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TEUTONIC MYTHOLOGY. 



JACOB GRIMM. 



TEUTONIC MYTHOLOGY 



BY 



JACOB GRIMM. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE FOURTH EDITION 



WITH 

NOTES AND APPENDIX 



JAMES STEVEN STALLYBEASS. 



VOL. IV. 




T 



LONDON: GEORGE BELL & SONS, YORK STREET, 

OOVENT GARDEN, 

1888. 



llutler x Tinnier. 

The Sdtcood I rinthui Works 

frame, and London. 



PREFACE. 



THIS Volume,, answering to Vol. III. of the last German edition, 
consists of two parts, a SUPPLEMENT and an APPENDIX. 

The SUPPLEMENT is the characteristic as it is the only strictly 
new part of this Fourth Edition of Grimm s Mythology. After 
his Second Edition of 1844, which was a great advance upon the 
First, the Author never found time to utilize any of the new 
matter he collected by working it into the Text; his Third 
Edition of 1854 was a mere reprint of the Second; so that the 
stores he kept on accumulating till his death, and the new views 
often founded on them and on the researches of younger in 
vestigators Kuhn, Miillenhoff, Panzer, Mannhardt, etc. all lay 
buried in the MS. Notes that covered the wide margin of his 
private copy, as well as in many loose sheets. On the death 
of Grimm, his Heirs entrusted the task of bringing out a Fourth 
Edition to Prof. ELARD HUGO MEYER, of Berlin, leaving him at 
liberty to incorporate the posthumous material in the Text or 
not, as he chose. The Professor, fearing that if once he began 
incorporating he might do too much, and instead of pure 
Grimm, might make a compound Grimm-and-Meyer concern of 
it, wisely contented himself with the humbler duty of keeping it 
in the form of Supplementary Notes, verifying authorities where 
he could, and supplying Keferences to the parts of the Text 
which it illustrates. 

As the Supplement hardly amounted to a volume, the Pro 
fessor hit upon the happy thought of reprinting with it an 
APPENDIX which Grimm had published to his First Edition, 
but had never republished, probably thinking it had done its 



IV PREFACE. 

work, and perhaps half ashamed of its humble character. Yet 
it is one of the most valuable parts of the work, and much 
the most amusing. It falls into three unequal portions : I. 
Anglo-Saxon GENEALOGIES. II. SUPERSTITIONS. III. SPELLS. 
Of the short treatise (30 pp.) on the eight royal lines of our 
Octarchy, their common descent from Woden, and their points of 
connexion with Continental tradition, I will say nothing. The 
bulk of the Appendix (112 pp.) is taken up with the SUPER 
STITIONS. After a number of extracts from Medieval authors, 
extending from A.D. 600 to 1450, we have a vast array of Modern 
Superstitions (the German part alone has 1142 articles), mostly 
taken down from the lips of the common people all over Europe, 
in the simple language of the class, the " rude Doric " which our 
polite grandfathers used to apologize for printing, but which in 
these days of Folklore is, I am told, the very thing that goes 
down. The Author s view of Superstition, that it is a survival, 
the debased wrecks and remnants of a once dominant Religion, 
of course inclines him to trace these superstitions, as far as 
possible, to the Old Faith of the Teutonic nations, of which we 
have still such a splendid specimen in the Icelandic Edda. The 
Appendix winds up with 57 old SPELLS in various languages. 

THE TRANSLATOR. 



CONTENTS. 



VOL. IV. 

PAGE 

SUPPLEMENT [Collected from the Author s post 
humous Notes, by Prof. E. H. Meyer of 
Berlin] : 

To the Text . 1277 

To the Author s Preface in Vol. III. 1699 

APPENDIX by the Author: 

Anglo-Saxon Genealogies . . . 1709 

Superstitions .... . 1737 

Spells . 1849 

INDEX 1871 



CHAPTER I. 
INTRODUCTION. 

p. I, note] Paul. Diac. still uses heathen in the sense of rustici 
(Pertz, Archlv 7, 331). demo heidanin cornmane, Diut. 1, 504 b . 
The abbrev. form heid occurs even before Luther : heide rhy. 
leide, G. Abent. 2, 67. dieser zeginer oder heit, Keller, Fast- 
nachts-sp. p. 823 (like our christ for MHG. kristen, OHG. 
christani) ; yet the true genitive is retained in Chr. Weise s Erz- 

narre 190: des jungen heidens los werden. Favorite epithets 

of the heathen are " wild, fierce, grim " : wild heathen, wild 
men of the wild heath, Anegenge 23, 61. conf. Rabenschl. 1080. 
Neifen 14, 6. MsH. 1, 152 a . die wuotendigen heiden, Kaiser- 
chr. 951. More freq. die ubelen heiden, Diemer 158, 18. 162,2. 
Morolt 376 seq. die losen h., Diemer 170, 24. 179, 17. der 
iibele h., Pantal. 1034. der vil arge h. 1847. den h. gramen, 
Servat. 148 (per contra, hypocrita is transl. dunni cristdni, Diut. 
1, 239 b ). Also "dogs/ as in Judith 134, 39 : ]?one haeftenan 
hund. Olaf Tryggv. saga, cap. 68 : hund-liQidmu. Svenske 
vis : hednings-/m<i. Mor. 418 : den heidenschen hunt. In 

Willeh. 58, 16 the Sarrazin ride on dogs and hogs. Gradually 

milder terms are used: dat domme heidine, Maerl. 3, 128. des 
geloulen geste (strangers to faith), Tiirl. Wh. 15 a . heidinen die 
sunder ewe (without law) lebeten, Roth. 475. People do not like 
to be taken for heathens : so bin ich niht ein heidei^ MsH. 1, 42 a . 
als ich waere ein heiden 45 b . Yet there is pity for them : swie 
sie waren heiden, och was zerbarmen umbe sie, Nib. Lament 437; 
and Wolfram, like Walther, speaks of them quite humanely, Willeh. 
450, 15 : " Die nie toufes kiinde Enpfiengen, ist das sunde, Daz 
man die sluoc alsarn ein vihe (a sin to slay the unbaptized) ? 
Grozer sunde ich drumbe gihe : Es ist gar Gutes hant-getdt, 
Zwao und sibenzec spraclie die er hat/ they are God s handi 
work, 72 languages wherein He speaks. 

pp. 2-4.] Heathens in Italy and at Rome as late as Theoderic, 
Edict. Theod. 108. Salvianus de gubern. Dei, about 450, con- 

VOL. TV. 1277 B 



1278 INTRODUCTION. 

trasts the vices of Christian Romans and Provincials with the 
virtues of heathen Saxons, Franks, Gepidse and Huns, and of 
heretical Goths and Vandals ; towards the end of bk. 7, he says : 
Gothorum gens perfida, sed pudica est, Alamannorum impudica, 
sed minus perfida. Franci mendaces, sed hospitales, Saxones 
crudelitate efferi, sed castitate mirandi ; and further on : Vandali 
castos etiam Romanes esse fecerunt; conf. Papencordt 271-2. 
The Bavarian Ratolf is converted in 788 : coepi Deum colere, 
MB. 28 b , 7. In the times of Boniface and Sturmi we read : Populi 
gentis illius (in Noricum), licet essent christiani, ab antiquis 
tamen paganorum contagiis et perversis dogmatibus infecti, Pertz 
2, 366. Alamanns, who appear in Italy 552-3, are still heathens 
in contrast to the Christian Franks, Agathias 2,1. 1,7. Eginhard 
cap. 7 (Pertz 2, 446) : Saxones cultui daemonum dediti ; cultum 
daem. dimittere ; abjecto daem. cuHu, et relictis patriis caeri- 
moniis. The author of Vita Mathildis (Pertz 12, 575) says of the 
Saxons and of Widukind s family : Stirps qui quondam daem. 
captus errore, praedicatorum pro inopia idola adorans, christianos 
constanter persequebatur. 

The Nialssaga cap.101 6 relates the introduction of Christianity 
into Iceland in 995 1000. Yet at Nerike by Orebro, as late as 
the 1 7th cent., they sacrificed to Thor on certain rocks for tooth 
ache, Dybeck runa 1848 p. 26 ; and to this day old women 
sacrifice to rivers, and throw the branch on the stone 2, 3, 15. vit 
erum heiffin is said in Olaf the Saint s time in Gautland, Fornm. 
sog. 4, 187 and 12, 84. In the Norwegian districts of Serna 
and Idre, bordering on Dalarne, there were heathens in 1644, 
Samling (Christiania 1839) 6, 470-1. ]?a kunni enge maiSr 
Paternoster LStraumi, Werlauff. grenzbest. 20. 37. In Sweden 
we hear of den s followers in 1578, 1580 and 1601, Geyer Svea- 
rikes hafder 2, 329 ; in a folk-song a woman dreads the heathen 
that haunt the neighbouring wood : locka till Thor i jjall/ 
Arvidsson 3, 504. Thursday was holy in Sweden till 100 or 
150 years ago (p. 191). Relapses into heathenism were frequent 
there, Hervarars. cap. 20 (Fornald. sog. 1, 512). The secret 
practice of it was called launblot, Fornm. sog. 2, 243. 

The Slavs in Pomerania heathens till begin, of 12th century. 
A heathen festival near Pyritz, and that of Gerovit at Havel - 
berg, Barthold s Gesch. v. Pomm. 2, 34. 76. Giesebrecht s Wend. 



INTEODUCTION. 1279 

gesch. 2, 265. 309. Heathen Rans, Earth. 2, 100-1. Pribizlaus 
of Mecklenburg baptized in 1164, Svantevit s temple destroyed 

1168, Lisch s Meckl. jahrb. 11, 10. 97. The Slavs betw. Elbe 

and Oder were Christians for 70 years, then relapsed ab. 1013, 
Helmold 1, 16; adhuc enini (1147) Slavi immolabant daemoniis 
et non Deo 68. The Prussians still heathen after conversion of 

Russians 1, 1. Some Christians in Hungary in latter half of 

10th century, Diimmler s Pilgrim von Passau 36 seq. Some 
heathens in Esthonia at the present day, Yerhandl. 2, 36. The 
Lapps were still heathen in 1750, Castren s Reise p. 69. 

Mixed marriages were not entirely forbidden, as Chlodowig s 
example shows. Such too was KriemhuVs union with the heathen 
Etzel, but she takes care to have her son Ortliep baptized, Nibel. 
1328. 

p. 5.] Between heathen baptism (the vatni ausa, the dicare 
in nomine deorum, Greg. Tur. 2, 29) and Christian baptism, 
stands the prim-signaz, Egilss. p. 265, a mere signing with the 
cross. Thus, Gestr is primsigndr, eigi skirSr/ Fornald. sog. 1, 
314. The pains of hell were made to hang on being unbaptized 

(p. 918). Whoever forsook paganica vetustas (Pertz 2, 342), 

had to renounce the gods : den gotenentfarn = get baptized, Tiirl. 
Wh. 130 a . To abjure one s faith was abrenuntiare, abjurare, 
renegare, reneare, Ducange ; Fr. renier, O.Fr. renoier, MHG. sich 
vernoijieren, Nib. 1207, 1. Lament 494. vernoierten sich von den 
Kristen, Livl. reimchr. 5719. M. Neth. vernogerde, Karel. 2, 75. 
vernoyert, Pajin 2, 519. 831. vernoyert rh. verghiert, Maerl. 3, 
140. OHG. antrunneo, ant-trunneo aba-trunneo sipost&ta,, rene- 
gatus, Graff 5,533. li cuivers renoie, Ducange; tornadie, tomadis 
= retrayant. Other phrases : den touf hin leg en, Livl. r. 6129. 
Idzen varn krist 6385. What is meant by : eosque (Hessians at 
Amenaburg) a sacrilega idolorum censura, qua sub quodam 
christianitatis nomine male abusi sunt, evocavit in the Vita 
Bonifacii, Pertz 2, 342 ? probably a Christian heresy, as p. 344 
says of Thuringians : sub nomine religionis falsi fratres maxi- 
mam hereticae pravitatis introduxerunt sectam/ conf. Rettberg 

2, 308. The Abrenuntiations declared the ancient gods by 

name to be devils and unholds. All heathen merrymaking, espec. 
music and dancing, was considered diabolic, pp. 259. 618-9. 770, 
Feasts, games and customs connected with the old worship were 



1280 INTRODUCTION. 

now diaboli pompa, gelp inti zierida. Grieshaber s Serm. p. 48 : 
da man singet und springet in des tievels dienste ; coiif. Aucassin 
in Meon s Fabl. 1, 385. Fauriel 3, 190. 

p. 5.] The mental protest against Christianity shows itself in 
the continuance of the rough heroic conception of Paradise (p. 
819). The Christian paradise was often rejected, as by Kadbod 
the Frisian, who withdrew his foot from the sacred font, because 
he did not care to give up the fellowship of his forefathers in hell 
and sit with a little flock in heaven, Vita Bonif. (Pertz 2, 221). 
Melis Stoke, rymkron. 1, 24. Comp. the contrary behaviour 
of Gudbrand (Maurer bekehrung 1, 537) and of Sighvatr at the 
baptism of Magnus, St. OlaPs saga c. 119. Waldemar likes 
hunting better than heaven, Thiele 1, 48. nit ze himelriche sin 
woldich viir dise reise, Eoseng. 110. mir waere ie liep bi ir ze 
sin dan bi Got in paradis, MS. 1, 178 a . moht aber mir ir huldo 
(her favour) werden, ich belibe (I would stay) uf der erden alhie, 
Got liez ich dort die werden (worthies), MS. 2, 16 b . daz himel 
riche liez ich sin, und waere bi in iemer wol also, Dietr. drachenk. 
1 31 b . waz sol ein bezzer paradis, ob er mac vro beliben von wol 
gelopten wiben ? MsH. 1, 82 b . si waere getreten durch Floren 
in die helle, Fl. 5784. si me vauroit miex un ris de vous qu estre 
en paradis, Thib. de N. 69. kestre ne voudroie en paradis, se 
ele nestoit mie 75; conf. 113. The hered. sewer of Schlotheim : 
had you one foot in heaven and one on the Wartburg, you d 
rather withdraw the first than the last/ Rommel s Gesch. von 
Hessen 2, 17. fall from heaven to earth, Schwein. 1, 95. come 

back from paradise, Chans, histor. 1, 43. Eyvindr, like Christian 

martyrs, endures the utmost pains inflicted by Olaf Tryggvason, 
and will not apostatize, Fornm. sog. 2, 167. The Hist. S. Cuth- 
berti says : quadam die cum Onalaf cum furore intrasset ecclesiarn 
Cuthberti, astante episcopo Cuthheardo et tota congregatione, 
quid, inquit, in me potest homo iste mortuus Cuthbertus, cujus 
in me quotidie minae opponuntur? juro per deos meos potentes, 
Thor et Othan, quod ab die hac inimicissimus ero omnibus vobis/ 
Twysden 73-4. The heathenism smouldering in many hearts is 
perceptible even in Latin deeds of 1270, Seibertz no. 351. 

p. 5.] A peal of bells was hateful to heathens, and therefore 
to giants, p. 950, to dwarfs, p. 459, to witches, p. 1085. 

p. 5.] Even in Christian times the heathen gods are credited 



INTRODUCTION. 1281 

with sundry powers. The idols speak, Pass. 307, 2 seq. Bar!. 
342, 8 or hold their peace, Pass. 306, 24. 34. The Livl. reimchr. 
1433 seq. says : 

Die Littouwen vuoren iiber se, 

daz ist genant daz Osterhap, 

als ez Perkune ir abgot gap (when P. existed), 

daz nimmer so harte gevros (froze) . 

Hence the quarrel between the old and new religions was often 
referred to an ordeal or miracle : probemus miraculis, quis sit 
majoris potentiae, vestri multi quos dicitis dii, an meus solus 
omnipotens dominus J. Chr. cries the Christian priest in Vita 
Ansgarii (Pertz 2, 702) ; and the rain falls in torrents on the 
heathen Swedes despite their praying, while not a drop touches 
him. In Greg. Tur. mirac. 1 cap. 81, the ordeal of water decides 
whether the Arian or Catholic faith be the right one. In the 
legend of Silvester, the Jew sorcerer first kills a bull in the name 
of his God, and Silvester brings it to life again by calling upon 
Christ, W. Grimm s Silv. xv. xx. 

p. 6.] The Romans too had felled sacred trees: f et robora nu- 
minis instar Barbarici nostrae feriant impune bipennes, Claudian 
de laud. Stilich. 1, 230. In the same way the Irminsul is de 
stroyed, and Columban breaks the god s images and throws them 
in the lake (p. 116. 109). Charles has the four captured Sara 
cen idols smashed, and the golden fragments divided among his 
heroes, Aspremont ll b . 45 b 48 b . Idols are broken in Barl. and 
Georg. It is remarkable in Beda 2, 13, that the Goifi himself 
destroys the heathen temple (p. 92 n.). It was a sign of good 
feeling at least to build the old images into the church-walls. 

p. 6.] Heathens, that knew not the true God s name, are not 
always wild, doggish, silly/ but sometimes die werden heiden/ 
Titur. 55, 4, die wisen heiden, Servat. 19. his sylfes (God s) 
natnan, J?one yldo beam aer ne cfrSon, frod feeder a cyn pedli hie fela 
wiston, Cgedm. 179, 15. 

p. 7.] Trust in one s own strength is either opposed to trust in 
gods, or combined with it. In the Faereyinga-s. cap. 23, p. 101 : 
ek trui a matt minn ok megin and also ek treystumsk hamingju 
(genius) minni ok sigr-saeli, ok hefir mer ]?at vel dugat ; conf. 
trua rnagni/ Fornald. sog. 1, 438. The OHG. so mir ih ! (Graff 
6, 13) must mean ( so help me I myself/ MHG. has milder 



1282 INTRODUCTION. 

formulas: sani mir Got and min selbes lip \ Tristan 215, 2. als 
in (them) Got und ir ellen gebot, Ernst 1711. als im sin manlich 
ellen jach, Parz. 89, 22. ich gelove God ind mime swerde, Karl- 
meinet 122, 34. M. Belieim 266, 22 says : si wolten uf in (them) 
selber stan ; and Gotthelf s Erzahl. 1, 146 makes a strong peasant 
in Switz. worship money and strength. A giant loses his strengtli 
by baptism, Raaf 39. Doubts of God are expressed by Wolfram : 
ist Got wise? ... hat er sin alt gemiiete, Willeh. 66, 18. 20. 
hat Got getriwe sinne, Parz. 109, 30. Resisting his will is f ze 

himele klirnmen und Got enterben/ En. 3500. On men who 

pretend to be gods, see p. 385 n. 

p. 7 n.] God is threatened and scolded, p. 20. With the 
mockery of Jupiter in Plaut. Trin. iv. 2, 100 agrees the changing 
of his golden garment for a woollen, and robbing ^Esculapius of 
his golden beard, Cic. de Nat. D. 3, 34. FrrSJnofr said: enda 
virSi ek meira hylli Ingibiargar enn reiSi Baldrs/ Fornald. sog. 2, 
59 ; and pulled B/s statue by the ring, so that it fell in the fire 
86. King Hrolfr already considers OSin an evil spirit, illr andi, 

I, 95. Dogs were named after gods by the Greeks also ; Pollux, 

Onom. 5, 5 cites Kopaj;, "ApTrvia, Xdpcov, AvKiTra<;. A dog named 
Locke, Sv. folks. 1, 135. Helbling s Wunscli is supported by a 
Wille in Hadamar v. Laber 289 and Altswert 126, 23. Sturm in 
Helbl. 4, 459 may have meant Thunder. The lime-bitch is called 
Heila, Hela, Dobel 1, 86. Nemnich 720. Alke is Hakelberend s 
dog, Zeitschr. des Osn. ver. 3, 406. A Ruland about 1420, and 
Willebreht, Ls. 1, 297-8, are exactly like men s names. Many 
names express the qualities and uses of the animal, such as Wacker, 
still in use, and leading up to old Norse, Saxon, Skirian and 
Suevic names, Grimm s D. Sag. 468 ; its dimin., Wackerlein, Weck- 
Jierlin, Wicherlein, Fischart s Spiele 246. 491. Is Wasser, the 
common name of peasants dogs in the Mark (Schmidt v. Wern. 
253), a corrup. of Wacker? Wackerlos, Vernim, dogs in Frosch- 
rneus. Bbb.5 b ,Bufer/i?iinKeisersb.bilg. 140-4-5. Fondling names 
are Harm, Ls. 2, 411. Holle im Crane p. 30, Barlin, Garg. 258 b , 
Zuckerl. Jucundiss. 54. To the Pol. gromi-zwierz, bait-hound, 
Linde 1, 779 a answers our Hetzebolt, Nic. v. Jeroschin 30, 12. 
Hello, Greif, Pack-an, Padc-auf (Medic, maulaffe 647), Suoclie, 
Fichard 3, 245, explain themselves ; also the Boh. greyhound 
Do-let, fly- to; O. Norse Hopp and Hoi, Hrolfkr. saga, Hopf in 



INTRODUCTION. 1283 

Eulensp., Estula . (es-tu-la ?), Meon 3, 394-5. Ren. 25355. Not 
so clear is Strom in Fritz Keuter s Joarn. to Belligen 2, 98 ; is it 
striped ? or conn, with Striun in Helbl. 4, 456 from striunen, 
to roam ? Smutz in Laber 358 must be conn, with sclimotzen, to 
counterfeit the hare s cry, Schmeller 3,479. Trogen, Sv. afvent. 
1, 51 is our Fidel, trusty. Gramr, Fornald. sog. 1, 87. Gifr, Geri, 
two dogs in Fiolsvinns-mal. Snail, Markusson 174 a . Guldtand 
Norske event. 2, 92. Yrsa, Fornald. sog. 1, 22, Ursa in Saxo. 
Bettelmann in Burger 474 a and Stallmeister in Tieck s Zerbino 
express social rank, conf. Malvoisin, Ren. 1664. It were too bold 
to conn. Leppisc.h in Pauli Sch. u. ernst 77, with Samr = Lapp, in 
Nialss. 71, or Goth, Goz with the nation so called (Michel s hist, 
des races maudites 1, 355. D. Sag. 454) ; more likely that the 
Silesian sheepdog s name Sachs (Weinhold) meant Saxon ; conf. 
Boh. BodroJc, an Obodrite. King Arthur s dog Gabul, Nenn. 78. 
Giprian, dog s name in MsH. 3, 305 a . 

p. 8.] Christ and the old gods are often worshipped together. 
People got baptized and believed in Christ, en heto a Thor til 
allra stomeSa. Widukind (Pertz 5, 462) tells, an. 965, of an 
altercatio super cultura deorum in convivio, Danis affirmantibus 
Christum quidem esse deum, sed alios ei fore ma j ores deos, qui 
potiora mortalibus signa et prodigia per se ostentabant/ JEthel- 
bert of Kent let heathen idols stand beside Christian altars, conf. 
Lappenb. Engl. gesch. 1, 140. The converted Slavs clung to 
their old superstitions. Dietmar (Pertz 5, 735) says of the sacred 
lake Glomuzi : hunc omnis incola plus quani ecclesias veneratur 
et timet ; and at Stettin a heathen priest was for raising an altar 
to the god of the Christians side by side with the old gods, to 

secure the favour of both, Giesebr. Wend, gesch. 2,301. It 

is only playfully, and with no serious intention, that the Minne- 
song links the name of God with heathen deities : 

Ich han Got und die minneclicheii Minne (love) 

gebeten fleliche nu vil manic jar, 

daz ich schier iiach unser drier sinne 

vinde ein reine wip. MS, 1. 184 a . 

Venus, vil edeliu kiinegiu, 

inch hat Got, vrowe, her gesant 

ze freuden uns in ditze lant. Frauend. 233, 26. 

The longer duration of heathenism, especially of Woden- worship, 



1284 INTRODUCTION. 

among the Saxons, is perceptible in the legend of the Wild Host, 
in many curses and the name of Wednesday. There also the 
custom of Need-fire was more firmly rooted. The Lohengrin p. 
150 still rebukes the unbelief of the wild Saxons. 

p. 11.] Where there was worship of springs, the Church took 
the caput aquae into her department, Rudorff 15, 226-7. In 
that spell where Mary calls to Jesus, f zeuch ab dein wat (pull 
off thy coat), und deck es dem armen man iiber die sat (over the 
poor man s crop)/ Mone anz. 6, 473, a heathen god is really in 
voked to shield the cornfield from hail. Quite heathenish sounds 
the nursery rhyme, Liebe frau, mach s tiirl auf (open your door), 
lass den regen nein, lass raus den sonnenschein/ Schmeller 2, 
196. Spots in the field that are not to be cultivated indicate their 
sacred ness in heathen times, conf. gudeman s croft in Scotland, 
the Tothills in England, Hone s Yearb. 873-4. To the disguised 
exclamations in the note, add o> Aaparep \ and the Armoric tan, 
fire ! Villemarque s Barzasbreiz 1, 76; conf. Pott 1, Ivii. 

p. 12.] To these old customs re-acting on the constitution, 
to the pelting of idols at Hildesheim and Halberstadt on Lcetare- 
<laij (p. 190. 783), add this of Paderborn : In the cathedral-close 
at P., just where the idol Jodute is said to have stood, something 
in the shape of an image was fixed on a pole every Lcetare 
Sunday down to the 16th century, and shied at with cudgels by 
the highest in the land, till it fell to the ground. The ancient 
noble family of Stapel had the first throw, which they reckoned 
an especial honour and heirloom. When the image was down, 
children made game of it, and the nobility held a banquet. 

When the Stapels died out, the ancient custom was dropped/ 

Continu. of M. Klockner s Paderb. chron. The Stapel family 
were among the four pillars of the see of Paderborn ; the last 
Stapel died in 1545, Erh. u. Gehrk. Zeitschr. f. vaterl. gesch. 7, 
379. Compare also the sawing of the old woman (p. 782), the 
gelding of the devil, the expulsion of Death (p. 767), the yearly 
smashing of a wooden image of the devil, and the ( riding the 
black lad in Hone s Yearb. 1108, Dayb. 2, 467. 

p. 12.] The Introduction ought to be followed by a general 
chapter on the contents and character of our Mythology, in 
cluding parts of Chaps. XLV. and XV., especially the explanation 
of how gods become men, and men gods. 



1285 



CHAPTER IT. 
GOD. 

p. 13-15.] The word god is peculiar to the Germanic lan 
guages. Guitecl. 1, 31 : terre ou Ion claime Dieu got. On 
goddess see beginning of Ch. XII L diu gotheit occurs already 
in Fundgr. 2, 91. In the Venetian Alps, God is often called 
der got with the Art., Schmeller s Cimbr. Wtb. 125. Is the Ital. 
iddio from il dio, which does not account for iddia goddess, or is 
it abbreviated from domen-eeWio, which, like 0. Fr. domnedeu, 
damledeu, damredeu, comes from the Lat. voc. domine deus ? 
Conf. Diez, Altrom. Sprachdenkm. p. 62. 

Got is not the same word as guot, though the attempt to iden 
tify them is as old as OHG. (yet conf. the Pref. to E. Schulze s 
Gothic Glossary, xviii.) : got unde guot plurivoca sint. taz (what) 
mit kote wirt, taz wirt mit kuote/ Notker s Boeth. 172. Almost 
as obscure as the radical meaning of god is that of the Slav, 
bogh, some connecting it with Sanskr. b agas, sun, Hofer s 
Zeitschr. 1, 150. In the Old-Persian cuneiform writing 4, 61 
occurs bagaha, dei, from the stem baga, Bopp s Comp. Gram. 
452 ; Sanskr. bhagavat is adorandus. Hesychius has (Bayalos, 
Zevs (f>pvyio$ (conf. Spiegel s Cuneif. inscr. 210. Wiudisch- 
mann 19. 20. Bopp, Comp. Gr. 452. 581. Miklosich 3). Boh. 
buze, bozatko, Pol. boz, boz^tko, godkin, also genius, child of 
luck. Boh. buzek, Pol. bozek, idol. 

Beside guda, gods, John 10, 34-5, we have gupa, Gal. 4, 8. 
The change of }> to d in derivation is supported by afgudei im- 
pietas, gudalaus impius, gudisks divinus. Neuter is daz apgot, 
Mos. 33, 19. abgote sibeniu, Ksrchr. 65. appitgot^Myst. 1, ^29. 
Yet, beside the neut. abcotir, stands appetgote (rh. krote), Troj. 
kr. 27273, and abgote, Maria 149, 42 ; also masc. in Kristes 
biichelin of 1278 (cod. giss. no, 876) : bette an den appitgot. 
abgotgobide in Haupt 5, 458 is for abgotgiuobida. In the 
Gothic po galiuga-guda for et ScoXa, 1 Cor. 10, 19. 20, where the 
Greek has no article, we may perceive a side-glance at Gothic 
mythology ; conf. Lobe gloss. 76 b . The ON. goff is not always 
idolum merely, but sometimes numen, as goff oil, omnia numina, 
Saem. 67 b . siti Hakon me S heiffin go^, Hakonarm. 21. gauff, 



1286 



GOD. 



usually latratus, is a contemptuous term for a numen etlinicorum ; 
conf. geyja, to bark, said of Freyja, p. 7 note. 

Our gdtze occurs in the Fastn. Sp. 1181. 1332, where the 
carved goezen of the painter at Wiirzburg are spoken of. 
Gods images are of wood, are split up and burnt, Fornm. sog, 2, 
163. v. d. Hagen s Narrenbuch, 314. Platers leben, 37. So 
Diagoras burns his wooden Hercules (Melander Jocos. 329), and 
cooks with it; conf. Suppl. to p. 108 n. Agricola no. 186 ex 
plains olgotz as a stick, a log, painted, drenched with oil/ Low 
Germ, oligotze ; but it might be an earthen lamp or other vessel 
with an image of the god, Prohle xxxvi. In Thuringia olgotze 
means a baking. 

p. 15.] To the distortions of God s name may be added : gots 
hingender gans ! Geo. v. Ehingen, p. 9. potz verden angstiger 
schwininer wunden ! Manuel, Fastn. sp. 81. Er. Alberus uses 
bocks angst/ H. Sachs < botz angst/ Is potz, botz from bocks 
(p. 995) ? Similar adaptations of Dieu, Raynouard sub v. deus ; 
culUeu, Meon 4, 462. Ital. sapristi for sacristi. 

p. 15.] The addition of a Possess. Pron. to the name of God 
recalls the belief in a guardian-spirit of each individal man (p. 
875). The expressions not yet obsolete, my God! I thank my 
God, you may thank your God, he praised his God, etc./ in 
GotthelPs Erzahl. 1, 167 are also found much earlier: hevet 
ghesworen li sinen Gode, Reinaert 526. ganc clinem Gote be- 
volen, Mor. 3740. er lobte sinen Got, Greg. 26, 52. durch 
meinen Gott, Ecke (Hagen) 48. saget iuwem Gote lop, Eilh. 2714. 
daz in min Trehtin lone, Kolocz. 186. gesegen dich Got miti 
Treldin, Ls. 3, 10. je le fere en Mondieu croire, Renart 3553. 
28465. Meon 2, 388. son deable, Ren. 278. 390. Conf. < Juno- 
nem meam iratam habeam/ Hartung, genius. 

The < God grant, God knows often prefixed to an interroga 
tive, Gram. 3, 74, commits the decision of the doubtful to a 
higher power; conf. we re Got, Gott behiite/ Gram. 3, 243-4. 
Got sich des wol versinnen kan, Parz. 369, 3; conf. sit cura 
deum/ daz sol Got niht en-wellen, Er. 6411. daz enwelle Got 

von himele, Nib. 2275, 1. nu ne welle Got, En. 64, 36. Other 

wishes: so sol daz Got gebieten, Nib. 2136, 4. hilf Got, Parz. 
121, 2. nu hilf mir, hilfericher Got 122, 26; conf. < ita me deus 
adjuvet, ita me dii ament, amabunt/ Ter. Heaut. iv. 2, 8. 4, 1. 



GOD. 1287 

Got Mete din, Parz. 124, 17, etc. Got halde inch 138, 27. 
Got Ion dir 156, 15. Got troeste inch des vater min 11, 2. 
Got griieze inch, Iw. 5997. The freq. formulas God bless thee, 
greet thee/ addressed espec. to wine. Often in MHG., be it 
God who : Got si der daz wende ; der in ner (heal) der uns 
geliicke gebe, Er. 8350. 6900. Hartm. Erst. b. 1068. [Many new 
examples of wilkomen Got und mir are here omitted.] sit mir 
in Gate wilkomen, Pass. 34, 92. im und den go ten (gods) wille- 
komen, Troj. kr. 23105. God alone: Got willekume here von 
Berne, Dietr. Drachenk. 60 a . Me and my wife : willekomen 
mir und ouch der frouwen min, MS. 1, 57 b . bien venuz miner 
frouwen unde mir, Parz. 76, 12. 

The Supreme Being is drawn into other formulas : dankent 
ir und Gote, Lanz. 4702. des danke ich dir unde Gote, More 
5915. Got und iu ze minnen (for the love of), Greg. 3819. nu 
laz ich alle mine dine an Godes genade unde din, Roth. 2252. 
To intensify an assertion : ich fergihe (avow) Got unde iu, Griesh. 
pred. 2, 71. nein ich und Got, Ls. 2, 257; like the heathenish 
1 Oden och jag daz er sich noch Got erkennet, Walth. 30, 7. 
Got und ouch die liute, Greg. 271. Got und relit diu riten do 
in ze heile, Trist. (Massm.) 176, 26. 177, 2. We still speak of 
complaining to God and the world. One could not but love 
her, da half kein gott und kein teufel Hofer, Lorelei 234. 
So, f to her and love : ich han gesungen der ml lieben und 
der Minne, Neifen 13, 37. frou Minne und ir, vil saelic wip 20, 
33. ich wil dir und deinem gaul zusaufen, Garg. 240 b . 

p. 17.] God has human attributes: par les iaus Dieu, Ren. 
505 ; so, Freyr litr eigi vinar augum til J?in, Fornm. s. 2, 74. 
par les pies quide Din tenir, Meon Fabl. 1, 351. wan do Got 
hiez werden ander wip, do geschuof er iuwern lip selbe mit siner 
liant, Flore 2, 259. The Finns speak of God s beard. He wears 
a helmet, when he is wrapt in clouds ? conf. helot-helm, p. 463, 
Grimnir pileatus, p. 146, and Mercury s hat ; den Gotes helm 
verbinden, MsH. 3, 354 b ; conf. the proper name Gotahelm, 
Zeuss trad. Wizemb. 76, like Siguhelm, Friduhelm. As Plato 
makes God a shepherd, Wolfram makes him a judge, Parz. 10, 
27. God keeps watch, as f Mars vigilat/ Petron. 77; conf. 
Mars vigila, Hennil vigila (p. 749). He creates some men him 
self: Got selbe worht ir siiezen lip, Parz. 130, 23; gets honour 



1288 GOD. 

by it : ir schoenes Jibes hat Got iemer ere, MS. 1, L43 a ; shapes 
beauty by moonlight : Diex qui la fist en plaine lune, Dinaux s 
Trouveres Artesiens 261 ; feels pleasure : dar wart ein wuof, daz 
ez vor Got ze himel was genaeme, Lohengr. 71. in (to them) 
wurde Got noch (nor) diu werlt iemer holt, Dietr. Drach. 119 a . 
So in O.Norse: Yggr var )?eim liffr, Ssem. 251 a ; conf. unus 
tibi hie dum propitius sit Jupiter, tu istos minutos deos flocci 
feceris/ and the cuneif. inscr. ( Auramazda thuvam dushta biya/ 
Oromasdes tibi amicus fiat. 

p. 17-8 n.] God s diligence : examples like those in Text. 

p. 18.] Many new examples of God s anger, hatred, etc/ are 

here omitted. Unser gote sint so guot, daz si dmen tumben 

muot niht rdchen mit einer donre-strale, Barl. 207, 13. Got haz 
den lesten ! sprachen die da vluhen hin (God hate the hindmost, 
cried the fugitives), Ottoc. 76 a . so in Got iemer hazze, MsH. 3, 
195 b . daz in Got gehoene, dishonour, Lanz. 3862. er bat, daz 
Got sinen slac iiber in vil schiere sliiege, very soon smite, Turl. 
krone 92; conf. 06o/3\a/3)fc, Herod. 1, 127. Got velle si beide, 
make them fall, Iw. 6752. ich wil daz mich Got velle und mir 
schende den lip, Flore 1314. Got si schende, MsH. 3, 187 a . fort 
mit dir zu Gotten boden, Weise comod. 39. Got rech ez iiber sin 
kragen, Ottoc. 352 a . so muoze mig Got ivuorgen, Karlm. 368. 
nu brennet mich der Gotes zan (tooth) in dem fiur, Todes gehugde 
679. so entwiche mir Got, Flore 5277. Got ist an mir verzaget, 
Parz. 10, 30. ist Got an siner helfe blint, oder ist er dran be- 
foubet (deaved, daft), 10,- 20. die gote gar entsliefen, Albr. Tit. 
2924. 

p. 20.] The irrisio deorum, ON. goff-gd (Pref. liii. and p. 7n.) 
reaches the height of insult in Laxdasla-s. 180. Kristni-s. cap. 
9 ; OHG. kot-scelta blasphemia, MHG. gates schelter. Conf. the 
abusive language of Kamchadales to their highest god Kutka, 
Klemm 2, 318. nu schilte ich miniu abgot, scold my false gods, 
Lament 481. sinen zorn huob er hin ze Gote: richer Got un- 
guoter ! Greg. 2436-42. so wil ich iemer wesen gram den 
goten, En. 7985. The saints scold (as well as coax) God, 
Keisersb. omeis 12 d . wdfen schrien iiber (cried shame upon) 
Gotes gewalt, Wigal. 11558. Got, da bistu eine schuldec an (alone 
to blame), Iw. 1384. Charles threatens him : Karles fen$a a 
Dieu, si confust son voisin, jamais en France n orra messe a 



GOD. 1289 

matin/ Aspr. 35 a . lie, saint Denis de France, tu somoilles et dorz, 
quant fauz tes homes liges tiens en est li gran torz, Guitecl. 2, 
156. nemt iuwer gote an ein sell und trenket si, drench them, 
Wh. 1, 83 a . trowet (believes) als dann S. Urban auch, wenn er 
niht schafft gut wein, werd man ihn nach den alten branch 
werffen in bach hinein, Garg. pref. 10. In the Ksrchr. 14737 
Charles threatens St. Peter : und ne mache du den blinden hiute 
niht gesunden, din hus ich dir zestore, dinen widemen ich dir 
zevuore. God is defied or cheated : biss Gott selbst kompt (to 
punish us), haben wir vogel und nest weggeraurnbt, Garg. 
202 a . 

p. 20-1.] More epithets of God. He is hardly ever ad 
dressed as dear ; but we find : an sinen lieben abgoten, Pass. 306, 
20. ir Helen gote 38, 41. der zarte Got, Ls. 2, 285-6. Griesh. 
22 (5. 9. 17 of Christ), der siieze Got von himel, Griesh., etc. 
in svasugoff, Ssem. 33 a . tugenhafter Got, Wh. 49, 16. Got der 
qeware, Fundgr. ii. 90, 41. here is said of heathen gods, angels, 
emperors : ein Venus here, MS. 1, 55 a . hdlig dryhten, Beow. 

1355. God sees, tends, blesses, loves, rewards, honours, 

pities, forgets: Got der miieze din pflegen, Herb. 6160. Got 
gesegene uns imrner mere 7732. Got segen iuch, Got lone dir 
8092. Got minne dich, Eracl. 644. Got miieze mich eren, 
MsH. 1, 59 b . daz mohte Got erbarmen, Wigal. 5342. als im 
Got ergaz, forgot, Herb. 15669. so min Got ergaz, Troj. kr. 
14072. des (him) hat Got vergezzen, der tivel hat in besezzen, 

Warnung 343. Our God-forgotten, God-forsaken. The poor 

are Godes volk, Diut. 1, 438 ; sine aerme, Maerl. 2, 230 ; daz Gotes 
her (host), Gute frau 1492; hence proper names like Godesman, 
Trad. Corb. 291, Godasmannus, Pol. Irmin. 93 b , Kotesman, Trad. 

Juvav. 131. The Gen. Gotes intensifies the adjs. poor, wretched, 

ignorant, pure : owe mich Gotes armen, Nib. 2090. ich vil Gotes 
armiu, Gudr. 1209, 1. ich Gotes arme maget, Dietr. Drach. 
die Gotes ellenden, Ernst 3176. der Gotes tumbe, Helmbr. 85. 
der Gotes reine, Marienleg. 189, 428. 

p. 22.] Earthly titles given to God : der edel keiser himelbaere, 
Tit. 3382. That of the king of birds : Gott der hohe edle adler 
vom himmel, Berthold 331. The M. Lat. domnus is not used of 
God, who is always Dominus, but of popes, kings, etc., Ducange 
sub v. 0. Fr. dame dieu, dame de, Roquef. sub v. ; Prov. dami 



1290 GOD. 

drieu y damri deu, domini dieus, Raynouard 3, 68 ; on dame conf . 
p. 299 n. Wallach. damnedeu for God, damn for sir, lord. Slav. 
knez, kniaz, prince, is applied to God in Wiggert s psalms, conf. 
kneze granitsa in Lisch urk. 1, 9. So ava%, avacraa are used of 
kings and gods, espec. a^a/ce? of the Dioscuri, and the Voc. ava 
of gods only. 

p. 22.] God is called Father in that beautiful passage : fonne 
forstes bend Feeder onlaeteft, Beow. 3218. Brahma is called 
avus paternus, Bopp s gloss. 217 a , and Pitamaha, great father, 
Holtzm. 3, 141. 153; conf. Donar as father, p. 167. In the 
Marchen, God becomes godfather to particular children : in KM. 
no. 126 he appears as a beggar, and gives his godson a horse, 
in the Wallach. marchen 14 a cow. The fays, as godmothers, 
give gifts. The grandmother travels all over the earth, Klemm 2, 
160; conf. and, baba (p. 641), zloto-baba, gold-grandmother; 
mother (p. 254). 

p. 22.] The Saxon metod, ON. miotudr may be conn, v/ith 
Sanskr. mdtar, meter and creator, Bopp s Comp. Gr. 1134, and 
mata, mother, creatress ; conf. ra/xta? Zevs. 

p. 23.] In Homer too, God is he that pours : Zeus creates, 
begets mankind, Od. 20,202. But Zeus ykei vSvp, II. 16, 385. 
Xiova, II. 12, 281. Poseidon ^eev a^vv, II. 20, 321. Athena 
rjepa ^eue, Od. 7, 15. inrvov 2, 395. tcd\\os 23, 156. x.apiv 2, 
12, etc. Conf. p. 330, and Athena fj/ce KO^CUS, let her hair 
stream, Od. 23, 156. God is he, der alle bilde giuzet/ Diut. 2, 
241 ; der schepfet alle zit niuwe sel (souls), di er giuzet unde git 
in menschen, Freid. 16, 25. the angel giuzet dem menschen die 
sele in/ Berth. 209. God is der Smit von Oberlande, der elliu 
bilde wol wilrken kan/ MsH. 2, 247 a . He fits together : das 
fuege Got, Rab. 554. Groifiiege mir z ze guote, Frauend. 422, 22. 
do bat si Got vil dicke fuegen ir den rat, Nib. 1187, 1, like our 
eingeben, suggest, sigehafte hende (victorious hands) fuege in 
Got der guote, Dietr. 8082. do fuogt in (to them) Got einen 
wint, Eab. 619; conf. Gevuoge, p. 31 In. The Minne also fits, 
and Saslde (fortune) : dir fiieget saelde daz beste, Tit. 3375; our 
fiigung Gottes/ providence. God destines, verhenget, MS. 1, 
74 a (the bridle to the horse) ; OHG. firhengan (even hengan alone), 
concedere, consentire. He carries, guides : Got truoc uns zu dir 
in das lant (so : the devil brings you), Dietr. and Ges. 656. mich 



GOD. 1291 

hat selber gewiset her Got von himel, Keller s Erzalil. 648, 11. 
We say go with God/ safely, orvv #e&> ftaiveis, Babr. 92, 6. 

p. 23.] Though Berthold laughs at the notion of God sitting 
in the sky, and his legs reaching down to the earth, as a Jewish 
one, there are plenty of similar sensuous representations to be* 
gleaned out of early poems, both Romance and German : Deo 
chi maent sus en ciel/ Bulalia ; etc. alwaltintir Got, der mir zi 
lebine gibot, Diemer 122, 24. wanti Got al mag und al guot wil 
99, 18. God is eternal : qui fu et iest et iert, Ogier 4102. 

p. 24.] To explain the Ases we must compare ahura-mazdas 
(p. 984 n.) and Sanskr. asura spiritual, living. Sva lati ass J?ik 
heilan i haugi, Fornald. sog. 1, 437. Rin ds-kunn, Saam. 248 a . 
nornir dskungar 188 a . A friSla is called dsa bloff, Fornm. sog. 9, 
322, fair as if sprung from Ases ? ]>a vex mer dsmegin, iafnhatt 
up seni himinn, Sn. 114. asmegir, Saem. 94 b . dsmoffr opp. to 
J6timm63r, Sn. 109. dsa bragr stands for Thor, Saem. 85 b . Some 
times as seems to mean genius, fairy : in Nials-s. p. 190 a Svin- 
fells-ds or Stioefells-ds changes a man that lives with him into a 
woman every ninth night ; the man is called bru&r Svinfells-as, 
arnica genii Svinfelliani. Here also mark the connexion of as 
with a mountain (fell for iiall ?) . The Saxon form of the word 
is also seen in the names of places, Osene-dred, Kemble no. 1010 
(5, 51), and Osna-brugga (conf. As-bru, rainbow, p. 732). Note 
the OHG. Ker-ans, spear-god, Folch-ans, Haupt s Zeitschr. 7, 529. 
That Ansivarii can be interpreted a diis oriundi is very doubt 
ful. Haupt s Ztschr. 5, 409 has f des bomes as, prob. for ast 
bough, which may indeed be conn, with as beam, for it also 
means gable, rooftree, firmament, epfjua, fulcrum. Varro says 
the Lat. area was once asa, ansa, sacred god s-seat, v. Forcellini. 
Pott 1, 244, Gr. D. Sag. p. 114. The Gr. alora (p. 414) seems un 
connected. Bopp 43 d connects isvara dominus with an Irish aes- 
fhear aesar, deus, from Pictet p, 20 ; but this contains fear, vir. 

p. 26.] Hos consent es et complices Etrusci aiunt et nominant,, 
quod una oriantur et occidant una j says Arnobius adv. gentes 
lib. 3 ; does he mean constellations ? conf. Gerhard s Etr. gotth. 
p. 22-3. Does dttunga brautir, SaBm. 80 b , mean the same as asa, 
cognatorum ? 

p. 26.] As consulting ragin appear the gods in Sanskr. rdya- 
nas and Etrusc. rasena. The Homeric Zeus too is counsellor, 



1292 GOD. 

prjarwp, ar/rlera. consilio deorutn immortalium, consuesse deos 
immort/ says Csesar B. Gall. 1, 12. 14. The.pl. regin occurs 
further in Sa3m. 32 b . 34 a nyt regin. 36 a vis regin. Hakonar-m. 
18 racf oil ok regin. Ssem. 248 b dolg-rognir. Also rogn : hopt, 
bond, rogn, Sn. 176. wer gesaz bi Gote an dem rate da diu 
guote mir wart widerteilet? allotted, Ms. 2, 180 a . Just as im 
personal as the Gen. pi. in OS. m/cwo-giscapu sounds another in 
Haupt s Ztschr. 2, 208, where Mary is styled kuneginne aller 
magenef virtutum. 

p. 26 n.] The appearing of gods is discussed at p. 336. Saxo, 
ed. Miiller 118, speaks of sacra deilm agmina. The gods live 
happy: deorum vitam apti sumus, Ter. Heaut. iv. 1, 15. dens 
sum, sic hoc ita est, Hecyra v. 4, 3. The beautiful and blithe 
are comp. to them: ]?yckir oss O&inn vera, Hak.-in. 15; conf. 
Asa-bloft above, ge her fur als ein gotinne, Renn. 12277. en 
wif ghelic ere godinnen, Maerl. 2, 233. alse ochter God selve 
comen soude, Lane. 31321. Conf. the beauty of elves and angels, 
p. 449. The I. of Cos seemed to produce gods, the people were 
so handsome, Athen. 1, 56. Paul and Barnabas taken for Mer 
cury and Jupiter, Acts 14, 12. 

p. 27.] On sihora armen conf. Massm. in Haupt s Ztschr. 1, 
386 and Holtzm. in Germania 2, 448, who gives variants; sihora 
may have been equiv. to frauja. Sigora-frea in Cod. Exon. 166, 
35. 264, 8 is liter, triumphorum dominus. A warlike way of 
addressing God in Nib. Lament 1672 is, himelischer degen I 

p. 28.] At the end of this Chap, it ought to be observed, that 
some deities are limited to particular lands and places, while 
others, like Zev<$ TraveXXr^vLo^, are common to whole races. Also 
that the Greeks and Romans (not Teutons) often speak indefinitely 
of some god : fcai rt? #609 rjyeuovevev, Od. 9, 142. 10, 141. 
T/5 ue 6eS)v o\o$vpaTO 10, 157. adavdrwv o? rt? 15, 35. rt? 
$eo? ecrcn 16, 183. rt? crfyw roS* eetvre Oewv 16, 356. 97 //-aXa 
T? $eo? evbov 19, 40. Kai rt? 6ebs avrov eveiKoi, 21, 196. 24, 
182. 373. Solemnis formula, qua dii tutelares urbiuin evocaban- 
tur e civitatibus oppugnatione cinctis ambiguo nomine si deus, 
si dea, ne videlicet alium pro alio nominando aut sexum confun- 
dendo falsa religione populum alligarent, conf. Macrob. Sat. 3, 9. 
Nam consuestis in precibus sive tu deus es sive dea dicere, 
Arnob. 3, 8. Hac formula utebantur Romani in precibus, quando 



WOESHIP. 1293 

sive terra movisset, sive aliud quid accidisset, de quo ambige^ 
batur qua causa cuj usque del vi ac nuinine effectum sit, conf. 
Gellius 2, 20 ibique Gronovius. 



CHAPTER III. 
WORSHIP. 

p. 29.] For veneration of a deity the AS. has both weorfadpe 
reverentia, dignitas, and weorcfung ; the Engl. worship, strictly 
a noun, has become also a verb = weorffian. The Christian 
teachers represented the old worship as diobules gelp inti zierida 
(pompa). In Isidore 21, 21. 55, 5 aerlos stands for irnpius. 
Beside the honouring of God, we find das Meien ere/ Ms. 2, 
22 b , and duvels ere, Rose 11200. D. Sag. 71. Gote dienen, Nib. 
787, 1. er for elite (feared) den Heilant, Roth 4415. Heartfelt 
devotion is expr. by mit inneclichen muote/ Barl. 187, 16. an- 
dachtliche 187, 36. 14. mit dem inneren gebete. die anddht fuor 
zum gibel aus, Wolkenst. p. 24. 

p. 29.] Among most nations, the Chinese being an exception, 
worship finds utterance in prayer and sacrifice, in solemn trans 
actions that give rise to festivals and hightides, which ought to 
be more fully described further on. Prayer and sacrifice do not 
always go together : betra er obedit enn se ofblotit (al. oblotit), 
Sasm. 28 b . The Chinese do not pray, and certainly, if God has 
no body and no speech, we cannot attribute an ear or hearing to 
him, conseq. no hearing of prayer. Besides, an almighty God 
must understand thoughts as easily as words. Prayers, the 
utterance of petition, gratitude and joy, arose in heathenism, and 
presuppose a divine form that hears. Odysseus prays to Athena: 
i /j,ev, vvv Srj Trep fAv CLtcovaov, eVet irdpos OVTTOT afcova-as 
, Od. 6, 325. 13, 356. K\v9i, ava% 5, 445. II. 16, 514 ; 
Poseidon and Apollo are addressed with the same formula. Gods 
are greeted through other gods : Yeneri dicito multam meis 
verbis salutem, Plaut. Poen. i. 2, 195. But, besides praying 
aloud, we also read of soft muttering, as in speaking a spell, 
Lasicz 48. OpTja/ceveiv is supposed to mean praying half aloud, 
Creuzer 2, 285. Latin precari (conf. procus), Umbr. persni 

VOL. IV. C 



1294 WOESHIP. 

(Aufrecht and Kirchhoff 2, 28. 167) answers to OHG. fergon 
poscere, precari, N. Cap. 153, Sanskr. prach, Zend, pereg. tases 
persnimu/ tacitus precare, pray silently, ( kutef persnimu/ caute 
precare, A. and K. 2, 168-9. 170. Sanskr. jap = submissa voce 
dicere, praesertim preces, Bopp 135 a ; conf. jalp loqui, Lith. 
kalbu: faveas mini, murmur e dixit, Ov. Met. 6, 327 (p. 1224). 
c gebete kauen, chewing prayers, occurs in Brenner s Life 1, 
475 ; stille gebete thauen, distil, in Gessner s Works (Zurich 
1770) 2,133. gebet vrumen, put forth, Gudr. 1133, 1. beten 
und himelspreken, Gefken beil. 116. daz gebet ist ein siiezer 
bote (messenger) ze himele, Ernst 20. Or, prayer resounds : daz 
din bete erklinge, Walth. 7, 35. precibus deum pulsare opimis, 
Ermold. Nigell. 2, 273. Prayer gushes out, is poured out : alse 
daz gebet irgie, Ksrclir. 2172. M.Neth. gebed utstorten, Soester 
fehde p. 597 ; now, bede storten, preces fundere, like tranen st., 
lacrimas fundere. gepet ausgiessen, MB. 27, 353. 

p. 29.] Other words for praying : Grk. Seopat, I need, I ask, 
iKT6vo) and \iaaofjiaL beseech. ON. heita a einn, vovere sub 
conditione contingenti : ?iet a Thor, vowed, Oldn. laseb. 7 (conf. 
(jiving oneself to a partic. god, O^inn, p. 1018-9). OHG. liaren 
clamare, anaharen invocare, N. Boeth. 146. OS. grotian God, 
Hel. 144, 24. 145, 5. Does irpoa-Kvvew come from /cvveo) I kiss 
(as adoro from os oris, whence osculum), and is it conn, with the 
hand-kissing with which the Greeks worshipped the sun; rrjv ^elpa 
KvaavTes, Lucian 5, 133; or from Kvwvl conf. irpbcrKwes, fawn 
ing flatterers, Athen. 6, 259, see Pott s Zahlmeth. 255. AaTrd- 
%ea&ai is also used of dogs fawning upon a master. 

p. 30.] A suppliant is not only betoman in OHG., but beteman 
in MHG. Hartm. biichl. 1, 263. Prayer, our gebet, is a fern. 
bete : mine flehe und mine bete, die wil ich erste senden mit 
herzen und mit lienden, Trist. 123, 22 (praying with hands, 
folded?). The MHG. beten is always joined with an, as prepos. 
or prefix : an welcheii got er baete, Servat. 1347. ein kreftige 
stat, do man diu apgot anebat, Karl 10 a . Is it used only of false 
gods ? conf. Pfeiffer s Barl. p. 446. 

p. 30.] The MHG. flehen supplicare takes the Dative: deme 
lieiligin Geiste vlen, Wernh. v. Nieder-rh. 37, 17, etc. But 
with the Accus. : den toren flehen, Freid. 83, 3. alle herren 
flehen, Walther 28, 33. fleha ze himele f rum en, N. Boeth. 271 ; 



WORSHIP. 1295 



conf. gebet vrumen above. Ev^eaOai also takes a Dat. : ALL, 
Od. 20, 97. AOrivrf 2, 261. Iloo-eiSdwvi 3, 43. eVe^ecr^at Apre- 
fjuibi 20, 60 ; conf. v%f) (or ev ev-^al^, eV Xoyot?) Trpecr/Beveiv, 
(frpoijjLid^o/jiai,, -^Esch. Eum. 1. 20. 21. 

p. 31.] Can Goth, aihtron and OHG. eiscon be from aigan, and 
mean wish to have ? OHG. diccan occurs in MHGK too : digete 
gein Gote, Altd. bl. 2, 149. an in gediget, prays, Kdh. Jesu 91, 
4. under dige supplicatio, Serv. 3445. 

p. 31.] Postures in prayer. Standing: diu stei an ir gebete 
in der kapellen hie bi, Iw. 5886. an daz gebet stan, Zappert 
p. 23. Bowing : diofo ginigen, bend low, O. iii. 3, 28. sin nigeii 
er gein himel gap, made his bow, Parz. 392, 30. Hagen bows 
to the rnerwomen, Nib. 1479, 1. As the road is kindly saluted, 
so contrariwise : ich wil dem wege ierner-mere sin vient swa du 
hin gast, be foe to every way thou goest, Amur 2347. The 
Finnic kumarran, bending, worship, is done to the road (tielle), 
moon (kuulle), sun,(paiwalla), Kalew. 8, 103. 123. 145. diu bein 
biegen pray, Cod. Vind. 159 no. 35. On kneeling, bending, conf. 
Zapp. p. 39. ze gebete gevie, Ksrchr. 6051. ze Gote ersingebete 
lac, Pantal. 1582. er viel an sin gebet, Troj. kr. 27224. uiel 
in die bede, int gebede, Maori. 2, 209. 3, 247. do hup er ane zu 
veniende : wo ime daz houbit lac, do satzte her di fuze hin, Myst. 
1, 218. legde hleor on eorffan, Csedm. 140, 32. Swed. bonfalla, 
to kneel in prayer. During a sacrifice they fell to the ground 
piTTTovres 6? coSa?, Athen. p. 511. The Ests crawl bareheaded 
to the altar, Estn. verh. 2, 40. Other customs : the Indians 
danced to the Sun, Lucian, ed. Lehm. 5, 130. Roman women, 
barefoot, with dishevelled hair, prayed Jupiter for rain. The 
hands of gods are kissed, conf. Trpoa/cvvelv- In contrast with 
looking up to the gods, avw /3\e-^a?, Moschus epigr., the eyes 
are turned away from sacred objects. Odysseus, after landing, is 
to throw back into the sea, with averted look, the tcprfiefjuvov lent 
him by Ino, cnrovocrfyi TpaireaOai, Od. 5, 350. rap/3^aa^ & ere- 
p cocre /3aX ofjifjuaia, fir) Oeos eirj, 16, 179. 

p. 32.] Uncovering the head: huic capite velato, illi sacri- 
ficandum est nudo, Arnob. 3, 43. pilleis capitibus inclinarent 
detractiSj Eckehardus A.D. 890 (Pertz 2, 84). tuot uwere Jcagelen 
ale, und bitit Got, Myst. 1, 83, 25. son chapel oste, Ren. 9873 ; 
conf. } & chdppli lupfe, Hebel 213. lielme und ouch diu Jiiietelin 



1296 WOBSHIP. 

diu wurden scliiere ab genomen, Lanz. 6838. sinen Jtelm er alw 
bant (unbound), und sturzt in uf des schildes rant ; des liiietels 
wart sin houbet bloz, wan sin zulit war vil groz, Er. 8963. In 
1 Cor. 11,4. 5, a man is to pray and prophesy with covered 
head, a woman with uncovered, see Vater s note. Penance is 
done standing naked in water, G. Ab. 1, 7 ; couf. Pref. Ixx. The 
monk at early morn goes to the Danube to draw water, wash 
and pray, Vuk ii. 7, beg. of Naod Simeun. The Greeks went to 
the seashore to pray : T^Xe /xa^o? 8 airdvevOe KLWV eVt 6lva 
6a\dcrar)s, Od. 2, 260. /3r) S aicewv Trapd 6lva .... dtrdvevOe 
tcicov rjpd9 6 yepaibs *Airo\\wvi civa/cn, II. i. 34. 

p. 33.] Arsenius prays with uplifted hands from sunset to 
sunrise, Maori. 3, 197. in crucis modum coram altari se sternere, 
Pertz 8, 258; conf. ordeal of cross. Praying mit zertanen 
armen, zertrertten armen, Zellw. urk. no. 1029. 775. Hands are 
washed before praying : ^elpa^ M^a yiievo? TroXt/}? aXo?, in the 
hoary sea, Od. 2, 261. 12, 336. Helgafell, )>angat skyldi engi 
inaftr opveginn (unwashen) Ufa, Landn. 2, 12. 

p. 33.] Xa/H9, gratia, is also translated anst. Goth, anstdi 
audahafta, gratia plena ! OHG. fol Gotes cnxti, 0. i. 5, 18. 
enstio fol, Hel. 8, 8 ; conf. gebono fullu in Tat., and AS. mid 
gife gefylled. For ginada Otfried uses a word peculiar to him 
self, eragrehti, Graff 2, 412. The cuneif. inscr. have constantly : 
Auramazda miya upastam abara/ Oromasdes mihi opem ferebat ; 
vashna Auramazdaha/ gratia Oromasdis. 

p. 34.] Other ON. expressions for prayer : blota^i O^inn, ok 
br<$r hann lita d sitt mal, Hervar. saga c. 15. orerSom augorn 
Utiff ockr ]?iunig, ok gefit sitjondora sigr, Saem. 194 a . mal ok 
mannvit gefit ockr maerom tveim, ok laeknis-hendur meftan 

lifom, ibid. As the purpose of prayer a.nd sacrifice is twofold, 

so is divine grace either mere favour to the guiltless, or forgive 
ness of sin, remission of punishment. Observe in Hel. 3, 18: 
thiggean Herron is huldi, that sie Hevan-cuning ledes dleti (ut 
Deus malum averteret, rernitteret), though Luke 1, 10 has merely 
orare, and 0. i. 4, 14 only ginada beitota. He is asked to spare, 
to pity: tXij0i, Od. 3, 380. 16,184.. QeiSeo 3 fofov 16, 185. 
cri) 8e tXe&)? yevov, Lucian 5, 292. taivu ainomen Tapio/ be 
entreated, Kalev. 7, 243; conf. roSe p,oi Kprjj]vov eeXScop, II. 1, 41. 
Od. 17, 242. (Kl. schr. 2, 458.) 



WOESHIP. 1297 

The Hindu also looks to the East at early morning prayer,, 
hence he calls the South daxa, daxima, the right. In praying 
to Odin one looks east, to Ulf west, Sv. forns. 1, 69. solem 
respiciens is said of Boiocalus, Tac. ann. 13, 55. Prayer is 
directed to the sun, N. pr. bl. 1, 300, and there is no sacrificing 
after sunset, Geo. 2281. On the other hand, Norffr horfa dyr 
occurs in Sasm. 7 b . Jotunheimr lies to the North, Kask afh. 1, 
83. 94. D. Sag. 981-2. 

p. 35 u.] Mock-piety : wolt ir den heiligen die zehen (toes) 
abbeissen ? Bronner 1, 295. alle heiligen fressen wollen, Elis. 
v. Orl. 251. gotze-schlecker, Staid. 1, 467. In thieves lingo a 
Catholic is tolefresser, bilderfresser, Thiele 31 7 a . magliavutts, 
gotzenfresser, Carisch 182 b . Whence comes Ital. bachettone ? 
conf. bigot, Sp. beato. die alte tempeltrete, Spil v. d. 10 jungfr. 
in Steph. 175. du rechte renne umme id alter, you regular Run- 
round- the-altar, Mone schausp. 2, 99. frommchen, as early as 
Er. Alberus Praec. vitae ac mor. 1562, p. 90 a . 

p. 35.] On Sacrifice, conf. Creuzer symb. 1, 171. opphir=- 
vota/ Gl. Sletst. 6, 672. Gifts = sacrifices, p. 58. si briihten ir 
obfer und antlieiz, Diemer 179, 25. In Latin the most general 
phrase is rern divinatn facere = sacrificare ; we also find comma*-- 
vere, obmovere, Aufr. u. Kirchh. 2, 165. Victima, the greater 
sacrifice, is opposed to hostia, the less, Fronto p. 286. To obla- 
tiones fiir alien gebilden (before the statues and shrines), ut tenor 
est fundationis, cedens pastori (found, at Riiden, Westph. 1421, 
Seibertz Quellen d. Westf. gesch. 1, 232) answers the Germ. 
ivisunga visitatio, oblatio, Graff I, 1088, from wison, visitare. 
wisod = o\Aei, visitatio, Schmeller 4, 180. The Swiss now say 
wisen for praying at the tombs of the dead, Staid. 2, 455. 

p. 35.] On blot, blostr see Bopp s Comp. Gr. 1146. Goth. Gup 
blotan, Deum colere, 1 Tim. 2, 10. In ON., beside gods sacri 
fices, there are al/a blot, p. 448, Msa blot, p. 402 [and we may 
add the blot-rm on p. 557]. blot-hang and starblat, Fornm. 
sog. 5, 164-5. sleikja blot-bolla, Fagrsk. p. 63. A proper name 
Biotmdr, ace. Blotnia (-mew, the bird), Laudn. 3, 1 1 seems to mean 
larus sacrificator, = the remarkable epithet l>lotevogd, A.D. 1465, 
Osnabr. ver. 2, 223 ; or is it simply naked bird ? couf. spott- 
vogel, speivogel, wehvogel [gallows-bird, etc.] . ON. blatvargr 
= prone to curse, for biota is not only consecrate, but execrate. 



1298 WORSHIP. 

p. 37 n.] Mifc der blotzen haun, H. Sachs iii. 3, 58 C . eine 
breite blotze, Chr. Weise, Drei erzii. 194. der weidplotz 3 hunting- 
knife, plotter, Vilmar in Hess. Ztschr. 4, 86. die bluote, old 
knife, Woeste. 

p. 37.] Antheiz a vow, bufc also a vowed sacrifice, as when 
the Germans promised to sacrifice if they conquered, Tac. Ann. 13, 
57, or as the Romans used to vow a ver sacrum, all the births 
of that spring, the cattle being sacrificed 20 years after, and the 
youth sent abroad, Nieb. 1, 102. ir obfer unde antheiz, Diemer 
179, 25. geheton wig-weor&iinga, Beow. 350. aer];on hine dejr5 
onsceqde, priusquarn mors eum sacrificaret, Cod. Exon. 171, 32; 
conf. MHG. iuwer lip ist ungeseit, a^aro?, Neidh. 47, 17. What 
means OHG. f relit an ? [frehan ? frech, freak ?]. N. Boeth. 226 
says of Iphigenia : dia Chalchas in friskinges wis frehta (Graff 3, 
818) ; conf. ON.frett vaticiniura, divinatio (Suppl. to p. 94), and 
AS. on blote o$3e on fyrlito, Schmid 272, 368, where fear or 
fright is out of the question. 

p. 38.] AS. cweman, also with Dat., comes near fullafahjan : 
onsecgan and godum cweman/ diis satisfacere, Cod. Exon. 257, 
25. Criste cweman leofran lace 120, 25. Like AS. bring is OHG. 
antfangida, victima, Diut. 1, 240. What is offered and accepted 
lies : Theocr. epigr. 1, 2 uses KelcrOai of consecrated gifts. 

p. 39.] To AS. lac add Idcan offerre, conf. placare. lac 
onsecgan, Cod. Exon. 257, 30. lac xenium, donum, lacdaed 
munificentia, Haupt s Ztschr. 9, 496 a . 

p. 39.] On aTrap^ai conf. Pausan. 1, 31. Callimach. hy. in 
Del. 279. Another definite term for sacrifice seems to be the 
obscure Goth, daigs, massa, Rom. 11, 16 [is it not dough, teig, 
a lit. transl. of <pvpa/j,a?~] Wizot survived in MHG. too : frone 
wizotj Servat. 3337. Massmann derives hunsl from hin]?an ; 
Kuhn in Berl. Jb. 10, 192 5, 285 from liu to pour, which = 6veiv 
ace. to Bopp 401. liunsljada cr7rev&ojj,ai 2 Tim. 4, 6. unhunslags 
a<nrov&os 3, 3. iifsneij?an = 6veiv, kill, Luke xv. 23-7. 30, and 
ufsnipans immolatus, 1 Cor. 5, 7 plainly refer to cutting up the 
victim. Hunsalua in the Ecbasis may be either hunsal-aha 
(-water) or huns-alah (-temple), Lat. ged. p. 289. 290. 

O.Slav, treba = libatio, res immolata, templum ; trebishche /3oj^6?. 
qui idolothyta, quod trebo dicitur, vel obtulerit aut mandu- 
caverit/ Amann Cod. mss. Frib. fasc. 2, p. 64. O.Boh. treba, 



WOESHIP. 1299 

Russ. treba, sacrifice. O.S1. trebiti, Pol. trzebic, Serv. triebiti, 
purify; conf. the place-name Trebbin, Jungm. 4, 625 b . Pol. 
trzeba, potrzeba, oportet, it is needful. Serv. potreba, Boh. 
potreba, need ; conf. Lith. Potrimpus and Antrimp, Atrimp, 
Hanusch 216-7. D. Sag. 328. Sacrifice is in Lett, solars, 
Bergm. 142 ; in Hung, aldomds, Ipolyi 341. 

p. 40.] The right to emend aibr into tibr is disputed by 
Weigand 1997 ; conf. Diefenbach/s Goth. wtb. 1, 12. On rtypa 
see my Kl. Schr. 2, 223; Umbr. tefro n. is some unknown part 
of the victim, Aufrecht u. K. 2, 294. 373. May we connect the 
Lett, sobars, plague-offering ? Some would bring in the LG. 
zefer ( = kafer), see Campe under ziefer/ and Schmell. 4, 228; 
conf. OHG. arzibor, Graff 5, 578, and ceepurhuc, n. prop, in 
Karajan. Keisersb., bros. 80 b , speaks of ungesuber ; we also find 
unzuter vermin, conf. unaz, uneatable, i.e. vermin, Mone 8, 409. 
The Grail tolerates no ungezibere in the forest, Tit. 5198. The 
wolf is euphemistically called ungeziefer, Rockenphil. 2, 28. The 
geziefer in the pastures of Tyrol are sheep and goats, Ham merle 
p. 4. 

With OHG. wihan, to sacrifice, conf. the AS. wig-weord ung 
above, and Lith. weikiu, ago, facio, Finn, waikutan. 

p. 41.] The diversity of sacrifices is proved by Pertz 2, 243, 
diversos sacrificandi ritus incoluerunt ; and even by Tac. Germ. 
9 : deorum maxime Mercurium colunt, cui certis diebus hutnanis 
quoque hostiis litare fas habent. Herculem ac Martem concessis 
animalibus placant. pars Suevorum et Isidi sacrifica.t. 

To a sacrifice the god is invited, is asked to join : /caXeet TOV 
Oebv, Herod. 1, 132. eVt/caXeet r. 9. 4, 60. eVt/caXecravTe? r. 0. 
o-fyd^ovcri 2, 39. The gods are present at it, Athen. 3, 340-1. 
Why bones are offered to the gods, Hes. theog. 557. primitiae 
ciborum deo offerenda, Athen. 2, 213. The rising smoke and 
steam are pleasing to gods, Lucian s Prometh. 19. etc Se Ov/judrcov 
r H(f)ai(TTos OVK e\afj,7T6, Soph. Antig. 1007. Men strengthen the 
gods by sacrifice, Haupt s Zfcschr. 6, 125. They sacrifice to 
Weda (Wodan), crying: Wedki taeri ! dear Weda, consume! 
accept our offering, Schl. -Hoist, landeskunde 4, 246. The god 
gives a sign that he accepts : )>a komu ]?ar hrafnar fljugandi ok 
gullu hatt, as a sign at 03inn mundi fregit hafa blotit/ Fornm. 
sog. 1, 131. 



1300 



WORSHIP. 



p. 42.] Part of the spoils of ivar given to the God of the 
Christians, Livl. Reimchr. 267073. 3398 to 3401. 6089. 4696. 
11785. 11915. brunien, pfert und rische man are to be burnt 
in case of victory 4700. 4711. If victima is from vinco, it must 
have been orig. a sacrifice for victory, ON. sigur-giof, victim. 
The ehren-gancj in Miillenh. Schl.-Holst. s., p. 108 was once prob. 
the same. 

p. 42.] In expiatory offerings the idea is, that the wrath of 
God falls on the victim : clearly so in the scapegoat, Levit. 16, 20. 
Griesh. pred. 2, 119; conf. Grimm on the A. Heinr. p. 160. 
Also in the plague- offering at Massilia, Petron. c. 141. 

p. 42.] Forecasting tlie future by sacrifice : ante pugnam mise- 
rabiliter idolis immolavit (Decius), Jorn. c. 18. 

p. 42.] Sacrif. til drs also in Fornm. sog. 10, 212 : srSan gerSi 
uaran mikit ok hallaeri, var ]?a ]?at ra$ tekit at J?eir Uotu&ii Olaf 
konung til ars ser. With Halfdan s sacrifice conf. the e/caroyLt- 
(j>6via offered by him who had slain 100 foes, Pausan. iv. 19, 2. 

p. 44.] Human Sacrifice seems to have been an ancient practice 
in most nations, as well as the burning of live men with the dead. 
On the other hand, capital punishments were unknown or rare. 
Hercules, ad quern Poeni omnibus annis humana sacrificaveruut 
rictima, Pliny 36, 5. Men were sacrif. to Artemis, Paus. 7, 19; to 
the playing of flutes, Aufr. u. K/s Umbr. Sprachd. 2, 377. In 
lieu of it, youths were touched on the forehead with a bloody 
knife, 0. Jahn on Lycoreus 427 ; conf. the red string on the neck 
in the Amicus and Amelius/ God, as Death, as old blood-shedder 
(p. 21), asks human victims. Hence they are promised in sickness 
and danger, for the gods will only accept a life for life, Gesta 
Trevir. cap. 17, from Ca3S. B. Gall. 6, 16. For sacrificing a man 
on horseback, see Lindenbl. 68. Adam of Bremen (Pertz. 9, 
374) says of the Ests r dracones adorant cum volucribus, quibus 
etiam vivo* litant homines, quos a mercatoribus emunt, diligenter 
omnino probatos ne maculam in corpore liabeant, pro qua refutari 
dicuutur a draconibus. While a slave-caravan crosses a river, 
the Abyssinians, like the Old Franks, make the gods a thank and 
sin offering of the prettiest girl, Kloden s Beitr. 49. In spring a 
live child is sacrificed on the funeral pile, Dybeck s Euna 1844, 
5 : i ]?ann tima kom hallaeri mikit a RerSgotaland. enn sva geek 
frettin, at aldri mundi ar fyrri konm, enn peim sveini vaeri blotat, 



WORSHIP. 1301 

er aeftstr vaeri ]?ar i landi, Hervar. saga p. 452, conf. 454. On the 
two Gallehus horns is pictured a man holding a child-victim. Saxo, 
ed. Miiller 121, says of Fro at Upsala : humani generis hostias 
mactare aggressus, foeda superis libamenta persolvit ; he changed 
the veterem libationis morem. To the sacrare aciem in Tac. Ann. 
13, 57 (p. 1046 n.) answers the ON. valfda, Hervar. s. 454. Traces 
of Child-sacrifice especially in witch-stories (p. 1081), such as 
tearing out and eating the heart. Bones collected and offered 
up, conf. the tale of the good Lubbe p. 526, and the villa of 
Opferbein now Opferbaum near Wtirzburg, see Lang s reg. 3, 101 
(year 1257). 4, 291 (year 1285). 

p. 46.] An animal sacrifice was expiatory when offered to the 
invading plague,, p. 610. 1142. Only edible beasts sacrificed: 
cur non eis et canes, ursos et vulpes mactatis ? quia rebus ex his 
deos par est honorare coelestes, quibus ipsi alimur, et quas nob is 
ad victiim sui numinis benignitate dignati sunt/ Arnob. 7, 16. 
On cZo^-sacrifice see p. 53. The colour and sex of an animal were 
important (p. 54), conf. Arnob. 7, 18 20; and in a, female, 
whether she was breeding 7, 22 ; whether it had hair or bristles 
(p. 75), conf. dem junker, der sich auf dem fronhof lagert, soil 
man geben als off der hube gewassen (grown) ist mit federn, mit 
borsten/ Weisth. 3, 478. In buying it, one must not bargain, 
Athen. 3, 102. The skin was hung up and shot at, p. 650. 

p. 46.] The people by eating became partakers in the sacri 
fice, conf. 1 Cor. 10, 18 : ov^l ol eV^/ovre? ra? Ovala^ KOivavol 
TOV Ovaiaa-rrjplov elai ; p. 41. 

p. 47.] On sacrificing Horses (p. 664) and its origin, see 
Bopp s G-l. 24 a , asvatnedha ; couf. Feifalik on the Koniginh. MS. 
103. Tyndareus made Helen s wooers swear on the sacrif. horse, 
and then bury it, Paus. iii. 20, 9. Horses sacrif. by Greeks to 
Helios ib. 5, Ov. Fasti 1, 385; by Massagetas to the Sun, Herod. 
1, 216. White horses thrown into the Strymon 7, 113. llli 
(Moesi) statim ante aciem immolato equo concepere votum, ut 
caesorum extis ducum et litarent et vescerentur, Florus 116, 21. 
May the Goth, aihvatundi, ySaro?, refer to sacrifice ? and was 
the horse burnt with thorn-bushes, or was the fire kindled by 
rubbing with them ? 

The ora in the passage from Tacitus might mean men s heads, 
yet conf. p. 659. It has yet to be determined how far the bodies. 



1302 



WORSHIP. 



Jtorses and arms of the conquered were offered to gods. To dedi 
cate the wicges-erwe, spoils (Diemer 179, 27), seems Biblical. 
Shields and swords offered up to Mars, Ksrchr. 3730. The 
Serbs presented the weapons of slain enemies, Vuk Kralodw. 88. 

p. 47 n.] Horseflesh eaten by witches (p. 1049) ; by giants, 
Miillenh. 414. Foals eaten, Ettn. unw. doctor 33840. The 
Wild Hunter throws down legs of horse, Schwartz p. 11. Plica 
Polonica attributed to eating horseflesh, Cichocki p. 7. 

p. 49 n.] Asses sacrificed by the Slavs, Biisching 101-2. Cos- 
mas speaks of an ass being cut into small pieces ; see Vuk s pref. 
to Kralodw. 9. Ass-eaters, Rochholz 2, 267. 271. Those of 
Oudenaerde are called kickefreters, chicken-munchers, Belg. Mus. 
5, 440. 

p. 49.] Oxen were favourite victims among the Greeks and 
Romans : rol S eVt 6ivl 0a\da-crr]s iepd p&^ov ravpovs Tra/jL/jueXavas 
Evoo-L^Oovi Kvavo^airy, Od. 3, 5 ; namely, nine bulls before each 
of the nine seats 3, 7. Twelve bulls sacrificed to Poseidon 13, 
] 82. To Athena pei;(0 jSovv r]viv evpvfjLerwjrov dS/j,yJTrjv, r]v OVTTW VTTO 
vyov rjyayev dvr]p. rijv TOI eya) pe^co, %pvcrbv tcepao iv TrepL^eva^ 
3, 382 ; conf. 426. 437, auratis cornibus hostiae immolatae, Pliny 
33. 3, 12. Perseus offers on three altars an ox, cow and calf, Ov. 
Met. 4, 755. bovem album Marti immolare et centum fulvos, Pliny 
22, 5. niveos tanros immolare, Arnob. 2, 68. At the ( holm- 
gang the victor kills the sacrificial bull, Egils-s. 506-8. rauff 
hanninyju nauta blocfi, Ssem. 114 b . The wise bird demands f hof, 
horga marga, ok gullhyrndar kyr 141 a . In Sweden they still 
have God s cows; does that mean victims, or priestly dues ? A 
loaf in the shape of a calf is julkuse, Cavallius voc. verl. 28 b . 37 b . 
A sacrificial coif, Keller s Altd. erz. 547. The names Farrenlerg, 
Bublemons seem derived from bovine sacrifices, Moneys Anz. 6, 
236-7. A co w and calf sacrif. to the plague, p. 610 ; a black ox with 
white feet and star, Sommer 150; conf. the cow s head, Wolfs 
March, no. 222. A red cow, kravicu buinu, Konigsh. MS. 100; 
conf. rote kalbela dne mal, Griesh. 2, 118 (from Numb. 19, 2). 
diu roten rinder, Fundgr. 2, 152. Mone in Anz. 6, 237 remarks 
justly enough, that agricultural nations lean more to bovine sacri 
fices, warlike nations to equine. Traces of bull-sacrifice, D. Sag. 
128-9. 32. 

p. 50.] To majalis sacrivus answers in the Welsh Laws f sus 



WOESHIP. 1303 

coenalis quae servatur ad coenam regis/ Leo Malb. Gl. 1, 83. Varro 
thinks, ab suillo genere pecoris immolandi initium primum sum- 
turn videtur/ Re Rust. 2, 4. porci duo menses a mamma non 
dijunguntur. porci sacrev, puri ad sacrificium ut irnmolentur. 
porci lactentes, sacres, delici, nefrendes 2, 4. (Claudius) cum 
regibus foedus in foro icit, porca caesa, ac vetere fecialium prae- 
fatione adhibita, Suet. c. 25. duo victimae porcinae, Seibertz no. 
30 (1074). A frischling at five schillings shall stand tied to a 
pillar, Krotzenb. w., yr 1415 (Weisth. 3, 513). The gras-frisch- 
Ung in Urbar. Aug., yr 1316, seems to mean a sheep, MB. 34 b , 
365. frischig, frischling, a wether, Staid. 1, 399. opferen als 
einen frlskinc, Mos. 19, 8. ein friskinc (ram) da bi gie, Diemer 
19, 19. With friscing as recens natus conf. a-Qayal i>eoOrj\ou 
POTOV, ^Esch. Eum. 428. King HerSrekr has a goltr reared, with 
12 judges to look after it, Hervar. saga c. 14 (Fornald. sog. 1, 
463) ; conf. the giafgoltr, Norw. ges. 2, 127. 

p. 52.] "Apva fjbe\aivav e^evejKare, Aristoph. Ran. 847. Men 
sacrif. a ram, and sleep on its hide, Paus. iii. 34, 3. Goats sacrif. 
to Juno : alyotydyos Hprj 15, 7. Nunc et in umbrosis Fauno decet 
immolare lucis, seu poscet agno, sive malit haedo, Hor. Od. i. 4, 
12 ; conf. bidental, Suppl. to p. 1 74. A boy of nine kills a black 
goat with white legs and star, over the treasure, and sprinkles 
himself with the blood, Sommer s Sag. p. 140; a goat with golden 
horns 150-1. 179. diu osterwiche get uber dehein geiz says 
Helbl. 8, 299 ; does it mean that only lambs, not goats, are eaten 
at Easter ? A black sheep sacrif. to the devil, Firmenich 1, 206 b ; 
a sheep to the dwarf of the Baumann s cave, Godeke 2, 240. The 
Prussian goat-hallowing is described by Simon Grunau in 1526, 
Nesselm. x. Lasicz 54; conf. Tettau and Ternme 261. A he- 
goat sacrif. with strange rites in Esthonia on St. Thomas s day, 
Possart 172. 

p. 52.] Dogs sacrif. in Greece, Paus. iii. 14, 9 ; in Umbria, Auf. 
und K. 2, 379. To the nickelman a black cock is yearly thrown 
into the Bode, Haupt 5, 378. Samogits sacrif. cocks to Kirnos, 
Lasicz 47. When Ests sacrif. a cock, the blood spirts into the fire, 
the feathers, head, feet and entrails are thrown into the same, the 
rest is boiled and eaten, Estn. ver. 2, 39. cncvfjivovs Tra/a/zeXai/a? 
o-Kv\aKwv Tpio-crovs iepevaas, Orph. Argon. 962. The bodies or 
skins of victims hung on trees, p. 75 9. 650. in alta pinu votivi 



1304 WOBSHIP. 

cornua cervi, Ov, Met. 12, 266. incipiam captare feras et reddere 
pinu cornua, Prop. iii. 2. 19. 

p. 55.] That the victim should be led round was essential to 
every kind of lustration, Aufr. u. K/s Umbr. spr. 2, 263. KT]pvKS 
ava dcrrv 0ewv teprjv 6KaTO/j,/3r)V 77701;, Od. 20, 276. 

p. 55.] Small sacrificial vessels, which participants brought 
with them, are indie, in Hak. goda saga c. 16, conf. ask ne 
eski/ ibid. An altar with a large cauldron found in a grave-mound 
near Peccatel, Mecklenb., Lisch 11, 369. On the Cimbrian 
cauldron in Strabo, see Lisch 25, 218. Out of the cavern near 
Velmede a brewing-cauldron was lent when asked for, Firmenich 
1, 334 b [so Mother Ludlam s cauldron, now in Frensham Church] ; 
old copper kettles of the giants were preserved, Faye 9. 

p. 57.] Former sacrifices are indicated by the banquets at 
assizes and after riding the bounds. A victim s flesh was boiled, 
not roasted, though roasting and boiling are spoken of at the feast 
of Bacchus, Troj. kr. 16201-99. For distribution among the people 
the victim was cut up small : the ass, p. 49; the gadda into eight 
pieces, Sv. folks. 1, 90. 94; Osiris into fourteen pieces, Buns. 1, 
508. Before Tkor s image in the Gu^brands-dalr were laid every 
day four loaves of bread and sldtr (killed meat), Fornm. sog. 4, 
245-6; conf. Olafssaga, ed. Christ. 26. Gruel and fish are offered 
to Percht on her day (p. 273); meat and drink to Souls (p. 
913 n.) ; the milk of a cow set on the Brownies stone every 
Sunday, Hone s Yrbk. 1532. 

p. 57.] Smoke-offerings were known to the heathen : incense 
and bones offered to gods, Athen. 2, 73. thus et merum, Arnob. 
7, 26. Irish tusga, usga, AS. stor, thus, steran, thurificare, Haupt s 
Ztschr. 9, 51 3 b . At each altar they set eine risten flahses, ein 
wahs-kerzelin und wirouches korn/ Diut. 1, 384. Also candles 
alone seem to have been offered : candles lighted to the devil and 
to river-sprites (p. 1010. 584). Men in distress vow to the saints 
a taper the size of their body, then of their shin, lastly of their 
finger, Wall, march, p. 288; conf. Helena (in templo) sacravit 
calicem ex electro mammae suae menstira/ Pliny 33. 4, 23. The 
shipwrecked vow a candle as big as the mast, Hist, de la Bastille 
4, 315 ; so in Schimpf u. Ernst c. 403; otherwise a naviculacerea,, 
or an argentea anchor a t Pertz 6, 783-4; a wechsin haus } against 
fire, h. Ludwig 84, 19; or the building of a chapel. Silver 



WOESHIP. 1305 

ploughs and ships offered (p. 59 n. 264n.), D. Sag. 59. Pirates offer 
a tenth part of their booty, p. 231; conf. evravOa rco vaw rpujpovs 
avdiceiTai ^a\Kovv e/.A/3o\ov, Paus. i. 40, 4. Stones are carried 
or thrown on to a grave (otherw. branches, Klemm 3, 294) : on 
Bremund s grave by pilgrims, Karlm. 138. To sacrifice by stone- 
throwing, Wolf, Ztschr. 2, 61 ; to lay a stone on the herrna, 
Preller 1, 250 ; a heap^f stones lies round the herma, Babr. 48. 

0. Miiller, Arch. 66, thinks these ep^ala were raised partly to 
clear the road. Darius on his Scythian expedition has a cairn 
raised on the R. Atiscus, every soldier bringing a stone, Herod. 
4, 92. Each pilgrim contributes a stone towards building the 
church, M. Koch, reise p. 422. J. Barrington, Personal Sketches 

1, 17-8, tells of an Irish custom : By an ancient custom of every 
body throwing a stone on the spot where any celebrated murder 
had been committed, on a certain day every } 7 ear, it is wonderful 
what mounds were raised in numerous places, which no person, 
but such as were familiar with the customs of the poor creatures, 
would ever be able to account for. Strips of cloth are hung on 
the sacred tree, F. Faber 2, 410. 420; the passer-by throws a twig 
or a rag on the stone, Dybeck 1845, p. 6. 4, 31 ; or nalar 4, 35 ; 
the common folk also put pennies in the stone, 3, 29, and throw 
bread, money and eggshells into springs 1844, 22. si het ir 
opfergoldes noch wol tusent marc, si teilt ez siner seele, ir vil 
lieben man, Nib. 1221, 2 (p. 913 n.). 

p. 57.] Herdsmen offer bloody victims, husbandmen fruits of 
the earth, D. Sag. 20. 21. ears left standing for Wodan (p. 154 
seq.) ; a bundle of flax, WolPs Ndrl. sag. p. 269 ; for the little 
woodwife flax-stems or a tiny liui of stalks of flax, Schonw. 2, 
360-9. sheaves of straw made for the gods, Garg. 129 b . The 
Greeks offered stalks and ears, Callim. 4, 283 ; hie placatus erat, 
seu quis libaverat uvam, seu dederat sanctae spicea serta comae, 
Tib. i. 10, 21 ; tender oak-leaves in default of barley, Od. 12, 357. 
The Indians had grass-offerings, Kuhn rec. d. Rigv. p. 1 02, as the 
pixies received a bunch of grass or needles. Firstfruits, 6a\vcna, 
to Artemis, II. 9, 534. The flower-offering too is ancient, being 
one of the Indian five, viz. reading the Vedas, sprinkling water, 
burning butter, strewing flowers and sprays, hospitality, Holtzm. 
3, 123. The Sanskr. sesa = reliquiae, flores qui deo vel idolo oblati 
sunt, deinde alicui traduntur ; conf. the flower-offering of Saras- 



1306 WORSHIP. 

vati, Somad. I, 120-1, and Hallows an offering to the clouds, 
Of kutaja the fairest blossoms, 3 Meghaduta 4. For Greece, see 
Theocr. epigr. 1. The offering to Venus is lluomen und 
vingerlin, Ksrchr. 3746. Tn Germany they danced round the first 
violet, p. 762. The people call a stone in the forest, three miles 
from Marburg, opfer-stein/ and still lay flowers and corn upon it. 
A rock is crowned with flowers on Mayday, Prohle s Unterharz no. 
347. 263. The country folk on the Lippe, like those about the 
Meisner, go into the Hollow Stone on Easter-day, Firm. 1, 334 ; 
they think of Veleda, as the Hessians do of Holda. The same 
day the villagers of Waake, Landolfshausen and Mackenrode 
troop to the Schweckhauser hills, where an idol formerly stood, 
Harrys i. no. 4. 

p. 59 n.] Aelftov S aOavdroicri Oeoit, Od. 2, 432. olvov etc%ov, 
778 ev^ovro 0eo69, II. 3, 296. Before drinking, they poured some 
on the ground to the gods 7, 480 ; whereas the Scythians spilt 
no wine (Lucian Toxar. 45), and the German heroes drank minne 
without spilling any, D. Sag. 236-7. poculis aureis memoriae de- 
functorum commilitonum vino mero libant, Apul. Met. 4 p.m. 131. 

p. 61.] St. John s and St. Gertrude s minne : later examples 
in Godeke s Weim. Jb. 6, 28-9, and Scheller 2, 593. postea 
dominis amor S. Johannis ministretur, MB. 35% 138. potuin 
caritatis propinare, Lacomblet 487 (yr. 1183). dar truoc man 
im sand Johanns minne, Ottoc. 838 b . Johannes Hebe, /. minne 
trinken, Weisth. 1, 562-4. trag uns her sant Jolians min, Keller 
erz. 32. si trinkent alsamt sant Hans min 34. In Belgium they 
said : Sinct Jans gelei ende Sinct Gertrous minne sy met u ! 
Men pray to St. Gertrude for good lodging, Eschenb. denkm. p. 
240. In Wolkenstein 114, minne sand Jolians means the parting 
kiss. A wife says at parting : setz sant Jolians ze bur gen (surety) 
mir, daz wir froelich und schier (soon) zuo einander komen, 
Ls. 3, 313 ; conf. drinking the scheidel-kanne, Liintzel Hildsh. 
stiftsfehde 80. In ON. bad ]?a drecka velfarar minni sitt/ Egilss. 
p. 213. People give each other John s blessing at Christmas, 
Weisth. 1, 241-3, The two Johns are confounded, not only by 
Liutpr. (Pertz 3, 363), but in the Lay of Heriger : Johannes 
baptista pincerna (cupbearer), Lat. ged. des MA. p. 336. 

p. 63.] On the shapes given to pastry, see p. 501 n. The forms 
or names of oster-flade (-pancake), pfadelat (patellata), oster- 



TEMPLES. 1307 

stuopha (-scone), p. 781, furiwiz (Graff 1, 1104), are worth 
studying. Giinther 647 : ( before this sacred fire thy image now 
is brought J reminds one of Voetius s straw figure set before the 
hearth. 

The Carry ing -about of divine images was known to the ancients : 
Syriarn deam per vicos agrosque circurnferre, Lucian de dea Syria 
49. Lucius cap. 36. circumgestare deam, Apul. p.m. 1946. 
The Northmen of Guftbrands-dalr carry Thor s image out of his 
house into the Thing, set it up, and bow to it, St. Olafs s., ed. 
Christ. 23-6. The men of Delbruck carried about a false god 
Hilgerio on a long pole, Weisth. 3, 101 n. May Ulrich of Lich- 
tenstein s progress as Dame Venus be explained as a custom 
dating from the time of heathen progresses ? That also was 
at Pentecost/ from April 25 to May 26, 1227; Whitsunday 
fell on May 30. 

Here ought to be mentioned the sacred festivals,, whose names 
and dates are discussed in D. Sag. 71-2. Festa ea Germanis nox 
(it was sideribus inlustris, i.e. illunis, new-moon), et solemnibus 
epulis ludicra, Tac. Ann. 1, 50 ; conf. Germ. 24, where the 
sword-dance is called ludicrum. Beside feasting and games, it 
was a part of the festival to bathe the goddesses, p. 255. 



CHAPTER IV. 
TEMPLES. 

p. 67.] For names compounded with alah, see Forstemann. 
HalazeS Sia,t in Ratenzgowe (Hallstadt by Bamberg), MB. 28, 98 
(yr. 889) seems a misreading for Halahes-sts,i ; and Halazzes-stat 
28, 192 (yr. 923) for Halahhes-stat. For the chap, in Baluze 1, 
755 has .HaZaoj-stat, where Pertz 3, 133 has again Halaz-stat, 
but Bened. more correctly Alaga-st&t. But even Pertz 3, 302 
has Halax-stat. Dare we bring in the AS. ealgian (tueri) and 
the Lat. arcere, arx ? D. Sag. 319. Pictet in Origines 1, 227 
connects alhs with Sanskr. alka. What means alle gassen und 
alhen in the Limbg. chron. p.m. 5 ? With the Alcis in Tacitus 
conf. the Scythian Kopa/cot,, <j>i\ioi Sa/^oi/e? Orestes and Pylades, 
Lucian s Toxar. 7. D. Sag. 118. 



1308 TEMPLES. 

AS. weoh, templuin: weoh gesohte, Cod. Exon. 244, 6. Doners- 
we in Oldenburg seeins to mean D/s temple ; and ^sch-wege in 
Hesse may be a corrup. of Esch-weh, though ace. to Forstem. 2, 
111 it was already in the 10th cent. Eskine-wag, -weg ; conf. 
Wodenes-wege, p. 152 and O3ins-ve, p. 159. Even in OHG. we 
find we for wih : za themo we (al. parawe) ploazit, Gl. Ker. 27. 
In ON. Vandils-?;e, Ssem. 166 a . Fros-w, Dipl. Suecan. no. 1777; 
Gota-wi (Gote-vi) 1776. It is said of the gods: valda veom, 
Sgern. 41 b . Ska-Si says : fra minorn veom oc vongom, 67 a . Val- 
hallar til, ok vess heilags 113 a ; does vess belong to ve, or stand 
for vers ? In Seem. 23 b (F. Magn. p. 255 n.) alia ve iarSar/ 
populorum habitaculuin, is opp. to utve = utgarSa, gigantum 
habitacula. The Goth, veilis, sacer, OHG. wilt, is wanting in OS., 
AS., and ON. Cote-wih, noinen monasterii (Pertz 7, 460), is 
aftenv. Gottweih ; conf. Ketweig, Beham 335, 31. Chetewic in 
Gerbert (Diemer s Pref. xxi.). 

p. 68 n.] Ara = dsa, ansa, is a god s seat, as the Goth, badi, 
OHG. petti, AS. bed mean both ara and fanum, D. Sag. p. 115. 
beod-gereordu (n. pi.), epulae, Caedm. 91, 27. ad apicem gemeinen 
gimlet, MB. 29 a , 143 (yr. 1059). gumpette, Hess. Ztschr. 3, 70 ; 
conf. Gombetten in Hesse. Does the OHG. elansliliti (Graff 6, 
789) mean ara or area? 0. Slav, knmir, ara, idolum ; conf. Finn, 
kumarran, adoro, inclino me. On other Teut. words for altar, 
such as ON. stalll and the plur. liorgar, see D. Sag. 114-5. 

p. 69.] OHG. haruc seems preserved in Harahes-heim, Cod. 
Lauresh. 3, 187, and in Hargenstein, Panzer s Beitr. 1,1; conf. 
Hercynius. AS. Besinga-/tear/, Ketnble no. 994. ON. hatim- 
bro Som liorgi roe^Sr, Ssem. 42 a . hof mun ek kiosa, ok liorga 
marga 141 a . Thors-ar^^, -aerg, -7* an/, now Thors-halla, Hildebr. 
iii. D. Sag. 115. The hof sometimes coupled with horgr. occurs 
even in MHG. in the sense of temple, temple-yard : ze liofe geben 
(in atrium templi), Mar. 168, 42. ze hove giengen (atrium) 169, 
30. den hof rumen (temple) 172, 5 ; conf. ON. liofland, temple- 
land, Munch om Skiriugssal 106-7. D. Sag. 116-7. Likewise 
garte, tun, pi. tunir, wiese, aue (p. 225) are used for holy places, 
Gr. aXo-o?. 

p. 69.] OHG. paro, AS. bearo, are supported by Idparida = 
nemorosa, which Graff 3, 151 assoc. with kiparida ; by AS. 
bearewas, saltus, Haupt s Ztschr. 9, 454 b , and bearo sette, weobedd 



TEMPLES. 1309 

worhte/ Csedm. 1 72, 7. Lactantius s antistes nemorum, luci 
sacerdos is rendered bearwes bigenga, wudubearwes weard 3 
207, 27. 208, 7. Names of places : Parawa, Neugart. Cod. dipl. 
no. 30 (yr. 760) ; Barwitlisyssel, Miilleuh. Nordalb. stud. 1, 133; 
ON. Barey. The OHG. za therno parawe, Diut. 1, 150 is glossed 
on the margin by to deme hoen althere, to demo siden althere/ 
Goslarer bergg. 343. 

p. 69 n.] OHG. luoc, specus, cubile, delubrum, Graff 2, 129. 
in luakirum, delubris, Diut. 1, 530 a . loh, lucus, Graff 2, 128. In 
KudolPs Weltchr. occurs beteloch, lucus, pi. beteloecher. ISTotker s 
Cap. 143 distinguishes the kinds of woods as walden, forsten, 
lohen. The Yocab. optim. p. 47 a has : silva wilder wait, nemus 
schoener wait, lucus dicker wait, saltus holier wait. Mommsen, 
Unterital. dial. 141, derives lucus from luere, hallow. There are 
hursts named after divine beings : Freckenhorst, Givekanhorst 
(conf. Freckastein, Givekansten. ok )?ar stendr enn Thorsteinn, 
Landn. ii. 12). It comes of forest-worship that the gods are at 
tended by wild beasts, Wuotan by wolf and raven, Froho by a boar. 

p. 69.] Worshipping in the still and shady grove was practised 
by many nations. Thou hast scattered thy ways to the strangers 
under every green tree complains Jeremiah 3, 13. K\VTOV 
Ipov ABqvalr]?, Od. 6, 321. eV a\ael SevSpijevrt $ol/3ov 
9, 200. a\o-ea Ilepo-efyovairjs 10, 509. aXo-o? VTTO 
aiciepov KaTr,/36\ov "ATro\\u>vo<; 20, 278. Athenseus 4, 371-2, 
celebrates the cool of the sacred grove, inhorruit atrum majestate 
nemus, Claudian in Pr. et Olybr. 125 (on nemus, see p. 648). in 
tuo luco etfano, Plaut. Aulul. iv. 2, 8. lucus sacer, ubi Hesperi- 
dum horti, Pliny 5, 5. itur in antiquam silvam, stabula alta 
ferarum, Mn. 6, 179. nunc et in umbrosis Fauno decet immolare 
lucis, Hor. Od. i. 4, 11. nee magis auro fulgentia atque ebore, 
quam lucos et in iis silentia ipsa adoramus, Pliny 12, 1. pro- 
ceritas silvae et secretum loci et admiratio umbrae fidem numinis 
facit, Seneca ep. 41. As the wood is open above, a hole is left in 
the top of a temple, conf. the Greek hypaethral temples: Terminus 
quo loco colebatur, super eum foramen patebat in tecto, quod nefas 
esse putarent Terminum intra tectum consistere, Festus sub v. ; 
conf. Ov. Fasti 2, 671. Servius in ^Bn. 9, 448. The Celts un 
roofed their temples once a year (aTroo-reyd^.), Strabo 4, p. 198. 
A grove in Sarmatia was called a\iev^a 6eov, piscatura dei, Ptol. 

VOL. iv. D - 



1310 TEMPLES. 

3, 5. The Abasgi in the Caucasus venerated groves and woods 
(k^ teal tfXa?), and counted trees among their gods, Procop. 2, 
471 ; conf. the prophetic rustle of the cypresses in Armenia (p. 
1110). Even in the Latin poems of the MA. we find : Amoris nemus 
Paradisus, Carm. bur. 162. circa silvae medium locus est occultus, 
ubi viget maxime suus deo cultus 163. In Eckhart 186, 32 the 
Samaritan woman says, < our fathers worshipped under the trees 
on the mountain/ In Troj. kr. 890 : si wolden gerne husen ze 
walde uf wilden riuten. Walther v. Rh. 64 b : in einen schoenen 
griienen wait, dar diu heidensche diet mit ir abgoten geriet (ruled?). 
In stories of the Devil, he appears in the forest gloom, e.g. Ls. 3, 
256, perhaps because men still thought of the old gods as living 
there. Observe too the relation of home-sprites and wood- wives 

to trees, p. 509. A 

Worshipping on mountains is old and widely spread ; ( 

ans (p. 25), and the Wuotans-fcen/s, Donners-6m/s. Three days 

and nights the Devil is invoked on a mountain, Miillenh. no. 227. 

Mountain worship is Biblical: < on this mountain (Gerizim)/ 

John 4, 20; see Raumer s Palest, p. 113. 

p. 73.] Like the Donar s oak of Geismar is a large holy oalc, 

said to have stood near Miilhausen in Thuringia; of its wood was 

made a chest, still shown in the church of Eichenried village, 

Grasshof s Miilh. p. 10. 

p. 74.] On tliegathon, see Hpt s Ztschr. 9, 192, and Wilmans 

essay, Miinst. 1857, summum et principem omn. deorum, qui 

apud gentes thegaton nuncupatur, Wilkens biogr. of St. Gerburgis; 

conf. Wigand s arch. 2, 206. tagaton discussed in fitter s chnstl. 

phil 3 308. It is Socrates s Saipoviov, Plato s TO dya96v, the 
same in Apul. apolog. p. m. 278. Can thegatho be for theodo, as 
Tehota is for Thiuda ? Forstem. 1, 1148. 

p 75 ] The holy wood by Hagenau is named in Chmel reg. 
Ruperti 1071, D. Sag. 497. fronwald, Weisth. 1, 423. On the 
word bannwald conf. Lanz. 731: diu tier (beasts) bannen. 
Among holy groves was doubtless the Fridewald, and peril, the 
Spivs, both in Hesse, Ztschr. f. Hess, gesch. 2, 163. Friffesledh, 
Kemble no. 187. 285 ; Oswudu 1, 69 is a man s name, but must 
have been that of a place first. The divine grove Qlasir with 
golden foliage, Sn. 130, stands outside Valholl ; Saem. 140 b says 
Hiorvarft s abode was named Glasis lundr. 



TEMPLES. 1311 

p. 75.] The adoration of the oak is proved by Velthem s Sp. 
hist. 4, 57 (ed. Le Long, fol. 287) : Yan ere eylten, die men 
anebede. 

In desen tiden was ganginge mede 
tusschen Zichgen ende Diest ter stede 
rechte bi-na te-midden werde, 
daer dede menich ere bedeverde 
tot ere eyken (dat si u cont), 
die alse een cruse gewassen stont, 
met twee rayen gaende ut, 
daer menich quam overluut, 
die daer-ane hinc scerpe ende staf, 
en seide, dat hi genesen wer daer- of. 
Som liepense onder den bom, etc. 

Here is a Christian pilgrimage of sick people to a cross-shaped 
tree between Sicken and Diest in Brabant, and the hanging 
thereon of bandage and staff upon recovery, as at p. 1167. 1179 ; 
conf. the heathen oscilla (p. 78). The date can be ascertained 
from Le Long s Velthem. 

p. 77.] Deos nemora incolere persuasum habent (Samogitae) 
. . . . credebat deos intra arbores et cortices latere says Lasicz, 
Hpt s Ztschr. 1, 138. The Ostiaks have holy woods, Klemm 3, 121. 
The Finnic Tharapita should be Tharapila. Castren 215 thinks 
-pila is bild, but Renvall says tharapilla = horned owl, Esth. tor- 
ropil, Verhandl. 2, 92. Juslen 284 has polio bubo, and 373 
tarhapollo bubo. With this, and the ON. bird in Glasis lundr, 
conf. a curious statement in Pliny 10, 47 : in Hercynio Germaniae 
saltu invisitata genera alitam accepimus, quarum plumae ignium 
modo colluceant noctibus ; conf. Stephan s Stoflief. 116. 

p. 78 n.] Oscilla are usu. dolls, puppets, OHG. tocchun, Graff 
5, 365. They might even be crutches hung up on the holy tree 
by the healed (Suppl. to 75). But the prop, meaning must be 
images. On church walls also were hung offerings, votive gifts, 
rarities : si hiezen diu weppe lidlien in die Idrclien an die mure, 
Servat. 2890. 

p. 79.] A Celtic grove descr. in Lucan s Phars. 3, 399 ; a 
Norse temple in Eyrbyggja-s. c. 4. 

p. 80.] Giefers (Erh. u. Rosenkr. Ztschr. f. gesch. 8, 261 



1312 TEMPLES. 

285) supposes that the templum Tanfanae belonged at once to the 
Cherusci, Chatti and Marsi ; that Tanfana may come from tanfo, 
truncus (?), and be the name of a grove occupying the site of 
Eresburg, now Ober-Harsberg ; that one of its trunci, which had 
escaped destruction by the Kornans (solo aequare he makes burn 
ing of the grove), was the Irmensul, which stood on the Osning 
between Castrum Eresburg and the Carls -schanze on the Bruns- 
berg, some 4 or 5 leagues from Marsberg, and a few leagues 
from the Buller-born by Altenbeke, the spring that rose by 
miracle, D. Sag. 118. 

p. 80.] To the isarno-dori in the Jura corresp. Trajan s Iron 
Gate, Turk. Demir kapa, in a pass of Dacia. Another Temir kapa 
in Cilicia, Koch Anabas. 32. Muller lex. Sal. p. 36. Clausura is 
a narrow pass, like Oep/u67rv\ai, or TrvXai alone ; conf. Schott s 
Deutschen in Piemout p. 229. 

p. 85.] As castrum was used for templum, so is the Boh. 
hostel, Pol. kosciel for church. Conversely, templum seems at 
times to mean palatium ; conf. exustum est palatium in Thorn- 
burg with exustum est famosum templum in Thornburg/ Pertz 
5, 62-3, also Thornburg castellum et palatium Ottonis 5, 755. 
The OS. rakucl is both templum and palatium. Beside casulae 
= fana, we hear of a cello, antefana (ante fana?), Mone Anz. 6, 
228. 

p. 85.] Veniens (Chrocus Alamann. rex) Arvernos, delubrum 
illud quod Gallica lingua vassogalate vocant, diruit atque subvertit; 
miro enim opere factum fuit, Greg. Tur. 1, 32. The statement is 
important, as proving a difference of religion between Celts and 
Germans : Chrocus would not destroy a building sacred to his 
own religion. Or was it, so early as that, a Christian temple ? 
conf. cap. 39. 

p. 85.] Expressions for a built temple : hof atti hann i 
tuninu, ser^ess enn merki, ]?at er nu kallat trdllaskeiffj Laxd. 66. 
sal, Graff sub v. ; der sal, Diemer 326, 7. AS. reced, OS. rakud, 
seems conn, with racha, usu. = res, caussa, but zimboron thia 
racha/ O. iv. 19, 38 ; conf. wih and wiht. Later words : pluoz- 
hus, bloz-hus, Graff 4, 1053. abgot-hus fanum 1054. The Lausitz 
Mag. 7, 166 derives chirihhd, AS. cyrice, from circus. 0. SI. 
tzerky, Dobr. 178; Croat. czirJcva, Carniol. zirlcva, Serv. tzrkva, 
0. Boh. cjerhew, Pol. cerkiew (conf. Gramm. 3, 156. Pref. to 



PRIESTS. 1313 

Schultze xi. Graff 4, 481). The sanctuary, ON. gri&astaffr, is not 
to be trodden, Fornm. sog. 4, 186; beast nor man might there be 
harmed, no intercourse should men with women have (engi vrSskipti 
skyldu karlar vift konur ega ]?ar, Fornald. sog. 2, 63. 

p. 86.] Heathen places of worship, even after the conversion, 
were still royal manors or sees and other benefices endowed with 
the estate of the old temple, like Herbede on the Ruhr, which 
belonged to Kaufungen, D. Sag. 589. Mannh. Ztschr. 3, 147. 
Many manors (also glebe-lands ace. to the Weisthiimer) had to 
maintain eisernes vieh, fasel-vieh/ bulls for breeding (p. 93). 
In Christian as in heathen times, holy places were revealed by 
signs and wonders. A red-hot harrow is let down from heaven 

o 

(Sommer), like the burning plough in the Scyth. tale (Herod. 4, 
5), D. Sag. 58-9. Legends about the building of churches often 
have the incident, that, on the destined spot in the wood, lights 
were seen at night, so arranged as to show the ground plan of the 
future edifice. They appear to a subulcus in the story of Ganders- 
helm, Pertz 6, 309-10; to another, Frickio by name, in the story 
of FreckenJiorst, where St. Peter as carpenter designs the figure 
of the holy house, Dorow. i. 1, 32-3 ; conf. the story at p. 54 and 
that of Wessobrunn, MB. 7, 372. Falling snow indicates the 
spot, Mlillenh. 113 ; conf. Hille-snee, Holda s snow, p. 268 n. 304. 
Where the falcon stoops, a convent is built, Wigaiid s Corv. 
giiterb. 105. The spot is suggested by cows in a Swed. story, 
Wieselgren 408 ; by resting animals in a beautiful AS. one, 
Kemble no. 581 (yr 974). 

p. 87.] On almost all our German mountains are to be seen 
footmarks of gods and heroes, indicating places of ancient worship, 
e.g. of Brunhild on the Taunus, of Gibich and Dietrich on the 
Hartz. The Allerhatenberg in Hesse, the grandfather-hills 
elsewhere, are worth noting. 



CHAPTER V. 
PRIESTS. 



p. 88.] Religion is in Greek eva-e{3eia and OprjcrKela (conf. Oprj- 
a-Kevw, p. 107). tear eiW/3etav = pie, Lucian 5, 277. Religio = 
iterata lectio, conf. iutelligere, Lobeck s Rhematicon p. 65. It 



1314 PEIESTS. 

is rendered in OHG. glosses by lieit, Hattemer 1, 423; gote-dehti 
devotio, cote-dehtigi devout, anadaht intentio, attentio, Graff 5, 
163. Pietas, peculiarly, by f heim-minna unde mdg-minna, Hatfc. 

I, 423. Credischeit, Servat. 762, is sham-piety, conf. p. 35 n. 
Dis fretus in Plaufc. Gas. 2, 5 = Gote forahtac, 0. i. 15, 3. 

p. 88.] Gudja, goffi, seems to be preserved in the AS. proper 
name Goda, Kemble 1, 242. For ap^iepev^, Ulph. has aulmmists 
gudja, Matt. 27, 62. Mk. 8, 31 ; but auhumists veiha, Joh. 18, 13. 
The priest hallows and is hallowed (p. 93), conf. the consecration 
and baptism of witches. Gondul consecrates : nu vigi elf, frik 
undir oil ]?au atkvae Si ok skildaga, sem OSinn fyrimaelti, Fornald. 
sog. 1, 402. The words in Lactant. Phoenix, antistes nemorum, 
luci veneranda sacerdos/ are rendered by the AS. poet : bearwes 
bigenga, wudubearwes iveard 207, 27. 208, 7. The priest stands 
before God, evavri rov Oeov, Luke 1,8: giangi furi Got, 0. i. 4, 

II. The monks form daz Gotes her/ army, Reinh. F. 1023. 
The Zendic dthrava, priest, Bopp Comp. Gram. 42. Spiegel s 
Avesta 2, vi. means fire-server, from atars fire, Dat. athre. Pol. 
xiadz priest, prop, prince or sacrificer, Linde 2, 1 1 64 b ; conf. 
Sansk. xi govern, kill, xaja dominans. 

p. 89.] Etvart priest : ein ewart der abgote, Barl. 200, 22. 
Pass. 329, 56, etc. eivarde, En. 244, 14. prester und ir ewe 
wester 243, 20. 

p. 89 n.] Zacharias is a fruod gomo, Hel. 2, 24. Our Iduger 
mann, kluge f rau, still signify one acquainted with secret powers 

of nature; so the Swed. de Tdokar Fries udfl. 108. The phrase 

{ der guote man* denotes espec. a sacred calling: that of a priest, 
Marienleg. 60, 40, a bishop, Pass. 336, 78, a pilgrim, Uolr. 91. 
Nuns are guote frowen, Eracl. 735. kloster und guote liute, 
Nib. 1001, 2, etc. die goede man, the hermit in Lane. 4153-71. 
16911-8, etc. So the Scot. gudeman s croft above; but the 
name Gutmans-hausen was once Wotenes-husen (Suppl. to 154). 
Bous-hommes are heretics, the Manicheeans condemned at the 
Council of Cambery 1165; buonuomini, Macchiav. Flor. 1, 97. 
158. The shepherds in O. i. 12, 17 are guote man. Engl. good- 
man is both householder and our biedermann. Groa is addressed 
as goff kona, Seem. 97 a ; in conjuring: Alrun, du vil guote (p. 
1,202 n.) 

p. 89.] Christian also, though of Germ, origin, seems the 



PEIESTS. 1315 

OHG. heit-haft sacerdos, from heit^ordo; hence, in ordinem 
sacrum receptus, MHG. heithafte liute, sacerdotes, Fundgr. 1, 
94; conf. eithafte herren, Ksrchr. 11895. AS. gepungen, reverend, 
and espec. religiosus, Homil. p. 344. 

p. 90.] Agathias 2, 6 expressly attributes to the heathen Ala- 
manns of the 6th cent, diviners (/mvret? and ^pTjo-poXoyoi, 1 ), who 
dissuade from battle ; and princes in the Mid. Ages still take 
clergymen into the field with them as counsellors : abbates pii, 
scioli bene consiliarii, Rudl. 2, 253. Ordeals are placed under 
priestly authority, Seem. 237-8. In the popular assembly the 
priests enjoin silence and attention : silentium per sacerdotes, qui- 
bus turn et coercendi jus est, imperatur, Germ. 11. In addition 
to what is coll. in Haupt s Ztschr. 9, 127 on lust and unlust/ 
consider the tacitus precari of the Umbr. spell, and the opening 
of the Fastnachts-spiele. 

p. 91 .] The Goth, propjan, uspropjan transl. fjuveiv initiare, and 
<yvfjivd%6iv, exercere GDS. 819; may it not refer to some sacred 
function of heathen priests, and be connected with the Gallic 
druid (p. 1036 n.), or rather with pru&r (p. 423)? Was heilac 
said of priests and priestesses ? conf. heilac huat/ cydaris, Graff 
4, 874; Heilacflat, Cod. Lauresh. 1, 578; Heilacbrunno, p. 587; 
Heiligbar, p. 667-8. Priests take part in the sacrificial feast, they 
consecrate the cauldron : sentn at Saxa Sunnmanna gram, hann 
kann helga hver vellanda, Seem. 238 a ; so Peter was head-cook 
of heaven, Lat. ged. des MA. p. 336. 344. Priests maintain the 
sacred beasts, horses and boars, Herv.-s. cap, 14; conf. RA. 592. 
In beating the bounds they seem to have gone before and pointed 
out the sacred stones, as the churchwardens did afterwards ; they 
rode especially round old churches, in whose vaults an idol was 
supposed to lie. Priests know the art of quickening the dead, 
Holtzm. 3, 145. They have also the gifts of healing and divina 
tion : larpo/jLavTis, ^Esch. Suppl. 263. 

p. 91.] In many Aryan nations the priestly garment is white. 
Graecus augur pallio candido velatus, Umber et Rornanus trabea 
purpurea amictus, Grotef. inscr. Umbr. 6, 13. Roman priests 
and magistrates have white robes ; see the picture of the flamen 

1 The /HO.VTLS interprets dreams, entrails, nights of birds, but is no speaker of 
oracles, xp^^byos, Pans. i. 34, 3. [In Plato s Timaeus 72 B, JU.Q.I>TIS (fr. p.aiv ofj.cn) 
is the inspired speaker of oracles.] 



1316 PEIESTS. 

dialis in Hartung 1, 193. Schwenck 27; araictus veste alba 
sevir et praetor, Petron. 65. The Cimbrian priestesses in Strabo 
are \ev%ei paves (p. 55-6), and the Gothic priests in Jorn. cap. 10 
appear in candidis vestibus. The Gallic druids are arrayed in 
white (p. 1206), the priest of Gerovit in snow-white, Sefridi v. 
Ofctonis p. 128 (Giesebr. Wend, gesch. 1, 90). In the Mid. Ages 
too white robes belong to holy women, nuns, die goede man met 
witten clederen, Lane. 22662-70. 

The Gothic pileati (Kl. schr. 3, 227. GDS. 124) remind us of 
the tria genera pileorum, quibus sacerdotes utuntur : apex, tutu- 
lus, galerus in Suetonii fragm. p. m. 335. The picture of a 
bearded man in Stalin 1, 161-2, is perhaps meant for a priest. 
The shaven hair of Christian and Buddhist monks and nuns is 
probably a badge of servitude to God; GDS. 822. 

p. 91.] Snorri goiSi, like the AS. coin, rides on a mare, 
Eyrbygg. s. 34 ; and the flamen dialis must not mount any kind 
of horse, Klausen ^En. 1077. Hartung 1, 194. Possibly even 
the heathen priests were not allowed to eat things with blood, 
but only herbs. Trevrizent digs up roots, and hangs them on 
bushes, Parz, 485, 21 ; in a similar way do Wilhelm the saint and 
Waltharius eke out their lives, Lat. ged. d. MA. p. 112. 

p. 92.] Among gestures traceable to priestly rites, I reckon 
especially this, that in the vindicatio of a beast the man had to lift 
up his right hand or lay it on, while his left grasped the animal s 
right ear. The posture at hammer-throwing seems to be an 
other case in point, RA. 65-6. GDS. 124-5. Kemble 1, 278 

thinks coifi is the AS. ceofa, diaconus. 

p. 93.] Christian priests also are called God s man, child, 
kneht, scale, deo, diu, wine, trut/ or dear to God/ conf. Mann- 
hardt in. Wolfs Ztschr. 3, 143. Gotes man (Suppl. to p. 20-1). 
Gotes &wi = priest, Greg. 1355. Reinh. 714; or = pilgrim, as 
opp. to welt-kind (worldling), Trisfc. 2625. der edle Gotes kneht, 
said of Zacharias and John, Pass. 346, 24. 349, 23. 60; of the 
pilgrim, Trist. 2638. Gotes riter, Greg. 1362. ein warer Gotis 
scale, Ksrchr. 6071. OHG. Gota-deo, Gotes- deo, fern, -diu (conf. 
ceile De, culde, servant of God, Ir. sag. 2, 476). der Gotes Mt t 
Pass. 350, 91. Among the Greek priests were a<y%i6eoi, Lucian 
dea Syr. 31 ; conf. the conscii deorum, Tac. Germ. 10. Amphi- 
araus is beloved of Zeus and Apollo, i.e. he is pavTw. On his 



PEIESTS. 1317 

death Apollo appoints another of the same family, Od. 15, 245. 
253. 

p. 93.] If priesthood could be hereditary, the Norse go$i 
must have been free to marry, like the episcopus and diaconus of 
the early Christians (1 Tim. 3, 2. 12) and the Hindu Brahmin. 
Not so the Pruss. waidlot or waidler, Nesselrn. p. xv. and p. 141 . 
To appoint to the priesthood is in ON. signa go&om, or gefa, 
though the latter seems not always to imply the priestly office : 
]?eir voro gumnar goffom signaffir, Saam. 117 b . gefinn O^ni, 
Fornm. sog. 2, 168. enn gaf hann (Brandr) guffunum, ok var 
hann kallaiSr Guff-bran ar, Fornald. sog. 2, 6; his son is Gu3- 
mundr, and his son again GuSbrandr ( = OHG. Gota-beraht) 2, 7. 
Does this account for divination being also hereditary (p. 1107) ? 

p. 93.] The god had part of the spoils of war and hunting 
(p. 42), priest and temple were paid their dues, whence tithes 
arose : hof-tollr is the toll due to a temple, Fornm. s. 1, 268. On 
priestly dwellings see GDS. 125. 

p. 94.] German divination seems to have been in request 
even at Rome : haruspex ex Germania missus (Domitiano), Suet. 
Domit. 16. Soothsayers, whom the people consulted in particular 
cases even after the conversion, were a remnant of heathen priests 
and priestesses. The Lex Visig. vi. 2, 1 : ariolos, aruspices, 
vaiidnantes consulere/ and 5 : execrabiles divinorum pronun- 
tiationes intendere, salutis aut aegritudinis responsa poscere/ 
Liutpr. 6, 30 : ad ariolos vel ariolas pro responsis accipiendis 
arnbulare/ and 31 : ( in loco ubi arioli vel ariolae fuerint/ 

The ON. spa-maffr-is called rdff-spakr, Sasm. 175 a , or fram-viss 
like the prophet Gripir 172 a . 175 a . }>ufram urn ser I75 a > b . farit 
er )>az ek forvissac 175 a . }m oil um ser orlog for 176 b . Gripir 
lygr eiyi 177 b . Gevarus rex, divinandi doctissimus, industria 
praesagiorum excultus, Saxo Gram. p. 115. (conf. p. 1034. 
1106). The notion of oraculum (what is asked and obtained of 
the gods), vaticinium, divinatio, is expr. by ON. frett : frettir 
sogftu, Sasm. 93 a . fretta beiddi, oracula poposci 94 a . geek til 
frettar, Yngl. 21 (Grk. ^aaQai rw 0e<w, inquire of the god). 
Conf. frehtan, Suppl. to p. 37; OHG. freht meritum, frehtic 
meritus, sacer; AS. fyrht in Leg. Canuti, Thorpe p. 162. 

p. 95.] German women seem to have taken part in sacrifices 
(p. 56 n.); women perform sacrifice before the army of the Thracian 



1318 GODS. 

Spartacus (B.C. 67), who had Germans under him, Plutarch Crass, 
c. 11. The Romans excluded women, so do the Cheremisses, p. 
1235-6, the Lapps and the Boriats, Klemm 3, 87. 111-3. 

p. 95-6.] A druias Gallicana vaticinans is mentioned by Vopis- 
cus in Aurel. 44, in Numer. 13-4; by Lampridius in Alex. Sev. 
60. Drusus is met by a species barbarae mulieris humana amplior, 
Suet. Claud, c. 1. Dio Cass. 55, 1. Chatta muUer vaticinans Suet. 
Vitel. c. 14. Veleda receives gifts : Mumius Lupercus inter dona 
missus Veledae, Tac. Hist. 4, 61. A modern folktale brings her 
in as a goddess, Firmenich ], 334-5. On Albruna conf. Hpt s 
Ztschr. 9, 240. Of Jcttha it is told in the Palatinate, that she 
sought out and hewed a stone in the wood : whoever sets foot on 
the fairy stone, becomes a fixture, he cannot get away, Nadler p. 
125. 292. Like Pallas, she is a founder of cities. Brynhild, like 
Veleda, has her hall on a mountain, and sits in her tower, Vols. s. 
cap. 25. Hother visits prophetesses in the waste wood, and then 
enlightens the folk in edlto montis vertice, Saxo Gram. p. 122. 
The ivhite lady of princely houses appears on a tower of the castle. 
The witte Dorte lives in the tower, Mullenh. p. 3i4. When mis 
fortune threatens the Pedaseans, their priestess gets a long beard, 
Herod. 1, 175. 8, 104. Women carve and read runes : Kostbera 
kunni skil runa, Ssem. 252 a , reist runa 252 b . Orn^ reist runar a 
kefli, Fornm. s. 3, 109. 110 (she was born dumb, p. 388). In 
the Mid. Ages also women are particularly clever at writing and 
reading. RA. 583. 

p. 98.] To the Norse prophetesses add Groat, volva, Sn. 110, 
and Gondul, a valkyr, Fornald. s. 1, 398. 402, named appar. from 
gandr, p. 1054. 420. Thorger&r and Irpci are called both horga- 
bruffr, temple-maid, and Holga-brufir after their father Holgi, 
p. 114. 637. A Slav pythonissa carries her sieve in front of the 
army, p. 1111-2; others in Saxo Gram. 827; conf. 0. Pruss. 
waidlinne, Nesselm. pref. 15. 



CHAPTER VI. 
GODS. 

p. 104 n.] The Goth, manleika, OHG. mannaliJiho (conf. a 
fr. avrjp man), lasts in MHG. wehsine manlicli, Fundgr. 2, 123. 



GODS. 1319 

guldin manHchf Servat. 2581. f apud manUcha/ where the image 
stands, Notizenbl. 6, 168. 

p. 105.] Though Tacitus mentions no image in human shape, 
but only signa and formae (effigiesque et signa quaedam detracta 
lucis in proelium ferunt, Germ. 7, conf. vargr hangir fyr vestan dyr, 
ok drupir orn yfir, Ssem. 41 b ) ; yet the expression numenipsum, 
si credere veils/ used of the divine Mother in her bath, cap. 40, 
does seem to point to a statue. 

p. 106.] In the oldest time fetishes stones and logs are 
regarded as gods images, Gerh. Metron. p. 26. Gr. TO Pperasin 
the Tragic poets is a god s image of wood (conf. elicatv), though 
Benfey 1, 511 says of clay; ^oavov, prop, graven image fr. eo> 
I scrape, often means a small image worn on the person, e.g. the 
Cleo in Paus. iii. 14, 4; djak/jia, orig. ornament, then statue; 
faSiov, liter, little-animal 15, 8. Statues were made of particular 
kinds of wood : ^oavov ayvov, of the vitex agnus-castus 14, 7 
(conf. ramos de nobilissimo agno casto, Evag. Fel. Fabri 1, 156-7), 
as rosaries of mistletoe were preferred, cum paupere culta stabat 
in exigua ligneus aede deus, Tib. i. 10, 20. Irish dealbh, deilbh, 
deilbhin, deilbltog, imago, statua, figura. Beside the Boh. modla, 
idolum (fr. model ? or fr. modliti, to pray ?), we find balwan, block, 
log, idol, Pol. balwan, Miklos. bal vqn , Wall. balavanu } big stone 
(p. 105 n.), which Garnett, Proceed. 1,148, connects with Armoric 
peulvan, a long stone erected, a rough un wrought column/ 
OHG. avara (p. 115-6) stands for imago, \statua, pyramis (irman- 
sul), pyra, ignis, Graff 1, 181 ; conf. Griaches- avara (p. 297) ; OS. 
avaro films, proles, AS. eafora. The idea of idolum is never 
clearly defined in the Mid. Ages : the anti-pope Burdinus (A.D. 
1118-9) is called so, Pertz 8, 254-5. Even Beda s idolis servire 
2, 9 is doubtful, when set by the side of daemonicis cultibus 
servire 2, 5. 

p. 107.] On Athanaric s worship of idols, conf. Waitz s Ulfila 
p. 43. 62. Claudian de B. Getico 528 makes even Alaric (A.D. 402) 
exclaim : Non ita di Getici faxint manesque parentum \ Compare 
the gods waggon with sacer currus in Tac. Germ. 10 and Suppl. 
to 328-9 below. Chariots of metal have been found in tombs, 
Lisch Meckl. jb. 9, 373-4. 11, 373. 

p. 108.] That the Franks in Clovis s time had images of gods, 
is proved further by Remigius s epitaph on him: Contempsit ere- 



1320 GODS. 

dere mille Numiua, quae variis horrent portenta figuris. On the 
other hand, Gregory of Tours s account (1, 34) of the Alamann 
king- Chrocus in the 3rd century compelling St. Privatus in Gaul 
to sacrifice to idols, is vaguely worded: Daemoniis immolare com- 
pellitur, quod spurcum ille tarn exsecrans quara refutans; on 
Chrocus conf. Stalin 1, 118. 

p. 108 n.] Old idols in churches were placed behind the 
organ (Melissantes orogr. p. 437 9) in Duval s Eichsfeld 341. 
An idols chamber was in the old choir/ Leipz. avant. 1, 89 91 ; 
the angels out of the firewood room/ Weirihold s Schles. wtb. 
17 b ; fires lighted with idols, coiif. Suppl. to p. 13 15. Giants 
ribs or hammers hung outside the church-gate, p. 555 n.; urns 
and inverted pots built into church-walls, Thiir. mitth. i. 2, 
1125. Steph. Stoflief. p. 189, 190. A heathen stone with the 
hoof-mark is let into Gudensberg churchyard wall, p. 938. 

p. 113.] The warming (baka), anointing and drying of gods 
images is told in FrrS)?iofs-s. cap. 9 (p. 63). But the divine 
snake of the Lombards was of gold, and was made into a plate 
and chalice (p. 684). The statua ad humanos tactus vocalis, Saxo 
p. 42, reminds of Memnon s statue. Some trace of a Donar s 
image may be seen in the brazen dorper, p. 535. On the arm- 
rings in gods images conf. the note in Miiller s Saxo p. 42. Even 
H. Sachs 1, 224 b says of a yellow ringlet : f du nahmst es Gott 
von fiissen rab/ off God s feet; and ii. 4, 6 d : ihr thet es Got von 
fiissen nemmen. Fomvheaded figures, adorned with half-moons, 
in Jaumann s Sumlocenne p. 192 4. On nimbi, rays about the 
head, conf. p. 323 and Festus : capita deorum appellabantur fas 
ciculi facti ex verbenis. Animals were carved on such figures, as 
on helmets ; and when Alb. of Halberstadt 456 a transl. Ovid s 
Ilia mihi niveo factum de marmore signum Ostendit juvenile, 
gerens in vertice picum/ Met. 14, 318, by truoc einen speht uf 
siner aliseln, he probably had floating in his mind Wodan with 
the raven on his shoulder. Even in Fragm. 40 a we still find : 
swuor bi alien gotes-bilden. 

p. 114 n.] Gods images are instinct with divine life, and can 
move. Many examples of figures turning round in Botticher s 
Hell. Temp. p. 126. One such in Atheuaeus 4, 439; one that 
turns its face, Dio Cass. 79, 10: sacra retorserunt oculos, Ov. 
Met. 10, 696 ; one that walks, Dio Cass. 48, 43. ISptiei ra 



GODS. 1321 

KOI Kiveerai, Lucian ed. Bip. 9, 92. 120. 378; deorum sudasse 
simulacra, Cic. de divin. 2, 27. simulacrum Apollinis Curnani 
quatriduo flevit, Augustin. Civ. Dei 3, 11; Laimvii simulacrum 
Junonis sospitae lacrimasse, Livy 40, 19; lapidum fletus = statua- 
rum lacrimae, Claudian in Eutrop. 2, 43. simulacrum Jovis 
cachinnum repente edidit, Suet. Calig. 57. Flames burst out 
from head and breast, Herod. 6, 82. An Artemis drops her shield, 
Paus. iv. 13, 1. Not only are they spoken to (interdiu cum Capi- 
tolino Jove secreto fabulabatur, modo insusurrans ac praebens 
invicem aurem, modo clarius, nee sine jurgiis, Suet. Calig. 22), 
but they answer. Being asked, f visne ire Eomam, Juno ? she 
nods and says yea, Livy 5, 22. 

The same in Teutonic heathenism. Thor s image walks and 
talks, Fornm. s. 1, 302. As ThorgerS s image bends its hand 
to keep the gold ring on, Mary s does the same, see above, and 
Ksrchr. 13142-265-323. Vine. Bellov. 25, 29 foil, by Heinr. de 
Hervord ad an. 1049. A Virgin sets the Child down, and kneels 
to it, Marienleg. 228; the Child is taken from her, Pass. 144, conf. 
Ges. Ab. 3, 584. A Mary receives a shot, and saves the man it 
was aimed at, Maerl. 2, 202. A Crucifix embraces a worshipper, 
Keisersb. seel. par. 75 d ; bows to one who has forgiven his mortal 
foe, Sch. u. Ernst 1522 cap. 628; f dat cruce losede den voet, undo 
stotte ene/ kicked him, Detm. 1, 7. An image bites the perjurer s 
hand off, Sch. u. Ernst c. 249 ; speaks, Alexius 444. 490. Maerl. 
2, 201 ; and turns round, KM. 1 (ed. 2) xlix. The stone visitant 
in Don Juan nods and walks. Gods images fall from heaven 
ace. to the Scythian legend ; so does the figure of Athena, Paus. 
i. 26, 7. Or they are stolen from abroad, dii evocati, e.g. a 
Juno (Gerh. Etrusker p. 31), and Artemis from Tauris, Schol. to 
Theocr. ; conf. Meiners 1, 420-3. So, in the Mid. Ages, relics 
were stolen. Again, idols are washed, bathed, Schol. to Theocr. ; 
conf. the Alraun, p. 1203. They were even solemnly burnt; thus 
in the Boeotian dsedals, every 60 years, 14 oaken images of Hera 
were consigned to the flames, E. Jacobi s Hdvvtb. d. Gr. u. Rom. 
mythol. 394. 

p. 115.] The numbers three and four in conn, with gods 
images occur even later still. At Aign on the Inn near Rottal- 
miinster, next the Malching post-house, a St. Leonard s pilgrim 
age is made to five brazen idols, the biggest of which is called the 



1322 GODS. 

Worthy. The peasants say none but the worthy man can lift it. 
If a youth after his first confession fails to lift the figure, he goes 
to confession again,, and comes back strengthened. The festival 
is called The three golden Saturday nights in September. A girl 
proves her virginity (also by lifting?). The Austrians have a 
Leonard s chapel too, yet they pilgrim to Aign, and say he is 
the one, the Bavarians have the right one/ conf. Panzer s Beitr. 
2, 32 4. A nursery-tale (Ernst Meier no. 6, p. 38) describes a 
wooden sculpture in the shape of a horse with four heads, three 
of which belong to Donner, Blitz and Wetter, evidently Donar, 
Zio and Wuotan. 

p. 118.] Similar to the irmen-pillar with Mercury s image in 
the Ksrchr., is a statue at Trier which represented Mercury flying, 
Pertz 10, 132. The Lorsch Annals make Charles find gold and 
silver in the Irmenseule. There are also stories of mice and rats 
living inside statues, Lucian somn. 24; in Slavic idols, says 
Saxo ; the Thor that is thrown down swarms with large mice, 
adders and worms, Maurer bek. 1, 536. What Rudolf of Fulda 
says of the Irminsul is repeated by Adam of Bremen (Pertz 9, 
286). irmesuwel der cristenheit/ Germania 1, 451, conf. 444. 
The Roman de Challemaine (Cod. 7188, p. 69) describes the war 
of the Franks with the Saxons : 

En leur chemin trouverent un moustier 

que li Saisne orent fet pieca edifier. 

une idole y avait, que les Saisnes proier 

venoient come dieu touz et gloirefier. 

quar leur creance estoit selonc leur fol cuidier 

quele les puist bieii sauver jousticier. 

Nepiusnus ot a non en lonneur de la mer. 

One is reminded of the lofty Irminsul by the story of an idol Lug 
or Heillng, 60 cubits high, in the Wetterau, Ph. Dieffenbach 291 
(heiliger loh ?). 

p. 121.] On Caesar s/ Sol et Vulcanus et Luna, see G.DS. 766. 
The Indiculus comes immediately after the Abrenuntiatio, in 
which Thuner, Woden and Saxnothave been named ; its Mercury 
and Jupiter therefore stand for German gods, as indeed several 
German words are used in it : nod-fyr, nimidas, frias, dadsisas. 
The Abrenuntiatio requires you to give up the trilogy Thuner, 






GODS. 1323 

Woden, Saxnot, and all the unholies that are their fellows ; so 
there were three heathen gods, and more. On the trilogy conf. 
Pref. li. liv., and in Verelius, sub v. blotskap, the passage out 
of the Trojamanna-s. p. 34, where Brutus invokes Thor, OSin and 
Gefjon. 

p. 122.] Saxo s way of looking at the Norse gods is noticed 
p. 384-5. The thunder-god, who is Thoro at p. 41, and Thor at 
p. 103, he once names Jupiter. Besides, he has Pluto and Dis = 
Othinus as ValfoSr 36. 140-7 ; and Proserpina = Hel, 43. 

p. 123.] Lepsius, Einl. p. 131, says the Egyptian week had not 
7, but 10 days. Nine days time is a common reckoning among 
savages, Klemm 2, 149. To nundinae corresponds evvij/^ap, yet 
Nieb. 1, 308, and 0. Miiller Etr. 2, 324 think the Romans had a 
week of 8 days. The seven-day week is Semitic, was unknown 
to Greeks or Romans, and rests on a belief in the sacredness of 
the number 7 ; conf. Nesselm. on the origin of the week (Konigsb. 
deutsche gesellsch., May 22, 1845). Titurel 2753 : 

Die sieben stern sieben tugende haltent, 

Die muozen alle mensche haben, die da zit der tage waltent. 

The Provencal names of days in Raynouard sub v. dia. 0. Fr. 
de-mierkes for mercre-di, de-venres for vendre-di ; conf. Roquef. 
suppl. v. kalandre. 

p. 125.] MHG. 1. Sunnmtac, MS. 2, 190 b . Amur 1578. 

1609-21. Griesh. 114. 141. suntac, Pass. 299, 68. 81. II. 

maniac, Frauend. 32, 11. maentags 82, 1. III. a/termaentag, 

Hatzl. lxviii a . aftermontag, Uhl. volksl. p. 728. zistag and 
zinstag, Wackern. Bas. hss. 54-7; also Schweiz. geschichtsfr. 
1.82-3. 161. 4,149. cinstaq, Weisth. 1, 759. zinstag, Dietr. 
drach. 320 b . Justinger 59, Keisersp. zistig, Tobler 458. eritag, 
Fundgr. 1, 75. MB. 27, 89 a (1317). 132 a (1345). Lang reg. 
4, 711 a (1300). Gratzer urk. of 1319, etc.; but ibid, erchtag, 
1310. Schwabe tintenf. 19. 56. erctag in Hartlieb, Superst. H., 
cap. 31-2. ericlitag, Beheim, 76, 16. H. Sachs 1, 206 d . Hutten 

3, 358. eretag in Guben, 48, 32. IV. mtiwoche, Bas. hss. 57. 

mittoche, Diemer, 357, 5. von dem miteclien, Tund. 44, 27. des 
mittichen, MB. 27, 90 (1317). 27, 98 (1321). der midechen, 
Gratzer urk. of 1320, mitich, mitichen, 1338. midechon, Griesh. 
2, 48. an dem nehsten guctemtag (!), Schreiber 1, 486 (see p. 
124n). V. Records of the 14th cent, waver betw. donresdag 



1324 GODS. 

and donredag. Dunrstac, Pass. 57, 87, etc. diinderstag, dunders- 
tag alw. in Conr. of Weinsbg. dorstage, Schweiz. geschichtsfr. 
3, 260 (1396). Dunredagh, Maltzan 2, 6. Hpt Ztschr. 5, 406. 

donredagh, Maltzan 2, 45. VI. phincztag, Beheim 78, 8. MB. 

27, 131 a (1343). vritach, Griesh. 2, 48. frehtag, Griitzer urk. 
of 1310. des vriegtages, S. Uolrich, 1488. 

p. 125.] OS. These have to be guessed from the follow 
ing later forms : I. sundach, Ssp. sondag, Pom. 1486. Klernpin 

488. II. mandag, ibid. 111. dinsdag, Coin. urk. of 1261. 

Hofer no. 5. dinstag, 1316, ib. p. 112; dynsdais, p. 277. dince- 
daghj Pom. urk. of 1306, p. 354. dinscdag, Magdeb. urk. of 
1320, p. 142. dinstagh, Quedl. of 1325, p. 17i). dingstdag, 
Ravnsbg. urk. of 1332, p. 258. dynxtag, Siebertz no. 652. 6&8 
(1315-43). dinxtdug, Ditm. landr. of 1447 ed. Michels. p. 32. 
dynsthedach, Detmar 2, 287. dinschedach, Weisth. 3, 88. 90. 
dyngstedag, urk. of Maltzan 2, 270. dincsedagh 2, 34. dinghe- 
stedaghes, dingsted., JynsteJ., dyngesd. 2, 179. 210. 207. 142. 
dinxstedages, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 405-406. dingstedag, Hammer- 
broker recht. Did any Low German district in the Mid. Ages 
retain Tisdag ? Scarcely : all seem to have forms beginning 
with din, agreeing with Nethl. dinsdag, and corrup. from the 
older disendach ; hence our present dienstag. Dinstag appears 
as early as 1316 at Schleusingen, 1320-2 at Erfurt (Hofer p. 120. 

146. 153). dingesdag, Klernpin 488. IV. gudinsdag, gudens- 

dag, Hofer no. 6. 7. (1261-2). des mitwekens, Maltzan 2, 88. 
in deme mitwekene 2, 113. des mydweken, Hpt Ztschr. 5, 406. 
des middewekenes, Hofer 166 (in 1323 at Halberstadt). mitd- 
wekenes 370 (in 1331). medewekes 360 (in 1324). middeweke, 

Klempin. N.dunresdacli, Ssp. donredag t Klempin. dunredagh, 

urk. of Maltzan, 2, 6. Hpt 5, 406. donredagh, Maltzan 2, 45. 

VI. vridach, Ssp. frigdag, Klempin. VII. sunavent, Ssp. 

2, 66 (one MS. satersdach). sonnavend, Klempin. saterdag is 
Nethl. and Westph., not Saxon, saterstag, Seibertz 724 a (1352). 
satirsdach, Marienlieder. Hpt 10, 80-1. saterstag, Spinnr. evang., 
Coin 1588, title. In Freidauk 169, 15, one MS. changes suones 
tac into satersdach. soterdag, Firmenich 1, 301 b ; sorreschteg 1, 
495 at Eupen. 

M. NETHL. 1. sondach, Decker s Lekensp. 1, 38. II. 

tnaendach, Decker ib. III. dinxdach, Decker, disdag desdag, 



GODS. 1325 

Coremans p. 49. disendaighes, Hedu p. 443. De klerk 1, 804. 

disendach, Ulil. 1, 415. IV. woonsdacli, Decker. V. donre- 

dach, Decker, donderdacli, Lane. 13970. VI. vridach, Decker. 

den vrindach, Lane. 25310. sfrindaghes, Maerl. 3, 284. sfrindaechs, 

De klerk 1, 708 in 1303. VII. saterdach, Decker. In the 

Leven van Jezas p. 27-8. 74-5. 234 the Jewish notion of Sab 
bath is lamely rendered by saterdach. 

p. 126.] FRIS. III. tilisdi, tisdey, Hpt Ztschr. 1, 107. 

VII. A fuller form sn-avend occurs in the Gen. snavendes, 
Anlialt urk. of 1332, Hofer 163. 

North-Fris. forms in Outzen, p. 38. IV. Weadansdai, 

Landeskunde 4, 248. Winjsday in Silt, Miillenh. 167. V. 

Tiirsdei and Tusdei. VII. in = evening, eve, as in ( gude e en 

to ye, Shaksp. good-en. 

AS. IV. Mercoris die, hoc est Wodnesdag, Kemble 5, 94 

(in 844) . 

OE. III. tweisdaie. IV. wensdaie, Garner, Procdgs. p. 232. 

ON. in GulaJ?. p. 9. III. Tysdagr. IV. Odensdagr. V. 

forsddgr. VI. Freadagr. VII. fivat&agr. 

SWED. 1. sunnundaghr, ostg. (conf. p. 126 n.). VII. 

loghurdagh, ostg. 

NORW. IV. mekedag. VI. Freadag, Dipl. Norv. vol. 3/no. 

787 (in 1445). 

JUT. IV. Voensdag, voinsdau, Molb. dial. 653. VI. Freia. 

VII. Luora, Foersom, p. 12. 

ANGL. IV. Vonsdaw. 

p. 127 n.] On the Roman altar in Swabia, see Stalin, 1, 111. 

On the circle of planetary gods, Lersch in Jb. d. Kheinlande iv. 

183. v. 298 314. The 8 figures on the altar may signify the 

gods ofnundinae. The Germ, week has Odin in the middle, his 

k sons Tyr and Thor next him : Mars, Mercury, Jupiter. 

p. 129.] Snorri too, in his Formali, has interpretations and 
comparisons with the Bible and classical mythology. Freyr he 
identifies with Saturn (p. 217). 

p. 130.] The Ests, Finns and Lapps name the days thus : 

EST. 1. piihhapddw, holy day. II. esmaspddw, first day. 

III. teisipadw, second day. IV. kesknaddel, 1 mid-week. V. 

1 The Slavic nedelia, orig. Sunday, now means week. 
VOL. IV. E 



1326 WODAN. 

nelyapddw, fourth day. VI. rede (redi), fast- day ? VII. lau- 
pddw; poolpddw, half- day. 

FINN. 1. sunnuntai. II. maanan. III. tiixtai. IV. keski- 

uriycko. V. tuorstal. VI. penjandui ; is this Perun s day dis 
placed (conf. Perendan below)? or, as the Finns have no F, a 
corrup. of Fredag ? [Prob. the latter, conf. Peryedag; and the 
Finns are fond of addiug an N.]. VII. lauwandai. 

SWED. LAPP. 1. ailek. II. manodag. Ill.tisdag. IV.Jeaska 

wakko. V. tuoretsdag. VI. peryedag. VII. lawodag. 

NORW. LAPP. 1. sodno beive. II. vuosarg. III. mangebarg. 

IV. gaskvokko. VI. fastobeive fast-day, and peryedag. 



CHAPTER VII. 
WODAN. 

p. 131.] The name of the highest god, whom the other gods 
serve as children tlieir father (Sn. 23), often occurs in OHG., like 
Herrgott much later, as a man s name: Wotan, Schannat 312, 
Woatan 318, Wuotan 342. 386-9. Langobardic glosses have 
Odan and Godan, Hpt Ztschr. J, 557; conf. Goddn 5, 1. 2. In 
the Abren. we find Woden ; perh. Wedan too is OS. (Suppl. to 
154); on Wodan conf. Lisch Meckl. Jb. 20, 143. AS., beside 
Woden, has Othan (Sup. to 5) ; O&on, Sal. and Sat. 83 ; Eowffen 
(p. 161 n.). Nth Fris. Wede, Wedke, Miillenh. 167. Wedki taeri ! 
Landesk. 4, 246. For Norse OSinn, once Oddiner, conf. Munch 
on Odd s 01. Tr. 94. Audon, Yngl. c. 7, Does Audun in Norw. 
docs, stand for 0$in ? Oden in Ostogtl. = hin onde, Almqvist 
371 a . In the Stockh. Adress-calender for 1842, p. 142, are 
actually two men named Odin. Rask, Afh. 1, 377-8, takes the 
Lett. Vidvut for the Vodan of the Vides (Lettons), while Vogt 1, 
141 makes Widewud, Waidewud a Prussian king. With Vut in 
the Orisons, conf. Vuodan in the Valais, of whom M. C. Vullie- 
min relates in his La reine Berte et son temps, Laus. 1843, p. 3 : 
Un jour on avait vu Wuodan descendre le Rhone, telle etait du 
moms la croyance populaire, I epee nue dans une main, un globe 
d or dans Pautre, et criant rigou haiouassou (fleuve souleve toi) ! 
et le fleuve s elevant avait detruit une partie de la ville. On my 
inquiring (through Troyon) if the name in the story was really 



WODAN. 1327 

Wuodan, the answer was distinctly Yes, and the town destroyed 
was Martigny. Carisch 182 b has vutt idol, which some derive 
from vultus, voult, face, or portrait, others from votum ; conf. 
magliavutts (Sup. to 35 o.). 

p. 132.] Wuotan from watan, like Oeos from Oeew, Sansk. 
vddanats, Schleicher in Kuhn s Ztschr. 4, 399. He stands closely 
conn, with weather, OHG. wetar, aer, aether, and wind (Sup. to 
115) ; he is storm, byr, furia, wild hunter, uma, Ymir, Jumala, 
spirit ; he is also called Ofnir, VaftrSr, Vaf]?ru<$nir. But why in 
Saem. 3 b does OSinn give ond, and Hoenir 6$, when surely OSinn 
should give o% ? The Bav. wueteln is known to H. Sachs : das 
es aufwudlet grim in griin (of herbs) v. 377 d . wudelt das kraut 
auf, v. 378 C ; conf. Wuotilgoz, Woddgedt, p. 367 n., and Woden s 
relation to Geat, p. 164-5. We can put him on a par with Zeus, 
Indra, Loptr : a^p, ov civ ns ovo^dcreie teal Aia, Meineke s Fragm. 
com. 4, 31. ^Eschylus in Eum. 650 says of Zeus: ra 8 a\\a 
nravr ava) re KOI /cdrco arpe^wv TiOtjcriv, ovbev dorOfjLaivwv /xevet. 
Zeus merely touches, breathes upon lo, and she conceives Epapho* 
(the touched), ^Esch. Prom. 849 851. ef eVa^? feat; e 
Aios, ^Esch. Suppl. 18. 45. e^d-jrrwp 312. Oelais 
Traverai 576. Ducange sub v. Alt anus has a peculiar gl. Aelfrici : 
Altanus Voden, quae vox saxonice Wodanum seu Mercurium 
sonat (conf. p. 162 n.). In Wright 17 b Altanus froden, otherw 
|?oden is turbo; altanus auster is a wind. On Woldan see Hpt 
Ztschr. 5, 494. 

p. 132.] With Otfried s gotewuoto conf. a Schlettst. gl. of 
the 9th century : sub tyranno, under themo godowodenS Der 
wueterich, Servat. 28c3. ein tobender w., Barl. 254, 21 ; conf. 
gwyth, p. 150 n. In the Eifel the wild host is called Wodes-heer, 
and a savage monster of a man Wuodes-woor, Schmitz 1, 233 
Jn the Wetterau band of robbers was one Werner Wuttwuttwtitt, 
Schwenker 574. Pfister 1, 157. 162. 

p. 133.] It is not Svidrj gen. Svinns, but Suiffwr ok SviSrir, 

gen. Svi&urs, in Saem. 46 b . Sn. 3. 24. 195. Beside valfaffir, 

h&rfadir (p. 817), O^inn bears the names Herjann, Herteltr, 
Gunnnrr, Lex. myth.641 a ; conf. Herjans dis, Ssem. 213 b . fleyg&i 
0. ok i folk umskaut 5 a . valr Id par a sandi vitinn enuni 
eineygja Friggjar fa Smbyggvi (ibi caesi in arena jacuere, dedicati 
unoculo qui Friggae amplexibus delectatur), Sn. 1848,236. 



1328 WODAN. 

Non humile obscurumve genus, non funera plebis 
Pluto rapifc vilesque animas, sed fata potentum 
Implicat, et claris complet Phlegethonta figuris, 

Saxo Gram. 36. The boar s head in the Alamann order of 

battle is expressly acknowledged by Agathias 2, 8 (Stalin 1, 160). 
p. 134.] With Paul the Deacon s account conf. the older 
setting in the Prol. leg. Rotharis in Hpt Ztschr. 5, 1. There 
Wodan and Frea remind you altogether of Off inn and Frigg m 
the Grimnismal. O. is called Sigr-hofundr, Egilss. 640, and his 
dwelling Sigtunir, Yngl. 5. Sn. 15. 

p. 136.] On name-giving, ON. nafn-festi, see GDS. 153-4. 
With HWscialf conf. Valaskialf, p. 81 7 n. Does OHG. Bughen- 
scelp belong here? Cod. Lauresh. no. 2597. The Gl. Sletst. 
15, 7 have scelb fornice, also those in Hpt Zbschr. 5, 196. scelp 
fornix, Graff 6, 479. biscilbit in clida, Diut. 1, 342 ; and clida 
belongs to hlrS, OHG. hlit, operculum. The Lex. myth. 434 
explains Hliftskialf as porta coeli tremens. 

p. 136-7 u.] God s chair means also the rainbow (p. 733) ; 
God s little chair, among the Lausitz Wends, the corpse-bird 
(p. 1134). The German march en of the Tailor who climbs the 
Lord s chair, of iron-booted Ferdinand, of faithful John and 
strong Francis, who arrive at a heaven with many doors (conf. 
Wolfs Dent. mar. u. sagen no. 5, KM. no. 3, 35, Miillenh. mar. 
no. xii.), resemble the Greek notion of Zeus s throne and the 
several doors through which he attends to the prayers, vows 
and offerings of men, Lucian s Icaromenippus, c. 25-6. 

p. 138.] Wunsch, wisli, seems akin to Sansk. vdngksh, vanch 
opto, desidero, Bopp Gl. 315*. Pott 1, 235, which Bopp thinks 
identical with Welsh gwanc, desire. Wish in O.Fr. is souhait 
(p. 951n.) and avel, pi. aviaux, Ren. 25131, 26828. plus bel lui 
nestuest souliaidier, Ogier 1, 140. Wunsch is god of bliss and 
love, who wishes, wills and brings good to men. We still speak 
of God as the giver of all good, all gifts, Kl. Schr. 2, 327-9. 
Wunsclien is to romance, exaggerate, imagine : sam ez gewunschet 
waere, Rab. 240. ob ieman wiinschen solde, Nib. 281, 3. 780, 1. 
und der nu w. solde, Ecke 202 (Hagen). Also to wish into 
being, create, Wigal. 327. 887. 5772. so viel nur immer Gott 
Vater w. kann, Zingerle 2, 64. mit wunsch, by divine power, 



WODAN. 1329 

Tifc. 347 ; and conversely verwilnsclien to annihilate, wunschen 
lernen, to learn conjuring, Miillenh. 395. 402. [Of wunsch as 
the Ideal, a page and a half of examples is here omitted.] 

p. 141.] Wish personified appears most freq. in Hartmann, 
which is the more remarkable, as he got no prompting from his 
French original. The last line on p. 138 : 

der Wunsch het in gemeistert so, Greg. 1097. Er. 2740. 
only reminds us partially of a French poet, Thib. de N. 95 ^ 

beneet soit le maistre 
qui tele la fist naistre ; 

while Chrestien s Erec has nothing similar, either here, or in 
describing the horse (Hartm. Er. 7375), or the palace and twenty 
ladies (8213-77) ; and where Hartm. boasts of his Enite : 

man sagt daz nie kint gewan 

ein lip so gar dem Wunsche glich, Er. 330, 

Chrestien s Erec 407 has merely : 

que tote i avoit mis s entente 

nature, qui faite 1 avoit (conf. vv. 415. 425). 

Presently, however, in his : 

ich waene Got sinen vliz 

an si hate geleit 

von schoene und von saelekeit, Er. 338, 

where Chrestien had said, v. 429 : 

onques Dex ne sot faire miauz 
le nes, la bouche, ne les iauz, 

Hartm. draws nearer to his prototype again. His Wunsches 
gewalt often occurs in later writers : 

beschoenen mit Wunsches gewalte, Flore 6927. 

ir lip aller wolgestalt 

gar in des Wunsches gewalt, Meleranz. 8768. 

Wunsches gewalt han, Berth. 239. 240. 

hie Wunsches gewalt, hie liep ane leit 

in immerwerender sicherheit, Heinr. Suso in Die ewige 
weisheit. 
But the phrase becomes more and more impersonal : 



1330 WODAN. 

si hat an ir wunsch gewalt, Altsw. 98. 
an im lit der wunscligewalt, Dietr. drach. 4t b . 
drier wiinsche gewalt, MS. 2, 145 b (KM. 3 3, 146-7). 
geben mit alles wunsches gewalt, Pass. 298, 1. 
aller iviinsche gewalt, Uhl. volksl. 1, 21. 

conf. egovalas Tv^elv Trapa rov Aio<$ airijcracrOcu orov ewiOvfiei, 
Athen. 3, 24. [Another page and a half of examples is here 
omitted.] 

p. 143 n.] Even Wolfram in Wh. 15, 7 has ( des Wunsches 
zil ; and des Wunsches paradis actually occurs in Barl. 52, 8 
and in the Rudolf. Vilrnar p. 64. 

p. 143.] Wish is the meting, moulding, casting, giving, 
creating (p. 22, 104 n. 139), figuring, imaging, thinking, faculty, 
hence also imagination, idea, image, figure. There is about Wish 
something inward, uttered from within : der Wunsch tihtef, 
Tr.oj. 3096, uz tiefer sinne grunde erwunschet mit dem raunde 
2960. Apart from the passage in the Iliad, %apt? answers to 
wunsch, not only in Lucian s Pro Imag. c. 26 p. 52 : KQ^V rat? 
yapiviv aTreiKacre, but, as God imparts wishing, it is said of 
Hermes : o? pd re iravrwv avOpunrwv epyoLcri, ^dpiy /cal /cOSo? 
ovrafet, Od. 15, 319. Beside des Wunsches aue and heilwac, we 
have also a wunschsee and wunschbrunne, Prohle s Unterharz. s., 
no. 345; a Wiinschberg in Panzer s Beitr. 1, 116, Wenschenborch 
in Hpt Ztschr. 1, 258, Wunschilburfj in Henricus Pauper 115, 
Wunschelburg a village near Glatz. Joannes Wunschelberg doctor 
vixit circa an. 1400/ Flacius cat. test, verit. 782, in Zarncke s 
Univ. Leipzig 764 an. 1427, 888 an. 1438. A Wunschmichelbach, 
Baader s Sagen no. 345 ; a Wunschensuhl near Marksuhl, Thurin- 
gia ; a super Wiinsche and Wunscheidorf, Rauch 2, 198. 200. 

p. 143-4.] Forstemann has no name Wunsc, Wunscio, which 
would mean wisher, adopter, but Karajan quotes Wensco and 
Sigiwunh (for Sigiwunsc, conf. Sigtyr), and Sigewnses-holz about 
Eichstadt (for Sigiwunsces-holz), MB. 31, 363, year 1080. 
The Oskmeyjar are called nunnor Herjans, OSins meyjar, Sn. 
2l2 a . Oskopnir might be connected with it and explained as 
1 stragern, campum electionis aperiens from opna aperire, of 
which the Vols. saga c. 18 makes uskaptr. Beside the Wuscfred 
of Deira, a later one is mentioned by Beda 138, 19. 153, 5. 



WODAN. 1331 

p. 145.] As Wuotan sends wind and weather, and stills the 
stormy sea, it is said of the Christian God : daz er uns alle tage 
dienet rnit weter ioch rnit wint, Diemer 89, 18. In Parzival, 
Feirefiz ascribes it to Jurio that she daz weter fuocte, fitted 750, 
5 ; dem Juno ie gap segels In ft 757, 7 ; segelweter fuogte 767, 3. 
If yggr be terror, yggdrasill means the horse of dread, the storm- 
courser, perhaps the rushing god himself, as we know that OSinn 
bears the surname Yggr, and is always figured as the rider in the 
air, the furious hunter. In that case Yggdrasils askr (Pref. li.) is 
the stormful god s ash. Oftinn is also Hroptr, alte clamans, conf. 
OHG. hruoft, clamor, Graff 4, 1137: Hroptr glaSr, Hpt Ztschr. 
3, 154; Hroptatyr, p. 196. And the surname Farma-tyr, Farma- 
guff may not be out of place here, as deus vecturarum nauticarum, 
from farmr, onus nauticum. Mefingr, Saem. 272 a is perh, conn, 
with mafr, seamew. Other by-names are Fengr, Saarn. 184 a . 
Vols. saga c. 17, p. 157; Svdfnir, Seem. 93 a ; Fiolnir, Saem. 
10 a . 46 b . 184 a . Vols. saga c. 17, p. 157 and conf. 136. 193. 200. 
323. He is inn reginkunngi baldur i brynjo/ Sa3rn. 272 b . 

p. 145.] Similar expressions for dying are : AS. Dryhten 
secean, Beow. 373. ON. kenna einom attunga brautir til Offins 
landa, Ssem. 80 b . far till Oden, Geyer 1, 123 ; conf. gefa Offni, 
Landn. 5, 10. The miser collecting treasures is said in Sweden 
to tjena Oden, Geyer 1, 123. Kl. schr. 3, 197. 

p. 145 n.] The conception of OiSinn as an evil being is clear 
in the ON. hva&a Off ins Idtum ? quid hoc mali est ? shortened to 
hvaiSa latum/ quid hoc rei est? Wormius mon. dan. p. 11 ; lat 
is amissio, mors ; conf. our was des teufels ? Fornm. sog. 3, 
1 79 has ofognuftr sendr af Offni/ mischief sent from 0. ; Offinn- 
d(jell 11, 151 periculosus, insociabilis, difficilis, is interpr. illr 
vi-Sfangs^ 12, 430; O&inndcela 6, 374 periculum, infortunium, 
interpr. vandrae^i, vandamal, naudsyn 12, 430. Daell itself is 
mansuetus, affabilis. 

p. 147.] O^Siii s outward appearance is alluded to in many 
other places; hinn eineygji Friggjar fa Sm-byggvir, Sn. 1848 p. 
236. He is Hengikiaptr, labeo, cui pendet maxilla, Sn. 146 (p. 
1075 n.); Harbar&r, Flaxbeard, from hor, .linum ; to SigurSr 
appears the Longbeard, and helps him to choose Grani, Vols. c. 
13. GDS. 688-9. To Saxo s Othinus os pileo obnubens } answers 
his surname Grimnir larvatus, from grima. As Grimnir he 



1332 



WODAN. 



shews himself to men in the guise of a beggar to try them, e.g. to 
GeirroSr ; as Gestr blindi to HerSrekr, as GangrivSr to Vaf- 
J?ru"Snir. Compare the German marchen of the old Beggar- 
woman, KM. 150, whose clothes begin to burn, as Grimm s did. 
In the case of HerSrekr, Gestr guesses riddles for another, as the 
miller or shepherd does for the abbot, Schmidt 859. Again 
OSinn appears as the one-eyed bondi Hrani, and bestows gifts, 
Hrolf Kr. saga c. 39. 46 (Fornald. s. 1, 77. 94). The Fornm. 
s. 5, 171-2 says : hann var stuttklaeddr, ok hafSi sidan hatt nrSr 
fyrir andlitit, ok sa ogerla asjonu hans; skeggjaftr var hann; 
conf. the blind (one-eyed ?) Hatt, Sv. afventyr 1, 363. GDS. 
578. Swed. legend gives OSinn a pointed hat, uddehatt, which 
agrees with the peculiar shape of certain tombstones, wedge- 
shaped, like a man-trap. But he is called hauga-drottinn, 
Vitterh. acad. handl. 14, 73. Now uddehatt is nsu. a dwarf s 
hood or cape of darkness ; hence also he appears as lord of 
dwarfs/ At the same time the hat is a wishing-hat and Mer 
cury s hat. He appears as an old man, or as a hunter on high 
horse with three hounds which he gives away to a youth; and 
a Smaland story expressly names him Oden, Sv. folkv. 1, 212. 
Gammal grdman gives advice, but may not stay beyond cock- 
crow, Arvidsson, 3, 3. Similar is the one-eyed witch, Norske 

event. 141-2. In Germany too we can now find many traces 

of this divine apparition. A Gray mantle, a Broadhat often turns 
up in nursery tales, see Haltrich p. 10. 39. 44; an old man 
fetches the children, p. 4. He appears as Old One-eye 45. 55, 
as Stone-goat 44, Wild-cat 63. God comes in the guise of an old 
beggar, stands godfather, and gives gifts, KM. no. 26 ; or as a 
grey-bearded mannikin, Frommann s Munda. 4, 328 ; conf. the 
eld beggar-woman, KM. no. 150; as One-eyed Flap-hat, Alsatia 
1856 p. 131. A grey smith heals, Hpt Ztschr. 1, 103. In St. 
Martin s cloak and hood Simrock sees Wuotan s wishing-cloak, 
Martinsl. xvii. 

p. 147.] When 03inn hurled the spear, then, says the 
Yoluspa, was the first war in the world. He is geira drottinn, 
Egilss. 639. geiri undaffr oc gefinn Offni, Sssm. 27 b . marka sik 
Offni, p. 1077. Under Otto III. a man in a dream, after taking 
a pious vow, was transfixed bij two lances of the martyrs Crispin 
and Crispiuian, Pertz 5, 787. The giant Oden in Sv. afvent, 455 



WODAN. 1333 

(some versions omit the name) possesses costly things, as the 
god does his spear. Out of such notions sprang the OHG. names 
Kerans, Folchans, Hpt Ztschr. 7, 529. Is this spear more like 
Apollo s destructive dart,, or the sceptre of Zeus (p. 680) ? Is 
the name of the Lombard royal line of Gunginge conn, with 
Qungnir ? GDS. 687-8. 

p. 148 n.] In Herod. 4, 15 Aristeas is called Apollo s raven, 
i.e. priest, as Porphyry tells us the Magians called the priests of 
the Sun-god ravens. Three ravens fly with St. Benedict, Paul. 
Diac. I, 26. In Goethe s Faust 12, 127 the witch asks Mephis- 

topheles : But where are your two ravens ? Doves sit on Gold- 

Mariken s shoulders, Miillenh. 403. A dove sits on the head and 
shoulder of a boy at Trier, Greg, Tur. 10, 29; one perches three 
times on the head of St. Severus, Myst. 1, 226-7, another settles 
on St. Gregory s shoulder 1, 104. 

p. 148.] Flugu hrafnar tveir of Hnikars oxlum, Huginn til 
hauga, enn a hrae Muninn, Sn. 322. The ravens daily sent out 
return at dogurSarmali 42 ; conf. F. Magnusen s Dagens tider 
p. 42. fara Viffris grey valgiorn um ey, Saem. 154 a . hrafnar tveir 
flugu me S ]?eim alia ler, Nialss. 80. On Odens foglar, Odens 
svalar, see Sup. to 159. 

p. 148.] Odin-Neptunus resembles both Poseidon and Zeus, 
who rise out of the sea as bulls. 0$inn shows himself to Olaf as 
a boatman, ndkkva maffr, Fornm. s. 2, 180 ; and, as the man in 
the boat, fetches Sinfiotli s body, Yols. c. 10. Like him are the 
divine steersman in the Andreas (Pref. xxiv. xxv.), and the 
thirteenth man who steers the twelve Frisians, who has the axe on 
his shoulder, throws it at a well-spring, and teaches them justice, 
Richth. 439. 440. Yet we also come upon OiSinn Hnikar as a karl 
afbiargi, Sasm. 183-4. 

p. 149.] Byr, Burr is Oftin s father, p. 348-9. gefr hanii 
(0.) byri brognom, Saam. 113 1} . A fair wind, ON. 6ska-byrr } is 
in the Swed. rhyming chron. onsko bor. Even the German may 
very likely have had a wunsch-bur as well as wunsch-wint, for we 
find in Pass. 379, 19 : in kam von winde em ebene bur, die in die 
segele da sluoc. 201, 29 : do quam ein also geliche bur. 380, 
78 : daz in wart ein guote bur. On the other hand : so er den 
tvint ze ivunsche hat, Er. 7795. wunsches weter, Urstende 125, 85. 
Got schuof irn sanften siiezen wint, Ernst 5, 238 (Sup. to 145). 



1334 



WODAN. 



The liimmlische kind makes guteu wind, Osw. 960-5. 1220 ; but 
also the storm wind 1137. 2731. To the Greeks it was Zeus 
espec. that sent a fair wind : Jio? ovpos, Od. 15, 297. Zevs ovpov 
la\\ev 15, 475. Zevs evdve^os, Paus. iii. 13, 5. Also a Ep^ 
ae/no? is named inter deos qui ad pluviam eliciendam a mago 
advocantur/ Cass. Dio 71, 19; and Hermes or Theuth was the 
Egyptians rain-god 71, 8 (Sup. to 175). 

p. 150.] With the AS. dialogue betw. Sat. and Sal., conf. 
Kemble s Salomon p. 323 : Mercurius gigas. In Altd. Bl. 2, 190 
the other dialogue is entitled Adrian and Ritheus/ and contains 
the words: saga me, hvva wrat bocstafas aerest ? ic ]?e secge, 
Mercurius se gigant. In Smaland there rides a man resembling 
03inn, with fiery breath, and a rune staff in his mouth, Hpt 

Ztschr. 4, 509. Theuth not only invented letters, but dice : 

Trerreta?, /cvfiei as as well as ypd/jL^ara, Plato s Phsedr. 274. 
And OSinn is not only the finder of runes, but lord of dice- 
throwing. An ON. dicer s prayer is (Sup. to 1234) : at j?u 
Fiolnir falla latir, pat er ek kasta kanu ! F. Magn. lex. myth. 646 
(Fiolnir=03inn, Sup. to 145). And there was a proverb: )?u. ert 
ecki einn i leik, ef Offinn sty&r pik. On the Devil as dicer, conf. 
p. 1007. Players invoked Thorr and 03inn, Frigg and Freyja 
together with Enoch and Elias, Christ and Mary, F. Magn. lex. 
myth. 646. 

p. 150 n.] On Gwydion and Don see Villemarque s Bardes 
bretons 388. The milky way was also called Ariau rod merch 
Don, Davies s Mythol. 205. Leo in Hpt Ztschr. 3, 224 derives 
Gwydion from gwyd, mens, ytteVo? (p. 162 n.),like OSinn from ON. 
o&r, mens. The Irish dia Geden, Gael, di ciadain, ciadaoin may 
indeed be expl. as ceud aoine, first fast; but see O Brien 168 a . 

The sentence in the Prol. legis Salicae : Mercurius Trismegistus 
primus leges ^Egyptiis tradidit, comes from Isid. orig. 5, 3. 
Tervagan, Teruigant may have to do with Trebeta, Gesta Trev. 
(Pertz 10, 131). 

p. 154.] On Wo denes -b er g , -husen, -wege conf. Forstem. 2, 
1566. in Wodeneswego Pertz 8, 604; de Wodeneswege 8, 676. 
Vudenesvege, Lisch, Orzen 2 b , 161; Gudenswege, 2 b , 136. Again, 
Wodonesberg, Lacomb. l,no. 97. 117. Witanes-berc (Wuotanes?), 
Cod. dipl. Juvav. 95 (an. 861). Mons Hercurii, Fredegar c. 55. 
Then, Wodensbeorgj Kemble 5, 78. 137. Woddanbeorg 3, 457* 



WODAN. 1335 

WonJdinc 3, 415. 5, 112. 291. Woncumb 5, 73. 137. Wodnes- 
dene 5, 238. Wodnesdic 3, 403. 413. 452-5-6. 460-4-6. 5, 215. 
238. Wonlond 5, 235. 6, 355. Woddes geat 5, 78. 137. 
Wonstoc 3, 227 (Kl. Schr. 2, 57). Wondc, quercus Jovis 3, 458. 
Won-alre (-alder) 4, 459. Bufc how are Wonred, Wonreding, 
Beow. 5925-38 to be explained ? OS. Wetanspecltia for Wedanes- 
speckia (-bridge, wooden bridge), Lunzel 12. 53. Nth Fris. 
Wedes-hoog, Wens-hoy, Winis-liog, Miillenh. 167. Other names 
in Nordalb. stud. 1, 138. Weadanask, Jb. f. Schlesw.-holst. 
landesk. 4, 248. Wonsfleth in Holstein, OS. Wodenstorp, now 
Wunstorf (Kl. schr. 2, 58), can ace. to Forstem. 2, 1578 be traced 
back to Wungeresdorf. Wuninsdorp, Cses. Heisterb. 9, 18. 
Wotenes-Msen, Trad. Fuld. Dronke 38, 221. Cod. Fuld. no. 610 
p. 274, now Gutmanns-hausen (Dronke 23 7 a ). A Wons-husen in 
Weimar, and one near Nidda, Landau s Wetterau 218. Wonsaz, 
Bamb. verein 10, 108. A Wonsees betw. Baireut and Bamberg ; 
yet conf. in der wonsass, MB. 27, 141, and wonsassen, Schm. 4, 
80. Kl. schr. 2, 58. A Sigeboto de Wuonten-geseze (Wuotanes ?) 
in MB. 11, 167. About the Fichtelgebirge lie also Wunsiedel 
(Wotanes-sedal ?), Wonsgehai, Wonsgehau, Wondsgehau, Wohns- 
gehaig, a village on the Neunberg by Mistelgau, Baireut, Panzer s 
Beitr. 2, 101. flu men quod vulgo Wotinprun no dicitur/ Sin- 
nacher, 2, 635. IFa^n-brunnon, Lacornblet 1, no. 103. 

p. 154.] OSinn is a rider; hence called Atriffi, he who rides 
up ? (as Thorr is Hlorriffi, p. 167n.); conf. also Yggdrasils askr 
and the story of the World-tree, p. 960. The Hervarar-saga 
(Fornald. s. 1, 486) has a riddle on OSinn and Sleipnir. On a 
rune-stone in Gothland is supposed to be carved Oden and his 
eight-legged Sleipnir/ Dybeck 1845, 91. The horse is often 
mentioned with him : om Oden och hems hdstar } they say in 
Upland and Gothland ; in Smaland they speak of Odens stall 
voch krulba, Eiiaf; conf. the hunter on high horse/ Sup. to 147. 
A horse with six legs in Haltrich 35-6 ; with eight 49; an eight- 
legged talking sun-steed 101. 

p. 155 n.] c Odinus pascit equos suos in follem inclusus, Pall 
Vidalin 610; conf. i balg binda/ Vestg. lag. p.m. 48. veit ec 
at ec heck vindga mevcSi a naetur allar nio, geiri unda^r ok gefinn 
O^ni sialfr sialfum iner, Ssern. 27 b (see note on KM. no. 146). 
Charles also splits a stone before the battle, Wachter s Heidri. 



1336 WODAN. 

denkm. 42-3 ; conf. the story of the Swedish general 45, and 
that of Hoier, Benecke s Wigal. 452. In Irish legend too the 
divine hero Fin Barre has his horse shod by a mortal smith, and 
juggles the fourth leg in, Ir. sagen 2, 85 ; conf. XI. sclir. 2, 450. 
p. 157.] In the district of Beilngries, Bavaria, the bunch of 
ears is left for the Waudl-gaul, and beer, milk and bread for the 
Waudl-hunde, who come the third night and eat it up. If you 
leave nothing, the beaver (bilmer-schnitt) will pass through your 
fields. In the last cent, they still kept up a harvest-feast called 
Waudls-mahe, setting out fodder for the black steeds of Waude, 
while they drank and sang : 

O heilige sancb Maha, 

beschere iibers jahr men a, 

so viel koppla, so viel schockla, 

so viel ilhrla, so viel tausend gute gahrla. 

If the reapers forgot, they were told : Seids net so geizig, und 
lasst dem heilgen S. Maha auch was steha, und macht ihm sein 
stadala voll ; conf. the less complete account in Panzer s Beitr. 
2, 216-7. Three stalks are left for Oswald, three ears tied three 
times round with flowers, viz. the cornflower (centaurea, blue), 
the blotze (red poppy, papaver rhceas), and camomile. The red 
poppy is also called Miedei-magn (Mary s mohn), Panzer 2, 
214-5-6. Schm. 2, 555. 608; in Swabia, Her-got s kitele or 
man tele. The Russians leave a sheaf standing for Volos (Veles), 
toward Volos s beard (borod). 

p. 159.] Offins-ve occurs (988) in episcopatus Othenes- 
wigensis, Lappenb. Hamb. urk. no. 5. On-*jo, Oden-sjo in 
Skane, Rostanga-socken, lies over a submerged castle named 
Odinsyard (see the story in Sup. to 946), Dy beck s Runa 1844, 
32-3. In Ons-kdlla were washed the old men that threw them 
selves down the cliff, Geyer 1, 115. Ontsanger in Smaland. 
Odens-brunn in Upland, Wendel-socken, Dyb. Runa 1844, 90. 
With Woden worhte weos, conf. Woldan hewing his church-door, 
Wolfs Ztschr. 1, 69. OSinn, unlike Thorr, hardly ever occurs 
in names of men : Raaf 235-7 gives Odhankarl, Odhinkarl. 

p. 159.] On the plant-name Woden-tungel, -star, see K. 
Schiller s Ndrd. pflanzenn. 32 ; conf. Ep^ov fidls, Mercwii 
surculus, filix, and Ep/^ov POTCLVLOV, herba mercurialis, Diosc. 4, 



WODAN. 1337 

183-8.- Several birds were sacred to OSinn : korpar, krdkar, 

skatar bor man icke skjuta, emedan de aro Odens foglar, dem 
ban vid Olofsmassan liar Jws sig i dtta dagar, da ban plocker 
och tager en stor del af dem. Ardea nigra, en temligen stor 
fogel af hager- slagtet, kallas Odens svala/ Riiaf; see Sup. to 
p. 148. 

p. 160.] Wcens-ht suggests ulf-li3r, p. 207. Kl. sclir. 2, 58. 
Who off a tbief has cut the thumbs, To him good luck in throw 
ing comes, Grarg. 192 a . Do they say anywhere in Scandinavia 
Odensfinger, Onsfinger ? Ace. to F. Magn. lex. myth. 639 the 
lungs were sacred to Oftinn and Mercury ; conf. the Tables of 
Blood-letting. 

p. 162.] Offinn, TJiorr, Freyr in Snorri/s Bdda 131 answers to 
O&tnn, Asabragr, Freyr in Sasm. 85 b ; and invocations in Swed. 
folk-songs give him the first place : hjalp rnig Othin, tliu kan 
last! hjalp mi U If och Asmer Gry ! Arvidss. 1, 69. The same 
in Danish: f hielp mig Othin, du kan best! hielp mig UJf og 
Asmer Grib ! Syv 48. Asmer Gri = Asa- grim ; conf. hielp nu 
Oden Asa-grim ! Arvidss. 1, 11. 

p. 162 n.] On Zeus rptro? and Tpiroyeveia, conf. Welcker s 
Trilogie 101-2. At banquets the third goblet was drunk to 
Zeus : TO rpirov TO) ^wrijpt, Passow s.v. awTi^p. Athena Tplrrj, 
Babr. 59, 1 . 

p. 162.] OSinn = Far, Ssem. 46 a ; = 7a/??7i-ar 46 b ; = pn ^ 46 a . 
But where do we find Tveggi outside of F. Magn. lex. myth. 
644? conf. Egilss. 610, where we can scarcely read Thriggi 
for Tveggi. On the Sansk. Ekatas, Dvitas, Tritas see Kubn 
in Hofer 1, 279. 281-9. Zend. Tliraetaono, Tlirita, Spiegel s 
Zendav. 7. 66. Thraetaono = Feriduu, = the three-quivered, says 
Leo 3, 192-5 (1st. ed.). 

p. 163.] ON. Vili [weak decl., gen. Vilja] would be Goth. 
Vilja, OHGl. Willo. The strong gen. in broflr Vilis, Egilss. 
610 is evid. a slip for Vilja, though we do find the strong nom. 
Vilir in Yngl. saga c. 3. May we conn. Vili with the Finn. 
veli, Lap. valja, Alban. /3e\d, f rater ? GDS. 271. 

p. 163n.] Munch ], 217 thinks Mithothin arose from mis 
understanding rnetod ; to me it is plainly Fellow-Othin, like our 
mit-regent, etc. Saxo s Ollerus is the Eddie Ullr, as is clear 
from his using a bone for a ship, Saxo p. 46. Yet Ullr seems a 



1338 THUNAR. 

jumble of Saxo s Ollerus and Snorro s Vilir, Yngl. c. 3 (Kl. schr. 
5,425): skip Ullar, Sn. Hafn. 420 = skioldr; askr Ullar 426. 
Ydalir, his hall, Ssem. 40 b . Viler sagr, F. Magn. lex. 766. 
Ullar hylli, Sasm. 45 b ; hringr V. 248 a ; V. *e/& = Baldr 93 a , 
Ullr is Th(Vs stepson, Sn. 31. 101-5; boga-, verSi-, ondr-, 
skialdar-as 105. 

p. 165.] I might have spoken here of OStn s relation to his 
wife Frigg, p. 299, and to Skaffi, whom the Yngl. saga c. 9 calls 
his wife. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THUNAR. 
(Conf. KL. SCHR. 2, 402438.) 

p. 166.] Donar stands related to donen extendere, expansion 
of the air (Hpt Ztschr. 5, 182), as TOI/O? to reivw, yet tonare is in 
Sansk. stan, resembling arevrwp, arovos and our stohnen, Kl. 
schr. 2, 412. In AS., beside Thunor, of whom there is a legend 
(p. 812-3), we have also Dhor, Sal. and Sat. 51. So the rubric 
over John 5, 17 has J>unres-d&g , while that over John 5, 30 has 
fiurs-daeg; and the Norman Dudo calls him Thur, Wormius 
mon. 24. The Abren. has Thuner, dat. Thunare. MHGr. still 
dunre, Pass. 227, 81. Dietr. drach. 110 b . desdunres sun (Boaner 
ges), Pass. 227, 59 (Kl. schr. 2, 427). For the compound Swed. 
tordon, Dan. torden, the Norw. has thordaan, Faye 5, the Jemtl. 
torn, Alraqv. 297, Westgotl. thorn and tann. In the Dan. miirchen 
Torden-vejr means Thor, as Donner -wetter in Germ, curses stands 
for Donar. The Swed. Lapps call the thunder-god Tiermes, 
Klemm 3, 86-7, Ostiaks Toruim 3, 117, Chuvashes Tora, Tor, 
Yakuts Tanara, Voguls Torom, Rask s Afh. 1, 44. 33. 

p. 167.] ON. reiff is not only vehiculum, but tonitru : lystir 
reift (al. )?ruma), Gula)?. Hafn. 498. Norw. T/iorsrela tonitru, 
Faye 5. Danish critics regard OkuJ>6rr as a different being from 
Asa]?6rr, and as belonging to an older time ; yet Sn. 25 places 
them side by side, and looks upon Thor too as Oku]?6rr, conf. 78. 
He drives a chariot; conf. the Schonen superst. about Thor, 



THUNAR, 1339 

Nilsson 4, 40-4. 1 In Ostgoti. the aska is called goa ; when it 
thunders, they say goa gar/ Kalen ll a ; gqffar kor, Almqv. 347, 
but also gomor gar 384, and kornbonden gar 385. In Holland : 
onze lieve Heer reed (drove) door de lucht/ Father God is 
rolling d brenta (milk-vessels) up and down the cellar steps, 
Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 54. Can the old kittel-Jear (kettle-car?) of the 
giant with two goats refer to Donar s chariot? Miillenh. 447; 
conf. Kl. schr. 2, 422. Thorr carries a basket on his back : meis, 
iarnmeis, Saem. 75 a . Sn. 111. OHG-. meisa, Graff 2, 874. 

p. 167.] God thunders : die blikzen und die donrelege sint 
mit gewalte in siner pflege, MS. 2, 166 b . Zeus raises tempest: 
ore re Zevs \al\ajra reivy, II. 16, 365; what doth Zeus ? 
meant how s the weather? 0. Miiller s Gr. gesch. 1, 24. 
Jupiter, alles weters gewalt het er, Ksrchr. 1152 (p. 630). In 
France : ni oistau nes Damledeu tonant, Aspremont 22 b . nes 
Deu tonant ni poistau oir, Mort de Gar. 145-9. noissiez Deu 
tonant, Garins 3, 205 ; conf. si gran roniore facevano, che i tuoni 
non si sarieno potuti udire/ Decam. 2, 1. When a thunderstorm 
comes on, men say: schmeckste paar ocJisel ? merkste a 
scneindl ? Weinh. schles. wtb. 82 ; ( ecce ubi iterum diabolus 
ascendit ! Cges. Heist. 4, 21. The Russians shout words of in 
sult after the retreating tempest, Asbjornsen s Hjemmet 193. 

p. 168.] Thunder is God (or the angels) playing at bowls : 
uns Herr speelt Jcegeln, Schiitze 4, 1 64. die engel kegeln, 
Miillenh. 358 ; conf. the skittle-playing in the Odenberg, p. 953. 
Or it is anger, and the thunder-bolt his rod, Pol. boz y pr<|ten. 

p. 168.] The same Taranis is in the Vedas a surname of Indra 
the thunder-god, he that passes through, from taran = trans; 
and so Perun may be conn, with irepa (but see p. 171, and Kl. 
schr. 2, 420). Welsh taran thunder, Gael, tairneach, taimeanach, 
also torrunn. Taramicnus, Moneys Bad. urgesch. 2, 184. In 
^Burgundy a town Tarnodurum, whose later name Tonnerre and 
le Tonnerrois/ Jos. Gamier 51, prove that the notion of thunder 
lay in the old name; conf. Kl. schr. 2, 412. 

p. 169 n.] Thorr heitir Atli oc asabragr, Sn. 211 a , conf. Atli 
208 a . The Lapps call their Tiermes aiyeke, and his deputy 

1 The surnames Hlorriffi, Saem. 211 a , and Eindri&i need not conflict with the 
statement that Thorr walks or else drives (p. 167 n.). In Sn. 101 he is called fostri 
Vingnis ok Hloru (p. 187. 257). In Sn. Formali 12 Loride is called Thor s son, and 
Loricus Thors fostri, who has a wife Glora. 



1340 THUNAR. 

yunkare f stor-y unbare, Klemm 3, 86, the Ests their Pikker wana 
essa, old father, Verb. 2, 36-7 ; and the American Indians their 
Supreme Being the grandfather, Klemtn 2, 153. With the 
mountains Etzel, Altvaterwe may perh. associate a high mountain 
OetscJian, Helbl. 7, 1087 (now Oftscher), from SI. otets, voc. 
otche, father; conf. Kl. schr. 2, 421. 

p. 170 n.] The St. Bernard or Great Bernard is called 
Montjoux, A.D. 1132. On the jugum Penninum, deus Penninus, 
see Zeuss 34. 99. Dieffenb. Celt. 1, 170. Several inscriptions 
1 Jovi Pcenino, Penino in De Wai no. 211227. A Mount of 
joy in Meghaduta 61 ; in Moravia the Radost, joy. Finn, ilo-hiui, 
stone of joy, Kalev. 3,, 471. 

p. 171.] Comes ad Thuiieresberhc (yr. 1123), Erh. 150; apud 
Thunereslerg 133. Sift-it de Tonreslerc (1173), MB. 33% 44. 
Sifridus de Donresberch (1241-58) 33 a , 68. 90. Of a dragon it 
is said : er bete wol dri kiele verslunden (swallowed) uud den 
Dunresberc, Dietr. drach. 262 b (str. 834) . vom Donresberge, Hpt 
Ztschr. 1, 438. A Donnersberg by Etteln, S. of Paderborn. AS. 
fJunrcsled, Kemble 3, 443. 4, 105. 5, 84. Bunresfeld 3, 394. 
5, 131, conf. 6, 342. Doneresbrunno, Ztschr. f. Hess, gesch. 1, 
244. 

p. 171.] With Slav, groin, hrom (Kl. schr. 2, 418) put our 
LG. grummeln of distant thunder, Ir. crom, craim thunder, Fr. 
grommeler growl; also Lith. grauja it thunders, growimmas 
thunder. 

p. 171.] To Lith. PerJiiinas musza, Nesselm. 41 l b , and P. 
grauja, grumena 286% add the phrases : Perkuns twyksterejo (has 
crashed), P. uzdege (has kindled); Perkuno szowimmas (stroke), 
P. growimmas (peal), P. z aibas (flash) ; perkunija thunderstorm. 
The Livl. reimchr. 1435 says of him : als ez Perkune ir abgot gap, 
daz nimmer so harte gevros. Near Battenhof in Courland is a 
Perkunstein with legends about it, Kruse^s Urgesch. 187. 49; a 
PerJcuhnen near Libau. Pehrkones is hedge-mustard. The Lapps 
have an evil god or devil perkel, pergalak, Finn, perhele, Kalev. 
10, 118. 141. 207. 327 (Sup. to 987). 

p. 172.] In Finn, the oak (tammi) is called God s tree, puu 
Yumalan, Kalev. 24, 98. 105-7. 115-7; conf. Zeus s oak p. 184, 
robur Jovis p. 170. Ju-glans, At,o<$ y8aXavo? = castanea, Theophr. 
3, 8. 10. Diosc. 1, 145. The oak being sacred to Thorr, he slays 



THUNAR. 1341 

the giants that take refuge under it ; under the beech he has no 
power over them. It has been remarked, that lightning pene 
trates twenty times as far into the oak as into the beech, Fries 
bot. udfl. 1, 110. 

p. 172.] A Swed. folksong (Arvidss. 3, 504) makes Thorr 
live in the mountain : locka till Thor % fjdll. Beside Fiorgvin s 
daughter Frigg, another daughter Idrff is called OSin s wife, and 
is mother of Thorr. But if Thorr be = Fairguni, he is by turns 
OSin s father and Oftin s son ; and he, as well as Frigg, is a child 
of earth (iortS), Kl. schr. 2, 415. GDS. 119. 

p. 173.] Of Enoch and Elias, who are likewise named together 
in the ON. dicer s prayer (Sup. to 150), we read in Fundgr. 
2, 112: 

sie hant och die wal (option), 

daz sie den regin behabin betalle (keep back rain) 

swenne in gevalle (when they please), 

unt in abir Idzin vliezen (again let flow) ; 

ir zungin megin den himel besliezen (shut up) 

unt widir uftuon (open), 

so si sich wellint muon. 

The Lithuanians call Lady-day Elyios diena, Ilyios diena, on 
which it begins or ceases to rain. They derive it from ilyia, it 
sets in (to rain) ; is it not rather Elias s day ? Elias legends of 
Wallachia and Bukowina in Scliott. 375. Wolf Ztschr. 1, 180. 
On his battle with Antichrist conf. Griesh. 2, 149. 

p. 174.] Hominem fulgure ictum cremari nefas ; terra condi 
religio tradidit, Pliny 2, 54. Places struck by lightning were 
sacred with the Greeks, and were called rjXvcria, evrfKvcria, be 
cause the descending deity had visited them. They were not to 
be trampled : hoc modo contacta loca nee intueri nee calcari 
debere fulgurales pronuntiant libri, Amm. Marcell. 23, 5. One 
peculiar rite was thoroughly Etruscan : such a spot was called 
bidental, because a two-year old sheep was sacrif. there, Festus 
sub vv. bidental, ambidens. 0. Miiller s Etr. 2, 171 ; the railing 
round it was puteal, and may be compared to the Ossetic skinpole : 
bidental locus fulrnine tactus et expiatus ove, Fronto 277. Cattle 
struck dead by lightning are not to be eaten, Westendorp 525. 

p. 175.] uero?, Umbr. savitu, Aufr. u. Kirchh. 2, 268. ve & 

VOL. IV. P 



1342 THUNAE. 

apa Zevs Travvw^os, Od. 14, 457. Athen. 4, 73. TOV A C a 
<>fjbr]v Sia KOO-/CLVOU ovpelv, Aristoph. Clouds 373 ; conf. imbrem 
in cribrum gerere, Plaut. Ps. i. 1, 100. A LOS ofjiftpos, Od. 9, 
111. 358. ovre TleXoTrovvrjo Lois vcrev 6 #eo?, Paus. ii. 29, 6. An 
Egypt, magian conjures the air-god Hermes (TOV aepiov] for rain, 
Cass. Dio 71, 8. Indra, who has the thunderbolt, is also god of 
rain; when he disappeared, it rained no more, Holtzm. 3, 140. 1, 
15. In Dalecarl. skaurman ak, the shower-man rides = it thun 
ders, Almqv. 258; conf. Goth, skura vindis = XatXa-vJr, OHG. scur 
tempestas, grando, AS. scur procella, nimbus, ON. skur nimbus 
(Kl. schr. 2, 425). 

p. 175.] Another rain-procession in 1415, Lindenbl. 301. 
Petronius s ( uvidi tanquam mures is like our MHGr. in Eracl. 
142 b : so sit ir naz als eine mus (from Enenkel), wet as a drowned 
rat. A prayer of the legio tonans, likewise under M. Antonine, 
brings on torrents, Cass. Dio 71, 8. A Hungarian prayer for rain, 
Ungarn in parab. 90; others in Klemm 2, 160 (Kl. schr. 2, 
439458). 

p. 176.] Pikker, Kalewipoeg 3, 16. 23. 358. 16,855. pikker- 
taati 20, 730. On pikker and pikne see Estn. Verb. 2, 36-7. He 
is the avenging thrice-nine god, that appears in the lightning, 
and with red-hot iron rod (raudwits) chastises even the lesser gods, 
who flee before him, like the giants before Thor, to human hearths 
2, 36 38. Pikne seems an abbrev. of pitkainen, tonitru, which 
occurs in the Finnic form of the Esth. prayer for rain, Suomi 9, 
91, and comes from pitkd longus ; pitkdikdinen longaevus, the 
Old^Ukko, says Castren myth. 39, or perhaps the long streak 
of the lightning. On Toro, Toor, Torropel see Estn. Verb. 2, 92. 
p. 176.] Ukko blesses the corn, Peterson 106. In a waste 
field on the coast of Bretagne St. Sezny throws his hammer, and 
in one night the corn grows up into full ripe ears around it, 
Bret. Volkss. by Aug. Stober, prob. after Souvestre. 

p. 177.] The Thunder-god must be meant in the story of the 
red-bearded giant and the carriage with the golden he-goat, Wolf 
Ztschr. 2, 185-6. With the N. American Indians both Pahmi- 
oniqua and Jhdchinchid (red thunder) are men s names, Catlin 
tr. by Bergh. 136. 190-1. 

p. 178.] The three phenomena of lightning are described as 
simultaneous in Hes. Theog. 691 : Kpavvol t/crap a^ia {Spovrfj re 



THUNAR. 1343 

teal darepoTrfj nroreovTO. Distinct from fulgur is a fourth notion, 
fuJguratio (sine ictu). 

p. 178.] Fulgur is called blikt, as late as Justinger. Blixberg, 
now the ruined castle of Plixburg (Plickhs-perckh in old docs.), 
stands in the Miinster valley near Colmar, oppos. a dwarfs moun 
tain, Schopflin Als. dipl. no. 1336. des snellen blickes tuc, Freid. 
375. himelblicke, Servat, 397. 1651. Both. 3536. In Styria, 
himlatzen to lighten, weterblicke fulgura, Hpt Ztschr. 8, 137. 
wetterleich, Stalder 2, 447. hab dir das plab feuer ! H. Sachs 
ii. 4, 19 a . blue light in thunderstorms, Schwab s Alb. 229. 
Lightning strikes or touches : mit blitz geriihrt, Felsenb. 1, 7. 
It arises when sparks are struck with the fiery axe, p. 180". 
813; af ]?eim liomom leiptrir qvomo, Ssem. 151 a . KpovlSrjs a^u et 
tyo\ovra Kepavvov, Od. 24, 539. dpyrjn Kepavvw 5, 128. 131. 
trisulcum fulgur, Festus, Varro ap. Non. 6, 2. Sen. Thyest. 
1089. ignes trisulci, Ov. Met. 2, 848. Ibis 471. tela trisulca, 
Claudian iii. Cons. Hon. 14. genera fulminum tria esse ait 
Caecina, consiliarmm, auctoritatis et status, Am. Marc. 23, 5 ; 
conf. 0. Mull. Etr. 2, 170. The Etruscans had nine fulgurating 
gods 2, 84. In Romanic, lightning is cameg, form, also calaverna, 
chalavera; straglusch, sagietta, saetta lightn. that pierces, also 
liitscherna (lucerna?). Lith. zaibas lightn., Perkuno zaibas streak 
of lightn., from z ibeti to shine, Nesselin. 345. Mere fulguratio, 
summer-lightn., distant, feeble, that does not strike, the Finns 
call Kalevan tulet, K. valkiat, i.e. Calevae ignes, bruta fulmina 
autumnalia, or kapeen tulet, genii ignes. Lightning is named 
Trvp ALOS, Hebr. fire of God. 

p. 178 n.] Bleckeiiy plechazan, heaven opening, reminds of the 

Bastaruae, who thought, when it lightened, the sky was falling 

on them, Livy 40, 58 ; conf. Duncker p. 84. In Servian songs 

\munya is the vila s daughter, grotn her brother. Mesets, moon, 

marries Munya, Yuk 1, 154 n. 229231. 

p. 178.] Tonitrus is toniris clilacclm, Hattem. 3, 598 b . ton- 
nerldapf, Justinger 383. thunderclap words/ Fr. Simpl. 1, 231. 
dozes klac, Parz. 379, 11. Troj. 12231. 14693. donrescal, Fundgr. 
2, 116. tonnerbotz, Garg. 270 b . 219 b , from donerboz. ON. 
skrugga tonitru, conf. skroggr fulminans. Dan. tordenskrald, 
tordenbrag. LGr. grummel-wier, -schuur, -taaren (-cloud), Lyra 
103. 117, see Sup. to 171. We say thunder rolli, groltt [if 



1344 THUNAK. 

distant, grommelt]. As lightn. is a bird s glance, thunder is 
the flapping of its wings, Klemm 2, 155. Zeus s eagle holds his 
lightnings, and an eagle raises the storm-wind, p. 633 ; conf. the 
bird of Dawn. 

p. 179.] Fulmen is OHG. donarstrdla, Graff 6, 752 and 
laucmedili, Gl. Jun. 191. Graff 2, 707. bllc-schoz mit (or, an) 
dunr-slegen, Pass. 89, 49. 336, 9. des donres schuz, Freid. 128, 
8. donrestral der niht enschiuzet, Turl. Wh. ll a . dornstral, 
Griesh. 151. die donerblicke, Fundgr. 1, 73. donresblicke, Freid. 
123, 26. des donrisslac, Fundgr. 2, 125. f ob der doner z aller 
frist sluege, swann ez blekzend ist/ if it struck every time it 
lightens, W. gast 203. swaz er der heiden ane quam, die 
sluoc er alse ein doner san, Rother 2734. do sluog er also der 
thoner, for dem sich nieman inac bewarn, Diemer 218, 8. schur- 
slac, Helbl. 8, 888. wolkensclwz, Lanz. 1483. weterwegen, Pass. 
336, 10. 2. OHG. droa, drewa is both minae, oraculum, and 
fulmen, ictus, Graff 5, 246 ; because lightn. is a bodeful phenom 
enon ? 0. Fr. es foldres du ciel, Ogier 1, 146. foudre qi art, 
Guiteclin 2, 137. Le tonnerre a sept differentes formes pour se 
manifester aux Polognots. II tombe en fer, alors il brise tout ; 
en feu, il bride; en sovffre, il empoisonne; en genuille, il etouffe; 
en pondre, il etourdit ; en pierre, il balaye ce qu il environne ; 
en bois, il s enfonce ou il tombe, Mem. Celt. 2, 211. 

p. 180.] On thunderbolts see the 9th Bamb. Bericht p. 111. 
Beside donner stein, we have wetter stein, Isrotlenstein. Again : 
Herre Got, und liezt du vallen her ze tal ein stein, der mir 
dersliiege, Suchenw. 78, 175. A fragment of thunderbolt healed 
over in the hand imparts to it enormous strength, Hpt Ztschr. 3, 
366. A donner sir al of 2J cwt. hangs in Ensheim church, Garg. 
216 a . Vestgotl. Thors-kajl (-wedge), Swed. Thor-viggar (-wedges), 
Sjoborg s Nomencl. f. nordiska fornlemningar 100. Indra s bolt 
and flash are svarus, from svar, sky, sun, Benfey 1, 457; conf. 
rfKvo-ia, Sup. to 174. Like elf-shot is the Sansk. vitulum veluti 
mater, ita fulmen Marutes sequitur/ Bopp Gl. 364 a ; conf. niugi- 
entis instar vaccae fulmen sonat 262 a . Athena alone knows the 
keys to the thunderbolt chamber, yEsch. Eum. 727, like Mary 
in the nursery- tale of the forbidden chamber in heaven. Lith. 
Perkuno kiilka, P/s ball. Serv. strelitsa, arrow. 

p. 181.] Miolnir reminds of SI. m lrn i/a, molnia aa-rpaTrr], which 



THUNAE. 1345 

Miklos. 50 derives from rnlefci, conterere. The hammer is the 
simple, world-old implement; indispensable to nearly every trade, 
and adopted by not a few as a symbol. At boundaries the ""I | 
hamarsmark was deeply graven, a cross with hooked limbs ; IL 
afterwards a crossed oak served for a landmark, Kl. schr. 2, 43. 
55. In blessing the cup (signa fall) the sign of the hammer was 
made : hann gerSi hcanarsmark yfir, Hak. go$a saga c. 18. Thor 
me S tungnm hamrum is also in Landstad 14. Thor s image has 
a great hammer in its hand, 01. helga s. ed. Christ. 26. Fornm. 
sog. 4 ; 245. That the hammer was portrayed and held sacred, 
is shown by the passage in Saxo, ed. Mull. 630 : Magnus, inter 
cetera traeophorum suorum insignia, inusitati ponderis malleos 
quos Joviales vocabant, apud insularum quandam prisca virorum 
religione cultos, in patriam deportandos curavit. That was betw. 
1105 and 1135. In Germany, perh. earlier, there were hammers 
and clubs as emblems of Donar on the church wall, or built into 
the town -gate; to which was linked a barbarous superstition 
and a legend of the cudgel, Hpt Ztschr. 5, 72. To the same 
cycle belong the tales of the devil s hammer, which is also called 
donnerkuhl, hamm^erlcuhl) Miillenh. 268. 601 ; conf. p. 999. Pikne 
carries lightn. as an iron rod, see Sup. to 176. 

p. 181.] Thorr a foe to giants, p. 531. As Wodan pursues 
the subterraneans, so he the giants. They will not come to the 
feast where Tordenveir appears, p. 189. 537. In Schonen, when 
it lightens, it is Thor flogging the trolls, Nilss. 4, 40. der (tievel) 
wider unsih vihtet mit viuren (viurinen, fiery) strdlen, Dierner 
337, 9. 

p. 181.] Hamer sla bamer, sla busseman dot! Miillenh. 603; 
conf. Hermen sla dermen, p. 355. bim hammer ! Corrodi Pro- 
fesser 16. 58. Yikari 11. tummer und hammer, Prof. 96. c May 
heaven s forked lightn. bury you 10,000 fathoms underground ! 
du widertuo ez balde, oder dir nimet der donner in drin tagen 
den Up, Wolfd. 331, 3. 4 (Hpt Ztschr. 4). A Danish oath is ney 
Thore gud ! Warmii Mon. Dan. 13. dass dich der Donnerstag 
(Thursday = Thor), Ph. v. Sittew. 2, 680. donnstig ! du donnstigs 
bub! Gotthelfs Erz. 2, 195-6. The Lithuanians, says J3n. 
Sylvius, ascribe to Percunnos a great hammer, by means of which 
the sun is rescued from captivity, JEn. Sylv. in den Kurland. 
send. 2, 6. N. Preuss. prov. bl. 2, 99 ; conf. Tettau u. Temme 



1346 THUNAB. 

28. Li tli. kad Pcrltuns pakiles deszirat klafterin tave i zeme 
itrenktu ! " may P. arise and strike thee 10 fathoms into the 
earth, Schleicher ber. der Wiener acad. 11, 108. 110. The Etrus 
cans ascribed the hammer to Mantns, Gerh. 17. 

Beside the hammer Thorr had his megin-giar&ar, fortitudinis, 
roboris cingula, and iarn-greipr, chirotecas ferreas, Sn. 112-3. 
er harm spennir ]?eim (rnegingiorSum) pm sik, ]?a vex Jtonum 
ds-megn hdlfu, Sn. 26. ]?a spenti hann megingiorffum 114. 
This belt of might reminds us of Laurin 906. 890. 1928 : ze- 
brechent sin gtirteHn. do hat er von zwclf man kraft. A girdle 
imparts strength and wisdom, AVigal. 332, and shews the right 
road, 22-3. A girdle that stills hunger, Fierabras 209; conf. the 
hunger-belt. A victoriae zona in Saxo ed. Mull. 124. Like Thor s 
girdle is the line baud in Norske folkev. no. 60, p. 365. 374-6. 
Miillen h. Schl. -hoist, mar. 11. Moe s introd. xlvi. 

p. 183.] In the Alps the salamander, whose appearance be 
tokens a storm, is called wetter -giogo, Schott s Germans in 
Piedmont 300. 346. A female stag-beetle carries red hot coals 
into houses (Odenwald). 

p. 183 n.] The larla Jo vis is held to have healing power, Caes. 
Heisterb. 7, 15. Jovis herba, lius-loek, Mone s Quellen 289 a . 
hns-louch, Mone 8, 403. donder-loek, crassula major, Mone s Qu. 
283 b . dundar-lok, Dybeck 1845 p. 61. Jovis caul is, semper- 
vivum magn., Diosc. 4, 88. AS. punor-wyrt, barba J. ; lioiise- 
leek planted on cottage-roofs, Honeys Yrbk. 1552 ; conf. p. 1214. 
The Swiss call the donnerbesen hexenbesen, witch s broom, Staid. 
2, 42. Nemnich calls glecoma hederacea donnerrebe, gundrebe. 
The donnernessel, urtica dioica, resists thunder. Finn. Ukon- 
tuhnio, fungus, fomes; U. nauris, rapa; U. lummet, caltha palus- 
tris ; Ukhon-lehti, folium (lappa). Jovis colus, zlto? ^Xa/cari?, 
clinopodium, verbena, Diosc. 3, 99. 4, 61. Jovis madius, cata- 
nance, herba filicula 4, 132. lepa rov 6eov (prjyos at Dodona 
Paus. 1, 17. Jovis arbor, Ov. Met. 1, 104. A thunder-tree in 
Tyrol, Wolf Ztschr. While redbreast and beetle attract light 
ning, the wannenweihe repels it, p. 674. It was a universal 
practice to ring tlie church-bells to drive the thunder away, i.e. the 
heathen god, for bells are Christian. With the Thracians shoot 
ing was a safeguard against thunder and lightning (p. 20), as 
elsewhere against an eclipse, p. 707. 



THUNAB. 1347 

p. 184.] Note the Henneberg superstition about the haber- 
geiss or himmelsziege, phalangium opilio, a spider (Maler Miiller), 
in Bruckner s Henneb. 11. By horsgok was formerly meant a 
real horse, Runa 3, 14-5. The heaven s-goat is in Finn, taivaan 
vuohi; she hovers between heaven and hell, bleating in the air, 
Schiefn. Finn. wtb. 612. Another Lith. name for it is dangaus 
ozys, Nesselm. 31, and Lett. Pehrkon olisols, Possart s Kurl. 228. 

The H^misqvi^a calls Thorr hafra drottinn; his goats are 
tann-gniostr and tann-grisnir, dente frendens, as Lat. nefrendes = 
arietes (or porci) nondum frendentes, that have no teeth yet. 
Tanngniostr (tooth-gnasher) is also a man s by-name, Kormaks. 
54. 134-6. 

p. 186.] Donerswe, Ehrentraut s Fries, arch. 1, 435. Hpt 
Ztschr. 11, 378. de Donrspah, Notizenbl. 6, 306. It seems 
Thuris-lo in Trad. Corb. is not Thonares-16, but giant s wood, 
p. 521; yet AS. Thunresleci, Kemble 3, 443. 4, 105. 5, 84. 243. 
Scand. Thorslef, Molb. dipl. 1, 173; why not Thors- ? In 
Sweden are Thorsby, Thorshdlla, Thorslunda, Thorstuna, Thorsvi ; 
Thorsaker, Thorsang, Thorsas, Thorso. On Thorstuna, -aker, conf. 
Schlyter Sv. indeln. 32. Thorseng in Funen, Thorslidi in Schles- 
wig, Miillenh. 584. In Norway Thorsey, Thorsnes, Tliorsliof, 
Munch om Sk. 107. Thorsnes, Landn. 2, 12, took its name from 
a pillar with Thor s image being drifted thither. Thorsharg = 
Thorshalla, Hildebr. torn. 3. Thorsborg, Gutal. 94, a limestone- 
mountain 317. Thorshafn in Faroe. 

p. 187.] To the few German proper names compounded with 
Donar, add Donarpreht, Hpt Ztschr. 7, 529. Albdonar is conn, 
with the plant albdona. In Kemble no. 337, for Thoneulf 3 read 
Thonerulf. The Sax. Chron., yr. 920, has Burcytel. An O. Irish 
name Tordealbhach ( = Thoro similis, says O Brien) is worth 
noting. Thorhalli in the Heidarvigasaga. King Toril, whose 
lightning scorches the sea, burns up forests and devours the city 
(Hpt Ztschr. 4, 507-8), is apparently Thor himself; perhaps 
Torkil ? for Thorild is fern. ; conf. Thorkarl, p. 181 n. 

p. 187.] Thor s by-name of Vingthorr, Sa3in. 70 a ; Eindridi, 
Sup. to 167, foot-note. He is hard-huga^r, Seem. 74 b , as the 
iotun is hardra^r, p. 528. Again, fostri Vingnis ok jH7orw = f6stri 
Hlorriffa, Sup. to 167. Tartar burr, earth s son, Saem. 70 a . 68 a . 
157; Fiorgynjar burr, Hloffynjar burr, Yggs barn 52 a . Is Veorr 



1348 THUNAR. 

the same as verr, vir ? conf. AS. weor, but the ON. modification 
would be viorr. 

p. 188.] Thorr, imagined as a son (in the Edda he is either a 
youth or in the prime of manhood), does not accord well with the 
1 old great-grandfather. In Seem. 54 b he is a sveinn, but in 85 b 
Ascibragr. Are we to suppose two Donars, then ? That in the 
North he may have been feared even more than O Sin seems to 
follow from the fact that so many names of men and women 
contain his name, and so few that of Odin. 

p. 189.] His sons by larnsaxa are Magni and Mo&i, Sn. 110 
(conf. p. 823), he himself being endowed with &s-megin and as- 
moffr. larnsaxa is elsewhere the name of a giantess. He calls 
himself Magna faftir, Saem. 76 a . His daughter becomes the bride 
of Alvis 48 a>b ; is she ThruSr, robur, whom he had by Sif ? Sn. 
101-9. He is himself called J>ru&ugr ass, Ssem. 72 b . firuffoaldr 
go Sa 76 a ; and his hammer firuffhamarr 67 b . 

p. 191.] Neither the log-pelting at Hildesheim (with which 
conf. sawing the old woman/ p. 781-2) nor- the wheel-rolling 
near Trier (Hocker s Mosel-ld. 1852, p. 415) can be connected 
with Jupiter. The latter ceremony, mentioned first in 1550 and 
last in 1779, took place thus. On the Thursday in Shrove- week 
an oak was set up on the Marxberg (Donnersb., Durninersb.), 
also a wheel. On Invocavit Sunday the tree was cut down, the 
wheel set on fire and rolled into the Moselle. A wheel, especially 
a flaming one, is the symbol of thunder, of Donar hence the 
lords of Donnersberg, burg-vassals to Cochheim, bear it on their 
coat-of-arms, Hontheim 2, 5, tab. v., likewise those of Roll (thun 
der), while those of Hammerstein have three hammers in theirs. 
The signum of German legions, the 14th and 22nd, was the rota: 
there is a tile with Leg. xxii." and a six-spoked wheel stamped 
on it. Mainz and Osnabriick have such a wheel on their 
scutcheon, Mainz as escutcheon of the legions (Fuchs s Mainz 2, 
94. 106). Krodo in Bothe s Sassenchr. carries a wheel (p. 206 n.) . 
Has that heraldic wheel anything to do with the term rddels- 
fuhrer, ringleader ? 

p. 191.] On keeping Thursday holy, see especially Nilsson 4, 
44-5. tre Thorsdags-qv&ll&T, Dyb. Euna 4, 37. 43. Cavallius 1, 
404. In Swedish fairy-tales spirits appear on thorsdags-natt, and 
bewitch. If you do any work on Trinitv Sunday, the lightning 



zio (TIW, TYE). 1349 

will strike it; hence women are unwilling to do needlework that 
day, Hpt Ztschr. 3, 360. Similar desecration of holidays by weav 
ing, spinning or knitting is often mentioned; Servat. 2880 : 

wir sazen unde waben, 

do die lantliute erten disen tac . . . 

schiere runnen din weppe von bluote, 

daz ez uns des werkes erwante. 

A poor girl spins on our Lady s day, the thread sticks to her 
tongue and lips, Maerl. 2, 219. Of women spinning on Saturday, 
see Miillenh. 168 ; they that spool flax in church- time on Sunday, 
turn into stone, Reusch no. 30. Spinning was forbidden on 
Gertrude s day and Berchta s day, p. 270-3 ; among the Greeks 
on Bacchus s day, p. 911. Nevertheless the yarn spun on such 
holy days has peculiar virtues, p. 1099; conf. the teig-talgen, 
dough-kneading on Holy Saturday night, Superst. G, v. 194. 
Yet again : Si quis die Dominico boves junxerit et cum carro 
ambulaverit, dexterurn bovem perdat, Lex Bajuv. vi. 2, 1. 



CHAPTER IX. 
ZIO (TIW, TYE). 

p. 194.] In Umbrian the nom. was still Juv, dat. Juve, voc. 
Jupater, Aufr. u. Kuhn Ztschr. 1, 128 : Juveis luvfreis, Jupiter 
liber, Mommsen 139. What of Finn, taivas, coelum ? or even 
oDpo?, the Assyrian Mars (Suidas) ? A divergent form, ( vater 

Zi in Miillenh. nr. 410. Dyaus is not only coelum, but a 

*Vasu-god, who for stealing the cow Nandini has to go through a 
human life, Holtzm. 3, 101 6. Parallel with the ideas belonging 
to the root div, are those developed out of Sansk. sur, splendeo : 
sura deus, surja sol, svar coelum. 

p. 194.] Spiegel, Zendav. 6, connects 0eo? with dha,. Lith. 
dievas god, deive goddess, dievaitiz (godkin) thunderer, dievaite 
(goddesskin) rain-goddess; conf. Pott s Etym. forsch. 1st 
ed. 56-7. Benfey s Orient 1, 510. 

p. 195.1 Wackernagel in Hpt Ztschr. 6, 19 retains Tuisco = 
duplex, and explains it as zwitter, two-sexed, just as Lachm. 
makes tuisc = bimus, two years old; and Miillenhoff agrees with 



1350 zio (TIW, TTR). 

them 9, 261. In that case Tuisco would have nothing to do with 
Ziu, and Tacitus must have indicated the marvellous hermaphro 
dite nature. It is a question whether Zio, Tio have not per 
petuated himself in the alarm and battle cries zieter, zeter, 
tiodute, tianut! and in ziu dar nalier, Parz. 651, 11 ; see Gramm. 
3, 303. EA. 877. Leo in Hpt Ztschr. 5, 513. Again, did zie, 
tie (assembly) originally mean divum, as in sub divo, dio ? 
The Prov. troubadours have sotz dieu = sub divo, under the open 
sky, Diez s Leb. d. Troub. 166-7; yet it may mean sub Deo. 

p. 195.] From div splendeo (Lith. zibcti) come div, diva 
coelum, and divan, divaaa, divana, contr. (Una, dies, Bopp Gl. 
168. In Caes. B. Gall. 6, 18 Diespiter is called Dispater, abl. Dite 
patre, 0. Miill. Efcr. 2, 67; conf. Dissunapiter, p. 225. The 
Etruscan panels have sometimes Tinia for Tina. 

p. 198.] The Germani sacrificed to their Mars for victory: 
vestita spoliis donabere quercu (Mavors), Claudian in Ruf. 1,339. 
huic praedae primordia vovebantur, huic truncis suspend ebantur 
exuviae, Jorn. 5. hostiles suspendit in arbore cristas, Cl. in Ruf. 
1, 346. Kuhn finds many points of comparison between Wuotan 
and the Roman Mars, whom he takes to have been originally a 
god of spring. Mars = Marutas is a by-name of Indra, Hpt 
Ztschr. 5, 491-2. To Tjjr Viga-guff corresponds Mars des wige 
got in En. 5591. Troj. 8140. 8241. Ms. 2, 198 b : Mars strites 
got. Christian writers suppose an angel of victory marching in 
the front of battle : coram eo (Ottone imperatore) angelus penes 
quern victoria. Mars is a mere abstraction in Erm. Nig. 2, 2: 
straverat adversos Marsque Deusque viros, and Pertz 8, 228 : jam 
per ordinatas omni parte acies Mars cruentus cepisset frendere ; 
conf. p. 203. 

p. 198.] Ziesburc, Augsburg, Hpt Ztschr. 8, 587. Diuspurch, 
Lacomb. 83 (yr 904), Tutburg 205 (1065), Dinsburg, all = Duis- 
burg, Thietm. 5, 3. 9. Duseburg, Weisth. 4, 775. A Doesburgh 
in Gelders; Tussberg, Tyssenberg, Wolf Ztschr. 1, 337. Desberg 
near Vlotho, Redecker 59. Desenberg, Diesenberg ; Tistede, Hamb. 
liber actor. 331-2. Tiisuad, Tiiswath, in Jutl., Molb. dipl. 1, 9. 
Zirelberg near Schwatz in Tyrol, H. Sachs i. 3, 251 a ; conf. p. 
298, Zisa, Zisenburg, GDS. 541. 

p. 199.] Add Tived, Tisved, Tivelarls, Dyb. 1845, 50-9. MHG. 
ziilelbast, Gervinus 2, 233 ; couf. Zigelinta, p. 1193. 



zio (TIW, TYB). 1351 

p. 200.] The very old symbol of the planet Mars <$ stood 
apparently for the war-god s shield and spear. Here Tyr reminds 
us of O$inn and his Gungnir, p. 147. With tire tdcnian conf. 
tirfcBst tdcen, Cod. Exon. 236,13; sigortaren 169, 3. sigorestacen, 
fridbtdcen circumcision, note on Elene 156. Caedrn. 142, 29. 

p. 202.] Judges often held their court on Ertag, see Kaltenb. 
1, 563 a>b . 580 a ; and judgment may mean war, decision, RA. 
818-9. Was a sword set up in the court? On Famars, Fanmars 
see GDS. 529. 619. 

p. 204.] The trinity of the Abrenunt. requires a god, not a 
mere hero; for that reason if no other, Sahsnot must be Mars, 
or at lowest the Freyr of the Upsal trinity. With Saxnedt 
compare larnsaxa, Thor s wife, Sn. 110. In Pomerania they 
still swear by doner sexen, 3 in Bavaria meiiier secJisen, Schm. 
3, 193-4; conf. mem six ! 

p. 205.] On the divine CJteru see GDS. 612. Lucian supplies 
additional proofs of the Scythian worship of the sword ; Toxaris 
38 : ov jj,a yap TOP "Ave^ov fcal rov A/civd/c^v. Scytha 4 : d\\d 
Trpo? A/civd/cov KOI Za^Lo^^iBo^, TMV TrarpaHov rjfjilv 6ewv. Jupiter 
Tra.g. 42 : ^icvdai A.Kivdicr) Ovovres /cal Spaices Za^o^giSi. Conf. 
Clem. Alex, admon. 42. GDS. 231. Priscus, quoted in Jorn. c. 5, 
ed. Bonn 201, 17. 224, remarks on the sword: Apeos ^0? oirep 
ov lepov /cal jrapd T&V ^KvOiKWV /3acri,\ea)v TijACti/jievov, ola &rj 
TO) <f)6pq) T&V 7ro\e/jLO)v dvaKeijJLevov, ev rot? TrdXai aavi(jQr}vai 
Xpovois, elra Sia /3o6? evpedfjvai. The Mars of the Alans is men 
tioned by Lucan 8, 223 : duros aeteriti Martis Alanos. The 
worship of lance and sword among the Romans is attested by 
Justin 43, 3 : Nam et ab origiue rerum pro diis immortalibus 
Veteres haxtas coluere, ob cujus religionis memoriam adhuc deo- 
rum simulacris hastae adduntur; and Suet. Calig. 24: ires gladios 
in necein suam praeparatos Marti ultorl addito elogio consecravit. 
Caesar^s sword, preserved in MaiVs temple at Cologne, was pre 
sented to Vitellius on his election, Mascou 1, 117. Later they 
knelt before the sword at a court-martial, Ambraser liederb. 370; 
conf. Osw. 2969 : 

do viel er nider uf siuiu knie, 
daz swert er an sin hant gevie, 
und zoch ez uz der scheide, 



1352 zio (TIW, TYR). 

der helt des niht vermeit, 
daz ort (point) liez er nider. 

To Svantevit, Saxo ed. Mull. 824 gives a conspicuae granditatis 
en sis. The Indian Thugs worship on their knees an axe or bill, 
which is mysteriously forged, Ramasiana (Calcutta 1836.) 

The war-god has also a helmet, witness the plant named "Apeos 
tcvvri, Tyr-hialm, p. 199. 

p. 206.] Hreft-cyninges, Cod. Exon. 319,, 4, said of the wicked 
Eormanric, and therefore probably from hreS, hre$e, crudelis (p. 
290); while Hre&gotum 322, 3 answers to ON. RerSgotum. Red 
red brengt raed raed/ where the Walloon has Mars, Mars, 
Coreman s Annee de Pane. Belg. 16; conf. Ret-monat, p. 290. 
We are not warranted in referring Hroftrs (or hroftrs) andscoti, 
H^rnisq. 11, to Tr. 

p. 206 n.] Zenss 23 believes in Krodo, and thinks Reto in 
Letzner is the same. Crodio, Cod. Lauresh. 1634; Crodico 
1342. Groda, Kemble 1, 143; Creda 1, 159. 177. Krode duvel, 
p. 248. I am not sure but that Nithart s Krotolf (Hpt 117) has 
after all a mythical sound, and it is followed by a similar compli 
ment Uetelgoz, p. 367 n. KrathdboM in LiintzePs Hildesh. 51. 
Kreetpfuhl, Kreetkind, DS. 1, 415, A rivus Krodenbek, Falke s 
Trad. Corb. 612. Krottorfin Halberstadt country, conf. Krotten- 
stein for Donnerstein. 

p. 207.] Simrock thinks T$T is one-handed because a sword 
has only one edge. Does a trace of the myth linger in swa ich 
weiz des wolves zant (tooth), da wil ich hiieten (take care of) 
miner hant, } Freid. 137, 23? or in the proverb brant stant as 
dem dode (Tio ?) sine rechte hant, Wolf Ztschr. 1, 337 ? Conf. 
the Latin phrases : pugnare aequo,pari } certo, ancipite, dubio, vario, 
proprio, suo Marte. Widukind has coeco Marte 1, 6, like coeco 
furore 1, 9. When fighters see the battle going against them, 
they leave off, and acknowledge 0)9 TT^O? TOV 6eov tr<j>l<riv 6 dycov 
fyevoiro, Procop. 2, 641. The fickleness of victory is known to 
the Od. 22, 236 : OVTTCO Trdy^v BtSov erepa\Kea vitcijv (conf. ( ein 
Hie-und-dort/ Geo. 5748). Victory and luck are coupled to 
gether : sig und saelden geben, Albr. Tit. 2920-33. an sig u. 
saelden verderben 2929. 

p. 208.] Companions of Mars : circumque atrae Formidinis 



FEO (FEE YE). 1353 

ora, Jraeque Insidiaeque, del comitatus, aguntur, Aen. 12, 335. 
Lucius comitatur euntem (Tisiphonen), Bfc Pavor et Terror, trepi- 
doque Llsania vultu, Ov. Met. 4, 485. Bellona, Pavor, Formido, 
Claud, in Ruf. 1, 342; Metus cum fratre Pavore, De laud. Stil. ; 
Impetus horribilisque Metus, In Pr. et Olybr. 78. Bei/jLara iraviicd, 
Procop. 2, 550. panicus terror, Forcell. sub vv. pan, panicus. 
A panic foliage-rustling fright, Garg. 256 b . So the Wend, volksl. 
2, 266 a make Triakh, Strakh dwell in a dismal haunted spot ; SI. 
triakh, trios, tremor, is perh. the Goth. )?lahs. The Finn, kammo 
= genius horroris, horror. There is an ON. saying: e Ottar er 
fremst i flocki j?a flya skal ; is that from otti, timor ? conf. the 
Ottar in HyndlulioiS. Tha skaub (shot) ]?eim skelk i bringu 
f skaut skelk i bringu ok otta/ where skelk and otta are 
accusatives of skelkr and otti, timor. Goth, agis disdraus ina, 
awe fell upon him, Luke 1,12; conf. AS. Broga and Eyesa, Andr. 
xxxii. and diu naht-e^se, Diemer 266, 23. OHG. gefieng tho 
alle forhta, fear took hold of, T. 49, 5. There is personification 
also in the Romance negus neu pot ir, si nos torna espavers, Albig. 
4087. A different yet lively description is, so that the cat ran 
up their backs, Garg. 256 b . 218 a . Beside Hilda-Bellona (p. 422) 
appears a male Hildofr, Sasm. 75 b , like Berhtolt beside Berhta. 

p. 208.] Tyr, who in the HyniisqvrSa accompanies Thor to 
the abode of Hymir, calls the latter his father, and Hymi s con 
cubine his mother ; he is therefore of giant extraction ; conf. 
Uhland s Thor 162-3. Is this Tr not the god, as Simrock sup 
poses him to be (Edda, ed. 2, 404) ? 



CHAPTER X. 
FRO (FREYR). 

p. 210.] The Yngl. 13 calls Freyr veraldar god, Saxo calls 
Fro deorum satrapa. Goth, frduja stands not only for tcvpios, but 
for $605. The Monachus Sangall. says (Pertz 2, 733) : tune ille 
verba, quibus eo tempore superiores ab inferioribus honorari 
demulcerique vel adulari solebant, hoc modo labravit : ( laete vlr 
domine, laetifice rex ! which is surely fro herro ! OS., beside 
fro, etc., has the forrnfruoho, Hel. 153, 1 ; if it had a god s name 
Fro, that would account for Fros-d, i.e. Fro s aha, ouwa, ea. 



1354 FRO (FREYR). 

AS. has other compounds, freabeorht (freahbeort) limpidus, Lye 
and Hpt Zfcschr. 9, 408 a ; freatorht limpidus 9, 511% conf. Donar- 
perht ; frearaede expeditas (freahrsede, Lye); freudrernan jubilare, 
freabodian nuntiare ; a fern, name Freaware, Beow. 4048. In 
Lohengr. 150, zuo dem fron = to the holy place. ON. has also a 
frdnn nitidus, coruscus. From Fris. frana may we infer a fra 
dominus ? Bopp (Gl. 229 b ) conject. that frauja may have been 
frabuja, and be conn, with Skr. prabhu, dominus excelsus ; yet 
Trpavs, mild, seems to lie near [Slav.^rciy rectus, aequus, praviti 
regere, would conn, the meanings of probus, Trpa/ ov, and frauja]. 

p. 212.] Freyr oc Frei/ja, Seem. 59. He resembles Bacchus 
Liber, Aiowaos 6 E\ev6epios, Paus. i. 29, 2, and Jovis lufreis, 
liber. From his marriage with GerSr (p. 309) sprang Fiolnir, 
Yngl. 12, 14. Saxo ed. M. 120 likewise mentions his temple at 
Upsal : Fro quoque, deorum satrapa, sedem Jiaud procul Upsala 
cepit. Froi gives food to men, Faye 10. The god travelling 
through the country in his car resembles Alber, who with larded 
feet visits the upland pastures (alpe) in spring, Wolf Ztschr. 2, 
62 ; conf. Carm. Burana 131 a : redit ab exilio Yer coma rutilante/ 
and the converse: Aestas in exilium jam peregrinatur/ ibid. 
(like Summer, p. 759) ; serato Ver career e exit/ ib. 135. 

p. 213 n.] On the phallus carried about in honour of Dionysos 
or Liber by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, see Herod. 2, 48. 
Hartung 2, 140. fya\~kol earacri ev TOLO-L 7rpo7rv\aioio-i &vo Kapra 
fj,eya\oi, Lucian De dea Syra 16, where more is told about phalli, 
conf. 28-9. An idolum priapi ex auro fabrefactum Mn Pertz 
5, 481. Phalli hung up in churches at Toulouse and Bordeaux, 
Westendp. 116. The 0. Boh. for Priapus was Pripeltal, Jungm. 
sub v., or Pripegala, Mone 2, 270 out of Adelgar in Martene 1, 
626. Sloven. Imrenet, liurent, Serv. Tcurat. 

p. 2 14.] Qullinbursti, conf. gulli byrstum, Sn. 104. There is 
a plant guUborst, which in German too is eberwurz, boarwort, 
p. 1208. The Herv. saga c. 14 (p. 463. 531) in one passage 
assigns the boar to Freyr, in the other (agreeing with Sseni. 114 a ) 
to Freyja. Perhaps the enormous boar in the OHG. song, Hat- 
tern. 3, 578, and the one that met Olaf, Fornm. sog. 5, 165, were 
the boar of Freyr. In thrashing they make a pig of straw, Schm. 
2, 502, to represent the boar that walks in the corn when the 
ears ripple in the breeze , conf. AS. garsecg, ON. lagastafr; the 



FRO (FEEYE). 1355 

wild sow in the corn/ Meier schw. 149. Rocholtz 2, 187; ( de 
ivillen swine lapet drupe/ Scharnbach 118 b . 

p. 215.] On eoforcumlul conf. Andr. and El. 28-9. Tristan 
has a boar-shield, 4940. 6618. Frib. 1944; hevedes of wild- 
bare (boars) ich-on to presant brought/ Thorn. Tristrem 1, 75. 
Wrasn, wraesen (Andr. 97) in Fred-wra*num is vinculum, and 
Freyr ley sir or hoptom (bonds) hvern/ Ssem. 65 a (conf. p. 1231). 
A helmet in Hrolf Kr. saga is named Hildisvin and Hildigoltr. 
Does Helmnot Eleuther in Walthar. 1008-17 conceal a divine 
Fro and Liber ? 

p. 215.] On the boar s Jiead served up at Christmas, see 
Hone s Tab.-bk 1, 85 and Everyday-bk 1, 1619-20. guldsvin 
som lyser, Asbjo. 386 ; the giant s jul-galt, Cavallius 26 ; jul-hos, 
sinciput verrinum, Caval. Yoc. Verland. 28 1} . 

p. 216.] 8k$9bla9hir is from skift, skrSi, asser, tabula; Rask, 
Afh. 1, 365, sees in it a light Finl. vessel. Later stories about it 
in Mullen h. 453. The Yngl. saga gives the ship to O^iun, but in 
Ssem. 45 b and Sn. 48. 132 it is Frey s. 

p. 217.] Freyr is the son of Niorffr and Skaffi, who calls him 
eunfrodi afi, Ssem. 81 a . She is a giant s, piazi s, daughter, as 
GerSr is Gymi/s ; so that father and son have wedded giantesses. 
The story is lost of Freyr and Belt, whom Freyr, for want of his 
sword, slays with a buck s horn or his fist, Sn. 41 ; hence he is 
called bani Belja, Saern. 9 a . Freyr, at his teething, receives 
Alfheim, Sgern. 40 b . 

Many places in Scand. preserve the memory of Freyr : Fiosd, 
*!Norw. dipl. ; conf. Frosa, Sup. to 210. Frojrak (FreyrakerJ, 
Dipl. norv. 1, 542. Froslund, Dipl. suec. 2160; Froswi 1777; 
Frosberg 2066. Frosaker in Vestmanl.. Dyb. i. 3, 15. Schlyter 
Sv. indeln. 34. Frosluf m Zealand, Molb. dipl. 1, 144 (yr 1402). 
Froskog in Sweden, Runa 1844, 88. Frosunda, Frdsved, Froson, 
Frotuna, Frolunda, Frojeslunda, all in Sweden. Frotunum, Dipl. 
suec. 228. Fryeled, in Jonkopings-lan is styled in a doc. of 1313 
(Dipl. suec. no. 1902) Frote or Froale ; a Froel in the I. of Goth 
land appears to be the same name, in which Wieselgr. 409 finds 
ZeJ = ler3, way; may it not be eled, eld, fire? Niar&arhof ok 
Freyshof, Munch om Sk. 147. Vroinlo, now Yronen in West 
Friesl., Bohmer reg. 28. Miillenh. Nordalb. stud. 138. A man s 
name Freysteinn is formed like Thorsteinn. 



1356 FKO (FREYR). 

p. 217.] NiorSr is called meins vani, innocuus, Saam. 42 a . 
Saem. 130 a speaks of NiarSar doetur niu ; nine muses or waves ? 
conf. HeimdalFs 9 mothers. NiorSr lives at Noatflu on the 
sea, and Weinhold in Hpt Ztschr. 6, 40, derives the name from 
Sansk. nira aqua, niradhi oceanus ; add Nereus and Mod. Gr. 
vepov. Schaffarik 1, 167 on the contrary connects NiorSr and 
Niorunn with Slav, nur terra. Or we might think of Finn, nuori 
juvenis, nuorus juventus, nuortua juvenesco, Esth. noor young, 
fresh, noordus youth ; Lap. nuor young. Or of Celtic neart 
strength, Wei. nertli, Hpt Ztschr. 3, 226; Sabine Nero = fortis 
et strenuus, Lepsius Inscr. Umfor. 205. Coptic neter god and 
goddess, Buns. Egy. 1, 577. Basque nartea north, and Swed. Lap. 
nuort borealis, not Norw. nor Finn. That he was thought of in 
conn, with the North, appears from inn norffri NiorSr/ Fornm. 

sog, 6, 258. 12, 151, where Fagrsk. 123 has nerffri. Places 

named after him : Niarffey f Landn. 2, 19. NiarSmk 4, 2. 4. 
Laxd. 364. Niar&arlogr, 01. Tr. c. 102. Fornm. s. 2, 252 (see 
12, 324). Munch s Biorgyn 121 ; al. Mar&a-log, larffar-log. Is 
the Swed. Ndrtuna for Nard-tuna ? and dare we bring in our 
Nortenby Gottingen ? Thorlacius vii. 91 thinks niarff-lds in Saem. 
109 b means sera adstricta, as niarff-gidrff is arctum cingulum 
[niar^- = tight, fast, or simply intensive]. What means the 
proverb galli er a giof Niarffar ? NiorMngr ? Gl. Edd. Hafn. 
1, 632 b . 

p. 218.] Rask also (Saml. afh. 2, 282-3) takes the Vanir for 
Slavs, and conn. Heimdall with Bielbogh. I would rather sup 
pose a Yanic cult among the Goths and other (subseq. High 
German) tribes, and an Asic in Lower Germany and Scandi 
navia, Kl. schr. 5, 423 seq. 436 seq. Over hondert milen henen, 
Daer wetic (wot I) enen wilden Wenen, Walew. 5938 ; appar. an 
elf, a smith, conf. Jonckbloet 284. 

p. 219.] O^in s connexion with Freyr and NiorSr, pointed 
out on p. 348, becomes yet closer through the following circum 
stances. OSinn, like Freyr, is a god of fertility. Both are said to 
own SkiSbla^nir (Sup. to 216), both GerSr, p. 309. Fiolnir, son 
of Freyr and GerSr, is another name of OSinn, Saem. 46 b (p. 348). 
SkaiSi, NiorS s wife and Frey s mother, is afterwards OSin s 
spouse. 



PALTAR (BALDER). -1357 

CHAPTER XL 
PALTAR (BALDER). 

p. 220.] Ace. to Saxo, ed. M. 124, Hotherus is son to Hoth- 
brodus rex Sueciae, and brother to Atislus (the Aftils of Yngl. s.) ; 
Nanna is daughter to Gevarus (OHG. Kepaheri), and no goddess, 
indeed she rejects on that ground the suit of the divine Balder, 
Balder seems almost to live in Saxony or Lower Germany ; the 
Saxon Gelderus is his ally and Hother s enemy, and shares 
Balder s overthrow. Balder has come to Zealand, apparently 
from Saxony ; he never was in Sweden. Saxo makes Nanna 
fall to the lot, not of Balder, but of Hother, who takes her with 
him to Sweden. Balder, mortally wounded by Hother, dies the 
third day. The tale of king Bolder s fight with king Hother is 
told in Schleswig too, but it makes Bolder the victor, Mu llenh, 
373 ; conf. the tale of Balder and Rune 606. 

p. 221.] Paltar also in MB. 9, 23 (year 837). Baldor servus/ 
Polypt. de S. Remig. 55 a . Baaldaich, Neugart no. 289. Lith. 
baltas = white, good (conf. Baldr inn goffi, Sn. 64), baltorus a 
pale man ; and the notions white and quick often meet, as in Gr. 
dpyos, Passow sub v. 

p. 222.] A god Baldach is named in the legend of St. Bar 
tholomew (Leg. aur. c. 118), also in the Passional 290, 28 ; but 
in the Mid. Ages they said Baldach for Bagdad, and Baldewins 
for Bedouins. Svipdagr, Mengloft s lover, is the son of Solbiort 
(sun-brigjit) and Groa. To the proper names add OstertdC) which 
answers best of all to Bceldceg = dies ignis. Conf. also the Celtic 
Bvl, Belenus, p. 613. 

p. 222.] Baldr s beaming beauty is expr. in the saying ; fatt 
er liott a Baldri ; but what means the Icel. saw : logi& hefir Baldr 
at Baldri, Fornm. sog. 6, 257 ? From his white eyebrowa 
feature ascr. also to Bodvildr, meyna brd*hvito, Sasm. 139 b , and 
to Artemis \evrco<bpvvT] the anthemis cotula is called Ballerlro, 
Fries, udfl. 1, 86; conf. Dyb. 1845, p, 74. He gives name to 
Balderes lege, Kemble, 5, 117 (863), and Baiter es eih, oak. 

On Brei&ablik, conf. p. 795; add f in manigen breiten blichen, 
Tr. kr. 42475. Midsummer was sacred to Balder, and the Chris 
tians seem to have put St. John in his place. The mistletoe, 

VOL. IV. G 



1358 PAL TAB (BALDER). 

with which he was slain, has to be cut at that time, Dyb. Runa 
1844, 21-2. Do the fires of John commemorate the burning 
of Balder s body ? In Tegner s Frithiofss. xiii., Baldersbal is 
lighted at Midsummer. Hvat maelti (spake) OSinn, a$r a bal 
stigi, sialfr i eyra syni (in his son s ear) ? Sasm. 38 a ; otherw. 
( i eyra Baldri, aftr hann var a bal borinn ? Fornald. sog. 1, 
487. Conf. Plaut. Trinum. ^i. 2, 170: sciunt id quod in aurem 
rex reginae dixerit, sciunt quod Juno fabulata est cum Jove, i.e. 
the greatest secrets. 

p. 224.] Hoffr is called Baldurs bani, B. andslcoti, Seem. 95 a> b ; 
he is brought and laid on the funeral pile (a bal) by his slayer 
the newborn Vali, ibid. The Edda does not make him out a god 
of war, nor does the ON, hoSr mean pugua ; but the AS. heaffo 
does (Kemb. Beow. vol. 1, and in hea-Solaf, Beow. 914), so does 
the Ir. cath. In Saxo, Hotherus is a Swed. hero, and not blind, 
but skilled in the bow and harp (ed. M. Ill : citharoedus 123) ; 
he is favoured by wood-nymphs, and gifted with wound-proof 
raiment and an irresistible sword. Is the Swed. tale of Blind 
flatt y Cavall. 363, to be conn, with him ? Consider Hadolava, 
Hadeln, Hatheleria, Hadersleben ; and Hothers-nes (now Hor- 
sens ?) in Jutland is supposed to be named after him, Saxo 122. 
An AS. Hea Sobeard, like Longbeard. 

Hermoffr is in Sogubrot (Fornald. s. 1, 373) called bazt hugaSr/ 
and likeHelgi/ i.e. comparable to Helgi. In Beow. 1795 he 
is named immed. after Sigemund ; he falls into the power of the 
Eotens, and brings trouble on his people; again in 3417 he is 
blamed. Does Herrno^r mean militandi fessus ? OHG. Heri- 
muot, Herimaot (never Herimuodi), is against it. Hermodes porn 
in Kemb, Chart. 3, 387 ; terra quae Anglice Hermodesodes nun- 
cupatur/ Chartol. mon. S. Trinitatis (Guerard S. Bertin 455). 

p. 224.] The spell is given p. 1231-2. On Phol, see Kl. 
schr. 2, 1217. F. Wachter in the. Hall. Encycl. 1845, art. Pferd, 
pronounces pliol the plur. of a strong neut. noun phol, a foal. 
Thus: foals and Wodan fared in the wood/ But the poem 
itself uses for foal the weak (the only correct) form volo ; and 
what poet would think of naming the god s horse or horses 
beside, and even before, the god himself ? Again, was ever a 
running horse said tofahren ? 

p. 226.] Pfalsau is called Pfoals-oiva, MB. 4, 519 (circ. 1126); 



PAL TAB (BALDER). 1359 

Phols-hou 4<, 229; and Phols-u 4, 219. 222-3. Phuls-ouua, No- 
tizenbl. 6, 141. Phols-owe, Bair. quellen, 1, 279. To the eas 
enumer. in Hpt, Ztschr. 2, 254, add des Wunsches ouwe, 3 Gerh. 
2308; <der junefrouwen wert, Iw. 6326 (Guest 196 b , lille at 
puceles) ; Gotis-werder in Prussia, Lindenbl. 31. 150. With 
Pholes-piunt conf. other names of places also compounded with 
the gen. case : Ebures-piunt, Tutilis-p., Heibistes-bunta (Fin. 
Wirceb.). 

p. 226.] PfaJilbronn by Lorch, Stalin 1, 85. Pohllom on the 
Devil s Dike, Wetterau, p. 1022-3. Johannes de Paleborne, yr 
1300 (Thiir. mitth. iv. 2, 48) ; is this our Paderborn ? and may 
that town, called in L. German Padelborn, Palborn, Balborn, be 
one of Balder s burns ? Balborn in the Palatinate, Weisth. 1, 
778-9. Balde-burnen, -borne, Bohrner s Reg. 231-2, yr 1302. 
Heinrich von Pfols-prundt, surgeon, brother of the Teut. Order 
about 1460. Polborn, a family name at Berlin. In H. of Fritz- 
lar, January or February is Volborne, conf. the man s name Voll- 
born, Fiilleborn, also Faulbom, GDS. 798. [Plenty of Fill-burns, 
-becks, brooks, -meres, -hams, etc. in Engl.] A Pal-gunse (and 
Kirch-gunse) in the Wetterau, Arnsb. urk. no. 439; de phal- 
gunse, p. 267; palgunse, p. 298. Pholnrade, Thiir. mitth. vi. 
3, 2. Pfwlnrode, 4, 47. 66. Fulesbutle, Lappenb. urk. no. 805. 
812, yr 1283-4, now Fulhsbiittel. Balder dee in Schleswig is 
supposed to contain Idle refugium, and appar. answers to the 
place named B alder i fug a in Saxo, ed. M. 119. 

p. 227.] That PJwl (Kl. schr. 2, 12) is a fondling form of 
Balder, Paltar, seems after all extr. probable ; the differ, of initial 

does not matter, as Li udolf becomes Dudo. Beside the Celtic 

Bel, we might conn. Phol with Apollo, as an a is often prefixed 
in Grk. Or with pol in Pol; edepol ! by Pollux. Or with 
2)hol ) ful = looar > p. 996, seeing that eburespiunt answ. to pholes- 
piunt, Sup. to 226. In Gramrn. 3, 682 I have expl. volencel, 
f aunus, Gl. Bern., Diut. 2, 214 b , by fol, fou, stultus. A hero 
Pholus in 0\r. Met. 12, 306. On the Ethiop king Phol, see Hpt 
Ztschr. 5, 69. 

p. 228 n.] On Ullr = OHG. Wol, see Hpt Ztschr. 7, 393 ; bet 
ter to conn, it with Goth. Vuljms.8, 201 ; yet see Sup. to 163 n. 

p. 229 E.] The whirlwind is called Pullioidclien, Pulhaud, 
Schamb. 161; conf. infra, p. 285 n. 632-6. Beside Boylsperg, 



1360 OTHER GODS. 

we find Boylbom, Mitth. Thiir. Yer. v. 4, 60. Fold, see p. 
992 n. In Reinwald s Henneb. Id. 1, 37 we find the phrase to 
have (or take) something for your/o/P means e to lie on the bed 
you have made/ Ace. to the Achen mundart 56, the weavers of 
Aix call cloth made of yarn that they have cabbaged follcke, fiill- 
chen [filch? Goth, filhan, to hide]. In Kammerforst, the old 
ban-forest near Trier, which none might tread with gesteppten 
leimeln (nailed shoes), dwells a spirit who chastises wood-spoilers 
and scoffers: his name is Pulch, still a family-name in Trier. 
And the hill outside the city, down which the wheel used to be 
rolled into the Moselle (Sup. to 191), is Pulslerg. Near Wald- 
weiler is a Poldfels, and in Priim circuit a Pohlbach. 

p. 229.] Forseta-lund (-grove) in Norway, Hunch s Beskriv. 

483. 

p. 231.] Villa Forsazi in pago Lisgau (Forste near Osterode ?) 
in a charter of Otto III., yr 990, Harenberg s Gandersheim 625. 
Falke 483. Walterus de Forsaten (Forste by Alfeld), Falke 890, 
yr 1197. In Saxonia, in pago qui vocatur Firihsazi, Einhard s 
Ann., yr 823 (Pertz, 1, 211) with the variants : firihsati, fiuhsazi, 
frihsazi, strihsazi, firichsare, virsedi ; in Ann. Fuld. (Pertz 1, 
358) Firihsazi. The deriv. conjectured at p. 232 n., iromfors, 
cataract, seems the safest, GDS. 757. 

p. 232.] Later stories of fishermen and sailors at Helgoland, 
and the carrying about of an image of St. Giet, are in Miillenh. 
no. 117. 181. 535 ; conf. p. 597. Similar names, often confounded 
with it (see Fornm. sog. 12, 298), are : Halogaland, now Helgeland, 
in the north of Norway, and the Swedish (once Danish) province 
of Holland, called in Alfred s Periplus Helgoland. Ought we 
to write Helgoland ? conf. Heli, p. 388. 



CHAPTER XII. 
OTHER GODS. 



p. 234.] Heimffallr is expl. by Leo, vorl. 131, as heim-dolde, 
world- tree. If d instead of <f were correct, it might contain the 
AS. deal, dealles (note to Andr. 126). HeimSall viffkunnari enn 
vor&r me S go^um, Ssem. 85% the sverd-as in Himinbiorg, reminds 



OTHER GODS. 1361 

of the angel guarding Paradise with, a sword, El. 755, &c. His 
blowing a horn when Surtr approaches recalls " the last trump " 

Qmt-haurn, Ulph.), 1 Cor. 15, 52. A Himiles-berc in Hone s 

Anz. 6, 228 ; a Heofen-feld in Northumb., Lye sub v. Heim- 

Sallr is called Vindler, Sn. 105, Vindlere in Resen. Of Finnish 

gods, Ahti or Lemminkainen has the sharpest ears, Kalev. 17, 7 

(Anshelni 3, 64 speaks of hearing the grass grow). H. is son 

of OSinn by 9 mothers, Sn. 21 l a . Laxd. saga p. 392; does it 
mean his father had 9 wives ? The Romans called their Liber 
bi-mater ; conf. the name Quatremere. 

p. 234.] Rigr is stigandi, gangandi, Seem. TOO". 105*. In 
Yngl. p. 20 he is the first Danish king; his son Danpr has a 
daughter Drott, the mother of Dyggvi, and a son Dagr. Sasm. 
106 b names e Danr ok Danpr together; conf. F. Magn. lex. 
p. 670. 

p. 235.] Bragi is becJcskrautuffr , scamnorum decus, Ssem 61 b ; 
brother of Dagr and Sigrun 164; pi. bragnar dat. brognum, 
simply viri 152 a . 

p. 236.] A ~Burnacker in Forstem. 2, 4 ; brunnacker in H. 
Meyer s Ziirch. ortsn. 523. Weisth. 1, 119; hence prob. the man s 
name Briinacker in Konr. v. Weinsb. 3, 4. 

p. 237.] The eager on the Trent, Carlyle s Hero-worship. 
AS. eagor ; in Bailey s Diet, eager = flood-tide. The Finnish 
sea-god, with beard of grass, sitting on a water-lily, is Ahto, 
Ahfi, gen. Aliin, Kalev. 22, 301. 29, 13. 15; conf. my Kl. schr. 
3, 122. 

p. 238.] Like Oegi s helm is the Exhelmer stein on a hill in 
the Kellergebirge, Hess. Ztschr. 1, 245. On Grwir oegir, see p. 
1017. In the helmet lit ein hiltegrin, Dietr. drachenk. 11; 
galeae minaci, Claudian in Prob. et Olybr. 92; terribilem galeam, 
Virg. Aen. 8, 620. 

p. 238.] Oegir is a iotunn, Hym. 3; a bergbui 2. The ON. 
ogn, L, = terror and ocean; ognar liomi = go\d, Ssem. 1 52 a ; 
ogorlig Oegisdottor 153 a ; olsmiffr = Oegir, Egills. 618. What 
means Oegis-heimr, Sa3m. 124-5 ? Egideiba, Agistadium, Hpt s 
Ztschr. 8, 588 ; Agasul on L. Zurich 2, 536, formed like Agadora 
(Eider, p. 239 ?) oegisandr, sea-sand, Barl. 26, 20. 
. p. 240.] Hies dasttr a vi k S blesu. her er sjor kalla^r Hler, 
)?vi at hann Jilyr allra minnz, Sn. 332; hlyr = egelidus, tepidus, 



1362 OTHER GODS. 

OHG. Mo, lawer, Graff 2, 294; Ir. Z/r, Conan 33-4-9. 93. 192-3. 
Diarmid 87. 112-4-6 ; also lear, Learthonn, T. 7. 

p. 242.] As Logi, the villi-eldr/ Sn. 60, is son to giant 
Forniotr, so is Loki a son of giant Farbauti. The eating-match 
betw. Loki and Logi is like that of Herakles and Lepreus, Athenae. 
p. 412. Pans. 5, 5. Prometheus is chained to the rock by 

Hephaestus, Loki by Logi. Loki, l sa er flestu illu rae^r/ is 

hateful to the gods : er oil regin cegja, Thorl. sp. 6, 38 ; sa inn 
laevisi Loki, Saam. 67 b ; in folksongs LokeZeve/ Wieselgr. 384-5, 
in Danish Loke Itjemand, 3 conf. the name Liuuiso, Liuiso, Trad, 
fuld. 2, 32-43 ; in Norweg. hin onde, Hallager, as Oden is in 
1. 828 ; for Lokkens havre we have den ondes hafre, Dybeck runa 

1847, 30-1. There is a saying: leingi geingr Loki ok Thorr 

( = lightning and thunder), lettir ei hrrSum/ the storm lasts. 

Rask thinks the name akin to Finn, lokki, wolf; some may think 
it an abbrev. of Lucifer ! Uhland takes Loki to be the locker-up, 
concluder of all things, as Heiindall is originator. To Logi conf. 
Hdlogi for Holgi, Sn. 128. 154. F. Magn. lex. p. 981. 

p. ii43.] Ik bede di grindel an deser helle, Upstandinge 553, 
seems almost to mean a personal devil. 

p. 243 n.] It is true, another race of rulers beside the Ases is 
imagined, one of whom, Gylfi king of Sweden, sets out zsgangkri 
(pilgrim) to spy out the Ases (Sn. 1. 2. 2, &c.), but is cheated by 
them. But this is an imitation of Eddie lays, which make OSinn 
as gangleri and gangraSr travel to the giants, and talk with them. 
Sasm. 31-2; conf. Aegirs journey to Asgard, and his dialogue with 
Bragi, Sn. 79, &o. 

p. 245.] In Saem. 37 a Fenrir pursues Alf-roSull, which must 
mean the moon, the sun of the elves ; conf. festr mun slitna 
enn Frecki renna/ Saem. 7-8. man obundinn Fenris-ulfr fara/ 
Hakonarm. 23. Loki li$r or bondum/ Sasm. 96 a (conf.iotunn 
Iosnar8 a ; is this Loki or Surtr ? Loki is laegiarnliki a)?eckr, 

monstro similis 7 a ). Loki is caught by piazi, Sn. 81, and 

expressively chained 70 (conf. Saem. 7 a ) ; so is Fenrir 33-4-5 ; 
conf. the chained giant (Suppl. to 544), chained devil (p. 1011), 

chained Kronos (p. 832 n.). Loki s daughter Hel esp. makes 

it likely that he too was common to all Teut. nations. 

p. 247.] AS. sdtor-ldffe, panicum crusgalli, is a grass like the 
sown by Kronos (Suppl. to 1192). One is reminded of 



GODDESSES EARTH. 1363 

Saturni dolium by Lucifer sedens in dolio, Upstandinge p. 41, 
and des tiuvels vaz, Hpt s Ztsclir. 7, 327. What means the 
ON. scdturnir, Sn. 222 b ? 

p. 248-9.] Delias pp. 41. 50 cites krodenduvel, kroden-heuker, 
kroden-kind is the first out of Botho ? In a Hildesheim MS. 
of the 1 6th cent., Frosch-meus, we read : pravi spiritus, id est, 
de kroden duvels in contrast with the good holdes. In Hh. 

VIII a : misshapen as they paint the kroden teuffvl. Jor- 

nandes de regn. succ. p. m. 2 has the pedigree Saturnus, Picus, 
Faunus, Latinus ; conf. p. 673 and GDS. 120, 



CHAPTER XIII. 
GODDESSES. 

p. 250 n.] The MHG-. gotinne is in Saem. 115* gy$ja> yet in 
114 b ey truiSi Ottarr a dsynjor, and 61* heilir aesir, heilar dsynjor! 
conf. vravre? re 0eol jraaaLre 9eatVai t II. 8, 5. 19, 101. Od. 8, 341. 
This word goddess acquired a lower sense, being used by the 
people for fair dames and pretty lasses, Liudpr. an tap. 4, 13. 
Ermegart Himel-^oh w/ RiickeiVs Ludwig 97. What is the 
gotin in Nithart MSH. 3, 288 a , who goes unter dem fanen uz 
dem vorst, wol geammet, and is led out on the green under blue 
sky (baldachin), apparently by peasants at an old harvest- festi* 
val? conf. fee, Suppl. to 410. 

p. 251.] OHG. ero, earth, answers to Ssk 4 ird, Ir. ire> GDS. 
55. Tellus might be for terulus, as puella for puerula, but the 
gen. is telluris, conf. Ssk. tala, fundus. Humus is Ssk xama. 
Tola, called Trpcoro/jiavT^ in ^Esch. Eum. 2, corresponds .to Ssk. 
gaus, go, cow (p. 665), the cow being mother of the world (p. 559) : 
o> 777 /col 6eoi } a frequent Attic invocation. ON; fold is unper- 
sonal, yet is greeted in Saem. 194 a : lieil su hin fioln^ta fold! 

GDS. 60 (p. 254). lord*, earth, is called lonakr s tree-green, 

oak-green daughter: dottur Onars vr<5i-groen, Sn. 123; eiki- 
groent Onars flioft, Fornm. sog. 1, 29. 12, 27. She is daughter 
of night in Seem. 194 a : heil nott ok nipt! but who is eorffan 
bro&or, Cod. Exon. 490, 23 ? I6r$ is also mother of Meili, Thor s 
brother, Ssem. 76 a ; Idrf^Fidrgyn 80 b (p. 172). Of Eindr and 



1364 GODDESSES. 

her relation to 0$in : seid Yggr til Rindr/ Y. amores Rindae 
incantamentis sibi conciliavit, Sn. 1848. 1, 236. Is AS. hruse 
(terra) contained in grusebank, turf-bench, Schm. von Wern. 
114? 

p. 251 n.] At Attila s grave too the servants are killed : f et 
ut tot et tantis divitiis humana curiositas arceretur, operi depu- 
tatos trucidarunt, emersitque momentanea mors sepelientibus cum 
sepulto/ Jorn. cap. 49. The Dacian king Decebalus buries his 
treasure under the bed of the Sargetia, Cass. Dio 68, 14. Giese- 
brecht supposes the Wends had the same custom, Bait. stud. 11, 
28-9. 

p. 252.] Nerthus is the only true reading, says Miillenhoff, 
Upt s Ztschr. 9, 256 ; Erthus is admissible, think Zeuss and 
Bessel. Nerthus answers to Ssk. Nritus, terra, Bopp 202 b ; conf. 
C. Hofmann in Ztschr. der morgenl. ges. 1847. A thesis by Pyl, 
Medea, Berol. 1850 p. 96 derives it fr. LG. nerder, nerdrig, conf. 
vepre/oo?. Her island can hardly be Riigen (p. 255-6), but perhaps 
Femern or Alsen, says Miillenh., Nordalb. stud. 1, 128-9. Her 
car stood in the grove (templum) under a tree, Giefers. Nerthus, 
id est, Terra mater strongly reminds of Pliny s mater deum 18, 
4 : quo anno m. d. advecta Romam est, major em ea aestate messem 
quam antecedentibus annis decem factam esse tradunt. 

p. 253.] Though the people now imagine fru Gode, Goden, 
Qauden as a frau, there appears now and then a de koen (king) 
instead, Hpt s Ztschr. 4, 385. Legends of fru Gauden in Lisch, 
Meckl. jrb. 8, 203, &c. Niederhoflfer 2, 91 (conf. p. 925-6-7). 
Harvest-home still called vergodensdcl in Liineburg, conf. Kuhn 
and Schwartz p. 394-5. The Vermlanders call Thor s wife god- 
mor, good mother. Rask, Afh. 1, 94 derives ON. Goi fr. Finn. 
hoi (aurora). GDS. 53. 93. 

p. 254] Priscus calls Attila s wife Kpetca 179, 9, Peicav 207, 
17, which easily becomes Herka. Frau Harke a giantess, Kuhn 
146. 371. Fru Harlce, Arke, Harfe, Earre, Hpt s Ztschr. 4, 386, 
5, 377. Sommer 11. 167-8. 147 (conf. frau Motte, 12. 168. 147). 
A witch s daughter Harha, Wolf s Ztschr. 2, 255. Haksclie, like 
Godsche for Gode, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 377. Harke flies through the 
air in the shape of a dove, makes the fields fruitful, carries a stool 
to sit on, so as not to touch the ground, Sommer p. 12; this is 
like Herodias (p. 285) and the wandering woman (p. 632. 1058). 



NEKTHUS. GAUDE. HAEKE. CERES. ISIS. 1365 

p. 254 n.] Mommsen 133 derives Ceres, Oscan Kerres, from 
creare ; Hitzig Philist. 232 connects it with Cris = Sri; I with 
cera and cresco. For Demeter the Slavs have zeme mate, mother 
earth ; a dear mother, like (Trvpos) (j)l\r)<$ Arj^rpo^, ^Esop (Corais 
212. de Furia 367). Babr. 131; conf. J^repo? a/mj, II. 13, 
323, and < das Hebe korn, getreidelein, Gram. 3, 665. GDS. 53. 
The Earth s lap is like a mother s : foldan sceat ( = schoosz), Cod. 
Exon. 428, 22. eorSan sceata eardian 496, 23. eorSan sceatas 
hweorfan 309, 22. grund-bedd 493, 3. 

p. 255.] On the goddess s progress see Suppl. to 252. With 
her bath conf. the purifying bath of Eliea (Preller 1, 409), whosa 
name Pott would explain by evpela = Ssk. urvi fr. uru = varu, 
Kuhn s Ztschr. 5, 285. The lavatio Berecynthiae is described by 
Augustine, Civ. Dei 2, 4; conf. Vita Martini cap. 9 (W. Miiller 
p. 48). The image of Artemis was washed in seven rivers flow 
ing out of one spring, Pref. to Theocritus ; the alraun and ali- 
rumna were bathed. 

p. 256 n.] The LG. farmer s maxim, Mai-mand kold un nat 
Fiillt schiinen un fat, is in Swedish Mai kail Fyller bondena 
lador all, Runa 1844, 6. A similar saw in Bretagne about St. 
Arine, Lausitzer mag. 8, 51 ; how is it worded in French ? 

p. 257.] On Tan/ana see my Kl. Schr. 5, 415, etc. GDS. 
231-2. 336. 622. 

p. 263.] From Eodulf s account was probably taken the 16th 
cent, notice in Reiffenberg s Phil. Mouskes, tome 1. Brux. 1838 
app. p. 721 : Sub Alexandro, qui fuit sex annis episcopus 
(Leodiensis) et depositus in Cone. Pisae an. 1135, fuit quaedam 
prodigiosa seu demoniaca navis, quae innixa rotis et magice agitato, 
malignis spiritibus attractu funium fuit Tungris inducta Los- 
castrum. Ad quam omnis sexus appropinquans tripudiare et 
saltare cogebatur etiam nudo corpore. Ad earn feminae de mane 
stratis exilientes accurrebant, dum dicta navis citharae et aliorum 

instrumentorum sonitu resonaret. Weavers, whom R/odulf 

makes prominent in hauling and guarding the ship, have some 
thing to do with navigation : in their trade they ply the schifF 
(shuttle), and that is why they were called marner, Jager s Ulm 
p. 636-7. About carrying ships on shoulders Pliny has another 
passage 5, 9 : c ibi Aethiopicae conveniunt naves ; namque eas 
plicatiles liumeris transferunt quoties ad catarractas ventum .est. 



1366 GODDESSES. 

Also Justin 32, 3 : Istri naves suas humeris per juga montium 
usque ad littus Adriatic! maris transtulerunt. 

Additional traces of German ship-processions and festivals. In 
Antwerp and Brabant, near the scene of that old procession, there 
was about 1400 erne gilde in der blauwer scuten/ Hpt s Ztschr. 
1, 266-7. At Shrovetide sailors drag a ship about, Kuhn s Nordd. 
sagen p. 369. At the Schonbart-running in Niirnberg, men in 
motley used at Shrovetide to carry Hell round, including a ship 
and the Venus Mount ; see Hist, of Schonb.-run. at N., by the 
Germ. Soc. of Altdorf 1761. Another ship-procession in Hone s 
Everyday-book 2, 851. In the Mauritius und Beamunt/ vv. 
627 894, a ship on wheels, with knights and music on board, is 
drawn by concealed horses through the same Rhine and Meuse 
country to a tournament at Cologne; it is afterwards divided 
among the garzuns (pages), v. 1040. Is the idea of the Shi}} of 
fools travelling fr. land to land akin to this ? especially as Dame 
Venus mit dern strdwen ars (conf. Hulda s stroharnss, p. 269n.) 
rides in it, ed. Strobel p. 107; frau Fenus niit dem stroem 
loch/ Fastn.-sp. p. 263. Consider too the cloud-ship of Magonia 
(p. 639), and the enchanted ship with the great band of music, 
Miillenh. p. 220. The wilde gjaid comes along in a sledge 
shaped like a ship, drawn by naughty maidservants, who get 
whipped, Wolf s Ztschr. 2, 32-3. Nursery-tales tell of a ship 
that crosses land and water, Meier 31. Schambach 18. Prohle s 
Marchen nos. 46-7. Wolfs Beitr. 1, 152, &c. Finn, march. 2, 
l b . Berchta is often ferried over, and of Oftinn the S61arlio$ 77 
(Saem. 130 a ) says : CKSins qvon rcer a iarffar skipi. 

p. 264 n.] At Shrovetide a plough was drawn through the 
streets by maskers, Biisching s Woch. nachr. 1, 124, fr. Tenzel. 
H. Sachs says, on Ash-Wednesday the maids who had not taken 
men were yoked in a plough; so Fastn.-sp. 247, 6-7 ; pulling 
the fools plough 233. 10. Kuhn conn, pfluoc, plogr, Lith. 
plugas with the root plu, flu, so that plough orig. meant boat, 
Ssk. plava, Gr. vrXotov. 

p. 265 n.] Drinking-bowls in shipshape; argentea navis, 
Pertz 10, 577. A nef d or on the king s table, Garin 2, 16-7; 
later examples in Schweinichen 1, 158. 187. An oracle spoke of 
a silver ploughshare, Thucyd. 5, 16. 

p. 265 n. 2.] Annius Viterb., ed. ascensiana 1512, fol. 171 ab : 



ISIS. HOLDA. 1367 

ergo venit (Isis) in Italiam efc docuifc frumentariam, molendi- 
nariam et panificam, cum ante glande vescerentur .... Viterbi 
primi panes ab Iside confecti sunt. item Vetuloniae celebravifc 
Jasius nuptias, et panes obtulit prinios Isis, ut in Y. antiquitatum 
Berosus asserit. porro, ut probant superiores quaestiones, Yetu- 
lonia est Yiterbum/ The Lith. Krumine wanders all over the 
world to find her daughter, and teaches men agriculture, Hanusch 
245. The year will be fruitful if there is a rustling in the air 
during the twelves, Sommer p. 12 (Suppl. to 254). 

p. 267.] Goth, hulps propitius is fr. hil]?an, hal);, hul]?un, to 
bow (s. Lobe). Holle, Holda is a cow s name in Carinthia. In 
Dietr. drachenk., str. 517-8, &c. there is a giant called Hulle, but 
in str. 993 : sprancten fiir frowen Hidlen der edelen juncfrowen 
fin/ In Thuringia frau Wolle, Eolle, Sommer 10-1. Holda in 
Cod. Fuld. no. 523. Frau Holla in Rhenish Franconia, From- 
mann 3, 270. Die Holl kommt they say at Giessen, die 
Hulla also beyond the Main about Wiirzburg, Kestler s Besclir. 
v. Ochsenfurt, Wrzb. 1845, p. 29. Frau Holle also in Silesia. In 
Up. Sax. she was called frau Helle, B. vom abergl. 2, 66-7; frau 

Holt in Wolfs Ztschr. 1, 273. The very earliest mention of 

Holda is in Walafrid Strabo s eulogy of Judith, wife of Louis 
the Pious : 

Organa dulcisono percussit pectine Judith ; 

si Sappho loqnax vel nos inviseret Holda, etc. 

p. 267 n.] With Kinderm. 24 conf. the variant in KM. 3, 40 
seq., Svenska afv. 1, 123 and Pentarn. 4, 7. Much the same said 
of the dialas, Schreiber s Taschenb. 4, 310 (Suppl. to 410). 

p. 270.] When fog rests on the mountain: f Dame H. has lit 
her fire in the hill. In Alsace when it snows; d engele han s 
bed gemacht, d fedre fliege runder; in Gegenbach 427: 
heaven s feathers fly ; in Nassau : Dame H. shakes up her 
bed/ Kehrein s Nassau p. 280. Nurses fetch babies out of 
frau Hollen teich. In Transylvania are fields named Frau-holda- 
graben, Progr. on Carrying out Death 1861, p. 3. She washes 
her veil, Prohle 198. Like Berthe, she is queen or leader of 
elves and holdes (p. 456), conf. Titania and Dame Yenus. 
Fraue Bercht, fraue Holt occur in the Landskranna (?) 
Himelstrasz, printed 1484, Gefken s Beil. 112. In the neigh- 



1368 GODDESSES. 

bourhood of the Meisner, Dame H. carried off a rock on her 
thumb, Hess. Ztschr. 4, 108; a cave is there called Kitz-Kammer, 
perhaps because cats were sacred to her as to Freya (p. 305). 
On the Main, between Hassloch and Griinen worth, may be seen 
fra Hulle on the Fra Hullenstein, combing her locks. Who 
ever sees her loses his eyesight or his reason. Dame Holle rides 
in her coach, makes a whirlwind, pursues the hunter, Prohle 156. 
278. 173, like Pharaildis, Verild (357 n.). Legends of Hulle in 
Herrlein s Spessart-sag. 179 184. A frau Hollen-spiel (-game) 
in Thuringia, Hess. Ztschr. 4, 109. The Haule-mutter (mother 
H.) in the Harz, an old crone, makes herself great or little, 
Harrys 2, no. 6. Prohle 278; conf. fla?tfe-mannerchen (dwarfs) 
in KM. no. 13. She is a humpbacked little woman, Sommer 

p. 9 ; walks with a crutch about Haxthausen, Westph. Again, 

queen Holle appears as housekeeper and henchwoman to Frederick 
Barbarossa in Kifhauser, exactly as Dame Venus travels in 
Wuotan s retinue, Sommer p. 6. In Up. Hesse meatt der Holle 
farn means, to have tumbled hair or tangled distaff, prob. 
also night-walking : the Holle at Wartburg looks like a witch, 
Woeste s Mitth. p. 289 no. 24 ; conf. verheuletes haar/ Corrodi 

professer 59, and a man with shaggy hair is called holle-kopf. 

With her sfroharnss conf. strowen-ars, Suppl. to 263. Careless 
spinners are threatened with the verwunschene frau, Panzer s 
Beitr. 1, 84 : she who does not get her spinning over by Sun 
day will have Holle in her distaff to tangle it ; conf. the Kuga 
(p. 1188-9). 

p. 272.] The Huldarsaga, tale of the sorceress Huldr, is told 
by Sturle ; conf. the extract fr. Sturlunga in Oldn. laseb. p. 40. 
Huldre-web in Norway means a soft vegetable material like 
flannel; and in Faye 42 Huldra is clothed in green. The hulder 
in Asb. 1, 48. 78. 199 has a cow s tail; here it is not so much 
one hulder, as many huldren that appear singly. So in the 
M.Nethl. Rose 5679 : { hidden, die daer singhen ; are these 
mermaids ? In Sweden they have a hylle-fru and a Hildi-moder, 
Geyer 1, 27; conf. Dybeck 1845, 56. 

p. 273.] The name of Perahta, the bright, answers to Selene, 
Lucina, Luna, therefore Artemis, Diana. Hence she takes part 
in the Wild Hunt, accompanied by hounds, like Hecate ; hence 
also, in the LG. Valentin und Namelos, Berta has become Clarina 



HOLDA. BEEHTA. 1369 

[conf. St. Lucy, frau Lutz, p. 274 n.]. The Lith. Lauma is very 

like Berhta and Holda : she is goddess of earth and of weaving. 
She appears in a house, helps the girls to weave, and gets through 
a piece of linen in no time ; but then the girl has to guess her 
name. If she guesses right, she keeps the linen ; if not, the 
laume takes it away. One girl said to the laume : Laume Sore 
peczin auda duna pelnydama/ 1. S. weaves with her arm, earn 
ing bread. Her name was Sore, so the girl kept the linen, 
N. Preuss. prov. bl. 2,380. Schleicher in Wien. ber. 11, 101 
seq. says, the laume is a malignant alp (nightmare) who steals 
children, is voracious, yet bathes on the beach, helps, and brings 
linen : a distinct being (11, 96-7) fr. the laiina spoken of on 
p. 416 n. Nesselm. 353 h . 

p. 273 n.] Werre is akin to Wandel-muot, Ls. 3, 88. 1, 
205-8 : fro Wandelmuot sendet ir scfieid-sdmen (seeds of divi 
sion) 2, 157. in dirre witen werlde kreizen hat irre-sdmen (seeds 
of error) uns gesat ein frouwe ist Wendelmuot geheizen, MS. 2, 
198 b ; conf. the seed sown by death (p. 848) and the devil (p. 
1012). frou Wendelmuot hie Hebe maet init der viirwitz segens 
abe (dame Ficklemind here mows down love with curiosity s 
keen sithe), Turl. Wh. 128 a . 

p. 274.] The meal set ready for Bertha resembles the food 
offered to Hecate on the 30th of the month, Athen. 3, 194 ; cer 
tain fish are Efcdrris /3pu>rara 3, 146-7. 323. Filling the belly 
with chopped straw : conf. the hrism&gi, Laxd. saga 226. As 
the white lady prescribes a diet for the country-folk (Morgenbl. 
1847, nos. 50 52), they tell of a dame Borggabe (loan), who 
gave or lent money and corn to needy men, if they went to 
her cave and cried ( Gracious dame B/ ; conf. OHG. 67io?*?i-gepa 
Ceres, samo-kepa saticena, Gibicho ; win-gobe, MB. 13, 42. oti- 
geba (890 n.). Nycolaus von dem crwme?i-ghebe, an. 1334, 
Henneb. urk. ii. 13, 30. 

p. 277.] Berta, like Holda, is called motlier in the Swed. 
marchen p. 366, gamla B., trollkaring. In one Swed. tale a 
fair lady walks attended by many dwarfs ; the room she enters 

is filled with them, Wieselgr. 454. Like the Thuringian 

Perchta, the devil blows out eye*, Miillenh. p. 202 ; care breathes 
upon Faust, and blinds him ; conf. the curse, Your eyes are 
mine/ N. Preuss. prov. bl. 1, 395, and ( spiiltle zwstreicheu, 



1370 GODDESSES. 

rt?//streichen (stroke them shut, stroke them open)/ Meier s 

Schwab, sag. 136. After the lapse of a year the woman gets 

her child back, Miillenh. no. 472 ; so does the man in the wild 
hunt get rid of his hump (Suppl. to 930) ; conf. Steub s Vor- 
arlberg p. 83, Bader s Sagen no. 424, and the Cheese-mannikin 
in Panzer 2, 40. On Berhta s share in the Furious Hunt see 
p. 932. 

p. 277.] In S. Germany, beside Bertha, Berche, we find frau 

Bert, Bertel, Panzer s Beitr. 1, 247-8. The wild Berta wipes her 

- with the unspun flax. At Holzberndorf in Up. Franconia, 

a lad acts Eisen-berta, clad in a cow s hide, bell in hand ; to good 

children he gives nuts and apples, to bad ones the rod 2, 117. 

p. 278.] To the Bavar. name Stempo we can add that of the 
Strasburger Stampho, an. 1277, Bohmer s Reg. Rudolfi no. 
322; conf. stempfel, hangman, MS. 2, 2 b . 3 a . In Schm. 3, 638 
8tampulanz = longbea,T, 2, 248 stempen-har = Ra,-x. , conf. Von d. 

Hagen s G. Abent. 3, 13-4. Beside Trempe, there seems to 

be a Temper, Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 181, perhaps sprung out of 
Quatember in the same way as frau Paste (p. 782 n.), ibid. 1, 
292. tolle trompe (trampel ?), Rocken.phil. 2, 16-7. In favour 
of S having been added before T is Schperchta for Perchta, 
Mannh. Ztschr. 4. 388. As Stempe treads like the alp, she seems 
ident. with the alp-crushing Muraue. 

p. 279.] In Salzburg country the Christmas-tree is called 
Bechl-boschen, Weim. jrb. 2, 133. in loco qui dicitur Berten- 
wimn, Salzb. urk. of 10th cent., Arch. f. ostr. gesch. 22, 299. 
30 4-. Outside Remshard near Giinzburg, Bav., is a wood * zu der 
dime (girl)/ The dirne-weibl used to be there in a red frock 
with a basket of fine apples, which she gave away and changed 
into money. If people did not go with her, she returned weep 
ing into the wood. Here comes the dirne-weibl 9 said children, 
to frighten each other. Seb. Brant p. m. 195 knows about 
Bdchtenfarn, B/s fern. 

Berchtolt is a common name in Swabia, Bit. 10, 306. 770; 
conf. Berchtols-gaden (now Berchtes-g.), Prechtles-boden-alpe, 
Seidl s Aimer 2, 73. The white mannikin is also described by 
Bader no. 417. 

p. 280.] When Malesherbes was talking to Louis XVI. of the 
fate in store for him, the king said : On m a souvent raconte 



BEEHTA. OSTAKA. 1371 

dans mon enfance, que toutes les fois qu un roi de la maison des 
Bourbons devait mourir, on voyaifc a minuit se promener dans les 
galeries du chateau une grande femme vetue de blanc/ Mem. de 
Besenval; conf. de witte un swarie Dorte/ Miillenh. p. 343-4; 
and tlie Klag-mutter p. 1135. The same is told of the Ir. bansighe, 
pi. mnasiglie, O Brien sub. vv. sithbhrog, gruagach. 

p. 281.] The image of reine Pedauque, Prov. Pedauca (Rayn. 
sub v. auca), stands under the church-doors at Dijon, Nesle, 
Nevers, St. Pou.rcin and Toulouse. The last was known to 
Rabelais : qu elles etaient largement pattues, comme sont les 
oies et jadis a Toulouse la reine Pedauque/ This statue held a 
spindle, and spun, and men swore par la quenouille de la reine 
P./ Paris p. 4. So queen Goose-foot was a spinner ; yet her 
goose-foot did not come of spinning, for the spinning- wheel was 
not invented till the 15th cent., Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 135. Berhta 
cum magno pede, Massm. Eracl, 385, Heinricus Gense-fuz, MB. 
8, 172. cagots with goose-foot or duck s-foot ears, Fr. Michel s 
Races maud. 2, 126-9. 136. 144-7. 152. M. C. Vulliemin s La 
reine Berte et son temps makes out that Berte la fileuse was 
wife to Rudolf of Little Burgundy, daughter to the Alamann 
duke Burchard, and mother to Adelheid who married Otto I. ; 
this Berta died at Pay erne about 970. To the white damsel is 
given a little white lamb, Miillenh. p. 347. 

p. 285 n.] The whirlwind is called sau-arsch, mucken-arsch, 
Schmidt s Westerwald. id. 116; in Up. Bavaria sau-wede. When 
it whirls up hay or corn, the people in Passau and Straubing cry 
to it: sau-dreck ! du schwarz farltel (pig) ! Sew-zayel, a term 
of abuse, H. Sachs v., 347 b ; conf. pp. 632. 996. In an old Lan- 
gobard treaty the devil is porcorum possessor. 

p. 291.] star a is akin to Ssk. vasta daylight, vasas day, 
ushas aurora, vastar at early morn ; conf. Zend, ushastara eastern, 
Benfey 1, 28. Lith. aiiszta it dawns, auszrinne aurora; Ausca 
(r. Ausra), dea occumbentis vel ascendentis solis (Lasicz). Many 
places in Germany were sacred to her, esp. hills : Austerkopp, 
Osfcerk. in Waldeck, Firmen. 1, 324 b , conf. Astenberg 325 a ; 
Osterstube, a cave, Panz. Beitr. 1, 115. 280; Osterbrunne, a 
Christian name: f ich 0., ein edelknecht von Ror/ an. 1352, 
Schmid s Tubingen 180. Her feast was a time of great re 
joicing, hence the metaphors : ( (thou art) miner freuden oster-tac 



1372 GODDESSES. 

(-day)/ Iw. 8120. mines herzens ostertac, MS. 2, 223 a . 1, 37 b . 
der gernden ostertac, Amgb. 3 a ; conf. Meien-tag. It is a sur 
name in the Zoller country : dictus der Ostertag, Mon. Zoll. no. 
252-7. Frideriches saligen son des Ostertages, no. 306. 

The antithesis of east and west seems to demand a Westara as 
goddess of evening or sundown, as Mone suggests, Anz. 5, 493 ; 
consider westergibel, westermane, perh. westerhemde, wester- 
barn, the Slav. Vesna, even the Lat. Vespera, Vesperugo. 

p. 296.] On the goddess Zisa, conf. the history of the origin 
of Augsburg in Keller s Fastn. sp. p. 1361. About as fabulous 
as the account of the Augsburg Zisa, sounds the following fr. 
Ladisl. Suntheim s Chronica, Cod. Stuttg. hist., fol. 250: Die 
selb zeit sasz ain haiduischer hertzog von Swaben da auf dem 
slos Hillom-ondt, ob Vertica (Kempten) der stat gelegen, mit namen 
Esnerius, der wonet noch seinen (adhered to his) haidnischen sit- 
ten auf Hillomondt; zu dem komen die vertriben waren aus 
Vertica und in der gegent darumb, und patten in (begged him), 
das er sie durch (for the sake of) seiii gotin, Zysa genannt, mit 
veld begabet und aufnam (endow and befriend) .... Da sprach 
hertzog Esnerius : wann ir mir swerdt pei den gottern Edelpoll 
und Hercules und pei meiner gottin Zisa, so will ich euch veldt 
geben, &c/ 

p. 298.] With Cisa may be conn. Cise, a place in the Grisons, 
Bergm. Yorarlb. p. 43, and swester Zeise, Barnb. ver. ] 0, 143-4 ; 
Zaissen-perig, Zeisl-perg, Archiv. i, 5, 74. 48. Akin to Cisara 
seems Cizuris (Zitgers), a place in Rhastia, Pertz 6, 748 a ; Zeizu- 
risperga, Zeiszaris-p., Heizzeris-p., Zeizaris-pergan, Zeizanes-perge, 
Notizenbl. 6, 116. 143. 165. 138. 259. How stands it finally with 
Desenberg, which Lambert calls Tesenb.? Pertz 7, 178. Conf. 
other names in Moneys Anz. 6, 235, andDisibodo, Disibodenberg, 
Disenb., Weisth. 2, 168. 

p. 299 n.] Frouwe heizt von tugenden ein wip (called a frau 
fr. her virtues), Ulr. v. Lichenst. 3, 17 : 

als ein vrou ir werden lip (her precious body) 

tiuret (cherishes) so daz sie ein wip 

geheizen mac mit reinen siten, 

der (for her) mac ein man vil gerne biten (sue) ; Kolocz. 129. 

p. 301 n.] A Swed. folksong, not old, in Arvidss. 3, 250 has : 



CISA. FEEYA. GEKDE. 1873 

Froja, du berornde fru, Till liopa bind oss ungeta ! Froja often 
= Venus in Bellm. 3, 129. 132-5. M. Neth. vraei, pulchei\ vri 
= vro, Pass. 299, 74. 

p. 304.] On the etym. of Freya and Frigg, see my Kl. sclii\ 
3, 118. 127. In a Norweg. tale, stor Frigge goes with the cattle 
of the elves, Asb. Huldr. 1, 201 ; conf. 206. VreJce is found in 
Belgium too, says Coremans 114-5. 158; a Vrekeberg 126, Fre-. 
Jienteve, Pertz 8, 776. Fricconhorst, an. 1090, Erh. p. 131, For 
Fruike in Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 373 Kulm writes FttHc, which may 
mean whirlwind, ON. fiiika. 

p. 306. Freya and Freyr are both present at Oegi s banquet, 
but neither his GerSr nor her OiSr, Ssem. 59 ; yet she is called 
OS s mey 5 b , and Hnoss and Gersemi (p. 886) may be her children 
by OSr. When Sn. 354 calls her O&ins fri&la, he prob, con 
founds her with Frigg (p. 302) ; or is OSinn Mars here, and 
Freya Venus ? On the distinctness, yet orig. unity, of the two 
goddesses, see my Kl. schr. 5, 421-5; was 03r the Vanic name 

of OSinn ? 426-7. To her by-name Syr the Norw, plants 

Siurguld (Syr-gull?), anthemis, and Sirildrot prob. owe their 
names, F. Magn. lex. myth. p. 361 ; while Saxo s Syritha is rather 

SigrrSr^conf. Sygrutha, Saxo 329. GDS. 526. Freya s hall 

is Sessrymnir, Sessvarnir, Sn. 28 ; as the cat was sacred to her, 
we may perh. count the KiizTcammer on the Meisner (Suppl. to 
270) among her or Holda s dwellings ; conf. cat-feeding (p. 1097). 

p. 307 n.] Hani, men is akin to Lat. monile, Dor. /Ltavo?, 
fjidvvos, Pers. /iavta/c?;?, jj,aviafcov, Ssk. mani, Pott 1, 89. As men- 
gldff expresses a woman s gladness over her jewel, a Swiss woman 
calls her girdle ( die freude, Staid. 2, 515-6. 

p. 309.] On Fulla, Sunna, Sindgund, see Kl. schr. 2, 17 seq. 
GDS. 86. 102. Fulla wore a gold headband, for gold is called 

hofuiSband Fullu, Sn. 128. Sol is daughter of Mundilfori (p. 

703), wife of Glenr (al. Glornir), Sn. 12. 126, or Dagr, Fornald. 
sog. 2, 7. Fru Sole, fru Soletopp occurs in pop. games, Arvidss. 

3, 389. 432. Slta&i, daughter of piazi, wife of NiorSr and 

mother of Freyr (gen. SkaSa, Sn. 82. Kl. schr. 3, 407), aft. wife 
of OSinu and mother of Seemingr, Yngl. c. 9. 

p. 309.] In Sn. 119 Gerdr is Odin s wife or mistress, rival 
to Frigg. There is a Thorgerdr horgabruSr. A Frogertha, come 
of heroic race, Saxo Gram. b. 6. Similar, if not so effective as 

VOL. IV. H 



1374 GODDESSES. 

Gere s radiant beauty, is the splendour of other ladies in Asb. 
Huldr. 1, 47 : saa deilig at det skinnede af hende; in Garg. 76 b : 
her rosen-bliisame cheeks lit up the ambient air more brightly 
than the rainbow ; in Wirnt die welt : 

ir schoene gap so liehten schm 
und also wunneclichen glast, 
daz der selbe pallast 
von ir libe (body) erliuhtet wart. 

p. 310.] On Syn and Vor, conf. F. Magn. lex. 358-9. Then 
the compels. Heruor, Gunnvor ; OHG. Cu-ndwara, Has al war a, 
Graff 1, 907; AS. Fred-warn, Beow, 4048. I ought to have 
mentioned the ON. goddess Ilmr, fern., though ilmr, suavis odor, 
is masc. 

p. 310.] Nanna in the Edda is Neps duttir/ Sn. 31. 66, and 
Nepr was Oftin s son 211. Saxo makes her a daughter of Gevar 
(Kepaheri), see Suppl. to 220. Seem. 116 a speaks of another 
Nanna, ( Nokkua dottir/ Is nonnor Herjans/ the epithet of the 
valkyrs. Saam. 4 1 , conn, with Nanna ? 

p. 311 n.] Fuoge and Unfuoge are supported by the following : 
er was aller tugende vol, die in diu Vuoge lerte (virtues that 
decency taught him), Pass. 165, 2. diu Fiiegel, Fueglerin, Ls. 1, 
200-8. wann kompt Hans Fug, so sehe und lug (look), Garg. 
236 b . daz in Unfuoge niht ersliiege (slew him not), Walth. 82, 8. 
Unfuoge den palas vloch, Parz. 809, 19. nu lat (leave ye) der 

Unfuoge ir strit 171, 16; conf. fugen (Suppl. to 23). Quite 

unpersonal are ; zuht unde fuoge, Greg. 1070. ungevuoge, Er. 
9517. 6527. swelch fiirsten so von lande varn, daz zimt ouch irn 
fuogen so, daz si sint irs heiles vro, Ernst 1800. 

p. 311.] Gefjon appears in Lokasenna ; conf. p. 861 n. Does 
hb r-^/?i mean lini datrix ? Saem. 192 a ; or is it akin to Gefu, 
Gefjon? 

p. 312.] Snoriz ramliga Ran or hendi gialfr d^r konungs. 
Sgem. 153 b . miok hefir Ran ryskt um mik, Egilss. p. 616. Ran 
lends Loki her net, to catch Andvari with, Sasm. 180. Fornald. 
sog. 1, 152. In the same way watersprites draw souls to them 
(p. 846). Later she is called liafs-fruu : ( h., som rader ofver alia 
hvilka oinkomma pa sjon (perish at sea)/ Sv. folks. 1, 126. Blef 
ij och kom til hafsfruu* 132. 



NANNA. FUDGE. BAN. HEL. 1375 

ez ist em geloub der alten wip, 

swer in dem wazzer verliust den lip (loses his life), 

daz der si von Got vertriben. Karajan on Teichner 41. 

p. 313.] Sloii i hel, Vilk. s. 515. i hel drepa, Ssem. 78 a . bita 
fyl til lialia (bite a foal dead), Ostgota-lag 213. hofut j?itt leysto 
heljo or, Ssem. 181 a . Hel is a person in Saem. 188 b : er ]?ik lid 

hafi ! in Egilss. 643 : Niorva nipt (Hel) a nesi stendr. The 

far a til Heljar was German too (conf. p. 801-2) : Adam vuor zuo 
der helle, und sine afterkumen alle, Ksr-chr. 9225. ze helle varn, 
Warn. 2447. 3220. 3310. ze helle varn die liellevart, Barl. 323, 
28. faren zuo der hell = die, Seb. Brant s Narr. 57, 9. ze helle 
varn, Ring 55 d , 27; nn var dn in die hell hinab, das ist din liaus 
30 ; ir muost nu reuschen in die hell 20. ich wolte mich versloffen 
han zuo der helle (Helle), Troj. kr. 23352. von der hell wider 
Icomen (come back fr. hades), Brant s Narr. p.m. 207. in der 
hell ist ein frau an liebe (without love), Fastn. 558, 13 ; spoken 
of Hellia ? or of a dead woman ? Helle speaks, answers the devil, 
Anegenge 39, 23. do sprach diu Helle, Grieshaber 2, 147-8. 
Bavarian stories of Held in Panzer s Beitr. 1, 60. 275. 297. Ob 
serve in Heliand 103, 9 : an thene suarton hel ; ; conf. p. 804. 

p. 31-5.] Sic erimus cuncti postquam nos auferet orcus, Petron. 
c. 34. rapacis Orel aula divitem manet herum, Hor. Od. ii. 18, 30. 
at vobis male sit, malae tenebrae orci, quae onmia bella devoratis, 
Cat. 3, 13. versperre uns (bar us out) vor der helle munt, Kara 
jan 44, 1. der hellisch rachen steht offen, H. Sachs i. 3, 343 C . 
diu Helle gar uf tet (opens wide) ir munt, Alb. v. Halb. 171 b . 
nu kan daz verfluochte loch nieman erfullen noch (that cursed hole 
no man can fill), der wirt ist so gitic (greedy), Martina 160, 17 ; 
conf. daz verworhte hoi J 172, 41. Yet MsH. 3, 233 b has : davon 
so ist diu helle vol. 0. v. 23, 265 : 

then tod then habet funtan Hell has found Death, 
thiu hella, ioh firsluntan. And swallowed him up. 

Did Otfrid model this on 1 Cor. 15, 54-5 : Death is swallowed 
up in victory. Death, where is thy sting ? Hades, where 
thy victory ? Observe the Gothic version : ufsaggqui]?s var]? 
daupus in sigis. hvar ist gazds ]?eins, daupu ? hvar ist sigis 
)?eins, halja ? It is a Christian view, that death is swallowed up ; 



1376 CONDITION OF GODS. 

but most of the Greek MSS. have Odvare both times, the Vulgate 
both times mors, whilst Ulphilas divides them into daupu and halja, 
and Otfrid makes hell find and swallow death. To the heathens 
halja was receiver and receptacle of the dead, she swallowed the 
dead, but not death. One Greek MS. however has Odva-re and a$rj 
[suggested by Hosea 13, 14? Ero mors tua, Mors I morsus 
tuus ero, Inferne ! ; ], Massm. 63 bb ; and a 8175, infernus, in Matt. 
11,23. Luke 10, 15. 16, 23 is in AS. rendered helle. So in Irish 
the two words in the Epistle arebais (death), uaimh (pit) ; in Gael, 
bais and uaigh (grave). The Serv. smrti and pakle, Lith. smertie 
and pekla, smack of the Germ, death and hell; conf. Hofer s 

Ztschr. 1, 122. Westerg, in Bouterwek, Csedm. 2, 160, sub 

v, liely identifies it with Ssk. kala, time, death, death-goddess, 
and Kali, death-goddess. 

p, 315 n.] Hellevot is a n. prop, in Soester s Daniel p. 173. 
The following statement fits Helve etsluis, the Rom. Helium : 
Huglaci ossa in Rheni fluminis insula ubi in oceanum prorumpit, 
reservata sunt/ Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 10. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
CONDITION OF GODS. 

p. 318.] The heathen notion of the power of the gods is esp. 
seen in their being regarded as wonder-workers, who did not sink 
into sorcerers till Christian times; conf. p. 1031. GDS. 770. The 
giants on the other hand were looked upon, even by the heathen, 

as stupid, pp. 526-8-9. The longevity of gods (long-aevi, lanc- 

libon, Notk. Cap. 144) depends on simple food and a soul free 
from care (p. 320-4). So thinks Terence, Andr. 5, 5 : ego vitam 
deorum propterea sempiternam esse arbitror, quod voluptates 
eorum propriae sunt; and the dwarfs ascribe their long and 
healthy lives to their honesty and temperance (p. 458). 
Amrita (Somad. 1, 127) is derived by Bopp, Gl. 17 a , from a priv. 
and mrita mortuus, hence immortal and conferring immortality ; 
and a-pfBpoo-ia (279 a ) fr. d-^poo-ia, /Sporo? being for yuporo?. 
Various accounts of its manufacture in Rhode s Relig. bildung d. 
Hindus 1, 230. It arises from the churning of the ocean, says 
Holtzmann 3, 146 150, as ambrosia did from treading the wine- 



FOOD. IMMOETALITY. 1377 

press, K. F. Hermann s Gottesd. alth. p. 304. Doves carry am 
brosia to Zeus, Od. 12, 63 ; conf. Athen. 4, 317. 321-5. Ambrosia 
and nectar are handed to goddess Calypso, while Odysseus par 
takes of earfchly food beside her, Od. 5, 199. Moiraieatthe sweet 
heavenly food of honey (p. 415 n.). Even the horses of gods have 
in their manger ambrosia and nectar, Plato s Phaedr. 247. Yet 
the gods eat white aX^irov, meal (Athen. 1, 434), which Hermes 
buys for them in Lesbos. Ambrosial too is the odour shed around 
the steps of deity (Suppl. to 327 end), of which Plautus says in 
Pseud, iii. 2, 52 : 

ibi odos demissis pedibus in coelum volat ; 
eum odorem coenat Juppiter cotidie. 

What nectar is made of, we learn from Athen. 1, 147-8, conf. 
166. faporepov vetcrap, Lucian s Sat. 7. purpureo bibit ore 
nectar, Hor. Od. iii. 3, 12. Transl. in OHG. by stanch, stenclie, 
Graff 6, 696 ; in some glosses by seim, and if seim be akin to 
alfjia } our honig-seim still shows the affinity of honey to blood 
(pp. 468. 902) ; consider the renovating virtue of honey as well as 

blood: der Saelden honic-seim, Engelh. 5138. The Spittle of 

gods is of virtue in making blood and mead (p. 902), in brewing 
61 (ale^: hann lagfti fyri dregg hrdka sinn, Fornald* sog. 2, 26, 
Kvasir is created out of spittle : so came Lakshmi out of the 
milk-sea, Holtzm. 1, 130, as Aphrodite from foam, Sri from milk 
and butter 3, 150. 

p. 320.] The belief of the Greeks in the Immortality of their 
gods was not without exceptions, In Crete stood a tomb with 
the inscription : Zeus has long been dead (reOvew^ vraXai), he 
thunders no more/ Lucian/s Jup. tragoed* 45; conf. p. 453 n. 
Frigga s death is told by Saxo, ed. M. 44; dead Baldr appears 
no more among the gods, Sa3m> 63 b ; then Freyr falls in fight 
with Surtr, T$r with Garmr, Thorr with mrSgarSsormr ; Oftinn. 
is swallowed by the wolf, Loki and Heim$all slay each other. 
Duke Julius 302-3. 870 (in Nachtbuchlein, 883), says he has 

heard that the Lord God was dead (the Pope ?). OSinn and 

Saga drink, Saem. 4] a ; Heim^all drinks mead 41 b , and always 
gladly : drecka glo& 41 a . dreckr glaffr 41 b (p. 324). Thorr eat* 
and drinks enormously, Saam. 73 b . Sn. 86, and a Norweg. tale of 
his being invited to a wedding. 



1378 CONDITION OF GODS. 



p. 321.] Of a god it is said: faiSlto* eOeXw, Od. 16, 198. 
v 6eol(7i 211; of Circe : pela 7rape^e\0ovara } Od. 10, 573. 
Zeus can do the hardest things, ovSev acrOfjbaivwv pivei, ^Esch. 
Eum. 651. In Sn. formali 12, Thorr attains his full strength at 
twelve years, and can lift ten bear s hides at once. Wainamoinen, 
the day after his birth, walks to the smithy, and makes himself a 
horse. 

p, 322,] Got ist noch liehter (brighter) denne der tac (day), 
der antlitzes sich bewac (assumed a visage) 
nach menschen antlitze. Parz. 119, 19. 

It is a mark of the Indian gods, that they cant no shadow, never 
wink, glide without touching the ground, are without dust or 
sweat (their garments dustless), and their garlands never fade, 
Holtzm. 3, 13. 19; conf. Bopp s Nalus p. 31. Even men, going 
into a temple of Zeus, cast no shadow, Meiners s Gesch. d. rel. 1, 
427, OSinn appears as a { mikli ma3r, herffimikill, Fornm. 
sog. 2, 180-1. God has a beard : bien font a Dieu barbe de fuerre, 
Meon 1, 310. faire barbe de paille a Dieu, Diet, comique 1, 
86-7. Finn, to see God s beard = to be near him, Kal. 27, 200. 
Vishnu is chatur-bhuja, four-handed, Bopp s Gl. 118 a ; Siva 
three^eyed, ibid. p. 160-1. Zeus too was sometimes repres. with 
three eyes, Paus. ii. 24, 4; Artemis with three heads, Athen. 2, 
152. The Teut. mythol. has none of these deformities in its 
gods ; at most we hear of a Conradus Dri-lieuptl, MB. 29 b , 85 
(an, 1254). Yama, the Indian death, is black, and is called kdla, 
niger, Bopp s Gl. 71 b . Vishnu in one incarnation is called 
Krishna, ater, niger, violaceus, Slav, chernyi (Bopp 83 a ), so that 
Cherni-bogh would correspond to Krishna. - The beauty of the 
gods has already been noticed p. 26 n. ; that of the goddesses is 
sufficiently attested by giants and dwarfs suing for them : prymr 
wants Freyja, piassi Kun, and the dwarfs demand the last favour 
of Freyja. 

p. 323.] Numen, orig, a vevpa, nutus, means the nod of deity, 
and deity itself, as Festus says (ed. 0. Miiller 173, 17) : numen 
quasi nutus dei ac potestas dicitur. Athena also c nods y with her 
eyebrows: eV o^>pvcn vevae, Od. 16, 164. Diu (frau Minne) 
winket mir nu, daz ich mit ir ge, Walth. 47, 10; and Egilss. 
p. 305-6 has a notable passage on letting the eyebrows fall. Les 



STRENGTH. BEAUTY. ANGER. JOY. 1379 

sorcils abessier, Aspr. 45 b . sa (si a) les sorcils levez, Paris expt. 
p. 104. Thorr shakes his beard, Seem. 70 a . 

The anger, hatred, vengeance of the gods was spoken of on 
p. 18-9. They punish misdeeds, boasting, presumption. Their 
envy, (f)06vo$ } is discussed by Lehrs in Konigsb. abh. iv. 1, 
135 seq. ; conf. 0e\yeiv (Suppl. to 331). rwv TWO? <f>0ovep)v 
Saipovwv fjuri^avr] yeyove, Procop. 2, 358. 7% Tv%r)s o $>6bvo<s 

2, 178. eTnjpeia Sai/j,oi os = tantalizing behaviour of a god, 
Lucian pro lapsu in salut. 1. Loki loves mischief when he brings 
about the death of Baldr. So the devil laughs to scorn : der 
tiuvel des lachet, Diut. 3, 52. smutz der tiuvel, welch ein rat ! 
Helbl. 5, 89. des mac der tiuvel lachen 15, 448; conf. the 
laughing of ghosts (p. 945). 

p. 324.] Radii capitis appear in pictures, Not. dign. orient, 
pp. 53. 116. Forcellini sub. v. radiatus. Ztschr. des Hess. ver. 

3, 366-7. acrrpajr^v etSev e/cXayu^aerai CLTTO rov TratSo?, saw 
lightning flash out of his son (Asklepios), Paus. ii. 26, 4. do 
quam unser vrove zu itne, und gotlicJte schine gingen uz irme 
antlitze (fr. Mary s face), D. myst. 1, 219. 

p. 325.] The Homeric gods are without care, avrol Se r 
a^See? elcriv, II. 24, 526 ; they are blessed, serene, and rejoice in 
their splendour. Zeus sits on Olympus, /cuSe i yalcov (glad of his 
glory), TepTTi-rcepavvos (delighting in thunder), and looks down 
at the smoking sacrifices of those he has spared. Ares too, and 
Briareus are KV$L ryaiovres. A god feels no pain : etVep #609 yap 
IO-TLV, OVK alo-Qr}creTCii, Aristoph. Frogs 634. So Gripir is glaffr 

konongr/ Saem. 172 b . The gods laugh: ye\a)s 8 eV avrq) 

rot? $eot? e/civijQr], Babr. 56, 5; risus Jovis = vernantis coeli 
temperies, Marc. Cap. (conf. giant Svasuftr, p. 758). subrisit 
crudele pater (Gradivus), Claudian in Eutr. 2, 109. Callaecia 
risit floribus .... per herbam fluxere rosae, Claud, laus Serenae 
71. 89. riserunt floribus amnes, Claud. FL Mall. 273; conf. laugh 
ing or sneezing out roses, rings, etc. Athena too is said to 
pciSav, Od. 13, 287. 

p. 327.] For gods becoming visible Homer has a special word 
^a\7rol 8e 0eol fyaivecrOai evapyels, II. 20, 131. 0eol 
eVap7et9, Od. 7, 201. 16, 161. evapyrjs rj\6e 3, 420. 

avyyevo/jbevos, Lucian s Sat. 10. Gods can appear and 

vanish as they please, without any outward means : dwarfs and 



1380 CONDITION OF GODS. 

men, to become invisible, need the tarn-hat or a miraculous herb. 
No one can see them against their will : T/? av 6eov OVK e0e\ov7a 

orf)0a\/*oi(riv iSoir r) ev& r} ev0a KIOVTCL; Od. 10. 573. As a 

god can hear far off: K\vei Se KOI Trpocrcodev &v $eo?, -^Esch. Bum. 
287. 375; as l Got und sin muoter selient dur die steine, MS. 2, 
12 a ; so gods and spirits enter locked and guarded chambers 
unperceived, unhindered, Holtzra. 3, 11. 48. Dame Venus comes 
f dur ganze miiren/ p. 455-6; the Minne conducts durch der 
kemenaten ganze want/ through the chamber s solid wall, Frib. 
Trist. 796. St. Thomas walks through a closed door, Pass. 248, 
26-7. Athena s messenger elarjXde Trapa K\rjtSo<? l^avra, Od. 4, 
802. Trapa K\r)l$a \ida6r] 4, 838. Loki slips through the bora 
Sn. 356 ; and devils and witches get in at the keyhole. 

Examples of sudden appearance, p. 400 ; disappearance, p. 
951-2. OSinn, Honer, Loki in the Faroe poem, when invoked, 
immediately appear and help. Sudden appearing is expressed in 
ON. both by the verb hverfa : ]>&, livarf Fiolnir, Volsungas. c. 17 ; 
and by the noun svipr, Fornald. sog. 1 , 402. Sasm, 157 a . der engel 
von hirnele sleif, Servat. 399. do sih der rouh uf bouch, der 
engel al damit flouch, Maria 158, 2. erfuor in die liifte kin, die 
wolken in bedacten, Urstende 116, 75 ; conf, rifta lopt ok log/ 
and p. 1070-1. der menschlich schin niht bleib lang*, er Juor 
claMn, Ls. 3, 263. Homer uses avatacreiv of Ares and Aphrodite: 
avatfavre, Od. 8. 361 ; and the adv. al-^ra as well as /capTraXi^cos 
and Kpaiirvd, II. 7, 272. When Ovid. Met. 2 > 785 says of Min 
erva : haud plura locuta fugit, et irnpressa tellurern reppulit 
hasta/ her dinting the ground with her spear expr. the ease of 
her ascent. Their speed is that of wind : 77 & avk^ov &>? TTVOI^ 
7recr(7VTo (of Athena), Od. 6, 20. sic effata rapit coeli per inania 
cur sum diva potens, unoqiie Padum translapsa volatu, castra sui 
rectoris adit, Claud, in Eutr. 1, 375. Eros is winged, Athen. 5, 
29. Winged angels, pennati pueri (p. 505). Vishnu rides on 
Garuda, Bopp s Gl. 102 a . Indraand Dharrnaas vulture and dove, 
Somadeva 1, 70. Holtzm. Ind. sagen 1, 81. Though Athena 
appears as a youth in Od. 13, 222, as a girl 13, 288, her favourite 
shape is that of a bird : opvis 8 o>? avojrala SieTrraro 1, 320. 
As vultureSj she and Apollo settle on a beech-tree, and look 
merrily on at men, II. 7, 58. As a siuallow, she sits on the roof- 
tree amid the fighters, and thence (v^jroOev e% opo<j)TJ<i) uplifts 



DISGUISES. EQUIPAGE. 1381 

the asgis, Od. 22, 297; so Loulii sits a lark on the window of 
the smithy (Suppl. to 338), and the eagle in the dream efer eVl 
Trpov^ovTi fj,\d6p(p, Od. 19, 544; conf. the vulture, who the 
moment he is named looks in at the door, Meinert s Kuhl. 165. 
165. Bellona flies away a bird, Claud, in Eutr. 2, 230; Gestr, 
i.e. 0$in, as a valr (falcon), and gets a cut in his tail, Fornald. 
sog. 1, 487-8. Athena cm) Se /car avrldupov fc Xicri rjs, Od. 16, 
159 ; si mache sich schoen, und ge herfiir als ein gotinne zuo cler 
tiir, Renner 12227. When the unknown goddess steps inside 
the door, her stature reaches to the roofbeam, fjie\.d6pov /cvpe 
Kaprj, then in a moment she is recognised, Hymn to Aphrod. 
174, to Ceres 189. A woman s spirit appears to a man in a 
dream : srSan hvarf hun a brott ; Olafr vakna;3i, ok J>6ttist sia 
svip konunnar, Laxd. 122. srSan vaknafti He3inn, ok sa svipinn 
af Gondul, Fornal(J. sog. 1, 402. svipr einn var ]?ar, Sgem, 157 a . 

Fragrance and brightness emanate from a deity, Schimmelpfeng 
100-1. Hymn to Ceres 276281 (Suppl. to 318) ; a sweet smell 
fills the house of Zeus, Athen. 3, 503. So with the Hebrews a 
cloud, a mist, or the glory of the Lord fills the house of the Lord, 
1 Kings 8, 10-1 ; 2 Chron. 5, 13. comarurn (of Venus) grains 
odor, Claud, de nupt. Heaven breathes an odor suavitatis, that 
nourishes like food, Greg. Tur. 7, 1. The bodies of saints, e.g. 
Servatius, exhale a delicious odour (p. 823) ; conf. fas flowers that 
spring up under the tread of feet divine (p. 330). The hands 
and feet of gods leave their mark in the hard stone, so do the 
hoofs of their horses (Suppl. to 664). Gods appear in human 
form and disguise, OiSinn often as a one-eyed old man, a beggar, 
a peasant, to Hrolf as Hrani bondi (Hrani is a hero s name in 
Hervararsaga, Rani in Saxo). 

p. 329.] The Indian gods ride in chariots, like the Grk : Indra, 
Agni, Varuna, etc., Nalus 15-6; 7 steeds draw the car of Suryas 
the god of day, Kuhn s Rec. d. Rigveda 99. 100 ; Ratri, night, 
Usa, aurora, are drawn by kine. Plato in Phasdr. 246-7 speaks 
of the gods horses, chariots, charioteers, of Zeus driving a winged 
car. Selene is appealed to : TTOT aiKeavbv rpejre TrcoXou?, Theocr. 

2,163. acrrepe?, evKrj\oio tear avrvya NVKTOS oiraSol 2, 166. 

The German gods occasionally drive in star-chariots, or the stars 
themselves have a chariot, pp. 151. 723 n. ; conf. the car-pro 
cessions p. 336 ; the sun too drives a chariot : Sol varp hendi 



1382 CONDITION OF GODS. 

inni hoegri umhirniniod^r, Seem. 1 1} (who is Vagnarunni in Egilss. 
610, Oftinn or Thorr?). But riding is tlie rule, though Loki says 
to Frigg : ec }?vi re$, er ]?u ?*icfaserat si San Baldr at solum, Saem. 
63 1} ; even beasts ride in the Beast-apologue, Renart 10277-280- 
400-920. 

p. 330.] When Athena sits with Diomed in his war-chariot, 
the axle groans with the weight : Seivrjv yap ayev 6eov avBpa 
T apicrrov, II. 5, 888. When Ceres nods, the cornfields shake : 
annuit his, capitisque sui pulcherrima motu concussit gravidis 
oneratos messibus agros, Ovid Met. 8, 780. 

p. 331.] The gods appear in mist or cloud : Jehovah to Moses 
in a pillar of fire, Deut. 31, 15. diva dimovit nebulam, juvenique 
apparuit ingens, Claud, in Eutr. 1, 390. (Tritonia) cava circum- 
data nube, Ov. Met. 5, 251. The merminne comes "mit eime 
dunste, als eiu wint," Lanz. 181 ; in the legend of Fosete the god 
vanishes in a caligo tenelrosa, Pertz 2, 410. A cloud descends, 

and the angel steps out of it, Girard de Yiane p. 153. Gods 

and demons are said to 6e\yew, hoodwink, delude (conf. p. 
463-4 of elves, and Suppl. to 322) : a\\d /ie ^atjjiwv 6e\yei, Od. 
16, 195; of Hermes: avSp&v o^ara 0e\yei, II. 24, 343: of 
Poseidon: 6i\%as oaae <paeivd, II. 13, 435 ; of Athena : TOI>? Se 
ITaXXa? Adrjvalrj Oe\^6L KOI yi^r/era Zevs, Od. 16, 298; 0ea 
6e\yei 1, 57; but also of Circe and the Sirens, Passow sub v. 
0e\ya). Hera holds her hand over her protege, vTrepxetpla, Paus. 

iii. 13, 6. They take one by the hair : CTTTJ 8* OTriflev, ^avdjj^ 

Se KO/JLT^ eXe HrjXeiwva, II. 1, 197 ; by the ear : Kpovo? irpocr- 
e\6u>v 07TLcr0v KOI TOU o)T09 fJiov Xa/36yLtevo?, Lucian s Sat. 11. 

p. 331.] The Grecian gods sleep, Athen. 2, 470; yet Ssk. 
deus = /i7?e?* a somno, Bopp^s Gl. 26 a . A sick god is healed by 
incense, Walach. marchen p. 228. They are fond of play : 
(pi\o7raLy/jLOV<i yap /cal ol 6eoi, Plato Cret. ed. bip. 3, 276. The 
kettledrums of gods resound from heaven, and flowers rain down, 
Nalus p. 181. 238 (conf. OHG. heaven is hung full of fiddles) ; 
it would please God in heaven (to hear that music)/ Melander 
2, no. 449. Got mohte wol laclien (at the tatermenlin) , Renn. 
11526. Conf. the effects of music on mankind: when Salome is 
ill, there come zwene spilman uz Kriechen, die konden generen 
(heal) die siechen mit irem senften spil, des konden sie gar vil/ 
Morolf 1625; * I have my fiddle by me, to make sick people well 



SLEEP. SONG. LANGUAGE. 1383 

and rainy weather jolly/ Goethe 11, 11; the tinkle of bells a 
cure for care, Trist. 398, 24. 39. 411, 9 ; song-birds cheer the 
tot^riuwesasre, Iwein 610. Aucassin s lay drives death away, 
Meon 1, 380. With the comforting of bereaved Ska^i and 
Demeter conf. Wigal. 8475 : ( sehs videlcere, die wolden im sine 
swa3re (heaviness) niit ir videlen vertriben/ and Creuzer s Symb. 
4, 466. Athen, 5, 334. It was a Lith. custom to get the bride 
to laugh, Nesselm. sub v. prajukinu. N. Preuss. prov. bl. 4, 
312. A king s daughter, who has a fishbone in her throat, is 
made to laugh, Meon 3, 1 seq. The gods love to deal out largess, 
are datores, largitores, esp. Gibika (p. 137) ; conf. borg-geba 
(Suppl. to 274), oti-geba (p. 890 n.) ; they are dr-gefnar, ol- 
gefnar, crop-givers, ale-givers, Hostlong ii. 2, 11 (Thorl. sp. 6, 
34. 42. 50. 68). 

p. 334.] Gods language and men s, Athen. 1, 335. Lobeck s 
Aglaoph. 854. 858867. Heyne on the first passage quoted, 
II. 1, 403 : quae antiquiorem sermonem et servatas inde appella- 
tiones arguere videntur. Like ON., the Indians have many words 
for cloud, Bopp s Gl. 16 a . 209 a . 136 b . 158 b ; but do not attribute 
a separate language to the gods. Yet Somaveda 1, 59. 64 names 
the four languages Sanskrit, Prakrit, Vernacular and Daemonic. 
The Greek examples can be added to : UXo/y/cra? S* tjroi ra9 76 
0eol /^a/capes fcaXeovcriv, Od. 12, 61. dvrjroil "Epwra, aOdvaroi Se 
TlrepwTa, Plato s Phsedr. 252. Tr]v S A^po^ir^v KLK\^O-KOVO-(, 
Oeoi re tcai avepes, ~H.es. Theog. 197. The different expressions 
attrib. to men and gods in the Alvis-mal, could no doubt be taken 
as belonging to different Teufc. dialects, so that Menu should 
mean the Scandinavians, Goffar the Goths, and sol for instance 
be actually the Norse word, sunna the Old Gothic, GDS. p, 768. 
Kl. schr. 3, 221. 

p. 335.] The Norse gods are almost all married; of Greek 
goddesses the only real wife is Hera. Gods fighting with heroes 
are sometimes leaten, and put to flight, e.g. Ares in Homer; and 
he and Aphrodite are wounded besides. Now Othin, Thor and 
Balder are also beaten in the fight with Hother (Saxo ed. M. 
118), nay, Balder is ridiculus fugd (119) ; but wounding is never 
mentioned, and of Balder it is expressly stated (113) : socram 
corporis e )us firmitatem ne ferro quidem cedere. 

p. 335.] Apart from Brahma, Yishnu and Siva, the Indians 



1384 CONDITION OF GODS. 

reckoned thirteen minor gods, Bopp s Gl. 160 a . The former were 
younger gods, who had displaced the more elemental powers, 
Kuhii s Rec. d. Rigv. p. 101. Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 126; oonf. 
1 got ein junger tor (p. 7 n.). Young Zeus, old Kronos, Athen. 

I, 473. cot croni, deus recens, Graff 4, 299. The new year 
(p. 755). GDS. 765. 

p. 336.] Mountain-heights are haunts of the Malay gods also, 
Ausld. 1857, 604 a . Trerpa, 8aifj,6va)v avao-rpcxprj, ^Esch. Euro. 23. 
Olympus descr. in Od. 6, 42 46. To the rock-caverns [at Ithaca] 
gods and men have separate entrances, those by the south gate, 
these by the north 13, 110-1-2. The Norse gods live in Asgard. 
Hreiftmarr cries to the Ases : haldit heim he San, be off home 

from here! Saem. 182 b . They have separate dwellings, but 

near together ; conf. the Donar s oak near Wuotan s mount 
(p. 170). par (i Baldurs-hage) voru mbrg go&, Fornald. sog. 2, 
63. Indian gods too have separate abodes : urbs Kuveri, mons 
K. sedes, Bopp s Gl. 19 b . 85 b . ALOS av\ij, Lucian s Pseud. 19. 

Significant is the ON. : hefir ser um gerva sali, Saem. 40-1-2. 

The gods sit on thrones or chairs (p. 136), from which they are 
entreated to look down in pity and protection : Zevs Se yewiJTayp 
toot,, 2Esch. Suppl. 206. eV/Soi 8 "Aprepis dyvd 1031. lita viuar 
augom. The gods houses are marked by gates, Hpt s Ztschr. 2, 
535. 

p. 337.] The gods often have a golden staff, with which they 
touch and transform : %pvcreir) pdffSa) ewepdiTiraT 1 AQijvTj, Od. 
16, 172. 456. 13, 429; Circe strikes with her staff, Od. 10, 238; 
conf. Hermes rod, the wishing-rod (p. 976) and other wishing- 
gear. Shiva has a miraculous bow, so has Indra ace. to the 
Yedas. Apollo s bow carries plague ; conf. Odin s spear (p. 147). 
In Germ, marcheii the fays, witches, sorcerers carry a trans 
figuring staff (p. 1084). 

Gods are regarded by men as fathers, goddesses as mothers 
(pp. 22. 145. 254). They delight in men, dvbpdo-i 

II. 7, 61 ; their kindly presence is expr. by the Homeric a 
fiaiva) : 05 XpvcrrjV apfafteftTjicas, II. 1, 37. o? "la-papov a 
/3e/3rjKei,, Od. 9, 198. They love to come down to men; conf. 
Exod. 3, 8 : /carefirjv, descendi, hwearf (p. 325) ; they stop their 
chariots, and descend to earth, Holtzm. 3, 8. Nalus p. 15. 
praesentes caelicolae, Cat. 64, 383. Like the Ind. avatara is a 



AGE. ABODES. ARMS. AID. 1385 

Oeov etriSrijjLia (visitation), Lucian s Conviv. 7. Gods are not 
omnipresent, they are often absent, they depart, Athen. 2, 470. 
Jupiter says : summo delabor Olympo, et deus humana lustro sub 
imagine terras, Ov. Met. 1, 212. In the Faroe lay, OSinn, Hoenir 
and Loki appear instantly. (Appearing to a man can be expr. 
by looking under his eyes, Etm. Orendel pp. 73. 45. 83. 102.) The 
passage : di liute wanden (weened) er waere Got von himel, Griesh. 
2, 48, presupposes a belief in God s appearing (p. 26 n.). so 
ritestu heim als waer Got do, Dancrotsh. namenb. 128, and : if 
God came down from heaven and bade him do it, he would not, 
Thurrieisser 2, 48. At Whitsun the street was hung with 
tapestry: als ochter God selve comen soude, Lane. 31321. God 
(or his image) loves a place where he is made much of: Got 
mohte lieber niht gesten uf der erden an deheiner stat, Helbl. 15, 
584 ; here dwells der liebe Gott/ p. 20 n. His return to heaven 
is expr. by : do vuor Got ze himele in deme gesuneclicheme bild/ 
Diemer 7, 19; conf. f ego in coelum migro/ Plaut. Amph. v. 2, 

13. Gods send messengers, angels, those of Greece Hermes, 

Iris, etc., who escort men (p. 875), and inspect and report the 
goings-on of the world, says a pretty Servian song by Gavrai. 
It is worth noting in the prol. to Plaut. Rudens, that Arcturus 
shines in heaven at night, but walks the earth by day as mes 
senger of Jove. Gods assist at christenings (Godfather Death), 
weddings, betrothals, Holtzm. 3, 8 ; and Mary too lifts a child 
out of the font, Wend, march. 16. They hallow and bless men 
by laying on of hands : vigit ocr saman Varar hendi, Seem. 74 b . 
Apollon und Tervigant, ir beider got, hat sine hant den zwein 
(jeleit uf daz houbet, daz si helfe unberoubet und geliickes 
(unrobbed of help and luck) solden sin, mit gotlicher helfe schin 

geschach daz ir, Turl. Wh. 112 a ; like a priest or father. Gods 

deal with men in their sleep : a rib is taken out of sleeping Adam, 
to make Eve ; Athena sheds sweet sleep over Penelope, while 
she makes her taller and fairer, Od. 18, 188; Luck comes near 
the sleeper, gods raise up the fallen hero, II. 7, 272. Their 
paltry -looking gifts turn out precious (Berhta s, Holda s, Eiibe- 
zahl s) : the leaves turn into gold, the more fittingly as Glasir the 
grove of the gods bears golden leafage. 

p. 338.] Metamorphosis is expr. by den lip verkeren, Barl. 
250, 22. sich kerte z einem tiere 28. 03inn viSbrast i vals liki, 



1386 HEROES. 

when HerSrekr and Tyrfing attack him, Fornald. sog. 1, 487. 
Loki changes into a mare, and has a foal (Sleipnir) by Svaftilfari, 
Sn. 47. falsk Loki i lax liki, Sa3m. 68 b . Sn. 69. HeimSallr ok 
Loki i sela likjum, Sn. 105. Loki sits in the window as a 
bird 113; conf. Athena as a swallow on the roof-beam (p. 326). 
Louhi as a lark (leivonen) in the window (ikkuna), Kal. 27, 
182-5-8. 205. 215 (conf. Bgilss. p. 420), or as a dove (kyyhky) 
on the threshold (kynnys) 27, 225-8. 232. Berhta looks in, 
hands things in, through the window (p. 274) ; the snake looks 
in at window, Firmen. 2, 156. Louhi, pursuing Sampo, takes the 
shape of an eagle, denique ut (Jupiter) ad Troja3 tecta volarit 
avis, Prop. iii. 30, 30. Jupiter cycnus et caudidorum procreator 
ouorum j Arnob. 1, 136 (pp. 666. 491). In marchens a bear, eagle, 
dolphin, carries off the princess. 

p. 338.] Gods may become men as a punishment. Dyaus 
having stolen a cow, all the Yasu gods are doomed to be born 
men. Eight of them, as soon as born, return to the world of 
gods ; the ninth, the real culprit, must go through a whole 
human life, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 102-6. 

p. 339.] Real names (not merely epithets) of gods often 
become abstract ideas in Sanskrit. Indra, at the end of a com 
pound, is princeps, dominus, Bopp 40 a ; Sri is prefixed to 
other names reverentiae causa, as Sriganesa, Srimahabharata 
35 7 a . In ON. one as can stand for another, as Bragi for OSinn 
in the saw, nioti bauga sem Bragi auga/ Egilss. 455. So 
Freya, Nanna, T$r, Baldr become abstract terms (p. 220-1) : 
baldr bryujnngs, b. fetilstinga, Fornm. sog. 6, 257. 12, 151. enn 
nor<5ri niorffr 6, 267. geirmorcT/- = heros, Sasm. 266 b . Conf. 
Gotes intensive (p. 19). 



CHAPTER XV. 
HEROES. 

p. 341.] On demigods, great gods, dasmones, conf. Boeckh s 
Manetho, p. 488 ; semidei, heroes, Arnob. 2, 75. The hero has 
superhuman strength, ON. hann er eigi einhamr, Fornm. sog. 3, 
205-7 ; einhamr, einhaina signif. mere human strength. It is 
striking how the Usipetes and Tenchtheri glorify human heroes 



HEROES. 1387 

to Caesar, B. G. 4, 7 : we yield to none but the Suevi, for whom 
the immortal gods are no match 

p. 343.] To vir, OHG. wer, are prob. akin the Scyth. olop, 
Fin. uros, Kal. 13, 64. 21, 275. 290 ; conf. Serv. urosh (p. 369 n.). 
GDS. 236. Aug. Civ. Dei 10, 21. K. F. Herm. Gottesd. alt. 
p. 69. M. Neth. helt as well as helet, Stoke 3, 4. Notker s 
hertinga, AS. heardingas, El. 25. 130, recall Boh. hrdina, Pol. 
hardzina (hero), conf. Boh. hrdy, Pol. hardy, Buss, gordyi 
(proud), Fr. hardi, G. hart, herti (hard). Arngrim s eleventh 
and twelfth sons are called Had ding jar, Fornald. sog. 1, 415-6-7. 
GDS. 448. 477. himelischer degen in the Kl. 1672. degenin, 
heroine, Benn. 12291. With wigant conf. the name Weriant 
freq. in Karajan. Jesus der Gotes wigant, Mos. 68, 10. Kdmpe 
may be used of a giant, Miillenh. 267. 277 j beside cempa, the 
AS. has oretta, heros, pugil. Is not ON. hetja (bellator) strictly 
wrestler, fencer? conf. OHG. hezosun, palaestritae, Graff 4, 1073. 
GDS. 578. With OHG. wrecchio, AS. wrecca [whence, wretch, 
wretched], agrees best the description of the insignes in Tac. 
Germ. 31 : Nulli domus aut ager aut aliqua cura ; prout ad 
quemque venere, aluntur prodigi alieni, coutemptores sui. Dio- 
med is avrjp aptaTos, II. 5, 839. Heroes are rog-birtingar, bright 
in battle, Haralda-mal 16. Serv. yundk, hero, yundshtvo, 
heroism; so MHG. die mine jungelinge, Fundgr. 2, 91, conf. 
Nib. 1621, 2, and the heroic line of the YngUngar (p. 346). Ir. 
trean hero ; also faolchu hero, strictly wild wolf, falcon, and 
Welsh gwalch, falcon, hero ; conf. Serv. urosh (p. 369 n.) . 

p. 344.] Heroes derive their lineage fr. the gods : SigurSr 
ormr i auga is expressly O&ins aettar, Fornald. sog. 1, 258 ; the 
Scythian Idanthyrsus counts Zeus his ancestor, Herod. 4, 126 ; 
and Zeus does honour to Menelaus as his son-in-law, ya^/Spo? 
Jto?, Od. 4, 569. They are friends of the gods: Zeus loves both 
champions, Hector and Ajax, II. 7, 280 ; there are friends of 
Ares and a Frey s vinr. They can multiply the kindred of 
the gods. Jupiter s children are reckoned up in Barl. 251, 37 
seq.; Alexander too is a son of Jupiter Ammon or Nectanebus by 
Olympias. Galli se ornnes ab Dite patre prognatos praedicant ; 
idque ab druidibus proditum dicunt/ Caes. 6, 18. Dietrich 
descends fr. a spirit, Otnit fr. Elberich, Hogni fr. an elf, and 
Merlin fr. the devil. 



1388 HEEOES. 

p. 345.] As Teutonic tradition made Tuisco a f terra editus/ 
the American Indians have a belief that the human race once 
lived inside the earthy Klemm 2, 159. Though Norse mythology 
has no Mannus son of Tuisco, yet it balances Go^heimr with a 
Mannheimr, GDS. 768, conf. Vestmanland, Sodermanland, Rask 
on Alfred s Periplus 70-] ; and Snorri s Formali 12 places a 
Munon or Mennon at the head of the tribes. He, with Priam s 
daughter Troan, begets a son Trur = Thor, fr. whom descends 
Loritha = H16rrrSa, conf. Fornald. sog. 2, 13. GDS. 195. The 
American Indians have a first man and maker Manitu, Klemm 

2, 155-7. On the mythic pedigree of Mannus and his three 
sons, see GDS. 824 seq. 

p. 346.] Ingo was orig. called Ango, says Mannhdt s Ztschr. 

3, 143-4. He is the hero of the Ingaevones, who included the 
Saxons and formerly the Cheruscans, consequently the Angles, 
Angern, Engern (GDS. 831. 629. 630), whose name is perhaps 
derived from his. 

p. 350.] Did Dlugoss in his Hist. Polon. draw fr. Nennius ? 
Jrb. d. Berl. spr. ges. 8, 20; conf. Pertz 10, 314. 

p. 350 n.] Ascafna-burg , fr. the rivulet Ascafa = Ascaha, is 
likewise interpr. in Eckehardus Uraug. as Asken-burg ab 
Ascanio conditore/ and is a castellum antiquissimurn, Pertz 8, 
259. 578. On Asc and Ascanius conf. p. 572. 

p. 351.] The old Lay of Patricius 19, ed. Leo. p. 32-3, has 
Eirimoin (Erimon). Heremon in Diefenb. Celt. 2 b , 387-9. 391. 

p. 355.] A communication fr. Jiilich country says, Herme is 
used as a not very harsh nickname for a strong but lubberly man. 
But they also say, he works like a Herme/ i.e. vigorously ; and 
legend has much to tell of the giant strength of Herme ; conf. 
Strong Hermel, KM. 3/161. Herman, Hermanbock, Maaler 218 b . 
Firmen. 1, 363 b : f to make believe our Lord is called Herm. 
Lyra Osnabr. 104: du menst wual, use Hergott si n aulen 
Joost Hierm. It is remarkable that as early as 1558, Lindner s 
Katziporus O, 3 b says of a proud patrician, who comes home 
fuller of wine than wit : he carries it high and mighty, who 
but he ? and thinks our Lord is called Herman. On the rhyme 
Hermen, sla dermen/ suggestive of the similar f Hamer, sla 
bamer, sla busseman doet (p. 181-2), conf. Woeste pp. 34. 43. 
Firmen. ], 258. 313. 360. 



INGO. HERMAN. MILKY WAY. IRING. 1389 

p. 357 n.] Other foreign names for the Milky Way. American 
Indian: the way of ashes, Klemm 2, 161. In Wallach. fairy 
tales, pp. 285. 381, it comes of spilt straw that St. Venus 
(Vinire) has stolen from St. Peter. In Basque : ceruco esnebidea, 
simply via lactea, fr. eznea milk. Ta? et? ovpavov ^v^wv vo/ttfo- 
yLteW? 6Sov<?, Lucian s Encom. Demosth. 50. Lettic : putnu 
zel-&-ch, bird-path, Bergm. 66 (so Trope? olajv&v, aether, ^Esch. 
Prom. 281) ; also Deeva yahsta, God s girdle 115, or is that the 
rainbow? (p. 733). Arianrod is also interpr. corona septen- 
trionalis, though liter, silver-circle. For the many Hungar. 
names see Wolf s Ztschr. 2, 162-3. 

Other Teutonic names. East Fris. dat melkpath, and when 
unusually bright, harmswith, Ehrentr. Fries, arch. 2, 73. With 
galaxia they seem to have conn. Galicia ; hence to Charlemagne, 
at the beginning of the Turpin, appears James Street, leading from 
France to Galicia. In Switzld : der weg uf Rom, Stutz 1, 106. 
Westph. : miilenweg (Suppl. to 924), also wiarstrate, weather- 
street, .Woeste p. 41 ; so in Jutland veirveien, Molb. Dial. lex. 
646, as well as arken 18. To ON. vetrarbrant, winter- way, 
corresp. the Swed. v inter gat an ; conf. Gothl. Tcaldgotu, Alrnqv. 
432, unless this be for Karl s-gate. Do sunnunpad, sterrono 
strata, wega wolkono in Otfrid i. 5, 5 mean the galaxy ? conf. the 
path of clouds, Somadeva 2, 153-7. 58. 61. Journ. to Himavan 
1, 106. Heer-strasze (-gasse), viz. that of the wiitende heer/ 
in Meier s Schwab, sag. 137-9; herstrasz, Mone 8, 495; Up. 
Palat. hyrstrausz, heerweg, Bergm. 115-8. 124; helweg (p. 801-2), 
Most import, for mythol. are : frauen Hidden strasze, vron Hildeit, 
straet, Phara ildis sidus (p. 284-5) ; also galaxa, in duutsche die 
Brunelstraet, Naturk. von breeder Thomas (Clariss s Gheraerc, 
p. 278). _ 

p. 361.] As we have luuaringes-weg and Eurings-strasz by 
the side of Iringesweg, so in oldish records Eurasburg castle is 
called Iringesburg, Schm. 1, 96. Irinc is in Nib. 1968 a young 
man, 1971-89 a markgraf and Hawartes man, and in the Klage 
201. 210 ze Liitringe geborn. On the meaning of the word 
conf. pp. 727. 1148. Kl. schr. 3, 234. F. Magnussen in his Pref. 
to Rigsmal connects (as I had done in my Irmenstrasse 1815, 
p. 49) the Ericus of Ansgar and the Berich of Jornandes with 
, as also the Eriksgata conf. the devil s name gammel Erich 

VOL. IV. I 



1390 HEKOES. 

(p. 989). That Erich was a deified king is plain from a sentence 
in the Vita Anskarii cited above : c nam et templum in honore 
supradicti regis dudum defuncti statuerunt, et ipsi tanquam deo 
vota et sacrificia offerre coeperunt. 

p. 363 n.] Suevi a monte Suevo, Chr. Salern., Pertz 5, 512. 
a Suevio monte, Hpt s Ztschr. 4, 493. GDS. 323. 

p. 365.] On the castra Herculis by Noviomagus, Ammian. 
Marc. 18, 2. With the giant bones of Hugleich at the Rhine- 
mouth (Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 10) we may even conn, the Herculis 
columna which stood there (p. 394). On Here. Saxanus, Mann- 
hdt s Germ, mythen p. 230; on the inscriptions, Mythol. ed. 1, 
p 203 Herculi in Petra, Gruter 49, 2. ireSlov \i6a>8es on the 
Rhone, Preller 2, 147. Wolfram s Wh. 357, 25. 386, 6. 437, 20. 

p. 366.] Like Castor and Pollux, there appear in Teut. tales 
two youths, angels, saints, in a battle, or putting out a fire (Suppl. 
to Pref. xliii. end) : duo juvenes candidis circumamicti stolis, 
animam a corpore segregantes, vacuum ferentes per aerem, 
Jonas Bobb. in Vita Burgundofarae (Mabillon 2, 421) ; conf. p. 
836-7. duo juvenes in albis, putting out a fire, in Annal. Saxo p. 
558. Chronogr. Saxo in Leibn. 122 fr. Einh. Ann., Pertz 1, 348. 
Again, the angel wiping the sword in Roth s Sermons p. 78, and 
the destroying angel. Lithuanian legends have a giant Aids, 
Kurl. sendungen 1, 4617. Jalg e$a Jailer, Sn. 3; jalkr = senex 
eviratus, says F. Magn. 

p. 367 n.] Note, in the Pass. 64, 41 : ein wuotegoz unremer = 
Wuotilgoz: conf. wuetgusz oder groz wasser/ Weisth. 3, 702. 
and f in wuetgussen, eisgussen und groszen stiirmen, 3, 704. 
Also p. 164, and Wuetes, Wuetens, Schm. 4, 203. GDS. 440. 

774-5. 

p. 368.] Sigite Odin s son, Sn. 211 a . So is Hildolfr, ibid., 
< HarbarS s lord/ Ssem. 7b\ OHG. Hiltwolf. So is Sigrlami, 
Fornald. sog. 1, 413, and has a son Svafrlami. So is Nefr or 
Nepr, Sn. 211% and has a daughter Nanna 31. 66. So is Sce- 
mingr, Sn. 211 a , Semingr in Hervarars., Fornald. s. 1, 416; conf. 
8dmr, Sdms-ey, Rask s Afh. 1, 108. The name of Gautr, Odin s 
son or grandson, is conn, with giezen (pp. 23. 105 n. 142. 164. 
367) ; on Gautr, Sn. 195. OSinn is called Her-gautr, Egilss. p. 
624, alda^awir, S&m. 95 b . 93 b ; conf. Caozes-pah, -prunno (-beck, 
-burn), Hpt s Ztschr. 7, 530. 



SCEAF. GIBIKE. VALSING. BILLING. 1391 

p. 370.] The accounts of Seed/in AS. chronicles are given by 
Thorpe, Beow. p. 4. In the same way Beaflor sails alone in a ship, 
a bundle of straw under his~lTead, Mai 3ff=7arrives ^rb^r-smls 
aw ayligam 152 ; the ship gets home 180, 39. Horn also comes 
in a ship, and sends it home with greetings. A Polish legend 
says of Piast : qui primus appulerit in navicula, dominus vester 
erit, Procosius p. 47. As the swan-children can lay aside the 
swan-ring, so can the WeJfs the wolf-girdle or whelp-skin. Klemm 
2, 157 has a remarkable story of beautiful children slipping off 
their dog-skin. Skilpunt in Karajan s Salzb. urk. must be for 
Skilpunc. Oftinn is a Skilfmgr, Ssem. 47. Did the/ and b in 
Scilfing, Scilbunc arises out of v in sJcildva ? The Goth, skildus 
has its gen. pi. skildive. 

p. 371.] Kl. schr. 3, 197. To the Gibidien-steine enumer. in 
Hpt s Ztschr. 1, 573, and the Gebiches-borse in Weisth. 3, 344 
(borse, Graff 3, 215), add Gevelcen-horst, Moser 8, 337. Dorow s 
Freckenh. 222, and AS. Gificancumb, Kemble no. 641 (yr. 984). 
The Ni.bel., which does not mention the Burgundian Gibeche, 
has a fiirste or kunec Gibeke at Etzel s court 1283, 4. 1292, 2. 
The Lex Burg. 3 says : apud regiae memoriae auctores nostros, 
id est, Gibicam, Godomarem, Gislaharium, Gundaharium. Greg. 
Tur. 2, 28 : Gundeuchus rex Burgundionum ; huic fuere quatuor 
filii, Gundobaldus, Godegisilus, Chilpericus, Godomarus. 

p. 371.] The diffusion of tke Volsiinga-saga, among the Anglo- 
Sax, is evidenced by Valuing and Vdlses eafera in Beow. 1747- 
87. The Yolsungs have the snake s eye (Suppl. to 392., mid.). 
The tale of Sdufritz is told in Bader no. 435. 

p. 371 n.] Mars segumon, vincius, Stalin 1, 112. Gliick 150 
says, segomo in nom. De Wai. no. 246 (1847). Can it be the 
same as rjyefjiaiVj dux ? 

p. 373.] Oftinn himself is called lielblindi, and Helbliudi is 
the name of a wolf (p. 246). Beaflor is said to have give birth to 
a wolf, Mai 132, 9; conf. the story of the 12 babies named Wolf, 
Miillenh. p. 523, and that of the blind dogs, Pliny 8, 40. 

p. 374.] Pillung, MB. 9, 10 (yr. 769). Hermann Billing, Hel- 
mold 1, 10. Billung in the Sassen-chron., conf. Forsteniann 1, 
258. 2, 225. Oda, grandmother of Henry the Fowler, was the 
daughter of a Frankish noble Billung and Aeda, Pertz 6, 306. 
tome Billingis-huge, Gl. to the Ssp. 3, 29 ; conf. regulus Obo- 



1392 HEROES. 

tritorum nomine Piling, Helm. 1, 13. What means pillungs 
ein w6nic verrenket in the Hatzlerin 180, 37 ? 

p. 376.] In Eigls-p&rge, MB. 28, 2, 173 (Passau urbar.). Juxta 
portam quae de Eigeles (at Cologne), Lacomblet 318, yr. 1134. 

p. 378.] The Heldensage p. 288 has two sons of Wieland, 
[full] brothers: Wittich and Wittich von der aue; conf. Lat. 
Silvanus, a forest-god of secondary rank: Silvani Incus extra 
murum est avius crebro salicto oppletus, Plant. Aul. iv. - 6, 8. 
Ought we to read Viltinus for Vilkinus ? Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 446. 
Schott conn. Wate with Wuotan, Introd. to Gudr. Ivi. To things 
named after Wieland add the Wielandstein, Schwab s Alp. p. 136 
seq. ; after Galans a pratum Galandi, now Prejelan in Bourgogne, 
Garnier s Pagi Burg. p. 83. Dan. Velants-urt, also velamsrot, 
vendelsrot, Dyb. 1845, 49. 50. On Wielets-kinder conf. Schrn. sub 
v. ValfoSur vel framtelja, patris artem (mysterium ? ) enarrare, 
Ssem. l a . Another point of likeness betw. Wieland and Hephces- 
tos is, that both are masters of forging dwarfs (p. 471-2). Their 
handiwork was famous: epyov H^atVroto, Od. 4, 617. 15,116. 
ot><? "H(/>aicrT09 ereufe 7, 92. 

p. 380.] Mime the old in Bit. 138 seems to have a short i, 

and can hardly belong here. Karajan in Verbriid. von S. Peter 

has Mimilo, Mimistein. To Mimigerneford (conf. Ledebur s 

Bructeri p. 328), perhaps from an adj. mimi-gern, and Mimidun 

(Mimidomensis = Mindensis,Lappbg no. 25; Mimende on Weser, 

Schrader s Dyn. 104), add a third Westph. locality Mimegersen, 

now Memsen in Hoya country, Lappbg no. 48. Again, Mimmelage 

near Osnabriick. Mimirberh, perhaps Mimisberh, Pertz 8, 776. 

The names Memeln-brun, -born, Memel-born, Memilsdorf, 

Henneb. urk. 2, nos. 153-6. 169. 1, 166. 125, and Memelen-born 

(Melborn by Eisenach), Thiir. Ztschr. 4,. 210 suggest the Mimis 

brunnr of the Edda. With Miming us, silvarum satyrus, agrees 

the sword s name in En. 5694; conf. Mumminc, Upstdge 137, 

(Muma in Thidrekss. 65). There are yet to be considered Sdck- 

mimir, Ssem. 46 b ; Hoddmimir who dwells i holti 37 ; Mimsvinr, 

Mimisvinr, Egilss. 641. Like Mimi s head is Virgil s head which 

prophesies, MSH. 4, 246. A head of brass prophesies in Val. 

et Ourson c. 25 ; enn spinnen-hoofd in the Dutch transl. arose 

perhaps from taking tete d airain for t. d araigne. Heads often 

speak in churches, F. Magn. Edda-laere 2, 264. 



WELAND. MIMI. TELL. DEIFICATION. 1393 

p. 383.] On Tell conf. Bohmer s Keg. p. 197 and Sinner in 
the Solothurner Wtb. 1845, p. 198. Th. Platter 87 (abt 1532) 
names him Wilhelm Tall, and Garg. 180 b Wilh. Dell, while Rabe- 
lais 1, 23 does not mention him. A picture of Tell in Schwzbg s 
Memorial 116 a . Some stories make the son shoot the apple off 
the father s head. Schutzeichel is at this day a family-name at 
Bonn, Simrock s Bdda p. 396. 

Many single heroes remain to be considered, such as Poppo 
the strong, Hpt s Ztschr. 3, 239, conf. 8, 347; Hugleich 5, 10. 
Also lines of heroes : stirps Immidingorum (Saxon) et Erbonum 
(Bavar.), Pertz 8, 226. 

p. 383.] The god must stand at the head of the line, because 
he passes for the father and grandfather of the men. Still there 
remains an enormous difference between gods and men; hence in 
Saxo, ed. M. 117, the (earthly) Nanna rejects the suit of Balder: 
nuptiis deum mortali sociari non posse, quod ingens naturae 
discrimen copulae commercium tollat .... superais terrestria 
non jugari. 

p. 385 n.] Saxo calls Othin, Thor, etc. merely opinative, not 
naturaliter deos (ed. M. 118), and Balder a semideus (conf. p. 
340) ; whereupon P. B. Miiller om Saxo p. 54 remarks : Odin 
lived neither before nor after Christ. Old Conrad in his Troj, 
Kr. 858 911 is not quite of that opinion: si waren liute als 
ir nu sit, wan daz (they were men like you, only) ir krefteclich 
gewalt was michel unde manicvalt von kriutern und von steinen 
.... ouch lepten gnuoge (lived plenty) bi der zit, die zouberaere 
waren, und wunder in den jaren mit gougelwise worhten (with 
jugglery wrought)/ How the old gods were degraded into 

conjurors, is shown p. 1031. Of the deification of men there 

are plenty of examples : daz kint waere mit den goten ein got, } 
Pass. 298, 27. The heathen adore Sigelot as a god, Rol. 198, 21. 
Ipomidon will be a god himself, Tit. 3057. 4147-60. er wolde 
got hien erde sin, Diemer 139, 24. als er iz waere got 131, 22. 
min wirde gelich den goten steic, Turl. Wh. 66 a . Of Caligula : 
wart hi so sot, dat hi wilde wesen god, ende hi seide openbare 
dat hi Jupiters broeder ware/ Maerl. 2, 236, conf. 333. Gram- 
baut, roi de Baviere, se nommoit dieu en terre, and called his 
castle Paradis, Belle Helene p.m. 23. The Mongols practise the 
worship of ancestors, deific. of rulers, Klemm 3, 194-5; also vene 
ration of saints and relics. 



1394 HEROES. 

p. 392.] The Greeks required beauty of form in heroes as well 
as gods, Lucian s Charid. 6. 7. Of Charlem. it is said : anges 
resemble du ciel ius devole, Aspr. 21 a . Heroes share the lofty 
stature of gods. Of Huglacus the legend says : quern equus a 
duodecimo anno portare non potuit ; cujus ossa in Rheni fluminis 
insula, ubi in oceanum prorumpit, reservata sunt, et de longinquo 

venientibus pro miraculo ostenduntur (Suppl. to 365). Many- 

handedness is often mentioned. Ancient men with four hands, 
fourjeet, and two faces, Plato symp. 189, four ears 190. If yap 
^etpe? e/cdo-rq) air cafKov afoffovTo, Orph. arg. 519. Men with 
8 toes, 6 hands, Megenb. 490, 2. 30 ; conf. gods and giants 
(p. 527). From the three-handed and three or four-elbowed 
Heime (Germ. 4, 17) perh. the Heimenstein takes its name, about 
which there is a folk-tale, G. Schwab s Alb pp. 161165. A 
story about so Heyne, so/ who helps to raise a treasure, in H. 
v. Herford, Potth. p. 93 ; conf. Brisinga-men (p. 306). A three- 
headed figure on the Gallehus horn discov. 1 734 (Henneb., plate 

2). Most akin to the gods seem those heroes who are favoured 

with a second birth (p. 385). The fact of many heroes names 
being repeated in their descendants may have to do with this 
belief, GDS. 441. But Helgi and Svava are genuine endrbornir, 
Ssem. 148. 169. 159 b . As late as in MS. 1, 97 b we read : sturbe 
ich nach ir minne, und wurde ich danne lebende, so wurbe ich 
aber umbe daz wip (I would woo her again)/ Contrariwise MS. 
1, 69 b : so bin ich doch uf anders niht geborn. Solinus says 
Scipio was another of the Unborn, and was therefore called 
Caesar, Maerl. 1, 401 ; conf, the Lay of Mimmering tand, Danske 

Vis. 1, 100. Kama, son of the Sun, was born with earrings 

and a coat of mail, Holtzm. 2, 123-9. 136. wart ie man ttiit 
tudfen geborn, Krone 10534; conf. born with a fiddle. To 
phenomena occuFring at the birth of a hero, add tho storm that 
attended Alexander s, Pseudocallisth. p.m. 12. Alcmena tests 
Hercules with snakes, which he kills lying in his cradle, as 
Sigmund does Sinfjotli by kneading the dough that had snakes 
in it, Vols. saga c. 7. Kullervo, when 3 nights old, tears up 
his swathings, Castren 2, 45. In the Sv. folks. 1, 139. 140, the 
child walks and talks as soon as born. Of the grown-up hero s 
strength the examples are countless. Tied to an oak, he pulls it 
up, Sv. forns. 1, 44. Danske V. 1, 13 ; Beowulf has in his hand 



FIGURE. EQUIPAGE. SNAKE S EYE. 1395 

the strength of thirty, Beow. 756. They eat and drink enor 
mously, like Thorr (Suppl. to 320) ; so Hammer gra, Sv. forns. 1, 

61-2, conf. the giant bride I, 71-2. Syv. 49. Heroes have 

beaming godlike eyes, snake s eijes, ormr i auga ; so have kings, 
Saxo, ed. M. p. 70. A slog s son (SiguriS s and Brynhild s grand 
son) is called SigurSr ormr-i-auga, gen. SigurSar orms-i-auga, 
Fornald. s. 1, 267. 273. 2, 10-4. Fornm. 1, 115. His step 
brothers say : eigi er oss i augum ormr nefrdnir sndkar, Fornald. 
1, 268 (conf. orm frann, Heimskr. 7, 238. S&m. Hafn. 2, 13). 
SigurSr 03ins aettar, ]?eim er ormr i auga, Fornald. 1, 258. 
Aslog prophesies of her unborn son : enn a ]?eim sveini mun 
vera )?at mark, at sva mun )?ikkja, sem ormr liggi urn auga 
sveininum a false interpretation, for not the eyebrows coiling 
round, but the inner look (i auga) was meant, Fornald. 1, 257. 
In Saem. 187 a he is called f inn frdn-eygi sveinn. brann Bryn- 
hildi eldr or augom (fire flashed from B. s eyes) 215 b . amun 
(minaces) eru augu ormi peim enum frana (Volundr) 156 a . hvoss 
eric augu i Hagals )?yju (Helgi in disguise) 158 b . We still say: 

something great shines out of his eyes. GDS. 126-7. Other 

heroes show other marks : on Hagen s breast is a golden cross, 
Gudr. 143-7. 153; betw. Wolfdietrich s shoulders a red cross, 
Hugd. 139. 189. Valentin and Namelos have also a cross betw. 
the shoulders, like the mark of the lime-leaf on Siegfried s back, 
where alone he is vulnerable (as Achilles was in one heel), Nib. 
845, 3. 4. Swan-children have a gold chain about the neck, the 
reali di Franza a niello on the right shoulder, Reali 6, 17. p.m. 
344 ; conf. the woJfs-zagelchen betw. the shoulder-blades (Suppl. 
to 1097). Of the Frankish hero Sigurd, the Vilk. saga c. 319 
says: l hans horund var sva hart sem sigg villig altar ; sigg may 
mean a bristly skin, and seems conn, with the legend of the 
bristled Merowings. 1 In cap. 1 46 we are told that Sigurd s skin 
grew hard as horn ; and in Gudr. 101, that wild Hagen s skin 
hardened through drinking the monster s blood. No doubt the 
original meaning was, merely that he gained strength by it. The 
great, though not superhuman age of 110 years is attained by 
Hermanaricus, Jorn. c. 24. We read in Plaut. mil. glor. iv. 2, 
86 : meri bellatores gignuntur, quas hie praegnates fecit, et pueri 

1 Thorpe (ad Cod. Exon. p. 511) sees the Merowings in the North-Elbe Maurun- 
gani and AS. Myrgingas. Might not these Myrgingas be those of Mercia ? 



1396 WISE WOMEN. 

annos octingentos vivunt. The gods bestow blessings, the heroes 
evils, Babr. 63. 

p. 392.] Strong Franz also holds converse with his knowing 
steed, Miillenh. p. 422. The hero talks with his sivord as well as 
his horse, Sv. forns. 1, 65. Klage 847 seq. Wigal. 6514. Drach- 
enk. 161*. Vilkinas. pp. 54. 160-1. The dying hero would 
fain annihilate his sword, e.g. the Servian Marko and Roland, 
Conr. Eol. 237, 3. 

p. 394.] Where a god, devil or hero sits, there is left a mark 
in the stone. Their hands and feet, nay, their horses hoofs, leave 
marks behind (Suppl. to 664). ons heren spronc, Maerl. 2, 116. 
Stone remains wet with a hero s tears : hiute (to this day) ist der 
stein naz, da Karl uffe saz, Ksrchr. 14937. 



CHAPTER XVI. 
WISE WOMEN. 

p. 396.] Helen, as daughter of Zeus and Leda, as half-sister 
of the Dioscuri, is already half divine ; but she is also deified for 
her beauty, as her brothers are for bravery, Lucian 9, 274. Flore 
says of Blancheflur, whom he supposes dead, 2272 : 
iuch het Got ze einer got inn e 
gemacht in himelriche 
harte wiinnecliche. 

Women have the further advantage over the harder sex, of being 
kind and merciful, even giantesses and she-devils (Suppl. to 
530). 

p. 397.] Soothsaying and magic are pre-eminently gifts of 
women (p. 95). Hence there are more witches than wizards: 
where we burn one man, we burn maybe ten women/ Keisersb. 
omeis 46 b . A woman at Geppingen had foretold the great fire, 
Joh. Nider (d. 1440) in Formic. 2, 1. 

p. 398.] Woman- worship is expr. in the following turns of 
speech [Examples like those in Text are omitted], ich waen, 
Got niht so guotes hat als ein guot wip, Frauend. 1, 6. ert altos 
vrouwen ende joncfrouwen, Rose 2051. van vrowen comt ons 
alle ere, Walew. 3813 ; for one reason: wir wurden von frowen 
geborn, und manger bet gewert, Otn., cod. Dresd. 167. daz wir 



WOMAN- WOK SHIP. 1397 

von den lieben frolm fin alsamen [zer werlte] komen sin, M. 
Beheim 275, 19. Renn. 12268. 

p. 400.] The hero devotes himself to a lady s service,, she will 
have him for her knight : ich wil in z eime ritter han, Parz. 352, 
24. den ritter dienstes biten/ ask for his service 368, 17. dins 
ritters 353, 29. min ritter und der din 358, 2. Schionatulander 
has to serve Sigune * unter schiltlichem dache/ under shield-roof, 
Tit. 71, 4, he was in ir helfe erborn 72, 4 ; and this relationship 
is called her fellowship 73, 1. 

do versuocht ich n, ob er kunde sin 

eiufriunt, daz wart vil balde schin. 

er gap durch mich (for me) sin harnas enwec . . . 

mange aventiure suoht er bloz (bare, unarmed), Parz. 27, 13. 

The knights wore scutcheon or jewel, esp. a sleeve, or mouwe, 
stouche (parts of a sleeve), durch (in honour of) die frauen. 
The lady is screen, shield and escort to the knight whose sword 
is in her hand, Parz. 370-1. f ich wil in strite hi in sin says 
Obilote to Gawan 371, 14. Captives must surrender to the con 
queror s lady-love 394, 16. 395, 30. 396, 3 ; she is thus a warrior 
like Freya, a shield-maiden (p. 423-4). The sleeve he wears as 
favour on his shield has touched the maiden s naked arm, Parz. 
375, 16. 390, 20. Er. 2292 seq. En. 12035 seq. ; a shirt that 
has touched the fair one s form is the knightly hauberk s roof, 
Parz. 101, 10; conf. es gibt dir gleich, naizwan, ain kraft, wen 
du im an den rock merest (touchest his coat)/ Keisersb. s Spin- 
nerin f. 3 d . Schionatulander nerves him for the fight, and wins 
it, by thinking how Sigune showed herself to him unrobed- which 
she had done on purpose to safeguard him in danger, Tit. 1247 
50. 1497. 2502. 4104. 4717. 

Sed in cordibus milites 

depingunt nostras fades , 

cum serico in palliis 

colore et in clipeis ; Carm. Bur. 148 b . 

Sifrit geddht an daz Jeiissen daz ver Krimhilt im hate getan, 
da- von der degen kiiene (champion bold) ein niuwe kraft gewau, 
Roseng. 1866. Man sol vor crste an Got gedenken in der not, 
Dar-nach gedenke an die siiezen miindel rot, Und an ir edeln 



1398 WISE WOMEN. 

minne, diu verjagt den tot, Kolm. MS. 73, 37. 42, 46. For 

( thinking of, see my Diet. sub. v. andacht (devotion). The 

ladies too call out to their champion, or they wish : ( The little 
strength that I have, I would it were with you ! As you like it, 

i. 2. Woman s beauty can split rocks : von ir schoene miiese 

ein fels erkrachen, MsH. 3, 173 a . It heals the sick: der sieche 
muose bi in genesen, Dietr. Drach. 350 b . sol daz ein siecher ane 
sehn, vor froide wurde er schier gesunt 310 b . ir smieren und ir 
lachen, und solde ein sieche das ansehn, dem miieste sorge swachen 
70 a . A flight to the ladies saves a man : hie sal die zuht vore 
gan, nu he under den vrowin ist komin, 4626 ; conf. 4589. A 
lady s tread does not hurt flowers : ich waen swelhe trat diu 
kiinegin, daz si niht verlos ir liehten schin, Turl. Wh. 97 b . 152 a . 

p. 400.] Sin pflagen (him tended) wise frouwen, Gudr. 23, 3 ; 
they are called blessed maids in SteuVs Tirol p. 319. 

p. 401.] The OHG. itis (Kl. Schr. 2, 4 seq.) is still found in 
MUG-. In the Wigamur 1 564 seq. a maiden is called idis (mis 
printed eydes, for it rhymes wis, pris 1654-90. 1972) ; she has a 
limetree with a fountain of youth. Again, Ituburg, Dronke 4, 22 ; 
Idislind, Trad. Wizenb. (printed Dislith), Pertz 2, 389. Dis in 
Forstem. 1, 335; is Gifaidis 1, 451 for Giafdis ? Curtius in 
Kuhn s Ztschr. connects itis with aOrjvi], but where is the s ? I 
prefer to see in it the shining one, fr. indh = lucere, edha, edhas 
= lignum (Kl. schr. 5, 435). AS. ides = freolicu meowle, Cod. 
Exon. 479, 2. Both meowle and mawi have likewise their place 
here ; conf. Meuenloch, Panzer s Beitr. 1, no. 85. KL schr. 3, 108. 

p. 403.] ON. disir appear as parcae : vildu sva disir/ so 
willed the fates, Hostl. (Thorl. 6, 6) ; tdlar disir standa )?er a 
tvcer lili&ar, ok vilja Jnk sdran sia, Saern. 185 a . Sacrif. off. to 
them : disablot, bletuff disir, Egilss. 205-7. var at disa bloti, 
reiS hesti um disar salinn, Yogi. 33. Of the suicide: heingdi 
sik i disarsal, Hervarars. p. 454; for ser i disar sal 527. iodffis, 
Sn. 202. Grendel s mother is an ides, Beow. 2518. 2701. On 
Vanadis and her identity with the Thracian moon-goddess Bendis, 
see Kl. schr. 5, 424. 430 seq. 

p. 403.] Brynhild s hall, whither men go to have their dreams 
interpreted, stands on a hill, Vols. c. 25 ; conf. hyfjaberg (p. 1149). 
volu leiffi, divinatricis tumulus, Laxd. 328. An old fay has not 
been out of her tower for fifty years, Perrault p. m. 3. Of 



ITIS (DIS). ALBUNA. NOKN. 1399 

Yeleda and the Goth. Waladamarca in Jorn. c. 48 we are reminded 
by the wise horse Falada in the fairy-tale (p. 659), and by Velen- 
tin : valantinne, volantinne alternate in Hpt s Ztschr. 4, 437. The 
volur roam about: ek for i skog volvu Uki, Fornald. s. 1, 135; 
J?u var volvan 1, 139. Seem. 154 b . Other prophetesses in Nialss. 
p. 194-9 : Sseunn kerHrig, hon var /ro^at morgu ok framsyn, en 
j?a var hon gomul miok ; she wanted the weed removed, else it 
would cause a fire, which came true. In Fornm. s. 4, 46 : visinda- 
kona, su er sagiSi fyrir orlog manna ok lif; conf. p. 408. 

p. 405.] Wackernagel in Hpt s Ztschr. 2, 539 thinks ah orunas 
= /ift^orunas = helliruna. A cave of the Alraun in Panz. Beitr. 
1, 78 80. mandragora alruna, Moneys Anz. 8, 397. 

p. 406.] My resolution of ON. norn into Goth, navairns, death- 
goddess (Kl. schr. 3, 113) is opposed by Mullenhof in Hpt s 
Ztschr. 9, 255. The Nahanarvali may have been norn-wor- 
shippers^, Navarna-hali, Goth. Navarne-haleis, ON. Norna-halir, 
GDS. 715. 806. Perhaps we ought to look to the Swed. verb 
nyrna, warn, inform, Sv. folkv. 1, 182-3. In Faroe they say 
nodn, nodnar, for norn, nornir, as .they do kodn, hodn, badn, for 
korn, horn, barn, Lyngbye 132; so Nodna-gjest 474. That 
Nurnberg contains norn is the less likely, as we find it spelt 
Nuem-loerc, MSH. 3, 296 b , Niieren-berc, Walth. 84, 17. Nornborn 
seems a ccn-rup. of Nordenborn, like Norndorf, Nornberg, also in 
Up. Germany. Conf. the Fris. Non, Ehrentr. Fries, arch. 2, 82 ; 
Nurnhari, Karajan 83, 6. 

p. 408.] Two Germ, truds, Muss and Kann, take their names, 
like the three Norns, from simple verbs, Panz. Beitr. 1, 88. 
OHG. wurty fortuna, Gl. hrab. 964 a ; conf. giwurt, ungiwurt, Graff 
1, 993-4, and perhaps Goth, gavairfii, n. AS. seo wyrd gewearff, 
Casdm. 168, 3. hie WyflA forsweop, Beow. 949. With me Ip&t 
Wyrd gewcef (wove) conf. ( wigspeda gewiofu (webs),^ Beow. 1347 
(p. 415). In Kormakss. p. 267 comes Ur&r at brunni ; conf. 
UrtSar lokur, Saam. 98 a . Ur3r oiSliaga 214 a is like dis Skiol- 

dunga/ The Norns shape our destiny, sJcapa: omlig norn 

shop oss i ardaga 18 l a ; in Faroe : tea heava mear nodnar skapt, 
Lyngbye 132. In Graff 6, 662, steffara = parca is for scefara; 
scep/arim = parcae, Gl. Schlettst. 6,457; they sceppen s men- 
schen leven/ Limb. 3, 1275. Vintler v. 146 (see App. Superst. 
G) speaks of gach-schepfen, Pfeiffer s Germ. 1, 238 ; conf. Finn. 



1400 WISE WOMEN. 

luonnotar, virgo creatrix, esp. ferri, fr. luon to make : f kolrae 

neitta luonnotarta/ ires suutvirgines naturae creatrices. Norns 

are of various lineage, Saem. 188 a : 

sundr-bornar miok hugg ek at nornir se, 

eigoiS j?aer aett saman, 

sumar ero as-kungar, sumar <z/-kungar, 

sumar doetr Dvalins (some, daughters of D., a dwarf). 

p. 409.] On nornir , volvur f spdJconur, blakdpur conf. Maurer 
284. tha thriu wiifer, Ehrentr. Fries, arch. 2, 82. die drei heil- 
rathinnen, Panz. Beitr. 1, 56-7-9. 283. Slav, tri rojenice or 
sujenice, Valjavec 76 91. Boh. sudice, judges, fem. (p. 436). 
Nornir na-gonglar, nauft-gonglar, Saem. 187 b , conf. ed. Hafn. 173 ; 

note the tofra-norn (p. 1033). The Norns travel: konur faer 

foru yfir land, er volvur voru kallaftr, ok sogftu monnum/or/o^ sin, 
arferS ok a^ra hluti, }?a er menn vildu visir verfta. ]?essi sveit kom 
til Yirvils bonda, var volvunni J>ar vel fagnat, Fornm. s. 3, 212. 
volvan arma 3, 214. Norns, parcae, fays come to the infant s 
cradle, and bestow gifts ; so does frau Saelde in Erec 9900. A 
gammal gumma prophesies at the birth of the prince, Sv. folks. 
1, 195 ; three mbr (maids) get bathed by the girl, and then give 
gifts 1, 130 (in our Germ, tale it is 3 haulemannchen) . 

p. 410.] Saeva Necessitas 

clavos trabales et cuneos manu 
gestans ahenea. Hor. Od. i. 35, 18. 

Si figit adamantines 

summis vorticibus dira Necessitas 

clavos. Hor. Od. iii. 24, 5. 

diu grimme Not, Er. 837. merkja d ^agli Naud*, Saam. 194 b . 
Runar ristnar : d Nornar nagli 196 a (clavo, not fingernail) ; conf. 
Simplic. 1, 475 (Keller) : when Needs-be rideth in at door and 
windows. 

p. 411.] Of Greek mythical beings Calypso comes nearest the 
fays, being goddess and nymph ; and in MHG. the goddess Venus 
is diu feine diu ist entslafen/ MS. 2, 198 a , while a fay is often 
called goddess. f gotinne = fee/ Hpt s Ztschr. 2, 183. der gotinne 

land, der g. hende, Frib. Trist. 4458. 4503. In Petronius we 

already find a personal (though masc.) fatus : malus f. (illutn 



NOEN. FAY. FATA MOEGANA. 1401 

perdidit) c. 42. hoc mihi dicifc f. meus, c. 77. On the house of 
the tria fata in the Forum, conf. Gregorovius s City of Borne 1, 
371-2-3. In the Engadin they are called fedas, feas, also 
nymphas and dialas : they help in loading corn, bring food and 
drink in silver vessels ; three dialas come to the spinners, 
Schreiber s Taschenb. 4, 306-7. 

p. 412.] On the tria fata see Horkel s Abh. p. 298 seq., conf. 
the three maidens in F. v. Schwaben : twelve white maidens in 
Miillenh. p. 348. Fays, like elfins, are of unsurpassed beauty : 
schoener danne ein veine, Trist. 17481. plus blanche que fee, 
Orange 5, 3059. plus bele que fee ne lerine 5, 4725. pus bela 
que/ttda, Ferabr. 2767. de biaute resanbloit fee, Marie 1, 100. 
They hold feasts, like the witches (p. 1045-6). In an old poem (?) 
p. 104-5, three fays prophesy at the birth of Auberon, son of 
Jul. Caesar and Morgue, when a fourth comes in, p, 106 (p. 32 of 
the prose). The fates are gifting a newborn child, when the last 
one hurries up, but unfortunately sprains her foot (sbotatose lo 
pede), and lets fall a curse, Pentam. 2, 8. 

p. 413 n.] Fata Morgana is ( Femur g an diu riche in Lane. 
7185, Fdmorgan in Er. 5155. 5229, Felmurgdn in Iwein 3422. 
The ( Marguel, ein feine in Er. 1932 is the same, for she answers 
to the Fr. Morgain la fee/ She is called Morguein de elwinne/ 
Lanz. 13654. 19472. 23264; < Femur g a die kluoge/ Tit. 4376; 
while Wolfram treats the word as the name of a country (p. 820 n.). 
On the other hand, Trist. 397, 14 : gotinne uz Avelun der feinen 
lant (fay s land) ; Er. 1930 : der wert Avalon, Fr. Tile d Avalon. 
Does this go back to an old Celtic belief? Michelet 2, 15 men 
tions. holy maids who dispensed fair weather or shipwreck to the 
Celts. 

p. 414 n.] Ala a seem akin to IVo?, etcro? and eZBevai : i&os 
equally distributed, /cara cva ex aequo, /car alaav convenienter, 
aeque. 

p. 415.] Instead of Kara/eXwfle? in Od. 7, 197 Bekker reads : 

aaaa ol alcra Kara K\a)0es re fBapelai 
vr]cravTO 



joining Kara to vr]aavTO. Lucian s Dial. mort. 19 : rj Molpa teal 
TO e <x>px*j * OVTCW? e r miceK\w<T6cLi. Conf. eTri/cXooda) used of gods 
and daemons (Suppl. to 858). Atropos was supposed to be in 



1402 WISE WOMEN. 

the sun, Clotho in the moon, Lachesis on earth, Plut. 4, 1157. 
For a beautiful description of the three Parcae (parca, she who 
spares ? Pott in Kuhn 5, 250) see Catullus 62, 302321 with 
ever and anon the refrain : Currite, ducentes subtemina, currite, 
fusi ! also vv. 381385. 

Nubila nascenti seu mihi parca f uit. Ov. Trist. v. 3, 14. 
Scilicet hanc legem nentes fatalia parcae 

stamina bis genito bis cecinere tibi. v. 3, 25. 
duram Lachesin ! quae tarn grave sidus habenti 

fila dedit vitae non breviora meae. v. 10, 45. 
Atque utinam pritnis animam me ponere cunis 

jussisset quaevis de tribus una soror ! Propert. iii. 4, 28. 
Tres parcae aurea pensa torquentes. Petrou. c. 29. 
Daz het in vrowe Chloto so erteilet ; 
ouch was vil gefuoc vro Lachesis daran. Turl. Krone 7. 

Servian songs tell of a golden thread (zlatna shitza), that un 
winds from heaven and twines about a man, Vuk 1, 54 (Wesely 
p. 68). 57-8. 

p. 416.] German legend is full of spinning and weaving 
women : kleit daz ein wildiu feine span, Troj. kr. 2895. ein 
feine worhte den mantel, Altd. bl. 2,231; and fays weave mantles 
in Charlem. p. 105-6. paile que fist fere une/ee, Auberi 37. in 
the cave sits an old spinster, Kuhn s Westph. 1, 72. Asbiorn. 
1, 194; conf. the old webster, Rhesa dainos 198. Geliiclte span 
im kleider an, Frauenl. 115, 15. There are usually three together : 
tres nympliae, Saxo p. 43 (ed. M. 123). drei puppen, Firm. 2, 
34. die drei docken, H. Sachs i. 4, 457 d . die drei Marien, 
Kindh. Jesu, Hahn 68. Uhland s Yolksl. 756. Ib. 1582, 332. 
three Marys protect from fire, Panz. Beitr. 1, 67. three spinning 
Marys, TJhl. Yksl. 744. three old wives on a three-legged horse, 
Miillenh. p. 342. the trasfeijes, Alsatia 1853, p. 172-3, Many 
stories of three women in white or black, esp. in Panzer s Beitr. 
1, 2. 11-4-6-8. 25-8. 35-6-8. 46-8; they stretch a line to dry 
the wash on 1, 1. 9. 11-7. 25. 59. 129 n. 271-8; sing at the birth 
of a child 1, 11 ; become visible at Sun-wend-tag (solstice), 1, 
38-9. 75. 84. Near Lohudorf in Up. Franconia a lad saw three 
castle-maidens walking, two had kreuz-rocken (-distaffs) with nine 
spindles spun full, the third a stiihles-rocken with nine empty 



FATES. FAYS. VALKYRS. 1403 

ones; and the others said to her, Had you but covered your 
spindles once, tho not spun them full, you would not be lost/ 
Panz. Beitr. 2, 136. A beautiful Moravian story tells of three 
maidens who marched, scythe in hand, mowing the people down ; 
one, being lame, cannot keep up, and is laughed at by the other 
two. She in her anger lets men into the mystery of healing 
herbs. Kulda (d Elv) 110. 

p. 418.] Jupiter sends out Victoria, as OSinn does valkyrs, 
Aug. Civ. D. 4, 17 (p. 435-6). Their name has not been found 
yet in OHG., though Schannat, vind. 1, 72 (yr. 1119) has Wal- 
karie, femina serva. With the skiald-meyar conf. schild-knecht, 
who keeps his lord s shield and hands it to him, as they to OSinn. 
Maidens guarding shield and helmet occur in the M. Neth. Lane. 
16913. conf. 16678. 17038. Their other name, hialm-meyar is 
made clearer by hild und hialmi, Ss&m. 228% Tiialm geta ok 
oskmey verSa 242 a . The valkyr is named folkvitr 192 a . So, 
megetlichiu ivip help Charles to conquer, Ksrchr. 14950 seq. ; 
diu megede suln dir dine ere widergewinnen 14954 ; der megede 
sigenunft 15029. Aurelian led in triumph ten captive Gothic 
amazons, Vopisc. in Aurel. 34. Lampr. Alex. 6320 calls the 
Amazons urlouges wip. Paul Diaconus mentions a fight betw. 
Lamissio and the Amazons for the passage of a river. Adam of 
Bremen 4, 19 speaks of amazons and cynos-cepliali ; conf. P. 
Diac. 1, 15. hunt-houbito in Graff. The Krone 17469 tells of 
der meide lant/ land of maids. 

p, 41 8 n.] Hun var vitr kona ok vinsael ok skorungr mikill, 
Fornm. 3, 90 ; hon var skorungr mikill, virago insignis, Nialss. 
c. 96 ; and Glaumvor is skorungr, Vols. c. 33 (Kl. schr. 3, 407), 
skarungr, Vilk. c. 212; but in c. 129 skarungr = hero. Conf. 
skor, f. = barba, scabellum, commissura ; skar, in. = fungus, inso- 
lentia. OHG. scara = acies, agmen; scaraman, scario. 

p. 419.] Where is the garment mentioned, in which 03inn 
hid the thorn for Brunhild ? Saem. 194 a only says stack hana 
svefn-)?orni ; Vols. c. 20 stack mik svefn-)?orni ; Saem. 228 b 
f lauk hann mik skioldom ok hvitom/ On spindle-stones, see 
Michelet 1, 461. 

p. 420.] Brynhildr or Sigrdrifa fills a goblet (fyldi eitt ker), 
and brings it to Sigurd, Seem. 194 b . Vols. c. 20. A white lady 
with silver goblet in M. Koch s Reise d. Oestr. p. 262. A maiden 



1404 WISE WOMEN. 

hands the horn, and is cut down, Wieselgren 455. Subterraneans 
offer similar drink, Miillenh. p. 576; and a jiitte hands a horn, 
whose drops falling on the horse strip him of hair and hide, 
Kuna 1844, 88. 

p. 421.] Nine, as the fav. number of the valkyrs, is confirmed 
by Saem. 228% where one of them speaks of atta systra. To our 
surprise, a hero Granmar turns valkyrja in Asgard, and bears 
nine wolves to Sinfiotli, Saem. 154 b . Fornald. 1, 139 ; conf. AS. 
wylpeu, wulpin = bellona. 

p. 423.] The valkyrs ride through the air (p. 641), like Yenus 
(p. 892) : a thing aft. imputed to witches (p. 1088, &c.). Twelve 
women in the wood, on red horses, Fornm. 3, 135. By the ex 
pression Hlackr for, Hlock seems to have the task of conducting 
those fallen in battle to OSinn or Freyja, Egilss. p. 226. Is 
Gondull akin to gand ? Gl. Edd. torn. 1 : ydndull = nodu\us ; 
so that OSin s by-name Gondler, Saem. 46 b , would mean f tricas 
nectens. The Rota in prose Sn. 39 is Rotho in Saxo M. 316. 
An OHG. name Hilticomd, ad pugnam veniens, Cod. Fuld. no. 
153 (yr. 798), describes a valkyr ; conf. Hruodicoma, no. 172; 
ON. Uildr und hialmi, Saem. 228 a ; AS. hilde woman, Cod. Exon. 
250, 32. 282, 15. Thruffr is likewise a daughter of Thorr. 
Heilah-trud, Trad. Fuld. 2, 46. trute, Pass. K. 395, 77. frau 
Trutte, Praat. weltb. 1, 23. the drut (p. 464). 

p. 423.] May we trace back to the walkiirie what is said to 
Brunhild in Biter. 12617 ? ir waret in iur alten site komen, des 
ir pflaget e, daz ir so gerne sehet strit/ you love so to see strife. 
Brynhildr is mestr skorunyr (p. 41 8 n.). In Vilk. p. 30 she 
is called f hin rika, hin fagra, hin mikillata/ and her castle Segard. 
In the Nibel. she dwells at castle Isenstein on the sea ; is called 
des tiufels wip (or brut), and ungehiurez wip, 417, 4. 426, 4; 
wears armour and shield, 407, 4, throws the stone running, and 
hurls the spear; is passing strong 425, 1. 509, 3. 517, 3, and 
ties up king Gunther on their wedding-night. 

p. 424.] Like the shield-maidens are Fenja and Menja, of 
whom the Grottasongr str. 13 says : i folk stigum, brutum 
skioldu .... veittum goftum Gothormi lift. Clarine dubs her 
Valentin knight, Staphorst 241. They strike up brotherhood 
with their proteges; so does stolts Signild, Arvidss. 2, 128 130; 
conf. the blessed (dead ?) maiden, who marries a peasant, Steub s 



WISE WOMEN. 1405 

Tirol 319. The valkyrs too have swan-shifts, Seem. 228 a : let 
hami vara hugfullr konungr utta systra und eik borit (born under 
oak) ; conf. Cod. Exon. 443, 10. 26 : wunian under dc-treo ; and 
Grottas. str. 11 : varnm leikur, vetr niu alnar fyrir iorff ne&an. 
The wish- wife s clothes are kept in the oaktree, Lisch 5, 84-5. 

p. 425.] Brynhildr first unites herself by oath to young Agnar, 
and helps him to conquer old Hialmgunnar, Sasm. 194 ; conf. 
174 b . 228 a (Vols. c. 20), where it says eifta seldak and gaf ec 
ungom sigr. After that she chose Sigurd : sva er ek kaus mer 
til manns, Vols. c. 25. Such a union commonly proved unlucky, 
the condition being often attached that the husband should never 
ask the celestial bride her name, else they must part ; so with 
the elfin, with Melusina, with the swan-knight. Also with the god 
dess Gaaga, who had married Santanu, but immediately threw the 
children she had by him into the river, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 95-9. 
On the union of a hero with the ghostly vila, see GDS. 130-1. 

p. 429.] Valkyrs are to a certain extent gods stranded on the 
world in Indian fashion. They stay 7 years, then fly away to the 
battle: at vitja viga, visere proelia, Saem. 133; so in the prose, 
but in the poem orlog drygja (p. 425). The wisiu wip in the Nibel. 
are also called merwip, diuwilden mer wip 1514-20-28, and Hagen 
boivs to them when they have prophesied. 

p. 431.] The hut of the forest-women in Saxo p. 39 vanishes 
with them, and Hother suddenly finds himself under the open sky, 
as in witch-tales (p. 1072). Gangleri heyrSi dyni mikla hveru 
veg fra ser, oc leit ut a hli S ser : oc J?a er hann sez ineirr urn, j?u 
stendr hann uti a slettum velli, ser J?a onga holt oc o nga borg, Sn. 
77. Such vanishings are called sion-hverfingar, Sn. 2. 

p. 433.] Holz-wip, Otn. Cod. Dresd. 277; conf. dryad, hama 
dryad (p. 653). To cry like a wood-wife, Uhl. Volksl. 1, 149: 
schre als ein wildez wip owe ! Lanz. 7892. The wild woman s 
born, gestiihl (spring, stool), Wetterau. sag. 282 ; wilde f/dnlein, 
Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 59 ; daz wilde vrouwettn, Ecke 172. In Schliich- 
tern wood stand the wild houses, wild table, often visited by the 
wild folk, Buchonia iv. 2, 94-5; a willemdnnclies haus and tisch 
(table) near Briickenau, Panz. Beitr. 1, 186; conf. daz wilde ge- 
twerc (p. 447). Wood-wives are also called dirn-weibel (Suppl. to 
279), and carry apples in their basket, like the matronae and 
Nehalenniae. At flax-picking in Franconia a bunch plaited into 

VOL. IV. K 



1406 WISE WOMEN. 

a pigtail is left for the holz-frdule (as part of a sacrifice was laid 
aside for nymphs, Suppl. to 433 n.), and a rhyme is spoken over 
it, Panz. Beitr. 2, 160-1. witte wiiuer in the forest-cave, Kuhn s 
Westf. sag. 1, 123. The rauhe (shaggy) woman appears in the 
wood at midnight, Wolfdietr. 307-8 (Hpt s Ztschr. 4) ; the mother 
of Fasolt and Ecke was a rauhes weib (p. 483). Zander s Tanh. 
pp. 7. 17 speaks of wald-schalklein Cupido. Does Widukind, a 
very uncommon name, mean wood-child ? conf. Widukindes 
speckia, Liinzel 22. 25. 

p. 433 n.] Weaving naiads in Od. 13, 107. Fountain-nymphs, 
daughters of Zeus, are worshipped by Odysseus and in Ithaca 13, 
356. 17, 240; a part of the sacrifice is laid by for them 14, 435. 
ftwfjibs vv/jL<pa(i)v 17, 210. 

p. 4o4 11.] The reluctance of Proteus is also in Virg. Georg. 
4 ? 388 452 ; the same of Vertumnus, Ov. Met. 14, 642 seq. 
Propert. iv. 2. 

p. 435.] Ez ne sint merminne niet, En. 240, 4. ein wise mer 
minne, Lanz. 193. 5767. 3585. 6195. als ene merminne singhen, 
Kose 7896. A captive merwoman prophesies ruin to the country 
as far inland as she is dragged, Fir men. 1, 23. Miillenh. p. 338. 
Queen Dagmar hears the prophecy of a hav-fru, D.V. 2, 83 85 
(in which occurs the adage : vedst du det, saa vedst du mer) . 
The mermaid of Padstow, exasperated by a shot, curses the har 
bour, and it is choked up with sand. For Melusine the common 
people say mere Lusine. Danish songs have maremind and mare- 
qvinde. waltminne = lamia/ Gl. florian. Fundgr. 1, 396. walt- 
minna = echo (p. 452), lamia/ Graff 2, 774. widuminna, Cassel 
ortsn. p. 22. 

p. 436.] The vila builds her castle in the clouds, her daughter 
Munya (lightning) plays with her brothers the two Thunders, Vuk 
nov. ed. 1, 151-2. She sits in ash-trees and on rocks, singing 
jfongs ; talks with the stag in the forest; bestows gifts, and is a 
physician (p. 1148), Vuk 151. 149 n., no. 114. 158. She resem 
bles the devil too ; holds night-dance on the hill (Vuk sub v. 
vrzino kolo), teaches pupils to lead clouds and make storms, de 
tains the last man. The vilas are likest the white ladies (Suppl. 
to 968). With Uiktati conf. Lith. ulbauya volunge/ the wood 
pecker whines, and MS. 2, 94 b : ir Idokent als umbe ein fulen 
bourn ein speht/ as woodpecker about a pluintree. 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1407 

CHAPTER XVII. 
WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

p. 439.] Augustine C. D. 8, 14 divides animate beings into 
three classes : ( tripertita divisio animalium in deos, homines, 
daemoncs. Dii excelsissimum locum tenent, homines infimum, 
daemones medium ; nam deorum sedes in coelo, hominum in terra, 
in aere daemonum. The vettar have more power over nature 
than we, but have no immortal soul, a thing they grieve at (p. 

517). Fries, bot. udfl. 1, 109. The Goth, aggilus, OHG. engil, 

is not a convenient general term for these middle beings, for it 
conveys a definite Christian sense. Iw. 1391 uses geist for dae 
mon: ein unsih tiger geist. Genius means having generative power, 
Gerh. Etr. gods pp. 15. 52. Another general term is ungethiim, 
Schweinichen 1, 261-2. Spirits are also ungeheuer (p. 914) : die 
ubelen ungehiuren, Ges. Abent. 3, 61. 70-6 ; elbische ungehiure 3, 
75. The Swed. ra too seems to have a general sense : sjo-rd, tomt- 
ra, skog-ra, raand, Runa 1844, 70; conf. as (Suppl. to 24 and 
498). Mod. Gr. o-n^etov, FaurieFs Disc. prel. 82, must be 
arroi^elov element, conf. TO o-roi^elov TOV irora/jiov 2, 77. 

p. 442.] The Victovali, Victohali are Goth. Vaihte-haleis, ON. 
Vaetta-halir, fr. vict, wiht, wight, and the same people as the 
Nahanarvali (Suppl. to 406). GDS. 715. Can vaihts be f r. vaian 
to blow, and mean empty breath ? In Hpt s Ztschr. 8, 178 Hit 
(ie-wiht) iibles is half abstract, like Goth, vaihteis ubilos; whilst 
eines boesen wichtes art in Lanz. 3693 (conf. 1633) is altogether 
concrete; so are, diz ungehiure wiht, Ges. Abent. 2, 129; dat 
vule wield, Rein. 3660 ; dat dein proper suverlec wechtken (girl), 
Verwijs p. 33 ; 0. Engl. wight = being, wife, Nares s Gl. sub v. ; 
illar vaettir, Fornm. 4, 27; ill vaettr ok orm, Fornald. 1, 487; 
rog vaettr, Saem. 67-8; 6-vaettr, malus daemon, our tm-weseii. 
land-vaettir are Saxons dii loci praesides 161. dii vettrarne, 
Dybeck 1845, p. 98. uppa vegnar vaettir, ex improviso, Biorn 
sub v. veginn (slain). The Norweg. go-vejter, good wights, whence 
the gu-vitter of the neighbouring Lapps, answer to our gute wichte, 
gute holden (pp. 266. 456. 487); de guden Iwlden, Gefken s Beil. 99. 
124-9. A 15th cent, description of the Riesengebirge has f umb 
des iveclcirchen oder bergmonUns willen/ Mone s Anz. 7, 425; is 



1408 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

this word akin to wicht, as well as ar-weggers (p. 454 n.) which 
might mean arge wichte/ malicious wights ? l Weckerlein is a 
dog s name, fr. wacker (brisk, wide-awake). WihteUu, p. 441 n., 
may mean simply a puppet, like tocke, docke : bleierne (leaden) 
kolder-zwerglin, Garg. 253 a . A wichtel-sfoi&e in Sommer p. 24, 
a wichtelen-7ocA in Panz. Beitr. 1, 42. Like wiht, das ding stands 
for nightmare, Praetor. Weltb. 1, 27, as bones coses does for boni 
genii, Alex. 289, 24, and M. Lat. creatura for something, wight, 
Ducange sub v. 

ON. fajnd, f., pi. kyndir, is genus, ens, Seem. l a . 6 a . 118 a ; kynsl, 
kynstr, res insolita; Swed. ki/ner, creaturae, Runa 1844, 74. 2 
Akin to this word seems MHG. founder, creature, being, thing, 
also quaint thing, prodigy : was chunders ? Wackern. Ib. 506, 
30; conf. 675, 39. 676, 28. 907, 7. 909, 17. solhez kunder ich 
vernam, MSH. 3, 195 b . tiuvels kunter, Rol. 223, 22. der tiuvel 
und allez sin kunder, Tit. 2668. du verteiltez k., Ges. Abent. 3, 
25. bestia de funde so sprichet man dem k., Tit. 2737. verswin- 
den sam ein k., daz der boese geist fuort in dem rore 2408. ein 
vremdez k, MSH. 3, 171 a . ein seltsame k., Walth. 29, 5. ein 
trugelichez k. 38, 9. diu oeden k., MSH. 3, 2 1 3 a . das scheusslich 
kunter! Oberlin 846 b ; but also herlichiu kunder/ Gudr. 112, 4. 
einer slahte k., daz was ein merwunder, Wigam. 1 19. maneger 
slahte k., Wh. 400, 28. aller slahte kunterlich, Servat. 1954. k. 
daz uf dem velde vrizzet gras (sheep), Helmbr. 145. der krebez 
izzet gern diu kunterlin im wazzer, Renn. 19669. OHG. Chun- 
teres frumere, Cod, Lauresh. 211. M. Neth. conder, Brandaen 33. 
1667. dem boesem unkund&r, Dietr. 9859, formed like ON. 
ovaettr; conf. AS. tudor, progenies, untydras, monstra, Beow. 221. 

p. 443.] OHG. faiinos = a/p, Hpt s Ztschr. 10, 369. MHG., 
beside alp (do kom si rehte als ein alp uf mich geslichen, Maurit. 
1414), has an exceptional alf: so turn ein alf . . . was nie so aff 
(both rhym. half), Pass. 277, 69 and 376, 6. der unwise alf 302, 
90. ein helfeloser alf 387, 19. der turnme alf 482. 12. der to- 

rehte aZ/684, 40; conf. the name Olfalf, Karajan 110, 40. Perh. 

a nom. diu elbe is not to be inferred fr. the dat. der elbe in 

1 Ar-weggers is a name for earth-wights : ar-beren = ^rd-be^ren, p. 467, 1. 3 ; and 
tceg-lm=iciht-\in p. 449, last 1. TRANS. 

2 Skrymsl, monstrum, Vilk. s. 35, skrimsl, Fornm. 4, 56-7, used like kynsl. 
Ihre says, skrymsl = latebra, Dan. skramsel terriculamentum ; Neth. schrom terror, 
ON. skraumr blatero; Skrymir (p. 541). 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1409 

MS. 1, 50 b , as Pfeiffer p. 75 says the Heidelb. MS. reads von den 
elben The dwarf in Orendel is Alban ; a name ElbUn in Diut. 2, 

107 ; a mountain-sprite Alber in Schm. 1, 47. With the above 

Olfalf conf. ein rehter olf, Roseng. xiii., which comes near MHG. 
ulf, pi. ulve, but disagrees in its consonant with alp, elbe. On 
the other hand, f du dip, du dolp in H. Sachs i. 5, 525 h agrees 

with the latter; so does Olben-berg, Hess. Ztschr. 1, 245. The 

quite reg. M. Neth. alf (p. 463, last 2 11.) has two plurals: (1) 
alven in Br. Gheraert v. 719. met alven ende elvinnen, Hor. Belg. 
6, 44 ; and (2) elven in Maerl. : den elven bevelen, Clarisse s Gher. 
p. 219. There is also a neut. alf with pi. elver ; conf. the names of 
places Elver-sele, Elvinnen-berg. A large ship, eZ/-schuite, Ch. yr. 

1253 (Bohmer s Reg. p. 26, no. 190) is perh. fr. the river Elbe. 

AS. celfiuni means nymphae, dun-ceZ/t ttmoreades, wudu-celfinnedry- 
ades, wsdteT-celfinne hamadryades, BSLC-celfinne naiades, feld-celfinne 
maides, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 199. The Dan. assimil. of ellenfor elven 
occurs indep. of composition : ellen leger med hannom/ mente 
captus est, Wormius Mon. Dan. p. 19. ellevild = Norw, huldrin, 
Asbiorns. 1, 46-8. 105. indtagen af Imldren 1, 99. To olpetrutsch, 
&c. add elpendrotsch, Grater s Id. und Herm. 1814, p. 102; Up. 
Hess, die ilmedredsche ; Fastn. 350 alpetrull ; conf. trotsch 

Moneys Anz. 6, 229. The adj. from alp is elbisck: in elbischer 

anschowe, Pass. 97, 15. ein elbische ungehiure, Ges. Ab. 3, 75. 
ein elbischez as 3, 60. elbischer gebaere 3, 68. ich sihe wol daz 
du elbisch bist 3, 75. 

p. 444 n.] For the Alps there occur in the Mid. Ages e elbon 
= alpibus/ Diut. 2, 350 b . uber elve, trans alpes, Rother 470. 
iiber albe keren, Servat. 1075. zer wilden albe klusen, Parz. 190, 
22. gen den wilden alben, Barl. 194, 40. 

p. 444 n.] Welsh gwion = elf, fairy. On banshi, benshi see Hone s 
Every Day b. 2, 1019, O Brien sub v. sithbhrog (Suppl. to 
280). beansighe, Leo s Malb. gl. 37, sighe 35. Hence the name 
of an elvish being in the West of Engl., pixy, pexy, pixhy, Scotch 
paikie, Jamieson 2, 182, and pixie, Suppl. 219. For the cole- 
pixy, at fruit-gathering time, a few apples are left on the tree, 
called in Somerset the pixhy -hording (fairies hoard), Barnes sub 
v. colepexy. Picsy-ridden, i.e. by night-mare; pixy-led, led astray. 

p. 445.] The distinction betw. dlfar and dvergar appears also 
in Saem. 28 a : for alfom Dvalinn, Dainn dvergom. HyAlfheimr 



1410 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

Rask understands the southernmost part of Norway, Afh. 1, 
86-8; by dvergar the Lapps 1, 87. Loki, who is also called dlfr, 
is sent by CVSinn to Andvari or Andpvari in Svartdlfaheim, Sn. 
136; so Plutarch 4, 1156 derives daemons from the servants of 
Kronos, the Idaean Dactyls, Corybantes and Trophoniads. 
Curiously Olafr is called digri Geirsta"$a-a(/r, because he sits in 

the grave-mound at GeirstoS, Fornm. 4, 27. 10, 212. Both 

<ilbs, alps and the Lat. albus come (says Kuhn in Hpt s Ztschr. 
5, 490) fr. Ssk. ribhus ; conf. thie wizun man = angels, 0. v. 
20, 9. die weissen mdnnel, Weise s Com. probe 322. Vishnu on 
the contrary appears as a Hack dwarf, Meghaduta 58, and again 
as a brown shepherd-boy 15. Dwarfs are created out of black 
bones, ( or bldm leggjom/ Saem. 2 b . Migrating dwarfs are either 
white or black in Panz. Beitr. 1, 14. Still I think it speaks for 
my threefold division, that the elves made by witches magic are 
also black, white and red, where red may stand for brown, though 
hardly for dockr. In charms too, the worms equivalent to elves 
are always of those three colours ; an Engl. spell names fairies 
white, red and black, 1 Hone s Yearb. 1534. And horses black, 
brown and white turn up in the fay-procession, Minstrelsy 199. 

p. 446.] The dwarf Andvari dwells in Svartdlfaheim, Sn. 136; 
Sn. 16 makes some dwarfs live in the ground (i moldu), others in 
stones (i sternum). 

447.] For dvergr, Saem. 49 a has durgr. LS. twarg, Westph. 
twiark, L. Rhen. querge, Firmen. 1, 511 ; Up. Lausitz querx 2, 
264. gituerg = ii&nu.s vel pomilio/ Gl. Slettst. 29, 43. eiri 
wildez getwerc, Er. 7395 ; getwergelin 1096. daz tz werk, Keller s 
Erz. 632, 3. wildiu getwerc, Goldem. 5, 1. Sigen. 21, 9. Ecke 
81, 5. .A deed of 1137 is signed last of all by Mirabilis nanus 
de Arizberg, nepos imperatoris Heinrici/ MB. 4, 405 ; was his 
name Wuntertwerc ? (a Mirabilis near Minden, yrs. 1245-82, 
Wigand s Wetzl. beitr. 1, 148. 152. Henr. Mirabilis, D. of 

Brunswick, d. 1322. Earth-mannikins do spin, Sup. 993 ; but 

their favourite line is smith-work ; they are hagir dvergar, 
Sasm. 114 a . Knockers are little black hill-folk, who help to 
knock, and are good at finding ore, Hone s Yearb. 1533. The 
thunderbolt was also elf-shot, conf. Alp-donar (p. 186-7). As 
smiths with cap and hammer, the dwarfs resemble Vulcan, who 
js repres. with hat and hammer, Arnob. 6, 1 2 ; conf. Lateranus 






WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1411 

(Suppl. to 511). Dwarfs were worked on ladies 7 dresses, duergar 
a oxlum, Ssem. 102 b . 

p. 447 n.] The korr, dwarf, dim. korrik, is black and ugly, 
with deep-set eyes and a voice muffled by age, Schreib. Abh. v. 
streitkeil. p. 80. Welsh gwarchell, a puny dwarf, gwion, elf, 
fairy, givyll, fairy, hag. Lith. karla, karlele. Serv. malienitza, 
manyo, little-one, star-mall, old little-one, kepetz. 

p. 448.] The worship of elves is further attested by the alfa- 
blot performed in one s own house, Fornm. 4, 187. 12, 84; a 
black lamb, a blade cat is offered to the huldren, Asb. Huldr. 1, 
159. In Dartmoor they lay a bunch of grass or a few needles in 
the pixies hole, Athenaeum no. 991. The alp-ranke is in AS. celf- 
pone, OHG. alb-dono, like a kerchief spread out by the elves ? (p. 
1216) ; alf-rank, amara dulcis, Mone s Anz. 6, 448. Obher plants 
named after them are elf-blaster, elf-ndfuer, Dyb. Runa 1847, 31. 

p. 451 n.] The adage in the Swiss dwarf-story, salben tho, 
sdlben gha (conf. issi teggi, p. 1027), is found elsewhere : Norw. 
<sjol gjort, sjol ha/ Asb. Huldr. 1, 11; Yoraiib. selb to, selb 
ho/ Vonbun p. 10; salthon, salfcglitten/ Wolfs Ztschr. The 
goat s feet suggest the cloven hoofs of satyrs, for dwarfs too dart 

through the wood on pointed hoof Dietr. drach. 140 a . The 

ill effect of curiosity on men s dealings with dwarfs comes out in 
the following : A shepherd near Wonsgehau saw his dog being 
fed by two dwarfs in a cave. These gave him a tablecloth, which 
he had only to spread, and he could have whatever food he 
wished. But when his inquisitive wife had drawn the secret 
from him, the cloth lost its virtue, and the zw&rgles-bnmn by 
Wonsgehau ran blood for nine days, while the dwarfs were 
killing each other, Panz. Beitr. 2, 101. 

p. 451.] Angels are small and beautiful, like elves and dwarfs; 
are called geonge men, Caadm. 146, 28 ; woman s beauty is comp. 
to theirs, Walth. 57, 8. Frauend. 2, 22. Hartm. bk. 1, 1469. 
Percival bore angel s beauty without wings, Parzif. 308, 2. 1 
And dwarfs are called the fair folk (p. 452) ; sgon-aunken, Kuhn s 
Westph. sag. 1, 63. Alberich rides als ein Gates- engel vor dem 
her/ Ortnit 358. die kleinen briute (she-dwarfs), vrouwen also 
Jin bilde getan (done like pictures), Alex, and Antiloie (Hpt s 

1 Pennati pueri already attend Venus in Clandian s Epith. Palladii ; angels flit 
round the tower, Pertz 0, 451 a . 



1412 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

Ztschr. 5, 425-6) ; conf. Divitior forma, quales audire solemus 

Na ides et Dryades ruediis incedere silvis/ Ov. Met. 6,452. On 

the other hand, Hogni, whose father was an alb, is pale and dun 
as bast and ashes, Vilk. c. 150; changelings too are ugly (p. 
468). We read of dernea wihtl (p. 441) ; and the red-capped 
dwarf is black, Runa 3, 25. Dwarfs have broad brows and long 
hands, Dybeck 1845, p. 94; graze arme, kurziu bein het er nach 
der getwerge site, Wigal. 6590 ; and the blateviieze in Bother 
seem to belong to dwarfs, by their bringing the giants costly 

raiment. Dwarfs come up to a man s knee, as men do to a 

giant s : die kniewes hohen .... die do sint eins kniewes 
h6ch/ Dietr. drach. 299 a . 175 ah . 343 b . Dietr. u. ges. 568. 570. 
Often the size of a thumb only : pollex, Pol. paluch, Boh. palec, 
ON. ]?urnlungr (Swed. pyssling : alia min fru mors pysslingar, 
Sv. folks. 1, 217-8; ON. pysslingr, fasciculus), Lith. nyksztelis, 
thumbkin, wren, Kl. schr. 2, 432-3. In Indian stories the soul 
of the dying leaves the body in the shape of a man as big as a 
thumb, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 1, 65. Ruhig says the O.Pr. barz- 
duckai is not fr. pirsztas, finger, but fr. barzda, beard, the sub 
terraneans being often repres. with long beards. MHG. names 

for a dwarf : der Heine mann, Ernst 4067. der ivenige man, Er. 
7422. Eilh. Trist. 2874. der wenige gast, Er. 2102. weniges 
mennel, Frib. Trist. 5294. ein gar weniger man mit einer giildin 
krone, Ecke 202. ein wenic twirgelin, Alex. 2955. der kurze 
kleine, der kleine recke, Dietr. drach. 43 b . 68 a . der wunderkleine, 
Altsw. 91. Serv. star-mall, old little-one. An unusual epithet, 
applied also to slaves and foreigners, is f le puant nain/ Ren. 
4857. The Elf-king sits under a great toadstool, Ir. march. 2, 
4 ; and whoever carries a toadstool about him grows small and 
light as an elf 2, 75. The little man afloat on a leaf in Brandaen 
is on a par with the girl sailing over the waves on the leaves of 
a waterlily, Miillenh. p. 340; conf. nokkeblomster (p. 489). 

p. 453.] Hills and woods give an echo : OHG-. galm, Diut. 2, 
327 a ; MHG. gal and lial, Deut. myst. 2, 286; widergalm, Tit. 
391 ; die stimme gap hinwidere mit gelichem galme der wait, Iw. 
618. They answer : conscia ter sonuit rupes, Claud, in Pr. et 
Olybr. 125; responsat Athos, Haemusque remvgit, Claud, in 
Eutr. 2, 162 ; daz in davon antworte der berc unde ouch der tan, 
Nib. 883, 3; ein gellendiu fluo, Lanz. 7127; si schrei, daz ir der 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1413 

wait entsprach, Bon. 49, 71 ; daz im der berc entgegenhal, Er. 

7423. ON. dvergmdli qvaft i hverjum hamri, Fornald. 3, 629 ; 

dvergmalenn, Alex, saga 35. 67. AS. wudu-mcer, both, echo and 
nympha silvestris. The woodman calls fr. the wood, Megenb. 16, 
20. Bocler s Superst. of the Esths p. 146 gives their names for 
the echo : squint-eye, wood s reply, elf-son s cry ; Possart p. 163-4 
says, the mocking wood-elf mets halias makes the echo (Suppl. 
to 480). Echo is the silvan voice of Faunus, Picus (conf. wood 
pecker and Vila), Klausen pp. 844. 1141 ; the Mongols take a 
similar view of it, Petersb. bull. 1858, col. 70. In the Ir. 
marchen 1, 292 echo is not muc alia/ but macalla or alia bair, 
Gael, mactalla, son of the rock, Ahlw. Oisian 3, 336. 

As the ON. saga makes Huldra queen of dwarfs, Swedish 
legends have a fair lady to rule the dwarfs ; even a king is not 
unknown, as the bergJcong (p. 466). The English have a queen 
of fairies, see Minstr. 2, 193 and the famous descr. of queen Mob 
(child, doll ?) in Rom. and Jul. i. 4; conf. Merry W. of W. v. 4. 

Add Horguein de elvinne, Lane. 19472. 23264-396-515. 32457. 

In German opinion kings preponderate. The SorlaJ?attr makes 
Alfrigg a brother or companion of Dvalinn, while Sn. 16 asso 
ciates Alpiofr with him, Fornald. 1, 391 ; conf. in dem EJperichis- 
loke/ Baur no. 633, yr. 1332. der getwerge kiinec Bilei has a 
brother Brians, Er. 2086 ; Grigoras and Glecidolan, lords of der 
twerge lant 2109. Another is Antilois (rhym. gewis), Basel MSS. 
p. 29 b . On the name of the dwarf-king Luarin, Luaran, see 
Hpt s Ztschr. 7, 531; Laurin, Baur no. 655; a Laurins in the 
Roman des sept sages (Keller s Dyocletian, introd. p. 23 29). 
With Gibich conf. Gebhart, Miillenh. p. 307; king Piper, or 
Pippe kong 287. 291-2. Again, the Scherfenberger dwarf, DS. 
no. 29 ; WorblestriiksJcen king of earthmannikins, Firmen. 1, 
408 410. Albr. v. Halb. fragm. 25 speaks of a got der twerge. 

p. 453 n.] The lament ( Urban is dead ! sounds like the 
Vorarlberg cry Urhans (old Jack) ist todt (conf. Urian, ur- 
teufel, p. 989, and the devil s dead/ p. 1011-2), Vonbun p. 4 ; 
ed. 2, pp. 2. 7. Fromm. Mundart. 2, 565. Kilian is dead, 
Winkler s Edelm. 377; Salome is dead, Panz. Beitr. 2, 40. 
Eisch, Pingel, Pippe kong, Pilatje, Vatte, Kind ist dot/ Miillenh. 
iios. 398 401. Habel is dead, Preusker 1, 57. nu ar Plagg dod, 
Runa 1844 p. 44. nu er Ulli dauSr, Fornm. 1, 211. 01. Tryggv. 



1414 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

c. 53. In a Cornish legend a beautiful she-dwarf is buried by 
the little folk in Leland church near St. Ives amid cries of Our 
queen is dead ; conf. Zeus is dead, buried in Crete, thunders no 
more, Lucian s Jup. trag. 45. 

p. 454.] The dwarfs names Damn, Ndinn (mortuus) raise the 
question whether elves are not souls, the spirits of the dead, as 
m Ssk. Indras is pita Marutam, father of the winds = of the dead, 
Kuhn in Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 488-9. Of the dwarf Alvis it is asked : 
hvi ertu/67r urn nasar, vartu i nott me& nd ? Ssem. 48 a . Dvalinn 
alfr, Damn dvergr; Dualinn sopiens, Durinn somnifer 28 a . And- 
vari, son of Oinn 181 a means perh. cautus (Suppl. to 461). 
Finnr reminds of Fin in the Norrland story (p. 1025), and of 
father Finn in Miillenh. p. 300. Bivor may be conn, with dwarf 

Bibunc in Dietr. drach. Germ, names of dwarfs: Meizclin, 

Dietr. dr. 196 a . Aeschenzelt, Eing 233-9. Hans Donnerstag, 
Miillenh. p. 578. Rohrinda, Muggastutz, Vonbun pp. 2. 7 ; conf. 
Stutzamutza, Grossrinda, WolPs Ztschr. 2, 60. 183. 

p. 455.] On the arweggers see KM 3 . 3, 195. Dwarfs live 
in holes of the rock: stynja (ingemiscunt) dvergar fyrir steins 
durum, Ssem. 8 b . Dvalinn stoS i steins dyrum, Hervar. p. 414. 
They like to stand in the doorway, so as to slip in when danger 
threatens. A dwarfs hole is in OX. gauri, Vilkin. c. 16 (the 
pixies house or hole in Devon, Athen. nos. 988. 991). They were 
called veggbergs visir, Seam. 9 a . In Sweden, berg-ra, bergraet, 
Kuna 3, 50, iord-byggar 1845, 95, di sma undar jdrdi 60, hoj- 
biergs-gubbe, conf. tornte-gubbe (p. 500), god-gubbe. In Norway, 
hou-boer, dweller on a height. In Germany too, wildiu getwerc 
live in the mountain beside giants, Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 521 ; der 
hort Niblunges der was gar getragen uz eime lioln berge, Nib. 
90, 1 ; a wildez getwerc is surprised vor eime holen berge/ Er. 
7396 ; si kument vor den berc, und sehent spiln diu getwerc/ 
see the dwarfs play, Dietr. dr. 252 b , conf. 213 a ; twerge dwell in 
the Hoberg, Ring 211. Daemon subterraneus truculentus, berg- 
teufel; mitis, bergmenlein, ~kobel, guttel; again, daemon me- 
tallicus, bergmenlein/ for whom a ( fundige zech was deposited, 
Georg Agricola de re metall. libri XII Basil. 1657, p. 704 b . 
Gan uf manegen ruhen berc, 
da weder katze noch getwerc 
mohte iiber sin geklummen. Troj. kr. 6185. 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1415 

The term bohlers-mdnnchen im bohlers-loch, Bechst. 3, 129, 
must come fr. biihel, collis ; conf. OHG. puhiles perc, Graff 3, 
42 and the name Bohler. Wend, ludkowa gora, little folk s hill, 
Volksl. 2, 268 a . in montanis (Prasiorum) pygmcei traduntur, 
Pliny 6, 19. People show the twarges-locker, wiillekes-ldcker, wul- 

weckers-locker, wiinnerkes-gdtter, Kuhn s Westph. sag. 1, 63. 

They also live in graue-mounds, Lisch 11, 366, in cairns (sten- 
ros), and under men s houses and barns, Fries s Udfl. 109. These 
are likewise the resort in summer of the courriquets of Bretagne, 
who sleep on the hearth all the winter. But they cannot endure 
men s building stables over their habitations, which the muck, 
sinking through, would defile, Miillenh. p. 575. 297. Kuhn, nos. 
329. 3J53 and p. 323. Asb. \, 150-1. Dybeck 1845, p. 99. *- 
The name of Subterranean is widely spread: dat unner-ersch, 
das iinner-eersche, in Sylt-oe onner-erske, Miillenh. 438. 393. 337. 
de unner-drschen near Usedom. In digging a well, men came 
upon their chimney, and found quite a houseful, Kuhn in Jrb. 
der Berl. ges. 5, 247,. erdmdnnel, erdweibel, Panz. Beitr. 1, 71. 
Lith. kaukas, earth-man, kaukaras, mountain-god; conf. semmes 
deewini, earth-gods, Bergm. 145. In Fohr and Amrum onner- 
bdnkissen, in Dan. Schleswig unner-vces-toi, unner-bors-toi, unners- 
boes-toi (toi = zeug, stuff, trash), Miillenh. 279. 281. 337. Elves 
inhabit a Rosegarden inside the earth, like Laurin, where flower- 
picking is punished, Minstr. 2, 188. 192. 

p. 456.] Venus is called a feine (Suppl. to 411), een broosche 
eluinne, Matth. de Castelein s Const van rhetoriken, Ghendt 
1555, p. 205; conf. the Venus-Minne hovering in the air, and 
travelling viewless as a sprite (p. 892). 

p. 458.] De guden holden are contrasted with the kroden 
duvels (Suppl. to 248-9). Min vdro lioldo, verus genius, Notk. 
Cap. 81. Is holderchen the original of ulleken, illken, Bait. stud. 
12 b , 184, and ullerkens, Temme s Pom. sag. 256 ? 2 liuflingr = 

huldumaSr, Aefint^ri 105. The Norw. huldrefolk, Asb. 1, 77 

and Faroe huldefolk, Athen. no. 991, are of both sexes, though 

1 Two maidens came to a peasant when ploughing, and begged him to leave off, 
they were going to bake, and the sand kept falling into their dough. He bargained 
for a piece of their cake, and aft. found it laid on his plough, Landau s Wiiste orter, 
p. 138. So fairies in Worcestersh. repay compliant labourers with food and drink, 
Athen. 

2 Arweggers is perh. to be explained by arwegget = arbeit, Firmen. 1, 363, and 
means workers ; conf. weckerchen, wulwecker. 



1416 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

the females are more spoken of : a female is called hulder, Asb. 
1, 70, a male huldre-kall (-karl) 1, 151. Dybeck 1845, 56 de 
rives hyll-fru, hyl-moer fr. hyld, elder-tree. The good nature 

of dwarfs is expr. by other names : Norw. grande, neighbour, 
and Asb. 1, 150-1 tells a pretty story of the underground neigh- 
lour. Might not the goede kinder in Br. Geraert 718 come in 
here ? A guoter and a pilwiz are named together, Hagen s Ges. 
Abent. 3, 70 ; der guotaeri is the name of a MHG. poet. Lith. 
balti zmones, the honest folk, Nesselm. 319 b . As dwarfs im 
part to men of their bread or cake, help in weaving, washing 
and baking, and serve in the mill (Panz. Beitr. 1, 155), they in 
return make use of men s dwellings, vessels, apparatus. So the 
pixies in Devon, Athen. no. 991. In winter they move into men s 
summer-huts (sheelings), Asb. 1, 77, 88. They can thrash their 
corn in an oven, hence their name of backofen-trescherlein, Gar. 
41 a ; once the strazeln were seen thrashing in an oven six together, 
another time fourteen, Schonwth 2, 300. 299. They fetch men 
of understanding to divide a treasure, to settle a dispute, Pref. 
xxxiii.-iv. Contes Ind. 2, 8. Somad. 1, 19. Berl.jrb. 2,265. Erfurt 
kindm. 26. Asb. p. 52-3. Cavallius no. 8. Wai. march, p. 202. 
KM. nos. 92. 133. 193-7; conf. pt. 3, ed. 3, pp. 167-8. 216. 400 
(conf. dividing the carcase among beasts, Schonwth 2, 220. 
Nicolov. 34. societas leonina, Reinh. 262). They let a kind 
servant-girl have a present and a peep at their wedding, Miillenh. 
326-7 (see, on dwarfs weddings, Altd. bl. 1, 255-6. Naubert 1, 
92-3. Goethe 1, 196). Hafbur goes into the mountain and has 
his dream interpr. by the eldest elvens datter/ Danske v. 3, 4. 
They dread the cunning tricks of men ; thus, if you take a knife 
off their table, it can no longer vanish, Lisch 9, 371. The man 
of the woods, or schrat, like the dwarf in Kudlieb, cannot endure 
a guest who blows hot and cold, Boner 91. Strieker 18 (Altd. w. 

3, 225). If on the one hand dwarfs appear weak, like the one 

that cannot carry Hildebrand s heavy shield, Dietr. u. Ges. 354. 
491. 593, or the wihtel who finds an ear of corn heavy, Panz. 
Beitr. 1, 181 ; on the other hand the huldre breaks a horse-shoe, 
Asb. 1, 81, fells a pine and carries it home on her shoulder 1, 91. 
And in Fairyland there is no sickness, Minstr. 2, 193 ; which 
accords with the longevity boasted of by dwarf Rudleib xvii. 18, 
conf. Ammian. 27, 4 on the long-lived agrestes in Thrace. 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1417 

p. 459.] The dwarfs retiring before the advance of man pro 
duce, like the Thurses, Jotuns and Hunes, the impression of a 
conquered race. In Devon and Cornwall the pixies are regarded 
as the old inhabitants. In Germany they are like Wends (the 
elves like Celts?), in Scandinavia like Lapps. Dwarfs are 
heathen : ob getouflen noch getwergen der beder kiinec wart ich 
nie/ of either dipt or dwarf, Biter. 4156. The undergrounders 
fear not Wode, if he have not washed ; conf. Miillenh. no. 500 
(p. 458 n.). They can t abide bell-ringing, Firmen. 2, 264 b , they 
move away. In moving they leave a cow as a present, Dybeck 
1845, 98. The subterraneans ferry over, Miillenh. p. 575; wich- 
tels cross the Werra, Sommer p. 24 ; three wichtels get ferried 
over, Panz. Beitr. 1, 116; conf. the passage of souls (p. 832). 
As the peasant of the Aller country saw the meadow swarming 
with the dwarfs he had ferried over, as soon as one of them put 
his own hat on the man s head ; so in the Altd. bl. 1, 256 : when 
the hel-clothes were taken off, do gesach he der getwerge me wen 
tusunt When the peasant woman once in washing forgot to put 
lard in, and a wichtel scalded his hand, they stayed away. The 
iilleken fetch water, and leave the jug standing, Bait. stud. 12 b . 
184. 

p. 461.] Ostgotl. shot, troll-shot, elf-shot, a cattle-disease, also 
elf-blaster, Dyb. 1845, 51 ; conf. ab-gust, alv-eld, alv-skot, Aasen. 
Their mere touch is hurtful too : the half-witted elben-trotsche 
(p. 443) resemble the cerriti, larvati, male sani, aut Cereris ira 
aut larvarum incursatione animo vexati/ Nonius 1, 213. Lobeck s 
Aglaoph. 241. Creuz. Symbol. 1, 169 (ed. 3). The sick in Ire 
land are fainj-struch. The name Andvari, like the neut. andvar, 

can be interpr. ventus lenis, aura tenuis, though Biorn translates 
it pervigil (Suppl. to 454). With Vestri, Vinddlfr is to be conn. 
( Vestralpus Alamannorum rex/ Amm. Marcell. 16, 12. 18, 2; it 
is surely westar-alp rather than westar-halp, in spite of AS. west- 
healf, ON. vestralfa, occidens. Erasm. Atberus Diet, of 1540 
remarks : f mephitis, stench and foul vapour rising out of swamps 
or sulphurous waters, in nemoribus gravior est ex densitate sil- 

varum/ In the Dreyeich they say der alp feist also/ The 

loohs of elves bewitch, as well as their breath : eft ik si entsen, 
Val. and Nam. 238 a . byn yk nu untzen ? Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 390. 

p. 462.] Elves can get into any place. The alfr enters the 



( 1418 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

house f at luktum dyrum ollum/ Foruald. 1, 313. They steal up 
softly, unperceived : se geit op elben-tehnen, she walks on elf- 
toes, they say about Magdeburg. 

p. 463.] They can make themselves invisible : daz analutte 
des sih pergenten (self-hiding) truge-tievels, N. Boeth. 42. ein 
unsihtiger geist, Iw. 1391. The invisibility is usually effected by 
their head- covering, the nebel-happe, Ettn. Maulaffe 534. 542. 
Altswert 18, 30. in miner nebelkappen, Frauenl. 447, 18; or 
hele-kappel, Winsb. 26, 5. Winsbekin 17, 5; and the secret 
notches in it are called Icappel-snite 17. 18. nacht-raben und 
nebel-kdpel/ Katzmair p. 23-8 (yr. 1397). It seems they also wear 
a fire-red tscliople, Vonbun p. 1 ; and a subterranean has the 
name of Redbeard, Miillenh. p. 438. The huldre-hat makes in 
visible, Asb. 1, 70. 158-9, like the thief s helmet; the hat is also 
called hvarfs-hcutt, and the boys who wear it varfcar, Hpt s 
Ztschr. 4, 510-1 ; conf. liver fr ]?essi alfr sva sem skuggi/ Vilk. 
c. 1 50. The courriquets of Bretagne wear huge round hats. Men 
cry to the dwarfs, zieht abe iuwer helin-ldeit I Altd. bl. J, 256. 
Like our dwarfs, the little corybantes in antiques wear hats, Paus. 
3. 24, 4. Not only Orcus s helmet, but his coat was known, for 

the Romans called the anemone Orel tunica, Dioscor. 2, 207. 

Conversely, dwarfs become visible to those who anoint their eyes 
with dwarf-salve, as in the story of the nurse who put the oint 
ment to one of her eyes, and could see the subterraneans, till 
they tore out the eye, Asb. 1, 24-5. Miillenh. p. 298. Dyb. 1845, 
94. Poems of the Round Table give dwarfs a scourge, where 
with to lay about them, Lanz. 428. 436. Er. 5.3. 96. Iw. 4925. 
Parz. 401, 16. Even Albrich bore 

eine geisel swaere von golde an siner hant, 

siben knopfe swaere hiengen vor daran, 

damit er umb die hende den schilt dem kiienen man 

sluoc so bitterlichen. Nib el. 463-4. 

In Possart s Estl. p. 176 the giants carry whips with millstones 
tied to the tails. 

p. 465.] Old poetry is full of the trickery of dwarfs, who are 
kiinctic as foxes, endelich, Dietr. drach. 17, endelicli und Jcec, 
1 brisk and bold/ 346 b . bedrogan habbind sie dernea wiliti, Hel. 
92, 2. du trugehaftez wiht, Barl. 378, 35. uns triege der alp, 






WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1419 

Hagen s Ges. Ab. 3, 60. elk-ghedroch, Beatrijs 736. elh-ghe- 
drochte, Maerl. (Clarisse s Gheraert p. 219). Walewein 5012. 
enhorde ghi noit segghen (heard ye ne er tell) van alfs-gedrochte, 
Hor. Belg. 6, 44-5. Deception by ghosts is also getrucnisse, Herb. 
12833. ungihiure drugi-dinc, Diemer 118, 25. 121, 3. May we 
conn, with abegetroc the M. Neth. avondtronke ? Belg. mus. 2, 
116. In App., spell xlii., an alb has eyes like a teig-trog (lit. 
dough-trough). Getwds, fantasma, is better expl. by AS. dwaes, 

stultus (Suppl. to 916) than by SI. dusha, soul (p. 826). 

Oppression during sleep is caused by the alp or mar (p. 1246) : 
mich druc ket heint (to-night) der alp, Hpt s Ztschr. 8, 514. kom 
rehte als ein alp uf mich geslichen, Maurit. 1414. The trud 
presses, Dietr. Euss. march, no. 16, conf. frau Trude (p. 423). 
Other names for incubus : stendel, Staid. 2, 397; rdtzel or schrdtzel, 
Praetor. Weltb. 1, 14. 23 (p. 479) ; Fris. woelrider, Ehrentr. 1, 
086. 2,16; LG. waalriiter, Kriiger 71 b . Kuhn s Nordd. sag. 
nos. 338. 358. p. 419 (conf. Walschrand in the M. Neth. Bran- 
daen) ; Engl. hag-rode, -ridden, W. Barnes ; picsy -ridden (Suppl. 
to 444; the pixies also, like the courriquets of Bretagne, tangle 
the manes of horses, and the knots are called pixy-seats, Athen. 
no. 991); Pol. cma, Boh. tma, Fin. painayainen, squeezer, Ganan- 

der 65. Schroter 50. Other names for plica: Upp. Hess. 

HolleJcopp, at Giessen morlocJce, mahrklatte, Judenzopf. A child 
in Diut. 1,453: 

hatte ein siechez houbet (sore head), 
des batten sich verloubet 
di harlocke alle garewe. 

And Sibilla (antfahs) has hair tangled as a horse s mane, En. 
2701. Scandinavian stories do not mention Holle s tuft or tail, 
but they give the huldres a tail. This matted hair is treated of 
by Cas. Cichocki de hist, et nat. plicae polonicae, Berol. 1845, who 
adds the term gwozdziec, liter, nail-pricking, cramping. 

p. 465.] Dwarfs ride : diu phert din si riten waren geliche 
groz den sclidfen, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 426; conf. Altd. bl. I, 256. 
Dwarfs mount a roe, Ring p. 211. 231. Fairies ride, Minstr. 2, 
199. Pixies ride the cattle at night, Athenaeum nos. 991. 989. 
Poike in a red cap rides a white goose, Runa 1844, 60, as the 
pygmaei rode on partridges, Athen. 3, 440. The ancients kept 



1420 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

dwarfs and dogs, Athen. 4, 427, as men in the Mid. Ages kept 
dwarfs and fools. Giants, kings and heroes have dwarfs in their 
retinue, as Siegfried has Elberich, and in Er. 10. 53. 95. 995. 
1030 a knight has a getwerc riding beside him and laying on 
with his scourge; he is called Maledicur, and is aft. chastised 
wi th blows 1066. Elegast goes a thieving with Charlemagne. 
In Wigalois a maiden comes riding, behind whom stands a dwarf 
with his hands on her shoulders, singing songs 1721 36; another 
getwerc has charge of the parrot and horse 2574. 3191. 3258-87. 
4033. On the train of a richly bedizened dame ride little Hack 
spirits, giggling, clapping hands and dancing, Caes. Heitsterb. 5, 
7 (Suppl. to 946). 

p. 467.] While the Devonsh. pixies make away with turnips 
(Athenaoum no. 991), our German dwarfs go in for peas, erbsen ; 
hence the name of thievish Elbegast is twisted into Erbagast : 
f I adjure thee by thy master Erbagast, the prince of thieves/ 
Ztschr. f. Thiiring. gesch. 1, 188. These thievish dwarfs may be 
comp. to Hermes, who steals oxen as soon as he is born, Hymn 

to Merc. Dwarf Elberich overpowers a queen, and begets the 

hero Otnit. An alb begets Hogni, Vilk. c. 150. The story of 
den bergtagna is also told by Dyb. 1845, p. 94. Dwarfs are 
much given to carrying off human brides and falling in love with 
goddesses, e.g. Freya. The marchen of Fitchers-vogel is also in 
Prohle s M. f. d. jugend no. 7, where he is called fleder-vogel ; 

conf. Schanibach pp. 303. 369. Little Snowdrop s coming to 

the dwarfs cottage, and finding it deserted, but the table spread 
and the beds made, and then the return of the dwarfs (KM. no. 
53) agrees remarkably with Duke Ernest s visit to the empty 
castle of the beak-mouthed people. When these come home, the 
master sees by the food that guests have been, just as the dwarfs 
ask who s been eating with my fork? Ernst 20913145. 
And these crane-men appear in other dwarf stories : are they out 
of Pliny and Solinus ? Gerania, ubi pygraaeorum gens fuisse 
proditur, Cattuzos (al. Cattucos) barbari vocant, creduntque a 
gruibus fugatos, Pliny 4, 11, conf. 7, 2. Hpt s Ztschr. 7, 294-5. 
Even the Iliad 3, 6 speaks of cranes as avSpdai, Trvy^aLOicri, (f>6vov 
/cat Kr}pa (^epovo-at,. On dwarfs and cranes see Hecatasus fragm. 
hist. Gr. 1, 18. The Finns imagined that birds of passage spent 
the winter in Dwarfland ; hence lintukotolainen, dweller among 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1421 

birds, means a dwarf, Eenvall sub v. lintu : conf. the dwarf s 
name lindukodonmies, birdcage man. Duke Ernest s flight to 
that country reminds of Babr. 26, 10 : <euy&>/zev et? ra nvypalwv. 
As the dwarf in Norse legend vanishes at sunrise, so do the pixies 
in Devonsh., Athenm. no. 991. In Swedish tales this dread of 
daylight is given to giants, Runa 3, 24. Sv. folks. 1, 187. 191. 

p. 469.] The creature that dwarfs put in the place of a child 
is in ON. skiptungr, Vilk. 167. 187; in Icel. umskiptingr, kominn 
af alfuna, Finn. Joh. hist. eccl. Islandiae 2, 369 ; in Helsing. 
byting (Ostgot. moling), skepnad af mordade barn, Alrnqv. 394 b ; 
in Smaland illhere, barn bortbytt af trollen, litet, vanskapligt, 
elakt barn 351. In MHGr. wehselbalc, Germ. 4, 29 ; wehselkalp, 
Keller 468, 32 ; wehselkind, Bergreien p. 64. In Devon and 
Cornw. a fairy changeling, Athenm. no. 989. Kielkropf is in 
OHG. chel-chropf in the sense of struma, Graff 4, 598. To this 
day, in some parts, they say kielkropf for what is elsewhere called 
grobs, grubs, wen, either on the apple or at the throat, and like 
wise used of babies, Reinwald s Id. 1, 54. 78. 2, 69; also butzigel, 
Adamsbutz 1, 18 (p. 506-7), conf. kribs, gribs (p. 450 n.). 
Luther s Table-t. 1568, p. 216-7: weil er im Icropf Icielt. 
Schm. 2, 290 : kielkopf. The Scotch sithicli steals children, and 
leaves a changeling behind, Armstr. sub v. (Leo s Malb. gl. 1, 37). 
In Lithuania the Laume changes children, hence Laumes apmai- 
nytas = changeling. Boh. podwrznec. Wend, pi* erne ilk : flog him 
with boughs of drooping-birch, and he ll be fetched away, Yolksl. 
2, 267-8. Similar flogging with a hunting-whip, Sommer p. 43; 
conf. Praetor. Weltb. 1, 365. It is a prettier story, that the 
dwarfs would fain see a human mother put their babe to her 
breast, and will richly reward her for it, Firmen. 1, 274 b . The 
joke of the miillers sun (p. 468 n.) recurs in the MHG. poem 
of des muniches not, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 434. Other stories of 
changelings in Miillenh. p. 312-3-5. DS. 81-2. Ehrentr. Fries, 
arch. 2, 7. 8. 

The singular method of making the changeling blurt out his 
age and real character is vouched for by numberless accounts. 
A dwarf sees people brew in a hiihner-dopp (hen s egg pot, 
see eier-dopp, p. 927), and drain off the beer into a goose-egg 
dopp, then he cries : ik bun so oelt as de Behmer woelt, unn heff 
in myn liiebn so n bro nich seen, Miillenh. no. 425, 1 and 2 

VOL. IV. L 



1422 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

(Behmer golt in Lisch s Jrb. 9, 371). A Swed. version in Dybeck 
45, p. 78*. 47, p. 38. Tiroler sag. in Steub p. 318-9. Thaler in 
Wlf s Ztschr. 1, 290. Prohle p. 48. A Litb. story in Schleicher, 
Wiener ber. 11, 105. As many years as tbe fir has needles/ 
Vonbun G. I ve seen tbe oak in Brezal wood seems old, for 
tbe Roman de Ron itself says of Breceliande forest : vis la forest, 
e vis la terre, Note to Iw. p. 263. That elves attained a great 
age, comes out in other ways ; thus Elberich is upwards of 500, 
Ortn. 241. 

p. 470.] Elves avoid tbe sun (p. 444 n.), they sink into the 
ground, they look like flowers, they turn into alder, aspen or 
willow-boughs. Plants that grow in clusters or circles, e.g. the 
Swed. hvit-sippan, are dedic. to them, Fries bot. udfl. 1, 109 ; 
so the fairy queen speaks out of a clump of thorns or of standing 
corn, Minstr. 2, 193. Their season of joy is the night, hence in 
Vorarlberg they are called the night-folk, Steub p. 82 ; esp. Mid 
summer Night, Minstr. 2, 195, when they get up a merry dance, 
the elf -dans, Dybk 45, 51, taking care not to touch the herb 
Tarald 60. The elfins dance and sing, Miillenh. p. 341. Who 
ever sees them dance, must not address them : f They are fairies ; 
be that speaks to them shall die. I ll wink and couch ; no man 
their works must eye, Merry W. of W. 5, 5. When tbe subter 
raneans have danced on a hill, they leave circles in the grass, 
Reusch s Add. to no. 72 ; so the hoie-inannlein, who take their 
name fr. hoien, huien to holla, dance rings into the grass, Leopr. 
32-4. 107. 113-8. 129. Schonw. 2. 342. These circles are called 
fairy rings, and regarded as dwellings of pixies, Athenm. no. 991. 
Tbe Sesleria coerulea is called elf-grds, Fries bot. udfl. 1, 109 ; 
the pearl-muscle, Dan. elve-sUal, Nernn. 2, 682. Elves love to 
live beside springs, like Holda and the fays (p. 412) : der elvinnen 
fonteine, Lane. 345. 899. 1346-94; der elvinnen lorn 870. 1254. 

p. 472.] Dwarfs grant wishes : 

ein mann quam an einen berch (came to a hill), 

dar gref hie (caught he) einen cleinen dwerch ; 

uf dat hie leisse lofen balde (might soon let go) 

den dwerch, hie gaf em wunsche walde (power of wishing) 

drier hande (3 things). Cod. Guelferb. fab. 109. 

They are wise counsellors, as Antilois to Alexander ; and very skil- 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1423 

ful. Dwarf Pacolet in Cleomades and Valentin makes a wooden 
horse, that one can ride through the air (like Wieland and Daedalus) . 
Not akin to Pakulls, is he ? " Manec spaehez were Ez worht ein 
wildez twercj Der listig Pranzopil/ Wigarn. 2585. Ddinsleifr is 
the name of a sword made by a dwarf, Sn. 164; and Elberich 
forged the rings, Ortn. 176. In Wigal. 6077 it is said of a 
Jtarnasch : 

er wart von einem wibe It was by a woman 

verstoln einem getwerge Stolen from a dwarf 

alrerst uz einem berge, _ Ont of a mountain erst, 

da ez in mit listen gar Where he it with cunning quite 

het geworht wol drizecjar. Had wrought full 30 year. 

The Westph. schon-aunken forge ploughshares and gridirons of 
trivet shape, Kuhn s Westph. sag. 1, 66 conf. the story in Fir- 
men. 1, 274 a . The hero of the Wieland myth (HS. p. 323) acts 
as Hephaestus or a smith-dwarf (p. 444). 

p. 476.] Bilwiz : called pilwiz, Moneys Anz. 7, 423 ; lilhviz, 
nnholden, Schleiertuch p. 244 ; Cuonrad de pilwisa, Chr. of 1112. 
MB. 29% 232; Ulweisz, Gefken s Beil. 112; Etliche glaben 
(some believe) daz kleine kind zu piliueissen verwandelt sind/ 
have been changed, Mich. Beham in Moneys Anz. 4, 451 ; conf. 
uuchristened babes (Suppl. to 918). In Lower Hesse : he sits 
behind the stove, minding the biwifaerchen, Hess. jrb. 54, p. 
252 (al. kiwitzerchen). lerlewitz (p. 1064). an Walpurgs abende, 
wan de pulewesen ausfahren, Gryphius Dornr. p. 93 ; sprechen, 
ich wer gar eine biileweesse 90 ; sie han dich verbrant, als wenn 
du ein puleweesser werst 52; conf. palause (p. 1074 n.). In 
Gelders they say : Billewits wiens goed is dat ? also Pillewits, 
Prillewits. The Lekenspiegel of Jan Deckers (of Antwerp, comp. 
1330) says, speaking of 15 signs of the Judgment Day (iv. 9, 19. 
de Vries 2, 265 ; see Gl. p. 374) : 

opten derden dach twaren 
selen hem die vische baren 
op dat water van der zee, 
of si hadden herden wee, 
ende merminnen ende lieelwiten 
ende so briesschen ende criten, 



1424 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

dat dat anxtelic gescal 
toten hemel climmen sal. 

With beelwiten conf. the witten belden, Gefk. Beil. 157. Bil- 

witzes have their har verfilzet, matted, Barl. 384, 361 (such 
hair and a shaggy skin Wolfram imputes to Cundrie and her 
brother Malcreatiure, Parz. 313,17.25). They conjure : con 
jurers, waydelers, pilwitten, black-artists are named together in 
a decree of grandmaster Conr. v. Jungingen, Jacobson s Quellen 
des cath. kirchenr. urk. p. 285. The bilmerschnitt, otherw. 
biberschniit, performed on Easter or Whitsunday, Panz. Beitr. 1. 
240; called durchschnitt in Leopr. p. 19, conf. Sommer s sag. 
p. 171. dementis recogn. 2, 9 (ed. Gersd. p. 44). 

p. 478.] Roggen-muhmc : called corn-angel) steals children, 
Somm. pp. 26. 170. Rubigo frumenti is called aurugo in Pertz 
8. 368, winibmnt in Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 201. Did the Eomans call 
the god of corn Robigo or Robigus ? the Greeks had an Apollo 
epva-lftios, mildew-averting, fr. epvai^T], robigo. A W.Fland. 
corn-spell denounces the corn-boar as a duivels zwynfje, Hpt s 
Ztschr. 7, 532. The Slavs have a similar field-sprite, a corn-wife, 
who walks at noon : pripolnica, prepolnica, fr. polnyo, midday, 
or dziwica, as in Polish, Wend, volksl. 2, 268; she carries a sickle 
(conf. p. 1162). Hanusch p. 360-2. 

p. 480.] OHG. scratin = faunas, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 330. Gl. 
Slettst. 6, 222. Graff 6, 577. scraten = larvas, Diut. 2, 351*. 
The tale of the scliretel and the water-bear is also in Hpt 6, 174, 
and reappears in the Schleswig story of the water-man and bear, 
Mullenh. p. 257. In Up. Franconia the schretel is replaced by 
the holzfraulein, who, staying the night at the miller s in Bern- 
eck, asks : Have you still got your great Katzaus ? meaning 
the bear. The man dissembles ; the wood-maiden walks into the 
mill, and is torn in pieces by the bear. Beside schretel we have 
the form srete, Mone s Anz. 7, 423 ; conf. srezze vel srate. der 
schriitttig, Vonbun p. 26-7. d schrdttli hand a g soga, the 
s. have sucked it dry, when a baby s nipples are inflamed or 
indurated, Tobler 259 a . Scliratels weigh upon the sleeper like 
the alp, Gef ken s Cat. p. 55. sclirata, schratel, butterfly, Schm. 
Cimbr. wtb. 167. Fromm. 4, 63. Pereinschrat, Kauch 2, 72; 
Schratental and Schrazental side by side 2, 22 ; so, with the 






WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1425 

Scratman already cited, we find a servus nomine Scraznian, 
Dronke s Trad. Fuld. p. 19 ; conf. scliratele-mannl, Anobium 
pertinax, deathwatch in Carinthia, Fromm. 4, 53. schratzen- 
locher, -holes, Panz. Beitr. 1, 111. in Schrazeswank, MB. 35% 

109. Graff 6, 575 has walt-screchel = faum, silvestres homines; 

and Schm. 3, 509 distinguishes fr. schratk, schrdttel an Up. Palat. 
sctirahel, scliracliel, which he refers to schrach, schroch, scraggy, 
puny. A scherzen, schrezen to bleat, Schm. 3, 405, is also worth 
considering. The schrachel is charged with tangling horses 
manes. Schraiuaz is appar. of different origin : Rudbertus 
schrawaz, MB. 28 b , 138 (yr 1210) ; Eubertus shorawaz 29 b , 273 
(yr 1218). The Swed. sJcratt is both fatuus and cachinnus ; Finn. 
kratti genius thesauri; ON. strati = iotunn, Sn. 209 b . skratta- 
vardi, Laxd. 152. The Dan. lay of Guncelin has: og hjelp nu 
moder Skrat ! Nyerup s Udvalg 2, 180. Sv. forns. 1, 73. On 
aJtvil, which corresp. to the Engl. scrat, hermaphrodite, see 

Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 400 and Suppl. to 498. The Esths call the 

wood-sprite mets halias, forest-elf, who is fond of teasing and 
who shapes the echo, Possart s s. 163-4; conf. the Finn. Iliisi, 
Kullervo (p. 552). Ir. geilt, wild or wood-man, conf. Wei. gwyllt, 
wild. But the Pol. Boh. wood- sprite boruta is orig. feminine, 
inhabiting the fir, like the Greek dryad, hamadryad. Homer 
speaks of spring and mountain-nymphs, Od. 6, 123-4, and nymphs, 
daughters of Zeus, who stir up the wild goats 9, 154. Hama 
dryads are personified trees, Athen. 1, 307. So Catull. 59, 21 : 
Asian myrtle with emblossomed sprays, quos Hamadryades deae 
ludicrum sibi roscido nutriunt hum ore. Pretty stories of the 
tree-nymph in Charon, Fragm. hist. Gr. 1, 35; others in Ov. 
Met. 8, 771 ; the forest- women in line 746 seq. are descr. more 
fully by Albr. v. Halberstadt 280-1. 

p. 480.] The schrats appear singly ; more finely conceived, 
these wood-sprites become heroes and demigods (pp. 376. 432). 
The Katzenveit of the Fichtelgebirge suggests Katzaus of the 
preced. note. Rubezagel, Riibezahl, a man s name as early as 
1230, Zeuss s Herk. der Baiern p. 35, conf. Moneys Anz. 6, 231 ; 
a Hermannus Rubezagil in Dronke s Trad. Fuld. p. 63 ; Rieben- 
zahl in a 15th cent. MS., Hone s Arch. 38, 425 ; Riebenzagel, 
Praetor. Alectr. 178-9; Riibezal, Opitz 2,280-1; 20 acres in 
the Riibenzagil, Widder s Pfalz 1, 379 ; conf. &a.u-zagil, Hasin-zaZ, 



1426 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

Arnsbg urk. 410. 426. Strit-zagel, n. pr., Lang reg. 5, 107 (yr 
1166). 

p. 483.] Garg. 119 b names together were- wolves, pilosi, gout- 
men, dusen, trutten, garausz, bitebawen. On dusii conf. Hattemer 
1, 230-1. Add the judel, for Whom toys are deposited, conf. 
Sommer s Sag. 170. 25; he makes a show, as if he were the 
guile. H. Sachs 1, 444 b ; ein guttel (gotze, idol ?), Wolfdietr. in 
Hagen s Heldb. p. 236 ; bergmendlein, cobele, giitltin, Mathesius 

]562, 296 b . They are the L&t. faunus, whose loud voice the 

Komans often heard : saepe faunorum voces exauditae, Cic. de 
N.D. 2. 2 ; fauni vocem nunquam audivi 3, 7; faunos quorum 
noctivago strepitu ludoque jocanti .... chordarumque sonos, 
dulceisque querelas tibia quas fundit, Lucret. 4, 582 ; visi etiam 
audire vocem ingentem ex snmmi cacnminis luco, Livy 1, 31 ; 
silentio proximae noctis ex silva Arsia ingentem editam vocem, 
Silvani vocem earn creditam 2, 7. On Faunus and Silvanus see 
Klausen pp. 844 seq. 1141. Hroswitha (Pertz 6, 310) calls the 
forest nook where Gandersheim nunnery gets built silvestrem 
locum faunis monstris-quQ repletum. Lye has wudewdsan 
(-wasan ?) = satyri, fauni, sicurii, Wright 60 a wudewa8an = &CB,rii 
(correctly) vel invii, O.E. a woodwose = s&tyrus (wdsa elsewh. 
coenum, lutum, ooze, ON. veisa), conf. wudewiht = lamia in a 
Liinebg glossary of 15th cent. In M.Neth. faunus is rendered 
volencel, Diut. 2, 214, fr. vole, foal; because a horse s foot or 
shape is attrib. to him ? conf. nahtvole (Suppl. to 1054). Again, 
fauni are night-butterflies ace. to Du Meril s art. on KM. p. 40. 
The faun is also called fantasma : to exorcize the fantasima, 
Decam. 7, 1. fantoeii, Maerl. 2, 365. Other names: wait- 
man, Iw. 598. 622; also in Bon. 91, where Striker has wait- 
schrat ; wait-tore 440; wali-geseUe, -genoz, -gast, Krone 9266-76, 
ivilder man 9255 ; wilde leute, Bader no. 9261. 346. With them 
are often assoc. wild women, wildcz wip, Krone 9340 ; wald- 
minchen, Colshorn p. 92 ; conf. wildeweibs-Uld, -zehnte, a rocky 
height near Birstein, Landau s Kurhessen p. 615. Pfister p. 271 ; 
hohweibel-steine in Silesia, Mosch p. 4. The wild man s wife is 
called fangga, Zingerle 2, 11 1 (conf. 2, 51. Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 
58); fanggen-ldclier, -holes 2, 53; in Vorarlbg feng, fenggi, 
fengga-mantsclii, Vonbun 1 6. Wolf s Z. 2, 50; conf. Finz 
(Suppl. to 484). The ON. wiffr may be malus, perversus, 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1427 

dolosus, conf. Gotli. invinds, OS. inwid, OHG-. inwitter dolosus, 
ivrSgiarn, Seem. 138 a . In Syryan. vorsa = silvae genius, fr. vor, 
silva. 

p. 484.] Of ivrSjur and iarnvrSjur little is known, but the 
skogs-ra akin to them was supposed to live in trees, and any 
wrong done to him brought on sickness, Fries s Udfl. 1, 109 ; he 
dies with the tree, conf. walt-minne (p. 434), hamadryas. The 
skograt has a long tail, Dyb. Runa 4, 88 ; skogeroa and sjogeroa 

boast of their deeds and wealth 4, 29. 40. The wood-wives in 

Germany wail and cry (pp. 433. 1135): f you cry like a wood- 
wife/ TJhl. Volksl. 149. The holz-frau is shaggy and wild, over 
grown with moss, H. Sachs 1, 273. The Finz-weibl on the Finz 
(Bav.) is spotted, and wears a broad-brimmed hat, Panz. Beitr. 
1, 22 (Fenggi in preced. note). Fasolt s and Ecke s mother is a 
rauhes well), Ecke 231. The holz-weibl spin till Michel comes 
out, Mosch. p. 4. They dread the Wild Hunter, as the sub 
terraneans flee from Wode, Miillenh. p. 372-3. The wild man 
rides on a stag, Ring 32 b , 34. The Hunter chases the moos- 
weibla or loh-jungfer (p. 929), and wild men the blessed maids, 
SteuVs Tirol p. 319 ; in the Etzels hofh. the wonder-worker 
pursues Fran Saslde (p. 943), as Fasolt in Ecke 161179 (ed. 

Hagen 213238. 333) does the wild maiden. Men on the 

contrary are often on good terms with them : at haymaking or 
harvest they rake a little heap together, and leave it lying, for 
that s the wood-maiden s due/ In pouring out of a dish, when 
drops hang on the edge, don t brush them off, they belong to 
the moss-maiden. When a wood- maiden was caught, her little 
man came running up, and cried : A wood -maiden may tell 
anything, barring the use you can make of drip-water, Panz. 
Beitr. 2, 161. A thankful little woodvvife exclaims: bauern- 
blut, du bist gut/ Borner p. 231. To the bush-grandmother 011 
the Saale corresp. the Esthonian forest-father, tree-host, Bocler 
146. 

p. 485.] Dwarfs and woodwives will not have cummin-bread, 
Firmen. 2, 264 b . A wood-maiden near Wonsgehei said to a 
woman : Never a fruitful tree pull up, Tell no dream till you ve 
tasted a cup (lit., no fasting dream), Bake no Friday s bread, Aud 

God, etc/ Panz. Beitr. 2, 161. That wood-mannikins and 

dwarfs, after being paid, esp. in gold or clothes, give up the 



1428 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

service of man, comes out in many stories. The wichtels by 
Ziirgesheim in Bavarian Swabia used to wash the people s linen 
and bake them bread ; when money was left out for them because 
they went naked, they said weeping : now we re paid off, we 
must jog ; conf. N.Preuss. prov. bl. 8, 229. Bader no. 99. 
Vonbun p. 9 (new ed. 1115). Panz. B. 1, 40-2-8. 156. 2, 160. 
The same of hill-mannikins, Steub s Tirol p. 82 ; fenggamdntschi, 
Yonbun p. 3; nork, Steub p. 318; f utter miinnclien, Borner p. 
243-6: Hob, Hone s Tablebk. 2, 658 and Yearbk. 1533. A 
pixy, who helped a woman to wash, disappears when presented 
with a coat and cap. Pixies, who were helping to thrash, dance 
merrily in a barn when a peasant gives them new clothes, and 
only when shot at by other peasants do they vanish, singing 
Now the pixies work is done, We take our clothes and off we 
run/ Athenm. no. 991. 

p. 487.] The Jiuorco sits on a tree-stump, Pentam. 1, 1. Ari- 
osto s descr. of the orco and his wife in Orl. fur. xvii. 29 65 is 
pretty long-winded : he is blind (does not get blinded), has a 
flock like Polyphemus, eats men, but not women. Ogres keep 
their crowns on in bed, Petit poucet p.m. 162-3. Aulnoy p. m. 
358. 539. Akin to orco is the Tyrolese wood-sprite nork, norkele, 
lork, Steub s Tirol pp. 318-9. 472 and Bhaet. 131 ; conf. norg = 
purnilio in B. Fromm. 3, 439, norggen, lorggen, norggin, norklein, 
Wolf s Ztschr. 1, 289. 290. 2, 183-4. To Laurin people call: 
her Norggel unterm tach ! Ring 52 b , 2. The Finn. Hiisi is 
both Orcus (hell), giant and wood-man. The Swed. skogsnerte, 
sJcogsnufva in Fries s Udfl. 110 is a beautiful maiden in front, but 
hollow (ihalig) behind; and the skogssnua is described in the 
same way, Runa, 44, 44-5. Wieselgren 460. 

p. 488.] Ein merminne, Tit. 5268. mareminne, Clarisse on 
Br. Gher. p. 222. Nennius says the potamogeton natans is called 
seeholde; conf. custos fontium (Suppl. to 584) and the Iwllen in 
Kuhn s Westph. s. 1, 200. TO aroi^elov rov 7rorap,ov, Fauriel 2, 
77. Other names: wilder wazzerman, Krone 9237 ; daz merwip, 
who hurls a cutting spear at the hero, Roseng. xxii. ; sjo-rct, Dyb. 
4, 29. 41. On the hafsfruu see Suppl. to 312. 

p. 489.] Nikhus, neut., Dint. 3, 25. Karajan 80, 4. nyJciis 
even in a Wend, folksong 2, 267 a . nichessa = lymphae, N. Cap. 
52. nickers, Br. Gher. 719. Van d. Bergh p. 180 thinks nikker 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1429 

is for niger : zoo zwart als een nikker ; but the idea of black 
ness may have been borrowed from the later devil, neckers, 
Gefken s Beil. 151. 168. wc&eZ-mann, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 378; 
conf. too the ON. Nockvi, Saem. 116 a . The supposed connexion 
of the K. Neckar with nicor, nechar is supported by the story on 

p. 493-4. Esth. vessi hallias, Finn, weden haldia, aquae domi- 

nus, Possart p. 163; conf. Ahto (Suppl. to 237). The siren, 
whom Conrad calls wasser-nixe, is also called cajoler, Boh. lichoples 
(p. 436 n.), and ocliechule, Jungm. 2, 903, wochechule fr. lichotiti, 
ochechulati, to flatter. Spring-nixen (f.) are the Swed. kdllrdden, 
Sv. folks. 1, 123. A pretty Silesian story of the wasser-lisse in 
Firmen. 2, 334 ; does this represent wazzer-dieze ? The Lusch in 
Gryphius s Dornrose is Liese, Elisabeth. 

p. 490.] The nymphsea is in Gael, baditis, AS. ed-docce, Engl. 
water- dock, Bav. docke, wasser-dockelein (tocke, doll, girl), conf. 
seeblatt (p. 654), Swed. nack-ros-blad. On nackrosor, Dybeck 45, 
64-6; necken har sin boning bland neckroserne, och uppstigande 
pa dess blad annu stundom i man-skens-natten med sitt stranga- 
spel tjuser ahoraren, Fries bot. udfl. 1, 108. The water-maiden 
sits on leaves of the waterlily, Miillenh. p. 340 ; a nix-bitten 
(-biitten) meadow near Betziesdorf, Hess. Ztschr. 1, 245. The 

Syryiin. kuli = genius aquae, kuli-eiuri = digitus ejusdem. 

Merwomen prophesy, sometimes deceitfully, like Hadburc in 
the Nibel. When a hav-fru is saying sooth to queen Dagmar, 
the phrase is used : c vedst du det, saa vedst du mer/ D. V. 2, 
83-4-5. In Mecklenbg. the water-mom sends her prophetic voice 
out of the water, Lisch 5, 78. A spectre foretelling death shows 
itself on the Danube whirlpool, Ann. Altahenses, yr 1045 (Giese- 
brecht p. 75) ; conf. the soothsaying merwomen (p. 434). 

p. 491.] The Scotch kelpie takes the shape of a horse, whose 
presence is known by his nicker (neigh) ; he draws men in, and 
shatters ships. Or he rises as a bull, the waterbull ; the same is 
told of the water- shelly, and the Danes have a water-sprite Dam- 
hest, Athenm. no. 997. The nixe appears as a richly caparisoned 
foal, and tempts children to mount her, Possart s Estl. p. 163. 
This horse or bull, rising out of the sea and running away with 
people, is very like Zeus visiting Europa as a bull, and carrying 
her into the water; conf. Lucian, ed. Bip. 2, 125. The water- 
mom tries to drag you in, she wraps rushes and sedge about your 



1430 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

feet when bathing, Lisch 5, 78. The merminne steals Lanzelet 
from his mother, Lanz. 181 ; conf. Sommer p. 173. 

p. 493.] The merman is long -bearded; so has ( daz merwunder 
einen bart lane, griienfar und ungetchaffen, Wigarn. 177; its 
body is in mies gewunden, Gudr. 113, 3. The mermaid combs 
her hair, Miillenh. p. 338 ; this combing is also Finnish, Kalev. 
22, 307 seq. The nixe has but one nostril, Sommer, p. 41. The 
water- nix (m.) wears a red cape, Hpt s Ztschr. 4, 393, blue breeches, 
red stockings, Hoffm. Schles. lied. p. 8. The beauty of the nixen 
(f.) is dwelt upon in the account of the luasserluss, Gryph. 743, 
and the wasserlisse, Firmen. 2, 334. They have ivet aprons, 
Somm. p. 40-5. Wend, volksl. 2, 267 a . The nixe dances in a 
patched gown, Somm. p. 44. The sea-maiden shows a tail in 
dancing, Runa 4, 73. Their coming in to dance is often spoken 
of, Panzer 2, nos. 192-6-8. 204-8. Like the sacrifice to the fosse- 
grim clothed in grey and wearing a red cap, Runa 44, 76, is the 
custom of throwing a blade cock into the Bode once a year for the 
nickelmann, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 378 ; and like his playing by the 
waterfall is Ahto s seizing Wainamoinen s harp when it falls into 
the water, Kal. 23, 183. 

p. 494.] On river sacrifices conf. p. 596. Nixes (m.) demand 
their victim on Midsum. day, Somm. p. 39 : de Leine fret alle 
jar teiue ; de Rume un de Leine slucket alle jar teine/ Schamb. 
spr. p. 87. ( The Lahn must have some one every year they say 
at Giessen. { La riviere de Drome a tous les ans cheval ou homme/ 
Pluquet s Contes pop., p. 116. In the Palatinate they say of the 
Neckar: when it is flooded, a hand rises out of it, and carries off 
its victim. On Midsum. night the Neckar -geist requires a living 
soul ; for three days the drowned man can nowhere be found, on 
the fourth night he floats up from the bottom with a blue ring 
round his neck, Nadler p. 126. At Cologne they say : Sanct 
Johann wel hann 14 dude mann, siben de klemme, siben de 
schwemme (the seven that climb are workmen on scaffoldings) ; 
conf. putei qui rapere dicuntur per vim spiritus nocentis/ Tertull. 
de Baptismo (Rudorff 15, 215). 

p. 496.] The injunction not to beat down the price (p. 495 n.) 
occurs also in a story in Reusch/s Preuss. prov. bl. 23, 124. In 
buying an animal for sacrifice you must not haggle, Athen. 3, 102; 
the fish aper must be bought at any price, 3, 117-8. emi lienem 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1431 

vituli, quauti indicatus sit, jubent magi, null a pretii cunctatione, 

Pliny 28, 13. Lashing the water reminds us of a nix who 

opens the way to his house by smiting the water with a rod, Somin. 
pp. 41. 92 ; blood appears on the water, 46. 174 ; an apple as a 
favourable sign, Hoffm. Schles. lied. p. 4. Grendel comes walk 
ing by night, as the rakshasi is called noctu iens/ Bopp s Gloss. 
188 a . 198 b . 

p. 498. J Ha is neut., def. raet ; also raand, radrottning, Sv. 
folks. 1, 233. 74 (Suppl. to 439). Souls kept under inverted pots 
by the water man occur again in KM. no. 100 and Millie nh. p. 577. 
Neptunius, Neptenius is also transl. altvil, Homeyer s Rechtsb. 
14. Watersp rites wail, or in other ways reveal their presence : 
the sjo-mor moans, Dyb. 45, 98; conf. gigantes gemunt sub 
is, Job 26, 5 ; rfviic epeXXov TOV irorafjiov SiajBalveiv, TO BaL- 
T6 teal TO eto)$o? arj/Aalov fjioi yiyveaOai, eyeveTO, Plato s 
Phsedr. 242. A tradition similar to Gregory s anecdote is given 
by Schonwerth 2, 187. 

p. 500.] Penates were gods of the household store, penus. 
Lares were in Etruscan lases, Gerh. Etr. gotter p. 15-6; Lasa 
Fortuna. A legend of the lar familiaris in Pliny 36, 70. Was 
there a Goth. 16s = domus, and did Luarin mean homesprite ? 
Lares, penates, OHG. husgota or herdgota, Graff 4, 151. Home- 
sprites are called Jms-knechtken, Miillenh. p. 318, haus-puken ; 
Russ. domovoy ; tomtar, Dyb. 4,26; Finn, tonttu, Castren 167. 
On Span, duende, duendecillo conf. Diez s Wtb. 485 ; couroit 
comme un lutin par toute sou demeure, Lafont. 5, 6. A genius loci 
is also Agathodaemon, Gerh. in Acad. ber. 47, p. 203-4; conf. 
the bona socia, the good holden, the bona dea, bona fortuna and 
bonus eventus worshipped by the country folk, Ammian. Marc. 
582-3. The puk lives in cellars, Mone s Schausp. 2, 80-6; niss 
yyiik, niss pug, Miillenh. pp. 318. 325; msebulc, mskepuks 321-4. 
MLG. puk (rh. struk, buk), Upstand. 1305. 1445. Lett, puhkis, 
dragon, kobold, Bergm. 152; conf. pixy. 

p. 502 n.] So, laughing like pixies. [Other expressions 
omitted.] 

p. 503.] To the earliest examples of kobold, p. 500 n., add 
Lodovicus caboldus, yr. 1221, Lisch, Meckl. urk. 3, 71 [later ones, 

including Cabolt, Kaboldisdhorpe, &c., omitted]. To speak in 

koboldes sprache means very softly, Hagen s Ges. Abent. 3, 78. 



1432 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

A concealed person in Enenkel (Raucti 1, 316) says: ich rede in 
chowolcz wise. Lessing 1, 292 : the kobold must have whispered 
it in my ear. Luther has kobold in Isa. 34, 14. cobel, der 
schwarze teufel, die teufels-hure, Mathesius 1562, 154 b . Gobe- 
linus, a man s name, Moneys Heldens. 13. 15. Hob, a homesprite, 

Hone s Tablebk 3, 657 (conf. p. 503, n. 1). May we bring 

in here the klabauter-msin, kluter-man, Miillenh. p. 320, a ship- 
sprite, sometimes called kalfater, klabater-wau, Temme s Pom. 
sag. no. 253, Belg. It abater -man ? Nethl. coubouton, Br. Gher. 
719. The taterman, like the kobold, is painted: " malet einen 
taterman," Jungeling, 545. 

p. 505.] At Cologne they call homesprites heizemanncher, 
Firmen. 1, 467. Knecht Heinz in Fischart s Spiel. 367, and 
knecht Heinrich. A tom-cat is not only called Hinze, but Ileinz, 
Ilenz, and a stiefel-knecht (bootjack, lit. boot-servant) stiefel- 
Jienz (boot-puss), coming very near the resourceful Puss-in-boots. 
The tabby-cat brings you mice, corn and money overnight ; after 
the third service you can t get rid of her, Miillenh. p. 207. A 
serviceable tom-cat is not to be shaken off, Temme s Porn. sag. 
p. 318. House-goblins, like the moss-folk, have in them some 
thing of the nature of apes, which also are trained to perform 
household tasks, conf. Felsenburg 1, 240. The Lettons too have 
a miraculous cat Runzis or Runkis, who carries grain to his 
master, Bergm. p. 152; conf. the homesprites Hans, Pluquet s 
Contes pop. 12, Hansclien, Sornm. pp. 33-4, 171, and Good 

Johann, Miillenh. p. 323. On the Wolterkens conf. Miillenh. 

p. 318. In Holstein they call knecht Ruprecht Roppert 319, 
with whom and with Woden Kuhn compares Robin Hood, Hpt s 
Zfcschr. 5, 482-3. For the nisken, and the nis, nispuk, nesskuk 
consult Miillenh. 318-9. The home- sprite, like the devil, is 
occas. called Stepchen, Somm. 33. 171; and lastly, Billy blind } 
Minstr. 2, 399. 

p. 506.] The spirits thump and racket, Goethe 15, 131. 
Klopferle (knockerling) rackets before the death of one of the 
family with which he lives, G. Schwab s Alb. p. 227. Was fur 
ein polter-geist handtiert (bustles) durch die lichten zimnier ? 
Giinth. 969 ; plagegeist, Musseus 4, 53 ; rumpel-geist, S. Frank s 
Chron. 212 b ; ez rumpeU staete fur sich dar, Wasserbar 112; 
bozen or mumanfz in the millet-field, Reimdich 145 ; alpa-butz, 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1433 

alp daemon, Vonbun p. 46-7-8. Quoth the mother : Nit gang 
hinusz, der mummel (or, der man) 1st dusz ; for the child feareth 
the mummel (man)/ Keisersbg s Bilgr. 166 C . To vermummen 
and verbittzen oneself, H. Sachs i. 5, 534 C . Not only Rump els tilt, 
but Knirfiker, Gebhart, Tepentiren (Miillenh. p. 306-7-8), Titteli 
Ture (Sv. folkv. 1, 171) must have their names guessed. Other 
names: Kugerl, Zingerle 2, 278, Stutzlawutzla, Wolfs Ztschr. 
2, 183. 

p. 507.] The butzen-hansel is said to go in and out through 
the open gutter, as other spectres pass through the city moat, 
Miillenh. p. 191. Buzemannes, a place in Franconia, MB. 25, 
110-1; Putzmans, ib. 218. 387. Lutbertus qui budde dicitur, 
Gerhardus dictus budde, Sudendf. pp. 69. 70. 89 (yr. 1268), 
lutzen-antlitz, mask, Anshelm 1, 408. Garg. 122 b ; butzen- 
kleider, Ansh. 3, 411 ; does butzen, putzen strictly mean to mask 
oneself? The Swiss boog, bogle, &ro% = mask, bugbear, Staid. 1, 
202. 230 ; boggen-weise, a Shrovetide play, Schreib. Taschenb. 
40, 230; bogglman, Lazarillo Augsb. 1617, p. 5 (?). Broog 
seems akin to bruogo, AS. broga = terror, terriculamentum. 

p. 508.] On the Fr. follet, conf. Diefenb. Celt. 1, 182. The 
folet allows the peasant who has caught him three wishes, if he 
will not show him to the people, Marie de Fr., Fables, p. 140. 
Thefarfadet de Poissy comes out of the fireplace to the women 
who are inspecting each other s thighs, and shows his backside, 
Keveille-matin, p. m. 342. f Malabron le luiton, Gaufrey, p. 169. 
O.Fr. rabat = lu.tin. M.Neth. rebas, Gl. to Lekensp. p. 569. In 
Bretagne, Poulpikan is a roguish sprite, repres. as husband of 
the fay, and found in Druidic monuments. Lett, kehms, kehmis, 
goblin, spectre; also lulkis, Bergm. 145. Is gotze, Uhl. Volksl. 
754 a goblin ? 

p. 511.] Hodeke howls = it is stormy, Hildesh. stiftsfehde 
pp. 48. 91. Falke thinks the whole story of Hodeke is trumped 
up, Trad. corb. 135. Hutchen is a little red mannikin with 
sparkling eyes, wears a long green garment, Somm. pp. 26-9. 
30. 171. In Yoigtland they tell of the goblin Pump-hut, who 
once haunted the neighbourhood of Pausa, always worked hard 
as a miller s man, and played many a roguish trick, Bechst. in 
Nieritz volks-kal. 46, pp. 7880. The same Pump-hut in 
Westphalia, Kuhn s Westf. sag. 2, 279; mentioned even in Insel 



1434 WIGHTS AND ELVES. 

Felsenbg, Nordh. 1746, 2, 366370. About Miiuster they dis 
tinguish between timp-liute and lang-hute : the former are small, 
wrinkled, hoary, old-fashioned, with three-cornered hats ; the 
latter tall, haggard, in a slouched hat. Tiinp-hat bestows posi 
tive blessings, long-hat keeps off misfortune. They live mostly in 
the barn or a deserted loft, and slowly turn a creaking windlass. 
In fires they have been seen to stride out of the flames and strike 
into a by-way. Conf. the homesprite Dal-kopp, N. Pr. prov. bl. 
1, 394. Elsewhere they live in a corner behind the oven, under 
the roof-beam, or in gable-holes, where a board is put out to 
attract them, Mullenh. pp. 321-2. 332-5-7. Hpt s Lausitzer sag. 

1, 56 seq. The goblin sits on the hearth, flies out at the chimney, 

shares the peasant s room, Somm. p. 27-9. Spirits in the cellar, 
over the casks, Simplic. 2, 264-5 ; conf. Abundia (pp. 286. 1056). 
The goblin carries things to his master, but can only bring a 
certain quantity, and will change masters if more be demanded, 
Somm. p. 27 (see p. 512). He fetches milk from other men s 
cows, like the dragon, the Swed. bare (p. 1090) and the devil; 
here he encroaches on the witch and devil province. He helps 
in milking, licks up the spilt drops, Mullenh. p. 325. Goblins 
curry down and feed the cattle, and have their favourite beasts, 
Somm. p. 36-7; hence the name futter-mannchen, Borner s 
Orlagau p. 241-8. A homesprite bier-esel in Kuhn s Nordd. sag. 
no. 225, conf. pp. 423. 521. They speak in a tiny voice, in ko- 
boldes sprache/ Mullenh. p. 335. Hagen s Ges. Abent. 3, 78 ; 
and yet : rait grozer stimme er do schrei 79. As nothing was 
sjen of king Yollmar but his shadow, so is Good Johann like a 
shadow, Mullenh. p. 323. They are often seen in the shape of 
a toad, pp. 355. 330, also as torn or tabby cat (Suppl. to 505). 
The Albanians imagine their homesprite vittore as a little snake, 
Hahn s Lieder 136. A good description of the kobold in Firmen. 

2, 237-8. The herb agennund, Garg. 88 b , seems conn, with 
Agemund, the house- daemon in Beinardus. 

p. 511.] The homesprite being olnovpos, agathodaemon (p. 
485-6), there is milk, honey and sugar set on the bench for him, 
as for the unke, Schweinichen 1, 261. In the Schleswig-Holstein 
stories they must always have pap or groats, with a piece of 
butter in. The goblin has the table spread for him, Somm. p. 32. 
Napf-lians is like the Lat. Lateranus, Arnob. 4, 6; Lateranus 



WIGHTS AND ELVES. 1435 

deus est focorum et genius, adjectusque lioc nomine, quod ex 
laterculis ab hominibus crudis caminorum istud exaedificetur 
genus . . . per human! generis coquinas currit, inspiciens et 
explorans quibusnarn lignorum generibus suis ardor in foculis 
excitetur, habitudinem fidilis contribuifc vasculis, ne flammarum 
dissiliant vi victa, curat ut ad sensum palati suis cum jocun- 
ditatibus veniant rerum incorruptaram sapores, et an rite pul- 
menta condita sint, praegustatoris fungitur atque experitur officio. 
Hartung 2, 109 says it is Vulcanus caminorum deus; certainly 
Varro in fragm. p. 265 ed. Bip. makes Vulcan the preserver of 
pots : Vulcanum necdiim novae lagenae ollarum frangantur ter 
precatur (conf. p. 447). 

p. 512.] A goblin appears as a monk, Somm. pp. 35. 172-3. 
With Shelly coat conf. Schellen-moriz 153-4. Homesprites de 
mand but trifling wages, as in the pretty story of a serving 
daemon who holds the stirrup for his master, guides him across 
the ford, fetches lion s milk for the sick wife, and at last, when 
dismissed, asks but five shillings wages, and gives them back to 
buy a bell for a poor church, using the remarkable words : magna 
est rnihi consolatio esse cum filiis hominum, Caesar Heisterb. 
5, 36. On the Spanish goblin s cucurucho tamano, observe that 
the lingua rustica already said tammana for tarn rnagua, Nieb. in 
Abh. d. Berl. Acad. 22, 257. 

p. 513 n.] The allerurken is a puppet locked up in a box, 
which brings luck, Mullenh. p. 209; conf. he s got an oaraunl 
inside him, KM. 183 (infra p. 1203). Wax figures ridiculously 
dressed up, which we call gliicks-mannchen, 10 ehen, p. 357; 
conf. the glucJces -pfennig, Prediger marchen 16, 17, also the well- 
known ducaten- hacker, and the doll in Straparola (5, 21). KM 3 . 
3, 287. 291. The Monoldke is a wax doll dressed up in the 
devil s name, Mullenh. p. 209 ; conf. the dragedukke, a box out of 

which you may take as much money as you will. A homesprite 

can be bought, but the third buyer must keep him, Miillenh. 
p. 322. One buys a poor and a rich goblin, Somm. p. 33. Such 
sprites they made in Esthonia of tow, rags and fir-bark, and got 
the devil to animate them, Possart s Esthl. p. 162 ; more exactly 
described in the Dorp, verhandl. i. 2, 89. So the shamans make 
a fetish for the Samoyeds out of a sheep-skin, Suomi 46, 
p. 37-8-9. 



1436 GIANTS. 

p. 516.] On the manducus, see 0. Miiller s Etr. 2, 101 (conf. 
p. 1082). { Quid si aliquo ad ludos me pro manduco locem? quia 
pol dare crepito dentibus, Plaut. Rud. ii. 6, 52. This too is the 
place for scliemen: als dakten sich die schamn (1. schemen) e, do 
si diu hint scliralden mit to frighten children with, Jiingl. 698. 
Are scliemen masks ? conf. e schonbart for schern-bart, OHG-. 
scema = larva, persona, like hage-bart, Schm. 3, 362. Graff 6, 
495. On Ruprecht see Kuhn in Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 473. von den 
sogenandten Rupperten, die sich ( bunt und ranch untereinander 
anziehen/ or l einen rauchen pelz/ 3 erzn. 369. Knecht Ruprecht 
(or Krampus, Klaubauf, meister Strohbart) is St. Nicolas s man, 
Ziska s Oestr. volksm. 49, 110. Hollepeter, Wolf s Ztschr. 2, 194. 
dich miiez der Semper machen g sunt/ the devil have the curing 
of you ! Ring 14 d , 5. To him corresp. old Grumbus with the 
rod, Firinen. 2, 45, and Fiele Gig (fidele geige ?) of the Kuh- 
landchen, described in Schlegel s Mus. 4, 119. Walloon hans- 
croufe, valet de S. Nicolas/ our Hans Buckel (croufe = bosse), 
Grandgagn. 1, 271. As Niclas has a man, Gargantua has a drole 
in his retinue, Mem. celt. 5, 393-4. Our knecht Ruprecht is Russ. 
buka, Gretsch p. 109, Lett, bubbulis. His Styrian name of Klaub- 
avf resembles the winteMaub, Wolkenst. p. 67. A sooty face 
belongs to the phallophorus also, Athen. 5, 254. St. Peter, who 
may be regarded as Ruprecht s representative, when journeying 
with Christ, always behaves as a good-natured simpleton. 

As people sacrificed to forest-women (p. 432), so they did to 
subterraneans, Miillenh. p. 281. On feast-days the Ossetes place 
a portion of the viands in a separate room for the homesprite to 
eat ; they are miserable if he does not, and are delighted to find 
a part of them gone, Kohl s Siid-russl. 1, 295. A Roman setting 
out on a journey took leave of the familiaris : etiam nunc saluto 
te, familiaris) priusquam eo/ Plaut. Mil. gl. iv. 8, 29. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
GIANTS. 

p. 518.] In some ways men, elves and giants stand related as 
men, angels and devils. Giants are the oldest of all creatures, 
and belong to the stone-age. Here we have to make out more 
fully, that giants and titans are the old nature-gods. 



GIANTS. 1437 

p. 520.] Mere descriptive epithets of giants are : der groze 
man, Ernst 469. 4288 ; der michel man, Lanz. 7705 ; der michel, 
der groze, Altd. bl. 2, 149. So of their country : unkundigez lant, 
Hoth. 625, and der riesin lande 761 ( = iotun-heim, p. 53-0) ; of 
their nation : unleundigiu diet 630, The ON. i&tunn, AS. eoten 
is supported bj the dimin, Etenca (?}. Is Etionas (for Oxionas) 
in Tac. Germ. 46 the same word ? Hpt r s Ztschr. 9, 256. Surely 
Jiethenesberg; hedenesbg, hettemasmont, etan&sbg in Chart, Sithiense 
158. 80. 160-2 are not heathen s hill nor hitenbg? Graff 1, 
370 has Entinesburc (conf. p. 525). Ntenesleba, Dronke 233 a . 

Leo in Vorles. iiber d. gesch. d. Deut. volks 1, 112 agrees 

with me in tracing the word to ON, eta, AS. etam; conf. mann- 
aeta (p. 520 n. and Swppl. to 555), the giant s name Wolfes mage 
(Suppl. to 557), and a giant being addressed as du ungaeber 
frdz! Dietr. drach. 238 b . Ssk. *ravydd, Bopp s Gr. 572.. Finn, 
turilas, tursas, torras edax, gltdo, gigas; and this is confirmed 
by the two words for giantess, syojdtdr, lit^femina vorax, fr. SJOQ 
= edo, and juojotar, lit. femina bibax, fr. juon=bibo> Schiefner r s 

Finn. w. 606-8. Sehafarik 1, 141 connects iotun, jatte with 

geta in Massageta, Thussagete (p. 577 n,), Thorlacius sp. 6, p. 24 
thinks iotar, iotnar, risar are all one. Rask on the contrary 
distinguishes Jotunheimar (jattermes land) from JMand (jydernes 
laud), likewise Jotunn (gigas) from Joti (a Jute), Afh. 1, 77-8. 
GDS. 736; he takes the iotnar to be Finns (more exactly Kvaener), 
and Jotunheimar perhaps Halogaland, Afh. 1, 85-6-; but in a 
note to Saem. 33 he identifies the i5tnar with the Eistir. Swed. 
jdtte ochjdttesa, Cavallius 25. 467. Jettha, Jettenberg may be for 
Jeccha, Jechenberg, as Jechelburg became Jethelberg. Jetene- 
burg, Getenburg occur in deeds of the 13th cent., Wipperin. nos. 
41. 60. Jettenlach on the Hundsriick, Hofer s Urk. p. 37. The 
giant s munching, mesan/ p. 519, should be mesan, OHG. 
muosan. 

p. 522.] It seems that fiyrja Y\o^> in Ssem. 82 b does not mean 
torridorurn gens, but stands for ]?ursa_, f>yrsa. With Dan. fosse 
conf. dysse-tro\\, Sv. forns. 1, 92-8. Grendel is called a fiyrs, 
Beow. 846. As the rune purs in ON. corresp. to fiom in AS., we 
have even in ON. a giant named B6l-/>orn, Sa3tn. 28 a . {Sn. 7 ; 
should it be Batyoru, fire-thorn ? It is strange that Alvis, though 
a dwarf, says : pursa liki ]?ycci mer a f>er vera, Ssem. 48 a . OHG. 

VOL. IV. M 



1438 GIANTS. 



dztm-<V= Ditis, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 329 b . Gl. Sletst. 6, 169. maare 
von eime tursen, KM. 3 3, 275. In Thuringia the thurschemann, 
Bechst. March. 03. We still say der torsch. To the Austrian 
families of Lichtenfels, Tiernstein, Rauheneck and Rauhenstein 
the by-name turse, Lat. turso, was habitual in the 12 15th cents., 
Heiligenkr. 1, 32. 46. 127. 179. 2, 14. 26. Women were called 
tursin, see Leber s book. Tursemul, peasant s name, MsH. 3, 
293 b . in thurisloun, Falke s Trad. Corb. 100-1. 354. Saracho 
p. 7, no. 81, ed. Wigand 281-4. 420; tursen-ouwe, etc. Moneys Anz. 
6, 231 ; Thijrsentritt, E. of Lechthal, Steub s Rhat. 143; Tirschen- 
triity Dirschentritt, Giknbel s Bair. Alpe pp. 217. 247; Dursgesesz, 
Landau s Wiiste orter in Hessen p. 377 ; Tiirschenwald in Salzach 
dale, M. Koch 221; Tiirstwinkel, Weisth. 4, 129. Renvall has 
Finn, tarsus t turrets, turrisas, turri = giant, turilas = homo edax, 
vorax; meritursas, Schroter p. 135. Petersen p. 42. GDS. 122-3. 

Dionys. Halic. 1, 21 thought the Tvpprjvoi were so called be 
cause they reared high towers, Tvpaei,?. That agrees with the 
giants buildings (p. 534-5). 

p. 524.] On Hunen-beds and Hunen, see Janssen s Drentsche 
oudheden pp. 167184, conf. GDS. 475. Does the Westph. 
7ie?i?ie-kleid, grave-clothes, mean hiinen-kleid ? or hence-going 
clothes, as in some parts of Westphalia a dying man s last com 
munion was called henne-kost ? - t Als ein hiune gelidet, having 
giant s limbs, Troj. kr. 29562 ; hiune is often used in J. v. Soest s 
Marg. von Lirnburg (Mone s Anz. 34, 218) ; Ortleip der hiune, 
Ls. 3, 401; f der groten huneu (gigantum), B. d. kon. 112. 
Strangely the huhnen in Firmen. 1, 325 are dwarfs, subterraneans, 
who are short-lived, and kidnap children, though like hiinen they 
live in a hill; conf. the hiinnerskes, Kuhn s Westf. sag. 1, 63-4. 
As the ON. hunar is never quite synonymous with iotnar and 
Jmrsar, so the heunen are placed after the giants as a younger 
race, Baader s Sag. no. 387. GDS. 475. 

p. 525.] Other examples of AS. ent : gel^fdon (believed) on 
decide entas, AS. homil. 1, 366; on enta hlave (cave), Kemble 4, 
49 ; on entan hlew 5, 265. - Entines-burc, Graff 1, 370 ; Enzins- 
perig, MB. 2, 197; Anzin-v&r, Hess. Ztschr. 1, 246, like Ruozel- 
mannes var, Mone s Anz. 36, 300 ; ad giganteam viam, entislten 
wee, Wien. sitz. ber. 4, 141 ; von enten swarz unde gra kan ich 
nit vil sagen, KM. 3 3, 275. 



GIANTS. 1439 

p. 525.] Mercury is called segygand* (p. 149) ; die ghigante, 
gigante, Eose 5135-82. Biorn writes gigr, Aasen 152 b has jygger, 
gyvr for gygr (conf. f ze Givers/ Suppl. to 961) ; giogra, Faye 
6. A giant is called kampe, Miillenh. pp. 267. 277. Otos and 
Ephialtes, gigantes though not Cyclopes, are sons of Poseidon, 
and the cyclop Polyphemus is another. Ace. to Diut. 3, 59 and 
the Parz. and Tit. (p. 690 n.), monsters were born of women who 
had eaten forbidden herbs. 

p. 526.} Does Hrisberg stand for Wrisberg ? Liintzel s Hil- 
desh. 23. riesen-kint, Laurin 2053. 2509. 2604, and enzen-kint, 

like menschen-kind, son of man. A Lubbes-stein in Miillenh. 

no. 363, p. 272; Lupperts-grab, Vilrnar in Hess. Ztschr. 4, 79; 
Luppenhart, Liippental, Mone s Anz. 6, 229; die Lupbode, 
Problems Unterharz p. 212, conf. liippe, poison (p. 1151). ON. 
leifi, gigas, oleifi, humanus ; rumr, vir iminania, gigas. Whence 
comes trigene = gigantes ? Graff 5, 512. 

p. 526.] 6^/r = oreas, Seem. 143 b (Suppl. to 525). Other 
terms for giantess : fdla, Sa3m. 143 b (conf. p. 992) ; hdla 143 b . 
144 a ; Griffr in Sn. 113 is the name of a g^gr, and her staff is 

named Griffarvolr 114. Troll is both monster and giant : ertu 

troll, Yatnsd. 292 ; j?u )>ykki mer troll, Isl. sog. 2, 365 ; half-troll, 
Nialss. c. 106. 120; trolla-skog, Landn. 5, 5; trolla-skeiff, curri 
culum gigantum (Suppl. to 85); in Faroe, trolla-botn is giants 
land. Trollrygr, Trollagrof, Werlauff s Greuzb. 16. 22. 35. Michel 
Beham had heard troll in Denmark and Norway, says Mone s 
Anz. 4, 450 ; but the word had been at home on German soil long 
before that : vor diesem trolle, Ortn. 338, 2 ; er schlug den trollen 
Liederb. (1582) 150; ein voller troll 215; winter trolle t Mone s 
Anz. 6, 236 ; f exsurge sede, tu trolgast, cito recede says a verse 
of the 14th cent., Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 463; einen drulgast laden, 
Weisth. 1, 552; de Drulshaghene, Erhard p. 144 (yr 1118) ; be- 
trullet, Tit. 5215 (Kl. schr. 4, 336). But whence comes the Fr. 
drole, form, draule ? It is rather a goblin like the M. Neth. 
drollen, Belg. mus. 2, 116. Kilian sub v. ; conf. Gargantua s 
drole (Suppl. to 516). 

p. 527.] Mylzinurn kalnay, giants hills, myUynum kapay, 
giants graves, Kurl. send. 1, 46-7. Boh. obor appears as hobr in 
Wend, volksl. 2, 268 a . On the giants name Volot, Velet, Wele- 
tabus, Wilz, conf. p. 1081 n. The yiyavTes of the Greeks lived in 



1440 GIANTS. 

Thrace, Paus. 1, 25 ; conf. the Ariraaspi and Cyclopes, and the 
Ind. rakshasas (p. 555). To the Hebrews the Rephaim, Anakim, 
Nephilim were giant nations, Bertheau s Israel, p. 142-3-4. 

p. 528.] The size of giants is expressed in various ways. 
Tityos, son of Earth, covers nine roods, Od. 11, 577; Otos and 
Ephialtes in their ninth year were eVvea-Trr^et? in breadth and 
evveopyvioi in length 11, 307 (conf. !Ez/muro? rerpaTrrj^v^, mean 
ing the 4 seasons, Athen. 2, 263). Dante, Inf. 31, 5866 poeti 
cally fixes the stature of Nimrod at 90 palms, i.e. 54 fe,et, which 
comes to the same as Ephialtes s 9 fathoms. Cyclopen hoch 
sam die tanloume, tall as firs, Ksrchr. 357; ir reicht in kume 
an die knie (ye reach scarce to their knees), sie tragent W after- 
langen bart, beards a fathom long, Dietr. u. ges. 621. Ovid s 
picture of Polyphemus combing his hair with a harrow, and 
shaving with a sithe, is familiar to us, Met. 13, 764. 

Giants have many heads : the sagas tell of three-headed, six- 
headed, nine-leaded trolds, Asbjornsen p. 102-3-4; & seven-headed 
giant in Firmen. 1, 333 a ; another is neyenkopp (9 head), Miillenh. 
p. 450 ; conf. the three-headed wild woman in Fr. Arnim s March. 
1, no. 8, and Conradus Dri-heuptel, MB. 29 a , 85 (254). Pol. 
dziewi^-sil, Boh. dewe-sil, dewet-sil (nine-powered) giant. The 
legend of Heimo is in Mone s Unters. p. 288 seq., conf. Steub s 
Rhat. p. 143. Ttal. writers of the 16th cent, often call giants 
quatromani ; giants with 13 elbows in Fischart s Garg.; Bilfinger 
in Swabia are families with 12 fingers and 12 toes; cum sex 
digitis nati/ Hattemer 1, 305 a ; conf. sextus homini digitus 

agnatus inutilis/ Pliny 11, 52. Even the one eye of the cyclops 

is not altogether foreign to our giants : in a Norweg. fairytale 
three trolds have one eye between tJtem, which goes in the middle of 
the forehead, and is passed round, Jaletraet 74-5 ; conf. KM. no. 
130 (such lending of eyes is also told of the nightingale and 
blindworm, KM. ed. 1, no. 6). Polyphemus says: Unum est in 
medio lumen mini fronte, sed instar ingentis clypei, 07. Met. 13, 
850 ; these one-eyed beings the Greeks called Jcyklopes, the 
Romans coclites : coclites qui altero lumine orbi nascuntur, Pliny 
xi. 37, 35 ; decem coclites, ques montibus summis Rhipaeis fodere, 
Enn. in Varro 7, 71 (0. Miiller p. 148) ; conf. Goth, haihs, 

/j,ov6(f)0a\/j,os, coecus, Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 11. A tail is attrib. to 

the giantess Hrimger-Sr, Saem. 144 a . Giants, like dwarfs, are 



GIAJSTTS. 1441 

sometimes descr. as black: J?rainn svarti ]?urs, Isl. sog. 1, 207, 
conf. Svart-hofSi ; a black and an ash-grey giant in Dybeck 4, 41. 
25. As Hrungnir s head and shield were of stone, Hymi s haus 
(skull) is hard as stone, Saem. 56 b . Thor s wife, a giantess, is 
named Jarnsaxa. The age of giants is the stone-age. 

p. 528.] The adj. nadd-gofgi, Saam. 98 b , seems also to express 
the unbridled arrogance of the giant : risenmaezic, der werlte 
widersaezic, Bit. 7837. The Gr. Aairidai are braggarts, and akin 
to the Kentaurs. 

p. 529.] The llth cent, spell tumbo saz in berke .... tumb 
hiez der berc, etc., reminds one of Marcellus burd. p. 29 (Kl. 
schr. 2, 129. 147-8) : stupidus in m.onte sedebat; and conf. Affen- 
berg, Giegenberg, Gauchsberg (p. 680-1), Schalksberg. Note 
that the iotunn too is called dttrunnr apa f simiarum cognatus, 
Ssem. 55 a . The Frozen Ocean is named Dumbs-haf. Biorn says 
the ON. swwr = gigas (dummy?); conf. g^gr, giugi (p. 525). In 
Fornm. sog. 1, 304 the heathen gods are called blindir, daufir, 
dumbir, dauffir. 

p. 530 ] On Forniotr see GDS. 737. hin aldna (g^gr), Sa3rn. 
5 b . Giants names : Or-gemlir (our ur-alte), fruff-gemlir, Berg- 
gemUr (var. -gelmir). The vala has been taught wisdom by the 
old giants, she says : ec man iotna dr ofborna, )?a er forlorn 
mik froedda hofSo, Saem. l a . The good faith of giants is re 
nowned : eotena treowe, Beow. 2137; so Wainamoinen is called 
the old (wanha) and faithful (waka) and true (totinen), Kalev. 3, 

107; so is God (p. 21). Polyphemus tended sheep, and the 

Norse giants are herdsmen too : 

sat j?ar a haugi oc slo horpu 

g^gjar hirSir, glaffr Egdir. Saem. 6 a . 

Gymir owns flocks, and has a shepherd 82 b . Thrymr strokes the 
manes of his horses, just as the Chron. Trudonis (Chapeaville 2, 
174) speaks of manu comam equi delinire. Giants know nothing 
of bread or fire, Fr. Arnim s Mar. 1 , no. 8 ; the Finn, giants da 
without fire, Ueb. d. Finn, epos p. 39 (Kl. schr. 2, 98). Yet they 
have silver and gold, they even burn gold, Dybeck 4, 33-8. 42 ; 
their horses wear iron rings in their ears 4, 37. 43. They not 
only bring misfortune on the families of man, but bestow luck 4, 
36, &ud.fr uitfulness 4, 45. E?p. is the giantess, the giant s wife, 



1442 GIANTS. 

sister, mother, merciful and helpful to heroes (pp. 555. 1007-8). 
Altd. w. 3, 179. Walach. march, p. 167. 

p. 531.] A latish saga distingu. betw. Jotunheim, governed 
by GeirroSr, and Risaland, by Goftmundr, Fornm. s. 3, 183. The 
giants often have the character of older Nature- gods, so that 
iotnar=gods, Sasm. 93 a . The Serv. divovi, giants (Vuk s Pref. to 
pt. I. of new ed.) either means the divine (conf. p. 194) or the 
wild ; conf. divliy = ferns [Slav. div = wonder]. When in our 
kinder-miirchen nos. 5. 81-2 the tailor, the carter or the gamester 
intrude into heaven (Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 27), it may well remind 
us of the titans storming Olympus ; conf. p. 575 on angels and 

giants. Giants form ties of love with gods and heroes : thus 

Polyphemus is a son of Poseidon, Od. 1, 71 seq. HrimgerSr the 
giantess wishes to pass a night with the hero, Sasm. 144 a , like 
the witch in fairytales and Marpalie in Wolfdietrich. Freyr 
burns with love for GerSr, Oftinn spends three days in the moun 
tain with Gunnlod, Gefion the asynja has sons (bull-shaped) by a 
giant, Sn. 1. Yet hostility betw. gods and giants is the rule : 
that these would get the upper hand, but for Thor s enmity to 
them, the Edda states even more distinctly than the Swedish 
proverb : 

mikill mundi set iotna ef allir lifSi, 

vsetr mundi manna und Mi$gar<5i. Saem. 77 b . 

Conf. Tliors pjciska ett qvinno troll baktill ihaligt, som tros fly 
for blixten in i ett hus, der askan da star ned, Ahnqv. 464 a 
(pjaska = a dirty woman). The giant again is ds-grui, terror 
asarum. 

p. 532.] Managolt, Pistor. 497. Managold, Neug. 77. 355. 
On the myth, conf. Kuhn in Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 134. With Fenja 
and Menja, who grind until the cuckoo calls, conf. the mill-maids 
and cock-crow, Gr. epigr. 2, 56. 

p. 532.] Fornald. sog. 1,469 says: austan at Ymis dyrum ; 
and of Ullr : Ullr rerS Ymesver, enn 0$inn Sleipni ; did the 
horse belong to Ymir ? Frosti, Jokull, horses names, Rask s 
Afh. 1, 95. Esth. Jcuhua isa, wana Pakkana, Bocler 148. If 
Ymir comes fr. ymja, stridere, ifc is akin to Goth, iunijo, turba, 
noisy crowd. The noise, the roar of giants is known to MHG., 
see Dietr. u. Ges. 391 4. 458. 470 ; is that why they are likened 



GIANTS. 1443 

to bellowing bulls? Bask in Afh. 1, 88 derives the names of 
HerMr and Her kja fr. Finn. harlta, ox; but we have also a Germ, 
giant Harga, Wolf s Ztschr. 2, 256, conf. Herka (p. 253) and next 

note, end. Giants are beings of Night: those of India grow 

stronger than heroes at twilight, and twice as strong in the night, 
Holtzm. Ind. sag. 2, 152. A Schleswig giantess is die schwarze 
Greet/ black Meg, Mullenh. pp. 157. 269. 273-5; on the other 
hand a queen Margareta, pp. 342. 14. 18. 

p. 533.] The Greeks also make giants live on rocks and Idlls, 
Od. 9, 113-4. They are animated stones,, or consist partly of 
stone, or they turn into stone. The giant in Mullenh. p. 442 has 
a stone heart. HrimgerSr, surprised by daylight, stands i steins 
liki, Seem. 145 b ; conf. the Swed. tales in Hpt s Ztschr. 4, 503-4. 
Bader no. 486. Hati iotunn sat a bergi, Ssein. 143 a (Suppl. to 
530). The g$"gr lives in caves of the rock (hellir) ; as Bryuhildr 
fares to Hel, a g^gr cries to her : * skaltu i gognum ganga eigi 
griotistudda garffa mina ! through my stone-built garth ; and B. 
answers : breg Su eigi mer, bruffr or steini, bride of stone, Sajm. 
227 (seep. 551). finna ]?eir i lielli nockvorum, hvar gygr sat, 
hon nefndiz Thock, Sn. 68. A giant s cave up in the wild moun 
tain, Trist. 419, 10 20. Berg-bui = giant is also in Landn. 4, 12, 
and Saem. 52 ; conf. berges gnoz, Er. 8043. Hoberg$-gubbe 
(p. 536-7). Finn, kallio, rupes, = Goth. hallus, ON. hallr, hence 
kaleva, gigas ; another Finn, term for giant is vuoren vaki, power 
of the mountain. To pussin af biargi corresp. Tdssebergs- kla.tkeu, 
a place in Varmeland, Rask s Afh. 1, 91-2. Note the term berg- 
rinder, mountain-cattle, for Gefjon s children by a giant are oxen, 
Sn. 1. One giant is called kuh-tod, cow-death, Mullenh. no. 328; 
conf. Herkir, Herkja in preced. note. Giants appear as wolveS) 
Sn. 13. 

p. 534.] The giantess pelts with stones, the giant wears a 
stone crown, Braunschw. march, p. 64. Iron will not bite the 
giant : troll, er ]?ik bita, eigi iarn, Isl. sog. 2, 364. He can only 
be floored with gold, hence Skiold wraps gold about his club, 
Saxo 8. Grendel too is proof against iron sword : J>one synsca- 
"San aenig ofer eorSan irenna cyst, gudbilla nan gretan nolde, Beow. 
1596. Arnliotr in Hervarars. has league-boots, like the ogre in 
Petit poucet; they denote the swift pace of the giant, hence 
Diut. 1, 403: hine fuor der herre, ilende alse ein rise duot 



1444 GIANTS. 

(speeding as -a giamt doth), der zuo loufe sinen muot ebene hat 
gesetzet. 

p. 535.] Curious old structures are ascr. to giants or heathens : 
1 fnfa burg, risen burg/ Elene 31, p. xxii. Even Tristan s cave 
of love is called a qianfs building, Tristr, 419, 18; conf. ( -etenes 
bi old -dayn had wrought it/ the house in the ground, where 
Tristan and Isolde lay, Tiistrem 3, 17. Hunen-w&lle are pointed 
out betw. Etteln and Alfen (Paderborn). The Orientals attrib. 
old buildings to a people called Ad, Hammer s Rosenol I, 36 ; the 
-Celtic legends to Finn* All those large cairns, and remarkable 
peaks like St Michael s Mount and the Tors, are the work of 
giants. Pausanias ii. 25, 7 mentions a Kvtc\co7rcov epyov, apywv 
\i6wv, the smallest of which a pair of mules could not move. 

Tyrrhenians build towers (SuppL to 522 end). In 0. Fr. 

poems the builders are giants or heathen Sarrasins or famous 
men of old: la roche au jaiant, Guitecl. 1, 90. 158.; un jaiimt le 
ferma qui Fortibiaus ot nom, Kenaus 177,7; Sarrasins build, 
Garin in Mone s HS, 219, 251; el mur Sarrazinor, Albigeois 
6b35; el palais montent que firent Sarrasin, Garin 1, 88; la 
tor est forte de luevre as Sarrasins 2, 199 ; croute que firent 
Sairasins 1, 57- 9 ; as grans fenestres que f. $., Mort de Garin p. 
J46, Cain builds a tower, Qgier 6614-66; roche Cayn, Garin 1, 
"93-4; or the giant s building is traced to Jul. Caesar, to Constan- 
thie, Garin (Paris 2, 53). Chron, fontan, (Pertz 2, 284) ; conf. 

the work by Jul. Ccesar in Thietraar 6, 39. A legend of the 

great cauldron which the giants were 20 years digging in silence, 
is told in Halbertsma s Tongvallen p. 54-5. Stone-heaps in the 
woods the Finn calls kiiden pesiit, giants nests or beds, Kurl. 
send. 1, 47; a giant s bed already in 11, 2, 783, The brazen 
dorper is like the huge metal figure that stands on a bridge with 
a rod of steel, barring the passage, Dietr. drach. 57 a . 61 &b ; old 
Hildebrand says, ich klag ez dem der uf der briicken stat 62 a ; 
they all misdoubt the monster b 8 b . 74-5 : der alter groeste viez 
(rhy. liez), daz in der tiufel wiirge ! er was groz unt dabi lane, 
sin muot was ungetriuwe ; er si lebende oder tot, er ist ein renter 
boesewiht/ be he alive or dead, he is a bad one 83 ab (on viez, see 
Gramm. 1, 187). 

p. 538.] The Gothland hoglergs-gubbe must have got his 
name fr. Hoberg in the I. of Gothland, Molb. Tidskr. 4, 189. In 



GIANTS. 1445 

Esthonian legend blocks of granite are Kaleu s maidens apron- 
stones (Kallewi neitsi polle kiwwid, Possarfc p. 177). What was 
told of giants, is told of the devil : Once upon a time, say the 
men of Appenzel and the Black Forest, the devil was flying over 
the country with a sackful of- hiats : the sack happened to tear, 
and out fell a cottage here and a cottage there, and there they 
be to this blessed hour, Sehreiber s Taschenb. 41, p. 158. 

p. 540.] Eaters of flesh give place to sewers of corn, hianters to 
husbandmen, Klemtm 2, 25. Giants consider themselves the old 
masters of the land, live up in the castle, and lok down upon the 
peasant, Haltrieh 198. In the I. of Usedom they say (Kuhn in 
Jahrb. d Berl. ges. f. d spr. 5, 246) : en risen-maken hatt auk mal 
enen knecM met twel ossen unnen baleen {plough) in : are schorte 
(her apron) packt, wil ar dat liitte worm dart hatt (because she 
pitied)/ etc. Similar stories of the eartfa-ivorms who crowd out 
the giants are told im many parts of Sweden, Dyb. 1842. 2, 3. 
4, 40. 44. p, 10S. 45. pp. 15, 97. 47.. p. 34. Raaf s Osterg. 
38 ; in Sodermanland, Hpt s Ztschr.. 4, 506 ; in Schleswig, 
MiiUenh, p. 279 ; in the Mark, Hpt 4, 392; in Westphalia, Fir- 
men. 1,322;; in S. Germany., Bader nos. 375. 387. Panzer 2, 
65 ; con Walach, march, pu 283, 

p. 54L] Stories of the giant dealing ut his sh&e or shaking 
the sand out 0f his holsken (wooden shoes) are in the Ztschr. d. 
Osnabr, ver. 8, 280-5. Firmen. 1, 274 a . Tke giant feels three 
grains in hw shoe, Honeys Da\ybk. 2, 1025,. Dutch tales to the 
same purpose in Halbertsiaia s Tengvallen p. 55-6u 

p, 543.] Near Duclair {on the Seine, towards Normandy) 
stands la chaire de Gargantua-: Fetre mysterieux qui Foecupait 
pendant -la <n-mt desrait etre un geant, que les peuples ont personi- 
fie soras le nom de Gargantua, Revue archeoL xiv- an.., p- 214. 
On G., conf. Bosquet pp. 177. 182. l$3-4; with his seat oonf. 
devil s pulpits and their legends. 

p. 544-.] Giants ling hammers at each other, MiillenlL no. 
586. Panzer ppi. 104 114. Firmen. 1, S02. R&af p. 38. 
Hiiaeda play at bowfe, Bait. stud. xii. 1, 115, like the heroes in the 
mount i(p. 9-53), like TMrr (p. 545) and the angels {p. 953 n.). 
Another Westph. story of giamts baking bread, Firmen. 1, 302. 
372 ; they throw tobacco-pipes to each other, and knock the ashes 
out 1, 273. A giant is pelted with stones or cheeses^ KM. no. 20. 



1446 GIANTS. 

Dyb. 4, 46. Cavall. 1, 3. 9; conf. the story from Usedom (Kuhn 
in Jrb. d. Berl. ges. f. d. spr. 5, 246). A captive giant is to be let 
go when he s pulled all the hair off a cow s hide, but he mayn t 
pluck more than one hair in 100 years, Wieselgren 459. 

p. 549.] Similar building stories in Miillenh. nos. 410-2. 
Faye p. 13. A Bavarian tale of the giant builder, in which a 
hammer is hurled, Ober-bair. arch. 5, 316-7. A horse brings the 
stones, like SvaffUfari, Haltrich 29 ; conf. old Bayard at Cologne 
cathedral. 

p. 551.] The giantesses spin like the fays, even giants spin, 
Firmen. 1, 323. In the Olafssaga Olaf fights the margygr, and 
brings away her hand as trophy, Fornm. sog. 4, 56-7-8. Eed- 
bearded Olaf is called Olafr liosiarpr d Itar 4, 38. His pipuga 
skagg could also be explained as the Dan. pip-skiag, first beard. 

p. 552 D.] Instead of the words in Danske v. 1, 223 the 
Kiimpe v. 155 has : sprang til flin te-sten lede og sorte. In Norske 
ev. 1,37. 2, 28 (new ed. 162. 272) : flijve i flint, with anger. 
Norw. Lapp, gedgom, I turn to stone, am astounded. MHG. 
wurde ich danne zuo eime sfeiiie, Herb. 8362 ; conf. ille vir in 
medio flat amore lapis, Propert. ii. 10, 48. Conversely : in haeten 
sine grozen liste uz eime herten steine getragen, Mor. 1562. 
Many Swed. tales of giants whom the first beam of sunrise turns 
into stone, Hpt s Ztschr. 4, 503-4. Cavall. 27. Norske ev. 162. 
The mighty king Watzmann is believed to be a petrified giant, 
Panz. Beitr. 1, 246. Frau Hiitt turns into stone because she has 
rubbed herself with crumbs, DS. no. 233; people sink into the 
ground because they ve trod on a wheaten roll, Giesebrecht s 

Bait. stud. 12, 126. Esp. are a bride and bridegroom often 

turned into stone, DS. no. 229. Miillenh. pp. 108-9. 595. 
Giesebr. Bait. stud. 12, 114-5. 126. These bride-stones are 
also known to Norweg. legend, Faye p. 4 ; nay, we find them 
in France in the noce petrifiee, Michelet 2, 17, and even in the 
Wallach. march. 117. Once a shepherd, his sheepdog and sheep 
were changed into stone by frau Wolle, because he had rejected 
her petition for bread, Somm. p. 11. The Wallachians have a 
similar story of an old woman, her son and her sheep, Schott 
114-5; so have the Servians, Vuk s Wtb. p. 15 a . Heinr. v. Her- 
ford ad ann. 1009 relates after Will, of Malmesb. (ace. to Yincent 
25, 10) how people in a Saxon village disturb the Christmas festi- 



GIANTS. 1447 

val by singing and dancing in a churchyard, and how the priest 
dooms them to dance a whole year ; in time they sink up to their 
hips in the ground, till at the end of the year they are absolved 
by, his Grace of Cologne. The place is in some MSS. called 
Colovize ; surely these are the men of Colbcke who danced with 
what they took for stones, DS. no. 232. A ] 5th cent, version of 
the story in Altd. bl. 1, 54-5. 

p. 553.] Strong Jack is sometimes named der starve Hannel 
(perh. Hermel), Siegthal p. 106. Finn. Hiixi, gen. Hiiden, Hii- 
denpoika = wild man of the woods, giant, Salmel. 1, 242. Lapp. 
Hiidda, Hiita is a malign deity, Suomi 44 p. 30. The Esth. 
tale of Kallewepoeg is given more fully in Poss. Estl. p. 174-5. 
Lonrot/who has collected from 60 to 70 giant- stories, relates in 
Kruse s Urgesch. p. 177: In the sea near Abo stands a huge 
stone, which the Finn, giant Kalevampoika hurled at the first 
church that was built. He was going to the church himself, when 
he met a man with a sackful of worn shoes, and asked him how 
much farther it was. The man said, Tou see, I ve worn all 
these shoes through on my way/ Then K. took up the stone and 
slung it, but it missed the mark and fell into the sea. 

p. 555.] ON. iotunn sa er Brusi heti, hann var mikit troll ok 
mann-acta, Fornm. s. 3, 214. OHG. man-ezzo, MHG. man-ezze 
(p. 520 n.), AS. mon-83ta, Lith. vyrede, viros edens. The Poly 
phemus legend is widely diffused, e.g. Sinbad on his third voyage 
punches out the eye of a man-eating giant ; conf. the story of 
Eigill, Nilsson 4, 33. Miiller s Sagenbib. 2, 612. As the Oghu- 
zian cyclop takes the arrow for a gnat, so in our Ring p. 241 : 
( ich waen, mich hab ein fleug gestochen/ Similar tales in Konr. 
v. Wiirzbg, MS. 2, 205 a . Altd. w. 3, 178; esp. coarse is the ver 
sion in the Leipzig MS., Altd. bl. 1, 122 7. For the giant, later 
stories substitute a murderer, Moneys Anz. 37, 399. 400 ; a rob 
ber, Wai. miirch. p. 167-8-9. Poets of the 13th cent, make 12 
schachasre (robbers) enter the dwelling of a turs, who eats up 11 
of them, MSS. 2, 33 l b . On the merciful giantess, conf. p. 1008. 

p. 556.] A giant gets bigger as he rises out of the ground, 
and smaller as he sinks in again, Miillenh. p. 266. Giants often 
take the shape of an eagle (p. 633), e.g. Hraesvelgr, Suttungr, 
Thiazi, Sn. 80-1; they are born as wolves 13. The story of the 
flying giantess trespasses on Beast-legend, Hpt s Ztschr. 4, 502-3. 



1448 CEEATION. 

p. 557.] Oar Court-poets have preserved here and there a 
genuine feature of the folklore about giants : Tristan taking the 
giant s hand with him (16195) is like Beowulf bringing away 
Grendel s. Again, the old giant-father carrying the heroes tup n 
hill (Daniel in Bartsch xxviii.) occurs not only in Hero-legend, 
but in Folktale, Miallenh. p. 2G6. Then, the giants of the 
Trutmunt in Goldemar carry long poles, Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 521 ; 
Eunze swings a tree over his shoulder, Wolfd. 510 ; one giant is 
named Boumgarte 49% 3. Asperiaa is styled the giants spile- 
man, Koth. 2161. In Lancelot 17247 seq. are noticed the 
giants ogen verlcerezi, tanden criselen, hoft quehen. A giant couple 
in Ecke 7 (Hagen 5, 8) bear the names vro Elite and her Grime, 
conf. Grimr and Hildr, Vilk. saga c. 1 6. Note the giants 
names in Dietr. drach., GlockenbSz, Fidelnst&z, Eumedenwalt, 
Schelledenwalt, Bitterbuck, Bitterkrut, Hohermuot, Klingelbolt ; a 
Grandengrus, Grandgrus IIS 1 . 126 b looks Romance, like Grand- 
gosier (great gullet) in Gargantua. Wolfes-meige (-maw) reminds 
of the manservant Wolwes-darm (-gut) in Helbl. 1, 372, and of 
the Ssk. Urkodara ((wolf s belly), Hitzig 308. Norse names : 
Euth i Skut, Rolfi Topp, HandlHandol, Elling, Staff, Dyb. 45, 
97-9 (see p. 557). The connexion between giants and gods has 
been pointed out, Suppl. to p. 551. 



CHAPTER XIX. 
CREATION, 

p. 558 n.] Conf. Hnent werden (p. 746 n.) ; -zekein, Wernh. v. 
Niederrh. 11, 18. Schelling takes chaos to be the Roman 
Jirm/s = hianus, after Festus sub v. chaos. The material sense 
is also found in the expressions Ingunnen werden, secari, N. 
Arist. 95 ; siti ingunnen? cloven, Diem-er 97, 26 ; M. Neth. 
ontginnen, secare, Fergut 3461. 3565; conf. Hpt s Ztschr. 8, 
1820. 

p. 559.] For the notion of creating, the AS. has the word 
frumxceaft, prima creatio : God isfrumsceaftafred, Csedm. 195,9. 
The Gothic renders /mcrt? by gasJcafts. On our schopfen, bilden, 
bilde giezen, see p. 23 : wsere ich nie gebildet, had I never been 
shapen, Tit. 3283. Creature in the Bible is in OHG. hant-tat, 



CEEATION. 1449 

raanu factum, N. Ps. 18, 2; MHG. hant-getdt. Haug thinks 

Ymir the Pers. Gajomars, Gott. Anz. 53, p. 1960. The birth 
from feet or legs seems to be remembered in an 0. Fr. poem : 
Fanuel, whom his mother had conceived out of the smell of 
flowers, touches his thigh with a knife that had just cut an apple; 
the thigh conceives and bears St. Anne ; conf. Brahma s creation 
(p. 571). Ukko yumala rubs his hands, presses them on his left 

knee, and makes three maidens, Kalevala 9, 39 44. Giants 

come before the Ases (p. 530-2) ; the vala sings, ek man iotna 
dr ofborna, Saem. l a ; and Saxo divides mathematici into (1) 
gigantes, (2) magi = A.ses, (3) homines. The Indians say the cow 
is mother of the world, and must not be killed, Holtzm. Ind. 
sagen 1, 65. Of Bor s three sons, who create man, it is said in 
Saem. l b : bioffam ypto, orbes extulerunt, they set on high the 
globes of heaven (p. 701). 

p. 560 n.] The Indian myth also accepts a creation out of the 
egg, heaven and earth being eggshells, Somadeva 1, 10; conf. 
the birth of Helen and the Dioscuri out of eggs. 

p. 561.] Askr and Embla are known as Ifis and Imlia among 
the Yenisei Ostiaks, Castren s Eeise in Sibirien. The division 
into ond, 6&r and Id ok litr is also found in Plutarch 4, 1154: 
* spirit, soul and body/ 

p. 561.] To giants, men appear as dwarfs : they nickname us 
earthworms, and the giant s daughter takes the ploughman for a 
worm or beetle (p. 540). As dwarfs are made out of maggots in 
the Edda, so are men out of ants in Ov. Met. 7, 642 ; conf. the 
way bees are brought to life (p. 696). As fire is generated by 
rubbing wood, so are animals by rubbing the materials (Suppl. to 
1100). Hiisi makes an elg out of various stuffs, Kalev. 7,32 seq. 

p. 567.] The two AS. accounts of the creation of man (p. 565, 
text and note) derive blood from fire, whereas the Emsig Code 
derives it from water, as the Edda conversely does water from 
blood. The eight parts were known to the Indians also (Suppl. 

to 571. The Fris. heli, ON. heili = brain, resembles Lat. 

coelum, Gr. /coLXr) tcoiXia, GDS. 681. Godfrey of Viterbo s com 
parison of the head to the sky, of the eyes to the lights of heaven 
is repeated in Walther 54, 27 : Mr houbet ist so wunnenrich, als 
ez inin himel welle sin, da liuhtent zwene sternen abe ; ; and in 
MS. 2, 189 b the eyes are called stars; conf. himmel and gaume, 



1450 CEEAT10N. 

Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 541. A tear (thrane) is called in MHG. mers 

tran, wages trail, Gratnm. 1, 170. The Edda accounts for the 
taste of sea- water by the grinding of salt out of the quern Grotti. 
A tear bites, like salt ; Sdtcpv, lacruma [and tehero, tearas, zahre] 
comes from dak, to bite. The Etym. magn. 564, 45 says : Evtpo- 
piajv Se fivvriv rr)v OaKaaaav Xeyet* olov TroXvrpofya Sdtcpva 
/Buvrjs TGI/? aXa? /3ov\6/j,vo? elirelv. Bvvr) = Iv(t), GDS. 300. 

p. 570 n.] An Esth. song in Herder p. m. 112 tells of one 
who shaped him a wife out of wood, gilded her face, and silvered 
her shoulders. The Egyptian notion as to the origin of the first 
man conies very near that of the Bible : Ptah or Neph is picto- 
rially repres. turning the clay for the human creation/ Wilkin 
son s Egyptians p. 85. 

p. 570.] Another Ind. story of the creation in Suppl. to 560 n. 
The Pers. doctrine is, that heaven and fire were first created, 
then mountains, then plants, then beasts. From the horns of the 
first ox sprang fruits, from his blood grapes, etc., Gorres 1, 
232-3. The description of Atlas in Ovid s Met. 4, 657 agrees 
with the Teutonic myth of creation far more closely than the 
notion current among the Greeks. He lets Atlas be converted 
into a mountain-chain : hair supplies the forest, his shoulders 
and arms the hills, his head the summit, his bones the stones. 

p. 571.] The older Ind. myth makes the great spirit, malidn 
atma, produce the first man out of water ; Prometheus too forms 
men of earth and water, Lucian s Prom. 13 ; ace. to Horace, 
Od. i. 16, 13, he tempers the given lirnus with every possible 
ingredient, conf. Babr. 66. The Greenlanders think the first 
man was made of earth, and the first woman of Jiis thumb, Klemm 
2, 313, as Eve was of Adam s rib ; so Dakshus was pulled out of 
Brahma s toe (Suppl. to 559). The eight parts occur even in the 
Rigveda, Kuhn in Hofer 1, 288. 

p. 573.] For analogies in language between man and tree, see 
Pott s Zahl-meth. 234 6. Aslcr and other masc. names of trees 
indicate man, and femin. names woman. Askr, Embla begin 
with the same vowels as Adam, Eve; conf. Es, Imlia (Suppl. to 
561). 

The term liut-stam, nation, is taken wholly from the vegetable 
kingdom, Otfr. iii. 12, 7. Plants and rocks are not dead, they 
speak : Bpvbs KOI ire-rpa^ a/coveiv, Plato s Phsedr. 275. Men 



CREATION. 1451 

arise out of trees and stones or mud : saxis nimirum et robore 
nati, Stat. Theb. 4, 339 ; qui, rupto robore nati, compositive Into, 
nullos habuere parentes, Juven. 6, 12 (conf. dieleiminen, p. 569n.). 
Men grow out of pines in Nonnus (Reinh. Kohler, Halle 53, 
p. 24) ; ja werdent solich leut von bomen nit geborn, Wolkenst. 
61 ; siner spiez-genoze sweirnet einer von dein obersten birboume, 
Ben. 419; Where people come from ? think I don t know that? 
they re torn off trees when young/ Ayrer s Fastn. 160 d ; not 
sprung from a hazel-bush, Schelmufsky, 1, 51 ; his father was 
drowned on the nut-tree, his mother carried the water up in her 
apron (sieve), Bruckner s Henneberg 17; a child is exposed on 
an ash, and is found there, Marie de Fr. 1, 150 4. In a Finn, 
fairytale a foundling is called puuhaara, tree-branch; conf. our 

Fundevogel on the top of a tree, KM. no. 51. Ace. to Greek 

legend there were only gods at first, the earth bristled with 
forests, till Prometheus made men, Lucian s Prom. 12 ; conf. the 
Prom, legends in Schiitze s Excursus i. to ^sch. Prom.; yet 
Zeus also makes men spring out of the ground for ^Eacus on 
his lonely isle, Paus. ii. 29, 2. The throwing of stones, which 
turn into men, is descr. in Ov. Met. 1, 411; the stones are 
styled ossaparentis 1, 383. 393, as ^Eschylus and Sophocles call 
rocks the bones of the earth. This sowing of stones reminds one 
of mana-sej>s = \ao<;, /eocryuo? (p. 793). The Saxons, named after 
sahs (saxum), are called in the legend from the Eisenacher 
Kechtbuch in Ortloff p. 700-1 Kieselinge, petrioli ; conf. kisila 
irquiken zi inanne, quicken flints into men, 0. i. 23, 47. Giants 
spring out of stone, and spring into stone again (pp. 532-3. 552) : 
f eine, di slug ich aus eime steine/ Fundgr. 2, 518; f nun sihet 
man wol, dasz er nicht aus einem steine entsprungen ist, Galmy 
230 ; dasz ich aus heinem stein gesprungen, Sohade s Pasq. 76, 
87; many a man fancies he is sprung from a diamond, and the 
peasant from a flint, 3 Ettn. Hebamme 15; geraacht aus kisling- 
plut, flint-blood (also, donkey s rib), Fastn. 680, 26. 32. For 
other legends of the origin of nations, see GDS. 780. 

p. 576.] Ace. to Plato s Symp. 190 B, there were at first three 
sexes : appev, 6fj\v, avSpb yvvov, descended from sun, earth and 
moon. It is an important statement in Gen. 6, 4, that the sons 
of God (men) came in unto the daughters of men (giantesses). 
Popular legend very remarkably derives dwarfs and subterraneans 



1452 CEEATION. 

from the fallen angels, Ir. elfenm. xiii. ; the good people are 
not born, but dropt out of heaven, Ir. march. 2, 73 ; the same with 
the liuldren in Norway, Asb. 1, 29. Thiele 2, 175 ; while Finn. 
Joh. Hist. eccl. Isl. 2, 368 says of the alfs : quidam enim a Deo 
immediate et sine parentum interventu, ut spiritus quosdam, 
creatos esse volunt; quidam vero ab Adamo, sed antequam Eva 
condita fuit, prognatos perhibent.. A N. Frisian story has it, 
that once, when Christ walked upon earth, he blessed a woman s 
five fair children, and cursed the five foul ones she had hidden; 
from these last are sprung the undergrounders, Miillenh. p. 279. 
The same story in Iceland, F, Magnusen s Lex. 842 b . Eddalaren 

3, 329. 330. Faye, preL xxv. The giaat too is called vdlandes 

larn, Trist. 401, 7. Even the devil tries to create (Suppl. to 
1024). The Ind. Visvaltarma, like Hephaestus, fashions a woman 
at Brahma s bidding, Somad. 1, 173. On ages of the world, and 
their several races, conf. Babrius s Prologue, and the statue 
(p. 792 n.). Ovid, in Met. 1, 89 127 assumes four ages, golden, 
silver, brass and iron. GDS. 1 5. In the age of Saturn the 
earth-born men went naked and free from care, lived on the fruit 
of trees, and talked with beasts, Plato s Politicus 272. 

p. 581.] IIa\aiol \6yoi of deluges (Acara/cXucr/Ltot?) are ment. 
by Plato de Leg. 3, 677. The form sin-vluot is still retained in 
Mauritius 692, also sm-fluot in Anegenge 22, 17. 24, 13, but sint- 
vluot already in 25, 18, smi-waege 23, 54, sw-gewaege 25, 7. 
Luther still says sind-flut, not siindflut. By fhefiood the race of 
giants is extirpated, Beow. 3377 84. As it subsides, three ravens 
are let fly (p. 1140) ; conf. the verses in the Voluspa on the fall 
ing of the waters : falla forsar,fiygr dm yfir, sa er a fialli fiska 

veiftir/ Sasm. 9 b . In the American story of the Flood the 

people likewise take refuge in a ship, and send out animals, the 
beaver, the rat, Klemm 2, 156. Deukalions Flood is described 
iu Athen. 1, 409 and the first book of Ovid s Metamorphoses; 
conf. Selig CassePs Deuk. p. 223. 246. In Lucian s account also, 
all the wild beasts are taken into Deukalion s ark, and live in 

peace together, Luc. de Saltat. c. 39. The Indian narrative 

of the Flood is taken from the Bible/ thinks Felix Neve (De 
1 orig. de la trad. Ind. du Del., Paris ; 49) ; the rapid growth of 
the fish resembles that of Jormungandr when thrown into the 
sea, Sn. 32, and of the snake who wishes to be taken to the sea, 



ELEMENTS. 1453 

Klemm 2, 162; Manus himself signifies man, Kuhn s Rec. d. 
E-igveda p. 107. On the other Ind. story, that of Satydvratad, 

see Polier s Mythol. des Indous 1, 244 7. German tales of a 

great flood are told in Vonbun p. 14 16 (conf. p. 982-3). Our 
people still have a belief that destroying water will break out of 
mountains, Panz. Beitr. 1, 276-7. German legend makes the flood 
stream out of the giant s toe, as it does out of Wainamoinen s tee 
in Runo 3. The dwarf-story from the Rhine district in Firmen. 
2, 49 seems founded on that of L. Thun, DS. no. 45 ; the dwarf 
reminds one of the angel who lifts his hand holding a cloth over 
the city, Greg. Tur. 10, 24. 



CHAPTER XX. 
ELEMENTS. 

p. 582.] Before the new gods came, there prevailed a primi 
tive worship of Nature (p. 335), to which perhaps Cassar s Luna, 
Sol, Vulcanus is to be referred ; we know the giants stand for 
primal forces of nature, for fire, air, water, sun, moon, day and 
night, conf. Plato s Cratyl. 397. 408. And long after, in the 
Warnung 2243 seq., there still breaks out a nature-worship, an 
adoring of the bird s song, of flowers, of grass. All mythologies 
make some gods represent the elements : to the Hindus Indra 
is god of the air, Varuna of water; to the Greeks Zeus was 
the same thing as aether, aer. The Persians worshipped the 

elements, not human-shaped gods at all, Herod. 1, 131. The 

Indians admitted five elements : fire, water, earth, aether (akasa . 
and wind (vaya). The Chinese thought metal an element of its 
own. Galen sets down four: warm, cold, dry, wet (can we make 
these attributes represent fire, earth, air, water ?) . How the four 
elements run into one another, is described in MS. 1, 87 a ; H. 
Sachs knows die vier element/ 1, 255 ; erde und wazzer nider 
swebet, viur und luft ze berge strebet/ says Freid. 109. 24; conf. 
Renn. 6115. Animals live in all four : swaz get, vliuzet, swebet/ 
MS. 2, 183 a . Men bewailed their sorrows to the elements, to 
earth, to fire (p. 642). 

VOL. IV. N 



1454 ELEMENTS. 

1. WATER. 

p. 584.] People sacrificed to groves and springs : blotafti 
lundin, Landn. 3, 17; blota$i/om ?i 5, 5 (p. 592) ; and Sasm. 44 a 
says : heilog votn hloa (calent). The Hessians sacrificed lignis 
etfontibus, Pertz 3, 343. The Samliinder and Prussians denied 
the Christians access to groves and springs lest they should 
pollute them, Pertz 9, 375; conf. Helmold 1, 1. Prayer, sacri 
fice and judgment were performed at the spring, RA. 799. 
Porroin medio noctis silentio illas (feminas) adfontes aquarum 
in orientem offluentes juxta hortum domus egressas Herwardus 
percepit; quas statim secutus est, ubi eas eminus colloquentes 
audivit, nescio a quo custode fontiwni responsa et interrogantes et 
expectantes/ Gesta Herw. Saxonis, yr. 1068 (Wright s Essays 1, 
244. 2,91.108. Michel s Chron. Anglonorm. 2, 70). An Engl. 
song has I the wel woke, Wright s Ess. 1, 245; this is the 
ceremony of waking (watching by) the well. On the Bode in the 
Harz they still offer a black hen (?) to the river-god. Before 
starting the first waggonload from the harvest field, they throw 
three ears into a running stream ; or if there is none, they throw 
three ears into the oven-fire before the waggon enters the stack 
yard; if there was no fire, they light one. This is a Bavarian 
custom, Panz. Beitr. 2, 213. In Hartlieb s book of all Forbidden 
Arts we read that lighted tapers are set in front of water drawn 
from three running streams before sunrise, and man legt dem, 
wasser ere an, sam Gott selber (see p. 586). The Romans 
cherished the like reverence for water: flumini Rheno^ro salute, 
De Wai. no. 232 ; genio loci et Rheno pro salute/ no. 233 ; deus 
Rheni, no. 234. They greeted the bath with bare head on enter 
ing and quitting it, and placed votive gifts by the side of springs, 
Rudorff s Ztschr. 15, 216; they had even ministri fontis 15, 217. 
p. 585.] As prunno comes from prinnan to burn, the Romans 
spoke of torrens aqua, from torrere to broil : subita et ex abdito 
vasti amnis eruptio aras habet, Seneca s Ep. 41 ; conf. the context 
in Rudff s Zts. 15, 214. It is said of St. Furseus (d. 650) : fixit 
baculum suum in terram, et mox bullivit fons magnus, Acta 
Bened. p. 321. The divine steersman in the Frisian Asegabuch, 
on touching land, flings an axe into the turf, and a spring bursts 
up, Richthofen 440. A horse s hoof scrapes open a well (Suppl. 



WATER. 1455 

to 664 n.). Brooks gush out of Achelous s ox-head, Soph. Tracli. 
14. A well springs out of an ass s jawbone, Judg. 15, 19. Do 
spranc ein brunne sa ze stete uz der diirren molten, Servatius 
1382, when the thirsting saint had made a cross/ A spring 
rises where a maiden has fallen down, Panz. Beitr. 1, 198. A 

giantess produces water by another method, Sn. (1848) 1, 286. 

The Finns have three rivers formed out of tears, Kalev. 31, 190 ; 
healing fountains rise from the sweat of a sleeping giant, Kalevi- 
poeg 3, 87-9. Tiberinus is prettily described in Claudian s Prob. 
et Olybr. 209 265; ( Rhenus projecta torpuit urna, in his Rufin. 

1, 133. The nymph holds in her right a marble bowl, out of 
which runs tbe source of the rivulet, Opitz 2, 262 ; she pours the 
Zacken 263, where the poet uses the phrase spring -hammer der 
fliisse ; so in Hebel pp. 12. 38 the baby Wiese lies in silver 
cradle in her crystal closet, in hidden chamber of the rock. At 
Stabburags well and grotto (Selburg diocese) the people see a 
spinning maiden who weaves veils for brides, Kruse s Urgesch. 
pp. 51. 169. 171. OHG. Mingd, chlinkd = torreus and nympha ; 
conf. nixe, tocke (p. 492 n.) . 

p. 586.] At the restoration of the Capitol it is said of the 
Vestals : aqua vivis e fontibus ammbusque hausta perluere, Tac. 
Hist. 4, 53. Springs that a saint has charmed out of the ground, 
as Servatius by his prayer, have healing power : die mit dehei- 
nen seren (any pains) waren gebunden, genade die funden ze 
demselben urspringe/ Servat. 1390. Such medicinal springs 
were sought for with rushes, out of which flew a spark, Ir. march. 

2, 76-7. The notion that at holy seasons water turns into wine, 
prevails in Scandinavia too, Wieselgr. 412. Wells out of which 
a saint draws yield wine, Miillenh. p. 102-3 ; so in Bader no. 338 
wine is drawn out of a spring. The well loses its healing power 
when an ungodly man has bathed his sick horse in it, Mullenh. 
no. 126; the same after a noble lady has washed her little blind 
dog in it, N. Pr. prov. bl. 2, 44. On the contrary, fountains be 
come holy by goddesses bathing in them, e.g. those in which Sita 
bathed, see beginn. of Meghaduta. Whoever has drunk of the 
well of Reveillon in Normandy, must return to that country, Bos 
quet 202. 

p. 587.] Holy water is only to be drawn in vessels that cannot 
stand, but must hang or be carried, and not touch the ground. 



1456 ELEMENTS. 

for if set down they tip over and spill every drop (so the pulled 
plant, the fallen tooth, is not to touch the ground, Suppl. to 
658 n.). Such a vessel, futile, was used in the worship of Ceres 
and Vesta, Serv. ad Mn. 11, 339. Schol. Cruq. ad Hor. AP. 
231. Forcell. sub v. ; and by the Scots at the Well of Airth, 
where witnesses were examined, Hone s Daybk 2, 686, 867. 
Metal vessels of the Wends, which cannot stand, have been found 
in several places, Bait. stud. 11, 31-3-7. 12, 37. The Lettons, in 
sacrificing, durst not touch the goblet except with their teeth, 
Hpt s Ztschr. 1, 145. The hot springs at Thermopylae were 
called ^i/rpcH = ollae, Herod. 7, 176; conf. olla Vulcani. 

Helicbrunno, MB. 28% 63; heilicprunno 11, 109. heiligbrunno, 
29 a , 96. Helicbruno, Chart. Sithiense p. 113. Helicbrunno, a 
brook in the Netherl., Waitz s Sal. ges. 55. On Heilbronn, see 
Rudorff s Ztschr. 15, 226; conf. nobiles fontes 15, 218. < Helgi 
at Helgavatni, 3 Landn. 2, 2 : Helgavatn, Urffarvatn 3, 2.3. 
Other prob. holy springs are Pholesbrunno (p. 226), Gozesbrunno 
(Suppl. to 368). A Swed. song names the Helge Thors kalla in 
Smaland, fr. which water is drawn on Holy Thursday night to 
cure blindness. Others are enumer. in Mullenh. p. 595. Mary 
is called alles heiles ein Inter bach or heiles bach, Altswert 98, 
23. 73. When the angel had troubled the water in the pool of 
Bethesda, whosoever then first stept in was made whole, John 5, 
4. Rivers were led over graves and treasures (p. 251-2 n.). 

p. 588.] A youth-restoring fountain is drunk of in May before 
sunrise, Tit. 6053. Another jungbrunnen in the poem of Abor, 
Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 6. 7 and one in Wigamur 1611-5 by a limetree. 
M. Neth. joocht-borre, youth-bourn, Horae Belg. 6, 223. The eagle 
renews his youth at a fountain ( cJibck-prunnen, Karajan 32, 12. 
98, 5 ; conf. Griesh. Pred. 1, 29. 

p. 590.] More about Scandin. pilgrimages to springs in Wie- 
selgr. 389. 411. A Span, song tells of picking flowers on the 
Guadalquivir on Midsum. morn, Hone s Daybk 1, 851. At War 
saw, June 24, the girls throw wreaths of roses into the Vistula, 
and watch with joy or sadness their various ways of floating down 
the stream. This resembles the Midsum. custom of the Cologne 
women descr. by Petrarch, which Braun also in No. 23 of the 
Rhein. Jrb. traces to Christianity. The Schweiz. arch. 4, 87 says 
Petrarch first came to Germany in ] 356, but his letter describing 



WATEE. 1457 

the ceremony is dated 1330; in 1327 he saw Laura at Avignon, 
and then set out on his tour while yet a youth. Whom does he 
mean by the spiritus pierii of the Rhenish city ? Alb. Magnus 
lived and taught at Cologne, but died in 1280; his pupil Thomas 
of Aquino also taught there for a time. Duns Scotus came to C. 
in 1308, and died there; Meister Eckhart (d. 1329) was at C., so 
was his pupil Tauler. The University was not founded till 1388. 

p. 590 n.] Stieler p. 1402 mentions the following Easter 
custom : Habent Borussi verbum sclimak-o stern, quod significat 
obviarn quarto post tres dies Paschales oriente die venientes 
tirgis caedere, sicut juventus nostra facit quarto post ferias Nata- 
litias die, et Idndelen vocant in memoriam innocentium puerorum. 
schmack Borussis ferulam notat/ It is really more correct to 
derive the word from smagac, to flog (see Weinhold in Aufr. and 
Kuhn 1, 255). than from smigust, ablution. Easter rods adorned 
with many-coloured ribbons are called schmack- ostern, Jrb. d. 
Berl. ges. f. d. spr. 10, 228-9. In Moravia sclimeck-ostern, Kulda 
(d Elv.) 114. WeinhohTs Schles. w. 85 distinguishes between 
schmag-oster and dyngus. 

p. 591.] In Norman stories, springs run dry when misfortune 
is nigh, Bosquet 201. Salt and medicinal springs dry up as soon 
as money is asked for them, Athen. 1, 288. A countryman died 
of consumption after a cool draught from a spring; and immedi 
ately it ceased to flow, Hpt s Ztschr. 3, 361 . When a new spring 
breaks out, it is a sign of dearth, ibid. By the rising or falling of 
water in the Tilsgraben the inhabitants foretell a good or bad 
harvest, Harrys no. 2; conf. Miillenh. p. 104. When Wartha 
flats in Werra-dale have gone uiiflooded six years running, the 
farmer can eat off silver the seventh year, they say (Again : when 
the beaver builds his castle high, the water tha.t year will run 
high too, Dobel s Pract. 1, 36 b ). In Styria the Imngerbrunnen 
are also called hungerlaken, Wolf s Ztschr. 2, 43. At different 
periods the Nile had to rise different heights 22, 16, 14 or 12 
yards [?] to meet the wants of the country, Herod. 2, 13. 
Strabo p. 788. Pliny 5, 10. Parthey s Plut. on Isis and Os. p. 243. 

p. 592.] Whirlpool is in OHG. suarb, suirbil = vortex, Graff 
6, 897; sualm = vorago in aqua, 6, 873; huerbo 4, 1237. Gr. 
%apf/3Si?, Pott in Kuhn 5, 255. Serv. kolovrat, vortex (lit. 
wheel-turn) and buk, waterfall s roar (bukati, mugire). ait wind e 



1458 ELEMENTS. 

(vel storm) =gurges, eedeivinde vortex, 9 Vocab. ms. Vratisl. ; 
aitveinda = gurges, Diefenb. 271 b . Finn. korvalle tulinen kosken 
pyhan wirran pyortehelle/ he went to the firy waterfall (Sw. eld- 
fors), to the holy flood s whirl, Kalev. 1, 177; conf. 6, 92. 7, 785. 

794-8. 17,101.314. 22,10. 26,198. Waterfall is in OHG. 

u-azarchlinga=njmphBi J Graff 4, 504; wazardiezo=nymph& 5, 237. 
wazzerdurh? uenster? cataracta, Trier, ps. 41, 11. Windb. ps. 
41, 11 ; laufen, Staid. 1, 444. Gr. Svo? and Sivy. The passage 
in Plutarch s Caesar stands : Trora^wv Sivais teal pev/jbdrcw e Xt7- 
fjiols KOI -^ro<ot9. Homer has TrorayLto? dpyvpo-Slvijs, II. 21, 130; 
he pictured waterfalls as horses flying headlong : ^apd^pai peovaac 
e f opewv eVl reap 16, 392. Tis a being below stirs up the whirl 
pool, Leopr. 106; Loki dwells in Franangrs-fors, Saem. 68. Sn. 
69. At the Donau-strudel a spectre gives warning of death, 
Ann. Altahens., yr 1045; conf. the women in the Nibelg. 

p. 596.] The Greek rain-goddesses are the Hours, who guard 
the cloud-gate of Olympus, opening or shutting, and by rain and 
sunshine ripen the fruits. The Hora has a goblet, which she 
rinses at the fountain, Theocr. 1, 150. Men also sacrificed to 
Zeus and Hera, when short of rain, Paus. ii. 25, 8. Ge (earth) 
is repres. in a picture, imploring Zeus for rain 1, 24. The Lith. 
diewaitis is god of thunder, dewaite szwenta goddess holy, g. of 
rain. The Esths call hoarfrost mother of mist, Bocler 147. In 
Germany, as late as the 13th cent., dew was honoured as a bene 
volent being, Parz. 748, 28 : geert si luft unde tou, daz hiute 
morgen uf mich reis/ Dew drips from the manes of airy steeds : 
of Hrimfaxi, Saem. 32 b ; of the valkyria s horse 145 b (conf. p. 

641). The ceremony reported by Burchard is also quoted in 

Moneys Gesch. des heident. 2, 417 from Martin s Relig. des 
Gaules. The Servian and (ace. to Schott) Wallachian custom of 
wrapping round reminds me of the Hyperborean votive offerings 
wrapt in ears of corn and carried by two virgins, Herod. 4, 33. 
Creuzer 2, 117. Were the maidens themselves wrapt up? and 
can the five Trepffiepees who escorted them be conn, with the rain- 
maiden s name Tropirripovvat conf. GDS. 865. In the new ed. of 
Vuk s Diet, the dance and rain-song are called prporyshe and the 
leader prpatz. When a priest touched the fountain with an oaken 
bough, the rain-cloud rose out of it, Paus. viii. 38, 3 ; so the 
French maire dips his foot in the well of Barenton. In Algeria, 



WATER. 1459 

when there is a long drought, they throw a few Marabouts into 
the river, like the Bavarian water-bird, GDS. 54. Kl. schr. 2, 
445 seq. 

p. 598.] Nero was going to measure the Alcyonic lake with 
ropes, Paus. ii. 37, 5. The story in Thiele 3, 73 about sounding 
the lake is Swed. also, Runa 44, 33. L. Wetter cries : mat min 
langd ! Wieselgr. 459. On the Esth. worship of water, conf. 
Kreutzwald s Pref. to Kalewipoeg xii., and his and Neu s Myth, 
lieder 113; at 114 occurs the hauling up of a goat s skull. 

p. 601.] To the river is sacrificed (pp. 45. 494) a reindeer, 
Castren s Reise 342. In wading through clear water you utter 
a prayer, Hesiod s Erga 735 ; in crossing a river you take an 
auspicium, Rudorff 25, 218. Water-ordeals in the Rhine, RA. 
935; conf. the Fontinalia, Rudff 15, 221. Lake and river are 
often personified: in Irish fairytales (1, 8689. 2, 144152) 
the lake is lent out, and is carried away in a many-cornered cloth. 
Three loud laughs the river gave/ Fleming 373. There is a 
myth of a wood or mountain sprite, who scatters rivers into dust, 
Praetor. Katzenveit p. 102 6; conf. the stiebende brugge, Habsb. 
urbar. 94, 4, i.e. a devil s bridge. In Denmark, on the approach 
of spring, they say of a god or genius : kaster en ivarm steen i 
vandet/ F. Magnusen s Lex. 958 ; do they mean Thor ? 

Curiously the MB. 13, 18. 42 speaks of an Adalbero filius 
Danubii; 13, 96 Alberus filius Danubii; 13, 96 Gozwinus de 
DanubiOj Albertus et Engelbertus de Danubio. And the Saale, 
Neckar, Lahn, Leine are introd. as persons (p. 494 and Suppl.) ; 
conf. Hebel s personific. of the Wiese. 

With the notion of ouwe, ed conf. AS. 7ioZm = mare profundum, 
though ON. Jwlmr means insula, and OS. holm even collis. The 
Celts too had holy islands, Moneys Heident. 2, 377380. 

Our meer (sea), neut., though Goth, marei and OS. mart are 
both fern., OHG. meri, m. and n., has in it something divine : 
et? a\a Slav, Od. 11, 2 and elsewhere. Ocean is in Lettic deewa 
uppe, God s river, Bergm. 66. To the sea men sacrificed : nostri 
quidem duces mare ingredientes irnmolare hostias fluctibus con- 
sue verunt/ Cic. de Nat. D. 3, 20. Homer furnishes it with a 
back, vcoT09, which need not imply a beast s figure, for even OHG. 
has ( mers buosen, mers barm, bosom, Graff 3, 154. It can be 
angry with men : daz wilde mer ist mir gram, En. 7659 ; das 



1460 ELEMENTS. 

wasser gram, das lose mer, Diocl. 7336; de sture se, Partonop. 95, 
27. It is wild, it storms and raves: saevum mare, Tac. Hist. 
4, 52; iiber den wilden se, MS. 1, 72 b ; daz wilde mer, Troj. kr. 
6922, etc.; des wilden wages fluot, Gerh. 3966, etc.; daz tobende 
mer, Troj. kr. 5907, etc.; daz wiletunde mer, Servat. 3260, etc.; 
la mer betee, Ogier 2816, Prov. f mar betada, Rayn. sub v. ; de 
rusJcende see, Ulil. Volksl. 200-1 ; das ivibende ivabende wasser, 
Garg. Ill; sid wseter, Csedm. 7, 2. The Fris. salt, like aX?, 
means both salt and sea, Ssk. lavandmbhas, mare salsum, Welsh 
hall/or, salt sea, Ir. muir salmhar, AS. sealt waeter, Casdm. 13, 6. 
Why the sea is salt, is told in Sn. 147. The sea is pure, she 
tolerates no blood, Anno 227-8, just as the ship will have no dead 
corpse, Pass. f. 379 b . She f ceased from her raging as soon as 

Jonah was thrown in. Real proper names of the sea are : Oegir 

(p. 237), conf. AS. waeter-e^resa, and diu freise der wilden unde/ 
Tit. 2567; Gymir, conf. gymis leoft qveSa, Yngl. sag. c. 36; 
Brimir, akin to brim; and Geofen (p. 239). Names of particular 
seas : wendilmeri, endilmeri, lebermeri, Graff 2, 820. To ^Blfred, 
wendelsce is the Black Sea, only a part of the Mediterranean ; daz 
tiefe wentelmere, Diut. 3, 48 ; wendelse, Tundal 42 a , 4, and often in 
Morolt; ivendelzee, Bergh s Ndrl. volksr. p. 146. Then: lebermer, 
Wh. 141, 20. Tit. 5448. 6005. Amur 1730. Fundgr. 2, 4. Hpt s 
Ztschr. 7, 276. 294. Wigalois sub v. ; in dem roten lebermer, 
Barl. 262, 16; labermer, Ernst 3210; leverse, Walew. 5955; lever- 
zee, V. d. Bergh 103. 127. With this term conf. the TrKevpwv 
QaXaTTLos, sea-lung, of Pytheas ; F. Magn. traces this lung to the 
dismembered Ymir. For garsecg, conf. my first ed., Vorr. xxvii., 
and Hpt s Ztschr. 1, 578. Dahlmann in Forsch. 1, 414 explains 
gars-ecg as earth s edge; Kemble, Gl. sub v. secg, as homo jaculo 
armatus ! For garsecg in the Periplus, Rask writes garsege t but 
explains nothing; conf. C^edm. 8, 1. 195,24. 199,27. 205,3. 
Beow. 97. 1024. The ON. lagastafr is at once sea and sown 
crop, Sa3m. 50-1; Gudr. 1126-8 has f daz vinstermer, sea of 

darkness. Lastly, Dumbs-haf, Dau&a-haf, Fornald. sog. 2, 4. 

The sea advances and retires, has ebb and flood (on ( ebb 3 conf. 
Gramm. 3, 384 and Kl. schr. 3, 158) ; on the alleged Fris. and 
Sax. equivalents malina and liduna, see Gramm. 3, 384 note. 
The ON. kolga and o/^o. = aestus maris : er saman qvomo Jcolgo 
systir (fluctus undantes) ok kilir langir/ Saem. 153 a . Ebb and 



WATER. FIRE. 1461 

flood are in Grk. afjiTrwris and pa^ia, Pans. 1,3; in Irish con- 
traiht and robart, Zeuss 833. The sea- waves are often treated as 
living beings : da ndmen ez die unden, diu eine ez der andern gap, 
unde truogenz verre so hinab/ the waves caught it, passed it one 
to the other, etc., Pass. 313, 73. Three plunging waves are three 
witches, and get wounded; the waterspout is also a witch, Miillenh. 
p. 225. On the nine waves, conf. Passow sub. v. rpiKv^la, Trevra- 
Kv/jiLa : ev rpiKVfJiiai^ (f>epojjievq>, 3 Procop. 1, 318. In a storm it 
is the ninth wave that sinks the ship, Wright 1, 290 after Leo 
Allatius ; it also occurs in Ir. sagen u. march. 1, 86. ON. skafl = 
unda decumana, probably no more than a very high one, from 
skefla, acervare. 

2. FIRE. 

p. 602.] Fire is a living being. With quec-fiur conf. queckiu 
lieht, Ernst 2389. You can kill it : trucidare ignein, Lucr. 6, 146. 
You can wake it: geled weccan, Caedm. 175, 26; baelfyra maest 
weccan, Beow. 6281. It is wild : conf. wildfire (pp. 603. 179) ; 
Logi villi-eldr, Sn. 60; Hans Wilds-fewer, MB. 25, 375; ein 
wildez viur sluoc in daz dach, Troj. kr. 11317; daz wilde fair 
spranc uz den vlinzen herte 12555 ; daz grimme wilde faiwer, Kab. 
659 ; daz starke w. f. 698 ; daz w. f. uz den swerten spranc 412 ; 
daz grimme f. als ein loup uz den huof-isen stoup (spirted out of 
the horse-shoes), Dietr. 9325 ; daz/. vlouc freislich uz helmen u. 
uz ringen 8787. It is a devouring beast : strudende (desolating) 
fyr, Casdm. 154, 15; brond (gleiS) sceal fretan, consume, Beow. 
6024. 6223 ; in pabulum ignis, infuatar (fodder) des fiures, Diut. 
1, 496 a ; dem viure geben ze mazze, as meat, Fundgr. 2, 131. It 
is insatiable, like hell or avarice, Freid. 69, 5 ; the fire saith not 
it is enough/ Prov. 30, 16; eld, celed (fr. alan, nourish) means 
ignis pastus, the fed and steady flame ; conf. etc &e Ou/jidrcov 
"H(f>aicrTos ov/c eXa/ATre, Soph. Antig. 1007. It licks : Lith. 
ugnis laizdo pro stog^/ at the roof; conf. tunga, tungal (p. 700); 
seven kindlings or seven tongues of flame, Colebr. Essays 1, 190. 
It snatches, filches : tyres feng, Beow. 3525 ; se tyr beo^S fieof, 
Ine 43, like Loki and the devil. It plays : leikr har hiti, Seem. 9 b ; 
leiki yfirlogi ! 68 b ; leikr yfir lindar-uatfi 192 a ; lacende lig, El. 579. 
1111; lar (fire) super turrim saliit, Abbo de b. par. 1, 548. It 
flies up like a red cock (p. 670) : den rothen hahn zum giebel 



1462 ELEMENTS. 

ausjagen, Schottel 1116 b ; der rothe hahn kraht aus dem dach, 
Firmen. 1, 292 b ; der gelbe hahn, yellow cock 1, 208 a ; conf. lldcan 
tyres, ignis pallidi, Caedm. 231, 13; fire glitters with seeds of 
gold, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 194 ; faces aureas quatiunt comas, 
Catull. 59, 92. It travels, nigram viam habens, Bopp s Gl. 83 a . 
Holtzrn. 3, 194. In the Edda it is brother to the wind and sea; 
so Ssk. pdvaka, fire, is lit. cleanser, fr. pu (Suppl. to 632, beg.), 
Bopp s Vocal. 205, conf. Gramm. 126 (new ed. 213-6), and 
pavana, wind, is from the same root, Bopp (conf. Gramm. 124) ; 
besides, fire is called vayusakhi, wind s companion. It flows : daz 
viurfloz, Livl. reimchr. 5956; in Holstein, when a fire breaks out, 
they call it hot rain, Schiitze 4, 340 ; and the ON. hripuffr, fire, 
Sa3m. 40 a seems to be fr. hripa, perfluere. 

There was a time when fire ivas unknown, for the giants have 
none (Suppl. to 530) : fiure was in tiure dear, scarce, to them, 
Gudr. 104, 1. That time is still remembered in Kalevala 16, 
247-8 (Castren 1, 195) and our nursery tales. Fire belonged to 
the gods ; it was stolen by Prometheus, and given to men. Ace. 
to a Finn, song it is created : an eagle strikes a fire for Waina- 
moinen, Petersb. Extract 3. Other traditions make a little bird 
(reblo, troglodyte) bring it from heaven, Pluquet p. 44. Bosquet 
220. A contrast to the fireless time is the Dan. arild-tid, fr. 
arild, fireplace (ild, fire), Swed. aril, focus, Westg. arell, Helsing. 
areld. 

p. 603.] Fire is holy : ignis sacer meant lightning, Amm. 
Marcell. 23, 5 ; conf. igne felici, Grotef. Umbr. 7, 5. Fire is 
called sacrifice-eater, Holtzm. Ind. s. 1, 24-6, and four times in 
Bopp s Gl. 401 b ; eldr sa er aldri slokna&i was called vigffan eld, 
Landn. ed. nov. p. 336. Being often found a hostile power, it 
was used in cursing, or was conjured by a spell. Other Fr. forms 
of cursing are : male fiambe t arde ! Ren. 20762 ; feu arde son 
musel! Berte 116; conf. Holland to Yvain p. 222, The fire-cry 
in E. Gothland was : kumbdr eldar Ids, Ostg. lag 229. Fire-spells 
are given in Moneys Anz. 7, 422-7. A fire is adjured in these 
words : brand, stand als dem dode sein rechte hand ! be still as 
the dead man s hand, Wolfs Ztschr. 1, 337. If you can charm 
a fire, it jumps behind you while you do it, and you must run for 
your life (Meiningen), Hpt s Ztschr. 3, 363. Remigius puts afire 
to flight, and locks it up, Flodoardus 1, 12. White angels quench 



FIRE. 1463 

a fire (Suppl. to xliii. end, and to 366. Fire can be stifled with 

clothes that have been ivorn some time, whereas in a Liittich legend 
the earth-fire attacks some men who we&r-new unwashen smocks, 
and is flogged with ropes, rods and sticks, WolPs Ndrl. s. no. 407. 
To an outbreak of helle-viur, which cannot be stamped out, you 
must sacrifice a knight in gorgeous array, Ksrchr. 1 1 38-41 . 1 1 60 
72. 1229; he tries while on horseback to speak away the fire, 
but falls and breaks his neck, Der Causenmacher, a play, Leipz. 
1701, p. 152-6, and pref. A fire put out by means of a horse, 
Thiir. Ztschr. 2, 505. To extinguish a fire, a woman in childbed, 
whose feet must not touch the ground, is carried to the fire, and 
uttering mystic spells throws a new-baked loaf into the flames 
(Austria). On quenching fires and driving out cattle, see Tettau 
and Temme s Pr. sag. 263. There are people who see a fire burn 
ing beforehand : you must then take out the beam they indicate, 
or conjure the fire into an oak with a bung, Miillenh. p. 570. 
Ossian speaks of pulling out oaks, so that fire springs out of them. 

Fires leap out of the ground like water, Paus. ii. 34, 2 : ein 

michel vuwer sich truoc uf (uz ?) der erden munde (mouth), Pass. 
359, 58 ; als viurin urspringe (fiery springs) da waeren ensprungen, 
Lanz. 2590. Burning mountains may be seen on seals of the 
14th cent., MsH. 4, 280 a , conf. Pyrmont, Brennenberg. Fire 
struck out of a helmet may be caught on a schoup (truss of rye), 
Er. 9206. Eggs put out fire : holt lescid van eia, wadi ne bren- 
nid ; ovorum autern tantam vim esse dicunt, ut lignum eis 
perfusum non ardeat, ac ne vestis quidem contacta aduratur, Gl. 
Argentor. Diut. 2, 194 a . Milk, camel s milk quenches fire, Ferabr. 
3348. 

p. 603.] The Indians had three sorts of fire : common, celestial, 
frictile, Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 112. In Oegir s hall was c lysi-gull 
fyrir elds-lios, Ssem. 59. Out of helmets and swords came fire 
and light : ob in des fiures zerinnet (when short of fire), daz 
kunnen sie wol suochen in helm-spange, Tit. 3222 ; among the 
Ases the sword gives light, Sn. 79 ; it shines in the dark, Landn. 
1, 5; ( sin swert hiez si in bar nemen sunder sin gewant . . . 
daz er z mit iin naeme, so r in die helle quaeme, in die vinster- 
nisse, daz er im gewisse damite liuhten solde/ En. 2858 (she 
bids Aeneas take his naked sword, that when he came into hell s 
darkness, he should light him therewith). Virgil, it is true, 



1464 ELEMENTS. 

makes Aeneas draw his sword (vi. 260. 291), but not to give 
light. Again : zuch hervor din swert, du trage z in diner hand 
~bar, unde liuhte dir damite 3172. Nothing of the kind in Vir 
gil. Flint-eld is struck over cattle, Dybeck s Runa 44, 7. If 

sparks fly out of a beam that is being hewn, it betokens fire to 
the house into which it is built, Mullenh. p. 570. 

p. 607.] Wildfire is described in Miede s Hasentnelker p. 43. 
Needfire must be rubbed by two brothers, or at leasi two men of 
the same Christian name, (Fischer s) buch vom Abergl., Leipz. 
1791, p. 177. Some new facts are coll. by Colshorn 231-2. 
350-1. The Mecklenbg custom is described by Lisch 6 b , 127; 
that of the Moravian shepherds by Kulda (d Elv.) 123-4. A 
giant rubs fire out of stones, Rother 1041 (ace. to two readings). 
The notten held on Midsum. Night, and twice mentioned in the 
Acct bk of Frankfort city, yr 1374, points to the supposed root 
hniudan. 

p. 608.] Swed. accounts of gnid-eld (rubbed fire) run thus : 
Genom gnideld tagen i en ekesticke (piece of oak) fran ett snore 
(string) som sa lange dragits fram och ater (pulled to and fro) i 
en hus-dorr, till-dess det blifvit antiindt (kindled), och derefter 
3 ganger ansyls ford omkring personen, samt med ett serdeles 
formuliir signad, berokas och botas sjuka kreatur (cattle besmoked 
and cured)/ Again: For samma andamal borras hal (hole 
bored) uti en ek, hvaruti genom en pinne eld guides, dermed 
antandes 9 slags trad, ofver hvilken kreaturen bora ga ; conf. 
Suppl. to 1089 (?). 

p. 609.] Cows or calves are sacrif. elsewhere too, to protect 
the herd from plague: ( Nar kalfvorne mycket bordo, skall man 
valdsamt fatta an vid hufvudet framsHippa honom ifran kjotten, 
och honom verkeligen hals-hugga ofver fahu-straskeln, Raiif. A 
live cow is buried in the ground against murrain, Wieselgr. 409 ; 
or one of the herd under the stable-door (p. 1142) ; conf. Wolf s 
March, p. 327, where a cow s head is cut off and laid in the loft 
(seep. 1188). 

p. 610.] In Ssk. needfire or wildfire is called rub-fire, and is 
produced by rubbing a male and a female stick together, Bohtling 
1, 522, conf. 1, 404. Ace. to Kuhn s Rec. d. Rigv. p. 98, it is 
rubbed out of the arani (premna spinosa). Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 122 ; 
is this the aihvatundi ? Weber s Ind. stud. 2, 4 says it comes 



FIRE. 1465 

out of Pranava, the bow and arrow of self (the lotus-flower). The 
Arabs call the old-fashioned fire-rubbing sticks zend and zendet, 
the first being the upper and male,, the second the female or lower 
one with the hole in it ; striking steel and stone together is 
reckoned a barbarism, Kiickert s Hariri 1, 648-9. Finn. Jiela- 
valkya (fr. hela, the spring festival), ignis non ex silice, sed ex 
lignis duobus vi confricatis elicitus ; also kitkan-valkya, rub-fire, 
Eenvall 1, 64. 

p. 611.] A perpetual fire was kept up by the Israelites, Levit. 
6, 12-3; and is still by Parsees and Guebers, as among the 
ancient Persians. Such a fire burned on the altar of Athena 
Polias at Athens, Paus. i. 26, 7, and in the temple of Pan in Ar 
cadia, viii. 37, 8. Famous oracles maintained ever-burning fires, 
as that of Delphi, whose priests in time of war conveyed the sacred 
flame to Plataea, Plut. Numa cap. 9 ; conf. Valckenaer on Herod. 
6, 108 ; so the fires of Delos were carried to Lemnos, Welcker s 
Aeschyl. Trilog. p. 247 seq. We know the undying fire of Hestia, 
Vesta. Colonies took their sacred fire with them from the mother- 
city; if it happened to go out, there alone could they light it 
again, Larcher on Herod. 1, no. 360. Wachsm. Hell, alterth. i. 1, 
102. ii. 2, 118. Miinter s Eel. d. Garth, p. 49. The Samogitians 
nourished a perpetual fire, Lasicz. 56. On the eternal lamp in 
the worship of Mary, see Lange s Abh. v. d. ewigen lampe (Verm, 
schr., Leipz. 1832) pp. 191204. 

p. 614.] Toland s Hist, of Druids (quoted in Hone s Yrbk 876 
seq.) supposes three bealtines in the year, May 1, Midsum. eve, 
Nov. 1. The first of May and of Nov. were called beltan, says 
Villemarque s Bardes Bretons p. 386-7. GDS. 108. On Bel, 
see Diefenb. Celt. 1, 185, Stokes 349. Jamieson (Daybk 2, 659). 
The great and little Bel, Meier s Schwab, sag. 297. On Beltaine, 
Belton eve, see Stewart s Pop. superst. 258 seq. Brand s Pop. 
Antiq. 1, 337. Stokes 349. Michelet 1, 452 seq. Ir. sag. u. 
march. 1, 275-6. 2, 479. The May fire is also called hoelkerz, 
coelcerth, Villem. B.B. 232. 385-6-7, but he does not explain the 

word ; elsewh. coel is omen, fides, and certh signurn. An Ar- 

moric folk-song speaks of eight fires, and of the father-fire being 
lighted in May, Villem. Barzas breiz 1, 8 ; Hone s Daybk 2, 659. 
866 puts the chief fire on Midsum. Day. Sambhuinn means Nov. 1 
(O Brien: samhainn = Allhallows-tide). The Druidic November- 



1466 ELEMENTS. 

fire was also called tlachdgha, tine tlachdgha, O Brien sub v. 
The sacred fires are thus described in O Connor s Proleg. 1, 24 : 
f duos ignes splendentes faciebant druidae cum incantationibus 
magnis supra eis, et ducebant greges quos cogebant transire 
per eos ignes ; conf . O Brien sub v. bealtine. Horses heads were 
thrown into the May-fire in Ireland, Hone s Daybk 2, 595 (as 
into the Midsum. fire in Germany, p. 618). 

p. 617.] On Easter-fires, conf. Woeste p. 288; dat osterfiir an- 
boiten, J. v. Scheppau s Oster-pred. p. 8 ; das ostermaen-luchten 
in Wilster-marsch, Miillenh. p. 168. Even in S. Germany, e.g. 
about Abensberg in Lower Bavaria, they used at Easter time to 
burn the ostermann. After service at church a fellow lighted a 
candle, ran out into the fields with it, and set the straw Easter- 
man on fire. A Paderborn edict of 1781 abolished the Easter- 
fire, Wigand s Pad. and Corv. 3, 281. 1, 317. Instead of bocks- 
thorn (p. 616 n.), Groten s Gesch. v. Northeim 1723, p. 7 says: 
1 On this hill the bocks-horn was held within the memory of man/ 
The Easter squirrel-hunt in the Harz (p. 616) reminds of the 
Lay of Igor (Hanka p. 68), where every householder pays a 
squirrel by way of tax. Akin to Easter-fires are the Walburgs 
(Mayday) fires, Miillenh. p. 168 : in Riigen, on Mayday eve, took 
place a molkentoverschen bernen with fire-bladders (p. 1072 n.), 
conf. Osnabr. yerein 3, 229 ; on the Hundsriick the young men 
and boys are allowed to cut wood in the forest on St. Walburg s 
eve, Weisth. 2, 168. 

p. 620.] The sol-stitium is in Homer rpoTrrj rje\Loio t Od. 15, 
404; a/jL<j)l Oepivas rpovra?, Procop. B. Goth. 2, 13 ; dfji(j)l rpovra? 
%eipepivds 3, 27. The Bavar. records have sunwenden, sunbenden, 
the Aleman. sungihten : ze sungihten Weisth. 1, 293. 304. 
316 8; ze singeht 1, 325; nach sungehten 1, 669; ze sungiden 
1, 322-3; zu sungihte 1, 708; zu singihten 1, 745; singiht-tag 1, 
727; sungeht-tag 1, 669; singehtag, Namenbiichl. p. 114. The 
AS. sungiht, solstitium, stands in Menolog. for June 24 ; Schilter 
on Konigsh. p. 458 has the whole passage. MHG. dri tage vor 
sunegihten, Lanz. 7051 ; conf. bettQ-gdht, 1ST. Cap. 46, kirch-giht 

(-going, Oberlin). Yor der sunnewenden, Bamb. relit, ed. 

Zopfl 154; f hiute ist der ahte tac nach sunewenden, da sol daz 
jarzit enden/ Iw. 2940. 

Midsummer was a great time for meetings and merrymakings : 



FIEE. 1467 

ze einen sunewenden da Sifrib ritters namen gewan/ Nib. 32, 4 ; 
vor disen sunewenden Siegfried and Kriemhilt visit Worms 
670, 3. 694, 3 ; and it is during the wedding festivities at Mid 
summer that Siegfried is killed, as may be fairly inferred, if it is 
not expressed. The wedding in the Heunenland is to take place 
zen naehsten sunewenden 1424, 4; and the heroes arrive at 
Etzel s court an sunewenden dbent* 1754, 1. On Midsum. day 
the Zurich people carry their hot pottage over the water to 

Strassburg, Gliickh. schiff, v. 194 seq. On sunw end- fires, see 

Panz. Beitr. 1, 210 seq. Sunwent was corrup. into summit, 
simmet-four, Leopr. 182 ; simentfeuer, H. Sachs 1, 423 d ; sommer- 
feur, Albertini s Narrenhatz 100; 8. Johannis-furle, Germ. 1, 
442. A sage remark on the sonwend-fire in Firmen. 2, 703 ; 
feuia hupfa z Johanne, Schuegraf der wiildler p. 31. Always a 
lad and lass together, in couples, jump over the fire, Leopr. 183 ; 
some wantonly push others in, and spread their coat over the hot 
coals, Gesch. v. Gaustall (Bamb. ver. 8, 112). At Vienna, com 
mon women, loose girls, danced at the Midsum. fire, Schlager s 
Wiener skizzen 1, 270. 5, 352. Fiery wheels are driven in 
Tyrol and Hungary, Wolfs Ztschr. 1, 286-7. 270-1, and in Aus 
tria, Duller p. 46-7 ; conf. the joy-fires of Swiss herdsmen in the 
Poster-nights, Staid 1, 209. 210. Prohibitions of the Midsum. 
fire, Kaltenback s Pantaid. 98 b . 104 a . 

p. 624.] On Engl. bonfires, see Hone s Daybk 1, 827. 846. 
851-2. Brand 1, 299 seq. In France embers taken home from 
a John s-fire, in England any live coals are a protection against 
magic, Hone s Yrbk 1553. Prising, the Norweg. for Midsum. 
fires, may be akin to bris = flamma, brisa = flammare (Aasen), conf. 
brasa, our prasseln, to crackle. Midsum. fires flamed in Sweden 
too, 9 sorts of wood being used, and 9 sorts of flowers picked 
for posies, Runa 44, p. 22. Wieselgr. 411. In Spain they 
gathered verbenas in the dawn of St. John s day, and lighted 
fires, over which they leapt, Handbk of Sp. 1, 270 b . A St. John s 
fire in Portugal is descr. in the Jrb. d. Berl. sprachges. 8, 373. 
1 John s folk is what the Letts call those who bring John s- 
wort (hypericum, and raggana kauli, witch s bones), and sing 
songs, Stender s Gram. p. 50, Diet. 85 a ; on St. John s morning 
a wreath of flowers, or hawthorn, is hung over the doors, Fr. 
Michel s Eaces maud. 2, 147. In Esthonia they light a John s 



1468 ELEMENTS. 

fire, and gather a bundle of sweet- smelling herbs; these the girls 
put under their pillows, and what they dream comes true, Pos- 
sart s Esthl. p. 172. On the Zobten-berg in Silesia (fr. Sobota, 
sabbath) the Slavs kept their sobotky, Schafarik 2, 407 of transl.; 
it is also called * mons Slesie, mons czobothus/ conf. Dietmar (in 
Pertz 5, 855). Moravia too has its John s fires, Kulda (in d Elv) 
111-2. Plato de Legg. 19, 945 speaks of a festival following the 
summer solstice. 

p. 625.] To Ovid s picture of the Palilia, add that of Tibullus 
ii. 5, 87 : 

at madidus Baccho sua festa Palilia pastor 
concinet : a stabulis tune procul este, lupi ! 
ille levis stipulae solemnis potus acervos 
accendet, flammas transilietque sacras. 

p. 628.] In Christmas-fires, mark the practice of saving up 
the half-burnt yule-log, Gefken s Cat. 56. Other fires are the 
Shrovetide fire, Stalder 1, 356, and the so-called hoop-driving 
(burning wheel) in Up. Swabia on the first Sunday in Lent, the 
N. Frisian biiJcen-brennen on Febr. 22, see Miillenh. p. 167. 

p. 630.] Old examples of illumination : Joh. Chrys. Or. in red. 
Flaviani c. 4 : oTrep ovv eiroirjaaTe crre<ava>cravTe9 rrjv ayopav 
KOI \vxyovs atyavres. Greg. Naz. Or. de red. Athanasii 21 p. 
391 : ew \eyeiv . . . Tracrav (frcorl /carao-rpaTrroiJievrjv TTO\LV. 
Choricii Gazaei Orr., ed. Boissonade 46 p. 101 : cr/ceuecrt e 
</><WTO? elpyaafievois ev(f)7ifjLOvjj,ev rot/? evepyera?. splendida fuit 
illuminatio; nios is fuit veterum diebus laetis ac festis. Ann. 
Worm. 1251 (Bohm. Font. 2, 168): regem incensis candelis et 
canipanis pulsatis singulis diebus festivis denunciare. Trees 
of candles were carried in processions, LiinzeFs Stiftsfehde 
135-6. 279; vil liehtes gap da manec rone, Tiirl. Wh. 99 b 
(conf. Saem. 22 b : med brennandom liosom oc bornom vi&i). The 
Ksrchr. 91 has brinnende olvaz. Walth. 28, 14 speaks only of 
ringing bells : ir werdent hoh enpfangen, ir sit wol wert daz wir 
die gloggen gen iu liuten. 

& 3. AIR. 

p. 632.] Wind is in Ssk. am7a=avf/iO9, also pavana, cleanser, 
fr. pu, like pavaka, fire (Suppl. to 602). So in Finn, tuuli ventus, 



AIR. 1469 

tuU ignis; conf. des fiuwers wint, Gudr. 499, 2, and viwer-roter 
wint, Nib. 1999, 2. An OHG. *Mep = aer, Graff 6, 856, ON. svif 
= motus repentinus, vibratio. As Wodan is the all-pervading 
aether, Zeus is equiv. to aer: arjp bv av Tt<? ovofjbdareie KOI Aia, 
Frag. Philem. in Meineke 4, 32 (Euripides has aether for Zeus). 
In Latin also, Jupiter stands for aer, Valcken. ad Herod. 2, 13; 
conf. plurimus Jupiter = michil lufi, air, Gl. Sletst. 6, 467; 
and Servius ad Aen. 1, 51 says Juno was taken to mean air. 
The Greeks sacrificed to Boreas, Xen. Anab. (Koch 92). The 
Scythians worship ave/mos as cause of life, and the sword as that 
of death, Lucian s Tox. 38. GDS. 222. 459. The Finns call a 
fjba\a/cia (calm) . Wainamoinen s way, Vdindmoisen tie or kulku : 
the god has walked, and all is hushed; he is named Suvantolainen 
fr. suvanto, locus ubi aqua quiescit. The Norse Andvari is a 
dwarf, bub also ventus lenis, contrarius ; conf. BiJU&i, oskabyrr 
(pp. 149. 637), Wuetelgoz (p. 367 n.), ]?oden (Suppl. to 132 end). 
In the Mid. Ages Paul and John habent da ze himile weteres 
gewalt/ Ksrchr. 10948; they are the weather-lords, and their 

day (June 26) the hail-holiday, Scheff. Haltaus 111. Walt- 

ti;m = auster, Moneys Anz. 8, 409, because it originates in the 
forest. The winds have a home : Vindheim vi San byggja, Ssem. 
10*. Wint, Wintpoz, Wintesbal? are prop, names, Graff 1, 624. 
Wind is the windhund (greyhound), Kuhn in Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 
131, as Donner, Sturm are names of dogs. Wind is worshipped : 
des solt der luft sin geret (air be honoured) von spers krache/ 
Tit. 2, 2 ; er neic gegen dem winde der da wate von Gotlinde/ 
bowed to the wind that blew fr. G., Helmbr. 461 ; sta bi, la 
mich den wint anwaejen (let the wind fan me), der kumt von 
mines herzen kiineginnen/ MS. 1, 6 b . Wind is spoken of as a 
person, it goes, stands still : spiritus ubi vult spirat, der wint 
waeje als er welle, blow as he would, Barl. 257, 11 ; vloch (flew) 
waer die wint ghebot/ bade, Maerl. in Kastner 18 b . Winds ride, 
Ahlw. on Oisian 2, 278. They guide people : quel vent vos 
guie? Ren. 2127. 3728; quel vent vos maine ? 2675; quel 
vent vos mene et quel ore? 2654 = whence come you? conf. 
* what devil, cuckoo brings you here ? (p. 1013). They are 
wild, Trist. 2415. Greg. 646. 754. Kenn. 22962; angry: 
erziirnet sind die liifte/ Dietr. u. ges. 393 ; ( die liifte solden 
zurnen at the height of the towers, Servat. 84. The air groans, 
VOL. iv. o 



1470 ELEMENTS. 

mutters, grunts: grunzet fone ungewitere/ N. Cap. 58; grot 
wint ende gesoech, Lane. 3899 ; die winde begunden swegelen, 
began to pipe, Servat. 3233; conf. up dem windes home/ 
Weisth. 3, 231. On Fonn, Drifa, Mioll, see GDS. 685. 

p. 632.] Of the wind s bride : mit einer windes-briute wurden 
sie getwungen, Servat. 2302; in nam ein windes-brut 2844; 
flugen vaster dan ein w. b., Engelh. 4771 ; daz diu w. b. gelit, 
Hpt s Ztschr. 7, 381; gelich der windesbriute, Troj. kr. 33571. 
Luther says windsbraut for ventus typhonicus, Acts 27, 14. Old 
glosses have nimphus, nimpha, stormwind, Graff 1, 625 ; is this 
a misapplication of nimbus ? or a congener ? In France they 
speak of the whining of Melusine (p. 434), who in Bohemia passes 
for a goddess of wind, and to whom they throw flour out of the 
window for her children (Suppl. to 636) ; conf. the whimpering 
of the Vila, and the weeping of the Esth. tuuleema, wind s 
mother, Bocler 146-7. Is the Swiss harein, Staid. 2, 21, fr. 
OHG. haren = clamare, Graff 4, 578, or fr. charon = queri 5, 465? 

Other expressions for wind s bride: wind-geUe = veuti pellex 

(sne-gelle), Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 290. Rocholz 2, 408 ; Bavar. wind- 
gasperl, Swab, wind-gdspele, Leopr. 101. 120; Bavar. windsch- 
brach, -brausz, Panz. Beitr. 2, 209; sau-kegel, Rocholz 2, 187. 
OHG. wand a = turbo, Graff 1, 761; ON. roka, turbo. Other 
OHG. terms: ungistnomi = strepitus (MHG. ungestwm, vehementia 
aeris, Superst. H. cap. 77) ; ungewitiri = tempestas, procella, 
Graff 1, 630; arapeit = do. do. 1,407; heifti = tempestas, Windb. 
308. 313; unst = procella, tempestas, AS. ust; with reip = agebat 
(nubila ventus), Graff 5, 482, conf. ON. drifa, snowstorm, drifa 

orva, a storm of arrows. Heralds of winter were ( twer und 

surin Use MS. 2, 193 b ; contrary wind is in MHG. twer or twere, 
and ON. And-Jivari, Andvari is said to be that as well as a 
dwarfs name; conf. f von luftes geduere, Himelr. 292 (Hpt s 
Ztschr. 8, 153), die winde sluogen in entwer, Hpt 7, 378-9. A 
hurricane, squall, flaw, is called fldge in Pass, and Jeroschin ; 
windes vlagen, Marienleg. 84,21. 87,8; die wint ene vlaghe 
brachte, Rose 13151. Maerl. 3, 189; Dut. vlaag, Gothl. flag a, 
vindflaga, Almqvist 422 b ; rotten und sturmwinde/ Luther s 
Letters 5, 155. In Slavic it is vikhr, Pol. wicher, Boh. wichr; 
Lith. ummaras, vesulas, whirlwind (conf. our provinc. eilung/ 
M. Neth. ylinge, WesseFs Bibel p. 7, with ON. el, jel, nimbus). 



AIR. U71 

The Greeks had aeXXa, 6ve\\a, XatXcnJr, Ital. fortuna di mare = 
storm. 

p. 633.] Zio resembles Mars and Indras, the god of winds and 
of souls, who with his Maruts or spirits of storm makes war on 
the giants of darkness, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 488-9. 6, 131. Wuotan, 
the god of the Wild Hunt, sweeps like the storm through 
open doors (p. 926-7, etc.). Hodeke howls (Suppl. to 511 beg.). 
Both wind s bride and devil are called sow-tail (p. 996) or hammer 
(p. 999) : conf. sau-kegel, Rocholz 2, 187 ; in Bavaria wind-sau, 
Zingerle s Oswalt 83 (alyfc, goatskin, hurricane). Frau Fiulc or 
Frick also acts as goddess of wind, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 376. 6, 131 ; 
conf. the fahrende mutter, WolPs Ndrl. sag. no. 518. At a 
village near Passau they call the whirlwind mueml, aunty : 
f mueml ist drin ! (m. is also toad) ; or else schratl, Schm. 3, 
519. 522. The hurricane has hands : nu bin ich sturmwinden 
alrerst in die hant gevarn/ fallen, Trist. 8848. 

p. 635.] Was there a wind named Vorwitz (prurient curiosity)? 

do kam ein wint geflogen dar, 

der ist virwitz genant, 

in hant die meide wol erkant 

unde ouch die vrouwen iiber alle lant. Renn. 84. 

san kumt her virwitz gerant 

und loeset den meiden uf (unlooses) diu bant. Renn. 268. * 

Conf. der furwifa, so jungfern theuer machet/ Simplic. 1, 568 ; 
hine fyrwit brcec, Beow. 464. 3966, 5565 ; vurwitz segens, Turl. 
Wh. 128 a (Suppl. to 273 n.) ; s sticht s der wundenoitz, Hebel 
157; furwitz, der kramer (huckster), Uhl. Yolksl. 636. OHG. 
firiwizi is also portentum, mirificum, Graff 1, 1099; man saget 

mir von kinde, daz kerne uns von dem winde, Erlosung 2440. 

As the North had its storm-giant Hrsesvelg, Kl. Grooth^s Quick- 
born calls a tempest de grote und de liitge windherl ; conf. 
f Gott fiieget den wind, 5 Rabenschl. 619; der Gotes geist daz 
(saz ?) uf des luftes vederen, Aneg. Hahn 4, 72. Aio\os, 
a6ava.Tot(Ti 0oi(Ti, Od. 10, 2 ; icelvov jap Tafjiirjv avepto 
Kpoviwv, 10, 21. VirgiFs -^Eolus sits in a hollow mountain, and 
Juno begs wind of him, ^En. 1, 52. 64; conf. KM.no. 89 : weh , 
weh , windchen ! blow, blow, Windie. 

1 Conf. \v<rl-ut>os, uvrji> \teiv. Tibi (Hymenaee) virgines zonula solvunt sinus. 
Catnll. 59, 53 ; zonam solvere virgineam 65, 28. 



1472 ELEMENTS. 

Eagles were fixed on gables or the top of a tent pretty often : 
le grant tref Karlemaine font contremont lever, 
par desor le pomel font I aigle d j or poser, 
par devers Montauban en fist le chief torner. 

Kenaus 151, 24. 

A golden eagle on the top of the castle, Auberi 73 ; high on the 
tent ein guldin ar, En. 9160, On the inroad of the Welschen 
in 978, conf. Giesebrecht s Otto II. p. 48. In Kalevala, torn. 
2, 12 (1 ed. 17,341): 

du min orn, min skona fogel, 

vand (turn) at annat hall ditt huiVud (head), 

tillslut (shut) dina skarpa ogon ! 

A golden eagle on the roof in Athenaeus 2, 259 ; and observe, 
that aero? is both eagle and gable. The Basque egoa, south 
wind, is akin to egoa, egaa, egala, wing, Pott 2, 190. In Goethe, 
winds wave their noiseless wings. Thunder-clouds are also 
likened to the wide-spreading root of a tree, and called wind- 
wurzel (-root), a sign of hurricane, Schmidt v. Werneuchen 131. 

p. 636.] The wind is fed with rags or tow, which is thrown to 
it, Leopr. 102. In Austria too they offer meal in a bread-shovel 
out of the attic window to the storm, saying (Popovitch sub v. 
wind) : 

nimm hin, mein lieber wind, 
trag heim deinem weib und kind, 
und komm nimmer ! 

Instead of giving the wind food, a woman says I d rather stab 
the dog dead/ and throws a knife into the yard (p. 632 n.) ; conf. 
M. Koch s Reise in Tirol p. 87-8. Winds were thought of as 
meal-devouring dogs, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 373-6. 6, 131 ; conf. 
Hodeke s howling (Suppl. to 633). In a storm at sea a dove 
appears, flies three times round the ship, one man puts out his 
arm and f de cauda ejus tres tulit pennas, quas mari intinguens 
tempestatem compescuifc/ Venant. Fortun. vita E/adegundis, Acta 
Bened. sec. 1, p. 332. The Gr. Ove\\a snatches away, Od. 20, 
63-6, like the Norweg. northwind. To hurtful winds black 
lambs were sacrificed, to fair winds white, Aristoph. Ran. 845. 
Virg. -*i!n. 3, 120. For a favourable wind a he-goat is hung on 



AIR. 1473 

the mast, Hone s Yrbk 1553. On Irish wind- worship, see Conan 
1115. 

p. 637.] Divine, semi-divine or diabolic beings excite wind 
(Suppl. to 145) : Got fiieget den wint, Rabenschl. 619; in Serv. 
songs God is implored for wind, Vuk ii. 561. 1089. i. 369 (no. 
511). 370 (no. 513). 322 (no. 455) ; Christ is appealed to, Sv. 
vis. 2, 167. The saints invoked in a storm are called wazzer- 
heilige, water-holies, Marienleg. p. 85 ; the martyrs Paul and 
John hant da ze himele weteres gewalt, Ksrchr. Diem. 335, 1. 
Scrdwune in Hpt s Zeitschr. 6, 290 seems the name of a weather- 
giant; Fasolt chases a woman in the mountains, Bcke 167, as 
Wuotan does; conf. f mein sohn Windheim, Wolf s Ztschr. 1, 
311. Is there a special meaning in der wint von Aspriane doz, 
whizzed, Roth. 4226 ? f Folks said it wasn t a natural wind, 
they believed there wasn t a tufel left in hell, they was all from 
home, trying to bluster us out of our wits/ Stolle 1 70 ; conf. 
quel vent vos guie etc. (Suppl. to 632 end). Oxen with their 
horns dig the tempest out of a sand hill, Thiele 2, 257. Miillenh. 

p. 128. With Wodan oska-byrr conf. Suppl. to 149. ON. byr, 

Dan. bor, fair wind. Low Germ, seamen s words are bo, a sud 
den and passing squall, boiges wetter, donnerbo, regenbo, hagelbo. 
Slav, buria = procella, Miklos. p. 6; Serv. bura, Russ. buran, 
hurricane, conf. ftopeas. Boreas helps the Greeks, Herod. 7, 189. 
On Juno, see Suppl. to 632 beg. Can OSin s name of Vi&rir be 
akin to AS. hwicfa, hweo&a = a,n.ra, lenis, /iweo#ri<m = murmurare ? 
The Slav, pogoda is in Lith. pagada, fair wind, fair weather. 
Mist in ON. is called Icerlingar vella, nebula hutni repens. 

p. 639.] With the provisions of the Lex Visigoth., conf. the 
Indiculus Superstit. (in Pertz 3, 20) de tempestatibus and corni- 
bus et cocleis, and the passage fr. Seneca in Wolf s Ndrl. sag. 
p. 693 about ^aA,afo-(i;A,a/<:e9, hail- wardens ; eV Perou? %a\adv 
is said of Zeus, Lucian 7, 51. 

p. 640.] The passage fr. Bartholom. Anglicus is also in Hpt s 
Ztschr. 4, 494-5, where Wackernagel understands Winlandia as 
Finlandia ; and it is true the Finns are said to make fiolkyngve&r, 
Fornm. sog. 4, 44. In a Lapland epos a maiden has three sorts 
of magic knots ; she unties the first, wind fills the sails and the 
ship gets under way ; then the second and the third, followed by 
storm and shipwreck ; conf. Klemm 3, 100. Such wind-knots a 



1474 ELEMENTS. 

woman on the Schlei and a witch of Fohr know how to make, 
Miillenh. p. 222-5 ; conf. the sailor s belief about wind in Temme s 
Pom. sag. 347-8, and the Hollen in Gefken s Catal. p. 55. In 
G-ervas. Tilb. p. 972 ed. Leibn. (Liebrecht p. 21), is a story de 
vento chirothecae Archiepiscopi Arelatensis incluso, et valli ventis 
imperviae illato. 

p. 641.] The ao-Kos of ^Eolus, Od. 10, 19, is also in Ovid s 
Met. 14, 224: ^Eolon Hippotaden, cohibentem carcere ventos, 
lovia inclusos tergo ; and 14, 230 : dempsisse ligamina ventis. 
Eight whirlwinds are hidden in a cap, Schiefner s Finn. m. p. 611 
[a formidable capful of wind ] . Conf. setting the cap this way 
or that in Sommer p. 30-1, and Hutchen, Hodeke. 

p. 641.] Hail is called in Ind. marutphala, fruit of the Maruts, 
Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 489 ; an ON. name for it is stein-o&i, in saxa 
saeviens, Egilss. 600, an OHG. apparently scrawunc, Hpt 6, 290. 
On mildew, conf. Schmeller 2, 567. Ace. to Jungm. 1, 56 b , baby 
(grannies) are clouds heaped up like hills. Our people ascribe 
the rising of mountain mist not to animals alone ; at the Kif- 
hauser they say : Oho, Kaiser Friedrich is brewing, there ll be 
soft weather/ Praetor. Alectr. pp. 69, 70. 

p. 641.] To the Greeks it was Zeus that shed the snow, II. 12, 
280-1 ; evifyev o Zevs, Babr. 45, 1. Die toren (fools) sprechent 
(in winter) snia sni ! Walth. 76, 1. 

4. EARTH. 

p. 642.] Ssk. dhard, Gr. %o>/>a, Bopp s Comp. Gr. p. 304. Ir. 
tir, Lat. terra, akin to torreo, and signif. the dry/ Pott 1,270. 
Another Ssk. word is ksham, Bopp s Gl. 92 a . ON. hauffr, neut., 
Saem. 120-6-7. Goth, grundus fr. grindan, as our mel, malm, 
molte (meal, dust, mould) are fr. malan ; scholle grund, Ph. v. 

Sittew. 601. Epithets applied to the earth s outside : daz preita 

wasal, Musp. 63; sid folde, Csedm. 154, 5; on rumre foldan, 
Exon. 468, 25 ; evpela ^Q^v, conf. Wh. 60, 28. Altd. bl. 1, 388. 
Eracl. 2153; uf der scibligen (round) erde, Diemer 214, 23 ; uf 
der moltigen erde, Mar. 157, 39; diu vinster erde, Tit. 5120; in 
der roten erde, Karaj. 93, 10; um ein wenig rothe erde, Simpl. \, 
575; eor Se eal-grene, Csedm. 13, 3; Guds grona jord, Sv. folks. 
1, 126. Does terra viva in Marcellus no. 24 mean grassy? 
conf. viva flamma (p. 611 n.). But the Earth is also liebe erde, 



EARTH. 1475 

Schweinichen 1, 104 ; diu siieze erde, Wernher v. Ndrrh. 35, 9 ; 
hinforna fold, Saem. 55 b ; sicht wie die heiliy erd/ looks (black) 
as earth, H. Sachs v. 368 b , conf. CLTTO yas dytas, Athen. 3, 494 ; 
Swed. Guds grona jord, our e Gottes boden/ Chapbk of Hiirn. 
Siegfr., Pol. maulaffe p. 231, Weisen s Com. probe 39; we say 
1 Hide in God s earth for shame ! Dying is called ze grunde 
gcin ; conf. daz ich bezite werde dir gelich, soon be like thee, 
Wh. 60, 28 ; sich aus dem staube machen/ make oneself out of 

the dust, scarce, The earth will take in liquids : fold seal vtf$ 

flodi taka, Sasm. 27 b ; but bluot benimet (robs) der erde den 
magetuomf maidenhood, Mos. 10, 28; dannoch was diu erde ein 
maget, Parz. 464, 13. Earth bears not on her breast the man of 
blood: f ja solte mich diu erde umbe dis mort niht en-tragen, 
Ecke 143 ; mich wundert daz mich diu erde geruochet tragenf 
still deigns to bear, Greg. 2511; den diu erde niht solde tragen, 
Wackern. Ib. 588, 3. Strieker s Klage 38 ; conf. daz iuch die 
erde niht verslant, swallowed, Warn. 3203 : terre, car ouvrez, 
si recois moi chaitis ! Garin 2, 263 ; f heald j?u nu hruse ! Beow. 
4489. So the witch may not touch the bare earth (p. 1074), holy 
water must not touch the ground (Suppl. to 587) ; whereas to the 
saint she offers herself as a seat : diu erde niht en-dolte daz er 
biige sin gebeine (tholed not that he bent his limbs), si bot sich 
her engeine, daz er als uf einem stuole saz/ Servat. 1592. On 
earthquakes, see p. 816. Men confided secrets to the earth, 
Lother u. Mailer 36-7 : si klagten so senliche, daz in daz ertriche 
mohte g antwiirtet han/ would fain have answered them, Mai 44, 
21 ; they made their plaint to the stone, Lisch s Meckl. jrb. 5, 100. 
Miillenh. p. 37, or told their tale to the dead wall, Arnim s March. 
1, 70. 

Much might be said on gold, silver, iron. To the Finns iron 
(rauta, Lapp, route) is brother to water and fire, Kalev. 4, 29, and 
is born of virgin s milk. There is liquid gold and milk in amrita 
(p. 317). Gold is called Fro&a miol, Egilss. p. 450, 6ynarliomi = 
oceani lumen, Sasm. 152 a , and munnfylli or munntal iotna, Sn. 
83; conf. morgenstund hat gold im mund, though F.Magn. derives 
those words fr. mund = hand. Gold placed under a dumb woman s 
tongue makes her speak, Fornm. s. 3, 1 1 7 9 ; gold is tempered 
in dew, Tit. 3698 (Tigrisgold, 4348). On dragons and griffins 
gold, see pp. 978. 980. 



1476 ELEMENTS. 

p. 643.] For Ssk. Miusa, Bopp in Gl. 78 a . 86 b writes kusa. 
I find a reincurni also in Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 364, reinegras = a\g3i, 
Sumerl. 54. Putting earth or turf on the head secures against 
magic, Panz. Beitr. 1, 240-1. Kuhn s Nord. s. p. 378. 

p. 644.] Emigrants took earth as well as fire out with them 
(Suppl. to 611) ; conf. the strewing of earth in the Old Saxon 
legend. porhaddr var hofgo Si i prandheimi, hann f^stist til 
Islands, ok tok a$r ofan hofit, ok haffti meiS ser hofs-moidina ok 
sulurnar, Landn. 4, 6. 

p. 644.] Demeter meets Jasion in the thrif allow, the fruitfullest 
cornland : fiiryrj <f)i\6rrjTi real vvfj vau) evi rpnroKa), Od. 5, 127, 
conf. Hes. Theog. 971 and veto? r/otwoXo?, II. 18, 541; OHG. 
drislca, GDS. 53. 61-2. 

p. 645.] A mons sanctus near Jugenheim is mentioned in a 
record of 1264; conf. svetd #ora = Mt Athos ; an 0/305 lepov of 
the Getge named K.wyaiwvov } Strabo 7, 298; a holy mount 077/079 
in Pontus, Xen. Anab. iv. 7, 11. The mountains named grand 
father are discussed in Hpt s Ztschr. 1, 26. Two adjacent moun 
tains in Lausitz are named by the Wends corny boh and bjely boh, 
black god, white god, Wend, volksl. 2, 285. The Ossetes 
worship their highest mountains (brakabseli, fair mountains), 
Kohl s S. Russia 1, 296. 

p. 645.] The notable passage on rock-worship in Landn. 2, 
12 is as follows : hann (Thorolfr) hafSi sva mikinn dtrunaff a 
fialli J?vi, er st63 i nesinu, er hann kalladi Helgafell, at J?angat 
skyldi engi ma Sr ofrveginn Hta ; ok sva var }?ar mikilfri&helgi, 
at J?ar skyldi engu granda i fiallinu, hvarki fe ne monnum, nema 
sialft gengi brott. pat var trua )?eirra porolfs fraenda, at )?eir 
dcei allir ifiallit (al. codex : J?a )>eir doei, mundi ]?eir ifiallit hverfa 
ullir)/ And 2, 16: f hof$u inikinn dtrunad d holana trii^u 
J^eir J>vi, at )>eir dcei i holana (hull = tumulus, colliculus) ; conf. 
dying (vanishing) into the mountain. The Icelander Kodran of 
Vatnsdal had a stone at Gilja, to which he and his fathers sacri 
ficed ; they imagined the dr-maffr lived inside it, from whom 

fruitful years proceeded, Kristnisaga c. 2. Stones prophesy, 

Norske ev. no. 30 ; they are washed, anointed, honoured, F. Magn. 
Lex. p. 961. When winds are contrary, sailors wash a blue stone, 
and obtain a fair wind ; they also take oaths upon it, Hone s 
Yrbk 1553. People kneel naked before the holy stone, Hone s 



EARTH. 1477 

Daybk 1, 825. 2, 1035. They creep through hollow stones (p. 
1166), they go into hollow rocks to present offerings (p. 58) ; conf. 
the Gibichen-stones, the pottle-stones with pits and holes, Giesebr. 
Bait. stud. 12, 114. 128. f De his quae faciunt super petras is 
the heading of cap. 7 of Indicul. Superst. On stone- worship among 

Celts, see Michelet 2, 16-7. In Swed. tales and spells a stone 

is always jord-fast sten/ one fixed in the earth, Runa 44, 22 ; 
a iardfostom steini stoft ec innan dyra, Saem. 99 a ; till enjord- 
fasten sten, Sv. folks. 1, 217. Sv. afventyr 1, 282-4-8. 305; 
AS. earSfsest. But we also hear of the wahsender biihel/ grow 
ing hill, Lanz. 5132 ; and a Slov. riddle, kai raste bres korenia 
(what grows without root) ? has the answer Teamen, 3 stone. A 
distinction is also drawn between walgende and vaste-ligende 
steine, Leyser 129, 35; usque ad wagoden stein, Mon. Zoll. no. 
1, wagonden stein, no. 12 ; gnappstein, Stalder 2, 519; Dan. rofcke- 
stene, Schreiber s Feen 21. These stones by their rocking are 
said to bring on thunder and rain, 0. Miiller 2, 340. Stones are 
often landmarks : zu dem grawen stein, Weisth. 1, 242, an dem 
blauen stein 2, 661. 

p. 646.] Giants and men turn into stone (p. 551-2) ; stones 
have sense and feeling. It is true we say stone-deaf, stone- 
dead/ stille sam die steine, Karl 92 b . 94 a , and Otfried iv. 7, 4 
calls them unthrdte, pigri; yet in Luke 19, 40 ( the stones would 
cry out; the stone holds fast, Miillenh. p. 142-3. The pierres 
de minuit move at midnight, conf. the turning -stones in the Ir. 
march. 2, 37 44; the stone turns round on Christmas night, 
Harrys 1 no. 34 (conf. Heusinger p. 20), or when bells ring, 
Dybeck 4, 43. Men complain to stones as they do to earth (p. 
642) and fire (p. 629), as if to elemental gods. The stone you 
complain to changes colour, the white turns red, the red blue, 
Wachter s Statistik pp. 13. 156. Si klagten, daz sich die 
mursteine mohten Mieben herdan/ Kla.ge 977 (so : si ruoften, 
daz diu erde unter in sich mehte haben uf getan/ opened under 
them 1073) ; stahel, vlins u. stein sih muosen von dem jamer 
Idieben, 3 Tiirl. Wh. 3 b ; klage, diu flinse het gespalten, split 
flints, Tit. 3765; von ir schoene miieste ein vels erkrachen, 
MsH. 3, 173 a [similar examples omitted] ; hiute ist der stein 
naz, da Karl uffe saz, vil heize weinunde/ to-day the stone is wet, 
whereon K. sat hotly weeping, Ksrchr. 14937. Stones relent in 



1478 TKEES AND ANIMALS. 

the story of Hoyer, WigaJ. p. 579. 452. Bait. stud. xi. 2, 191. 
A stone will not let a false man sit on it, uf der Eren (eren ? 
honour s) steine sitzen/ Lanz. 5178 seq. 



CHAPTER XXI. 
TKEES AND ANIMALS. 

p. 647.] As Freidauk 10, 7 says that angels are immortal, 
that of men the spirit is immortal, but the body mortal, and of 
beasts both body and soul are mortal; so Berthold p. 364 allows 
being to stones, being and life to plants, feeling to animals. 
Schelling says, life sleeps in the stone, dozes in the plant, dreams 
in the beast, wakes in man. The Ssk. a-ga, na-ga (non iens) 
= tree, hill, Bopp s Gl. 2 a . 189 a . So in the Mid. Ages the line is 
drawn between ligendez und lebendez/ Diemer 89, 24. Notker s 
Boeth. speaks of bourne and chriuter (trees and herbs) diu fone 
saffe lebent, and of unliving lapides, metalla. In Esth., beasts 

are ellayat, living ones, and plants kasvias, that which lives. 

Not only do wild birds grieve at man s lament, Walth. 124, 30, 
and beasts and fishes help him to mourn, Ges. Abent. 1, 8, but 
elliu geschefede/ all created things, May, summer s bliss, heath, 
clover, wood, sun and Venus, MS. 1, 3 b ; gi bom, gras, lof unde 
krut (leaf and herb), helpet mi skrigen over lut (cry aloud) ! 
Marienklage 386. Grass and flower fret at misdeeds, and mourn, 
Petersb. extr. fr. Kalev. p. 25, and in folksongs wither up. 
Bluomen brehent u. smierent, MS. l,44 b ; do daz spil ergangen 
was, do lachten bluomen u. gras, Hagen s Ges. Abent. 1, 464; 
die bourn begunden krachen, die rosen sere lachen, ibid. Flowers 
on the heath quarrel : do sach ich bluomen striten wider den 
griienen He (clover), weder ir lenger waere/ which of them was 
taller, Walth. 114, 28 ; du bist kurzer, ich bin langer, also stritens 
uf dem anger bluomen unde Me 51, 35 ; vil maniger hande bluomen 
kip (chid), MS. 1, 35 b ; bluomen kriegent umb ir schm, Lohengr. 
p. 154; bluomen lachent durch daz gras, der kurzer, dirre lenger 
was, Dietr. drach. 1067; conf. Kl. schr. 2, 157. They have their 
rules, Altd. w. 1, their precedences, their meanings and language, 
conf. the Flower-games (Suppl. to 909). Tree- worship was 



TEEES. 1479 

highly developed among the Indians and Greeks. The Hindus 
with elaborate ceremonies marry trees to one another, esp. the 
mango and tamarind, shrubs like the rose and jessamine, even 
tanks and stones, Sleeman s Eambles and Recoil. [Horace : vitem 
viduas ducit ad arbores]. Woycicki, Germ. ed. p. 144-5. For 
Greeks, see Botticher. The Germans wake tree as well as corn, 
Zingerle 691 ; baumchen, sclilaf nicht, frau Holle kommt . . . 
baumchen, wach auf, neujahr ist da, Somm. 162. 182 ; the forest 
sleeps at New-year, P. Dieffenb. Wetterauer sag. p. 274; conf. 
Gerhard s hymn : Nun ruhen alle walder/ Tree-tops wave, and 
carry messages, WolPs Zfcschr. 2, 161 ; the birches know it 
still/ Gellert 3, 388. Trees blossom at a happy event, and wither 
when, a death is near, Sueton. Galba 1 ; and like the Emperors, 
the Greeks had family-trees. Yolsung s tree, barn-stockr, stood 
in the hall, Yols. cap. 2 ; conf. our genealogical tree. 

1. TEEES. 

p. 649.] Akin to nimid is vernemet = &num ingens, Yenant. 
Fort. 1, 9. Diefenb. Celt. 1, 83-4 : silva quae vocatur nemet, 
Gliick p. 17; Spv-vefMeros, Strabo 567. GDS. 497. Zeuss s Die 
Deut. derives nemet fr. neamch = coelum, and sees in it a sub 
divo/ therefore a contrast to wood. A Yocab. optim. p. 47* 
renders silva wilder wait, nemus schoener wait, lucus dicker 
wait, saltus hoher wait. 

p. 651.] The Lapps shoot blindfold at a suspended bearskin, 
Klemm 3, 14. Dyb. Buna 4, 92. The Amer. Indians hang up 
a bison-skin on a high pole to the Lord of life, and then cut it 
up into small pieces, Klemm 2, 164; likewise a deerskin 2, 179. 
Skins of sacrifices are hung up by Tunguses, Ostiaks, Boriats, 
Cherkesses, 3, 106. 125. 114. 4,91. The golden fleece of the 
ram was nailed to an oak, Preller 2, 211. 

p. 651.] That is a pretty story of the holy oak, whose falling 
leaves people do not touch. When it is cut down and burnt, a 
dog appears in the ashes, and makes the people take all the ashes 
back to where the tree stood, Firmen. 1, 358. The oak as a tree 
of plaints occurs in Megenberg, Hpt s Zschr. 4, 255. Messages 
are delivered to a holy oak, Livy 3, 25. Its great age inspired 
respect : so long as oak and earth do stand/ Weisth. 2, 225 : 
while the tree is in the ground and the acorn thereon/ 3, 779 ; 



1480 TREES AND ANIMALS. 

j ai vu le gland et la gaule, Barzas br. 1, 28. 32. On oak and 
beech, see Dyb. 45, 78-9 ; conf. rrjv irakaiav ^TJJOV, Soph. Tracb., 
171. Af fornum polli, ex antiqua pinu, Sn. ed. 48, 1, 308 ; but 

<af eikirotu 310. The ash was also holy: fraxinus quern 

imperiti sacrum vocant, Kemble 5, 103 (yr 854). It is hostile to 
snakes, Panz. Beitr. 1, 251-2. Pliny 16, 14 ; conf. askr Yggdra- 
sill, and note, p. 796. There was a spell, that gave a hazel-rod 
the power to flog people in their absence ; in the Atharva-veda a 
branch of apvattha has the power of destroying enemies ; conf. 
the hazel-wand as wishing-rod (p. 975). Hasalwara is a proper 
name, Cod. Lauresh. 809. Lett, lasda, lagsda, Lith. lazda = cory- 
lus, baculus; Lazdona = avellanarum deus, god of filberts. 

p. 653.] It is dangerous to build where an elder-tree has stood, 
Praetor. Weltb. 1, 16. Of the ronn, rowan, a sacred tree, we 
read in Dyb. 44, 9 : ronnen sade till mannen : hugg mig ej, 
da bloder jag/ hew me not, or I bleed, Wieselgr. 378 ; conf. the 
Pruss. tale in Tettau and Temme p. 259, and the Finn, clopua, 
arbor vitse, f non csedenda in pratis. The evil Weckholterin 
(juniper) is mentioned in the Herpin, Hagen s Ges. Ab. 3, xi. 
The Serv. for juniper, borovitza, is from bor, fir, Lett, paegle, 
because it grows under the fir; and the Swed. tall (fir, pine) is 
not to be hewn either : do so, and on turning round you ll see 
your house on fire, Dyb. 4, 26. 44. Neither is the hawthorn, 
Nilsson 6, 4. 

p. 653.] Have we any Germ, stories of spirits that live in the 
erle (alder) ? Goethe s Erl-king seems taken from the Fr. aulne, 
aune = SL]U\IS and daemon. Kalis passes out of Nala into the 
Vibhitaka, which is regarded as haunted after that, Bopp s Nalus 
p. 153. Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 72. To the fig-tree the Indians 
present offerings, which are consumed by crows, sparrows and 
cranes ; hence their name of sacrifice-eater. Like the maiden in 
the pine, the gods are said to live between bark and tree, Lasicz 
46 ; conf. creeping between wood and bark (p. 1085). Iw. 1208 : 
sam daz holz under der rinden, alsam sit ir verborgen ; O. Engl. 
Iw. 741 : als the bark hilles the tre; 0. Fr. Iw. p. 146: li-fuz 
qui est coverz de lescorce qui sor lui nest (nait). A holy oak 
grows out of the mouth of a slain king, Harrys 1 no. 55. 

p. 654.] In choosing a twig [for a wishing-rod ?] it is important, 
first, that it be a new shoot, the sumer-late (p. 975), and secondly, 



ANIMALS. 1481 

that it look to the east : a baftmi vrSar )?eim er luta austr limar, 
Seem. 195*. Flowers were invoked: es sten dri rosen in jenein 
dal, die rufent, jungfrau, an, Uhl. Volksl. 87. sanctas gentes, 
quibus haec nascuntur in hortis numina ! Juven. Sat. 15, 10. 

2. ANIMALS. 

p. 655.] Beasts are commonly regarded as dumb : stumbez 
tier, Iw. 7767, stomme beste, Lane. 18849. 32919, daz un- 
sprechende vihe, Warnung 2704; conf. muta animalia, Dan. 
umalende beest, ON. omala ; der lewe zeict im unsprechenden 
gruoz/ Iw. 3870. They are ignorant : tier vil ungewizzen, Er. 
5843. Yet they not only show sympathy, like stones and plants 
(Suppl. to 646-7), but in urgent cases they, like dumb children, 
find their tongues ; witness Balaam s ass, and : armentaque vulgo 
ausa loqui, Claudian in Eutrop. 2, 43 ; attonito pecudes pastore 
locutos 1, 3. Oxen talk, Panz. Beitr. 1, no. 255. Nork 12, 377 ; 
ox and ass converse in the Bret, volksm. 87-8, but only for an 
hour once a year, between 11 and 12 on Christmas night, N. 
Preuss. prov. bl. 5, 468. Bosquet p. 221. Beasts can see spirits : 
Balaam s ass saw the angel with the sword, Numb. 22, 23 33 ; 
the dogs see the goddess, horses and hounds are ghost-seers 
(p. 667), Panz. Beitr. 1, 118; nay Athenaeus 3, 454 says all birds 
were men once. 

p. 656.] Conf. Ferd. Wachter s art. PJFEKDE in the Halle 
Encycl., and the beautiful Serv. wedding-song (Vuk, ed. nov. 15, 
no. 23. Wesely p. 55). Sleipnir is the son of Loki, a god, and 
SvaSilfari; from him is descended SigurS s Grani, Yols. c. 13, 
and Grani Ir , -mans vid/ Far. qvad. 156. A sagacious trusty 
steed occurs in Walach. march, no. 17, one that gives advice in 
Sv. sag. 1, 164; and in German, still more in Hungarian fairy 
tales we have wise, helpful, talking horses, Ungr. tatos s. Ispolyi 
(conf. p. 392). Skinfaxi is a cow s name in a Norweg. tale, Asb. 
Huldr. 1, 202. 

p. 658.] Nott rides on Hrimfaxi, Dagr on Skinfaxi. The 
Indians thought curly hair on a horse a lucky sign, Bopp s Gl. 
34 a . The horse offered up by kings at the asvamedha must be 
white. To ride a white horse is a privilege of gods, kings and 
heroes, Pind. Pyth. 4, 117 : Xeu/aTTTrwj/ Trarepcov. A stallion with 
three white feet and two glass eyes is in Weisth. 2, 618. 



1482 TEEES AND ANIMALS. 

p. 658 n.] Helbl. 15, 293 : ein hengest der noch me gras an 
fulzande en-beiz. A Fiilizan in King 49 b , 38. 49 d , 31 . The Serv. 
for fiilizant is xdrebetiak, foal s (zub underst.). A horse keeps 
his foal-teeth till his third year, then cuts his horse-teeth, 
dentes equini, quos nonnisi trimis caballis natura concedit, Pertz 
8, 214; jouenes polains, quatre dens ot jetes, Ogier 2412; dentes 
equi, qui primi cadunt, alligati facilem dentionem praestant, 
Forcell. sub. v. dentio. 

Collo igitur molli dentes nectentur equini, 

qui primi fuerint pullo crescente caduci. Serenus sam. 1040. 

The same of a child s teeth : pueri qui primus ceciderit dens, ut 
terram non attingat, inclusus in armillam et assidue in brachio 
habitus, Pliny 28, 4. GDS. 154. 

p. 659.] To Swed. gndgya corresp. ON. gneggja, Saem. 144% 
AS. hnagan, neigh. The Dan. vrindske is our brenschen, wren- 
schen, frenschen ; conf. wrene hengst, Lex Sal. p. xxviii. Ssk. 
vrinh, barrire, Bopp 32 b . Norw. Dan. humra, a low humming 
neigh. In Lanz. 474 : ez begunde sin ros weien, trasen unde 
schreien ; in Garg. 240 b : rihelen u. hinnewihelen, 77 b : hinne- 
wiheln. Is wihelen akin to Prov. evelhier, Ferabr. 3613, and the 
horse s name Valentin, Ital. Yegliantino? In Gudr. 1395 : { man 
horte ein ros ergrinen when the battle began. Bellona spuman- 
tium ad bella equorum hinnitu aures arrigens, Pertz 2, 169. 

p. 660.] Vedrebbe un teschio d asino in su un palo, il 
quale quando col muso volto vedesse verso Firenze, Decam. 7, 1. 
Eemember too the gyrating eagle on a roof (p. 633-4), and the 
dove over a grave (p. 1134-5 n.). 

p. 660.] As to horses heads on gables, see Miillenh. p. 239. 
Panz. Beitr. 2, 180. 448-9; they protect the rafters from wind 
and weather. Lith. zirges, roof-rider, from zirgas, horse, Nesselm. 
549 ; also ragai, antlers, 426 ; conf. capreoli, tigna ad firmandum, 
and AS. Heort, Heorot, name of the house in Beowulf. 

p. 664.] The Boriats dedicate to the herdsmen s god Sul- 
bundu a horse, on which he rides at night, and which they find 
all in a sweat in the morning, Klemm 3, 115. The horses ridden 
by spirits or night-wives have stirrup, cord and wool in their 
sides, and are covered with drops of wax, Kaisersb. Om. 42 d . 43*. 
Kalmuks also consecrate a horse to the god, and let it run loose, 



ANIMALS. 1483 

Ledebour 2, 49. Horses scrape up gold, like that of Rammels- 
berg, or a fountain, like Pegasus; conf. Panz. Beitr. 1, 38-9. 
163. 186. 201. The hoof-prints of a god s horse in stone were 
believed in by the Komans : Ergo et illud in silice, quod hodie 
apparet apud Regillum, tanquam vestigium ungulae Castoris equi 
esse credis, Cic. de Nat. D. 3, 5. A sacred white horse walks on 
water without wetting his feet, Polier 2, 618. 

p. 664.] Foremost of victims stands asva, a horse-sacrifice is 
asvamedha, Bohtling, 1, 520-4. The significance of a horse s 
head appears in many other customs : it is played upon (pp. 849. 
1050-71), thrown into the Midsum. fire (p. 618), stuck on a pole 
or tied on a person at Christmas, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 472-4 ; in 
fairytales it works miracles, Miillenh. p. 422, often serves as a 
bridge 34. 146. 544, is nailed up under the town-gate (Falada s), 
and wooden ones are set on gables (p. 660). GDS. 151. 

p. 665.] Sacred oxen of Artemis are mentioned in Plutarch s 
Lucullus p. m. 606. Harekr keeps a blotnaut in the forest, 
Fornm. sog. 3, 132. On the bull s head in the scutcheon of 
Mecklenbg, see Lisch, Meckl. jrb. 10, 15 seq. 

p. 666.] Oxen dig up a hurricane with their horns. A bull- 
calf is reared to fight the dragon, DS. 142, Miillenh. p. 238. 
Thiele 1, 125. Nandini is of all kine the best : he that drinketh 
of her milk remaineth young 10,000 years, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 
99. 100. The black cow crushes him, has trodden him means 
he is weighed down by want and care : so trat ihn auch die 
schwarze kuh, Ambraser lieder 147; stor blaa stud, Norske ev. 1, 
111; conf. Hungar. has not yet trod the black cow s heel/ 
Wolf s Ztschr. 1, 271-2. Beside the cow s name Au&humla, we 
have designations of oxen, as freyr, iormunrekr, regiiin, Sn. 22 l a 
(ed. Hafn. 587). 

p. 666.] A most ancient and fierce goltr, worshipped by the 
people, Fornm. s. 4, 57-8; conf. eburSrung (p. 727). Wacker- 
nagel in Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 280 puts a different interpret, on the 
verses preserved by Notker; but conf. the boar of the Swed. 
folktale, that goes about grunting with a knife in his back (Hpt 
4, 506-7), and the Dan. legend of Limfiorden (Thiele 1, 131) : A 
sorceress gave birth to a pig, and he grew so big that his bristles 
stood up above the forest-trees (Notk., burste eben-ho forste), and 
he rooted up the earth so deep that the sea flowed in to fill the 



1484 TREES AND ANIMALS. 

dike; conf. swine-dike (p. 1023). A rooting black hog foretells 
the fall of the city, Miillenh. p. 105 ; a Malb. gloss calls the boar 
diramni, earth-plougher, Leo 1, 75. GDS. p. 57. With Ovid s 
descr. of a boar, Met. 8, 284 seq., conf. Alb. v. Halberstadt 
p. 269, where the tusks are an eln lane (Notk., zene sine zuelif- 
elnige), which is not in Ovid; f dente minax we find in Rudl. 
16, 90. Vishnu in one incarnation appears on the sea as a boar. 
A white goat is reckoned wholesome in a horse s stable, Leopr. 
226. 

p. 667.] The dog is named among sacrificial beasts (pp. 48. 
53), Kuhn s Westph. sag. 2, 138 : he belongs to Hecate, Klau- 
sen s ./En. 1137. The dog knows Odysseus in his disguise; 
bitches can scent a Faunus : ab ea cane quae femina sit ex 
primipara genita Faunos cerni/ Pliny 8, 40, 62 ; only a dog 
with four eyes (nellisilm), i.e. with spots over his eyes, can see a 
devil, Estn. verh. 2, 90. A dog will bark before a haunted rock, 
Dyb. 4, 25. Dogs go mad if you give them the bones of the 
Easter lamb, Keisersb. Orn. 52 a . Peter s dog appears in the 
legend of Simon and Peter, AS. homil. p. 372-4. Pass. H. 175. 

p. 669.] A name similar to Vetrli&i is SurnarlrSi, Fornm. s. 3, 
205 ; conf. Grainrn. 2, 505. Other poetic names for the bear in 
Sn. 175. 221, e.g. iorekr, equos fugans. To Samoyeds and Ostiaks 
the bear is a god, Castren 235. 342 ; the Finn, ohto is born in 
heaven, and brought to earth in a golden cradle ; to climb on 
the bear s shoulders means to go to heaven ; his foam has virtue, 
and should be taken up, Kalev. 13, 236. 254. As OiSinn has two 
wolves, the Finn. Pahonev has great bloodhounds in his service, 
Salmel. 1, 193. It is believed in Scotland that deer can see 
spirits, Arvids. Ossian 1, 238. Felis aurea pro deo colitur, Pliny 
4, 29, 35; cats are poisonous, ace. to Berth, of Eegensb. 303; 
Unander connects ires with our viel-frass, glutton. A story in 
Klemm 2, 159 makes out that the house-building beaver was 
once man. 

p. 670.] A bird demands that men shall sacrifice to him (p. 
672) ; conf. the Lettish bird-cultus (p. 77), Giesebr. Bait. stud. 
12, 128. 139. The servitium consuetum in blado et volatilibus/ 
Ch. a. 1311. MB. 30 b , 61 need not refer to sacrifice ; it may be a 
mere tribute in corn and poultry. An angel is sent in the shape 
of a bird, see Gudrun and Sv. vis. 1, 232-4-5. As wind is repres. 



ANIMALS. 1485 

under the form of an eagle, so the aar makes air and shade (p. 
1133), and the cock perhaps weather, conf. the weathercock. 

p. 671.] To the Dan. metaphor corresp. the Low Germ. ( de 
raude han kreide ut den dack/ Firmen. l,292 b . Cockcrow announces 
day : eVel aXe/crcop rj/juepav eVaA/TTicre, Lucian s Ocypus 114. A 
set phrase in fairytales is : " lou gal cante, e foughe jhour/ Diet, 
langued. 224; cokkes ere we ande hit was daie/ Sevin sages 2536; 
thaz huan gikundit dages kunfti, 0. iv. 1 8, 34 ; do krat der han, 
ez was tac, Altsw. 67, 3 ; skal ek fyrivestan vindhialms bruar 
aSr salgofnir sigrpiod veki, Ssem, 166. It scares away spirits : 

Ferunt vagantes daemonas 

laetos tenebris noctium 

(jallo canente exterritos 

sparsim timere et cedere. Prudentii Hym. ad galli cantum 10. 

A red and a grey cock crow to the spirit, Minstr. 3, 48, also a 
white and a grey, 2, 468. A black hen is sacrificed to the hill- 
mannikius (p. 1010). A Hack cock that was born lame takes the 
spell off an enchanted castle, Miillenh. p. 351. Out of a cock s 
egg is hatched a dragon, Leopr. 78. Of the longest tail-feathers 
of a cock pull out the right one, and you ll open any lock that you 
touch with it, walk invisible, and see everything, Luciani Somn. 
28-9. A cock with white feathers is cut up, and carried round 
the vineyard against the wind, Paus. ii. 34, 3. Sacred cocks in 

Athen. 3, 445. The cock on the steeple was already interpr. 

by the Mystics 1, 199 of the Holy Ghost. In Arabic it is called 
abul-yaksan, father of watchfulness. Fel. Faber in Bvagat. 2, 219 
thinks : Christiani crucem cum gallo ex institutione prima habent 
in culminibus suarum ecclesiarum ; while the Saracens have 
lunam cornutam vel supinam, quia gallus erecto collo et cauda 
stans speciem habet supinae luuae/ 

p. 672.] To Ostiaks the eagle is holy, Klemm 3, 122 ; to 
Indians Garuda is king of birds, Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 137; aquila, 

angla = Jovis ministra, Grotef. Inscr. Umbr. 6, 8. The hawk 

was sacred to Apollo, Schwartz p. 16-7. Od. 15, 526: iclpKos, 
usu. lepa%, and the Egyptians esteemed it a holy bird, GDS. 

51. On sparrowhawk and kestrel see Suppl. to 675. Like 

Huginn and Muninn, the AS. hyge and myne habitually go to 
gether, Pref. to Andr. xxxix. Eavens follow the hero : Haraldi 

VOL. iv. p 



1486 TREES AND ANIMALS. 

ver fylg^um siz or eggi komun/ Lasebog 112 a ; two ravens are 
guardian spirits, Geser Khun 278. The raven, like the eagle, is 
displayed on flags (p. 1112) ; he is to the eagle as the wolf to the 
bear (or lion). More about the raven in Schwartz p. 42-3. 

p. 672.] The swallow, OHG. sualawa, AS. swealewe, ON. 
svala, Dan. svale, Lapp, svalfo. Goth, svalvo ? hruzda ? Dae. 
crusta, Lith. kregzde, Gr. ^eXtScoi/, Lat. hirundo for xepiSwv, 
XpiSoov, Wallach. rendurea, Alban. delenduse. Lett, besdeliga. 
Slav, lastovice, vlastovice, Serv. lasta, lastavitza, Russ. lastochka. 
Finn, paasky, Est. paastlenne, Hung, fetske. The swallow, &>? 
AQyvafa, is the first to pluck a borrowed plume out of the Kokoibs 
(daw), Babr. 72, 16; in prose however (Cor. 188) it is the owl 
(y\avt;). Mary s needlewoman, who stole the ball of thread, was 
turned into a swallow, on which the white spot shows the ball, 
Wieselgr. 478. ISunn, like Procne, is changed into a swallow 
ace. to one reading, though the usual reading is hnot/ nut. The 
swallow s young are born blind, Dyb. 45, 67; if one of their 
chicks grows blind, they fetch a herb, lay it on, and restore the 
sight ; hence the herb s name of chelidonium/ celandine, Dioscor. 
2, 211 ; and Megenb. says the same about schellwurz (Suppl. to 
1194). 

p. 672.] The swan, OHG. alpiz, MHG. elbez, AS. ylfet, SI. 
labud, lebedi; Gael, eala, ealadh, Ir. ala, eala, Wei. alarch, eleirch. 
f Ulfa }>ytr mer J?6tti illr vera hia songvi svana, Sn. 27; ylfete 
song, Cod. Exon. 307, 6 ; see p. 436 and Schwartz p. 43-4-6. The 
Finns call their youtsen a holy bird, pyha linu, Kalev. 8, 73. 

p. 673.] The stork is called odoboro in Slettst. Gl. 36, 33 ; 
otfer, otdifer, Altswert 71. In Lower Germany : adebar langben, 
Mlebat langben, knepper (rattler) langben; in Groningen aiber, 
eiber ; in Gelders uiver, heiluiver, also heilebaot, albaor, Simrock 
no. 335-6 ; heilebate, Hor. Belg. 7, 27 a ; < to call the stork heilbott 
and otterwehr, Froschmeus. Ji vii b . Can we trace it to a Goth, 
addja-baira, egg-bearer, or addje-baura, egg-born ? Kl. schr. 3, 

147. 164. Outzen pp. 1. 2 says, adebar = spring s herald. The 

Esth. for stork is tone kurg, Finn, nalkakurki, hunger-heron ? 
Lith. gandras ; Lett, swehts putns, holy bird, and melnsprahklis, 
black rump ; Pol. bocian and Boh. bocan for the black stork, Pol. 
czapla and Boh. cap for the white ; this last is also Boh. bohdal/ 
God-given, dieudonne, Morav. f bogdal, bokdaP; conf. ev<ree- 



ANIMALS. 1487 

O-TCLTOV %&ov, ^sop. Fur. 76. Babr. 13, 7; candidae aves, Joru. 
c. 42. The Slavic has also the congener of our stork in str k, 

Miklos. p. 87, Russ. sterkh, Serv. shtrk. A stork foretells the 

downfall of a city, Jorn. c. 42. Procop. 1, 330; another saves 
his father, Babr. 13, 8. Storks are men, says the Spinrocken- 
evang. Samst. 16. In striking harmony with Wolfram s eulogy, 
the stork in Babr. 13, 5 says : ov airopov Kara^Oelpo). 

p. 675.] Ovid too has a statue gerens in vertice Picum, Met. 
14, 314; on Picus, see Klausen 844-5. 1141. Both picus and 
pica seem akin to Trot/aXo?, variegated ; or picus and s-pecht, 
pecker, go together. The Greek for woodpecker is TreXe/ca?, fr. 
r jT\efcav } to hack, TreXe/ci;?, hatchet; Staid. 1,263 has tann-bicker, 
= picus martius; Lith. volunge, wood-hacker, is the greenpecker 
Lith. genys, Serv. zhunia, are also names of the woodpecker ; Lett, 
dsennis, dsilna, is the bee-eater. The Euss. diatel, Pol. dzkjciol, 
Boh. datel (woodp.) seems conn, with dzieci, ditia, deti (child), 
perhaps because he was considered a foster-father, as Picus was 
to Romulus. The Swiss merzaftilli is in the Hennebg dialect 
shortened into a simple merz : der merz hackt dich/ Hpt s 
Ztschr. 3, 360. Beside kliktati, used of the woodpecker s whine 
(and of the vila s cry, p. 436), we have totrkati = pulsare in arbore, 
ut picus facit. Lith. ulbauya volunge, the woodp. whimpers, wails. 
Ukko created the konkelo (greenp.), Peterson 12. Ren vail sub v. 
The pecker kind are treasure-birds (p. 973). Kuhn thinks the 
woodp. is conn, with fire. What is the meaning of { han ich iu 
den speht erschozzen ? Hpt 6, 501. 

p. 675.] The sparrowhawk, Boh. krahug, krahulec, krahuljk = 
falco nisus, Pol. krogulec, Linde 1134 b ; Hung, karoly, karvoly. 
The OHG. for kestrel, wannoweho, wannunwechel, Graff 1, 643, 
wannewechel in Ziemann, sounds remarkably like the Lett, vehia 
vannags, sparrowhawk, lit. holy hawk, for Lith. vanagas is hawk, 
vanagelis little hawk. Garg. 279 b has the exclamation : ir 
wannenwaher ! This is the name they still give in Swabia to a 
small bird of prey : they hang little tubs or baskets (wannen) 
outside their houses for it to build in, and think the house is then 
proof against lightning, Mone 7, 429. Frisch 2, 422 has wanne- 
weihe, accipiter tinunculus, and other forms. 1 Does our weihe, 

1 Tinunculus is no doubt from tina, a vessel very similar to icanne ; see Victor 
Hehn s " Migrations of Plants and Animals," Engl. transi. (Swan Sonnenschein) 
p. 487. TRANSL. 



1488 TEEES AND ANIMALS. 

wio, wiho (milvus, kite) mean sacred bird ? conf. wivo : milvos 
laedere capitale est in England, says Leo v. Rozmital 40. 
GDS. 50. 

The owl prophesies (p. 1135). The Greeks held it sacred, as 
bird of night, bird of victory, bird of Athena. The Amer. 
Indians worshipped it, Klemm 2, 164; and conf. the Esth. 
tharapila, horned owl (p. 77). Runes were marked a nefi uglo/ 
as well as a arnar nefi/ Sasm. 196 a . On strix, crrpLyg, see pp. 
1039n. 1045. 

p. 678.] The cuckoo, by calling out his name, awakens joy, 
hence his Finn, name of ilo-k,aki, joy-cuckoo, Kalev. 14, 226, 
munaiset kakeni 5, 196-7 (like Swed.trdste-gok) ; yet also sorrow- 
cuckoo, Castren 292 ; six gold cuckoos, kuus on kullaista kakea, 
Kalev. 14, 31 ; the sun like a golden cuckoo climbs the sky 27, 
265. Lapp, jakii, Syrian, kok. Ssk. kokila, Pott s Zahl-meth. 
229. Mark our exclamation * heida-guguk ! Schulmeisters- 
wahl 50-1. 83. QRGr.fols, cuckoo, Graff 3, 517, has never been 
explained. On the cuckoo, see Reusch in N.Preuss. prov. bl. 5, 
321 343; on the gucker, peeper, Leopr. p. 79. Shaksp., at 
the end of Love s Lab. Lost, quotes a verse on Spring and the 
cuckoo, and one on Winter and the owl. The cuckoo is summer s 
warden : swylce geac mona& geomran reorde singed sumers weard, 
sorge beodeff. He prophesies to unplighted maidens, conf. Runa 
44, p. 10; waz der kukuk hiure sane, this year sang, Mone s 
Schausp. 131. 

p. 680.] Zitefogel, a prop, name, Mone s Anz. 3, 13. The 
peasant s time-bird is the raven, Kalenb. p. m. 284-7. In Wilt 
shire the people sing : The cuckoo s a fine bird, She sings as 
she flies, She brings us good tidings, And tells us no lies. She 
sucks the small birds eggs To make her voice clear, And the more 
she sings " cuckoo," The summer draws near. The cuckoo comes 
in April, Stays the month of May, Sings a song at Midsummer, 

And then a goes away. An Ukrainian song of the cuckoo in 

Bodenstedt 57. Ace. to a Germ, song of the 16th cent., the 
cuckoo hat sich zu tod gefallen von einer hohen weide (willow). 
The New Zealanders, like the Poles, esteemed the cuckoo a god 
(catua), Klemm 4, 371. 

p. 681.] On the sceptres of Egyptian gods sits the Ituku- 
pha s head, Bunsen 1, 435 ; conf. the figure at 315. 591 with the 



ANIMALS. 1489 



kukupha-sceptre, Pindar s Pyth. 1, 10 ava O-KCLTTTW Aibs, and 
the variant in Edda, Hafn. 2, 202 Giingnis ugla. The plates to 
Pertz Scr. 8 show a bird perched on the sceptres of the Germ. 
kings Henry 1Y. and V. (conf. the eagle on Arthur s sceptre, 
Lane. 30791). The cuckoo is the bird of wedlock and fecundity, 
that is why he has ten wives given him, Firmen. 2, 243 a . For 
Notker s ruoh/ Ps. 57, 11, both Graff 4, 1150 and Hattemer 
write kouh. - A Gauchs-perk occurs in Tirol, urbar. August, a. 
1316. MB. 34 b . 360; Gogeleberg, Panz. Beitr. 1, 28; Goggles- 
berg, Steub s Rhat. 47 ; the Swiss name Guggenbiihler pre 
supposes a Guggen-bilhel (-hill) ; Gi^genberg in Up. Rhon and 
near Hersfeld, Hess. Ztschr. 1, 245 ; conf. Tumbo saz in berge 
= Stupidus in monte sedebat = giant. Henn von Narrenberg, 
Seb. Brant p. m. 131 ; an Affenberg near Niirnberg, Ettn. 
Unw. doct. 698 ; a Monkey s mountain [Jebel Tsatut, the anc. 
Abyla] on the African coast opp. Gibraltar. On affenberg, 
schalksberg, see Kl. schr. 2, 147. Gen dera affen-tal uzwaten, 
Hadamar 444, 4; der affen zit, Fragm. 14 a . 

p. 682.] The cuckoo is reckoned a miser, who when the leaves 
come out in spring, dare not eat his fill, for fear they should run 
short : so der gouch daz erste loup gesiht, so getar sich s gesaten 
niht, er viirht ez irn zerinne/ Freid. 88, 3 : more fully in the 
Welsche gast 114 a : conf. Freid. Ixxxvii. In Ssk. he is called 
ab alio nutritus, Bopp s Gl. 209 b . Gothl. gauh-pigd, en fagel 
som tros ligga ut gokkens agg, Almqv. 42 5 b . He eats the hedge- 
sparrow s eggs, and puts his own in her nest, Freid. 143, 21. 
144, 1 10; this is a fact of natural history, Dobel 1, 60. Schu 
bert s Lehrb. p. m. 315. Eckerm. Gespr. mit Goethe 3, 211 5. 
When grown up, he is said to devour his (foster-) parents, ibid. 
208, and in winter to become a bird of prey. He begins pretty 
early to stand for the devil : kukuk hiure unde vert ! this year 
and last, an old hand, Helbl. 4, 800 ; des wirt guot rat, kukuk I 
8, 1234. - Instead of the hoopoo, the wryneck takes the place of 
servant to the cuckoo : Finn, kaen piika, cuculi ancilla, is transl. 
f jynx torquilla by Renvall, curruca by Juslen. The wryneck 
is said by Nemnich (sub v. jynx) to come a fortnight earlier than 
the cuckoo ; Swed. gok-tyta, Wei. gwas y gog, cuckoo s hand 
maid. The bittern and the hoopoo were once cowherds, Lisch 
Meckl. jrb. 5, 77. - The kibitz, kywit, peewit, which plays a 



1490 TEEES AND ANIMALS. 

prominent part in the marchen of the Juniper-tree, is called 
girltz in Stalder 1, 448: f in plover s reedy swamp (giritze-ried) 
enchanted maidens fly/ Other tales of the lapwing in Nares s 
Gl. sub. v. The polytrichum comm. is in Finn. Icaen petkel, 
cuculi securis; gauch-heil (pimpernel ?), which is not in Graff, 
and is sometimes called hiihnerdarm, morsus gallinae, is in M. 
Nethl. guychel-hoyl, Mone 6, 448. 

p. 683.] The dove, a holy bird to the Syrians, was in Ssk. 
called kapota and prifcu, Gr. Trepiarepd, Lat. columba and 
palumba, Slav, golubi, Lith. karvelis, balandis, conf. pp. 828. 
1 134-5 n. Kl. schr. 5, 445 seq. Women speaking a foreign 
tongue were called doves, says Herod. 2, 57. Song-birds seem 
to have been called wait-singer, Geo. 5849 ; their joy and grief 
were alluded to (p. 750-4). The nightingale passed for a mes 
senger of Mary, Leopr. 79. Some say the lark and loathed toad 
change eyes/ Rorn. and Jul. 3, 5. The wren, Lith. nyksztelis 
(thumbling and wren), Wei. dryw (druid and wren), is called 
petite poulette au bon Dieu, Bosquet 220-1. 1 Disturbing the 
redbreast brings lightning on the house 221 ; she covers the face 
of a murdered man with leaves, Hone s Yrbk. 64 ; on the red- 
tail, see Leopr. 80. The meislin (tit) has an angel to himself, 
Keisersb. Brosaml. 19 C ; hunting the baum-meise is severely 
punished, Weisth. 1, 465. The Finn, tiainen, Est. tthhane, is 
helpful, and understands beer-brewing, Schiefner s Finn, march. 
614. Kantel 1, 110. A legend of the white sparrow in Rom 
mel s Hess, gesch. 4, 710 from Winkelm. Chron. p. 585. On the 
kingfisher, see Gef ken s Beil. 113. 

p. 685.] Transformation into a snake occurs in many fairy 
tales. The cast slough of a snake is called senectus serpentis in 
Pliny and Marcellus no. 46 (Kl. schr. 2, 134. 150), agreeing with 
ON. elli-belgr from elli, eld; e.g. at kasta ellibelgnum = vernare. 
There is a beautiful legend about the snake in Klemm 2, ] 62-3 ; 
it lives for ever, 154. Its appearing is mysterious, so is its 
vanishing, < des slangen sluf/ Freid. 128, 7. In Ssk. it is called 
the creeper, wriggler, breast-walker, uraga, Bopp 52 b ; conf. 
Genesis 3, 14. The Ind. serpent- sacrifice lasts for years, it com- 

i Why is the wren called king in the Gr. pcurMfficos, Lat. regulus, It. reattino Fr 
roitelet, and Germ, zaunkonig ? because of his golden crest ? And is zaunkonig a 
transl. of re-at-tmo, the zaun (hedge) being an adaptation by folk-etym. of tinus 



ANIMALS. 1491 

pels all snakes to come up and throw themselves into the fire, 
Holtzm. 3, 172-3. 186-8. In the Parthenon at Athens lived a 
serpent sacred to the goddess, and had a honey-cake offered to 
it every day, Herod. 8, 41. To the Romans also the anguis was 

holy, Klausen p. 1014. A caduceus with figures of snakes in. 

Pliny 29, 54 (12) ; and snake-figures may be seen on the Stutt 
gart todtenbaume. A serpent on a helmet was called ezidemon, 
Beneke sub v. ; ezidemon daz edel kunder/ Tit. 3311. Lohengr. 
p. 12, where his friedelinne (lady-love) is also alluded to. The 
word is traceable to agatho-daemon, the Egyp. miraculous ser 
pent kneph, Gerhard in Acad. Berl. 47, p. 203. Beside saribant 
and serpant we find a sarapandra-test, serpent s head, Parz. 50, 
5. 68, 8. As Ofnir and Svafnir are the names of two snakes, and 
at the same time by-names of OSinn, so Hermes is closely allied 
to the agathodaemon, Gerh. as above 204 ; and divine heroes, 
descended from OiSinn, also inherit the snake in the eye (p. 
391). Serpents lick the ears of the sleeping Melampus, and on 
waking up he understands the speech of birds as they fly past, 
and ever after of all beasts that foretell the future to man. 
Prophetic Cassandra too, and her brother Helenus, had their ears 
licked clean by snakes. 

p. 687.] The Greeks called the home-snake olicovpos 6 (t?, 
genius loci, Gerh. in Acad. Berl. 47, 203; the Albanian vittore is 
a homesprite, imagined in the form of a little snake, Halm s 
Lieder 136 ; the Samogitian giuoitos, black snakes, are fed and 
worshipped as household gods, Lasicz 51-5-6. That of milk" 
drinking belongs also to the snake-stories in Vonbun p. 24. 
Bader nos. 98. 106 (on the mocken, p. 686 n., see Schrneller 2, 
549. Stalder 2, 212. Diut. 2, 84). Snakes had drink given 
them, Athen. 4, 364 ; one that sucked milk out of the breast, in 
Lucian s Alex. 7. With the Pomeran. story of a snake creeping 
into the pregnant woman, conf. Vopisci Aurelian. c. 4 : ( pueri 
ejus pelvem serpentem plerumque cinxisse, neque unquam occidi 
potuisse ; postremo ipsam matrem, quae hoc viderat, serpentem 
quasi familiarem occidere noluisse ; and Spartiani Sever. 1 : 
dormienti in stabulo serpens caput cinxit, et sine noxa, experge- 

factis et acclamantibus familiaribus, abut. More tales about 

the schlangen-fcrcw^ in Vonbun 24-5. Woeste 50; about the 
king of snakes in Miillenh. p. 355. Panzer 1, 183 ; the Ssk. 



1492 TREES AND ANIMALS. 

Vdfukis, rex serpentum, Bopp s Gl. 158 a . Holtzm. 3, 143-5. 
196-7. 157. 163. A Swed. story tells how the ormar elect r 
king, Dyb. 45, p. 100. A serpent-king has 12 heads; he that 
hews them off, and carries them about with him, is everywhere 
victorious, Reusch no. 74 and app. When an orm is challenged 
to fight, he keeps the engagement, Dyb. 45, p. 95-6. An adder 
comes carrying a stone in his mouth, Gesta Horn. ed. Keller 
pp. 68. 152 ; conf. snake-stone, unke-stone (p. 1219-20). Under a 
hazel on which mistletoe grows, lies a snake with a precious 
stone on his head (p. 1207). The vouivre wears but one eye in 
the middle of her forehead, and that is a carbuncle ; when she 
stops to drink at a fountain, she lays it aside ; that s the time to 
possess yourself of the jewel, and she is blind ever after. The 
vouivre flies through the air like red-hot iron, Mem. des antiq. 6, 
217; the like in Bosquet p. 204-6-9. Des Montags nach S. 
Peters tach, so oiler wurmichleiche ze wazzer gat/ Rec. of 1286 in 
Gemeiner s Regensb. chron. 1, 423; Fafnir also skreitf til vatz, 
Sn. 138. Vols. c. 18. Snakes love to lie beside a spring, Aus- 
land 57, p. 832 b ; but the ash- tree has a spite against the snake, 
Panzer 1, 251. 351. 

p. 688.] The serpent s healing power is heard of pretty early : 
( if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of 
brass, he lived, Numb. 21. 9. Slaver from the mouths of three 
colubrae runs into the healing, strengthening dish that has been 
cooked, Saxo ed. Mull. pp. 123. 193 (in two different stories) : 
two snakes are black, one white. Eating of the white snake 
makes you know the language of beasts, p. 193. DS. 2 no. 132. 
KM. 3 3, 27 (conf. p. 983 and Suppl. to 689. 690). On the other 
hand, venom drips from the eitr-orm, Sa3rn. 69 ; snakes are made 
to suck their poison in again with their cleinen munden/ Pass. 
310, 20. A Celtic story of the anguinum (ovum) made of ser 
pent s drivel is given in Pliny 29, 3, 12. On magic wrought by 
means of snakes, conf. Spalding, Abh. d. Berl. acad. ; on the 
snake as a bridge, and the term bridge s-tail, bruarspordr, see 
pp. 978. 732 n. 

The toad also (krote, Gramm. 3, 364) is a venomous beast 
available in magic : she carries a stone in her head (p. 1220) ; 
she sits on fungus and on mushroom, hence the one is called 
krotenstul, toadstool, Dut. paddestoel, LG. paddenstol, and the 



ANIMALS. 1493 

other weiss-krotling. Austrian names, besides krot, are hepping, 
braitling, noting, brotze, auke, Hofer 2, 47. 175; in Bavaria the 
male is braste, broz, bratz, Schm. 1, 274, the female hoppin, 
heppin, also muml (aunty), and women are called heppin in con 
tempt 2, 221. Add wetterkrote, donnerkrote, blitzkrote. 

p. 689.] Apdicwv is fr. Sepfcw, as o<ts fr. the lost OTTTCO : sharp- 
sighted as a lindwurm/ Soester Daniel p. 141 ; Gal. dearc = lacerta. 
Dragons are akin to snakes, hence the multitude serpentum cum 
magno dracone/ Greg. Tur. 10, 1 ; conf. snake-charming and the 
old dragon in Lucian s Philops. c. 12. Dragons worshipped by 
the Esths, Adam. Brem. (Pertz 9, 374) ; portrayed on bronze 
kettles, Lisch in Meckl. jrb. 7, 3538, 14, 326330, interpr. by 

Giesebercht, Bait. stud. 11, 50-1. A dragon is called ornir inn 

frani, Ssem. 173 b . 189 b ; MHG. tievels bote, Wigal. 5080, tievels 
trut 6443 (in 6453 rather the giantess). The hvit-ormlives under 
the roots of the oak, Dyb. 45, p. 78 ; but they like best to lie on 
gold, which is therefore called linnar logi, Ssem. 181 a ; the dragon 
that brings you money behaves like a homesprite (p. 511 ? 1020). 
The dragon s fire-spitting may have arisen from confounding the 
kindred notions of fire and poison, Miillenh. in Hpt s Ztschr. 7, 
428. A Welsh dragon story in Peredur, Villem. Contes 2, 193. 
Like snakes and toads, these worms also carry stones, but in 
their belly, and so many that you could build half a tower with 
them, Dietr. u. ges. 300. The dragon lives 90 years in the 
ground, 90 in the limetree, and 90 more in the desert, Van den 
Bergh p. 73 ; these stages of development were evid. suggested 
by the changes of the caterpillar and butterfly. 

p. 690.] Dragons are hated : leiffari enn manni hverjom enn 
frani ornir med firom/ Ssem. 85 a with the note : verrnes, in 
Speculo regali, vocantur leiffendi, odia, quasi res detestabiles/ 
Therefore heroes make war upon them : Apis comes to Argos, 
and slays the dragon s broody ^Esch. Suppl. 262 7. There are 
ways of guarding against them, and of killing them : bldsvorm in 
Mors is a venom-spitting worm. ; he can blow through seven 
church walls, but not through knitted stockings, Molb. Dial. lex. 
43. Again : for att en orm med sakerhet skall kunna dodas, 
ritas forst kring hononi en ring med drs-gammal havsel-kjdpp, 
innan han slas/ Raaf. Coats of mail are hardened in dragon s 
blood: gehert in traken bluote, Ecke 24; ganz al umbe den rant 



1494 TEEES AND ANIMALS. 

schilt gemachet von gold und drachenbluot, Wigam. 2105 ; swert 
gehert in drachenbluot, Drachenk. 11. Ifc is said of Alexander: 
gebeizet was sin brunie in eines wurmes lluote, liurnen was siu 
veste/ Diem. 209. Massm. 1300 seq. Another sword tempered 
in dragon s blood, DV. 1, 265. SigurSr, after eating Fdfni s 
heart, understood the language of birds ; Gudrun had eaten some 
too, Sa3rn. 211; conf. quin et inesse serpenti remedia multa 
creduntur . . . ut possint avium sermones intelligi/ Pliny 
29, 4 (Suppl. to 688). 

p. 691.] In Serv. also smn k, serpentis genus, Boh. smykati, 
serpere, ON. smiuga ; Syrian, zmey, snake, Gabelentz p. 8. 
Fishes too deserve attention : Athen. 3, 30-5-6 speaks of a lepos 
iX^vs, they were beasts of Artemis and Hecate 3, 194; conf. 
Berlda s herrings (p. 273). 

p. 692.] For chafer there is even an Egyp. cheper ; OHG. 
chwat-chever (dung-beetle), scarabseus, Graff 4, 378, sun-chever, 
brucus, N. 104, 34; Westerw. m^i-ldeler, Ravensb. eckern- 
schafer ; AS. cynges cafirtun, aula regia, ^Elfr. Homil. 122. 
Kever I Inge-burg and Sceverlinge-burg, Hpt s Ztschr. 7, 559 ; pre- 
dium chauer-loch (loh ?), MB. 8, 405. 500 (yr 1160), hodie 
kefer-loh 8, 516, AS. ceafor-ledh, Kemble nos. 570. 1088. Conf. 
OHG. muggi-stat, Graff 2, 654; brem-garten, breni-stall, Schm. 
I, 258; bre-garten = kitchen-garden, says Hofer 1, 113; Pre- 

garten, a place in Styria, Rauch 2, 191. The other term wibel 

occurs in the adjs. wibel-val, wibel-var, pale, Herb. 6880. 12867, 
A Welsh giuibeden, musca, gwlblo, to fly, swarm. KdvOapos 
KOTrpov a^alpav TroDJaa^, ^Esop. Fur. 223. ^Elian. Hist. anim. 
10, 15. Arist. Hist. anim. 5, 19 (conf. Lucian 8, 428). The 
Cod. Exon. 426, 11 has : is ]?es gores sunu gonge hreedra, ]?one 
we wifd wordum nemnaiS ; in the same way bees are supposed 
to spring from putrefaction (p. 696), flies from the devil s rotting 
tongue, Walach. march. 285 ; and chuleih, scarabgeus, horse- 
beetle, Jcieleche or stagbeetle (Schm. 2, 269) seems to have arisen 
out of chuo-leih, and to rest on a belief about the beetle s origin 
(from cow-dung?), Gramm. 2, 503; conf. scin-leih, monstrum. 

p. 693.] The lucanus cervus (conf. H. Miiller s Griechenth. 
446) is in Finn, tammiharlfd, oak-ox, Serv. yele n, cervus volans, 
Engl. s%-beetle, stag-Qy, Fr. escarbot, Swiss gueger, cerambyx, 
kolz-boclc, feuer-bock, Staid. 1, 445; feuer- kafer in the Harz, 



ANIMALS. 1495 

where they wrap him in moss, letting the horns stick out, and 
strike at him blindfold one after the other (as elsewhere at the 
cock) ; whoever hits him, takes him home (and has luck, or some 

honour by it ?). ON. has also torft-yfill, Droplaug. saga p. 10 : 

tio si/nder sagas forlatas (ten sins forgiven) den som vander om 
en pa rygg liggande tordyfvel, Runa 44, p. 8 ; conf. an Irish tale 
of the daol, Conan 124, and Schiefner on tarwas pp. 4. 5. The 
Finn, turila, turilas denotes a voracious insect that spoils fruit 
and grass, either melolontha or gryllus migratorius, says Renvall; 
but the same word means giant, conf. our heirno. Any one that 
sees the wern, mole-cricket, shall get off his horse to kill it, for 
it nibbles away the roots of the corn ; to him that does so, the 
farmer owes a loaf of bread. The AS. eorfr-ceaforas = tauri, i.e. 
scarab ae i terrestres, was doubtless modelled on the passage in 
Pliny. 

p. 693 n.] Hung, cserebugdr, maybug, lit. oak-chafer, oak- 
worm ; Pol. chrabq,szcz, chrzj|szcz, Boh. magowy chraust, Russ. 
sipli, 0. SI. sip], Dobrowsky Inst. 271. Prov. bertals, bertaus, 
Mahn p. 59. Finn, lehtiinato, leaf- worm, melolontha, Swed. 
lofmatk. Osnabr. eckel-tiewe, Lyra, 23, also eik-schawe, Miinsterl. 
ecker-tiefe, Ravensb. eckern-s chafer ; Mark. Pom. zebrehnke ; 
Swiss bugareje. Staid. 1, 239. Walloon: balowe, abalowe, biese a 
balowe = ha,uueton, fr. baloier = vol tiger, and bizer, OHGr. pison ; 
pisewurm = oestrum. Finn, urolainen, a large beetle, uros = vir, 

heros, Serv. urosli = picu$, heros. Chafers carry a mirror about 

them : children in the Wetterau hold a cockchafer in their hands, 
and sing, Mennche, weibche, weis mer emol (do show me) dein 
spigelche ! the outspread wings ? The elben are chafers, chry- 
salids, butterflies, spirits and holden (conf. pp. 1073-4. 1155-6). 
The kobold sits in the box in the shape of a beetle or humblebee, 
Sommer 33-4. 171-2. Panzer 2, 173. Rochholz 2, 238-9; the 
Dan. skrukke-?*o/cZ is an insect too, but a wingless one. The 
Pentam. 3, 5 tells of a fay that plays with a sweetly humming 
chafer (scarafone). 

p. 695.] The coccinella, Ind. Indragopa, Indra s cowherd, 
Bopp 40 a . Schiefn. on tarwas p. 5 ; Finn, lenninkainen, which 
sometimes means the beautiful hero Lemmenkainen ; Engl. 
God lmighty s cow, Barnes ; sunnenldnd, sun s child, Schiitze 4, 
225 ; Austr. sounenkalbcl, sun s calf. Goldwivil, cicindela, Diut. 



1496 TEEES AND ANIMALS. 

2, 94. Boh. slurie c ko (little sun), slunevnice, coccinella, also Unka, 
Pol. stonka. Serv. babe and mar a, Mary ; the girls set it on 
their finger, and repeat a rhyme, Vuk p. 9 b . Lith. dewo yautis, 
God s ox, God s birdie; so the glowworm is with us Hebe Gotts 
lammje, Alb. Schott, the dragonfly unser lieben frauen rossel, 
horsie, Gadespferd, God s horse, Schiitze 2, 6, but also Devil s 
horse, needle and hairpin (p. 1029), Staid. I, 276, and eye-shooter 
1, 119 ; Finn, tuonen koira, death s dog, Boh. had% hlava, snake s 

head. The butterfly, Gael, eunan-de, bird of God, Ir. Gael. 

dealan-de and Gael, teine-de, both fire of God, Ir. anaman-de, 
anima Dei ; conf. Swed. Tearing -njaT; old woman s soul, Ihre 2, 
529 (see p. 829). Arm. balafen, malafen, melven ; balafennik 
done, petit papillon de Dieu. A butterfly-song of Hanoverian 
Wendland sounds like the ladybird-song : Botterv&gel, sott di, 
Vader unn moder ropt di, Mul unn nese blott di , thy mouth 
and nose are bleeding; otherwise Midschonke, midschonke, sott 
di, etc. A children s song at Liiben calls the butterfly ketelboter, 
kettle-mender, Firmen. 3, 480. 

p. 697.] Bees live among men, and the joys and sorrows of 
the family are duly reported to the beehives, Bosquet 217, esp. 
the death of the master, f if you wouldn t have all your hives 
waste away within year and day they say in Miinsterland. The 
same thing in Wilts, Berks and Surrey. Bees foretell the future 
to man (p. 1136) : a humblebee in the box gives notice of spring, 
Panzer 2, 173. Apes furtivae do not thrive, Pliny 19, 7, 37. 
Bosq. 217. Their home is carefully prepared: istud vas lacte 
et bona herba linivimus, Acta Bened. sec. 2, p. 133. They have 

come down from the golden age, Leo s Malb. gl. 1, 119. Ssk. 

names for the bee are madhu-pa, madhu-kara, madhu-lih, honey- 
drinker, -maker, -licker; Abrah. a S. Clara calls them mett- 
siederl, mead-boilers, Schm. 1, 165. (Kl. schr. 2, 369). Gr. 
avOy^wv, flower-eater; but she drinks water too, ace. to a law- 
phrase in the Weisthiimer; conf. f die bin netzen/ to water the 
bees, Fischart s Gesch. kl. 87 a . A pretty name is pini-suga 
(bee-suck) = thymus/ i.e. heath. Finn. mehilaiskanerva = clino- 
podium vulg. A queen-bee settles on the lips of a favoured 

person, Sv. folks. 1, 78. Their origin is miraculous: diu pie 

ist maget, wird ane hileichiu dine geborn/ the bee is maiden, 
born without nuptial doings, Predigten hrsg. v. Kelle 40. Der 



ANIMALS. 1497 

Veldtbau/ Strasbg 1556, bk 15 cap. 1 relates after Yarro de R. 
R. 2, 5 how bees spring out of the decaying body of a dead bull. 
Miklosich brings both b tchela, ^9c/ie/o=apis, and byk = taurus, 
under boukati = mugire (the hum of the bee?). The Gl. Salom. 
make wasps come from the rotten flesh of asses, drones from that 
of mules, hornets from that of horses, and bees from that of calves, 
conf. Diut. 2, 194 : ITTTTO^ epptpevos O-C^TJKMV yeveo-is ecrrt, Lessing 
9, 146 fr. Aelian 1, 28 ; and bees proceed from the carcase of 
the lion slain by Samson, Judg. 14, 8. An account of the genera 
tion of hornet and bee in Schroter p. 136. Peterson, p. 55. In 

the Walach. March. 284 the white bee turns black. As the 

bee in Germ, weaves (wift, wabe), in Lith. she sews (pri-siiti) : 
bittes daug pri-suwo/ the bees have stitched a good piece on. 
Bees build: evOa TiOaiftwcra-ovai ^ekicro-ai, Od. 13, 106; they 
build a wax palace, Stier s Volksm. 24. On the church wall at 
Folsbach was carved a hummel-nest, because the people had 
carted stones to it as diligently as the humblebee gathers honey, 
Panz. Beitr. 2, 173. A man in Elsass having stolen the Host 
and thrown it in a field of standing corn, it hung balanced on 
three stalks, and bees came and built their waben (combs) round 
it, and over it was reared a chapel, that of the Three Ears ; conf. 
Hpt s Ztschr. 7, 533. Predigermarch. 10, 12. Boyes Rodolphi 
de H. p. 257. In Cass. Heisterb. 9, 8 the bees themselves build 
a chapel over the Hostie. 

In Virgil s Georg. 4, 68. 75. 106 the sovereign of the bees is 
called rex, and 4, 4. 88 dux, ductor ; emenfiirsten (prince) hant 
bien/ MS. 1, 84 a ; volgheden, alse haren coninc doen die bien/ 
Maerl. 3, 343; alsam diu bin zuo den karn mit froiden valient, 
ob ir rehter wisel (var. wiset) drinne si/ MS. 2, 3 a ; Flem. honing 
der bien/ Hpt. 7, 533 ; Hennebg. der hddherr, der weisel/ 
Bruckner. Cherkess pslieli, prince, Klemm 4, 18. The Samogits 
allowed bees a god of their own, Babilos, and a goddess, Austheia, 
Lasicz 48. On the other hand, the Vita S. Galli (Pertz 2, 7) 
says : in modum parvissimae matris apis, conf. mater aviorum 
(p. 1242); bienen-mutter, Haltrich 12J. Their honey is not 
everywhere sweet : TO jap fjue\i ev airaai rot? Tpcnre^ovvTos 
iTiKpov yiverai, Procop. 2, 464; yueXt HOVTLKOV irucpov 
teal arjSes, Dio Chrysost. Or. 9 (ed. Reiske 1, 289. 290). 

The devil appears as &fly, so does Loki (p. 999). Spiders are 



1498 SKY AND STARS. 

akin to dwarfs (p. 471). Out of all herbs the bee sucks sweetness, 
the spider poison. Yet may the spider be of good omen too ; 
thus the kind enchantress climbs to the ceiling a spider, and 
drops down a woman, Arnim s March. 1, 52-7 ; conf. luck-spinner 
(p. 1136). Cobwebs fluttering on the ceiling betoken luck and 
a wedding, Lisch 5, 88 ; conf. the fortune-telling spider s head 
(Suppl. to 380 end). Lastly consider the myth of Minerva and 
Arachne. 



CHAPTER XXII. 
SKY AND STARS. 

p. 700.] Himmel comes from hima = tego; the root appears 
without suffix in O.Swed. himi-rike; Bopp again would derive it 
from kam = splendere, Gl. 168 b , but this kam in Gl. 65 b means 
amare, which is more likely to have had the orig. sense of shelter, 
cover; and OHG. himil already included the meaning laquear, 
lacunar. AS. < scop heofon to hrofe/ and hr6f is roof ; < s6 himil 
thelcit thaz lant/ 0. ii. 7, 4; < mit dem himel was ich bedacJit > 
bethatched, Tragemund. We still say the sky is my decke 
(ceiling, coverlid), the earth my bed/ or < the sky is my hat/ as 
the ON. calls it < foldar hattr/ earth s hat. The sky is a vault 
hence < under heofones hwealf/ Beow. 1 146. It may burst open : 
ich w^nde der himel waere enzwci, in-two, when it thundered 
Dietr. Drach. 122". 143" (on the comparison of heaven to the roof 
of the mouth, see Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 541). A variation of the idea 
m the ON. <und himin-skautom/ under the skirts of heaven. 
Ssem. 173". Norweg. hibna-leite, himna- kite = horizon, Germ 
Itimm burning.- -After death we may go to himmel (not heven) ; 
but the sun, moon and stars in L. Saxony stand in heven (not 
himmel) ; heven-scher, scudding clouds, Brem. Ndrs. wtb. 4, 645 
Heven seems more the a3ther, the < radar, rodor > of next paragraph! 
In Austria they call heaven blo-landl, Blue-shire; and OHG. yfliU 

Dlympus, supernum. 

OS. radur, AS. rodor (norS-rodor, Cod. Exon. 178, 33) can 
hardly be conn, with Ssk. r6das, coelum et terra, Bopp 295* 
Does the (perh. kindred) word dff.rdffull, m., S^m. 37 ; mean tb> 



SKY AND STAKS. 1499 

moon ? With AS. sceld-byrig connect another expression of 
Caedmon s, 182, 22 : dceg-scealdes hleo, day-shield s (?) roof. 

p. 701.] Ssk. tar a, f., Zend, star, Gr. aa"rrjp, Lat. stella fr. 
sterna, is expl. by Bopp, Vocal. 179 as that which is strewn over 
the sky; by Benfey 1, 661 as that which strews its beams, from 
root stri. With sldus, Pott 1, 127 compares Lith. swidus, shin 
ing, and crlSripos. It belongs more likely to sido, consido, as 
perhaps even stella and star are conn, with sta, stand ; conf. stal- 
baum, and er (Got) sitzet uf den lume\-steln rhy. zelu, weln, 

MSH. 2, 236 b . MS. 2, 166 b . In Yerinland, fcwigreZ = star, 

Almqv. 391 a . Helsingl. 403 a ; in Angermanland, tongel=mane, 
Almqv. 307 b . In several languages, flame is called tongue, be 
cause it licks ; in Irish the stars are rinn, which answers to the 
Gael. roinn = tip. In Fundgr. 1, 145 a constellation is called 
lielit-vaz, lamp. 

The OHG. girusti of the stars agrees with AS. hyrste gerun, 
rodores tungel, Caedm. 132, 7; each star sat in his own little 
chair, KM. 31, 138 ; ( when it thunders, you re afraid a iron will 
tumble out of heaven/ Garg. 181 b ; the \ap,Trpa rpaTre^a rov 
r)\iov, sun s bright table, Aesop 350. The sun has a tent : 
undir roiSuls tialdi, Hervar. s. p. 438 (conf. Psalm 19, 4). The 
stars are considered sons and daughters : da mohten jungiu 
siinneMn walisen uz sim liehten schin/ little suns grow out of, 
Wh. 254, 5 (p. 703 end) ; f eina dottur berr alf-roull/ moon (?) has 
a daughter, Saem. 37 a . In Lett, songs the stars are saules meitas, 
sun s girls, deeva deli, sons of God, Biittner nos. 15. 18 (1842). 

p. 703.] The sun is der werlde scliin, MS. 1, 54 a ; der 
Jierschein, Fromm. Mundart. 4, 98. 113 (but see Suppl. to 731) : 
se ce&ela gleam, Cod. Exon. 178, 31; beorJit bedcen Qodes, Beow. 
1134; skinandi goff, Saem. 45 a . 195 a ; heddb-sigel, sol e mari 
progrediens, Cod. Exon. 486, 17 (conf. p. 223). Three suns are 
spoken of in Nialss. c. 131 end : til ]?ess er priar solir eru af 

himni. 0. Miiller thinks sol and f/Xio? come fr. one fundam. 

form Savelios, see Schmidt s Ztschr. 2, 124 (Kl. schr. 3, 120) ; 
Etr. usil, Sab. ausel. Bopp s Comp. Gram. 42, 1318-9 derives 
the Zend, hvare and Ssk. sura, surya, sun, fr. svar, svarga = 
sky ; is Suryas the same word as 77X^09 (for cr/^Xio?) and sol ? 
(Pref. liv., GDS. 301). We might also conn, the Goth, sduil with 
sauls = columna (Kl. schr. 3, 120). The sun is descr. as a 



1500 SKY AND STARS. 

wheel in Ksrchr. 80; daz rat der sunnen, Myst. 2, 180. Hvel, 
hweol is also the spinning-wheel, and in Finn, the sun is called 
God s spindle, Kalev. 32, 20 (its usual name is paivii, sol and 
dies, but also aurinko) ; conf. the constell. Freyja s-spindle, 
and Tertullian s pectines solis, GDS. 107. Before the sun there 
stands a shield; if it fall, it will set mountain and sea ablaze : 

Svalr heitir, hann stendr solo for, 

scioldr scinanda gofti ; 

biorg oc brim ec veit at brenna scolo, 

ef hann fellr i fra. Ssera. 45 a . 195 b . 

Ennius (in Varro 7, 73) calls the sun caeli dlpeus, and the notion 

is Slavic too, Hanusch 256. On the sun as an eye, conf, Kuhn 

(in Hofer 1, 150), Passow sub vv. o/jL/ma, o^tfaX/w. Li solaus 
qui tout aguete, Rose 1550. The sun s eye hidden in the well 
seems to be referred to in such names as Sunnebrunno near 
Dusseldorf, LacombL 1, no. 68 (yr 874) ; Sonnenbrunne, Mone s 
Anz. 6, 227; Sunnebrunnen, Sonneborn in Saxe Gotha, Dronke s 
Trad. Fuld. pp. 42.61; Sunneborn, Landau s Hessengau 181; 
tiomborn near Gelnhausen ; Sunnobrunnon, Werden s Reg. 236, 

and ougenbrunne 6, 230; conf. Forstemann 2, 1336. To AS. 

wnldres gim, Ineofones gim, Cod. Exon. 174, 30, corresp. the Ssk. 
<liei dominus, diei gemma = sol, Bopp 27 a . Other AS. terms are : 
fnlca frifaandel, Caedm. 153, 15, heofoncandel 181, 34; rodores 
<-<Jndel,Reow.3\43,woruldcandel 3926; wyncandel, Cod. Exon. 
174, 31. 

p. 704.] The Letts regard the sun and moon as sister and 
brother, Bergm. 120; in Dalecarlia the moon is called unkarsol, 
Almqv. 261 (is not that Lappish, the junkare s sun?). Goth. 
mena, OHG. mano, AS. mona, ON. mdni, all masc.; Carinth. 
monet, Lexer s Kiirnt. wtb. Yet also: diu maenin beglimet/ 
V. Gelouben 118 (glimo, gleimo, Graff 4, 289) ; diu, maeninne, 
MF. 122, 4; diu mdninne, Diemer 341, 22. 343, 11. 342, 27; 
der sun (sunne) und diu maeninne, 3 Karaj. 47, 8 (Ksrchr. 85- 
90). MHG. diu sunne, Hpt 8, 544. Diemer 384, 6; in Rollenh. 
4 der harte mond, die liebe sonn/ The Angevins on the contrary 
called le soleil seigneur, et la lune dame/ Bodin s Rech. sur 
1 Anjou 1, 86; so in Ksrchr. 3754 der hetre seems to mean the 
sun, but in coritrad. to T>. 3756. The forester kneels to sun, 



SKY AND STAKS. 1501 

moon and God, Baader iii. 21 ; ( the worship d sun/ Rom. and Jul. 
i. 1. Men prayed towards the sun, N.Pr. prov. bl. 1, 300 ; they 
salute him (pp. 737. 749), esp. when rising: 6 Se el<mrjtci 
ea>? lyevero KOI jj\io$ aveo"%ev eirena or^ero asjri& 
TO) fj\i<p t Plato s Symp. 220. A feast of the sun was held in 
Dauphine, Champoll. Dial. p. 11. On the Tartar worship of the 
sun, see K. Schlozer 32-3. Among Tunguses an accused man 
has to walk toward the sun, brandishing a knife, and crying : 
f If I am guilty, may the sun send sickness to rage in my bowels 
like this knife V Klemm 3, 68. Serv. tako mi suntza ! Ranke 
p. 59. We still say, when the sun shines warm, he means well 

by us/ Felsenb. 4, 241. The Moon is called in Ssk. nisapati y 

noctis dominus, or naxtresa, tardpati, stellarum dominus ; in Pol. 
ksiezyc, lord of night, and he is shepherd of the stars (Suppl. to 
722). The moon is invoked against anger : heiptom seal mdna 
Jcveffia, Ssem. 27 b ; and is asked for riches. With the German s 
naive prayer to the moon to make his money more/ conf. a 
Swed. one in Wieselgr. 431. Dyb. Runa 44, p. 125, and the 
monjochtroger/ Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 60. To avert the moon s 
evil influence, the Bretons cry to her, ( tu nous trouves bien, 
laisse-nous bien ! When she rises, they kneel down and say a 
pater and ave, Cambry 3, 35. 

p. 705.] The sun and moon have gods assigned them : Bac 
chus is sol, Ceres luna, Macrob. Sat. 1, 18. Virg. Geo. 1, 5. 
Ace. to F. Magnusen, Freyr is sol, Freyja luna ; and four names 
of Freyja, Mardoll, Horn, Gefn, Syr/ or Siofn, Lofn, Vor, 
Syn are the moon s phases, Lex. myth. 357-9. Christ is often 

likened to the sun, Mary to the moon. Our saying, that f die 

sonne scheint, der rnond greint, is old : M.Neth. seder dat die 
maen gren, Potter 2, 104; MHG. f diu sunne beschinet, din 
maenin begltmet/ V. Gelouben 118 (Suppl. to 704). 

p. 707.] In Pohjola, sun and moon get stolen; the sun is 
delivered fr. captivity by Perkun s hammer, N. Pr. prov. bl. 1, 
299. Kl. schr. 2, 84. 98 ; conf. donee auferefcur luna/ Ps. 72, 7. 
In eclipses the demon Rahus threatens the sun and moon, Kuhn 
in Hofer 1, 149. Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 151 ; a dragon tries to 
swallow the moon, Cses. heisterb. 3, 35, yr 1225 (Kaufm. p. 55) ; 

the Swed. sol-ulf is Dan. sol-ulv, Molb. Dial. p. 533. But the 

sun may withdraw his light in grief or in anger : 

VOL. 17. Q 



1502 SKY AND STABS. 

Sunna irbalg sih (was indignant) thrato suslichero dato (deeds), 
ni liaz si sehan worolt-thiot (-people) thaz ira fronisga lioht, 
hinterquam in thrati (disgust) thera armalichun dati. 

Otfried iv. 33, 1. 
ioh harto thaz irforahta. O. iv. 33, 1 4. 

The sun hides his face before a great sorrow, e.g. at the death of 
Christ, or that of Von Meran : ez moht dm liehte sunne ir schin 
da von verlorn han/ Wigal. 8068. Hrab. Maurus in Wh. Miiller 
pp. 159. 160. A fine descript. of a solar eclipse in Pindar, Frag. 
74 Boeckh, 84 Bergk. On superstit. practices at the eclipse of 
989, Thietmar of Mersebg says 4, 10: sed cunctis persuadeo 
Christicolis, ut veraciter credant, hoc non aliqua malarum incan- 
tatione mulierum vel esu fieri, vel huic aliquo modo seculariter 
adjuvarl posse. 

The daemon that dogs the moon is called by the Finns capeet ; 
the capeen try to eat her up, Hiarn p. 37-9; Juslen has capet, 
eclipsis lunae/ Now Renvall sub v. kavet, gen. kapeen, pi. 
kapeet, gives only the meanings daemon, genius/ conf. Peterson 
p. 31 ; but sub v. kuumet he has moonlight, genius myth, lunae 
inimicus. Compare that * deducere lunam et sidera tentat 
(Suppl. to 1089 end), to which is added: Et faceret si non aera 
repulsa sonent/ Tibull. i. 8, 21 ; aera verberent, Martial 12, 57; 
cum aeris crepitu, qualis in defectu lunae silenti nocte cieri solet, 
Livy 26, 5; conf. Plutarch 4, 1155. 

In lunar eclipses the Ossets shoot at the moon, believing that a 
malignant monster flying in the air is the cause ; and they go on 
firing till the eclipse is over, Kohl s S. Russia 1, 305 ; conf. the 
legend in Caes. heisterb. Horn. 3, 35 (Mainzer s Ztschr. 1, 233). 

p. 709.] The change of moon is called des manen wandelkere/ 
Parz. 470, 7, < &. m. wandeltac 483, 15, < d. m. wandel 491, 5. 
The period of her shining is expr. by : So dem manen sin zit In 
der naht herfiir git/ Er. 1773. By new moon we mean the true 
conjunction of sun and moon; but the Greeks reckoned the 
vovprjvia from their first seeing the young moon at sunset, there 
fore some time after conjunction, K. F. Hermann s Gottesd. 
alterth. p. 226. Full moon is reckoned in with the afbriiken 
maan [i.e. bruch, wane], Goldschm. Oldenb. volksmed. 144. 
OHG. mdn6t-fengida = neomQma, calendae, Graff 3, 415, conf. 



SKY AND STARS. 1503 

fengari p. 701 n. ; anafang mdnodis, N. 80, 5 ; MHG. ein niuwer 
mane hat nach wunsche sich gestalt, er hat gevangen harte wer- 
decliche/ begun most worthily, MS. 2, 99 a . Welsh blaen-newydd, 
first of the new. The Esths hail the new moon with: Moon, get 
old, let me keep young ! Bocler s Ehsten 143. Full moon : 
ein voller mane, MS. 2, 83 a ; hoifylde, Molb. Dial, lexic. Nova 
luna est cornuta, unde plena rotunda est/ N. Boeth. 171 ; from 
the moon s horns it was but a step to the moon s cow, Pott 2, 252. 
The oath of the Fehm-court (RA. 51) has: helen und hoden 
(conceal) vor sunne, vor mane, vor alle westermane* ; what means 
this last word ? The sun is imagined standing in the east, the 
moon in the west : osten for sol, og vesten for maane, Asb. og 
Moe 2, 6 seq. 

p. 711.] Taga blod emellan (let blood betw.) ny och nedan, 
Folks. 1, 111. Swed. nedmork is the Gr. vi>% o-fcoro/jbrjvios, Od. 
14, 457. Superstitions about lied and ny, ned-axel and ny-tand- 
ning, Raaf 110-6. In Dalecarlia, new moon is called avdxand, 
Alraqv. 262 b ; in the Edda, halfmoon is inn skarffi mdni, Saem. 
134 h , as indeed Perkuns chops the moon in two, Rhesa 92. 192. 
The Scand. ny is MHG. daz niu ; thus Diemer 341, 22 : ( also si 
an daz niu gat, und iewederen (each) halben ein horn hat ; then 
342, 27 : diu maninne gat niht ze sedele, an deme niu noch an 
deme wedele ; but again 341, 21 : diu maninne chrump wirt 
unde chleine. A statute of Saalfeld, like that of Miilhausen, says 
(Walch 1, 14) : wer da mit uns hierinne in der stat sitzet nuiue 
unde wedil ( = a month), u. kouft u. verkouft. Neu u. voile des 
monds/ Ettn. Unw. doctor 435 ; so hat Luna zwei angesicht, 
das ein gen New u. Abnew gricht, Thurneisser s Archidox. 147 ; 

vollmond, Iruch oder vollschein/ Franz. Simpl. 2, 301. 

Waxing and waning are wahsen unde swinen, Barl. 241, 24 ; 
M. Neth. wassen ende wanen, Rose 4638, conf. p. 709 n. [and 
Engl. wan, wane, want, wanhope] . An Ind. myth of the waxing 
and waning moon in Holtzm. 1, 5 8. KM. 3 3, 401. The moon 
changes about so, his mother can t cut out a coat to fit him, KM. 3 
3, 347. Plut. in Conviv. sept. sap. Aesop. Fur. 396. Corais 
325. Garg. 135 b . 

p. 712.] Is wedel akin to Ssk. m c?/m = luna? Bopp 321 b . 
Passages quoted in preced. note contrast it with new moon; so 
holter im wadel gehouwen/ Hpt s Ztschr. 3, 90; but f a hole in 



1504 SKY AND STAES. 

his schedel (skull) hewn in bad wedel, Uhl. p. 658. Ambras. 152. 
On wedel, good and bad wedel, and wedeln to wag, see Liliencron 
in Hpt 6, 363-4-8. Kuhn s Ztschr. 2, 131. TFadaZ = hysopes, 
fasciculus hysopi, Diut. 1, 494 a . 

p. 715.] The reverse of what Cassar says about the Germans 
(de B. Gall. 1, 50) is told by Pausanias i. 28, 4 of the Lacedse- 
monians, who would only fight at fall-moon. Silver and gold are 
brought out at newen mon, Sup. G. 108. Quaedam faciunda in 
agris potius crescente luna quam senescente ; quaedam contra, 
quae raetas, ut frumenta et caeduam silvam. Ego ista etiam, 
inquit Agrasius, non solum in ovibus tondendis, sed in meo capillo 
apatre acceptum servo, ne decrescente luna tondens calvus fiam, 
Varro RR. 1, 37. Moonlight makes rotten, and barrel hoops cut 
by it will rot sooner, Athen. 3, 7 ; worms get into wood not 
rightly hewn : holzer die man nit zu rechter zeit des raons und 
monat gehauen hat/ Petr. Mihi 108 b ; f si hovvent raif (they cut 
hoops, the rascally coopers) an dem niwen man/ Teufelsnetz 
11127; elder to be cut by waxing or waning moon, Gotthelf s 
Schuldb. 14 ; more food taken, or less, ace. to the moon, 
Bopp s Gl. 122 b . Without moonlight, herbs lack scent and 
flavour, Holtzm. Ind. s. 1, 6. 8; tes mdnen ton ist anagenne, 
unde samo saphes unde marges [Moon s dew is regeneration, 
the seed of sap and marrow ?], N. Cap. 25. Drink out of a jug 
that the moon shines into, and you ll be moonstruck [lunatic, 
sleep-walker ? ], Stelzhamer 47. 

p. 720.] The moon s spots are also descr. as a stag, Hitzig s 
Philist. 283. In a Greenland story, while the Moon pursues his 
sister the Sun, she dabs her sooty hands over his face ; hence the 
spots, Klemm 2, 314. The New Zealand view is, that they are 
like a woman who sits plucking Gnatuh 4, 360. The Ranthum 
people think the man in the moon is a giant, standing upright at 
ebb-time, and stooping at flood, Miillenh. p. 360 ; but also in the 
same neighbourhood he is a sheep-stealer or cabbage-thief, as in 
Holland, no. 483 ; conf. the Wallachian story in Friedr. Miiller 
no. 229, and the Westphalian in Woeste 40. In the Ukermark 
he carries a bundle of pea-straw, Hpt s Ztschr. 4, 390 ; und 
sprechend die laien, es sitz ain man mit ainer dorn-piird (thorn- 
load) in dem monen/ Megenb. 65, 22. Ettner s Med. maulaffe 
speaks of a bundle of wood to fire the moon with. < Burno, nom 



SKY AND STAES. 1505 

d un voleur, que les gens de la campagne pretendent etre dans la 
lune/ Grandgagnage 1, 86. Ace. to Schott, the Old-Chinese 
tradition makes a man in the moon continually drive his axe into 
the giant tree kuei, but the rifts close up again directly ; he 
suffers for the sins he committed while an anchoret. At Wallen- 
hausen in Swabia they used to ride races for the dorn-biischele : 
three lads would start for the goal, the two foremost got prizes, 
and the third had a bunch of thorns tied on his back. In Bavaria 
the reapers leave a few ears standing, and dance round them, 
singing : 

O heiliga sanct Malia, 

bescher (grant) ma a annasch gahr (year) meha 

so vil korntla, so vil horntla, 

so vil ahrla, so vil gute gahrla, 

so vil koppla, so vil schockla ; 

sclwpp dich stddaldj schopp dich stadala ! 

O heiliga sanct Mdha ! 

The stalks tied together represent St. Maha s stadala (stack), 
which they stuffed full of ears; only we must observe, that in 
Bavaria the moon is called ma, not maha, Panz. Beitr. 2, 217 
(Suppl. to 157). TheKotar on p. 719 n. was a herdsman beloved 
by the goddess Triglava, who put him in the moon. Finn. 
huutar=moou, Kalev. 22, 270. 26, 296 or moon-maiden, from 
kuu, moon, Est. ku, Morduin. ko ; and kuumet is the pursuer of 
the moon, Peterson p. 31-3. In Brother Gheraert ed. Clarisse 
p. 132 the man in the moon is called ludergehr ; conf. the Saxon 
hero Liudeger in the Nibelungen, and Godeke s Reinfried 90. 

p. 720.] The sun dances at Easter (p. 291). The Indians say 
the sun dances, and they in imitation salute him with dancing. 
Lucian. de Saltat. cap. 17. 

p. 722.] The stars are said to glister, twinkle, sparkle : 
sternen glast, MS. 2, 5 b ; ein sternen blic, flash, Parz. 103, 28. 
The morning stars break out, like fire : swenne der morgensterne 
ie friieje uf brast, MS. 2, 5 b ; an der sterren brunste } burning, 
Diut. 1, 352 ; sterre enbran u. schein, took fire and shone 1, 351 ; 
conf. N. Cap. 97. The sinking, rushing down of stars is in 

Grk ataa-ew, Eurip. Iph. Aul. 9. In Hungary 2.80 native 

names of stars have been collected, Wolfs Ztschr. 2,. 160. 



1506 SKY AND STABS. 

Magyar Myth. 582 ; several names occur in Ossian, Ahlwardt 2, 
265. 277. 3, 257. Arfvidss. 1, 149. 206; Armenian names in 
Dulaurier s Chronol. armen. 59, 1, 180-1. Stars were in 
voked, as Hesperus in Bion 11 ; they were messengers of gods, 
as Arcturus in the prol. to Plaut. Rudens ; they do errands for 
lovers, Vuk no. 137. Stars are kind or hostile: quaeritis et caelo 
Phoenicum inventa sereno, quae sit stella homini commoda, quae- 
que mala, Prop. iii. 21, 3; interpreting the stars is spoken of 
in MS. 1, 189 b ; Prov. astrucs (astrosus) meant lucky, and mal- 
astrucs dis-astrous; her star is at the heat (brunst). . . . 
till their stars have cooled down (versaust, done blustering)/ Ph. 
v. Sittew. p. 614. Stars take part in a man s birth (p. 860) and 
death (p. 721). They have angels to wait on them, Tommaseo 
1, 233. For the misdeed of Atreu 9; God changed the courses of 
all the constellations, Plato s Polit. pp. 269. 271. 

The stars are the moon s flock, she leads them to pasture, 
Spee p. m. 163. 210. 227. A Serv. song, Yuk no. 200, says : 

od sestritze zvezde preodnitza, 
shto preodi preko vedra neba 
kao pastir pred belim outzama. 

What star is meant by preodnitza (percurrens), who walks 
athwart the sky, as a shepherd before his white lambs ? conf. 
no. 362 : 

osu se nebo zvezdama, 
i ravno polye outzama ; 

i.e. heaven sows itself with stars, and the wide plain with lambs. 
So in Pentam. 3, 5 (p. 310) : quanno esce la luna a pascere de 
rosata le galinelle (Pleiades). 

On shooting stars, see Humb. Kosmos 1, 393; they are called 
stern-furwe (-furbish), Mone 8, 497 ; Austr. stearn-raispn, clear 
ing the throat, stearn-schnaitzn, snuffing, Stelzh. 135 144; 
Gael, dreug, dreag. A star falls from heaven into the maiden s 
lap, Miillenh. p. 409 ; conf. non cadere in terram Stellas et 
sidera cernis? Lucr. 2, 209. They are harbingers of war, of 
dying, Klemm 2, 161 ; says the folksong : Over the Rhine three 
stars did fly, Three daughters of a widow die, Simrock no. 68. 
A comet is ON. hala-stiarna, Ir. boid-realt, tail-star, Ssk 



SKY AND STABS. 1507 

dliumaketu, fumi vexillum. The Indians call the tail elephant s 
tooth, the Chinese a broom, Kosmos 1, 106. In Procopius 1, 167 
the star is fi^i a?, sword-shaped, or Trcoycovlas, bearded. It fore 
tells misfortune ; hence f we name it the dreadful scourge of God/ 
zorn-rute, anger- rod, Lucae Chron. 249; et nunquam caelo 
spectatum impune cometen/ Claud. B. Get. 243, crine vago 247. 

p. 723.] The Greeks called Mercury 2ri\(3a)v, Jupiter 
Saturn 3>alva>v, Venus $<wo--^>6po9 = Luci-fer, and Mars 
five planets in all; conf. Cic. de Nat. D. 2, 20; so the third day 

of the week was Hvpoeis, the fourth ^riKftwv. The evening 

star was also called tier-stern, darumb daz die wilden tier dan 
her fur gent (wild beasts then go forth) auz iren walden und 
holern/ Oberl. 1639. Similar is the Lith. zwerinne fr. zweris, 
fera, Boh. zwjretnice, wild star, evening star ; conf. AS. swana 
steorra. Another Boh. name temnice, dim star, is like MHG. 
tunkelsterne. Welsh gweno, evening star, Venus. The Lith. 
has also waltaninne, evening star, auszrinne, morning star, beside 

zwerinne mazoyi for Mars, and zwerinne dideyi for Saturn. 

The day star, der lichte tage-sterre of Albr. v. Halb. (Haupt 
11, 366), is Serv. danitza, Boh. dennice, Russ. dennitza ; der 
bringe-tag in Scherfer s Grobian 75 is modelled on luci-fer. 
Der morgensterne, swenne er uf gat, und in des luftes triiebe lat, 
Iw. 627; der morgenstern frolockt relit, ob er brinne, Hatzl. 3 a ; 
ik forneme des morgensternes slack, Upstand. 750 ; some say 
the devil has taken the daystar captive, hence the cold and ill 

weather/ Gutslaf s Wohhanda p. 265. The polar star, ON. 

hiara-stiarna ; OHG. leite-sterre, loadstar, Graff 6, 723; MHG. 
leite-sterne, Trist. 13660, * also mer-sterne, stella maris, Griesh. 
2, 13 ; cathlinn der flu t in Oisian 2, 334 ; in 0. v. 17, 31 Polonan 
then stetigon/ nom. Poloni ? conf. polunoci [pure Slav, for mid 
night !] = septentriones, Graff 3, 334. The Lapp. tjuold = p&\as 
and stella polaris, because it stands firm as a stake; Americ. 
ichka chagatha, star that goes not, Klemm 2, 161. 

p. 724.] Ace. to Ssem. 76 a it was Thorr, not OSinn, that threw 
Thiassi s eyes into the sky. Theodosius was changed into a star, 
Claud, de 3 cons. Hon. 172, de 4 cons. 428. John the Baptist s 

1 Leyt-gestirn in the Wetterau (Hofer s D. ark. 60. Schmidt s Gesch. d. grossh. 
Hessen 1, 241) is spelt in the Cod. Lauresh. 312830. 249. 250-2 Leit-kestre, 
Leit-castre, Leiz-castro, and has therefore nothing to do with star. 



1508 SKY AND STARS. 

head was placed in the sky (p. 284-5), so was that of Rahu, 
Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 151. 

p. 725.] Ssk. Txas pi., the shiners (the 7 sages), rxas sing.,, 
the shiner = ap/cros. Indra s car is made of the seven sages; 
the constell. may also be called vdhanam, waggon, Kuhn in 
Hofer 1, 159. 161. Holtzm. Ind. s. 1, 30. The Grt Bear repres. 
the British Arthur (confounded with Arcturus), and the Lyre is 
his harp, Davies s Mythol. p. 187. All the luminaries ride in 
cars: Muna rotigerae vagationis/ Kemble 5, 195 (yr. 931). 
Charles wain is over the chimney, 1 Henry IV. 2, 1 ; der wagen 
ist ob dem hus, Keisersb. Brosaml. 70 e ; der himelswagen schon 
die deichsel riickwiirts drehet, Scherfer s Grobian ed. 1708, p. 72. 
An 0. Belg. riddle asks who it is that has to go round on the 
Roodestraat all night in a coach without horses, and appears in 
the morning : Bruno heeft een koets ghemaekt Op vier wielen, 
zonder peerden ; Bruno heeft een koets gheinaekt, Die alleen 
naer Brussel gaet; meaning the coach in the sky, Ann. de la 
Soc. d emul. de la Flandre occid. 42, 4, 368. Geticum plau- 
strum, Claud, de B. Get. 247 ; and Alanus ab Insulis (d. 1202) 
in his Anti-Claudian makes allegorical females construct a 
heavenly car, Cramer s Gesch. d. erzieh. p. 204. Festus sub v. 
septentriones, septem boves juncti. Varro 7, 74 : boves et temo. 
Ov. Met. 10, 447. Ex Ponto iv. 10, 39 : plaustmm. Gl. slettst. 
1, 2: Virgilias, sibinstirne ; and 6, 392. 479: Majae, Pliadas, 

sibinstirnes. Ir. griogclian, a constell. ; Gael, grigirean, Charles 

wain, otherw. crann, crannarain (p. 729 n.) ; griglean, griglean 
meanmnach, grioglachan, Pleiades. Ir. camcheachta, plough, 
ploughshare, seven stars of the wain. Finn, otava or otavainen, 
ursa major, is distingu. fr. vdha otava, ursa minor ; yet otava can 
hardly belong to ohto (ursus). In Kalev. 28, 393-4 otavainen and 
seitsentdhtinen (seven stars) are used as if synonymous, and both 
have shoulders. The Lapp, sarw is both alces, elk, and ursa 
major ; in Ostiak too the constell. is called los, elk (Klemin 3, 
128), and has a head and tail. In Greenl. it is tukto, reindeer, 
Klemin 2, 314. Fabricius 504 b . In American, iclika sliaclipo is 
supposed to be an ermine with its hole, its head, feet and tail, 
Klemm 2, 161. The Arabs call the two end stars of the bear s 
tail mizar and benetnash, and the third, which is the pole of the 
wain, alioth; the remaining four make the axles. 



SKY AND STAES. 1509 

p. 727.] Orion s belt, Lat. jugvla, jugulae: f nec Jugulae, 
neque Yesperugo, neque Vergiliae occidunt/ Plant. A. i. 1, 119; 
also ensis and ensi/er, Forcell. sub v. ensis : nitidumque Orionis 
ensem, Ov. Met. 13, 294. In Westgotl. Frigge-rakken and 
Jacobs staf; ON. fiskikallar, F. Magn. Dag. tid. 105. Orion 
constell. a rusticis vocatur baculus S. Petri, a quibusdam vero 
tres Hariae, Gl. Augiens. in Mone 8, 397; in Schleswig Mori-rok 
and Peri-pik, Mullenh. no. 484. Finn. Kalevan miekka, Kalevae 
ensis, also Vdindmoisen miekka or vikate (sithe), Schiefn. on Cas- 
tren p. 329 ; Lapp, niall, nialla, which usually means taberna, 
repositorium; in Greenl. the belt is named sicktut, the bewildered, 
being seal-hunters who lost their way, and were caught up and 
set among the stars, Klemm 2, 314; conf. the Lappish legend 
about the Pleiades, below. 

p. 729.] Of the 7 Pleiads only six are ever seen, Humb. 
Kosm. 3, 65 ; quae septern dici, sex tamen esse solent,. Ov. Fast. 
4, 171 (see p. 728 n.). AS. GL < pliadas, sifunsterri, Oeliler 359. 
Fr. I estoille poussiniere, Rabelais 1, 53 ; las couzigneiros, Diet. 
Languedoc. 127. The Hung., beside fiastik, has heteveny. In 
Serv. march, pp. 15 and 87 appears a girl with the golden hen 
and chickens, conf. Vuk no. 10 ; the Wallach. story tells of a gold 
cluck-hen and five chicks, Schott p. 242. l Syryiin. voykodzyun, 
lit. night-star. The Lith. and Finn, notion of the constellation 
being a sieve reminds ine of Lucian s Timon 3, where the quak 
ing earth is compared to a shaken sieve. The Pleiades are 

called in Norweg. Lapp, nieid-gierreg, fr. nieid = virgo, and 
gierreg = samling af en rets besiddere ; but in Swed. Lapp. 
suttjenes rauko (Lindahl 406. 443 b ), i.e. fur in frost : the sky, 
taking pity on a man whom his master had turned out of the 
house in the depth of winter, covered him with this constellation 
(F. Magn. in Dag. tider p. 103 gives tjokka = heart, which Lin 
dahl has not under tsakke). Greenl. kellukturset, hounds baiting 
a bear, Klemm 2, 314. Fabricius 188 a ; conf. Welsh y twr tewdws, 
the close pack, i.e. Pleiades, and eburdrung (p. 727). The Amer. 

Indians worship this constell., Klemm 2, 112. 153. 173. 

Similar to the Lith. name for the Kids, viz. ploughman and 

1 The lost lamb is looked for at the morningstar, eveningstar, moon and sun, 
Lith. in Khesa p. 290-1-2 ; conf. p. 707-8, and coming to the sun, and asking him, 
Hym. in Cerer. 64. 



1510 SKY AND STAES. 

oxen/ is the Serv. voluyara (fr. vol, ox ?), a star that ploughmen 
know, for when it rises they look out for their oxen. Cassiopeia 
is Lith. jostandis, no doubt fr. josta, girdle. The Hyades, AS. 
raedgastran. Lye: the five in the head of Taurus ; raedgaesnan, 
Gl. Epin., redgaesrum, Gl. Oehl. p. 336. The Lyre, Boh. haus- 
licky na nebi, fiddle in the sky. 

p. 731.] The constellation of the Bear is made out from the 
animal s head, back and tail. A star with the shape of a child, 
Pass. 24, 30 seq. ; conf. the sun as a spindle (Suppl. to 703 mid.). 
Most natural of all was the making of stars out of beaming eyes 
(p. 565-6-8), as in the story of Thiassi and the New Zealand one, 
Klemm 4, 354-5. 388. 

The northern lights (aurora borealis) are called heerbrand, heer- 
scliein, Frommann 4, 114 (Suppl. to 703 beg.) ; Swed. norr-sken, 
Dan. nord-lys ; Gael, firchlis, na fir chli.se, the merry dancers, 
Welsh y goleuny gogleddol. Finn, the fox s fire ; conf. Gesta 
Rom. c. 78, and note to Keller s Sept sages ccxx. 

p. 734.] On names of the rainbow, see Pott in Aufr. and 
Kutm s Zts. 2, 414 seq. The ON. As-bm is OS. Osna-brugga, 
Massm. Egsterst. 34. Zeuss p. 11; regenbogen-fcn /c&e, Firmen. 
2, 45. Tr. and Gael, blogha braoin, Carraigth. 54. The ON. 
bruar-spordr, bridge s tail, is further illustr. by a MHG. sporten, 
caudae vulpium, Griesh. 1, 125. 2, 42. The rainbow is called a 
messenger in Fornm. sog. 9, 518 : grarr regen-frocTi Hnikars sto$ 
a grimuium Gondlar hinni ]?egna. Pliny 24, 1 3 (69) : coelestis 
arcus in fruticem innixus ; more plainly 12, 24 (52) : f tradunt, 
in quocunque frutice curvetur arcus coelestis, eandem quae sit 
aspalathi snavitatem odoris existere, sed si in aspalatho, inenar- 
rabilem quandam ; and 17, 5 (3) : terrae odor ... in quo loco 
arcus coel. dejecerit capita sua. Another superstition is, that a 

treasure lies hidden at the foot of the rainbow, Panzer 1, 29. 

Duller p. 35 cites the name wetter-maal (county Guttenstein), 
which I find nowhere else; regenboum = iris, Gl. Sletst. 39, 320. 
Finn., beside taivaan-kaari, heaven s bow, has vesi-Jcaari, water 
bow, Ukon-lc., sateen-k., rain bow. To the Greenlander the rain 
bow is the hem of a god s garment, Klemm 2, 327. The Poles 
have d^ga, bow, corresp. to Russ. Serv. duga, but not in the 
sense of iris, which they call tecza. The Lettic has also deeva 
yohsta, Bergm. p. 124, and the Lith. dangaus szlota, heaven s 



DAT AND NIGHT. 1511 

broom. Schmeller 2, 196 has die himel-blue, rainbow/ conf. 
Iris, who gives her name to -both rainbow and flower (Perunika, 
Suppl. to 1216 n.). Ssk. Indri telum, Bopp 43 a . The Tartars 
make a feast when the rainbow appears, Kurd Schlozer p. 11. 

The Pohjan-daughter sits on the air-bow (ilman wempele), the 
sky-bow (taiwon kaari), weaving, Kalev. rune 3 beg. There also 
sit the sun (Paivatar) and moon (Kuutar), to listen to the song 
of Wainiimoinen 22, 17, spinning gold the while, till the spindles 
drop out of their hands 26, 296. Ammian. Marcell. lib. xx., end : 
Et quoniam est signum permutationis aurae . . . igitur apud 
poetas legimus saepe, Trim de coelo mitti, cum praesentium rerum 
verti necesse sit status/ 



CHAPTER XXIII. 
DAY AND NIGHT. 



p. 737.] On the origin of rjpap, rjpepa, Bopp thinks differently, 
see Gr. 505. With Dagr as a mythical person conf. Baldseg, 
Swefda3g; of his son [or father] Dellingr it is said in Fornald. 
sog. 1, 468 : e uti fyri Dellings dyrum/ under the open sky. The 
Edda makes night precede and produce day, conf. f nox ducere 
diem videtur, Tac. Germ. 11. 

In spite of Benfey, the Ssk. nis and nakt seem to belong to 
one root. In GDS. 905 I have traced our nacht to nahan. The 
Ssk. rajani seems akin to Goth, riqis, Ir. reag, AS. racu (p. 813 
end). Other word^ for night : Ir. oidhche, aidclie, Zeuss 257, 
Gael, oiche ; Finn, yd, Est. o, Hung, ej, Lapp, iya, ya ; Basq. 
gaiia, gauba, arratsa, zaroa. The Greek language has a separate 
name, VVKTOS ayLtoA/yo?, for the last third of the night, when 
dreams are true (p. 1146 mid.); [but also the first third, when 
Hesperus shines, II. 22, 317]. 

p. 737.] Day and night are holy : 770)? S?a, Od. 9, 151. 306; 
mit Got und dem lieiligen tag, Hpt s Ztschr. 7, 536-7; so mir der 
heilige dach ! 107,46. 109, 19; so mir Got u. dat heilge licht ! 
254, 19; so mir dat heilige licht! 57, 1. 105, 30; summer (so 
mir) der dach, der uns alien geve licht! 14, 50. 119, 1. 69, 21; 
God ind der gode dach 7, 41. 21, 40. 65, 55; so mir der gode 
dach, so uch der g. d. ! 33, 39. 219, 62; durch den guden dach 



1512 DAY AND NIGHT. 

69, 21. 196, 3. 312, 63; so mir der guote tac ! Ges. Abent. 3, 
227 ; als mir helf der g. t. ! 3, 243 ; dor dere van den goden dage, 
Lane. 44948; bi Grode ende bi den goeden dage, Walew. 155; 
Reinaert, coming out of his hole, quedde den schonen dach , 
Eein. 2332; "Saint Jourdhuy/ Theatre Fran^ 2, 47; qui parati 
sunt diei maledicere, MB. 26, 9 (n. 1256), conf. we geschehe dir 
(woe betide thee), Tac, daz du mich last bi Hebe langer bliben 
niht! Walth. 88, 16. Of a piece with the above adjurations is 
our as sure as the day stands in heaven ; OHG. theist giwis io 
so dag, 0. v. 12, 33; MHG. ich weiz ez warez als den tac, Trist. 
6646 ; daz ist war so der tac/ Diemer 78, 8. 

p. 738.] Day appears as a personality independent of the sun: 
Awake the god of day/ Harnl. 1, 1; < hoer tag, den nieman 
bergen kan/ Spiegel after Altsw. 191; quasi senex tabescit dies, 
Plaut. Stich. v. 1, 8, conf. the Plautian phrase diem com- 
burere ; mit molten den tag austragen, Burc. Waldis 272 b ; eya, 
tach, weres du veile, Haupt 1, 27; herre, wa is (how goes) der 
tach? En. 297, 18; ez was hohe uf der tach 300, 13; waz wizet 
mir der tach (got to say against me), daz er niene wil koinen? 335, 
14; alt und junge wanden, daz von im der ander tac erschine, 
Parz. 228, 5. 

Uchaisravas, the heavenly steed of day, emerges from the 
ocean, Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 138140. 

Hunc utinam nitidi Solis praenuntius ortum 

afferat admisso Lucifer albus equo. Ov. Trist. iii. 5, 55. 

AviKd Ttep TG 7TOT (M.pCLVOV GTpeyOV tTTTTOt 

Aw -rav poBoTra^vv CLTT fliceavolo fapoivcu. Theocr. 2, 174. 

The shining mane of day agrees with the ancient notion that 
rays of light were hairs; Claudian in Prob. et Olybr. 3 addresses 
the sun ; 

Sparge diem meliore coma, erinemque repexi 
blandius elato surgant temone jugales, 
efflantes roseum frenis spumantibus ignem ! 

Compare too the expression Donnerstags-pferd, Thursday s horse, 
p. 738.] The sun rises : er sol rann up, Fornm. s. 8, 114. 

Sv. folks. 1, 154. 240. Vilk. s. 310; rinnet ufe der sunne, Diem! 

5, 28 ; errinnet 362, 26; der sunne von dir ist uz gerunnen, MS. 

1, 28 a . Lith. utzteka saule, up flows the sun, fr. teketi; light 



DAT AND NIGHT. 1513 

also flows and melts asunder, conf. des tages in zeran, Wigam. 
3840. Morne, da diu sunne iifgat, u. sich iiber alle berge lat/ 
Dietr. drach. 345 b ; swa si vor dem berge ufgdt, MS. 1, 193 b , 
conf. M. Neth. baren, ontpluken (Suppl. to 743) ; e diu sunne 
ufstige, climb up, Dietr. dr. 150 a ; dei sunne sticht hervor, Soester- 
fehde (in Emmingh.) 664; die sonne begonste risen. Rein. 1323; 
li solauz est levez, et li jors essauciez, Guitecl. 1, 241; des 
morgens, do de sunne warty came to be, Valent. u. Namel. 243 b ; 
wan dei sunne anquamf arrived, Soester-f. (in Em.) 673, bricht 
an 627. 682; f diu sunne ufirat, stept up, Mar. leg. 175, 47. 60; 
.de sonne haven de bane quam, Val. u. Nam. 257 b ; diu sunne 
was uf ho, Frauend. 340, 29 ; bi wachender sunnen, Keyserrecht. 
Endemann p. 26. 

p. 740.] Er sach die sonne sinJcen, Lane. 16237 ; diu sunne 
under sane, Pass. 36, 40; die sonne sane, soe yhinc onder, also 
soe dicke hevet ghedaen, Walew. 6110 ; so der sunne hinder gegdt 
(LG. hintergegangen ?), MS. 2, 192 b ; von der sunnen ufgange u. 
zuogange, Griesh. 2, 23; hinz diu sunne zuo gie (vvent-to) 122; 
do diu sunne nider gie (went down), Nib. 556, 1 ; diu sunne was 
ze tal gesigen (sunk), Wh. 447, 9; ouch siget diu sunne sere gegen 
der abentzite (sinks low toward eventide), Trist. 2512 ; alse die 
sonne dalen began, Lane. 16506; alse hi di sonne dalen sach, 
Maerl. 3, 197; e sich diu sun geneiget (stooped), MSH. 3, 212 a ; 
zu dal di sunne was genigen, Diut. 1, 351 ; des abends do sich 
undersluoc diu sunne mit ir glaste, Pass. 267, 51 ; diu sunne ie 
zu ze tale sclioz (downward shot), Alb. v. Halb. (Haupt 11, 365) ; 
der sunne ze abent verscein, Rol. 107, 23. Ksrchr. 7407; = die 
sunne iren sclrin verluset (loses her sheen), Keyserr. Endem. 

p. 210; metter sonnen-scede (discessu), Limborch 8, 206. On 

coucher, colcar, collocare, solsatire, see RA. 817 : einz vif soleil 
cochant, Aspr. 39 b ; c und solar siot, till set of sun, Sa3in. 179 b ; 
untaz siu sizzit/ until she sitteth, Fragrn. 29, 14; e die sonne 
gesdsse, Weisth. 2, 453 ; bis die sonne gesitzt 2, 490 ; in sedil gdn 
= obire, Dint. 2, 319 a . 

(Sunne) gewited on west-rodor, Cod. Exon. 350, 23 ; west cn- 
hylde swegelbeorht hinne setl-gonges fus 1 74, 32 ; bis die sonne 
wider der forste gibel schinet, Weisth. 3, 498. Norw. solen be- 
gyndte at helde mod aas-randen, Asb. Huldr. 1, 1, and f solen stod 
i aas-kanten, 1, 27, went towards, stood at, aas s edge; for this 



1514 DAY AND NIGHT. 

and for gidhamarr, conf. F. Magn. Dagens tider p. 15 and Bopp s 
Gl. 25 b : Asia, nomen montis occidentalis, ultra quern solem occi- 
dere creduut ; it came to mean sunset, and at last any downfall : 
Day sinks behind the best of mountains, Ast, Kuruinge 563. 
1718. 2393. Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 183-4. (Pott in his Zahlmeth. 
264 derives asta, sunset, fr. as = dejicere, ponere); diu sunne an 
daz gebirge gie/ Ecke 110; eri, f-lvai r\\iov eVt rot? opecn, KOI 
ovTTQ) SebvKevai, Plato s Phasdo 116; ichn geloube niemer me, daz 
sunne von My eerie ge, Trist. 8283 (Mycenaa in Argolis, Sickler 
p. m. 283-4). In a rocky valley of Switzerland, at a certain hour 
once a year, the sun shines through a hole in tJte mountain-wall, 
and illumines a church-steeple ; conf. the sun shining into Belsen 

church, Meier s Schwab, sag. 297. f D6 diu sunne ze gaden 

solde gan, Morolt 1402 ; de sunne geit to gade, Brem. wtb. 1, 
474 ; r/Xto? KOi/jLarai, Wieselgr. 414 ; de sunne woll to bedde, 
Firmen. 1, 329. M. Neth. die sonne vaert henen thaerre rusten 
waert/ Maerl. 3, 124; umb jede abendzeit, ehe die sonne zu kause 
kompt, Brehme B. l a ; ( Moidla (girls), geit hoim ! Die sun geit 

no ; Kriegt koene koen tanzer, Wos steit ihr den do ? Eh 

die sonne zu genaden get/ Weisth. 1, 744. 2, 492 ; e die sunne 
under zu genaden gienge 3, 510. Does the Goth, remi-sol, rimi- 
sauil, mean the sun at rest ? Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 540 ; quant li 
solaus ganchi (tottered), Mort de Garin 144. Note the phrase in 
Walewein 8725 : Doe begonste die sonne gaen Te Gode van den 
avonde saen; conf. Esth. paiiw lahhab loya/ the sun goes to his 
Maker = sets. The light of sunset is thus expr. in MHG. : diu 
sunne z dbunde schein to evening shone, Karl 3525. 

p. 742.] ON. glaffr = nitens and laetus, and we say beaming 
with joy ; so the beaming sun is called Glens beftja Gu&-bliff, 
God-blithe, Edda Sn. Hafn. 1, 330. Sunnenfroli (or Sunnenfro, 
Mohr s Reg. v. Fraubrunnen no. 381, yr 1429) may mean f glad 
as the sun/ or ( of the sun/ as in Boner 66, 42. A maiden in a 
Swed. song is named Sol-fagr, var. Solfot, Arfv. 1, 177. 180; at 
gladja sig = to set, Sv. afvent. 342. At evening the sun s bow 
goes to joy : illalla ilolwn, Kalev. 27, 277. Ace. to Hagen s 
Germ. 2, 689 the sun has a golden bed, lies, sleeps on gold : als 
di sonne in golt geit, Arnsb. urk. no. 824, yr 1355; gieng die 
sonn im gold, Giinther 783 ; de sunne ging to golde, Ges. Abent. 
2, 319 ; singt als die sonne fast zu golde wolde gehn, Scherfer 



DAY AND NIGHT. 1515 

195. - The sun in rising out of the sea, crackles, Ossian 3, 131 ; 
and the image of the zolota bdba (golden granny) utters tones, 
Hanusch p. 167 ; like Memnon s statue, Lucian s Philops. 33. 

p. 743.] Cannes (the sun) dips in the sea every evening, 
Hitzig s Philist. 218. 

9 Hfio? & 776X^09 fjLTvla-o-To j3ov\vr6i>8e, Od. 9, 58. II. 16, 779. 
JTeXi09 /J.6V 7TLTa veov 
ef aKa\appeirao ffaOuppoov ^ 
ovpavov elvaviw, II. 7, 421. Od. 19, 433. 
8* avopowe, XtTrcbr 7repLfca\\ea 

69 7TO\V%a\KOV, Od. 3, 1. 



Occiduo lota pro/undo sidera mergi, N. 221. Sage me, for 
hwam seine seo sunne swa reade on aerne morgen? Ic j?e secge, 
for ]?am ]?e heo cymS up of ficere see, Altd. bl. 1, 190 ; nu gengr 
sol i egi, Alex, saga p. 163. The sun bathes at night, Hpt s 
Ztschr. 4, 389. N. Pr. prov. bl. 1, 298 ; do begund ez werden 
naht, und sleicli diu sunne nach ir aht umbe daz norden-mere } als 
e/ crept round the northern sea, Geo. 6001 ; weil die sonne m e- 
dertun~kt, Schmidt v. Wern. 184. - But the sun also goes into 
the forest. Swed. solen gar i sJcogen : sol gatt i skog, Folks. 1, 
155 ; nar sol gick i skog, Cavall. 1,96; sif>an sol ar undi vifii, 
got behind the trees, Oestg. 175 (F. Magn. Lex., sub v. landvidi, 
gives a differ, explan. of vide, vi)?i) ; na nu ned, du sol, i gr-an- 
skog, Kalev. Castr. 2, 57. Finn, kule (kulki) paiwa kuusikolle ! 
Kalev. 19, 386. 412 ; conf. Not yet the mountain, but only those 
houses are hiding the sunshine/ Goethe s Eleg. What means 
bis die sonne uf den peinapfel kommt/ (Weisth. 3, 791) ? till he 
gilds the fir cone ? 

Unz sich der tac ufmachte, Hagen s Ges. Abent. 2, 367 ; der 
tac der sleicli in (crept to them) balde zuo, MS. 1, 171 b ; der tac 
der scldeiclit wie ein dieb, Hatzl. 23 a ; der tac nahen begunde 
nach sinem alten vunde, Tiirl. W. 1 2o a ; die dach quam, die niet 
onstont, Maerl. 2, 236, so that he never stands still. The day 
says : I fare away, and leave thee here/ Uhl. 169; der tac wil 
niht erwinden (turn back, leave off), Wolfr. 8, 18 ; der morgen 
niht erwinden wil, den tac nieman erwenden (keep off) kan, MS. 1, 
90 b . Do der tac erschein, shone out, Parz. 428, 13. 129, 15 ; d. 
d. t. vol erschein, Er. 623; der tac sich schouwen liez, Livl. 3299; 



1516 DAY AND NIGHT. 

do der morgen sich nf-liez, und si sin entsuoben, Pass. 30, 79 ; sich 
der tac entsloz (unlocked), Urstende 118, 61 ; der tac sich uz den 
wolken bot, Tiirl. Wh. 67 a ; do si gesahen den morgen rait sime 
liehte uf stricken, die vinstre naht entwichen von des sunnen 
morgenrot, Pass. 36, 51 ; der tac Wife schitere (thin), Serv. 3237. 
Dagervar ljus, Sv. folks. 1, 129. La nuis sen va, efc li jors es- 

clari, Garins 2, 203. Der tac sich anzundetf kindles, Hatzl. 

36 a ; dat hi den dach sach baren, Walevvein 384 ; die men scone 
baren sach, Karel 1, 376. 2, 1306. 594; dat menne (den dach) 
baren sach 2, 3579, der tac sich hete erbart, Eracl. 4674 : sach 
verbaren den sconen dach, Lane. 44532. 45350. Also ontpluken : 
ontploc haer herfce alse die dach/ her heart flew open like the 
day, Karel 1, 1166. Walew. 3320. 7762; conf. f sin herte ver- 
liclde als die dach/ Walew. 9448 ; ontspra/nc die dach, Karel 2, 
593; die dach uten hemcle spranc, Walew. 6777. 4885; Fr. Me 
jour jaillit ; mocht der tac lierspriessen, Hofm. Gesellsch. 59 ; 
Lett. deena, plaukst, sprouts, buds. The day stirs: dag rinil, 

0. i. 1 1, 49 ; naht rinit, 0. iii. 20, 15 ; lioht rinit, 0. i. 15, 19. ii. 

1, 47. The day is rich, powerful : guotes ist er niht riche(r) 
wan als des liehtes der tac, than the day is of light, Cod. Vind. 
428, no. 212 ; reicker dan der tac, Uhl. 1, 196. Other expres 
sions for daybreak : die Nacht die weiclit gives way, Lb. 1582. 
42; Niht forS gewat, Cod. Exon. 412, 12; diu nacht gemachlich 
ende nam, Frauend. 485, 1 1 ; uns ist diu naht von liinnen, Wolfr. 
Lied. 8, 16; unz uns diu naht gerumet, Hahn s Strieker 10, 35 ; 
so lange bis die schmiede pinken, u. der tag sich wieder vor- 
zeiget, Ettner s Vade et occide Cain, p. 9. It is finelv said in 
the Nib. 1564, 2 : unz daz (until) diu sunne ir liehtez schinen 
lot (held out) dem morgen iiber berge ; als der morgenrot der 
vinstern erde lieht erbot, Mar. 169, 28; unz der ander morgenrot 
der werlde daz lieht bot, Serv. 1839 ; ouch schein nu schiere der 
morgenrot, den diu sunne sante durch vreude viir (Dawn, whom 
the sun sent before him for joy) daz er vreudenriche kiir vogeln 
u. bluomen brahte, Tiirl. Wh. 69 a . Simpler phrases are : do 
begundez liuhten vome tage, Parz. 588, 8 ; gein tage die vogele 
sungen, Mai 46, 16. For descrying the dawn they said : nu 
kius ich den tac/ choose, pick out, espy, Walth. 89, 18 ; kos den 
morgen lieht 88, 12 ; den morgenblic erkos, Wolfr. Lied. 3, 1 ; 
als man sich des tages entste, Wigal. 5544. 



DAY AND NIGHT. 1517 

p. 744.] Day is like a neighing steed : 
Velox Aurorae nuntius Aether 

quifugat hinnitu stellas. Claudian s 4 cons. Hon. 561. 
He cleaves the clouds : der tac die wolken spielt (split), MS. 2, 
167 a . So the crow with flapping of her wings divides the night, 
lets in the light ; with her and the AS. Dceg-hrefn we may assoc. 
the ON. names Dag-hvelp (quasi young day) and Dag-ulf, For- 
stem. 1, 328. 

p. 744.] Day is beautiful : beau comme le jour, plus beau 
que le jour ; ils croissoient comme le jour, D Aulnoi s Cab. des 
f. 243; wahsen als der tac, S. Uolr. 328. So der morgen enstat, 
Herb. 8482 ; do der tac werden began, En. 11280; die naht let, 
ende het waert dach, Karel 2, 1305 (conf. die nacht let, die hem 
verwies, Floris 1934) ; der tac ist vorhanden (here, forthcom 
ing), Simpl. 1, 528; do gienc uf der tac (went up), Wh. 71, 20 
[Similar examples omitted] ; unze iz beginne ufgan, Diem. 174, 
5 ; es giengen nicht 14 tage in s land, Schelmufsky, conf. p. 633 a ; 
der tac gat von Kriechen, MSH. 3, 426 a . Diu naht gie hin, der 
tac herzuo (or, der morgen her, der morgen quam, Pass. 47, 89. 

329, 53. 307, 68 [Similar ex. om.]. Day comes rapidly: 

comes upon the neck of you, Dobel 1, 37 a ; an trat der ostertac, 
Pass. 262, 16 ; als der sun tac an gelief 243, 1 ; do der ander 
morgen uf ran, Serv. 3410 ; der tac geflozzen kam, Troj. kr. 29651 ; 
der tac kommt stolken, Hatzl. 26 b ; der tac kam einher walken 28* ; 
er die mane sinke neder, ende op weder rise die dach, Karel 2, 
1194. He pushes his way up : do dranc uf der tac, Rosen-g. 627 ; 
begunde uf dringen, etc. [Similar ex. om.] ; do siben tage vor- 
drungen, Kolocz 1 62 ; des tages wize ostern durch diu wolken 
dranc, Wigal. 10861. He is up : des morgens, do der tac uf 
was, Fragm. 41 C ; nu was wol uf der tac, En. 7252 ; ez was hohe 
uf den tac 11146 ; do was ez verve uf den tac 10334. 

p. 745.] The day may be hindered from breaking : What 
have I done to the day ? Who has led him astray ? En. 1384 ; 
H. Sachs iii. 3, 68 a (ed. 1561), 48 d (ed. 1588) says of a day- 
stealer (idler) : wilt den tag in der multer umbtragen ? carry 
him about in thy trough, OHGr. muoltra. There is a key to the 
day, Sv. vis. 2, 214. Vlaemsche lied. p. 173 ; the key of day is 
thrown into the river, Uhl. 171 ; Had I the day under lock and 
key, So close a prisoner he should be 169 (conf. the day s 

VOL. IV. E 



1518 DAY AND NIGHT. 

answer). The sun is caught in a noose, he cannot continue his 
journey, and has to be ransomed, Kleram 2, 156. 

A phrase used in Wirzburg comes very near the Romance 
poindre : der tag spitzt sich schon/ points, perks, pricks itself 
up, H. M tiller s Griechenth. 44 ; Illyr. zora puca, the dawn shoots. 
With a la pointe du jour, conf. matineret a punta cV alba? Mila 
y Funtals 159. OHG. striza=jubar (sub ortu), Graff 6, 760; 
lucis diei spiculum in oriente conspiciens, Kemble no. 581, p. 106 ; 
der tac diewolken spielt, split the clouds (Suppl. to 744). 

p. 747.] The dawn is accompanied by noise, esp. by agitation 
of the air : ich waen ez tagen welle, sich hebet ein kiieler wint, 
Nib. 2059, 2 ; diu luft sich gein dem tage ziuhet (air is drawn 
towards day), diu naht im schier entfliuhet, Tiirl. Wh. 65 a . We 
must conn, aurora and avptov (morrow) with aura, avpa (breeze) ; 
and AS. morgen-sweg may be akin to swegel (p. 746). Sol ek 
sa driupa dyn-heimum i/ solem vidi mergi in oceano ? mundo 
sonoro ? Ssem. 125 b . The Hatzlerin 30 a speaks of the gewimmer 
(whine, moan, droning) of daybreak ; far an eirich gu fuai mear 
a grien o stuaidh nan ceann glas/ ubi oritur sonore sol a fluc- 
tibus capitum glaucorum, Tighmora 7, 422 ; Ssk. ravi means sol, 

rava sonus, ru sonare. Alba is the lux prima that precedes 

the blush of dawn, Niebuhr 2, 300 ; it is like Matuta, Leucothea. 
Burguy s Glossaire 350 a explains par son 3 before < Paube as 
par dessus, tout a la pointe ; It. suW alba. Our anbrechcn 
contains the idea of noise : daz der tac uf prach, Diemer 175, 7 ; 
de dach up Irak, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 399. Detm. 1, 50 [Sim. examp. 
om.] ; day breaks in through the windows, Felsenb. 3, 458 ; ich 
sihe den morgensterne uf brehen, MS. 1, 90 b , conf. Lith. brekszti, 
to glimmer, dawn ; erupit eras, Walthar. 402 ; Taube creva, Meon 
1, 291. The noise of daybreak is sometimes to be expl. by the 
song of the wakening birds : der tac wil uns erschellen, ring 
out, Ges. Abent. 1, 305 ; der siieze schal kunt in den tac, Mai 
93, 33 ; biz sie erschracte (startled them) der vogel-sanc 93, 32. 
With the Span. el alva se rie, conf. Turn. v. Nantes 42, 4 : 
diu sunne in dem himel smieret, smiles. Crepusculum pre 
supposes a crepus, which must belong to crepare, as i/re^o? murk 
is akin to -\Jr6</>o? noise, see Benfey 1, 617 seq. Bopp s Gl. 91. 

p. 748.] Bopp s Gl. 53 b connects uhtvo with ushas, from ush 
to burn, as alitau with ashtan ; die uclit is still used in Germ. 



DAY AND NIGHT. 1519 

Bohemia. Uhti-bita = orgia,, Gl. sletst. 6, 436, is explained by 
Wackernagel as dawn-petition, Haupt 5, 324. Diluculo is rend, 
in OHG. by: in demo unterluchelinge, Windb. ps. 260; fruo 
unterluchelingen 206 ; dagendeme, Ps. Trev. 206 ; an demo dalithe 
260; pilioihe, Dint. 1, 530 a . Falowendi, faloendi = crepusculum, 
Graff 3, 496-7 (falo = fulvus, pallidus) ; prima lace = in der urnich- 
den, Hor. Belg. 7, 36 b , for which AS. has woma (p. 745), beside 
glommung, dcegrim = crepusculum (may we connect f as de dach 
griemelde ? Fromman 4,265). ON. byrting ; and with dags- 
brun is conn, the Fr. female name Brun-matin = Aurora, Diet. 
2, 325, misspelt Brumatin, Meon 3, 447. MLG. dageringe 
diluculum, Detm. 1, 178. 2, 546. 

The personific. of Tagarod is also indicated by the men s 
names Daghared, Trad. Corb. 226, Dagrim 394. The word is 
fern, in Gotfr. Hagen 65 : an der dageroit ; but the masc. pre 
ponderates, both here and in morgenrot (see quotations from 
Mar., Servat., and Tiirl. Wh. in Suppl. to 743 end) ; yet die 
rotbriinstige morgenrot/ H. Sachs s Wittenb. nachtigal. Der 
tag graut/ turns grey, dawns ; conf. es graut mir/ it frightens 
me : des tages blic was dennoch gra, Parz. 800, 1. ( H/JLepa apfyl 
TO \v/cav<ye<; avrb, dies circa ipsum diluculum est, Lucian s 
Somn. 33 ; Arab, dhenebu-ssirhan, wolfs tail, the first glimmer 
of dawn, that sweeps over the sky, then disappears, leaving a 
deeper gloom behind, Kiickert s Hariri 1, 215. 

p. 748.] Does the obscure word morgen actually mean break 
fast ? Finn. murkina=jentaculum, breakfast- time. Morning, 
like day, climbs up and is high, hence the name of Dietrich 
der Hodimorgen, Kauch 1, 413. Greek avpiov opflpos, to-morrow 
morning; ftatiix; opdpos, Arist. Vesp. 216. Plato s Crito 43 and 
Prot. 310. Luke 24, 1. 

p. 748.] The sense of downward motion in abend is con 
firmed by c diu sunne begunde senken u. aben (sinking and 
offing) tegelich/ Heinz v. K. s Kitt. u. pf. 5. AS. cwild = 
conticinium, ON. qveld ; conf. Goth. anaqal = quies. ON. hum = 
crepusculum, AS. glom. The ON. rockur = crepusculum (p. 813) 
is in Swed. skymming, Dan. skumring, LG. sdiemmer, schummer- 
liclit ; conf. Boh. and Euss. sumrak, and the name Simrock [su- 
mrak, sii-merki = half-mirk, subtenebrae, fr. mrak, morok = 
mirk]. ON. skoera, twilight, Ola helg. s., ed. Christ. 47, 25. 



1520 DAY AND NIGHT. 

Diu tunJcle, evening twilight, Os w. 2013-71 ; OHG. tunchali, 
Graff 5, 435. Swed. tysmork, Dan. tusmorke crepusculum (p. 
814 n.). Vesperzit, so diu sunne schate git (gives shadow), Mar. 
158, 7; conf. Suaero r ^eXto?, cr/aoWro re iracrai ayviai, Od. 
11, 12. 15, 185. Twilight is also eulen-flucht, or simply eule, 
owl, Firmen. 1, 268. Si bian uf schone sara der abentrot, MS. 1, 
34 a . ON. qvoldroffi, aurora vespertina. Abentrot, der kiindet 
Inter mcere/ Walth. 30, 15. Modern: abendroth gut wetter 
bot/ or ab. bringt morgenbrot/ or der morgen grau, der abend 
roth, ist ein guter wetterbot/ Simrock s Spr. 20. 19. 7099. 
On the other hand : E vuyyeXo 5 fjuev, (oaTrep rj irapoifiCa, "Ecus 
yevoiro fjirjTpbs evfypovr)? Trdpa, Aesch. Agam. 264. 

p. 749.] S&k.usas aurora, dual usasa, Bopp s Gl. 53 b ; Lat. 
aurora for ausosa ; Att. ea><?, Ion. 770)9, Dor. ao>?, ^Eol. avw ; conf. 
Ostara (p. 290). The blush of dawn is expr. in Ssk. by narir, 
the virgins, Gott. anz. ; 47, p. 1482. In Theocr. 2, 147 the 
goddess rosy-armed is drawn by steeds (Suppl. to 738) ; con- 
stiteram exorientem auroram forte salutans, Cic. de Nat. D. 1, 
28 (conf. Creuzer p. 126). On the Slav. lutri-bogh as god of 
morning, see Myth. ed. 1, p. 349 n. 

p. 750.] The origin of Hennil, Hennil, wache ! in the Mark 
is still unexplained. Observe, that tales are told of Strong 
Hennel as of Strong Hans, and that honidlo, ace. to Wend. 
volksl. 2, 270% actually means a shepherd s staff. Like that 
shepherd in Dietmar, the Roman fetialis, when about to declare 
war, entered the sanctuary, and waved the shields and lance of 
the god s image, crying, Mars, vigila ! Hartung 2, 168. Serv. 

ad. Aen. 8, 3. Both in France and Germany the watchman, 

the vrone wehter (MSH. 3, 428 b ), blew the day in with his horn ; 
his songs were called tage-lieder, aubades. La gaite come, qui 
les chalemiaus tint/ Garin 1, 219; les gaites cornent desor le 
mur anti 2, 117. 158 ; la guete cuida que laube fust crevee, il tret 
lejor, et huche et crie, Meon 1, 195 ; et la guete ert desus la porte, 
devantlejor come etfretele 1, 200. Der wahtaere diu tage-liet 
(pi.) so lute erhaben hat/ Walth. 89. 35 (see Lachm. on W. p. 
202); den tac man Mndet dur diu horn (pi.), MS. 2, 190 b ; diu 
naht was ergangen, man seite ez wolde tagen, Nib. 980, 1 ; 
wahter hiiet hoh enbor, MS. 1, 90 b ; er erschelt ein horn an der 
stunt, damit tet er den liuten kunt des tages kunft gewalticlich, 



DAY AND NIGHT. 1521 

Ls. 3, 311. He cries : ich sich in her gdn (I see him come on), 
der mich wol erfrouwen mac, her gat der liehte schoene tac/ 
ibid. ; smerghens alse die wachter blies, Floris 1935 ; der uns den 
tag herblies, Liederb. of 1582. 28, anblies 238 ; der wechter blost 
an, Keisersp. Brosaml. 25 d ; the watchman blows the rest/ Eliz. of 
Orl. 502 ; the warder or hausmann blows the day off, he comes 
of himself, Drei Brzn. p. 443 ; der wechter ob dem hasten, the 
guard over the coach-boot. Did watchmen carry a mace called 
morgenstern ? see Hollberg s Ellefte Juni 5, 9. Frisch 1, 670 says 
it was invented in 1347. 

p. 750.] Day is beautiful and joyous : der tac schoen u. grise 
sin lieht beginnet meren, Troj. kr. 9173 ; daz lieht mit vreuden uf 
trat, Pass. 329, 54. On the contrary, das abendroth im westen 
welkt, fades, pales, Schm. v. Wern. 253. The morning star is 
harbinger of day (p. 752 n.) : daz im der tage-sterre vruo Imnte 
den tac, Ksrchr. 7885 ; ao-rrjp ayye\Xa)v <ao?, Od. 13, 94. 

Birds rejoice at his coming : rjvifca opviBes aa-wcri Trp&roi, 
Charon. Fragm. 34 b ; 6 opvus rrjv eo) /ca\wv, Athen. 4, 36: daz 
cleine siieze vogellin kan dingen (reckon) uf den morgenschin, u. 
sich des tages frouwen muoz, Troj. kr. 20309; nam diu naht ein 
ende, die vogel des niht wolden durch iemans freuden swende 
verswigen, wan sie sungen als sie solden (would for no man s 
pleasure hush, until, &c.), Tit. 5364; noch siiezer denne dem 
voglin morgens vrone, Frauenl. Ettm. p. 27 ; de voghel den dach 
smorghens groette, als hine sach, Eose 7832 (conf. den kleinen 
vogellin troumet uf esten, dream on the boughs, MS. 2, 166 b ). 
Cock-crow announces day : e^epyecrOat, rj&rj aXe/crpvovcov aSovrcov, 
Plato s Symp. 223 ; der han hat zwir (twice) gekraet, ez nahet 
gen dem morgen, MS. 2, 152 a ; as de hanens den dag inkreggeden 
(crowed-in), Lyra p. 114. 

p. 752.] The swift approach of Night, its falling, sinking, is 
expr. in many turns of speech: ez taget lane (slowly), u. nahtet 
drat, Teichn. 70 ; als die nacht mit aller gewalt (all her might) 
herein brach, Drei kliigste leute 146. That night breaks in, 
whereas day breaks forth, has been remarked by Pott 1, 236 ; yet 
Goethe says die nacht bricht an/ Faust 126 ; cum nox inrueret, 
Greg. Tur. 10, 24; wie die nacht herbrach, Katzip. ci b ; biss das 
der abend hereindrang (pressed in), Fischart s Gl. schif 1131; 
forth of each nook and corner crowds the night, Goethe ; do viel 



1522 DAT AND NIGHT. 

sin gaeher abent an, Trist. 314 ; dm naht nu sere zuo gdht, Turl. 
\Vh. 26 a ; die n. ruM mit gewalt ein, Maulaffe 569; die n. rasche 
quam, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 338 ; es schiesst (et schiitt, it shoots) in 
den abend, Schiitze 4, 33. Night came upon the neck of us, 
Ungr. Simpl. 65. Ettn. Apoth. 877; die n. stosst an, bumps 
against, Weisth. 1, 305; it was avent, de n. anstoet, Reineke 4, 
1. Niht becom, supervenit, Beow. 230; conf. efc o/cev e\0y 
SeteXo? 6-^e Svcov, crKidcrrj 8 epif3a>\ov dpovpav, II. 21, 231 ; r]^ 
yap teal 7rrj\vOe &eie\ov rj^ap, Od. 17, 606 ; as de avent in t lant 
kern, Miillenh. p. 201 ; trat de n. an, Weisth. 3, 87; die n. betritt 
ihn (tramples) 3, 457; conf. wan sie die n. betrift, hits 3, 785, 
and bis die dammerung eintirat, Felsenb. 4, 63. 2, 599, herein 
tritt, steps in 4, 144 ; die naht hinzuo geschreit, strode up to, 
Troj. kr. 10119; ndhet in diu naht/ nears them, Nib. 1756, 1; 
t en hadde die n. niet ane gegaen/ not come on, Karel 2, 934 ; do 
diu naht (der abent) ane gie, Lanz. 3210. Flore 3497. Dieiner 
27, 4. Frauend. 342, 30. Iw. 3904; gieng der abend her, Gotz 
v. Berl. 82 ; hie mite gienc der abent hin, u. diu naht heran lief 
(ran), Pass. 47, 84; diu vinstere n. her ouch swanc, als si in ir 
loufe lief 36, 41 ; als diu n. hin gelief 81, 86; diu n. kumt duher 
gem-nt, Dietr. drach. 336 b . 

Again, night sinks, bends, falls : der abent was zuo gesigen, 
Diut. 1, 351; ist diu naht lierzuo gesigen, Troj. kr. 11718; diu 
n. siget zuo, Dietr. drach. 154 a ; uns siget balde zuo diu n., Lanz. 
709; diu n. begunde sigen an, Morolt 1620. 3963; diu n. siget 
an, Dietr. dr. 327 b ; diu n. vast uf uns neiget (bends), Hatzl. 

192, 112. Or day sinks, and night climbs : do der tac hin 

8eic f diu n. herzuo steic, Dietr. 9695 ; biz der dach nider begunde 
sigen, inde die nacht up-stigen, Karlmeinet p. 18; li jours va a 
declin, si aproche la nuit, Berte 54; li jors sen va, et la nuis 
asseri, Garins 2, 157 ; la nuiz va aprochant, si declina le jor, 
Guitecl. 2, 1 69 ; nu begund diu sunne sigen, u. der abentsterne 
xtigen, Zwei koufm. 180; ez begunde sigen der tac, Er. 221; 
a la brune, a la chute du jour. Similar are the phrases : der tac 
was iezuo hin getreten, Pass. 27, 7; der tag gieng zu dem abend, 
Uhl. 1, 246; conf. dagr var a sinnum, inclined to evening, 
Saem. 104 b . In the same way : der tac hiemit ein ende nam, 
diu vinster naht mit triiebe kam, Pass. 19, 3; der tac sleich 
hin, u. kam diu naht, Freib. Trist. 4705 ; ja swant (vanished) 



DAY AND NIGHT. 1523 

der tac, u. wuoJis (grew) diu naht, Heinz v. Konst. Ritt. u. pf. 
7; conf. Lat. adulta nocte; do der tac verswant, G. frau 2013. 
2427; LG. Mie lett dagen u. swinen, schemmern u. dagen/ 
Strodtm. 200. 238. Brem. wtb. 4, 634; d6 der tac zerstoeret 
wart von der vinsternisse groz, u. diu n. herzuo gefloz, came 
flowing up, Troj. kr. 10489 ; der tac gefluze bin 8519; do der t. 
was ergdn, Dieiner 149, 25; als der t. was gelegen, lain down, 
Ernst 4679 ; f do der t. lie sinen schtn, let be, left off , Troj. kr. 
11095 ; der t. sin wunne verldt, his bliss forsakes, MS. 2, 192 b ; 
der t. sin lieht verldt 2, 496 b ; der t. Idt sinen glast, Troj. kr. 
8480 ; do des tages lieht verswein, Barl. 368, 3 ; sr&San oefen- 
leolit under heofenes hador beholen weorSe$, Beow. 821 ; der tac 
gieng mit freuden hin, do diu naht ir triieben schin iiber ai 
die werlt gespreite, Gerh. 4931 ; asfenscima ford gewdt, Casdm. 
147, 30; der tac begerte urloubes (took leave) mit liuhte, Tit. 
3743. 

Night catches, grasps: diu naht begrifet, Tit. 3752. Dietr. 
dr. 97 a . Heinr. Trist. 4650; die nacht hevet mi hier begrepen, 
Maerl. 3, 157; unz si begreif diu naht, Wolfd. 302, 1; unz daz 
si da diu n. begreif, Mai 39, 5 ; die nacht kompt geslicken, Ld. 
1 582, 53. Night covers, spreads her mantle : ]?a com asfter 
niht on last daege, lagu-streauias ivredh, Caedm. 147, 32; f ja 
waene diu n. welle uns nicht wern mer/ will not guard us more, 
Nib. 1787, 2; die nacht war fur augen, Drei kluge leute 147; 
evening was at the door, Pol. maulaffe 171 ; der abend all bereit 
vor der hand, Schweinichen 1, 87; do man des abindis intsuob, 
Athis O, 153. 

Night was deemed hateful, hostile, Benfey 2, 224 : Grk Sei^y, 
Se/eXo? evening is akin to SetXo? timid, Se/S&> I fear; conf. vv% 
oXorj, Od. 11, 19, naht-eise horror noctis, and Shaksp/s grini- 
looked night/ The Lith. c naktis ne brolis, night is no man s 
friend occurs already in Scherer s St. Gall. Mss. 34 a : die 
lacht niemand ze freunde hat, and in H. Sachs 1, 233 C . On 
the other hand : la nuit porte avis/ conf. to sleep upon a thing. 

p. 752.] Night has the victory won is also in Rosen-g. 
1119; der tac vertreip diu vinster naht, Frauend. 344, 31; per 
contra : diu n. den t. het verswant 271, 25. A full descr. of 
night s victory, with her dusky banner hung on all high towers/ 
in Ls. 3, 307. 



1524 SUMMER AND WINTER. 

p. 753.] The notion of night s gloominess preponderates : 
a\\ Tfroi vvv fjiev TretOco/^eBa VVKT\ /jbe\aivrj, Od. 12, 291. OS. 
thiustri naht, Hel. 133, 4, etc.; de Austere nacht, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 
393; in dero naht-finstri bechlepfet, N. Cap. 13; diu vinster 
n., Frauend. 339, 30, etc.; diu tot- vinster n., Lanz. 6538; diu 
swarze n., Herb. 7964. In thieves lingo, schwarz = night ; 
diu iriiebe, n., Wh. 2, 10. Swiss f kidige nacht/ pitch-dark, 
Staid. 2, 98 (kiden = ring out, pierce) ; bei eitler naht, Abele s 
Gerichts-h. 1, 391. Uhl. Yolksl. 683 (Ambras. Ldrb. 1582, 377). 
AS. on wanre niht/ pale, Beow. 1398; niht wan under wolc- 
num 1295; conf. OS. wanum undar wolcnum, Hel. 19, 20, morgan 
wanum 21, 1 ; niht-helma genipu, Cod. Exon. 160, 12 ; sceadu- 
helma gesceapu scri&an cwomon, Beow. 1 293 ; ON. grima, larva, 
means also conticinium, quando omnia quasi obvelata caligine 

videntur. In voller nacht (pleine nuit), Schweinich. 3, 59. 87. 

234; die geschlagene n./ stricken, hushed, Matth. Pred. v. Luth. 
p. 27. Philand. 2, 83 ; beloken n., Rein. 2271 (illunis ?) ; nuit 
close, Babou 219; schon weicht die tiefe n., Goethe 12, 242 = 
succincta nox, Sid. Apoll. Epist. 3, 3; a\\ ore $r) rpfya VVKTOS 
eijv, /jLera 8 aarpa foPy/cei, Od. 12, 312. 14, 483, conf. the seven 

parts of night, Fernowls Dante 2, 229. Night is long, vv% 

tiatcpri, Od. 11, 373; often called intempesta nox, unseasonable 
(for work) : dum se intempesta nox praecipitat, Cato de Mor. ; 
conf. the ON. adj. niol, Sasm. 51 a (AS. neol, neowol = prona ?). 
But also ei>(f)p6v7j, the kindly (comforting?), Hes. Op. et D. 562 ; 
OHG. Jeistillandi naht, Diut. 1, 251; c do was diu sueze n. fur/ 
gone by, Lanz. 1115. On modranect, see Hattemer 1, 334. The 
midnight hour is fittest for deciding the fates of men (p. 858-9). 



CHAPTEE XXIV. 
SUMMER AND WINTER. 

p. 754.] Winter is called bird-killer, oicovo/cTovos, Aesch. 
Agam. 563, and der vogele not/ MSH. 1, 53 b . A M. Neth. 
poem (Karel 2, 133) says : so dat si ten naesten Meye metten 
vogelen gescreye porren moghen/ may march out mid the songs 
of birds ; wie der Meie vogelin vroene macht/ gladdens, elevates, 
MS. 1, 31 b . 



SUMMEE AND WINTER. 1525 

p. 755.] SI. iar (spring) =yer (year), says Miklos. 110; Zend. 
ydre (year), Pott 2, 557. Bopp, conf. Gramm. p. 568. Kuhn s 
Ztschr. 2, 269 connects yer with &pa, hora. Bekker in Monats- 
ber. 60, p. 161 says eap for /*ea/3 = ver. We may also conn. 
eap with rjpi (early), as our friihling with friih. Kuhn thinks 
ver is for ves, Ssk. vasantas (spring) ; conf. vasas, vasara (day), 
vasta (daylight). Ssk. vatsara (year), Bopp s Gl. 306 b . Finn. 
vuosi (year), Esth. aast, conf. Lat. aestas ; in Kalev. 1, 248 
vuosi year, and kesa summer, seem synonymous. Ssk. samd, 
annus, is fern, of sama, similis, Bopp and GDS. 72 seq. Lenz 
(spring) is also langsi, lanxi, lanzig, Staid. 2, 156; somer ende 
lentin, Rose 7326. 

p. 755.] Change of season, change of year is expr. by diu 
zit hat sich verwandelot, MS. 1, 78 b ; conf. f in der ziie jdren, 
years of time, Mai 107, 18. To the Egyptians the year sails 
round, whilst in German unz umb ham daz jar/ Otnit 899 ; ein 
umbe-gendez jar, Trist. Frib. 1079 ; ein mand in (a month to 

them) des jares trit, Pass. 162, 58; das rollende jahr. In gui- 

I an-neitf, gui is mistletoe (p. 1206) ; conf. our Germ, cries : 
f drei hie/en (3 blasts on the bugle) zum neuen jahr ! Schm. 2, 
156; ( gliickseligs neues jahr, drei hie/en z. n. j.! Frisch 1, 452 C 
from Besold. New-year is expr. by f so sich daz jar geniuwet 
hat in springtime, Warnung 2291; or ( wann daz jar auz- 
chumpt, out comes, Gesta Kom. Keller 99; do das jar auskom, 
Weisth. 3, 650; but also by the simple New/ 

p. 756.] The idea of the whole year is now and then per 
sonified, both in wishes and otherwise: Got gebe uns wunnecliche 
jar, Keinh. ace. to var. 2248 (ms. P.K.) ; guot jar gauge si an 
(encounter them), Kistener 1188; conf. libel-jar, mal-anno 
(p. 1160 end) ; do das jar auskom, Weisth. 3, 650; ehe ein jahr 
in das land kommt, Drei Erzn. 266; ehe zwei jahre in s land gehn, 
Pol. maul. 8; daz viinfte jar in gie, Trist. 151, 27; that jar 
furdor skred (strode), Hel. 13, 23 (conf. A.&. for& gewdt dasg-rimes 
worn (numeri dierum multitude), Csedm. 60, 1, see da3g-r. 
worn 80, 20. 156, 51); le bonhomme I annee, Mem. de Tacad. 
celt. 4, 429. In the Bacchica pompa Eviavros appears as a 
giant with four elbows (rerpd mj ^v^, 4 cubits high ?), bearing 
Amalthea s horn, Athen. 5, 198 (Schw. 2, 263). 

p. 757. 1 Also in Hel. 14, 10: so filu wintro endi sumaro* 



1526 SUMMER AND WINTER. 

means the same as AS. fela missera; but 5, 1. 2, where Zacharias 
says he was ( tuentig wintro J old when he married Elisabeth, 
and has lived with her antsibunta (70) wintro/ he is 90 years 
old, and wintar stands for year. The AS. midwinter, ON. 
mrSvetr, appears in M. Neth. as medewinter, Lane. 13879, midde- 
winter 23907. A computation of sumor and lencten, Andr. & 
El. p. xxiv. Leo s Rectitud. 212-3. The ON. daegr is Swed. dygn. 
Gudrun says in Sasm. 232 b : for ek af fialli fimm doe.gr taliff, 
fared I from the fell 5 days told ; conf. F. Magn. Dagens tider, 
p. 28. The sacredness of Midsummer and Midwinter, of St. 
John s day, sunnewende (p. 617) and yule, favours the dual 
division : on the night of St. John, vigils are kept in field and 
lawn under gold-apple tree, Molbech no. 49. Norske eventyr 
no. 52. KM. no. 57. 

p. 758.] As to a connexion between Tacitus s three seasons 
and Wodan s three progresses, see Kuhn in Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 493. 
It seems to speak for the three seasons, that often only three 
assizes are recorded in a year ; and still more, that three great 
sacrifices were offered, in autumn til ars, in winter til groftrar, in 
summer til sigrs, Yngl. s. cap. 8; tribus temporibus anni, Lacomb. 
no. 186 (yr 1051). Gipsies divide the year into two and six 
seasons, says Pott 1, 66. The Persian, like the Spaniard, had 
two springtimes, for Fasli in the Giilistan speaks of the Shah 
Spring, Shah Summer, Shah Autumn, Shah Winter, and Shah 
New-year (newrus) = March, who reintroduces the spring. ON. 
haust, Swed. host, is an abbrev. of herbist, haerfest [Scot, hair st], 
see Gramm. 2, 368. In Up. Hesse also they call spring auswarts, 
Vilmar s Hess. Ztschr. 4, 52. 

p. 761.] Spring is expr. by the phrases : ez was in der zite 
aller bluomen ursprinc, Flore 5529 ; so die bluomen enspringent 
153; von den bluomen wie sie sprungen 821 ; conf. flos in vere 
novo, Pertz 5, 735. More vividly personal are the adjs. in: der 
lange friihling/ E. Meier s Schwab, march, p. 303 ; ml lieber 
Sumer, der liebe S./ MS. 1, 167*. MSH. 3, 212 a ; diu liebe 
sumerzit, MS. 2, 108 a ; diu liebe sumer-wunne, Dietr. 381 ; 
saelige sumerzit, MS. 2, 108 b (our die liebe zeit ) ; and even 
der heiiige sumer/ Myst. i. 312, 2. To which is opposed der 
leidig winter/ MSH. 3, 215 b ; die felle winter/ Rose 53. 62. 
Both seasons come and go : ira y vers, si revenra estez/ Orange 



SUMMER AND WINTER. 1527 

2, 75; OS. shred the wintar ford, Hel. 6, 13; hiems saeva transiit, 
Carm. bur. 193 ; swanne der winter abe gienc, unde der sumer 
ane vienc, Alex. 5094 ; Neth. die winter ginc in haul, Maerl. 2, 8 
(like : binnen dien ginc die nacht in hant, Lane. 46927) ; als die 
winter inginc, Lane. 36044 ; geht der winter daher, Gotz v. Berl. 
246 ; der vorder Winterklaub her wider hat gehauset sich auf 
seinen alien sitz, Wolkenst. 67; iiu ist der leide winter hie, Ben. 
396; der sumer ist comen in diu lant, MS. 2, 83 a ; pis kiimt der 
sumer here, Otnit (V. d. Ron) 29 ; unz uffen S. Urbans tac, danne 
gat der sumer in, H. Martina bl. 250; si jehent, der sumer der 
si hie, MS. 1, 67 b ; es geet ein frischer freier sommer da herein, 

Bergreien 71 ; ver redit optatum, Carm. bur. 178. Or, instead 

of Summer, it is May, as mai-gesdss means summer-pasture, 
Stalder 293; als der Meie in gat, Warn. 1887; an S. Philippen- 
tage, so der Meie alrerst in gat, Frauend. 63, 13 ; alse die Mey 
in quam, entie April orlof nam, Lane. 23434 ; da hat uns der 
Meie sinen krdm (wares) erloubet, ze suochen, swaz wir siner 
varwe geruochen/ to pick what we please, MS. 2, 167 a ; des 
Meien blic, Tit. 32, 2 ; do man des liehten Meigen sjpil mit 
siner bliiete komen sach, Troj. 6889 ; Meie, die heide griieze ! 
MS. 2, 167 b j der Meie hat die heide geeret 2, 52 a : der winder 
twanc die heide, nu griienet si im ze leide, to spite him, Ben. 
453 ; flower-leaves, whereon der May sein dolden (umbels) 
henget/ Suchenw. 46, 28 ; des liehten Meien schar (company) 
stat befcleit in purpur-var (-hue), MSH. 3, 195 b ; flowers are 
f des Meien kiinne, MS. 2, 22 a , and sumer-geraete } 1, 194 b ; 
uf Walpurgen tag xv. gebunt Mei-gerten (-switches), Weisth. 

3, 497 ; giezent nur den Meien under ougen ! sings a girl in 
MS. 2, 74 b ; does it mean put the garland on me ? Mai, dein 

gezelt (pavilion) gefellt mir wol, Wolkenst. 116. May has 

power: ich lobe dich, Meie, diner kraft, MS. 2, 57 a ; des Meies 
virtuit, Uhl. 1, 178 ; gen wir zuo des Meien hoch-gezite (hightide), 
der ist mit oilier siner krefte komen, Walth. 46, 22 (Lachm. is 
wrong in note to Nibel. p. 6) . So : in der sumerlichen maht, 
Parz. 493, 6; der sumer mit siner kraft, MS. 1, 37 a ; des Meien 
kraft sie brahte dar, der was der malaere (painter), Blicker 79 ; 
der winter twinget mit siner kraft, MS. 1, 37 b ; des Aberellen 
kraft, Hpt s Ztschr. 6, 353, and so of all the months. With 
power is blended goodness : des Meien giiete u. kraft, Muscatbl. 



1528 SUMMER AND WINTER. 

in Altd. mus. 2, 189; ze veld u. uf der heide lac der Mai mit 
siner guete, Hatzl. 131, 6. Suchenw. 46, 15 ; des Meigen giiete, 
Hatzl. 159, 584. Troj. 16213 ; conf. thera ziti guati (Suppl. to 
791) ; der Meie hete do gevroat (gladdened) mit der liehten 
kiinfbe sin (his coming) diu wilden waltvogelin, Partenopier 45, 
18 ; sumer, du hast manege giiete t Lachm. Walth. xvii. 7. Summer 
brings bliss : si jehent, der sumer der si hie, diu wunne diu si 
komen, MS. 1, 67 b ; heia sumer wunne, swer uns din erbunne ! 
grudge us thee 2, 63 a ; sit die sumerw. alrerst begunde nahen 2, 
74 b ; er ist komen wider mit gewalde, den der Meige hat vertriben; 
sumerw. ist im entrunnen (fled before him) balde, der ist vor im 
niht gebliben, Frauend. 507 ; sumerw., nig dem siiezen Meigen, 
MS. 2, 22 b ; der sumerw. giiete, Flore 165; zur somerw., Baur 

no. 718. The Germ. Summer or May stands on a par with 

the Scand. god Freyr returning from exile (p. 212-3), as indeed 
Maia, Flora, Aprilis were goddesses to the Romans. A tree 
breaks into blossom when a god settles upon it : 

seht ir den bourn, der da stat, 
der loubes vil u. bluomen hat, 

, ein got hat sich da nider gelan (let himself down), 
an den (without him) mohte ez niht ergan, 
ez ist bi namen Tervigant. Geo. 2162. 

The poet of the Warnung sings : 

nu minnet (ye adore) bluoraen unde gras, 

niht in der (not Him who) sin meister was ; 

wip unt vogel-gesanc 

unt die liehten tage lane, 

der sache jegeliche (all such things) 

nemt ze einem himelriche. Hpt s Ztschr. 1, 495. 

And still more distinctly : 

einer anbetet (one adores) daz vogel-sanc 

unt die liehten tage lane, 

darzuo bluomen unde gras, 

daz ie des vihes spise was (cattle s food) ; 

diu rinder vrezzent den got (oxen gobble your god) ; ibid. 1, 500. 

Green foliage is the garment of May and Summer : quoique le bois 
reprenne sa robe d ete, Villem. Bardes Bret. 215; sumer-Jcleit hat 



SUMMER AND WINTER. 1529 

er ir gesniten (cut out), MS. 2, 47 b ; der Sumer wil richen 
manigen bourn mit loubes wat (leafy dress) 2, 83 a ; heide u. anger 
habent sich bereitet mit der schoensten wat, die in der Meie hat 
gesant (which May has sent them) 2, 83 a ; herbest, der des Meien 
wat vellet von den risen (cuts fr. the twigs) 2, 105 a ; vil richer 
wat, die Meie hat 1, 192 a ; sich hate gevazzet (collected) der wait, 
u. schoeniu Jcleit gein dem sumer an-geleit (put on), Maurit. 1684 ; 
in Meigeschem walde, Tit. 143, 1 ; solutis Ver nivibus viridem 
monti reparavit amictum, Claud. B. Get. 168. 

p. 762.] Winter is a ruthless ruffian warrior : spiteful "WVs 
envy is complained of, MS. 1, 192 a ; f der arge Winter twanc, 
oppressed, ibid. ; der W. bant (also twanc) die heide 2, 78 ab ; nu 
ist der bliienden heide voget (tyrant) mit gewalt uf uns gezoget, 
hoert wi er mit winde broget (blusters) 1, 193 a ; des leiden 
Winters uberlast, der si verwazen (be cursed) u. sin roup ! 2, 20 b . 
Winter has an ingesinde, retinue, Hpt s Ztschr. 4, 311; des 
Winters wdfen tragen (weapons carry), MsH. 1, 32 8 a . Bat May 
is armed too, and fights him : mein ros schrait (my steed strides) 
gen des Maien schilt, Wolkenst. 115; diu sunne dringet liehtem 
Meien dur den griienen schilt, der von loube schaten birt (brings 
leafy shade) den kleinen vogellin, MsH. 1, 150 b . His fight with 
W. is descr. in detail in the Song of battle betw. Summer and 
W., UhL Volksl. p. 23. The AS. already has : }?a wses W. 
scacen, fasger folden bearm, Beow. 2266 (yet see p. 779 n.) ; 
brumalis est ferita rabies, Archipoeta p. 76 ; Winder, wie ist nu 
din kraft worden gar unsigehaft (unvictorious), sit der Meie 
smen schaft hat uf dir verstochen, MSH. 3, 195 b ; fuort mich 
durch des Meien her (host), der mit ritterlicher wer den W. hat 
er slag en (slain), Hatzl. 131, 51 ; winder ist nider valt (felled), 
Wiggert 37 ; hin sont wir den W. jagen (chase away), Conr. v. 
Amrnenh. extr. W. p. 51 ; wol hin, her W., ir miiezt ie ze rume in 
bergen, Frauenl. 369, 16; der sumerwiinne den strtt Ian (drop the 
strife with), Flore 150. Haupt on Neidh. 45, 12 takes Aucholf 
to be for oukolf in the sense of krotolf (p. 206) ; yet also Goth. 
auhjon = tumultuari might be brought in. The names M aib 6m, 
Meienris (Closener 68) point back to old customs; the island 
Heigen-ouwe, now Meinau, perh. to an ancient site of the spring 
festival. 

p. 762.] A sweet May-song in Wolkenst. no. 63, p. 173 : liet, 



1530 SUMMEB AND WINTER. 

da si mite enpf alien den Meigen. To welcome the spring is in 
ON. \>&fagna )?eir sumri/ Maurer 2, 232 ; alle die vogel froeliche 
den Sumer singende enphdnt, MS. 1, 21 a ; entphdhen die wunig- 
lichen zit, Diut. 2, 92 ; ontfaet den Mei met bloemen, hi is so 
schone ghedaen, Uhl. Volksl. 178; sleust uns auf (unlock) die tiir, 
u. lest den Sumer herein, Fastn. sp. p. 1103; ir suit den Sumer 
gruezen, u. al sin ingesinde, MSH. 3, 202 a ; Meie, bis (be) uns 
willekomen, MS. 1, 194 b ; wis (be) willekomen, wunneclicher Meie 
1, 196 a . May and Summer are distinguished: sint willekomen fro 
Sumerzit, sint will, der Meie 1, 59 a ; ich klage dir, Meie, ich klage 
dir, Sumerwunne 1, 3 b . 

In den Meien riden, was a real custom, Soester fehde p. 660. 
The men of Mistelgau near Baireuth sent envoys to Niirnbg. to 
fetch Spring. They were given a humblebee shut up in a box 
(Suppl. to 697) ; but curiosity led them to peep in, and the bee 
escaped. They shouted after it na Mistelgau ! and sure enough 
the long rain was followed by fine weather, Panz. Beitr. 2, 173; 
conf. Herod. 7, 162, where a country has the spring taken out of 
its year. 

p. 763.] The coming of Summer is known by the opening of 
flowers, the arrival of birds : der sumer ist komen schone uber mer 
hat uns ze lande braht ein wunniclichez her, MSH. 3, 226 a , as in 
Ssk. spring is called kusumdkara, floruin multitudinem habens ; 
do man die sumerwunne bi der vogel reise erkande, do loste der 
Mei die bluomen uz den tiefen banden 3, 229 b ; der sumer ist mit 
siiezem sange schone erwecket 3, 24 l b ; doch kam ich uf ein heide, 
diu was liehter bluomen vol, daran moht man schouwen wol, ob 
der Mai ze velde lac, Ls. 1, 199. Nithart leads the Duchess, with 
pipers and fiddlers, to where he has thrown his hat over the (first) 
viol ; kneels down and raises the hat, c ir lat den sumer schinen/ 
MSH. 3, 202 b ; >s ersti veigerl brock i dir z liab, Firmen. 2, 798, 
and Voss goes in search of the first flowers as spring-messengers, 
Goethe 33, 148 ; the first buttercup and hvitsippa used to be 
eaten, Dybeck 45, 68-9, conf. the first 3 cornUossoms, Superst. 
I, 695. 1018. Tussilago, coltsfoot, is called sommer-thurlein 
(-doorlet) and Merzblume, because it springs up immed. after the 
snow has thawed ; also filius ante patrem, filia ante matrem, 
Nemnich 1515 ; Nethl. zomer-zoetjes (-sweetie) =galanthus nivalis. 
Clover too is called summer/lower, visumarus, Kl. schr. 2, 159. 



SUMMER AND WINTER. 1531 

p. 763.] Chelidonium, celandine, so called because it cornea 
with the swallow and withers at his going, Dioscor. 2, 211. A 
spring song in Lucian s Tragopod. 43 53 (ed. Bip. 10, 4) makes 
blossom, swallow, and nightingale heralds of spring ; if you see 
the first ploughman ply, the first swallow fly, &c., Sup. I, 1086 ; 
usque ad adventum hirundineum vel ciconinum, Sidon. Apoll. 2, 
14; ciconia redeuntis anni jugiter nuntiatrix, ejiciens tristitiam 
hiemis, laetitiam verni temporis introducens, magnum pietatis 
tradit exemplum, Cassiod. Yar. 2, 14; Maien-bule, sommergeck, 
Diet. 2, 506 sub v. biihl : conf. kunden vogel rehte schouwen, 
so lobten sie ze frouwen fiir die liehten sumerzit, MS. 1, 84 a . 

p. 769.] Schwartz de Apoll. 33 compares Apollo s fight with 
the dragon to that betw. Summer and Winter. The song in 
Wiggert p. 37 says : 

Winder ist nider valt (felled). 

Winder, du bist swer sam ein bli (heavy as lead), 

Surner, du kanst den Winder stillen (bring to reason). 

In the Nethl. song of battle betw. 8. and W. (Hor. Belg. 6, 125 
146) Venus comes and reconciles the brothers ; yet, at the 
very end, it says Winter has had to be killed evidently the ending 
of an older song. Other pop. songs of summer in Firrnen. 2, 
15. 34. On the Eisenach sommer-gewinn, see Wolf s Ztschr. f. 
myth. 3, 157 and Hone s Daybk 1, 339 (conf. the May fetched 
by May-boys in Lyncker p. 35-6) ; the straw Winter is nailed to 
a wheel, set on fire, and rolled downhill, Daybk 1, 340. In Fran- 
conia the girls who carry Death out are called death-maidens, 
Schm. 1, 464. In Jever they have the custom of meiboem 
setten/ Strackerjan p. 75.* 

p. 781.] By the side of May appears the May -bride, Kuhn s 
Sag. pp. 384. 513, otherw. called biihli, fastenbiihli, Staid. 1, 
240. The plighted pair are sought for, Somm. p. 151, conf. 180; 

* Our people s love of a forest-life , which comes out esp. at the summer-holiday, 
is shown in the following passages : ze walde gie, Kindh. Jesu 101, 12 ; (dancing on 
the meadow before the wood) reigen viir den wait an eine wise lange, MS. 2, 55 b ; 
ze holze loufen, reigen 2, 56 a ; daz dir ze loalde stat der fuoz (for a dance), Wins- 
beldn 29, 4. Haupt p. 78. Massm. Eracl. p. 609 ; wir suln vor disem furholz ligen 
durch der bluomen smac u. der vogel gesanc, Wigam. 2472 ; ich wil vor disem 
walde ein hochzit machen, u. herladen u. bitten frouwen u. ritter stolz an diz 
yrilene fiirholz 2477 ; vor dem walde in eime tal da sach man swenze blicken, die 
megde wurfen ouch den bal, MS. 2, 5G b ; vil schone ze walde, an dem werde, hebent 
sich die tenze 2, 57 b . 



1532 SUMMER AND WINTER. 

the Swedes call her midsummars-brud, Wieselgr. 410. Dk. Pot 
ter s Der minnen loep 1, 30-1. Antonius de Arena (a Provence 
poet, d. 1644) de villa de Soleriis (Souliers), Lond. 1758 informs 
us : Cum igitiir nunc se offerat hilarissinms mensis Mams, quo 
tempore omnes populi voluptati et gaudio, laetitiae et omni solatio 
indulgere solent, ut inquit gloss, et ibi doctores in 1. unica, C. de 
mayauma, lib. xi, tune enim apparent herbae frondesque virentes 
et garritus avium, corda hominum laetificantes ; Bononiae, et in 
nostra Provencia, ac hie Avenione, in viis reginas pro solatio 
faciunt, quas viri coguntur oscular i. Item in dicto mense Ma io 
amasii, in signum amoris et solatii causa amicarum, altissimas 
arbores plantare solent, quas Maws appellant ; conf. Forcell. sub 

v. majama. At Lons le Saunier and St Amour the prettiest 

girl is chosen to be nymphe du printemps, is adorned, garlanded 
and carried round in triumph, while some collect gifts, and 
sing: 

etrennez notre epousee ! 

voici le mois, le joli mois de Mai, 

Etrennez notre epousee 
en bonne etrenne ! 

voici le mois, le joli mois de Mai, 
qu on vous amene ! 

In Bresse (now dept. Ain) the May-queen or May-bride, decked 
with ribbons and flowers, walks first, led by a young man, while 
a May-tree in blossom is carried in front. The words of the song 



voici venir le joli mois, 
Palouette plante le Mai, 
voici venir le joli mois, 
Talouette Pa plante. 
le coq prend sa volee 
et la volaille chante. 

See Mourner s Culte des esprits dans la Sequanie. In Lorrain 
too he is called joli Ma. 

The Italians danced at the spring holiday, Donnige s Heinr. VII, 
191 ; conf. the May-feast as descr. in Machiav. Stor. Fior. 1, 109. 
149. In ancient Italy, under stress of war or pestilence, they 
vowed a ver sacrum, i.e. everything begotten and born that spring, 



TIME AND WORLD. 1533 

Niebuhr 1, 102. The Servian Whitsun queen is called Jcralitza, 
Vuk sab v. 

p. 782 n.] Vier/rowe vasten, Meinauer s Naturl. p. 8 ; in der 
fronfasten, in den fronfasten, Keisersb. Om. 42-3. Did they have 
a matron go about muffled at that season ? Er. Alberus in Fab. 
39 says of a disorderly dressed female : sie gieng gleichwie ein 
fassenacht die Hebe frau fastnacht u. den jungherrn von fron- 
fasten, Bienenk. 49 b . 

p. 784.] Does an AS. riddle in Cod. Exon. 417-8 refer to the 
flying summer ? spinneweppe, daz sumers zit im gras uf griienen 
wisen lit/ Albr. v. Halb. 124 b . An Ital. proverb traces the 
spring gossamer to three Marys (see p. 416 n.): ve quant 
hanno jflZofo questa notte le tre Marie I conf. Indiculus 19 : de 
petendo (pendulo ?) quod boni vocant sanctae Mariae, and 
Nemn. sub v. fila divae virginis. Madchen- or Mdttchen-sommer 
is supp. to mean Matthias summer, from its appearing on that 
saint s day. Yet we read : de metten hebbt spunnen, Mullenh. 
p. 583. Now Metje is Matilda, Brem. wtb., and we actually find 
a Gobelinus de Eodenberg dictus Mechtilde-sumer, Seibertz 2, 
286 (yr 1338). Matthidia in Clemens Recogu. becomes Mehthild 
in Ksrchr. 1245. Flying gossamer is called in India marudd- 
hvaga, Marut s flag, Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 490. 

p. 786.] In England on May 1 the hobby-horse is led about, 
and also a bear, Haupt 5, 474; conf. the erbes-bar, Somm. p. 
155-6. Pingster-bloemen, Pinkster-Women, Whitsun- flowers, is 
the name given to the merry processionists at Jever, Strackerj. 
p. 76, and in Westphalia, Firmen. 1, 359. The Whitsun sleeper 
is nicknamed pfinst-lummel (-looby) also in Mone s Schausp. 2, 
371 ; in Silesia rauch-fihs, Berl. jrb. 10, 224. In Eussia the lie- 
abed on Palm Sunday is scourged with rods, Kohl s Kuss. 2, 186. 
On taudragil see GDS. 509. 



CHAPTER XXV. 
TIME AND WORLD. 



p. 791.] Wile, stunde, Graff 4, 1224, zit, wile, stunde, Uolr. 
1554, and stund, well, zeit, Wolkenst. 161 stand side by side; so 
our zeit u. weile wird mir lang, I feel dull. Wile occurs even 

VOL. IV. 



1534 TIME AND WORLD. 

with a numeral : unz (until) drie wile komen hin, Servat. 2652. 
As Xpovos was a god, and Katpo? is called a graybeard, Tom- 
maseo 3, 15. so is diu wile personified, conf. wil-scelde, pp. 857 n. 
863; der wile nig en bowing to w., MSH. 1, 358 a ; undanc der 
wile sagen, Kl. 274; gert si (honoured be) diu wile unde dirre 
tac, Parz. 801, 10; saelic wile, saelic zit, MSH. 1, 296 a , conf. 
AS. sael = felicitas and tempus opportunum ; gistuant thera ziti 
<7ai = instabat tempus, 0. iv. 9, 1, conf. des Sumers giiete, p. 

750 n. Above all, there is ascribed to Time a coming, going, 

striding, advancing, drawing nigh, entering. Ssk. amasa time, 
from am to go, B.opp, see Gramm. 491-2 ; Lith. amzis, Armor. 
amzer, Kymr. amser, Ir. am. The Lat. seculuni is fr. sec to go, Ssk. 
sac fr. sak^sequi (or secare ? Pott, 2, 588). The OHG. dihsmo, 
conn, with Goth. ]?eihs, means processus, successus, advance, 
GraffS, 111. M. Neth. tiden-vrQ, Lekensp. 622. Gramm. 1, 
978; diu wile hete sich vergangen, Osw. 3413 ; die tit ghinc vort, 
Maerl. 2, 364 ; ]?a seo tid gewdt ofer tiber sceacan, Caedm. 9, 1 ; 
tho ward thiu tid cum an, Hel. 3, 14. 23-4. 25, 22 ; ein paar 
stunden kommen in s land, Weise s Lustsp. 3, 198 ; es giengen 
nicht drei tage in s land, Jucundiss. 36 ; ehe zwei jahre in 8 land 
gehen,P6\. maulaffe 4; thiu tid was gindhit, Hel. 121, 21 ; ndhtun 
sih thio hohun giziti, O. iv. 8, 1 ; zit wart gireisot, 0. i. 4, 1 1 ; 
f swie sich diu zit huop/ arose, Tit. 88, 4 ; die tit, die nooit noch 
ghelac. Rose 353 ; weil jetzt die zeit beigeneigt, Eichst. hexenpr. 
85 ; thio ziti sili bibrdhtun, 0. iii. 4, 1 ; tho sih thiu zit bibrdhta, 
0. iv. 1,7; do sik de tid brdchte, Sachsenchr. 205 ; do sik 
brdchten dusent u. twehundert jar 226 ; forS baero (1. baeron) 
tid, Csedrn. 8. 31 ; nie sich diu zit also getruoc, Trist. 13, 34; sik 
hadde de tid gedragen, Sachsenchr. 213 ; our c what future time 
might bring with it, Irrg. d. liebe 248; die zeit bringt s. 

p. 792.] Stunde, hour, often stands for time : f ja gie in diu 
stunde mit grozer kurz-wile hin/ their time went by with much 
pas-time, Nib. 740, 4; nach des Merzen stunden, Gudr. 1217, 3. 
But the OS. iverolt-stunda = muudus, Eel. 76, 5. 159, 11. The 
M.Neth. also expressed a moment by en stic, Rose 1952, and 
by the phrases : biz man geruorte die bra/ while one moved the 
eyelid, Servat. 342 ; biz ein bra die andern ruorte 3459 ; also 
schiere (as fast as) diu ober bra die nideren geriieret, Hpt s 
Ztschr. 2, 213. 



TIME AND WORLD. 1535 

p. 793.] Voss in Luise p. in. 220 ingeniously derives iverlt, 
world, fr. werlen, to whirl. The World is often apostrophized 
by Walther 37, 24. 38, 13. 122, 7. In Ssk. the ages of the 
world are yuga, the two last and corrupt ones being Dvapara s 
and Kali s, Bopp s Damay. p. 266. The men of the golden age 
are themselves called golden, Lucian s Saturn. 8. 20 (ed. Bip. 3, 
386) ; conf. our Schlaraffenland, Cockaign, GDS. 1.2. So in 
Ssk. the plur. of loka (mundus) = homines; and OHG. AS. ferah, 
feorh have mid prefixed to them, answering to mitil-gart, mid- 
dan-geard : OHG. midfiri, mittiverihi, AS. midfeorwe. Manaseps 
seems to corresp. to the Eddie alda ve iar&ar, Sssm. 23 h , popu- 
lorum habitaculum, terra ab hominibus inhabitata (P. Magn. p. 
255 n.), to which is opposed utve = utgard > ar, gigantum habitacula. 
And the Gael, siol, seed, often stands for people, men. 

p. 794.] Ssk. I6ka, mundus, fr. loc, lucere ? conf. Lat. locus, 
Lith. laukas = campus; disa sconun werlt in Notk. Bth. 147 
transl. pulcrum mundum. The Hindus also held by three worlds: 
heaven, earth and hell, Holtzm. Ind. s. 3, 121; madhi/ama loka 
= media terra, quippe quae inter coelum et infer num, Bopp s Gl. 
256 b ; or simply Madhyama, Pott 2, 354. The Greeks too divided 
the world into ovpavos, yala, rdprapos, Hes. Theog. 720 (see 
Suppl. to 806). ON. heimr terra, himinn coelum, heimir in- 
fernus ? Heirnr is opposed to hel, Sasm. 94 b ; liggja i milli heims 
ok heljar, Fornm. s. 3, 128 means to have lost consciousness. 
0. v. 25, 95. 103 puts all three in one sentence: in erdu joh in 
himile, in abcjrunde ouh hiar nidare/ Distinct fr. middjungards, 
earth, is Goth, mipgards = medium in the compound mi|?garda- 
vaddjus, peo-o-Toixov, Ephes. 2, 14. < This myddel-erde, Ali- 
saunder p. 1 ; iz thisu worolt lerta in mittemo iro ringe, 0. iv. 19, 
7; ert-rinc, Diemer 118, 23. 121, 1 ; der irdiske ring, Mar. 191, 
16. Earth is called diu gruntveste, Bother 3651; OHG. crunffesti 
fundamentum, Graff 3, 718. Daz M vergieng/ the world 
perished, Wolkenst. 180. In the centre of the world lies an 
old stone, under it the measuring chain, Temme s Altmark p. 33 ; 
conf. navel-stone (p. 806). Other names: der maere meregarte, 
Karajan 22, 15; der irdiske gibel, Mar. 156, 40; daz irdiske ted 
174,34. 

The world-snake has its head knocked off by a throw of TmVs 
hammer, Sn. 63. Even Fischart in Gesch. kl. 31 b says : When 



1536 TIME AND WORLD. 

Atlas wanted to shift the globe to his other shoulder, to see what 
the great fish was doing whereon the world is said to stand; 
conf. Leviathan (p. 998). 

p. 795.] The world is called der vrone sal, lordly hall, Diemer 
297, 6, which usu. means heaven; bat ( der sal 326, 7 seems 
to be temple. On the other hand : diz jamertal/ vale of sorrow, 
Renn. 896; diz dmertal, Griesh. Pred. 2, 101 ; in ditze chlageliche 
tal, Mar. 148, 2. 198,33; dieses jammer u. kummerthal, Schwei- 
nichen 1, 17; varen uz disem ellende, 3 misery, Griesh. 2, 15; 
uz disem ubelen woflale, Diem. 301, 2 ; in disem angst-hause, 
Drei erzn. 270; von dirre snoeden iverlt, Frib. Trist. 33. 

p. 795.] There are several heavens : ace. to Diut. 3, 41 ten 
at first, but after Lucifer s fall only nine. The Finns too have 
nine heavens, taivahan yheksan an, Kal. 10, 190. 28, 308-9; vor 
froeide zuo den himeln (ad coelos) springen, MS. 2, 47 a . 

p. 800.] The World-tree is called askr Yggdrasill in Saem. 3 b , 
but Yggdrasills as kr in 8 a . 44-5. 89 a ; conf. the Low Sax. legend 
of the ash (p. 960). Again : miotviffr kyndiz (is kindled), Saem. 
8 a ; miotviff maeranjfi/m* mold ne&an l a ; which is rendered arbor 
centralis, for miot = medium, says Magnusen. But Rask reads 
myotviiSr, and other expositors miotuiSr. Is miotu^r the tree the 
same as miotu Sr, God (p. 22) ? Again : it aldna tre, Ssem. 8 a ; 
perh. also the word aldurnari, seculum servans 9 b signifies the 

same world-tree. The snake gnawing at the roots of the ash 

must mean mischief to it : well, Germ, superstition likewise places 
enmity between snake and ash, Panz. Beitr. 1, 251-2. 351-2. A 
somewhat doubtful legend tells of a world-old drnden-baum on 
the top of the Harberg near Plankstellen in Franconia, that its 
leaves fr. time to time shed golden drops, milk oozed out of its 
roots, and under it lay a treasure guarded by a dragon ; on the 
tree sat a great black bird, who clashed his wings together and 

raised a storm when any one tried to lift the treasure (?) 

Similar to the passage quoted from Otfried is another in iv. 27, 
19: 

tho zeintun (pointed to) ivorolt-enti sines selbes henti, 

thaz houbit himilisga rnunt, thie fuazi ouh thesan erd grunt, 

thaz was sin al in wara umbikirg in fiara 

obana joh nidana. 
But 0. has nothing about birds. Neither has the legend on the 



TIME AND WOKLD. 1537 

Wood of the Cross ; but it mentions the spring and the serpent. 
It makes Seth look in at the door of Paradise and spy a spring, 
which parted into the four rivers Pison, Gihon, Tigris and 
Euphrates ; at the source of the Euphr. stood a withered tree, 
with a great serpent coiled about it ; its root ran deep down into 
hell, on its crown lay a newborn babe in swaddling-bands. The 
serpent is he of the forbidden fruit-tree, but he answers to 
Nifthoggr, the four rivers or springs corresp. to the three of the 
Edda, the child on the tree-top to the eagle, and the roots of 
both trees reach down to hell. But the wood of the Cross only 
comes of three pips off this tree, which grow up into three other 
trees. Now where did this legend spring up ? and may some 
heathen features have been adopted into it ? The Leg. Aurea c. 
64 is very brief. 

With the Oriental fable of the mouse gnawing at the root of 
the bush in the well, ought to be conn, the Indian myth of the 
thin stalk of grans hanging over a precipice, and unceasingly 
gnawed by a mouse, Holtzm. 3, 114. The widely spread fable 
above has even been painted, Mone 8, 279 ; couf. Benfey s 
Pantsch. 1, 80. 2, 528. Liebr. on Barlaam p. 330-1. 

p. 801.] Gehenna is supposed to mean vale of sorrow; pi. 
gehennae, Arnob. 2, 14. Arab, iahennem, Pers. gehinnom; the 
Turks, too, retain it in the Koran as jelienne, the abode of eblis, 
diabolus. e/ A8r)$, atBijs is expl. as the invisible (god), fr. ai S???. 
Hades is addressed as a person : wva% At Srj, Soph. Trach. 1085; 
so is the Hebrew Sheol, ^Ntf, ^Nttf Gesen. 73 l b [see Hosea 13, 
14, and 1 Cor. 15, 55]. Lucian de luctu 2. 3 descr. Hades as a 
vast and dark subterranean abyss, encircled by the fearful streams 
of Cocytus and Pyriphlegethontes, and to be reached by sailing 

over the Acherusian bog. Dietrich in Hpt s Ztschr. 7, 305, 

says Niflhel is a place of torment too ; yet holl in Fischart s 
Garg. 202 a , is still a mere dwelling place : das (wie dort ge- 
schriben steht) ein so weite holle find man kaum, da all die toden 
hetten raum. Did he take that fr. the passage in Widukind ? 
Simple dying is called faring to hell ; hence the Norse expres 
sions hel-reicf (e.g. Bryuhildar), and fara til Heljar (p. 313). It 
sounds purely local in si ist in der lielle begraben, buried in 
hell, Kschr. 2530. 

p. 801.] Leonidas at Thermopylae bids his men break their 



1538 TIME AND WOELD. 

fast,, for they will sup in the realm of the dead : hodie apud 
inferos coenabimus. ( ThorgerSr segir hatt : engan hefi ec natt- 
verS haft, ok engan mun ek fyrr enn at Freyju, not sup till I 
sup with F. (yr 945), Egilss. p. 603 ; lifrS heilir herra, ek man 
hid O&ni gista, to-day guest with OSin, Fornald. s. 2, 366; conf, 
the passage fr. Saxo in Suppl. to 818 (Kl. schr. 5, 354 seq.). 

p. 802.] De olde lielweg, Urk. of 1518 in Wigand s Corv. 
giiterb. 229; hellewege, helleknochen 241. Bruckner derives the 
Henneberg hiilweg, halwehr/ boundary, fr. hal (for bagel). 
Herweg means also the Milky Way, Woeste 41 ; Hans Helwagen, 
MB. 25, 314 (yr 1469). 316. 384. 

p. 803.] Hellia lies low. Beside the root of a tree of para 
dise Seth looks into Jiell, and sees his brother Abel s soul. It is 
curious that Brynhild on her liel-reiff drives through the halls 
of a giantess, Seem. 227. Diu tiefe belle, MS. 2, 184 b . Hpt s 
Ztschr. 2, 79. In the same sense death is called deep : an thene 
diapun clod, Hel. 136, 1, and conversely in der bitteron hella/ 
Grieshaber 2, 33. 44. 65. 76. 97. 108. 122; and diu belle diu st 
ein bitter hoi/ MSH. 3, 468 C , when usu. it is death that is bitter. 
The Greek underworld had an opening, through which Pluto 
descends when he has carried off Proserpine, Paus. ii. 36, 7, 
while Dionysus leads Semele out of hades across the Alcyonian 
lake ii. 37, 5. The Teut. hell has likewise a gateway (mouth), 
which is closed up with a grating : fyr na-grindr ne$an, Sasm. 
68 a . 86 a ; hnigin er Tiel-grind } when the grave-mound opens, 
Hervarars. p. 347. OS. helli-porta, Hel. 97, 17; thiu helliporta, 
0. iii. 12, 35; antheftid fan hell- down, Hel. 71, 9; de doir 
vanner hell en mot aupen wesen, Slennerhinke, beginn. There is 
a Hollthor-spifze in Salzburg, M. Koch s Reise 315. Der helle 
invart is a hole at which all the dead went in, En. 2906 15; 
dringet in daz lielletor, Hpt 2, 69 ; diu riuwe (ruth) stet fur der 
helle tor, Warnung 316. 

p. 804.] OHG. /ieZ/i-/r<mm = rudens, torrens inferni, Graff 6, 
754 ; Holl-liaken, hell-hook, was the name of a whirlpool in the 
Rhine; Fischart s Gliickh. schif 429. 

p. 805.] Plainly Christian are the following notions : minne 
hat uf erde bus, ze himel ist reine fur Got ir geleite, minne ist 
allenthalben wan ze helle, love is everywhere but in hell, .Tit. 51 ; 
Mle-viur, -fire, Kchr. 1138; daz winster viur, MSH. 1, 298 b ; 



TIME AND WORLD, 1539 

ich ban fewer n. muster ze der zeswen unt ze der winster, to 
right and left, Todes gehugede 661; der helle fewerstot, Warn. 
72; in der helle brinnen u. braten, Griesh. 2, 76. 108. 123. Yet 
the heathen fancy of fires darting out of opened grave-mounds, 
and of hauga-eldr in general (Fornald. s. 1, 437), seems conn, 
with hellfire. On the other hand we hear of helle-wos, Tod. 
geh. 902. In pop. speech, hell is any dark hole or corner : the 
tailor throws pieces of cloth in die holle/ the prentice jumps up 
aus der holle (fr. behind the chest), and makes for the door, 
Pol. maulaffe 4; kroch nach der holle 6 ; geh hinter n ofen in die 

hell, H. Sachs i. 5, 495 b . The Christian hell has a pool of 

pitch and brimstone : bech unde swebel, Diemer 313, 9 ; von deme 
bechen 303, 22; beh-ivelle 298, 29. 303, 27; die swarzen pech- 
velle (1. -welle), Tod. geh, 686 ; die bechwelligen bache 899 ; mit 
bechwelliger hitze 929. In the miirchen of Dame Holle the gold- 
gate and pitch-gate stand opposed, like heaven and hell. Again : 
in dem swebel, Warn. 260; in den swebel-sewen (-lakes) baden, 
Servat. 3541 ; diu helle stinchet wirs danne der fule hunt, Kara- 
jan 31, 8; infer le puant. Thib. de Nav. 150; puafine, Gaufrey 
p. xxx. The stench of hell may have been suggested by the 
noxious fumes that rise out of clefts in the earth. 

p. 806.] Greek opinion placed Tartarus not inside the earth, 
but an immense way off it. A brass anvil (^aA/eeo? atc/Acov) falls 
nine days and nights fr. heaven, and touches earth on the tenth ; 
it takes nine more to reach Tartarus, Hes. Theog. 722 5 ; but 
Homer makes Hephaestus fall fr. heaven in one day, II. 1, 592. 
The Lat. Avernus is Gr. a-opvo$, bird-less, quia sunt avibus 
contraria cunctis/ Lucr. 6, 742. An AS. word for hell is scrcef, 
cavern, Ceedm. 212, 10. MHG. obis, Roth s Dicht. pp. 10. 23; 
daz abgrunde also occurs in Rother 4434 ; in der helle grunde 
verbrunne e ich/ I d sooner burn, MS. 1, 56 a ; an grund grim- 
maro helliun, Hel. 164, 5; der fiirste uz helle abgrunde, Walth. 
3, 12; de Jiellegrunt, MB. 5, 138; der bodengrunt (bottom) der 
helle, MS. 2, 147 b . In Russ. however [beside the more usual ad 
fr. 08179] it is called bez-dnd, bottom-less, like a-jSvaaos. Conf. 
der erde volmunde (fullamunt), Gute frau 2022 ; der erden bunder 
(ON. pundari), Hpt s Ztschr. 2, 131. 

p. 806.] On the Delphian navel as earth s centre, see Pott s 
Zahlmeth. 267 ; Zeus ascertains it by sending out eagles or 



1540 TIME AND WOKLD. 

ravens. To the Irish too earth s navel was a stone, Lappenb. in 
Allg. encycl. d. wiss., art. Irland 49 b . A stone in lielles-grunt 
occurs in Uhl. Yolks!. 1,8; the dille-stein is the stone den kein 
hand tiberbal, keiri wind iiberwehte, kein regen iibersprehte/ p. 
7 ; iiber d hellplata springen, Yonbun p. 65. Dillestein means 
bottom-stone. 

p. 807.] The underworld has its waters, streams : sa hon J?ar 
vaffa )?raunga stranma menn meinsvara, Seem. 7 b ; Va&gelmi vafta 
181 a ; in der helle laden, Engelh. 6050; ze helle laden, MSH. 2, 
259 a . 260 b ; in den swebel-sewen (brimstone lakes) baden, Servat. 
3541; sole lesoufet (drenched) in hellepine, MS. 2, 150 b . Hell 
is a well, a helle-puzze (-pit), obene enge (narrow at top), nidene 
wit, Wernh. v. N. 41, 5 ; da diu unerfulte butze des algrundes uz 
diezen, Todes geh. 896 ; helle-sot, MSH. 3, 463 b answers to the 
AS. sedffin the text; Hellekessel, -kettle, a family name at Bonn. 
Susl in cwissusle is appar. the ON. sysla, negotium, cura, labor, 
passing over into supplicium, as verk into verkr, dolor; conf. 
suslbona, hell-foe, Caedrn. 305, 1. 

p. 807.] Hell is said in AS. to be wyrmsele and wyrmum be- 
wunden, Judith 134, 49. 57 ; ]?aer br5 fyr and wyrm, Credm. 212, 
9; uz diseme wurmgarten, Diemer 295, 25. There also dwells 
the hell-hound (p. 996-7. Suppl. to 815) There were punish- 
ments in hell for heathen heroes too : SigurSr Fafnisbani has 
to heat an oven, and Starkaftr hefi okla-eld, Fornm. s. 3, 200; 
conf. St. Patrick s Purgatory by Th. Wright xi. and 192. 

p. 809.] Leo in Hpt s Ztschr. 3, 226 has a Gael, mudspuil, 
mutatio, which I have not found in any dictionary. He only 
gets it out of muth, mutare, and spuil, spolium; but the OS. 
mudspelles megin (like iarSar megin) requires a material sense. 
That of wood, tree, is supported by Ssem. 9 b : geisar eimi vi^ 
aldurnara/ the fire rages against aldurnari, i.e. Yggdrasill ? 
(Suppl. to 800 beg.). Lapp, muora, muorra [Mong. modo] = 
arbor; but Syrianic and Permic mil, Yotiak muziern = la,Tid, 
Rask s Afh. 1, 39. Finnic, beside maa, seems to have moa, muct, 
Castren s Syrian. Gr. p. 149. 

p. 810.] Surtr is a giant, not a god : S. oc in svdso go&, 
Saem. 33 a ; S. ok aesir 188 a ; Surta sefi 8 a is supp. to mean fire. 
Domesday-bk has a man s name Sortebrand. With Surtr conf. 
Slav, tchort, cert, czari = devil [tchorny, czerny = black], p. 993. 



TIME AND WOULD. 1541 

Muspellz synir hafa einir ser fy Iking, er su biort mioc, Sn. 72 ; the 
field on which they encounter the gods is called Vigri&r, Saem. 
33 a . Sn. 75, and also Oslcopnir, Ssem. 188 a . 

p. 810.] The world is destroyed by fire. The Indians spoke 
of f the penal fire of the Last Day/ Holtzm. Ind. s. 2, 90 : de 
structive as the L. D. 2, 86. 99. An Ionic dance was called 
Kocrfjiov e/eTrvpoMTis, Athen. 5, 283. At Rome one foretold 
ic/nem de coelo lapsurum finemque mundi afFore/ Capitolini M. 
Anton. 13. The Celts believed the end of the world would be 
by fire and water : eTri/cparijcreiV Se irore KOI Trvp /cal vSwp, 
Strabo 4, 45. 198: Gael, brath, ultimum orbis incendium ; gu la 
Ihrath, in aeternum, unquam ; conf. Ossian 3, 433. AS. oft baeles 
cyme, till fire s coming = end of the world, Cod. Exon. 200, 28 : 
unz an die stunde do allez sol verbrinnen, Karajan 50, 15 ; grozer 
schal, als al din werlt da brunne, Wigal. 7262 : din jdmertac wil 
schiere komen, u. brennt dich darumbe iedoch, Walth. 67, 19. 

p. 812.] On Antichrist, conf. Griesh. Pred. p. 150-1 ; ich wene 
nu ist anticrist den heiden cumen ze helfe, Gr. Rud. 14, 9 ; 
deable antecris, Meon 3, 250; 1 ame emporteirent Pilate et 
anticris, Aspr. 9 b . Miillenhoff in Hpt s Ztschr. 11, 391 does not 
see so much affinity betw. the Muspilli and the Edda. 

p. 814.] Beside aldar rok, ragna rok, we have piocfa r ok, Seem. 
28 b , tiva role 36 ab ,/zm rok 49% forn rok 63 a . AS. racu is Ssk. 
rajani, night (Suppl. to 737). To this Twilight of the gods 0. 
Schade in his sixth thesis refers the saying : ( it is not yet the 
evening of all the days. 

p. 815.] The stars fall from heaven (Suppl. to 817), the 
rainbow breaks down. Atlas holds the vault of heaven on his 
shoulders, it must fall when he removes them : quid si nunc 
coelum mat ? Ter. Heaut. iv. 2. The Celts e(f>aaav SeStern^ 
/jLiJTrore 6 ovpavos avrois e //-7re croi, feared the sky would fall on 
them, Arrian s Anab. 1, 4. GDS. 459. 460. Germ, superstition 
tells of a little bird (tomtit) that holds his little claw over his 
head when he sleeps, to shield it in case the sky fell in the 

night. The ship Naglfar is conn, with JSTaglfari, the husband 

of Nott, Sn. 11 ; it takes as long to build as the iron-rock to wear 
away, which the woman grazes with her veil once in 100 years; 
conf. the cow s hide being picked clean by the giant (Suppl. to 
544). It was an AS. belief also that the hellhound was fought 



1542 TIME AND WORLD. 

with : si be toren of liellelmndes to$um/ teeth, Kemble no. 715, 
yr 1006; hellehunt, MS. 2, 147 b (Suppl. to 807. p. 996-7). The 
Last Judgment is like the tribunal of Minos in the underworld, 
Lucian s Jup. confut. 18, and the judgment of souls of the 
Mongols, Bergm. 3, 35; conf. Michael s balance (p, 859). AS. 
notions about the end of the world are preserved in Cod. Exon. 
445. 

p. 81 7.] The Archipoeta s poem on the ff teen signs is in Hpt s 
Ztschr. 3, 523 5. The signs vary in the different accounts, see 
Sommer in Hpt 3, 525 530. Wiedeburg p. 139. Lekensp. 
Deckers 2, 264. Diemer p. 2837. Grieshaber p. 152. Moneys 
Schausp. 1, 315 seq. MSH. 3, 96 b . The 12th sign in the Latin 
poem above is : fixae coeli penitus stellae sunt casurae (the same 
in Griesh.) ; in the Asega-book the 13th : sa fallath alle tha 
stera fon tha himule ; conf. Ssem. 9 b : hverfa af himni herSur 
stiornur. The common folk held by other prognostics besides : 
when it strikes thirteen and the hens take to crowing, the Judg 
ment-day will come, Hpt 3, 367. The earth quaked, ON. iorS 

dusadi, Saam. 24 l b . The Greeks ascr. the phenomenon to Posei 
don, Herod. 7, 129, or some other god: TTJV iro\iv rov 0eov <rei- 
o-etj/To?, Paus. i. 29, 7, elsewh. to Typhoeus, Ov. Met. 5, 356 ; its 
cause is discussed by Agathias 5, 8. The Lith. god of earth 
quake is Drelkullys, Nesselm. pp. 154. 208, fr. drebeti, quake, 
and kulti, strike. A New Zeal, story of earthquake in Klemm 4, 
359 ; the earth is carried by a tortoise 2, 164. 

p. 818.] The valkijrs conduct to heaven, as the Hours opened 
the cloud-gate to Olympus. So too the angels fetch away dying 
heroes : la vos atendent ii anges en chantant, contre vos ames 
vont grant joie menant, Asprem. 22 b ; lame emporterent li ange 
en chantant 28 a . A cliff in Blekingen is called Valhall, and at 
two places in Westgotland are Valhall, Vahlehall : they are the 
hills fr. which old men weary of life threw themselves into the 
lake or brook running below, in which they were washed. Such 
water bears the name of Odens-kdlla : in taking possession of 
them, the god first washed or bathed them; conf. Geijer 1, 115 

(Suppl. to 832). Brave men goto Valholl : sa var atriina^r 

herSinna manna, at allir ]?eir er af sdrum andadisk, skyldu fara 
til Valhallar, Fagrsk. p. 27. A servant goes not to V. except in 
attendance on his lord, Fornald. s. 3, 8. Vdpna-Jring goes on in 



TIME AND WORLD. 1543 

V., for which a son fits out his father by burying his weapons 
with him, Nialss. c. 80 ; J>u vart valkyrja at AlfoSur, mundo 
einJierjaralliY beriaz um saltar pinar, were glad to be struck down 
for thy sake, Ssem. 154 b . When Hakon died a heathen and was 
buried, his friends gathered round his grave, and in heathen 
fashion saw him off to Valholl : maelto ]?eir sva fyrir grepti 
hans, sem herSinna manna var si$r til, oc visoffo honom til Val- 
hallar, Hakonars. c. 32. Inde vota nuncupat (Ringo), adjicitgue 
precem uti Haraldus, eo vectore (equo suo) usus, fati consortes ad 
Tartara antecederet, atque apud praestitem Orci Plutonem sociis 
hostibusque placidas expeteret sedes, Saxo Gr. 147; conf. the 
prayer of Waltharius 1167 : hos in coelesti mihi praestet sede 
videri. Valholl is also called ha Iwll, high hall (though only 
the dat. occurs : hdva hollo, Saem. 24 b . 30 b . Sn. 3) ; and Hropts 
sigtoptir, Ssem. 10 a . 

p. 819.] The souls of kshatriyas slain in battle arrive at 
Indra s heaven, and are his guests, Bopp s Nalas 264 ; to warriors 
fallen in fight the gate of heaven is open, Holtzm. Ind. s. 2, 65 ; 
conf. en infer vont li bel cevaller qui sont morts as tornois et as 
rices guerres/ Aucassin in Meon 1, 355. Both AS., OHG. and 
MHG. phrases point to a heavenly castle : Godes ealdorburg, Dei 
palatium, Cod. Exon. 441, 8 : rodera ceaster, coelorum urbs 441, 
10. A minute description of the himilisye Godes burg (Hpt s 
Ztschr. 3, 443-4) says : diu burg ist gestiftet init aller tiuride 
meist ediler geist gimmon, der himel meregriezon, der burge funda- 
menta, die porte ioh die mure daz sint die tiuren steina der Gates 
furst helido. A similar house, glittering with gold and light, 
occurs in a vision, Greg. Tur. 7, 1 ; ir erbe solde sin der himel- 
hof, Ludw. d. fromme 2478. 

p. 820.] Heaven is der himelische sal/ Todes gehug. 942 ; 
der vrone sal, Diemer 301, 3 ; der freuden sal besitzen (possess), 
Tit. 5788 ; conf. freuden-tal besitzen, in contrast with riuwen-tal 
3773-4; it is true a castle is also called freuden zil, goal of joy, 
Wigal. 9238. 11615; hverfa &mun-vega (pleasured path) = to die, 
Egilss. 622. The Mecklenburg noble, who reckons on a merry 
drinking-bout with Christ in heaven, is, by another account, fr. 
Pomerania, N. Pr. prov. bl. 3, 477; conf. im samint in (along 
with them) drinchit er den win/ Diemer 103, 5 ; s aurai mon 
chief em paradis flori, ou toz jors a joie, feste e deli, Aspr. 18 a ; 



1544 TIME AND WOELD. 



eV jjiaicdpwv vr}crQi<$ iriveiv fiera rwv rjpwcov, eV rc3 } H\vo-Lw \ei- 
fjL&vi /caraKei/jLevos, Lucian s Jup. confut. 17. 

p. 820 n.] The reading I proposed in Parz. 56, 18 is now 
verified by MS. d; conf. here ze Famorgan 496, 8, ze Fdmurgdne 
585, 14, and Famorgan hiez daz lant/ Tiirl. Wh. 24% see 37 a . 

De glaseriburg upriden, Uhl. Volksl. p. 16. The glass mountain 
turns up in many legends and marchen : Miillenh. p. 386-7. 
Ehrentraut s Fries, arch. 2, 162. Sommer s March. 99 seq. 
Bechstein s Sag. p. 67. Akin to the glass castle is the cloud- 
castle : mons Wolkinburg, Caas. Heisterb. 2, 318; conf. Bohm. 
Cod. Francof. 247 (yr. *1290). Lacomblet s Arch. 2, 11. 19. 
Weisth. 2, 713. The Vila builds a castle on the cloud with three 
gates, Vuk, nov. ed. p. 151. It says in Kalev. 2, 25: tuulehenko 
teen tupani, build rooms in the air ; conf. the air-castle on the 
rainbow (p. 732-3). 

p. 821.] Ssk. desas, land, Zend, paradaeshas, fairest land, 
Benfey 1, 438; rov 7ra/3a8etcro^ = hortum, Lucian s Somn. 21; 
the garden of the Vandal king is called TrapdSeicros, Procop. 1, 
382, conf. 434. Ir. parratlias, O.S1. poroda. The earthly para 
dise is the Rose-garden, conf. its descript. in a Pommersf. MS. 
(Hpt 5, 369). Roseng. 1028. Tit. 6044. Another term is 
saltus wunnilo, Lacombl. no. 65 (855); conf. lust-wald/ pleasure- 
park. Weinhold. in Hpt 6, 461 after all connects neorxena with 
uorna. - The Slav, rai, paradise, Miklosich 73 would derive fr. 
rad", glad, as nai fr. nad". Boh. raghrad or rai-grad, paradise- 
garden, later hradiste (castle), a plot encircled by a round wall, 
in which the Slavs held feasts and games, and sang songs ; so 
the gral-lwfe, grale. Herod. 3, 26 calls "Oacrt? a paicdpwv vtjcros, 
a green island in the sea of sand. A land flowing with milk 
and honey, 3 Exod. 3, 8. Mar. 160, 17, like Cockaign, Lubber- 
land, which even the Greeks knew of, Athen. 2, 526 533 [Hor. 
Od. ii. 19, 10: vini fontem, lactis rivos, lapsa mella], Conf. 
milk, honey and blood as food for gods and drink for poets (pp. 
317. 415 n.) ; mellis lacus et flumiua lactis erupisse solo, Claud. 
Stil. 1, 85. 

p. 823.] H\vcna are places which lightning (the sun) has 
struck, Benfey 1, 457 : eV TCO H\vaiw Xet/zcon, Jup. confut. 17 ; 
conf. Plutarch 4, 1154. OHG. sunna-felt, elysium, Graff 3, 516 ; 
siinno-feld, helisios campos, Gl. Sletst. 6, 271. AS. heofen-feld } 



SOULS. 1545 

coelestis campus (p. 234) ; Hefenfeld, locus in agro Northum- 
brensi. On acr^oSeXo?, Roin. albums, see Dioscor. 2, 199, with 
whom Theophrastus agrees, while Galen descr. the plant very 
differently, see Sprengel on Diosc. 2, 481. 

Like the children in our marchen, who fall through the well 
on Dame Holla s meadow, Psyche having jumped off the high 
rode, paulatim per devexa excelsae vallis subdii&e florentis cespitis 
gremio leniter delabitur/ and then finds herself in a heavenly 
grove, Apuleius lib. 4 in fine. Like the gardens of the Hesperides 
is the insula pomorum, quae fortunata vocatur/ v. Merlini p. 
393; conf. the sacred apple-wood, Barzas breiz 1, 56-7. 90, and 
fortunatorum insulas, quo cuncti, qui aetatem egerunt caste 
suam, conveniant, Plaut. Trin. ii. 4, 148 ; eV /jLa/cdpaiv vr]crois 
ilpawv, Lucian s Demosth. enc. 50. Jup. conf. 17. Gliamp 
flory, la tanra Diex son jugement, quand il viendra jugier la 
gent, O.Fr. life of Mary in Lassberg s Zoller p. 74; an der 
maten (prato beatorum), Flore 2326. AS. grene wongas, Cod. 
Exon. 482, 21; ]?es wang grena 426, 34; j?one grenan wong 
ofgifan 130, 34. H. Sachs iii. 3, 84 d still speaks of paradise as 
the green valley. Welsh gwi/nfa, paradise, strictly white happy 
land. The dead shall go to Helgafell, Eyrb. c. 4; conf. the 
earthly paradise closed in by high mountains, Tod. gehug. 970 6. 
The f go$-borinn Goffmundr* in the far off realm of paradise, 
Saem. 153 b , is Granmar in the Vols. saga, conf. Granmars synir, 
Sa3m. 155 b . 

p. 823.] Vt&arr would in OHG. be Wttheri, Graft 4, 986 ; 
but Vi&arr, Witheri is more correct, conf. Sasm. 42 a : hris, gras, 
vi^. There is a saying about him : Vi&arr, er gu^ enn i GorSurn, 
hann er lika i Grindarskb rSum. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 
SOULS. 

p. 826.] "^v^rj anima and vovs mens are distinct, Plutarch 4, 
1154. Beside the fern, seele, we find a neut. ferah with much 
the same meaning : OHG. ferah = anima, Graff 3, 682 (but smala 
firihi=vulgu.s 683) ; that ferah was af them folke, Hel. 169, 
28, i.e. departed fr. among men. Pers. ferver, spirits, souls, 



1546 SOULS. 

Zend, fravashayo, Benfey s Monatsn. 63-4. 151. To the fern, 
soul stand opp. the masc. ahma, dtum, geist = spiritus (p. 461, 
1. 7). At the same time the animae as well as animi are winds, 
avefjboi, as the SI. dukh and dushd are fr. dykh-ati, dii-nuti, 
spirare. Hence : anirnam exhalare, Ov. Met. 6, 247, animam 
ebullire, Petron. 62. 42 ; den geist aufgeben, give up the ghost, 
Albr. v. Halb. 123 b ; der adem (breath) zuo den luften fuore, 
Ksrchr. 13400. It was feared that a soul passing away in a storm 

would be blown to pieces by the wind, Plato s Pheedr. p. 77. 

The soul fares, slips out: stirb lib, sele var ! Herb. 14040; diu 
sel waer im entsliffen, Tundal. 44, 31 ; diu sel sich uz den liden 
(limbs) zoch, ais der sliufet uz dem gwande (garment), Servat. 
3464 ; so sih diu sele enbindet von mennesklicher zarge, Mar. 
153, 5 (Fundgr. 2, 153) ; nu breche Got ir selen bant ! 3 is inscr. 
on a tombstone, Wackern. W. v. Klingen p. 22 ; wenn mir die 
xelfleuszt (flows) von des leibes drauch, Wolkenst. 263; von mir 
wolde diu sele sin endrunnen (run away), MS. 2, 52 a ; dren (fr. 
three) genk dei seile ut den munt (mouth), Soest. fehde p. 625. 
The soul escapes through the gaping wound : /car ovra/uLevyv 
coTetXTJj , II. 14, 518, conf. 17, 86; -^^ XeXotTre, Od. 14, 134; 
;is seola was gisendid an suothan weg, Hel. 169, 27, and what is 
more striking : than im that lif seri&i (abiret), thiu seola bisunki 
(mergeretur, elaberetur), 169, 21; conf. Karajan 32, 15 of the 
eagle: irn sunkit sin gevidere (plumage, to renew itself?). Souls, 
like elves, sail over the water ; and the Indian elves are dead 
men, Ssk. marut, Kuhn in Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 488-9 ; conf. Nainn, 
Dainn (p. 453). The Lith. iveles f. are manes, and welukas 
spectres, Nesselm. 61-2 (Suppl. to 913 end, 968). 

p. 828.] Souls are of three kinds, those of angels, of men, of 
beasts, says Dietm. of Mersebg (Pertz 5, 739). Curiously, how 
ever, each man is credited with tliree souls, two of which perish 
with the body, but the third survives : bustoque superstes evolat, 
Claud, de 4 cons. Honor. 228 235. Men s souls (^v^ai) go 
to the underworld, their bodies (avrovs, like sell = mia lip) 
become the prey of dogs and birds, II. 1, 4. Of lovers it is 
thought, that their souls intermarry; the notion must be old, 
for we find it in H. v. Veldeke : wir sin ein lip und ein geist, 
En. 6533, and still more clearly in H. v. Morungen : iuwer sele 
ist meiner sele frowe, MS. 1, 57 b ; conf. ich wolte nit, daz min 



SOULS. 1547 

sele uz des beaten menschen munde fuere, i.e. pass out of Ms 

mouth, Berth. 298. On the worship of souls, see p. 913. It 

is said of the soul : von im f uor ein glast (flash) sam ein brinnen- 
der louc, Rol. 228, 21 ; the soul of Mary shines in passing out 
of her body, Haupt 5, 545 ; souls in parting are seven times 
whiter than snow, Myst. i. 136, 21; ez miiegen wol zwo sele sin, 
den ist ir wize her geleit, und klagent ein ander ir arbeit, Ls. 2, 
270. In a Lett, song the dead call themselves rashani, beautiful, 
Biittner no. 89 ; conf. the meaning of selig, blessed. When the 
soul parts fr. the body, a sweet scent is perceived, Wh. 69, 12 ] 5. 
Flowers grow on a virgin s grave, Athen. 5, 495, lilies out of 
dead men, Zappert pp. 29. 31. On lovers graves two trees spring 
up : det vaxte tvenne trad uppa deras graf, det ena tager det 
andra i famn, Arvidss. 2, 11. Vines grow out of the mouths of 
the dead, Tit. 5790; fiue roses bloom out of a dead man s head, 
Maerl. 2, 308. 

sin tiost doch valte (felled) den edeln Mor, 

daz er die bluomen mit bluot begoz (bedewed) : 

die gote des valles sere verdroz (vexed the gods), 

daz der minnsere sus belac (lover so ill bestead) ; 

und waen daz viir (I ween that from) den selben tac 

nach der aventiure sage 

daz selbe velt niht wan (nothing but) rosen trage, 

so groz wart al der gote Jdage. Tiirl. Wh. 36 a . 

Drops of blood turn into yellow flowers, as a herb grew out of 
Ajax s blood, Konst en letterb. 43, p. 76 b ; mannabod (sambucus 
ebulus) near Kalmar sprang fr. the blood of slain heroes, Fries 
Bot. udfl. 1, 110. The wegewarte is also called wegetriti. Hansel 
am iveg, feldblume auf der wegscheide, Meinert s Kuhl. p. 6 ; 
wegeliLoge = }ieliokropium ) Mone 8, 401. 

p. 829.] Poles with pigeons on them were set up over Lom 
bard graves, Paul. Diac. 5, 34 (Kl. schr. 5, 447) ; sele alsam ein 
tube gestalt, Pass. 391, 37. Souls fly away in the shape of doves, 
Schonwerth 3, 37. Zappert p. 83. St Louis 60, 25. Baader 
iv. 32 [ When the Persian fleet was wrecked off Mt Athos, wliite 
pigeons were seen for the first time in Greece/ Charon of Lamps, 
in Athen. 9, 394 ; see Victor Helm s Wanderings of Plants and 
Animals p. 258-9]. Det kommo tva dufvar af himmelen ned 



1548 SOULS. 

(down) ; niir de foro upp, sa voro de tre, when they flew up 

again, they were three, Sv. vis. 1, 312-5. 373. A sennrin bleib 

ich ewiglich, und wann ich stirb, wird ich a schwalbn, Aimer 1, 
58. Souls fly about as ravens, Michelet 2, 15 ; they swarm 
as little ducks, Klemm 2, 165; night-owls rise from the brain of 
a murdered man 4, 220. The story of Madej is given more cor 
rectly in Wend, volksl. 2, 319, conf. Walach. march, no. 15. In 
Egypt, hieroglyphs the sparrowhawk witli a human head is a 
picture of the soul, Bunsen s Dingbilder 126. Every soul, after 
parting from the body, hovers for a time betwixt the earth and 
the moon, Plut. 4, 1154. 

p. 829.] The soul is winged, Plato s Phsedr. 246-7-8 ; it loses 
and then recovers its wings 248-9, conf. Gerhard s Eros, tab. 1 
and 5 ; ^v^r) 8 IK peOewv irra^evr] "Al^o^e ySe/S^Vei, II. 16, 
856. 22, 361 ; fyvx l ^ far oveipos aTroTrra/jbevT] TreTroTijTai, Od. 
11, 222. Lucian s Encom. Demosth. c. 50 says of the dying 
orator : aireTrTTj, evolavit. 

The larva, the butterfly is called 6 veKv&a\o?. Svved. baring - 
sjal, old woman s soul = butterfly, Hire 2, 529. Ir. anamande, 
anima dei = butterfly ; conf. the Faun as night-butterfly (Suppl. 
to 483 mid.). When a moth flutters round the candle, the Lithu. 
women say somebody s dying, and the soul is going hence, N. Pr. 
prov. bl. 5, 160. 

p. 829.] The soul runs out of the sleeper as a mouse, cat, 
weasel, snake, butterfly. Yama draws the soul out of a dying man 
in the shape of a tiny mannikin, the man turns pale and sinks, 
and when the mannikin comes back, he thinks he has been asleep, 
Holtzm. Ind. sag. 1, 65. The soul slips out of the mouth as a 
little child, Gefken s Beil. pp. 6. 15 and plates 11. 12. It was 
believed in Germany as well, that a dying man s heart could 
pass into a living man, who would then show twice as much 
pluck : so Egge s heart seems to have passed into Fasolt, 
Diether s into Dietrich (Ecke 197-8), each time into a brother s 
body; conf. the exchange of hearts betxv. lovers, Wigal. 4439. 
8813. MS. 1, 166 b , and the marriage of souls (Suppl. to 828). 
The exchange of figures, the skipta litum oc hdmum (Suppl. to 

1098 end) is another thing. On the similar doctrine of 

transmigration taught by Pythagoras, see Plato s Phgedr. 248-9. 
Phasdo p. 82. Ov. Met. 15, 156 seq. O Kearney 133. 160. 



SOULS. 1549 

Gods, by way of punishment), are born again as men (Suppl. to 
338), men are changed into beasts corresp. to their character, 
e.g. by the wand of Circe, RA. p. xiv. Claud, in Kuf. 2, 482 seq. 
Thorir hjortr is pursued by a hunter and his hound ; struck by 
a javelin, he falls to the ground, but out of his body springs a 
stag, which again is hunted down by the dog, and killed after 
a hard struggle, Maurer s Bekehr. 1, 295-6. Animals too have 
had many souls, like Lucian s cock. 

p. 830.] Good souls for a time hover on Hades verdant mead, 
Plut. 4, 1154. The soul feeds on the field or meadow of truth, 
ire^iov, Xet/icwi/, Plat. Phaedr. 248 (in the train of God, 
Oelo-a dew, it looks upon truth, ibid.). On the green 
grass the soul sits down, Feifalik Musp. p. 5. He is going to 
die is expr. by f he is just fluttering away/ Souls of the dead 
hang over a, precipice by a slender stalk, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 3, 174. 
A medicine that sent her soul up to the tip of her tongue/ 
Rommel 4, 771. Vulgo dicitur, quod triginta animae super 
acumen acus possunt sedere, ChmeFs Notizenbl. 6, 386, fr. Nicol. 
v. Siegen s Chron. yr 1489, ed. Wegele 55, p. 344. How many 
souls can sit on a nail, Wigand s Arch. 4, 321. 

p. 832.] Souls are received, drawn on, by Wuotan, Frouwa, 
Ran and Hel, by the watersprites, by angels and elves, by the 
devil (pp. 1001 beg. 1017). Near the places named Valhall there 
is often an Odens-kalla (Suppl. to 818 beg.), as if Oden, before 
admitting souls, should bathe them in the clear stream, as the 
Greeks thought souls were cleansed in the rivers of Hades, and 
took the draught of oblivion in Lethe. Oden som kom upp ur 
Odens-kammare eller Asne-kafve, som ligger in Asne-sjo (fordom 
Oden-sjo), at valja de slagne pa Bravallahed, och fora dem pa ett 
gullshepp (Raaf) ; conf. the story of Haiti, Ynglinga-s. c. 27. 
Old sea-kings were supp. to be buried in a golden ship, Miillenh. 

no. 501. A funeral pile is built up in a ship, Saxo Gr. (ed. 

Miiller) p. 235 ; conf. the ship-mounds thrown up over the dead, 
Worsaae s Vorzeit p. 81-7. A death-ship in Beow. 34; a swan- 
ship carrying a corpse, Keller s Romv. 670. Jacob s body crosses 
the sea in a ship without sail or rudder, Pass. 220, 41 seq. 
Maerl. 2, 341-2, where note the phrase : si bevalen Gode te sine 

stierman. In Friesland souls are supp. to sail over in eggshells; 

people break their empty shells, for witches get into them and 

VOL. IV. T 



1550 SOULS. 

plague the soul on her passage. Halbertsma reminds me verbally 
of the nail-parings (pp. 814. 1138-9 n.) and shoelace cuttings, Sn. 
73 ; the breaking of eggshells is still enjoined by superstition. 
An angel leads a shipful of souls, Dante s Purg. 2, 40 seq. The 
boatman Tempulagy ferries souls over the lake, Klemm 2, 165. 
On the Etruscan Charun (Gerh. p. 17) and the passage- 
money, see Lucian s De luctu 10. Boeckh s Inscr. 2, 103-4. 
GDS. 681. Money is placed under the tongues of the dead, three 
grains of corn under the dead Adam s tongue. In Germ, skele 
tons, coins are actually found in the mouth, Mainzer Ztschr. 1, 
342-3. Lindenschmitt s Todtenlager pp. 16. 51. Haec Stygias 
referant munera ad undas, et calidos numerent igne trientes, 
Liudpr. Antop. 2, 26. Green apples were also put in the hands 
of the dead, Vuk no. 137. 

p. 834.] On Procopius s account of the passage of souls to 
Brittia, see WerlaufFs Procop. p. 7, who himself on p. 10 seq. 
takes Brittia to be Jutland, Britannia Gt. Britain, and 

Thule Scandinavia. En passant le lac de I angoisse, elle vit 

une bande de inorts, vetus de blanc, dans de petites barques, 
Villernarque s Barz. breiz. 1, 169. 

p. 835.] A sharp bridge leading across the Purgatorial fire, 
and the souls flying into it black and coming out white, are 
mentioned in Walewein 4958. 5825. 5840 (V. d. Bergh 102-3). 
Over de lank-bmgge fard = he dies, Narragonia 123 b ; conf. the 
sword-bridge (p. 1082). Angels conduct over the rainbow -bridge. 
The Arabian bridge of sculs is named Sinit, Ruck. Hariri 1, 
229 ; the Chinese too have a bridge of souls, Maltebrun s Precis 
3, 527. Old-Irish legends about it in O Donovan p. 440-1. The 
cow driven across the bridge by the soul in the Tundalus-legend 
reminds of the red cow being led over a certain bridge before the 
great battle by the Nortorf elder-tree, Mullenh. no. 509. The 
Greenlanders believe the soul has to cross an abyss, where turns 
a narrow wheel as smooth as ice, Klemm 2, 317; this is like the 
wheel in Wigalois p. 250 seq. 

p. 836.] On the death-shoe, see Miiller s Sagabibl. 2, 171. 
Mannhardt s Ztschr. 4, 421 ; conf. ViSar s shoe, Sn. 31. 73 ; sal 
a den, i denne lieirnen fatike gjeve sko, han tar inkje (he need not) 
barfott gange in kvasse tynnermo (al. paa kvasse keklebro), Nor- 
weg. draumkvae 36. A dead woman walks/ until her shoe, 



SOULS. 1551 

which they had forgotten to burn, is found and thrown in the 
fire, Lucian s Philops. 27 ; conf. Indicul. sup. ( de ligneis pedibus 
vel manibus, pagano ritu/ The Blackfoot Indians, like Lithu 
anians and Poles, believe the soul has to climb a steep mountain 
Klemm 2, 166-7. 

p. 838.] Anima de corpore exivit, et paradisi januamintroivit, 
Vita Mathild. c. 16. 18. Prayers to St. Michael are said over the 
corpse : di reinen guzzen ir gebet Sente Michahele zu droste sinre 
sele, Dint, 1, 426 ; Michael is < trost allir selen/ Eoth. 4438 : he 
brings the soul < in Abraham s barm/ Hpt s Ztschr. 3, 522, conf. 
Pfeiffer s Wigal. p. 340. Other angels may come instead of 
Michael : venerunt duo juvenes, candidis circumamicti stolis, ani- 
mam a corpore segregantes, vacuum ferentes per aerem, Jonas 
Bobb. in Vita Burgundofarae (Mabillon 2, 421) ; conf. the Gemini 
(p. 366). 

Got sante eine engellische sc/iar (angelic band), 
die namen do der selen war (care, charge) ; 
si empfiengen (received) an der selben stunde 
iegeliches (each one s) sele von smem munde (mouth), 
unde vuorten wirdecllche (worshipfully) 
si in daz ewige himelriche. 

Oswalt 3097. 3455. 

Out of an old man that is dying the angels take the soul as a 
young child (Suppl. to 876 end) ; ir engel vil wol wisten, war 
(well knew where) ir sele solten komen, Klage 922. Angels 
rejoice over Christians falling in fight, and devils over heathens, 
because they get their souls, Tiirl. Wh. 22-3 ; two youths (angels) 
and two Hack devils sit by the bedside of the dead, Griesh. 1, 93 ; 
angels and devils take the souls of schacher (assassins ?), Mone s 
Schausp. 2, 321-2. The soul first lodges with St. Gerdrud, then 
sails over the leber-meer (liver sea), Gryse Ee llll b ; conf. Gef- 
ken s Catal. p. 54. 



1552 DEATH. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 
DEATH. 

p. 840.] Death as messenger of Deity is called der heilig tod, 
H. Sachs i. 5, 528 d . 1, 447 b . Death receives, fetches, escorts : 
san in der tot entphienc, Uolr. 1253 ; er hat den tot an der hant 
(p. 848); her rnoste haven den tot, Hpt s Ztschr. 2, 183. We 
still say du kannst dir den tod davon holen/ it may be the death 
of you, and mit dem tode abgehen/ but more commonly without 
the article : mit tode abgegangen ist/ Mohr s Eeg. ii. no. 234 (yr 
1365). MB, 25, 392. 453 (yr 1480) ; conf. mit tod verscheiden, 
H. Sachs (Goz 2, 16. 19), mit tode vallen, Nib. 2219, 3. Yet 
again ; si beliben mit dem grimmen tode 1555, 3. Er brant ir (of 
them) vil manegen dahin, da er iemer wesen solde, Gudr. 889, 
4 ; conf. si-ne kumt niht her-widere 928, 2 ; der tot der hat 
die unzuht, daz er nieman deheine fluht zuo sinen friunden haben 

lat/ has the ill manners to allow no flight, Klage 1581. Death 

is a departing; the dead is in OS. called gifaran, Hel. 169, 27, 
in ON.fram-genginn, Ssem. 83 a ; AS. f he geivdt, died, Homil. 1, 
330, hsefde forff-siffod, had gone off, Beow. 3105; than im that 
lif scriffi, Hel. 169, 20. Gr. ol%e<T0cu to be gone, oix6pevo<i = 
Oavav. Gl. sletst. 8, 35 renders moriebatur by towita, vel hina- 
zoh. Ssk. preta, gone = dead, Bopp 37 b . Dying is called u* 
varn, faring out, Wels. gast 5436; (he is daust, drauzen, out = 
dead, Stelzhamer 166. 175); vervarn, Walth. 23, 23. MS. 2, 
138 b ; fordferde, obiit/ AS. chronol. ; er ist an die vart (journey), 
diu uns nach in alien ist vil unverspart, Walth. 108, 6. In the 
Ludwigslied hina-vart, hence-faring, is opp. to hier-wist/ 
here-being; ich red daz uf min hin-vart, MSH. 3, 298 b ; er 
swuor uf sin Mnvart 301 a ; bis auf mein hinefart, Bergreien 127 ; 
die lest e fart j urn, Suchenw. xxxiv. 105; zuo der langen vart-, 
Lanz. 1949 ; up mine langlie vaert, Reinh. 2213; ON. long gdnga, 
Sa3m. 222 b ; on longne weg, Cod. Exon. 173, 24; zuo der langen 

hcrvart, Ksrchr. 6304 ; des todes hervart, Mar. leg. 54, 1 4. To 

join the great host (p. 847); conf. ol vrXeiove?, plures = mortui, 
quia ii majore numero sunt quam vivi ; qui abierunt in com- 
munem locum, PI. Casina, prol. 19 ; verscheiden, depart, Kenn. 
21093 ; our drauf gehen ; freude Ian, leave joy, Parz. 119, 15 ; 
swenn er dise freude lat, Wels. gast 4908 ; Idtaz, Islend. sog. 2, 



DEATH. 1653 

166. 174; afgeben gadulingo gimang, Hel. 17, 17; manno drom 
ageben 103, 4; forlet manno drom 23, 7 (conf. . sohte im erlo 
gimang endi manno drom 23, 33); die werlt er begab, Diut. 3, 89. 
67; daz leben begibt den lip, Maria 23; von ztte gdn, Staufenb. 
661 ; aer he on-weg hwurfe gamol of geardum, Beow. 526 ; hwearf 
mon-dreatnum from 3433 ; geendode eorSan dreamas, AS. 

chronol. ; Uf-wynna brecan, Beow. 157. Dying is also called 

staying, being left : blivet doot, Maerl. 3, 325 ; biliban, mortuus/ 
T. 135, 24. O. iii. 23, 55. Graff 2, 47; our geblieben, left 
(dead on the field). Or it is descr. as perishing, ol oXcoXore?, as 
going down to the dust, %66va Svvai, II. 6, 411; varen onder 
moude (mould), Maerl. 3, 61 ; voer ter moude 3, 152; til iar&ar 
liniga (bend), Alfskongs-s. cap. 13; conf. bet ter moude/ Lane. 
44032 ; manger la terre, mordre la poussiere. The Greeks called 
the dead Srj/jLijrpelov?, gone home to Demeter (earth), Plut. 4, 
1154; heim-varn, W. gast 5440; went, was gathered, unto his 

fathers. Fara til heljar = mori (p. 802); gen Totenheim faren, 

Braut 55, 6; fara i disar sal, Fornald. sog. 1, 527 (conf. heingja 
sik i disar sal 1, 454) ; fara i lios annat, to other light, Ssem. 
262 a ; sokien liolit odar, Hel. 17, 17; de hac luce tran sire, Lex 
Burg. 14, 3; Esth. ilma minnema, go to the other world; conf. 
prjKeTi ovra ev c/>aet, Soph. Philoct. 415. An fridu faran (go to 
peace), thar er mina fordron dedun, Hel. 14, 22. For dying is a 
going to sleep : den langen sldf sldfen, Kolocz 285 ; daz in (him) 
der lange sldf gevie (caught), Ring 246; conf. uf einem stro 

ligen, MS. 1, 25 a . The dead go to God: Dryhten secean, 

Beow. 373; si sin vor Gotes ougen (eyes), Trist. 18668; fore 
Meotudes cneowum (knees), Cod. Exon. 164, 19; beholding 
God s mouth and beard/ Kalev. p. 34 ; Gote liete geboten iiber 
in, Ges. Abent. 1, 298 ; wenn der grim tot iiber in gebiut, Ls. 3, 
124; God came with his mercy/ Schwein. 2, 167. 184. 252. 

Various peculiar expressions : f er hat im den namen beno- 

men/ taken the name (life) fr. him, Nib. 1507, 4 : virwandelen 
(change) disen Up, Ksrchr. 6318; des lebenes ferwandelen, Diut. 
2, 290; den lip, daz leben, verwandeln, Cod. Vind. 428, no. 154; 
tgelach moeten betalen, have to pay the piper, Maerl. 2, 238 ; er 
ist versclilissen, slit up, Viet. Jacobi 88; Esth. May down the 
breath. 7 Life is expr. by der sele walden, Ben. Beitr. 86, and 
death by f he is tor selen gedegen Michelsen Lub. oberh. 42 ; 



1554 DEATH. 

sccltagen, Haupt 3, 91 ; our todes verbleichen/ turn pale of 
death. The word spalten, split, is often used in conn, with death: 
sin houbet ime endriu spielt (split in 3), enniuniu (into 9) sich sin 
zunge vielt, Reinh. 2243 ; sin houbet gar zespielt, Lampr. Alex. 
6922 ; daz herze ir in dem libe spielt, Herzmaere 520 ; hans hoved 
brast udi ni styklcer, DV. 1, 157; we say the heart breaks in 
death, bursts with grief. 

p. 841.] The Ind. Yama is god of justice, of death and of the 
underworld, Bopp s Nalas pp. 201. 264; in this last capacity 
he is named Kdla, the black, Bopp s Gl. 74 b ; he answers to the 
Pers. Jemshit, Zend. Yimo. Yama sends his messengers, who 
conduct to his dreary dwelling, Kuruinge 1296. 1360. 1643. 
Holtzm. Ind. s. 2, 101 ; conf. the death-angels, Rosenol 1, 56-7, 
the angel of death and destroying angel (p. 1182). How the 
Tartars keep off the angel of death is told by K. Schlozer p. 32-3. 
Hermes with his wand drives the souls of the suitors to the 
asphodel mead, Od. 24, 1 14. 99 101. As Hermes is sent to 

men, so is Iris to women. Death drags men away from their 

houses, their buildings : thus Protesilaos leaves his widow a half- 
finished house, 56/^0? ^/-areX???, II. 2, 701. Apollo and Artemis 
come regularly and kill off the old people with painless darts, 
ayavol? /3eXeecrcri, Od. 15, 410-1 ; rr/v fBd\V ^pre/u? lo^eaipa 
15,478; al 8e yuoi o>? /zaXa/cov Odvarov Tropoi Apre/jus dyvrj 18, 
202. 20,60-1. 80. Charon ferries over the water; so the devil 
is repres. with an oar in his hand, Woeste p. 49. Vallen in des 
Todes wage, balance, Warn. 1650; uf des Todes wage sweben/ 

be poised 3318. Death is sent by God : Got der sende an 

minen leiden man den Toil MS. 1, 81 a ; sin wip diu schriet 
wafen uf den Tot, er si entsldfen daz er n niht welle bestan/ cries 
fie upon D., he must have gone to sleep, that he won t tackle the 
man, Teichner 75 ; do ergreif in der Tot, do er im sin zuokunft 
enbot (while he to him his arrival made known), so daz er in 
geleite, Greg. 20. He knocks at the door : bereite ze uftuonne 
deme Uopphaere, Uolr. 1329; so in Berno, f ut pidsanti posset 
aperire. 3 He comes as a young man : dev jiingelinc, der geheizen 
ist Tot, Ls. 2, 373. The Lapland Yabmen akka, uxor vel avia 
mortis, sits in a subterr. cave, and was worshipped as a divine 
being, Lindahl s Lex. 82 b ; ich selbe sol bin in daz hoi, Fraueul. 
114, 8; des todes hole (p. 853, Gossip Death s cavern). 



DEATH. t 1555 

p. 842.] With mors conf. Zend, mere thy u, Bopp s Comp. Gr. 
46 ; schmerz, smart is expl. differently by Benfey 2, 39. A Norse 
word for dead is dainn (p. 453 end); conf. Finn. Tuoni = mors, 
Pluto; Tuonen koira, death s dog = dragonfly ; Tuonela = 
Pruss. gallaSy mors (the Lith. galas, finis ?). Esth. surm = 
Finn, surma. Hung, haldl, Finn, kuolema, Yotiak Jculem, Lapp. 
yabmen. Death is the brother of Sleep, who is also personified : 
the dead sleep. It is said of the dead vala : sefrattu fyrri, Seem. 
95 b ; KoifjLrja-aro ^d\Keov VTTVOV, II. 11, 241. As sleep is called 
the sandman, death is in Esth. called earthman, sandman, liwa 
annus, Sand- Jack, liwa peter. Sand-peter; conf. Alf. Maury s Du 
personnage de la mort, Revue Arch. 4th year, pp. 305 339. 

p. 844.] Death comes creeping : mors obrepit, PL Pseud, ii. 
3, 20; mors imminet, et tacito clain venit ilia pede, Tib. i. 10, 
34; da kam der Tot als ein diep, u. stal dem reinen wibe daz 
leben uz ir libe, Wigal. 8032 ; der Tot kumt geslichen als ein diep, 
Cato 397 (mutspelli also thiof ferit, Hel. 133, 4); der Tot 
ersticliet, wins by stealth, Warn. 3109 ; der tot hat mich erslichen, 
Hugdietr. Fromm. 5; er ist mir na } geslicJien (crept after), der 
mich kan machen bla (blue), Muskatbl. 18, 36; der T. sliclit 
vaste herein, Steph. Stofl. 174 ; daz euch nicht ubersleiclie der T. 
mit seim gereusch, Wolkenst. 31. M. Nethl. : ert die Dot belope, 
Maerl. 3, 191. Dir ist vil nahe der Tot, Ksrchr. 5084. 11298; 
conf. AS. nea-laecan (Suppl. to 846 end) ; swie mir der T. uf 

dem riicJcen waere, on my back, MS. 2, 46 b . Death is invoked 

by men weary of life : er rief (cried) nach dem tode, Ksrchr. 
1724; Tot, hum u. toete mich! Dioclet. 4732 ; nun hum Tot! 
Hartm. 1, biichl. 292 ; hum Dot ! Mar. kl., after Arnold 28. 440 ; 
conf. \06Ta ^6/309, Aesch. Suppl. 804 ; Yama, come, release 
me, Holtzm. Kur. 723 ; horn T., brich mir daz herz enzwei, 
Hagen s Ges. Abent. 1, 301 ; we dir T., hum her, u. nim uns alle 
hin, Mai 150, 12. 155, 4. 162, 4. 164, 13. 178, 27; recipe me ad 
te, mors, amicum et benevolum, Plaut. Cistell. iii. 9 ; nu kum, 
grimmeclicher T., u. rihte Gote von uns beiden, MS. 1,1 7 b ; kum 
ein kleines todelein, u. flir mich balde von hinnen, Bergreien 
84; wo bist so lang, du grimmer T. ? komb ! H. Sachs iii. 1, 
227; mors, Cur mihi sera venis ? Prop. iii. 4, 34, conf. Soph. 
Philoct. 796; riep om die dot, dat si quame, Lane. 35711 ; dat se 
den dod beide schulden unde baden, dat he viht ensumede (delay), 



1556 DEATH. 

wen dat he queme, unde on (fr. them) dat lerend to hand neme, 
Everh. Gandersh. 48 7 a ; weiz Got, her Tot, ir miiezet her, Apollon. 
235 ; nim mich T., brick T. min herze ! Altd. bl. 1, 288-9 ; owe 
T., wes modest (shunnest) du ? Ls. 1, 99 ; we T., zwiu sparst du 
mich ? Mai 43, 10. W. v. Rheinau 190 a ; eia T., mohtes du mich 
getoeten ! Steph. Stofl. 181 ; wallan Daeft, wela Dae$, ]mt Jm 
me n elt fordemen, Kg Leir 160, 20; he dex, la mort m envois ! 
Guitecl. 2, 148; T., nu ouge dich ! Hag. Ges. Ab. 300. 
Death comes to give warning ; he may come to terms or be put 
off the first two times, but not the third. Similar to the tale in 
Straparola 4, 5 is that of Pikollos, Hanusch p. 218. Death siht 
an, looks at a man, Warn. 28 ; he beckons or points, RuPs Adam, 
1421. 

Death takes men away, like Hild and Gund (p. 422) : diu kint 
fileret hin des Todes wint, Warn. 1648; daz in der T. hat hin 
genomen, Ulr. Trist. 20. Frib. Trist. 32 ; Secundillen het der T. 
gevomen, Parz. 822, 20; der T. hat mich begriffen (gripped), 
Hugdietr. Oechsle 10 ; e iz der T. begrife, Diemer 348, 9; do 
ergreif den vater ouch der T., Gregor. 19; begrift iuch da der 
T. 413 ; Den hat der T. verzimmert, boxed up, Suchenw. 16, 
167; des Todes zimmer 19, 17 ; conf. diap dodes dalu (Suppl. to 
803) ; todes muor, Tiirl. Wh. 16 a . Death, like the devil, has jaws, 
a throat, to devour with : vallen in des Todes giel (gullet) , Karl 
72 a ; si liefen dem Tod in den rachen (ran into the jaws, Theiln. 
der Serben (?) p. 23 (yr. 1685) ; conf. f ir welt in gewissen tot, 
certain death, Wigal. 6061 ; in den tot riten 6153; we say den 
in den tod gehn. 

p. 845.] Death rides, as the dead lover fetches his bride away 
on horseback, Hpt s Altd. bl. 1, 177. Miillenh. no. 224; and so 
far back as Seem. 168 b : mdl er mer at riffa roffnar brautir, aiSr 
salgofnir sigrJrio S veki (ere the cock crows) ; conf. des Todes imp, 
Engelh. 3402 E. ; ich gezime dir (I suit thee) wol ze wibe, Er. 
5896. Like the Schleswig Hel (Miillenh. no. 335), Wode also and 
the wild hunter ride on a three-legged horse ; Wode catches the 
subterraneans, ties them together by their hairs, and lets them 
hang on each side of his horse, Miillenh. p. 373. On Boeotian 
tombstones the dead man stands beside the horse, with the in 
scription : rjpws %aipe, K. F. Hermann s Gottesd. alterth. 16, 
20. Charos ranges the babes on his saddle, see GDS. 140-1. 



DEATH. 1557 

p. 846.] Death takes prisoners. Yama leads away the man- 
nikin he has pulled out of the dying man, tied to a rope which he 
carries about,, Holtzm. Ind. s. 1, 64-5. Rochholz 1, 89 ; ob mich 
der Tot enbindet, Wh. 68, 22. Death throws his net over us, 
Steph. Stofl. 174; in des Todes vallen (snares) beklemmet, 
Mart. ll b ; kamen zuo des Todes voile, Livl. 1808; in des Todes 
lage (ambush), Kl. 1356; der Tot im daz leben stal, Ottoc. 86 a ; 
die in (fr. them) het der T. verstolen, Wigal. 9213; in het vil 
nach (well-nigh) der bitter T. mit siner kraft gezucket hin (tugged 
away) 5956; sin leben het gezucket der T. 5129; der T. ziicket 
(rhy. niderbiicket) , Wolkenst. 31 ; unz si der T. ersnellet (till 
d. snaps her up), Hpt s Ztschr. 7, 331 ; der T. hat mich 
ergangen, Ecke 58; do nu der T. her drang, St. Louis 60, 17; 
thaz tod uns sus gi-angti, sus naher uns gifiangi, 0. iii. 24, 14, 
i.e. brought us to such straits, so nearly caught us ; der Tod 
raiisclit her behend, r. durcli die hecken her, B. Waldis 149 a . 163 a . 
Death as conqueror stands over the prostrate dying man : des 
Tot gestet uber in selben, Pfaffenleben 33; conf. Dietr. 1669: die 
sine (his men) stuonden iiber in. The dying have fallen due to 
Death, become his men ; hence we say ein mann (ein kind) des 
Todes : sonst war er ein mann des Todes, Zehn ehen p. 226 ; 
conf. Dodis vuoter (food) werden, Fundgr. 2, 108; des Todes 
spil (sport), Wigal. 10743, den Tot laben (with fortifications), 

ibid. The dying man wrestles with D., Sanders p. 44; mit 

dem grimmen Tode ranc, Servat. 1771; mit dern T. hat sinen 
ger anc, Warn. 174 (the devil wrestles too: mit wem die tievel 
haben gerungen, Renn. 10727) ; iiberwunden (vanquished) sich 
dem Tode ergeben (surrender), Wigal. 7662. Death is armed: 
A.S. wiga waelgifre, Cod. Exon. 231, 8; iviga nealaeceiS 164, 4; 
deaff nealaecte, stop stalgongum strong and hreiSe 170, 17; wir 
ligend auf des Todes spiez (spear), Ring 253. He shoots arrows, 
like Charos (Kindt 1849 p. 17) : wcel-pilum, Cod. Exon. 171, 15, 
wcel-straelum 179, 11; uf in sleif des Todes liagcl (hail), G. schm. 
158; in hat benomen des Todes schur, Wh. 256, 6. He is a 
Jiunter, MSH. 3, 177 a . He is likened to a thorn : darinne der tot 
als ein dorn in dem Meien bliiete, Wigal. 7628. He has a legal 
claim upon man : gait der dot haer scout (solvit morti debitum), 
Maerl. 1, 430 ; we say ( to pay the debt of nature/ 

p. 847.] Death has an army : der Tot fuort in die gemeinen 



1558 DEATH. 

vartj the common journey, Ofctoc. 86 a ; e der T. gebiutet sine her- 
vart army s march, Barl. 397, 32. His badge, his tdcen (Suppl. 
to 200), is the pallid hue: des Todes zeichen in liehter varwe, 
Nib. 928, 3. 2006, 1 ; des T. z. wirt schin (is displayed) in 
swarz-gelber varwe, Warn. 128; des T. gilwe (yellow), MS. 2, 
166 b . Those who are veig, fey, may thus be known, Belg. mus. 
5, 113. On the contrary, in Wigal. 6151, a red cloth tied to a 
spear betokens that a man shall ride to his death that day : 

An ein sper man im do bant 
einen samet der was rot ; 
daz bezeichent daz er in den tot 
des tages riten solde. 

Proserpine devotes the dying to Orcus by cutting a lock of hair 
off them : 

Nondum illi flavum Proserpina vertice crinem 

abstulerat, Stygioque caput damnauerat Oreo. ./En. 4, 698. 

Iris is sent down to Dido : 

Devolat, et supra caput astitit : e Hunc [crinem] ego Diti 

sacrum jussa fero, teque isto corpore solvo/ 

Sic ait, et dextra crinem secat, omnis et una 

dilapsus calor, atque in ventos vita recessit. ^n. 4, 702. 

p. 848.] Death mows, Lett, nahwe plavj, Bergm. 69 ; des 
Todes sicliel, Wolkenst. 278. He is a sitheman, Shah-nameh, 
v. Gorres 1, 105-6; conf. the 3 maidens that mow the people 
down with their sithes, Kulda in D Elv. 110. 

p. 849.] Death is commonly called the grim, Diemer 87, 9. 
14. Servat. 1771-92. Hahn s Strieker 11; der Tot in mit 
grimme suochte, Diut. 1, 407 ; der grimme tot/ the name of a 
sword, MSH. 3, 236 a ; der grimmecliche tot, Hagen s Ges. Abent. 
1, 300; der arge tot, Ernst 1954; der ilbel tod, der bitter, King 
6 d ,12. 54 b ,26. Fr. f male mort; ez ist niht wirsers danne der 
tot, Er. 7935 ; der hide dot, Hpt s Ztschr. 2, 197 (like the devil) ; 
die felle D6t, Maerl. 2, 133; der gewisse T6t, Helbl. 1, 109 
Wigal. 6061. 6132 ; er was des gewissen Todes, Diemer 218, 14; 
gewis sam der Tot/ sure as d., Lanz. 5881 ; ja weisturehte alsam 
den T., Flore 3756 ; ich weiz ez warez (true) als den T., Trist, 



DEATH. 1559 

119. 17751. 19147. Ulr. Trist. 1964; der gemeine T., Halm 78, 
20. 91,48. Greg. 3769. Schwabensp. p. 179; der gemeinliche 
T., Klage 534; Odvaros 6/ioto?, Od. 3, 236; qui omnes manet, 
conf. Etr. Mantus fr. manere, Gerh. pp. 17. 56. 

p. 850.] Dominus Blicero is called Bleker in Coremans 109; 
dass euch der blickars reut ! Garg. 134 b ; der blasse menschen- 
frass (pale man-muncher), Fleming p. 142 ; our knochler, knoch- 
enmann, Bony. Death was depicted with frightful aspect : an 
sinem schilde was der Tot gemalt ml grusenliche, Wigal. 2998 ; 
conf. des Todes schild-gemaele, Tit. 2689, the Harii (p. 950), and 
the death s-head hussars. On the tomb near Cumae the 
skeletons are put in a dancing posture, Olfers in Abh. der Acad. 
30, pp. 15. 1922. 

p. 852.] Friend Hain is not so easy to buy off/ Hans Wurst 
doktor nolens volens, Frankf. and Leipz. 1779, p. 39; and there 
Friend Hdyn did the sexton a kindness/ viz. his wife dies in 
childbed, Kindleben, Wilib. Schluterius, Halle 1779, p. 114. 
Jean Paul uses the word in Q. Fixlein p. 170, and Lessing 12, 
505 (yr. 1778). But I now find in Egenolf s Sprichw. bl. 32 l b 
(under sawr sehen ) : f he looks sour, he looks like Henn the 
devil/ The other phrases are all borr. fr. Seb. Frank ; this one 
is peculiar to Egenolf s collection. Conf. ( Heintze Pik, de dood, 

V. d. Bergh 155. Death stretches the limbs : als sie der Tot 

gestracte, Ernst 3011 ; Odvaros Tavrj\eyr)s, laying out at length, 
Od. 3, 238. 11, 171 seq. ; f an deme Strecke-foisze/ a place, 
Arnsb. Urk. no. 493, yr. 1319. Bleckezalm is also in Fleming 
p. 424. 

p. 854.] Similar to the expression in H. Sachs, but not so 
figurative, is the phrase : der tot uns zucke daz leben, jerks the 
life fr. us, Renn. 20389. Hagen s Ges. Ab. 1, 299. On the life- 
candle, see Wackernagel in Haupt 6, 280 4; daz leben ist 
unstaete, wan ez erleschet der Tot als ein lieht, Altd. bl. 2, 122 ; 
the devil (here meaning death) is to come for a man when a 
wax-taper has burnt down, Miillenh. p. 180. On the torch of Eros 
(whose other attribute, like Death s, is the bow), and on his 
relation to Psyche, see Gerhard s Eros pp. 5. 15. 32. KM. 3 3, 

70. Death is a godfather; see also Phil. v. Sittew. 2, 673-4. 

In the same way the hoberges-giibbe, the man of the mountain 
(miner?) is asked to be godfather (p. 189), Miillenh. p. 289 [In 



1560 DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

Shaksp. the jury who convict are godfathers] . As a godfather, 
it matters much whether you stand at the head or foot : kopp- 
vadder, stert-vadder, Schiitze 4, 194-5. The Slav, story of 
Godmother Smrt in Wolfs Ztschr. 1, 262-3 may be conf. with 
our marchen of Gevatter Tod, KM. no. 44 and note. On the 
life-or-death-giving look of the bird charadrius, see Plut. Sympos. 
v. 1, 2. Physiol. in Karajan p. 104. 

p. 855.] On the marchen of Death and Jack Player, see Pref. 
xvi. xli. The Lith. Welnas is called in Lasicz 48 vielona, deus 
animarum. Beside the Finn. Tuoni, there is mentioned a death- 
god Kcdma, Schott s Kullervo pp. 218. 235. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 
DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

p. 856 n.] The Gothic forfeige, fey, is daufi-ublis (e 
conf. ON. dauff yfli, morticiniurn. Faeges forSsiS, moribundi 
decessus, Cod. Exon. 182, 34; wyrd ne meahte in faegum leng 
feor gehealdan 165, 18. Die vege dot, Karel 2, 733; veige eben 
todt, Klage 536-9. 1304 ; sit lie man bi den veigen vil der pfaffen 
uf dem sande (left with the dying many priests), Gudr. 915, 4; 
si was ze friieje leider veige, Flore 2163; da vielen (fell) die 
veigen, Ksrchr. 4909. 7078; da gelagen die veigen, 5247. 7803; 
die veghe es, hie moet ter moude/ who fey is, must to mould, 
Walew. 3876 ; ni si man nihein so feigi (no mortal), 0. i. 11, 10 ; 
da was der veige vunden (found, hit), Trist. 403, 8; conf. der 
veige rise 401, 18; ir sit veige gewesen, Wien. merfart 410. 438 ; 
unz der man niht veige en-ist, so erneret in vil kleiner list (so 
long as he is not fey, a little skill will set him up), Iw. 1299. 

p. 857.] Destiny rules over the highest of gods : vTrep e TT}? 
KetyaXrjS rov Ai6<$ elaiv ^flpai KOI Molpat, Paus. i. 40, 3. It is 
expr. by the following terms : ON. shop let hon vaxa, Sa3m. 
249 b ., OS. giscapu mahtig gimanodun, Hel. 10, 18; thiu berhtun 
giscapu gimanodun 11, 17; regano-giscapu gimanodun 103, 3; 
conf. torhtlico tidi gimanodun 3, 11. Dan. den kranke skjebne, 

DV. 1, 123; conf. den kranke lykke 1, 195. ON. orlog, OHG. 

urlac, MHG. urliuge, urlouc, Gramm. 2, 790 ; voru nu endut }>au 
alog, Hervarars. p. 488; and the Sax. compds orlag-huila, orleg- 



DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 1561 

MHG. wU-saelde : diu wUsaelde ie muoz irgan, Ksrchr. 
3493. 3535; conf. 3122-5. 3130. Lanz. 1602. Fundgr. 1, 398; 
em ubel wUsaelde, Ksrchr. 1757. Also the uncompounded wile: 
so hab diu wile undanc ! Biter. 11933; sin wile und sin tac, 
Ksrchr. 3557; wile u. stunde walzent al-umbe/ fate and the 
hour roll round, 3660. 3587. We say his hour has struck/ 

p. 858.] The hour of birth and destiny is determined on by 
night : ndtt var i boe, nornir qvamo, J?ar er airSlingi aldr umskopo, 
Seem. 149 a ; diu mir wart bescheiden (she was destined for ine) 
von den nahtweiden, do si erste wart geborn, Krone 4840. 

Even in early times destiny is placed in the hands of gods : 



o\{3ov 
rjoe KaKoldiv, OTTO)? eOeXyaiv, ktcaGTu*. Od. 6, 188. 

alcra. Od. 9. 55. 
avepo? (j> re Kpoviwv 

oA-/3ov eVi/cXcocr?; rya/jLeovrl re yiyvofjuevp re. Od. 4, 207. 
ov fJiOi TOIOVTOV eVe/cXcocra^ Oeol o\/3ov. Od. 3. 208. 
a><? yap ol eVe/cXwcrei/ ra 76 Sal/Awv. Od. 16_, 64. 



The last three passages have eiri,K\d)0co (I spin for), the term 
gener. used of the Fates. 

p. 859.] The weighing of destinies, performed by Zeus in the 
Iliad, is called weighing of souls by Welcker, Cycl. 2, 189, just 
what Christian legend ascribes to St. Michael : 

Sant Michel richtet uf sin wage (holds up his balance), 

und henket sich der valant dran (though the devil hangs on), 

doch schaffet er niht, der swarze man, 

wan sin sleeken ist umbsus (his trickery is in vain) . 

Conr. v. Dankrotsch. Namenb. 118. Berthold p. 17. 

p. 860.] The stars have influence esp. on birth : tarn grave 
sidus habenti, Ov. Trist. v. 10, 45; vonar-stiarna flaug. ]?a var 
ec foeddr, burt fra briosti mer. hatb at hun flo, hverglsettiz, sva 
hun maetti hvild hafa, Saem. 126 b ; ( because their star is at lieat, 
or it has cooled down (versauset)/ Phil. v. Sittew. Soldatenl. p.m. 
149. Other omens attending the conception and birth of a child 
are mentioned in Pref. xliv. xlv. 

p. 862.] In the unavoidableness of fate there is something 
cruel and grudging. The luckiest and best men perish at last : 



1562 DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

sit sturbens jdmerliche von zweier edelen frouwen nit (women s 
jealousy), Nib. 6, 4; wie liebe mit hide ze jungest lonen ~kan (love 
may reward with woe at last) 1 7, 3 ; als ie diu liebe leide ze aller- 
jungiste git (turn to woe) 2315 ; 3d kom&mein eptir munuS, Saem. 
129 a ; conf. these views of the world s rewards, and Lehrs Vom 

neide p. 149. To the possession of costly things is attached 

misfortune and ruin. In the tale of Tyrfing it is the splendid 
s word that kills; conf. the fatal sword (p. 205). So the horse of 
Sejanus proved a fatal steed, Gellius 3, 9. Lehrs Yom neide 
p. 154. To the same category belong the Nibelung s hoard, the 
alraun and gallows-man (p. 513 n.). And a union with goddesses 
and fays makes men unhappy (p. 393). 

The Norse fatalism comes out in : ingen man ar starkare an 
sitt ode/ no man is stronger than his fate, Sv. folks. 1, 228. In 
Vestergotland and Schonen they say : det var hanom odt, GDS. 
125-6. M. Neth. dat sin sal, dat moet sin, Karel 2, 1561. MHG. 
poets have: daz geschach u. muose sin, Tiirl. Wh. 29 a ; wan ez 
solt et sin, Parz. 42, 6 ; ez muoz also wesen, Nib. 1482, 1 ; swaz 
geschehen sol, daz geschiht, Urstende 104, 48. Helmbr. 1683. 
OS. that it scolda giwerthan so, bethiu ni mahtun si is bemithan 
(avoid), Hel. 150, 19. 152, 4. Fr. tot avenra ce quen doit avenir, 

Garin 2, 201. AS. n 0es ic faege J?a git (I was not fey yet), 

Beow. 4289 ; conf. ez sterbent wan (none but) die veigcn die 
doch vil lihte heime da muosen sterben, Tit. 1799; nieman 
sterben mac (can die), unz im kumt sin lester tac, Kl. 103 ; nieman 

ersterben mac, e im kumt sin endes-tac, Lanz. 1613. Ego vero 

nihil impossible arbitror, sed utcunque fata decreverunt ita cuncta 
mortalibus e venire, Apul. p. m. 87; mir geschiht niht, wan mir 
gescliaffen ist, ez muoz nu sin, MSH. 3, 80; ist ez dir bescha/en, 
Helmbr. 1297 ; muoz ez wesen, u. ist dir beschaffen, Laber p. 200; 
sei es uns mit heil bescha/en, Wolkenst. 1 78 ; bescha/ens gliick, 

Ambras. lied. p. 224-5-7. Mir ist niht beaht, Flore 1184; diu 

ist dir eraktot (intended), Griesh. 2, 18 ; dem si rente erahtot ist 

2, 19. Ih ward giboran zi thiu, 0. iv. 21, 30 ; wer zuo drbi 

helbling ist geborn, Diut. 1, 325 ; ze drin scherphen geborn, Renu. 
15886; dur sane (for song) bin ich geborn, MS. 1, 53 a ; er wart 
zer fluht nie geborn, Wh. 463, 19; ich wart in dine helfe erborn, 
Tit. 72, 4 ; Christianchen ist nicht fur mich geboren, Gellert 3, 
168. We say : es ist mir av geboren. Til lykke lagt } DV. 3, 5 ; 



DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 1563 

Dan. er det saa laget, saa faaer det saa blive ; ez get keinein 
anders dan im wirt ufgeleit, Mich. Beham s Yom ungiauben 4 
[necessity is laid upon me, 1 Cor. 9, 16]. - Swaz dir enteile is 
getan, des enwirt dir niht benomen/ you can t fail to have, En. 
82, 6. 87, 21. 117, 1 ; deme si beschert was, e si wurde geborn, 
En. 3993 : nieraan gelouben sol an daz wort ez ist ime beschert, 
Germania 3, 233 a ; dem galgen beschert, Eenn. 16815; est iu 
beschert, u. en-mac niht anders sin, More 4588 ; uns wirdet 
cnuogiz kespirre ioh peskerit N. Arist., oeskerit unde beskibet 94 ; 
waz ist uns beiden beschert u. bescheiden, Herb. 14054. We say: 
es ist mir beschieden, verhangt, bestimmt, geschickt. - Lith. 
lemtas, ordained ; was eineni geordnet sei, dem entrinne man 
nicht, GotthelPs Erz. 1, 292; es sei so geordnet, u. was sein muss, 
muss sein 1, 284; zugeschrempt, Keisersb. Von koufleuten 89 b . 
Geistl. lewe 50 C ; ez ist rnir sus gewaitt, Parz. 11, 8. - More 
antique are the phrases : 



ov ^/up 7T&)5 Karavaofjie a^yvfjievoi 7Tp 

els Ai8ao Bofjiovs, irpiv fjiopori/AOV rjjj,ap e7re\0rj. Od. 10, 174. 

8 ovTivd (prj/jii, 7T(f)vyjjLevov e^fjuevai avSpwv. II. 6, 488. 



AS. gse J?a wyrd swa hio seel, Beow. 905 ; so habed im wurd- 
giscapu Metod gimarcod, Hel. 4, 13, conf. 18, 10. 45, 14. 

p. 863.] Weal and luck are all but personified in the phrases : 
kum, gliickf u. schlag mit haufen drein, Docen^s Misc. 1, 279; 
ein garten, den gliick u. heil buwet, Mohr reg. v. Frauenbr. no. 
386, yr. 1434; heil, walde iz ! Diut. 1, 353 ; des helfe mir geliicke ! 
Nib. 1094, 4 ; mine helpe God ende goet geval ! Walew. 286 ; 
an s mi God ende goed geval ! Karel 2, 3609 ; nrin heil, nu Huge 
(prosper) ! Altsw. 14, 31. 96, 4; Silvio volgete groz heil, En. 
13138; die wile (meanwhile) sin heil vor gienc, 7251 ; to snatch 
the luck that was going to another, Unw. dokt. 358 ; those that 
luck pipes to may dance, Docen s Misc. 1, 282 ; when God and 
good luck greet him, Simpl. 1, 536; daz in daz heil verfluocket 
(curses him), Hartm. 1, biichl. 782. - Without personification : 
si liezen die vart an ein heil, 3297; waere daz an minem heile, 
MS. 1, 193 b ; vart iuwer straze (go your way) mit guotem lieile, 
Iw. 832; ze heile komen, MS. 1, 75 a ; heiles vurt waten (wade 
the ford of), Suchenw. xxxiii. 35 ; guotes mannes heil, Hpt s 
Ztschr. 2, 179; ich trowe mime heile, Nib. 2102, 4; mime heile 



1564 DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

ich gar verteile, MS. 1, 83 a ; du maht min heil erwenden (canst 
thwart), Walth. 60, 18; ich danke s mime heile, Nib. 1938, 4; 
conf. min saelde si verwdzen (cursed be), Mai 174, 4; min saelde 
ich verfluoche, Flore 1182 ; ich ziulie ez uf (I lay it all upon) 
die s. min, Lanz. 3162 ; doch ziirn ich an die s. min 4300. 
More peculiar are : wiinschet daz mir ein heil gevalle, befall, 
Walth. 115, 5; conf. M. Neth. glieval, luck, Huyd. sub. v., and 
our Veldeke s daz si mere (increase) min geval 1, 21 a ; des 
heiles sluzzel (key) in verspart freude, Altd. bl. 2, 236; verlorn 
het er daz heil, Alex. 3389. Wiinschen heiles mint, 9 a find of 
luck, Altd. bl. 1, 339. MS. 2, 190 a . MSH. 1, 357 b . Mai 64, 10. 
Haupt 7, 117; heile bruoder, froiden mint, Dietr. drach. 303 b ; 

der Saelden mint, MSH. 1, 359 a ; gluckes mint 351 b . Gliick, 

heil and saelde are named side by side : doch so was gelucke u. 
Sifrides heil, Nib. 569, 2 ; heili joh scdida, 0. Ludw. 5 ; man 
saget von glucke u. von salden, Herb. 6770 ; so moht ime gelucke 
u. heil u. saelde u. ere ufrisen, Walth. 29, 31 ; gelucke iuch miieze 
saelden wern (may fortune grant), Parz. 431, 15. Gelucke is 
distinguished fr. heil, Herb. 3238. 15465; conf. TU^, poipa, 
eipappevrj, Lucian 3, 276; dea Fortuna, PL Pseud, ii. 3, 13. 

There is a white fortune and a black, a bnght and a dark : thiu 
lerhtun giscapu, Hel. 11, 16. 23, 17; J?a beorhtan gescceft, Csedm. 
273, 20. 

Eia, glucke ! eia, heil ! 

nu hast du mir daz swarze teil (black side) 

allenthalben zuo gekart (toward me turned) ; 

mir sint die wizen wege verspart (barred), 

da ich wilen ane ginc (whereon I whilom went) . 

Herb. 1546569. 

Frommann p. 321 understands this of the moon s light or dark 
disc, and seems to derive the wheel of fortune altogether fr. 
the lunar orb. Conf. Lett. ak mannu baltu deenu ! my white 
day, Bergm. 76 (see p. 1138). 

p. 864.] Of Saelde s vigilance I have some more examples 
[Omitted] : min S. erwachet, Ls. 2, 509 ; swer si nu solde schou- 
wen, des S. was niht entsldfen, Tiirl. Wh. 46 a . And the same of 
Luck and Unluck : hadde mi min gheluc ghewaect, Marg. v. 
Limbg 1, 1226; our unluck wakes, Giinther 1014; my luck is 



DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 1565 

fast asleep 212 (conf. Dan. den kranke lykke, 3 DY. !_, 195 ; den 
kranke skjebne 1, 123). M. Neth. die Aventure wacht (p. 911); 
erwachet sin planet, Chron. in Senkenb. 3, 459 ; fortunam ejus 
in malis tantum civilibus vigilasse, Amm. Marc. 14, 10, conf. at 
vos Salus servassit, Plaut. Cist. iv. 2, 76. The Laima (Suppl. to 
877) also sleeps and wakes up, Biittner no. 761. Luck is coaxed : 

se, geliicke, se, Walth. 90, 18. Similar phrases: ruin weinen- 

der scJiade (hurt) wachet, MSH. 1, 102 a ; skade vaker, Aasen s 
Ordspr. 210; to wake a sleeping sorrow/ Oedip. Colon. 510. 
ON. vekja Nauff, Saern. 194 b (var.), like vekja vig 105 a . Vreude 
diu ist erwachet, diu ie verborgen lac (lay hid), MS. 2, 99 a ; conf. 
wach auf, fried, Fastn. 39, 1 ; bi werden man (to noble-minded 
men) so wachent wibes guete, MS. 1, 190 a ; ir giiete u. bescheiden- 
heit ist gen mir entsldfen I, 26 b ; ir gendde (favour) mir muoz 
waclien 1, 33 a ; wil ir diu (minne) ze herzen nahen wachen, MSH. 
1, 31 6 b . Nemesis, vengeance, sleeps and wakes. A place where 
a certain danger waked, } Serb. u. Kroat. 10. 

p. 866.] Fortuna, like Ver Sselde (Hagen s Ges. Ab. 1, 409), 
waits long at the door, and is not admitted, Dio Cass. 64, 1 ; mir 
ist verspart (barred) der Saelden tor, Walth. 20, 31 ; der S. tor 
entsliezen (unlock), Dietr. drach. I79 a ; conf. Hpt s Ztschr. 2, 
535 and dream-gate (Suppl. to 1146 beg.). In the same way: 
sliuz mir uf der vrouden tor, } unlock me the gates of joy, MSH. 
1, 356 a ; gein dem siiezen Meien stent offen froiden tor, MS. 2, 
108 a ; der froiden tor ist zuo getan (shut) 2, 198 b : thro portals 
wide poured joy into her house, Gotthelf 2, 203 ; thy luck comes 
in at every gate, Fabricius s Haustafel (Y. f. Harnb. gesch. 4, 

486) ; der gendden tor, Hpt 4, 526. Exulatum abiit solus, 

Plaut. Merc. iii. 4, 6; des solt in Saelde wichen, quit them, 
Albr. Tit. 2344 ; diu S. mir entwiche, MS. 2, 20 a ; conf. da unse 
heil von uns trat, } Pass. 40, 80 ; heill er horfin, gone, Yols. c. 
11 ; la Fortune passa, elle part a ces mots/ Lafont. 5, 11 ; con 
versely : zuo gienc daz unheil/ on came mischief (Suppl. to 879). 
Saelde von uns vonit, Athis F, 20 ; S. wont im bi, u. vont, Heinr. 
Krone 56 d ; dar Saelden ane genge, Hpt 4, 525; daz dich daz 
geliicke ange, Diocl. 4376. 8759 ; alles gliick wehete (blew) dich 

an, Unw. doct. 617. Luck approaches one who sleeps at the 

well-side, Babr. 49, 2 ; predestined luck comes overnight, Aru- 
bras. 247 ; conf. falling asleep betw. two lucks, Altd. bl. 2, 175; 

VOL. iv. u 



1566 DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

an Saelden wunsches arm entslafen, Tit, 1248. Ipsa, si vellet, 
Solus his circumfusa, ut vulgo loquimur, eos salvare non posset, 
Liutpr. Legatio 13. Er was uf der Saelden wege, Ernst 1843; 
conf. so verst uf geliickes Ian MS. 1, 88 b ; hohe getrat ze Sael 
den, Mar. 164, 30; ich kan si wol erjagen (hunt her down) : si-ne 
welle sich mir me versagen (refuse me more) dan si sich deheime 
(any one) versagte, der si ze rehte jagte, Greg. 1529. f Ir Saelde 
diu sach sie an/ looked on her, Mar. 187, 20; we say smiled 
upon/ conf. rrjv rv^r}V Trpoo-ynetStwa-az/, Lucian s Asin. 47, Fortuna 
arridet. Ich muoz ir gruoz verdienen/ earn Fortune s greeting, 
Greg. 1527; Got u. das gliick griiszet, Simpl. 1, 536; daz mich 
vro Saelde erkande (recognised), MS. 2, 99 a ; so volgt dir S. ndch, 
MSH. 3, 224 b ; min fr6 S., wie sie min vergdz (forgot me), Walth. 
43, 5. Einer geliicke erslichet, daz der ander niht wol kan 
erloufenf one creeps up to her, another can t run her down, MSH. 
3, 297 a ; das gliick erschleichen, Fischart s Gesch. kl. 95 b . Uhl. 
Volksl. 584. Ambras. 102; Muck wants to be boldly galloped 

up to/ Polit. stockf. p. 240. Geliicke ist uns verswunden, 

vanished, Altd. bl. 2, 150 ; wie in geliicke floch/ fled, Ottoc. 
7l3 a ; vrou Saelde heret mir den nac, turns her neck (back), 
Frauenl. 447, 22; fortuna malefida, Kudl. 1, 11; fortuna vetus, 
1, 66; vrou S. ist wilder dan ein rech (roe), MSH. 2, 315 a , conf. 
geliicke lief entwerhes t j ran athwart, Troj . 12598; S. wird pfliicke, 
Kolocz 100; daz wiltwilde geliicke springt, MS. 2, 147 b . In der 
Saelden liuote varn/ travel in her keeping 1, 88 a ; wisen uz vrou 
S. huote, MSH. 1, 339 a ; conf. ( cum fortuna ludere/ be her play 
mate, favourite, Pertz 2, 79. Der Saelden stabe, da suit ir 

iuch an stiuren staff whereon ye shall lean, MSH. 3, 462 a ; sitzen 
uf der S. Mr 1, 93 a (MS. 1, 36 a ) ; daz iuch vro Saelde laze wider- 
Jceren (send you back), Troj. 9359 ; wie dich diu S. fuorte (led), 
Hpt 4, 524. ( Diu S. mich an sich nam, si riet mir, advised me, 
Wigam. 4119; den ir S. daz geriet, for so her luck advised, 
Wh. 451, 4; daz sie diu S. tuon liiez what S. bade her do, 
Eracl. 54 ; dar sin S. hat erdaht/ wherever his luck thought 
good, Parz. 827, 17. Diu S. ir mit flize pflac, carefully tended 
her, Wigal. 8950 ; vrou S. ir stiure gap siner ammen (bestowed 
her gifts on his nurse), diu sin phlac, do er in der wiegen (cradle) 
lac/ Er. 9898 ; von der Saelden gebe, Altd. bl. 2, 218 ; nu het diu 
vrowe Saelikheit alien- wis an in geleit (on him set) ir ml staetigez 



DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 1567 

marc, Greg. 1063 ; der Saelden gundes teil, Krone 4883. Er 

sitzet in S. vogel-huse, Renn. 19512; kaeme ich uf der S. stuol, 
Partenop. 93; der. S. dach (roof), MS. 1, 191 b ; daz uns decke 
diner S. van (flag), MSH. 1, 339 b ; entsliezen uf (unlock) der S. 
schrin, Dietr. drach. 94 b ; aller S. grunt 105 a . 303 b ; der S. sell 
(rope) 239 b . 257 a ; der S. vaz (cask), Hag. Ges. Ab. 1, 461; sich 
daz (beware lest) din muot iht trunken ge von des geliickes stoufe 
(bowl), Frauenl. 116, 19; von gold ein S. vingerlm (ring), Lanz. 
4940; daz golt der S., Tifc. 4914. 5028; Saeldenberc, Mone 1, 

346. 7, 319. Der S. zww (twig, Suppl. to 977) ; eiu zwi daran 

din Saelde lluejet, Hpt 4, 527; sin S. bluete, Wh. 463, 9; ez 
griienet miner Saelden ris (twig), Winsbekin 6, 4; wo sein gliicks- 
grasl graint, Stelzhamer 36 ; gelticke ist witen hie gesat (widely 
sown), Dietr. drach. 187 a . It is prettily said : das gliick abbla- 
ten (disleaf), Fastn. sp. 1143, as if to pluck off the flower of luck; 
luck brings roses/ Ldrb. of 1582, 225; grozmechtig krut-korb 
voll gliick (huge hamperfuls), Fastn. sp. 884, 24, conf. geliick 
in einem kreben (korb, basket) fiuden/ Hatzl. 85 b ; der Saelden 
stiicke (pieces, items?), Parz. 734, 24; hat-er darzuo der S. swert, 
Altd. bl. 2, 229; der S. slac (blow), Iw. 4141, conf. < ne nos 
Fortuna sinistro cum pede prosternat/ Gesta Witigowonis 477 ; 
at first she can t take in her luck, by and by she ll snap at its 
fists/ Schoch s Stud. D 3 b ; der S. swanz (tail) hat dich umbe- 
vangen, Hpt 4, 520. Der S. ton sin herze hat genetzet, S. s 
dew has drenched his heart, MSH. 3, 173 b ; bliss comes dewing 
down/ Goethe 14, 74, conf. alles heils ein Inter bach/ limpid 
stream, Altsw. 98, 23 ; luck snows upon us in large flakes/ 

Phil. v. Sittew. 2, 665. Observe the plur. saelden, like f heillir 

horfnar (p. 864-5 n.) : then sdlidon intfallan, 0. ii. 4, 89; er 
mohte sinen saelden immer sagen danc, Nib. 300, 2 ; waere z an 
den s. min, Reinh. 436. In Tyrol (15th cent.) a frau Selga rides 
at the head of the nightly host, Germania 2, 438, but she may 
be the selige, blissful, not our Saelde. Conf. the Indian goddess 
of prosperity Sri, Holtzm. 3, 150, the ayaOrj Tv^y, the bona 
Fortuna, Gerh. in Acad. ber. 47, p. 203-4. 

p. 869.] On. fortune s wheel see Wackernagel in Hpt 6, 134 
seq. Cupid also has a wheel : vorsor in Amoris rota miser, 
Plaut. Cist. ii. 1, 4. Fortunae sinistrorsum sibi rotarn volvere 
sentit, Pertz 8, 235, conf. the image in Carm. burana p. 1 ; 



1568 DESTINY AND WELL-^ETNG. 

volubilis rota transeuntis mundi, Kemble no. 761 (yr 1038) ; rota 
fatalis in Hemmerlin, Reber p. 236 ; videns fortunam, ut solet, 
ludicra rota reciprocare, Eckehardi casus S. Galli (Pertz 2, 88). 
The mere turning of the wheel denotes the mutability of fate, 
Fauriel s Poesie Prov. 3, 509. Serb, march, no. 42, p. 198. 
Meghaduta ed. Schiitz p. 41 str. 107, and the passage fr. Plu 
tarch, ibid. p. 109. 

Geliicke 1st sinewel (spherical), Wh. 246, 28 ; der liute heil ist 
ungewegen u. sinwel, Bit. 12440. Fortune rises and falls, like a 
wheel in motion, Meghad. 108; daz rat der fro Fortune, Turlin s 
Krone 7 : Marie, du heiles u. geliickes rat, Hpt 4, 523 ; dat rat 
van avonturen, Rein. ed. Will. 6183; mir get der Saelden schibe 
(wheel), Engelh. 4400 ; do unser schibe ensamt gie (together went), 
Warn. 3048; wil mir der S. schibe gan, als si dicke (oft) hat 
getan, Dietr. drach. 12 ; geliickes rat umbe triben, Troj. 13322 ; 
als sich keret (turns) des geliickes rat, Pass. 32, 62 ; in bezoch 
der werlde geliickes rat 356, 15; si vuoren (rode) uf geliickes 
rade, Flore 845, conf. auf gelukes choken varen/ Suchenw. 27, 
115; ich lige iemer under gliickes rade, MS. 2, 194 a ; ic was te 
hoghe gheseten (sat too high) op dat rat der aventuren, Marg. v. 
Limb. 1, 185 ; Woldernares schive in groten lukken hadde lopeii 
(run), Detm. 1, 99; geliickes balle, Tit. 2368; ungliicke daz ge 
si an (befall them), darzuo der lattter (infamy s) schibe miieze in 
alien gen in hant ! Dietr. dr. 143 b . 

Saelde is sometimes called blind : sprich niht Saelde si blint, 
des si niht ist, Cato 442 ; sia maleton (her they painted) plinda, 
Notk. Boe th. 42 ; and avonture is blind, Rose 5067, or blind- 
folded 5858. Notker in Boe th. 43 translates deprehendisti coed 
numinis ambiguos vultus by nu bechennest tu daz analutte des 
sich pergenten (skulking) truge-tieveles. To Gotfrid ; s glesin 
gliicke add the fortuna vitrea 3 of the Archipoeta p. m. 237. 

p. 869.] Der Saelden hint, Freid. 134, 2 ; Gabriel salutes 
Mary as such, MSH. 3, 18 a ; frou Saelde und Heil, ir kint, Krone 
15827. 23094, conf. sit in the middle of God s lap/ Drei kl. 
leute 159; mignon, Lafont. 5, 5 ; frou S. ir stiure gap siner 
ainmen, diu sin phlac, do er in der wiegen lac (in his cradle lay), 
Er. 9898. Der Saelden bote, J messenger, Pantal. 172; Selden- 
but, Urk. of Hanover; des si min Saelde gein im bote, Parz. 416, 
4. Like Saelden bote are also : Triuwen bote 3 Engelh. 6332 ; 



DESTINY AND WELL-BEING-. 1569 

Erm bote, honour s m., Frauend. 487, 13. 479, 28; der E. liolde, 
Athis C 82. Er. 9962; der E. Icneht, Engelh. 4152; der 8. 
holde, Lanz. 1996; der 8. hus-genoz, housemate, Wh. 3, 125 a ; 
der 8. schol, Er. 2401; der Unsaelden kneht, Hartm. 2, biichl. 
626; der fiirste selden herre, Heldenb. (1590), 110 b , et passim. 

p. 873.] OFfrau Fortuna, a kind of Venus, there is a legend 
in Altd. bl. 1, 297. With Fortunatus conf. Faustus. The 
vnshing-hat carved out of a finger-nail, Schiefner on Kalewipoeg 
pp. 146. 154, resembles Nagl-far (p. 814). On the miraculous 
making of cloths, see Rommel 2, 342 fr. the Ann. Erf. in Menken 
3. There is frequent mention of a girdle that gives strength 
(Suppl. to 182), the strength of 12 men, Laurin 1966. 2441, or 
allays hunger, Ferabr. 2752. 2800 ; ON. hung urb and, our schmacht- 
rieme. Saxo ed. Miiller 114 mentions an armilla possessoris 
opes augere solita/ a tunica ferrum spernens 118, an insecabilis 
vestis 122; conf. the growing mantle in Lanz. 5812, the seamless 
coat, the /cprjSefjivov of Ino, Od. 5, the breost-net broden, Beow. 

3095, the bread-pocket in Wigal. 4469. 5843. Discordia makes 

herself invisible by a ring, Troj. 1303-24, and the like magic lies 
in the ring with a nightingale in it, Morolt 1305; conf. the 
ring of Gyges, Plato s Rep. 359. 360. Seven-league boots, bottes 
de sept lieues, Perrault 167. Aulnoy 367. St. Columban has a 

wisliing-staff (p. 976). If Amalthea (Athen. 4, 345.371) and 

Fortuna have a horn-of-plenty, Fortuna cum cornu pomis, ficis 
aut frugibus pleno, Arnob. 6, 25 (conf. nam haec allata cornu 
copias est, ubi inest quicquid volo, Plaut. Pseud, ii. 3, 5) ; so has 
our old Otfrid i. 10, 5 a horn lieiles, and Wolkenst. p. 61 a Saelden- 
horn, conf. Gif-horn. It is an odd thing to speak of sitting down 
on the bull s horns, i.e. pillars, of wealth, Pentam. Liebr. 2, 112. 

To make a wishing -net, you burn a small boat, and sow flax 

in the ashes, which shoots up in two days, is picked, baked and 
braked in two days more, and spun, knitted and stitched in 
another two days, Kalev. 26, 188 ; conf. Schroter p. 19. Wishing- 
dice in H. Sachs ii. 4, 114 C . On the stone of victory, see p. 1220. 
Indra s spear that never misses, that of itself comes back to the 
hand, and even when he lends it to others, returns to his hand 
(Holtzm. Ind. s. 2, 137-8. 155), and the javelin that flies back of 
its own accord (Ov. Met. 7, 684), are like Thor s hammer, like 
the sword that gives victory in Saxo ed. Mull, 115, like the one 



1570 DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

that brandislies itself in Dybeck ii. 28, and I arc gui ne faut 

in the 0. Fr. Trist. 1716-45. The Ssk. manoratha, wheel of 

thought, may be the same as the wheel in Wigalois, conf. Saelde s 
wheel and her glove, Krone 22855. 23093. Similar to SMdbladnir, 
the navis plicatilis (p. 216), is a tent in Lanz. 4898 seq., which 
folds up, and can with ease be carried by a maiden. In the land 
of the ^Bthiops est locus apparatis epulis semper refertus, et 
quia ut libet vesci volentibus licet, rf\iov rpdirefav appellant, et 
quae passim apposita sunt affirrnant innasci subinde divinitus/ 
Pomp. Mela 3, 9; see Herod. 3, 17-8, where the earth itself 
covers the table with meats overnight; conf. the city wherein 
the blessing should abide, Gellert 1, 194 ; before the Oral all 
manner of meats and drinks stood ready, Parz. 238, 10. 239, 1 
(the Gral suffers no vermin in Salvaterra, Tit. 5198; the name 

Graalanz as early as 10th cent., Irmino 49 b ). A wisMng-tree 

that bears clothes, trinkets, etc., and wine, Meghadhuta ed. Schiitz 
p. 25-7 ; like the tree in our fairy-tale, fr. which the child shakes 
dresses down. The wishing-cow Kama-dull means milkable at 
will/ Bopp s Gl. 70 b . Weber 5, 442 ; ace. to Hirzel s Sakunt. 
153 Nandini is the lucky cow that grants all wishes; add the 
ass that utters gold, peau d ane, and the hen that lays golden 
eggs. On the contest for wishing-gear, see Pref. p. xxxiii. 

p. 874 n.] On lucky children and their cauh, see Roszler 2, 
xcv. xcvi. and 337. KM. 3 3,57; wir bringen allesamen ein rot 
ivammesch uff erden (pellem secundinam), das muss darnach der 
man (husband) unter die stegen vergraben, Keisersp. Wannen- 
kremer 109 d . In AS. the caul is heafela, liafela, Andr. p. 
127-8 n. ; MHG. huetelin, batwdt, Hpt 1, 136-7, kindbalgel, Mone 
8, 495, westerliufe in the Kitterpreis poem, westerhuot, Karaj. 27, 
6 ; conf. the westerwdt preserved in churches, N. Cap. 83, and 
the baptismal shirt of healing power, Dresd. Wolfdietr. 160-1-2 ; 
stera, vaselborse, pellicula in qua puer in utero matris involvitur, 
Hoffm. Hor. Belg. 7, 19 b . Lith. namai kudikio, child s house, 
Nesselm. 414. ON. HkxSr is born with helmet and sword (p. 
389). GDS. 121. 

p. 876.] Every man has an angel of Ms own, but so have 
some beasts, Keisersp. Brosaml. 19. Agreeing with Cassar 
Heisterb., the Pass. 337, 46 says : daz einer iegelichen menscheit 
zwene engel sint bescheiden : einen guoten, einen leiden iegelich 



DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 1571 

mensche bi im hat. Every man lias Ms candle in the sky, Hpt 
4, 390 (see Suppl. to 722 end). Do sprach der engel wol-getdn : 
ich was ie mit dir, unt woldest nie gevolgen mir (obey me) ; 
von ubele ich dich cherte (turned), daz beste ich dich lerte/ 
Tund. 46, 60 ; ich bin der engel, der dm pfliget, Ges. Abent. 2, 
255; wil du dinem engel schenken (win), Griesh. 2, 50; anglens 
Domini te semper praecedat, comitetur ac subsequatur, Vita 

Mahthild. c. 20. In Otfr. v. 4, 40 the angel says to the 

women: ja birun wir in wara iu eigene giburd your servants. 
The angel is called wisaere, director, Helbl. 7, 249. 331, an in 
visible voice 7, 263. 293. 355 ; du hast gehort ein stimme, die 
sin engel sprach, Pass. 158, 79; (der werlde vluot) manigen hin 
verdriicket, ob in dar-uz niht ziicket (plucks him out) sin engil 
mit voller kraft, 337, 41. The angel rejoices over his protege, 

MSH. 3, 174 b . The heathen think an old Christian has a 

young one inside him, and when he is dying the angels take a 
baby out of his mouth, Ottoc. 440-1 [see a mosaic in the cath. 
of San Michele Maggiore, Pavia] . On English guardian- angels, 
see Stewart s Pop. superst. 4, 16-7; on Indian, Somadeva 2, 117. 
Hermes is an escort, TrofMTralos, to men, Aesch. Eum. 91. 

p. 877.] Biarki s fcear-fylgja is in Petersen s Hedenold 1, 
210-3 ; a similar bear in Fornald. sog. 1, 102-5; Gunnar s fylgja, 
the biarndyr, in Nialss. c. 23. As swans are guardian-angels, 
ravens are a kind of attendant spirits to heathens : Haraldi ver 
fylgftom (p. 671). On gefa nafn ok fylgja lata/ see GDS. 

153-4. Hamingja means luck, Fornm. sog. 4, 44; gcefa ok h. 

4, 26; % hamingju tauti, in the riot, fall swing, of luck, Biorn 
sub v. taut; ef hamingja ft/lgir, 7, 280; fylgjor hans hofSo 
vitiaft He^ins, Sa3m. 147 a . Glumes dream of his father-in-law s 
h. appearing as a dis, who towered above the hills, is in Yigagl. 

sag. c. 9. Engl./ec7i : I had seen her fetch/ Hone s Daybk. 

2, 1011-3-6-7; in some parts of Scotl. fye for fetch 1019; to 
see his double 1012; wiff, waff, wraith, swarth 1019-20. Ir. 
taise, Conan 105 ; conf. Wilh. Meister, where some one sees him 
self sitting ; the white lady, the banshie. 

p. 877.] The Slav, dobra sretia, Vuk 3, 444, sretia = lack 788, 
looks very like Ssk. Sri, Bopp 356 b [but s-ret-ati = convenire, 
ob-ret-ati = invenire, etc.]; sretia is bestowed by U-sud, destiny. 
I am thy luck, thy brother s luck, 3 Serb, march, no. 13. The 



1572 DESTINY AND WELL-BEING. 

Lettic Laima, Nesselm. 351, is distinct fr. Laume 353; Lith. 
also Laima = Gk. Aaipto, Lat. Lamia (p. 500 n. Suppl. to 864 
mid.) : Laima leme sauluzes dienat, Khesa dain. p. 10. She is 
comp. in Bopp s Gl. 296 a to Lakslimi, abundantiae et felicitatis 

dea. 

p. 879.] Misfortune comes, goes : chumet ein unheil, Karajan 
5, 2. 19, 15; zuo gienc in beiden daz unbelt, Diut. 2, 51, conf. 
daz leit gieng ire zuo 2, 50 ; hie trat min ungelucke fiir, Parz. 
688, 29 ; ungluck wechst liber nacht, u. hat ser ein breiten fusz, 
Mathesius (1562) 279 a ; Swed. quick som en o-lycka. Trouble 
does not come alone ; nulla calamitas sola ; das ungluck was mit 
gewalt da, Herbenst. 330; t on-geval dat es mi bi, Karel 1, 699 ; 
on-spoet (unspeed) comt gheresen, Kose 8780; unJieil unsir ramit 
(creams, thickens), Athis F 21 ; where has misfortune had you, 
that you look so gory ? Eeise avant. (1748) p. 107 ; unheil habe, 
der iz haben wil ! En. 1 2859 ; si hat des ungelucks jeger mit 
seinen henden umbfangen gar (UVs hunter has her tight), 
Keller s Erz. 157, 10; sie reitet ungeluc ke (rides her), Beham 
in Wien. forsch. p. 47 a ; unfal reitet mich, Ambras. lied. 92, 9 ; 
oonf. Death riding on one s back (Suppl. to 844 beg.) ; was euch 
unfal geit, Murner 2832 ; TTnfalo in Theuerdk ; un-gevelle, Flore 
6152 ; unheil mich fuorte an sinen zoumen (reins), Engelh. 5502 ; 
riet mir min unheil (advised me), Er. 4794 ; undanc begunde er 
sagen ( gan curse) sime grozen unheile, Kl. 403 L. ; sin ungelucke 
schalt, Lanz. 1951; min Unscelde, Nib. 2258, 1; Unscelde si 
verwazen ! Helmbr. 838; Unselden-brunne, Mone s Anz. 6,228; 
Unscelde ist heiles vient (foe), Flore 6158 ; misf. is at the door, 
in blossom/ Fromm. 4, 142; ungeluckes zwic (twig), Cod. pal. 
355, 116 a [the oppos. of Saelden-zwic, wishing-rod, Suppl. to 
977 beg.]; ung. winde, MS. 1, 84 b ; thut ein ungeluck sich 
aufdrehen (turn up), H. Sachs iii. 3, 8 a . The shutting misf. up 
in an eicher is like fencing-in the Plague and spectres, 
Mullenh. p. 196; the devil too gets wedged in a beech-tree, 
Bechst. March. 42; si haben ungluck in der kisten (trunk), 
Fastn. sp. 510, 8. 



PEESONIFICATIONS. 1573 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
PERSONIFICATIONS. 

p. 880.] Like the Gr. TrpoacoTrov is the Goth, ludja, Matth. 
6, 17, conf. Gal. 4, 19. I have found MHG. schin = elo<; in two 
more places: des lewen schm, Bon. 67, 42; sinen scMn (image), 
Lanz. 4926. Personification does not give rise immed. to proper 
names, for these tolerate no article (Gramm. 4, 405. 595), but to 
such names as der Wunsch, diu S^elde, der Hunger/ 

p. 884.] To personified elements I have to add the Slav. 
Pogoda (p. 637), conf. Byr; Ignis, Aqua, Aer, Veritas in Scherz 
u. Ernst (1522-50) cap. 4, (1555) c. 354. H. Sachs i. 255; 
Frosti, Logi, Shidlf (tremor), Yngl. sag. c. 22. We say of Snow, 
there s a new neighbour moved in overnight 3 (pp. 532. 761). 
Hrim and Forst, hare hildstapan lucon leoda gesetu, Andr. 1 258 
and Pref. p. xxxv. The Esths worship Cold (kulm) as a higher 
being, Peterson p. 46. Finn. Hyyto, Hyytamoinen = ge\u.; 
Aerydmoinen is the wrathful genius of severe cold. MHG. Rife 

(p. 761). Was ( die Heide, the heath, thought of as a person? 

she blushes for shame, Walth. 42, 21. Men blessed the Way, 
and bowed to it (p. 31 n.). The name of Him the asynja is 
echoed back in AS. him, Cod. Exon. 437, 17, as the name of a 
tree. The George in Reinbot s allegory is a child of der Sunne 
and diu Rose, and is called Rosen-hint. On N^ji and NrSi, see 
above (p. 700). With the two femin. names of months in AS., 
Hrede and Edstre, conf. the Roman Maia, Flora, Aprilis, who are 
goddesses in spite of the months Maius and Aprilis being masc. 

p. 887.] The sword, the biter, is often made a person of. 
Ssk. asi-putri = culter, lit. Sword s daughter; conf. ON. sultr 
(p. 888). KM. 3 3, 223. The ON. air, awl, is brother to the 
dwarf or the knifr, Sn. 133. Does ( helm ne gemunde byrnan 
st<5e in Beow. 2581 mean the helmet forgot the coat of mail ? 
On rhedo, see GDS. 606. Strange that a warrior s garb is in 
Beow. 903 Hrcefflan laf, but in 4378 \_Hre] ffles lafe; conf. herge- 
wate, RA. 568. A ship on touching land is addressed as a living 

creature (p. 1229 ?). It is a confirmation of Brtsmga men, 

that the OS. Throt-manni, monile gutturis, is the name of the 
town Dortmund, and Holtes-meni, monile silvse, Trad. Corb. no. 



1474 PEESONIFICATIONS. 

321, afterwards called Holtes-minne 384, is the present Holz- 
minden. With Hnoss is perh. to be conn, the OHG. female 
name Neosta, Forstemann 1, 960; ON. kvenna linoss mint. 
Mann-gersimar occurs in Thidr. saga p. 153. What means the 
M. Neth. want haer met gersemen doeken ? Eose 11001; is 
gars-uma the truer division of the word? Gramm. 2, 151. 
Light is thrown on the maiden Spang e by auff-spaung ungri, 
feminae juvenculae, Kormakss. p. 186 ; conf. mouwe = maiden and 
sleeve, fetter (Kl. schr. 5, 441), erenlerga, both shirt and Erem- 
berga, schiit-vezzel (-fetter) = scutiger, squire, Oswalt 3225. In 
the same way as Hreda, Hnoss, Gersemi, Menja (p. 306-7) and 
the Eom. Carna, dea cardinis (Ov. Fasti 6, 101 168), are to be 
expl. the gods names Loki and Orentil. A beautiful woman was 
often compared to some goddess of female ornament : hodda Sif, 
hodda Freijja, liringa HUn in Kormakss. 26 means simply a lady 
adorned with rings. On the same footing as the goddesses of 
nuts, bees, dough, etc. cited by Lasicz p. 48-9 stand the Puta, 
Peta, Patellana, Yiabilia, Orbona, Ossilago, Mellonia in Arnob. 
4, 7. 8, and the goddesses of grains in Augustine s De Civ. D. 
4, 8 (Ehein. jrb. 8, ] 84) and many more in the same author ; 
conf. Eobigo, Eubigo (p. 477 end). 

p. 887.] Men greeted the player s die, bowed to it, Jiingl. 389. 
On Decius, see Meon 4, 486-7. Hazart geta arriere main, Een. 
18599; Hasars, Myst. de Jubinal 2, 388-9. Dudpam et Kali 
sunt nomina tertiae et quartae mundi aetatis, et daemones harum 
aetatum, Nalus p. 213, conf. Holtzm. 3, 23-9 and Pref. xi. ; the 
dice-playing of Yuzishthira and Sakuni was celebr., also that 
of Nala and Pushkara, Holtzm. 2, 111. 3, 23-9. MHG. < her 
Pfenninc/ MS. 2, 148*. 

p. 888.] Victory is personified in the AS. phrase : Sigor eft 
ahwearf cesc-tir wera, Caedm. 124, 25. Similarly : deme Orloge 
den hals breken/ break the neck of battle, Detmar 2, 555 ; 
Hederlein brother to zenMein* (hader, zank = quarrel), H. Sachs 
i. 5, 538 d ; f der Rewel beiszt/ repentance bites, Luther 9, 472 b ; 
der Zorn tritt/ anger steps, Pantal. 86. On o/3o9, Favor and 

the like, see above (p. 207-8). Goth, snau ana ins Hatis, 

e<f)6acrev eV aurou? 77 op<yij } 1 Thess. 2, 16 ; an dem hat Haz bi 
N ide ein kint/ in him hate had a child by envy, MS. 1, 75 a ; 
kamen uf des Nides trift, Pantal. 754. Envy, like Qdovos, is a 



PERSONIFICATIONS. 1575 

daemon ; there was a form of prayer to keep him off, Lehr s Vom 
neide 144 seq. ; Finn. Kati, genius invidiae ; we say Envy looks, 
peeps, out of him/ The OHG. Inwiz, masc., may be the same, 
though the Koman Invidia is feminine. ON. Topi oc Opi, Tidsull 

oc Ofioli vaxi ]?er tar me^S trega, Ssem. 85 a . UXoOro?, the 

god of wealth, is blind ; the Ssk. Kuvera is ugly, with three legs 

and eight teeth, Bopp 78 a ; Richeit, Br. 1584. Hunger, se 

]?eod-scea$a hreow ricsode, Andr. 1116, conf. our hunger reigns -, 
Hunger is the best cook, Freid. 124, 17; der H. was ir beider 
koch, Wigam. 1070; HongJiers cameriere, Rose 4356; der H. 
koch, der Mangel kiichen-meister, Sinipl. 25; we say Sclimal- 
hans is head-cook here ; bald legt sich Schm. in das zimmer, 
Giinther 1050, conf. Jier Bigenot von Darbion, her Diinne-habe, 
MS. 2, 179 a ; do lag er uf daz hunger-tuoch (-cloth), Fragm. 22 a ; 
am Jiunger-tuch neen (sew), H. Sachs ii. 2, 80 C , etc. (Goz 1, 192. 
2, 52); der Hunger spilt (gambols), Suchenw. 18, 125; da vat 
Frost u. Durst den H. in daz har, u. ziehent (clutch H, by the 
hair, and drag) gar oft in al dur daz hus, MS. 2, 189 a ; il est 
Ilerlot (affame), Trist. 3938; ther Scado fliehe in gahe ! 0. ii. 

24, 37. Sleep, as well as death, is called Sandmann (Supp. 

to 842) : can it possibly mean one who is sent ? conf. ( do sant 
er in den slaf an/ Anegenge 15,47; but the other is called 
Pechmann (pitch-man) as well, Schm. sub v., and Hermann, 
Wend, volksl. 2, 269 a . Sleep, a brother of Death, comes in the 
shape of a bird (p. 331), and sits on a fir-tree (see Klausen p. 30), 
like the sun sitting on the birch as a bird, and lulling to sleep, 
Kalev. rune 3. A saint says to Sleep : com, guaet Jcnecht, com 
hare dan ! Maerl. 3, 197. Sleep looks in at the window, Kante- 
letar 2, no. 175; he walks quietly round the cottages, and all at 
once he has you, Hebel p. 223 ; den Sclilaf nicht austragen, i.e. 
not spoil one s peace, Hofer 3, 89. Deus Eisus, Apul. p. m. 105. 
111. Selp-hart, Wackern. Ib. 902. Eenn. 270. Virwitz (Suppl. 
to 635 beg.). 

p. 890.] Attributes of gods come to be regarded as separate 
beings, and then personified (Lehrs* Vom neid p. 152), esp. as 
females. Copia was set before the eyes in a simulacrum aeneum, 
cornu copiae Fortanae retinens/ Marcellini cornitis Chron. p. m. 51. 
Care is a neighbour : yeiroves /capSlas /jLepiftvai,, Aesch. Septem 
271; conf. f ist zivivel (doubt) lierzen nachgebur/ Necessity (diu 



1576 PEESONIFICATIONS. 

Not) parts,, Nauffr skildi, Kl. sclir. 112-3 ; si vahten als den 
liuten touc (as became men), die ez dm grimme Not bat, Er. 837; 
conf. als in min warm sculde bat/ as my just right bade him do 
1246. Der Eat (advice), masc., has children by Scham, Treue, 
Wahrheit, all fern., Helbl. 7, 50. A host of such personifications 
(Fides, Patientia, Humilitas, Superbia, Luxuria, Sobrietas, etc.) 
we find already in Prudentius (circ. 400), esp. in his Psychomachia, 
with due epic embellishment; conf. Arnob. 4, 1 : Pietas, Con- 
cordia, Salus, Honor, Virtus, Felicitas, Victoria, Pax, Aequitas. 
The Zendic has two female genii, Haurvatdt and Ameretdt (whole 
ness and immortality), often used in the dual number, Bopp s 
Comp. Gr. pp. 238 240. The World is freq. personified (pp. 
792n. 850), and even called frau Spoihilt, Gramm. 2, 499. 

Otf r. iii. 9, 1 1 says : so wer so nan biruarta, er frit ma thana 
fuarta, whoso touched, carried off benefit, as we talk of carrying 
off the bride; frum u. ere, Hpt s Ztschr. 7, 343-9. Cervantes in 
D. Quix. 1, 11 says finely of Hope, that she shews the hem- of her 
garment : la Esperanza muestra la orilla de su vestido. OHG. 
Otikepa, MB. 13, 44. 46. 51 Otegebe, Outgebe; conf. Borg-gabe 
(Suppl. to 274). 

Such phrases as he is goodness itself rest on personification 
too : vous etes la bonte meme. Avec la biaute fu largesce sa suer 
et honors sa cousine, Guitecl. 1, 116. 

p. 892.] Personifications have hands and feet given them, 
they dwell, come and go. The Athenians have the goddesses 
Detect) and AvaytcatTj (persuasion, compulsion), while in Andros 
dwell TleviJ] and ^Afju^^avirj (poverty, helplessness), Herod. 8, 111. 
A\rj9eia (truth) has fled alone into the wilderness, Babr. 127. 
Aesop 364. Another name for Nemesis was lASpdareia, unescap- 
ableness. Exulatum abiit Salus, Plaut. Merc. iii. 4, 6 ; terras 
Astraea reliquit, Ov. Met. 1, 150; fugere Pudor Verumque 
Fidesque 1, 129; paulatim deinde ad superos Astraea recessit 
hac comite, atque duae pariter fugere sorores, Juv. 6, 19; Virtue 
goes, and leads Luck away with her, Procop. vol. 2, 407. 

Aller Freuden fueze keren (turn) in den helle-gruut, Warn. 
1 206 ; gewunnen si der Froiden stap, Dietr. dr. 200 b ; diu mac 
mir wol ze Froeiden lidse geschragen (var., mich wol ze Fr. h. 
geladen), MS. 1, 9 a ; conf. Fr. tor (Suppl. 866 beg.). KrutcUna, 
affliction, jumps out of the oven, Dietr. Russ. march, no. 9. 



PERSONIFICATIONS. 1577 

Carrying Fro-muot on the hands resembles the leuatio imperatoris 
et novae nuptae, RA. 433. Fromut-loh cum feris ibi nutritis 
must be a bear-garden, Dronke s Trad. Fuld. p. 63. Haupt in 

Neidh. 135 thinks Fromuot is simply Cheerfulness. Gherech- 

ticheit, die sware was, vlo tachterst, Kose 5143; conf. Frauenlob s 
poem on GerechtigJceit, Hpt s Zeitschr. 6, 29. Minne, Trouwe es 
ghevloen, Rose 5141; diu Triwe ist erslagen, Tod. gehugde 268; 
Treu ein wildbret (head of game), Schweinichen 1, 13; ver 
Triuwe, ver Warheit, Helbl. 7, 38; der Triuwen Muse (cell), 
Engelh. 6295 ; der Tr. bote 6332 ; in Tr. pflege (care), Winsb. 8, 8, 
conf. f der Zuhte sal good breeding s hall 8, 7; St. Getruwe 
(trusty) and Kiimmernis (sorrow), Mone 7, 581 4; nieman wil 
die Warheit herbergen, Miillenh. no. 210; Pax terras ingreditur 
habitu venusto, Archipoeta ix. 29, 3. 

p. 893.] Der Eren bote and E. holde (Suppl. to 869) ; frouwen 
E. amis, Frib. Trist. 61 ; daz Ere sin geverte si, Tiirl. Wh. 125 b ; 
fro E. und ir hint, MS. 2, 151 b ; an Eren strdze gestigen, Pass. 
47, 80 ; Ere uz pfade gedringen, Ben. 450 ; in der Eren tor komen 
551, 26 ; sin lop (praise) was in der E. tor, Frauend. 81, 14 ; sitzen 
iif der E. banke, Gr. Rud. 11, 20; saz uf der E. steine, Lanz. 
5178, conf. Er. 1198. Wigal. 1475; der E. biine hat iiberdaht, 
Engelh. 230; der E. dach, kranz, Rauch 1, 319; verzieret nu 
der E. sal, Walth. 24, 3; uz frou E. kamer yarn, MS. 2, 151 a ; 
der E. tisch, Suchenw. 4, 152; der E. pflilege, Amgb. 2 a ; in der 
E.forste, Gold. schm. 1874, conf. in der Sorgen forste, 3 Engelh. 
1941 ; der E. krone treit (wears), Roseng. 908; treit der E. schitt 
914; der E. zw% (bough), Hpt 4, 546; er ist der E. wirt (host), 
MS. 2, 59 a ; mantel, da frou Ere hat ir briiste mit bedecket, 
Amgb. 18 b ; ver Ere, Wapenmartin 6, 55. 

Vro Minne, MS. 1, 16 a . The girFs question about Minne is in 
Winsbekin 34, 8; der Minnen bode, Partenop. 80-4-6. 101 ; der 
M. kraft, Ulr. v. Lichtenst. 35, 15; diu Minne stiez uf in ir Jcrefte 
ris (thrust at him her wand of power), Parz. 290, 30; der Minnen 
stricke (toils), MS. 1, 61 a ; Minne u. Wisheit, Flore 3740; frau 
M. presents herself to two maidens as teacher of love, with a rod 
(einem tosten) in her hand, and gives one of them blows, Hatzl. 
165; a woman appears as M. s stewardess 159 a . Can Liehten- 
stein s progress as queen Venus be conn, with a mythical custom 
(p. 259) ? Vrou Mate (moderation) is en edel vorstinne/ 



1578 PERSONIFICATIONS. 

Potter 1, 1870; Mdz } aller tugende vrouwe, Pantal. 120; Maezic- 
heit bint uf die spen (to teach the baby temperance?), Suchenw. 
xl. 144; Zuht, Maze, Bescheidenheit, Mai 176, 13; Zucht u. Schame 
stant an der porte, u. huotent, Hpt 2, 229 ; ze hant begreif sie 
diu Scham, Anegenge 17, 31. 18, 22 ; diu Riuwe was sin frouwe, 
Parz. 80, 8; der Eiwe tor 649, 28; diu Vuoge, Filegel (p. 311 n.). 
A fairy castle under charge of Tugent, its 8 chambers with 
allegoric names painted by Scelde, is descr. in Geo. 5716 seq. 

p. 895.] The entire Roman de la Rose is founded on allegories ; 
and in such there often lies a mythic meaning. Before sunrise on 
Easter morn, appears the maid beside the fountain mid the flowers, 
Hatzl. 160 a ; the lady that appears is approached but once in ten 
years 143. 376; under a limetree in the wild wood, the fair lady 
ivashes her hands 143 b ; a dwarf in the forest leads to the three 
Fates, H. Sachs v. 333 b , or the wild lady leads one about 1, 272 cd . 

In the Trobadors a singing bird allures the poet into a 

wood, where he finds three maidens chanting a threnody, Diez s 
Leb. d. troub. p. 145. Fran Wildeclieit leads the bard by her 
bridle-rein to a level ground beside a brook, where Dame Justice, 
Mercy etc. sit judging, Conr. Klage der kunst; in his Schwan- 
ritter, Conrad says wilde aventiure. A poet snatches up his staff, 
comes upon a fair flowery field, where he meets the Minne-queen, 
Hagen s Grundriss p. 438, or to a lovely child by a forest-fountain 
442. There is a similar description in Helbl. 7, 28 : the poet in 
the morning reaches a wild rocky waste, sees two ladies in white 
veils, Joy and Chivalry, wailing and wringing their hands; he 
helps them to their feet when they faint, but now the Duchess 
of Karnten is dead, they will go among men no more, they live 
thenceforward in the wild. Again, in Ls. 2, 269 : on a green field 
the poet finds Dame Honour fallen to the ground in a faint, also 
Manhood and Minne : they lament Count Wernher of Honberg. 
Or take the Dream of seven sorrowing dames in MSH. 3, 171 3 : 
Fidelity, Modesty, Courtesy, Chastity, Bounty, Honour and Mercy 
bewail the Diiringer and Henneberger; conf. the sibeii 
iibelen wibe, Vrazheit, Unkiusche, Gritekeit, Zorn, Nit, Trdcheit, 
Hoffart, Diut. 1, 294 6. The ladies lamenting the death of kings 
and heroes remind us of the Mage-frauen, Mage-mutter (p. 432), 
and the wood-wives ill- content with the world (p. 484). At the 
end of Euripides s Rhesus the muse mourns the prince s death ; 



PERSONIFICATIONS. 1579 

in Od. 24, 60 the nine muses come round the corpse of Achilles, 
and bewail his end. The lonely tower as the habitation of such 
beings occurs elsewh. too, as turns Alethiae in the Archipoeta; 
conf. Mens bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono/ Prop . 
iv. 24, 19. 

p. 896.] Diu Schande (disgrace) vert al iiber daz lant, MSH. 
3, 448 b ; so hat diu 8. von ir vluht, Kolocz. 129; ver 8., Renn. 
12231 ; swa vro Ere wol gevert, daz ist vro Schanden leit, MS. 
2, 172; in 8. hoi verkluset 2, 147 b . Unere laden (invite dis 
honour) in daz hus, Uebel wip 815; Untriuwen bant, Wigal. 
10043; Unminne, MS., 1, 102 a ; Ungendde (ill-will) hat mich en- 
pfangen ze ingesinde (for inmate) 2, 51 b ; Unbill (injustice) knocks 

at the door, Fischart in Vilmar p. 4; diu Werre (p. 273 n). 

Wendelmuot (Suppl. to 273 n.); conf. f frowe Armuot (poverty) 
muose entwichen, von ir huse si floch/ fled, Er. 1578; ez het 
diu groze A. zuo im gehuset in den glet, diu A. mit jamer lit, 
Wigal. 5691 ; sit mich diu A. also jaget, Pass. 352, 89; das uns 
schon reit (rode us) frau Armut, H. Sachs i. 5, 523 d ; conf. reit 
mich gross Ungedult/ impatience 524 C ; frau Mend, Hatzl. 157-8 
(there is a Fr. chapbook about bonhomme Misere). Missewende 
von ir sprach, daz ir teil da niht en-waere, MS. 1, 84 a ; Hisse- 
vende diu im niht genahen mac 1, 85 a . We, wer wil nu Sorgen 
walten ? diu was min sinde (housemate) nu vil manegen tac 1, 
163 b . 

p. 898.] $77^77 0eo?, Hes. Op. 761-2; Qdpa carries rumours 
to Zeus s throne, Theocr. 7, 93. There is a Lat. phrase : scit 
Fama, scit cura deuin, Forcell. sub v. scio. Famaque nigrantes 
succincta pavoribus alas, Claud. B. Get. 201 ; xolat fama Caesaris 
velut velox equus, Archipo. ix. 30, 1. Rumour is to the Indian 
the song of a by -flown bird, Klemm 2, 132; a species of Angang 
therefore (p. 1128). Another phrase is: fama emanavit, Cic. 
Yerr. ii. 1, 1 ; manat tota urbe rumor, Livy 2, 49. So in German: 
daz maere wit erbrach, Pass. 285, 20. 71, 41 ; daz m. was erschollen, 
Mai 228, 22. Lanz. 9195; von dem uus disiu m. erschellent (these 
rumours ring), Ecke 18 ; daz m. erschal in diu lant liberal, ez 
en- wart niht also begraben, Kolocz. 85 ; daz m. uz schal (rang 
out), uz quam, Herb. 14372-4; dese mare ute sclwt, Maerl. 2, 
203. 3, 340; alse die mare dus (abroad) ut sprang, Hpt 1, 108; 
daz maere breitte sich (spread), Herb. 502. 1320. 17037, or: 



1580 POETET. 

wart breit 2460. 13708; daz m. nu witen began, Tiirl. Wh. 28 a ; 
die mare ghinc harentare, Maerl. 3, 190. Kastn. 2, 1768; daz 
maere witen Jcreis (circulated), Servat. 1856 ; die niemare Hep 
(ran), Walewein 9513. 11067. Lane. 35489; nymare Upt, Lane. 
26165 ; doe Hep die niemare dor al dit lant 25380. 47053 ; die 
mare Hep verre ende sere, Maerl. 3, 193 ; 63 komen neue maer 
gerantj Wolkenst. 63 ; daz m. witen umme trat, sich umme truoc, 

Pass. 221 j 93. 169, 32. In the same way: word is gone, Minstr. 

3, 92 ; sprang f>ast word, Homil. 384 ; dat word lep, Detm. 2, 348. 
358. 392, dat ruchte lep. 2, 378. 391. We say the rumour goes, 
is noised. Yiel schiere vlouc (quickly flew) daz maere, Ksrchr. 
957. 8415; sin m. vlouc witen in diu lant, Pass. 204, 24; von 
ir vlouc ein m., Trist. 7292; daz m. vlouc dahin, Troj. 13389; 
schiere vlouc ein m. erschollen, Tiirl. Krone 68; do fluoc daz m. 
liber mer, Herb. 13704; harte snel u. bait flouc daz m. ze Rome, 
Pilat. 398 ; diu starken m. witen vlugen, Servat. 459 ; diu m. vor 
in heimflugen, 2393; do flugen diu m. von huse ze hu.se, Wigal. 
34, 3. So: der seal (sound) flouc in diu lant, Rol. 215, 7; des 
vlouc sin lop (praise) iiber velt, Hpt 6, 497; daz wort von uns 
fliuget iiber lant, Herzmsere 169 ; ON. su fregn flygr. More 
striking is the phrase : diu maere man do vuorte (led) in ander 
kiinege lant, Nib. 28, 3. Instead of maere : frou Melde, Frauend. 
47, 29. Ksrchr. 17524; Melde kumt, diu selten ie gelac (lay still), 
MS. 2, 167 a ; M., diu nie gelac, MSH. 1, 166 a ; M., de noch nie 
en-lac, Karlm. 159, 43; dri jar so lac diu M., Tit. 824; vermart 
in M., Lanz. 3346; M. brach aus, Schweini. 2, 262. Der wilde 
Unmet was viir geflogen, Troj. 24664 ; nu fluoc dirre liumt geliche 
liberal daz klinecriche, Walth. v. Rh. 136, 43. Rumor = maere, 
Rudl. 1, 128. 2, 80. 121. 173; Rumour speaks the Prol. to 
2 King Henry IV. Lastly : ( quidi managa bigunnun walisan 
reminds one of the growth of maere. 



CHAPTER XXX. 
POETRY. 

p. 900.] On the connexion of the idea of composing with 
those of weaving, spinning, stringing, binding, tacking, see my 
Kl. schr. 3, 128-9. 1 The poet was called a smith, songsmith; in 

1 Deilen unde snoren, Sassenclir. p. 3 ; die leier schnuren (to string) in Spee 299. 



POETRY. 1581 

Kigveda 94, 1 : huncce hymnum Agni venerabili,, currum velut 

faber, paramus mente, Bopp s Gl. 260 b . With, scuof, scop, 

poeta, conf. OHG. scopli-sanc, poesis, Graff 6, 253 ; schopfpuch 
(-book), Karaj. 86, 6; in den schopf-buoclien, Ernst 103; conf. 
Lachm. on Singing p. 12; marrer scopf Israhel, egregius psaltes 
Isr., Diut. 1, 512 a . With ON. sMld-skapr should be men 
tioned an OHG. scaldo, sacer, Graff 6, 484 ; conf. Gramm. 2, 
997. Holbzm. Nib. 170. The Neth. schouden is M.Neth. scouden. 

With the Romance terminology agrees poesis = finding e/ 

Diut. 2, 227 b ; daz vand er (indited), Helmbr. 959; die vinden 
conste, ende molten verse, Franc. 1919; de makere, die de rime 

vant (invented) 1943; er vant dise rede, Mone 39, p. 53. 

AS. gidda, poeta, can be traced in other Aryan tongues : Ssk. 
gad, dicere, loqui, gai, canere, gatha, gtta, cantus; Lith. giedoti, 
sing, giesme, song, Lett, dzeedalit, dzeesma ; Slav, gudu, cano 

fidibus, gusli, psaltery, Dobrowsky p. 102. On the Celtic 

bard, see Diefenb. Celt. 1, 187; bardi, vates druidae, Strabo p. 
197; Bret, bardal, nightingale. Ir. searthon, chief bard. 

p. 901.] On the effects of song we read : j?aer wses hceleffa 
dream, Beow. 987; huop ein liet an, u. wart fro, Hartm. 2, biichl. 
554; emenfrolich geigen (fiddle him into mirth), Wigal. p. 312, 
conf. 332. We often meet with AS. giedd wrecan, Cod. Exon. 
441, 18; so$ gied wrecan 306 ; 2. 314, 17; j?ast gyd awroec 316 
20; ]?e )?is gied wrcece 285, 25 ; conf. vroude wecken, Tiirl. Wh. 
116 b . 

p. 905.] The poet or prophet is vv^6\r)7rro^, seized by the 
nymphs (muses), Lat. lymphatus. He is goft-mdlugr, god- 
inspired, Saem. 57 b ; Gylfi gaf einni farandi konu at launum 
skemtunar sinnar. . . . en su kona var ein af Asa aett ; hon 
er nef rid Gefiun, Sn. 1 . Gandharva is a name for the musical 
spirits who live in IndiVs heaven, Bopp 100 b . God sends three 
angels into the world as musicians ; and angel- fiddlers were a 
favourite subject in pictures. We have the phrase : der hirnmel 
hangt voll geigen. 7 

Jya6-ir = anhelitus creber, Sn. 69; see Biorn sub v. qvasir. 

Inditing is also expr. by file gen (to mortise), richten (lighten), Hpt 6, 497; richtere, 
Koth. 4853 and concl. ; berihten, Freid. 1, 3; ernes mezzen, Dietr. 190; wirken, 
Herb. 641; daz liet ich anhefte (tack on) uf dine gnade voile, Mar. 148, 5 ; der diz 
maere anschreip (jotted down), Bit. 2006. The M.Neth. ontbinden = translate, 
Maeii. 3, 73. 48; in dietsce wort ontb. 352; in dietsch onbende 228; in dietsche 
ontb., Rose 29. Walew. 6 ; conf. AS. onband beado-rune, Beow. 996. 

VOL. IV. X 



1582 POETKY. 

OSin s spittle makes beer ferment (p. 1025 n.) ; spittle that 
speaks drops of blood/ KM. no. 56, note. Lisch in Meckl. jrb. 
5, 82 ; a door, when spat upon, answers, Miillenh. p. 399, conf. 
fugls hrdki (p. 682 beg.). On blood and snow/ see Dybeck 45, 
p. 69 : som blod pa sno. The entire Mid. Age had a story run 
ning in its head, with a playful turn to it, about a child made of 
snow or ice. The 10th cent, already had its modus Liebinc ; 
an O.Fr. poem of the same import is in Meon 3, 215, a MHG. 
in Ls. 3, 513 and Hpt 7, 377; in Scherz u. Ernst c. 251 (1550, 
183) the child is called eis-schmarre, scrap of ice, conf. Burc. 
Waldis 4, 71 and Weise s Erznarren p. 23. Franciscus makes 
himself a wife and child of snow, Pfeiffer s Myst. 1, 215. Who 
ever drank of the dyri miodr (precious mead), the honey mixt 
with Kvasir s blood, became a skald : thus the poet prays for a 
single trahen (tear) out of the Camenae s fountain, Trist. 123, 

38. 

OSinn gains OShroerir fr. Suttung, who then pursues him ; so 
Wainamoinen, after winning Sampo, was chased by Louhi in 
eagle s shape (p. 873). OSinn himself says in Havamal 23 b : 
OShroerir er nu uppkominn a alda ves iarSar, and in 24 a it is 
said of him : Suttung svikinn hann let sumbli frd, ok graetta 
GunnlcrSu. Other names for the drink: Yggsfull, Egilss. 656 ; 
Yggjar mioffr 657 ; Viffrisfull 665 ; Vidris J>yfi 608. With arnar 
leir (eagle s dung) conf. leir -skald, muck-poet, Dan. skarns-poet, 
Olafsen s Prize essay p. 5. Like the mead, Player Jack s soul 
is distrib. among gamesters. 

Like wo&-bora is soff-bora, also vates. The d in Goth, veitvods, 
testis, seems to exclude it, yet d and ]? are sometimes confounded. 
F. Magnusen transl. Offhroeri ingenii excitator ; Biorn makes 
hrceri obturaculum lebetis. On the relation of 0$r to OSinn, see 
Suppl. to 306. 

OSinn bestows the gift of poesy on StarkaSr. Aprs Platonis 
infantuli mel labiis inferebant/ John of Salisb. de Nug. cur. 1, 
13. When St. Ambrose lay in his cradle, a swarm of bees settled 
on his mouth. The Muse drops nectar into the shepherd Ko- 
matas s mouth, and bees bring juice of flowers to it, Theocr. 7, 
60 89. Whom the Muses look upon at birth, he hath power of 
pleasant speech, Hes. Theog. 8184. The gods breathe upon the 
poet, Ov. Met. 1, 2-3-4. 



POETRY. 1583 

p. 906.] To Hesiod tending lambs, the Muses hand a spray 
)f laurel, and with it the gift of song, Theog. 2230. In Lucian s 
-Rhet. praec. 4 he being a shepherd plucks leaves on Helicon, and 
there and then becomes a, poet. The muses come at early morn : 

Mirabar, quidnam misissent mane Camenae, 

ante meum stantes so]e rubente torum ; 
natalis nostrae signum misere puellae, 

et manibus faustos ter crepuere sonos. Prop. iv. 9, 1. 

Conf. the story of the Kalmuk poet, Klemrn 3, 209. 210, and 
poor shepherds 3 visions of churches to be built (Suppl. to 86). 
GDS. 821. 

p. 908.] The first lay in Kanteletar relates the invention of 
the five-stringed harp (kantelo) of the Finns. Kalev. 29 de 
scribes how Wainamoinen makes a harp of various materials. 
Kullervo fashions a horn of cow s bone, a pipe of bull s horn, 
a flute of calves foot, Kal. Castr. 2, 58. When Wainamoinen 
plays, the birds come flying in heaps, Kalev. 29, 217, the eagle 
forgets the young in her nest 221. When Wipunen sings, the 
sun stops to hear him, the moon to listen, Charles s ivain to 
gather wisdom, wave and billow and tide stand still, Kalev. 10, 
449 457 ; conf. Petersb. extr. p. ] 1. In the Germ, folksong the 
water stops, to list the tale of love, Uhl. 1, 223-4. 

Den ene begyndte en vise at qviide, 

saa faart over alle qvinder, 

striden sir dm den stiltes derved, 

som forre vor vant at rinde. D V. 1, 235. 

A song makes tables and benches dance, Fornald. sog. 3, 222. 
KM. no. 111. Sv. fornvis. 1, 73. Stolts Karin with her singing- 
makes men sleep or wake, Sv. vis. 1, 389 or dance 394-6. For 
the power of song over birds and beasts, see DV. 1, 282. Sv. 
vis. 1, 33. On Orpheus, see Hor. Od. i. 12, 7 seq. ; conf. the 
Span, romance of Conde Arnaldos. 

p. 909.] Poets assemble on hills (as men did for sacrifice or 
magic), e.g. on the Wartburg : au pui, ou on corone les biaus 
dis, Couron. Renart 1676. Does the poet wear garlands and 
flowers, because he was orig. a god s friend, a priest ? The jeux 
floraux offer flowers as prizes for song : violeta, aiglantina, flor 



1584 SPECTEES. 

dalgauch (solsequium). The rederijkers too name their rooms 
utter flowers ; is it a relic of druidic, bardic usage ? 

p. 911.] The ON. Saga reminds one of the Gr. $>}//^, of 
whom Hes. Opp. 762 declares : <9eo? vv T/? earn real avrrf. She 
converses with 03inn, as $d^a conveys rumours to Zeus (Suppl. 
to 898 beg.). Musa is rendered sangertti, Barl. 252, 7; ladett 
musas, daz wdren sengeren, (rhy. eren)/ Herb. 17865; but again, 

muse 17876. Aventiure answers to bona fortuna (bonne 

aventure), bona dea, bonus eventus, Pliny 36, 5. Varro RR. 1, 
1; vrouwe Aventure, Lane. 18838; in the Rose the goddess 
Aventure^Yortun* 5634, who has a wheel 3933. 4719. 5629. 
5864 ; t 1ms der Aventuren 5786. 5810-39 ; jonste de Avonture, 
Stoke 1, 39: maer d Aventure was hem gram, Maerl. 3, 134; 
den stouten es It out d> Aventure 2, 46, like audaces fort ana 
juvat ; alse di die Av. es liout 2, 93 ; der Aventuren vrient, 
ibid. 

CHAPTER XXXI. 
SPECTRES. 

p. 913.] In Mone 6, 467 men are divided into living, hover 
ing, doubtful and dead. Souls that cannot find rest in Hades 
and returning wander about the grave, are mentioned in Plato s 
Phsedo p. 81. The dead were worshipped : sandos sibi fingunt 
quoslibet mortuos, Concil. Liptin. Feasts were held in honour of 
them, as the Pers. ferver-feast, Benfey s Monats-n. 151, the Russ. 
corpse and soul feasts, Lasicz 58. Souls were prayed for, Benf. 

Mon. 168-9, conf. soul-masses, Nib. 1221, 2. To near (not to 

remote) ancestors the Indians offered up food and drink, Bopp s 
Gl. p. 143 b n. 198 a . 79 b ; conf. Weber on Malavik 103. One of 
these sacrifices was udaka-lcarman, water-libation for the dead, 
Bohtl. and Roth s Wtb. 1, 908 ; so %o^v ytiaQai Traai, veicveaai, 
viz. meal, wine and water were poured into a hole, Od. 10, 517 

520. 11, 25 29. The souls eagerly drink up the Uood of victims, 

which restores them to their senses, Od. 11, 50. 89. 96-8. 148. 
153. 228. 390. The shades live on these libations, Luc. de luctu 
9. The Lith. weles fern, means the figures of the dead, Mielcke 
1, 321 ; to the Samogitian goddess Vielona a particular kind of 



SPECTEES. 1585 

cake was offered : cum mortal pascuntur, Lasicz 48. 50. Food 
and drink is laid on the grave for the souls, Pass. 166,, 84 93. 

On manes, Mania, see Gerh. Btr. g. 16; in sede Manium = 
in the bosom of the earth, Pliny 33, 1 . On lares, see Lessing 8, 
251 ; domesticus lar, hamingia, Saxo Gram. 74. 

p. 915.] Geheuer, not haunted, is also expr. by dicht, tight, 
Sup. I, 768 : nu bin ich ungehiure, Wigal. 5831; I asked mine 
host, was he sure no ungelieuer walked the stable, Simplic. K. 
1028 ; it is unclean in that house, Niirnberger 11. In Notker 
manes is transl. by unholdon, in AS. by hell-war an (habi- 
tantes tartarum). 

Spuken (haunt, be haunted) is also called wafeln, Kosegarten 
in Hofer 1, 377; AS. wafian, ON. vafra, vofra, vofa, MHG. 
waberen. ON. vofa = spectrum ; AS. woefer-syne, OHG. wabar- 
smm = spectaculum, Graff 6, 129. Kl. schr. 5, 437. The dead 
lie heilir i haugi* at peace in the cairn, Hervar. p. 442 ; sva 
lati ass J?ik (God leave thee) heilan I haugi 437. They appear in 
churches at night or in the dawn, and perform services, wedding, 
burial, etc. ; the sight betokens an approaching death. Dietmar 
(Pertz 5, 737-8) gives several such stories with the remark : ut 
dies vivis, sic nox est concessa defunctis ; conf. the story in 
Altd. bl. 1, 160, a Norweg. tale in Asbiornsen s Huldre-ev. 1, 
122 and Schilling s Last words of the vicar of Drottning. As 
Wolfdietrich lies on the bier at night, the ghosts of all whom he 
has killed come and fight him, Wolfd. 232834; conf. Ecke 23 
(differ, told in Dresd. Wolfd. 327330) ; also the tale of the 
ruined church with the coffin, Altd. bl. 1, 158. KM. 2 no. 4. In 
the Irrgarten der Liebe the cavalier sees at last the ghosts of all 
his lovers, p. 610. Such apparitions are said to announce them 
selves, sich melden, anmelden, Schm. 2, 570. Schonleithner 16. 
Conf. Diet. sub. v. sich anzeigen. 

p. 915.] To ON. aptra-gdnga add aptr-gongr, reditus, Eyrb. 
174. 314; gonger, Mullenh. p. 183. For es gent um they say 
in Bavaria es weizt dort/ Panz. Beitr. 1, 98. Schm. 4, 205-6 ; in 
Hesse es ivandert, in the Wetterau es wannert, conf. wanton, 
Reineke 934; Neth. waren, rondwaren, conf. in that room it 
won t let you rest/ Bange s Thiir. chron. 27 b . The ON. draugr 
is unconn. with Zend, drucs, daemon, Bopp s Comp. Gr. p. 46. 

p. 916.] Instead of talamasca, we also find the simple dala, 



1586 SPECTRES. 

larva, monstrum, Graff 5, 397; talmasche, De Klerk 2, 3474. 
The Finn, talma (limus), talmasca (mucedo in lingua), has only 
an accid. reseinbl. in sound. AS. dwimeru, spectra, lemures, 
larvae nocturnae, gedwimdr, praestigiator, gedwomeres, nebulonis, 
gedwomere, necrornantia, Hpt 9, 514-5. The MHG. getwds agrees 
(better than with Lith. dwase) with AS. dwaes, stultus, for getwds 
means stultus too, Eilh. Trist. 7144. 7200. 7300. An ON. 
skrdvei/a, fr. veifa, vapor, and skrd obliquus ? Vampires are 
dead men come back, who suck blood, as the Erinnyes suck the 
Hood of corpses, Aesch. Eum. 174 [or the ghosts in the Odyssey]; 
conf. the story of the brown man, Ir. march. 2, 15. 

p. 918.] The Insel Felsenb. 3, 232 says of will o wisps : 
{ from the God s acre rise yon flames, the dead call me to join 
their rest, they long for my company/ ON. hrce-lios, corpse- 
light, hrcevar-lios, hrcevar-eld. Vafr-logi, flickering flame, is seen 
about graves and treasures in graves (pp. 602. 971) ; conf. 
Sigurd s and Skirni s marr, er mic um myrqcan beri visan. 

vafrloga, Saem. 82 a . Wandering lights are called das irre- 

dincj = ghost, Schelmufsky 1, 151 ; der feuer-mann, Pomer. story 
in Bait. stud. xi. 1, 74; briinniger -nut-mi, Staid. 1, 235; laufende 
fackel t Ettn. Uuw. doctor p. 747. AS. dwas-lM. M. Neth. 
dwaes-fier, Verwijs p. 15; locJiter-mane,M.ul\eul\. p. 246. Wend. 
bludnik, Wend, volksl. 2, 26() b ; Lith. baltwykszti, Lett, leek* 
ugcfuns, false fire; Lapp, tjolonjes, Liridahl 475 b ; conf. KM. 3 3, 

196. On girfegar, conf. Beham (Vienna) 377, 21; einen 

girren-garren enbor-richten, eineu teuflischen schragen niit 
langem kragen/ Hag. Ges. Ab. 3, 82. The kobold s name 
Ixkrzyckiis fr. SI. iskra, spark; and in Hpt 4, 394 the Itichte- 
mannchen behave just like kobolds. In the Wetterau feuriy 
gelin means, to be a will o wisp. 

Unbaptizcd children are cast into the fire, Anegenge 2, 13. 1 1 r 
5. 12, 12; they go to Nolis-ltratten, Staid. 2, 240; they shall 
not be buried in the holy isle (p. 600 n.) ; vile si da vunden 
luterliclier kinde vor der helle an einem ende, da die muder waren 
mite tot, En. 99, 12, whereas osten (ab oriente) schuleu diu 
westir-barn in daz himilriche varn/ Karaj. 28, 12. Uuchristened 
babes become pilweisse (p. 475), as untimely births become elbn 
(p. 1073); the unbaptized become white letiches, Bosquet 214, 
or kaukaSj Nesselm. 187 b . 



SPECTRES. 1587 

p. 920.] The Lat. fiiria is fr. furere, OHG. purjan, Diet. 2, 
534 ; it is rendered helliwinna, Graff 1, 881 ; hell-wuterin, Schade s 
Pasq. 100, 9. 103, 25. 117, 79 with evident reference to Wuotan 
and wuten to rage. Uns ist der tiuvel nahen bi, oder daz wuetende 
her, Maurit. 1559 ; erst hub sich ein scharmutzeln (arose a scrim 
mage), wie in eim wilden heer, Ambras. lied. p. 151. Uhl. 1, 657. 
Other names for the Wild Host : die wilde fahrt, Wolfs Ztschr. 
1,292-3; in Styria, das wilde gjaid (hunt) 2, 32-3; in Bavaria, 
das gjoad, wilde gjoad, Panzer 1, 9. 16. 29. 37. 63. 85. 133; in 
Vorarlberg, das nacht-volk or wuethas, Vonbun p. 83 ; der wilde 
jager mit dem wuthis lieer, Gotthelfs Erz. ], 221 ; in the Eifel, 
Wudes or Wodes heer, WolPs Ztschr. 1, 316. Firmen. 3, 244 b ; 
joejagdyjcjagdj Osnabr. mitth. 3, 238 240. 

p. 924.] Als im der tiuvel jagete ndeh, Livl. reimchr. 7274. 
The devi] is called a weideman, hunter, Merwund. 2, 22, and in 
return the wild-hunter in the Altmark is a hell-jeger, Hpt 4, 391. 
1 Hark, the wild hunter, passing right over us ! The hounds 
bark, the whips crack, the huntsmen cry holla ho ! Goethe s 
Gotz v. B. 8, 149, conf. 42, 175. Fischart in Lob der laute p. 
100 had already made an adj. of the hunter s name : Heckelbergisch 
geschrei, biiffen u. blasen des jiigerhorns ; conf. supra (p. 924, 
1. 2) and Hachelberg in the Rheinharts-wald, Landau s Jagd p. 

190. Another version of the Hachelberg legend is given by 

Kuhn in Hpt s Ztschr. 5, 379; conf. supra (p. 146-7). Can this 
be alluded to in a stone sculpture let into the wall of Diesdorf 
church (Magdeburg country), representing a man whose left leg 
is appar. being wounded by a sow? Thiiring. mitth. vi. 2, 13 
and plate 7 no. 5. Somewhat different is the story of the one- 
eyed wild-sow, whose head laid on the dish gives the master of 
the hunt a mortal wound, Winkler s Edelm. 371. The whole 
myth resembles that of Adonis, and the Irish story of Diarmuid 
na mban p. 193. H. D. Miiller (Myth, der Gr. stamme ii. 1, 113) 

compares it to that of Actason. Dreaming of the boar, Rudl. 

16, 90. Waltharius 623; a boar wounds the Sun in her cave, 
Rudbeck quoted in Tenzel and Mannling p. 205. HacJcelberg 
must hunt for ever : alhie der lib, diu sele dort sol jageii mit 
Harren (his hound) ewiclichen, Laber 568. Of him who hunts 
till the Judgment-day, Firmenich 1, 344. Miillenh. p. 584. In a 
Westph. folktale picked up orally by Kuhn, giants call to 



1588 SPECTKES. 

Hakelberg for help, he raises a storm, and removes a mill into the 
Milky-way, which after that is called the Mill-way. In Catalonia 
they speak of f el viento del cazador, } Wolfs Ztschr. 4, 191. In 
Frommann 3, 271 Holla and Hackelbemd are associated in the 
wild hunt, unless Waldbriihl stole the names out of the Mythology ; 
in 3, 273 a Geckenbehrnden of Cologne is brought in. Tut- 
osel is fr. tuten, bo-are, Diut. 2, 203 b ; TVTO) f) j\av^, a sono tu tu, 
Lobeck s Rhemat. 320. 

p. 927.] The wild hunter rides through the air on a schimmel , 
white horse, Somm. p. 7; conf. schimmel- reiter p. 160. Filling 
a boot with gold occurs also in a Hessian marchen, Hess. Ztschr. 
4, 117, conf. Garg. 241 a ; shoes are filled with gold, Roth. 2l b ; 
a shoe-full of money, Panzer p. 13. 

The wild hunter is called Goi, Kuhn s Westf. sag. 1, 8, and the 
diirst in Switz. is sometimes gauthier, Staid. 2, 517; do they 
stand for Goden ? Dame Gauden s carriage and dog resemble 
the Nethl. tale of the hound by the hell-car, Wolf p. 527. 

p. 930.] A man went arid stood under a tree in the wood 
through which the wild hunter rode. One of the party in passing 
dealt him a blow in the back with his axe, saying, I will plant 
my axe in this tree ; and fr. that time the man had a hump. 
He waited till a year had passed, then went and stood under the 
tree again. The same person stept out of the procession, and 
said, Now I ll take my axe out of the tree ; and the man was 
rid of his hump, Kuhn s Nordd. sag. no. 69 ; conf. Berhta s 
blowing (p. 276-7), a witch-story in Somm. p. 56. Schambach 
pp. 179. 359. Vonbun p. 29 the schnarzerli (36 in ed. 2). Wolfs 
D. sag. no. 348-9. Panzer 1, 17. 63. 

In the Fichtel-gebirge the wild hunter rides without a head, 
Fromm. 2, 554 ; so does the wolen-jdger, jolen-jdger, Osnab. 
mitth. 3, 238 240; also the ivild h. in the Wetterau, Firmen. 2, 
101 ; he walks headless in the wood betw. 11 and 12 at noon, 
Somm. p. 7; the wild h. halts at one place to feed horses and 
hounds, p. 9. In Tirol he chases the Salg-frdulein, WolPs Ztschr. 
2, 60. 35; he baits the loh-jungfer, Somm. pp. 7. 167; so giant 
Fasolt hunts the little wild woman, Eckenl. 167. 173. 

p. 931.] Houses with their front and back doors exactly 
opposite are exposed to the passage of the Furious Host (Meinin- 
gen), Hpt 3, 366; conf. the open house-door (p. 926-7), the 



SPECTKES. 1589 

sitting over the door (p. 945 end). The hell-jager s cry Wil ji 
mit jagen (hunt with us) ? is also French : part en la chasse ! 
Bosq. 69. The story fr. W. Preussen is like a Samland one in 
E-eusch no. 70. 

lu Swabia the wild hunt is also called the mutige heer, Schwab s 
Schwab. Alp p. 312. Leader of the Muthes-heer is Linkenbold, 
who in the Harz is called Leiribold, ibid. ; there is a LinJcenboldtf- 
lochle (-hole) there. However, in a Swabian poem of 1486 
beginning Got mercurius, the wild hunt is called das wilde 
wutiss-her. A frau Motte roams in Thuringia. 

At Ottobeuern lovely music used to be heard at Christmas 
time. If any one put his head out of window to listen, and to 
view the march of Wuete, his head swelled to such a size that he 
could not pull it in again. The full delicious enjoyment was had 
by those who kept snugly behind closed doors. The procession 
passed along the fron-weg up the Guggeuberg, or into the devil s 
hole at the Buschel, where a treasure lies guarded by the poodle. 
On this delicious music of the night-folk, see Vonbun p. 35. 

p. 933.] Unchristened infants are the same as the subterra 
neans and moss-folk, whom Wode pursues and catches, conf. 
p. 483 and Miillenh. p. 373. The child s exclamation, Oh how 
warm are a mother s hands ! is like those of the gipsy-woman s 
child, There s nothing so soft as a mother s lap and there s 
nothing so sweet as a mother s love, Miillenh. no. 331 ; Lith. 
motinos ranJeos szwelnos, mother s hands soft, Mielcke 1, 284. 
Kraszewski s Litva 1, 389. In Germ, fairy-tales the dead mother 
comes in the night to nurse her children, KM. 3 3, 21 ; conf. 
Melusine, Simr. p. 80. Miillenh. no. 195-6-7; hvert/eW bldffugt 
a, briost grami, Sasm. 167 b ; a similar passage in Laxd. saga p. 
328. 

The wild host, like the dwarfs, get ferried over ; the last that 
lags behind is girded with a rope of straw, Panz. 1, 164-. 

p. 935.] De la danza aerea a que estan condenadas las Hero- 
diadas por la muerte del bautista, Wolf s Ztschr. 4, 191. In 
Wallachia Dina (Zina) = Diana with a large following hunts in 
the clouds, and you see where she has danced on the grass ; she 
can strike one lame, deaf or blind, and is esp. powerful at Whit 
suntide, Wai. march. 296. 

p. 936.] An EcJcehart occurs also in Dietr. 9791. On the 



1590 SPECTRES. 



Venusberg, see Simr. Amelungen-1. 2, 315. We find even in 
Altswert 82 : dirre berc was fro Venus, conf. 80, 9. 83, 7. H. 
Sachs has Venusberg iii. 3, 3 b (yr 1517). 6 b (1518). 18 b (1550).- 
A witch- trial of 1 620 says : auf Venesberg oder Paradies faren, 
Mone 7, 426. There is a Venusbg by Reichmannsdorf in Gra- 
fenthal distr. (Meiningen), near Saalfeld. A M.Neth. poem by 
Limb. 3, 1250. 1316 says Venus dwells in the forest. The earliest 
descript. of the Ilorselberg is by Eobau Hessus in Bucol. idyl. 5, 
at the beginn. of the 16th cent. : 

Aspicis aerio sublatum vertice montem, 

qua levis occidui deflectitur aura Favoni, 

Horrisonum Latio vicinus nomine dicit (by a Latin name), 

qui Nessurn bibit undosum Verarimque propinquuin. 

Isthoc ante duas messes cum saepe venirem, 

ignarus nemorurn vidi discurrere larvas 

saxa per et montes, tanquam nocturna vagantes 

terriculamenta, et pueros terrere paventes, 

quas lamias dicunt quibus est exemptile lumen, 

quas vigiles aiunt extra sua limina lyncas 

esse, domi talpas, nee quenquam cernere nee se. 

Conf. Victor Perillus s poem on the Horselberg, yr 1592 (Jrb. d. 
Berl. spr. ges. 2, 352-8) ; it is called Haselberg and Horselbg in 
Bange s Thiir. cliron. 1599, p. 57-8. Songs about Tanhauser in 
Uhl. no. 297, and Moneys Anz. 5, 169 174; a lay of Danhduser 
is mentioned by Fel. Faber 3, 221. 

p. 937.] At the death of our Henry 6, Dietrich von Bern 
appears on horseback, rides through the Mosel, and disappears, 
HS. p. 49. In the Wend, volksl. 2, 267 b the wild hunter is 
called Dyter-b&rnat, Dyter-benada, Dyke-bernak, Dyke-bjadnat. 
In one story 2, 185 he is like the Theodericus Veronensis whom 
the devil carries off. Diter Bernhard in Dasent s Theophilus 80 ; 
brand-adern (barren streaks) on the plains are called by the 
Wends Dyter-bernatowy puc, D/s path. Yet, ace. to Panzer 1, 
67 it is & fruitful season when the wilde gjai has been ; and where 
the Kodensteiner has passed, the corn stands higher, Wolf p. 20. 
The wild host goes clean through the barn, Panz. 1, 133. 

p. 939.] As early as the First Crusade (1096) it was asserted 
that Carl had woke up again : Karolus resuscitatus, Pertz 8, 



SPECTEES. 1591 

215; conf. the kaiser in the Guckenberg near Gemiind, Bader 
no. 434,, and the Karlsberg at Niirnberg, no. 481. 

p. 940.1 On Schnellerts, see Panzer 1, 194 and the everlasting 
hunter of Winendael, Kunst en letterblad 41 , p. 68. Eeiffenb. 
Renseign. 214. The setting-out of a carriage with three wheels 
and a long-nosed driver is descr. in the story of the monks cross 
ing the Rhine at Spire, Meland. 1, no. 664 (p. 832). Oopiae eques- 
tres are seen near Worms in 1098, Meland. 2, no. 59 ; battalions 
sweeping through the air in 1096, Pertz 8, 214; conf. Dionys. 
Halic. 10, 2 ; higher up in the clouds, two great armies marching, 
H. Sachs iii. 1, 227 a . 

p. 943.] Something like Herne the Hunter is Home the 
Hunter, otherwise called Harry -ca-nab, who with the devil hunts 
the boar near Bromsgrove, Worcest. ( Athenaeum) . The story of 
the Wunderer chasing Frau Saelde is in Keller s Erz. p. 6; conf. 
Fastn. sp. 547. Schimpf u. ernst (1522) 229. (1550) 268. 

p. 946.] Where Oden s lake (On-sjo) now lies, a stately 
mansion stood (herre-gard), whose lord one Sunday went a hunt 
ing with his hounds, having provided himself with wine out of 
the church, to load his gun with, and be the surer of hitting. 
At the first shot his mansion sank out of sight, Runa ; 44, 33. 

Here the huntsman is evid. Oden himself. Among the train 

of Guro rysserova ( = Gudron the horse-tailed, Landstad pp. 121. 
131-2) is Sigurd Snaresvend riding his Grani (Faye 62). The 
members of the troop go and sit over the door : the like is told 
of devils, who lie down in front of lit-hiuser where drinking, 
gaming, murdering goes on, Berthold p. 357 ; and of the 
Devil, who sits during the dance, H. Sachs 1, 342 ab ; setz n in 
die seel auft iiberthiir iii. 1, 261 ; sein seel setz er iifE iiber thtir, 

lats mit dem teufel beissen, Sirnpl. pilgram 3, 85. Northern 

names for the spectral procession are : oskareia, haaskaalreia, 
juleskreia, skreia, Asb. og Moe in the Univ. annaler pp. 7. 
41-2; julaskrei i, julaskr&id i, os~kerei, oskorrei, aalgarei, jolareiae, 
Aasen s Prover 27-8. 31; conf. ThorsrerS (p. 166) and husprei, 
hesprei, thunder. Lapp, jidheer, Klemm 3, 90. 

p. 949 n.] The very same is told of Orvarodd as of Oleg, 
Fornald. s-. 2, 168-9. 300; conf. a Transylv. tale in Haltrich s 
Progr. p. 73. 

p. 950.] On Holda s sameness with Fricka, see Kl. schr. 5, 



1592 TKANSLATION. 

416 seq. The Gauls too sacrificed to Artemis, Arrian de Venat. 
c. 23. 32. Hecate triviorum praeses, Athen. 3,, 196; men took 
a sop with them for fear of the cross-roads 2, 83, for Hecate s 
hounds 7, 499 ; E/cdrrj^ Selirvov means the bread laid down where 
three roads met, Luc. Dial. mort. 1 and 22 (note on Lucian 2, 
397) ; feros Hecatae perdomuisse canes, Tib all. i. 2, 54. 

p. 950.] The appalling guise of the Earii (GDS. 714) recalls 
our death s-head cavaliers. At the outset of the Thirty-years 
War there were Bavarian troopers called Invincibles, with black 
horses, black clothing, and on their black helmets a white death s- 
head ; their leader was Kronberger, and fortune favoured them 
till Swedish Baner met them in Mecklenburg, March 1631. 
Frederick the Great had a regiment of Death s-head Hussars. 
In recent times we have had Liitzow s Volunteers, the Black 
Jilgers, the Brunswick Hussars. Does a coat-of-arms with a 
death s-head occur in the days of chivalry? We read in Wigal. 
80, 14 : an sinem schilde was der Tot gemalt vil grusenliche 
(Suppl. to 850). Remember too the terror- striking name of the 
legio fulminatrix, Kepavvof36\os. Secret societies use the symbol 
of a death s-head ; apothecaries mark their poison-boxes with the 
same. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 
TRANSLATION. 

p. 952.] Verwilnschen is also exsecrari, abominari. QS.farwa- 
fan, devovere, OHGr.farwdzan, ivithar-hudzan, recusare, Graff 1, 
1087. As abominari comes fr. omen, so far-hudtan fr. hvdt, 
omen (Suppl. to llOon.). Beside the Fr. souhait (which Genin 
Recr. 1, 201 would derive fr. sonhait, as couvent fr. convent, 
etc.) we have also ahait in Thib. de N., and the simple liait = 
luck, wish. For its root, instead of OHG. heiz, ON. heit, we 
might take the Bret, het, Gael. aiteas = pleasure. De sohait, de 
dehait, Guitecl. 1, 169. 

Disappearing (verschwinden) and appearing again are a$avr) 
<yevecr6ai and fyavepov yevefrOai,, Plato s Rep. 360. Frequent is 
the phrase to vanish under one s hand ; conf. the clapping of 
hands in cases of enchantment (p. 1026) : thaz thu hiar irwunti 



TRANSLATION. 1593 

mir untar them henti, 0. i. 22, 44; verswant den luten under den 
lianden, Griesh. Spraclid. 26 [Late examples omitted] ; ze hant 
verswant der kleine, Ortnit 141, 4; vile schiere her verswant von 
sinen ougen zehant, daz her en-weste, war her bequam, En. 2621 ; 
vor iren ougen er virswant, Hpt 5, 533 ; verswant vor sinen ougen, 

Krone 29606 [Simil. ex. om.]. Der engel sa vor im verswant, 

Wh. 49, 27; do der tiuvel liin verswant, Barl. 3027; do der 
winder gar verswant, Frauend. 409, 17; solde ein wip vor leide 
sin verswunden MS. 1, 81 a ; der hirz vorswant, Myst. 1, 233; in 
den wint gahes (suddenly) verswunden, Mar. 159, 7 ; daz ver 
swant mil der luft, Pass. 369, 91 ; der engel mit der rede verswant, 
Hpt 8, 171; the devil says ich muoz verswinden/ MSH. 3, 
174 a : von hinnan stet mm begirde (desire), Got rniieze dich in 
huote Ian ! alsus swein diu gezierde, Diut. 2, 251-2 ; Sant. Ser- 

vace do ver swein, Servat. 3317 [Ex. om.]. Voer ute haren 

ogen, Karel 2, 990 ; de duvel voer dane alse en roc (smoke) te 
scouwene ane, Maerl. 2, 237; Var-in-d wand, N. pr. ring 33 b , 
30. 36 C , 28. 36. To begone =OHG. huerban, ON. hverfa : OSinn 
hvarf )?a, Saem. 47 ; oc nu liverfur )?essi alfur so sem skuggi, 
(as a shadow), Vilk. c. 150; brottu horfinn, ibid. ; flo j?a burt, 
Fornald. s. 1, 488, conf. seykvaz, sink away, Saam. 10 b . 229 b . 
The translated sleep, like Kronos p. 833 n. ; Gawan falls asleep 
on a table in the Grals-halle, and awakes next morning in a moss, 
Keller s Romvart 660. Vanishing is often preceded by thunder : 
ein grozer slac, Heinr. u. Kim. 4215. Erf. march. 84. 160; 
there came a crash (rassler), and all was sunk and gone/ Panz. 
1, 30; Gangleri hears a thunder, and Valholl has vanished, he 
stands in the fields, Sn. 77. 

p. 953.] The shepherd Gyges steps into a crack of the earth 
made during storm and earthquake, finds a giant s corpse inside 
a brazen horse, and draws a ring off its hand, Plato s Rep. p. 369. 
Translation is imprecated or invoked in the following phrases : in 
te ruant montes mali, Plant. Epid. i. 1, 78; Kara TTJC 7% Swat, 
, Lucian 3, 156. 5, 202; yavdv poi -rrjv yrjv WV^OMV V, 

, 18. Oedipus is swallowed up by the earth, Oed. Col. 

1662. 1752; conf. slipping in like the schwick (p. 450 n.) ; die 
lufte mich verslunden, Hpt 5, 540 ; \aav eOvtce, II. 2, 319 ; \i6os 
ef dv0pd>7rov yeyovevai, Lucian s Imag. 1 ; der werde z einem 
steine ! MS. 1, 6 a ; hon (Goftrun) var buin til at spring a af harmi, 



1594 TRANSLATION. 

S^em. 211 ; du-ne hetest ditz gesprochen, du waerst benamen ze- 
bracken, Iw. 153. We talk of bursting with rage (p. 552 n.), i.e., 
in order to jump out of our skin : er wolte aus der haut fahren, 
Salinde 13. 

p. 958.] A translated Jtero is spoken of as early as 1096 : Inde 
fabulosum illud confictura de Carolo magno, quasi de mortuis in 
id ipsum resuscitato, et atlo nescio quo nihilominus redivivo (before 
Frederick I. therefore), Pertz 8, 215 (Suppl. to 939). Frederick 
is supposed to lie at Trifels in the Palatinate also, where his bed 
is made for him every night, Schlegel s Mus. 1, 293. Then the 
folktales make Otto Redbeard also live in the Kifhauser, and give 
him frau Holle for housekeeper and errandwoman, Sommer pp. 1 . 
6. 104 ; he gives away a green twig, which turns into gold, p. 2 ; 
in the mountain there is skittle-playing and schmariikeln/ p. 4. 
A legend of Fredk Redbeard in Firmen. 2, 201 a . A giant has 
slept at the stone-table in the mountain these 700 years, Dyb. 
Runa 47, 34-5. Not unlike the Swed. folktale of a blind giant 
banished to an island are the stories in Runa 44, pp. 30. 43. 59. 
60 : in every case the belt given is strapped round a tree (conf. 
Panzer 1, 17. 71. 367), but the other incidents differ. Such 
giants call churches de hvita klock-marra.rna 4?, 37, and the bell 
bjelleko, Dyb. 45, 48. 44, 59 ; the blind grey old man reminds 
one of Oden. Ace. to Praetor. Alectr. p. 69, Kaiser Frederick 

seems to have cursed himself into the Kiphauser. On the 

Frederick legend, see Hpt 5, 250293. Closener p. 30-1 (yr 
1285). Bohmer s Reg., yr 1285, no. 830, conf. 824-6. Kopp ; s 
Rudolf pp. 736749. Detmar 1, 130 (yr 1250). Of Fredk 
the Second, the Repgow. chron. (Massm. 711) says straight out : 
bi den tiden sege-men dat storue keiser Vrederic ; en del volkes 
segede, he levede ; de twivel warede lange tit; conf. ibid. 714. 
Another name for the auricula is berg-kaiserlein ; does it mean 

the wonder-flower that shows the treasure ? Fischart s 

Geschicht-kl. 22 b says : avf dem keyser Friderich stan ; Schiller 
120 b (?) : und nebenher hatten unsere kerle noch das gefundene 
fressen uber den alien kaiser zu plilndern. Phil. v. Sittew. 
Soldatenl. 232 : fressen, saufen, prassen auf den alien keyser liinein. 
Albertini s Narrenh. p. 264; heuraten aiif d. a. k. liinein. 
Schmeller 2, 335-6 : immer zu in d. a. kaiser hinein siindigen, auf 
d. a. k. hinauf siindigen, zechen, i.e. without thinking of paying. 



TBANSLATION. 1595 

p. 961.] The sleeping Fredk reminds one of Kronos sleeping 
in a cave, and birds bringing him ambrosia, Plut. De facie in orbe 
lunae 4, 1152-3 (seep. 833 n.). Arthur too and the knights of 
the Grail are shut up in a mountain, Lohengr. 179. Lanz. 6909. 
G-arin de L. 1, 238; si jehent (they say) er lebe noch hiute, Iw. 
14. Eaynouard sub v. Artus. Cassarius heisterb. 12, 12 speaks 
of rex Ardurus in Monte Giber (It. monte Gibello) ; conf. Kaufm. 
p. 51 and the magnet-mountain ( ze Givers Gudr. 1135-8. 564 
(KM. 8 3, 274). Other instances: konig Dan, Mullenh. no. 505; 
the count of Flanders, Raynouard 1, 130 a ; Marko lives yet in 
the wooded mountains, Talvj l,xxvi. ; so does the horse Bayard. 
On the search for Svatopluk, Swatoplulca liledati, see Schafarik 
p. 804. , 

p. 968.] The wliiie lady s bunch of keys is snake-bound, Pan 
zer 1,2. A white maiden with keys in Firmen. 2, 117; drei witte 
jumfern, Hpt 4, 392 ; tJiree white ladies in the enchanted castle, 
Arnim s March, no. 18 ; conf. the Slav, vilas and villy, spirits of 
brides who died before the wedding-day, who hold ring-dances 
at midnight, and dance men to death, Hanusch pp. 305. 415; 
dancing ivillis, Mailath s Ungr. march. 1,9; Lith. weles, figures 
of the dead. 

p. 969.] A certain general plants an acorn to make his coffin 
of, Ettn. Chymicus 879. There is some likeness betw. the story 
of Release and that of the Wood of the Cross, which grows out of 
three pips laid under Adam s tongue when dead. That the pip 
must be brought by a little bird, agrees with the rowan sapling 
fit for a wishing-rod, whose seed must have dropt out of a bird s 
bill (Suppl. to 977 beg.), and with the viscum per alvum avium 
redditum (p. 1206) ; conf. the legend of the Schalksburg, Schwab s 
Alb. p. 32. You must fell a tree, and make a cradle out of it; 
the first time a baby cries in that cradle, the spell is loosed, the 
treasure is lifted, H. Meyer s Ziiricher ortsn. p. 98 ; conf. the tale 
in Panzer 2, 200. 159. Other conditions of release: to draw a 
waggon up a hill the wrong way, to buy a piece of linen, to hold 
the white lady s hand in silence, Reusch p. 437 ; with your mouth 
to take the key out of the snake s mouth, Firmen. 1, 332 ; to kiss 
the worm, or the toad, or the frog, wolf and snake, Mullenh. p. 
580. Somm. Sagen p. 21. Meyer s Ziiricher ortsn. p. 97. 

p. 971.] Men do bury treasures in the ground: the Kozacks 



1596 TRANSLATION. 

are said to keep all their money underground ; thieves and 
robbers bury their booty, dogs and wolves pieces of meat. The 
Marsians buried the Roman eagle they had captured in a grove, 

whence the Romans dug it out again, Tac. Ann. 2, 25. The 

treasure is called leger-hort, Renn. 17687. 2505; ON. taurar = 
thesauri, opes reconditae. Shogs not the treasure up toward 
me, That shining there behind I see? Goethe 12, 193. The 
treasure blooms, Panzer 1, 1; for buried gold will often shift 
about, Irrgart. d. liebe 503; the cauldrons sink three ells a year, 
Dybeck 4, 45. Once in 100 years the stones off the heath go 
down to the sea to drink, and then all treasures of the earth lie 
open, so that one need only reach them out ; but in a few winters 
they come back, and crush those ,who don t get out of the way in 
time, Bret, march. 88 93. The treasure suns itself, Panzer 2, 
16. 30. It cools (gliiht aus), Miillenh. p. 203-4. Treasure-gold 
turns to coal, Lucian/s Timon 1, 110. Philops. 7, 284 ; conf. the 
legends of Holla, Berhta, Fredk Barbarossa and Riibezal. The 
coals of a glowing treasure turn to gold, Reusch no. 25-6-7. 
Glimmering fire and coals of a treasure, Dieffenb. Wetterau p. 

275. Signs of a treasure : when a hazel bears mistletoe, and a 

white snake suns himself, and treasure-fire burns, Reusch no. 15. 
Where treasures lie, a blue fire burns (Hofmannswaldau), or light 
finds its way out of the earth, Leipz. avent. 2, 40 ; it swarms 

with insects, etc. (pp. 692-4). The treasure-lifter is stript and 

plunged up to his neck in water in a tub, and is left till midnight 
to watch for the coming of the treasure, Cervant. Nov. de la 
gitanilla p. m. 106. A beshouted treasure sinks, Wetterau tale 
in Firmen. 2, 100; conf. AS. sinc = thesaurus, opes. Some good 
stories of treasure-lifting in Asbiornsen s Huldr. 1, 142-3-4. 
Ghosts have to give up buried weapons : saemir ei draugum 
dyrt vapn bera, Fornald. s. 1, 436. A connexion subsists betw. 
treasures and graves : the hauga eldar, grave-fires, indicate 
money, Egilss. 767. The hoard does not diminish: sin wart doch 
niht minre, swie vil man von dem schatze truoc, Nib. 475, 12. 

p. 972.] The wonder-flower is said to blossom either on Mid 
summer night alone, or only once in 100 years. If any one, 
having spied it, hesitates to pluck it, it suddenly vanishes amid 
thunder and lightning; conf. britannica (p. 1195-6), fern (p. 
1211). Preusker 1, 91-2. Before the eyes of the shepherd s 



TRANSLATION. 1597 

man a wonder-flower grows up suddenly oufc of the ground ; he 
pulls it, and sticks it in his hat ; as quick as you can turn your 
hand, a grey mannikin stands there, and beckons him to follow ; 
or else, the moment the flower is stuck in the hat, the white lady 
appears, Firmen. 2, 175. The wonder-flower gets caught in the 
shoe-buckle, Somm. p. 4, as fernseed falls into the shoes (p. 
1210), and also ripens or blossoms on Midsum. night, pp. 4. 165. 

It is called schliisselblume, Panzer 1, 883, ivunderblume, 

Wetterau. sag. p. 284. Phil. v. Steinau p. 77 ; Pol. dziwaczek, 
Boh. diwnjk, wonderflower. The three blue flowers effect the 
release, Firmen. 2, 201 a . A Schleswig story makes it the yellow 
flower, and the cry is : Forget not the best, Miillenh. p. 351. 
Another formula is : wia meh as da verzotarist (squanderest), 

om sa minder host, Vonbun p. 5. As early as the 15th cent. 

vergisse min nit occurs as the name of a flower, Altd. w. 1, 151 ; a 
gloss of the time has : vergiss-mein-nicht alleluja, Mone 8, 103 ; 
vergis-man-nicht gamandria, ibid. Vergiss nit mein is a blue flower, 
Uhl. 1, 60. 108. 114-6. 129; bliimlein vergiss nit mein, Ambras. 
liedb. pp. 18. 251. Bergr. 37. 70; blumelain vergiss ni main, 
Meinert 34; vergiss mein nicht, Menante s Gal. welt p. 70. 
Swed. forgdt-mig-ej , Dybeck 48, 28 ; Boh. ne-zapomenka, Pol. 
nie-zapominka, Russ. ne-zabudka, conf. Weim. jrb. 4, 108; das 

bliimlein wunderschon, Goethe 1, 189. The heel cut off him 

that hurries away, Firmen. 2, 176. In a story in Wachter s 
Statist, p. 175-6 the wounded heel never heals. A proverb says: 
Tis what comes after, hurts your heel. 

p. 974.] The spring-wurzel is in OHG. sprinc-wurz, lactarida, 
lactaria herba, Graff 1, 1051, or simply springa 6, 397. Does 
piderit, diderit (usu. diterich, picklock) also mean a spring- 
wurzel? Firmen. 1, 271. The springw. or wonderflower is 
sometimes called bird s nest, Fr. nid d oiseau, plante aperitive, 
vulneraire, qui croit au pied des sapins ; it opens boxes (folktale 
in Mone 8, 539), and makes invisible, DS. no. 85. Again, it is 
called zweiblatt, bifoglio, and is picked off the point of bifurcation 
in a tree ; does it mean a parasite-plant like the misletoe ? It 
must have been regarded as the nest of a sacred bird : thus of 
the siskin s nest it is believed that the bird lays in it a small 
precious stone to make it invisible, Hpt 3, 361 ; conf. Vonbun s 
Vorarlbg 63 ; Boh. hnjzdnjk, ophrys nidus avis, ragwort, Pol. 

VOL. IV. Y 



1598 TRANSLATION. 

gniazdo ptasze (see Linde 1, 728 b ). On the green-pecker, Fr. 

pivert, see Am. Bosq. p. 217-8, and baum-heckel, Musaus 2, 108; 
picos divitiis, qui aureos montes colunt, ego solus supero, Plaut. 
Aulul. iv. 8, 1. On the legend of the shamir, conf. Hammer s 
Rosenol 1, 251. Altd. w. 2, 93. Pineda s Salomon (Diemer 
p. 44), samir. Diem. 109, 19 ; thanir, Gerv. Tilb. Ot. imp. ed. 
Leibn. p. 1000; thamur, Vine. Bellovac. 20, 170; tamin, Maerl. 
in Kiistner 29 a . In Griesh. Predigt. p. xxv. is the story of the 
ostrich 2, 122. 

p. 977.] The Swed. slag-ruta is cut off the flyg-ronn, bird s 
rowan (or service) tree, whose seed has fallen fr. the beak of a 
bird, Dybeck 45, 63 ; it must be cut on Midsummer eve out of 
mistletoe boughs, Runa 44, 22. 45, 80. Dan. onske-qvist, Engl. 
divining-rod, finding -stick. Germ, names : der Saelden zwic, 
Altsw. 119. 127, conf. ungeliickes zwic (Suppl. to 879 end); 
gliicks-ruthe, Lisch in Meckl. jrb. 5, 84; wiinschel-ruote sunder 
zwisel (without cleft), MSH. 2, 339 b ; wunschel-ris, Tit. 2509. 
5960-82, w. iiber alle kiineginne, 1242, wunschel-bemdez ris 
1728; alles heiles wunschel-ris, Troj. 2217; mms heils wunschel- 
ruoie, Alfcsw. 118; der wunschel-ruoten hort, Dietr. drach. 310 a . 

Nu hdt gegangen miner kiinste ruote, MSH. 3, 81 a . The idea 

of the wishiug-rod was not borrowed fr. Aaron s magic wand ; 
on the contrary, our poet of the 12th cent, borrows of the former 
to give to the latter : Nim die gerte in dine hant, wurche zeichen 
manikvalt ; ze alien dingen 1st sie guot, swes so wunsget din muot. 
Not a word of all this in Exod. 7, 9 ; the wishing-rod however 
did not serve the purposes of harmful magic. Conf. the virgula 
divina, Forcell. sub v. ; Esth. pilda, GDS. 159. The wishing- 
rod must have been cut at a fitting time and by clean hands, 
Kippe die wippe 1688, D 4 b : it is a hazel-rod, and holy, Vonbun 
pp. 6. 7. 64; a hazel-bough, Fromm. 3, 210; a white somer- 
laden lieslin stab, Weisth. 3, 411. 461. Stories of the wishing- 
rod in Kuhn p. 330. Miillenh. p. 204 ; of the old wiiuschel-stock, 
ib. no. 283. On the manner of holding it, see Hone s Yearbk 
1589. It is called schlag-ruthe because it anschlagt, hits [the nail 
on the head] ; hence slegel, cudgel? conf. Parz. 180, 1014, 
and the hazel-rod that cudgels the absent (Suppl. to 651 end). 

p. 977.] One must drive a white he-goat through the stable, 
to lift a treasure that lies there, Hpt s Ztschr. 3, 315. 



TRANSLATION. 1599 

p. 980.] The devil is by the treasure, and he is blind too, like 
Plutus (Suppl. to 993). The Ssk. Kuvera, a hideous being, is 
god of wealth. Dtt- is the same as divit-, Pott 1, 101. When 
money is buried, the devil is appointed watchman, Miillenh. p. 
202-3, or a grey man on a three-legged white horse guards it 102. 
Finn, aarni or kratti is genius thesauri, conf. mammelainen below. 
AS. wyrm hordes hi/rde, Beow. 1767. Fafnir says : er ek a arfi 
Id (on the heritage lay) miklom rnins foSor, Seem. 188 b ; me3an 
ek urn menjom lag, ibid. Lanuvium annosi vetus est tutela 
draconis ; maidens bring- him food : 

Si fuerint castae, redeunt in colla parentum, 

clamantque agricolae Tertilis annus erit ! Prop. v. 8, 3. 

Dragons sun their gold in fine weather, Runa 44, 44, like the 
white maidens. Some good stories of the roving dragon in 
Miillenh. p. 206 ; conf. the dragon of Lambton, Hpt 5, 487 ; he 
is also called the drakel, Lyra p. 137, the wheat-dragon, Firmen. 
2, 309. The n. prop. Otwurm in Karajan begins with o = ead, 
conf. 6t-pero. Heimo finds a dragon on the Alps of Carniola, 
kills him and cuts his tongue out; with him he finds a rich 
hoard : locum argento septum possedit, in quo aurea mala habuit, 

Mone 7, 585 fr. Faber s Evagatorium. W. Grimm (HS. p. 

385-6) thinks the ring Andvara-naut was the most essential part 
of the hoard, that in it lay the gold-engendering power and the 
destiny, but German legend put in its place the wishing -rod 
note however, that such power of breeding gold is nowhere 
ascribed to Andvara-naut. Sigurd first gave it to Brunhild 
(Fornald. s. 1, 178), then secretly pulled it off again (187). 
Siegfried in the German epic, after winning the treasure, leaves 
it in charge of the dwarfs, does not take it away therefore, but 
gives it to Chriemhilt as a wedding-gift, and as such the dwarfs 
have to deliver it up, Nib. 1057 64. Once it is in Giinther s 
land, the Burgundians take it from her, and Hagen sinks it in 
the Rhine 1077, 3; conf. 2305-8. Hagen has merely hidden it 
at Lochheim, intending afterwards to fish it up again, conf. 1080. 
So likewise in Saem. 230 : Gunnar ok Hogni toko )?a gullit allt, 
Fafnis art / On the fate bound up with the gold-hoard in the 
ON. (and doubtless also in OHG.) legend, see Hpt 3, 217. Finn. 
mammelainen, mater serpentis, divitiarum subterranearum custos 



1600 DEVIL. 

(Renvall) reminds one of ON. m6dir Atla = serpeus, Saera. 243 b . 
Golden geese and ducks also sit underground on golden eggs, 
Somm. sag. p. 63-4. 

p. 981.] In some stories it is the old man in the mountain 
that, when people come in to him, crops their heads bald, Somm. 
p. 83 ; then again the spectres wish to shave the beard of a man 
as he lies in bed, Simpl. K. 921. 930. In Musiius 4, 61 both get 
shorn. 

p. 983.] With Lurlenberge conf. uz Lurlinberge wart gefurt 
sin stolze eventure/ Ritterpr. b , and Lurinberc, Graff 2, 244. Or 
Burlenberg might be the Birlenberg of Weisth. 4, 244. On the 

sunken or de Toulouse and or de Montpellier, see Berte 20. 

Sinking is preceded by a crash (Suppl. to 952 end) : heyrSi hann 
dyna m.iMa, Sn. 77 ; there was a bang, and all was sunk and 
gone, Panz. 1, 30 (in Schm. 3, 125 a loud snore) ; then comes a 
crack, and the castle once more is as it was before, Kuhn s WestL 
sag. 2, 250; a fearful crash, and the castle tumbles and dis 
appears, Schonwerth 3, 52. Near Staffelberg in Up. Fran- 

conia lies a great pond, and in it a great fish, holding his tail in 
his mouth ; the moment he lets it go, the mountain will fly to 
pieces and fill the pond, and the flood drown the flats of Main and 
Rhine, and everything perish, man and beast, Panz. 2, 192. A 
little cloud on the horizon often announces the bursting-in of the 
flood or violent rain, Miillenh. p. 133. 1 Kings 18, 43-4 (Hpt 8, 
284). An angel walks into the sinking city, Wolf s Niederl. sag. 
326. Of the foundling Gregor, who came floating on the flood, 
it is said : der sich hat verrunnen her, Greg. 1144. After the 
flood, the baby is left up in a poplar-tree, Miillenh. p. 132. In 
the legend of the Wood of the Cross also, a newborn child lies on 
the top of a tree. On the name Dold, see GDS. 758. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 
DEVIL. 

p. 986.] Schwenk s Semiten 161 says the Devil is a Persian 
invention. On Ahuromazddo, see Windischm. Rede p. 17-8 ; the 
cuneif. inscriptions have Auramazda, Gr. flpopdaOris. Ahura is 
the Ssk. asura, Bohtlg 555; and Benfey in Gotfc. gel. anz. 62, 



DEVIL. 1601 

p. 1757 conn, mazda with Ssk. medhas, medham = vedham. The 
Ind. asura is evil, the deva good; the Pers. ahura is good, the 
dae" va bad ; so heretics repres. Ahriman, the devil, as the first 
born sou of God, and Ormuzd or Christ as the second. The 
Yezids worship the devil mainly as one originally good, who has 
rebelled, and may injure, may at last become a god again, and 

avenge himself. Lucifer falls out of heaven (p. 241) ; the 

angels fall three nights and days fr. heaven to hell, Ceedm. 20, 12; 
sie fielen dri tage voile, Karaj. Denkm. 42, 9; Hephsestus falls a 
whole day fr. Olympus to Lemnos, II. 1, 592. As God creates, 
the devil tries to do the same ; he sets up his chapel next the 
church (p. 1021) ; he also has 12 disciples ascr. to him, Berthold 
321; conf. devil s pupils (Suppl. to 1024). 

p. 987.] Ulphilas translates even the fern. 77 &a/3oXo? by 
diabula, pi. diabulos, slanderers, 1 Tim. 3, 11. Among corrup 
tions of the word are : Dan. knefvel, snefvel, Molbech s Tidskr. 6, 
317; Arab, eblis, iblis ; prob. our own der tausend I conf. 
dusii (p. 481) and daus, Diet. 2, 855. Lith. devalus, dvulus = 
great god, Nesselm. 140 a . Devil, Devilson occur as surnames : 
Cuonradus Diabolus de Rute, MB. 8, 461. 472 ; filii Tiufelonis 
(Suppl. to 1019 end) ; Beroldus dictus Diabolus, Sudendorf s 
Beitr. p. 73, yr 1271 ; Cunze gen. Duflis heubit, Arnsb. urk. 787. 

The Finn, perkele, devil, Kalev. 10, 118. 141. 207. 327 and 

Lapp, perkel, pergalek (Suppl. to 171 end) are derived fr. piru, 
cacodaemon, says Schiefn. Finn, namen 611. 

Satanas in Diemer 255, 10; satandt in Hpt 8, 155. 355 (the 
odious .). Karaj. Sprachdenkm. 52, 3; a pi. satanasd in 0. v. 
20, 4. The word sounds like scado (p. 989), skohsl (p. 1003), 
above all like Scetere, Saturn (p. 247). 

p. 991.] Der tievel gap den rat (advice), wander in bezeren 
ne hat, Fundgr. 2, 87; als ez der tiufel riet, Nib. 756, 9; der 
tiuvel inir daz riet, Frib. Trist. 2207. The devil is called niht 
guotes : we say it smells here like no good things ; Lett, ne 
labbais, the not good ; Lapp, pahakes, the bad one. He is called 
der ybel dtem (breath), Fundgr. 2, 18; unreine saghe untwas, 
Bruns 324-5; conf. Swed. Oden hin oude, ihre s Dial. lex. 123 a ; 
der arge tumbe, Martina 160, 23, as we say stupid devil ; arger 
wild, Diut. 1, 470 ; der sure wirt (sour host), Helbl. 2, 587 ; uz 
des bitteren tiefels halse (throat), Griesh. 52; den leiden duvelen 



1602 DEVIL. 

(odious (3.). Hpt 2, 197; der leidige tifel, Mos. 52, 18; leding, 
Cavall. Voc. Verland 40 a ; lajing, laje, Wieselgren 385 ; liothan, 
Dybeck 45, 72; der greulich hat dich herein getrau (brought), 
Uhl. Yolksl. p. 801. Lith. besos, devil, conf. baisus, grim. 
Finn. paha, pahoillinen, devil ; Esth. pahalainen, pahomen, 

Salmelainen 1, 179. 193. 234. In Scand. the devil is also 

called skam, skammen (shame), Threes Dial. lex. 149 b . Dyb. 45, 
3. 55. 77. Is he called the little one? whence brings you der 
lutzel here ? Gryphius s Dornr. 56, 8. The live, bodily devil, or 
simply der Uibhaftige, the veritable, Gotthelfs Kaserei 356; 
fleischechter leibhafter teufel, Garg. 229 b ; ich sei des leibhaftigen 
butzen 244 a ; der silitige tiuvel, Berth. 37; des sihtigen tufels 
kint, Dietr. drach. 212 b . 285 b ; conf. vtf maufe, Meon 3, 252; 

ainz est deables vis, M. de Gar. 178. Antiquus hostis occurs 

also in Widukind (Pertz 5, 454) ; our Urian resembles Ur-hans, 
Old Jack (Suppl. to 453 n.); u-tufel, Gotth. Erz. 1, 162. 177. 253. 
275. 286, ur-teufel 2, 277 ; d j oude sathan, Maerl. 2, 300; de uald 
knecht, de uald, Miillenh. p. 265. The household god of the 
Tchuvashes, Erich (Gotze s Russ. volksl. p. 1 7) recalls gammel 
Eric/ ON. anc?6-froi = diabolus, hostis; ther widarwerto (un 
toward), 0. ii. 4, 93. 104; warc = diabolus, Graff 1, 980; helle- 
ivarc, Diut. 2, 291 ; conf. ON. vargr, lupus, hostis (p. 996). Der 
vient, Pfeiffer s Myst. 1, 131 ; der vint, Helbl. 1, 1186; der leide 
vient, Leyser 123, 11. 38; Idff-geteona, Beow. 1113, is said of 
sea-monsters, but it means hateful foe/ and might designate the 

devil. Der helsche dief, Maerl. 2,, 312 ; der naclit-schade, said 

of a homesprite, Rochholz 1, 295 (Kl. schr. 3, 407). Ein unhuld, 
Hagen s Heldenb. 1, 235. With the fern, unholdd in OHG. 
hymns conf. daz wip, diu unholde Pass. 353, 91 ; in Unhulden- 
tal, Bair. qu. 1, 220 ; and the Servian fern, vila in many points 
resembles the devil. Uberfengil, ubarfangdri, praevaricator, 
usurpator, seems also to mean the devil in contrast with angels, 
Hpt 8, 146. 

p. 992.] Der ubele volant, Diemer 302, 28; der v., Karaj. 
89, 14; diu vdlendin, Cod. pal. 361, 74 C ; volantinne, Krone 9375. 
9467; diu ubele v., Mai 170, 11; disern vdlande gelich 122, 21; 
du urkiusche der vdlande 172, 16; ein vil boeser volant, Tiirl. 
Wh. 136 b : swaz der v. wider in tet (against them did), Welsch. 
gast 5177; des vdlandes spot (mock), Warn. 2426; des v. hant 



DEVIL. 1603 

1358. The word occurs in the Erec, not in the Iwein, Hpt s 
Pref. xv. I find Conr. of Wiirzbg has not altogether forborne 
its use : der leide volant, Silv. 4902 ; wilder v., Frauenl. 382, 15 ; 
der v. miiez si stillen 123, 19. It occurs but once in M. Neth. 
poets : die quade valande, Walew. 8945 ; (distinct fr. it stands 
vaeliant = vaillant 9647, swdfaliant, valiant) Lane. 21461. 24643). 

Da poser feilant, Fastn. sp. 578, 21 ; boser volant 926, 11 ; 

volandes man, Hpt 5, 20. 31 ; der schwarze voland, Miilmann s 
Geiszel 273; der volland, Ayrer 340 a ; volant in witch-trials of 
1515 (Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 77); den sol der bose voland holen ! 
Lichtwer 1758, 128. In the Walpurgis-night on the Blocksberg^ 
Mephistopheles calls himself junker Voland, squire V., Goethe s 
Faust, p. m. 159. In Thuringia (at G-otha) I heard c Das glab 
der Fold! devil believe it. Volundr, Wayland seems unconn. 
with valant, whose v. is really an /. 

p. 993.] The devil is lame in a Moravian story (p. 1011), the 
same in Wallachia, Fr. Miiller nos. 216. 221; conf. Thor s lame 
goat (p. 995). He is blind, Lith. aUatis ; his eyes are put out 
with melted lead (p. 1027). He is black: ne nos frangat demon 
ater, Chart. Sithiensc p. 8 ; tenebroxus hostis, Hunter s Tempelh. 
158; der swarze meister, Hpt 1, 277; von dem tiuvel hoert man 
wol, wie er swerzer si dan kol, u. ist doch unsihtic (yet invisible), 
Ls. 3, 276; die swarzen helle-warten, Servat. 3520. In Tirol and 
the Up. Palatinate he is called grau-wuzl, Schm. 4, 208. He 
wears grey or green clothes (p. 1063), and, like the dwarfs, a 
red cap, Mullenh. p. 194. The African Negroes paint the devil 
white, Klemm 3, 358. 364. 

p. 995.] The devil s horn partly resembles the hone in Thor s 
head (p. 373) ; couf. gehurnte helle ohsen, horned ox of hell, 
Hpt 8, 151. 236. He has a tail: tied to the devil s tail, 
Keisersb. xv. Staffely 41-3. 59. Schartlin p. 226 ; the troll too 
has a tail, D;yb. Runa 44, 73, the Norw. huldre a cow s tail. He 
has a hen s and a horse s foot, Lisch s Meckl. jrb. 5, 94, a horse s 
foot and a man s, Mullenh. p. 197. Deoful warn and wlite-leas, 
Andr. 1170. 

p. 997.] The devil has horns and cloven feet, Wolf s Ztschr. 
2, 63; his goat s feet peep out, Mone 8, 125, as goat s feet and 
claws are ascr. to dwarfs (p. 451 n.) ; daemones in specie capra- 
rum, Acta Bened. sec. I p. 33; devil as stein-geisz [wild goat, 



1604 DEVIL. 

Capricorn ?], Haltrich p. 44. Pfeiff. Germ. 1, 484 ; die bos teufels 
zigen (she-goats), i.e. witches, Keller s Altd. erz. 192, 22. With 
f bocks lid agrees des tiuvels ylit, } limb of the d., Pass. 377, 24 
(Suppl. to 1019 end); box-scheis habe ir sele ! Lindenbl. 123; 
( to pluck a horn out of the devil/ Garg. 17 b . Here belong the 
surnames Hellbock, Hollbock, Denkschr. der k. k. acad. 5, 20. 

The devil is named Sdu-reussel (sow s snout), and finds bells, 
Ph. Dieffenb. Wanderung p. 73 ; duivels zwintje (pigs), Hpt 7, 
532 (Suppl. to 478). The hog for breeding is called fuhl, Weisth. 
2, 528. There is a hero s name, Ur-swin, Dietl. 5253 ; conf. 
ur-ber, ur-kampe, ur-sau, ur-schwein. The devil is called a luhs, 
lynx, MS. 2, 6 b . 7 a ; a hare, Panz. Beitr. 1, 137; an ape, because 
he apes God (Suppl. to 1024 beg.). 

The devil was * der vil ungehiure helle-wolf, Hpt 5, 520 ; die 
helle-wargen 7, 376 ; abstrahis ore lupi, Erm. Nigell. 4, 370. 
GDS. 329. 333. 

Helle-hunt = Cerberus, Gl. sletst. 4, 32. Renn. 289; der iibele 
hunt, Diemer 309, 22, der helle-hunt, der hunt verwazen (accursed), 
314, 2. 13; vuor der iibermuote hunt also tiefe an den helle-grunt 
4, 26; nit-hunt, dog of spite, Helbl. 2, 264; devil seen in dog s 
shape, Pass. 203, 59. 

p. 999.] Ace. to Gryphius s Souett. 1, 1 the devil is called 
hollen-rabe ; he appears in swarzer vogele bilde, Ksrchr. 4314 ; 
der hollische geier, vulture, Meinert p. 165; das hat sie der geier 
gelernt, Lessing 2, 446; die hollische agalaster (magpie), der 
satan, Pol. maulaffe 195, conf. Parz. 1 ; helle-gouch, Krolewicz 
3879, conf. the cuckoo and his clerk (p. 681-2) ; de bunte kiivit 
hahl se ! Hanenreyerey 1618 A v b ; fort juw (brings you) de 
Id wit nu weer her? B viii e . He has goose-feet, crow s feet, Thiir. 
mitth. vi. 3, 67. 70. 

The serpent in Paradise was wrongly supposed to be the devil, 
Schwenk s Sernit. 162. He is called der lintwurm, Mar. 148, 28; 
der aide lielle-trache, Pass. 13, 23. 101, 47; der hellewiirm 106, 27 ; 
celidrus, Errn. Nigell. 2, 191, fr. %e\vSpo<:, water-snake. Leviathan 
is transl. in AS. by sce-draca he is descr. cum armilla in 
maxilla/ Vom geloub. 601, and there is ein rinc ime in sine 
nasen gelegit 541; conf. f in des tiuveles drozzen, 3 throat, Rol. 
244, 29 ; den hat des tiuvels kiuwe (jaw) verslunden, Warn. 540. 

Belzebup, Karaj. 52, 3; Belsebuc in Fragm. of Madelghis ; 



DEVIL. 1605 

Besebuc, Walew. 8244; drukhs fern, as a fly, Spiegel s Avesta 
124. A spirit is shut up in a glass as a fly, MS. 2, 13-4, or in 
a box, Leipz. avant. 2, 41 ; there is a devil in the glass, both in the 
legend of Zeno in Bruns, and in that of the scholar and robber 
in H. v. Herford, yr 995 and in Korner. 

p. 1000.] The devil as a hammer (siege), Kemble s Sal. and 
Sat. 146. 177. He is called Hemmerlein, Arnbras. lied. 142. As 
Donar s hammer gradu. becomes a fiery sword, it is also said : 
einfiurec swert der tiuvel hat, Hpt 5, 450 (p. 812. Suppl. to 1013 
end). The devil rolling like a millstone resembles the troll rolling 
like a ball, Nilsson 4, 40. 

p. 1002.] The devil is der aide hellewarte, Pass. 23, 18. 
Itell-e-wirt 99, 11, der aide hellewiht 293, 94 ; er rehter helleschergen 
goucli, Mai 156, 40; liellesclierje, Tit. 5468. 5510; hellesclierge, 
Helbl. 2, 603 ; helleftur, Berth. 56; there is a man s name, Helli- 
tamph (-smoke), MB. 14, 424; derfiirst uz helle abgriinde, Walth. 
3, 12, as we say the prince of darkness/ With hellegrdve (p. 
993) connect the prop, names Helcraplio, Bohmer s Font. 2, 185, 
and Herman der liellengrave, liellegrave, Mon. zoller. no. 305 
(yr 1345). no. 306. 

The devil dwells in the North: cadens Lucifer . . . traxit 
ad infvrni sulfurea stagna, in gelida aquilonis parte ponens sibi 
tribunal ; hunc ferocissimum lupum Agnus mitissimus stravit, 
Raban. Maur. De laud, crucis, fig. 10 ; (Lucifer) chot, wolti sizzin 
nordin, Diem. 94, 16; entweder zu den genadin oder den 
ungenadin, sive ad austrum sive ad aquilonem, Leyser 135, 34. 
In the N. lies Jotun-heirnr (p. 34), and the devil is considered a 
giant, as Loki and Logi are of giant kin ; onskar honom (wishes 
him) langt nor dan till f jails (at the devil), Sv. vis. 2, 163. 

They say in Smaland, drag till Hackenf jails ! Cavall. p. 25 a . 
On HeUa, Heklu-fiall, see Bartholin p. 356360; fewr im 
Heckelberg (Mfc Hecla), Fischart in WackerD. 2, 470. 

By desser kerken buwet (builds) de diivil einen Nobis krocli, 
Agricola s Sprikworde (1528) n. 23 bl. 14 a ; nobis-haus, Moue 8, 
277; in iwbis haus, da schleget das hellisch fewer zum fenster 
hinaus, Er. Alberus s Barfusser Miinche Eulenspiegel u. Alcoran 
(Wittemb. 1642) bl. E 4 ; so fare they on to nobishaus, where 
flame shoots out at the window, and bake their apples on the sill/ 
Schimpf u. ernst (1550) c. 233; hush, thou art now in nobis- 



1606 DEVIL. 

hauss = purgatory, H. Sachs (1552) iii. 3, 44 rw ; ir spart s (the 
Reformation) in Nobiskrug, Fischart s Dominici leben (1571) x 2 b . 
Nobis Krucke, Meland. Jocoseri. (1626) p. 548; send down to 
nobiskrug, Simpl. 3, 387; How Francion rideth in a chair into 
the Nobiskrug (abyss, dungeon)/ Hist, des Francions (Leyd. 
1714), Tab. of cont. ix. In Celle they sing the cradle- son g : 
muse-katzen, wo wut du hen ? ik wil na ndbers krauge gan. On 
N&bers-kroch, Nobels-krug, see Kuhn in Hpt 4, 388-9. Leo 
(Malb. gl. 2, 42) derives f nobis fr. Ir. aibheis, abyss; aibhistar 
is said to mean devil. 

p. 1004.] AS. scocca is found on German soil too : Adalbertus 
scucco, Annal. Saxo (Pertz 8, 690). Seyfriden dem steppekchen, 
MB. 16, 197 (yr 1392). The devil s name Barlabaen is also in 
Walew. 9741; Barlibaen, Limb. 4, 959; Barnebaen, Barlebos, 
Barlebaen, V. d. Bergh 11. 12. 275-6; borlebuer, said of a boor, 
Rose 2804. The word frimurc in Tiirl. Wh. 136% femurc in 

Cod. pal., reminds of Femurgan (p. 820 n.). Names of devils : 

lasterbalc, schandolf, hagendorn (conf. p. 1063), hagehlein, Ber- 
thold 56 ; ein tiuvel genannt lesterlinc, Hag. Ges. Abent. 2, 280 ; 
Idsterlein, schentel, Fastn. sp. 507-8-9. Does ON. fcofofci = satanas, 
still very common in Iceland, mean senex procax ? Swed. hin 
hale, the devil ; Vesterb. snoyen, the bald, Unander 36, conf. 
kahl-kopf in Gramm. 2, 374 ; Ostgot. skammen, skrutt, sltrall, 
Kalen 17 b (Suppl. to 991 mid.). In Vorarlberg jomer and holler 
are devil s names, Bergm. p. 94, jammer otherwise denoting 
epilepsy, convulsion (p. 1064). 

Euphemisms for the devil (p. 987 mid.) are: the God-be-ivith- 
us ; Meister Sieh-dich-fiir (look out, mind yourself), Ettn. Unw. 
doct. 241 ; Et-cetera, Ital. ceteratojo. Gipsies call God devel, and 
the devil beink, Pott p. 67. The Dan. gammel Erik is in Norw. 
gamJe Eirili, gamle Sjur, Aasen 124 a . On Hemmerlin, see Supp). 
to 1000; Martinello (p. 1064). Pinkepank in Hpt 6, 485. 
Schimper-schamper, Scliimmer-schemmer. 

p. 1006.] The devil appears as the hunter in green } Schleicher 
213, as Green-coat in witch-stories, KM. no. 101. In Ostgotl. 
Oden means devil. His army is called a swarm : des tivelis 
geswarme, Rol. 120, 14; der tiuvel hat uzgesant sin geswarme 
204, 6; geswerme, Karl 73 b ; des tiefels her (host), Griesh. 2, 
26. Verswinden sam ein kunder, daz der boese geist fuort in 



DEVIL. 1607 

dem rore (reeds) , Tit. 2408; der teufel fiihrt in wildes gerohricht, 
H. Sachs v. 344-5-6. 

p. 1009.] De olle riesen-moder, Miillenh. p. 444, the giant s 
old grandmother 450, Brusi and his mother worse than he, 
Fornrn. sog. 3, 214, all remind us of the devil s mother or grand 
mother : des iibeln teufels muoter, Wolfd. and Saben 487 ; u 
brachte hier ter stede die duvel ende sin moeder mede, Karel 2, 
4536 : frau Fuik is held to be the devil s grandmother, Hpt 5, 
373 ; < yes, the devil should have had him long ago, but is wait 
ing to find the fellow to him, as his grandmother wants a new 
pair of coach-horses / Gotthelf s Swiss tales 4, 51 ; der tiifel 
macht wedele drus, u. heizt der grossmutter den ofe dermit (to 
light his granny s fire with), Gotth. Erz. 1, 226; de duvel und 
ock sin moder, Soester Daniel 8. 11 ; if you are the devil, I am 
his mother, Praet. Weltb. 2, 64 ; who are you, the devil or his 
mother? Simpl. 1, 592; conf. ist er der tufel oder sin wip ? 
Dietr. dr. 159 a ; des tiuvels muoter u. sin wip, Hatzl. 219 a ; diu 
ist des tiuvels wip, Nib. 417, 4; des iibelen tiuvels brut (bride) 
426,4. Mai 172, 10. Conf. Death s mother (p. 840-1); from 

Jack Ketch to Jack s mother he went/ Pol. colica p. 13. To 

the pop. saws about sun and rain, add the N. Frisian: when it 
rains and the sun shines, witches are buried at the world s end. 
There are many devils: steht in tausend teufel namen auf! sauf 
(drink) in tausent t. namen! Diet. 1, 230. 

p. 1011.] The devil demands a sheep and a code, Cses. Heisterb. 
5, 2 ; or a black he-goo t, Miillenh. p. 41, a black cock and he-cat 
201, a black and a white goat 203. With the curious passage fr. 
H. Sachs agrees the following : Of a heretic like that, you make 
a new-year s present to PJuto, stuck over with box, Simpl. 3, 5. 
p. 287. Boar s heads and bear s heads are still garnished so, and 
even Asiatics put fruit in the bear s mouth. The devil shall 
yet thy bather be/ Froschm. J. 2 a (Suppl. to 247). 

p. 1012.] A stinking hair is pulled out of Ugarthilocus ; seven 
hairs off the sleeping devil or giant, like the siben locke (Luther, 
Judg. 16, 19) off Samson s head, Renn. 6927. Diu helle ist uf 
getan, der tiufel der ist uzgelan (let out), Dietr. dr. 211 b . 121 a . 
143 b ; Lucifer waere uz gelan, Tirol in Hpt 1, 20 ; tis as though 
the fiend had burst his fetters, Eliz^of Orl. p. 270; le diable est 
dechaine, Voltaire s Fred, le gr. 23, 118. With the phrase 



1608 DEVIL. 

the devil s dead, conf. Ulli er dau$r (p. 453 n.). Other ex 
pressions : des tiuvels luoder = eac& diaboli, MSH. 3, 227 b ; the 
d. may hold tlie candle to one that expects the like of him/ 
Niirnberger 254 ; of the d. and the charcoal-burner, Fastn. sp. 
896, 12; looked like a field full of devils/ Zehn ehen 177; 
we avenge the devil on ourselves/ En. 1147; thieves go out 
in odd numbers, so that the d. can t catch one of them, Ph. 
v. Sittew. 2, 686 690; c est I histoire du diable, eine teufeh- 
(jesrMchte. There was a Geschichte vom henker, Gotthelf s Uli 148. 

p. 1013.] The devil s seed occurs also in Dietr. dr. 281 b and 
Boner s Epilog 51. His sifting: hinet riteret (tonight riddles) 
dich Satanas alsam weize, Diem. 255, 10. Fundgr. 1, 170. His 
snares : wie vil der tubil uf uns dont (tendiculas ponit), Hpt 5, 
450; Trayls is in Gothic either hlamma, 1 Tim. 3, 7. 6, 9 (ON. 
hlomm = fustis), or vruggo, 2 Tim. 2, 26; des tivels uetze, Mone s 
Anz. 39, 58 ; des tiefels halze, Griesh. 2, 93 ; des tiuvels swert, 
Ls. 3, 264 (p. 999 end) ; daz vindet der tiuvil an siner videln, 
Eenn. 22629. 

p. 1014.] As Wuotan and angels carry men through the air, 
so does God, but much oftener the devil (p. 1028) : sit dich Got 
hat her getragen, Hlitzl. 167, 43; der arge volant truoc in dar, 
Laur. 822 ; noch waen (nor dream) daz si der tiuvel vuorte, Livl. 
1425; der t. hat in her brant, Greg. 1162. der t. hat mir zuo 
gebraht, Helbl. 1, 641. inch brahte her der tievel uz der helle, Hpt 
1, 400; die duvel brochte hu hier so ua, Rose 12887 ; nu over ins 
duvels geleide, Karel 2, 4447 ; in trage dan wider der tufel, Diocl. 
5566-89; welke duvel bracht u dare? Lane. 1528; brochte jou 
die duvel hier ? Walew. 5202 ; conf. l waz wunders hat dich her 
getragen ? Wigal. 5803 ; welch tivel het dich hiutehin ? Halm s 
Strieker 14. We say where s the d. got you ? i.e. where are 
you ? wo hat dich der henker ? Fr. Simpl. 1, 57. The Greeks 
too said : TOV 8 apa reo)? jjuev aTnj yayev OL/ca$e $aifj,o)v, Od. 16, 
370; rt? SaifJL&V roSe 7n}yu,a TTpoarjyaye ; 17, 446; a\\d ere 

SaifjLwv ot/caS vTre^ajdyoi 18, 147. To the curses add: der 

tiuvel neme ! Herb. 6178; daz si der tievel alle ersla ! Archipo. 
p. 233; our zum teufel ! conf. f woher zum t.? Eulensp. c. 
78 ; louf zu dem t., wa du wilt 89. Like our red beard, devil s 
weird is the phrase : dieser fuclis, der auch euer hammer ist, 
Raumer s Hohenst. 2, 114 fr. Hahn s Mon. 1, 122. The devil 



DEVIL. 1609 

laughs to see evil done, hence : des mac der tiuvel lachen, Helbl. 
4, 447 (Suppl. to 323 end) ; you make the devil laugh with your 
lies/ Garg. 192 a . 

p. 1015.] The devil over-comes us like a nightmare. In a 
tale of the 10th cent., he calling himself Nithart joins the histrio 
Vollarc, invites and entertains him and his fellows, and dismisses 
them with presents, which turn out to be cobwebs the next 
morning, Hpt 7, 523. Strengthening a negative by the word 
devil : den teufel nichts deugen, Bliz. of Orl. 447; der den 
tilfel niitzschit (nihtes ?) kan, Ls. 2, 311; conf. hvafta Offins 
latum ? (Suppl. to 145 n.) ; our the devil (nothing) do I know ; 
teufels wenig, Ph. v. Sittew. Soldatenl. p. 191, our f verteufelt 
wenig. Does das hat den teufel gesehen in Lessing 2, 479 mean 
seen nobody or that is terrible ? Welcher teufel ( = who ?), 
Berth, ed. Gobel 2, 11. With drink you and the devil ! conf. 
1 heft hu de duvel dronken ghemakt ? Kose 13166. With the d. 
first and God after agrees : in beschirmet (him protects neither) 
der tiuvel noch Got, Iw. 4635. 

p. 1016.] The Jewish view of possession may be gathered fr. 
Matth. 12, 42 45; other passages and an Egyp. fragment are 
coll. in Mannhdt s Ztschr. 4, 256 9. Possessed by devils is in 
Goth, anahabaidans (fr. haban) fram ahmam unhrainjairn, Luke 6, 
18; MHG. ein beheft man, demoniac, Uolr. 1348; behaft, Diemer 
324, 25. Servat. 2284; ob du beheftet bist, MS. 2, 5 a ; beheftete 
lute, Myst. 1, 135. 147; ein behefter mensch, Eenn. 15664-85. 
5906; sint mit dem tievel haft, MS. 2, 82 b ; mit dem iibelen 
geiste behaft, Warn. 350 ; der tievel ist in dir gehaft, Ecke 

123 ; tiufelhafte diet (folk), Barl. 401, 25. We say behaftet or 

besessen : mit dem tiuvel wart er besezzen, Ksrchr. 13169 ; der 
tivel hat in besezzen, Warn. 344 ; obsessus a daemone, Bohm. 
Font. 2, 323; tiuvel- winnic, Servat. 783; tiuvel-suhtic 1079; 
gevangen mit dem tiuvel, Fragm. 36 a ; des boten ich zuo s wirtes 
maget mit worten han gebunden, MS. 2, ll a ; die den viant hebben 
in, Maerl. 3, 234. ON. J?u liefir diofulinn i fiinni hendi, Yilk. s. 
511, i.e. he makes thy hand so strong; daz iuwer der t. miieze 
pflegen (tend) ! Herb. 2262 ; der t. miieze in walden 9747 ; daz 
iuwer der t. walde 14923. 18331 ; der t. miieze walden iuwer 
untriuwe 16981; var in einen rostuschaer, Helbl. 7, 744; vart 
in ein gerihte, sliefet in den rihtaere 7, 750. A devil says : 



1610 DEVIL. 

sine ut intrem in corpus tutim, Ca3s. Heisterb. 10, 11; an evil 
spirit, whom the priest bids depart out of a woman (yr 1463), 
asks leave to pass into others, whom he names, M. Beh. 276-7; 
hem voer die duvel in t lif (body), Maerl. 2, 293; der tiuvel var 
im an die swart, Helbl. 1 5, 434 ; reht als waere gesezzen der 
tuvel in daz herze sin, Dietr. dr. 117 a ; en scholden dre soven 
diivel darum bestan, Kantzow 2, 351 ; nn friz in click den tiufel 

der din suochet, MS. 2, 135 b . ( The d. looks out of her eyes, 

H. Sachs 1, 450 a ; der t. aus dir kilt, Kell. Erz. 327, 15, leal 328, 
23 (and the reverse : Got uz ir jungen munde sprach, Parz. 396, 
19) ; der t. ist in dir gehaffc, der fiht uz dinem libe, Eckenl. 123. 
Devils in the body are like the narren (fools) inside a sick man, 
who are cut out as the devils are cast out. The devil is driven 
out through the nose with a ring, Joseph. Antiq. 8, 2. 5. Diseases 
wait for the patient to open his mouth before they can pass out, 
Helbl. 7, 101. Mifc dem Bosen curieren, adjuvante diabolo aegros 
sanare, Leipz. avantur. 1, 271. Virtues also pass in and out, 
Helbl. 7, 65.102. 113. 

p. 1017.] As the gods diffuse frag ran ce, legends medieval and 
modern charge the devil with defiling and changing things into 
muck and mire : der tiuvel schize in in den kragen ! Helbl. 5, 
107; Sathanae posteriora petes, Probra mul. 220; welcher t. uns 
mit den Heiden hete beschizen, Morolt 3014; der t. lauffc u. 
hofiert zugleich, Simpl. 178; cacat monstra, Reinard. 4, 780; die 
seind des teufels letzter furz, Rathschlag in Parnasso (1621 4to, 

p. 33). The devil lies and cheats: der truge-tievel (p. 464), 

conf. drill gr var Lop tr at liuga, Sn. 48. 1, 29; ein tiuvel der 
hiez Oggewedel, der ie die ersten luge vant, MS. 2, 250 b ; dem t. 
ans bein liigen, Rother 3137. He is called des nidis vatir 
Lucifer/ Diemer 94, 20. 

p. 1019.] Making a covenant with the devil, Keisersb. Omeiss 
36-8 ; he bites a finger of the witch s left hand, and with the 
blood she signs herself away; or he smites her on the face, 
making the nose Heed, Moneys Anz. 8, 124-5. The devil s mark 
(p. 1077); hantveste (bond), damide uns der duvil woldi bihaldin, 
Wernh. v. N. 61, 33. He will make his servant rich, but re 
quires him to renounce God and St. Mary, Ls. 3, 256-7. An old 
story told by the monachus Sangall. (bef. 887) in Pertz 2, 742 : 
Diabolus cuidam pauper culo -. . . .in humana se obviam tulit 



DEVIL. 1611 

specie, pollicitus non mediocriter ilium esse ditandum, si societatis 
vinculo in perpetuum sibi delegisset adnecti. A similar story in 
Thietmar 4, 44 speaks of prope jacere and servire. One has to 
abjure God and all the saints; the d. comes and gives the oath, 
Hexenproc. aus Ursenthal p. 244-6. Eoaz hat beidin sele und 
leben einem tievel geben, der tuot durch in wanders vil, er fueget 
im allez daz er wil, Wigal. 3656-9. 7321 6 ; when R. dies, the 
devils come and fetch him 8136. Giving oneself to the d. for 
riches, Berth, ed. Gobel 2, 41 ; wil er Got verkiesen unde die sele 
verliesen, der tubel hilfet ime derzuo, daz er spate und fruo tuon 

mac besunder vil rnanicfalden wunder, Alex. 2837. Kissing the 

devil (pp. 1065 last 1., 1067 last 1., 1071) ; dich en-vride der tievel 
(unless the d. shield thee), du-ne kanst niht genesen, Nib. 1988, 2. 
The d. fetches his own, as OSinn or Thorr takes his share of souls : 
der hel-scherge die sinen an sich las (gathered his own unto 
him), Loh. 70. The child unborn is promised to the d. (p. 1025), 
Altd. bl. 1,296-7, as formerly to OSinn : gafu Offni, Fornin. 
sog. 2, 168; conf. gefinn O&ni sialfr sialfum mer, Saem. 27 b . 
With Bearskin conf. the ON. biarn-olpu-ma&r, Kormakss. p. 114; 
the Hung, bearskin, Hungar. in parab. p. 90-1 ; Volundr sat a 
berfialli, Seem. 135 a ; lying on the bearskin, Schweinich. 2, 14; 
wrapping oneself in a bear s hide, KM. no. 85 ; getting sewed up 
in a bearskin, Eliz. of Orl. 295. 

One who is on good terms, or in league, with the devil, is 
called devil s comrade, partner, fellow: valantes man, Eol. 216, 
7; des tiveles higen 156, 4 ; der tiuvels bote, Hpt. 6, 501 ; t. kneht, 
Iw. 6338. 6772; ein tubels knabe, Pass. 172, 59. 175, 16. 296, 
27; our teufels-kind/ reprobate; filii Tiufelonis habent Tiufels- 
grub, MB. 12, 85-7; Morolt des tiuvels kint, Mor. 2762; waren 
ie des tivels kint, Trist. 226, 18. The polecat, Lifch. szeszkas, is 
called devil s child, because of its smell? iltisbalg (fitchet-skin) 
is an insulting epithet. Helle-kint, Griesh. 2, 81 ; des tiuvels 
genoz, Trist. 235, 29 ; slaefestu, des t. gelit (lith, limb)? Pass. 377, 
25; alle des tievels lide, Hpt 8,169; membrum diaboli, Ch. yr 
1311 in Hildebrand s Svenskt dipl. no. 1789 p. 15 (p. 997). 
What does duvelskuker mean ? Seibertz 1, 631. 

p. 1024.] The devil has in many cases taken the place of the 
old giants (pp. 1000, 1024) ; so the Finn, hiisi gradually deve 
loped into a devil. One Mecklenbg witch-story in Lisch 5, 83 



1612 DEVIL. 

still retains the giant where others have the devil; conf. KM. S 3, 
206-7. The devil that in many fairy-tales appears at midnight 
to the lone watcher in a deserted castle, reminds one of Grendel, 

whom Beowulf bearded in Heorot. The devil mimics God, 

wants to create like Him : he makes the goat, KM. no. 148, and 
the magpie, Serb, march, no. 18; conf. March, of Bukovina in 
Wolfs Ztschr. 1, 179. 180. He builds Bern in three nights, 
Pref. to Heldenb. Where a church is built to God, the d. sets 
up his chapel hard by : in the play of Caterina, Lucifer cries to 
the devils, habet uch daz kapellichen vor den greten, ad gradus 
ecclesiae, Stephan p. 172. In tales of the church-building devil 
they make a wolf run through the door ; conf. a song in Uhland s 
Volksl. p. 812 and the story of Wolfgang in M. Koch s Reise413. 

S war just ein neu-gebautes nest, 
der erste bewohner sollt es taufen ; 
aber wie fangt er s an ? er lasst 
weislich den pudel voran erst laufen. 

Wallenstein s Camp, p.m. 33. 

Mephistopheles hates bells, Faust p.m. 433. Tales of devil s 
bridges in Miillenh. p. 274-5 ; such a one is also called die 
stiebende briicke/ Geschichtsf., heft 7 p. 36. 

There is a devil s stone near Polchow in Stettin district, on 
which the d. takes his noonday nap on Midsum. day ; it becomes 
as soft as cheese then, and the evil one has left the print of his 
limbs on the flat surface, Bait. stud. xi. 2, 191. xii. 1, 110. A 
devil s chamber lies between Haaren and Biiren (Paderborn). 
Devil s kitchens, Leoprechting 112-3-7. A field named teufels- 
rutti, Weisth. 1, 72. The Roman fortifications in Central and 
S. Germany are also called pfal-hecke, pfal-rain, pfal-ranke ; 
Er. Alberus fab. 25 has pol-graben, Jauni. Sumloc p. 17; die boll, 
poll-graben, conf. the iron pohl, Steiner s Main-gebiet 277-8; 
bulweg, ibid.; wul, wulch in Vilmar s Idiot. 102, conf. art. Pfahl- 

mauer in Hall, encyclop. It seems these Roman walls were not 

always of stone or brick, but sometimes of pfale (stakes) : Spar- 
tian, as quoted by Stalin, speaks of stipitibus magnis in modum 
muralis sepis funditus jactis et connexis ; and Moneys Bad. 
gesch. 2, 5 mentions pali/ our pfale. Near the Teufels-mauer 
is situated a Pfahls-buck, Panz. 1, 156, and in the Wetterau a 



DEVIL. 1613 

pohl-born (Ukert p. 281), just like Pholes-lrunno (p. 226). On 

the other hand the devil s wall is not only called scliwein-graben, 
but also sau-strasse, Stalin 1, 81-5. 97. Ukert p. 279; and if 
the former is said to have been thrown up by a gockel-hahn 
(cock) and a schwein, it puts us in mind of the boar that roots 
up earth, and bells out of the earth, Firmen. 2, 148; conf. supra 
(pp. 666. 996) and the ploughing cock (p. 977). In beren-loch, 
daz man nempt des tufels graben, Segesser 1, 645. On a giant s 
wall in Mecklenbg lies a teufels back-ofen (Ukert p. 314), just 
as the people call grave-mounds baker s ovens/ ibid. p. 280. 
Other places named after the devil in Mone s Anz. 6, 231. 

p. 1024.] Devil take the hindmost! Garg. 190 b , conf. 
sacrificing the last man to Mars 227*. So the vila consecrates 
12 pupils on vrzino kolo, and the twelfth or last falls due to 
her, Vuk sub v. vrzino kolo (Suppl. to 986 end). The same with 
the 12 scholars at Wunsiedel, Schonw. 3, 56, and the student 
of Plesse 3, 26. Again : wa sit ir ze schuole gewesen ? hat iu 

der tnfel vorgelesen ? lectured to you, Dietr. dr. 157 b . The 

devil s taking the shadow reminds us of the schatten-busze 
(shadow-penance) in German law. The Indian gods cast no 
shadow, which is as it were the soul of a man, Klemm 2, 309. 
Catching the shadow is also Wallachian, Schuller s Argisch 17. 
Mullenh. p. 554. Winther s folke eventyr p. 18. Icel. story of 
Saemund, Aefintyri p. 34-5. Chamisso s legend is known in 
Spain: hombre que vendio su sombra, Mila y Fontals 188. 

p. 1028.] The hushing of the child in the legend of Kallund- 
borg church is the same as that of the giant s child (p. 548). 
Similar stories in Schonwerth 3, 61. Mullenh. p. 300-1. A cock 
that is carried past, crows and puts the devil out in his building, 
Sommer p. 53. Schonw. 3, 60. Disappearance takes place after 
thrice clapping the hands, Dybeck 4, 32 (noa. 31 and 33). With 
the story of self done, self have/ conf. p. 450-1 n. ; the tale of 
the water-nix and Selver-gedan, Hpt 4, 393 ; the Engadine story 
of the diala and the svess, Schreiber s Taschenb. 4, 306. Vonbun 
pp. 5, 6 (ed. 2 p. 8); the Lapl. story of giant Stallo, Nilsson 4, 
32 ; and the Norse one of Egil, ibid. 4, 33. Mull. Sagenb. 2, 
612. 

p. 1029.] The division of crops between the peasant and the 
devil is also in Mullenh. p. 278. To raise corn and turnip is 

VOL. iv. z 



1614 MAGIC. 

the formula of agriculture : e ry]?ia undir rugld ok rovum, rye 
and turnips, Ostgot. lagh pp. 217. 220. 

p. 1029.] The dragonfly is called devil s horse : Finn, pi rum 
hevoinen = daemonis equus, pirum piika = daemonis ancilla. A 
priest s wife is the devil s brood-mare, App. Spell, xxxiv. Nethl. 
duiuel s-kop (-head) = typha, our tuttil-kolbe, deutel-kolbe. 
Teufels-rohr, conf. Walth. 33, 8. Devil s thread is ace. to Vilmar 
the cuscuta epilinum, called rang in the Westerwald. A farm 
named duvel-bites gutol, Seibertz 391 (1280). 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 
MAGIC. 

p. 1031.] Got wunderaere, Gerh. 4047; Got, du w., Ad. v. 
Nassau 230; Got ist ein w., Helmbr. 1639; Krist w., Walth. 5, 
35 ; Got wundert, Engelh. 455. 491. 

NU mohte iuch nemen wunder, 

waz gote waren bi der zit ? 

si waren liute, als ir nu sit, 

wan daz ir krefteclich gewalt 

was michel unde manecvalt 

von kriutern und von steinen. Troj. kr. 858. 

(what were gods in those days ? Men like you, except that their 
power over herbs and stones was much). All gods are magicians, 
ibid. 859 911 ; Terramer calls Jesus a magician, Wh. 357, 23 : 
Thor s image speaks, walks and fights, but by the devil s agency, 
Fornm. sog. 1, 302 6; a statue of Freyr gets off the chariot and 
wrestles 2, 73-5; tiuvele wonent darinne (inside them), Eol. 27, 

8. The grdl makes men magic-proof even to the fifth of kin : 

die edel fruht vom grale, unz an die funften sippe keines zoubers 
strale traf in weder rucke, houbt noch rippe, Tit. 2414. Nathe- 
matici are classed among magicians ; thus Cod. ix. tit. 18 treats 
de maleficis et mathematicis ; mathematicus = himil-scowari, 
stargazer, Diut. 1, 505 a ; math. = tungel-witega, steor-gleaw, 
Hpt s Ztschr. 9, 467 b ; vaticinatores et mathematici, qui se Deo 
plenos adsimulant, Jul. Pauli sentent. 5, 21. 



MAGIC. 1615 

p. 1031] The bad is the not right : es geht nicht mit rechten 
dingen zu; das ich solcher frawen sei, die mit bosen stiicken 
umbgen/ Bodmer s Rheing. 424 (yr 1511). ON. fordceffu-skapr, 
fordasffu-verk (misdoing) = veneficium ; fordefi-scipr, Gutalag 77; 
fordcepa, Ostg. Jag 225. AS. mdn-fordcedlan = walefLci, Beow. 
1120. Gl. to Lex 1 2. Dig. de obseq. par. (indignus militia 
^udicandus est qui patrem efc matrem maleficos appellaverit) : hoc 

est qui matrem dixerit a/act or atricem. OHG. zoupar, Graff 5, 

580-1-2. MHG. den selben zouber, Hartm. biichl. 1, 1347, daz 
zouber 1318. Daz z. = magic potion: mir ist zouber gegeben, 
Herb. 758, and : Circe kunde trenke geben, sulich zouber, sulche 
spise 17631. M. Lat. zobria f., Moneys Anz. 7, 424; mit zouber 
varn, MS. 1, 73 b . Curiously in the Dresd. Wolfdietr. 162 : kein 
z. dir kan gewinken (rhy. trinken) ; tover en ontfoerdene mi, 
Karel 1, 1469 ; si zigen in zouberlicher dinge, Trist. 272, 2 ; 
zouber-liste, Eracl. 1062 ; zouberliste tragen, MS. 1, 78 b , z. han 
Umme-gan (go about, meddle) mit toverye und wyckerie, 
Burmeister s Alterth. 25 (yr 1417); tovern u. wykken, ibid.; 
witken, Bruns Beitr. 337 ; wicker ie, bote, wichelie, Gefken^s Beil. 
141, toverie, wickerie 124. Welsh gwiddan, witch. OHG. wichon 
saltare, gesticulari, Graff 1, 708 ; conf. Hpt 3, 92. AS. hweoler = 
augur, fugle liweoler, fr. hweol, wheel. Lett, deewaredsis who sees 
God and discovers hidden things, conf. devins (p. 471). Butt- 
rnann 2, 256 derives %pda) } I divine, fr. grabbing, grasping; conf. 

Gripir (p. 471). Weis-hessen, Gryph. Dornrose 90, 27; wiza- 

nunc, divinatio, ivizzigo, vates, Gl. Sletst. 6, 699 ; ein wizzag 
gewaere, MS. 2, 189 b ; vitka Uki fara, Saem. 63 a ; Bngl. wizard. 
ON. gan, f magia/ Biorn; but inconsultus gestus/ Nialss. p. 683 a . 
AS. hwata=omina,, divinationes, Can. Edg. 16 (Suppl. to 1107 
beg.). Lat. veratrise, soothsayer, sorceress ; verare, to say sooth, 
conf. veratrum, hellebore. Lith. wardyti, to work magic. ON. 
satt eitt sag^ak, I said a sooth, Ssem. 226 b . OHG. wdr-secco, 
divinator; der warsager tut mir warsagen, H. Sachs ii. 4, 12 b , 
u riser w. 13 b , the one who practises in our village, as among 
Finns and Lapps, Suomi J 46, p. 97-8. Fara til fiolkunnigra Finna, 
Fornm. s. 2, 167; Jcynga, magica, Laxd. 328; in Cavall. Voc. 
verl. 38 a kyng, sickness. Leikur, witches, versiformes, Grottas. 
11. Betw. Lauterbach and Grebenau a divineress was called e 
bio kend, a blue child. 



1616 MAGIC. 

p. 1037.] Spoken magic, spell, is in MHG. gahter, Lanz. 
7011; mit galster-liste, Fundgr. 2, 100; galstern, Staid. 1,417. 
Carminator, carminatrix, MB. 16, 242 (yr 1491). Venneinen, 
bewitch, Schm. 2, 587 ; vermaynen ad oculos, denies, Moneys 
Anz. 7, 423; verschiren, fascinare, Diut. 2, 214 b ; versclneren, 
beswogen, Miillenh. p. 560 ; verruocUen u. vermeinen, Ges. Abent. 
3, 78; homines magicis artibus dementare, Lamb. p. 214 (yr 1074). 
Kilian has ungheren, work magic, unghers, maleficus, unglier-lwere, 
malefica, unghers eyeren volva, q. d. manium sive cacodaemonum 
ova. Van den Bergh p. 58 has Fris. tjoenders en tjoensters, wizard 
and witch. Ougpente, fascinatione, Gl. Sletst. 25, 149. 

ON. seiff*-, magic : Gunnhildr let sei& efla, Egilss. 403 ; seiff- 
staffr or -stafr, Laxd. 328 ; conf. Lapp, seita, CastreVs Myt. 
207-8. Boiling of herbs (p. 1089), of stockings (p. 1093). 

MHG. die buoze versuochen, try remedies, charms, Morolf 
916; siihte biiezen, heal sickness, Freid. 163, 16 ; de tene boten, 
cure toothache, Hpt 3, 92; boeten, Gefken s Beil. 151. 167; 
boterie 124. 175-7 ; zanzeln, work magic, Mielcke 36 a . 

Lupperie, Gefk. Beil. 109. 112; Idcltenie, Troj. kr. 27. 234; 
lachenaere 27240, conf. 963 ; stria aut herbaria, Lex Alam. add. 
22. 

ON. bolvisar konor, witches, Seem. 197 b (p. 988) ; froeffi, 
scientia, esp. rnagia nigra (suppl. to 1044). 

Nethl. terms for sorceress, witch : nackt-loopster (-rover), weer- 
makster, weather- maker, luister-vink, mutterer in secret, grote kol, 
great horse; op kol rijden, work magic, Weiland sub v. kol; in 
ma anwot sein, be bewitched, Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 54. Necromau- 
ticus habebat cucullum ac tunicam de pilitt cuprarum, Greg. Tur. 
9, 6 ; conf. indutus pellibus 10, 25. 

The AS. dry, magus, comes not fr. Spi)?, oak (p. 1215 end), 
but fr. Ir. draoi, with a pi. draoithe, of which the Romans made 
druidce, Leo s Malb. gl. 1, 23. Davies in Celt. res. had derived 
it fr. Wei. derwydd. Spells were read out of a book : sin zouber 
las, Pass. 171, 25; ein pfaffe der wol zouber las, Parz. 66,4; 
ich han von allem dem gelesen daz ie gefloz u. geflouc says the 
soothsayer, Troj. kr. 19057; in den swarzen buochen leseo, 
Ksrchr. 13234. Finn, lukia, to read, but in the Runes always to 

conjure, Castr. Pref. p. x. Ze Dolet ich niht lernen wil von 

der nigromanzie, MS. 2, 63 b ; zu Toletum die ars necromantica 



MAGIC. 1617 

lernen, CSBS. Heisterb. 5, 4, conf. Jubinal s Mysteres 1, 396; 
noch so lernet man die list in einer stat zuo Tolet, diu in His- 
panien stet, Herb. 562, conf. Fromm. p. 225 and ze DoUt (p. 1048 
beg.) ; ein stafc heizet Persida, da erste zouber wart erdaht, Parz. 
657, 28. The travelling scholars roam fr. school to school, and 
learn black art, H. Sachs ii. 4, 19 d ; conf. devil s pupils, disciples 
(p. 1024). Gain lerte siniu chint (taught his children) dei zouber 
dei hiute sint, Diut. 3, 59. 

p. 1038.] MHG. fo ezew=augurari: stille liezen, Er. 8687; ich 
kan vliegen u. verliezen, MS. 1, 89 a ; saks-luzzo, magus, Hattemer 
1, 259 b . Zouberse too is sortilega, Wolf s Ztschr. 2, 72 ; kanstu 
von zouber meisterschaft, die wirf an sie (throw it on her), 
Laurin 1675. With Swed. tjusa to conjure, conf. Dan. kyse, 
terrere. I?Mr = sortilegium, burten, conjure, divine, Gefken 99; 
conf. Lith. burtas lot, burli prophesy, burtininhas lot-caster, and 
Lett, burt witches, burtneks sorcerer. The lot speaks : al dar- 
nach daz loz geseit ; seit ez wol, misse-seit ez/ as the lot shall say, 

yea or nay, MS. 1, 156 a . Gongulares list, 0. iv. 16, 33; caucu- 

lare, magus, Hpt 3, 382 ; mit goucgeles liste, Fundgr. 2, 99, 
goucgeldre list 99. 100; de gouchelare, MB. 8,482; ein goukel, 
Eracl. 1110; goJcelt onder den hoet, Ferg. 2772; under m huot 
gaukeln, Suchenw. 29, 45. May we take it as conn, with gouch, 
gowk, cuckoo ? the Dan. for gowk and conjure are gjog and 
gojgle, but the OHG-. kouh and koukalon. Frere Barbarin in 
Flores practises sleight-of-hand, and is called encanteor. ON. 
sion-hverfingar = pYSLQstigi&e, Sn. 79; AS. gedwimor, gedwymor = 
fantasma, praestigium. 

There is an old word, OHG. hliodar, AS. lileo&or = sonus, vati- 
cinium, ON. hlioff merely sonus ; OHG. hleodar-sdzo hariolus, 
necromanticus, hleodar-sizzeo, hleodar-sezzo ariolus, hleodar-saza 
vaticiniuin, Graff 6, 302-4; lioder-sdza, Hattemer 1, 261; in 
cervulo = in lioder-saza , Gora,giu& liodir~8dzo, Gl. Sletst. 23, 3.8; 
conf. Superst. A ; the diviner then sits in a chair ? The sahs- 
Inzzo, magus, Graff 6, 91. 2, 322, appar. divines with a knife or 
sword. 

p. 1039.] Magic is ascribed chiefly to women. Priestesses, 
prophetesses, were old, grey-haired (p. 96-7) : Sibylla saz antfas 
(unkempt) an irme bete-hus/ En. 2694 ; groz n. gra was ir daz 
har, u. harte verworren (tangled) als eines pferdes mane 2698 ; 



1618 MAGIC. 

daz mies lokehte hienc ir uz den oren 2708. Neapol. scirp m, 
brutta strega, fr. scirpus, a kind of rush. A wunder-altez wip 
interprets the dream upon her oath, Walth. 95, 8 ; vielle sorciere, 
Meon 3, 159; a soothsaying- foster-moder, Arvidss. 2, 5; kerlinga 
villa, Sasm. 169; alter wibe troume, Tiirl. Wh. 82 a ; a devil- 
ridden root-delver, spell-speaker, and wizzened old herb-hunter/ 
Garg. 189 a . Ir. cailleach means a veiled woman, old woman, 
witch. Herdsmen too are sorcerers : for, you see, we shep 
herds, cut off from the world, have our thoughts about many 
things while the silly sheep are grazing/ Voss s Idyls 9, 49. 

p. 1041.] Hegitisse = eumemd.es, hdgtis = striga,, Gl. Jun. 378, 
381; hazzisa = eumeuides, Gl. Sletst. 6, 273; haghetisaen, Br. 
Gheraerb 717, conf. fozoawn = palaestrifcae, Graff 4, 1073. Haye- 
disse = lizard (OHG. egidehsa), Gemmula Antwerp, in Hoffm. 
Horae Belg. 7; in the Ring 210-1 it is called hdxe, 219 both have 
and unhold. Is the Lith. kekszv, harlot, formed fr. liexe, as 
keksztas fr. heher, a jay ? In the Eing p. 230 a witch is called 
Hdchel, sorceress; conf. hagili, sta ! stay, little witch, 57. The 
Swiss /m0.s ?ie = hexe (Staid. 2, 10) may hark back to OHG. hah- 
sinon subnervare [hamstring, cut the hdchse, hough], for a witch 
unnerves (comedere nervos, p. 1081 last 1.) ; conf. Fris. hexna, 
hoxna, hoxne = poples. 

p. 1042.] OSinn is called galdrsfoffr, Seem. 94 a . The Vilkina- 
saga names a sorceress Ostacia, who learnt magic of her step 
mother (see p. 1055). Other names of witches in Skaldskap. 
234. A sorceress is a vala or volva : seift-staffr mikill, ]?6ttust 
menn ]?a vita, at )?ar mundi verit hafa volu leiffi nockud (sagae 
tumulus), Laxd. p. 328. She is also called flog ft: flogft a Hei$ar- 
skog, Fornm. 3, 122; Nethl. nacht-loopster, grote ~kol (Suppl. to 
1037 mid.) ; conf. rcerffi sin gand,/or at seifta, Vilk. saga c. 328? 

p. 1044.] Gera seift-hiall mildnn ; appar. a platform to hold a 
good many : ]?au fcerdust )?ar a upp oil (all), ]>au kva^u far free ffi 
sin, en ]?at voru galdrar, Laxd. 142. 

p. 1045.] For masca, the Lomb. Glosses have nasca, Hpt s 
Ztschr. 1, 556; conf. talamasca (p. 915). With striga connect 
ffrpiryf owl, who waylays children, and is kept off by hawthorn, 
Jv. Fast. 6, 130 168; crTpiy\a in Leo Allatius ; arlyXos (70175). 
DC. Another word for mask is schem-bart, Schm. 3, 362. 
Oager s Ulm p. 526 : nu sitze ich als ein schempart truric, Renn 



MAGIC. 1619 

17998; 8cema = larva, Graff 6, 495-6; LG. scheme in Yoss ; 
Nethl. scheem, scheme, shadow; conf. scheine in Frauenl. 174. 

p. 1046.] On chervioburgus, see Malb. gl. 2, 153-4, Miillen- 
hoff (in Waitz p. 287, and Hone s Anz. 8, 452) compares it with 
the /cepvo(f>6pos of the mysteries. A Tyrolese legend tells of 
roving night-wives and their cauldron, Germania 2, 438. In our 
nursery-tales witch and old cook are the same thing, KM. no. 51. 

Lisch s Meckl. jrb. 5, 82. On a hill or mountain named kipula, 

or kipivuori, kipumaki, kipuharja (sorrow s mount, hill, peak), 
stands Kivutar before a cauldron (kattila, pata), brewing plagues. 
In Kalev. 25, 181, is mentioned a parti- coloured milking-pail 
(kippa), 182 a copper bushel (vakka), 196 kattila. Ace. to 
Renvall a witch is panetar, panutar. A butterfly is called kettel- 
boter (-heater), and whey-stealer, milk-thief (p. 1072). 

p. 1047.] A salt-work is a sacred gift of God, and protected 
by the law of nations, Rommel 8, 722. Salt is laid on tables 
and altars : sacras facite inensas salinorum appositu, Arnob. 2, 
67 ; salinum est patella, in qua diis primitiae cum sale offere- 
bantur. Egyptians hated salt and the sea; their priests were 

forbidden to set salt on the table, Plut. De Iside 32. The 

interchange of H and S in hal and sal is, ace. to Leo (in Hpt 5, 
511), syntactic in the Celtic tongues, and Gael, sh is pron. h. 
Hallstadt is more corr. spelt Hallstatt, M. Koch s Eeise 407. 
Ssk. sara = s&lt. Lat. halec, herring, is akin to aX?, salt, GDS. 
300 [So SI. seldt, ON. sild, herring, means salt-water fish ; but 
Teut. haring = heer-fisGh, bee. it goes in hosts, shoals, Hehn s 
Plants and Anim. 411]. 

p. 1050.] Witches eat horseflesh, Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 67. The 
pipe at the dance of trolls inside the hill is a horse-bone, Afzelius 
2, 159; conf. a Pruss. story in N. Preuss. prov. bl. 1, 229. 

p. 1051.] The Witches Excursion takes place on the first 
night in May, Lisch s Meckl. jrb. 5, 83. Wolf s Zts. 2, 68. 
The Esth. witches also assemble that night, says Possart p. 
161 ; others say the night of June 23-4, i.e. Midsum. Eve. 
They ride up Blocksberg on the first of May, and in 12 days 
must dance the snow away ; then Spring begins, Kuhn in Hpt s 
Zts. 5, 483. Here they appear as elflike, godlike maids. 

p. 1053.] Witches Mountains are: the Brilckelsperg , Wolf s 
Zts. 1, 6; several Blocksbergs in Holstein, Miillenh. p. 564; 



1620 MAGIC. 

Brockensburg, Difctm. Sassenrecht 159. GDS. 532; the unhol- 
denperg near Passau occurs already in MB. 28 b , 170. 465. At 
the end of the Hilss, as thou nearest the Duier (Duinger) wood, 
is a mountain very high and bare, named uf den bloszen zellen, 
whereon it is given out that witches hold their dances on Wal- 
purgis night, even as on Mt Brocken in the Harz, Zeiler s 
Topogr. ducat. Brunsv. et Luneb. p. 97. Betw. Vorwalde and 
Wickensen (Brunswk) stands the witches mount Elias. Near 
Briinighausen is Kukesburg, already named in the Hildesh. dioces. 
circumscr., conf. Liinzel p. 31-8, which Grupen calls Kokesburg, 
named after the devil s kitchen. Witches hills in Holstein, and 
their trysts in N. Friesland, are in Mullenh. no. 288-9. A witch- 
rntn near Jiilchendorff, Mecklenbg, Lisch 5, 83 ; is Koilberg 
another? Gefk. Catal. 111. In Sommer pp. 56. 174 the 
Brocken is called Glockersberg. Similar places are the Franco- 
nian Pfetersberg near Marktbiirgel, and the Alsatian Biichelberg, 
conf. buhilesberc, puckelsberg, Graff 3, 135; for other trysts of 
witches in Elsass, see Alsatia 56, p. 283. Dwarfs as well as 
witches haunt the Heuberg or Hoperg, Ring 211 ; witches horses 
flew over Hoperg 234. In Tirol they meet on the Schlernkofel, 
Zingerle s Hexenproc. 37; seven more places are given in his 

Sitten 32 and Alpenburg 255. 262. In Bleking the Swed. 

trysting-place is called Jungfru-kullen, Wieselgr. 398; in fairy 
tales Bld-kulla or Heckenfjell, Cavallius 447-8. The vila holds 
her dance on the mountain-top (vr), vrzino kolo ; there also she 
initiates her pupils, Vuk sub v. vrzino kolo. fcesogora seu 
Bloksbarch, Ceynowa 13, exactly translates Kalenberg, fr. lysy 
bald, Linde 2, 1318-9. Finn, kipula or kippumdki, see Peterson 
p. 72-3 (Suppl. to 1046). In Moravia the witches meet on Mt 
Bddost, a Slavic mont-joie, Kulda. In Persia another name for 
Mt Demavend is Arezura, where daevas and wizards assemble, 
Spiegel s Avesta 2, cxiv. 

p. 1054.] In Vilk. cap. 328 rcerdi sin gand seems to mean 
rode into the air. There is a dwarf named Gand-alfr, Sasm. 2 b , 
and a valkyrja Gondul (p. 421). The Hachel rides on a wolf, 
King 230-7; witches fly on goats, 210-1. Matth. v. Kemnat 
names unholde and naclitliusser together ; does the word contain 
thusse, durse ? In Passion 4, 85 it says : daz ist ein naht-vole, 
den guoter werke tages-lieht lat gesehen wenec iht. The Vatns- 



MAGIC. 1621 

doela p. 106 cap. 26 thus descr. a sorceress and her extraordinary 
turn-out : ]?ar fer J?a Liot, ok hefir breitiliga urn sik bu.it, hun 
hafcSi rekit fotinn from yfir hofuffit, ok for ofug, ok retti hofaffit 
ut a miUum fotanna aptr ; ofagurligt var henuar aiignabragd, 
hversu hun gat J>vi trollsliga skotit. Verlauff s note p. 107 says, 
the (old) Gull]?oris saga cap. 17 descr. the similar figure cut by a 
sorceress, to dull the enemies weapons. 

p. 1061.] Troll-dances descr. in Afzelius 2, 158-9. A remark 
able story in Lisch s Meckl. jrb. 5, 83 tells of a giant giving a 
feast on a mountain, and thumbUngs dancing on the table before 
him; the rest is like other witch-stories. H. Sachs v. 343 OC 
says witches hold their dances and weddings on a great beech-tree. 
A musician comes upon a witches dance, and has to play to 

them, Firmen. 2, 383-4. AS. niht-genge, witch ; conf. naht- 

egese, naht-eise (note on Andr. xxxii) ; nacht-ridders, Br. Gher. 
715; nacht-volk, Vonbun p. 34-5. Wolf s Zts. 2, 53; glauben, 
die Kite des nachtes farn, Gef k. Beil. 24 ; ON. Natt-fari, a man s 
name, Landnam. 1, 1 ; varende vrauwen = witches, Belg. mus. 2, 
116. Br. Gher. 717; ausfahrerin, Judas erzsch. 2, 107; naht- 
-frawe in Mone 8, 408 means midwife ; nacht-frala is the plant 
mirabilis jalappa, belle de nuit, Castelli 205. The Thessalian 
witches also fly by night : $acrl Be avrrjv KOI TrerecrOai, r?}? VVKTOS, 
Lucian s Asin. 1. In Servia the magicians and their pupils 
travel with the vila. The unhuld fetches bottles of wine out of 
cellars, H. Sachs i. 5, 532 b . A story in Pertz 2, 741 of a pilosus 
who fills bottles. 

p. 1061.] Dase looks like AS. dwaes, fatuus ; but in Reinaert 
7329 dasen, insanire, rhymes with verdwasen, so it can hardly be 
the same word as dwasen. The Gemm. Antwerp, (in Hoffm. 
Hor. Belg. 7) has dase = peerts-vlieghe, hornet, and in the Mark 
they still speak of a dasen-schwarm, Schmidt v. Wern. 276-7. 
MHG. daesic hunt/ Frauenl. 368, 2. Heimdall is called Uornpyi- 
valdi, Seem. 92 b . 

p. 1064.] Other herb and flower names for the devil and for 
witches in Wolfs Zts. 2, 64. Schone is even OHG. : Sconea, a 
woman s name. Grasle, Kreutle, Rosenkrdnz, Keller s Brz. 195. 
The elfvor change into flowers or branches by day (Suppl. to 470 
beg.). Is not the devil also called Hagedorn, like the minstrel 
in Berthold 56 ? Is Linden-tolde (-top) a witch ? Ring 235. 



1622 MAGIC. 

The devil often makes a handsome figure : daemon adolescentis 
venusti speciem induens, Gees. Heisterb. 5, 36 ; hence the names 
Frisch, Spring -ins -f eld, Fledcr-wisck, Schlepp-hans (yr 1597), 
Thiir. mitth. vi. 3, 68-9. The sieben flederwische (goosewing 
dusters) ; are witches, Panz. Beitr. 1, 217; aller flederwische u. 
inaikafer-flugel gesundheit (health) ! Franz. Simpl. 1, 57. 49 ; 
hinaus mit den flederwischen ! Ung. apotheker 762. Other- 
names : Zucker, Paperle. Names of devils in the Alsfeld Passion- 
play are coll. in Hpt. 3, 484 493. 

p. 1069.] Witches take an oath to do the devil s will ; see in 
Geschichtsfreund 6, 246 the remarkable confession of a witch of 
Ursernthal (yr 1459). The devil s bride sits up in the tree with 
her kalt-samigen stink-briiutgam, Garg. 72 b ; devil and witch 
hold dance and wedding on trees and boughs, H. Sachs v. 343 bc . 
In records even of the 12th cent, occur such surnames as Oscu- 
lans diabolum, Basians daemonem, Demonem osculans, Bese 
diable/ Guerard s Prolegom. to the Cart, de Chartres p. xciv. 

What does osculans acnionem there mean ? Tres mulieres 

sortilegae Silvanectis captae, et per majorem et juratos justiciatae 
(yr 1282) ; the bishop claims that they belonged to his juris 
diction, Guer. Cart, de ND. 3, 341. And even before that: 
Judices tanquam malefimm et magum miserunt in ignem, Caes. 
Heist. 4, 99; this was at Soest, beginn. of 12th cent. In Eng 
land : Proceedings against dame Alice Kyteler, prosec. for sorcery 
1324 by Eich. de Ledrede bp. of Ossory, ed. by Th. Wright, 
Lond. 43, Camd. Soc. xlii. and 61. A strega of 1420, who 
turned into a cat, Reber s Hemmerlin p. 248. About the same 
time Wolkenstein p. 208 says of old women : 

zauberei und kupel-spiel, 

das inachen si nit teuer (not scarce) ; 

es wird doch ie eine versert 

mit einem heissen feuer. 

Yilfewers zu ! ist der beste rat (plan)/ thinks Matth. v. Kemnat 
p. 117; while on the contrary H. Sachs 1, 532 e saw clearly that 

des teufels eh und reuterei (weddings and ridings) 

ist nur gespenst und fantasei (mere dreams) ; 

das bock-faren kumpt aus misglauben (superstition). 



MAGIC. 1623 

An Engl. treatise on Witches and Witchcraft by G. Gifford 

1603 has been reprinted for the Percy Soc. 42. The burning 

and strewing of the ashes is found as early as Rudl. 6,, 49 : Rogo 
ine comburatis, in aquam cinerem jaciatis. Forum, sog. 2, 163 : 
Klauf hanri j?a por i skrSur einar, lag^i i eld, ok brendi at osku, 
srSan fekk hann ser log nokkurn, kastafti ]?ar a oskunni, ok gerSi 
af graut, J?ann grant gaf hann blauffum hundum (al. grey hundum); 
conf. supra (p. 189). 

p. 1075.] The witch holds up her left hand in taking the oath 
to the devil,, Geschichtsfr. 6, 246. On the nature of the mark 
printed on her by the devil, see Moneys Anz. 8, 124-5. The 
Greeks too believed that the Thessalian sorceresses anointed 
themselves with a salve, Lucian s Asin. 12-3. Apuleius p. m. 
116-7; vil kunnen salben den kubel (tub), das si obnan ausfarn 
(fly out at the top), Yintler (Sup. G, 1. 180). A witch is called 
fork-rider, Garg. 47 a ; she rides calves and cows to death (p. 1048 
mid.) ; she has wings, Miillenh. p. 212. The witch s or sorcerer s 
flight through the air is the god s ri&a lopt ok log (air and fire) ; 
conf. the skipper and his man sailing on water, air and land, 

Miillenh. p. 222. In the midst of the witches the Devil sits 

on SL pillar ( = irmensul), Moneys Anz. 8, 130; he sits with them 
on the tree, holds dance and wedding on trees and boughs (Suppl. 
to 1069 beg.). There are banquets of witches, as there are of 
fays : their viands are tasteless as rotten timber, or they suddenly 
change to muck; so all the food the Huldre brings turns into 
cow s dung, Asb. Huldr. 1, 49. 51. Sometimes the devil plays 
the drone-pipe, Thiir. mitth. vi. 3, 70. With the young witch 
set to mind the toads, conf. the girl and three toads in Lisch s 

Jrb. 5, 82. Witches turn the milk, skim the dew, lame the 

cattle, and brew storms. The mischief is chiefly aimed at the 
corn-fields and cattle (p. 1106) : they draw milk out of a knife, 
Asb. Huldr. 1,176. Wolfs Zts. 2, 72. Miillenh. p. 222; they 
stretch a string, and milk out of it, Mone 8, 131, or cut a chip 
out of the stable-door for the same purpose 5, 452-3 ; they milk 
out of an awl or the neck (handle-hole) of an axe, Keisersb. 
Omeiss 54% illustr. by a woodcut ; the senni milks out of four 
taps in the wall, Fromm. 2, 565. Witches make butter by churning 
water with a stick, Miillenh. p. 224; they filch people s milk fr. 
them/ M. Beham in Mone 4, 454 ; they are called molken-tover, 



162-1 MAGIC. 

Mone s Schausp. 2, 74 (Upstandinge 1116) ; conf. App., Spell 
xxxvii : Up thro 5 the clouds and away, Fetch me lard and milk 
and whey ! Witches gather dew, to get people s butter away, 
Miillenh. p. 565; conf. AS. dedw-drias, Caedm. 3795 (Bout.), 
GreinlOl; towe daz gelesen wirt (gathered dew), Notk. Cap., 

conf. thau-schlepper, tau-dragil (p. 786). They darn peace or 

no peace into the bridal bed ; they plait discord in, by plaiting 
the pillow-feathers into wreaths and rings, Miillenh. p. 223. 
Hence the tales about the old wife that s worse than the devil : 
1 in medio consistit virtus, like the devil between two old wives/ 
Garg. 190 b . An old woman having caused a loving couple to fall 
out, the devil was so afraid of her that he reached her the pro 
mised pair of shoes at the end of a stick. Witches nemen den 
mannen ir gseln, M. Beham in Moiie 4, 451. Grasping, beating, 
stroking, blowing, breathing, eyeing are attrib. to witches (p. 

1099), as they are to healing women. In their magic they use the 

hands of unborn babes, Fastn. sp. p. 1349. Thieves cut the thumb 
off an unborn child, and light it : as long as it burns, every one 
in the house sleeps ; spinam humani cadaveris de tecto peudunt, 
and nobody wakes, Cses. Heist. 6, 10 ; du haddest ok ens deves 
dumen bavene henghen an de tunne is said to the cheating inn 
keeper, Moneys Schausp. 2, 87 (a thief taken at Berlin in 1846 
had a green herb sewed into her petticoat, her herb of luck she 
called it) ; ungemeilit kint [unbetrothed ?] are employed in sorcery, 
Ksrchr. 2102. 2590; conf. lecta ex struct is ignibus ossa/ Lacb- 
mann s emend, of Prop. iv. 5, 28. It is thought that the alb 
(nightmare) cometh of untimely births, M. Beham in Mone 4, 
450. These are divided into black, white and red (Hpt. 4, 389), 
which seems to support my division of elves into black, light and 

brown. The caterpillar devil s cat (Staid. 1, 276) reminds one 

of katze-spur, a hairy caterp. so called in the Palatinate ; conf. 
Kuss. gusenitza, Pol. wasienca, Boh. hausenka, Langued. diablotin; 
ON. brondungr, variegata, Swed. kalmask. The butterfly is 
called pfeif -mutter , Schm. 1, 30, jifun-trager, Alb. Schott 291 ; 
conf. pipolter, fifolter. The witch is delivered of will o wisps, 

Thiir. rnitth. vi. 3, 69. Witches carry magic in their hair, 

therefore we cut it off: this already in M. Beham s Wien p. 274; 
conf. the weichselzopfe (plica Pol.). The witch chains her lover, 
the devil, with yam, spun in a churchyard, Thiir. mitth, vi. 3, 70. 



MAGIC. 1625 

Witches float on water, as Go^run says of herself: hofo mik, 
ne drekffo havar baror/ Seem. 267 a ; f hon matti eigi socqva she 
might not sink 265. The unsightly German witch is paralleled 
by the Finn. Pohjan akka harvahammas (thin-toothed), Kalev. 
2, 187. 205. 5, 135. 

p. 1077.] Heathen features are the witches consumption of 
horseflesh or even man s flesh, also their dislike of bells. With 
the witch s blood-mark, and with Death s mark, conf. stakins 
(o-rij/uLara) Fraujins ana leika bairan, Gal. 6, 17. It is remark 
able that a witch cannot weep ; she has watery eyes, but sheds 
?io tears. In the Tirol. Inquis. (Pfaundler p. 43) : sie sprotzt 
mit den augen, weint ohne thrdnen. Exactly the same is said of 
Thock : Thock mun grata frurrum tarum (with dry tears) Baldrs 
balfarar. Here the witch answers to the giantess. 

p. 1080.] To lie under a harrow defends you fr. the devil : 
stories in Miillenh. no. 290. Firmen. 1, 206 b . He that puts a 
piece of turf on his head will not be seen by witches, Panz. Beitr. 
1, 240-1. Wearing Gundermann s garland makes you see 
witches, Somm. p. 58. The priest can tell witches by their round 
hats, Ceynowa p. 14. 

p. 1082.] Pol. iedzona means old witch, eater of men, esp. of 
children ; conf. iedza, a fury. Wicked women with white livers 
are also known in France, white-livered men in Schambach 123 a . 
Witches poke straw into the heart s place : per i briosti liggr 
halmvisk, j?ar er hiartat skyldi vera, Fornm. s. 2, 208 ; Walther 
Strdwinherz, Schreiber s Frib. urk. 2, 161. In Petron. c. 63 : 
strigae puerum involaverant, et supposuerant stramentitium vava- 
tonem ; and just before : videt manuciolum de stramentis factum. 
At a witches feast, boys were usually killed, boiled or roasted, 
and eaten up ; which reminds us of heathen practices, and those 
of giants. Such killing, cooking, and eating of children is an 
antique, and vital feature, KM. nos. 15. 51-6, conf. supra (pp. 
1045 end. 1058 60). Kettle and cooking are a part of magic. 

p. 1083.] A beast crawls into the sleeping woman s mouth 
Wolf s Ndrl. sag. 250, and note p. 688 ; or a snake creeps out of 
it, Walach. march, p. 103. A white mouse slips into the dead 
man s mouth, Somm. p. 46 ; but alas, in the midst of her song 
a red mousie popt out of her mouth, Faust p. m. 165 ; a bee flies 
out of one s mouth, Schreib. Taschenb. 4, 308. As the white 



1&26 MAGIC. 

mouse runs up the rampart in Fischart s play, so witches indoors 

run up the wall to the rafters, Process v. Ursernthal. With 

the iron bridge of king Gunthram s dream, conf. the sword-bridge 
in the Rcm. de la charrette pp. 23. 84 (Suppl. to 835). When 
the witch is setting out, she lays a broom or a halm of straw in 
the bed by her sleeping husband, Mone 8, 126. With OHG. 
irprottan, tranced, connect ( inbrodin lac/ Lachm. Ndrrhein. ged. 
p. 9, and in htinnebruden gelegen/ Reim dich p. 52. Our 
entziickt is in MELG. gezucket anuie geiste/ Diut. 1, 466; als in 
zuckete der geist, Uolr. 1331. We also say rapt, caught up, 
carried away/ 

p. 1083.] With the Servian starting-spell agree the Moravian, 
Kulda in D Elvert 92-3. German formulas in Mone 8, 126. 
Panzer 1, 251. Miillenh. no. 291. Lisch s M. jrb. 5, 85. With 
them compare : oben hinaus, nirgens a.n ! Callenb. Wurmld (?) 86 ; 
hui oben aus, und niergend an, Agricola s Spr. 217. Kl. red. 
(? 1565) 113 a ; hei op hei an, stott nernich an, N. Preuss. prov. bl. 
1, 229. The cry of pursuit is in Schonw. ], 139; so Aschen- 
piister (Cinderella) cries : behind me dark, before me bright ; 
Scand. lyst foran, og morkt bag, Norske event. 1, 121; ljust for 
mig, morkt efter mig, Sv. afvent. 1, 410. 427; hvidt fremun, og 
sort bag, Abs. 421. But her op og herned til Monsaas } } Asb. 
Huldr. 1, 179, is another thing. An Engl. spell for faring to 
Elfland is: horse and haUock ! with my top! 3 Scot. bord. 2, 
177-8. Volund s speech : vel ek, verSa ek a fitjoni ! is appar. 

a flight-formula, for he soars up iramed. after, Saem. 138 a . 

When a sorceress anoints her shoulders, wings sprout out, Stier s 
Ungr. march, p. 53. Faust uses a magic mantle to fly up ; conf. 
the remarkable tale of a dwarf who spreads out his cloak, and 
lets a man stand on it with him, H. Sachs i. 3, 280 bc . 

p. 1085.] The good people (p. 456) cut themselves horses out 
of switches, Erin 1, 136. The magic steed must be bridled with 
bast, or it runs away, Reusch p. 23-4. In Pacolet s wooden horse 
one has only to turn the tap to right or left, Val. et Orson c. 26 
(Nl. c. 24). A hose-band tied round the shank lifts into the air, 
Eliz. of Orl. 505. 

p. 1086.] The German witches too are hindered in their ex 
cursions by the sound of bells. If they are late in coming home, 
and the matin -peal rings out from a church, their career stops as 



MAGIC. 1627 

if paralysed, till the last tone has died away. The witch abuses 
the bell, Panz. Beitr. 1, 20. 

p. 1089.] Carmine grandines avertere, is as old as Pliny 17,, 
28. Hail being in grains, it is strewn out by bushelfuls : TT}? 
Xa\d&s ocrov ^ifjLvoi^l\ioi Siao-KeSaaOrjTcocrav, Lucian s Icarom. 
1 You hail-boiler ! is a term of abuse, Mone s Schausp. 2, 
274. German witches scatter a powder with cries of alles schauer, 
alles sehauer ! The day before Walburgis night, a merry cobbler 
mocked his maid : e Take me with you to Peter s mount ! When 
evening fell, there came a storm, nigh shook his doors and 
shutters down; well knew the cobbler what it meant. The 
Esths know how to produce cold : if you set two jugs of beer 
or water before them, one will freeze and not the other; see 
Wulfstan s journey. The weather must be well boiled : if the pot 
is emptied too soon, your labour is lost, Mone 8, 129. 130. The 
Kalmuks have the same kind of weather-making, Klemm 3, 204. 

Witches boil apple- blossoms, to spoil the fruit crop, Mone 8, 

129. Dull on the fir-tree pours out hail, Panzer 1, 20. Says an 
old woman dripping wet, I ve had this weather in my back this 
fortnight/ When the huntsman heard that, he struck her over 
the hump with a stick, and said, Why couldn t you let it out 
sooner then, old witch as you are? Simplic. 1, 287. Witches 
make stones roll (ein riibi gan) into the hay and corn fields ; also 
avalanches, Proc. v. Ursernthal 245 8. The shower-maidens feed 
on beshowered (lodged) corn, Panzer 1, 88. Hence Ph. v. Sittew. 
and the Fr. Simpl. 1, 53. 68 call the witch < old weather ; elsewh. 
she is hagel-anne, donnerhagels-aas (-carrion), 7 Ehen p. 78; 
shower-breeder, fork-greaser. Witches are weather-makers, Wolf s 
Ndrl. s. 289. A witch drops out of the cloud, Bader nos. 337. 
169. The Servian vila leads clouds (vode oblake) and makes 
weather, Vuk sub v. vrzino kolo ; she teaches her pupils the art. 
Our Germ, phrase, the old wives shake out their petticoats = it 
snows, suggests the Wallachian witch who throws off her petti 
coats. The Indians of Surinam say their sorcerers have thunder 
storms, violent showers and hail at their command, Klemm 2, 

168. The 0. Fr. poets name heathen kings f roi Gaste-ble, } 

Guillaume 4, 179. 256 and f roi Tempeste, 4, 257. 26; conf. 
Matzner 257 and Tampaste in Wolfram s Wh. 27, 8 (rhym. with 
Faussabre for Fauche-pre, or ble ?) 46, 20. 344, 7. 371, 3. 442, 



1628 MAGIC. 

39. A Thessalian sorceress fetches the moon down from the 
sky, and shuts her up in a box, Aristoph. Clouds 749. At 
vos, deductce quibus est fallacia lunce, Propert. i. 1, 19; tune 
ego crediderim vobis et aider a et amnes posse cytacseis ducere 
carminibus i. 1, 23; illic et sidera primum praecipiti deduct a polo, 
Phoebeque serena non aliter diris verborum obsessa venenis 
palluit, Lucan. Phars. 6, 496; cantus et e curru lunam deducere 
tentat, et faceret si non aera repulsa sonent, Tib. i. 8, 21 ; hanc 
ego de coelo ducentem sidera vidi, i. 2, 45 ; te quoque, Luna, 
tralio, Ov. Met. 7, 207; in hac civitate, in qua mulieres et lunam 
deducunt, Petr. c. 129. 

In Esthonia the witches knead stalks of rye together, and re 
peat a spell over them ; unless the knots are soon found out and 
burnt, the crop is sure to fail, Possart p. 164, conf. 162. 

p. 1091.] In transforming, the sorcerer touches with his staff: 
pd{3Sq> eTrindffa-evOcu, Od. 13, 429, conf. 16, 172. Venus touches 
the mouth of Ascanius with her feather, En. 802 ; and Dido 
catches it (the magic) from his lips 815. Mice are made out of 
fallen pears, but without tails, Firmen. 1, 276 b ; conf. the red 
mouse (Suppl. to 1083 beg.). Young puppies made, Simpl. 2, 
296-7 (ed. Keller), conf. 328. Ace. to Renvall, I jar a is the Finn. 
para, genius rei pecuariae lac subministrans ; conf. Lencquist 
De superst. 1, 53. Castren 167-8. Ganander s Myth. Fenn. 67, 
even Juslenius sub v. para. In Angermanl. it is called bjara, 
Almqv. p. 299 ; in Vesterbotten, see Unauder sub v. bara ; the 
Gothl. vocab. in Almqv. p. 415 describes it as smatroll med tre 
ben. Esths make a homesprite out of an old broom, Verh. 2, 89 ; 
did Goethe take his Apprentice fr. Lucian s Philops. 35-6 (Bipont. 
7, 288) ? Even a man is made out of wood, and a heart put in 
side him ; he walks about and kills, Fornm. s. 3, 100. 

p. 1093.] Wax-figures were placed on doors, at cross-roads, 
and on the graves of parents, Plato De legg. 11, 933 ; in another 
passage (of Plato?) Anacharsis speaks of Thessal. sorceresses 
and their wax-figures ; the waxen image of Nectanebus, Callisth. 
p. m. 6. At a synod of 1219 Archbp Gerhard of Bremen con 
demns the Stedingers as heretics, charging them with quaerero 
responsa daemonum, cereas imagines facere, aphitonissis requirere 
consilium, et alia nefandissima tenebrarum exercere opera/ Su- 
dendfs Registr. 2, 158; quaerunt responsa daemonum, cerea 



MAGIC. 1629 

simulacra faciunt, et in suis spurcitiis erroneas consulunt phito- 
nissas/ Bull of Greg. 9 (1233), ibid. 2, 168. On wax-figures, see 

Osuabr. verb. 3, 71. M. Lat. invultuor, praestigiator qui ad 

artes magicas vultus effingit ; invultare, fascinare, Fr. envoulter, 
Ducange sub vv. invultare, vultivoli. They tried to copy the 
features of the man they were going to bewitch in the wax or 
clay puppet ; they solemnly baptized it, gave it sponsors, and 
anointed it. When they pricked it with a needle, the man felt 
a sharp pain ; if they pricked the head or heart, he died. They 
tried to have an Easter candle out of the church, to do the work 
by. Sticking needles into a wax-figure occurs in Kemble s 
Chartae, Pref. lix. lx., and the story in Mullenh. p. 233 ; conf. 
imago argentea (Suppl. to 1175 end). Ferebatur imaginem quan- 
dam ad instar digiti, ex Egipto adlatam, adorare j a qua quotiens 
responsa quaerebat, necesse erat homicidium aut in summo festo 
adulterium procurare ; conf. Pertz 10, 460 and the thief s thumb 

(Suppl. to 1075 end). Cutting out the f oof print answers to 

Trjpelv TO t^vo? Kal a/juavpovVj vestigium observare et delere (blur), 
by planting one s right foot on the other s left print, and 
one s left on his right, and saying : eTrifieprjfcd croi, /cat, virepdvw 
el/jii, conscendi te, et superior sum ! Lucian s Dial, meretr. 4. 
GDS. 137. 

Things that make invisible are : the tarn-helm (p. 463), the 
bird s nest (Suppl. to 974), the right-hand tail-feather of a cock 
(to 671 mid.), fern-seed (p. 1210), the ring, rather the stone in 
the ring (p. 911), Troj. 9203. 9919, and the sonnenwedel (helio 
trope) laid under a stone, Mone 8, 614. 

p. 1097.] Pliny 8, 34 : Homines in lupos verti rursumque 
restitui sibi, falsum esse existimare debemus. Unde tamen ista 
vulgo infixa sit fama, in tantum ut in maledictis versipelles habeat, 
indicabitur. An OHG. name W&riwolf occurs already in the 9th 
cent., Hpt 12, 252, and in Samland the name War wolf. A wer- 
ivolfin H. Sachs ii. 4, 16 C , meerwolf, beer wolf in Ettn. Unw. doct. 
671. Werwatz (watz = brood- hog) is a family name at Drei- 
eichenhain; is it formed like werwolf? Loups garous, Bosquet 

p. 223 seq. To change yourself into a fox, wolf or cat, you 

use an ointment, Proc. v. Ursernth. ; or shift the buckle of a 
certain strap to the ninth Iwle, Eeusch in Preuss. prov. bl. 36, 
436 and 23, 127. GDS. 152 ; conf. the old leather strap, 

VOL. IV. A A 



1630 MAGIC. 

Firmen. 1, 213. People with a wolf-girdle are ulf-hefftiar : is 
that conn, with our lieiden, lieiden-wolf for unbaptized child, in 

Waldeck heid-oHelten ? Papollere 60, p. 8. By putting a slip 

of wood (spruoccolo) in one s mouth, one becomes a she-bear, 
and man again on taking it out, Pentam. 2, 6. If you dash 
grass against the stem of a tree, wolves spring out of it, 
Remigii Daernonol. (1598) pp. 152. 162. Sigefridus dictus wolf- 
vel, MB. 1, 280, but woluel (Wolfel ?) 8, 458. The gods send 
Idun a wolfskin : vargs-belg seldo, let ifaraz, lyndi breitti, Saem. 

89 a . Were-wolf stories in Miillenh. nos. 317 320. Firmen. 

1, 363. 332. 212-3. Lekensp. 2, 91-2. ON. i varg-skinns olpu, 
Fornm. s. 10, 201 (olpa, ulpa = toga, vestis). A were-wolf may 
be known by a wolfs-zagelchen (-tail) betw. the shoulder-blades, 
Keusch no. 75 and note; by a little ran gen wolfs-zagel grow 
ing out of the back betw. the shoulders, Preuss. prov. bl. 26, 435. 
117. 172. 

p. 1098.] The witch appears as a fox, Schreib. Taschenb. 4, 
309 ; as a three-legged hare, Somm. Sag. 62 ; as a kol-svort ketta, 
Fornm. s. 3, 216. 220. Sv. forns. 1, 90 seq. Men protest : by 
catten, die te dansen pleghen tswoendaghs ! Belg. mus. 2, 116. 
If a girl has fed the cat well, the sun shines on her wedding-day, 
1ST. Preuss. prov. bl. 3, 470. Good stories of witches in Miillenh. 
pp. 212 6; also that of the cat s paw being chopt off, its turning 
into a pretty female hand, and the miller next morning missing 
it on his wife, 227; and that of the witch who is ridden as a 
horse, who is taken to the farrier s to be shod, and lies in bed 
in the morning with horse-shoes on her hands and feet 226. 600. 
Mone 8, 182. So in Petron. c. 62 a were-wolfhas been wounded 
in the neck ; presently a ( miles is found in bed, having his 
neck doctored : intellexi ilium versipellem esse, nee postea cum 
illo panem gustare potui. The ofreskr in the evening sees a bull 
and a bear fighting ; the next day two men lie wounded in bed, 

L indn. 5, 5. Transformation into a bear or fox, a swan or 

raven, is frequent. In Walewein 5598 : tenen vos verbreJcen ; 
and 785 : versciep hem. Er entwarf sich zu, he changed into, 
Myst. 1, 214, etc. A bride turns into a swan, Miillenh. p. 212 ; 
a man becomes a hawk or falcon, and comes flying to the tower, 
Marie 1, 280, conf. 292. Women often change into toads : wesen 
ene padde, en sitten onder die sille, Walew. 5639 ; gienge ich als 



MAGIC. 1631 

ein krete gat, u. solde bi eime zune gan, Herb. 8364. 1 must 

here remark, that verffa at goltiim in ON. tales does not mean 
turning into a swine, but running about wild like a boar, Yer- 
lauff on Vatnsd. p. 106-7. The magicians and enchantresses in 
our fairytales often change men into wolves, bears, cats, dogs or 
swine ; the witches of a later time have no longer the power. 
Circe s formula, when turning men into swine by a stroke of 
her rod, was : epyeo vvv crvfaovSe, Od. 10, 320. The Lapland 
sorcerers send bears, wolves, foxes, ravens, to do mischief to 
men : such beast is then called tille, Lindahl 474 a . 

It is a different thing when two persons exchange figures. This ON. 
skipta litum or homum, skipta litom ok latom, vixla litum is appar. 
effected by mere will, without spell or clothing, e.g. betw. Sigurd 
and Gunnar, Saem. 177-8. 202-3. Vols. sag. c. 27, betw. Signy 
and the sorceress, Vols. 7. It happens esp. among born brothers, 
who are so like as to be taken for one another ; but in the 
Nib. 337, 3. 429, 3. 602, 2 by the tarnhut which makes in 
visible. In the same way the wrong wife or lover is smuggled 
into bed at night, as Brangaene for Isot, conf. Berthe au grand 
pied and the Fabliau of the hair-cutting. A later and coarser 
version of this is the mere exchange of clothes. 

p. 1099.] Magic lies in the nails : des zoubers ort-habe (seat) 
ligt an den nagelen, Geo. 57 b . Magic is fixed in the hair : con 
sider the elf-lock, elf-knot (p. 464) ; witches have all the hair 
shaved off them, see story in Klemm 2, 168. M. Beheim 273, 
26. 274, 7. Magic is taken out of the hair, Wolfdietr. 548; 

conf. wolfs hair above. Magic can make us proof against 

sword and bullet, shot and stroke ; e.g. by a thread of silk, EA. 
183. One so made proof is called & frozen man, Ettn. Unw. doct. 
641. 653. 683, iron man, ON. harcF-giorr, poison-proof, Ssero. 170; 
Kyrtil bitu eigi iarn, Landn. 2, 7. 3, 4. The wound-spelt makes 
invulnerable ; but it can be neutralized by first hiding a knife 
in the ground and then wounding with it : this is called unloosing 
the spell, H. Sachs v. 34 7 C (conf. digging something in for a 
man/ iii. 3, 7 d ), and the exorcist banntuch-macher, hart-macher, 
GutslaPs Wohh. 207. 337. Othello 3, 4 has a magic kerchief 
wrought by a sibyl : the worms were hallowed that did breed 
the silk/ A St. George s shirt is made of yarn that was spun on 
a Saturday, Superst. G, v. 182. 



1632 MAGIC. 

p. 1100.] Witches are accused of grasping, stroking, dazzling: 
she made a dutch at me that will last as long as I live/ Bod- 
mann s Rheingau p. 425, yr 1511 ; or ein boser angriff, boser 
schlag, herz-griff. They tread the cattle ; they bringen einen 
wehthum zu halse, they learn you what dazing (hoodwinking) 
means, Bodm. Eh. 908, yr 1505. Magic is wrought by rubbing : 
the rubbing of wood brings forth a squirrel, of chips a marten, 
of leaves a bee, of feathers a flight of grouse, of wool a flock of 
sheep, Kalev. 13, 160. 220. 280. 17, 328. 467 ; conf. the marchen 
of the three brothers, who rub feathers, hair and scales, and 

immed. eagles, bears and fish come to their aid. Widely 

spread is the belief in the magic of the eye, Grenzboten 60, no. 
26. B\/j,fjia } avaTrvor) and 0(/>#aXyii09 jBda-tcavos are already in 
Plutarch s Sympos. v. 7; nescio quis teneros oculus mihi fascinat 
agnos, Virg. Eel. 3, 108. Engl. evil eye, Ir. the balar, Conan 
p. 32 ; the blink o an ill ee, Hone s Dayb. 2, 688. His diebus 
ei (Chilperico) filius natus est, quern in villa Victoriacensi nutrire 
praecepit, dicens ne forte, dum publice uidetur, aliquid mali in- 
currat et moriatur, Greg. Tur. 6, 41. MHG. twerhe ougen. On 
the evil eye, see N. Pr. prov. bl. 1, 391 3 ; der blick slangen 
toetet, wolve schrecket, struz-eiger (ostrich-eggs) bruetet, uzsatz 
(leprosy) erwecket, u. ander krefte hat gar vil, Renn. 18016; 
men spit in a pretty girl s face for fear of the evil eye, Ir. march. 
2, 64. 

p. 1101.] Sa ze hant ir roter munt einen tusent stunt (times) 
so schoenen (rosen, underst.) lachet, MS. 1, ll a . The name 
Rosenlacher is in Michelsen s Lub. oberh. 271. Baur s Arnsb. 
158; conf. f ad Euozinlachan/ Notizbl. 6, 68. To laugh roses," 
Athen. 5, 498. It is derived fr. heathen beings of light, Mann- 
hdt s Germ, mythen 149. 439; camillen-bluomen strouwen, swen 
so lieplich lachen wil ir munt, MSH. 3, 212 h . 

p. 1102.] A kiss makes you forget everything, Miillenh. p. 
400. Peutam. Liebr. 1, 231 ; so does a bite of the apple, Norske 
folke-ev. 2, 47. Helen, like Grimhild, makes a magic potion, 
mingling spices with the wine, Od. 4, 220 230 ; so does Circe 
10, 235. The Faroese still call the draught of oblivion ouminni, 
Qvad. p.. 178. 180. The Servians make their voda zaboravna of 
mountain-herbs, Vuk 2, 612-3. Conf. <j)i\Tpov, love-potion; 
mein-blandinn mioftr, Vols. saga c. 25 ; scheidel-tranc gebruwen, 



SUPERSTITION. 1633 

Amgb. 15 a . Incendia inter epulas nominata aquis sub mensis 
profusis ab-ominamur, Pliny 28, 2. 

p. 1103.] Silence is a safeguard against magic: Saxo s ne 
incauto e/amine maleficiis locum instruerent (p. 659). Incanta 
tions are in Serv. urotzi, gen. uroka, Boh. aurok, conf. Jungm. 
sub v. ne-urocny, ne-uroka [reku, I speak]. The Slav, formula 
against bewitching is kamen-mira [stone of peace?]; conf. 
seines zeichens, ihres zeichens, Schmidt s Westerw. id. 335, and 
the phrases : salva venia ! God forefend (save the mark) ! 
When a man looks startled, the Serv. formula is : zatchudio-se 
prebiyenoi golieni/ he s amazed at his broken leg, Vuk sub v. 
zatchuditi-se, and Sprichw. p. 87. When something painful or 
mischievous is said, the answer is : u nashega tchabra gvozdene 

ushi/ our tub has iron ears (handles), Sprichw. p. 334. On 

spitting as a protection from magic, see Schwenk s Rom. myth. 
399. The cyclop, when admiring his own beauty, spits in his lap 
three times, to avoid baskania : o>? ^ ftaa-KavQco Se, T/H? et? 
fibv eirrvaa Ko\7rov ravra jap apyald /Me Korvrrapi? e feS/- 
Safev, Theocr. 6, 39. The cock-pigeon spits on its young to keep 
off sorcery, Athen. 3, 456-8 ; et eum morburn mini esse, ut qui 

me opus sit insputarier ? Plaut. Capt. iii. 4, 21. An ear of 

corn protects from magic : ays vi$ fiolkyngi, Seem. 27 b . In the 
threshold of the house-door you bore a hole, put in hallowed hevbs, 
and peg them in with a harrow s tooth, Mone 6, 460 (p. 1078). 
Throw & fire- steel over anything ghostly, and you are master of it, 
Dybeck 44, 1046; conf. the power of the eld-sttil over the 
giant, Cavall. 1, 39; ild-s-taalet, Folke-ev. 2, 82; a, flint-eld is 
struck over the cow, Dyb. 4, 27 and over enchantresses 4, 29 ; OF 
a knife is flung 44, 63. 4, 33. A magic circle is drawn : gladio 
circa illos circulum fecit, monens sub internal natione mortis, ut 
infra circulum se cohiberent, Caes. Heist. 5, 4. 0>n Indian, sorcery,, 
conf. Ceutral-blatt 53, 255. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 
SUPERSTITION. 



p. 1105.] Gr. SeiaiBaifjiayv superstitious, fiGMMSan/jiovia super 
stition. Tac. Germ. 45 speaks of the superstitio of the Aestyans. 
Pott 1, 157 derives the word fr. stare super,, to sfcmd by, or before 



1634 SUPEESTITION. 

the god or altar. Wend, viera faith, priviera, psiviera super 
stition [Russ. suye-verie]. With the Swed. vidske-pelse agrees 
in part the OHG. unscaf superstitio, unscaflihho superstitiose, 
Graff 6, 453 ; there are also unpiderpi 5, 219 and ulirfenkida, Gl. 
Sletst. 25, 327 both = superstitio ; ubarwintelingun superstitiose, 
Moneys Anz. 35, 89. AS. ofertaele superstitiosus, Lye. Later 
words: geloubeUn, Krolewitz 3753; swacher gloube, ungeloube, 
Er. 8122-39. We have also Iwhler-glaube, collier s faith, and in 
the Quickborn h oner-globe. Superstitiones religionis rubigines, 
Garg. 187 a . On superstition, see Nilsson 6, 3. Hes. Opp. 705 
826. 

p. 1105 n.] Klemrn 3, 201-3 divides magic into explorative 
and active. A foretoken, presage, is in Lat. portentum from 
portendo, ostentum from ostendo, monstrum from monstro 
[rnoneo?], Cic. Div. 1, 42 and Forcellini ; prodigia coelestia, 
prope quotidianas in urbe agrisque ostentantia minas, Livy 2, 42. 
QILG.fora-pouchan, fore-beacon, fora-zeichan, foretoken; btzeichen, 
Windb. Ps. 323. 367. Signs appear before the Judgment-day, 
bef. a death, a dearth, a war. To curse all signs, Hebel 332. 

p. 1107.] OHG. drewa oraculum, droa fulmen, Graff 5, 246. 
AS. hwdt omen, divinatio, also hwdtung, OHG. hvdz (p. 951), 
conf. hwdtend iris (p. 1216 n.) ; fagel-hwdte divinatio per aves. 
AS. hwetton hige, hael scedwedon (on the voyage), Beow. 407 ; 
OHG. heil- scowung e augurium, Graff 6, 556 ; hel-scouwinge, Par- 
tonop. 20, 13 ; heilge scowede augurium, Sumerl. 2, 41 ; hel- 
scowinge, Bilderdyk s "Verscheidenh. 3, 143. Frauenl. p. 142 
uses Imnden for prognosticate. Again Tfiesen, choose = look out 
for (in ref. to weather, Gramm. 4, 848), conf. Swed. tjusa (p. 
1037). Children esp. are used in divination and casting lots; 
conf. pure children, Superst. H, cap. 55-6-7. 83. 

p. 1 107.] A remarkable method of acquiring the gift of divi 
nation occurs in the Swed. ars-g&ng, Hpt s Ztschr. 4, 508 seq. 
Both that and the power of healing are passed on from women to 
men, from men to women, conf. Firrnen. 1, 318. Sommer s Sagen 
p. 171. As in Superst. I, 996, so in Miillenh. 399 the gift of 
spirit-seeing is transferred by treading on the left foot and 
looking over the right shoulder. Prevision is the faculty of 
presentiment intensified to actual seeing and hearing : a foreseer, 
forepeeper beholds funerals, armies in march, battles, also unim- 



SUPERSTITION. 1635 

portant tilings, such as a harvest- wagon that will upset in the 
yard in ten years time, the figures and clothing of servants yet 
unborn who are lifting him off the ground, the marks on a foal 
or calf that shies to one side ; he hears the tap of the hammer on 
coffin lids, or the tramp of horse. These vorkiekers always 
perceive with only one sense, either sight or hearing : they cannot 
hear what they see, nor see what they hear. They are -witch- 
seers, god-seers, devil-seers. In ON. a ghost-seer is ofreskr, 

Landn. 3, 14. 4, 12. 5, 5 (p. 344); or does { ofreskir menn sii 
)?at in these passages mean that even o-fresk men could see 
it ? for Biorn Haldorson (sub vv. freskr, ofreskr) maintains that 
freskr is the seer, and ofreskr the non-seer; which seems right 
enough, provided that freskr means cat-sighted, from fres (felis). 
Our nursery-tales tell of these cat-eyed men with an eye for 
mice, KM. 3 3, 198; then there is the giant who gets cat s eyes 
put into his head. Another term is fronsk, som natten til en 
hoitids dag, isar Jule-natt, kan forud-sige det til-kommende, 
Molb. Dial. lex. 138. Frem-syn is to be acquired by smearing 
with rilsormsod, or by looking at a funeral procession through 
a skagle-oiet, Moe s note. 

p. 1109.] On sieve-running, see Miillenh. no. 272. Tett. and 
Tern. Preuss. sag. p. 284. Erbe-sib crispula, a plant s name, 
Sumerl. 56, 37. To detect the thief, a hoop is driven, Panzer s 
Beitr. 1, 210 ; three plates are laid for him, containing bread, salt 
and lard, Hpt 7, 538 ; dishes shaken, and froth observed, Tett. 
and Temm. p. 260. Bait. stud. xii. 1, 37-8; when in a sword 
he sees the stolen thing/ Troj. kr. 27412 (the sword holds in it a 
spirit, Frauenl. p. 142-3 : ich hate in eime swerte von aventiure 
einen geist, daz er mir solde Mnden). Prophesying from icicles, 
Panzer 2, 549; by throwing a Bible open (an early practice), 
Greg. Tur. 4, 16. 

p. 1110.] The lot is cast : leton tan wisian ]?a se tan gehwearf 
Andr. 1099. The temere ac fortuito spargere 3 of Tacitus is 
like ON. ( hrista teina, to shake the twigs, as in Saem. 52 a : 
hristo teina, ok a hlaut sa. M.Neth. si ivorpen cauelen, Jesus c. 
229, conf. jacere talos in f on tern/ Sueton. Tib. 14. Rudorff 15, 
218. G-oth. hlauts imma urrann, e Xa%e, Luke 1, 9. GDS. 159; 
ez was in so gevallen, Livl. chr. 5724, ez was im wol gevallen 
1694, in was der span gevallen wol 2483, in viel dicke wol ir span 



1636 SUPERSTITION. 

7239; dat lot viel, Maerl. 2, 169, die cavele viel 2, 60. We say 
to whom the happy lot has fallen. 

The Scythians too divined by sticks, Herod. 4, 67 and Nicander 
(Ur. Sk. p. 659); the Alani, Amm. Marcel. 31, 2; the early 
Saxons, Beda 5, 1 1 (mittunt sortes, hluton mid tdnum] the 
Frisians, whose Lex Fris. tit. 14 says : teni lana munda obvolufi. 
So the Greek suppliants bear in their hands \evtco aTefais 
tc\dSovs, Aesch. Suppl. 333, crvv TolvS tfcercov 
epioo-reTrroKn, /c\dSoicri, 22, Xeu/cocrTe(/>et? ifcrnpias 
191, K\dSoicri veoSpoTTOt? 354 (tc\d&-os is hlaut-s, hloz) ; plq> 
a-Tefaw, Plato Rep. 3, p. 398. Hermann s Gottesd. alt. p. 105-8 
(raw wool is laid on the stone, Paus. x. 24, 5). The Slavs cast 
lots with Hack and white sticks, Saxo (Mull. 827), and divined by 
the odd or even lines in ashes, ibid. Drawing lots with willow- 
leaves, Ettn. Maulaffe 703 ; with stalks of corn, Vuk no. 254. 
RA. p. 126; sortiri ex sitella (bucket), Plaut. Casina, see Forcell. 
sub v. sitella ; sors Scotorum/ Dronke s Gl. Fuld. 12. There 
were lot-looks to divine by : diz loss-buoeh ist unrehte gelesen 
(wrongly read), Wiener mer-vart 556 ; a loz-buoch in Cod. Vind. 
2976 (Hoffrn. 209). 2953 (H. 360) ; loss-Mchlrin, Ph. v. Sittew.; 
losseln and lossel-buch, Schm. 2, 504; lossel-naclde, Frisch 1, 
623 ; losslerei, losslerin. 

p. 1111.] On this motion of boughs, from which the Armenians 
divined, see N. Cap. 20. Machen viur uz den spaclien (p. 1121 
mid.) ; conf. Superst. H, c. 80, in dem fewre sehen ; D, 38r. and 
140r., /wr-sehen. With f der tisch in der hant conf. e mensa 
volae/ Finn, onnenpoytd, luck^s table, fr. onni = fortuna. 

p. 1112.] The Romans also spoke of drawing water in a sieve: 
cribro aquam, Plaut. Ps. i. 1, 100 ; imbrem in cribro, Pliny 28, 2. 
Our emptying the pond with a sieve/ Sommer s Sag. pp. 13, 
94. 

The Gauls prophesied from the o-^aSacr/xo? (convulsions) of one 
devoted to death, when his back was pierced with a sword, Strabo 
4, p. 198; the Cimbrians from the blood and entrails of their 
sacrificed prisoners 7, p. 294, Lat. exti-spicium. The Malays 
also divine from the entrails of slaughtered beasts, Ausland 
57, p. 603 b . 

p. 11 13.] An ein schulder-bein er sach (looked), 

des quam sin herze in ungemach (became uneasy). 



SUPERSTITION. 1637 

Er spracli : die Littouwen liden not, 

min bruoder 1st geslagen tot, 

em her (army) in minem hove lac (has lain) 

sit gester bis an disen tac ! 

Daz bein hat manigem sit gelogen (lied). 

Livl. chr. 3019. Ocellos habens in spatulis = humeris } Pertz 8, 
385 ; expositione ossium spatuJae ala in suis spatulis, Fridericus 
imp. De arte ven. 1, 26. Inspection of shoulderblades is known 
to Kalmuks (Klemm 3, 199), Tunguses and Bedouins (3, 109). 

p. 1115.] The Romans also divided pisces into squamosi and 
non squamosi, Festus p. 253. W. Goethe s Diss. p. 19. In 
Levit. 11, 9 and Deut. 14, 9 fish that have fins and scales are 
pron. eatable; conf. Griesh. 146. 

p. 1117.] The rat wishes the cat joy when she sneezes, Avada- 
nas 2, 149, 150; Trrap^o^ IK TWV Seftcov, Herm. Gottesd. alt. 
p. 186; "EpooTes eTreirrapov, Theocr. 7, 96; haec ut dixit, Amor, 
sinistra ut antea, dextra sternuit approbationem, Catull. 44, 17; 
atque, ut primum e regione mulieris, pone tergum eius maritus 
acceperat sonum sternutationis . . . solito sermone salutem ei 
fuerat imprecatus, et iterate rursum, Apul. Met. lib. 2, p.m. 211. 
The * Got helfe dir ! is also in Myst. i. 103, 10 ; swer ze vremden 
niesen sich rimpfet (crumples up), daz ist ouch verlorn, Ettn. 
Frauenl. p. 70. 

p. 1117.] Ringing in the ears: effofiftei, Ta wra V/MV, Luc. 
Dial. mer. 9 ; aures tinmunt, Pertz 9, 265 ; sine oren sough en, 

Walew. 9911. Supercilium sal-it , a good omen, Forcell. sub v. 

superc. On prophetic jerks in the limbs among Orientals, see 
Fleischer in Rep. of Leipz. acad. d. w. 49, p. 244. 

p. 1119.] The spells in Burns s Halloween are for discovering 
one s future lover. On Christmas Eve the sleeping fowls begin 
crowing, if a girl is to be married soon, Firmen. 2, 377. Wax 
may be poured instead of lead, Mone s Anz. 7, 423 : ceram in 
aquam fundere, Lasicz 56. 

p. 1119.] Angang, what meets you on setting out, ewOev, 
mane, ev ap^f], ev Ovpais, eVi. rfj Trpcorrj efoSw, is significant. 
M. Neth. en goet ghemoet, Rose 2715; gude u. bose motte, Gefk. 
Beil. 100. Swed. mot, mote; lyks-mot, evil meeting. Gr. 8i>?- 
[ill-met by moonlight, proud Titania] = boding ill; so 



1638 SUPEKSTITION. 



[fr. K\r)Sa)v, omen]. A titulus in the Salic Law 
treats de siqierventis vel exspoliationibus/ 

p. 1124.] On angang among the Thugs, see Convers. lex. d. 
geg. iv. 2, 55; on the Greek belief in it, Lucian s Pseudol. 17 (ed. 
Bip. 8, 72) and Eunuch. 6 (Bip. 5, 208). Theophr. Cbaract. c. 
16 (conf. Kopp De amuletis p. 42). Consider too, that the flight 
and sony of all the birds look favourable ; if these be not joyful 
signs, I have clean forgot the art; no bird of black feather, no 
raven, starling, crow nor ouzel have I seen. Three merry men 
have met me, three men named John. Not once have I stumbled, 
and wellnigh do I believe the stones move out of my way or 
flatten them before me. The folds of my garment hinder me 
not, neither ani I weary, every mother s son greeteth me, no dog 
hath larked against me, Wirsung s Cal. J 2 b . To run across one s 
path is always bad, Blittner s Lett, lieder p. 255. 

p. 1126.] Meeting an old woman is called kariny-mote, Afzel. 
2, 148. Unlucky to meet a red-haired woman bef. any one 
else in the morning/ O Kearney 132. The first thing that 
meets me, were it even a parson, a beggar or an old woman, 
Goethe in Weimar jrb. 5, 458; wizzet, wern der (unsaelige lip) 
anegenget an dern morgen fruo, deme git ungeliicke zuo, Walth. 
118, 16 (coiif. also wol ir g aneyenyet was/ Diemer 206,23). 
Uoch han ich ie gehoeret wol, daz man die priester schiuhen sol 
(should shun) ze so-getanen sachen, Heinz v. Kost. Hitter u. pf. 
303 ; on the other hand : swer in zuo einem male gesach, der 
waride sin viirwar (hoped verily to be) deste saeliger ein jar, Gute 
frau 970. Who looks at early morn under the fair one s eyes is 
safe from sorrow all that day, Hatzl. 148 b . - For hunters the 
shoys-rd, for fishers the hafs-fru is unlucky meeting, Afzel. 2, 148. 
150. No woman with spindle or distaff may tarry in my lord s 
mill (bann-miile), Weisth. 2, 25. To meet one that is lame of the 
right foot, or gelded, or effeminate, is unlucky, Lucian 5, 208 ; 
conf. Brodaai Misc. in Grsevii Thes. 2, 509 ; (eunuchus) pro- 
cedentibus omen, Claudian in Eutrop. 1, 125. Parsons journeys 
are a sign of rain, Praetor. Alectr. 163. About meeting a black 
or a white monk, see Spirmr. evang. Friday 10; about a sword 
being handed by a woman, ibid. Wednesd. 20. 

p. 1128.] The Lapps carefully observe what beasts they meet, 
Klemm 3, 90. There are beasts which are not to be named in 



SUPERSTITION. 1639 



the morning : al&%i(o d^piwv rwv Trpwtas wpas 
K\7)Sovio-TO)v, Luc. Amores 39. Meeting with a hare bodes no 
good, Wolfs Deut. sag. no. 370; turn thee home if a hare run 
across thy path, Keisersb. Yom lewen 63 b . On the hare and the 
wolf, Lappenberg s Eulensp. p. 144. - The encounter of a wolf 
estimated variously : Sed gravius mentes caesorum ostenta hi- 
porum horrificant; duo quippe lupi sub principis ora, dum 
campis exercet equos, violenter adorti agmen, et excepti telis, 
immane relatu, prodigium miramque notam duxere faturi/ Claud. 
B. Get. 249. - Sei weren einen wulf op dem wege vangen 
(caught), dei quam utem holte gegangen, des freueden sei sik all 
int gemein/ all rejoiced, Soester fehde p. 667; the colonel held 
this brush with the wolves to be a good omen that they should 
yet further come upon unlocked for booty/ Simpl. 2, 74. Men 
wish the wandering fox luck on his journey, Ettn. Unw. doct. 
240. Do wart en catte lopende vor dern here (army), Detm. 1, 
154. 

The weasel is changed into a fair lady, Babr. 32 ; it is called 
vv/jiffriT^a, Lobeck s Path. 360 ; other names in Nemnich sub. v. 
mustela. Does froie in Reinh. clxxii. answer to It. donnola, or 
is it conn. w. M. Neth. vraeie = pulcra, venusta ? conf. damoiselle 
belette, Lafont. 3, 17. In the Renart it is called petit porchaz, in 
the Reinaert dene bejacli. ON. hreisikottr is ermine. Auspicio 
hodie optumo exivi foras, mustela murem abstulit praster pedes, 
PJaut. Stich. iii. 2, 6. A legend of the mustela in Marie 1, 474. 

p. 1129.] "Opvis came to mean any auspicium, whether of 
birds or not, Aristoph. Birds 719 721. A bird-gazer oltovurrrj?, 
II. 2, 858; opviOas yvwvcu, Od. 1, 159; bia yvwvai Trr^crei? bpviOwv, 
Paus. i. 34, 3 ; oiwvwv o-dtya elSais, Od. 1, 202 ; opvt,6a<$ Kpivcov, 
Hes. Op. 826. l Telemus Eurymides, quern nulla fefellerat ales/ 
Ov. Met. 13, 770; nunc ave deceptus falsa 5, 147; SVS-OLMVIO-TOS, 
Luc. Eunuch. 6. - OHG. foyalrarta augurium, fogalrarton 
augariari, Graff 2, 536 ; fogilrartod auspicium, Gl. Sletst. 22, 3. 
AS. fugel-hwdte augurium (Suppl. to 1107). Boh. kob, koba, 
divination by flight of birds ; koba, kuba, falcon. Not every bird 
is adapted for divination : opviOes e re vroXXot VTT au^a? rjeXiouo 
^otraio- , ovSe re Travre? evaiaifjioi, Od. 2, 181 ; fuglfroff-hugadr, 
Ssdm. 141 a ; parra, cornix, picus, pica are augurales, Aufrecht in 
D. Zeitschr. 1, 280. - Men watched the flight as well as the 



1640 SUPERSTITION. 

song, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 2, 44; quae voces avium? quanti per 
inane volatus ? Claud. 4 cons. Hon. 142 ; die ferte dero fogelo, 
unde dero singenton rarta, unde die heilesoda dero in rihte, fure 
sih fliegenton, N. Cap. 17; ir vogel in vil wol sane, Livl. 7240. 
The Malays prophesy from they%/^and cry of birds, Ausl. 57, p. 
603-4, and war and husbandry are determined by them. - Uf 
einem tach (roof) stuont ein lira, si schrei vast ha ha ha ha, narre 
bistu da ! fool that you are, V. d. Hagen s G. Abent. 2, 449 ; ez 
hab ein swerziu krd gelogen (lied), MS. 2, 80 a ; chant sinistre et 
criard du corbeau, Villemarq. Bard. bret. 167. On the language 
of ravens and crows, and on birds divided into castes like men, 
see Monats-ber. d. acad. 59, p. 158-9. Bulletin de Petersb. 59, 
p. 438. - Auspicio, avi sinistra, Plaut. Epid. ii. 2, 2; qua ego 
hunc amorem mihi esse avi dicam datum ? Plaut. Cas, iii. 4, 26 ; 
dira avis, Sueton. Claud. 22. Pulcherrimum augurium, octo 
aquilae petere silvas et intrare visae (signif. 8 legions), Tac. Ann. 
2, 17; a Servian song addresses the high-soaring far-seeing 
eagles, Yuk 1, 43 no. 70 (Wesely p. 64). Fata notant, stellaeque 
vocant aviumque volatus, totius et subito malleus orbis ero, 
Richerius 4, 9. Bohmer s Font. 3, 51. Luther says somewhere: 
If thou see a little bird, pull off thy hat, and wish him joy, 
Schuppius 1121 ; ichn* weiz waz vogels kegn in vlog, Jeroschin 
132 C . 

p. 1 131.] A flight to your right is lucky, to your left unlucky, 
GDS. 982 seq. Parra dexter a, comix dextra,picus sinister, Grotef. 
Inscr. Umbr. 6, 5. 7. 



rvvrj owvoari ravvTrrepvyecrari, 

TreiOecrdai, r&v ovn fjLeTarpeirofjb ov& a 

CIT eTrl Be^C Iwori irpos JHw T .HeXtoV re, 

eir eV dpidrepa rolje TTOTL f60ov rjepoevra. II. 12, 237. 

The Greeks often mention the eagle: 



Se^to? (right hand) 

atero? (eagle) apyrjv X7l va $>pu>v ovv^ecrcn 
r]iJLepov e f av\r)s. Od. 15, 160. 

avrap 6 TQICIV apicrrepo^ (left hand) r]\v6ev opv 
atero? vtyiire-rri<s, e%e Be rpijpcova ireXeiav. Od. 20, 242. 

rc3 8 atero) (two eagles) evpvoTra Zevs 



SUPERSTITION. 1641 



/c /copv(f)rj(; opeo? Trpoeijrce Trereadai. Od. 2, J46; 
and then : Se<o> (right hand) rjl^av Bid r olicia, K.T.\. 154. 
Again, the liawk : 



(hawk), ^ATTO\\WVO<$ ra^u? #776X09, eV e 
rl\\e nreKeiav e%wv, Kara Se Trrepd %evev epa^e 

1/7769 re /cat avrov Tr)\efjLa^oLo. Od. 15, 528. 



The flight of the mouse-hawk is carefully scanned by the Kal- 
muks, Klemm 3, 202. We read of Sefto9 epcoSios (heron) in 
Hipponax, Fragm. 50, of Sef irj alrrrj (woodpecker), Fragm. 62 ; 
ardeolae (herons), altero oculo carentes, optimi augurii, Pliny 11 
37. 52. ILrafn fl^gr a-ustan af ha mei Si (tree), ok eptir honora 
dm i sinni ; fieim gef ek erni (to that eagle) efstum bra Sir, sa 
mun a blofti bergja rninu, Hervar. cap. 5 ; hrafn qva^ at hrafni, 
sat a ham mei Si, Seem. 149 b . Similarly : )?a qva S f>at krdka 
(crow), sat qvisti a (on bough), Saem. 106 b ; cornis avis divina 
imbrium imminentium, Hor. Od. iii. 27, 10. Herm. Gottesd. alt. 
38 ; rostro recurvo turpis, et infernis tenebris obscurior alas, 
auspicium veteri sedit ferale sepulcro, Claud, in Eutrop. 2, 230; 
nuper Tarpeio quae sedit culmine cornix, est bene non potuit 
dicere, dixit erit/ Suet. Domit. 23. - Martens vogelken, Fir- 
menich I, 139. 140; Sunte Maartens veugelfje zat al op een 
heuveltje met zijn rood rood rokje, Halbertsma s Tongvallen p. 
45 ; Engl. martin, hirundo minor, Nenm. p. 1 64 ; Fr. martinet, 
le petit martinet. There was a society of Martins-vogel in Swabia 
in 1367, Landau s Ritter-ges. p. 15.* Dos vogerl aum tannabam 
(fir) steht auf oanm fuss, hat a zetterl im schnaberl, von meinm 
dearndel (girl) ann gruss, Seidl Aimer 1, 24. The chdtaJca drinks 
nothing but rain, catching the drops as he flies ; he brings luck 
when he flies on your left, whereas most birds signify good on the 
right, Max Mull. Meghaduta, p. 59. 

p. 1132.] H crirTr} (a pecker) /cal et n TOLOVTOV opveov Sefta 
7T/309 epcora9 fyaiverai. Eyo* pev, w AevKiTTTre, Segirj crirrr) ! 
Didymus apud schol. Aristoph. Av. 704 ; Trero^ea-Od re yap KOI 
Toldiv epaxTi crvvecruev, Av. 704, conf. Meineke s Choliambi p. 
122-3. Pies en nombre impair, signe de malheur, Bosquet 219. 

* neue hant, Vindler in Hpt 9, 79 ; uf die alien hant zierlich gemacht, Gotz v. 
Berlich. ed. Zopfl p. 14 ; kunigin bin ich der neiven hand, J. v. Morsheim, beginn. 



1642 SUPERSTITION. 

On the starling s flight, Ettn. Maulaffe 704. Alban, espece 
d oiseau de proie, prob. de vautour, Fauriel s Albig. p. 664. 

The heathen Arabs bef. Mahomet : one who has gone out turns 
back immed. on seeing a raven. Yet it is a good sign if a pair 
of ravens, messaud and messauda (m. and f. for lucky) cross one s 
path in equal flight ; else a croaking raven is called the bird of 
parting, bee. he foretells a separation. There is a bird whose cry, 
heard from the right, brings blessing to a house : it is called 
sakuni, kakanta, afcerw. kapnyala, Kuhn on Vrihaddevata p. 117. 

p. 1133.] The over-flight of some birds is significant : 

Zwoa schnee-weissi tduberli (dovelings) 

sant ubawdrts g flogn, 

und hiaz hat mich mem dearndl (girl) 

schon wieda bitrogn (fooled me again). Seidl Aimer 34. 

Pigeons also fan the king while he dines, Athen. 2, 487. 
Again : 

Ob im vant er einen am (eagle), 

des schoene was seltsaene ; 

er was im, in waene (I ween), 

gesant von Gote ze gemache (comfort) : 

mit einem vetache (wing) 

treip er im den lufl dar (fanned the air), 

mit dem andern er im scliate bar. Servat. 1330. 

Albert. Magn. De falcon, c. 4 : Ego enim jam vidi qui sine 
ligaturis intrabant et exibant, et nobis comedentibus super 
mensam veniebant, in radio solis se extendentes coram nobis, quasi 
blandirentur nobis/ While Marcian sleeps, an eagle flies above 
him, giving shade, Procop. 1, 326. A shading peacock s tail is 
worn by ladies, Vilk. saga c. 213 and Yuk 4, 10; a peacock fan, 
Claud, in Eutr. 1, 109 ; pfaewine huote, Kolocz. 184 [on peacock 
hats from England/ see Helm s Plants and Anim., Lond. 85]. 
With ominnis hegri connect iwer iegeslichen hat diu heher 
(OHG-. hehara) an geschriet ime walde/ the jay has cried a spell 
over you all, Wh. 407, 11. 

p. 1134.] A sihle singing on your right brings luck, Biittn. 
Lett. lied. pp. 248. 266. The sight of the first wagtail is signifi 
cant, Klemm 2, 329, and to Kalmuks that of the snake 3, 202-3. 



SUPERSTITION. 1643 

The neighing of horses, sneezing of cats, howling of dogs, each 
is an omen : dir het diu katze niht genorn, Helbl. 1, 1392 (Suppl. 
to 11 15) ; on the howling of dogs, see Capitolinus in Maxim, jun. 
c. 5. Pausan. iv. 13, 1. 

p. 1136.] Leo in Thiir. mitth. iv. 2, 98 connects the Goth. 
hrdiva-dubo with divan and daubs, deaf [Hehn s Plants and 
Anim. 258]. Bubo habet nomen a voce sua, et moratur in 
cavernis petrosis vel muris antiquis, et differt a noctua solum in 
magnitudine, quia est major ea, et bubo dicitur letalis vel mor- 
talis, quia mortem annuntiat, unde dicunt quidam naturales, quod 
sit animal habens dilectionem naturalem ad hominem, et prop- 
terea ponit se supra vestigium hominis, et post mortem festinat 
ad amandum cadaver, et dicunt aliqui quod generetur ex medulla 
spinae in dorso hominis/ Stephan s Stofl. 118. 

Ter omen 
funereus bubo letali carmine fecit. Ov. Met. 10, 453. 

Tectoque profanus 
incubuit bubo, thalamique in culmine sedit. 6, 431. 

Infausto bubone, Claud, in Eutr. 2, 407; a bubo prophesies to 
Agrippa, Joseph. 18, 6. 19, 8 (Horkel p. 494) ; bubo, cartae funebris 
lator, Marbod s Carm. 1577. Hipponax in Meineke s Choliambi 
p. 112 calls its /cpiyr) (screeching) veKpwv ayyeXo? re KOI /cfjpvj;. 
As the Lett, uhpis, hoopoo, is a bird of ill-omen, our huwe (bubo) 
heralds a speedy death in the Herod story, Pass. 157, 51 72. 
159, 76 83; der leidic huwaere, der naht-huwer, Albrecht s 
Ovid 177 b . 345 a ; truric als ein unflaetec huwe, Renn. 17993. 
The screech-owl, kauz or kauzlein, cries : Come along, come 
along ! that s twice the death-bird has called to me, Kehrein s 
Nassau 41 [To Russian children the owl cries shubu, (I ll have 
your) fur-coat]. The same kind of thing is the scuwut on the 
tree, Maerl. 2, 323. 348 and the voglein kreide-weiss (chalk- 
white), Musaeus 5, 28. The word klag-mutter reminds of 

Berhta, of the white lady, the fylgja and the banshee, bansighe 
(pp. 279. 280). On the Wendish wailer, God s little chair, see 
Wend, volksl. 2, 269 b . Somm. p. 169. A death is foretold by 
la poule qui chante en coq/ Bosq. 219. Other omens of death 
are : When the dead in churches are seen or heard at night 
by the living, it bodes a new event to these, esp. death : quando- 



1644 SUPEBSTITION. 

cunque a viventibus haec audiuntur vel videntur, novum aliquid 
signat, Pertz 5, 738. The same if you hear a grunting or sawing 
at night 5, 738-9 ; conf. deathwatch, next paragr. 

p. 1136.] The wood-worm we call todten-uhr is termes pulsa- 
torius, the Engl. deathwatch scarabasus galeatus pulsator, Hone s 
Yrbk823; ich hor ein wiirmlin klopfen, Garg. 278 b ; the death- 
smith who thumps in window frames and walls, Gellert 3, 148. 
Finn, yumi and seinarautio, wall-smith; conf. the tapping home- 
sprites. 

p. 1136.] Swarms of bees betoken a fire : molitasque examen 
apes passim que crematas, perbacchata domos nullis incendia 
causis, Claud. B. Get. 241. Bees that fasten on you, Aelian s 
Var. 12, 40. Pliny 8, 42; bee-swarms and spiders, Botticher s 
Hell. temp. 127 ; ea hora tantae aranearum telae in medio populi 
ceciderunt, ut omnes mirarentur ; ac per hoc significatum est, quod 
sordes hereticae pravitatis depulsae sint, Paul. diac. 6, 4. A 
flight of small birds, a shoal of salmon, are a sign of guest*, 
Justinger 271. 379. The alder-beetle flying south is lucky, north 
unlucky, Kalewipoeg, note on 2, 218. 

p. 1137.] Other omens of death are bloody weapons, a rusting 
knife, KM. no. 60; but also flowers, Altd. w. 2, 187. Hpt 3, 
364. Corpse-candles, mists in churchyards, prefigure a dead 
body, Hone s Daybk 2, 1019 ; an expiring lamp is a sign of 
death, Altd. w. 2, 186 (weather also was foretold by divinatio e<c 
lucernis, Apuleius ed. Ruhnk. lib. 2, p. 116). Elmo s fire, Sant- 
elmo, blawe Uechter, Staden s Reise p. 102 ; uf dern maste dar 
enboben [enhoben?] ein vackeln-licht so scheme quarn, Marienleg. 
p. 87. A crackling flame may denote a blessing : 

Et succensa sacris crepilet bene laurea flammis, 
omine quo felix et sacer annus erit. Tibull. ii. 5, 82. 

So to Kalmuks the fizzing of meat when roasting, and the self- 
lighting of an extinguished fire, Klemm 3, 203 ; retulerunt qui- 
dam de ipso (abbate Sangallensi) agonizante, quod audierant 
voces plangentium et bullitionem caldarlorum (yr 1220). 

The room-door opens of itself when there is a death, Lucae 
260-9. When a board or shelf tips over, it is called death-fall, 
Bair. kinderlehre 23. ON. fall er farar heill; in lapsa faustum 
ominatns eventum, Saxo Gr. 73. On the other hand, stumbling, 



SUPERSTITION. 1G45 

the foot catching, is of ill-omen in Burip. Heracl. 726 seq. ; ter 
pedis ofensi signo est revocata, Ov. Met. 10, 452 ; sed, ut fieri 
assolet, sinistro pede profectum me spes compendii frustrata est, 
Apuleius p. m. 80. Getting up too early, wrongly, is fatal : si 
waren ze vruo des morgens uf-gestcin, die muosten da daz leben 
Ian (lose), Livl. 1255; sumelich ze vruo hate des morgens nf- 
gestdn, der muoste da ze pfande Ian den lip 3859. 

p. 1137.] The notion that several ears on one stalk signify 
peace, is apparently derived fr. the Bible, Gen. 41, 22; a stalk 
with 15 ears, Weller s Anm. ], 221. A double ear is Lett. 
yummis, dim. yummite, Biittner 2818. Good hap or ill is fore 
seen by tying together two ears of standing corn, and seeing 
which will shoot up higher, Dybeck 45, p. 52. Pilgrimages to 
Our Lady of the Three Ears, Keisersb. Brosaml. 56 d . 

p. 1138.] Things found are esp. operative for good or harm, 
e.g. four-cornered, four-leaved clover, Sirnplic. 1, 334. L. Sax! 
sagen no. 190; a whole grain in the loaf, Serenus samon. 935. 
Things inherited, Mullenh. no. 315; begged, Wolf s NdrL sag. 
p. 414; worn (pp. 602-3. 1093) ; rings made of gibbet irons, Luc. 
Philops. 17. 24; fingers of a babe unborn (p. 1073n.). 

p. 1139.] Goth, dag am vitdifi = dies observate, Gal. 4, 10. 
f H/j,epa pe\aiva, /jur] /caOapd, ajro^pd^ (fr. (fipdfa), see Lucian s 
Pseudologista (rj -rrepl rfjs diro^pd^) , conf. ed. Bip. 8, 434; so 
tt7ro(pae? TruXcu, Porta Scelerata 8, 58. Dies fastus, nefastus, 
nefandus, nefarius, infandus, per quern nefas fari praetorem ; 
dies inauspicatus, ater. Henry IV. died on a Tuesday, die 
Martis, qua etiam cuncta sua praelia, paganico nimirum auspicio, 
perpetrare consuevit, Pertz 8, 240. Napoleon avoided Fridays, 
Wieselgr. 473. AS. nella S heora ]?ing wanian on Monandceg for 
anginne )?a3re wucan, AS. horn. 100. 

p. 1 140 n.] With Wisantgang conf. Wisantes-steiga, Wisantes 
wane (Neugart). Should we read Wolf-bizo (-bit), or Wolf-bizo 
(-biter), like baren-beisser, bullen-beisser (-dog) ? Cattle killed 
or bitten by ivolves, are wholesome fare, Spinnr. evang., Friday 9. 
Gr. \v/co/3pa)Tos, and Plutarch discusses why wolf -eaten mutton is 
sweeter/ Symp. 2, 9. Wolfleip Graff 1, 850 ; Wolfleibsch, Kopp s 
Gesch. d. Eidgen. 2, 557; Wulflevinge, Gosl. berggesetze p. 339 ; 
Ulricus dictus Wolfleipsch, der Wolfleipscho, Oh. yrs 1260 65. 
Neugart nos. 972. 981. 990-5 ; Itipi praeda, Marcellus no. 53. 
VOL. iv. B B 



1646 SUPERSTITION. 

p. 1141.] Juvenes . . . missurum se esse, in quas dii de- 
dissent auguriis sedes, ostendit, Livy 5, 34. The Hirpini were 
led by the wolf, hirpus, the Picentini by the pecker, picus, the 
Opici by the lull, ops ? Wackern. in Hpt 2, 559. Mommsen s 
Rom. gesch. 1, 76. Bull and sow as guides, Klausen s Aen. 
1107 ; cows indicate where a church is to be built, Wieselgr. 408 ; 
milch-cows show the site of the future church, a black ball that 
of the castle, Miillenh. p. 112-3; a heifer leads Cadmus to the 
spot where he is to settle [two rnilch-kine bring the ark, 1 Sam. 

6, 7]. The Franks are shown their way by the Rune, Guitecl. 

2, 35 ; a white hart walks before them as God s messenger, Ogier 
1, 12; and a Westphal. family-name Reasford (Deeds in Moser) 
points to a similar event. A Delaware climbed through the 
mouth of an underground lake into daylight, killed a stag and 
took it home, then the whole tribe moved to the sunny land, 
Klemm 2, 159. A horse points out the place for a church, Miillenh. 
p. 111-2. Mules show where the convent of Maulbronn in the 
Black Forest is to be founded. A hare guides, Paus. iii. 22, 9. 

Havens are indicators, Miillenh. p. 113; the three in the 
Icelandic narrative, flying off one after another, strongly remind 
us of Noah. The dove guides, Hrosvitha Gandesh. 253. 261 6. 
A vision reveals that a bird sitting on the top of the hill will fly 
up, and must be followed : it flies on before, then alights, and 
pecks the ground on the spot where stones may be quarried to 
build the church with, Pertz 6, 310; doves guide Aeneas to the 
golden bough, Aen. 6, 191211. The lark, Paus. iv. 34, 5; the 
clucking hen at Bremen, Brem. sag. no. 1 ; the Jteathcock rising, 
Schuren s Chrou. p. 3 ; fribolum de ausere quasi dominam suam 
deducente, Pertz 8, 215 yr 1096, conf. Piaurner s First Cms. 1, 69. 

p. 1144.] In a dike threatened by the sea a child is buried 
alive, Miillenh. no. 331. Tliiele in Danmarks folkes. 2, 63. 
Honsdarn in Flanders, V. d. Bergh 261 (Kl. schr. 2, 73). Fair 
weather was obtained by walling up a peck of barley and a bowl 
of water, Bocken-philos. 6, 88. A Konigsberg story tells how 
they took a fallen woman s child, a year and a half old, set it 
down in a hollow stone, with a slice of bread-and-butter in each 
hand, and then walled it in, leaving only an opening at the top ; 
in the morning the child was gone, but after that the building 
of the wall went on unhindered, N. Preuss. prov. bl. 465. At a 



SUPERSTITION. 1647 

place called the Nine-ways, as many boys and girls were buried 
alive by the Persians, Herod. 7, 114. Vortigern s tower keeps 
falling down : ye shall wet the foundation-stone with the blood of 
a boy born of woman without man, Merlin 1, 67. 72-5; under it 
lie two dragons, 1, 91 ; conf. Thib. de Navarre 2, 160. Like the 
girl inclosed in Copenhagen wall is the child who is set before a 
table with apples, and kept shut up in the cave for a year, 

Miillenh. p. 354. It is an oft-recurring feature, that what is 

built in the day is pulled down in the night, as in the Bamberg 
legend of the cathedral toads, Bait. stud. 10, 32-4. Hanusch 186. 
Miillenh. pp. 112-3. 128. 177. 542; troll ned-refvo om natterne 
hvad som byggdes om dagen, Wieselgr. p. 408 ; a wall is torn 
down 15 times, Somm. p. 9 ; much the same is told of the tower 
at Bnger, Eedeker s Sagen p. 41. Tradition says, that as fast 
as the workmen built it up by day, it would at night be carried 
off by invisible hands, and placed on the spot where it now 
stands (a Devonshire leg.), Chambers^ Pop. rhymes 14 a . Con 
versely, a wall broken down by day grows again overnight, 
Miillenh. p. 349 ; conf. the tree that is cut down, and sprouts 
again (p. 960). 

p. 1145.] 0. SI. s"n", Serv. san, Euss. son, Pol. Boh. sen, 
Lith. sapnas, dream. Lith. megas, Lett, meegs, Pruss. maiggus, 
somnus, Euss. migdti, wink. ON. dur levis somnus, nubes 
somni; hofugr blundr, sopor, Ssern. 93 a ; er )>er svefn hofugt ? 
Laxd. 120. Troume sint triige says the proverb in the Hatz- 

lerin 126-7; traum trug, Frankl. 21. 46. OHG. troum-sceido, 

-sceidari, -interpreter, lit. divider, Graff 6, 439 ; conf. viroKpi- 
vaaQai,, Od. 19, 535. 555; iafnan dreyrnir fyrir ve^rum, Vols. 
saga c. 25, and dreams are still made to refer to rain. AS. 
swefen-racu, -interpretation, swefen-raccere, -expounder. Slav. 
gaddti, guess, somnia conjicere; Swed. gissa drommen; elvens 
aldste datter is to guess the dream, DV. 3, 4 ; nu hefi ek pyddan 
draum ]?inn, Gunnl. s. ormst. c. 2 ; den troum betiuten = deuten, 
MS. 2, 115 a . Griesh. 1, 98; ontbinden, untie, Eose 6134; con- 
jectura, Plant. Eud. iii. 1, 20. Cure. ii. 1, 31. 

p. 1146.] A dream comes out, appears; rann up en somn, 
Sv. vis. 1, 299; wie der troum wolte uzgen, Griesh. 2, 133; 
der traum ist aus, Ayrer 177 d . Fichard s Frankf. arch. 1, 130. 
There is a gate of dreams, Hpt 2, 535 ; Iv oveipeirjcn 



1648 



SUPEBSTITION. 



Od. 4, 809 ; eV TruXai? oveipeiais, Babr. 30, 8 ; conf. the myth in 
Od. 19, 562 9. A dream-vision, otyus, comes repeatedly and 
flies away, Herod. 7, 12. 14-5. 17-8-9. A dream appears, 
Griesh. 1, 98. Flore 1102; erscheine mir z ze guote, Reinh. 73; 
hence einen troum er gesach, Ksrchr. 5473, troum irsehen 2921. 
AS. hine gemette, there met him, he dreamt, Csedm. 223, 20 ; 
gemeted wearS 225, 21 ; assistit capiti, Claud. De b. Gildon.329u. 

Der troum ergienc, 3 came about, Ksrchr. 611 ; din troum 

irge dir ze heile ! turn out well, 1373; we say comes true/ 
OUK ovap, dXX VTrap, not dream, but truth, Od. 19, 547. 20, 90 ; 
v-n-ap eg ovelpov, Pindar; iwer troum wil sich enden, Flore 1117. 
A dream is a messenger of God : sagde im an svefne, slapandium 
an naht, bodo Drohtines, Heliand 21, 12. Dreams are heavy and 
light : starke dromme, DV. 3, 3 ; ob iu nu ringer getroumet/ 
milder, better, Ben. 438. A beautiful dream is weidenliche, feast 
ing the eye, Ls. 1, 131 ; muowent uns troume ? Ksrchr. 2948. 

Dreams of bird* are esp. frequent : mir (Uote) ist getroumet 
hinte (last night), wie allez daz gefiigele in disme lande waere tot, 
Nib. 1449, 3. Vilk. c. 336; mir troumte hinte in dirre naht, 
zwen falken vlugen mir uf die hant, Morolt 2876 ; a dream of a 
raven and an eagle, Orendel Bttm. p. 92, and the like in Gunnl. 
s. ormst. c. 2. Fornald. sog. 1, 420. Penelope dreams of an 
eagle killing her pet geese, Od. 19, 536; conf. Aesch. Persse 205. 
Darzuo miieze im von eiern (of eggs) sin getroumet, i.e. bad 
dreams, MS. 2, 152 b ; swer sich zuo lange wolde sumen, deme 

muoste von eiern troumen, Tiirl. Wh. 87 a . Dreams of bear 

and boar hunting, Tit. 2877-8 ; of a boar, Krone 12157, a dragon, 
Kab. 123-4. Dreaming of beasts may be traced to Guardian- 
spirits and Transmigration, says F. Magn., Edda-1. 4, 146. 
Dreams of a tree growing up, Ruodl. 16, 90, of a shipwreck, Krone 
12225, a burning house, Lachm. Ndrrhein. ged. 18-9, a bridge, 
Kl. schr. 3, 414, a tooth falling out, Keisersb. Bros. 48 a : mir st 
getroumet ab der guoten, MS. 2, 115 a . 

p. 1147.] Der lor-boum habet tia natura, ube sin ast (if a 
branch of it) uf en slafenten man geleget wirt, taz imo war 
troume t/ he dreameth true, N. Cap. 13. The dream under a 
tree in Mar. 155, 21 may be for rhyme s sake alone : f als einem 
man der da gelit, begrifen mit swarem troume, slafend unter 
einem bourne/ conf. troum, bourn, Wigal. 5808. A dream in a 



SICKNESSES. 1649 

pigstye comes true, Fornm. s. 10, 169. The first dream in a new 

house is important, Giinther 640. Night is descr. as svefn- 

gaman, draum-niorun, Sa3m. 51 a . Dreams before the dawn are 
true : Lenore starts up at dawn fr. heavy dreams ; ( ir getroumde 
at tage-rdt, after < han-krat/ En. 5234; troumen gein dem 
tage, towards day, Bit. 9630 ; < in the morning hour, that is called 
the time of golden sleep/ Fastn. sp. 1302; mir troumde ndch 
mitternacht, wie mir der diime swaere (that my thumb festered), 
und der nagel abe waere, Eracl. 3712; conf. evapye? oveipov 
vvKTos apoXyf, Od. 4, 841. Lilia dreams on her wedding-night, 
Gesta reg. Francor. in Hone s Anz. 4, 15; der erste traum treugt 
nit, er pflegt wol wahr zu werden, C. Brehmen s Gedichte J l b . 

p. 1147.] On dreaming of a treasure on the bridge, see Kl. 
schr. 3, 414 seq. One is waked out of a dream by cry of dismal 
crow, Walth. 95, 1, by the crowing cock, the calling servant, Ls. 
1, 149. Do taget ez, und muos ich wachen, Walth. 75, 24: ende 
ic ontspranc, ende doe wart dach, Rose 14224; and with that I 
woke, Agricola 624, and after that it dawned 625 ; do krate der 
han, ez was tac, Altsw. 67, 3. To speak out of a dream : ich en- 
sprich ez niht uz eime troume, Parz. 782, 13 ; ir redet uz eime 
troume, Keinh. p. 202. He fought (in a dream), Lachrn. Ndrrh. 
ged. p. 18-9. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

SICKNESSES. 



p. 1150.] Apollo is called larpo-pavTis, Aesch. Eurnen. 62 ; 
Apollo Grannus was invoked by the sick, Stalin 1, 67. 112. 
Wise leeches were Kasiapa, Holtzm. 3, 164-5; lapis lasides, 
Aen. 12, 391 ; Meges, M 67179, Forcell. sub v.; Dianoecht, Keller on 
Irish MSS. p. 93. The Greeks venerated the Scythian Toxaris 
after his death as %evos Zarpos, Lucian s Scytha 2 ; Za/zoX^tSo? 
larpoi, Plato s Charmides p. 156. The grey smith appears to the 
sick man in his sleep, and with his pincers pulls the nails and 
spear out of his hand, foot and side, Hpt s Ztschr. 1, 103. An 
angel reveals the remedy in a dream, Engelh. 5979. 5436 ; an 
angel visits the sleeper, and gives a willow-bough to stop the 
murrain, Mullenh. 238. Saints heal (p. 1163 end ; Pref. xxxviii.) 



1650 SICKNESSES. 

GDS. 149. Women are often skilled in leechcraft : Angitia 

instructs in herbs and healing, Klausen 1039. As Wate became 
a leech through a wildes wip, a herbalist traces his art up to 
1 madame Trote de 8alerne, qui fait cuevre-chief de ses oreilles, 
et li sorciz li penden a chaaines dargent par desus les epaules 
she sends her men to all countries in search of herbs, en la 
forest d Ardanne por ocirre les bestes sauvages, et por traire les 
oignemenz/ Rutebeuf 1, 256 (Another herbman calls himself 
hunter of Arden-wood 1, 470) . Unde coinrnuniter Trotula 
vocata est, quasi magistra operis ; cum enim quaedam puella 
debens incidi propter hujusmodi ventositatem, quasi ex ruptura 
laborasset, cum earn vidisset Trotula, admirata fuit, etc/ Medici 
antiqui (Venet. 1547) 75 a ; she is named in Chaucer s C.T. 6259. 
Ace. to Jocher she was a physician of Salerno, but the book De 
morbis mulierum was written by a doctor who used her name. 

Othinus puts on female disguise, calls himself Veclia, and 

passes for a she-doctor, Saxo Gram. ed. M. 128; conf. AS. wicce, 
saga (p. 1033). Three nymphs prepare a healing strengthening 
food for Balder, Saxo Gr. ed. M. 123 (vigoris epulum 194). 
Queen Erka is a leech, Vilk. saga c. 277 ; and Crescentia is en 
dowed with healing power (p. 1152). The meer-frau in the Abor, 
like the Scotch mermaid, gathers the healing herb on a mountain, 
Hpt. 5, 8. Fdmurgdn knows herbs, makes plasters and salves, 
Er. 5212. 7226. Iw. 3424. There was a leech named Morgan 
tud, says L. Guest 3, 163; but that is the name of a healing plant 
3, 164 ; conf. Ben. note to Iw. 3424. Isot, diu kiinegin von 
Irlande, diu erkennet maneger hande wurze u. aller fcriute kraft 
u. arzatliche meisterchaft, Trist. 175, 32. The wasser-jungfer 
knows healing herbs, Firmenich 1, 23 ; a meer-weib gives help in 
childbed, Miillenh. p. 340. En gumma sade, hon kande viil de 
gamles slcr&nk, men trodde dem ej ; hon viste huru man kunde fa 
hjelp af dem, men att det var syndigt, Fries s Udfl. 1, 108. The 
wilde fraulein knows the root that will heal a wound, Ecke 1 73 
5. At Staffelbach the wood-maidens came out of the wood, and 
cried to the people : esst bimellen und baldrian, so geht euch 
die pest nicht an ; therefore at harvest a bunch is left standing 
for the wood-mannikin. The vila of the woods is a liekaritza, 
and demands a heavy fee, she is angry if you refuse, and poisons 
you, Vuk no. 321 ; conf. 2, 50 and the pere-jungfer with her 



SICKNESSES. 1651 

healing fountain, Alsatia 55, p. 216 (a place in Thuringia was 
called in siiezer lieilinge? Graff 4, 867). The name of the 
Norse Eir reminds one of ? I/?o?, tTpo? lA ipos [so called because 
he carried messages], Od. 18, 6. 7. 73, and of *I/>i? the divine 
messenger. To Hyfja-berg corresponds the Finn. E%w-maki, 

Kipu-vuori, Kipu-ha,ri&, mount of pain. Women heal, they 

bind up wounds, Roquefort on Marie 2, 198 202; frowen die 
die tiefen wunden ir lieben vriunden bunden, Servat. 1779; 
do senten (segenten, blessed) im die wunden die fronwen al ze 
hant, Rosen-g. 1997 ; dede si sine wonden wel besien ere jong- 
frouwen, diere vroet ane was, Lane. 22651 ; a virgin knows der 
crude cracht/ power of herbs 11999; a woman gives a magic 
salve, Ecke 155-6. Herdsmen, shepherds can heal men, for they 
are expert in treating cattle, Varro RR. 2, 1. When a patient 
dies, his doctors are killed, Greg. Tur. 5, 35. 

p. 1152.] A physician was in Fris. called letze ; ON. likna ok 
laekna=lenire et mederi, Ssem. 236 a ; Gael, liagh, whence Leo 
in Malb. Gl. 1, viii. derives all the others ; Scot, ligliiche, physi 
cian; OHG. lachituom, medicine. AS./rom, medicus, Matth. 9, 
12; conf. OHGr.Jrumi thaz wib, heal the woman, 0. iii. 10, 19, 
thia fruma neman 14, 50, fruma firstelan 14, 39. OHG. gravo, 
chirurgus, Graff 4, 313; Fris. greva, Richth. 786. MHG. wise 
man, V. d. Hagen s Ges. Abent. 2, 121. On our arzt, arznei, 
see Graff 1, 477; arzenare, N. Boeth. 217; arsatere, medicos, 
Lane. 42631, ersatre von wonden 1988; arzatinne, Trist. 33, 38 
(what is diet-arzt, Garg. 72 a ?); arza-die, Ksrchr. 7483-93; 

erz&nie, Wh. 60, 23. Leo in Malb. Gl. 2, 38 derives OHG. 

liippiirom Gael, luibh, herba; si machent uz krut ein gestuppe 
(pulverem), daz ist guot ze der liippe, Hatzl. 21 7 a : Swed. lofja, 
laka; lofjor, medicamenta ; lofjerska, vis qvinna, Almqv. 390; 
liiblerin, venefica, Mone 7, 424. Diu zouuerlicha hant, herbi- 
potens manus, N. Boeth. 197 ; diu chriuter unde diu gift-hant der 
Circe 198; Kant-gift, Mone 7, 423-4. Tit, 4518; so gloubent 
eteliche an boese Kantgift, Berth. 58; der Saelden h., Silv. 534; 
edel h. geben, Troj. 11188 ; sure h. 25043 ; dats goede Kantgifte, 
Rein. 6906; elsewhere Kantgift is strena, etrenne; leidiu K., Troj. 
12334. The Lex Salica 19 says: si quis alteri herbas dederit 
bibere, ut moriatur. The sense of poison is evolved out of 
each of these three words, from Kerb a (lubi?), from dare (gift), 



1652 



SICKNESSES. 



from bibere (potio) ; for potio, liter, a drink, has become the 
Fr. poison; conf. & enherber (to poison) m aprist jadis une 

Juise/ Berte p. 103. Ducange sub v. inherbare. A herbman 

ur quack was called in Bavaria wald-hansl, wald-mann, Schm. 4, 
63-4;wrsfer uuib Bingen, Garg. 172 b , krautnirer 188 b , teufels- 
gerittene wurzel-telberin, abgeribene kraut-graserin 189% alraun- 
delberin 104 a . Swiss women get their 100 herbs on Donnersberg 
in the Palatinate, said they were stronger there than in Swiss- 
land/ Eliz. of Orleans p. 283 ; ich waiz ain mairin, diu vil mit 
dern kraut wiirkt, Megenb. 386, 32. Old wives pick herbs on 
John s day betw. 12 and 1, for then only have they power; with 
the stroke of 1 it is gone; they grow on Pilgerberg alone, 
Mullenh. p. 222. Knit tempern, Hartm. biichl. 1, 1307. Troj. 
10635; ein temperie als wir gemischet nemen, Wh. 420, 2 ; hi ft 
tempern u. mischen, MS. 1, 87 a . Another verb is OHG. lochoii, 
prop, mulcere, fovere : ir eigut siuchi gilokot, 0. v. 20, 76; couf. 
tdo^ai, iaivut, fovere, orig. said of wounds. 

p. 1152.] Our kropf (goitre?) is called king s evil, because it 
was cured by the king s touch ; < those who have it, on drinking 
from the Count of Habsburg s hand, are made whole/ Reber s 
Hemmerlin p. 240. Schimpf u. E. 1, 27. It seems a godfather 
could cure his godchild of some diseases: < godfather aud foal s 
tooth in urgent cases are too weak (p. 658 n.). Among 
American Indians the knowledge of healing herbs descends from 
father to son, Kiemni 2, 169; the family of Diokles can cure 
disease and disablement, Paus. iv. 30, 2. Health is regained by 
touching the hem, also by magir. song: Serv. bayati, incantare 
morbum, dolorem. To feel the pulse is in MHG. die ddern begri- 
fen, MS. 2, 23 b ; conf. ein dderit grifen, Reinh. 2018; si marhte 
mit dem vinger sin dder-sldn (throbbing), Eracl. 3033; der kraft- 
ddern slac, Barl. 188, 22. 

^ p. 1153.] Nomina morborum veruacula in J. Fr. Low ab 
Erlesfeld s Univ. medicina pract., Norimb. 1724. Sickness is 
*iucUe, Uolr. 1038. 1109. En. 10833; MLG. suke ; MHG. 
siechtuom, diu suht, Fundgr. 2, 46; gesiihte, Warn. 2192; siech 
vonungesuhte, Walth. 20, 4. Fragm. 46 b ; ersochte, Hpt 8, 167 ; 
werlt-siech, En. 12908; die siechen u. die weichen, G. schm. 494, 
conf. ON. veikr, infirmus. veiki infirmitas, AS. wdc, Engl. weak. 
Siec ende ongedaen, Lane. 15338. Unmahti, invaletudines, 0. iii. 



SICKNESSES. 1653 

5,2, unmahti, infirmi 9, 5; OHG. n i mac ni tone, non valet; 
MHG. niht en-mac, aegrotel, Hagen s Ges. Ab. 3, 63 ; daz ich 
nie ne mac, Ksrchr. 821 ; ungewalt, invaletudo, En. 10230-551; 
Slav, ne-dug, morbus ; Boh. ne-mosh, Russ. ne-motcli, infirmitas. 

Unvarnde, aeger, Tiirl. Wh. 60 b . The contrary : wolvarnde 

u. gesunt, Iw. 3430. OHG. kisunt, MHG. gesunt, M. Neth. 
gesont (sound, well), hence ungesunt, Poor Heinr. 375. Unganzi, 
infirinitas, 0. iii. 4, 34, ganz, integer, 2, 22. 32 ; M. Neth. gans, 
whole, gansen, to heal, Maerl. 1, 313. 2, 359. Jesus p. 136; 
genesen, and gansen side by side, Maerl. 1, 313. The grand word 
for sanus is Goth, hails, OHG. heil, ON. he-ill, OS. hel, AS. Ml, 
Engl. whole ; sanari is Goth, hails visan, gahdilnan, while salvari 

is Goth. OHG. ganisan, AS. genesan with Ace. (p. 1244 n.). 

Ghenesen ende becomen, Maerl. 3, 97 ; OHG. chumig, infirmus, 
chumida, morbus. M. Neth. evel, our ubel [so, king s evil}. AS. 
ddl ne yldo, Beow. 3469, from dd } fire, heat? (Suppl. to 1166 
end) ; ddl oftSe iren 3692 ; ddl o$$e ecg 3523 ; ddlig, aeger. 
Dan. uminden, umanen, an indefinite disease, Molb. Dial. lex. 
p. 630, conf. ON. omynd, monstrum, forma laesa. What means 
Magi dawalonti/ 0. iii. 2, 7, moriens ? (Graff 5, 346). Dole ich 
diz gebende, Ksrchr. 12704; conf. ON. afbendi, tenesmus, Dan. 

bindsel, constipation. More general are OHG. suerido = saero; 

ouc-suero, maga-suero, Graff 6, 888. OHG. ivewo, woe, pain; 
manegen wen vertreip, Servat. 1077. AS. ece } ache, toff-ece. 
AS. coff, co&e, morbus, pestis ; bdn-coda, m., Cod. Exon. 163, 23. 
MHG. f er lent he is laid up, Parz. 251, 16; die geligrigen, 
infirmi, Mohr s Reg. Prauenb. nos. 328. 235 ; die suht ligen, 
Hpt4, 296. Gramm. 4, 620; mi legar bifeng, Hel. 135, 12; 
legar-fast 121, 16; bette-rise, ligerlinc, Griesh. 116. 124; bet-rise, 
Urstende 123, 69. Servat. 3180 (is pet-ritto in the Strasb. spell 
the same thing ?) ; an rese-bette Hgen, St. Louis 90, 13 ; le gisant, 
jacens, Lafont. 5, 12; conf. so stiiende ich uf von dirre not, u, 
waere iemer me gesunt, Walth. 54, 9. Peculiar is OHG. winnen, 
furere, laborare morbo, gewinnen (the fever), conf. ON. vinna. 
In Cassel they say aufstiitzig for ill : ein pferd aufstutzig worden, 
Cav. im irgarten 53. 

p. 1154.] Sickness appears as a divine dispensation in vouao? 
^to ?, Od. 9, 411 ; ir ware diu suht gescehen, Fundgr. 2, 46. Sick 
ness seizes: appwa-To? is infirmus; our an-gegriffen ; niich hat 



1654 SICKNESSES. 

ein siech-tage begriffen, Diocl. 6016 ; in ergreif diu misel-suht, 
Poor Heinr. 119; angriffen von einem boesen wind, von einem 
teufels kind, Mone 6, 470; gesuhte bestet uns (tackles us), Hpt 
1, 272; do begunde ein suche rdmen der vrowen, Pass. K. 425, 
20; wcerc ingewod, morbus invasit, Cod. Exon. 163, 29; him 
fa3ringa adl ingewod 158, 21. Our an/all (attack), morbus; 
anvellig, infectious, Mone 8, 499. Goth. vas ana-habaida brinncm 
mikilai/ Luke 4, 38 ; da wolt mich han ergrummen, ich weiz niht 
waz, Hugdietr. Fromm. 146 ; in stiez an einiu kelte, Fragm. 19 b ; 
in Mecklenbg, if a man is taken ill at harvest time, they say 
1 the harvest-goat has gestoszen (butted at) him ; den hete der 

siechtuom so begint (rhy. kint), Uolr. 1523. The contrary: 

den siechtuom iiberwinden (win over), Wigal. 5991 ; unz der 
siechtuom vom im fl6cli, Hpt 5, 278; diu suht entweich (ran 
away) 8, 188. Iw. 3446; so muozen dir intwichen dine suhte, 
Ksrchr. 838 ; daz gesiiht begund in fliehen, Ecke 176; diu suht 

von \mQ floz, Diemer 325, 7. The vovaou approach men avro- 

/jbaroi,, and a-iyfj, evret fywvrjv efe/Xero p,rjriera Zevs, Hes. Opp. 
102. Mulierculae plures .... a daemoniis vexantur (yr 1075), 
Pertz 5, 128. The witch cooks, brews diseases ; so does the 
Finn. Kivutar (Suppl. to 1046); she is called kipiii neito/ 
Schroter 34, kipu tylto, kipulan nato/ Peterson 75, kipunen 
eukko/ Kalev. 25, 96. 179; worrying grey dogs howl around her, 
Pet. 74; she wears gloves and shoes of pain, Kal. 25, 183-4. In 
Lith. they say ligga ne sessu, the sickness is no sister, does not 
spare. 

p. 1155.] Febris for fervebris, ferbris; Gael, fiabhar ; MHG. 
biever, Freid. 74, 9. Dea Febris, Aug. Civ. D. 2, 14. 3, 12. 25, 
AS. adl J?earl, hat and heorogrim, Cod. Exon. 160, 30; ban- 
cofa ddle on-celed 159, 15 ; adl me innan cele 166, 5 ; conf. Gael. 
teasach, febris, fr. teas, calor, fervor. Dei heizen fieber lascht er 
do (he leashes them ?), Diem. 325, 5; sottar brimi, morbi aestus, 
Egilss. 637. Hippocrates often has irvp for Trvpero^ : irapOevov 

Trvp \a/3e 3, 6 (yvvaLKa plyo? e\afie 1, 5). The OHG. rito is 

Norw. rid, Aasen 379 b ; are we to conn, it with ON. hriff, pro- 
cella? Lye too, by the side of rideroff, febris, gives hriff-ddl, 
hri&ing, febris, hri&ian, febricitare ; conf. ( in bestuont der minne 
schur, Parz. 587, 13, and Herbort 12836 calls the minne an 
elbisch viure : Riten winnanti, febre laborans, Graff 1, 876; rite 



SICKNESSES. 1655 

jouhfieber, Diut. 3, 45; der rittige, febricitans, Griesh. 115; so 
liat ir ere den riden, Hpt 1, 437. M. Neth. rede and redine, 
Moneys Ndrl. lit. 335. Belg. mus. 10, 52; bevaen met enen rede, 
Maerl. 3, 188. 168. 237-8 ; viel in den r. 3, 269 ; quam mi an de 
r. 3, 78; hadde en en groten r. 2, 79; genasen van den r., Hpt. 
1, 104 : den vierden r. (febr. quartan.), Franc. 2882. Nu muze 
der leide ride Fukarde vellen ! Karlm. Lachm. 110; schiitte in 
der rite I Pass. 45, 32 ; habe den riden u. die sulit umb dinen 
hals ! Morolf715; das sie der jar -r it schiit ! Garg. 242 a ; die 
corts ridene ! Walew. 6164; conf. Gl. to Lekensp. p. 573; das 
dich ge der schiitler an ! H. Sachs iii. 3, 8 d ; kam sie an der 
frorer, Altd. bl. 1, 56 ; break the neck of the fever/ Ettn. Unw. 
d. 792. Fever rides a man, as poverty does, H. Sachs i. 3, 245 C . 
In Boner s fable the rite is made a butterfly ( = alp, night 
mare), no doubt, that he may the better converse with the flea ; 
conf. Fastn. 36, 55. Keller s Erz. 330. Like Petrarch, H. Sachs 
i. 483 has a dialogue betw. the zipperlein (gout) and the spider 
(Kl. schr. 5, 400 seq.). The spell in Bodm. Rheing. alt. p. 710 
speaks of 72 riten ; that in Mone 7, 421 of 77 ritten ; Kulda 

132 of 99 fevers/ Other names for fever: M. Neth. Icoorts, 

febris, saghe, Rein. 391. AS. gedrif; drif. MHG. der begir ? 
Flore 1005; to die of a schlirige fever, Garg. 241 a , conf. scldir, 
ulcer 259% schlir-gescliwur 236 b . At Louvain fever is called quade 
mester. OHG. it-slac, febr. recidiva, Graff 6, 773, it-slaht 777; 
avar-sturz, relapse; conf. modica pulsatus febre/ Greg. Tur. 2, 
5. Winter und sumer are a disease (cold and hot fits of ague 
alternating?), St. Louis (Riickert) 59,28. 80, 21. Lat. quer- 
quera, shivering fit. MHG. quartanie, febr. quart., MSH. 3, 
I78 b ; kartanie, Wartb. kr. str. 51. Gr. rjiriaXo?, Luc. Philops. 
19. In 0. Fr. they said trembler la fievre/ Meon 3, 88. Rute- 
beuf 1, 290. Renart 10150. Lith. paszta-kiele, fever-bird (kiele, 
siskin). Lett, drudsis vinnu yahi, fever rides him, Bergm. 68. 
Der rote suche, Myst. 1, 104. Flores beatae Mariae, erysipelas, 
Ducange sub v. flores ; Ital. rosalia. 

p. 1156.] Gout, OHG. giht, fargikt, Graff 4, 142; vor zorne 
si daz giht brach, Mai 69, 2 ; daz rnich diu giht zubrochin hat, 
Ksrchr. 2776. 4293, conf. die alten do der huoste (cough) brach, 
V. d. Hag. Ges. Ab. 2, 290 ; swen negt (whom gnaws) daz giht, 
Renn. 9897; swie daz giht in stunge, Helb. 1, 70; da ist si 



1G56 



SICKNESSES. 



rniiende daz gegihte, Ulr. Trist. 1512; in die gichter fallen, EHz. 
of Orl. 41 ; vergiht, Todes geh. 548. Servat. 728. 786. 1573. Hpt 
6, 493. Austr. <kalt vergicht, arthritis vaga ; icht, Hpt 1, 104. 
Netlal. jicht ; die j ode, Maerl. 2, 79; juchtech, paralyticus 2, 112. 
317. 338; do vil em d&tjodute in de been, Detm. 2, 482; is this 
gout or terror ? (the hub, angina uvularis, is allayed by the spell : 
Hode-joduth ! I cannot gulp the pot-hook down/ Lisch s Meckl. 
jrb. 6, 191 ; the hetsch, or the keller-gschoss bumps against me, 
H. Sachs iv. 3, 76 C ; den heschen gewinnen, Suchenw. 18, 238; 
hesclie schlucken) ; unz in do sluoc daz podagra, Ksrchr. 5854. 
ON". oUa-eldr, Fornm. s. 3, 200; AS. ecilma, cecelma, podagra, 
deaggede, deag-wyrmede, podagricus, deaw-wyrm, podagra. Ko- 
synties, petits cousins, Belg. mus. 8, 183. Boh. dna, gout; Pol. 
dma, prop, blast, breathing upon. 

p. 1157, line 6, a short paragr. was omitted from the text, viz. : 
" A burning tumour at the finger-nail (irapwyv^) is called the 
worm, the runabout worm, the unnamed (bee. one was shy of 
uttering the creature s name), the evil thing Engl. ringworm 
[mistake for whitlow ?], Scot, ringwood, for which R. Chambers 
quotes two spells (see Suppl.)."] The flying gout travels: fon 
farendum and fon fretma, Richth. 246, 14. Daz wilde viure, ignis 
sacer, is called Antonien feuer, Antoni feuer, Ettn. Unw. d. 136-7, 
Tonges-feuer (Tony s f.), Fischart, Antonien rack, plag, erysipelas, 
skin-inflammation; bee. the Saint and his monks received such 
patients into their hospital? conf. Keisersb. Omeiss 52. AS. 
bdn-coffe, ossium morbus, ignis sacer. Grotbl.flaug-ild, erysip. on 
the face, Almqv. 423 a , conf. ON. flog. M. Neth. de rode guchte, 
Maerl. 2, 290, gutta rosea ; now roze drup, our roth-lauf, St. 

A. s fire. Typhus carbuncularis acutissimus is called landslip, 

devil s shot. Of sacred fire are several kinds : one about a 
man s waist is called zoster (girdle), and kills if it begirdle him/ 
Pliny 25, 11 (26, 74). For this gout we find the names mane- 
wurm, hdr-wurm, Fundgr. 2, 238. The name of gichter (gouts) 
is also given to cramps and spasms, Staid. 1, 443. A tumour 
at the finger-nail is in Plattd. fit [whit-low, white fire?], der 
ungenannt wurm, Mone 6, 462; AS. wyrm, see Grarnm. 1, 416 
ang-nagle, ongneil ; die ungenannten, Staid. 2, 423; bos thier 1, 
207. Elves suck at children s fingers and toes by night, Dyb. 
Buna 48, p. 33. 



SICKNESSES. 1657 

p. 1157.] Apoplexy is in Grk TrXrjyr] 0eov. Lath, stabas. Got 
gebe den heiden sinen slac ! Livl. chr. 5220; het sloghene Gods 
plaghe, Maerl. 2, 348 ; plag di de roving ! Miillenh. p. 191 ; daz 
berlin (fr. bern, to strike ?) ; der tropf, Karaj. Kl. denkm. 46, 14. 
51, 4; das dick die driis (glanders) riir ! H. Sachs v. 364 C ; hab 
dir driis u. das herzeleid ! v. 367; hab dir die driis in s herz 
hinein! v. 344 a : conf. dros (p. 1003 mid.). 

p. 1158.] Epilepsy: dm vallunde suht, Servat. 1572. Uolr. 
1092. Ksrchr. 6491; diu vallende suht brach, Hpt 8, 185; fanra 
lerha fallanda ewele, Richth. 246; dat grote evel, Hpt 1, 104; 
das hochste, Ettn. Maul. 307. On the Rhon Mts, das arm. werk, 
Schni. 4, 139. Sloven, svetiga Bdlanta bole zen, St. Valentine s 
evil. Lith. numirrulis, falling sickness. In the Wetterau, das 
thun. Austr. die frais, whence Serv. vras. OHG. vnnnanti, 
epilepticus, Graff 1, 876. Das dich der tropf schlag ! Fischart, 
Nethl. drop, drup, marks-tropf, Mone 6, 470. Icel. flog (Suppl. 

to 1234). Goute ne avertinz, Rutebeufl, 257; avertin de chief 

1, 471 ; male goute les eulz li crieve (put out his eyes) ! Trist. 
1919. Ren. 1702; male gote te crieve loil ! Ren. 21198. 25268; 
la male gote aiez as dens ! 14322. Ducange sub v. gutta quotes 
many kinds ; avertin, esvertin, Meon 1, 391. OHG. mdnothuiltno, 
moon-sick, lunaticus, Graff 1, 443 (out of its place). Concidere 
ad lunae incrementa, KaraTriirreiv vrpo? rrjv (reXijwrjv, Lucian s 
Toxar. 24. Nasci = lentigo, Graff 2, 1105. As there are 77 
noschen, so 77 sorts of zahn-rosen/ Hpt 4, 390 ; 77 shot and 
77 plagues/ Superst. spell xxxix. ; 77 worms/ Mone 6, 462 ; 
siben suhte darzuo nemen, Kschr. 6076, wielde 6095. What is 
the unnamed disease? Moneys Schausp. 2, 373. 

Our ohn-macht, fainting fit, is called un-malit, Er. 8825. Roth. 
3015; si kam in unm ah t, Flore 1055, vor unm. si nider-seic 
(sank) 1223 ; in unm. vallen, Reinh. 593 ; OHG. mir unmahtet, 
N. Boeth. 131 ; si vielen in unkraft, Kl. 1562 ; haer begaven al 
die lede, so dat si in onmacht sech, Karel 1, 128 ; therte begaf haer 
alte male, so dat si sech in ommacht 1, 241 ; viel in onmaht, Lane. 
17215; viel in ommacht, Maerl. 2, 222; von dmaht si niderseic, 
Flore 1224; si kam in dm. 1230; diu dm. vaste mit im ranc 
(wrestled hard), Hpt 5, 277; am., Engelh. 6303; zwo dmehte si 

enpfienc, Gute frau 1650; abkraft, H. Sachs v. 349 b . Viel in 

marmels, Troj. 10742; marmels hingeleit, Oberl. de Conr. herbip. 



1658 SICKNESSES. 

52. Si lagen in unsinne, Kl. 1978. 1566-71 ; vergaz der sinne 
1563; do verlos ich alle mine sinne, MSH. 3, 207 b ; unversunnen 
lac, Kl. 2092. Wh. 46, 27. 61, 19; si viel hin unversunnen, 
Parz. 105, 8. Se pamer, pasmer, Ferabr. 2801, se plasmet 3640, 
plasmage 2962. We say, my senses forsook me ; animus hanc 
reliquerat, Plaut. Mil. gl. iv. 8, 37. Si lac in einem twalme, Er. 
6593 ; daz im vor den ougen sinen veryie (passed away) sunne 
unde tac, Laurin Ettm. 829 ; er viel vor leide in unmaht, er-n 
weste ob ez waere tac oder nac^^Reinh. 595. Sendschreiben p. 53; 

er was uz siner gewalt, Herb. 10500, conf. 10604. Mir ge- 

swindet, Gramm. 4, 231 ; daz ir geswand, Schreiber 2, 64 ; ir was 
geswunden, Fragm. 42 b ; im yeswant, Flore 2178. 2241 ; swinden, 
Jiingl. 656. Beschweimen : AS. swima, deliquium, Engl. swoon ; 
hedfod-swima, my head swims. Wan in daz houbet diuzet voa 
gesiihte, Warn. 2192; ime entsiveich, Reinh. 564; beswalt, 
Partonop. 18, 13. 34, 14; ontmaect, Lane. 12042. The con 
trary: er learn zuo sih, Flore 1066, zuo ir selber kam 1232. 
Schreiber 2, 64; zuo im selben quam, Gr. Rud. H b 13; zuo im& 
selvin bequam, Roth. 3035, conf. Lanz. 1747; biz er bequam, 
Wigal. 5796 ; doe hi bequam, Maerl. 2, 222. Lane. 17216 ; was 
vercomen weder, Karel 1, 158; sin herze im widertrat, Pass. 192, 
65; herze gewinnen, Servat. 3431; sich versinnen, Parz. 109, 18. 
Wh. 61, 29 ; sich widere versan, Er. 8836 ; er wart verriht, 
Flore 2230, learn ze gerechen 2231 ; do si wart ze witzen, Kschr, 
11925. Our bei sich sein^; sumne ego apud me? Plaut. M.G 4 
iv. 8, 36. 

p. 1159.] ON. qveisa, colica, conf. Goth, qaisv, 0)8/9 (Suppl. to 
1212 end; grimme muoter, Mone 8, 495; bar muter, Garg. 182 b , 
barvatter 69 b ; warwund, Staid. 2, 435. Dysentery, der rote suche, 
Myst. 1, 105 ; er gewan den durchgang, Diocl. 4645 ; NethL 
roode-loop, dysent. (not our roth-lauf). On uzsuht, see Gramm. 
2, 794; der rothe schaden, Staid. 2, 306. Gotthelf s Sag. 5, 
160-1; M. Neth. menisoene, melisoene, Maerl. 3, 177; 0. Fr, 
menoison. Lung disease : daz swinde? Myst. 1, 104. Schm. 3, 
539; OHG. serwen, tabescere, Graff 6, 271. 281 ; Swiss serbet, 
Staid. 2, 371; schwienig, Vonbuu in Wolffs Zts. 2, 54; swin-t 
segen, Mone 6, 461; schwin, schwcin ; verzehrendes wesen, con 
sumption, Leipz. avant. 1, 142. 

Stitch in the side, pleurisy : ON. tac, OS. stechetho, Hpt. 5, 



SICKNESSES. 1659 

200. Oar darm-winde (twisting of bowels), conf. Lith. klynas, 
iliaca passio ; miserere. 

Dropsy : Swed. manads-kaJf, man-kalf, conf. the story of the 
frater Salernitanus/ Aegid. de medic, p. 167. 

p. 1159.] Abortus: ON. konnuni leystiz hofn, foetus solve- 
batur, abortum fecit; Bavar. hinschlingen is said of a cow, Schru. 
3, 452 ; die frau hat mit dern fiinfteri kinde umgeworfen, Claudius 
in Herders Remains 1, 423. Goth, fitan, our kreissen, to have 
throes: zimbem, parturire, Hag. Ges. Ab. 1, 12. Throes are 
called coSfcKe? or j3o\al, throws of Artemis, Procop. 2, 576 (Suppl. 
to 1177 mid.). To give birth to we express by come down 
with, bring into the world/ or simply bring, Schweinichen 1, 38; 
Swiss trohlen, trollen, zerfallen, fall in pieces (come in two), 
Staid. 1, 307; MHG. ze kemenaten gun, Hugd. l07. Mar. 163, 
22 ; ON. at hvila, Vilk. sag. c. 31 ; die frau soil zu stuhl [Exod. 
1, 16]. Es fieng an zu krachen, Garg. 102 b ; die balken knackten 
schon, da fiel das ganze liaus, C. Brehmen s Ged. (Lpz. 1637) 
H 3 a . J 3 b ; conf. 0. Fris. benene burch, bone castle (womb), 
Richth. 623 b ; fallen und in zwei stuck brechen, Diet, sub v. 
frauenbauch ; se is dalbraken, broken down, Schiitze s Hoist, id. 
1, 196 ; gliickliche niederbrechung, safe delivery, Claudius in 
Herd. Bern. 1, 383 ; si ist entbunden von ir not, Mai 129, 2. 
S chut ten, werfen, used of animals. 

p. 1160.] If the newborn infant cries, it has the heart-disease, 
and is passed three times between the rungs of a ladder, Temme s 
Altmark p. 82 ; blatt nnd gesper, blatt u. herzen-gesper, Mone 6, 
468-9; ir tuo daz lierze vil we, Hag. Ges. Ab. 2, 178; der klum, 
Kolocz. 185, angina ? fr. klemrnen, to pinch. Der herz-wnrtn 
hat sich beseicht ; of cardialgy and nausea ; stories of the heart- 
worm in Frisch 447 b . Ettn. Hebamme 890. O Kearney 180. 
A Stockholm MS. informs us : Wannen ein vrowe entfangen 
lie vet, so pleget gemeinliken bi der vrucht to wassene (grow) ein 
worm, dei hevet vlogele alse ein vledermues (bat) unde einen snavel 
as ein vogel, unde dei worme wesset op mit (der) vruht ; unde 
wan dei vrowe geberet hevet, al-to-hant over cleine dagen stiget 
(climbs) lid op to deme herten der vrowen, unde dan to lesten so 
hellet (holds) hei der vrowen herte, also wan men menit dat dei 
vrowe genesen si, so stervet dei vrowe rokelose, dat men nicht 
en-weit wat er schellet (ails her)/ If expelled with the fostus : 



1660 SICKNESSES. 

dei oppe dcme assche wesset, del vrucht heit gemeinliken kutfen- 

xlotel. Si viennent ]i ver es cors, qui montent jusquau cuer, 

et font morir d une maladie c on apele mort-sobitainne, Ruteb. 1, 
257. Grew in his heart the zage-wurm, shrink-worm, Burc. 
Waldis 174 a ; die wurme ezzent uns daz herze > Diemer 290, 10; 

the miser s heart-worm, Festiv. of Conan 180. Bulimus, vermis 

lacertae in stomacho hominis habitans, Oehler s AS. gl. p. 276; 
bulimus, werna, Diut. 1 68. Wurme wuohsen in ime houbet (in 
their heads), Kschr. 715. 852; f the worm in man or beast, that 
we callfaztun (?)/ Mone 8, 406. 

Toothache, MHG. zan-swer, Freid. 74, 10 (Kl. schr. 2, 115). 
Headache caused by cross black elves, Hpt 4, 389. Spasms in 
head and breast with cough are called tane-weczel, J. Lindenbl. 
p. 167 (yr 1404), conf. bauer-ivetzel, Gr. fttft;. Tana-weschel is 
personified in Fastn. sp. 468. ON. (jvef, cough, cold in head. In 
the Wetterau: krammel im hals, rasping in throat ; ivoul, violent 
catarrh, conf. OHG. wuol (1181-2). 

p. 1 160.] Gelesuht u. fich, Diut. 3, 45. Marcellus no. 100; fik 
in the chest, Mone 8, 493 ; bleeding, running vig 8, 409. ON. 
yula, rnorbus regius, jaundice; morbo regio croceus effectus, Greg. 

Tur. 5, 4. MHG. misel-suht, Servat. 728. 1570; musihuht, 

Ksrchr. 4293 ; hiez (bade) die rnisels. abe-gdn 726. 4067 ; misel- 
xiech, Urst. 123, 69. ON. lik-fira, lepra, Fornald. s. 3, 642. 
Biorgyn p. 107; Ukfirdr, leprosus. M. Neth. packers, leprosus, 
Maerl. 2, 227; lasers, lazers, Kausler s Altn. denkm. 1,482-3; 
OHG. horngibruoder, leprosi, Graff 3, 301 ; MHG. made villic, 
made-wellic, aissel-villic, Myst. 1, 418 ; 0. Slav, prokaza, lepra, 
Miklos. 34; Gael, lobharach, muireach, leprosus. The Lex Roth. 
180 has leprosus aut daemoniacus, and 233 mancipium lepr. 

aut daem/ The SI. trud is in Jungm. tetter, ringworm, in 

Miklos. 94 dysenteria, hydropisis. OHG. hrub, scabies, conf. 
Graff 4, 1155; AS. hruf, ON. hrufa. Citir-lus vel rudige, Gl. 
Sletst. 25, 169; citaroh, Graff 4, 1155; tetra-fic, Hattemer 1, 
262 b ; zetern, flechte, Hpt 4, 390; AS. teier, Engl. tetter, 
impetigo ; Austr. zitterich. Gr. Xet^jv impetigo, SI. lishdi, 
Serv. litai. A kind of itch is in Austr. bam-hakl, woodpecker. 

ON. skyrbiugr, Dan. skjorbug ; schorbock, Garg. 149 a ; schar- 
bock, scorbut, scorbutus. AS. peor on fet, in eagum. The burzel 
is a contagious disease, Augsb. chr., yr 1387. Mone 6, 257; 



SICKNESSES. 1661 

biirzel, gunburzel, Frisch I, 157. 383. SI. kratel, an ailment 
that makes one leg shorter, Vuk sub v. ; MHG. ir bein (legs) 
din habent die muchen, Frauenl. p. 192, our mauke, malanders, 
Frisch. A bleeding boil is called hund schiittler, Panzer 2, 305 ;. 
daz yn daz knallen-ubel angee ! Fries s Pfeiferger. p. 118 (yr 
1388). 

p. 1160.] Entre sui en mal an, Aspr. 15 a . 

p. 1163.] Smallpox: Serv. kraste. Die blattern (pocks) fahren 
auf, Lpz. avant. 1, 271. Urschlechten, urschlichten blattern, conf. 

urslaht, Gramm. 2, 790. The story of a daemonium meridi- 

amim is told by Caes. Heisterb. 5, 2. The destruction that 
wasteth at noonday is trans, in AS. psalms ed. Thorpe p. 253 
on midne dcege mcere deoful ; in Wiggert s Fragm. p. 3 von theme 
diuuele mittentageliclien ; in Windberg ps. p. 431 voue aneloufe 
unde tiuvele deme mittertagelichen ; in Trier ps. von aneloufe 
unde deme divele mitdendegelicheme ; conf. the midday mannikin,. 
evening mannikin, Borner 249. Psliipolnitza, Wend, volksl. 2, 
268; conf. metil and kuga (p. 1188). At noon the gods take 
their siesta, the ghosts can range freely then, and hurt mankind : 
a shepherd in Theocritus will not blow his reed while Pan takes 
his noonday nap. With the spell of the hunsche and the dragon/ 
conf. rotlaufund drach/ Hpt 7, 534. God send thee the fever, 
or the boils, or the hunsch ! so prays the peasant against his 
fellow man, Keisersb. Sins of the lips 38 a . 

p. 1163.] There are healing drinks, magic drinks: drinc of 
main, potus corroborans, Erceldun s Tristram 2, 40-2 ; drinc of 
might, philtrum 2, 48. 51; conf. ominnis dryckr (p. 1101); // 
louendris, Trist. ed. Michel 2106 (for 3 years) ; Engl. love-drink, 
Fr. boivre damour 2185. A sick man is fiddled back to health, 
supra (p. 331) ; into his trifling wound she blew, Gellert 3, 426. 
A blind king is cured by washing in the water of a chaste wife, 
Herod. 2, 111. H. Estierme s Apol. pour Herodote. Keisersb. 
Omeiss 52 d . (Pref. xxxviii). 

p. 1165.] Ich kan die leute messen, Gryphius s Dornr. 90 ; 
meten, Gefk. Beil. 167 : the third woman declared he had lost 
the measure, and she must measure him again, Drei erzn. p. 361 ; 
berouchen u. mezzen, Hag. Ges. Ab. 3, 70. Is this alluded to in 
ich mizze ebener dan Getz, diu nie dehein man iibermaz ? 
Helbl. 3, 327 ; messerinnen, Ettn. Maul. 657. Carrying a jewelled 

VOL. iv. c c 



1662 SICKNESSES. 

chain about one is a remedy, Bit. 7050 55 (Suppl. to 1218 
mid.). 

p. 1166.] Whether a man is troubled with the white folk, is 
determined thus: Take 3 cherry twigs, and cut them into small 
pieces, saying, one not one, two not two, etc/ up to nine, till you 
have 81 pieces ; throw these into a bowl of water, and if they 
float, the patient is free of the white folk ; but if some sink, he 
is still afflicted with them in the proportion of the sunken sticks 
to the swimming ones. In Masuria, N. Preuss. prov. bl. 4, 
473-4. 

p. 1166.] We pour water on one who has fainted: daz man 
mit brunnen si vergoz, unde natzte-se under n ougen, Kl. 1566 ; 
si lac in unsinne unz (senseless till) man mit wazzer si vergoz 
1978. Wet grass is laid on those that swoon, Ls. 2, 283. To 
strike afire, or to puff it, is good for a burn in the foot, erysipelas 
and sore eyes, Miillenh. p. 210. 

p. 1168.] Poenit. Ecgb. (Thorpe p. 380) : (]?a cilJ) aet vvega 
gelasturn ]?urh fia eorffan tiltcC. Creeping through hollow stones, 
Antiqv. ann. 3, 27; conf. Kuhn on Vrihaddevata in Weber s Ind. 
stud. 1, 118-9. Hollow round stones are fairy cups and dishes, 
Scott s Minstr. 2, 163. These are often ment. in old records : 
ad durechelen stein (yr 1059) MB. 29 a , 143; petra pertusa, Procop. 
2, 609 ; pierre percee, Schreib. Taschenb. 4, 262-3 (Kl. schr. 2, 42). 

At Lauenstein a ruptured child is pulled through a split oak 

by its godfathers bef. sunrise ; the more carefully the tree is then 
tied up, the better will the rupture heal ; but no one will have 
that oak, for fear of getting the rupture. The same thing is done 
with a young maiden ash, Barnes p. 326. Sometimes the hair 
merely is cut off and passed through, Meier s Schwab, sag. 528. 
A horse is cured by putting a silver penny inside the split of 

an aspen or hazel, Mone 6, 476. In England they often pull 

a sick child through an ash, Athnm 46, Sept. 5, no. 984. They 
tie the tree up with thick string, or drive nails into it.- Trees so 
nailed together are often met with in the woods : one was found 
full of nails, Hone s Tablebk 2, 466 ; conf. the Vienna stock am 
eisen/ Ziska s March, p. 105. If you have the toothache, walk 
silently into a wood on a Thursday morning, take a nail with you, 
pick your teeth with it, then drive it into a tree, Nilss. 4, 45. 
There is a tree near Mansfeld studded all over with nails, DS. 



SICKNESSES. 1663 

no. 487. In England a child that has the hooping cough is 
drawn three times through an opening in a hawthorn hedge. 
Apala, afflicted with a skin-disease, offers a So ma- sacrifice to 
Indra, who in token of gratitude heals her by drawing her 
through three openings in his car, Weber s Ind. stud. 1, 118. 4, 8. 
p. 1172.] When a headache will not go, they ivind a string 
three times round the man s head, and hang it up in. a tree as a 
noose ; if a bird flies through it, he takes the headache along 
with him, Temme s Altmk p. 83. If you lay a child s chemise, 
in which it has suffered the schwere noth (fit of epilepsy), on the 
cross-ways, the disease will pass over to him who walks, rides or 
drives that way, Medic, maulaffe 167. A hatchet- wound is healed 
by tying up the tool that dealt the dint. 

Herre, mit Gotes helfe 
wil ich, daz reine welfe 
iuwer kint wol generen (keep alive). Diocl. 4504. 

Jaundice can be transferred to the lizard, Mone 7, 609. Sick 
men are wrapt in the hide of a newly killed stag, Landulph. in 
Muratori 4, 81. Wilman s Otto 3, 244. A sickly child is swathed 
in the skin of a newly slaughtered sheep (in Shamyl s camp), 
Allgem. Ztg 56, p. 3323 b . The superimposition of warm flesh 
occurs in a witch- trial, Schreib. Taschenb. 5, 213. 

p. 1172.] The deer-strap must be cut off the live animal, 
Agric. Vom hirsche p.m. 238-9 ; conf. man sol den erhel-riem&n 
(lorum nauseae) sniden dem der smacke (sapor) wil verderben, 
Tit. 2621. The tooth of a weasel killed in a particular way is 
picked up from the ground with the left hand, wrapt in the hide 
of a newly killed lion (or maiden hind), and laid on the gouty 
feet, Luc. Philops. 7. On the healing virtue of a chamois -bullet, 
doronicon, see Ettn. Unw. d. 180. A skin-inflammation is called 
wolf: 

Der siechtuom ist des ersten klein, 
und kuint den herren in diu bein, 
und ist geheizen der wolf. Ottok. 91 b . 

p. 1173.] Kl. schr. 2, 146. Certain worms or beetles are 
recomm. for dog-madness. Maz-leide buoz in the note = cure 
for queasiness (meat-loathing). There is a health-giving dish, 



1664 SICKNESSES. 

into which the slaver of black and white snakes has trickled, Saxo 
Gr. ed. M. p. 193-4. Bin iglich tier (every beast) daz wurde 
gesunt, der itn gaebe (if one gave it) hundes-blnot, Renn. 19406 ; 
blood heals wounds, Lane. 25397-428. In the Engelhart and 
Poor Henry, leprosy is cured by the blood of innocent babes ; 
man swendet druosen mit niiechterner speirheln, fasting men s 
spittle, Renn. 5884. 

p. 1173.] A yellow bird by his look removes jaundice; it is 
also cured by drinking out of a waxen goblet with a raven-ducat 
lying at the bottom, Unw. doct. 147. Biting is good for a bite : 
beiti (rnordax aliquid) vrS bitsuttum, Seem. 27 b . The huk is 
healed by pot-hooks, Lisch s Meckl. jrb. 6, 191, hip-gout (?) by 
gelding, Greg. Tur. 10, 15. 

p. 1175.] To the M. Latin ligament urn answers the Gr. 
Trapdprtj/jLa, appendage, Luc. Philops. 8 ; breviis ac ligaturis, 
MB. 16, 241 (yr 1491); obligatores, Ducange sub v. Pertz 3, 
100. Were wolfs teeth hung on people like the foal s tooth 
p. 658 n. ? 

Ob ieman wolle tumbeu spot 
und einen boesen ivolves zan 
mit ergerunge henken drau. Pass. 3, 70. 
Ir truogt (wore) den eiter-wolves zan. Parz. 255, 14. 

Daz ich minne, ist mir uiht an- geb linden t ez ist mir an-geborn, 
MSH. 3, 233 b . Parentes vero ejus, intelligentes eum diaboli 
immissione turbari, ut mos rusticorum habet, a sortilegis et ariolis 
ligamenta ei et potiones deferebant, Greg. Tur. Mirac. S. Mart. 1 , 
26. Accidentibus ariolis et dicentibus, earn meridiani daemonii 
incursum pati, liganiina herbarum atque incantationum verba 
proferebant 4, 36. Ilia de sinu licium protulit varii colons filis 
intortum, cervicemque vinxit meum, Petron. c. 131. Finn, tyrd, 
prop, testiculus, then globulus magicus nocivus, instar testicu- 
lorum, hominibus et peciidibus immitti solitus. Fromm. on Herb, 
p. 230 quotes : imago argentea, per incantationum modos multique 
artificii virtute constructa, quae adversus incantationes jam factas 
est valde potissima. 

p. 1177.] In Arabic a conjurer is called breather on the knots, 
who ties the nestel, and breathes or spits on it, to complete 
the charm, Riickert s Hariri ], 451. Sura 113 of Koran. Fluocli 



SICKNESSES. 1665 

(a curse), der mine wambe besperret (bars up), Mar. 153, 38. The 
witch throws the padlock over a loving pair at their wedding, to 
breed hatred betw. them, Bechst. Thiir. sag. 3, 219. People choose 
the same day for being bled, Trist. 380, 3 [this appar. belongs 
to 1139 ?]. A lighted wick dipt in one s drink, and so quenched, 
lessens the drinker s enjoyment of love, Marcell. no. 94. Kl. 

schr. 2, 142. Labour is obstructed by nine witch-knots in the 

hair, the kaims (combs) of care/ Minstrelsy 2, 400. A shaggy 
cap is good for women in child-bands (-birth), Herold in Oechsle s 
Bauernkr. p. 35. A difficult labour is lightened by making two 
babies of wax ; or are they merely to deceive the sorceress ? 
DV. 1, 274-9. A man clasps his hands over his knees, and the 
labour is stopt ; they make believe it is over, he lets go, and it 
goes on again, Asb. Huldr. 1, 20. Belts relieve the labour, 
Ossian, Ahlw. 3, 436. 450 ; ]?a tok Hrani belt-it, ok lag&i um hana, 
ok litlu srSar (soon after) varS hun lettari, Fornm. s. 4, 32. 

The Lettish Laima spreads the sheet under those in labour ; the 
zlota baba watches over births, Hanusch 337. 356. 
/3o\oalr], Procop. 2, 576; ai /cvfotcouaai, e7riK,a\elcr6e T^ 
o^iovaQai crvyyv(i)jjLijs ort, SieKopTJdrjre, Sch. on Theocr. 2, 66. 
Juno Lucina, fer opera, serva me obsecro, Ter. Adelphi iii. 4, 41. 

Swelh wib diu driii liet (3 canticles) li&t, 

so sie ze keminaten gat (takes to her chamber), 

in ir zeswen bevangen (clasped in her right), 

sie lidet (will suffer) unlangen 

kumber von dem sere, 

wand in unser Frowen ere 

g nist sie (she ll recover) des kindes gnaedeclichen . . . 

Swa diu buochel driu sint behalten, 

diu Maget wil der walten (Virgin will manage), 

daz da nehein kint 

werde krumb noch blint. Wernher s Maria 128-9. 

p. 1177.] The cure for poisoning is descr. in Megenberg 275, 
27. To the foot of one bitten by an adder is tied a stone from a 
virgin s grave, Luc. Philops. 11. 

p. 1179.] ( Man sol genaedige heilige verre in vremden landen 
suochen, MSH. 3, 45 b [Chaucer s ( seeken straunge strondes, to 
feme halwe s ] . The sick are healed on the grave of the pious 



1666 SICKNESSES. 

priest, Pertz 2, 82. The myth of the herb that grows up to the 
skirt of the statue s garment is also in Walth. v. Rh. 138, 21-58 
(p. 1191 mid.). Relics bring luck, Al. Kaufmann s Csesarius 
p. 28, and the M. Neth. poem of Charles, Hpt. 1, 104. Miracles 
are also wrought on Pinte s grave, Renart 29481. 

p. 1180.] Coins were laid at the feet of a statue which had 
cured, or was to cure, fever ; silver coins were stuck on its loins 
with wax, Luc. Philops. 20. 

Stabat in his iugens annoso robore quercus, 

una nemus ; vittae mediam memoresque tabellae 

sertaque cingebant, voti arguments, potentis. Ov. Met. 8, 743, 

A woman cured of toothache thankfully hangs waxen gums on 
the grave, Pertz 10, 522 ; a man whom the saint has delivered 
from chains hangs up a chain, ibid. ; so in Caes. Heisterb. 7, 29. 
Liberated prisoners hang their chains on the trees in the 
goddess s grove, Pausan. ii. 13, 3 ; those in Ma. on the saint s 
tomb, St. Louis 96, 2 ; conf. Scheible 6, 988-9. 997 and RA. 674. 
My mother made a vow that she would hang a votive tablet in 
the chapel if I recovered my hearing/ Bronner s Life 1, 40. 
Hooks to which diseased cattle had been tied, also crutches after 
a cure were left lying in the chapel, Mullenh. p. 105, and at 
healing springs, Ir. march. 2, 78. In some places the inscription 
may still be read : hat geholfen, hath holpen, M. Koch s Reise 
203. A waxen house is vowed, that the dwelling house may not 
be burnt down, St. Louis 84, 19. 

p. 1182.] To OHG. sterpoy pestis, lues, corresp. the AS. 
steorfa. The schelm I explain fr. schwert, GDS. p. 235-6 : der 
schelme gesluoc, Hpt 5, 552; der schalm sliieg liberal, LS. 2, 
314; eh dich der schelm schlecht, Garg. 102 b ; der sell, schlagt, 
Mone s Bad. gesch. 1, 219; schelmen-grube, -gasse, -acker 1, 215 
seq. Leopr. 75-6; Jceib und schehn, Mone s Anz. 6, 467-8, schelmig 

u. kebig 8, 407. OHG. sulitluomi, pestilens, corruptus, Graff 

2, 212; staramilo, stramilo 6, 712. Diut. 1, 279; der brechen, 
plague, Panz. Beitr. 1, 23 ; dying of the brechen, H. Sachs 3, 64 C 
(cholera?); pisleht, pestis, Graff 6, 778 ( = sleht, clades, Diut. 1, 
183) ; der gehe tot in Pass. 316, 90 is apoplexy ; der scliwarze tod 
Mullenh. no. 329 ; how a pestilence could thus fall fr. the stars, 
and overrun the world, Ph. v. Sittew. Zauber-becher p. 238; 



SICKNESSES. 16G7 

die pestelenz stdszt an, Platter s Life 66. 71-2. The Serv. 

kratel is a fabulous disease that kills in one night, worse than the 
plague ; the dead man has one foot shorter than the other, hence 
the name (kratak, curt, Suppl. to 1160 end). Ilotvr) is a personif. 
plague that robs mothers of their children, Paus. i. 44, 7. With 
Apollo conf. OSinn in Saom. 5 a : fleyg&i OSinn, ok i folk um 
skaut (shot). The Lettons think it an omen of pestilence, if the 
auskuts shears the backs of the sheep in the night, Bergm. 142. 

p. 1183.] The angel that smites all in Ezek. 9 is called der 
slahende engel, Diemer 327-8. 2 Sam. 24, 16-7. Deliverance 
from the plague is effected by a snow-white angel, Greg. Tur. 4, 5. 
Angels and devils go about during the plague, Sommer p. 55 ; 
der sterbe erblzet (bites to death, an angel with drawn sword), 
Griesh. 2, 28 ; raging death rides through the city on a pale 
horse, Judas \, 327 ; in times of pestilence, Hel (m.) rides about 
on a three-legged horse, butchering men, Miilleuh. p. 244 ; ich 
hor auch das menlin kum, pestilenz, es fahet an (begins), Keisersb. 
Om. 24. 1 

p. 1184.] The black death rises as a black fog, Miillenh. no. 
329 ; the plague comes in sight as a blue mist, Somm. p. 73, as 
a cloud, a viper, Villemarq. Bard. bret. 120. The plague, in the 
shape of a fog, winds into a wasps hole, and gets plugged in, 
Kulpa in D Elv. 110 ; she comes in at the window, a black shape, 
passes into a bored hole, and is pegged in, Kehrein s Nassau 54. 
<cu/3o? aKepcreKofjirjs \OL/ULOV ve^eKrjV aTrepvfcet, Luc. Alex. 36. 

N. Marc. Cap. 30. The plague proceeds from the throats of 

pursued wolves, Forcell. sub v. Hirpi. Et nata fertur pestilentia 
in Babylonia, ubi de templo Apollinis, ex arcula aurea, qaam 
miles forte inciderat, spiritus pestilens evasit, atque iude Parthos 
orbemque implesse, Capitolinus in Vero 8. With the plague that 
is conjured into a lime-tree, agrees the spider that is bunged in 
and let out again, which also runs about the country as a sterbet, 
Gotthelfs Erziihl. \, 84. 

p. 1189.] The Great Plague is called pestisflava, Welsh y fad 
felen, San Marte s Arthur-s. 29. 323. With the leg. of Elliant 
conf. Volksmarch. aus Bret. p. 185 8. Souvestre 206-7. On 

1 Domus Thiederici, Thietm. Merseb. 4, 21 ; A.dpiavov Trvpyos, rd0oy, Procop. B. 
Goth. 2, 22 ; turris Crescentii or Dietrichs-haus in the leg. of Crescentia and the 
Two Dietrichs. In Wackern. Lb. 990, Ditterich builds the Entjel-borg ; it is called 
Sorsen-lurg in Myst. 1, 103. 



1668 HEEBS AND STONES. 

the Lith. Giltine, see N. Preuss. prov. bl. 8, 471-2. German 
plague-stories may be seen in Woeste s Volks-iiberl. 44, Panz. 
Beitr. 1, 29 and Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 83. The pest-frau is dressed in 
white, Bader no. 431. The plague creeps, crawls in the dark, 
Schmidt s Westervv. id. 89. The Swed. Plague-boy reminds of 
the girl who in Denmark indicates deaths to the kindred with 
a twig, Molb. Hist, tidskr. 4, 121 ; three plague- women walk 
through the town with scythes. The plague-maiden appears in 

wet garments and with a little red dog, Bunge s Arch. 6, 88. 

When pestilence rises out of Mit-othin s grave, the body is dug 
up and hedged in with stakes, Saxo Gr. ed. Mull. 4o (Suppl. to 
609). The abating of plagues by burying in a hill occurs in 
Sagebibl. 3, 288. The cow s-dcath, an enormous bull, approaches 
like the plague, Miillenh. no. 328. In time of plague, the first 
head of cattle that falls is buried with a young shoot or a willow 
planted in its mouth, Superst. 1,838. Mullenh. no. 327; or a 
bull is buried alive, Panzer 2, 180, a calf or cow sacrificed (pp. 
608. 1142). At Beutelsbach near Stuttgart, an old woman 
during a cattle plague advised that the hummel (parish-bull) 
should be buried alive : wreathed in flowers they led him in state 
to a deep pit; three times the mighty beast broke his way out, 
but the third time he choked. Hence the Beutelsbacher are 

named Hummelbacher. The plague flies at people s necks as a 

butterfly, Ji lerte, Woeste s Volks-iiberl. 44-5. The Kuga, like 
Berhta, can t bear to see the dishes not washed up. A strange 
bird sings from the tree : Eat pimpernel, and you ll all be well ! 
Herrlein s Spessart 2 1 7. Rochholz 2, 390-1 ; somewhat differently 
in Schoppner no. 962. Leoprechtiug 101. Bader no. 270. 
Panzer 2, 161. Schonwerth 2, 380. 3, 21. 



CHAPTER XXXV1L 
HERBS AND STONES. 



p. 1190.] Ace. to Galen (De fac. simpl. 6, 792-3) a Greek, 
Pamphilus, about the time of Claudius, wrote of herbs in alpha 
betic order, collecting their names and the superstitions about 
their virtues in sacrifices and incantations. Were the book 
extant, it would be valuable for mythology and language. 



HERBS AND STONES. 1669 

Possibly the names of plants interpolated in MSS. of Dioscorides 
are out of Pamphilus. 

1. HERBS. 

p. 1191.] Kein dine hat uf der erden an kreften also richen 
hort (of powers so rich a store) so steine, kriuter unde wort, Troj. 
10860; st&me, kriit sint an tugenden riche, wort wil ich darobe 
(above them) an kreften prisen, MS. 1, 12 b ; quae carmine sanet 
et herb is, Ov. Met. 10, 397. Wurzen kraft u. aller steine meister- 
schaft, MS. 1, 195 b ; wurze des waldes u. erze (ores) des goldes u. 
elliu abgriinde, diu sint dir Herre kiinde, MS. 2, 230; der steine 
kraft, der wiirze waz, Wh. 2, 14. What is the distinction betw. 
krut and wu-rz ? Ein lcrut, des wurze (whose aroma) er wunden 
helfen jach (asserted), Parz. 516, 24, conf. 516, 27 : er gruobse, 
i.e. the wurz ( = wurzel, root). Kraut is picked, wurzel dug out ; 
flowers too are picked (Walth. 39, 16. Hpt 7, 320) or gathered 

(Walth. 39, 1). Also: crat ksen, Lane. 29301. Ein edelknU, 

Hpt 4, 521; unedelbluot (ignoble blood) 7,321 (p. 1195); (lurch 
sine edel ez (daz krut) tragen, Warn. 1944; tugent-fruhtic kriutel, 
MS. 1, 88 a ; ich brich euch cdle kreuter, Mone 6, 460 ; (frap^a/cov 
ea0\6v, Od. 10, 287. 292; ein edles kraut patientia samt dem 
kreutlein benevolentia, die gaben also siiszen ruch, das es mein 
herz u. sel durchkruch. Healing herbs are herbes demanieres, 
Ren. 19257-69; surdae, hoc est ignobiles herbae, Pliny 22, 2, not 

showy, e.g. grass. Heil-wurz is fetched from an inaccessible 

mountain by the wild merwoman, Hpt 5, 8 (Suppl. to 1192 mid.), 
as dictamnus is by Venus from Ida, Aen. 12, 412. The Idee an bed 
of flowers is also in Petron. 127; the Homeric veodrjKeas Trot*?? 
is in Hesiod too, Theog. 576; a woodland bed [of flowers?] is 
Erek s and Enid s bette-wdt (-curtain), Er. p. 216. Vuk 1, no. 
224; rnit rosen was ich umbestact, Tragemund. Where the 
maiden stood in the garden, bloom the fairest flowers, Rhesa 
dainos 296 ; die bourne begunden krachen, die rosen sere laclien, 
Ges. Abent. 1, 464. Another plant a e capite statuae nascens 
is in Athenaeus 5, 497. Liebrecht s Gervas. 124. Gesta Rom. 
K. 138. Moss growing in a death s head is supposed to have 
magic power. There is a superstition about peas sown inside a 
skull. 

p. 1192.] Plants are dear to God; He called them forth. 



1670 HERBS AND STONES. 

Whether to pick beautiful flowers, or dur Got stdn Idn (for God s 
love let them stand) ? Hpt 4, 500. The inarrubium indeed is 
gotes-vergeten, gotis-v., gotz-vergessen, Mone 4, 240-8. 8, 493. 
407; gotis-vergeszene, Summerl. 57, 51. Sewv aypaycms, ?V 
Kpovos Karecnreipe Glaucus, having found and eaten it, becomes 

immortal, Athen. 3, 83-4. Alfjia "Apews (blood of Ares), nardus 

montana, Dioscor. 1,8, lilium 3, 106; alpa ( Ep fjuo v, verbena 4, 
60; alfjid AQrjvds chamaepitys 3, 165; al/ia Hpa/cXeou?, crocus 
1, 25, centaurium minus 3, 7; alpa rndvov, rubus 4, 37. So: 
76^09 e HpaK\eovs, myrtus silv. 4, 144, elleborum alb. 4, 148; 
761/09 Epfjiov, anethum 3, 60, buphthalmus 3, 146 ; 761/05 ffpeoo?, 
polygonum 4, 4 (is 761/09 here semen, or as the Lat. version has it, 
genitura?). The flower Aia$ first springs up after the hero s 
death, Paus. i. 35, 3. Plants often originate from drops of blood 
(p. 827), as the flower on Sempach field shoots up where Leopold 
has fallen, Reber s Henimerlin p. 240. The poison-plant dtcovirov 
grows out of Cerberus s drivel (Ov. Met. 7, 415. Serv. ad Virg. 
Geo. 2, 152), as the herb trachonte does from dragon s blood, Parz. 

483, 6. ApLcrro\o^La (corrup. into osterluzei) has reference to 

!/4/3Teyu,t9 Xo^eta, and is given to women in childbed. Herba 
Chironis alsing, Mone s Quellen 289 a ; herba S. Petri, ibid. The 
Pol. Dziewanna is both Diana and verbascum thapsus ; Boh. 
divizna (wonder-flower) is our himmelbrand (Suppl. to 1196). 
Baldrs bra stands on a par with supercilium Veneris, Diosc. 4, 
113 and jungfrauen aug-braune (virgin s eyebrow), achillea mille- 
folium, Nemnich ; conf. wild-frdulein-kraut, achillea moschata, 
Staid. 2, 451. AS. Sdtor-ldffe (p. 247). Woens-~kruid, angelica ? 
Coremans 53. Visumarus, son of summer, of the sun ? (Suppl. 

to 1212 end). The ceutaury was first pointed out by the 

centaur Chiron ; a herb is named achillea, bee. discovered by 
Chiron s pupil Achilles. Venus culls dictamnus on Ida for her 
wounded Aeneas, Aen. 12, 412. The fjuwXu plucked out by 
Hermes is, ace. to Dioscor. 3, 46-7, ruta silvestris and leucoiuin 
silvestre. An angel in a dream reveals the sowthistle (p. 1208) ; 
the wounded Albert is shown the remedial herb in a dream, 
Felsenb. 1, 232-4; an angel tells of a remedy in a dream, Engelh. 
5437 seq. One herb the Mother of God has covered with her 
cloak, Klose s Breslau p. 102; the empereriz having fallen asleep 
on a rock in the sea, Mary appears and bids her pull up the herb 



HERBS AND STONES. 1671 

that grows under her head, Meon N. rec. 2, 71-3. Maerl. 2, 226. 
Wackern. Lb. 995, 29. Frau Babehilt digs up and grates herbs 
for wounds, Ecken-1. 173 6. The mermaid urges the use of 
mugwort, the vila of odolian (pp. 1208. 1212). The vila gathers 
herbs (here bilye) for Marko, Vuk 2, 218 (ed. 45). 

p. 1194.] In the leg. of Glaucus and Polyidus a snake brings 
the herb that reanimates the dead, Apollod. Bibl. 3, 3 ; conf. 
KM. 3 3, 26. A weasel in the wood culls the red flower that 
quickens, Marie 1, 474. Birds pick herbs, and teach their uses 
to man, e.g. the spring- wurzel (p. 973). A raven comes flying 
with the wound-healing leaf, Vols. saga c. 8. If a swallow s chick 
grows blind, she fetches a herb, lays it on, and restores the sight; 
hence the herb s name of clielidonium, celandine, Dioscor. 2, 211. 
GDS. 204 ; and Megenberg tells the same tale of schell-wurz 
(celandine). 1 Harts shew the hart- wort (hirsch-wurz, -heil), 
Megenb. 398, 2225. With Norweg. Tyri-hialm (Tiwes-helm) 
coincides !/4peo? /cvvfj, Babr. 68, 4. Does OHG. ivat-wurz, Graff 
1, 768 stand for Watin-wurz ? 

p. 1195.] Mary has the most herbs named after her, see 
Fries s Udfl. 1, 87. Similar to the wine Liebfrauen -milch is 
H^poSm;? 7aXa, Aristoph. in a lost play p. m. 154 a ; ?JSi;<? 76 
iriveiv olvos *A<f)po. <yd\a, Athen. 10, 444 d . Marien-milch how 
ever is polypodium vulg., said to have grown out of the drops of 
milk that Mary scattered over the land, F. Magnus. 361 note ; 
conf. the Span. lecJte de los viejos, leche de Maria = wine. Marian 
bett-stroh is Engl. lady s bedstraw, lady in the straw, Hone s 

Yrbk 814. Frua-mdnteli, malva rotundifolia, Wolf s Zts. 2, 54. 

Vrowen-har, Minnen-hdr, capillus Veneris, Mone 4, 241 ; conf. 
Venus s eyebrow (Suppl. to 1192 mid.). Nemnich sub vv. 
cypripedium, adiantum. Marien-thrane, -tear, resembles "Hpa? 
&d/cpvov, verbena, Diosc. 4, 60. Labrum, lavacrum, concha Vene- 
ris = dipsacus sitibundus, bee. it gathers dewdrops. Margarethen- 
schoclda, -shoe, put in a box, becomes a black worm. 

1 A field-flower, euphrasia or myosotis, is called augen-trost (eye s comfort), 
Nethl. oghen-troost ; also augen-dienst (Blumentrost, a family name at Miilhausen) ; 
conf. den ich in minen ougen gerne burge, Wolfr. 8, 4 ; ze sumere die ougen 
trosten schoene wise (fair meads enchant the eye) ; lovely ladies were 6<f>6a\fj.uv 
d\yrjd6vs, eye-smarts. Dseges eage, primula veris [?J , M. Engl. daies eyghe, 
daisy, Alex. 7511. Clovec too is called ougen brehende, but Engl. eye-bright is 
euphrasia. Ich tuon dir in den ougen wol, Winsbekin 4, 4; er ist mir in deu 
ougen niht ein dorn, MS. 1, 16 b . 2, 98 a ; ob ez ir etelichen taete in den ougen we, 
MS. 1, 68 a . GDS. 209 ; coni. frie deles ouga, Mone 8, 405. Hpt. 6, 332. 



1672 HERBS AND STONES. 

p. 1195.] Flowers are picked and presented to ladies, Hpt 7, 
320. Some herbs engender strife, esp. among women : ononis 
spinosa, weiber-krieg , women s war, Lat. altercum ; Serv. bilye od 
omraze, herbs of hate, that makes friends fall out, Vuk 1, 305 (ed. 
24). Boh. l>ily is one particular plant, tussilago. Herbs were 
broken off with the pommel of a sword, Lane. 12013, picked with 
the left hand, bare-footed (see selago). They are gathered ace. 
to days of the week: on Sunday solsequium, Monday lunaria, 
Tuesd. verbena, Wednesd. mercurialis, Thursd. barba Jovis, Frid. 
capillus Veneris, Saturd. crowfoot (? p. 247). Superst, H, cap. 
31-2. 

p. 1196.] Pliny 26. 5, 14 calls condurdum herba solstitialis, 
flore rubro, quae e collo suspensa strumas comprimit ; conf. Plaut. 
Pseudol. i. 1, 4: quasi solstitialis herba paulisper fui, repente 

exortus sum, repentino occidi. Herba Britannicci is called in 

Diosc. 1, 120 aXt/^09, ol &e ftperavvitcr ], in 4, 2 (BpeTavviicr) r) 
fteTTovi/crj, couf. Diefenb. Celt. 3, 112. Cannegieter de Briten- 
burgo, Hag. Com. 1734. Abr. Hunting de vera herba Brit. 
Arnst. 1698. C. Sprengel s Diosc. 2, 571. GDS. 679. An 
OHG-. gl. of the 12th cent, has herba Brit., himel-brant, Mone 
8, 95; perh. hilmibranda = m&urella, in Graff 3, 309 stands for 
himilbranda. Himmel-brand, -&erze = verbascuin thapsus, white 
mullein, Schm. 2, 196; and hil de-brand, verb, nigrum, 2, 178. 
Himmelbrand, brenn-kraut, feld-kerze, unholden-kerze = verb, 
thapsus, says Ho fer 2, 52 ; unholden-Jcraut, Boh. divizna, Jungm. 
1, 371 a (Suppl. to 1192 mid.). Instead of hcewen-hyffele, bri- 
tannica/ Mone s Quellen 320 a has the forms hcewen-hyldele, Jueiven- 
ijdele ; may hylde, hilde be akin to helde, heolode (hiding, 

hidden) ? Tonnoire, fleur du tonnerre, coquelicot, poppy, 

Grandgagnage s Voc. 26; donner-bart (-beard) is sedum tele- 
phium. A fungus ITOV in Thrace grew during thunder, Athen. 
1, 238; subdued thunder generates mushrooms, Meghaduta, p. 4. 

On lotus see Klemm 1, 112-3; lotus caerulea, Bopp s Gl. 39 b . 
46. Sprengel s Diosc. 2, 622 ; white and blue lotus, Fries s 
Udfl. 1, 107. 

p. 1199.]. Mir wart ein krut in min hant, Ls. 1, 211; does 
that mean stole in imperceived ? conf. (f)v ev %et/n, Passow 2, 
1042. Si sluoc daz krut mir uz der hant, Ls. 1, 218. Of the 
aster atticus, Dioscorides 5, 118 says: grjpov 3e avcupeOzv rfj 



HERBS AND STONES. 1673 

dpio-repa xeipl rov aA/yoOj/ro<?, in the patient s left hand. Of the 
bark of the wild figtree, Pliny 23. 7, 64 : caprifico quoque medi- 
cinae unius miraculum additur, corticem ejus impubescent em puer 
impubis si defracto ramo detrahat dentibus, medullam ipsara 
adalligatam ante soils ortum prohibere strumas. Three roses are 
picked off in five picks, Amgb. 48 b (conf. wishing for 3 roses 
on one stalk, two roses on one branch, Uhl. Volksl. pp. 23. 116. 
Keusch no. 12. Meinert s Kuhl. 95 ; offering 3 roses, Uhl. p. 

257-8). A Swecl. account of digging up the rbnn (rowan) in 

Dyb. 45, 63. Am abend soltu sie (the vervain) umkreissen mit 
silber u. mit golde u. mit siden (silk), Mone 6, 474. When the 
root is pulled out, the hole is filled up with corn, to propitiate 
the earth (Suppl. to 1241). The plant is plucked suddenly, and 
covered with the hand (Suppl. to 1214) : du solt ez (the shoot) 
uz der erden geziehen vil Uhte, En. 2806 and 2820 5, where 
Virgil has no shoot to be pulled up, but a branch to be torn off. 
La sainte herbe qu a son chief trueve . . . tot en orant I erbe a 
coillie, Meon N. rec. 2, 73. 

p. 1202.] The grasses growing through a sieve remind one of 
the words purh aern in-wyxft (p. 1244). It is curious too, 
that an elder should be considered curative when it grows in a 
hollow willow-tree out of seeds that thrushes had swallowed, 
Ettn. Unw. d. 161-2. There are herbs, the sight of which allays 
hunger : esuriesque sitis visis reparabitur herbis, Ecbas. 592. 

p. 1204.] The mightiest of magic roots is mandrake : abollena 
alrun, Sumerl. 54, 37. How to pull it out is also descr. in 
Oeuvres de Rutebeuf 1, 474: Ceste dame herbe (conf. la mere 
des herbes, artemisia, Suppl. to 1212 beg.), il ne la trest ne giex 
(Jew) ne paiens ne sarrazins ne crestiens, ains la trest une beste 
mue, et tantost cotne ele est traite, si covient morir cele heste. In 
like manner the root Baaras is pulled up by means of a dog, 
Joseph. 7, 25. Armenian manrakor or loshtak, a man-like root, 
is pulled out by a [dog ?] to which it is tied ; in coming out it 
moans in a human voice/ Artemius of Yagarshapat, transl. by 

Busse (Halle 21) p. 106. Mandragora grows in Paradise, 

where the elefant goes to look for it, Karajan. MavSpayopas. 
UvOayopas dv0pa)7r6/j,op(j)ov, Pw/jbciLOi fjudXa icaviva, Diosc. 4, 76. 
The alraun is carved out of a root (p. 513n.). Panz. Beitr. 1, 250. 
Un vergier a li peres Floire, u plantes est li mandegloire, Flore 



1674 HERBS AND STONES. 

244. Mandragora tvalm, Mone 8, 95 ; von senfte der alrunen 
wart mich sltifen, Frauenl. 6, 26 ; VTTO jjiavbpayopq /caQevSeiv, 
Luc. Timon 2 (ed. Bip. 1, 331 3) ; e/c pavSpayopov KaOev&ew, 

Luc. Demosth. enc. 36. On the alriine in Frauenlob s Minne- 

leich 15, 2, Ettmiiller says p. 286: they seem to have believed 
that mandrakes facilitated birth/ This is confirmed by Adam 
Lonicerus in his Kreuterbuch (1582) bl. 106 a . Alraun rinden 
dienet zu augen-arzneyen. Dieser rinden drey heller gewicht 
schwer, fur der fraweii gemacht (women s chamber) gehalten, 
bringet ihnen ihre zeit, treibet auss die todte geburt. Alrunen 
heizit er virbern (he is said to have about him) : swenne er wil, 
so ist er ein kindelin, swenne er wil, so mac er alt sin, Cod. Pal. 
361, 12 b . He must keep an araunl by him, that tells him all 
he wants to know/ H. Jorgel 20, 3. The mandragora is put into 
a white dress, and served twice a day with food and drink, Spinnr. 
evangel. Tuesday 2 ; conf. the tale of the gallows mannikin, 
Simpl. 3, 811. 

p. 1204.] OSinn sticks the thorn into Brynhild s garment 
only, and throws her into a sleep (Kl. schr. 2, 276). In Tirol 
the schlaf-kunz is called schlaf-putze, Zingerle 552. Hermannus 
dictus Slepe-rose, Hamb. lib. actor. 127, 6 (circ. 1270). The 
hawthorn is sentis canina, lignea canis, Athen. 1, 271. Breton 
gars spenij thorn-bush, in the story of a fair maiden. Nilsson 6, 
4.5 maintains that on barrows of the bronze age a hawthorn was 
planted and held sacred; and the same among Celts (Kl. schr. 2, 
254. 279). 

p. 1207.] Mistletoe grows on the hazel, lime, birch, fir, willow, 
and esp. oak, Dyb. Runa 2, 16. AS. dc-mistel, viscum quer- 
neum. Mist da, a woman s name, Mone 5, 492. Trad. Fuld. 1, 
130. Schannat 445. Many places named after it: Mistlegau 
near Baireuth ; Mistelouwa, Mistlau, near Crailsheirn, Stalin 1, 
599; Mistelbach, Frauend. 272, 18. Kaltenb. Pantaid. 184 b ; 
ad Misteleberge, Lacornblet (yr. 1054) no. 189; Mistelveld, 
Lang s Eeg. 2, 397 (yr 1248). 3, 55 (yr 1255). Bamb. calend. 
p. 142; Mispilswalde, Lindenbl. p. 24; Misterhult i Smaland, 
Dybeck 45, 80. A sword belonging to Semingr is called 

Mistilteinn in Hervarars. (Fornald. sog. 1, 416). Mistil = 

tuscus (1. viscus), Hpt 5, 326. 364. In some parts of Germany 
they call mistletoe kenster, kinster. Walloon hamustai, hamu- 



HEEBS AND STONES. 1675 

staine, Grandgagnage 1, 270 and henistai, ldnistrai = kinster, 
canister, Grandg. Voc. 23-4. Engl. misseltoe, misletoe, Hone s 
Daybk 1, 1637-8. And maren-tacke is misletoe, bristly plant 

(p. 1247, 1. 11). Nilsson would trace all the Scand. mistletoe 

cultus to the Druidic, Dybeck 45, 79. 80. Ein mistlein pater 
noster, MB. 18, 547 (yr. 1469); mischtlin paternoster, mispel and 
aich-mistlin paternoster, Ruland s Handlungs-b. yrs 1445-6-7. 
(Pref. viii.) Mistletoe must be cut on a Midsummer-night s eve, 
when sun and moon are in the sign of their power (conjunction?), 
Dyb. 44, p. 22. For the oak mistletoe to have any power, it 
must be shot off the tree, or knocked down with stones, Dyb. 45, 
p. 80. In Virgil s descr. of the sacred bough, Aen. vi., 

137. aureus et foliis et lento vimine ramus, 

141. auricomos quam quis decerpserit arbore/ete, 

144. aureus, et simili frondescit virga metallo, 

187. et nunc se nobis ille aureus arbore ramus, 

this aureus fetus is merely compared to (not ident. with) the 
croceus fetus of the mistletoe; conf. Athen. 3, 455-7. An oak with 
a golden bough occurs in a Lett, song, Biittner no. 2723. Armor 
liuelvar, aft. heller ; Wei. uchelawg, uchelfa, uclielfar, uchelfel, 
Jiolliach, Jones p. 39 l b . Lett, ohsa welija stlohta, oak-mistletoe, 
from ohsols, oak, and flohta, broom, plume; welija /lolita is a plant 
of which brooms are made. Does wehja mean holy ? conf. 
welija wannags (Suppl. to 675). Serv. lepalt, viscum album, 
also mela, of which Vuk p. 394 says : If a mistletoe be found on 
a hazel, there lies under that hazel a snake with a gem on his 
head, or another treasure by the side of it. 

p. 1208.] Welsh gwlydd usu. means mild, tender, gwiolydd 
is violet. Valerian is in Finn, ruttoyuuri, plague-wort ; another 
Boh. name is kozljk. A rare word for valerian is tennemarch, 
Nemnich. Mone 8, 140 a . Hpt 6, 331. Worthy of note is the 
Swed. tale about the mooring of Tivebarh and Vendelsrot, Dyb. 
45, p. 50. The Serv. name odolidn resembles a Polish name of 
a plant, dol^ga, for dolejka means upper hand ; conf. Vuk s Gloss. 
sub. v. odumiljen. Odilienus is a man s name, Thietmar 4, 37 ; 
so is Boh. Odolen (Kl. schr. 2, 393). Nardus is fragrant, esp. 
the Indica ; nardus Celtica is saliunco. Ndp&os 
John 12, 3 is in Goth, nardus pistikeins filu-galaubs. 



1676 HERBS AND STONES. 

p. 1208.] Ace. to Martin s Relig. d. Gaules, Belinuntia comes 
fr. Belenus (Diefenb. Celt. 1, 203. Zeuss p. 34), and is a herba 
Apollinaris ; Apollo is said to have found it, Forcell. sub v. 
Russ. belena, Pol. bielun, Boh. blen, bljn, Hung, belendfu. EngL 
henbane, gallinae mors. 

p. 1208.] On eberwurz, see Reuss s Walafr. Strab. Hortulus 
p. 66. Great power is attrib. to the carlina, Dyb. 45, p. 72. 
Another thistle is in Sweden called jull-borste, ibid., reminding 
us of the boar Gullin-bursti and of eberwurz. As Charles s 
arrow falls on the sow-thistle, so does Cupid s on a flower to 
which it imparts miraculous power, love-in-idleness, Mids. N. 
Dr. 2, 2 ; and other healing herbs are revealed in dreams. In 
another dream a grey smith appears to the same king Karel, 
and with his pincers pulls nails out of his hands and feet, Hpt 
1, 103. 

p. 1209.] An AS. Herbal says of Betonica : ]?eos wyrt, J?e 
man betonicam nemneiS, heo biiS cenned on maedum and on 
claenum dunlandum and on gefrrSedum slowum. seo deah 
gehwaeiSer ge J>aes mannes sawle ge his lichoman (benefits soul 
and body), hio hyne scyldeft wr3 (shields him against) unhyrum 
niht-gengum and wr$ egeslicum gesihdum and swefnum. seo 
wyrt b;y$ swyfte haligu, and ]?us ]m hi scealt niman on Agustes 
mon^e butan iserne (without iron), etc. MHG. batonie (rhy. 
Saxonie), Tit. 1947: betoene (rhy. schoene), Hatzl. 163, 86, 
K.<TTpov PwfJLoioi overroviKrjv KaKovcri, Diosc. 4, 1. 

Verbena is akin to veru and Virbius, says Schwenck pp. 489. 
491 ; it stands for herbena, says Bergk. It is sacred, and there 
fore called iepoftordvrj and herba pura, qua coronabantur bella 
indicturi, Pliny 22. 2, 3. 25. 9, 59. Wolfg. Goethe s Dissert, 
p. 30-1. ft is called Trepto-repetov, bee. pigeons like to sit by it ; 
also ferraria, Diosc. 4, 60 : 77 criSrjplTis 4, 33-4-5. OHG. isarna, 
isenma, Graff 3, 864. 1, 491 ; faincletta 4, 555. Sumerl. 24, 9 ; 
isenarre, Sumerl. 40, 54; iserenbart 66, 40. MHG. isenliart,. 
Mone s Anz. 4, 250 and Quellen 309 b . Eisen-kraut, as we still 
call it, is thrown into St. John s fire (p. 618); conf. Lay aside 
the Johnswort and the vervain/ Whitelaw p. 112. Nethl. izer- 
lirud, Swed. jern-ort, Dan. jern-urt. There was a spell for dig 
ging up vervain, Mone 6, 474. AS. cesc-wyrt, Hpt. 5, 204;. 
cesc-prote, Lye sub v. GDS. 124. 



HEEBS AND STONES. 1677 

p. 1209.] Madelger 1st ain gut crut wurtz. swer si grabn wil, 
der grab si an Sant Johans tag ze sun-benden (solstice) an dem 
abent, und beswer si also dri-stund (adjure it 3 times thus) : Ich 
beswer dich, Madelger, Ain wurtz so her, Ich manen dich des 
gehaiz den dir Sant Pettrus gehiez, Do er sinen stab dri-stund 
durcli dich stiez, Der dich usgrub Und dich haim trug : Wen er mit 
dir umb-fauht (whom he with thee begirds), ez sy fraw oder man, 
Der mug ez in lieb oder in minn nimer gelaun. In Gotz namen, 
Amen/ wihe si mit andern crutern. Kriiuter-heilkunde (yr 
1400) in the Giessen Papierhs. no. 992, bl. 143. 

p. 1211.] Fern, bracken. Gr. Trre/n? fr. its feathery foliage.* 
Ij&t.filix, It.felce, Sp. helecho, Fr. fougere. Filix herba, palmes 
Mercurii (Suppl. to 159) ; filicina, filix minuta, AS. eofor-fearn. 
Celt, ratis, Wei. rliedyn, Bret, raden, Ir. raith, raithneach, Gael. 
raineach (conf. reinefano), Pott 2, 102. Adelung s Mithr. 2, 68 
from Marcell. c. 25 (Kl. schr. 2, 123). Finn, sana-yalka (word- 
foot), Beth, sona-yalg, Bocler s Abergl. gebr. d. Esten 144. 
Lith. bit-kresle (bee s chair) = tanacetum vulg., Nesselm. 226. 
331. Serv. pouratish, tansy, tanacetum crispum (fr. po- 
vratiti, to turn back ? ON. burkni, filix, polypodium, Swed, 
broken, Vesterb. froken, Dan. bregne. Again, ON. einstapi, 
Jonsson s Oldn. ordboc, Norw. einstabbe, einstape, Aasen 79 b . 

Nemnich sub v. pteris. Swed. ormbunke. -Den wilden varm 

treten, Parz. 444, 7. 458, 17 ; latentis odii^/i aj excrevit, Dietmar 
in Pertz 5, 736 ; filex iniquitatis exaruit 5, 742. Fernseed makes 
invisible^ Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 30 : we have the receipt of fernseed, 
we walk invisible, 1 Henry IV. 2, 1 ; Swed. osynlighets grds. 
As fernseed in Conrad is thrown to the shad (schaid-visch, 
Beheim 281, 28), so bugloss, which is said to blind all animals 
born blind, is scattered to fishes, Rudl. 12, 13. l b , 28. 32 48. 
After walking naked to the cross-roads and spreading out a 

pockethandkerchief, one expects fernseed, Zehn ehen 235. On 

Christmas night, high and low used to walk in the fernseed ; 
there you might wish for anything in the world, the devil had to 
bring it. The Wend, volksl. 2, 271 a makes it blossom at Mid 
summer noon : get hold of the blossom, and all the treasures of 

* So, from the Slav, par-iti, to fly, pcro, wing, feather, Hehn derives not only the 
redupl. Slav, and Lith. pa-part, pa-prat, but the Teut. farn and even the Celt, ratis 
which stands (more Celtico) for pratis. Hehn s Plants and Anim. p. 484. TRANSL, 

VOL. IV. D D 



1678 HEEBS AND STONES. 

earth lie open before you. Conf. the Sloven, riddle : kay tsvete 
brez tsveta ? what blossoms without blossom ? Answ. praprot. 
In Tirol, if you step on an irr-wurz, you immed. find yourself 
plunged in a bog or a carrion-pit. A story of the irr-kraut in 
-Stober s Neujahrstollen 32-3; conf. Lett, songs in Biittner nos. 
1593. 1912. 

p. 1212.] Artemisia, Fr. arrnoise, 0. Fr. ermoize,is called in 
Champagne marrebore or marreborc (marrubium?), which is supp. 
to mean la mere des herbes (Rutebeuf 1, 257), as in fact arte- 
misia is called herbarum mater in Macer. Rutebeuf s Dit 
de 1 erberie 1, 257 makes ermoize the first of healing herbs : Les 
fames sen ceignent le soir de la S. Jehan, et en font chapiaux 
seur lor chiez, et dient que goute ne avertinz ne les puet panre 
n en chiez, n en braz, n en pie, n en main ; mais je me merveil 
quant les testes ne lor brisent, et que li cors ne rompent parmi, 

tant a 1 erbe de vertu en soi. The Germ, word for it occurs as 

a man s name Pei/bos (yr 1330), Bamberger verein 10, 107, and 
Bei/poz (yrs 1346-57) 10, 129. 136-8. 145. Even Schannat no. 
348 has the name Beboz (see Kl. schr. 2, 399. Dronke s Trad. 
Fuld. 420); and * bcyposs = &rkemesi a, in Vocab. Theuton. 
(Nuremb. 1482) d. 7 a . At last, in Vocab. ex quo Eltuil 1469, 
* attamesia = byfuyss, and also incus = eyn anf usse, the f in both 
being appar. Mid. Rhenish.* Bismolten, artemisia, est nomen 
herbe, volgariter byfus in ander sprach bock/ Voc. incip. Teuton. 
Bibes ist ain crut : wer fer welle gaun, der soil es tragen, so wirt 
er nit mud sere uf dem weg, der tiifel mag im och nit geschaden ; 
und wo es in dem hus lit, es vertribt den zober/ Heilmittelbuch 
of 1400 in the Giess. hs. no. 992, bl. 128 b . Artemisia, ley fuss, 
sonnenwendel, J. Serranus s Diet. Latino-Germ. (Niirnb. 1539) 
66 b ; in dem bifiis, Moneys Anz. 34, 337. Superstitions about 
it, Panz. Beitr. 1, 249. St John s coals (touchstones) are found 
fr. noon to vespers of John s day under the beyfuss ; alias non 

inveniuntur per annum/ Mone 7, 425. Artemisia is zimber, 

zimbira in Hattemer 3, 597 a ; hergott-holzel in Nemnich p. 466. 
AS. tagantes helde = artemisia (tragantes, for rpaydfcavda 1 ?), 
Mone s Quell. 320 a (conf. p. 1216 n.). OHG. stapa-wurz, stdbe-w., 
abrotonum, Graff 1, 1052. Sumerl. 60, 2; our stabwurz, southern- 

* The corruption of biboz into our meaningless beifuss is a fair example of 
Folk-etymology : the herb is good for the pedestrian s feet. TRANSL. 



HERBS AND STONES. 1679 

wood. OS. staf-wurt, dictamnum, dittany, Dint. 2, 192. Arte 
misia is buggila in Hattemer 1, 314 ab and Mone 8, 400; bug el 
6, 220 ; bugge 8, 405 ; buggul, Voc. opt. p. 51 a ; fail 8e ev rals 
oooiTTopt aw pr) 7rapaTpi/3eo-0ai, TOU? /Bov/Swvas, ayvov pdftSov rj 
HJ9 aprefjiMrlas Kparovfj,ev7)s (groin not galled if one carry a 
switch of agnus castus or artemisia), Diosc. 2, 212. Gallic Trovep, 
Dacian fouoo-n; (conf. fwo-nfc, girdle), GDS. 208. Diefenb. Celt. 
1, 172. Ir. mugard, AS. mucg-wyrt, GDS. 708. Boh. cerno-byl, 
Pol. czarno-byl, Sloven, zhernob (black herb) ; Serv. bozhye drutze, 
God s little tree. 

To Gothic names of plants, add vigadeind, Tpifio\os (Suppl. 
to 1215). On equisetum, see Pott s Comm. 2, 27. OHG. gren- 
sinc, nympha3a, potentilla, clavus Veneris, Graff 4, 333 ; MHG. 
grensinc, Moneys Anz. 4, 244-6. In a Stockholm MS. we find the 
spell : Unse leve vrowe gink sik to damme, se sochte grensink 
den langen. do se en vant, do stunt he un bevede. se sprak : 
summe den soten Jesurn Crist, wat crudes du bist ? Junk- 
frowe, ik hete grensink, ik bin das weldigeste hint, ik kan den 
kettel kolen, ik kan alle dink vorsonen, ik kan den unschuldigen 
man van den galgen laten gan ; de mi bespreke un ineges dages 
up breke, dem were God holt und alle mannen kunne un golt 
sulven. in den namen des Vaders un des Sons, etc. Is grensinc 
fr. grans, prora, bee. it grows in front of your boat ? 

Glover, trifolium, Dan. Mever, Germ, klee : niibblattlets klee 
(p. 1079 mid.). Esp. significant is the four-leaved (p. 1137 end): 
klewer veer, Mullenh. pp. 410. 557 ; clover cinquefoil, Bret, march. 
89. 93 ; to send trefoil and wine, Arch. v. Unterfranken iv. 3, 
169. Clover is called himmel-kraut in Bavaria : schon bluet s 
Jdmel-kraut, Schm. 2, 196, conf. Mm el- b lile, rainbow, himel-brand, 
mullein (Suppl. to 1196) ; hergotts-brot (-bread), head of clover 
blossom, Schm. 2, 231, conf. brosam-kmiit, Superst. I, 369; 

Gotis-ampher (-sorrel), alleluja, Surnerl. 54, 35. Icel. smdri, 

trifol. album ; Jutl. smdre. ON. qveisu-gras, trifol. fibrinum, 
good for colic and hysterica passio (Suppl. to 1159 beg.). Swed. 
cdpling : superstit. of the fyr-vdpl., fem-vapl., Dybeck ^48, 
p. 22. Gall, visumarus, Diefenb. 1, 46 (Suppl. to 1192 mid. 
Kl. schr. 2, 156. 171). Ir. shamrock, in O Brien seamrog (Kl. 
schr. 2, 156), GDS. 302. Welsh meillionen, Armor, melchen, 
melchon. Clover used in Persian sacrifices, Herod. 1, 132. 



1680 HERBS AND STONES. 

p. 1213.] Our g under -mannlein, gundel-rebe, is a tiny blue 
flower, whereas OHG. gunde-reba = acer, maple ; guilder ebe, acer, 
balsamita, Mone 7, 600. In a charm : guntreben ger (maple 
shoot ?), I toss thee up to the clouds/ Mone 6, 468. 

p. 1213.] Morsus diaboli, devilsbit, see Dybeck 45, 52. AS. 
ragu (ragwort) is glossed by mosicum, mossiclum/ perh. 
mosylicum ; otherw. ragu is robigo. Lye has also ( Cristes 
maeles ragu, Christi crucis mosicum, herba contra ephialten 
valens/ Schubert p. 197 : ragwurz, orchis. 

Serv. stidak (shamefaced), caucalis grandiflora : it has a white 
blossom, with a little red in the middle. This red, they say, was 
greater once, but grew less every day, as modesty died out among 
men, Vuk sub v. 

Holder (wolfs-claw ?), when eaten, causes vomiting or purging, 
ace. as it was shelled over or under one, Judas 1, 169. Lycopo- 
dium complanatum, ON. jaftii, Dan. javne, Swed. jemna, Vesterb. 
jamm. 

p. 1214.] A plant of universal healing power is h&il-aller-weU, 
agrimonia, Mone 8, 103; oiler frowen lieil, MS. 2, 48 a ; guotes 
matures lieil, Hpt. 2, 179. Lisch s Meckl. jrb. 7, 230; conf. the 
ointment mannes heil, Iw. 3452. Er. 7230. 

p. 1214.] Dorant seems a corrup. of andor, andorn (hore- 
hound) : trail your shirt in blue tharand, N.Pr. prov. bl. 8, 229. 
Gothl. tarald, aggliug, ett gras for hvilket trollen tros sky, Almqv. 
464 a . Hold up thy skirt, that thou graze not the white orand ! 
M. Neth. orant, Mone 6, 448. Hoist, gdler orant, Miillenh. no. 

425. A. herb that says, Be wol-gemut, (of good cheer) ! 

Hofifm. Gesellschaftsl. 136; die brauiie wolgemnt, Ambras. lied, 
p. 212. Pol. dobry mysli, good thoughts. The plant must be 
plucked hastily, and hidden : eyu-yu-aTreo)? rov opiyavov ev %6/ot 
K6V061, Athen. 1, 262 ; opiyavov /SXeVew, look sour, as though 
you had bitten marjoram. 

Porst, porse is strewn under the table, to sharpen a guest s 
appetite, Fries s Udfl. pp. 109. 110; conf. borsa, myrtus, Graff 
3,215. 

p. 1214.] OHG. hart-houivi (-hay) must, I think, be the 
liarten-aue which the girl murkles to find out if her lover loves 
her, Firmen. 2, 234. Fiedler s Dessauer volksr. 98. In Sweden 
this hypericum perforatum has to be one of the nine sorts of 



HEEBS AND STONES. 1681 

flowers that make the Midsum. nosegay ; the picking of it is 
descr. in Runa 44, p. 22-3 : you lay it under your pillow, and 
notice what you dream. Again, that plant with St-John s- 
blood sap (Miillenh. p. 222) is the hart-heu, Schub. p.m. 184. 
Schiitze s Hoist, id. 1, 117-8. 

OHG. reinfano, Graff 3, 521, Swed. renfane, tansy, seems to 
be sacred to elves, Fries s Udfl. 1, 109 ; it helps in difficult 
childbirth. Does the name denote a plant that grows on boun 
daries [rain = strip of grass left betw. hedgeless cornfields] ? 
conf. rein-farn, Kl. schr. 2, 44. 

p. 1214.] Was ivid&rtan orig. widar-dono, formed like aslf- 
J?ona ? yet it is wedertam in Sumerl. 55, 49. The country-mouse 
in Rollenhagen, when visited by the town-mouse, lays down a 
bundle of widderthan, that gleams like a red poppy. Widerthon- 
moos (-moss) is polytrichum commune, Schub. p.m. 210, other 
wise called golden frauen-haar (conf. the holy wood-moss of the 
Samogitians, and the special gods for it, Lasicz 47). Frisch 
calls widerthon a lunaria ; the osmunda lunaria is named anltelir- 
Jcraut (sweep to-), and is supp. to give cows good milk : 

Griisz dich Gott, ankehr-Jcraut ! 
ich brock dich ab, u. trag dich nach haus ; 
wirf bei meinem kuhel (lay flesh on my cow) finger- 
dick auf. Hofer 1, 36. 



p. 1215.] Weg~wise = solaequ.ium in Albr. v. Halb. 129 b ; 
wege-weis = cichorium intybus, Nemnich ; conf. AS. for-tredde, 
our wege-tritt. Da wenic wege-riches stuont, Parz. 180, 7; 
other names are weg-luge (Staid. 2, 439) from f luogen/ and 
Hdnslein bei m iveg (or is it hduslein bei dem weg/ as in 
Fischart s Onomast. 221?). Serv. bokvitza, plantago, fr. bok = 
side; Boh. cekarika, fr. cekati = wait [Russ. poputnik, podorozhnik, 
fr. puti, doroga=way]. - Dicitur quod tres rami corrigiolae 
(wegetritt) collectae in nomine Trinitatis et cum oratione domi- 
nica, suspensi in panno lineo, maculam oculi sine dubio tollunt, 
Mono 7, 424. Das edle kraut iveg-warte macht guten augen- 
schein, Ambras. lied. p. 18 ; item es spricht alwartus, die wegwart- 
wurtzeln soltu niecht essen, so magstu nit wund werden von 
hauen noch von stechen, Giess. papier-hs. no. 1029 (conf. p. 1244). 
Advocati consueverunt se munire sambuco et plantagine ut 



1682 HEEBS AND STONES. 

vincant in causis is Bohemian, like that about the child s caul 
(p. 874n.). The above names remind us of Goth. vigadeino = 
tribulus (Suppl. to 1212 mid.), as the Gr. /3aro9 is perhaps from 
ftaivw, and the Lat. sentis akin to Goth. sinj?s, via ; yet conf. Kl. 
schr. 5,451 seq. GDS. 211. 

p. 1215.] Of the leek an ON. riddle says : hoffti sinu visar a 
helvegu, en foturn til solar sn$r/ his head points to hell, his feet 
to heaven ; to which HerSrekr answers h6fu$ veit i Hlo^Synjar 
skaut, en bloS i lopt/ Fornald. s. 1, 469 (conf. the /3o\/3ot in 
Aristoph. Clouds 187 193). Sara-lank siofta, boiling wound- 
leeks, means forging swords 1, 468. With the leek men divine, 
Dyb. ; 45, p. 61 ; it drives evil spirits away, Fries s Udfl. 1, 109. 
House-leek, sempervivum tectorum, Swed. tak-lok, wards off 
misfortune 1, 110. Radix allii victorialis is neun-hommlere in 
Staid. 2, 236 ; in Nemnich neun-hemmerlein, sieben-hemmerlein. 
OHG. surio, surro, m., cepa, porrum, Graff 6, 273. 

p. 1215.] The rowan or ronn (Dyb. J 45, 62-3) is called wild 
ash, mountain ash, vogelbeer-baum, sperber-baum, AS. wice, 
Plattd. hivieke, Wolfs Ztschr. 2, 85. Men like a staff made of 
pilber-baujii, sorbus aucuparia, Possart s Bstl. 163. Finn, pihlava, 
sorbus, is planted in holy places : pihlayat pyhille maille, Kalev. 
24, 71. 94. Renvall sub v. 

p. 1216.] Hab-mich-lieb and wol-gemut (Suppl. to 1214) are 
herbs of which wreaths were twined, Hiitzl. 15 1} ; f ein krenzlin 
von wolgemuot ist fiir sendez truren guot, 5 good for love-sick 
ness 162-3. 

p. 1216.] A wort, that the mermaid dug on the mount that 
might not be touched, makes whoever eats it understand the 
wild beast, fowl and fish, Hpt. 5, 8. 9. A herb accidentally picked 
opens to him that carries it the thought and speech of others, Ls. 
1, 211-8. Herb chervil blinds or gives double sight, Garg. 148 a . 
Ges. Abent. 2, 267. Whoever carries herb assidiose in his hand, 
commands spirits, Tit. 6047. When the dew falls in May on 
the herb parbodibisele } one may harden gold in it, Tit. 3698-9. 
Cattle are made to eat three blooming flowers, the blue among 
them, so as not to be led astray into the mountains. Hpt 4, 505. 

p. 1216 n.] AS. celf-frona is expl. by fiona or pone, palmes, 
pampinus, conf. OHG. upar-dono, sudarium ; is alb-dono then a 
cloth spread by the elves? If aslf-JKme be fern, and =OHG. 



HEEBS AND STONES. 1683 

alb-dona, dona must be pampinus (our dohne, springe or noose), 
coil, tendril, and so alfranke (p. 448), Hpt 5, 182. AS. lielde 
is sometimes ambrosia. Is hwdtend (iris Illyrica) equivalent to- 
soothsaying flower ? for Iris is at once messenger of the gods, 
and rainbow, and a plant which the Slavs call Perunica, thunder- 
flower. Finn, wuohen miekkd, caprae ensis, is also iris, sword- 
lily. Other notable herb-names in AS. are : Oxan-slippa, 

primula veris, E. oxlip, cowslip, Dan. oxe-driv, ko-driv, Swed, 
oxe-ldgg. Hundesfred, centauria. Eofor-prote, apri guttur, scilla. 
Lust-moce, ros soils, Nemnich drosera, Staid. 1, 336 egelkraut.. 

Mddere, venerea, Moneys Quell. 320 b ; Lye has mdddere, 

rubia, E. madder; Barnes sub v. madders, mothers, anthemis, 
cotula. Metere, febrifuga, Sumerl. 56, 58; and melissa, metere 
57, 59 (Suppl. to 1244). Muttere, mutter ne, caltha, Staid. 2,, 
226; Finn, matara, mattara ; lus gun mhathair gun athair, 
flower without mother or father : a plant resembling flax, which 
grows in springs/ Armstr. 368 b . Weo&o-bend, cyclamen con 
volvulus, E. woodbind, withe-bind, M. Neth. ivede-winde, Maerl. 3, 
205 ; conf. weendungel : ik kenne dat kruud, sede de diivel, da 
hadde he weendungel freten/ Brem. wtb. 5, 218 (AS. fiung, pL 

pungas, aconitum, helloborus). Mageffe, magoffe, buphthalmus; 

conf. hay -maiden, a wild flower of the mint tribe/ Barnes. 
Biacon-weed, cheiiopodium, goose-foot, Barnes. Gloden, caltha > 
also gladene, glwdene. Boffen, lolium ; conf. beres-boto, zizania, 
meres-poto, Graff 3, 81. Leloffre, lapathum. Gearewe, mille- 
folium, yarrow, OHG. garewa. 2Ethel-ferding , -fyrding, a 
wound-healing plant, from ferd, fyrd = army, war ? Bro&er-wyrt, 
herba quaedam strictum pectus et tussim sanans, Lye. Hals-wyrt, 
narcissus, from hdlsian to make whole ? 

Peculiar OHG. names : olsenich, Moneys Quell. 285 b ; olsnic, 
baldimonia, herba thuris, Sumerl. 55, 11. 57, 26. Ducange sub 
v. ramesdra. Graff 2, 512. Striph, stripha, Graff 6, 751. Ert- 
galld, AS. eorff-gealle, centaurea major, cornflower. Hrosse-huf, 
Graff 4, 1180. Add the plant-names in the Wiesbaden glosses, 
Hpt 6, 323. 

Names still in use: brandli, satyrium nigrum, Staid. 1, 216, 
small, but scented; it is the Romance ivaldser, valser, Moneys 
Anz. 39, 391 (gerbrandli ?), conf. ivald-meisterlein, asperula 
odorata, M. Neth. wal-mester, Mone 6, 448. Herba matrix silvae, 



1684 HERBS AND STONES. 

Wallach. mama padura, wood-mother, wood- wife, Schott 297. 
Manns-kraft, geum urbanum, Hess. Ztschr. 4, 81. Tag und 
nacht 4, 94. Sained. 58, 29; Ssk. df.es et nox in one word, 
Bopp s Gl. 27 b ; Pol. dzien i noc, melampyrum nemorosum, Linde 
1, 595 a . Partunni-kraut, stachys alpina, Hess. Zts. 4, 84. Braid- 
ireue, erica, acquires a red tinge, Wachter p. 13; brant im 

liaar, Sommer s Sag. p. 61. Berufs-kmut, anthyllis vulneraria, 

Somm. p. 61 ; vermdn-kraut, maidenhair, Schm. 2, 587 ; conf. 
beschrei-kr. (p. 1195). Eisen-breche, sferra-cavallo (p. 974), E. 
moonwort, lunaria, Hone s Yrbk 1551. Maus-ohrlein, mouse-ear, 
herba clavorum, nailwort, makes horses willing to be shod 
1550. Rang = teufels-zwirn, clematis, Yilmar in Hess. Zts. 4, 94. 
Druten-mehl, hexen-mehl, semen lycopodii, is sprinkled over sore 
babies. Wind-hexe, rolling flax, a steppe weed, Russ. perekati- 
pole (roll over field), whose balls drift like thistledown, Kohl s 
8. Russia 2, 113-4. 

2. STONES. 

p. 1218.] Rare stones are called steine, die kein gebirge nie 
getruoc, noch diu erde briihte fur/ Troj. kr. 2954. They are 
known to Jews : it is a Jew that can tell Alexander what stone 
it is, Alex. 7075 ; that master of stone-lore, Evax of Arabia, Lanz. 
8531. Boundary -stones j drei-h err n- steine are pounded to powder, 
and drunk as medicine, Ph. Dieffenb. Wander. 2, 73. Other 
healing stones are ment. in Lohengr. str. 652, defensive helmet- 
stones in Aspremont 20. 40-1. A stone that tells you everything, 
Norske folke-ev. 1, 188; a stone taken in the mouth gives a 
knowledge of foreign tongues, Otnit Ettm. 3, 32 25. Rhon 126; 
another, put in the mouth, enables you to travel over water, H. 
Sachs i. 3, 291 C . Simplic. 5, 12 p. 548-9; and there was a stone 
that made you fly, Ges. Abent. 3, 212-7. The stone of fear keeps 
you from being frightened : he hung a schreck-stein on him, 
Pol. maulaffe 298. 

Quattuor in cunctis sunt insita mythica gemmis, 
durities, virtus, splendorque, colorque perennis 

Gotfr. Viterb. p.m. 367 b . 

Rings, finger-rings derive all their virtue from the stones set in 
them. A vingerlin that repels magic, and makes you aware of 



HEEBS AND STONES. 1685 

it, Lane. 21451 seq. ; one that makes invisible (p. 871). So a 
girdle with a precious stone in it makes whole, Bit. 7050 55. 

The orplianus, wanting in Megenberg, is ment. by Lessing 8, 
175-6. Similar to the orphan is the stone claugestian on the 
helmet, Eoth. 4947 seq. paer se beorhta bedg brogden wundrum 
eorcnanstdnum eadigra gehwam lilifad ofer hedfde; heafelan lixaft 
J?rymme btyeahte, Cod. Exon. 238 ; his cdgan ont^nde, halge 
hedfdes gimmas 180, 7; is seo, eaggebyrd (oculus Phoenicis) 
sttine gelicast, gladum gimme 219, 3. Hyaena bestia cujus pu- 
pillae lapideae sunt, Gl. ker. 146. Diut. 1, 239 ; and Reinhart s 
eyes are supp. to be carbuncles, Reinh. 916 seq. One stone is 

oculus felis, oculus mundi, bellocchio, Nemnich 2, 747-8. 

Precious stones take the place of eyes, Martene s Thes. anecd. 
4, 6 (Wachsrnuth s Sitten-gesch. 2, 258) : in the sculptured skull 
of St Servatius, stones blaze instead of eyes. Swed. dgna-sten, 
ogon sten } eye-stone, means the pupil ; Dan. die-steen, ON. auga- 
steinn ; and Alexanders stone, which outweighs pure gold, but 
rises in the scale when covered with a feather and a little earthy 
is an eye-stone, Lampr. Alex. p. 140 3 ; see Schlegel s Mus. 
4, 131-2-3. Gervinus 1, 549 (ed. 3). Pupus, rcapy 6(j)0a\fjLov, 
Ducange sab v. It is Oriental too to say ( girl of the eye ; yet 
also mannikin of the eye/ Gesenius, Pref. xliv. (ed. 2). GDS. 
127. 

p. 1218n.] Scythis succinum (amber) sacrium (not satrium), 
Pliny 37. 2, 40; ubicunque quinta argenti portio inest (auro), 
electrum vocatur 33. 4. 23. Prunt-golt, electrum, Gl. Sletst. 39, 
391. Amber is in Russ. yantdri, Lith. gentdras, gintdras, Lett. 
dzinters, zihters, conf. OHG. sintar = scoria, GDS. 233; Esth. 
merre-kiwi, sea-stone, Finn, meri-ldvi. On the confusion of 
amber with pearl, see both Schott in Berl. acad. Abh. 42, p. 
361 and H. Miiller s Griechenth. 43. Pol. lursztyn, Boh. 
agsteyn, altsten. M. Neth. lammertynsten, succinus. 

p. 1219.] The pearl: ON. gimr, m., gemma, Seem. 134 b , also 
gim-steinn ; AS. gim, gim-ntan. With MHG. mer-griez, conf. 
daz griezende mer/ Fragm. 45 C . The diamond was taken to be 
crystallized water : a little frozen wasserli/ Anshelm 2, 21 ; fon 
diu wirt daz is da zi (thereby turns the ice into) christallan so 
herta, so man daz fiur dar-uber machot, unzi diu christalla irgluot, 
Merigarto 5, 25; conf. isine steina, ice-stones, 0. i. 1, 70 and 



1686 HEKBS AND STONES. 

crystal made of ice/ Diez s Leb. d. troub. 159. 165. On the 
Ssk. marakata, seeBopp s Gl. 255-9. 266; chandra-kdrta, gemma 
fabulosa, quae radiis lunae congelatis nasci creditur 118 a . 

p. 1221.] The \wyyovpiov is also named by Dioscor. 2, 100. 
Of a stag s tears or eyes comes a stone. The dragon s head con 
tains a diamond, Bosquet 205-6. The toad-stone, which occurs 
e.g. in Wolfs Deut. sag. p. 496, is likewise in Neth. padde- 
sten, Boh. zliabye kamen, 0. Fr. crapaudine, Roquef. sub v. ; the 

French still say of diamonds, il y a crapaud. There is a 

serpent s egg, which f ad victorias litium et regum aditus mire 
laudatur, Pliny 29. 3, 12. One Segerus has a gemma diversi 
coloris, victoriosos efficiens qui ea utuntur/ Cses. Heisterb. 4, 10. 
Sige-stein, Eracl. p. 214. Halm s Strieker p. 49 ; seglie-sten, 
Kein. 5420 ; sige-ring, Hpt 3, 42 ; hiiet dich vor (beware of) alter 
wibe gemein, die kiinnen blasen den sigel-stein, Hatzl. 93 b , 34 ; 
sigelstein smden, Wolkenst. 40,, conf. eiu bickel giezen, Fragm. 
38 C . Eenn. 13424, bickel-stein, Fragm. 21 C . Can sigelstein, 
segelstein have been the magnet ? ON. segel-steinn, sailing stone. 

The swallow- stone, which grows in the crop of a firstborn 

swallow, is known to Diosc. 2, 60 ; conf. Schm. 3, 399 : schiirf 
(rip) schwalben auf, so vindestu darinne ein roten (red) stain. 

p. 1222.] Georg Agricola (1546) De re metallica libri XII 
(Basil. 1657) calls belemnites alp-schos, p. 703 b ; brontia donner- 
stein, wetterstein, gros krottenstein, ceraunia der glatte donn., 
der glat wett., der glatte gros krott. 704 a ; ombria donderst., 
wett., grosz krott. 706 a . The thunder-bolt has healing power, 
Ph. Dieffenb. Wander, p. 33; the ON. for it is s kruggu-steinn ; 
and we often find Iporsteinn as a man s name, e.g. Egilss. 476. 
Another Finnic name for the bolt is Ukkoisen nalkki, U/s wedge ; 
Lith. Laumes papas, L/s pap, Nesselm. 277 b . 353 b , and LG. mare- 
tett, the (night-) mare s teat, N.Pr. prov. bl. 2, 380. Silex is in 
ON. hiegetill, quasi rorem generans. 

p. 1222.] The diamond can only be softened by goafs-blood, 
Pliny 37, 4. August. De civ. D. 21, 4; conf. N. Cap. 69. Er. 
8428. Ms. 1, 180 a . Parz. 105, 18. 

The carbuncle is taken from the unicorn s forehead, Parz. 482, 
29 ; hebt den moed van een Espetln, want hi draegt karbonkelen 
in sin hoorn, Ndrl. Heemskindp. m. 12. The carbuncle shines in 
the darkest night, and puts out other stones, Hartm. biichl. 1500. 



SPELLS AND CHARMS. 1687 

Reinh. 920. Morolt 45. Gr. Rud. 8, 10 (Va-tte-lys are in Dan. 
superstition small stones, which the spirits had for lamps, Molb. 
Dial. 663). The carbuncle pales its lustre when the hero dies, 
Rol. 196, 19 ; it lies ze Loche in dem Rine/ Ms. 1, 15 a . Sommer 
on Flore p. xxvii. 1667. 

The magnet : ON. leiffar-steinn, Landn. 1, 2 ; E. loadstone 
[i.e. leading, as in loadstar]. Prov. aziman, ariman, ay man, Fr. 
aimant, Sp. iman. MHG. age-stein, Diut. 1, 60-1. Trist. 204, 
14. 36. M. Neth. toch-sten diese up-toch, Maerl. 3, 124. It 
has been used in navigation since the 13th cent., Bible Guiot 
633653 ; legend of the loadstone, Altd. w. 2, 89. 

Stone-coal is called Tiirken-blut-stein, stein-6l Turken-blut, 
Staid. 1, 329. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 
SPELLS AND CHARMS. 

p. 1224.] On the power of the three words, Kalev. 9, 34. 161 ; 
conf. Arnim s March. 1, 47. [Tibetian and Mongolian writers 
dilate on the force of each syllable in the Buddhist formula f om 
mani padmi horn/] . Singing and saying turn to magic : eirwSrj 
iarpwv, Plato s Charmides p. 156-8 ; 6e\KTripiov, charm, incan 
tation; verba puerpera dixit (Lucina), Ov. Met. 10, 511. OHG. 
pi-galan (be-sing) in the Mersebg spell ; galdr gala, Saem. 97-8-9 ; 
rikt gol Oddr, ramt gol Oddrun, bitra galdr a 240 a . Fr. charme 
is fr. carmen : un bon charme vos aprendre, Ren. 7650 ; car- 
minare plagam, to charm a wound (away), Altd. bl. 2, 323; conf. 
f er sprach zer wunden wunden-segen/ Parz. 507, 23. The 
sorceress is anspreclierin, Moneys Anz. 7, 424; conf. berufen, 
beschreien, becall, beery, Ettn. Maulaffe 546-7. ON. orff-heill, 
Sasm. 120 b . Finn, sanoa, to say = conjure; sanat, conjuration, 
Castren. 

Blessings are pronounced more esp. at morning and eveniag : 
swer bi Hebe hat gelegen (had a good night), der sol dar senden 
sinen morgen-secjen, MS. 2, 169 a ; gesegenen unde tiefe beswern, 
Mar. 188, 30 (conf. tiefe fluochen/ p. 1227) ; besworn sis du vil 
tiure ! Ges. Abent. 3, 53 ; einem die krankheit absegnen (bless 



1688 SPELLS AND CHARMS. 

one s illness away), Thurneyser 2, 92. Cursing is MHG. 

verwdzen : var hin verwdzen, MS. 2, 1 72 b ; nu var von mir v. 
Ls. 3, 77 ; nein pfui sie heut v. ! Tit. 600, 2 ; verfluochet u. 
verwdzen wart vil ofte der tac, da sin geburt ane lac (the day 
that his birth was on), Arm. Heinr. 160 ; and the contrary : 
gehoehet (extolled) si der siieze tac, da din geburt von erste an 
lac, Winsbekin 1. To verwazen answers the O. Fr. dalie, dahez, 
deliait, daJiet, dehez, delie, daz ait, often preceded by mal or cent, 
Garin 1, 10. 209. 2, 46. Ren. 404. 1512. 9730. 11022. Heon s 
N. rec. 1, 202. 232. 4, 12. Orange 1, 202. 2, 151, etc. Trist. 
3072. Aspr. l\ 46 b . 23 b . Ferabr. lix a . As Walloon latti 
= sain, and mdhaiti = ma\SB,iu (Grandgagn. 1, 265), we may 

suppose a Celtic origin (Suppl. to 952). Einen mit fluoclie 

bern (smite), Mart. 163 C , mit dem fluoche seilen 226 a (fliieche 
liden, Waltb. 73, 5; fluoch bejagen, MS. 2, 137; in sih selbon 
luadun (they loaded) rnihilan fluah, 0. iv. 24, 30) ; list unde 
ftok, Up stand. 1837 (the Goth, beist ? ) ; dig en -einen, precari, 
imprecari, Gramm. 4, 655. AS. wyrigean, maledicere, Homil. 2, 
30. ON. bolua, diris devovere, Sa3m. 186; roggva, a diis mala 
imprecari (lit. to fold ? akin to roggr, roggvar, pallium plicatum?). 
0. Slav. kJidti, pres. kl uu, Serv. Ideti, pres. kunem [Russ. 
kliasti, klinati], to curse. 

p. 1224.] The AS., beside liwistlian, has hwisprian, to ivhis- 
per. MHG. slangen (snake s) wispel, Diut. 1, 58 ; wispier, who 
sweetly wispelt to the fishes, Gesta Rom. ed. Keller p. 65. OHG. 
winison, to mutter. Apuleius p. m. 79 speaks of magicum susur- 
ramen. Piping too has a magical effect : il dit un charme 
que il avoit aprins, trois fois siffla, Garin 2, 104. A shirt laid 
lengthwise on the table is bemurmured till it stands upright, 
jumps about, and lies down again; you judge by this of the 
owner s illness, Ettn. Medic, maulaffe 269, 270. Neth. luisteren 
is both to listen and to speak low ; the witch is a luister-mnk, 
luister-zuster. 

p. 1226.] MHG. runen is to whisper : daz ir mit ir runet, 
you whisper to her ; f daz si mit iu niht runen kan/ MS. 2, 83 b . 

Runes were also cut on the roots of trees : risti a rotina runir, 
rioSrafti i blo^i, qva$ siiSan yfir galdra, geek ofug ok andscelis 
(against the sun) um tret, me^S morg romm um-maeli ; he then 
throws the wood into the sea, and lets it drift to one s de- 



SPELLS AND CHARMS. 1689 

struction, Grettissaga c. 85 ; scera a rotum ras vi$ar, Sgem. 29 a . 
Rune-sticks had things wrapt and woven round them, Ssem. 
195 b , like the Fris. tenar; lagSi d stafi 94 a ; liete-rune bond, Cod. 
Exon. 416, 6; inunt-rune 279, 7; helli-runa, like M. Neth. hel- 
scouwinglie ? Parton. 20, 13 ; hell-raune, Mathesius 1562, 154 ; 
liosta hel-stofum, Saem. 145 b , conf. faesta feikn-stafa 41 h . For- 
nald. s. 1, 436. AS.fdcn-stcef; bregfla blund-stofum, Ssem. 193 b , 
at gaman-runom 25-6, i val-runom ] 60 b , mal-runar 214 b , runar 
viltar 252% vilt rista 252 b . 

p. 1227.] The might of the Word is extolled by Freidank 67, 1 : 

Durcli wort ein wilder slange gat (snake goes) 
zem manne, da r sich toeren lat (lets be fooled) ; 
durch wort ein swert vermidet (forbears) 
daz ez niernan versnidet (cuts no one) ; 
durch wort ein isen nieman mac 
verbrennen, gluot ez alien tac. 

Er sprach ein wort mit grim, da sich der here uf-sloz (opened), 
Altsw. 80; ja moht ich sit einen bourn mit miner bete (prayer), 
sunder wapen, nider geneigen, MS. 1, 51 a . A runar-bdti opens 
any lock, drives all disease away, Faroiske qvader pp. 228. 286; 
two dwarfs cut vafrlogi with runes 138. 140. Song can burst 
fetters, Somadeva ], 134. ON. polm-visur call up mist and 
darkness, Fornm. s. 3, 97-8. A letter was tied round the sword, 
Wigal. 4427. 7335, as runes had formerly been carved on it. 
Men used to bind certain things by oath, e.g. swords, Altd. bl. 
1, 43. Ligamenta aut etiam scripta in contrarietatem alterius 
excogitare, Lex. Yisig. vi. 2, 4. 

p. 1228.] Let one or two good ivislies precede the curses : 

Got miieze im ere meren (add honour) ! 

zuo flieze im aller sselden fluz, 

niht wildes mide sinen schuz (shun his shot) ; 

sins hundes louf, sins homes duz (tooting) 

erhelle im u. erschelle im wol nach eren ! Walth. 18, 25. 

conf. the curse, Ls. 2, 425. Here is a beautiful blessing : 

Der sumer si so guot (bo so kind), 

daz er die schoene in siner wunne (bliss) 

laze wiinnecliche leben (let blissful live) I 



1690 SPELLS AND CHAEMS. 

Swaz wol den ougen tuot (whatever delights the eye), 
und sich deu liuten lieben kunne (can please), 
daz miieze ir diu Sselde geben, 
swaz griienez uf von erden ge, 

oder touwes obenan nider risen muoz (may trickle down), 
loup (foliage) , gras, bluomen und kle (clover) ! 
Der vogel doenen (melody) geb der schoenen 
wiinneclichen gruoz (blissful greeting) ! MS. 2, 183 a . 
Again : ze heile erschine im tages sunne, nahtes mane, und 
iegslich stern ! MS. 2, 174 a ; din zunge griiene iemer, din herze 
ersterbe niemer ! Trist. 7797; Got laze im wol geschelien ! 
MS. 1, 74 b ; Got des geve en jummer hel, dat kraket (so that 
it roars), Wizlau 9, 28. 

Curses are far more frequent and varied : mine vliieche sint 
niht smalj Beneke 377. They operate quickly : ein swinder fluoch, 
MS. 2, 71 ; mit snellem fluoche, Tit. 2588 ; ein wilder fliioch, 
Wolkenst. 42. They hold men like a vice : uns twinget noch des 
fluoches zange, MS. 2, 166 a . They alight, settle, cling : solten alle 
vliieche kleben, ez miiezte liitzel liutes leben, Freid. 130, 12 ; der 
fluoch bekleip, Hpt 5, 516; dem muoz der fl. beJdiben 5, 550 ; der 
fl. klebet 8, 187. They burn you up, Nalus p. 177. They take 
flight, they turn home as birds to their nest, Berth. 63 ; die fliiche 

flolien um die wette, Giinther 163. Strong above all is the 

curse of the dying : pat var trua ]?eirra i forneskju, at orfffeigs 
manns ma3tti mikit, ef han bolvaiSi 6-vin sinum meffnafni (cursed 
his unfriend by name), hence names were suppressed, Saem. 186 a . 
Sigfrit, wounded to death, scolds, Nib. 929, 3. 933, 4 (see schelten 
below). A faither s blessin bigs the toun, A mitJier s curse can 
ding it doun. A mother s curse is not to be turned aside, 
Holtzm. 3, 144. Effectual too is the pilgrim s curse, Gudr. 933, 
and the priest s, Holtzm. Nib. 117. The curse of aged men that 
fear God works fearful woe, Insel Felsbg 1, 22. Carters have 
curses on the tip of their tongue, Philander 2, 345 ; so have 
officers, Gellert 4, 145. 

Oaths and curses coll. by Agricola nos. 472 502 ; spell-bindings 
in Ls. 1, 410-1. 2, 4248. Ssem. 85. Fornald. s. 3, 203-4; a 
song of curses on Otto III. in Pertz 2, 153. De Vries of Hoofts 
Warenar 97100; Servian curses in Talvj 2, 385. Vuk nos. 
152-4-7. 162. 219. 393. 



SPELLS AND CHARMS. 1691 

The savage heartiness of the cursing is set forth in a number 
of strong phrases : his cursing was cruel to hear/ Ettn. Unw. d. 
743 ; he set up a cursing and scolding, no wonder if the castle 
had sunk into the ground, Schweinichen 2, 70 (daz se d&fluochten 
niemen, unde daz Hagenen kiut bleip unbescholten, Gudr. 933, 4) ; 
er fahet an (begins) ze fluchen u. ze schweren, dass das erdtreich 
mocht undergon (?) ; cursing, enough to send stones flying 
into the sky/ Kaserei 126; f he swore fit to make the shy bow 
down/ Wickram s Rollw. 9 ; cursing, so that it might have 
thundered/ Garg. 149 a ; cursing, till the rafters crack/ Diet, sub 
v. balke; he curses all signs (omens), till the floor cracks/ 
Hebel 44; to curse all signs, Staid. 2, 468 (p. 1105 end); 
swearing till the toads jump, 3 Firmenich 2, 262 (conf. the 
krotten-segen, Garg. 230 a ) ; f he curses one leg off the devil s 
haunch, and the left horn off his head/ Garg. 232 a ; he cursed 

the nose off his face/ Schuldban 27 (?). Ejaculations that call 

upon God to curse and crush, are the most solemn : daz ez Got 
verwdze ! Er. 7900 ; so si ich verwazen vor Gotes ougen ! Herb. 
1068; daz in Got von himele immer gehoene ! Gudr. 1221, 4; 
God s power confound thee ! Melander 2, no. 198; Hercules 
dique istam perdant, Plaut. Cas. ii. 3, 57; qui ilium di omnem 
deaeque perdant 61 : Got du sende an minen leiden man den tot, 
daz ich von den iilven werde enbunden, MS. 1, 81 a (p. 1161) ; 
swer des schuldig si, den velle Got u. uem im al sin ere 81 b ; Serv. 

ubio gha Bogh, Yuk (ed. nov.) no. 254. M. Neth. curses use 

the word over in consigning to the devil: nu over in duvels 
ere, Limb. 4, 62 ; over in s duvels name 4, 1088 ; nu over in der 
duvele hant 7, 638 ; nu over in s duvels geleide, Karel 2, 4447. 
MHG. der tievel var ime in den munt (get in his mouth), Reinh. 
1642 ; dass dir der henker in den rachen filhre (in your throat), 
Felsenb. 3, 443 ; dass dich ! (devil take, underst.) ; dass dich das 
wetter verborne, Meland. 2, no. 362 ; ir letz die slach der schauer 

u. kratz der ivilde ber, Wolkenst. 30. ON. eigi hann iotnar, 

gdlgi gorvallan, Seem. 255 a ; troll hafi ]?ik allan, ok sva gull ]?it, 
Kormakss. p. 188; far ]?u nu ]?ar er smyl hafi J>ik (to one s ship 
on landing), conf. the formula of benediction in Kg Home, 143. * 

* With the curse daz die vor kilclien laegen ! conf. also Joh. vor Ckilkun, 
Oestr. arch. 6, 173 ; ein jar vor kilchen stan, MS. 2, 121 a ; muoter diu ir kint lat 
vor spital oder kircJien ligen, Kenn. 18376 ; an ein velt legen (in unconsecr. ground), 
Berth. 230. 330 ; begrebnisse {if dem velde, Gefk. Beil. 10. 



1692 SPELLS AND CHARMS. 

Da scholt varen in dat wilde brok, Moneys Schausp. 2, 100-1 ; an 
den wilden ivolt 2, 101 ; conf. ze liolze varn/ Kolocz 262 ; Klinsor 
und waerest iiber sc, MS. 2, 6 a ; versigelen miiez er uf daz mer 
von wibe u. von kinde 1, 6 a . Lett, eiy mlkam, go to the wolves ; 
vilkeem apendams, wolves eat thee, Stender 360 ; so ezzen si die 
wilden krdn, Keller s Erz. 196 ; jntt skyli liiarta lirafnar slita, 
Saem. 232 a ; dat uch de raven schinnen, Karlm. 140, 23; des 
miiezen si die wolve nageo, Altd. w. 2, 56 ; ir herzen miiezen 
"krdnvuoz rfagen, MS. 2, 119 b ; den verrniden (shun him) rosen, 
u. alle zttelosen (daisies), u. aller vogelliue sane 2, 63 a ; ich schaffe 
daz ir aller froiden struzen ie widerspenic miiezen wesen 1, 4 a ; 
Marke du versirik 2, 79 b ; ut te paries inclinans obruat, ut te 

afflicta senio arbor caeduave obruat, Meland. 2, no. 198. Death, 

disease and sorrow are often imprecated : nu iz dir (eat to thyself) 
den grimmen tot, Ges. Abent. 2, 667; wolde Got, waere din houpt 
ful (rotting in the ground), Reun. 12192 ; daz dich aezen die 
maden (maggots), Helbl. 1, 1212; daz diu ougen im erglasen 2, 
512 (a Gaelic curse : marbhphaisg, the shroud over thee !) ; so 
er miieze erknuren (?) 8, 227; hin ze alien siihten 2, 745 (conf. 
alles, aller, Diet. 1, 213) ; so dich diu sulit benasche 1, 1202 ; Got 
geb dir die driis u. den ritten, Pasq. 1, 157; diu suld an iuwern 
losen kragen (neck), Reinh.p. 302. Daliaz aie parmi le col, Meon 
N. rec. 1, 202. 232; mau-dahet ait et el col et el nes, Orange 5, 
2650; cent dehez ait parmi la cane, Trist. 3072 ; tu ut oculos emun- 
gare ex capite per nasum tuos, Plaut. Gas. ii. 6, 39 ; dass du die 
nase in s gesicht behiiltst, Renter olle kam. 3, 25-6. 48. 301 ; da 
var diu suht in iuwer or en, MSH. 3, 438 a ; we dir in die zende 
(teeth), Ben, 324; la male gote aiez as dens, Ren. 14322; daz iu 
der munt werde wan (without) der zungen, Parz. 316, 4; daz si 
(the tongue) verswellen miieze, u. ouch diu kel (gullet), MS. 2, 5 a ;. 
din zunge miieze dir werden lam, Horolf 1150; in miiezen erlamen 
die kniibel (their nibblers, teeth ?), Hpt 6, 492. Mod. may you 
turn sour. 3 Lith. kad tu suruktum (shrivel up). Wafen iiber 
diu ougen, etc., woe to the eyes wherewith I saw thee, woe to the 
arms wherein I held thee, Ettm. Ortn. 7, 2 ; daz er immir ubiljdr 

muoze haben, Ksrchr. 6958, conf. malannus (p. 1160 end). 

There is a curse beginning ( Als leit si dir (so woe be to thee), 
Karajan, Teichn. 41 ; conf. Als ungliick dich ( = auf dich ?) fliege, 
Kell. Erz. 244, 31 : min sele si ungeheilet, Rab. 79 ; daz si sin 



SPELLS AND CHAEMS. 1693 

g uneret (they be dishonoured), MS. 1, 194 a . ON. von se su 
vasttr vers ok barna, Saem. 214 b ; wan, waere erswerzer dan ein kol, 
MS. 2, 100 b ; der werde z einem steine 1, 6 a ; on the contrary Be 
born a man/ Somadeva 1, 7. 1, 81. Vervluochet si der tac, diu 
wile (day, hour), Mai 137, 38. 138, 1 ; conf. vloecte die wile, 
Lane. 12224-755. 16250; so hazz mich allez daz si, Helbl. 15, 
677. 

p. 1228.] (Rutam serentes) prosequuntur etiam cum maledictis, 
Pallad. Rutil. 4, 9. Women boiling yarn must keep telling lies, 

or it will not turn white. A solemn adjuration is in Swed. 

mana neder (to charm down ?), E/una 44, 60 ; M. Neth. manen, 
bemanen, Belg. mus. 2, 116-7. Finn, manaan, monere, adjurare ; 
manaus exsecratio. 

p. 1229.] With helliruna take the prop, name Walardna, 
Karajan 67, 16, and the sepulcrorum violatrix mentioned after 
adultera and malefica in Lex Burgund. 34,3. Groa sings 
nine galdra to her son, and the galdr is called fiolnytr, Saem. 97 h . 
Conversely the child talks with the mother at her grave, Rhesa 
dainos 22, and Svegder wakes his dead mother in the hill, DV. 
1, 264. Eulogies sung at the grave-mound are also ment. in Hall- 
biorn p. 859. Raising the dead comes easy to Christian saints, 
but it was more than Zeus could do : TOVTCOV eVa>Stt<? OVK eVo^cre, 
Aesch. Eum. 649. ( Linguae defuncti dira carmina ligno insculpta 
supponere forces him to speak, Saxo Gr. ed. M. 38. The tongue 
sings aloud after the head is cut off, Ecke 239. 

p. 1230.] Wolvesdriizzel s and other magic is ascr. to Simon: 

Bindet man ime die vuoze unde die hende, 

schiere losit er die gebende ; 

diu sloz heizit er ufgan (bids the locks open), 

nihein isen mac vor im bestan. 

in hulzinen siulen (wooden posts) 

machet er die sele, 

daz die liute waenent daz sie leben. 

aide ronen heizit er bern, etc. Kaiserchr. 2118. 

Much the same is told of Oftinn, Yngl. saga c. 7. 

p. 1230.] Es regnet u. schneiet alles von sacramenten u. 
fluchen, Albrecht s Fluch. ABC. 45. Men spoke contemptuously 

VOL. IV. E E 



1694 SPELLS AND CHARMS. 

of aniles veteranarum fabulae, Pertz 6, 452 b , and altes wibes 
fluochen, Ges. Abent. 3, 78. 

p. 1231.] Kl. schr. 2, 1 seq. Hera duoder = A.S. hider and 
)?ider, Hpt 9, 503 a . Wright 289 b . Suma dubodun umbi cunio- 
widi ; so three white maidens pick and pull at flowers and 
wreaths, Miillenh. p. 350. Freyr also sets free fr. bonds (Suppl. 
to 215). Groa sings: 

pann gel ek inn fimta 

ef )?er fioturr verSr 

borinn at bog-limum ; 

Leifnis elda last ek )?er 

fyr legg af kveftna, 

ok stokkr J>a lass af limum 

en af fotum fiotur. Saem. 98 s . 

Minne so bint die minnecliche, oder aber mich en-bint (love bind 
her too, or unbind me), Keller s Rom-vart 651; conf. beado- 
runan onbindan, Beow. 996 ; to burst bolts and fetters/ St 
Louis 86, 7. 96, 2. Dietm. of Mersebg says: legimus, quod 
unius captivi vincula, quern uxor sua putans mortuum assiduis 
procuravit exequiis, toties solverentur, quoties pro eo acceptabiles 
Deo Patri hostiae ab ea offerrentur, ut ipse ei post retulit, cum 

domum suam liber revisit, Pertz 5, 740. Side by side with 

bond-spells stand the ivound- blessings : den wnnt-segen man im 
sprach, St Louis 1531 ; conf. the houpt-segen, ougen-s., pferit-s. 
and wunden-segen in Hpt. 4, 577. By magic spell a wound is 
quickly healed, Holtzm. Ind. sag. 2, 176. The sword also re 
ceives blessing : swertes segen, Frauenlob p. 77 ; segent er im daz 
swert, Mai 83, 39 ; segen din swert, Altsw. 64. 

p. 1234.] Kl. schr. 2, 1 seq. ; to the passages there quoted 
p. 12, add : ze holz varn, Hpt 2, 539 ; ze holze, ze walde varn, 
Hahn s Strieker 9, 13. 10, 33. 11, 78; vuor zi walde, Diem. 
110, 1 ; din setzen ist noch niht ze holz (thy stake is not yet 
lost), Fragm. 23 b . With the first line of the Spell, conf. Petrus 
u. Paulus gingen to holt un to brok, Lisch 9, 226. Balder s foal 

must be the horse that was burnt with him, Sn. 18. One 

more spell for a lamed horse runs thus : 

Jeg red mig (I rode) engang igjennem et led, 

saa fik min sorte fole vred (my black foal got hurt) ; 



SPELLS AND CHAEMS. 1695 

saa satte jeg kjod mod kjod, og blod mod blod, 
saa blev min sorte fole god. 

Floget (ON. flog, dolor acer) botas genom denna losning : floget 
och flomdet skall fly ur brusk ocli ben i stock och sten, i namn 
Fader/ etc. Da att upropas trenne ganger : ( trollet satt i berget, 
hasten (horse) feck floget, spott i hand, sla i mun, bot i samma 
stund/ Eaiif. Esthonian spells in Kreutzwald and Neuss p. 
97-8-9. 122-3. On the cure for dislocation in Lapland, see 
CastreVs Keise 153. Ernst Meier p. 516. We still say of a 
platitude, it wouldn t cure a lame jade. To the spell in Cato, add 
the formula mota et soluta/ Grotefend s Bud. Umbr. 4, 13. A 
similar spell in Atharva-veda, 4, 12 : Setting up art thou, 
setting up, setting the broken bone ; set this one up, Arundhati f 
What in thee is injured, what is broken, thy Maker set it right 
again, joint to joint. Come marrow by marrow, and joint by joint; 
what is gone of thy flesh, and eke thy bone, shall grow ; marrow 
to marroiv be joined, skin with skin arise, blood arise on thy 
bone ; whatever was broken, set right, Herb ! Arise, walk,, 
haste thee away, fair as a chariot runs on wheel, felloe and nave. 
Stand firmly upright ! If it broke by falling in pit, or a stone 
being thrown have hit, together, as parts of a chariot, fit limb to 
limb the Elf (ribhu) ! 

p. 1235.] Cod. Monac. lat. 536 sec. xii. has the spell altogether 
in narrative form : Nesia nociva perrexit vagando per diversas 
plateas, quaerens quern laedere posset; cui occurrit Dominus et 
dixit : f Nesia, quo vadis ? Vado ad famulum Dei N., ossa 
fricare, nervos meduHare, carnes exsiccare/ Cui dixit Dominus : 
praecipio tibi in nomine Patris, etc., ut deseras famulum Dei, et 
pergas in desertum locum. So in colic of the head or belly, the 
spell-speaking old woman grasps the painful part, presses it 
tightly together, and says 9 times : in the name of God, etc., 
lady mother, I seize thee, I squeeze thee, do go to rest in thy 
chamber where the Lord created thee/ N. Pr. prov. bl. 3, 472. 
In Masuria they say: Depart, ye white folk (biale ludzie, p. 1157) 
fr. this christened Gottlieb, out of his skin, his body, his blood, 
his veins, his joints and all his limbs. Far in the sea is a great 
stone, thither go, thither sail, there drink and there devour, by 
the might of God, etc./ ibid. 3, 474. And for the evil eye : 



1696 SPELLS AND CHAEMS. 

Dropped the dew from the sky, from the stone, on the earth. As 
that dew vanishes, has vanished, is blown away in air, so may 
thrice nine enchantments vanish, perish in air and be blown aiuay, 
ibid. 3, 475. 

p. 1241.] Walts, wax, is fr. wahsan, to grow, as cera fr. 
crescere; conf. f Des genuhtsam nam zuo, als ein teic wol erhaben, 
grew as a dough well risen, Ges. Abent. 2, 446. To f bere J?a 
turf to cyrcean in the AS. bot (p. 1237 beg.) corresp. the cespi- 
tern terrae super altare ponere/ Kemble no. 177. The spells in 
it, and the laying of a broad loaf in the first furrow, are illustr. 
by Pliny 25. 4, 10 : hac (radice panaces) evulsa, scrobem repleri 
vario genere frugum religio est ad terrae piamentum. Bebelii 
Facetiae p. 72: supplicationes circum agros frugiferos fieri solitae, 
As cakes were baked for Bealtine, so were ( Siblett cakes after 
wheat-sowing/ Hone s Yrbk 1596. Old spells spoken at flax- 
sowing in Schaumburg, Lynker nos. 319, 320, in Bavaria, Panzer 
2, 549 551, in Thuringia, Meland. Jocoser. torn. 2 no. 503. 
The Wallachians dance to the hemp (pentru cinnib), the dancer 
lifting her arms as high as she can, that the hemp may grow 
high, Schott p. 302. At Newyear s midnight the Esthonian 
farmer throws a handful of each sort of grain on to the shelf, 
crying God grant the grain this year may grow that high/ 
Possart s Estl. 171. 

p. 1242.] In Strieker s farce of the Thieves, Sant Martin 
professes to guard the oxen in the stall, Hahn pp. 2227; and 
a blessing for swine says Johannes videat illos, Martinus expas- 
cat, Hattemer 1, 41 O a . The Abraham s garden in the herds 
man s spell occurs elsewh. too: durch den Abrahemschen garten, 
Orendel 1 240 ; ez leit uns in Abrahames garten, MSH. 3, 223 b . 
A Finn, song in Kantel. 1, no. 176 says, Jesus guards the flock. 
Suvetar and Etela (mother nature) watch the cattle, Kalevala 
(Castren2, 50). 

p. 1242.] Haltrich found a Germ, bee-spell in the pasteboard 
cover of a book (no. 245 of Schassburg school library) entitled 
Disput. de Deo, etc. Claudiopoli 1570 : Maria stund auf eim sehr 
hohen berg, sie sach einen suarm bienen kommen phliegen. sie 
hub auf ihre gebenedeyte hand, sie verbot in da zu hant, ver- 
sprach im alle hilen u. die beim versloszen, sie sazt im clar ein 
fos, das Zent Joseph hat gemacht : in das solt ehr phh ipren (into 



SPELLS AND CHARMS. 1697 

this shall ye fly), u. sich seines lebens da geniigen/ In nomine, 
etc. Amen. 

p. 1243.] "They made willow-flutes and elder-pipes Garg. 
193 a ; han spelade barken af all slags trad (could play the bark 
off any kind of tree), Arvidss. 2, 311 ; han sp. b. af hardaste 
trad 2, 314; han lekte barken af bjorke, af boke-tra (birch, 
beech) 2, 317; gerath wol (turn out well), pfeifen-holz, icli pfeif 
dir ja wol darzu, oder du wirst zum bolz, Garg. 21 3 a ; will das 
holz nit zu n pfeifen geraten, ich pfeif im dan wol, so will ich 
singen, so gerat s zum bolz, ibid. Other rhymes for loosening 
bark in Woeste p. 20. Firmenich 1, 294. 352. 426. 442. 2, 102. 
Panzer 1, 269. Fiedler 97. 

p. 1244.] What herb is febrifuga ? for which Sumerl. 56, 58 
gives metere (Suppl. to 1216 n., mid.); Gl. Sletst. 39, 405 febre- 
f ugia matirna ; Dioscor. 3, 7 centaurium minus, multiradix, 3, 
126 conyza, intybus ; feather/owl, the plant feverfew/ Barnes. 

A spell like the AS. one, in which the disease is bidden 

withdraw, is in Serv. called ustuk, fr. ustuknuti, to retire ; and 
the herb employed is likewise ustuk. Not only witches, but rats 
and mice are sung away, as by the famed rat-catcher of Hameln. 
In Ireland it is a gift of hereditary poets, Proc. of Ir. Acad. 5, 
355366. 

p. 1245.] With the AS. idiom agrees the MLG. : ic en-can 
den honger niet genesen, Ver Ave in Belg. mus. 6, 414 ; conf. M. 
Neth. ghenesen, ghenas = sanare, Lane. 1996. 8458. Maerl. 3, 
190. 2, 111 ; but also = sanari, Maerl. 2, 156, was genesen = 
sanatus erat 2, 135. 

p. 1247.] M aren, nightmares, Gefk. Beil. 151. Bocks-mahrte, 
spectre, Kuhn in Hpt 5, 490 ; kletter-m., druck-m., Sommer 
p. 46. Sloven, mora, both mare and nightm., fr. morim (I 
throttle) ? kiki-mora, nightm., Hanusch 333. In the eastern 
parts of Mittelmark, murraue means oppressive as nightmare, 
but also a being like the Harke or Holle of other places, that 
has tangled eyebrows, that mats the hair and knits up branches 
of fir trees, Hpt 4, 386. 5, 488. A drom of the mere = maar-zopf ? 
Diut. 1, 439. Mare-zitz, -teat (Suppl. to 1222). Ir. tromluidhe, 

nightm., fr. trom=heavy. Of 7 boys or 7 girls born in 

succession, one becomes a nightmare. Nightmares slip through 
a buckle-hole in your belt, and press you, Mullenh. p. 242-3-4 ; 



1698 SPELLS AND CHAEMS. 

dich hat geriten der mar, Ges. Abent. 3, 60. Where the maar 
has aliglited on the corn, it turns black or full of cockles ; the 
hop on which she has sat spoils, Wolf p. 689. On maar-spells, 
see Hpt 7, 537-8. Altogether like the Hennebg spell is one 
fr. Kuhland : 

Olle wasser wote (wade), 

olle baemer blote (un-blade, disleaf), 

olle baege staige (mountains climb), 

olle kieche-speitze maide (spires avoid) ! Meinert p. 44. 

And they are found in other parts too, Leopr. 26. Panzer 1, 269. 
Kuhn p. 461. 

p. 1248.] With the spell Sprach jungfrau Hille : Hut stand 
stiller conf. the adjuring of blood in Hpt 4, 391, and the 
frequent formula : stant pluot fasto ! Kl. schr. 2, 29 ; stand 
still, du wildes blut ! Mone 6, 469 ; daz du verstandest, u. nit 
me gangest 7, 420 ; do verstuont daz bluot vil gar, Walth. v. Rh. 
138, 11; verstellen, to stanch, Mone 6, 460. 7, 420. In a spell 
for stanching blood, the history of iron is related, Kalev. rune 3 
(nov. ed. 9). There is a plant named lluot-stant, Sumerl. 56, 66 ; 
a Thracian herb IV^-a^o?, Welcker s Kl. schr. 3, 29. Fris. 

blud sketta, protect, Richth. 236, 13. In the names Blut- 

stiilpe, Blut-giilpe, stillpen is to stanch, M. Neth. stelpen, Lane. 
3593. Part. 90, 15 ; stelpte mans bloet, Lane. 42658, wonden 
gestelpt 44470; thaz bluot iru first ulti = se sisteret, 0. iii. 14, 22 ; 
and giilpe resembles the Norse Gylfi. MHG. daz bluot ver~ 
straeten, Pantal. 228. 

Sine wunden si besach (she examined), 

ir segen si dariiber sprach. Wigam. 5267. 

Holy Tumbo lless this wound away (p. 528-9. Suppl. to 1231 

end). Fingerworm-spells, see Happel in Mannhdt s Ztschr. 

3, 2. B. Meier s Sag. no. 464-5. A red, a white, and a black 
worm in Hone s Ndrl. lit. 337; white, black, grey and green in 
a Cod. Dresd. M. 21 a . Christus in petra sedebat sounds like 
Tumbo saz in berke/ Kl. schr. 2, 29 ; Rother uf eime steine 
saz, Roth. 442. [Pillicock sat on Pillicock s hill, K. Lear]. 

God the Lord went over the land, there met him 70 sorts of 
gouts and goutesses. Then spake the Lord : Ye 70 gouts and 



PEEFACE. 1699 

goutesses, whither would ye ? Then spake the 70 g. and g. : 
We go over land, and take from men their health and limbs. 
Then spake the Lord : Ye shall go to an elder-bush, and break 
off all his boughs, and leave unto (naming the patient) his 

straight limbs. In the name, etc/ Conf. flaugk blatter u. 

nicht zubrist, das gebeut dir herr Jesu Christ/ fly, pustule, and 
burst not, so bids thee, etc. (1597), Wolfs Ztschr. 1, 280. 

p. 1248.] Zeter und weide liegen in streite, Hpt 4, 390; conf. 
die hiinsche und der drache (p. 1163) . 

p. 1249.] Animals are appealed to : f l pray thee, swallow, 
Schm. 3, 362; adjuro te, mater aviorum (p. 1242). One s own 
powers are summoned up : Finn, nouse luontoni, surge vis mea ! 
Renvall 1, 294 b . Again, there are particular words of great 
magic power : berlicke, berlocJke ! policke, polucTce, podrei I Fr. 
Arnim s March, no. 8 ; Fr. brelique breloque ! berlik berloc, 
Biondelli s Dial. 133 ; conf. Boh. perljk tudes. 



PREFACE. 

p. xxiv.] The difference between the Norse and the German 
system of gods appears the more considerable, when we reflect 
that our Eru, Phol, Saxnot, Beowulf, Isis, Zisa and Sindgund 
were unknown to the North; that in Germany thus far not a 
vestige is discoverable of Heimdall, Loki or Hoenir (Faro. Honer, 
not Keener) ; and that of Meili, the son of OSinn and Fiorgyn, 

hardly anything is known but the bare name. Thorr was 

preeminently worshipped in Norway, Freyr in Sweden, OSinn in 
Denmark (p. 160-1). Halogi, ThorgerSr and Irpa seem to be 
local deities of Haloga-land (F. Magnusen p. 981). 

p. xxiv.] The result of a new religion coming in is mixture 
with the old, which never dies out entirely. The old faith then 
becomes a superstition, as Nilsson 6, 3 very clearly shews. 

p. xxvi.] When the rage for the outlandish and satiety with 
the home-grown had passed away (tanta mortalibus suarum 
rerum satietas, alienarumque aviditas, Pliny 12. 17, 38), there 
set-in the equally unwarranted historical and geographical explan 
ation of Myths, the study of whose inner sense is yet to seek. 



1700 PBEFACE. 

Deified heroes and saints, genealogies beginning with a god for 
ancestor, mark the point where myth and history touch. 

p. xxix.] Wolfdietrich has this other point of likeness to 
Odysseus, that he wears St George s shirt, as O. does the scarf 
of Leucothea. A further resemblance betw. the German mytho 
logy and the Greek comes to light in Artemis and Hecate, who 
remind us of Berhta ; see the Copenhagen Edda, pref. xxvii. seq. 
The ideas of Meleager and Norna-gestr (p. 853 end), of /jbea-oyala 
and middil-gard (p. 794), of o//,<aAo<? and the dille-stein (p. 806), 
of Cerberus and the hell-hound (p. 997), of Krjpviceiov and the 
wishing-rod (976-7), and of sieve-turning (p. 1108) are closely 
allied; and r)\io<s, ON. sol, Goth, sauil, coincide even verbally 
(p. 701 end). With Roman usage agree our dislocation- spells 
(p. 224-5) and lustration of highways, RA. p. 73. On the other 
hand, the Zeus-Jupiter is in other nations split up into Wuotan, 
Donar and Zio, or Radegast, Perun and Svetovit, or Brahma and 
Vishnu, or Gwydion and Taranis. 

p. xxx.] Celtic influence on Germ, mythology is pointed out 
by Leo in Malb. Gl. 1, 39; from it Nilsson 6, 13-4 derives the 
mistil-teinn and Baldrs-brand, believing as he does that many 
parts of Scandinavia were once peopled by Celts. Their gods 
Taranis, Hesus and Teutates answer to Jupiter, Mars and Mer 
cury, see Stalin 1, 111-2. 109. GDS. p. 120. 

p. xxx.] To the old words common to the Slavic and Teutonic, 
add Goth, gulj?, OHG. kold, SI. zoloto, zlato; Goth. J^aurnus, 
OHG. dornu, SI. trn, teorn. The SI. Siva = Ceres corresp. to 
ON. Sif, Sitivrat to Saturn, Priya to Frowa (p. 303), and Prove 
to Fro. 

p. xxxiv.] The harmonies of Indian mythol. with ours may 
be largely added to. Thus the Liliputian floating on a leaf is 
similar to Brahma and Vishnu (p. 451), bald-headed OSinn and 
his day of the week to Buddha (p. 129 n. Iduna 10, 231), 
Vishnu s wheel to Krodo s (p. 249), Prithivi to Fria (p. 303), 
Yama the death-god and his rope, the cow of creation, etc., to 
the corresp. German notions, Garuda s wings to our wind (p. 
633), madyamaloka to middilgard. Bopp in Gl. 71 b says Kali is 
akin (not indeed to Halja, but) to hveila, a while. 

p. xxxviii.] Points of contact betw. Paganism and Christian- 
ism. On what is Christian in the Edda, see Copenh. Edda, 



PREFACE. 1701 

pref. xxvi. seq., and consider the Last Judgment, the angel s 
trumpet like Heimdall s horn (p. 234), Surtr like death the last 
enemy, 3 1 Cor. 15, 26. While the heathen often admitted foreign 
gods into the ranks of their own, and assimilated them, as the 
Greeks did sometimes to conciliate other nations; Christianity 
was exclusive, and hostile to all heathen gods. Yet even the 
Christian church, involuntarily or designedly, has adopted some 
heathen gods and practices. That saints of the Catholic church 
often receive divine homage, is acknowl. by Seb. Frank, Zeitb. 

2, 243 a ; conf. A. W. Schlegel s Oeuvres 1, 219. Kingston s 
Lusit. sketches, Lond. 45. The saints heal (p. 1163 end) : the 
Servians call Kosman and Damian vratchi, soothsayers, phy 
sicians, Vuk s Wtb. 82 ; John the Baptist foretells to Aeda the 
splendour of the race that shall spring from her daughter Oda, 
Pertz 6, 307. The saints make rain (p. 174-5) ; as water-saints 
they bring succour in a storm (Suppl. to 637) : nay, nuns in 
German legends often take the place of white ladies, and munkar 
in Sweden turn up as j attar, Runa 44, 13. The saints pacify 
God s anger : 

Des mugen si in stillen, 

swa er zornic uf uns wirt. Pass. 312, 56. 

Miieze sin unser vorspreche (advocate), 

daz Got mit zorne iht reche (not wreak in wrath), 

swa wir haben gesiindet. Servat. 1705. 

God s anger and that of the saints are estimated about equally 
in curses : habbe he Godes unmiltse and Sancti Martines ! 
Kemble 2, 4 ; 

Des haben in Sant Georgen haz 

und Gotes vluoch umbe daz ! Helbling 8, 915. 

Hilf Sanct Anna selb-dritt ! A. and the other two, Anshelm 

3, 252. 

Mary above all other saints received a heartfelt adoration, 
which, if not in the first centuries, yet very early, was promoted 
esp. by women, Zappert 16. Epiphan. adv. haeres. p. 1058 (ed. 
Paris, 1622). Like Hulda, she is called gudmoder/ Asbjorns. 
no. 8, and is a spinster/ Zapp. 13. If in the legend of Cres- 
centia Peter, like a second Woden, appears as an old man, con- 



1702 PEEFACE. 

ducts the heroine back from the rock in the sea, and endows her 
with the gift of healing, or himself heals (KM. no. 81) ; in other 
legends Mary takes the place of Peter, and shows the empress a 
medicinal herb. Both Christ and Mary leave the print of their 
fingers and toes on the rock, like the giants (p. 546), or devils 
(p. 1022); conf. ons Heren spronc/ our Lord s leap, Maerl. 2, 
116. The O.Norw. Gulaf>ings-laug p. 6 speaks of signa til Krist 
}?acca (thanks) oc SanctaMariu til firs oc tilfriffar, exactly as was 
done to Freyr (p. 212). Mary helps in childbirth, bestows rain, 
appears among harvesters, kisses and dries them, Maerl. 2, 248. 
285-6. She instead of the Dioscuri makes light shine on the 
masts (p. 1137 beg.) ; she or her mother St Anne carries people 
from distant lands through the air (Hist, de la Bastille 4, 315), as 
OSinn did (p. 146, Hading), or the devil (p. 1028). They make 
two Virgin Marys visit each other, carrying the inferior one to 
the grander. Childless couples cry to St Yerena, and she gives 
them heirs, Pertz 6, 458 460, like OSinn and Frigg, Vols. saga 
c. 2 ; conf. the beginnings of many KM. 

p. xliii.] The Christian God merely sends his messengers upon 
earth, as in Gregor 2678 : swenn dich unser Herre diner saslden 
ermante, u. dir sinen boten sante, den soldest du enphahen baz. 
But the heathen gods came down themselves : foru at kanna heim 
allan, Sn. 135. (KM. 3 3, 146). Zeus, Hermes and Plutus appear 
in Lucian s Timon; conf. Aristoph. Lysistrata 808, Birds 1549 ; 
whenever 3 gods seek a lodging, Hermes is sure to be one, GDS. 
123. Zeus coming as an unknown guest, a child is served up 
for him to eat, Fragm. hist. Gr. 1, 31. The Dioscuri also travel 
unrecognised among men, Preller 2, 72. What the Lithua 
nians tell of Perkunos s (or the Saviour s) encounter with the 
horse and ox, the Esthonian legend relates of Jesus, Neus 435. 
Perkunos and Pikullos travel, and give gifts to men, Tettau and 
Temme s Ostpr. u. Litth. sagen p. 28. Also the horse, OK and 
dog put up at men s houses, and reward hospitality by giving 
their years, Babr. 74. 

In such wanderings there keeps recurring the antique incident 
of the divine visitor granting three wishes. e Theseus Hippo- 
lytum, cum ter optandi a Neptuno patre habuisset potestatem, 
Cic. de Nat. D. 3, 31 ; het ich drier wunsche gewalt, MS. 2, 145; 
conf. KM. no. 87. Of this kind is the Breton fairytale of the 



PREFACE. .1703 

artful moustache, to whom Christ and Peter allow 3 wishes : he 
asks for a pretty wife, the winning card, and a sack in whibh to 
shut the devil up. When Peter denies him entrance into heaven, 
he flings his cap in, and so takes possession. Echoes of the 
player who wants to get into heaven, and is refused (p. 818 n.), 
are found in the Warnung 2710 2806; so brother Lustig and 
Jack the gamester wish to get into heaven, KM. no. 81-2. Lat. 
poem of Ma. p. 343, conf. the farce of the miller who sits on his 
sack behind the gate of heaven, Altd. bl. 1, 381. Gamester 
Jack s request for the tree from which no one can get down 
resembles a story in Hone s Daybk 1, 447. Panzer 1, 94; the 
casting of dice for the soul is also in Cges. Heisterb. 5, 34. 
Somm. sag. 175-6. The incident of the thieving cook meets us 
in Aviani Fab. 30 : sed cum consumti dominus cor quaereret 
apri, impatiens fertur cor rapuisse coquus. 

Christ, being on a journey with Peter, pulls one ear out of a 
sheaf, and burns it at the candle ; the grains keep spirting out 
till they form quite a heap. This happens in a barn, where lazy 
Peter has been cudgelled by a peasant; and he gets another 
backful of blows in the inn, because he will not play. Then the 
Lord made for these peasants boughs on their trees, whose hard 
ness blunted their axes, as the request of a rude set of people for 
vines is also granted, but the wine is as good as their manners. 
In a farrier s shop Christ cuts a horse s foot off, shoes it, and puts 
it on the beast again. Peter will not stop to pick up half a 
horseshoe, but Christ does, and buys cherries with it, which Peter 
is glad to pick up one by one to quench his thirst. In the 
merry gest of the blind man whose wife sits up in the appletree, 
or the LG. poem in Dasent xxvi., Peter and the Lord act the part 
of Pluto and Proserpine in Chaucer s Marchantes tale, and of 
Oberon and Titania in Wieland s Ges. 6, 87. Again, Christ 
walks with two apostles and three disciples, and comes upon the 
girl carrying water, Wend, volksl. 2, 314. Peter catches the 
haddock, as the Ases do Loki, and he Andvari; conf. Wolf s 
Ndrl. sag. p. 706, and his Pref. to Zingerle 2, xx. Peter comes 
from heaven to earth on leave, H. Sachs iii. 1, 240, also i. 94 b . St 
Peter sits on the roof, throwing pears down, and St Claus throws 
rotten apples up, Garg. 75 b . Of a like stamp are the folktales of 
St Jost and the Bavarian, Renner 24583, of St Nicolas and the 



1704 PREFACE. 

Bavarian, Bebelii Facet, p. m. 1136. The return of saints to 
heaven is thus descr. in the Warnung 1767 : 

Die heilegen habent sich ufgezogen (hoisted up), 
von der kuppel (dome) sint si geflogen 
uf zuo ir Schepfaere. 

Here also I must call attention to Peter and Paul coming to aid 
the Christians in battle, Lohengr. pp. 1169. 158160. Pref. 
Ixxxi. Youths (or knights) clothed in white appear on the walls 
of Rhodes, to repel the Turks, Detmar 2, 417 (yr 1480). Angels 
too are called wiges wise in Helj. 149, 10; they appear two at a 
time, and armed, p. 989. This shining pair of champions reminds 
us of the Alci (p. 366), and of the Dioscuri who on their white 
steeds help the fighters, Cic. Nat. D. 2, 2 ; conf. ed. Creuzeri p. 
213-4. Justin 20, 3. Florus ed. Jahn 14, 14. Suet. Nero c. 1. 
Klausen s Aeneas 664-5. 707. Maerl. 3, 148. 174. The Gala- 
tians quail before the rider on the white horse, Luc. Dial. mer. 
13 ; already in Herod. 8, 38 two armed and superhuman beings 
pursue and slay the foe. 

p. xlvi.] The sky darkens when a villain is begotten or born, 
Pertz 2, 154 ; but nature rejoiced when Georis was begot, 261 ; 
conf. the Alexander-legend in Maerl. 1, 264. With Frofti s blissful 
age conf. O Kearney s Gabhra p. 104 : They say the times were 
so prosperous and the produce of the earth so abundant, that 
when the kine lay down the grass reached above the top of the 
horns. Hence it is said that cows, whenever they lie, give 
utterance to three moans in remembrance of the good old times 
that once had been, and lamenting the hard days in which they 
live/ So we hear of a Truce of God under Numa, Klaus. Aen. 
953, and under Solomon, Diem. p. 113-4. The lines fr. Godfrey 
of Viterbo are based on Isai. 2, 4 : et conflabant gladios suos in 
vomeres, et lances suas in falces, conf. Passional p. 17. Jorn. de 
regn. succ. p. 45. Ksrchr. 630. 

p. xlviii.] The Germ, reverence for woman is also expr. in : 
ere wol die muoter din, Pass. 224, 25. In a Serv. song a 
daughter calls her mother f bela tzrkvitze/ white little church, 
Vuk 1, 17. no. 27. 

p. xlix.] The good and evil of the New are hinted by Paus. i. 
24, 4 in the words : ocrrt? Be ra crvv 



PEEFACE. 1705 

Qev riderac rwv e? dp^aioTrjra TJKOVTWV (become old-fashioned), 
conf. Lessing 8, 246. 

p. li.] Even God, Christ and the Holy Ghost came to be 
imagined as sitting in the wood, as the old gods had been, 
Prohle s March, f. d. jugend p. 17. 

p. lii.] The descent of all gods from a God of gods is assumed 
even by Helmold 1, 83. In India Brahma, Vishnu, Siva are the 
three supreme gods ; all the rest are under these ; their trinity 
is designated by the sacred word 6m = aum, Brahma being a, 
Vishnu u, Siva m, Bopp s Gl. 61 \ GDS. 122. Beside this 
trinitarian view, we find a dual conception of deity according to 
sex, as father and mother, or as brother and sister : thus arose 
NiorSr and Nerthus, Freyr (Fro) and Freyja (Frouwa), Berhtolt 
and Berhta, Fairguneis and Fiorgyn, Geban and Gefjon, Hruodo 
and Hreda. With the Germ, sunne, masc. and fern., conf. Lunus 

and Luna, Liber and Libera, GDS. 122. Twelve gods are 

reckoned by Athen. 5, 330 (conf. Plato s Phaedr. 246-7), and by 
Apuleius p.m. 59 ; rwv So6Se/ea ovo^,ab/zei>o>v 6ewv dyd\fiara, 
Paus. i. 40, 2 ; si undecim deos praeter sese secum adducat 
Jupiter, Plaut. Epid. v. 1, 4; duodecim deis, v. 2, 3; twelve 
adityas, Bopp 30 a ; tredecim dii exceptis Brahma, Vishnu et Siva, 
Bopp s Gl. 160; varo ellifo aesir taldir, Seem. 117 b ; 12 ases, 8 
asins, Sn. 79. In like manner, Hrolf s 12 heroes, Sn. 152. 
Fornald. s. 1, 100, Kaleva s 12 sons, the deviFs 12 disciples 
(Suppl. to 986 end). 

p. lii.] The arguments with which the Fathers and authors 
like Arnobius combat the folly of heathenism in respect of gods, 
temples, images and sacrifices, would equally condemn a good 
deal in the Catholic doctrine. Even a worldly delight in spring, 
flowers and the song of birds is attacked almost as fiercely as 
polytheism; thus in the Warnung 2243 : 

Einer anbetet daz vogel-sanc One man worships the bird s song 

unt die liehten tage lane, and the days so light and long, 

darzuo bluomen unde gras, flowers also and the grass, 

daz ie des vihes spise was : aye the food of ox and ass : 

diu rinder vrezzent den got. bullocks munch your god ! 

conf. 2077 seq. 2382 seq. From the Dualism that pits Evil 



1706 PREFACE. 

against Good as a power,, our paganism is free ; for our ancestors, 
like the Greeks, throw Evil on the shoulders of a few inferior 
deities, or let it come out in mere attributes of the gods. 



APPENDIX 



L ANGLO-SAXON GENEALOGIES. 
II. SUPERSTITIONS. 
III. SPELLS. 



1707 



ANGLO-SAXON GENEALOGIES. 



AUTHORITIES : J3eda, Hist. eccl. 1, 15. 2, 5. Nennius (Nyniaw), 
Hist. Britonum, comp. in 7th or 9th cent. ? the MSS. are of the 
10th; ed. Gunn, Lond. 1819, p. 61. Saxon Chron., begun at 
latest in 9th cent., continued and extended ; ed. Ingram, Lond. 
1823, pp. 15. 23-4. 33-4. 72. 95. Asserius Menevensis (d. 906 
or 910), beginn. of his De rebus gestis ^Elfredi, Lond. 1722, 
pp. 3. 4. Ethelwerdus (d. 1090), in Savile, pp. 833-4. 842. 
Florentine Wigornensis (d. 1118), ed. Lond. 1592, pp. 218-9. 
221. 232. 274. 294, and a collective prosapia p. 566. Simeon 
Dunelmensis (circ. 1129), in Twysden p. 119. Alfredus Bever- 
lacensis (d. 1138), ed. Hearne, Oxon. 1716. Ordericus Yitalis 
(b. 1075, d. after 1140), in Duchesne s Scr. Norm. p. 639. 
Wilelmus Malmesburiensis (d. 1143), in Savile p. 17. Ethelredus. 
or Ailredus Eievallensis (circ. 1150), in Twysden p. 350-1. 
Henricus Huntindonensis (ends 1154), in Savile pp. 310, 313 6. 
Galfredus Monemutensis (circ. 1160), in Scr. Angl., Heidelb. 
1587. Radulfus de Diceto (ends 1196), in Twysden p. 530. 
Joannes Wallingford (d. 1214), in Gale p. 535. Albericus trium 
fontium (ends 1241), in Leibn. Ace. hist. 1, 186. Matthceus 
Westmonasteriensis (14th cent.), Francof. 1601, pp. 99. 142. 
Thomas Otterbourne (ends 1420), in Hearne s Scr. rer. Angl., 
Oxon. 1732; most of the names dreadfully corrupt. A con 
fused and corrupt Geneal. from a MS. of Nennius, in Gale s 
Appendix p. 116. The collections in D. Langhorn s Chron. reg. 
Angl. 1679, 8 are not to be despised : some of the sources he 
drew from are now lost. 2 

The Anglo-Saxons, who left Germany for Britain in the 
5-6th centuries, carried with them data of the descent of their 
noblest families. These all go back to Woden, and some of 
them a great deal higher, naming a whole series of gods or 

[ J Conf. 3. Grirnm On Kemble s Geneal. of Wessex, Munich 36 (Kl. schr. 5, 
240 seq.) EHM., i.e. Prof. E. H. Meyer, Editor of Grimm s D.M. ed. 4.] 
[ 2 Conf. the Geneal. tables coll. in Pertz 10, 314. EHM.] 

VOL. IV. 1709 I F 



1710 APPENDIX. 

deified heroes as Woden s ancestors. After the conversion to 
Christianity, they tried to connect this line of kings and gods 
with the O.T. tradition of the earliest race of man. Such an 
attempt to bring their still cherished heathen forefathers into 
harmony with the Noah and Adam of Holy Writ can only have 
been made very early, immediately after their adhesion to the new 
doctrine, at a time when the mind, convinced of the truth of the 
Bible story, was yet loth to part with its native tradition. As 
a church was often reared on the site of the heathen temple, as 
Christian and heathen ceremonies were fused together somehow, 
and to fortify the new faith the debris of the old soil was thrown 
in ; so a simple-minded people might be allowed to retain genea 
logies interwoven with its past glory, and give them as it were 
a new groundwork. Later on, such a combination of irreconcil 
able facts would neither have been attempted nor thought 
necessary. 

Beyond all doubt these pedigrees were pre-christian, were 
known to Angles and Saxons in their old home, and therefore 
must have been equally diffused among other German nations 
on the Continent : every part of them shows connexion with 
national names and old heathen poetry. I am inclined to credit 
the Frisians, Westphals, and also Franks with possessing similar 
genealogies, though the emigrant Anglo-Saxons alone have 
preserved them for us. 

Our earliest authority for these pedigrees is Beda [d. 735], 
and he only mentions that of Kent, yet in such a way that we 
may safely suppose he knew them all. Succeeding centuries 
furnish fuller accounts. 

These lists of names can have no chronological value as regards 
the oldest times ; it is only in giving the lines of AS. kings that 
they become historical. But that detracts nothing from the im 
portance of the legend. 

We know that the Anglo-Saxons formed 7 or 8 distinct 
kingdoms, founded on a pre-existing diversity in the immigrant 
tribes, and thus answering exactly to the difference of their 
genealogies. The Saxon Chronicle says the Jutes occupied 
Kent and Wight, the Saxons Essex, Sussex and Wessex, the 
Angles Eastangle, Mercia and Northumberland. Of Wessex, 
the state that soon overtopped and finally swallowed up the rest, 



ANGLO-SAXON GENEALOGIES. 



1711 



the genealogy is the most fully preserved. Those of Kent, 
Mercia, Deira (Brit. Deifyr) and Bernicia (Brit. Bryneich, 
Northumbria) are also handed down in old documents. Less 
genuine, or not so well accredited in certain names, appear the 
lines of Eastangle, Essex and Lindesfarn-ey. 

It is convenient to divide these genealogies in two halves, a 
Descending series and an Ascending. At Woden s sons they 
begin to split, in him they all unite. I will take first the several 
lines that descend from Woden, and then deal with the older 
stock, which is the same for all. Here I bring under one view 

WODEN S POSTERITY. 
KENT. 
Woden 
Wecta 
Witta 
Wihtgils 
Hengest (d. 489) 
Eoric (Oesc) 
Octa 

Eormenric 

^Ethelbeorht (567) Tidel ^Escwine (527) Cynewald 

Rsedwald (d. 617) Sledda Creoda 

Eorpwald (632) Saabeorht (604) Wibba 

Penda(d.656) 



EASTANGLIA. 


ESSEX. 


MERCIA. 


Woden 


W6den 


W6den 


Casere 


Saxneat 


Wihtlasg 


Titmon 


Gesecg 


Waermund 


Trigel 


Andsecg 


Offa 


Hrothmund 


Sweppa 


Angeltheow 


Hrippa 


Sigefugel 


Eomasr 


Quichelm 


Bedeca 


Icel 


Uffa 


Offa 


Cnebba 



DEIRA. 


BERNICIA. 


WESSEX. 


LlNDESFARAN 


W6den 


Woden 


Woden 


Woden 


Waagdseg 


Bseldseg 


Baeldasg 


Winta 


Sigegar 


Brand 


Brand 


Cretta 


Swasfdgeg 


Beonoc 


Fridhogar 


Queldgils 


Sigegeat 


Aloe 


Freawine 


Ceadbed 


Saabald 


Angenwit 


Wig 


Bubba 


Sasfugel 


Ingwi 


Gewis 


Bedeca 


Westerfalcna 


Esa 


Esla 


Biscop 


Wilgisl 


Eoppa 


Elesa 


Eanferth 


Uscfrea 


Ida (d. 560) 


Cerdic (d. 


534) Eatta 


Yffe 




Cynric 


Ealdfrith 


JElle (d. 588) 




Ceawlin J 





[ l Succeeded by the brothers Ceolric, Ceolwulf, Cynegils, Cwichelm, Lappenb 
1, 154-6. EHM.] 



1712 APPENDIX. 

I begin with the general remark,, that seven sons are here 
ascribed to Woden (for Bernicia and Wessex keep together till 
the third generation). But some chroniclers give him only 
three ; thus William of Malmesbury, speaking of the Mercian 
line, says p. 17: possem hoc loco istius (Idae) et aliorum alibi 
lineam seriatim intexere, nisi quod ipsa vocabula, barbarum 
quiddam stridentia, minus quam vellem delectationis lecturis 
infunderent. Illud tamen non immerito notandum, quod, cum 
Wodenio fuerint tres filii, Weldegius, Withlegius et Beldegius, 
de primo reges Cantuaritarum, de secundo reges Merciorum, et 
de tertio reges Westsaxonum et Northanimbrorum originem 
traxerunt/ 

Let us now examine the eight lines one by one. 

KENT, the oldest kingdom, founded by the first invaders. 
Bedal, 15: duces fuisse perhibentur eorum primi duo fratres 
Hengistus et Horsus, erant autem filii Vetgisli, cujus pater Veda, 
cujus pater Voden, de cujus stirpe multarum provinciarum regium 
genus originem duxit. 7 a Ace. to that, Hengest and Horsa 
would be only great-grandsons of Woden, but one MS. supplies 
a missing link : filii Victgisli, cujus pater Victa, c. p. Vecta, c. p. 
Voden who is thus great-great-grandfather to those brothers. 
Herewith agree both Nennius : interea tres ceolae a Germania 
in exilium expulsae Britanniam advenerunt, in quibus doinina- 
bantur Hors et Henegest, qui et ipsi fratres erant filii Guictglis, 
Guictlis filius Ouicta, Guicta filius Guechta, Guechta filius Vuoden ; 
and the Saxon Chron. p. 15 : l Hengest and Horsa that waeron 
Wihtgilses suna, Wihtgils WSDS Witting, Witta Wecting, Wecta 
Wodning, fram tham Wodne awoc eall lire cynecynn, and 
Sudhanhymbra eac. J In Ethel werd the 3 links betw. Wothen 
and Hengest are Withar, Wicta, Wyrlitels ; in Florence of Wore. 
566, Vecta sive Wehta, Witta, Wihtgisilus ; in Henry of Hunt. 
Vecta, Wicta, Wiagils. 

Hengest had a son Eoric, surnamed Oisc (Oesc), after whom 
all succeeding kings of Kent were called Discing as ; after Oisc 
came Octa, Irminric, Ethelbert, Beda 2, 5. Oisc is called Aesc in 
Sax. Chron. and Ethelwerd. Florence has