitude heals her by drawing her 
through three openings in his car, Weber's Ind. stud. 1, 118. 4, 8. 
p. 1 1 72.] When a headache will not go, they wind a string 
three times round the man's head, and hang it up in a tree as a 
noose ; if a bird flies through it, he takes the headache along 
with him, Temme's Altmk p. 83. If you lai/ a child's chemise, 
in which it has suffered the schwere noth (fit of epilepsy), on the 
rross-ioays, the disease will pass over to him who walks, rides or 
drives that way, Medic, maulaffe 1G7. A hatchet-wound is healed 
by tying np the tool that dealt the dint. 

Herre, mit Gotes helfe 
wil ich, daz reine welfe 
iuwer kint wol generen (keep alive). Diocl. 4504. 

Jaundice can be transferred to the lizard, Mone 7, 609. Sick 
men are wrapt in the hide of a newly killed stag, Landulph. in 
Muratori 4, 81. Wilman's Otto 3, 244. A sickly child is swathed 
in the skin of a newly slaughtered sheep (in Shamyl's camp), 
Allgem. Ztg '56, p. 3323''. The super imposition of warm flesh 
occurs in a witch-trial, Schreib. Taschenb. 5, 213. 

p. 1172.] The deer-strap must be cut off the live animal, 
Agric. Vom hirsche p.m. 238-9 ; conf. 'man sol den erhel-ricnten 
(lorum nauseae) snideii dem der smacke (sapor) wil verderben, 
Tit. 2621. The tooth of a weasel killed in a particular way is 
picked up from the ground with the left hand, wrapt in the hide 
of a newly killed lion (or maiden hind), and laid on the gouty 
feet, Luc. Philops. 7. On the healing virtue of a rhamois-hullet, 
dorouicon, see Ettn. Unw. d. 180. A skin-inflammation is called 
wolf: 

Der siechtuom ist des ersten klein, 
und kumt den herren in diu bein, 
nnd ist geheizen der wolf. Ottok. 91''. 

p. 1173.] Kl. schr. 2, 146. Certain worms or heetles are 
recomm. for dog-madness. * Maz-leide buoz ' in the note = cure 
for queasiness (meat-loathing). There is a healtb-giving dish, 



1664 SICKNESSES. 

into which the slaver of black and white snakes has trickled, Saxo 
Gr. ed. M. p. 193-4. Ein iglich tier (every beast) daz wurde 
gesunt, der im gaebe (if one gave it) hundes-hlnot , Renn. 19406 ; 
blood heals wounds. Lane. 25397-428. In the Bngelhart and 
Poor Henry, leprosy is cured by the hlood of innocent babes ; 
* man swendet druosen mit niiechterner speicheln,' fasting men's 
spittle, Renn. 5884. 

p. 1173.] A yellow bird by his look removes jaundice; it is 
also cured by drinking out of a waxen goblet with a raven-ducat 
lying at the bottom, Unw. doct. 147. Biting is good for a bite : 
beiti (mordax aliquid) vi^ bifsottum, Seem. 27''. The huk is 
healed by j^ot-hoohs, Lisch's Meckl. jrb. 6, 191, hip-gout (?) by 
gelding, Greg. Tur. 10, 15. 

p. 1175.] To the M. Latin ligamentum answers the Gr. 
irapdpTTjfjLa, appendage, Luc. Philops. 8 ; breviis ac Ugaturis, 
MB. 16, 241 (yr 1491); obligatores, Ducange sub v. Pertz 3, 
100. Were wolfs teeth hung on people like the foal's tooth 
p. 658 n. ? 

Ob ieman wolle tumbeu spot 
und einen boesen wolves zan 
mit ergerunge henken dran. Pass. 3, 70. 
Ir truogt (wore) den eiter-n-olves zan. Parz. 255, 14. 

Daz ich minne, ist mir niht an- geb linden, ez ist mir an-geborn, 
MSH. 3, 233*^. Parentes vero ejus, intelligentes eum diaboli 
immissione turbari, ut mos rusticorum habet, a sortilegis et ariolis 
ligamenta ei et potiones deferebant, Greg. Tur. Mirac. S. Mart. 1, 
26. Accidentibus ariolis et dicentibus, earn meridiani daemonii 
incursum pati, Ugamina herbarum atque incantationura verba 
proferebant 4, 36. Ilia de sinu liciuin protulit varii colons filis 
intortum, cervicemque vinxit meum, Petron. c. 131. Finn, tyrd, 
prop, testiculus, then ' globulus magicus nocivus, instar testicu- 
lorum, homiiiibus et pecudibus immitti solitus.' Fromm. on Herb, 
p. 230 quotes : imago argentea, per incantationum modes multique 
artificii virtute constructa, quae adversus incantationes jam factas 
est valde potissima. 

p. 1177.] In Arabic a conjurer is called breather on the knots, 
who ties the nestel, and breathes or spits on it, to complete 
the charm, Riickert's Hariri 1, 451. Sura 113 of Koran. Flnoch 



SICKNESSES. 1665 

(:i curse), der mine wambe besperret (bars up), Mar. 153, 38. The 
witch throws the padlock over a loving pair at their wedding, to 
breed hatred betw. them, Bcchst. Thur. sag. 3, 219. People choose 
the same day for being bled, Trist. 380, 3 [this appar. belongs 
to 1139 ?]. A lighted wick dipt in one's drink, and so quenched, 
lessens the drinker's enjoyment of love, Marcell. no. 94. Kl. 

schr. 2, 142. Labour is obstructed by ni)ie witch-hiots in the 

hair, ' the kaims (combs) of care,' Minstrelsy 2, 400. A shaggy 
cap is good for women in child-hands (-birth), Herold in Oechslo's 
Bauernkr. p. 35. A difficult labour is lightened by making two 
babies of wax ; or are they merely to deceive the sorceress ? 
DV. 1, 271-9. A man clasps his hands over his knees, and the 
'labour is stopt ; they make believe it is over, he lets go, and it 
goes on again, Asb. Huldr. 1, 20. Belts relieve the labour, 
Ossian, Ahlw. 3, 436. 450 ; ]?a toh Hrani belt-it, ok lag&i unn Jiana,. 
ok litlu siSar (soon after) varS hun lettari, Fornm. s. 4, 32. 

The Lettish Laima spreads the sheet under those in labour ; the 
zlota baba watches over births, Hanusch 337. 356. 'Apre/jiL^ 
^oXoa-iT], Procop. 2, 576; al KvtaKovaaL eTriKaXetaOe Trjv"ApT€fj,iv, 
a^iovcrdac a-vyyvwfjLJj'i on 8c€Kopy]6r)T€, Sch. on Theocr. 2, 6Q. 
Juno Lnciiia, fer opem, serva me obsecro^ Ter. Adelphi iii. 4, 41. 

Swelh wib diit driti liet (3 canticles) hat, 

so sie ze keminaten gat (takes to her chamber), 

in ir zesweti hevangen (clasped in her right), 

sie lidet (will suffer) unlangen 

kumber von dem srre, 

wand in unser Frowen ere 

g'nist sie (she'll recover) des kindes gnaedeclichen . . . 

Swa diu buochel driu sint behalten, 

diu Maget wil der walten (Virgin will manage), 

daz da nehein kint 

icerde hrumb noch blint. Wernher's Maria 128-9. 



•H 



p. 1177.] The cure for poisoning is descr. in Megenberg 275, 
To the foot of one bitten by an adder is tied a stone from a 
virgin's grave, Luc. Philops. 11. 

p. 1179.] ' Man sol genaedige heilige verre in vremden landen 
suochen,' MSH. 3, 45^* [Chaucer's ' seekeu straunge strondes, to 
fernc halwes']. The sick are healed on the grave of the pions 



1666 SICKNESSES. 

priest, Pertz 2, 82. The myth of the herb that grows up to the 
skirt of the statue's garment is also in Walth. v. Rh. 138, 21-58 
(p. 1191 mid.). Relics bring luck, Al. Kaufmann's Caesarius 
p. 28, and the M. Neth. poem of Charles, Hpt. 1, 104. Miracles 
are also wrought on Pinte's grave, Renart 29481. 

p. 1180.] Coins were laid at the feet of a statue which had 
cured, or was to cure, fever ; silver coins were stuck on its loins 
with wax, Luc. Philops. 20. 

Stabat in his iugens annoso robore quercus, 

una nemus ; vittae mediam memoresque tahellae 

sertaque cingebant, voti SLrgnvaentsi potent is. Ov. Met. 8, 743. 

A woman cured of toothache thankfully hangs waxen gums on 
the grave, Pertz 10, 522 ; a man whom the saint has delivered 
from chains hangs up a chain, ibid. ; so in Cses. Heisterb. 7, 29. 
Liberated prisoners hang their chains on the trees in the 
goddess's grove, Pausan. ii. 13, 3 ; those in Ma. on the saint's 
tomb, St. Louis 96, 2 ; conf. Scheible 6, 988-9. 997 and RA. 674. 
' My mother made a vow that she would hang a votive tablet in 
the chapel if I recovered my hearing,' Bronner's Life 1, 40. 
Hooks to which diseased cattle had been tied, also crutches after 
a cure were left lying in the chapel, Miillenh. p. 105, and at 
healing springs, L\ march. 2, 78. In some places the inscription 
may still be read : 'hat geholfen,' hath holpen, M, Koch's Reise 
203. A waxen house is vowed, that the dwelling house may not 
be burnt down, St. Louis 84, 19. 

p. 1182.] To OHG. sterpoy pestis, lues, corresp. the AS. 
steorfa. The schelm I explain fr. schwert, GDS. p. 235-6 : der 
schelme gesluoc, Hpt 5, 552; der schalm sliieg liberal, LS. 2, 
314; eh dich der schelm schlecht, Garg. 102^; der sch. schlagt, 
Mone's Bad. gesch. 1, 219; schelmen-gruhe, -gasse, -acJcer 1, 215 
seq. Leopr. 75-6; Jceib und 6'c7ie/v», Mone's Anz. 6, 467-8, schelmig 

u. kehig 8, 407. OHG. suhtluomi, pestileus, corruptus, Graff 

2, 212; staramilo, stramilo 6, 712. Diut. 1, 279; der brechen, 
plague,' Panz. Beitr. 1, 23 ; dying of the brechen, H. Sachs 3, 64^= 
(cholera?); pisleht, pestis, Graff 6, 778 ( = sleht, clades, Diut. 1, 
183) ; der gehe tot in Pass. 316, 90 is apoplexy ; der scliwarze tod 
Miillenh. no. 329 ; ' how a pestilence could thus fall fr. the stars, 
and overrun the world,' Ph. v. Sittew. Zauber-becher p. 238; 



SICKNESSES. l(j()7 

die pesteleuz stiiszt an, Platter's Life 6(). 71-2. The Serv. 

kratel is a fabulous disease that kills ia one uiglit, worse than the 
plague ; the dead uiau has onr foot sJiorler than the other, hence 
the name (kratak, curt, Suppl, to IIGO end). IIoii^/j is a personif. 
plague that robs mothers of their children, Pans. i. 44, 7. With 
Apollo conf. OSinn in Sasm. 5" : flctjgffl OSinn, ok i folk um 
skaut (shot). The Lettons think it au omen of pestilence, if the 
auskitfs shears the backs of the sheep in the night, Bergm. 142. 

p. 1183.] The angel that smites all in Ezek. 9 is called der 
slaJicnih engeJ, Diemer 327-8. 2 Sam. 24, lG-7, Deliverance 
from the plague is effected by a snow-white angel, Greg. Tur. 4, 5. 
Angels and devils go about during the plague, Sommer p. 55 ; 
der sterbe erh\::et (bites to death, au angel with drawn sword), 
Griesh. 2, 28 ; raging death rides through the city on a pale 
horse, Judas 1, 327 ; in times of pestilence, Hel (m.) rides about 
on a three-legged horse, butchering men, Miillenh. p. 244; ich 
hor audi das menliti kum, pestilenz, es fahet au (begins), Keisersb. 
Ora. 24.1 

p. 1184.] The black death rises a,s a black /(xj, Miillenh. no. 
329 ; the plague comes in sight as a bine inist, tSomm. p. 73, as 
a cloud, a viper, Villemarq. Bard. bret. 120. The plague, in the 
shape of a fog, winds into a wasps' hole, and gets plmjiji'd in, 
Kulpa iu D'Elv. 1 1 ; she comes in at the window, a black shape, 
passes into a bored hole, and is pegged hi, Keh rein's Nassau 54. 
^oi^o<i uKepaeKofirj^ \ol/j,ou V€(f>eXT)y cnrepvKei, Luc. Alex. 36. 

N. JMarc. Cap. 30. Tiie plague proceeds from the throats of 

pursued wolves, Forcell. sub v. Hirpi. Et uata fertur pestilentia 
in Babylonia, ubi de templo ApoUinis, ex arcula anrea, quam 
miles forte inciderat, spiritus pestilens evasit, atque inde Parthos 
orbemque implesse, Capitolinus in Vero 8. With the plague that 
is conjured into a lime-tree, agrees the spider that is bunged iu 
and let out again, which also runs about the country as a sterbet, 
Gotthelf's Erzilhl. 1, 84. 

p. 1189.] The Great Plague is called pestis ^fit'a, Welsh g fad 
felen, San Marte's Arthur-s. 29. 323. With the leg. of Elliant 
conf. Volksmiirch. aus Bret. p. 185 — 8. Souvestre 20G-7. On 

' Do/Hiw Thiederici, Thietm. Merscb. 4, 21; 'ASptavoO Tvpyos, Td<pos, Procop. B. 
Goth. 2, 22 ; tnrris Crescentii or Dietriclis-hans iu the leg. of Crescentia and the 
Two DietricLs. In Wackeru. Lb. 990, Ditterich biiikU the Kngel-borg ; it is called 
SorHen-bnrij in Myst. 1, 1U3. 



1668 HERBS AND STONES. 

the Lith. Giltine, see N. Preuss. prov. bl. 8, 471-2. German 
plague-stories may be seen in Woeste's Volks-iiberl. 44, Panz. 
Beitr. 1, 29 and Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 83. The pest-frau is dressed in 
lohite, Bader no. 431. The plague creeps, crawls in the dark, 
Schmidt's Westerw. id. 89. The Swed, Plague-boy reminds of 
the girl who in Denmark indicates deaths to the kindred xoith 
a twig, Molb. Hist, tidskr. 4, 121 ; three plague-women walk 
through the town with scythes. The plague- maiden appears in 

wet garments and with a little red dog, Bunge's Arch. 6, 88. 

When pestilence rises out of Mit-othin's grave, the body is dug 
up and hedged in ivith stakes, Saxo Gr. ed. Miill. 4o (Suppl. to 
609). The abating of plagues by btirying in a hill occurs in 
Sagebibl. 3, 288. The cow's-death, an enormous bull, approaches 
like the plague, Miilleuh. no. 328. In time of plague, the first 
head of cattle that falls is hnried with a young shoot or a willow 
planted in its mouth, Superst. I, 838. Miillenh. no. 327; or a 
bull is buried alive, Panzer 2, 180, a calf or cow sacrificed (pp. 
608. 1142). At Beutelsbach near Stuttgart, an old woman 
during a cattle plague advised that the hummel (parish-bull) 
should be buried alive : wreathed in flowers they led him in state 
to a deep pit ; three times the mighty beast broke his way out, 
but the third time he choked. Hence the Beutelsbacher are 

nnmed Hummelbacher. The plague flies at people's necks as a 

huttei-hy,fillert<;, Woeste's Volks-iiberl. 44-5. The Kuga, like 
Berhta, can't bear to see the dishes not washed up. A strange 
bird sings from the tree : ' Eat pimpernel, and you'll all be well ! ' 
Herrlein's Spessart 217. Rochholz 2, 390-1 ; somewhat differently 
in Schoppner no. 962. Leoprechtiug 101. Bader no. 270. 
Panzer 2, 161. Schonwerth 2, 380. 3, 21. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 
HERBS AND STONES. 



p. 1190.] Ace. to Galen (De fac. simpl. 6, 792-3) a Greek, 
Pamphihis, about the time of Claudius, wrote of herbs in alpha- 
betic order, collecting their names and the superstitions about 
their virtues in sacrifices and incantations. Were the book 
extant, it would be valuable for mythology and language. 



HERBS AND STONES. 1669 

Possibly the names of plants interpolated in MSS. of Dioscorides 
are out of Pamphilus. 

1. Herbs. 

p. 1191.] Kein dine hat uf der erden an kreften also richen 
hort (of powers so rich a store) so steinc, kriuter unde ivort, Troj. 
10860; steine, hnU sint an tugenden riche, wort wil ich darobe 
(above them) an kreften prisen, MS. 1, 12''; quae carmine sanet 
et lurhii<, Ov. Met. 10, 397. Wurzen kraft u. aller steine meister- 
schaft, MS. 1, 195'^; wilrze des waldes u. erze (ores) des fjoUes u. 
elliu abgrunde, diu sint dir Herre kiinde, MS. 2, 230 ; der steine 
kraft, der wiirzc waz, Wh. 2, U. What is the distinction betw. 
hrid and lourz ? Ein krCd, des wiirzc (whose aromaj er wunden 
helfen jach (asserted), Parz. 516, 24, conf. 516, 27 : er gruohse, 
i.e. the wurz ( = wurzel, root). Kraut is picked, wurzel dug out; 
flowers too are 2jickcd (Walth. 39, 16. Hpt 7, 320) or gathered 

(Walth. 39, 1). Also : crut lesen, Lane. 29301 . Ein edel krid, 

Hpt 4, 521; unedclhlnot (ignoble blood) 7,321 (p. 1195); durch 
sine edel ez (daz krut) tragen. Warn. 1944; tugcnt-friihtic kriutel, 
MS. 1, 88* ; ich brich eiich cdlc krcnter, Mone 6, 460 ; cfxipfiaKov 
eadXov, Od. 10, 287. 292; ein edles kraut patientia samt dem 
kreutlein benevolentia, die gaben also siiszen ruch, das es mein 
herz u. sel durchkruch. Healing herbs are ' herbes demanieres' 
Uen. 19257-69; surdae, hoc est ignobilcs herbae, Pliny 22, 2, not 

showv, e.g. grass. Heil-wurz is fetched from an inaccessible 

mountain by the wild merwoman, Hpt 5, 8 (Suppl. to 1192 mid.), 
as dictamnus is by Venus from Ida, Aen. 12, 412. The Idcean bed 
of flowers is also in Petron. 127; the Homeric veo^T^Xe'a? iroirjc; 
is in Hesiod too, Theog. 576 ; a woodland bed [of flowers ?] is 
Erek's and Enid's bette-wdt (-curtain), Er. p. 216. Vuk 1, no. 
224; rait rosen was ich umbestact, Tragemund. Where the 
maiden stood in the garden, bloom, the fairest flowers, Rhesa 
dainos 296 ; die bourne beguuden kracJien, die rosen sure lachen, 
Ges. Abent. 1, 464. Another planta e capite statuae nascens 
is in Athenajus 5, 497. Liebrecht's Gervas. 124. Gesta R6m. 
K. 138. Moss growing in a dcalJi's licad is supposed to have 
magic power. There is a superstition about peas sown inside a 
skull. 

p. 1192.] Plants are dear to God; He called them forth. 



1670 HEKBS AND STONES. 

Whether to pick beautiful flowers, or dur Got stdn km (for God's 
love let them stand) ? Hpt 4, 500. The inarrubium indeed is 
gotes-vcrgeten, gotis-v., gotz-vergesseii, Mone 4, 240-8. 8, 493. 
407; gotis-vergeszene, Summerl. 57, 51. Gewv dypaxm^, ?V 
Kp6vo<i KareaTretpe' Glaucus, having found and eaten it, becomes 

immortal, Athen. 3, 83-4. Aljxa ^Apeox; (blood of Ares), nardus 

montana, Dioscor. 1, 8, lilium 3, 106; alp,a 'Ep/xov, verbena 4, 
60; aljxa !A6r]vd'; chamaepitys 3, 165; alfia 'H pa KXeou<;, crocna 
1, 25, centaurium minus 3, 7; alfA,a rndvov, rubus 4, 37. So: 
70V09 'HpaK\eov<i, myrtus silv. 4, 144, elleborum alb. 4, 148 ; 
76V09 'Epfxov, anethum 3, 60, buphthalmus 3, 146 ; 761/09 ripa>o^, 
polygonum 4, 4 (is 76»'o? here semen, or as the Lat. version has it, 
genitura?). The flower Ata<i first springs up after the hero's 
death. Pans. i. 35, 3. Plants often originate from drops of blood 
(p. 827), as the flower on Sempach field shoots up where Leopold 
has fallen, Reber's Hemmerlin p. 240. The poison-plant ukovltov 
grows out of Cerberus's drivel (Ov. Met. 7, 415. Serv. ad Virg. 
Geo. 2, 152), as the herb ^rac/to/i^p does from dragon's blood, Parz. 

483, 6. ApcaroXo^ta (corrup. into osterluzei) has reference to 

'Aprep^Lt; Xo-y^eia, and is given to women in childbed. Herba 
Chironis alsing. Moneys Quellen 289**; herba S. Petri, ibid. The 
Pol. Dziewanna is both Diana and verbascum thapsus ; Boh. 
divizna (wonder-flower) is our himmelbrand (Suppl. to 1196). 
Baldrs hra stands on a par with siipercilium Veneris, Diosc. 4, 
113 a,nd j nngfrauen aug-braune (virgin's eyebrow), achillea mille- 
folium, Nemnich ; conf. ivild-fraulein-kraut, achillea moschata, 
Staid. 2, 451. AS. Sator-ld.&e (p. 247). IFoens-ytnw'f?, angelica ? 
Coremans 53. Visnmarus, son of summer, of the sun ? (Suppl. 

to 1212 end). The centaury was first pointed out by the 

centaur Chiron; a herb is named achillea, bee. discovered by 
Chiron's pupil Achilles. Venus culls dictamnus on Ida for her 
wounded Aeneas, Aeu, 12, 412. The p.oi\v plucked out by 
Hermes is, ace. to Dioscor. 3, 46-7, ruta silvestris and leucoium 
silvestre. An angel in a dream reveals the sowthistle (p. 1208) ; 
the wounded Albert is shown the remedial herb in a dream, 
Felsenb. 1, 232-4; an angel tells of a remedy in a dream, Eugelh. 
5437 seq. One herb the Mother of God has covered with her 
cloak, Klose's Breslau p. 102; the empereriz having fallen asleep 
on a rock in the sea, Mary appears and bids h.ev pull up the herb 



HERBS AND STONES. 1<>71 

that yrows under Iirr head, Meon N. rec. 2, 71-3. Maerl. 2, 220. 
Wackern. Lb. 995, 20. Frau Bahehilt digs up and grates herbs 
for wounds, Ecken-1. 173—6. The mermaid urges the use of 
mugwort, the v'da of odolian (pp. 1208. 1212). The v'da ijathers 
herbs (here bilye) for Marko, Vuk 2, 218 (ed. '45). 

p. 1194.] In the leg. of Glaucus and Polyidus a snake brings 
the herb that reanimates the dead, ApoUod. Bibl. 3, 3 ; conf. 
KM.^ 3, 26. A weasel in the wood culls the red flower that 
quickens, Marie 1, 474. Birds pick herbs, and teach their uses 
to man, e.g. the spring- wurzel (p. 973). A raven comes flying 
with the wound-healing leaf, Vols, saga c. 8. If a swallow's chick 
grows blind, she fetches a herb, lays it on, and restores the sight ; 
hence the herb's name of chelidonium, celandine, Dioscor. 2, 211. 
GDS. 204; and Megenberg tells the same tale of schell-ivurz 
(celandine).^ Harts shew the hart- wort (hirsch-wurz, -heil), 
Megenb. 398, 22—25. With Norweg. Tyrl-hiahn (Tiwes-helm) 
coincides 'Apeo<; kwi), Babr. 68, 4. Does OHG. wat-wurz, Graff 
1, 768 stand for Watin-wurz ? 

p. 1195.] Mary has the most herbs named after her, see 
Fries's Udtl. 1, 87. Similar to the wine Liehfraueu-milch is 
ji<j)poB LT7]<; ^d\a, Aristoph. in a lost play p. m. 154*; t]8v^ 7e 
TTLveiv olvo<i jl(j)po8. yd\a, Athen. 10, 444'^ Marien-railch how- 
ever is polypodiuni vulg., said to have grown out of the drops of 
milk that Mary scattered over the land, F. Magnus. 361 note ; 
conf. the Span, leche de los viejos, leche de Maria = wine. Marien 
hett-stroh is Engl, huhfs hedstraw, lady in the straxv, Hone's 

Yrbk814. Frua-mdnteli, malva rotundifolia. Wolf's Zts. 2, 54. 

Vrowen-hdr, Minnen-hdr, capillus Veneris, Mone 4, 241 ; conf. 
Venus's eyebrow (Suppl. to 1192 mid.). Nemnich sub vv. 
cypripeJium, adiautum. Marien-thrdne, -tear, resembles "Hpa<i 
SdKpvov, verbena, Diosc. 4, 60. Labrum, lavacrum, concha Vene- 
ris =dipsacus sitibundus, bee. it gathers dewdrops. Maryaretlien- 
schvckla, -shoe, put in a box, becomes a black worm. 

' A tield-flower, euphrasia or myosotis, is called augen-trost (eye's comfort), 
Nethl. oijhen-troost ; also auijen-dicmt (lilunientrost, a family name at Miilhausen) ; 
conf. ' den ich in miuen ougen gerue burge," Wolfr. S, 4 ; zc sumerc die ougeu 
troflteu scboene wise (fair meads enchant the eye) ; lovely l&dies were 6(ptia\fj.ut' 
dXvTjOo^'es, eye-smarts. Da'ges eagc, primula veris [?j , M. Engl, dales eyghe, 
daisy, Alex. 7511. Clover too is called ou<ien hrclu'mii-, but Engl, cye-lriijht is 
euphrasia. Ich tuon dir in den ougen wol, Winsbekin 4, 4 ; er ist niir in den 
ougen niht ein dorn, MS. 1, 15". 2, UH"; ob ez ir etelichcn taete in den ougen wO, 
MS. 1, dS". GDS. 20") ; conl. friedelex ouna, Mone 8, 405. Hpt. ^^>, 33'i. 



1672 HERBS AND STONES. 

p. 1195.] Flowers are picked and presented to ladies, Hpt 7, 
320. Some herbs engender strife, esp. among women : ononis 
spinosa, weiher-hrieg , women's war, Lat. altercum ; Serv. h'dye od 
omraze, herbs of hate, that makes friends fall out, Vuk 1, 305 (ed. 
'24). Boh. hily is one particular plant, tussilago. Herbs wei'e 
broken off with the pommel of a sword, Lane. 12013, picked with 
the left hand, bare-footed (see selago) . They are gathered ace. 
to days of the week : on Sunday solsequium, Monday lunaria, 
Tuesd. verbena, Wednesd. mercurialis, Thursd. bai'ba Jovis, Frid. 
capillus Veneris, Saturd. crowfoot (? p. 247). Superst. H, cap. 
31-2. 

p. 1196.] Pliny 26. 5, 14 calls condurdum herba solstitialis, 
flore rubro, quae e collo suspensa strumas comprimit ; conf. Plaut. 
Pseudol. i. 1, 4: quasi solstitialia herha paulisper fui, repente 

exortus sum, repentino occidi. Herba Britannica is called in 

Diosc. 1, 120 a\tfA,o<;, ol he /Speravvticj], in 4, 2 ^peravvLKr} rj 
^eTTovLKTj, conf. Diefenb. Celt. 3, 112. Cannegieter de Briten- 
burgo, Hag. Com. 1734. Abr. Hunting de vera herba Brit. 
Arnst. 1698. C. Sprengel's Diosc. 2, 571. GDS. 679. An 
OHG. gl. of the 12th cent, has 'herba Brit., himel-brant,' Mone 
8,95; peril. ' ]dlmihranda = maureWa,' in Graff 3, 309 stands for 
himilbranda. Himmel-hrand, -kerze = verha,scnm thapsus, white 
mullein, Schm. 2, 196; and hilde-hrand, verb, nigrum, 2, 178. 
Himmelhrand, hrenn-kraut, feld-kerze, unholden-kerze = verb, 
thapsus, says Hofer 2, 52 ; unlwlden-kraut. Boh. divizna, Jungm. 
1,371* (Suppl. to 1192 mid.). Instead of ' hcewen-hyd'ele, bri- 
tannica,' Mone's Quellen 320'' has the forms licewen-hyldele, hoiiven- 
ydele ; may hylde, hilde be akin to helde, heolode (hiding, 

hidden) ? Tonnoire, fleur du tonnerre, coquelicot, poppy, 

Grandgagnage's Voc. 26; donner-hart (-beard) is sedum tele- 
phium, A fungus Xrov in Thrace grew during thunder, Athen. 
1, 238; subdued thunder generates mushrooms, Meghaduta, p. 4. 

On lotus see Klemm 1, 112-3; lotus caerulea, Bopp's Gl. 39^. 
46. SpfengeFs Diosc. 2, 622 ; white and blue lotus, Fries's 
Udfl. 1, 107. 

p. 1199.]. Mir wart ein krut i?i mhi hant, Ls. 1, 211; does 
that mean ' stole in unperceived ' ? conf. (fiv iv %et/3t, Passow 2, 
1042. Si sluoc daz krut mir ilz dcr hant, Ls. 1, 218. Of the 
aster atticus, Dioscorides 5, 118 says: ^rjpbv he avaipedev rf} 



HERHS AND STONES. 1G73 

dpia-Tepa X'^'-P'' ^^^ uXyoin'To<:, iu the putieut's left hand. Ot the 
bark of the wild figtree, Pliny 23. 7, 6i : caprifico quoque medi- 
cinae unius miraculum aJditur, corticem ejus impuhescentom piicr 
impubis si defracto ramo detrahat dentihus, medullam ipsam 
adalUgatam ante soils ortum prohibere strumas. Three roses are 
picked off in five picJcs, Amgb. 48'^ (couf. wishing for 3 roses 
on one stalk, two roses on one branch, Uhl. Volksl. pp. 23. 116. 
Reusch no. 12. Meiuert's Kuhl. 95 ; offering 3 roses, Uhl. p. 

257.8). A Swed. account of digging up the ronu (rowan) in 

Dyb. '45, 63. Am abend soltu sie (the vervain) umkreissen mit 
silher u. mit golde u. mit siden (silk), Mone 6, 474. When the 
root is pulled out, the hole is filled up with corn, to propitiate 
the earth (Suppl. to 1241). The plant is phirked suddenly, and 
covered with the hand (Suppl. to 1214) : du solt ez (the shoot) 
uz der erden geziehcn vil lihfe, En. 2806 and 2820—5, where 
Virgil has no shoot to be pulled up, but a branch to be torn off. 
La sainte herbe qu'a son chief trueve . . . tot en orant Verhe a 
coillie, Meon N. rec. 2, 73. 

p. 1202.] The grasses growing through a sieve remind one of 
the words 'Jmrh aern in-wyxd'' (p. 1244). It is curious too, 
that an elder should be considered curative when it grows in a 
hollow willow-tree out of seeds that thrushes had swallowed, 
Ettn. Unw. d. 161-2. There are herbs, the sight of which allays 
hunger : esuriesque sitis visis reparabitur herbis, Ecbas. 592. 

p. 1204.] The mightiest of magic roots is mandrake : abollena 
alrun, Sumerl. 54, 37. How to pull it out is also descr. iu 
Oeuvres de Rutebeuf 1, 474: Ceste dame herhe (conf. la mere 
des herbes, artemisia, Suppl. to 1212 beg.), it ne la trest ne giex 
(Jew) ne paiens ne sarrazins ne crestiens, aius la trest une heste 
mue, et tantost come ele est traite, si covient morir cele heste. In 
like manner the root Baaras is pulled up by means of a dog, 
Joseph. 7, 25. Armenian ' nianrakor or lushtak, a man-like root, 
is pulled out by a [dog ?] to which it is tied ; in coming out it 
moans in a human voice,' Artemius of Vagarshapat, transl. by 

Busse (Halle '21) p. 106. Mandragora grows in Paradise, 

where the eh'fnnt goes to look for it, Karajan. Mai>8pay6pa<:. 
nvOayopaf dvdp(o'Tr6/j.op(f>ov, 'PwfMaiot fidXa Kaviva, Diosc 4, 76. 
The alrann is carved out of a root (p. 513n.). Panz. Beitr. 1, 250. 
Uu vergier a li peres Fioire, u plantcs est li mandegloire, Flore 



1674 HEEBS AND STONES. 

244'. Mandragora tvalni, Mone 8, 95 ; von senfte der almnen 
wart micli slafen, Frauenl. 6, 26 ; vtto fiavSpayopa KaOeuSeiv, 
Luc. Timon 2 (ed. Bip. 1, 331 — 3) ; eV fiavSpajopov Kadevheiv, 

Luc. Deraosth. enc. 36. On the oJrune in Fi-auenlob's Minne- 

leich 15, 2, Ettmiiller says p. 286: 'they seem to have believed 
that TYiandrakes facilitated birth.' This is confirmed by Adam 
Lonicerus in his Kreuterbuch (1582) bl. 106". ' Air aim rinden 
dienet zu augen-arzneyen. Dieser rinden drey heller gewicht 
schwer, fiir der frawen gemacht (women's chamber) gehalten, 
bringet ihnen ihre zeit, treibet auss die todte geburt.' Alrunen 
heizit er virbern (he is said to have about him) : swenne er wil, 
so ist er ein kindelin, swenne er wil, so mac er alt sin, Cod. Pal. 
361, 12''. 'He must keep an araunl by him, that tells him all 
he wants to know,' H. Jorgel 20, 3. The mandragora is put into 
a white dress, and served twice a day with food and drink, Spinnr. 
evangel. Tuesday 2 ; conf. the tale of the gallows mannikin, 
SimpL 3, 811. 

p. 1204.] Obinn sticks the thorn into Brynhild's garment 
only, and throws her into a sleep (Kl. schr. 2, 276). In Tirol 
the schlaf-kunz is called schlaf-jnUze, Zingerle 552. 'Hermannus 
dictus Slepe-rose,' Hamb. lib. actor. 127, 6 (circ. 1270). The 
hawthorn is sentis canina, lignea canis, Athen. 1, 271. Breton 
gars spern, thorn-bush, in the story of a fair maiden. Nilsson 6, 
4.5 maintains that on barrows of the bronze age a hawthorn was 
planted and held sacred; and the same among Celts (Kl. schr. 2, 
254. 279). 

p. 1207.] Mistletoe grows on the hazel, lime, birch, fir, willow, 
and esp. oak, Dyb. Runa 2, 16. AS. dc-m,istel, viscum quer- 
neum. Mlsfila, a woman's name, Mone 5, 492. Trad. Fuld. 1, 
130. Schannat 445. Many places named after it: Mistlegan 
near Baireuth ; Misteloiuva, Mistlau, near Crailsheim, Stalin 1, 
599; Mistelhach, Frauend. 272, 18. Kaltenb. Pautaid. 184''; 
ad Misteleherge, Lacomblet (yr. 1054) no. 189; Mistelreld, 
Lang's Reg. 2, 397 (yr 1248). 3, 55 (yr 1255). Bamb. calend. 
p. 142; Misptilsivalde, Lindenbl. p. 24; Mlsterhidt i Smjiland, 
Dybeck '45, 80. A sword belonging to Semingr is called 

Mistilteinn in Hervarars. (Fornald. sog. 1, 416). Mistil = 

tuscus (1. viscus), Hpt 5, 326. 364. In some parts of Germany 
they call mistletoe kenster, kinster. Walloon hamiistai, hamu- 



HERBS AND STONES. 1075 

sfdiiie, Graiulgagnage 1, 270 and henlda'i, hinUii-al= kinster, 
canister, Grandg. Voc. 23-i. Engl, misseltoc, ndslctoc, Hone's 
Daybk 1, 1637-8. And maren-tacke is misletoe, bristly plant 

(p. 1247, 1. 11). Nilsson would trace all the Scand. mistletoe 

cultus to the Druidic, Dybeck '45, 79. 80. Ein mistlein pater- 
noster, MB. 18, 547 (yr. 1469); mi'^chtUn 2Jatcrnoster, mispel and 
tiich-mistUn jmteruoster, Ruland's Handlungs-b. yrs 1445-6-7. 
(Pref. viii.) Mistletoe must be cut on a Midsummer-night' s eve, 
when sun and moon are in the sign of" their power (conjunction?), 
Dyb. '44, p. 22. For the oak mistletoe to have any power, it 
must be shot off the tree, or knocked doivn with stones, Dyb. '45, 
p. 80. In Virgil's descr. of the sacred bough, Aen. vi., 

137. aureus et foliis et lento vimine ramus, 

141. auricomos quam quis decerpserit tLvhore fetus, 

144. aureus, et simili frondescit virga metallo, 

187. et nunc se nobis ille aureus arbore ramus, 

this aureus fetus is merely compared to (not ident. with) the 
croceus fetus of the mistletoe; conf. Athen. 3, 455-7. An oak with 
a golden bough occurs in a Lett, song, Biittner no. 2723. Armor 
huelcar, aft. heller; Wei. uchelawg, ucJiel/a, nclielfar, ucJielfel, 
holllach, Jones p. 39 P. Lett. oJisa ivehja >flohta, oak-mistletoe, 
from ohsols, oak, &nd xlohta, broom, plume; welija/lohta is a plant 
of which brooms are made. Does wehja mean holy ? conf. 
wehja wannags (Suppl. to 675). Serv, h'pak, viscum album, 
also niela, of which Vuk p. 394 says : If a mistletoe be found on 
a hazel, there lies under that hazel a snake with a gem on his 
head, or another treasure by the side of it. 

p. 1208.] Welsh f/iulydd usu. means mild, tender, givioli/dd 
is violet. Valerian is in Finn, ruttoijuiiri, plague-wort ; another 
Boh. name is kozljk. A rare word for valerian is tennemarch, 
Nemnich. Moue 8, 140*. Hpt 6, 331. Worthy of note is the 
Swed. tale about the mooring of Tivehark and Vendelsrot , Dyb. 
'45, p. 50. The Serv. name odolidn resembles a Polish name of 
a plant, doh;ga, for dohjka means upper hand ; conf. Vuk's Gloss, 
sub. V. odumiljen. Odilienus is a man's name, Thietmar 4, 37 ; 
so is Boh. Odolen (Kl. schr. 2, 393). Nardus is fragrant, esp. 
the Indica ; nardus Celtica is saliunco. NdpSo^ iriaTtK)) ttoXi^tj/ao?, 
John 12, 3 is in Goth, nardus pistikeins iilu-galaubs. 



1676 HERBS AND STONES. 

p. 1208.] Acc. to Martin's Relig. d. Gaules, BelinunUa comes 
fr. Belenus {Diefenb. Celt. 1, 208. Zeuss p. 34), and is a herba 
Apollinaris ; Apollo is said to have found it, Forcell. sub v. 
Russ. helena, Pol. hielun, Boh. hlen, hljn, Hung, helendfn. Engl. 
hetthane, gallinae mors. 

p. 1208.] On eherwurz, see Reuss's Walafr. Strab. Hortulus 
p. 66. Great power is attrib. to the carlina, Dyb. '4b, p. 72. 
Another thistle is in Sweden called jull-horste, ibid., reminding 
us of the boar Gullin-hursti and of eberwurz. As Charles's 
arrow falls on the sow-thistle, so does Cupid's on a flower to 
which it imparts mii-aculous power, love-in-idleness, Mids. N. 
Dr. 2, 2 ; and other healing herbs are revealed in dreams. In 
another dream a grey smith appears to the same king Karel, 
and with his pincers pulls nails out of his hands and feet, Hpt 
1, 103. 

p. 1209.] An AS. Herbal says of Betonica : ]>eos wyrt, |>e 
man hetonicam nemne"S, heo bib cenned on maedum and on 
claenum dunlandum and on gefri^edum slowum. seo deah 
gehwae^er ge ]?aes mannes sawle ge his lichoman (benefits soul 
and body), hio hyne scylde^ wi'S (shields him against) unhyrum 
iiiht-genguvi and wiS egeslicum gesiU&um and swefnum. seo 
wyrt byS swy'Se haligu, and ]7us |7u hi scealt niman on Agustes 
monSe hutan iserne (without iron), etc. MHG. hatonie (rhy. 
Saxonie), Tit. 1947: hetoene (rhy. schoene), Hatzl. 163, 86. 
KicTTpov 'Pco/xaloi overTOVLKrjv KaXovcri, Diosc. 4, 1. 

Verbena is akin to veru and Virbius, says Schwenck pp. 489. 
491 ; it stands for herbena, says Bergk. It is sacred, and there- 
fore called lepo^ordvr) and herba inira, qua coronabantur bella 
indicturi, Pliny 22. 2, 3. 25. 9, 59. Wolfg. Goethe's Dissert, 
p. 30-1. [t is called irepiarepeLov, bee. pigeons like to sit by it; 
also/erran'a, Diosc. 4, 60 : 77 cn8r]ptTi<i 4, 33-4-5. OHG. tsarna, 
isenina, Graflf 3, 864. 1, 491 ; idncletta 4, 555. Sumerl. 24, 9 ; 
isenarre, Sumerl. 40, 54 ; tserenbart 66, 40. MHG. isenhart, 
Mone's Auz. 4, 250 and Quellen 309*'. Eisen-kraut, as we still 
call it, is thrown into St. John's fire (p. 618); conf. 'Lay aside 
the Johnswort and the vervain,' Whitelaw p. 112. Nethl. her- 
Icrud, Swed. j em- art, Dan. jern-iirt. There was a spell for dig- 
ging up vervain, Mone 6, 474. AS. msc-wyrt, Hpt. 5, 204; 
cesc-prote, Lye sub v, GDS. 124. 



HERBS AND STONES. 1677 

p. 1200,] Madelger isfc aiu gut crut wurtz. swer si grabn wil, 
del" grub si au Sant JoLans tag ze .suu-bendcii (solstice) an dem 
abeut, uud beswer si also dri-stuud (adjure it o times thus): ' Icli 
beswer dich, Madelger, Aiii luartz so her, Ich manen dich des 
geliaiz deu dir Sant Pcffrns gehiez, Do er sineit, stab dri-stund 
durch dich stiez, Der dich usgrub Und dich haiiu trug : Wen er mifc 
dir umb-fauht (whom he with thee begirds), ez sy fraw oder man, 
Der mug ez in lieb oder in minn nimer gelaun. In Gotz namen, 
Amen.' wihe si mit andern crutern. Kriiuter-heilkunde (yr 
1400) in the Giessen Papierhs. no. 992, bl. 143. 

p. 1211.] Fern, bracken. Gt. irrepi'^ fr. its feathery foliage.* 
Lat.jilij', it. felce, Sp. helecho, Fr. foitijcre. Filix herba, palmes 
Mercurii (Suppl. to 159) ; filicina, filix minuta, AS. eofor-fearn. 
Celt, rati'i, Wei. rJtedyn, Bret, raden, Ir. vaifh, raithneach, Gael. 
raineach (conf, reiuefano), Pott 2, 102. Adelung's Mithr. 2, 68 
from Marcell. c. 25 (Kl. schr. 2, 123). Finn. sana-ijaJ'ka (word- 
foot), Eeth. sona-ijahj, Bocler's Abergl. gebr. d. Esten 144. 
Lith. bit-hresJe (bee's chair) = tauacetum vulg., Nesselm. 226. 
331. Serv. pouratish, tansy, tauacetum crispum (fr. po- 
vratiti, to turn back ? ON. bnrhni, filix, polypodium, Swed. 
hraken, Vesterb. fraken, Dan. bregne. Again, ON. einsta2)i, 
Jonsson's Oldn. ordboc, Norw. einstabbe, einstapc, Aasen 79'\ 

Nemuich sub v. pteris. Swed. ormbunke. Den wilden varm 

treten, Parz. 444, 7. 458, 17 ; latentis odii filix excrevit, Dietmar 
in Pertz 5, 736 ; file.v iniquitatis exaruit 5, 742. Fernseed makes 
invisible. Wolf's Ztschr. 2, 30 : we have the receipt of fernseed, 
we walk invisible, 1 Henry IV. 2, 1 ; Swed. osynlighets gras. 
As fernseed in Conrad is thrown to the shad (schaid-visch, 
Beheim 281, 28), so bugloss, which is said to blind all animals 
born blind, is scattered to fishes, Kudl. 12, 13. 1'', 28. 32—48. 
After walking naked to the cross-roads and spreading out a 

pockethandkerchief, one expects fernseed, Zehn ehen 235. On 

Christmas ni^ht, high and low used to walk in the fernseed ; 
there you might wish for anything in the world, the devil had to 
bring it. The Wend, volksl. 2, 271" makes it blossom at Mid- 
summer noon : get hold of the blossom, and all the treasures of 

* So, from the Slav. par-Ri, to dy, peri'i, wing, feather, Hehn derives not only the 
redupl. Slav, and Lith. pa-part, pa-prat, but the Teut. farn and even the Celt, ratis 
which stands (more Celtico) for pratis. Hehn's Plants and Anim. p. 484.— Thansl. 

VOL. IV. D D 



1678 HEKBS AND STONES. 

^artli lie open before you. Conf. the Sloven, riddle : ' kay tsvete 
hrez tsvcta ? ' what blossoms without blossom ? Answ. 'praprot. 
In Tirol, if you step on an irr-wurz, you immed. find yourself 
plunged in a bog or a carrion-pit. A story of the irr-kraut in 
Stober's Neujahrstollen 32-3 ; conf. Lett, songs in Biittner nos. 
1593. 1912. 

p. 1212.] Artemisia, Fr. armoise, 0. Fr. ermoize,is called in 
■Champagne marrebore or marrehorc (marrubium?), which is supp. 
to mean la mere des hex'bes (Rutebeuf 1^ 257), as in fact arte- 
misia is called herbarum mater in Macer. Rutebeuf's Dit 
iie Ferberie 1, 257 makes ermoize the first of healing herbs : Les 
fames sen ceignent le soir de la S. Jehan, et en font chapiaux 
seur lor chiez, et dient que goute ne avertinz ne les puet panre 
n'en cliiez, n^en braz, n^en pie, n'en main ; mais je me merveil 
■quant les testes ne lor brisent, et que li cors ne rompent parmi, 

tant a I'ei'be de vertu en soi. The Germ, word for it occurs as 

a man's name Peijhos (yr 1330), Bamberger verein 10, 107, and 
Beifpoz (yrs 1346-57) 10, 129. 136-8. 145. Even Schannat no. 
-348 has the name Beboz (see Kl. schr. 2, 399. Dronke's Trad. 
Fuld. 420); and ' be}jposs = a,rtem.es\a,' in Vocab. Theuton. 
(Nuremb. 1482) d. 7^ At last, in Vocab. ex quo Eltuil 1469, 
"' attamesia = &^/wys,'?,' and also ' incus = eyn anfusse,' the /in both 
being appar. Mid. Ehenish.* ' Bismolteu, artemisia, est nomen 
herbe, volgariter byfus in ander sprach bock,' Voc. incip. Teuton. 
■'Bibes ist ain crut : wer fer welle gaun, der soil es tragen, so wirt 
er nit miid sere uf dem weg, der tiifel mag im och nit geschaden ; 
und wo es in dem hus lit, es vertribt den zober,' Heilmittelbuch 
of 1400 in the Giess. lis. no. 992, bl. 128^', 'Artemisia, beyftiss, 
-f<onnenwendel,' J. Serranus's Diet. Latino-Germ. (Niirnb. 1539) 
05''; 'in dem bifns,' Mone's Anz. '34, 337. Superstitions about 
it, Panz. Beitr. 1, 249. ' St John's coals (touchstones) are found 
fr. noon to vespers of John's day under the beijfuss ; alias non 

inveniuntur per annum,' Mone 7, 425. Artemisia is zimber 

zimhira in Hattemer 3,597*; hergott-liolzel in Nemnich p. 466 
AS. tagantes //e?c?e = artemisia (tragautes, for TpayuKavda?) 
Mone's Quell. 320* (conf. p. 1216 n.). OHG. stapa-wurz, stabe-w. 
abrotonum, Graff 1, 1052. Sumerl. 60, 2; onr stabwurz, southern 

* The corruption of biboz into ' our meaningless beifuss ' is a fair example of 
Folk-etymology : the herb is good for the pedestrian's feet. — Transl. 



HERBS AND STONES. 1G79 

wood. OS. titaj'-tvnrt, dictamiuim, dittany, Diut. 2, 1*.>2. Arte- 
misia is hiiggila in Hattemer 1, 314'''' and Mone 8, 400; Inuirl 
6, 220 ; hiii/rje 8, 405 ; hurjgnl, Voc. opt. p. 5P ; ^utI he iv raU 
oho LIT plait fxi] TraparpijBeaOai rov<; /Sov^covwi, ciyvov pa^hov v 
T>}9 apTe/xicriaii KpaTovp.evr]<^ (groin not galled if one carry a 
switch of agnus castas or artcmisia), Diosc. 2, 212. Gallic irovep,, 
Dacian ^ovoarTj (conf. ^&jcrT>;/3, girdle), GDS. 208. Diefenb. Celt. 
1, 172. Ir. mncjard, AS. mucg-ivyrt, GDS. 708. Boh. cerno-hyl, 
Pol. czanw-bi/l, Sloven. 7.1iern6h (black herb) ; Serv. hozhije drntze, 
God's little tree. 

To Gothic names of plants, add vigadeind, Tpt^o\o<; (Suppl. 
to 1215). On equisetum, see Pott's Comm. 2, 27. OHG. f/nm- 
sinc, nymph^ea, potentilla, clavus Veneris, Graff 4, 333 ; MHG. 
(jrensine, Mone's Anz. 4, 244-G. In a Stockholm MS. we find the 
spell : Unse leve vrowe giuk sik to damme, se sochte grensirik 
den langcn. do se en vant, do stunt he un hevede. se sprak : 
' summe den soten Jesuni Crist, wat crudes du bist ? ' ' Jiink- 
frowe, ik hete grensinh, ih bin das loeldigeste hint, ik kan den 
kettel kolen, ik kan alle dink vorsonen, ik kan den unschuldigen 
man van den galgen latcn gan ; de mi bespreke nn ineges dages 
up breke, dem were God holt and alle mannen kunne uu golt 
sulven.' in den namen des Vaders un des Sons, etc. Is grcusinc 
fr. grans, prora, bee. it grows in front of your boat ? 

Clover, trifolium, Dan. klever. Germ, klee : nuhblattlets klee 
(p. 1079 mid.). Esp. significant is the four-leaved (p. 1137 end): 
klewer veer, Miillenh. pp. 410. 557 ; clover cinf^nefoil, Bret, miirch. 
89. 93 ; to send trefoil and wine. Arch. v. Unterfranken iv. 3, 
169. Clover is called himmel-kraut in Bavaria : schon bluet's 
hhnel-krauf, Schm. 2, 196, conf. himel-bliie, rskinhow, himcl-brand, 
mullein (Suppl. to 119G) ; hergotts-brot (-bread), head of clover 
blossom, Schm. 2, 231, conf. brosam-krant, Superst. I, 369; 

Gotis-amjiher (-sorrel), alleluja, Suraerl. 54, 35. Icel. smdri, 

ti-ifol. album; Jutl. smar<\ ON. qveisu-gras, trifol. fibrinum, 
good for colic and hysterica passio (Suppl. to 1159 beg.). Swed. 
vdpling : superstit. of the fi/r-vi'qd., fcm-vaj-il., Dybeck '48, 
p. 22. Gall, visumarns, Diefenb. 1, 46 (Suppl. to 1192 mid. 
Kl. schr. 2, 156. 171). Ir. shamrock, in O'Brien seamrog (Kl. 
schr. 2, 156), GDS. 302. Welsh uieillioncn. Armor, melchen, 
melchon. Clover used in Persian sacrifices, Herod. 1, 132. 



1680 HERBS AND STONES. 

p. 1213.] Our gwider-mdnnlein, gundel-rehe, is a tiny blue 
flower, whereas OHG. gunde-reha = acer, maple; gunderehe, acer, 
balsamita, Mone 1, 600. In a charm: ' guntrehen ger (maple 
shoot?), I toss thee up to the clouds/ Mone 6, 468. 

p. 1213.] Morsus diaboli, devilshit, see Dybeck 'i5, 52. AS. 
ragii (ragwort) is glossed by 'mosicum, mossiclum/ perh. 
mosylicum ; otlierw. ragu is robigo. Lye has also ' Cristes 
maeles ragu, Christi crucis mosicum, herba contra ephialten 
valens.' Schubert p. 197 : ragiourz, orchis. 

Serv. stidalc (shamefaced), caucalis grandiflora : it has a white 
blossom, with a little red in the middle. This red, they say, was 
greater once, but grew less every day, as modesty died out among 
men, Yuk sub v. 

Holder (wolFs-claw ?), when eaten, causes vomiting or purging, 
ace. as it was shelled over or under one, Judas 1, 169. Lycopo- 
dium complanatum, ON. jafni, Dan. jdvne, Swed. jemna, Yesterb. 
jamm. 

p. 1214.] A plant of universal healing power is lieil-aUer-welt, 
agrimonia, Mone 8, 103; aUer frowen heil, MS. 2, 48*; guotes 
mannes heil, Hpt. 2, 179. Lisch's Meckl. jrb. 7, 230; conf. the 
ointment mannes heil, Iw. 3452. Er. 7230. 

p. 1214.] Dorant seems a corrup. of andor, andorn (hore- 
hound) : trail your shirt in blue tharnnd,, N.Pr. prov. bl. 8, 229. 
Gothl. tarald, iiggling, ett gras for hvilket trollen tros sky, Almqv. 
464*. Hold up thy skirt, that thou graze not the white orand ! 
M. Neth. orant, Mone 6, 448. Hoist, giiler orant, Miillenh. no. 

425. 'A herb that says. Be wol-gemut, (of good cheer) !' 

Hoflfm. Gesellschaftsl. 136; die braune ivolgemut, Ambras. lied, 
p. 212. Pol. dohry mysii, good thoughts. The plant must be 
plucked hastily, and hidden : e/j,/xaTreco<; rov opi'yavov iv %e/9t 
Kevdei, Athen. 1, 262 ; opi'yavov ^Xeirecp, look sour, as though 
you had bitten marjoram. 

Porst, parse is strewn under the table, to sharpen a guest's 
appetite, Fries's Udfl. pp. 109. 110; conf. horsa, myrtus, Graff 
3,215. 

p. 1214.] OHG. Juirt-houivi (-hay) must, I think, be the 
harten-aue which the girl ' murkles ' to find out if her lover loves 
her, Firmen. 2, 234. Fiedler's Dessauer volksr. 98. In Sweden 
this hypericum perforatum has to be one of the mne sorts of 



HERBS AND STONES. 1681 

jloivers that make the Midsum, nosegay ; the picking of it is 
descr. in Runa '41-, p. 22-3 : you lay it under your pillow, and 
notice what you dream. Again, that plant with St-John's- 
blood sap (Miillenh. p. 222) is the hart-heu, ISchub. p.m. 184. 
Schiitze's Hoist, id. 1, 117-8. 

OHG. rehifano, Graff o, 521, Swed. renfane, tansy, seems to 
be sacred to elves, Fries's Udfl. 1, 109 ; it helps in difficult 
childbirth. Does the name denote a plant that grows on boun- 
daries [rain = strip of grass left betw. hedgeless cornfields] ? 
conf. rein-farn, Kl. schr. 2, 44. 

p. 1214.] Was wulertdii orig. widar-dono, formed like iclf- 
]7ona ? yet it is ivedertam in Sumerl. 55, 49. The country-mouse 
in Rollenhagen, when visited by the town-mouse, lays down a 
bundle of widderthan, that gleams like a red poppy. Widedhon- 
moos (-moss) is polytrichum commune, Schub. p.m. 210, Other- 
wise called golden fraucn-Jtaar (conf. the holy wood-moss of the 
Samogitians, and the special gods for it, Lasicz 47). Frisch 
calls widertJion a lunaria; the osmunda lunaria is named anlcehr- 
hraut (sweep to-), and is supp. to give cows good milk : 

Gi-iisz dich Gott, ankcJir-hrmd ! 
ich brock dich ab, u. trag dich nach haus ; 
wirf bei meinem kuhel (lay flesh on my cow) finger- 
dick auf. Hofer 1, 36. 

p. 1215.] 17t'7-jt;i!.se = solsequium in Albr. v. Halb. 129''; 
wege-wcis- cichorinm intybus, Nemnich ; conf. AS. for-tredde, 
our wege-tritt. Da wenic ivege-rlches stuont, Parz. 180, 7; 
other names are wetj-lugo (Staid. 2, 439) from Muogen,' and 
' Hdnshin hei'ni tceg ' (or is it ' hdiislein bei dem weg,' as in 
Fischart's Onomast. 221?). Serv. hokvitza, plantago, fr. bok = 
side; Boh. cchinka, fr. cekati = wait [Rnss. looputnik, podorozhniky 

fr. put!, dor(')ga=way]. Dicitur quod Ires rami corrigiolae 

(wegetritt) coUectae in nomine Trinitatis et cum oratione domi- 
nica, suspensi in panno liueo, maculam oculi sine dubio tollunt, 
Mone 7, 424. Das edle kraut weg-nuirte raacht gutcn augen- 
schein, Ambras. lied. p. 18 ; item es spricht alwiirtus, die xccgwart- 
wurtzelu soltu niecht essen, so magstu nit wund werden von 
hauen noch von stechen, Giess. papier-hs. no. 1029 (conf. p. 1244). 
*Advocati consueverunt se munire samhnco et }da)itagine ut 



1682 HEEBS AND STONES. 

vincant in causis ' is Bohemian, like that about the child's caul 
(p. 874n.). The above names remind us of Goth, vigadein6 = 
tribulus (Suppl. to 1212 mid,), as the Gr, ^dro<i is perhaps from 
^aivco, and the Lat, sentis akin to Goth, sinj^s, via ; yet conf, Kl. 
schr, 5, 451 seq. GDS. 211. 

p. 1215,] Of the leeh an ON, riddle says : ' hofSi sinu visar a 
helvegu, en fotum til solar snyr/ his head points to hell, his feet 
to heaven ; to which HeiSrekr answers ' hijfu S veit i HloSyujar 
skaut, en bloS i lopt,' Fornald, s. 1, 469 (conf. the ^oX.j3oi in 
Aristoph. Clouds 187 — 193). Sdra-lmih sioSa, boiling wound- 
leeks, means forging swords 1, 468. With the leek men divine, 
Dyb. '45, p. 61 ; it drives evil spirits away, Fries's Udfl. 1, 109. 
House-leeJc, sempervivum tectorum, Swed. tak-lok, wards off 
misfortune 1, 110, 'Radix allii victorialis' is ne%m-}idm7i%lere in 
Staid. 2, 236 ; in Nemnich iieun-liewAnerlein, siehen-heinmerlein. 
OHG, surio, surro, m., cepa, porrum, Graff 6, 273. 

p. 1215.] The rowan or roim (Dyb. '45, 62-3) is called wild 
ash, mountain ash, vogelbeer-baum, sperbei*-baum, AS. wice, 
Plattd, Imiehe, Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 85, Men like a staff made of 
jpilher-hcmm , sorbus aucuparia, Possart's Estl, 163. Yrnn. pihlava, 
sorbus, is planted in holy places : j;i/i/a^ai pyhille raaille, Kalev. 
24, 71. 94. Renvall sub v. 

p. 1216.] Hab-mich-lieh and wol-gemut (Suppl. to 1214) are 
herbs of which wreaths were twined, Hiltzl. 15^'; 'ein krenzlin 
von wolgemuot ist fiir sendez truren guot,' good for love-sick- 
ness 162-3. 

p. 1216.] A wort, that the mermaid dug on the mount that 
might not be touched, makes whoever eats it understand the 
wild beast, fowl and fish, Hpt. 5, 8. 9. A herb accidentally picked 
opens to him that carries it the tJiought and speech of others, Ls. 
1, 211-8. Herb chervil blinds or gives double sight, Garg. 148". 
Ges. Abent. 2, 267. Whoever cai'ries herb assidiose in his hand, 
commands spirits. Tit. 6047, When the dew falls in May on 
the herb parbodibisele, one may harden gold in it, Tit. 3698-9. 
Cattle are made to eat th7'ec blooming flowers, the blue among 
them, so as not to be led astray into the mountains. Hpt 4, 505. 
p. 1216 n.] AS. celf-Jyona is expl. by pona or })one, palmes, 
pampinus, conf. OHG. vpar-dono, sudariura ; is alb-dono then a 
cloth spread by the elves ? If aelf-j^one be fem, and = OHG. 



HERBS AND STONES. 1685 

alb-dona, dona must be pampinus (oui' dobnc, springe or noose), 
coil, tendril, and so alfranke (p. 448), Hpt 5, 182. AS. helde 
is sometimes ambrosia. Is hwdtend (iris Illyrica) equivalent to 
soothsaying flower ? for Iris is at once messenger of the gods, 
and rainbow, and a plant wliich the Slavs call Perunica, thunder- 
flower. Finn. tvnoJioi iiiielckd, caprae eusis, is also iris, sword- 
lily. Other notable herb-names iu AS. are : Oxan-sllppa, 

primula veris, E. orlip, cowi^Vip, Dan. o.i'e-drlc, ko-dric, Swed. 
oxe-ldgg. Iliindesfreil, centauria. Eofor-prote, apri guttur, scilla. 
Lusf-moce, ros solis, Nemuich drosera, Staid. 1, 336 egelkraut. 

Mi'idere, venerea, Moue's Quell. 320''; Lye has indddere, 

rubia, E. madder ; Barnes sub v. madders, mathers, anthemis, 
cotula. Metere, febrif uga, Sumerl. 50, 58 ; and melissa, meters 
57, 59 (Suppl. to 1244). Muttere, mutter ue, caltha. Staid. 2, 
226; Finn, matara, mattara ; ' lus gun mhathalr gun athair,' 
flower without mother or father : * a plant resembling flax, which 
grows in springs,' Armstr. 368"'. Weod'o-hend, cyclamen con- 
volvulus, E. woodbind, withe-bind, M. Neth. ivede-wiude, Maerl. 3, 
205 ; conf. weendungel : ' ik kenne dat kruud, sede de diivel, do 
hskddehe iveendungel freten,' Brem. wtb. 5,218 {A.S. piDuj, pL 

Jjungas, aconitum, helloborus). Maged'e, magoffe, buphthalraus ; 

conf. ' hay-maidc)i, a wild flower of the mint tribe,' Barnes. 
Biacon-weed, chenopodium, goose-foot, Barnes. Glodeii, caltha ; 
also ijladene, ghedene. BocTen, lolium ; conf. bercs-hoto, zizauia, 
meres-poto, Graff* 3, 81. LelocTre, lapathum. Gearewe, mille- 
folium, yarrow, OHG. garewa. ^EtJiel-ferding, -fyrding, a 
wound-healing plant, from ferd, fyrd = army, war? Bro&er-wijrt, 
herba quaedam strictum pectus et tussim sauans, Lye. ILds-wyrt, 
narcissus, from hdhian to make whole ? 

Peculiar OHG. names : ulsenich, Mone's Quell. 285'' ; olsnic, 
baldimonia, herba thuris, Sumerl. 55, 11. 57, 26. Ducange sub 
V. ramesdra. Graff 2, 512. SfripJi, striplui, Graff" 6, 751. Ert- 
gnlld, AS. eord'-gealle, centaurea major, cornflower. Ilrosse-huf, 
Graff 4, 1180. Add the plant-names in the Wiesbaden glosses, 
Hpt 6, 323. 

Names still in use: brdndii, satyrium nigrum. Staid. 1, 216, 
small, but scented ; it is the Bomance wahUer, valuer, Mone's 
Anz. '39, 391 (gerbrilndli ?), conf. luald-meisterleiu, asperula 
odorata, M. Neth. ival-mesfer, Mone 6, 448. Herba matris x!lrn>\ 



1684 HERBS AND STONES. 

Wallach. mama padnra, wood-mother, wood-wife, Scliott 297. 
Manns-hraft, geum urbanum, Hess. Ztschr. 4, 81. Tag unci 
nacht 4, 94. Sumerl. 58, 29 ; Ssk. dies et nox in one word, 
Bopp's Gl. 27'^; Pol. dzie)i I noc, melampyrum nemorosum, Linda 
I, 595". Fartunni-h-aut, stachjs alpina, Hess. Zts. 4, 84. Braut- 
treue, erica, acquires a red tinge, Wachter p. 13; hraut im 

Jtaar, Sonamer's Sag. p. Gl. Berufa-kraut, anthyllis vulneraria, 

Somm. p. 61; vermein-lraut, maidenhair, Schm. 2, 587; conf. 
beschrei-h: (p. 1195). Eisen-hveche, sferra-cavallo (p. 974), E. 
moonwort, lunavia, Honeys Yrbk 1551. Maus-dJtrlein, mouse-ear, 
herba clavorum, nailwort, makes horses willing to be shod 
1550, i^a?;^ = teufels-zwirn, clematis, Vilmar in Hess. Zts. 4, 94. 
Brufen-mehl, hexen-mehl, semen lycopodii, is sprinkled over sore 
babies. Wind-hexe, rolling flax, a steppe weed, Russ. perekati- 
pole (roll over field), whose balls drift like thistledown, KohPs 
S. Russia 2, 113-4. 

2. Stones. 

p. 1218.] Rare stones are called ' steine, die kein gebirge nie 
getruoc, noch diu erde brahte fiir,^ 'I'roj- kr. 2954. They are 
known to Jews : it is a Jew that can tell Alexander what stone 
it is, Alex. 7075 ; that master of stone-lore, Evax of Arabia, Lanz, 
8531. Boundary -stones, drei-herrn-steine are pounded to powder, 
and drunk as medicine. Ph. Dieffenb. Wander. 2, 73. Other 
healing stones are ment. in Lohengr. str. 652, defensive helmet- 
stones in Aspremont 20. 40-1. A stone that tells you everything, 
Norske folke-ev. 1, 188; a stone taken in the mouth gives a 
knowledge of foreign tongues, Otnit Ettm. 3, 32 — 25. Rbon 126; 
another, put in the mouth, enables you to travel over water, H. 
Sachs i. 3, 291*^. Simplic. 5, 12 p. 548-9; and there was a stone 
that made you fly, Ges. Abent. 3, 212-7. The stone of fear keeps 
you from beiug frightened : ' he hung a schreck- stein on him, 
Pul. maulaffe 298. 

Quattuor in cunctis sunt insita mythica gemmis, 
durities, virtus, splendorque, colorque perennis 

Gotfr. Viterb. p.m. 367^. 

Rings, finger-rings derive all their virtue from the stones set in 
them. A vingerlin that repels magic, and makes you aware of 



HERBS AND STONES. 1685 

it, Lauc, 21451 seq. ; one that makes invisible (p. 871). So a 
girdle with a precious stone in it makes whole, Bit. 7050 — 55. 

The ovjihioius, wanting in Megenbcrg, is ment. by Lessing 8, 
175-C. Similar to the orphan is the stone clangcdia)t on the 
helmet. Roth. 4947 seq. paer se heorhta bedg brogden wundrum 
eorcnan^tanum eadigra gehwam Jilifac^ ofer hcdfde; heafelan lixa^ 
);rymmc bi)>eahte, Cod. Exou. 238 ; his cdgan ont^nde, li{\lge 
hedfdes gimmas 180, 7; is seo, eaggebyrd (oculus Phoenicis) 
stdne gelicast, gladum gimme 219, 3. Hyaena bestia cujus pn- 
pillae lapideae sunt, Gl. ker. 146. Diut. 1, 239; and Reinhart's 
eyes are supp. to be carbuncles, Reinh. 916 seq. One stone is 

oculus felis, oculus mundi, hellocchio, Nemnich 2, 747-8. 

Precious stones take the place of eyes, Martene's Tlies. anecd. 
4, 6 (Wachsmuth's Sitten-gesch. 2, 258) : in the sculptured skull 
of St Servatius, stones blaze instead of eyes. Swed. ogna-sten, 
ogon sten, eye-stone, means the pupil ; Dan. oie-stecn, ON. auga- 
steinn ; and Alexander's stone, which outweighs pure gold, but 
rises in the scale when covered with a feather and a little earth, 
is an eye-stone, Lampr. Alex. p. 140 — 3 ; see Schlegers Mus. 
4, 131-2-3. Gervinus 1, 549 (ed. 3). Pupus, Koprj 6(f)6a\fMov, 
Ducange sub v. It is Oriental too to say 'girl of the eye ' ; yet 
also ' maunikin of the eye/ Gesenius, Pref. xliv. (ed. 2). GDS. 
127. 

p. ]218n.] Scythis succinum {umber) sacrium (not satriuni), 
Pliny 37. 2, 40; ubicunque quinta argenti portio inest (auro), 
electrum vocatur 33. 4. 23. Piilnt-golt, electrum, Gl. Sletst. 39, 
391. Amber is in Russ. yantdrl, Lith. gentdras, gintdrns, Lett. 
dzinters, zihters, conf. OHG. sintar = scoria, GDS. 233; Esth. 
merre-lcivvi, sea-stone, Finn, inrri-kivi. On the confusion of 
amber with pearl, see both Schott in Berl. acad. Abh. '12, p. 
361 and H. Miiller's Griechenth. 43. Pol. hursztgu, Boh. 
agstegu, aksten. M.Neth. lamvwrtgniften, succinus. 

p. 1219.] The pearl: ON. gi>nr, m., gemma, Saem. 134'', also 
gim-steinn ; AS. gim, gim-xtdn. With MHG. mer-griez, conf. 
* daz griezende nier,' Fragm. 45^. The diamond was taken to be 
crystallized water : 'a little frozen wiisserli/ Anshelm 2, 21 ; fon 
diu wirt daz is da zi (thereby turns the ice into) christallan so 
herta, so man daz fiur dar-uber machot, unzi diu christallairgluot, 
Merigarto 5, 25; conf. iatne steina, ice-stones, O. i. 1, 70 and 



1686 HEEBS AND STONES. 

'crystal made of ice/ Diez's Leb. d. troub. 159. 165. On the 
Ssk. maralmta, seeBopp's Gl. 255-9. 266; chnndra-Mrta, gemma 
fabulosa, quae radiis lunae congelatis iiasci creditur 118". 

p. 1221.] The XvyyovpLov is also named by Dioscor. 2, 100. 
Of a sfcKj's tears or eyes comes a stone. The dragon's head con- 
tains a diamond, Bosquet 205-6. The toad-stone, which occurs 
e.g. in WolFs Deut. sag. p. 496, is likewise in Neth. padde- 
sten, Boh. zliahije Immen, 0. Fr. crapaudine, Roquef. sub v. ; the 

French still say of diamonds, ' il y a crapaud.' There is a 

serpent's egg, which 'ad victorias litiwrn et regum aditus mire 
laudatur/ Pliny 29. 3, 12. One Segerus has a 'gemma diversi 
coloris, victoriosos efficiens qui ea utuntui'/ Caes. Heisterb. 4, 10. 
Sige-stein, Eracl. p. 214. Hahn's Strieker p. 49 ; seghe-sten, 
Rein. 5420 ; slge-ring, Hpt 3, 42 ; hilet dich vor (beware of) alter 
wibe gemeiuj die klinnen hldsen den sigel-steiii, Hatzl. 93^ 34 ; 
sigelstein snulen, Wolkenst. 40, conf. ' ein hickel giezen/ Fragm. 
38^ Renn. 13424, hichel-stein, Fragm. 21^ Can sigelstein, 
segelstein have been the magnet ? ON. segel-steinn, sailing stone. 

The swallow- stone, which grows in the crop of a firstborn 

swallow, is known to Diosc. 2, 60; conf. Schm. 3, 399: schiirf 
(rip) schwalben auf, so vindestu darinne ein roten (red) stain. 

p. 1222.] Georg Agricola (1546) De re metallica libri XII 
(Basil. 1657) calls helemnites alp-schos, p. 703^; hrontia donner- 
stein, wetterstein, gros krottenstein, ceraunia der glatte donn., 
der glat wett., der glatte gros krott. 704*^; omhria dondei'st., 
wett., grosz krott. 706". The thunder-bolt has healing power. 
Ph. DiefFenb. Wander, p. 33; the ON. for it is shrug gu-ste inn ; 
and we often find Iporsteinn as a man's name, e.g. Egilss. 476. 
Another Finnic name for the bolt is TJkhoisen nalkki, U.'s wedge ; 
Li til. Lauines papas, L.-'s pap, Nesselm. 277'\ 353*^, and LG. mare- 
tett, the (night-)mare's teat, N.Pr. prov. bl. 2, 380. Silex is in 
ON. liiegetill, quasi rorem generans. 

p. 1222.] The diamond can only be softened by goat's-blood, 
Pliny 37, 4. August. De civ. D. 21, 4; conf. N. Cap. 69. Er. 
8428. Ms. 1, 180\ Parz. 105, 18. 

The carbuncle is taken from the unicorn's forehead, Parz. 482, 
29 ; hebt den moed van een Espetin, want hi draegt karbonkelen 
in sin hoorn, Ndrl. Heemskind'p. m. 12. The carbuncle shines in 
the darkest night, and puts out other stones, Hartm. biichl. 1500. 



SPELLS AND CHARMS. 1G87 

Reinh. 020. Uoroh 45. Gr. Rud. 8, 10 {Villte-h/s are in Dan. 
superstition small stones, which the spirits had for lamps, Molb. 
Dial. 663). The carbuncle pales its lustre when the hero dies, 
Rol. 196, 19 ; it lies ' zo Loche in dem Rine,' Ms. 1, 15". Sommer 
on Flore p. xxvii. 1GG7. 

The magnet : ON. IcicTar-sfdnn, Landn. 1,2; E. loadstone 
[i.e. leading, as in loadstar]. Prov. aziman, ariman, ai/nian, Vv. 
aimnnt, Sp. iman. MHG. age-stein, Diut. 1, GO-1. Trist. 20-|., 
14. oG. M. Neth. toch-sten diese up-toch, Maerl. 3, 124. It 
has been used in navigation since the 13th cent., Bible Guiot 
633—653 ; legend of the loadstone, Altd. w. 2, 89. 

Stone-coal is called Tiirkeu-blut-stein, stein-ol Turkeu-blut, 
Staid. 1, 329. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 
SPELLS AND CHARMS. 

p. 1224.] On the power of the tJiree words, Kalev. 9, 34. IGl ; 
conf. Arnim's Miirch. 1, 47. [Tibotian and Mongolian writers 
dilate on the force of each syllable in the Buddhist formula 'om 
mani padmi horn.']. Singing and saying turn to magic: iiraSr] 
iarpoiv, Plato's Charmides p. 156-8 ; OeXKTijpiov, charm, incan- 
tation; vei'ba puerpera dixit (Lucina), Ov. Met. 10, 511. OHG. 
pi-galan (be-sing) in the Mersebg spell ; galdr gala, Sacm. 97-8-9 ; 
riJct got Oddr, ramt gol Oddrun, bitra galdra 240^ Fr. charme 
is fr. carmen : un hon charme vos apreudre, Ren. 7G50 ; car- 
minare plagam, to charm a wound (away), Altd. bl. 2, 323; coiit. 
'er sprach zer wunden wunden-scgen,' Parz. 507, 23. The 
sorceress is ansprecherin, Moneys Anz. 7, 424; conf. hern/en, 
bcschreien, becall, beery, Ettu. Maulaffe 546-7. ON. orff-heill, 
Ssem. 120''. Finn, sanoa, to say = coujure; sanat, conjuration, 
Castren. 

Blessings are pronounced more esp. at morning and evening: 
swer bi liebe hat gelegen (had a good night), der sol dar senden 
ainen morgen-segen, MS. 2, 169"; gesegenen unde tiefe beswern. 
Mar. 188, 30 (conf. 'tlrfc fluochen,' p. 1227) ; besworn sis du vil 
tiure ! Ges. Abent. 3, 53; einem die kranklieit alsrgnen (bless 



1688 SPELLS AND CHARMS. 

one's illness away), Thurneyser 2, 92. Cursing is MHG. 

verwdzen : var liiu verwdzen, MS. 2, 1 72'' ; nu var von mir v. 
Ls. 3, 77 ; nein pfui sie lieut v. ! Tit. 600, 2 ; veijiuocJiet u. 
verwdzen wart vil ofte der tac, da sin geburt ane lac (the day 
that his birth was on), Arm. Heinr. 160; and the contrary: 
gehoehet (extolled) si der siieze tac, da din geburt von erste an 
lac, Winsbekin 1. To verwazen answers the 0. Fr. dalie, dahez, 
deJiait, daJief, dehez, deJie, daz ait, often preceded by mal or cent, 
Garin ], 10. 209. 2, 46. Ren. 404. 1512. 9730. 11022. Meon's 
N. rec. 1, 202. 232. 4, 12. Orange 1, 202. 2, 151, etc. Trist. 
3072. Aspr. \\ 46". 23". Ferabr. lix\ As Walloon haiti 
= sain, and mdhaiti^ vaoX^nin (Grandgagn. 1, 265), we may 

suppose a Celtic origin (Suppl. to 952). Einen mit flnoclte 

hern (smite), Mart. 163'', mit dem fluoche seilen 226^ (fliieche 
liden, Waltb. 73, 5; fluoch hejagen, MS. 2, 137; in sih selbon 
luadun (they loaded) mihilan fluah, O. iv. 24, 30) ; hist unde 
/^ofc. Up stand. 1837 (the Goth, beist?); du/en einen, precari, 
imprecari, Gramm. 4, 655. AS. ivyrujean, maledicere, Homil. 2, 
30. ON. hdlva, diris devovere. Seem. 186; roggva, a diis mala 
imprecari (lit. to fold ? akin to roggr, roggvar, pallium plicatum?). 
O. Slav, klidfi, pres. kl'uu, Serv. kleti, pres. kunem [Russ. 
kliasti, klinati] , to curse. 

p. 1224.] The AS., beside hioistlian, has Jiwif^i^riuii, to ivhis- 
per. MHG. slangen (snake^s) wispel, Diut. 1, 58 ; wispier, who 
sweetly loispelt to the fishes, Gesta Rom. ed. Keller p. 65. OHG. 
winison, to mutter. Apuleius p. m. 79 speaks of magicum susur- 
ramen. Piping too has a magical effect : il dit un charme 
que il avoit aprins, trois fois si£la, Garin 2, 104. A shirt laid 
lengthwise on the table is bemurmurcd till it stands upright, 
jumps about, and lies down again; you judge by this of the 
owner's illness, Ettn. Medic, maulaffe 269, 270. Neth. luisteren 
is both to listen and to speak low ; the witch is a laister-vinh, 
luister-zuster. 

p. 1226.] MHG. runen is to whisper : 'daz ir mit ir runet, 
you whisper to her'; 'daz si mit iu niht ruiien kan,' MS. 2, 83^. 

Runes were also cut on the roots of trees : risti a rotina runir, 
rioSra'Si i bloSi, qvaS siSan yfir galdra, geek ofag ok andscelis 
(against the sun) um tret, me^ morg romm um-mseli ; he then 
throws the wood into the sea, and lets it drift to one's de- 



SPELLS AND CHARMS. 1689 

struction, Grettissaga c. 85; scera a nUiini ras vlJar, Soom. 29". 
Rune-sticks had tbinors wra}>t and woven round tliein, Srem. 
105'', like the Fris. teuar; lag-Si a stajid4:''; hete-runo bond, Cod. 
Exon. 416, 6; imvit-rHne 279, 7; helU-i'una,\\ke M. Neth. hl- 
scouwwghe ? Parton. 20, 13 ; hdl-raune, Mathesius 1502, 154'' ; 
liosta hcl-stofiim, Ssem. 145'', conf. faesta feikn-sfafa 4P. For- 
nald. s. 1, 436. AS. fdm-stcef; bregma hhmd-stufiuu,Ssem. 193'', 
at gaman-ruiiom 2o-6, i val-r a nam IGO'', vidl-rilnar 214'', runar 
vilfar 252", vHf rUia 252''. 

p. 1227.] The might of the Word is extolled by Freidank 67, 1 ; 

Diirch wort ein wilder slange gat (snake goes) 
zem manne, da 'r sicli toeren lat (lets be fooled) ; 
durcli u'ort ein swert vermidet (forbears) 
daz ez nieman versnidet (cuts no one) ; 
dnrch tcorf ein isen nieman mac 
verbrennen, gluot ez alien tac. 

El- sprach ein wort mit grim, dar. sich der here ilf-sluz (opened), 
Altsw. 80; ja raoht ich sit einen boum mit miner hate (prayer), 
sunder wapen, nider geneigen, MS. 1, 51". A runar-belti opens 
any lock, drives all disease away, Fiiroiske qviider pp. 228. 286; 
two dwarfs cut vafrlogi ivUh runea 138. 140. Song can burst 
fetters, Somadeva 1, 134. ON. polm-vtsur call up mist and 
darkness, Fornm. s. 3, 97-8. A letter was tied round the sword, 
Wigal. 4427. 7335, as runes had formerly been carved on it. 
Men used to bind certain things by oath, e.g. sivords, Altd. bl. 
1, 43. Ligamenta aut etiara scrijita in contrarietatem alterius 
excogitare, Lex. Visig. vi. 2, 4. 

p. 1228.] Let one or two good Irishes precede the curses : 

Got miieze im ere mrren (add hcmour) ! 

zuo flieze im aller saelden tluz, 

niht wildes mide sinen schuz (shun his shot) ; 

sins hundes louf, sins homes duz (tooting) 

erhelle im u. erschelle im wol nach eren ! Walth. 18, 25. 

conf. the curse, Ls. 2, 125. Here is a beautiful blessing : 

Der sumer si so guot (be so kind), 

daz er die schoene in siner wunne (bliss) 

laze wiinneciiche leben (let blissful live) 1 



1690 SPELLS AND CHARMS. 

Swaz wol den ougeu tuot (whatever delights the eye), 
und sich den liuten lieben kunne (can please), 
daz miieze ir diu S^elde gebeu, 
swaz griienez uf von erden ge, 

oder touwes obenan nider risen muoz (may trickle down), 
lonp (foliage), gras, bluomen und kle (clover) ! 
Der vogel doenen (melody) geb der schoeuen 
wiiuneclichen gruoz (blissful greeting) ! MS. 2, IBS'". 
Again : ze heile erschine im tages sunne, nahtes mane, und 
iegslich stern ! MS. 2, 174^; din zunge griiene iemer, din herze 
ersterbe niemer ! Trist. 7797 ; Got laze im wol geschehen ! 
MS. 1, 74'' ; Got des geve en jummer hel, dat kraket (so that 
it roars), Wizlau 9, 28. 

Curses ai-e far more frequent and varied : mine vliieche sint 
niht snial, Beneke 377. They operate quickly : ein swlnder flaoch, 
MS. 2, 71"'' ; mit snellem fluoche. Tit. 2588 ; ein wilder fluoch, 
Wolkenst. 42. They hold men like a vice : uns twin get noch des 
fluoches zange, MS. 2, 166*. They alight, settle, cling : solten alle 
vliieche hlehen, ez miiezte liitzel liutes lebeu, Freid. 130, 12 ; der 
fluoch bekleip, Upt 5, 516 ; dem muoz der fl. hehlihen 5, 550 ; der 
fl. Idehet 8, 187. They hum you up, Nalus p. 177. They take 
flight, they turn home as birds to their nest, Berth. 63 ; die fliiche 

flohen um die wette, Giinther 163. Strong above all is the 

curse of the dying : ];at var triia ]>eirra i forneskju, at ord'feigs 
manns meetti mikit, ef ban bolvaSi o-vin sinum meffnafai (cursed 
his unfriend by name), hence names were suppressed, Saem. 186*. 
Sigfrit, wounded to death, scolds, Nib. 929, 3. 933, 4 (see schelten 
below). A faither's blessin' bigs the toun, A mither's curse can 
ding it doun. A mother's curse is not to be turned aside, 
Holtzm. 3, 144. Effectual too is the pilgrim's curse, Gudr. 933, 
and the priest's, Holtzm. Nib. 117. The curse of aged men that 
fear God works fearful woe, Insel Felsbg 1, 22. Ga.rters have 
curses on the tip of their tongue. Philander 2, 345 ; so have 
offi^cers, Gellert 4, 145. 

Oaths and curses coll. by Agricola nos. 472 — 502 ; spell-bindings 
in Ls. 1, 410-1. 2, 424—8. S^em. 85. Fornald. s. 3, 203-4; a 
song of curses on Otto III. in Pertz 2, 153. De Vries of Hoofts 
Warenar 97 — 100; Servian curses in Talvj 2, 385. Vuk nos. 
152-4-7. 162. 219. 393. 



SPELLS AND CHARMS. 1691 

The savage heartiness of the cursing is set forth in :i numhcr 
of strong phrases : ' his cursing was cruel to hear/ Ettn. Unw. d. 
743 ; ' he set up a cursing and srohUwj, no wonder if the castle 
Jidd sunk into the ground, Schweinichen 2, 70 (daz se da, JluocJiten 
niemcn, unde daz Hagenen kint bleip unheschoJten, Gudr. 933, 4) ; 
er fahet an (begins) ze fliichen u. ze schweren, dass das erdfreich 
miJcht underijQn{t) ; 'cursing, enough to send stones flying 
into the sky,' Kaserei 120; 'he swore fit to make the sky boiu 
down,' Wickram's Rollw. 9; 'cursing, so that it might have 
thundered,' Garg. 149"; 'cursing, till the rafters crack,' Diet, sub 
V. balke; 'he curses all signs (omens), till the floor cracks,' 
Hebel 44; to curse all signs, Staid. 2, 468 (p. 1105 end); 
' swearing till the toads jump,' Firmenich 2, 262 (conf. the 
krotten-segen, Garg. 230") ; ' he curses one leg off the devil's 
haunch, and the left horn off his head,' Garg. 232"; 'he cursed 

the 7io.se off his face,' Schuldban 27 (?). Ejaculations that call 

upon God to curse and crush, are the most solemn : daz ez Got 
verwdze ! Er. 7900 ; so si ich verwazen vor Gates ougen ! Herb. 
1068; daz in Got von himele immer gehoene ! Gudr. 1221, 4; 
' God's power confound thee!' Melander 2, no. 198; Hercules 
dique istam perdant, Plant. Gas. ii. 3, 57 ; qui ilium di omnem 
deaeque perdant 61 : Got du sende an minen leideu man den tot, 
daz ich von den iUueii werde enhunden, MS. 1, 8P (p. 1161) ; 
swer des schuldig si, den velle Got u. uem im al sia ere SP ; Serv. 

ubio gha Bogh, Vuk (ed. nov.) no. 254. M. Neth. curses use 

the word 'over' in consigning to the devil: nu over in duvels 
ere. Limb. 4, 62 ; over in's duvels name 4, 1088 ; nu orcr in der 
duvele hant 7, 638 ; nu over in's duvels geleide, Karel 2, 41-47. 
MHG. der tievel var ime in den munt (get in his mouth), Reinh. 
161-2 ; dass dir der henker in den rachen fiihre (in your throat), 
Felsenb. 3, 443 ; dass dicli ! (devil take, underst.) ; dass dich das 
wetter verborne, Meland. 2, no. 362 ; ir letz' die slack der schauer 

u. kratz der wilde her, Wolkenst. 30. ON. eigi hann iotnar, 

(jdlgi yorvallan, Saem. 255" ; troll hafi ]>ik allan, ok sva gull jnt, 
Kormakss. p. 188; far ]>u nu )'ar er smyl hafi j^ik (to one's ship 
on landing), conf. the formula of benediction in Kg Home, M3.* 

" With the curse ' daz die vor kilchen laegen ! ' conf. also ' Joh. ror Ckilkun,' 
Ocstr. arch. (!, 173; ein jar vor hilchrn stau, MS. 2, 121*; muoter diu ir kint liit 
V(ir tpiUil Oder kirchen ligen, Reun. lS37t) ; an tin veil li-fjen (iu unconsecr. ground), 
Ut rth. 230. 330 ; begrcbnisse I'lf dviii wide, Gefii. Beil. 10. 



1692 SPELLS AND CHARMS. 

Du scliolt varen in dat wilde hrok, Mone's Scbausp. 2, 100-1 ; an 
den tvilden luolt 2, 101 ; conf. 'ze liohe varn/ Kolocz 262 ; Klinsor 
und waerest iiher se, MS. 2, 6" ; versigeleu miiez er nf daz mer 
von wibe u, von kinde 1, 6'\ Lett, eiij vilkam, go to the wolves ; 
villieem apendam^, wolves eat thee, Stender 360 ; so ezzen si die 
wilden hran, Keller's Erz. 196 ; J>itt skyli hiarta hrafiiar slita. 
Seem. 232''; dat ucli de raven schinnen, Kai'lm. 140, 23; des 
miiezen si die xvolve nagea, Altd. w. 2, 56 ; ir herzen miiezen 
krnnvuoz nagen, MS. 2, 119''; den vermiden (sbun him) rotten, 
u. alle zitelosen (daisies), u. aller vogeUine sane 2, 63"; ich schaffe 
daz ir aller fr olden struzen ie widerspenic miiezen wesen 1, 4"; 
Marke du versink 2, 79'' ; ut te paries inclinans obruat, ut te 

ajffiicta senio arbor caeduave obruat, Meland. 2, no. 198. Death, 

disease and sorrow are often imprecated : nu iz dir (eat to thyself) 
den grimmen tot, Ges. Abent. 2, 667; wolde Got, waere din lioupt 
fid (rotting in the ground), Renn. 12192 ; daz dich aezen die 
maden (maggots), Helbl. 1, 1212; daz diu ovgen im erglasen 2, 
512 (a Gaelic curse : marhhphaisg, the shroud over thee !) ; so 
er miieze erhnuren (?) 8, 221 ; hin ze alien suJden 2, 745 (conf. 
allee, aller, Diet. 1, 213) ; so dich diu snht henasche 1, 1202 ; Got 
geb dir die dries u. den ritten, Pasq. 1, 157; diu srilit an iuwern 
losen kragen (neck), Reinh. p. 302. Daliaz aie parmi le col, Meon 
N. rec. 1, 202. 232; man-dahet ait et el col et el nes, Orange 5,. 
2650; cent dehez ait parmi la cane, Trist. 3072 ; tu ut ocnlos ernun- 
gare ex capite per nasuin tuos. Plant. Gas. ii. 6, 39 ; dass du die 
nase hi's gesicht behiiltst, Reuter olle kam. 3, 25-6. 48. 301 ; da 
var diu sitht in iuwer oren, MSH, 3, 438''; ive dir in die zende 
(teeth), Ben, 324; la male gote aiez as dens, Ren. 14322; daz iu 
der munt werde wa7i (without) der zungen, Parz. 316, 4; daz si 
(the tongue) versivellen miieze, u. ouch diu kel (gullet), MS. 2, 5" ; 
din ziiiige miieze dir werden him, Morolf 1150; in miiezen erlamen 
die kniihel (their nibblers, teeth?), Hpt 6, 492. Mod. 'may you 
turn sour.' Lith. kad tu suruktum (shrivel up). Wdfen iiber 
diu ovgen, etc., woe to the eyes wherewith I saw thee, woe to the 
arms wherein I held thee, Ettm. Ortn. 7, 2 ; daz er immir uhiljdr 

muoze haben, Ksrchr. 6958, conf. malannus (p. 1160 end). 

There is a curse beginning ' Als leit si dir (so woe be to thee), 
Karajan,Teichn. 41 ; conf. 'Als ungliick dich ( = auf dich ?) fliege^ 
Kell. Erz. 244, 31 : min sele si ungeheilet, Rab. 79 ; daz si sin 



SPELLS AND CHARMS. 1093 

^'nneret (they be dislionourod), ]\[S. 1, 11»1". ON. von sc su 
vcetfi- vers ok Ixidui, Srem. 214'* ; wan, waere Qvswerzer dan c!n hoi, 
MS. 2, lOO'' ; dev a-cnle z'einem steine 1, G** ; on the contrary ' Bo 
born a man,' Somadeva 1, 7. 1, 81. Vervhiochet si der far, diu 
wile (day, hour), Mai 137, 38. 138, 1 ; conf. vloecte die wile, 
Lane. 12224-755. 16250; so hn::z mich allez daz si, Helbl. 15, 
677. 

p. 1228.] (Rft^»?*iserentes) prosequuntur etiam cum niaZeJic^is, 
Pallad. Rutil. 4, 0. Women boiling i/aru must keep telling lies, 

or it will not turn white. A solemn adjuration is in Swed. 

mana neder (to charm down ?), Runa '44, 60 ; M. Neth. manen, 
bemanen, Belg. raus. 2, 116-7. Finn, manaan, monere, adjurare ; 
manans exsecratio. 

p. 1229.] With helUmna take the prop, name Walamna, 
Karajan 67, 16, and the sejmlcrorum violatrix mentioned after 
' adultera ' and 'malefica'in Lex Burgund. 34,3. Groa sings 
nine galdra to her son, and the galdr is called /(>/H?/^r, Sfem. 97''. 
Conversely the child talks with the mother at her grave, Rhesa 
dainos 22, and Svegder wakes his dead mother in the hill, DV. 
1, 264. Eulogies sung at the grave-mound are also ment. in Hall- 
biorn p. 859. Raising the dead comes easy to christian saints, 
but it was more than Zeus could do : rovTwv eVcoSa? ovk iirol'qae, 
Aesch. Eum. 649. 'Linguae defuncfi dira carmina ligno insculpta 
supponere' forces him to speak, Saxo Gr. ed. M. 38. The tongue 
sings aloud after the head is cut ofif, Ecke 239. 

p. 1230.] Wolvesdriizzel's and other magic is ascr. to Simon: 

Bindet man ime die vuoze unde die hende, 

schiere losit er die gebcnde ; 

diu. slijz heizit er lifgchi (bids the locks open), 

nihein isen mac vor im bestan. 

in hulzinen siulen (wooden posts) 

machet er die sele, 

daz die liute waenent daz sie leben. 

aide ronen heizit er beru, etc. Kaiserchr. 2118. 

Much the same is told of OSinn, Yngl. saga c. 7. 

p. 1230.] Es regnet u. schneiet alles von sacramentcn u. 
fluchen, Albrecht's Fluch. ABC. 45. Men spoke contemptuously 

VOL. IV. E E 



1694 SPELLS AND CHARMS. 

of aniles veteranarum fahulae, Pertz 6, 452'', and altes wibes 
fluochen, Ges. Abeut. 3, 78. 

p. 1231.] Kl. schr. 2, 1 seq. Hera duoder= AS. hider and 
l^ider, Hpt 9, 503^. Wright 289''. Siuna duhodun umhi cunio- 
widi ; so three white maidens pick and pull at flowers and 
wreaths, Miillenh. p. 350. Freyr also sets free fr, bonds (Suppl. 
to 215). Groa sings : 

pann gel ek inn fimta 

ef \>er fioturr ver^r 

borinn at bog-limum ; 

Leifnis elda Iget ek j^er 

fyr legg af kve^na, 

ok stokh- |?a hiss af limum 

en af fotum fiotiir. Ssem. 98^ 

Minne so bint die minnecliche, oder aber mich en-bint (love bind 
her too, or unbind me), Keller's Rom-vart 651; conf. heado- 
runan onbindan, Beow. 996 ; ' to burst bolts and fetters,^ St 
Louis 86, 7. 96, 2. Dietm. of Mersebg says: legimus, quod 
unius captivi vincula, quern uxor sua putans mortuum assiduis 
procuravit exequiis, toties soJverentur, quoties pro eo acceptabiles 
Deo Patri hostiae ab ea offerrentur, ut ipse ei post retulit, cum 

domum suam liber revisit, Pertz 5, 740. Side by side with 

bond-spells stand the ivound-blessings : den wunt-segen man im 
sprach, St Louis 1531 ; conf. the houpt-segen, ougen-s., pferit-s. 
and wunden-segen in Hpt. 4, 577. By magic spell a wound is 
quickly healed, Holtzm. Ind, sag. 2, 176. The sword also re- 
ceives blessing: sivertes segen, Frauenlob p. 77; segent er im daz 
swert, Mai 83, 39 ; segen din swert, Altsw. 64. 

p. 1234.] Kl. schr. 2, 1 seq.; to the passages there quoted 
p. 12, add : ze liolz varn, Hpt 2, 539 ; ze holze, ze walde varn, 
Hahn's Strieker 9, 13. 10, 33. 11, 78; vuor zi walde, Diem. 
110, 1 ; din setzen ist noch niht ze holz (thy stake is not yet 
lost), Fragm. 23''. With the first line of the Spell, conf. Petrus 
u. Paidus gingen to holt un to broJc, Lisch 9, 226. Balder's foal 

must be the horse that was burnt with him, Sn. 18. One 

more spell for a lamed horse runs thus : 

Jeg red mig (I rode) engang igjennem et led, 

saa fik min sorte fole vred (my black foal got hurt) ; 



SPELLS AND CHARMS. 1695 

saa satte jeg kjod mod kjoJ, og bloJ inoJ bloJ, 
saa blev miu sorte fole god. 

Floffct (ON. flog, dolor acer) botas genoui denna losning : ' floget 
ocli flomdet skall fly \xv brusk ocli ben i stock ocb sten, i namn 
Fader/ etc. Dii att upropas trenne ganger : ' troUet salt I herget, 
liiisten (horse) feck floget, spott i hand, slii i mun, bot i samma 
stund/ Riiiif. Esthonian spells in Kreutzwald and Neuss p. 
97-8-9. 122-3. On the cure for dislocation in Lapland, see 
Castren's Reise 153. Ernst Meier p. 516. We still say of a 
platitude, it wouldn't cure a lame jade. To the spell in Cato, add 
the formula ' mota et soluta/ Grotefend's Rud. Umbr. 4, 13. A 
similar spell in Atharva-veda, 4, 12 : ' Setting up art thou, 
setting up, setting the broken bone ; set this one up, Arundhati t 
What in thee is injured, what is broken, thy Maker set it right 
again, joint to joint. Come marrow by marrow, and joint hij joint; 
what is gone of thy flesh, and eke thy bone, shall grow ; marrow 
to marroio be joined, shin with skin arise, blood arise on thy 
bone; whatever was broken, set right, Herb ! Arise, walk, 
haste thee away, fair as a chariot runs on wheel, felloe and nave. 
Stand firmly upright ! If it bi'oke by falling in pit, or a stone 
being thrown have hit, together, as parts of a chariot, fit limb to 
limb the Elf (ribhu) ! ' 

p. 1235.] Cod. Monac. lat. 536 sec. xii. has the spell altogether 
in narrative form : Nesia nociva perrexit vagando per diversas 
plateas, quaerens quem laedere posset; cui occurrit Dominus et 
dixit: 'Nesia, quo vadis?' ^ Vado ad famulum Dei N., ossa 
fricare, nervos meduUare, carnes exsiccare.' Cui dixit Dominus : 
'praecipio tibi in nomine Patris, etc., ut deseras famulum Dei, et 
pergas i)i desertuni locum.' So in colic of the head or belly, the 
spell-speaking old woman grasps the painful part, presses it 
tightly together, and says 9 times : ' in the name of God, etc., 
lady mother, I seize thee, I squeeze thee, do go to rest in thy 
chamber where the Lord created thee,' N. Pr. prov. bl. 3, 472. 
In Masuria they say: 'Depart, ye white folk (biale ludzie, p. 1157) 
fr. this christened Gottlieb, out of his skin, his body, his blood, 
his veins, his joints and all his limbs. Far in the sea is a great 
stone, thither go, thither sail, there drink and there devour, by 
the might of God, etc.,' ibid. 3, 471-. And for the evil eye: 



1696 SPELLS AND CHARMS. 

* Dropped the dew from the sk}*, from the stone, on the earth. As 
that dew vanishes, has vanished, is blown away in air, so may 
thrice nine encJiaittments vanish, ijerisli in air and he blown away,' 
ibid. 3, 475. 

p. 1241.] Walls, wax, is fr. wahsan, to grow, as cera fr. 
crescere; conf. 'Des genuhtsam nam zuo, als ein teic wol erhaben,' 
grew as a dough well risen, Ges. Abeut. 2, 446. To 'bere J^a 
ttirf to cyrcean' in the AS. bot (p. 1237 beg.) corresp. the ' cespi- 
tem terrae super altare ponere/ Kemble no. 177. The spells in 
it, and the laying of a broad loaf in the first furrow, are illustr. 
by Pliny 25. 4, 10 : 'hac (radice panaces) evulsa, scrobem repleri 
vario genere frugum religio est ad terrae piamentum.-' Bebelii 
Facetiae p. 72: supplicationes circum agros frugiferos fieri solitae. 
As cakes were baked for Bealtine, so were ' Siblett cakes after 

wheat-sowing,' Hone's Yrbk 1596. Old spells spoken at/a.B- 

sotving in Schaumburg, Lynker nos. 319, 320, in Bavaria, Panzer 
2, 549 — 551, in Thuringia, Meland. Jocoser. torn. 2 no. 503. 
The Wallachians dance to the hemp (pentru cinnib), the dancer 
Ufting her arms as high as she can, that the hemp may grow 
high, Schott p. 302. At Newy ear's midnight the Esthonian 
farmer throws a handful of each sort of grain on to the shelf, 
crjnug ' God grant the grain this year may grow that high,' 
Possart's Estl 171. 

p. 1242.] In Strieker's farce of the Thieves, Sunt Martin 
professes to guard the oxen in the stall, Hahn pp. 22—27; and 
a blessing for swine says ' Johannes videat illos, Martinus expas- 
cat,' Hattemer 1, 410^. The ^Abraham's garden' in the herds- 
man's spell occurs elsewh. too : durch den Ahrahemschen garten, 
Orendel 1 240 ; ez leit uns in Abrahames garten, MSH. 3, 223''. 
A Finn, song in Kantel. 1, no. 176 says, Jesus guards the flock. 
Snvetar and Etelll (mother nature) watch the cattle, Kalevala 
(Castren2, 50). 

p. 1242.] Haltrich found a Germ, bee-spell in the pasteboard 
cover of a book (no. 245 of Schassburg school library) entitled 
Disput. de Deo, etc. Claudiopoli 1570 : Maria stund auf eim sehr 
hohen berg, sie sach einen suarm bienen kommen phliegen. sie 
hub auf ihre gebenedeyte hand, sie verbot in da zu hant, ver- 
.«prach im alle hilen u. die beim versloszen, sie sazt im dar ein 
fas, das Zent Joseph hat gemacht : 'in das solt ehr phlnp;en (into 



SPELLS AND CHARMS. 1097 

this shall j'e fly), u. sicb seines lebens da genilgen.' In nomine, 
etc. Araen. 

p. 1243.] 'They made viUow-jluteH and ehlcr-pipe.t/ Garg. 
193"; ban spcJade harlcen af all slags trild (could play the bark 
ofiF any kind of tree), Arvidss. 2, 311 ; ban sp. h. af hardaste 
triid 2, 314; ban lekfe barken af bjcirke, af boke-tril (birch, 
beech) 2, 317; geratb wol (turn out well), pfeifen-bolz, ich pfeif 
dir ja wol darzu, oder du wirst zuni bolz, Garg. 213*; will das 
holz nit zu'n pfeifen geraten, icJt pfeif im dan lool, so will ich 
singeu, so gerat's zum bolz, ibid. Other rhymes for loosening 
bark in Woeste p. 20. Firmenich 1, 294. 352. 426. 442. 2, 102. 
Panzer 1, 269. Fiedler 97. 

p. 1244.] What herb is fcbrifaga ? for which Sutnerl. 56, 58 
gives metere (Sappl. to 1216 n., mid.); Gl. Sletst. 39, 405 febre- 
fugia matirna ; Dioscor. 3, 7 centaurium minus, multiradix, 3, 
126 conyza, intybus ; ' featJiofowI, the plant feverfew,^ Barnes. 

A spell like the AS. one, in whiuli the disease is bidden 

withdraw, is in Serv. called ustuk, fr. ustuknuti, to retire ; and 
the herb employed is likewise nstalc. Not only witches, but rata 
and mice are sung away, as by the famed rat-catcher of Hameln. 
In Ireland it is a gift of hereditary poets, Proc. of Ir. Acad. 5, 
355—366. 

p. 1245.] With the AS. idiom agrees the MLG. : ic en-can 
den Jionger niet genesen, Ver Ave in Belg. mus. 6, 414; conf M. 
Neth. ghenesen, ghenas = sanare. Lane. 1996. 8458. Maerl. 3, 
190. 2, 111 ; but also = sanari, Maerl. 2, 156, was genesen = 
sanatus erat 2, 135. 

p. 12 17.] J/rtreu, nightmares, Gefk. Beil. 151. Bocks- malirte, 
spectre, Kuhn in Hpt 5, 490 ; Metter-m., dn'ick-m., Sommer 
p. 46. Sloven, mora, both mare and nightm., fr. morim (I 
throttle) ? kiki-morii, nightm., Hanusch 333. In the eastern 
parts of Mittelmark, murraue means oppressive as nightmare, 
but also a being like tiie Harke or Hollo of other places, that 
has tangled eyebi'ows, that mats the hair and knits up branches 
of fir trees, Hpt 4, 386. 5, 488. A droui of the jytJr(?= maar-zopf ? 
Dint. 1, 439. Mare-zitz, -teat (Suppl. to 1222). Ir. trominidhe, 

nightm., fr. trom=heavy. Of 7 boys or 7 girls born in 

succession, one becomes a nightmare. Nightmares slip through 
a buckle-hole in your belt, and press you, Miillenh. p. 212-3-4; 



1698 SPELLS AND CHARMS. 

dich hat r/ertte)i der mar, Ges. Abent. 3, 60, Where the maar 
has alighted on the corn, it turns black or full of cockles ; the 
hop on which she has sat spoils. Wolf p. 689. On maar-spells, 
see Hpt 7, 537-8, Altogether like the Henuebg spell is one 
fr. Kuhland : 

Olle vvasser wote (wade), 

olle baemer blote (un-blade, disleaf), 

olle baege staige (mountains climb), 

olle kieche-speitze maide (spires avoid) ! Meinert p, 44. 

And they are found in other parts too, Leopr. 26, Panzer 1, 269. 
Kuhn p, 461. 

p. 1248.] With the spell ' Sprach jungfrau Hille : hint stand 
stille ! ' conf. the adjuring of blood in Hpt 4, 391, and the 
frequent formula: slant pluot fasto! Kl. schr. 2, 29; stand 
still, du wildes blut ! Mone 6, 469 ; daz du verstandest, u. nit 
me gangest 7, 420 ; do verstuont daz bluot vil gar, Walth. v. Rh. 
138, 11; verstellen, to stanch, Mone 6, 460. 7, 420. In a spell 
for stanching blood, the history of iron is related, Kale v. rune 3 
(nov. ed. 9). There is a plant named hluot-stant, Sumerl. 56, QQ ; 
a Thracian herb ccrx-ai/jio<i, Welcker's Kl. schr. 3, 29. Fris. 

' blod shetta,' protect, Richth, 236, 13. In the names Blut- 

stiilpe, Blut-giilpe, stillpen is to stanch, M. Neth. stelpen, Lane. 
3593. Part. 90, 15 ; stelpte mans bloet. Lane. 42658, wonden 
gestelpt 44470; thaz bluot \va firstulti = s.e sisteret, 0. iii. 14, 22 ; 
and gulpe resembles the Norse Gylfi. MHG. daz bluot ver- 
straeten, Pantal. 228. 

Sine vuuiden si besach (she examined), 

ir segen si dariiber sprach. Wigam. 5267. 

* Holy Tumbo hless this ivound away ^ (p. 528-9. Suppl. to 1231 

end). Fingerworm-spells, see Happel in Mannhdt's Ztschr. 

3, 2. E. Meier's Sag. no. 464-5. A red, a white, and a black 
worm in Mone's Ndrl. lit. 337 ; white, black, grey and green in ' 
a Cod. Dresd. M. 21^ ' Chi-istus in petra sedebat ' sounds like 
'Tumbo saz in berke,' Kl. schr. 2,- 29; Rother uf eime steine 
saz. Roth. 442. [Pillicock sat on Pillicock's hill, K. Lear]. 

' Ood the Lord went over the land, there met him 70 sorts of 
gouts and goutesses. Then spake the Lord : Ye 70 gouts and 



PREFACE. 1699 

goutesses, whither would ye ? Then spake the 70 g. and g. : 
We go over land, and take from men their health and limbs. 
Then spake the Lord : Ye shall go to an elder-bush, and break 
off all his boughs, and leave unto (naming the patient) his 

straight limbs. In the name, etc.' Conf. ' flaugk blatter u. 

nicht zubrist, das gebeut dir herr Jesu Christ,' fly, pustule, and 
burst not, so bids thee, etc. (1597), WolPs Ztschr. 1, 280. 

p. 1248.] Zeter und weide liegeu in streite, Hpt 4, 390; conf. 
' die Imnsclie und der clrache ' (p. 1103). 

p. 1249.] Animals are appealed to : ' I pray thee, swallow,' 
Schm. 3, 362 ; adjuro te, mater aviorum (p. 1242). One's own 
powers ax'e summoned up : Finn, nouse liiontoni, surge vis mea ! 
Renvall 1, 294''. Again, there are particular worJs of great 
magic power : herlicke, herlocke ! policke, polucke, podrei ! Fr. 
Arnim's March, no. 8 ; Fr. hrelique breloqiie ! berlik herloc, 
Biondelli's Dial, 133 ; conf. Boh. perJjk tudes. 



PREFACE. 



p. xxiv.] The difference between the Norse and the Qirman 
system of gods appears the more considerable, when we reflect 
that our Eru, Phol, Saxnot, Beowulf, Isis, Zisa and Sindgund 
were unknown to the North ; that in Germany thus far not a 
vestige is discoverable of Heimdall, Loki or Hoenir (Fiiro. Hcjner, 
not Hoener) ; and that of Meili, the son of Obinn and Fiorgyn, 

hardly anything is known but the bare name. Thorr was 

preeminently worshipped in Norway, Freyr in Sweden, OSinn in 
Denmark (p. 160-1). Halogi, ThorgerSr and Irpa seem to be 
local deities of Haloga-land (F. Magnusen p. 981). 

p. xxiv.] The result of a new religion coming in is mixture 
with the old, which never dies out entirely. The old faith then 
becomes a superstition, as Nilsson 6, 3 very clearly shews. 

p. xxvi.] When the rage for the outlandish and satiety with 
the home-grown had passed away (tanta mortulibus suarum 
rerum satietas, alienarumque aviditas, Pliny 12. 17, 38), there 
set-in the equally unwarranted historical and geographical explan- 
ation of Myths, the study of whose iuner sense is yet to seek. 



1700 PREFACE. 

Deified heroes and saints, genealogies beginning with a god for 
ancestor, mark the point where myth and history touch. 

p. xxix.] Wolfdletricli has this other point of likeness to 
Odysseus, that he wears St George^s shirt, as O. does the scarf 
of Leucothea. A further resemblance betw. the German mytho- 
logy and the Greeh comes to light in Artemis and Hecate, who 
remind us of Berhta ; see the Copenhagen Edda, pref. xxvii. seq. 
The ideas of Meleager and Norna-gestr (p. 853 end), o^ /j^ea-ojata 
and middil-gard (p. 794), of o/i0aA,6<? and the dille-stein (p. 806), 
of Cerberus and the hell-hound (p. 997), of KrjpvKecov and the 
wishing-rod (976-7), and of sieve-turning (p. 1108) are closely 
allied; and rj\to<i, ON. sol, Goth, sauil, coincide even verbally 
(p. 701 end). With Eonian usage agree our dislocation-spells 
(p. 224-5) and lustration of highways, RA. p. 73. On the other 
hand, the Zeus-Jupiter is in other nations split up into Wuotan, 
Donar and Zio, or Radegast, Rerun and Svetovit, or Brahma and 
Vishnu, or Gwydion and Taranis. 

p. XXX.] Celtic influence on Germ, mythology is pointed out 
by Leo in Malb. Gl. 1, 39; from it Nilsson 6, 13-4 derives the 
mistil-teinn and Baldrs-brand, believing as he does that many 
parts of Scandinavia were once peopled by Celts. Their gods 
Taranis, Hesus and Teutates answer to Jupiter, Mars and Mer- 
cury, see Stalin 1, 111-2. 109. GDS. p. 120. 

p. XXX.] To the old words common to the Slavic and Teutonic, 
add Goth. gul|>, OHG. kold, SI. zoloto, zlato; Goth. ]?auruus, 
OHG. dornu, SI. trn, teorn. The SI. Siva = Ceres corresp. to 
ON. Sif, Sitivrat to Saturn, Priya to Frowa (p. 303), and Prove 
to Fro. 

p. xxxiv.] The harmonies of Indian mythoL with ours may 
be largely added to. Thus the Liliputian floating on a leaf is 
similar to Brahma and Vishnu (p. 451), bald-headed OSinn and 
his day of the week to Buddha (p. 129 n. Iduna 10, 231), 
Vishnu's wheel to Krodo's (p. 249), Prithivi to Fria (p. 303), 
Yama the death-god and his rope, the cow of creation, etc., to 
the corresp. German notions, Garuda's wings to our wind (p. 
633), madyamaloka to middilgard. Bopp in Gl. 71^ says Kali is 
akin (not indeed to Halja, but) to hveila, a while. 

p. xxxviii.] Points of contact betw. Paganism and Ghristian- 
ism. On what is christian in the Edda, see Copenh. Edda, 



PREFACE. 1701 

pref. xxvi. seq., and consider the Last Judo^ment, the angel's 
trumpet like Heimdall's horn (p. 234), Surtr like 'death tJie last 
enoni/,' 1 Cor. 15, 20. While the heathen often admitted foreign 
gods into the ranks of their own, and assimilated them, as the 
Greeks did sometimes to conciliate other nations ; Christianity 
was exclusive, and hostile to all heathen gods. Yet even the 
Christian church, involuntarily or designedly, has adopted some 
heathen gods and practices. That saints of the Catholic church 
often receive divine homage, is acknowl. by Seb. Frank, Zeitb. 

2, 243"; couf. A. W. Schlegel's Oeuvres 1, 219. Kingston's 
Lusit. sketches, Lond. '45. The saints heal (p. 1103 end): the 
Servians call Kosman and Damian vratchi, soothsayers, phy- 
sicians, Vuk's Wtb. 82 ; John the Baptist foretells to Aeda the 
splendour of the race that shall spring from her daughter Oda, 
Pertz 0, 307. The saints make rain (p. 174-5) ; as ivater-saints 
they bring succour in a storm (Suppl. to 037) : nay, nuns in 
German legends often take the place of iohlte ladies, and munkar 
in Sweden turn up as jclttar, Runa '44, 13. The saints pacify 
God's anger : 

Des mugen si in stiUcn, 

swa er zornic lif uns wirt. Pass. 312, 50. 

Miieze sin unser vorspreche (advocate), 

daz Got mit zorne iht reche (not wreak in wrath), 

swa wir haben gesiiudet. Servat. 1705. 

God's anger and that of the saints are estimated about equally 
in curses : ' habbe he Godes unmiltse and Sancti Martines ! ' 
Kemble 2, 4 ; 

Des haben in Sant Georgen haz 

und Gotes vluoch umbo daz ! Helbling 8, 015. 

* Hilf Sanct Anna selb-dritt ! ' A. and the other two, Anshelm 

3, 252. 

Mary above all other saints received a heartfelt adoration, 
which, if not in the first centuries, yet very early, was promoted 
esp. by women, Zappert 10. Epiphan. adv. ha3res. p. 1058 (cd. 
Paris, 1022). Like Hulda, she is called ' gudmoder,' Asbjorns. 
no. 8, and is a ' spinster,' Zapp. 13. If in the legend of Cres- 
centia Peter, like a second Woden, appears as an old man, con- 



1702 PREFACE. 

ducts tlie heroine back from the rock ia the sea, and endows her 
with the gift of healing, or himself heals (KM. no. 81) ; in other 
legends Mary takes the place of Peter, and shows the empress a 
medicinal herb. Both Christ and Mary leave the print of their 
fingers and toes on the rock, like the giants (p. 546), or devils 
(p. 1022); conf. ' ons Heren spronc,^ our Lord's leap, Maerl. 2, 
116. The O.Norw. Gula]?ings-laug p. 6 speaks of * signa til Krist 
)?acca (thanks) oc SanctaMariu til ars oc tilfridar,' exactly as was 
done to Freyr (p. 212). Mary helps in childbirth, bestows rain, 
appears among harvesters, kisses and dries them, Maerl. 2, 248.. 
285-6. She instead of the Dioscuri makes light shine on the 
masts (p. 1137 beg.) ; she or her mother St Anne carries people 
from distant lands through the air (Hist, de la Bastille 4, 315), as 
OSinn did (p. 146, Hading), or the devil (p. 1028). They make 
two Virgin Marys visit each other, carrying the inferior one to 
the grander. Childless couples cry to St Verena, and she gives 
them heirs, Pertz 6, 458 — 460, like OSinn and Frigg, Vols, saga 
c. 2 ; conf. the beginnings of many KM. 

p. xliii.] The christian God merely sends his messengers upon 
earth, as in Gregor 2678 : swenn dich unser Herre diner saelden 
ermante, u. dir sinen boten sante, den soldest du enphahen baz. 
But the heathen gods came down themselves : foru at kanna heim 
allan, Sn. 135. (KM.^ 3, 146). Zeus, Hermes and Plutus appear 
in Lucian's Tinion; conf. Aristoph. Lysistrata 808, Birds 1549 ; 
whenever 3 gods seek a lodging, Hermes is sure to be one, GDS. 
123. Zeus coming as an unknown guest, a child is served up 
for him to eat, Fragm. hist. Gr. 1, 31. The Dioscuri also travel 
unrecognised among men, Preller 2, 72. What the Lithua- 
nians tell of Perkunos's (or the Saviour^s) encounter with the 
horse and ox, the Esthonian legend relates of Jesus, Neus 435. 
Perkunos and Pikullos travel, and give gifts to men, Tettau and 
Temme's Ostpr. u. Litth. sagen p. 28. Also the horse, ok and 
dog put up at men's houses, and rewai'd hospitality by giving 
their years, Babr. 74. 

In such wanderings there keeps recurring the antique incident 
of the divine visitor granting three wishes. ' Theseus Hippo- 
lytum, cum ter optandi a Neptuno patre habuisset potestatem,' 
Cic. de Nat. D. 3, 31 ; het ich drier ivilnsche gewalt, MS. 2, 145; 
conf. KM. no. 87. Of this kind is the Breton fairytale of the 



PREFACE. 1703 

artful moustache, to whom Christ and Peter allow 3 wishes : ho 
asks for a pretty wife, the winning card, and a sack in which to 
shut the devil up. When Peter denies him entrance into heaven, 
he flings his cap in, and so takes possession. Echoes of the 
player who wants to get into heaven, and is refused (p. 818 n.), 
are found in the Warnung 2710 — 2806; so brother Lustig and 
Jack the gamester wish to get into heaven, KM. no. 81-2. Lat. 
poem of Ma. p. 343, conf. the farce of the miller who sits on his 
sack behind the gate of heaven, Altd. bl. 1, 381. Gamester 
Jack's request for the tree from which no one can get down 
resembles a story in Hone's Daybk 1, 447. Panzer 1, 94; the 
casting of dice for the soul is also in Ca3s. Heisterb. 5, 34. 
Somm. sag. 175-6. The incident of the thieving cook meets us 
in Aviani Fab. 30 : sed cum consumti dominus cor quaereret 
apri, impatiens fertur cor rapuisse coquus. 

Christ, being on a journey with Peter, pulls one ear out of a 
sheaf, and burns it at the candle ; the grains keep spirting out 
till they form quite a heap. This happens in a barn, where lazy 
Peter has been cudgelled by a peasant; and he gets another 
backful of blows in the inn, because he will not play. Then the 
Lord made for these peasants boughs on their trees, whose hard- 
ness blunted their axes, as the request of a rude set of people for 
vines is also granted, but the wine is as good as their manners. 
In a farrier^s shop Christ cuts a horse's foot off, shoes it, and puts 
it on the beast again. Peter will not stop to pick up half a 
hoi'seshoe, but Christ does, and buys cherries with it, which Peter 
is glad to pick up one by one to quench his thirst. In the 
merry gest of the blind man whose wife sits up in the appletree, 
or the LG. poem in Daseut xxvi., Peter and the Lord act the part 
of Pluto and Proserpine in Chaucer's Marchantes tale, and of 
Oberon and Titania in Wieland's Ges. 6, 87. Again, Christ 
walks with two apostles and three disciples, and comes upon the 
girl carrying water. Wend, volksl. 2, 314. Peter catches the 
haddock, as the Ases do Loki, and he Andvari ; conf. Wolf's 
Ndrl. sag. p. 706, and his Pref. to Zingerle 2, xx. Peter comes 
from heaven to earth on leave, II. Sachs iii. 1, 240, also i. 94''. St 
Peter sits on the roof, throwing peai'S down, and St Claus throws 
rotten apples up, Garg. 7b^. Of a like stamp are the folktales of 
St Jost and the Bavarian, Henner 24583, of St Nicolas and the 



1704 



PEEFACE. 



Bavarian, Bebelii Facet, p. m. 1136. The return of saints to 
heaven is thus descr. in the Warnung 1767 : 

Die heilegen habent sich ufgezogen (hoisted up), 
von der kuppel (dome) sint si geflogen 
uf zuo ir Schepfaere. 

Here also I must call attention to Peter and Paul coming to aid 
the Christians in battle, Loheugr. pp. 116—9. 158—160. Pref. 
Ixxxi. Youths (or knights) clothed in white appear on the walls 
of Rhodes, to repel the Turks, Detmar 2, 417 (yr 1480). Angels 
too are called wtges tvise in Helj. 149, 10; they appear two at a 
time, and armed, p. 989. This shining pair of champions reminds 
us of the Alci (p. 366), and of the Dioscuri who on their white 
steeds help the fighters, Cic. Nat. D. 2, 2 ; conf. ed. Oreuzeri p. 
213-4. Justin 20, 3. Florus ed. Jahn 14, 14. Suet. Nero c. 1. 
Klausen's Aeneas 664-5. 707. Maerl. 3, 148. 174. The Gala- 
tians quail before the rider on the white horse, Luc. Dial. mer. 
13; already in Herod. 8, 38 two armed and superhuman beings 
pursue and slay the foe. 

p. xlvi.] The sky darkens when a villain is begotten or born, 
Pertz 2, 154; but nature rejoiced when Georis was begot, 261 ; 
conf. the Alexander-legend in Maerl. 1, 264. With FroSi's blissful 
age conf. O'Kearney's Gabhra p. 104 : 'They say the times were 
so prosperous and the produce of the earth so abundant, that 
when the kine lay down the grass reached above the top of the 
horns. Hence it is said that cows, whenever they lie, give 
utterance to three moans in remembrance of the good old times 
that once had been, and lamenting the hard days in which they 
live.* So we hear of a Truce of God under Numa, Klaus. Aen. 
953, and under Solomon, Diem. p. 113-4. The lines fr. Godfrey 
of Viterbo are based on Isai. 2, 4 : et conflabant gladios sues in 
vomeres, et lances suas in falces, conf. Passional p. 17. Jorn. de 
regn. succ. p. 45. Ksrchr. 630. 

p. xlviii.] The Germ, reverence for woman is also expr. in : 
ere wol die muoter din. Pass. 224, 25. In a Serv. song a 
daughter calls her mother ' bela tzrkvitze,' white little church, 
Vuk 1, 17.no. 27. 

p. xlix.] The good and evil of the New are hinted by Pans. i. 
24, 4 in the words : ocrrt? 8e ra avv ri^vj] TreTvoL-qixeva eTrl'rrpoa- 



PREFACE. 1705 

Oev rideraL tcov e? ap)(^ai6TJ]Ta jjkuvtoji' (become old-fashioned), 
conf. Lessing 8, 2 i(3. 

p. li.] Even God, Christ and the Holy Ghost came to be 
imagined as sitting in the wood, as the old gods had been, 
Pruhle's March, f. d. jugend p. 17. 

p. lii.] The descent of all gods from a God of gods is assumed 
even by Helraold 1, 83. In India Brahma, Vishnu, Siva are the 
three supreme gods ; all the rest are under these ; their trinity 
is designated by the sacred word o))i = aii)ii, Brahma being a, 
Vishnu u, Siva vi, Bopp's Gl. Gl". GDS. 122. Beside this 
trinitarian view, we find a dual conception of deity according to 
sex, as father and mother, or as brother and sister : thus arose 
Niurcir and Nerthus, Freyr (Fro) and Freyja (Frouwa), Berhtolb 
and Berhta, Fairguneis and Fiorgyn, Geban and Gefjon, Hruodo 
and Hreda. With the Germ, sunne, masc. and fern., conf. Lunus 

and Luna, Liber and Libera, GDS. 122. Twelve gods are 

reckoned by Athen. 5, 330 (conf. Plato's Pha3dr. 246-7), and by 
Apuleius p.m. 59 ; tmv ScoScKa ovofia^o/ievcov Becov uydX/xara, 
Paus. i. 40, 2 j si undecim deos praeter sese secum adducat 
Jupiter, Plant. Epid. v. 1, 4; duodecim deis, v. 2, 3; twelve 
adityas, Bopp 30" ; tredecim dii exceptis Brahma, Vishnu et Siva, 
Bopp's Gl. IGO; varo elh'fo aesir taldir, Saem. 117''; 12 ases, 8 
asins, Sn. 79. In like manner, HrolPs 12 heroes, Sn. 152. 
Fornald. s. 1, 100, Kaleva's 12 sons, the devil's 12 disciples 
(Snppl. to 980 end). 

p. lii.] The arguments with which the Fathers and authors 
like Arnobius combat the folly of heathenism in respe