Skip to main content

Full text of "A text-book of botany and pharmacognosy : intended for the use of students of pharmacy, as a reference book for pharmacists, and a handbook for food and drug analysts"

See other formats




\ ^ 

#1 ^A 



p r-^' 



Frontispiece, i, cell of fleshy scale of bulb of onion (^Allium Cepa) showing cyto- 
plasm, nucleus and large central vacuole. 

Chloroplasts : 2, a parenchyma cell of green fruit of garden pepper (Capsicum annum) 
showing cytoplasm, nucleus and chloroplasts ; 2a, a chloroplast of a moss {Funaria) show- 
ing^ green granules, assimilation starch grains and protein granules; 2b, a cell near the 
periphery of the pseudo-bulb of the orchid (Phaius grandifolius) showing cytoplasm and 
three reserve starch grains formed by leucoplasts, which latter under the influence of 
light have developed into chloroplasts. 

Chromoplasts: 3, a parenchyma cell of ripe fruit of Capsicum annum showing cyto- 
plasm, nucleus and yellowish-red chromoplasts; 3a, isolated chromoplasts of carrot 
(Daucus Car Ota). 

4. transverse section of petal of wild pansy (Viola tricolor) showing colored cell-sap in 
epidermal cells. 






Professor of Botany and Pharmacognosy, and Director of the Microscopical Laboratory, in the 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy; Member of the Committee of Revision of 

the Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America; Corresponding 

Member of the Societe de Pbarmacie de Paris, etc. 

Illustrated with over JOO plates comprising about 2000 figures 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1902, by 

In the Ofiice of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Copyright, 1907, by Henry Kraemer 

Copyright, 1908, by Henry Kraemer 

Copyright, 1910, by Henry Kraemer 



With each edition of this book the author has found it 
desirable to make certain changes and additions, not only with 
the object of increasing its usefulness as a text-book for the 
student, but also for the purpose of making it still more valuable 
as an aid and guide in practice. In the present edition a number 
of improvements have been made in the text as well as in the 
illustrations. The botanical portion of the book has been revised, 
the author having been fortunate in securing the cooperation of 
Dr. Theo. Holm, of Brookland, D. C, who has critically gone 
over certain portions of the morphology and classification of the 
Angiosperms and re-written a number of the articles. While 
there are some teachers who naturally prefer their students to 
have an independent course in botany before taking up pharma- 
cognosy, the treatment of this subject in this book is such as to 
be directly applicable to pharmaceutical work, and will be found 
useful to the student of pharmacy in the college course, as well 
as of assistance to the pharmacist and analyst who engages in 
practical pharmacognostical work. 

Up until the present time, the anatomical or histological 
method has received the sole attention of pharmacognosists. By 
this method, based for the most part upon the study of tissues, 
the identity and general quality of drugs and foods are ascer- 
tained, and the results thus obtained, when taken in conjunction 
with those of chemical analysis, have been of great value in deter- 
mining the purity of the products examined. For some years it 
has seemed to the author important that the pharmacognosist 
study the active and other constituents of drugs, such as may be 
obtained in crystalline form from sections, from extractions of 



small quantities of powders, or from a few drops of an extracted 
solution as obtained in assay work. While there are a number 
of books treating of micro-chemistry, yet the treatment of the 
microscopic crystals in these is of a general character. The 
only satisfactory way to study these crystals is by means of the 
petrographical microscope. In Part IV about forty pages have 
been included treating of the micro-analysis of some of the 
important plant constituents, and it is believed that this portion 
will be especially useful in the detection and accurate study of 
these substances. In the preparation of this part the author had 
the hearty cooperation of Dr. Charles Travis, of the University 
of Pennsylvania, who not only made careful studies of the 
crystals described, but read the proof very carefully. 

The new illustrations include some thirty-five photographs 
of microscopic crystals ; a four-color plate, made from Lumiere 
autochrome photographs, showing salicin and cocaine hydro- 
chloride under the micro-polariscope, with crossed nicols; and a 
number of half-tone illustrations and drawings of medicinal 
plants. In addition, the work has been brought up to date by 
including the results of the researches published during the past 
two years. 

Acknowledgment is cheerfully made to the editor of Merck's 
Report for permission to use some of the excellent drawings 
from Dr. Theo. Holm's articles on " Medicinal Plants of North 

H. K. 

September, 191 o. 


Owing to the role played by vegetable substances in the treat- 
ment of disease, pharmacognosy takes rank as one of the most 
important divisions of applied botany. It is generally understood 
to treat of the external characters, gross structure, histology," and 
chemical constituents of the plant parts used in medicine. In 
a broader sense it also implies the study of plants themselves, of 
systematic botany, and of plant chemistry (phyto-chemistry). 
Furthermore, when the factors which influence the formation of 
the active principles in plants are taken into consideration, the 
subject is seen to have a relation to plant physiology on the one 
hand and to plant culture on the other. 

This work is divided into three parts. Part I comprises five 
chapters, and is devoted to a consideration of the distinguishing 
characters of the main groups of plants, from the lowest to the 
highest; (2) the anatomy or outer structure of the Angiosperms 
(or so-called Flowering Plants) ; (3) the inner structure or 
histology of the higher plants, including the cell-contents ; (4) 
a classification of the Angiosperms yielding vegetable drUgs and 
other useful products, together with concise descriptions of the 
plants, as also of the non-official drugs derived from them, and 
(5) the subject of the cultivation of medicinal plants. 

Part II comprises two chapters, one devoted to the crude 
drugs official in the United States Pharmacopoeia, including a 
few non-official drugs, and another which treats of the subject 
of powdered drugs and foods. The latter is designed not only 
for the use of students but also to furnish assistance to food and 
drug analysts in identifying and estimating the quality of vege- 
table powders, and includes a descriptioh of the distinguishing 
histological elements of over two hundred food, spice and drug 
products, together with directions for making examinations of 
materials of this kind. 

In Part III are given the various classes of reagents, together 
with the technique involved in sectioning and the mounting of 
specimens. In addition various tests are given in connection with 
dififerent subjects in other parts of the book. ."A 



The work is illustrated throughout, and the student is advised 
to consult the illustrations freely, not only on account of their 
value in elucidating the descriptions, but also because the legends 
contain information which in some instances supplements that 
given in the text. 

It should be stated that a large proportion of the illustrations 
are reproductions of photographs and drawings made by the 
author, and that in all cases where illustrations are borrowed, 
credit is given each author in connection with the reproduction. 

One of the most difficult questions which arises in writing 
a work of this kind is that relating to nomenclature. Owing to 
the desirability of maintaining a stable nomenclature, particularly 
for medicinal plants, the author has adopted a rather conservative 
course and has been largely guided by Engler & Prantl and Index 
Kewensis, or, in the case of plants growing in the United States, 
the names given in Britton's Flora may have been employed. 

Among the works consulted by the author, and of which special 
mention should be made, are the following: Organography of 
Plants by K. Goebel (English translation by Isaac Bayley Bal- 
four) ; The Physiology of Plants by W. Pfeffer (second revised 
English edition by Alfred J. Ewart) ; Die Heilpflanzen by Georg 
Dragendorff ; The Volatile Oils by Gildemeister & Hoffmann 
(English translation by Edward Kremers) ; Die Pflanzen- 
Alkaloide by Jul. Wilh. Briihl, E. Hjelt and O. Aschan. 

Grateful acknowledgment is also made to the following pub- 
lishers for permission to reproduce illustrations from the works 
mentioned. Wilhelm Engelmann, of Leipzig: Die naturlichen 
Pflanzen-familien by Engler & Prantl. Gebriider Borntraeger, 
of Berlin : Handbuch der systematische Botanik by E. Warming. 
Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, of Berlin : Wissenschaftliche 
Drogenkunde by Arthur Meyer. Gustav Fischer, of Jena : Lehr- 
buch der Botanik by Strasburger, Noll, Schenck and Schimper. 

The author desires fully to acknowledge the services of Miss 
Florence Yaple, without whose painstaking and constant assist- 
ance during the course of revision, this book could not have 
appeared in its present enlarged form. 

H. K. 
April, 1907. 





Thallophytes 3 

Algse 8 

Fungi i6 

Archegoniates 44 

Bryophytes 45 

Hepaticse (Liverworts) 51 

Musci (Mosses) 53 

Pteridophytes 55 

Filicales (Ferns) 57 

Equisetales (Horsetails) 64 

Lycopodiales (Club Mosses) 66 

Spermophytes ( Seed Plants) 70 

Gymnosperms 71 

Angiosperms 81 


Introductory 91 

The Root 92 

The Stem 100 

The Leaf 106 

The Flower 121 

The Fruit I45 

The Seed 151 



Cell and Cell-Contents 156 

The Cell Wall i^i 

Kinds of Cells 184 

Inner Structure of Members or Organs IQ7 

Plant Metabolism 219 




Introductory 22"^ 

Monocotyledons 225 

Dicotyledons 247 

Archichlamydeae or Choripetalae 247 

Metachlamydeas or Sympetalas 355 


Propagation 404 

The Collection, Curing and Yield of Drugs 406 

Cultivated Medicinal Plants 407 


Introductory 417 

Drugs Derived from Angiosperms 425 

Seeds 425 

Roots and Rhizomes 443 

Barks, Woods and Pith 511 

Flowers ^48 

Fruits 559 

Leaves and Herbs 595 

Exudations, Milk Juices and other Plant Substances ...: 640 

Drugs Derived from Conifers 682 

Drugs Derived from Thallophytes and Archegoniates 684 


Introductory 695 i 

Key for the Identification of Powders 702 ' 

Description of Powders 714 1 


Classes of Reagents, Making of Sections , 800 ! 

Formul;e for Reagents, Mounting of Specimens, Micrometry 802 


Crystallographic Study of Plant Constituents 816 

Index 855 ! 

Botany and Pharmacognosy. 





There are four main lines of botanical work now recognized, 
namely, INiorphology, Histology, Physiology, and Ecology. 
Morphology treats of the form and structure of plants and the 
subject is sometimes divided into (i) external morphology or 
organography and (2) internal morphology or anatomy (histol- 
ogy). The former deals with external characters of plant parts and 
the latter with their minute inner structure. Physiology may be 
defined as the study which considers life processes and the condi- 
tions which influence these. Ecology is the study of the adapta- 
tion of plants and their parts to external conditions. It is impor- 
tant to bear in mind, however, that these several departments 
are more or less interdependent, and that one of them cannot be 
intelligently considered without encroaching on the territory of 
the others. For instance, as Goebel states, we cannot under- 
stand the relation of the external forms of organs without refer- 
ence to their functions. In other words, form and function have 
a direct relation ; one influences the other. So, too, in the study 
of ecology we study the influence of external conditions on 
plants and these, as indicated above, have a direct influence on 
physiological processes, and thus the study of ecology merges 
into the study of physiology on the one hand and into morphology 
on the other. 

While this book will deal chiefly with the structure of plants 
and their parts, still it will be necessary occasionally to refer to 
some of the characters of plants which properly belong to other 
J. departments of botanical study. 


Basis of Plant Structure. In order to understand the sig- 
nificance and relation of the various parts of plants it is necessary 
to know something of their functions and habits of life as well 
as of their internal structure. 

If we make a section of a plant and examine it b}' means of 
the microscope, the cut surface presents the appearance of a 
network indicating that the tissue is made up of small compart- 
ments or chambers. One of these compartments together with 
its contents constitutes the structure known as the cell (see 

The cell contents vary greatly in appearance and composi- 
tion, but in all active or living cells there is always present the 
substance known as protoplasm. The protoplasm is the basis 
of all plant structures whether they belong to the lowest or high- 
est forms ; for by its aid or from it all parts of the plant are 
developed. Even the cell wall is a product of protoplasmic activity. 
The protoplasmic content of the cell consists of several intimately 
related but more or less distinct portions, namely, a somewhat 
thin, semi-liquid, granular portion known as the cytoplasm ; 
a more or less spherical body embedded in the cytoplasm called 
the NUCLEUS ; and frequently, but not always, certain small 
bodies which are more or less variable in shape called plastids, 
these being also embedded in the cytoplasm (see Frontispiece). 
The cytoplasm and nucleus are sometimes considered together 
as a unit, which is known as the protoplast. A fuller discui.;sion 
of the differentiated portions of the protoplasm will be found in 
Chapter III. (See page 156.) 

The lowest organisms, as the slime molds, do not have an 
enclosing membrane but consist of a naked mass of protoplasm. 
With this exception plants have an outer wall or membrane. 
They may consist of a single cell, as in the Bacteria, or a chain 
of cells, as in the filamentous Algse, or a mass of cells, as in the 
majority of plants, and are accordingly designated as unicelluhr 
or multicellular. The cell wall is composed for the most part 
of cellulose, but may be modified in various ways. 

Nomenclature. The names for describing plants have been 
derived for the most part from studies of the higher plants, they 
having exclusivclv attracted the attention of botanists at first. 


But with the Hght which has been thrown on the relationship 
of the higher and lower groups of plants by the more recent 
study of the lower forms the older terminology has been somewhat 
modified. Thus, for example, w'e speak of the root and shoot, 
with its leaves, as the vegetative organs of the higher plants, 
and in describing the corresponding organs (where they exist) in 
the lower plants, we either apply these terms directly, or indi- 
rectly by saying that the latter are root-like, stem-like, etc. On 
the other hand, we now speak of the sexual organs of the higher 
plants as antheridia and oogonia (or archegonia) instead of 
classifying them roughly as stamens and pistils, the latter names 
being retained but with a different signification. 

Factors Influencing Growth. Plants have certain inherent 
or inherited tendencies or characters which make up the inner 
constitution, and this can not be modified by external agencies 
except within more or less narrow limits. Depending upon this 
character w^e find plants as different in kind as the apple tree 
and pine growing under precisely the same conditions. In other 
words, the character of the structure is determined in the main 
by the nature of the organism. It is true that an apple tree may 
grow better in one locality than another, but it is still an apple 
tree whether it be dwarfed or attain to the full measure of its 
growth. These slight changes in the character are known as 
accidental variations. Frequently they are the result of tempo- 
rary conditions and are not repeated in the succeeding genera- 
tion. On the other hand, if the special conditions remain these 
individual variations may be repeated in generation after gen- 
eration and finally become permanent characters. 

The gradual change in the structure and nature of organisms 
which takes place through long periods of time is spoken of as 
EVOLUTION. In some cases specific changes in the characters of 
plants arise rather suddenly without any known cause and such 
changes are spoken of as saltations or mutations. 

The factors essential for growth in all cases are food, water 
and a certain temperature. Among the food elements we may 
mention as of chief importance, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and 
nitrogen. Some of the other elements are also essential to most 
plants although they occur in relatively small proportion in the 


plant, as potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, iron and 
calcium. The latter element does not seem to be necessary to 
the normal development of some of the Fungi and certain Algae. 

Water permeates all parts of the plant and when the cells 
are in the normal turgescent state it contains more than half 
its weight of water. When the supply of water falls below the 
normal the plants begin to droop and finally die. The need of 
plants varies greatly in this particular ; some are aquatic in their 
habits and live wholly in the water; others can live only on the 
land ; and still others are adapted to desert regions. 

The degree of temperature necessary for growth varies within 
certain limits for each kind of plant, but as is stated by Pfeffer, 
the greatest extremes are shown by Fungi, Bacteria and the 
lower Algse. Generally speaking the most favorable temperature 
for growth is between 24 and 34 C. 

Besides the factors enumerated there are other factors which 
influence growth. They include light (p. 106), gravity (p. 94), 
mechanical agencies, etc., and are sometimes spoken of as external 

It is difficult to separate those factors which act solely as exter- 
nal stimuli from those which are essential to the normal growth 
of the plant and which may be considered as physiological fac- 
tors. For example, light vmder certain conditions may be 
regarded as in the nature of an external stimulus and not essen- 
tial to the growth of the plant, while in other cases it has a direct 
influence on normal growth and is essential to the life of the 
plant, as in all plants or parts of plants where photosynthesis 
(p. 109) takes place. 

In addition to the essential food elements, there are many 
substances which affect the growth of plants which may be 
grouped as chemical stimuli, such as (a) the substances secreted 
by gall-forming insects, (h) in a certain measure some of the 
substances produced by Fungi, (c) and numerous substances not 
found as normal constituents of the plant. Depending upon the 
amount of the substance present and the conditions under which 
it is supplied, the substance may act as a poison and injure the 
plant, or it may accelerate growth, or cause abnormal develop- 


This subject has an important bearing on the physiological 
testing of drugs. Robert states that in determining the qualities 
of a new chemical, preliminary experiments should be conducted 
on lower plants and animals before trying it on man. Of the 
plants which have been used in the testing of poisons the follow- 
ing may be mentioned : Oscillaria, Spirulina, Nostoc, Zygnema, 
Spirogyra, Saccharomyces, Mucor, Elodea, Lenina, Pistia, 
Potamogeton, Myriophyllum, Ceratophyllum, Tradescantia, seed- 
lings of grasses, lupine, bean, pea, corn, etc. 

Plant Organs. Depending upon the fact that the plant 
requires nourishment for its growth and development and that 
it has also to carry on the work of reproduction or propagation, 
i.e., the production of new plants, we distinguish between 
vegetative or nutritive organs and propagative or reproductive 
organs. The vegetative organs, such as the root, stem and leaves 
in higher plants, manufacture the food necessary for the life of 
the plant, while certain other more or less specialized organs or 
cells carry on the work of reproduction. 

In the lower plants, however, the whole structure is much 
simpler, and in some instances a cell which performs the work 
of a nutritive cell at one stage may become a reproductive cell 
at another, or. as in the case of the unicellular Algae, all the 
various functions of the plant may be carried on by a single cell. 

Generally speaking, there are two principal ways in which 
plants are multiplied or reproduced : ( i ) By cell division or cell 
fission, and (2) by the formation of special cells known as 
SPORES. In cell division (Fig. 94) the nucleus and cytoplasm of 
a cell divide to form two new cells or protoplasts, which become 
distinct by the formation of a wall or cell-plate between the two 
halves. All growth in plants is dependent upon this method, 
and in growing parts the cells are said to be in a state of division. 
Owing to the plasticity of the plant organism, detached portions 
will often grow and give rise to new plants, as in the case of cut- 
tings. Growth here as in the parent plant is accompanied by cell 
division. In some of the lower Algse (Fig. 6) cell division is the 
only method of propagation, and as only the ordinary vegetative or 
nutritive cells of the plant are involved in the process it is some- 
times spoken of as vegetative multiplication. 


In both lower and higher plants, with the exceptions just 
noted, reproduction is also carried on by means of spores. 

Depending upon their origin two classes of spores are distin- 
guished, namely, (a) asexual spores, and (b) sexual spores. In 
the production of asexual spores the contents of a certain cell 

Fig. 5. Ulothrix zonata. A, young filament with rhizoid cell (r); B, piece of filament 
showing escape of swarm spores; C, a swarm spore or zoospore with 4 cilia; D, biciliate 
gametes escaping from a filament; E, F, G, showing different stages of union of two gametes; 
H, young zygote or zygospore in which the cilia have been absorbed; J, i-celled plant 
developed from zygote; K, young plant organizing zoospores. After Dodel-Port. 

called a mother cell or sporangium break up into a number of 
new cells sometimes called daughter cells, which escape through 
the cell wall. In the lower plants, particularly those growing 
in water or in moist places, these cells are provided with short 


thread-like appendages known as cilia, which enable them to 
move about in the water. They are known as zoospores or swarm 
spores (Fig. 5, B, C), and each individual zoospore is able to 
produce a new plant. 

The number of zoospores formed in a sporangium is usually 
2 to 8, as in Ulothrix, but the number may be larger. The method 
of cell formation which gives rise to zoospores is sometimes 
spoken of as internal division from the fact that they arise 
within the old cell and retain no relation to the old wall as is the 
case in cell fission. The zoospores are at first naked protoplasts, 
but later, on coming to rest, may form a wall. Sexual spores, on 
the other hand, are formed by the union of two cells known as 
GAMETES. When the gametes are similar the resulting spore is 
known as a zygospore or zygote (Fig. 5, E, F, G). When the 
gametes are unlike, the spore produced by their union is known 
as an oospore. In the latter case one of the gametes is larger 
than the other, is less active, and is spoken of as the female 
gamete, oosphere, or egg (Figs. 11, 12). The other more active 
cell is known as the male gamete, antherozoid or sperm (Fig. 
34, ///). The cell giving rise to the oosphere is known as the 
oogonium (Figs. 8, 11, 12), while the one in which the anthero- 
zoid or sperm originates is called the antheridium (Figs. 8, 11, 
12, 34). 


Botanists earlier divided the plant kingdom into flowering 
plants or Phenogams (Phanerogams), and non-flowering plants, 
or Cryptogams. It was formerly the custom to devote attention 
chiefly to the more prominent groups of plants, or those that 
produce seeds, but more recently the results of the studies on 
the less prominent groups, as ferns, mosses, etc., have modified 
our views and made it imperative that the botanist have a general 
knowledge at least of all the great groups of plants. 

The most general classification of plants is that which divides 
them into three great groups, namely, (i) Thallophytes (Thal- 
lophyta), (2) Archegoniates (Archegoniatae), and (3) Spermo- 
phy tes ( Spermophy ta ) . 



The Thallophytes include the lowest orders of plants, 
i.e., those simplest in form and structure. They are supposed also 
to represent more or less primitive types. In these plants the 
plant body does not show a differentiation into root, stem and 
leaf, as in the higher plants, and is term.ed a thallus. The 
thallus may branch in various ways, but the structure remains 
more or less uniform throughout. It should be understood, how- 
ever, that even in this group of plants certain cells or groups of 
cells may become specialized, i.e., set apart for a particular func- 
tion, as. for example, the reproductive cells. The Thallophytes 
vary in size and general appearance from minute unicellular 
organisms and those which are filamentous and delicately branched 
to large leaf-like organisms many feet in length (Figs. 6, 9, 13). 

The Thallophytes are divided into the two groups of plants 
known as (i) Algse and (2) Fungi. The Algae produce chloro- 
plasts, and hence are capable of manufacturing food from the 
inorganic substances air and water (see page 108), which fact 
constitutes a fundamental difference betv/een them and the Fungi. 


Algae are also characterized by their habit of living in water 
or in moist places, and they are sometimes classified as " fresh 
water algae " and " salt water algae " (Fig. 9). In the first group 
are included the common pond-scums and certain forms living 
on trees, moist rocks, fences and elsewhere, and in the second 
group the sea-weeds. 

In addition to the chlorophyll (see page 159) of the chloro- 
plasts other color substances are found in Algae, which mask the 
green color to a considerable extent. On the basis of their color 
Algae are subdivided into ( i ) Blue-green Algae or Cyanophyceae, 
(2) Green Algae or Chlorophyceae, (3) Brown Algae or Phaeo- 
phyceae, and (4) Red Algae or Rhodophyceae. While no attempt 
will be made to consider these groups in detail, it should be 
stated that they not only vary in color, but they also vary greatly 
in structure and general appearance. A few type fomis will be 
considered in order to illustrate their habits of life. 


Pleurococcus. One of the eommonest of the Green Algae 
as well as one of the simplest is Pleurococcus (Pleurococcus 
vulgaris) (Fig. 6). It occurs as a green coating, in both winter 
and summer on the moist bark of trees, moist ground, and 
stone walls, and is a component of some lichens'. The plant is 
one-celled, more or less spherical, and at one stage contains a 
number of chlorophyll grains which finally unite to form a single 
plate which lies against the wall and is known as a chromato- 
PHORE. Besides it contains a considerable amount of oil. An 
allied species (Pleurococcus z'iridis) contains the sugar erythrite. 
The plant usually reproduces by simple division, that is. one cell 
or plant divides to form two. The division may continue by the 
production of another cross wall, so that four cells result. Under 
favorable conditions, division may take place by the formation 

Fig. 6. Pleurococcus vulgaris. Different stages of division of the cell. After Wille 

of Still another wall at right angles to the other two. In 
this way two, four and finally eight individuals arise which adhere 
more or less to one another, thus forming colonies. The number 
of individuals in a colony depends upon the number of indi- 
viduals in the colony when division begins and the extent to 
which division is carried. Thus if there were four cells in a 
colony to begin with and division took place in three planes, there 
would be thirty-two cells in the colony at the end of the period. 
Spirogyra. Another one of the common Green Algae is 
Spirogyra (Fig. 7), one of the pond-scums, which forms float- 
ing green masses on ponds and shallow water in the spring. The 
plant-body consists of a chain of cylindrical cells forming long 
threads or filaments. The transverse walls are sometimes pecu- 
liarly thickened. The chromatophores occur in one or more spiral 
bands (Fig. 7, 77), which extend from one end of the cell to the 



other. In these bands are embedded protein bodies known as 
pyrenoids. The nucleus hes in the center of the cell and is con- 
nected with the cytoplasmic layer lining the walls of the cell by 
delicate threads of cytoplasm. 

Spirogyra may be propagated vegetatively by one or more 
cells of a filament breaking off and forming new individuals by 
cell division. The plant is also reproduced by means of zygo- 

FiG. 7. II. Spirogyra stictica, showing parts of two filaments with band-like chroma- 
tophores (chloroplasts), in which are embedded spherical pyrenoids. Nuclei are sho'WTl 
in some of the cells with delicate threads of cytoplasm radiating from them. Two of the 
cells (a, a,) of the adjoining filaments (A., B) are beginning conjugation. I, 5. Heeriana, 
showing different stages of conjugation. In the upper cells, the contents have rounded 
off previous to the rupture of the adjoining walls of the two filaments. The two middle 
cells show the contents passing from one cell into the opposite cell. In the lower cell to 
the right the zygospore is shown. After De Bary. 

spores, as follows: The cells of two adjoining filaments each 
send out processes (Fig. 7, //, a, a), which meet; the end walls 
are absorbed, forming a tube through which the contents from one 
cell pass over into the other (Fig. 7, /) ; the contents of the two 
cells then fuse, after which the mass becomes surrounded by a 
cellulose wall. The spore thus formed may remain domiant over 
winter, and the following spring germinate and form a new Spyro- 
gyra filament or plant. This method of reproduction is known 



as CONJUGATION, and the zygospore is called a resting spore. It 
should be explained that certain cells, as well as spores, may lie 
dormant for a period, as during the winter season or at otlier- 
times, when the conditions are unfavorable to growth, and then 
renew their activities, these being known as " resting cells." 

Vaucheria (Fig. 8) is another common green alga which 
may also be selected as showing the habits of this group of 
plants. The plant has a branching thallus and lives in shallow 

Fig. 8. Vaucheria sessilis. A, sporangium from which the multiciliate zoospore is 
escaping; B, resting zoospore; C, D, germinating zoospores with growing point (s); E, 
plant showing root-like organ of attachment (w), spore from which the plant is develop- 
ing (sp), F, showing in addition two oogonia (og) and an antheridium (h). After Sachs. 

water or on moist earth, being attached 'to the substratum by 
means of delicate root-like processes sometimes spoken of as 
rhizoids (Fig. 8, iv). In the thin layer of protoplasm lying near 
the wall are numerous nuclei and small oval chromatophores. 
Numerous oil globules are also found in the protoplasm, and cal- 
cium oxalate crystals may occur in the cell-sap. 

Vaucheria furnishes an example of a plant whose interior is 
not segmented by cell walls. In other words, the cavity within 
the outer or enclosing membrane is continuous, and such a plant 


is said to be ccenocytic, i.e., like a syphon. But it should be borne 
in mind that the plant contains a great many nuclei, and as we 
have seen (page 2) a nucleus with its associated cytoplasm 
constitutes a unit of work. Hence such a plant as Vaucheria is in 
a certain sense equivalent to a plant having as many uninucleate 
cells as it has nuclei. It would probably be better to call such a 
plant multinucleate rather than unicellular. 

Reproduction by means of asexual spores is brought about as 
follows (Fig. S>, A) : A cross wall is formed near the end of one 
of the branches, the end portion constituting a sporangium. The 
contents, including numerous nuclei group themselves into one 
large zoospore, which escapes through an opening in the sporan- 
gial wall, and after swimming about for a time comes to rest 
and germinates, giving rise to a new plant (Fig. 8, C, D). This 
large zoospore is multinucleate and multiciliate. there being two 
cilia for each nucleus, and by some botanists is considered to be 
an aggregation of numerous biciliate zoospores. It is also of 
interest to note that the zoospores of Vaucheria appear to arise by 
a grouping of the cytoplasm and the nuclei already existing in the 
sporangium rather than by repeated divisions of a single nucleus. 

Another method of reproduction in Vaucheria (Fig. 8, F) 
is that by means of oospores, or spores formed by the union of 
tgg and sperm cells. Two special branches are formed on the 
thallus as sliort side shoots. One of these branches, known as 
the oogonium (Fig. 8, og), is somewhat egg-shaped and sepa- 
rated from the thallus by means of a cross wall. It contains a 
great many chromatophores and considerable oil, and has a com- 
paratively thick wall. The apex is somewhat beaked and con- 
tains colorless protoplasm. The second branch, which is known 
as an antheridium (Fig. 8, h). is smaller, somewhat cylindrical 
and curved towards the oogonium. It is also cut ofif from the 
thallus by means of a cross wall. The antheridium contains very 
little chlorophyll, but a great many sperm cells. These are oval 
or egg-shaped and have two cilia, one at each end. The sperms 
escape from the apex of the antheridium and enter an opening 
at the apex of the oogonium, one of them uniting with the egg 
cell, which then develops a thick membrane, the resulting oospore 
being a resting spore. 



Diatoms constitute a large group of unicellular plants, oc- 
curring in both fresh and salt waters. They form the plankton or 
floating microscopic life found in oceans and lakes, which is the 

Fig. 9. Chondrus crispus: A, B, C, D, various forms of thallus; H, holdfast; F, spor- 
angia; T, transverse section of thallus epidermis (E), sporangium with spores (F) ; 
S, spores separated in glycerin preparation of thallus by pressure on the cover glass. The 
spores occur in groups of fovir (tetraspores) and the tetrad group is about 30 /i in diameter. 



source of food of small animal forms inhabiting these waters. 
One of the distinguishing characters of the group is that 
the cell wall is incrusted with silica. For this reason they 
are practically indestructible and form marls and strata in 
the earth. They occur either singly or grouped in bands or 
chains. They are very variable in shape, being boat-shaped, 

Fig. 10. Diatoms: A, Pleurosigma atienuatum as seen from above; B, Pleurosigtna 
halticum as seen from the girdle side; C, D, E, Fragilaria inrescetis showing colonies 
attached to an alga in C, a view of a single diatom from above at D, and a chain of 
diatoms viewed from the girdle side at E; F, G, two views of Navicula viridis; H, I, the 
formation of auxos pores in Navicula firma, H showing the exit of the protoplasts and the 
throwing off of the original valves. A, B, D, after Van Heurck; C, E, after W. Smith; 
F-I, after Pfitzer. 

ellipsoidal, spherical, or peculiarly curved in some forms. They 
are either free or attached to a substratum, as stones, water plants, 
etc., those which are free having an active movement (Fig. lo). 
The cell-wall of Diatoms practically consists of two halves, one 
fitting over the other like the lid of a box. These are known 
as " valves " or " theca." The manner in which the two valves 


are joined results in the formation of a " girdle " or " pleura." 
The girdle is provided with a series of pores connecting with 
canals at either end and in the middle, through which food from 
without is supplied to the protoplast. The valves are very often 
beautifully marked by a series of parallel cross lines, dots, cir- 
cles, or polygons, which are characteristic of the different groujjs. 
Some forms are used in testing the definition of objectives, as 
Pleiirosigma angulatitiii, in which the lines are one-half micron 
wide (,Fig. 10, A)} 

In the Diatoms the protoplasm lies as a thin layer close to the 
wall surrounding a large central vacuole. The nucleus is sur- 
rounded by a relatively dense mass of cytoplasm, and occurs in 
definite positions according to the species. The chromatophores 
frequently occur in plates which are typical for certain species. 
They are sometimes greenish-yellov.', the color being generally 
masked by the presence of a brown substance known as diatomin. 
They frequently contain pyrenoids, which are sometimes associated 
with granules of starch. 

Reproduction takes place by simple division or fission, the two 
valves separating and a new valve forming on each half to replace 
the old one. In each case the valve formed fits into the old one 
and hence in the case of the smaller valve the new cell or i)lant 
becomes smaller than the parent plant, the walls not being able 
to expand on account of the siliceous composition. In this way 
the cells of one series gradually become smaller and smaller until 
a certain minimum is reached, when the plant rejuvenates itself 
l)y the production of spores (auxospores). These are formed in 
two ways : In one case the valves separate from each other, the 
protoplast escapes, grows larger and develops a new wall ; in the 
other case, of which there are several types, ^two individuals come 
together, and envelop themselves in a mucilaginous covering. 
They then throw off their siliceous walls and the protoplasts unite 
to form a zygospore which grows until it is three times the orig- 
inal size, after which it develops a new wall, the larger valve 
forming first (Fig. 10. H, I). 

Economic Uses of Algae. Diatomaceous earth, which is 

1 The micron (/i) is the joVo of ^ millimeter. 


made up of the valves of diatoms, is used chiefly as an absorbent 
agent for storing nitroglycerin, as in the production of dynamite. 
Being a non-conductor of heat the material also finds use in the 
manufacture of the so-called isolation plates for machinery. 
Another use is as a tooth powder. Among the Chinese and Lap- 
landers diatomaceous earth has also been used as an edible earth 
known as " mountain meal " or " bread-stone." It has been used 
in India as a rubefacient. 

Many of the Algae are of use as food, of which the following 
may be mentioned : Vaucheria fastigiata, Griffitlisia coralina, 
Ceramiuiii Loureirii, Chondrus crispns (Fig. 9), Gigartiua mamil- 
losa(Fig.2y8a.), Gclidiuni cartilagineurn, Gelidiitm crinalc (yield- 
ing agar-agar), Rhodymcnia pahnata (yielding dulse), and sev- 
eral species of Gracilaria (which also yield agar-agar). 

Some of the sea-weeds are used in the production of iodine, 
as DiirviUcra utilis, AscopliyUnm nodosum, Fucus vcsicidosns 
(bladder-wrack), Sargassiiiii liiiifolliiui. Laminaria saccharina, 
Laiiiinaria digitata, Alaria csculcnta, Rhodyiiicnia pahnata, Phyl- 
lophora mcmhranifolia, Macrocystis pyrifcra, and Fastigiaria fiir- 

A number of the Algae are also used in medicine, particularly 
for phthisis, as Fiicns cartilaginctts, StUophora rhicodcs and 
Dictyoptcris polypodioidcs. Alaria csculcnta and Laminaria digi- 
tata are used in the making of bougies and tents used in surgery. 
Owing to the toughness of some of the Algae on drying, the 
material is used in the manufacture of various articles, as handles 
for tools from the thick stem of Lcssonia fnccsccns, fishing lines 
from Chordaria filum, etc. 


The Fungi form a large group of plants which do not produce 
chloroplasts or any bodies having a similar function. Thev have 
not the power of carbon dioxide assimilation, that is, unlike the 
Algae they are unable to manufacture food materials, such as 
carbohydrates (starches, sugars, etc.), from carbon dioxide and 
water. Hence they are dependent upon previously formed food 
products, and may derive their food from living plants or ani- 
mals, when they are known as parasites, or from decaying animal 


or vegetable matter, when they are known as saprophytes. The 
Hving plant or animal attacked by a fungus is known as the host. 

F'ungi are especially characterized by the habit of arising 
from spores aiid of producing thread-like cells the growing point 
of which is at the apex. These threads are known as iiypii/E 
(singular hypha). They branch and become interwoven, forming 
a mass or mat known as the mycelium (Fig. 13). The myce- 
lium constitutes the plant body proper, and absorbs the food 
material from the substratum, which it ramifies, often causing 
decay. The mycelium is frequently not visible, and the presence 
of the fungus is not recognized until the so-called fruit bodies are 
developed, as sometimes seen in the case of moldy oranges, 
mildewed linen, and as illustrated by the common mushroom. 
The mycelium has a cellulose wall which in some cases is modi- 
fied to chitin, a nitrogenous substance related to animal cellulose 
and found in crabs and other lower animals. The protoplasm 
either occurs in a more or less delicate form lining the hyphse and 
enclosing large vacuoles, or is comparatively dense enclosing 
numerous small vacuoles. Many fungi contain color substances 
which are dissolved in the cell-sap and are of a quite brilliant hue. 
One of the most interesting classes of substances produced by 
fungi is that of the ferments, including the oxidizing ferment 
allied to laccase. They contain also amido-substances related to 
lecithin ; fats ; carbohydrates, as trehalose and mannitol ; organic 
acids, as oxalic, tartaric, malic, etc.; and calcium oxalate may 
be present in some cases. 

Reproduction in the Fungi is chiefly by means of asexual 
spores, which arise in two ways. In the one case they are devel- 
oped in a special cell or sporangium at the end of a mycelial thread 
and are known as endospores. In the other case they arise on 
special hyphas, or directly from the mycelium and are known as 
ExosPORES or conidia. There are also several modifications of 
these two types of spores, which may be referred to later. 

Groups of Fungi. There are two principal groups of Fungi, 
namely, (i) the Phycomycetes, or Alga-fungi, so called because 
they show a resemblance to certain of the Algse, and (2) the 
Eumycetes, or true Fungi. The Eumycetes have two sub- 
divisions, namely, (i) Ascomycetes and (2) Basidiomycetes. 


The Ascomycetes arc distinguished by having a sporangium of 
a definite shape and size, which is called an Ascus, and which 
contains a definite number of spores, which is two or some multi- 
ple thereof. The Basidiomycetes are the most highly developed 
Fungi, producing large fruit bodies, such as are seen in mush- 
rooms, toadstools and pufifballs. They are characterized by pro- 
ducing spores (basidiospores) on special hypha;. The spores are 
usually four in number and the spore-producing organ is known 


PHYCOMYCETES : ALGA-FUNGL The plant body of 
the Phycomycetes consists of a mycelium which is unsegmented, 
more or less thread-like and sometimes considerably branched. 
Reproduction takes place by means of several kinds of spores, and 
by reason of the production of two kinds of sexual spores they are 
subdivided into two important groups. These are ( i ) the Oomy- 
cetes which produce oospores, and (2) the Zygomycetes which 
produce zygospores. 

Saprolegnia. Probably one of the best representatives of 
the Oomycetes is the group of water molds known as Saproleg- 
nia, which are aquatic in their habits and are both parasitic and 
saprophytic, occurring on living fish, insects, crayfish and decay- 
ing plants and animals as well. The plant body consists of a 
mycelivim which may be simple or branched, sometimes forming 
a dense mass (Fig. 11, A). Like the alga A'aucheria, it produces 
both swarm spores (zoospores) and oospores. The swarm spores 
(Fig. II, B, C) are produced in sporangia fomied by the pro- 
duction of a partition wall at the end of a hypha. The sporangia 
are either cylindrical or spherical, and contain numerous zoospores 
which have two cilia at one end. These spores are peculiar m 
that after their escape from the sporangium they swim about, 
then come to rest and take on a wall, after which resting period 
they develop two cilia on the side, again move about, and germin- 
ate when they find a suitable host. 

The oogonia and antheridia (Fig. 11, D-F) are also formed 
at the ends of hyphse. The oogonia are usually spherical and the 
wall contains a number of small pores. The contents which are 
at first more or less uniform, later develop egg-cells, of which 
there may be as many as fifty in a single oogonium. The anthe- 



ridinm is more or less cylindrical and contains a somewhat uni- 
form mass of protoplasm. The antheridium bends toward the 
oogonium and comes in contact with it, but apparently does not 
in all cases penetrate it. Nevertheless the egg-cells develop walls 
and become resting oospores. 

Fig. II. Species of Saprolegnia. A, mycelium growing out from and surrounding 
a dead house-fly in a water culture; B, C, sporangia with biciliate swarm spores; D, a 
number of oogonia containing oospheres; E, F, oogonia and antheridia, in F the tube of 
the antheridium having penetrated the oogonium. A-C, after Thuret; D-F, after 
De Bary. 

In Peronospora^ one of the Oomycetes, the antheridium 
(Fig. 12, n) develops a tube which pierces the wall of the 
12, 0) \ the contents unite with the egg-cell, 

oogonium ( Fi 

after which a heavy membrane develops forming an oospore 
which germinates when it finds a suitable host. The plants 
belonging to Peronospora as well as related genera are destruc- 



tive to many cultivated plants, constituting mildews or blights, 
as those occurring on the leaves of hyoscyamus, tobacco, anthe- 
mis, matricaria, aconite, grape vine, lima bean, potato, etc. The 
group has received the name " downy mildews " because of the 

Fig. 12. A, Cystopus candidus; B, Peronospora calothcca. Mycelia (m) with haus- 
storia penetrating cells (z) of hosts. C, Oospore formation in Peronospora: o, oogonium; 
n, antheridium. At the left the antheridium is in contact with oogonium; the next stage 
shows the antheridium penetrating oogonium and discharging its contents; at the right the 
resulting oospore is shown. After De Bary. 

fact that the conidiophores rise to the surface of the leaves 
where the spores are discharged, forming powdery patches. 

Black Mold. A common example of the Zygomycetes 
is furnished by the " black mold." Mitcor mucedo. The myce- 
lium of this plant is coenocytic, thread-like, very much branched. 



and profusely developed much like that of Phycomyccs nit ens 
(Fig. 13, B). This mold is widely distributed, causin<r trouble 
in the spoiling of many sugar- and starch-containing substances 
in the household, including preserves, syrups, fruits, etc. In 

Fig. 13. B, richly branching mycelium (m) of the mold Phycomyces rtitens show- 
ing upright hyphae bearing sporangia (g). A, C, D, the common black mold Mucor 
mucedo. A, sporangium with columella; C, germination of zygospore (z), with formation 
of hypha (k), and sporangium (g); D, earliest stages in the development of a zygospore 
the hyphal branches (b) showing adjoining ends (a) cut off by cross walls. .\fter Sachs. 

fact, a number of species of Mucor have the power of inducing 
alcoholic fermentation in glucose-containing solutions. They 
are also commonly found in many aqueous solutions of inorganic 
chemicals as well as organic substances. Asexual spores are 



formed at the ends of hyphse which rise into the air. The spor- 
angia are spherical and are cut off from the hyphae by means of 
a transverse wall which projects upward into the sporangium and 
which is technically known as the columella (Fig. 13, A). The 
contents by simultaneous division form numerous one-celled 
spores, which are discharged by the bursting of the sporangium 
wall and distributed by air-currents or the wind. As the name 

Fig. 14. Peziza confluens showing stages in the development of ascospores. In the 
youngest asci (m, r) there is only one nucleus; this divides into two (s); the division is 
repeated, so that there are 4 nuclei in (t) and 8 in (n). These surround themselves with 
protoplasm and a cell wall (v, w) but the protoplasm of the mother cell or ascus is not 
entirely used up. After De Bary. 

of the group to which this plant belongs indicates, it also pro- 
duces zygospores (Fig. 13, D). These are formed by hyphal 
branches which ascend from the substratum. The ends of two 
branches come together, a transverse wall is formed in each 
branch, the walls in contact are absorbed, the contents unite, and 
a spore is formed with three membranes, two belonging to the 
spore proper and the third being formed by the united hyphge. 
As would be expected, these spores are quite resistant, being able 


to withstand unfavorable conditions, and germinate (Fig. 13, C) 
only after a period of rest. 

EUMYCETES : TRUE FUNGL Ascomycetes. The As- 
comycetes are distinguished for the most part, hke the other 
higher Fungi, in having a septate myceHum, i.e., one celkilar in 
structure, and in producing asci (sacs), which latter are formed 
at the ends of the branches of the mycelia. Two main sub-groups 
are recognized, the one producing an indefinite number of spores 
in asci which are not well developed, and known as the Hemiasci ; 
the other producing a definite number of spores, which number is 

Fig. 15. Species of Saccharomyces (Yeasts). A, S. cerevisicE or beer yeast; B, 
5. Pastorianus; C, S. glmneratus; D, 5. Piculatns: a, vegetative cells reproducing by 
budding; b, formation of ascospores. After Reesz. 

characteristic for each species, in a well-developed ascus, and 
known as the Euasci. In the latter group the spores arise by 
successive divisions of the primary nucleus into two, as shown in 
Pedsa conflucns (Fig. 14). 

Yeasts. The simplest of the Ascomycetes is the sub- 
group known as the Saccharomyces, or Yeasts. The Yeasts do 
not produce a mycelium, but the plant body consists of a single 
cell, or a chain of cells, and multiplies by a peculiar process known 
as "yeast budding" (Fig. 15, a). From either end of the cell 
a wart-like process develops, which enlarges until about the size 
of the original cell, from which it is then separated by the forma- 



tion of a transverse wall. The cells are spherical, ellipsoidal, or 
egg-shaped, and in some cases somewhat elongated and hypha- 
like. In the protoplasm are one or more large vacuoles. 
In certain of the cells, which may be considered to be asci, two to 
eight spherical or ellipsoidal spores are produced (Fig. i6). 
There are a number of different species of Yeasts, some of which 



Fig. 1 6. Formation of ascospores in a number of different species of Yeasts, i. 
Saccharomyces cerevisicB; 2, S. Pastorianus; 3, S. iniermedius ; 4, S. validus. After Hansen. 

are cultivated ; and these latter are of great economic importance 
on account of their property of inducing alcoholic fermentation. 
They are also of use in the making of bread, changing the carbo- 
hydrates in part into carbon dioxide and alcohol, both of which 
are driven off in the baking. Yeasts are used in the treatment 
of certain skin diseases, their action being attributed to a fatty 



substance, ceridine. Other principles found in yeasts as well 
as extracts are used in the treatment of cancer. 

Green and Yellow Mildews. To the Ascomycetes also 
belong the green and yellow Mildews, Penicillium and Asper- 

Fig. 17. Penicillium, a green mildew. A, richly branching mycelium with conidio- 
phores; B, enlarged view of conidiophore showing chains of conidia; C, D, E, F, success- 
ive stages in the development of a perithecium; G, H, J, development of asci; K, groups 
of asci containing from 4 to 8 ascospores; L, ascospores seen from the side and showing 
characteristic markings. After Brefeld. 

gillus, so common in the household, the dairy, and the granary. 
These plants produce profusely branching mycelia which form 
patches upon or just under the surface of the materials upon 



which they grow. These areas become soft and spongy and are 
always white at first. After a time hyphal branches, which are 
more or less flask-shaped, rise above the substratum, and by a 
process of division at the end of the branch, or conidiophore, a 
spore called a conidiospore is formed (Fig. 17, A; Fig. 18, A). 
The process of division at the end of the conidiophore continues 

Fig. 18. Aspergillus, a yellow mildew. A, conidiophore with enlarged, more or less 
spherical end, from which the fan-like series of chains of conidia arise; B-E, successive 
stages in the development of pcrithecium; F, section through a nearly ripe perithecium; 
G, groups of young asci; H, a ripe ascus with 8 spores. A, after Kny; B-H, after DeBary. 

from below until a chain of conidiospores is formed. The conidio- 
phore frequently branches, so that a fan-like series or group of 
conidia or conidiospores is produced (Fig. 17, B; Fig. 18, A). 
The conidia are usually some shade of green, but finally they may 
become more or less brown. They are thin-walled, quite small, 
and so light that they float freely in the air. If a colony is inhaled 
it gives the sensation commonly called the " smell of mold." 


They are capable of germinating on almost everything, as old 
shoes, old paper, as well as on bread and other articles of the 
household, and are commonly found on " moldy drugs," in a num- 
ber of pharmaceutical preparations, as syrups and infusions, and 
even in solutions of inorganic as well as organic chemicals. 

Aspergillus (Fig. 18 j is distinguished from I'enicillium (Fig. 
17) by the fact that the upper end of the hyphal branch or conidio- 
phore is somewhat enlarged and more or less spherical. 

In addition to the conidiospores these fungi sometimes produce 
in the fall of the year, particularly when grown upon bread, asci 
fruits (Fig. 17, C-F ; Fig. 18, B-E). In this case two fertile ini- 
tial hyphge wind themselves around each other, after which they 
become surrounded with sterile branches which form a kind of 
loose tissue, more or less cellular in structure, that finally develops 
into a yellowish leathery wall. This body, which may be regarded 
as a closed ascocarp, is known as a perithecium (Fig. 17, F ; Fig. 
18, F). As a result of the conjugation of the fertile cells, asci 
(Fig. 17,6", H, J ; Fig. 18, G, H) develop within the perithecium. 
which are more or less spherical or ellipsoidal and contain from 
four to eight spores (ascospores) (Fig. 17, K; Fig. 18, //). 
After maturity the cellular tissue around the asci dries up and dis- 
integrates, the walls of the asci dissolve, and the ascospores are 
liberated from the perithecium by slight pressure. The spores 
lie over winter and then germinate, producing a mycelium from 
which conidia first develop and afterwards the perithecia, thus 
repeating the life history of the plant. 

Ergot. Another Ascomycete of special interest is the 
fungus known as ergot {Claviceps purpurea). The spores of this 
fungus germinate on the flowers of certain grasses. The myce- 
lium penetrates the walls of the ovary, absorbing the nutriment. 
After a time the mycelium develops on the surface, and from 
this short conidiophores arise bearing small ovoid conidia (con- 
idiospores) (Fig. ig,A). The mycelium secretes a sweet fluid, the 
so-called honey dew which attracts insects, and thus the conidia 
are carried to other plants. As the conidia are capable of immedi- 
ate germination the so-called " ergot disease " rapidly spreads 
during the flowering season of the host plants. After the forma- 
tion of conidia ceases, the mycelium forms a dense mass which is 



surrounded by a dark layer, and this, if developed upon rye, con- 
stitutes the ergot grains (Fig. 19, B) used in medicine, these 
grains being a number of times larger than the rye grains which 

Fig. 19. Clavlceps purpurea. A, mycelium developing conidia; B, an ear of rye 
with a number of ripe sclerotia replacing grains of rye, and known as ergot; C, sclerotium 
developing spherical fruit bodies; D, fruit body in longitudinal section showing numerous 
flask-shaped perithecia at the periphery; E, enlarged perithecium with numerous cylin- 
drical asci; F, closed ascus with 8 ascospores; G, discharge of ascospores; H, single thread- 
like ascospore. A, after Brefeld; B, after Schenck; C-H, after Tulasne. 

they replace. The mycelial tissues connected with the host plant 
die, and the ergot drops to the ground. At this stage the ergot 



mass is more or less cellular in structure and is known as the 
SCLEROTIUM. It is quite resistant and usually remains dormant 
until the following spring- when the grasses are in flower again. 
The sclerotium then shows signs of renewed activity by the de- 
velopment of small, reddish, spherical bodies with a fair-sized 
stalk (Fig. 19, C). Within the periphery of these spherical heads 

t **. 

Fig. 20. Agaricus campestris, the common edible mushroom, showing at A on the 
left mycelium (m) and development of buttons or young mushrooms; I to V, longi- 
tudinal sections showing successive stages in development of fruit body; m, mycelium; 
st, stipe; 1, portion between veil (v) and spore-bearing portion (h). 

The illustration to the right (A, B, C) shows the structure of the hymenium in different 
degrees of magnification: A, section through portion of pileus showing five of the gills; 
B, section 01 a gill somewhat magnified; C, section of gill still more magnified and showing 
sterile cells or paraphyses (q) , and the fertile cells or basidia (s)', from each of which^ arise two 
basidiospores. After Sachs. 

are produced flask-shaped perithecia or ascocarps (Fig. ig, D) 
containing numerous cylindrical asci (Fig. 19, E), each of which 
contains eight spores (Fig. 19, F) ; the latter are one-celled, hya- 
line and thread-like (Fig. 19, H). These spores are carried by 
the wind to the flowers of certain of the grasses, as already stated, 
and the life history or cycle of growth begins again. 



Fig. 21. Some common edible mushrooms and a common poisonous one. The fol- i 
lowing are edible: i, Common Field mushroom (Agaricus campestris): 3, Clavaria fjava,'- 
young plant; 6, Puffball (Lycoperdon cyathiforme) \ 4, Morel (MorchcUa esculcnta); 5, I 
Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius); 7, Fairy-ring Fungus {Marasmius oreades). \ 

Only one poisonous species is shown, namely, 2, the deadly Agaric {Amanita phalloides). 
Adapted from Farlow. 


Basidiomycetes. The Basidiomycetes are the most liighly 
organized of the Fungi. The mycehum consists of white branch- 
ing threads and is usually concealed in the substratum. In tlic 
cultivation of the edible mushrooms propagation is by means of 
the mycelium which is known commercially as " spawn." It is 
recognized, however, that mushrooms can not be propagated in 
this way exclusively for more than two or three years. The my- 
celium is really the plant body, and the part which rises above the 
surface and is commonly regarded as the toadstool or mushroom 
(Figs. 20 and 21) is a fruit branch, or spore-producing organ. 
When these branches first make their appearance they are in the 
form of small solid bodies known as "buttons" (Fig. 20, I-V). 
As growth proceeds these bodies differentiate into a stalk-like 
portion known as the stipe (Fig. 20, sf), which is directly con- 
nected with the mycelium, and an umbrella-like portion borne at 
the summit of the stalk, called a pileus, which at first is closed 
down over the stalk, but later expands or opens more or less 
widely according to the species. On the under surface of the 
pileus, known as the hymenium, the spores are borne (Fig. 20, 
A, B, C). In some cases the under surface is composed of 
a series of narrow, radiating, knife-like plates, or gills, as in 
the common edible mushroom Agaricus. Oh the surface of 
the gills the basidia or spore-bearing organs arise. The basidia 
are somewhat swollen terminal cells of the closely arranged 
hyphse composing the gills, which bear a group of spores on 
short stalks (Fig. 20, C). Both the basidia and spores (basidio- 
spores) are of a characteristic size and number for the different 

In some of the other members of the group the gills are 
replaced by pores, as in the " pore-fungi," which are parasites on 
trees and destructive to timber. In still other cases the :under 
surface is furnished with teeth, as in the " teeth-bearing Fungi," 
some of which, as Hydnum rcpandurn. form the " fairy-rings " 
in the woods. The latter are also formed by Marasmius oreades 
(Fig. 21, illus. 7), in which the gills are comparatively few and 
bulge out at the middle. 

One or two types will be considered, namely, the common 
edible mushroom and two of the poisonous group, Amanita. 


Edible Fungi. Agaricus campestris (common mushroom) 
(Fig. 21, illus. ij is practically the only edible species cultivated 
in this country. The plant grows wild in open grassy fields dur- 
ing August and September. It is not found in the mountains to 
any extent, and is never found in the woods or on trees or fallen 
trunks. The color of the stipe and the upper surface of the 
pileus varies from whitish to a drab color, but the color of the 
gills is at first pinkish and then of a brownish-purple, which is 
an important character, the color being due to the spores. The 
stipe is cylindrical and solid, and a little more than half way up 
is furnished with a membranous band known as the ring. There 
are no appendages at the base of the stipe, which appears to rise 
directly out of the ground. Before the pileus is fully expanded a 
veil extends from its border to the stipe, which when ruptured 
leaves a portion attached to the stipe, and it is this which consti- 
tutes the ring. The ring shrinks more or less in older specimens 
but usually leaves a mark indicating where it has been formed. 

Poisonous Fungi. There are two of the poisonous group 
of fungi which are very common and which have some resem- 
blance to the edible mushroom just described, namely, the fly 
agaric {Amanita miiscaria) and the deadly agaric {Amanita phal- 
loides) (Fig. 21, illus. 2). The fly agaric, while more abundant 
in some localities than the common edible mushroom, is seldom 
found in grassy pastures, but more generally in poor soil, espe- 
cially in groves of coniferous trees. It occurs singly and not in 
groups. The gills are always white ; the stipe is white, hollow 
and provided with a ring at the top, and the base is bulbous, hav- 
ing fringy scales at the lower part. The pileus is yellow or orange 
and sometimes reddish ; the surface is smooth, with prominent, 
angular, warty scales, which can be easily scraped ofif. 

The deadly agaric (Fig. 21, illus. 2) somewhat resembles the 
fly agaric and also differs from the common mushroom in not 
usually growing in pastures. It occurs singly but not in groups, 
in woods and borders of fields. The gills and stipe are white, 
the latter, when young, having a number of mycelial threads 
running through it. The base is quite bulbous, the upper part of 
the bulb having a sac-like membrane called the volva. The pileus 
may vary from any shade of dull yellow to olive, although some- 


times it is shiny and white. While it does not possess the warty 
scales found in the fly agaric, it has occasionally a few mem- 
branous patches. 

The Toxic Principles in Poisonous Fungi. Ihe deadlv 
agaric (A)iianita phalloides) is the cause of the greatest number 
of cases of mushroom poisoning. According to Al)cl and Ford 
it contains two toxic principles: (i) Amanita-hemolysin a IjIcmjcI- 
laking principle, which is a very sensitive glucoside, that is. pre- 
cipitated by alcohol and destroyed ])y heating to 70 C. and 1)\- 
the action of digestive ferments; (2) AmaniUHoxin which is 
soluble in alcohol and not destroyed by the action of heat or 
ferments. The latter principle is the important poisonous prin- 
ciple in mushroom poisoning and is probably the most toxic 
principle known, 0.4 of a milligramme killing a guinea ])ig 
within 24 liours. " The majority of individuals poisoned by the 
'* deadly amanita " die, but recovery is not impossil)lc when 
small amounts of the fungus are eaten, especially if the stomach 
be very promptly emptied, either naturally or artificially." 

The fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) owes its toxicity to mus- 
carine, an alcohol-soluble crystalline substance. It is supposed 
bv Ford that the fly agaric may contain another poisonous constit- 
uent. In cases of poisoning atropine has been successfully ad- 
ministered hypodermically in doses of y^^ to -V of a grain. 

It is stated that the A. muscaria used by the peasants of the 
Caucasus in the preparation of an intoxicating beverage is 
deficient in muscarine. 

The question as to whether the ordinary edible mushrooms, 
as distinguished from the ]:)oisonous toadstools, may not in cer- 
tain localities or at certain periods of the year be the cause of 
fatal intoxication is answered by Ford in the negative. He 
states (Science, 30, p. 105. July 2^, 1909) that there are no 
authentic cases of poisoning from the black or brown spored 
agarics, although old and badly decomposed specimens may cause 
transient illness. 

Economic Uses of Fungi. A large number of the Fungi, 
particularly of the Basidiomycetes, are used for food. There 
are. however, only a few of these which enter the market. These 
are derived chiefly from A_i^aricus campesfris (Fig. 21, illus.^ i) 
and Agaric us arvcnis, although some other species of Agancus 


as well as Morchclla esculenta (Fig. 21, illus. 4) furnish excellent 
products and are cultivated to a limited extent. The " truffles " 
of the market are tuber-like masses formed under ground, which 
consist of the ascocarps of certain Tuberacese, one of the sub- 
groups of the Ascomycetes, and which are used as a condiment 
and sometimes roasted like potatoes. Tuckahoe or " Indian 
bread " is also produced under ground and consists apparently 
of the fungus Pachyina Cocos and the roots of Liquidambar, the 
tissues of which have been changed into a compound resembling 
pectic acid by the fungus. Quite a number of Fungi have been 
used in medicine, as Claviceps purpurea (Fig. 19), Polyporus 
officinalis and other species, and various species of Lycoperdon. 
A number of species are used in making surgeon's agaric (Fungus 
chirurgorum) formerly used as a hemostatic, including Lycoper- 
don bovista and Polyporus fomentarius. Many of them yield very 
toxic principles, as ( i ) several species of Amanita which contain 
several toxic principles; (2) Lactarius piperatus and others 
which yield highly poisonous resinous principles. Other uses of 
Fungi have been mentioned under the several groups. 

UsTiLAGiNE/E and Uredine^e. There are two groups of 
Fungi of considerable economic interest which by some writers 
are classed by themselves, and by others placed with the Basidio- 
mycetes. These are the Ustilaginese, or Smut Fungi, and the 
Uredineje, or Rust Fungi. 

The Smut Fungi are parasitic on higher plants. The myce- 
lium penetrates the tissues of the host, but does not seem to 
cause either disease or malformation of the plant. Injury to the 
host results only after the development of resting spores. The 
mycelia are hyaline, more or less branched, and finally become 
septate. They send short branches, called haustoria, into the 
cells of the host, from which they obtain nourishment. Event- 
ually the mycelium becomes much branched, compact and more or 
less gelatinous through a transformation of the hyphal walls, 
forming gall-like swellings or blisters on the host. Spores are 
formed within this gelatinous mass at the ends of the branches 
of the mycelium. At a later stage the smut loses its gelatinous 
character, the mass breaks up, and the spores are freed and dis- 
tributed as a dry, dusty powder. The spores (primary conidia) 



are somewhat spherical or ellipsoidal, and are generally separate, 
but are sometimes united into a mass forming the so-called 
" spore balls." These are resting spores and upon germination 
(Fig. 23) produce a promycelium or basidium which becomes 
septate and from each cell of which conidia called sporidia arise. 
The sporidia are formed in succession one after another and the 
process continues for some time. On germination they bud like 

Fig. 22. Corn smut (Usiilago Maydis) showing several gall-like masses of smut 

full of spores. 

yeast, forming new conidia, or when nutrition is not abundant 
they may form, a mycelium, which is usually the case when they 
germinate on a host plant. 

Corn Smut. One of the Smut Fungi, namely, Ustilago 
Maydis, which develops on Indian corn (Fig. 22), is used in medi- 
cine. It forms rather large gall-like masses on all parts of the 
plant, including the root, stem and leaves, and both staminate and 
pistillate flowers. The spores (Fig. 23) are at first a dark olive- 
green, but on maturity are dark brown. They are sub-spherical, 
have prominent spines, and vary from 8 to 15 microns in diameter. 



They do not germinate at once, but on keeping them for six 
months to a year they germinate readily on a culture medium 
of potato, and retain their power of germination for years. 

Rust Fungi. The Rust Fungi are parasitic on higher 
plants and produce a thread-like, branching, cellular mycelium, 
which develops in the tissues of the host. They differ especially 

Fig. 23. Spores of various Smuts, i , L'5(7ago fong-fsswna growing on the reed meadow- 
grass {Panicularia americana) ; 2, Ustilago Maydis ivom Indian com (Zea Mays); 3, Usiilago 
Oxalidis on the yellow wood-sorrel (Oxalis siricta); 4, L'stilago utriculosa on the Pennsyl- 
vania persicaria (Polygonum pennsylvanicurn) . 

Fig. 24. Germination of spores, s, J/sZi/agOM^ncwtea, in water, showing promycelium 
and sporidia; 6, Doassansia opaca from the broad-leaved arrow-head (Sagittaria laiifolia) 
in water, showing promycelium, sporidia, and secondary sporidia which are falling off; 7, 
Ustilago avencB from oat (AverM saliva) in horse dung, showing promycelium, and lateral 
"infection threads" or hypha;; 8, germination of a sporidium of Usiilago Sorghi into an in- 
fection thread; 9, small portion of a group of sporidia developed from promycelium of Toly- 
posporium eriocauli in potato agar; 10, cross-section of epicotyl of broom-corn infected by 
Ustilago Sorghi showing mycelium ramifying through parenchyma cells of the cortex. 
After Clinton. 

from the other Fungi in producing resting spores known as 
TELEUTOSPORES. These spores consist of one or more cells sur- 
rounded by a thick black wall, and they produce the " black rust " 
seen on foliage at the end of the season. 




General Characters. The Lichens are a peculiar group of 
plants in that an individual lichen consists of both an alga called 
a GONiDiUM and a fungus. These are so intimately associated that 
they appear to be mutually beneficial, and such a relation is known 
as SYMBIOSIS (Fig. 25). The Algge which may be thus asso- 
ciated in the Lichens are those members of the Blue and Green 
Algae which grow in damp places, as Pleurococcus, Nostoc, Lyng- 

FiG. 25. Lichens showing manner of union of algse or gonidia (g) and hyphae (h) 
of Fungi. A, Pleurococcus , showing the manner in which hyphs penetrate the cell and in- 
fluence cell division; B, Scytonema, an alga surrounded by richly branching hyphas; C, 
chain of Nostoc showing hypha of fungus penetrating a large cell known as a heterocyst; 

D, fungal hyphae have penetrated the cells of Glceocapsa a blue-green, unicellular alga; 

E, Chlorococcum,a. reddish or yellowish alga found in Cladonia furcata, the cells of which 
are surrounded by the short hypha of the fungus. A, afterlledlund; B-E, after Bomet. 

bya, etc. (Fig. 25). The Fungi which occur in this relation 
belong both to the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes and it is on 
the characters of the fruit bodies of these particular Fungi that 
the main divisions of Lichens are based. The Fungi, however, are 
not known to exist independently of the Algae with which they 
are associated, that is, the mycelia of the fungi will not live for 
any length of time unless they come in contact with a suitable 


alga. In its development the fungus forms a mycelium which 
encloses the alga, the growth of which latter is not hindered. The 
two organisms then continue to grow simultaneously forming 
lichen patches. A section of a lichen shows a differentiation into 
several parts, namely, a more or less compact row of cells on both 
surfaces forming two epidermal layers ; and an inner portion made 
up of the hyphal tissue of the fungus in which the alga is embed- 
ded either in a single layer or throughout the mycelium. The 
mode of growth and branching is influenced largely by the fungus, 
although in some cases the alga may exert the most influence. In 
some cases the lichen consists of a thallus which is irregular in 
outline, growth taking place at no definite point, and in other 
cases branches which are more or less regular are formed, growth 
taking place at the apex. 

Groups of Lichens. According to the manner of grow^tli 
and the manner of attachment to the substratum three principal 
groups (Fig. 26) of lichens are distinguished: namely, (i) Crus- 
taceous Lichens, where the thallus adheres closely to the stones 
and barks of trees and practically can not be removed without 
injury; (2) Foliose Lichens, or those which are more or less 
flattened, somewhat leaf-like and attached at different points; (3) 
Fruticose Lichens, or those which are attached at a particular 
part of the thallus, and form diffusely branching clumps. To this 
latter group belongs Cetraria islmidica or Iceland moss (Fig. 26), 
which is used in medicine (p. 690), Usnea barbata and the 
red-fruiting Cladonias which are so common. 

Reproduction in the Lichens takes place in several ways. In 
all of them there is a vegetative mode by means of what are 
known as soredia. These are small spherical bodies consisting of 
a group of algal cells, which are surrounded by a mass of hyphse, 
and which when cut off" from the main body are able to grow. 
Lichens also produce spores of a number of kinds. In the largest 
group, the one to which Cetraria islandica (Fig. 26) belongs, the 
spores are found in special spherical receptacles, known as pyc- 
NiDiA, which are formed on the teeth of the margin of the thallus. 
The spores arise from the ends of hyphse at the base of the pyc- 
nidia and are in the nature of conidiospores. To these spores 
the name pycnoconidia has been applied. Cetraria also pro- 



duces, like many other Lichens, disk-hke or cup-shaped l)0(Ucs at 
various places on the surface of the thallus, which are known as 
APOTHECiA and which may be regarded as exposed or open asco- 
carps. The inner surface of the apothecia is lined with a number 
of asci as well as sterile cells, the former giving rise to ascospores. 

Fig 26. Iceland Moss (Ceirariaislandica). A-F, various forms of thalli showing apoth- 
ecia (a)- I. cross-section of an apothecium showing the hymenium (h), the hypothecmm 
(p), the algal layer (e), the medullary layer (m), and lower or ventral surface (1); K, an 
ascus with eight ascospores and two paraphyses from the hymenium (h of I). 

Economic Uses of Lichens. A number of the Lichens are 
used in medicine, as several species of Cetraria, Pertusana com- 
munis. Physcia parietina, Sticta pnlmomcea, Evernia furfuracea. 


Some of those used in medicine, are also used as foods on account 
of the gelatinous carbohydrate lichenin which they contain. Be- 
sides those given the following may be mentioned: Cladonia 
rangiferina (reindeer moss), Lccanora escidcnta (supposed to be 
the manna of the Israelites. The Lichens are. however, chiefly 
of interest because of the coloring principles which they contain. 
RocccUa fiiicforia, Lccanora farfarca, and other species of Lcca- 
nora, yield upon fermentation the dyes orcein and litmus, the 
latter of which finds such general use as an indicator in volu- 
metric analysis. Cudbear, a purplish-red powder, is prepared by 
treating the same lichens with ammonia water ; while in the prep- 
aration of orchil, a purplish-red pasty mass, sulphuric acid and 
salt are subsequently added. A number of species contain a yel- 
low coloring principle, as Zcora sniphurca, Zeora sordida, Lccidea 
geographica and Opegrapha epigcca. 


The Bacteria, or Fission Fungi, occupy rather an anomalous 
position, some writers classifying them with Fungi and some 
with Algse. They are i -celled plants, microscopic in size, and 
of various shape. The contents consist of protoplasm and a 
central body in some cases, which is looked upon as a rudimentary 
nucleus. They are more or less colorless, but sometimes produce 
a distinct pigment called bacteriopurpurin which is rose-red 
or violet, and occasionally a chlorophyll-green color substance. 
They are capable of multiplying by division in one, two, or three 
directions, and under favorable conditions increase verv rapidly 
in number. The wall is more or less albuminous in character, in 
this respect resembling the wall of the animal cell, and is provided 
with one to many cilia, or flagella, the number and position of 
which have been used as a basis of classification. Sometimes the 
walls of the cells become mucilaginous, so that the bacteria hold 
together forming a mass known, as a zoogloea. Bacteria may form 
resting spores which arise in two ways. In one case the contents 
round off and take on a membrane forming a so-called endo- 
SPORE ; in the other case the plant body is transformed directly 
into a spore known as an arthrospore, as in some of the Blue- 


green Algae. This body is not strictly a spore but is in the nature 
of a resting cell (Fig. 26a). 

Occurrence. Bacteria occur everywhere in nature, and 
play a most important part in decay and putrefaction in that they 
change dead animal and plant tissues back again into simple inor- 
ganic substances, as carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, etc. They 

Fig. 26a. Bacillus sttbtiiis (hay bacillus), a, Small rod-like organisms such as are 
found in an infusion of hay, or bouillon; b, zooglcea or mass of bacilli forming the " skin " 
on the surface of infusions; c, chains of organisms forming spores; d, individual bacilli 
showing flagella, which are only seen after staining. After Migula. 

serve a useful purpose in many technical operations, as in the 
making of cheese, acetic acid, fermentation of tobacco, curing of 
vanilla and many vegetable drugs, and in soil nitrification, helping 
to change ammonia into nitrates- one of the sources of the nitro- 
gen used by plants (see page 98). Many of them are disease- 
producing, or pathogenic, and are the cause of a number of infec- 
tious diseases in man and the lower animals, and plants as well. 
They are injurious in two ways, in one case they consume the 


tissues of the host, as in tuberculosis, and in the other they pro- 
duce powerful poisonous substances, or toxins, as in diphtheria. 

Classes of Bacteria. In order to study Bacteria they are 
grown upon nutrient media, such as sterile bouillon, potato, milk, 
etc. They are divided into a number of classes, depending for 
the most part on the shape of the cell : ( i ) The Sphserobacteria, 
or Cocci, are those whose cells are spherical or spheroid, and in 
which division takes place in one, two or three directions of space. 
Very few of the group are provided with cilia. According to the 
number of cells in a colony they are distinguished as Micrococci, 
Diplococci, etc. (2) Bacteria proper are elongated, . rod-shaped 
organisms in which division occurs in only one direction, namely, 
transversely to the long axis, and only after a preliminary elong- 
ation of the bacterium. The Bacteria are subdivided into two 
important groups, namely. Bacterium and Bacillus. The Bacilli 
are motile organisms and produce endospores (Fig. 26a), whereas 
the Bacteria are non-motile and do not usually produce endospores. 
(3) Spiral bacteria constitute the third principal group and are 
characterized by the cells being spirally coiled. Division is in 
only one direction. These bacteria are usually motile, and seldom 
produce endospores. (4) There is another important group 
which includes the Sulphur Bacteria, of which the most common 
one is Beggiafoa. These occur in long threads, and move in an 
undulating manner much like Oscillaria, one of the Blue-green 
Algse. They are found in sulphur waters, as in sulphur springs, 
and contain sulphur granules. 

Bacteriological Technique. Principally because of the 
minuteness in size of micro-organisms a different technique is 
required in their study from that required in the study of the 
higher plants. In the first place it is difficult to isolate them 
so as to be able to study individual forms. Another difficulty is 
to prevent contamination after they are isolated. And even 
though a pure culture is obtained it is difficult on purely morpho- 
logical grounds to differentiate the various forms, as they are all 
so much alike. 

I. While it is comparatively easy to prepare a sterile solution, 
that is, one in which all life is absent, it is very difficult to prevent 


subsequent contamination under ordinary conditions. Even when 
a cork or glass-stoppered bottle for keeping liquids is used it is 
difficult to prevent the entrance into and development of micro- 
organisms in the liquids. The use of stoppers consisting of plugs 
of absorbent cotton was first suggested by Schroeder and von 
Dusch in 1854. They found that if flasks containing liquids, 
which under ordinary conditions were likely to decompose, as 
beef broth, etc., were stoppered with plugs of absorbent cotton 
and the liquid then boiled for some time that it would keep 

II. It remained for Koch and Pasteur to show what took 
place in the boiling of the liquid, who at the same time developed 
the principles of sterilization in bacteriological work. These 
authors discovered that micro-organisms have two stages of de- 
velopment, one of which is active and the other resting, the latter 
being known as the egg or spore condition. They found that the 
organisms in the active condition were completely destroyed on 
heating the solution containing them for 30 minutes at 100 C. 
If this solution was allowed to stand for 24 hours or longer 
there would be evidences of decomposition, which was due to the 
fact that the spores representing the resting stage of the organ- 
isms were unaffected by the first heating and developed into 
the active stage. As a result of further experiments they found 
that if the solution were heated on the second day for 30 
minutes at a temperature of 100 C. the second growth of organ- 
isms was destroyed but it was found that the solution might still 
undergo decomposition in the course of time, owing to the later 
development of a few remaining spores. It was however found 
that heating the liquid again on the third day was sufficient to 
kill all of the spores as well as the organisms in the active stage. 
By repeating these experiments the authors confirmed their 
observations and established the process known as discontinuous 
sterilisation, which simply means that if a solution of a putrescent 
or fermentative substance is heated on three consecutive days for 
30 minutes at a temperature of 100 C, the flask or bottle being 
stoppered wath absorbent cotton, it will keep indefinitely. Instead 
of using a plug of absorbent cotton the neck of the flask can be 
drawn out into a narrow tube and directed downwards (see Fig. 


323). The time required for producing a sterile solution, that is 
one free from micro-organisms or their spores, can however be 
much reduced by increasing the temperature, or pressure, or 
both. By use of the autoclave in which the pressure can be 
increased from 10 to 20 pounds, sterilization can be accomplished 
in 30 minutes by using a temperature of 110 C. 

As already indicated one of the greatest difficulties is to 
isolate the organisms. In a cubic centimetre of water there 
may be a million organisms representing various groups of bac- 
teria. In trying to solve the problem- of their separation it 
occurred to Koch that if he could secure a medium which was 
solid at the ordinary temperature and liquid at a slightly higher 
temperature, he could mix a certain quantity of liquid containing 
micro-organisms with the medium in a sterile condition, and then 
by solidifying the mixture the organisms would be fixed, and 
thus from each organism a colony would be developed which 
could be isolated and further studied. We are indebted to Koch 
for the use of solid culture media like nutrient gelatin and 
nutrient agar in the study of these organisms. 

The application of stains for differentiating the various organ- 
isms was introduced by Weigert in 1877. Staining is of use in 
the determination of the number of flagella of certain organisms, 
in the study of spores, and the identification of certain pathogenic 
organisms, which occur in mucus and pus, as tubercle bacilli, 
etc. Gram's method of staining is of great use in differentiating 
many pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic organisms, and is of 
importance in classifying bacteria. 


The two main features which distinguish the Archegoniates from 
the Thallophytes are the structure of the sexual organs and the dis- 
tinct manner in which the peculiar phases known as alternation of 
generations is shown. The antheridium or male sexual organ is a 
well differentiated multicellular body which is either sunk in the 
adjacent tissues of the plant or is provided with a stalk. Within 
it are organized the sperms or spermatozoids, which are ciliate 
and swim freely in water. Corresponding to the oogonium of 
the Thallophytes is the archegonium or female sexual organ 


which gives name to the group. The archegonium is a flask- 
shaped celhilar body consisting of a basal portion or venter, 
which contains a single egg, and a neck through which the 
sperms enter (Figs. 32, 34). 

In the life history of this group of plants there are two gen- 
erations or phases of development. During one stage the arche- 
gonium and antheridium are developed and this is known as the 
sexual generation, and as these organs give rise to gametes or 
sexual cells it is also spoken of as the gametophytk. By the union 
of the sex cells (sperm and egg) an oospore is formed which 
germinates at once within the archegonium. That portion of the 
plant which develops from the oospore gives rise to asexual spores 
and hence this phase is called the asexual generation. It is also 
spoken of as the sporophyte from the fact that it gives rise to 
spores. These spores are in the nature of resting spores and do 
not germinate on the plant as does the oospore. They are dis- 
tributed and on germination give rise to the gametophyte stage. 

In some of the Archegoniates these two phases are combined 
in one plant as in the Bryophytes, whereas in other members of 
the group the two phases are represented by two distinct plants, 
that is, the gametophyte and sporophyte become independent of 
each other, as in the Ferns. 

The following table shows the main divisions and subdivisions 
of the Archegoniates : 

Brvophvtes [Hepatic^ (Liverworts). 

iMusci (Mosses). 


Pteridophytes . 

Filicales (Ferns). 
Equisetales (Horsetails). 
.Lycopodiales (Club ]\Iosses). 


The structure of the sexual organs in the Liverworts (Fig. 27) 
and flosses (Fig. 32) is essentially the same, but the vegetative 
organs are more or less dissimilar. In the Liverworts the plant 



body or thallus lies more or less close to the substratvim or rises 
somewhat obliquely, whereas in the Alosses the part we designate 
as the plant is in all cases an upright leafy branch. The moss 
plant is said to have a radial structure from the fact that the 
leaves radiate from a central axis, while in the Liverworts the 
thallus is dorsiventral, that is, as a result of its habits of growth, 
it is characterized by having a distinct upper and lower surface. 
The Life History of this group of plants may probably be 
best illustrated by following that of a moss plant. Beginning 
with the germination of an asexual spore which is microscopic in 

Fig. 27. A common moss (Funaria). A, germinating spores: v, vacuole; w, root- 
hair; s, exospore. B, protonema about three weeks after germination: h, procumbent 
primary shoot; b, ascending branch of limited growth; K, bud or rudiment of a leaf -bearing 
axis with root-hair (w). After Sachs. 

size and which germinates on damp earth, there is produced an 
alga-like body consisting of branching septate filaments, which is 
known as the protonema, or prothallus (Fig. 27). The Proto- 
nema lies close to the surface of the ground and is more or less 
inconspicuous except for the green color. From the lower por- 
tion thread-like processes, or rhizoids consisting of a row of cells, 
are developed, which penetrate the ground. Sooner or later lateral 
buds arise from some of the lower cells. Growth continues from 
an apical cell which divides and gives rise to cells that dififerentiate 
into stem and leaves, forming an upright branch, which consti- 
tutes the structure commonly regarded as the " moss-plant " 



(Fig. 28, A). The leaf-bearing axis varies considerably in size, 
in some cases it is but a millimeter high whereas in some species,' 
as Polytrichum (Fig. 28), it may be several hundred millimeters 

Fig. 28. A common moss (Polytrichum gracile). A, showing leafy branches (gameto- 
phores) two of which bear sporogonia, a detached sporogonium (sporophyte) with sporan- 
gium from which the calyptra (ca) has been detached. B, longitudinal section through a 
nearly ripe sporangium showing columella (o), the elongated area of sporogenous tissue 
(archesporium) on either side, annulus (n), peristome (p), lid or operculum (u); C, 
transverse section of sporangium showing columella in center and dark layer of sporogenous 
tissue (archesporium); D, ripe sporangium (capsule) showing the escape of spores after 
detachment of lid; E, ripe spore containing large oil globules; F, ruptured spore showing 
separated protoplasm and oil globules; G, two germinating spores 14 days after being 
sown, showing beginning of protonema in which are a number of ellipsoidal chloroplasts. 
After Dodel-Port. 


in height. At the tip of the branch the antheridium (Fig. 32, A) 
and archegonium (Fig. 32, B) are formed. These organs are 
developed in among the leaves and certain hairy processes, known 
as paraphyses (Fig. 32, />) . They may both occur at the end of one 
branch (Fig. 32, C) or they may occur on separate branches 
(Fig. 32, D), when the plants are said to be monoecious, whereas 
when these organs occur on separate plants (Fig. 32, A, B) the 
plants are called dioecious. In the case of dioecious plants the 
plant bearing the antheridium is frequently smaller and less com- 
plex than the one producing the archegonium. As already stated 
the archegonium produces the egg-cell or female gamete (egg) 
and the antheridium, the sperm cell or male gamete (sperm). 

The sperms in the Bryophytes are more or less filiform and 
are provided with a pair of cilia at one end. The antheridia 
owing to the peculiar mucilagi-nous character of the cells only 
open when there is an abundance of moisture, when the sperms 
are discharged and move about in the water, some being carried 
to the archegonium, which likewise opens only in the presence of 
moisture. With the transferral of the sperms to the archegonium 
and the union of one of these with the egg which remains sta- 
tionary, the work of the gametophyte may be said to be com- 
pleted. The act of union of the egg and sperm is known as 
FERTILIZATION, and wlicu this is effected the next phase of the 
life history begins. 

The egg after fertilization divides and re-divides within the 
archegonium which becomes somewhat extended until finally it 
is ruptured. The dividing cells differentiate into a stalk and a 
spore case or sporangium which is borne at the summit, the whole 
structure being known as the sporogonium (Fig. 28). The 
base of the stalk is embedded in the apex of the moss plant, 
and is known as the foot, it being in the nature of a 
haustorium or nourishing organ. As the sporogonium de- 
velops and rises upward it carries with it the ruptured 
archegonium which forms a kind of covering over the top, 
called the calyptra (Fig. 28. ca). At first the .sporangium is 
more or less uniform but eventually differentiates into two kinds 
of tissues, the one being sterile and the other fertile (producing 
spores), which latter is known as the archesporium (Fig. 28, 


B, C). The fertile tissue in both tlic Liverworts and Mosses 
is variously disposed ; sometimes it forms a single area and is 
dome shaped, spherical, or in the form of a half sphere. In 
other cases it is separated into two areas by sterile tissue. The 
sterile tissue which extends up into the dome-shaped archc- 
sporium, or which in other cases separates th*e fertile tissue 
into two parts, is known as the columella (Fig. 28, B, C). The 
sporangium in the mosses is capsule-like and the spores are dis- 
tributed in three ways : ( i ) \n some cases the capsule does 
not open, but when it decays the spores are liberated. (2) In 
other cases the capsule dehisces longitudinally in dry weather 
and thus the spores are freed. (3) There is a third method in 
which the capsule is provided with a lid or operculum which comes 
off and permits the spores to escape, this being the most common 
method for the escape of the spores (Fig. 28, D). In the latter 
instance the mouth of the capsule is usually marked by one or 
two series of cells, constituting the peristome, which are teeth- 
like and characteristic for some of the groups of mosses. These 
teeth bend inward or outward according to the degree of moisture 
and assist in regulating the dispersal of the spores. In the sphag- 
num mosses there is no peristome, but, owing to unequal tension 
of the lid and capsule on drying, the lid is thrown off, and the 
spores are sometimes discharged with considerable force and sent 
to quite a distance (as much as 10 centimeters), in this way 
insuring their dispersal. 

The spores (Fig. 28, E) vary in diameter from 10 to 20 
microns, being sometimes larger. They occur in groups of four 
in a mother-cell, and the spore-group is known as a tetrad, which 
is characteristic for the Bryophytes and the higher groups of 
plants. The spores therefore vary in shape from spherical tetra- 
hedrons to more or less spherical bodies, depending upon the 
degree of separation. The contents are rich in protoplasm and 
oil (Fig. 28, F). The wall consists of two layers, the outer of 
which is either yellowish or brown and is usually finely sculptured. 
At the time of germination the outer wall is thrown off, and the 
protonema develops (Fig. 28, G). The spores may germinate 
almost immediately, or only after a considerable period. These 
spores are asexual and each one is capable of giving rise to a 




new plant. With the formation and dispersal of the spores the 
work of this generation terminates, and this phase is called the 
sporophyte or asexual generation, from the fact that it produces 

Having thus followed the stages of development in the life- 
history of a m6ss, we see that it is composed of the following 

Pig. 29. Dichotomously branching thallus of the common liverwort {Marchanlia 
polymorpha) showing near some of the margins the cup-like depressions in which gemmae 
are borne (c), and several archegoniophores (a). 

parts: (i) The alga-like protonema; (2) the leafy branch which 
gives rise to an oospore (sexual spore), and (3) the sporogonium 
which produces asexual spores. The leafy branch is sometimes 
spoken of as the gametophore (gamete-bearer), and it and the 
protonema together constitute the gametophyte or sexual gen- 
eration, while the sporogonium represents the sporophyte or 
asexual generation. 



The protonema sooner or later dies off in most plants, but in 
other cases it persists, forming a conspicuous portion 'of the 


General Structure. The Hepaticae or Liverworts (Fig. 
29) are usually found in moist situations. The protonema 
formed on germination of a spore is filiform, and the plant 
body which develops from it consists of a flat, dichotomously- 

FiG. 30. Transverse section through the thallus of Marchantia polymorpha. A, 
middle portion with scales (b) and rhizoids (h) on the under side; E, margin of the thallus 
more highly magnified, showing colorless rcticuktcly thicliened parenchyma (p), epidermis 
of the upper side (o), cells containing chlorophyll (chl), air pore (sp), lower epidermis (u). 
After Goebel. 

branching thallus, or it may in some of the higher forms differ- 
entiate into a leafy branch as in the leafy liverworts. The thallus, 
owing to its position, has an upper and an under surface which are 
somewhat different, as in Marchantia (Fig. 29), hence it is said 
to be DORSiVENTRAL. From the lower colorless surface unicellular 
rhizoids arise (Fig. 30, h). The upper surface consists of several 
layers of cells containing chlorophyll which give the green color 
to the plant. 


Vegetative propagation may ensue by the lower portion 
of a branch dying and the upper portion continuing as an inde- 
pendent plant. Or special shoots known as gemmae, may arise 
either on the margin of the thallus or in peculiar cupules, which 
when detached by rain or other means, are capable of growing and 
producing a new plant. 

In addition the thallus body produces both antheridia and arch- 
egonia (Fig. 29) which may rise on special stalks above the sur- 
face. After fertilization of the egg-cell which completes the work 
of the sexual generation or gametophyte, the sporophyte develops 
producing a sporogonium consisting of a short stalk which is 
embedded in the tissues of the gametophyte, and a capsule (spor- 
angium). The latter at maturity dehisces or splits and sets free 
the spores, which are assisted in their ejection by spirally banded 
cells called " elaters " (Fig. 31, C-F). The spores on germination 
give rise to a protonema which then develops a thallus bearing the 
sexual organs. As in the mosses the sporogonium represents the 
asexual generation known as the sporophyte. 

Liverwort Groups. -There are three important groups of 
Liverworts: (i) The marchantia group (Fig. 29) in which 
the thallus is differentiated into several layers and so somewhat 
thickened. Another character is the diversity in form of the 
sexual organs which range from those which are quite simple to 
those which are highly differentiated. In Riccia the sexual organs 
are embedded on the dorsal (upper) side of the thallus, while in 
Marchantia they are borne upon special shoots, one, which has a 
disk at the apex that bears the antheridia, known as the antheridio- 
phore, and one, the apex of which consists of a number of 
radiate divisions and bears the archegonia (Fig. 29) on the lower 
surface, known as the archegoniophore ; these being borne on sep- 
arate plants. In Riccia, the simplest of the Liverworts, the spor- 
angium is enclosed by the thallus and the spores are not liberated 
until the decay of the plant. 

(2) The JuNGERMANNiA Group, known as " Leafy Liver- 
worts " or " scale mosses," includes those forms which are more 
or less moss-like and develop stems and small leaves. The sporo- 
gonium has a long stalk and the capsule is 4-valved, i.e., separates 
into four longitudinal sections at maturity. 



(3) In the Anthoceros Group (Fig. 31) the gametophyte 
is thalkis-Hke and very simple in structure, the sexual organs being 
embedded in the thallus. The sporogonium is characterized by a 
bulbous foot and an elongated, 2-valved capsule. Like the thallus 
it develops chlorophyll and possesses stomata resembling those 
found in certain groups of mosses and higher plants. 

Fig. 31. Anthoceros gracilis, one of the liverworts. A, thallus with 4 sporogonia; 
B, a ripe elongated sporogonium, dehiscing longitudinally and showing two valves between 
which is the slender columella; C, D, E, F, various forms of elaters; G, spores. After 


In the Mosses the archegonia always form the end of the 
axis of a shoot, whether this be a main one or a lateral one. As 
has already been stated (p. 48) the sexual organs arc sur- 
rounded by leaves or leaf-like structures, known as perichaetia or 
perichsetal leaves, and by hair-like structures or paraphyses, both 
of which are considered to act as protective organs. Sometimes 
the groups of sexual organs together with the protective organs 



are spoken of as the " moss flower." As already stated the Mosses 
are both monoecious (Fig. 32, C, D) and dioecious (Fig. 32, A, 
B), hence a moss flower may contain only one of the sexual 

Fig. 32. Longitudinal sections through tips of leafy branches of mosses. A, show- 
ing antheridia (a, b) in different stages of development and paraphyses or cell-threads 
(c), the apical cell of which is spherical and contains chlorophyll, and leaves (d, e); B, 
showing archegonia (a) and leaves (b); C, section of Bryum showing both archegonia, 
and antheridia, paraphyses and leaves; D, section of Phascum showing archegonia (ar), 
antheridia (an), thread-like paraphyses (p), and leaves (b). A, and B, after Sachs; C, 
after Limpricht; D, after Hofmeister. 

organs or it may contain both. Mosses are also characterized by 
an abundant vegetative propagation. New branches are devel- 
oped from the old. " Almost every living cell of a moss can grow 
out into protonema, and many produce gemmae of the most dif- 


ferent kinds." Entire shoots provided with reserve material are 
cut off and form new plants. In this way moss carpets are fre- 
quently formed in the woods, or masses in bogs. 

Moss Groups. There are two general classes of mosses : ( i ) 
Sphagnum forms are those which produce leaves without nerves, 
and in which the sporogonium does not possess a long stalk or 
seta. What appears to be the stalk is the prolongation of the 
gametophyte stem which is known as the pseudopodium or " false 
stalk." These forms are characteristic of wet places. Some of 
the group as Sphagnum proper form " sphagnum bogs." New 
plants develop on top of the old which latter gradually die and 
finally pass into sphagnum peat, which forms thick masses and 
finds use as a fuel. (2) The True Mosses are especially dis- 
tinguished by the differentiated character of the sporogonium, 
which not only produces a stalk but also the peristome (Fig. 28, 
p) which when present is of great importance in distinguishing 
the different species. 

Economic Uses of Bryophytes. The investigations on the 
chemistry of the Liverworts and Mosses have not been very 
numerous. The constituents which have been found are in the 
nature of tannin, resins, ethereal oils, glucosides, alkaloids, color- 
ing compounds and organic acids like citric, XDxalic, tartaric and 
aconitic. In the mosses starch and silicon salts are found 
in addition. Several species of Marchantia and Jungermannia 
are used in medicine. Of the mosses the following have been 
found to have medicinal properties; Sphagnum cuspidatum, 
Grimmia pulvinata, Funaria hygrometrica, Fontinalis antipyre- 
tica, and several species of Polytrichum and Hypnum. 


The Pteridophytes were formerly known as the Vascular 
Cryptogams. Like the Bryophytes these plants show a distinct 
ahernation of generations, i.e., the gametophyte or sexual gen- 
eration alternates with the sporophyte or asexual generation. 
Their relation is, however, somewhat changed. In the Bryophytes 
the gametophyte is the most conspicuous and is looked upon 
as constituting the plant proper, whereas in the Pteridophytes 


the gametophyte is rather insignificant in size, while the sporo- 
phyte constitutes the generation or phase whicli is ordinarily 
regarded as the plant. In the higher members of the Pterido- 
phytes the sporophyte is entirely detached from the gametophyte 
and is able to lead an independent existence. This group also 
shows a distinct advance in structure. There is a differentiation 
into root, stem and leaves, and the development of a system of 
conducting tissue known as the v.\scular system. 

The Pteridophytes include three principal groups, namely, 
(i) Filicales or Ferns, (2) Equisetales or Scouring Rushes, and 
(3) Lycopodiales or Clul) Mosses, which differ considerably in 
general appearance and general morphological characters. 

With the exception of the sperms in the Club Mosses, which 
are biciliate and somewhat resemble those in the Bryophytes, the 
sperms in the Pteridophytes are spirally coiled and multiciliate, 
and according to the number of cilia of the sperms some writers 
divide the Pteridophytes into two classes, namely, biciliate and 
pluriciliate (Figs. 34, C ; 43, F). 

Some of the Pteridophytes, as Selaginella (Fig. 41), are dis- 
tinguished by the fact that they produce- two kinds of asexual 
spores, which are known respectively as microspores (Fig. 41, 
F) and megaspores (Fig. 41, E). The two kinds of spores are 
formed in separate sporangia which organs may occur on the 
same plant or on different plants. The sporangia have the cor- 
responding names, microsporangia (Fig. 41) and megasporangia 
(Fig. 41). This differentiation in sporangia and spores also leads 
to a differentiation in the resulting gametophytes, the microspores 
giving rise to gametophytes which produce antheridia, and hence 
called male gametophytes ; and the megaspores to gametophytes 
which give rise to archegonia, and hence called female gameto- 
phytes. When a plant produces both microspores and mega- 
spores it is said to be heterosporous, as in SclagincUa (Figs. 41, 
43, 44) ; while one that produces but one kind of sporangium and 
one kind of asexual spores is said to be isosporous. In this con- 
nection attention should be called to the fact that the spores from 
a single sporangium of an isosporous plant may give rise to male 
and female gametophytes, which shows that a certain degree of 
differentiation in the spores has already taken place. The causes 



leading to the dififcrentiation of the spores seem to be connected 
with nutrition, those nuclei which are in more favorable positions 
giving rise to larger and better nourished spores which eventually 
lead to the formation of the megaspores, and those which are 
less favorably placed leading to the microspores. 

The subject of heterospory is one of great interest, and when 
it is pointed out that all of the higher plants are heterosporous 
the subject has even more interest. 


General Characters. On germination the asexual spore 
in the Filicales or Ferns gives rise to a thallus-like body known as 
the prothallus which is frequently dorsiventral and in a number 

Fig. 33. Male fern [Aspidium (Nephrcdium or Dryopteris) Filix mas]. A, prothallus 
of gametophyte as seen from the under (ventral) side showing archegonia (ar), antheridia 
(an), and rhizoids (rh); B, prothallus showing young plant (sporophyte) which has devel- 
oped from an oospore and is still connected with the gametophyte, roots (w), and the first 
leaf (b). After Schenck. 

of cases somewhat heart-shaped, but varies considerably in out- 
line, being sometimes more or less tuberous. The prothallus is 
frequently but a few millimeters in diameter and the cells usually 
contain chloroplasts. On the under or ventral surface rhizoids 
are usually present (Fig. 33, rh). The sexual organs usually 
arise on the lower surface (Fig. 33) but they may develop on the 
upper or dorsal surface or even laterally. A single prothallus 



gives rise to both kinds of organs unless stunted in its growth, 
when it produces antheridia only. 

The antheridia either develop upon or are sunk in the tissues 
of the prothallus. The archegonia (Fig. 34) are not flask-shaped 
as in the Bryophytes. The venter containing the oosphere or egg-cell 
(Fig. 34, e) is embedded in the thallus, the structure being sur- 
mounted by a few-celled neck (Fig. 34, h). The inner cells of 
the neck are known as canal cells (Fig. 34, k) and these at the 
time of ripening of the egg swell and exit through the opening of 

Fig. 34. A, B, development of archegonia of a fern {Pteris) showing the neck (h), 
the neck-canal Cell (k) and oosphere (e). After Strasburger. 

C, development of antheridium in the Venus-hair fern (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris): 
prothallus (p), antheridium (a), sperm (s), sperm mother cell with starch grains (b); I, 
immature state of antheridium, II, sperms developed, and III, discharge of sperm mother 
cells and escape of coiled and pluriciliate sperms. After Sachs. 

the archegonium, through which then the sperms enter, one of 
which unites with the egg, thus effecting fertilization. The fer- 
tilized egg or oospore takes on a cellulose membrane. 

The oospore which is held in the venter of the archegonium is 
not a resting spore but germinates immediately and early differen- 
tiates into the several organs (Fig. 35) . These arise independently 
and include a stem-bud (Fig. 35, s) ; a first leaf or cotyledon 
(Fig. 35, h) so called because it does not arise out of the stem as 
the later leaves do; a first or primary root (Fig. 35. w) ; and 
a foot or haustorial organ (Fig. 35, /) whereby it obtains nutri- 



ment from the prothallus (Fig. 35, pr) . This latter organ is, how- 
ever, only a temporary provision, for as soon as the root grows 
out and penetrates the soil, it dies off and the sporophyte thus 
becomes independent. The stems are frequently more or less 
condensed and lie prostrate in the soil, developing foots from the 
under surface and leaves from the sides and upper surfaces. The 
leaves which constitute the conspicuous part of the ordinary ferns 
consist of a stalk and lamina or blade on which are borne the spor- 
angia (Figs. 277; 36, A). The sporangia usually occur on the 
under surface of the leaf in groups or clusters known as sori 
(Fig. 36, ^). The sori are of characteristic shape and in certain 

Fig. 35. The brake fern (Pierts). A, differentiation of cells in germinating oospores; 
B, later stage showing development of embryo: pr, prothallus; f, foot embedded in the 
archegonium (aw); w, root; s, young stem; b, young leaf. A, after Kienitz Gerloff; B, 
after Hofmeister. 

species are covered by a plate called the indusium (Fig. 36, 
B) which rises from the epidermis. In some species the entire 
leaf becomes a spore-bearing organ, and is then known as a 
SPOROPHYLL (Figs. 36, 37, 38), to distinguish it from the foliage 
leaves. The sporangia develop a row of cells around the margin 
constituting what is known as the annulus (Fig. 36, n). The 
form of the annulus determines the manner of dehiscence of the 
sporangia, which occurs on drying. The spores are ejected with 
considerable force (Fig. 36, D). They (Fig. 36, E; Fig. 39) 
are either bilateral or tetrahedral and require a short period to 
elapse before they germinate. They retain their vitality for a long 
time except those which are green, i.e., contain chlorophyll. The 



spores are greenish or yellowisli in color, varionsly sculptured 
and vary from 0.025 '"'^i- ^o 0.1^8 mm. in diameter. 

Fern Groups. There are a number of distinct groups of 
ferns which vary considerably in appearance. ( i ) In the Tropics 

Fig. 36. Male fern [Aspidium (Nephrodium or Dryopleris) Filix mas\. A, portion 
of leaflet showing a number of more or less reniform sori near the mid- vein; B, transverse 
section through a ripe sori showing clusters of stalked sporangia, which are covered by 
the indusium (i), an outgrowth of the leaflet; C, a closed but ripe sporangium showing the 
annulus or ring (n), and the irregular-shaped spores within; D, showing the manner of 
opening of the mature sporangium and the dispersal of the spores; E, two spores much 
magnified. After Dodel-Port. 

as well as in greenhouses tree ferns, characterized by an over- 
ground stem, occur. The leaves arise at the summit of the stem 
or trunk and form a crown. 



(2) The True Ferns include by far the largest numl)er of 
species which inhabit temperate reg-ions. These vary consid- 
erably in size ranging- from quite diminutive plants 5 to 12 cm. 

nHJiiii lliliiiiiiiiii 

Fig. 37. Several Osmundas. i, the royal fern (C regaZis) showing fertile tip of branch 
and sterile bipinnate leaflets below; 2, Clayton's fern (O. Claytoniana) showing three 
pairs of fertile leaflets in the middle and a number of sterile leaflets above and below; 
3, cinnamon fern (0. cinnamomea) showing a fertile leaf (sporophyll) to the left and a sterile 
leaf (foliage leaf) to the right. 

high, as the slender Cliff Brake {Pellcea atropiirpiirea and the 
variety cristata) and maiden hair spleenwort {Asplcniutn Tncho- 
maiics), to plants several feet high, as in the several species of 



Osmunda (Fig. 37), Aspidiinn (Fig. 227), etc. This group is 
chiefly characterized by the underground or prostrate stems, 
known as rhizomes, the part of the plant that is seen above ground 

being the leaf. 

- -E 

Fig. 38. A, transverse section of stipe of Aspidium marginale: E, epidermis; H, 
hypodermis of collenchymatic cells; P, parenchyma containing starch; V, fibro vascular 
bundle; S, sieve; T, tracheae; N, endodermis surrounding each bundle. B, transverse sec- 
tion of stipe of Osmunda Claytoniana: H, hypodermis of lignified sclerenchymatous fibers; 
N, endodermis of large central fibrovascular bundle; Tn, tannin cells. 



(3) There is also a group of ferns known as Water Ferns 
which are aquatic in habit, that is, they live in marshy places or 
float on water. As representatives of this group may be men- 
tioned Marsilia, which, has a slender rhizome that is buried in the 
muddy bottom of streams, and 4-parted, clover-like leaves that 
float on the water; and Salvinia (Fig. 40) which is a small float- 
ing plant that develops two kinds of leaves, one which floats on 
the surface of the water and are more or less oblong, and another 
which are filiform, branching, root-like and submerged. The 
water ferns are further distinguished by the production of mega- 
spores and microspores. 

(4) The Adder's Tongue Family, to which Ophioglossum 
and Botrychium belong, develops a subterranean prothallus 
which is destitute of chlorophyll. The prothallus is in some cases 

Fig. 39. Some fern spores. A, B, C, different views of the bilateral spores of the 
common polypody (Polypodium vulgare) showing outer wall (ep), 'middle wall (ex), inner 
wall (end) and line of dehiscence (dl); D, a tetrahedral spore of the royal fern (Osmunda 
rega'Js); E, F, spores of Ceratopteris thalictroides seen in two views. A-D, after Sadebeck; 
E-F, after Kny. 

tuberous, and the sporophyte produces two kinds of leaves, 
namely, foliage leaves, and fertile leaves or those which bear the 
sporangia. The sporangia occur on lateral branches of the sporo- 
phyll and open at maturity by means of a horizontal slit. 

Ferns Used in Medicine and as Foods. Many of the ferns 
contain tannin, a brownish coloring principle and in addition 
an anthelmintic principle. They may also contain ethereal oils, 
starch, coumarin, aconitic acid and other principles. A large 
number have been used in medicine, of which the following may 
be mentioned: Aspidiuin (Dryopteris or Nephrodmm) marginale 
(Fig. 277) and A. Filix-mas, yielding the official Aspidium. A 
number of other species of Aspidium, as well as species of Adian- 
tnm, Asplcninm and Polypodium are also used in various parts of 
the world. The rhizomes of some of the ferns contain considerable 



starch and are used to some extent as foods, as Ptcris cscnlcnta of 
ChmTi ; P tcridiuni aquilinum var. lanuginosa of the Canary Islands; 
Aspidiuni variinn and Aspleninni hulhosuin of Cochin China. 
Folypodimn vulgare contains a substance related to glycyrrhizin. 
Adiantum pedaUini and Polypodium Phyinaiodcs are said to con- 
tain coumarin, the latter plant being used in perfumery. 

Fig. 40. A water fern (Saltnnia natans). A, a plant seen from side and showing 
floating leaves at top attached to the horizontal stem, root-like finely divided leaves beneath, 
and a cluster of globose sporocarps; B, a view from above showing especially the character 
of the upper leaves; C, young plant developing from a megaspore (msp). A, and B, after 
Bischoff; C, after Pringsheim. 


The Horsetails, or scouring rushes (Fig. 45, B) are peren- 
nial plants containing a large amount of silicon in their tissues. Like 
in the ferns the more or less branching, creeping rhizome persists 
from year to year, sending out each year new shoots. As in some 
of the ferns it develops two kinds of leaf-shoots, a fertile and a 
sterile one (Fig. 45, B), each of which are distinctly jointed. 
The scale-like leaves are arranged in circles about the joints or 
nodes, the work of photosynthesis being carried on by the green 
stems. The fertile branch develops at the apex a group of 
sporophylls known as a cone or strobilus. The archesporium. or 
initial spore-producing zone is unilocular. In Equisetum, the only 
representative of the group, the spores are spherical and each is 



furnished with two spiral bands or elaters which assist in its 
dispersal. Some of the Equisetums contain aconitic acid and are 
used in medicine. Common scouring rush (Equisetum hycmale) 
is used for polishing woods, and Equisetum arvense is used for 
scouring tin ware. 

Fig. 41. Sclagine'Ja helvetica. A, sporophyte consisting of leafy branches giving 
rise to microsporangia (i), megasporangia (g) and rhizoids (r); B, longitudinal section of 
portion of branch showing a megasporangium (g) with 3 megaspores in view, a micro- 
sporangium (i) containing microspores; C, a young microsporangium showing free mother 
cells before formation of tetrads; D, tetrahedral division of spore mother-cell; E, ripe 
megaspore; F, four microspores of tetrad separated; G, m.icrosporophyll seen from above 
snowing ripe microsporangium. After Dodel-Port. 




The Lycopodiales, or Club Mosses (Fig. 46), are perennial 
moss-like plants, with more or less erect or creeping and branching 
stems, on which are borne numerous small simple leaves. The 
sporangia arise either at the base of the upper surface of the leaves 
or occur in terminal cones. They have short stalks, are uni- 
locular and 2-valved. The asexual spores are of one kind in 
Ly CO podium (Fig. 278b) and in the form of spherical tetrahed- 
rons resulting from the manner in which division has taken place. 
In Sclaginclla (Fig. 41) two kinds of asexual spores are produced, 

Fig. 42. Longitudinal section of young embryo of a Selaginella before separation 
from the prothallus: et, suspensor; w, root; f, foot; bl, cotyledons; lig, ligules or bud 
scales. After Pfeffer. 

that is, both microspores and megaspores, which in turn give rise 
to male and female prothalli respectively. The microspore devel- 
ops a male gametophyte (Fig. 43) which remains entirely within 
the spore, and consists of a few-celled prothallus and a number of 
mother cells which produce sperms that eventually escape by the 
breaking of the wall. 

The megaspore frequently begins to develop the gameto- 
phyte (Fig. 44) while still within the sporangium. The pro- 
thallus consists of a number of cells and partly protrudes 
through the ruptured spore wall. On the upper part of the pro- 



thallus or nutritive layer a few archegonia are borne. It should 
be stated that sometimes the archegonia are developed very early 
on the prothallus tissue, but usually they are developed after the 
spores have escaped from the sporangium. After fertilization 
of the Qgg a multicellular embryo develops which shows the fol- 
lowing parts (Fig. 42) : (i) An elongated cell or row of cells 
which extends into the tissues of the prothalfus for the purpose of 
obtaining nutriment; (2) a root; and (3) a stem bearing at its 
tip (4) two leaves, or cotyledons. One of the specially notable 

^ ^ 

Fig. 43. Successive stages in the germination of the microspores of a Selaginella: 
p and w, cells of the prothallus; s, cells giving rise to sperms. A, B, D, views of spores from 
the side; C, view from the back; in E the cells surrounding the sperm mother cell are dis- 
organized; F, two biciliate sperms. After BelajefF. 

characters of the plants of the Selaginella group is, as Ave have 
seen, the great reduction in size of the gametophyte which in 
the case of the microspore does not enlarge beyond the wall of 
the spore, and in the case of the megaspore only partly protrudes 
be_vond the wall of the spore. 

Isoetes. This is a genus of aquatic or marsh plants known 
as quillworts. The plants produce a number of filiform roots 
which penetrate the mud. and a compact tuft of rush-like leaves. 
The plants are heterosporous, as in Selaginella. The sporangia 
are borne in the axils of the leaves, the outer leaves bearing the 
megasporangia and the inner leaves the microsporangia. The 



gametophytes consist of but a few cells. While the group is het- 
erosporous and the gametophytes resemble those in Selaginella, 
the sperms are multiciliate and coiled as in the Ferns. 

Distribution and Uses of Lycopodiales. A number of the 
Lycopodiums are common on rocks, damp woods, sandy bogs, 
and illustrations of several of these are shown in Fig. 46. Some 
tropical species are used in medicine ; the spores particularly of 
Lycopodium clavatum (Fig. 46, illus. 3) are used as a dusting 
powder (Fig. 278b), and for burning in the production of flash 


Fig. 44. The female gametophyte of a Selaginella; prothallus (pr) projecting through 
the ruptured wall (spm) of the megaspore; ar, sterile archegonium; emy, emb-, two 
embryos embedded in the tissue of the prothallus; et, at, suspensors. .A.fter Pfeffer. 

lights. The Selaginellas, of whicli there are several native 
species, are commonly used for decorative purposes. Some species 
are, however, also used in medicine, and it is interesting to note 
that the spores of one species {Selaginella selagiuoides) are used 
like those of Lycopodhim. 

While the Pteridophytes do not form a very conspicuous por- 
tion of the flora at the present time and yield but few products 
of use to man, it may be pointed out that in former ages they 
formed the dominant vegetation of the earth. Many of the 
ancestral forms of this group attained the size of trees and made 
up the forest vegetation during the Devonian and Carboniferous 
Ages, the latter being sometimes spoken of as the age of Pterido- 



phytes. It is also called the Coal Age from the fact that the coal 
measures were chiefly laid down during this period. ' By some it 
is thought that the deposits of coal of this age were probably 

Fig. 45- A piece of slate from the coal formation in Shenandoah County, Pennsylvania, 
showing a fossil fern which is probably a species of Neuropteris. 

principally formed from the remains of certain marsh plants 
including two extinct groups of huge, tree-like club mosses 
(Lepidodendron and Sigillaria) and the Calamites, representa- 
tives of the scouring rushes. 



The Spermophytes, or Seed Plants, constitute the third of the 
great divisions into which plants are divided. The plants belong- 
ing to this division not only form the most conspicuous feature of 

Fig. 46. Several species of Lycopodiunt. i, Ground pine (L. obscurum) showing a 
leafy branch with one strobile at the apex; 2, a branch of trailing Christmas green (L. 
Complanatiim) bearing four or five strobiles at the apex of long dichotomously branching 
stalks; 3, club moss or running pine (L. clavatum) with a branch bearing four strobiles; 
4, shining club moss (L. lucididum) with small sporangia borne in the axils of the leaves. 

the flora because of their size and general distribution, but also 
because of the fact that the flowering plants render a large number 
of them especially attractive. The plants of this group are 
also of great importance from an economic point of view. They 


furnish a large part of the food of man and other animals, as well 
as materials for clothing, shelter, fuel and divers other purposes. 
In this group of plants there is the highest differentiation of tis- 
sues and the most complicated structure. The one character 
which especially distinguishes them from the lower groups of 
plants is that of the production of seeds. 

The plants have for the most part well differentiated stems 
and leaves, and represent the sj^orophyte or asexual generation. 
The sporophyte produces sporophylls which are of two kinds, 
namely, megasporophylls and microsporophylls. The megasporo- 
phylls bear small ellipsoidal bodies known as ovules, which develop 
into seeds. The megasporangium is not separate and distinct in 
the spermophytes as it is in Selaginella, but is embedded within an 
ovule and corresponds to that part of the ovule known as the 
nucellus. The nucellus encloses the embryo-sac, which is regarded 
as a megaspore (Figs. 49, 50, 56, 85). Each megasporangium 
(nucellus) therefore contains but a single megaspore, whereas in 
Selaginella the megasporangia contain from i to 8 mega- 
spores. The microsporophyll bears microsporangia (pollen 
sacs) which contain microspores (pollen grains). The fe- 
male gametophyte in the Spermophytes is still more limited in 
its development than even in the highest Pteridophytes (as Sela- 
ginella and Isoetes) and remains wholly within the megaspore 
or embryo-sac. As a result of fertilization of the egg-cell an 
embryo is produced which consists of root, stem and one or more 
cotyledons and which with the integuments covering it constitutes 
the seed. 

Spermophytes embrace two well defined groups, namely, (i) 
Gymnosperms or naked-seeded plants and (2) Angiosperms, or 
enclosed-seeded plants. 


In the Gymnosperms the ovules, each of which contains a mega- 
sporangium (nucellus), are borne on an open sporophyll (carpel), 
and thus are exposed, as are also the seeds developed from them. 
In the Angiosperms the ovules are borne within closed sporo- 
phylls, and are thus protected or covered until the seeds, which 
develop from them, mature. 


The Gymnosperms represent an ancient group of plants and 
were more numerous during the Triassic period than now. They 
are mostly shrubs and trees, and do not shed their leaves period- 
ically as the Angiosperms do, and hence are known as " ever- 
greens." As in some of the Pteridophytes {Lycopodimn, Eqid- 
setum) the sporophylls occur in groups forming cones or strobiles 
(Fig. 47). They not only differ in external appearance from the 
Angiosperms but also in the anatomical structure of the stem, 
which is without large conducting vessels. In order to understand 
the relation of the Gymnosperms to the Pteridophytes on the one 
hand and to the Angiosperms on the other, it will be necessary to 
consider briefly the life history of a representative group, such as 
the Coniferse. 

General Characters. The seed consists essentially of three 
parts, namely, a woody or leathery seed-coat, a nutritive layer 
rich in oil known as the endosperm, and a straight embryo. The 
latter is a more or less differentiated plantlet, consisting of a stem 
with a varying number of cotyledons or first leaves (2 to 16), 
and a small root which is attached to a suspensor, as is the embryo 
in Selaginella (Fig. 44). AVhen the embryo begins its develop- 
ment into the plant it uses up the nourishment with which it is 
surrounded in the endosperm, and as it increases in size the seed- 
coat is split. The root then protrudes and the cotyledons to some 
of which the seed-coat is still attached are carried upward by the 
stem through the surface of the soil, when the seed-coat is cast 
off and the plant begins an independent existence. The first root 
is the primary or tap root and from this are sent out numerous 
branches known as secondary roots, constituting a well developed 
root system which serves the double purpose of absorbing nutri- 
ment from the substratum or soil and of holdins: or fixinsf the 
plant in its upright position. The embryonal stem grows ver- 
tically upwards continuing its growth indefinitely. Lateral 
branches arise at more or less regular intervals which extend from 
near the ground to the apex, the younger branches continually 
succeeding the older ones from the ground upward, thus giving 
the trees a cone-like outline. The leaves arise on the branches 
and are of two kinds, primary leaves which are more or less scale- 
like and deciduous, and secondary leaves which are true foliage 



leaves, and are usually quite simple in structure. The kaves vary- 
in form but are usually narrow and somewhat thickened giving 
them a needle-like appearance. 

In addition sporophylls (spore-bearing leaves) are formed at 
the ends of the young shoots or in the axils of more mature ones 


Pig. 47. Pinus reflexa. Transverse section of a portion from the inner face of the 
spring wood showing a schizogenous resin duct or passage with the central canal (C) and 
the thin-walled and resinous epithelium (ep); with parenchyma tracheids (t), the spring 
wood (Sp. W.) and the summer wood (S. W.). After Penhallow. 

The Coniferae represent the most ancient group in which resin passages or reservoirs 
are found. While these passages show certain important variations in structure and origin, 
and while even in certain genera of the group, as in the genus Pinus, they exhibit consider- 
able variation in detail, yet in this genus they are all of the same structural type as in Pinus 
reflexa, the white pine of the high mountainous regions of New Mexico and Arizona. The 
epithelial tissues are thin-walled and readily broken in making sections except in the hard 
pines as the Loblolly pine (P. tcBda), where the cells often become strongly resinous. (See 
Penhallow's "Manual of the North American Gymnosperms.") 

(Fig. 51). These are compactly arranged forming cones or 
strobili which are always of two kinds and borne on different 
twigs of the same plant or on different plants. The staminate 



cones consisting of microsporophylls (stamens) are more or less 
elongated and cylindrical or ovoid (Fig. 48, A). The carpellate 
cones consisting of megasporophylls (carpels) have a shorter 
longitudinal axis, and the cones vary considerably in the different 

The Microsporophylls (Fig. 48) are usually of a yellowish- 
brown color, and consist of a slender stalk and a lamina which 

Fig. 48. A, longitudinal section of cone composed of microsporophylls, of one of the 
pines; B, longitudinal section of microsporophyll showing microsporangium (pollen sac); 
C, the same in transverse section showing both microsporangia; D, winged microspore 
(pollen grain), with a two-celled male gametophyte, the upper cell being the generative 
cell, the remaining nucleated cell giving rise to the pollen tube. After Schimper. 

bears the microsporangia (pollen sacs) on the lower or dorsal 
surface (Fig. 48, B, C). In this they show a resemblance to 
ferns where the sori are borne on the under surface of the leaves. 
The microsporangia vary in number from 2 to 15, and are pro- 
tected in various ways, either being sunk in the tissues of the sporo- 
phyll,asinP///z/^ and Abies or they are, as in Junipenis and Thuja, 
provided with a covering resembling the indusiimi of the sori of 
the ferns. The walls are variously thickened and on drying, 



owing- to unequal tension, the sacs are ruptured longitudinally 
and the spores scattered. The microspores are very numerous, 
sometimes forming powdery deposits. They are either i -celled 
or 3-celled. In the latter case two lateral cells act as wings for 
the dispersal of the spores by the wind (Fig. 48, D). 

The Megasporophylls consist of sessile carpels (leaves) 
on which are borne one or two naked ovules containing the spor- 


Fig 49. Longitudinal section of an ovule of a spruce (Picea): i, integument; no 
nucellus (megasporangium) ; e, embryo-sac (megaspore) which has developed the female 
gametophyte consisting of endosperm (e), two archegonia (a), which show the neck (c), 
and the egg (n) ; p, germinating pollen grains (microspores) with pollen tubes (t) which 
have penetrated the nucellus (nc) and reached the neck cells of the archegonia. After 

angia (nucelli). In certain groups, as in the pines, balsams, etc., 
a scale is formed at the base of the carpel which bears the ovules, 
and this scale is called the seminiferous scale. The ovules con- 
sist of several parts (Figs. 49 and 50) : a stalk; an integument or 
wall which has an opening at the apex known as the micropyle; 



a nucellus (megasporangium), being that portion next within the 
integument ; and embedded within the nucellus a portion known 
as the megaspore or embryo-sac. 


Fig. so. Development of gametophyte and embryo in one of the Coniferas. e, 
embryo-sac (megaspore); a, archegonium; h, neck of archegonium; i, integument; p, 
pollen tube; n, nucellus; f, wing of seed; g, fibrovascular tissue; kz, canal cells of arche- 
gonium; ka, beginning of embryo; k, nuclei; ws, tip of root; wh, root-cap; c, cotyledons; 
V, point of growth of stem; s, suspensor. 

I, early stages of embryo-sac (e); II, young archegonium (a) after development of 
neck cells (h), cell lumen (1); III, section of ovule with portion of attached seminiferous 
Ecale(f) showing entrance of pollen tube; IV, embryo-sac with two developed archegonia; 
V, archegonium after fertilization there being four nuclei at the lower part only two of which 
are seen; VI, further development of embryo; VII, VIII, IX, X, showing development 
of large tortuous suspensor, to which is attached the young embryo (ka); XI, XII, mature 
embryo. ^After Strasburger. 


Gametophytes. The development of the gametophytes 
from the asexual spores, namely, the microspore or pollen grain, 
and the megaspore or embryo-sac, is as follows : The nucleus 
of the megaspore divides repeatedly (Fig. 50), cell walls 
are formed and a multicellular structure known as the endosperm 
is produced. This structure constitutes the prothallus of the 
female gametophyte (Fig. 49, E; Fig. 50). In the upper portion 
of the prothallus (that is, at the micropylar end), three to five 
archegonia are formed (Fig. 49, a; Fig. 50), which are sepa- 
rated from one another by cells of the endosperm or prothallus 
which are rich in protoplasm. The structure of the archegonium 
is much like that of the preceding group, consisting of a venter 
which contains the ^^g, and a short neck composed of 4 to 8 cells. 

The male gametophyte begins to develop while the pollen is 
still in the sporangium. At this stage it consists of a generative 
cell and a wall-cell, which constitute the antheridium, the cells of 
the protliallus being usually suppressed (Fig. 48, D). 

In addition to the extreme minuteness of the gametophytes 
we have also to note the character of the male gamete or sperm. 
With the exception of the Cycads and Ginkgo, motile sperms are 
not found in the Gymnosperms, but these are represented by two 
male nuclei which are transferred directly to the archegonium 
from the male gametophyte, formed through germination of the 
microspore (pollen grain). It may be recalled that in the Pteri- 
dophytes the motile sperms are discharged from the antheridium 
and carried by the agency of water to the arphegonium, but in the 
Gymnosperms water is no longer a medium of transferral. The 
microspores themselves are carried to the ovules usually through 
the agencv of wind after v/hich thev germinate developing a tube 
which carries the male nuclei directly to the archegonium without 
their ever having been free. 

The transferral of the microspores or pollen grains to the 
ovule is known as pollination. After pollination the wall-cell 
develops a tube, the pollen tube, and the generative cell gives rise 
to two male nuclei, which, with the remaining protoplasmic con- 
tents of the antheridium, are carried. by the pollen tube to the 
micropyle, which it enters, penetrating the tissue of the nucellus 
(Fig. 49, 0- On reaching the neck of an archegonium the pollen 


tube pushes its way down into the venter, where it discharges 
one of the sperm nuclei which unites with the egg, forming an 
oospore. Cessation in growth does not yet take place and the 
oospore develops into the embryo already described. The develop- 
ing embryo obtains its nourishment by means of a suspensor 
(Fig. 50, s), which also places the embryo in a favorable position. 

There being several archegonia in an ovule (Figs. 49, 50), a 
corresponding number of embryos may be formed, but rarely 
more than one survives. While the embryo is developing, the 
other tissues of the megaspore are likewise undergoing changes 
leading to the maturity of the seed. The carpels and seminifer- 
ous scales also continue to grow, and they usually become more or 
less woody, forming the characteristic cones of the pines (Fig. 
51), but may coalesce and become fleshy, producing the berry-like 
fruits of Juniper (Fig. 52). The seed on germination gives rise 
to the sporophyte (tree). 

Groups of Gymnosperms. There are two principal groups 
of Gymnosperms, (i) one of which includes the Cycads or Fern 
Palms, which are characteristic of tropical and sub-tropical coun- 
tries. The trunk does not branch as in the ordinary evergreens, 
and the leaves form a crown at the summit of the stem or trunk. 
An important character of some of the Cycads is the production 
of multiciliate sperms, as in the ferns. Equisetum and Isoetes. 
(2) To the Coniferge belong the pines, hemlocks, balsams, arbor 
vitse, junipers (Fig. 51) and cedars, this being by far the largest 
group of Gymnosperms. 

Exonomic Uses of the Coniferas. From an economic 
point of view the Coniferse are by far the most important group 
of plants thus far considered. In fact they may be ranked first 
in the production of valuable timber. Of those yielding timber 
the following species may be mentioned: White pine (Piiiits stro- 
bus) ; long-leaved, yellow, or Georgia pine {Pinus palustris 
Mill.) ; spruce pine (Pinus cchinata) ; the Redwood of Upper 
CaHfornia [Sequoia seripervirens) ; pitch pine of New Mexico 
(Pinus Pondcrosa) ; the Scotch fir. the common pine of Europe 
(Pinus sylvcstris) . Some of the woods are adapted for special 
purposes : as that of Pinus Ceinbra of the high mountains of 
Europe and Northern Siberia, which is excellent for wood-carv- 



iiig; Red cedar {Junipcrus virginiana) (Fig-. 52) used in the 
making of cigar boxes and lead pencils; balsam fir i^Abics bal- 
sanica ) used in the manufacture of wood pulp. 

Py reason of the oleo-resinous constituents the woods of some 
of the Coniferae are among the most durable known. A few 
years ago Jeffrey examined a specimen of Sequoia Pcnhalloivii 
which was obtained from auriferous gravels of the Miocene in 
the Sierra Nevada Mountains and found it to be in a very perfect 

?iG. 51. Transverse section of the stalk of Juniperus Sa^ina at the point of attach- 
ment of two leaves, ep, epidermis; s, stomata; h, hypodermis; pal, palisade cells; 1, bast 
fibers; b, xylem; r, mechanical tissue; S, oil secreting gland or reservoir. After Mongin. 

State of preservation. Penhallow {loc. cit.) considers this to lie 
the most ancient record of an uninfiltrated and unaltered wood. 
Coleman, in 1898, found in the Pleistocene clays of the Don 
Valley a specimen of red cedar {Junipcrus virginiana) which not 
only possessed all of the external characteristics of this species 
but when sawed emitted the aromatic odor of the bark. In the 
Pleistocene deposits of the western Ignited States and Canada 
are found more or less unaltered specimens of various species 
of Juniperus, Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Larix. 



Fig. 5 2. Cross-section of bark of Tsuga Canadensis, c, c, c, secondary cork forma- 
tion; a, dead phloem tissues rich in coloring, resinous and tannin-like substances; s, s, stone 
cells; m, m, medullary rays; cr, cells containing long prisms of calcium oxalate; ca, cam- 
bium; st, bands of starch-bearing parenchyma cells. After Bastin. 


Some of the pines yield edible seeds which have been used 
by the Indians of Western America : as the edible or " nut pine " 
of California and New Mexico (Pinus ednlis) ; Pinus monophylla, 
discovered by Colonel Fremont in Northern California; Pinus 
Jeffrcyi of Northern California ; and Pinus Pinca of Europe, the 
seeds of the latter being used like almonds and known as " pig- 
none." The seeds of Pinus Lambcrtiana (Fig. 51, C) of Califor- 
nia are baked before being used as food. This latter species is 
also known as the sugar pine as it yields a manna-like product. 
A manna is also yielded by Cedrus Libani and Larix decidua. The 
latter is known as " Briancon Manna," and contains melizitose. 
The bark of some species furnishes valuable tanning material, as 
that of the hemlock spruce {Tsuga canadensis). 

The Conifera; yield large quantities of volatile oils, resins and 
allied products which are used both in medicine and the arts. 
A number of them yield turpentine (see pp. 675-677 and p. 653), 
as Pinus palustris, Pinus glabra, Pinus Tccda, Pinus hetero- 
phylla and Piiius echinata. Larix decidua of the Alps and Car- 
pathian mountains yields Venice turpentine. Abies balsamea is 
the source of Canada turpentine or balsam of fir ; Picea Mariana 
or black spruce yields spruce gum largely used in the manufacture 
of chewing gum, and is also the source of spruce beer. Picca 
excelsa or Norway spruce yields Burgundy pitch (sec p. 670). 
Abies alba or white fir tree yields the Strasburger turpentine, 
Canada pitch is the resinous exudation from the common hemlock 
( Tsuga canadensis) . Sandarac is yielded by. Callitris quadrivalvis 
found growing in Northwestern Africa. Volatile oils are yielded 
by a number of the Coniferse, of which the following may be 
mentioned : Jimiperus Sabina yielding oil of savin ; Juniperus 
communis yielding oil of juniper, both of which are used in medi- 
cine. The remains of Coniferse (Picea, etc.) are often found as 
fossils, as the fossil resin amber, which is used in the arts, and on 
distillation yields a volatile oil having medicinal properties. 


General Characters. The Angiosperms constitute the 
most conspicuous portion of the flora, embrace the greatest 
variety of forms, and are the most highly organized members 



of the plant kingdom. They vary in size from diminutive plants 
Hke the windflower to the giant oak which shelters it. They may 
accomplish their life work in a few months, as the common stra- 
monium, or they may persist for several hundred years, as the 
trees of our primitive forests. They may inhabit dry desert 
regions, as the Cacti and Chenopodiaceae, or they may live wholly 
in water, as the water lilies. In short they show the greatest 
adaptability to their surroundings. But no matter how diversified 
they may seem in form and structure, they agree in this with 
possibly one exception, namely, mignonette, that the seeds are 
produced in a closed carpel. This has been considered, as already 
indicated, to be the chief difference between the Gymnosperms 
and Angiosperms. 

The two groups are further distinguished by several other 
important characters: (i) the carpel or carpels (megasporophyll) 
is developed into an organ commonly known as a pistil (Figs. 

83 and 85). This organ consists of three parts, namely, ovary, 
style and stigma, the ovary enclosing the ovules (Figs. 83, 85). 
In the Angiosperms the megaspore (embryo-sac) develops a 
gametophyte which does not give rise to archegonia, but the egg 
arises directly from the megaspore nucleus by a series of divisions. 

(3) The Microsporophyll (stamen) dififers considerably in 
structure and appearance from that of the Gymnosperms. The 
stamen may be defined as a leaf which bears sporangia (spore 
cases). It usually consists of the following differentiated parts: 
filament and anther, the latter consisting of pollen sacs (micro- 
sporangia) in which the pollen grains (microspores) are devel- 
oped (Figs. 81, 83 and 85). (4) In a large number of cases in 
the Angiosperms there is developed in addition to the sporophylls 
or sporangial leaves (stamens and pistils) another series of 
leaves known as floral leaves (Fig. 83). The latter usually are 
of two kinds, known as sepals and petals. 

The Development of the Two Generations, namely, the 
sporophyte and gametophyte, is much the same in the Angio- 
sperms as in the Gymnosperms. That is, the sporophyte consti- 
tutes the plant body and what is commonly considered to be the 
plant. The gametophytes are still more reduced than was the 
case in the Gymnosperms, the male gameto])hytc consisting of 
but two cells. 



Beginning with the germination of the seed we may outline 
the Hfe history of the plant as was done under Gymnosperms. 
The seeds in the two groups are much alike with the exception 
that in the Angiosperms they usually have two integuments. 
Within the Angiosperms two classes of embryos are distin- 

FiG. 53. Development of pollen sacs (microsporangia) in several of the Angiosperms: 
A, showing beginning of archesporium (a), an outer sterile layer (b), position of connective 
(con) ; B, later stage showing development of fibrovascular tissue (gf) ; C, longitudinal 
section of archesporium; D, E, F, successive later stages showing in addition pollen mother 
cells (sm) and tapetum layer (t). G, H, diagrammatic sections of mature pollen sacs show- 
ing pollen mother cells (pm), tapetum (t), endothecium (end), exothecium (ex), and in 
H longitudinal dehiscence with formation of what appears to be a unilocular pollen sac 
on either side of the connective. A-F, after Warming; G-H, after Baillon and Luerssen. 

guished, which give rise to the most important division of this 
group of plants. In the one case a single cotyledon is formed at 
the apex of the stem, and all plants having an embryo of this kind 
are known as monocotyledons, that is. plants having one seed 
leaf. In the other case two cotvledons arise laterally on the stem 



and opposite each other, and those plants having an embryo of 
this type are grouped together as dicotyledons, or plants having 
two seed leaves. In the monocotyledons the cotyledon is limited 
to one, but in the dicotyledons the seed leaves are not limited in 
number and there may sometimes be three or more. 

The sporophyte which develops from the germinating seed 
consists of the essential parts already given, i.e., root, stem and 
leaves. The leaves are of four kinds: (i) Foliage leaves, (2) 
scale leaves or bud scales, (3) floral leaves, which in some cases 
are wanting, and (4) sporangial leaves or sporophylls. Inasmuch 
as the latter give rise to the gametophytes (male and female) the 
development of the sporangia in each will be considered in detail. 

Fig. 54.. Development of pollen grains (microspores) of garlic (Allium narcissiflorum): 
a, pollen mother cell with nucleus; b, the same with homogeneous nucleus and a thicker 
wall; c-e, changes in nucleus prior to division; f, formation of spindle with nuclear masses 
in the center from which nuclear threads extend to the poles of the spindle; g, division of 
nuclear substance and receding of it from the center of the cell; h-i, further stages in the 
organization of the nuclear substance at the poles; k, formation of a wall between two 
daughter cells; 1, beginning of .division of one daughter cell; m-n, final divisions resulting 
in the formation of a tetrad (group of 4 cells). After Strasburger. 

The Microsporangia (pollen sacs) arise by the division of 
certain cells under the epidermis of the anther (Fig. 53). This 
process of division continues until four regions of fertile tissue 
(sporangia) are produced (Fig. 53, D). The sporangia are 
directly surrounded by a continuous layer of cells which consti- 
tutes the tapetum or tapetal cells (Fig. 53, /), these being in the 
nature of secretion cells and containing considerable oil. The 
tapetum is in turn surrounded by a layer of cells which are 
peculiarly thickened and which on drying assist in the opening 
of the anther and the discharge of the pollen, and this layer is 
called the endothecium (Fig. 53, end). There is still a third or 


external layer of cells, which constitutes the exothecium (Fig. 53, 
ex). These four sporangial regions may remain more or less 
distinct and separate at maturity, or the two on either side may 
coalesce. This latter usually occurs at maturity, when dehiscence 
takes place, forming apparently a single pollen sac on either side 
of the connective or axis (Fig. 53, H). 

The Microspores (pollen grains) are developed somewhat 
differently in Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. In most mono- 
cotyledons the nucleus of each cell (pollen mother cell) making 
up the archesporium divides into two nuclei, each of which takes 
on a wall of cellulose. Each of these (daughter cells) in turn 
divides giving rise to four pollen grains. In dicotyledons (Fig. 
54) the nucleus of a mother cell divides into four nuclei before 
the walls are formed which separate the nuclei, thus giving rise 

Fig. 55. Development of male gametophyte in an Angiosperm. I, pollen grain 
(microspore) which has divided into the mother or generative cell (v) and a larger tube-cell 
with nucleus (sk); II, appearance of pollen grain on treatment with osmic acid show- 
ing the separation of the generative cell (v) from the wall of the pollen grain; o, at the 
right giving a view of the generative cell with the nucleus embedded in the hyaline proto- 
plasm; III, showing the development of the tube-cell into the pollen tube which 
contains the two male cells (nuclei) or gametes formed by the generative cell. After 

to the tetrad group of spores to which attenHon has already been 
called (page 49) under Bryophytes. The wall of each spore is 
divided into two layers, an inner layer consisting of cellulose 
known as the intine, which gives rise to the pollen tube on germ- 
ination of the spore; and an outer layer somewhat different in 
composition and variously sculptured, known as the exine. When 
the spores are mature the original walls of the cells of the arche- 
sporium dissolve and the ripe pollen grains are set free, forming 
a yellowish powdery mass filling the pollen sac. In some cases 
the spores of the tetrads hang together or even the whole mass 
of pollen tetrads may be more or less agglutinated, as in the 
orchids and milkweeds, these masses being known as pollinia. 


Male Gametophyte. Before the dispersal of the pollen 
grains or microspores, certain changes leading to the development 
of the gametophyte have taken place (Fig. 55). The spore as we 
have seen is unicellular. This divides into two cells, one, which is 
relatively small, known as the mother cell of the antheridium 
(Fig. 55, v), and another, which, composed of the remaining 
nucleus with the surrounding cell-contents, constitutes the tube- or 
wall-cell of the antheridium. 

Development of Ovule and Megasporangium (nucellus). 
The ovule at first develops as a small protuberance on the 
inner surface of the ovary, after which it differentiates into 
(a) a stalk or funiculus by which it is attached to the ovary, 
the tissue to which it is attached being called the placenta ; and 
{h) an upper portion which becomes the ovule proper. The 
differentiation of the tissues is in a general way as follows : ( i ) 
The cells beneath the epidermis in the apical portion of the ovule 
go to make up the megasporangium (nucellus) ; (2) the periph- 
eral cells from below the nucellus give rise to the integuments ; 
and (3) while the integuments are developing the archesporium 
or mother cell of the embryo-sac (megaspore) is being formed 
within the nucellus near the apex. 

Female Gametophyte. The archesporium divides into 
two cells, the lower one of which repeatedly divides, finally giving 
rise to the embryo-sac which is sunk in the tissues of the nucellus. 
The nucleus of the embryo-sac divides and redivides until 8 cells 
are produced (Figs. 56 and 85), which are separated into the 
following groups : ( i ) Three of the cells form a group lying 
at the apex, the lower cell of the group being the eg^ or egg-cell, 
the other two cells being known as synergids or helping cells. 
(2) At the opposite end of the sac are three cells, known as an- 
tipodal cells, which usually develop a wall of cellulose and do not 
seem to have any special function. (3) Near the center of the 
sac are the two remaining nuclei, which unite to form a single 
nucleus, from which after fertilization the endosperm is derived. 
The embryo-sac. as it is organized at this stage, constitutes what 
is regarded as the female gametophyte (Fig. 56). The undiffer- 
entiated embryo-sac constitutes the megaspore, which latter after 
germination or differentiation into egg-cell and other cells, con- 



Fig. 56. Development of embryo-sac or megaspore in an Angiosperm. la, longi- 
tudinal section through a young ovule. lb, longitudinal section through a rudimentary 
ovule before the formation of the integument, showing mother cell of the embryo-sac (mega- 
spore) (em) and primary tapetal cell (t). II, later stage showing the two cells into which 
the mother cell has divided, the nuclei of which are in the act of dividing. Ill, mother- 
cell of the embryo-sac divided into four cells (sporogenous mass of cells) ; the lowest of these 
cells (e) displaces the rest and becomes the embryo-sac in IV. IV, pek, is the primaiy nu- 
cleus of the embryo-sac. V, two daughter cells resulting from the division of the nucleus 
of the embryo-sac. VI, VII, show egg apparatus composed of two synergids (s) and the 
oosphere (o), and antipodal cells (g). VIII, longitudinal section through a mature ovule 
with the inner integument (ii), the outer integument (ai), the nucellus Cn), the vascular 
bundle (gf) entering the funiculus (f), and secondary nucleus in the embryo-sac (sek). 
After Strasburger. 



stitutes the gametophyte. It is thus seen that in the female 
gametophyte of the Angiosperms archegonia are apparently not 
formed. The gametophyte, then, consists of the cell group con- 
taining the egg and the remaining portion of the embryo-sac, 
which latter may be compared to a prothallus. This comparison 
is not difficult to understand if we bear in mind the structure of 
the gametophyte in the Gymnosperms and particularly if we recall 
the structure in the higher Pteridophytes. 

if f 

Fig. 57. Development of embryo in the shepherd's purse (CapselJa Bursa-pasioris), 
I-VI, various stages of development: Vb, apex of the root seen from below, i, i, 2, 2, the 
first divisions of the apical cell of the pro-embryo (suspensor); h, h, cells from which the 
primary root and root-cap are derived; v, the pro-embryo; c, cotyledons; s, apex of the 
axis; w, root. After Hanstein. 

Fertilization. While in the gymnosperms the pollen 
grains are usually provided with wings so as to bring about their 
transferral to the carpel by the agency of the wind, in the angio- 
sperms, on the other hand, the grains arc not provided with wings, 
but are adapted to transferral by insects. Pollination, however, 
may be also efifected by the wdnd as is the case wdth many of our 



forest trees. After the deposition of the pohen grain on the stigma, 
the tube-cell begins to form a tubular process (pollen tube) which 
carries the male nuclei to the egg-cell (Fig. 85, i). It pierces 
the tissue of the stigma (Fig. 85, h) and traverses the style (Fig. 



Fig. 58. Hypothetical tree of relationship and descent of the leading groups of plants. 

After Ganong. 

85, g) until it reaches the micropyle of the ovule, which it enters 
(Fig. 85, m), then reaching the nucellus it penetrates this, enter- 
ing the embryo-sac. The tip of the tube breaks and one of the 
generative nuclei which has been carried downward unites with the 
egg, after which a wall is formed, giving rise to an oospore. The 


oospore develops at once into the embryo or plantlet as seen in 
the seed, this stage being followed by a period of rest. In fact 
the young plant may lie dormant in the seed for years. 

Development of Seed. The steps in the development of 
the mature seed occur in the following order (Fig. 57) : The 
oospore divides into two parts, an upper portion which gives rise 
to the embryo, and a lower portion which by transverse segmenta- 
tion gives rise to a short suspensor (Fig. 57, v) which practically 
serves the same purpose as in the Gymnosperms (page 78). 
The embryonal cell develops the embryo which consists of : ( i ) 
a root portion which is connected with the suspensor (Fig. 57, %v) ; 
(2) one or two cotyledons (Fig. 57, c) which are attached to the 
stem; (3) a little bud at the apex of the stem which is known as 
the plumule. 

While the embryo is developing, the nucleus of the embryo- 
sac, either after fusing with the prothallial cell of the pollen 
grain, or in the absence of such union, begins active division, 
forming a highly nutritive tissue rich in starch, oil, or proteins, 
known as the endosperm (Figs. 121 and 122). Simultaneously 
with the development of the endosperm the nucellus may give 
rise to a n\itritive layer called the perisperm, or the tissues of 
the nucellus may be modified and form with the altered integu- 
ments or coats of the ovule, the seed-coat. 

Inasmuch as the Angiosperms furnish by far the larger pro- 
portion of plants and plant products used in medicine, it is desir- 
able to give particular attention to the morphology of the plant 
as also to the distinguishing characters of a number of the impor- 
tant groups or families. 

Economic Importance. As indicating the great usefulness 
to mankind of the products obtained from the Angiosperms it 
will be sufficient to merely mention that all of our garden vegeta- 
bles as well as the great crops of cereals like wheat, corn, rye, 
etc. ; edible fruits and seeds ; textile products, such as cotton, flax, 
etc. ; medicinal products ; timbers of various kinds, as oak, mahog- 
any, walnut, cliestnut, cherry, etc., are furnished by this great 
group of plants. 




It may be well to repeat at this point that on germination of 
the megaspore the female gametophyte bearing the egg-cell is 
formed, and that on germination of a microspore the male gameto- 
phyte bearing male nuclei is organized. The union of egg-cell 
and a male nucleus gives rise to the sporophyte embryo contained 
in the seed, which develops into the plant we see, namely, the 
sporophyte. The female gametophyte always remains concealed 
within the embryo-sac and the male gametophyte may be said to 
embody the protoplasmic contents of the pollen tube. 

A complete flower is made up of floral leaves and sporophylls, 
the latter being essential for the reason that they give rise to the 
spores. While the flower belongs to the sporophyte generation 
the propagative organs may be said to be derived from both the 
sporophyte and gametophyte, and hence may be distinguished as 
asexual and sexual. The following outline illustrates their 
derivation : 


Sexual, derived from 
gametophytes (sexual 

Asexual, derived from 
sporophyte (asexual 


containing egg-cell 

Male Generative-cell, 
giving rise to male nuclei 
or male gametes 


giving rise to microspores 
(pollen grains) 


giving rise to megaspore 



The vegetative organs comprise the root and shoot, the latter 
being usually differentiated into shoot axis or stem, and leaves. 
The usual type of shoot is one which bears leaves and is exposed 
to the light. The work of carbon dioxide assimilation (photosyn- 
thesis) being carried on for the most part by the leaves, it is 
sometimes spoken of as the " assimilation shoot." 


True Roots are found only among plants having a vascular 
system, as the Spermophytes and the higher Pteridophytes, 

Fig. S9- a, advanced stage of germination of the common garden pea (Pisutn sa- 
Uvum) showing growing point of root protected by root-cap (p) ; root branches or second- 
ary roots (rb) ; hypocotyl (he) ; epicotyl or stem above the cotyledons (ec) ; cotyledons 
(one in view) (c). B, plantlet of white or yellow mustard {Sinapis alba) showing copious 
development of root-hairs (h) . 

although on the other hand some of the higher plants do not pos- 
sess them, as certain of the saprophytic orchids and some of the 
aquatic plants as Utricularia, Lemna, etc. If we take a germinat- 
ing plant and mark the root into ten equal divisions, begin- 



ning at the apex, and place the plant in a moist chamber, it will be 
found in the course of one or two days that the marks between i 
and 5 have become much further apart, and that the growth in this 
region is about three times that between 5 and 10. This experi- 

FiG. 60. Longitudinal section through the tip of the root of Indian corn {Zea Mays) 
showing root-cap: a, outer layer; i, inner layer.^ After Sachs. 

ment indicates that the growth of the root takes place at or near 
the apex, this region being known as the point of growth, or point 
of vegetation (Fig. 60). 

Upon examining the tip of a very young root by means of the 
microscope, it will be seen that the growing point is protected by 


a cup-shaped body of a more or less solid structure and frequently 
mucilaginous ; its function is to protect the growing point, and 
exists in all roots of terrestrial, epiphytic and aquatic plants except 
the parasites. 

Just above the root-cap there is developed a narrow zone of 
delicate hairs, which arise from the surface cells and are usually 
thin-walled and unicellular. These are known as root-hairs 
(Fig. 59, B) and their function is twofold: (i) They secrete an 
acid which renders the inorganic substances of the earth soluble, 
and (2) they absorb these and other substances for the nourish- 
ment of the plant. It should be stated that there are a number of 
plants which for various reasons do not possess root-hairs, such 
as water-plants, marsh-plants, certain Coniferae, etc. 

When the primary root persists (as in Gymnosperms and 
Dicotyledons) it increases considerably in length and becomes 
ramified ; if at the same time, it increases in thickness, and much 
more so than its branches, then it is called a tap-root (as in 
Dancus, Beta, etc.). 

In the vascular cryptogams (Pteridophytes) and the monocoty- 
ledons the primary root is generally thin and weak, frequently 
but little ramified, and disappears at an early stage, being re- 
placed by SECONDARY ROOTS, as in Zea. Secondary roots may 
arise not only upon the stem but even upon leaves as in Begonia 
and Bryophyllum. The term lateral roots is restricted to those 
that develop from the root alone. 

The development of roots upon shoots or of so-called " ad- 
ventitious ROOTS " occurs in nearly all of the woody plants of 
the Spermophyta. Many annual herbaceous plants do not possess 
this capacity at all. The adventitious roots arise from " root- 
primordia " which are formed under the cortex of the shoots. 
While ordinarily they do not develop upon the shoots, vet if 
cuttings are made, as of Coleus, Geranium, Rosa, etc., we find 
" either singly or on both sides of the axillary buds " the 
development of adventitious roots from the latent root-primordia. 

Influence of Gravity. The root is popularly supposed to 
grow downward, in order to avoid the light. On the other 
hand, the theory has ]:)een established (as a result of Knight's 
experiments) that the root grows downward ])y reason of the 
influence of gravity. In addition it may be said that the principal 



functions of the root, namely, those of absorbing inorganic food 
materials, and of fixing the plant to the soil, determine in a meas- 
ure the direction of its growth. The tendency of the root to grow 
downward is a characteristic which distinguishes it from other 
parts of the plant and it is said to be positively geotropic CFio- 

The influence which gravity has on plants may be best under- 
stood by bearing in mind that gravity is a constant force which 
acts perpendicularly to the surface of the earth, and that all parts 
of the plant are subject to its influence. The organs of plants 



Fig. 6i. A, seedling of Brassica nigra in which root and stem have curved into a 
vertical position after being laid horizontally. B, seedling of Sinapis alba, the hypocotyl 
showing a positive, the root in water a negative heliotropic curvature. The arrows show 
the direction of the incident rays of light. After Pfeffer. 

respond in different ways to the action of gravity, but a clear 
distinction should be made between mere mass attraction or that 
manifestation of the force of gravity whereby the heavily laden 
branch of a fruit tree bends downward and the stimulus which 
causes the primary root of a plant to (^rcnc downward and the 
shoot to grow upv.^ard. While all parts of the plant are subject 
to the influence of gravity not all the organs of plants respond 
in an equal degree. This is well illustrated by roots themselves. 
It is well known that whatever the position of the seed at the 
time of germination the young radicle begins to grow per[)en- 



dicularly downward (Fig. 6i, A). The branches, however, which 
arise on the primary root are less positively geotropic and instead 
of growing downward parallel with the primary or tap root, di- 
verge at an angle from it (Fig. 88). The secondary branches are 
still less affected by gravity and diverge still more from the perpen- 
dicular, or grow out horizontally, while still others do not appear 
to be in the least affected by gravity and grow freely in any direc- 
tion. In the case of large trees we frequently find that the lateral 

Fig. 62. Over-turned tree trunk showing spreading root-system, the main or 

tap root having died away. 

roots spread out in a more or less horizontal plane near the sur- 
face of the earth, and if the main root has died the influence of 
gravity is not very evident (Fig. 62) . But here it must be remem- 
bered that gravity was instrumental in determining the direction 
of growth at an earlier stage. This spreading of the roots near 
the surface of the earth is of decided advantage to plants, for it 
enables them to avail themselves of the better soil of the surface 
layers. As indicated, gravity also determines the upward perpen- 
dicular direction of the shoot, which is therefore said to be 


NEGATIVELY GEOTROPic, but, as ill the casc of the root, the branches 
are less influenced by it and hence diverge at various angles from 
the main axis. 

Some of the other effects of gravity may be noted. If the end 
of a shoot be cut off the branches next to the top will grow per- 
pendicularly upward and thus assume the work of the main axis. 
Likewise in the case of roots, if the apex of the main or tap root 
be cut off the branches near the end will assume a perpendicular 
direction. It will frequently be noticed in the case of trees which 
have been uprooted or where branches have been bent over hori- 
zontally that the new branches which arise grow perpendicularly 
upward. Creeping shoots furnish another good example showing 
the influence of gravity, the branches growing upward and the 
roots downward. 

Modified Roots. Roots which arise from the nodes of the 
stem or other parts of the plant are known as secondary or adventi- 
tious roots. These include the aerial roots of the banyan tree, 
which are for the purpose of support ; the roots of the ivy, which 
are both for support and climbing, and the roots of Indian corn 
and man}- palms which serve both for support and the absorp- 
tion of nourishment. LTnder this head may also be included the 
aerial roots of orchids and the root-like structures, or haustoria, 
of parasites, as of mistletoe and dodder, which penetrate the 
tissues of their host plants. 

Of special interest also are the breathing roots of certain 
marsh-plants which serve to convey oxygen to the submerged 
parts ; and the assimilation roots of certain water-plants and 
epiphytes, which are unique in that they produce chlorophyll. 
In certain plants the roots give rise to adventitious shoots as in 
Prunus, Rubus, Ailanthus, etc., and in this way these plants 
sometimes form small groves. 

Root Tubercles. The roots of the plants belonging to the 
Leguminosse are characterized by the production of tubercles, 
nodules or swellings (Fig. 64) which have been shown to have 
a direct relation to the assimilation of nitrogen by the plants of 
this family. Like carbon, nitrogen is one of the elements essential 
to plant-life, being one of the constituents of protoplasm and 
present in various nitrogenous (protein) compounds which occur 




as normal constituents of the plant. The nitrogen required by 
plants is derived either from nitrogen salts contained in the soil, 

Fu;. 63. Tuberous root of ginseng iPayiax qiiiyiqtiejolium). The root on the left is a 
fresh specimen ami was grown in tiie United States. The one to the right was purchased 
at a Chinese bazaar and cost 75 cents. It is translucent, of a yellowisli-brown color, rnd 
has the characteristic shape considered desirable by the Chinese. The markings on the 
upper segment of the specimen are stem scars which are usually found on old roots. The 
translucent appearance is no doubt due to the manner of treatment. While the method 
is not generally known, similar specimens may be prepared by treating the recently 
gathered roots with freshly slaked lime. 

as nitrates and ammonium salts, or from the free nitrogen of 
the atnidsphcrr. \\'hile mo'^t of the higlicr i)l.'int^ ;m"c alilc 1m 
assimilate nitrogen conipimniN cxi^ling in ihr Miil, <<\\\\ the 



LeguminosK, with possibly a few exceptions, are able to assimi- 
late atmospheric nitrogen, and in this respect the majority of the 
Leguminosas stand as a class by themselves. Apparently in 
direct relation to this character stands the fact that the seeds of 
these plants contain a high percentage of nitrogen. This special 
ability of the Leguminosae to fix atmospheric nitrogen in the plants 
depends upon the presence of the nodules, which are due to the 

Fig. 64. Root tubercles on Lupinus, one of the Leguminosce: A, roots with tubercles; 
B, transverse section of root showing the cells (b) which contain the nitrogen bacteria. 
A, after Taubert; B, after Frank. 

infection of the roots by a soil-bacterium (Pseudomonas radici- 
cola), although the precise mode of fixing the nitrogen is not 
known. The bacteria seem to be localized in the nodules and are 
not found in any other part of the plant. 

It has been shown that when the roots of leguminous plants 
are free from nodules thev do not have the power of assimilating 
free nitrogen. On the other hand when the nodules produced by 
the bacteria arc developed, the plants will grow in soil practically 


free from nitrogen salts. Because of this power the plants of this 
family are useful in restoring worn-out land, i.e., land in which 
the supply of nitrogen is exhausted, and they thus play an impor- 
tant role in agricultural pursuits. 

The enriching of the soil is accomplished by ploughing under 
the leguminous crops, as of clover or alfalfa, or allowing the 
nodule-producing roots to decay, When the nitrogen compounds 
are distributed in the soil. 


The stem, or ascending axis of the plant, usually grows in a 
direction opposite to that of the root, seeking the light and air. 
The tendency of the stem to grow upward is characteristic of 
the majority of plants, and is spoken of as negative geotropism. 
The growing point of the stem is at the apex, and it is protected 
by a layer of bud scales (Fig. io8, B). 

Stems are further characterized by bearing leaves, or modi- 
fications of them. The leaves occur at regular intervals in the 
same species, and that portion of the stem from which they arise 
is spoken of as a node, while the intervening portion is called an 
internode. - 

Stem Branches usually arise in the axils of the leaves, 
first appearing as little protuberances, sometimes spoken of as 
primordia, on the stem. Their origin differs from that of the 
root branches, in that they arise from meristematic or embryonic 
tissue (p. i8i) developed just beneath the epidermis. The 
branches, like the main axis, manifest negative geotropism. 
although to a lesser degree. They likewise possess a growing 
point at the apex, covered with embryonic leaves (Fig. io8). 
Not infrequently more than one branch arises in the leaf axil. 

Buds may be defined as undeveloped shoots in which the 
foliage is yet rudimentary. The buds at the ends of stems or 
branches are known as apic.\l, or terminal buds, and those situ- 
ated in the axils of the leaves, as axillary buds. In some cases 
they are protected by scales, as in hickory, when they are known as 
scaly buds ; while buds which are not thus protected, are called 
naked buds. They are further distinguished as leaf, flower, and 
mixed buds, as they develop into leaves, or flowers, or hoih. 



We have to distinguish between overground shoots and under- 
ground shoots. The former are sometimes designated as epi- 
geous (upon the earth) and the latter as hypogeous (under the 
cartli ) . 

Epigeous Shoots. As woukl be supposed these two kinds 
of shoots vary to a certain extent. In epigeous shoots a number 

Fig. 65 

G. 66. 

Fig. 65. Woody vine of Canada moonseed (Menispennum canadense), which ascends by 

twining to the right. 
Fig. 66. Stem of wild yamroot {Dioscorea vtUosa), which ascends by twining to the left, 
and bsveral of the characteristic 3-winged capsules at the top. 
The twining movements of stem climbers are due to the stimulus of gravity rather 
than to contact stimulus, and in the majority of twining plants the revolving movements, 
as seen from the side, are from the left to the right, i.e., in a direction opposite to that of 
the hands of a watch if represented diagrammatically. 

of features may be noted. If the internodes are long the leaves 
do not usually interfere with one another so far as exposure to 
light is concerned, but if the internodes are short, the leaves are 
all brought close together on the axis, and hence were it not for 
various modifications, their relation to light would be very 
unequal. Sometimes the shoot-axis may share with the leaves 



the work of assimilation, as in the case of certain green stems. 
Then again there are cases in which the leaves are reduced, and 
the work of assimilation is carried on exclusively bv the shoot- 

FiG. 67. Bryonia dioica. a, young, spirally coiled tendril; b, expanded and irritable 
tendril; c, tendril which has grasped a support; d. tendril which has not grasped a sup- 
port, and has undergone the old-age coiling. iVfcer Pfeffer. 

axes, as in most Cactacese, certain marsh-plants and others. On 
the other hand the shoot-axis may be modified so as to increase the 
assimilating surface, as by a flattening of the axis, as in some of 



the Cacti, the leaves being suppressed or considerably reduced. 
Branches are not infrequently modified to hard, pointed and 
spiny structures, as in the Japanese quince, when they are spoken 
of as thorns. Leaves and even flowers may arise ui)on thorns, 
which shows that they are modified branches. 

A number of plants ascend into the air on other plants, or 
other objects which serve as supports, either by attaching them- 
selves to them or by twining around them, when they are dis- 
tinguished as twiners and climbers. Twiners ascend by a special 

Fig. 68. Rhizome of Podophyllum representing three years' growth: b'.the terminal 
bud of last year; b-, the corresponding one of the present year; B, the terminal one of the 
entire rhizome will develop in the spring of next year. L^ and L- indicate the scars of aerial 
leaves of the two preceeding years' growth; b^ and b^, latent buds. After Holm. 

circumnutating movement of the stem, as in the morning glory, 
Menispermum (Fig. 65), etc. Climbers, however, ascend by 
means of special structures, as the aerial roots of the ivy (root 
climbers) ; or they may climb by means of leaves, as in Clematis 
(leaf climbers) : still others climb by means of tendrils, as in the 
grape and Bryonia (tendril climbers) (Fig. 66) ; and again plants 
may climb by means of hooked hairs or spines as in Rubus, Rosa, 
etc. The tendrils, which are thread-like modifications of the 
stem, are in some cases provided with disk-Hke attachments for 
holding the plant in position, as in the Virginia creeper. Twiners 
and climbers are sometimes spoken of as lianes (lianas), particu- 
larly those of tropical regions, where they form a prominent 
feature of the forest vegetation. The lianes usually have rope- 
like, woody stems, the formation of leaves being either suppressed 
or retarded, and they often run for long distances over the ground 
and climb to the tops of the tallest trees. They are also frequently 



characterized by an anomalous stem-structure, the tracheae being 
very large. 

Stems vary furthermore in size and form. While most stems 
are more or less cylindrical or terete, other forms also occur, as 
the flattened stems in the Cactacese ; triangular in the Cyperaceae, 
and quadrangular in the Labiatae and Scrophulariaceae. 

Fir.. 69. Polygonal um muUiflorum , a plant growing in tlie Northern Hemispheres and 
Japan and producing a rhizome resembling our Solomon's Seal {Polygonatum biflorum). 
A, rhizome placed artificially higher in the soil than the normal depth; its continuation 
shoot has grown downwards. B, rhizome placed deeper than the normal depth; its con- 
tinuation shoot has grown upwards. The dotted lines at h indicate the amount of annual 
growth in the rhizomes A and B. C, a seedling rhizome. At the right is the seed, which 
encloses the haustorial end of the cotyledon; H, primary root; n, lateral roots arising within 
the axis of the shoot; a, posterior side of cotylar sheath; v, anterior side of the same; b, c, 
katophyls (or leaves on hypogeous shoots) on the axis of the seedling. A and B, after 
Rimbach; C, after Irmisch. (From Goebel's "Organography of Plants.") 

Hypogeous Shoots. While most stems attain a more or 
less erect position as in trees and shrubs there are others which 
bend over to one side, or lie prostrate on the ground, and in some 
cases produce roots from the nodes, as in Mentha spicata. These 
latter are known as stolons or runners. 


Furthermore the stems of a number of plants grow under- 
ground and these are known as rhizomes or root-stocks; from 
the upper portion of the nodes overground branches arise which 
bear leaves (so that the work of assimilation may be carried on) 
as well as flowers, and from the lower surface, roots (Fig. 68). 

While most rhizomes are perceptibly thickened, and more or 
less fleshy when fresh, as Saiiguinaria, in other instances they are 
of the ordinary thickness of the overground stem. 1^ 

There are some rhizomes that are excessively thickened, as 
in the common white potato, and these are called tubers. The 
so-called " eyes " are small buds covered with small scale-like 
leaves which develop into shoots. Tubers should not be con- 
founded with tuberous roots, as those of the sweet potato and 
jalap, for these latter have the morphological characters of roots. 

Instead of the node, or internode, or both, becoming excess- 
ively thickened, they may be reduced in size and crowded upon 
each other, the leaves at the same time becoming thickened and 
filled with nutriment. Such a modified stem and leaves, as in the 
onion, is called a bulb. Bulbs are sometimes produced in the 
axils of the leaves of overground stems, as in some lilies, and 
are then called bulbils or bublets. They are also found in Allium, 
forming what are commonly known as "onion sets." P>ulbs and 
tubers serve not only as storage-organs and carry the life of the 
plant over from one season to another but may form, as in bulb- 
lets, an important means of distributing the plants. The thick- 
ened fleshy stems of Cactacese are also regarded as storage organs. 

A coRM is intermediate between a true tuber and a bulb ; 
it is more in tlie nature of a thickened internode, being sur- 
rounded in some cases by thin membranous scales, as in Crocus 
and Colchicum. 

The function of the vegetative shoot is to absorb nutrition 
from the earth as well as from the air. The shoot may be aerial 
or subterranean. Some plants possess only aerial shoots or 
LIGHT-SHOOTS, as for instance trees, shrubs and herbs that flower 
but once. Other plants possess both aerial and subterranean 
shoots and of these the subterranean shoot may exhibit some of 
the peculiarities of roots, in that they do not develop chlorophyl 
and produce secondary roots for the purpose of obtaining nutri- 


tive substances from the soil. The subterranean shoots are 
generally destitute of true leaves and are furnished only with 
membranous or sometimes thick, fleshy leaves which are bladeless, 
pale, scale-like or tubular. 

Depending- upon the duration of the shoot (or better the stem), 
plants are divided into herbs, shrubs and trees. In herbs the 
aerial shoots are herbaceous, while in shrubs and trees they be- 
come woody and persist throughout many years. 

J\Iany of the herbs have subterranean shoots, but these are 
generally absent from woody plants, excepting in Sambucus, 
Ailanthus, Calycanthus, etc. The herbs may be further sub- 
divided as annual, biennial and perennial. 

In ANNUAL herbs the individual possesses only aerial shoots 
and the plant sets fruit the same year that the individual has de- 
veloped from the seed. In biennial herbs the plant does not 
produce flowers until the second season. The perennial herbs 
on the other hand develop flowers continuously for many (or at 
least several) years and also produce subterranean shoots, such 
as creeping rhizomes, tubers, bulbs, etc. 

The roots, of annuals, biennials and perennials dififer in a num- 
ber of particulars. In the annuals, belonging to the monocoty- 
ledons, the roots are fibrous, possessing numerous lateral branches, 
whereas in the annuals belonging to the dicotyledons only the 
primarv roots develop. The biennials are nearly all dicotyledons 
and have a persistent primary root which while usually slender 
may become fleshy, as in Beta. In the perennials, on the other 
hand, we find a number of dififerent types of roots varying from 
the slender aerial roots of epiphytes, to the smaller tuberous, 
fleshy roots of many terrestrial plants, and the peculiar roots of 


Leaves are lateral formations upon the stem and their growth 
is definite. They never occur on other portions of the plant than 
stems from the surface of which they are developed. Leaves 
appear in acropetal succession, so that the youngest leaves occur 
nearest the apex of the stem. Terminal leaves are extremely 
rare but arise in some instances from the flowers of certain 



A Simple Leaf consists of a lamina or blade, which is usu- 
ally membranous and of a green color, and a petiole or stalk, 
which, however, may be wanting when the leaf is said to be sessile. 
Leaves may also possess a pair of leaf-like structures at the base, 
known as stipules (Figs. 70, 74). The principal function of 
the latter appears to be that of protecting the buds, as in the 
tulip poplar {Liriodcndron) (Fig. 74), although they may 


Fig. ti- 

Fic. 70. A, leaf of violet (Viola tricolor) showing broad lamina, long petiole, and one 

of the palmately-lobed stipules at the base of the petiole. 
Fig. 71. B, C, stages in the development of the leaf. The lobes of the stipules (s) de- 
velop before the lamina fl). 

become leaf-like and assist in the functions of the lamina, as in 
the pansy {Viola tricolor) (Fig. 70). 

Right Relation of Leaves. While the lamina of the leaf 
appears to assume a more or less horizontal position, it usually 
inclines at such an angle as to receive the greatest amount of dif- 
fused daylight. Wiesner has shown, for instance, that when 
plants are so situated that they receive direct sunlight only for a 
time in the morning, and diffused daylight during the rest of the 
day, the position of the upper surface is at right angles to the 


incident rays of daylight, and not to that of the rays of the 
morning sun. This phenomenon may be studied in the house 
geranium and other window plants. In endeavoring to explain this 
behavior of the leaves, Frank assumes it to be due to a kind of 
heliotropic irritability peculiar to dorsiventral organs, and terms 


The stem, as well as the petiole or stalk of the leaf, is also 
influenced by the light, and is said to manifest positive helio- 
tropism. Those parts of plants that turn away from the light, as 
the aerial roots of the ivy, are said to possess negative helio- 

Depending upon their relation to external agents, several forms 
of leaves are distinguished. In those which assume a more or 
less horizontal position the two surfaces of the lamina are quite 
different, and the leaves are said to be dorsiventral, or bifacial. 
Usually there is a more compact arrangement or stronger develop- 
ment of chlorophyll tissue on the upper or ventral surface, while 
on the lower or dorsal surface the veins stand out more promi- 
nently, and there is a greater number of stomata. 

In contrast with this type of leaf may be mentioned those 
which grow edgewise and in which both surfaces of the leaf are 
more or less alike, as in the Eucalypts and Acacias of Australia. 
In Iris and Calamus, the leaf-like organ is actually not the blade, 
but merely a part of the dorsal face, which, in the bud, has already 
pushed out so as to exceed the apex. Such leaves are called 
sword-shaped and are frequently referred to as eouitant. The 
leaves of certain species of Juncus, Carex and some of the grasses 
are commonly spoken of as cylindric. Such leaves are, how- 
ever, only apparently cylindrical, since the ventral surface is 
often distinct, though much narrower than the dorsal. They 
are also frequently hollow. 

Functions of the Leaf, When we speak of the leaves of 
the plant we usually have in mind the foliage leaves or green 
chlorophyll leaves. 

Under the influence of sunlight the chloroplasts are able to 
rearrange the elements in carbon dioxide and water, which are 
looked upon as inorganic substances, into starch or related com- 


pounds which are of an organic nature. This process is known 
as carbon dioxide assimilation, or photosynthesis, which latter 
term means the building up of a compound under the influence of 
light. In this process, which is sometimes expressed by the fol- 
lowing formula, oxygen is given off : 

6CO, + 5H,0 = C,H,oO, + 60, 

Carbon Dioxide Water Starch Oxygen 

The importance of this function can be best appreciated by 
bearing in mind that all of the organic products built up by the 
plant are derived almost entirely from the carbon dioxide of the 
air which is taken in through the leaves. 

Transpiration and respiration are also functions of the leaf. 
Transpiration is the giving off of water (through water-pores), 
or watery vapor (through the stomata), which has been absorbed 
by the root hairs and transported through the tissues of the root, 
stem and leaf; the process of breathing, or respiration, consists 
in the taking in of oxygen and giving off of carbon dioxide, the 
exchange being just the reverse of what it is in photosynthesis. 
These several functions are, however, not confined to the leaf 
alone, but are carried on by all the green parts of the plant. 

Leaf Venation, The foliage leaves of higher plants are 
traversed by vascular bundles, which enter the blade through the 
petiole and diverge at the base, or, as in the case of Dicotyledons, 
branch in various ways ; and it will be seen that the form of the 
leaves corresponds to the distribution of the bundles. These 
bundles are known as veins or nerves, and they have two func- 
tions, namely, (i) that of a mechanical support, and (2) that of 
carrying nutritive materials to and from the leaves. 

The mode of venation in Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons 
differs somewhat, but it will be found that in a number of instances 
the venation of leaves of plants belonging to one of these great 
groups will resemble that of the leaves of certain plants in the 
other group. However, there are certain general types belonging 
to each group (Fig. y2). 

Venation in Monocotyledons. An examination of the 
leaf of lily-of-the-valley shows that the primary veins run more 
or less parallel to the apex with short though distinct anastomoses. 
Such a leaf is said to be parallel-veined or nerved. It will 



moreover be noticed that the distribution of the veins in this 
manner produces a lamina with an even, or entire margin, and 
such a system of venation is known as a closed system of 
venation (Fig. 72, A). The leaves of Veratrum (Fig. 129) and 
Zea Mays, furnish other examples of parallel-nerved leaves. 

In palms (Fig. 251) the venation is somewhat different. The 
veins instead of converging toward the apex as they do in the 
more or less lanceolate leaf of lily-of-the valley, radiate from the 
base to the margin of the more or less round leaf, and a leaf of 
this type is said to be palmi-nerved. 

Fig. 72. Leaf venation: A. parallel-veined leaf of Solomon's seal {Vagnera race- 
mosa); B, pinnately-reticulate leaf of chestnut; C, palmately-veined leaf of Menispermum 

There is still a third type of venation in Monocotyledons. 
In this instance one principal vein runs from the base to the apex 
of the leaf, and from this branches run parallel to the margin. 
The banana furnishes an example of this type, and is said to be 


Venation in Dicotyledons. Here the veins are charac- 
terized by their habit of repeatedly branching and anastomosing. 



whalcvcr the general t}pe of venation may be and thus form a 
net-work or reticulum, hence the leaves are said to be reticulate 
or NETTED-NEiNED. The principal types are as follows: A chest- 

FiG. 73. Variation in the form cf leaves on the same plant: A, B, C, Leaves of 
sassafras; D, young castor oil plant showing cotyledons (t) and variously lobed older 
leaves. 1, lamina: p, petiole. 

nut or chinquapin leaf (Fig. 72) furnishes a good illustration 
of ;\ i)iiinatcl} -reticulate leaf. The principal vein which runs from 


the base to the apex is called the midrib, while the secondary 
veins which arise from it and run more or less parallel to the 
margin are sometimes spoken of as ribs and may be likened to the 
plumes on the shaft of a feather. 

In other cases several large veins arise at the base and diverge 
toward the margin, giving rise to palm ately- veined leaves, as 
in the leaf of maple. There are still other types, as in cinnamon 
(Fig. 146) which is said to be rib-ncttcd, etc. 

Surface of Leaves. In addition to the markings of leaves 
due to veining there are certain other characters which serve 
to distinguish them. ITairs are of frequent occurrence on leaves, 
being generally most abundant on the dorsal surface, especially the 
veins, and various terms having reference to the kinds of hairs 
have been ajiplied to leaves (page 210; Figs. 283, 284, 285). 

Texture of Leaves. Leaves also vary in texture. A thin 
pliable leaf is called membranous ; one which is thick and leathery, 
coriaceous ; and one which is thick and fleshy, succulent, as that 
of the century plant and Aloe (Fig. 130). 

Forms of Leaves. The leaves of plants exhibit an almost 
innumerable variety of forms (Fig. 78) ; even on the same plant 
there are not infrequently several forms, as in Viola tricolor and 
sassafras (Fig. 73) ; even the two sides of the same leaf may vary, 
as in Haiiiauiclis (Fig. 264) and Begonia, when it is known as an 
inequilateral or asymmetric leaf. It frequently happens that the 
lower leaves on a shoot are lobed while the upper ones are entire, 
or some of the leaves may be sessile and others petiolate. Many 
of the terms used in ordinary language in describing the forms of 
objects are applied here also, as linear, lanceolate, oblong, ellip- 
tical, spatulate, wedge-shaped, etc. 

Apex of Leaf. A number of descriptive terms are employed 
in describing the apex of the lamina, as acute, when the form is 
that of an acute angle ; obtuse, when the angle is blunt; acumin- 
ate, when the angle is prolonged ; truncate, when the end of 
the leaf appears to be cut off ; retuse. when it is slightly notched 
at the apex ; op.cordate, when the notch is pronounced ; emar- 
ginate, when the degree of notching is between retuse and 
obcordate. Sometimes the apex appears like the continuation of 
the midrib, when it is termed cuspidate or mucronate. 



Base of Leaf. Some of the terms used in describing the gen- 
eral onthne, as well as the apex of the leaf, are also applied to the 


Fig. 74. Leaves having different forms of stipules is): A, bud-scale stipules of Lirio- 
dendroH tulipifera; B, thorny stipules and odd-pinnate compound leaf of the locust tree 
(Robinia Pseudacacia) ; C, adnate stipules of rose; D, filiform stipules of the pear; 
E, fringed clasping stipules (ocrea) characteristic of all of the Polygonums; F, adnate 
stipules of clover. 

base-, as obtuse, truncate, cordate, reniform, etc. Other terms, 
however, csjiccially apply to the base, as cune.\te or wedge- 



shaped; connate-perfoliatEj when opposite leaves are con- 
nected at the base and surround the stem; perfoliate, when the 
leaf simply clasps the stem. In Monocotyledons the base of the 
leaf is frecjuently developed as a closed or open sheath, some- 
times provided with a membranous protuberance between the 
sheath and the blade, as in the ligule of grasses and sedges. 

Margin of Leaf. The leaves of many woody dicotyledonous 
plants of temperate regions possess an even margin. The others 
according to the degree and character of the incisions or inden- 
tations, are described as serrate, when the apex of the divisions 
or teeth is sharp and directed forward like the teeth of a saw ; 
dentate, when the divisions project outward; crenate, when 
the teeth are more or less rounded ; repand, when the margin is 
somewhat wavy ; sinuate, when the wavy character is pro- 
nounced ; LOBED, when the incisions extend not more than half- 
way into the lamina, and the sinus (or hollow) and the lobe are 
more or less rounded ; cleft, when the incisions are still deeper 
and the sinuses and lobes are somewhat acute ; and divided (Figs. 
75 and 76), when the incisions extend almost to the midrib. 

Compound Leaves, The divisions of a parted leaf may 
assume the form of a simple leaf, when the divisions are known 
as leaflets and the whole as a compovmd leaf. The distinction 
between a simple leaf and a leaflet is, that the former has a bud in 
the axil. The difference between the divisions of a simple leaf 
and those of a compound leaf is this, in the former they never 
become detached from the petiole or midrib, whereas in the com- 
pound leaf they are articulated and drop oft' individually. Com- 
pound leaves may be divided into PiNNATELY-compound (Fig. 74) 
or p.\LMATELY-compound (Fig. 78, E), this distinction depend- 
ing upon whether the leaflets are arranged pinnately or palmately. 
A number of forms of pinnately-compound leaves are recognized. 
When the leaflets are all lateral (Fig. 71) the leaf is said to be 
PARI-PINNATE ; when there is an odd or terminal leaflet as in 
the locust (Fig. 74) the leaf is impari-pinnate ; when the midrib 
is prolonged into a tendril as in the garden-pea {Pisimi) the 
leaf is said to be cirriiiferous-pinn.-\te. 

Movements of Leaves. The leaves as well as other organs 



of plants exhibit a variety of movements or curvatures in response 
to stimuli of different kinds, and are said to possess the property 
of irritability. Movements of organs are of two general classes : 

Fig. 75. Limnophila heterophila, a marsh-plant belonging to the Scrophulariaceae and 
growing in tropical Asia. The submerged or water leaves, below, are much divided and 
arranged in apparent whorls; while the leaves at the end of the shoot above water are entire 
and arranged in decussate dimerous whorls. In between occur transition forms, which are 
divided and variously lobed and arranged in decussate whorls. After Goebel. 

(i) Those due to stimuli which originate in the plant and (2) 
those due to the influence of external factors. To the former class 
belong all those movements which occur during the course of 



Fig. 76. I, Leaf, fruits and flowers of Anemone Pulsatilla. 2, Leaf, flower and fruit 
of Anemone pratense. The leaves are pinnately divided, the divisions being further incised 
or dissected. 


development from the 3oung to the mature stage. .These are 
known as growth movements or nutation. They are especially 
noticeable in tips of growing branches, which instead of growing 
in a straight line, move either from one side to the other, or coil 
or curve about an imaginary axis. This spiral movement is 
known as circumnutation and is characteristic of twining stems and 
tendrils, as the hop vine (Fig. 136) and tendrils of Bryonia (Fig. 
66). Nutation curvatures are due to unequal growth on two sides 
of the organ and cease when there is a cessation in growth or 
when the plant has reached maturity. 

The movements of organs due to external stimuli are usually 
in a direction which shows a relation to the direction of the stim- 
ulus, as those produced by gravity and light (Fig. 61), and these 
movements are of use in bringing the organs into more favorable 
positions for growth. Stimuli of this kind are spoken of as 
orienting or tropic. The compound leaves of a number of plants 
exhibit in addition certain variable and periodic movements, which 
have their origin in a special mechanism known as the pulvinis. 
The pulvinis appears as a swelling on the petiole and consists of 
parenchymatous tissue which is highly turgid, i.e., full of water. 
Any stimulus, such as mechanical shock, which causes a differ- 
ence in the degree of turgidity on two sides, will result in a move- 
ment of the leaves in such plants as Mimosa, Oxalis and locust. 
The leaves of Mimosa piidica, a common cultivated sensitive plant, 
show a very rapid response to such stimuli, the leaflets folding 
together and the petiole and petiolules drooping. In other cases 
there is a change in the position of the leaves following the alter- 
nations of day and night. During the day the leaflets are spread 
out freely, but at night or in darkness they droop and fold 
together. These are spoken of as nyctinastic (nyctitropic) or 
" sleep movements," and are exhibited by a number of leguminous 
plants, as clover, bean. Cassia (Fig. 71), and by wood-sorrel 
(Oxalis Acetosella) and various cultivated species of Oxalis. The 
leaves of Oxalis as well as of some other plants fold together 
under the influence of intense light as well as at night or when 
the amount of light is reduced. Of special interest also are the 
lateral leaflets of Desmodimn i^yrans (telegraph plant) which 
describe curvatures at more or less regular intervals day and 



night when the temperature is favorable. The leaves of the 
sundew (Drosera) are remarkable for their sensitiveness to touch. 
The upper surface and margin are provided with peculiar hairs 
or tentacles (Fig. yy, II) which when touched, as by an insect, 
gradually curve inward. Not only this, the stimulus may be trans- 
mitted to other tentacles and sometimes even the blade itself may 
roll inward to some extent, thus entrapping small insects which 
serve as food to the plant. The leaves of a related plant Dionoea 

Fig. 77. So-called carnivorous plants. I, the pitcher plant {Sarracenia purpurea) 
sViowing the modified pitcher-like leaves (A) with inflated portion which narrows into the 
petiole, and a terminal, more or less spreading winged portion; and a flower and flower-bud 
(B). II, Three species of sundew: A, Drosera rotundifolia; B, D. intermedia; C, D. 
ongifolia. I, after Gray; II, after Drude. 

are even more sensitive and when special hairs on the blade are 
touched that part of the lamina bearing these hairs closes with a 
quick, trap-like movement imprisoning its insect prey. 

Phyllotaxy, or phyllotaxis, is the study of the distribution 
of leaves upon the stem, and of the laws which govern it. If we 
examine germinating plants of the beech, the elm, or the oak, we 
observe that, while the seed-leaves are opposite to each other, the 



subsequent leaves are arranged according to a dififerent order in 
these several plants, but in a definite manner in each. In the elm, 
the distribution of the leaves is such that the third leaf is directly 
above the first ; in the beech, the fourth leaf is above the first, and 
in the oak, the sixth leaf is above the first. If these leaves are con- 
nected in the order of their development, it will be seen that they 
describe a spiral in their arrangement, and it will also be found 
that one or more circuits of the stem are made between the super- 
imposed leaves. Furthermore, it will be found that this arrange- 
ment constitutes a mathematical series which may be expressed 
in degrees, or the parts of a circle that the leaves are from each 
other, this measure being known as divergence ; or by the number 
of perpendicular rows of leaves on the stem, which are known as 


The following may serve to illustrate the terms used : 




Parts of a Circle. 











If we examine the fractions used, we will find that the numer- 
ator indicates the number of turns around the stem before encoun- 
tering a superimposed leaf, and that the denominator indicates 
the number of leaves found ; the latter also expresses the number 
of orthostichies. On adding the numerators and denominators of 
any two successive fractions, a fraction is obtained which ex- 
presses the next highest arrangement, as 

1 4- i 2. i 

2 I 3 5 ^ 3 

In quite a number of plants two leaves arise at the nodes, as 
in the Labiatze. These are invariably situated opposite each other 
on the stem, and the successive pairs alternate with one another, 
forming the decussate arrangement of leaves (Figs. 6"/, 136, 
168, 172). 



Modified Leaves, Leaves are variously modified and 
serve for otlier purposes thau those already described. They may 
be fleshy iu character and serve as storehouses for nutritive mate- 
rial, as the seed-leaves of the oak, or they may serve for the stor- 
age of water, as in Agave and Aloe (Fig-. 130). In some in- 
stances, particularly when situated near the flowers, they lose 

Fig. 78. Group of transplanted wild plants showing variation in form of leaves. 
A. Cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea) showing sporophylls (fertile leaves) and a cluster 
of pinnatifid sterile leaves, the pinna^ being linear-lanceolate and deeply pinnatifid; B, 
wild ginger (Asarum caMadewse) showing basal, reniform, long-petiolate leaves with cordate 
base and slightly pointed apex; C, young hickory (Hicoria ovatd) showing the odd-pinnate 
(imparipinnate), 5- to 7-foliate leaves; D, temate, decompound leaf of Virginia grape fern 
(Botrychium virginianum); E, digitately compound leaves of cinquefoil {Potentilla). 

their green color, as in the dogwood, skunk cabbage and others. 
In other cases they are modified so that they serve as a trap for 
insects, as in species of Sarracenia and Drosera (Fig. yj). The 
petiole may become enlarged and perform the functions of the 


leaf, as in the acacias, of Australia; or it may become bladder- 
like and serve as a means for floating the plant, as in the water 
hyacinth. The stipules may likewise be modified, becoming leaf- 
like, as in the pansy (Fig. 70) ; or metamorphosed into thorns, as 
in the locust ; or clasping, as in Polygonum. In some cases the 
leaves are very much reduced, their functions being performed by 
the stem, as in Cactacea, or even by the roots, as in some orchids 
which have assimilating roots. 

Prefoliation or vernation is the disposition of leaves in the 
bud. The terms used to describe the folding of the leaves in the 
bud are derived from an examination of transverse sections of 
the bud. The following are some of the terms which are em- 
ployed : CONDUPLICATE, when the lamina of the leaf is folded 
lengthwise along the midrib so that the two halves of the upper 
surface lie together, as in the Magnoliacece ; plicate or plaited, 
when the lamina is folded along the veins, like a closed fan, as in 
the maples ; convolute, when rolled lengthwise and forming a 
coil in cross section, as in the Rosacecc ; involute, when both mar- 
gins are inrolled lengthwise on the upper surface, as in the violets ; 
REVOLUTE, wdien both margins are inrolled lengthwise on the lower 
surface, as in Azalea. 

In addition, there are several terms used which are derived 
from the appearance of the bud, as reclinate or inflexed, when 
the upper part is bent on the lower, as in Liriodendron ; and 
circinate, when the upper part is coiled on the lower so that the 
tip of the leaf is in the center of the coil, as in the ferns. 


The flower is a shoot which has undergone a metamorphosis 
so as to serve as a means of propagating the individual. It is 
an unbranched and definite shoot, or an apex of a shoot. It 
might be termed a " dwarf-branch " that dies and drops off the 
plant after the maturation of the fruit. The most complete 
flower has four kinds of leaves : sepals, petals, stamens and 

While the flower is a very complicated structure in many 
cases, the definition given it by some writers is very simple. It 


is defined as a branch which bears sporophylls. As we have 
seen, a sporophyll is a leaf which bears sporangia. According to 
the definition given, the strobiles or cones of the Gymnosperms 
and certain Pteridophytes, as the horsetails and clnb mosses, 
are entitled to rank as flowers. In Angiosperms other leaves may 
be present, and these are known as the floral leaves. The 
flower then in Angiosperms is made up of sporophylls which are 
essential, and floral leaves which may or may not be present. But 
in speaking of the sporophylls of the flower in Angiosperms it is 
customary to use terms which were applied to them before their 
relation to the similar organs in the Gmynosperms and Pterido- 
phytes was understood. Thus the microsporophylls as already 
pointed out, are known as stamens, and the megasporophylls as 


For a great many years botanists taught that the stamens and 
carpels are transformed foliage leaves, in other words that they 
are derived from foliage leaves, but in more recent years the view 
has been established that they arise as independent members, are in 
fact as independent as the foliage leaves themselves. Various 
transformations or modifications may and do occur, but these 
are not confined to the foliage leaves alone for under certain con- 
ditions the sporophylls may assume the character of floral leaves. 

It is true that in the case of some ferns, the sporophylls bear 
a strong resemblance to foliage leaves, as in Aspidiiiiii Felix mas 
(Fig. 277), but this does not necessarily prove that the sporo- 
phylls of Angiosperms are transformed leaves, but only that the 
further back we go, the less the degree of differentiation of parts 
until we reach the unicellular algae. 

The flowers of the Angiosperms differ from those of the 
Gymnosperms in tnat the ovules- (megasporangia) are enclosed, 
before pollination, in an ovary which has developed a special 
organ the stigma for the reception of the pollen grains (micro- 
spores) and the floral envelopes are much more conspicuous. 

The several parts of the flower are arranged more or less 
compactly at the terminus of an axis known as the flower branch, 
the special portion bearing these parts being known as the torus 
(sometimes spoken of as the receptacle), and that portion below 
the flower proper as the flower stalk (Fig. 83, PE). The carpel 


or carpels occupy the terminal portion of the branch while the 
stamens and floral leaves occur in circles or whorls below. 

Pistil. There may be only one carpel present in a flower 
or there may be more. In the latter case the carpels may remain 
distinct or they may be united, but whatever the number or the 
degree of union, it is the carpel or carpels which constitute the 
closed structure known as the pistil. The pistil is usually diiTer- 
entiated into three quite distinct regions: (i) A lower bulbous 
portion which contains the ovules, known as the ovary; (2) a 
neck-like portion known as the style; and (3) at the top of 
the style a specialized portion which receives the pollen, known 
as the STIGMA (Figs. 83 and 85). When the pistil is made up 
of a single carpel it is said to be simple, and when composed 
of more than one carpel it is called compound. 

The carpels in the compound pistil appear to be united in 
different ways. Sometimes they appear to have coalesced or 
grown together at the margins, thus forming an ovary with Init 
one chamber or compartment (Fig. 84, B). In other cases the 
carpels appear as though they were incurved or folded together at 
the margins along the line of union, thus forming septa or walls 
which divide the inner cavity into several compartments or 
lociilcs (Fig. 84, A, C). 

When the carpels are not Uiuited but remain separate, there 
are as many pistils as carpels, as in the flowers of buttercup (Fig. 
84, D). Thus a unilocular ovary may belong to a simple or com- 
pound pistil. 

GynvEcium. The aggregate of pistils in a flower constitutes 
the gynsecium. If the gynascium is made up of a number of simple 
pistils, as in the flower of buttercup (Fig. 84, D) , it is said to be 
APOCARPOUS. But if the carpels are united into one structure, then 
the gynsecium. is said to be syncarpous, as in the orange flower, 
which is in reality equivalent to a compound pistil. Inasmuch as 
the styles and stigmas are frequently not united the expression 
compound ovary is usually employed. According as the gynse- 
cium consists of one, two, three or many carpels, it is said to be 
monocarpellary, dicarpellary, tricarpellary or polycarpellary. 

The pistil of the flower of the pea is simple and has an elongated 
ovary, and upon dissecting the ovary and also making a trans- 



verse section of it, it is o1)serve(l that the ovules are borne upon 
the part which projects from the concrescent margins into the 
cavity, this part being known as the placenta, and the united 
margins of the carpel forming the " inner " or ventral suture. 
In the syncarpous gynsecium the ventral suture of the carpels is 
directed toward the axis of the flower ; in some cases that portion 

Fig. 79. Pistils and different kinds of stigmas. A, simple (monocarpellary) pistfl 
of willow with lobed stigma; B, compound pistil of Fourcroya with head-like stigma; C, 
longitudinal section through flower of Spondias with five separate styles and stigmas, 
only three of which are shown; D, flower of Peperomia showing bristly stigma; E, recurved, 
thread-like stigmas of the Upas-tree (Antiaris); F, flower of a Canary grass showing the 
tw(i simple plumose stigmas; G, pistillate flower of couch grass showing the two compound 
plumose stigmas; H, thread-like stigmas of pistillate inflorescence of Eitchlar.a one of 
the grasses; J, tri-parted stigmas of the pistillate flower of the castor-oil plant; K, L, 
two forms of stigmas of Begonia. After Engler. 

of the carpel corresponding to the midrib is very prominent, as 
in the Papilionatse, and has received the name of " outer " or 
dorsal suture. 

There are as many locules in the ovary as there are carpels, 
and the walls or partitions between the locules of a syncarpous 
gynsecium are known as dissepiments; when three or more 


carpels are united the number of dissepiments corresponds to the 
number of carpels. It sometimes happens that a partition or wall 
is intruded from the mid-vein of the carpel, dividing a unilocular 
ovary into one that is bi-locular, as in species of Astragalus, and 
such a partition is termed a false dissepiment. 

When no other than the true dissepiments exist in the s\n- 
carpous gynaecium the placentas are borne along the axis of the 
flower and are termed axial placentas. In the Caryophyllacese 
the ovules are borne upon a central axis, and the dissepiments 
having been absorbed the gynaecium is said to possess a free 
central placenta. In other cases the placentas grow backward 
from the central axis toward the mid-vein of the carpel, carrying 
the ovules with them, when they are spoken of as parietal pla- 
centas, as in colocynth fruit (Fig. 254). 

The Style not only varies in shape and size but in the manner 
of attachment to the ovary (Fig. 79) ; it may be very short, as in 
the clove; long and filiform, as in (Enothera; club-shaped (clav- 
ate) as in the orange ; or broad and petalloid, as in Iris. It is usu- 
ally situated at the summit of the ovary when it is said to be apical 
or terminal ; it may, however, be laterally attached, as in the straw- 
berry, or, as in a few instances, attached to the base of the ovary. It 
is usually smooth, but may be hairy, as in the Compositae. The styles 
like the carpels may be separate or united, and in the latter case 
may have a central canal connecting the stigma with the ovary, as 
in the violets. While usually deciduous, the style may be more or 
less persistent forming a part of the fruit or even become much 
elongated, as in the dandelion. 

The Stigma is an essential part of the pistil in that it is the 
germinating ground of the pollen grains, it being viscid and espe- 
cially adapted for this purpose (Fig. 79). The stigmas may be 
separate, as in the Composite, or they may be united into a more 
or less club-shaped or globular head, consisting of as many lobes 
as there are stigmas, as in the poppy. The stigma, while usually 
solid, may have an opening, as in the violets, which sometimes has 
a lid-like appendage, as in Viola tricolor. 

The Ovules (Fig. 85), as we have already seen, are small 
bodies which are borne on the placentas, and which, after fertiliza- 
tion develop into seeds. The number of ovules varies considerably 



there may be but one, as in the ahnond, or there may be a large 
number, as in the watermelon. 

There are several principal forms of ovules (Fig. 80) recog- 
nized, of which the following may be mentioned : ( i ) atropous, 
in which the ovule is straight and erect on its stalk, as in the 
Urticacese; (2) anatrofous, in which the ovule is bent over on to 
the stalk so as to be in an inverted position, the line of attachment 
of the ovule and stalk being known as the raphe (Fig. 85, w) ; (3) 
CAMPYLOTROPOUS, in which the ovule is bent upon itself, as in 
Stramonium, this form being less frequent than the other two. 
Most of the ovules of flowering plants are anatropous. 

Stamen. As already indicated the stamen consists of a 
stalk-like portion called the filament, and a specialized portion 

Fig. 80. Three positions of ovules. A, atropous; B, anatropous; C, campylotropous. 
(f) funiculus or stalk; (c) chalaza, or point of union of nucellus and integuments; (k) nucellus 
or megasporangium ; (em) embryo-sac or megaspore; (ai) outer integument; (ii) inner 
integument; (m) foramen or orifice for entrance of pollen tube, known as the micropyle 
in the seed; (r) raphe. After Prantl. 

which bears the sporangia, called the anther (Fig. 81). The 
filament may be long or short or wanting. It is commonly thread- 
like, but varies considerably, and is sometimes leaf-like. 

The Anther is the essential part of the stamen (Figs. 81, 85) 
and consists of two lobes, each of which is composed of two divi- 
sions or pollen sacs (Fig. 53). These sacs contain the pollen 
which is commonly discharged either through a longitudinal 
suture or line of dehiscence, or through an opening at the tip. 
The anthers may be variously attached to the filament (Fig. 81). 
When they face the axis of the flower they are said to be introrse. 
as in the Violacese, and when they face the perianth they are said 
to be EXTRORSE, as in the Magnoliaceae ; when they lie horizontally 



on the tip of the filament, so that they swing as on a pivot, as in 
the tiger Hly, they are said to be versatile; when they adhere 
longitudinally to the sides of the filament and the dehiscence is 


Fig. 81. DifTerent types of stamens. Abbreviations: filament (f), pollen sacs or 
theca (sporangia) (th), connective (c). A, stamens of a water lily (Nymphtva) showing 
variation in the stamens (a-d); B, theca near middle of the stamen oi Popowia; C, anther of 
another species of Popowia with fleshy connective and pollen sacs on either side; D, stamen 
of Tradcscantia with transverse connective; E, F, G, stamens of several Commelinacece 
with broad connectives; H, stamen of Salvia with peculiar swinging connective and an 
aborted pollen sac or staminodium (std) at the lower end and the fertile pollen sac above; 
J, peculiar elongated connective of Unona; K, elongated connective of Humiri; L, androe- 
cium of violet showing two spurred sessile stamens; M, stamen of Columelia with sinuous 
confluent anthers, broid connective and short filament; N, confluent transverse pollen 
sa.cs, oiArisarum; O, united pollen sacs of Columbine showing small connective; P, spherical 
pollen sacs of CaZ/a, with slightly developed connective; Q, versatile anther and long, slen- 
der filament of dead nettle (Lamium album) ; R, dehiscence of anther of Solanum by means 
of terminal pores; S, spurred anther of Arbutus with terminal pores; various kinds of val- 
vular dehiscence, as in Berberis {T), Atherosperma (U) and Persea (V). A, after Caspary; 
B. H-R, U, V, after Baillon; S. T, after Sachs; D-G, after Schonland. 



marginal, they are said to be innate; when they adhere longi- 
tudinally to the filament and the latter extends slightly beyond 
them, they are said to be adnate, in which case they may be 
extrorse or introrse. In some of the Labiatoe the lobes of the 
anther are united at the apex of the filament, but diverge from the 
point of attachment and are said to be connate, coherent or 

The Connective is that portion of the filament to which the 
lobes of the anther are attached or which connects them (Fig. 8i) ; 
usually, it is not very prominent; but in some of the Labiatse, as 

Fig. 82. Union of stamens. A, united anthers of flower of CompositaB; B, diadelphous 

stamens of Pisum with i free stamen and g united; several types of monadelphous 

stamens, as in Erythroxylon (C), Melia Azedarach (D), and common mallow (E). After 

in Salvia, it is rather broad ; in some of the Malvaceae it is entirely 
wanting, the two lobes being confluent ; in other cases it may be 
extended beyond the lobes of the anther, as in species of Asarum. 
Appendages of Anther. In certain instances the anthers 
are appendaged (Fig. 81) : In the violets there is a triangular 
growth at the apex ; in the oleander the apex is plumose ; in deer 
berry (Polycodiitin stamincuui) there are two awn-like append- 
ages upon the back of the anther ; in the violets the two stamens 
that project into the spurred petal are also spurred and secrete a 
nectar ; in the Asclepiadace?e the anthers possess wing-like ap- 
pendages, each sack or division of which contains a pear-shaped 
coherent mass of pollen grains (pollinium). 


When a flower has but one stamen it is termed monandrous; 
and when there are two. ihree or many stamens, it is said to be 
diandrous, triandrous or polyandrous [Vig. 84). TIk' aggreg-atc 
of stamens in the flower is eafled the andrgcii;.m. In tlie Labi- 
atse there are four stamens arranged in a longer and sh(n-ter pair 
and the stamens are said to be didv.xamgus ; in tht- CrueifercC 
the flowers possess six stamens, four of which are longer than th.e 
other two, and the stamens are described as Ti-rrRADYNAMOUs ; 
in some plants, as in the Lobeliacese, PapilionatcC, etc., the fila- 
ments cohere, forming groups f Fig. S2) which are termed mona- 
delphous, diadelphous. etc. : in the flowers of the potato the 
anthers lie close together Init are not united, forming apparently 
a continuous ring or band around the pistil, when they are said 
to be connivent ; in the tubular flowers of the Compositae the 
anthers are united, forming a closed ring, and the stamens are 
spoken of as syngenesious (Fig. 82. A) ; in many of the Ciiciir- 
bifacccc the filaments and anthers both are confluent : in the flowers 
of the Orchidacese the stamens are borne upon the pistil and arc 
said to be gvxandrous (Fig. 133). 

Floral Envelopes. As their name indicates the floral 
envelopes occupy the outermost or lowest position in the arrange- 
ment of the parts of the flower. In the bud condition they protect 
the essential elements, and in the exixmded flower are considered 
to play an important role in securing pollination through the 
visitation of insects. The floral envelopes -^re made up generally 
of two kinds of leaves, petals and sepals (Fio;. 83). 

The PETALS form a spiral which surrounds the adrcecium. 
They are as a rule quite bright and attractive, being frequently 
highly colored, as in the rose, Fuchsia, violet, etc., and are known 
collectively as the corolla. 

The SEPALS form the next and lowermost spiral. They are 
usually green and leaf-like, as in the rose and carnation, and 
together constitute the calyx. Sometimes the corolla and calyx- 
are spoken of together as the i-eriaxtii. although strictly speak- 
ing the term has a more special api)lieation. and is used mostly m 
speaking of the sepals and petals of monocotyledonous flower.s, 
these parts being much alike and not distinguishable, save in posi- 
tion, as in certain lilies. 



When the divisions of the calyx and corolla remain separate 
and distinct the latter are spoken of as chorisepalous and chori- 
PETALOUS, respectively ; but when the divisions are united or 
coalesced the calyx and corolla are called gamosepalous (syn- 
sepalous) and gamopetalous (sympetalous), respectively. 

When the divisions of the calyx or corolla are entirely united 
these elements are said to be entire, and when the divisions are 
partly united they are spoken of as " toothed," " lobed " or 
" parted," according to the degree of union. 

In the flowers of the Cruciferse and Caryophyllacese there is a 
conspicuous stalk to each of the separate petals, which is known 
as the UNGUIS or cla\\^ ; while the upper outspreading portion is 

Fig. 83. A, longitudinal section through orange flower {Citrus Aurantium) showing 
stalk (PE); sepals (s); petals (p); stamen with filament (F) and anther (A); compound 
pistil (composed of united carpels) with stigma (T). style (Y) and superior ovary (O) 
with ovules; disk or nectary (D). B, longitudinal section of a bud of clove (Caryophyllus) 
showing inferior ovary (O), style (Y), stamens (F), petals (P), sepals (S), nectary (D). 

known as the lamina or blade. In the gamosepalous calyx and 
the gamopetalous corolla the lower united portion is known as the 
TUBE, and the upper outspreading portion as the limb or 
" border." 

The form of the calyx and corolla is quite characteristic for a 
number of important families. In tlie Compositae there are two 
characteristic forms of corolla, namely, the tubular in the disk 
flowers and the ligulate in the ray flowers : in the PapilionattC 
the corolla, from its fancied resemblance to a Imtterfly, is de- 
scribed as PAPILIONACEOUS (Figs. 88; 134, L) : in the Labiatae the 
petals are united into two lip-like divisions, and the corolla is said 
to be liiLADiATE (Fig. 84, F). There are two kinds of bilabiate 


corollas one, as in lavender, where the month of the tube is open, 
known as rixgent; and another, where the mouth is closed, as in 
Linavia, called personate. 

There are a number of other special forms of calyx and corolla, 
particularly the latter, and of these may be mentioned the follow- 
ing : A corolla, like that of the harebell, which is more or less bell- 
shaped, is termed campanulate; a more or less campanulate 
corolla contracted near the opening, as in Gaultheria, is spoken 
of as URCEOLATE or urn-shaped ; in the morning glory and other 
Convolvulacese the corolla is said to be infundibuliform or 
funnel-shaped (Fig. 174) ; a corolla, in which the limb spreads 
abruptly from the tube, as in Phlox, is termed hypocrateriform 
or salver-shaped ; a corolla with a short tube and outspreading 
limb, as in potato, is said to be rotate or wheel-shaped; a rotate 
corolla with the margin more or less upturned is called crateri- 
FORM or saucer-shaped ; in aconite the upper petal is hood- or hel- 
met-shaped, the corolla is spoken of as galeate ; in the violets one 
of the petals has a spurred appendage and the corolla is described 
as SACCATE or calcarate, while the modified petal in the orchids is 
known as the labellum. 

Duration of Calyx and Corolla. There is considerable 
difference in the length of time that the calyx and corolla persist, 
not only with reference to each other but in different plants. The 
parts are said to be caducous when they drop from the flower as 
soon as it opens, as the calyx of the poppy ; when they remain for 
a day or so, they are said to be ephemeral or fugacious, as in 
the petals of the poppy ; in the rose and apple the petals fall away 
soon after the pollen reaches the stigma and they are said to be 
deciduous ; in some flowers the petals wither but persist until the 
maturing of the fruit, as in the Droseracese, and are known as 
marcescent; the calyx may remain unaffected until the maturnig 
of the fruit, as in the Lahiatce, when it is said to be persistent. 

Bracts. In addition to the floral envelopes other more 
or less modified leaves are borne on the flower branch below the 
flower, frequently at the base of the flower stalk, and these have 
received the name bracts. The bracts closely resemble the foli- 
age leaves but usually are smaller and frequently are mere scales, 
without chlorophyll. In some cases, however, they are large and 


showy, looking like petals (petaloid), as in the water arum 
(Fig. 128), the common dogwood ; Bougainvillea and Poinsettia 
seen in greenhouses. 

The Torus constitutes the terminal portion of the iiower 
axis or stalk, and is usually more or less conical and somewhat 
enlarged. When the torus is of this shape the parts of the flower 
are inserted upon it in serial succession, all of the other parts 
arising below the pistil. It may, however, be modified into a hollow 
or cup-like structure which grows up around the ovary carrying 
the other parts of the flower (sepals, petals and stamens) with it, 
thus changing the relative position of the parts, although it should 
be understood that the ovary occupies practically the same posi- 
tion in the two cases. 

When the torus is of the first type and the other parts of the 
flower are inserted below the ovary, the flower is said to be hypo- 
GYNous, as in the orange flower (Fig. 83, A) and the ovary supe- 
rior : but when the torus forms a cup-shaped receptacle and the 
other parts of the flower arise on its margin above the ovary, the 
flower is called epigynous, as in the clove (Fig. 83, B; 84. C) 
and the ovary inferior. In other cases a ring of leaf-like tissue 
arises from the torus, forming a cup-like receptacle or tube which 
is known as the perianth tube, the sepals, petals and stamens being 
inserted on its margin. The perianth tube may be free from the 
ovary, when the flower is said to be perigynous and the ovary half 
inferior or half superior, as in cherry (Fig. 84. B) : or in the 
case of an epigynous flower it may form a prolongation of the 
cup-shaped torus. 

Prefloration or estivation is the arrangement of the parts 
of the flower more especially the calyx and corolla in the bud. 
Some of the terms used in this connection are also employed in the 
study of vernation. The following are some of the terms which 
are employed : Valvate, when the sepals or petals meet each 
other at the edges, as in Malvaceae ; imbuicated, when the sepals 
or petals overlap each other, as in the Magnoliaceae ; plic.\te or 
platted, when the divisions are united and folded together, as in 
the petals of Convolvulus and Datura. 

The sepals and petals do not necessarily possess the same 
arrangement, as in the Onagracese, where the sepals are valvate 



and the petals are convolute. Furthermore, in addition to the 
principal types of estivation and vernation already given, there 
are a number of special modifications of these, depending upon 
the number and arrangement as well as direction of the over- 
lapping parts of the flower- or leaf-bud. 

A B 

Fig. 84. Types of flowers: A, hypogynous flower of flax; B, perigynous flower of 
cherry, showing perianth tube with sepals, petals and stamens on its border; C, epigynous 
flower of American sarsaparilla; D, flower of buttercup showing apocarpous gynscium 
and large conical torus; E, irregular (bilateral or zygomorphic) flower of aconite 
showing half of helmet-like sepal (a), other sepals (b, c), long-clawed nectary (k) developed 
from one of the posterior petals, separate pistils (f); F, corolla of Salvia spread open and 
showing the two rudimentary stamens and two fertile stamens. The connectives in the 
latter are long and filamentous and each bears at the upper part a normal pollen sac and 
at the lower end a non-fertile enlarged portion which the insect pushes againr.t in entering 
the flower and thus causes the pollen to be deposited on its back. A-C, after Gray; D-F, 
after Warming. 


Coalescence and Adhesion. ^Not only may the divisions 
of the same circle or whorl of the flower be united but even those 
of different circles, and a number of terms are used to describe 
these modifications. 

When the divisions of the same circle are united there is said 
to be a COHESION or coalescence of the parts. When the divi- 
sions of different circles are united, as of stamens with corolla, 
the union is spoken of as adhesion or adnation, as in Convolvulus. 

Chorisis and Multiplication of Parts. In contrast with the 
reduction in number of parts of the flower due to union, there may 
be an increase in the number of parts due to simple division or 
splitting of the parts, and this is known as chorisis or deduplica- 
tion. An illustration of this is furnished by the stamens of the 
orange flower, where from a single initial stamen or primordium 
a group of from 3 to ii stamens may be produced. In other cases 
there may be a multiplication in the number of parts from the 
beginning, each part arising independently on the torus, as in the 
stamens of rose. This of course would not be termed chorisis, as 
no splitting or branching takes place. 

Double Flowers. In double flowers there is an increase 
in the number of petals, which is considered to be due to the 
methods of cultivation and the stimulus of an increased food- 
supply. This results in several ways : ( i ) By transformation of 
the sporophylls, more particularly the stamens, into petals; (2) 
by division or chorisis of the stamens or carpels with subsequent 
transformation into petals; (3) by division or branching of the 
petals; and (4) by the production of new series of petals. The 
extra petals in double carnations and double roses trace their ori- 
gin to the stamens, while in Fuchsia they are the result of chorisis 
of the petals. 

In the snow-ball (Viburnum opiihis) and hydrangea the essen- 
tial elements have undergone a complete transformation, and the 
flowers, while large and showy, are sterile. In the white water lily 
(Nympha-a) there is a series of parts ranging from stamens with 
narrow filaments and stamens with broad petaloid filaments to 
petals tipped with a small anther and regular petals (Fig. 81, A). 
In this case the stamens are considered to result frorn the trans- 
formation of the petals. In the case of green roses and green 


strawberry flowers the petals become green and leaf-like, and the 
change is spoken of as chlorosis or chlorantiiy. In some 
flowers even the ovules are replaced by leaf-like processes or 
appendages, as in Droscra and clover. 

Arrested Development. The arrest or suppression cf 
parts of the plant, particularly of the flower, is of very common 
occurrence. Just as there are millions of seeds that never find 
suitable conditions for germination, so in the flowers of a large 
number of plants a very large proportion of the ovules never 
develop into seeds, the plants in many instances not furnishing 
sufficient nutriment for all of the ovules to mature. Under leaves 
it was stated that in the axil of each leaf there is a bud. This is 
not always apparent, but if the plant be subjected to some special 
stimulus, some of the latent buds will become evident. For 
example, the rubber plant (Ficits), so commonl\- cultivated as an 
ornamental plant, shows a tendency to develop a straight, un- 
branched shoot, but if the tip of the shoot be cut ofif, the buds in 
the axils of the upper leaves will develop into branches, while 
some of those lower down will form small protuberances, but 
develop no further. In other cases there is a loss of parts which 
seems to be due to loss of function. When there is a partial loss 
of the element, as of the anthers in the flower of catalpa, it is 
said to be imperfectly developed or abortive. When the entire ele- 
ment remains undeveloped as in some of the stamens of the Lal)i- 
atae, it is said to be suppressed ( Fig. 84, F) . In flax the stamens of 
the outer whorl are reduced to thread-like processes. Such sterile 
or aborted stamens are called stami nodes (staminodia). In other 
plants the parts are not apparently arrested, but have not yet been 
dififerentiated, as is the case in the Lily family where the perianth 
is composed of segments which are more or less alike (Fig. 123). 
In other cases, however, there seems to be a suppression or arrest 
of the floral envelopes. 

Cleistogamous Flowers. In addition to the regular 
flowers some plants produce cleistogamous or closed flowers. In 
these flov/ers the corolla is usually suppressed. The flowers 
develop stamens and pistils but remain closed, and thus there is 
no chance for cross-pollination. The cleistogamous flowers appear 
later than the regular flowers and are more or less inconspicuous, 


developing under the leaves and sometimes underground. Of the 
plants producing cleistogamous fiovvers, the following may be 
mentioned : various species of Viola, Polygala, etc. 

Classes of Flowers. As we have seen the megasporo- 
phylls and microsporophylls in the (j}-mnosperms are borne on 
separate branches, thus giving rise to two kinds of flowers or 
cones. While the separation of the stamens and pistils is exempli- 
fied in a number of plants in the Angiosperms, still it is not the 
rule and these two elements are usually borne close together on the 
same axis, i.e., they both enter into a single flower structure. Such 
a flower is said to be hermaphrodite or bisexual, and most of the 
conspicuous flowers are of this kind, as roses, buttercups, lilies, 
etc. Inasmuch as the stamens and pistils constitute the essential 
elements of the flower, hermaphrodite flowers are also spoken of as 
PERFECT providing the stamens and pistils are capable of exer- 
cising their generative functions. When the stamens and pistils 
occur in separate flow^ers the flowers are said to be unisexual or 
IMPERFECT, as iu willow. oak. hickory, etc. A flower having only 
a pistil or pistils is called pistillate (Fig. 79, A ), while one hav- 
ing only a stamen or stamens is staminate (Fig. 135). The 
staminate aiKl pistillate flowers may be borne on the same plant, 
when it is said to be moncecious, as in castor bean, chestnut, 
hickory, alder ; or they may be borne on separate plants, when 
the plant is called dicecious, as in willows and poplars. Plants 
bearing hermaphrodite and imisexual flowers on the same indi- 
vidual plant or on dift'crent indi\i(hials are called polygamous, 
as in Ailanthus. 

A COMI'LETE flower is one whicli ])ossesses both kinds of essen- 
tial elements aufl both kinds of floral envelopes, and is symmet- 
rical when a plane can be laid in all directions, the parts being 
alike and when the number of parts in each circle is the same or 
when the number in one circle is a multiple of that in the others ; 
as a rule tlie number of stamens is some multiple of one of the 
other parts, as in geranium ( I'ig. 155), where we find five sepals, 
five petals, ten stamens and five pistils. 

Flowers are also spoken of as regular or irregular, accord- 
ing to whether all the parts of a circle are uniform in shape or 
not : the flowers of geranium are regular while those of violets 


are irregular. Regular Hovvers are also spoken of as actino- 
MORPiiic or RADIAL, aiicl irregular flowers as zygomorphic. The 
latter are also spoken of as dorsiventral. Dorsiventral flowers 
either arise as such, as in some of the Leguminosse (Fig. SS), 
or they may arise as radial flowers and become dorsiventral 
during the course of development, as in willow herb (Epilobium). 

In some flowers the floral envelopes are wanting, and the 
flowers are said to be naked, as in the willows and grasses. 

Anthotaxy. The study of the arrangement of flowers on 
the stem is known as anthotaxy. The flowering axis may bear 
only a single terminal flower, as in Tulipa ; or the flowers may 
occur singly in the axils of the leaves, as in Viola canadensis. 
When, on the other hand, the flowers are borne upon a branch 
shoot, the internodes of which are more or less condensed, and 
the leaves smaller and of a more simple structure than the 
foliaceous leaves, the whole shoot is known as an inflores- 
cence, and the leaves are called i'.racts. The flower thus repre- 
sents a single unbranched shoot, while the inflorescence repre- 
sents a branched or ramified shoot. 

The so-called bracts besides being generally smaller than the 
leaves proper are mostly sessile ; they may, however, be green, or 
membranaceous, or they may exhibit a bright coloration, as in 

The stalk of the individual flower is called a pedicel, and 
may be naked, or bear one or two small bracts, which are 
called FORE-LEAVKS or prophylea. In the monocotyledons there 
is usually only one fore-leaf, which turns its back to the mother- 
axis and is frequently two-nerved and two-keeled. In the 
dicotyledons there are generally two fore-leaves, which are placed 
to the right and left of the flower, as in the violets. 

The position of the floral leaves ( the sepals, the petals and 
those of the perianth) depends upon the arrangement of the 
fore-leaves, so that in most of the monocotyledons, where there 
is one mediane prophyllon, the first leaf of the perianth is placed 
on the front, while the two succeeding leaves of the perianth 
occupy a position of 120 from this (Fig. 124). When, on the 
other hand, as in the dicotyledons with pentamerous flowers 
two fore-leaves are developed, the first floral leaf (sepal) is 


situated obliquely above the last fore-leaf, usually on the frontal 
part of the flower; the second sepal is directly behind the first 
or diagonally opposite to it, the remaining three leaves (sepals) 
occurring in a spiral of two-fifths (Fig. 134). Several deviations 
from this type occur, as in Lobelia (Fig. 272), Polyala, etc. 

Two types of inflorescence are distinguished : ( i ) The in- 
definite, in which the flowers open or develop in acropetalous 
or centripetal succession, and (2) the definite, in which the 
flowers open in basipetalous or centrifugal succession. The in- 
definite type of inflorescence is seldom terminated by an ex- 
panded flower, and two classes of this type are distinguished : 
(a) Those in which the flowers are pedicelled, as in the raceme 
(Fig. 139) and umbel (Fig. 169) ; and (b) in which the flowers 
are sessile, as in the spike (Fig. 250) and head (Fig. 242). 

The RACEME is a long inflorescence with pedicelled flowers, 
which are frequently subtended by bracts (Figs. 139, 150, and 
207). The CORYMB is a modified raceme in wdiich the pedicels 
of the basal flowers are much longer than those of the apical, 
and thus the inflorescence looks like an umbel. In the milkweed 
the flowers jiave pedicels of the same length which arise from the 
apex of the shoot or peduncle, and this form of inflorescence is 
known as an umbel. In the Umbelliferae a flower cluster or 
umbellets takes the place of the individual flowers of the umbel, 
and is known as a compound umbel (Fig. 169). 

The SPIKE is also generally a long inflorescence, the flowers 
being sessile (Fig. 87, illus. 3), the secondary spikes in grasses 
being known as spi relets. The spadix is a form of spike, 
whicii is readily distinguished by the fleshy stem, in which the 
flowers are frequently deeply imbedded, and which is frequently 
surrounded by a large bract, the so-called spathe, as in Arisema. 
The CATKIN is a kind of spike with small, often imperfect flowers, 
which falls ofif as a whole, as in the staminate catkins of the 
oak. Tlie catkins are mostly decompound, and in some species 
of Populus the single flowers are pedicelled, and hence are 
actually racemose rather than spicate inflorescences. 

In the head and the umbel the main inflorescential axis is 
exceedingly short and the innermost flowers are often destitute 
of bracts, in contrast with the external, which are frequently 


provided with bracts that are of quite considerable size. Sterile 
bracts also occur in these two types, and are called involucral 
leaves, as in Cornus Horida where they are white or ])ink. 
There is also a difference in sex of the outer and inner flowers 
(see page 391). While the head occurs as typical inflorescence 
in the Compositae, it also exists in some of the Umbelliferse. 

Two types of definite inflorescence are distinguished: (i) 
the DiBRACHious (bifurcate) cyme in which the inflorescence 
represents a series of very regularly arranged lateral axes, one 
on-each side of the terminal or median flower, as in the Caryo- 
phyllaceas; and (2) the monobrachious (simple) cyme, of 
which there are several modifications, but common to all of 
them is the development of only one lateral branch to each 
terminal flower. In the scorpioid cyme the lateral axes are 
arranged alternately to the right and left, while in the helicoid 
cyme the lateral axes are all on the same side of the main axis, 
as in Hypericum. The so-called flower-cluster is a cymose 
inflorescence of either the definite or indefinite type in which 
the flowers are almost sessile or very short pedicelled, as in 
Chenopodium, Juncus, etc. Sometimes the inflorescences may be 
decompound or complex, as in several Compositae, where the heads 
may be arranged in cymes or racemes; or, as in the Gramineae, 
where the spikelets, which are spikes, may be arranged in panicles, 
i.e., branched racemes; or finally, as in Cryptotaenia (Unibel- 
liferae), where the umbels are arranged in cymes. 

Pollination and Fertilization, Fertilization represents the 
final stage in the work of the flower as a whole, and has already 
been defined as the union of the egg-cell and a male nucleus. 
Pollination may be considered to include the transferral of the 
pollen grains from the anther to stigma and their subsequent 
germination thereon, this latter process resulting in the produc- 
tion of the male nuclei. Pollination thus represents but one series 
of changes or processes which precede fertilization, for, while the 
pollen grain is going through the various stages in development 
which lead to the formation of the male nuclei, a series of coni- 
plex changes are going on in the embryo-sac leading to the devel- 
opment of the egg-cell. 


Our special interest in pollination arises from the fact that the 
pollen grains are not retained in the pollen-sacs and are dependent 
upon various agencies for transferral to the stigma. This is a 
matter of great biological significance, for it is claimed that many jl 

of the special characters of flowers have a direct relation to 

The various ways in which the anthers open for the dis- 
charge of the pollen when it is ripe have already been considered 
(Fig. 8i), but it may be added that the manner in which this is 
done usually appears to have a relation to the manner in which 
the pollen is to be carried to the stigma. In order that pollination 
may be effected, the stigma must be ripe or mature, when it is 
said to be receptive. It then usually secretes a sticky, sugary 
liquid which causes the pollen grains to adhere to the stigmatic 
surface (Fig. 85), and which at the same time serves as a nutrient 
to them. Usually the pollen grains begin to germinate in a short 
time after reaching the stigma, which is made evident by the pro- 
trusion of the pollen tubes. The stigma seems also to have the 
power of selection, for in many cases the pollen does not germin- 
ate as readily on the stigma of the same flower as on that of 
another flower j^rovided it be of the same or a nearly related 

When a flower possesses both stamens and pistils, that is, is 
bisexual or hermaphrodite, and its pollen germinates upon its 
own stigma, the process is known as close or self-pollination, 
and if fertilization follows this is known as self-fertilization. 
^^'hile most hermaphrodite flowers are self-pollinated there are 
some that are not. and this is brought about in several ways : 
( I ) As already pointed out the pollen may germinate better on 
the stigma of another flower than on the stigma of the same 
flower; (2) the anthers and pistils of the same flower may 
mature at different times, and this is one of the commonest ways 
of preventing self-pollination. Usually in such cases the stamens 
mature first. The common plantain ( Plantago) furnishes an 
example of the maturing of the stigma before the anther. The 
flowers of this plant are arranged in spikes (Fig. 87, illus. 3 
and 4) which belong to the indefinite class, and hence the lower 
flowers on the spike expand first. As stated, the pistil of each 



flower matures first, and after it withers the stamens protrude and 
discharge their pollen. It is evident that the flowers can not be 
self-pollinated, nor is it hkely that one flower will l)e ])()llinated 
by another of the same spike. (3 ) llie stamens and jiistils of tlie 
same flower may vary in length, as in Polygonum (Ing. 86, illus. 
I and 2) and Lythrum (Fig. 87. illus. 5), or stand in such other 
relation to each other that self-pollination will not be effected, 
as in some of the irregular or z\gomorphic flowers, like those of 
Orchids. In these several cases the pollen grains either fall upon 

Fig. 85. Cross-pollination through the agency of a bee, in flower of quince (Cy- 
donia vulgaris). A., flowering branch; B, flower showing bee extracting nectar, and masses 
of pollen adhering to its legs, some of which will fall upon the stigmas of other flowers when 
it visits them; C, ripe inferior fleshy fruit (pome) of quince. After Dodel-Port. 

or are carried by various agents to the stigmas of other flowers, 
and this is known as cross-pollin.vtion, and the fertilization 
which follows as cross-fertilization. 

Cross-fertilization is an advantage to the species for usually 
the seeds which result from this process give rise to plants which 
are more vigorous and otherwise superior to those which result 
from self-fertilization. In some cases in order to insure the pro- 


duction of fruit, hand-pollination is practiced, as by the growers 
of vanilla and some other tropical plants of economic importance. 

In the case of unisexual flowers, or those in which the stamens 
and pistils are in separate flowers, there is of course no chance 
for self-pollination. Here, as in the case of cross-pollinated 
hermaphrodite flowers, pollination may be more or less close or 
it may be remote, as between flowers of the same cluster or inflor- 
escence, between flowers of different clusters or inflorescences on 
the same plant, or between flowers on different plants. 

In buckwheat (Fig. 86, illus. i and 2) and partridge berry 
(Mitchella rcpciis) two kinds of flowers are produced, viz.: ( (/ ) 
one with short styles and long filaments, and another (b) witli 
long styles and short filaments, and thus the flowers appear to be 
especially adapted for insect cross-pollination and are called 
DIMORPHIC. In still other cases one species gives rise to three 
kinds of flowers, depending upon the difference in the relative 
lengths of the styles and filaments, as in the purple loosestrife 
{Lythriiin Salicaria) , and such flowers are called trimorphic. 

The external agents which are instrumental in carrying pollen 
from one flower to another and thereby promoting cross-pollina- 
tion are the wind, water currents, insects, small animals and 
birds, such as humming-birds, which are, even in temperate 
regions, to be observed visiting the garden nasturtium. 

In many of the early-flowering trees, as well as pines, Indian 
corn, etc., the flowers are devoid of showy, attractive features, 
but produce large quantities of pollen v/hich is more or less dry 
and powdery and carried by the wind to other flowers. Flowers 
which are wind-pollinated are classed- as axemophilous and it is 
estimated that about one-tenth of all the flower-producing plants 
belong to this class. 

Plants v/hich are pollinated by the aid of water-currents are 
known as hydrophilous, and under this head are included those 
plants which live under the water and those that produce flowers 
at or near the surface of the water. 

Those plants which depend upon the visitation of insects for 
the transferral of the pollen in cross-pollination are called i:xt(v 
MOPHiLous (Fig. 85). They frequently possess bright, highly 
colored flowers and it is considered that these serve as an attrac- 



Fig. 86. 

Fig. 87. 

Figs. 86 and 87. Manner of cross- pollination in some hermaphrodite flowers. 1,2, 
Flowers of buckwheat, showing long style and short filaments in i, and short styles and 
long filaments in 2: a, anthers; st, stigmas; n, nectaries. .3, Spike of plantain showing 
maturing of stamens below and pistils above. 4, Dissected flower of plantain: b, bract; 
c, calyx; p, corolla tube; s, stamens; t, protruding withered style, s. Flowers of Purple 
willow-herb (Lythmm SaUcaria). one side of the perianth removed from each. A is long- 
staled. B, medium-styled, and C, short-styled. The direction of the arrows and dotted lines 
indicates the best methods of crossing. i, 2, 5, adapted from Warming. 



tion to the insects which visit them. The insects are, however, 
probably more attracted by the odor and food products which 
thev obtain, such as the nectar. The nectar is secret .^d bv 

Fig. 88. A, flowering ami fruiting plant of peanut (Aracliis hypogcva). After fertiliza- 
tion the carpophore (or stalk between calyx and ovary) grows in length, sometimes 4 to 8 
cm., and curves downward penetrating the soil (el), after which the fruit develops. B. 
longitudinal section through the papilionaceous (bilateral) flower; C. longitudinal section 
through the pod (peanut). After Taubert. 


glands known as nectaries which are variously located; fre- 
quently they are on the torus either between the ovary and sta- 
mens (Fig. 83) or between the stamens and petals. Some- 
times the stamen is modified to a nectar-secreting spur as in the 
violets. In aconite the nectary is developed from one of the 
posterior petals (Fig. 84, E). In seeking the nectar the pollen 
of the ripe anther may fall upon or adhere to the insects and thus 
be carried from one flower to another (Fig. 86). 

Honey is a product formed through transformation of the 
plant nectar by honey bees. The nectar is supposed to be acted 
upon by certain salivary secretions of the bee and changed into a 
fruit-sugar, the so-called honey, consisting of a mixture of dex- 
trose and levulose. The nectar of buckwheat and clover (partic- 
ularly white clover) is the principal source of the commercial 
article. The nectar of some plants is poisonous and may furnish 
a poisonous honey (see p. 357). 


After the fertilization of the ovule or ovules, the parts of the 
flower that play no further i)art either in protecting the seed or 
aiding in its dispersal soon wither and arc cast ofl' : in most flowers 
the petals lose their color and, together with the stamens, style 
and stigma, wither and fall away shortly after fertilization. The 
stigma ma\', hovvcver, persist, as in the poppy ; the style may like- 
wise remain, as in Ranunculus, or even centinue to grow or 
lengthen, as in Taraxacum: in other cases the calyx persists, as 
in orange and belladonna ; in still other cases the torus may be- 
come fleshy and form a part of the fruit, as in pimenta and apple. 
The fruit may consist, therefore, not only of the ripened pistil, 
but also of other parts of the flower and torus which persist or 
develop witli it. 

The wall of the fruit is called the pericarp, and, like the leaf, 
it consists of three distinct layers, viz. : ( i ) the outer layer corre- 
sponding to the outer epidermis of the ovary is called the eimcari- 
or exocarp : (2) the inner laver corresponding to the inner epi- 
dermis of the ovary is called the exdocarp. or. from the fact 
that it is sometimes hard and stone-like, it is called the puta- 




MEN, as in the prune; and (3) the middle layer situated be- 
cween the epicarp and endocarp is called the mesocarp; 


Fig. 89. Different types of fruits. A, silique of mustard showing the separation of 
the two valves leaving the seeds attached to the central axis; B, spinous capsule of Stra- 
monium showing septifragal dehiscence into four valves, the capsule being strictly 2- 
locular but apparently 4-locular owing to the formation of false dissepiments; C. 5-valved 
capsule of Geranium in which the carpels become detached from one another and roll up- 
wards remaining attached to the beak-like compound style; D, capsule of Hyoscyamus 
showing transverse dehiscence by means of a lid (i) and the two loculi containing numerous 
small seeds; E, fruit of strawberry showing fleshy torus and numerous embedded akenes; 
F, silicula of shepherd's-purse showing seeds attached to central axis and longitudinal 
dehiscence of the valves which remain attached below; G, fruit of rose, so-called rose "hip," 
the akenes being enclosed by the hollow oval torus which shows remains of calyx at the 
apex; H, multiple fruit of mulberry composed of small drupes, the pulpy portion of each 
consisting of the fleshy perianth. Adapted from Warming. 



and from the fact that it is sometimes succulent or fleshy, as in 
the prune, it is also called the sarcocarp. 

There are a number of distinctive and descriptive -names ap- 
plied to fruits. Some of the more important are as follows : 

An Akene is a non-fleshy, or so-called dry, unilocular and 
one-seeded, indehiscent fruit, in which the pericarp is more or less 
firm, and may or may not be united with the seed. Akenes may 
be inferior, as in the Compositse (Fig. 241) where they develop 
from inferior ovaries, being frequently surmounted by the pappus 
or calyx; or half inferior, as in the rose (Fig. 89, G) where they 
develop from half inferior ovaries ; or superior, as in the buttercup 

Fig. 90. A, transverse section of colocynth showing seeds (s) borne on parietal 
placentas; B, transverse section of fruit of Ricinus communis showing septicidal dehis- 
cence of capsule, the seeds (s) being borne on axial placentas; C, transverse section of card- 
amom showing loculicidal dehiscence, the seeds (s), as in B, being borne on axial placentas. 

A Berry is a fleshy, indehiscent fruit, ^ the seeds of which 
are embedded in the sarcocarp ; berries are superior when they 
develop free from the torus, as in belladonna (Fig. 268), capsi- 
cum, grape, etc., and inferior when the torus forms a part of the 
fruit, as in banana, cranberry and gooseberry. 

A Capsule is a dry, dehiscent fruit, consisting of two or more 
united carpels. Dehiscence in capsules may occur in five different 
ways: In the castor-bean (Fig. 90, B) the carpels separate from 
each other along the walls or septa (dissepiments), the seeds being 
discharged along the ventral suture of the separated carpels, and 
this mode of dehiscence is called septicidal. In mustard (Fig. 
89, A ) the dissepiments remain intact and dehiscence occurs along 
the margin of the capsule, and is therefore called marginicidal; 



but as the partial carpels, or valves as they are termed, separate 
from the walls or septa, the dehiscence is also known as septi- 
FRAGAL. In cardamom (Fig. 90, C) the septa as well as valves 
are united, and at maturity the latter separate and dehisce at points 
in the margin corresponding to the mid-vein of the carpel, and 
this form of dehiscence is known as loculicidal. In poppy 
capsules (Fig. 91) there are a few openings beneath the united 

Fig. 91. Capsules of poppy (Papaver somniferum), whole and in transverse and 
longitudinal sections, showing dissepiments and remains of radiate stigmas at the apex, 
which are porous and through which the seeds are discharged, i, French capsules; 2, 
German capsules. 

stigmas through which the seeds are expelled, and this form of 
dehiscence is known as porous. In hyoscyamus (Fig. 89. D) a. 
portion of the capsule comes off from the remainder like a lid, 
and this form of dehiscence being circular or transverse to the 
sutures of the carpel, it is called circumcissile. A capsule of 
this kind is known as a Pvxis or Pvxidium. 


A Caryopsis, or Grain, is an indehiscent, non-fleshy fruit 
possessing a thin pericarp, which is closely adherent to the 
thin seed-coats, as in wheat, corn and other Gramineae (Figs. 
120, 125). 

A Cremocarp is a dry, indehiscent fruit which consists of 
two inferior akenes, known as mericarps; these are separated 
from each other by means of a stalk known as a CAuroi'iioRE. 
This fruit is characteristic of the Umbellifercc (Figs. 245, 

A Drupe is a fleshy, indehiscent fruit with a more or less 
succulent and well-developed sarcocarp and an indurated endo- 
carp. Drupes are superior when they are free from the torus, as 
in prune ; inferior when the torus forms a part of the fruit, as 
in pimenta. Drupes are also spoken of as " dry " when the sarco- 
carp is less succulent, as in Rhus glabra (Fig. 249) or when they 
are collected unripe, as in pepper and cubeb (Fig. 250). The 
fruits of the raspberry and blackberry consist of a collection of 
little drupes, the whole being known as an et^rio. In the black- 
berry the drupelets cohere with the fleshy torus, while in the rasp- 
berry the drupelets cohere with one another, forming a cap which 
is separable from the cone-shaped torus. 

A Follicle is a dry, dehiscent fruit which consists of one 
or more separate carpels, the dehiscence being usually along the 
ventral suture; in Delphinium the carpels are single; in aconite 
there are from three to five carpels, and in star-anise (lUiciuui) 
from seven to eight ; in magnolia the carpels are numerous, form- 
ing a kind of succulent cone and dehisce along the dorsal suture. 

A Galbalus is a berry-like fruit, formed by the coalescence 
of fleshy, open scales, as in juniper (Fig. 52). 

Hesperidium. The fleshy, indehiscent, superior fruit of 
citrus, as lemon and orange, is known as a hesperidium. The 
pericarp is more or less coriaceous, and from the inner walls secre- 
tion hairs develop, which contain sugar and an acid cell-sap, 
these constituting the fleshy portion in which the seeds are 

A Legume is an elongated, monocarpellary, usually dry, 
dehiscent fruit, in which dehiscence takes place along both sutures, 
the carpel thus dividing into two halves, or valves, as in the garden 


pea {Pisuiii) and otlier members of the Leguminosaj (Fig. 153). 
In some cases legumes are jointed or articulated and indehiscent, 
breaking up at maturity into a number of parts which are dis- 
persed in much the same manner as samara-fruits, as in Meihomia. 
Legumes may be not only indehiscent but fleshy, as in Cassia 

A Nut is an akene-like fruit, the pericarp of which is more 
or less indurated. Nuts are sometimes subtended (as in acorns) 
or enclosed (as in chestnuts) by a kind of involucre, forming 
what is technically known as a cupule ; and a fruit consisting of a 
nut and cupule is known as a Glans. The akene-like fruit of 
the Labiatse is spoken of as a Nutlet. 

A Pepo is an inferior berry, in which the placentas have 
become developed into succulent layers, as in the watermelon, 
cucumber and colocynth (Fig. 254). 

A Pod is a general term used to designate all dry, dehi- 
scent, apocarpous or syncarpous fruits, as capsules, follicles and 

A Pome is an indehiscent, half-inferior, fleshy, syncarpous 
fruit, as in the apple. The carpels constitute the core and the 
fleshy part is developed from the torus (Fig. 86, C). 

A Samara is a winged, akene-like fruit. The winged 
appendage may be at the apex, as in white ash, or around the edge, 
as in elm. Two samaras may be united into one fruit, which is 
called a " double samara " as in maple. 

A Silique is a narrow, elongated, 2-valved capsule which is 
separated by the formation of a false dissepiment into two locules, 
as in the Cruciferse (Fig. 89, A). 

A Sorosis is a fleshy fruit resulting from the aggregation 
of the carpels of several flowers, as in mulberry (Fig. 89. H) 
and pineapple. 

A Strobile or cone is a scaly fruit, at the base of each scale 
of which there is either a seed, as in the Conifers, or an akene-like 
body, as in hop (Fig. 136). 

A Syconium consists of a succulent hollow torus, which 
encloses a number of akene-like bodies, as in the fig (Ficus). 

An Utricle is an inferior akene with a thin and loose pericarp, 
as in Chenopodimn. 




Classification of Fruits. More or less artificial classifica- 
tions of fruits have been made. They may be grouped either 
according to structure or according to their manner of protection 
or dispersal, the following classification being based on the 
structure : 

From a number of flowers 

a. Indehiscent- 

From a single 


A. With a compound pistil 




Strobile or Cone 















- B. With a simple pistil . . 

^b. Dehiscent. J Dr)'... I ^^P'"^^ 
I, [ Follicle 

a. Indehiscent J Fleshy J Drupe 

.b. Dehiscent. . J Dry. . . J 

[ [ Legume 


The seed may be defined as the fertilized and developed ovule. 
The seeds of different fruits vary in number as well as in size 
and shape. In form they correspond to the ovules ; in size they 
vary from about i millimeter, as in the poppy, to lo or 15 centi- 
meters in diameter, as in the cocoanut palm. Seldom are all of 
the ovules of the pistil fertilized, hence the number of seeds is 
usually less than the number of ovules. 

Structure of Seed. After the fertilization of the egg-cell 
certain changes take place in the embryo-sac: At one end the 
developing embryo is attached to the wall by a short stalk or 
suspensor (Fig. 57) ; the nuclei, lying in a mass of cytoplasm 


around the wall of the embryo-sac, divide and re-divide ; the larj^e 
vacuole in the center becomes filled with a watery or milky fluid, 
and later the nuclei, with portions of the cytoplasm, may be 
enclosed by a cellulose wall and become permanent cells, in which 
the embrvo is embedded. Likewise in the nucellus. changes are 
also taking place ; the cells are found to be dividing, and storing 
starch, oil, aleurone and other food materials, like the cells of the 
embryo-sac. The cells in which these materials are stored are 
known as reserve cells and in the nucellus they constitute the 
pertsperjM, while those formed in the embryo-sac make up the 
ENDOSPERM. Usually the endosperm of seeds is prominently 
developed while the perisperm occurs as a thin layer ; in carda- 
mom, however, the endosperm and perisperm are both w^ell devel- 
oped (Fig. 253). In some instances the embryo may not fill the 
embrvo-sac. as in cocoanut. and sometimes, as in the almond, both 
of the reserve layers are consumed in the development of the 
embryo when the seed is said to be without endosperm (Fig. 187). 
The perisperm and endosperm are sometimes spoken of to- 
gether as the albumen of the seed, but as the cells comprised in 
these layers contain not only protoplasmic contents and aleurone 
arrains, but starches, oils and other substances, the term is mis- 
leading. On this basis, seeds containing either endosperm or 
perisperm, or both, have been designated as albuminous, but on 
account of these layers containing larger proportions of other 
substances than proteins it would be better to speak of them as 

RESERVE LAYERS (FigS. 121, 122). 

While these changes in the nucellus and embryo-sac have been 
going on there have been equally great changes in the coats of 
the ovules, which later constitute the seed-coats. In the seed 
the two coats are generally readily distinguishable. The inner, 
as in Ricimis, Pepo, etc., is thin, light in color, of a delicate 
structure, and is known as the tegmen ; the outer is more or less 
thickened, of a darker color and firmer in structure, and is known 
as the TESTA. In some instances the perisperm, or both perisperm 
and endosperm, may be reduced to a thin layer w^hen it is consid- 
ered to form a part of the seed-coat, as in mustard. In other cases 
the two coats are so closely united that they are not easily distin- 
guished, as in stramonium. 



The terms used in describing tlie kinds of ovules (atropous, 
anatropous, campylotropous, etc.), are retained in the description 
of the seeds ; and in describing the of the seed some 
of the terms which were apphed to the ovule are also retained, as 
chalaza and raphe : the seed when ripe usually becomes detached 
from its stalk and the resulting scar is called the iiilum ; that 
part of the seed corresponding to the foramen of the ovule is 
more or less closed and is known as the micropyle; the embryo 

Fig. 92. Rhamnus cathartica. A. cross-section through wall of the pericarp. E. epi- 
carp; F, sarcocarp; H, endocarp; e, epidermis; o, calcium oxalate in cells of hypodermis; p 
parenchyma; h, secretion cells containing a substance which is insoluble in alcohol or chloral 
solutions, soluble in solutions of potassium hydroxide, and colored reddish brown or green- 
ish with ferric chloride solutions; c, calcium oxalate cells of endocarp; w, sclerotic cells; f, 
stereome cells. B, cross-section of entire fruit, showing one seed; E, F. H, g, f, w, as in A; 
S, seed-coat; S', outer wall of seed-coat; End, endosperm; c, cotyledons; g, vascular bundle. 
C, cross-section of a seed: S^, S-, S^, different layers of the seed-coat: R, vascular bundle of 
raphe; t, position of vessels of mestome strand; g, mestome strand; Rf. cleft in which raphe 
is situated; End, endosperm; C cotyledons: Sv, cells with thick walls; Sp, parcnchymatic 
cells. After Mever. 

develops in such a way that the tip of the young root always 
points in the direction of the micropyle. 

In the fully developed embryo three distinct parts may be dif- 



ferentiated (Fig". 5yj : (i) The cotyledons; (2) the part below 
the cotyledons, known as the hypocotvl. the apical portion of 
which constitutes the young- root or radicle; (3) the part above 
the cotyledons, known as the epicotyl, the apex of which con- 
sists of a more or less developed bud spoken of as the plumule. 


a E 

vrr r 

Fig. 93. Citrullus Colocynthis. A, seed: a, in longitudinal section, and b, surface view, 
S, deep clefts or fissures; m, micropyle; g, hilum; w, radicle; c, cotyledons. B, parenchyma 
cells of ripe fruit showing simple pores, the walls are colored blue with chlor-zinc-iodide. 
C, longitudinal section of wall of pericarp of ripe fruit showing e, epidermis; p, parenchyma; 
Sc, sclerotic cells which gradually pass into a thick-walled parenchyma consisting of small 
cells (p'); g. spiral vessels; P, isodiametric, porous parenchyma cells, containing air and of 
which the fruit for the most part consists. D, cross-section of seed-coat showing, G, an 
outer layer which is more or less easily separable from the rest of the seed and the walls of 
which are somewhat mucilaginous; E, epidermis of palisade-like cells; Sc, sclerotic cells; PI, 
a layer of tabular cells with undulate walls; T, a layer of small somewhat branching cells, 
the walls of which are not strongly thickened and either porous or reticulate; P, several 
layers of parenchyma and the collapsed epidermis; Pe, perisperm; En. endosperm. E, 
tangential section of tabular sclerotic cells of seed-coat shown in PI in Fig. D. After Meyer. 

The position of the embryo (Figs. 121, 122) in the seed varies 
somewhat : in most seeds it lies in the center, as in strophanthus 
and linuni : it may, however, be excentral. as in colchicum and 
nutmeg. The cotyledons are usually situated above the hypocotyl, 
but in the Cruciferae, either their edges lie against the hypocotyl, 


as in the mustards, when they are said to be accumuent or con- 
duplicate, or they he so that the back of one is against the hypo- 
cotyl, as in Lcpidiuiii, which position is known as incumbent. 

Externally, the seed-coats vary considerably ; they mav be 
nearly smooth, as in ricinus ; finely pitted, as in the mustards ; 
prominently reticulate, as in staphisagria ; hairy, as in cotton (Fig. 
166) and strophanthus (Fig. 185), or winged, as in the seeds of 
the catalpa. There are also a number of other appendages, these 
having received special names : the wart-like development at the 
micropyle or hilum of some seeds, as in castor-bean and violet, is 
known as the caruncle; in the case of sanguinaria, a wing-like 
development extends along the raphe, and this is known as the 
STROPHIOLE ; in some cases the appendage may completely en- 
velop the seed, when it is termed an arillus ; when such an 
envelope arises at or near the micropyle of the seed, as the mace 
in nutmeg, it is known as a " false arillus," or arillode. 

Seed Dispersal. Seeds and fruits are distributed in various 
ways, and so are often found growing in localities far from their 
native habitat. In some instances seeds are adapted for distri- 
bution b}' the wind, being winged, as in Pauloivnia, Catalpa and 
Bignonia, or plumed and awned, as in Strophanthus (Fig. 185) ; 
Asclcpias and Apocynum (Fig. 201). As examples of fruits hav- 
ing special parts which aid in their distribution may be mentioned 
the akene of Arnica which is provided with a pappus (Fig. 241), 
the bladder-like pericarp of Chenopodium, the winged fruit or 
samara of maple. The hooked or barbed appendages on some 
fruits serve to attach them to animals and thus they may be 
widely distributed, as in the burdock and Spanish needles 
(Bidcns bipinnata). In still other cases fruits may be carried 
long distances by water currents, or even by ocean currents, as 
those of the Double-cocoanut palm {Lodo'icca Seychellarum), 
which while native of the Seychelles Islands is now found on 
many of the islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It may 
also be mentioned in this connection that a number of fruits, as 
the garden balsam, castor-oil plant, violets (pansy, etc.), Wistaria, 
etc., are elastically dehiscent and discharge the seeds with con- 
siderable force. 



A TYPICAL living cell may be said to consist of a wall and a 
protoplast (a unit of protoplasm), although it is often customary 
to refer to the protoplast alone as constituting the cell. This is in 
view of the fact that the protoplasm which makes up the sub- 
stance of the protoplast is the living substance of the plant. 

Besides the protoplasm other substances are also found in the 
cell, hence in a general way the cell may be said to be composed 
of a wall and contents (cell-contents). The wall, as well as the 
cell-contents, consists of a number of substances, and, as the cell- 
contents are of primary importance in the development of the 
plant, their nature and composition will be considered first. 

Cell-contents. With the distinction already made the cell- 
contents may be grouped into two classes: (i) Protoplasmic, or 
those in which the life-processes of the plant, or cell, are mani- 
fested, and (2) non-protoplasmic, or those which are the direct or 
indirect products of the protoplast. The first class includes the 
protoplasm with its various differentiated parts, and the second, 
the various carbohydrates (starches and sugars), calcium, oxalate, 
aleurone, tannin, oil, and a number of other substances. 


Protoplasm. Protoplasm occurs as a more or less semi- 
fluid, slimy, granular, or foam-like substance, which lies close to 
the walls of the cell as a relatively thin layer and surrounding a 
large central cavity or vacuole filled with cell-sap. or it may be 
distributed in the form of threads or bands forming a kind of net- 
work enclosing smaller vacuoles. Protoplasm consists of two 
comparatively well dififerentiated portions: (i) Certain more or 
less distinct bodies which appear to have particular functions and 
to which a great deal of study has been given, as the nucleus and 



plastids, and (2) a less dense portion which may be looked upon 
as the ground substance of the protoplast and which is now com- 
monly referred to as the cytoplasm (sec Frontispiece). These 
differentiated bodies and the cytoplasm are intimately associated 
and interdependent. The nucleus and cytoplasm are present in 

Fig. 94. Successive stages in nuclear and cell division, n, nucleolus; c, centrospheres 
s, chromosomes; sp, spindle fibers; A, B, C, division of chromosomes, i, cell with nucleus 
containing nucleolus (n), and two centrospheres (c); 2, showing separation of nucleus 
into distinct chromosomes (s) and the centrospheres at either pole of the nucleus; 3, forma- 
tion of spindle fibers (sp); 4, longitudinal division of chromosomes; s, division of the cen- 
trospheres; 6, 7, 8, further stages in the development of the daughter nuclei; 9, formation 
of cell- wall which is completed in lo giving rise to two new cells. After Strasburger. 

all living cells and it is through their special activities that cell 
division takes place. When in addition plastids are present, con- 
structive metabolism takes place, whereby complex substances are 
formed from simpler ones (p. 222). 

Besides the nucleus and plastids other protoplasmic structures 
are sometimes found embedded in the cytoplasm. These are the 


CENTROSPHERES (Fig. 94, c) , Small spherical bodies that are 
associated with the nucleus and appear to be concerned in cell 
division. There are in fact quite a number of minute bodies in 
the cytoplasm which may be always present or only under certain 
conditions, and which are grouped under the general name of 


Chemically protoplasm is an extremely complex substance, but 
does not appear to have a definite molecular structure of its own, 
being composed in large measure of proteins, a class of organic 
compounds which always contain nitrogen, and frequently phos- 
phorus and sulphur. The molecule of the proteins is large and 
more or less unstable, and hence subject to rapid changes and a 
variety of combinations, and it is to these interactions that the 
vital activities of the plant are attributed. 

Nucleus. The nucleus consists of (i) a ground substance 
in which is embedded (2) a network composed of threads con- 
taining a granular material known as chromatin, and (3) gen- 
erally one or more spherical bodies called nucleoles, the wdiole 
being enclosed by (4) a delicate membrane (Fig. 94). The chro- 
matin threads are readily stained by some of the aniline dyes, and 
are mainly Composed of nucleins (proteins) rich in phosphorus, 
which by some writers are supposed to be essential constituents of 
the nucleus and necessary to the life of the protoplast. Chroma- 
tin is constant in the nucleus and prior to cell division the threads 
become organized into bodies of a definite number and shape 
known as chromosomes (Fig. 94, s). 

Plastids. The plastids or chromatoi)hores form a group of 
difl:'erentiated protoplasmic bodies found in the cytoplasm (Front- 
ispiece) and are associated with it in the building up of complex 
organic compounds, as starch, oil and proteins. The term chro- 
matophore means color-bearer, but applies also to those plastids 
which may be colorless at one stage and pigmented at another. 
Hence we may speak of colorless chromatophores. According 
to the position of the cells in which these bodies occur and the 
functions they perform, they vary in color three distinct kinds 
being recognized. ( i ) In the egg-cell and in the cells of roots, 
rhizomes and seeds the plastids are colorless and are called leuco- 
plastids. (2) When they occur in cells which are more or less 


exposed to light and produce the green pigment called chloro- 
phyll, they are known as chloroplastids or chloroplasts. (3) In 
other cases, independently of the position of the cells as to light 
or darkness, the plastids develop a yellowish or orange-colored 
principle, which may be termed chromophyll, and are known as 
CHROMOPLASTiDS. Chloroplastids are found in all plants except 
Fungi and non-chlorophyllous flowering plants, and chromoplas- 
tids in all plants except Fungi. Plastids vary in form from more 
or less spherical to polygonal or irregular-shaped bodies, and 
they increase in number by simple fission. They suffer decompo- 
sition much more readily than the nucleus, and are found in dried 
material in a more or less altered condition. 

Leucoplastids. The chief function of the leucoplastids is 
that of building up reserve starches or those stored by the plant 
for food, and they may be best studied in the common potato 
tuber, rhizome of iris, and the overground tubers of FJiaiiis (Fig. 
2, b). The reserve starches are formed by the leucoplastids from 
sugar and other soluble carbohydrates. 

The chloroplastids occur in all the green parts of plants 
(see Frontispiece). They vary from 3 to 11 /x in diameter and 
are more or less spherical or lenticular in shape, except in the 
Algae, where they are large and in the shape of bands or disks 
(Figs. 6, 7), and generally spoken of as chromatophores. Chlo- 
roplastids are found in greater abundance in the cells near the 
upper surface of the leaf than upon the under surface, the pro- 
portion being about five to one. These grains upon close exam- 
ination are found to consist of ( i ) a colorless stroma, or liquid, 
in which are embedded (2) green granules; (3) colorless gran- 
ules; (4) protein masses; (5) starch grains; and (6) a mem- 
brane which surrounds the whole. The green granules are 
looked upon as the COo assimilation bodies ; the colorless grains 
are supposed to assist in the storing of starch or in the produc- 
tion of diastase, the conditions for these processes being directly 
opposite, i.e., when COo assimilation is active, starch is stored, 
and when this process is not going on. as at night, diastase is pro- 
duced and the starch is dissolved. The protein grains may be in 
the nature of a reserve material of the plastid and are also prob- 
ablv formed as a result of CO.. assimilation. 


While the protoplasm has been termed by Huxley " The phys- 
ical basis of life," the chloroplasticl has been spoken of as the 
mill which supplies the world with its food, for it is by the 
process of photosynthesis that the energy of the sun is con- 
verted into vital energy, and starch and other products formed, 
which become not only the source of food for the plant itself, 
but also the source of the food-supply of the animals which 
feed upon plants. Ii: other words, horse-power is derived 
from the energy of the sun which is stored by the chloroplastids 
in the plant. 

Chromoplastids. In many cases, as in roots, like those of 
carrot, or flowers and fruits, which are yellowish or orange- 
colored, there is present a corresponding yellow pigment, and to 
this class of pigments the name chromophyll may be applied. 
wSome of these pigments, as the carotin in carrot, have lieen iso- 
lated in a crystalline condition (see Frontispiece). 

Chromoplastids usually contain, as first pointed out by Schim- 
per and Meyer, protein substances in the form of crystal-like 
bodies ; starch-grains may also be present. The chromoplastids 
are ver}- variable in shape and in other ways are markedly differ- 
ent from the chloroplastids. They are more unstable than the 
chloroplastids, and are formed in underground parts of the plant, 
as in roots, as well as in parts exposed to the light, as in the flower. 
Their formation frequently follows that of the chloroplastids, as 
in the ripening of certain yellow fruits, such as apples, oranges, 
persimmons, etc. 

The PLASTiD PIGMENTS are distinguished from all other color- 
substances in the plant by the fact that they are insoluble in water 
and soluble in ether, chloroform and similar solvents. In fact 
they are but little affected by the usual chemical reagents under 
ordinary conditions. 

Apart from the difference in color, the yellow pigment (chro- 
mophyll) is distinguished from the green (chlorophyll) by the 
fact that the latter is said to contain nitrogen, and also by their 
difference in behavior w^hen examined spectroscopically, chloro- 
phyll giving several distinct bands in the yellow and orange por- 
tion of the spectrum, which arc wanting in the spectrum of the 
yellow principle. 



The non-protoplasmic constituents of plants may be said to 
differ from the protoplasmic cell-contents in two important partic- 
ulars, namely, structure and function. For convenience in con- 
sidering them here, they may be grouped as follows : 

(i) Those of definite form including (a) those which are 
colloidal or crystalloidal, as starch and inulin; (b) those which 
are crystalline, as the sugars, alkaloids, glucosides, calcium oxal- 
ate ; (c) composite bodies, as aleurone grains, which are made 
up of a number of different substances. 

(2) Those of more or less indefinite form, including tannin, 
gums and mucilages, fixed and volatile oils, resins, gum-resins, 
oleo-resins, balsams, caoutchouc, and also silica and calcium 



Starch is the first visible product of photosynthesis al- 
though it is probable that simpler intermediate products are first 
formed. This substance is formed in the chloroplastid (see 
Frontispiece) and is known as assimilation starch. Starch 
grains are usually found in the interior of the chloroplastid, but 
may attain such a size that they burst through the boundary wall 
of the plastid, which latter in the final stage of the growth of the 
starch grain forms a crescent-shaped disk attached to one end of 
ihc grain, as in Pellionia. Starch is changed into soluble car- 
bohydrates by the aid of ferments and probably other substances, 
and in this form is transported to those portions of the plant 
requiring food. The starch in the medullary rays and in other 
cells of the wood and bark of plants is distinguished by being in 
the form of rather small and nearly spherical grains. In rhi- 
zomes, tubers, bulbs and seeds the grains are, as a rule, quite 
large, and possess more or less distinct characteristics for the 
plant in which they are found. Starch of this kind is usually 
spoken of as reserve starch. 

Occurrence of Starch. Starch is found in most of the 
alga; and many of the mosses, as well as in the ferns and higher 


1 62 


plants. The amount of starch present in the tissues of plants 
varies. In the root of manihot as much as 70 per cent, has been 
found. This constituent also varies in amount according to the 
season of the year. Rosenberg has observed that in certain peren- 
nial plants there is an increase in the amount of starch during 
the winter months, whereas in other plants it decreases or may 
entirely disappear during this period. In the latter case, from six 
weeks to two months in the spring are required for its re-forma- 
tion, and about an equal period is consumed in the fall in effect- 
ing its solution. 

Fig. 95. Microphotograph of the rhombic prisms of Asparaein (amido-succinamic 
acid) which occurs in Althaea, glycyrrhiza. the roots of Robinia pseudacacia and is rather 
widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom. (See Part IV.) 

Structure and Composition of Starch Grains. Fhc foriiml i 
which is generally accepted for starch is (C(jHjoO-), this Ijeirg 
recognized by Pfeffer, Tollens and Mylius. It is supposed that 
the molecule of starch is quite complex, it being composed of dif- 
ferent single groups of CgHioO., or multiples of the same. While 
this formula may be accepted in a general way, still it has been 
.shown that there arc at least two substances which enter into the 
composition of the starch grain, and more recent studies tend 



to show that it is in the nature of a sphero-crystalloid,- resembUng 
inuhn in some respects. Starch grains have an interesting struc- 
ture. They vary in shape from ovoid or spherical to polygonal, 
and have a more or less distinct marking known as the " hilum," 
" nucleus " or the point of origin of growth. The substances 
of which the grains are composed are arranged in concentric 
layers or lamellae which are more or less. characteristic and which 
sometimes become more distinct on the application of certain 


-. . 







Fig. 96. Successive stages in the swelling and disintegration of starch grains in the 
presence of water on the application of heat (6o-7o C.),.or certain chemicals. Potato 
starch i-io; wheat starch II-.22. 

reagents (Figs. 96, 97). The point of origin of growth and alter- 
nate lamellae are stained by the use of gentian violet and other 
aniline dyes, which may be taken to indicate that these layers 
contain a colloidal substance somewhat resembling a mucilage, 
while the alternating layers are stained with dilute iodine solu- 
tions and arc probably composed of soluble starch, this latter cor- 
responding to the a-amylose of Arthur Meyer or the granulose 
described by Nageli. The peripheral layer of the grain appears 
to be a distinct membrane. It is quite elastic, more or less porous, 
and takes up stains readily. 


While starch grains usuahy occur singly, they are not infre- 
quently found in groups of two, three or four grains, when they 
are spoken of as two-, three-, or four-compound. In some of the 
cereals, as rice and oat, they are lOO-compound or more. The 
individuals in compound grains are in some cases easily sepa- 
rated from one another. This occurs frequently in microscopical 
preparations, and is especially noticeable in the commercial 

The various commercial starches belong to the class of reserve 
starches and may be distinguished by the following characteristics : 

( 1 ) The shape of the grain, which may be spherical, ellip- 
soidal, ovoid, polygonal, or of some other characteristic form 
(Figs. 316, 317). 

(2) The size of the grain, which varies from 1 or 2 fi 
to about 100 fj. in diameter. 

(3) The position of the point of origin of growth, which may 
be central (Fig. 316, C, D) or excentral (Fig. 316, A, B). 
In some cases there are apparently two points of origin of growth 
in a single grain, and it is then spoken of as " half-compound," 
as in potato (Fig. 316. A). 

(4) The shape of the point of origin of growth, which may 
be spherical, as in potato (Fig. 316, A) \ cross-shaped, as in 
maranta (Fig. 316, B) ; a three- or five-angled fissure or cleft, 
as in corn (Fig. 316, D), or indistinct or wanting, as in wheat 
(Fig. 316, C). 

(5) The convergence of the lamellae, which may be either 
toward the broad end of the grain, as in maranta (Fig. 316, 5), 
or toward the narrow end. as in potato (Fig. 316, A). In most 
grains the lamellae are indistinct or wanting, as in wheat and corn 
(Fig. 316, C, D). 

(6) Behavior toward dilute iodine solutions, the color pro- 
duced varying from a deep blue in most starches to a red or yel- 
lowish red, as in the amylodextrin grains of mace. 

(7) The temperature (45-// C.) at which tlie " kleister " 
or paste is formed, and its consistencv. 

(8) The appearance as viewed by polarized light, the distinct- 
ness of the cross, as well as the degree of color produced, varying 
considerably as Nichol's prism is revolved (Figs. T75a, 322), 


(9) Behavior toward various reagents, as chromic acid, cal- 
cium nitrate, chlor-zinc-iodide, diastase and various anihne stains, 
showing pecuharities of both structure and composition (Fig. 96). 

General Properties of Starch. If starch is triturated with 
water and the mixture filtered, the filtrate does not give a reaction 
with iodine solution ; if, on the other hand, the starch is previously 
triturated with sand and then with water, the filtrate becomes blue 
on the addition of iodine solution. It appears that in the latter 
operation the wall of the grain is broken and the soluble starch 
present in the grain is liberated. 

If dry starch and iodine are triturated together no color or, 
at the most, a faint blue color is produced; whereas, if a little 
water is added and the trituration repeated, a deep blue color is 
immediately produced. 

The blue color of starch solution and iodine disappears on the 
application of heat, but slowly returns on cooling the solution, 
but not with the same degree of intensity, part of the iodine 
being volatilized. 

When starch is heated with glycerin it dissolves, and if alco- 
hol is added to the solution, a granular precipitate is formed which 
is soluble in water, the solution giving a blue reaction with iodine. 

When starch is heated with an excess of water at 100 C. for 
even several weeks, dextrinization of the starch does, not take 
place, i.e., the solution still gives a blue color wath iodine. If, how- 
ever, a mineral acid be added, it is ciuickly dextrinized, turning 
violet-red, reddish and yellowish with iodine ; finally, maltose 
and dextrose are produced, these giving no reaction with iodine, 
but reducing Fehling's solution. The ferments and other chemi- 
cals have a similar efifect on starch. 

When dry starch is heated at about 50 C. from 15 to 30 min- 
utes the lamellae and crystalloidal structure become better defined 
and the polarizing efifects produced by the grains also become 
more pronounced. When starch is mounted in a fixed oil, as 
almond, the polarizing effects are more pronounced than when 
it is mounted in water, but the inner structure is not usually 
apparent, unless the starch has been previously heated. 

Inulin appears to be an isomer of starch and occurs in solu- 
tion in the ceH-sap of various members of the Compositae and 


several other families, being found in the lower orders of plants 
only in isolated cases. 

It is stored chiefly in the parenchyma cells of the wood and 
bark of rhizomes, tubers and roots, being also found in the medul- 
lary-ray cells. It occurs in the form of a colorless, or yellowish, 
highly refractive, concentrated solution, about 30 per cent, being 
present in plants during the early fall and spring, when it exists 
in greatest amount. During winter and also during summer it is 
changed to levulose. 

According to Dragendorff there are two forms of inulin ; one 
of which is amorphous and easily soluble in water, and another 
which is crystalline and difficultly soluble in water. The latter 
is probably, however, a modification of the former, and it is not 
unlikely that the various principles known as pseudoinulin, inu- 
lenin, helianthenin and synantherin are all modifications of inulin. 

If inulin-containing plants are preserved in alcohol and exam- 
ined by aid of the microscope, the inulin will be found to have 
separated in the form of sphere-crystalloids, which are attached 
to the cell wall (Fig. loi, E; Fig. 105) ; but if the material is 
first allowed to dry out, the inulin will be found in irregular, 
almost gum-like lumps, which are with more or less difficulty dis- 
solved in water. 

Drugs Containing Inulin. Inulin, in the form of irregular, 
strongly refractive masses, is found in the following drugs : 
Inula, lappa, pyrethrum and taraxacum. 


The sugars constitute a group of crystalline principles of 
wide distribution. They occur in the cell-sap, from which by 
evaporation or on treatment with alcohol they may be crystallized 
out. Quite a large number of distinct principles belonging to this 
class have been recognized, of which the following may be men- 
tioned : 

Dextrose (grape-sugar or dextro-glucose) is found in sweet 
fruits, the nectaries of the flowers, and stems and leaves of various 
plants. It crystallizes in needles and varies in amount from i to 2 
per cent, (in peaches), to 30 per cent, in certain varieties of 

MORPHOLOCiV OF lll(,liI':R I'LAXTS. 167 

grapes. It also occurs in combination with other principles, form- 
ing the glucosides. 

Levulose (fructose, fruit-sugar or levo-glucose) is associated 
with dextrose, occurring in some instances even in larger quan- 
tities than the latter. 

Sucrose (saccharose or cane-sugar) is found rather widely 
distributed, as in the stems of corn, sorghum and the sugar-cane ; 
in roots, as the sugar-beet ; in the sap of certain trees, as sugar- 
maple and some of the palms ; in the nectaries and sap of certain 
flowers as fuchsia, caryoph}llus and some of the Cactaceae ; in 
seeds, as almond and chestnut, and in various fruits, as figs, mel- 
ons, apples, cherries, in some plants, as in sugar-cane, the yield is 
as high as 20 per cent. It crystallizes in monoclinic prisms or pyra- 
mids and forms insoluble compounds with calcium and strontium. 

Maltose is found in the germinating grains of cereals (see 
malt ) ; it forms colorless, needle-shaped crystals resembling those 
of dextrose, and forms compounds with calcium, strontium, 
barium and acetic acid. 

Trehalose occurs in some fungi, as ergot and Agaricus inns- 
car ius the latter containing as much as 10 per cent, in the dried 

Alannitol occurs in the form of needles or prisms and is found 
in the manna of Fraxinus ornns to the extent of 90 per cent. It 
is also found in some of the Umbelliferse, as Apinni graveolcns, 
some of the Fungi and seaweeds, and is rather widely distributed. 

Dulcitol, which is closely related to mannitol, is found in 
l:ii(in\niiis curopccus and in most of the plants of the Scroph- 

Gentianose occurs in the root of Gcntiana Intca. 

The alkaloids probably arise in the protoplasm. Later 
thev appear in the cell-sap in combination with various plant 
acids, as malic, tannic and others, and may be precipitated by 
the so-called alkaloidal reagents. They occur in greatest amount 
in those cells which are in a potential, rather than an active con- 
dition, being associated with starch, fixed oils, aleurone grains, 
and other reserve products, in the roots, rhizomes and seeds. 
They are found in fruits in greatest amount during the develop- 
ment of the seed, but after the maturing of the latter they slowly 


disappear, as in poppy- and coniuni. The occurrence of alkaloids 
in the walls of the cells of certain plants, as in nux vomica, is 
probably due to their imbibition by the wall as a result of patho- 
logical changes in the cell (p. 437). 

Many of the alkaloids which have been isolated by chemical 
means are in the nature of decomposition products of those nat- 
urally occurring in the plant, as certain of the alkaloids of tobacco, 
tea, coffee, cinchona, opium, etc. The alkaloids are of more fre- 
quent occurrence in the dicotyledons than in the monocotyledons, 
and are rather characteristic for certain groups, as those of the 
genera Strychnos, Cinchona, Erythroxylon, Papaver, etc. 

While the microchemical study of the alkaloids requires 
considerable technic, still, in certain drugs, their detection 
is quite simple, as in nux vomica, strophanthus and hydrastis 
(Fig. 292). 

The glucosides, like the alkaloids, are also probably formed 
in the protoplasm. They are compounds of glucose and other 
principles and may be classed as reserve products. In some 
instances they readily separate out in the plant cell, as hesperidin ; 
while others. give characteristic color-reactions, as crocin, salicin 
and coniferin, but in most instances they are with difficulty 
detected by microchemical means. 

Gluco-alkaloids represent a class of compounds intermedi- 
ate between the alkaloids and glucosides, possessing characteristics 
of each. To this class belongs achilleine, found in various species 
of Achillea, and also solanine, found in a number of species of 
Solanum. ( See pages 373-375-) 

Cell-sap Colors. The majority of the other color-sub- 
stances found in the higher plants besides the green and yellow 
principles previously mentioned occur in solution in the cell-sap, 
and may be in the nature of secondary substances derived from 
the plastid pigments, or they may be produced directly by the 
protoplasm. Upon making sections of the tissues containing cell- 
sap color-substances, not infrequently strikingly contrasting col- 
ors are observed in contiguous cells ; as in the petals of the poppy 
and petals of certain lilies, where we find some cells of a deep 
purple color, others of a deep red and still others of intermediate 


These substances are easily extracted with water or dihite 
alcohol and are all more or less affected by certain chemicals 
(many of which occur naturally in the plant), such as citric acid, 
oxalic acid, salts of calcium, iron, aluminum, etc. 

A number of plant pigments of this class are used as indi- 
cators in volumetric chemical analysis, their use in this connection 
being dependent upon their sensitiveness to acids and alkalies. 
The fact that they respond to iron salts, that is, give a blue or 
green reaction with these salts, would indicate that they are 
associated with tannin or that they are tannin-like compounds, as 
has been supposed' by some writers, but they behave very differ- 
ently from tannin toward other reagents, such as organic acids, 
alkalies, lime water and solution of alum. 

An examination of the color-substances of a large number of 
plants shows that the flower color-substances are distributed in 
all parts of the plant. For example, the flower color-substance of 
the rose occurs in the leaves and prickles as weJl as in the petals. 

The color-substance in the root of the radish closely corre- 
sponds to that in the flowers, while the one in the grains of black 
Mexican corn corresponds to that in corn silk. 

The cell-sap color-substances are usually found in greatest 
amount at the tips of the branches, this being well marked in the 
foliage of the rose, and may be said to be rather characteristic 
of spring foliage. Not infrequently in the purple beech the young 
leaves will be of a distinct purplish-red color and almost entirely 
free from chlorophyll, suggesting a corresf)ondence in position 
and color to a flower. 

Color in Autumn Leaves. The coloring matters in both 
spring and autumn leaves closely resemble the cell-sap color- 
substances of flowers, although it is the spring leaves which give 
the most satisfactory results when examined. The fact that in 
the autumn leaves there is little or none of the plastid pigment 
present w^ould point to the conclusion that the color-substances 
occurring in these leaves are in the nature of by-products and of 
no further use to the plant. Of course in the case of autumn 
leaves we know that these products cannot be further utilized 
by the plant, and for this reason we are justified in regarding 
them as waste products. 


So-called White Colors. The so-called white colors in 
plants do not properly belong to either class, but may be said to 
be appearances due rather to the absence of color, and depending 
upon the reflection of light from transparent cells separated by 
relatively large intercellular spaces containing air. In other words 
the effect produced by these cells may be likened to that pro- 
duced by the globules in an emulsion. The white appearance is 
most pronounced in the pith cells of certain stems, where on 
the death of the cells the size of the intercellular spaces is in- 
creased and the colorless bodies in the cells as well as the walls 
reflect the light like snow crystals. 

Calcium oxalate is found in many of the higher plants, and 
in the algs and fungi as well ; while in the mosses, ferns, grasses 
and sedges it is seldom found. It occurs in plants in crystals of 
either the monoclinic or tetragonal system (Figs. 281, 282). The 
crystals dissolve in any of the mineral acids without effervescence 
and their identity is usually confirmed by the use of dilute hydro- 
chloric acid. The crystals of the monoclinic system are rather 
widely distributed, while those of the tetragonal system are less 
frequent in their occurrence, being found in species of Allium, 
Tradescantia and Begonia, in Paitlozvnia imperialis and in the 
Cactaceje. The crystals belonging to the monoclinic system in- 
clude a number of forms, as follows: (i ) Rosette aggregates, or 
what are commonly termed rosette-shaped crystals; (2) prisms, 
pyramids and elongated or irregular polygonal-shaped crystals : 
(3) cr^stal-fibers ; (4) raphides ; (5) sphenoid micro-cr)stals 
and ((1) nienibrane crystals. 

Rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate consist of numerous 
small prisms and pyramids, or hemihedral crystals more or less 
regularly arranged around a central axis, ami have the appear- 
ance of a rosette or star (Fig. 281, A). The development of 
these aggregates mav be readily observed in the stem of Datura 
straiiioniiiiii. Crystals of this class are more widely distributed 
than any of the others, and are found in a number of drugs. 
(See chapter on Powdered Drugs.) 

Monoclinic prisms and pyramids are also widely distrib- 
uted and are frecjuently so nuxHfied in form that they are of an 
elongated or irregular polygonal shape (Fig. 281, C, E). The 

MORillDLOGV OV 111(;11I-:R ['I.AXTS. T7T 


crystals of this group are sometimes mistaken for silica, owing to 
the fact that in some instances the lumen of the cell is completely 
filled by the crystal, and the inner wall having the contour of the 
crystal, it is impossible to determine whether the crystal is af- 
fected by the use of hydrochloric acid. It should be stated in 
this connection that silica never occurs as a cell-content in sharp, 
angular crystals, but either in more or less ellipsoidal or irregular 
hollow masses, or in somewhat solid, irregularly branching 

Crystal Fibers. In cjuite a number of drugs a single mono- 
clinic prism occurs in each of the parenchyma cells adjoining 
the sclerenchymatous fibers, and to this single longitudinal row 
of superimposed cells the name crystal fiber has been applied 
(Fig. 282, B). 

Raphides are groups of needle-shaped crystals which are 
found in various plants (Fig. 281, B). These have been mistaken 
by several observers for calcium phosphate. Calcium phosphate, 
however, occurs in plants either in solution or in combination 
with protein substance. The cells containing raphides are long, 
thin-walled and contain sooner or later a mucilage, which arises 
from the cell-sap and behaves with reagents much like cherry- 
gum. The cells are either isolated or occur in groups placed 
end to end, as in Veratrum viride. 

Micro-crystals are exceedingly small (about 0.2 to 10 /u, in 
diameter), apparently deltoid or arrow-shaped, and so numerous 
as to entirely fill the parenchyma cells in which they occur, giving 
the cells a grayish-black appearance which readily distinguishes 
them from other plant cells (Figs. 175a, 281, D). It has been 
supposed that they are tetrahedrons, but they are probably 
sphenoids in the monoclinic system, inasmuch as monoclinic 
prisms occur in neighboring cells in the same plant or drug, as 
in stramonium, quassia, etc. 

Membrane Crystals. There are several forms of crystals 
which may be included in this group. The so-called Rosanoff 
crystals consist of rosette aggregates attached to inward-protrud- 
ing walls of the plant cell. These, however, do not concern us so 
much as the large monoclinic crystals which have a membrane 
surrounding them. The crystal first appears in the cell-sap and 


then miiiicrous oil globules appear iu the protoplasm arouiul it ; 
later some of the walls of the cell thicken and grow around the 
crystal, which they finally completely envelop, as in Moraceae. 


The proteins are nitrogenous compounds, most of which con- 
tain sulphur and some of which contain phosphorus. Their 
constitution or the molecular structure of their molecules has not 
been determined, but they are very large, and are built up of amino- 
acids, the simplest of which is glycocoll ( amino-acetic acid). 

Apart from the protoplasm found in living cells, the pro- 
portion of proteins in plants is relatively small, except in seeds, 
where they serve as nutriment during the germinating period, 
being made available by the action of proteolytic enzymes. 
Most of the plant proteins are globulins, and collectively have 
been termed phyto-globulins. (i) The globulins are insoluble 
in pure water and in dilute acids, but are soluble in dilute 
solutions of sodium chloride ( i to 20 per cent. ) , ammonium 
chloride, sodium sulphate and dilute solution of potassium hydrate, 
from which solutions they may be precipitated bv dilution, 
dialysis, or acidification with COo or dilute acids, or by " salting 
out" by the use of strong or saturated solutions of ammonium 
sulphate, magnesium sulphate or sodium chloride. (2) The 
proteins which contain phosphorus are sometimes called phyto- 
vitellins. as legumin in peas, which contains 0.35 per cent, of 
phosphorus. A third class of plant proteins, which are alcohol- 
soluble, are found in cereals, as the gliadin of wheat and rye 
and the zein of maize. The cohesive and doughing properties 
of wheat flour are attributed to the association of gliadin and 
another protein called glutenin. 

Some of the plant proteins occur naturally in the crystalline 
form, either free in the cytoplasm, as in the potato tuber (Fig. 97, 
A), or as components of aleurone grains, as in the seeds of 
Ricinus couununis and P)razil nuts (Figs. 97, D : 122, D). Phyto- 
globulins in the form of crystals and spheroids have been ob- 
tained from extracts of flax-seed, hemp-seed. Brazil-nut, castor- 
oil seeds and others. Protein crystals are, according to Wich- 
mann, isomorphic, and probably belong to the hexagonal system. 



Aleurone grains are made up of protein-er} stalloitls, globoids 
and a ground mass, the whole being enelosed b\- a membrane- 
like material. The}' may be studied by taking- advantao-e 
of the difference in solubility of the substances composing them. 
The membrane is a protoplasmic membrane and, while soluble 
in water, remains intact on examining sections in any of the 



Fig. 97. Protein crystalloids: A, crll of tuber of white potato (Solanum iuberosu-it) 
showing protein crystalloids (k), starch grains (st). nucleus (n): B, aleurone grains of the 
seed of the castor-oil plant {Ricinus communis); C, aleurone grains of fruit of fennel 
(Fceniculum vulgare) containing large calcium oxalate crystals (Ca) which are strongly 
polarizing as shown in the isolated grains; D, aleurone grains of Brazil nut (Bertholletia 
excelsd). g, globoids; k. protein crystalloids. 

fixed oils, as cotton-seed oil. L'suall\ seeds wdiich contain 
aleurone are rich in fixed oils, and if this oil is first removed 
by placing fresh sections in alcohol, or alcohol and ether, the 
subsequent study is facilitated. If the sections thus treated 
are mounted in water, the membrane gradually dissolves, leaving 


the crystalloids, globoids and calcium oxalate. On adding a 
o.i to I per cent, solution of either sodium or potassium hydrate, 
the crystalloids dissolve, the globoids and calcium oxalate crystals 
remaining unaffected. The globoids may be dissolved by the 
use of a I per cent, acetic acid solution, or concentrated solu- 
tions of anmionium sulphate or monopotassium phosphate. The 
calcium oxalate remaining may then be treated with hydrochloric 
acid in the usual way. 


Cystoliths. Occasionally cells are found among the paren 
chyma or in the inner row of the epidermal cells on the upper side 
of the leaf, the walls of which form an inward protrusion intn tlie 
cell and l)ecome impregnated with and encrusted by calcium car- 
l)onate, giving rise to more or less stalked bodies known as cysto- 
liths (Fig. 221). The calcium carbonate dissolves on the 
application of acetic acid, leaving a core which responds to the 
tests for cellulose. Cystoliths are not of common occurrence, 
being found with but few exceptions in the two families Acan- 
thace^e and Moraceae, and in a few species of the Cucurbitacese. 
in the leaves of the cultivated rub])er plant the cystoliths have 
long stalks, whereas in cannabis indica (Fig. 279), they are 

Tannin and Tannoids. Tannins are astringent principles 
which belong to the class of phenol acids and give blue or green 
precipitates with iron salts. The tannoids, in addition, precipitate 
albuminous compounds, and when applied to animal hides con- 
vert them into leather. These principles are widely distributed, 
occurring dissolved in the cell-sap, in parenchyma cells or 
in distinct reservoirs or vessels, and vary in amount from 
T per cent, or less to as high as 70 per cent, in Chinese galls. 
Tannin may be precipitated in the plant cells by copper acetate. 

Mucilages and Gums. By the terms mucilages and gums 
are meant those substances which are soluble in water, or swell 
very perceptibly in it, and which, upon the addition of alcohol, 
are precipitated in the form of a more or less amorphous or gran- 
ular mass. Mucilage originates in the plant as a cell-content, or 
as a modification of the wall. In the former case it arises as a 



product of the protoplasm, or it may be a disorganization product 
of some of the carbohydrates of the cell-contents. When it arises 
through modification of the wall it is spoken of as '* membrane 
mucilage" (Fig. 99). and owes its origin to several causes: 
cither to a secondary thickening of or an addition to the cell wall, 
or a metamorphosis of it, at least in part. In the latter case it 

Fig. 98. Citrus vulgaris. Longitudinal section of a young fresh fruit showing a lysig- 
enous oil canal or duct. Se, oil; Zs, cell sap; PI, cells in which the walls have been dis- 
solved; f, thin-walled cells; D, thick-walled cells; K, nucleus; Chr, chromoplasts; o, crystals 
of calcium oxalate; e, epidermis. After Meyer. 

may arise either as a disorganization product of the primary wall. 
or of the subsequent lamella making up the walls of the cells of 
the pith, medullary rays, parenchyma and other tissues, as in 
Astragalus guminifcr (Fig. 274), or it may arise as an inter- 
cellular substance. 

The following is a classification of some plants, based upon the 
origin of the mucilage which (hey contain : 



A. Cell-content Mucilage: Tuber of Orchis sp. (salep) ; 
rhizome of Agropyron re pens; bulb of Urginea maritiiiia; bulb of 
Allium sp. (onion, garlic) ; stem, leaf and elements of flower, 

Fk;. oy- Cell-wall mucilage. A, transverse section of seed-coat of flaxseed treated 
with water, showing the swelling of the mucilaginous layer beneath the cutin; B, section 
of Altha;a root showing three large mucilage-cells; C, transverse section of elm bark show- 
ing four large mucilage-cells. 

excepting stamens, of F/o/a tricolor; flower-stalks of Hageiiia 
abyssiiiiea : pulp of fruit of Miisa paradisiaca (banana) ; succulent 
plants, as aluc, etc. (See Fig. 98.) 



P). Cell-membrane Mucilage, a. Secondary thickening of 
wall: Root of Althcra officinalis; bark of Cinnamomum sp. ; bark 
of Rhamnus Frangnla; bark of root of Sassafras officinale; 
inner bark of Ulmns fulva; leaves of Barosma hctulina, and B. 
crcnulata; seed-coat of Cydonia vulgaris; seed-coat of Linuni usi- 
fatissiniiiin: seed-coat of Sinapis alba, and Brassica nigra, 
b. ^Metamorphosis of Cell wall : i. Pith and mediillary-rav cells ; 
Astragalus sp.. yielding tragacanth. 2. Parenchyma cells of 
wood and bark ; cherry gum, yielded by some of the Amygdal- 

Fig. 100. A, B, C, successive stages in the development of the mucilage hairs or glands 
on the lobes of the leaves of Viola tricolor: D, young secretion hair showing some of the cells 
T",-ith large nuclei and several vacuoles; E, mature hair; F, gland showing mucilaginous layer 
beneath the cutin and the protrusion of a portion of the mucilage through the broken wall. 

acege. 3. Various cells of the bark ; Acacia Senegal, yielding gum 
arabic. 4. Primary wall as intercellular substance ; thallus of 
Chondrus crispus (Irish moss). (See Figs. 99, 100, 274.) 

C. Glandular Hairs (Driizenzotten) : Leaf and calyx of Jlola 
tricolor (Fig. 100) and leaves of Coffea arabica (coffee) and of 
Prnnns ax'iuin. 

The origin of mucilage may be satisfactorily studied in the 
fresh tuber of salep and in the root of alth?ea in the former as 
a cell-content mucilage, and in the latter as a cell-wall mucilage. 



The mucilages are further distinguished by their l:)ehavior 
toward reagents ; those which are colored blue by chlor-zinc- 
iodide, and are soluble in ammoniacal solution of cupric oxide, 
are known as cellulose mucilages. To this class belong the mu- 
cilages of the tuber of salep and the seeds of cydonium. ]\Iost of 
the other mucilages, particularly the pectose-mucilages, are col- 
ored by alcoholic and glycerin solutions of the basic aniline dyes. 

^Mucilage which occurs in cells containing raphides is stained 
by corallin, which is not usually the case with the other mucilages. 

Oils, resins and their associated products, like the mucil- 
ages and tannins, are formed in the plant either as a result of the 
activities of the protoplasm, or by reason of abnormal or patho- 
logical changes in some of the constituents of the cell. The oils 
may be divided into two principal classes, namely, the reserve or 
fixed oils, which are more or less intimately associated with the 
protoplasm in fruits and seeds ; and the volatile oils which occur 
in special secretion cells or special canals. The former are large 
parenchyma cells, the walls of which are not infrequently suber- 
ized, and are found in rhizomes, as of calamus (Fig. loi. B) and 
ginger; in barks, as sassafras (Fig. 236) and cascarilla ; in fruits, 
as capsicum, cubeba (Fig. 250), piper and cardamomum. Oil 
secretion canals are formed either as a result of the enlargement 
of the intercellular spaces (Fig. 182), due to the separation of the 
cells, or as a result of the disintegration of a number of cells. 
The former are spoken of as being schizogenous in origin, and 
the latter as lysigenous. These terms are also used to designate 
similar reservoirs holding mucilage, gum-resins and other prod- 
ucts. The schizogenous ducts are of more common occurrence 
and are always surrounded by a layer of epithelial cells (Figs. 
47, 182, 257, 244, etc.), while the lysigenous ducts are generally 
surrounded by remnants of the cell-walls (Fig. 98). The 
latter are also found in other plants of the Rutaceie and in 
Acacia, Prunus, etc., where they contain gum. 

The oils, both fixed and volatile, are insoluble, or nearly so, 
in water ; but are solul)le in ether, carbon disulphide, chloroform, 
benzin. benzol and acetone. A lost of the volatile oils and a few 
of the fixed oils are more or less soluble in alcohol. They are col- 
ored brownish or brownish-black with osmic acid. The volatile 


oils are stained red by alcoholic solutions of alkanet, and some of 
them by certain of the aniline dyes, as fuchsin. The distinctive 
test for the resins is that when treated with concentrated aqueous 
solutions of copper acetate they acquire a green color. They are 
likewise stained by many of the aniline dyes. The reserve or fixed 
oils are liberated as oily globules on treatment of sections with 
sulphuric acid or concentrated chloral solution. 

The volatile oils are not infrequently associated with other 
substances of the plant cell in varying proportions, as resins, gums, 
cinnamic and benzoic acids. Those products which consist chiefly 
of oil and resin are known as oleo-resins, and include turpentine 
and copaiba ; those consisting chiefly of gum and resin and con- 
taining but little volatile oil, are known as gum-resins, and in- 
clude ammoniac, asafetida, galbanum and myrrh ; oleo-resins asso- 
ciated with aromatic acids are known as balsams, as balsam of 
tolu, balsam of Peru, storax and benzoin, which latter is usually 
called a balsamic resin. 

The enzymes or ferments are probably derived from proteins, 
and bring about certain decompositions in the food substances 
in plants previous to their assimilation, and are of quite gen- 
eral distribution in both lower and higher plants. They have 
received different names according to the class of substances 
which they decompose. Thus, those acting upon starch in chang- 
ing it to sugar are known as diastases. Those which change cane 
sugar into dextrose are known as invertases (or invertins), 
while those which act on proteids are called proteolytic. 

One of the interesting properties of the. ferments is that in 
comparison with the amount of ferment employed the product 
formed through its influence is very large. Thus it is stated that 
diastase is able to hydrolize 10,000 times its own bulk of starch. 
Results of this kind are considered to be due to a catalytic action 
of the ferments, i.e., their power of inducing chemical reactions 
by their mere presence without themselves entering into the 
products formed. The ferments require specific temperatures for 
their action, as, for example, emulsin or sinaptase, which decom- 
poses a number of the glucosides at a temperature of 35 to 40 
C, while diastase, the ferment of germinating seeds, requires a 
somewhat higher temperature, namely, 50 to 70 C. 



While some of the vegetable ferments have been isolated and 
are prepared on a commercial scale, as diastase and the peptic 
enzyme papain found in the latex of Carica papaya, in other 
cases the ferment-producing organisms themselves are used in a 
number of industries involving fermentation processes, as the 
yeast-plants and certain of the molds and bacteria. 

The microchemical study of the ferments is attended with cer- 
tain difficulty on account of the lack of specific reagents for their 
detection. The most that can be done is to study the products 
formed by their action upon certain other constituents of the cell. 

Enzymes may be divided into two classes according to 
whether they introduce oxygen or the elements of water sub- 
stances, (i) The former are called oxidase enzymes, and are 
rather limited in number, and include laccase, found in the lacquer 
trees, and those which produce nitric fermentation in nature. 
(2) The latter or hydrolytic enzymes include diastase, which acts 
on starch, changing it into dextrose; inulase, which acts on inu- 
lin, producing levulose ; pectase, acting on pectin, producing vege- 
table jellies ; emulsin or sinaptase, which decomposes amygdalin, 
arbutin, salicin and other glucosides ; myrosin, which acts on the 
glucoside sinigrin (potassium myronate), producing the essen- 
tial oil of mustard, and papain the proteolytic enzyme of Carica 







1 Cytoplasm 

2 Nucleus 

3 Plastids 

4 Calcium Oxalate 

5 Sugars 

6 Alkaloids 

7 Starch 

8 Inulin 

9 Protein Crystal- 


10 Mucilage 

1 1 Tannin 

12 Resin 

13 Oil 

I, 2 and 3 have characteristic appearance (see Frontispiece). 
4. Crystals of characteristic shape, soluble in hydrochloric and 
insoluble in acetic acid. 5. Crystalline in fresh material treated 
with alcohol. The glucoses give a reddish precipitate with Fehl- 
ing's solution. 6. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives either a 
distinct color reaction, as with strophanthus (p. 431), or the sep- 


aration of crystals, as in Hydrastis (Fig. 292). 7. Blue with dilute 
iodine solution, except the dextrin starches, as in mace, which are 
colored red. 8. Sphere-crystalloids in fresh material treated 
with alcohol. 9. (See page 172.) 10. Colored blue with alco- 
holic solutions of methylene blue. 1 1 . Reddish-brown with cop- 
per acetate solutions. 12. Green witli copper acetate solutions. 
13. Separation in the form of large globules on the application 
of sulphuric acid or solution of chloral hydrate. The essential 
oils are more soluble in alcohol than the fixed oils, which are 
usually only completely removed from the cells by the use of 
ether or a similar solvent. 


Origin and Composition. The cell wall is formed by the 

protoplasm, and varies in composition at different stages of the 
growth of the cell, and according to the various functions it has 
to perform. 

In order to thoroughly understand the nature and composi- 
tion of the cell Avail, it is necessary to study the origin and forma- 
tion of new cells. Growth of the plant is attended not only by 
an increase in the size of the cells, but by the division of these 
new cells are also formed. Cells that have the property to divide 
and form new cells are known as meristematic cells and constitute 
the MERiSTEM. The new and dividing walls resulting from the 
division of the cells consist of a number of substances. When a 
cell divides the two daughter protoplasts ^'hich result from the 
division of the nucleus and cytoplasm are separated by the forma- 
tion of a new wall between them (Fig. 94, 10). The first hyer 
formed is apparently dififerent from the subsequent layers and is 
known as the middle plate or middle lamella. This layer is 
soluble in, or readily attacked by, solutions of the alkalies or solu- 
tions containing free chlorine. It is insoluble in sulphuric acid, 
and readily stained by the aniline dyes. While usually more or 
less permanent, this middle plate may be finally absorbed, as m 
the glandular hairs of kamala, or it may be changed into mucilage, 
as in chondrus, or transformed into pectin compounds, as in fleshy 
roots and fruits. 


To this middle plate is added on either side by the newly 
formed protoplasts a layer of substance closely resembling cellu- 
lose, this constituting the primary membrane or primary lamella. 

Still other layers may be added, consisting of one or more of 
the following substances : cellulose, or some modification of it ; 
wax, silica or calcium oxalate, these layers constituting what may 
be termed the secondary lamella. 

Cellulose in its various modifications constitutes the greater 
proportion of the cell wall. The cellulose making up the 
cotton fiber may be said to be the typical cellulose, and 
is known as " cotton cellulose." It is soluble in copper ammo- 
nium sulphate solution ; is colored blue with chlor-zinc-iodide solu- 
tion or iodine and sulphuric acid, and is stained by acid phenolic 
dyes, as alizarin, if previously treated with basic mordants, as 
basic salts of aluminum, etc. 

According to their origin in the plant, or their behavior toward 
reagents, the cellulose walls may be divided into the following 
groups: (i) Lignocellulose walls; (2) protective cellulose walls; 
(3) reserve cellulose walls; (4) mucilage cellulose walls, and (5) 
mineral cellulose walls. 

Lignocellulose walls are composed of true cellulose and a 
non-cellulose (the so-called lignin or lignone), these constituting 
the woody (so-called lignified) portion of plants and, in some 
instances, also the bast portion of the bark. The lignocelluloses 
are colored yellow with chlor-zinc-iodide, or iodine and sulphuric 
acid. On account of their containing in some instances furfurol, 
coniferin, vanillin, cinnamic aldehyde, benzaldehyde or other alde- 
hydic substances, they give definite color-reactions with certain 
reagents. They are also stained by the aniline dyes, as fuchsin. 
safranin, gentian violet, aniline blue, methylene blue. etc. 

A 2 per cent, phloroglucin solution, used in conjunction with 
hydrochloric acid, gives a reddish-violet color with the lignocellu- 
loses, although there are some celluloses of this class which do not 
respond to this test, as flax (the bast fibers of Linum) ; while in 
other plants phloroglucin may occur as a constituent of the cells. 

Aniline hydrochloride with hydrochloric acid and aniline sul- 
phate with sulphuric acid produce a golden-yellow color in cell 
walls containing lignocelluloses. 


Protective cellulose walls are composed of mixtures of lig- 
nocellulose and oils and waxes, and frequently contain in addi- 
tion tannin, vanillin and other compounds. In the cuticle or epi- 
dermis of leaves and green stems, the cellulose is associated with 
a fatty compound known as cutin (or cutosej, while in the cork 
of stems and roots it is combined with suberin (or suberose). 
This class of celluloses is distinguished from cotton cellulose and 
lignocellulose by being insoluble in sulphuric acid. 

Reserve cellulose walls are those found in various seeds, as 
in cofifee. date, nux vomica, etc. They behave toward reagents 
much Hke the true celluloses (Fig. 173). 

Mucilage cellulose walls consist of cellulose and nuicilage 
and are found in all parts of the plant, and in the case of seeds 
are associated with the protective celluloses. They dissolve or 
swell in water, are colored blue or yellowish with iodine, and are 
stained with alcoholic or glycerin solutions of methylene bhie. 

Mineral cellulose walls are composed of cellulose and vari- 
ous inorganic substances, as silica, calcium oxalate or calcium 
carbonate. These are more commonly found in the cell wall of 
the lower plants, as Algas, Fungi and Equisetaceae. Calcium car- 
bonate also occurs in the cystoliths of the various genera of the 
Moraceae and Acanthaceae (Fig. 221). 

From what has just been said of the chemical composition and 
structure of the cell wall, it is seen that it consists of lamellae or 
layers of different substances, and in no case does it consist of 
but a single substance ; but for convenience w^e speak of a wall as 
consisting of cellulose, lignin, or suberin, meaning thereby that 
the wall gives characteristic reactions for these substances. 

Lamell.e. In some cells, as in lignified cells, the lamellae 
are quite apparent. In other cases the use of .reagents, as chromic 
acid, or chlor-zinc-iodide, is necessary to bring out this structure. 
The layering which is observed in transverse sections of the cell 
wall is spoken of as stratification of the wall (Fig. 173), whereas 
the layering observed in longitudinal or tangential sections is 
referred to as striation of the wall (Figs. 166, 299, B). 

Thickening or Marking of Walls. In the formation of 
the cell wall each appears to work in unison with its neigh- 
bors for tlic building up of the plant. The thickening of the walls 


of the cell is primarily for the purpose of strengthening the walls, 
but if the walls were uniformly thickened, osmosis, or the trans- 
ferrai oi cell-sap from one cell to another, would be hindered. 
Thus we find that the contiguous walls of the cells are thickened 
at definite places opposite each other, leaving pores or canals 
which permit rapid osmosis. The pores thus formed are known 
as simple pores, and when seen in surface view are somewhat 
elliptical or circular in outline, and may be mistaken for some of 
the cell-contents. These thickenings assume a number of forms, 
which are quite characteristic for the plants in which they are 
found. They may have the form of transverse or oblique rings, 
longitudinal spirals, or be ladder-like or reticulate in appearance 
(Fig. I02). In other instances the thickening of the wall is quite 
complex, as in the wood of the pines and other Coniferse (Fig. 
103). The thickening, or sculpturing, as it is sometimes called, 
may not only occur on the inner surface of the wall, when it is 
spoken of as centripetal, but may also take place on the outer 
surface, when it is known as centrifugal; as examples of the 
latter, may be mentioned the spores of lycopodium (Fig. 278b) 
and the pollen grains of the Compositse (Fig. 280). 


Upon examining sections of various portions of the plant, it 
is observed that not only do the cell-contents and cell wall vary 
in composition, but that the cells are of different forms, depend- 
ing more or less upon their functions. Groups of cells which 
are similar in form and function constitute the various tissues of 
the plant ; and they may be classified, for convenience of study, 
as follows: (i) parenchyma cells, (2) mechanical cells, (3) 
conducting cells and (4) protective cells, 

Parenchyma. Under the head of parenchyma are included 
those cells which are nearly isodiametric and thin-walled, the walls 
consisting of cellulose lamellae (Fig. loi. A). They may contain 
both protoplasmic and non-protoplasmic cell-contents. Accord- 
ing to the function and nature of contents, three kinds of paren- 
chyma cells are recognized: (a) Chlorophyll-parenchyma or 
assimilation parenchyma contains numerous chloroplastids and 



occurs in leaves and all green parts of the plant. (//) Reseuve 
PARENCHYMA occurs in seeds, roots, rhizomes, leaves, and contains 
starch, aleurone grains, fixed oils and other reserve materials. 
The parenchyma in stems and leaves of various of the orchids, 

_ Fig. lor. Forms of cells. A. Transverse section of t|je pith of Tradescantia vir- 
ginica: I, intercellular space; W, cell wall. B. Transverse section of calamus rhizome 
showing a large oil-secretion cell, smaller cells containing starch, and large intercellular 
spaces (I). C. Transverse section of the stem of Phytolacca decandra showing collenchy- 
matous cells beneath the epidermis. D. Longitudinal section of taraxacum root showing 
branched laticiferous tissue (L). E. Transverse section of pyrethrum root: R, oil-secre- 
tion reservoir with oil globules; I, cells with sphere-crystals of inulin, such as separate in 
alcoholic material; L, cells containing irregular masses of inulin, as found in dried material. 
F. Longitudinal section of stem of Cucurhita Pepo: S, sieve-cell with protoplasm-like 
contents, and transverse walls (sieve plates) showing simple pores. 

as well as that of plants of arid regions, which store water, may 
be included in this group, (c) Conducting parenchyma assists 
in the transferral of food from one part of the plant to another. 



Besides these forms of parenchyma there are some special 
kinds which may be mentioned, as the somewhat branching cells 
in leaves, and in the stems of various marsh plants, as in species 
of Jiincus and Pontederia. In calamus, large intercellular spaces 
are formed (Fig. iQi, B). 

The Mechanical Tissue comprises four types of cells : scle- 
rotic, coUenchymatic, stereomatic and libriform. Of these the 
libriform cells are scarcely to be distinguished from the stereo- 
matic cells except by their position, being developed in the inner 
part of the mestome-strands (or vascular bundle), inside the 
cambium ring, hence the libriform cells accompany the vessels or 
tracheae (Fig. 104, WF). 



1 ^_ ,^ ^: 'iX-.-^C; 

Fig. 102. Forms of ducts. A. Longitudinal section of stem of Cucurbita Pepo 
showing various forms of ducts: A, annular; S, spiral; D, double spiral; C, close annular; 
R, reticulate. B. Ducts of glycyrrhiza rhizome: W, wall; B, bordered pores; P, oblique 
simple pores. 

The sclerotic cell is of the parenchymatic type but with very 
thick, lignified walls having many layers and simple pores which 
are spherical in surface sections. This type of cells contains only 
air or an aqueous liquid, but never nutritive matters, as in Cocoa- 
nut, Walnut shells. Vanilla (Fig. 313), poppy capsule (Fig. 314). 
Sclerotic cells are also referred to as " Stone cells " (Figs. 301, 

The Collenchyma cell is elongated, prismatic, with soft walls 
consisting mainly of cellulose and never lignified ; the contents 
being rich in water. Tn transverse section it is readily distin- 
guished by the local thickening of the walls, i.e., at the angles of 
the cells (Fig. loi, c). Pores are rare, but when present they 
are annular or slit-like. Collenchyma occurs near the surface 
of plant organs, as herbaceous stems, when they form ribs, as 



in the Umbelliferce. They are also found in leaves (Figs. 141, 
142, 266, 271) and in fruits, as in the Unibelliferae (Fig. 246). 

The Stereome cell is very long, spindle-shaped, with more or 
less thick walls provided with narrow oblique pores. ' The walls 
consist of cellulose but may also become lignified ; the lumen is 
narrow and mainly contains air. The stereome represents the 
skeleton of plants and is the most important mechanical tissue, 
being much firmer than the collenchyma. The stereome or 

: V ni y . 

Fig. 103. Bordered pores of the tracheids of the wood of Abies alba as viewed in 
longitudinal section: m, middle lamella; v, i, middle and inner layers of walls of contigu- 
ous cells ; C, pore-canal through which sap passes from one cell to another ; L, dome- 
shaped cavity of pore; S, separating wall or closing membrane which is usually thickened 
in the middle as shown at t. In older cells the separating membrane is broken as shown 
in the lower pore in figure 2. At the right in figure 4 is shown a surf ace view of a bordered 
pore, the dotted lines indicating the relation of the circles to. the structure of the pore. 
After Yogi. 

strengthening cells of the cortex are commonly spoken of as " bast 
fibers" (Figs. 104, WF, 299, 300). 

The Libriform cell is the strengthening cell of the xylem and 
as has already been stated accompanies the tracheae. Libriform 
cells are also spoken of as "wood fibers" (Figs. 104. BF, 299, 
300). While the stereome cell is frequently not lignified. the 
libriform cell is usually more or less lignified. giving strong re- 
actions for ligJiin with anilin sulphate or phloroglucin solutions. 



Fig. 103a. Phlox Carolina: A , lower portion of plant showing long roots with numer- 
ous rootlets at the ends; B, parenchyma from cortex of rhizome showing two sclerotic 
cells (s) ; C, cross-section of portion of rhizome showing parenchyma of cortex (p) which 
contains protoplasm and starch grains, endodermis (e), leptome (s), tracheae (v), libriform 
(t), wood parenchyma (w). parenchyma of pith containing starch grains and protoplasm; 
D, isolated sclerotic cells from cortex; E, vessels with annular and spiral thickenings; 
F, libriform cells; G, glandular hair from the leaf. 

Conducting cells or mestome include those cells which are 
chietlv concerned in the transferral of either crude or assimilable 



food materials. The more or less crude inorganic materials are 
carried from the root through the woody portion of the stem to 
the leaves, and from the leaves the products of CO, assimilation, 
as well as other plastic substances, are distributed through some 

Fig. 104. Longitudinal-transverse section of licorice rhizome including the cambium: 
P, parenchyma; T. tracheag or ducts; WP, wood fibers; C, cambium; S, sieve; CF, crystal 
fibers; BF, bast fibers; MR, medullary ray. 

of the tissues of the bark to other parts of the plant. The tissues 
or elements of the wood which conduct food materials arc of sev- 
eral forms and include tracheae or ducts, tracheids and conducting 
parenchyma ; and the elements of the bark which transport the 



assimilable materials, comprise the leptome and conducting- paren- 
chyma (Fig-. 104). Water conducting elements, tracheal ele- 
ments, comprise the vessels (trachese) and the tracheids, which 
resemble each other except that the latter are single cells of 
prosenchymatic shape, while the former are very long tubes, 
varying from cylindrical to prismatic in shape and are arranged 
in long rows in which they are superimposed lengthwise. 

The tracheae or vessels are formed by the disintegration and 
removal of the transverse walls between certain superimposed 
cells, forming an elongated cell or tube, which occasionally retains 
some of the transverse walls (Fig. 102, A, B). The longitudinal 

Fig. 105. I, cross-section of a bast fiber of Begonia as seen by the micropolariscopc. 
2, polariscopic view of a sphero-crystal of inulin in Helianthus tuberosus. After Dippel. 

walls are relatively thin and consist of lignocellulose, giving more 
or less pronounced reactions with phloroglucin or aniline sulphate. 

Four types of vessels or tracheae are known : annular, spiral, 
reticulate and porous. Those having tne thickenings in the form 
of horizontal or oblique rings are known as annular trachea; 
those having the thickenings in the form of spirals, which usually 
run from right to left, are known as spiral trache.^ ; those 
having the thickenings in the form of a reticulation are known as 
reticulated trachea (Figs. 102, 175a, 191), and those with 
spherical or oblique slit pores known as porous trachea or 
vessels (Figs. 104, 220, 287, 303). 

In those vessels in which but few of the transverse walls are 
obliterated, the walls are marked by both simple and bordered 
pores, which latter are described under tracheids. Vessels contain 
water, water-vapor and air; in some cases they contain sugar, 
tannin, nnicilage or resin. 


The tracheids are intermediate in character between tracheae 
and Hbriform, resembHng the former in possessing bordered 
pores (Pig. 103) and scalariform thickenings; and the latter in 
being true cells, which are usually elongated and quite thick- 
walled, the walls giving distinct reactions for lignocellulose with 
phloroglucin or aniline sulphate. 

One of the chief characteristics of tracheids are the bordered 
PORES (Fig. 103). These differ from simple pores in that the 
wall surrounding the pore forms a dome-shaped or blister-like 
protrusion into the cell. On surface view the pores are either 
circular or elliptical in outline, the dome being circular or, if the 
pores are numerous and arranged close together, more or less 
polygonal (Fig. 102, 5). 

The number and distribution of bordered pores in the Coni- 
ferae are quite characteristic for some of the genera, and may be 
studied in any of the pines, the pores being most numerous in 
the radial walls (Fig. 47). 

The leptome or sieve is distinguished from the other con- 
ducting elements in that the walls are thin and are composed of 
cellulose (Fig. loi, F). It consists of superimposed elongated 
cells, the transverse walls of which possess nun;ierous pores which 
are supposed to be in the nature of openings, permitting of the 
direct passage of the contents from one cell to the other. This 
transverse wall, which may be either horizontal or oblique, is 
known as the sieve plate, and the thin places, as pores of the 
sieve. The sieve plates are sometimes also formed on the longi- 
tudinal walls. When the activities of plants are suspended during 
the winter, there is formed on either side of the sieve plates a layer 
of a colorless, mucilaginous substance, known as callus, which has 
somewhat the appearance of collenchyma. but is colored brownish 
by chlor-zinc-iodide. 

The sieve cells contain an albuminous substance somewhat 
resembling protoplasm ; in some instances starch grains have also 
been found. 

When the activities of the sieve tubes have ceased, they be- 
come altered in shape, and are then known as obliterated sieve. 
In the drying of plants a similar alteration is produced, and for 
this reason the sieve of vegetable drugs is of this character. 


Protecting cells include those cells which are located on the 
outer parts of the plant. The function of these cells is to lessen 
the rate of transpiration, or the giving ofif of water; to furnish 
protection against changes of temperature, and to protect the 
inner tissues against the attack of insects ; they also have a me- 
chanical function (Figs. io6; iii, E). 

Depending principally upon their composition, these cells may 
be tUvided into two classes, namely, epidermal cells and cork cells. 

The epidermal cells constitute the outermost layer of the 
plant. They contain cytoplasm but the plastids in some instances 
are wanting ; in some instances they also contain dissolved color- 
ing principles ; and on account of the relatively large amount of 
water which they contain, they are classed among the important 
water-reservoirs of the plant. 

The outer walls are principally characterized by one or more 
lamellae of cutin, these uniting to form a continuous wall. The 
cutin is often associated with wax, this constituting the bloom of 
fruits ; less frequently such inorganic substances as calcium car- 
bonate, calcium oxalate an^ siiica are present, and not infrequently 
mucilage is present, as in the walls of certain seeds ( Fig. 99, A ) . 

On surface view the form of these cells varies from nearly 
isodiametric to oblong ; they may also be polygonal or branched. 
In transverse section their radial diameter is much the shorter. 
In some instances the inner and side walls are considerably thick- 
ened, as in the seeds of a number of the Solanacese (Fig. 302, A). 

The epidermis usually consists of a single layer of cells, but 
may have additional layers underneath forming the hypodermis, 
as in the upper surface of the leaves of species of Ficus ; in some 
instances the hypodermis undergoes a mucilage modification, as 
in the leaves of buchu. (See also Figs. 99, A; 100.) 

Plant Hairs. The epidermal cells are sometimes specially 
modified centrifugally, giving rise to papillse, to which the velvety 
appearance of the petals of flowers is due ; in other cases this 
modification is in the fomi of hairs or trichomes (Figs, no, 
118, 283, 284). These may be imicellular or multicellular, and in 
addition the latter may be glandular or non-glandular. Glandular 
hairs possess a head-like apex, consisting of one or more cells, 
and they secrete oil. mucilage and other substances (Fig. 285). 



Stomata. Distributed among the epidermal cells are pairs 
of crescent-shaped cells having an opening between them, known 
as a pore or stoma, which leads to a cavity ben'eath it. The two 

- C 

Fig. 106. Stomata and water-pores. A. Transverse section through lower surface 
of leaf of stramoniu; stoma, v.-ith guard cells (G), containing cytoplasm, nucleus and 
chloroplastids; K, surrounding cells: A, intercellular cavity usually filled with cell-sap or 
watery vapor; E, epidermal cells; M, mesophyll. B. Surface section of upper surface of 
leaf of V'iola tricolor showing four stomata. C. Surface section of under surface of leaf of 
Viola tricolor showing five stomata. D. A section through the margin of the leaf of Viola 
tricolor showing a tooth with three water-pores. E. A water-pore of l^iola tricolor in 
surface section. 

contiguous cells are known as guard cells (Fig. 106, G). The 
adjoining walls of the guard cells are alike in transverse section, but 
the cells vary in shape in different plants ; they are more or less elas- 



tic, and when the cells are turgescent, as when there is an abund- 
ance of water and root pressure is strongest, the contiguous 
walls of the guard cells recede from each other, forming an open- 
ing between the cells, thus p'ermitting the exit of the excess of 
water taken up by the plant and the exhalation of the oxygen 
given ofif during assimilation, as well as the intake of the carbon 
dioxide used in photosynthesis. The cells beneath the stomata are 
loosely arranged, there being large intercellular spaces so that 
carbon dioxide soon finds its way to the cells containing the 
chloroplastids. On the other hand when the amount of water in 
tlu' i^lnit is reduced below the normal and the plant shows signs 
of wilting the guard cells fiatten and the stoma or pore is closed. 

The guard cells may be slightly raised above or sunk below 
the surrounding epidermal cells, the number of the latter being 
characteristic for certain plants. (Compare Figs. io6, 263, 286.) 

Stomata occur in the largest numbers on the blades of foliage 
leaves, being more numerous on the under surface, except in 
aquatic plants where they occur only upon the upper surface. 

Water Pores. Near the margin of the leaf and directly- 
over the ends of conducting cells, not infrequently occur stomata, 
in which the function of opening and closing is wanting, and 
which contain in the cavity below the opening water and not air, 
thus differing from true stomata (Fig. 106, D, E). These are 
known as water pores, and they give off water in the liquid 
form, the drops being visible on the edges of the leaves of nas- 
turtiums, fuchsias, roses, etc., at certain times. 

Periderm. The epidermis is not adapted for the protection 
of the perennial plant organs on account of its thin, frequently 
delicate structure and its inability to continue with the increase in 
thickness of stems and roots. Hence it becomes replaced by the 
periderm, which consists of a lasting tissue, the cork and of a meri- 
stematic tissue, the piiellogen, which reproduces the cork when 
it becomes torn or destroyed by the continued growth in thick- 
ness of stems or roots. Cork is not only of sub-epidermal origin, 
but may occur deeper in the cortex, or even inside the endodermis. 
In the latter case, as in roots, it owes its existence to the activity 
of the pericambium. Superficial, i.e., hypodermal cork, is ex- 
tremely rare in roots. 



Cork not only occurs as a secondary protective layer, but may 
also arise in other parts of the plant as a result of injury, as in 
leaves, fruits, stems and tubers. It also arises as a result of the 
disarticulation of the leaf in autumn. 

Lenticels may be described as biconvex fissures in the cork 
which permit of the easy access of air to the intercellular 
spaces of the rather loosely arranged cells lying beneath them 
(Fig. 107). They usually arise as the product of a meristem 
situated beneath the stomata of the epidermis, the stomata being 
replaced by them when cork is developed. Several types of lenti- 

FlG. 107. Section through a secondary lenticel in the bark of Sassafras; .e, epidermis, 
st, stone cells; phel, phelloderm derived from secondary phellogen and having thick ligni- 
fied wall; p, parenchyma; c, cork; com, complementary cells. After Weiss. 

eels are distinguished. They are quite characteristic and promi- 
nent in a number of barks, as those of species of Betula, Prunus, 
Rhamnus (Fig. 229), etc. 

Laticiferous or milk tissue occurs in all those plants which 
emit a milk-juice on being cut or otherwise wounded. The juice 
may be colorless, as in the oleander ; whitish, as in the Asclepia- 
dacese and Apocynaceje (Fig. 202) ; or yellowish, as in the Papa- 
veracege. It contains caoutchouc, oils, resins, mucilage, starch, 
calcium oxalate and alkaloids as well. The walls are relatively 
thin and consist chiefly of cellulose. The tissue consists either 
of single cells of indefinite length, as in the Asclepiadaceae, or it 


may consist of a more or less branching net work formed by the 
anastomosing of a number of cells, as in Taraxacum (Fig. loi, 

Special Secretion Cells. In Sanguinaria there occurs a rudi- 
mentary laticiferous tissue, most of the juice being contained, 
however, in special parenchymatous cells, which may be more or 
less isolated, or arranged in irregular longitudinal rows. Cells 
of this character are known as secretion cells and usually contain 
oil, resin, tannin, calcium oxalate, mucilage (Figs. 98; loi, B), 
etc., instead of substances which form an emulsion or milk-juice; 
these cells are distributed in all parts of the plant, and include the 
epidermal cells and glandular hairs. The walls usually consist of 
cellulose but may have lamellae of cutin and suberin, the latter 
being found particularly in the oil-secretion cells of rhizomes, 
roots, barks and fruits (Figs. loi, B; 212; 236; 250). 

In some instances mucilage cells containing raphides occur in 
longitudinal rows resembling the secretion cells of Sanguinaria ; 
in some of the ferns, the barks of elder and locust, and leaves of 
the Crassulacese, the tannin-cells are very much elongated, resem- 
bling the simple laticiferous cells in the Asclepiadacese. 

Oils, resins, mucilage, gum-resins and allied products occur 
quite frequently in special reservoirs or cavities formed as already 
described (p. 178). 



Primary Structure. If we make a transverse section of the 
young portion of a root (Vascular Cryptogam, Gymnosperm or 
Phenogam), we notice the following tissues (Figs. 109-111). 
The outermost tissue is epidermis (E), it being generally thin 
walled and destitute of cuticle; it is as a rule hairy, and these 
hairs, which are relatively long, but always unicellular, are known 
as ROOT-HAIRS (Fig. no, FI) ; they ramify but very seldom. In- 
side the epidermis there is frequently present an exodermis 
(commonly referred to as hypodermis) composed of a single layer 
of cells or at the most of but several layers, the cells of which 
differ in shape and size from those of the epidermis and the ad- 


joining cortical parenchyma. The exodermis takes the place of 
the epidermis when the latter is worn oflF, except in the few cases 
where hypodermal cork becomes developed, as in Cephalanthus, 
Solidago, and Bignoniacese. The root bark is parenchymatic ; 
being commonly referred to as the cortex, and is either homcn 
geneous or divided into two zones, the outer or peripheral being 
composed of thick-walled cells which naturally belong to the 
exodermis and an inner or internal strata made up of thin-walled 
cells. The cells of the cortical parenchyma may contain starch, 
calcium oxalate, calcium carbonate and there may be associated 
with them secretory cells, frequently referred to as " ducts," as 
" resin ducts," etc. The innermost layer of cells of the cortex 
is quite distinct and known as the endodermis (EN). It consists 
always of a single layer of cells, without any intercellular spaces, 
and the radial walls show in transverse section Casparyan spots,' 
depending upon a local folding of the cell-wall, which is here 
suberized. In the course of time the cell-walls of the endodermis 
frequently become thickened, either all around, or only on the 
inner or radial walls, so that we might speak of an O-endodermis 
as in Honduras sarsaparilla (Fig. 194) or an U-endodermis as 
in Mexican sarsaparilla (Fig. 194), according to the manner of 
thickening. This is especially the case in the monocotyledons 
where the walls of the endodermal cells become completely suber- 
ized and impermeable to water. In some roots the cells of 
the endodermis may be uniformly thick-walled throughout, while 
in others some of the cells may remain thin-walled, and these cells, 
the so-called " transition cells " or " passage cells," form channels 
of communication between the cortical parenchyma and the vessels 
of the stele ; they are therefore located just outside the peripheral 
vessels of each ray of the hadrome (or xylem). 

Inside the endodermis is the stele, formerly called the central- 
cylinder. In this the peripheral stratum, sometimes composed 
of two or three layers of cells, represents the peri-cambium. 
The cells are generally thin-walled and in Dicotyledons and 
Gymnosperms are able by cell-division to form cork and secondary 
cortex, but in all vascular plants it is capable of giving rise to 

' Physiologische Pfianzenanatomie. By Dr. G. Haberlandt, p. 245. 



"lateral branches" or "lateral roots" (Fig. 109), hence it is 
frequently referred to as the " rhizogenous layer/' 

Inside the pericambium (by some authors compared with the 
pericycle of the stem) we find strands of leptome (P) alternating 
radially with a corresponding number of strands of hadrome (X). 
The number of these strands vary in the different groups of plants 
(Figs. 109, 193, 217, 220), being highest in the monocotyledons 
where a pith is developed, as in sarsaparilla (Fig. 193), several 
grasses, palms, etc. This peculiar arrangement of the leptome 
and hadrome, as separate strands alternating with each other, 


Fig. 108. A, longitudinal section through the apical region of the stem of the embryo 
of a bean (Phaseolus multiflorus) ; ss, apex; pb, parts of the two first leaves, and their 
axillary buds (k, k,); r, periblem or primary cortex. B, diagram of longitudinal section 
through winter bud of Qucrcus coccinea: P, growing point; L, young leaves; SB, stem 
branches; F, fibro vascular bundle. A, after Sachs. 

and not being located, as in stems, in the same radii, has given 
rise to several adverse views. Some authors have considered 
the root-stele as one single mestome-strand (or fibrovascular 
strand), while others especially of recent date compose the struc- 
ture with that of several mestome strands, and of the hadro- 
CENTRic TYPE where the leptome partly surrounds the hadrome.^ 

' Compare Kattein : Der Morphol. Werth d. Centralcylind. d. Wurzel. 
Cassel, 1897. 



The hadrome contains tracheae or vessels, the peripheral being 
spiral and narrower than the inner, which are scalariform or 
reticulate. The tissue in tlie center of the stele in monocoty- 
ledons is not uncommonly made up of parenchyma cells, and 
corresponds exactly with the pith of the stem. In roots it is often 
called CONJUNCTIVE tissue and the cells may contain starch and 
crystals of calcium oxalate. 

Secondary Structure. In roots that are able to increase in 
thickness (as in Gynmosperms and Dicotyledons), the increase 
depends upon the activity of the pericambium, which develops 
cork outwardly and secondary cortex inwardly, and on the de- 
velopment of a cambium. The latter develops on the inner face 


Fig. 109. A transverse section through the root of a germinating pea-plant (Pisum) 
about 40 mm. from the tip, showing the origin of a root-branch (RB); E, epidermis; C, pri- 
mary cortex; X, hadrome (vessels); P, leptome (sieve); EN.'endodermis. 

of the leptome and extends from there to the outside of the 
peripheral vessels of the hadrome (Fig. iii), thus a continuous 
cambial zone gradually arises. From this zone secondary 
tracheae or vessels become developed on the inner face of the 
primary leptome, while secondary leptome becomes differentiated 
outside the primary rays of hadrome ; or only parenchyma develops 
outside the primary hadrome, resulting in the formation of 
secondary parenchyma-rays (or medullary rays). In other 



words, the original radial structure of the stele changes to the 
collateral type (Fig. 112). Owing to this increase within the 
stele, the peripheral tissues from the endodermis to the epidermis, 
naturally become broken and are subsequently thrown off, but are 
replaced by the pericambial cork and secondary cortex. The 
older roots, then of Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons thus resemble 
the structure of stems, except that no pith exists in these roots, 
at least not usually. Some differences are, however, quite notice- 

Fin. no. Primary structure in the root. Transverse section of root of pea (Pisum) 
about 40 mm. from the root-cap: H, epidermal cells, some of which are developed into 
root hairs; C, primary cortex; EN, endodermis; PC, pericambium; X, ladrome, composed 
of trachea; P, leptome, composed of sieve cells, the hadrome (vessels) and leptome (sieve) 
forming a triarch radial fibrovascular bvmdle. 

able in some instances as in the thick roots of Beta, Radish, etc., 
where the wood parenchyma is usually abundant, thin-walled and 
not lignified, the annual rings also being mostly indistinct. 

The characteristics distinguishing the primary and secondary 
structures of dicotyledonous roots may be summarized as follows : 

Primary structure : Epidermis and root hairs. Hypoder- 
mis. Primary cortex consisting of parenchyma. Endodermis, 
pericambium, hadrome arranged in radial rays which alternate 



with leptome or sieve strands, constituting a radial fibrovascular 
bundle (Fig. no). 

Secondary structure : Cork cells. Phellogen. Secondary cor- 
tex consisting of parenchyma. Leptome, cambium and hadrome, 
arranged in radial groups, forming open collateral fibrovascular 
bundles. Medullary rays separating the fibrovascular bundles. 


5P - 

Fig. hi. Section in the older part, higher up on the root of pea (Pisum) showing in 
addition to what has been observed in Fig. no, the beginning of the change from primary to 
secondary structure: CA, the development of a cambium; SX, secondary hadrome (or 
vessels) and SP, secondary leptome (or sieve). 

Sometimes, as in glycyrrhiza and valerian, a number of paren- 
chyma cells are found in the center of the root, these constituting 
the PITH (Fig. 115) or medulla; but they are usually wanting in 
dicotyledonous roots. 

Wood and bark are terms used to distinguish those portions 
of the root or stem separated by the cambium ; all that portion 
inside of the cambium, including hadrome, medullary rays and 
pith, being known as the wood. The bark includes the leptome, 



the medullary rays outside of the cambium, and the tissue formed 
by the phellogen. 


Fig. 112. Fully developed secondary structure in root. Transverse section of root 
of pea (Pisum) at the end of the summer's growth: E, some epidermal cells with fragments 
of root hairs; C, primary cortex; EN, endodermis; K, cork; B, bast fibers; SC, secondary 
cortex; S, leptome; T, hadrome; W, wood fibers; WP, wood parenchyma; M, medullary 
rays; the hadrome (or vessels) and leptome (or sieve) forming open collateral fibrovascular 
bundles, these being found in dicotyledons with but few exceptions. 

The following diagram of the secondary structure of a dicoty- 
ledonous root may be of assistance in understanding the origin 
and relation of the tissues comprising it : 



Wood made up of . 

Pith, which may be wanting. 

Xylem . 

Cambium produces 

Bark made up of 


Composed of vessels, wood parenchyma 
and wood fibers ; or tracheids may 
replace these cells, or be associated 
with them. These are arranged in 
groups forming radial rows which are 
separated by medullary rays. 

Consisting of leptome and companion 

cells ; bast fibers may also be present. 

These are arranged in collateral 

groups and form, radial rows which 

I are separated by medullary rays. 

Pericambium, producing parenchyma and cork. 

Fig. 113. Transverse section of one of the collateral mestome strands of the stem of 
Viola tricolor arvenis: o, portion of cells of pericycle; e, endodermis; 1, leptome or sieve 
cells, in among which are some collenchymatic cells (c); m, cambium; t, spiral tracheas or 
vessels; g, strongly lignified trachese; rp, medullary ray cells, the walls of which are com- 
posed of cellulose; rs, medullary ray cells the walls of which are strongly lignified; s, 
strongly lignified cells separating the mestome strands; c, collenchyma; p, pith. 



The root branches arise as the product of a meristem, 
known as the pericambium, situated beneath the endodermis 
(Figs. 59. RB ; 109). The tissues forming the branches are 
directly connected with the fibrovascular tissues of the root and 
protrude through the overlying tissues without having any con- 
nection with them. The structure of the branches thus formed 

Fig. 1 13a. Longitudinal section through a root of Veralruin viride showing the nature 
of the contraction of the root; E, epidermis; OS, cells of cortex containing starch; CO, 
cells of cortex containing raphides; F. fibrovascular bundle; A, rifts or cavities formed as 
a result of the radial swelling of the cells of the cortex. 

corresponds to the primar\' structure of the roots, and in the case 
of dicotyledonous roots may also subsequently develop a secondary 
structure. Goebel states that in plants which grow in moist 
soil, or whose roots function only for a short time, the branches 
may be altogether suppressed as in Colchicum, Arissema, etc. 
Contraction of roots is observed in both monocotyledons 
and dicotyledons, it being most apparent in the former, as in the 


roots of Veratrumviride (Fig. 113a). The uneven or corkscrew- 
like appearance is due to a contraction, which arises as follows: 
Some of the longitudinally elongated cells beneath the epidermis 
as well as cells extending to and including the endodermis absorb 
large quantities of water, which causes them to assume a spherical 
form (as the cells of a potato are altered on boiling), the result 
being a longitudinal contraction of the root at this point. In this 
way the plant is fastened more securely to the earth, and at the 
end of the season's growth the apical buds of plants, with upright 
rhizomes, as of Vcratrum viridc, Dracontium, etc., are drawn 
into the earth and thus protected during the winter season. 

Abnormal Structure of Roots. It is often difficult to 
recognize the type-structure of dicotyledonous roots in drugs, 
owing to the anomalous and abnormal secondary structure. 
Sclerenchymatous fibers, while present in glycyrrhiza (Fig. 104) 
and althaea, are not infrequently wanting. Wood fibers may be 
sparingly developed, as in young belladonna roots or even want- 
ing, as in gentian. In other cases the medullary rays are abnor- 
mal, being replaced in calumba (Fig. 198) by wood parenchyma, 
and in ipecac (Fig. 203) and taraxacum by sclerenchymatous 
cells (Fig. 197a). In asclepias and calumba (Fig. 198) a layer 
of stone cells occurs near the periphery; in gentian, sieve cells 
develop in the xylem (Fig. 210) ; in senega the xylem is not 
uniformly developed (Fig. 197), and in still other cases, as in 
jalap (Fig. 195), pareira (Fig. 199) and phytolacca (Fig. 200), 
successive cambiums develop, producing concentric series of open 
collateral fibrovascular bundles. 


If we make a transverse section of a young herbaceous stem, 
we observe a differentiation of the tissues, which in several re- 
spects agrees with that of the root, described in the preceding 
chapter. In the primary structure of the stem the following 
tissues are to be noticed : The outermost tissue is the epidermis 
with a more or less distinct cuticle; the second is the cortical 
parenchyma, frequently with strands of collenchyma near the epi- 
dermis, often containing secreting ducts or cells, and not infre- 


quently with the innermost layer differentiated as an endodermis. 
The latter surrounds the so-called pericycle, a sheath consisting 
of more or less distinct stereomatic strands, either forming a 
closed sheath or merely representing isolated arches outside the 
leptome of the stele. Inside the pericycle we observe the mestome 
strands constituting mostly one circular band (in cross section) 
in the Dicotyledons and Gymnosperms, or several more or less 
concentric bands in the Monocotyledons. The mestome-strands 
may be collateral (Fig. 115), bicollateral or concentric, the last 
of which being found only in the Monocotyledons (Fig. 212) and 
Ferns (Fig. 278). 

In the DICOTYLEDONS the collateral mestome-strands which are 
the most frequent, contain leptome, i.e., sieve tubes, companion- 
cells and cambiform, furthermore cambium, and inside this fol- 
lows the hadrome, i.e., vessels, tracheids, mestome, parenchyma 
and libriform. When the collateral mestome-strand increases in 
thickness, the increase is due to the activity of the cambium, here 
called the intrafasicular cambium, which then develops lep- 
tome outwardly and hadrome inwardly. Between the primary 
mestome strands there is frequently a procambium, which con- 
nects these strands with each other, and which generally gives 
rise to secondary mestome strands, or the connection may be 
effected by means of the intrafasicular cambium, which often 
extends itself from one strand to another and develops leptome 
and hadrome, as in the primary strands, such cambium is distin- 
guished as iNTERFASicuLAR CAMBIUM and is commonly referred 
to as the cambium ring. 

The BICOLLATERAL mestomc strands, characteristic of some 
Dicotyledons (Labiatse, Solaneae, Cucurbitacese, etc.) differ from 
the COLLATERAL type by having a leptome strand developed on the 
inner face of the hadrome, thus each mestome strand carries two 
strands of leptome (Figs. 208, 220). In the concentric mes- 
tome strands, the leptome may encircle the hadrome, as in the 
Ferns (Fig. 278), or the hadrome may partly (Fig. 212), as in 
the rhizomes of many Monocotyledons, surround the leptome. 
While thus the collateral type of strand or bundle occurs in both 
Monocotyledons (Fig. 114) and Dicotyledons (Figs. 104, 115, 

Fig. 114. Monocotyledonous stem structure. Transverse section of convallaria 
rhizome: E, epidermis; H, hypodermis composed of collenchyma; C, cortex; EN, endo- 
dermis; S, perihadromatic sieve; T, trachea or vessels; P, Pc^renchyma. The bundles are 
of the collateral and concentric types. 

Fig. IIS. Dicotyledonous stem structure. Transverse section through menispermum 
rhizome: E, epidermis; lenticel derived from phellogen (K); C, cortex; B, bast fibers; S, 
leptome; ST, stone cells; CA, cambium; T, vessels; W, wood fibers; M, medullary-ray 
cells; P, pith. 



etc.) the presence of a cambium is found only in the Dicotyledons 
and extremely seldom in the Monocotyledons. The central 
portion of the stele is frequently differentiated into a pith 
of parenchymatic structure, the cells of which often contain large 
quantities of starch (Figs. 220, 223). In addition in the pith, 
Vv'e often find the same types of secreting ducts or cells as occur 

Fig. 116. Section of a four-year-old stem of a pine cut in winter; q, view in irans- 
verse section; 1, radial-longitudinal section; t, tangential-longitudinal section'; f, spring 
wood; s, fall wood; m, pith; i, 2, 3, 4, successive years' rings of growth in which ' shows 
the dividing line; ms, medullary rays in transverse section; ms^, ms^^ medullary rays 
in radial-longitudinal section; ms^^^, medullary rays in tangential-longitudinal sectior"; 
c, cambium; b, bast; h, resin-canals; br, bork. After Strasburger. 

in the cortex (as in Apocynum), The pith may constitute a 
homogeneous tissue or be broken, as in Phytolacca (Fig. 139, A), 
Carya. Halesia, etc., where a longitudinal section shows the pith 
divided into a row of broad cavities that are separated by thin 
transverse walls of parenchyma. 

Finally it may be mentioned that cork is of frequent occur- 
rence, especially upon stems that persist more than one year. 
The cork may arise in the epidermis itself, or it may develop in 



the hypodermal strata of the cortex or in still other cases we find 
its development mucli deeper, even within the pericycle. 

In regard to the increase in thickness, the stem behaves much 
like the root, as in the throwing off the peripheral tissues extend- 
ing from the epidermis to the endodermis, or only of the epidermis 
and adjoining cortex, which then becomes replaced by strata of 

Fig. 117. Transverse section of midrib of leaf of stramonium: EU, upper epidermis; 
CO, collenciiyma; PA, palisade cells; O, layer of cells containing rosette aggregates of 
calcium oxalate; M, loose mesophyll; EL, lower epidermis; OP, prisms of calcium oxalate; 
OS, cryptocrystalline crystals of calcium oxalate; ST, stoma; T, ducts; SU, sieve on upper 
side of ducts; SL, sieve on lower side of ducts, this arrangement of sieve and ducts forming 
bicollateral fibrovascular bundles. 

cork and secondary cortex. The mestome strands in the stem, 
however, grow in a more regular manner than is the case with 
those of the root, as is seen in the very distinct and freciuently 
very regular layering of the tissues of woody stems, forming the 
so-called " Annual Rings," where each ring represents the growth 
that occurs during a single year. The development of these 
annual rings depends especially upon the fact that the growth 
of the perennial stem does not take place continuously, but is in- 



terrupted during certain periods of the season, for instance 
during the winter or during the dry seasons of tropical chmates. 
And since the tissues, which are formed at the beginning of each 
season's growth are distinct from those already formed during 
the previous season in both color and structure of the wood (espe- 
cially in the thickness of cell-walls and the width of the tracheae 
or vessels), w:e perceive in this manner distinct zones of wood, 
or the "annual rings " as they are called, the larger vessels with 
thin walls being produced in the spring and early summer. 

Various abnormal stem-structures are known which are due 
to certain peculiarities in the growth in thickness of stems. 
These are especially noticeable in lianes. In some of the Mono- 
cotyledons, as in Drac3sna, Yucca, Agave and Aloe we find a 
secondary increase in growth of the stems. 

Plant Hairs. When the surface of the plant (either of stems 
or leaves) is covered with short, fine hairs, which are not very 
dense and not matted, the surface is described as pubescent; 
when the hairs are relatively long but scattered the surface is said 
to be VILLOUS ; or when the hairs cover each other in one direction 
it is described as sericeous or silky. When the hairs are stiff 
.though slender we speak of a hirsute covering; when the hairs 
are vernate. thickish and stiff, as in Borago, the surface is spoken 
of as being hispid. If the hairs are bristle-like the surface is 
described as strigose ; or if they are terminated by a globular, 
glandular head (Figs. 285, 287), as glandular. Again, when 
the hairs arc matted the surface is described as lanate; when 
they are long it is said to be woolly ; or when they are short 
and soft as in Mullein it is said to be tomentose. 

When the hairs are hard and prickle-like the surface is 
described as hispid or strigose ; when they are modified to spines 
it is said to be spinose; and when they are hooked it is described 
as echinate. 

In still other cases the epidermal cells, particularly of leaves, 
are uneven, forming depressions and protuberances which if 
slight give the surface the appearance described as rugose; or if 
wart-like, give the appearance known as verrucose. Further- 
more, the veins of leaves may be quite prominent, particularly 



in the lower surface, and if they are much reticulated in addition, 
the surface is described as reticulate. 


In all green leaves the typical structure is as follows : A cuticle 
covers the outer cell-wall of the epidermis, while the epidermis 
itself shows much of the same modifications as exist in the stem; 
frequently the lumen of the cells of the epidermis is wider on the 
ventral face than on the dorsal. Hairs abound on the leaves in 
many plants and stomata are especially frequent on the dorsal 
surface. The upper epidermis may further be characterized by 
the presence of water-pores, the origin and function of which have 
already been described (p. 193). 

The green chlorophyl-bearing tissue is called chlorenchyma 
(frequently spoken of as mesophyll), and is frequently differen- 
tiated into a ventral palisade tissue, composed of long cells 
which are placed vertically to those of the epidermis ; and a 
DORSAL pneumatic TISSUE, made up of irregularly branched or 
lobed cells with very large intercellular spaces. Secreting ducts 
or cells occur in the chlorenchyma of many plants and correspond 
with those found in the cortex of the stem. When the palisade 
tissue is distributed on both faces of the leaf blade, the pneu- 
matic tissue is thus located in the center, the leaf is called 
"bifacial," otherwise the leaf is said to be " uni facial " or 
" dorsi ventral." (See Figs. 117, 139, 141, 158, 175, 257, 261, etc.) 

Mechanical tissues, as coUenchyma and stereome, are frequent 
and these accompany the veins as hypodermal strands, being best 
developed usually on the dorsal face of the latter, as underneath 
the leptome. The mestome-strands of the leaf blade generally 
lie in a single plane. They are collateral and have the leptome 
situated towards the dorsal face. They are nearly always sur- 
rounded by thin- walled parenchyma-sheaths, or as in several 
grasses and sedges by thick-walled mestome-sheaths. In some 
plants of various families, the midrib is not only stronger devel- 
oped than the lateral veins, but it may be composed of several, 
instead of only one, mestome-strand, sometimes representing a 
true stele. 


The petiole generally shows the structure of the midrib as far 
as concerns the mestome-strands, but possesses furthermore a 
more or less strongly developed parenchyma, the cells of which 
are colorless, thin-walled and which may often be traced to the 
leaf-blade itself, where it surrounds the stronger veins, causing 
them to project as ribs and to be much thicker in cross-section 
than the adjoining chlorenchyma. 

From a histological point of view the leaf structure of 
Dicotyledons resembles very closely that of the Monocotyledons, 
except that in the latter the palisade-cells often radiate towards 
the center of the mestome strands. There are, however, 
many instances of a similar development in the leaves of 

Abnormal structures are common in leaves, especially in such 
as are not held in a horizontal position, but vertical, as those of 
Eucalyptus, the Irideae, etc. 

The Epidermis forms the surface of the leaf and may con- 
sist of one or more layers of cells. The outer walls are cutinized, 
and when nearly smooth the leaf is said to be glabrous. They 
may be covered or whitened with a bloom, as in magnolia, when 
the leaves are spoken of as glaucous. In other cases the outer 
walls of the epidermal cells are modified to hairs (Figs. 283-285). 


The inner structure of the flower bears a close resemblance 
to that of the stem and leaf. The bracts in almost all particulars 
are like the foliage leaf of the same plant and the flower stalk 
closely resembles the foliage stem. The calyx, while resembling 
the foliage leaf, usually contains calcium oxalate in greater 
amount, and the chlorenchyma consists wholly of rather loose 
chlorophyll parenchyma ; the outer or under epidermis contains 
the stomata, and if hairs are present, they also arise from this 
surface ; the fibrovascular bundles are generally simple in struc- 
ture, although in some cases, as in lavender, sclerenchymatous 
fibers are strongly developed. 



In the COROLLA the epidermal cells are generally more or less 
centrifugally developed, forming prominent papillse (Fig. ii8, 
A, B), which give the petals a velvety or satiny appearance, as in 
the rose ; glandular and non-glandular hairs are also developed 
which are peculiar to the corollas of irregular flowers, as in La- 

FiG. ii8. Inner morphology of the flower as illustrated in Viola tricolor. A, epider- 
mal cells from the outer surface of the spurred petal showing papillae; B, epidermal cells 
from the under surface of the petals, some of the cells showing centripetal thickenings, the 
two without thickenings covering sub-epidermal mucilage-cells; C, epidermal cells from 
the under surface of the petals showing a zigzag outline and short centripetal thickenings; 
D, surface view of the mesophyll of the petals; E, corkscrew-like hair from the inner sur- 
face of the spurred corolla near the throat; F, a hair from the edge of an anther; G, epider- 
mal cells of the anthers; H, surface view of the mesophyll cells from the spurred stamen 
showing collenchymatous thickening; I, surface view of cells of endothecium; K, pollen 
grain viewed from the side; L, pollen grain examined in water; M, pollen grain observed 
in chloral solution. 

vandnla vera (Fig. 285, A) and Viola tricolor (Fig. 118, ) ; 
stomata are comparatively few in number. The epidermal cells 
are but slightly cutinized, and in surface view are strongly undul- 
ate and appear striate owing to the papillose development (Fig. 


106, B, C). The chlorenchym is made up of rather loose, branch- 
ing parenchyma cells (Fig. 118, D), with large intercellular 
spaces. The cells are free from chloroplastids, may contain 
chromoplastids, or, like the epidermal cells, a colored sap ; in some 
instances, as in the buttercups, starch grains are also found in the 
mesophyll. Calcium oxalate crystals are usually present, and 
milk vessels are sometimes found, as in the Papavaracese. 

The FILAMENT and connective possess a central fibrovascular 
bundle, around which are arranged comparatively small paren- 
chyma cells and among which secretion cells are sometimes scat- 
tered, as in Tilia. The pollen sacs consist of but two layers of 
cells an outer layer called the " exothecium," which resembles 
the epidermis of the corolla, and an inner layer called the " endo- 

FlG. 119. Several forms of pollen grains: A, crocus; B, arnica, with three thin places 
in the wall through one of which the pollen tube may protrude; C, lavender showing six 
thin places in the wall. 

thecium," the cells of which are contractile and peculiarly thick- 
ened, this feature being rather characteristic for certain species 
(Fig. 118, /). Lining the pollen sacs during their development, 
there is a layer of cells, called the " tapetal cells; " but these are 
usually sooner or later absorbed. 

The POLLEN GRAINS Vary greatly in number, as well as in 
size and shape. They are usually more or less ellipsoidal but 
may be spherical, as in Crocus (Fig. 119, A) ; more or less three- 
sided, as in the Compositse and in cloves ; four or five-sided, as in 
Viola tricolor (Fig. 118, K, L. M), and in some cases, as in the 
Coniferse, they may be winged. In addition to protoplasm and 
one or more nuclei, pollen grains contain considerable oil and 
starch. The outer or enclosing membrane (Fig. 119) consists of 
two parts : an inner one known as the " intine " and consisting of 


cellulose, and an outer, known as the " exine,'' apparently con- 
sisting chiefly of cutin ; in some cases the exine also contains an 
oil which is colorless, as in Salvia, or yellowish, as in lavender, 
and in some instances it may contain a viscid substance, causing 
the pollen grains to adhere, as in CEnothera. The grains may be 
smooth or variously sculptured ; in most instances the exine is 
unevenly developed, leaving thin places through which the pollen 
tubes protrude in germination ; these give the appearance of 
grooves when the grains are dry, and the number of grooves is 
characteristic for different species ; in most of the Compositse 
they are three in number ; in the Labiatse there are six, while in 
Crocus they are wanting (Fig. 119). 

The epidermal cells of the stigma are quite characteristic. 
The cells of the epidermis, or so-called " stigma-epithel," may be 
palisade-like, forming a more or less wart-like mass, as in the 
viscous stigmas of the Umbellifer?e, or the outer walls may be 
modified to rather broad papillae, as in matricaria and arnica, 
or they may be developed into hair-like processes, as in 
Crocus. The pollen tubes either enter the style through an 
open canal, as in the violets, or they penetrate into the conducting 
tissues of the style, either through the papillae, as in Malva, or 
through the middle lamella of two neighboring papillae, as in 
Atropa Belladonna. 

The important tissue of the style is the conducting tissue ; in 
styles which are hollow it forms the lining of the canal, the cells 
resembling those of the stigma-epithel ; in styles that are solid 
the conducting tissue occupies the central axis and consists of 
somewhat elongated cells, the walls of which are generally thick, 
frequently strongly refractive and possess the property of swell- 
ing, being furthermore separated by large intercellular spaces. 
Surrounding the conducting tissue are thin-walled parenchyma 
cells, in which the fibrovascular bundles are distributed, the num- 
ber of groups of the latter corresponding to the number of carpels 
that compose the gynaecium. There may also occur secretion cells, 
containing mucilage, as in IMalva, or oil and resin, as in matri- 
caria. Occasionally, the parenchyma is replaced either in part 
or entirely by mechanical cells, and the epidermal cells may be 
modified to hairs. 



The tissues of the ovary arc, as a rule, in a very rudimentary 
condition ; in fact, so rudimentar^ that it is difficult to distincuish 
the ovaries of two flowers that develop into quite different fruits. 
In some instances it is said that notwithstanding tlie subsequent 
changes, each cell of the fruit is already indicated in the ovary. 
The ovary possesses an outer and an inner epidermis ; the outer 
is provided with stomata and may also possess hairs ; the inner 
may also have stomata and after fertilization may develop secre- 
tion hairs, as in the orange. Between the epidermal layers occur 
thin-walled parenchyma cells which contain leucoplastids and 
chloroplastids, and in which the fibrovascular bundles are dis- 
tributed, these being usually simple, or complex, as in the pea. 
The number of fibrovascular bundles is more or less dependent 
upon the number of carpels that make up the gynsecium ; as a 
rule, there is a strong fibrovascular bundle which corresponds to 
the midvein of each carpel. 

The PLACENTA is a development from the inner epidermis. It 
is traversed by a fibrovascular bundle from which branches arc 
given ofT to the individual ovules ; it may have a conducting tissue 
similar to that found in the st3de, and in some cases the epidermis 
of the stalk of the ovule may be developed to. a stigma-epithel. 

The OVULE not only possesses a distinct form as already given, 
but the internal structure, by reason of the changes associated with 
fertilization, is more or less characteristic for certain species and 
genera. It has an epidermal layer, the outer walls of which are 
more or less cutinized, and it consists for the most part of paren- 
chyma cells rich in protoplasm and food-materials ; in addition the 
embryo-sac contains a number of nuclei. The stalk and raphe are 
connected with the placenta by means of a fibrovascular bundle. 

The NECTAR may be secreted by certain* of the epidermal cells 
of various parts of the flower; these may resemble the ordinary 
epidermal cells or they may be modified to papillae, as in the 
spurred stamens of the violets, or to hair-like processes, as in 
Malva. The cells which secrete nectar constitute the " nectar- 
apparatus," and the walls are usually thin and more or less cutin- 
ized. The nectar-apparatus is found more generally upon some 
part of the stamen, but the sepals and petals are not infrequently 
saccate or spurred, which adapts them for holding the nectar. 




The inner structure of fruits is quite variable and it is difficult 
to treat of this in a general way. In the simplest fruits there are 

Fig. 1 20. Transverse (I) and longitudinal (II) sections of oat grain {Avena sativa): 
r, 2, cells of pericarp; 3, seed-coat; 4, remains of perisperm; 5, cells containing gluten; 
7, endosperm cells containing considerable proteins and some starch; 6, endosperm cells 
with polygonal compound starch grains; 8, fibrovascular bundle of the pericarp. After Harz. 

three distinct layers, as in the capsule of cardamom, in which 
there is an outer epidermis of isodiametric or polygonal cells, 



an inner epidermis of more or less obliterated and elongated 
cells, between which is a thin-walled parenchyma traversed by a 
number of fibrovascular bundles (See also Figs. 246, 250, 252). 

In some cases the outer epidermis contains numerous sto- 
mata, as in poppy capsules, or is developed into hairs and other 
outgrowths or appendages, as in anise (Fig. 244 j, arnica, rhus 
glabra and raspberry. 

The inner epidermis may also contain stomata, as in the poppv, 
or be developed into hairs, as in vanilla (Fig. 256) and orange, 
or more or less obliterated, as in akene-like fruits, or modified to 
sclerenchymatous elements, as in drupes. 

The middle la}'er, which is composed of parenchyma, may con- 
tain protoplasm, starch, sugars, calcium oxalate, coloring princi- 
ples, alkaloids and other principles, and it may also have oil-secre- 
tion cells, as in cubeb (Fig. 250) or oil-secretion canals, as in 
orange and the fruits of the Umbelliferae, in the latter of which 
they arc known as vitt?e (Figs. 244 to 248) ; milk vessels some- 
times occur, as in poppy ; a collenchymatous layer is sometimes 
developed beneath the epidermis, as in capsicum (Fig. 252), in 
some cases sclerenchymatous cells may be present, as in pimenta 
and cubeb (Fig. 250) ; and in still other instances the entire peri- 
carp may be made up of stone cells. 


The SEED-COAT usually consists of from two to six layers of 
cells: (i) an outer layer or so-called epidermis, (2) a layer of 
sclerenchymatous cells or stone cells, (3) a pigment layer, (4, 5) 
one or two rows of parenchymatous cells. (6) a row of more or 
less obliterated parenchyma cells. 

The EPiDERAiAL CELLS vary considerably in different species, 
both as regards the form of the cells and the composition of the 
walls (Fig. 302). The cells may be more or less isodiametric in 
cross-section, as in cardamom (Fig. 253) ; elliptical, as in almond 
(Fig. 302, D) ; palisade-like, as in Ahnis precatoriiis, or more or 
less irregular, as in Delphinium. While the outer and side walls 
are usually thickened, in hyoscyamus (Fig. 302, A) it is the inner 
and side walls which are thickened, the outer wall remaining thin. 
The outer wall may be in part modified to mucilage, as in mustard 



and flaxseed (Fig. 184) ; or to non-glandular hairs which consist 
either of cellulose, as in cotton (Fig. 166), or lignocellulose, as 
in nux vomica (Fig. 283. B). 

The PERISPERM and endosperm (Fig. 121) consist chiefly of 
parenchyma cells, which contain, hesides protoplasm, starch, as 
in physostigma; oil, as in strophanthus (Fig. 186); aleurone 


J) \ 



Fig 121. Form of embryo and distribution of endosperm in various seeds and 
fruits. A, Ricinus seed: car, caruncle; m, micropyle; e, embryo. B, superior drupe of 
Piper: per, pericarp; e, endosperm; p, perisperm. C, spinach fruit and D, corn cockle seed 
(Agrostenima Githago): per, pericarp; t, seed-coat; h, hilum; p, perisperm; e, endosperm 
c, curved embryo. A, C, D, after Harz; B, after Baillon. 

grains, as in ricinus (Fig. 122) ; glucosides, as in almond; alka- 
loids, as in stramonium. The walls are usually thin, but may in 
some instances be considerably thickened, as in cofifee, colchicum 
and nux vomica (Fig. 122, C). 

The embryo consists chiefly of parenchyma cells with a few 
fibrovascular bundles ; the cotyledons may be thin and leaf-like, 
as in ricinus and mix vomica, or thick and fleshv, as in almond 





(Fig. 188) and cola, or partly developed as in strophantlius 
(Fig. 186) ; the hypocotyl is usually small, but in the Umbel- 
lifene it is as large as the cotyledons. 

H M 


Fig. 122. A. Longitudinal section through anatropous seed of linum: R, raphe; SC, 
seed-coat; M, hilum; H, micropyle; EN, endosperm; C, cotyledon; HY, hypocotyl. B. 
Longitudinal section through stramonium seed: SC, seed-coat; H, micropyle; M, hilum; 
EN, _ endosperm; E, curved embryo. C. Transverse section through endosperm of nux 
vomica showing thick-walled parenchyma, the cells containing oil and protoplasm. D. 
I'ransverse section through endosperm of seed of Ricinus communis, one cell filled with 
aleurone grains containing a crystalloid and globoid, and another in which the aleurone 
grains have been dissolved, the cytoplasm and nucleus remaining. 


Food of Plants. It has already been pointed out that certain 
of the chemical elements are necessary for the growth of plants 
(p. 3), and that these are derived partly from the surrounding 


atmosphere and partly from the soil. Those elements derived 
from the air are either themselves gases or exist in combination 
in the form of gas, and include oxygen, nitrogen in exceptional 
cases (p. 99 j, and carbon dioxide, the source of the carbon 
entering into the carbon compounds formed by plants. 

The elements obtained by plants from the soil exist in com- 
bination with other elements and must be in the form of solution 
to be absorbed. The soil consists largely of mineral substances, 
together with certain organic products (humus). The water held 
in the soil not only acts as a medium for carrying the soluble 
constituents in the soil to the plant, but is itself an important food 
product, being the source of the hydrogen used by plants, as also 
of assimilable oxygen. Among the mineral constituents of the 
soil that are useful to plants are ammonium salts and nitrates, 
sulphates, phosphates, chlorides, silicates and carbonates. When 
plants are collected and subjected to a temperature of about iio I 
C. the water is driven off, and then if heat sufficient to incinerate 
the material be applied the organic matter is driven off in the 
form of gases, leaving the mineral constituents in the form of ash, 
as calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, sodium and a few other 

Root Absorption. Notwithstanding the various agents 
which are at work tending to break down and dissolve the sub- 
stances contained in the soil, as soil bacteria, the liquids given to 
the soil by the roots of the plants themselves, the presence of the 
so-called humic acids, and the action of water and air, it has been 
shown that the soil water is an exceedingly weak solution. This 
is largely due to the peculiar absorptive and fixing power of the 
soil itself. 

The dilution of the aqueous solution of the soil constituents 
is a matter of very great significance, for upon this depends its 
absorption by the root hairs. While other parts of roots have cer- 
tain absorptive powers, the root hairs have been defined as the 
organs of absorption of the plant. They are very delicate in 
structure and contain protoplasm. Their absorbent function de- 
pends upon the principle that w^hen a membrane (animal or 
vegetable) is interposed between two liquids of unequal density, 
the less dense liquid will pass through the membrane and mix 


with the denser Hquid. This process is known as osmosis, and 
when a Hquid passes outward through a membrane or cell-wall 
it is called exosmosis, and wd:en inward it is called endosmosis. 
The soil is made up of minute earth particles, each of which is 
surrounded by a thin film or envelope of water, and it is this por- 
tion of the soil liquid that is absorbed by the root hairs. The root 
hairs come into close contact with these soil particles ; in fact, 
appear to grow fast to them, and the cell-liquid in the root hairs 
being denser than that surrounding the soil particles, the latter 
passes through the wall into the root hairs. 

If, on the other hand, the water supplied to the roots of plants 
should contain an excess of soluble material, the plant will be 
injured. In this case exosmosis ensues and the plant loses some 
of its own liquids or cell-sap and will show signs of wilting. It 
is well known that if cultivated plants are supplied with strong 
solutions of fertilizer the plants will be injured rather than 

Root Pressure. The distribution of the water absorbed bv 
the roots to other parts of the plant is influenced by a number of 
factors, which are commonly spoken of together as root-pressure. 
Among these are osmosis within the plant, due to unequal density 
of the liquids in different cells ; the changes in the equilibrium of 
the cell-liquids, due to chemical changes, and the transpiration 
of water from the leaves, thus establishing a flow of liquids from 
the roots upward, which is usually spoken of as the ascent of 
SAP. The cell-sap passes upward through the xylem for the most 
part carrying constituents obtained from the soil to the growing 
parts, where they are combined with the products of photosyn- 
thesis, and through a series of reactions pi;otoplasm is finally 
built up. 

O.xiDATiox. The free oxygen taken in by plants through the 
stomata and lenticels serves the same purpose in plants as that 
inhaled by animals, namely, the oxidation of certain compounds, 
whereb}- part of the energy necessary for vital activity is lib- 
erated. Oxygen is required by all parts of the plant. When the 
roots of plants, such as those of Zea Mays, are surrounded by 
water so as to exclude the air the plants will become yellow. 
Germinating seeds consume a large amount of oxygen, but not 


all the energy formed is used by the plantlet, much of it escaping 
as heat, as in the germination of barley in the preparation of malt 
(p. 575). Those plants dependent upon the presence of free 
atmospheric oxygen are called aerobes^ while those which are 
not thus dependent, as certain fungi and bacteria, are called 


Metabolism. Processes of construction and destruction are 
going on simultaneously in the plant, and these are all grouped 
under the general name of metabolism. The processes whereby 
complex substances are built up from simpler ones, as in photo- 
synthesis, are together spoken of as constructive aietabolism 
(anabolism), while those which involve the breaking down of 
complex compounds into simpler ones, either through oxidation 
or other chemical action, as when sugar is changed into carbon 
dioxide and water, are grouped under the head of destructive 
metabolism (catabolism). 

Inasmuch as the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere and the 
water taken up by the roots together with the mineral salts which 
it hcjlds in solution are the only sources of the food supply of 
green plants, it follows that the highly complex proteins trace 
their origin to these comparatively simple substances. By some 
it is supposed that the final stages in the building up or synthesis 
of the proteins take place in the leaves, but it is probable that they 
take place in all the growing parts of the plant. It has already 
been stated in the paragraph on proteins that seeds contain re- 
serve materials which are broken up into simpler compounds 
through the action of certain enzymes, and thus made available 
for the seedling. It is claimed that these compounds are prin- 
cipally amino acids, and that of these aspartic and glutaminic acids 
occur in largest amount and that these two acids are found in 
dififerent relative amounts in different plants. It is furthermore 
claimed by some authors that by certain syntheses these com- 
pounds are respectively converted into asparagin and glutamin. 
both of which occur as reserve materials in seeds and in other 
parts of plants as well. Yet other syntheses take place whereby 
asparagin and similar bodies arc converted into albun.iin and other 
proteins. In the Coniferae the part played by asparagin and 
glutamin in protein syntheses is taken by arginin. which substance 
is found in considerable amouui in the seeds of the plants of this 




Inasmuch as the plants yielding drugs and proximate princi- 
ples, represent a large number of families it will be found that the 
study of the important characters of these groups will give a 
rather comprehensive view of the important groups of the Angio- 
sperms. Reference will also be made to other economic products 
yielded by the angiosperms, as food-products, fibers, coloring 
principles, woods and timbers, as well as to the plants commonly 
cultivated for ornamental purposes. 

Drugs which are recognized by the pharmacopoeias are said 
to be official. It should be understood that those referred to in 
this book as being official are those recognized by the United 
States Pharmacopceia. 

Nomenclature. The names first given to plants consisted 
of a single Latin name, as Ouercus, Rubus, Rosa, etc. Later some 
of the names applied to plants were obtained from the Greeks 
through Latin literature, as Aristolochia, Colchicum. The list 
of classical names was added to from time to time from both the 
Latin and Greek, as Convallaria, Glycyrrhiza, etc. Later the 
names applied to plants in other countries were Latinized, as 
Datura from the Arabic, Gviaiacum from America. Since very 
early times the names of distinguished men have been applied to 
plants, as Asclepias v.-hich was dedicated to ^-Esculapius, and 
Linnaea which was named after the great Swedish botanist Lin- 
naeus. \Mien it was found that there were dififerent kinds of 
plants in what had been considered a single type these were dis- 
tinguished by the addition of other names indicating their specific 
characters, and in this way plant names became quite long^ and 
cumbersome. Piotanical science is indebted to the Swedish botan- 
ist Linnaeus for proposing names for plants separate from their 



description. He reduced plant names to two : a generic name and 
a specific name. The specific name is the name appHed to plants 
which are of one kind, and these constitute a species ; and the gen- 
eric name is that applied to a group of nearly related species, each 
group constituting a genus. Thus the oaks make up a genus of 
plants to which the Latin name Ouercus signifying " beautiful 
tree "' is applied. But we know that the oaks are not all alike 
and difi^erent names are applied to the different kinds, as the 
.white oak which has the specific name alba; the plant therefore 
is known scientifically as Que reus alba; while the black oak is 
known as Quercus velutina. 

Nearly related genera are brought together in groups known 
as families. Thus we have the Mint Family known as the Labi- 
atas, which comprises a number of related genera, such as Mentha, 
Hedeoma, Salvia, etc. Still larger groups of related families make 
up Orders, as the Graminales, including the Gramineje or Grass 
Family and the Cyperacese or Sedge Family. Orders make up 
classes and sub-classes, as the Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. 

The names of genera consist of one word which is a singular 
Latin noun, and are derived in various ways, as Sanguinaria, so 
named because of the red or sanguine character of the juice; Cas- 
tanea which is named from Castanea in Thessaly the home of the 
chestnut ; Ricinus from the Latin word meaning " bug," because 
of the resemblance of the seed to a bug; Digitalis, so named from 
the finger-shaped corolla. 

Specific names are generally adjectives and must agree in gen- 
der with the generic name. Thus w^e have Medicago virginica in 
which the endings are feminine ; Lepidium virginictim in which 
the endings are neuter, and Sporobolus virginicns which has mas- 
culine endings. Like the generic name the specific name is derived 
in various tVays, but it usually indicates some peculiarity of the 
plant. Thus the specific name in Gentiami lutea, refers to the 
golden-yellow flowers; in Coniuui maculatuni, the specific name 
has reference to the brownish-purple spots on the stem ; in 
Brassiea nigra, the word nigra has reference to the black seeds ; in 
Aristolochia reticulata, the specific name refers to the reticulated 
leaves ; and in Phytolacca decandra, the word dccandra has refer- 
ence to the ten stamens. 





The Monocotyledons are mainly distinguished as follows : 
The embryo has only one cotyledon; the leaves are mostly scat- 
tered and parallel-veined ; the fibro-vascular bundles of the stem 
are of the closed type, and the flowers are typically trimerous. 


This order is composed of the two families, grasses (Gram- 
ineae) and sedges (Cyperacese). 

a. GRAMINE^ OR GRASS FAMILY. The plants of this 
family are nearly all herbs having cylindric, generally hollow 
culms with swollen nodes. The leaves are exactly alternate, and 
have long sheaths which are split or seldom closed, tubular, and 
nearly always with a distinct ligule. The flowers are mostly 
hermaphrodite and borne in spikelets with alternate floral-leaves, 
the spikelets themselves being borne in spicate or paniculate 
inflorescences. Each spikelet (Figs. 125, 126) consists of two 
(seldom more) empty glumes, which are the lowest floral-leaves 
in each spikelet : a varied number of flowering glumes, frequently 
awned or toothed, which follow inside the empty glumes, and 
each of which subtends a short branch (the rhachilla), the latter 
bearing an adorsed fore leaf (the pale), which is generally two- 
keeled and two-toothed, enclosing two minute scales (lodicules) 
and the flower. The flower has mostly three stamens (there be- 
ing six stamens in Oryza and Bambusa), with the anthers versa- 
tile, and a simple gynaecium consisting of one carpel having two 
styles and a plumose stigma. The ovary is unilocular with one 
ascending or pendulous ovule. The fruit is a nut (grain 
caryopsis), the seed being always firmly united with the thin 
pericarp (except in Sporobolus, Eleusine, etc.). The embr^'o 
is situated at the base, on the outer convex surface of the seed, 
outside the endosperm. On germination the cotyledons remain 
in the seed. 

The endosperm contains numerous starch grains and oil, while 




the gluten layer around the endosperm contains proteins. The 
number of layers of gluten- or aleurone-containing cells varies in 
the different cereals. In corn, wheat and rye it consists of but 
a single layer ; in oat and rice, of i or 2 layers ; while in barley 
it is made up of 2 to 4 layers. 

The Grasses comprise about 3500 species and are distributed 
in all parts of the world. While most of the plants are grass-like 
still some of them, as the bamboos of the Tropics, become quite 
tall, having woody silicious stems and bearing many branches in 
the axils of the leaves. They yield the cereal grains forming so 

Fig. 123. 


tlG. 124. 

Fig. 123. Diagrams of cross-sections of monocotyledonous flowers: t, stem of plant; 
f, bract; s, sepals or outer circle of perianth; p, petals or inner circle of perianth; a, stamens; 
c, ovary. A, regular flower of the lily; B, irregular flower of iris. Fig. 124. C, flower of 
an orchid, in which 1 is the lip and SS the two staminodes. .ifter Warming. 

large a proportion of the food of man, and forage constituting the 
food of many of the lower animals. The following are some of 
the important cereals: Wheat {Triticiini safiz'um and its varie- 
ties), corn (Zca Mays), oat {Avena sativa), rice {Oryza saliva), 
barley (Hordcinn sativum and its varieties), rye {Sccalc ccrcalc). 
A number of the species yield a sweet cell-sap from which cane 
sugar is made, of which the most important are the sugar cane 
(Saccharum ofFicinarum) and sorghum {Audropos^on anindina- 
ccns saccharatns and other varieties). 

A large number of the grasses are used in medicine, one of 
which, couch-grass (Agropyron repens), is official (p. 490). 

Agropyron repens is a common perennial grass, forming slen- 
der jointed rhizomes, by means of which the plant is extensively 



propagated ; the culms vary from one to four feet in height, the 
spikelets are 3- to /-flowered; and the empty glumes, 5- to 
7-nerved, acute or with an awn-hke apex. 

Hordeum sativum is an annual grass with the flowers in ter- 
minal cylindrical spikes resembling wheat. The spikelets are ses- 
sile, I -flowered, and usually in clusters of three on opposite sides 
of the notched rachis. The empty glumes are long and narrow, 

Fig. 125. Wheat (Triticum): A, zigzag axis or rachis of ear showing the notches 
where the spikelets were inserted; B, an entire spikelet; C, j flower with the pales; D, a 
flower without the pales, showing the lodicules at the base; E, glume; F, outer pale; G. 
inner pale; H, fruit icaryopsis); I, longitudinal section of fruit. After Warming. 

forming a kind of involucre around the spikelet. It is supposed 
that Hordeum sativum is a cultivated form of H. spontancum 
growing in the countries between Asia Minor and other parts of 
Western and Southwestern Asia. Three important varieties are 
distinguished depending upon the number of rows of grains in 
the ear. H. sativum distich on includes the plants having 2- rowed 
ears and these are chiefly grown in Middle Europe and England. 



H. sativum hexastichon includes the plants having the grains 
in six rows, these having been cultivated since prehistoric 
times and now cultivated in Southern Europe. H. sativum vitl- 
gare includes the plants in which the grains are in four irregular 
rows, and these are cultivated in northern temperate regions. 
The latter plant is cultivated in the United States and furnishes 
the grain used in the preparation of malt (p. 575). 

Zca Mays (Indian Corn) is a cereal plant probably indigenous 
to Central Mexico. It is extensively cultivated in the United 
States and other parts of the world for its grain. From a multi- 
ple, primary, somewhat fibrous root arise one or more erect simple 

Fig. 126. Diagrammatic outline of a spikelet: nY, lower glume; <|) Y, upper glume; 
nl, outer pale; <i> I, inner pale; 1, 1, lodicules; st, stamens; l-I, main axis; II, lateral axes 
or branches. After Warming. 

culms, which are grooved on alternate sides in the successive 
internodes and from the nodes of which arise aerial secondary 
roots. The leaves are alternate and consist of three parts: (a) 
a blade, which is long, broadly-linear and tapering toward the 
apex, the tip being pendulous; (b) a lower sheathing portion 
which is open; and (c) a short, translucent, somewhat hairy 
ligule, situated between the sheath and the blade. The flowers 
are monoecious, the staminatc, which are arranged in a terminal 
panicle, maturing first : the pistillate occur in axillary spikes, the 
axes of which constitute the corn cob. They are enclosed in 
spathe-like bracts or husks, from which the long filiform styles 



(p. 558) protrude. The grain is somewhat ovate or triangular, 
flattened, pointed at the base, grooved on one side, indicating the 
position of the embryo, from 10 to 15 mm. long and about 10 mm. 
broad, more or less translucent, and varies in color in the different 
varieties. The constituents of the corn grain are 50 to 75 per cent, 
of starch; about 10 per cent, of proteins; 4.29 per cent, of a fixed 
oil; about five per cent, of sugar, and 1.29 per cent, of ash. 

There are a large number of varieties and sub-varieties of Zca 
Mays, some of the former being ranked as species. The follow- 
ing well defined varieties may be mentioned : 

(i) Zca Mays ez'crta, to which belong the pop-corns. The 
size of the ears and grains is about one half or less that of the 
other corns ; the grains have a more or less translucent and horny 
endosperm, the cells of the latter containing numerous compactly 
arranged polygonal starch grains, which are from 7 to 10 /u, in 
diameter and have a central rarified area from 2 to 7 /x in diam- 
eter. It is owing to the structure of the starch grains that the 
peculiar popping of the corn grains results when they are heated. 
Heating the corn grains at 145 to 160 C. for from 4 to 10 min- 
utes causes the bursting of the starch grains, and at the same time 
a rupture of the cells and splitting of the pericarp into 4 parts. 
The white appearance of the popped grains in due to the inclusion 
of air in the bursted cells. During the heating the starch is con- 
verted into a soluble form and this gives popped corn its nutritive 
value. Some of the flint and dent corns show a similar tendency 
to pop when heated, but it is only in those parts of the endo- 
sperm that are horny and the cells of which contain compactly 
arranged polygonal starch grains in which the rarified area is at 
least from one-tenth to one-fifth the diameter of the entire grain. 
Pieces of the pop-corn, as well as the horny portions of some of 
the flint and dent corns, will pop as readily as the whole grains. 

(2) Zea Mays indentata yields the dent or flint corns, the 
grains of which have a corneous (horny) endosperm on the sides 
and are indented at the summit, owing to the shrinking of the 
cells which contain more cell-sap and less compactly arranged 
starch grains. 

The starch grains in the cells of the horny endosperm resem- 
ble those of pop-corn, but the starch grains in the other cells are 


more or less rounded or slightly polygonal, and vary from 5 to 25 
fi in diameter ; the central rarified area is either wanting or usu- 
ally not more than 2 jx in diameter. 

(3) Zca Mays saccharata yields the sugar corns. While the 
grains are more or less translucent and horny, they have a 
w^rinkled or shrivelled surface. The cells of the endosperm con- 
tain gum-like substances and a relatively small number of nearly 
spherical starch grains from 4 to 10 /x in diameter. 

Broom corn {Andropogon arundinaccus vulgar e) is a plant 
which is cultivated for the panicles or seed heads, which are used 
in the manufacture of brooms. This plant differs from the other 
species of Andropogon in that the branches of the panicles are 
longer, straighter and stronger, forming a so-called " brush." 

Quite a number of the grasses contain odorous principles, as 
Andropogon citratus which yields lemon-grass oil; A. Scha^nan- 
thus which yields gingergrass or geranium-grass oil; A. sqiiar- 
rosus the rhizome of which is known as Vetiver. Coumarin is 
found in Vanilla grass {Anthoxanthum odoratinn) and white or 
Dutch clover {Hicrochlcc odorata). Some species of Stipa are 
used in the manufacture of paper (Alfa or Esparto) in North 
Africa and Spain. 

b. CYPERACE^ OR SEDGE FAMILY. These plants are 
all herbaceous, the majority being perennial (seldom annual). 
The rhizomes are mostly sympodial (being monopodial, however, 
in certain Carices), and the stems are mostly solid and triangular, 
without swollen nodes. The leaves are grass-like, generally 
arranged in three rows, and the sheath is closed, being mostly 
without ligules. The flowers may be hermaphrodite or uni- 
sexual, sometimes dioecious, and arranged in spikes or racemes. 
The perianth is wanting or only represented by six bristles, or 
by an indefinite number of hairs. The number of stamens is 
three, with the anthers attached by their bases to the filament. 
The gyngecium consists of 2 to 3 carpels, with one style divided 
into 2 or 3 branches, and provided with papillre. The fruit is a 
nut, whose seed is generally united with the pericarp. The em- 
bryo is small and lies at the base of the seed in the central line, 
surrounded by the endosperm. On germination, the cotyledon is 
freed from the seed. 



A number of the sedges yield food products, as the rhizomes 
of Cypcrns csculejitiis and Elcocliaris tuhcrosa, the latter of which 
is used in the manufacture of starch in China and India. Quite 
a number of species of Scirpus, Cyperus, Carex, etc., are used in 
medicine. Various species of Cyperus (C. scariosus, of the East 
Indies, and C. pertenuis, of India) yield ethereal oils and are used 
in making perfumery. Cyperus Papyrus is also used in medicine 
and furnished the paper of the Ancients. 


In this order is included that interesting group of tropical 
and sub-tropical plants the palms (Palmc-e). They are arbores- 
cent, having simple unbranched trunks which are terminated by 
clusters of leaves, in the axils of which flowers are produced. The 
leaves are pinnate (Feather Palms) or palmate (Fan Palms) 
and often very large. The petiole is well developed with an am- 
plexicaul, more or less fibrous sheath. The inflorescence is usirdly 
lateral, in some cases forming a large spadix with a woody, boat- 
shaped spathc. In comparison the individual flowers arc very 
small. The fruit is either a berry, as in the Date palm, or a drupe, 
as in the Cocoa-nut palm, generally i-seeded and with a large 
horny or bony endosperm, as in the Date palm (p. 233) and 
Phytelephas macrocarpa, the latter of which yields vegetable 
ivory, used in the making of buttons (Fig. 173). 

The fruit of the saw palmetto [Serenoa (Saba!) scrnilafa], 
one of the fan palms, is official (p. 578). The saw palmetto is 
characterized by having a creeping root-stock or rhizome one end 
of which rises a short distance above ground, this portion being 
surmounted by a dense crown of leaves. The petioles are slender 
and spinose on the edges ; the blade is fan-shaped and consists of 
a number of palmate divisions which are slightly cleft at the apex. 
The inflorescence is densely tomentose and shorter than the leaves. 
The fruit is a i-seeded drupe (Fig. 251). 

The palms yield a number of useful products. The Betel-nut 
palm (Areca Catechu) produces a seed having medicinal proper- 
ties (Fig. 127). The seeds, known as areca nut, are 20 to 25 
mm. long, conical, grayish-brown, with numerous spiral, reddish 



veins, heav}-, hard, somewhat aromatic, astringent and shghtly 
acrid. They contain about o.i per cent, of an oily Hquid alkaloid, 
arecoline, which chemically and in its physiological action resem- 
bles pelletierine ; 14 per cent, of tannin, resembling catechutannic 
acid; gallic acid; a red coloring principle; and 14 per cent, of a 
fixed oil. They also contain 3 other alkaloids : arecaine, arecai- 
dine and guvacine, but these do not seem to give the drug its 

Fig. 127. Areca Catechu (Betel-nut palm). A, upper portion of an inflorescence 
bearing staminate flowers; B, enlarged view of staminate flower; C, 3 stamens; D, upper 
part of ovary with 3 styles; E, a branch bearing 4 pistillate flowers in the lower portion 
and 2 staminate flowers above; F, a pistillate flower with bracts removed showing the calyx; 
G, an ovary with rudimentary stamen; Hi, longitudinal section through ovary; H2, the 
same giving a magnified view of the ovule; J, section through a berry showing the fibrous 
sarcocarp and the seed covered by reticulated branches of the raphe; K, section of seed 
showing the ruminating endosperm with small embryo near the base. After Drude. 

Carnaub.\-wax is obtained from the Carnauba-palm of Brazil 
(Copcriiicia ccrifcra). The wax exudes from the surface of the 
young leaves and is obtained by boiling them with water. 
Dragon's blood, a bright red resinous substance, is obtained 
from the juice of the fleshy fruit of Calamus Draco. It consists 
chiefly of resin, some tannin and about 3 per cent, of benzoic acid. 

The Oil palm (Elccis gnineensis) of equatorial West Africa 
yields a drupe with an oily sarcocarp, from which by means of 


pressure or boiling with water, palm oil is obtained. The Cocoa- 
nut pahn (Coais nncifera) yields the cocoa nut of the market 
and is probably one of the most useful palms to the natives, fur- 
nishing as it does, food, clothing, utensils of all kinds, building 
materials, etc. The Sago-palms {Metroxylon Rumphii and .1/. 
Icczx) yield sago, which is prepared by washing out the starch 
from the cut stems and subsequently heating it. A tree 15 years 
old yields from three to four hundred kilograms of sago starch. 
The Date palm (Pluviii.v dactylifcra) yields the dates of the 
market, and it is interesting to note that since very early times 
the fruits produced by the growers in the Orient have been the 
result of artificial or hand-pollination. 


This order includes two families which are markedly different 
in their habits: (ij The Aracese which are rather large herbs 
with an in florescence known as a spadix and consisting of a fleshy 
spike, v/hich is subtended or enclosed by a large bract known as 
a spathe, as in the Calla-lily where it is large and white, and (2) 
the Lemnaceffi or duckweed family, which is composed of minute, 
floating, thalloid plants that develop one or more flowers on the 
margin or upper surface of the thallus. 

ARACE^ OR ARUM FAMILY. The plants belonging 
to this family are perennial herbs with tuberous or flesh}- rhi- 
zomes and simple or compound leaves which are usually long- 
petioled. The spadix is densely flowered, the staminate flowers 
l)eing above and the pistillate below on the same axis, or the plants 
are wholly dioecious. The perianth when present consists of 4 to 
6 scale-like segments. Frequently the spadix is subtended or 
enclosed by a more or less showy spathe. The fruit is usually a 
berry, sometimes a utricle. 

A number of the plants of this family have medicinal proper- 
ties and one of them yields the ofificial drug calamus (p. 496). 
The drug is derived from sweet flag {Acorns Calamus) a plant 
common in swamps and along streams in the Eastern United 
States, and characterized by its long, narrow, linear, bilateral 
leaves which are from two to six feet hisfh and one inch wide or 



less. The inflorescence is a spike-like spadix having greenish- 
yellow flowers. 

Many of the Aracese possess an acrid juice. The acridity is 
probably due either to saponin or an acrid volatile principle 
rather than to raphides of calcium oxalate. Frequently these 
principles are dissipated or destroyed on cooking and the plants 
are then used as food, as the water arum (Calla paliisfris). 


/ ?>*ru 


1- - -^" ^^ 

y m m " 



\^:- T 


Fig. 128. Vanillin, orthorhombic crystals obtained from saturated aqueous solutions. 

which on account of its acrid principles is used as a remedy for 
snake bites when in the fresh condition, but which on drying loses 
its acridity and being rich in starch is used as a food (Fig. 128). 
To this family also belong Jack-in-the-pulpit, or Indian turnip 
{Ariscema triphylhim), the acrid corm of which is used in medi- 
cine; SKUNK CABBAGE {Symplocarpus foctidus), the fetid rhizome 
of which has medicinal properties. A number of plants of the 
Arum family are rich in starch, as the tubers of Xanthosome edule 
of Surinam which contain 62 per cent, of starch. 



The plants are mostly perennial herbs of tropical and sub- 
tropical America. The order includes a number of families 
among which is Bromeliace.e, to which the pineapple (Ananas 
sativiis) belongs. Pineapple is a native of Brazil and is now cul- 
tivated in warm countries of the eastern and western hemispheres. 
The fruit contains a proteolytic enzyme resembling trypsin and 
also a milk-curdling ferment. The bast fibers of the leaves are 
used for textile purposes. Some of the Bromeliacese are epi- 
phytic (air-plants), the best known member being probablv the 
Florida moss (Tillandsia iisneoides) which is used in upholstery. 

The family Commelinaceie is represented in the United States 
by Commelina or day-flower, some species of which have medic- 
inal properties. The roots of some tropical species contain 
saponin, as C. dcficicns, of Brazil. The rhizomes of a number 
of species of Commelina contain notable quantities of starch and 
are edible. The spider worts (Tradescantia) common in rich 
soil in the United States, and the Wandering Jew {Tradescantia 
Zehrina) commonly cultivated as an ornamental plant, also belong 
to this family. 

V. order liliales or liliiflor^. 

The plants of this order are mostly perennial herbs with rhi- 
zomes, tubers, bulbs, or fibrous roots. The leaves are parallel- 

a. LIIJACE^ OR LILY FAMILY. The plants are the 
most typical of the Monocotyledons. They ^re scape-like herbs 
vv^ith bulbs ; the flowers are symmetrical, and the perianth is 
parted into six more or less distinct segments (Fig. 123) ; the 
anthers are introse (123, A). The ovary is free, 3-locular, with 
a single style, and the fruit is a 3-locular, loculicidal dehiscent 
capsule. The following plants yield official drugs : 

Vcratrnui viride is a plant two to eight feet high, which is 
characterized by the broad, clasping, strongly plicate leaves, and 
by having the flowers in large terminal panicles (Fig. 129). The 
plant is found in swamps and wet woods in the United States in 




spring and early summer. The rhizome is upright, and is the 
part used in medicine (p. 492). The plant including the rhizome 
closely resembles the Veratrmn album of Europe. 

Fig. 129. Plants of Veratrum viride growing in the Royal Botanic Society's Gardens 
(London) and showing the parallel veined (or nerved) leaves with entire margin, and the 
large terminal panicles of flowers. After Perredes. 

Colchiciini aiifinniialc. This is the autumnal-flowering colchi- 
cum, a perennial herb but a few inches high which arises from a 
corm and bears proportionately large lilac-colored flowers. The 
fruit consists of three follicles containing numerous seeds. The 
corm (p. 509) and seeds (p. 426) of this and other species of 
Colchicum are the parts used in medicine. 



Aloe species. The stems are about a meter high and bear at 
the summit a cluster of thick succulent leaves which are lance- 
olate and spinous-toothed. The inflorescences are in long spikes 

Fig. 130. Plant of Aleiris farinosa showing characteristic rosette of lanceolate leaves 
at the base and portion of long slender scape with numerous tubular flowers. The plant is 
common in dry coniferous woods in the eastern part of the United States. 

which are quite showy and characteristic for the different species. 
Aloe Perryi which yields the Socotr[ne aloes possesses leaves 
with white spines and flowers that are orange-red or scarlet at 


the base, the stamens being unequal ; Aloe vera which yields the 
Barbadoes or CuRAgAo aloes has leaves with yellow or reddish 
spines and yellow flowers in which the stamens are as long as the 
corolla (Fig. 130) ; Aloe spicata and some other African species 
which yield Cape aloes, have flowers in close spikes, the petals 
being white and marked by green lines, and the stamens much 
longer than the corolla. The inspissated juice is official in all the 
pharmacopoeias (p. 661). 

Urginea maritima, which yields the drug squill, is char- 
acterized by its large onion-like bulb, from which arise ten to 
twenty broadly lanceolate, grayish-green leaves ; and by having 
the inflorescence in long spikes consisting of whitish flov/ers 
which have a distinctly purple stripe on each division of the 
perianth (p. 510). 

Convallaria majalis or Lily-of-the-valley is a plant which is 
well known. It produces a raceme of delicately odorous white 
flowers and beautiful oblong leaves with prominent parallel veins. 
The rhizome and roots are official (p. 488). 

Sinilax species. The drug sarsaparilla (p. 446) is yielded by 
a number of species of Smilax. These are mostly vines with 
woody or herbaceous, often prickly stems and leaves with petioles 
which have a pair of persistent tendril-like appendages. The 
flowers are small, mostly greenish, dioecious and in axillary 
umbels. The fruit is a globose berry. Not a great deal is known 
of the species which yield the drug, with the exception of Smilax 
medica which yields the Mexican sarsaparilla. In Smilax medica 
the leaves vary from more or less cordate to auriculate-hastate ; in 
Smilax officinalis which yields the Jamaica sarsaparilla they are 
ovate, as they are also in Smilax papyracca which yields Para 
sarsaparilla. Nothing is known of the plant yielding Honduras 
sarsaparilla, although this drug has been in use for nearly four 
centuries. The plants have short rhizomes which give rise to long 
roots v/hich are the part used in medicine. 

A dragon's blood, resembling that derived from Calamus 
Draco (p. 232) is obtained from Draccena Draco, a tree growing 
in the Canary Islands. Some of the trees of this species are of 
historic interest, as the dragon tree of Orotava which is 46 feet in 
circumference at the base. 





A number of the plants of this family contain saponin, as the 
species of Smilax. Some contain coniferin and vanillin, as Aspar- 
agus officinalis. Some of the group contain glucosidal principles 
which under the influence of ferments yield ethereal oils contain- 
ing sulphur, as the various species of Allium. 

Fig. 131. Coumarin. Type A, tabular crystals obtained by cooling melted coumarin 
to 54-56 C; type B, aggregates of tabular crystals; type C, needles; type D, short prisms 
obtained from hot aqueous solutions. 

A number of plants of the Liliaceae are used as vegetables as 
the onion and asparagus. Garlic ( Allium sativum) contains a 
glucoside, alliin, which on hydrolysis with an oxydase (allisin) 
forms the essential oil of garlic. A number also are quite 
poisonous when fresh but edible wdien cooked. 

This group is of special interest because it includes the Agave 


or Century plant. This is a characteristic genus of plants of the 
hot and arid regions of North America. The best known of these 
is the Century plant {Agazr aniericana) which is one of the 
most important economic plants of Mexico. The stem axis of 
the plant is very short and the thick fleshy leaves form a tuft at 
the tip. The leaves are lanceolate, wnth. spinose margins, and fur- 
nished with stout terminal spines. The leaves as well as the 
roots contain a large amount of nuicilage which retains v/ater and 
thus helps to adapt the plants to these arid regions. The plants 
grow slowly and may flower when they are ten or twelve years 

The Agaves contain saponin and other principles of medicinal 
value. They yield a number of other products as follows : Pulque 
a fermented drink of the Mexicans, Mezcal a distilled drink re- 
sembling rum ; various fibers, as Sisal hemp, " Henequen " or 
" Sacci," etc. Other members of the Amaryllidacese likewise find 
use as medicines and as foods, many of them being cultivated as 
ornamental plants, as Narcissus, Hymenocallis, Crinum and 

c. blOSCOREACE^ OR YAM FAMILY. The plants 
belonging to this family are twining shrubs or herbs with 
tubers either above or below ground. The general characters of 
the plants are shown in the wild yam-root {Dioscorca villosa) of 
the United States. Several species, notably, D. Batatas, yield the f 
yams or Chinese potatoes of commerce. 

Many of the species of Dioscorea, as well as other members of 
this family contain active principles which like those of the 
Araceae and Liliacese are destroyed on heating. The rhizome of 
Tamils coiiniinnis contains saponin and Rajaiiia siibaiiiarata con- 
tains tannin. 

d. IRIDACE^ OR IRIS FAMILY. The plants of this 
family are perennial herbs with mostly equitant (bilateral) leaves 
and horizontal rhizomes, or conns. The flowers are regular or 
irregular and with a petalloid stigma (Fig. 124, B). 

Iris versicolor is a flag-like plant commonly known as the 
larger blue flag and found abundantly in the marshes and wet 
meadows of the Eastern United States. It is distinguished by its 
tall stems and sword-shaped, somewhat glaucous leaves. The 


flowers are violet-blue. The rhizome somewhat resembles that of 
calamus, but is of a dark brown color and contains 25 per cent, of 
acrid resins, a volatile oil, starch and tannin. 

Iris florcntina, which yields the orris root of commerce 
(p-795)- is a plant cultivated in :\Iiddle and Southern Europe, 
and closely resembles the above mentioned species. The rhizome 
contains a volatile oil resembling that found in violets, and is used 
in perfumery. Orris root is also obtained from Iris gcrmanica 
and /. pallida. The violet odor is developed on keeping the rhi- 
zome a year or tw'O. 

Crocus sativns, the orange-red stigmas of which have been used 
in medicine since ancient times, is an autumnal-flowering plant. 
The flowers are lilac-purple, somewhat like those of Colchicum, 
and occur at the tip of a scape rising 15 to 20 centimeters above 
ground. The leaves are linear and rise directly from a more or 
less globular corm. The plant is cultivated in Spain and other 
parts of Europe and in the United States as well. The stigmas 
constitute the drug saffron (Crocus) which was formerly official, 
and contain a coloring principle, i part of which will impart a 
distinct yellow color to 100,000 parts of w^ater. Saffron contains 
a yellow glucoside, crocin, which is soluble in alcohol but not in 
water, and is colored blue by sulphuric acid. The drug also con- 
tains 7.5 to 10 per cent, of a volatile oil, which appears' to be de- 
rived from a coloring principle that resembles carotin ; and the 
bitter principle picro-crocin. 

e. JUNCACE.E OR RUSH FAMILY. These are grass-like 
marsh plants, which are distinguished by the fact that the flowers 
are small, with 6-parted glumaceous perianth, and the fruit is a 
loculicidally dehiscent capsule. The stems are rpostly solid, slender, 
usually arise in tufts from the rhizome and are characterized by 
stellate parenchyma cells, among which are large intercellular 
spaces, the latter also being characteristic of the leaves. The 
rushes are principally found in cold and temperate regions. 

Several species of Juncus and Luzula have been used in medi- 
cine, particularly in Europe. The seeds of Luzula campestris, 
a common wood rush of the U^nited States naturalized from 
Europe, are edible. Soft rush (luncus effiisus) and Hard rush 
(/. congloineratus) are used in Japan in the manufacture of rush 



matting. In Holland the rush is grown on the embankments 
along the coast to prevent the action of the tides. 


The plants of this order are mostly found in the Tropics and 
are perennial herbs with fleshy rhizomes. The leaves are large, 
more or less elliptical and pinnately veined. The leaf sheaths close 
tightly around each other and form a kind of false stem. The 
flowers are cpig}'nous, unsymmetrical or zygomorphic, and fre- 
quently only one stamen is completely developed. 

tinguished from the other Scitamineae by the fact that the seeds 
have endosperm as well as perisperm. The plants are rich in 
volatile oils and a number are used in medicine and perfumery. 

Zingiber officinale yields the official ginger (p. 486). From 
a creeping, flesh}^ branching and laterally compressed rhizome 
arises a stem about i M. high bearing numerous lanceolate leaves. 
The flowering stalk arises directly from the rhizome, terminating 
in a spike which bears flowers having greenish-yellow petals with 
violet or purple stripes (Fig. 132). 

Elettaria Cardamomum {E. re pens) yields the cardamom of 
the several pharmacopoeias (p. 581). The plant has a leafy as 
well as floraFstem which rises from a tuberous rhizome. The 
leaves are broadly lanceolate. The flowers are greenish-white, 
the labellum (consisting of two petal-like staminodes) being 
bluish. The fruit is a capsule, and the seeds are the part used in 

The so-called paradise grains are the seeds of Aiiioiiutni 
Melegueta growing in Western Africa. They are about 3 mm. m 
diameter, dark brown, nearly smooth. frial)le and contain a vola- 
tile oil. 

Galangal, which is used in perfumery, is the rhizome of 
Alpinia Galanga growing in the East Indies and cultivated in 
China and Bengal. It is frequently referred to as " Galangal 
major " to distinguish it from the rhizome of Alpinia officinariim 
growing in China near Hainan. Galangal occurs in short, branched 
pieces of a reddish-brown color, with numerous circular scars 




and has an aromatic and pungent taste. It contains 0.5 per cent, 
of a volatile oil, the principal constituent of which is cincol; a 

Fig. 132. Zingiber officinale, the rhizome of which constitutes the ginger of the market. 
Entire plant showing rhizome and roots, a leaf-branch and a flower-branch, as also scars of 
previous year's growth after decay of leaf- and flower-branches. A, entire flower; B, sec- 
tion of flower showing beak-like appendage at the apex of the fertile stamen, which encloses 
the style; C, three-parted labellum or irregular segment of corolla showing 2 tooth- 
like staminodes (rudiments of stamens) at the base; D, the ovary with lower portion of 
style and two epigynous, filiform processes which secrete nectar; E, apex of funnel-shaped, 
fringed stigma. After Berg and Schmidt. 

pungent principle, galangol ; an acrid, pungent resin ; 25 per cent, 
of starch ; and three crystalline principles. 



Curcuma or turmeric is the rhizome of Curcuma lonna, a 
reed-Hke plant which is largely cultivated in India and other 
tropical countries. In preparing the rhizome for market it is sub- 
jected to a scalding or par-boiling process which agglutinates the 
starch in the cells. While turmeric is used as a condiment it is 
also used on account of its color as an adulterant of mustard and 
other articles, but is very easily detected (Fig. 290). Several 
forms of curcuma are found in commerce, as " round curcuma," 
consisting of the main rhizome, and " long curcuma," composed 
of the short branches. They occur in cylindrical or ovoid pieces, 
2 to 5 cm. long, of a yellowish-brown color externally, bright yel- 
low internally, and aromatic odor and taste. Curcuma contains i 
per cent, of volatile oil containing phellandrene and turmerol ; 0.3 
per cent, of a yellow crystalline principle, curcumin, which is 
soluble in alcohol, sparingly soluble in water, forms reddish-brown 
solutions with alkalies and is converted into vanillin with weak 
oxidizing agents. It also contains considerable starch and a small 
quantity of an alkaloid. 

Other families of the Scitamine?e are of great importance on 
account of the food-products obtained from them, as the Miisa- 
cece which contains the group of plants to which the banana 
(Musa paradisiaca and j\I. Sapicntum) belongs. To the Can- 
nacccc belong the cultivated Cannas. one of them, Canna edulis, 
being grown -extensively in the West Indies and Australia as a 
vegetable, and another, Canna coccinca, which grows in the West 
Indies and South America furnishing " Tons les mois." the 
arrow-root starch of the English and French. To the Maranfa- 
cccc belongs Maranta anindinacca, which is cultivated in tropical 
America, and the rhizome of which yields the starch, Maranta 
arrowroot (Fig. 316, B). 


The most important family of this order is the Orchidace^ or 
Orchid Family. The orchids are the most highly specialized 
of the Monocotyledons. Thev are perennial herbs with diverse 
habits, many tropical species being epiphytes, and varying morpho- 
logical structure which is particularly evident in the zygomorphic 


flowers. The perianth consists of six segments. The three outer 
correspond to sepals and are similar. Two segments of the inner 
circle correspond to petals and are alike, while the third, which 
is known as the lip, is remarkably modified, being usually larger, 
often spurred, and frequently reversed, being turned forwards 
and downwards by the twisting or torsion of the ovary. Only 
one of the stamens the anterior of the external whorl is devel- 
oped and bears an anther. The other stamens are entirely want- 
ing or present as staminodes (except in Cypripedium and the 
Apostasiese). The filament is united with the style to form a 
column, the so-called " stylar column " and the anther is thus 
placed on its apex, and behind the stigma. The 3 carpels form 
a unilocular ovary with 3 parietal, deeply bifid placentae. The 
fruit (Fig. 256) is a capsule, which dehisces mostly by means of 
6 valves, and contains numerous minute seeds, which are without 
endosperm, and the embryo of which lacks frequently any trace 
of external organs. The seed coat is membranous and loose. 

Vanilla planifolia, which yields the official vanilla, is a high- 
climbing plant with long internodes and distinct nodes from which 
arise more or less oval or broadly lanceolate, somewhat fleshy 
leaves and also commonly a single aerial root. The long stem 
is terminated by a raceme, flowers also arising in the axils of the 
leaves for some distance back on the stem. The flowers are yel- 
lowish-green and the segments of the perianth are similar, and 
erect or spreading. The lip is united with the column, forming a 
cylindrical body which is strongly concave on one side and spread- 
ing at the upper portion. The pollinia are granular. Pol- 
lination may be effected by insects but is usually brought about 
by artificial means (hand-pollination). The fruits require several 
months to become fully grown and an equal period of time is 
necessary for their maturity which is indicated by their yellow 
color. They are then gathered and cured by alternately steaming 
and drying them when they acquire the dark brown color and the 
odor of the commercial article. Vanilla is cultivated in all tropical 
countries where the temperature does not fall below 18 C, and 
the humidity is considerable. Usually vanilla culture is combined 
with that of Cacao. The plants begin to yield fruits the third year 
and continue bearing for thirt}- or forty years (p. 585). 



The yellow-flowering Cypripediums of the United States (C. 
parviflorum and C. parviflorurn puhescens) yield the cypripedium 
of the Pharmacopoeia (p. 490). The plants are a foot or two 
high. The leaves are oval or elliptical (in the latter) or 

Fig. 133. Cypripedium parviflorum piibescens. A, flowering plant; B, rhizome seen 
from above; C, cross-section of a leptocentric mestome strand from the rhizome showing 
parenchyma (p), hadrome (h), and leptome (1). .'\fter Holm, 

elliptical or lanceolate (C. parviflorum) . In C. puhescens the lip 
is pale yellow with purple veins, 25 to 50 millimeters long, and 
possesses a tuft of white, jointed hairs at the throat. In C. parvi- 
florum the lip is smaller and non-hairy. 


The root-stocks of a number of Orchids are rich in mucilage 
and yield the drug salep or a product resembling it. Salep occurs 
in the form of globular or somewhat flattened, more or less trans- 
lucent, light yellowish-brown tubers, 2 to 4 cm. long,, of a horny 
texture and a mucilaginous taste. The principal constituent is 
mucilage which originates in the cell-contents. It may contain 
in addition either starch or susrar. 


The following are some of the prominent features of the Di- 
cotyledons : (i) The leaves are reticulately (open) veined and 
usually with an irregular margin, being sometimes deeply lobed ; 
(2) the parts of the flower are usually in circles of 2 to 5 each ; (3) 
the stems and roots generally increase in thickness by means of 
a cambium, and the vascular bundles are open, varying from 
simple collateral to bi-collateral ; annular rings are formed in the 
perennial stems ; (4) the germinating plant usually has two 
cotyledons which are opposite each other. The Dicotyledons are 
divided into two series or sub-classes, depending upon whether 
the parts of the corolla are distinct or are united, namely, the 
Archichlamydese and Metachlamydeae. 

archichlamyde;e or CHORIPETAL^. 

The Archichlamydese or Choripetalae comprise those dicoty- 
ledonous plants in which the petals are separate and distinct from 
one another or are entirely wanting. 


The plants of this order are mostly tropical herbs and shrubs 
and possess very small flowers which have neither petals nor 
sepals. The leaves are simple and without stipules, the most 
important family medicinally as well as in other ways being the 
PiPERACE.E, to which the following medicinal plants belong. 

Piper nigrum is a woody climber that has leathery, grayish- 
green, ovate, cordate or Dvate-elliptical leaves, with three prom- 






Fig, 134. Diagrams of cross sections of the flowers of a number of families of dicoty- 
ledonous plants showing the number and position of the parts with reference to each other: 
t, stem of plant; f, foliage leaf; b, bracts or leaves on the flower-stalk; s, sepals; p, petals; 
a, stamens; c, ovary; per, perianth. A, Linaceae; B, Cruciferae; C, genus Citrus; D, 
Rosaceae; E, Berberidaceae, showing nectaries (k) on the petals; F, Lauraceas, showing 
staminodes (g); G, epigynous flower of Rubiaceae; H, Ericacea; I, Labiatae, showing 
position of other flowers (sv) in the cymes; J, Violaceas showing spurred stamens; K, 
Campanulacea;, showing bracts (a, p) the relation of the sepals (i, 2, 3, 4 and 5), and two pos- 
terior hairy stamens; L, Leguminoss, showing the large posterior petal (p) known as the 
vexillum or standard, the two lateral petals (v) situated under the standard known as alae 
or wings, and the two anterior petals which are covered by the wings and partly cohering 
to form a prow-shaped body called the carina or keel (k). Adapted from Warming. 


inent middle nerves and two side nerves ; the flowers are perfect, 
sessile and form an elongated fleshy spike ; the fruit is a berry 
which is yellowish-red when ripe. The unripe fruit constitutes 
the BLACK PEPPER of commerce (p. 571). White pepper (p. 
573) is the ripe berry from which the epicarp is removed, while 
" LONG pepper" (p. 573) is obtained from Piper longiim, an en- 
tirely different plant. 

Piper Ciibeba is a climbing perennial with leathery elliptical- 
ovate or long elliptical leaves ; the flowers are dioecious and ar- 
ranged in spikes ; the fruit is a berry, the pedicel becoming much 
elongated after fertilization. The unripe fruit is the part used in 
medicine and is official as cubeb (p. 569 ; Fig. 250). 

Piper angustifolium yields the official matico (p. 617). The 
plant is a shrub growing in Central and South America and is 
characterized by its long, oblong-lanceolate, deeply reticulate, 
very hairy leaves. The flowers and fruits are very small and 
arrangetl in long, slender spikes, which are frequently found in the 
drug. Matico contains 2 to 3 per cent, of a volatile oil, contain- 
ing a stearoptene matico camphor, which appears to be the most 
important constituent. It also contains an acrid resin, a bitter 
principle and a crystalline principle artanthic acid. Other related 
species of Piper are used in tropical America similarly to Piper 

The leaves of a number of species of Piper (known as "betel 
leaves ") are mixed with the Areca nut and lime and constitute 
wdiat is known as " Betel," which compound is used for 
chevving, in India and other countries, chiefly on account 
of its astringency. The root of Piper uicthystienui is also 
chev.-ed, and when mixed with the milk of the Cocoanut 
yields an intoxicating drink which is used by the inhabitants of 
the Sandwich Islands. The dried root has been used in medicine 
under the name of Methy.sticum or Kava-kava. It consists of 
large, branching, soft, spongv, dark brown pieces, which are 
tough, fibrous and with a pungent, somewhat bitter taste. Kava- 
kava contains 3 resins, one of which has marked ansesthetic prop- 
erties ; an alkaloid, kavaine : a neutral body, methysticin ; and 
about 50 per cent, of starch. The drug is free from calcium oxal- 
ate crvstals. these being usually wanting in the Piperacese. 



This order comprises but a single fanlily, namely, the Sali- 
CACE^E or Willow Family, to which belong the willows and pop- 
lars. The plants are dioecious shrubs and trees ; the flowers being 
in aiiiciifs or catkins and without petals or sepals. The fruit is a 
capsule containing many seeds which are small and with long silky 
hairs at the base. 

The barks of a number of the members of this group contain 
glucosides, as salicin which is found in Salix alba the white willow 
of Europe and the United States, and the brittle willow Salix fra- 
gilis; and populin which is found in the white or silver-leaf pop- 
lar {Populus alba) of Europe, Asia and the United States and 
Popnhis pyramidalis of Italy. These principles are also found in 
other species of willow and poplar. A number of the barks con- 
tain a yellow coloring principle allied to quercitrin, as Salix daph- 
noidcs of Europe and Salix alba. Tannin is a common constit- 
uent in both the willows and poplars. The buds of many of the 
poplars contain in addition a volatile oil which is in the nature of 
a di-terpene, as those of Populus pyramidalis. Po pubis balsam- 
ifera, the tacamahac or balsam poplar of the United States and 
Canada, furnishes the balm of Gilead buds which are coated 
with an oleo-resin that gives them their aromatic properties. Pop- 
ulus nigra yields a volatile oil of which the important constituent 
is humulene. 

The charcoal used medicinally is prepared by burning the 
wood of the young shoots of the white and black willow, poplar, 
beech or linden without access of air. 


This group somewhat resembles the Salicales in that the 
flowers are in aments. The flowers are either pistillate or stam- 
inatc and mostly dioecious in our native species. The most im- 
portant fimilv is the AIyricace.e or Bayberry Family. The 
genus Mvrica is especially characterized by the fact that the outer 
layer of the drupe is waxy. This is particularly true of the fol- 
lowing species : Myrica ccrifcra the wax myrtle of the sandy 





swamps of the United States contains a volatile oil. The fruit 
of sweet gale (71/. Gale) yields a volatile oil containing a camphor. 
The sweet fern {Comptonia peregrina) found in the United 
States, yields a volatile oil resembling that of cinnamon. The 
rhizome of this plant contains also tannin and possibly gallic and 
benzoic acids. 


The plants are trees with alternate, pinnately-compound leaves. 
The staminate flowers are in drooping aments, the pistillate being 
solitary or several together. The flowers are monoecious and 
have a more or less distinct perianth consisting of three to six 
lobes. The fruit is a kind of drupe formed by the union of the 
torus with the wall of the ovary. There is but one family in tliis 
order, namely, the Juglandace/E (Walnut family), which in- 
cludes the hickory (Hicoria) and walnut. The black walnut 
(Jiiglaiis nigra) of the United States yields a valual)le timber 
and an edible nut; the white walnut or butternut (/. cincrca) of 
the United States yields the butternuts which are edible, and a 
bark which has medicinal properties and w^as formerly official 
under the name of Juglans. Butternut bark occurs in quills or 
channelled pieces of variable length, 2 to 10 mm. thick; it is dark 
brown externally ; has a short, fibrous fracture, characteristic odor 
and bitter, pungent and acrid taste. It contains about 7 per cent, 
of a yellow, cr3'stalline acrid principle which is colored purple 
with alkalies ; 2 to 2.5 per cent, of a crystalline resin ; volatile oil, 
tannin, sugar and a fixed oil. 

/. regia native of Persia and cultivategl in various parts of 
Europe and California, yields the edible English walnut. 

The following species of hickory yield edible nuts : The shell- 
bark hickory {Hicoria ovata) ; the pecan {H. pecan) common 
from Illinois southward; and western shell-bark hickory {H. 
sulcata). The wood of these as well as H. glabra and other 
species of hickory is used where strength and elasticity are 

Coloring principles are found in the barks of a number of 
species and are used for technical purposes. The following con- 


tain yellow coloring principles: Hicoria ovata, H. sulcata, and 
H. glabra (pig-nut hickory) ; green coloring principles are found 
in H. tomentosa, and yellowish-brown principles in Jiiglans nigra, 
J. cinerca and /. rcgia. 

The fatty oils from the cotyledons (kernels) of both liickorv- 
nuts and walnuts are articles of commerce, and they have been 
used in medicine. 


The plants are trees or shrubs with alternate, petiolate, simple, 
pinnately veined leaves. The flowers are in aments, monoecious, 
and with a more or less distinct perianth. The fruit is a nut which 
is subtended by the mature involucre (bur or cup) or samara, 
the seeds being without endosperm (Fig. 135). 

a. BETULACE^ OR BIRCH P^AMILY. The plants are 
aromatic trees or shrubs and are represented in the United States 
by such trees as hornbeam (Carpinus), ironwood (Ostrva), and 
birch (Betula) ; and by such shrubs as the hazelnut (Corylus) and 
alder (Alnus). The plants yield a volatile oil consisting largely 
of methyl salicylate. The bark of the sweet birch {Betula lenta) 
yields the oil of betula which is official and closely resembles the 
oil of wintergreen. The bark of a number of plants of this family 
yields tannin'and yellow coloring principles. A number of species 
of Betula yield a sweet sap, as B. Icnta, and B. Bhojpattra of Rus- 
sia. The nuts of some species are edible, as the filbert or hazelnut 
of Europe (Corylus Avcllana), the hazelnut of the Orient (C. 
Colurna), the American hazelnut (C. aincricaua). 

h. FAGACE^ OR BEECH FAMILY. This family in- 
cludes some of our largest forest trees, these being rather charac- 
teristic of temperate regions. They are all highly valued for their 
timber and yield other valuable products besides. One notable 
characteristic is that all of the chestnuts and oaks and some of the 
beeches contain tannin in the wood, bark and leaves. The oaks 
are further notable in being prone to the attack of gall-producing 
insects (various species of Cynips) whereby the peculiar excres- 
cences known as galls are formed on the leaves and young shoots. 
Among the oaks which yield galls rich in tannin are the follow- 




Quercus infectoria of the Mediterranean, which yields the 
Turkish or Aleppo galls which are official (p. 646) ; Quercus 
Rohiir. which is sometimes divided into 0. pubescens and Q. pe- 
dnnculata, yields a European gall; the live oak (0. virginiana) 
of Texas ; and Q. lobata of California. Various oaks of the South- 
ern States also produce " ink balls " or " ink galls," as Q. coc- 

Fig. 135. White oak {Quercus alba): A, characteristic, lobed leaf; B, young branch 
showing pistillate (p) and staminate (s) flowers; C. hairy bracts of a staminate flower; D. 
group of hairs from bract; E, stamen; F. pollen grains; G, cluster of pistillate flowers; H, 
acorn with cupule; I, starch grains from acorn, which vary from lo to 25 ij. long; J, trans- 
verse section of bark showing cork (k). stone cells (st), bast fibers (b). crystal fibers (ca), 
medullary rays (m). parenchyma (p) ; K, longitudinal section of bark showing end of bast 
fiber (b) crystal fibers (ca) and parenchyma cells (t) containing tannin. 

ciiiea and Q. imbricaria. Several species of oak are used in the 
tanning industry, as that of white oak {Quercus alba), red oak 
(Q. rubra), Spanish oak (O. digifata), and black oak (0. 
velutina), all of North America: Q. pednnculata and sessilifiora 
of Germany, and Q. dentata of Japan. 


The glucosidal coloring principle quercitrin is found in the 
bark of Quercitron or black oak (Q. vclutina). Q. coccifcra 
of Southern Europe yields a red coloring principle which is used 
in dyeing. 

The wood of the American beech {Fagiis auicricana) and of 
the European red beech (F. sylvatica) yields a tar from which 
on distillation the official ceosote is obtained (p. 678). 

The cork of commerce which is used for a variety of purposes 
is derived from the l:)ark of several species of Quercus, namely, 
Q. Snhcr and 0. occidcntalis growing in Spain, Southern France 
and Algiers. 

The cotyledons of the seeds of the Beech family are rich in 
proteins, starch and oil, and some of the nuts are edible, as the 
Spanish CHESTNUTS obtained from Castauca vulgaris, American 
chestnut from C. dcntata and chinquapin from C. pitmila (Fig. 


This order embraces three families which, while they agree in 
certain characters, are quite distinct in other ways. 

a. ULMACE^> OR ELM FAMILY. The plants are trees 
or shrubs with alternate, simple, serrate, petiolate leaves. The 
flowers are monoecious or dioecious, with a 4- to 6-divided peri- 
anth. The fruit is a i -seeded drupe, samara or nut. The typical 
group of this family is that of the elms, of which the American 
or white elm (Uliiius auicricana) is the most prized for orna- 
mental purposes. The elms yield valuable timber and the bark of 
Ulmiis campestris of Europe is used for tanning and dyeing be- 
cause of the presence of tannin and a yellow coloring principle. 

The inner bark of the red or slippery elm (Uliniis fulva) is 
used in medicine on account of its mucilaginous character (p. 544; 
Fig. 99, C). The tree has a gray, fragrant bark; leaves which 
sre very rough above and become fragrant on drying, and the 
wood is reddish-brown. The samara is not hairy as in some of 
the other species. 

bers of this family are herbs, shrubs or trees, many of them con- 
taining a milk- juice or latex. There are many representatives in 


the tropical regions and sonic in temperate regions. The flowers 
are unisexual, with a 4- to 5-parted perianth and occur in spikes 
or ament-like clusters. 

Cannabis sativa. This is the plant yielding hemp and the drug 
Cannabis Indica (p. 635). The plant is an annual branching 
herb from i to 3 M. high. The leaves are alternate above, oppo- 
site below, digitate with 5 to 11 linear-lanceolate, serrate lobes 
(Fig. 273). The flowers are dioecious, the staminate occurring 
in panicles and the pistillate in erect simple spikes. The inner 
bark of the stem is fibrous and it is from this that the hemp fiber 
is prepared. 

Hnniulns Litpnlus or hop is a twining perennial plant, curving 
to the right, with opposite, palmately 3- to 7-lobed (or simply 
dentate above) rough leaves (Fig. 136). The flowers are dioe- 
cious, the staminate ones occurring in panicles and the pistillate 
in ament-like spikes. On the inner surface of each scale of the 
ament occur two flowers consisting of a membranous perianth 
and a bicarpellary ovary with two long styles. After fertiliza- 
tion the aments become cone-like and this compound fruit con- 
stitutes the hop of commerce. This fruit differs essentially from 
the true strobiles or cones of the Gymnosperms in that the seed in 
the latter is replaced by an akene. " Hops " are used in medicine 
(p. 582) and in brewing. 

Ficns Carica, which yields the official fig, is a deciduous tree 
from 3 to 7 M. high, and with large, 5-lobed, petiolate leaves. 
The flowers are situated in a hollow torus, the walls of which 
after fertilization become thick and fleshy constituting the fruit 
(p. 590). 

A large number of the plants belonging to the Moracese yield 
economic products, some of which, as the drug Cannabis indica 
obtained from Cannabis safiz'a, are extremely poisonous. Hash- 
ish or BHANG is a preparation made from the dried leaves, stems 
and flowers of the pistillate plants and is smoked either alone or 
with tobacco, or chewed in combination with other substances, or 
an intoxicating drink is made from it, it being extensively used 
by the inhabitants of Arabia, Persia, India and other oriental 
countries. The leaves of Fiats Ribcs of the Philippine and Mo- 
lucca Islands are smoked like opium. The milk- juice of a number 



of plants belonging to the Moracecie is the source of arrow poi- 
sons. The URARi POISON of Brazil is obtained from Ficiis afrox; 
the [POH APROW POISON of Java and Borneo is derived from the 
Upas-tree, Antiaris toxicaria. Many of the plants of the group 

Fig. 136. Hopvine (Humulus Lupulus): A, portion of branch with pistillate flowers 
(f) and cone-like fruit (s) ; B, portion of rachis of strobile with two scales enclosing akenes; 
C, pistil; D, hair from rachis; E, epidermis of scale; F, longitudinal section of akene show- 
ing coiled embryo; G. surface view of bract showing epidermis and cells containing calcium 
oxalate; H, cystolith of leaf; I, cystolith of stem; J, glandular hairs (lupulin). 

contain emetic principles, as the Cocillana park of Guarea Riis- 
byi, a tree of Bolivia. 

The milk-juice of quite a number of species of Ficus yields 
India-rubber or caoutchouc (p. 667), as Ficus elastica of the East 
Indies, F. toxicaria of South America, F. elliptica and F. pri- 


iioidcs of New Granada and several other species of Brazil, Bro- 
siiiiiim spiiriuin of Jamaica, Cccropia peltata of the West Indies 
and South America, and Casiilloa clastica of Mexico and the West 
Indies. Ficits bciii^Iialciisis of India and tropical Africa, and 
Fie us Tsicla of India, yield gum-lac. luciis altisstiiia and I', 
rcligiosa of tropical Asia yield shellac on puncture of the stems 
hy a hemipterous insect (Coccus lacca). 

A yellow coloring principle is found in Citilraiiia jaz'aiicnsis 
of tropical Asia and Africa, CJiloropIiora tuictoria of Mexico, 
Madura auraufiaca {Toxyloii poniifcruiii ) or osage orange, a 
hedge plant of North America ; Ficus tiiicloria of the Friendly 
Islands and F. aspcrr'uua of India. A fixed oil is obtained from 
Artocarpus Blunici of Java. 

A large number of the plants of the Moraeeae yield edible 
fruits besides the fig tree already described, as the bre.xd-fruit 
trees (Artocarpus iucisa) of the Sunda Islands and the jack-tree 
(A. iutcgrifolia) of the East Indies, the white mulberry (Morus 
alba) and the i;lack irur.r.ERRv (Morns iiii^ra). 

d'he leaves of the white mulberry (Morus alba) indigenous 
to China and cultivated since the twelfth century in Em-<jpe and 
nov.' in cultivation to a limited extent in the United States, are 
the chief food of the silkworm. 

c. FAMILY URTICACE^. The plants belonging to the 
Crticaceas or Nettle Family are chiefly herbs with mostly petiolate, 
stipulate, simple leaves. The flowers are small and with 2 to 5 
distinct or more or less united sepals. The fruit is an akene ; 
the embryo is straight- and surrounded by an oily endosperm. 
The stems and leaves of several of the genera are characterized 
1)\- stinging hairs, this being especially true of the sub-group to 
which the genus Urtica or stinging nettle belongs. Of the sting- 
ing nettles the following are used in medicine: Urtica dioica of 
Europe and naturalized in the L'^nitcd States, U. spatulata of 
Timor, Laportca crciiulata of tropical Asia. L. nwroidcs of 
Queensland, and Girardinia palinata of India. In the small 
nettle ( Urtica urcns) of Europe and the United States an alka- 
loid has been found, and Laportca stinnilaus has been used as a 
fish poison. Bochmcria cordata of Brazil is used as a substitute 
for Arnica. The fillers of a number of the Urticacege have been 



found useful, of which the following may be mentioned : Urtica 
can nab ilia of Asia, U. dioica, U. urens and Bocliincria nivca of 
the Sunda Islands and China, the latter of which yields Ramie. 
The akene of Debregcasia edulis of Japan and the rhizome of 
Ponzohia tnbcrosa of China and Japan are edible. 


The members of this group are mostly shrubs and found prin- 
cipally in the Tropics and southern hemisphere, several species 
being cultivated in greenhouses for the sake of the beautifully 
colored flowers which are in crowded inflorescences. The order 
is represented by but a single family, namely, the Proteacese. 
The leaves are "leathery and vary even on the same plant from 
simple to compound. The glucoside proteacin and a bitter prin- 
ciple are found in Lencadcndron argentenm and L. concinnum. 
both of Africa. A gum-resin is found in Grcvillca robusta of 
Australia, and a tannin in the bark of Lontafia obliqna of Chile. 

A golden-yellow coloring principle is obtained from the 
flowers of Persoonia saccafa of Australia. The w^ood of Protca 
grandifiora of Abyssinia is used in v/agon building, and Lcuco- 
sperniiun conocarpuni of Cape Colony yields a valuable red wood 
and a tan bark. 

Banskia crmnla of Australia and the sugar-bush (Protca inclU- 
fera) of Australia and P. speciosa have a sugary cell-sap. The 
oily seeds of the Chilean hazelnut {Gucvina Avcllana) are highly 
prized as food by the inhabitants. The seeds of Brabciuni stcUati- 
folinni or wild chestnut of Cape Colony are poisonous when fresh, 
Init on roasting they become edible and are used as a substitute 
for coffee. 


This order embraces a number of families which are quite 
distinct in several respects. 

plants are half-parasites with well developed leaves containing 
chloroplastids. They live on trees by means of haustoria. To 


this family belongs the American mistletoe {Plioradendron fla- 
vescens) parasitic on oaks, elms, the tupelo (Nyssa), red maple 
and other deciduous trees. The white, globose berries of this 
plant are quite poisonous, as are also those of the European mistle- 
toe {Visciim album) and the oak mistletoe of Southern Europe 
(Loranthus euro perns.) Viscuni album contains a volatile alka- 
loid, visciNE, a glucoside and a resinous principle. This sub- 
stance serves to attach the seeds to the barks of trees, where they 
germinate, and it is used in the manufacture of bird-lime, which 
owing to its viscid character is used to catch small birds. 

The plants are chlorophyllous herbs or shrubs which are common 
in warm countries, and many of which are parasitic on the roots of 
other plants. A number of them contain volatile oils, as the wood 
of various species of Santalum. The official oil of santal is ob- 
tained from the scented wood of the white sandalwood {Santalum 
album ) a small tree growing wdld and also cultivated in India and 
the East Indian Archipelago. The wood from the East Indies is 
known as Macassar sandalwood and yields 1.6 to 3 per cent, of 
oil, while the Indian wood yields 3 to 5 per cent. The oil consists 
of 90 to 98 per cent, of santalol. Fiji oil of santal is obtained from 
6^. Vasi : and Australian oil of santal from Fnsanus acnminatus 
and F. spicatus. The Chinese oil is obtained from Santalum 
Frcxcinctianuvi and S. Preisci. 

c. FAMILY BALANOPHORACE^. The plants of this 
group are indigenous to tropical and sub-tropical regions. They 
are root-parasites and develop tuberous rhizomes and fleshy shoots 
which are yellow and without foliage leaves. Balanophora elongata 
of Java grows on the roots of Ficus and other plants, and contains 
a large quantity of wax and resin. Sarcophyte san guinea oi Cape 
Colony, which lives on the roots of certain Acacias, contains a 
principle with the odor of scatol. Cynomorium coccineum, found 
in the countries bordering the ]\Iediterranean, has a blood-red, 
astringent sap. The torus of the flower of LangsdorfHa hypogcua 
of tropical America is edible. The plant is also rich in wax and 
in New Granada it is sold under the name of *' Siejas " and 
burnt like a candle. 



This order includes two families which are very different in 
their general habits, (a) The Rafiflesiacese are parasitic herbs 
that are almost devoid of chlorophyll. The reddish vegetative 
parts penetrate into the tissues of the host and from these arise 
almost mushroom-like flowers which in the case of Raiflcsia 
Arnoldii of Sumatra are i AI. in diameter, being probablv the 
largest flowers known. The plants of this family are rich in 
astringent substances. 

The plants are non-parasitic herbs or shrubs, some of which are 
twining. The leaves are simple and in many of the plants more 
or less cordate and reniform. The flowers are perfect and the 
perianth is 3- to 6-lobed. While the flowers of our native species 
are rather small and insignificant those of the tropical ])lants 
are extremely curious, being generally of some striking color and 
of various odd forms. 

Aristolochia reticulata is one of the plants that furnishes the 
official drug serpentaria (p. 501). From a slender rhizome with 
numerous hair-like roots, arise one or more short, leafy branches 
which are more or less simple, somewhat hairy, and bear oblong- 
cordate, prominent-reticulate, hairy leaves (Fig. 137). The 
flowers are borne on slender, scaly, basal branches ; the calyx tube 
is purplish and curved like "the letter " s," being enlarged around 
the ovary and at its throat. The fruit is a capsule containing 
numerous flat or concave seeds. An allied species Aristolochia 
Serpentaria furnishes the drug Virginia snakeroot. It is a more 
delicate plant, the leaves being ovate-lanceolate, acuminate ; the 
flowers are solitary, and in some cases cleistogamous. This spe- 
cies is found growing in the United States, more especially east 
of the Mississippi, while Aristolochia reticulata is found west of 
the Mississippi from Arkansas to Texas. The plants of this genus 
contain volatile oils and in addition to the tv/o species mentioned 
forty-five other species are used in medicine in varous parts of 
the world. 

Asorinn canadensc (Canada snakeroot or wild ginger) is a 
plant common in the Northern United States and Canada (Fig. 



Fig. 137. Southern serpentaria {Aristolochia reticulata) showing the cordate, reticu- 
lately-veined leaves, and the clusters of irregular flowers on the lower part of the stem. 
After Carson. 


78, B). The long and slender rhizomes are used in medicine. 
They are 5 to 15 cm. long, about 2 mm. thick, more or less bent 
and curved, purplish-brown externall}- ; whitish internally ; the 
bark is thick, wood with about 12 fibrovascular bundles, pith large; 
the odor is aromatic ; the taste pungent and bitter. The drug, con- 
tains 2 to 3 per cent, of a volatile oil containing a fragrant body, 
asarol ; a pungent, fragrant resin ; a yellow coloring principle 
which is colored dark green with ferric salts ; and starch. The 
volatile oil obtained from A. enropaum contains a principle (asa- 
rone) which forms irritating vapors on heating. 


This order is represented by a single family, the Polygon- 
ACE^E or Buckwheat family. The plants are mostly herbs but 
include some twining vines and shrubs. The leaves are simple, 
mostly entire, and characterized by having a stipulate appendage 
(ocrea) which sheaths the stem. The flowers are small, perfect 
and with a 2- to 6-parted perianth. The fruit is a 3- to 4-angled 
akene. The embryo is either straight or curved, and the endo- 
sperm is mealy. 

Rheum ofUcinale is the source of the " South China " rhubarb 
from Szetschuan (p. 474). The plant is a perennial herb resem- 
bling the garden rhubarb (Fig. 205). The rhizome is vertical 
and gives rise to a leafy branch terminated by the inflorescence 
which is a panicle. The leaves are large, with a sub-cylindrical 
petiole, a cordate or orbicular lamina which is either entire or 
coarsely and irregularly dentate. There are several nearly re- 
lated species which also yield the drug. Rheum pahnatum of 
Northern China has leaves which are lobed or deeply incised, 
which character is especially marked in the variety tanguticum. 
Rhemn Rhaponticum, which yields English rhubarb, has leaves 
which are heart-shaped at the base and with a more or less 
irregularly undulate margin. All of these species are more or 
less common in cultivation in botanical gardens in Europe. 

Rumex crispus or curled dock is a perennial herb growing in 
fields and waste places in the P^nited States and parts of Canada. 
The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, with an undulate margin 



and rather long petiole. The flowers have a 6-parte(l, dark green 


^ O" a 

Fig. 138. Bnckwhea.*. (Fagopyrum esculentum) : A, transverse section of grain showing 
pericarp (c), endosperm (n) and slender coiled embryo (e) ; B, transversesection of portion 
of grain showing epicarp (e) , fibrous layer Cf ) , pigment layer (p) , outer epidermis of spermo- 
derm (o), aleurone cells (a), endosperm cells containing starch (n); C, surface view of cells 
of epicarp; D, isolated fibers of pericarp; E. surface \-iew of aleurone. cells; F, isolated par- 
enchytpa cells of endosperm filled with starch grains as seen in buckwheat flour; G, appear- 
ance of starch grains when mounted in oil and viewed with polarized light;_ H, swollen and 
altered starch grains which are two to three times the size of the normal grains. 

perianth, and are perfect or polygamo-dioecious. The fruit is a 
dark brown, cordate-winged, 3-angled akene. The dried root 


is somewhat fusiform, reddish-brown and with a bitter, astringent 
taste. It contains chrysophanic acid, tannin, calcium oxalate and 
some of the other constituents found in rhubarb. 

Riimex Acetosella (field or sheep sorrel) is a slender annual 
herb with hastate leaves, having flowers in compound racemes. 
The leaves contain oxalic acid, both free and in combination with 
calcium and potassium. 

Tannin is obtained from a number of the plants belonging to 
the Polygonacese, as the root of Rmne.v hymcnosepaliis of 
Texas which is known as Canaigre; the rhizome of Polygonum 
bistorta of Europe which yields the drug Bistorta. 

Polygonum cuspidatiim of the gardens contains emodin; poly- 
gonin, a glucoside yielding emodin ; and probably emodin methyl 
ether. Ritincx cckloniamis of South Africa contains emodin, a 
volatile oil and a resin. The latter consists of emodin mono- 
methyl ether; chrysophanic acid, physosterol (resembling rham- 
nol), etc. Polygonum Hydropipcr and P. aviciilarc, both com- 
mon in the United States, are poisonous to sheep. 

A number of the plants of this family yield food products. 
Buckwheat is the fruit of Fagopyruni cscuhvifimi indigenous to 
Central Asia and cultivated in many parts of the world. 

Some are also cultivated as ornamental plants, as the Prince's 
feather (Polygonum orientale). 


This order includes seven families, in all of which the embryo 
is curved or coiled, and the reserve consists chiefly of perisperm. 

The plants are annual or perennial herbs with simple leaves and 
small perfect flowers, the fruit being a utricle. The fruits of a 
number of the group contain volatile oil, and are used in medi- 
cine, as the common wormseed (Chcnopodium anthclminticum^, 
which is found in waste places in the United States, an allied .spe- 
cies C. amhrosioides, and other species of Chenopodium as well. 
Spanish wormseed is obtained from Anabasis tainan'scifolia. 

Chenopodinni nicxicauiiin yields saponin. Atriplcx hortensis 
of Tartary yields indigo. The ash of very many species of 


Atriplex as well as genera of the Chenopodiaceae yields soda. 
The seeds of several species are edible, as of Chciwpodiuin viride 
of Europe and Asia, C. Oitiiioa of Chile, etc. Seeds of Spinacia 
tetrandra of the Orient are used in bread-making. 

A number of species are used as garden vegetables, as spinach 
(Spinacia olemcca) (Fig. 121, C) and beet {Beta vulgaris). 

The SUGAR BEET {Beta vulgaris Rapa) which contains from 
4 to 15 per cent, of cane sugar (sucrose) is largely cultivated in 
Germany, as well as to some extent in the United States, and is 
an important source of cane sugar. While the juice of the beet 
contains a larger amount of nitrogenous substances than that of 
the sugar cane it is practically free from invert sugar. 

b. AMARANTACE^. The plants are weed-like and much 
resemble the Chenopodiaceae. They yield anthelmintic principles, 
edible seeds, and the leaves of a number of species are used as 
vegetables. The ash yielded by some species contains potash, as 
Achyranthcs aspcra and Auiaraiithus ruber. Some are orna- 
mental plants having a fasciated inflorescence, as the Cock's- 
comb (Cclosia erisfaia). 

The plants are mostly herbs growing in America. The leaves are 
entire and simple, and the flowers are regular and in terminal or 
axillary clusters. The perianth consists of a 4- to 5-lobed corolla- 
like calyx. The most common representative of this family is the 
Marvel-of-Peru or four-o'clock (Mirabilis Jalapa). While this 
plant is an annual in the United States, in the Tropics the tuberous 
root is used as a substitute for jalap, and is sometimes sold for it. 
The seeds of this plant are edible, as are also the leaves of several 
species, as of Bocrhavia erecta, which are used as green vegetables. 
Some members of the group, as Bougainvillea spectabilis, are 
handsome plants with bright rose-colored bracts which envelop 
the small greenish flowers. 

d. PHYTOLACCACE.E. The plants of this family are most- 
ly tropical and are represented in this region by only one species, 
namely, the common poke {Phytolacca decandra), the root (p. 
465) and fruit (p. 466) of which are used in medicine. This is a 
succulent, branching herb i to 4 M. high, having a large perennial 
root. The stem is hollow except for the thin, papery partitions. 



The leaves are simple, ovate-lanceolate (Fig. 139). The flowers 
are in racemes and characterized by having ten stamens. The 
fruit is a dark purple, juicy berry. 

Fig. 139. Poke weed {Phytolacca decandra) : A portion of shoot showing leaves and 
stem which has a large pith with bi-convex cavities resembling the pith of certain xero- 
phytic Composites, as Senecio prcucox of Mexico; B. raceme showing fruits at the lower end 
and flowers at the upper end ; C, transverse section of leaf showing upper epidermis (ue), 
palisade cells (p), raphides (r), spiral tracheae (v), parenchyma (m) with large intercel- 
lular spaces, lower epidermis (le) ; D, stoma of lower surface of leaf; E, transverse section 
of fruit; F, longitudinal section of seed, the embryo being curved and the endosperm 
containing starch. 

The roots of this species as well as others contain powerful 
drastic principles, as Pircunia lift oral is and Anisomeria drastica 
of Chile. Phytolacca ahyssinica contains saponin, and a red color- 


ing principle is found in the berries of Phytolacca decandra and 
Rivinia tinctoria of Venezuela. The leaves of some species of 
Phytolacca are used as greens. 

e. AIZOACE^. This is a group of mostly tropical plants, 
very many of them having fleshy leaves and adapted to arid 
regions. Many of the plants, particularly those belonging to 
the genus Mcscuibryanthcinuin, are much prized on account of 
their beautiful flowers, which expand only in the sunshine. The 
common ice-plant of the gardens, so called because of the numer- 
ous glistening globules of water which cover the leaves, is .1/. 
crystalliiiimi. This plant as well as other species of Mesembryan- 
themum are used in medicine. The ashes yielded bv the plants 
of this family also contain soda. The seeds of some species of 
Mesembryanthemum as well as other m.embers of this family 
are edible, and the leaves of some species are used as vegetables 
like lettuce. 

f. PORTULACACE^. The plants are fleshy or succu- 
lent herbs mostly indigenous to America. The two common 
representatives are the spring beauty {Claytonia virginica), 
the tubers of which are rich in starch, and purslane {Portn- 
laca oleracea) sometimes used as a green vegetable. The 
seeds of the latter plant as well as of other species of Portulaca 
are used in medicine. 

g. CARYOPHYLLACE^. The plants are annual or 
perennial herbs often swollen at the nodes, with opposite, entire 
leaves, and usually perfect regular flowers. The perianth has a 
distinct corolla of 4 or 5 petals. The fruit is a capsule and the 
seeds are half anatropous. The plants are most abundant in tlie 
northern hemisphere ; and some of them are quite showy, as the 
CARNATION (Diaiitlius caryophyllus) and pinks {Dianthns spe- 
cies) and the cultivated pink or Sweet William {D. barbatus). 
A number of the members of this group contain saponin, as 
bouncing bet (Saponaria officinalis), which is naturalized in the 
United States from Europe, Gypsophila Strnthium of Spain and 
other species of this genus, as well as species of Lychnis and 
Herniaria. The leaves of Paronychia argcntca are used in Mo- 
rocco as a substitute for tea. The roots of Scleranthiis perennis of 
Eastern Europe are inhabited by an insect {Coccus polonica) 


which is used in tlie preparation of a red dye. The fleshy stitch- 
wort (Alsiiic crassifolia) of Europe and the United States is 
poisonous to horses. 


The plants are mostly herbs but include some shrubs and trees, 
and comprise eight families of economic importance. 

These are aquatic perennial herbs with thick root-stocks and float- 
ing, peltate leaves. The flowers are perfect rmd have large 
petals. The seeds are enclosed in an aril and the embryo has 
fleshy cotyledons. 

Nnphar luteiim of Europe and Middle Asia contains the alka- 
loid nupharine and tannin, the latter of which splits into ellagic 
and gallic acids. The yellow pond lily {Nyiiiphcca advena) of the 
United States contains similar principles. The seeds and rhizomes 
are rich in starch, and are used as food, in some cases starch being 
manufactured from them, as of various species of Xyiiipluca, 
Nchiiiibo (Lotus) and ricforia, and Euryalc fcrox. 

These are annual or perennial herbs with simple or compound 
leaves, regular or irregular flowers, and fruits which are akenes, 
follicles, or berries. 

Hydrastis canadensis yields the drug hxdrastis (p. 498). 
From a short, thick, horizontal rhizome with numerous slender 
roots rises a short stalk with a few palmately lobed. reniform, 
petiolate, pubescent leaves. The flowers are small, solitary and 
greenish-white, and the fruit is a head of crimson berries some- 
what resembling the raspberry (Fig. 218). 

Cimicifuga raccmosa (black cohosh or black snakeroot) yields 
the drug cimicifuga (p. 497). This is a tall perennial herb with 
large knotty rhizome, large decompound leaves and a long raceme 
of white flowers (Fig. 140). 

Aconitum Napelhis yields the official drug aconite (p. 477). 
This is a perennial herbaceous ]ilant indigenous to Europe and 
extensively cultivated. From a tuberous root arises a simple 
leafy stem with j^almately lobed or diviik'd leaves, and large, 
irregular, blue flowers which form a rather loose panicle (Fig. 



141). The sepals are five in number, the posterior upper one 
being- large and helmet-shaped. The petals are 2 to 5 and rather 

Fig. 140. A group of transplanted wild plants with a plant of Cimicifuga racemosa 
in the foreground, showing the characteristic, large, decompound leavfes and long raceme of 



small, the two posterior or upper ones which are hooded and 
concealed in the helmet-shaped sepal are nectar-secreting (Fig. 
84, E). The fruit is a follicle and contains numerous small seeds. 

Fig. 141. Acomtum Napellus . A, one of the Icng-petiolate, divided leaves: B, epi- 
dermal cells of lower surface; c, an epidermal cell of the upper surface; D, transverse sec- 
tion through one of the principal veins showing two fibrovascular bundles, ^d strongly 
collenchymatic cells beneath the lower epidermis, E. one of the few hairs from the petiole; 
F, lignified bast fibers surrounding the sieve in the petiole; G. longitudinal section through 
.fibrovascular bundle showing spiral and reticulate trachea; (t), bast fibers (b) and some 
of the collenchyma cells (c), those at the left exhibiting longitudinal pores which give 
a crystal-like effect. 

Delphinium Sfaphisagria. which yields staphisagria (p. 427) 
or stavesacre, is a handsome, tall, biennial larkspur, with dark 
green, palmate, 5- or 7-lobcd leaves, and blue or purplish flowers 



in racemes. The flowers are zygomorphic and somewhat resem- 
ble those of Aconite. 

Pulsatilla, which was formerly official, is obtained from 
several species of Anemone growing in Europe. These are peren- 
nial herbs (Fig. 76) with basal leaves which arc deeply lobed 
or dissected, those of the stem forming a kind of involucre near 
the flower. The flowers are rather large and with numerous 
petaloid sepals. The fruit is a densely woolly akene in those 

Fig. 142. Aconitine: orthorhombic crystals, crystallized from alcoholic solutions. 

species which are used in medicine. The entire plant is used and 
contains an acrid volatile oil the principal constituent of v/hich is 
an anemone camphor (anemonol). The latter is easily decom- 
posed into anemonin, which on fusion becomes exceedingly acrid. 
Similar principles are found in other species of Anemone as well 
as in certain species of Ranunculus (buttercup) and Clematis 
vitalha of Europe. 

Very many of the other Ranunculaceae contain active princi- 
ples. The glucoside helleborein, which resembles digitalin in its 
medicinal properties, is found in Hellehorus niger the black hel- 



LEEORE of Europe, and probably in other species of Helleborus, 
as well as in Actcca spicata the baneberry of Europe and Adonis 
vernalis the false hellebore of Europe and Asia. 

plants of this family are herbs or shrubs with simple or compound 

Fig. 143. A group of transplanted plants, showing in the upper portion 
a fruiting plant of blue cohosh (Caidophyllum thalictroides) . 

leaves, and flowers either single or in racemes (Figs. 134. E; 
81, T). The fruit is a berry or capsule. 

Bcrhcris AqnifoUum (trailing mahonia) yields the official drug 
berberis (p. 482). It is a low, trailing shrub with 3- to /-com- 
pound, scattered leaves. The leaflets vary from oval to nearly 
orbicular, are oltuse at the apex, slightly cordate at the base, 
finely reticulate, and spinose-dentate. The flowers are yellow and 
in dense terminal racemes. The fruit is a blue or purplish berry. 


Caulophylliiiit thalictroidcs or blue cohosh of the Eastern 
United States is a perennial herb with a thick rhizome and large 
ternately compound leaves (Fig. 143). The flowers are small 
and greenish-purple. The fruit is peculiar in that it resembles a 
berry and consists only of blue, globular, naked seeds, the pericarp 
beirig ruptured and falling away soon after fertilization. The 
rhizome and roots were formerly official. It is a horizontal, much 
branched rhizome with broad, concave stem-scars, and numerous 
roots ; it is grayish-brown externally, sweetish, slightly bitter and 
somewhat acrid. The drug contains an acrid, saponin-like gluco- 
side, leontin ; a crystalline alkaloid, caulophylline ; two resins ; and 
starch. For analysis of the seeds see Cliem. News, 1908, p. 180. 

Podophyllum peltatuni or May apple is the source of the of- 
ficial podophyllum (p. 506). This is an early, herbaceous, peren- 
nial plant forming large patches by reason of its long dichoto- 
mously branching rhizome (Fig. 222). It forms two kinds of 
branches, one bearing a single, peltate, 5- to 7-lobed leaf; and 
another bearing in the axil of two similar leaves a white flower 
which gives rise to a large, yellowish, ovoid berry which is edible. 

The plants are climbing or twining, herbaceous or woody vines 
with simple, entire or lobed leaves and small, greenish-white dioe- 
cious flowers. The fruit is a drupe and contains a characteristic 
crescent-shaped seed. 

Monspcrinum canadcnsc or Canada moonseed yields the drug 
menispermum which was formerly official. It grows in the North- 
fern United States and Canada and is a high-climbing vine with 
broadly ovate, cordate and 3- to 7-lobed leaves (Fig. 65). The 
flowers are in panicles giving rise to a characteristic cluster of 
bluish-black berries. 

The rhizome occurs in pieces which are 5 to 7 dm. long 
and 2 to 5' mm. in diameter ; externally it is longitudinally 
wrinkled, of a yellowish-brown color and somewhat resembles 
Sarsaparilla. In transverse section, however, it is very distinct 
(Fig. T15). The drug has a bitter taste and contains a bitter 
alkaloid menispine, berberine and starch. In addition it contains 
the alkaloid oxyacanthine which is also found in Berberis vulgaris 
of Europe and the West Indies. 



Jatcorliirja paliiiafa }icl(ls the official drug calumba (p. 459). 
The plant is a herbaceous climber somewhat resembling Meni- 
spermum, the leaves being more decidedly lobed. The flowers 
form long racemes. 

Chondrodcndron touicntosiiui, the source of the official drug 
pareira (p. 460), is a high woody twiner. The leaves are large, 
petiolate, broadly ovate or rounded, slightly cordate, and densely 
tomentose on the lower surface. 

Anamirta paiiicnlata is a woody climber of the East Indies. 
The fruits, known as fishberries or Cocculus, are used as a fish 
poison by the natives and contain the neutral principle picrotoxin. 

Very many other plants of the ^Menispermaceae contain 
powerful toxic principles and are used as fish poisons and as anti- 
dotes to snake poison. Several species of Abuta are used in the 
preparation of curare poison. 

plants are mostly trees or shrubs and are represented in the United 
States by the magnolias and tulip tree (Liriodciidron tulipifcra). 
The latter is a magnificent tree with characteristic leaves (Fig. 
74) and large, fragrant, orange-colored, tulip-like flowers. 

The plants of this family contain a variety of constituents. 
Ethereal oils containing anethol and resembling those of anise 
are found in the fruit of lUicinm anisatuui (I. verum) or star 
ANISE, a sm^ll evergreen tree growing in the mountains of South- 
ern China. A volatile oil with a disagreeable odor is found in a 
closely related species /. religiosnin (Shikimi) of Japan. The 
fruit of the latter plant is known as Japanese star anise and 
contains in addition a poisonous neutral principle. The fruits of 
both star anise (Illicium) and the Japanese star anise are made up 
of 6 to 8 radially arranged follicles, which are dark brown, de- 
hiscent on the upper (ventral) surface and each contains a single, 
brown, shiny seed. Star anise has an odor and taste resembling 
anise. Japanese star anise has a bitter taste and in addition is 
brownish-black, very woody and strongly beaked. 

Volatile oils are also found in the flowers of the various species 
of Magnolia and m Michelia Champaca found in the Malay Archi- 
pelago and cultivated in India and r>razil. and in M. nilagirica of 
India, the latter being used in perfumery. 


-/ D 

Winter's bark is derived from Driniys Winteri, a shrub of 
South America. It occurs in quills which are from 5 to 10 mm. 
thick; externally it is grayish-brown and covered with numerous 
lichens ; the fracture is short, the broken surface being marked 
by stone cells and resin canals ; the odor is fragrant ; taste aro- 
matic, pungent and bitter. The drug contains a volatile oil which 
consists essentially of a hydrocarbon known as winterin ; it also 
contains a resin. 

A crystalline principle magnolin, a glucoside and a volatile 
oil are found in Magnolia macrophylla (or cucumber-tree of the 

Fig. 144. Various forms of stone cells in star anise, the frint of Ilhcium anisatum. 

Southern States) and M. tripetala or umbrella tree growing 
southward from Pennsylvania. A bitter principle liriodendrin, a 
volatile oil, an alkaloid, and a glucoside are found in the tulip 
poplar or tulip tree. 

The bitter and aromatic bark of MicJiclia montana of Java is 
used like cascarilla (Euphorbiacese). A bitter resin is found in 
the fruit of Talauma Phiniicri of the Antilles. 

A glucoside which dissolves the blood corpuscles is found in 
Talauma macrocarpa of Mexico. A red coloring principle solu]:)le 
in water occurs in the leaves of Michclia fsiampaca of Java. The 
fruits of ScJu'candra propinqna of Nepal and Kadsura Rox- 




biirgliiaiia of Japan contain considerable mucilage and are edible. 
The latter plant is also used as a hair-restorer. From the ash of 
Schicandra chinensis of China and Japan sodium chloride is 

Fig. 145. North American papaw (Asimina triloba): A, branch showing lateral 
nodding flower and the large, pinnately-veined, entire leaf; B, section of the oblong, 
3-seeded berry; C, D, seeds, the one in longitudinal section. After Baillon. 

The flowers of Magnolia Jiiglans are used to flavor tea and the 
leaves of Talanma ovata are used as a substitute for tea in Brazil. 

These are shrubs or small trees chiefly inhabiting warm-tem- 
perate and tropical regions. They yield very many economic 
products. The fruit of Xylopia brasilcusis is used as a substitute 
for cubeb. Some yield fruits having an aroma similar to that of 


nutmeg, as Monocarpia Blancoi of Africa and Jamaica. The 
flowers of Cananga odorata of tropical countries are used in the 
preparation of a pomade from which the perfume Ylang-ylang 
is made. Ethereal oils are also found in other species, as Unona 
Ugnlaris of Amboyna, the seeds of which are used in perfumery. 
The bark of Popoivia pisocarpa of Java contains an alkaloid. 

The seeds of Xylopia salicifolia of Trinidad and X. mnricata of 
Jamaica are very bitter, as are also the wood and bark of X. glabra 
of the West Indies. 

The seeds of Asimina triloba the North American papaw 
(Fig. 145), contain an emetic principle. This plant should not 
be confounded with Carica Papaya (Caricacese) which contains 
the ferment papain. 

Many of the Anonaceas yield large succulent fruits, some of 
which are edible, as the sugar apple obtained from Anona squa- 
mosa and CUSTARD .'^pple from A. reticulata both abundant in the 
Tropics. The fruit of A. niuricata' sometimes weighs as much as 
two Kilograms. 

family is represented by the single genus Myristica. Nutmeg (p. 
439) and mace are obtained from Myristica fragrans, an evergreen 
tree with ovate, petiolate, coriaceous, entire and pinnately-veined 
leaves. The flowers are small, yellow and dioecious. The fruit 
is a berry having somewhat the shape and size of the green 
fruit of black walnut. It has a line of dehiscence, and when ripe 
is yellow. The arillode of the seed constitutes mace While the 
kernel is the nutmeg, the pericarp of the fruit and coat of the 
seed being rejected. ; 

of this family are chiefly shrubs and trees which are distributed 
mostly in the Tropics although a few are found in the temperate 
zones (Fig. 134, F). 

Sassafras officinale. This is a tree common in the eastern and 
central portion of the United States and is characterized by its 
rough bark and its i- to 3-lobed leaves, from whence it received 
its former name Sassafras variifolium (Fig. 73). The flowers 
are yellow, dioecious and appear in the spring before the leaves. 
The fruit is an oblong, blue drupe (p. 539). 



Cinnainoniiim seylanicuin, which is the source of the Ceylon 
cinnamon (p. 513), is a small, handsome, evergreen tree with op- 
posite, coriaceous, broadly lanceolate, 3- to 5-nerved leaves (Fig. 
146). The flowers are yellowish-white, hermaphrodite, or both 

Fig. 146. Young plant of Cinnamomum zeylanicum grown from cutting. 

pistillate and staminate. The fruit is a black, ovoid berry. The 
oil of Ceylon cinnamon from the bark and branches is charac- 
terized by its content of cinnamic aldehyde ; from the leaves by 
eugenol ; and from the root bark by camphor. ' C. Cassia 
which yields Cassia cinnamon is a tree growing in China, 
Svmiatra, and cultivated in Java. It has long, oblong-lanceolate 
leaves which are pubescent on the lower surface. Cassia cinna- 



mon (bark) is also obtained from Cassia Buruianni. Saigon cin- 
namon (p. 513) is derived apparently from wild trees growing in 
the mountainous regions of Anam, the botanical origin of which 
has not been determined. 

The volatile oils of the members of the Lauraceae vary con- 
siderably in composition. In addition to the oils of Sassafras 
and Cinnamon the following may be mentioned: A cinneol- 
containing oil is found in Ciiniainomnui Oliveri of Australia, 
Umbellularia calif ornica of Western North America and Laurns 
nobilis the noble laurel of the Mediterranean and Mexico. A ijor- 
NEOL-containing oil is obtained from the root of Dicypclliiim caryo- 
phyUatum of Guiana, the wood of which is known in Cayenne as 
rose-wood. An oil containing a notable amount of methyl sali- 
cylate is obtained from the spice-bush (Lindcra Benzoin) of the 
United States. 

Cinnamomum Camphora, or the camphor tree, is indigenous to 
China, Japan and Formosa, and is now cultivated in many warm 
countries as a shade and ornamental tree, growing very well in 
Southern California and the Southeastern States. All parts of 
the tree contain a volatile oil which on oxidation yields camphor 
which latter is obtained by distillation and sublimation. Camphor 
of poor quality is obtained from C. Parthcnoxylon of Burmah, 
Malaya and China, and C. glaiidiilifcniin of the Himalayas. Cam- 
phor is also a constituent of other ethereal oils of this same family, 
as the Massoy bark oil obtained from the root bark of C. zeylan- 
icnin and C. Bnrnianni of Java. 

A EUGENOL-containing volatile oil is obtained from Ravensara 
aroniatica of Madagascar, and Machilns Thunbergii of Japan. 
Eiigenol is also found in oil of laurel leaves (L. nobilis), Massoy 
bark oil, the oil of the leaves of Ce3don cinnamon, and the oils 
obtained from Cinnanwmuni Culilazvan of the Malay Peninsula 
and China, and C. Wightii of East India, and possibly is also 
found in DicypeUium caryophyllatum. 

The wood and the bark of Nectandra or Beeberu {Nectandra 
Rodicri) of Guiana and Brazil contain several alkaloids, one of 
which is known as beeberine and is supposed to be identical with 
the alkaloids in Biixiis sempervirens (Earn. Buxaceae) ; pelosine 
found in Pareira ; and paricine found in the bark of the cultivated 


cinchonas of Java. Coto bark which is used in medicine, is ob- 
tained from an unknown tree in Northern BoHvia belonging to 
this family. The bark contains a volatile oil having a pungent 
taste, and a volatile alkaloid. 

Fatty oils are obtained from Ravcnsara aroniatica of Alada- 
gascar, Litsca glauca of Japan and other species of Litsca found 
growing in Cochin China and India. A red sap with a very fetid 
odor is obtained from Ocotca fastens of tropical and sub-tropical 
America, and the stink-wood of South Africa (O. bullata). 


These are mostly herbaceous, seldom woody, plants. The 
flowers are perfect and the fruit capsular. This order includes 
two families of importance medicinally. 

herbs with a milky or colored latex. 

Papaver somnifennn or opium poppy is an annual herb i to 2 
M. high. The stem is sparingly branched, with alternate, deeply 
lobed, pubescent, clasping (by a cordate base), dull green leaves 
(Fig. 147, A). The flowers in the variety album, from which 
opium is obtained, are white or silver-gray, and in many cultivated 
varieties are large and extremely showy. The two sepals drop 
away with the expansion of the corolla ; the ovary is smooth, more 
or less globular and subtends the radiate stigma ; the fruit is a 
capsule (Fig. 91), dehiscing by means of terminal pores, and 
contains a large number of extremely small wdiite seeds, the latter 
being known as maw-seed and which on expression yield a fixed 
oil known as poppy-oil. (For opium see p. 658.) 

Other allied members of the Papaveracese possess narcotic 
properties, but the alkaloid morphine has not been isolated from 
any of them, as the California poppy (EscJischoltaia californica) 
(Fig. 147, B) ; the Mexican poppy (Argcnwue incxicana) ; Hy- 
pecoum procmnhcns, and fuiuaria pUcata both of Southern Eu- 
rope. These latter plants probably contain also the alkaloid proto- 
pine which is apparently identical with fumarine. 

Sanguinaria canadensis or bloodroot, the rhizome of which is 
official (p. 508), is a small, herbaceous, perennial herb with a red 



latex. The rhizome is horizontal, short and thick, and gives rise 
to a single, petiolate, palmately 5- to 9-lobed leaf and a single 
white flower with a long peduncle (Fig. 148). The capsule is ob- 
long, 2-valved and contains a number of smooth but crested seeds. 
Chelidonium majus (celandine) is the source of the herb 
CHELiDONiUM which was formerly official. The plant is a delicate 
branching herb about 0.5 M. high ; with alternate, deeply pinnati- 

FiG. 147. A, Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) ; B, California poppy (Eschscholt- 

zia californica) showing flower (a), and capsules (b, c), one of which (c) is dehiscent. After 
Schimper. . 

fid leaves ; yellow flowers ; slender elongated capsule resembling 
that of the mustards, and a yellow latex in every part. Celandine 
is indigenous to Europe and Asia and is common in waste places 
in the United States. The drug contains the following alkaloids : 
Chelidonine (identical widi stylophorine), chelerythrine (which 
is fluorescent), and protopine (found also in opium and sangui- 
naria). It also contains a bitter neutral principle chelidoxanthin 
and several organic acids. 



To this family belong a number of other plants which contain 
principles similar to or identical with those found in Sanguinaria 
and Chelidonium, and of these the following are common in the 
United States: Yellow or celandine poppy (Stylophormn diphyl- 
Iinn) and the Dutchman's breeches {Bicnciilla CucuUaria). 

The alkaloid protopine (fumarine) is found in the following 
plants of this family: Sanguinaria canadensis; Chelidonium 
majiis; Sfyloplwnini diphyllum; Eschscholtsia californica; Glaii- 







Fig. 148. A group of transplanted bloodroot plants {Sanguinaria cai:aJensis) show- 
ing i-flowered scapes, and the palmately veined and lobed leaves. 

cium cornicitlahim of Middle Europe; BicncuUa CucuUaria: Ad- 
lumia fnngosa, the climbing fumitory of the United States and 
Canada ; Fumaria officinalis, the fumitor}- of Europe, which is 
naturalized in the United States and Canada ; Bocconia cordata 
of China and Japan, and B. frntescens of the West Indies, Mexico 
and Paraguay : Dicentra pttsilla of Japan and several species of 
corydalis. The tubers of squirrel corn or corydalis (Bicuculla 
canadensis) contain the alkaloidal corydaline. 


herbaceous plants with characteristic flowers and fruits. The 
flowers have four sepals in two sets, four petals which are more or 
less spreading and clawed at the base, and six stamens which are 
tetradynamous (Fig. 134, B). The fruit is a 2-celled silique or 
silicle, which varies in shape in the different genera (Fig. 89). 

Sinapis alba (white mustard). The plant is a slender, branch- 
ing, more or less hispid (bristly hairy) annual or biennial herb 
usually less than 0.5 M. high, with deeply pinnatifid lower leaves 
and lanceolate, dentate upper leaves. The flowers are yellow, and 
the silique is densely hispid, constricted between the seeds and 
terminated by a long, flat, sword-like beak. The seeds are official 
as white mustard (p. 428) but are known in commerce as yellow 

Brassica nigra or black mustard, the seeds of which constitute 
the official black mustard (p. 429). is a larger, more branching 
plant than Sinapis alba, being from i to 3 M. high. The silique 
is shorter, more cylindrical and with a slender, filiform beak. 

Glucosides similar to those which occur in Sinapis alba and 
Brassica nigra, are also found in other species of Sinapis and 
Brassica, as well as in the following plants, but the oils produced 
are not identical: Horseradish (Roripa Annoracea), the oil being 
similar to volatile oil of mustard; water cress (R. Nasturtium) ; 
garden radish {Raphanus sativus) ; Sisyuibrium Alliaria of 
Europe, and the hedge mustard {S. officinale) naturalized in the 
United States; turnip {Brassica rapa) of Europe; field penny- 
cress {Thlaspi arvcnse) of Asia and found in waste places in the 
Eastern and Middle United States ; the narrow leaved pepper- 
grass (Lepidinin rudcrale) naturalized from Europe; scurvy-grass 
(Cochlearia officinalis) of Northern and Middle Europe, the herb 
of which, known as Herba cochleari.^, is used in medicine; 
"honesty" (Lunaria annua) common in cultivation on account 
of the ornamental use of the dry pods ; Parrya macrocarpa of 
Southern Europe; treacle mustard (Erysimum cheiranthoides) of 
Northern Europe and the United States, and garlic mustard (. 

The seeds of most of the Cruciferae are also rich in fixed oils, 
and the commercial oils are obtained from the following species: 


Wild mustard or charlock (Brassica arvensis) naturalized in the 
United States from Europe ; Hesperis tristis of Southern Europe ; 
cabbage (Brassica oleracea). An iNDiGO-forming glucoside is 
found in I satis tinctoria of Europe and /. indigotica of China ; 
Neslia paniculata of Europe and the Orient; and Lcpidium ozvai- 
hiensc of the Hawaiian Islands. Shepherd's purse {CapscUa 
Btirsa-pastoris) contains an alkaloid (bursine) and tannin. The 
leaves and roots of many of the Crucifer^ are used as garden 
vegetables, and some are cultivated as ornamental plants. The 
seeds of Liinaria biennis (or " honesty ") contain an orange red 
crystalline alkaloid, or possibly a mixture of alkaloids. 

c. There are several other families of the Rhoeadales which 
yield economic products. The Resedace.^i include the migno- 
nette (Reseda odorata) the flowers of which yield a fragrant vola- 
tile oil ; and R. Intcola of Europe which contains a yellow coloring 
principle and also an anthelmintic principle. The Moringace.e 
comprise a single genus, Moringa. The root of M. olifera of 
tropical and sub-tropical countries contains a volatile oil resem- 
bling the volatile oil of mustard, and the stem yields an astringent 
jum resembling that of Bonihax malaharicum (Bombacese). 


This order includes several families which are of special inter- 
est because of the fact that the leaves are of peculiar construction 
and adapted to the catching and digestion of insects (Fig. yy). 

Probably all of the plants of this order produce proteolytic 
ferments resembling those in the pine-apple and are capable of 
acting upon and digesting animal substance. Some writers have 
supposed that the properties of these plants might be due to bac- 
teria present in the liquid contained in the pitchers of the leaves, 
but there seems to be no question that a distinct enzyme resem- 
bling trypsin is formed in those plants which have been studied. 

(a) The genus Sarracenia of the family Sarraceniace.e or 
pitcher-plant family, is represented in the United States by a 
number of species. The rhizome and roots of Sarracenia purpurea 
contain several alkaloids, one of which, sarracenine, seems to have 
some resemblance to veratrine. (b) The Droserace^ or sun- 


dew family includes the Droseras or sundew plants and Dionoca 
III iiscip Ilia the Venus's llytrap of North Carolina. A number of 
species of Drosera probably contain the red coloring principle 
which has been isolated from the rhizomes of D. IVhittakcrii of 
Australia and is a derivative of methylnaphthoquinone. Citric 
acid has been found in D. longifolia, a sundew common in the 
United States as well as in Europe and Asia, (c) The family 
Nepenthace.e contains the single genus Nepenthes, several spe- 
cies of which are extensively cultivated in greenhouses. The 
leaves and roots of N. Boschiana of Borneo contain an astringent 


The plants range from herbs to shrubs and trees and have 
complete flowers which are mostly perigynous. The carpels are 
solitary, or several either distinct or united. 

The plants are aquatic and more or less alga-like, and are repre- 
sented in the United States by the river-weed (Podostemoii 
ceratophyUum) which is a densely tufted plant found in running 
water attached to stones. The ash of these plants contains a 
considerable amount of sodium chloride, the ash of Mourera Wed- 
delliana of Brazil containing 50 per cent, of salt and being used 
as a source of table salt. 

are chiefly succulent herbs and represented by such plants as 
houseleek {Scmpcrvivinn tcctoruni), which is cultivated largely as 
an ornamental plant, and the common sedums, of which there are 
numerous species in temperate regions. The common mossy 
stonecrop or wall-pepper (Scdiiui acre) naturalized in the 
Northern United States contains a ferment capable of dissolving 
the membrane formed in diphtheria and croup ; Sempervivum 
halsamiferuni of the Canary Islands contanis a substance resem- 
bling the viscine found in certain Loranthacese. Ditch or Virginia 
stonecrop (Penthoniin sedoides) contains tannin. 

plants are mostly found in temperate regions and among the 
important members are mitrewort (Mitella), false mitrewort 


(Tiarella cordifolia), alum root (Heuchera americana), golden 
saxifrage {Clirysospleiiiiim), grass of Parnassus {Parnassia), 
mock orange {Fhiladelphus coronarius) and the wild hydrangea 
{Hydrangea arhoresccns). 

The plants are rich in tannin, as the alum root of Eastern and 
Central North America, which contains lo to 20 per cent, of 
tannin. A glucoside hydrangin, a volatile oil, and possibly also 
a saponin are found in " seven barks " or wild hydrangea {H. 
arhorcscens) ; a glucoside is also found in the root of garden 
hydrangea (//. panicidata grandiflora) . 

The family includes the single genus Ribes. These are more or 
less spinous shrubs with alternate or fascicled, more or less pubes- 
cent, 3- to 7-lobed petiolate leaves. The flowers are solitary, as 
in gooseberry or in racemes, as in the currants. The fruit is an 
inferior globular berry. The cultivated currants are varieties 
of Ribes riibnini: the cultivated gooseberries are varieties of 
R. Uva-crispa. Both of these plants are natives of Europe and 
Asia and have escaped from cultivation in the United States and 
Canada. The fruits contain fruit-acids and fruit-sugars and are 
used in a variety of ways. The fetid currant (Ribes prostratuni) 
has a very fetid odor and it is said that the flowers of the buffalo 
currant (Ribes aureum) contain hydrocvanic acid. 

The plants are shrubs or trees and are most abundant in sub- 
tropical countries. 

HainameUs virgimana, or witchhazel, the leaves (p. 610) and 
bark (p. 527) of which are official, is a shrub which is especially 
characterized by its asymmetric, undulate leaves and by its produc- 
ing flowers in the autumn when the leaves are falling and the 
mature, 1mt not ripe, capsules of the preceding year are still 
present (Fig. 264). 

Liquidambar Styraciflna or sweet gum-tree of the Atlantic 
coast of the L^nited States and Mexico, is a tall tree with charac- 
teristic cork-wings on the branches ; 3- to 7-lobed, petiolate. finely 
serrate leaves ; monoecious flowers, and a spiny, globular, capsular 
fruit. The tree yields a balsam allied to the official styrax (p. 
679), which is obtained from a very similar tree (L. orientalis). 


f. ROSACEA OR ROSE FAMILY. The plants are herbs, 
shrubs or trees usually with alternate, stipulate, simple or com- 
pound leaves, and regular perfect flowers with or without petals, 
and numerous stamens (Fig. 134, D). The fruit is a pome, drupe, 
follicle or akene (Fig. 89). 

Priinns scrotina or wild black cherry is a tree varying from 
10 to 30 AI. in height, with a more or less smooth bark marked by 
prominent transverse lenticels, and showing a tendency to peel 
off in semicircular pieces, which gives the older bark, which is 
more or less black, a roughened appearance. The leaves and inner 
bark have an agreeable aromatic odor; the leaves are oval- or 
oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, serrate, the teeth being 
glandular ; the flowers are white and in racemes ; the fruit is a 
dark purple or blackish, globular drupe (Fig. 235). The nearly 
related species wild cherry or choke cherry {Primus virginiana) 
is a shrub or small tree with broadly oval, acuminate leaves, red 
or nearly black drupes, and flowers and fruits several weeks 
earlier than P. serotina (p. 538). 

Primus Ainygdalus is a small tree resembling somewhat the 
peach tree. The leaves are lanceolate, serrate ; the flowers are 
rose-colored, and the fruit is a dehiscent drupe in which the 
leathery sarcocarp separates from the endocarp, which latter, with 
the seed which it encloses, constitutes the almond of the market 
(Fig. 187). The kernels of some of the seeds are bitter (bitter 
almonds, p. 433), and some are bland and free from bitterness. 
By a process of selection plants yielding the latter are now ex- 
tensively cultivated in sub-tropical and warm-temperate regions, 
and yield the sweet almond (p. 434) of the market. In Turke- 
stan some of the almonds have a smooth endocarp. 

A glucosidal substance having the properties of amygdalin is 
found in the buds, leaves, bark and seeds, more especially the 
latter, of some members of the following genera : Prunus, Sorbus 
(mountain ash), Cotoneaster, Amelanchier, and Eriobotyra {E. 
japonica or Japanese medlar). 

Primus domestic a yields the French plum or prune of 
commerce (p. 576). The leaves are ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 
dentate, and pubescent on the lower surface. The flowers are 
greenish-white, with a hairy peduncle. The fruit is a drupe. 


The bark of Pyrus toringo yields a yellow coloring principle 
known in Japan as " dzaini." The bark contains a white, crystal- 
line glucoside (toringin), and pyrus-quercitrin, which forms 
yellow needles and on hydrolysis yields quercetin and rhamnose. 
The bark is also used to adulterate licorice, gentian and other 
drugs in the powdered form. 

The apple {Pyrus mains), the pear (Pyrits coinumnis) ,a.nd the 
quince {Cydonia vulgaris) are inferior fruits known as pomes, 
the fleshy part developing from the torus and persistent calyx, 
the core being composed of the united carpels. The edible fruits 
of the Rosacese contain a number of fruit-acids, such as malic, 
citric, tartaric, and fruit-sugars, as dextrose and levulose. The 
acids vary from 0.20 per cent, in pears to 1.50 per cent, in 
plums ; and the sugars from 4.48 per cent, in peaches to 8.26 
per cent, in pears. The carbohydrates mannit and sorbit are found 
in the fruit of Primus Lauro-cerasus of Europe. In the unripe 
fruits there is more or less tannin and also a principle known as 
PECTOSE. This latter during the ripening of the fruit is converted 
into PECTIN, a viscid principle which is further changed into pectic 
and pectosic acids, the solutions of which gelatinize on cooling, 
so that these fruits are adapted to jelly making. 

Rubns nigrohaccus, or high bush-blackberry, is a branching 
shrub I to 2 M. high with reddish, prickly, erect or recurved 
stems. The leaves are 3- to 5-foIiate, the leaflets being ovate, 
coarsely and unequally serrate, and midrib and petiolules with 
stout, recurved prickles. The flowers are white, in terminal 
racemes and with hairy and prickly stalks. The fruit is broadly 
ovoid and consists of an aggregate of drupelets which ripen in 
August and September (Fig. 232). 

Rubus villosus Ait. (Rubus canadensis L.) or low-black- 
berry (Northern dewberry), is a trailing, shrubby, prickly plant 
the leaves of which are 3- to 7-foliate, the leaflets being oval or 
ovate-lanceolate, serrate and nearly smooth. The flowers are in 
racemes and the fruit resembles that of R. nigrobaccus, but is 

Rtibus cuneifolius or sand-blackberry of the Eastern and 
Southern States is a small shrub less than I M. high, much 
branched, and with straight or recurved, stout prickles. The 


leaflets are ovate or cuneate, and densely pubescent, as are also 
the young shoots. The inflorescence consists of two to five 
flowers, the petals of which are white or pinkish. Tlie fruit is 
oblong, more or less cylindrical, and sometimes 20 mm.- long. 

Rubiis Idcrits or the cultivated European red-raspberry is a 
shrub with a glaucous, bristly stem and with 3- to 7-foliate leaves. 
The flowers are white and the red fruit consists of a cap-like col- 
lection of hairy drupelets which is easily detached from the non- 
fleshy receptacle. The fruit is used in the preparation of S)ru]) 
of raspberry which is used for flavoring. There are a number of 
varieties of this species of raspberry in cultivation, the fruits of 
which vary in color from crimson, brown, or yellow to nearly 
white. The fine flavored but watery fruit of the wild red-rasp- 
berry (R. strigosus) is sometimes substituted for the fruit of 
Rubits Idcciis. 

Rosa gallica which yields the red rose-petals, official in a num- 
ber of the pharmacopceias (p. 557) , is a native of Southern Europe 
and is extensively cultivated. 

Rosa centifolia which is now known only in cultivation, and 
of which there are a large number of varieties, is distinguished by 
its glandular leaflets, and its pale red or pink petals. The cone- 
like collection of petals of the flower-bud is the part which is used 
in medicine, but it is deficient in coloring principles and fragrance 
as compared to Rosa gallica. 

Rosa damascena, the petals of which \ield the oil of rose or 
attar of rose, is extensively cultivated in Bulgaria and to some 
extent in France and Germany. It flov/ers very profusely, and 
the }ield of oil is about 0.02 per cent. . The oil consists of a crys- 
tallizable hydrocarbon known as rose-camphor which is odorless, 
and a liquid portion consisting of geraniol, 1-citronellol, 1-lina- 
lool, citral, n-nonyllic aldehyde and phenyl ethyl alcohol. Similar 
oils are obtained from other species of Rosa growing in N'orthern 
Africa, Abyssinia and Northern India, as R. moschata. and R. 
sent pcnir ens. 

The fruits of wild brier (Rosa caiiina) naturalized from 
Europe as well as of other species of Rosa (R. pouiifcra and R. 
rugosa), contain considerable malic and citric acids and fruit- 
sugars, and are made into a confection by boiling with syrup. 



In addition to the fruit-ethers found in the common edible fruits 
of this family and the volatile oil of rose, it should be mentioned 
that oils containing salicylic acid are also present. A number of 
species of Spircra contain salicylic aldehyde and methyl salicylate. 
Quillaja Saponaria is a large tree having a thick bark and 
hard wood. The leaves are oval, coriaceous, slightly dentate and 
evergreen (Fig. 149). The flowers are monoecious or dioecious, 
white, apetalous, and axillary in groups of one to four. The ovary 

Fig. 149. Orthorhombic crystals of Mannitol (Mannit) obtained from aqueous solutio;.s: 
A, large crystals; B, feathery aggregates of needles. 

consists of 4 to 5 carpels and on ripening forms a star-like, spread- 
ing group of follicles. The inner bark is the part used in medicine 

(p. 541)- 

A spurious quillaja bark {Q. Pccppigii^ differs from the 

ofificial in being thinner, darker and in having the surface covered 

with a coarse network of whitish lines. Another bark, occurring 

in quilled pieces, from 8-15 cm. long, and 1-5 cm. wide, has 

also been found in commerce. 

Hagcnia abyssiiiica is an ornamental tree with 7- to 13-foliate 
leaves. The flowers are monoecious and occur in panicles ; 
the staminate being greenish-yellow and with 20 stamens ; and the 
pistillate fragrant, bicarpellary, and with a reddish calyx (Fig. 
243). The fruit is a nutlet. The pistillate flowers are official 
under the name of Cusso (p. 556). 

Various species of Prunus yield gums, as cherry, peach, 
apricot, etc. Mucilage is found in the testa of certain seeds, as 



of quince. The manna of Luristan is obtained from P\nis glabra 
of Persia. Tannin and gallic acid are found in Tormentilla 

Fig. ISO. Fruiting branch of wild black cherry (Prunus serotina). 

rhizome which is obtained from Potentilla silvestris, a perennial 
herb of Europe, and other species of Potentilla. The fruit of the 


hawthorn (CratcEgus oxyacantha) contains quercitrin. A bitter 
principle and tannin are found in Purshia tridentata of the Rocky 
Mountains. Phlorizin is found in the root bark of a number of 
species of Pyrus and Primus. 

In the genus Fragaria to which the strawberry belongs, the 
torus becomes large and fleshy and is the edible part of the fruit. 
The garden strawberry (F. Chihriisis) has a large, dark-colored 
fruit, the akenes being sunken in the periphery of the torus. In 
the wild strawberries the fruit is smaller, usually somewhat flesh- 
colored and the akenes are either embedded in the torus as in F. 
I'irginiaiia or borne on the surface as in F. vcsca. The strawberry 
fruit contains about 87 per cent, of water; 6 per cent, of cane 
sugar; 5 per cent, of invert sugar (a mixture of dextrose and 
levulose) ; 1 per cent, of free fruit-acids; and about 2 per cent, 
of nitrogenous substances. 

are herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines with alternate, stipulate and 
usually compound leaves. The flowers are complete, and the 
corolla is either regular or irregular; the stamens are usually 
united, and the pistil is simple and free, becoming in fruit a 
legume. The plants are widely distributed, many of them being 
found in the Tropics. Three principal sub-groups, which have 
been ranked as families by some botanists, are recognized. 

1. PAPiLibNAT.E. Those species with papilionaceous flowers 
are separated into a group called the Papilionatae. This sub- 
group has a number of representatives in the United States, as 
clover, locust, and Baptisia (Fig. 134, L). 

2. CyESALPiNioiDE^ include the sennas and have flowers 
which are nearly regular, or imperfectly, or not at all papiliona- 

3. The MiMOSOiDE.E include the acacias and have flowers fliat 
are regular. 

Cassia acutifoUa is a small shrub with leaves that are 8- to 
10- foliate. The leaflets are official as Alexandria senna (p. 607) ; 
the flowers are yellowish and in axillary racemes ; the fruit is a 
smooth, flat, dehiscent pod, with 6 to 8 seeds (Fig. 262). 

Cassia angustifolia is a shrub which is cultivated in Southern 
India and resembles Cassia acutifoUa. The leaflets which consti- 



tute India or Tinnevelly senna (p. 607) are longer and narrow- 
lanceolate, and the pods are longer, and slightly crescent shaped, 
as compa^'ed to those of C. acutifolia (Fig. 262). 

Fig. 151. Spanish licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) plant grown from a cutting 
by the late Henry N. Rittenhouse of Philadelphia. 

Cassia fistula or purging cassia, the pods of which are official 
(p. 585), is a tree about 15 M. high. The leaves are 10- to 12- 
foliate ; the flowers golden-yellow and in racemes ; and the fruit 


is a very long, cylindrical, indohiscent legume. The leaves of 
quite a number of species of Cassia are used in medicine and 
the following are the source of Folia Malabathri : C. Tamala 
of Assam and C. javanica. 

Glycyrrhiza glabra is a perennial herb, with 8- to 14- foliate 
leaves (Fig. 151), the leaflets being glandular in the variety 
gJandnlifera; the flowers have a violet-colored, papilionaceous 
corolla, and the fruit is a flat, dehiscent legume. The rhizome and 
roots are the parts used in medicine (p. 472). 

Cytisus Scoparhis or green or Scotch broom is a shrub nat- 
uralized from Europe. The branches are numerous, slender, erect 
and grow close together adapting them for use as brooms. The 
tops are used in medicine (p. 637). 

Tamarindus indica is a tree attaining a height of 25 M. The 
leaves are pinnately compound having numerous sessile, entire 
leaflets (Fig. 256a) ; the flowers are in terminal racemes and the 
petals are yellow with reddish veins ; the fruit is a curved, indehis- 
cent legume which has a thin epicarp and a pulpy sarcocarp with 
numerous fibers, and contains a number of flat, quadrangular 
seeds. The pulp is the part used in medicine and is official as 
tamarind (p. 593). 

Astragalus gunimifer is a tomentose shrub less than i M. 
high. The leaves are pinnately compound, the leaflets being nar- 
row and elliptical ; the flowers are pale yellow, sessile and axillary ; 
the fruit is a small, somewhat cylindrical, hairy pod or legume. 
The gummy exudation constitutes the Tragacanth of commerce 
(p. 650). 

Acacia Senegal, which yields gum Arabic or acacia (p. 643), 
is a small tree with bipinnate leaves which are subtended by 
curved spines ; the flowers are yellow and in dense spikes ; the fruit 
is a broad pod containing five or six seeds (Fig. 153). 

Acacia Catechu is a small tree which resembles Acacia Senegal 
and furnishes Black Catechu (p. 666). 

Pterocarpiis Marsiipiinn is a fine timber tree with spreading 
branches. The leaves are 5- to 7-foliate, the leaflets being cori- 
aceous, obovate, and emarginate ; the flowers are pale yellow, and 
the fruit is an indehiscent, orbicular pod with a single reniform 
seed. The official Kino is prepared from the juice (p. 654). 



The trees yielding kino are under State control in Madras. 
According to v. Hohnel the kino is present in special cells in 
the bark, which are arranged in radial rows in the region of 
the leptome. The cells are from 50 to 100 m wide and from 100 
to 500 M long, the walls consisting of cellulose. The term " kino " 
is applied to a number of red astringent plant juices (see pp. 
654-656). "American kino" is a synonym sometimes applied 
to the extract of geranium maculatum (Fam. Geraniacese). 

Pterocarpus santalinus is a small tree with trifoliate leaves, 
and flowers and fruits resembling those of P. Marsupium. The 
heart-wood is official (p. 547). 


Fig. is 2. American senna (Cassia marilandica). The figure at the left shows the pin- 
nately-compound leaves in the day position when under the influence of light, and the one 
to the right the drooping position of the leaflets at night. 

Ha^matoxylon campcchianum is a small tree with irregular 
spinous branches. The leaves are 8- to lo-foliate, the leaflets 
being sessile and obcordate. The flowers are fragrant, have a 
purple calyx and yellow corolla, and are in racemes. The fruit 
is a slender, lanceolate, flat pod, which dehisces laterally instead 
of along the sutures. The heart-wood of this tree constitutes the 
official Logwood which is recognized in nearly all the pharma- 
copoeias (p. 546). 

Krameria triandra is a shrub with simple, ovate-lanceolate, 
sessile, silver-white, glistening leaves (Fig. 154). The flowers are 



complete, having two purple petals and three stamens. The fruit 
is a I -seeded, globular, prickly, indehiscent pod. K. Ixina found 
growing from Mexico to Northern South America, and K. argen- 
tca of Northern Brazil, are distinguished by having flowers with 
three petals and four stamens. The root is the part used in 
medicine (p. 453). 

Copaiba Langsdoi-ffii is a small tree fovmd growing in Brazil. 
The leaves are 6- to 10- foliate, the leaflets being ovate-lanceolate, 

Fig. 153. ^4 caa SenegaL- A, flowering branch: B, a single flower showing numerous 
stamens; C, part of legume showing attachment of seeds; D, E, sections of seeds. 
After Taubert. 

glabrous, coriaceous, and glandular punctate. The flowers are 
apetalous, and the fruit is an ellipsoidal, coriaceous, 2-valved pod 
having a single glandular seed with an arillus. An oleo-resin col- 
lects in longitudinal cavities in the trunk of the tree, often amount- 
ing to many liters, and sometimes the pressure thus produced is 
sufficient to burst the trunk in places. The oleo-resin is official as 
Copaiba. The latter consists of 30 to 75 per cent, of a volatile 
oil from which the sesquiterpene caryophyllene has been iso- 
lated ; a bitter acrid resin and a bitter principle. A similar product 



is obtained from a number of other species of Copaiba growing in 
South America as well as C. copallifcra of Western Africa, and 
Hardzvickia Mannii of tropical Africa, and H. pinnata of India. 
An oleoresin known by the natives in the province of Velasco 
in Bolivia as " Copaiba " is obtained from Copaiba paupcra. It 
is thick, like Maracaibo balsam but lighter in color and resembles 
in odor and taste true copaiba. It is distinguished from the 
other specimens of American copaiba by its dextro-rotation 

^^^^K ^^k^'^^^^ 



W' ' #!V^ 



r'" ' ^^1 

^^^mm ' '--^m 






Fig. 154. Hematoxylin: monoclinic tabular crystals from aqueous solution. 

[o]d + 36. On the addition of one to two volumes of petro- 
leum ether it forms a clear solution, giving a white precipitate 
on the addition of more ether. 

Toluifcra Balsaiiiuiii is a tree about 25 INI. high, with a straight 
trunk, on which the branches first appear at a height of from 
15 to 20 M., and is found growing in Northern South America. 
The leaves are compound and with seven to eleven alternate, 
oblong, acuminate, glandular-punctuate leaflets ; the flowers are 
white and in simple axillary^ racemes ; the fruit is a winged, 
indehiscent, i-seeded legume. The plants yield a balsam (official 


in all the pharmacopoeias and known as Balsam of Tolu) which 
occurs in schizogenous cavities in the bark of young twigs, and is 
obtained by incising the bark, it being usually collected in 
gourds. The balsam consists of 75 to 80 per cent, of resin, which 
is a compound of tolu-resinotannol, cinnamic and benzoic acids ; 
18 to 20 per cent, of free cinnamic acid ; 0.2 to i per cent, of a 
volatile oil ; and 0.05 per cent, of vanillin. A good tolu balsam 
is also obtained from T. peruifera growing in the northeastern 
part of South America. 

Toluifera Percircc is a tree about 15 M. high, which has a 
short trunk and begins to branch at a height of 2 or 3 M. It 
otherwise resembles T. Balsaimim. It is found over the whole of 
Northern South America, extending through Central America 
to Mexico, and is cultivated in Singapore. The balsam, which 
is formed as a result of injury to the trunk, consists chiefly of 
esters of benzoic and cinnamic acids, some free cinnamic acid, and 
vanillin. A very fragrant vanilla-like balsam is obtained 
from the fruit of this same plant, and in San Salvador it is known 
as white Peru balsam to distinguish it from the black Peru balsam 
obtained from the trunk. 

Physostigma vcnenosuni is a woody climber. The leaves are 
3-foliate, the leaflets being ovate-acuminate ; the flowers are violet 
in color and in axillary racemes ; the fruit is a broadly linear, 
somewhat flattened, distinctly veined, dehiscent pod which tapers 
at both ends, and usually contains two or three seeds. The 
seeds are ofificial as Physostigma (p. 438). 

The blue coloring principle indigo is mostly obtained from 
the herbs Indigofera tinctoria and /. Anil which are indigenous 
to, and cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It is 
prepared by extracting the leaves with water. The glucosidal 
principle indican (or mother-substance of indigo blue) undergoes 
oxidation and the insoluble indigo blue separates out. This is the 
commercial indigo. A similar principle is found in the wild indigo 
(Baptisia tinctoria) of the United States and Canada; the leaves 
of Robinia Pseudacacia of North America ; several species of 
Psoralea and Amorpha, as well as some other Leguminosse. It is 
also found in other families, as in Polygonaceae, Cruciferae, As- 
clepiadaceae, and Apocynacese. 


A yellow coloring principle is found in the dyer's broom 
(Genista tinctoria) of Europe and Asia and naturalized in the 
New England States. G. ovata of Europe yields a similar dye. 

Copal Resins are derived from a number of the Leguminosae : 
American copal from Hymciicca Coubaril of the West Indies and 
South America ; Brazilian copal from H. Martiana of Rio Negro ; 
Zanzibar or Chakazzi-copal from Trachylobmm mozamhicensis of 
Western Africa; Sierra Leone copal (yellow gum, red gum) from 
Copaiba Guibourtia of Sierra Leone; Inhambane copal from Co- 
paiba conjngata and C. Gorskiana of Singapore, Jamaica and 

Probably the majority of the loco- weeds or plants containing 
principles poisonous to cattle belong to the Leguminosse, and of 
these the following may be mentioned : California -loco-weed 
(Astragalus crotalarico) , Texas or woolly loco-weed (A. molUs- 
simiis), rattle-box (Crotalaria sagittalis) found in the Eastern 
United States and Canada. The poisonous action of these plants 
is apparently due in some cases to the presence of barium salts. 
Clitoria glycinoidcs of Brazil, Phaca ochrolcucaca of Chile and 
Oxytropis Lambertii of Mexico are poisonous to horses and 
should probably be included with the loco-weeds. 

A large number of the plants belonging to the Leguminosae 
contain toxic principles and those which have not already been 
considered might be grouped according to the principles which 
they contain. 

1. Arrow-poison group, including the genera JLrythro- 
phloeum, Afzelia and Pithecolobium. 

2. FiSH-POisoN group, including the genera Albizzia. Afzelia, 
Bauhinia, Barbiera, Enterolobium, Leucaena, Millettia. Tephrosia, 
Acacia, Abrus, Clitoria, Mundulea, Derris, Lonchocarpus, Pisci- 
dia (P. Erythrina or Jamaica dogwood, which contains a curare- 
like alkaloid). 

3. SAPONiN-containing plants, as the genera Acacia, Albizzia, 
Entada (E. scandens or the sea bean of the East and West Indies), 
Enterolobium, Gleditschia and Gymnocladus (G. dioica or Ken- 
tucky cofifee-tree growing in the United States and Canada). 

4. CvTisiNE-containing plants ; the alkaloid cytisine is found in 
Laburnum vulgare and L. alpinum growing wild in Southern 


Europe and also cultivated, and in one or more species of the fol- 
lowing genera : Anagyris, Baptisia, Coronilla, Crotalaria, Genista, 
and Ulex. 

Abrin, composed of a globulin and albumose and whose prop- 
erties are affected at a temperature of 50 C. or over, is found in 
the seeds of Jeouirity (Abrus prccatoriiis) and Cassia hispid iila 
of Mexico; two alkaloids (lupinine and lupinidine) and a bitter 
glucoside (lupinin) are found in the white lupine (Lap inns 
albiis) of Europe and in other species of Lupinus; a glucoside 
(wistarin) and a poisonous resin are found in Wistaria (Kraun- 
hia Horibunda) a common woody climber in cultivation as an orna- 
mental plant ; the glucoside ononin is found in Radix Ononidis 
the root of Ononis spinosa of Europe ; the glandular hairs on the 
pods of Miicuna pruricns and M. urens grov/ing in the Tropics 
of both hemispheres constitute the cowhage of medicine ; butyric 
acid is found in St. John's bread the fruit of Ceratonia Siliqua 
which grows in European countries bordering the Mediterranean, 
and also in Epcrua falcata of Guiana. 

A bitter principle, bondicine, known as poor man's quinine, 
is found in Ccesalpinia Bonducella and other species of Ccrsalpinia 
growing in Sumatra, Borneo, New Zealand and Brazil ; the seeds 
of Phascolns hinatns of the East Indies contain a principle from 
which hydrocyanic acid is derived. 

The seeds of many of the plants belonging to the Leguminosae 
are rich in starch and proteins and hence are used as foods. The 
protein legumin is characteristic of this family. The following 
are some of the important food plants: the garden pea (Pisum 
safi-i'iini), the garden bean (Pliascoliis I'lili^an's) ; lentil (Lens 
esculenfa), Japanese Soy bean (Glycine hispida). The peanut 
(Arachis hypoga-a) indigenous to Brazil and extensively culti- 
vated in most of the Southern States and in Southern Europe, 
belongs to the group of plants which have geocarpic fruits, that 
is, fruits which penetrate the soil during their development and 
ripen under ground (Fig. 88). In peanuts the starch is replaced 
by a fixed oil which is present to the extent of about 45 per cent, 
and which is an article of commerce. In addition to the seeds 
mentioned those of a number of other plants as well as some 
fruits, roots and leaves are used as foods in various parts of the 


world, particularly in the Tropics. The plants of a numher of 
species are used as forage, as those of clover (Trifolium) ; some 
are cultivated as ornamental plants, as sweet pea (Lathyrus odor- 
atits), and some yield valuable timber, as the locust (Robinia), 


This order includes a number of families of economic import- 
ance. The sepals are mostly distinct ; the stamens are few ; the 
carpels are united, and the ovules are pendulous (epitropous). 

plants are herbs with alternate or opposite, usually stipulate 
leaves, regular and perfect flowers, and capsular fruit (Fig. 
89. C). 

Geraniuui jiiaciilattiin is a perennial herb (Fig. 155) with a 
short, thick, horizontal rhizome, from which arises a simple, some- 
what branching, hairy stem, with 3- to 5-parted, variously toothed 
and cleft, petiolate leaves, those on the upper part of the stem being 
opposite; the flowers are regular and 5-merous, occurring singly 
or in twos in the axils of the leaves ; the petals are rose-purple 
and hairy at the base ; the fruit is a dehiscent capsule ; the five 
carpels when ripe separate and roll upwards remaining attached 
to a central column by means of a slender carpophore, the indi- 
vidual carpels being in the nature of akenes. The rhizome con- 
stitutes the official geranium (p. 505). 

The cultivated geraniums belong to the genera Pelargonium, 
and some of the species furnish oil of rose geranium, as P. odora- 
tissimiiiii. P. capitatiiui and P. raditla, all of which are cultivated 
in France, Spain, Germany, Algiers and Reunion for the oil, which 
is largely used in perfumery. The oil contains geraniol. cit- 
ronellol, and various esters. The leaves of Pelargonium peltatnm, 
growing in certain parts of Africa and Australia, contain oxalic 
acid and acid oxalates. 

this family belongs the genus Oxalis, some species of which have 
leaves that are quite sensitive to light as well as mechanical 
stimuli, which applies especially to the cultivated forms of South 
Africa, and to the common wood-sorrel {Oxalis Acetosella) of 



The leaves contain oxalic 

the United States and Canada, as well. 
acid and acid oxalates. 

ILY comprises but a single genus, Tropseolum. Some species 

Fig. iss. Geranium maculatum showing typical dicotyledonous flowers 
and the 5-parted, reticulately-veined leaves. 

are cultivated for ornamental purposes and are the nasturtiums 
of the gardens. The young shoots are succulent and taste like 
some of the cresses, hence they have received the name " Indian 
cress." They contain volatile constituents resembling those of 
the Cruciferas, and in the leaves of Tropcroluui ma jus benzyl 


mustard-oil is found. The flower-buds and young fruits of this 
species are used for pickling like capers. 

d. LINACE^ OR FLAX FAMILY. The most important 
plant of this family is the common flax {Linum usitatissimum) . 
This is an erect, slightly branching annual herb with alternate, 
lanceolate and 3-nerved leaves. The flowers are in terminal, leafy 
panicles, the pedicels being slender, the calyx non-glandular, and 
the petals blue (Fig. 134, A). The fruit is a lo-locular, lo-seeded 
capsule. The seeds are official (p. 426). There are a number of 
cultivated varieties and the seeds of the var. Humile contain a glu- 
coside which yields, under the influence of ferments, hydrocyanic 
acid. A cathartic principle has been found in L.catharticiim grow- 
ing in Europe. The bast fibers of Linn in usitatissimiim are used 
in the manufacture of linen. These fibers are distinguished from 
many other vegetable fibers in not containing lignin. 

family contains but two genera, one of which is Erythroxylon. 
The official coca leaves (p. 604) are obtained from Erythroxylon 
Coca. The plant is a shrub and requires a very humid atmosphere 
and a comparatively high elevation. The leaves are alternate, 
petiolate and entire ; the flowers are white and very small ; the 
fruit is a i -seeded, reddish drupe resembling that of dogwood 
(Fig. 260). 

Other species of Erythroxylon also yield useful products. 
An aromatic oil is found in the wood of E. monogynnm of Ceylon 
and India, and the wood is known as " bastard cedar " or " bast- 
ard santal." A brownish-red coloring principle is found in the 
red-wood {E. ccrolatnm) of Jamaica and in E. suherosum and E. 
tortuosiiin. Purgative and anthelmintic principles are found in 
some species of this genus. 

plants are mostly herbs and shrubs which are widely distributed 
in warm-tropical regions. The leaves are mostly opposite, pin- 
nate and stipulate. The genus Guaiacmn is of interest on account 
of the wood containing considerable resin, which is used in 

Guaiacum officinale is a small tree with 4- to 6-foliate leaves, 
the leaflets being ovate, entire and sessile ; the flowers are large, 



blue, and in axillary clusters ; and the fruit is a 2-valved capsule 
(Fig. 156). G. sanctum is a tree resembling G. officinale, but is 
distinguished by having leaves which are 8-foliate and with 
smaller leaflets, and a 4- to 5-valved capsule. The resin of both 
species is official (p. 668). 

A resin having an odor resembling that of creosote occurs in 
the CREOSOTE BUSH {CovUlea tridcntata) of Mexico and Texas. 

Fig. 156. Guaiacum officinale: A, flowering and fruiting branch; B, gynaecium in 
longitudinal section showing the pendulous ovules; C, a seed; D, E, the fruit in longitudinal 
and transverse sections. After Berg and Schmidt. 

The juice of Pegaiiiiin Harmala contains a yellow coloring 
principle used in dyeing. A number of the plants of this family 
contain powerful poisonous principles. 

g. RUTACEyE OR RUE FAMILY. The plants are shrubs 
or trees, seldom herbs, with lysigenous oil-secretion cells. The 
leaves are usually alternate, simple or compound and glandular- 
punctuate (Fig. 134, C). 

Xanthoxylum aiucricanmn or northern pricklv ash, is a shrub 
or small tree with 5- to 11 -compound leaves, the leaflets being 
ovate and nearh sessile; the flowers are dioecious, e^reenish, and 



in axillan- cymes ; the fruit is a black. 2-valved capsule. X. Clazv- 
Hcfcnlis or the southern prickly ash is a very prickly shrub, which 
is characterized by having cork-wings on the bark. The leaves 
are 5- to 17-foliate, the leaflets being ovate and crenulate ; the 
flowers arc in terminal racemes and have a calyx of 4 or 5 sepals, 

Fig. 157. Cocaine: A, monoclinic crystals of cocaine; B.orthorhombic cr\-stals of co- 
caine hydrochloride; C, monoclinic crystals of cocaine hydrochloride and palladous chloride; 
D, skeleton aggregates cf cocaine hydrochloride and palladous chloride. 

the calyx being wanting in A^. americanum. The bark of these 
two species is official (p. 532). 

Pilocarpus. To this genus belong a number of species which 
are shrubs or small trees and indigenous to tropical America. 
The Ifeaves are mostly pinnately-compound. the leaflets being 
coriaceous and entire; the flowers are small, greenish and in 



axillary or terminal racemes; the fruit is a i-seeded, 2-valved 
capsule (Fig. 257). The leaves of three species are official as 
Pilocarpus or Jaborandi (p. 596). 

Barosma. The buchu leaves of m.edicine are obtained from 
several species of Barosma (see Buchu). The plants are branch- 
ing shrubs with opposite, coriaceous, serrate or dentate leaves 
with glandular margins ; the flowers are white or red and occur, 
I to 3, in the axils of the leaves ; the fruit is a 5-valved capsule. 
The leaves contain a volatile oil, one of the constituents of which 
is diosphenol (Figs. 158, 259). 

Citrus. The fruits of a number of species of this genus are 
edible, and the plants are also valued for their volatile oils. They 
are aromatic, glandular, mostly thorny shrubs or small trees 
indigenous to tropical and sub-tropical Asia, and now extensively 
cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and warm-temperate regions. 
The leaves are more or less winged-petiolate, glaucous, coria- 
ceous, mainly unifoliate (or trifoliate) ; the flowers are complete, 
with 3- to 6-toothed gamosepalous calyx, and 4 to 8 glandular 
petals ; the stamens are 20 to 60, in groups of i to 9 ; the ovary 
is subtended by a cushion-shaped disk, and the fruit is a spher- 
ical, oblong or pear-shaped berry, having a coriaceous pericarp 
with numerous lysigenous oil-glands, a juicy pulp made up of 
peculiar hair-structures which arise from the endocarp, and in 
which are embedded white polyembryonic seeds (Fig. 134, C). 

Botanists have divided this genus into two sub-groups: (a) 
the Pseudo-^gle group is represented by the trifoliate orange 
(Citrus trifoliata), cultivated widely in the United States as a 
hedge. The leaves are trifoliate and deciduous, the petals spatu- 
l?.te and the ovary and disk hairy, (b) Tn the Eucitrus group the 
leaves are unifoliate and evergreen, the petals oblong, and the 
ovary and disk glabrous. This latter group includes the two 
species which yield most of the edible Citrus fruits. 

Cifrus Aitranfiitin includes a number of sub-species and 
varieties. The plants are small trees with leaves having winged 
petioles (Fig. 158) ; white flowers; and a more or less globular 
fruit. The Sweet Orange (Malta, Portugal) is derived from the 
sub-species sinensis. The Bitter Orange (Seville, Curagao) is 
derived from the sub-species amara. The flowers of both the 



Sweet and Bitter Orange tree contain a volatile oil known as Oil 
OF Neroli, and composed of limonene, geraniol, linalool, etc. The 
oil from the rind of the fruit is known as oil of orange peel, and 
is obtained chiefly from Italy and Sicily. It is composed of 
limonene, citral, citronellol, etc. The oil from the Bitter Orange 
peel has a superior flavor and is known as Bigaradia oil. The 
Bergamot Orange is the fruit of the sub-species Bergamia, culti- 
vated in Europe, but only rarely in the United States. The oil of 
the rind of the fruit is known as Bergamot oil and consists 

Fig. 158. Transverse section through the leaf of Barosma serratifolia Willd: e, epi- 
dennal cells of upper surface, the inner walls of which are mucilaginous. The mucilage (m) 
frequently includes dendritic excretions of hesperidin, which dissolve in solutions of potas- 
sium hydroxide, giving a yellow color; p, palisade cells, some of which contain rosette aggre- 
gates of calcium oxalate; c, chlorenchyma, some of the cells containing rosette aggregates 
of calcium oxalate, also a large vascular bundle (mestome strand) with a stereomatic peri- 
cycle forming an arch on the dorsal face; d, epidermis of lower (or dorsal) face of the leaf. 
After Solereder. 

largely of linalyl acetate. In the group of Mandarin or Kid- 
glove oranges {Citrus nobilis) the fruit is compressed, spherical, 
5-6 cm. in diameter and with an orange-yellow, loose and easily 
removable rind. The shaddock or grape-fruit is derived from 
the sub-species sinensis var. decumana, a tree indigenous to 
the Malay Archipelago and extensively cultivated in India, Flor- 
ida, California and elsewhere. The fruits are quite large, some- 
times weighing several kilograms, and those which are round are 
the most valuable commercially, being known as Pomelos or 
Grape-fruits. The Blood Orange is the fruit of the sub-species 
sinensis var. sangninea. The Otaheite Orange which is ex- 
tensively cultivated as a dwarf pot plant and the foliage and 
flowers of which resemble those of lemon, is probably a variety of 


the sub-species sinensis, or it may be a hybrid of lemon and orange. 
The Navel Orange is a sweet orange in which an additional com- 
pound ovary is developed within the fruit. 

Lemon and lime fruits are derived from sub-species of Citrus 
nicdica, which are mostly shrubs with simple, petiolate leaves, 
reddish twigs and flowers, and more or less ellipsoidal fruits. 
Lemons are derived from the sub-species Linwnuni. The rind of 
the fruit yields the oil of lemon, which consists of limonene, 
citral, etc. Most of the commercial article comes from Sicily and 
Calabria. Lime fruits or limes are derived from the sub-species 
acida, a shrub cultivated in the West Indies and Florida. The 
Citron fruit, the rind of which is used in the making of preserves 
and confections, is derived from the sub-species genuina. The 
fruit is large and lemon-like but with a thick rind, the plant being 
cultivated to some extent in Florida and California. 

The KuMQUAT Orange is obtained from Citrus japonica, a 
thornless tree with spreading dwarf habit extensively cultivated 
in China and Japan and very hardy even in Northern Florida. The 
fruit is round or oblong, from 3 to 5 cm. long and 2 to 3 cm. in 
diameter, and of an orange-yellow color; the rind is sweet while 
the pulp is acid, and usually free from seeds, although from 
I to 4 slightly beaked seeds may be present. 

The inner white portion of the rind of the Citrus fruits con- 
tains a crystalline, tasteless glucoside known as hesperidin. Those 
which are bitter contain in addition several bitter glucosides, 
namely, aurantiamarin and naringin. (See Aurantii Amari Cor- 
tex, p. 592, and Aurantii Dulcis Cortex, p. 591.) 

Volatile oils are also found in other members of the Rutacese. 
The garden rue (Rnta graveolens) , the leaves of which are used 
in medicine, contains a volatile oil consisting of several ketones. 
It also contains a glucoside known as rutin which resembles the 
barosmin of buchu ; and quercetin, which is said to be derived from 
rutin. The Hop tree {Ptclea trifoliata) of Eastern North Amer- 
ica contains besides a volatile oil, a resin and an alkaloid. The 
volatile oil of pepper-moor {licinthoxyhiui pipcrifuin) of China 
and Japan is known as Japanese oil of pepper. 

Angustura bark obtained from Cnsparia trifoliata or C. 
ofUcinalis, plants growing in the region of the Orinoco River, con- 



tains a volatile oil, resin, a bitter principle and four alkaloids. 
The wood of Amyris balsamifera of Guiana and Jamaica, yields 
on distillation a volatile oil resembling Oleum Rhodii. 

plants are chiefly shrubs or trees with alternate and pinnately- 
compound leaves. The flowers are regular, dicEcious or polyg- 
amous and in axillary racemes. The plants are natives of 
tropical countries and are distinguished from the Rutaceae, which 
they somewhat resemble, by the absence of oil ducts or reservoirs. 

Fig. i5g. Caffeine gold chloride; crystals formed on the addition of a solution of gold 
chloride to a dilute aqueous solution of caffeine. 

They are widely employed 'particularly in the tropics, on account 
of their bitter principles and are considered valuable tonics, febri- 
fuges and remedies for dysentery. 

Picrasma cxcelsa is a small tree with 9- to 17-foliate leaves, 
the leaflets being ovate and more or less tomentose. particularly 
in the bud ; the flowers are yellow, polygamous and in axillary 
panicles ; the fruit is a large, spherical drupe. The wood of the 
plant constitutes Jamaica quassia (p. 544). 

Quassia amara is a small tree or shrub with 4- to 5-foliate 
leaves ; the leaflets are narrow, obovate and acuminate, and the 


rachis and petiole or stalk are winged ; the flowers are her- 
maphrodite, with lo stamens, bright red corolla, and in terminal 
racemes ; the fruit is a 5-valved indehiscent pod or nutlet. The 
wood constitutes Surinam quassia (p. 544). 

A red coloring principle is found in Samadcra indica of India, 
Ceylon and Java. The alkaloid cedronin is found in the seeds of 
Simaba Cedron of New Granada, the seeds being used as an anti- 
dote for the bites of poisonous animals. A similar principle may 
exist in the bark of Simaruha versicolor of Brazil, the plant being 
used for a similar purpose. The alkaloid brucamarine is found 
in the fruit of Brncea sumatrana. A tragacanth-like gum is ob- 
tained from Ailanthiis excelsa of India. Dika or Gabun Choc- 
olate is obtained from the seeds of Irvingia gahonensis of trop- 
ical West Africa. Cay-Cay-Butter is obtained from the seeds of 
Irvingia Oliveri and /. Malayana of ^Malacca and Cochin China. 

A gum resembling acacia is also obtained from the bark, peti- 
oles and seeds of the species of Irvingia. 

are shrubs or trees, the latter being sometimes quite large, with 
resin-canals in the bark, and alternate compound leaves ; the 
flowers are small, occurring in racemes. The members of this 
family are found in tropical countries. 

Commiphora abyssinica is a shrub 10 M. high, the branches 
being modified to thorns ; the leaves are trifoliate, the leaflets being 
oblong, dentate, sessile and the terminal one much larger than 
the other two ; the flowers are dioecious, and the fruit is a drupe 
with fleshy, resinous sarcocarp (Fig. 160). The official Myrrh 
is obtained from this plant (p. 673). 

A number of other resinous products are yielded by plants of 
this family. West India Elemi resin or Elemi Occidentale 
(Anime) is obtained from the stems oi Protium Icicariba of Brazil. 
The resin is greenish-yellow, soft, with a bitter taste and dill-like 
odor. Manila Elemi is a soft, granular, lemon-yellow or grayish- 
white resin derived from Canariiim commune of the Philippine 
Islands. Bengal Elemi is derived from Commiphora Agallocha 
of the East Indies and Madagascar. The Tacamahac Resins 
are balsamic resins, of which there are several commercial 
varieties : Mauritius tacamaliaca is obtained from Protium hepta- 



phyllinn of Columbia, and Mexican or West Indian tacamahaca 
from Bursera touicntosa of Mexico, West Indies, and South 
America. India Bdellium is a resin obtained from the bark of 
Commiphora Roxburghiana of Northwestern India and Behi- 
chistan. CoPAL-Hke resins are obtained from Canarium Ben- 
galense (East Indian Copal) and possibly several species of 


Fig. 160. Cross-section of the bark of one of the Burseraceas probably Commiphora 
Myrrha: P, bark made up of sclerotic cells (st) and cork (d) ; o, more or less regular secretion 
canals, one of which (o) shows the irregular spreading of the gum-resin; m, medullary rays; 
b, bast fibers; k, crystals of calcium oxalate; p, parenchyma. After Vogl. 

Bursera. Black Dammar resin is obtained from Canaruun ros- 
tratum of the Molucca Islands. Olibanuim or Frankincense is a 
gum-resin obtained from several species of BoszveUia of Asia and 
Somali Land. American Olibanum or Soft Resin of Cayenne 
exudes spontaneously from the stems of Protiitin heptaphylUim 
and P. gitianeiisc. Gilead Balsam is obtained from Protium 
altissimnm and P. carana of Guiana and Brazil. Mexican Lin- 



ALCE Oil is obtained from Bursera gravcolcns, and several species 
of Bursera of Mexico are used as a substitute for Aloe wood. 

large family of tropical trees and shrubs with mostly alternate, 
compound and exstipulate leaves, the leaflets being entire, with 
secretion cells, but not glandular-punctate (Fig. i6i). The 
flowers are complete, the filaments being united into a tube ; and 

Fig. i6i. Pride of China {Melia Azedarach) : A, flowering branch; B, a part 
of the inflorescence. After Harms. 

they occur in axillary clusters or racemes ; the fruit is a capsule, 
berry or drupe ; the seeds are sometimes winged and with fleshy 
or leaf-like cotyledons. 

The bitter principle mangrovin is found in the bark of the 
China Tree or Pride of China (Mclia Aacdarach) indigenous to 
Asia, and extensively cultivated in tropical and warm-temperate 
regions, and naturalized in the southern part of the United States 
(Fig. i6i). A similar principle is found in other plants of this 


Carapa Oil, which has a characteristic odor and bitter taste 
and is toxic to insects, is obtained from the seeds of Carapa pro- 
ccra and C. gnianensis, of tropical West Africa and tropical 
America, and also from Simetenia Mahagoni (Mahogany Tree). 
Cedar-wcod oil (" Oleum Cedrelse ") is obtained from several 
species of Cedrela growing in tropical America. The most impor- 
tant constituent of the oils is cadinine. Oils with a garlic-like 
odor are found in the seeds of Mclia Azedarach, the bark of 
Ccdrcia aiistralis of Australia and the fruit of Dysoxyliiin biuec- 
farifcniiii of Java. Besides the Alahogany tree there are other 
trees of this family wdiich yield valuable woods. Cigar boxes and 
sugar boxes are made from the wood of Cedrela odorata of the 
West Indies and Guiana, and from other species of Cedrela. 

k. MALPIGHIACEiE is a rather large family of shrubs, 
small trees, or lianes with anomalous stem-structure, found in 
the Tropics, principally in South America. The leaves are usu- 
ally opposite, the sepals are glandular, and the fruit is a winged 
samara somewhat like that of maple {Acer). 

The plants contain a notable amount of tannin and the woods 
of some species contain a red coloring principle. 

members of this family are herbs or shrubs, occurring in all parts 
of the world except in the Arctic regions. 

Polygala Senega is a perennial about Yz M. high. It has 
a fleshy root, producing at the crown a large number of buds and 
giving rise to a cluster of stems or so-called plants (Fig. 197)- 
The leaves are alternate, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate and ses- 
sile ; the flowers are faintly greenish-white and in cylindrical 
spikes ; the capsule is loculicidally dehiscent, and the seed is hairy 
and slightly longer than the lobes of the caruncle. The root is of- 
ficial (p. 456). 

Polygala alba or White Milkwort yields the White or Texas 
senega. The stems are mmierous and taller than those of P. Sen- 
ega : the leaves are narrow-lanceolate or linear with revolute mar- 
gin ; the flowers are white and in elongated conic spikes ; the 
caruncle lobes are about half as long as the seed. The plant is 
found west of the Mississippi River extending as far south as 
Texas and Mexico and west as far as Arizona and New Mexico. 


plants are herbs, shrubs or trees with acrid and often milky latex. 
The fruit is mostly a trilocular, dehiscent capsule; the seeds are 
anatropous and have an oily endosperm. 

Stillingia sylvatica or Queen's-Root yields the official Stillingia 
(p. 462). The plant is a perennial herb about i M. high and 
diffusely branched. The leaves are obovate, short-petiolate, with 
glandular-serrate margin ; the flowers are in terminal spikes, 
light yellow, monoecious, the staminate being above and the 
pistillate below, the latter solitary in the axils of the lower 
bractlets (Fig. 162). 

Ricinus communis or Castor-Oil Plant is an annual herb in the 
temperate regions but is shrub-like and perennial in tropical and 
sub-tropical countries. In temperate regions the plant is from 
I to 5 M. high ; the leaves are peltate and 6- to i i-palmately-lobed ; 
the flowers are greenish, apetalous, monoecious and in racemes, 
the pistillate being above the staminate on the flower-axis ; the 
fruit is a 3-locular, oval, spinous capsule, which dehisces sep- 
ticidally (Fig. 90, B). The seeds are anatropous, somewhat flat- 
tened-oblong ; 10 to 16 mm. long and 4 to 8 mm. in diameter; 
smooth, mottled grayish-brown or yellowish-red, with a promi- 
nent caruncle ; hard but brittle testa, thin white tegmen, large oily 
endosperm, and thin foliaceous cotyledons at the center. The 
seeds contain 45 to 50 per cent, of oil which constitutes the Castor 
Oil of medicine and a large amount of proteins in the form of 
aleurone grains (Fig. 122, D). The cake from which the oil is 
expressed contains a poisonous principle known as ricin which 
is apparently poisonous to cattle, but not to poultry. 

Crofon Tiglium is a shrub or small tree indigenous to tropical 
Asia and extensively cultivated in tropical countries ; the leaves 
are alternate, oblong-lanceolate with petioles which are glandular 
at the base, but wanting in the star-shaped hairs so characteristic 
of other species of this genus ; the flowers are small, monoecious 
and in terminal racemes, the pistillate being above and the stam- 
inate below ; the fruit is a 3-locular. septicidally dehiscent capsule. 
The seeds resemble those of Ricinus in size and structure, except 
that they are less smooth, more brownish in color and the caruncle 
is quite small. 



They contain a fixed oil which is obtained by expression and 
which is poisonous and a powerful cathartic. The seeds of a 
number of the other members of the Euphorbiace<E contain fixed 
oils resembling" those of Croton and Ricinus, as Curcas the seeds 
of Jatropha Curcas of tropical America. Mexican Croton Oil 

Fig. 162. StilUngia sylvatica: showing the more or less closely arranged leaves 
and the terminal spike of flowers. After Bentley and Trimen. 

is obtained from the seeds of Euphorbia calyciilafa. The seeds of 
the Caper Spurge or Wild Caper (Euphorbia Lathyris) nat- 
uralized in the United States from Europe, also contain a fixed 
oil resembling that of Croton. The seeds of Joanncsia princeps 
of the maritime provinces of Brazil are also powerful purgatives. 


Mallotus philippinensis is a shrub or small tree found in trop- 
ical countries of the Eastern Hemisphere. The leaves are alter- 
nate, petiolate, ovate, acuminate, coriaceous and evergreen; the 
flowers are small, dioecious, and in racemes ; the fruit is a 3-locular, 
glandular-hairy capsule. The hairs of the capsule are ofhcial in a 
number of pharmacopoeias under the name of Kamala and occur 
as a reddish-brown, granular powder, consisting of two kinds of 
hairs, the one colorless and occurring in branching clusters 
(Fig. 284, B) and the other with yellowish-red, multicellular, 
glandular heads. The important constituent is about 80 per cent, 
of a dark brownish-red resin composed of a crystalline principle 
rottlerin ; isorottlerin ; two reddish-yellow resins ; a coloring prin- 
ciple and wax. It also contains a trace of volatile oil, starch, 
sugar, tannin, oxalic and citric acids. 

A red coloring principle is found in the bark of Aleiirites 
triloba of the Polynesian Islands, Euphorbia parviflora of Ceylon, 
E. pnlcherrima of Mexico and Brazil and the other species of 

Cascarilla bark is obtained from Croton elntcria and other 
species of Croton growing in the Bahama Islands and other parts 
of the West Indies and Florida. Cascarilla bark is official in a 
number of pharmacopoeias. It occurs in small curved pieces or 
quills, I to 3 mm. thick, externally brownish-gray ; inner surface is 
reddish-brown, the fracture short, resinous ; odor aromatic ; partic- 
ularly on burning; taste aromatic and bitter. Cascarilla contains 
I to 1.5 per cent, of a volatile oil, containing eugenol, limonene, an 
oxygenated portion, and some other constituents; 15 per cent, of 
resin ; a bitter principle, cascarillin ; tannin and vanillin. 

CoPALCHi bark or Quina blanca which is derived from Croton 
niveus of Mexico contains a bitter principle, copalchin, which is 
also found in other species of Croton. Malambo bark is derived 
from Croton Malambo of Venezuela, the latter two barks being 
sometimes substituted for Cascarilla bark. 

Elastica or India Rubber (Caoutchouc) is the prepared milk- 
juice obtained from one or more species of the following genera : 
Hevea, Mabea, Euphorbia and Excoecaria. The fresh latex of a 
number of species is a powerful irritant, as that of the Sand-box 
tree {Hura crepitans) of tropical America, which contains 


a highly toxic albuminoid ; the Blinding-tree ( Excoccaria A^^al- 
locha) of Southern Asia and Australia, the juice of which pro- 
duces blindness. 

The gum-resin euphorbium is obtained from Euphorbia res- 
inifcra. a cactus-like plant of Morocco, and is also found in other 
species of Euphorbia. It contains, among other constituents, 38 
per cent, of an acrid resin, and 22 per cent, of a crystalline prin- 
ciple euphorbon. 

The milk-juice of several species of Euphorbia is used in 
the preparation of arrow poisons in Brazil. One or more species 
of the following genera are used as fish poisons : Flueggea, Phyl- 
lanthus, Bridelia, Excoecaria and Euphorbia. A number of plants 
are used as remedies for the bites of serpents, as the bark of 
Phyllaiithus niollis of Java and Euphorbia pilulifcra of South 
America and India. Euphorbia pilulifcra, common in tropical 
countries, contains an alkaloid, a wax-like substance, several 
resins and tannin. {Ph. Jour., 29, July 31, 1909, p. 141-) 

A camphor-containing oil is found in the bark of Pcntalo- 
stigma quadriloculare of Australia ; the aromatic wood of Col- 
liguaya odorifera of Chile is used as a substitute for santal and 
on burning emits a rose-like odor ; the leaf of Croton mentho- 
dorus of Peru contains an oil with an odor of mentha ; a balsam 
resembling Copaiba is derived from the bark of Croton origani- 
folius of the West Indies; methylamine is found in Mcrciirialis 
annua of Europe and other species of Mercurialis. Tannin is 
found in the following genera: Macaranga, Phyllanthus and 
Bridelia; Brazil kino is obtained from a species of Croton (C 
erythrcEusf) of Brazil. A gum-lac is formed on the stems of 
Aleuritcs laccifcra of the Antilles and Ceylon as a result of the 
sting of an insect, and contains among other substances a large 
amount of melyl- and ceryl-alcohols. and a substance resembling 
abi^ic acid. The sap of Euphorbia cyparissias of Europe yields 
a resin which is sometimes substituted for scammony. 

A reddish resinous substance resembling dragon's blood is 
obtained from Croton erythrema of Brazil; a yellow coloring 
principle is found in the seed of Croton tinctorius of Mexico; 
poncetin, a violet coloring principle, occurs in Euphorbia hetero- 
phylla of Brazil; a blue coloring principle is found in Chro::o- 


phora tinctoria of Southern Europe and Africa and in Argitham- 
nia tricuspidata lanceolata of Chile; an indigo-hke principle is 
obtained from Mercurialis perennis of Europe. The fresh latex 
of Euphorbia phosphorca of Brazil is phosphorescent. 

Quite a number of the seeds of this family contain fatty oils. 
The Chinese Tallow tree {Sapiiim sehiferum) yields a fat which 
is used for burning and for technical purposes; a similar fat is 
obtained from the seeds of several species of Aleurites and 

Tapioca starch is derived from the tuberous roots of Manihot 
utilissima, extensively cultivated in tropical countries ; other spe- 
cies of Manihot also yield starchy food products. 

Edible fruits are obtained from the following genera : Phyl- 
lanthus, Baccaurea and Antidesma ; the seeds of Hevea brasiliana 
are edible ; a sweet sap is found in Baccaurea ramiflora of Cochin 
China and Brazil ; a peptone-like ferment is found in Euphorbia 
heterodoxa of South America and other species of Euphorbia. 


The plants of this order are chiefly trees and shrubs. The 
flowers are mostly regular and the seeds usually without endo- 
sperm. The order has a number of representatives in both trop- 
ical and temperate regions. 

a. EAMILY CORIARACE^. This family is represented by 
but a single genus, Coriaria. The plants are shrubs found in 
Europe, Asia and South America, and yield several important 
economic products. The leaves and bark of C. myrtifolia of j 
Southern Europe and Northern Africa are rich in tannin and used 
in dyeing. This plant also contains a narcotic principle, resem- 
bling picrotoxin, known as coriamyrtin, which is also found prob- 
ably in C. atropurpurea of Mexico. The leaves of Coriaria imrfi- 
folia or tanner's sumac are coriaceous, distinctly 3-nerved, 
astringent and bitter and were at one time substituted for senna 
leaves. A black dye is obtained from C. ruscifolia of New Zealand 
and Chile. While the fruits of some species are quite poisonous 
the sap of the fleshy leaves is used in New Zealand in making 
an intoxicating drink 


b. BUXACE^ OR BOX TREE FAMILY. The plants are 
shrubs with alternate or opposite, evergreen leaves, and usually 
axillary monoecious or dioecious flowers. The most important 
plant of this family is the Box tree (Biixus scmpervirens) which 
is extensively cultivated. The wood is used for making musical 
instruments and for other purposes, and the twigs have been used 
in medicine. The latter contain several alkaloids, the most impor- 
tant being buxine which resembles beberine ; a volatile oil con- 
taining butyric acid and a wax containing myricyl alcohol and 

are trees or shrubs with an acrid, resinous or milky latex, and 
alternate leaves. 

Rhus radicans, Poison Ivy or Poison Oak, is a woody vine, 
climbing by means of aerial roots and sometimes becoming quite 
shrub-like, which is common along roadsides in the United States. 
The leaves are 3-foliate, the leaflets being ovate, acuminate, nearly 
entire, inequilateral and with short stalks; the flowers are green 
and in loose axillary panicles ; the fruit is a globular, glabrous, 
grayish drupe (Fig. 163). The poisonous properties of this plant 
are due to a brownish-red resin which is soluble in alcohol. A 
vesicating principle cardol is found in the Cashew Nut. The 
latter is the fruit of Anacardimn occidentalc, a shrub growing in 
tropical America. A principle resembling cardol is found in the 
East India Marking tree or Ink tree (Semecarpits Anacardimn) 
and Holigarna fcrniginea of India. 

The Poison Sumac or Poison Elder (Rhus vernix) is a 
shrub or small tree found in swamps in the United States and 
Canada. The leaves are 7- to 1 3-foliate, with obovate or oval, 
acuminate, entire leaflets ; the flowers are small, green, and in 
axillary panicles; the fruit resembles that of R. radicans (Fig. 
163)^ The plant is poisonous like R. radicans and probably 
contains the same principle. Other species of Rhus are also 
poisonous, as the western Poison Oak (R. diversiloba) of the 
Pacific Coast, and the Japanese Lacquer or Varnish tree (R. ver- 
nicifcra and R. siiccedanea). The lacquer trees grow wild in 
both China and Japan where they are also cultivated. The lac 
is obtained by incising the bark and removing it with a pointed 



spatula. The grayish-white emulsion is strained and on exposure 
to air it changes to brown becoming finally black. This change 

Fig. 163. Leaves and fruit of the poison ivy {Rhus radicans). This is a 3-foliate com- 
poundleaf, the leaflets being ovate and having veins whicU bifurcate and end free. 

is due to the oxidizing enxyme laccase. The natural lac (Ki- 
urushi) contains a non-volatile poisonous resin-like principle 



and is closely associated with other resinous substances. Japanese 
lac is thinned with camphor, or mixed with linseed oil and on 
drying in a moist atmosphere forms the most indestructible 
varnish known. Various pigments are used, as vermillion, gam- 
boge, acetate of iron and other substances. The best glossy 
black colors are obtained by the addition of iron. 

Rhus glabra or the Scarlet Sumac is a smooth shrub. 
The leaves are 11- to 31 -foliate, the leaflets being lanceolate, acu- 


Fin. 164. Gallic acid: long orthorhombic crystals obtained from an aqueous solution. 

minate, sharply serrate, dark green above and tomentose below ; 
the flowers are greenish, polygamous and in terminal panicles ; 
the fruit is official (p. 569). 

Chinese galls are excrescences produced on Rhus semialata 
as a result of the stings of an Aphis. Japanese galls are similar 
formations occurring on Rhus japonica. (See Galla.) 

Pistacia Lentiscus is a shrub or tree, which is found growing 
in the Grecian Archipelago. The leaves are pinnately compound 
and with winged axis, the leaflets being alternate, oblong, entire. 



sessile ; the flowers are small, dicecious, and in axillary clusters. 
In the bark of this plant there are large cavities which contain 
an oleo-resin that is official as Mastic in a number of pharma- 
copoeias (p. 645). The wood of ScJiiiiopsis Lorentzii and ^. Bal- 
ans<, growing in Argentine and Paraguay, is known in commerce 
as Quebracho Colorado. It is red. very hard and contains 
tannin, gallic and ellagic acids. 

The PiSTACio nuts or Pistacia almonds are obtained from 
Pistacia vera indigenous to Syria and Mesopotamia and ex- 
tensively cultivated in the countries bordering llie Mediterranean. 
The kernels are used extensively in confectionery. The nuts are 
about 20 mm. long, somewhat quadrangular in cross-section, and 
the seed consists of two fleshy, green cotyledons. The seeds of 
Buchania latifolia and other species of Biichania are used in India 
much like almonds. 

Gums are found in several species of Anacardiiim and Sclcro- 
carya. Acajou gum is obtained from Anacardiiim occidentale. 
Considerable sugar and citric acid are found in Mangos, the 
fruit of Mangifera indica native of Farther India and Ceylon 
and cultivated in the Tropics. A fruit used like lemons is obtained 
from Dracontomelnm inangiferuiii of 3.1alacca and the Sunda 

ILY. The plants are mostly shrubs or trees v/ith alternate, 
petiolate, simple leaves and small, white, regular flowers. The 
fruit is a bcrrv-like drupe containing several nutlets. The most 
important genus of this family is Ilex, a number of species of 
which are found in the L'nited States. 

The European holly (Ilex Aqiiifoliiiiii) contains a bitter gluco- 
sidal principle, ilicin, v/hich is found in the bark as well as the 
drupes. The drupes contain a principle which is a homologue 
of benzvl alcohol, and a glutinous substance which renders them 
useful in the manufacture of birdlime. The American holly (/. 
opaca) growing in the Eastern United States, probably contains 
similar constituents to the European holly. This is the plant 
which furnishes the Christmas holly. 

Mate. Paraguay or Brazilian tea, consists of the leaves of 
Ilex paraguayensis found in Southern Brazil, Argentine and 


Paraguay. They contain about 2 per cent, of caffeine, 11 per 
cent, of tannin and some volatile oil, and are used like tea in the 
making of a beverage. Cassine or Appalachian tea consists of 
the leaves of the Dahoon holly i^Ilcx Cassine) growing in the 
Southern United States. These leaves contain about half as much 
caffeine and tannin as Mate. 

are shrubs, as Eiionymus, or woody climbers, as the climbing bit- 
tersweet (Cclasfriis scandens). The plants are especially char- 
acterized by their dehiscent fruits and scarlet or reddish arilled 

Euonyniiis afro pur [aureus (Wahoo or Burning Bush) is a 
shrub or small tree. The twigs have four distinct cork-wings 
making them somewhat 4-angled. .The leaves are opposite, petio- 
late, ovate-oblong, acuminate, crenulate-serrulate and hairy be- 
neath. The flowers are purplish and in axillary cymes. The fruit 
is a 3- to 4-lobed, persistent, loculicidally dehiscent capsule with 
6 to 8 scarlet seeds. The bark of the root is official (p. 531). 

The leaves of Catha edulis growing in Arabia and Abyssinia 
are chewed and also used like tea. They contain the alkaloids 
cathine and celastrine which are supposed to have similar proper- 
ties to cocaine, as well as tannin and an ethereal oil. A yellow 
coloring principle is found in the bark of Eiionymus tingens of 
the East Indies. The yellow coloring principle in the arils of the 
seeds of Celastrus and Eiionymus appears to closely resemble 
carotin. The seeds of a number of plants of this family contain 
a considerable quantity of fixed oil, as Celastrus macrocarpus of 
Peru, and Maytemis Boaria of Chile. 

f. ACERACE^ OR MAPLE FAMILY. The plants of this 
family are trees or shrubs, the most widely distributed repre- 
sentative of which is the maple (Acer). The most distinguishing 
character of this family is the fruit, which is a double samara. 
The sap of a number of species of Acer contains cane sugar or 
sucrose, and the sap of the sugar maple (Acer saccharinum) which 
grows in the L^nited States and Canada contains from 3 to 4 per 
cent. The making of maple syrup and maple sugar is quite an 
industry in some localities. Maple sugar Is also obtained from 
the black sugar maple {Acer nigrum) and the ash-leaved maple 


(A. Negiindo). The bark of the latter species is used to some 
extent in medicine. Valuable timber is yielded by the maple trees. 

The plants are shrubs or trees with opposite, petiolate, and 3- to 
9-digitately-foliate leaves. The flowers are in terminal panicles 
and the fruit is a 3-lobed capsule, which usually contains one 
large, shiny seed. 

The horse-chestnut (Aisciilus Hippocastamim) contains in the 
bark two fluorescent bitter principles, aesculin and paviin, the 
former of which is in the nature of a glucoside, and in the bark, 
leaves and flowers the coloring principle, quercitrin is present; 
in the seed-coat saponin is supposed to occur, and the glucoside 
aesculin as well. The cotyledons contain considerable starch, some 
proteins and sugar, a small quantity of a fixed oil, and argyresin 
to which the antihemorrhoidal action appears to be due. A 
narcotic principle is present in the bark, twigs and leaves of the 
red buckeye (ALscukts Pavia) of the Southern United States. 

plants are mostly trees or shrubs indigenous to the Tropics. In 
some genera there are herbaceous or woody vines (lianes). The 
plants of this family usually have either a milky sap or contain 
saponin, and it seems strange that a plant yielding caffeine, 
namely, PauUinia Cnpana, which furnishes the official Guarana 
(p. 441), should belong to this group. 

The fruit shells of Ncphcliitm lappaceuiu contain a toxic sapo- 
nin (Ph. Weekblad., 45, i, 156, 1908). Four or five per cent. 
of SAPONIN is found in the fruit of Sapindus trifoliatus of India. 
A principle related to saponin is found in Sapindus Sapoiiaria of 
tropical America. Saponin is also found in the fruits of other 
species of Sapindus, the bark of Pometia pinnata of the Sunda 
and .South Sea Islands, and the kernels of the seeds of the two 
species of Magonia indigenous to Brazil. The latter plants also 
yield a poisonous nectar and the root-bark is used in the poison- 
ing of fish. A shellac is obtained from ScJilcichcra trijiiga of 
India and the seeds of this plant yield "marcassa oil." 

Paidlinia Cnpana is a woody climber indigenous to and culti- 
vated in Northern and Western Brazil. The leaves are alternate 
and 5-foliate, the leaflets being oblong, acuminate, coarsely, irreg- 


ularly dentate, and with short stalks ; the flowers are yellow and 
in axillary panicles ; the fruit is a 3-locular, 3-seeded sub-drupose 
capsule (Fig. 165). 

Pig. 165. Flowering and fruiting branch of Brazilian cocoa [Paullinia Cupana). 

After Radlkofer. 

The plants are succulent herbs wnth alternate, petiolate leaves and 
conspicuous axillary flowers ; the fruit is a capsule which at 
maturity breaks into five valves, discharging the seeds with con- 
siderable force. 


The balsam of the gardens {Impatiens Balsamina), which 
flowers all summer, belongs to this family. Other species of 
Impatiens are also cultivated. 

The stem sap as well as that of the flowers of a number of 
species of Impatiens is used on account of its red and yellow col- 
oring matters, to color the skin of the han-ds and feet as also the 
nails by the people of India, Tartary and Japan. The seeds of 
some species of Impatiens yield an oil which is used for burning. 


This order includes two large families which are characterized 
by having 4 or 5 stamens which are either alternate with the' 
sepals or opposite the petals when the latter are present. The 
ovules are atropous. 

plants are woody climbers, shrubs or small trees. 

Rhamnus Purshiana is a large shrub or small tree. The leaves 
are petiolate, oblong, elliptical, acuminate, finely serrate and pubes- 
cent beneath ; the flowers are small and in axillary umbellate 
cymes, and the fruit is 3-lobed, black, ovoid, and drupaceous. 
The bark constitutes the official Cascara sagrada (p. 523). 

Rhamnus Frangula or Alder Buckthorn, is a shrub the botan- 
ical characters of which closely resemble those of R. Purshiana. 
The bark of this plant is also official (p. 521). 

The leaves of the shrub known as New Jersey Tea {Ceanothus 
americanus) are said to have been used as a substitute for tea 
during the Revolutionary times. This plant is found in the East- 
ern United States and Canada and the root, which contains con- 
siderable tannin and possibly an alkaloid, has been used in medi- 
cine. The leaves of Sageretia theecaus of Asia have also been 
used as a substitute for tea. A number of plants of this family 
have been substituted for hops in the fermentation industry, as 
Ceanothus recUnatus of the West Indies ; Coliibrina fermenta of 
Guiana, and Coitania domingensis of Martinique and Hayti. 
Saponin is found in the bark of Gouania touicntosa of Mexico. 
A crystalline bitter principle, colletin, occurs in the wood of Col- 
letia spinosa of South America. The bark of Discaria febrifuga 


of Brazil has been used as a substitute for cinchona. A nunil)er 
of genera furnish fish poisons, as Zizyphus, Tapura, and Gouania. 
Gum-lac is formed on the twigs of Zhypluis Jujnba of Asia as 
the result of the sting of an insect i^Coccns lacca). 

The fruits of several species of Zizyphus, thorny shrubs found 
growing in South America, are edible and enter into the French 
or Spanish confection known as Jujube-paste. 

b. VITACE.E OR GRAPE FAMILY. The plants of this 
family are woody climbers or erect shrubs with alternate, petiolate 
leaves, and small, greenish, regular flowers, the fruit being a berry. 

The most important genus, economically, is \ltis to which 
belong the cultivated grapes, the fruits of which furnish raisins, 
wine and brandy. The grape-vine indigenous to Europe (J'itis 
vinifcra) is cultivated in all temperate and sub-tropical countries, 
and the variety silvestris which is found distributed in the Medit- 
erranean countries as far east as the Caucasus Mountains is sup- 
posed to have furnished the cultivated wine grape. The Concord 
and Catawba grapes are cultivated varieties of the northern Fox- 
or Plum-grape (rifis Labntsca) indigenous to the Northern 
United States east of Minnesota. The Delaware grapes are cul- 
tivated varieties of the frost-grape (V. cordifolia) and the sweet- 
scented grape {V. vulpina) of the Eastern United States. The 
pulpy part of the grape contains from 9 to 18 per cent, of grape- 
sugar and 0.5 to 1.36 per cent, of tartaric acid. In unfavorable 
seasons the tartaric acid is replaced in part by malic acid. The 
soil has a marked influence on the quality of grapes, a sandy soil 
producing a light colored wine, a soil rich in calcium a sweet 
wine, and a clay soil a fine boquet, etc. 

Wines are made by fermenting the grape juice, and contain 
from 5 to 20 per cent, of alcohol, from i or 2 to 12 per cent, of 
sugar, about 0.5 per cent, of tartaric, acetic and other fruit-acid'^, 
tannin and coloring matter from a trace to 0.3 per cent., an'l 
various compound ethers, giving them their characteristic flavors 
or boquets. White wines are made from the juice of the pulp 
of the w^hite or colored grapes after separation from the epicarp 
and seeds. In the manufacture of red wine no care is taken to 
separate the seeds and skins of colored grapes or even the stems 
on which the fruits are borne. Port wine is made from a grape 


grown in Portugal, the wine being chiefly exported from Oporto. 
The term claret is appHed to a red wine containing a small 
amount of alcohol. Brandy is obtained by the distillation of the 
fermented juice of the grape. Champagne is a product obtained 
by fermenting grape juice to which other substances have been 
added, and contains about lo per cent, of alcohol and 67 per cent, 
of carbon dioxide. Raisins are obtained from a variety of Vitis 
vinifcra containing a high percentage of sugar. In the prepara- 
tion of raisins the ripe grapes are dried either by exposure to the 
sun or artificial heat. In grape preserves in addition to the indis- 
tinguishable cells of sarcocarp. raphides of calcium oxalate occur. 
A principle resembling toxicodendrol is found in Vitis incon- 
stans of Japan. A greenish-blue coloring principle occurs in Vitis 
sicyoides of South America. The leaves and twigs of Virginia 
CREEPER or American ivy (Parthenocissiis qiiinqiie folia) contain 
tartaric acid, glycoUic acid, paracatechin and inosit. 


This order includes several families having rather diversified 
characters. The stamens are numerous, the sepals are valvate 
and the placentas are axillary. 

a. FAMILY EL^OCARPACE.E. The members of this 
family are shrubs or trees mostly indigenous to the Tropics. 
They are distinguished from the plants of the other families of 
this order in not containing lysigenous mucilage canals. A prin- 
ciple yielding hydrocyanic acid is found in Echinocarpns Sigun 
of Java. A yellow coloring principle is found in the leaves of 
Vallca cordifolia of Peru. A fatty oil is found in the seeds of 
several species of Elccocarpns. A number of fruits of this family 
are edible. Maqui Fruit is obtained from Aristotelia Maqiii of 
Chile and is used to color wine. The seeds of Sloanea dcntata are 
eaten like chestnuts in Guiana. 

b. TILIACE.E OR LINDEN FAMILY. The plants are 
shrubs or trees with alternate, simple leaves, and with white 
flowers in cymes or panicles. In the Linden or Basswood {Tilia) 
the peduncles are partly adnate with the long, leaf-like bracts. 
The fruits are dry drupes. 


The flowers of the European Linden (Tilia enropcca) contain 
a fragrant volatile oil and are used in medicine. The flowers of 
other species of Tilia also contain volatile oils, and the flowers of 
Tilia tomentosa of Southern Europe are used to flavor champagne. 
The leaves of Tilia enropcca contain the glucoside tiliacin. Sev- 
eral species of Grczvia are used as fish poisons. A purgative 
principle is found in the seeds of Corchorus olitorins of Southern 
Asia, Africa and South America. A bitter principle occurs in 
the seeds of Corchorus t ride us of Arabia, India and Egypt. A 
reddish-colored, fatty oil known as Apeiba oil is obtained from 
the seeds of Apeiba Tibourbon of Guiana. The root of Grcwia 
scabrophylla is used as a substitute for Althrea in India. Mucilage 
is found in the flowers and fruits of a number of genera. The 
leaves of Corchorus siliquosns are used in Panama as a substitute 
for tea.- A number of the fruits of this family are edible, as of 
Muntingia and Apeiba. The bast fibers of several species of Cor- 
chorus, particularly C. capsularis of China and India, constitute 
jute, which is used in the making of cordage. The fiber is sep- 
arated by cold retting in stagnant water. 

mostly herbs or shrubs with alternate, simple leaves, and regular, 
perfect, large flowers, with the stamens united into a column which 
encloses the styles (Fig. 82. E), and a capsular fruit. The culti- 
vated ornamental Hollyhock and Althaea belong to this family. 

Althcca ofHciualis or marshmallow is a perennial herb about i 
M. high with broadly ovate, petiolate, acute, dentate a,nd lobed, 
pubescent leaves ; the flowers are 2 to 4 in number in the axils of 
the leaves and have rose-colored petals. The bractlets are linear 
and the fruit consists of 15 to 20 indehiscent carpels. The root 
is official (p. 450). 

GossYPiUM species. The plants are herbs or shrubs with 
3- to 5-lobed leaves, and large axillary flowers ; the fruit is a 5-loc- 
ular, dehiscent capsule or pod ; the seeds are spherical or some- 
what angular and covered with long i -celled hairs, which latter 
constitute cotton (p. 440). 

There are three important cultivated species. (i) Sea 
Island Cotton is obtained from Gossypinm barbadense, a plant 
which is principally cultivated in the Southern L^nited States and 



also in Northern Africa, Brazil, Peru and Queensland. This spe- 
cies is distinguished by the fact that after removal of the hairs 
from the seeds they are smooth. (2) G. arhorcuui has purplish- 
red flowers, yields a particularly white cotton, and is cultivated 
in Egypt, Arabia and India. (3) G. hcrbaccuin is distinguished 
by its broadly lobed leaves and yellowish flowers. The plant has 

Fig. 166. Transverse (t) and longitudinal (1) sections of commercial fibers: A, long 
staple cotton from the seeds of Gossyphttn; B, Kentucky hemp, the bast of Cannabis 
saliva; C, jute, the bast of Corchorus; t). sisal, the fibers from the leaves of the Century 
plant {Agave rigida Sisalana) ; E, raphia. the outer layers of leaflets of Raphia pedunculata; 
F. ramie, the fibers from a Formosa nettle; G, Merino wool; H, silk; I, artificial silk, the 
figure on the left showing a false lumen due to the infolding of the edges, f. fungal hyphae; 
c, rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate; p. parenchyma cells. 

been cultivated for over 26 centuries in Arabia and the East 
Indies, and since 1774 in the United States. Of this latter species 
there are a number of cultivated varieties. The bark of the root 
constitutes the cotton-root bark of medicine (p. 527). 

The seeds of the genus Gossypium contain a large percentage 
of fixed oil. which is obtained by expression and is official as 


Cotton seed oil. The residue is known as cotton seed oil-cake, 
and contains a considerable amount of proteins with a small quan- 
tity of oil and a poisonous principle, ricin. A fat resembling that 
of Cacao is obtained from the seeds of Pachira tnacrocarpa of 
Brazil ; Kapak oil is derived from the seeds of Eriodendron 
anfractuosnin caribaiim of the West Indies. 

The flowers of some of the members of the Malvaceae contain 
coloring principles, and have been used for dyeing, as Hollyhock 
(Althcca rosa) and Mallow {Malva sylvestris) . Musk seed or 
Amber seed, which is used in perfumery as a substitute for musk, 
is obtained from AhelmoscJius moscJiatiis indigenous to the East 
Indies and now cultivated in other tropical countries. Malva inos- 
chata also has the odor of musk, and is found in Middle and 
Southern Europe. 

Saponin is found in the roots of Sida jainaiccnsis and Hibiscus 
Sabdariffa of the East and West Indies ; Sida panicnlata of Peru 
is used as an anthelmintic and the action is supposed to be due 
to the secreting hairs. The seeds of several members of this 
family are used as substitutes for coffee, as Abutilon mnticinn of 
Egypt, and Okra or Gumbo {Hibiscus csculentiis). The leaves 
of Sida canarietisis and ^. rctusa, the latter of India, have been 
substituted for tea leaves. The fruits of several of the members 
of this family are edible, as Hibiscus csculentiis, which yields the 
vegetable okra, and H. ficulncus of Ceylon and Egypt which are 
used like beans. 

Fibers are obtained from a number of the other members of 
this family, as the bast fibers of Hibiscus tiliaceus of the Tropics, 
H. caiiuabinus of the East Indies, Urcna lobata, Abutilon indicuui, 
Sida rctusa, and Xapcca Iccvis, all cultivated more or less in tropical 

d. FAMILY BOMBACE^. This is a group of tropical trees 
yielding a variety of useful products. A gum is obtained from 
Bombax malabariciiui. and mucilage is contained in the genus 
Ochroma and several species of Bombax. The root of Bombax 
malabaricuni contains tannin in addition. The bast fibers of a 
number of the plants of this family are used like cotton in making 
fabrics, as species of Bombax, Chorisia and Adansonia. The 
fruits of several of the Bombacese contain tartaric acid, as the 


Sour Cucumber tree or Cream-of-tartar tree (Adansonia Greg- 
orii) of Northern Australia ; and the Monkey-bread tree or 
Baobab {Adansonia digitata) of India and South America, which 
attains a diameter of 9 ]\I. The green fruit of Matisia cordata 
of the Andes region is edible. The seeds of Bomhax insigne 
and Matisia Castonon of South America yield a product on 
roasting which is used like cacao bean. The seeds of Cava- 
nillesia umhellata of Peru are edible and contain a considerable 
quantity of fixed oil. 

e. STERCULIACE.^ OR COLA FAMILY. The plants are 
herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes lianes, with mostly simple, petio- 
late, alternate leaves; the flowers are small and form a rather 
complex inflorescence. 

Tlicobronia Cacao is a small tree 5 to 10 M. high, with cori- 
aceous, glaucous, entire leaves, and clusters of brownish 5-mer- 
ous flowers arising from the older branches or stem ; the 
fruit is large, fleshy, ovoid, lo-furrowed longitudinally, yellow 
or reddish, and contains five rows of seeds, 10 or 12 in each row 
(Fig. 167). The seeds are ovoid, somewhat flattened, and with 
large, convoluted cotyledons which break up into more or less 
angular fragments on drying. The seeds contain 35 to 50 per cent, 
of a fixed oil known as Caco butter and ofificial as Oleum Theo- 
bromatis ; 15 per cent, of starch; 15 per cent, of proteins; i to 4 
per cent, of theobromine ; 0.07 to 0.36 per cent, of cafifeine, about 
0.5 per cent, of sugar, and also a small amount of tannin. The 
red color of the seed is due to a principle known as cacao-red 
which is formed by the action of a ferment on a glucoside. 

The Cacao tree is indigenous to the countries bordering the 
Gulf of Mexico and is now cultivated in many tropical countries. 
Most of the cacao of the market is obtained from Ecuador (the 
Guayaquil variety being especially valued), Curasao, Mexico, 
Trinidad, and the Philippine Islands. The seeds of the wild 
plants contain a bitter principle, the quantity of which is found 
to be greatly reduced in the plants when under cultivation. 
The bitter principles in the raw product are more or less destroyed 
by the process of fermentation to which the seeds are sub- 
jected in preparing them for use, which at the same time develops 
the aroma. 



Cola acuminata is a tree with lanceolate or obovate, acuminate, 
entire, petiolate leaves. The flowers are yellowish, unisexual, 
and in small axillary clusters, frequently arising from the old 
wood ; the fruit consists of five follicles, each containing 4 to 8 
seeds. The seed is made up of two large, fleshy cotyledons. They 
have much the same constituents as Cacao, but the proportions 
of these dififer. (See Cola.) The leaves of Waltheria glomcrata 
are used as a hemostatic in Panama like matico, as are also the 

Fig. 167. Cocoa tree (Thcohroma Cacao) showing the peculiar habit of the fruits in 
developing on the main axis as well as on the branches. After Baillon. 

leaves of Ptcrospermuni Acerifoliuin. The inne'r bark of Fremon- 
tia calif or nica is used for purposes similar to those of elm bark. 
Mucilage is also found in the following genera.: Pcnfapetes, Wal- 
theria, Guasuma, Hclicteres, and Sterciilia. Tannin is found in 
the bark of Guacuina iilmifolia of South America. An oil is 
manufactured from the seeds of Stercnlia fa^tida of the Eqst 
Indies and Cochin China. The seeds of a number of species of 
Sterculia are edible. Ahromn angusta of India yields a fiber which 
has been suggested as a substitute for silk. 



This is a group of plants of rather wide distribution, and 
includes perennial herbs like the violets ; evergreen shrubs, such 
as the Tea plant ; and vines like the Passion flower. As the name 
indicates the plants of this order are characterized by the flowers 
having, for the most part, ovaries with parietal placentas. 

a. FAMILY DILLENIACE^E. The plants are mostly trop- 
ical trees which yield valuable timber. The w^ood of a species of 
Dillenia growing in the East Indies also contains red coloring sub- 
stances. The fruits of Dillenia indica contain citric acid and are 
used like lemons. The leaves of Curatclla ainericaiia contain con- 
siderable silicon and are used to polish wood. Dillenia speciosa of 
India contains a large percentage of tannin. Some species of 
Dillenia are cultivated and the foliage and flowers combine to 
make the plants the most beautiful in the plant kingdom. 

b. MARCGRAVIACE.E. The members of this family are 
partly epiphytic, and have dimorphic leaves, the smaller ones being 
pitcher-like. The plant which is cultivated in greenhouses, Marc- 
grama iiuibcUata. is used in the Antilles in medicine. 

c. THEACE.E OR TEA FAMILY. The plants are shrubs 
or trees with alternate, evergreen leaves, and perfect, regular 
flowers with numerous stamens, occurring one or more in the 
axils of the leaves. The fruit is a 3- to 5-locular, dehiscent capsule. 
The most important member of this family is Thea sinensis, the 
two varieties viridis and Bohea furnishing the leaves known as 
TEA. The Tea tree is indigenous to Eastern Asia, and is now 
extensively cultivated in China. Japan. India. Java. Brazil, Sicily, 
Portugal and France, and to some extent in the Southern L'nited 

The fresh leaves of Thea do not have the properties which 
characterize the commercial article, the aroma and other qualities 
being developed after special treatment. Two general classes of 
tea are found in commerce, these depending on the mode of treat- 
ment. Those which are rapidly dried by means of artificial heat 
constitute Green tea. The leaves which are slowly dried, per- 
mitting fermentation to set in. furnish Black tea. Tea leaves 
contain 1.5 to 3.5 per cent, of cafifeine; theobromine and the- 


ophylline (an isomer of theobromine) ; 10 to 20 per cent, of gallo- 
tannic acid ; quercitrin, and a volatile oil containing among other 
components, methyl salicylate. The seeds contain about 30 per 
cent, of fixed oil. i per cent, of caffeine, and saponin. The leaves 
furnish one of the sources of the official caffeine. Saponin is 
found in the seeds of Thca Sassanqua of China and Japan. Two 
saponin-like substances (assamin and assaminic acid) are found 
in the seeds of Thca assaniica. The flowers of T. Sassanqua are 
used in Chiin and Japan to flavor teas. The flowers and leaves 
of I'lica kissi are used as an insecticide. The red colored sap of 
Laplacca Hccmatoxylon of New Granada is used in medicine. 

d. GGTTIFErIe or gamboge FAMILY. The plants 
are principally shrubs and trees of the Tropics, that is, if we 
exclude the Hypericaceae which are now put in a group by 

Garcinia Hanhuryi is a tree with ovate, petiolate, coriaceous, 
opposite leaves. The flowers are small, yellow, dioecious, occur- 
ring in small clusters in the axils of the leaves. The fruit is a 
pome-like berry, with a papery cndocarp and an oily sarcocarp, 
and 3 or 4 seeds, I in each loculus (Fig. 168). The trees are 
chiefly valued on account of the gum-resin known as gamboge 
(p. 648), which they contain. 

A resin used in making plasters is obtained from Calophyllum 
brasUiensc of Brazil. Balsams resembling Copaiba have been 
obtained from Calophyllum Calaba of the West Indies. Balsams 
known as Tacamahac are also derived from the following plants: 
Bourbon Tacamahac from Calophyllum Tacamahaca, India Taca- 
mahac from C. apctalum and Brazilian Tacamahac from Rhcedia 
Madruiuw. Balsams are also obtained from Caralpa o-raudiflora 
of r.razil, and Rhcedia acuminata of Peru. 'Resins and balsams 
are obtained from a number of species of Chtsia. 

A yellow coloring principle, mangostin, is obtained from the 
bark and fruit of ^langosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) of the East 
Indies. Yellow coloring principles are found in Ochrocarpus 
lougifolius of India and Vismia acuminata of South America. 
Tannin occurs in Mahurea palustris of Brazil, Mcsua fcrrea of 
the East Indies, the flower-bud? of Ochrocarpus longifolius of 
India, and several species of Cratoxylujn of China and Java. 



A butter-like fat is obtained from the seeds of Garcinia indica. 
A fixed oil known as Laurel-nut oil is derived from the seeds 
of Calophylhiui Iiiophylliiiii and other species of Calophyllum 
growing in the East Indies. Cochin China and Brazil, as well as 
the seeds of Symphonia fasiculata of Brazil. 

Fig. i68. Gamboge plant (Garcinia Hanburyi). A branch showing the 

a.xillary pistillate flowers and pome-like fruits. After Baillon. 

The bark of Cliisia Pseudo-china is used in Peru as a substi- 
tute for cinchona. An alkaloid is found in J'ismia robusta of Java. 
A gum is obtained from Calophylluni touirntosuin of India and 
Vismia acuminata , that of the latter being purgative. The flower 
buds of the India Suringi (Ochrocarpus longifolius) have an 
aromatic odor resembling cloves. Aromatic principles are also 
found in other plants of this family. 


Edible fruits are yielded by the following plants : Mango 
FRUIT from Garcinia Mangostana and other species of Garcinia; 
Mammei apple or Apricot of St. Domingo from Manimea amer- 
icana of tropical America, the latter being used in the prepara- 
tion of Mammey wine or " Toddy " and a liquor known as " Eau 
de Creole." The seeds of Platonia insignis are used like almonds 
in Brazil and Paraguay ; the fruit of the latter plant is quite acid 
and is eaten with sugar. 

The plants are herbs or shrubs of the temperate regions, and are 
represented in the United States by the Hypericums, which are 
quite common. The flowers are characterized by the numerous 
stamens which are united into distinct groups or clusters. The 
flowers of Hypericum perforatum or Common St. John's-wort 
contain yellow and red coloring principles. Yellow coloring prin- 
ciples have also been isolated from Hypericum laricifolium of 
Ecuador and H. elodcs of Northern Europe. The entire plant of 
H. perforatum is used in medicine and contains considerable resin, 
and a small amount of volatile oil. 

f. FAMILY DIPTEROCARPACE^. The plants of this 
family are principally trees and indigenous to tropical Asia. The 
family derives its name from the winged fruits of the principal 
genus Dipterocarpus. A number of economic products are fur- 
nished by this group of plants. Borneo camphor is obtained 
from Dryobalanops aromatica. The camphor separates in canals 
in the older parts of the wood and between the wood and bark, 
and is obtained by felling the trees, splitting the wood, and then 
removing the camphor by hand. Owing to the fact that some of 
the trees do not contain camphor, it is sometimes necessary to fell 
a hundred trees in order to obtain 6 or 8 K. of the product. The 
young twigs of this plant as well as the older wood yield a volatile 
oil known as Oil of Borneo camphor. 

GuR-jUN BALSAM or Wood oil is obtained from a number of 
species of Dipterocarpus growing in the East Indies by incising 
the stems as in the collection of turpentine. The balsam is used 
as a substitute for copaiba and contains an ethereal oil which 
consists chiefly of a sesquiterpene, an indifl^erent resin, and gur- 
junic acid. Sindor balsam is obtained from Dipterocarpus mar- 



ginatus of Borneo. A resin known as " Piney resin," which is 
used as a substitute for Dammar, is obtained from a number of 
species of Valeria growing in India. Chaia resin is obtained 
from Shorea nibi folia of Cochin China. The bark of Shorca 
robusta of Northern India contains 32 per cent, of tannin. The 
seeds of species of Shorea, Pinanga, Gysbertsiana and Isoptera 
yield the fatty oil known in Java as Tangkawang. The seeds of 
a number of plants of this family contain considerable starch, as 
Vateria, Vatica and Doona. The woods of the following genera 
are extensively used: Vatica, Shorea, and Hopea. 

g. FAMILY TAMARICACE^. The plants are halophytic 
shrubs found in the desert regions of Central Asia and Mediter- 
ranean countries and one genus (Foitqiticria) is found in Mexico. 
Fonqideria splendens is cultivated to some extent, and is known 
as Ocotilla or Coach-whip Cactus. The bark contains gum, resin 
and wax ; the latter is known as Ocotilla w- ax and resembles 
beeswax. The twigs of Myricaria germanica of Europe are used 
as a substitute for hops. A manna-like sugar is formed on the 
stems of Taniarix niannifcra growing in Egypt, Arabia and 
Afghanistan, as the result of the sting of an insect {Coccus inanni- 
parus). Tannin is found in a number of species of Tamarix as 
well as in the galls formed on the plants, the tannin being used 
for dyeing. A table salt is prepared from the ash of several 
species of Rcaniniiria found in Northern Africa and the East 
Mediterranean region. 

h. FAMILY BIXACE^. These are shrubs or trees found 
in the Tropics, and are of interest chiefly on account of the seeds 
of Bixa Orellana which furnish the coloring matter known as 
Annatto (Orlean. Arnotta). The plant is found in tropical 
America and also in Polynesia and ^Madagascar. The seeds are 
covered with a fleshy arillus from which the coloring matter is 
prepared by means of water. The insoluble matter is collected, 
made into cakes and chiefly used for dyeing and coloring. Annatto 
contains a red crystalline principle, bixin. a yellow coloring prin- 
ciple, orellin. and an ethereal oil. The root of this plant also con- 
tains some coloring matter. A acIIow coloring principle is found in 
Cochlospcrmnm tinctorinm of Senegambia and an aromatic resin is 
obtained from Cochlospermuin Gossypium of Ceylon and Malabar. 


These are trees with aromatic barks having an odor of cinnamon ; 
pellucid-punctate leaves; and golden-yellow flowers. The most 
important member of this family is IVinterana Canella growing in 
the Antilles and in Southern Florida, which furnishes the Canella 
BARK or False Winter's bark used in medicine. The bark occurs 
in large quills or broken pieces, from 3 to 10 mm. thick, with the 
periderm nearly entirely removed, the outer surface yellowish or 
orange-red v/ith transversely elongated patches of cork and shal- 
low, whitish depressions ; the fracture is short with numerous resin 
canals ; the odor aromatic ; taste aromatic, bitter and pungent. It 
contains mannitol, resin and 0.5 to 1.28 per cent, of a volatile oil 
containing eugenol, cinneol, caryophyllene and pinene. The bark 
of one or more species of Cinnamodendron of tropical America is 
sometimes substituted for Canella bark, but it is distinguished by 
containing tannin, which constituent is not found in Canella. 

j. YIOLACE^E OR VIOLET FAMILY. The plants are 
herbs or shrubs with basal or alternate leaves, perfect, irregular 
flowers, and 3-valved dehiscent capsules (Fig. 134, /). The best 
known representatives of this group are the cultivated species of 
the genus Viola, including the English or sweet violet ( Viola odor- 
afa), which produces a volatile oil containing ionon ; and the varie- 
ties of Viola tricolor vulgaris which furnish the pansies of the 
garden. The entire herb of Viola tricolor has been used in 
medicine and contains the yellow coloring principle viola-quercit- 
rin, salicylic acid and methyl salicylate (Figs. 70, 100, 118). 

k. FAMILY FLACOURTIACE^.. These are tropical 
shrubs and trees, and are chiefly of interest because of their valua- 
ble woods and acid, juicy fruits. A number of them are of medicinal 
interest. Chaulmugra oil is said to be obtained from the seeds 
of Gynocardia odorata of Farther India. The seeds also contain 
gynocardic acid and hydrocyanic acid. The latter is also present 
in the seeds of Hydnocarpus venenata of Southern India and 
Ceylon and the leaves of Kiggelaria africana. 

A number of species of Lcetia growing in Cuba yield a resin 
resembling sandarac. The Coccos oil which is used in perfumery 
is obtained from several species of Myroxylon growing in Poly- 
nesia. The fixed oils from the seeds of Gynocardia odorata and of 


several species of Pangium are used in cooking. A bitter principle 
occurs in the bark of Casearia adstringens of Brazil. A purgative 
principle is found in C. esculenta of tropical Asia and Australia. 
The root of Honialium racemosum of Guiana contains an astrin- 
gent principle. 

1. FAMILY TURNERACE^. These plants are herbs, 
shrubs and trees mostly found in tropical America, and are of 
interest on account of the leaves of Tiirncra diffusa, particularly 
the variety aphrodisiaca, which yield the Damiana of medicine 
esteemed as a tonic laxative like Rhamnus Purshiana. The drug 
usually consists of leaves although the reddish stems, yellowish 
flowers and globular capsules may be present. The leaves are about 
25 mm. long, varying from oblanceolate to obovate ; the margin is 
serrate-dentate ; the color, light-green (older leaves somewhat cori- 
aceous and pubescent) ; the odor aromatic; taste aromatic and bit- 
ter. Damiana contains a volatile oil, resin, and the bitter principle 
damianin. Ethereal oils are found in other species of Turnera. 
and T. angustifolia of Mexico contains considerable mucilage. 

ILY. The plants are mostly herbaceous or woody vines climbing 
by means of tendrils, with alternate, palmately-lobed, petiolate 
leaves and solitary, perfect, regular flowers. The flowers are 
peculiar in that between the corolla and stamens there are numer- 
ous, frequently petaloid, colored, sterile, filamentous bodies which 
are known collectively as the "corona." The fruit is a berry or 
dehiscent capsule. The genus Passiflora is known as the Passion- 
flower because the flowers are considered to be emblematic of the 
Crucifixion, the corona representing the crown of thorns, the 
stamens the nails, and the gynsecium with its three styles, the 
three thieves. The rhizomes of the Passion-flowers of the South- 
ern States {Passiflora incarnata and P. lit tea) have been used in 
medicine. Not much is known with regard to the active principles 
of these two plants or of the thirty other species of Passiflora which 
are used in medicine. The fruits of several species of Passi- 
flora are edible, and a number of them are cultivated on account 
of their beautiful as well as odorous flowers. 

n. CARICACE^ OR PAPAW FAMILY. This family is 
composed of two genera of latex-containing trees growing in trop- 


ical America, the best known of which is the genus Carica. The 
Papaw or Melon tree {Carica Papaya) is a small tree with a 
straight, slender, usually unbranched trunk which bears at the 
summit a cluster of long-petiolate, deeply-lobed leaves. The 
flowers are dioecious, and the fruit is a large, melon-like berry. 
The green fruits as well as the leaves contain a milk- juice which 
is obtained by incising them. The material is dried and is used 
in medicine on account of its containing a proteolytic ferment, 
papain or papayotin, which is active in the presence of both acids 
and alkalies. The leaves and fruit also contain the alkaloid car- 
paine, and in addition the leaves contain the glucoside carposid. 
The root contains a glucoside somewhat resembling potassium 
myronate and a ferment which has a decomposing action upon it. 
A proteolytic ferment is also present in the leaves of Carica quer- 
cifolia of Argentina. The melon tree is cultivated on account of 
the fruits, which are edible. 

o. BEGONIACE^. This is a family of tropical plants which 
are extensively cultivated. They are herbs or shrubs frequently 
with tuberous rhizomes and with characteristic, asymmetric, varie- 
gated leaves. They are easily propagated by cuttings providing 
they have sufficient moisture, even the leaves giving rise to new 
plants. The roots of Begonia anemonoides of South America and 
B. gracilis of Mexico contain purgative principles. Calcium oxal- 
ate and acid oxalates are found in the leaves of probably all of the 
species of Begonia. The roots of a number of species of this 
genus are astringent. 

p. DATISCACE^. The plants are trees or shrubs found 
principally in the Tropics. A bitter principle is found in the Yel- 
low hemp {Datisca cannabina) of Southern Europe and the 
Orient. The root contains a yellow coloring principle, datiscin, 
which is used in the dyeing of silk. The wood of Octomeles and 
Teframeles is used in the making of tea-chests. 


The plants of this order are succulent, with much reduced 
leaves, and with flowers characterized by having a perianth with 
numerous segments and an inferior ovary. 


a. CACTACE^ OR CACTUS FAMILY. This is a remark- 
able family of succulent plants growing largely in the arid regions 
of Mexico, Brazil and other parts of America. The stems are 
more or less flattened, terete or tuberculated, in some cases becom 
ing branched and woody. The leaves are reduced to scales, b 
are sometimes larger, more or less cylindrical or dorsiventral, and 
usually drop off sooner or later. In the axils of the leaves or leaf- 
scars there are usually groups of hairs and spines. The flowers 
are mostly solitary, sessile, perfect, regular and conspicuous. The 
fruit is usually a fleshy berry, the fruits of a number of species 
being edible. 

Quite a number of the Cacti have been used in medicine, the 
one most commonly employed being the Night-blooming Cereus 
{Cereus grandi-ftorns) , which is extensively cultivated on account 
of its flowers. The flowers and fresh stems are the parts used. 
They contain several acrid principles including probably an alka- 
loid and a glucoside, the drug resembling in its action digitalis. 

Mescal buttons (Anhaloniitm) , are the dried tops of several 
species of Lophophora growing in Northern Mexico. The main 
axis of the plant is under the ground and produces at certain 
points small aerial shoots which are more or less button-shaped 
or disk-like, being about 20 to 50 mm. in diameter. In the center 
of the disk occur tufts of hairs which vary in the different species, 
and among which are usually found one or more pinkish flowers. 
The drug has been used like Night-blooming Cereus, and con- 
tains several alkaloids, namely, anhalonine (similar to pellotine), 
mescaline, anhalonidine and lophophorine. Alkaloidal principles 
are also found in other members of this family. 

The sap of several species of Cereus of the Antilles has anthel- 
mintic properties, as also that of certain species of Rhipsalis and 
Opuntia. A caoutchouc-like exudation is obtained from Opuntia 
vulgaris and other species of Opuntia growing in the West Indies. 
An astringent principle is found in the root and bark of Opuntia 
Kariviuskiana of Mexico. A tragacanth-like gum is found in 
Peireskia Guacamacho of Venezuela, Opuntia rubcscens of Brazil 
and 0. Tuna of the West Indies, Mexico and South America. An 
alcoholic beverage is made by the Indians of Sonora from the 
fruit-juice of Cereus Thunhergii. 


A number of species of Opuntia yield edible fruits. The 
Prickly pear is the fruit of Opuntia Tuna growing in the 
West Indies and tropical America; Indian fig is derived from 
Opuntia Ficus-Indica growing in Southern Europe, particularly 
Sicily ; a fruit also known as Prickly pear or Indian fig is derived 
from Opuntia vulgaris, a common Cactus growing in sandy soil 
in the Eastern United States. The Cochineal insect which is 
official under the name of coccus in a number of pharmacopoeias 
{Pseudo-coccus Cacti) lives on the following Cacti: Nopalca 
coccinellifcra of Jamaica and South America, Opuntia Tuna and 
O. Dillenii both of tropical America, and Peireskia aculeata of 
the An'tilles. 


The plants are herbs or shrubs with complete flowers, rarely 
apetalous, producing one or more ovules in each loculus. 

characters of this family are illustrated by the Spurge laurel or 
Mezereon {Daphne Mezereum) which is a small shrub about i M. 
high, with oblong-lanceolate, acute, entire, sessile leaves, and small 
groups of fragrant flowers, the perianth tube of which is purplish- 
red or white. The fruit is an ovoid, reddish drupe. The bark of 
Daphne Mezereum and other species of Daphne is used in 
medicine (p. 536). 

The bark of Funifera iitilis of Brazil contains a vesicating 
principle. A principle with similar properties is found in the 
bark of Leather wood {Dirca palustris) of the Eastern United 
States and Canada. The fruit and leaves of Gnidia carinata of 
Cape Colony contain emetic and drastic principles. A poisonous 
principle is found in Pimelea trichostachya of Australia. A 
yellow coloring principle is found in several species of Daphne 
and Thymelcca. The wood of Aqiiilaria Agallocha oi India and 
China is aromatic and resembles the " Aloe wood." A balsam is 
obtained from the wood of Piuielca oleosa of Cochin China. The 
bast fibers of quite a number of plants are used in the making of 
paper, as of Daphne in India, Gnidia of Madagascar, Lagetta (L. 
lintearia or Lace-tree) of Jamaica and St. Domingo, Thym'elcpa 


of the Mediterranean countries and Linodendron of Cuba. The 
fibers of Leather wood (Dirca palustris) of the Eastern United 
States and Canada are said to be used in a similar manner. 

b. FAMILY EL^AGNACExE. This is a small family 
represented in the L^nited States by several genera, among which 
is the Buffalo berry {Lepargyrcca argentea), a thorny shrub found 
in the western part of the United States and the Northwest Terri- 
tory. The fruit is a reddish drupe-like berry which contains a 
small amount of citric and malic acids, 5 per cent, of sugar, and 
in composition is much like the currant. It is eaten by the Indians, 
and used to a great extent in the Western States in the making of 
jellies. The leaves and flowers of a number of species of 
Elaeagnus are used in medicine. 

members of this family are herbs, shrubs and trees usually with 
opposite, entire leaves. The flowers are in racemes and the fruit 
is a capsule. Quite a number of the plants yield valuable woods 
and a number are cultivated as ornamental plants. 

The flowers of Woodfordia Horibunda of India contain a red 
coloring principle, and the bark and leaves of Lafoensia Pacari of 
Brazil contain a yellow coloring principle. Considerable tannin 
is found in the root of the Purple loosestrife {Ly thrum Salicaria) 
of the Northern United States and Canada, and widely distrib- 
uted in the Old World ; and also in the fruit of JVoodfordia 
Hoi'ibunda, a plant which is extensively cultivated in greenhouses. 
A bitter principle, nessin, is found in the leaves of Nescca syphili- 
tica of Mexico and probably other species of this genus. Ciiphea 
viscosa of Mexico is said to resemble digitalis in its physiological 
action. A vesicating principle, resembling cantharidin in its 
action, is obtained from the fresh leaves of Ammanni haccifcra of 
India. A narcotic principle is found in the seeds of Lagerstrccuiia 
Flos rcgincc of India. The flowers of Lazvsonia iiiennis, native to 
and cultivated in the Orient, have an odor resembling that of the 
Tea rose. The shrub is also cultivated to some extent in the West 
Indies and is known in the Orient as the Henna plant. The 
leaves are used in the preparation of the cosmetic Hinna. They 
contain an orange or brownish-yellow dye which is used in the 
dyeing of the skin and hair. 


a single genus of two species. The Pomegranate {Pitiiica gmiia- 
tum) indigenous to the Levant and now extensively cultivated is 
of chief interest. The plants are small trees, the young twigs of 
which are 4-angled and frequently thorn-like. The leaves are 
opposite, ovate-lanceolate, entire, short-petiolate. The torus, 
calyx and corolla are scarlet, and the gynaecium consists of two 
whorls of carpels. The fruit is an inferior edible berry with hard 
pericarp or rind. The pulpy portion is formed from the outer 
layer of the seed-coat. The bark of the root and stem is used 
in medicine. (See Granatum, p. 534.) The rind of the fruit is 
used as an astringent because of the tannin which it contains- 
It does not appear, however, to contain the alkaloids found in the 
official bark. 

e. FAMILY LECYTHIDACE^. The plants are mostly 
shrubs and trees indigenous to the Tropics. They are of 
chief interest on account of the Brazil-nut or Para-nut 
obtained from Bertholletia excelsa, and the Sapucaya-nut 
obtained from the Monkey-pot tree (one or more species of 
Lecythis), both genera of South America. The seeds (so-called 
nuts) are rich in oil and proteins and are edible. The fruit of 
Careya arborea is drupaceous and is also edible, the seeds being 
considered, however, to be poisonous. Bitter narcotic or poisonous 
principles are also found in the fruit of Planchonia valida of the 
Molucca Islands and the seeds of a number of species of Lecythis. 
The fruits and roots of a number of species of Barringtonia are 
used in China and Java to stupefy fish. The pericarp of the fruit 
of Fcetida moschata of Guiana contains considerable quantities of 
an ethereal oil. The flowers of Grias cauUflora of the Antilles 
are used like tea. A cooling drink is made from the sarcocarp of 
Couroupita guiancnsis of the West Indies and Guiana. 

These are tropical shrubs or small trees wdth evergreen, cori- 
aceous leaves, small cymose and axillary flowers, and seeds which 
germinate while the fruit is still attached to the plant. The best 
known genus of this family is Rhizophora (Mangrove tree), of 
which there are three species, the American Mangrove being R. 
mangle. This tree produces aerial roots on the stems and 


branches, and leaves which are characterized by a number of layers 
of water-containing cells. The plants grow in muddy swamps, 
or along the sea-coast where the water is brackish, a number 
together forming the so-called " Mangrove swamps." 

The root and bark of the Mangrove, as well as other species 
of Rhizophora and several species of Bruguiera, contain a large 
quantity of tannin which resembles catechu. The aerial roots of 
Rhizophora are used by the natives of Polynesia in the making of 
bows, and the woods of several genera are used in carpentry. 

g. MYRTACE^ OR MYRTLE FAMILY. This is a group 
chiefly of shrubs and trees, some, as of species of Eucalyptus, 
being the loftiest trees known, attaining a height in some instances 
of 105 M. The plants are indigenous to Australia and tropical 
America and some are extensively cultivated. 

Eucalyptus species. The leaves frequently vary in shape 
and in arrangement on the young and older branches of the same 
plant. On the young branches they may be, as in Eucalyptus 
Globulus, ovate or broadly elliptical, opposite and sessile, while 
on older branches they are scythe-shaped, glandular-punctate, 
petiolate and alternate (Fig. 258). In the latter case the petioles 
are twisted and the leaves stand edgewise so that both surfaces are 
equally exposed to the light and hence of similar structure. The 
flowers are solitary, or in cymes or umbels, occurring in the axils 
of the leaves. Petals are wanting and the whitish stamens, which 
are numerous and inflexed in the bud, are covered by an oper- 
culum or lid which is considered to be formed by the union of 
the sepals, and which dehisces on the maturing of the stamens, 
this being one of the most characteristic features of the genus. 
The fruit is a 3- to 6-locular truncated capsule or pyxis. 

This is a very important genus from an economic point of 
view, among the products being the volatile oil (oil of eucalyptus), 
and eucalyptol, both of which are ofificial, and the tannin or so- 
called " gum." known as Eucalyptus kino (p. 655). 

Jainhosa Caryophyllus (Eugenia Caryophyllata). This is a 
small tree indigenous to the Molucca Islands and now extensively 
cultivated in the Tropics. The leaves are opposite, ovate-lance- 
olate, acuminate, petiolate, entire and evergreen. The flowers are 
rose-colored and in cymes ; the fruit is berry-like and constitutes 


the Anthoph}lli or Mother-clove. The unexpanded flower-buds 
constitute the drug or spice known as Cloves. (See Caryophyllus.) 

Piijiciita omcinalis is a tree with opposite, lanceolate, acute, 
petiolate, pellucid-punctate and evergreen leaves. The' flowers are 
small, white and in axillary racemes. The fruit is used for 
flavoring and in medicine. (See Pimenta.) 

Not only are ethereal oils obtained from the genera Euca- 
lyptus, Jambosa and Pimenta already described, but also from 
other members of the Myrtacege. Oil of Bay or oil of Myrcia 
is distilled from the leaves of Pimenta acris of the West Indies. 
The oil consists largely of eugenol, methyl-eugenol, chavicol, 
methyl-chavicol, citral, phellandrene and myrcene, and is used in 
the preparation of Bay rum. The fruits of P. acris yield 3.3 per 
cent, of an oil resembling the leaf oil. 

Cheken leaves are obtained from Eugenia Clieken. They are 
about 25 mm. long, ovate or rectangular, with entire, somewhat 
revolute margin, light green, pellucid punctate, aromatic, astrin- 
gent and bitter. Cheken leaves yield about i per cent, of a volatile 
oil containing cineol and pinene ; 4 per cent, of tannin ; a volatile 
alkaloid and a glucoside. 

Oil of Cajeput is obtained from the leaves and twigs of Mela- 
leuca Leucadcndron, particularly the varieties Cajepiiti and minor 
of the East Indies. The principal constituents of this oil are 
cineol, terpineol, pinene, and a number of aldehydes and acid 
esters. An oil resembling Cajeput oil is obtained from the leaves 
and flowers of Myrceugenia catnphorata of Chile. 

The leaves of Myrtns communis, a plant extensively cultivated 
in the Mediterranean countries of Europe, yield a distillate with 
water known as Ealt d'ange and used as a toilet article. 

The leaves of the following plants are used as substitutes for 
tea leaves : Myrtns Molincc of Chile, Melaleuca genistcefolia of 
Australia, and Leptospermum scopariuni and other species of 
this genus growing in New Zealand. The seeds of Eugenia dis- 
ticJia are known in the Antilles as Wild coffee. Quite a number 
of the genera of this family yield edible fruits. Guava or Guay- 
ava fruit is obtained from Psidium Gnayava of tropical America. 
Rose apple is the fruit of Jambosa malaccensis, growing in the 
East Indies and Oceanica. Jambuse berries are derived from 


Jambosa vulgaris which is extensively cultivated in the Tropics. 
The lemon-like fruit of Myrcia coriacca is used in medicine, the 
bark in tanning, and the wood in dyeing. The fibrous bark of 
Eugenia ligustrina is used like oakum. 

h. FAMILY COMBRETACE^. The members of this fam- 
ily are shrubs or trees, sometimes climbing, with usually alternate, 
petiolate, simple leaves ; sessile flowers in racemes ; somewhat 
fleshy, winged, i-seeded fruits, and are mostly found in the 

Like the Fagacese the plants of this family contain a tannin, 
similar to gallotannic acid, in nearly all parts of the plant. The 
Myrobalans of the East Indies are the young fruits of Tcruii- 
nalia Cliebiila. The pericarp contains from 5 to 45 per cent, of 
tannin, the latter amount being found in the fruits known as Long 
or Chebula Myrobalans. The fruits also contain ellagic and 
chebulinic acids. The fruits of Terininalia helerica constitute the 
Beleric Myrobalans. The galls of Terininalia maeroptcra of 
Africa and other species of Terminalia as v/ell as of Bucida 
Bneeras of tropical America are particularly rich in tannin. A 
yellow coloring principle is found in Terminalia Brozvnii of 
Africa and is used in dyeing leather. The bark of T. Catappa of 
Asia and Africa is used to dye leather black. 

A gum-jesin with cathartic properties is obtained from Terini- 
nalia fagifolia of Brazil. An aromatic resin is found in Tenninalia 
angiistifoliuiii of the East Indies. The fruits of one or more of 
the Combretaceas are said to be used in the preparation of the 
arrow-poison of the Negritos. The seeds of Tenninalia Catappa 
and Conibretnm bntyrosuni contain about 50 per cent, of fixed oil. 
These seeds as well as those of other species of Terminalia and 
Quisqualis indiea of Farther India and tropical Africa are edible. 
The seeds of the latter plant when unripe are said to be used like 
mustard. The woods of a number of the plants of the Combre- 
tacese are valuable for building purposes, and some of the genera 
furnish ornamental plants which are cultivated in greenhouses. 

i. FAMILY MELASTOMACE^. This is a large family 
of herbs, shrubs and trees with opposite, 3- to 9-nerved leaves 
and regular, perfect, often showy flowers. They are chiefly found 
in South America and are represented in temperate regions by 


the Meadow beauty (Rhexia). Quite a ininil)cr of the plants are 
cultivated and a large number yield edible fruits. The fruits, 
barks and leaves frequently contain coloring principles. A yel- 
low coloring principle is found in the leaves of a number of species 
of Memecylon of the East Indies and Africa, which resembles 
that of saffron and curcuma. Red coloring principles are found 
in the berries of a number of species of Blakea of South America. 
A black coloring principle is obtained from the fruit of several 
species of Tamonea of tropical America, Mclastoma malabathri- 
cum of the East Indies and Tococa guiancnsis of Northern South 
America and Tiboiicliiiia Maximiliana of Brazil. Tannin is found 
in considerable quantity in the barks of Tibouchina, Dissotis and 

The leaves of Tamonea thecesans are used in Peru as a sub- 
stitute for tea. A mucilage is found in the bark of Medinilla 
crispata of the Molucca Islands. The flowers of the latter plant 
as well as of M. macrocarpa are used as a remedy for the bite of 
poisonous serpents. 

These are mostly annual or perennial herbs with usually entire 
or toothed, simple leaves. The flowers are perfect, regular or 
irregular, epigynous, variously colored, solitary in the axils of the 
leaves or in somewhat leafy spikes. The fruit is a dehiscent 
capsule, berry, drupe, or nut. This family is represented in 
temperate regions by such plants as the Willow herb (Epilobium), 
Evening primrose (CEnothera), on which de Vries has carried 
on his famous mutation experiments, and Enchanter's nightshade 
(Circ^ea). The cultivated Fuchsia also belongs to this family. 
The subterranean parts of Prinnila officinalis^ contain two crystal- 
line glucosides, primeverin and primulaverin, which by the action 
of the ferment, primeverase, produce an anise-like odor. The 
odors of the other species of Primula are probably due to distinct 
glucosides: (a) one producing an anise-like odor as in P. offici- 
nalis, P. capitata and P. dcnticulata; (b) one producing the odor 
of methyl salicylate, as in P. longiflora, P. elatior and P. vulgaris; 
(c) one producing the odor of coriander, as in P. auricula, P. 
panonica and P. palinuri. The flowers of a number of genera 
are light in color and somewhat luminous in the dark. 


A yellow coloring principle is obtained from the herb and unripe 
fruits of Jussieua pilosa of Brazil. The roots of (Enothera bien- 
niis, O. niuricata and other species of this genus are edible. 

aquatic plants comprising a single genus, one of which Trapa 
natans or Water chestnut is naturalized to some extent in the 
ponds of ^vlassachusetts and New York. The fruit is coriaceous, 
2- to 4-spinose, and i -seeded. The cotyledons are unequal, rich in 
starch, and are edible, sometimes being ground and made into 
bread by the people of Europe and Northern Asia. 


The plants of this order are widely distributed in northern 
temperate regions although there are some representatives in the 
Tropics. The flowers are small, 4- or 5-merous and epigynous. 

are mostly trees or shrubs with alternate, petiolate, simple or 3- to 
7-compound leaves. The flowers are either in umbels or panicles. 
The fruit is a drupe or berry. The best known representatives of 
this family are the English ivy {Hedera helix) of Europe, and 
Ginseng {Panax qitinquefolium) (Fig. 169) growing in the East- 
ern and Central E^nited States. This plant is the source of the 
ginseng root of commerce, considerable quantities of which are 
exported to China where it is used like the root of Panax Ginseng, 
a plant growing v/ild in Manchuria and Korea. Both plants are 
also cultivated in the L^nited States, the roots from the wild plants 
being preferred. The root contains a volatile oil, and considerable 
starch. Several species of Aralia are used in medicine (p. 450). 

The leaves of the English ivy contain the glucoside helixin, 
and a carbohydrate, inosit. They also contain formic, oxalic, 
malic, tannic and hederic acids, besides the yellow principle 
carotin. The fruits of the ivy contain a purplish-red colorin^^ 
substance and are said to be poisonous. 

The Chinese rice paper is made from the pith of Tetrapanax 
papyrifer which grows wild in Formosa and is extensively culti- 
vated in China. The pith is cut spirally into thin strips which 
are spread out flat and then cut into pieces varying from 15 to 




30 cm. long and 10 to 12 cm. broad. This paper dififers from 
other papers in that it is a natural product. 

Fig. 169. Panax quinquefolium (Ginseng): A, upper portion of plant showing pal- 
mately-compound leaves with long-stalked leaflets, the berry-like drupes; B, fusiform 
root: C, roots showinR charscteristic stem scars at the upper portion.- From a photograph 
by Wyss. (See also Fig. 63, p. 98.) 

The rhizome of Panax re pens growing- in Japan, contains 20.8 
per cent, of a non-toxic saponin with hemolytic properties. 


are herbs, frequently with hollow stems ; alternate, simple or 
compound leaves, the base of the petiole often forming an 
inflated sheath ; and small white, yellowish, greenish or somewhat 
purplish flowers occurring in simple or compound umbels. The 
fruit is a cremocarp, having characters which are of important 
taxonomic valvie, as the presence or absence of secondary ribs, 
number and position of the vittse, etc. 

Coriandrnm sativiun is an annual herb the fruits of which 
are official (p. 562). The leaves are bi-or tri-pinnate, the leaflets 
being narrow linear-lanceolate; and the flowers are white or 

Coniiim maciilatuin or Poison Hemlock is a tall, erect, branch- 
ing, biennial plant, with purplish spotted stems, large pinnately 
decompound leaves and small, white flowers. The fruit is official 

(p. 567)- 

Carum Carvi (Caraway) is a biennial herb with bi- or tri- 
pinnate, deeply incised leaves, and white flowers. The fruit is 
official (p. 565) and the leaves are also used in medicine. 

Pimpinella Anisum is a small, hairy, annual herb. The leaves 
are variable, the lower being somewhat cordate and serrate, the 
middle distinctly lobed. and the upper ones trifid ; the flowers are 
white. The fruit is official (p. 560) and is also used for flavoring. 

Foeniculum vulgare is an annual or perennial, glabrous herb 
with very finely dissected leaves, the divisions being narrow- 
linear. The flowers are yellow, and the involucre and involucels 
are wanting. The fruit is official (p. 563). 

Ferula fcctida is a stout, perennial herb with few, ternately 
compound leaves and small, polygamous, light yellow flowers. 
The root is rather large and yields the gum-resin asafetida (p. 
671). Asafetida is also derived from other species of Ferula. 

Ferula Siimhul is a tall perennial herb with purplish latex- 
containing stems. The basal leaves are ternately compound and 
with amplexicaul base. The leaves decrease in size from the base 
upward, becoming bract-like near the inflorescence. The flowers 
are polygamous, resembling those of F. fa:tida. The root is 
official (p. 462) and is probably also obtained from other closely 
related species of Ferula. 



Fig. 170. Cicuia maculata (Water Hemlock): A, upper part of stem with leaves and 
compound umbels; B, base of the stem and the thick tuberous roots; C, cross-section of 
stem showing part of a mestome strand and the pith with three oil-ducts (a), vessels (v), 
libriform (St), pith (p); D, a flower showing petals with long inflexed apex and the five 
stamens inserted on the disk that crowns the ovary; E. the fruit; F, fruit in longitudinal 
section showing the two ovules; G, cross-section of a mericarp showing the six vittse or oil- 
tubes. After Holm. 



A large number of the plants belonging to the Umbelliferse 
contain essential oils, resins, gum-resins and related substances. 
The gum-resin ammoniac is an exudation found on the stem and 
branches of Doreuia Animoniacum and other species of Dorema 
as a result of the sting of an insect. The plant is found in Western 
Asia. The gum-resin occurs in yellowish-brown, globular, or 
somewhat flattened tears which are brittle, milky-white internally, 
with a distinct balsamic odor and bitter, acrid, nauseous taste. It 
contains a small quantity of volatile oil having the odor of 
Angelica. African ammoniac is obtained from Ferula tingitana 
growing in Northern Africa and Western Asia. 

The gum-resin galbanujni is obtained by incising the root of 
Ferula galbanifnla and other species of Ferula growing in the 
Levant. Galbanum occurs in pale yellowish-brown agglutinated 
tears, forming a more or less hard mass, \vhich is brittle when 
cold but soft and sticky at 37 C. ; the odor is distinct, balsamic ; 
the taste bitter and acrid. It contains from 10 to 20 per cent, of a 
volatile oil coniposed of d-pinene, cadinene, and other principles. 

A volatile oil, known as Ajowan oil, and containing thvmol, 
is obtained from the fruit of Carum Ajozvan of Europe, Asia and 
Africa. A volatile oil containing apiol is found in the fruit and 
leaves of the garden parsley {PctroscUnum sathum). Dill oil 
is obtained from the garden Dill {Ancthum gravcolens) . The 
fruit of Sweet cicely (PVashiiigfonia loiigistylis) yields a volatile 
oil knowm as sweet anise oil, which contains anethol. The o!I 
of water fennel {CEnanthe Phellandri) contains about 80 per cent, 
of phellandrene. Cumin oil is obtained from Cnminnm Cyminiim 
of Turkestan and Egypt, and contains cymene. 

The roots of a number of the plants of this family contain 
volatile oils, as Lovage {Levisticum officinale) of Southern 
Europe; European angelica or garden angelica (Angelica Arch- 
angelica) ; American angelica or the purple-stemmed angelica 
(A. atropurpurca) found in the Northern and Eastern United 
States and Canada ; Wild angelica {A. svlvestris) of Europe. 

are shrubs or trees with simple, opposite leaves, and flowers in 
cymes or heads, which in the case of the Flowering dogwood 


(Cornns florida) are subtended by four large, petal-like, white, or 
pinkish bracts. 

The bark of Cornus florida, a shrub or small tree growing in 
the United States, contains a bitter principle, cornin ; and a small 
quantity of gallic and tannic acids. 

Auciiha japonica, a plant indigenous to the Himalayas, China 
and Japan and extensively cultivated on account of its crimson 
berries, contains a glucoside aucubin. It is found in the different 
varieties and varies in amount from 0.31 to 1.96 per cent. 


This is the highest group of plants and is marked by the fol- 
lowing characters : The corolla is sympetalous ; the flowers are 
mostly perigynous or epigynous and both the corolla and stamens 
are borne on the perianth tube. The number of parts is definite, 
there being 5 sepals, 5 petals, 5 or 10 stamens and 2 or 5 carpels. 
This sub-class includes but six orders, to which, however, belong 
a large number of medicinal and economic plants. 


The plants of this order are distinguished by the fact that the 
stamens are mostly free from the perianth tube. 

a. PYROLACE^. The plants are small, mostly evergreen 
perennials, and are represented in the United States by several 

Chimaphila nmbellata (Prince's pine or Pipsissewa) is a small 
trailing or creeping plant producing distinct flower- and leaf- 
branches. The leaves are official (p. 603).' The flowers are in 
small corymbs and the petals are white or pinkish. In Chima- 
phila macidata the leaves are lanceolate, mottled with white along 
the veins and the flowers are considerably larger. 

With the P}Tolacese are sometimes grouped the saprophytic 
plants of the genus Monotropa. There are two representatives of 
this genus which are common in the United States, namely, Indian 
pipe {Monotropa uniHora) and false beech-drops {M. Hypopitys) 
The latter contains a glucoside or an ester of methyl salicylate, 
and a ferment gaultherase. 



b. ERICACE^ OR HEATH FAMILY. This is a large 
family and the plants are widely distributed, especially in the 
northern mountainous parts of both the Eastern and Western Con- 
tinent. They vary from perennial herbs to trees. The flowers 
are usually regular, the stamens being mostly 2-spurred (Fig. 
8i, S), and the fruit is either a superior or inferior drupe or 
berry (Fig. 134, H). 

Fig. 171. GauUheria prcc:i>nhens: .\, entire plant showing horizontally creeping stolons 
and solitary axillary flowers; B, flower showing hypocrateriform corolla; C, stamen; D, 
young fruit; E, section of fruit showing the baccate or berry-like calyx which encloses the 
real fruit or capsule; F, leaf showing venation; G, cross-section of leaf showing epidermis 
(e), three layers of palisade cells (p). and chlorenchyma (c); H. cross-section of margin of leaf 
showing in addition a large group of sterome cells. After Holm. 

Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi is a low branching shrub which trails 
or spreads on the ground. The leives are used in medicine 
(p. 601). The flowers are small, white or pink, few and in short 
racemes. The fruit is a red, globular drupe. 

Trailing arbutus (Epigcua repens) is a trailing, shrubby, hairy 
plant with broadly elliptical or ovate, coriaceous, evergreen leaves 
and white or rose-colored, fragrant flowers which are either 
perfect, with styles and filaments of varying length, or dioecious. 
The leaves contain gimilar constituents to those in Uva Ursi and 


The leaves of vvintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) are the 
source of true oil of wintergreen, which consists almost entirely 
of methyl salicylate. It contains a small quantity of an alcohol 
and an ester giving the characteristic odor. The same principles 
probably also occur in several other species of Gaultheria (Fig. 


The poisonous principle andromedotoxin is found in a number 

of species of Rhododendron, Leucothoe, and Pieris. This prin- 
ciple is a powerful emetic and one of the most toxic principles 
known. It probably occurs in the nectar of the flowers of Kalmia 
and Rhododendron, being the cause of the poisonous properties 
of the honey from this source. The leaves of several species of 
laurel (Kalmia) contain considerable quantities of this principle, 
and are poisonous to cattle. 

The plants of the genus Gaylusaccia are small shrubs distin- 
guished by having an inferior, berry-like drupe with ten loculi. 
To this genus belong the huckleberries, as black huckleberry 
{G. resinosa) ; blue huckleberry {G. frondosa) ; and dwarf huckle- 
berry {G. dumosa). The latter plant grows in sandy swamps 
in both the United States and Canada and the fruit ripens in 
May and June. The fruits of the other two species ripen in 
July and August. 

The plants belonging to the genus Vaccinium vary from very 
small shrubs to tree-like shrubs and the fruit is an inferior. 
5-locular berry with numerous seeds. The blueberries or bilber- 
ries (whortleberries) are the fruits of several species of Vacci- 
nium. The low bush blueberry (V. pennsyhanicum) yields the 
berries which ripen in June and July, while the high bush blue- 
berry (V. corymbosum) furnishes the fruits which are found in 
the market in July and August. 

The bilberry of Europe, Vaccinium Myrtillus, a plant growing 
in Northern Europe and Asia and the Western United States and 
Canada, is said to destroy Bacillus typhosus and B. Coli, an 
infusion of the dried berries being used for this purpose. The 
leaves of this plant contain ericolin and kinic acid. 

Cranberry is the fruit of several species of Vaccinium which 
are sometimes grouped in a separate genus, Oxycoccus. There 
are two principal species : The large or American Cranberry ( V. 
macro car pum) in which the berries are ovoid or oblong and the 


small or European Cranberry (V. Oxycoccus) in which the ber- 
ries are globose. The berries contain from 1.4 to 2.8 per cent, 
of citric acid ; and a bitter glucoside, oxycoccin. 


This order includes three families which are chiefly indig- 
enous to the Tropics. The leaves are alternate, and the flowers 
vary in the different families, the fruit being a berry or drupe. 

usually have a milky latex, and many of them yield gutta- 
percha, of which the following may be mentioned : Palaqiiium 
Giitta, P. ohlongifolium, P. horneense and P. Trenbii, all growing 
in the East Indies. The latex is obtained by incising the trees 
and collecting the exuding juice in suitable vessels. It soon coag- 
ulates and forms grayish or reddish-yellow hard masses, which 
are plastic at 65 to 70 C. Owing to the fact that the material 
is plastic when heated and firm and tenacious when cold, it is 
used for a variety of purposes, as in the manufacture of surgical 
instruments and as a material for filling teeth. Gutta-percha as 
it exudes from the tree is supposed to consist of a terpene-like 
hydrocarbon, which on coagulation is oxidized, forming a number 
of resinous compounds. The plants of other genera of this family 
also yield gutta-percha, as Mimusops Balata, M. Elcngi and about 
fifteen species of Payena growing in the East Indies. 

Gum Balata is obtained from Mimusops Balata, a tree of 
Guiana. The gum is more resinous and flexible than gutta- 
percha. It contains /3-amyrin acetate and probably lupeol acetate. 

A gum resembling gutta-percha is obtained from the Sabodilla 
tree (Achras Sapota). This gum is known in commerce as Gum 
chicle and is obtained from Yucatan. It is whitish, brittle, and 
yet somewhat elastic, aromatic, and contains 45 per cent, of a 
colorless crystallizable resin, soluble in alcohol and ether; and 18 
per cent, of caoutchouc. It is used in large quantities in the mak- 
ing of chewing gum. 

The seeds of Illipc butyracea yield a fixed oil which is known 
as VEGETABLE BUTTER. A fixed oil is also obtained from other 
species of Tllipe as well as various species of Bassia, Argania and 


Butyrospermum, that from the latter being known as " shea 

The family is notable on account of the hard woods, known as 
Ironwoods, which it furnishes, these being yielded by Mimnsops 
Kauki of Farther India and tropical Australia and Argaiiia Sidc- 
roxylon of Southwestern Morocco. 

A number of species also yield highly prized edible fruits, as 
the Sapotilla yielded by Achras Sapota indigenous to the Antil- 
les and cultivated in tropical countries, and Star apple yielded 
by Chrysophyllum Cainito of tropical America. 

b. EBENACE^ OR EBONY FAMILY. The plants differ 
from those of the preceding family in not containing a latex. 
The flowers are monoecious or dicecious and they usually have 
from two to eight styles. The chief interest is in the genus 
Diospxros, which yields the wood known as ebony. Black ebony 
is obtained from various species of Diospyros growing in tropical 
Africa, and Asia, and the Philippine Islands. White ebony is 
obtained from several species of Diospyros growing in the Philip- 
pines. A red ebony is obtained from D. rubra of Mauritius, a 
green ebony from D. cliloroxyloii of Farther India, and a striped 
ebony from several species growing in the Philippines. 

Persimmon fruit is obtained from Diospyros virginiana, a 
tree growing from Rhode Island south to Texas. The astrin- 
gency of the unripe fruit is due to the tannin which it contains. 
When it is ripe, which is not until after the appearance of frost, 
it is palatable and contains considerable malic acid and sugars. 
The Japanese persimmon is a cultivated variety of D. Kaki and 
produces a large orange-colored fruit which is not uncommon in 
the fruit markets in many parts of the world. At the present 
time the plant is cultivated in California. 

The bark of our native persimmon is used in medicine. It 
contains considerable tannin which resembles gallotannic acid, 
and a crystalline resinous principle with a peculiar odor and 
slightly astringent taste. 

c. STYRACE.E OR STORAX FAMILY. The flowers of 
this family somewhat resemble those of the Ebenacese. but the 
filaments of the stamens are united in a single series, and there 
is a single slender style. 


Styrax Benzoin is a medium-sized tree with long, ovate, 
acuminate leaves which are very hairy on the under surface. The 
flowers occur in terminal racemes, and are silvery white on the 
outer surface and reddish-brown on the inner surface. The bal- 
samic resin yielded by this plant is official as benzoin (p. 672). 


The plants of this order have opposite leaves, the flowers are 
regular and the gynascium consists of two separate carpels. The 
order includes five families all of which furnish medicinal plants. 

a. OLEACE^ OR OLIVE FAMILY. This family is 
chiefly of interest because of the olive and manna trees. 

The olive tree {Olea europcea) is indigenous to the Orient and 
is now cultivated extensively in Southern Europe, Northern 
Africa, the islands of the Mediterranean, tropical America, 
including the Southern United States, and in California. The 
leaves are narrow-lanceolate, entire, coriaceous and evergreen. 
The flowers are small, white, diandrous and in axillary racemes. 
The fruit is a drupe, the sarcocarp of which is rich in a fixed 
oil known as olive oil. The oil is obtained by expression, and 
is official. Depending upon the character of the fruits and 
the amount of oil which they yield, over forty varieties are recog- 
nized. The fresh green olives contain a glucoside oleuropein. 
which disappears on the maturation of the fruit. 

Fraximis Ornus is a tree resembling the ash, with 7-foliate 
leaves, and polygamous flowers occurring in compound racemes. 
The fruit is a flat samara with the wing at the apex. The sac- 
charine exudation from this plant is official as manna (p. 649). 

The white ash (Fraxinus aincricana) is a valuable tree on 
account of the timber which it yields. The bark contains a bitter 
glucoside, fraxin, the solutions of which are fluorescent; a bitter 
substance, fraxetin ; an ethereal oil of a butter-like consistency, and 
tannin. Some of these principles are also found in other species 
of Fraxinus growing in the United States and Europe. 

The bark of the fringe tree (Chionanthus virginica) of the 
Southern United States, contains an intensely bitter glucosidal 
principle, chionanthin, and possibly also saponin. 



The leaves of the garden Hlac (Syringa vulgaris) contain a 
crystalHne ghicoside, syringin. and syringopicrin, both of which 

Fig. 172. Carolina pink iSpigelia marilandica') showing the rhizome bearing two 
branches with opposite leaves and flowers in terminal scorpioid cymes. 

are probably also found in other species of Syringa as well as 
the bark and leaves of privet (Ligitsfrnin vtilgare) which latter 
plant is extensively used for hedges. 


are variable in character, being herbs, shrubs, trees or vines. 

Yellow jessamine {Gclsemium scmpcrvircns) is a twining 
woody vine, sometimes trailing on the ground for a considerable 
distance. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate and evergreen. The 
flowers are bright yellow and dimorphic. The fruit is a septi- 
cidally dehiscent capsule. The rhizome and roots are official 
(p. 480). 

Carolina pink {Spigelia marilandica) is a perennial herb with 
ovate-lanceolate, more or less acute and nearly sessile leaves. The 
flowers are yellow on the inner and scarlet on the outer surface, 
and occur in a i -sided spike or scorpioid cyme. The fruit is a 
circumscissile, 2-valved capsule (Fig. 172). The rhizome and 
roots are official (p. 503). 

Strychnos Nitx-voinica is a small tree with broadly elliptical. 
3- to 5-nerved, reticulately-veined, somewhat acuminate, cori- 
aceous leaves. The flowers are whitish and in terminal cymes. 
The fruit is a berry of varying size and contains several seeds, 
the seeds being official (p. 436). 

Curare which is used by the Indians of South America as 
an arrow-poison is supposed to be made from the bark of Strych- 
nos toxifcra growing in Guiana, and probably other species of 
this genus. The active principle of this poison is the alkaloid 
curarine, which when administered hypodermically has a powerful 
action resembling that of digitalis. 

plants are mostly herbs with regular, perfect, showy flowers occur- 
ring usually in small cymes or racemes. 

Yellow gentian {Gcntiana lutea) is a large, perennial herb 
(Fig. 209) with large, 5- to 7-nerved, broadly elliptical leaves. 
The flowers are yellow and occur in axillary cymes. The fruit is a 
2-valved, ovoid capsule. The rhizome and roots are official (p. 483). 

Sweertia Chirata. The entire plant is official (p. 637). 

Herba Centaurii minoris, the entire plant of Erythrcra Ccn- 
taurcum of Europe, contains a glucoside, erytaurin, which forms 
small colorless prismatic and bitter crystals and is slowly hydro- 
lyzed by emulsin. Sabbatia Elliottii occurring in the pine barrens 
of the Southern States is known as the " quinine herb." 


vary from perennial herbs to shrubs and trees, contain an acrid 
latex, and have flowers with the stigmas and styles united and the 
stamens distinct. They are mostly found in the Tropics. 

Apocyiiiim cannabiiniiii is a perennial herb with erect or 
ascending branches. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, opposite, 
nearly sessile or with short petioles (Fig. 201, C, D). The flowers 
are greenish-white, the lobes of the corolla being nearly er^ct and 
the tube about as long as the calyx. The fruit is a slender, terete 
follicle containing numerous seeds tipped at the micropylar end 
with a tuft of hairs. The root is official (p. 467). 

The root of a closely related species, namely, spreading dog- 
bane {Apocynuin androsamifoliiim) is sometimes substituted for 
the official drug. The plant is distinguished by being more 
spreading in its habit. The leaves are ovate (Fig. 201, A, B), 
the flowers are pinkish, the lobes being revolute and the tube 
several times as long as the calyx. 

Strophanthus Kornbe. The plant is a woody climber w'ith 
elliptical-acuminate, hairy leaves. The flowers are fev/, character- 
ized by long styles, and occur in axillary racemes. The fruit con- 
sists of two long follicles containing numerous awned seeds (Fig. 
185), which are official (p. 430). In the closely related plant S. 
hispidus the flowers are numerous and occur in terminal cymes. 

Quebracho or Aspidosperma is the bark of Aspidosperma 
Qnebracho-hlaiico, a tree growing in Argentine. It occurs in 
nearly flat pieces which are i to 3 cm. thick ; the outer, surface 
is yellowish-gray and deeply fissured, the inner bark being very 
hard and tough. It is aromatic and bitter and contains six alka- 
loids, all of which are present in the commercial aspidospermine. 
They are aspidospermine, which is colored brown, then cherry- 
red or purplish by sulphuric acid and potassium dichromate ; 
aspidosamine, which is colored blue by sulphuric acid and potas- 
sium dichromate ; aspidospermatine, which is colored deep red 
by perchloric acid like the two preceding alkaloids, but not by 
sulphuric acid and potassium dichromate ; quebrachine, wdiich is 
colored yellow by perchloric acid ; and quebrachinamine, which 
resembles quebrachine but has a much lower melting point. The 
bark is used for tanning leather and yields a commercial extract. 



The leaves and bark of the cultivated oleander {Ncri]iui Olean- 
der) contain the glucoside oleandrin, resembling digitalin in its ac- 
tion ; a fluorescent principle, and probably several other principles. 

Fig. 173. A, cells of endosperm of the seed of the date palm {Phanix dactylifera) , the 
one normal and the other showing the stratification of the wall after treatment with 

B, cell of endosperm of PhytelepJtas macrocarpa (vegetable ivory) showing lamellation 
and spherite structure in the wall after treatment with chlor-zinc-iodide, clove oil, chromic 
acid or certain other reagents. 

C, cell of endosperm of Strychnos Nux-vomica after treatment with iodine and potas- 
sium iodide solution. 

D, opposite pores in the walls in contiguous cells of vegetable ivory showing striae 
between them after treatment with iodine solution. 

The common periwinkle {Vinca minor) contains the principle 
vincin which is supposed to be a glucoside and which probably 
occurs in other species of Vinca. 


plants somewhat resemble those of the Apocynaceae. The flower, 
however, is distinguished by having distinct styles, a 5-lobed 
corona connecting the corolla and stamens, which latter are mostly 
monadelphous, and pollen grains that are coherent, forming char- 
acteristic pairs of pollinia. It may be noted that while this 
family contains a large number of plants that are used in medicine 
none of them are ofiicial. Pleurisy root, which was formerly 
ofificial, is obtained from Asclepias tuberosa, a plant growing in 
the Eastern United States and one of the two members of this 
genus that have orange-colored flowers. The root is more or less 
fusiform, wrinkled, about i or 2 cm. thick, and is usually cut into 
longitudinal pieces. In the dried condition it is light brown exter- 
nally, more or less irregular, with a tough fracture and a bitter, 
slightly acrid taste. The active principle is the glucoside asclepia- 
din. A similar principle is found in the root of other species of 

CoNDURANGO is the bark of Marsdenia Cundurango, a liane of 
Ecuador and Columbia. It occurs in quilled pieces, the bark being 
from 2 to 6 mm. thick. Externally it is brownish-gray and with 
a more or less scaly cork. The taste is bitter, acrid and aromatic. 
The drug contains an amorphous glucoside ; an unsaturated alco- 
hol occurring in large prisms; and a volatile oil (0.3 per cent.). 


This is a large order of plants, which are mostly herbaceous. 
The leaves are either opposite or alternate ; the flowers are reg- 
ular or irregular, the stamens being usually adnate to the corolla. 

ILY. The plants are mostly herbs or shrubs, frequently twining 
(to the left). They are found mostly in the Tropics, but quite a 
number of genera occur in temperate regions (Fig. 174). 

Exogonium Ptirga is a perennial twining herb with distinctly 
veined, cordate leaves ; purple flowers with the stamens exserted, 
and occurring in cymes. The fruit is a 2-locular capsule. The 
plants produce slender rhizomes with tuber-like roots, these being 
used in medicine (p. 451). 



Convolvulus Scammonia is a perennial twining herb, with a 
large tap root, containing a resinous latex, and is the source of 
the ofificial scammony (p. 656). The leaves are sagittate; the 
flowers are large, yellowish-white and funnel-form, as in the 
morning-glory, and occur in the axils of the leaves, either solitary 
or in clusters. The fruit is a 4-seeded, 4-locular, dehiscent capsule. 

Fig. 174. Great bind weed (Convolvulus sepium) showing trailing or twining habit, 
the hastate leaves and funnel-shaped corolla. The plant is very resistant to noxious fumes 
and is usually found in smelter regions. 

A number of the plants of the Convolvulacese are cultivated, 
probably the most important of which is the sweet potato vine 
(Ipoiiia-a Batatas), a plant extensively cultivated in tropical and 
sub-tropical countries on account of the edible tuberous roots. 
The roots contain from 3 to 10 per cent, of sugar and 9 to 15 per 
cent, of starch, which occurs in larger proportion in plants grown 
in sub-tropical countries. The starch is a commercial product 
and is kiwwn as sweet-potato starch or Brazilian arrow-root. 


The grains are more or less bell-shaped and 2- or 3-compound, 
about the size of wheat-starch grains, and in other ways resemble 
those of tapioca. 

To this family also belongs rather an interesting group of 
parasitic plants, namely, dodder (Cuscuta). They contain the 
principle cuscutin, and quite a number have been used in medicine. 

The plants are herbs or shrubs which are indigenous to Western 
North America. Very few of the plants of this family are of 
use medicinally, although quite a number are ornamental plants. 

Eriodictyon calif ornicnui (. ghitinosuin) or Yerba Santa 
is a shrub growing in Northern Mexico and California. The 
leaves are official (p. 612). The flowers are funnel-form, white 
or purple, occurring in cymes. The fruit is a dehiscent capsule 
and the seeds are small and few. 

are mostly herbs with regular blue flowers, occurring in scor- 
pioid inflorescence. The best examples of the group are the 
forget-me-not {Myosotis), the roots of several species of which 
have been used in medicine; and the garden heliotrope (Hclio- 
tropiiJii pcntz'iamtiii) , the fragrance of the flowers being due to a 
volatile oil. This plant, as well as other species of Heliotropum, 
contains a poisonous volatile alkaloid. 

At one time considerable interest attached to alkanet, the root 
of Alkanna tinctoria of Southern Europe and Asia, on account 
of the red coloring principle alkannin, which is soluble in alcohol, 
ether, fixed and ethereal oils, but insoluble in water. Comfrey 
or SYMPHYTUiM IS the root of Symphytum officinale and other 
species of this genus naturalized from Europe in waste places in 
the L^nited States. It occurs on the market' in small, purplish- 
black, more or less curved pieces, which are quite mucilaginous and 
astringent to the taste. The drug contains a gluco-alkaloid, con- 
solidin, and an alkaloid, cynoglossine. It also contains a small 
amount of dextrin-starch, i.e., one v/hich is not colored blue with 
iodine, and tannin. The root and herb of hound's tongue {Cyno- 
glossum officinale) are both used in medicine. The drug contains 
the powerful alkaloid cynoglossine, which resembles curarine in 
its action ; and the gluco-alkaloid, consolidin. 


are chiefly herbs or shrubs with usually opposite or verticillate 
leaves and more or less irregular flowers. 

To this family belongs the group of verbenas, some of which 
are used in medicine, as blue vervain (Verbena hastata), which 
resembles eupatorium in its medicinal properties ; nettle-leaved 
vervain {V. urtici folia) which contains a bitter glucoside. The 
drug LiPPiA MEXiCANA consists of the leaves of Lippia diilcis 
mexicana, and contains a volatile oil, the camphor lippiol, tannin 
and quercetin. Lippia citriodora, found growing in the central 
part of South America, contains a volatile oil, of which citral is 
a constituent. Teak-wood, which is one of the hardest and most 
valuable of woods, is derived from the teak tree ( Tectona 
grandis) , a large tree indigenous to Farther India and the East 

e. LABIATE OR MINT FAMILY. The plants are mostly 
aromatic herbs or shrubs, with square stems, simple, opposite 
leaves, bilabiate flowers and a fruit consisting of four nutlets. 
The calyx is persistent, regular or 2-lipped and mostly nerved. 
The corolla is mostly 2-lipped, the upper lip being 2-lobed or 
entire, and the lower mostly 3-lobed. The stamens are adnate 
to the corolla tube, and are either 4 and didynamous, or 2 per- 
fect and 2 aborted. The ovary is deeply 4-lobed (Fig. 134, /). 

The Labiatse are especially distinguished on account of the 
volatile oils which they yield and a few contain bitter or glucosidal 

I. The following plants are official: 

Scutellaria lateriflora (skullcap). The entire plant is official. 
(See page 638.) The plant is a perennial herb producing slender 
stolons somewhat resembling those of peppermint and spearmint. 
The stems are erect or ascending, commonly branching and from 
22 to 55 cm. high. 

Marrnhium vidgare (white hoarhound) is a perennial woolly 
herb with ascending branches, the leaves and flowering tops being 
official (p. 628). 

Salvia officinalis or garden sage is a perennial, somewhat 
shrubby, pubescent herb. The leaves are official (p. 612). The 
flowers are bluish, somewhat variegated, the calyx and corolla 



both being deeply bilabiate. Only the two anterior stamens are 
fertile (bear anthers) ; the connective is transverse, the upper 

Fig. 175. Peppermint (Mentha piperita): B, portion of shoot showing petiolate leaves; 
C. transverse section of leaf showing several forms of glandular hairs on lower surface, 
loose parenchyma (m) and palisade cells (p) ; D, lower surface of leaf showing stoma (s) and 
glandular hair (g). Spearmint (Mentha spicata): A. portion of shoot showing flowers and 
nearly sessile leaves; E, flower; F, outspread corolla showing cleft posterior lobe (p) and 
the four adnate. included stamens; G, H. hairs from calyx; I, sphere crystals (spheerites) of 
a carbohydrate found in the corolla and style; J, pollen grains. 

end bearing a perfect pollen-sac and the lower, a somewhat 
enlarged rudimentary pollen-sac (Fig. 84, F). 

Hcdcoma pulegioides (American pennyroyal) (see p. 628). 


Mentha species. The plants are nearly glabrous, diffusely 
branching herbs, which form leafy stolons that are perennial 
(Fig. 175). The leaves and flowering tops of both Mentha 
piperita (p. 631) and Mentha spicata (p. 632) are official. 

2. Volatile oils of the following plants are official : 
Rosmarinus officinalis is a shrub growing in the Mediterranean 

countries. The plant has linear, coriaceous leaves, and bluish, bila- 
biate flowers, the middle lobe of the lower lip of the corolla being 
large, concave, and toothed on the margin. The flowering tops 
yield from i to 1.5 per cent, of oil which is composed of 15 to 18 
per cent, of borneol ; about 5 per cent, of bornyl acetate ; and 
pinene, camphene, camphor and cinneol. There are two commer- 
cial varieties of the oil, the Italian and French, the latter having 
the finer odor. 

Lavandula officinalis (garden lavender) is a shrub growing in 
the Northern Mediterranean countries, as well as in England. The 
leaves are linear, coriaceous ; the flowers are small, light blue, 
bilabiate, with a tubular calyx, and occur in opposite cymes 

The oil is derived from the fresh flowering tops, the flowers 
yielding about 0.5 per cent. Two kinds of oil are on the market, 
namely, French and English. The French oil contains 30 to 45 
per cent, of 1-linalyl acetate ; linalool ; geraniol, both of which 
latter constituents occur free and as esters. The English oil con- 
tains about 5 to 10 per cent, of linalyl acetate and a slight amount 
of cineol. Spike lavender (Lazmndula spica) is sometimes dis- 
tilled with true lavender (p. 371). 

Thvinns I'lilgaris (garden thyme) is a small shrub having 
linear or linear-lanceolate leaves, and pale blue flowers with 
strongly bilabiate, hairy calyx that occur in axillary cymes. The 
plant grows in the mountains of Southern France. The herb 
contains from 0.3 to 0.9 per cent, of volatile oil, which is of a 
dark reddish-brown color, and contains from 20 to 25 per cent, of 
thymol ; and cymene, 1-pinene, borneol and linalool. The Spanish 
oil of thyme contains from 50 to 70 per cent, of carvacrol. but no 

3. Of OTHER plants OF THE LABIATE which are of interest, 
the following may be mentioned : 


Lavandula spica yields oil of spike, which has an odor of 
lavender and rosemary. The oil contains camphor, borneol, cineol, 
linalool and camphene, 

Origaiiuui ijiajoraiia (Sweet marjoram) is an annual culti- 
vated herb that has more or less oval, entire leaves, white flowers 
and an aromatic odor and taste. It produces a volatile oil which 
contains terpinene and d-terpineol. Origanum vulgare (Wild mar- 
joram) grows in fields and waste places in the Eastern United 
States and Canada. The calyx is equally 5-toothed and the 
corolla varies from white to pink or purple. It contains a volatile 
oil having an odor somewhat like that of the oil of O. majorana. 
Origanum liirfum and O. Onites yield an origanum oil containing 
carvacrol and cymene. The oils obtained from Cretian Origanum 
are the source of commercial carvacrol. 

Pogosfemon Patchouli, a plant cultivated in Southern China 
and the East and West Indies, furnishes the oil of patchouli 
used in perfumery. Patchouly camphor and cadinene have been 
isolated from the oil, but nothing, however, appears to be known 
of the nature of the odorous principle. 

Hyssopus officinalis (Garden hyssop) contains about 0.5 per 
cent, of a volatile oil to which the characteristic odor of the plant 
is due. Saturcja hortensis (summer savory) yields a volatile oil 
containing carvacrol, cymene and terpene. Ocimum basiltcum 
(Sweet basil) is an herb growing in Europe, and yields an oil 
which is used in the preparation of Chartreuse and similar liquors. 
The oil contains methyl chavicol, linalool, cineol, camphor, pinene 
and terpin hydrate. 

Melissa officinalis (Sweet balm) is a perennial herb indigenous 
to Europe and Asia and also cultivated. The leaves are ovate, 
dentate, and the flowers are bilabiate, the calyx being bell-shaped 
and 13-nerved. The taste is bitter, this being due to a bitter 
principle. The fresh leaves are quite aromatic and produce from 
0.1 to 0.25 per cent, of a volatile oil containing a stearoptene. 

Several species of Monarda known as itorsemint or wild 
bergamot are used in medicine. The oil was at one time official. 
The oil of Monarda punctata, a perennial herb found growing 
from New York to Texas, contains thymol, thymoquinone, hydro- 
thymoquinone, carvacrol, cymene and limonene. 


Ncpcta Cataria (catnip) is a perennial herb naturalized in 
the United States from Europe (Fig. 74). It contains a bitter 
principle, tannin, and an oxygenated volatile oil. Glecoma hede- 
racea or ground ivy is a creeping perennial herb with blue bilabi- 
ate flowers and reniform, crenate leaves. It contains a bitter 
principle and volatile oil. Cunila origanoides or American 
DITTANY, is a small perennial herb growing from New York to 
Florida, and characterized by its pungent aromatic properties. 

Lcominis Cardiaca or motherwort is a perennial herb nat- 
uralized in the United States and Canada from Europe. The 
leaves are 3-lobed ; the calyx is 5-nerved and with 5 prickly 
teeth ; the corolla varies from white to pink or purple. The plant 
contains a volatile oil of rather an unpleasant odor ; a bitter prin- 
ciple ; two resins and several organic acids, namely, malic, citric 
and tartaric. 

includes herbs, shrubs, trees and vines, which are most abundant 
in tropical regions. The leaves are alternate and vary from entire 
to dissected. The flowers are mostly regular, except in hyos- 
cyamus. The stamens are adnate to the corolla tube, the anthers 
connivent and the pollen-sacs apically or longitudinally dehiscent. 
The fruit is a berry or capsule in which the sepals mostly persist 
and sometijnes become enlarged or inflated. The seeds have a 
large reserve layer and the embryo is frequently curved. 

Datura Stramonium (Jimson weed) is a large, annual, branch- 
ing herb (Fig. 269), found in waste places in the United States 
and parts of Canada, being naturalized from Asia. The leaves 
and flowering tops are official (p. 622). The large, spiny capsule 
is shown at Fig. 89, B. The seeds are described on page 624. 

Atropa Belladonna (Deadly nightshade) is a perennial herb 
producing a large fleshy root, which is used in medicine (p. 463), 
as are also the leaves and flowering tops (Fig. 268, p. 620). 

ScopoUa caniioUca is a perennial herb with nearly entire or 
somew^hat irregularly toothed leaves. The flowers are campan- 
ulate and dark purple. The fruit is a globular, transversely 
dehiscent capsule (pyxidium). The rhizome is official (p. 509). 

Hyoscyamus nigcr or henbane is a biennial herb (Fig. 26y), 
the leaves and flowering tops of which are official (p. 617). 



Pichi is the dried leafy twigs of Fahiana inihricata, a shrub 
with small, scale-like leaves, indigenous to Chile. It contains a 
volatile oil; o.i per cent, of a bitter alkaloid; a glucoside resem- 
bling sesculin ; and a bitter resin. 

Solanum Dulcamara (Bitter sweet) is a perennial, climbing 
herbaceous plant, indigenous to Europe and Asia and naturalized 

A ^.^^ E 


Q O 

Fig. 175 a. Scopola {Scopolia carnioUca); A. rhizome showing prominent stem scars; 
B, longitudinal section showing reticulate tracheae, parenchyma cells containing starch and 
one with sohenoidal micro- crystals of calcium oxalate; C. individual crystals which sepa- 
rate from sections or in the powder, the single crystals being from 5 to lo m in diameter and 
the aggregates being 15 <i in diam.eter; D. isolated starch grains, which are s to 20 m in diam- 
eter; E, field showing starch grains and crystals of calcium oxalate under polarized light. 

in the Northern United States. The branches which have begun 
to develop periderm are collected, and were formerly official as 
Dulcamara. They are cut into pieces lo to 20 mm. long which 
are greenish-brown, hollow, with a sweetish, bitter taste and con- 
tain a glucoside, dulcamarin, and the gluco-alkaloid solanine. 


Solanuni carolinense (Horse nettle) is a perennial herb having 
numerous yellow prickles on the branches and leaves. The leaves 
are oblong or ovate, irregularly lobed (Fig. 176). The flowers 

Fig. 176. Horse nettle (Solanum carolinense'): A, portion of shoot showing flowers 
and fruits and spines on leaves and stem; B. longitudinal section of spine (s) and portion 
of stem showing glandular (g) and non-glandular (h) hairs, and cells containing crypto- 
crystalline crystals (ca) ; C, thick-walled, strongly lignified cells of spine; D, portion of 
fibrovascular bundle showing cryptocrystalline crystals (ca) of calcium oxalate in the cells 
accompanying the sieve; E, stellate, non-glandular hair; F, stoma of stem; G, diagram of 
cross section of flower showing sepals (s), petals (p), stamens (a), ovary (c) ; H, longitudinal 
section of flower; I, stamen showing terminal pores; J, cross section of 2-locular berry; 
K, pollen grains, 30 y- in diameter. 

are white or light blue and occur in lateral cymes. The fruit is 
an orange-yellow, glabrous berry. The plant is common in waste 
places in Canada and the United States east of the Mississippi. 


The root and berries are used in medicine. The root is simple 
and quite long, 5 to 10 mm. in diameter, yellowish-brown, the 
bark readily separating from the wood. It has a narcotic odor 
and a sweetish, bitter, somewhat acrid taste. Both the root and 
berries contain the gluco-alkaloid solanine, which varies' from 0.15 
(in the root) to 0.8 per cent, (in the berries). 

Capsicum fastigiafinii (Cayenne pepper) is a perennial, 
smooth, herbaceous, or somewhat shrubby plant, with ovate, acu- 
minate, petiolate, entire leaves ; the flowers are greenish-white, 
and solitary in the axils of the leaves. The fruit is official and is 
known in commerce as African pepper (p. 578). This plant 
and a number of other species of Capsicum are indigenous to trop- 
ical America, where they are extensively cultivated, as also in 
Africa and India. 

Nicotiana Tabacnm (Virginia Tobacco plant) is a tall annual 
herb indigenous to tropical America and widely cultivated. The stem 
is simple, giving rise to large, pubescent, ovate, entire, decurrent 
leaves, the veins of which are prominent and more or less hairy. The 
flowers are long, tubular, pink or reddish, and occur in terminal 
spreading cymes. The various forms of tobacco are made 
from the leaves, which are hung in barns, whereby they 
undergo a slow drying or process of curing. Other species of 
Nicotiana are also cultivated, as A^ pcrsica, which yields Persian 
tobacco ; and ^V. nistica, the source of Turkey tobacco. Tobacco 
leaves contain from 0.6 to 9 per cent, of the alkaloid nicotine ; an 
aromatic principle nicotianin or tobacco camphor, to which the 
characteristic flavor is due and which is formed during the curing 
of the leaves. The dried leaves yield from 14 to 15 per cent, of 
ash, consisting in large part of potassium nitrate. 

Solanuvi tiibcrosuni (Potato plant) is indigenous to the Andes 
region of South America and is extensively cultivated on account 
of the edible tubers. The tubers (potatoes) contain about 75 per 
cent, of water, 20 per cent, of starch, and nearly 2 per cent, of 
proteins in the form of large protein crystalloids. The fruits and 
young shoots contain the gluco-alkaloid solanine and the alkaloid 
solanidine. The tubers contain a small amount of solanine, which 
is increased when they are attacked by certain fungi or exposed 
to light. 


Besides the potato plant, several other plants belonging to the 
Solanacege yield vegetables, as the Tomato plant {Solanum Lyco- 
pcrsicnm) and the Egg plant (Solanum Melongena). Various 
cultivated species of Capsicum annuum furnish the common red 
peppers of the market. 

The plants are herbs, shrubs or trees with opposite or alternate 
leaves and perfect, mostly complete and irregular flowers. The 
corolla and stamens show some resemblance to those of the Labi- 
ata; in that the corolla is frequently more or less 2-lipped and the 
stamens are didynamous. The fruit is a dehiscent capsule and 
the seeds have a reserve layer and a straight or slightly curved 

Lcptandra virginica {Veronica virginica) or Culver's root, is 
a perennial herb with leaves in whorls of 3 to 9, those on the upper 
part of the stem being opposite. They are lanceolate, serrate, 
and pinnately veined; the flowers are white or bluish, tubular, and 
in dense racemes. The rhizome and roots are ofificial (p. 501). 

Digitalis purpurea (Foxglove) is a tall, biennial, pubescent 
herb, producing the first year a large number of basal leaves 
(Fig. 265), and the second, a long raceme of drooping, tubular, 
slightly irregular, purplish flowers ; the inner surface of the 
corolla is spotted, the stamens are didynamous and the upper 
calyx segment is narrower than the others. The leaves are official 
in all the pharmacopoeias (p. 613). 

The Scrophulariaceae are well represented in the United States, 
and a number of the plants have medicinal properties. The 
common mullein (Verbascuni Thapsus) contains a volatile oil, 
two resins and a bitter principle. The flowers of mullein contain 
the same principles and in addition a yellow coloring principle. 
Other species of Verbascum are used in medicine in different 
parts of the world. 

BuTTER-AND-EGGS (Li)iaria -iiiJgaris) contains a crystalline 
principle, linariin, antirrhinic acid, a volatile oil, resin and tannin. 
Several species of Scrophularia, as .S. nodosa of Europe and 6". 
marilandica of the Eastern United States, contain a pungent 
resin and a trace of an alkaloid. Turtle-head (Chclonc glabra) 
contains a bitter principle and gallic acid. The entire plant of 


HYSSOP (Gratiola ofHcinalis) of Europe contains gratiolin, a bitter 
glucoside, and gratiosolin. The leaves of Curanga amara of the 
East Indies contain a glucoside, curanjiin, which resembles digi- 
talin in its action. 

ILY. The plants are shrubs, trees or woody vines, and are repre- 
sented in the United States by the catalpa tree (Catalpa bigiio- 
nioidcs) and the trumpet creeper {Tccoina radicans). The bark, 
pods and seeds of Catalpa have been used in medicine and con- 
tain a bitter principle, catalpin, a glucoside and several crystalline 
principles. The trumpet cre-Eper contains narcotic poisonous 
principles. The leaflets of Carooa {Jacaranda Copaia), and other 
species of Jacaranda contain the alkaloid carobine. an aromatic 
resin, carobone and a principle having the odor of coumarin. 

i. PEDALIACE^. The plants are herbs indigenous to the 
Tropics of the Old World, some of which are now cultivated in 
the Tropics of both hemispheres. Benne oil (oil of sesame) is 
obtained from the seeds of Sesamnm indicum by expression. It 
consists chiefly of a glycerite of oleic acid, a glycerite of linoleic 
acid, and myristin, palmitin and stearin. It is a bland, non-drying 
oil and is used like olive oil. 

plants are mostly tropical perennial herbs, or shrubs with opposite 
leaves, in the mesophyll or epidermal cells of which cystoliths 
usually occur (Fig. 221). Several genera are represented in 
the United States, one of which, Ruellia {Ruellia ciliosa), is the 
source of the spurious spigelia which has been on the market for 
some years past (p. 504). 

Ruellia ciliosa is a perennial herb which is distinguished from 
the other species of the genus Ruellia by the leaves, stems and 
calyx being distinctly pubescent. The leaves are ovate-lanceolate, 
nearly sessile and entire ; the flowers are blue, sessile, solitary, or 
two or three in a cluster, in the axils of the leaves ; the stamens are 
4, and exserted. The fruit is an oblong, terete capsule containing 
from 6 to 20 orbicular seeds. The plant is found from New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania to Michigan and as far south as Florida 
and Louisiana. Long cystoliths are found in some of the epi- 
dermal cells of both surfaces of the leaf. 


Quite a number of the plants of the Acanthacese are used in 
the Tropics in medicine. One of these, Adhatoda vasica of trop- 
ical Asia, contains the alkaloid vasicine, and is said to have the 
property of destroying algae which grow in the rice swamps. 

plants are annual or perennial herbs, represented by but few 
genera, but numerous species. The principal genus is Plantago, 
which includes 200 species that are widely distributed. Several 
species of Plantago are used in medicine. The common plantain 
{Plantago major) contains a glucoside. acubin ; emulsin ; and 
invertin, and the short rhizome, considerable starch. The seed- 
coat has an outer mucilaginous layer, and the mvicilage of the 
seeds of Plantago psyllium, P. arenaria (both of Europe) and 
P. ispaghul (of the East Indies) is used as a sizing material. 
The seeds of a number of the species of Plantago are used as 
bird food, particularly for canaries, 


The plants of this order are distinguished from all of the 
preceding Sympetalae by having flowers which are distinctly 
epigynous. The leaves are opposite or verticillate. 

a. RUBIACE^ OR MADDER FAMILY. The plants are 
herbs, shrubs or trees, and of the representatives found in the 
United States the following may be mentioned: Bluets (Hous- 
tonia species). Partridge-berry {Mitchella rcpcns) and Bedstraw 
(Galium species). In Mitchella and Houstonia the flowers are 

Cinchona species. The plants are mostly trees, or rarely 
shrubs, with elliptical or lanceolate, entire, evergreen, petiolate, 
opposite leaves (Fig. 177). The flowers are tubular, rose-colored 
or yellowish- white, and occur in terminal racemes. The fruit is 
a capsule, which dehisces into two valves from below upward, 
the valves being held above bv the persistent calyx. The seeds 
are numerous and winged. There are from 30 to 40 species of 
Cinchona found growing in the Andes of South America at an 
elevation above 800 M. and in a restricted area about 500 miles 
in length extending from Venezuela to Bolivia. The plants are 



cultivated in Java, Ceylon, New Zealand and Australia, as well 
as in Jamaica. 

There are two species which furnish the Cinchona bark (p. 
517) of medicine : (i) Cinchona Ledgeriana (C. Calisaya Ledg- 
criana), which has small, elliptical, coriaceous leaves, the under 
surface of which is reddish ; small, yellowish, inodorous flowers, 
and a short capsule; (2) C. succiruhra which has large, thin, 
broadly-elliptical leaves, purplish-red calyx, rose-colored petals and 

Fig. 177. Cinchona Ledgeriana: A, flowering branch; B, bud and open flower* 
C, fruiting branch. After Schumann. 

a very long capsule. While C. Ledgeriana yields barks containing 
the highest amount of alkaloids, C. succiruhra is most cultivated. 
Uragoga (Cephaclis) Ipecacuanha. The plants are perennial 
herbs 10 to 20 cm. high, with a creeping, woody, hypogeous stem. 
The roots are official in all of the pharmacopoeias (p. 467). The 
leaves are elliptical, entire, short-petiolate. and with divided stip- 
ules (Fig. 178). The flowers are white and form small terminal 
heads. The fruit is a blue berry, with characteristic spiral 
arrangement of the carpels. 



Coffca arabica is a small evergreen tree or shrub with lanceo- 
late, acuminate, entire, slightly coriaceous, dark green, short- 
petiolate leaves, which are partly united with the short inter- 
petiolar stipules at the base. The flowers are white, fragrant, and 
occur in axillary clusters. The fruit is a small, spherical or ellip- 

FiG. 178. Ipecac plant [Cephaelis (Uragoga) Ipecacuanha]: A, flowering shoot; B, 
flower in longitudinal section; C, fruit; D, fruit in transverse section; E.seed; F, annulate 
root. After Schumann. 

soidal drupe with two locules, each containing one seed, or coffee 
GRAIN. The coffee plant is indigenous to Abyssinia and other 
parts of Eastern Africa, and is widely cultivated in tropical coun- 
tries, notably in Java, Sumatra, Ceylon and Central and South 
America, particularly Brazil, over 600,000 tons being produced 


annually in the latter country. The yield of one tree is between 
I and 12 pounds. There are two methods of freeing the seeds 
from the parchment-like endocarp: In the one case the fruits 
are allowed to dry and are then broken ; in the other case, which 
is known as the wet method, the sarcocarp is removed by means 
of a machine, and the two seeds with the parchment-like endocarp 
are allowed to dry in such a manner as to undergo a fermentation, 
and after drying the endocarp is removed. Cofifee seeds contain 
from I to 2 per cent, of caffeine ; from 3 to 5 per cent, of tannin ; 
about 15 per cent, of glucose and dextrin ; 10 to 13 per cent, of a 
fatty oil consisting chiefly of olein and palmitin ; 10 to 13 per 
cent, of proteins ; and yield 4 to 7 per cent, of ash. The official 
caffeine is derived in part from coffee seeds. 

In the ROASTING of coffee there is a change in the physical 
character of the seeds, as well as a change in some of the constit- 
uents. The AROMA is supposed to be due to an oil known as 
coffeol, which is said to be a methyl ether of saligenin. 

YoHiMBi (Yohimbihi) bark is obtained from Corynanthe Yo- 
himbi, a tree growing in the Cameroon region of Africa. The 
pieces of bark are 25 cm. or more in length, 5 to 8 mm. thick, 
externally dark brown or grayish-brown, and somewhat bitter. 
Numerous bast fibers are present but no sclerotic cells. It yields 
4 alkaloids (0.3 to 1.5 per cent.), the principal one being yohim- 
bine (corymbine or corynine), which forms white prismatic 
needles, soluble in alcohol and almost insoluble in water, and on 
treatment with nitric acid becomes first deep green and then 
yellowish, changing to a cherry-red if followed with an alcoholic 
solution of potassium hydroxide (distinction from cocaine). 

A number of the Rubiacese contain valuable coloring prin- 
ciples, as the madder plant (Rubia tinctoriim) , which is a peren- 
nial herb occurring wild in Southern Europe and formerly culti- 
vated in France and Germany on account of the coloring principle 
in its roots. The root is known commercially as madder, and con- 
tains when fresh a yellow coloring principle, which on the drying 
of the root breaks up into several glucosides, one of which on 
further decomposition yields alizarin, the principle to which the 
red color of the dried root is due. At present alizarin is made 
artificially from anthracene, a coal-tar derivative. 

Morinda citrifolia, a shrub widely distributed in tropical coun- 


tries, contains a red coloring principle in the flowers and a yellow 
coloring principle in the roots, the latter being known as morindin 
and resembling the color principle in madder. 

The pulp of the fruit of Cape jasmine (Gardenia jasminoidcs) 
contains a yellow coloring principle resembling crocin, found in 

The stem and root barks of Button-bush {Cephalanthus occi- 
dcnfalis) common in swampy regions in the United States, are 
sometimes used in medicine. The barks contain a bitter glucoside, 
cephalanthin, and a tasteless glucoside which is fluorescent in solu- 
tion. MitchcUa repens contains a saponin-like body in the fruit 
and a tannin and bitter principle in the leaves. Quite a number of 
species of Galium (bedstraw) are used in medicine and for other 
purposes. A principle resembling glycyrrhizin is found in wild 
licorice {Galium circcccaus) , a perennial herb growing in dry 
woods in the United States, and also in Galium lanceolatum, which 
is found from Virginia northward to Ontario. The yellow bed- 
straw (Galium vcrum), naturalized from Europe, contains a milk- 
curdling ferment. 

The plants are perennial herbs, shrubs, trees, or woody climbers 
with opposite, simple or pinnately compound leaves. The flowers 
are perfect, epigynous, regular, or bilabiate, and arranged in 
corymbs. The fruit is a berry, drupe or capsule. They are mostly 
indigenous to the northern hemisphere. 

Vihiirnum prunifolium (Black haw) is a shrub or small tree 
25 cm. in diameter. The winter buds are acute and reddish- 
pubescent ; the leaves are ovate, elliptical, obtuse or acute at the 
apex, somewhat rounded at the base, finely serrulate, glabrous 
and short-petiolate (Fig. 179) ; the flowers are white and in 
nearly sessile cymes; the fruit is a small, oval, bluish-black, 
glaucous, inferior drupe. The root-bark is official (p. 525). 

Viburnum Opulus (Wild guelder-rose or cranberry-tree) is 
a shrub about half the height of V. prunifolium, with broadly 
ovate, deeply 3-lobed and coarsely dentate pubescent leaves. The 
flowers are white and in compound cymes, the outer being 
sterile and large and showy. Tlie fruit is a reddish, globular, 
very acid drupe. The bark is official (p. 532). The Snow-ball 



or guelder-rose of the gardens is a sterile variety of this species. 
Another variety {edule) is also cultivated on account of its edible 
fruits, particularly in Canada and the Northern United States. 
A number of species of Viburnum are rather common in 
various parts of the United States, as the Maple-leaved arrow- 

</^ -N, 




yf 1 M m^^^!^ ^^^^^^^^^ B^y iVHi 





\ U ^^^jSMjl, wfL T X. ^^^^L^^^J^^^^BflBF^^g 


Fig. 179- Fruiting branch of Viburnum prunifoliutn. 

wood (F. Acerifolium), which is a small shrub with deeply 
3-lobed, coarsely dentate leaves and small, nearly black drupes ; 
Arrow-wood (F. dentaUim), with broadly ovate, coarsely 
dentate leaves and blue drupes, which become nearly black 
when ripe; Soft-leaved arrow-wood {V. molle), which somewhat 


resembles V. dentatmn, but has larger leaves that are crenate 
or dentate and stellate-pubescent on the lower surface ; Larger 
withe-rod (F. nudum), having nearly entire leaves and a pink 
drupe, which becomes dark blue. 

Sambuciis canadensis (American elder) is a shrub growing 
in moist places in the United States as far west as Arizona and in 
Canada. The leaves are 5- to 7-foliate. the leaflets being ovate, 
elliptical, acuminate, sharply serrate and with a short stalk ; the 
flowers are small, white and in convex cymes. The fruit is a 
deep purple or black berry-like drupe. The dried flowers are used 
in medicine. They are about 5 mm. broad, with a 5-toothed, 
turbinate calyx, and a 5-lobed, rotate corolla, to which the 5 sta- 
mens are adnate. The odor is peculiar and the taste is mucil- 
aginous and somewhat aromatic and bitter. 

The active principles have not been determined, but are prob- 
ably similar to those of 5". nigra. The inner bark is also used in 
medicine and contains a volatile oil, a crystallizable resin and 
valerianic acid. It does not appear to contain either tannin or 
starch. The roots of elder contain a volatile principle somewhat 
resembling coniine. The pith consists chiefly of cellulose, is deli- 
cate in texture and has a variety of uses. 

The Black elder {Sambiicus nigra), which is a shrub com- 
mon in Europe, is characterized by narrower leaflets, a 3-locular 
ovary and black berries. The flowers are official in some of the 
European pharmacopceias. They contain about 0.4 per cent, of 
a greenish-yellow, semi-solid volatile oil, which when diluted has 
the odor of the flowers. They also contain an acrid resin. 

The Red-berried elder or mountain elder (S. puhcns) some- 
what resembles the common elder, but the stems are woody, and 
the younger branches have a reddish pith. The flowers are in 
paniculate cymes, and the fruits are scarlet or red. 

Other plants of the Caprifoliaceas are also used in medicine. 
Horse gentian {Triostcmn pcrfoUatnm), a perennial herb with 
connate-perfoliate leaves and small, orange-red, globular drupes, 
growing in Canada and the United States as far west as Kansas, 
furnishes the drug (rhizome) known as Wild ipecac or Trios- 
teum. The rhizome is yellowish-brown, somewhat branched, 
cylindrical, 10 to 20 cm. long, id to 15 mm. in diameter, with 


numerous cup-shaped stem-scars, and coarse, spreading roots ; 
it is rather hard and tough, and has a bitter, nauseous taste. 
Triosteum contains an emetic alkaloid, triosteine, and considerable 
starch. The seeds of Triosteum perfoliatum are sometimes roasted 
and employed like coffee, the plant being known as Wild coffee. 
The roots and stems of the following plants are sometimes 
employed: The Snowberry (Symphoricarpos racemosus) , the 
Bush honeysuckle {Dicrvilla Loniccra) and various species of 
Lonicera, these being also known as honeysuckles. 


The plants are mostly herbs with an. inferior ovary, which is 
either unilocular with a single pendulous ovule, or tri-locular 
with frequently but a single anatropous ovule. 

plants are herbs with opposite, exstipulate leaves, small, perfect, 
or polygamo-dioecious flowers, occurring in corymbs. The fruit 
is dry, indehiscent and akene-like. The calyx is persistent, becom- 
ing elongated and plumose, and resembling the pappus in the 

Valeriana ofUcinalis (Garden or Wild valerian) is a tall, peren- 
nial herb, more or less pubescent at the nodes. The leaves are 
mostly basal, pinnately parted into "seven or m.ore segments, 
which are lanceolate, entire or dentate. The flowers are white 
or pink and arranged in corymbed cymes. The calyx is much 
reduced, consisting of 5 to 15 pinnately branched teeth (pappus) ; 
the corolla is tubular, somewhat sac-like on one side, but not 
spurred as in other members of this family ; the stamens are 3 in 
number and adnate to the corolla tul)e ; the stigma is 3-lobed. The 
fruit is ovoid, glabrous, and with a conspicuous plumose pappus. 
The rhizome and roots are official (p. 504). 

The young leaves of several species of Valerianella are used 
as a salad and are cultivated like spinach, as the European corn- 
salad (V. olitoria), which is also cultivated to some extent in 
the L^nited States. 

are annual or perennial herbs, chiefly indigenous to the Old 



World. The flowers are arranged in heads on a common torus, 
resembling in some cases those of the Compositae. 

Some of the plants are used in medicine, as the roots, leaves, 
flowers and seeds of Fuller's teasel {Dipsaciis fullomim), the 
roots of Succisa pratcnsis of Europe, and several species of Scabi- 
osa and Cephalaria. The seeds of Ccplialaria syriaca w'hen ad- 
mixed with cereals give a bread that is dark in color and bitter. 
This family is, however, chiefly of interest on account of Fuller's 
teasel, which is a cultivated form of Dipsaciis ferox, indigenous 
to Southwestern Asia, the plant being cultivated in Europe and 
New York State. The elongated, globular heads, with their firm, 
spiny and hooked bra-cts, are used in the fulling of cloth. 


This order differs from the two preceding by having the 
anthers united into a tube (syngenesious). It includes three prin- 
cipal families, which are distinguished by differences in the char- 
acter of the androecium : (a) Cucurbitacese, in which there are 
three stamens, having not only the anthers united but the fila- 
ments also ( monadelphous ) ; (b) Campanulaceae, in which there 
are five stamens, both the filaments and anthers being united into 
a tube; (c) Compositae, in v/hich there are five stamens, but the 
anthers only are united, the filaments being separate (Fig. 82, A). 

are mostly annual, tendril-climbing or trailing herbs (Fig. 66), 
mainly indigenous to tropical regions. The leaves are alternate, 
being opposite the tendrils, petiolate, and entire, palmately lobed 
or dissected. The flowers are epigynous ; the petals are borne on 
the calyx tube and frequently are united (campanulate) ; the ovary 
is I- to 3-locular and with few or many anatropous ovules. The 
fruit is a pepo. which is indehiscent but may burst somewhat 

CitrnUits Colocynthis is a trailing herb with deeply lobed 
leaves. The flowers are yellow, axillary and moncecious, the 
staminate being with short filaments and glandular pistillodes 
(aborted pistils), and the pistillate having a 3-locular. globose 
ovarv and three short staminodes. The fruit is globular, 5 to 10 


cm. in diameter, smooth, greenish and mottled (Fig. 254). The 
fruit deprived of the epicarp (Fig. 254) is official (p. 583). 

Cucurbita Pepo (pumpkin-vine) is an extensively trailing 
hispid vine, with large, nearly entire, cordate leaves with long 
petioles. The tendrils are branching. The flowers are large, 
deep yellow and monoecious ; the staminate ones being in groups 
and the pistillate single. The fruit is a large, yellowish berry, 
sometimes weighing from 10 to 72 K. The seeds are numerous 
and are official as Pepo (p. 429). 

EchalUum Elatcrinm (Squirting cucumber) is a bristly-hairy, 
trailing perennial herb with thick, rough-hairy, cordate, some- 
what undulate leaves. The flowers are yellow, monoecious. The 
fruit is ellipsoidal, about 4 cm. long, rough-hairy or prickly, pend- 
ulous, and at maturity separates from the stalk, when the seeds 
are discharged upward through a basal pore. The plant is indig- 
enous to the European countries bordering the Mediterranean, 
the Caucasus region. Northern Africa and the Azores. The juice 
of the fruit yields the drug Elaterium, which is official in the 
British Pharmacopoeia. Elaterium yields 30 per cent, of the 
ELATERiN of the Pharmacopoeias. From the latter by fractional 
crystallization from 60 to 80 per cent, of a-elaterin. a Isevo-rota- 
tory crystalline substance is separated, which is completely devoid 
of purgative action ; and varying amounts of j8-elaterin, a dextro- 
rotatory crystalline compound which possesses a very high degree 
of physiological activity. (Power and Moore. Ph. Jour., 29, Oct. 
23, 1909, p. 501 ; and Proc. Chem. Soc, No. 362, 1909, p. 1985). 

Bryonia or bryony is the dried root of Bryonia alba (White 
bryony), a climbing herb indigenous to Southern Sweden, East- 
ern and Central Europe, including Southern Russia, and North- 
ern Persia (Fig. 66). Bryony occurs in the market in nearly 
circular disks, which are 2 to 10 cm. in diameter, 5 to 10 mm. 
thick, white or yellowish-white, with concentric zones of collateral 
fibrovascular bundles ; short, mealy fracture ; slight odor, and 
bitter, nauseous taste. The drug contains two bitter glucosides. 
bryonin and bryonidin ; two resinous principles and considerable 
starch. Bryonia dioica (Red bryony) also has medicinal prop- 
erties and is a source of the drug. B. dioica has red berries, while 
the fruit of B. alba is black. The latter plant is sometimes known 


as Black bryony, but this plant should not be confounded with 
Tamus communis (Fam. Dioscoreacese), of Southern Europe, 
the rhizome of which is known commercially as Black bryony. 

The fruits and seeds of various members of the Cucurbitaceae 
contain powerful drastic and anthelmintic principles. A number 
of the plants, however, are cultivated on account of the fruits, 
which are used as food, as the pumpkin already mentioned, the 
WATER MELON {Citrullus vulgaHs), indigenous to Southern Africa 
and cultivated in Egypt and the Orient since very early times; 
CANTALOUPE or musk-mclou, derived from cultivated varieties of 
Cuciimis mclo, indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia, also culti- 
vated since early times. The common cucumber is obtained 
from Cucumis satknis, which is probably indigenous to the East 
Indies. These fruits contain from 90 to 95 per cent, of water, 
and the water melon contains 3.75 per cent, of dextrose, 5.34 per 
cent, of saccharose and yields 0.9 per cent, of ash. 

Luff a cylindrica is an annual plant indigenous to the Tropics 
of the Old World. It is cultivated to some extent in America, 
but especially in the Mediterranean region. The fruit is more or 
less cylindrical and 20 cm. or more long. The pulp is edible and 
the fibrovascular tissue forms a tough network, which, when the 
seeds, epicarp and pulpy matter are removed, constitutes the 


The fruits of Luff a operculata and L. cchiuafa, both found in 
Brazil, contain a bitter principle resembling colocynthitin. 

The plants are mostly annual or perennial herbs, but are some- 
times shrubby, with an acrid juice containing powerful alkaloids. 
The rhizomes and roots of about twelve of the genera contain 
inulin. The leaves are alternate; the corolla is regular, cam- 
panulate and rotate, or irregular, as in Lobelia. The fruit is a 
capsule or berry containing numerous small seeds. 

Lobelia iiiflafa (Indian or Wild tobacco) is an annual pubes- 
cent, branching herb (Fig. 272), the dried leaves and tops of 
which are official (p. 633). About 15 different species of Lobeha 
are used in medicine. The most important of those growing in 
the United States is the Cardinal flower or Red lobelia (Lobelia 
cardiuQlis), a plant found in moist soil from Canada to Texas, 



and characterized by its long, compound racemes of bright scarlet 
or red flowers. The Blue cardinal flower or Blue lobelia (L. 

Fig. 180. Scutellaria lateriflora: A, portion of branch showing the ovate, serrate leaves 
and the axillary one-sided racemes; B, lower surface of leaf showing elliptical stomata; 
C, D, hairs from the stem and lower surface of leaf; E, section of flower showing calyx (c) 
with crest on one side, 2-lipped corolla (p), the didynamous stamens (s), and 4-locular 
ovary (n); F, pollen grain 18 m in diameter. Hairy skullcap (Scutellaria pilosa) : G, branch 
showing crenate leaves and helmet-shaped capsular fruits; H, capsule after dehiscence 
showing nutlets (n). Scutellarta canescens: I. view of lower surface of leaf showing numer- 
ous broadly elliptical stomata and wavy cuticle; J, K, hairs from the leaf. 

syphilitica) is a plant of nearly the same habit and same general 
character, except that the flowers are of a bright dark blue color 
or occasionally white. 



Fig. i8i. Flowers of the Compositae: A, ligulate and tubular florets of Inula Helcnium ; 
B, united anthersof same showing hairs (h) on the filaments; C, hairs of filaments magnified; 
D, portion of barbed hair of pappus; E, akene; F, double hairs of akene; G. cells of epi- 
dermis of akene containing prisms of calcium oxalate about 25 n long; H, pollen grains in 
different views. I, tubular floret of safflower (Carthamus linctorius) . J, ligulate floret of 
dandelion (Taraxacum officinale): K. one of the akenes showing spreading pappus on long 
stalk which developes after fertilization; L, hairs of corolla. M, ligulate floret of coltsfoot 
(Tussilago Farfara). N. ligulate floret of marigold (Calendula officinalis); O, one of the 
hairs of corolla. P. pappus of yellow goat's-beard (Tragopogon pratensis) ; R. one of the 
long slender hairs in the pappus; S, hair from akene. T. two double hairs from akene of 
Tagetes tennifoha. c, corolla; t, stigma; s, stamens; p, pappus. 


c. FAMILY COMPOSITE. This is a large group of 
plants, which are annual, biennial or perennial herbs, under- 
shrubs, shrubs, trees and twiners or even climbers, a few being 
aquatic. They contain inulin, a constituent peculiar to this group 
of plants. The most distinguishing character is the inflorescence, 
which is a head or capitulum (Figs. 181, 242), consisting of i or 
2 kinds of flowers, arranged on a common torus, and subtended 
by a number of bracts, forming an involucre. The flowers are 
epigynous and the fruit is an akene, usually surmounted by the 
persistent calyx, which consists of hairs, bristles, teeth or scales, 
which are known collectively as the pappus (Fig. 241). 

The individual flowers are called florets (Figs. 241, 242), 
and may be hermaphrodite or pistillate, monoecious, dioecious or 
neutral. Depending upon the shape of the corolla, two kinds of 
flowers are recognized, one in which the corolla forms a tube, 
which is 5-lobed or 5-cleft, known as tubular flowers (Figs. 
241, C ; 242, C) ; and one in which the petals are united into a 
short tube, with an upper part that forms a large, strap-shaped, 
usually 5-toothed limb, known as ligulate flowers (Figs. 241, 
8:242, D). 

In some of the plants of the Compositae the head consists of 
ligulate flowers only, but in the larger number of plants the head 
is composed of both tubular and ligulate flowers or tubular flowers 
alone and accordingly two main groups or sub-families are dis- 
tinguished. The sub-family in which all of the flowers are lig- 
ulate is known as Liguliflor.^, or Cichoriace.e, by those who 
give the group the rank of a family. This group includes plants 
like dandelion, chicory, lettuce and Hieracium. The group or 
sub-family in which the flov/ers are all tubular or ligulate on the 
margin only, is known as the Tubuliflor.e. When the head 
consists only of tubular flowers it is called discoid, but when 
ligulate flowers are also present it is called radiate. When the 
heads are radiate, as in the common daisy, the tubular flowers 
are spoken of as disk-flowers, and the ligulate flowers as ray- 
flowers. The disk-flowers are usually perfect, while the ray- 
flowers are pistillate or neutral (without either stamens or pistils). 
By some systematists the Tubuliflorse are divided into groups 
which have been given the rank of families. This division is 


based especially on the characters of the stamens. In a small 
group represented by the ragweed and known as the Ambrosi- 
ACE.^, the anthers, while close together (connivent) are not 
united, and the corolla in the marginal or pistillate flowers is 
reduced to a short tube or ring. In a large group, which includes 
probably 10,000 species and which is considered to be the Com- 
posite proper, the stamens in the tubular flowers are syngene- 
sious and the marginal or ray flowers are distinctly ligulate. This 
group includes the daisy, sunflower, golden-rod, aster, thistle and 
most of the plants which yield official drugs. 

It may also be added that the Compositae is considered to be 
the highest and youngest group of plants. 

Taraxacum ofHciiialc (Dandelion) is a perennial, acaulescent 
herb with milky latex; oblong-spatulate, pinnatifid or runcinate, 
decurrent leaves, and with a i -headed scape, the stalk of which is 
hollow. The flowers are ligulate, golden-yellow and numerous ; 
the involucre consists of two series of bracts, the inner one of 
which closes over the head while the fruit is maturing, afterward 
becoming reflexed. The fruit consists of a loose, globular head 
of akenes, each one of which is oblong-ovate and with a slender 
beak at the apex which is prolonged into a stalk bearing a radiate 
tuft of silky hairs, which constitute the pappus. The root is fusi- 
form and usually bears at the crown a number of branches 2 to 5 
cm. long, having a small pith and other characters of a rhizome. 
The root is official (p. 458). 

Lactiica virosa (Poison lettuce) is a biennial prickly herb, 
with milky latex and oblong-obovate, spinose-toothed, runcinate 
basal leaves and with alternate, somewhat sessile or auriculate, 
scattered stem leaves, the apex and margin being spinose. The 
flowers are pale yellow and occur in heads forming terminal pani- 
cles. The involucre is cylindrical and consists of several series 
of bracts. The flowers are all ligulate and the anthers are sagit- 
tate at the base. The akenes are flattish-oblong, and the pappus, 
which is raised on a stalk, is soft-capillary, as in Taraxacum. 
The prepared milk-juice is official as Lactucarium (p. 649). 

Eupatoriiini perfoliatum (Boneset or Common thoroughwort) 
(see Fig. 270). The leaves and flowers are official (p. 625). 

Eupatorium scbandianum, which is added to Mate as a sweet- 


ening agent, contains two sweet glucosides ; eupatorin and reban- 
(lin ; a bitter principle, and a resin. 

Grindelia species. The plants are perennial, greenish-yellow, 
resinous herbs, sometimes being under-shrubs, with alternate, 
sessile or clasping, oblong to lanceolate, spinulose-dentate leaves, 
and large, terminal, yellowish heads, consisting of both ligulate 
and tubular flowers. The leaves and flowering tops of Grindelia 
robitsta and G. sqiiarrosa are official (p. 626). 

Erigeron canadensis (Leptilon canadensc) (Canada fleabane) 
is an annual or biennial, hispid-pubescent herb found growing in 
fields and waste places in nearly all parts of the world. The 
stems are simple, with numerous crowded leaves and numerous 
flowers occurring in terminal panicles. The plants are sometimes 
branched and i to 3 AI. high. The leaves are linear, nearly 
entire, of a pale green color, the lower and basal ones being spat- 
ulate, petiolate and dentate or incised. The flowers are white and 
the heads are composed of both ligulate and tubular florets, the 
former being pistillate and not longer than the diameter of the 
disk. The pappus consists of numerous capillary bristles and 
the involucre, which is campanulate, consists of five or six series 
of narrow, erect bracts. The fresh flowering herb contains 0.3 
to 0.4 per cent, of a volatile oil which is official, tannin, and a 
small amount of gallic acid. The oil is obtained by distillation 
and consists chiefly of d-limonene. 

The genus Erigeron includes a number of species which have 
medicinal properties. E. anmius (Sweet scabious or Daisy flea- 
bane) is a low, branching, annual herb, characterized by its linear- 
lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate leaves and its conspicuous flowers, 
which resemble those of the common daisy, the ray-flowers often 
being tinged with purple (Fig. 181). It contains a volatile oil 
resembling that of Canada fleabane, and tannin. The Philadel- 
phia fleabane {Erigeron philadelphicns) is a perennial herb pro- 
ducing stolons, and has clasping or cordate leaves, the basal being 
spatulate, and is further distinguished by its light purplish-red 

Antheniis nobilis (Roman chamomile) is an annual or peren- 
nial, procumbent, branched herb, with numerous 2- to 3-pinnately 
divided leaves, the ultimate segments being narrow-linear. The 


flowers occur in terminal heads with long peduncles, a conical 
torus and few white pistillate ray-flowers. The flowers of culti- 
vated plants are official (p. 554), the heads consisting mostly of 
ligulate flowers, forming so-called " doul)le flowers," as in the 
cultivated chrysanthemums. 

Anacyclus Pyre thrum (Pellitory) is a perennial herb resem- 
bling Anthemis nobilis in its general characters. The ray-flowers, 
however, are white or purplish, and the pappus consists of a ring 
or scale. The root is official (p. 455). 

Matricaria ChamomiUa (German chamomile) is an annual, 
diffusely branched herb, with pinnately divided leaves, consisting 
of few, linear segments. The flowers are official (p. 553). 

Arnica montana is a perennial herb with small rhizome ; 
nearly simple stem ; opposite, somewhat connate, entire, spat- 
ulate, hairy leaves, and yellow flowers in large heads with long 
peduncles. The flowers are official (p. 551). 

Arctium Lappa (Burdock) is a coarse, branched, biennial or 
perennial herb, with alternate, broadly ovate, repand, entire, 
tomentose, mostly cordate leaves, the basal ones being from 30 
to 45 cm. long. The flowers are purplish-red or white, tubular 
and form rather large corymbose heads ; the involucre consists 
of numerous lanceolate, rigid, nearly glabrous bracts, which are 
tipped with hooked, spreading bristle^. The akenes are oblong 
and somewhat 3-angled, and the pappus consists of numerous 
short bristles. The root is official (p. 465). 

The common burdock (Arctium minus) resembles A. Lappa, 
but is a smaller plant and is more common in the United States. 
The heads are smaller and the inner bracts are shorter than the 
tubular flowers, the bristles of this series being erect and with 
the outer spreading. 

Calendula oificinalis (Marigold) is an annual herb, with alter- 
nate, spatulate, oblanceolate, entire or serrate leaves. The flowers 
are yellow and form solitary heads, consisting of both ray and 
tubular florets. In the cultivated varieties most of the tubular 
florets are changed to ligulate, the latter being official (p. 555). 
While the Compositse include a large number of genera and 
species, the plants do not yield many important drugs, although a 
number are used in medicine and for other purposes. 



The so-called Insect Flowers {Pyrcthri Flores) are the 
partly expanded flower-heads of several species of Chrysanthe- 
mum, and are used in the preparation of a powder which is a 
powerful insecticide. The plants are perennial herbs resembling 

Fig. i8ia. Daisy-fleabane (Erigeron annuus). 

in their habits the common white daisy (C Leucanthemuin) . The 
Dalmatian Insect Flowers are obtained from C. cinerariifoUiun, 
growing in Dalmatia, and cultivated in Northern Africa, Cali- 
fornia and New York. The heads as they occur in the market 
are about 12 mm. broad, light yellowish-brown and have a slightly 


rounded or conical torus, which is about 12 mm. in diameter and 
2 or 3 series of lanceolate, obtuse, involucral scales. The ray- 
florets are pistillate, the corolla varying in length from i to 2 cm. 
and having numerous delicate veins and 3 short, obtuse or rounded 
teeth. The tubular flowers are perfect and about 6 mm. long. The 
ovary is 5-ribbed and the pappus forms a short, toothed crown. 
The odor is distinct and the taste bitter. 

Persian Insect Flowers are derived from C. roscnm and C. 
Marshallii, growing in the Caucasus region, Armenia and North- 
ern Persia. The he'ads are about the same size as those of C. 
cinerariifolinm; the torus is dark brown; the involucral scales 
and ray-florets are purplish-red; the ovary is lo-ribbed. 

Insect flowers contain from a trace to 0.5 per cent, of a vola- 
tile oil, the Persian flowers containing the larger proportion, and 
the amount decreasing with the maturing of the flowers. They 
also contain two resins, varying from 4 to 7 per cent., the larger 
amount being found in the Dalmatian flowers ; a small quantity 
of a glucoside and a volatile acid. 

The principle toxic to insects is Pyrethron, an amber-yellow, 
syrupy substance which is the ester of certain unidentified acids, 
and on saponification yields the alcohol pyrethrol which crystal- 
lizes in fine needles. The acids combined in the ester pyrethron 
do not give crystalline salts. 

Wormwood or Absinthium consists of the dried leaves and 
flowering tops of Artemisia Absinthiiun, a perennial, somewhat 
woody, branching herb, indigenous to Europe and Northern 
Africa, cultivated in New York, Michigan, Nebraska and Wis- 
consin and naturalized in the United States from plants that have 
escaped from cultivation. The leaves are grayish-green, gland- 
ular-hairy, I- to 3-pinnately divided, the segments being obovate, 
entire, or lobed ; the flowers are yellowish-green, the heads being 
about 4 mm. broad and occurring in raceme-like panicles ; the 
torus is hemispherical and the involucre consists of several series 
of linear bracts, the inner being scale-like ; the florets are all 
tubular, the outer ones sometimes being neutral. The herb is 
aromatic and very bitter. 

The fresh drug contains about 0.5 per cent, of a volatile oil 
which is of a dark green or blue color, has a bitter, persistent taste 


but not the pleasant odor of the plant, and consists of d-thujone 
(absinthol), thujvi alcohol free and combined with acetic, iso- 
valerianic and palmitic acids, phellandrene and cadinene. The 
other constituents of the drug include a bitter glucosidal principle, 
ABSINTHIIN, which forms white prisms and yields on hydrolysis 
a volatile oil ; a resin ; starch ; tannin ; succinic acid, potassium 
succinate, and about 7 per cent, of ash. The plant is used in the 
preparation of the French liquor known as Absinthe. 

Artemisia Cina furnishes the official Santonica (p. 350). 

Other species of Absinthium also yield volatile oils, as the 
Common mugwort {Artcjiiisia I'ulgaris), which yields from o.t. 
to 0.2 per cent, of an oil containing cineol ; Artemisia Barrelieri, 
which contains an oil consisting almost entirely of thujone, and 
said to be used in the preparation of Algerian absinthe. 

Safflower consists of the dried florets of Carthamus tinct- 
oriiis, an annual herb which is known only in cultivation. The 
florets are tubular, yellowish-red, the corolla tube being about 2 
cm. long and with 5 small, linear lobes ; the stamens are exserted. 
The ovary with the long, slender style is usually not present in 
the drug (Fig. 296, C). Saftiower contains a small percentage 
of a yellow coloring principle (safflower-yellow), which is soluble 
in water, and 0.3 to 0.6 per cent, of a red coloring principle (car- 
thamin or carthamic acid), which is insoluble in water but soluble 
in alcohol, the solution having a purplish-red color. A volatile 
oil is also present. Carthamin is used in conjunction with French 
chalk in the preparation of a rouge. 

Tansy is the dried leaves and tops of Chrysanthemum (Tana- 
cetnm) vulgare (Fig. 75), a perennial herb indigenous to Europe, 
extensively cultivated and naturalized in the United States. The 
leaves are large and pinnately divided, and the flowers, both tub- 
ular and ligulate, are yellow, the heads being in terminal corymbs. 

The plant yields from o.i to 0.3 per cent, of a volatile oil, 
consisting of thujone, borneol and camphor ; and 3 resins. 

Elecampane {Inula Helenium) is a large, perennial, densely 
pubescent herb with alternate leaves and large, solitary terminal 
headf,, consisting of yellow tubular and ligulate florets (Fig. 182). 
The plant is indigenous to Central Europe and Asia, and nat- 
uralized in North America from Canada to North Carolina. The 



root is used in medicine and was formerly official as Inula. It is 
cylindrical, tapering, and in preparing the drug it is usually cut 
into longitudinal pieces, which after drying are grayish-brown or 
dark brown and longitudinally wrinkled on the outer surface, 

Fig. 182. Elecampane (Inula Heleniuni): A, one of the smaller leaves near the inflor- 
escence; B, under surface of the leaf; C. hairs of leaf; D, transverse section of petiole 
showing parenchyma (p), lignified bast fibers (b). sieve (s), tracheas (t), and somewhat 
thickened cells of wood (w) ; E, F, G, successive stages in the development of the inter- 
cellular or schizogenous oleo-resin canals of very young roots; H, sphere-crystals of inulin 
as seen in the root after treatment with alcohol; I. single sphere-crystal. 

somewhat lighter in color on the cut surface ; the fracture of 
thicker pieces is tough, of thinner pieces, short when dry; it is 
pale yellow internally, with numerous radiate resin canals ; the 
odor is aromatic ; the taste bitter and acrid. It is distinguished 


from belladonna root (Fig. 200), which has been sometimes sub- 
stituted for it, by the latter having a characteristic odor and 
taste and containing starch (p. 463) (Fig. 182). 

Inula contains about 44 per cent, of inulin, which on hydro- 
lysis yields levulose, which latter replaces inulin in the roots gath- 
ered in spring. From i to 2 per cent, of a crystalline substance 
is obtained by distillation with water, which consists of a color- 
less, crystalline principle, alantolactone, that is insoluble in sodium 
carbonate solution, and alantolic acid, which crystallizes in fine 
needles, is soluble in sodium carbonate solution and is largely 
decomposed on heating with water. The drug also contains hele- 
nin, which crystallizes in 4-sided prisms and is not affected by 
ordinary reagents ; and alantol, a yellowish liquid isomeric with 
common camphor and apparently occurring only in the fresh root. 

The root of Polymnia Uvedalia, a plant closely related to 
Inula, but indigenous to the United States east of the Mississippi, 
contains a volatile oil, a glucoside, tannin, and a resinous sub- 
stance consisting of two resins, one of which is pale yellow and 
soft, the other dark brown and hard. 

The following Compositse, while not of very great importance, 
are used in some localities : 

Yarrow {Achillea Millefolium) is a common weed naturalized 
from Europe and Asia, and contains about o.i per cent, of a dark 
blue volatile oil with a strongly aromatic odor and a small amount 
of a bitter alkaloid, achilleine. The roots of yarrow, on the other 
hand, yield a volatile oil with a valerian-like odor. Achillea 
nobilis of Europe contains an oil resembling that of yarrow, but 
it is of finer quality and has a spice-like taste. Achillea moschata, 
an alpine plant of Europe, yields three alkaloids and a volatile 
oil containing cineol, and is used in Italy in the preparation of 
the liquor, " Esprit d' Iva." Achillea tanacetifolia yields a blue 
volatile oil having the odor of tansy. 

The High Golden-rod (Solidago canadensis) yields 0.63 per 
cent, of a volatile oil, consisting chiefly of pinene. with some phel- 
landrene and dipentene, and containing about 9 per cent, of 
borneol, 3 per cent, of bornyl acetate and some cadinene. The 
True or Anise-scented Golden-rod (Solidago odorata) yields 
an aromatic volatile oil and a small amount of tannin. 


The rhizome of the large Button-snakeroot (Lacinaria scari- 
osa), growing in the eastern and central portion of the United 
States and Canada, contains o.i per cent, of volatile oil, about 5 
per cent, of resin, and 2 per cent, of a caoutchouc-like substance. 

Coltsfoot (Tussilago Farfara) is a plant indigenous to 
Europe and naturalized in the Northern United States and Can- 
ada. It is an acaulescent herb with a slender rhizome 30 to 40 
cm. long ; nearly orbicular, somewhat lobed and tomentose leaves, 
and large, solitary, yellow flowers appearing before the leaves. 
The plant contains an acrid volatile oil, a bitter glucoside, resin 
and tannin. 

Echinacea is the root of Brauncria (Rudbeckia) purpurea, 
a plant growing in rich soil from A^irginia to Illinois and south- 
ward, and of B. pallida, growing from the Northwest Territory 
to Texas. It occurs in pieces from 5 to 10 cm. long and 5 to 15 
mm. in diameter ; it is grayish-brown or reddish-brown exter- 
nally, longitudinally wrinkled, sometimes spirally twisted ; the 
fracture is short, the fractured surface exhibiting a number of 
resin cells and a greenish-yellow wood. The odor is distinct 
and the taste is aromatic, acrid and pungent. The drug contains 
an alkaloid and 0.5 to i per cent, of an acrid resinous substance 
to which the medical properties are due. 

Rosin Weed or Compass Plant {Silphium laciniatum), 
found growing from Ohio to South Dakota and south to Texas, 
p-oduces an oleo-resin which exudes either spontaneously or from 
the punctures of insects, and contains about 19 per cent, of vola- 
tile oil, and 37 per cent, of acid resin. 

The Thistle (Ciiicus boicdicfus) contains a crystalline bitter 
principle, cnicin, which is colored red with sulphuric acid. 

The Mexican drug pipitzahoac is the rhizome of Perezia 
Wrightii, P. nana and P. adnata, plants found in Southwestern 
Texas and Mexico. It contains about 3.6 per cent, of a golden- 
yellow crystalline principle, pipitzahoic acid, which appears to be 
related to oxythymoquinone and is colored an intense purple with 
alkalies and alkaline earths. 

Lion's foot, the root of A'abalus Scrpcntaria, N. alba and 
other species of Nabalus growing in the United States, contains 
bitter principles, resin and tannin. Mio Mio (Baccharis cordi- 


folia), of South America, is poisonous to sheep and cattle and 
contains an alkaloid, baccharine, and a bitter principle. Spiny 
CLOTBUR (Xaiithiuiii spinosiiin) contains a bitter resin and possi- 
bly a volatile alkaloid. The fruit of Xanthinm striimarium, a 
common weed naturalized from Europe, contains an amorphous, 
non-glucosidal substance, xanthostrumarin, which forms precip- 
itates with a number of the alkaloidal reagents. Sneeze-weed 
(Hclciiiuni aiituuinalc) contains a volatile oil, a bitter glucoside 
and tannin. Heleniuin fciinifoliiiiii, of the Southern United States, 
is a narcotic poison. Para cress {SpiUvithcs olcracca), of trop- 
ical America, contains a soft pungent resin and a crystallizable 
principle, spilanthin. The common white daisy (Chrysanthciuum 
Lciicaiithcminii) yields about 0.15 per cent, of a greenish volatile 
oil with the odor of chamomile and mint. 

Chicory, the root of Cichorinui Intyhiis, a perennial herb 
with blue ligulate florets, indigenous to and cultivated in Europe 
and naturalized in certain localities in the United States, is used 
in medicine as well as in the preparation of a coffee substitute. 
The root is spindle-shaped, somewhat resembling Taraxacum, but 
is of a light brown color and the laticiferous vessels are arranged 
in radial rows in the somewhat thinner bark. It contains a bitter 
principle and a large amount of inulin. In the preparation of a 
coffee substitute the root is cut into rather large, equal pieces and 
roasted, after which it is ground to a yellowish-brown, coarse 
powder. The grains are heavier than water, imparting to it a yel- 
lowish-brown color. Under the microscope it is distinguished by 
the branching latex-tubes and rather short, oblique tracheae with 
rather large, simple pores. 

The Sunflower {Helianthus anuiiiis) is an annual herb indig- 
enous to tropical America and extensively cultivated. The plant 
is grown on a large scale in Russia, Hungary, Italy and India for 
its fruits, which yield a fixed oil resembling that of cotton seed. 
The akenes (so-called seeds) are obovate, flattened, externally 
black or with alternate white and black stripes, the pappus con- 
sisting of two deciduous, chaffy scales. Sunflower seed-cake is 
readily distinguished by a few of the fragments of the epicarp, 
with the characteristic twin, unicellular, non-glandular hairs and 
large, oblique, but rather short, sclerenchymatous fibers. Besides 



40 per cent, of a fixed oil, the seeds contain a peculiar glucosidal 
tannin, helianthic acid, which is colored deep green with ferric 
chloride and yellow with alkalies. The root contains inulin ; the 
shoot asparagin, and the fresh pith about 1.5 per cent, of potas- 
sium nitrate. The latter has been used in the preparation of 
MoxA, a combustible vegetable material which burns without fus- 
ing and is used by the Portuguese to destroy any deep-seated 
inflammation. The pith of various species of Artemisia, which 
also contains considerable potassium nitrate, furnishes the Chinese 

Jerusalem Artichoke (Hcliaiithiis tiihcrosiis) is a large, 
coarse, pubescent herb with yellow ray-florets, which is indigenous 
to the Middle United States and sometimes cultivated. The 
tubers, which resemble artichokes, are more or less elongated or 
pear-shaped, reddish-brown, somewhat annulate, and internally 
white or reddish. They have been used as a substitute for pota- 
toes and contain about 16 per cent, of the following carbohydrates : 
Inulin, pseudo-inulin, inulenin, saccharose, helianthenin, and 
synantherin. In early spring with the development of the tubers 
there is formed a small quantity of dextrose and levulose. 

The Globe artichoke of the gardens {Cynara ScoJymns) is a 
hardy perennial and is valued on account of the fleshy involucral 
scales and torus, which are edible. 

The pollen of a number of plants of the Compositje, as rag- 
weed (Ambrosia), goldenrod (Solidago), aster and chrysanthe- 
mum, is said to be responsible for the autumnal cold, known as 
HAY FEVER. A Similar disease is produced in spring and early 
summer by the pollen of certain grasses. It has been found that 
the pollen grains of these plants contain a highly toxic substance, 
belonging to the toxalbumins, which is the cause of the disease. 
By inoculation of rabbits, goats and horses with this toxalbumin 
a serum containing an antitoxin is obtained which neutralizes the 
pollen toxin and protects those who are susceptible to hay fever 
from its attacks. In practice the serum is prepared by injecting 
the toxalbumin subcutaneously into horses, the serum being known 
in commerce as pollantin. 

The flowers of the Japanese chrysanthemum " Riuno-kiku '' 
{Chrysanthcinmn Sincnsc Jaf^ouicuiii) yield 0.8 per cent, of a 
volatile oil containing an optically inactive crystalline iso-camphor. 


There is a growing scarcity of many of the native medicinal 
plants in the United States, due both to the destruction of the 
woodlands where they grow and to the direct extermination of the 
plants themselves by drug collectors, and it seems not improbable 
that if the collecting of vegetable drugs continues at the present 
rate it will not be many years before a number of the most impor- 
tant drug-yielding plants will be exterminated, unless some meas- 
ures are taken to conserve them in their native localities or to prop- 
agate them by cultivation. There seems, however, to be little chance 
for their conservation unless by cultivation, for already the 
demand is far greater than the supply and in some cases the 
drugs are scarcely to be had at all. Of the important medicinal 
plants which are becoming markedly limited in their area of 
growth may be mentioned those yielding the drugs serpentaria, 
senega, cypripedium, hydrastis, spigelia and cascara sagrada. 

Not only is there a necessity for the cultivation of medicinal 
plants on account of the scarcity of the drugs yielded by them, 
but experiment has shown that in some instances the drug has 
been improved by giving attention to cultural conditions. The 
possibilities of what can be done in this direction are shown in 
the case of coca and cinchona, where by selection and cultivation 
the plants have not only been conserved but the yield of the 
medicinal products has been greatly increased. It is true also 
that very many of our economic plants have been improved by 
selection and cultivation, as corn, wheat, potatoes, fruits of 
various kinds, and there is reason to believe that like results 
would follow the cultivation of medicinal plants. The fact should 
not, however, be overlooked that in some instances the wild plants, 
as those of the solanaceous-drug group, are said to give a better 
yield of the active principles than the cultivated ones ; but this 
would probably not result if the nature of the plants were better 
understood and the methods of cultivation improved accordingly. 



It is well known that when growth is very rapid the plant will 
produce few or no flowers, whereas if growth is slower the pro- 
duction of flowers and seed will be increased. So in the case of 
some of the medicinal plants it is probable that the yield of active 
principles would be less in a very vigorous plant than in one less 
thrifty. The conditions must, therefore, be studied in relation 
to the object to be attained. 

In undertaking the cultivation of native medicinal plants they 
should first be studied in their natural surroundings until a 
knowledge is gained of the peculiar requirements and habits of 
each, including the composition and physical condition of the 
soil, the climatic conditions, their relation to other plants, etc. 
It should at the same time be borne in mind that most plants 
can in time adapt themselves to surroundings differing from 
those of their original habitat. Still, notwithstanding this gen- 
eral law of adaptation, in order to be sure of results we must 
take into consideration the particular conditions under which a 
given species will thrive best, or yield the largest percentage of 
active principles. For example, some plants appear to prefer a 
dry soil, as Sassafras officinale; others, a damp location, as J^cra- 
trnm viride ; some, a rich soil, as Asariim canadense, while still 
others grow in waste places and on ballast, as Matricaria Chamo- 
milla. Some prefer shade, as Ariscema triphyllnm, and others ex- 
posure to direct sunlight, as Datura Stramonium. Among the 
other factors which must also be taken into consideration is that 
of altitude, some plants appearing to thrive best high up on hills 
and mountains, while others are found in the lowlands and 
marshes. The question of latitude must also be considered owing 
to the extremes in our country in this particular. 

PROPAGATION. The methods of propagation used in the 
cultivation of other useful plants apply also to medicinal plants. 
These include propagation from seeds, from cuttings, and from 
grafts. A CUTTING is a severed portion of a plant having one or 
more nodes or buds. A graft is a severed twig or branch which 
is embedded in a branch of another plant in such a way that the 
cambiums or growing regions of the two branches are brought 
into such intimate contact that they fuse or grow together. This 
method is largely followed in fruit culture, the branch of a more 


desirable fruit tree being frequently engrafted on one which pro- 
duces an inferior grade of fruit ; besides, the process consumes 
much less time than would be required for a fruit-bearing tree 
to develop from seed. 

Most annuals and biennials are propagated from seeds. Con- 
siderable care is necessary in the buying of seeds in order to 
obtain those that will germinate and are true to name. Fre- 
quently some of the seeds are immature, and in some cases many 
of them are sterile, as those of Eucalyptus (Fig. 258, H). This 
latter fact may explain why it is so difficult to grow the eucalypts 
from seeds. In some instances the seeds may be sown where 
the plants are to be grown, but probably in most cases it would 
be better to germinate them under glass or in seed boxes and 
then transplant the young, plants when the conditions are most 
favorable. It may be pointed out that there is much variation 
in seeds in regard to the length of time required for germination. 
This applies not only to seeds of different species, but even to 
seeds of the same plant. With many plants, as corn, wheat, beet 
and others, it has been found that by selecting the best seeds or 
those produced by plants having some specially desirable quality, 
as a large percentage of oils, proteins, or sugar, and repeating the 
selection from year to year, decided improvements have been 
brought about and maintained. It is reported that in the cinchona 
plantations in Java methods of selection have largely superseded 
the system of "mossing" (p. 518) for increasing the alkaloidal 

Cuttings are extensively employed in the propagation of 
plants, particularly by florists. They are derived either from 
over-ground shoots, as in carnation, rose, geranium and coleus, 
or, where the plant produces root-stocks or rhizomes, they are 
made from these rather than from the over-ground shoots. Not 
all plants can be propagated equally well from cuttings. Some 
plants are readily propagated in this way, as the willows, the 
twigs of which when they fall off or are broken off frequently 
take root in the moist soil. Other plants, like the oak, are very 
difficult to grow from cuttings. In propagating plants from rhi- 
zomes the latter are cut into pieces, each of which has one or two 
buds, and these pieces are planted. Among the medicinal plants 


which have been grown from cuttings of rhizomes are Hcorice 
and ginger, but it is Hkely that all plants which produce rhizomes 
can be readily propagated from cuttings. Cuttings of over- 
ground stems are made from the growing parts of branches, 
and it is necessary to have them of such a length that at least one 
node may be placed in the soil. These are at first planted in 
micaceous soil or river sand, which should be kept well moistened. 
It is desirable that the leaves be as few as possible, so as to reduce 
the transpiring surface until the young roots have been formed, 
which may take several weeks or several months. Usually the 
lower leaves should be cut off entirely, while the others may be 
partially trimmed. The cuttings should also be protected from 
strong light, as this tends to increase transpiration, and also 
against a dry atmosphere, which may be accomplished by cover- 
ing them with glass, particularly during the day, when the 
weather is dry. Cuttings of hard wood plants intended for out- 
door culture should be made in the fall. They should be 6 or 8 
inches in length, kept covered with sand in a suitable place during 
the winter, and planted in the spring. 

One of the methods for producing new varieties is by hybrid- 
ization, or cross-pollination, of different related species or varie- 
ties. The offspring is known as a hybrid, and has a blending of 
the qualities or characters of the two parent plants. This method 
is mostly employed by florists who desire to produce some new 
or striking flower, or by horticulturists who desire to establish 
some new quality or transfer a desirable quality from a foreign 
plant to one which is adapted to a given locality. The method 
has not been largely employed in the cultivation of medicinal 
plants, except in the case of cinchona, where it is claimed that the 
barks richest in alkaloids are the direct result of hybridization 
and selection. By transplanting and special methods of treatment, 
as that of mossing, the alkaloidal percentage has been increased 
from 8 per cent, to lo, whereas by hybridization the amount of 
total alkaloids has reached as high as i6 per cent., about three- 
fourths being quinine. 

On page 418 are given some general rules for the collection of 
vegetable drugs, and attention is directed to the importance of 


properly drying them and preparing them for the market. When 
not only the nature of the plant but the diversity of the constit- 
uents of vegetable drugs is taken into consideration, it will be seen 
that the collection and preparation of them for the market is really 
a fine art, requiring extended knowledge and experience, and a 
keen appreciation of the difiference in quality due to factors of 
this kind. The large crude-drug collectors give instruction to 
their employes as to the methods to be followed in the preparation 
of the drug, this knowledge having been acquired as the result of 
years of experience. We are apt to think that the only drugs that 
require particular care are those like tobacco, vanilla and gentian, 
in which in addition to drying there is a curing process that takes 
place ; but this is true also of digitalis, the solanaceous leaves and 
many of the other important drugs. While the quality thus 
acquired, like that of teas and wines, etc., cannot readily be deter- 
mined by any assay process, the therapeutist is able to detect the 
difference between the drug that has been carefully collected and 
prepared and the one that has been carelessly handled. 

It has already been pointed out that plants consist in large 
proportion of water, and when they are collected and dried there 
is necessarily considerable loss. The loss is greater in the case 
of herbaceous plants, where the yield of crude drug is only about 
10 per cent., as in eupatorium and stramonium. Roots and rhi- 
zomes yield on an average from 20 to 30 per cent, of dried drug. 
In some cases, as in hops, the yield of dried drug is over 60 per 
cent., and in fruits and seeds there is very little loss. 

medicinal plants which are under successful cultivation in the 
United States attention may be called to the following: Mentha 
piperita, Crocus sativus, Digitalis purpurea; Atropa Belladonna, 
Conium maculatum, Matricaria Chamomilla, Calendula officinalis, 
Valeriana ofUcinalis, Inula Hclenium, Ricinus coninninis, Panax 
quinque folium, and Urtica nrens. In addition, a number of 
medicinal plants are cultivated as garden herbs for domestic use, 
some of them since colonial times, as anise, balm, sweet basil, 
bene, boneset, borage, caraway, catnip, coltsfoot, coriander, cumin, 
dill, sweet fennel, hoarhound, lavender, pennyroyal, rosemary, 
rue, sage, summer and winter savory, sweet marjoram, symphy- 


tuni, tansy, tarragon, thyme, and wormwood. A number of other 
plants have been successfully grown in an experimental way, as 
Glycyrrhisa glabra, Hyoscyamus nigcr. Pa paver somiiiferum, 
Cinnamonmm Camphora, Citrullus Colocynthis, Capsicum fastigi- 
atitiii, Datura Tatula, Scopolia CarnioHca, Cassia angustifolia, 
Convallaria niajalis, Anacyclus Pyrethrnin, Ciirysanthemiim cin- 
erariifolinm, Aristolochia Serpentaria, and Althcca officinalis. 

ALSO OF MEDICINAL VALUE. Several hundred of the 
plants cultivated in the United States either for the food products 
which they yield or for ornamental or other purposes, are more or 
less esteemed for their medicinal properties. To this class belong 
the following plants, both the name of the drug, or the part of the 
plant used in medicine, and the botanical name of the plant being 
given. The name of the drug is sometimes synonymous with the 
common name of the plant. 

Deciduous and Evergreen Trees. The buckeye or Amer- 
ican horse-chestnut {^senilis glabra) ; the European horse- 
chestnut {Alsculns Hippocastanum) ; tree of heaven (Ailanthus 
glandulosa) ; black birch bark {Bctula lenta) ; chestnut (Castanea 
dentata) ; Judas tree {Cercis canadensis) ; orange and lemon 
(Citrus species) ; dogwood (Cornus florida) ; persimmon bark 
{Diospyros virginiana) ; eucalyptus (Eucalyptus Globulus) ; red 
gum (Eucalyptus rostrata) ; American or white ash bark (Frax- 
inus amcricana) ; black ash bark (Fraxinns nigra) ; butternut 
(Jnglans cinerea) ; black walnut (Juglans nigra) ; juniper (luiii- 
perns communis) ; savine (Juniperus Sabina) ; tamarac bark or 
American larch (Larix amcricana) ; spice bush or fever bush 
(Lindera Benzoin) ; sweet gum bark (Liquidambar Styraciflua) ; 
tulip tree bark (Liriodendron Tiilipifera) ; sweet bay or magnolia 
bark (Magnolia glanca) ; pride of China (Melia AccdaracJi) ; 
ironwood (Ostrya virginiana) ; white pine (Finns Sfrobns) ; bal- 
sam poplar (Popnlus candicans) ; white poplar (Populus trem- 
nl aides) ; wild cherry (Friinus serotina) ; hop tree or wafer ash 
(Ptelea trifoliata) ; mountain ash (Sorbus amcricana) ; apple tree 
bark (Pyrits Mains) ; white oak bark (Qnercus alba) ; red oik 
bark (Quercits rubra) ; black oak bark (Qnercus velutina) ; white 
willow (Salix alba) ; black willow (Salix nigra) ; sassafras (Sas- 


safras officinale) ; hemlock spruce {Tsiiga canadensis) ; elm bark 
(Uhiiiis fitha) ; prickly ash {Xanthoxylum americanuni). 

Deciduous and Evergreen Shrubs. Swamp-, bush- or tag- 
alder (Alniis scrnilata) ; barberry bark (Berberis vulgaris) ; box- 
wood (Biixiis scuipervircns) ; Jersey tea (Ceanothus anieri- 
caiiiis) ; fringe tree {Chionanthus virginica) ; sweet fern (Coinp- 
tonia percgrina) ; red osier bark {Cornns stolonifera) ; English 
hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) ; mezereum {Daphne Mese- 
rcuiii) ; American burning bush or wahoo {Euonymus atropur- 
purcus) ; broom tops (Cytisus Scoparius) ; witchhazel (Haniam- 
clis z'irgiiiiana) ; hydrangea (Hydrangea arhoresccns) ; black 
alder (Ilex vcrticillata) ; mountain laurel {Kalmia lafifolia) ; 
sweet bay (Laurus nobilis) ; wax myrtle or bayberry (Myrica 
cerifera) ; peach (Amygdalus persica) ; buckthorn berries (RJiani- 
nus cathartica) ; buckthorn bark (Rhamnus Frangula) ; cascara 
sagrada (Rhamnus Purshiana) ; sumac (Rhus glabra) ; rose 
flowers (Rosa gallica and Rosa centi folia) ; rosemary (Rosmar- 
inus officinalis) ; elder flowers and bark (Sambncus canadensis) ; 
European elder (Sambucus nigra) ; hardback (Spircca tomcn- 
tosa) ; common arbor vitas (Thuja occidentaUs) ; cramp bark 
(J'iburnum opulus) ; black haw (Viburnum prunif olium) . 

Twining 'AND Climbing Plants. American ivy or Virginia 
creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) ; staff vine or false bitter- 
sweet (Celastrus scandens) ; Carolina jasmine (Gelsemiuni scm- 
pervirens) ; hops (Humuhis Lupulus) ; yellow parilla or moon- 
seed (Menispermiun canadense) ; passion-flower (Passiffora 
incarnata) ; bittersweet (Solanum Dulcamara) . 

Herbaceous Perennials. Yarrow (Achillea Millefolium) ; 
aconite (Aconitum Napellus) ; sweet flag (Acorus Calamus) ; 
star grass (Aletris farinosa) ; garlic (Allium sativum) ; holly- 
hock (Althaa rosea) ; pulsatilla (Anemone species) ; chamomile 
(A)ithemis nobilis) ; pleurisy root (Asclepias tubcrosa) ; wild 
indigo (Baptisia tinctoria) ; wood betony (Bctonica officinalis) ; 
American senna (Cassia niarilandica) ; helonias or blazing star 
(ChanKTlirium luteum) ; black snake root (Cimicifuga racemosa) ; 
bitter apple (Citrullus Colocynthis) ; lily-of-the-valley (Conval- 
laria majalis) ; foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) ; echinacea (Echi- 
nacea an gustifolia) ; water eryngo (Eryngium aquaticum) ; fennel 


{Fceniculum vulgare) ; cranesbill {Geranium maciilatum) ; Indian 
physic {Gillenia trifoliata) ; blazing star {Lacinaria spicata) ; 
ground ivy {Glecoma hcderacea) ; liverwort (Hepatica triloba) ; 
lavender {Lavandula vera) ; peppermint {Mentha piperita) ; 
peony {Pceonia ofUcinalis) ; ginseng {Panax qn in que folium) ; 
anise {Pimpinella Anisum) ; Solomon's seal {Polxgonatum 
biflornni) ; abscess root {Polemoniiim reptans) ; thimbleweed 
{Rndheckia laciniata) ; East Tennessee pink root {Ruellia cili- 
osa) ; rue {Ruta graveolens) ; sage {Salvia officinalis) ; rosin- 
weed or compass plant {Silphiuui lociniatmn) ; garden thyme 
{Thymus vulgaris) ; blood root (Sangiiiiuvia canadensis) ; com- 
frey {Symphytum officinale); beth-root {Trillium erectum) ; 
white and red squill {Urginea marifiina and its varieties). 

The Cacti. Night-blooming cereus {Cereiis grandiflorus) ; 
and mescale {Lophophora Lezvinii). 

Annuals. Broom corn seed {Andropogon arundinaceus 
vulgare) ; hemp {Cannabis sativa) ; cayenne pepper {Capsicum 
fastigiatum) ; common or garden parsley {Petroselinum sativum) ; 
caraway {Caruui Carvi) ; coriander {Coriandruni sativum) ; 
watermelon {Citridlus vulgaris) ; pumpkin {Cncnrbita Pepo) ; 
larkspur seed {Delphinium Consolida) ; cotton {Gossypinm spe- 
cies) henbane {Hyoscyamus niger) ; lactucarium {Lactnca virosa 
and other species of Lactnca) ; garden marigold {Calendula 
officinalis) ; tobacco {Nicotiana Tabacum) ; sweet basil {Ocinuiin 
Basilicnm) ; sweet marjoram {Origanum Majorana) ; poppy 
{Papavcr soinnifcrum) ; horseradish {Roripa Armoracia) ; sum- 
mer savory {Saturia hortensis) ; red clover {Trifolium pratense) ; 
white clover {Trifolium repens) ; corn silk {Zea Mays). 

The following orchids may be obtained through nurserymen: 
Small yellow lady's slipper {Cypripedinin parviflorum) ; yellow 
lady's slipper {Cypripedium hirsntum). 

The following ferns may likewise be procured : Male fern 
{Aspidium marginale) ; polypody leaves {Polypodium vulgare) ; 
maiden hair {Adiantum hirsutum). 

PLANTS. The following medicinal plants, not mentioned in 
the preceding lists, grow in such numbers in this country that it 
ought not to be difficult to procure them or their seeds for pur- 


poses of cultivation. Possibly the cheapest way to procure both 
American and foreign plants for purposes of cultivation would 
be to purchase the fresh or green drug, as of roots, rhizomes, 
etc., gathered at the resting period of the plant. The recently 
gathered drug will in some instances contain mature fruits and 
seeds from which plants may be successfully grown, as the leaf- 
and herb-drugs of the Compositse, Labiatae, Solanaceae, etc. 

Balsam fir or spruce (Abies balsamca) ; calamus (Acorns 
Calamus) ; European agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) ; couch 
grass or dog grass (Agropyroit rcpens) ; tree of heaven (Ailan- 
thns glandulosa) ; common chickweed (Alsine media) ; marsh- 
mallow (Altlicra officinalis) ; scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arzrii- 
sis) ; angelica seed (Angelica Archangelica) ; mayweed (Anthe- 
inis cotiila) ; bitter root (Apocynnrn androscemifoliuin) ; Canadian 
hemp (Apocynnrn cannahinum) ; dwarf elder (Aralia hispida) ; 
American sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaiilis) ; Uva Ursi (Arctosta- 
phylos Uva-Ursi) ; mescale (Anhalonium Leivinii) ; burdock 
(Arctium Lappa) ; manzanita (Arctostaphylos glatica) ; Indian 
turnip (Arisccma triphyllnni) ; serpentaria (Aristolochia Serpeii- 
taria) ; southern wood (Artemisia Abrotaniim) ; common worm- 
wood (Artemisia Absinthium) ; wormwood, mountain sage, or 
Sierra salvia (Artemisia frigida) ; common mugwort (Artemisia 
vulgaris) ; Canada snake root (Asarum canadense) ; white Indian 
hemp (Asclepias incarnata) ; silkweed (Asclepias syriaca) ; paw- 
paw seed (Asimina trdoba) ; spice bush (Lindera Benzoin) ; 
Oregon grape (Berberis Aquifolium) ; black sampson or purple 
cone flower (Echinacea angustifolia, syn. Brauneria purpurea) ; 
borage (Borago oificinalis) ; Indian hemp (Cannabis sativa) ; 
shepherd's purse (Capsella Bnrsa-pasforis) ; blessed thistle (Cnicus 
benedictus) ; pond-lily or sweet-scented white water-lily (Castalia 
odorata) ; blue cohosh (CaulophyUuin fhaiictroides) ; red root or 
New Jersey tea (Ceanothns auiericaniis) ; true unicorn root, star 
grass (Chamccliriuiu hiteum) ; celandine (Chelidoninni ma jus) ; 
turtle head or snake head (Chelone glabra) ; American wormseed 
(Chenopodium anthelminticum) ; pipsissewa (Chimaphila umbel- 
lata) ; common feverfew {Chrysanthemum. Partheniuin) ; Canada 
thistle (Carduus arvensis) ; black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) ; 
stone root (Collinsonia canadensis) ; sweet fern (Comptonia pere- 


griiia, syii. Myrica asplcnifolia) ; gold thread {Copt is t^-ifolia) ; 
coral root or crawley root {Corallorhiza odontorhiza) ; green osier 
bark (Corjiiis circinata) ; red osier dogwood (Coriuis stoloni- 
fera) ; American dittany (Cu)iila origanoides) ; broom tops {Cyti- 
siis Scoparius) ; stramonium leaf and seed {Datura Straiiwininn) ; 
turkey corn or squirrel corn {BicucnUa canadensis) ; wild yam 
root {Dioscorca villosa) ; sundew {Droscra rotundifolia) ; male 
fern {Aspidinui inarginalis and A. Filix mas) ; bittersweet {Sola- 
num Dulcamara) ; scouring rush {Equisetum hyemalc) ; fireweed 
{Erechtitcs hicracifolia) ; fleabane {Erigcron canadensc) ; yerba 
santa {Eriodictyon calif ornicnm) ; European centaury {Erythrcca 
Centaiirinm) ; boneset {Eupatorium perfoliatiim) ; joe-pye weed 
{Eupaforiiini piirpurcum) ; yerba reuma or flux herb {Frankcnia 
grandifolia) ; European wood-strawberr}' leaves {Fragaria 
vcsca) ; American columbo {Frascra carolincnsis) ; cleavers {Gal- 
iuni aparinc) ; California fever-lnish ( Garrya Frcniontii) ; winter- 
green {Gaultheria procumbcns) ; 5-flowered gentian {Gentiana 
qiiin que folia) ; purple or water-avens {Geum rivalc) ; sweet or 
fragrant life-everlasting {Gnaphaliuni obtusifoliuni) ; grindelia 
{Grindelia robusta and G. squarrosa) ; pennyroyal {Hcdeoma 
piilegioides) ; frostwort {Helianthem,um canadensis) ; false uni- 
corn root {Helonias bullata) ; masterwort, cow parsnip {Herac- 
leum lanatujn) ; hydrastis {Hydrastis canadensis) ; common St. 
John's w'ort {Hypericum perforatum) ; hyssop {Hyssopus oifici- 
nalis) ; wild -celandine, pale touch-me-not {Impaticns aurea) ; 
twin leaf {leffersonia diphylla) ; mountain or sheep laurel {Kal- 
mia latifolia) ; mountain mint {Koellia incana and K. virginiana) ; 
lactucarium {Lactuca virosa) ; motherwort {Leonurus cardiaca) ; 
cancer root or beech drop {Leptaniniiun virginianum) ; Culver's 
root {Lcptandra z'irginica) ; lovage {Lez'isticuin officinale) ; deer 
tongue, vanilla plant, vanilla leaf (Liatris odoratissinia, syn. Tn- 
lisa odoratissinia) ; lobelia {Lobelia inflata) ; bitter bugle-weed, 
water or marsh horehound (Lycopus europceus) ; purple bugle- 
weed (Lycopus virginicus) ; low, dwarf or running mallow 
{Malva rotundifolia) ; horehound {Marrubiuin rulgarc) ; wild or 
German chamomile (Matricaria CJwnioniilla) ; yellow sweet clo- 
ver, yellow melilot (Melilotus oHicinalis) : spearmint (Mentha 
spicafa) ; buckbean, marsh or bean trefoil (Menyanthes trifoli- 


ata) ; verba buena {Microineria Doiiglasii) ; squaw-vine, part- 
ridge berry (Mitchella rcpens) ; horsemint leaves (Monarda punc- 
tata) ; catnip (Nepeta Cataria) ; large yellow pond lily {Nymphaa 
advciia) ; common evening primrose {CEnothcra biennis) ; sour- 
wood leaves (Oxydcndruni arborcum) ; field, red or corn poppy 
flowers {Papaver Rhcras) ; American ivy or Virginia creeper 
[Parthenocissus quinqucfolia) ; ditch or Virginia stonecrop {Pen- 
tlioKum scdoides) ; American mistletoe (Phoradendron flaves- 
cens) ; poke root and berries {Phytolacca decandra) ; small burnet 
saxifrage, small pimpernel {Pimpinella Saxifraga) ; common or 
greater plantain leaves {Plantago major) ; mandrake {Podophyl- 
liiiii peltatum) ; poison-ivy {Rhus toxicodendron) ; senega {Poly- 
gala Senega) ; American, dotted or water smartweed {Polygonum 
punctatum) ; bearsfoot {Polymina Uvcdalia) ; hair cap moss 
{Polytrichum juniperinum) ; balm of gilead buds or balsam pop- 
lar buds {Populus candicans) ; Indian black-root {Ptcrocaulon 
pvchnostachyum) ; dewberry, low running blackberry {Rubus 
canadensis) ; wild red raspberry leaves (Rubus strigosus) ; high 
bush blackberry root {Rubus nigrobaccus) ; sheep sorrel {Riimex 
Acetosella) ; yellow dock {Rumcx crispus) ; saw palmetto {Serc- 
noa scrrulata) ; red or American centaury {Sabbatia angularis) ; 
quinine flower {Sabbatia Elliottii) ; blood root {Sanguinaria can- 
adensis) ; soapwort {Saponaria officinalis) ; trumpet plant {Sar- 
racenia flava) ; pitcher plant {Sarracenia purpurea) ; Maryland 
figwort, heal-all or pilewort {Scrophidaria marilandica) ; mad- 
dog skullcap {Scutellaria lateriflora) ; uncum or Viieroot .{Senecio 
aureus) ; button snake-root, rosin weed {Silphium terebintha- 
ceum) ; carrion flower {Smilax herbacea) ; bamboo-brier root 
{Smilax Pseudo-chitia) ; horsenettle {Solanum carolinense) ; sweet 
or anise-scented goldenrod {Solidago odora) ; European golden- 
rod {Solidago Virgaurca) ; pink-root {Spigelia marilandica) ; 
marsh-rosemary {Limonium carolinanum) ; queen's root {Still- 
ingia syhatica) ; pencil flower {Stylosanthes biflora) ; skunk cab- 
bage {Spathyema foctida) ; tansy {Tafiacetum vulgare); dande- 
lion {Taraxacum officinale) ; cancer root or beech drop {Thelcsia 
uniflora) ; vanilla leaf, deer-tongue {Trilisa odoratissima) ; hem- 
lock {Tsuga canadensis) ; coltsfoot {Tussilago Farfara) ; Cali- 
fornia laurel {Umbellularia calif ornica) ; stinging or great nettle 



(Urtica dioica) ; American hellebore {Vcratrum viridc) ; mullein 
{Verbascum Thapsns) ; blue vervain {Verbena hastata) ; com- 
mon speedwell {Veronica officinalis). 

Foreign Medicinal Plants. The following are some of the 

Fig. 182, a. a seedling plant of Digitalis about six months old. 

foreign plants that have been profitably cultivated in this coun- 
try : safflower or American safifron {Carthauiiis tinctorhis) ; an- 
gelica root {Angelica Archangelica) ; Roman chamomile {An- 
theuiis nobilis) ; arnica {Arnica montana) ; belladonna {Atropa 
Belladonna) ; borage {Borago officinalis) ; cayenne pepper (sev- 



eral species of Capsicum, see p. 578) ; senna {Cassia acutifolia 
and C. angiistifolia) ; lippia Mexicana {Ccdronella uicxicana) ; 
colocynth (Cifnilliis Colocynthis) ; colchicum corm and seed {Col- 
cJiiciini aiituiiiiiale) ; conium (Coniiim maculatum) ; stavesacre 

Fig. 182, B. Cannabis saliva: Young plant grown from seed found in the drug Cannabis 


seed {Del ph ill in 111 Sfaplnsagna) ; licorice {Glycyrrhiaa glabra 
and the var. gland iilif era) ; black hellebore {Hellehorus niger) ; 
henbane {Hyoscyamiis niger) ; elecampane {Inula Helenium) ; 
Florentine orris root {Iris florentina) ; laurel, sweet bay {Laiirus 



nobilis) ; wild or German chamomile {Matricaria Chainoinilla) : 
poppy {Papavcr somniferum) ; rhubarb {Rheum officinale); sco- 

Fiu. 182, C. Seedling plants of Erythroxylon Coca (A) and Eucalyptus globulus (B). 

pola {Scopolia camiolica) ; squill [Uri^iiiea maritiina) ; valerian 
{Valeriana officinalis) ; pansy {Viola tricolor). 





Pharmacognosy is a term derived from two Greek words 
which, together, mean a knowledge of drugs. According to mod- 
ern usage it is generally understood to mean the study of the 
structure and chemical constituents of crude drugs. 

The word drug is derived from the Arabic word " dowa," 
meaning " cure," and was transformed into the Latin " dogua, 
doga," with the euphonic intercalation of " r." 

The NATURAL ORIGIN is the scientific name (generic and spe- 
cific names) of the plant or animal yielding the drug. In the case 
of vegetable drugs the natural origin is spoken of as the botan- 
ical ORIGIN. A vegetable drug usually represents some special 
part of the plant, but in some instances the entire plant is em- 
ployed, as chirata. 

The habitat of plants is the region where they grow. Some- 
times this term is applied erroneously to the drugs themselves. 
Neither the scientific name of the plant nor the commercial name 
of the drug may be relied upon as indicating the true habitat of 
medicinal plants. For example, the specific name of Spigelia 
niarilandica indicates that the plant is found in greatest abundance 
in Maryland, whereas it is only occasionally' met with in that 
State. In other cases plants are common to a much larger terri- 
tory than the specific name would indicate, as Pninits virginiana. 
The geographical names associated with drugs frequently apply 
to the places from which they are exported, rather than to the 
habitat of the plant yielding the drug. as. for example. Para 
sarsaparilla, which is obtained from a plant growing in the upper 
Amazon region, is shipped to Para, from whence it is exported. 

27 417 


Plants which yield drugs may grow wild, as is most usually 
the case, or they may be cultivated, as those yielding anthemis, 
cannabis indica and the solanaceous leaves. Plants growing in 
their native countries are said to be indigenous to those regions, 
as Stillingia sylvatica, of the Southern United States ; Aconitum 
Napellus, of the mountainous regions of Europe, etc. Plants are 
said to be naturalized when they grow in foreign land or in 
another locality than their native home. Some of these may have 
been distributed by natural agencies, or they may have escaped 
from cultivation, or they may have been introduced with the seeds 
of cultivated plants or with the ballast of ships. 

The term commercial origin applies solely to the drugs them- 
selves, and indicates their commercial source, which may be either 
the country where the plant yielding the drug is grown, or the 
port from which the drug is sent into the marts of the world. 
English hyoscyamus leaves are gathered from plants grown in 
England; Canton rhubarb is the product of plants grown in 
various parts of China, but shipped by way of Canton. 

The official or phar^macopceial titles of vegetable drugs are 
derived from either the generic name of the plant, as gelsemium, 
or the specific name, as ipecacuanha, or they may include both the 
generic and specific names, as viburnum prunifolium, or they may 
be derived from other sources, as opium and sarsaparilla. 

In addition to the botanical names of plants and the pharma- 
copoeial titles of drugs, a number of vernacular names and syno- 
nyms are also applied to vegetable drugs, as licorice root for 
glycyrrhiza, prickly ash for xanthoxylum. 

The official or pharmacopceial definition of drugs is given 
in the leading paragraph under each drug in the dilTerent pharma- 
copoeias, and includes the botanical origin as well as the name of 
the part of the plant yielding the drug ; and in some cases other 
special features or requirements are given, as the habitat of the 
plant yielding the drug, the time of collection, mode of preserva- 
tion, etc. 

The time of the collection of vegetable drugs is of prime 
importance, and, while we may not be able to make extended 
generalizations, still, the following general rules for the collection 
of various drugs may be given : 


(i) Roots, rhizomes and barks should be collected immedi- 
ately before the vegetative processes begin in the spring, or 
immediately after these processes cease, which is usually in the 

(2) Leaves should be collected when the CO2 assimilation 
process is most active, which is usually about the time of the 
development of the flowers and before the maturing of fruit and 

(3) Flowers should be collected prior to or just about the 
time of pollination. 

(4) Fruits should be collected near the ripening period, i.e., 
full grown but unripe. 

(5) Seeds should be collected when fully matured. 

The PRESERVATION of Vegetable drugs is likewise deserving 
of careful consideration, and attention should be given to the 
influence of temperature, moisture, air and light, and the attacks 
of insects. The temperature of the room or part of the store 
devoted to the storage of dry drugs should not be more than 
about 25 C, and nearly uniform throughout the year. 

Drugs containing volatile principles require to be kept in air- 
tight containers, as the herbs of the Labiatae and Composltse, and 
wild-cherry bark. Air-tight tin cans are probably the most eco- 
nomical and satisfactory containers for the purpose, and the sug- 
gestion has been made to paint the edges of the cans wath melted 
beeswax. Drugs are sometimes stored in wooden boxes or in 
drawers. This method is objectionable, not only because they 
are more lialjle to deteriorate, but because the odors are com- 
municable from one to the other. The storage of drugs in parcels 
is the most objectionable, particularly, as is usually the case, when 
the different parcels are stored together. 

Those drugs that are difficult to dry, as the inulin-containlng 
drugs, and some fleshy roots and rhizomes, as Veratrum, are 
liable to become moldy and should be thoroughly dried before 
placing them permanently in containers. 

The preservation of drugs against the attacks of insects is, 
unfortunately, generally overlooked. Most drugs are subject to 
their depredations, and are usually attacked by the insects in the 
larval stage. The insects which infest vegetable drugs belong 


chiefly to the Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera. The Lepi- 
doptera are the most destructive, and include the cornmeal moth 
(Tinea sea), which, during its larval (the caterpillar or grub) 
stage, is known to attack aconite, capsicum, ergot, lappa, linseed, 
rhubarb, taraxacum and many other drugs. Among the Coleop- 
tera are various members of the Ptinedae, as Ptitius hninnciis, 
Anobium panicemn and Lasiodcrma scrricorne, which attack the 
spices chiefly, as capsicum, cinnamon and pimenta. Chief among 
the Diptera is Trypcta arnicivora, which is sometimes found in 
arnica flowers. 

For the destruction of these insects and prevention of their 
attacks a number of substances and methods have been employed, 
the simplest method of all being to expose the drug to a tempera- 
ture of about ioo C. This method is, however, open to objec- 
tion, as there is liability either to decomposition or loss of active 
principle. Camphor and tar-camphor have been employed, but 
it is doubtful if they should be used, unless in the case of animal 
drugs. In some instances, as with nutmeg and ginger, the drug 
is sprinkled in the drying- room, and when packed for market, 
with quicklime. Benzin and carbon disulphide have been pro- 
posed, but these are of a disagreeable odor as well as inflammable. 
Ether has been suggested, but it is very volatile and inflammable. 
Formaldehyde has been proposed for the preservation of orris 
root. The use of chloroform as a preservative was formerly sanc- 
tioned by the U.S. P. in the case of ergot, and is probably the best 
preservative that has been proposed. A few drops of chloroform 
added to a drug on placing it in the container will usually pre- 
vent it from becoming " zvormy." Some drugs, however, as tar- 
axacum and glycyrrhiza, may require inspection from time to 
time and the addition of a little more chloroform. 

Commercial Forms of Drugs. Vegetable drugs are brought 
into market in various forms ; they may be crude, that is. more or 
less entire, or in a powdered condition. Crude drugs may be 
nearly entire, as seeds, flowers, fruits, leaves, and some roots and 
rhizomes ; or they may be cut or sliced, as in woods, barks, many 
roots and a few rhizomes. They may be more or less matted 
together, as in chondrus and the solanaceous leaves; or they may 
be pressed together by means of hydraulic pressure, giving the 


so-called pressed drugs ; or they are first powdered and then 
molded into forms, as " rhubarb fingers." In some cases the 
periderm is removed, as in a number of roots (althaea) rhizomes 
(zingiber) and barks (ulmus). 

The QUALITY of vegetable drugs is injured by a number of 
factors, of which the following may be mentioned: (i) lack of 
knowledge or want of care in collecting them; (2) carelessness in 
drying and keeping them; (3) insufficient care in garbling and 
preparing them for the market ; (4) inattention in preserving them 
and storing them; (5) accidental admixture in the store, and (6) 
adulteration and substitution. 

The influence which the time of collection has on the quality 
of vegetable drugs may be best shown by a few illustrations. It 
is well known that when the fruits of conium are green they will 
yield over 3 per cent, of coniine, but when they become yellow 
the alkaloid diminishes rapidly in quantity, and, therefore, much 
of the commercial drug will not yield i per cent, of coniine. The 
same thing may be said of santonica : when the flower heads are 
unexpanded they will yield over 3 per cent, of santonin, but just 
so soon as the flower matures there is a rapid disappearance of 
the anthelmintic principle. Dealers in insect powder (Flores 
pyrethri) know that the flowers gathered when they are closed 
produce the finest and most powerful insect powder, worth nearly 
twice as much as that made from the half-closed or open flowers. 
It may be that the variation in quality of some of the commercial 
aconite is due to improper drying, or to the extraction of the active 
principles ; still, there is no doubt but that much of the trouble with 
this drug is due to the variation in the time of collection in dififer- 
ent countries, as well as to its being collected from dififerent species. 

Another factor affecting the quality of vegetable drugs is 
carelessness in drying them and caring for them after they are 
gathered. In some cases the Pharmacopoeia specifies that the drug 
shall be kept a certain length of time before being used, as in the 
case of frangula. A similar specification should be made in regard 
to rhamnus purshiana ; but since the results of the changes on 
keeping are now ascertained, and since a similar effect may be 
obtained by heating the bark at 100 C. for forty-eight hours, this 
specification seems no longer necessary. 


In some drugs a sort of ripening process takes place in the 
drying, as in gentian, guarana, vanilla and the solanaceous leaf 
drugs. In still others a marked deterioration takes place if they 
are placed in heaps and allowed to ferment, as in the case of laven- 
der and most other drugs yielding essential oils. In the prepara- 
tion of oil of peppermint, the yield of oil is greater and the quality 
better if the plants are allowed to dry and are distilled immediately 
or soon after. On the other hand, the yield of methyl salicylate is 
greater in the leaves of Gaulthcria procumhcns or the bark of 
Betiila lenta if they are first macerated in water for about 12 hours. 

Quite a number of drugs are not infrequently observed in com- 
merce in a moldy condition, as taraxacum, veratrum, aconite, 
maranta starch, etc. The question as to what influence this mold 
has on the quality of the drug has not been decided. 

A third cause of inferiority of vegetable drugs is lack of suf- 
ficient care in garbling. This applies to a number of drugs, as 
leaves, with which may be admixed a large number of stems and 
roots ; rhizomes and tubers, in which the proportion of stem- 
remnants may be excessive, or, as in other cases, the proportion 
of roots to rhizomes may be large. The roots contain much less 
of the active principles, and have been found in cypripedium and 
hydrastis to the extent of 50 per cent. 

A fourth factor influencing the quality of drugs is the manner 
OF PRESERVATION. While it is generally conceded that most drugs 
deteriorate on keeping, still this depends largely upon the manner 
in which they are kept. Thus, the Pharmacopoeia limits the time 
of keeping of ergot and states how it shall be preserved; yet a 
number of writers call attention to the fact that, if properly pre- 
pared and preserved, the time of keeping may be very much 
extended. In order to preserve ergot, Grover proposed the removal 
of the oil, and Moss found the drug thus treated to retain its 
therapeutic value for six and a half years. Zanon suggests plac- 
ing the drug in alternate layers with sand and keeping it in a 
closely sealed jar. Others grind the fresh ergot and preserve 
with chloroform in paraffin paper, while some first extract the 
oil from the powder with alcohol or ether. 

Accidental admixture in the store or warehouse depends upon 
the care of the individual, and need not receive attention here. 


The adulterations, substitutions and sophistications will be 
considered under the respective drugs. 

The Valuation of Drugs. In the identification of vegetable 
drugs certain characters are taken into account, such as color, 
odor, general appearance, structure, texture, etc., these at the 
same time indicating in a greater or less degree the qualitative 
value of the drug. While these characters may enable the expert 
to detect very slight variations in quality, and to estimate approx- 
imately the value of a given drug, still the true value is based upon 
the amount of the medicinal principles or so-called active con- 
stituents. The methods employed in the valuation of drugs may 
be grouped as follows: (i) Chemical, (2) Physical, (3) Micro- 
scopical, and (4) Biological. 

( 1 ) Chemical methods are more generally employed and 
usually involve the isolation and estimation of the active principles. 

(2) Physical methods involve such processes as the deter- 
mination of specific gravity of the drug, as of jalap, or the deter- 
mination of the elasticity or measurement of the fibers, as of 
cotton, and still other special methods which apply to individual 
drugs, showing indirectly their quality. 

(3) Microscopical methods of valuation may oftentimes be 
employed when other methods fail, as, for example, when foreign 
starches are added to starchy products, as the cereals and spices. 
Microchemical reactions may also be depended upon in some 
instances to indicate the value of a drug, as in strophanthus, where 
the quality of the drug appears to bear a direct relation to the 
number of seeds giving a green coloration with sulphuric acid. 
The separation of the salts of the alkaloids in hydrastis on the 
addition of sulphuric acid is also of value in determining the 
quality of this drug. 

(4) Biological methods involve the consideration of the efifects 
of drugs upon animals or plants. They may be conveniently 
grouped as follows: i. Effects or influence upon animals, includ- 
ing (a) those dependent upon the perceptions or senses of the 
experimenter or tester, as color, taste and odor; (b) those which 
are physiological or pathological. These are usually determined 
by experiments upon lower animals, as insects, frogs, rabbits, 
guinea pigs, fowls, and even upon man. 2. The efifect or influence 



produced upon plants by drugs, or solutions of their active prin- 
ciples. For experiments of this kind seedlings are usually em- 
ployed and the effects are based upon the amount of growth of 
the root of the plant in a given time when placed in the solution. 
Some of the lower plants (p. 5) are also used in testing the 
properties of chemicals, which may have a toxic action on the 
protoplast or a plasmolytic action on the protoplasm (Fig. 55, //). 

Fig. 183. Case for drug specimens. 

Drug Collections. It is important that the student, phar- 
macist and analyst possess a collection of typical drug specimens. 
It is necessary in the study of drugs and also for purposes of 
identification and comparison. Specimens may be kept in various 
kinds of boxes and bottles, but one of the most satisfactory ways 
is to keep them in type cases (Fig. 183) such as are used by 
printers, the top being covered with glass which can be removed. 


The glass can be kept in place by means of long, broad-headed 
tacks or can be fastened permanently by means of hinges. The 
frames may be hung on the wall or held by means of molding. 



Seeds should, as a rule, be collected when they are ripe and 
carefully preserved against the attacks of insects and changes of 
various kinds, as those incident to germination. They may, or 
may not, be dried before using. 

The medicinal seeds may be classified as follows : 


I. Not more than 5 to 6 mm. long. 

1. With an appendage (canincU') : 

Ovoid or irregularly globular, dark brown ....Colchici Semen 

2. Without an appendage : 

A. Anatropous. 

a. Ovate, flattened, smooth Linum 

b. Triangular or quadrangular, reticulate. .. .Staphisagria 

B. Cainpylotropous. 

Yellowish-brown Sinapis Alba 

Reddish-brown Sinapis Nigra 

II. From 10 to 20 mm. long. 

Whitish, smooth Pepo 

Yellowish-green or light brown, hairy Strophanthus 

III. From 20 to 30 mm. long. 

1. More or less flattened: 

a. Ovate or oblong-lanceolate. 

Taste bitter Amygdala Amara 

Taste bland .' Amygdala Dulcis 

b. Plano-convex or 3- to 6-sided Cola 

c. Orbicular, hairy Nux Vomica 

d. Reniform, brownish-red Physostigma 

2. Ellipsoidal Myristica 


Hairs Gossypium Purificatum 

A paste of the crushed seeds Guarana 

The arillode of Myristica Macis 



ripe seeds of Colchicuni autumnalc (Fam. Liliaceae), a perennial 
bulbous plant, native of and growing in moist meadows in South- 
ern and Middle Europe and Northern Africa (p. 236). The com- 
mercial supplies come chiefly from England and Germany. 

Description. Hemi-anatropous, ovoid or irregularly glob- 
ular, more or less beaked, with an easily detachable strophiole, 
2 to 3 mm. in diameter; externally dark brown, becoming darker 
with age. minutely pitted, the epidermis detached in irregular 
patches in older seeds ; frequently agglutinated when fresh, due 
to the presence of a saccharine exudation ; very hard when dry, 
tough when damp, internally whitish, endosperm hard, embryo 


Fig. 184. Transverse section of flaxseed; E, epidermal cells with small lumen and 
very thick outer wall showing mucilage lamellae; PY, PC, parenchyma cells; ST, stone 
cells; P, parenchyma below stone cells; O, obliterated ceils; CO, cells with reddish- 
brown contents; EX, endosperm. 

0.5 mm. long and situated at end opposite the strophiole ; nearly 
inodorous ; taste feeble, bitter and somewhat acrid. 

Constituents. Proteins ; fixed oil about 6 per cent. ; a tan- 
nin-like substance in the seed-coat ; starch grains in the caruncle ; 
an alkaloid colchicine 0.4 to 0.6 per cent. (0.55 per cent, required 
by the U.S. P.) ; a resinous principle colchicoresin ; ash about 2.5 
per cent. (See also Colchici Cormus.) 

nuni usitatissiiintm (Fam. Linacese), an annual, which is culti- 
vated in nearly all temperate and tropical regions, either for the 
fiber (flax) or seed (p. 303). 

Description. Anatropous, ovoid or oblong-lanceolate, flat- 
tened, somewhat less rounded on one side and on one margin, apex 
acute or beaked, chalazal end rounded, plano-convex in trans- 


verse section, 4 to 5 mm. long, 2 to 2.5 mm. broad, 0.5 to 0.75 
mm. thick; externally light brown, very smooth and glossy, the 
raphe extending as a distinct, light-yellow ridge along one edge, 
outer wall of epidermal cells transparent, mucilaginous and swell- 
ing in water ; easily cut ; endosperm white, adhering to the seed- 
coat, embryo light green, straight, 3 to 4 mm. long, i to 2 mm. 
broad, cotyledons plano-convex ; odor slight ; taste mucilaginous 
and slightly unpleasant. 

Inner Structure. See Figs. 99, A; 184; 293. 

Constituents. Fixed oil 30 to 40 per cent. ; proteins about 
25 per cent. ; mucilage in outer walls of the epidermal cells ; ash 
I to 4 per cent. 

Ground flaxseed (flaxseed meal or crushed linseed) is not 
infrequently deficient in oil on account of its being admixed with 
" oil-cake " or " cake-meal." The latter is the residue after 
expressing about 20 to 30 per cent, of the oil naturally occurring 
in the crushed linseed, and the deficiency is sometimes made up 
by the addition of mineral oils. Ground flaxseed sometimes con- 
tains fragments of the cereals rye and wheat, which is partly due 
to the fact that these cereals grow in with the flax, and partly 
because it is sometimes shipped in meal or flour sacks. 

STAPHISAGRIA. STAVESACRE. The ripe seed of Del- 
phiniinn Staphisagria (Earn. Ranunculacese), an annual or bien- 
nial native of Southern Europe and Asia Minor, and cultivated in 
Austria (Trieste), Italy and Southern France, from which latter 
countries the commercial supplies are obtained (p. 270). 

Description. Anatropous, irregularly triangular or some- 
what tetrahedral, one side convex, the others plane, the micropylar 
end acute or obtuse, 5 to 6 mm. long, 3 to 6 mm. broad ; externally 
dark brown, becoming lighter and duller with age, more or less 
uniformly reticulate, the pits being about 0.5 mm. in diameter, 
raphe forming a more or less distinct ridge on the largest of the 
plane surfaces or on the edge of two united sides, epidermis 
modified to distinct papillae ; inner seed-coat yellowish-brown, 
adhering to the endosperm when moistened, the latter white or 
yellowish, and enclosing at the pointed end a small, straight 
embryo i mm. long and with a relatively large hypocotyl ; slightly 
odorous ; taste of endosperm intensely bitter and acrid. 


Constituents. Two alkaloids, about one per cent. These 
are delphinine, which crystallizes in rhombic prisms and resem- 
bles aconitine in its physiological action ; and staphisagroine, 
which is amorphous and insoluble in chloroform. The alkaloids 
delphisine and delphinoidine are probably decomposition products 
of delphinine. The seeds also contain 25 to 30 per cent, of a fixed 
oil ; an equal amount of proteins ; 8 or 9 per cent, of ash ; and 
several resins. 

Allied Plants. A number of other species of Delphinium 
have been investigated and found to have poisonous properties. 
The seeds of Delphinium consolida resemble stavesacre, but are 
only about one-fifth the size. 

seeds of Sinapis alba (Fam. Cruciferae), an annual native of 
Europe and Southwestern Asia and naturalized and extensively 
cultivated in many countries. The commercial supply of the drug 
is obtained from plants grown in England, Germany, Holland 
and Italy (p. 283). 

Description. Campylotropous, irregularly spherical, some- 
what compressed, i to 2 mm. in diameter, externally yellowish- 
brown, seed-coat membranaceous, and minutely pitted, marked on 
one side by a distinct ridge and two parallel furrows formed by 
the hypocotyl and cotyledons ; internally light yellow, without a 
reserve layer, hypocotyl curved, cotyledons conduplicate ; inodor- 
ous ; taste pungent and acrid. 

Inner Structure. See Figs. 294; 302, E. F. 

Constituents. Fixed oil 20 to 25 per cent. ; mucilage in the 
outer wall of the epidermal cells ; proteids about 30 per cent. ; a 
glucoside sinalbin (C30H44N0S2OJ6), and a ferment myrosin, 
which yield on interaction a yellowish non-volatile oil (acrinyl 
sulphocyanide) which is pungent to the taste, but owing to its 
non-volatile character, does not afifect the eyes or nose. In the 
reaction there is also formed glucose and acid sinapine sulphate. 
Sinapine is an alkaloid which is decomposed, on heating its solu- 
tions with alkalies, into choline and sinapic acid. 

Adulterants. While the whole mustard is seldom, if ever, 
adulterated, ground mustard may contain wheat middlings or 
shorts, and occasionally rice or pea flour; when these flours are 


employed, turmeric is also added to bring up the color, which latter 
may be detected by means of the microscope (Fig. 290) and by its 
becoming deep red with sulphuric acid and blue with iodine. 

Allied Plants. The seed of Tumip {Brassica campesiris) 
is supposed to be the white mustard of Sanscrit writers. 

seeds of Brassica nigra (Fam. Cruciferse), an annual occurring 
much the same as Sinapis alba (p. 283). 

Description. Campylotropous, ellipsoidal or irregularly 
spherical, i to 1.5 mm. in diameter; externally brownish-red, 
seed-coat membranaceous, finely pitted, hilum whitish, forming a 
conical projection, micropyle occurring as a slight depression ; 
without a reserve layer, hypocotyl curved, cotyledons condupli- 
cate ; inodorous ; taste pungent and acrid. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 295. 

Constituents. Black mustard contains the same constit- 
uents as white mustard, save that it contains more fixed oil (30 
to 35 per cent) ; less of the ferment, myrosin ; and the sinalbin is 
replaced by the glucoside, sinigrin (potassium myronate), which is 
present to the extent of about i per cent, and yields on interaction 
with the myrosin a light yellowish volatile oil (allyl isosulpho- 
cyanide or volatile oil of mustard), which has an acrid, burning 
taste, pungent odor, and also affects the eyes. In the reaction 
there is also formed glucose and potassium acid sulphate. 

Allied Products. Of the seeds of the other Cruciferse which 
somewhat resemble black mustard, the following may be men- 
tioned : The seeds of Field mustard or Sinapis arvensis, which are 
almost black and perfectly smooth : the seeds of Sarepta mustard, 
(Brassica Bcsscriana), which are larger and distinctly reticulate; 
Rape or colza seeds (Brassica Napits), which-are larger, not retic- 
ulate and of a bluish-black color ; Turnip seeds yielded by Bras- 
sica cauipcstris, which are somewhat larger but less acrid, and are 
used in India in place of black mustard ; and Brassica juncea, 
which is cultivated in tropical Asia for the same purpose. 

PEPO. PUMPKIN SEED. The ripe seeds of Cucurbita 
Pcpo (Fam. Cucurbitacese) , a procumbent herb native of tropical 
America and possibly tropical Asia, and long cultivated in tropical 
and temperate zones (p. 387). 


Description. Anatropous, broadly elliptical, acute, acumin- 
ate or truncate, flattened, about 20 mm. long, 10 mm. broad, about 
2 mm. thick ; externally white or light yellow, very smooth or 
somewhat rough from adhering fruit pulp, marked by a shallow 
groove or slight ridge parallel to and within i mm. of the margin ; 
raphe not conspicuous, hilum characterized by a minute depres- 
sion; seed-coat consisting of two distinct layers the outer white 
and coriaceous and the inner dark green and membranaceous; 
embryo white, straight, with a small hypocotyl and two plano- 
convex cotyledons ; slightly odorous when contused ; taste bland. 

Constituents. Fixed oil about 40 per cent. ; starch about 30 
per cent. ; proteins : a resin. There is no indication of the pres- 
ence of any principle possessing anthelmintic properties. Any 
therapeutic value must be attributed solely to mechanical action. 

Allied Plants. The seeds of other species of Cucurbita are 
also used in medicine ; in Italy C. maxima and in the West Indies 
C. occidcntalis are the sources of the drug. 

The seeds of other members of the Cucurbitacese are also 
employed in medicine ; they include the seeds of watermelon 
(Cifnilhis vulgaris), cucumber (Ciicitmis sativus), muskmelon 
{Cucurnis melo) and lagenaria (Cucurbita Lagenaria) . 

STROPHANTHUS. The ripe seeds of Strophanthus Komhe 
(Fam. Apocynacese), a twining shrub found in Zambesi and other 
parts of Eastern Africa (p. 363). The plumose awns at the apex 
of the seeds are usually removed before exportation (Fig. 185). 

Description. Hemi-anatropous, oblong-lanceolate or spatul- 
ate, acute or acuminate, unevenly flattened and in transverse sec- 
tion deltoid or plano-convex, 8 to 15 mm. long, 3 to 5 mm. broad, i 
to 1.5 mm. thick; externally yellowish-green, covered with long 
hairs giving a silky appearance to the seed, the raphe extending 
as a distinct ridge from the hilum about half the length of the 
seed ; fracture short ; internally whitish, endosperm about 0.2 mm. 
thick, embryo 6 to 12 mm. long and i to 2 mm. broad, cotyledons 
plano-convex, about i mm. thick, hypocotyl conical, 2 mm. long; 
inodorous except when broken ; taste very bitter. 

When treated with concentrated sulphuric acid the endosperm, 
in about 65 per cent, of the seeds, becomes green ; the cotyledons 
red or purple and finally green, in some instances. 



Inner Structure. See Figs. 186; 284, A; 306. 

Constituents. Strophanthin, a crystalline principle occur- 
ring chiefly in the endosperm and varying from 0.95 to 3 per cent. ; 
strophanthin is colored greenish with sulphuric acid, and yields on 
decomposition a crystalline body called strophanthidin ; the other 
constituents are kombic acid and about 30 per cent, of a fixed oil. 

Allied Plants. The seeds of a number of other species and 
varieties of Strophanthus find their way into the market, but 

Fig. 185. A dehiscent follicle of strophanthus showing plumose seeds. 

these are usually more or less deficient in strophanthin and hence 
do not give a greenish color v.ith sulphuric acid. The most 
important of these are the seeds of Strophanthus hispidiis, a plant 
growing in Upper Guinea and other parts of Western Africa. 
These are smaller, thicker and less hairy than those of S. Komhe 
and yield less than i per cent, of strophanthin. The commercial 
drug may contain other Strophanthus seeds, some of which con- 
tain calcium oxalate prisms. 



Another principle, pseudo-strophanthin, has been isolated from 
the seeds of some undetermined species of Strophanthus. This 

Fig. 186. Transverse section of strophanthus seed; SC, seed-coat with unicellular 
non-glandular hairs (H); R, raphe; E, endosperm; C,C, cotyledons with fibrovascular 
bundle (V) and palisade cells (P). 

principle appears to be more powerful than strophanthin, but is 
less satisfactory as a heart tonic. 



seed of Primus Amygdalus amara (Fam. Rosaceae), a tree native 
of Asia Minor, Persia and Syria, and cultivated and naturalized 
in tropical and warm-temperate regions (p. 287). The commer- 
cial product is obtained mostly from Sicily, Southern France, 
Southern Italy and Northern Africa. In commercial almonds the 
yellowish, more or less porous, fibrous and brittle endocarp is 
frequently present, and this should be removed (Fig. 187). 

Description. Anatropous, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, flat- 
tened, more rounded on one margin, apex acute or beaked, chahzal 
end rounded or obliquely truncate, 20 to 30 mm. long, 11 to 17 

Fig. 187. Drupe-like fruit of almond (Prunus Amygdalus): A, whole fruit wlfh 
distinct suture; B, longitudinal section showing fibrous sarcocarp, and thin shell-endocarp; 
C, D, E, sections of the seed; c, cotyledons; w, hypocotyl; v, epicotyl or plumule. After 

mm. broad, 7 to 9 mm. thick ; externally light brown, with numer- 
ous parallel veins extending from the chalaza to the micropyle, 
outer walls of epidermal cells modified to distinct papilla, seed- 
coat thin, membranaceous, easily removed on soaking the seed in 
water, the raphe extending on the more rounded edge as a more 
or less distinct ridge from the hilum to or near the chalaza ; frac- 
ture short ; without reserve layers, embryo straight, whitish, hypo- 
cotyl conical, 2 to 3 mm. long, cotyledons plano-convex, sometimes 
slightly unequal, plumule i mm. long; odorless, except on treat- 
ment with water, when an odor of hydrocyanic acid is emitted, or 
of benzaldehvde when old ; taste bitter. 

Inner Structure. See Figs. 188; 302, D; 319. 




Constituents. Fixed oil 45 per cent. ; proteins 25 to 30 per 
cent. ; a glucoside, amygdalin, i to 3 per cent. ; and a ferment, 
emulsin, which acts upon amygdalin, decomposing it into a vola- 
tile oil (benzaldehyde or oil of bitter almond) and hydrocyanic 
acid. In addition to the protein emulsin, there is another casein- 
like protein present, amandin, both of which act as emulsifying 
agents in the preparation of emulsion of almonds. 


E' - 

X. AT- 


Fig. 188. Sections of almond seed: A, cross section of seed-coat treated with cola 
potassium hydrate solution and showing outer epidermis (E), inner epidermis (Ei), between 
which is rather loose parenchyma (p), tissues of nucellus (N) and endosperm (En). B, 
parenchyma (p) with large intercellular spaces and the inner epidermis of the seed-coat 
(Ei). C, transverse section of inner epidermis (Ei) and the outer cells of the nucellus (N). 
D, more or less obliterated cells of nucellus (N) and two layers of the endosperm (En), 
which remain intact in the ripe seed. After Meyer. 

Amygdalin, or a similar principle, is found in the young shoots 
and flower-buds, as well as seeds, of apricot, peach, plum, cherry 
and cherry laurel. (See Wild Black-cherry Bark.) 

seeds of Pntniis Amygdalus dulcis (Fam. Rosacese), a tree like 
the bitter almond but more extensively cultivated. The commer- 
cial supply is obtained from Northern Africa, Southern France, 
Italy and Spain, the choicest seeds being imported from Malaga 
and known as " Jordan almonds " (p. 287). 


Description. Closely resembling the Bitter Almond but giv- 
ing no odor of hydrocyanic acid when treated with water, or of 
benzaldehyde when old ; taste bland and sweet. 

Constituents. Resembling bitter almond, but containing 
slightly more fixed oil (about 50 per cent.), and being free from 

COLA. KOLA. The kernel of the seed of Cola acuminata 
(Fam. Sterculiaceae), a tree indigenous to Guinea, and now 
extensively cultivated in the West Indies and South America. 
The commercial supplies come principally from Western Africa 
and the West Indies. The seed obtained from the West Indies 
is known commercially as Bicliy or Bissy-bissy nut. The ker- 
nels are used in a fresh condition or the cotyledons are separated 
and dried (p. 333). 

Description. Anatropous, plano-convex, polygonal, three to 
six-sided, 18 to 35 mm. long and 5 to 20 mm. in diameter ; exter- 
nally yellowish or yellowish-red when fresh, but becoming darker 
with age and on drying, wdth a shallow furrow indicating the line 
of union of the two cotyledons, micropyle forming a distinct cleft 
at one end, otherwise nearly smooth ; easily cut when fresh, but 
hard when dry ; without reserve layers, cotyledons unequal and 
varying from two to five in number, the hypocotyl small ; odor 
distinct ; taste astringent, somewhat sweet. 

Constituents. Starch 35 to 40 per cent., the grains resem- 
bling those of potato starch but uniformly smaller; caffeine 1.5 
to 3.6 per cent. ; theobromine 0.02 to 0.09 per cent. ; 1.5 to 4 per 
cent, of a tannin ; an enzyme similar to the lipase found in nutmeg 
and black pepper which decomposes fats. 

Caffeine or theine (trimethyl xanthine or methyl theobro- 
mine) also occurs in coffee (p. 380), tea (p. 334), cacao (p. 332) 
and Paraguay tea (p. 322). It separates in the form of acicular 
crystals having a bitter taste, is soluble in water and alcohol, the 
solutions being neutral ; and may be sublimed without decomposi- 
tion on heating. On treating a small quantity of caffeine with a 
few drops of nitric acid or chlorine water and evaporating the 
solution to dryness on a water bath the reddish-yellow residue 
is colored purplish by ammonia. A similar reaction is also ob- 
tained by treating the alkaloid with hydrochloric acid and a crystal 


of potassium chlorate, evaporating the solution and adding a 
drop of ammonia water to the residue. (See also Fig. 159.) 

Theobromine (dimethyl xanthine) also occurs in cacao (p. 
332) and crystallizes in rhombic prisms, which are sparingly 
soluble in water and alcohol, the solutions being slightly acid. It 
sublimes on heating without decomposition, and forms crystalliz- 
able salts with mineral acids, which are readily decomposed with 
water. Theobromine on treatment with methyl iodide yields 
caffeine. Both caffeine and theobromine are also prepared syn- 

Fresh kola nuts also yield from 0.3 to 0.4 per cent, of a 
crystalline tannin-containing substance, kolatin, which is com- 
bined with the caffeine as kolatin-caffeine. The latter is unstable 
and is easily decomposed on curing or drying the drug. Kolatin 
resembles pyrocatechin in its reactions and appears to neutralize 
the physiological action of caft'eine, and hence the dried kola nuts 
are more active than the fresh nuts. 

The red color in dried kola seeds is due to an oxydase similar 
to that which causes the darkening of apples when freshly cut and 
exposed to the air. If the seeds are first heated in boiling water 
for 30 minutes and then dried they do not darken. 

Allied Plants. The seeds of a number of other plants are 
said to be -sometimes admixed with kola, and of these the follow- 
ing may be mentioned : Cola Ballayi, a plant growing in the 
Gaboon, the seeds of which contain six cotyledons and are defi- 
cient in alkaloids. The seeds of Garcinia Cola (Fam. Guttiferse) 
have been substituted for Cola under the name of " Stamimte 
Cola." These seeds do not contain caffeine, but two resins which 
seem to have a physiological effect similar to Cola. The seeds of 
Pentadesma hutyraccum, of Sierra Leone, have also been used as 
a substitute for Cola ; they contain a fat, having a turpentine- 
like odor, which is used by the natives in place of butter, and 
hence the tree is known as the " Butter or Tallow tree." 

NUX VOMICA. The dried, ripe seeds of Strychnos Nux- 
vomica (Fam. Loganiaceas), a small tree native of the East Indies 
and also found growing in the forests of Ceylon, on the Malabar 
Coast and in Northern Australia. The fruit is a kind of berry 
with from three to five seeds, which are freed from the bitter 
pulp by washing, and dried before exportation (p. 362). 


Description. Orbicular, compressed, concavo-convex, some- 
times irregularly bent, margin acute or rounded, 17 to 30 mm. in 
diameter, 3 to 5 mm. thick ; externally grayish-yellow or grayish- 
green, covered with long hairs giving the seed a satiny luster, 
sometimes with adhering dark-brown fragments of the fruit pulp, 
hilum near the center of one side, and a more or less distinct 
ridge resembling a raphe extending from it to the micropyle ; very 
hard when dry, tough when damp; internally whitish, horny, endo- 
sperm in two more or less regular concavo-convex halves, embryo 
small, situated near the micropyle, and with two heart-shaped 
cotyledons ; inodorous ; taste intensely and persistently bitter. 

Inner Structure. See Figs. 173, 283, B; 318. 

Constituents. Ash i to 4 per cent.; chlorogenic (formerly 
called igasuric acid), which is a dibasic acid and crystallizes in 
needles, the solutions giving a green color with ferric chloride; 1.5' 
to 5 per cent, of alkaloids consisting of strychnine and brucine, the 
former comprising from one-third to one-half of the total amount. 
Strychnine crystallizes in rhombic prisms and gives with con- 
centrated sulphuric acid, in connection with potassium dichromate, 
a blue or violet color. Brucine forms rectangular octohedra and 
gives a deep-red color with nitric acid. A glucoside, loganin, is 
present in the seeds in small amount, but it is found in the pulp of 
the fruit to the extent of 5 per cent. The alkaloids .are probably 
distributed in both the cell-contents and cell wall. Their presence 
in the wall is shown by the use of iodine solution and in the con- 
tents by the use of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid. The 
thick cellulose walls give the hard, horny character to these seeds 
(Fig. 173), as also the date seed. A small amount of starch is 
found in the fragments of adhering pulp. The seeds are some- 
times made to look fresh by the use of a blue dye which is soluble 
in dilute alcohol. 

Allied Plants. The seeds of Strychiws Ignatii, a woody 
climber of the Philippine Islands, contain about the same amount 
of total alkaloids as nux vomica, of which one-third to two-thirds 
is strychnine. The seeds are irregular, somewhat oblong or ovoid, 
pebble-like, 20 to 30 mm. long, grayish or brownish-black, more 
or less translucent, and are nearly free from lignified hairs, such 
as are found in nux vomica. 


Physostigma vcncnosum (Fam. Leguminosae), a woody climber 
growing in the region of the Gulf of Guinea on the western coast 
of Africa (p. 298). The seeds are also known as "the ordeal 
bean of Calabar " (Fig. 189). 

Description. Anatropous, somewhat reniform or irregularly 
oblong or ellipsoidal, 25 to 30 mm. long, 15 to 18 mm. in diam- 

FiG. i8g. Physostigmine salicylate: orthorhombic crystals from a solution in chloroform. 

eter, 10 to 15 mm. thick, with a brownish-black groove from i to 2 
mm. in diameter extending about half-way around the edge, con- 
taining the raphe as a narrow line, and in which is frequently 
found the remains of the white membranaceous funiculus, the 
micropyle occurring near one end of the groove as a slight depres- 
sion ; seed-coat brownish-red, hard, thick, smooth, but somewhat 
rough near the groove ; reserve layers wanting, embryo large, 
white, with short hypocotyl and two concavo-convex cotyledons : 
inodorous ; taste starchy. 


Constituents. Starch about 45 per cent. ; proteins about 20 
per cent. ; fixed oil about 2 per cent. ; ash about 3 per cent. Sev- 
eral alkaloids have been isolated, the most important of which is 
physostigmine (eserine), which occurs in the embryo to the extent 
of 0.1 to .25 per cent. It crystallizes in rhomboidal plates; has a 
strong alkaline reaction, is colored red with alkalies and yellow 
with sulphuric or nitric acid. With the latter reagent the solu- 
tion changes to olive-green. The aqueous solutions of physostig- 
mine are easily decomposed and a reddish colored substance, 
rubreserine, separates. The salicylate and sulphate of physostig- 
mine are official, the solutions of the former being more stable. 
Physostigma also contains eseridine (isophysostigmine), an alka- 
loid resembling physostigmine in its physiological action ; a liquid 
alkaloid, calabarine, which is physiologically antagonistic to phy- 
sostigmine, and a crystalline alkaloid, eseramine, which is inactive. 

Allied Plants. The seeds of P. cylindrospcrmmn have been 
substituted for Calabar bean ; they are nearly cylindrical and are 
said also to contain physostigmine. 

The lenticular, brown, glossy seeds of Entada scandcns have 
been offered as a substitute for physostigma. Canavalia obtusi- 
folia, of the East Indies, is also said to have been used as an 
adulterant of physostigma. 

MYRISTICA. NUTMEG. The kernel of the seed of My- 
ristica fragrans (Fam. Myristicacese), a tree indigenous to the 
Molucca and neighboring islands, and now extensively cultivated 
in other tropical regions, including the West Indies. The com- 
mercial supply is largely derived from the Malay Archipelago, 
from whence it is shipped to Amsterdam and London. The testa 
and arillode are removed, the latter constituting mace. With the 
exception of those from Penang, nutmegs .are not infrequently 
partially coated with lime to protect them from the attacks of 
insects (p. 277). 

Description. Ellipsoidal, 20 to 30 mm. long, 15 to 20 mm. in 
diameter; externally light brown, usually whitish from a dressing 
of lime, reticulately furrowed, at one end a white, smooth pro- 
jection 3 to 5 mm. in diameter, in the center of which is the micro- 
pyle, the chalaza indicated near the other end by a slight, dark 
depression, from which there extends a more or less distinct fur- 


row indicating the position of the raphe ; easily cut, the surface 
having a waxy luster, and mottled by reason of the light-brown 
perisperm penetrating into the yellowish-brown endosperm, the 
shrunken embryo lying in an irregular cavity about 4 or 5 mm. 
long, near the micropyle ; odor and taste aromatic and pleasant. 

Constituents. Fixed oil, sometimes occurring in prismatic 
crystals, 25 to 40 per cent. ; volatile oil 8 to 15 per cent. The oil 
is official as oleum myristicae and contains myristicin and a num- 
ber of terpenes. Nutmegs also contain considerable proteins and 
starch, the latter being colored blue by iodine solutions. 

Allied Plants. Other species of Myristica yield nutmegs 
which are used by the natives, as M. succedanca of Timor, M. 
fatua of the Indian Archipelago, and M. Komho of Guinea. The 
kernels of the seeds of M. fatua constitute the long, wild, or male 
NUTMEG. They are narrow-ellipsoidal, feebly aromatic and have 
a more or less disagreeable taste. The seeds of AI. officinalis and 
AI. Bicuhyba of Brazil have medicinal properties, a balsam being 
obtained from the latter, which is used as a substitute for copaiba. 
The so-called African nutmegs derived from .1/. suriiiaincnsis of 
the West Indies soon lose their odorous properties. M. sehifcra 
of Guiana yields a fatty oil which has but little odor of nutmeg. 
Fatty and ethereal oils resembling those of nutmeg are found 
in the " American nutmegs " obtained from Cryptocarya moschata 
(Fam. Lauracese) of Brazil. 

Adulterants. False nutmegs consist of exhausted powdered 
nutmegs or defective nutmegs and mineral matter. 

The hairs of the seeds of Gossypinm hirsiitnm, G. harbadcnse, 
and other species of Gossypium (Fam. Malvaceae), biennial or 
triennial shrubs indigenous to sub-tropical Asia and Africa, and 
cultivated in all tropical and sub-tropical countries (Fig. 166). 
The seeds are hand-picked, freed from dust by screens or drums, 
and the cotton removed in the cotton-gin. It is then freed from 
mechanical impurities, deprived of fatty and other substances and 
finally bleached. It is estimated that 1000 million K. of cotton are 
produced annually. Long staple or sea-island cotton is obtained 
from G. hirsutuvi, while short staple or upland cotton is derived 
from G. barbadensc (p. 329). 


Description. A white, soft tufted mass, consisting of some- 
what flattened, twisted and spirally striate, i -celled, non-glandular 
hairs, from 2.5 to 4.5 cm. long; inodorous and tasteless. 

Absorbent cotton is soluble in ammoniacal solution of cupric 
oxide, yields less than i per cent, of ash, and on treating it with 
water the solution should have a neutral reaction and not give any 
reaction with ammonium carbonate, barium chloride, mercuric 
chloride or silver nitrate. 

Adulterants. Various substances may be added to absorbent 
cotton to increase the rate of absorption of water, as chlorides of 
calcium, magnesium and zinc, glycerin and glucose; as loading 
materials, barium and calcium salts, and clay are added to inferior 
grades of the article. 

The hairs from immature seeds are known as " dead cotton " 
and are distinguished by having very thin walls, a thin outer 
layer of cutin, but lack the essential properties for technical uses. 

GUARANA. A dried paste consisting of the crushed seeds 
of Paullinia Ctipana (Fam. Sapindacese), a climbing shrub native 
of Brazil and Uruguay. The commercial product is obtained from 
cultivated plants. The ripe seeds are deprived of the appendage 
or aril, crushed, made into a doughy mass with ^yater, sometimes 
tapioca being added to increase the adhesiveness, molded into 
forms and dried at a gentle heat. During the drying the mass 
undergoes a kind of curing. Considerable skill is required in 
supervising the operation, which is performed by special work- 
men. In addition to its use in medicine, Guarana is used in the 
preparation of a beverage which is used like tea and cofifee by the 
people of Brazil (p. 324). 

Description. Cylindrical sticks, 15 to 30 cm. long, 35 to 50 
mm. in diameter ; externally blackish-brown, -surface marked by 
depressions, but otherwise smooth ; hard, heavy and brittle, the 
fracture being uneven ; internally light brown to reddish-brown, 
somewhat variegated from the fragments of contused seeds ; odor 
slight; taste astringent, bitter. 

Constituents. CaiTeine 2.5 to 5 per cent. ; tannin (catechu- 
tannic acid) about 25 per cent. ; ash about 2 per cent. Guarana 
also contains considerable starch, a small amount of catechin, a 
volatile oil, an acrid, green fixed oil, and saponin. (Also see Cola.) 



MACIS. MACE. The arillode of the seed of Myristica 
fragrans (Fam. Myristicaceas). (See Nutmeg.) According to 
Warburg the arillode arises in the region of the hilum before the 
flower opens and fertilization is effected (p. 2"^"/). 

Description. In coarsely reticulate bands about i mm. thick, 
the whole having the outline of the nutmeg, the basal portion 


Fig. 190. Mace: E, epidermal cells, which in transverse section are nearly isodia- 
metric, but in longitudinal section are elongated, sometimes being i mm. in length; P, 
parenchjTna cells with small starch grains which are colored reddish with iodine; Z, large 
oil cells showing oil globules and protoplasmic contents lining the walls; T, trachea-; S, 
small, irregular starch grains. 

united, but with a small, irregular opening; usually in compressed, 
nearly entire pieces, reddish or orange-brown, somewhat translu- 
cent, brittle when dry ; odor and taste aromatic. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 190. 

Constituents. An aromatic balsam 24.5 per cent. ; volatile 
oil 4 to 7 per cent, and resembling that obtained from nutmegs 
but containing a larger percentage of terpenes; fixed oil, and con- 


siderable starch, which is colored red by iodine sohition, distin- 
guishing it from nutmeg starch. Mace also contains from 2 to 4 
per cent, of a dextrogyrate sugar. 

True mace should yield from 20 to 30 per cent, of non-volatile 
ether extract, from 20 to 30 per cent, of starch, and not more than 
3 per cent, of ash. 

Allied Plants. Macassar or Papua mace, derived from 
Myristica argentea, is somewhat darker and with broader seg- 
ments than true mace. It gives a cherry-red color with concen- 
trated sulphuric acid, is very pungent and yields over 50 per cent, 
of non-volatile ether extract, and less than 10 per cent, of starch. 

Bombay mace, or wild mace, is the product of Myristica iiiala- 
barica; it is distinguished from true mace in that the entire mace 
is narrow-ellipsoidal, the reticulations are not so coarse, the apex 
is divided into numerous narrow lobes, and it is darker in color. 
With alkalies or sulphuric acid wild mace assumes a darker color 
than the true mace does. It is slightly aromatic, but has little 
value as a spice, and yields nearly 60 per cent, of non-volatile 
ether extract. 


Roots and rhizomes represent those parts of plants which 
develop under ground, the latter having all of the characteristics 
of stems except their manner of growth. Most drugs derived 
from roots and rhizomes possess the typical characteristics of 
these plant parts, the commercial products being readily distin- 
guishable as such. There are some, however, that are more or 
less intermediate in character, and, while commonly spoken of as 
roots, thev are in reality modifications of the stem, at least in 
part, as aconite, gelsemium, glycyrrhiza and rhubarb. For this 
reason, and in order to facilitate their study, roots and rhizomes 
are here considered in one class, which is subdivided as follows : 
( I ) True Roots ; (2) Rhizomes that are root-like, at least in part ; 
(3) True Rhizomes; (4) Corms ; (5) Bulbs. 

Some of the roots and rhizomes that are employed in medi- 
cine are prepared for market by removing a part of the periderm ; 
in a general way this treatment is objectionable, particularly in 
the case of those drugs containing volatile principles, as these 


exist in greatest amount in the cortical portion, and the periderm 
serves to prevent the volatiHzation as well as deterioration of these 

Rhizomes are distinguished as upright, horizontal or oblique, 
depending upon their manner of growth, and this may be deter- 
mined in the drug by placing the rhizome in such a position that 
the stem-scars are horizontal. 

I. True Roots. 

1. Monocotyledons Sarsaparilla 

2. Dicotyledons. 

A. Periderm removed Althaea 

B. Periderm present. 

a. Roots nearly entire. 

Tuber-like Jalapa 

Long, thin and of a reddish color Krameria 

Fusiform, very acrid Pyrethrum 

Keeled, crown knotty Senega 

Fusiform, small, yellowish central wood. .Taraxacum 

b. Roots cut into transverse pieces. 

Yellowish-green disks Calumba 

Concentric zones of collateral fibrovascular 

bundles Pareira 

Bark soft, spongy and finely fibrous Stillingia 

" Very light in weight, wood large with 

fibers interlacing Sumbul 

C. Roots cut into longitudinal pieces. 

Characteristic odor and taste Belladonnse Radix 

Horny, tough, pith white Lappa 

Ribbon-like slices, very fibrous Phytolacca 

d. Roots more or less broken into pieces. 
Bark transversely fissured and easily 

separable from the wood Apocynum 

Somewhat tortuous, bark irregularly 
annulate and sometimes transversely 
fissured Ipecacuanha 

II. Rhizomes that are Root-like. 

A. Periderm removed. 

Yellowish, fibrous, taste sweetish Glycyrrhiza (Russian) 

Reddish-brown, heavy, granular Rheura 


II. Rhizomes that are Root-like. Continued. 

B. Periderm present. 

Tuber-like Aconitum 

Cylindrical, fracture tough, wood whitish Gelsemium 

Cylindrical pieces, tough, wood yellowish Berberis 

Annulate above, odor characteristic Gentiana 

Fibrous, taste sweetish Glycyrrhiza (Spanish) 

III. True Rhizomes. 

1. Filices See Aspidium 

2. Monocotyledons. 

A. Periderm removed Zingiber 

B. Periderm present. 

a. Rhizome and roots. 

a Horizontal in growth. 

Light brown, few roots Convallaria 

Dark brown with densely matted 

roots Cypripedium 

Small pieces, grass-like, hollow 

in the center Triticum 

^ Rhizome upright Veratrum Viride 

b. Rhizome without roots Calamus 

3. Dicotyledons. 

a. Rhizome with roots. 

a Rhizome horizontal. 

Numerous upright or curved branches 

and few roots Cimicif uga 

Internally deep yellow Hydrastis 

Light brown and with numerous coarse 

roots Leptandra 

/3 Rhizome oblique. 

Odor terebinthinate Serpentaria 

Odor aromatic Spigelia 

7 Rhizome upright Valeriana 

b. Rhizome without roots. 

a Entire rhizomes. 

Tuberculate Geranium 

Prominent seal-like stem-scars Podophyllum 

Internally with reddish resin cells Sanguinaria 

/3 Longitudinal pieces Scopola 

IV. Corm. 

Transverse reniform disks Colchici Cormus 

V. Bulb. 

Narrow, light yellow pieces Scilla 



SARSAPARILLA. The dried root of various species of 
Smilax (Fam. Liliaceae), perennial climbers indigenous from 
Mexico to Brazil (p. 238). There are four principal commercial 
varieties: (i) Honduras sarsaparilla yielded by Smilax oMci- 


Fig. 191. Different kinds of tracheae. A, transverse section of stem of grape-vine 
(Vtiis vinifera) showing three tracheae from the older wood containing tyloses, w, wood 
fibers; m. medullary rays. The tyloses or thyllen. are in the nature of ingrowths from the wood 
fibers and protrude through the adjoining pores, at the end of the season's growth closing 
the cavities of the tracheae. B, longitudinal section of belladonna root showing a large 
trachea with bordered pores (t),a trachea with simple pores (s). wood fiber with oblique 
pores (w) and parenchyma (p) containing starch. C, longitudinal .section of Phytolacca root 
showing a trachea with bordered pores (t). trachea with reticulate thickening (r), wood fibers 
(w) and parenchyma (p) containing starch. D, longitudinal section of scopola rhizome show- 
ing reticulate tracheas and parenchyma containing stprch. 

nalis, growing in Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, and 
exported from Honduras and Belize; (2) Para sarsaparilla, 
yielded by Smilax papyracca, growing in the upper Amazon 
region, and exported from Para; (3) Mexican sarsaparilla. 
yielded by Smilax mcdica (Fig. 131), growing in Mexico, and 



exported from Vera Cruz and Tampico, and (4) Jamaica or 
Central American sarsaparilla, derived from Smilax ornata, grow- 
ing in the United States of Colombia, Costa Rica and Nicaragua, 
and shipped to Jamaica, from whence it is exported chiefly to 
London. There is also a native Jamaica sarsaparilla which is 
obtained from plants cultivated 'in Jamaica. The Honduras and 
Mexican varieties are chiefly used in this country, although Para 
sarsaparilla has been employed to a certain extent for years. 

Description. Honduras Sarsaparilla. In bundles about 
I M. in length and from 8 to 15 cm. in diameter, consisting of 

yCl^ -^^^ . .v'^.wr^'^ 

^ ^ 

Fig. 192. Transverse section of American sarsaparilla (rhizome oi Aralia nudicaulis) 
showing cork (k), hypodermis (h), rosette aggregates (ca) of calcium oxalate (75 n in diam- 
eter), parenchyma (p) containing angular starch grains (3 to 10 /u. in diameter), oil secretion 
reservoirs (o), sieve (s), medullary rays (m), cambium (c), tracheae (t), wood fibers (w). 

the long, folded roots, and rhizomes, bound together by roots of 
the same plant or stems of some other plant, the ends of the 
bundles rarely being trimmed at the present time : roots 
about 2 M. long and uniformly about 2 to 6 mm. in diameter ; 
externally dark or reddish-brown, longitudinally furrowed, 
minutely hairy and having slender rootlets, the furrows usually 
free from soil ; fracture fibrous ; internally consisting of a white 
pith, a light-yellow, porous, central cylinder and a grayish-white or 
dark-brown cortex, the latter being lighter and more starchy 
near the growing end, and darker (more resinous) near the union 
with the rhizome; odor slight; taste slightly acrid (Fig. 193). 



Fig. 193. Transverse section of Honduras sarsaparilla in which the middle portion 
of the cortex is omitted; e. epidermis with root hairs; s, hypodermis; A, outer portion of 
cortex; B, inner portion of cortex; k, endodermis; g, trachea; b, sieve cells; m, parenchy- 
ma at the center of the root. The thick-walled cells around the tracheae and sieve cells are 
sclerenchyma fibers. After Luerssen. 



The cells of the endodermis and hypodermis are oblong in 
transverse section and nearly uniformly thickened (Fig. 194). 

Mexican Sarsaparilla. In bundles, with the roots usually 
more or less free; the latter grayish-brown, somewhat 
shrunken, the furrows containing larger or smaller amounts of 

Fig. 194. I, transverse section of Honduras sarsaparilla showing the hypodermal 
cells (e) with cork lamellce (k) ; 2, similar section of Mexican sarsaparilla; 3, transverse 
section of Honduras sarsaparilla showing endodermal cells (e) with cork lamellae (k) and 
lignified walls (H) ; 4, similar section of Mexican sarsaparilla showing endodermal cells (E). 
After Meyer. 

soil. The outer walls of the cells of the hypodermis and the inner 
walls of the cells of the endodermis are considerably thickened 
(Fig. 194.) 

Para Sarsaparilla. Closely resembling Honduras sarsapa- 
rilla in structure, but coming into market in the form of rather 
large bundles, closely bound by means of the stem of a vine, 
and the ends evenly trimmed. 



Jamaica Sarsaparilla occurs in rather loose bundles. The 
roots are especially marked b}' the numerous coarse rootlets. The 
cells of the hypodermis and endodermis somewhat resemble those 
of Mexican sarsaparilla. 

Constituents. Sarsaparilla contains three glucosidal prin- 
ciples, which are present to the extent of about 3 per cent. paril- 
lin, saponin and sarsosaponin, of which the latter is the most 
active; it also contains about 15 per cent, of starch; raphides of 
calcium oxalate ; volatile oil, and resin. 

Allied Products. American Sarsaparilla is the rhizome 
of wild or Mrt^inia sarsaparilla {Aralia niidicauUs, Fam. Arali- 
acese), a perennial acaulescent herb, indigenous to Canada and the 
Northern United States as far west as Nebraska. The rhizome 
is of variable length, from 5 to 15 mm. thick ; externally brownish- 
gray and somewhat annulate ; internally light brown, more or 
less spongy, and having an aromatic odor and taste. It contains 
about 0.33 per cent, of a volatile oil, which is bitter and pungent ; 
2 per cent, of resin ; tannin, starch and rosette aggregates of 
calcium oxalate (Fig. 192). 

The rhizome and roots of American spikenard (Aralia racc- 
iiwsa), growing in the Eastern and Central United States, have 
constituents similar to those of A. nudicauUs, but are more aro- 
matic. The bark of Hercules' Club {Aralia spinosa), of the East- 
ern and Central United States, contains the glucoside araliin and 
possibly also saponin. 

The roots of Coccuhis viUosns (Fam. Menispermacese) are 
used in the East Indies like sarsaparilla. 

ALTH^A. MARSHMALLOW. The dried root of Al- 
thcca oMcinalis (Fam. Malvaceae), a perennial herb (p. 329) native 
of Central and Southern Europe, and naturalized in the United 
States in the marshes from Massachusetts to Pennsylvania. The 
commercial supply is obtained from plants cultivated in Germany, 
France and Holland. The roots are collected from plants of the 
second year's growth, and the periderm and rootlets are removed. 

Description. Nearly entire, cylindrical, tapering, 10 to 20 
cm. long, 5 to 20 mm. in diameter; externally very light brown, 
obscurely 4- to 6-angled, deeply furrowed longitudinally, covered 
with detachable bast fibers, with few circular root-scars ; fracture 


of bark tough, fibrous, of wood short and granular ; internally 
light brown, finely radiate, bark 0.5 to 2 mm. thick, and easily sep- 
arable from the wood, cambium zone marked by a distinct brown 
line, wood porous ; odor faint, aromatic ; taste sweetish, mucil- 
aginous (Fig. 99, B). 

Constituents. Mucilage 25 to 35 per cent. ; asparagin 
(amido-succinamide) i to 2 per cent., which occurs in hard crys- 
tals with an acid reaction, insoluble in alcohol but soluble in 50 
parts of cold water; starch about 35 per cent.; pectin about 10 
per cent. ; sugar about 10 per cent. ; ash about 5 per cent. An 
infusion of althaea is colored bright yellow with dilute solutions of 
the alkalies. 

Allied Plants. The roots of a number of other genera of 
this family are used for similar purposes, as those of Kosteletsyka 
pentacarpa of Southern Europe ; Hibiscus Bancroftianus of the 
West Indies ; Malvavisciis pcntacarpus of Mexico ; H. Rosa Sinen- 
sis of tropical Asia and cultivated ; Althcoa rosea of the Levant and 
cultivated; and Sida ovalis of Peru. Mucilage is also found in 
the flowers and leaves of one or more species of Malva, Sida, 
Pavonia, Hibiscus, Pachira and Eriodendron. 

JALAPA. JALAP. The tuberous root or tubercle of Exo- 
gonium Purga (Fam. Convolvulaceae), a perennial twining herb 
(p. 365) native of the eastern slopes of the Mexican Andes, and 
cultivated in Jamaica and India. The roots are collected in the 
fall and dried by artificial means, the larger ones being first cut 
into longitudinal pieces. Mexico furnishes the principal part of 
the commercial supply, which is exported from Vera Cruz. 

Description. Fusiform, irregularly ovoid or pyriform, upper 
end more or less rounded, lower end obtuse or slightly acuminate ; 
3 to 8 cm. long, i to 5 cm. in diameter; externally dark brown, 
deeply and irregularly furrowed longitudinally, otherwise nearly 
smooth or wrinkled, with numerous lenticels 2 to 4 mm. long and 
few circular rootlet-scars ; fracture horny and resinous ; internally 
dark brown and marked by more or less distinct, secondary, concen- 
tric cambium zones ; odor fruity ; taste starchy and slightly acrid. 

Tubercles which have a specific gravity less than 1.275 and are 
white internally should be rejected. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 195, 



Constituents. Resin 8 to 12 per cent., 85 to 90 per cent, of 
which is insokible in ether. Power and Rogerson (/. Am. Che in. 
Soc, 32, 1910, p. 80) isolated from the ethereal extract of the 
resin a new dihydric alcohol (ipurganol) which crystallizes in 
colorless needles and yields color reactions similar to those given 
by the phytosterols. From the chloroform extract they isolated a 
small amount of ^-methylsesculetin. The petroleum ether extracts 
showed the presence of palmitic and stearic acids in the free state. 
On treatment with alkalies and dilute sulphuric acid some of the 
extracts of the resins yield a number of acids and there are indi- 
cations that a portion of the chloroform extract of the resins is 

Fig. 19s. Transverse section of jalap: Ph, cork cells; Se, resin cells; O, rosette aggre- 
gates of calcium oxalate; Si, sieve cells; G, tracheae; C, primary cambium; C'-, secondary 
cambium. After Meyer. 

of a glucosidal nature. The alcohol extract of the resin, which 
represented 38.8 per cent, of the total resin, was obtained, after 
treatment with animal charcoal, in the form of a nearly white 
powder. When subjected to alkaline hydrolysis with baryta, 
this alcohol extract yielded a number of organic acids together 
with a hydrolyzed resin of very complex composition. Jalap also 
contains a volatile oil, calcium oxalate, starch, gum and sugar. 

Allied Plants. Turpeth root or Indian Jalap is the root of 
Operciilina Tnrpetliuin, a plant growing in the East Indies. It 
contains a resin consisting chiefly of turpethin and turpethein, 
a glucosidal, ether-soluble resinoid substance. 

Male Jalap or Orizaba is the root of Ipouioca oriaahcnsis. a 
plant indigenous to Mexico. The drug consists of the entire, 


spindle-shaped roots, or of more or less rectangular pieces, and 
contains about lo per cent, of scammonin. 

Iponicca simidans, indigenous to the eastern slope of the Mex- 
ican Andes, yields the Tampico jalap, which is more or less uni- 
form in thickness, somewhat tortuous, and without any lenticels; 
it contains about lo per cent, of resin, which is completely soluble 
in ether and resembles scammonin. 

Wild jalap is the tuberous root of Iponicca pandurafa, a plant 
growing in the Eastern and Southern United States. It contains 
1.5 per cent, of an active resin. 

From the aerial stems of the common morning glory (Iponicca 
purpurea Roth) Power and Rogerson (Am. Jour. Pharni., 80, 
251, 1908) isolated a volatile oil and 4.8 per cent, of a soft resin 
of which 15.5 per cent, is soluble in ether. 

The roots and stems of Ipomoca fistulosa, of South America, 
yield 0.2 per cent, of jalapin (orizabin), a hexose, wax and tannin. 

KRAAIERIA. RHATANY. The dried root of various spe- 
cies of Krameria (Fam. Leguminosae), small shrubs indig- 
enous to South America, Mexico and the West Indies (p. 295). 
There are three principal commercial varieties : ( i ) Peruvian 
Rhatany, which is derived from plants of Krameria triandra, 
growing in Peru and Bolivia; (2) Savanilla Rhatany, which is 
derived from more or less disputed species of Krameria (K. 
Ixina), growing in the United States of Colombia, British Guiana 
and Brazil, and (3) Para or Brazilian Rhatany, which is sup- 
posed to be derived from Krameria argentea, growing in Brazil. 

Peruvian Rhatany. Consisting of a more or less cylindrical 
crown 50 mm. long and 15 to 20 mm. in diameter, and numerous 
cylindrical, somewhat tapering, branching roots 10 to 40 cm. long 
and I to 7 mm. thick ; externally brownish-red ; crown with rugged 
and scaly bark ; roots smooth or slightly wrinkled longitudinally ; 
fracture of bark slightly fibrous, of wood, tough and splintery ; 
internally reddish, bark i to 2 mm. thick, somewhat easily sep- 
arable from the lighter colored, slightly radiate wood ; odor slight ; 
wood nearly tasteless, bark astringent (Fig. 196). 

Savanilla Rhatany. Crown more or less cylindrical or 
spherical, rough, knotty; root externally dark reddish-brown, 
somewhat purplish, with numerous transverse fissures at more or 



Fio. 196. Peravian rhatany: A, transverse section showing cork (k), a group ot 
6ast fibers (sk), parenchyma of cortex (p), one cell near the middle containing a mono- 
clinic p>rism of calcium oxalate (o), medullary-ray cells of bark (m), cambium (c), tracheae 
(t), wood fibers (sc), wood parenchyma (hp), medullary-ray cells (m); B, bast fiber; C, 
wood fiber with neighboring parenchyma cells which are somewhat elongated and have 
somewhat thickened, porous walls; D. trachea. After Meyer. 


less regular intervals ; periderm not scaly ; bark about twice as 
thick as that of Peruvian rhatany. 

Para Rhatany closely resembles the Savanilla variety. 

Constituents. Tannin from 8 to 20 per cent., krameric acid, 
starch, an uncrystallizable sugar, and calcium oxalate. The tannin 
is colored dark green with ferric salts and is in the nature of a 
glucoside resembling the one found in Potentilla Tormciitilla 
(Fam. Rosaceae) and ^senilis Hippocastanmn (Fam. Hippo- 
castanaceae). The tannin also yields phloroglucin and proto- 
catechuic acid. 

The tincture of Savanilla rhatany forms a clear solution with 
water, which gives with alcoholic lead acetate test-solution a 
purplish precipitate and a colorless filtrate ; the tincture of Peru- 
vian rhatany forms a cloudy mixture with water, and gives with 
alcoholic lead acetate test-solution a reddish-brown precipitate and 
a light-brown filtrate. 

Allied Plants. Krameria lanceolata of the Southern United 
States furnishes the Texas krameria, and K. cistoides of 
Chile is the source of the Payta krameria. The root of Lcea 
speciosa (Fam. Vitacese) of India has been used as a substitute 
for Krameria. 

PYRETHRUM. PELLITORY. The root of Anacyclus 
Pyrcthriim (Fam. Compositse), a perennial herb indigenous to 
Northern Africa and Southern Europe (p. 394), the commercial 
article coming from Algeria. The root is collected in autumn 
and dried. 

Description. Nearly cylindrical, slightly tapering, or broken 
into irregular pieces, 2.5 to 10 cm. long, 3 to 20 mm. in diameter; 
externally dark brown, wrinkled and some^yhat furrowed longi- 
tudinally, with few rootlets or rootlet-scars ; crown somewhat 
annulate from scars of bud-scales, and sometimes tufted with 
coarse fibers of fibrovascular tissue or with long, soft-woolly, 
nearly straight, one-celled hairs ; fracture short and horny when 
dry, tough when damp ; bark dark brown internally, with two 
circular rows of secretion reservoirs, 0.5 to i mm. thick, and 
closely adhering to the light-yellow, radiate, porous wood, in the 
medullary rays of which secretion reservoirs are also found ; odor 
distinct, penetrating; taste pungent, acrid. 


Inner Structure. See Fig. loi, E. 

Constituents. An alkaloid pyrethrine, which occurs in col- 
orless, acicular crystals, has an intense pungent taste, and which 
is decomposed by alkalies into piperidine (a pungent principle 
occurring in black pepper) and pyrethric acid, a principle resem- 
bling piperic acid. Pyrethrum also contains a brown acrid resin, 
two other acrid resins, a volatile oil and about 50 per cent, of inulin. 

Allied Plants. German pellitory, the root of Anacyclus 
ofUcinarum, is smaller ; the bark contains but one row of secretion 
reservoirs, which are wanting in the medullary rays ; and the roots 
contain tannin in addition to the constituents found in Pyrethrum. 

SENEGA. SENEGA ROOT. The dried root oi Poly gala 
Senega (Fam. Polygalacese), a perennial herb (p. 313) found in 
Canada and the Eastern United States as far south as North Caro- 
lina and as far west as Minnesota and Missouri (Fig. 197). 
There are two representative commercial varieties the northern, 
collected in Manitoba and in the State of Minnesota ; the south- 
ern, from Virginia to Texas. 

Description. Southern Senega. Nearly entire, with 
broken and detached rootlets, crowned with numerous buds and 
short stem-remnants, slenderly conical, more or less tortuous, 
somewhat branched, 3 to 8 cm. long, 2 to 6 mm. thick ; externally 
dark yellow, the crown being rose-tinted, longitudinally wrinkled, 
slightly annulate, marked with circular scars of detached rootlets 
and in some cases by a keel which is more prominent near the 
crown and in perfectly dry roots ; side opposite keel more or less 
flattened; cross-section elliptical or triangular; fracture short 
when dry, tough when damp ; internally, wood lemon-yellow, 2 to 
5 mm. in diameter, usually excentral, bark dark yellow, much 
thickened on one side, forming the keel on drying; odor slight, 
penetrating; taste sweetish and acrid (Fig. 197). 

Manitoba Senega is 8 to 15 cm. long, 6 to 12 mm. thick, 
externally dark brown and somewhat purplish near the crown. 

Constituents. The principal constituents are about 5 or 6 
per cent, of two glucosides : senegin, which resembles saponin, 
and polygalic acid, which is sternutatory. The root also contains 
0.12 per cent, of a volatile oil which is chiefly methyl salicylate; 
resin, pectin, sugar and considerable proteins. 



Allied Plants. Saponin-like substances and methyl sali- 
cylate are found to a greater or less extent in other species of 
Polygala, of which at least forty have been used in medicine. 
Other genera of the Polygalaceee seem to have constituents 
similar to Senega, as Comesperma of Australia and Monnina of 
South America. 

Adulterants. The rhizomes and roots of Cypripedium hir- 
siituin and C. specfabile of the United States are said to be some- 
times used as adulterants of Senega (Fig. 213). 

"t n' 


Fig. 197. Transverse sections of senega, the two on the left being of the dry drug, 
and the one on the right showing the appearance after soaking the material in water: R, 
outer bark; Ri, bark on the side having abnormal development of wood; B, inner bark, 
which gives gives rise to the " keel " on the drying of the root; H.wood; C, C^ cambium; m, 
medullary rays; m"-, parenchyma developed in place of wood on one side. After Meyer. 

TARAXACUM. DANDELION. The root of Taraxacum 
oMcifiale ( Fam. Composite ) . a perennial herb indigenous to 
Europe and Asia, but now naturalized in all civilized parts of the 
world (p. 392). The root should be collected in spring or in 
autumn either directly before or directly after the vegetative 
activity of the plant. It is used in either the fresh or dried condi- 
tion, the principal supply of the dried root coming from Europe. 
The pith of the rhizome portion is liable to be attacked by insects. 

Description. -Somewhat cylindrical, tapering, more or less 
flattened, slightly branched or broken into irregular pieces 6 to 
15 cm. long, 5 to 15 mm. in diameter; externally light brown, 
wrinkled, v/ith numerous rootlet-scars ; crown simple or branched, 
slightly annulate from numerous leaf-bases ; fracture short, horny 
when dry, tough when damp ; internally, bark light brown, 2 to 6 
mm. thick, made up of concentric layers of laticiferous vessels 



and sieve alternating with white parenchyma, wood lemon-yellow, 
I to 4 mm. thick, porous and non-radiate ; odor slight ; taste bitter. 
Inner Structure. See Figs. loi, D ; 197a. 

Fig. 197a, Taraxacum: A, transverse section of root showing cork (k), parenchyma 
containing inulin (p) , laticiferous vessels (1) , phloem groups (s) composed of sieve and laticif- 
erous vessels, cambium (c), tracheae (t), modified, non-lignified wood-fibers (Ersatzfasem) 
(w); B, longitudinal section of xylem showing several of the reticulate tracheae and the 
modified wood-fibers with oblique pores that are apparent in preparations made with chlor- 
zinc-iodide; C, longitudinal section of a phloem group showing branching laticiferous vessels 
(1) , sieve cells (s) , containing sphere cryitals of inulin. 

Constituents. The drug contains about 0.05 per cent, of a 
bitter principle, taraxacin, which gives reactions with certain of 
the alkaloidal reagents ; it also contains two resins, one soluble in 



alcohol and the other in chloroform; a waxy substance, taraxa- 
cerin ; 24 per cent, of inuHn ; and about 5 per cent, of ash. 

CALUMBA. COLUMBO. The root of Jateorhiza palmata 
(Fam. Menispermacese), a perennial herbaceous climber, native of 

^ _ In' 


Fig. 198. Calumba: A, transverse section showing bark (R), cambium (C), and 
wood (H), wood fibers (II), tracheae (g), periderm (Pe) and sieve (s); B, longitudinal 
section of periderm showing parenchyma (p), small-celled cork (k) and large-celled cork 
(k^); C, transverse section near cambium showing tracheae (g, g), intermediate fiber (f) 
cambium (c), parenchyma (p) and sieve cell (s); D, stone cell from the periderm contain- 
ing calcium oxalate. After Meyer. 

the forests of Eastern Africa (p. 274). The large, fleshy roots 
are collected in the dry season, cut into transverse pieces, dried 
and exported by way of Zanzibar and Bombay. 

Description. In nearly circular or elliptical disks, some- 
times irregularly bent, 2 to 5 cm. in diameter, 2 to 10 mm. thick ; 


bark externally yellowish-green or dark brown, wrinkled ; frac- 
ture short, mealy; internally, radiate, yellowish-green, collateral 
wood bundles forming a concentric zone, bark 4 to 6 mm. thick, 
cambium zone distinct, center either depressed or more or less 
prominent ; odor slight ; taste bitter and aromatic. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 198. 

Constituents. Two yellowish alkaloids, closely resembling 
berberine and varying from 0.98 to 1.38 per cent, in the bark and 
1.02 to 2.05 in the wood. To one of these bases the name colum- 
bamine has been given. Calumba also contains a volatile oil 0.0056 
per cent., starch about 35 per cent, pectin 17 per cent., resin 5 
per cent., calumbic acid, calcium oxalate, mucilage, and yields 6 
per cent, of ash. 

Substitutes. Various substitutes for calumba have been 
ofifered, but these are free from starch, or they may contain tannin, 
as American columbo, the root of Frasera carolinensis (Fam. 
Gentianacese), an herb indigenous to the Eastern United States. 
This root formerly occurred in the market in transverse disks 
somewhat resembling calumba, but without the radiate structure. 
It contains a larger amount of a yellow coloring principle and 
less gentiopicrin than gentian. 

Adulterants. Calumba has been adulterated with the roots 
of Tinospora Bakis of tropical Africa and Coscinnm fcncstratnin 
(both of the Fam. Menispermacese), the latter growing in India. 
The disks are woody, the center being prominent and not 
depressed, and the ash varies from 11. 9 to 16.6 per cent. 

PAREIRA. PAREIRA BRA VA. The root of Chondro- 
dendron tomentosum (Fam. Menispermacese), a perennial climber 
indigenous to Brazil and Peru (p. 274). The commercial article 
is exported from Rio Janeiro. 

Description. Nearly cylindrical, more or less tortuous, cut 
into pieces of various lengths, usually from 10 to 20 cm. long 
and 10 to 30 mm. in diameter, rootlets few; externally brownish- 
black, longitudinally furrowed and transversely ridged and fis- 
sured, with numerous rootlet-scars and occasional grayish patches 
of lichens ; fracture fibrous, lustrous when cut ; internally dark 
brown, with three or more irregular, excentral and distinctly 
radiate, concentric zones of secondary fibrovascular bun- 



dies, each 2 to 3 mm. wide, and separated by distinct, concentric 
zones of parenchyma and stone cells ; odor slight ; taste slightly 

Constituents. An alkaloid pelosine (cissampeline) about i 
per cent., somewhat resembling beberine in bebeeru bark (Nec- 
tandra Rodicci, one of the Lauracese) and buxine in box wood 
(Bii.viis scinpervirens, one of the Sapindaceae) ; starch, tannin, 
wax, ash 4 to 5 per cent. 

Fig. 199. Atropine: long orthorhombic prismatic crystals from an alcoholic solution. 

Substitutes. Other roots are frequently substituted for gen- 
uine pareira brava. which are no doubt derived from other meni- 
spermaceous plants ; these roots are of a brownish color, possess 
numerous concentric zones of fibrovascular bundles, and do not 
have a waxy luster when cut. 

False Pareira is obtained from a related species {Cissani- 
pdos Pareira), growing in South America, West Indies and East 
Indies. The root is somewhat flattened, externally dark brown, 
internallv vellowish-brow^n, free from the concentric zones of wood 
bundles, and contains about 0.5 per cent, of pelosine. 


The stems of Chondrodendron toinentosum are also some- 
times found in the drug ; these are more woody, possess a distinct 
pith and are marked externally by the apothecia of lichens. 

The roots of several other plants of this family are used as 
substitutes for pareira, among which may be mentioned Chondro- 
dendron platyphyllum of Brazil and Paraguay, and Stephaiiia 
discolor of India. White Pareira is obtained from Abuta rufe- 
scens, the roots of which are whitish or pale yellow and very 
starchy. Yellow Pareira is obtained from A. amara. The root 
is bright yellow internally, very bitter and apparently contains 
alkaloids resembling beberine and berberine. 

STILLINGIA. QUEEN'S ROOT. The root of Stillingia 
sylvatica (Fam. Euphorbiacese), a perennial herb (Fig. 162) 
indigenous to the Southern United States (p. 314). The root is 
collected in August; it is deprived of its rootlets, cut into trans- 
verse pieces and carefully dried. 

Description. Cylindrical, tapering, and slightly branched, 
about 40 cm. long; usually cut into pieces 2 to 10 cm. long, 5 to 
30 mm. in diameter; externally dark brown, longitudinally wrin- 
kled, rootlets or rootlet-scars few ; fracture of bark fibrous ; inter- 
nally, bark light reddish-brown, 0.5 to 4 mm. thick, soft, spongy, 
with numerous resin cells and easily separable from the porous, 
radiate wood ; odor faint ; taste bitter, acrid and pungent. 

Constituents. A volatile oil with the odor and taste of the 
root from 3 to 4 per cent. ; an acrid resin sylvacrol ; an acrid fixed 
oil; 10 to 12 per cent, of tannin; starch; calcium oxalate; ash 
about 5 per cent. 

SUMBUL. The dried rhizome and root of Ferula Snmhul 
(Fam. Umbelliferse), a perennial herb indigenous to Turkestan 
(p. 352). The drug is exported by way of St. Petersburg, and is 
commonly known as musk-root. 

Description. In cylindrical, sometimes branched, transverse 
segments, 3 to 10 cm. long and 1.5 to 7 cm. in diameter, very 
light; externally light to dark brown, distinctly annulate, peri- 
derm easily separable ; the upper part of the rhizome with occa- 
sional circular scars and leaf-remnants consisting of stout fibers ; 
fracture short, fibrous but irregular ; internally, light yellow, 
resinous, spongy, porous, arrangement of wood irregular, due to 


anomalous secondary cambiums, bark dark brown, about 0.5 mm. 
thick; odor musk-like; taste bitter, pungent. 

Constituents. Volatile oil having the taste of peppermint, 
from 0.3 to I per cent. ; two balsamic resins, one soluble in alcohol 
and having the odor and taste of the root, the other soluble in 
ether; fixed oil 17 per cent.; ash about 8 per cent.; starch and 
several acids, as angelic, valerianic and methyl-crotonic. 

root of Atropa Belladonna (Fam. Solanaceae), a perennial herb 
(p. 372), native of Central and Southern Europe, and cultivated 
in England and Germany, from which countries most of the com- 
mercial supply is obtained (Fig. 268). The roots are collected in 
autumn from plants three to four years old and carefully dried. 

Description. Cylindrical, slightly tapering, somewhat 
twisted, or split into longitudinal pieces 5 to 15 cm. long, 4 to 25 
mm. in diameter; externally light brown, smooth, longitudinally 
wrinkled or fissured, sometimes with transverse ridges and with 
rootlet-scars or fragments of rootlets ; fracture short, mealy when 
dry and emitting a dust consisting of starch grains and fragments 
of cells, tough when damp ; internally light yellow, slightly radiate, 
bark 0.5 to 2 mm. thick, not fibrous, and adhering closely to the 
wood, cambium zone distinct ; odor narcotic ; taste sweetish, acrid. 

Roots that are shrunken, spongy, dark brown and free from 
starch should be rejected, as also old woody roots and stem- 

Phytolacca root and Althaea are distinguished from belladonna 
root by having numerous sclerenchymatous fibers, while inula 
has neither starch nor cryptocrystalline crystals of calcium oxalate. 

Inner Structure. See Figs 199, 200, 281, 303. 

Constituents. There are two principal alkaloids hyoscya- 
mine and atropine which together amount to 0.2 to i. per cent., 
the proportions of these varying according to the age of the 
root, the hyoscyamine, however, usually being in excess. The 
atropine appears to be derived from its isomer hyoscyamine and 
not to preexist in the root ; a small amount of scopolamine 
(hyoscine) is also present. Other alkaloids, as belladonnine, apo- 
atropine, etc., have been isolated, but these are decomposition 
products of hyoscyamine. The drug also contains a fluorescent 



Fig. 200. A, transverse section of Phytolacca root, showing the fibrovascular bundles 
(V, V, V",) which are produced by distinct cambiums (C). The parenchyma contains little 
starch, and some of the cells (R) show short raphidesof calcium oxalate, many of the crystal 
being distributed in the section. 

B. Transverse section of Belladonna root which is two or three years old. There is but 
one cambium zone (C). Most of the parenchyma contains starch (St), the remaining cells 
containing cryptocrystalline crystals of calcium oxalate. 

K. cork; S, sieve; W, wood fibers and T, tracheas, both of which are strongly lignified in 
Belladonna root; M. medullary rays. 


principle, B-methyl sesculetin, considerable starch and calcium 
oxalate in the form of sphenoidal micro-crystals. See also Hyo- 
scyamus (p. 619), Belladomice Folia (p. 620) and Stramonium 
(p. 622). (For atropine crystals see Fig. 199.) 

Allied Plants. Mandragora or European mandrake is the 
root of Atropa Mandragora. The drug occurs in fusiform, some- 
what bifurcated pieces and contains two mydriatic alkaloids : man- 
dragorine (isomeric with atropine) and an alkaloid resembling 

LAPPA. BURDOCK. The root of Arctium Lappa and of 
other species of Arctium (Fam. Compositse), biennial herbs (p. 
394) indigenous to Europe and Northern Asia, and naturalized 
in waste places in the United States and Canada. The fleshy 
root is collected in autumn from plants of the first year's growth, 
and carefully dried. 

Description. Nearly cylindrical, slightly tapering, or broken 
and split longitudinally into pieces, 10 to 20 cm. long, 5 to 20 mm. 
in diameter ; externally, bark dark brown, longitudinally wrinkled, 
with few rootlets or rootlet-scars, crown somewhat annulate from 
scars of bud-scales and sometimes surmounted by a soft, woolly 
tuft of leaf-remains with i-celled, twisted hairs; fracture short, 
horny when dry, tough when damp ; internally light brown, radi- 
ate, bark 2 to 3 mm. thick, wood porous, cambium zone distinct ; 
odor feeble ; taste mucilaginous, slightly bitter. 

Old woody roots in which the pith is more or less obliterated 
and which have been collected from the fruiting plant should be 

Constituents. Inulin about 45 per cent. ; a glucoside prob- 
ably identical with that found in the seed, to which the name lappin 
has been applied ; and about 0.4 per cent, of a fixed oil. 

PHYTOLACCA. POKE ROOT. The root of Phytolacca 
dccandra (Fam. Phytolaccacese), a perennial herb (p. 265) 
indigenous to Eastern Nortli America, and naturalized in the 
\A'est Indies and Southern Europe (Fig. 139). The root is col- 
lected in autumn and, after removal of the rootlets, cut into trans- 
verse and longitudinal pieces and dried. 

Description. Fusiform or nearly cylindrical, tapering, usu- 
ally in longitudinal ribbon-like slices, 8 to 16 cm. long, 5 to 15 




mm. in diameter, 2 to 10 mm. thick ; externally, bark dark brown, 
more or less wrinkled ; fracture fibrous, tough ; internally light 
brown, characterized by alternating zones of collateral fibrovas- 
cular bundles and parenchyma formed by secondary cambiums ; 
odor slight; taste acrid. (Fig. 200). 

Constituents. A bitter, acrid glucoside resembling saponin ; 
a crystalline alkaloid phytolaccine, which is soluble in alcohol and 

Fig. 201. Apocynmn androscBmifoliutn: A, flowering branch; B, a fruit consisting of 2 
follicles; E, flower; G, longitudinal section of flower; H, single stamen with long spurs (s) ; 
J, multicellular hair from leaf; K, tracheae with bordered pores (t) and wood fibers (w) ; I., 
a few bast fibers and adjoining parenchyma cells containing starch. Apocynum cannahiniim: 
C, two of the opposite, nearly sessile leaves; D, fruit; F, flower; 1, seed with coma of long. 
1-celled, hyaline hairs. 

sparingly soluble in water ; sugars lo per cent. : starch lo per 
cent. ; phytolaccic acid ; formic acid ; potassium formate 2 per 
cent. ; calcium oxalate 6 per cent. ; and ash 13 per cent., of which 
about one-half is potassium oxide. 

Phytolacca Fructus or Phytolacca Fruit occurs in agglu- 
tinated masses of a purplish-black color, and consisting of the 
compound berries, which are about 8 mm. in diameter and com- 


posed of 10 loculi, each of which contains a single, lenticular, black 
seed. The sarcocarp is fleshy, sweet and slightly acrid and con- 
tains a purplish-red coloring principle which is soluble in water 
but not in alcohol, and which is decomposed on heating the aque- 
ous solution. The fruit also contains phytolaccic acid, several 
fruit-acids and phytolaccin, a substance resembling tannin. 

APOCYNU^I. CANADIAN HEMP. The dried root of 
Apocynum caiinabiiiiun (Fam. Apocynacese), a perennial herb 
(p. 363) growing in fields and thickets in the United States and 
Southern Canada (Fig. 201). 

Description. Cylindrical, somewhat branched, usually 
broken into pieces 4 to 10 cm. long, 5 to 10 mm. in diameter; 
externally light brown, longitudinally wrinkled and transversely 
fissured, with few rootlets or rootlet-scars ; fracture short ; inter- 
nally, bark light brown, i mm. thick, easily separable from the 
lemon-yellow, porous, slightly radiate wood ; odor slight ; taste 
of bark bitter and acrid, of wood slightly bitter. 

Stem fragments are distinguished by having a comparatively 
thin, finely fibrous bark and a hollow center. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 202. 

Constituents. Cynotoxin (apocynamarin), a dilactone of 
Kiliani's oxydigitogenic acid, or of an isomeride, forms small 
rhombic pyramids, which are sparingly soluble in water and 
the usual organic solvents, and is extremely bitter. Apocynin 
(0.2 per cent.) occurs in slender colorless prisms with a slight 
odor of vanillin. There are also present a volatile oil, resin, 
tannin, starch and about 10 per cent, of ash. 

Allied Plants. The commercial article frequently contains 
the root of A. androscomif olium (p. 363, Figs.. 201 and 202). 

IPECACUANHA. IPECAC The dried root of Ccphaclis 
Ipecacuanha (Uragoga Ipecacuanha) (Fam. Rubiacese). a shrub 
indigenous to Brazil, and sparingly cultivated near Singapore 
(Fig. 178). The commercial supply is obtained from Matta 
Grosso. Brazil, and is known as Rio. Brazilian or Para Ipecac. 
The roots of Cephaelis acuminata, a plant closely related to 
Cephaclis Ipecacuanha and indigenous to the northern and central 
portion of the United States of Colombia, are exported from 
Carthagena and Savanilla, and are known commercially as Car- 



thagena Ipecac. Two commercial sub-varieties of Ipecac are also 
recognized, depending upon the proportion of wood and bark in 

Fig. 202. A, transverse section of the root of Apocynuni cannabinum showing cork 
(K); latex cells (L) in the cortex; sieve (S), beneath which is the cambium zone; wood 
fibers (SF), trachea; (T), and medullary rays (MR). B, transverse section of the root of 
Apocynuni androsccmi folium showing in addition groups of stone cells (St) in the cortex. 

the drug. Specimens in which the wood is more pronounced are 
known as " wiry roots," while those which are characterized by a 
thicker bark are called " fancy " or " Bold " roots (p. 379). 


Rio or Brazilian Ipecac. Cylindrical, more or less tortuous, 
5 to 15 cm. long, I to 5 mm. in diameter; externally dark brown, 
irregularly annulate, sometimes transversely fissured, with occa- 
sional rootlets or rootlet-scars ; fracture of bark brittle, of the wood 
tough; internally, bark light brown, 0.5 to i mm. thick, easily sep- 
arable from the dark-yellow, non-porous wood ; odor slight ; taste 
bitter, acrid. 

An aqueous infusion of ipecac gives a copious precipitate with 
potassio-mercuric iodide solution ; a hydro-alcoholic infusion gives 
a yellow precipitate with picric acid, or if hydrochloric acid and 
potassium chlorate are added the solution becomes orange-red 
with a reddish fluorescence. 

Inner Structure. See Figs. 203, 291. 

Carthagena Ipecac closely resembles the Rio or Brazilian 
ipecac, but the roots are uniformly thicker (4 to 7 mm. in diam- 
eter), of a brownish-gray color, and the annulations are less 

The stems are usually more slender, 5 to 10 cm. long, i to 1.5 
mm. in diameter, nearly smooth or longitudinally wrinkled ; bark 
o.i mm. thick, with bast fibers either single or in groups; pith 
distinct, 0.5 mm. in diameter. 

Constituents. Ipecac contains three alkaloids (2 to 3 per 
cent.) emetine, cephaeline and psychotrine, that are said to be 
contained chiefly in the bark, which makes up about 90 per cent. 
of the drug. 

Emetine (methyl-cephaeline) is white, amorphous, forms 
crystalline salts, becomes darker on exposure to light, and with 
Froehde's alkaloidal reagent (consisting of 0.0 1 Gm. of sodium 
molybdate in I c.c. of concentrated sulphuric. acid) becomes dirty 
green, changing to a bright green on the addition of hydrochloric 
acid. Cephaeline occurs in silky needles, forms amorphous salts 
and is quite unstable, becoming yellow even in the dark. With 
Froehde's reagent, cephaeline changes to purple, becoming deep 
blue on the addition of hydrochloric acid. Psychotrine is amor- 
phous, quite unstable, and becomes purplish with Froehde's rea- 
gent, changing to green on the. addition of hydrochloric acid. 
Ipecac also contains 2.25 per cent, of ipecacuanhic acid, with 
which the alkaloids are combined ; a glucoside resembling saponin ; 



Fig. 203. Ipecac. A, transverse section of Rio ipecac showing outer layers ot 
cork (a) ; cork cells (b) ; phellogen (m) ; parenchyma containing starch (p) ; raphides (x) ; 
cambium (c) ; tracheids (t). B, longitudinal section of a portion of the wood showing duct- 
like tracheids (a) ; tracheids with bordered pores (b) , linear pores (c) and oblique linear 
pores (d); transition tracheids (e); tracheids with delicate pores (f). C, starch grains of 
Rio ipecac. D, slightly larger starch grains of Carthagena ipecac. After Schneider. 


about 40 per cent, of starch; and calcium oxalate in the form of 

The total amount of alkaloids in Rio and Carthagena ipecac 
not only varies but there is a dilTerence in the proportions of 
emetine (the expectorant alkaloid) and cephaeline (the emetic 
alkaloid) ; in Rio ipecac the proportion is one-third cephaeline to 
two-thirds emetine, while in Carthagena ipecac there are four- 
fifths cephaeline to one-fifth emetine. 

Allied Plants. A number of drugs, some of which resemble 
ipecac, sometimes find their way into commerce, and, while they 
all possess emetic properties, none of them contain emetine. The 
following drugs obtained from plants of the Rubiace.e have been 
substituted for Ipecac. Undul.\ted (or Farinaceous) Ipecac 
from Richardsonia scabra, a plant growing in tropical and sub- 
tropical America, is an undulate, annulate root, the bark of which 
is nearly as thick as the yellowish, soft wood. Striated Ipecac 
from Ccphaclis emetica, a plant growing in South America, is a 
dark purplish-brown root, with a few transverse fissures and a 
thick bark in which starch is absent. Several members of the 
RosacevE contain emetic principles and the roots of the following 
plants growing in the United States have been substituted for 
Ipecac: American Ipecac (Porteranthus Gillenia Stipulatus) ; 
the root is annulate, and somewhat resembles ipecac, but has 
a thinner bark with numerous resin cells ; and Indian Physic 
{P. trifoliatiis) , the roots of which resemble those of American 
Ipecac but are not annulate. 

The roots of several of the plants of the Eupiiorbiace.e are 
used as emetics. Ipecac spurge is the root of Euphorbia Ipecac- 
uanha, a plant common in sandy soil of the Eastern United States. 
The roots are 30 cm. or more long, about i cm. thick, nearly 
cylindrical, light brown ; internally the wood is yellow and the 
bark white and with numerous latex vessels. The taste is sweet, 
somewhat acrid and bitter. Ipecac spurge contains a crystalline 
resin, euphorbon ; probably a glucoside, and starch. Purging or 
Emetic root is obtained from the large flowering spurge (Eu- 
phorbia corollata), a plant found in sandy soil east of the jNIissis- 
sippi. The root resembles the Ipecac spurge but is dark brown or 
brownish-black externallv, and the constituents are similar. 


The following emetic drugs are obtained from plants belonging 
to the ViOLACE/E : lonidium or the so-called White Ipecac is ob- 
tained from the root of Hybanthus Ipecacuanha of Brazil. It is eas- 
ily distinguished from ipecac by being somewhat branched, larger 
and with a thin bark. An emetic principle is also present in the 
roots of other species of Hybanthus, the root of Anchieta salutaris 
of Brazil, and possibly also in the rhizome of Vioki odorata. 

A few emetic drugs are also obtained from plants belonging 
to the Meliace.e. The alkaloid naregamine is found in the Goan- 
ese Ipecac derived from Naregamia alata of the East Indies. The 
alkaloid rusbyine is found in the bark of Cocillana (Giiarca 
Rusbvi ) of Bolivia, a drug having properties similar to those of 
Ipecac. The roots of several of the Polygalas (Fam. Poly- 
GALACE.E) possess euictic properties, viz.: P. scoparia of Mexico 
and P. angulata of Brazil. The root of the latter plant, which is 
also known as White Ipecac {Poaya blanca) resembles senega, 
is free from starch and contains considerable saponin. 

and root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, and of the var. glanduUfera (Fam. 
Leguminosse), perennial herbs (Fig. 151), found growing in the 
countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region and Eastern Asia 
and cultivated in Spain, Russia, other parts of Europe and to a 
limited extent in the United States (p. 294). There are two 
principal coitimercial varieties : ( i ) Spanish Licorice, yielded by 
cultivated plants of G. glabra, and chiefly exported from Spain 
and Southern France, and (2) Russian Licorice, obtained from 
wild plants of G. glabra glandidifera or G. cchinata, growing in 
Southern Russia. The latter consists more largely of roots which 
arc deprived of the periderm, whereas the Spanish variety con- 
sists mostly of rhizomes. 

Spanish Licorice. Nearly cylindrical, more or less tortuous, 
cut or broken into pieces 14 to 20 cm. long, 5 to 25 mm. in diam- 
eter; crown knotty; externally dark brown, longitudinally wrin- 
kled or furrowed, with few rootlet-scars, rhizome with corky 
patches and numerous small conical buds ; fracture coarsely 
fibrous ; internally lemon-yellow, radiate, bark i to 3 mm. thick, 
wood porous, rhizome with small pith ; odor distinct ; taste sweet- 
ish, slightly acrid. 



Fig. 204. Glycyrrhiza: A, transverse section; B, longitudinal section. B, bark; 
li, wood; X, cambium zone; ph, cork cells; rp, cortex; p, parenchyma; k crystal fibers; 
s, sclerenchyma fibers; t, tracheae; m, medullary rays. After Meyer. 


Inner Structure. See Figs. 104; 204; 282, B. 

Russian Licorice. Nearly cylindrical, tapering, sometimes 
split longitudinally, 15 to 30 cm. long, 10 to 30 mm. in diameter; 
externally lemon-yellow, nearly smooth, porous, with detachable 
bast fibers and circular rootlet-scars, cork, if present, more or less 
easily detachable ; internally lemon-yellow, bark, coarsely fibrous, 
wood radially cleft, not so fibrous as the Spanish variety. 

Constituents. About 3 per cent, of glycyrrhizin, a crys- 
talline, intensely sweet substance consisting of the calcium and 
potassium salts of glycyrrhizinic acid, which latter is an ester of 
glycyrrhetinic acid; asparagin 2 to 4 per cent, (see Althaea) ; 
a bitter principle glycyramarin, which occurs principally in the 
bark and hence is less abundant in the Russian licorice ; a volatile 
oil 0.03 per cent. ; mannit ; considerable starch and calcium oxal- 
ate chiefly in crystal fibers. 

Allied Plants. The root of wild or American licorice, 
Glycyrrhi::a lepidota, a perennial herb indigenous to Western 
North America, is somewhat similar to Spanish licorice. It con- 
tains 6 per cent, of glycyrrhizin and considerable glycyramarin. 

A number of plants of this family contain principles similar 
to glycyrrhizin, as the root and leaves of Indian or Jamaica 
licorice (Abriis prccatoriiis) of India and the West Indies; the 
root of Ononis spinosa, a perennial herb of Europe, and other 
species oi Ononis as well; the locust (Robinia Psendacacia) of 
the United States and Canada ; Caragana pygniora of Siberia and 
Northern China; Hedysaruui auicricanuui of the Northern 
United States and Canada; Periandra niediterraiica, and P. dulcis 
of Brazil and Paraguay ; the rhizome of Polypodium vulgare 
(Filices). (See also Galium, p. 382.) 

The root of G. uralcnsis of Siberia is said to be only slightly 
inferior to the best kind of Russian licorice. 

RHEUM. RHUBARB. The rhizome of Rheum oiUciuale, 
Rheum pahnatiim, Rheum paluiafum tanguficuni. and probably 
other species of Rheum (Fam. Polygonacess), perennial herbs 
(Fig. 205) indigenous to Northwestern China and Eastern Thibet, 
and sparingly cultivated in other parts of the world (p. 262). 
The rhizomes are collected in autumn from plants that are eight 
to ten vears old, most of the bark is removed, and thev are then 



Fig. 205. Rheum officinale, growing in the Chelsea Physic Garden (London). 

After Perredes. 


perforated, strung on ropes and dried either in the sun or by 
artificial heat. The drug is exported chiefly from Shanghai. The 
principal commercial varieties are known as Chinese rhubarb, 
Canton rhubarb and Shensi rhubarb, the latter being preferred. 

Description. Cut into irregular plano-convex and oblong 
pieces, frequently with a large perforation, hard and moderately 
heavy, 5 to 15 cm. long, 5 to 8 cm. broad and 3 to 6 cm. thick; 
externally mottled from alternating striae of light-brown paren- 
chyma cells and dark-brown medullary rays, occasionally with 
reddish-brown cork patches and small radiate scars of fibro- 
vascular tissue, smooth and sometimes covered with a light-brown 
powder ; fracture somewhat granular ; internally light brown ; odor 
distinct ; taste bitter, astringent and gritty. 

Light and spongy rhizomes should be rejected. 

Inner Structure. See Figs. 281, A; 289. 

Constituents. The principal constituent appears to be a 
glucoside (possibly the chrysophan of some authors) or an unde- 
termined substance which yields successive oxidation products, 
viz.: chrysophanic acid (di-oxy-methyl-anthraquinone), emodin 
(tri-oxy-methyl-anthraquinone), and rhein (tetra-oxy-methyl-an- 
thraquinone). Chrysophanic acid crystallizes in golden-yellow, 
clinorhombic prisms and dissolves in alkalies and in concentrated 
sulphuric acid, the solutions having a deep-red color. It is 
re-formed in rhubarb after extracting it by exposing the moistened 
root to air. Emodin occurs to the extent of 1.5 per cent, and 
forms orange-red needles which are soluble in hot toluene and 
give with alkalies and alkali carbonates purplish colored solu- 
tions. RiiEiN forms yellowish-brown scales which are insoluble 
in hot toluene, soluble in hot acetic acid and produce purplish-red 
solutions with the alkalies or alkali carbonates. Recently another 
oxymethylanthraquinone-yielding substance, rheopurgarin, has 
been isolated from Shensi rhubarb. It forms yellow needles, and 
appears to be composed of four glucosides : (a) one related to 
emodin, (b) one related to rhein, (c) chrysophanein, which 
yields chrysophanic acid, and (d) rheochrysin, which yields a 
yellow crystalline body, rheochrysidine, considered to be identical 
with Hesse's rhabarberon or iso-emodin. The following glu- 
cosidal tannoid constituents are also present : glucogallin, yield- 
ing gallic acid, and tetrarin, yielding in addition to gallic acid. 


cinnamic acid and rheosmin, an aldehyde having the odor of 
rhubarb. A catechin resembhng the catechin of gambir has also 
been found. Rhubarb also contains considerable starch ; calcium 
oxalate; and yields about 15 per cent, of ash. 

Allied Plants. The rhizomes of other species of Rheum 
are also used to a limited extent, as English or Austrian rhubarb 
from Rheum rhaponticniii; they are more or less cylindrical, dis- 
tinctly radiate, and contains, besides chrysophanic acid, rhapontin. 
Rhcuni palmatinii which is cultivated in France. Germany and 
Russia, produces rhizomes that are lighter in color and less valu- 
able than the Chinese rhubarb, the constituents being similar to 
those of Austrian rhubarb. 

ACONITUAL ACONITE. The tuberous root of Aconitmn 
NapcUus (Fam. Ranunculaceae), a perennial herb (Figs. 84, 141), 
growing in the mountainous districts of Europe, Asia and West- 
ern North America. It is also cultivated in temperate regions 
(p. 268). The commercial supplies are obtained from England 
and Germany, and in England the root is collected in autumn 
from cultivated plants after the overground parts have died down, 
whereas in Germany the roots are collected from wild plants dur- 
ing the flowering period, this being done to distinguish the partic- 
ular species yielding the drug. The root should be carefully dried. 

Description. More or less conical or fusiform, 4 to 10 cm. 
long, 5 to 20 mm. in diameter ; externally dark brown, smooth or 
somewhat wrinkled, the upper portion with a bud, remains of 
bud-scales or stem-scars, with numerous root-scars or short roots ; 
fracture horny, somewhat mealy ; internally, bark light or dark 
brown, i to 2 mm. thick, cambium irregular, 5- to 7-angled, wood 
yellowish, in small bundles at the angles, pith light brown, about 
2 to 6 mm. in diameter ; odor very slight ; taste sweetish, acrid, 
pungent, accompanied by a sensation of numbness and tingling. 

The shrunken, hollow, older tubers, together with the over- 
ground stem-remnants, should, be rejected. 

Inner Structure. See Figs 206, 309. 

Constituents. A number of alkaloids have been isolated, of 
which aconitine is the most important ; it occurs to the extent 
of about 0.75 per cent., and forms prisms (Fig. 142), which are 
not colored by concentrated sulphuric or nitric acid. An aqueous 
solution of the alkaloid, after acidulating with acetic acid, gives on 



the addition of a solution of potassium permanganate a red crys- 
talline precipitate. Aconitine decomposes quite readily and sev- 
eral of its derivatives have been isolated : benzaconine, an inert 
alkaloid and aconine which produces apparently contrary physio- 

FiG. 206. Transverse section of aconite: K, cork; E, epidermis; ST, stone cells; 
EN, endodermis; C, cambium; T, tracheae; P, parenchyma. 

logical effects to aconitine. The alkaloid napelline may be iso- 
meric with aconine. Aconite also contains considerable aconitic 
acid which is chiefly combined with calcium and occurs in other 
genera of the Fam. Ranunculacese, viz. : Delphinium and Adonis ; 



considerable starch ; a little mannitol and a resin. The other alka- 
loids are amorphous and non-toxic, and of these isaconitine (napel- 
line) has been employed medicinally. 

Fig. 207. Culver's-root {Leptattdra virginica) showing the verticillate leaves and the long 

spike-like terminal racemes. 

Allied Plants. Japanese aconite is obtained from Aco- 
iiititm Fischcri; the root- is smaller, conical, nearly smooth and 
with starch grains that are much larger than those of the official 


drug (Fig. 309). Indian aconite, the product of Aconitum ferox, 
is a much larger root and somewhat horny, owing to the gela- 
tinization of the starch in its preparation for market. 

A very large number of species of Aconitum are used medi- 
cinally. These may be brought into five groups : ( i ) Those con- 
taining the alkaloid aconitine, as Aconitum Napcllus; (2) those 
containing pseudaconitine, which, while it resembles in some of 
its properties aconitine, is not chemically identical with it. and 
is found in the Indian aconite obtained from A. ferox, A. 
luridmu and A. palmatum; (3) those containing the alkaloid, 
japaconitine, which closely resembles pseudaconitine and is found 
in Japanese aconite, obtained from A. Fischeri; (4) those which 
contain the narcotic bases, lycaconitine and myoctonine, found in 
A. lycoctormm of Asia and Europe; (5) those yielding lappaco- 
nitine, a powerful alkaloid occurring in A. septentrionalc, a nearly 
related species to A. lycocfonvm. 

Aconite leaves, the dried leaves (Fig. 141) of Aconitum 
Napellns, are extensively used (p. 268). The constituents resem- 
ble those of the tuber and the amount of aconitine varies from 
0.25 to 0.50 per cent. The ash is about 16 per cent. In Great 
Britain the fresh or recently dried leaves are largely employed. 

MINE. The dried rhizome and roots of Gelseinium sempcr- 
virens (Fam. Loganiacese), a smooth, perennial climber of 
the Southern United States and Guatemala (p. 362). The drug 
should be collected in autumn. 

Description. Rhizome horizontal, cylindrical, usually cut 
into pieces 9 to 20 cm. long, 4 to 15 mm. in diameter; externally 
light brown, longitudinally wrinkled, transversely fissured; upper 
surface with few stem-scars ; under and side portions with numer- 
ous roots and root-scars ; fracture tough, wiry ; internally light 
brown or pale yellow, bark about i mm. thick, wood distinctly 
radiate, excentral, with four groups of internal phloem, pith dis- 
integrated ; odor slight ; taste bitter. 

Inner Structure. See Figs. 208, 208a. 

Roots light brown, 3 to 20 cm. long, 2 to 8 mm. thick; inter- 
nally light yellow, bark about 0.5 mm. thick, wood distinctly 



The overground stem is dark or reddish-brown, longitudinally 
wrinkled and has numerous lenticels and few, somewhat elliptical 
l)ranch-scars ; the bark is about 0.2 mm. thick and somewhat 


Fig. 208. Transverse section of rhizome of gelsemium: K, cork; C, cortex; WF, wood 
fibers; T, trachese; MR, medullary raj's; Ph, internal phloem. 

Constituents. Two alkaloids of great toxicity, the one 
known as gelsemine, crystallizes in silky needles and on the addi- 
tion of concentrated nitric acid and heating the solution is colored 
reddish and then dark green ; the other gelseminine, occurring 
in amorphous masses and forming yellowish amorphous salts, is 
colored greenish on the addition of nitric acid. In addition the 




drug contains 0.2 to 0.5 per cent, of B-methyl-sesculetin (gelsemic 
acid), which also occurs in scopola and other plants, and which 
gives with solutions of the alkalies, a bluish fluorescence; 0.5 
per cent, of a volatile oil; about 4 per cent, of resins, one 
of which is acrid ; starch ; and calcium oxalate in the form of 
monoclinic prisms. 

Fig. 208a. Transverse section of gelsemium near the cambium: P, parenchyma; S, 
sieve; C, cambium; Ca, calcium oxalate crystals; SK, SF, wood fibers; T, trachea;; MR, 
medullaiy rays. 

and roots of Berberis Aquifolium (Fam. Berberidace?e), a low 
trailing shrub (p. 272), which is indigenous to the Rocky 
Mountain region of the United States, extending into British 
Columbia and as far east as Nebraska. 

Description.^ Tn cylindrical pieces which vary from 8 to 12 
cm. long and 1.5 to 3.5 cm. in diameter; externally pale yellowish- 
brown to dark vellowish-brown. longitudinally wrinkled, with few 
root branches and occasionally rootlets; hard and tough. Inter- 
nally, bark dark brown, less than i mm. thick and rather soft; 


wood lemon-yellow, distinctly radiate, with narrow medullary 
rays ; pith bright yellow, 2 or 3 mm. in diameter. Slightly 
odorous. Taste bitter. 

Constituents. Four alkaloids, namely, berberine ; oxyacan- 
thine, which acquires a yellow color in sunlight ; berbamine, which 
is distinguished from the above-mentioned alkaloids by being 
soluble in water ; and another alkaloid whose properties have not 
been investigated. The drug also contains resin and considerable 

Allied Plants. Berberis vulgaris (European barberry), 
naturalized in the United States, furnishes a drug which has sim- 
ilar properties. Not only the rhizomes and roots but also the 
stem and root barks are employed, the root bark containing a 
larger amount of alkaloids than that of the stem. 

The bark and root of Berberis asiatica of the Himalaya region 
and B. aristata of India are similarly employed, the latter con- 
taining about 2 per cent, of berberine. 

The flowers and berries of Berberis Aquifoliuin and B. 
vulgaris contain berberine, oxyacanthine, volatile oil, about 6 per 
cent, of malic acid and 3.5 to 4.7 per cent, of sugar. 

The alkaloid berberine is also found in Argemone mexicana 
(Fam. Papaveracese) and in the following members of the Ranun- 
culacese: Hydrastis canadensis, Coptis frifolia and Xanthorrhiza 

GENTIANA. GENTIAN. The rhizome and roots of Gcn- 
tiana lutea (Fam. Gentianaceae), a perennial herb (Fig. 209) in- 
digenous to Central and Southern Europe and Asia Minor (p. 
362). The fleshy rhizomes and roots are collected in autumn and 
frequently cut into longitudinal pieces and slowly dried, during 
which latter process they develop a distinctive color and odor, 
losing thereby some of the gentiopicrin. The commercial sup- 
plies are obtained from France, Germany, Spain and Switzerland. 

Description. Nearly cylindrical and sometimes branched, 
split longitudinally or broken into irregular pieces, 3 to 15 cm. 
long, 5 to 40 mm. in diameter ; externally light brown, the upper 
or rhizome portion annulate from scars of bud-scales, longitud- 
inally wrinkled, and with few buds, stem- and root-scars, roots 
longitudinally wrinkled ; fracture short when dry, tough and flex- 



ible when damp ; internally dark yellow, bark 0.5 to 2 mm. thick, 
porous, cambium zone distinct ; odor heavy ; taste bitter. 
Inner Structure. See Fig. 210. 

Fig. 209. Gentiana lutea, growing in the Royal Botanic Society's Gardens (London). 

After Pgrredes. 

Constituents. A bitter glucoside gentiopicrin, about o.i 
per cent., occurring in yellow needles which are readily soluble 
in water but less so in alcohol and to which the drug owes its 
peculiar bitterness and odor; a coloring principle gentisin (gen- 
tianin or gentisic acid), occurring in yellowish prisms which are 



soluble in alcohol but nearly insoluble in water, and becoming 
greenish-brown with ferric salts, whence some consider it to be 
a kind of tannin and have named it gentiotannic acid ; quercitrin, 


Fig. 210. Longitudinal (A) and transverse (B) sections of gentian: a, cork; b, a 
kind of hypodermal layer; c, sieve; f, cambium; e, elongated fiber-like cells; h, somewhat 
elongated parenchyma cells; g, short parenchyma cells. After Meyer. 

or an allied product, crystallizing in yellowish needles ; gentianose, 
a crystalline carbohydrate which occurs in the fresh root and 
which does not reduce Fehling's solution; 12 to 15 per cent, of 
glucose; and pectin. Gentian also contains two other glucosides: 



gentiamarin. which is amorphous, has a disagreeable bitter taste 
and gives a sHght darkening with iron salts ; and gentianin, which 
occurs in yellowish needles, gives a greenish-black color with 
ferric salts and on hydrolysis yields gentienin, xylose and glucose. 
Allied Plants. The rhizomes and roots of various other 
European species of Gentiana are sometimes collected and em- 
ployed medicinally, as of Gentiana purpurea, collected in Switzer- 
land, and G. Pannonica and G. Punctata, collected in Austria. 
The rhizome and roots of Elliott's gentian, Gentiana Elliottii, 
indigenous to the southeastern part of the United States, was at 
one time official in this country. 

Fig. 211. Rhizome of African ginger showing scars of overground branch (Ls) and 
buds (k). The more or less parallel lines represent leaf-scars and scars of bud-scales, and 
the small circles, root-scars. After Meyer. 

The root of American Columbo, also known as yellow gentian 
{Frasera carolinensis) , a perennial herb growing in the Eastern 
United States and Canada, resembles in the whole condition the 
official gentian, but is of a lighter color (p. 460). 

ZINGIBER. GINGER. The rhizome of Zingiber officinale 
(Fam. Zingiberacese), a perennial herb (Fig. 132) indigenous to 
Asia, and cultivated in tropical countries, notably in the West 
Indies, India, and Africa (p. 242). The rhizomes are collected 
between December and March ; they are cleaned by washing, 
peeled, again washed in water, sometimes containing juice of the 
lime fruit, and dried in the sun. There are several kinds of the 
drug, depending upon the manner of treatment. That from 



Africa has the periderm removed from the vertical sides only, 
and is known as " coated " ginger ; in the Jamaica variety the peri- 
derm is completely removed and the product is known as " peeled " 
or " uncoated " or " scraped " ginger. The latter is sometimes 
steeped in milk of lime to protect it against the attacks of insects. 
The Jamaica variety is the official ginger. 

Fig. 212. Transverse section of portion of rhizome of ginger: P, parenchyma con- 
taining ovoid starch grains; O, oil cells; R, cells containing resin; SF, sclerenchymatic 
fiber; T, tracheae; S, sieve. 

Jamaica Ginger. Horizontal, laterally compressed, irregu- 
larly branched pieces (Fig. 211), 4 to 10 cin. long, 4 to 20 mm. 
broad, 5 to 10 mm. thick; externally light brown, longitudinally 
wrinkled, with somewhat elliptical, depressed stem-scars, with few 
fibers of fibrovascular tissue or adhering fragments of periderm ; 
fracture mealy and with short projecting fibrovascular bundles ; 
internally, cortex light brown, o.i to 0.4 mm. thick; central cylin- 
der with numerous circular groups of fibrovascular tissue and 
yellowish secretion cells ; odor strongly aromatic ; taste pungent. 

Inner Structure. See Figs. 212, 214. 

Ginger which is bleached by means of sulphur fumes or bleach- 


ing powder (chlorinated lime) or that is coated with lime should 
not be used. 

Constituents. Volatile oil, possessing the aromatic odor 
of the drug, i to 3 per cent., and consisting chiefly of a sesqui- 
terpene, some dextro-camphene and phellandrene ; a colorless, 
viscid principle gingerol, which has the pungent taste of the drug, 
0.5 to 1.5 per cent. ; two resins, one of which is acid in character; 
starch, 20 per cent. 

Commercial varieties. The following are derived from 
Zingiber oiUcinale: (i) Natural Jamaica ginger occurs in long, 
slender, flattish, branching, light yellowish-brown pieces, the peri- 
derm being completely removed. (2) Bleached Jamaica ginger 
is the natural Jamaica rhizome frequently coated with lime. (3) 
African ginger consists of grayish-brown pieces which are partly 
peeled on the flattened sides, in section exhibit garnet resin dots, 
and the taste is intensely acrid. (4) Calcutta ginger resembles 
African ginger, but has a greater proportion of cork, and yields 
a higher percentage of ash than the other commercial gingers. 
(5) Calicut ginger also resembles African ginger. (6) Cochin 
ginger is a scraped ginger, internally is of a light cream color 
and exhibits numerous black resin dots. (7) Japan ginger is 
probably derived from Z. Zerumbet. It belongs to the class of 
scraped and limed gingers, and has a short and mealy fracture. 
The resin dots are reddish, and it differs from all the other gingers 
in having numerous compound starch grains varying from 4 to 
25 fx in diameter. 

In fresh ginger and in the confection " crystallized ginger " 
the contents of the secretion cells are oily and of a yellow color, 
but in old dried rhizomes the contents are darker and insoluble 
in alcohol, ether, glacial acetic acid, potassium hydrate and chloral 


rhizome and roots of ConvaUaria inajaUs (Eani. Liliacese), a 
perennial herb (p. 238) indigenous to Europe, Asia and the higher 
mountains of Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina and 
extensively cultivated for its flowers. The rhizome and roots 
should be collected late in summer and carefully dried. The 
leaves and flowers have also been used in medicine. 



Description. Rhizome horizontal, cylindrical, and sometimes 
branched, jointed, in pieces from 3 to 17 cm. long, internodes 10 to 
50 mm. long, i to 3 mm. in diameter, nodes with a circular scar, 
not much thickened ; externally light or dark brown, longitudinally 
wrinkled, somewhat annulate from scars of bud-scales, mostly 
smooth between the nodes, upper surface of nodes marked by 


Fig. 213. Transverse section of central cylinder and portion of cortex of root of 
Cypripedium hirsutum: E, epidermis; H, hypodermis; Ca, Raphides of calcium oxalate; 
P, parenchyma containing starch (St) ; En, endodermis; F, Hgnified sclerenchymatous fibers; 
T, tracheee; B, non-lignified, thick-walled fibers exterior to sieve groups; L, peripheral layer 
of central cylinder. The latter usually consists of 6 to 8 radial fibrovascular bundles. 

stem-scars, side and under surface with root-scars, or usually with 
three to five roots, fracture short or fibrous ; internally light or 
dark brown, cortex 0.5 mm. thick, separable from the central cyl- 
inder ; odor faint ; taste bitter, slightly acrid. 


Roots somewhat tortuous, 5 to 6 cm. long, about 0.3 to 0.5 
mm. in diameter, rootlets few. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 114. 

Constituents. A bitter, somewhat crystalline glucoside, 
convallamarin, about 0.6 per cent., which is soluble in water, 
alcohol and ether and has a physiological action similar to digi- 
talin. An acrid glucoside, convallarin, forming rectangular prisms 
which are insoluble in ether and sparingly soluble in water, the 
solution foaming on shaking like a saponin solution. 

The FLOWERS of Lily-of-the-valley contain a volatile crystalline 
principle which is fragrant in even dilute solutions. 

and roots of Cypripedium pubescens {C. hirsutum), and Cypri- 
pediiim parviHorum (Fam. Orchidaceae), perennial herbs (Fig. 
133) native in woods and thickets of the Eastern and Central 
United States and Canada (p. 245). 

Description. Rhizome horizontal, somewhat tortuous and 
bent, 3 to 7 cm. long, 2 to 4 mm. in diameter; externally dark 
brown, annulate from scars of bud-scales, upper surface with 
numerous large, sometimes depressed scars, under and side por- 
tions with numerous roots and few root-scars ; fracture short ; 
internally light brown, cortex about 0.5 mm. thick, central cylin- 
der somewhat porous, and with numerous scattered fibrovascular 
bundles; odor heavy, distinct; taste bitter, somewhat pungent. 
The walls of the endodermal cells are slightly cutinized (Figs. 

133. 213). 

Roots 3 to II cm. long, 0.5 to 1.5 mm. in diameter; externally 
light or dark brown, longitudinally wrinkled ; fracture somewhat 
fibrous ; internally, cortex white, central cylinder yellowish. 

Constituents. Volatile oil, several resins, a bitter glucosidal 
principle, tannin, gallic acid, starch, calcium oxalate in the form 
of raphides, and ash about 6 per cent. 

TRITICUM. COUCH GRASS. The rhizome of Agropy- 
ron (Triticuin) re pens (Fam. Gramineae), a perennial grass in- 
digenous to Europe and Asia, and naturalized in North America, 
except in the Arctic region (p. 227). The rhizome is gathered 
in spring, deprived of the rootlets, cut into pieces and carefully 
dried. Our commercial supplies come chiefly from Central 











o C 









Fig. 214. Powdered ginger containing foreign tissues. The following are the typical 
elements of ginger: F, sclerenchyntatous fibers which vary from 0.3 to 1.3 mm. long and from 
20 to 30 ft. in diameter, the walls being somewhat undulate, about 3 n thick, slightly yel- 
lowish, non-lignified and having slender, oblique, simple pores; T, reticulate trachecF varying 
from 30 to 60 M in diameter, the walls consisting mostly of cellulose, and with phloroglucin 
giving but a faint reaction for lignin: SC . secretion cells, the walls of which are suberized and 
the contents of which in the fresh rhizome are oily and of a light yellow color, changing to 
golden yellow with sulphuric acid, whereas in the older commercial specimens the contents 
are yellowish, or reddish-brown, balsam-like or resinous, becoming of a deep brownish- 
black on treatment with sulphuric acid; K, cork cells which on an average are about 60 n long 
and 25 n. wide; S, starch grains which vary from 20 to 60 ij. in length, the largest being found 
in Jamaica ginger, have indistinct lamellae, and do not polarize well unless mounted in a 
fixed oil, as almond or olive; W, swollen starch grains; L, small, swollen, altered starch 
grains; P, parenchyma cells; H, F, hyphae and spores of a fungus, which are usually present 
in African ginger and easily detected in mounts prepared with sulphuric acid. In Calcutta 
ginger occur a large number of spherical starch grains resembling those of wheat, whereas 
in Japan ginger there are numerous compound grains. Adulterated ginger may contain 
fragments of tissues of Capsienm (Y), stone cells of endocarp of olive (N), or tissues of soap 
bark (Fig. 315;. 


Description. Horizontal, somewhat cylindrical or 4- to 
6-angled, usually cut into pieces 5 to 8 mm. long, i to 2 mm. in 
diameter; externally light yellow, longitudinally furrowed, 
smooth, shiny, nodes with circular leaf-scars and few root-scars; 
fracture tough, fibrous ; internally, bark light brown, about 0.5 
mm. thick, wood light yellow and porous, center hollow ; odor 
slight, taste sweetish, slightly acrid. 

Constituents. Triticin, a Igevo-rotatory carbohydrate resem- 
bling inulin, 8 per cent. ; dextrose and levulose 2.5 to 3.3 per 
cent. ; a nitrogenous, gummy substance, 1 1 per cent. ; acid malates ; 
and about 4.5 per cent, of ash containing much silica. The rhi- 
zome is free from starch and calcium oxalate, and the lactic acid 
found in the extract is apparently a fermentation product. 

VERATRUM. The rhizome and roots of Vcratrum viride 
(Fam. Liliacese), a perennial herb (Fig. 129) found growing in 
wet meadows usually associated with skunk cabbage {Spathycina 
fcctida), and indigenous to the Eastern and Central United States 
and naturalized in Canada, British Columbia and Alaska ; and 
Veratrum album, a similar plant, indigenous to Central and South- 
ern Europe, the former being known as American or green helle- 
bore and the latter as European or white hellebore. The plant 
dies down early in the summer and the rhizome may be collected 
soon thereafter. It is cut longitudinally and dried. Aluch of the 
drug used in this country is derived from Veratrum album and 
imported from Germany (p. 235). 

American or Green Hellebore. Rhizome upright, obcon- 
ical, usually cut longitudinally into halves or quarters, 2.5 to 5 
cm. long, 1.5 to 3 cm. in diameter; externally dark brown or 
brownish-black, rough and wrinkled, somewhat annulate from 
scars of bud-scales, top truncate, lower part more or less decayed, 
with numerous roots and few root-scars ; fracture hard and homy ; 
internally light yellow, cortex 2 to 3 mm. thick, endodermis dis- 
tinct, central cylinder with scattered yellow fibrovascular bundles ; 
odor slight ; taste bitter and acrid. 

Roots yellowish-brown, nearly cylindrical, 3 to 8 cm. long, 
2 to 3 mm. in diameter ; externally yellowish-brown, longitudinally 
or transversely wrinkled (Fig. 113) ; internally, bark white, i to 2 
mm. thick ; wood porous, cylindrical ; fracture short. 



European or White Hellebore closely resembles the Amer- 
ican Hellebore, but the color varies from whitish to yellowish- 
brown and usually the rootlets are removed. 

The drug should be kept in well closed vessels, and the leaf 
and stem bases, if present, should be removed. 

Inner Structure. See Figs. 215, 216. 

Constituents of Veratrum album. The drug contains a 
number of alkaloids, of which the most important is protovera- 

Fig. 215. Cross section of rhizome of Veratrum viride: a, section of a root near its origin ; 
b, endodermis; c, one of the wavy fibrovascular bundles in th& cortex; d, parenchyma; 
e, fibrovascular bundle of the central cylinder; f, parenchyma. After Bastin. ' 

trine, which occurs to the extent of 0.03 per cent, and forms 
monoclinic prisms which are insoluble in water, soluble in strong 
alcohol, and with concentrated sulphuric acid give a greenish- 
colored solution which gradually changes to blue and finally to 
violet. It also contains the following alkaloids which are physio- 
logically inactive or but feebly toxic: Jervine ( to 0.13 per 
cent.) forms satiny, lustrous prisms which are colored yellow with 
hydrochloric acid, the solution afterwards changing to green ; 



RUBijERViNE (about 0.005 per cent.) forms long prisms which 
are colored yellow with concentrated sulphuric acid, the solution 
becoming orange and finally red ; pseudojervine forms hexagonal 
prisms which are colored yellow with concentrated sulphuric acid ; 
PROTOVERATRiDiNE is a decomposition product of protoveratrine 
and forms cubical prisms which are colored violet with concen- 
trated sulphuric acid, the solution afterward becoming cherry-red. 
Veratrum also contains a bitter glucoside veratramarin ; jervic 

Pig. 216. Several parenchyma cells from rhizome of Veratrum viride: a, cells con- 
taining starch grains; b, cell containing raphides of calcium oxalate. After Bastin. 

acid, which is identical with chelidonic acid, and crystallizes in 
silky needles ; considerable starch ; ash 3 to 4 per cent. ; and 
calcium oxalate in the form of raphides. 

Constituents of Veratrum Viride. Green hellebore con- 
tains about 0.08 per cent, of total alkaloids. Of these about one- 
half consists of CEVADiNE, an exceedingly toxic ether-soluble alka- 
loid, also found in Sabadilla seeds, which crystallizes in needles 
and gives a violet color on warming with nitric acid, the solution 
changing to scarlet-red on boiling. The remainder consists 
chiefly of the ether-insoluble alkaloids jervine and pseudojer- 


VINE, both of which are found in Veratrum album; a small 
quantity of veratrine, that occurs as an amorphous, resinous 
mass which is colored yellow with concentrated sulphuric acid, the 
solution becoming deep red (thus resembling protoveratrine) ; and 
VERATALBiNE, an amorphous alkaloid. Veratroidine is now con- 
sidered to be a mixture of amorphous bases. 

Allied Plants. The rhizome of Veratrum viridifolium, a 
plant with greenish flowers growing in the mountainous districts 
of Europe and Northern Asia, contains jervine and veratroidine. 
The rhizome of I'cratnun nigrum, a plant with purplish-red 
flowers, indigenous to Middle and Eastern Europe, Siberia, Man- 
churia and Japan, contains jervine. 

Sabadilla seeds are the source of the official veratrine. They 
are obtained from Schoenocanlon officinale (Fam. Liliacese), a 
bulbous plant indigenous to Mexico and the West Indies. The 
seeds are brownish-black, 5 to 8 mm. long, narrow, angular, flat, 
beaked and have a very bitter and acrid taste. They are fre- 
quently exported from Mexico in the small trilocular dehiscent 
capsules there being 3 to 6 seeds in each loculus. They contain 
about I per cent, of a mixture of alkaloids known as veratrine. 
This consists of cevadine and veratrine (veratridine), both of 
which are found in the rhizome of Veratrum viride, and three 
other alkaloids : cevadillme, sabadine and sabadinine, the two latter 
being crystalline. 

The bulbs of Death Camas (Zygadenus vencnosus), known 
to the Nez Perce Indians as " Wa-i-mas," contain the alkaloids 
veratalbine, sabadine and sabadinine. 

Black Hellebore consists of the rhizome and roots of Helle- 
borus nigcr (Fam. Ranunculacege), a perennial herb indigenous 
to the Eastern and Southern Alps and also cultivated. The rhizome 
is 2.5 to 7.5 cm. long, 6 to 12 mm. in diameter; with numerous 
sTiort, knotty branches and short, brittle roots ; externally, of a 
grayish-black color ; internally, with a characteristic dicotyle- 
donous structure ; odor slight ; taste sweet, somewhat bitter and 
acrid. The drug contains two crystalline glucosides : helleborin. 
a narcotic poison with a burning taste, and helleborein, a cardiac 
stimulant and having a sweetish taste. The former gives a violet- 
red color with concentrated sulphuric acid and the latter a deep 


violet color with the same reagent. The drug also contains a vola- 
tile oil, two acrid resins, an acrid fixed oil, aconitic acid and gal- 
lates of calcium and potassium. 

The rhizome of Hellebonis I'iridis (so-called " Green Helle- 
bore "), a plant found in Middle and Southern Europe, has been 
used similarly to that of H. nigcr. It contains the same principles 
as H. niger, the helleborein apparently predominating. 

False Hellebore is the entire herb of Adonis vernaUs (Fam. 
Ranunculaceas) and other species of Adonis indigenous to Europe 
and Asia. The drug contains adonidin, a mixture of several prin- 
ciples, the most important being the amorphous glucoside picra- 
donidin, a principle resembling digitalin in its physiologic action. 

CALAMUS. SWEET FLAG. The dried, unpeeled rhizome 
of Acorns Calamus (Fam. Aracese), a perennial herb widely dis- 
tributed in all north-temperate regions (p. 233). The com- 
mercial supplies are obtained from the United States, Germany, 
England, Russia and India. The rhizomes are collected in 
autumn, the drug from India being the more aromatic, whereas 
the German product, on account of the removal of the outer por- 
tion of the rhizome, is jprobably the least aromatic. A confection 
was at one time made by " candying " the fresh rhizome. 

Description. Horizontal, cylindrical, slightly compressed, 
usually split longitudinally into pieces 5 to 15 cm. long, 5 to 12 
mm. in diameter; externally light brown or yellowish green, 
annulate from remnants of circular bud-scales, upper surface with 
triangular leaf-scars or hair-like fibers of fibrovascular tissue, the 
sides with large circular branch-scars, and the under and side 
portions with root-scars or short fragments of roots ; fracture 
short ; internally light brown, distinctly porous, with numerous 
intercellular spaces, endodermis distinct ; odor aromatic ; taste 
strongly aromatic (Fig. loi, B). 

Constituents. Volatile oil 1.5 to 3.5 per cent., having the 
odor and taste of the drug; acorin, a bitter, viscid, aromatic gluco- 
sidal principle, which when hydrolized in a current of hydrogen 
yields oil of calamus; choline (trimethyl-oxyethyl ammonium 
hydrate), a strong, non-poisonous base, and formerly known as 
calamine ; a soft resin about 2.3 per cent. ; tannin ; mucilage ; starch 
and calcium oxalate. 



An Indian variety contains from i to 2.5 per cent, of oil and 
is mostly preferred. 

HOSH. The dried rhizome and roots of Ciniicifnga raccmosa 

Fig. 217. Cimicifuga. Transverse section of the central part of a mature root in 
which the secondary changes are completed: a, parenchyma; b, endodermis; c, cambium 
zone; d, tracheae in secondary xylem; e, broad, wedge-shaped medullary ray; f, outer 
portion of one of the primary xylem bundles; g, parenchyma beneath the endodermis; 
h, inter-fascicular cambium. After Bastin. 

(Fam. Ranunculacese), a perennial herb (Fig. 140), indigenous 
to Asia, Eastern Europe and North America (p. 268). The drug 
is collected in autumn, the United States furnishing the principal 



Description. Rhizome horizontal, with numerous upright 
or curved branches and few roots, 2 to 15 cm. long, i to 2.5 cm. 
in diameter ; externally dark brown, slightly annulate from cir- 
cular scars of bud-scales, the upper surface with buds, stem-scars 
and stem-remnants, under and side portions with numerous root- 
scars and few roots ; fracture horny ; internally, bark dark green, 
about I mm. thick, wood dark brown, 4 to 5 mm. thick, distinctly 
radiate ; pith 3 to 5 mm. in diameter ; odor slight ; taste bitter and 

Roots brittle, nearly cylindrical or obtusely quadrangular; 
externally dark brown, longitudinally wrinkled, 3 to 12 cm. long, 

1 to 2 mm. in diameter ; fracture short ; internally, bark dark 
brown, 0.2 to 0.4 mm. thick, wood light brown, usually four-rayed. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 217. 

Constituents. Two crystalline principles soluble in chloro- 
form ; a colorless crystalline substance soluble in ether ; a crystal- 
line principle soluble in water; a trace of an alkaloid and several 
organic acids ; considerable starch and a tannin-like principle 
giving a green color with ferric salts, thus distinguishing the 
drug from the rhizome of Hclleborus niger (p. 495). 

HYDRASTIS. GOLDEN SEAL. The dried rhizome and 
roots of Hydrastis canodciisis (Fam. Ranunculacese), a perennial 
herb (Fig. 218) indigenous to the Eastern United States and 
Canada (p. 268). The rhizome and roots are collected in autumn. 

Description. Rhizome horizontal or oblique, sub-cylindrical, 

2 to 5 cm. long, 3 to 6 mm. in diameter ; externally yellowish or 
dark brown, slightly annulate from circular scars of bud-scales, 
upper surface with numerous short stem-remnants or stem-scars, 
under and side portions with numerous roots or root-scars ; frac- 
ture short, waxy ; internally deep yellow, bark about 0.5 mm. 
thick, wood radiate, about i mm. thick, pith light yellow ; odor 
distinct ; taste bitter. 

Roots 4 to 7 cm. long, 0.2 to 0.4 mm. in diameter; internally 
bright yellow, wood somewhat quadrangular. 

Inner Structure. See Figs. 219, 292. 

Constituents. Two alkaloids one, hydrastine, occurring to 
the extent of 2 to 3 per cent., and forming colorless, tasteless 
4-sided prisms, although the salts are pale yellow and bitter ; the 


other, berberine, occurring to the extent of 3 to 4 per cent, in 
the form of yellow needles, which are bitter and readily form 
compounds with acetone, alcohol and chloroform. In addition, 
the drug contains a small amount of an alkaloid, canadine (tetra- 
hydro-berberine), and considerable starch. Calcium oxalate is 

Fig. 218. Golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis): overground branch showing the two 
palmately lobed leaves and head of berries, which are crimson and resemble a raspberry 

Allied Plants. The alkaloid berberine, or a principle closely 
resembling it, is found in the following plants of the Ranun- 
culacege: False rhubarb (Thalictnim flavum) of Europe; and the 
following plants growing in the United States : Gold-thread 
(Coptis frifolia), yellow root {Xanthorrhisa apiifolia), and marsh 
marigold (Caltha palustris). A principle resembling berberine is 
found in the following plants belonging to the Rutacese : Several 



species of Zieria found in Southern Australia and Tasmania, and 
Toddalia aculeata found in the mountains of Eastern Africa, trop- 
ical Asia and the PhiHppine Islands (see also p. 483). 

F:g. 219. Transverse section of a part of the rhizome of hydrastis near the cambium: 
P, parenchyma; S, sieve; C, cambium; T, tracheas; F, wood fibers. 

LEPTANDRA. CULVER'S ROOT. The dried rhizome 
and roots of Leptandra virginica (Fam. Scrophulariacese), a per- 
ennial herb growing in meadows and moist woods of the Eastern 


and Central United States and Canada (p. 376). The rhizome 
and roots are collected in autumn from plants of the second year's 
growth. When fresh the drug has an almond-like odor and a 
bitter, nauseous taste, which it loses in a measure on drying, and 
may be kept indefinitely (Fig. 207). 

Description. Rhizome horizontal, nearly cylindrical, some- 
what branched, 4 to 10 cm. long, 3 to 8 mm. in diameter ; exter- 
nally light brown to brownish-red ; annulate from circular scars 
of bud-scales, upper surface with conical buds, short stem-rem- 
nants or stem-scars, the under and side portions with numerous 
roots or root-scars ; fracture tough ; internally, bark dark brown, 
0.3 to I mm. thick, wood about 0.5 to 1.5 mm. thick, pith light 
brown or brownish-black ; odor slight ; taste bitter, slightly acrid. 

Roots from i to 4 cm. long, 0.5 to i mm. in diameter, exter- 
nally smooth ; longitudinally wrinkled, fracture short ; internally, 
bark brownish-black, wood light brown. 

Constituents. Leptandrin, a glucoside, occurring in yellow- 
ish-green crystals ; resin, about 6 per cent. ; saponin ; tannin ; and 
starch. The drug yields a distillate containing formic acid. 

SERPENTARIA. The rhizome and roots of several species 
of Aristolochia (Fam. Aristolochiacese), perennial herbs indig- 
enous to the Southern United States. There are two commercial 
varieties: (i) Virginia Snakeroot, yielded by Aristolochia Ser- 
pciifaria, found growing east of the Mississippi, and (2) Texas 
or Red River Snakeroot, yielded by Aristolochia reticulata, grow- 
ing west of the Mississippi. The rhizome and roots are collected 
in autumn and dried (p. 260). 

Virginia Snakeroot. Rhizome oblique, sub-cylindrical, with 
numerous slender roots and frequently with leaves or fruiting 
stems, 10 to 25 mm. long, and i to 2 mm. in diameter; externally 
dark brown, slightly annulate from scars of bud-scales, upper por- 
tion with stem-scars or stem-remnants, under' and side portions 
with numerous roots and root-scars; fracture short; internally, 
bark dark brown, 0.3 to 0.5 mm. thick, wood yellow, radiate, 
porous, I to 1.5 mm. thick, pith i mm. in diameter; odor tere- 
binthinate ; taste bitter, aromatic. 

Roots nearly straight, 4 to 7 cm. long, about 0.3 mm. in diam- 
eter, longitudinally wrinkled, bark light brown, wood yellowish, 




Fig. 2 20. Pinkroot {Spigelia marilandica): A, transverse section of root showing 
epidermis (e), parenchyma containing starch (p), peripheral layer of central cylinder (1), 
endodermis (e), internal layer of cortex (i). The central cylinder consists of six to eight 
radial fibrovascular bundles, and some of the tracheae contain a brown gummy substance. 
B, transverse section of rhizome showing epidermis (t), the outer wall of which contains a 
yellowish-brown substance, parenchyma (p) of cortex containing starch, sieve of cortex 
(s), cambium (c), tracheae (t), tracheae (r) containing globular or somewhat irregular 
yellowish-brown masses, tracheids (h), internal sieve groups (s), parenchyma of pith (p') 
containing starch. C, longitudinal section of the woody part of the rhizome; D, isolated 
starch grains, which are 2 to s n in diameter. 



Texas Snakeroot. Rhizome 10 to 40 mm. longf, i to 3 mm. 
in diameter; roots about 0.5 mm. in diameter, with numerous 
more or less interlacing- rootlets. 

Constituents. Volatile oil 0.5 to i per cent., the important 
constituent of which is borneol ; a bitter poisonous principle, aris- 
tolochin (serpentarin) ; an alkaloidal principle, aristolochine ; sev- 
eral organic acids ; starch ; ash about 10 per cent. 


Fig. 221. Ruellia ciliosa, the rhizome and roots of which are a common adulterant 
of spigelia. A, transverse section of a secondary root: C, cortical parenchyma with one 
cystolith and a number of stone cells with very thick walls and radiating simple pores; 
End, endodermis. B, longitudinal section of the same root, showing a single cell with an 
elongated cystolith, the encrustation being of calcium carbonate. ^After Holm. 

SPIGELIA. PINKROOT. The rhizome and roots of Spi- 
gelia marilandica (Fam. Logan iaceae), a perennial herb (Fig. 
172) indigenous to the Southern United States (p. 362). Spi- 
gelia should be collected in autumn, carefully dried and preserved, 
and not kept longer than two years. 

Description. Rhizome horizontal or slightly oblique, more 
or less branched, 1.5 to 3 cm. long, 2 to 3 mm. in diameter; exter- 
nally dark brown, slightly annulate from scars of bud-scales, the 
upper portion with stem-scars or stem-remnants, under and side 
portions with numerous roots and root-scars ; fracture short ; inter- 


nally, bark dark brown, 0.2 to 0.5 mm. thick, wood yellow, slightly 
radiate, i to 1.5 mm. thick, pith i mm. in diameter; odor slightly 
aromatic ; taste bitter, pungent. 

Roots 5 to 10 cm. long, about 0.3 mm. in diameter, with 
numerous rootlets; externally dark brown, longitudinally wrin- 
kled ; internally light brown, wood nearly cylindrical, porous. 

C0NSTITUENT.S. A crystalline, volatile alkaloid, spigeline, 
which somewhat resembles coniine and nicotine and which forms 
precipitates with iodine or Mayer's reagent that are soluble in 
mineral acids; a bitter, acrid principle, volatile oil, resin, tannin 
and starch. 

Adulterants. For some years past another rhizome has been 
substituted for Spigelia, viz.: that of Ruellia ciliosa (p. 377). 
The rhizome is oblique, with shorter internodes at the lower por- 
tion and the basal part of the aerial shoots usually remains 
attached. The roots are quite long, sparingly branched and 
generally coarser than those of Spigelia. The inner structure of 
Ruellia is quite distinct from Spigelia, showing numerous stone 
cells and cystoliths in the cortex (Fig. 221). 

VALERIANA. VALERIAN. The rhizome and roots of 
Valeriana officinalis (Fam. Valerianacese), a perennial herb (p. 
385) indigenous to Europe and Asia, and cultivated in Holland, 
Germany, England and the New England States, being more or 
less naturalized in this country as far south as New York and 
New Jersey. The rhizome is collected in autumn, cut into longi- 
tudinal slices and dried by artificial heat. There are several com- 
mercial varieties, and it is said that some of the drug is derived 
from Valeriana sylvatica. 

Description. Rhizome upright, slightly ellipsoidal, more or 
less truncate at both ends, from 2.5 to 4 cm. long and i to 2 cm. 
in diameter, usually cut longitudinally into two, four or more 
pieces; externally dark brown, upper portion with circular stem- 
and leaf-scars, the sides sometimes with short branches or stolons 
from 5 to 8 cm. long, wdth numerous roots and few root-scars ; 
fracture short, horny ; internally light brown ; odor pronounced, 
becoming stronger on keeping the drug ; taste somewhat aromatic. 

Roots 3 to 10 cm. long, 0.5 to i mm. in diameter, longitudinally 
wrinkled ; fracture brittle. 


Constituents. Volatile oil 0.5 to 3 per cent., of which 9.5 
per cent, is bornyl valerate. It also contains bornyl formate, 
acetate and butyrate ; borneol ; pinene ; camphene, and a sesqui- 
terpene. The odor of valerian is due to the isovalerianic acid 
which is formed from the bornyl valerate by the action of an oxy- 
dase during the drying of the drug. The fresh drug contains 
0.015 per cent, of an alkaloid and also a glucoside and a resin, 
all three of which are physiologically active, the two former 
being unstable. The drug also contains free formic .and acetic 
acids and malates ; tannin ; saccharose ; and starch. 

Allied Plants. Kesso root oil is obtained from Japanese 
Valerian (Valeriana angustifoJia). The constituents are similar 
to those of the volatile oil in Valerian, but it contains in addition 
kessyl acetate and kessyl alcohol. Mexican Valerian, derived from 
V. mexicana, yields an oil containing about 89 per cent, of iso- 
valerianic acid. 

The small rhizomes of Valeriana celtica, a plant growing in 
the Styrian Alps, yield a volatile oil with an odor resembling that 
of Anthemis and patchouly. 

Adulterants and Substitutes. The most dangerous ad- 
mixture that has been reported is Veratrum, which is readily 
distinguished (p. 492). Cypripedium macranthnm (Fam. Orch- 
idacese), of Germany, has been used as a substitute for valerian. 

The dried rhizome of Geranium maculatum (Fam. Geraniacese), 
a perennial herb (Fig. 155), indigenous to Canada and the East- 
ern and Central United States (p. 301). The rhizome is collected 
in the late summer or early autumn. 

Description, Horizontal, cylindrical, tuberculate, curved or 
bent pieces, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, 3 to 10 mm. "in diameter; exter- 
nally dark brown, wrinkled, upper and side portions with numer- 
ous buds or circular stem-scars, under surface with numerous root- 
scars ; fracture short ; internally light brown, bark thin, wood 
indistinct, pith large ; odor slight ; taste astringent. 

Constituents. Tannin 15 to 25 per cent., which on hydro- 
lysis yields gallic acid ; starch ; and calcium oxalate. 

Allied Plants. Other species of geranium contain similar 


PODOPHYLLUM. MAY APPLE. The rhizome of Podo- 
phyllum peltatuni (Fam. Berberidaceae), a perennial herb (Fig. 
222) indigenous to Eastern North America (p. 273). The rhi- 
zome is collected late in summer and dried, after the removal of 
the rootlets. (Fig. 104.) Most of the commercial supplies come 

Fig. 222. Top of fertile shoot of May apple {Podophyllum peltatum) having two large 
peltate palmately lobed leaves, in the axil of which is the fleshy fruit containing numerous 
truncate ovoid seeds. 

from the Central States. Both the leaves and the fruit apparently 
contain a purgative resin similar to that found in the rhizome. 
The berry, which is known as May, Indian, Hog or Devil's 
apple ; wild or ground lemon, and Raccoon-berry, is generally 
considered to be edible, but several cases of poisoning from it 
have been recorded. 

Description. Horizontal, nearly cylindrical, flattened, some- 
times branched, jointed, in pieces 3 to 8 cm. long, internodes 4 to 
10 cm. long, 5 to 9 mm. in diameter, nodes 7 to 18 mm. in diam- 
eter and 5 to 12 mm. thick; externally dark brown, longitudinally 
wrinkled or nearly smooth, with irregular scars of bud-scales, 



nodes annulate from remains of bud-scales, upper part marked 
with large circular, depressed stem-scars and sometimes with buds ; 
numerous root-scars at and near the lower portion of the nodes; 

Fig. 223. Transverse section of podophyllum rhizome: E, epidermis; P, parenchyma 
containing starch; S, sieve; C, cambium; T, tracheae. 

fracture short ; internally lemon-yellow, bark i mm. thick, wood 
yellowish, 0.5 mm. thick, pith large, white; odor slight; taste 
somewhat bitter and acrid. 


Inner Structure. See Fig. 223. 

Constituents. Resin (ofificial as Resin of Podophyllum) 
3.5 to 5 per cent., consisting of two poisonous principles; (a) 
podophyllotoxin, 20 per cent., occurring in white crystals that 
are sparingly soluble in water and yield on treatment with water 
podophyllic acid and picropodophyllin ; and (b) picropodophyl- 
lin (an isomer of podophyllotoxin), which crystallizes in needles 
and is insoluble in water but soluble in 90 to 95 per cent, alcohol. 
The resin also contains a yellow crystalline coloring principle 
resembling quercetin, a green fixed oil and podophyllic acid. The 
rhizome also contains a purgative resin, podophylloresin ; consid- 
erable starch, and some gallic acid. 

Allied Plants. The rhizome of Podophyllum Emodi, a 
plant growing on the lower slopes of the Himalayas, is larger and 
yields 11.4 to 12 per cent, of resin, which consists of but half as 
much podophyllotoxin as the resin obtained from P. pcltatum. 

SANGUINARIA. BLOODROOT. The rhizome of San- 
guinaria canadensis (Fam. Papaveraceas), a perennial herb (Fig. 
148) indigenous to the Eastern and Central United States and 
Canada (p. 280). The rhizome should be collected in July or 
August and dried. 

Description. Horizontal, irregularly cylindrical, flattened, 
sometimes branched, 2.5 to 6 cm. long, 5 to 10 mm. in diameter; 
externally dark brown, slightly annulate, with few buds or stem- 
scars on upper surface and numerous root-scars on lower surface ; 
fracture short and somewhat waxy ; internally, bark dark brown, 
about 0.5 mm. thick, wood and pith with numerous reddish resin- 
cells ; odor slight ; taste bitter and acrid. 

Shriveled rhizomes which are gray internally and free from 
starch should be rejected. 

Constituents. The drug contains a number of alkaloids, of 
which the most important is sanguinarine; it occurs to the 
extent of about i per cent., crystallizes in colorless needles and 
yields reddish salts wdth nitric or sulphuric acid. The other 
alkaloids include chelerythrine, which forms yellowish salts ; 
protopine, also found in other plants (p. 282), and (3- and y-homo- 
chelidonine, which, like the last two alkaloids, are found in Cheli- 
donium and some other plants (p. 281). In addition, the drug 


contains a reddish resin, several organic acids, as citric and malic, 
and considerable starch. 

rhizome of Scopolia carjiiolica (Fam. Solanacese), a perennial 
herb growing in the region of the Eastern Alps, Carpathian Moun- 
tains and neighboring regions. 

Description. Rhizome horizontal, nearly cylindrical, some- 
what tortuous, usually cut longitudinally into pieces 5 to 12 cm. 
long, 7 to 15 mm. in diameter; externally grayish-brown, longi- 
tudinally furrowed, slightly annulate, with numerous circular 
stem-scars about 5 mm. in diameter, under portion with root- 
scars and root-remnants ; fracture short, mealy ; internally whitish 
or light grayish-brown, bark i mm. or less thick, wood slightly 
radiate, rather large, horny pith ; odor slight ; taste starchy, sweet- 
ish, afterward acrid. (Fig. 175a.) 

The roots, which are attached to the rhizome or in separate 
pieces, are cylindrical, tapering, varying in diameter from 2 to 10 
mm., longitudinally wrinkled, and marked by lenticular whitish 
areas resembling lenticels. 

Constituents. About 0.6 per cent, of total alkaloids, includ- 
ing atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine (hyoscine). Scopola- 
mine is official as a hydrobromide, and exists in the drug to the 
extent of 0.06 per cent. Scopolamine decomposes into scopoline 
and atropic acid when treated with boiling baryta water. Scopo- 
line resembles tropine, a principle formed from atropine and 
hyoscyamine, when similarly treated (see Fig. 341). 

Allied Plants. Japanese belladonna is the rhizome of Sco- 
polia japonica, growing in Japan, and closely related to S. carui- 
olica. The drug resembles scopola and apparently contains the 
same principles. The rhizomes of six other species of Scopolia 
are also used. 

Scopolia Leaves are used in medicine like belladonna leaves, 
and are said to be sometimes admixed with them. They are obo- 
vate, slightly acuminate, and taper gradually into the rather long 
petiole (p. 372; Fig. 273). 

of Colchiciim autumnale (Fam. Liliaceae), a perennial bulbous 
plant, native of and growing in moist meadows and pastures of 


England, Southern and Middle Europe and Northern Africa 
(p. 236). The corm is collected in early summer before the 
flowering period, deprived of the membranous, scaly coat, cut into 
transverse pieces, and dried at a temperature below 65 C. Tubers 
that are collected in the fall either during the flowering season 
or later are considered to be more active. The commercial supply 
is obtained from England and Germany. . 

Description. Obconical, with a groove on one side, some- 
times with fragments of the flower-stalk, usually in transverse, 
reniform sections from 15 to 20 mm. long, about 12 mm. wide and 
3 to 5 mm. thick ; externally dark brown, longitudinally wrinkled ; 
fracture short, mealy ; internally light brown, with numerous scat- 
tered fibrovascular bundles ; odor slight ; taste bitter and acrid. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 310. 

Constituents. A yellowish, amorphous alkaloid, colchi- 
cine, about 0.4 per cent., which has a peculiar odor, particularly 
on heating slightly, is soluble in hot water and gives with con- 
centrated sulphuric acid a yellowish solution which is colored 
deep red on heating. If the sulphuric acid contains a mere trace 
of nitric acid the solution of the alkaloid becomes yellowish- 
green, green, bluish-green, blue, violet, wine-red and finally yel- 
low. The salts of colchicine are quite unstable. The drug also 
contains the alkaloid colchiceine, which crystallizes in needles 
and is apparently formed during the extraction of the drug by 
reason of the decomposition of colchicine. The latter may be 
formed on the esterification of colchiceine with methyl alcohol. 
The corm also contains two resins ; a large amount of starch ; ash 
about 2.5 per cent. 

SCILLA. SQUILL. The fleshy scales of the bulb of Urgi- 
nea maritiina (Fam. Liliacese), a perennial herb indigenous to the 
Mediterranean region. The bulbs are collected late in August, 
and after the removal of the membranous outer scales and the 
central portion, the fleshy scales are cut into transverse pieces 
and dried in sunlight or by artificial heat. The article used in 
France is collected from bulbs having reddish scales and is 
obtained from Algeria and Malta (p. 238). 

Description. In irregular, curved, flat, narrow, somewhat 
translucent pieces 3 to 5 cm. long, 5 to 8 mm. wide, 2 to 7 mm. 


thick, whitish, lemon-yellow or light brown, epidermis forming a 
thin layer, mesophyll more or less shrunken, slightly crystalline 
and with numerous circular projections of fibrovascular bundles ; 
fracture brittle when dry, tough when damp ; odor slight ; taste 
bitter and acrid. 

Constituents. Squill contains a number of active principles, 
of which the most important are the amorphous glucoside scilli- 
toxin, which resembles digitoxin physiologically, and scillipicrin, 
an amorphous, bitter principle, which is employed as a diuretic. It 
also contains a yellow crystalline glucoside scillin ; an amorphous 
bitter glucoside, scillain ; a little volatile oil ; sugar, about 22 per 
cent.; considerable calcium oxalate in the form of raphides (Fig. 
281, B), w^hich is associated in the parenchyma cells with a 
peculiar mucilage sinistrin, which yields levulose on hydrolysis. 

Allied Plants. The bulbs of several species of Crinttm 
(Fam. Amaryllidaceae) found growing in Brazil, China, Southern 
Asia and the East Indies are used as substitutes for squill. 

III. parts of roots and stems. 


The active principles are not uniformly distributed throughout 
all parts of the plant, but occur in greater amount in the bark 
than in the wood, as in Ipecac ; in larger proportion in the root 
bark than in the stem bark, as in Granatum ; and in larger amount 
in the inner bark and cortex than in the periderm layers, as in 
Quercus alba. This is in general true of herbaceous plants, as 
well as of trees and shrubs, but in most of the medicinal roots and 
rhizomes it has not been fovmd economical to separate the bark 
from the wood, which usually contains some of the active prin- 
ciples. A large number of the barks alone of shrubs and trees are 
used medicinally. By the term bark is usually meant all that 
portion of the root or stem which is developed outside of the cam- 
bium, and this is commonly differentiated into two distinct parts 
one next to the cambium, in which the life-processes take place, 
contains the greatest amount of active principles, and is known 
as the INNER BARK (Figs. 22y, 231, 234) ; another, external to 


this, having a greater or less development of corky layers 
among more or less obliterated sieve and parenchymatous cells, 
is known as the outer bark. The term bark is sometimes 
restricted to this outer layer, but this is more or less confusing 
and has not been generally adopted. The term bork is frequently 
applied to the outer corky layers and the dead tissues enclosed by 
them (Figs. 237, 238). The term periderm is applied to all the 
tissues produced by the phellogen. the older layers of periderm 
being included in the bork. 

In a few cases the wood alone is employed in medicine and, 
like the bark, may be differentiated into two layers the one next 
to the cambium, in w^hich the ascent of the cell-sap takes place, 
known as the sap-wood, and another at the center of the trunk or 
stem, which is usually darker in color and may contain resinous, 
coloring and other substances, and denominated the he art- wood, 
the latter being the part usually employed in medicine and the arts. 

The pith being in the nature of a reserve tissue may contain 
various of the carbohydrates. Sassafras pith furnishes an example 
of this, being used in medicine on account of the mucilage it 

The following artificial classification may be found of assist- 
ance in the study of the drugs of this class : 

I. Barks. 

I. With periderm. 

A. Ycllozi'ish-red to dark brown. 
a. Fracture short. 

a Aromatic odor and taste. 

Dark brown Cinnamomum Saigonicum 

/3 Without aromatic odor and taste. 
* Usually in quills. 

Few lenticels Cinchona 

Numerous lenticels Frangula 

** Usually in flattened or transversely curved 
Inner surface reddened 

with alkalies...' Rliamnus Pursliiana 

Odor of Valerian. .. .Vilnirnum Prunifolium 
Astringent Hamamelidis Cortex 


I. Barks. Continued. 

b. Fracture fibrous. 

Tough-fibrous Gossypii Cortex 

Short-fibrous Rubus 

B. GrayisJi to grayish-black. 

a. Fracture fibrous. 

Fracture silky-fibrous Euonymus 

Fracture uneven, fibrous Viburnum Opulus 

b. Fracture short. 

a With conical cork-wings. .. Southern Prickly Ash 

j3 Cork-wings wanting. 

Inner surface with acicular 

crystals Northern Prickly Ash 

Inner surface non-crystalline Granatum 

C. Greenish in color. 

Fracture tough-fibrous Mezereum 

Fracture short, granular Prunus Virginiana 

2. Periderm removed. 

A. Aromatic odor and taste. 

Yellowish-brown Cinnamomum Zeylanicum 

Reddish-brown Sassafras 

B. Without aromatic properties. 

a. Surface crystalline Quillaja 

b. Surface non-crystalline. 

Taste astringent Quercus Alba 

Taste mucilaginous Ulmus 

II. Woods. 

1. Light or bright yellow Quassia 

2. Yellowish-red to yellowish-brown. 

A. Imparts a violet or zvine-color to zvater Haematoxylon 

B. Coloring matter insoluble in wa^tT. .*. . . .Santalum Rubrum 

III. Pith. 

Whitish, light in weight Sassafras Medulla 

of the stem and branches of various species of Cinnamomum 
(Fam. Lauracese), trees indigenous to tropical Asia (p. 278), 
where they are now extensively cultivated, and from which three 
commercial kinds of bark are obtained : ( i ) Saigon Cinnamon, 




obtained from Ciniiaiiiomuni Loureirii (f) and other species culti- 
vated in Cochin China and other parts of China, and exported 

Fig. 224. Transverse section of Cassia cinnamon bark: k, cork; x, thick-walled cork 
cells; y, cork cells, the outer walls of which are thickened; phg, cork cambium; scl, stone 
cells; X, parenchyma cell with larpre pores; B, bast fibers; gR, short sclerenchyma; z, 
parenchyma separating the groups of sclerenchyma tissue; pPh, protophloem; obi, obliter- 
ated sieve; Sch, mucilage canals; php, bast parenchyma; o, oil cells. After Tschirch 
and Oesterle. 

from Saig-on ; (2) Cassia Cinnamon, yielded by Ciiiiiainoiiiiiin 
Cassia^ cultivated in the southeastern provinces of the Chinese 



Empire, and exported by way of Calcutta, and (3) Ceylon Cinna- 
mon, collected from Cinnamomnui zeylanicum, indigenous to and 
cultivated in Ceylon (Fig. 146). 

Saigon Cinnamon. In bundles about 30 to 40 cm. long, and 
20 cm. wide, 10 cm. thick, weighing 1.5 to 2 K., and consisting of 

Fig. 225. Radial-longitudinal section of China Cassia {Cinnamomum Cassia) bark: 
pr, parenchyma of outer bark; bp, parenchyma of the inner bark, some of the cells of 
which contain raphides; b, bast fibers; st, stone cells; sch, mucilage cells; s, sieve; m, 
medullary rays. After Moeller. 

pieces varying in size and color from small, brownish-black single 
quills to large, thick, grayish-brown, transversely curved pieces. 
Pieces 6 to 30 cm. long, 1.5 to 3 cm. in diameter: bark 0.2 to 2 
mm. thick ; outer surface dark brown, longitudinally wrinkled, 
with grayish patches of foliaceous lichens, and numerous lenticels ; 


inner surface light brown, smooth ; fracture short ; thick inner 
bark separated from the very thin periderm by a layer of small 
stone cells ; odor aromatic ; taste mucilaginous, aromatic and 

Cassia Cinnamon. In quilled pieces, usually shorter than 
those of Saigon Cinnamon, the periderm more or less removed, 
and the bark aromatic and somewhat astringent. 

Ceylon Cinnamon occurs in closely rolled double quills com- 
posed of numerous thin layers of the inner bark of the shoots ; the 
odor is delicately aromatic, and very distinct from either Cassia 
or Saigon bark. 

Inner Structure. See Figs. 224, 225, 305. 

Constituents. The most important constituent is the vola- 
tile oil, which in Ceylon cinnamon is delicately aromatic and 
amounts to from 0.5 to i per cent., in Cassia from 0.93 to 1.64 
per cent., and in the Saigon from 3 to 6 per cent., the latter bark 
being most pungent and aromatic. The oil of cinnamon consists 
in large part of cinnamic aldehyde (not present in the oil of the 
root bark) and other compounds, such as camphor, which is present 
in the oil from the root bark ; safrol, which is found in the leaves ; 
and eugenol, which is found in both leaves and stem bark and 
which gives the characteristic odor to Ceylon Cinnamon. 

Cinnamon also contains the hexatomic alcohol mannitol (cin- 
namanin) giving the sweetish taste to the several barks; a tannin 
(3 to 5 per cent.) somewhat resembling that in Qucrcus alba and 
found in greatest amount in Cassia bark and least in the Saigon 
variety ; a bitter principle especially characteristic of Cassia bark ; 
and a mucilage which may be the source, at least in part, of the 
volatile oil. 

Allied Plants. Batavia Cassia or Fagot Cassia is the bark 
of Cinnamomum Burmanni. In double quills, the larger some- 
times enclosing smaller quills, 5 to 8 cm. long, 5 to 15 mm. in 
diameter, bark 0.5 to 3 mm. thick ; outer surface light or reddish- 
brown, nearly smooth ; inner surface dark-brown with occasional 
longitudinal ridges and depressed areas ; fracture short ; odor pro- 
nounced, aromatic ; taste aromatic and distinctly mucilaginous. 
It forms a shiny glutinous mass with water and yields with alcohol 
II to 17 per cent, of extract. A number of barks come into the 


market under the name of " Cassia bark." In fact Cassia Cin- 
namon is frequently known as China Cassia, or Canton Cassia or 
Cassia Hgnea, all being synonymous for the same variety of bark. 
Saigon Cinnamon is also known commercially as Saigon Cassia. 
The barks of other species of Cinnamomum also find their way 
into market and are used as substitutes or adulterants of Cassia 
Cinnamon. These are bitter or nearly tasteless and are free from 
any aromatic properties. 

Clove bark is obtained from Dicypellium caryophyllatum 
(Fam. Lauraceae), a tree indigenous to Brazil. The bark comes 
in long quills consisting of 6 to 10 pieces of bark. Externally 
dark brown or purplish-brown ; fracture short, with a circle of 
whitish stone cells near the periderm ; odor clove-like ; taste mucil- 
aginous and aromatic, resembling cinnamon. 

A number of other products are also derived from species of 
Cinnamomum, as the immature fruits of C. Loureirii, which con- 
stitute the Cassia buds of the market. The latter are club- or top- 
shaped, 5 to 10 mm. in diameter, with a short stem or pedicel, 
externally dark brown, the 6-lobed perianth folded over the de- 
pressed and smooth ovary. The odor is aromatic ; taste pungent, 
aromatic and astringent. Cassia buds yield a volatile oil contain- 
ing cinnamic aldehyde, which resembles that of Cassia Cinnamon. 

Wild Cinnamon, the bark of Cinnamomum pedatinervnm, a 
tree indigenous to the Fiji Islands, yields a volatile oil containing 
from 40 to 50 per cent, of linalool and safrol, 15 to 20 per cent, 
of a terpene ; i per cent, of eugenol, and about 3 per cent, of 
eugenol methyl ether. 

CINCHONA. CINCHONA BARK. The dried bark of the 
stem and branches of various species of Ciijchona (Fam. Rubi- 
aceae), trees indigenous to South America, but cultivated in nearly 
all tropical countries, from which latter the commercial supplies 
are obtained. There are two principal commercial varieties : ( i ) 
Red Cinchona, which is yielded by Cinchona succintbra (p. 379), 
and (2) Calisaya Bark, yielded by Cinchona Ledgeriana Calisaya. 
When the trees are from 6 to 9 years old they are considered 
to have the maximum amount of alkaloids and the bark of the 
trunk as well as the roots is removed and allowed to dry. The 
BARK OF THE STEM is used in the manufacture of galenicals, while 



the ROOT BARK is employed for the extraction of the alkaloids, 
especially quinine. Owing to the fact that light influences the 
production of quinine in the plant, it was customary to cover 
the bark of the trunk with moss or other materials, and this 
is known as " mossed bark." For some time the cultivators 
removed the bark from the trunk in alternate strips, the de- 

FiG. 226. Quinine sulphate: long orthorhombic needles from a dilute alcoholic solution. 

nuded places being again covered, after which another layer 
of bark develops that is very rich in alkaloids and is known 
as " RENEWED BARK." The outcr bark, consisting of the periderm 
layer and some of the cortex, is flattened out and allowed to dry 
under pressure, and constitutes the "flat" (or Tambla) bark 
(Fig. 226). 

Most of the cinchona bark of commerce is now obtained from 
trees cultivated in Java. During the year 1902 some 600,000 
kilos of cinchona bark were exported from this island alone. The 
older methods of cultivation have been entirely replaced by the 
selection of seeds from those plants that run high in alkaloids. 
The yield and quality of alkaloids in the bark are improved by 
hybridization of the best trees. 


Red Cinchona. Usually in double quills or rolled pieces 
which are cut uito lengths from 25 to 40 cm. long, 15 to 20 mm. 
in diameter, bark 2 to 5 mm. thick ; outer surface reddish or dark 
brown, with grayish patches of foliaceous lichens, longitudinally 
wrinkled, with few usually widely separated transverse fissures ; 
inner surface reddish-brown, distinctly striate; fracture smooth in 
periderm, in inner bark with projecting bast fibers ; odor distinct ; 
taste bitter, astringent. 

Calisaya Bark. Gray or brownish-gray, with numerous 
patches of foliaceous lichens, having brownish-black and reddish- 
brown apothecia, and numerous transverse fissures, which give 
the bark a very characteristic appearance. 

The trunk bark is comparatively thick, while renewed bark is 
comparatively smooth and uniform in color. 

Inner Structure. See Figs. 227; 299, B; 307; 307a. 

Constituents. A large number of alkaloids have been iso- 
lated from this drug, of which the most important are quinine, 
quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine. The total alkaloids 
amount to about 6 or 7 per cent., of which from one-half to two- 
thirds is quinine in the yellow barks, whereas, in the red barks, 
cinchonidine exists in greater proportion. Quinine occurs in 
small crystals which are sparingly soluble in water, soluble in 
alcohol and readily form crystallizable salts with acids. On the 
successive addition of dilute sulphuric acid, bromine or chlorine 
water and ammonia water the solution becomes of an emerald- 
green color (thalleioc[uin). Quinidine, an isomer of, quinine, 
crystallizes in rhombohedra or monoclinic prisms which are nearly 
insoluble in water and otherwise conforms to the characteristics 
given for quinine. The solutions of quinidine are, however, dex- 
trogyre, while those of quinine are Isevogyre". Cinchonine sep- 
arates in lustrous prisms or needles which are nearly insoluble in 
water, and does not give the thalleioquin test, but forms a white 
precipitate upon the addition of dilute sulphuric acid, bromine 
W'ater and ammonia. Cinchonidine crystallizes in prisms and 
resembles cinchonine in many of its properties. Its solutions, 
however, are l?evogyre, while those of cinchonine are dextrogyre. 

The other important alkaloids of Cinchona which have been 
separated are: Quinamine, hydroquinine, hydroquinidine, hydro- 



cinchonidine and homocinchonidine. Of the other alkaloids which 
have been isolated the following' may be mentioned : Conquina- 
mine, paranine, paricine and quinamidine. Among the other 


Fig. 227. A, transverse section of red cinchona: K, cork; Ca, cryptociystalline crystals 
of calcium oxalate; P, parenchyma containing starch; L, latex cells containing gum, resin 
and tannin; MR, medullary rays; BF, bast fibers; S, sieve. B, longitudinal section of 
same showing two bast fibers surrounded by parenchyma cells. 

constituents of Cinchona are: Kinic acid from 5 to 9 per cent., 
which forms colorless rhombic prisms and yields a sublimate con- 
sisting- of golden crystals of kinone (quinone) on treatment with 
manganese peroxide and sulphuric acid; kinovin (quinovin) an 


amorphous, bitter glucoside, to the amount of o.ii to 1.74 per 
cent. ; cinchotannic acid from 2 to 4 per cent., which decom- 
poses into the nearly insoluble cinchona red, occurring in red 
barks to the extent of 10 per cent. ; considerable starch ; calcium 
oxalate in the form of cryptocrystalline crystals ; and ash about 3 
per cent. The red color in cinchona bark is due to an oxydase 
similar to that which causes the darkening of fruits when cut. 
If the fresh bark is heated in boiling water for 30 minutes and 
then dried it does not become red (see also Figs. 226, 233). 

Allied Plants. Loxa or Huanco (Cinchona pallida) bark 
is obtained from Cinchona officinalis, a shrub indigenous to Ecua- 
dor, which was the species first discovered. The plant is culti- 
vated in nearly all the large cinchona plantations and yields a bark 
(Fig. 226) that contains i to 4 per cent, of total alkaloids, from 
one-half to two-thirds of which is quinine. 

CuPREA BARK is obtained from Rcmijia Purdicana and R. 
pediincnlata, of Central and Southern Colombia. It has a copper- 
red color, is hard, compact and heavy, contains numerous trans- 
versely elongated stone cells and 2 to 6 per cent, of alkaloids, of 
which one-third may be quinine. Cinchonidine has never been 
isolated from this bark. Cuprea bark also contains caffeate of 
quinine and caffeic acid, of which there is about 0.5 per cent., 
and which closely resembles the same acid obtained from caffeo- 
tannic acid in coffee. 

dried bark of the stem and branches of Rhamnus Frangnla (Fam. 
Rhamnacese), a shrub indigenous to Europe, Northern Africa and 
Central Asia ; and naturalized in Northern New Jersey and Long 
Island. The bark is collected in spring and kept at least one year 
before being used, so as to render inert the irritating and nauseat- 
ing principles which are destroyed by a ferment during the curing 
of the drug. The same results are said to be obtained by heating 
the bark at 37.7 C. for 48 hours (p. 326). 

Description. In single or double quills and transversely 
curved pieces, 2 to 20 cm. long, i to 3 cm. in diameter, bark 0.3 
to I mm. thick ; outer surface dark brown or purplish-black, 
longitudinally wrinkled, with numerous lenticels i to 3 mm. long, 
and with grayish patches of foliaceous lichens and groups of 



light brown or brownish-black apothecia ; inner surface yellowish 
or dark brown, smooth, longitudinally striate, and reddened by 
alkalies; fracture short, with projecting bast fibers in inner bark; 
odor slight ; taste slightly bitter. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 228. 

Constituents. A glucoside frangulin (rhamnoxanthin), 
which forms yellow crystals, is insoluble in water and nearly so in 
alcohol, gives a bright purple color on the addition of solutions 




m m 

Fig. 228. Transverse section of inner bark of Rhainmts Frangida: b, bast fibers; 
surrounded by crystal fibers; m, medullary rays; parenchyma containing rosette aggre- 
gates of calcium oxalate. After Vogl. 

of the alkalies, and on hydrolysis yields rhamnose and emodin 
fsee Rhubarb). It also contains the glucoside pseudofrangulin 
(frangulic acid), which yields pseudoemodin ; rhamnoxanthin, a 
coloring principle ; a volatile oil ; tannin ; starch ; calcium oxalate ; 
and ash 5 to 6 per cent. 

Allied Plants. The bark of Rhauinus CarnioJica has been 
substituted for R. Fraiv^ula. The older pieces are distinguished 
by having a deeply fissured cork and groups of stone cells. In 



the younger bark the meckillary rays are from 4 to 7 cells wide ; 
otherwise the pieces resemble Frangula. 

Fig. 229. Bark of Rhammis Purshiana showing large whitish patches of lichens, 
and numerous lens-shaped lenticels. 

The bark of Rhamnns Purshiana (Fam. Rhamnaceae), a shrub 
indigenous to Northern California, Washington, Oregon and the 



southwestern part of British America (p. 326). The bark is col- 
lected in spring and early summer, and kept at least one year 
before being used. 

Description. Usually in flattened or transversely curved 
pieces, occasionally in quills 2 to 10 cm. long, i to 3 cm. in diam- 
eter, bark i to 3 mm. thick ; outer surface dark brown or brownish- 
red, frequently completely covered with grayish or whitish lichens 
(Fig. 229), several of which are peculiar to this bark, and with 



- -I 





m m 

Fig. 229a. Transverse section of inner bark of Rhamnus Purshiana: st, group of 
stone cells; b, groups of bast fibers surrounded by crystal fibers; m, medullary rays; sb, 
sieve cells; parenchyma containing rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate. After Yogi. 

small groups of brownish apothecia, longitudinally wrinkled, 
sometimes with numerous lenticels 3 to 6 mm. long ; inner surface 
light yellow or reddish-brown, smooth, longitudinally striate, turn- 
ing red when moistened with solutions of the alkalies ; fracture 
short, with projections of bast fibers in the inner bark, the medul- 
lary rays one to two cells wide, forming converging groups ; in 
cross section the inner surface of the bark indistinctly crenate; 
odor distinct ; taste bitter, slightly acrid. 


Inner Structure. See Figs. 229a, 304. 

Constituents. The nature of the active constituents of this 
drug is not known. It may contain the glucoside cascarin (pur- 
shianin), which on hydrolysis yields emodin and one or more 
active principles ; and the neutral principle chrysarobin, which 
yields chrysophanic acid (see Rhubarb). The bark apparently 
contains emodin ; isoemodin, a principle which is isomeric with 
emodin, insoluble in ammonia and resembles a similar principle 
in Frangula ; a principle which }ields on hydrolysis syringic acid ; 
a fat consisting of rhamnol arachidate ; a bitter principle ; several 
resins ; tannin ; glucose ; starch ; calcium oxalate ; and ash about 7 
per cent. 

Adulterants. Rliainiiits calif ornica, a shrub indigenous to 
Southern California and the neighboring States, yields a bark 
which closely resembles that of Rhamnus Purshiana, but may be 
distinguished from it by the medullary rays, which are from 3 to 5 
cells wide, and occur in more or less parallel wavy rows, and by 
the distinct crenation of the inner margin of the bark. 

Allied Plants. The fruits of Rhammis cathartica, a shrub 
indigenous to Central and Southern Europe and Asia, are used 
under the name of Buckthorn berries. They are globular, about 
5 mm. in diameter, greenish-brown or black, and consist of four 
i-seeded nutlets; the seeds are dark brown and triangular-convex. 
The odor is slight but disagreeable. The taste is bitter and acrid, 
the saliva being colored yellow. The fruits contain a glucoside, 
rhamnonigrin, which yields emodin ; a bitter principle ; and three 
yellow coloring principles, viz. : rhamnocitrin, rhamnolutin and 
rhamnochrysin (see Fig. 92). 

The fruits of Rhanimis cathartica, as well as of R. infcctoria 
(known as French Berries) and of R. sa.vatilis (called Persian 
berries) have been used as yellow dyes. The fruits of several 
species growling in China yield a green indigo. 

The dried bark of the root of Viburnum prunifolium or of V. 
Lentago (Fam. Caprifoliaceae), shrubs or small trees indigenous 
to the Eastern and Central United States (p. 382). The root 
bark is more highly esteemed than that of the stem and branches 
(Fig. 179). 



Stem Bark. In transversely curved pieces, or irregular 
oblong chips, 1.5 to 6 cm. long, 0.5 to 1.5 cm. in diameter, 0.5 
to 1.5 mm. thick; outer surface brownish-red or grayish-brown, 
longitudinally wrinkled, periderm occasionally exfoliated, with 
occasional grayish patches of foliaceous lichens and numerous 

K -: 




C- - 


Fig. 230. Hamamelis virginiana: A, Transverse section of twig: K, cork; H, cells 
of hypodermis with simple pores, the cells containing chloroplasts and small starch grains", 
Ca, calcium oxalate crystals; Cf, crystal fibers; F, bast fibers with thick, strongly ligni- 
fied walls; S, sieve cells; M, medullary rays; C, cambium; W, wood fibers; T, trachea;. B, 
tangential section of a twig showing stone cells (St), crystal fibers (Cf), and thick- walled 
bast fibers. 

lenticels ; inner surface yellowish- or reddish-brown, longitud- 
inally striate ; fracture short, periderm brownish-red, inner bark 
with numerous light yellow groups of stone cells ; odor slight ; 
taste astringent and bitter. 

Root Bark. Somewhat resembling the stem bark, but 
smoother externally, without lichens and having fewer lenticels. 


Constituents. A bitter, somewhat resinous principle, vibur- 
nin ; valerianic (viburnic) acid and other organic acids; resin; 
tannin; calcium oxalate; ash about 10 per cent. 

Adulterants. The barks of one or more allied species, espe- 
cially Jlbitniiiiii dentatnin (page 383), are said sometimes to be 
substituted for the official bark. 

The bark and twigs of Hamamclis virginiana (Earn. Hamameli- 
dacese), a shrub (Fig. 264) indigenous to Canada and the United 
States west to Minnesota and south to Texas (p. 286). 

Description. Bark in transversely curved pieces 5 to 20 
cm. long, 5 to 15 mm. in diameter, bark 0.5 to i mm. thick; usu- 
ally with the grayish-brown or reddish-brown periderm removed, 
outer surface light browaiish-red, smooth ; inner surface light 
reddish-brown, longitudinally striate; fracture short-fibrous; odor 
slight ; taste astringent. 

Twigs 2 to 5 mm. in diameter; the outer surface varying in 
color from yellowish-brown to blackish-brown, smooth or some- 
what scurfy, longitudinally wrinkled, and with numerous small 
lenticels ; small twigs somewhat zigzag from numerous leaf-scars ; 
bark thin, easily separable from the whitish, hard, radiate wood ; 
pith small (Eig. 230). 

Constituents. Gallotannic acid, a glucosidal tannin, and 
gallic acid. The bark apparently also contains a volatile oil con- 
sisting chiefly of a terpene which is obtained by distillation in the 
preparation of hamamehs water or extract of witchhazel. 

dried bark of the root of Gossypium hcrbaccmn, and of other 
species of Gossypium (Fam. Malvaceae), biennial or triennial 
herbs or shrubs indigenous to sub-tropical Asia and Africa, and 
now cultivated in all tropical and sub-tropical countries (p. 329). 

Description. 'In flexible, transversely curved or slightly 
quilled pieces, 6 to 30 cm. long, 5 to 15 mm. in diameter, bark 
0.2 to I mm. thick ; outer surface light brown, longitudinally wrin- 
kled, with small lenticels, periderm frequently exfoliated ; inner 
surface light brown, longitudinally striate ; fracture tough, fibrous, 
surface light brown, tangentially striate, readily separable into 
fibrous layers ; odor faint ; taste slightly astringent and acrid. 






.-:/J,V&_^y V*^,_,/ 

*-?' r-i^iA'iiiX' 




Fig. 231. Transverse section of cotton root bark: C, cork; Cr, rosette aggregates 
of calcium oxalate; B, bast; M, medullary rays; T, cells containing tannin; S, sieve. 
After Morgan. 



hM '-^j^^-' 

Fig. 231a. Longitudinal section of cotton root bark; C, cork cells; P, parenchyma; 
B, bast fibers; SR, secretion reservoirs; M, medullary rays; T, cells containing tannin; 
K, rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate. After Morgan. 




Inner Structure. See Figs. 231 ; 231a ; 300, H. 

Constituents. About 8 per cent, of a peculiar, colorless 
acid resin, which is soluble in water and becomes reddish and 
insoluble on exposure to air. The drug also contains fixed oil ; 
tannin ; starch and calcium oxalate. 




Fig. 232. Euonymus airopropureus: A, flowering branch showing distinctly petiolate 
leaf; B, cluster of the smooth capsular fruits; E. americantis: C, fruiting branch showing 
the opposite almost sessile leaves and axillary verrucose capsule; D, cross-section of stem 
showing a stoma sunk beneath the epidermis; E, cross-section of stem showing epidermis 
(e), hypodermis (h), palisade cells of cortex (p), parenchyma cells (pa), pericycle (s) and 
portion of the leptome (1). After Holm. 

The FLOWERS of the cotton plant contain an interesting gluco- 
side, gossypetin, which becomes green on oxidation and is colored 
orange-red with solutions of the alkalies. It somewhat resembles 
a similar principle found in arbor vit?e {Thuja occidentalis) . 

RUBUS. BLACKBERRY BARK. The bark of the rhi- 
zome of the perennial shrubs (p. 288) Rubits villosus, R. nigro- 


baccus and R. cuneifolius (Fam. Rosacese). R. villosus occurs 
in dry fields from Canada to Virginia and as far west as Kansas. 
R. nigrobacciis (R. allegheniensis) or common blackberry occurs 
in woods in the Eastern and Central United States and extensively 
cultivated. R. cuneifolius is the sand blackberry and is found in 
sandy woods from New York to Florida and west to Missouri 
and Louisiana. The bark should be collected in spring or autumn 
and dried. 

Description. In flexible, transversely curved or slightly 
quilled pieces 4 to 20 cm. long, 3 to 5 mm. in diameter, bark 0.2 
to 2 mm. thick ; outer surface light brown, longitudinally wrinkled, 
with few root-scars, periderm frequently exfoliated ; inner surface 
light brown, coarsely striate longitudinally ; fracture short, fibrous, 
surface light brown, with oblique radiate wedges of bast; odor 
slight ; taste astringent. 

Constituents. Tannin 10 to 20 per cent. ; gallic acid about 
0.4 per cent. ; a bitter, crystalline glucoside villosin somewhat 
resembling saponin, about 0.8 per cent. ; starch ; calcium oxalate ; 
ash about 3 per cent. 

Allied Plants. Blackberries (the fruits of R. nigrobac- 
cus, R. nigrobacciis sativiis and R. villosus), Red Raspberries 
(the fruit of R. Idccus, a plant native to the old world). Black 
Raspberries (the fruit of R. occidentalis, native of the Northern 
United States) and Strawberries (the fruits of cultivated varie- 
ties of Fragaria chilcoisis, F. vesca and F. virginiana) all contain 
about 2 per cent, of malic and citric acids, 4 per cent, of levulose, 
about 4 per cent, of pectin substances and a small amount of 
volatile oil to which their distinctive flavors are due. Blackberries 
contain in addition considerable tannin and the wine made there- 
from is valued in addition for its astringency. 

EUONYMUS. WAHOO BARK. The dried bark of the 
root of Euonyuius atro purpureas (Fam. Celastracese), a shrub 
(p. 323) indigenous to the Central and Eastern United States and 

Description. Usually in transversely curved pieces, occa- 
sionally in single quills, 3 to 7 cm. long, 0.5 to 1.5 cm. in diam- 
eter, bark 0.5 to i mm. thick ; very light ; outer surface light brown, 
somewhat wrinkled, with scaly patches of soft cork, few lenticels, 


root-scars and adhering roots, which frequently perforate the 
bark ; inner surface light brown, longitudinally striate, somewhat 
porous, occasionally with small pieces of yellow wood adhering; 
fracture short, with silky, projecting, modified bast fibers, cork 
light brown, inner and middle bark somewhat tangentially striate 
and with irregular, dark brown bast areas ; odor faint ; taste bitter ; 
acrid (Fig. 232). 

The stem bark occurs in very long, fibrous strips with a gray- 
ish-black cork and should be rejected. 

Constituents. Euonymin, a crystalline bitter glucoside 2.16 
per cent., which resembles digitalin in its physiological action ; 
volatile oil about 1.3 per cent. ; a yellow and brown resin ; dulcitol 
(isomeric with mannitol) ; euonic, malic, citric and tartaric acids; 
starch ; and calcium oxalate. 

Allied Plants.. E. enropceus and other species of Euonymus 
are also used in medicine, and probably contain the same con- 

of the stem and branches of Viburmtm Opuliis (Fam. Caprifoli- 
aceae), a shrub with nearly erect branches indigenous to the 
Northern United States and Southern Canada, and also found 
growing in Europe and Asia (p. 382). 

Description. In transversely curved pieces, 6 to 20 cm. 
long, I to 2 cm. in diameter, 0.5 to 1.5 mm. thick; outer surface 
light brown or brownish-black, longitudinally wrinkled, periderm 
sometimes exfoliated, revealing a nearly smooth reddish-brown 
surface, with numerous grayish patches of foliaceous lichens, and 
small brownish-black apothecia and large brownish lenticels ; inner 
surface light or reddish-brown, finely striate longitudinally, frac- 
ture uneven, fibrous, surface light or reddish-brown, with groups 
of stone cells and bast fibers ; odor slight ; taste astringent, bitter. 

Constituents. The constituents resemble those of Vibur- 
num prunifolium. 

bark of Xanthoxyhim amcricanmn and Fagara (Xanthoxylum) 
Clava-HcrcuUs (Fam. Rutace?e). X. anicncanum is a shrub or 
small tree (p. 304) indigenous from Quebec to Virginia and west 
to South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, and yields Northern 



I'rickly Ash. F. Clava-H erculis is a shrub (p. 305) found south 
from Virginia to Texas, and furnishes the Southern Prickly Ash. 
The latter, however, appears to be less valuable medicinally. 

Northern Prickly Ash. In transversely curved pieces, 
occasionally in single quills, 2 to 17 cm. long, i to 2 cm. in diam- 
eter, 0.5 to 3 cm. thick ; oviter surface light brown to brownish- 
black, with grayish patches of foliaceous lichens, numerous small 
black apothecia and whitish lenticels; fracture short, uneven; 

Fig. 233. Cinchonine sulphate: orthorhombic crystals from a saturated aqueous solution. 

inner surface light brown, finely striate longitudinally, with 
numerous acicular crystals, phelloderm layer dark green, inner 
bark with groups of converging medullary rays ; odor slight ; 
taste bitter, acrid and pungent. 

Southern Prickly Ash. Transversely curved or irregularly 
oblong flattened pieces, occasionally in single quills 5 to 30 cm. 
long, I to 7 cm. in diameter, i to 4 mm. thick ; outer surface with 
numerous conical cork-wings or their scars ; inner surface free 
from acicular crystals (Fig. 238). 


Constituents. Two resins, one acrid, the other crystalline 
and bitter ; an acrid volatile oil ; a bitter, alkaloidal principle, some- 
what resembling berberine ; a crystalline phenol compound xan- 
thoxylin; ash about 12 per cent. 

Allied Plants. The fruits of both X americamim and 
Fagara Clava-Hcrculis are found in commerce and known as 
Prickly Ash berries. They consist of 2 to 3 follicles, each of which 
is 5 to 6 mm. long, brownish-green, dehiscent along the ventral 
suture and contains one or two sub-globular, somewhat flattened, 
black, glossy seeds ; odor is aromatic ; taste pungent and bitter. 
Xanthoxylum fruits contain a volatile oil and resin. 

bark of the root and stem of Pitnica Granatnm (Fam. Punicaceae), 
a shrub ( p. 345 ) indigenous to Northwestern India, and culti- 
vated in the sub-tropical regions of the Old World. The bark of 
the root is preferred to that of the stem and by some the drug 
obtained from wild plants is also preferred. The bark deterior- 
ates with age and should not be used after it is a year or two old. 

Stem Bark. Usually in transversely curved pieces, occa- 
sionally in single quills, 2 to 8 cm. long, 5 to 20 mm. in diam- 
eter, bark 0.5 to 2 mm. thick ; outer surface yellowish-brown, with 
grayish patches of foliaceous lichens, brownish-black apothecia 
and small lenticels, longitudinally wrinkled ; inner surface light 
yellow or yellowish-brown, finely striate, smooth ; fracture short, 
smooth, phelloderm layer dark green, inner bark light brown, 
somewhat checkered ; odor slight ; taste astringent. 

Root Bark. Dark brown, with slight longitudinal patches 
and scales of cork, green phelloderm layer wanting, medullary 
rays extending nearly to the outer surface. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 234. 

Constituents. Four alkaloids to the extent of i to 3 per 
cent, in the root bark, but only about half as much in the stem 
bark. The most important of these alkaloids is pelletierine, the 
tannate of which is official. Pelletierine (punicine) is a color- 
less, volatile liquid alkaloid, which readily absorbs oxygen and 
becomes dark on exposure to air. Its sulphate is Lnevorotatory. 
Isopelletierine (isomeric with pelletierine) is optically inactive 
and forms an amorphous sulphate. Methylpelletierine some- 



Fig. 234. Transverse section of granatttm; K, corky layer composed of thin-walled 
cork cells (k^) and thick-walled cork cells (k) only the inner walls (v) of which are thick- 
ened; Pd, phelloderm cells; pr, some parenchyma cells of the primary cortex; Sk, stone 
cells with thick, lamellated walls and fine branching pores; O, rosette aggregates of calcium 
oxalate; O^, monoclinic prisms of calcium oxalate; m^, medullary rays; s, sieve cells; 
p, parenchyma cells; c, cambium. After Meyer. 


what resembles pelletierine, but its hydrochloride is dextro- 
rotatory. PsEUDOPELLETiERiNE (methylgraiiatonine) occurs in 
prisms, is optically inactive, and resembles in its reactions and 
decomposition products tropinone. The latter is formed from 
tropine, a compound which results on the decomposition of most 
of the solanaceous alkaloids. Granatum also contains 20 to 22 
per cent, of a mixture of tannins, one of which yields gallic acid 
and the other ellagic acid. A yellow coloring principle, consid- 
erable starch and calcium oxalate are also present in the drug. 

Allied Drugs. The rind of the fruit of Piinica Granatum, 
known as pomegranate rind, occurs in irregularly curved yellow- 
ish-brown fragments about 2 min. thick. It contains 23.8 to 25 
per cent, of a tannin which is colored bluish-black with ferric salts. 

MEZEREUM. MEZEREON BARK. The dried bark of 
Daphne Mesereum, and of other species of Daphne (Fam. Thyme- 
laceaj), shrubs indigenous to Europe and Asia, and naturalized in 
New England and Canada (p. 343). The bark is collected in 
early spring; it is dried and frequently made up into small bun- 
dles, the commercial supplies being obtained from Thuringia, 
Southern France and Algeria. 

Description. In flexible double quills or somewhat flattened 
strips 10 to 90 cm. long, 3 to 20 mm. in diameter, bark about 0.3 
mm. thick; outer surface light or dark brown, smooth, obliquely 
striate or wrinkled, with numerous lenticels, occasional brownish- 
black apothecia, and sometimes with buds or bud-scars ; inner 
surface yellowish-green, somewhat lustrous, finely striate ; frac- 
ture tough, fibrous, the dark-brown periderm readily separable 
from the yellowish-green cortex, inner bark yellowish-green, 
lamellated ; odor slight ; taste very acrid. 

Constituents. An acrid resin known as mezerein ; a crys- 
talline, bitter glucoside daphnin (isomeric with gesculin) occurring 
in greatest amount in the stem bark during the flowering and 
fruiting season ; volatile and fixed oils ; malic acid ; several sugars ; 
and starch. 

Allied Drugs. The berry-like fruits of Daphne Mezerenm 
and D. Gnidimn are sub-globular, dark brown or brownish-black, 
about 5 mm. in diameter, with a black, glossy seed and acrid 
pungent taste. The fruits contain 0.38 per cent, of coccogonin, a 


principle which on subHmation gives off an odor of coumarin ; 
0.22 per cent, of an acrid resin; and 31 per cent, of a fixed oil 
which absorbs oxygen on exposure to air and is in the nature of 
a drying oil. 

The barks of a number of other plants of this family are used 
like that of Mezereum, as DapJmopsis Schzvartzii of the West 
Indies, LasiosipJion eriocephalus of India and Ceylon, and various 
species of Stellera, Struthiola and Thymelaea. 

BARK. The bark of the stem and branches of Pruniis serotina 
Ehrhart (Syn. Primus virginiana JMiller) (Fam. Rosacese), a 
tree (Fig. 150) indigenous to the Eastern and Central United 
States and Canada. The bark is collected in autumn, and should 
be carefully dried and preserved in air-tight containers (p. 287). 

Description. Usually in transversely curved pieces 2.5 to 8 
cm. long, I to 5 cm. in diameter, 0.5 to 4 mm. thick ; outer surface 
light brown or greenish-brown, somewhat glabrous, with numer- 
ous lenticels 3 to 4 mm. long ; inner surface light brown, longitud- 
inally striate and occasionally fissured ; fracture short, granular ; 
cork dark brown, thin, easily separable from the green phello- 
derm, inner bark porous and granular ; odor of the drug distinct, 
and on the addition of water developing an odor of benzaldehyde 
and hydrocyanic acid; taste astringent, aromatic (Fig. 235). 

The bark of the trunk is dark brown and rough externally. 

Constituents. A cyanogenetic glucoside, identified by 
Power and Moore as 1-mandelonitrile glucoside, a compound 
which has been prepared by Fischer by the partial hydrolysis 
of amygdalin and is isomeric with sambunigrin (d-mandelo- 
nitrile glucoside) from the leaves of Samhucus nigra and prulau- 
rasin (dl-mandelonitrile glucoside) from the leaves of Primus 
lauroccrasus. It also contains a ferment resembling emulsin ; 
)8-methyliesculetin (methyl ether of di-hydroxy-coumarin) which 
probably occurs in combination as a crystalline glucoside. the 
solutions giving a blue fluorescence ; a phytosterol ; l-mandelic 
acid, oleic acid ; p-coumaric acid ; tri-methyl-gallic acid ; ipu- 
ranol ; dextrose ; sugar ; tannin 2.5 to 4.5 per cent. ; starch and 
calcium oxalate. The yield of hydrocyanic acid varies from 0.23 
to 0.32 per cent, (inner bark) to 0.03 per cent, (trunk bark) and 



varies even in the bark of the same thickness from the same 
tree. When the exposure is such that the chloroplastids are 
abundant in the cells of the bark, then the per cent, of the 
1-mandelonitrile glucoside is higher, whereas when the exposure is 
such that the cells do not take an active part in photosynthesis 
the per cent, of the glucoside is lower. In the latter case the 

Fig. 235. Prunus serotina Ehrhart: A, longitudinal section of inner bark, showing 
crystals of calcium oxalate (a), medullary ray cells (b and d) containing starch, leptome or 
seive (c); B, transverse section of stem bark showing cork, probably secondary periderm 
(a), cells of cortex (b) containing chloroplasts, groups of sclerotic cells (c), compressed lep- 
tome in the outer portion of the bast layer (d), medullary ray cells (e), group of sclerotic 
cells (f), fissures (g) between medullary ray cells and adjacent phloem tissues, cambium zone 
(i), vessel or trachea in mature wood (k). After Bastin. 

bark is yellowish-brown. On keeping the bark for a year it 
deteriorates from 10 to 50 per cent. 

The bark of Prunus pseudo-cerasns var. Sieholdi of Japan, 
contains a glucoside (sakuranin) which crystallizes in needles 
and is soluble in dilute alcohol, the solution being colored yellow 
with ferric chloride. 


Adulterants. It is likely that the barks of other species of 
Prunus are now entering the market. They are more astringent 
and less aromatic. 

Allied Plants. The leaves of the Cherry laurel (Prunus 
Laiiro-Ccrasus) are used in the fresh condition. They are oblong 
or oblong-lanceolate, about 15 cm. long, sharply serrate, cori- 
aceous, with an almond-like odor on being bruised and an aro- 
matic, bitter taste. They contain about 1.3 per cent, of a gluco- 
side laurocerasin, which is associated with amygdalic acid ; a 
ferment emulsin, which acts on the laurocerasin, causing it to be 
more slowly decomposed than amygdalin and yielding but half as 
much hydrocyanic acid (about 0.12 per cent.) and benzaldehyde 
(about 0.5 per cent). The leaves also contain a crystalline prin- 
ciple phyllic acid, which is insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol 
and occurs in the leaves of almond, peach and apple. A glucoside 
resembling laurocerasin is found in the leaves of Sainbucits nigra. 

The leaves of the Peach (Persica 2'nlgaris), which is exten- 
sively cultivated for its fruit, contain about 3 per cent, of amyg- 
dalin (see Almond). 

The fruit of Prunus scrotina consists of small, black drupes 
(Fig. 150), which when ripe are sweet, slightly acid and astrin- 
gent. They are used in making a wine and might be employed 
in other preparations of wild cherry. 

root of Sassafras officinale (Fam. Lauracese), a tree (Fig. 73) 
indigenous to Eastern North America (p. 2yy). The bark is col- 
lected in the early spring, or autumn, deprived of the periderm, 
and used either in the fresh or dried condition. 

Description. In transversely curved or^recurved, irregular, 
oblong pieces, 3 to 8 cm. long, 10 to 30 mm. in diameter, 0.5 to 3 
mm. thick ; outer surface light reddish-brown, nearly smooth, 
somewhat porous ; inner surface distinctly striate, somewhat 
scaly ; fracture short, soft, surface slightly porous ; odor aromatic ; 
taste somewhat mucilaginous, astringent and aromatic. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 236. 

Constituents. A^olatile oil 5 to 9 per cent. ; tannin about 6 
per cent.; a reddish-brown altered tannin compound (sassafrid) 
about 9 per cent. ; resin and starch. 



Pig. 236. Transverse section of root bark of sassafras: a, cork; b, oil cells; c, tannin cells; 
d, medullary rays; e, bast fibers; f, cambium. After Bastin. 


The principal constituent of the volatile oil is safrol. The oil 
from the leaves differs essentially in composition from that of the 
root bark, containing linalool and geraniol. 

Allied Plants. Other plants of this family also yield a vola- 
tile oil containing safrol, as Bcilschmicdia oppositifolia of Queens- 
land and New South Wales; Mcspilodaphnc Sassafras and Nec- 
tandra Fuchiiry-ininor, both of Brazil. 

QUILLAJA. SOAP BARK. The bark of Quillaja Sapon- 
aria (Fam. Rosacese), a large tree indigenous to Chile and 
Peru. The bark is removed in large pieces, deprived of the peri- 
derm and dried (p. 290). 

Description. In flat pieces 25 to 90 cm. long, 10 to 15 cm. 
wide, 4 to 6 mm. thick ; outer surface light brown, longitudinally 
striate, with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate and occasional 
patches of the dark-brown periderm ; inner surface yellowish- 
brown, finely wrinkled, with numerous crystals of calcium oxalate, 
and occasional circular depressions, conical projections or trans- 
verse channels ; fracture uneven, coarsely fibrous, surface porous 
and with groups of white sclerenchymatous fibers ; odor slight ; 
taste acrid. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 315. 

Constituents. The drug contains two amorphous gluco- 
sides amounting to about 9 per cent., which are closely related to 
saponin one soluble in alcohol and known as quillajic acid, and 
the other nearly insoluble in alcohol and known as quillajasapo- 
toxin ; it also contains starch and about 10 per cent, of calcium 

Substitutes. A spurious Quillaja is being oft'ered at the 
present time. The bark yields less saponin,^ is more brittle than 
the official bark and is covered with a thin, brownish layer. 

QUERCUS. WHITE OAK BARK. The bark of Quercus 
alba (Fam. Cupuliferas), a tree indigenous to the Eastern and 
Central United States and Canada. The bark is collected in spring 
from the branches and trunks of trees from ten to twenty-five 
years of age, and deprived of the periderm and dried (Fig. 135) 

Description. In flat, irregular, more or less oblong pieces 
5 to 30 cm. long, 10 to 20 mm. in diameter, 2 to 4 mm. thxk ; outer 
surface light brown, longitudinally striate, with occasional patches 



of dark-brown periderm ; inner surface yellowish-brown, coarsely 
striate and fissured longitudinally, and with detachable bast fibers; 
fracture uneven, coarsely fibrous, surface porous and dotted with 




mmgmm i 









l^ffiPf w 


Fig. 237. 'W'hite oak bark with the fissured corky layers (bork) still present. 

groups of white sclerenchymatous cells and fibers ; odor slight ; 
taste astringent (Figs. 237; 300, B; 301. ./). 

Constituents. Tannin about to per cent. ; starch and cal- 
cium oxalate. The tannin yields upon sublimation a crystalline 



principle resembling pyrocatechin ; npon fusion with potassium 
hydrate a phenol similar to protocatechuic acid is formed ; dilute 
solutions are colored olive-brown with ferric chloride and possess 
a slight fluorescence ; alkalies give a deep red color to the solutions. 

Fig. 238. Southern prickly ash [Fagara (Xanthoxylum) Clava-Herculis]: A, transverse 
section showing cork (k), stone cells (st), groups of primary bast fibers (b), calcium oxalate 
(ca), medullary rays (m), parenchyma (p) containing starch, oil-secretion reservoirs (o), 
sieve (s), cambium (c); B, isolated stone cell showing pores and lamellae; C, group of bast 
fibers found in young, thin bark and surrounding parenchyma (p); D, longitudinal section 
near a group of bast fibers showing non-lignified bast fibers (b), calcium oxalate (ca) in 
crystal fibers, medullary rays (m), parenchyma (p) containing starch. 

Allied Plants. Oucrciis robcr, indigenous to Europe, is 
the source of the bark used in England and Continental Europe ; 
the bark closely resembles that of Quercus alba, but the periderm 
is not removed; it contains from 10 to 16 per cent, of tannin, 
besides gallic and ellagic acids. Quercus velutina, or black oak, 
yields the quercitron bark, which resembles that of Quercus alba 


but is reddish-brown, and tinges the saHva yellowish ; it contains 
besides tannin a yellow glucosidal principle quercitrin, which 
yields quercetin, a yellow coloring principle. 

ULMUS. SLIPPERY-ELM BARK. The bark of Ulnms 
fulva (Earn. LHrnacese), a tree indigenous to the Eastern and 
Central United States and Canada (p. 254). The bark is col- 
lected in spring (Eig. 99, C), deprived of the periderm and dried, 
the commercial article coming chiefly from Michigan. 

Description. In flat oblong pieces about 30 cm. long, 10 to 
15 cm. in diameter, 3 to 4 mm. thick; outer surface light brown, 
longitudinally wrinkled and furrowed and with occasional dark- 
brown patches of periderm ; inner surface yellowish or light 
brown, more or less uniformly wrinkled longitudinally; fracture 
fibrous, surface light brown, porous from large mucilage cells; 
odor slight, distinct ; taste mucilaginous. 

Inner Structure. See Eig. 99, C. 

Constituents. The principal constituent is mucilage ; it also 
contains starch and calcium, oxalate. 

Allied Plants. Ulmiis campcstris, or European elm, yields 
a bark which is dark brown, and contains, besides mucilage, a 
bitter principle and tannin. 

QUASSIA. QUASSIA WOOD. The wood of Picrasma 
excelsa (Eam. Simarubaceae), a tree indigenous to Jamaica and 
other islands of the West Indies (p. 309). The trees are felled 
and cut into billets. The latter are exported and afterward man- 
ufactured into " quassia cups," the shavings constituting the drug 
known as Jamaica Quassia. The market supply of this drug was 
at one time almost exclusively obtained from Quassia amara 
(Eam. Simarubaceae), a small tree or shrub indigenous to 
Brazil and cultivated in Columbia, Panama, West Indies and 
other tropical countries (p. 309). The wood exported from 
Surinam is known as Surinam Quassia ; this is the variety used 
in continental Europe and is now also official. 

Jamaica Quassia. Usually in raspings, light or bright yel- 
low, medullary rays two to five cells wide in transverse section 
(Eig. 239, A), the cells containing tetragonal prisms or crypto- 
crystalline crystals of calcium oxalate ; fracture fibrous ; odor 
slight ; taste bitter. 



Surinam Quassia usually occurs in small billets ; the medul- 
lar}- rays are i to 2 cells wide in transverse section, and calcium 
oxalate crystals are wanting (Fig. 239, B). 

Constituents. Jamaica quassia contains from 0.05 to 0.75 
per cent, of a bitter crystalline substance quassiin. This really 
consists of two crystalline bitter principles a-picrasniin and 

Fig. 239. A, transverse section of Jamaica quassia; B, transverse section of Surinam 
quassia: g, tracheae; f, wood-fibers; hp, wood parenchyma; o, cells containing calcium 
oxalate; m, medullary rays. After Meyer. 

/?-picrasmin. Jamaica Quassia also contains a crystalline alka- 
loidal principle which gives a blue fluorescence in acidified alco- 
holic solution. 

Surinam quassia contains one or more bitter principles, which 
are related to the picrasmins of Jamaica quassia, and which are 
known as quassiins. 



Allied Drugs. The barks of Picrasma excelsa and Quassia 
ainara are used in medicine and probably contain similar principles 
to the wood. The Surinam bark occurs in thinner, light-colored 
pieces and is sometimes admixed with the powdered drug. It is 
determined by the large stone cells. The wood of Picrcena quas- 
sioidcs quite closely resembles Jamaica Quassia in general appear- 
ance, microscopical structure and chemical constituents. Bitter 
principles are also found in other species of Picrasma and 
Quassia. An allied bitter principle and an alkaloid are found in 
Cascara Amarga or Honduras Bark, which is derived from 
Picrcena Vellozii, of Southern Brazil. 

SiMARUBA is the bark of the root of Simaruha aiuara and S. 
officinalis, plants growing in Guiana. The bark comes in flat or 
somewhat curved pieces about i AI. long. 7 cm. wide. 3 to 5 mm. 
thick ; the outer corky surface is bluish-brown or dark brown, the 
periderm, however, being frequently removed, when it is grayish- 
or yellowish-brown ; the fracture is tough-fibrous, and the surface 
shows the presence of light yellow stone cells. The taste is very 
bitter. Simaruba contains a crystalline bitter principle, giving 
a violet color with sulphuric acid ; a crystalline non-bitter sub- 
stance ; a fluorescent principle ; a resin ; a volatile oil with an odor 
of benzoin ; gallic acid, and calcium oxalate and malate. 

H^MATOXYLON. LOGWOOD. The heartwood of 
Hcemafoxyloii caiiipccJiianiim (Fam. Leguminosge). a tree indig- 
enous to Central America, and naturalized in tlie West Indies. 
Much of the commercial logwood being used for dyeing is allowed 
to ferment, and as a result the chips become dark red and have a 
greenish, metallic lustre, but it is the unfermented wood that 
should be used for medicinal purposes (p. 295). 

Description. Usually in small chips, externally reddish- 
brown, freshly cut surface dark yellowish-red, in transverse sec- 
tion slightly radiate and with numerous, alternate, yellowish and 
reddish concentric rings, medullary rays four cells wide ; fracture 
hard, fibrous ; odor slight ; taste sweet, astringent ; the wood 
imparting to water a violet or wine color. 

Constituents. Haematoxylin. 10 to 12 per cent., occurs 
in colorless or pale yellow needles or prisms (Fig. 154). tastes like 
glycyrrhizin, becomes red on exposure to light and is soluble in 


water and alcohol. The solutions are colored with the alkalies, 
purplish-red, then purple and finally deep red. The compound 
formed with ammonia yields hsematein, a dark violet, crystalline 
principle having a green, metallic lustre and which is supposed 
to form in the fermented wood used by dyers. Logwood also 
contains volatile oil, resin, tannin and calcium oxalate. 

Allied Plants. The woods of certain species of Ccvsalpinia 
also contain red coloring principles and furnish the red woods of 
tropical America. Brazil wood is obtained from C. echinata and 
contains the principle known as brasilin, which is colorless when 
first extracted but assumes a red color on exposure ; Sappam or 
false sandal v/ood is obtained from C. Sappam of Farther India. 
Red coloring principles are also found in other species of Ccrsal- 
piiiia and in a number of other genera of the Leguminosse as well. 

wood of Pterocarpus santalinus (Fam. Leguminosse), a tree (p. 
295) indigenous to the southern part of Farther India, and culti- 
vated in the Southern Philippines, Ceylon and Southern India, the 
chief supplies coming from Madras. 

Description. Usually in small chips or coarse powder, red 
or brownish-red, in transverse section slightly radiate, with numer- 
ous alternate lighter and darker concentric rings, medullary rays 
one cell wide ; fracture hard, fibrous ; inodorous ; taste slight. 

Constituents. A coloring principle santalin (santalic acid), 
which occurs in red needles that are insoluble in water, soluble 
in alcohol, forming a deep red solution which is colored violet 
with solutions of the alkalies. It also contains tannin and several 
colorless crystalline principles. 

Allied Plants. The African sandal wood or barwood is 
obtained from P. saiitalinoides of tropical West Africa. Cam- 
wood or African red-wood (obtained from Baphia iiifida, in 
Sierra Leone) is also valued on account -of its red coloring 

pith of young stems and branches of Sassafras officinale (Fam. 
Lauracese), a tree (Fig. 73) indigenous to Eastern North America 
(p. 277). The pith is collected late in autumn, after frost, and 


Description. Cylindrical, cut longitudinally into pieces 2 to 
10 cm. long, about 5 to 7 mm. in diameter, or in irregular, some- 
what curved or angled pieces ; very light ; externally whitish or 
light brown, occasionally with small fragments of wood adhering ; 
consisting of parenchyma cells with slightly lignified walls, having 
simple pores, and swelling perceptibly in water (Fig. 326) ; 
fracture short ; slight odor of sassafras ; taste mucilaginous. 

Constituents. The principle constituent is the mucilage, 
which is not precipitated by alcohol ; it also contains a trace of 
volatile oil. 


In quite a number of plants, particularly the Labiatge and Com- 
positge, principles having medicinal and other properties occur in 
relatively large amount in the flowers. These principles are, as a 
rule, more or less volatile and aromatic, many of them being used 
in perfumery and for flavoring, as well as for medicinal purposes. 


I. Flower Buds. 

With a stalk and globular upper portion Caryophyllus 

Small, ellipsoidal, composite heads Santonica 

II. Expanded Flowers. 

1. Flower heads. 

A. Tubular and ligulatc florets. 

Ligulate florets, bright yellow Arnicse Flores 

Ligulatc florets, whitish Matricaria 

B. Chiefly ligulate florets. 

Whitish globular heads Anthemis 

2. Ligulate florets only. 

Corolla bright yellow Calendula 

III. Entire Inflorescence. 

Flowers pistillate, reddish-brown Cusso 

IV. Part of Flower, 

Petals only Rosa Gallica 

Style and Stigma Zea 


CARYOPHYLLUS. CLOVES. The flower-buds of Jam- 
bosa Caryophyllus (Syn. Eugenia Caryophyllata and E. aromat- 
ica) (Earn. Alyrtaceae), an evergreen-tree indigenous to the Mo- 
hicca Islands, where it is also cultivated, as well as in Zanzibar, 
Ceylon and Java (p. 346). The flower-buds are collected, dried in 
the sun or artificially, the color changing from a crimson to a 
brownish. The chief commercial supplies come from Amboyna, 
Penang and Zanzibar, the former two varieties being preferred. 

Description. About 15 mm. long, 3 to 6 mm. in diameter, 
more or less cylindrical, dark brown, calyx epigynous (Fig 83, 
B), with four incurved teeth about 3 mm. long, surmounted by a 
light brown globular portion consisting of four petals which are 
imbricated, punctate and alternate with the calyx teeth ; stamens 
numerous, crowded and incurved, style one, ovary 2-locular, with 
numerous ovules ; odor and taste strongly aromatic. 

Cloves should not contain more than 5 per cent, of clove stems 
or yield more than 8 per cent, of ash ; nor yield less than 10 per 
cent, of volatile ether extract or 12 per cent, of gallotannic acid. 

Inner Structure. See Eig. 312. 

Constituents. The chief constituent is the volatile oil, which 
occurs to the extent of 15 to 20 per cent., and consists of caryo- 
phyllene and eugenol. the latter constituting 50 to 85 per cent, of 
the oil. The darkening of old oil of cloves is supposed to be due 
to furfurol, an aldehyde formed on decomposition of some of the 
carbohydrates and albuminoids. Cloves also contain an odorless, 
tasteless principle caryophyllin, which crystallizes in silky needles 
and yields upon the addition of fuming nitric acid crystals of 
caryophyllinic acid; vanillin; eugenin (isomeric with eugenol or 
eugenic acid), which resembles caryophyllin but becomes reddish 
with nitric acid; gallotannic acid 10 to 13 per cent.; calcium 
oxalate, and 5 to 7 per cent, of ash. 

Adulterants. Clove stalks are less aromatic and yield from 
4 to 7 per cent, of volatile oil. The so-called mother of cloves is 
the nearly ripe fruit of Jamhosa Caryophyllus or clove tree, which 
furnishes cloves. The fruit is an ovoid, brownish berry about 25 
mm. long ; it is less aromatic than cloves and contains large, 
branching stone cells, or short bast fibers, and numerous pear- 
shaped or truncated starch grains from 10 to 40 jx in diameter. 



It is stated that artificial cloves have been made by using starch, 
g-um and oil of cloves ; or from dough and clove powder. These 
are easily distinguished by adding the spurious article to water, 
when the compound disintegrates. 

Fig. 240. Santonica. A, transverse section of the wall of the ovary: E, Ei, e, epider- 
mal cells; g, tracheae; s, sieve. B, longitudinal section through a flower bud showing 
involucre (H); C, stamen; D, glandular hair of a bud-scale; E, glandular hair as viewed 
from above; F, style; G. transverse section of the wall of the ovary showing trachea 
(g. g') and conducting cells traversed by pollen tube (1); H, pollen grain; J, flower bud 
showing ovary (f); K, expanded flower showing stamens (S). After Meyer. 

heads of Artemisia Cina (Earn. Compositre), a small shrub (p. 
397) indigenous to the deserts in Northern Turkestan. The 
flower-heads are collected in July and August before they expand, 
and carefully dried and preserved. 


Description. Oblong or ellipsoidal, 2 to 4 mm. long, i to 
1.5 mm. in diameter; involucre ovoid, consisting" of twelve to 
eighteen closely imbricated, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, glandular, 
somewhat shiny bracts, about 2 mm. long, with a yellowish-green 
or greenish-brown middle portion and whitish margin ; torus flat, 
naked, with three to six unexpanded, perfect tubular flowers 
about 1.5 mm. long and completely inclosed by the upper bracts; 
ovary oblong ; pappus wanting ; odor distinct ; taste aromatic. 

Inner Structure. See Fig. 240. 

Constituents. A crystalline neutral principle, santonin, 
which occurs to the extent of 2 to 3.5 per cent, just before the 
expansion of the flowers; volatile oil about 2 per cent., consisting 
chiefly of cineol, some terpineol, terpinene and inactive pinene ; 
a crystalline principle artemisin, which is apparently oxysantonin ; 
and a resin. Santonin crystallizes in rhombic prisms, becoming 
yellow on exposure to light ; it is nearly insoluble in water, spar- 
ingly soluble in alcohol ; and colored red by alcoholic solutions 
of the alkalies. 

Allied Plants. Artemisia gallica, a plant abundant in 
France, contains santonin and about i per cent, of a volatile oil. 

ARNICA. ARNICA FLOWERS. The dried, expanded 
flower-heads of Arnica montana (Fam. Compositse), a perennial 
herb (p. 394) indigenous to Central Europe, and growing in the 
mountains of Switzerland, Asia and Western North America. 
In Germany, on account of the involucre and torus being injured 
by the larvae of the