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Colloquial Japanese 









IVriMi lonis-r Ptjbt^xshino IToi>^k 




S' 5 S- 


The basis of this book is the first volume of the series of 
LeJirbucher ties Seuiinats far Orientalische Sprachen^ publish- 
ed at Berlin in 1890. Its author, Dr. I.ange, before his appoint- 
ment at Berlin, had been for a number of years instructor in 
the German language at the Daigaku Yobiinon (Preparatory 
School to the University) in Tokyo. Since that time all his 
energies have been devoted to the task of making his country- 
men acquainted with the Japanese language and literature. 

My own experience as a missionary student of the lan- 
guage having proved the value of this work I prepared an 
English edition which was printed at Sendai, 1901-1903. 
After I undertook the task Dr. Lange sent me copious notes 
of corrections and additions gathered during his ten years' ex- 
perience as a teacher. Justice to him requires me to state that 
I used the material thus graciously placed at my disposal with 
a very free hand, for several reasons. In the first place Dr. 
Lange had prepared his book witli the needs of a German 
student in view, and while the needs of an English-speaking 
student are in the main the same, there are many cases in 
which an explanation intended for the one will not help the 
other. Secondly, Dr. Lange's notes were in many instances 
mere suggestions, very fruitful indeetl, but not fully developed. 
/\n-' '^■•inliv. T felt that I had one advantage over the original 
I had used jiis text-book when I first learned 
my Japanese, and was thus in a position to test it as he could 
not. My subsequent experience in the use of the language had 
revealed omissions not so apparent to the author himself. 
Accordingly it v\as my aim to recast all the material in such a 
way as to make it most helpful to the English-speaking student. 
This book is not a translation and Dr. Lange is not responsible 
for anv errors that it mav contain. 


If I h;i(l been permitted to reniaia in Japan I miijht have 
undertaken a complete rcconstruclion of the work ; but that is 
out of the question for the pVesent. A call for a second edition 
having come unexpectedly soon, I have had time only for a 
superficial revision, with constant reference to the second 
German edition, which appeared at Berlin in the early part of 
this year. The new LeJirbucIi contains eight hundred pages, 
of which the last two hundred are devoted to an eiUirely new 
German-Japanese vocabulary. Since students now have access 
to a very satisfactory English-Japanese dictionary it does not 
seem necessary to include such a feature in the English edition. 
The improvements in the body of the new German edition 
were largely anticipated by the former English edition, in the 
preparation of which, as has been stated, Dr. Lange generously 
co-operated with me. Accordingly, in the main, the arrange- 
ment and the paging remain as before. The selections at the 
end have been somewhat increased. 

The aim of the book is pedagogical rather than scientific; 
hence the combination of system and no-system and the num- 
erous repetitions. The pedagogical principle has been applied, 
for example, in the study of words. When it seems likely to 
aid the memory of the student to indicate the origin of a word, 
this is done; but when the etymology is disputed or apt to be 
confusing, nothing is said about it and the student must learn 
the word as a whole. The repetitions in most cases are not 
accidental but designed. For the student must pass through 
three stages to become master of an idiom. First, he needs to 
be thoroughly convinced that there is such an idiom ; secondly, 
he must learn how to use it, and, thirdly, after he has entirely 
forgotten its existence he needs to be reminded that he cannot 
get along very well without it. 

A truly scientific grammar of the colloquial is yet to bo 
written. But in one respect this work may claim to be scienti- 
fic : it has been the constant aim of Dr. Tange, and of myself, 
to set forth the language as it is actually spoken by the Japan- 


esc tliemsclves, not as \vc would spcalc it. The sentences have 
all been taken from the mouths of Japanese and repeatedly 
reviewed and criticized b}^ competent Japanese. The senten- 
ces to be translated from English into Japanese were first writ- 
ten out in Japanese and then translated into English with a 
view to retranslation. 

Dr. Lange acknowledges his obligations to Mr. Tsurutard 
Senga and INIr. Tsuji Takahira, who assisted him with his two 
editions respectively. In the preparation of the former English 
edition, at every step i leaned heavily on my colleagues and 
friends Messrs, Tadashi Igarashi, Jiro Maeda and Iwae Irie. 
The proofs of the present edition have been read by Mr. J. L^ 
Cowen and reviewed by Prof. Isao Matsuda. Thanks are 
also due to Rev. H. K. INIiller and Mr. Cowen for invaluable 

Christopher Noss 

Lancaster, Pennsylvania 

November, 1906. 



The Japanese lanj^ua^e 


Sinico- Japanese 


Words derived fi-om western languages 

. , XIII 

The standard colloquial 

... XIII 

Practical hints 

. . . XV' 

Helps for further study 

... XVI 

Orthography and Pronunciation 

The ideographic script ... 

... XIX 

Kan a 

. .. XIX 









The Noun 

Number and gcmlcr 


\Va and ga 

Subordinate sul^jects 



•• 7 



Wo .' .'.'.* ..." ..! "... .'.. '.'.. 

1 1 

A'i? substituted for ^'v? 

•• 13 

Compounds, VIII., IX 

•• I.S 


,. 21 

Pkedicatk Adjixtives 

.. 24 

The Pronoun 


.. 27 


•• 31 


.. 36 

" Some "," such " 

.. 38 


.. 42 


.. 4S 

"Every", "other" 

.. 49 

Translation of relatives 

•• 53 

"Self", "one another" 

•• 57 

The Numeral 

Native forms and combinations, XXI., XXII. ... 

... 61 

Chinese forms and units 

.. C,7 


- 73 

Arithmetic ,. 

... 79 


Nunieratlvcs, XXVII— XXVIII, 82 

vy ] OlllcilSa** *■• ••■ ••• ••• ••• *•» ••• ••• •■• W'^ 

The Adjective 

Inflections 98 ^ 

In compounds 105 

Compound adjectives 109 

Forms witli na [13 

Forms with // (7 119 

Adjectival clauses 123 

Forms derived from verbs [27 

Substantivized adjectives 131 

Comparison 135 


First Class — The Tenses 141 

Conditional and imperative 147 

Negative tenses 154 

Negative conditional and imperative 1 i;<S 

Subordinativcj XLIII , XLIV. 162 

Negative subordinative 170 

iJesiderative and alternative 175 

Second Class 

/*! group ... » 179 

Verbs in em and ine 18^ 

Honorific verbs in ;-;/ 18) 

7" group 194 

k-^ i^rOUIj ••• ••• ••• .«. ■•* aa, •«« „,, ,,, ,,, I ( )CJ 

Masu, Mosu 205 

Suru 211 

A' group 221 

O^u, itadaku 226 

Kuru 230 

G^ group 235 

^ and vV group 239 

Vowel group 244 

Morau, Skimaii 2^0 

Causatives 25 ; 

Passives 259 

Totentials 266 

Idiomatic uses of the indicative 272 

Uses of the stem 277 

Compounds, EX VI. — EXIX. 284. 

Honorifics 309 

The Advfkb 

Derived from ordinary acljcctiv(;s 314 



Forms with ;// 

Forms with to 


Substantives as adverbs, 

Subordi natives as adverbs 
Ordinary adverbs ... 

The Postposition 

Postpositions proper, I.XXVIII.— LXXIX 
Substantives as postpositions 
Subordinatives as postpositions 

The Conjunction 

Conjunctions proper 

Substantives as conjunctions .. 

The Interjection — Appellations 




YuME no Goke 


Address by Marquis Ito 
Vocabulary-index of Japanese VVoi^ds 
Vocabulary to The English Exercises 
Grammatical Index 









The abbreviations will hardly require explanation, except 
the letter (c), which indicates that a word is of Chinese 

IMarks of parenthesis ( ) indicate explanations or para- 
phrases ; square brackets [ ] indicate English words which 
are not to be translated into Japanese. 


The Japanese Language 

The Japanese Language is the mother-tongue of about 
50,000,000 persons. In Japan proper, excluding the present 
accessions to the Empire, such as Taiwan (Formosa), the 
native population is linguistically homogeneous, with the ex- 
ception of a few remnants of the aborigines. Even th'e Ainu, 
of whom about 18,000 may still be found in Hokkaido and 
Sagkalien, are being rapidlly assimilated. 

The relation of the Japanese to other languages has not yet 
been satisfactorily determined. The attempt to discover an 
affinity with the Aryan languages ^ has, it must be said, not 
been successful ; for the words that are identical or even similar 
are too few to justify the inference of a common origin. The 
same criticism is applicable to the attempt to establish a relation 
with the Semitic language. ^ A comparison of Japanese 
roots with those of certain Altaic languages, such as the 
Mongolian, Tungusic, Manchurian, Turkish, etc., does not 
bring us any nearer to the solution of the problem. ^ Neverthe- 
less Japanese is usually regarded as belonging to this great 
group of Altaic languages, for the reason that it has in 
common with them the characteristic known as agglutiriatipn.. 
That is, in Japanese, as in all agglutinative tongues, inflection 
in tile ordinary sense is replaced by a loose attachment of par- 
ticles to the stem as suffi.xes, while the stem itself remains com- 
parativ'ely unaffected. But it must be noted that the colloquial 
as compared with the classical Japanese seems to be in a state 
of transition from the agglutinative to the inflectional stage. 
In regard to syntax also the Japanese is very much like some 
of the languages that belong to the Altaic group, e. g., the 


With Chinese the Japanese language proper has no relation 
whatever. In the former, words are properly monosyllabic and 
frcquejitly end in consonants; in the latter they are mostly 

n. See Trans icliijiis of the Asiatic Society Japan, Vol. II., p. 199 II. 
b Japan Kvangclist, October, 1906. 

c CIrunzel, Kntivurf eiiier ver^leiiJiendeii G rammatik dei altaisthen Spraclieti, 
Leipzig, 1895. 


polysyllabic, the syllables being uniformly composed of a vowel 
or of a simple consonant followed by a vowel. ^ The syntax 
too is utterly different. 

Yet Chinese is of great importance in the study of Japanese, 
even of greater importance than Latin is in the study of 
English. Through the study of Chinese literature and the 
Buddhistic scriptures (which came to Japan in the form of 
Chinese translations), the importation of the Chinese arts 
and sciences, and the adoption of the ideographic script, it has 
come to that a great mass of Chinese words and expres- 
sions has found entrance into the Japanese language, in nu- 
merous cases even supplanting the native terms. 

Accordingly modern Japanese is a mixture of native elements 
and words borrowed from the Chinese and possesses a rich vo- 
cabulary. For many ideas there are both Japanese and Chi- 
nese terms. Of the latter the greater number are not under- 
stood except in educated circles. IMany, however, have become 
thoroughly naturalized; e.g., sen-taku laundry. '^ In many 
instances the Chinese expressions have supplanted the native. 
Thus, for example, the modern peasant calls thunder rai (c) 
rathe, than kaiui-nari. The dictionaries are full of classical 
native words which are understood only by those who make 
their study a specialty. 

The conmion use of words derived from the Chinese is due 
not simply to the natui«l lildng for foreign terms, but nuich 
more to the fact that the demand for new words expressing 
new conceptions is most easily and conveniently met by form- 
ing compounds from the Chinese. These are often remarkable 
for conciseness. " Telegraph " is den-shin, from <^^;/ lightning 
and shin tidings. Marconi has no sooner perfected his great 


a Tlie only exception is ;;. But in genuine Japanese words, like shinan 
(classical future of shinti to die), the n is derived from mit. All other words 
ending in n are either imported from other languages or of onomatopoetic 

) It rarely happens, however, that foreign terms are regularly inflecled 
like genuine Japanese words. The rule is to regard them as substantives, 
adding surii (to do) to form verbs, iia or no to form adjectives end fii to form 
adverbs. Sometimes a single word may serve all thee purposes; e. g , teki-to 
suitability, ie/dto stirn be suitable, /e/;ito nn suitable, tekilo ui suitably. * But we 
also have such regular verbs as (e/dtau, tekitafte oppose, from teki-tai ; ryoru, 
lyoite cook, from ryo-ii ; shikeru, shiketfe be stormy, from shi-ke ; guchiiti, 
guchitle be silly (rare), from git-chi ; tnijiru, tiiijite subdue (rarel, from tcii-ji, and 
the adjective hidoi, from hido. Some nouns, like tuna horse and zeni cash, 
have been so transfcrmed that few suspect their <_"hinese origin. 


invention than the Japanese have a new word ready for the 
dictionary ; namely, mu-sen-den-shin {inii-sen without line). 
" Automobile " is ji-do-sha (self move vehicle). " Concrete " 
is yu-kei (having form) ; " abstract," luu-kei. The exigencies 
of our own time have called forth an innnense number of new 
scientific and philosophical terms which the dictionary-makers 
have been quite unable fully to compile. 

In order to speak correctly it is often important to know 
whether a word is of Japanese or of Chinese origin especially 
in using the honorifics and the numerals. ^ This distinction 
will be easy to make after a little practice. The Chinese 
vocables are very short. Monosyllables containing a long 
vowel or ending in n are generally of Chinese origin. These 
vocables usually occur not singly but in compounds, mostly 
of two components. There are, however, a few hybrid com- 
pounds (Ch. IX) like our ovvn " automobile." 

The pronunciation of the words taken from the Chinese is 
very different from that now in vogue in China. ^' Originally 
derived from certain Chinese dialects, it has apparently suffered 
great phonetic changes in the course of time, so that the Chi- 
nese cannot understand it at all. The classical pronunciation 
now taken as the standard by educated people is the kan-on 
(lit. sound of Kmi). Kan or Han was the name of the dynas- 
ties that reigned in the north from B. C, 206 to A. D. 264.. ^ 
But many older words, especially tlix)se connected with Hud- 
dhism, are pronounced according to the go-on. Go or Wu, at 
the time when Chinese literature was introduced into Japan, 
about A. D. 300. was one of the three Chinese states and in- 
cluded the provinces south of Shanghai. More modern sounds 
are known as to-on, To or Tang having been the dynasty 
•■eigning from 618 to 913. l^xcepting proper names, there are 
very few words that follow the toon, the most common being 
avc'don lamp (old style), cho-ckin lantern, /«-/^// cushion, ieni- 
bhi balance, /«-.y//z« building operations, etc. 


a Another case in point is that of the word teki (difTerent from the (e/;i 
above), used in formal speech as a suffix to nouns derivetl from tlio Cliiiiesc. 
The rule is lliat before a Chinese word no particle is needed, hut before a native 
word no iiuist be added ; . ^., from riso ideal and iiin^en man, )isd-tcki iiiiiL^iii 
ideal man, but i iso feki no f;tiiii ideal country. 

b See Lan^e, FAtifiihitini^ in die japanisclie Schiiff, p. 70 an<l Cliainbcr- 
lain, " Irilroduclion lo the Study of Japanese Writing," p. 372 ff. 

c Knit often moans ' China " in general, but, like almost all Chinese words, 
occurs only in comi)f unds; e. g., /vr/j^'w Chinese words kan-ji Cliincse charac- 
ters, /-.^w/ him (for /.-nil fniii) Chinese composition, etc. .See also p. I22a 



In a few words, such as nan south, the pronunciation has 
not varied. But in Mei-ji enlightened rule, myo-nichi to-mor- 
row {nichi day) and Min the Ming dynast}-, the same word 
has three different pronunciations. So the character skan \\\ 
Shan-hai Shanghai is sho in ka-nou and j 3 in go-on. Practically 
only the kan-on^ind go-on need be taken into the account, and 
the student need not trouble himself much about the differences 
between them. Usually the go-on is distinguished from the 
karb-on by association with old Buddhistic terms. (Compare : 








man, person 



















koe, oto 

voice, sound 



ynku, okonau 

go, perform 















t ad as hi i 





word, speech 





in on 














shit a 





moon, month 





Not infrequently one word may be pronounced in both ways 
without changing the sense ; e. g„ lo-kyo or To-kei (east capi- 
tal). In most cases usage allows only one or the other. Thus 
we say sai-kyo west capital, i. e., Kyoto, but sei nan southwest 
(lit, west south) ; viyo-ji family name (lit. name character), 
but sei-mei the full name (family name and personal name) ; 
ge-kiva i surgeon (lit. external branch physician), but gzvai-koku 
foreign country ; binibj-nin pauper, but gwaikoku-jin foreigner. 

The tones or accents of the Chinese are disregarded, except 
in the composition of Chinese verses. This fact and phonetic 
decay have brought it to pass that ten, twenty or thirty 
characters may have exactly the same sound. This is the 

a The Japanese equivalent of an ideogram as dstinguislied from llie Cljiii- 
ese sound {0}i) is calied koe, kiin (c) explanation, or yoiiti reading. 


most distressing feature of the spoken Japanese language. 
Men of the same set or clique have no difficulty in understand- 
ing their own technical terms, but to the uninitiated, even 
though they be well educated, rare Chinese compounds convey 
no sense until the speaker by writing in the air or by explana- 
tion indicates what the ideograms are. 

Words Dekivkd from Western Languages 

In comparison with the Chinese the number of words im- 
ported from the European languages is small. Thus we have 
from the Spanish and Portuguese biidoro ividrio) glass (mod- 
ern glass, garasu), kasnteira {castilld) sponge cake, kompeito 
{confeiid) candy ; from the French, shabon {savon) soap, shap- 
po {chapeati) hat ; from the Dutch, koliii {kofpj) coffee, don- 
iakii {zondag) holiday ; from the German, chijusu {Typhus), 
toraJwinu {Trachovui) granular eyelids, etc. Many_words 
have lately j:^m^_in^ from the English ; e. g., b aiorin~\\o^\ n^ 
bdto boat, btirashihxvi^^^^^~dp¥kii^oQ\<i^furaneru flannel, Jutoboru 
football, hatkara (lit. high^ collar) a^foreignized Japanese^ 
han/cechi handkerchief, zV^Z'z" ink , irian ineiskoii illumination, 
^atsuretsti cutlet,_M^^^'^f Jiiatch, naifti kniTe,/^/ page, pointo 
switch (on a railway), rainpii Yamp^_ra7/iune lem onadeT soti do- 
zV/// sandwich, shotsu •^\\xXy_shichu stew, sidekki ?>'i\^<., suteis hon 
stahgnj^^ofuieru tunnel, etc. From the linglish through the 
French : bifut eki \bifteck) beefstealc ^iirrtn^etto^X-Ax^^ttX. has 

The Standard Colloquial 

In English there is now only a slight difference between the 
language of an essay and that of everyday conversation. In 
Japanese the written language and the spoken language ha\c 
for centuries been developing separately. Scholars absorbed 
in the study of the ideograms and the literary style associated 
with them, have been quite indifferent to their mother- tongue 
proper. 1-Lven now it is hard to find a Japanese with any sense 
of colloquial etymology or grammar. When ask(;d about the 
origin and significance of a word your informant proceeds to 
discuss the ideograms used to write it. Ask him abcnit the 
conjugation of a verb, and he gives you paradigms from the 

a There nre also a few Ja]<ancsu worcls in luirupean languages; e.g., the 
Spanish biotnbo, from bydbu screen, moxa (p. ri)5a), kimono, rik.slia, jujilsu, elc. 


classical grammar which have little or no application to the 
matter in hand. The Japanese have scarcely begun to make 
a serious scientific study of their own conversational language. 
On the other hand, of the few who are interested, some reveal 
their inherited prejudice against zoku-go (vulgar language) by 
limiting its province to the small talk of everyday life. The 
student cannot be too wary in accepting Japanese opinions 
about the colloquial. But it goes without saying that in the 
language actually employed by the Japanese of the present 
day our authoritative guide must be found. 

It can no longer be said that the colloquial of Tokyo is 
normative. Tokyo too has its dialectical peculiarities. We 
shall not go far wrong if we regard as the standai'd the langu- 
age spoken in the higher educational institutions of the Empire. 
There is here a constant circulation and intermingling of teach- 
ers and students from all parts of the country, and it is here 
that the process of crystallization is going on most rapidly. 
This language of the schools, which will naturally be the lan- 
guage of the future, is being influenced both by the literary lan- 
guage and by English and other foreign languages. No 
obstacle should be placed in the way of the gradual assimilation 
of any needed material from the comparatively more terse and 
expressive literary language. The ideal of the Geni-biin-it-cki~ 
kiuai {gen speech, bun literature, it-cJii \\\\\o\\, Arc.'?? association) 
necessarily involves the modification of the colloquial, which 
in its present condition does very well for story- telling, but 
for other literary purposes is rather a clumsy instrument. 
Again, Japanese is being modified by the influence of English 
much as European languages have been influenced by Latin. 
The student will soon perceive that the speech of a Japanese 
versed in English is much clearer to him than that of a Japan- 
ese of the old school, even when both are speaking to their 
own people. As nearly all Japanese students are learning 
English or some other European tongue, the inference is 

The development of the language has been most rapid 
around the centers, Kyoto and Tokyo. The most peculiar 
dialects are those of the northern and western extremities of 
Japan proper. 

Thus, for instance, in Toky5 one may say. Watakushi ni 
kiidasaran ka. (Won't you give it to me ?), while in the 
dialect of Satsuma tliis becomes. Atai taviawan ka. These 
dialects in many points preserve more of the classical language 
than the standard colloquial. For example, the people of the 


the north say yoganibei (it may be good), from yokaru-beshi, 
thus preserving the classical beshi. 

In the ports there is a good deal of pidgin-Japanese ( Yoko- 
hama-koiobii), which is to be avoided ; e. g., peke = daiue bad, 
spoiled. The student ought also to be on his guard against 
the slang of the laboring classes. 

Practical Hints 

It would be well for the student before he begins work on 
this book to go through a briefer course of the nature of a 
primer. To get a general idea of the genius of the language 
it is well at the outset to read rapidly a book like Chamberlain's 
" Handbook of Colloquial Japanese," not stopping to master 
the details. Imbrie's " P^nglish-Japanese Etymology " will be 
found helpful later on. 

During the first year it will be a saving of time to employ 
as a teacher one who has a good knowledge of English. The 
teacher should be instructed when reading the Japanese 
sentences to vary them as much as possible. The student 
after translating into English should retranslate into Japanese. 
He will then be well prepared to take up the second set of 
exercises. If the teacher knows no English, have a friend 
instruct him how to proceed. Read to him the Japanese 
sentences one by one and have him criticise the pronunciation. 
Let him then ask simple questions which recjuire the student 
to give the substance of the sentence in his replies. Let the 
teacher repeat each answer, correcting it as he does so. Don't 
let him ask questions about the grammar or definitions of 
words. Then translate the English sentences and ask the 
teacher to correct the translations in the same way. In transla- 
tion it should be the aim of the student to render the ideas of 
the original in as brief a form as possible, translation word for 
word being quite out of the question in nearly all cases. 
When learning words the student should try to form in his 
mind a vivid conception of the actual thing or act or relation 
expressed by it, without reference to ICnglish equivalents. 
The measure of one's progress is the degree in which tiie 
untranslatable elements of the language are masteij^d. 

One peculiarity of the Japanese must be kept constantly 
in mind, namely, the persistent consciousness of the relative 
rank of the speaker and the person addressed as shown in the 
choice of words and grannnatical forms. For the same idea 
there may be two sets of expressions, one used when the 


subject is a despised person or one's humble self, the other be- 
ing reserved for use when the subject is a person for whom 
one wishes to show respect or when it is necessary to guard 
one's own dignity in dealing with an inferior. It is not easy 
even for a native to observe the proper distinctions without 
being either rude or excessively polite. Tlie Japanese are 
extraordinarily polite to foreigners, and foreigners are expect- 
ed to speak a little more politely than a native would under 
the same circumstances. 

No progress is possible without the perpetration of ridiculous 
mistakes, and the time when one is still obviously "green " is 
the most opportune time for mistakes. The people are natu- 
rally generous and indulgent to newcomers. So the beginner 
is advised, whatever may have been his previous habit, to 
make it a rule to chatter about any and everything under the 
sun to anybody that will listen. As soon as he comes to feel 
sensitive about mistakes progress will be very difficult. 

Helps for Further Study 

The student who has mastered this text-book should be fa- 
miliar with the grammatical structure of the colloquial and be 
\vell acquainted with about five thousand words. It is not 
practicable, even if it were desirable, to include more in a book 
of this character. In the selection the aim has been to gather 
a fully representative vocabulary of words that are in common 
use. Of the common terms, for every one that has been taken 
one or two have been left. The terminology of one's special 
business or profession will be learned almost without effort. 
But if one aspires to be able to converse freely on any subject 
of common interest, at least double the number of words con- 
tained here will be needed. A vocabulary grows only by prac- 
tice, but practice is dependent on observation, and to prepare 
one's self for exact observation printed books are indispensable. 
It is a common experience that an entirely strange word just 
learned from a book may be heard several limes within a few 
hours afterwards. 

Colloquial literature consists mostly of stories and speeches 
of various kinds. There are a few collections of extracts in 
roiiiaji, of which the best are : Lloyd, Colloquial Texts ; 
Y\7\.vX, Japanisches Lesebiich, Berlin, 1891 ; Beiikydka no Toi/ic, 
Hongkong, 1892, the little monthly periodical Yachigusa 
{)ublished in T5kyo, 1898-9, and the similar publication Romaji 
bei^uii in 190 5. 


In choosing books written in the Japanese script the begin- 
ner should avoid those in which the kajia are smaU or badly 
printed. Before he undertakes to read poorly printed books or 
newspapers it is necessary thoroughly to master the kana by 
the use of the children's first two or three readers or other col- 
loquial books in which the characters are printed large, if they 
can be found. The exercises and conversations in MacCauley's 
" Introductory Course in Japanese " satisfy this requirement, 
but unfortunately the hiragana are written from left to right, 
an unusual arrangement not easy even for Japanese to read. 

Of the numerous conversation books Muramatsu's Meijt 
Kzuaizuahen is especially commended. Many of the expressions 
in Satow's Kwaiwahen have become antiquated, particular'}'- 
those having references to travel in the interior. 

Highly to be recommended, though the printing of the ka)ia 
leaves much to be desired, are the MukasJii-banashi (ancient 
tales) and Otogi-bonashi (entertaining tales) of Mr. I way a. 
In order to accustom the student to the style of these tales, one 
of them in romanized form has been included among the 
selections at the end of this book. Mr. Iwaya, whose noin de 
plume is Sazanami, also edits an interesting periodical called 
Shonen Sekai (Young Folks' World). 

Novels will also be very helpful. Older stories such as those 
of Encho are not so well adapted to the needs of the student 
as those dealing with present conditions. For students who 
are interested in the conflict between old and new ideas in 
modern Japan the novels of Mr. Tokutomi {Ilototogisu, Ontoiide 
no Ki, Kuroshid) are recommended. 

In almost any newspaper coUocjuial material may be found 
in the form of interviews, reports of addresses, etc., and the 
volume of literature written in the style of lectures is constantly 
increasing rkit the student will need to remember that to make 
a genuin-;, coiloquial sentence more is required than to end it 
with de am, de ariniasu or de gozaiviasn (beware of " col- 
loquialized " books !) ; also that a man may be a fine literary 
writer and yet have a wretched style in speaking. The style 
of the interesting old sermons of which we have had samples 
in SJiingaku MicJii no Hanashi, or Kyuo Dozva, is of course 


In the study of colloquial grammar^ beginnings have been 
made by Matsushita, Nikon Kokugo Bun ten, Tokyo, 1901 ; 
Maeha, Nihongoten, Tokyo, 1901 ; Kaiiai, Nikon Zokugo Bun- 
ten, Tokyo, 1901 ; Ishikawa. Hanasliikotoba no Kisoku, Tokyo, 
1901 ; Irie, Nikon Zokugo BumpDron, Sendai, 1902. Excepting 
the first and the last named, these books are themselves ex- 
samples of the literary use of the colloquial. In the literature 
of the Gevibun-itcJii movement, such as Yamada's Bunrei and 
Sakai's Futsudun, both published in Tokyo, 1901, may be 
found illustrations of the colloquial as adapted for use in 
letters, documents, etc., and interesting discussions concerning 
colloquial style. 

Brinkley's Japanese-English Dictionary is fuller and in many 
ways more satisfactory than its predecessor, Hepburn's. It 
is an invaluable treasury to those who have to depend on 
romaji. The student may profitably supplement it by one or 
more of the native go-ju-on dictionaries, Otsuki's Genkai=- 
Kotoba no Umi {gen word, kai sea), Tokyo, 1891 ; Mozumi's 
Nikon Daijirin {dai great, ji word, rin forest), T5kyo. 1894, 
or Ochiai's Kotoba no Izuvii {izuini fountain), Tokyo, 1899. 
Of these the first is said to be the most scholarly; the last, 
most comprehensive. Some students will be especially in- 
terested in Churchhill's Dictionary of Military Terms and 
I*>xpressions. The English-Japanese Dictionary of the Spoken 
language, compiled originally by Satow and Ishibashi, third 
edition by Hampden and Parlett, Yokohama, 1904, is 

Chief among the desiderate is a new edition of Gubbins' 
Dictionary — a complete classified dictionary of Sinico-Japanese 
compounds on the plan of that still valued work. 

a \\\ this book the usual division of the pnrls of speech has been followed. 
In a scientific grammar this would probably have to be somewhat modified: 
Older grammars of the literary language divide all words into three classes . 
(i), (ai-i;en including nouns, pronouns numerals, interjections; (2) f5-°en=^ 
halara/:ii kotoba (working words), including the verbs and adjectives, which are 
inflected, and {j^ teiihvoha, ^rcn\ /e,-iii, 7i't>, /'i? (=:7C'<7), including particles and 

©rthoorapbp anb picnunciation 

The Ideographic Script 

As has been remarked, the Japanese have adopted the Chi- 
nese ideographic script, in which the characters are symbols 
not of sounds, but of ideas. They are like our Arabic numer- 
als and mathematical signs, which are variously read in differ- 
ent languages, but have the same sense everywhere. To read 
Japanese texts readily one must master between four and five 
thousand characters. To accomplish this two or three years are 
required, even in the case of a bright student. But the attempt 
should be made. Every one who aspires to become so pro- 
ficient as to be able to understand anything said in his pres- 
ence and to express himself freely on any subject, must mas- 
ter the Chinese elements in the language. Generally the eas- 
iest way to do this is to learn the ideograms, and the easiest 
way to learn the ideograms is to learn how to write them. The 
attempt to learn to write beautifully like a native would be in 
most cases a waste of time, if not an impossible task, but at 
least the order of the strokes should be mastered. 

But in the order of time the first and most important task 
is to get a firm hold on the grammatical structure and principal 
idioms of the language. The student who is ambitious to 
'"'' master " the language is therefore advised to "divide, " that 
is, to devote his first year to the study of the colloquial and 
postpone the study of the literary language and the characters 
to the second year. ^ Printed helps of two kinds will be avail- 
able, those in kana, the native syllabarj'', and those in roinaji, 
the rqmanized form. 

Kail a 

The Japanese began at a very early date to use the ideograms 
phonetically, that is, to indicate sounds without regard to the 
proper sense of the characters. They called them kana, from 
kari-na borrowed name. This use of the ideograms continues 
to this day in the case of jjroper names. Thus America is 
written A-vie-ri-ka (iui:JK'^l))[|Il) the characters meaning 

a Tlic'c wlio read 1 lie CJcrman will lie pIcaFed wilh l>r. J.finc^f's Ue/nnit^s- 
and Lese-buch ztim Stttdii(m dc7' jnpaiihchen Schnf/, lierlin 1504. 'I lu- si^loci ions 
it contains are exclusivlej' coHcxjuiai. 


respectively : next, rice, gain, add. '^ In the same w ay the ideo- 
gram for " root," called in Japanese ne, is often substituted for 
the iiomonymous character ne, {itii-ne) meaning " peak," as in 
Hako~ne and words XxVa ya-ne roof {ya house). 

Through this phonetic use of the Chinese ideograms there came 
into existence about A. D. 900 two syllabaries called kata-kana- 
and hira-kana. A kaia-kana (kata side) is written squarely, 
being in most cases a side or portion of a common character 
having the sou'.id represented by it; e.g., T {^d) from jJiiJ, A 
(?) from ^y t^ {ji) from ^, ii {kd) from ;5n- T'he katakana 
are now used only in formal documents, in writing foreign 
names and interjections, in telegrams, etc. The liira-gana 
{/lira) level, ordinary are characters written cursively and, in 
most cases, very much simplified ; e. g., 3)- (c?) from ^, V^ (0 
from )>i, 9 {u) from ^, 7!)^ {ka) from JSJIl. Formerly there 
was a great variety of them, but in our own times the employ- 
ment of movable types in printing and the policy of the 
Educational Department have had the effect of practically 
reducing the number in common use to 48, one for each sound. 

In the following table we give the hiragana arranged in the 
order of the go ju on " the fifty sounds." Under each hira- 
gana is given the corresponding katakana and under that the 
equivalent in Roman letters. 

The columns are I'ead in order beginning with the right : a. 
i, u, e, ; ka, ki, kn, ke, ko, etc. Most dictionaries now follow 
this order, the n being sometimes regarded as a variant of inn. 
It is to be observed that there is no yi, ye, or zvu. To make 
the scheme complete the corresponding syllables from the first 
column are sometimes put into tlie vacant places. Wi, zve, zvo 
are scarcely distinguished in pronunciation from i, e, 0. It is 
also to be noted that the Japanese do not say si, ti, tii, hu, but 
ski, chi, tsu, fii. The table is of great importance for the 
conjugation of the verb. (See next page). 

From the syllables in which the consonant is surd correspon- 

ing sonants are derived : from the k column, ga, gi, gii, ge, go 

{iJ ^' ^' y ^'j ; from the .y column, za, ji, zu, ze, zo (-^f i? 

X -tT V) ; fi'om the t column, (ia,ji, zu, de, do {^* "f y' 7-" 

V*). Such change in the sound is called nigori (lit, turbidness, 

a Tlie extreme of arliitrariness is reached in the case of some proper names 
that have been bodily imported from China, wliere the modern pronunciation 
approximates original sound. But the Japanese conventional pronunciation 
is pretty far off sometimes ; e g., New York is written ^§^ Chn4/ai. Here tlie 
ideograms give neither sense nor sound. 

















































































































































impurity). The /z column by ni^ori becomes ba, bi, bu, be, bo 
{y* t* y" ^< -M^ ; by what is called Iian-7iigori {han \\?^U), pa, 
pi, />ii, pe, po {j< t* y' ^ :i\i). In Japanese writing Ihe marks 
of iii^-ori are often omitted. 

There is another arrangement of the syllabary called iroha : 
i ro ha ni ho ke to chi ri tin ru zco 

7va ka yo ta re so tsu ne na ra m ti- 

ll Tvi no kti ya ma ke fii ko e ie 

a sa ki yu me mi sni tve hi mo se su 
This is in the form of a .stanza of poetry giving ex[)ression to 
Butldhistic sentiment : 

chirinurii xvo ; 
tsune naraviu. 
kyj koete, 
ei mo sezn. 
Though the blossoms (hues) are fragrant they fall away ; 
In this our worM who will abide alway ? 

Iro tva nioedo 
ivaga yo tare zo 
Hi no kit yam a 
asaki yume mishi, 



To-day I crossed tlic very mountain-recesses of mutability ; 
And saw a shallow dream, nor was I intoxicated thereby. 
Though these comparatively easy syllabaries have been 
in exisrence a thousand years, they have not supplanted 
the ideograms, but play only a minor role beside them. The 
Japanese syntax being so different from the Chinese, 
in ordinary Japanese composition the hirngana are interspers- 
ed among "the characters to indicate modifiers, particles, 
terminations, etc. 

Such composition is called kaua-viajiri, from luajiru be 
mixed. P'urther, for the benefit of the uneducated, hiragana 
may be written to the right of the ideograms to indicate the pro- 
nunciation. This is called kana-tsuki, from tsnku be attached. 
It is thus possible to read most Japanese books without a 
knowledge of the ideograms. The traditional spelling corre- 
sponds to an ancient pronunciation which has been con- 
siderably modified in the course of time. In the case of 
native words the syllables of the h column have been most 

kaluiyu be changed is pronounced kawaru 

kalii shellfish ,, ,, kat 

ifu say ,, „ ^^l 

make betore ,, „ ^i!-^^^ 

holio cheek ,, „ ho 

But it is in the pronunciation of the Chinese words that 
the greatest changes have occurred. Thus ton, tan, tajii are 
all pronounced to (not to speak of tozvo and toJw in the case of 
native words) ; kiyau, kiyou, ken and kefu (see the iroha above) 
are all pronounced kyo. Tokyo in kcina is spelled tonkiyau. 
The Japanese have been so indifferent to this traditional spell- 
ing that even among educated people hardly one in ten knows 
how to spell correctly. There has been a natural tendency 
to choose the briefest forms, as keii for kyo, sen for sho, teu for 
cho, etc. T!ie Department of Education three years ago issued 
a regulation to the effect that so.unds like id should invariably 
be written to — ; sounds like kyo^ ki yo — , etc. This reform 
makes the kana spelling of the Chinese words alm.ost as 
simple and phonetic as roviaji. ^ 

a For example, even in the reformed kana the following must be written 
alike l^ul pronounced differently: kivo will wear and i:yd to-day; katsnte 
previously and katle one's own convenience. 



The system of romauization adopted for this book is identi- 
cal with that followed by allthe romaj'i dictionaries. A fair 
degree of uniformity has been secured through the efforts 
of the IvdjJia-ji-k-wai {ji letter, kzvai association), a society 
organized by Japanese and foreigners in 1885 for the purpose 
of effecting a substitution of the Roman script for the Chinese. ^ 

A committee appointed by the Educational Department to 
investigate the question of romauization submitted a tentative 
report in 1900. The system recommended differs very little 
from that now in use. The chief innovations aie the substitu- 
tion o{ si for shi and sya, syn, syo for sha, shu, sho, following 
the analogy of kya, kyu, kyo etc. Further, the Committee 
would write ci, ca, cu, co for chi, cha, chu, cho, following 
presumably the analogy of Italian. Ihe changes proposed 
have not been adopted in this book for the reason that the 
Educational Department has not yet reached a final decision 
in the matter, and it would be very inconvenient for tlie 
student to have in this book a system different from that 
followed by the dictionaries.^' 

In October, 1905, a new organization was formed, the 
Koiftaji-kirome- kzvai, which publishes a monthly entitled 
Rumaji. Both of the above forms of transliteration appear on 
the pages of this periodical : one writer spells shasliinjiitsu 
(photography) and another syasinziiu I 

a While mucli of tlie Japanese literafure, being inteiidcJ for the eyes, is 
hardly intelligible without the ideograms, it is quite reasonable to expect that 
:.ny conversation commuuly untlerstood through the ear sliould be intelligible 
wlien reduced to writing by means of an a<le([uate plronetic system. But the 
full realization of the ideal of the Koinajikii'ai must wait until the teacher.*;, 
preachers and public speakers of Japan have by a process of natural selection 
evolved a vocabulary at once intelligible to their hearers and adequate to ex. 
press thought on every subject, that is, until the spoken language !)ccomes as 
satisfactory a medium of ex[)ression as tlie present written language is. Forces 
now at work in Japan will bring this about before very long. 

b See Kwatnpb (CW.cial Gazette), 5, Nov., 1900. Tlic innovations proposed 
are comparatively unimportant. Others will be referred to incidentally. 'Ihere 
Ere questions connected with romanization which [)ress for an oflicial solution 
and in most cases the suggestions of the Committee arc excellent. Its report 
deals largely with the question of the division of words. For instance, tlie 
Committee would write om^ari luisai niase for o agari iiasaiinase. In regard to 
this question great confusion now prevails. See also suggestions I)y Mr. 
Fujioka in his Ko/nn'fi Tebild, Siiinkoronsha, 'rok)r), 1906. 


Roinaji is designed to represent phonetically the standard 
pionuncialion of the present day. In reading roinaji the 
general principle to be observed is that the vowels are 
pkonounced as in german ; the consonants, as in 


As might naturally be inferred, in the case of English- 
speaking people it is the vowels rather than the consonants 
that are hard to pronounce. ^^ In English the vowels are 
largely sacrificed to the accent In Japanese the reverse is 
true, that is, the vowels govern the accent. What we call the 
long and short sounds of the vowels in English are really 
different sounds. In Japanese a short vowel has the same 
sound exactly as the corresponding long vowel, differing only 
as an eighth- note in music differs from a quarter. ^^ 

The sounds of the (long) vov/els are : 





Long Vowels. — The long vowels are written a {no), it 

{%), u (uu), ei (f), o {oil). ^ There are practically no diph- 
thongs. An is ordinarily pronounced and written o ; in, yu; 












> > 













a A vowel is called bo-in (mother sound) ; a consonant, ski-in (child sound). 

b There are exceptions. For a sound very much like the English short 
"a" see kyaito. Before a double consonant or -ii followed by a consonant 
there is a natural tendency to modify vowels so as to resemble the English 
sliort vowels. 

c /« occurs almost exclusively at tlie end of adjectives, being a contraction 
oi iki or ishi. Theoretically there is a difference between i^ (chosen by tlie 
./iw//«/V Committee) and ^?, but prr.ctically they are not distinguished and we 
write uniformly ei. In the same way o might be written on ; and this is done 
in the case of a verb like yoti "get drunk.' Verbs uniformly end in ?/. Ac- 
cordingly we write kaii " buy," ralhei than ko, lliough the combination a u is 
in the case of a Chinese word alwaj's written <l. For tlie same reason we write 
/'?/« eat, rather than kit. Tlie combination in in tlie case of a Chinese word 
is written yu. the rule having been tliat u (or fu') following a syllable ending 
in? makes a long sound, while yu. following such a syllable makes a short 
one. (Thus 5^2 •!'« results in j//'/, h\\\. shi ii m ikcs 5//i/--in the reformed /•««;? 
written i'/zz yu — ). Ru in the case of the verb iu *■ say " we depart from the 
rule, since the stem is commonly pronounced ii We should, however, write 
yuu if the stem were pronoTinced v///. 


en, yd ; on, o. The combinations ai^ oi and ui come nearest 
to being" diphthongs. =^ For the purpose of this discussion n is 
practically a vowel. In singing it may form a sjdlable by it- 
self. It follows that an, in, un, en, on, /can, kin, kini, etc., are 
long sounds. 

The/ is especially prominent when the preceding word ends 
in a vowel or n ; e, g., hei- shi xmXxiz.xy service {heiyeki), nien- 
eki exemption from the service {inenyeki). 

IF one wishes to speak intelligibly, it is a matter of prime 
importance to distinguish long and short sounds. It is 
especially important to distinguish o from o. Next in import- 
ance is the distinction between u and u. Compare : 

oi nephew oi many 

tori bird tori thoroughfare 

koko here ko-ko filial piety 

koto thing, affair ko-to high class 

toki time to-ki registration 

ho hei infantry ho-hei artillery 

yo-san estimate yd-sen sericulture 

kuki stalk ku-ki atmosphere 

yuki snow yu-ki courage 

To the Japanese ear the words in the one column are utterly 
different from those in the other. There are a few cases in 
which the length of a vowel is a matter of indifference. A 
final o is often, shortened ; e. g., so shite so doing, may be pro- 
nounced so shite ; katappo one of the pair, katappo ; Jionto 
reality. Jionto : benkyo diligence, bejikyo. More rarely a may 
be shortened in other positions ; e. g., imoto younger sister 
may be pronounced ivtoto. Final short vowels are sometimes 
lengthened ; e. g., sore ja, for sore ja if that's the case. The 
o in yoku, well, may be lengthened. 

Short Vowels — The following points deserve notice : 
U \\\ shu and ju is often pronounced /, especially in Tok}-6 : 
e. g.; shu Jin master becomes shijin ; bi-jutsu fine arts, bijiisu. 
This is to be avoided as a corruption.'^ Ikit the substitution 

a In llie northern provinces and vulgarly in Tnkyo rti is pronounced like 
ei ; e. g., So ja uei for So ja nni That's not so. In Tokyo ae and oe are often 
pronounced like ni and oi ; c. g., knerti return, l.-nini ; tcce voice, koi. We 
might add to the diphthongs an in kaii as commonly [ironounccd in Tokyo. 
In western Japan kati is ko. 

I) In northern Japan people often reverse / and //, saying, for instance. 
sti/cMii or even shikosii for su/:os/ii n little. 


of / for yu is not always bad ; e. g., ikii for yukii go, kami-ii 
for kavii-yui hair dresser (p. 380a). 

Initial u followed by ma is practically silent, uina horse be- 
ing- pronounced invia (p. lib). 

E in early roiuaji texts was generally written ye. This 
spelling has been retained in the case of only two words, ye 
" to " and ye/t the unit of currency. The Roinaji Committee 
would practically reverse this rule and write e for the pcst- 
position ye, but ye in other cases. The fact is that the pro- 
nunciation depends on the sound that precedes. The sound of 
yen is not en, as many foreigners pronounce it, nor is the y as 
distinct as in " yes." 

O is sometimes corrupted so as to sound like u : c. g., JiitoUu 
" one " becomes Jiitntsii ; asonde amusing one's self, asiinde ; 
koni-ban this evening, kiiniban. This pronunciation should be 
avoided. On the other hand in some dialects is substituted 
for u ; in Niigata sJiu-jin, master, becomes shojin. Yoi 
" good " is commonly pronounced ii. 

As has been said, ivo is practically pronounced 0. It is so 
written except in the case of the particle wo (the Roinaji com- 
mittee would v/rite this also o)^ the pronunciation of which, 
hke that of ye, depends on what goes before. The student 
must be on his guard in pronouncing a word like shio salt, in 
kana written shi ho. The w is hardly audible, but if the student 
is not careful he is apt to say shiyo, i. e., sho. In the same 
way ki-okii memory must be carefully distinguished from 
kiyoku purely and kyoku office. 

When two vowels are brought together in compounds a / or 
zv naturally creeps in ; e. g., l>a-ai, becomes bayai or bazvai. 
The Roinaji Committee in such a case would write y after i 
or e, and zv after n or ; e. g., tsiikiyau, for isuki-aii associate ; 
uvieyazvaseru, for unie-azvaseru make up a deficiency ; guzuai 
for gu ai adjustment ; ozvas/ii, for o asJii money. The Com- 
mittee recommended that a list of such words be made, which 
is an excellent suggestion. 

Quiescent Vowels. — Words like kyoku, ryoku, etc, derived 
from the Chinese, were originally monosyllabic, though written 
with three kana: ki yo ku, ri yo ku. Accordingly in romaniz- 
ing certain combinations the Roinajikzvai treated i as silent ; 
e. g., kyb {ke «, now ki yo — ), etc. Many Japanese would go 
further and write, for example, kyok, ryok. In native words 
there are many other cases in which the weak vowels i and 
tc are practically inaudible, but the Roinajikzvai did not ven- 
ture to extend its principle to them, probably on account of the 


extreme difficulty of making rules to cover all cases. Not only 
does the pronunciation vary according to locality, individual 
idiosyncrasy, etc., but even the same word may be pronounced 
differently by the same person, depending on the nature of 
the context. Compare, for instance, nakiiie "there being 
none " and nak'ie mo " though there are none." The addition 
of 7/10 brings upon Jia and U a strong accent with the result 
that the ti in hi disappears. A silent z or ?( is very apt to 
occur when ^z, ku, sJii, su, chi, fsu, hi, or fu precede any 
syllable of the k s, t, and w series, especially when that 
syllable is accented. Final su ordinarily loses the vowels and 
becomes s, and the vowel in final tsu, shi and chi is barely 
audible. English-speaking people are apt to go to extremes 
in clipping final vowels. The Roviaji Committee has recom- 
mended that a table be made of words in which there are silent 
vowels. It would write taski for tasuki (cord to tie back the 
sleeves), dongri for donguri acorn, etc. The Japanese certain- 
ly do say taski, not tasuki. It is, however, impossible to decide 
all the cases without being more or less arbitrary. The plan 
of this book is to follow the spelling of the dictionaries, except 
in the Exercises, where apostrophes are used to indicate silent 
vowels. ^ Experience proves that this system is a valuable aid 
to correct pronunciation. But to avoid abuse we have been 
conservative. There are, for example, so many people who 
pronounce every vowel in waiakiishi that we do not feel justi- 
fied in eliding the n, as the Committee does. 


These will give the English-speaking student little trouble. 

G when it does not stand at the beginning of a word is com- 
monly pronounced like " \\% " in " singing " : Nagasaki, like 
Nangasaki ; uguisn bush- warbler, like unguisti ; kagohwsVcX 
or cage, like kango (to be distinguished carefully from kan-gc 
Chinese word). This may explain the presence of the n in the 
names of the provinces Bingo and Bun-go {Bi-go, Bn-go) In 

a Dr. Lange liimself prefers to use tlie aposlroplics lliroughout. The 
compiler of tlie Etiglisli Edition has ventured to<j;ree willi him in ret;ar(l 
lo this one point, on tlie ground that so long as the matter ia not officially 
dclcrmincd, great inconvenience in the use of dictionaries will result Ironi 
any alteration of the present spelling. It seems, however, certain that the 
Japanese when tliey once take the matter in hand will elide more i' s and n' s 
than Dr. I>ange or any other foreigner has thought of doing. The spelling 
will in turn react on the pronunciation 

X X V 1 1 1 IxYTR on UCTION 

western Japan, however, g is pronounced exactly as in " ago." 
See J). 69a. 

.S" before i becomes sJi. In some parts of western Japan, as 
in the vicinity of Osaka and in Kyushu, ^- in the syllable se is 
pronounced like " h " or, more exactly, like the German 
'^ c/i'\- e. g., omalien for cinasen (dialectical) there is not. In 
Tokyo Ji? may become ski; hence the change oi se-ou cSiWy 
on the back {se back, on carry) to sJion. 

fi is formed by nigori from sJii or clii. In the province of 
Tosa the two sounds are distinguished, the former/ being like 
" /, " in " azure " and the latter like " g " in " age." In some 
places the former sound prevails, but in most parts of the 
country both >? and ^* are pronouncedyV as in "jig." 

Zu too should have two sounds, zn and dzu (often written 
so), from sti and isii, but the distinction is not generally 
observed and one or the other prevails. 

7" before i becomes cJi ; before u, is. 

yVis pronounced " ng " before sounds of the k series ; before 
sounds of the h{b,p) and in series it becomes in: son-kei 
respect ; so7i-gai damage ; sauibyaku three hundred, from san 
three and hyaku hundred ; sem-mon specialty, from sen special 
and mon gate, department. The Roniaji Committee in such 
cases would not change the n to ///. 

In some compounds the distinction between a final n and 
an initial N must be carefully observed. Compare gen-an 
original motion and ge-nan manservant. 

H before i in Tokyo and elsewhere is pronounced like sh^ 
as in hito person. The student will do well to avoid this 

F \s not quite the same as the English " f," being formed by 
the two lips, not by the lower lip and the upper teeth. The 
study of foreign languages has, however, a tendency to make 
the f more like the English. The nigoried form of/// is bu, 
not vu. There is no v in Japanese. In the h series a labial 
sound,/ or/, not //, characterized the syllables originally, and 
in some provinces there are still traces of this ancient pro- 

M before u has frequently been altered to /5 : e. g., erainti^ 
erabii choose ; samushii, sabishii lonely. 

Y {ya, yu yo) occurs largely in combination with other 
consonants. One must carefully distinguish niyo and iniyo, 
kyoku and kiyokii, etc. In parts of northern Japan y when not 
combined with another consonant is commonly corrupted to z 
or f. 


R is not quite the same as the English " r," especially in the 
syllable ri. The tip of the tongue is held more closely to the 
upper gum. In many places, as in Satsuma, r sounds like d. 
It is extremely difficult for the Japanese to distinguish t e 
English " 1 " and the English " r," their own r being an inter- 
mediate found. The vulgar sometimes trill r; e, g., berrabo 

JF after i or e sometimes becomes^; e. g., sorya, from sore 
•wa as for that. Wa and zvo occur largely in Chinese words 
combined with k and g\ e, g., kwa-ji conflagration, gzvai-koku 
foreign country. In some parts the distinction between kzva 
and ka^ etc., is carefully observed, but is neglected in Toky5. 
The reformed kaiia and the Conmiittee's romaji ignore it. 
But the IV is retained in this book, for reasons already indi- 

There is no need of " q " or " x," the former being represent- 
ed by kw and the latter by ks. 

DuBLE Consonants. — While the consonants in themselves 
are not so difficult, the student will need to be especially 
careful to distinguish singlk and double consonants. The 
double consonants are kk, ss issJi), it {tch, its), nn, pp, vniu 
The best way to get them is to give a strong accent to the 
preceding syllable and then for a moment hold the vocal 
organs in the position required to pronounce the consonant in 
question. The second of the two will then sound distinct from 
the first. Distinguish carefully pairs like: 

ika cuttle-fish ikka how many days? 

dasii put forth dassn {rii) escape from 

i-shb clothes is-sho one's whole life 

kita [he] came kitta [he] cut 

i-chi position it-chi union 

ava hole anna such 

ama nun am-via shampooer 

Consonants which are single in the literary kmguage are 
frequently doubled in the colloquial ; e. g., niinna for mina all, 
onnaji for onaji same, viittsu for niitsii three, avimari for 
amari too, bakkari for bakari only, tatta for iada merely, 
massiigu for via-sugu straight (adverb). 

Excepting nn and mm, the first of two double consonants is 
in kana rei^resented by tsu. Gakko school, from gaku and ko, 
may be written either gakuko or gatsuko. The compound 
hattatsu development is sometimes pronounced hatsudatsii. 


NigorL — In a compound ^ the first consonant of the second 
member is liable to the change called iiigori: \\\7i\x). ^ 

skiraga gray hair {s/nra— shiro stem of shiroi white, kainz 

yakizakiDia baked fish {yaki stem o^ yakii roast, sakana fish). 

sJiinjin piety {shin faith, sliin heart). 

jinja Shinto temple {jin god, slia shrine). 

pandane yeast {pan bread, tane seed). [pack). 

kivanzuine canned goods {kivan can, tsiivie stem of tsitmertt 

tokidoki at times {toki time). 

chikajika soon {chikai near). 

sakurabana cherry blossom {sakura, hand). 

shinjinlmkai pious {sJiinjin piety, fiikai deep). 
Since tlie kana for iva in native words is ha, this may also by 
nigori become ba ; e, g., zvo iva becomes ivoba. Nigori is less 
conmion in Chinese than in native words, and less common in 
compound verbs than in compound nouns. There is a great 
deal of fluctuation in the usage, euphony being the only guide. 
Thus we say 0-hashi Great Bridge, but Megane-bashi Eyeglass 
Bridge (so named from its shape) ; cither 0-saka or O-zaka 
Great Slope ; an-nai-sha or annaija guide ; sai-han-sho or 
saibanj o cowrt oi ]\xs\.\cQ.^ In some instances the two forms 
have different senses ; e.g., chosha an elder or a superior, 
cJioja a wealthy person. Nigori is not limited to compounds. 
The first consonants of some v.'ords which arc commonly 
attached loosely to other words suffer nigori \ e.g., bakari 
only, from hakaru consider. Kiri " only " may also be pro- 
nounced giri ; kurai " about," gurai. MuisiikasJiii " difficult " 
is often pronouned imtzukashii. 

Han-nigori, that is, the change of h or / to p, occurs 
frequently in compounds from the Chinese uhen the first 
member ends in n. Thus fun be stirred and hatsu be aroused 
make Juinpatsu enthusiasm ; man be full and fuku stomach, 
inampukii satiety. From the native words oviou think and 
hakaru consider we have o'inovipakaru cogitate. 

a The vowels suffer little or no change in composition. A final e in the first 
member of a compound is often changed to a. Thus from fcane metal and mono 
thing we have kanainono hardware (but with liako box, kanebako money box); 
from sake liquor and jV(7 house (p. i6), sakaya liquor dealer (but with nonii stem 
of iiomn drink, sakeiiomi drunkard). 

b In western Japan people say shirai^e from ke, which also means hair. 

c There are two sounds to the Chinese character for < god," shin and jin 
Compare shin gaku theology, from gakii learning, and jin-ja Sliinto shrine. 
The Japanese^ by the way, say Sliindb, not .Shinto. 


A preceding syllable coalescing with Ji or / may result in 
pt> : kiri stem of kirn cut and fu (c) token make kippu ticket; 
ietsu iron and ho barrel, teppo gun. For other examples see 
p. 69 ff. Of native origin is hipparii bring along, for hiki- 
hiiru. An h between vowels tends to become pp : e.g., akep- 
panasu from akehanasu leave open ; mappira, from ma-hira 
earnestly. The adverbs yoJiodo very and yahari still arc also 
pronounced yoppodo and yap pari. 


As has been intimated, if the student will take care of the 
vowels, the accents will generally take care of themselves. 
Among the vowels there is as it were an order of procedence. 
First there are the long sounds, then a^ then o and e, and 
finally tc and i. The stronger tend to draw the accent away 
from the weaker. Alternate syllables seem to pair off in the 
contest, the stronger pair winning. A combination tending to 
make a vowel quiescent may also affect the accent. When a 
difference between the vowels does not interfere, a word of 
three or four syllables is naturally accented on the first and 
third ; e.g., anata you, lianaliada very. The a before the 
causative ending sent or the potential ending rem is always 
accented. When a word is a compound, that fact naturally 
affects accents. ^ In general it is to be remembered that accent 
is not so strong as in English. It is one of the disadvantages 
of roinaji that since the words look somewhat like English 
words the student is apt to give them English accents. To 
correct this tendency the student who wishes to acquire a 
natural pronunciation should do a great deal of reading aloud 
from the Japanese script under a Japanese teacher of the old 
school, if one can be found who is not afraid to criticise. 

Kiri. — It is essential to good pronunciation to observe the 
kiri (lit. cutting), or kn-giri {/cu phrase), that is, not to [muse 
in such a way as to cut off particles, etc., from preceding words 
to which they belong. 

a In western Japan liomonymus are ofleu distiugui.shcd Ijy means nf llic 
accent. For example, /innn flower has a marked accent on tlie first syllable 
as compared with hana nose. In the same way they distinguish haslii chop- 
stick, haslii end, hasJii bridge; kaki oyster, kaki persimmon and kaki fence; 
kaini\\x\r, kami paper and kami god, etc. The Japanese tlicmselvcs arc so 
nmcli in doubt about these accents Dial the student ran well alYord lo ne;_^lect 




The Japanese language has, properly speaking, no article, 
no plural, and no gender. 

1. There is an equivalent of the English " a certain," namely, 
aril (lit. existing) : aziL^amui a certain woman. More recently 
this aru has come to be used also with plurals in the sense of 
" some." To the English article in its generic sense, as in " the 
cat " or "a cat " (speaking generally), corresponds the Japanese 
idiom : 7ieko to hi mono what is called cat {iieko cat, to particle 
of quotation, iu say, i)io)io thing). 

2. When there is need of bringing out the idea of plurality, 
the suffixes ra}^ dpyio (from toiiio companion), shu (c) or shu 
crowd, tacJii (c) or dacJii all, and gata (from kata side), may 
be employed. These are, with the^xception of the first, used 
only with words denoting persons. The last is the most polite : 

Hyakusho peasant ; Jiyakushodonio peasants. 

Ko child ; kodoiuo children. ^ 

Akindo merchant ; akindosJui merchants. 

Onna woman ; onnashu women (of servants girls, etc.). 

Oya parent ; oyatachi parents. 

Fu-jin (c) lady ; fujingata ladies. 

Many words may be made plural by doubling : 

Kuni country ; kimigiini countries. 

Hito person ; hitobito people, 

Tokoro, sho (c) place ; tokorodokoro, shosho various places. 

The plural may also be expressed by means of words used 
as prefixes meaning " many," " all," etc. 

Bankoku all countries, from bah myriad. 

Shokoku various countries (or provinces) from sho many. 

a Jilsn-mei-shi true-namc-word, or simply nieislii. 

b The suffix ra is in the colloquial used mostly with pronouns. The ideo- 
gram used to represent it is to " class." Both ra and (d may also have the sense 
of "etc." 

c Tlie words kodomo child, ivalcaisliu young fellow (from ivakai yo\\\\\^), and 
tontodacld friend, have come to be used also in a singular sense. To make the 
plural sense of kodomo distinct, still another suffix must be added : kodoiiiora 
kodoiiiosIiTi, kodonw/achi. 

2 The Noun. [i 

3. In the case of animals the masculine and feminine gen- 
ders may be expressed by means of the prefixes (o/i) and 7;/^ 
{ijieri) ; or, more commonly, by osti and viesii wth the genitive 
particle 710 '. 

Inn dog ; oimi iinu no osii) ; meinu (inn no inesti). 
Tori fowl ; ondori cock ; mendori hen. 

But it is to be observed that the Japanese usually leave the 
distinction unexpressed. For instance : 

Tori ga nakiuiashita. The (or, a) cock crowed. 

Here it is not necessary to say specifically ondori. 


akindo trader, shopkeeper. inu dog. 

hyakusho peasant. kitsiine fox. 

chicJii father. neko cat. 

haha mother. nezuvii rat, mouse.* 

otoko man, male. shika deer. 

onna woman, female. uma (proncd. imna) horse. 

oya parent. tisagi hare, rabbit. 

ko, kodouio child. ushi ox, cow. 

tomodachi friend. tori bird, fowl. 

When nouns are joined by the conjunction " and " or enu- 
merated in a series which is brought to a conclusion, to " aixd " 
or 7/10 "too" is affixed to each ( — i/io — ;//^ = both — arid). 
When the series is not closed, that is, when only a few speci- 
mens of a possible list are given, /^ or dano is affixed to each. 
y\i is always, and to, except in formal speech, usually, omitted 
after the last word. However the asyndetic construction is 
not uncommon in Japanese ; e.g., oya ko parent and child. 


/nu to neko. Oya to, kodomo. SJika ya nsagi ya kitsune. 
Otoko vio onna mo. Ojika toviejika (from s/ika). Chichi haha. 
Hyak'sho to akindo. Omnia to menima (from unux). Onna 
VI o kodomo mo. U-ma dano, ushi dano, inu dano. Kitsune y a 
nsagi ya nezumi. Ondori to mendori. Oushi mo meushi mo. 

a Regarded as a variety of rat. Mice may be distinguished as hatsiika- 
nezumi 20 days' rat). White mice are nankin-nezumi. Comp. iiankm-usagi 
white rabbit. 

^0 IVa AND Ga. 

(Inthe following expressions no sign of the plural is required ^ 
Both father and mother. A cat and a mouse dX" and 

foxes^ Horses and (^.) dogs and cats. Parents' and fSnds 
Shopkeepers and peasants. niends. 


bv^'e^ns oVthV'" TT '" ^T^'''''' ^^ngn.s.s are expressed 
by means of the particles ^a (Nominative), no (Genitive) ni 
(Dative), ^ndu'o (Accusative). Further, what we call the 
subject m English is, often distinguished by the llr^cll ^Ir 
But Uiis particle is also attached %o the woVhatCoteHn 
English the gi^mmatical object ; and it may be added to de 
particles no, m,wo, de, and to other words. To explah fullv 
and systematically the uses of wa and its relation to^i-^woud 
only confuse the beginner at this stage. Reservif ^ moie 
particular rules for later occasions, we shall now" ndSivor to 
state the main principles from which they are derived. 

I. Ga simply marks out the subject, excluding other thin-s 
while wa indicates that an important predicate is to follow ^' 
Kore ga waruL Tins (not the others) is bad {warui is bad) 
Kore xva ivarui. This is bad. 

The former, sentence answers the question, Which is bad ? The 
latter is a reply to the question. What sort of a thing is this ? 
I Who came ? Dare ga kimaskita ka. 

/larocame. ^ Taro ga kimaskita. 
I Where is Taro? -T^^rJ wa doko ni imasu ka, 
I laro just came. TarJ 7ua tadaiina kimaskita. 
Itis a safe rule not to use zva when there is no occasion to 
think of two or more possible predicates. Hence in subordinate 
clauses the subject almost invariably requires ^.^ 

Taro ga kimaskita toki ni yuki ga Jutte imaskita. 
Snow was falling when {toki ni) Taro came. 

2. When subjects only arc contrasted ga is affixed to both 
When predicates are contrasted so as to put a word in one 
sentence in antithesis to a word in another, both require wa. 

Zen wa (good) nase (do) ; aku wa (evil) nasii na (do not). 

Do good and not evil. 

Note that wa, not 2vo, is attached here to what we should call 

4 The Noun. [ii 

the object. Logically zen and aku are subjects. It is a corol- 
lary of the above rule that wa may properly be used with the 
emphatic word in a negative sentence. 

The foreigner often finds it hard to tell whether he ought to 
use wa or ga with the subject. There are cases in which zva 
only may be used, and other cases in which ga only is permis- 
sible ; but often it depends on the point of view which is to be 
chosen. Sometimes in the same sentence either may be used 
with practically no difference in the sense. It may be in place 
also to warn the beginner that the usage is subject to consider- 
able variations in the dialects. 


ahiru duck (domestic). hayai swift, early. 

hato dove, pigeon. osoi slow, late. 

karasn crow, raven. ' kiiroi black. 

kip pheasant (green). shiroi white. 

nhua yard, garden. osoroshii frightful, terrible. 

niwa-tori barnyard fowl. tiinai (pron. minai) delicious, 

suzuine sparrow. agreeable to the taste. '^ 

tstini crane. titsukushii pretty, beautiful. 

uguisu bush- warbler. tvakai young. 

ko-uina, kouiiiia colt.^ zvariii bad. 

ko-ushi calf. yoi good. 

chiisai small. kono this (here). 

okii large. ano that (yonder).'^ 

Adjectives similar to the above, ending in i, may be used 
attributively, in which case they precede the noun. They may 
also follow the noun as predicates, requiring no verb. It 
should be remembered, however, that the simple adjective is 
thus used only in familiar talk. See Ch. XI. 


Sk'ka ya kitsune wa kayaiA Ko}io kiji wa umai, ano 

a: Not to be confounded with koma, wliicli now denotes a full grown male 

b Women usually say oisJiii. 

c Koiio and ano are used before nouns like adjectives. 

d When several words are joined by to or ya, tun or ga is added only to 
the last. 


Wa AND Gil 

uhirti mo umai.^ Shiroi inu. Ano utsukushii onna. Ano 
wakai onna wa utsukushii. Kono hato wa shiroi ; ano niwa- 
tori zva kuroi. Kono nezuini %va okii ; ano nezuini wa chiisai. 
Ano uvia wa hayai. Tsuru zva shiroi ; karas wa kuroi. Ano 
tori wa chiisai. Kono koiishi zva okii. Shiroi nezuini zva 
utsukushii. Kono ushi wa osoi. Hayai utna wa yoi. Kono 
■omnia mo memma mo kuroi. Ano inu wa osoroshii. Uguis 
zva chiisai. Konima dano koushi dano wa utsukushii. 

This calf is small. That horse is swift. This duck is young. 
This ox is slow. This black cat is large. That colt is beauti- 
ful. That white dove. Sparrows are small. That fowl is 
large. Cranes are beautiful. This large hen. Both pheasants 
and pigeons are delicious. That horse is small. Doves are 
beautiful. Those calves are large. Duck is delicious. This 
horse is bad. This dog is black ; that dog is white. A white 
dove is beautiful. Cranes are large. 


Wa does not designate a particular case. As we have inti- 
mated, it serves to isolate a word or expression, to make it con- 
spicuous. Often it may be translated, " In regard to." It is 
used with especial frequency after words denoting time 
and place. 

Konnichi wa (to-day) yoi o tenki desu. 
It is fine weather to-day. 

Konnichi wa implies at least a faint contrast with other times : 
else wa would not be used. Compare : 

Konnichi kaeriviashita. lie retui'ncd to-day. 
Konnichi zva kaerimasen. He does. not return to-day. 

The second sentence implies, " he may return later." After 
a word with zva beginning the sentence the grammatical subject 
naturally requires ga, unless a second contrast is emphasized. 

Koko wa saviusa ga tsuyoi. Here the cold is severe (strong). 
In case we wished to contrast the coKl and the wind, it 
would be : 

Koko zva samusa zva tsuyoku nai keredouio, kaze zva tsuyoi. 

Here the cold is not severe, but the wind is iiigh. 

a Wa or ga is usually omitted when vio is used. 

6 The Noun [hi 

A sentence like " The fox has a long tall," becomes : 

Kitsune wa o ga iiagai. 

Here we observe that the subject with wa is grammatically 
disconnected from the sentence, while the predicate nagai (long) 
takes the subordinate subject o (tail) with ga. 

Nikon Wa yama ga oi. Japan is mountainous. 

Literally : In regard to Japan, mountains are many. Gram- 
matically /«;«rt:^<'z oi is a complete sentence, but the expression 
simply fills the place of an adjective. Many similar expressions 
have become idiomatic. The adjectives most commonly modi- 
fied by subjects with ga in this way are yoi and its opposite 
wand : 

kokoro-mocJii ga yoi feeling is good = comfortable. 

gen-ki ga yoi vitality is good = vigorous, vivacious, lively. 

tsu-go ga yoi circumstances are good = convenient. 

yo-jin ga yoi caution is good = careful. 

kuchi ga zvarui mouth is bad^sarcastic. 

i-ji ga warui temper is bad = ill-natured. 

sei ga takai stature is high = tall. 

sei ga hikui stature is low = short. 

ki ga mijikai spirit is short = quick-tempered, 

yoku ga Jiikai desire is deep = avaricious. 

In case an antithesis is involved ga may, of course, become wa. 


ashi foot, leg. zo elephant. 

ataina head (ladies' word : hito person, man. 

o tsuuiuri, o tsuviu). kata side (polite for hito). 

hana nose, snout. Nihon-jin a Japanese 

kao face. (polite : NiJion no o katd). 

ke fur. Seiyo-jin, Seiyo no o hata 

koe voice. Westerner, European. 

kuchi mouth. ki spirit^ liumor. 

kuchi-basJii bill (of a bird), sei stature. 

from hashi bill. , gen-ki vitality, liveliness. 

inimi ear. i-ji disposition, temper, ob- 

o or shippo {shiri-o) tail. stinacy. 

tora tiger, yo-jin caution. 

vsagi-nnia donkey. anata you (polite), 

hikui low. nagai long. 

mijikai short. takai high. 

iv] A'o ^ 


Ano hito wa iji ga zvariii. Ano hyak'sho wa genki ga yoi. 
N'ihonjin wa set ga hiktii. Seiyojin wa sei ga takai. Ano 
onna wa ki ga viijikai. Ushi wa atama ga okii. Tsuru wa 
ashi ga Jiagai. Tora wa ke ga utsukushii. Ugtcis wa koe ga 
/<?z (sings beautifully). Karas wa koe ga warui. Ano oioko 
wa sei ga takai. '^ Zo tva hana ga nagai. Ahiru wa koe ga 
warui. Zo wa o ga mijikai. Usagi wa iniini ga nagai ; 
usagi-ujna mo niiini ga nagai. Ano hito wa kiichi ga ivarni. 
Kovima ya koiishi zva ashi ga nagai. Tsuru zva kiichibashi 
ga nagai, Ano akindo wa yojin ga warui. 

He^ is sarcastic. This child has a pretty face. Rats have 
long tails. Foxes and {ya) dogs are swift of foot ; horses too 
are swift of foot. This dog has short ears ; [his] tail also is 
short. This hare has black fur. Both doves and crows have 
short bills. He has short legs. She is careful., He is slow of 
foot. The duck has short legs, 

- 1/ 


The particle no with a noun corresponds to the genitive case, 
and is rendered sometimes by the English possessive, and 
sometimes by the preposition " of" ; 

Tori no koe a bird's cry, 

Nihon no ten-shi the Emperor of Japan. 

Notice that the limiting noun together with no always precedes 
the word which it limits. This is one instance of the general 
rule that all modifiers precede the principal or governing word. 

In the classical style ga performs the same function as no : 

Kimi ga yo the lord's (ICmperor's) reign. 

a Ano otoko (that fellow) and aiio onna are not elegant. Ano kata ivn sei ga 
takai is better. Still more polite : Ano o kata wa o sei ga takd gozaiinasti. 
\> Ano lii/o, ano kata, etc, may mean either " lie " or " slic." 

8 The Noun [iv 

As in other languages, the genitive may be explicative or 

Otoko no ko boy. 

Niwatori no mesu hen. 

San-7iin (three persons) no kodovio three children. 

Musashi no kuni the country of Musashi. 


ko young, offspring, &g% (in sake, shake salmon. 

the last sense, of fish only), tai sea-bream. 

taina ball. tara cod, haddock. 

tain a- go ^g,^. unagi eel. 

karada body. buta pig (domestic). 

mi meat (of fish), fruit, nut. tiikit (c) flesh, meat. 

sakana fish. akai red. 

me eye. iiiazui unsavory, disagreeble 
hire fin. to the taste. 

hirame flounder, flatfish. tsuyoi strong, violent. 

koi carp. inada still, yet. 

kiijira whale. keredomo, keredo but.^ 
Diagiiro tunny. 



Touiodachi no kodovio. Sakana no hire. Tai no atanta iva 
okii. Maguro no mi wa akai. Tara no mi wa shiroi ; unagi no 
mi mo shiroi. Koi no kuchi wa tsuyoi. Kujira no ko}^ Ano 
hito no karada wa okii. Tai no hire wa akai. Shake no ko 
wa mazui. Tsuru no tamago wa okii ; suzume no tamago wa 
chiisai. Koushi no niku wa umai. Kono buta no niku wa 
mazui. Ano otoko no ko wa iji ga zvarui. Kono uma no ashi 
wa shiroi keredomo, atama wa kuroi. Ano Seiyo no o kata wa 
genki ga yoi. Zo no mimi zva okii keredomo, me zva chiisai. 
,Hyak'shd no uma zva osoi. 

The eggs of this are large. The fur of this tiger is 
beautiful. The child {jva) of that Japanese is quick-tempered. 

a Skikaski\\2.s a stronger adversative sense, while _§■« is weaker. 

b In speaking of very common animals briefer forms are usual: komma, 
koiishi, koneko, koimi, etc. Kittens and pups are also called nekogo and innkoio. 
Note that /•o/'(3/7 means little bird, not young bird (see Ch. VIII). 

v] Ni 9 

The eggs of this fowl are small. Veal is delicious. The don- 
key's ears are long. Whale's meat is unsavory. Pork is white. 
The whale has a strong tail. These kittens are pretty. His 
cliildren (children of that man) are still young. This fish's 
fins are white. This dog's fur is black. This mouse's fur is 
white. This white hare's eyes are red. The head of the ox 
is large. The eyes of the flounder are small. The eggs of the 
carp are delicious. The head of the tai is delicious. 


Ni following a noun correspondends to the dative case, 

Afio kodonio wa haha ?ii nite iru {imasu). ^:3^^e«J^,.,.^v-<^ I'v*-^-'^ 
That child resembles [its] mother. ~ ^- 

The Japanese idiom resembles the Latin in another particular : 

Us hi iii tsicno ga aru {ariuiasu). ^/xXcV-*- 2 k^-'^^-'*-^' 

To oxen are horns, i. c., Oxen have horns. ck^^-^*"'^^^-^ -t^^ 

When a comparison is involved, %va may be added to ni ; or 
we may say simply : Ushi zua tsuno ga aru. Oxen have horns. 
The construction with 7ii is preferred vhen there is a close re- 
lation between the objects, and especially when the parts of a 
person or thing are named. 

Ningen ni te ga aru {arimasii). Men have hands, 
XVatakushi ni zva inijto ga nai {arintasen).^ 
I have no [younger] sister. 

As a postposition tii has various other uses which will be ex- 
plained in Ch, LXXVIII, 

We add a few explanations concerning the use of verbs. In 
Japanese the verb always stands at the end of the sentence, 
\n nile iru *' dixc resembling" niie is the subordinative of the 
verb 7iiru " to resemble," and iru means " is " or " are." /ru, 
when it stands alone, that is, not with subordinative, differs 
from aru in being used only when the subject is a person or 
some other living thing. The short forms iru and aru arc used 
only in speaking familiarly, as to members of one's own family 
or to intimate friends. In polite speech, whether to those of 
higher rank than ourselves, or to strangers, even ifthcybeof 

a M is not required in: Anata 7va /;nsa ga anmasti ka. Have you 
an umbrella ? 

lo The Noun £v 

lower rank, we must add to the concluding verb at least the 
suffixes inasii (preset), niasho (future or probable), luashita 
(past). These are added to the stem of the verb. 

ari-inasu ari-inash3 ari-uiasJiita 

i-inasu i-niasJio i-viasJiita 

is, are will or may be was, were. 

There are two classes of verbs. In the one class the form used 
at the end of the sentence, the conclusive form, is derived by 
adding ru to the stem. In the other class the conclusive form 
substitutes ii for the i of the stem. In the vocabularies verbs 
of the former class are distinguished by the use of the hyphen, 
thus : i-rn, ni-rii. In Hepburn's Dictionary verbs are arranged 
according to their stems, as z, ari\ in lirinlvley's, according to 
their conclusive forms, as irii, am. 


abura fat, oil, blubber. noim flea. 

ha tooth. ebi shrimp. 

hane feather, wing. okarui wolf. 

hari needle, sting. saru monkey. 

hige beard. 7ii-ru resemble. 

isujjie nail, claw, hoof. i-rii be (of living things), 

tsuno horn, feeler. live. 

koke or uroko scale (of fish), aru be (in existence or in 

mushi insect, worm, bug. one's possession). 

cho, cho-chd butterfly. iiai not existent, not pos- 

hachi bee. ses.sed (polite : ariiiiasen). 

hai house-fly. yokn well, frequently. 

ka mosquito. taku-san much, many, in 

kirigirisu cricket. great quantity. =^ 


Hai ni wa hane ga aru {ariinas') ; ka ni mo hane ga am 
{arinias"). Nouii ni zva hane zva^ nai {arimasen)."^ Hachi ni zva 
hari ga arukeredonio, cho ni wa{hari ga) nai. Buta ni chiisai 

a Taleu and san are tlie Chinese equivalenis of sinvn marsh and yniita 

1) The wa after liane implies, of course, a contrast : It is not by the use of 
wings that the flea moves. 

c Tn tlie following sentences the student should cliange familiar forms 
to polite. 

vi] Wo 1 1 

shippo ga am. Koi ni wa uroko ga aru. Ushi iiiwa tsimo mo 
tstinie 1110 aru. Kirigiris ni wa kane mo aru.^ Neko ni wa 
hige ga aru. Kono kodomo wa yoku (very much) kaha ni nite 
iinas\ Saru zva hiio ni nite iru. Okami zva inn ni Jiite iru. 
Ana inu wa kiisune ni nite iru. Kono viushi ni wa Jiari ga aru. 

This bird is like a sparrow. That dog is lil<e a wolf. Birds 
have bills. Both horses (;// vio^ and deer have hoofs. The cat 
has claws. This horse resembles a donkey. Deer have 
horns. This monkey has a tail. He resembles a monkey. 
This cat has no tail. This calf (i) has no horns (3) yet (2). 
This child resembles its father {ckichi-oya) very much. This 
child (i) has no teeth (3) yet (2). Hogs have a great deal of 
fat {tak'san arii). 

V . 


Wo, originally a particle of exclamation, designates the direct 
object. When several objects are connected by " and," wo is 
affixed to the last only. When mo is used, wo is generally 
o nitted in the colloquial. 


ha leaf. sagi heron. 

hana flower. tombo dragon-fly. 

ki tree, wood. u cormorant. 

kuwa no ki mulberry tree. shishi lion. 

inatsu no ki pine tree. kai-ko silk-worm.*' 

sakura no ki cherry tree. kuda-inono fruit. 

ume ^ no ki plum tree. koku-motsu cereal. 

ne-ru plant. ya-sai, yasai-mono vegetable. 

ue-ki-ya gardener.^ nin-gen human being. 

kusa grass, weeds. ryo-shi fisherman. 

semi cicada.'^/^ kure-ru give (not polite). 

a That is, besides the legs by which it springs, 

b Utiia, tiiiiai, tane are pronounced with the ?< silent. But in umisca the u 
is pronounced and accented. 

c Irom ue-iu to plant, /a \.rec,ya house or tradesman, 
d Fr( m kau keep (animals) and ko young. 


The Noun [vi 

kuu {ku) eat, devour. cho-dai^ please give me, 
iabe-ru eat (elegant). should like to have. 

toru take, catch. ni in, by, at, to. 

He ^ no. ka interrogative particle. 


Uma mo ushi mo k'sa wo kuu {kuiuias'). Ningen iva niku 
ya kokiiviotsu ya yasai zvo iaberu {tab em as'). U wa sakana 
zvo toru (p. loc). Shishi mo tora mo ningen no niku wo kuu. 
Alio hito wa omia no ko ni hana wo kureta c {kuremas/ita). Ana 
uekiya ga kono ume no ki to sakura no ki wo uetaA Kodomo 
xva chdcho ya tombo wo torn. Otoko no ko wa tombo wo toru 
keredoiuo, anna no ko wa chochd zvo toru. Kaiko wa kuwa no 
ha zvo kuu. Ano kudamono zvo chodai, Ryoshi ga sakana wo 
tak'san totta {torimash'td).^ Sakura no hana wo totta kodomo 
wa niwa ni imas ka. 

The gardener planted a pine tree. Birds eat insects. Fishes 
also eat insects. Herons and {ya) cranes eat fish. I should 
like to have those cherry blossoms. The gardener gave the 
girl a flower. Did you plant this pine tree ? No, the gardener 
planted [it]. The Japanese eat cereals {ya), fish and vegetables. 
Bush-warblers eat worms. Children ofi;en {yokti) catch but- 
terflies. The mother gave the child some fi-uit. The cat catches 
mice. The farmer planted mulberry trees. Foxes catch 
chickens. Deer eat grass. I should like to have those plum 
blossoms. That child often {yokti) catches cicadas. 

a This He differs from the English " no" in that it denotes not so much an 
objective contradiction as a mere difference of opinion. It amounts to : You 
are under a false impression. 

b From two Chinese words meaning to put on the top of the liead, i. e., 
receive respectfully. 

c The familiar past tense is formed by adding ta to the stem. 

d Ga indicates that emphasis rests on ajio. The man that planted the trees 
is that gardener, not some one else. If still more emphasis were needed, we 
might say : Kono ki ivo ueta hito lua ano uekiya desii. 

e When brief mention is made of a single instance the simple subject com- 
monly requires ga, while lua is used in general statements. The student should 
observe this distinction in the exercises to be translated into Japanese. 



The predicative expressions given in Ch. Ill, may also be 
used attributively by substituting no for ga : 

O taku no jochu wa genki no ii {yoi) onna desii. 

Your maidservant (lit. m. of your house) is a lively woman. 

Sei no takal hito desu. [He or she] is a tall person. 

Such expressions occur frequently in Japanese and may be 
variously translated : 

Atama no okii sakana. A fish with a large head. 

■ Okii atama no sakana would be very wrong. Nor would it 
be euphonious to repeat a noun, thus : Alio onna zva genki no 
ii onna desu. 

The reason why no may be substituted for ga is that ga was 
originally a genitive particle. See Ch. IV". As such ga is still 
used in the literary language and occurs in many proper names : 

Ume-ga-tani plum-valley. Tsurii-ga-oka crane-hill. 

The verb " is " or " are " after a predicate noun becomes de 
aril (contracted to da\ de arimasu (contracted to desu), de 
gozarimasu (or de gozaiinasu), the last being most polite and 
the first most familiar. Notice the difference between : 

Matsit no ki ga arimasu. There are pine trees^ 

Matsu no ki desu (for de arimasu). They are pine trees! 


ayu, ai trout. ran orchid, 

iwashi sardine. nn luck {tin ga yoi lucky). 

nishin herring. yoku lust, passion, avarice. ' 

kaeru frog. kon^u (lit. root-nature) dis- 

kawa river. position. 

nagare current, stream. kyd-shi teacher. 

nioi odor, fragrance. sei-to pupil, .scholar. 

take bamboo. sencha captain of a ship. 

tokoro [)lace. shi-kwan officer., 

yama mountain. Ezo-^in | ^^^^.^^^ ^^ ^^,^^ 

sumo wrestling. Amu ) 

sumo-tori wrestler. koko this place, here. 

hen region, vicinity, fukai deep. 


14 The Noun [vii 

Dz many, numerous. noru (with ni) ride, be on, 

sukunai, sukenai a few, scarce.^ mount, get aboard. 


Tai iva ataiua no okii sakana des . Nishin wa ko no oi 
sakana des . Anata wa kuchi no warui hito des' }^ Umegatani 
wa karada no okii s'mDtori des\ Ano sencho wa yojin no yoi 
hito des\ Nikon ni 7va konjo no warui uvia ga oi. Tsuru 
wa kuchibashi no nagai tori des\ Ahirii wa ashi no inijikai 
tori des\ O Take san ^ wa iji no warui ko da. O no Jiagai 
sarii mo am shi,^ no inijikai sarii^ nio am. Ano sh'kwan 
wa konjo no zvarui nina ni notte imas" (is riding). Ano kydshi 
wa ki no inijikai hito des'. Koko zva sh'ka 710 oi yauia da 
Fujikawa'^ zva nagare no hayai kawa des'. Tainagazua^ wa 
ayu no oi kawa des' . Kono hen zva ka no oi tokoro des' . 

That European is quick-tempered. Some butterflies have 
long, while others have short feelers (there are butterflies with 
long feelers and there are also those with short feelers). Mr. 
Shimada is a cautious person, Odate is a tall wrestler. Sar- 
dines are oily fish. That pupil is an ill-natured child. Japan 
is a mountainous country. That farmer is an avaricious fellow. 
That sea-captain is unlucky. Orchids are sweet-scented flowers 
(flowers of good odor). Here {koko zva) frogs are numerous. 
The Ainu have long beards. Among {ni zva) Japanese long- 
bearded men are scarce. [She] is a sarcastic woman. 

a Notice that 5? and sukunai cannot be used attributively like the English 
" many " and " few," except when limited by a noun with no ; e. g., hone no oi 
sakana a bony fish {Jione bone). 

b It would be more polite to say: Ana/a iva o knchi no warm o kata de 

C The name of a girl. Satna or san is added to names of per.sons or to 
titles of important personages, such z.s tens/ii satna 'Emperor, dann a san m'a.ster 
of the liouse. In tlie case of girls o is always prefixed unless there are more 
than two syllables. Satna is also used in certain polite phrases, such as o kage 
sama I owe my good fortune to you {kage shadow), go kiiro saina 1 have caused 
you much trouble. 

d Notice the circumstantiality of the expr-^ssion. Shi is a disjunctive 
particle that marks the transition from one coordinate clause to another. In 
classical language the simple stem of the verb is used in such a position. 
Thus an might be substituted in the above for am shi. Shi makes the transi- 
tion more distinct. 

e Instead of repeating saru, we may say o no mijikat no mo am. 

f A river near Mount F"uji. g A river near Tokyo. ' 

viii] Compounds 15 


Japanese resembles German in the facility with which com- 
pound nouns may be formed. Compounds derived from the 
Chinese are especially numerous. 

1 . The components may themselves be nouns : 

sakanaichi fish-market. 
oya-yubi parent-finger, thumb. 
soto-gawa outside. ucJii-gaiva inside. 
uri-zane-gao melon-seed-face, i. e., beautiful face. 

The following are of Chinese origin : 

kwa-ji fire-affair, conflagration. 
ba-sha horse-vehicle, wagon or carriage. 
tetsu-do iron-way, railroad. 
den-ki lightning- spirit, electricity. 
tetsiido-basha street car. 
denki-tetsiido electric railroad, 

2. One of the components may be an adjective : 

ao-mono green things, vegetables, from aoi. 
waka-danna young master, from wakai. 

Numerous compounds are formed by the use of the prefixes 
o great and ko small (in a few proper names o) : 

o-kaze great wind, typhoon. 

o-niizu great water, flood. 

o-atari great hit (in the theater or speculation). 

o-niugi barley, ko-miigi wheat. 

ko-yubi little finger. 

ko-zutsumi parcel, from tsutsuvii bundle. 

ko-zo little priest, apprentice, errand-boy.^ 

ko-goto little word, i. e., complaint, from koto word. 

O-Diiya great shrine. 

O-yania little mountain. 

But it must not be presumed that such compounds may be 
formed at will, nor that a word forming a compound with one 
of the two prefixes may form one with the other also. 

a Boys in times had the hair closely cropped or sliaved, like priests. 

1 6 The Noun [viii 

3. One of the components may be a verb. In genuine Chi- 
nese compounds an object-noun follows the verb that governs 
it, but in the case of pure Japanese words the object-noun 
precedes. This distinction, of course, does not apply where the 
verb is intransitive or where the noun is the principal com- 
ponent and the verb has the nature of a modifier. 

hi-tsuke incendiary, from hi fire and tsuke-ru apply ; but 

tsuke-bi incendiary fire. 
inono-uiorai beggar (more commonly kojiki), from mono 

thing and viorau receive : but inorai-mono gift. 

viono-oki storeroom, from okii put ; oki-vwno an ornament 

kept in the toko-no-ma (alcove of a room). 
tate-kata style of building, from tate-ru build and kata mode ; 

or tate-yo, from yd manner.^ 
sei-shi manufacture of paper, from sei make and shi paper. 
sha-shin photograph, from sJia to copy and shin truth, 
ji-shin earthquake, from Jz earth and shin (intr.) to quake. 

Some nouns occurring in compounds are rarely, if ever, used 
alone ; e. g., ya house, firm, tradesman. The Chinese ka 
(house) is in Japanese similarly used, but only of persons. 

kusuri-ya druggist. 

ionya {toi-yd) wholesale store, from ton inquire. 
keJicJuku-ka architect, from ken-chikii building operations. 
fuhei-ka grumbler, -from /z/-//*?/ dissatisfaction. 
tai-shok-ka gourmand, from tai great, shoku eat. 


aida interval. cho street, town. 

kono-aida, konaida recently, hon book. [horses. 

hi fire. ba-sha any vehicle drawn by 

ichi market. gzvai-koku foreign country. 

kusuri drug, medicine. ji-shin earthquake. 

mono thing, person. ken-kwa quarrel. 

ura rear, lining. kin-jo vicinity, neighborhood. 

a Shi-kafa and. shi-yo s.if^ similarly formed from the stem of ihe \'eih sti/u 
to do. These words are daily used by every one who speaks Japanese. 
Shikct^tn ga nai, or Shiyoga nai. There is no help for it (no way of doing). 


Compounds ij 

ki-sha railway train (lit. jr(?;/^ that '' 

steam-vehicle). tate-rn build, erect. 

. kwa-ji conflagration. tsuke-ru apply, 

mei-butsn noted product''^ yukii, ikti go. 

sha-shin photograph. wakarii be clear, be under- 
tetsii-do railroad. stood. <^ 

watakiishi self, I. mo already, now, still. "^ 

doko where ? (comp. koko). yube last night. 

aoi blue, green. zui-bun a good deal. 

chikai near. ye to, toward.*^ 

toi far, distant. sayd as you say, yes. 


Mo niwatori ga nakiiiias/ita. Nihonibashi f «z (at) sakanaichi 
ga aru {arinias'). Kanda ni (in) aomonoichi ga aru. Kono 
kisha zva doko ye ikiuias' ka.Z Hei}^ Takasaki ^ ye ikivias' . 
Berrin ni zva tetsiidobasha ga oi. Yube kinjo ni kzvaji ga atta 
{arimash'ta). Ziiibun okii kzvaji de atta {desh'tn). Berrin ni zva 

a From jnei name, fame, and l>i<tsic=mono (same as molsn in Icokutitolstt\ 
The word is applied to a product which is characteristic of a given locality 
and so comes to be associated with its name. 

b Corresponds to ano, kono. Kbiio may be called the pronominal adjective 
of the first person, sono, of the second, and ano, of the third. Sec Ch. XIV. 

c This verb is properly intransitive and impersonal. Watakiishi wa 
7vakarunasn. I understand. IVakanmasen. I don't know. In some localities 
wakarimasen also means: I cannot agree; it won't do; it is impossible. 

d The beginner may find it difficult to distinguish mo and tiiada. The 
latter is commonly associated with negative ideas and may I)e used alone in 
the sense of" not yet." JlTadn saiiiiii. It is still cold, it is not yet warm. ]\Ib 
means " still " only in such expressions as vio hitotsu still one, one more. 

e Words like this, corresponding to our prepositions, follow their nouns 
and should be called postpositions. See Chap. LXXVITI. 

f The name of a bridge in Tokyo [/lashi bridge). In the next sentence 
Kanda is tlie name of a district in tlie same city, from kaiiii s^oA and ta paddy- 

g When an interrogative sentence is formed witli a word like doko, tlie 
subject (or object) of the English sentence often takes iva. Ka may be omitd-d 
when interrogative pronouns or adverbs are used. 

h Ilei ox hai is a mere interjection meaning that the speaker is attentive 
to the words which have been addressed to him. Sayd is used in tlic same 
way, when reflection is necessary before an answer can be given. 

i A town on tlie JVaknsendo, one of tlie great highways of Japan. 

iS The Noun [viii 

okii kivaji ga s'kunai.^ Yube no kwaji wa ts kebi. <-/.? atta kere- 
domo, sono hi wo ts'/ceta mono wa"^ uiada ivakariinaseu. Ko- 
jiaida o-jishm ga arimasJita. i?*?//^' (Germany) ;// 7va jiskin 
ga s kit7iai keredovio, Nikon ni zva jishin ga oi. Anata no 
shashin zvo chodai. Kono shashin wa anata 7ii yoku niie imas . 
Kwaji wa ten ka. lie, chikai. Kono kin jo ni konya wa ari- 
inasen ka. Kono kinjo ni zva ariinasen keredonw, ura no cho 
ni wa arimas . Ano Jionya wa takai. Chiisai jishin zva oi 
keredonw, okii jishin zva s kunai. Ano hito zva doko ye ikiinas* 
ka. Oji c ye ikiinas\ Kono kinjo ni sakanaichi ga nai ka. 
Ariih'asen keredonw, aovwnoicJii zva arimas' . Tokyo ni zva 
/czvaji ga oi. Edo no ineibntsii zva kwaji to ken/czva da. 
Kwaji zva Edo no hana.^ 

Is there a drug store {ga) in this vicinity ? Wliere (2) does 
this horse-car (i) go? [It] goes to Asak'sa.*^ In Tokyo {ni zva) 
there are few horse-cars (horse-cars are few). The conflagration 
(of) last night was trifling {chiisakatta), but tlie earthquake 
was severe {okikatta).^ In Japan there are still few railroads. 
Are you going (do you go) to America ? I do not yet know. 
This house is well built (manner of building is good). She is 
ci ^orci^n&r {gzvaikokicj in).?- Where (2) are you (i) going?'' 
I am going to the bookseller's. The gardener is planting {tiete 
imas) flowers. Does this photograph resemble me {zvatakushi 
ni) ? Yes, it is a good likeness (well resembles you). There 
are many bookstores in New York. 

;i If kwaji were followed by vni, the natural implication would be that 
small fires were not infrequent. 

b Hi wo tsnkeia tiiotio i\\e person who started the lire. Verbs, like adjec- 
tives, modify nouns, there being no relative pronoun in Japanese. 

c A village near Tokyo. 

d A proverb, suggested by the frequency ol conflagrations in Edo (old name 
of TSkyo). The meaning is that conflagrations are the finest sights in ToUyo. 
Notice that the verb " to be " is often omitted in proverbs, for the sake of 

e The name of a district in Tokyo, from asai thin antl /atsa grass. 

f Adjectives, like verbs, may be conjugated. 

g This term, like Seiydjin, is practically limited to the European races. 

h In speaking of another's going, oide desH is more polite than i/cimasu. 

ix] Compounds 19 


1. There are also compounds in which Chinese and Japanese 
words occur together : 

jo-buktiro envelope, from J^ (c) letter Tindfuhiro sack. 
jfk-bako set of lacquered boxes, from _/?/ (c) pile up and hako. 
nioto-kin capital, principal, from vioto basis and/^zw (c) money. 
yn-to hot water vessel, from yu hot water and to (c) tub. 

Such mixed words arc called jubako-youii ox yiUo-yomi. Yo- 
vii means reading, of the pronunciation of the Chinese ideo- 
grams. If both characters in juba^o were given the Chinese 
sound, they would read jf'i-sd ; if Japanese, kasane-bako. So 
yuto is often read yu-oke and inotokin, gtuan-kin (c). 

2. In many compounds the words retain their proper meaning 
and in translation must be separated by " and " : 

sai-shi (c) wife and child (ren), family. 

o-fukii (c) or iki-kaeri going and returning, 

^o-ge (c) above and below (also tie-shita), up and down. 

3. In some cases there have been changes in the sound : 
akyudo, akindo merchant, from aki {nai) trade and hito. 
nakodo a go-between (in marriage), from naka middle and hito. 


ie house. iie-dan price, 

lichi interior, house, jn-bako set of lacqered boxes. 

yado lodging, house. jDzii skilful.^ 

yado ya hotel. heta unskilful. 

ionari next house, neighbor, yen circle, dollar (two .shil- 

mise shop, store. lings or 50 cents). 

kaini paper. dai-kn carpenter. 

kittsu shoe. ryo-ri cooking. 

skina, shina-inono wares. ryori-ya restaurant. 

shitate-ya tailor. [letter), sai-shi wife and cliihl(ren). 

ju-bukuro envelope (of a to-butsii foreign gooils. 

a Jdzii, heta and many other wtirds used as a<ljcclivcs arc really nouns Wlicn 
nsed as predicates tlicy must Ije followed by desii [de f^oziiinir^n). Iiy7'ki dr^ii is 
illness, i. c, is ill. Biiiiho Jcsu is poverty, i. e., is poor. 


The Noun [ix 

kip-pu ticket. kuru (stem : ki^ come. 

o-fuku going and returning. inoniii receive. 

ofuku-gippn excursion ticket, tsure-ru take along. 

are that one (person or thing), uru sell. 

kore this one „ kudasai please give me. 

dare who ? tada, tatta only, merely. 

ikura how much ? made until, as far as. 

ichi (c) one. de at, with, by means of.* 


Kono akindo no shinamono zva yasiii. Watakiishi no tonari 
wa tobntsiiya des . Ano rydriya iva yoi ka, wariii ka. Are 
wa ii rydriya da. Kono yadoya no ryori zva yoi. Kono kinjo 
ni yadoya ga iak'san ariuias' . Ii shasJiinya wa s kiinai. Dai- 
kii wa ie wo tatemas . Kono sJitateya wa jozu des\ Kutsii- 
ya ga kimasli ta. Doko de iobiikuro wo urimas ka. Kainiya 
de uriuias' . Yokohama made no (to) o/'kugippn {zvo hidasai). 
Kore wa uf ' kugippu des' ka. Ano kutsuya zva Jieta des' . Ano 
Nihon^in wa saishi zvo tsurete Yoroppa ye ikimas" . Kono JTi- 
bako wa utsukushii. Kore wa utsiikiishii pibako des. Nihoni- 
bashi no kinjo ni zva akindo ga tak'san orimas' }^ Kono ju- 
bako zva ikura des ka. Kono jlibako zva nedan ga yasiii, tatta 
ichi yen des\ Kono yadoya no tatekata wa ii. Kono yadoya wa 
ii tatekata des'. Yube tonari no uchi ni kzvaji ga arimash'ta. 
I «j^>^' Ts'kebi de atta ka. Sayo, mada wakarimasen. Kono sha- 
..M>^ j/^m/(7 zva jozu des' . Kono kinjo ni zva rydriya mo arimasu shi, 

yadoya mo arimas' . Ano sh'tateya wayasui keredomo, heta 
des' . Ano kamiya no jobukuro zva warui. Dare ga^ kita ka. 
Sh'tateya ga kimash' ta. 

a De is a postposition. In the sense of " at " or '• in " de difl'ers from ni in 
that it is used to indicate the scene of an action, while ni simply marks the 
place where a tliinf; or person exists. Tokyo ni toiiiodachi ga ariiiiasii. I have 
a friend in Tokyo, but 'I'dkyo de tomodaclii ni aimashita. I met a friend in 

b Ont or irii must be used in saying that a person or a living thing is in 
such and such a place. But : niise ga takiisan arimasu. It is, liowever, per- 
missible to use ai-ti even of a living thing when it is in question whether such 
a thing exists or not. So it is correct to say : Kono kinjo ni o isha san wa 
aritnasen ka. Is there no physician in this vicinity? But here orimaseii would 
be more natural. 

c An interrogative pronoun as subject always requires ga, never iva. The- 
subject of the answer also requires _^'vz. 

x] Derivatives 21 

This shoemaker Is dear, but [he] is skilful. My tailor's house 
{jichi) is distant. My neighbor {tonari) is a photographer. 
How much (2) are these envelopes (i)? These envelopes are 
cheap. Taking wife and children along he goes abroad (to 
foreign countries). The peasant is selling {iiUe iinas') grain. 
The gardener is planting flowers. [I] received liis photograph. 
Are these lacquered boxes dear or cheap? [They] are dear. 
Who has come? The shoemaker has come. Please give ine 
[some] envelopes. In this vicinity (i) there are many (3) 
dealers in foreign goods (2). In this vicinity there are no hotels, 
but there are many restaurants. My tailor is skilful, but the 
shoemaker is unskilful. At this shop do [they] sell paper also ? 
Last night at the hotel next door [tonari no) there was a fire. 
That fire was due to incendiarism. This photographer is skil- 
ful. In {ni ivd) Berlin (i) there are many (3) good restau- 
rants (2). Excursion tickets are cheap. 


I. Nouns may be formed from adjective-stems by means of 
suffixes, such as sa and mi. 

atsii-sa heat, thickness 
samii-sa cold (of weather) 
tsuvieta-sa cold (of things) 
taka-sa height 
fiika-sa depth 
oki-sa size 

unia-mi, sweet taste 
yozva-mi weakness 

Nouns ending in ;/// often denote a certain degree of the 
quality expressed hy the adjective. 

niga-ini\:>\\.t(tx\?\\ taste from nigai. 
kiiro-vii blackish color ,, kwoi. 

shiro-mi whitish color „ shiroi. 

aka-ini reddish tinge ,, akai. 

In aka-mi\c7!i\\ meat, or red wood in the heart of a tree, shiro- 
mi white of an (zgg, or white wood, and ki-ini- yolk, horn kii ^ 












okii large. 





a More usually called ki-iroi, from iio color. 


The Noun 


yellow, mi is the noua meaning meat, substance. 

2. I\Tany nouns are stems of verbs or compounds into which 
such stems enter. They may be abstract, or concrete, or both. 

itanii pain, from itainu ache, be hurt. 

kiiruskinii distress, from kurushimii grieve.-'* 

oboe memory, from oboe-rii remember. 

Jianashi talk, story, from hanasii speak. 

hasami shears, from hasamu place or liold a thing between 

two other things, as with chopsticks. 
kito-gorosJii murder, murderer, from korosu kill (comp. p. 1 6). 
hana-vii viewing tlie flowers, from vii-ru see. 
yuki-mi viewing the snow, isnki-mi viewing the moon. 


toshl year. 
ham spring. 
natsii summer. 
aki autumn. 
fiiyu winter. 
tsiiki nioon, month. 
eda branch. 
hasami shears. 
ido well. 
utizii water. 
yii, o yii hot water. 
yuki snow. 
kurai, gnrai^ grade. 
do (c) degree (in measure- 
r/=3900 meters or 2.44 miles. 
kimi you (used by students). 

juDii, nan what ? 

dono which ? (adjectival like 

ni (c) two. 
san (c) three. 
ju (c) ten. 
atsiii hot. 
samui cold, chiil)' (of the 

tsumetai cold (of things, air, 

water, etc.). 
hidoi cxviqI, dreadful. 
o-ide coming, going, being 

in a place (polite 2, 3). 
kirn cut. 

korosu (stem : korosJii) kill. 
mi-ru see. 

a From the adjectives itai and kurushii we have also itasa and kuriishisa. 
These are more abstract, denoting ratlier the degree of pain or distress than 
the sensation itselfj 

b Enters into such combinations as ichi yen gurai about one yen, kono kurai 
or kore kurai about this much. Whether to pronounce kurai or gurai is a 
matter of individual choice. Remember that kurai or gurai always follows 
the word which it modifies. 

x] Derivatives 23 

oboe-rii learn, remember, kotosJii this year. 

dochiira), dotchi^ which ? nakanaka, contrary to cxpec- 

(of the two), where ? tation, very. 


Kotoski no atsiisa wa nakanaka hidoi. Kofio kcnva 110 f kasa 
wa do no kurai des' ka. ^ Kono ftiyu no samusa wa hidoi. Vti 
wa nan do gurai atsui ka. San ju do des'. Kono yavia no 
takasa iva douo kurai des" ka. Mada dono kurai des' ka 
wakariuiasen. Nilionjin tva haru yoku hanai/ii ni ikinias'. 
Nihonpn wafuyu yukiini ni ikivias' .'^- Kawa no vnzu to ido 
no inizu wa docJiira ga tsurneiai ka.^ Natsu wa ido no inizu 
ga tsiimetai. Watakushi wa oboe ga warui. Kodouio wa 
nakanaka oboe ga ii. Uekiya ga luisami de ki no eda zvo kitte 
imas\ Kono tetsudo no nagasa wa dono kurai des ka. 
Ni ju rides'. HitogorosJii zva hidoi inon da. Aki wa tsicki- 
mi ga yoi. Anaia doko ye oide des ka. Hanaini ni ikiinas\ 

The cold (of) this year is vciy severe (strong). About how 
much is the depth of this well? Thirty meters {nieitor).^ 
How high is this tree ? Twenty meters. This year {wa) do 
you go to see the flowers ? The water of this well is very cold. 
You have a good memory {Kiini wa memory is good). About 
how much is the length of this river? Thirty ri. Last night 
in Yokohama there was a murder. This year (f) there arc 
many (3) incendiary fires (2). Where are you going? [1] am 
going to take a look at the snow. In summer the moonlight- views 
on the Sumida ^ are fine (good). In autumn the moonlight-views 
of Oji are fine. The cold in (of) Germany is very severe. 
The heat on (of) the Indian Ocean {Indo-yo) is dreadful. ' 

a The original sense of tills word is, " whicli <lirecli(>n ?" Aiiafa iva doihira 
ye oide desu ka. Which way p. re you going'.' 

b It is also correct to say dono kurai ariviiisu ka. Or we say, Kono ka-.i'a 
iva dono kurai fukai ka, where kurai is used adverbially. 

c III these two sentences //«;■« andy^^w are used like adverbs. When given 
the emphatic position at the beginning of the sentence they naturally take iva. 

d Notice the peculiar manner of expression. In such scnirncos the Japan- 
ese does not require a comparative form of the adjective. 

e It is {desu), or, There are {arintasu), thirty meters. 

f .Sutiiidngmva is the name of a river tlial cinjjtics into Tukyu I'.ay at Tokyo. 


The Noun [xi 


A sentence in which the predicate is an adjective ending in 
/, if the sentence is affirmative and of the present tense, needs 
no copula in famiUar discourse : 

Natsu wa hi ga nagai. In summer the days are long^ 
The copula must be used when the sentence is negative, or in 
a past or future tense. With forms of am or nai the adjective 
takes the adverbial inflection by substituting the syllable ku for 
/. Such forms in ku coalesce with atta and aro in compounds 
like yokatta, yokaro. 

Fuyu wa Id ga nagaku nai {ariviaseti). 

In winter the da3's are not long. 

Yube wa savmkatta {satJiuku arimashita). 

Last night it was cold. 

Sore wa yoroshikaro {yoroshiku ariniasho). 

That may do very well (be right). 

The most polite forms of the verb " to be " are gozarimasu, 
gozarimasen, gozariinashita, gozariniasho, usually contracted 
to gozaimasu, etc. When any of these forms of the verb are used 
the k in the adverbial form of the adjective is elided and con- 
traction occurs. Thus. 

nagaku ^ nagau nago 

shiroku shirou shird 

waruku waruu waru 

yoroshiku yoroshiu yoroshu 

Between the familiar forms like ii {yoi) and the very polite 
forms Wkit yo gozaiinasu a middle wa^^ may be taken by using 
desu. Thus : ii no desu, ii ndesu, ii desu, and so forth. Gram- 
matically ii desu and the like are open to criticism, but among 
men it is becoming quite the fashion to add desu to adjectives 
in i. But one never sdiys yoi de gozaimasu. 

The adverbial form in ku is also used before the verb nam 
become, natta {n arimashita) became, naro or naru d aro {jiari- 
viasho) may become, naranai {narimasen) does not become. 

a This chapler anticipates some points in the later and more complete 
discussion of adjectives, in order to enable the student to use them at once. 

xi] PREDICATE Adjectives 25 


hi day. neiniii sleepy. 

kaki oyster nuriii tepid, not hot enough. 

ineshi boiled rice, a meal yorosJui right, all right. 

(polite : gO'Zen or go-han. ari-gatai (lit. hard to be) rare, 
michi road. precious.^ 

«*Hfe/<^<5«/^(? cigar, cigarette.^ nam become. 

byd-ki illness. kesa this morning. 

NiJiongo Japanese language, yo-hodo, yoppodo a good deal. 

atarashii fresh, new. dan- dan gradually. 

'fund ancient, old. koji-nichi to-day. 

itai painful. sakti-nen last year. 

/^zVrt;/c?z dirty, m.ean, indecent. /(7z-/;^« (lit. great change) ex- 
iniitsukasJiii, innziikasliii dif- traordinarily, very. 

ficult. kara from, after, since.*^ 


Mi) osokit iiattaijiariinasfitd). Mada kayo gozaiinas' . Mada 
osoku wa ^ gozainiasen. Sakunen wa watakushi no me ga tai- 
hen wariikatta keredomo, kotoshi wa yoku natta. Mci ! yoroshii 
gozainias .^ Kore kara dandan samuku^ nariinas\ Konnichi 
vja atsii gozaiinas'. Watakushi wa neinukti ?iatla. Anaia 
zva o neviii gozaiinas' ka. He, neinu gozaiinasen. Kotoshi wa 
Jiayaku saimiku nariinask'ta. O ito gozaiinas' ka. Watakushi 
wa ashi ga ito gozaiinas' . Kono yu wa nnriiku natta. Kono 
ido no inizu wa taihen tsinneto gozaiinas' . Kono ie wa atara- 
shu gozainias' . Watakushi no ie wa kitano gozaiinas' .^ Wata- 

a rroiiL^^^ roll, wrap. When necessary t ■ u\^\■-.^'. the distinction, a cip;ar 

b As in nrif^nfai oshie precious doctrine (of religion), arigatai l;olo something 
to be grateful for. Arignto gozaimasii. T thank yon. 

c Kore kara henceforth. 

d JFrt makes d)W^« emphatic: "It is anytliing but late." Compare in the 
last sentence takaku ■zca. With nia the uncontracted adverbial form is used, at 
least in Tokyo. 

e Ma is an interjection expressing satisfaction. The expression is about 
equivalent to : " Never mind ; it's all right." 

f Tn English the comparative is more natural. 

g An expression of humility before a stranger : " T h.ivc loo poor a house to 
entertain you properly. 

26 The Noun [xi 

kiisJii ga warti gosaimas/ita.^ Kesa no iiteshi zva taihen 
viasukatta. IWaiakushi no toniodaclii no byoki iva taihen yoku 
narimasJita. Watakushi no kao ga taihen akaku nariinash'ta. 
Konnichi wa inichi ga waru gozaivias' . Kore wa tako (dear) 
gazaimashd. lie, takaku wa gozaimasen. 

Mount Fuji^' has become white. My friend's ilhiess has 
become serious (difficult). [In] autumn the days gradually 
become shorter (short); [in] spring the days gradually become 
longer (long). That child has grown Cbecome) very large. 
To-day it is very warm. Thank you. In {de wa) Japan oysters 
are not dear. My illness is gradually getting better (becoming 
good). This rice is very delicious. This book is quite {yohodo) 
an old one. My shoes have gotten bad. From this on {lua) 
the days {ga) gradually become shorter. The cold (oQ last 
year was very severe. The Japanese language is difficult. The 
earthquake (of) last evening was very severe. These cigars 
are cheap. Where {doko ga) does it hurt (is painful) ? My 
feet hurt. Are you sleepy ? Yes, I have become very sleepy. 

a It v/as my mistake. Lit. I (and not another) was wrong. 

b Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan proper, between 3,700 and 3,Soo 
meters, or about 12,000 feet, high. It is called Fuji san, from san (c) mountain, 
or Fuji no yama. 


The words corresponding to our personal pronouns are really 
nouns. They accordingly take the particles zva, ga, no, ni, wo. 
The genitive case (with no) corresponds to our possessive 

In speaking to another person one must use different words 
according to the real or supposed rank of the one addressed. 
It is, however, usual to regard a stranger of presumably equal 
rank as one's superior, and a stranger of lower rank as one's 
equal. As a general rule it is to be observed that personal 
pronouns are not used so much as in European languages and 
may be omitted when the context makes it clear which person 
is meant. This is especially true of pronouns of the third 
person ; but those of the first and second person, watakushi and 
anata, are often used in polite conversation even incases where 
their absence would not involve ambiguity.'^ 

I. The pronouns of the first person are : 

ivatakushi, wataslii polite. 

ses-sha (lit. rude person) used by gentlemen of the old 

boku (lit. servant) used familiarly by men, as students, etc. 
ore, oira [ora) vulgar. 
te-inae (lit. this side, from te hand, side, and viae front, 

presence) humble. 

Watakushi may be further contracted into zvashi, but this is 
vulgar. With watakushi, etc., 7oa tends to lose the sound of 
w, thus ; watashia or ivataslia. Ore is derived from onore self; 
oira from the plural onore-ra. The classical pronoun of the 
first person, ware, and the possessive tvaga (as in zvaga kuni ) 
are not used in conversation, but occur in speeches.^ 

a Dai-mei-shi rei)rcscntativc-nauic-worcl. 

h In sentences like "1 will go loo" personal pronouns must, of coursr, \>c 
translated : Watakushi mo maintnasho. 

c Coni[)are the proverl) loaf^a ta ye iin'zit wo hikn to draw water to one's own 
j.addy-ficld, i.e., " to look out for number one." Ware really means self, and 
in some dinlccis is used of tlic secorid or thir<I person. 

2 8 The Pronoun [xii 

2. The pronouns of the second person are : 

anata sania, anata formal, polite. 
o-mae san, omae polite toward inferiors. 
kimi {Yit. lord) corresponding to bokit. 

ki-sama (from ki honorable) used in addressing one of the 

lower classes. 
te-viae contemptuous. 

Anata is derived from ano kata that side, that person. It is 
still used occasionally in the third person. Compare the 
German Er as formerly used of the second person. Sonata is 
impolite. \\\\-a.\v cowxt^ kisaina is not permitted ; but judges 
use sono h3 (from ho (c) side), which in ordinary speech would 
be contemptuous. 

With anata and other pronouns of the second person wa is 
often omitted. Anata do tiasainiashita ka. What is the 
matter (lit. How have you done) ? At times anata stands 
apart from the construction like a vocative or an interjection. 

Notice that many of these pronouns which according to their 
etymology ought to be polite have in practice become familiar 
or vulgar. The classical nanji is never used in the colloquial. 
Foreigners should use anata generally, and in speaking to their 
own servants or to coolies omae. 

3. For pronouns of the third person such expressions as the 
following may be used : 

ano o kata, ano kata, 

ano hito, ano hito. 

ano otoko, ano onna, ano ko less polite. 

are that one there. 

aitsu {ano yatsii),^ koitsu, soitsu vulgar. 

Of course, kono or sono may be substituted for ano in the 
above. The classical kare^ is often heard in public addresses. 
Other expressions for he, she, it, they, are miiko yonder side 
and saki front, which frequently take de or de wa. * 

4. Plural pronouns are formed by the use of the suffixes ^ata, 
iachi, domo and ra, or by doubling : 

a Yatsu is coming to be used more and more in the sen!;e of mono thing or 

b Compare kare-koie this or that, aljout. 

xiij Personai. Pronouns 29 

(i) watakushidomo, ^ washira. 

(2) anatagata. 

oniaesangata, omaetachi, omaera. 

(3) ano katagata. 

ano hitobito, ano Jiitotachi. 

Waga hai our company, is a familiar expression for " wc," 
" us," among students. Sometimes it is used in a singular 


(Include the lists of personal pronouns.) 

baka fool, dunce. shoku-gyd occupation, trade. 

/«</.? writing-brush, donata who? (more polite 

inaka country (opp. of city). than dare). 

/•?^r«;//rt: wheel, vehicle, riksha. ikiitsu how many? how old? 

kuruma-hiki^ hatac hi twenty years old. 

kuruma-ya Vriksha-man. viosu (stem: inoshi) say, call 

sha-fu (c) J (polite 1,3). 

vies hi-tsukai sexvdint. oshie-ru^(s\.Qva shie) teach. 

na name. suru (stem : sJii) do. 

wrt-^z/rt^- name (of person only), ikanai {iknnasefi) it does not 

yd business. go, it won't do (German : es 

gak-ko school. geckt nicht. 

go-fuku dry goods, ikenai {ikemaseii) it cannot go, 

i-sha ]:)hysician. it's of no use.'' 

/^rt-«^«" household, wife. kyu = koHinchi to-dziy. 

oku san madam, wife of one nara if. 

in good social standing. sore nara {sonnara) if so, then. 

sen-sei master, teacher (a to that (at the cwd of a ([uo- 

term of respect), tation), 

j/^6i-<^^z/ mercantile business, hai, heil have heard you, yes, 

trade. all right. 

a One may hear -ivare-ivare occasionally. 

I) Tlicre is practically no difference between 7'A-aiiai and ikenai. 'I lie latter 
is more common. These worils may be used like adjectives, as in ikaitai yntsu, 
ikenai hilo. 

30 ' The Pronoun [xii 


Anata zva doko no o kata de gozaiiuas' ka.^ Watakushi wa 
Tokei^^ no mono de gozaivias\ M'ashi no uchi no niesJtitsukai 
zva inaka no vion' da. Kinii no sense i wa oshiekata ga jozu 
des ka. Sayo, iaiken jozu da. Sore nara boku nio^iko.'^ Ano 
ko IV a doko ye ikinias ka. Gakko ye ikinias\ Bokn no sensei 
wa kyo hananii ni ikiinas . Oviae wa taihen osoi. Are zva 
doko no akindo des' ka. Hai, Yokohama no akindo des\ Ano 
hito wa me ga wariii. Koits' wa baka da. Omae no uchi wa 
doko ka. Hai,^ watakushi wa Tanaka san no knrnmahiki de 
gozaimas . Ano o kata zra watakushi no sensei de go:zaimas\ 
Anata no go sJiokiigyo zva nan de gozaimas ka. Watakushi 
zva gof kiiya de gozaimas'. Kimi zva doko ye iku ka. Baku 
wa yukimi ni iku. Anata {wa) donata de gozaimas ka. ^ 
Watakushi zva Watanabe Naoyoshi^ de gozaimas . Anata no 
ok' san wa o ikutsti de gozaimas ka.?> Kanai zva san ju de 
gozaimas'. Watakushidonio no kuni ni zva yama ga tak* sail 
gozaimas' . Anatagata no kuni zva samii gozaimas' ka Sayd, 
taihen samii gozaimas. Omaera wa ii shobai wo shite iru, ^* 
washira no shobai zva ikenai. Yiibe zvatakushi no tuhi ye 
gzvaikokujiji ga kimash'ta ; sono gzvaikoktijin wa akindo 
desh'ta. Ano hitotachi wa doko ye ikimas' ka. Sayo, Kazva- 
saki ^ ye ikimas' . Ano ko zva ii ko da. Kore zva kimi no hon 
da. Kisama nan no yd da. Ano o kata zva isha de gozaimas'. 

Where is he from (man of where is he)? [He] is from Choshu 

a Corresponds to our " Where are you from?" One may also say, Anata no 
o /cutti wa dochira de gozaimasu ka. 

b Kei is an alternative pronunciation of /;yo, the ideogram for capital. 

c I too will go (to him). 

d Hai ox Zr/oflen occurs in Japanese where we should not expect "yes" in 

e Or, O napiiae iva iian to osshaimasii ka. Assuming previous acquaintance : 
Donata de ii-asshaimashita ka. 

f Watanabe is the surname (wvi^-yV) ,' Naoyoshi, llie given name {nn). The 
surname comes first in Japanese. 

g Or, O ikutsH fii a iiari nasaimasit ka. N'arii here <U^es not mean " to 
become" in an objective sense. Compare the English, " How much does it 
come to ';" 

h Shite is the subordinative oi stirii to do. .Shobai ivo suru to do business. 

1 The name of a station between Tokyo and Yokohama celebrated for its 
temple of Koho Dais hi {IJais/ii sai/tn . 


Honor iFics 3 1 

(?. man of Chdshu)." My wife is from the country {inaka no 
mono). INIy horse is still young {toshi gaivakai). Your {kiiiii 
no) riksha-man is very slow. Where (2) is he (i) going ? [He] 
is going for a bath {^yu ni). Who (2) is that gentleman (i)? 
[He] is my teacher. What is your name, please (Who are 
you)? My name is Omori.'^' Are you {Jciini \) going to see 
the flowers tO-day (2) ? I too will go. You {teniae) are a fool. 
\Mio are you {oniae san) ? I am Mr. ^latsubara's servant. To 
what school (school of where) are you (i) going? In our 
country there are few railways, but in your countr3' {o kuni) 
there are many. How^ old {o ikutsu 2) are you (i) ? I am 
twenty. Is that your writing-brush ? No, [it] belongs to the 
teacher (is the teacher's). His servant is from Tokyo (a man 
of Tokyo). 



In connection with the pronoun of the second person it is 
desirable to call attention to a peculiarity of the Japanese 
language which must be well understood if one is to speak 
properly. In polite conversation with a person (addressed as 
anatd) one must be careful to avoid undue familiarity in refer- 
ring to things which belong, or .stand in any important relation, 
to the one addressed. Respect is indicated by prefixing to 
nouns of Japanese origin (from on, still used in very formal 
speech) and go (rarely gyo) to Chinese words. 

Anata no me wa ikaga de gozainiasn ka. 

How are your eyes ? 

Nan no go yd de gozaimasu ka (lit. Business of what is it?). 

What arc your commands ? What do you wish ? 

The same rule is observed in speaking respectfully of a third 
person. Thus to a servant at the door : 

n The name of :i province at the western extremity of the main island. Tlic 
original name is A'agato " long gate." C/io is the Chinese for " long," and ////"> 
is " country." 

L Ornori fo mosliiiiiasu. To is a particle indicating ii quotation, :ind is some- 
times translated by " that " bat sometimes is untranslatable. Maim to moshi- 
ninsii. [lie] says that he is going. Koie nua unn to uidshiniasii kn. What is 
this called? For another use oi tnosu see p. 55 f and p. 95 c. 


2 'IiiE Pronoun [xiii 

Danna sauia wa o iichi desu ka.^ 
Is Mr. — (the master) at home ? 

The prefixes o and go may also be attached to adjectives, 
adverbs, numerals and verbs. Attention will be called to such 
instances later. 

These prefixes have become inseparable parts of certain 
compounds : 

go-sho palace (of the Emperor). 

go-sen, go-han cooked rice, meal. 

o tavia-ya ancestral shrine, sepulcher (of princes). 

o ashi, washi money. 

o hiya cold drinking water (woman's word). 

o naka abdomen, stomach. 

o shiroi face powder. 

With certain words these honorifics are invariably used by 
women and children, though men may dispense with them. 

go ho-bi reward. o kzva-shi cake. 

o bon tray. o yu warm water. 

o cha tea (but cJia no ki). o ten-ki weather. 

o hi fire o ten-to or tento sania sun. 

o kovie rice. o tsnki savia moon. 

Another prefix expressing respect, ;;//, occurs occasionally in 
compounds like : 

ini-kado Emperor (obsolete), from kado gate. 

ini-kotonori imperial rescript. 

mi-ya shrine, imperial prince, ixoiw ya house. 

In a mi ashi, a woman's expression, we find both honorifics. 
Women may even be heard to say o mi o tsuke (o tsiike soup 
made of miso), o mi o hachi (o hachi a vessel to hold cooked 
rice, from hachi bowl). 

Rules for the use of honorifics are impossible : one must 
simply observe the usage. Some words whose Chinese origin 
is forgotten take o instead of go, like o cha, o tento sama. 
Also r 

a A more complete expression is o ttchl de (jn) irasshaivtasu ka. Irassharu 
is polite for iru. If Chinese words are used, tliis becomes : go zaitakn desu ka, 
zai being the equivalent of a)-u or //•//. 


o dai-ji (lit. important matter).^ o rei thanks.^ 

ka-gen state of health.^ o se-ji civility, flattery. 

o ni-kai second floor, upstairs, o taku house. 

Again, go may be used with a Japanese word ; e.g., with 
viottoino reasonableness,"^^ nengoro cordiality, or with the TiLdi- 
\cxh yukkuri to leisurely.*^ 

With some words either o or go may be used : 

o tan-jo-bi or go tanjobi birthday. 

o shokti-gyo or go shokugyo occupation. 

Some words are never used with honorifics, as sen-selX.c'Ac\\<tx, 
shitsii-rei impoliteness or shik-kei disrespect (student's word). 
But : go bu-rei rudeness. 

Sometimes euphony forbids the use of an honorific. Thus 
we never hear o oku san. In some instances only special words 
may be used with o and go. Thus we say not o atama, but o 

In some cases it is usual to add the honorifics even when 
speaking to inferiors, as in Go ku-ro Thanks for your trouble 
{Oki ni go kiiro de attd). 


kami {sanuv) god. {p) viatsuri local religious fes- 

nii-ya sauia imperial prince. ^tival. 

{o) mi-ya shrine. (<?) tsumuri head. 

danna {san) master. (6»)7^i-i'/^//'z mansion (including 

o tania-ya ancestral shrine, grounds). 

sepulchcr (of a person of (<?) koine rice. 

high rank). /^/v'time. 

o hiya cold drinking water (<?) bon tray, 

(women's word). {p) cka tea. 

a O daiji ni nasai. -Take good care of yourself (lit. Make it an important 
thing). ~ ^ 

b from /•« increase and ^1?// decrease. But /;i-};en temper, state of heallli, 
XaXits go only. 

c <9 ;■(?/ may be my thanks to another or another's thanks to me. O rei loo 
nipshiagetai I wish to offer [you] my thanks. O lei nado ni wa oyobiinaseii. 
Thanks are unnecessary (lit. It does not extend to thanks and the like). 

d Go tnot(oino de gozaiinaste. You are quite ri^hl. 

e Go yukkuri nasni. Don't lie in a hurry to leave. 


34 The Pronoun [xui 

(<?) taku residence, house. mairu polite for iku, kuru{^\.^ 3). 

(<?) .y^-Jz civility, flattery. viotsu (stem: inochi) have, 

{0) teii-ki weather. '■^ hold. 

go-sho imperial palace. motte koi bring (lit. having 

{go) chi-sa treat, feast.^ [itj come !).^ 

ein-pd a distant place. aide nasaru polite for iktiy 

/^/-/r/ beautiful, pretty, clean. kiiru (2, 3). 

kd-dai'\\rA\\Q.\\SQ.y magnificent, choito, chotto just a moment. 

rippa splendid.^ koin-ban this evening. 

ippai a cup-ful, one vessel- ichi-bmi number one, most. 

ful, tai-so exceedingly, very. 

deki-ru issue, result, be pro- ikaga how ? 

duced, accomplished. <i oi hello ! say ! 


Danna sama f^ uekiya ga mairimasJita. So ka : nan no yo 
de kita ka. Oi, Gons ke /?- chotto koi {oide). Hei, danna sama, 
nan no go yd de gozainias' ka. Cha wo motte koi. Gosho wa 
enipo de gozainias' ka. Tie, kono kinjo de gozainias . Toku- 
gawake no^ tamaya wa doko de gozainias' ka. Tokyo de wa 

a O ienki desii. It is fine weather. 

b When a person comes by invitation to a dinner lie says: KonuicJii iva go . 
chiso dc gozaimasit. On taking his leave: Go cJiiso iii iia7-imashita ox Go chiso 

c Kirei, kudai, rippa, belong to the class of adjectives, mostly of Chinese 
derivation, which are really nouns, requiring in tlfe attributive position the 
sufTix na, and in the predicative position taking dcsu [cie gozaimasit). The first 
two are apt to mislead the foreigner because they end in i. Beware of saying : 
kodai yashiki or Koiio haiia loa kirei. 

d DekiDiasu it can be done, one can do it. 

e Koi is too rude a word for a beginner to use acceptably even in command- 
ing servants. It is better to say : IMotte oide nasai. Oidc nasai is the imperative 
of oidc nasarn. 

f In addressing any one, the name is sufficient. A vocative particle is not 
needed. Yo is often used after the divine Name in prayer, and jt'^: by men in 
calling their wives, and by parents in calling their children, by name. 

g A name commonly given to men-servants. 

h In compounds kc means house, family. lokugauHi is the name of a family 
whose representatives held the position o^ slwgtin from 1603 until the abolition 
of tlie feudal system. 

xiiij Honor iFics 35 

Skiba to Ueno ni ayimas .^ Nikko no o taniaya watippa de 
^osaimas y' O matsiiri jiiwa hito ga kami saiiia ni inairiinas' . 
Komban no o tsuki sama wa kirei des . Konnichi wa ii tenki 
de gozaimas' . Yube o ionarl de go chisj ni tiatta (was enter- 
tained). Kyo no go zen wa viaziii. Kyoto no o sJiiroi tva ii. 
Kono o shiroi wa nioi ga ii. Kore wa doko no o cha de gozai- 
mas' ka. Uji 710'^ cha de gozaimas' . O hiya wo ippai chodai. 
O yii ga atsic gozaimas' ka. Kono o bon wa kirei de gozaimas'. 
Kono sakana wa taisd oishii gozaimas'. Kotoshi iva o kome 
ga yoku dekimash'ta. Anata no taku wa dochira de gozaimas' 
ka. W atakiishi no taku zva Shiba de gdzaiinas' .'^ Ano akindo 
wa seji ga ii. 

Sir {datum san), Mr. Tanaka's rikshaman has come. What 
does he want (on what business came) ? Tlie imperial palace 
at (of) Kyoto is not at all (de wa naiY magnificent. Sir, 
what are your commands (what business is it)? Bring [some] 
rice (gozen). The sepulchers of the Tokugawa family are in 
the vicinity of [my] home. Then is your residence in Shiba ? 
No, it is [in] Ueno. To-day the weather is bad. Are you 
going to see the flowers to-day ? If the weather is fine {tenki 
ga yokereba), I will go. Both the rice and the fisK are delicious 
to-day (i). The tea of Uji is the best. Give me a cup (2) of 
tea (i). Is that cold or hot water (Is it cold water; is it hot 
water)? A^ {ni wa) the Kanda festival fish is dear. Is your 
residence far [from here] ? No, it is [in] this vicijiity. How 
(2) is your head (i) ? How much (2) is this tobacco (i) ? It is 
only oviQ yen. That prince's mansion is magnificent. 

a Tlie 7ua after de implies iliat llierc are also sepulcliers in oilier places. 
Shiba and Ueno are names of parks in Tokyo. 

b Nikko is a place north of Tokyo, tlic site of tlic maiisolca of (he first ami 
third shoguns. 

C A place south of Kyoto cclchrated for its lea. 

d De here does not mean " in ". It marks Shiba as a predicate noun. Lit. 
In regard to my house — it is Shiba. Compare : Aiiola no o iaku um kono l-iiijo 
dcsu ka. It would also Ije correct to say: Shiba ui ariinasit or kono kinjo ni 

/i. Wa is generally attached to Ue in a negative sentence. Jje toa is oflun 
' Contracted to 7V7. Sojaiiai, That isn't so. 


2^6 The Pronoun [xi\r 


The demonstrative pronouns are : 

ll'ono, sono, ano adjectival. 
'/core, sore, are substantival. 

Kono and /lOre have reference to persons or things connected 
with the speaker ; sono and sore, to those connected with the 
person addressed ; ano and are to those whicli are removed 
from both. Kono, sono, kore, sore, may also have reference to 
persons or things that have just been the subject of conversation. 

Kono, sono, ano are often equivalent to kore no, etc. 

Kane no kaivari ni instead of money. 

Sono kawari ni instead of that. 

Hako no uchi ni inside the box. 

So7io uchi ni inside that (also, within a short time). 

Kono noclii {kono go) after this, hereafter. 

Kore, sore, are are used with words like, kurai, dake, Jiodo, 
though we might expect kono, etc. Thus : kore giirai {kono 
gurai is also proper), kore dake, kore ho do this much, to this 
extent. But kono hodo means " recently." 

Kore, sore, are may denote a place or a time : 

Kore kara from this point, henceforth, next. 
Kore made until now.^ 
Sore kara uchi ye kaerimashita. 
! After that I returned home. 
Are kara Tokyo made kisha de mairimashita. 
Thence to Tokyo I went b}- train. 

In the compounds ko-naida, ko-toshi we have the demonstra- 
tive pronoun. But in kon-nen this year, kon-getsu this month, 
kon-nichi to-day, kon-ya to-night, etc., we have the Chinese 
equivalent of ima. 


(Include demonstrative pronouns.) 

pari (Latin : panis) bread. fune ship, boat. 
pen pen. hachi pot, bowl. 

a In these examples ko/co, here or iina, now, might be substituted for /cere. 
Such words as /co/co and iuia ought really to be included in a complete list of 




hi-hachi fire box, 
kotatsii quilt-warmer.^ 
dai-jiu minister of state. 
do-biitsu animal. 
ddbntsii-en zoologidal 

ji-sho dictionary. 
inikaii mandarin orange. 
soko that place, there. 
attakai, atatakai warm. 
ire-ru put into. 
irii is or are required, 

iri-yd need (noun).^ 
kawani be changed, sub- 

/'<?Tf'-rtr/ a substitute. 

kaeru return. 

viaivaru turn, go roimd, travel 

yasuimi rest, retire, sleep. 

yasunii vacation. 

kon-o'etsu this month. 

koro period of time.*^ 

kono-goro recently. 

saku-jitsu yesterday. 

fu-dan {ill) usually, gener- 

iai-gai, tai-tei for the most 
part, almost. 

uiuta agaui. 


shikashi but (See p. 8a). 


Kore wa nan de gozaiviais' ka. Sore wa stobii de gozaimas' . 
Nikon 111 1110 gozaimas ka. Taigai Nikon ni wa gozaimasen 
ga, sono kazvari ni kibacki to kotatsu ga gozaimas'. Anata, 
kono fude tva o iriyj de gozaimas ka. lie, sono fude iva iri- 
inasen ga, ana Jude wa irimas' . Sakujitsu watakuski xva 
dubiitsuen ye mairimash'ta. Sore kara doko ye aide nasai- 
mask' ta ka. Sore kara ryoriya ye mairiniask'ta. Kore wa 
anata no o uma de gozaimas' ka. lie, toniodacki no des\ 
Oi, 'Jake ! cka xvo motte oide, sore kara ki zvo irete okiire. '' 
Kimi, kore kara doko ye iku ka. Kore kara ucki ye kaeru. 
Mata sono iicki ni mairiinaskj. Konoaida Itaria ni kidoi 

a A //zirtr/w' is a pot or box lilled willi nsliis uiion whioli cli:irc<);il is burned. 
A kotalsu is tlie same arranged so llul il (;;in be covered willi a i|iiill and iiFcd 
for warming the feet and liands. 

b Sore -tva iriyo desu. That is needed. 

C Used like /{v</vz2 (See p. 22lj). Itsit i^oro about wiien t 

d iI/<7//^ Xw would be impolite. <d ihc simple ive one may 
also use the subordiiiat ive with the imperative ii^kuie-rii ^;ivc, wilh or without 
the honorific o, tlius : motfe kife (o) /cure. More jxdilr (ban i-ure is kiiilinai, the 
imperative iA ktiilasani. 

38 The Pronoun [xv 

jiskiii ga ariiiiasJi ta ; sono toki nl Nikon ni mo zuibun okii 
jiskin ga arimasJi ta. Kore wa zvarui jisho des . Konogora 
iva taihen ii o tenki de gozainias . Kongetsu wa gakko ga 
yasunii des\°^ Kotoshi no natsii no atsusa wa nakaiiaka hido 
gozaivias . Are uni Kishu no inikanilnme}' 

Recently a Japanese minister of state went to Germany. 
Then he went {o mazvari ni nariviaslita) to Russia.*^ Recently 
the weather has been (is) bad. Where (2) are you going next 
(i) ? Next I am going home. Is that a good pen ? No, [it] 
is a bad one. Then give [niej that writing-brush. Do the 
Japanese generally eat bread ? No, instead of that they eat 
rice {ineshi). To-day the school takes a vacation (it is a rest). 
Is this a good school ? Yes, [it] is a very good one. Do you 
need {0 iriyd des kd) this dictionary ? No, I don't need it. 
Then please give [it] to me. Spring (of) this year is quite 
warm. Is there a zoological garden in Tokyo (i) ? Yes, there 
is {aru koto wa arinias'), but there are few (2) animals (i). 
This month {zva) the Japanese go a great deal (yokti) to see 
the flowers. Next I am going for a bath {yu). This flower 
is prett}' ; but [its] odor is bad. Is that a German {Doits' no) 
ship. ? No, it is a French {Frans" no) ship. 


"The same " is to be rendered onayi (adverbial form : onaji- 

Sore wa onaji koto desu.^ 

That amounts to the same thing (is the same thing). 

With some Chinese words compounds are formed by means 
of dJ, the Chinese equivalent of onaji. 

a. Notice the piculiar manner oi expression. 

b Kii ox Ki-skn (Compare Choshu p. 31a) is tlie name of a province on tiie 
coast between Tokyo and Osaka, nearer the latter city. This sentence is taken 
from a popular song. Mikaiidmne is Cf mpounded of mikan ^mXfttne. 

c Tlie stem of the verb treated as a noun, with the honorific o prefixed, is 
used witli nasarn or iiiiimu when speaking respectfully of others, as above. 

d Onaji mono would be concrete, meaning the identical object, or, inexactly, 
an object of the same class. Onaii ko!o (often pronounced oiiaslC koto) means 
rather the same idea. 

xv] "Same" "Such" 39 

d5-koku = onaji kuni i\\c same province. 

dd-do = onaji inichi the same road. 

dd-nen = onaji ioshi the same year.^ 

do-i, do-setsu the same opuiion. 

do-yd the same manner. 

do-kyu-sei (lit. same class pupil) a classmate. 

" As " in " the same as " is to be rendered to. 

Kore wa are to onaji mono desu. 
This is the same as that, or, 

Kore 1/70 ate vio onaji mono desu. 
This and that are the same. 

Watakushi mo an at a to dosetsii desu. 
I too am of the same opinion with you. 

" Such " may be variously rendered : 

ko iu, kayo na, ko iu yd ?ia, kono yd na, konJia.^ 
so iu, sayo na, so iu yo na, sono yd na, sonna.^ 
a iu, a iu yd na, ano yd na, anna. 

The contracted forms konna, sonna, anna used attributively are 
often contemptuous. With ni they are also used adverbially 
in the sense of " so ". 

Sonna ni mutsukashiku arimasen. 
It is not so difficult [as all that]. 

Here so may be substituted for sonna ni. 


(haclude words meaning " such ") 

koto thing, affair (abstract). ji (c) character, ideogram, 

kotoba word, language, dia- letter, word. 

lect. koku (c) country (only in 

te-gami letter, epistle. composition). 

wake sense, reason, cause. nen (c) year, 

d'j (c) road (only in com- satsu (c) card, note, paper 

position). money. 

a In tlie sense of " the same a(^c " onaji Ioshi is contracted to onaidoshi. 

b AT; /m 7^ would be literally : thus say manner. A'/ is the ndjcctivnl sufTix, 
Compare kddai na yas/ii/ci or ki> ei na hnna. 

c h'o has reference usually to what is to follow in the course of the 
conversation; so, lo svliat precedes. 

40 The Pronoun [xv 

yd (c) manner.^ stikoshi a little. 

i-mi meaning, purpoit. iro-iro no, iroiro na, irontia 

sho-sei, gaku-sei student. various, from iro color. 

■^ sha-khi specie. chigaii differ. 

givaikoku-go foreign Ian- itasu do (polite i, 3). 

guages.^ in say. 

chikii-shj beast. oru be (of a living thing), 

Shina China. dwell. '^ 

ona'ji, do (c) same. Isukau use, employ. 

mezurasJui uncommon, sin- yoinu read, 

gular. iiiia now. 

jiikiii detestable (in com- ;//^//^ «?' seldom (with negative 
position : difficult). verbs). 

kochi, kotchi, kocJiira in this kj, so, n thus, in that man- 
direction, here.^ ner. 

viina, initina all, all together, ga but (See p. 8a). 


Nihonjin iva Shina'jin to onaji ji zvo ts kahnas' keredomo, 
yoviiyo ga chigaimas\ Kono tegami wa anata no to onaji toki 
ni kimasJi ta. Satsu iva ima shokin to onaji koto des\ Sore 
zva kore to onaji nedan de gozaimai. Kono koto iva ko iu 
wake des ... Kono kotoba zua ko in inii des\.. Ko iu 
niutsukashii ji zva taihen oboenikui.^ So in shinamono zva 
Nikon de zva mezurashu gozaimas' . Saknjitsn zva onaji hito 
ga ni do^ kiinasJita. Watakushi zva ano kata to donen de 
gozaimas' . Kore zva are to onaji lion des ka. lie, chigaimas\ 

a Much used in such expiessions as : Ano kodonio iva iji ga ivarui yd desu. 
That child seems to be ill-natured. 

b Compare Nihon-go Japanese Language, and %okn-go colloquial. 

C Compare </(7c//?, dotchi, dochira (p. 23a). Similarly: scchi, sofchi, sochira ; 
nchi, atchi, achira. The ra here is the same as the sign of the plural. These 
words are like nouns and may be used with postpositions. Kochira ye oide 
nasai. Come this way. Ac hi kochi here and there. 

d Oru is synonymous with i>-u. See Ch. V. 

e By adding nikui to the stems of verbs many compound adjectives like this 
are formed. The opposite of nikui or katai {j^a(ai') is yasui or yoi. Thus : 
ohoe-gatai, oboe-yasui, ivakai-i-yasiti, ivakari-yoi, etc. 

f Twice. See Ch. X., \'ocabulary. 


Same" "Such" 41 

Gwaikokugogakkj no sensei wa minna Nikonjiji des^ ka. Tie, 
chigaimas ; Shinajm ya Nihonjin ya Fransjin ya Doits jin 
ya iroiro no kuni no hito ga orimas'.^ Kono yania no takasa 
wa Fujisan to onaji koto des\ Go dodo itashiinasho.^ A in 
yd na shinaniono wa nedan ga takai ka. lie, so de wa ari- 
masen ; yasu gozaimasho. Ko in yd na bkii inna zva Nikon ni 
orimasen. Kono sJiosei wa ano shosei to donen des\ Nikon no 
uguis wa Seiyo no to onaji koto des' ka. lie, s'koski ckigai- 
inas\ So iu kaini zva kotchi ni nai. Anna warui ningen wa 
inezuraskii. Sensei ! Kyoto no kyd wa Tokyo no kyo to onaji 
koto des" ka.^ Sayo, onaji koto des\ Inn ckik'sko doyo no 
itash'kata des'.^ 

This character means the same (is the same meaning) as 
that character. Nihon and Nippon (to wa) are the same thing, 
Kdo and Tokyo are the same place. He (i) came by the same 
ship (3) as you (2).^ The length is different, but the price is 
the same. That character has this (kJ iu) meaning. Such a 
word is very hard to remember. There are many such difficult 
characters. Cold (3) as severe (2) as this (i) is rare. In {ni 
wa) Japan (i) there are few (5) such (2) high (3) houses (4). 
That farmer is a man {inono) of the same province as I. This 
tree is [of] the same height as that tree. In {de zva) Japan 
such fish are cheap. My children and [myj neighbor's {tonari 
no) children are of the same age. Those children are uncom- 
monly ill-natured (Such ill-natured children are uncommon). 
Saikyo is the same thing as Kyoto/ but the meaning of the 
names is different. 

a In some such cases either am or irti (orti) may be used It depends on 
wliether one thinks more of the place or of the person. 

b f )r O tomo {rivo) itashirnasho, or Go dohan itashiinasho, from han (c) to ac- 

c Ts the kyd in Kydlo the same as tlie kyd in Tokyol 

d It's a beastly way of acting. \n inu chikusho \vc have an inslancc of tlic 
asyndetic construction. With words like dbyu the particle to is often omitted. 

e " Ship" is in Chinese sen. Accordingly : do-sen. 

f Sni-kyd west capital, in distinction from 7'd-kyd east cai>ilal. Iu Kyoto, 
the ideogram kyd is the same — capital — an<l to is likewise capital or a cliicf 
city. Compare to kirai cliy, metropolis. 


42 The Pronoun [xvi 


The following serve as interrogative pronouns {giuion-dai- 

dare who ? ^ 

donata who ? (polite). 

7iani, nan what? 

dore which ? (substantival). 

dono which ? (adjectival). 

dochi, dotchi, dochira which ? (of the two, or of a very 

limited number), where ? •</: . 

do ill, do ill yd na, dono yo na, donna of what kind P'what 

sort of... ? 

A plural is formed by doubling. Thus : dare dare, dore 
dore, nani 7iani}^ 

The substantival forms take the same particles {ga, v.o, ni, 
wo, de, etc.) as nouns. Observe that ga, not wa, occurs usually 
with interrogative pronouns.^ 

Dare ga mairiviasJiita ka. Who came ? 

Kore wa dare no mono desu ka. Whose is this ? 

In this last mono may be omitted. 

Nani may be used like an adjective. 

ISafii Into {iianibito, nampito) de gozaiviasho ka. 

What sort of a man may he be ? 

Nan nin ariniasu ka. 

How many persons are there ? 

Nan da ka, nan desu ka is frequently used as an expletive. 

The Japanese often say " bow ?" where we should say 

a Z?c/v where ? and itsu \v\\cx\1 might also witli proprlely i)c included in 
tills list, as they are parsed just like nouns or pronouns. 

b These words are closely joined in pronounciation and an almost inaudible 
n creeps in : darendare, doi-endore. But the two parts are kept distinct in the 
exclamation : Z>wr fl'<7/<7 Where is it? Tliis lasc is often a mere interjection 
expressing surprise. 

c Tn Ncini iva do iiariniasltita ka How about that matter ?wc liave an apparent 
exception ; but tiaiii here is really used indefinitely, like our " what-do-you- 
call-it " referring to a tiling or person whose name is momentarily forgotten 
by the speaker. We have a real exception in Dare kite dare -,oa kiniasen 
kn Who came and who did not come? 

xvi] Interrogatives 43 

Doitashiuiashj ka What shall I do ? But : 

Oiiiae wa nani wo shite iru ka What arc you doiai;' ? 

Dore, like nani, may in certain connections be used like an 
adjective. Thus : dore gurai, dore dake, dore Jiodo are equiva- 
lent to dono gnrai, etc., " how much ?" See Ch. XIV. 

Instead of dono we find doko no or dockira no, when the 
place or source is the object of inquiry, 

Oinae tva doko ?io gakko ye ikiniasu ka. 
To what school are j'ou going ? 

Do iu, donna, etc., inquire after the nature of a thing. Dj 
shita (lit. how did?) is used in the same way. Observe further 
the very frequent idiom nan to iu (lit. what say?) which 
inquires after the name, but in many cases is practically syn- 
onymous with do in. 

Are wa do iu {do shita) hito desii ka. 
What kind of a man is he ? 

^Kono sakana wa nayi to iimasu ka. 
\Kore wa Jian to iu sakana desu ka. 
What do you call this fish ? or, What fish is this ? 

Which day ? (of the month) is nan nichi or ikka, fiom iku 
how many.'^ 


(Include interrogative pronouns) 

ika cuttle-fish. te-narai practicing pcnman- 
iro color. ship. 

kasa umbrella. dai-gakko, dai-gaku univer- 
kura storehouse. sity. 

kane metal gaku-mon learning. 

ine-gane spectacles. ho-ritsu law, statute. 

tate-mono building. kiva-shi sweetmeats, calces. 

ho-gu utensils, furniture. inoi'U-teki oliject, pin"i)ose. 

j uru-dogu second-hand fur- suteishon railway st.Uion. 

niture, curio. toka tenth da)'. 

te hand, inigi the right. 

narau learn, i)racticc. aoi green, lilue, pale. 

a Tlic Japanese in makinf; cng-i[;cmciils name tlic <l;iy of (iic iiuuith r;»llicr 
than Ili<! (l:iy of llic week. 

44 The Pkoxoun [xvi 

tiUDie adviintage ( — no iavie viise-ru show.^ 

;// for). go ran nasaru see polite 

ticlii within ( — no uchi nl 2, 3). 

among). mochii-ru use. 


Kono kotoba wa do iu iini dies' ka. Kono kavii wa nnni ni 
mocJiiiinas' ka. Kore wa tenarai ni iiiochiiinas\ Anata wa 
doko no s'teishon ye aide nasaivias ka. Hai watakushi wa 
Shiiubashi no s'teishon ye mairivias . Kono ftirudogu no uchi 
de^ dore ga ichiban ii ka. Kono jubako ga ichiban ii. Kore 
wa do iu tokoro de gozainias ka. Kore zva Tokyofuchb^ de 
gozaivias . Na?ii wo go ran ni iremasho ka. Megane wo 
viisete kudasai. Do iu megane wo go ran ni iremasho ka. Aoi. 
no wo'^ misete kudasai. Doko no furudoguya ga ichiban ti ka. 
Kono tateviono wa 7ian des' ka. Kore wa kura des\ Kono 
uchi ni nani ga irete arimas' ka. Kono uchi ni ie no dogu 
ga irete arimas'.^ Dare ga kita ka. Anata no ioniodachi 
ga oide nasainiash'ta. Kore zva donata no kasa de gozainias 
ka. Kore zva zvatakushi no de gozaimas' . Kyo zva nan no o 
matsuri des' ka. Kyo wa Konipira sania ^ no o matsuri de 
gozaimas'. Konnichi zva nan nicki de gozaimas' ka. Kon- 
nichi wa toka de gozaimas'. Anata zva nan no mok'teki de 
Seiyd ye oide nasaimas' ka. Gakumon no tame ni mairimas^ 
jVan no gakumon de gozaimas' ka. Horitsu de gozaimas*. 
Doko no daigaku ye oide nasaimas' ka. Ber'rin no daigaku 

a More polite \s go ran fiiireru (lit. put into tlie honorable look). Another 
polite expression is : o me ni kakertt (lit. hang on lionorable eyes). 

b Notice that here </if is used rather tlian 7;/. Compare: K0770 furtidogu no 
iichi ni katana ga arimasu ka. 

c The city-hall of Tokyo. Ordinary prefectures are called ken, but those 
which include the three great cities, Tokyo, Osaka and Kyoto, are called^/i/. 
did (c) means office. Compare kencho. 

d. The green ones. Aoi no is equivalent lo aoi mono, aoi bun, or, in vulgar 
parlance, aoi yatsu. 

e Dogu 1V0 ireta oru would mean that some one is putting them into \.\\&ktira, 
Dut dogu ga irete am means that they have been put into the ktira and are 
there. The former denotes action ; the latter, a state. Equivalent to ireU ant 
is haitte oru they are inside (entering'^. 

f Name of a god. See Murray';; Hand-book. List ol Gods. 

xviij Interrogatives 45 

ye viairiinas\ Kore wq nan to iti sakana des" ka. Kore wa 
ika des' . Dotchi 7io ashi ga zvarui ka. Migi no ashi ga wariii. 
O shokugyd wa nan des ka. 

What (2) flower is that(i)? Those are cherry blossoms, 
\Vho has come (came) ? A European has come. Whose (2) 
is this book (i)? [It] is the master's book. Show me an 
umbrella. What kind of an umbrella shall I show you ? What 
(2) meaning has (is) this character (i) ? Whose (2) is this 
dictionary (i) ? It is my friend's. Which university is the 
best? Which restaurant is the cheapest? To what (what 
called) place are you going ? I am going to Yokkaichi.^ Who 
(2) put that (i) into the lacquered boxes ? What do hares eat? 
To which bookseller are you going? What kind of (2) meat 
is that(i)? It is venison, Which flowers did the gardener 
plant ? [On] what day (of the month) is the festival of Koni- 
pira ? The festival of Kompira is [on] the tenth. [Of] what 
color is the cormorant ? The color of the cormorant is black. 
What bird is that ? That is a heron. For what (2) do they 
use these larquered boxes (i) ? They put cakes into [them], 

^'' CHAPTER XVII "^^^^^^^ 

Interrogative pronouns may be made indefinite {fujo-dai- 
vteishi) by adding the particles ka, mo, de 1/10. Thus : 

N. dare ka dare i)io dare de 1110 

G. dare ka no dare no — mo dare no — de mo 

D. dare ka ni dare ni mo^'' dare ni de mo 

A. dare ka {zvo) dare {wo) mo dare de mo 

Dare ka is vague and means " some one," "somebody ;" in 
questions, " any one," " anybody." Dare mo is comprehensive : 
"any one," "every one." It is mostly used with negative 
expressions, in which case it must be translated " no one." 
Dare de mo\'sX\\-ic:\\\?,ii universal, but it individualizes ("any 
one you please "), and is more conunonly used with aflMUKitlve 

a ,\ harbor on the coast of the ])rovince of Isc, 

h 0)rrn)arc : Darn ni vto /;i/;iiniiseii. He inquires (lit. licars) of ini one. 
Dare ni !;iite mo ui iu lianashi dc'sii, Sucli is the story, ask wliom yoii will. 

46 The Pronoun [xvii 

Dare ka kiiuashita ka, I las any one come ? 

Dare mo kimnsen. No one has come (comes). 

Dare de mo kite yoroshii. Any one at all may come. 

Dare de vio korareniasev. Not a single one can come. 

Dare mo sJiitte iiiiasu. Every one 'knows it. 

Dare de via shitte imasn. 
Every one (though he be a fool) knows it. 
Donata ka, etc., would be more polite. 

Similar forms may be derived from nani, dore, dochira, doko, 
itsu, ikura, dona — , donna — .^ They are very common in the 

Dore ka niotte kiviashJ ka ? Shall I bring one of them ? 

Dore mo viotte kite kudasai. Bring them every one, please. 

Dore de mo motte kite kudasai. Bring any one of them, please. 

Itsu mo 710 tori gakko ye ikimashita. 

I went to school as usual, 

Itsu de mo yd gozaimasu. Any time will do. 

Donna hon ni mo machigai ga arimasu. 

Every book has its mistakes. 

Are tva donna hon de uio yomimasii. 

He reads any book. 

Donna kimono de mo yoroshii. Any clothes will do. 

The last sentence is equivalent to : Donna kimono ivo kite mo 
yorosJiii. The particle ;//^ with the subordinative of the vcib 
has concessive force, as will be explained more fully later. 
The fuller form of de mo is de atta mo, from am. 

But notice that the de in de mo often has the sense of at, 
with, etc. 

Doko no gakk'j de mo kono hon wo inochiite orivtasu. 
They use this book in every school. 

For de mo we may substitute to mo in certain c<:)n;iections.^ 

Nan to iimashita ka. What did he say ? 
Nan to mo iimasen. He said nothing at all. 

a Compare do ka somehow or other, do 7110 in every way, no matter how one 
tries (an exceedingly common expletive), do de 7110 anyway you please; also 
</(") ka ko ka in one way or another, i e., with difficully. Do ka kb ka deki- 
7!iasJnta. We did manage to get it done. 

1) Tliis fo 7710 and to/7io together in the emphatic 7ydhd, botli, are not t».> 
I'c confounded. 

vxii] Indefinites 47 

It is interesting to compare : 

Nani mo nai. Tliere's notliing. 

Nani de mo nai. It's nothing at all. 

Nan to mo nai. It makes no difference to me. 

For ka, zo may be substituted, and thus nan zo is equivalent 
to nani ka.^ 

In certain idioms nani without any particle may be used as 
an indefinite pronoun. Thus : nani kara nani made " the whole 
business." Notice also the very emphatic nani mo ka (jii) mo 
everything (with emphasis on " every ") and nan de mo ka (n) 
de mo. 

A common expression for " a certain person " is dare sore. 
This is used to designate a person in a supposed case, or one 
whose name it is inconvenient to give, and is equivalent to 
our " blank " or " Mr. So-and-so." It corresponds to the more 
literary form tianigashi, or nan no taregashi {soregashi). 

" Somebody " may be rendered simply by /lito. " Something " 
is similarly rendered by mono. 

Ilito to hanashi tvo shite oriniashita. 
Was speaking with somebody. 

Mono wo iu to say something. 
With adjectives " something " is to be rendered by mono (con- 
crete) and koto (abstract). 

Kiiroi mono something black. 

Nani ka warui koto something bad, bad behavior. 


kami, kami no ke\\-^w o{ \\\c mnra village, district, town- 
head, ship. 

o kami san wife, mistress of tokei clock, watch. ^' 

the house.'^ uta song, poem.'^ 

a Compare do-zii which is used like do-ka in the sense of " please " Do-zo is 
the more polile. 

b This lerin designates married women amon^ I lie lower classes. It i? 
especially comnton among merchants and laborers. 

c A watch may be distinguished as liioai-chu-dohei {^kvuii-chfi pocket within). 

d 'I'o Compose a j)ociii is nfa too yomu. 

48 Ihe Pkonoun [xvii 

uta-yomi yOcX.. go zonji liesu you know 
gakji-sha scholar, learned (polite 2,3) 

man. shiru know. 

sJihn-buji newspaper.^ wasiire-ru forget. 

katappj {kata, ho) one side, tori-tsugu transmit, announce 

one of a pair. (a visitor). 

ryo-ho two sides, both. ki (c) spirit. 

omoshiroi interesting. irii enter. 

yasui easy. ki ni iru be liked. 

home-ru praise. yakii (c) office, function. 

kari-rit borrow, rent. tatsn (stem : tachi) stand. 

kasu (stem : kashi) lend, rent, yakii iii hrtsu be useful. 

zonziiru (stem : zonji) think, bakari \ , ■ ^ u f b 

know (polite 1.3). dake j ""''>'' J'*''^' ^^°'''^- 


Dare ka koi {oide)S Dare ka no kasa wo kariuiasho. 
Watakushi wa dare ka ni kasa wo kashiuiasJi ta keredovio 
dare ni kasJita ka zvakariniaseji. Oi, Cons' ke ! dare ka kita 
ka. He, dare mo mairiinasen,'^ Sono shinilmn ni nan zo omo- 
shiroi koto ga gozaiinas ka. lie, nani nio omoshiroi koto wa 
gozaimasen. Anata iva kono koto ga dekimas ka.'^ Sore tva 
dare de mo dekimas'. Dare ka kita ; dare ka toritsugiivo shiro.^ 

a A newspaper is more properly called 5//?w^////-i-//?', from ^//Z paper. 

b Notice that l>a/;nri o.x\c\. dake follow the words which they modify, ga and 
too being usually omitted. Dake differs from bakari in that it sets the limit 
more definitely. A/'/_}'f// (''/7/'rtr? about one yen. Iclii yoi dake not more than 
one yen. But they are frequently interchangeable. 

c The master of the house may say koi to his own servants ; but the lady of 
the house may not. 

d Plere, as is quite common in negative sentences, the present stands for 
the past. Notice that the servant Gonske in his reply uses not kurii, but the 
polite verb mairu. 

e The original meaning of dekine is " come forth ", " be ])roduced." It is to 
be translated variously, depending on the context, ylno Into iva dekinai. He 
can't do it. Deki»iasti 7iara if possible. Mo shitaku ga dekiviashita. The 
preparations are now complete, everything is ready. The person is properly 
put in the dative case. ]\'ataliusln ni loa hanashi ga dckiniasen. [It] is im- 
possible for me to speak. 

f Shiro is the imperative o{ sunt to do. This is rude and familiar like koi. 

xvii] Indefinites 


Watakushi wa kono uchi de (among these people) donata mo 
zonjimasen. Kono kotoba wa dare de mo viochiimas' ka. lie, 
utayomi bakari viochihnas . Kono uchi de (among these 
things) dore ka o ki ni irimas ka. lie, dore mo ki ni irimasen. 
Kore wa dare de mo ki 7ii irimas . Dochira 7io ashi ga itai 
ka. RyZhj toiuo itai. Anata no o me wa dochira mo tvaru ^ 
gozaimas ka. lie, katappj bakari (dake) tvaru gozaimas .\ 
Kono tokei wa nan no yaku ni mo tachima-.en. Watakushi 
wa fiani ka tabetai.^ Nani ga yj gozaimas' ka. Nan de mo 
yoroshii. Nihonjin wa dare de mo kami no ke ga kuroi. 
Anata 7va sono hon wo dare kara moraimash' ta ka. Tonari 7io 
uchi no hito kara moraimash' ta. Dare mo wakaranai hito zva 

I will borrow some one's writing-brush. I loaned the 
dictionary to some one, but have forgotten to whom I loaned it. 
Has anybody come? Yes, the neighbor's wife {tonari no 
a kajni san) has comG. Is there anything new (n/esurashii)? 
In this newspaper there is nothing new. That pupil knows 
nothing. Is that difficult (a difficult thing)? No, it is easy : 
any one can [do it]. Do you know any one (2) among these 
people (i)? Yes, I know all (mina sama wo zotij'ite imas'). 
Does every one (2) use this dictionary (1) ? Only scholars use 
[it]. Among these curios which do you like? I like them all. 
Every one praises the ancestral shrines at Nikkd. Which [of 
the two] is better? Either will do (is good). This servant is 
not worth anything. There is a school in every village. 
This dictionary is not worth anything. 


In cases where we use such pronominal words as " every," 
"all," "many," "other," etc., in Japanese the tendency is to 
use adverbial forms. 

" livery one," if referring to persons, may be rendered by 
mei-mei, or mem-men, from mei name and men face, or Iiy 
tende Jii. 

a This is the dcsidcralive form of tlie vcrl) tabe-rii. It inc.ins, I w.ant to cai, 
I hrivc an appetite ff)r... 

50 The Pronoun [xviii 

With words deiiotiiic;' time " every " becomes inai (c) : 

Diai-nichi {inai-jitsti) every day. 

viai-asa, viai-ban every morniiii^, every evening^. 

mai-nen {inai-toshi) every year. 

But with words denoting place the construction explained in 
the previous chapter is used : 

^ Doko no inura ni mo in every village. 

For a rarer idiom see goto ni, p. 321, 

" All " is luina {iiiinnci) or nokorazii. These words, like 
meimei, etc., are commonly used adverbially, and immediately 
precede the verb. In some constructions they are to be trans- 
lated " wholly " or " entirely." Nokorazit is properly the 
negative subordinative of the verb nokoru meaning " not (none) 
being left." Mina savin {san), much used in speaking of a 
company, is truly pronominal. 

" Many " is oi and " few " is sukunai ; but these words, as 
has been said before, can be used only in the predicative 
position. The idea of" many " may be expressed in a different 
way by the use of the adverb oku numerously : 

{■Jlitobito ga oku atsuniarimasJiita. 
i^Many people assembled. 

For oku we may substitute o-zei (limited to persons), takusan, 
or tanto (persons and things). These words are really nouns 
used adverbially. From these are derived the adjectival okii 
no, dzei no, takusan no or takusan na. 

" Another " is hoka no, ta (c) no, bctsu (c) no, betsii na. 
Thus : hoka no isha, ta no isha, betsti no isha another physician. 
But the Japanese often use the adverbial form Jioka ni where 
we use the adjective. The same idea is expressed by ind with 
a numeral : in~> Jiitotsu no /;c?//rt^/^z another story. " The other " 

is often initkd no the opposite one. The one the other 

is katappd katappo (from kata one of two, hd side). 

Instead of hoka no Jiito one may say simply hito : 

Kore wa hito no mono desu. 
.This belongs to another person. 

To Chinese words ta or betsti is prefixed without no, as In 
ta-nin another person (not a relative), ta-ken another prefecture 
bes-shitsu another room. 


Every " " Other 

A peculiar expression is, 1 1 oka de wa {de vio) oriniasen ga 

I just want to say that (lit. It is nothing else whatever ; 

but ). This is used in broaching the subject about which 

one wishes more particularly to speak. 



mac hi street, town { = ckd).^ 

tori passage, thoroughfare, 

sakari bloom, prime, culmi- 

shiuia island. 

aka-gane copper. 

ken prefecture. 

{p) kyakic (sa/i) guest, cus- 
tomer, passenger, 

feisu iron. 

biin-bd poverty. 

biinbo-nin poor person, 

byd-in hospital. 

byo-nin sick person, i)aticnt. 

hei-tai, hei-sotsu soldier, 

kajiji Chinese character. 

kwa-zan volcano, 

on-sen hot spring. 

rti-su absence {rusu desii is 
not at home. 

ta other, 

han, ham-bun half. 

mei-mei every one, several!}', 

o-zei a great number. 

chirii scatter, disperse, wither 

and fall. 
irasshani be, come, go (polite 

-' 3)- 
itadaku receive with respect 

(used by a guest). 
kau buy. 

shiinau finish, close, 
yake-ru be burned. 
o agari nasai please cat, drink 

(polite 2). 
iiokorazu none being left, all, 
uaka inside ( — no naka ni 

naka ni among them. 
tama ni occasionally, once in 



Tak'san o agari 

Bimbonin {ni) ko (ga) fak'san {am)}' 
nasai. Mo s'koshi o agari nasai. Arigato, mo (ak'san {de 
gozainias').^ Nikon no kodonio zua niina gakko ye ikiinas" ka. 
Say'o, taitei mina gakko ye niairimas . Vilbe no o kyakii 7('a 

a In the sense of town r/io is used only in composition, as in c/zr;-//;?/ within 
tlie town. Technically the government determines the application of tlic 
lex m mai/ii OT f//d in the sense of town; luit popularly it is applied to any 
collection of houses which includes merchants' shops. 

I) Tlic sliortcr form is a proverb : HimfHtiiiii A-ottaA-iiSinr. 

c This is the expression {»cncrally useil in dccliniiii; to cnt or drink more. 

52 The Pronoun [xviii 

ozei de irasshaiviaslita ka. Sayo, tak'san de gozaimash' ta. 
KoNo bydin fii iva itsu mo byovin ga dzei iinas . Doits ni wa 
heitai ga tak'san orimas', Mukojima no sakura wa ima sakari 
desti ga, Ueno wa inlna chitte skimaiinas/ita.^ Mina san ! 
konnichi wa.^ Katiji no nchi ni zva oboeyasiii no mo arivtasu 
ski oboenikui no mo ariinas'. Nikon ni wa shima ga tak'san 
arinias'. S'motori wa taitei karada ga okii ga, tania ni wa 
chiisai no mo arinias' . NikouibaskidJri no ie tva mina yake- 
mash'ta ka. lie, kambun gurai yakemask'ta. Nikon ni wa 
akagane ga oi keredomo, hoka no kane wa s knnai.^ Ano kito 
wa mainen 07isen ye ikintas . Watakuski wa maitoski saiski 
wo tsurete hananii ni ikimas' . Mina nchi ni imask'ta ka. lie, 
mina rusii de gozaimask'ta. Toski no ichi ni zva hito ga 
ineimei kai ni ikimas' A Anaia no o toniodachi wa go doken 
no kito des' ka. lie, taken no kito des\ 

To-day [I] have eaten a great deal. To-day the patient ate 
a little. Please have a little more meat. Thank you, I have 
enough. 1 have forgotten almost everything. Was the school 
entirely burned ? ^ No, about half was burned. My neighbor 
has a great deal of company to-day. ^ In this hotel there are 
many guests. In this town there are many sick people, but 
few hospitals. The cherry blossoms have all fallen already. I 
wish you all good morning {p kayj gozaimas). As (4) the 
weather (2) is fine (3) to-day (i) all (5) are going to see the 

a Mukojima is a place near Tokyo celebrated for its cherry-blossoms. 
SImitau to finish is often attached to the subordinative of a verb, as in this 
sentence. Chitte shimaitnashita (lit. falling they ended) they have fallen and 
are all at an end. 

b Mina snn is vocative. /Connichi wa is a common greeting like our, " How 
do you doV" It is elliptical for : Konnichi lua yoi o tenki desu, or the like. 

c Since there is a contrast between alcagane and hoka no kane, we should 
expect wa with I)oth ; but the former takes .;(,'V7 because wa precedes. It would 
also be correct to say a'iagane zva, 

d Toski no ichi \s a. sire.d-ia.iT held toward the end ot the year. Here one 
Iniys tilings needed for the New Year's celebrations. A'ai ni iku to go to buy. 
When the nature of the purchases to be made is not stated, one may say in- 
definitely, kaiviono ni ikti. 

e A common expression for this is : Gakko ga marn-yake dcshiia ka. 

f Either tonari ni kyaku ga dzei on'masu or dzei kyakti ga orvnasti (imasu) will 
do. Using (iesii, tlie sentence becomes tonari no kyaku wa dzei desu. 


Relatives 53 

flowers. There {jiaka iii ivii) arc words [that arc] hard to 
learn but this [one] is easy to learn. On this island there arc 
many volcanoes. The Japanese are almost all short of stature, 
but once in a while therey is a tall one. Was your house 
entirely burned ? ^ Yes, even {made mo) the storehouse was 
burned. In England {Ei/coku) there is much iron. Recently 
many Japanese have been (arc) going to Geinianv. , 


There are in Japanese no relative pronouns {kwankei-dai- 
meiski). Where we use a relative clause the Japanese simply 
prefix the verb of the relative clause to the novui or pronoun 
which in English would be the antecedent. As has been 
intimated before (p. 18 b), Japanese verbs may be used 
just like adjectives. In the translations of the following 
examples notice the different cases of the relative pronoun. 

Yaketa ie the house that was burned. 

Yane no yaketa ie the house whose roof was burned. 

Uekiya no iieta ki\\\Q. tree that the gardener planted. 

Shiranai hito a man whom I do not know. 

Suzuki to ill hito a man whom [they] call Suzuki. 

Na no am hito a man who has a name (reputation). 

Fune zvo koshiraeni tokoro a place at which they build ships. 

Mi no nam ki a tree on which fruit is produced. 

But by changing the voice we may obtain similar adjectival 
constrtictions in iMiglish, thus : the tree planted by the gardener, 
an unknown man, a man named Suzuki, a fruit-l)caring tree, 
etc. In Japanese the use of the ])assive is limited to a few 
special cases. For this reason j^nglish passive ])articiples and 
relative clauses with passive verbs are usually to be rendered 
by active verbs in Japanese. 

Notice that the subject of the relative clause takes //<?. We 
have here the same substitution o{ no {^n- ga as in the examples 
given in Ch. VII. In longer clauses ^'vj: also may be used. 

a 'llic qucslioii mny I)e rcn<lcrcil iiiorc clcg-intly .^.o Zi-n-aliT) tialtitii /</, zensho 
Lcinf; tlic Cliincsc »;(iuivalent of mnrnyake. In ilic riiiswcr we iil)Scrvo .1 
prciilinr ii'c- i\{ iiiatle in tin; Sfiise of " even." 

54 ii^ii Pronoun [xix 

When the Englisli aiitcccdant is indefinite or the indefinite 
relative " what " occurs, the Japanese uses an attributixe verb 
with mono or koto. Mono is used also of persons synonymously 
with hito. In certain connections no may also be substituted 
for mono or koto.^ 

Horitsii zvo okasti mono one who violates the law. 
Kino mita koto what [I] saw yesterday. 
Anata no ossharu no tua go mottoino desu. 
What }'ou say is quite true. 

We have observed in the examples given above that the 
indicative form of the verb, like the participle in English, is 
vised adjectively. Hence many of our adjectives must be trans- 
lated by the use of verbs. Further, in relative clauses, as in 
dependent clauses generally, the present often stands for other 
tenses. Thus : 

Aril hi Fnriibekki to in givaikoku no o kata 7ii ainiashila. 
One day I met a foreign gentleman named Verbeck, 

Here there is no occasion to change aru and m to the past 
tense. Indeed they have practically become adjectives. 

The idiom to ijt often serves to turn a whole sentence into 
a relative clause, in which case it is not translated. 

Ano kata ga kondo Kotogakkj ni kita to iic Seiyojin desu ka. 
Is that the foreigner that came to the Higher School recently ? 

As \\\ the German, long and invoh'ed clauses ma}- be used 
to modify nouns. Sometimes a noun may be directly limited 
by a succession of attributixe verbs; but such multiplication ol 
coordinate relative clauses is to be avoided. It is, however, 
quite natural to attach two or more verbs to one noun if all 
but the last are subordinatives. 

Ima nnie no ki Jii tomatte naite it'U tori zva uguisii desu. 
The bird that is sitting (now) on the plum-^ree and singing 
is a bush- warbler. 

a This use of kolo with an attributive verb is to be distinguished from 
another, more abstract, use of the same construction, as in : .Iru koto li'a aru ga 

(lit. As far as existing is concerned, it exist but ) There is such a things 

but Tabcta koto ga aru I have eaten it before. Kiita koto ga («'<?) nail 

have never heard it. Notice that 7Jiono also may be used in an abstract sense, 
as in Do sliita iiioii ch's/i?. What is the matter? 





hako box, case. 
mi fruit, nut. 
oni demon, devil. 
slu-gakko elementary school 
kotd-shogakko secondary 

bun-ten grammar, 
toku-hon reader. 
kei-ken experience. 
yU-bin mail, post. 
mane imitation (— no mane 

wo sum imitate). 
hanasu speak. 
kaesu return (tr.). 
kare-ru wither, perish. 
koshirae-ru make, fabricate. 
naku cry, sing (of birds) 

•be lazy, neglect. 
shaberu chatter, talk. 
stiku like.^ 
^ sute-ru cast away, discard, 

tasuke-ru help, save. 
todoku reach, arrive (of things). 
umu give birth to {taviago 

wo umu lay eggs), 
ainari exceedingly, too, so 

saki ni, sakki before, a short 

while ago. 
kin J yesterday. 
ototoi day before yesterday. <^ 
iLzo please, I beg you. 



Oi ! sakki kita hito wa dare {da) ka. Hat, doguya de 
gozaimas' . Sakujitsu yak eta ^ ie wa donata no ie de gozai- 
mas/ita ka. Kiuj yaketa ie wa gakkJ de gozaimas . I\ ore 
wa dono s/ijgakkJ de uio mocJiiirn hon des' ka. lie, kjto 
stijgakko bakari de mocJiiiru hon des\ Mi no naru ki wa 
hana kara sliireru (Prox'crb).*^ Anata ni {kara) o kari moslita ^ 

a There are two grades in llio elementary schools, called yw-/;) ordinary ami 
ko-to advanced. Orii^inally there were tliree classes of scliools, namely, slu>- 
gakkb, from shb small, chn-gak/cd, from chu middle, and dai-i^akkT), from dai 
great. The schools that train j^radiiatcs of (-///7(,'^rt/J-/-t; for ordinary professions 
and prepare them for dai^akko are calletl simply A-ofo-i^iikA-b. 

b Attala wa sutiw i^a siiki desH ka. Are you fond of [Japanese] wrcstlin};? 
Alto kodonio 7va e »o hon f^a dai suki desit. Tliat cljild is very fond of picture- 
books. Sumo 'ivo sukitiiasiil c no lion '.vo siikiiiinsii, etc., would sound stran{;e, hut 
sitkirnasen is not uncommon. 

C The Chinese er[uivalenls for kind and otoloi 7\.xc sakit-jitsii and isiaknji/sn. 

d Attributive verbs like tliis;v7/vA/ need not take the polite cndirij; iiiasii. 
If tlie vcrl) at the end of a sentence or principal clause is in tlic polite form, it 
makes tlic whole polite. 

e Shirern is the potential or passive form and means Iierc " is known." 

f O kari iiioshita is a very polilc (M|iiivaleiil (.f kaiita. 

56 The Pronoun [xix 

hon 7va kore de gozaimas' ka. Sayo, sore de gozainias' . 
Isonogoro tateta ie iva yube yakete shiniaimasJita. Soko tii 
aru i/ioiio no nchi ni o ki ni iru mono zva gozaiviasen ka. 
Watakushi iva amari shaberu hito 7vo s kimasen. Kore wa 
yoku (a great deal) naku tori da. Kore wa yokii taniago wo 
711)111 tori des\ Kono seito no uchi ni naviakeru hito ga ui. 
Watakushi ga olotoi yubinbako ye iretategavii ga iodokiniasen. ^ 
U no mane wo suru karas' (Proverb).^ Sono bunten wo 
koshiraeta hito wa dare des' ka. Ano sensei wa keiken no aru 
hito des\ Are wa keiken no nai hito des' kara, sonna mutsu- 
kashii koto wa dekimasen. Zuibnn na no aru gak'sha desl. , 
S'teru kumi {go) areba (if there are) tas keru kami mo aru 
(Proverb). Wakaru koto wa wakarimas\ IVakaranai koto 
wa nai. Watakushi wa mada maguro no mi wo tab eta koto 
ga arimasen. Ezojin tvo mita koto ga arimasen. Sakunen 
niwa ni^ ueta cha no ki wa mina karete shimaimash'ta. 

The man that came awhile ago is a merchant/^ Those that 
were burned yesterday were all old houses. Please give me 
the umbrella that I forgot yesterday. In Japan (i) there are 
few (5) persons (4) that do not know {shiranai 3) the Chinese 
characters (2). Among (4) the Europeans (3) that live (2) in 
Japan ([)are there many (8) persons (7) that speak (6) Japanese 
(5) ? Among the Europeans that live in Japan there are few 
persons that know {shitte orii) the Chinese characters. Please 
return the dictionary that I loaned to you. Please bring the 
newspaper that came day before yesterday. This is not to be 
put in there (not a thing that one puts in there soko ye). 
Where {doko ni 5) is (6) the box (4) into which 3'ou (i) put (3) 
the cigars (2)? Children that do not resemble {ninu) their 
parents [are] children of the devil (Proverb). There is no 
remedy (medicine) that one may apply its' keru) to fools 

a The present tense is often used, as here, where we should expect the past. 

b Such a predicate as s/iitide shimaii dies, perishes, may be supplied. Com- 
pare our proverb : Cobbler, stick to your last ! 

c We say iiiiva ?ii, not tmun de, because iihca is rather the indirect object 
tlian the scene of the action. 

d The subject lakes wa when the predicate is a noun. 

e The verb iiy«/«'r«< is used because the reference is to a plaster (y('5->'rt/5«). 
To administer medicine internally is knsiiri 700 nomaie->-u Ccause to drink). 

xx] "Self" "One Another" 57 


The word "self" has several equivalents in the literary 
language, but in the colloquial is usually rendered by fi-bu n, 
from 7V self and ^«« part, or by the rather more literary form 
j'i- skin, U-om shin hoi^y or self. In "I myself," "you your- 
self," etc., " myself." " yourself," etc., are to be rendered by 
jibtin de {kard), usually put in the adverbial position.^ la 
speaking respectfully to or of a person the honorific go is 

Jibiin no mono wo jibun de ko'vashiniashita. 
He himself broke his own things. 
Go jibun de oide jiasaiinasJiita. He came himself. 
Jibiin kara nanotte deniashita. 
He introduced himself (telling his name came forward). 

Jibun may also be used as a simple personal pronoun, taking 
the particles zva, ga, no, ni, wo and various postpositions. 
There are also plural forms, such as j'ibuntachi, jibujidomo, 

Jibun wa Tokyo ye itte kazoku wa Kamakura ni nokoshite 

He liimself will go (lit. going) to Tokyo and leave (lit. 
leaving will put) his family in Kamakura. 
Jibuntachi ga warui n de ariniasen ka. 
Arc not they themselves in the wrong? 

These examples might also be construed in the first person, 
according to the context. 

Notice the use o^ji in expressions derived from the Chinese, 
such as : 

Ji-bun no dekirii koto 7vo ji-nian shite inc. 
He prides himself on his ability {man pride). 

Ji-sasiu sum to kill one's self, from satsu kill. 

Ji-gj ji-tokti (lit. self-act self-get). 

A man's sin brings its own puni.shment. 

The following idioms should also be noted in this connection : 
Karada wo arau to wash one's self. 

a It is an unsettled question among Japanese grammarians wlictlicr adverbs 
or adverbial expressions should always immediately precede llic vcri) or not. 
Ordinarily/z/ww de is placed between the verb and its olijecl, but in some cases 
it more naturally precedes the object. 

58 . TiiK Pkoxoun [xx 

Kimono wo kirn to dress one's self. 

Koshi ivo kakeru to seat one's self (on a chair or other 
raised object). 

Mi ivo kakiisic to liidc one's self.^ 

Mi-nage zvo sum to drown one's self, from nage-rii to cast. 

Ware (ini^ %vo wasurerti to forget one's self 

The mi which occurs in the last few examples enters into the 
very common idiom mi-no-ne (lit. upon self) which means: 
one's personal fortunes, " fate." 

Mi-no-ue- banashi ivo siiru to talk about one's own future. 

" One another," " mutually," is rendered by the adverbial 
tagai ni. In addition there may be added to the stem of the 
verb the auxiliary an to meet. 

I'agai ni tasuke-an. They help one another. 

Tagai ni hore-au. They fall in love with each other. 

Notice the use of the Chinese do-shi, from do same, together, 
and ski man, in : Toniodachi doshi de hanashi zvo sum (lit. 
Friends among themselves speaking do). They hold a conver- 
sation just among themselves as friends. 


hara abdomen, stomach. zu (c) drawing, plan, map. 

ikusa war. bun-shd composition, sen- 
samurai one of the former tence. 

military class, knight. bun-iai style. 

tsukai messenger, envoy. g^-jo maid servant. 

oyaji father.^ Ji-bun, j'i-skin self. 

ki-mono clothes. kyd-dai brother.^ 

iabe-mono food. ten-ski sama the Emperor. 

mi-so a kind of sauce. de-ru come forth, go out. 

a The idiom /;// 7i'f kalaisu is commonly used of a debtor hiding from hij 
creditors, or of a hermit. "To hide one's self" is more commonly expressed 
by the passive verb /iakure-m to be hidden. 

b Oyaji may be used contemptuously of any old man. It may also be used 
in speaking humljly of one's own father. In speaking of the father of a second 
person, use the polite Chinese equivalent of oyaji, go shi?n-pii (sama'). The most 
suitable term for ordinary purposes is chichi or chichi-oya. 

c From kyo or kei elder brother and dai or fei younger brother. As a col- 
lective term kyd-dai oiit.n includes sisters like tJie German Geschiuister. 

xxl " Self " " One Another " 


au meet {Into ni aii) meet a yokosii scnd.=^ 

person). ji-satsu sum commit suicide. 

^/^rt <*;« agree, be congenial, ato de after (following a past 

hiku pull, draw {zu wo hihi verb). 

draw a plan). tagai ni mutually, recipro- 

hore-ru fall in love. cally. 

'^/J'/^M write, draw, is-sho ni in the same place, 

7iaosu mend, heal, correct. together ( — to issho ni with). 

^luu {nJi) sew. mukasJu in ancient times. 

^^shinurn, shinu (stem : s/iini) to when, if (with a verb in the 
die. present tense). 


A no oyaji xvajibnn no kodonio wo koroshiinash' ta. WataJcushi 
■uux niwa na ki ivo taitei inina jibiin de ueniasli ta. Fkeda san 
ga jibun de kiviasJita ka. fie, ts kai wo yoi'oiliivnxslita. 
Anata wa kono bunslij wo go jibun de o kaki nasainiasfi ta ka. 
fibun 710 niwa ni^ dekita hana zvo jibun de inotte kiinasli ta. 
Ana hito wajibiin no ie ni ki wo ts keniaslita. Kono kodonio 
ga jibun de kono ji \vo kakiinashi ta. A no onna wa jibun no 
kimono wo inina jibun de nuinias . O Some to Ilisamats wa 
tagai ni /loreaimas/i'ta.^ Watakushi wa ano hito to tagai ni ki 
ga ainias . Mukashi Nikon no samurai wa zvarui koto wo 
suru to y jibun de kara wo kirimask' ta.'-^ jibun ga tabemono wo 
koshiraeru to, uniaku nai ga ; kito ga koskiraeru to, umai. 

He {wa\ killed his own father. Who [planted these flowers? 
1 {ga^ myself planted [them]. 1 myself will go to {ye') the 
[)hysician. iJid he write this composition himself? Yes, but 
some one prcjbabl}' corrected {naosk'ta desko 3) the style (1) a 
little (2). It occasionally hnp[)ened {koto mo arimas) in ancient 
times [that] the Japanese Emperors tiuniselvcs went {oi(/e ni 

n. YoA'osii is used only of sciuliiitj [>crsoiiS or lliinps to tlic s[)oakci'.s own or to tlic house in which l:c is at tlic liino. The term for 
" L"cn<l " is oA-iiru, or /ctlp/.'c-rii for thiii(;s, ami for jicTSons /su/imvasii. 

1) It is usual to say iiiwn ni deA-ifa {jsiikiittn') iiiio i>ototocs raised in llie 
L'.ar<lcn, l>iil iichi de deld/n {J^osltiracfii) J'lin hreail niaili- at hoiiie, home inaiU- 

C These arc tlir hero ai.d hcioiiif of a drama, O Some Iiciti^; the woti an's 

tl More clci^antly : seppiikn s/iiiiids/iifa, from .tefsit=^l'ii u and /'///■// liarn. 

6o The Pronoun [xx 

jurtta) to war. That woman killed her own children. That 
gentleman himself drew the plans of his own house. Did that 
pupil write these characters himself? No, the teacher wrote 
{o kaki ni nariviasli to) [them]. That woman sews her own 
clothes. People of the same country ido-kokii) help one 
another. That child is congenial to his brothers. Gompachi 
and Komurasaki fell in love with each other. Shibata Katsuie^ 
died together with his wife and children. After (4) Shibata (i) 
killed (3) his wife and children (2), he killed himself. Did the 
maidservant go out shopping {kaimono ni) ? No, the mistress 
herself went. People in (of) the country make [their] viiso 

a I^ord of Echizen, — died 1583. 

b In this case ?/f//z^/^ may be better Ihan Jil>/iM de. The adjective " home- 
made " becomes in Japanese te-sei no hand-made (a case of ytito yoi/ii), as in /«« 
nojobu/ctiio home-made envelopes. 

f U^~'' 



The Japanese language has two series of numerals. One 
consists of native Japanese words ; the other is borrowed from 
the Chinese. The native Japanese numerals in common use 
are : 

hitotsu one inutsu six 

fjitatsii two nanotsti seven 

initsii three yatsii eight 

yotsii four kokoiiotsu nine 

itsiitsu five tj ten 

Those of two syllables are commonly pronounced with stress 
on the /.• viittsu, yottsii, inuttsn, yattsii 

These numerals are used only for things, not for persons. 
They usually follow the^noun. In case they precede the noun, 
theyTTatuiaTIy take the particle no. 

Tokei futatsu, futatsu no tokei two clocks.'^ 

Mo hitotsu kotoba ga arhnasii. There is one more word. 

In telling the age of a child these numerals may be used 
alone, the word for " year " being understood. 

Hitotsu may also be used as a kind of expletive in the sense 
of our " once." 

Hitotsu yatte go ran nasai. Try it once (lit. one doing see). 

The native numerals above " ten " are mostly obsolete, but 
some of them still occur in certain connections. Thus the old 
word for " twenty " appears in hatacJii twenty years old and 
hatsuka twenty days or the twentieth day. " Thirty," " forty," 
etc., would be ini-so, yo-so, i-so, inuso, etc. Of these, iniso is 
.still used in niisoi'a the last day of the month according to the 
old calendar. Moino one hundred occurs in the classical inoino 
lose one hundred years. Ya-o eight hundred appears in the 
familiar yao-ya greengrocer ; f/<!/ one thousand, in Chi-shivia 
thousand isles (the Kuriles), txw^X yoro.zu a myriad, in yorozuyd 
dealer in miscellaneous articles, jack-of-all-tiadcs. 

a Sushi number-word. 

I» FtitnlsH no tokei viOMXA sugf^cst tliat tlierc .ire but two. 


The Numeral 



(Include the numerals up to " ten.") 

o jii san {jij'i, jijii) grand- 
father, old gentleman. 

o lui sail {baba, baba) grand- 
mother, old lady. 

otottsan {toto) papa. 

okka san {kaka) mamma, 

ajii older brother. 

ane older sister. 

otJto younger brother. 

imjto younger sister. 

viusiiko son, boy. 

imisume daughter, girl, 

Jieya room, apartment. 

ma do window. 

tansic bureau, chest of 

Iiiki-dasJu drawer. 

kago basket, cage. 

kaki persimmon. 

tsubaki camelia. 

tsuboDii flower bud. 

iro-ka syllabary. 

chu {c)=^naka middle, 

manju a kind of cake. 

tsurei (lit, common practice) 

saku-ya last night. 

ztitsu apiece. 

liajiuie-rii commence (tr.). 

hajinie beginning. 

kanaski speech, conversation, 

hairii enter {haitle out be 

osowaru be taught, learn. 

ochi-ru fa 11^ 

sage rtc let hang, suspend 
carry (of watches, deco- 
rations, etc.). 

^vakare-ru be divided, part. 

yose-ni cause to approach, 
bring together, add. 


Anata no o iuioto san wa o ikutsii ni o jiari nasaiinas ka. ^ 
Watakushi no inidto wa inittsu de gozaimas' . Tonari no uiu- 
siinie zva ikntsu des ka. To des\ Watakushi no ototo wa 
kokouotsn des'. Ano hlto iva tokei wo f'tatsu sagete i;/ias\ 
WatakusJii zva tainago wo yottsn tabeniasJita. Doits' no kodo- 
mo zva kokonots' kara chugakko ni Jiairu koto ga dekiiiias\ ^ 

a The verbs ochirii to fall down (of things in i;eneral) anil chirii (of blossoms 
and leaves) should not be confused. The subordinatives are respectively ocliite 
and chitte. Note also that we s^y fit rii, not oc/iini, of things which fall from 
above, like rain, snow or volcanic ash. 

b O iiari nasarit. is more polite than nariniasit. 

c Entering is possible, i.e. can cnlcr. Our " can " is oflen to lie translated 
by tlic use of this idiom. 

xxi] Native Forms 6 



F' tats' to mitts wo yoseru to, iisutsu ni narimas' .^ Kino no 
kivaji de kura gaf'tatsii yakeinaslita. Kono tans' zva hikidashi 
^a yottsu ariinas' . '' O cha (zvo) hitotsu o agari nasai. Mei- 
mei tainago wof'tatsu ztitsic tabemasJita. O jii sau ga iichi 
no kodomo ni manjn wo hitotsu zutsu kureuiasJita. Kono heya 
ni wa mado ga mittsu ariinas' . Watakushi tua niittsu no toki 
;/z (at the age of three) okka san ni (by) iroha wo osozvatta. 
Miittsu ni naru toki {ni) tenarai wo hajivtemash'ta. Wata- 
hishi no kajinie no ko wa (oldest child) kokonotsii no toki ni 
shinimash' ta. Mikan wo hitotsu chodai. Kono kago no naka 
ni wa mikan ga to haitte imas' S- Kono tsubaki ni wa tsubonii 
ga itsutsii arimash'ta ga, mina ochite shimaimash'ta. O hana- 
ski gaf'tatsn ni wakaremash'ta. '' 

How old is your older sister? My older sister is ten. la 
this room there are two windows. Bring me two eggs. 
American children go to school at (kara) the age (time) of 
six, I learn ten words every day. [My] older brother's &011 
died at the age (time) of eight. At {de) last evening's fire six 
storehouses were burned. A foreign bureau usually has three 
dra\vers. This child at the age of two could not yet talk 
{hanashi ga dekimasen desh'ta). How old is this child ? It is 
five. Please give me a (one) persimmon. Please give me one 
more. How much (3) are ten {to de 2) [ofj these oranges (i) ? 
That camellia has seven buds. 


In combination with certain words, mostly of native origin, 
the numerals ending in tsii (and ikutsu) lose that termination, 
while to becomes to, thus : hito tsuki, fitta tsnki, mi tsuki, etc., 
kokono tsuki, to tsuki from tsuki month. Some of these words 
are : 

a In Japanese one always says, not "is five," nor "makes five," hut "be- 
comes five." 

b Notice that ariinasti without de is used in such enumerations. 

c In combination with tlie subordinative of a verb, iru or oru must be used 
even when the subject is not a living thing. 

d [They] could nc;t agree (lit. talk divided into two). 


The Numeral 


ban evennig, night. 

bin bottle. 

hako box. 

iro color, kind. 

kudari (lit. descent) line 

(of a page). 
kuvii set, class, company. 

ma room. 

^^0af- (lit. curtain) act (at a 

tabi \\\w^ {Jiita tabi z. second 

tokoro place. 
tori kind. ^ 

In ///V^-(f_s|ngle, /m/«-^ double, ya-e eight-fold, double (of 
flowers) the e is not a separaole word. Some of the words in 
the list here given may occur also with Chinese numerals, as in 
icki bin one bottle, roku tabi six times. 

Note also : hito-snji ni earnestly, from stiji line, hiio-knchi ni 
at one mouthful, in a word, hito-nie ni at a glance, ^^ hito-omoi 
ni at the impulse of the moment {omoi thought), h i to as h i one 
step, hito iki one breath. Distinguish : 

futa-go twins. 

! fiitatsu ni naru kodonio a child two years old. 
futari no kodomo two children. 

" Triplets " is viitsu-go. <= Distinguish also : 

J ;/// kuiui three sets. 

' niitsii-gumi a set of three pieces. 

Certain numerals are combined with ka (old word for day) 
as follows : 




























■ eight 



a Hito idi'i de %va nai It's unusual. Hito tori is much used as an adverb 
meaning " in the main." Ano lion wa hito tori yomiviashita I have read the book 
in a general way ((jr, once through). 

b Hito-me de ivakarimashita I perceived it immediately. Yania kara mac/ii 
tvo hito-me ni mi-orasu to take a view of a town from a mountain [ini-orosit to 
look down). 

c Mitsugo has another meaning in the proverb : Mitsiigo no tamashii hyakti 
made The soul of a child three years old [remains the same] until [it 
becomes] a hundred years old. 

xxii] In Combination 65 

kokonoka nine days, the ninth day 

toka ten days, the tenth day 

katsuka twenty days, the twentieth day 

One day, or the first day, is ichi nichi (c). The last day of the 
month according to the old calendar is viisoka ; and the last 
day of the last month, o-misoka : but the thirtieth is now 
usually called sanju nichi (c). Distinguish : 

itsuka five days, the fifth day. 
' itsu ka at some time. 
ikka, from ikii ka, how many days, which day? (of the 

In counting persons the following forms derived from native 
numerals may be used : 

hitori one person ; Jiitori de alone. ^ 
futari two persons ; futari de two together. 
yottari four persons. 
ikuiari how many persons? 

To these the honorific o is often prefixed. For other numbers 
the Chinese san nin, go nin, etc., are used. The form initari is 
obsolete in the colloquial. One may also say : ichi nin, ni nin 
ikii niii ; but not shi nin for four persons, because .y///-^/m_means 
also a dead person, from shi death. 

'Notice that in such combinations as chawan hito kuini, 
kodomo futari, the nouns chawan and kodomo take the particles 
ga, wo, etc. Words like hito kiiini and futari usually do not 
tal-:e ga or wo. 

In rapid counting the native numbers are abbreviated to hi, 
fu, mi, yo, itsu, viu, nana, ya, kono (or koko), to. 


(Include lists beginning with Jiitori ^wd Jutsuka). 

bin bottle. inago grandchild. 

ktiini set, suit, class. hito-jini violent death, loss of 
via room. lite {Jiito man, shinu die). 

tabi time (of repeated occur- yakefini burning to death. ^^ 

rcnces). .yrt:>^^rice-beer, alcoholic liquor. 

a Hilori occn^s in compounds like hiton-viusuko an only son, hitoii-niae a 
portion for one person, Cozen wo hitori-viae iiio/te kite kudasai, Bring a meal 
for one. 

b Compare further kogoe-jini freezing to death, from kogoe-ru freeze, tichi-jtiii 
death in battle, from 7i(sit smite, fight. Tlic corresponding verbs arc yaki-jhii 
suru, /cni^oe-jtni surn and uchi-jini sum. 


The Numeral 


saka-zuki wine cup. 
kikii chiy sanllie ni u m . 
wan bowl. 
cha-wan tea cup 
sen-cha infusion of tea. 
ban (c) evening, night. ^ 
nickijj'itsu (c) day (only in 

getsu, gTvatsu (c) month 

(only in compounds). 
sho-gwatsu the first month, 
kon-rei wedding. 
tan-jo birth. 
tanjo-bi birth-day. 
ayavie sweet flag. 

shu-yu soy, a kind of sauce. 

atsurae-ric order (goods). 

kakaru be hung, amount to, 
take (of time). 

tatsu (stem : tachi) set out, 
start ( — zuo tatsii leave). 

taziine-ru inquire, visit. 

tonie-ru (tr.) stop, lodge, en- 
tertain (a guest or visitor). 

tomaru (intr.) stop, lodge, be 
entertained {jii tomarti). 

tttagau doubt, suspect. 

itsu when ? 

inae front ( — no viae ni before). 

oyoso about, approximately. 


Nana tabi tazunete hito wo utagae. ^ Senchajawan no hito 
kiinii wa iktitsii des ka. Itsuts ka tu des\ Watakushi wa 
jubako wo f'ta kumi atsuraeviasJi ta ga, inada dekimasen. 
Kitio no kwaji ni {de) hitojini ga ariiuas/ita ka. Sayo, kodonio 
ga hitori shinimasJita. Shogwatsv^ ni wa taitei uiitstigunii no 
sakazuki wo mochiinias keredouio, konrei no toki ni wa koko- 
notsu gtwii wo inochiimas . Muika no ayavie toka no kiku. ^ 
Anata o Jiitori des' ka. Sayo, inina riisu des' . Yokohama kara 
Honkon vtade ikii ni wa taitei nanuka kakarivias'. Berfin de 

sakti-iie>i {kyo-nen') 

a "Last evening," "this evening," and "to-morrow evening" become 
respectively sn/cii-ban, /;ovi-ban and viyd-ban. In these r^ may be substituted for 
ban. Compare the following list of Chinese compounds, all of which are in 
common use : 

This Next 

kon-nicJii viyd-iiichi 

kon-getsu rai-getsii. 

ko7i-iien iiiyo'iien {rai-iieii) 

b Utagae is the imperative of iilagan. The meaning of the proverb is : After 
you have looked for [the lost article] seven times, suspect [a thief]. 

c This proverb alludes to the third and fifth of the five great festivals, which 
■are CdXiedi go sekkit. At the third festival, which occurs on the fiftli day of 
the fifth month (old style), it is customary to decorate the house with sweet 
fligs, and at the fifth festival, on the ninth of the ninth month, chrysanthemums 
are exhibited. The proverb has reference to things that come too late to be 
of any use. 

xxiii] Chinese Forms 67 

Nikon 1:0 shoyti zva ikura shiinas ka. ^ Sayo, Into bin ga ichi 
yen gnrai shimas.'' Sore zva yohodo tako gozaimas' . Sakuban 
ikntari o kyakii ga arimasJita ka. Yottari ariinash'ta.^^ 
Anata zva itsti Shina ye tacJiimas ka. Kongetsii 110 yoka ni 
Yokohama kara fune ga deinas' kara, its' ka ni koko zco tatte 
Tokyo ni hito ban toniarivias . 

It takes about twenty days to go from Japan to America. ^ 
He has four grandchildren. When is your birthday {go tanjo 
bi^'i ]\Iy birthday is fon] the seventh of this month. [My] 
father's birthday is on the fourth of next month. Please keep 
me one night. Do^^^ou need {p iriyo des' kd) one room or 
[is it] two ? I need three rooms. When do you start ? I start 
on the fourth or {kd) fifth of this month. At the great fire 
{dkzvaji) (of) recently four men and {ni) '-^ four women lost their 
lives {yake-jini shimash'td). 


The Chinese numerals are : 

ichi one ju shi fourteen 

/ ni two ju go fifteen 

san three jii roku sixteen 

shi four ju shichi seventeen 

go five ju hachi eighteen 

roku six ju ku nineteen 

shichi seven nijtc twenty 

hachi eight niju ichi twenty-one 

ku nine sanju thirty 

ju ten shi jii forty 

jti ichi eleven go jii fifty 

jii ni twelve roku ju sixty 

ju san thirteen shichi ju seventy 

a From suru to do. Compare our How much does it make ? 

b Not orhnmhita or imashitn. The point is that \sv. have i;ucsts. Tlie 
f(uestion does not ask wlicrc they are. 

c One may also say ; Yokohama to San/'iansliis'lo no oida wa hntsuka i;urai 

d iVt is tlie postposition. In this connection it means "in addition to," 
ii besides," and may be transhitcd simply "and ". 

68 The Numeral [xxiii 

JiacJiiju ciL^hty ni sen two thousand 

kiiju ninety sanzen three thousand 

hyaku hundred hassen eight thousand 

ni hyaku two hundred ichi man ten thousand ^ 

saiiibyaku three hundred ni man twenty thousand 

shi hyaku four hundred saviman thirty thousand 

go hyaku five hundred ju man hundred thousand 

roppyaku six hundred ju go man liundred and fifty 
shichi hyaku seven hundred thousand 

happyaku eight hundred hyaku man million 

ku hyaku nine hundred semman ten million 

sen {is sen) thousand ichi oku hundred million 
sen ichi thousand and one 

Some people pronoimce shichi as thought it were written 
hichi ; in combination ku may be pronounced kyii. 

The most common terms used in measurements and their 
equivalents, are here inserted for the sake of convenience. 

The Japanese foot-rule is called sashi, or mono-sashi, from 
sasu to point, measure. The ordinary kane-zashi, so called 
because carpenters' rules are made of karie metal, takes as a 
unit \\\Q shaku, which is equivalent to 1 1.93 inches or .30303 
meter. '^ 

\o hu =1 sun 

\o sun =1 shaku 

6 shaku =1 ken = 2 yards almost 

60 ken — I cho 

36 cho =1 ri= 2.44. miles 

For surfaces the unit is the tsubo, — one ken (six j:/!^?/'//) square. 

30 tsnbo = I se {se-bu) 

10 se = [ tan itam-bii) 

10 tan =1 cho {chd-bu) = 2.4i, acres 

a An alternative pronunciation for man is ban ; but ban is used, not in tliej 
exact sense of " ten thousand," but only in an indefinite sense like our 
" myriad." Notice the familiar expressions ban-zai {sai year) Live forever 
Hurrah! semban arigatd,sembangokuid, many thanks! Compare also : ;«««- 
ichi ten thousand to one, i.e., by a bare chance, bamban certainly. 

b The kiijira zaslii, so called because it was originally made of whale-bone, 
is longer by one fourth :i\\A is uSed for measuring dry goods. Both the kane- 
zashi and the hiijiiazashi are now usually made of bamboo. 

XX III] Chinese Forms 69 

For capacity the unit is the s/io, equivalent to 1.804 liter, 
1.588 English quart, 1.906 American fluid quart, or 1.638 
American dry quart. 

10 shaku {seki) =1^0^ lO skd= i to 
10 go =1 shd 10 to =1 ko/ca 

For weight the unit is the moiu-vie^ =.13275 ounce or 3.75 
grams. After multiples of ju and hyaku it is usual to say 
simply vie. One pound avoirdupois is about 120 me. 

1 60 me = I /eiu. 

1000 mom-pie =[ kzvan {kwam-me) = ?>^ pounds 

For money the unit is the yen, equal to about 50 American 

10 rin = I sen 100 sen = i yen 

For "hour," "minute," "second," the terms Vive fi, fun, 

These terms are all of Chinese origin except tsubo and se, 
which take the Japanese numerals, thus : hito se,fiita se, mi se, 

In asking for the number or amount of any of these units, 
prefix iian, or iku. This iku is ikutsu, which has lost the 
ending tsu, like the Japanese numerals. But in cases where iku 
and icki arc liable to be confused, nan is better. 

Up to " ten " the Chinese numerals are used almost exclu- 
sively with words of Cliinese origin. ISeyond " ten " they are 
used also with words of Japanese origin. Thus :/« ichi tsubo, 
ju ni tsubo, etc. They always precede the nouns which they 
limit. In .some combinations euphonic changes occur. 

Tchi iitsii) unites with words beginning with // (/"), s {sh), t 
(ch) and /' .• 

ichi hen becomes ippen one time, once 

ichi fun „ ippun 

ichi sun „ is sun 

ichi sho ,, is shd 

ichi tan „ ittan 

ichi chj „ ilcho 

ichi kin „ ikkin 

a This go differs from i^o five not only in I lie lcii£ftli of t lie vowel Iml also in 
the sound of tlic.i,'', which is more nasal in the case c)f_i^'v"> («(,'<')• 

b Here iiie is the word for "eye." In tliis cnnncclicin il refers lo llic 
notches on the scale, and hence means llu! mcaMirc of wcit;lil. 

70 The Numeral [xxiu 

But we say : iclil koku (of rice). Ikkokti, or ikkakoku, means 
" one country." 

Ju produces similar changes : jippen, jippitn, jissiin, jissho, 
J it tan, j'itchd, jikkin. 

San (as also man and naii) naturally causes nigori in the 
succeeding consonants : samben, sanipiin, sanzim, sandan, 
sangin. Since both sh3 and ch3 through nigori become /<?, it 
is customary to distinguish them thus : sanjo for san sJij but 
san cho. 

Roku (as also Jiyakii) coalesces with Ji (/), as in roppen, 
roppim. HacJii is irregular : 

hachi hen, but Jiappyahi. 


hassiin, hassen, etc. 

hassho, hasshaku, etc. 

kattan, hatto. 


kachi kin, but hakkakoku eight countries. 

If hachi hen, hachi kin, were contracted to happen, hakkin, they 
could hardly be distinguished from hyappen, hyakkin. 

Business men to avoid mistakes generally use nana instead 
of s hie hi. 

For similar reasons shi is displaced by yo in the following 
combinations : 

yo ban number four. yo inai (or shi mai) four flat 

yo dai four generations. things. (See Ch. XXVI.) 

yo dai for vehicles. yo nen four years. 

yo rt'^ four times, or degrees. ^<? nin {yo mei) four persons. 

yoji four o'clock, yo ri. 

yo JO {jo= lO shakii). yo {n) rin. 

yo jo four mats. yon sen (or shi sen, yo yen. 

Notice : ichi nichi {Jitsii) a whole day, viaru ichi nen a 
whole year, ichiji for awhile, ittan once {tan morning). ^ 

Small approximate numbers like our " two or three," " three 
or four," etc., are expressed asyndetically : 

Ni san nen two or three years. 

a This last is used only in cases where we employ '=once " with the perfect 
\.e.x\%& Z.S \w It(an sho-chi shita koto iva kesshite i-yaku (wt?) itaslnmasen. Having 
once agreed to a thing, I will never break my promise. Compare ichijiin Ano 
hifo 7va tchtji(joa) kicai-sha ito yaku-iii dcshiia. He was at one time an official 
in the company. 


Chinese Forms 71 

Flit a koto mi koto two or three words, a brief speech. 

Shi go niii four or five persons. 

Nana yatsu no kodovio a child seven or eight >^cars old. 


(Include Chinese numerals, and tables of units.) 

atai value. i)ion-ji, vioji letter, character, 
dote dyke, road on an em- idiogram. 

bankmcnt. ryd-chi domain, estate, 

kazu number. shi-ho four sides, square. 

tori kind, manner. sho-gun commander-in-chief, 
saka-ya liquor-dealer, liquor- " tycoon." 

store. shu-rui kind, species. 

ine-kata weight. so-ba market price. 

sashi, inono-sashi foot-rule. io-fti bean-curd. 

to grade, class. rasha woolen cloth. 

jo, chu, ge upper, middle, ataru strike ( — ni atarii to be 

lower. ^ equivalent to). ^ 

i-jo over (following a num- uiake-rii be defeated, come 

ber). down on the price. 

i-ka under. yoru depend ( — 7ii yorii de- 
/J= 10 shakii. pcnd on). 

bu = \ ryo (old coin). ben-kyo sum study, be dili- 
dai-myj feudal lord. ^ • gent. 

Jiinen lot (of ground). hodo — bakari (See pp. 36, 
jin-ko population (of a coun- 43). 

try or town). Iiotondo almost. 

niJi-zu number of people (in issho-keini?iei{ni)\\\\.\\ all one's 

a smaller social unit). might. 

a The words jo-to, chu-to, ka-to {Jca being an allernative reading of the 
character ge\ in the sense of "first class," "incdimn," " low class," arc constant- 
ly used, with variety of I'pjjlications. Rccenlly, however, the officials have 
chant^ed the names of the classes of railway passengers to itto, ni-to, sait-ld. 

b y.^rtz'-w/y^ means literally " great name." This title was given to a feudal 
lord whose cstntc yieldc<l him an income of at least lOO.coo X'(),{v/ of rice a year* 
The daimyos now belong to the /'7£'rt-s<?/t« (nobility). Remember that/'oXv/ with 
man suffers tiif^ori, thus: ni inavgofac. 

c IVatnkuslii 110 oi ni alarhnasu [He] is my ncpliew. In a sentence like this 
tti alaritnasu has practically the same sense as de ariiiiasu. 

d Lit. one life risk life. The subordinative of narii, nat/e, is usually adilcd : 
Isshdkeininei iii mt/c liafaral'n lo work with all one's might. 

72 The Numeral [xxiii 


Ichi ri xva san j'u rokn cho des\ Itcho wa rokii jikken des\ 
Ikken zva rok'shaku des . IssJiaku wa jissun des . Sakaya 
ye san ri, tofuya ye ichi ri. ^ Ichi ri zva ikii meitor {nam- 
ineitor) ni atarimas' ka. Ichi ri wa sanzen ku hyaku ni ju 
shichi vieitor ni atarinias' . Ichi meitor zva sanjaku sanziin ni 
atarivias . Jimen hito tsiibo no okisa zva dono kiirai ka. Hito 
tsuho no okisa zva rok' shaku shiho des' . '' Savibyaku tsubo wa 
ittanibu des' ; jittambii wa itchDbu des ;i^itchdbu zva oyoso ichi 
hek'tar to onaji gtirai des' r^ Mukashi no ichi bn zva ima no 
ichi yen no atai ga arimas'. Ima no soba ni yorn to, '^ ichi dor 
wa (dollar) oyoso ni yen ni atarinias'. Yokohama ye no of'ku- 
gippti wa ikiira des' ka. Joto wa ichi yen go jissen, chuto zva 
kujissen des' ; kato no ofkugippu zva arimasen. Jisshakii zvo 
ichi jo to nidshimas' . Nihon ni zva iiwno^ashi ga ni shtirui 
{f'ta tori) arimas' ; hitots' wa kiijirazashi to moshi, ^ mo hi tots' 
zva kanezashi to inoshimas' ; kiijirazashi zva san ju shichi 
sanchimeitor han ni atari, kanezashi zva san ju sanchimeitor 
ni atarimas' . Ichi kokii zva hyaku hachi ju rittor ni atari- 
mas' . Ichi koku zvajitto, itto zva jissho, issho wa ju go des' . 
Ichi rittor zva oyoso go go han ni atarimas' . Nippon no jinko 
zva sJii sen go hyaku man nin des' . Tokyo no soba de zva 
konogoro kome ga issho ni jissen des . Ik kin zva roppyaku 
g'rani ni atarimas',, Shogun zva Jiappyaku viangoku no ryochi 
ga arimash'ta. Ikkwamme zva senwiomme des' . Ikkwamme 
wa sanzen shichi hyaku go jH g'ram' ni atarimas'. Kurumaya 
san I Ueno made ikura ka, ne. Hei, ni jissen de mairimasho. 
Sore zva takai,jn go sen ni make nasai. f Kono uchi wa ninzu 
ga oi kara, isuki ni shoyu ga hassho gurai irimas' . Voshiwara 
ye^ iku dote zva hatcho arimas' . Ano ok' san wa issho-kenimei 
ni Eigo zvo benkyo sh'te orimas'. 

a This saying refers to a lonely place in tlie country. 7'd/u is one of the 
most important articles of food among the Japanese. 

b The scientific term for square foot is heiho-shaku ; for cubic foot i-ip;po- 

c Such pleonasms as we have here with oyoso ■a.-n.^ gurai in the same sentence 
are not infrequent. 

d Lit. if one depends on the present market price, i.e., at the present rate 
of exchange. 

e Moshi and cilari are the stems of the verbs Dwsti and a!aru. See p. 14 d. 

f This is less polite than o make nasai. 

g The name of a district in Tokyo, ixoxw yos hi good, lucky, and hara wilder- 


Chinese Forms y;^ 

It is (am) 8 ri from Yokohama to Enoshima.^ Eight ri are 
(;/?' ^?/^rr«) how many miles {iku mair)l Eight r/ are almost 
twenty miles. How {dore gurai) high is Mount Fuji? The 
height of Mount Fuji is about 3,700 meters. How far {dono 
gurai) is it from here to Totsuka ? ^ From here (i) to Totsuka 
(2) it is {aru 6), I should say {inTi 3), about (5) 10 chj (4). 
About how much do you weigh (In regard to the weight of 
your body, about how many kin are there) ? ^ I weigh {am) 
20 kwan. Twenty kwan are how many pounds {pondo) ? 
Twenty kzvan are about 165 pounds. The height of this house 
is threeyj. The population of Japan is about fifty millions. ^J^ 
That daiinyb had an income of {totte iuiasJita) 20,000 koku [of '3 
rice]. Rice now costs {shiinas 4) about (3) fifteen yen (2) per 
koku {i). Hello, kuriwiaya ! how much is it to Enoshima ? 
It's one yen and fifty sen. Four to are how many liters ? Four 
/^ are 72 liters. How long is this cloth? V>y kanezashi \\\\s 
cloth measures {arii) about three jo six shaku. Three jo six 
shaku are about ten yards {yardo). The number of the kata- 
kana is 48 characters {ji). One mile is 14 chj [and| 45 ke/i. 
The length of the river Tenryu'^ is about 60 ri ; 60 ri are 146^- 



I. The Japanese calendar has been made to correspond to 
our Gregorian calendar in every respect except that the Jap- 
anese reckon years, not from the birth of Christ, but by periods 
{nen-go). It used to be customary to create a new period 
whenever a great event occurred ; but at the time of the 
Restoration it was decided that henceforth nengo shcjuld cor- 
respond to the reigns of the Emperors. The first year of 
the present period, Mei-ji, was 1868. Hence, to find the 
year of Meiji one must subtract 1867 from the Christian 
year. The year 1906 thus becomes : Meiji san jn kn nen. 

a A romani ic liltle rocky island near Vokoliaiua. 'I'lic ^, nieaninii liay, i?' 
ulenlical wiih the e in Edo (bay-gate). 

b A place near Yokohama (lit. gatcinoun<l). 

c In old Japan such a question could Iiardly be ;isk<-d, as pc.plc- had a 
superstitious dread of weighing themselves. 

d The Tenryugawa rises in Lake Suwa in the province of Shinano and flows 
through the province of 'ITilomi. 

74 The Numeral [xxiv 

The first year of a period is called ^w^:;/-;/^;/ ; thus the year 
1 858 is Meiji gzuannen. 

As a mere matter of interest, we add a list of the periods 
between 1830 and 1868, together with the years of the Christian 
era to which their first years correspond : 

Tein-pd 1830 Man- en i860 

Ko-kwa 1844 Bun-kyu 1861 

Ka-ei 1848 Gen-ji 1864 

An-s-ei 1854 Kei-o 1865 

When giving a year of the Christian era use the word ^i~ 
reki " western calendar." Thus the year 1888 is called seireki 
Jen Jiappyaku hachiju hachi nen. 

A person's age may be stated by adding sai, another word 
for " year," to the number. Thus : issai, san sai, hassai,jissai. 
But in the colloquial it is usual to employ the simple numeral 
without sai. In stating the' age of a child below ten the 
Japanese numerals are preferred. But in giving the ages of 
animals sai is commonly used. A horse five years old is called, 
not iisutsu ni nam iiina, but go sai ko. Ko here is the same 
as the word meaning " child." 

2. The names of the months are formed from the Chinese 
numerals and givatsu. The reading getsu is less common, 
except in the case of icJii getsu January. Another name for 
this month is sho-givatsu, iioxn sho right. (Compare sho-go 

"One month" is ikkagetsu, from ichi ka getsu; "two 
months," nikagetsu, etc. This ka, whicli is the same as the ka 
in ikkakoku, is much used in such enumeration, being placed 
between the numeral and the noun. It means " a piece " or 
" unit." 

3. Ill specifying the day of the month, nichi {jitsu)\s used 
with the Chinese numerals, except in those cases where forms 
\\\<.c futsuka, inikka, etc., are still available. So the " i8th of 
January " is ichi getsu no jii hachi nichi. Notice that the 14th 
^.n^^ 24X\\ 3.rQ CB^\\itdjYi yokkadi^dni Jujyokka. The old name 
for the first day of the month is tsnitachi, ixova tsuki vaoon or 
month and taisu rise, because in the old calendar the month 
began with the new moon. The ist of January is called 

In dates the order is the exact reverse of the English. The 
" 3rd of November, 1852 " becomes : seji luippyakugojii- ninen 
ju ichi gwatsu viikka. 

XX I v] 



We add a table of the days of the month. 


iclii nichi {j'itsic) 
fntsuka 2nd 
Diikka 3rd 
yokka 4th 
its Ilk a 5 th 
muika 6th 

natiuka {nanokd) 7th 
yoka 8 th 
kokonoka 9th 
toka lOth 
jii. ichi nichi I ith 
jt4. ni nichi 1 2th 
ju san nichi 13th 
ju yokka 14th 
jiTgo nichi \^i\\ 

JU rokii nichi i6th 
jii shichi nichi 17th 
ju hachi ?nchi i8th 
/M ku nichi 19th 
hatsuka 20th 
wz'y?/ zV/z/ ;/zV>^/ 2 1st 
wzy}^ ni nichi 22nd 
wz//^ ^«« nichi 23 rd 
iiiJu_yokka 24th 
;/z/z/ ^(3 ;/zV/zz 25th 
«/y« ra/C'zz nichi 26th 
wz7« shichi nichi 27th 
wz/zif hachi nichi 28th 
;///« /&z^ «zV/zz 29th 
san jii nichi 30th 
san jii ichi nichi 3 1st 


As has been intimated before, the Japanese do not think 
so much of the days of the week as we do. The names of the • 
week-days all have the suffix /J-;^/, from /J (c) light, luminary 
and /iz day. They are : nichi-yobi, getsii-ydbi, kwa-yobi, siii-yobi, 
vjokii-yobi, kin-ydbi, do-yobi. The prefixes mean, respecti\'el3^, 
sun, moon, fire, water, wood, metal, earth, — the nanies of the 
seven planets {shichi-yo). Final bi is often omitted : nichi-yo, 
j^etsu-yo, etc. " One week " is isshil, fi om shu revolution. 
" Which day?" (of the week) is nani yobi. 

5. Hours of the day are indicated by addingyV (time) to the 
Chinese numerals : ichi ji, niji, san ji, yo ji, etc. The word 
fun (minute) combines with the numerals thus: ippun, ni fan, 
sainpun, shifun, roppuii, hachi fun, jippun, 

ichi ji j'u go fun sitgi a ([uartcr past one. 

ichi ji han half past one. 

ni ji ju go fun viae a ([uarter of two. 

Nanji (^nandoki) desu ka. What time is it ? 

Kisha wa nanji ni deinasu ka. 

[Atl vvhat lime does the train leave? 

In .stating the length of time in hours add kan : ichi ji kan, ni 
ji kan, yo ji kan, nan ji kan, etc. This kan is the Ciiincse 
ef[uivalent of aida interval. 

76 The Numeral [xxiv 

The same Idiom may be used in stating the length of time 
in years, months, or days, thus; roku nen kan (also rokkmien 
kan), rokkagetsu kan, inuika kan, etc. Notice also : 

r^anganicJii no aida 7va doko de nio 2Jni ^ wo tabeniasu. 

VFor three days (after New Year's) zoni is eaten everywhere. 


(Include names of week-days.) 

hi 9.v\\\. j^/'-r^i"/ European calendar 
him noon, day-time. (of the Christian year), 

yoru night. kyli-reki old calendar. 

<^^-^<:?;/^z first infusion (of tea). ^/5m-r^/^/ new calendar (of 
bon, boniniatsuri festival of months). 

the dead.^ go-zen = hiru-niae forenoon. 

kan is) — aida interval. go-go = hiru siigi afternoon. 

ko (c) prince (following the niei-nichi anniversary of a 

name). ^ • death. 

sai{z) year (especially of age), tsitgi no the next. 

tei (c) emperor (following the arukii walk. 

name). hajiviaru begin (intr.). 

• ban-cha coarse tea. kakure-ru be hidden. 

kei-ko study, practice {Jceiko nasaru do (polite 2,3). 

snru to study, recite), oki-ru arise from sleep, awake. 

nen-gd period. iimare-ru be born. 

i-shin renovation, rcforma- hajiniete for the first time. 

tion. shika only, merely (with a 
go is-shin the Restoration. negative verb. 

kas- sen h:x'iWQ. sng i i:>2iSt, after (stem of sngi- 
gun-zei military force, army. ru to pass by, exceed. 


Oni nioju hachi ; bancha mo debana (Proverb) ^ Dai issei 

a Zo-ni, from 25 (c) miscellaneous and ni-rii to boil, is a kind of soup. 

b Also called bon. The festival is celebrated on the 14th, 15th and i6tii 
of Ibe 7lh month (old style). It begins properly on the evening ofthei3tli. 

c This is now the highest of the five shakn, i e., degrees of nobility. These 
are /v prince, /-^ (different character) marquis, hakn count, slii viscount, datt 
baron. 7/5 /-S- Marquis Ito dktiina hakn Count Oku ma. 

d Even a devil when in the bloom of yoiitli is beautiful and attractive • evert 
if the tea is of a poor gra le, the (irst infusion has an excellent taste. Instead 
of y'/i IiacJii, some sav ju shichl. 


Dates 7 7 

Wir her VI iei iva sen shichi hyaku ku jfi shichi iie)i no sail 
gi.vatsii niju ni nichi 7ii go tanjo ni nariinash' ta ; so slite sen 
happyakii hachi j'u hachi nen no san gtvatsn kokonoka ni 
kakure ni nariinasJita; sore des kara kii jti issai ni o tiari 1^ 

nasainiasJita.^ PerriioiuAvierika no ts'kai wa Kaei rokty /\ 
nen rokii gzvatsu no viikka ni hajiviete Nikon ye kimdslita. 
Sono toki wa kyureki desh'ta kara, shinreki ni naos to, shichi 
gzvatsu no ?ta>mka ni atarimas' . Kaei to iu nengo xva sen 
happyaku shijii hachi nen kara sen Jiappyakii go Jit yo nen 
made desh'ta kara, Kaei roku nen zva se?i happyaku go ju san 
lien ni atarimas' . Kono tsugi no kisha zva yo ji jii go fun sugi 
ni denias\ Shimbashi^ kara Ueno made aruku to, ichiji kan 
hodo kakarimas' . Anata zva inainichi keiko zvo nasaimas ka. 
Sayo, mainichi ni ji kan zutsu keiko wo itashimas' . "^ Anata 
no sensei zva nan ji ni aide ni narimas ka. Wataknshi no 
sensei iva ban no shichi ji han ni mairimas' . Sen happyaku 
shichi jfi nen ni F'rans' to Doits' no ik'sa ga arimash'ta ; sono 
ik'sa wa shichikagetsu kakarimash'ta. kSotio ik'sa no yo nen 
viae ni Os'toria to P'rosha no ik'sa ga arimash'ta ; sono ik'sa 
"wa tatta nannka sh'ka kakarimasen desh'ta. ) Anata wa nanji 
ni okimas' ka. Fuyu wa shichi ji ni okimas. Sen roppyakn 
nen no jii gwatsu ni Sekigahara no"^ kassen ga arimash' ta. 

a Dai issei lVir'/iei''/n' tei \s\\"\\\\c\m\. For dai issei see Ch. XXIX. 7 t-i 
means " sovereign." " King " is /-rcw or o [sama). The Emperor of Japan is 
called /fM-5/«' heaven-son or /^//;/5, from /^^-S heaven-king. Mikndo is obsolete 
in the colloquial. The general term for "emperor" is kivo-iei. In speaking 
of exalted personages, go tanjo ni fiarti \s e.(\Vi\\-o\c.r\\. \.o o iniiare nasarn, and <' 
kaknre ni iiarn \.o o shini nasaru. Notice that with words denoting time Ihc 
postposition, if needed at all, must be ;//. What was said about the distinction 
between ni and de (p. 20 a) applies to places only. 

b Tlie name of a bridge in Tokyo. Jit is a case oi jubako-yomi, shin being the 
Chinese for " ne*\'." At Shimbashi is tlie terminal station of the railway 
between Tokyo and Vokoliama. 

c With sum, ',i'o is commonly omitted ; but witli the more f(.)rinal i/asii, 
unless the object i.s slated, it is IfOtter to use wo. A'ciko wo mo.y be contracted to 

d The name of a village on the Nakasendo. I'or the^rt see 11. 13. Sckt 
means a barrier between two feudal fiefs, a place where travellers in former 
times had to show their passports, while kara means wilderness. Sekigahara 
was the scene of a great battle in whicli Teyasu, the foumler of the last line of 
shoguiis, won a decisive victory over his enemies. 

78 The Numeral [xxiv 

leyas^ ko no gunzei iva sJiichi man go sen nin desh'ta keredomo, 
Mitsuitari no gunzei waju samman nin desJita. Sanjif shichi 
neji bakari viae ni Tokyo ni djishin ga arimasli ta ; sono ioki ni 
hito ga ju man ski sen nin hodo shinda so des.' 

Taikd sama ^ died, according to ide') the European calendar, 
in the year 1598. When {toki ni) Taiko died his child {Jco no) 
Hideyori was six years old. The Restoration began in (from) 
the year 1868. At that time the Emperor was {de irasshai- 
masJttd) seventeen years old. '^ At what hour do you usually 
retire {p yastimi jiasaimas' ka) ? I usually retire at eleven 
o'clock. The train for Kobe {Kobe ye iku kishd) leaves at ten 
o'clock. What time is it now {mo) ? It is probably {desho) 
about {goro) four o'clock. Now {konogoro) the sun rises {derii) 
at about eight o'clock. The festival of Suitengij is [on] the 5th 
of January. The festival of Kompira is on the loth of January. 
The anniversary of the death of Gongen sama ^ is the 1 7th of 
April. lyeyasu was born in 1542. The festival of the dead 
begins on (from) the 13th of the 7th month. The summer 
vacation of the university continues (is) seventy days. ^I study 
Geiman one hour every day. At what hour does your teacher , 
come ? He comes [in the] morning at eight o'clock. Nobu- 
naga died at the age of [de] 48 years. This year is the 39tfi 
[year] of IMeiji. What day (of the week) is to-day ? 
^ rk- 

a 7rt»-/'5 in ancient times designated a retired kivam-pa/at (prime minister). 
It is especially tlie title of Ilidcyoshi, who, though a man of low birlh, attained 
to the position of k'tvavipakti. 

b Irasshaimashita is a contraction of irassharimashUa, as nasaiinashita is of 
nasarimashi/a 7\.\\i\ i;ozaimashita o^ Sozarimnshiia. As the Emperar was horn i» 
1S52, he really was fifteen or sixteen years of age at the time of the Restora- 
tion. But the Japanese count the year of one's birth as a whole year and after 
the next New Year's day say that the child is in his second year or two years 
old. In speaking of a person's age seventeen years counted in the Japanese 
fashion '\% kazoe-doshi de ju shichi {kazoe-rtt reckon, foshi year). In other con- 
nections, as in answering the question how many years one has been in the 
country, say de-iri jn shichi nen or ashi hake ju shichi nen (ashi wo kakern to 
straddle). Exactly seventeen years is fitaru ju shichi nen {jnaru circle). 

c Gon-gen is a Buddhistic word meaning" temporary manifestation," i.e., re- 
incarnation of Buddha. In Tokyo this title is applied with especial frequency 
to leyasu, who is called especially Tdshd-gongen\td east, sho illumine). 

XX v] 




The four arithmetical processes, — addition, subtraction, mul- 
tiplication and division are called collectively ka-gen-jo-jo. 

ka = kuwae-rii add. jd = kake-ru multiply. 
gen^hiku subtract, jo^zvarii divide. 
2 1 ni 3 1 1V0 kuwaeru to, 5 2 ni nariinasti. 
3 1 kara i / zvo hiku to, 1 4 ni narimasu. 
19 ni 3 wo kakerii to, 57 ni narimasu. 
200 tvo 5 de ovarii to, 40 7ii narimasu. 

The verb yose-ru " bring together " may be substituted for 
kuzvaern, thus : ' 

21 /(3 31 ivo yoseru to, 52 ni narimasu. 

In the multiplication table {ku-kii) a few euphonic changes 
occur. It is here added, merely for purposes of reference. 

ni nin ga ski 
ni sau ga roku 
ni shi ga hacJii 
ni goj'ii {to) 
ni roku no ju ni 
ni shichi no ju shi 
ni ha no Ju roku 
ni ku Ju hachi 

sa zan ga g 
san shi no 12 
san go no 1 5 
sabu roku, 18 
san shichi, 21 
samp a, 24 
sa7i ku, 27 

shi shi no 16 
shi go, 20 
shi roku, 24 
shi shichi, 28 
shi ha, 32 

shi ku, 36 

go go, 25 
go roku, 30 
go shichi, 35 
go ha, 40 
gokku, 45 . 

roku roku, 36 
roku shield, 42 
roku ha, 48 
rokku, 54 

shichi shichi, 49 
shichi hachi {ha), 56 
shichi ku, 63 

Iiappa, 64 
hakku, 72 

/^« /^«, 8 1 

8o TfiE Numeral [xxv 

Notice the change of sail to sabu in sabu roku and compare 
Sabu-ro, a common personal name (lit. three man). The 
sound fi is often interchangeable with mu and this again with 

Fractions are expressed by means of bu portion, which before 
no is pronounced bim : 

sainbun no ni two thirds. 

hacJii bun no san three eights. 

Percentage is expressed by the units tvari and bu (or shii) : 
ichi ivari go bii 15 ^o . 

Once, twice, etc., are rendered by means of do, hen, or tabi. 
In the same sense kivai " turn " is often used, but this is not 
strictly colloquial. 

ichi do, ippen, hito tabi once. 

san do, samben, mi tabi three times. 

yo do, ski ken, yo tabi four times. 

jii dotjippen, to tabi ten times. 

Mainichi ni do zutsu twice every day. 

Hi ni san do ziitsn three times a day. 

Double, treble, etc., are rendered by the aid of the compound 
so-bai, or simply bai. 

ni sobai twice as many (much). 

sanzDbai {sambai) three times as many. 

hassjbai {hachi bai) eight times as many. 

Ichi ryii vianibai one grain [produces] a myriad fold, 
The word bai alone means ni sobai. 


asa morning. so-bai— {o\di. 

inio potato. ^ zen (c) while (in composi- 

arukoru alcohol. tion). 

bu unit of interest, one an-sho memorizing. 

per cent. nion-dai theme, subject under 

bu, bun fraction. discussion, problem. 

/^<f« unit for times. kinri ]. ^ 

/.•111 -7 Mnteiest on money. 

bai double. rt-soku) ^ 

a The word iiiio lias a wider scope than our -potato," including, as it does, 
a number of edible roots. The common (Irish) potato '\s jagdtafct-imo, or Jagn- 
ii/io, from the name of the island of Java. The sweet potato is safstiina-itno, 
from the name of the famous province at the southern extremity of Japan. 




ryo-ji, chi-ryo medical treat- 
ment {rydji stirii to treat 

shoku-ji meal {sJiokuji sum 
take a meal). 

kuwae-ru add. 

hiku subtract, deduct. 

kake-ru hang (tr.). apply, 

ivaru split, divide. 

wari ten per cent. 
fue-rii increase (intr.). 
fukiiimi contain. 
kiibarii distribute. 
bikhiri sum be astonished, 

bydki ni kakaru have an 

attack of sickness. 
yori, yori mo than, as (in 



Sore wo mo ichi do yonde^ kudasai. Kono sake iva ichi 
wari ni bu arukor tvo fukiinde iinas\ Kono shinibiin wa asa 
to ban ni^^ fnainichi ni do zutsu kubarimas . Kono byoki ni 
kakaru hito wa taitei hyaku nin no iichi de ni jii nin wa 
shininias\ Konogoro Doits' de wa kinri ga yas'kute taitei 
sainbu han ka ski bii gurai des\ Nikon de wa kinri ga takai 
kara, ni wari no risoku wo torn kito mo arinias' . Hachi bun 
no icki ni IiacJii bun no go zvo kuwaeru to, ski bu)i no san ni 
nariiiias\ Ni kuj'U kacki. Kusuri ku sobai. *^ Ni do bik- 
kuri. '^ Kyushu no ukisa tua Skikoku no bai des . ^ Awaji- 
skiina no okisa wa oyoso Iki no ski bai gurai des\ IVatakuski 
wa sono mondai zvo san do yonda kara, mo anskj ga deki- 
mask'ta. ^ Roku ha ski ju hachi. Shina wa Doits yori oyoso 
ju hassobai gurai okii. Kono bunsko wa saniben yonda keredo- 
mo, mada ivii ga zvakarimasen. Jaga{tara) inio zva skicki zvari 
go bu mizu wo fukunde iru. 

a I'^z/rtV is the subordinative of the \cxh yomn to read {S.ox yomi-te). 1 he 
past tense Is, yoiula {iox yonii-hi). 

1) The postposition is added only to the last word, like row. Sec p. 4d. 

c Tlic reference is to the large i)rofits of the <lrug Inisiness. Notice the 

d Supply shhiiashila or itasJdmashita. This is a common expression for ; [I] 
was greatly astonislied. 

e Kyu-shu (lit. nine countries) and Shi-Icoku (lit. four provinces) arc liio 
names of the two great islands south of the main island {I/on-do or Ilon-do) of 
Japan. In the following sentence wc have the names of smaller islands. 

f Lit. The committing to memory has been accomplislicd. The meaning 
is : T know it now. 

82 The Numeral [xxvi 

The Japanese generally eat three times a day {Jii ni). The 
American envoy Perry came to Japan twice. The students of 
the School for Foreign Languages recite {keiko wo surti) twice 
every day. The population of Kyushu is double [that] of 
Shikoku. One sen is the hundredth part of a yen. One siiu 
is the tenth part of a shaku. This sake contains \%o/o [of] 
alcohol. 99 — 32 = 67. One minute is the sixtieth part of an 
hour. The physician {^gci) has treated this patient four times. 
Mount Fuji is three times as high as Oyama. Asia is four and 
a half times as large as Europe. 17x3 = 51. My {tic hi no) 
hares have within,ojie year multiplied (become) five fold. The 
number of soldiers in (of) Germany is about one hundredth of 
the whole population. This book seller sells at a reduction of 
(deducting) ten per cent. ^ The population of this town has 
w ithin jwenty years increased {fuete kimasJitd) (to) four fold ; 
twenty years ago there were 30,000 persons {tiiii), but now 
iwa) [they] have become 120,000 (persons). 


In counting objects it is usual to make use of so-called nu- 
meral auxiliaries or numeratives, which designate the nature 
of the unit. 

Hako shichi ko seven boxes. '^ 

This ko, by the way, is an alternative pronunciation of the 
character read ka in ikkagetsti. Words of this kind are rare 
in English, but there are analogies in such expressions as " two 
suits of clothes " or "three head of cattle." 

In tlie colloquial most of the. numeratives are of Chinese 
origin, but there are a {q\\ native words still in use : 

Kami hito hashira one god, from hasJiira post. 

Hato Juta tsugai two pairs of pigeons. 

Koya mi viune three shanties, from mune ridge (of roof). 

Zashiki yo ma four rooms, from ma space. 

Tansu itsii sao five bureaus, from sao pole. ^ 

a As ■icari'\% of the nature of an auxiliary, ivo is nol: required, 
b Nana hako would he ratlier " seven boxfuls." 

c Japanese bureaus have handles at both ends near the top, arranged so 
tliat they may be suspended from a pole and thus easily carried. 


Obi iiiu suji six girdles, from suj'i line. 

Yofuku nana kinni s^v&w suits of (European) clothes, from 
kuinu to join. 

Kimono y a kasane eight suits of (Japanese) clotlies, from 
kasane-ru to lay one ov^er another. 

Yoroi kokono soroi \\\\\Q ^Q.\.% oi armor, from soroii to be in 
order, be a complete set. 

Notice that the numeral with its auxiliary takes the same 
position in a sentence as a simple numeral, that is, it follows 
its noun. Analogous to fiitatsii no tokei is hito has/lira- no 
kanii ; but such reversal of the order is allowable only in 
certain cases. Lloreover, in the examples given above the 
use of the simple numerals kifotsu, fntatsu, etc., would not be 

In this and the two foUov/ing chapters a list of the most 
common numeratives is given. 

1. For objects that are long in proportion to their width — 
sticks, trees, pencils, rolled or folded documents, needles, teeth, 
folding fans {f>gi)t swords, ^ and the like : lion. 

ippon, sambon, ski hon, roppon, hachi hon,jippon, hyappon, 
navibon, iku hon. 

2. For objects that are broad and flat — paper, clothes, rugs, 
boards, dishes, coins and the like : inai. 

iclii mai, saviniai, yo inai or slii inai, roku inai, hachi mat, 
Ju inai, hyaku inai, nainmai, iku inai. 

Note also hanunai half a sheet, as in a Japanese book. 

3. For animals of all kinds: hiki. 

ippiki, r<ainbiki, shi hiki, roppiki, hachi hiki, Jippiki, 
hyappiki, nainbiki, iku hiki. 

For larger quadrupeds td (head) may also be used. For birds 
the specific term is wa. 

ichi wa iippd), samba, shi wa, roppa, hachi wa, jippa, 
hyappa, namba, iku wa. 

There is also a s[)ccific term f )r fishes — bi (tail) — but this is 
not common in the colloquial and would sound pedantic. In 
counting fishes mai and hon are often used, according to the 

;i Tlie Fpccific numcrativc for sw()r<ls \^ furi : katiiua Itifo fitii, cic. 


The Numeral 


4. For persons : ftiii (man), 

ichi niii {Jiitori), iii nin, {/uiari), san nin, yo nin {yottari), 
roku niiiy hachi nin, j'u nin, nan nin, ikii nin {ikntari). 

A rather classical and yet not uncommon synonym is inei 


arashi 1 . 

_ , J> storm. 

o-kaze 3 

ho sail. 

hashira post, pillar. 

ho-basliira mast. 

kanzashi {kmni, sashi) hair- 

kiri 710 ki paulownia. * 

ori cage, pen. 

osu, mesii male, female. 

tako octopus 

matchi match. '^ 

cho-vien note book, account 
book, record. 

chii-nion order (for goods). 

han-shi white native paper 
(about 10 X 13 in.). 

ji-biin (lit. time-part) time.c 
(<?) yaku-ni}i 

J . r official 

kwan-ri ) 

shiin-motsu present. '-'■ 

shD-sen merchant vessel. 

nai-cJii interior of a country. 

zak-kyo mixed residence. ^ 

age-ru lift up, give (polite 

1,3)- f 
karn, katte to hunt. S 
kari-inu hunting dog. 
karyudo hunter. '' 
kau, katte keep (animals). 
kirn wear, put on (clothes). 
nojnu, nonde drink, smoke. 
oru, otte break. 
ore-rii be broken. 

a The wood of the Jdri tree is highly prized, being used to make bureaus, 
clogs, etc. 

b The native word for "match " is siii-i Isiike-gi {Vii. rub kindle-wood), 

c Synonymous with foki. .\t the end of a clause toki ni or. jibuii ni is 
equivalent to "when." 

d A now common synonymn for ihiiiimotsu is okiiyi-inoiio. Another common 
teriii, miyage, denotes, strictly speaking, a present brought by a person on 
his return from a journey. 

e is'aiclii-zakliyo was a very familiar word in 1S99, when the new treaties 
went into operation. Nai-chi, or nai-koku, is the opposite oi gwai-kokii. Com- 
pare nai-gtuai jin natives and foreigners. 

f Agemasu \ s^w^ '\X. lo yow. Agent inay be added to the subordinatives of 
verbs that denote actions done for the benefit of the person addressed. Shim- 
biin wo yoiide agemasu. [I will] read the newspaper for you. 

g Henceforth in the vocabularies subordinatives of difficult verbs will be 
indicated in tliis way. .The familiar past tense may then be formed by sub- 
stituting a for e. 

]i Compare ak'yudo (p. 19^. 


tasukaru, iasiikaiteh^ saved, ne ga tsiiku take root. 

escape with one's life. tsiiru, tsutte hang (tr.), catch 
tatakaii, tatakatte to fight. (fish) with hook and line. 

iatakai a fight, battle, war. nchi-jiiii sum die in battle. ^' 

ne root. sonziiru, sonjite be injured. ^ 

tsuku, tsuite stick, adhere. zai-ryli siiru reside. 


Anata wa ifiaiiiichi haiiiaki (p. 25 a) wo nainbon ziitsu d 
novii nasaivias ka. WatakiisJii wa viainiclii go hon sutsii 
noi/iiiiias\ WaiakiisJu no toinodachi wa inainichijippon zutsti 
noviimas . Konaida iva sakana wo -jippiki tstte kiinasJiia. ^ 
Kyj wa sainui kara, kimono wo mo ichi inai kimasho. Ytibe 
uchi no neko ga 7iezumi wo sainbiki toriniasliia. Toinbo ni wa 
hane ga yo inai arimas\ Kono shosen wa hobashira ga sanibon 
arimask'ia ; ippon wa arashi de oremasli ta. Sono tatakai de 
sJikwan ga go jti nin ucJiijini shimash'ta. Dozo hanshi wo 
ni inai kndasai , waiakushi wa ichi inai mo motte iinasen 
kara. ^ Fude wo ippon kash'te agemasho. Ano karyudo wa 
kariimi zvo sambiki motte im<is\ Ano basha wa nitodachi'^ 
des\ Tako ni wa ashi ga hachi hon aru. Sonofnde wa iknra 
ka. Hai, ippon go sen de gozaiuias' ; shikashi jippon o kai 
nasareba fif you buy) shiju go sen ni makete agemasho. Kono 
uchi ni kami ga iku mai haitle imas' ka. Kono gakko ni 
Doits go wo keiko sum shosei ga ju yo nin arimas' . Mate hi 
{tro) iJ>pon chodai. Kono hako no ucJii ni matchi ga ni hon 
arimas' keredomo, kiisuri^ga tsuite iniasen. . Ano hito no byoki 
wo sail nin no isha ga ryojishimash'ta keredomo, fas' karimaseii 
desh' ta. *^ Hirame wo ni mai shimmotsu ni moraimash'ta. 

a From son injury, loss, and sura. Compare zoiiznrn (p. ^^). liuL " lo lose," 
as in business, is son sunt. 

h Lit. having caught with hook and line, I came. The verb Anrn is used 
lilce shiinan (p. 52a) r.s an auxiliary. Kimasho, in the next sentence, is from 

i; Such inversion of the natural order may be allowed when the clause with 
Icara is not too long. With a negative s"crb ichi tnni iiio is analogous to (liir(t 
fiio, nani t/to, etc. (Ch. X VIT). AMfe is tjic std)ordinat ivc of the verb vwtsii. 

d From ni two, to head (of horses) an<I fnchi, stem of A;/f;/ to stand. Compare 
villi inliiki, used of a riksha drawn by two men. 

e r>y adding deshifa to a negative verb a negative pasi l"iise may l>c formed. 
A future may be formed similarly by ad<ling eiesho. 

86 The Numeral [xxvr 

^^oriya ni kiji wo samba chuvion s/ite kite o kure / Kouo kuuii 
iii wa seito ga navnnei arimas ka. NaichjMakky^, nr natta 
jibun ni Nikon ni zairyfi sJite oru Seiydjinyila ^M.^en"g.o pyaku 
ni ju ni nin desJite,^ sono nchi Doits jin iba shi hyaku hachi 
ju ichi nin de gozaimasJita. 

In this box there are {haitte imas") a hundred matches. 
Five cigars, please ! He smokes six cigars every day. The 
number of leaves (/C'<;?wz-/'('?5'?^) in (of) this note-book is thirty. 
When {jibnn ni ^ I (i) was {otta 3) in Tokyo (2) the number 
of Germans [there-] all told (w/;/.-? <'/^) was forty. This official 
keeps three horses. That merchantman has two masts ; one 
{zvd) was injured in {de) the recent storm. Lately the fisher- 
men {ga) have not caught a single (even one) fish. I planted 
iive kiri trees in my garden and {go) all have taken root nicely 
(well). In {de zva) this war 50,000 soldiers were killed. As I 
have two writing-brushes, I will lend you one. There are in 
tills box a hundred cigars ; each (one) costs {s/iimas') six sen. 
What is this bridge called? It is called Sanmiai-bashi}' In 
the Zoological Garden there are over {ijo mo) a hundred 
monkeys. In this cage there are two lions ; both {ni Juki iomo) 
are males. This dog has five pups {ko) Two hair-pins, please ! 
There are two birds in that cage. The population of Yoko- 
hama is about 200,000. ^^ ^ ,^ -yi^c-^-^ - 


5. For places and lots (ot ground) : sJio (place) with ka 
(Compare ikkagetsu p. 74). 

ikkasko, sangasho, shikasJio,rokkasJio, hakkasho,jikkasho, 
iiangasho. '- 

For houses, shops, and also temples ken (eaves) is commonly 

ikken, sangen, ski ken., rokken, hachi keji, fikken, nangen. 

a The subordinatlvc oi desti. 

b A narrow bridge near Ueno in Tokyo, origiiially jnadc of Ihrcc- boards. 
Saknra Sogoro on !he cccfision when be banded bis petition lo the Sbogiin 
(for wbicb offense he .suffered the penalty of crucifixion) hid under this bridge. 

c It is belter not lo say ikn-ka-sho. With numeratives Uiat begin with /•, 
iku is to be avoided, for the obvious reason that confusion with ichi is likely lo 


The unit here is not necessarily one building, but rather the 
building or group of buildings occupied by one household ^ 

6. For ships : so (boat). 

isso, sanzd, shi so, rokii so, Juxssd,jlssd, nanzd, iku so. 

7. For vehicles : dai (a stand, base). " Four vehicles " \s yo 
dai. Specifically for heavy wagons and coaches, etc., ryo (pair 
of wheels) may be used. For rikshas the commonest term is 
chd (to hold a handle). ^ 

itcho, san chd, ski chd, rokii c/u, hatcho, nan chd, iku chd. 

8. For chairs : kyakti- (leg). 

ikkyakii, san kyakii, shi kyakii, rokkyakii, hakkyaku, 
jikkyakii, nan kyakti. 

9. For books : satsu (ticket, label, list). 

issatsu, san satsUt hassatsu, jissatsu, etc. 

Rather more classical is kivan (roll), which in composition with 
numerals is modified like ken. For complete sets of volumes 
the numerative is bu (department, group). 

10. For letters and documents : tsu { = tdri p. 64a). 

ittsii, san tsu, haitsu,jittsu, etc. 

But most people use lion rather than tsu. One letter may also 
be designated ippii, from//i seal. 


isu chair. so appearance (^ desu it is 

kuni country. said that), 

ininato harbour. bes-so villa. 

7ii-guruvia cart. gun-kan war vessel. 

chin (c) hire, fare. ho-yu friend. 

ka, ke (c) = zV house, family ke-ga wound. 

(in composition). ko-en public garden, park. 

<5z>/ (c) convenience, opportu- kwai sha corporation, com- 

nity to send a message, pany. 

mail {\\\ yii-din). kwa-zoku noble, the nobility. 

a One houseliold or family is called ikkn, f.nin ka (c) house. " 'I'lic wlxdc 
family " is ik/cn iiai (nai interior) or i/cA-n zoA-ti (zokn kiiidrctl). The alt«-Ttiat ivo 
pronunciation (/•<?) of the same character is afTixcd to proper names to designate 
families, especially those of hij^h rank ; e. ^., '/'okiKjawa-kc. 

1) Chd is ii?cd for tools also : itolcof^iri i/clio one saw, ko-i^ii,'irn<i iilcho two pen- 

88 The Numeral [xxvii 

k-aw-kyo the Emperor's resi- ha-sen sum be wrecked (of a 

dence. sliip- 

nen-shi beginning of the omou, oinotte \X\\\^\^ {^■.-'^o omou 

year. ^ I think that). 

shJ'Setsu, skdsetsu-l>o)i, novcX, osou, ^5-<?//^ attack. 

romance. sorou, sorotte be uniform, com- 

zd-se7i-jo shipyard, dockyard plete. '^ 

(Ht. make-ship-place). iari-ru be enough. 
hyakkwa-zensho cycXo'^Q^x^.''^ torn, totte pass through, pass 

jibiki dictionary. ^ by. 

Igitisu England. isubure-ru be broken, crushed. 

Moko Mongolia. tsuku, tsuite arrive. 

ato no the remaining, the yatou, yatotte hire (a person). 

other. yobu,yonde C3.\\. 

kozvare-ruhQhxo\<.Gn,\v\-Qc\<.- mata moreover. 

ed. tada-iina just now, presently. 


Perri to iu Amerika no tskai wa hajimete NiJion ye kita^ 
ioki ni gimkan zvo shi sj niotte kimasJita. Roppyaku nen 
giirai inae ni Mokojin ga Nikon ye ^ ni do osotte kimaslita ; 
hajiniete kita toki ni wafune ivo shi Jiyahi gojissj motte ki, 
ni do me ni (the second time) kita toki ni wa njsanze n so motte 
kita so des\ Konaida ?io kwaji de ie ga nangen yakeniasJita 
ka. Roppyakken yaketa so des'. Kuriima wo itcko yonde 
koi. S Ichiiiiniiori de gozainias" ka, nininnori de gozaimas ka. 
Mata ichinivibiki de gozaimas' ka, ninivibiki de gozaimas' ka. 

a Xenshi iii ikii to go to tender Kew Year's congratulations. The word 
nenshi is used now exclusively in this sense of New Year's congratulations: — 
properly nenshi no skugi, or nen-ga, from ga (c) to congratulate. 

b From hyakti hundred, kwa branch of study, zen complete sho book. 

c This is synonymous with the comparatively new word ji she. It is a case 
oi jtibaho-yoini. Ji 7vo hikti to look up a word [in a dictionary]. 

d O kya/cii san ga soroi))iashita. The guests are all here. 

e Instead of the past tense the present kurti might also be used here: kiirii 
toki ni Vi-t the time of his coming. Notice the frequent idiom motte kurti, ?notte 
ikii. When the object is a person, tsiirele must be substituted for motte. 

f Ye here is to be construed with kiinashita. 

g Yonde koi call and come ! In English we should say " Go and call !" In 
the reply notice the double de gozaimas n ka. One might also substitute yonde 
kimashd ka (with 7uo^ for de gozaimasu ka. 



Ninin nori no ^ ichininbiki de ii. Tada'nna YokoJianta no minato 
tii gunkan ga nanzo tsuite inias'ka. Tadaiiiia xva gitnkan ga 
sanzj tsuite inias ; '^ isso wa Doits no giinkan de^ ato no ni so 
wa Jgiris" no giinkan des/iJ to onioinias' . Kono jibiki zva 
hassatsii arimas\ Gyokiihen '^ to iu jibiki wajil ni satsii des\ 
Kokijiten to iu jibiki wa ni ju ski satsu des\ Are xva nan to 
iu hon des" ka. Are 7va Motoori Norinaga no kaita Kojikiden ^ 
des\ Sorotte iuias" ka. Tie, ni sats' tarimasen (arc lacking). 
^-Ano bashagwaisha wa basha wo yiiju dai inotte inias\ Kon- 
' nichi wa kwokyo no ntae wo torn toki ni'^ rippa na basha wo 
Jiachi ryo miviasJita. Konaida Doits' kara teganii ga ni tsTi 
kiniaslita. Ittsu wa Amerika no bin de ki, mo ittsu wa Indo wo 
totte kinzas/Vta. Ueno ni wa ryJriya ga ni ken arinias'. fkken 
zva NiJionrydri zuo ski, mo ikken tva Seiyoryori wo shiinas\ 
Sono hyakkzvazensho tva ichi bu nan satsu des' ka. Ni fU ski 
satsu des\ Kono slijsetsu zvaju go satsu mono des\ Mito to 
Ozvari to Kishu zva mukashi go sanke to moshimas/ita. § Mino 
to iu kuni ni wa Meiji nijii yo nen no fuyii ni ojishin ga atte, 
tsubureta ie ga ju mangen, shinda hito ga go sen jiin, sore kara 
keganin ga ichi man nin mo arimash'ta to iu osoroshii koto ga 

Over twenty ships were wrecked ^^ in {de) the storm recently. 
In the harbor of Nagasaki there are {tsuite imas') now three 
Russian men-of-war. This village has only {sh'ka arimasen) 
twenty houses. That nobleman has three villas ; one (2) of 
them (i) was burned recently. What book is that? It is the 

a This tto is explicative. See p. 8. ' 

\) The suljordinativc of an intransitive verli with iric or oni may denote a 
slate which is the result of the action expressed by the verb. Compare /inif/e 
ont (p. 44e). 

c De here is equivalent to de a//e or deshite. 

(1 The name of a dictionary ofCliinese ideograms, from ,i,'j<7/i'//=:A?wrt jewel 
and ]ieii Iiook. The lart;cst dictionary in common use is called Koki jiten. 
J\o/;i is the name of a Chinese jjcriod [iiengi)) TnwiS. ji-tcn synonymous \s\\\\ ji slio. 
Compare "Century Dictionary." 

e Tlie Koji/;i (\'\\. old affair record) is Japan's oltlcst liisturical work, ihiting 
from tlie beginning of the VIII. Century. .Motoori, the most famous of 
Japanese grammarians, publishcil the text, with connncnlary, in a book callc<l 

f As I passed by tlic palace (lit. at the lime of passing the front). 

g 'I'he names in tliis sentence may also stand asyndelically. The princes 
of these piovinces were related to the x/ioi^rin. \\ was providi-d lh;U, if lie Ii:ul 
no lieir, he might choose a successor from One of llicir families. 

1) Of a ship we say kcnvare rit, yabitre-rii, or lia-scn siirii. Of a person : hosen 
iii ail. '1 his /in is tlie Chinese efjuivalent i.A yahitie in lo lireak. 

90 TnK Numeral [xxviii 

book called Taiheiki. ^ How many volumes are there ? There 
are about fifteen volumes, I think. How much is the hire 
{yatoi chin) of one riksha (for) one day ? It is two yen. 
Engage (call) two carts. This company has a hundred street- 
cars. About how many houses do you visit {inazvarii) at New 
Year's {iienshi ni) ? I visit about twenty, I went to the 
houses of two or three friends, but they were all out. The 
house of Shimazu held Satsuma and Osumi until the Restora- 
tion. At the shipyard of Yokosuka'' [they] are now construct- 
ing {i'oshiraeru) two men-of-war. How many parks are there 
in Tokyo? There are three. One chair is (was) broken. 


11. For vesselfuls, bucketfuls, cupfuls : hai { = saka2uki). 

ippai, sambai, s hi hai, roppai, JiacJii hai,jippai, nambai, 
iku hai. ^ 

For medicine, tobacco, or tea, the unit is fuku {kiisuri zvo 
fuku siirii to take medicine), which undergoes the same changes 
as hai. ^ Fuku is also used for kake-mono (hanging scrolls or 
pictures), but the ideogram in this case is different. 

12. For pairs of stockings, pantaloons and shoes : sokn (foot). 

issoku, sanzoku, hassoku.jissokn. 

For pairs of other things isui (to correspond) is used, as in 
kiva-bin ittsiii a pair of vages. But a pair of animals is hito 
tsugai, from tsugai couple (See p. 82). 


ina = aida interval. biiru beer. 

chichi milk. ^ kohii coffee. 

a The Tai-hei-H {\.\l, Q^xca.\. peace record) is a famous historical work, re- 
counting the events of the XIV. Century. 

b A naval station on the coast of Sagami, just within the entrance to Tokyo 

c Ippai dcsii. It is full. 

d O cka 'ivo ippai [o agari iiasai) Have a cup of tea ! Tlic numerative fuku 
is used for tea mostly in connection with the ceremonial cha 110 yii. 

e Cow's milk is usually caWed gyu-fryn. Cyrt=^its/ti : iiyti=rcluchi. 




iuso spiced sake. ^ 

biidd grape. 

b II do- s J III wine. 

sake nomi drinker, toper. 

iabi [Japanese] socle. 

kutsu-iabi [European] sock, 
stocking. '' 

gela, asJiida wooden clog. *= 

"wara straw. 

zvaraji straw sandal. '^ 

naga-guisu boot. 

hcina-ike vase iike-rii to 
keep alive). 

kiva-bin vase (lit. flower- 

sei-Jii the government, 

kitsiii intense, strong (of 
liquors, odors etc.), tight 
(of shoes). 

koi dense, strong (of tea, 

shio salt. 

karai acrid. 

shio-karai\^_^, c 

slioppai j ■' ' 

iya na disagreeable. 

kirau, kiratte dislike. ^ 

iie-ru go to bed, sleep. 

tieimirii, nemutte sleep, slum- 

neinii-ke drowsiness. 

you, yotte be intoxicated. S 

same-ru become sober, come 
to one's senses. ^^ 

nodo throat. 

kaivakic, katvaite dry (intr.). 

7iodo ga kaioaku be thirsty. 

hanasJi separate. 

viesJii-agaru take (food or 
drink — polite 2, 3). 

nige-ru flee. 

ure-rii be able to sell. 

ynkii, yaite burn (tr.). 

yaki- mono pottery. 

dai-bu very, pretty. 

yo-ddshi the whole night 

tabi ni, tavibl ni (after a 
verb) as often as, when- 


Dozo mizu wo ippai kndasai ; watakusJii wa shiokarai mono 
IV0 tabemasJita kara, daibu nodo ga kaivaite kimasJi ta. O 

a Toso is drunk only at New Year's. 

b Called also kutsu-shita, from sliita under. 

c Celn is the generic term. Ashida are very lii^li clogs used in rainy 

d This word is derived from 7i.<ara and /ailsii, tlius: warni^iifsti, ■maniiizii, 
7('artuiji, ivaraji. 

c Shio-I^arni is Ihe more elegant word of the two. 

f " I dislike it" is usually kirai desu. SaA-c f^n dai kirai dcsii. T <lisliI<o 
sake sexy w\\\c\\. Compare .w/-?' (/^.w (p. 55l))- b'''^ <^"'^ '^ equivalent Ui kini- 

g Sake ni you to lie intoxicated with sake, /'line ui you to he seasick. 

Ii Ale i^a sni/ieru to wake up. A'ciinike ,i;n siiiiieru lo recover from drowsiness. 
Yui f;a snnieru to get soljcr after intoxication. 

92 The Numeral [xxviii 

cha wo ippai ikaga de gosaimas ka. ^ Ar'igato gozaimas" . 
Watakushi wa chiisai sakaziiki de sake tvo iada shl hai hakari 
noini)iiasJLta, shikashi sake ga taiken ni tsiiyokatta kara, daibii 
yoimasJi ta.^^ Watakushi zv a nemukii nam tainbi ni^koi cha 
wo nisainbai noviii to, neiuuke ga sameinas' . Tabako wo 
ippiiku viesJiiagarimasen ka. ^ Arlgato, watakusJii wa tabako 
ga kirai de gozaimas' . IVarajizva issoku ikura des ka. Issokii 
issen go rin de gozaimas" . Sonnara ni soku kaimasha. Sono 
hanaike wa hitotsu ikura ka. Kono hanaike wa ittsui des* 
kara, hitotsu hanash'te wa ^ uremasen. lya iya sambai, nige 
nige go hai.'^ JVatakushi ga ku7ii ye kaerimas' toki Nihon no 
seifu kara hanaike wo ittsui moraimash'ta ga, sono hanaike wa 
Satsumayaki^ de gozaimash'ta.) Sakuban koi cha wo shi hai 
nonda kara, yodoshi neraremasen desh'ta. s Watakushi zva 
nagaguts' wo ni soku koshiraete moraitai ga, ^^ issoku ikura 
des' ka. Sayo, issoku go yen de gozaimas" . Issakujitsu no 
ban wa biir wo roppai nonda keredomo, s kosJii mo yoimasen 

A cup of tea, please ! I bought five pairs [of] socks. How 
much were they a pair ? They cost {shimash' to) 75 sen a pair. 
Give me two pairs of clogs. I drink three glasses [of] milk 
every morning. Have another {ino) cup of coffee 1 As this 
wine is pretty strong, if [a man] drinks {nomeba) but (;//^) 
three glasses, he will become intoxicated. That man is {de) a 

a How about a cup of tea? The reply arigato gozaimasu does not imply 
refusal. In declining to drink one may say, Mo o cha iva itadakiinasen. One 
may also use the polite phrase, O kamai kudasarn na (negative imperative) 
Never mind ! 

b Or, yotte kimashita got into the condition of intoxication, or (wfithout 
daibii), yotte shimaimashita. 

c Meshiagaru is synomous with agerti, but is a little more elegant. 

d The subordinative witli 7va has a conditional sense and is usually followed 
by a negative verb or a verb with a negative significance. So shite iva ikenai 
(.SY) shicha ikenai) [You] must not do so. " Must not " is usually to be rendered 
in this way. 

e This saying refers to men who lilce sake, but wish to be coaxed to drink. 
While they refuse they drii.k three cups, and while they run away tliey drink 

f A kind of pottery, the glazed surface of wliich is artistically cracked. 

g Nerarerit is the potential form of the verb neru. Neraremasen can't sleep. 

h Moraitai is the desiderative of verb morau and means " should like to 
receive." Koshiraete moraitai. [I] desire to have made. This use of the 
subordinative with moraitai or (more politely) iladakitai is a very common 

XXI x] Ordinals 93 

sot {ozakenomi) ; he drinks a shJ every day. Please have a 
whiff (z/)/ 7/ /(v/) of tobacco ! I have three pairs of boots; but 1 
one pair has become useless {yaku ni tatanaku nariuias/ita). --I— 
Won't you have a cup of toso ? He is an extraordinary {taihen 
no) drinker ; in just a little while {chotto no ma ni) he drank 
ten glasses of beer. He drinks two or three cups of coffee 
every morning. 


Ordinals {jwijo-sushi) are formed by the prefix dai (c) 
*' order" or by the suffixes ban (c) " number," me (p. 69b) or 
bamvie. Both dai and ban may be used with one and the 
same numeral, as in dai hyakii niju go ban the 125th. With 
the native numerals ;//^ only is-.-Used. With the numeral 
auxHi^ies ;//^ is the most common. 

Dai ichi^ koto-gakko The First Higher School. 
Ichi ban no kisJia iichibangisha) the first train. 
Ni bamme no kane the second bell. 
Yob amine no ko the fourth child. 
Shi kemme no uchi the fourth house, 
Mittsiime no tama the third bullet. 
Sa7i dome {sambemme) the third time. 

But, as examples given in previous lessons show, the Japan- 
ese language in many cases where the English requires ordi- 
nals uses simple cardinals, or substitutes other expressions. 

Meiji niju nen the 20th year of Meiji. 
Tokiigaivake san dai no s/ijgun (dai=-yo generation). 
The third shogun of the Tokugawa line. 
Ed' war' d' shicJii sei {sei=yo generation). 
Edward the Seventh. 

The student may recall tiiat the first day (^f January is 
gwa?tjitsi(, from givan origin. The first edition of a book {dai 
ippan) '\s c7\\\q(\ s/io-han, from s/io (c) beginning; the secoml 

a In the colloquial dai ichi is used mostly to denote superiority, as ii> se-/--<n 
dai ichi vo ^ei-ji-l:a the foremost statesman in tlie world <^se /cai world). 


The Numeral 


edition sai-han from sai {c)=-fiita tabi a second lime. In 
numbering a set of two vokunes the words /J and ge or ka 
(p. 71a) are used. When there are three volumes they may 
be numbered 7".^, chu, ge. ^ 


{6) hina {san) doll, puppet. 1' 
nobori flag. '^ 

hail plate (for print.), edition. 
sJio-Jian first edition. 
sai-han second edition. 
shuppan publication. ^ 
jo (c) article, item. 
segare son (polite i). 
cJio-nan oldest son. 
ch~j-jo oldest daughter. 
so-ryo heir, oldest child. 
yoshi adopted child. ^ 
ban-cJii street number. 
den-zva telephone. 

kei-satsii police. * 

keisatsu-sho police station. 

ki-sokii regulation, rule. 

kwi-sho decoration, order. 

sai-sho beginning {saisho 110 

the first). 

sck-ku one of five holidays, s 

iai-setsu na important. 

ayamaru, ayavtatte 

machigaii, machigatte 

ayainari ] 
-^ , . . > error. 
inachigai ) 

izvaii, iivatte celebrate. 

iwai'bi holiday. 


a When volumes oi a book are subdivided, tlic portions are designated thus : 
/(■//■z (or ?//) wo/i) first (or secondj volume, first part, icJii (or «?' ) no ge first (or 
second) volume, second part. 

b The general term for "dolls" is nin-gyo, from nin person and J:yo form. 
The term /^zV/rt or hina-ving yd denotes properly the dolls which are formally 
arranged and displayed at the girls' festival on the 3rd day of the 3rd month. 
But even ordinary playing with dolls is called hina-asohi, from asobn to play, 
while a puppet-show is called iiiugyd-shibai, from ^/«"Z1<7? drama. 

c National flags and standards are called hata or kok-ld. N^obori arc- 
vertically long and are fastened l)oth at the top and on one side. Tliey may 
be seen at temples and theatres, and are also displayed at the boys' festival 
on the 5th day of the 5tli montli. 

d Simp fan stint to pul;lish. Shitppaii iti tiani to l)e published (of a book). 

e To adopt is yos/ti ni sttiti or yoshi tti titorait. An adopted daughter may 
also be called r^y'ti. 

f Policemen or patrolmen axe jit/t-sa ; the police statiotis on the streets arc 
kd-bnn {sho). 

g "YXxe go-sel^kti are . the New Year's festival on the 7th of the ist montli ; 
the girls' festival, on the 3rd of the 3rd ; the boys' festival, on the 5th of the 
5t]i ; the star festival, on the 7th of tlie 7th ; and llie chrys.iiUhemum festival, 
on the 9th of the 9th. .See p. 66 c. 

II Tlie latter is more common in the colloquial. 


Ordinals 95 

okosu, okosJiite raise, rouse, yaine-ru stop (tr.), give up. 

waken. asii, ashita to-morrow. 

snuiu. sunde ) , ,, . . ue above ( — no ue ni on, 

,, > dwell, reside. ^ ' 

suniaii, suinatte) upon. 

smnai residence. sJiita below ( — no sinta ni 

tsiiinoru, tsuniotte estimate. under). 

tsuvwri estimate, intention, ^ 


Yoritovio wa^ YosJntonio vo sauibainme no ko des\ A no 
ko san wa anata no go soryo des ka. lie, are zva wataktishi 
■no ni bamvie no ko des\ Chotto taziine iiioshiinas' ; ^ keisats"- 
sho zva doko de gozaiinas ka. Sayo, koko kara san genuiie 
des . Kimi no ivakaranai iokoro zva naniviainie des" ka. Ju 
ni inaivie des'. Sore zva nan to in Jion des ka. Kore zva 
Wakan-sansai-ziie ^ des\ Sore zva nan satsunie des" ka. Kore 
zva Jiijissatsiune des\ Ano kata zva Nikon no santJ knnsh '> zvo 
sagete inias\ Anata no o taku zva doko de gozainias ka. 
Ginza ni chdiiie 710 go ju ni bancJii de gozaiuias\ '^ Kiriya ^ to 

a This is often aUached to verbs, as in Asu Tokyo ye ihi tsumori desu. It is 
[my] intention to go to Tokyo to morrow. But (siimori often denotes simply 
one's opinion of one's self : Atto hito wa gaktislia na tsitinoii de nn'tnasti. lie 
thinks lie is a scholar. Here iia is a contraction of tiarti (originally 7ti arii) 
the literary etjuivalent o{ de ant. One may also say gakus/ia no fsiimori de orii. 

b Voritomo of the Minamoto family i^Gen-ji) conquered tlie Taira family 
{l/ei-/:e) about the end of the XII. Century, and was the first sliugun in wliosc 
family the office became Itcredilary. 

c Mus II melius " to say," but often, as in this case, it is a mere aux iliary 
attached to the stem of a verb. It is used principally in the first person when 
the object of the verb is a person of higher rank or a stranger of the same rank 
ns the speaker. The honorific o may not be omitted in this construction. 

d The name of a celebrated encyclopedia: 7i'n Japan, /can China, san sai 
tliree powers, i. c., heaven, earth and man, ztt drawing, e picture. 

e Clid=niaclii means primarily a group of Iiouses lining a throughfare. The 
same iilcogram {cho) means also 60 ken. In the above it means a section of a 
long street, often, liut not necessarily, marked off iiy means of prominent 
cross streets [yoko-c/io or yoko-macfii). Tliese sections may have diflcrenl 
names or may be distinguished as itchoine, ni c/iiwie, etc. d'tii-za (lit. silver seal, 
i. c., mint) is the name of a portion of the principal street of Tokyo. 

f I'aulownia-liousc. Nanics of mercantile firms arc formed in this way by 
the use oi ya. Merchants often lake the naviif of ihc jiri'vincc from whirli 
they came; e.g., I\[ikavn-ya, Oini-ya. 

96 The Numeral [xxix 

iu Jiirudoguya wa Ginza san chdme da. Naporeon issei iva 
sen happy akic nijii ichi nen no go gxvatsu its ka ni o kakure ni 
jiarimaslita. /anils' kJ wa Tokugawake san dai no shogun \ 
des\ Anata wa itto ni norivias" ka, nito ni fiorinias' ka. 
Watakushi wa nito ni noru tsuuiori des' k ere do mo, anata 
ga itto ni o nori nasareba, watakushi mo go issho ni nori- 
inashd. Kono jibiki wa saihan desii ga, shoJian no ayaniari 
ga naosh'te ariniasen.^ Hajiniete o me ni kakariviasJita.^^ 
Kotoshi ni natte kara ^ Hirokoji no kwaji wa kore de sanibem- 
ine des\ Anata no jibiki zuo kash'te kudasai. Jo des ka, 
chu des ka. Chii zvo kaslite kudasai. Nikon ni go sekkii to 
ill iwaibi ga arimas' ; sono nchi (de) dai ni wa hina no sekku 
de, dai san %va nobori no sekku des\ Ash'ta no asa wa icJiiban 
no kisJia de Yokohama ye iku tsiunori des" kara, hayakti 
okosJite kudasai. Ano teibur no *^^ tie ni notte orii jibiki no go 
satsume zvo motte oide. Sh'ta kara savibamnie 7:0 j'i zva 
machigatte imas\ 

Is this {kono o ko zva) your oldest child ? No, [it] is [my] third 
child ; [my] oldest son has gone to Europe. My oldest child is 
a girl {pnnd). I liave adopted a friend's second child. The fifth 
house from here is a primary school. Our {uchi no) telephone 
is No. 249. That regulation is written {kaite arimas') on the 
twentieth page {inai) of this book. Please lend me the twelfth 
volume of Gyokuhen. That gentleman has received a Japanese 
decoration of the fourth class. That photographer's residence 
is [on] Japan Bridge St., Third Section, No. 25. Keiki 
was the fifteenth shogun of the Tokugawa line; after he gave 
up the office of shogun ^ he lived (was living) in Shizuoka. 

a See p. 44 e. 

b This phrase is used when one is first introduced to a person. Ilajwie- 
wr7i////^ would be still more polite than hajinieie. O me ni kakern is the most 
polite expression for " to meet," (lit. be hung on lionorable eyes. Comp. p. 

c Since the year began (lit. from becoming this year). With subordinatives 
of verbs kai-a means '= after," " since." Hiro-kdji (broad lane) is the name of a 
street. Notice the peculinr use of kore de " witli this." 

d The word tstihie applies only to the low native tables. 

e " After he gave up the office of shogun " is rendered shogitn-shokit 100 yiimete 
kara. This 5/iO/&« means " occupation," "office" (in shokn-gyo). But in the 
colloquial one may say simply shogun vo yaniete kara. Shizuoka is tlie principal 
city of tlie province of Suruga, on the Tokyo and Osaka. 

xxix] Ordinals 97 

The second shogun of the Tokugawa line is called {to iiidshbnas'^ 
Hidetada. Jinimu Tenno was (is) the first Emperor of Japan. ^ 
Takauji is the first slugtin of the Ashikaga line. To-morrow 
I shall go to Yokohama by {de) the second train. Will you go 
first or second class (Is it first class, is it second class, by which 
do you go)? This book is about Japan (In this book Japan's 
affairs are written) ; the first volume [appeared] six years ago ; 
the second volume was published two years ago. Among these 
regulations the third article is the most important. VVilhelm I. 
is the grandfather of the present {iina no) Emperor of Germany. 
What edition {iiauipaji) is this dictionary ? It is the third 

a "The first Emperor" is saislio (or hajiiiiete) no Uns hi or dai ichi dai iio 




In classical Japanese genuine adjectives are inflected by 
means of the three terminations ki, kit and shi, as in the follow- 
ing example : 

Kono cJiiisaki ki tva hana mo. utsukushiku mi mo amashi. 

The blossom of this little tree is beautiful and its fruit is 

The attributive form ended in ki ; the predicative, in shi. In 
the colloquial both these terminations have been reduced to i. 
But shi still appears in yoshi " good," " all right !" and nashi^' 
" there is none," while in formal speeches the ending ki is 
heard quite often. The form in ku is now commonly used as 
an adverb and is called the adverbial form. But in the example 
given above utsukushiku is evidently predicative and may 
properly be called the connective form as contrasted with 
amashiy which is conclusive, i.e., ends the sentence. Compare : 
O no nagai saru mo ari, o no mijikai no mo am (p. 1 4d) where 
ari is connective and aru is conclusive. Such use of the form 
in ku would now sound oratorical. In ordinary conversation 
we should say : Kono chiisai ki wa hana mo utsukusJiii shi 
mi mo amai, or, Kono chiisai ki wa hana mo utsukushikute mi 
mo amai. The classical terminations occur with especial 
frequency in proverbs. 

It has been remarked (pp. 4, 24) that a predicate adjective 
ending in i needs no copula in familiar discourse, if the 
sentence is affirmative and in the present tense ; and that atta 
and aro may be united with the adverbial form of the adjective 
in compounds like yokatta, yokaro. We now add a paradigm 
of these and similar inflections produced by combination with 
forms of aru to be : 

a Kei-yo-shi, from kei-yd figure (of .speech), metaphor. 

b Notice also the peculiar idiom iiasJii in in : Kane nasJti in wa nani mo 
dekiniasen. One can't do anything without money. 

xxx] Inflections ^"9977 

Present yoi is good. 

Past yokatta was good. 

Probable, or Future yokaro probably is good, will be good. 

Conditional yokereba ^ if [it] is good, if [it] should 

be good. 
Probable Past yokatiaro probably was (might have 

been) good. 
Past Conditional yokattaraiba) if [it] has (had) been 

Alternative yokattari being at times good. 

Yoi dard, yoi desho may be substituted for /^/C'^^rJ ; yoi nara 
{ba), for yokereba ; yokatta darJ, yokatta deskd, for yokattaro ; . 
yokatta nara{bd), (ox yokattara{ba). 

A concessive form — yokeredo[j)i6) " though [it] is good " — 
might have been included in this list, but it is practically 
obsolete as far as the colloquial is concerned. It is now 
replaced by yoi keredomo, ii kedo, etc., adding keredonio (p. 8a), 
keredo, or ke{n)do to the simple present form. 

The form yokereba is derived from areba (as also yokeredo 
from aredo). It may be further contracted \.o yokereba, yokerya. 

O tenki ga yokereba undokwai wa oinoshirokarJ. 
If the weather is fine, the sports (excursion) will likely be 

O tenki ga yokattara undukwat zva motto omoskirokattard. 
If th.c weather had been fine, the sports might have been 
more interesting. 

The past conditional is past only with reference to the verb 
of the apodosis. Often yokattara is practically sj^'nonymous 
with yokereba. 

Kagen ga yokattara kanaraztc mairiinash'j. 
If [I] feel well, [I] will surely come. 

Alternative forms are used most commonly in pairs, and 
often with sJiite, thus : 

O tenki wa yokattari warukattari ikko sadamarinursen. 
The weather, being now favorable and again unfavorable, 
is not at all .settled (lit. one direction is not determined). 

a One may also s?^y yokii[tii)l>a, Inil tliis ii:nccti<jii cuiiikU Ijc appli''! !■> 'i'. 
adjectives except uai -JiwCi desulerativcs like lalietai. 

lOo The Adjective [xxx 

Ano Jiito IV a kigen ga yokattari xvanikaitari {shite) chddo 

kodomo no yd desu. 
Sometimes he is in a good humor and sometimes not, — 

just like a child. 

Atsukattari saniiikattari shite koniarlmasii. 
There being so much variation of heat and cold, one does 
not know what to do (lit. is perplexed). 

The word nai " not existent " is also inflected like an adjective. 
n^ri is not (none). 
nakatta was not (none). 

nakaro probably is not (none), will not be, will be none. 
nakereba ^ if it is not, if it should not be, etc. 
iiakattaro probably was not, might not have been. 
nakaitara{bd) if it has (had) not been. 
nakattari at times not being. 

By joining these with the adverbial form of an adjective a 
paradigm of negative inflections may be formed, thus: yoku 
nai, yoku nakatta, yoku nakaro, yoku nakereba, etc. In the 
same manner negative verbs may bo inflected : ivakaranai is 
not to be understood, zv akaranak atta , wakaranakaro, ivaka- 
ranakereba, etc. But wakaranai dard is more common than 
wakaraJiakaro. So also desideratives like tabetai " desire to 
eat " may be inflected. Details will be given luider the head 
of "The Verb." 

In polite discourse, especially at the end of a sentence or 
principal clause, instead of the plain forms given above, the 
contracted adverbial form with gozainiasii (p. 24) is required. 
In this case many adjectives take the honorific o :'^ 

O atsli gozaimasu. It is warm. 

O isogashu gozaimasho. You are probably busy. 

Observe that naku is not contracted to no except in certain 
dialects: it is customary to say not no gozaimasu hut gozai- 
viasen. But tabetai becomes tabeto gozaimasu. 

It has already been remarked (p. 24) that there is a tendency 
to say ii desu, omoshiroi desu, yoku nai desu, etc., thus avoiding 

a Also naku{7)i)ba, as in O iya de nakiiba If [you] do not dislike [it"]. 

b Tlie honorific may be prefixed \o yoroshikereba tlIso : O yoroshikereba \i 
you like ; likewise to yokereba ; hnt, if one wishes to speak politely, in this 
connect ion >'(5/w/;zV is betler than yoi. O yd gozaimasu iiara[ba) is perfectly 

xxx] Inflections 


the familiarity of the plain adjective on the one hand, and the 
stiff formality of go'^aiiiiasii on the other. But ii deshita is 
never heard. Yet ii n deshita is not uncommon. Whatever 
may be said about the past and present tenses, expressions like 
ii desho are indisputably correct. Thus : 

Mutsukashii desho is probably difficult. 

Yoku nai deshj is probably not good. 

As regards politeness these are intermediate between vmtsuka- 
shikarj and inulsukashTi gozaimasho, yoku nakaro and yd 

The subordinative is obtained by adding te to the adverbial 
form ; ^.^., yasukuie, homyasui, itakute, from itai, omoshiroku- 
ie, from omoshiroi ; so also 7iakute, ivakaranakute, tabetakute. 
These are often pronounced yasukutte, itakutte, oniosJiiroktitte, 

This form has several uses. 

(i.) When one subject has two predicate adjectives the first 
is subordinated to the second. 

IV ashinion no incjcJu. wa- h'wokute kirei desii. 
The streets of Washington are broad and clean. 

(2,) A clause with a predicate adjective may be subordinated 
to another clause. In this case the former describes a circum- 
stance or condition, which is usually at the same time a cause. 

Ashi ga itakute deraremasen. 
As my feet hurt, I can't go out. 
Kurakiite ashimoto ga iniemasen. 

It is^o^dark that I cannxit sec where I an^ going (r«j/<f//«(?/^ 
^~tf\at which is about tliejeet). 

Samukute shiyo ga nai. 

It is unbearably cold (lit. being cold, there is no way of 

To state the cause explicitly, one must say itai kara, etc. To 
state the result explicitly, hodo may be added : Kurakiite 
ashimoto ga mien a i hodo desu. 

(3.) Of two clauses involving a contrast the fir:~t may bo 
subordinated to the second. 

Shun-mai wa umakute ko-inai wa uiaztii. 

New rice is delicious, [but] old rice is unpalat.ible. 

I02 The Adjective [xxx 

(4.) When xva is added to the suboidinative it is made 
emphatic. In most cases it then has a conditional sense and is 
often followed by a negative word like ikemasen or narimasen 
or by a verb like koviariviasu " [am] perplexed." The U iva 
is commonly contracted to cha, 

Omokiicha ikemasen It mustn't be heavy. 
Nakucha narimasen [I] must have [it]. 

These forms may also be pronounced omokiitchay nakiUcha. 

(5,) The addition of mo to the subordinative gives it a con- 
cessive sense. 

yasukute mo though it may be cheap. 

itakute mo though it may hurt. 

okute mo {pku to mo, dku mo) at the greatest. 

Sukunakute mo {sttkunaku to mo, siikunaku mo) at least. 


hima leisure. ayashii doubtful, suspicious, 

hokori dust. himojii hungry. ^ 

hoshi star. hisashii long continued {Jiisa- 
kokoro heart, mind. shiku for a long time). 

Wi?/*? bottom, foot ( — no moto isogasJiii^, 

ni under). sewashii j 

ashi-moto what is under or kiirai dark. 

about one's feet. nigai bitter. 

ho-bitne, ho-kake-biine sail- okashii ridiculous, funny. 

boat. otonashii quiet, v/ell-behaved. 

fiiru-Iion second-hand book, semai narrow. 

bjzu priest. suzushii cool. 

kesa priest's scarf. yakamashii noisy, clamorous. 

i (c) stomach. yasiii cheap. 

bakn-rj)OQ\<.Qy, horse-dealer. kokoroyasiii{7K\y\^\7iX, intimate, 

betto groom, hostler. hikae-ru to be moderate. 

kuki air, atmosphere. komaru, komatte be perplexed, 
,s'«-,f/^z/'z apartment, room (in embairassed. 

a hotel). mie-ru be visible, seen. 

a The usual expression for " lo be hungry" is Iiara ga /leUa {herimashihi) 
from hejii to diminisli, or, especially among women and children, naka ga 
stdta [sukiiuasliitn), from sukii to be empty, thinned out. 

xxx] Inflections )io3> 

negau, negatte <^&s\re, request, j'itsu (c) 7iil truly, really, 

taiiiatu be able to endure. ^flM^MMll^) indeed. 

yosu stop (tr.). give up. kyu (c) ni | g^^^^^^^j 

sani-po sum take a walk. iiiwaka ni ) ^ ' 

de-kake-ru go out (from one's shi-ju from beginning to end, 

house). constantly, always. 

sanipo ni de-rii {dekake-ni) naze why ? (with ka at the 

go out for a walk. end of the sentence). 

chitto a little. doka in some way or other, 
chiiio mo not in the least please ! (p. 47a). 

(with a negative word). donio an expletive (p. 46a). 

oi-oi {ni) gradually. 




Kono hon wa wakariyas knte ovioshiro gozaiinas' . Nodo ga 
itakute hanashi ga dekimasen. Kono ji iva mutsnkasli ktite 
oboenikli gozaiinas . Kono zas/iki ni wa Jiito ga oi kara, kiiki 
ga warui. Tok^te vio ariikiniashj. Bimbo hima nashi. ^ 
Takak'te mo kaiviasko. Okasli kute tamarimasen. '^ Wata- 
kushi tva nemukute tamarimasen. Yas' kute mo kaimasen. 
Domo, samukute tamarimasen. Ji ga yok'te mo bunshj ga 
warui. Kimi wa okasli ku nai ka. lie, chitto mo okash'ku 
nai. Naze sonna ni yakamashii ka. Uclii no kodomo wa 
otonash' ku nakute makoto ni koinarimas' . IVatakushi wa 
tsogasJi kute s' koshi mo hima ga gozaimasen. Domo, nonii ga 
okute komarimas\ D^mo kurakute miemasen. Hoshi ga 
mienaku narimash'ta. Sensei no oshietaji wa kazu ga okute 
koviarimas' . Anata wa kuniye kaerit'j gozaimasen ka. lie, 
Tokyo wa omosh'iroi iokoro des kara, kuni ye wa'^ kaerito 
gozaimasen. Ilimojii toki no mazui mono nashi. '^ Hima no 
aru toki ni wa tabako ga nomitakic narivias'. '^ Ano kata wa 
michi ga chikak'te mo shijii basha ni noriinas" . Itt'i basha ni 
norimasho ka, ni to ni norimasho ka. Ni to basha 7va 

a Tlic language of proverbs approaches the literary style, and particles are 
used sparingly. Bi»ibd=.h{iiihd-nin. 

b It is too funny : one can't lielp laugliing. 

c This wa marks the antithesis between Tokyo anil /^uiii. 

d " Hunger is the best sauce." The words mazui mono nashi, expressing the _ 
idea of zest or relish, are treated here like a substantive. 

e Notice that here /,« occurs, whereas we naturally expect 7W. The latter 
also would be correct. 

lo./) The Adjective [xxx 

kitanaktite noreinasen. Tokyo no tori zva semai tokoro ga oi. 
Natsu no hi wa nagakute asa no koto wo (what happened in 
the mornhig) xvasuremas . Yas kereha kainiasho ; takakereba 
yoshimasho. Daibn o atsnku nariniasJita. Oioi o samukii 
nariviash' ia. HisasJi ku o me ni kakarivuisen deslita. ^ Haji- 
mete o me ni kakarimasli ta ; doka, o kokoroyas ku negai- 
rnas . ^' Yorosli ku negaimas .^ Kono fiirtihon wa uru hito ga 
okute kati hito ga s kunai kara, yasn gozaimas . BettJ to 
bakuro wa hito no warui ^^ mono ga o gozaimas'. Ryj-yaku 
{—yol kusuri) zva kuchi ni nigashi (Proverb). Ji ga miitsu- 
kasJikucha ikemasen. O kega ga nakutte yd gozaimash' ta. « 
Bozu ga Jiikukerya kesa made nikiii (Proverb). Yoku mo 
nakereba zvaruku mo nai. ^ Kotoba okereba shina s'kunashi 
(Proverb). § 

To-day it has become very cool ; until {made wa) yesterday, 
there being no wind, ^^ it was quite hot. It has suddenly 

a This is the usual formula on meeting a friend after a long separation. 
Frequently only the first word of the sentence is used. For hisashiku we may 
substitute shibarakii. 

b Here also we have a very common phrase. More fully expressed it would 
Ije kokoroyasiiku o majiwari (or tsiiki-ai) %vo negainiasu, or o ko/iofoyasnku shi/e 
ktidasarn yd ni negaiinasn (lit. I desire that you will please do familiarly) I 
hope we may become well acquainted. iCiidasarii to condescend is the verb 
from which the imperative kudasai is derived (p. 37d). In shife kudasaru yd ni 
negainiasu we have a siill higher degree of politeness than in shiie kudasai. 

c Fully expressed this would be something like yorosliiku nasatle kudasaru 
yd ni negainiasu (lit. I desire that you will do favorably) Please deal kindly 
with me. A'asatte or nas'tte is the subordinative of nasai-u, the polite equiva- 
lent o^ stiru to do, from which the imperative nasai is derived. In Sato san ni 
yorosliiku negaimas the word " to say " is understood: Said san. ni yoroshiku ilte 
kudasaru yd ni negavnasu {\'\i.\ A&s'xxc W\':^iyo\x will plense speak favorably to 
Mr. Sato) Please remember me kindly to Mr. Sato. Itle is the subordinative of 
in to say. One may say more briefly, Said san ni yoroshiku itle kudasai or 
simply Satd san ni yoroshiku, or, if the circumstances make the meaning plain, 
yoroshiku negainiasu. 

d Hito is often used as here in the sense of character. 

e It was fortunate that you were not hurt. 

f In this sentence the conditional inflection is used simply in lieu of a 
connective : It is neither good nor bad. 

g Many words, little sense. The original meaning of shina (p. 19) is 

h This may be translated kaze ga nakute or kaze ga ariniasen deshita kara. 

. Best, perhaps, would be kaze ga nai no de. which conveys the idea of cause 

more distinctly than the first and not so expressly as the second. Tiie 

Japanese naturally prefer a liazy expression, and kara indicates the relation 

of cause and effect with a degree of precision not required in such a sentence. 


Inflections i 05 

become cold. The weather is doubtful to-day. The dust is so 
dreadful {hidoi) that [one] can't go out {derareniaseii). The 
fishermen's boats are not out {dete iniasen), because the wind 
was [too] strong. The sailboats do not go out, because there 
is no wind. The wind being strong, the dust is dreadful. As 
this beer is bitter, I cannot drink it {iioineviaseii). Even though 
the water {^yii) is tepid, it's all right. This book is hard to 
understand and not interesting. As my throat is sore {iiai), 
I cannot smoke. He smokes even though his throat is sore. 
In {wd) this room the air is good, because there are few 
persons [in it]. These characters are small and hard to read. 
These characters, though small, are easy to read. [I] eat (am 
eating) moderately {Jiikaete), because [my] stomach is bad. 
Really it is unendurably hot (being hot it is not endurable). 
As [I] have no time [I] cannot go out for a walk. Though it 
is dark, I can see where I am going (what is under the feet 
can be seen). It is so dark that the wa}' has become indistinct 
{tvakaranai) The characters which the master [has] taught 
[me] are hard to remember, even though the number is small 
(few). I wish to return to my own country {kuni ye). I have 
become thirsty for a glass of water. 


In the classical language the attributive form of the adjective 
may be used as a noun, a word like hito, iiiono, kata or ho (c) 
being understood; e.g., tadashiki righteousness, from iadashi 
(coll. tadashii). Such a form in ki sometimes occurs in 
speeches, as in the phrase hanahadashiki ni itatte wa "in an 
extreme case " (lit. reaching to extreme). Compare yoshi 
ashi^ good and evil, i.e., qualities, characteristics. 

In the following instances adjectives in the colloquial form 
are used as substantive : 

Atsni santui heat and cold. 

a Ashi is contracted from As.'iishi, the literaty equivalent of warm. Ex- 
cepting nsliishi, adjectives whose stems end in s/ii t^xc inflected [.\\\\9>: yoroshtki, 
yoroshikuy yoroshi. Notice that in Brinklcy's Dictionary adjcclivcs are ar- 
ranged according to their conclusive forms, but not consistently. 

io6 The Adjective [xxxr 

Aviai mo karai mo shitte oru. 

He is a man of insight (lit. knows both sweet and bitter), 

Kane no aru nai mo shiranai de iru. ^ 

He doesn't know whether he has money or not. 

The stem of an adjective may be used as a noun : 

taka the amount, from iakai high. 
ara offal (of fish), from arai coarse. ^ 
shiro the white, from shiroi. 

kuro the black (of dogs or of the stones used in playing 
go, a game like checkers), from Ivuroi 
Notice the expression omoshiro hambun half in jest. 
The stem may also occur in compounds. 

(i.) It may be united with another adjective : 

furu-kusai t\-\te, antiquated, obsolete, hoxn jurui o\d and 

knsai (lit. malodorous). 
lioso-nagai slim, from Jioso'i slender and nagai long. 
iisu-gurai dimly lighted, gloomy, from usui\X\\\\ and ki'.rai 


(2.) The stem may bo combined with the verb sugiru to 
exceed : taka-siigim it is too high (dear). It is usual pleonas- 
tically to prefix amari, thus: 

Amari atsusugimasu. It is too hot. 

(3.) The stem may enter into combination with a noun 
(Compare p. 15) : 

aka-nasii tomato, from akai red and nasii egg-plant. 
kuro-shio the Japan Current, from ktiroi black, dark and 

shio salt, brine, tide, current. ^ 
shira-uwo name of a small white fish, from shira = sJiiro 

and uzvo fish. 
usii-cha a drink made of a small quantity of very strong 

tea (in cha-no-yu). 

The drink made by taking a larger quantity of weaker tea is 
koi cJia, not ko-cha. 

a On:? v/ay of making the negative subordinative of a verb is to add de to a 
negative form. Thus shiranai de iiui corresponds to the positive shitte iru. 

b Ara ■sX'io means "defect'': ara wo iu to criticise. A/ a ga loa/cariniasen 
No defect is perceptible. 

c The character used in this connection is not the one commonly used for 
salt, hut Hshio, signifying the water of the ocean. 


In Compounds 


To this class belong compovmds with sJ " appearance:" ^ To- 
sJ desu. It seems far. Compare : Toi so desu. It is said to 
be far. So na {or da) so desu So it is said (For na compare 
p. 95a) Yxoxw yoi and nai are derived the irregular ioxw^'i yosas'o 
desu it seems good and nasaso desu there seems to be none, or 
(with an adjective) it does not seem. Notice kazvai-so desu is 
pitiable or kazvai-so na Jiito desu is a pitiable case (person), 
from kazvaii lovely. ,^ 


higashi east, r 

nishi west. 

viinami south. 

kita north. '^ 

akari light. 

akari-tori an opening in the 

wall or i"oof for lighting a 

room {toru to take). 
aine rain. 

katazva cripple. >^\CV^-*-' 
nasu, nasubi egg-plant. 
aka-nasu tomato. 
uri melon. 
uwo fish . ^ 
hitoe-Diono unlined garment 

{hi foe p. 64). 
azjoase lined garment {azvase- 

ru to join). 

xoata cotton. 

wata-ire padded garment. 
ho direction, side, region. 
ro-ka corridor. 

ryo-shin {—futa-oyd) parents. 
un-do movement, exercise. 
abunai dangerous. 
hosoi \}a\'c\, narrow, fine. 
kashikoi clever, shrewd. 
kusai malodorous, offensive. 
usui thin, rare, light (of color). 
kazvaii lovely, charming. 
kazvaisd 11a pitiable. 
furu-kusai trite. 
Jioso-nagai slender. 
iuru, jutte fall down from 

aine ga Jiiru it rains. 



a The idea of "to seem"' may also he expressed liy yo desu with an altri- 
l>utivc adjective or verb. 

Kwnji wa toi yd desu. The fire seems distant. 
Chikai yd de taiheii toi yd desu. It sccins near, 1ml is very far. 
Mo mezame ni iiatta yd desu, lie seems now to he awake. 
\i The points of the compass arc here given in the Japanese order. The 
four points are called collectively td-zai-iiain-bol;ii, from to, sni, iinn, liokii (c). 

c Uivo is the classical word. ];tyino]o<;ically saka na means (ish as food, 
but it is now applied also to living fisli. 

io8 The Adjectives [xxxi 

iiaku-nani. nakunatte dis- suberii, subette slide. 

appear {tiakunatta is lost, kori ice. 

dead). ^ kori-siiheri skating. 

siigi-ru pass by, exceed. tsuke-ru soak, piclcle. ^ 

taku, taite l-:indle, heat, coolc. motto more. 


Kono hey a wa mado ga s" kunakiite iisugurai. Ano [girls' jin 
iva taihe',1 hosonagai kata des . Tenki tva yosaso des . Kono 
hon wa arnari onioshirokii nasaso des . Kwaji wa toi so des*. 
Yu ga ainari atsusugiric kara, inizu wo ippai ireie nwraitai.'^ 
Kono ni san nichi tva hitoeuiono zvo kite wa '^ siizushisugiru yd 
es . Kono roka wa akaritori ga naktite iisiigurai. Kyd wa 
ainari snzushisuginias kara, awase too kimasho. Kotoshi no 
haru zva ainari attakasngimas' . Korisuberi tva onioshirosa 
des' keredoino, abtinai ka to omoimas' . ^ (Sore wa tiak'te mo 
yosaso des'.\ Kono kimono wa yosugimas\ Kyj wa taihen 
samnso desii . Shirouri wa misosuke ni sum to, ^ taiso unto 
gozaimas\ SJiirainvo tva chiisai sakana no na des ; iro ga 
yuki no yd ni shiroi" kara shirautvo to iimas' . Ano katawa 
wa hitori de arukemasen ^ kara, katvaiso des\ Nihon de wa 
akanasu ga yoku dekimasen. Kono isukemono tva umaso des'. 
lie, shio ga karakute mazu gozaimas' . Sono hanashi wa 
Juruk'sai. Kono hen tva kuroshio ga kurn kara, taihen attaka 
des\ 1 Higashi-kaze de ainari attakasugiru kara, ame ga 


a Lit. become not existent. With sunt a corresponding active verb may be 
formed: Kyonen kodoino wo san nin iiakushimashita. Last year [I] lost three 

b From the stem of this verb may be formed such nouns as tsuke-mono 
pickle, shio-zuke salt pickle, Iiasu-zuke (/■:asu the dregs of sake), niiso-ztike, etc. 

c See p. 92h. 

d Here kite iva has a conditional sense. Compare cmoknte iva, etc. (p. 102). 

e Ka simply helps to express doubt and is not to be translated, 

f Translate : If you pickle white cucumbers in iiiiso (lit. make into niiso 

g Translate : white as snow (lit. white after the m.anner of snow). 

h Hitori de arukemasen cannot walk alone. From verbs of the first class 
described on page 10 the potential form may be derived by substituting rare- 
ru for rii, thus : derare-rti, from deni. In the case of a verb of the oilier class, 
substitute ^-;7^ or are-ru for the 11 of tlie conclusive form, thus: aruke-rn ox 
arukare-ru, from aruku. 

i For attaka desii see Ch. XXXIII. 



turn ka luo sJiireuiasen. ^ Mada wataire wo kirn ni wa liavo 
gozainias' . Kono hon wa ojnoshiroku nai so c/es'. 

That Chinatria-n is slender. It seems cold, but anyhow {sore 
de ind) [1] will go out for exercise. [That] was a dreadful 
storm last night, hut to-day the weather seems fine (good). 
This book is interesting, it is said. Because the cold '' at (of) 
Boston is too severe (strong), I will go south {ininami no ho 
ye). Because the bath {yu) is too tepid, I wish you would 
heat it more. ^ Skating seems difficult. She is very clever, it 
is said. It does not seem cold to-day. That child, both 
parents being dead {fiaknnatte), is to be pitied {ka-ivaisij). This 
tat is too dear at {de wd) one yen. The pupils will forget 
everything (all), because the summer vacation is too long. 


An adjective may be derived from a noun by adding rashii. 
This usually means " having the appearance of," but frequently 
it denotes a real quality, like our suffixes " ish," " ly," etc. 

" yakiisJia-rashii resembling an actor. 

shosei-rashii resembling a student. 

I otona-rashii resembling an adult, 

honto-rashii sounding like the truth, plausible. 

uso-rashii sounding like a lie. 

so-rashii apparently so. 

baka-rashii foolish, looking like a fool. 

kodoDio-rasJiii childish, looking like a child. 

otoko-rasJiii manly. 

riiis rashii may even be added to verbs; e.g., kimatta rashit 
ap[)arcntly decided, from kimatta it has been decided. It 
may be added to the stem of an adjective ; e.g., nikn-rashii, 
from nikni detestable, kawai-rashii, from kawaii charming, 

a It may perhaps rain (lit. It may rain? — one cannot know). 'l\\'\% ka mo 
shireinasen, like ka to omoimasii, is much used to round off sentences. In tlic 
former the ka is Strongly acccntctl. 

b here iva. Grammatically "the cold" is, at least in ICnglisli, in a 
«lependcnt clause, luit it is the logical subject. 

c Motto tailc morailai. \\\\.\\ tnku,fitro iti hi too is understood (////v bath). 
To heat the water is yu wo wakasn {7(jakas:e cause to boil). One may also say 
fufO 7110 wakasii or fiiro wo tate-ru. 

I lo The Adjective [xxxii 

beloved. If there is any difference in the sense, kaxvai-rashii 
is more objective than kawaii. 

The su^^s. ^ainashii also denotes a resemblance, or a quality 
described by the word to which it is attached : 

tanin-garnashii behaving like a stranger, distant. 
katte-gainashii apparently inconsiderate, from katte 

one's own convenience. 
sasJii'de-gaviasliii intruding, impertinent. 
shitte-ini-gamasini [:)retending to know. 

These words are used in a bad sense. Thus tanin-gamashii 
is an epithet applied to one who reall}^ is a relative or was. a 
friend, but acts as though he were not (for ta-nin see p. 50), 
The word katte-gaviashii is a term applied apologetically to 
one's own conduct : 

Amari katlegamashii koto zvo moshiagemasu. ga 

Excuse the presumption, but 

; Kisaina sonna shitieinigamashii koto wo in moii ja nai. 
You have no business to be talking about things you don't 

An adjective may be a compound derived from a noun and 
an adjective : 

tia- dakai [di'caows, from na name and takai high. 
shio-karai salty, from shio salt and karai acrid. 
shinjin-biikai pious, from shin-Jin piety 3.wd Jiikai deep. 
abtirakkoi fatty, from alnira fat and koi dense, thick. 
te-arai violent, from te hand and arai rough. 

Notice especially the frequent use in compounds of tiie 
adjective kiisai malodorous, offensive. It indicates that the 
idea expressed by the word with which it is combined is dis- 
tasteful or disccustinsf : 

viendj-kusai, inendokusai vexatious, from inendo trouble. 
inaka-kiisai rustic, from inaka country. 
jijii-kusai, from y?)Vz old man. 

seiyo-kusai (an epithet applied to unwelcome importations 
from western countries). 

Attention has already been called (p. 40 e) to the formation 
of adjectives from the stem of a verb :x\\i\ yasui {yoi) or vikni 
{katai) : 

XXXI i] Compound Forms ill 

oboi-yastii {yoi) easy to remiember. 
wakari-yasiii (yoi) easy to understand. 
wakari-nikui hard to understand. 
kokoroe-gatai hard to perceive, strange. 

The following are similarly formed : 

inacln-doi long in coming, from uiatsu to wait and toi far. 
inawari-doi c\xc\\\toyx%, from inawaru to go around. 
kiki-gurushii disagreeable to hear. 
mi-gurnshii ugly. 

The verbal auxiliary <5^/6/ {bekti, beshi),^ winch, occurs fre- 
quently in the literary language (e.g., yiikti beshi may go, or, 
should go) is sometimes heard in the colloquial, especially 
before hazii. This noun hazii (" fitness ") often follows a 
verb, meaning in such a connection " ought." 

Kore kara wa attaka ni nam hazii desu. 
It ought to grow warmer from this time on, 

Kodj)momaj>yajii(L4rU kata-w^kiku beki hasn da^ 
Children ought to obey their parents (lit hear what the 
parents say). 

Notice tliat beki is suffixed to the conclusive form of verbs, 
not the stem. But in the case of verbs whose stem ends in e 
it may be attached either to the stem or to the conclusive form 
thus : age-beki or agent beki (classical : agu-beki). 


kazii fitness {hazii desu ko-gi lecture. 

ought). men-do trouble. 

kugi nail. nin-gyo doll (p. 94b). 

otona adult. o-sho Buddhist priest. '^ 

((?) tera Buddhist temple. se-kai world. 

uso lie. shin-Jin piety. 

yatsn fellow (cc^ntemptuous), s/m-ha, shu sect. 

thing (p. 28a). yaku- sJia actor. 

.T Compare the adverbial expression rin7ii beku as nnicli as possible, as in 
Nam beA'ic hayaku koshiraele ageinasti. [1] will make ii f(/r you as sonn a:, 

b This is llic respectful term as comi'arcil with '•vzii, vvliich ivuv inis a iinpe 
of contempt. 

ii2 The Adjective [xxxii 

iva-gakusJia 7 one versed in tsuku, tsuite strike, thrust, 
koku-gahislia\ native classi- utter. 

cal literature. ^ uso wo tsuku {in) lie.^ 

hon-to no, honto no true, real, shin-satsu sum examine med- 
hon-to ni really, ically. 

inawari-doi roundabout, asoko, asuko there. 

tedious. nochi ?ii after, afterwards. ^ 

na-dakai famous. t> toki-doki at times, now and 
niku-rashii odious. then. 

isogu, isoide hurry. tabi-iahi at times, often. 

kiku, kiite hear, inquire. nam beku )^ ^^ 

inatsii, matte wait. nam take {dake) f' ggj]^!^. d 

! long delayed. dekiru dake y 


Sonna bakarashii {daka no) koto tvo iti na. ^ Ano hito zva 
shoseirashu gozainias\ Sono hanashi wa hontorashu gozai- 
DiasJita ga, Jiochi ni kiitara, ^ uso de gozaimasJita. Bis' mat' k' 
ko wa sekai ni nadakai hito des\ Sugaivara no Michizane 
wa^ taihe7i fiadakai gak'sha desJita. Misozuke to iu mono 
wa taihen shiokarai. Watakushi wa hiru ni shiokarai mono 
7V0 tabeviasJita kara, taisd nodo ga kawaite kimasli ta. As ko 
ni ifti no 7va^^ kawairashii ii ko des\ Ano kwanri wa gakii- 
sharashii. Kono bunsho wa taisd mawaridoku kaite arimas\ 
O machido sama desliia. ' \Okyaku ga sakki kara irasshatte 

a A contrast with kan-gakiisha (Chinese scholars) is implied. 

b Equivalent to this is na no aru or yu-mei na from the Cliinese yTi=nr!t 
and mei^^na. 

C Like ato de (p. 59) this may be used as a conjunction, but only after a past 
verb. Wiien it is used as a conjunction, 7ii may be omitted. Both a/o de and 
nochi 7ii a.xG used also as adverbs. The former is rather more common in the 
colloquial than the latter. 

d With adverbs these are synonymous. But standing alone nam hekii {iva) 
ot nam dake means " if at all possible," while dekiru dake means " as much as 
possible." iVarii beku {dake) viairimasho. Dekiru. dake itashimasho. 

e Negative imperative from in to say. 

f Past conditional from kiku to hear, inquire. 

g Died a thousand years ago (903). The no between the family-name and 
the given name may be omitted : it is the rule to omit it in all modern names. 

h This no is equivalent to inono. 

i A frequent apology : Pardon mc for keeping you waiting. 

XXXIl] C®MP(iUND. F»RMS I 1 3 

uiachidoku oviotte irassharu desJio.j Kono byohi de wa mai- 
nicJii iiadakai isha ga f'tari byonin zvo shinsatsu shim its'., 
Watakiishi zua Berrin ni oriviasJi ta jibim ni nadakai daigaku 
no sensei no^ kogi wo kikimasJita. Kanji wo narati no wa^ 
mendok' sai. Ano hito zva hontorashii iiso wo ts^ kimas . Ana 
Seiybjin no kao tva Nikonjinrashii. Ano f'tari no toniodachi 
zva taihen naka ga yd gozaiinas ka. Sorashu gozaiinas\ 
Monto-shu wa sJiinjinbukai ho des . ^ Kono hako no naka ni 
kiigi ga tak'san aru {beki) hazn des . Ima no gakko ni zva 
bozuk' sai sensei wa nakti nariviash'ta. Nam beku isoide 
koshiraete kndasai. Honto ni niknrashii yatsujla yo. 

Motoori was a famous Japanese scholar. That gentleman 
looks like an official, The story seemed false, but it was true. 
Kdya san^ in (of) Kishii is a famous Buddhist temple. That^ 
old lady is pious and often goes {inairii) to the Ikiddhist 
temple. This is a lovely doll. How {do sJite) have you 
become so {sonna ni) thirsty ? Because {kara des') I have 
eaten some very salty herring. That old gentleman is childish. 
He says many (yokti) foolish things. That man looks like an 
actor. It is such a bother (vexatious 3) to write (no zaa 2) 
letters (i). The Japanese do not eat very {aniari) fatty foods. 
That girl is like an adult. Kobd Daishi was a very famous 
Buddhist priest. 


A great many words that are really substantives are used 
as adjectives. In the attributive position they take suffix na, 
a contraction of nam {ni am = de am) ; in the predicative 
position they tal-ce da, desu, de gozaintosii (See p. 34c). The 
particles ni and de may also be affixed. The form with ni is 

a Either : a famous iiiiiversily professor, or. a professor of a famous univer- 

b Til is 110 is equivalent to ko/o. 

c The Mon-to {inon gate, i, e., scliool, to followers) sect is conimoiily called 
Shin (truth) sect. Like Protestant Christians, it emphasizes salvation by faith 
rather than by works. Its founder was Shinran Shonin. See, Murray's llcmd- 
book. List of Celebrated Personages. In this sentence ho, side, witli shinjin- 
^?//{'rt?' gives the sense of comparatively pious, — pious as conipaicd with otiier 

d Founded by Kobo Daishi, who spent his last days tlicrc. 

114 The Adjective [xxxiii 

adverbial ; that with de corresponds to the subordinative. 
To this class belong many words ending in ka, such as : 

akiraka na clear, evident. 

nigiyaka na thronged, bustling, lively. 

shizuka na quiet, calm, slow. 

The stems of a few adjectives in i are combined with na 
{ni, de, desu) in the same manner : 

attaka na warm attakai. 

komaka na fine, minute, from koniakai. 

yawaraka na soft, tender, from yawarakai. 

niakka na deep red, from inakkai {ma real, akai red). 

oki na great, from okii. 

chiisa na small, from chiisai. 

okashi na ridiculous, from okashii. 

But it is to be observed that the last three are not combined 
with ni, de, desu, except in the case of the adverb oki ni 
greatly, very. The regular inflections of the forms in / are 
used instead. 

Other words of native origin are likewise made to serve as 
adjectives : 

baka na foolish. 

iya na disagreeable. 

sakan na flourishing, prosperous. 

suki na agreeable, favorite. 

viono-zuki na curious, meddlesome. 

Most of the adjectives of this class are compounds derived 
from the Chinese : 

cho-ho na convenient, useful, valuable. 
kek-ko 7ia grand, splendid, capital. 
nyu-iua na gentle, amiable. 
ri-ko na clever, smart. 
shikkei na disrespectful, rude. 
slmi-setsii na kind, careful. 
sho-jiki na honest, artless. 
fu-shdj'iki 71 a dishonest. 
taiso na large, magnificent. * 
taku-san na many. 
zaji-nen ?ia regrettable. 

a It would not be in order to say faisd destt. 

xxxiii] Forms with Na 115 

Simple Chinese words may also be used in this way : 
ken na strange, peculiar, dubious. 
utyd na strange, wonderful, admirable. 

To the same class belong yd na (Compare kayj na, etc, p. 

Anata no yj na hito a person like you. 

Instead oi no yj na one may say inita yj na {ini-ru see), often 
contracted to mitai na : 

Bjzh {wo) inita yd na hito a man looking like a priest. 
Kunia {wo) mitai na otoko a fellow looking like a bear. 

Observe also so na, which is added to the stems of adjectives 
and verbs : 

Kashiko-so na {riko-so Jia) hito a clever-looking person. 
Aine ga Juri-sd desu. It seems to be raining. 
Ame gafiiri-s3 na mon desu. We shall likely have rain. 
Deki-sj na mon desu. It seems practicable. 

The effect of adding mon in the last two sentences is to bring 
out the subjective aspect of the idea, suggesting the hope that 
it will rain or that the plan may be accomplished. 


(Include the adjectives given above) 

aji taste, _ shiru-ko a dish mide of mochi, 

fuj'i wistaria, an and sugar. 

z'^^z stone, tc- migui ioweX {jiuguu wipe). 

{0) kayn gruel made of rice, den-shin telegraph, '^ 

kaze w'xwy. ge-na?i 1 ..«.>>.. 

, r- / { manservant boy. ^ 

sora sky, shinwbe 3 ^ 

soroban abacus. gi-ji-do legislative assembly 

takara treasure, wealth. hall. 

zeni coins, cash, change. '•^ he)i-ji reply. 

furu-mai behavior. /ce-shii-i, kei-shoku scenery. 

a y^^«z originally denoted various kinds of coins which in feudal times were 
made of iron or Ijronze and liad a liole in the center. 

b Den-shin may also mean a telegraphic dispatch, l)ut a telegram is more 
commonly called dem-po. 

c With ge-nan compare ge-jo. S/iimo-le (as also sliiino me), from s/ni/ic=ge 
(c) cr s/iiia, is ratlier a classical word. 

ii6 The Adjective [xxxiii 

ken-ckiku building ( — sum odoni A^wcc. 

to build). sinvaru sitJj 

kok-kivai'dAQ-t, parliament, _;)/^?n/ send, give, do. ^ 

confress. Jiiina zvo yaru discharge, dis- 

7////-/&Z temper of the people. miss (with wz). 

h aziik as hit ^shnmcd, shame- tabi {wo) snru journey. 

ful. ^ yor?i approach ( — ni yoru call 

karui light (of weight), upon). 

oskii prized, regrettable. toku, toite loose, disentangle, 

ozvarii end, finish. explain. 

otvari no \ . . , i- toki-akasu explain. 

shimai no \ ' concluding, j^^^^^f^^ .^^ f.i^J^ take a per- 

atstmiarii assemble (intr.). centage. '^ 

kuzusH tear down (a house), sugu {m) \;^-,,-,^^^,.^^^Xy . 

change (money). Jiki {m) j 

vagmne-ru gaze at. zan-ji a little while. 

nage-f'u throw, fling. to with. 


Kyo wa sliiziika na hi des ; kaze mo nani mo arimasen. ^ Oi- 
oi attaka ni narimas' . Konnichi zva attaka des' kara, azvase 
ivo kiviashd. Shogzvatsu zva nigiyaka des' . Asak'sa no Kzvan- 
non zva ^ nigiyaka na tokoro des' ; mainichi iak' san no. hito ga 

a Like our English word "fearful," haziikashii may be either objective 
(dreadful, shameful) or subjective (afraid, ashamed). But, while in English 
the context makes it plain wliich sense is intended, the Japanese seem to be 
hardly aware of the distinction. 

b Tliis properly means sitting in Japanese fasliion. '• To sit on a cliair " is 
isn 7ii koshi IVO kake-rii (p. 58). To unbend the limbs and stretch them out on 
tlie floor as foreigners generally do is hiza ivo kuziisu ijiiza knee). 

c Tlie polite word for " to give " is age-rn ; but yaru is tlie more suitable 
word to use toward one's servants or children. In the sense of '• to do": 
Anata iva tadaima nani ivo yalte aide 7iasa!!/iasii ka. What are you doing now V 
See also example on p. 61. 

d From l/o a pole used by coolies, or the Ijar of a balance, and r.ak: tip. Tlie 
peculiar expression " to cut the tip of the stick " is used of a chief coolie, taking 
a percentage of the wages of those whom he employs, or of a servant wlio slyly 
takes a commission on purchases that he makes for his master, or, wlial 
amounis to the same thing, accepts a bribe from a tradesman. 

e Tliere is no wind nor any thing [to disturb tlie tranquility of the day]. 

f A famous temple of the Buddhist divinity Kwamion. 

xxxiii] Forms with Na 117: 

devias' . Taiso kekko na tokei de gozaiiuas . Shojiki de rikb 
na sJiiviobe tua ie no takara des . ^ Ano kata zva riko na hito 
des keredovio,fushdjikides\ Betto wa taiteifushojiki na mono 
des\ Denshin ya denwa to iu mono wa chdho na mono des ; 
zanji no aida ni ioi tokoro ni irii hito to (jii) mo hanashi wo 
sum koto ga dekiinas' . Anata no genan wa shojiki des' ka. 
Sayo, taHien shjjiki de cJiitto mo bosaki zvo kirimasen. Shojiki 
na bakuro wa s'kunai ; shojiki na betto mo s'kunai. Ano kyoski 
wa taihen ni shinsetsu de, mata oshieru no mojosu des\ ^ Ano 
hito 7va kogi ga saisho heta desh'ta ga, konogoro zva j'ozu ni 
narimash'ia. Sonna baka na koto zvo sum na. ^ Sakura no 
hana wa nakanaka kirei des keredomo, oshii koto ni wa ^ jiki 
ni chitte shimaimas\ . Watakushi wa zannen na koto wo itashi- 
mash'ta. Ano onna zva nyuzva de riko des\ Sore wa hyak'~ 
shd no yd na fnrumai des\ Ano hito wa iya na kao zvo sh'te 
imas\ Anata zva odori ga o s ki des' ka. Dai s'ki des' 
keredomo, heta des' . ^ O shiruko wa onna no s' ki na mono des' . 
Tetsudo wa hayakii tabi ga dekite choho na mon des' . Sato 
zva shikkei na hito des' . Naze des' ka. Watakushi ga. tegami 
zvo yarimasJi'te mo^ henji zvo yokosh'te kuremasen. Kono bun- 
shd no imi zva akiraka ni narimash'ta ka. Sayo, sensei ga 
shinsetsu ni toki akash'te kuremash'ta kara, yoku zvakari- 
■mash'ta. Sake ni yotte kao ga makka 7ii natta. Osaka wd 
taiso sakan na tokoro des' . Kono f'tari no ko wa uri zvo 
f'tatsu ni watta yd des' . S Yawaraka na tenugui zvo motte koi, 
kore de wa ikenai kara. '^ Kono gakko ni zva sorob'an no taiso 

a In this serai-proverbial expression one may substitute for shimobe its 
Chinese equivalent hoku. 

b The idiom is ordinally kogi ga jdzu desii, oshieru no ga jozii desu, or kogi ga 
heta desu, oshieru no ga heta desu. 

c: Negative imperative from sum to do. 

d Oshii koto standing alone would mean " How affecting ! " With niwa this- 
cjaculation becomes an adverl)ial phrase. 

e Dai suki wcxy fond, from </«?' (c) great (p. 55b). The oivpositc \s dai kirni 
(p. 9ie). 

f Yarimashite mo though (one) sends. Compare yo.zukute mo, etc. (p. 102), 

g Compare the German " They resemble each other as one egg is like 
another," or the English " They are as like as two poas." In such sentences 
vd is to be translated "as if," "as though:" 7vnlta yd desu ti.s though on6 

h Compare koie de wa ikeuai \\'\\.\\ omokute wa ikenai {\^. 102). Compare also 
Sore de ii That will do. Futatsu de takusnu desu. Two arc enough. 

ii8 The Adjective [xxxiir 

jozu na sensei ga arivins . Kokkzvai-gijidj no kenchiku wa 
iaiso na mon des. Kore wa uiiiasD na niikan da. Kyd wa 
samusj na tenki des. Dj ka shiyb ga aviso na mon des'. ^ 
Kono hon 7va fnrui yd des\ TokyJ no Into wa vionoziiki des'; 
{ada kazva ni islii wo nageta bakari de via sugii ni hito ga 
tak'san yotte kiinas" : kochira no ninki mo so des'; tad a dare ka 
sora wo nagameta bakari de mo hito ga sugu ni atsnmatte 
kimas' . O Kiyo san zva hazukashisj ni suwatte irasshaimas' . 
Anata no o ko san wa o riko des' kara, gakiimon ga yokn o 
deki nasaimasho. '^ 

This poem seems difficult. The shrines of Nikko are very 
grand ; the scenery also is grand. Kaga was a great daimyo. ^ 
Sick persons for the most part (yoku) eat gruel or soft rice. In 
(wa) spring there are many calm days. To-day, since the 
weather seems fine (good), we will go to Kameido ^^ to see 
the wistaria blossoms {/uj'i zvo mi ni). From this time on it 
will grow (grows) gradually warmer (warm). Cut that up fine 
{komaka ni). This salt pickle has a peculiar taste {myo na aj'i 
ga shimas). Have you [any] small change? Yes (kai), I 
have. Then please change this large bill, !aving received 
from you {itadakimasJi te) recently a valuable gift (thing), I 
thank you very much {oki ni). The teacher explained toki- 
akash'te kuremash'ta) this carefully, but I do not yet understand 
[it]. The last day of the festival of the dead (See p. 76b) is 
very lively. Since it is a warm day there are many who go to 
Mukojima to see the blossoms. Why {do in wake de) did you 
dismiss your boy? Because he was a dishonest fellow. Skil- 
ful tailors are dear. Don't say such foolish things. What 
kind of wood is the wood of the kiri (tree) ? It is light and 
soft. This dictionary seems bad. Those vases seem to be 
cxpeaisivc (high). He seems to be a clever person. « He has 
a face like a monkey's. 

a There ought to be a way of managing it somehow [do kd). 
b Notice the polite form o{ dekitnasho. One may even liear o an nasani for 

c The dainiypo^ I'^aga, a province on the coast of the Sea of Japan, held a 
fief which yielded annually an income of more than a million /-■oku of rice. 

d Kniiie-ido "tortoise-well" is the site of a famous shrine in honour of 
.Sugawara ISIichizane near Tokyo, 

e Translate >ihd na yd desti or rikoso desit. So in the sense of « appearance " 
is immediately affixed to adjectives of the class described in the chapter ; riko 
IIP {dir) so desa would means : " He is said to be clever." 

xxxiv] Forms with N'o 119 


Many adjectives are formed by means of the particle no : 

hidari no the left. 

inigi no the right. 

ue no the upper. 

shita 710 the lower. 

isugi no the next (kono isngi no next to this). 

moto no original. 
imikashi no ancient. 
nama no raw, uncooked. 
7ianii 710 common, ordinary. 
atari-inae 710 usual, ordinary. 

Adjectival expressions denoting time, place or material, 
formed by adding no to substantives, are especially numerous : 

ko7iogoro 710 recent. 
asoko no yonder. 
Nikon no Japanese. 
Anierika no American. ^ 
ki 710 wooden. 
kane no metallic. 

The stems of common adjectives are occasionally used with 
the postposition 710 : 

Aka no 7neshi {go zen) rice cooked with red beans. 
Shiro no ki7iu-ito white silk thread. 

The stems of verbs may be turned into adjectives in the same 
way. Notice especially compounds with tate. '' 

owari no, shi7nai 710 the last. 

ka7ie-7nochi no rich. 

ki'tate no just arrived, from kuru to come. 

ku7ni-tate no fresh (of water), from ku7nu to draw (water). 

taki-tate 710 fresh (of cooked rice) from taku to cook (rice). 

umi-tate 710 fresh (of eggs), from U7nu to lay. 

a In some connections the no may be omitted, ns in Nihon seifii Llie Japanese 
Government, Doitsii lei the German Emperor (I)Ut Doitsu no (enslii). 

b Observe also viizn shirazu no tniiin a stranger wliom \ never saw and don't 

120 The Adjective [xxxiv 

Technical adjectives like "scientific," "botanical," etc., are 
formed b}^ the addition o^jo {c) = ue above, i.e., concerning 
(compare the German 'nber). For QK^.m^\e, g-akumon-jo means 
what pertains to learning : 

gakumonjo kara iu naraba to speak scientifically. 

gakuvionjo no scientific. 

shoku-butsu-gaku-jo no botanical shoku — ue-ru, butsu 

do- butsu- gaku-jo no zoological. 

i-gaku-jo no medical. 

Most of the words which with no form adjectives, as de- 
scribed above, may be used as nouns : 

IVatakushi wa niku no nania wo konouiiviasen. '^ 

1 do not like raw meat. 

Kaneniochi zua shhvai. The rich are stingy. 

The adverbial form, the subordinative and the predicative 
form are derived by adding ni, de and da {desu), respectively. 

With some words either no or na may be used : 

hadaka no or hadaka na naked. 
kaneniochi no or kaneniochi na rich. 
waziika no or wazuka tia little, trifling. 


(Include the adjectives given above) 

Jiashi bridge. kara-kane bronze {kara 

kane money. China). 

shiro castle. sanada-niushi tape-worm. 

eri collar. shachi-hoko grampus. t> 

kara collar (European). e picture. 

viono-goto affairs. kin gold. ^ 

kagami mirror {kage reflec- gin silver, 

tion, mi-ru see). zo statue. 

a Colloquially the word naina is much used in the sense of " hard cash," 
being equivalent \.o gen-kin ready money. 

b The term shachihoko also denotes an architectural ornament, a conven- 
tionalized grampus, placed on the end of the ridge of a roof. 

C Kin is the Chinese equivalent of kane metal or money. In the sense of 
" money " or " metal " ;^m is used only in composition. On the other hand, 
kane is never used in tlie sense of " gold." 

XXXIV Forms with No 121 

dai-butsu large statue of minii ga kikoenai be quite 

Buddha. deaf. 

eii'Zetsu address, oration. ininii ga toi be somewhat 

y}^ -;?(?/&« manners and customs. deaf. 

gyu-iiiku beef (com. p. poe). kiimii, kunde draw (water). 

.y//z>/-^(i:/ property. sasu stick, thrust,, wear (in 

erai great, eminent. the hair, girdle, etc.). 

ji-yU na free. . sashi-tsukae ga am thea'e is a 

Ju-jiyu jia restricted. °- hindrance, [I] have an en- 

kennon na dangerous, risky. ^ gagement. 

agaru, agatte go up. ^ sewa assistance (comp. sexva^ 

arau, aratte wash. ^ shii. 

dasu put forth, bring out. — no sewa wo sum assist, 

kikoe-ni can hear, can be take care of. 

heard, sound. 


Atarashii kara wo dashimasho ka. lie, kino no kara de ii. ® 
Ano hito wa kanemochi des ka. lie, atariinae no shindai des\ 
Ano shosei wa kask'koi des' ka. lie, atariniae des\ N^at/ia no 
nikii wo taberu to, yoku sanadamushi ga dekiinas\ f^Kodoino 
waoyjJL-jio f sezva wo sum no ga atariinae da. Nihonjin wa 
yoku nama no sakana zvo tabeinas'. S 'Izanagi to iu k ami s am a 
ga '* umi de o kao wo o afai nasatta toki ni hidari no vie 
kara Ainateras' to iu hi 710 kauii sania ga o de nasatte viigi 
no o nie kara Tsukiyonii to iu tsuki no kauii sama ga de 

a Fujiyu is commonly pronouncedyi^/w. The wordjiyu in the Japanese mind 
generally signifies the possession of ample means, and fujiyTi, accordii ^ly, 
means the lack of facilities or conveniences. 

b Probably a corruption of ken-nan, from ken peril and nan distress. 

c This is the polite word to use in speaking of going to or entering into a 
person's house. 

d Notice that verbs whose stems end in 7-i or i preceded by a vowel do not 
add rn in the conclusive form but substitute u for i (p. lo), like tii;arn. and 
araii, have subordinates in Ue. 

e One may also say kifio no de ii. 

f Tliis is the objective genitive. 

g Naviazakaiia is fresh fish as contrasted with salted or dried fish. 

h The language used in speaking of the gods is extremely polile. Izanagi 
and Izanami arc the two deities wlio, according to Japanese mythology, created 
Japan and its people. Aniaterasu is derived from ante heaven and terasii to 
illumine; Tsuhiyomi, from fsuki ve\oov\, yo night and tni-rti to see. 

122 The Adjective [xxxiv 

nasatta. Nania no tamago ivo viittsu inotte kite kiidasai. 
Kore iva umitate no tamago des ka. Sayo, tnnitate de gozai- 
nias . /gins' jin no tame ni koshiraeta Eizva-jisJio ga nakute 
viakoto ni Jujiyu des\ ^ Nikon no onna iva yokii gin no 
kanzashi wo sashimas . Ano Into wa kwazokii des ka. lie, 
nami no hito des.' Takitate no gozen de nakereba oish'ku 
arimasen. O miya no uchi ni wa kane no kagami ga iatete 
arimas\ Ano kaia wa ikura kane tvo inotte imas' ka. Hyaku 
man yen inotte iru so des". Erai kanemocki des ne ! Yoroppa 
de wa kiri no ki wo shokiibiitsugakujo no na de " Paulownia 
imperialis " to iimas\ Kono e wa mukashi no fuzokti ga kaite 
arimas" . Uchi no gejo wa kitate ni wa monogoto ga yoku 
zuakarimasen des /it a. Kurumaya wa machi no naka wo 
hadaka de aruite wa ikemasen. '' Kore wa kumitate no mizu 
des' ka. SayD, tadaima kunda bakari des'. ]Vazuka na koto 
de kenkwa wo sh'ta. Ano shosei zva kanemocki na isha no 
tokoro ye ydski ni ikimask'ta. 

I do not know the medical name {wd) of this disease {byoki). 
I am very fond of {dai s' ki des') raw beef. The earthquake 
(of) last evening was dreadful. The address (of) just now was 
very interesting. The Daibutsu of Kamakura^ is a bronze 
statue ; its height is about fifty feet. On the tower {ten-shu) of 
the castle of Nagoya there are two golden skackikoko. Do 
you know the zoological name of this fish ? The original 
name of Kyushu was (called) Tsukushi. That happened long 
ago (is an ancient affair). Shall I bring to-day's newspaper ? 
No, please bring yesterday's. Does your left hand hurt, [or] 
is it the right hand ? His right ear is deaf. Fresh eggs are 
delicious. The Japanese government hires many {yoku) 

a Ei-rua English- Japanese. The chief nations of the world are designated 
liy single ideograms, thus : 

AYf//? or Wrt Japan ^z England /?o/'« Germany 

Shin, Kan or Id China Bei America Futsu France 

Kan Corea Ran Holland Fo Russia 

Of these Shin, Kan (Corea), Ei, Bei, Fntsii and Ro are combined with /f-dj/v^. 
Shinkoku, Ei-kokii, etc. Wa kan-sansai-zue ip. 95d). Nis-shin sen-so the war 
between Japan and China. Doku-futsu sen-so the Franco-German war, Nichi- 
ei do-niei the Anglo-Japanese alliance, I\o-shin gin-ko the RussoChincse Bank. 
b. Aruite is a subordinative from arukii to walk. Notice that this verb may 
take an object. For aruiie ii>a ikemasen see p. iiyh. 

c Kamakura is near Yokohama. Yoritomo made it his capital in 1192, 

xxxv] Adjectival Clauses 123 

foreigners. In (jii wa) Japan there are many wooden bridges 
(w(i), but stone bridges are still scarce. Next Saturday {ni 
wa) I have an engagement ; so I will come to your house on 
Friday. ^ The last day of the year is called o-misoka. It is 
risky to cat {iaberu no iva) raw meat. Is that the botanical 
name ? 


As has been intimated previously (pp. 6, 13), the functions 
of an adjective may be performed by short clauses, such as 
yaina ga (y? mountainous, kuchl ga warui sarcastic, etc., which 
iii the attributive position become yama no oi, knchi no warui, 
etc. Such expressions are very common in Japanese : 

ishi no oi stony. 

machigai no oi inaccurate (opp. nai). 
jm-kD no oi populous (opi>. suknnai). 
otofcD-biiri 7iO ii handsome (of a man — opp. warui). 
kao {ki-ryo) no //beautiful (of a woman — ,, 

shiawase no ii (or shiawase na) fortunate ,, 

till no ii lucky ,, 

ben, bensetsu no ii eloquent ,, 

ben-ri no ii (or benri no) convenient, useful ,, 

isu-go no ii convenient, suitable ,, 

yo-jin no ii c:2i\x'ao\xs ,, 

kon-jo no ii good-natured ,, 

i-ji 710 warui ill-natured, obstinate 
ge.n-ki no ii {or genki na) vigorous (opp. Jiai). 
ashi no hayai swift (of an animal). 
nagare no hayai swift (of a liver). 

ki no hayai impulsive, not considering the consequences. 
ki no noroi phlegmatic (//<?/'<?/ sluggish). 
ki no nagai i^atient. 
ki no inijikai irritable. 

ki no tsuyoi determined to win, courag(,'ous. 
ki no yowai easily yielding, cowardly {yoxvai weak). 

a TIic polite term to I)e used licrc is ay^nru. But ii' a common word is used, 
it must be iku, not fciini. Foreigners ofl<-ii puzzle the Japanese by using kurn 
in such cases. 

I 24 

The Amjkctive [xxxv 

ki no okii bold, cntcrprisiag, magnanimous, 

ki no chiisai cautious, circumspect, pusillanimous. 

sei no takai tall (opp. hikiii). 

kiri nofukai foggy {kiri fog). 

yokti 7/(7 /w/^cr/ avaricious (opp. nai^. 

me no chikai near-sighted. 

miini 710 toi deaf. 
So also instead of na-dakai (p. no), one may say na no 
iakai ; instead oi shinjin-biikai, shinjin no fttkai. 

The opposites of some of the expressions given above may- 
be formed by means oi fu {bit) or wu —negative prefixes derived 
from the Chinese : 

Ju-shiaivase na unfortunate. 

fu-7in na unlucky. 

fu-benri na inconvenient. ^ 

fii-tsugo na inconvenient, improper, wrong. 

bu-kiryj {fu-kiryo) na homely. 

bn-ydjin {fu-yojin) na careless, unsafe. 

Diu-yoku na unselfish 
Com^zxe /u-shojiki 71 a dishonest (p. \\^, fu-shinsetsu na un- 
kind, bii-rei na impolite (p. 33c), mu-byd na healthy. ^ 


(Include the list given above) 

7««rt a fish resembling a carp, hatake a plot of cultivated 
/^rt:/{'«;;z^ loose trousers, divid- ground, field, garden. <^i 
ed skirt. <^ iwa rock. 

a " Inconvenient " is more cori\\XiOVi\y fiiben na. 'B\x\- fii-ben tia (different 
character) might also mean " not eloquent," though the more common word is 
iolsiihen tia from iofsii (c) to stammer. 

b From yd need (in iri-yo) is derived fti-yo or mu-yXi unnecessary. The 
latter also serves as a sort of negative imperative, as in the notice posted up 
in the Hongwanji Temple in T6ky5 ; Hirii-ne niuyd. Midday naps forbidden ! 
Another negative prefix, mi, means " not yet : " mi-juku not yet ripe. Compare 
fn-skinja unbeliever and mi-shinja one not yet a believer. 

c Worn by gentleman in full dress. There are special names forcerlain 
vaiielies, such as utJia-nori-hakama used formely by samurai when riding on 
horseback, naga-bakama the trailing kind used at court, etc. The hakama 
in vogue among school girl are simply plaited skiits. 

d A plot kept under water for the cultivation of rice, etc., is called to. 

xxxv] Adjectival Clauses 125 

se slioal. aku, aite open (intr.). 

haya-se rapids. ana hole. 

sode sleev^e. ana ga aku a hole is made. 

soko bottom. haku, haiie wear (shoes, trou- 

suini charcoal. sers, etc.). 

to door. hatarakic, hataraite \york. ^ 

inawari surroundings ( — no nagare-ru flow, be carried 

niawari ni around). along by a current. 

sQto exterior ( — no scto ni shimeru shut. 

outside of). shirase-rii inform. 

ha-gaki postal card. tanoniu, tanonde ask, engage, 
inizu-nini') , , rely upon. '^ 

ko-sui (c) 3 ^ * ii-tsuke-rii command. 

(<?)/^r«-w<:rm visiting a (Bud- (?5?/ push, press 

dhist) temple. oslii-age-rii push up, 

toshi-yori aged person ( — 710 sei-batsu suru punish (rebels), 

aged). make war upon. 

kai-gan sea-shore, bund. zen-ktvai suru fully recover 
yo-Jukii European clothes. (from sickness). 

sei-jl political affairs. hi {kzva-ji) zuo dasu start a 
seiji-ka politician, statesmm. conflagration. 

t3-dai,t3'niyd-daiX\^\X\oi\SQ. koto ;2Z especially. 

Chosen Corea. ' hi-j'o ni extraordinarily. 


Hida tva yama no oi kuni da kara, jinko ga s'kunai. Ni/ion 
no kawa tea taigai nagare ga hayai kara, uki na ishi ga 
nagarete kirn as . Anata no go tsugo no yoi toki ni inairi- 
inasho. ^ Ddzo go tsugo no yoi toki wo shir as etc kudasai. 
Nikon no mawari no umi wa hijd ni sakana ga oi. Sato san 
wa ki ho niijikai hito des' kara, toniodachl ga s'kuno gozai- 
inas\ Shinj in nof 'kai hito wa yokii teraniairi zvo shinias'. 

a This word is also used like make-ru, to be defeated, in the sense of " to 
conic down on tlic price," but without an object : Ni jissen makclc agemasii. I 
will deduct twenty sen. Ilacld jissen made hataraite agemasii. I will make .sell) 
it for the low price of eighty sen. 

\^ Tlie idiom is : hito ni /■:oto ivo tatioinii to call upon a person for assistance, 
to ask a favor of one. O tanoini indshimasu. Please do me llie favor, 'lliis 
phrase mny be used by a caller to attract the attention of some one in the 

c Lit. at your convenient lime, i. e., whenever it suits yon. 

126 The Adjective [xxxv 

Anata no o ani sail iva go zenkwai nnsaimasJita ka. /ie, 
skoshi yoku natte kara,^ yojin ga zuaruhiie hayaku soto ye 
deniasJita kara, inata waru/cu narlmasJita. Sit ka to in inonc 
wa '^ taihen ashi no hayai man ties' . Ano kata. wa toshiyort 
lies' keredovio, genki ga yj gozaimas\ Nikon no kaigan %va 
iwa ga oi kara, seifu de ^ touiyodai wo iak' san tatemasli ta. 
SeucJr? wa yjjin no ii hito des" kara, shizuka ni June zvo yare 
to^ {its' keinasJi ta k ere do mo, kiri ga f'kakute tdmyodai no 
akari ga ntieniasen desJita^ kara, June zvo izva ni oshiage- 
mash'ta ; shikashi June no soko ni ana ga akimasen desk' t a 
nozva shiawase no ii koto desMta. Nikon wa ki no oi kuni des* 
kara, yoku suvii zvo ts' kaimas' . Ki no s' kunai kuni zva mizii 
ga s^ kunai. Taiko zva ki no okii kito desk'ta kara, Ckosen 
made mo ^ seibatsu skiinask'ia. VcJ'ku zva sode ga mijikakute 
hakama wo kakimasen kara, kataraku tame 7ii?- benri no ti 
mon des' {kataraku ni benri des'). Itp ko zva daiseijika de 
bcnzetsu mo ii. To wo sJiimenaide neie zva buyojin des' . 

The bed {soko) of this river is stony. Postal cards are con- 
venient tilings. The French are impulsive, but the Germans 
are phlegmatic. Both Yamato and Kishu are mountainous 
countries. Mountainous places are sparsely populated (popula- 
tion is scarce). As the Fuji River is swift, there are many 
rapids. The Lake of Omi {zva or ni zva) is full of fish ; large 
carp and {yd) Juna (2), are especially (i) numerous (many 
(3). '1 He is obstinate and doesn't do what one asks of him 

a Translate : after recovering soir.ewliat p. 96c). 

b The idiom to iu mono tva corresponds to our article " the " (p. 1). 

c V.'e should say : " the government has erected." The Japanese idiom is: 
" on the part of the govtrnment [they] have erected." When speaking of 
what is done societies, corporations, etc., this is the usual construction. 

d Imperative {xovix yarn to send : fiuie too yarn to move a ship forward. In 
Japanese, quotations are usually given in the form of direct discourse, the 
dependence of the plirase on the principal verb being denoted simply by the 
particle to. In the case of imperatives a phrase may be changed into indirect 
discourse by the use o{ yd ni : shizuka ni fane wo yam yd ni iitsukemashita 
(comp. p. io4bc). A polite command quoted by the person to whom it was 
addressed is commonly changed into the impolite form: Dde koi to ttidshi- 
mashita He said I should con.e out. 

e See p. 856. 

f See p. 53a. 

g Translate: " for working." When the posposiiion tame is added lo 
verbs, no is not required. 

h Omino kosuiot Bi'<un-ko,'ixov\\ biiua the name of a musical instrument 
which it resembles in form Ti^nA. koz=iniz:iiti!ii, is the largest body of fresh 
water in Japan. It is situated near Kyoto. 

xxxvi] Forms Derived from Verbs 127 

tanonda koto). These sentences are so inaccurate that cor- 
rection is inipossible (mistakes being many [one] can not 
mend). The maidservant through carelessness (being careless) 
started a conflagration. She is homely, but her character is 
good (Jiito ga ii). The Bridge of Seta is a very famous 
bridge. ^ 


In the chapter on relative pronouns (p. 53) it has been 
observed that in Japanese a verb may modify a noun like an 
adjective. It follows that many English adjectives are re- 
presented in Japanese by verbal expressions : 

deki-ru^^ossihXc, feasible (opp. dekmai). ^^ 

naniake-ru, nainakete ini lazy. 

wakam intelligent. 

ben-kyo sum {shite irti) diligent (opp. Ju-benkyj no). 

Expressions like gaku-mon ga aru may perform the office of 
an attributive adjective by changing the ga to 110 ^ (Compare 
the previous chapter) : 

kagiri no aru limited, from kagiri limit. 
tsumi no aru guilty, from tsumi crime, sin. 
sai no am talented, from sai ability. 
jiin-bo no aru popular, ^rom jini-bd popularity. 

These may be turned into their opposites by substituting nai 
for aru. 

Observe also the following combinations : 

kusuri ni naru curative, nutrious. 

tame ni «rt^z^. beneficial, advantageous. 

dvku ni naru poisonous, noxious, from doku (c) poison. 

gai HI naru injurious, from gai injury. 

a A bridge over the Lake of Umi at the point where it empties its waters 
into the river called (at the lower end of its course) Yodogawa. 

b With the ^Averh yo/cu, dekiru also means " capable" : yoku dcL-iru Jii/o an 
ah\& ms,n, onga/cti tio yohi dckiru hi/o a man well versed in music, a capaljlc 
musician. Butj/o/'w de/.'i^e ini means " well made " (of a thing). 

c The no is omitted in some cases, thus : tai-mo am hitonkVi ambitious person, 
futnbe/sH aru /li^o a. (Wscrect \iiixzon, gi-ri n)-ii lyodai a step-brolluT or brother 
in law, from gi-ri right, obligation. 

128 The Adjective [xxxvi 

me ni tatsii {medatsii) conspicuous. 
yaku ni iatsu useful. 

Most of the verbs that serve as adjectives, if denoting a 
condition, are used in the past tense when attributive, and in 
the form of the subordinative with i-ru or oru when predicative 
(p. 89b): 

aila vacant, {vova aku open (intr.). . - 

hiraketa civilized, from hirake-ru be opened. 

/«i'<?//;V? fleshy, stout, {xova fiitorit become stout. 

yaseta lean, emaciated, ixoxw yase-rii become lean. 

ikita live, alive, from iki-rn survive. 

skinda dead, from sJiinii die. ^ 

kawatta different, from kawaru be changed 

kmuotta cloudy, from kuinoni be clouded 

sJtareta stylish, witty, from share-ru be elegant. 

sorotta complete, from sorou be uniform. 

yogoreta^\x\.Y^ {xoxi\ yogore-rii be soiled. 

iki-sngita conceited, from ikii go and sugi-rii exceed. 

konii-itta complicated, from komu be crowded, and iru 

iri-kunda complicated, from iru enter and kiiinu knit 

together. ^ 
ochi-tsiiita calm, composed, sane, from ochi-ru fall and 

isnku arrive, 
wakari-kitta obvious,--from wakaru and kirn cut, finish, 
ippai haitta full, from ippai (p. 90c) and kairu eater, 
ki 710 kiita smart, from ki spirit and kiku be efficacious,*^ 
ven 710 itta thoug'htful, painstaking, from neyi tliought, 

attention and iru enter, 
as sari shit a plain, simple. 
hakkiri shita clear, distinct. 
shikkari shita substantial, trustworthy, '^ 
siibe-sube shita smooth, slippery, from suberu slide. 

a Shinde iru may be used only of persons or animals which are in the 
presence of the speaker. In other cases "he is dead" must be translated 

h Koiniitta is rather inorc common than iriknnda. 

c Compare : lOisiiriga stigii kikimasliita. The medicine acted immediately. 
Kono fompu lua kikanalai narhnasJnta. This pump doesn't work any more. 

d The beginner may be puzzled by the similiarity between hakkiri !o 
distinctly, shikkari to substantially, shikiri ni persistently, sukkari entirely, 
shakkuri\\'\czv)'a^\, etc. 

xxxvi] Forms Derived from Verbs 129 

The predicative forms are aite irti {orii), ki ga kiite iru {oru), 
etc. But some expressions of this class cannot be used predi- 

catively : 

tai shita. great, important, serious. 

ivnda surprising, extraordinary, great, from tobu, fly spring. 


(Include the adjectival expressions given above) 

knbe plastered wall. ^ hare-rii clear off (of the sky). 

kaki fence, enclosure. katsugu, katsuide carry on the 
ishi-gaki stone wall. shoulder. 

kemuri smoke. go-hei sticks holding cut paper 
botan peony (shrub). used in Shinto shrines as 

viochi a pasty food made by symbols of divinity. 

pounding a special kind gohei- katsrigi a superstituous 

of rice {inochi-goiiie) in a person. 

"^°''^^''- konare-ru J^ ^ dio-ested 

bota-viochi a ball of rice sho-kzva sum \ ^ 

which has been boiled and tsuzuku, tsuzuite continue, 

then brayed in a mortar. hold out (intr.). 

ki-chigai lunatic {ki spirit, — ni ki zvo tsuke-ru pay at- 

cJiigau differ). tention to, take care of. 

ko-zukai errand-boy, servant nige-dasu escape. 

{ko small, tsukati use). batsn (c), bachi punishment. 

shi-golo work, task. bassiiru punish. 

{p)rei bow, thanks, present. basserare-rii, bassare-rii be 
an-shin peace of mind. punished. 

Ju-anshin uneasiness. ski-kata {shiyo) ga ;/^zz can't 
viei-tvaku annoyance. be helped (p. 1 6a). 

shokii-vioisu ( = tabe-inono) i-zen previously. '^ 

food, vwtrrai^, i-go afterwards. 

teishu, tei-shi master of a betsu ni specially. 

house, landlord (of a chika-goro lately. 

hotel), husband. inia-sara no longer, no more 

7;/M-r/«rt unreasonable, absurd, (with a negative word). 

a Kabe means properly a wall of a house. A wall around a t;ardcn is het 
(c), or do-bei, from do (c) carlli. A high board fence is ila-bei, from itn board. 
A fence is i:nki or kaki-ne\ a hedge, ike-gnki. 

1) Zeu=mae ; <(OT=nocfn. Compare i-jo and i-Aa p. 71. Tiic / indicates com- 

I30 '.The Adjective , [xxxvi 

Exercises ^ 

Kore tva assari sJi ta e des\ Nihoii no tabeuiono tva assart 
sJita mono ga o gozaiiHas\ ^ 1 aseta hito iva hayakti ariike- 
mas'. Ano yadoya no teisJiu tva taihenf'totta hiio des\ Ano 
koztikai wa ki no kiita otoko des\ Ano hito wa tsunii ga am 
ka nai ka inada hakkiri slite imasen. Goheikatsngi zva taigai 
kydikn no nai hito des" . Ano kata wa iaihen nen no itta hito 
des' ; hito no ucJii ?ii yobarevias'' to, ^ ato de sugu ni rei ni 
ikinias . Are zva taihen nen no itta hito des kara, sj viachi- 
gatta koto wa arimasvuii. ^ Kido wa taisj jimbo ga ari- 
inash'ta. ^ Nilion ni wa ivia jinibo no am daijin ga s'kunai. 
Bis mar' k' ko zva izen jinibo ga nakatta. Kono mushi zva 
kaiko no gai ni narinias' . Sake zva karada no dokii ni nari- 
inas\ Iliraketa kiini de zva yokti kodonio no kyjiku ni ki zvo 
ts' kemas\ Aita kuchi ni botauiochi. ^ Chichi zva kusuri ni 
narimas\ Aita heya ga arimas' ka. Chikagoro zva ikaga de 
gozaiinas' ka. Arigato, betsu ni kawatta koto mo gozaimasen. ^ 
Sore zva nen no itta shigoto des\ Yogoreta kilts' zvo haite 
inias kara, agariinasen. Chligakkj no Eigo-kydsJii ni zva 
yoku dekitu hito ga s' kunaknte komarimas' . Kagiri no aru 
karada des kara, so zva tsuzukiinasen. ' Ainari medaisu kimono 
wo kite zva nariniasen. S Ko iu komiitta koto wa gzvaikokiigo 
de zva hanasJiinikui. Sono hito wa sakuncn kichigai ni natta 
ga, tadainia de zva ochitsuite orn .vJ des . Wakarii ningen 
yiaraba sonna muri na koto zvo iivanai ^^ hazu da. [Imasara 
sonna wakarikitta koto zvo iwanak'te mo yoroshiij Tonda 

a 'Q-j assari sJUta e is understood a sketch, not highly colored. By assart 
sKta labeinono is understood the opposite of rich food. 

b Yobareru is the passive oi yodu to call or invite. (O) lei iii ikn to go to 
ofler thanks ; in this case, to make a party call. See p. 33c. 

c Negative probable form of ttWwzrtj?*. 

d Kido was a. samurai of Choshu who distinguished himself in connection 
with the Restoration of iS68. 

e The meaning is : an unexpected piece of luck, a windfall. 

f Translate : there has lieen no special change. One may also say katcari 
via gozaimasen. It is polite to inr^uire : O ka-vari f/to gozaimasen ka. Are you 
in good health ? '~~' — "" 

g Equivalent to kite lua i/jemaseii (p. 122b). 

h hvatiai is the familiar negative form of in to say. For zvakarti, icaknffa 
or mono no 7va/;atta might be suljst ituted. 

XXXVI Forms Derived from Verks 131 

vieiwaku wo iiaskiviash^ta. Anna iktsugita y tits' zva shikcxia 
ga rial. 

•^ The physician says it is not (there is not) a serious matter^ 
Now {ima zvd) it is cloudy, but later {jiochi ni wa) it may 
clear off. Is this novel complete? [I] loaned just {daki) owo. 
volume to a friend. Is that bottle empty ? No, its full. The 
walls of the castle are very substantial. Since the door of the 
cage is open, the birds may escape. Wrestlers are usually 
fleshy. This duck is very lean. Simple foods are easy to 
digest. Have you any room (Is there still a vacant room) ? ^ 
Yes, all are vacant. That student is talented, but he is a lazy 
fellow {nainake-inono). Eels are slippery fish. A guilty man 
is always uneasy. He is a very trustworthy person. ^ Though 
{no ni) innocent, he was punished. Smoke is injurious to the 
eyes. Unlearned people don't use this word. He is diligent 
{benkyo wa shimasti), but he is not talented. This food is 
poisonous, it is said. Our {uchi no) maidservant is smart, but 
dishonest. The fish dealer was selling live sardines. 1\ 
distinct answer is not yet possible. Mi's. Nakamura is very 




:^ - h 


A substantive may be formed from any adjective or adjec- 
tival expression by adding the particle no : 

Chiisai no ga nakereba ukii no wo kaimasho. 

If you have no small one, I will buy a large one, or, 

If you have no small ones, I will buy large ones. 

To such substantival forms the particles wa, ga, nio, no, ni, 
li'o de, etc., may be added. An adjective formed by means of 
no, like hidari no (p. i 19), may without an additional no take 
these particles and be treated as a substantive. Thus : yoroskii 
no wa, suki na no %va, machigai no oi no zva, doku ni nam no 
wa, but nania no wa. No wa may be contracted to n'd:. No 

a Instead of ai/a lieyo, one may also say aki-ina, 

b The common expression. Are wa ttakanaka shiA-kari-niOuodesu, lias a ratlicr 
slans;y flavor. 

132 The Adjective [xxxvii 

iw occurs in Chiisai no no koto desu I mean the small one. 

These substantival forms may denote a concrete object, the 
no being cqivalent to mono, especially before da^ desu, etc. 

Taihen takai no desu. It is a very expensive article. 

When a contrast is involved, ho side is substituted for 710 : 

Kore wa takai ho desu. This is the more expensive. 

Before da, desu, etc., 710 is usually contracted : 

Taihe7i takai n desu. It's a very expensive one. 

Takai 11 fa { = de wa) 7iai 7i desu. It's not an expensive 

Taiso rippa 7ia 71 desu. It's a very fine one. 

Often there is no difference in the sense between a simple 
predicate adjective and the adjective followed by 71 da {11 desu), 
which simply serves to round off the sentence. Thus there is 
no appreciable difference between Mo zVand Mo it 11 da {desu) 
That'll do (polite : Mo yoroshu gozainiasu). 

In man}' cases the substantival forms are to be translated by 
means of abstract nouns : 

Sa7)iui no wa ii ga, atsui rio ni wa koviarinmsu. 

[IJ don't mind the cold, but find the heat oppressive. 

The particle 7ii following a substantivized adjective gives it 
a concessive sense, unless the particle is directly dependent on 
the verb : 

Sa7nui 210 7ii itsuino 710 tori sa77ipo shite iniasu. 
Ji;LSJiiit£_o£the cold, he is taking a walk, as usual. 
Kodomo 710 riko 71a 7W 7ii odorokimashita. 
[IJ was astonished at the cleverness of the child. ^ 
The no may be omitted ; sai/iui ;//, riko 71a ni. 

The particle de following a substantivized adjective may 
indicate a cause or reason (p. I04h). 

Kyo wa ainari saniui 710 de sainpo 7ii dekakei/tasen. 

Since it is too cold to-^ayT'I shall not go out for a walk. 
By saying saiTtui to iu 710 d_c the speaker may avoid asserting 
explicitly that it is really too cold to take a walk'. Compare : 

Sa7nui kara to itte sa77ipo 7ii dekakeinasen. 

Pleading that it is too cold, he does not go out for a walk. 

a '1 lie iii \w ri/;d 7in tto ni odorokirnnshta and in atsui no ni komarimasu is pro- 
liaMy related to t]ie ni used to denote the agent with a passive verb, as in 
Seusei Tii {or l-ara) shilarareta was scolded by the teacher {shiknrii to scold). 




The de does not indicate a cause in a sentence like : 

Yasui jmji£,yoroshii. A cheap one will do (p. il/h). 

The following idiom must be accepted without explanation : 

Atsiii no aisuku jiai fio 'tie { — to itte) yakeso deshita. 
Talk about heat ! It seemed as if I were burning. 

Itai no itakti nai no ^tte shinu ka to omotta. 
I was in such pain — I thought I was dying. 



ase perspiration. ^ 

gomi dirt, dust, rubbish. 

gomi {kokori) ga iatsu dust 

hashi chopsticks. 

itoina=-hima leisure. 

oki the open sea. 

sitgata form, figure. 

urns hi lacquer. 

ushiro rear ( — no iishiro ni 

kado gate (in Jiii-kado). 

kado'Viatsti two pine trees 
placed one on each side of 
the gate at New Year's. 

kokoro-atari clew. 

kokoro-atari gcParu [I] hap- 
pen to know. 

inonio thigh. 

vionto-hiki [Japanese] close- 
fitting trousers. 

zubon [European] trousers. 

zubon-shita drawers. 

shibal theater, drama. ^ 
ue-ki-bachi flower-pot 
sai-ku artificers' work.*^ 
zas-shi magazine, journal. 
kitn-dan-kei thermometer (lit. 

cold- warmth-measure). 
shabon soap (French savon). 
atsui thick. 
oviol heavy, grave. 
in ami round. 
shi-kaku na square. 
hnru stretch, extend (intr.). 
kori ga harit ice forms. 
iiaru reach ijii itaru extend 

itatte very. 
nurti paint. 

niiri-inono lacquered ware. 
odoroku, odoroite be astonisli- 

toke-ru be loosed, be solved, 

melted, thawed. 
yoivaru be weak, debilitated. 

a " To perspire," the subject being understood, is ase ga dent ; \s\\.\\ :\. %\\\i- 
ject, ase wo dasu or ase ivo kaku. 

b Form shiba grass and ir-u to sit. Tlieatrical perfi)riii;itice;; used to be 
licl<l in the open air and actors were called /uuvara-kojiki, from kowara 
{ka-ica, /la/a) dry river bed and kojiki beggar. 

c P"rom this are derived such words as j:;in-zatkn {s/tirokane-zm'ku) silver- 
ware, ioge-iaiku ivory-ware, urus/ii zaiku lac'iucrcil ware, clc. 

i'34 T"''^ Adjectine [xxxvii 

^\// ■ '■" Exercises 

Ktindankei wa choJio iia mon des ; sugu ni atsui no to saiiiui 
no ga xuakarivias . Kono kadouiats wa chiisai ; oki na no tva 
nai ka. AtarasJni zubon wo motte kite o kure ; fnrni no wa 
kurumaya ni yaite yoroshii. Kono shinaviono wa warui ; ii 
no wa nai ka. Gozaivias keredonio, ^ itatf.e tako gozaimas . 
Tokei ni wa (p. 3Cb) shimbiin ga tak'san arimas keredoino 
yoi no zva s" knno {s keno) gozaivias'. Hashi {no 7icki) ni wa 
inarui no mo ariniasu ski, sliikaku no nio ^^ ariuias' . Kore to 
onaji yd na no wa gozaiinasen ka. Gozaivias'. Ko atsui no 
ni, anata wa ase ga chitto vio deviasen ka. Anata wajdzu na 
isha wo go zonji de gozaiinasen ka. So des ne, heta na no wa 
ikutari vio slitte inias keredovid, jozu na no wa hitori mo 
shiriviasen. Miya no uchi ni tua oki na no mo arivtasu shi, 
chiisa na no mo arimas' . Ano onna wa ushiro kara viiru to, 
siigata ga taisD yoi keredonio ; viae kara miru io, nao no zuarui 
no ni wa odorokivias\ '^ Michi ga toi no ni komarivias' . Kono 
bydki zva omoku nai no ni, ano isha zva omoi yb ni iivias'.^^ 
Ano sJiibai zva ouiosJiiroku nai no ni, ano hito wa onioshiroi yb 
ni iimas\ Omos/iiroi no ni, omoshiroku nai yb ni iinias\ 
I Kb saniui no ni, yoku oide nasaimasJita. ^ Saniui no de 
' kbri ga hariniasJita. Tenki ga ii no de kori ga tokemaslita. 
-Oki no kurai no {kiirai hb), ni shiraho ga viierii ; are- wa 
- Kishu no mikavibune. '^ Tabetai no ni, tabetaku nai yb ni iu. 
Akai hb ni nasaimas' ka, aoi hb ni nasaimas ka.^ Oi ! 
shabon ga naknnatta kara, hitots' katte kite moraitai. Akai 
no wo katte mairimashb ka, shiroi no wo katte viairiinashb 

a In a reply the verb of a question is repeated : O wakari deshita ka. 
Wakarimashita. Did you understand ? Yes. Expressions like //^«', Z/^?^ ^«y5, 
iayo de gozniinasu, so dcsii ne, etc, may precede the reply, but aie really 
noncommittal (p. I7h). But so des?i Implies very definite assent. 

1) Notice that «« is omitted as if the adjective belonged to the same class 
as hi dart no. 

c The ni here, as also in the following sentence, is dependent on the verb. 
d Translate : " talks as if it were a grave case." 

e Yoku oide 7iasaiinasliita ox yoku irassliaimashita flit, you have well come) 
is a common expression used ia welcoming a visitor. 
f See p. 3Sb. Shira ho white sail, 
g The idiom ni sinu [ilnsii, nasarii) often means " to decide upon." 

xxxvii] Substantivized 135 

ka. Atarashii kilts' zvo o haki nasa'nnas' ka, fiirui no zvo 
o haki nasaivias ka. Tenki ga yokereba^ atarashii 710 wo 
hako. ^ 

Shall I bring the old garment {kimono) or shall it be (/// 
itashimasho) the new one ? Bring the new one. The paper 
that I bought lately was too light (thin) ; haven't you any 
heavier pt" Among magazines there are both good ones and 
bad ones. It being so hot, everybody is debilitated. How 
much are these fish ? The large ones are {de) one /^//; the 
small ones (are) fifty sen. The wind being strong, dust rises. 
Among lacquered wares there are cheap articles and also ex- 
pensive ones. As our {jichi no) manservant is d shonest I 
dismissed him ; don't you happen to know {0 kokoroatari zva 
gozaivias'inai ka) some honest fellow ? Just now I don't 
happen to know any. Really {dovid) honest ones are scarce. 
The one sitting on the left side of Mr. Ito is {de) Mr. Tsuzuki ; 
[the one on] tb.e right side is Mr. Furuya. As for the flower- 
pots, shall I buy large ones, or shall they be small ones? 
Small ones will do {de yoroshii). How about a cup of tea? 
Do you like it {o s'ki dcs ka) strong or weak ? '^ 


There are no inflections corresponding to our degrees of 

The comparative degree '^ may be expres.sed by means of 
such words as motto, mo sukoshi, mo chitto, mo is-so {so layer), 
nao, nao sara, etc. 

Motto yoroshii no zva gozaimasen ka. 
Have you no better ones ? 

Sore mo ii gci, (i^e wa nao ii. 
This will do, but that is still better. 

a The word /-rtZ-o is the plain or familiar future of hakit. It is not polite, 
being used in speaking to a servant. 

1) Motto alsui I'or the comparative degree see the following chapter. 

c In this case we have a contrast, not of predicates, but of subjecis and 
must, accordingly, use^'/7, not 7on. If willing to accept the tea, one may say; 
Jppai chudai itasliiiiinsn ; if not, Dozo, o /.•antai kudasain na. 

d Ilika/ai-kyu, from hi-kakn comparison and kyu degree. The suptrlalive 
\s saijo-Ayu {saiz=mo/U?iio, jd=iie). 

136 The Adjective [xxxviii 

Sometimes the word ho side conveys the idea of comparison : 
Dochira ga o ki ni iriinasu ka ; nagai hd desu ka, mijikai 

ho desu ka. 
Which do you like better, the longer or the shorter ? 
Ikusa no nai ho ga ii. It is better not to have war. 
If the object which serves as the standard of comparison is 
stated, as when we use " than," the adjective does not require 
any modifier to indicate the comparative degree. " Than " is 
to be rendered by yori, yori mo, or yori iva. This yori is the 
literary equivalent of kara " from " (Compare the Latin abla- 
tive as used with comparatives) : 

Chosen wa Itaria yori okii {hiroi). 
Korea is larger than Italy. 

IVatakushi no zaisan zva ano hito no yori mo sukunai. 
My property is less than his. 

Anata zva ano kata yori mo kanji wo yokei go zonji de 
gozaimasii. You know more characters than he. 

In the last example /^-/(v/ is an adverb meaning " in excess." 
Notice : Nani yori ii. [It] is better than any [other]. Nothing 
could be better (for nani see p. 47). One may also say : Sore 
wa nani yori desu. 

When there is a choice between two evils, mashi, from masu 
to increase, may be used : 

Kono sake zva zuarui keredomo, mizii yori wa mashi desu. 
This sake is bad, but still preferable to water. 

Is so {no koto) shinda hj ga 7) i as hi desu. 
It were better to die. 

No sign of the comparative is required in such sentences as : 

Dandan {pioi, masumasti) okiku narimasu. 
[It] is gradually growing larger. 

Dochira ga yj gozainiasu ka. Which is better ? 

" The more the better " and similar expressions may be 
translated by the use of hodo following the adjective or verb : 

Oi hodo yoroshii. I'he more the better. 

Ano iiiusume zva miteba, iniru hodo kirei desu. 

The more I look at that girl, the prettier she seems, (lit. 

If i look at that girl, to the degree that 1 look she is 


The superlative is expressed by means of ichi-bati or mottoino 

xxxviii] Comparison 137 

before the adjective. Notice also other idioms : 

Himaraya-san wa sekai-ju de ^ ichiban takai yaina desu. 

The Himalayas are the highest mountains in the world. 

Nihon-ichi no kosui the largest lake in Japan. 

Tokyd-ju de no bijin the most beautiful woman in Tokyo. 

Kwanto-kitte no^ kajieiuochi t\\Q richest man in Kwanto. 
" Most," " mostly " is to be rendered by the adverbs tai-gai, 
tai-tei, o-kata, oku zva, or by the adjectival expressions taigai 
no, taitei no. 


7;^?^^/ cereals like barley and ina-zuma, tna-bzkarz Wght- 

wheat (p. 1 5). ning. ^ 

nakaba niiddle. mon-=^rin.'^ 

nashi pear. ba-ai occasion, case. ^ 

ni, ni-iHotsu baggage, freight, dan-go [Japanese] dumpling. 

ringo apple. gi-ron, ron debate, argument. 

sara plate, saucer. hantai opposition, the reverse. ■ 

taki waterfall. kwogo {saina) Empress, 

uji lineage, family-name. rikii-gun army.— m, aA/^-^^.-V^ 

uisuwa vessel, utensil. sek-kyo ) r 

/ • , < J. /- } sermon. * 

was/u eagle. sep-po 3 

yamai disease. sho-ko evidence, proof. 

Sne rice plants. shippo-yaki cloisonne. S 

tsuma consort, wife. Butsu Buddha. 

a Ju=chT{=uchi. Compare /wz^ /<i-//*</^ among these things. Asa suffix /5 
is emphalic, so that 5<?/^rt?3/'«; means not simply "in the world," but " iu the 
whole world." 

b Ku>anz=se/ci {^. "j^iX)] td=kigashi. The provinces along the coast east of 
the barrier at Uakonc, including Tokyo and Yokohama and extending to 
Shirakawa, are called Kivanto. Kitle is the subordinativc of kirn to cut, finish 
(comp. ivakari-kitla p. 128). For no with the subordinative compare hajimete 
no (p. 97a). 

c Lightning occurs most frequently when tlie rice is caring. It was 
formerly supposed to have the effect of fertilizing the rice-plants. 

d The mon was formerly one tenth of a tin, being a perforated coin made 
of iron while the rin was made of copper. 

e Pronounced by some bayai or baiuai. 

f Sep-pb, from setsu-=^tokH explain and ho law, is a Uuddhistic terni. As 
slang seppo suru is also used in the sense of " to scold," " read a lecture." 

g Y rom s hippo {s hie hi ho) 3. BuddliisMc wor<l meaning "seven jewels" and 
ya/cii to burn. Com^aje ynki-t/toiio. 


The Adjective 


Buk-kyd, Buisu-do, Buppj 

Bukkyo-to a l^uddhist. 

Kirisuto-kyo-to a Christian. ^ 

haba breadth. 

///r<?/ broad, spacious. 

haba ga Jiiroi is wide (opp. 

kanasliii sad. 

kowai fearful, terrible. 

iattoi highly prized, honor- 
able, precious. 

urusai annovinsf. 
jo-bu na strong, robust, 

healthy. 'j 
yo-kei na excessive. 
yo-kei ni in excess, too much, 


inasu increase (tr: and intr.). 
mashi desu is better. 
nozoniu, vozonde hope for, 

wish for. 
oku, oite put, place, employ 

(a seivant). 
motsu, motte last, endure. 
sodaisu, sodatte gi'ow up, he 


kokoro-mochi ga yoi 

koko-chi o-a yoi , r- i n 

, . J .^ ■' . >feel well. 

kt-Dioclii ga yot 

ki-biin ga yoi 

myj-clio \ . 

■^ . f to morrow 

myj-asa \ 

■^ > mor.iinr 

asii no as a i , f(-\ 

ashita fw as a i ■"" '' 


Ka zva hai yori mo urusai ne\ Kane 'no utsuiva wa ki no 
utsnwa yori mo nagaku mochimas\ Anata wa Nihonryori 
yori mo Seiyoryori ga o s ki desho. Nihonjin wa Seiyojin 
yori mo sei ga hiku gozaimas" . Bukkyj wa Yasokyo yori mo 
furu gozaimas" . Kono baaini wa wo to iu ji wo ts keru ho ga 
tsutei des\ Motto skizuka ni {s\o\v\y) yonde kudasai. Was hi 
wa ichiban hayai tori des\ Karigi yori arqigi (Proverb). ^ 
Hana yori dango (Proverb). Sakura wa Nihonjin no icJiiban 
5 ki na hana des . Ron yori shdko (Proverb). Kojiki zva 
Nihon no ichiban furui rek' shi des . Nihon no kzvogo sama 
wa tenshi sama yori f tats toshi ga o ue de gozaimas" . *^ Fuji 

a The word Yasokyo, from Yaso, wliicli is the Japanese sound of the 
ideograms that stand for "Jesus" in the Chinese, was once universally current 
as a designation of Christianity. But the Christians themselves now say 
Yesti,v\oV Yasn. The latter lias an indelible tinge of contempt and is be-, 
coming more and more a vulgarism. 

b Dai-jobu {iiesu\ It's all right ; without fail. 

C From ki clothing (in M-viono), kari-rii to borrow and aiati to wash. 

d '• Oilier " may also be expressed by the idiom foshi gd bi ; " younger," by 
tosfii na sukiinai. 

xxxviii] : CoMP \R i.soN 1:39: 

no yaina iva Nikon no ichibnn takai yamd des keredomo, 
S^viitsur no jchiban takai yaiiia yori zva hiktii. Kono jislio 
wa wariii keredovio, nai yori zva mashi des'. Baka_ yori 
kowai mono nashi (Proverb). Chichi no yamai wa/ yoku 
nariniasho to isha ga mushimash'ta keredo, danddn waruku 
nariinas. Ido waf kai hodo mizu ga ii. Myoasa zva mo 
chitio hayakii okosh'te o hire. Kofio shippdyaki no sara ga 
mo s koshi yas kereha, kaimasho. Inu zva neko yori mo yaku 
ni tachimas" . Kono iima no nchi de dochira ga yd gozai,nas 
ka. Say J de gozaimas , kono h3 zva zvakaknte Jiayj gozaimasit 
ski, ano ho zva dkikute jdbu de gozaimas ga, dochira mo yd 
gozaimas'. Yuki ga furu hodo mugi ga yoku dekimas\ Ko in. 
___ baai ni zva ga no ho ga tsUrei des'. Sampo zva yoru yori hint 
no ho ga yoroshu gozaimas' . Tegami zvoyaru yori atte hanaslita 
hj ga yd gozaimashj.^ Ju ni gzvatsii no Jiij'u ichi nichi zva 
ichinenju de ichiban hi ga mijikai. Sore zva nani yori kanashu 
gozaimas' . Kueba kuu hodo umakti jiaru. TokyJ no nigiyaka 
11a koto zva Nihon ichi des' . Ontake-san zva Nikon de Nibamme 
no (takai) yama des'.^ Uji yori sodachi {VxovQvh). Omotta 
yori mntsukashii. Undo sureba, sum hodo kokochi ga ii. 

Please speak a little louder (with a little greater voice). 
Mount Ontake is lower than Mount Fuji. Kydto is older than 
Tokyo. There are more Buddhists than Christians in Japan. 
I wish to employ (okitai) a manservant. Do you desire {o 
nozomi des' ka) a married {kanai no aru) one, or (is it) an 
unmarried one ? A married one would be better (is good). 
Japanese horses are smaller than American horses. Which is 
more extensive, Washington or Tokyo (as for Washington and 
Tokyo, which of the two is broader) ? (The side of) Tok}'o is 
more extensive. It is said that the waterfall of Nachi is the 
JMghest (waterfall) in Japan {Nihon-jti de).^ This rikslia is 
poor (bad), but bettc>r than none. In Japan the hot season 

a Notice that >'(?/'/ may l»c attached to a verh inuncdiately. AUe is the 
subordinalive of ait to meet. For hanasliila the i>resctit lensc iiiit;ht be 
substituted. Compare: Ki/:n yoii hayakii kake-dasliiniasJiitn. Scarcely had lie 
heard it when h*; ran out (lit. he ran out so(mcr lli;ui lie heard it). 

b Mount Ontake lies between the provinces of llida and Sliinaiio. 

c Naclii is in the province of Kishil. The largest cataract is several 
hundred feel hij^h : the Japanese estimate it at from 8oo to looo feet. 

140 The Adjective [xxxviii 

extends (it is hottest) from the middle of July to {made gii) tire 
middle of August. The tai is the most highly prized fish in 
Japan. The Lake of Omi is Japan's largest lake ; [its] length 
[is] eighteen ri ; its width at (de) the broadest place is seven 
ri, and (jnata) its depth at ihe deepest place is about three 
hundred feet (thirty/J). There is nothing swifter than light- 
ning. In Japan the number of men is greater than [that of 
the] women, but in Germany it is the reverse. The population 
of Kyoto is less than [that of] Osaka. In travelling (/rt<5z wt? 
suru ni tvd) the less baggage the better, I can not give 
{yararemaseii) even a vion more {yokei wa) than this. Won't 
you have {agarti) a little more ? The shorter the sermon the 
better. Japan is larger than E^ngland. It is said that Germany 
has the best army (as for the army, Germany is best). The 
deepest place in (of) the ocean is over {ijo luo aru) 8,000 
meters. Which is the stronger of these cipars? This one 
(side) is the stronger. I like pears better than apples. This 
grammar is poor, but better than none. Sake is stronger than 



I. The Japanese verb differs in many respects from the 

(i.) There are no inflections to distinguish number or person. 
Both must be determined from the context. Ordinarily pro- 
nouns are used only when perspicuity requires them (p. 27). 
But in polite conversation the first and second persons are 
often plainly indicated by the nature of the verb or auxiliary 
used, a humble verb like itasu being used only in the first (or 
third) person, while the corresponding honorific verb nasaru is 
used only in the second (or third) person, 

(2.) The Japanese language having no negative adverb 
corresponding to " not," negation is expressed by special 

(3.) Peculiar to the Japanese verb are the subordinative 
form ^ ending in te (negative zti), the alternative form ^ in tari 
{dari), and the desiderative form in tai. 

(4.) The use of the passive is much more limited than ia 
English. It may not be used except when the subject is a 
living thing. 

(5.) By means of certain terminations derivative verbs may 
be formed. There are potential forms indicating ability or 
possibility, and also causativ^e forms. 

(6.) There is nothing corresponding to our infinitive, which 
is variously rendered. " To eat " is taberu koto wa or iaberu 
■no wa. " Go to see " is 7ni ?n iku. Verbs are named by their 
present form. 

a Do-shi, from do (c) to move, act. 

b This may be a clumsy word, but its meaning is plain. The other terms 
proposed, " participle" (Aston) and "gerund" (Chamberlain), arc not cal- 
culated to enlighten a beginner. The subordinative is not an adjective like a 
participle ; much less is it a " past " participle, for it may also indicate an act 
simultaneous with that of the principal verb. The subordinative is not a 
noun like a gerund. Moreover ilie Latin gerund never indicates an act 
completed witli reference to the principal verb, while the subordinative is 
never future with reference to the principal word of tlic sentence. 

c Cnllcd also " ficquentat ive " in other grammars. 

142 The Verb [xxxix 

2. There arc two classes of verbs. In the first the stem 
remains unchanged ; in the second the final vowel of the stem 
(p. 10) undergoes changes in conjugation. There are also a 
few irregular verbs. 

Stems of verbs of the first class end in e or // those of the 
second class end always in i, which in conjugation may be 
changed X.q> a, e ox u. 

To derive the stem from the present form in the case of verbs 
ending in e-ru or i-tUy like tabe-ru eat, mi-ni see, drop ru. 
In the case of verbs of the second class, like kati buy, substitute 
i for u : kai. ^ One must be careful not to mistake the verbs 
described in Ch. XLVIIL, which, ending in eru and zVw, ap- 
parently belong to the first class, but really belong to the 
second, like shaberii chatter, hairu enter, whose stems are 
shaberi, hairi. A few verbs have forms of both classes ; like 
aki-rti or akii be surfeited, kari-ru or karu borrow, tari-ru or 
iarii be enough. Distinguish further : 


kae-ru change. kaeru {kaeri) return, 

i-ru be, dwell. tru {iri) enter, be needed. 

he-ru pass through, hern {fieri) decrease (intr.). 

ne-ru sleep. 7ieni {iierl) soften, train. 

3. Stems of verbs may be used as substantives (Ch, LXV,), 

It must be remembered that in polite conversation with one's 
equals or superiors ^ the plain forms of the conjugations now 
to be studied are not used when the verb occupies an import-^ 
ant position (pp, 10, 55d). Ordinarily politeness requires that. 
masu be added to the stem. In the second (or third) person 
the honorific may be prefixed and nasaru {nasaimasu) or 7d 
nam {iiarimasu) added : kaki nasaiinashita {ni narlviashitaf 
you (or he) wrote. Similarly itasu or iiiosn may be used with 
the stem to denote the first oerson when the act effects other 

a In the cases of verbs ending in sh and Istt the stems end respectively in 
shi and clii, tliiis : machi, from malsu wait ; haiiashi, from Jianasn speak. 

b Scrv.-inis in the house of a friend, clerks in a store, employees in a hotel, 
etc , are to be addressed politely. Even in speaking to one's own servants, 
Tiksha-men, coolies, etc., the tendency is to soften the forms of speech. Tlie 
plain forms seem destined, like the German du, to become characteristic of 
conversation among intimates. 

xxxix] The Tenses 143 

persons : susume dtashiinashita I exhorted, o at vidsJiimasJiitti 
1 met. a 

But in speaking to intimate friends or to inferiors these 
embelUshments may be dispensed with. Men are more free ia 
this respect than women. In monologues, proverbs, etc., the 
plain forms only are used (See also p. i26d). 

4. The tenses of verbs of the first class are inflected thus : 

Present tabe-ru ^dX"" ' mi-ru sqq 

Past tabe-ta ate, have eaten mi-ta saw, have seeii 

Future or ) ^^^^^ ^- ^^.j^ ^^^ „ii_y^ ^^\\\ see 
Probable ) 

Probable Past tabeta-ro probably ate, viita-ro probably saw, 
might have eaten might have seen 

5, A few explanations concerning the uses of these tenses 
may be helpful. 

(i.) The present {gen-zai) is used (a) in general statements, 
in which case it may be rendered " is wont to," etc. ; (b) 
instead of the future when one means to speak of an event as 
certain to occur; (c) instead of the past in narratives (the 
historical present) and in dependent clauses (p. 88e). 

(2.) The past {kioa-ko) is to be translated as a pluperfect in 
such phrases as vieshi wo tabeta ato de {nochi iii) after he had 
eaten. It sometimes stands for our present : ariiiiasliita there 
it is (when one has been looking for a thing), kiniashita there 
lie comes. This is especially the case when the present de- 
notes a process : 

Sugu ni dekimasu. It will soon be done. 
Mo dekimashita. It is now done. 

(3.) Taberii darJ {desho) and tabeta daro {desho) are common 
periphrastic forms, used chiefly in the third person. I'abeyj 
is future_rather than probable, and is used only in^tjie ^. firs t 
person, except in questions or d ependent clauses : 

a Wliat is here said about the use of itiisit with the stems of verbs docs not 
apply necessarily to its more common use witli Chinese compounds : hcii kyo 
ilasliiinashita I (or lie) studied. 

b I'or brevity's sake the first person only is given in the translation. Tlic 
\^xhj(iberu \% properly transitive and requires an object. In the first (or 
third) person it is a polite word; but in llie second (or third) a^nru or meilii- 
aj^arii is be'.ter. 

144 The Verb [xxxix 

Ano Seiyojin 7i>a sashiini wo tabeyo ka. 

[Do you thinlc] that European would eat sashiini? 

To the future or probable forms such adverbs as d-kata or 
ta-bun " probably " may be added. Often to oinou is added : 

Kane wo ginko ye azukeyo to omoiinasu. 
I will deposit my money in the bank. 

Notice that in dependent clauses the plain forms without such 
auxiliaries as inasu, etc., may be used even in polite conversa- 
tion if the principal verb is polite. 

6. In classical Japanese the attributive termination of verbs 
which in colloquial end in e-ru, or i-ru (except mi-rii, ni-ru) is 
«r//, and the conclusive is u, thus : akuru, aku from ake-ru to 
open. Forms in uru are heard not infrequently : 

Aha II hi gakko wo yasuviiinashita. 

The next day (lit. opening day) I stayed away from school. 

Similarly the classical past ending tari (attributive tarii) and 
the future n occur sporadically in the colloquial (p. i8o). 


dorobo robber. hai ashes. 

kanie, kavie no ko tortoise, hai-fuki spittoon (made usual- 
turtle, ly of a section of bamboo). 
ko (c) shell, armor. hi-moto origin of conflagra- 

kavie no ko ). ^ . , ,, , tion. 

/^A /,-; > tortoise-shell, a j /• ^ \ 

oek-fio 3 naru to sound (mtr.). 

kushi comb. kami-nari thunder {kamt 

me, ko-no-me { — hi no me) god). 

bud. kami-nari ga ochi-ru light- 

tana shelf. ning strikes. 

hon-dana bookshelf. kara shell, hull. 

hombako bookcase (closed kaki-gara oyster-shell. 

box with shelves). oshi-ire closet. t> 

toko, ne-doko bed. sainisen^shaiiiiseii^^x^Q-stx'wi^- 

asa-meshi ) bj^e^kfast ^^ musical instrument. 

asa-han \ bachi plectrum, drumstick. 

a The term kame no Jzd denotes the shell on the back of a tortoise or turtle » 
bekko is the material obtained from the shell of a species of turtle called 

h A closet with shelves, a cupboard, is to-dana (door-shelf). 

xxxix] The Tenses 145 

ja (c) serpent (large). koe-ru bark, howl. 

hebi snake. sue-ru set, place. 

«J dramatic performance with ^yii wo sue-ru apply the 

chorus, i3'ric drama. moxa. ^ 

fu-ton wadded bedquilt, com- tavie-rii accumulate, save 

forter, cushion. (money, etc.). 

ya-gu bedding. j kata-2uke-rH lay aside, put in 

gin-ko bank. - order, dispose of. 

sho-kin specie. sakti, saiie bloom, 

^y yaku-sho office. oinoi-dasu, omoidashite call to 

zo-ge ivory. mind, recall. 

yubin-sen, yu-sen mail- ship. hana wo ike-ru keep a flower 

ake-ru open (tr.). alive, put a flower into a 

yo=yoru night. vase. 

yo ga ake-ru day dawns. o-kaia 7 for the most part, 

azuke-ru entrust, deposit. ia-bun j probably. 

kuiabire-ru ) , , , . , sendatte recently, 
y.. A > be fatigued. ^ 

tsukare-ru \ *=• 


IVashi zua kutabireta kara, sugu ni neyo.^ Omae wa kesa 
nandoki nl okita ka. Hon wa tansu ye ireru nion* ja { = de 
wa) nai ; hoinbako ye ireru vion da. Kuruviahiki wa mo 
ineshi wo tabetaro. Soko no teibur no ue ni aru mono wo 
doko ye katazukeyo ka. F' ton zvo oshiire ni ireyo. Kiini wa 
tavieta kane wo doko no ginko ye azuketa ka. Sayo, Yoko- 
Iiania Shokin Ginko ye azuketa. Danna wa mo yak' sho ye 
deta ka. Shikkari (certainly) shiranai (p. I30h) keredonio, 
ukaia detarD. Anata zva ika to iu sakana wo viita koto ga 
ariiJias' ka. Sayo, mita bakari de wa naku tabeta koto mo 

a The English word ''moxa" derived from the Japanese mogtisa, which 
designates a preparation of the dried and pulveiizcd leaves of the >'<^wc.^i, a 
species of Artemisia. Physicians of the old school {^kain-f>d-i Chinese-melhod- 
physician) apply sinall portions of tnogusa to the skin and then set tire to it. 
'1 his sort of cautery is called Ayu. 

b It may be necessary to remind the student once mure that the use of a 
verb in its simple form as a final predicate is permissible only in conversation 
between those who are on terms of intimacy. But in the following exercises 
it may be well to use the plain forms for the sake of j)racticc. 

146 The Verb [xxxix 

gozaimas' . ^ N'aze kono ki ga kareta ka. Uekata ga tuarui 
kara, karetarD. Ky3 iva nani wo kiyo ka ; azvase zvo kiyo 
ka, hiioeviono wo kiyo ka. Mo shichi Ji da kara, okiyo. Mo 
hachi ji siigi da kara, danna ga okitaro. Anata wa Nihon- 
ryori wo tabeta koto ga arimas ka. Sayd, ni san do tabeta 
koto ga arimas keredomo, umakuwa gozaiviasen desJita. Ki- 
no iaisJ kutabireta kara, asa kara ban made ickl nichi neta. 
Tana kara botamocki ga ochiru yd na koto wa inetta ni ariuia- 
sen.^' Ilai/'ki kara j a ga deta.^ Uso kara deta inakoto'^ 
(Proverb). Kauieido no ike no nchi ni wa koi mo kanie no ko 
mo tak'san irn. Mo attaka ni nam kara, kononie ga jiki ni 
deru darJ. Nihonjin zva taigai hayakii okitti. Kono kushi 
wa bekkd de dekite iru. ^ Ki de dekita kushi mo am desho. Mo 
meshi ga dekita ka. Okata dekitaro. Kino no keiko ye gak'sei 
ga ikntari deta ka. Shikkari oboenai ga, okata roku nin gnrai 
wa detaro. Anierika no yubinsen ga mD sakki minato wo deta.^'^ 
Konaida atsuraeta kutsii ga dekita ka. Sayo kiitsuya ga sakki 
motte kimas/ita. Nani yo ga dekita ka. ^ Inn ga Jioeta kara, 
dorobJ ga nigeta. No wo mita koto ga arimas' ka. Sayo, ni 
san do mita koto ga gozaimas\ Ume no hana no hanashi wo 
sum to, sugti ni nguis' wo_ ouioidas' . S Ugiiis zua nme no hana ■ 
no saku koro ni naki-hajimerii. Kami sama ni zua mai-asa 
akari wo ageru. Konaida tonari no nizva no ki ni kamijiari ga 
ochita ga shikashi kega zva nakatta. ^^ Yo ga dkeru to, karas 
^a nakinias\ KotosJii zva samui kara, ki no me no deru no 

ga osoi. 

a For miia bnkaH de wa naku one may substitute mita no wa mochirott no 
kolo [fiiochi-ron without dispute, of course). Tlie latter is somewhat supercili- 
ous. .. bakan de iva nakta>io=^-aoi only — but also — . 

b May be said to one who does not work, hoping (o get rich through some 
hicky accident. 

c A proverb apropos when one has been treated to an exaggerated story. 
VoT ja, iivia may be substituted. 

d Dekite iru or dekita (in the next sentence) corresponds to the English " is 
made of." For de one may substitute kara. In dekite iru the second i is almost 
silent : dekiteru. 

e The difference between luo deru and kara deru [dele kiirn) is slight, as 
between the English " leave " and " come out of." 

f Said when one has been called : What is it ? 

g The iiguisu is usually associated with plum-blossoms in art and poetry. 

h No one was hurt. Comp, kega (ivo) surti to hurt one's self, kega-nin an 
injured person. 

i Ot, de-yo ga osoi{j^.i(i^. 

xxxix] The Tenses 147 

The riksha-man appearing {iniete) to be very tired (that he 
was very tired), went to bed early. Why did you get up so 
late? To-morrow {zva) I will get up early, as I am going on 
a journey {tabi fii derii). Who put this into the bookcase ? 
This is not to be put into the bookcase ; it is to be put up 
{agete okit) on the bookshelf. I will put the bedding ^ into the 
closet presently. The foreigners living {irii) in Japan now 
number about {Jiodo da) 10,000, it is said. In this cage there 
were three birds until recently {Jconaida made). Recently 
2,000 houses were burned in Tokyo, it is said. Where did the 
fire originate (was the oiigin of the fire) ? It started {deta) 
from Oyster Shell Street {^Kakigaracho), it is said. That {sono) 
region, is often {yoku) burned, isn't it (jie) ? Have you ever 
seen a Japanese monkey ? Yes, I have seen two or three. 
The flowers which you put [into the vase] immediately spoiled 
{ikenaku nattd). The Japanese usually go to bed early. This 
is made of tortoise-shell. Breakfast is probably ready. The 
maidservant went out {^soto ye) some time ago {sakki). He is 
a very forgetful person (a person who forgets things well). '^ 
Japanese often apply the moxa. To whom did you {kimt) 
entrust the money ? On New Year's Eve {dmisoka no yorii) 
in (of) 1874 I saw the burning {yake-ru no zvo) of the temple 
called Z5joji. *^ The plectrum of a jfTiw/j"^// is usually made of 


Conditional iabe-reba if [I] eat, mi-reba if [I] see> 

if [IJ should eat if [I J should see 

Past " tabe-iaraibd) ini-taraibd) 

if [I] have (had) eaten if [Ij have (had) seen 

Imperative tabe eat ! ;;// see ! 

tabe-ro ini-ro 

(t?) tabe 7ia {p) mi na 

o tabe yo o vii yo 

a IL'iiheT ya-gu or to^o. 

b This may be translate(l_>'<3/t« mono-wasure wo snru kilo. If Ihe sense Is 
that he forgets not facts, but fhingF, such as a umbrellas, etc., (jivasure-mond), it 
mnzi he -ivastire-mono 7U0 suru hifo. Compare uiono-niorai a.n<X morai-mono, etc., 
p. 16. 

c A temple of the Jodo sect, witli mausolea of some of the .shoguns, in 
■Shiba, Tokyo. 

148 The Verb [xl 

I. In ordinary conversation periphrastic conditional forms 
like taberu vara {Jui) are rather more comnn)n than tabereba 
etc. ^ But tabetara {ba) is not so often displaced by tabeta 
naraba. Another substitute for these forms is taberu fo. 
Notice that £^ is used only with the present tense. Moshi or 
vioshi mo also may be prefixed to a conditional clause. 

(i.) For the use of the conditional (^ka-tei-ho) forms compare 
p. 99. It is sometimes a matter of indifference whether tabere- 
ba or tabetara {ba) be used. In some cases the past conditional 
occurs where we should expect the other form : 

IVatakuskl zc a yoru yokei tabereba (tabetara), nerare- 

If I eat too much in the evening, I cannot sleep. 

Taikutsu s/iitara, hon wo yoininiashd. 

It time hangs heavy (lit. tedium have done), we shall read. 

^ O ai nasttara, so itte oite kudasaz. 
If you meet him, please tell him so. 

Go zen ga dekitara, sugu ni tabeviash3. 
If dinner is ready, I will eat at once. 

In the last sentence dekireba would mean : " if it is possible "^ 
(to prepare a dinner). 

(2.) A conditional inflection may be used in lieu of a connec- 
tive, especially when the principal verb is in a past tense : 

Nochi ni kiitara, uso de gozainiashita. 

I inquired afterwards and it proved to be (was) a lie. 

Kesa no yosu de wa ame gafuru ka to omottara sukkari 

By the looks [of the sky] this morning I judged that it 

would rain, but it cleared off entirely. 

Observe the peculiar use of the conditional in : 

Uketaviawareba go bydki de atta so desu. 

I hear that you have been sick. 

(lit. If I hear, you were sick, it is said.) 

Tokyo mo kawareba kazvaru vion da. 

How Tokyo has changed 1 

(lit. Tokyo, too, if it changes, changes.) 

a The conditional clause may be made somewhat indefinite by usiiig the 
probable form : Soito k-ivashi lOO tabeyo mon' nara, okka snn ni shikarareiiiasii- 
yo. You will be scolded by your mother, if you eat that cake (to a child). 

xl] Conditional and Imperative [49 

> Akuni?t mo ateba zeiinin mo am. 

There are good men as well as bad men (comp. p, I04f). 

It is a peculiarity of the Japanese language that a conditional 
clause may include an interrogative word : 

Do oshieviashitara yoroshu gosaimasho. 

How shall I explain it to them ? 

(lit. if how I have taught, will it be well ?) 

(3). In a sentence containing a conditional clause, ga, 7 10 ni, 
or mono wo may be added to the principal verb or adjective. 
These have an adverse tivf> or CDUcciisive sense and, if the 

ellipsis were filled out, would iTfTludinJe a statement of a 
con tra ry fact , a declaration of doub t concerning the possibility 
ol luifllling the condition, or an expression of regret : 

Tabako wo yaniereba ii ga. 

It would be well for him to give up tobacco. 

(lit. if be should give up tobacco good, but...) 

The expression no ni suggests more strongly the idea of the 
hopelessness of the situation. Accoidingly no ni is rarely used 
with the first person. The no in no 7ii may be dispensed with 
after ii and yokatta, and is usually omitted after the probable 
forms yokaro'-AWKS. yokattard. 

Mj sukoshi hayaku dekaketara yokatta {yokattaro) ni. 
He ought to have started a little earlier. 

In this sentence by substituting yokard we get the sense, " he 
ought now to be on the way," (but has not yet started). 

By means of ga or mono wo {mono ni) ^ following ti or 
yokatta one may render optative expressions beginning with 
" If only ", " Would that," " I wish that," etc. : 

Mo sukoshi yokii koshiraereba ii ga. 

If only he would make [it] a little better ! 

Anie ga harereba ii ga. If only it would clear off! 

Togamereba ii ga. If he would only warn [him]! 

Toganietara yokatta ga. If he had only warned [him]! 

Mo sukoshi Jiayakii dekaketara yokatta ga. 
If we had only started a little earlier ! 

Shineba yok\xtta mono xvo. Would that [1] had died! 

The last is rather a classical expression. 

a Compare alfo the use vi mono -ico witli a vcrh in the jiasl tense : Ytunslafe 
ynl/a mono ivo. NVi.uld lliit I lia<l f;)ri;ivcn him ! 

150 The Verb [xl 

,2. Ill the case of verbs of the first class the plain imperative 
{inei-rei-ho) is identical with the stem. The honorific o may 
be prefixed ; e.g., o hire (p. 37d) There is a tendency to 
make the final vowel long : tabei^ mii. Imperatives like tabere 
and mire, formed after the analogy of verbs of the second 
class, also occur. When ro is added the honorific is inadmissi- 
ble. The particles ^^ and 71a are not pronounced like regular 
suffixes, the stem of the verb being strongly emphasized, while 
the particle comes in after a very slight pause as a distinct but 
unaccented word. The forms tabe na and o tabe yo are used 
mostly by women. Occasionally men may be heard to say 
tabe 11a. ^ 

But in general the plain imperative forms characterize the 
speech of the lower classes, or of men who have lost their 
temper, or of those'^^who choose to speak to their inferiors 
peremptorily. What has been said in the previous chapter 
about the use of plain forms of speech among intimate friends 
does not apply to the imperatives. They are used in quota- 
tions concerning one's self (p. I26d) and in military commands : 
Ki wo tsjike. Attention! The forms in ro, especially, have 
an angry or intentionally gruff tone. A father may say to a 
child who has through disobedience met with a calamity : 
Sore uiiro. The form in ro occurs also in proverbs : 

Narau yori iiarero (or 7iare). Practice rather than study. 

Among comrades taniae, from taviau, an honorific auxiliary, 
is added to the stem : 

To zvo sliiiiie taviae. Shut the door ! 

The form (<?) skiiiie nasai is scarcely more polite than {p) 
sJuine na, assuming that the act is to be done for the benefit of 
another. But the case is different when the request is made 
in the interest of the person addressed : O kake nasai. Take 
a seat ! But shivie 7ias tte kudasai is under any circumstances 
sufficiently polite. 

As in English, a request or suggestion may be expressed in 
the form of a question : To wo shimenai ka ; shimeru n ja nai 
ka. Note also: To wo shimeru ga ii; shiinela ho ga ii ; 

a Observe that kzne na is vulgarly contracted to kuima. Compare sonnara. 
from sore na/a. 

xl] Conditional and 'Imperative 151 

' shiviereba ii ; ^ shimetara yokaro ; skiiuetara do desu ka. Such 
expressions are rude or familiar. To wo shiuie 7ias ttara yd 
gozaiinasJij is quite elegant. 

The suboidinative enters into a great variety of imperative 
expressions. We add a partial list, placing the least polite 
first : 

shimete ii shiuiete via ii 

shiviete kiire^^ shimete kurenu ka 

shiviete moraitai 

shivtete kunnasai {p kure nasai) 

simuete kudasai shimete kudasaimasen ka 

shimete itadakitai shimete cho-dai 

shimete itadakitai vion desu jie 

shimete iiadakimashj 

shimete itadakareviasho ka 

shimete itadakitd gozaimasii 

The subordinative alone may also be used elliptically as a 
substitute for the imperative; e.g., Katazukete. Take that 
away ! 


kinu silk. tsuri-rampti hanging lamp. 

^use habit, propensity. gaku hanging tablet, framed 

omocha toy. picture. 

shiba turf, lawn. am-bai disposition, temper, 

\ yoso another place, abroad. manner, state of health. 

amado wooden sliding doors gwai-tJ overcoat. 

on the outside of a house, kon-do this time, next time. 

closed at night or in time fien-gen term of years (lit. 

of rain {ame). year-limit). 

mi-hon sample. seki-tan coal {seki=ishi, tan 

inizu-ire a small vessel hold- ^=sumi). 

ing water for use in writing, sho-ji sliding doors or sashes 

d-inizu flood. covered with paper. 

a To 1V0 shimerebn ii 7i.\\A 7'o ivo shinieru w^/vz «V difler slightly. The former 
means: " You may shut the door;" tlic latter cannot be used as a suhstilule 
for the imperative. 

b Women sav o kure. 


The Verij 


shi-taku preparations. 

tai-kutsu ttidium, ennui, 

yo-shokif western food. 

/loshii desiring. ^ 
p^sosoi'/cashii hasty, heedless. 

jii-bun na sufticient. 

mus^intiushi-alsui sultry. 

kae-ru change, exchange 
(with to or ni^. 

kie-rii be extinguished, van- 

viaze-ru mix (tr.). 

iiare-ru become accustomed 
(with ;;/), become tame. 

nobi-ru become long, grow, be 

extended, be postponed. 
uine-r7i bury, fill in (/« ni 

niizu IV 6). 
kube-ru put into (a fire) 
/// ga kure-ru the sun sets, the 

day closes. 
akari wo tsiike-ru light a 

— ni inizu wo kake-ru water. 
o iiteshi nasaru (polite 2, 3) 

use, eat, wear, ride {iima 



Oi, Chjkichi / sono shiba ni mizu wo kakero {kakete kure). 
Yti ga atsusugirii kara, inizu zvo ippai tiinero {tiniete kiire). 
Hi ga kiiretara, akari wo o ts ke yo {ts' kete kure). Inia 
sngu ni amado zvo o shiine yo {shiniete kure). Zas/iki no 
uchi ga "^ inushlmushi atsui kara, sJuji wo akete kurero {kure). 
Kodonio ga yoso ye detara, omocha wo kataziike {katazukete 
o kure). Koudo kara {kore kara) motto ki zvo o ts ke yo its' kete 
o kure). Slita ni iro {ore). ^- Kinii wa ash ia no asa nan ji 
ni okiru ka. Yo ga aketara, o\kyd. Okitara, sngu ni gozen 
wo tabeyo. Gozen ga dekitaraba, sugu ni inotte koi. Kurunia 
no slitaku ga dekitara, dekakeyo. Kuruiua no sJitaku ga 
liayaku dekireba ii ga. Mochi wo hitotsu o kure. Oniae motto 
ki zvo tsketata yokatta ni ; avtari sosokkaskii koto zvo s/ita. 
Mo skoshi makete o kure. Mo chitto maketara do daro. 
Motto hayaku gwaikokugo no keiko zvo hajimetara yokatta ni. 

a KoJonio wn onmcha ga hoshikiite tiaife iinasii. Tiie cliilil cries for (desiring) 
the toy. 'I'he particle "ivo is also used with hoshii, hut less commonly, except 
with the derivative verb liosliignru : omocha wo hoshigatle. 

b Lit. the interior of the room. 

C Ytoxn. irii or oru. *' Down with you !'' was tlie cry of those wlio in feudal 
limes liad charge of the tr.nin of a daJtnyo ox other person of high rank. The 
people on tlie street were then expected to prostrate tliemselves to the ground 
as the procession went by. 

xl] Conditional and Imperative 153 

Kore wa do in amhai nt oshietafa yj gozainjasho. Koinban 
tsuki ga dereba ii ga. Konna ni saviui no nara, motto atsui 
kiuwno wo kitara yokatta ni. Kcno tsuriravip' ga ochitara 
taihen des\ ^ Ytiki ga ioketara, oinizu ga derii ka mo skire- 
nai. ^ Hayaku goze?i wo koshirae {kosJiiraete kure). 
Taikntsii da kara, kisha ga hayaku dereba ii ga. <^ Kiitabire- 
tara, yaviemasho. Ana hito ga ^ bunten wo koshiraeveba 
{koskiraetara) yj gozaimasho. ATichi xvo tazunetara yokatta ni. 
Gzvaikoknjin ga Nihon 710 shokiimotsu ni naretara yd gozai- 
masho. Kono tori ga naretara onioshirokaro. S ' koshi 
narereba {naretara), sugu ni dekimas . KyDshi zva shosei wo 
nagaku oshiereba, oshierii hodo jozu ni narimas . ^ Kono 
iegami wa yubinbako ni irete kudasai. Kijiu no viihon wo 
misete chodai. Kajie ga dekireba, dekiru hodo hosh' ku nam. 

I wisli he would give up tobacco. How {do sh'te) shall I get 
rid of this habit (if how I have stopped this habit, will it be 
good) ? Put a little water into this miziiire. This sake is too 
strong : mix [it with] a little water. This book is defective 
(bad) : exchange it for a good one. As it is very cold, you 
might put on a little more coal (if you have put on a little 
more coal, it will be well). Shut the door tight {shikkari to). 
If {moshi) you go out, put on [>'OurJ overcoat. To-morrow 
when the day dawns (if the day has dawned) I will start on a 
journey {tain ni deru). Get up earlier to-morrow than [3'ou 
did] this morning. When you get up, open the amado at once. 
If only we had started out earlier ! ^ It will be well to inquire 
(if we have inquired) the way. I wish breakfast could be 
served {dekiru) soon. Put {tsukeru) this baggage upon the 
horse. It will be well to begin the study of P2nglish as early 
as po.ssible. If only (they) had put {ireru) this sick i)erson into 

a Taihen desn it will be terrible [tni-heii yrcat change;. This phrase is 
often used as an expression of consternation. 

b Uniizti ga derti there is (will be) a flood. By ka mo s/ii/-£jiat (^sec p. 190a) 
one may often render the English " may," "likejy." 

C Taikiilsn da [desn) it is wearisome, [I J am tired. 

d Notice tliat tlie particle is ,!jv7, not 7cm (coinp. p. 190b): lie woiil<l iie the 
man to write a grammar. 

e Compare p. 136. 

f Instead of the past conditional, one may also use the past teiiEC with //(5 
(p. 136). 


The Verb 


the hospital! If that picture falls (past), it will be a terrible 
smash {taiheti). Ilang the picture on the wall. I wish I could 
become accustomed to foreign food. When you awake (p, 9ig 
— past), get up at once. It will probably be sufficient if you 
sleep (past) from ten p.m. {yoru) to six a. m. {asa). I -wish 
the term of years were longer (became Jong). 



The negative indicative forms are 




tabe-mi, tabe-n 

mi-nu, mi- 11 

do not eat 

do not see 




tabe-n anda 


did not eat 

did not see 

have not eaten 

have not seen 

Future or 


mi- mat 




will hardly eat 

will hardly see 





tabe-n aiidaro 


probably did not eat 

probably did not see 

might not have 


might not have seen 

The form tabenai is more common than tabenu. As has 
been observed before (p. lOO), the form ending in nai may be 
inflected, the adverbial form in vaku being used with especial 
frequency before nam to become ; e.g., mienakn nam to be- 
come invisible. Compare nakunaru, p. io8a. 

In some provinces tabenatida is more common than tabena- 
katta, but the latter is the usual form in most parts of the 

For the future or probable tense taberiiniai also occurs. 
Tabenakaro and such periphrastic forms as tabenai dard, tabe- 
nakatta daro, etc., lil-:e the corresponding positive forms, are 
used chiefly in the third person and denote a mere conjecture. 
The form in mat differs from the corresponding positive form 
\n yd in that it is not so strongly predictive and may be used 

xLi] Negative i 55 

in tlie third person. Thus in reply to the question Atio Seiyo- 
jiji zva Sashimi wo tabeyd ka one may say, Tabemai ; but if the 
reply were positive, it would be, Taberu darD, not, Tabeyd. ^ 

The present is often used as a substitute for the past : 

Neia ka 7ienai ka wakarimasen. 

I don't know whether I slept or not. 

Kesa no shimbiin zva viada miviasen. 

I have not yet seen this morning's newspaper. 

Notice the use of negative verbs with inae, ucki and kagiri : 
Shimbiin wo ininai inae ni shitte iuiashita. 
I knew it before I saw the newspapers. 

Minai uchi wa wakarimasen. I can't judge until I see it. 
Minai kagiri wa shinj'iraremasen. 
1 can't believe that unless I see it. 

Observe further that with inae and uchi when a fact is stated, 
tii is used ; but when the predicate is negative, zva is the 
correct particle. Kagiri always refers to a future or supposed 

The classical negative ending zu (attributive, nu or zaru) : 

Chu-shin ni {j'i) kun ni tsukaezu. 
A loyal subject serves not two lords. 


o shiroi face-powder. yamti, yande cease (intr.). 

ko-no ha = ki no ha\t2S, ainado wo taie-ru shut up 
fuda card, label, placard. the house, " put up the 

sho-fuda price-mark, from shutters." 

shd (c) right, true, real. makase-ru commit, entrust, 
ya-kzvai evening party. leave. ^ 

^J-z^fy travelling abroad. '^ kokoro ni inakase-nu not act- 
ryo-ko travelling. ing as one wishes, contrary 

ryoko-ken passport. to one's preferences (of 

hageshii violent. things). 

gebi-ru be vulgar. — zvo tabi sum travel through. 

hae-ru sprout, grow. sJiuppan siiru sail {shulsu = 
l same-ru become cool. de-ru, han — hd). 

a But tabeyd [Jta) to onioiniasn or tabeinaslid may be used of the third person. 
b Compare yd fuku, yo-shokii, etc. Yd means ocean ; Sei-yd, western ocean. 
Kd^^yuku to go. Ill the next word ?yo=^tal>i snru. 
c O fnakase vwshiviasu. I give you carte blanche. 

156 The Verb [xli 


Nihon de zva aniari nini^en no 20 wo koshiraete tatenai. =» — 
Konna koto zva jnutsukasli kute dekimai. Soiio kotoba wo 
viochiinoi koto 7va fiai keredoino, inetta ni viochiinai. Ni- 
viotsu ga uina kara ochinai yo tii ki wo tsukero. Kono hon 
wa go satsu ni nam hazu da ga, niada issatsu sli ka denai. '^ 
Tak'san niaketa kara, mo makeniai. S'koshi vio inakeii ka. 
Kesa no sJiivibun wo vtita ka. lie, mada ininai. Sakujitsu 
wa kaze ga hagesJi kute June ga denakatta keredonio, konnichi 
zva kaze ga yanda kara, mina detarj. Yubinsen ga sakujitsu 
sliuppan sk'ta ka, Kaze ga tsiiyokatta kara, denakattarJ. 
Hibacki no hi ga kienai yj ni ki wo ts kete o kure. Watakushi 
zva niainichi sanipo ni deru ga, sakujitsn wa aviari tenki ga 
warui no de denakatta. Doits jin zva F' rans no ik^ sa de zva 
ichi do mo makenakatta. Kono dyJnin zva mada okinai fiJ 
ga a to isha ga injshimas/ita. NiJion ni zva chitto mo nikic 
zvo tahen hito ga arimas'. Kurakute nani mo mienai. Kippu 
no nai kito zva irenai (admit) so des\ Sono hito zva Tokei ni 
zva mo imai. Mutsukashii mono, dekinai hazu da. Hito no — 
kiichi ni to zvo tateru koto ga dekinai. ^ Uri no tane ni 
nasubi zva haenu (Proverb.) Izen wa yoku Nihongo de 
hanashi ga dekita keredonio, 7nina zvasureta kara, mD hanashi 
ga dekimai. Dekinai koto zva nai keredonio, miitsukash' karJ. 
Mo kiska ga deta ka. Mada demai. ^ Atsuraeta y'jf'ku ga 
mada dekinai. Nihon de wa ni jii san shi zvo siigita onna zva 
amari o shiroi wo tike nai. Samui no ni naze hibachi ni hi 
zvo ^ irenai ka Sakurazumi zva^ takai kara, kat) fio hito zva 
mochiirii koto ga dekinai. Kane ga tak'san nakereba yjko ga 
{ydko sum koto ga) dekinai. Kokoro ni makasen mono zva 
kodakara. S 

a When the subordinative is closely connected with a negative verb tlse 
negative termination affects it also. 

I> To be translated by means of the perfect lenst". 

C Tlie usual form of the proverb is: Nile no kuchi ni to 7va taferareiiai 
(p. loSh). 

d To be translated as if it were a probable past. 

e Here /«" nacans live coals. 

f Originally charcoal from llie town of S.ikura eaat of Tokyo. The term has 
come to mean "first class cliarcoal." 

g This expression fils into (lie nioulli of a childless person. Children (/?v7) 
are treasures itakaro^ which connoi he obtained by every one who wants 


That will hardly be feasible, as it is too difficult. This 
character {wd) is seldom used (one seldom uses). The leaves 
of the trees have not yet fallen (pr.). O^ {zva) this dictionary 
but {sh'ka) five volumes have as yet been issued (pr.) ; 
altogether {inina de) there are to be twenty volumes. As the 
price-mark is attached {tsuite irii), he will hardly deduct 
[anything]. Take care that the bath i^yii) does not become 
cool. He is still sleeping, not yet having become sober. ^ \\\ 
{de wa) a quarrel he is seldom beaten by any one {hita ni). 
Until I see it, I cannot judge whether it is good or bad. There 
are (not being is not) wolves in («z lud) Japan, but {gd) there 
are not man}^ {tak'san wa iuai). Before {izen ni wd) the 32nd 
year of Meij Europeans could not dwell {zakkyo suru) \\\ the 
interior. At that time {j'ibuii) also they could not travel 
through the interior without (jiak'ie wd) a passport. In the 
interior of Japan there are places {tokoro mo arte) where [the 
people] seldom eat fish. As he did not live in Japan a long 
time {nagakii), he probably cannot speak Jai^anese. ^' Why 
haven't you shut up the house (pr.) ? It seems that of {zvii) this 
dictionary just one volume is lacking (is not enough). 1 have 
not seen (pr.) this play {shihai), but they say its very interest- 
ing. Of this camellia as yet not one blossom has fallen (pr.). 
It is his intention {tsumori de irii p. 95a) to give up sake, but 
he will hardly be able [to do so], Tixis word has gone out 
of use (become not used), because it is too vulgar {gebiie inc). 
The shi[) is already out of sight (has become invisible.) Is 
Siam {SJiaui) a civilized or an uncivilized country ? The snow 
has not yet thawed (pr.). Having gone {derii) to an evening 
party last night, I was up (did not sleep) the whole night. 
The leaves of the bamboo do not fall even in winter {fuyn m 
natte ind). 

a See pp. 8ig and 104]). 

b One may say simply : Nippoitgo lua dekttnai. If Ihe person spoken of is 
still living in Japan, use tlie present tense : i^iai has not been living. 



The Verb 




Negative Past 


tabe-n kereba 
tabe neba 
if 1 1] do not eat 
if [I] should not eat 
tabe-nakattara {ba) 
tabe-7iandara {ba) 
if [1] have not eaten 
if [I] had not eaten 
tabe-ru na 
o tabe de nai yo 
don't eat ! 


i)ii-n kereba 


mi- neb a 

if [I] do not see 

if [I] should not see 

mi-nakattara {ba) 

mi-na)idara {ba) 

if [I] have not seen 

if [I] had not seen 

ini-ru na 

o mi de nai yo 

don't look ! 

Tabenai nara {ba) ^ may be substituted for tabenakereba ; 
tabenakatta nara {ba) iox tabenakaUara. Instead of the 
conditional forms tabenai to may be used, 

By means of the conditional with naranai {narimaseii) or 
ikenai {ike?nasen) ^ the English " ought "or " must " may be 
rendered : 

Mijiakereba 7iarimasen. [I] must see it. ^^ 

There is scarcely any difference .between naranai and ikenai . 
The former conveys the sense^ of obligation, while the latter 
rather suggests the inconvement consegLueiices that will Xoljow 
in_case-±lie condition is not fulfilled. 

Tabern na corresponds to the positive tabero ; a tabe de nai 
yo, to o tabe yo. But a student may say to another, Jo wo 
shimeru na (or sJiime taniau na), though he would hardly say 
sliiuiero. Other periphrastic forms are : 

a The negative probable form is occasjonally found in this position : /a^^- 
tmkard 711 on^ nara (Comp. p. 148a). 

b For ikenai see p. 29b. IVaranai it does not become. Do mo naranai I 
can't manage it in any way. Compare : Fnshigi de naranai. It is too strange 
(lit. being marvelous, it does not become). From what is said above it appears 
that there is really no equivalent for "ought" or "must" in Japanese. 
Compare also tlie use of beki and liazii (p. in). 

xLii] Negative Conditional and Imperative 159 

To wo shimeru in on j a nai shimete kndasaru na 

(0) shime nasarii na shimenakute mo ii 

shiinenai {ho) ga ii shimenaide {p) kure 

shimete kureru 71a shimenaide kudasai 

shimenaide moraitai shimete kudasaimasu na^ etc. 

For shimenaide see p. io6a. A distinction may be drawn 
between {p) shime nasaru na and shiviete kureru na. The 
former implies that the speaker makes the request in behalf of 
the person addressed or of others ; the latter, that the speaker 
himself is the one for whose benefit the act is to be done. 
Compare what is said about o shime nasai (p. 150). 


kizu wound, scar, ^ kuwashii minute, detailed, 

nae young plant, seedling well versed. 

rice, etc.), awase-ru cause to meet, join, 

yati^e roof. adjust. 

yane-ya roofer. kime-ru ) ^^ decide. ^ 

ki-no-ko mushroom, sadame-ru ) ' 

kii district, ward. okure-ru be late. 

yaku, hon-yaku translation. shirabe-ru inquire, investi- 

do-zo storehouse, "godown " gate. 

{do earth, zo = kura). todoke-ru deliver (p. 59a), 

ji-kan period of time, time, report officially. 

hour {ji=toki, kan=-aidd). yashinau nourish, support. 

jo-chu maidservant (more yashinai ni naru nutritious. 

polite than ge-jo). hiki-komoru stay at home 

ki-chu mourning. (on account of mourning or 

- k'o-yaku medicinal plaster. sickness). 

matsuri-bi \ festival day, ue-tsuke-ru plant. 

sai-jitsu (c) 3 holyday. moshi, moshi mo if (with 

sho-sho certificate. conditional form, to or toki 

akarui light, clear. wa). 

a A7z?< is more concrete tlian kega. Thus one may say: 1 e ni kizu ga am, 
but not I'e ni kegn ga am. To wound a person is kiztc vo tsuke-rn ; to be 
wounded, kega {7vo) sum. 

b Kivieru is more common in the colloquial than sndnvieru. 

i6o The Verb [xm 

kesshite positively, never ze-hi {ni) by all means, neces- 

(with a negative word). saiily. ^ 
mam de entirely. 


Kono hana zva Diizu zvo kakenakereba kareniashj. Kono 
kinoko wa doku da kara, kesslite o tabe de itai yo. Kono 
bydnin wa yasliinai ni naru mono wo tabenakereba yoivariuia- 
sho. Oniae liayaku yasinnu kara, hayaku okinakereba ikenai. 
Watakushi no tokei wa oknrela kara, awnsenakereba nari- 
inasen. ^' Mada akariii kara, aviado wo shiDieU kureru na. 
Nikko wo minakereba, kekko to in na. '^ fibiki de niinakereba ^ 
wakarintasen. Kono ji wa shijU sono imi de inochiinakereb^ 
nariviasen ka. lie shiju sono imi de mochiinakereba naranai 
to ill koto iva ariinasen. ^ Kono shosho zua yakii zvo ts' kena- 
kereba, gwaikokujin ni zua zuakarimasen. ^ Ningen zva zehi 
nikti zvo tabenakereba naranai koto zva nai. Tabako zva doku 
des kara, yamenakereba narimasen. Kono sakajia zvo shio ni 
o is ke de 7iai yo. S Moshi hayaku dozj no to zvo shimenakatta- 
ra, maru de yaketa deshj. Yaneya ga ano toki ni ki wo 
ts" kenakattara, ochita desk J. Moshi ma do wo akenakattara, 
tori ga nigenakattaro. Konnichi zva saijitsu des kara, ii 
kimono zvo kinakereba 7iarimasen. Kofe zvo motto kuzvash'ku 
shirabenakereba narimasen. Samui kara, viado zvo akete 

a I'^rom ze (c) good and its opposite hi. One may say also : zehi (omo (Jomo 

b Compare : Tokei ga siisunde itnasu. Tlie clock is fast [sitsiuiin advance). 
Tokei ga ai/e tviastc. The clock is just right {an meet). To set the clock is 
tokei ivo mcase-rti, — aiuaseni being tlie causative of an. 

C Nikko, from iiichi sun and kivo light, is famous all over Japan not only for 
its beautiful scenery, but also for its magnificent temples. Kekko to in na don't 
say " splendid." You have no right to use the word kekko until the temples 
and gates of Nikko have taught you its meaning. 

d Ji^'i' ' de mini l')ok up in a dictionary. Jibiki wo hiite mint (p. 88c) is the 
usual idiom. 

e Here to in before koto may be omitted. The accumulation of many 
negative words in one sentence is more common than in I-Znglish. 

f Observe that -ivakarti and dekirti are really impersonal (pp. -I7d, 34d) 
verbs and that the subject of the English sentence accordingly takes the 
postposition ni. 

g Distinguish —shio iii tsitkeru to pickle in salt (p. loSb) and — ;// shio wo 
tsuke-7-u to put salt on. 

XLiij Negative Conditional and Imperative 161 

knreru na. Kono ktise wo yainenai to ikenai. Kodoiiio ga 
umareru to, ku-yafi sho ni todokenakereba narlinasen. Kichu 
des kara, hikikomotie makereba narimasen. 

Don't open this bottle. Don't eat too much (yokei). You 
must water this flower (/// or ni zva), every day. If you don't 
water this camellia {zva or ;// zva) every day, the flowers will 
fall off [pchi-ru). If [\vc] don't eat that {sore zva), it will spoil 
(become bad). If I don't inquire ^ of some one {hito ni), I 
shall not understand. If I had not put a plaster on the wound 
{zva), it might have become worse (bad). As I get up early, 
I must go to bed early. Don't go out {soto ye) while I am 
absent (in the time of my absence). The maidservant must go 
out to buy things (p. 52d). ^ The farmers must now {kore 
kara) plant their [rice] seedlings. Since somebody has come, 
I must get up. If the window is not shut (one does not shut 
the window), the dust will enter {haitte kiiru). At nine 
o'clock ^ I must go to the district-office. It will be (pr.) in- 
convenient {futsiigo), if the clothes ai'e not done by New 
Year's. ^ If [they] had not stopped the train at that time, 
there might have been considerable {zuibim) loss of life. 
When (from when) must I begin my studies (/vZ/i'^) ? Must [I] 
fix the hours of study at once {mjj'iki ni) ? I hope there are 
no mosquitoes. ^ 

a The most common expression for " inquire " in the colloquial is Aitie 

b In sentences like this and the one following, iva must Ije used with the 
subject, because logically it is the subject of the whole sentence, and not 
merely of the conditional clause. 

c The precise equivalent of " at nine o'clock " is kn ji tti. Of a performance 
which besjins at nine we may say kzt ji kaia. Kisha ga ku ji ni to-chaku 
shiiiiasii. The train arrives at nine o'clock. Ku ji kara enzeisu-kzvai wo 
hirakimasu. We will open the lecture-meeting at nine o'clock. 

d " By New Year's " is to be rendered : sliiiinen tiiade ni. Distinguish : Ban 
made hon wo yomimasu. I will read the book [continuously] until this evening. 
Ban made ni hon wo yoiiiiniasu. I shall liave read the book l^y tli is evening, 

e This is to be translated like the examples in Ch. XL. : If there are no 
mosquitoes, good, but. ..Sentences beginning willi '-I hope" "I fear," etc., 
must always be paraphrased in some such manner; O kega de mo nakeieha ii 
(ga). I hope you arc not hurt. Wakalta tsumori desti. I hope I understand. 
Hayaku naoshitai mono desii. I hope I shall soon be well. Fane ni yoivana- 
kereba a {^a), I fear I sli all be seasick. Kimi wa kondo no shiken ni rakitdai 
siirtt ka mff^hirenai. I fear you will fail in tlie examination. Sometimes llie 
simple prob^le or future form of the verb suffices: Dekimasho [Jo omoimasii). 
I Iiope it may be accomplislicd. Dekiinasuiiiai {to oinolmasii). T fear it may 
ncjt be accomplished. 

1 62 The Verb [xliii 


The positive subordinative of tlie verb, as of the adjective, 
ends in te ; e. g., tabete, vii-te. ^ 

1. It is a peculiarity of the Japanese colloquial that of two 
sentences which in English would naturally be coordinate one 
is subordinated to the other by means of te : ^ 

Ma do wo shimete kiviasho ka. 

Shall I go and shut the window ? (p. 88g), 

Tokiwa zva ^ kodomo ivo san nin tsnrete nigeviashita, 

Tokiwa took the three children and fled. 
The second sentence may also be translated : Tokiwa fled with 
the tliree children. 

2. Subordinatives are frequently to be translated by means 
of adverbs or adverbial expressions ; e. g., nen zvo irete care- 
fully, hajimete for the first time, sore ni hiki-kaeie on the 

3. Often in cases where the English employs a simple verb 
the Japanese combines the verb in the form of the subordinative 
with another verb. .■..•, 

tsurete kurii bring (a person or domestic animal). 

tsnrete yiiku take (a person or domestic animal). 

dete kuru come out (making one's exit come). 

kurabete mini compare (comparing see). 

tainete oku save (saving put). 

karete sJiiniau die (withering finish — of a plant). 

oshiete agerii inform (a superior). 

oskiete kiireru {kudasani) instruct (an inferior). 

oshiete yaru teach (brusque). 

Sanzan shikatte yariinashita. [1] scolded [him] severely. 

4. The subordinative with iru or oru denotes continued or 
unfinished action, especially action that is in progress at some 
definite time : 

a This te combined with iii, vii, bid stems of verbs of the second class be- 
comes nde : shiiide, from shinu, die \yonde, U om yojiiu read ; yoiide, from yohti 

b In the classical language the stem performs the same function as the 
subordinative in the colloquial. This usage appears in the speech of the 
learned, in orations and in long stories. 

c Tokiwa was a famous beauty, concubine of Yoshitomo and mother of 



Gozen wo tabete orimasii. He is (now) eating. 

Gozen wo tabete imasJiita. He was eating (at tiie time). 

In tliis construction iru or orii is a mere auxiliary and may be 
used also of inanimate things (p. 63c). ^ Notice contractions 
\)\<.Q kiiierii or kiitorii am listening, or \\\(\\\\x\\\^, yonderii or 
yondoru am reading, or calling. In kiite iru the i is elided ; ia 
kiite orti, the e. 

5. The subordinative with iru or oru may denote a condition 
that is the result of an action and m.ay in some cases be trans- 
lated by means of the perfect tense. 

Ochite iru. It is down (having fallen). 

Kite iru. He is here (having come). 

Dete iru. He is out (having gone out). 

Yofuku wo kite imasu. 

He is wearing foreign clothes (having put them on). 

Megane zvo kakete imasu. 

He is wearing glasses (having put them on). 

Shin-Ja ni 7iatte orimasu. 

He is a believer (having become one). 

But in the case of transitive verbs aru is more commonly 
used with the subordinative to express a condition, the com- 
pleted act rather than the agent being the object of attention. 

Irete aru. They are inside {^^haitle iru). 

Toinete aru. 1 have a note of it {toine-ru make a note of). 

Kaite ant. It stands written. 

Isu wa koshiraete ariinasu. 

The chairs are finished. I have made the chairs. 

Daidokoro ni iiiizu ga (wo) hiiie aru. 

Water is brought (in pipes) to the kitchen. 

6. If ii or yoroshii follows a subordinative, the idea of 
permission or acquiescence is conveyed : 

Kydasobi ni dete ii. 

You may take a vacation to-day (go out to play). 

a Students of the English language have revived an obsolete idiom in order 
to translate progressive forms like " I am going," etc., using tsnlsu aru with tlic 
stem of the veib : i/d Isutsu aru is going. This construction is not infrequently 
heard in speeches, etc. The subordinative of an intransitive verb may be 
progressive or perfect, as explained above ; but iki tsutsu aru is free from 

1 64 

Thk Verr 


7. The postposition kara may follow the subordinative (p. 
96c), giving the clause a temporal meaning. la the following 
sentence kara may also be omitted : 

KoHtia koto 7z>a lanareie kara hajiiuete da. 
It is the first time since 1 was born that I have seen such 
a thing. 

8. The subordinative may be used elliptically : 

Yoku ki wo tsukete. Take good care ! 
Cha wo irete. Make the tea ! 
YuDie bakkari mite {yoku yasuininiasen). 
1 did nothing but dream. 

Notice also shitle no tori as you know. 


fuchi rim, border, 

kata shoulder. 

saka slope, ascent. 

su vinegar. 

tako kite. 

tako wo ageru fly a kite. 

ato track, trace. 

ashi-ato foot-print. 

hirn-7nes/iil noond:iy meal, 

hirn-han 3 luncheon, tif^n. 

kaini=ue above. 

shimo = sJiita below, 

kane-ire, zeni-ire purse. 

zoku outlaw, rebel, robber, 

dai, dai-ka price. ^ 

dai-kon large radish (lit. 
great root). 

hy'j-ta7i gourd (used mostly 
for carrying small quan- 
tities o{ sake when travel- 
ling), flask. 

sa-td sugar. 

toku-i customer. 

kei-hd criminal law, criminal 

zai-nin { = ts2imi-dito) crim- 

ko-cha head of a school. ^ 

sha-rei honorarium, fee. 

sJio-viotsu book. ^ 

rem-pei military drill. 

ryo-sen fishing boat. 

kan-goku, kangoku-sho prison. 

gwai-nm-sho Department of 
Foreign Affairs. 

nai-inu-sho Department of the 
Interior, Home Office. 

shi-ho-sho Department of 

sen no former. 

sen ni forme idy. 

kesii extinguish, erase. 

a Dai substilule, ka value. Dai is more concrete than nedan. 

b From ^5 school (in ^<T;i'X'5) and ^,^5 senior. Cho enters into a great many 
compounds; e. g., ?«-f//5 superintendent of a hospital {J<yd-in'), shi-chd mayor 
of a city, son-cho head of a village, chd-cho burgess, sen-cho captain of a ship, etc. 

C From 5^o=^'rtZ'rt write and tuotsii-=jno7io tiling. But ka7;i-monn, meanings 
document, is not synonomous with sho-jiiolsii 


hi-keshi ) ^ ki-kae-rii chan<jc (clothes). 

, _ ,_ , \ fireman. r 

sko-bo-ju 3 osore-ru lear, 

/f'^jz^ cross (a mountain or osore-irn [amj very much 

river). obliged (lit. am in dread). 

moe-rii burn (intr.). yuru swing, shake (tr.). 

seme-ru attack, assault. ji-shin ga yuru (or sum) there 

tovie-rii make a note of, is an earthquake. 

w«y^^-rz/ divide. vie-gane zvo kake rii put on 

tsiitome-rii be dilgent. spectacles. 

— ni tsutomeru be employed te-gainitvo fuzurn seal a letter. 

in. yatto with difficulty, at last. 


S'koshi zvakete kure. Kore zva Jiambun wakete agemasho 
(p, 84r). Hara ga zvarui kara, {mono zto) hikaek tabenakereba 
nariviasen to isha ga iiinasK ta. O me ni kakeinashD ka 
(p. 44a). Ddzo miseie kiidasai. Ima zva kogi no jikan dake 
kiniete oite ^ ato de sharei no koto zvo kimemasho. Odazvara 
no shiro zva '^ Hideyoshi ga shichikagetsu hodo semete yatto 
ochimaslita. Ano hito zva itsu mo rasha no kimono zvo kite 
imas\ Mo o kyaku ga mina kite orimas' ka. Hitori ka f'tari 
slika kite imasen. Kono gakko no kyosf^i zva kochd zvo irete 
(including) shield nin des\ Sakuban gozen wo tabete ita toki 
ni jishin ga yurimasJita kara, sugti ni to zvo akete soto ye 
nigemasJi ta. Soketsii to in Shinajin u>a tori no ashiato zvo 
mite hajimete ji zvo kosJiiraeta to iu hanashi ga arimas\ Kono 
shimbun zvo mite kara {initard) sampo ni deniasho. A eiltj zvo 
shirabete minakereba sono bats zva zvakarimasen. Kohii ni 
said zvo irete agemasJu ka. lie, sato tea itadakimasen. Akete 
misete kure. Banna zva doko ni iiuas* ka. Ima o yn kara 
dete kimono zvo kikaete irasshaimas\ Tegami zva dekite imas\ 
shikashi mada ftljite arimasen. Naporeon issei zva /\os/ia de 
makete kara ni san nin no tomo zvo tsurete FWans ye nigete 
kimaslita. Soko ni ochite iru shomots' zvo kataznkete kure. 

a The subordinative of fl/v/, nscd here as an auxiliary {('.\\. LV.). Daf^e is 
ofien equivalent to " only " (p. 48I)). 

!) Odawara, on Ihc To-kai-do (east-sea-road) Ijulwccn 'I'l.lsyo and llakonc, 
was in the XVI. Century the castle-town of the Ihljo family. Ocltiru may he 
used, Hkt-- the Eni;lisl> " fall," of Ihc siirrcn Ut of a castle or fori. 

f,66 The Verb [xliu 

Nihonjin wa kaki wo (oysters) su to shdyti ni ts kete iabeinas\ 
Ano zainin wa kangok' sho wo dete kara ii Jiito ni nariuiasJita. 
Hyjtan wo kata ni kakete hanaini ni ikimasli ta. Ano sensei 
ni Doiisugo wo oshiete moraiinasli ia. O tokui saina des' karUy 
cliitto inakete ageniasho. Kaneire %vo wasitreie kite koniarimas' . 
Chiisai kodonio ni wa e zvo iniseie oshieinas\ Ano kata wa 
doko no yak'sho ni is touie'e irasshaimas' ka. Sen ni wa 
naimuslio ni istoniete iinash'ta ga inm zua gwainmsho ni 
istoniete imas . KivibucJii no (gold-rimmed) megane zvo 
kakete imas'. MukasJii zva kami-sJiivio wo^ kite no wo 
iniinas/ita. Doso, ichido tazunete mite kudasai. Dokka ni 
toniete arimas . Ickiban o shiinai no sJi'ogun zva koiiogoro 
nuide ikite irasshaiuiasJi ia ; inia mo ikite irassharu ka do ka 
zpnjimasen. Go ju no saka wo kosJiie imas .^^ Osore- 
irimas/ite zozaiinas" . * 

i> ' 

The Japanese eat a great deal of {yokii) daikon, pickling it 
in salt (p. i6og). Shall I ^wc you half? The fishing boats 
are all out at sea. After this I will eat moderately. He wears 
poor (bad) clothes when he is at work {shigoio wo sum). Are 
the pupils all here ? [There] are five who {no ga) liave not 
yet come. To {ni zua) publish the book yen 500 are required 
i^kakaru), ^ including the cost of the paper {^kaini-dai). The 
master has eaten lunch and is resting {yasunde irasshaimas'). 
Shall I open the door for you? Please open [it). In Japan 
is tea drunk with milk and sugar (do they drink tea putting 
into [it] milk and sugar)? After the rebel army {zokn-giin) 
was defeated in Oshu, it fled (fleeing went) to Yezo. Is the 
gardener here ? Yes, he is watering the flowers in the garden. 
That official is employed at the Department of Justice. He is 
not like his older brother. Taiko's face resembled a monkey's, 
it is said. The soldiers are all out for drill. The children (of 

a Katni-shuno, composed of kata-gimt (shoulder-garr.ient) and hakaina, was 
formerly gentlemen's full dress. 

b Is past fifty years of age (lit. has crossed the summit of fifty). 

c This is the extremely polite form of osoreiriniashi/a : I am quite em- 
barrassed by your kindness. 

d Observe that knkaru is used in stating the amount of time, labor or 
expense required for an undertaking. Bit in simply stating the price of a 
thing one says. Go hyakii yen shiviasii. 


the house) are now flying kites.. Bring the camellia blossoms 
lying (having fallen) there. Is the fire still burning? The 
firemen came after the fire was extinguished. It is (written) 
in (ni wd) the newspaper, but it is false iuso). 


The subordinative followed by wa generally ^ has a condi- 
tional sense (p. 102) ; 

Keiko wo yaniete xva do desti. 

How would it be if we gave up the study ? 
If then a negative word like naranai ox ikenai^ \s added, 
the whole phrase is to be translated by means of "must not " 
(pp. 92d, i30g): 

Jnia keiko zvo yamele zua iiariinaseJi. 

You must not give up the study now. 

Akete mite wa ikeniasen. You must not open it. 
As in the case of adjectives, te zua may be contracted to 
cha ; but such contractions are avoided in polite cr formal 

Followed b\' uto the subordinative has a concessive sense 
and must be translated by means of "even though," "even 
if" (p. ii/f). If /^/-^.y//// or a similar expression follows, the 
sentence has a permissive sense like the English " may." Such 
a sentence is often a j^olite command. 

So nas'ite mo yorosJili gozaimasii. 

There is no objection to your doing so. 

Nete 1110 yorosliii gozainiasu ka. May I go to bed ? 
For the subordinative with mo the past tense with 'tte yto 
itte, tote) may be substituted : 

Dare ni kikasetf^ ' tte Jionto to ovioi zva sJiinai. 

No matter to whonvyou tell it, no one will think it true. 
Kikase-ru is the causative of kikti to hear. Kikaseta 'tte is 
equivalent to kikasete mo. Omoi zva shinai, often pronounced 
omoya skinai, is a very emphatic way of saying oiitozvanat. 

a The rule does not apply to sentences like the following : Kiinatle -wa 
imasen. It is not decided. There is no rule to that effect. Konihan 7vata/^-nslii 
no nchi ye tornatte wa kiireniai ha. Would lie (you) not stny at my house 

b When reference is made to one's relations with other persons, siinuuiai 
is inexcusable, from siiniii to be ended, settled, compo.sed, may be used : Oiiiae 
sonna ni nninakete ite wa o totlsaii ni siiina/iai zo. It is uiililial to your father 
to be so idle. 

t68 The Verb [xliv 


Classical concessive forms, like vn-redo {ino) though he sees, 
mi-iatedo {ind) though he saw, occur now and then. 

kabura turnip. inuda na vain, of no use. 

nishiki brocade. fii-yo na not needed, useless. 

tsuzure rags. asobu, asonde play, amuse 

siivii India ink. one's self. 

kara-kasa [Japanese] umbrel- asobi ni de-ru go out for rec- 

la. ^ reation. 

koiuorihdiX.. Jiashiru, Jiase-ru go fast, run. ^ 

koviori-gasa [European] um- kmnau heed, mind, 

brella. katsu, katte win a victory 

ri reason, principle, right. ( — ni katsu defeat). 

7iik-ki diary. nose-rn place on top ( — ni 

nikki ni tsiike-ru note in a — zvo noseru). 

diary. nnre-ru get wet. 

taku-aji, lakuan-zuke pickled bisshori nure-ru get wet to the 

daikon. '' skin. 

yakii-sokti agreement, cove- ori-ru descent, alight. 

nant. sage-ru opp. age-ru. 

tagae-ru alter. tamaru be accumulated (of 

yakusokn ivo tagae-ru break money). 

a promise. nde-rji cook by boiling in 

Rovia-ji Roman characters. water. ^ 

suppai sour (of taste). - — wo abi-rii bathe in. 

istiniaranai w o\t\\\css, foolish. — no ma ni an be in time for. ^ 

a A'nr(t=z7^ (p. 122a) is prefixed to the names of articles formerly imported 
from abroad ; e. g., kara-kaiic bronze, kara-kami wall paper, or screens made of 
the same. 

1) P'rom Taku-an the name of a priest wlio is said to have invented this now 
indispensable article of diet. Pickles in ijjeneral are called (c?) kd-kd,Uo\\\ kd 
(c) fragrant. 

c Synonymous with hashiru is kake-rii, but the latter is used of animals or 
men only. 

d To cook xnshdyu \s tii-rii ; e.g., sakana -loo nint. To cook rice is 7nesJii 
'MO takti ; \.o ho\\ wxiex \s, yu wo -coakasu. Wakasn is the causative oi ivakti : 
Yu ga ivaite ininsu. The water is boiling. 

e Lit. meet the time. Kisha 110 ma ni an C7,\.c\\ the train. The expression 
is also used in tlie more general sense of 'Mo be sufficient " : Kore de ma ni 
aif/iasho. Ili is will probably he sufficient: causative: /Core de ma ni nwnsc- 
mnsiio. We will make this do. 


Subordinatrt: with TFa and Jllo 169 


Kono kabiira wa udete mo yawaraka ninariinas'viai. Sonna 
tsuinaranai koto wo Jiikki ni is kete wa [is kecJid) ikeinasen. 
Oniae kyo xva kntabiretara, sugu ni nete mo ii. Fuyo na inojio 
wa s'tete mo yj gozaimas ; iriyo na mono zua s tete wa {s' iec/ia) 
narhnasen. '^ Sonna inuda na koto wa wasurete mo yd gozai- 
vias\ Mo uchi ni yd ga nai kara, oniae kaiinono ni dete mo 
ii. Kimono iva ima sugu ni atstiraete mo skogzuaisu made ni 
wa dekimas'mai {s/!.ogzvatsu ?io ma ni wa aimas'mai). Kore 
zva itsii tabete mo umai des\ ^ Mo kodomo ga itsutsu ni 
narimash'ta kara, tenarai no keiko wo hajimete wa do de 
gosaimas' ka. Omae, ni j'ikan ka san jikan zva asobi ni dete 
mo ii. SJiokuji fio sli'taku ga dekitara, sugti ni tabete mo yd 
gozaimas' . Soko ni am mono zvo tansu no hikidashi ni irete 
mo tana ni nosete mo ii. Seiydryori wo tabete wa {tabecha) 
ikaga des'. Mo {jno) chitto makete zva iiiiakecJui) dd des\ 
Kozvarete mo kamaimasen. ^ Ron ni makete mo ri ni katsu 
(Prov^erb). ^ Mukashi samurai zva shibai wo mite wa {inirii 
koto wa) narimasen desh'ta ; shikashi nd zva mite mo yd 
gozaimasJita. Kyd zva atsui kara, kazva no mizu zvo abite zva 
{abic/ia) do des . leCsuddbasha no hashitte iru uchi ni orite wa 
ipricha) abunai des\ Kono hey a 710 kiiki ga zvarui kara, mado 
zvo akete mo yd gozaimas ka. Sayd, akete mo yoroshii. Kono 
gaku wa s'koshi sagete mo agete mo dochira de mo yoroshii. « 
Sono uchi no mono zvo mite mo ii ka. Sayd, mite mo yd 
gozaimas' . Tsuzure zvo kite mo kokoro zva nish' iki{Vi-ovcih). 
Sense i ga nani zvo oshiete mo shosei ni zva omoshiroku nai des'. 
Dare ga oshiete mo kamaimasen. Kore wa nete nio okite mo 
{samete mo) wasureraremasen. 

a By means of this negative expression one may translate the English 
'' keep " or " preserve." 

b inn iabele mo every time I eat it. Similar constructions occur frequently : 
naniiuo iabelemov.omii.^\.&i what I ffaX, dare ga kite mo no matter who comes, 
do kangaetetno thinking it over in every possible way. Compare the Inst two 
sentences in tlic exercises, also p. 45b. 

c The verb /w/M7< generally occurs in the negative form, Kamaimasen. 
I donT mind; il makes no difference, h'ainawnnai ho ga yokalta. ll mit'ht 
liave been heller not to pay any allention to it. Dozo o kainai nakii. I'lcase 
di) not Iroible yourself. 

d With kalsn, ni is ordinarily used to denote the object : leki-guti ni ka/sn to 
defeat the enemy. Bui here il is exactly equivalent to the Kni^lish " m." 

e Sagern to liang lower; ngern to linng hi;^lier. 

1 70 'rrii- Verb l^^-^v 

How would it I)e if we made {koshiraerii) aa Eng"lisli- 
Japanese dictionary in (of) RdiJiajl? Even if we made such a 
dictionary {wa i), there would probably be few buyers (people 
who buy would be few). As it has become late, may 1 go to 
bed ? Since these pickles have become sour, you may throw 
them away (^V^r//). Since I still need that {zva i), you must 
not throw it away. One must not break a promise. As there 
is nothing more to do (j/J ga nai), you may go to bed. Even 
if he gives up .y/«/^'^, he will hardly save anything (money will 
hardly accumulate). As it has become too late, it will be (is) 
of no use even if it is finished {dekite kuru). How would it be 
if we put [himj into {irerii) the hospital ? May I stay {irti) here 
or shall 1 go elsewhere (lioka ye deni)l He will (does) not 
give up tobacco, though he knows {skitte iru) that it injures 
him (ydokii ni 7iaru koto). HQW._wouljd it be if we changed 
rikshashere? If dinner is not yet ready, we may eat after- 
wards {fiochi ni). How would it be to go out for recreation ? 
This plate will hardly break even though it falls. Sniui.J3^ 
useful even if it is broken. I will take an umbrella : it is 
unpleasant {koniaru) to get (if one get) wet through and 
through, a As the weather is doubtful, you must not forget 
[your J umbrella. Though I sleep well at night, when I awake 
I feel as if I had not slept {jienai yd na kiniochi ga skinias'). 


Negative Subor- tabe-zu {shite) vii-zii {shite) 

dinative tabe-zu ni ini-zu ni 

tabe-naide {-tide) mi-naide {-nde) 

tabe-nakute ini-iiakute 

For the uses of these forms compare the preceding chapters. 

I. In the literary language zii is the termination of the 
negative conclusive, as well as of the connective or inconclu- 
sive, form of verbs : 

Atarazu to iedoino tokarazu {tokii, arazii). 

Though it did not hit [the mark], it is not far [from it]. 

a When one has actually been wet, one may say : nnrete koiiiarn. Rut wa 
ad<1e(l to mire/e indicates a treneral supposition. 


XLv] Negative SuBORDiNATivE 171 

Tills use occurs in proverbs and" other sentences adopted front 
the classical language. But in the colloquial the last predica- 
tive verb in a series of coordinate negative clauses must take 
one of the endings given in Ch. XLI , or, if itself subordinated, 

I Chika^^oro iva hivia ga nakiite hi!o wo minimi koto 1110 
1 dekizu sampo sum koto mo dekinaide koniatte imasic. 
^I have had a hard time of it lately because for lack of 
time I can neither visit people nor go out for a walk. 

In formal addresses shite may be added to the form in zu. ^ 
But in general the use of this smacks "of the literary style. In 
the colloquial the forms in zu ni and naide are more commonly 
used to indicate the subordination of a clause. 

2. The form in zu {jii) may be used adverbially : 

nokorazu all, none being left (p. 50). 

iarazu closely, from tatii be enough. 

mono mo iwazu silently, from iu to say. 

omozvazu shirazu unintentionally, unawares, from omou 

think, shim know. 
viuko mizu ni blindly, from vinkd what is in front of one. 

Compare shirazu shirazu no aida before [I] knew it. 

3. As in the case of the positive subordinative, iru or oru 
may be added to denote continuance or a condition. Only the 
forms in zujti and n ^ide may be so .u.sed : 

Tabezu ni oru \ have eaten nothing, or, 

Tabenaide oni ) continue to eat nothing. 

Suki na mono d atte mo tabe^iaide orimas' . 

He refrains from eating eve|i things of which he is fond. 

4. By the addition of wa the negative subordinative acquires 
a conditionaj sense : 

Tabezu ni wa oraremasen. [1] cannot exist without eating. 
Such words as nnranai and ikenai (p. 158) may follow only 
the forms in naide wa and nakute wa. ^ In Tokyo the latter 
is preferred : 

Tabete minakute wa wakarimasen. I must first taste it. 

a Compare the use of j/«V.f with kara : soreda kara shite since tliat is Ihc 


b May be contracted to nalnuha {nnkulcha), a» *l80 tiaidt iva to ttaija. In 
the next example also otte wa may l)e contracted to otcha ; tie lun to icha. 


The Verb Pxlv 

While 7!aranai, etc., cannot follow tabezu ni wa immediately, 
one may say : 

Mono 1V0 tabezu ni otle {ite) wa fiariniaxen. 

[You] must not continue to fast. 

(lit. must not be without eating something). 

5. The particle mo gives the negative subordinative a conces- 
sive sense. The idiom is tabezu to mo, not tabezu ni mo. ^ One 
may also say, tabenaide mo, iabenakiite mo : 

Minakute mo ii. It is not necessary to see it. 

(lit. it is good though [I] do not see.) 

Sore wa iwazu to mo shit eta ^^ koto desu. 

It is unnecessary to speak of it. 

(lit. though none says it, it is a thing that one could 

Mono vio iwazu mata tabe mo skinaide mo {shinai no ni^ 

nodo ga ito gozaimasu. 
My throat hurts even when I neither speak nor eat. 

Shinaide is the negative subordinativ^e from sum to do. For 
the sake of emphasis sum is often used with the stem of a verb, 
as here. 


<?/^ sound, noise. yoroi 2i\n\ox. 

oto ga suru there is a sound, te-hon model, pattern, copy. 

oto wo saseru make a sound, yu-meshi \ supper, evening 

/<?/(«w/ a thick mat (3 ft. X 6) yii-han \ meal. 

made of straw and cover- kun {c) = kimi master, lord.<^ 

ed with finer matting. bun-seki analysis (chemical). 

yonie bride, young wife. chi-ri geography. 

yome wo torn {inorau) marry, reki-shi history. 

a Idioms like Inhezu ni de mo are sometimes heard. Tabezu ni iito may occur 
in such a sentence as : Masaka tabezu ni mo orareinasen kara, konjia tsiimaranai 
7)10710 de mo tahete itnasu. Because it is quite impossible to exist without eating 
at all, I eat even sucli wretched stuff as this. The word mnsaka is used 
commonly before suppositions wliicli are absurd or not likely to be fulfilled. 

b Compare p. 556 and the list p. 128. 

C Ii2i7t may be added, like san, to the surname of a man, wlien the speaker 
is on terms of good fellowship with him. 


Negatut: Subordinative 173 

ji-ken affair, case. shitatame-ru write (a letter or 

kai-sho square script. ^ document). 

so-sho cursive style. uttae-ru accuse ( — xvo saiban- 

ke-rai 2i retainer (of a noble), sho ni). 

a samurai (in relation to — wz 7e'<'7i!5/-r« make an apology 

his lord). to. 

ku-Jukti hunger. sankei suru go for worship (to 

kufuhi ?ii naru get hungry. a shrine or temple). 

kyu-byj sudden illness. kokoro-mi-ru try, tempt. 

yaku-shu drug. tori-shirabe-ru investigate. 

yd-ji business. karuta zvo toru play cards. 
rtw-«<7:z guidance, knowledge. ^ kane {zeni) wo kake-ru stake 

annai-ja {amiai-shd) guide. money. 

evibi-fuku swallow-tailed mekata wo kakerii determine 

coat. ^ the weight. 


5rtz-<^rt';z judgment (at a court — ni sawaru come into con- 

of justice). flict with. 

saiban-sJio courthouse. — no ki ni sawarti offend. 

kyii na sudden, urgent. ai-kaivarazii without chang- 

kake-ru run (p. i68c). ing, as always. 

>f^^-r« pass over, cross (=/^(?jm). kitchiri {to) exactly, precisely. 


Michi wa xvakarivias' kara, annaija wo tsurezu 7ii iku 
tsumori des. Ramp' ni hi wo ts" kenaide oke. '^ Oniae kore 
kara yokii ki wo is' kenak'te xva {is kenakucka) ikenai. Ouiae 
inaiasa rokuji ni okinak'ie wa {pkinakuchd) naranai. IVata- 
kushi zua ku ji s koshi mae ni denak'te wa narimasen. Kimt 
wa Tanaka kun no ki ni sawaru koto wo itta (past from iti) 

a The kai-sho, from kai model and sho=kaku, is the unabridged form of the 
character. So-sho is derived from so grass. An intermediate style is called 
gyo sho. 

b Go nnnai itashimasho \\^\\'V show you the way. Go aniiai de gozaimasho. 
You probably know. Go aanai no tori as you know. 

c A literal translation : ^« swallow, <5/ tail, /«/•?< garment. A frock coat is 
called by its English i\ /' rokk' /-■uto ; a common sack coat is se-biro {sc back, 
hiroi broad), 

d Oku with the negative subordinal ive may be translated liy means of 
<' leave " and a passive participle : i'«//r;/«?(/^ <?/■« to leave unlighted. In this 
conricction the form in zu ni may also be used. 

1 74 The Verr £xlv 

kara, wabinaide wa ikeniasen. Sonna ni kakezii to mo ii ; 
kisha HO deru tohi made ni wa mada yoJiodo ^ aida ga arinias\ 
Kesa (^o"en wo tabezu ni deinasli'ta kara^ doino, kuj'kii ni 
natte tamarimasen. Kokorominaide zva {kokorominaija)^ 
zvakariinasen. Sonna warui koto wa sensei ni todokenak' te 
wa narimasen. Todokeie mo todokenak'te mo do de mo 
kamaimasen. Yome wo torn to, kuyak'sho ye todokenak' te wa 
narijnasen. Sono hako no mekata wa kakete minak'te mo 
wakarimas . Sonna koto wo saibansho ye tittaezii to mo 
yokaita ni. Tma zva kimenak'te mo yd gozaimas" . Kono 
tegami zva kyu na yjji de zva nai kara, ima s/itatamezu to mo 
ii n des . Kono yak'shu zva ?ian des' ka. Sayo, bunseki sh'te 
minak'te wa zvakarimasen. Kono bazvai nizva, zva to iuji wo 
tskezii to mo ii ii des . ^ Tehon wo mizu ni o kaki nasai. 
KaisJio to sosho rydho touio oboenak'te zva narimasen. Kicliii 
no aida wa chitto mo soto ye dezii, niku mo sakana mo tabezu, 
mata ie no uchi de takai (loud) oto wo saseru koto mo dekima- 
sen. Djzo aikawarimasezu. ^ Tabe mo shinaide tabeta yd na 
koto zvo iimas'. 

One must take care that (j/o ni) the fire of the pipe (tobacco) 
does not fall on («/) the mats. Within {jichi ni) one year I 
must learn at the least about {hodo) a thousand Chinese char- 
acters. As I went to bed last night without supper, I am 
faint with hunger (becoming hungry cannot endure) this morn- 
ing. As I must go out at five o'clock, we will begin our lesson 
{keiko) precisely at four. When {to) [a man] adopts a person 
(receives an adopted son), he must report to the district-office. 
Must I wear a swallowtail to go there ? You need not wear 
a swallowtail. I cannot teach history without teaching geog- 

a T\\& yo in yo hodo is not derived hova yoi, but is the Cliinese equivalent of 

h Instead of kokoromiru one may also say : vaf/e inim from yam to do (p. 
1 1 6c). 

c Translate : In this case wa is not needed. For f>a7vai see p. 1370. 

d Some such phrase as ^0 /f'ciw-i M? izegaifiiasu I desire [that you will treat 
me] in a friendly manner, is understood. The phrase is used on various 
occasions. In offering New Year's congratulations it is used in the form : Dvzc^ 
kcmien 7110 aikatvarvnasezii. I hope we shall be good iriends this year also. 
The rtz politely prefixed to verbs in formal speech has lost its original meaning 
of " mutually." Compare <7?-«rtr//<^i?/-« 7t'rt if possible (p. 11 2(1). 


Negative; Subordinativf 


raphy. That Japanese intended to investigate our police sys- 
tem (the matter of the police of this place) for two years, but 
on account of {de) the sudden illness of his father he returned 
to [his] country without investigating [it]. This case must be 
brought before {uttaeru) the court. As the hot water has be- 
come tepid, you need not put in {unieru) any cold water; 
Without seeing the copy I cannot write., jSanetomo, disregard-; 
ing {kikazu wz).what his retainer said, went for worship to the 
[temple of] Hachiman of Kamakura without wearing armor 
under his garments ; consequently he was murdered (korosare 
ru).^ Please leave the window unopened as dust is rising outside 
i^soto ?ii) just now. Without crossing the mpuiitain, we will 
go this way {koc/iira no inichi tvo yukri). We left it undecid- 
ed. We played cards without staking [any] money. 



Negative " 



wish to eat 

tabe-takii nai 

do not wish to eat 

tube- tat i 

at times eating 




at times not eatinc: 


wish to see 

ini-takiv nai 

do not wish to see 

mi- tar i 

at times seeing 




at times not seeing 

I. As has been observed before (p. lOo), the desiderative 
is an adjective and may be inflected as such : 

Tabetakti nariniashita. I have become desirous to eat, '^ 
Tabetakiite koiuariniasii. I ana very anxious to eat. 
Tabetakereba, tabete nio ii. You may eat, if you wish. 

The adverbial ending taku becomes to before gosaimasu (p. 

a Sanetomo, son of Yoritomo, was appointed shogun in 1203, and in 1219 
was murdered by his nephew Kugyo. Ilacliiman is the name of tlie god of 
war. For Kamakura see p. 122c. 

1) The word " Iiungry " is Jiardly a correct translation for tabetai. " I have 
become hungry," literally translated into Japanese is, Himojiku iiarimaskihi, 
or, lutf 11 /cu ni narimashitn. The idea of ''hungry" and tlic idea of tabetai 
usually coincide, but not always. See the last of the English sentences. 

176 The Verb [xlvi 

100). To the form in tai may be atlded mono desu, no desn, 
or simply desn. V>y addinij to oinoiniasii {to oniotte iinasu) the 
speaker may avoid expressing his wish too bluntly or com- 
mitting himself too definitely. 

It is to be noted carefully that the desiderative cannot be 
used of the third person except (a) when to in or no desu is 
added ; (b) when a derivative verb is formed by adding garu 
to the desiderative stem (comp. liosJiigarii p. 152a); or (c) 
when one speaks in behalf of another and in his presence : 

Mairitai to itte oriviasii. He says he wants to go. 

Kono kodomo zva Amerika ye ikitai no desn. 

This boy wants to go to America. 

Watakushi no ototo wa Amerika ye ikitagatie irii ga ; 

tsurete itte kndasaru koto wa dekimasumai ka. 
My younger brother is desirous to go to America; could 

you not take him with you ? 

The word which is the object in the English sentence may 
take ga in Japanese (p. I03e) : Gozen ga tabetai inon desn. 
In this case the personal subject takes wa. Desideratives may 
also be used attributively with the nouns which are their 

2. The alternative is used when acts or states occur by turns 
(comp. p. 99) : 

Heya wo haitari fuitari shite orimashita. 

[I] was sweeping and wiping [the floors of] the rooms. 

Alternatives may be translated by means of " at times — at 
times," ''now — again," or, in some cases, simply by "and." 
They cannot be inflected and ordinarily are not used except 
with forms of snru to do. Notice the following elliptical 
construction . 

Sore zva negattari kanattari desu. 

It is just what I want (lit. desiring, obtaining). 


oboe vaQxaoxy. Jiatsu-yinne first dream of the 

yume dream. year. ^ 

a This hatsu is the equivalent of slio, in sho ]ia>t (p. 93), much used as a 
prefix in the sense of " first." Il must not be confused witli the Chinese haisu 
to start, originate. 


Desiderative and Alternative 177 

kake-viono a picture or writ- seiyo-zukuri no built in Euro- 

ing in the form of a roll pean style. 

which may be opened atswne-rii gather, assemble, 

and hung on a wall. collect. 

^«-^z adjustment, condition. ^ koto-zuke-riiw%Q an opportunity 
hen-kwa change, grammati- to despatch anything, send 

cal inflection. word, 

do- shi no hen-kwa coxv^vx^z.'txoxx. sashi-age-ru lift up, give (more 
ji-dai age, epoch. formal than agerii). 

ji'dai no ani antique. heru, hette decrease ; ham ga 

kwa-ddn flower-bed. — become hungry. 

/'inini-po civil law, civil code, gokii (c) very. 
7iado, nazo, nanzo et cetera. ^ saki-hodo a little while ago. 
A«/7^/« make, build (a house), totenio by no means (with a 

raise (a crop). negative word). ^ 


Watakushi zva Nihon no mono wo s'koshi atsumeto gozainias\ 
DoJina mono des ka. Sayd,jidai no aru kakemono nazo ga yd 
gozaivias' . Matsubara san ?n kotoziiketai koto ga arivias". 
Ajiata wa issho ni oide nasaru Jiinia ga gozahnasen ka. Ta- 
daivia tegavii wo sh'tataviei3 gozaivias' kara, ato kara ^ 
viairimashd. Wataknshi wa P'rosha no viiuipo no koto ga 
torisJiirabetd gozainias' ga, ii Jion zvo go zonji de ariniasen ka. 
Nihongo zva sonna ni keiko zvo yavietari hajimetari sit te wa 
oboerareinasen (p. io8h). Kyo wa tenki des' kara, asobi ni 
detakti nariniash' ta. Mizu zvo abirii to, mono zvo iabetaku na~ 
rinias\ ^ Doka, Nihon ye itte mitai mon des' . ^ Shoji wo 

a Ainado 7va guai ga ■zvariii. The sliding doors do not fit well into llicir 
grooves. Watakushi iva kouogoro gitni ga ivariii. I have been under the 
\seather lately. 

b 'J'liesc words are attached to a noun iniinediatcly, and precede such 
particles as wa, ga, etc. 

c Kesshite is used of a firm resolution or of a statement for which the speaker 
makes himself personally responsible : Resshite sonna koto lua ariniasen. I 
assure you tliere will be nothing of the kind. Totenio is not so positive and 
indicates merely that there are serious difficulties in the way : 'lotenio tasnkari- 
niasitinai. Tliere is almost no chance of his recovery. 

d O ato kara afterwards, after you. 

e Mono is indefinite (p. 47). Alono -vo tabetaku nam become luingry. 

f Doka (lit. somehow or other) liere serves to express the fervor of the 
desire and may be translated " very mucli." Itte mitai wish to visit (lit. go and 

i/S The Verb [xlvi 

soniia ni shijii aketari shimetari. sJi te iru to, guai ga rvaruku 
nariinas . Atsiii to. iiiizii ga, abiiaku nariinas'. Kyo zva s koshi 
kibiin ga zvarukute sainpo ni detakii iva ariniasen. Sakihodo 
kimasli ta shosei zva anata ni go lion zvo o kari vioshitai to 
itU imasJita Anata no yj ni kanji no kakiyu zvo ohoetai 
mono des keredomo, tofeino oboern koto zva dekiiiias'mai. Are 
zva netari okitari sJite inias . Hito zvo son>ia ni agetari 
sagetari s/ite zva ikeniasen. ^ Komban no hatsuywne ni zva 
F'liji no yania no yume de vio viitai inon des . '^ Nizua no 
sakura ga sakiniaslita kara, oide zvo negatte ^ ippai sashi- 
agetai vion des . Anata ni sashiagetai mono ga arimas\ 
Kzpadan ni botan zvo ippon iietai mon des\ Djdio, bunsho zvo 
kaite initak'te mo, ii kangae ga deniasen kara, yoshimasho. 
Domo, shibai ga mitakute tamariniasen. 

Often when {to^ I hear [of] the beauty {ii koto) of Japanese 
scenery I become desirous to go and see [itj. The room will 
become (becomes) very cold, if you continue {sum) opening 
and shutting the door. I wish to show j'^ou [some] Japanese 
photographs. I wish to learn to write {kakti koto zvo) Chinese 
characters ; don't you know [of ] a good teacher? I wish to 
borrow {o kari rndsii) a little money; will you please loan me 
[some]? I should like to learn the conjugation of Japanese 
verbs. As I have [some] leisure to-day, I wish to go out for a 
little recreation {cliotto asobi ni). [Our] neighbor wishes to 
build a house in European style, but probably [his] money 
does not yet suffice for that {sore ni zva). I should like to eat 
Japanese food (cooking) once. He wants to learn Chinese 
characters, but his memory is bad and he immediately forgets 
(forgetting finishes) the characters he has learned {psowatta). 
Look ! yonder a ship is at times visible and at times out of 

a Here (7^^;'« and sagerii have the derived senses of "extol" and 'dis- 
parage ". 

b It is considered a sign of good luck to dream of Mount Fuji on the night 
of the second of January. — 110 yiime wo miru to dream of (lit. see a dream of). 
Ha ga niiJ-:eta yiime -uo inimashita. I dreamed that I lost a tooth (a tooth was 
extracfed). Notice tliat de mo may be added to nouns as well as pro- 
nouns (Ch. XVII.), making the sense indefinite : a dream of Fuji or a dream 
of that kind. Compare the sentence p. 172a. The hawk [faka) and the egg- 
plant {iiasttbi) are also favorable omens in a luitsuyniue. Flence the proverb: 
Ichi, Fuji ; 7ii, taka ; san, iiasubi. 

c Oide li'o negaimasu. Please come to see me (lit. I beg your presence) Sake 
r.'O is understood with ijpai. 


The R Group 

7 79 

sight (hidden). As I wish to get off (descend), stop 
{tomerii) ! ^ He wants to visit Germany. He wants to borrow 
a grammar of («/) you. I should like to study and learn 
Japanese, but I haven't much {antari) leisure. The children 
want to fly kites. As I have become hungry (stomacli has 
decreased), I want to eat (p. 143b). 


Verbs of the second class (p. 142) may be divided into 
groups, according to the consonants which precede the tc of 
the present tense. To the first group belong verbs in ru. 

I. Paradigm of toru (stem iori) to take : 

Future or 

Probable Past 





tQrii darj 
totta da yd 


toranai, toran {u) 

toranakatta, — nanda 

toruinai^ _ 

toranai daro, toran darj 

ioranakattaro, — nandarj 

toranakatta daro 
toreba {foraba) ^ toranakereba "^ {joranakubd) 
torn nara {ba) toraneba 

toranai nara {ba) 
tottara {ba) toranakattara, — nandara {ba) 

totta nara {ba) toranakatta -nara [ba) 



torn na 

{0) tori 


tori de nai yo 

tori {yd) 

Subordi native 


torasii {shite), torasit ni 
toranaide, torande 



toritaku nai 



toranakattari, — nandari 

a If the rziirnmaliiki is sUndint^ wilh the sliafts in his hatuls, one may say: 
oioshite t'^ure, from orosit to let down. 

b P'orms like toranakard (comp. tabenalcafo p. 154) arc sometimes heard, hut 
the propriety of including them in a paradigm is disputed. 

c Toraba, as also the negative toranalniba^ is a classical form. 

d Yox\w^\W<^ loranatierebn ^"CQ: variously contracted: toraiia/cereba, lorana- 
Aeiya (empliatic: lorana/ceryu), (oranlya fornnyn. 

i8o The Verb [xlvii 

2. The characteristic vowels are /, a, e and n. 

I The forms iotte, iottari, totta are derived by ehsioii and 
assimilation from the stem tori and te, tarl, ta. The ending ia 
is a contraction of the classical taru (attributive) or A?r/ (con- 
clusive). Such uncontracted forms as torite and toritarti (in 
the attributive position) are sometimes heard in speeches and 
occur in proverbs. Observe that the i of the stem does not 
suffer elision in the desideratix e. 

A The form toro is a contraction of toraiii (21), which in 
the classical language becomes toran. ^ Such forms as toran 
creep into speeches, especially with to sum : shhian to sum 
hiio a man about to die. Observe that the vowel of the stem 
ib changed to a in the positive future and in all the negative 
forms except the future and the imperative. The classical 
negative forms torazu, toranii (attributive), and toraji (future) 
would also come under this head. 

E In the positive imperative and conditional the vowel of 
the stem is changed to e : tore, toreba. Here would belong the 
classical c.oncesswd^ torcdoino), which, howet'er, rarely occurs 
in the coUoqu'al. 

U In the negative imperative and future, as in the positive 
present, the vowel becomes u : torn jia, tormnai. 

3. The verbs ^r« to be and nam to become ^ are included 
in this group. 

There are many verbs ending in arii which are passive or 
intransitive {ji-ddshi) and correspond to transitive verbs (ta- 
doski) in e-ru, both being in most cases represented by the 
same ideogram. '^ 

agam go up, take (food, etc.). agem lift up, give. 

atam strike, meet (p. 71c). ateru apply, hit, guess. 

atsuviarii assemble, aisumeru gather, 

aziikam take charge of(p 184b). aziikeru entrust. 

hajiviaru begin (intr.). hajijueru begin (tr.). 

kakarii be hung. kakeni hang. 

a From verbs of the first class similar forms may be derived : tabe):, min. 

b But it must not be supposed that this is a general rule or that the list 
here given is complete. See interesting tables in Imbrie's Etymology p. 270'. 

c This ;wr« must be distinguished from the ;/rt/-i^ derived irom ni aru (Ch. 
XX-XIW •, e. g.,jib!cn no kerai 7iani chnsJim a true liegeman, being his own 
retainer. ■ - . 

XLvii] The R Group i8i 

viagaru be bent, turn. inageru bend. 

viazaru be mixed. inazerii mix. 

osainaru be governed, pacified, osavierii govern, pacify. 

osainarii be paid (of taxes). osameru pay (taxes). 

sagaru descend, return. sagerii take down, suspend. 

shizumaru become calm. shizwneru tranquillize. ^ 

tamarii be accumulated. tameru accumulate. 

tasukani be saved, recover. tasiikerii save, help. 

toinaru stop, be entertained. tovieru stop, entertain. 

tvakarii be divided, understood, wakeru divide. 

kawarii be changed, vary. kaerii change. 

suwarit sit (in native manner). siieru set. 

In some cases forms \\\ am are contractions of potential or 
honorific forms (see also Ch. XLIX.). 

makaru be able to come down on the price, from inake- 

7iasaru do, from nasareru. 
kudasaru bestow, from kudasareru. 
irassharu be, come, go, from iraserateru. 
ossJiaru say, from oserareru. 


(Include the verbs given above.) 

Jiaka grave. saku produce, yield, crop. 

ita board. shi poem. '^ 

w^/ body, self (p. 58). shi wo tsukuru compose a 

naniida tears. poem. 

shita tongue. rei politeness. 

bo pole, club, beam. bu-rei rudeness. 

riku land (opp. sea). seji-do sailor, boatman. 

rihi ni agaru to land, tei-haku anchoring. 

a These verbs sliould not be confused witli s/nziiuin sink, be immersctl, and 
the corresponding transitive sliiziivie-ru. 

b The term slii is now general and is applied to all foreign and to modern 
Japanese poelry, but in old Japan f/«' was understood to mean Chinese verses^ 
In the Fcnsc of poetry the word u(a is limited to veri^es writlcn in the 0IO 
native ^lyle, bul in llie sictise of song il is universally npplicable. 

182 The Verb [xlvii 

yu-dan negligence, inattention, tsuinorn be piled up, accumu- 

tei-sha-ba = siiteishon station. late. 

sho (c) many, several (p. i). yorii twist. 

aviaru be in excess. ko-yori {kaini, yori) paper 

dauiaru be silent. twisted into a string. 

Jioi n dig, carve. hone bone. 

kitsaru. decay, be malodorous, hone wo orii exert one's self 

riaoru be repaired, cured (lit. break bones). 

(comp. naosii). hone- on effort. 

ni-ru boil, cook (p. i68d). deki-agaru be finished. 

— ni noboru ascend. tsuki-ataru come up against, 

okoru arise, brealc out, get go straight toward. 

angr}'. hashi ivo kake-ru build a 

sazvagu, sazvaide be noisy, bridge. 

aj:;itated. — wake ni {ivd) ikanai may 

shikar u scold. not. 

iaru = tiiri-rn he. enough (p. kare-kore about (p. 28b). 

142). san-zan {ni) recklessly, harsh- 

iomu be rich. ly, severely. 

toini riches, lottery. sek-kakii with special pains, 

ioiui 7ii ataru win in a lottery. kindly. 

•wataru cioss. to-cJiu de on the way. 


Damatte irii Jii'o zva yiidaji ga dekinai. ^ Bnnshd zvo 
ts kurii ni wa iini ga wakaranaku naranaide ' narudake 
viijikaku in yd ni ki wo ts kenakereba nariviasen. Kono kin 
•wa gin ga mazatte ivias' kara, shiromi-gakatte i/uas. '^ Taiso 
yowatta. Watakushi wa ik' sa ga okoreba {pkottara), sugu ni 
kiini ye kaeranakereba nariviasen. Ano hito wa naze okori- 
mash'ta ka. Domo, komarimas ; ki ni iran koto ga areba, 
sugu ni okoriinas\ Anata sugii {ni) o kaeri ni narimas' ka. lie. 

a More fully expressed : Yiidnn siini koto ga dekinai. One must lie wary in 
dealing with a taciturn man. Many sentences of lliis kind end in the 
negative imperative _yW(7« siirii na. 

b Has a^hite tinge, from 5///Vw«z' (p. 21) and Jcakant. One may also say: 
sliiromi ga kaite imasu tlie white tin^e prevails, from /ca/sn to conquer. 

xLvii] The R Gkoup i8 


s koshi mawatte kaerimas . Jibnn no mi no osamaran Into ga 
tak'sa?i arinias . Tokyo no nio)w iva san gzvatsn no ju go nichi 
ni anie ga fitru to, Uniewaka no naviida da to iiinas\ ^ 
Mukashi wa tabi wo sum hito ga '' ren-dai" to iu ita ni bo 
zt'O ni hon ts keta mono ni notte Oigawa wo^^ watatta ga^ 
konogoro wa hashi ga kakatte imas' . Nikon ni wa hashi no 
kakatte oran kawa ga tak'san arimas . Watakushi no 
tomodacJii zva tochu de kane ga nakuiiaita kara, komatta 
tegami wo yokoshimasli ta. Tadaima zua ShimbasIC kara Ueno 
made tetsudo ga kakatte orimas . Ikura hone wo otte yatte 
vio, hayakn dekiagarimasen. En no Shokaku to iu hito zva ^ \ 
ashi ga jobu de sJiokoku zvo viawatta sd des ; sore da kara 
sJite, inia de mo yoku shokoku zvo niazvaru hito ga waraji zvo 
sono hito no zo ni kakemas\ Fuji san ni nobotta koto ga arimas 
ka. Sayd, nobotta koto ga arimas' . Nobori zua nan jikan 
kokarimash'ta ka. Sayd, karekore hachi jikan kakarimash'ta. 
Kono sakana zva doku da kara, o agari de nai yo. Ni san 
nichi no aida Nihongo zvo hanasanai to, sJi ta ga mawaranaku 
narimas\ Watakushi ga kuni ye kaeru toki, Honkon ni June 
ga teihaku shimas/i ta kara, Hku ni agatte hito ban yadoya ni 
tomarimash'ta ; shikashi hidoku atsui no de, yodoshi nemasen 
desh'ta. Mukashi zva Tenryugawa wo fune de zvatatta ga, 
ima zva hashi ga dekite orimas' . Ame ga futtari yuki ga 
Juttari sh'te komarimas . Koyori zva kami zvo y otte koshiraeta 
mono des. K'satie mo tai (Proverb). Kono taki wa ura no 
ho ni mazvatte miru koto ga dekimas' kara, Uramigataki to 
inoshijnas' . '^ Tomi ni atatte kanemochi 7ii naritai mon des\ 
IVakatta ka zvakaranai ka wakarimasen. Mina zva zvakari- 
inasen.'^ IVakatte mo zvakaranai kao zvo sh'te iniash'ta. 

a Umewaka is the name of a child who was kidnapped from a nohle family 
in Kyoto and died at Mukojima in Tokyo. At a little temple erected there in 
its honor a memorial service is held on the 15th of March every year. 

b This river, which forms tlie boundary between the provinces of Siiruga 
and Totomi, must be crossed by travellers on the Tokaido, the hitjluvay 
between Kyoto and Tokyo. 

C A hermit and priest of tlic seventh century, rcjund vvliosc name many 
legends cluster. 

d A waterfall in tlie neigliborhood of Nikko. 

c I do not understand AM,, i. c., there are parts lh?.t T do not underslan.!. 
Minn walairimnseii. It is all dark to me. 

1 84 The Verb [xlvii 

S'teru kami ga areba tas kern kavii mo aru.^ Sore ja kono 
shinaniono wo o aziikari itaslite okimasho.^ Sekkakii des 
kara, go cJiiso ni azukariniasho {tiariuiasho). Ano kichigai 
wa anna ni sawaide oru keredomo, jiki ni shiziiviaru yo. 
Teishaba ye inairiviasuru 7ii zva ^ do ittara yorosliii gosai- 
inasJio {ka). Sayo, soko wo tsukiatatte hidari no Ju ye via- 
gareba, machigai Jiaku s'teishon ye oide 7iasarii koto ga deki- 
vias . Kakari no Jiito zva ino sagariniasJitaA 

Names of things vary according to (depending on) locality 
(place). Be silent ! e \\\ {iii wa^ Nikko (i) there is (8) also 
the grave (7) of the horse (6) on which leyasu (2) rode (5) 
at («/) the battle (4) of Sekigahara (3). The teacher got 
angry and scolded tlie pupils severely. Please hand {torii) me 
that dictionary. Did you {kiini 2) compose (3) this Chinese 
poem {7va i) ? The daimj'os' mansions which were in Tolcyo 
for the most part have been changed (being changed have 
finished) to offices. Please help {tas' kete yam) him. f If you 
go [irassharu — past cond.) to Ikao, 5 your malady {go byJki) 
m\\' ([X 109a) be cured. If there were no (are not) unsavory 
things, the flavor {uniami vio) of delicious things would hardly 
be appreciated (understood). In Japan crops are poor (bad) 
if rain does not fall abundantly {tak'saii) from ]\Iay to {ni 

a This proverb fits into the inoutli of one who wishes to comfort liimself or 
another in lime of distress. 

h Notice that azukarii in the sense of " to take charge of" takes -lOO. In 
the next ?cntence it means "to participate in" and takes ;^;. In the latter 
sense aziikarii is not used so much in the colloquial, and smacks of the 
epistolary style. 

C For eupliony's sake the ending masti here becomes masuru, but masii also 
Would be correct. 

d Tlic man in charge has left the of/ice. Here we have another very 
common use of kakam in the form of its stem. Kakari no hilo may also mean 
all the officials in a department. As a suffix /('(7^'cz;-? forms many compounds ; 
e. g., I;%iiaikei-kaka7-i treasurer, from Z'wrtz- /'<??' finance. Tlie verb sa^^aru is used 
of men leaving an oftice at the clo.'-e of the day's work or of pupils returning 
home fnim school, I lie ofr.ce or school being regarded as an exalted place. 

e The inijierative of daniarn is of course not polite. To be polite one must 
sf.y : ( hotlo kiite kiidasai. 

f The verb tasiikeru is used in a case of peril, distress or poverty. To lielp 
one to do a task is tetsudau, tetsudatte. 

g A famous summer resort, with hot springs, in the province of Kozuke 
I ear Maebashi 

XLViii] Verbs in eru and iru 185 

kakete) June. When you went to Shinshu recently did you 
ascend Mount Asama?^ I wished to make the ascent (ascend), 
but, as it was raining constantly, I returned without making the 
ascent. Though [we] dug jfiever so {ikurd) deep, we struck no 
water (water did not come forth). Since this (1) i^ '^ot mine, 
[I] may not {wake ni wa ikiviaseii) give it to another {hiio). 
This meat is not sufficiently cooked {jii-kata is not sufficient). 
Too many sailors run the ship aground (The sailors being 
numerous, the ship ascends the mountain.) ^ Excessive polite- 
ness (politeness being in excess) becomes rudeness (Proverb). 
Dust accumulating becomes a mountain (Proverb). This horse 
is not worth (does not become even) a vion. Can you not 
Aci\v\c^ {luakarii) even a little? Yes, I will deduct two sen 
{wa). What did you say ? 


There are a few verbs which, ending in eni or iru, are often 
mistaken for verbs of the first class. A partial list of them is 
here "-iven^with the recommendation that the student as he 
goes over it pronounce the subordinative distinctly, thus ; asette, 
chiite, etc. 

aseru hurry. kojirii gnaw. 

cJiiru scatter (p. 62a). kerii kick. 

— ni fukeru be addicted to. kirii cut, divide. 

fuserii go to bed. ' maini — iku, kuru (polite i, 3). 

hairu enter. inajiru = inazaru be mixed. 

hashiru go fast, run. nejiru twist, screw. ' 

hern decrease. " neru knead, soften, train.^ 

hineni twist. ^ ^ nigiru grasp. ' , 

ijirii meddle with, tease. sliabeni chatter. ^ 

iru enter, be needed, set (of sltikujiru fail, forfeit. 

heavenly bodies). shiuieru h^ dam[). 

iru parch, roast.' shiru know. ' 

kaeru return. subcru slide, sli[). 

kagiru limit, be limited. leru .shine (of the sun). 

n An nclive volcano near Kariiizawa. 
b Compare tlje lOnglish : " Many cooks spoil the broth." 

c Assuming lliat this list is mastered, we will discont iiiiic the use of the 
hyphen in verbs of the hrst class. 


The Vekb 



(Include the verbs given above) 

forest. ^ 

ftita cover, lid, 
kataki foe. 
kire slice, piece 
kubi neck'. ^ 

ynshiro Shito shrine. 

setsii opinion. 

kivan cjovernment office 


chojo 1 ..^ 

. -^ , . V summit. 
itacia/ci 3 


((?) ;;/7/^m/^z ball of rice used ^/ 5/// loyal samurai. 

for lunch {viiisubu make 
into a ball with the hands). 

niji rainbow. 

7iiji ga tatsu {cierii) a rain- 
bow appears. 

raku-dai failure in examina- 

sep-puku suicide by cutting 
the abdomen, f 

sJiii-jin master. 

iiori paste made of starch, ken-so na i)recipitous. 


saki tip, point. 

sue end. 

tokkuri a sake bottle. ' 

harusame {haru, ame) spring 

mavie bean. 

shin-cliiku no newly built. 

abareru become fractious. 

kakii scratch. 

nusuviu steal. 

okotaru be lazy, neglect. 

osJiirnu prize, 


deplore, be- 

nankm-mavie peanuts, ^ havierii insert, fit. 

kana Japanese syllabic char- ate-hameru assign, 

acters. ^^ ^pply- 

kaya mosquito net. ^ ate-haiuarji be suited, 

oshaberi [o-shaben) chatterbox, cable. 


a A 7iiori\'r, smaller and denser tlian a hayashi. The term ;/iori is specially 
applied to tlie grove surrounding a temple or shrine. 

b Not to be confused with the classical kobe head. 

c From the name of a Chinese city. Comp. vankinneziimi (p. 2a) 

d From karii borrow, nn name. Tlie syllabary is derived from certain 
Chinese cliaracters. Tlie kira-gana, from hira level, plain, are extremely 
simplified forms of the characters as written cursively. The less familiar 
kata-katia, from Imla side, nre fragments of the characters as written squarely. 

e Made like a square tent and suspended by strings attached to tlie corners 
(and sides) of the top. 

f From seisu=ikini, fiikii=hara. The word "harikari" found in some 
English dictionaries is a corruption of hara-kiri. .Some say kap-pitkn 
[l:alsti=^wa III). 

[xLviii] Verbs v^ eru and irii 187 

sonaeni provide, furnish, offer, chodo exactly, just. 

taioeni compare by wa)^ of muyavii ni recklessly. 

illustration. sukkari [to) entirely. '^ 

iaioeba for example. ^ ' petapera rapidly (of talk). 

ne-giru beat down the price hj-bo several directions, 

Uie price, kiru cut). everywhere. 

seine-iru enter forcibly. ^ to-tei by no means, at all 

ho wo kakeru spread the sails. (with a negative verb). 

so-ba wo yarn engage in spec- zo-sa naku without trouble, 

ulation. "^ easily. 


Kono jibiki ni wa iranai ji ga tali s an ariinas' ; tatoeba 
Manyoshu 7io ^ kotoba nazo wa kessJite irimasen. Nikon no 
bunslij zva kanji ni kana ga inajitte orimas\ Shi Ju shichi 
nin no gishi ga Kira Kdzukenos' ke no yasli ki ni semeiri, 
kataki no kubi ivo kitte Sengakiiji ye motte kite shujin no haka 
ye sonae, sore kara niina seppukii sJiie shiniinask'ia. ^ Kono 
sh'igoto wa ikiira asette yaite mo kongetsii no sue no nia ni iva 
aiviasniai. Mada hirngozen wo tabezu ni orivias' kara. taiso 
kara ga hette niairimash'ta. Koti-ya wa hayaku fusette 
inydcho hayaku okimasho. Kono daigakti no s/iosei no knzti 
ga oioi hette kite inachi no mono ga komatinias . Yokn 
shaberii hito wa oshaberi to vijshinias' . Hoka ye ^ itte nchi 

a The verb tatoerii appears in the phrase, iatoete niireba. The regular 
conditional form in the colloquial would be taloeieba. The form tatoeba is 
borrowed from (he classical language. "An example" is tatoe or lei. To 
" give an example" is rei ivo lorn, Iiiku or agern. Sore iva ii rei de 7va arnuiiscn, 
or, Sotio rei wa yoku atehaviarimaseit. Tliat is not a good illustration. 

b Sappari is often synonymous with sukkari, but snppari may also have llie 
sense of "clearly." See also p. I28d. 

c The name of the oldest anthology : man io,ocx) or many, yd leaf, shu 

d This is the plot of tlie celebrated drama Chushiiigitra [chu shin loyal 
subject), beller kru-wn by the title "The Forty-seven Ronins." A ro-nin is a 
samurai without .t master (;7) wave, vagrant, nin man}. The Forty-seven are 
'called also Ako no gishi. At .S>;z-,?-rt/'«-y? (fountain-mo,untain-temple) in Shiha. 
Tokyo, wts tlie gravt of the daimyd of Ako the lord of the Forly-seven. 
Koztike-no like was oiiginaly an official title which later c.nnc into use as 
a given name. Compare Kura-no sake, Wakasa-no-sukc, etc. In this sentence 
the stem is used for the subordinative, as is often the case in nnrraliveg 
(p. 162b). 

e Hoka ye to others, outsiders. Itte is from iku to go. 

1 88 The Verb [xlviii 

110 n'oto WO shabette wa \shabetcha) wanii yo. Ano chiisai 
uius'vie iva perapera shabette imas. Fujisan no chdjo ni %va 
oki na ana ga aite imas ; soko ni kenso na tokoro ga atte Oya 
SJiirazii Ko Shtrazu to indsJiimas ; {naze naraba)^ vioshi Into 
ga ayamatte soko ni suberiochiru io, oya wa ko wo s te ko wa 
oya %vo s'teie okanakereba narimasen kara, so iu na ga deki- 
inasJita. Hi ga tettari anie ga JiUtari sJite tenki ga yoku 
kawatte koviarinias'. Sakura no chiru no wo oshinianu hito 
wa ariviaseit.\-J/arusaine wa sakiirabana no chiru no wo 
oshiniu hito no naniida ka mo sJiirenai {namida de nto 
arimashj kd). ^ Ueno no hana wa chitte shimaimash'ta ka. 
fie, inia chodo sakari des . Kono tokkuri ni wa go go Jiairanai. 
O me ga akakii narimash'ta no wa do iu wake des' ka. 
MnsJii ga Jiaitte komarimash'ta. IVadoku no jibiki zvo motte 
mairitai to onioimash^ te hobo tazuneniash'ta keredomo, gozai- 
masen. Kouo ie zva shinchiku des' kara, heya ga shiuiette 
orinias'. Voshitsune zva Koromogazva no tatakat ni inakete 
hara zvo kitta to iu setsu mo ari, mata Ezo ye nigeta to iu setsu 
mo aru. ^ Mutsukash' kiite atama ni Jiairimasen. Kono sakana 
wo ikutsu ni kitte agemasho ka. Sayo, mi kire ni shUe 
kudasai. Ano gakusei zva asobi ni fukette benkyo zvo okotatle 
imas kara, rakudai suru desJio. Nihonjin zva kangaeru 
toki ni kiibi zvo hinerimas ga, ^^ Seiyojin zva atama wo ka/ai 
so des'. Gozen de nori wo netie kure. Baka to hi wa ijiru 
hodo okoru (Proverb). Lrimame to iu mono zva iname zvo itte 
satj ka. sh'jyu zvo ts keta mono de, niameiri to mo iimas' . O 
musubi wo nigitte o kure. ^ Kouo futa zva hldari no ho ni 
nejireba Zosa nakti toremas\ ^ Kodonio ga yoku fusette 
or imas'. - 

a Naze nm-nha is elliptical for Naze ka io naraha \{\yoVk 7i'r,V\"- \s\\y?' An 
explanation is frequently introduced by this phrase or iinze io iu ni. The 
expression Oya Shirazu Ko Shirazu often occurs as a designation of a dangerous 
place. The most noted place that bears this name is a rough part of the coast 
of Ecliigo. 

b A paraphrase of a poem in the anthology K'o-kin-wa ka-shu {ko=fuytii., 
/:i>7z=ii;;ia, 7C'(7=Japan, ka^^uia). Namida Im is ell iptical for naviida da (desu) ka. 

c The Koromo is a small river in the north emptying into tlie KitakamL 
River near Tchinoseki. Yoshiisune wns a famous hero of tlie XII. century 
(p. 162c). 

d " To twist the neck '' here means simply to incline the liead to one side. 

e The balls of rice which so often serve as a simple lunch are also called 

{ Translate: one can take it off (p. loSh) 


XLviii] Verbs in eru and iru 189 

When the whiter is extraordinarily cold (in an extia- 
ordinarily cold time of winter) there is skating (skating is 
possible) even at {cle nio) Yokohama. If {to) the sun shines 
while {jichi ni) it is raining (rains) a rainbow appears. You 
must not beat down the price so. He stole public funds 
i^kwan-kiti) and forfeited [his] office. He pretended not to 
know (was making a face that knows not). What {koto) I 
have just now said, not being limited to this word, is applica- 
ble to other words also. The gohei^ being (a thing) limited 
to [Shinto] shrines, is not [found] in [BuddhistJ temples. 
Among these wares is there none that you like (entered your 
spirit)? All are satisfactory (good), but as they are dear I 
will give them up. I do not yet quite understand (it dojs not 
yet entirely enter my head), What is in those godowns ? In 
those godowns there are clothes, books, money and so forth ^ 
— various things. Shall I cut the tip of [your] cigar? Please 
do so (I request). The horse became fractious and kicked the 
groom. The cherry [blossoms | of Mukojima too have proba- 
bly fallen (falling finished) already. One must not cut [down] 
a forest recklessly. The ship runs about 15 kai-ri'^ an (one) 
hour if one spreads the sails. Last night one mosquito got 
into {naka ni hairii) the net and I couldn't sleep at all. The 
longer he is in {haitte oni) the school, the more indolent 
{fu-benkyo) does he become. Rats have gnawed the book- 
case. He engaged in speculation and failed. Are these 
peanuts fresh roasted ? (p. 1 19 bottom). 



I. The polite verbs nasaru, kudasaru, and irassharu are 

used in the second (or third) person botlv indciiendently and as 

(Q- auxiliaries. Usually masu is addecj.^ at^Ld, (^rl in nasariniasu, 

kudasarimasu, irasshariniasu is aStfci^^td ai. '^ So also are 

a The gohei (see Vocabulary p. 129), made of white paper or metal, is the 
characteristic decoration of .1 Shinto shrine. Its significance is not clearly 
known : some say that it is a symbol of divinity or purity. 

b In such a list conjunctions may be dispensed with. See p. 2, middle. 
■ c A /vr? ri (/■«/=«>/«■ sea) is a knot— about 1. 15 miles. 

d In the same manner osshnriiiiasu a.nd gozarii/iasn are contracted. 

I go The Verb [xlix 

in the inipciMlivcs nasare, kudasare, and irasshare is contract- 
ed to ai. The imperative of masu is viase or mashi. Thus 
the imperatives of these verbs are nasai or nasaiuiashi, kuda- 
sai or kiidasainiaski, itasshai or irasshainiashi. The a before 
ita, tte, ttari, etc., is commonly eHded : nastta, nastte^ 
nas'ttari ; kudus' ita, kudastte, etc.; irassJi tta, etc. 

(r.) Nasaru is used independently. It is also used with 
Chinese compounds or with the stems of verbs as the polite 
equivalent of suru : 

Go katte ni nasai. 
Consult your own convenience. 
Nani wo go kenibutsii nasarn o tsiiviori desii ka. 
What do you intend to see ? 

- Sukoshi o make nasai. Make the price a little lower. 
Oide^ nasaimashita. You (he) went, came, were. 

(2.) Ktidasarn as an independent verb means *' grant con- 
descendingl}\" As an auxiliary it is used with either the stem 
or the subordinative of a verb (but generally with the latter), 
and may be literally translated " condescend to ", " deign to " : 

Kono ska shin wo kudasaimasen ka. 

Will you not be so good as to give me this photograph ? 

Go men kudasai. Please excuse me. I beg your pardon. 

O yomi {o\- yonde) kudasai. Kindly read it. 

Shinsetsu ni oshiete kudasaimashita. 

He was good enough to explain [it] carefully. 

Go ran nas'tte kudasai. Condescend to look at it. 

Constructions like o yomi nas'ite kudasai are formal and 
polite. Familiarly one may substitute kureru for kiidasaru, 
but only with the simple subordinative, not with the stem : 
oshiete kuremasJiita. 

(3.) Irassham means " go ", " come ", " be ". Jrassharu 
and oide nasaru are practically synonymous. In speaking of 
persons de irasskaru = de am (p. 78b). As an auxiliary 
irassharuis used with the subordinative of a verb and is the 
polite equivalent of iru or oru : 

a From the honorific o and the stem of the classical izu, the older form of 
^eru (p. 144, 6). Notice that the honorific or ro is required in the above 
examples (p. 72f '. 


Honorific Verbs m ru 191 

Kyj sampo ni irasshaiutasii ka. 

Will you go for a walk to-day? 

Kochira no ho ye irasshai. Come this way, please. ^ 

Go buji-jde trassJiaimasii ka. Are you well ? 

Danna saina wa go zaitaku de irasshaiinasu ka. 

Is the master at home? 

Tokyj ni suviatte irasshaiinasu. He resides in T5kyo. 

lite irasshai is the polite equivalent of itte koi (lit. go and 
come) Go ! Good bye ! 

2. Negative forms of aru, such as arajiai, etc., are not 
used, being I'eplaced by forms of nai (p. lOO). The only 
exception is the future or probable aruuiai, which is used 
along with nakaro, nai daro. In the classical language arazu 
=^naiy ni af'azii = de nai. 

For de aru, de atta, de aro the contractions da, datta, daro 
are usually emploj'ed ; for de ariuiasii, etc., desu, deshiia, 
deshj. The uncontracted de aru is heard only in speeches. 
The use oija as a contraction of de aru survives in Buddhist 
sermons and in some dialects. t> 

The very formal equivalent of aru is gozarimasu, usually 
pronounced gozainiasu. The simple gozaru ^ (negative : goza- 
ranu) is rarely used in conversation, but may be heard in 

It should also be noted that such expressions as ni natte oru 
(p. 163, 5) are often used where we should expect aru. 


kane bell. kat-te one's own convenience. ^ 

a The simple imperative irasshai has Ijecn somewlial vulgarized Iiy 
doorkeepers of places of amusement, etc. 

b T!ie particles de wa are also contracted to ja whicli occurs wilh special 
frequency in, ja nai lea: Cliotto mi ni iko ja nai ka. Sliati't we go to see it? 
So osshalia ja a/-ii/iasen ka. You said so, did you not ? 

c This word is derived from the honorific ^o and za (c) seal. Tl is of course 
unusual to form verbs Ijy adding rii to Chinese elements, but there are 
analogous instances (Intrcjduction, Xb) Tlie native equivalent of gozaru is 
owasu or oivashimasii, an lionorific verb used like aide nasaru or irassharu. 
Another form of the same verb, omasu, is still used in the Kyoto dialect as an 
equivalent o{ arte : su dc omasu or so dosii=so desu. If this is not the explana- 
tion of llic origin o{ gozaru, it is at least an instructive analogy. 

d Conip. kaUegainashii p, iro. Tlie adjective kalte ua means selfish, 
inconsiderate. In speaking to a person, ^<7 may be prefixed to kalle. i 

J 92 The Verb [xlix 

do-yo the dog days. hai-kett sum look at (polite i). 

jo-go one who is fond of slia-sJun wo torn take (or sit '^ 

sake, sot. for) a [photograph. 

^^-/^<7 one who prefers sweets dai-ji ni sitrii take good care ' 

to sake, teetotaler. of (p. 33a). 
//c7Z-^j/J consumption, phthisis, kangaerii think, reflect. 

kem-butsu sight seeing. — no kangae ivo kiku sjek the 

ko-shi minister, ambassador. advice of. 

sJiitsu-rei discourtesy, im- hanahada very, very much, ' 

politeness. ' ^ kaette on the contrary, rather. 

so-shiki funeral. </ inoto originally. 

shd-bu = ayavie.'^ ynkkuri {to), yuriiri {to) lei- 

kaku-dutsu-kzvan museum. surely ([) 33e). 

on-sevi-ba ) hot spring ikigake ni o\\ the way (going). 

to-ji-ba 3 sanitarium. /'cr^r/^^/'c" ;// on the way bad-:. 

ivatasu take across, hand immJtmif*»i naku without fail. 

over (comp. watarii). surely. 


Doits tei no go sosh' ki wo go ran nastta ka. Sayj ininiaslita. 
Go ran 7ias' tiara, watakushi ni watasJCte kiidasai. O sashi- 
ts'kae ga arimasen ?iara, dozo oide nas'tte kudasai. O kaeri- 
gake ni watakushi no ucki ni o yori Jias'ite kudasai. ^ Nihon 
ni irassJitta toki tii ?ian no o shirabeniono zvo nasainiasJita ka. ^ 
IVatahcshi no shashin wo lotte kudasai. Soiio kane ga naku- 
nattara, do nasaivias ka Mo s' koshi hayaku oide nas' ttara, 
ma ni aimasfitaro ni. Horikiri no '^ hanashobu 7C'o mi ni oide 
nararan ka. Ueno no hakubuts' kzuan wo go kembutsn ni oide 
7iasaimasen ka. Do o kangae nasaimas' ka. Hitotsii o kangae 
nas' tte kudasai. Moto Ber rin ni oide nas tta Nihon no koshi 

a Ayaine is rather the classical word. Usage lias, however, different iated 
ayame and shobu, so that it is not strictly correct to call them synonymous. 
But the usage is not consistent. The ayariie or shobu of tlie proverb (p. 66c) 
is the sweet flag or calamus, whose blossom is inconspicuous. Varieties of the 
iris family which have showy flowers are called Iiana-shobu or Itana-aya7)ie. 

b Hito no iichi (Jokoro) ni (j'i) yoru to call upon a person. 

C Shirabeniono ivo sum to make an investigation. Comp. laasu-j-e/iiono -wo 
sum p. 147b. 

d A garden in the vicinity of Tokyo renowned for its exhibitions of irises. 


Honorific Verbs in ru 193 

wa kuni ni kazri nasUte, ima zva tojiba ni irasskaiuias\ 
Mo kane ga natta de wa ariinasen ka. Muko no kuni no 
kotoba ga o zvakari nasaiviasen kara (p. 1 1 8b), tocJiii de 
kofJtari 7ias'tia des/ij. Konaida oide no toki ni o yak'soku ni 
7iariinasJi ta hon zvo niotte kite kudasaiviasJita ka. ^ Ano 
kata ua geko de irassharu kara, o kzvasJii de mo sasJiiaoe- 
jnashD. ^ Anata zva kitchiri roku j'i ni oki nasainias ka. 
Say J, iokei ga nam to, sugu ni okiinas. Anata Nikon ye oide 
nasaru toki doko no fuiie ni notte irasshainiasli ta ka ; Ffans" 
no June des ka, Igiris" no des ka. lie, Doits no fiine ni 
noriviash,ta.c Anata zva Kyoto ye irash' ta koto ga arivias 
ka. lie, inada ariinasen ; kondo no doyJyasunii ni kevibutsu 
ni viairu tsuniori des' . Sekkaku o tazune kudasainiasJite 
hanakada osoreiriinasii ta. '^^ Sekkaku o daiji 7ii {nasaiinashi). 
Asak'sa no Kvu(innon sania zva ^ yoku negaigoto zvo o kiki 
nasainias\ Iptipkii meshiagariniasen ka. Sekkaku Seiyo 
ye irass/ita no ni, ^ sngu ni haibyo ni natte o shini nasainiasJita. 
Oide kudasaiinas'' no zva jit su ni arigato gozaiuias" keredovio, 
sore de zva kaette osoreirinias' . S Go katte na koto zvo ii nasaru 

Have you heard that (//<? zvo^ the temple of Koya san was 
burned at the beginnuig of hist year ? You must not consult 
your own convenience too much {ainari). It may be well to 
seek the advice of the teacher. Were you at home at the time 
of the earthquake, or were you out? Where was the master 

a Oide no toki ni at the time of your presence, i. e., when you were. Stems 
of verbs or nouns are often used when we should expect an indicative verb, 
\.\\M.S'. go zonji desii, go zonji no Jiito, go zonji no hazii desit. Compare: o tanoini 
no hon the book for which you asked me, snnkei no kilo the people who visit 
the temple. 

b By substituting de mo for wo the expression is made indefinite, it being 
implied that one might offer something else perhaps. 

c lie in this sentence means " neither." 

d The adverb ii?/C'/C'rt'/7/ indicates that there are difficulties (expenditure of 
time, money, etc.,) connected with the act. It may be variously translated, 
according to the context ; sometimes it is untranslatable. In this sentence it 
may l)e rendered, '' you liave taken the trouble;" in the following sentence, 
♦'specially." Notice that oscreiriniasliiia is useil for tlie present tense (p. 143. 
5, 2). ■ 

e A well known Buddliist divinity. 
f The «o ;// meaus " allhougli." Conip. p. 132. 

g Here osoreiriinasii means "I am distressed lo have you do so," In a case 
of real loss or suffering one may say itnini iriiiiasn, from ifninu ache. 

194 '^^^ Verb [l 

{go skujin) when the fire broke out {defu or hajiinaru) ? If 
you were in my place {anata nam), what would (do) you do 
ill this case {ioki)l Indeed {Jionto ?ii) yow must have been 
embarrassed. Did you go to the Museum yesterday? Just 
{chotto) see whether what I have written is erroneous {inachi- 
gatte iinas' ka dj des kd). When you have written [it] I 
will look [at it] If you don't understand, please say {pssharti) 
so. Come for a little chat {chitto o hanashi ni). Where are 
you going next ? I am going to see {l:aiken ni) the newly 
built Imperial Residence. / I beg (p. 104b) that you will all (i) 
come without fail. Please give me (I beg) your reply when 
you have decided. Please rest leisurely. I am very sorry 
that I was away from home (I was indeed impolite, being away 
from home — rusti de), though {no ni) you took the trouble to 
come [to see me]. 


To the second group belong verbs in isu. The u of the 
present tense is hardly audible. 

Paradigm of viatsti (stem : inachi) to wait, await: 

Positiv^e Negative 

Present viatsu inatanai, matan {u) 

Past viatta inaianakatia, — nanda 

Future or viato \ matsuinai 

Probable niatsu daro viatanai daro, inatati darJ 

Probable mattaro matanakattaro, — nandaro 

Past viatta daro matanakatta daro 

Conditional inaieba {matabd) matajiakereba {matanaknba) 

matsu nara {ba) inataneba 

inatanai nara {ba) 

Past Con- inattara {ba) viatanakattara, — nandara {ba) 

ditional viatta nara {ba) matanakatta nara {ba) 

Imperative mate matsu na 

{0) m^tlii na vi^ttt^de nai yo 
o liB^i (yo) 

l] The T Group 195 

Subordina- matte inalazn {shite), inatazii in 

♦ ive Diatanaide, viataiide 

inntanakute , 
Desiderative litatiil^ tfM?fff$t*k.}i nai 

Alternative mattari viatanakattari, — nandari 


The fact that the Japanese modify the sound of ^ before i 
and ti, saying not ii, tu, but chi, tsit, must be remembered in 
conjugating verbs of this class. With te, tari, ta, etc., the chi 
of the stem naturally units to form tte, ttari, tta. 

The verbs belonging to this class are not numerous. Besides 
iiiatsu we have : 

katsu win a victory ( — ni katsu defeat). 

kobotsii break, destroy, demolish. 

viofsu hold in the handj have. 

motsii last, endure. 

sodatsu grow up, be reared 

tatsu stand, rise (from a seat), rise (of dust, waves, etc.), 

pass (of time), leave (a place). 
tatsu cut (paper, cloth, etc.), sunder, have nothing more to 

to do with. 
utsii strike, clap (hands), shoot, ^ play (a game of chance). 
butsii (vulgar) = ?/^^«^. 

The verbs wakatsii divide, distinguish, hanatsu separate, let 
loose, shoot, taviotsu have, defend, and ayariiatsii err, belong 
properly to the written language. Their colloquial equivalents 
are zvakeru, hanasu, motsu and machigau. 


(Include the verbs given above) 

chi blood. , {o) viiyage, luiyage-iiioiio a 

hibari skylark. present brought by the giver 

hototodsu cuckoo. ^' in person (p. 84d). 

a " To slioot with a gun " is teppd de — wo titsu, " To fire a gun " is /^//d 7c'o 


h The cuckoo's cry impresses tlic Cluncse an<l Japanese as heinj^ very 


The Verbs 


ioiioisavta) a respectful term 
designating a nobleman 
(as a former daiiiiyj). 

hi-tichi-gane steel for strik- 
ing fire. 

/li-iichi-iski ^n\\. for striking 

kaiie bell. 

sute-gane a signal of three 
strokes preparatory to 
striking the hour. 
' ie-nia time spent on a task. 

ken a game played with the 
hands. ^ 

on (c) kindness, benefits. 

baku-cJii gambling. ^ 

ban-ji (lit. 1 0,000 things) all 
things, in every respect. 

ko-kwai repentance, 

kwan-gun Government army 

zokii-gun rebel army. 

sen-so battle, war. 

sho-go noon. 

tai-hb cannon. 

{p) td-inyd a light offered to 
a god. 

zai-san property. 

' ko-ri, kori a traveller's trunlc 
made of wickerware, a pair 
of baskets one of which tel- 
escopes into the other. 

yanagi willow. 

yanagi-gdri a kori made of 

yubin-kyoku post office. 

fii-7iare na inexpert. ^ 
' nchi-ju no all in the house 

(p- "^n^)' 
dai-jobu na secure, all right 

. ,(P- 138b). 

kinzurn, kinjite prohibit. 

ogainu worship. 
. oyobii reach. 

— ni oyobanai it is not ne- 
cessary to. ^ 

nakn-suru lose (p. io8a). 

a From this Chinese word for "first." In the variety called isln-/'eii oj 
Jan-ken three things are represented : is^i stone, /'«;«?' paper and hasaini shbo.xs, 
A stone may 1 e wrapped in paper, paper may be cut by shears, and shears 
jnust yield to stones. The players extend their hands simultaneously, eacli 
representing one of these three things. For instance, if A makes the sign of 
the stone, he wins in case B makes the sign of the shear, but has to yield to the 
paper. Another variety is inushi ken, in which the characters are hebi snake, 
kaeru from and iiame/citji s\\ig. It seems that tho snake fears the slug. Still 
another kmw.e- ken, or tohachi-ken^ in which appear .f/^^-jV"? (old word for son-cho 
head of a village), ieppo gun and kilsime fox. The fox is regarded as having 
power to bewitch a man. " To play ken " is ken ivo iilsu. 

b Fiom the Chinese bakit a hoard used for games and iicJii, the stem of 
uisu " To gamble " is bakiichi ivo ntsu {biiisny A gambler is hakiichi-uchi. 

C From the negative/// (p. 124) and the stem of narerii become accustomed. 
There are other instances of the combination of^^ with stems of native verbs : 
e. ^.jfii-soroi not uniform, fii-tsiiri-ai not balanced, out of proportion. 
- d Notice the very co,mmon phrase : Go shinipai ni'wa oyob'iviasen. You need- 
not ftel any concern about it. 

I.] The T Group 197 

hori-uiono wo sum carve, tsiiide convenience, opportu- 

engrave. ^ nity. 

^ ho-to siiru be profligate. tsuide ni on occasion, by the 

shui-tatsu sunt set out on a way, incidentally. 

journey, start. t> ' ydyaku,yjyb, ydyatto,yaito fin- 

liatsii nunieiative for dis- ally, with difficulty, barely. 

charges of a gun. sas-soku very soon. 

ippatsii Ktsii to fire once, "sho-shd a little. 

hajiiiie {ni or 7va or ni zva) ^ nagara at the same time, 

at first. while, though. ^ 


Mateba, nagai. *^ Kami sania no o toinyd wa hinchiishi de 
utte agemas' . Kokzvai saki ni tiiiazu. ^ Doiiio, ha ga itakute 
tatte mo snzvatte ite mo iraremasen. ^ Konaida o tanomi no 
meshitsukai zuo tsnreie mairimaslita ga, inaka no man des 
kara, shojiki des" keredomo, banji Junare de o yaku 7ii wa 
iachiiuasmai. § Seinan no ik'sa de zva '> kwavgiin ga Jiajime 
tabitabi maketa ga, nochi ni yoyaku kachiniasJi ta. Nihoiijin 
wa yoku keji zvo ucJiimas ; sono ken niiroiro arinias/i fejshiken 
ya mnshiken ya kitsunekeii ya tak'san shurui ga arimas\ 
Nihon de wa baknchi zvo uts koto zva kinjite arimas . Nihon- 
jin zva kamisavia zuo ogamu toki ni zva san do te zvo ucJiimas' . 
Chi no deru hodo kodouio zvo butte zva ikemaseu. ' Toki no 

a Ilori-moiw also has the sense of tattooing in its more elaborate forms, 
including figures of men <xnd animals. Simple tattooing, such as that in v"^>ie 
am 'nij Ajnp women, is call 

b This is a curious compound ol the Chinese sfiuisu=^iieru ami the native 
verb tafsii to set out. 

c Nagara is used with stems oi verbs or with Chinese compounds. 

d One may also say : Matte trie to nagai mono desii. Afatsn nii wa tsitrai 
{tsurai afflicted, suffering). It is hard to wait (often of lovers). 

e Proverbs, as has Ijcen remarked l)efore (p. 103a), are expressed in classical 
forms. For tatazti see' p. 171, to[). The meaning is: Repentance unfortunately 
does not come soon enough to prevent the wrong. 

f See p. io8h. Orareinasen may be substitued for iinreiiinseii. 

g Here de stands for de atte. Vox o tanomi no see p. 193a. 

li Se!=sai west; nan south ([). 107b). Seinan no //■//jrMlcsignates the Satsuma 
rebellion of tlic year 1877. 

i Translate hodo " so tlial." (^>mJ)are [>. loi (2). 

198 The Verb [l 

kane wa saki 7ii inittsu siegane zvo uite sore kara kazu dake 
nchiinas ^ Nihon de 7va oki na kane wa bo de {jnotte) nchi- 
mas' . Chotto o vmchi nasal. ShJsho o viachi kiidasai. Koko 
de s'koshi mate. O tenia ga toreinaseii nara, inachimasho. ^ 
Kore zvo niochi nas'iie kudasai. ^ S'kos/ii matte kure, sugu 
ni kaeru kara. Matazii ni ucJii ye kaeru hj ga yokaro. Tatsu 
(go away) viae ni zehi anata no takii ni agarimasho. Itsu o 
tachi ni narinias ka. Nimotsu no sh'taku ga dekitara, sassoku 
tachinias'. Kono yanaglgori zua mada luochiuiasJiJ ka. Sayoy 
daijobji des\ Konaida o yak'sokii no shas/mi wo moite mairi- 
maslita. Chichi ga uchiju no mono ni miyage wo motte 
kaeriniash'ta. Tsiiide ni kono teganii wo yubinkyoku ye motte 
aide {nasai). Hidari Jingoro wa ^ hidari no te de {motte) jdzti 
ni horimono zvo sh'ta so des\ Hoiotogis' zva iobi nagara 
7iakimas ga, hibari wa tachi nagara nakimas' . Oide no jibun 
ni chodo yo ji wo utte imash'ta. Ko wo motte shim, oya no on 
(Pro\'eib). ° Moto wa ie zvo motanai mono zva ichi nin viae no 
hito de nai to moshimash'ta. ^ Ko wa sodachigatash' (Proverb),/ 

In ancient times {zvd) [people] kindled fire with steel and 
flint. I hav^e brought the book which you asked for {0 tanovii 
no), but [I fear] it will not be of any use. The Government 
army won at the battle of Ueno and the rebel army fled to 
Oshu. S Do you often play ken ? Through profligacy and 
gambling '^ he lost all {snkkari) his property. He struck him 

a After tlie subordiiiative such expressions as soi-e kara and so shite often 
occur. They add nothing to the sense. In the following sentence molte, which 
often follows de, is likewise pleonastic. 

b Tenia ga toreru. It takes time. To show respect, the speaker, a riksha- 
man, add o. 

'c~TTTrTTsIlie~r4^lea5-e-take-tlus^]o!ig;' " Plea^e-feold^his" would be . ]^[ore zva 
vioite ite ktidasau 

d A famous carver in wood (died 1634). The critics say that the story of 
his having been left-handed is a myth based on the fact that he came from 
the province of Hida. 

e P"or the sake of emphasis the order is inverted. Oya no on is the object 
of shirii. 

f Ie means not "house," 1nit "household." For ichi nin mae compare 
hiton-viae, p. 95 a. 

g 13shu designates the provinces at lli^ northern end of the main island. 
Some think it is hardly fair to call the opponents of the Government at that 
time rebels. Historians use the term id-gun {Jo east), " Battle " is tatakai, 
kassen, or senso. 

h Use alternatives wilh shite. 

Li] The S Group 199 

that blood flowed (comes out). In Tokyo at noon a gun is 
fired (they fire the gun once). Japanese eat (things) with 
chopsticks. The lord of Ovvari held a fief yielding (of) 550,000 
^oi'u. Has It struck eight o'clock ? Not yet, ^ but it will soon 
strike. [We] have been waiting a half-hour (7;w), but he has 
(does) not yet come (pres.). I will wait here until you return. 
It is not necessary to wait. He seems (/J des') to have 
money. Please hold this a moment. I have brought the 
photographs for which you asked recently, He brings the 
children gifts every time he comes. When will he leave for 
home {kuni ye) ? He wanted to leave at the end of this year, 
but as {jio de) he has been taken {kakaita or natta) with 
consumption, he must return at once, it is said. Europeans 
living in Japan take plenty of food along when they travel 
(go) into the interior. May I take this along? Shrewd people 
win by yielding {inakete). When will you go into the 
country ? I intend to start after {tatte) two or three days. It 
will be a serious matter {taiJien des') if you break this plate. 


To the third group belong verbs in su. As in the case of 
verbs in tsii, the u is hardly audible. 

Paradigm oi hanasu (stem hanashi) to speak, or, to separate : 


hanasaJiai, Jianasan iii) 
hanasmiakatta, — nanda 
hanasanai daro 
hanasan daro 

hanasanakattard, — nandaro 
Jianasanakatta daro 
hanasanai nara {pa) 

a Instead of if [jtatinpj the verb (negative present) with niada, one mny say 
simply mndn dan. 






Future or 



2 hanasu daro 




hanasJiita daro 





hanasu nara {ba) 



200 The Verb [li 

Past Con- JianasJiitara {bd) Jianasanakattara {bci) 
(litional hanaskita nara {bd) hanasanandara {bd) 

hanascDiakatia nara {bd) 
Imperative hanase Jianasii na 

{d) hanashi na o hanashi de nai yo 

o hanasJii {yd) 
Subordina- JianasJiite hanasazu {shite), hanasazii nl 

tivc hanasanaide, hanasande 

Desiderative Jianashitai hanashitaku nai 

Alternative Jianashitari hauasanakattariy— nandari 


Verbs of this group are very numerous. They are generally 
transitive. '^ In most ca'-es the corresponding intransitives are 
derived from the same root. ^ 

I\Tany are synonymous with regular causatives : 

awastc = awaseru cause to meet, introduce, join, from an 

kazvakasu^kazvakaseru dry, desiccate, from kaivaku. 
7iarasu=^naraseru sound, ring, from nam resound. 

The transitive derived from zvakii boil is zvalcasu, never 
zvakasern. The form in sit often differs in sense from that in 
sent. Thus chirasu. means .scatter, from cJiirti, while chirasem 
means to see — fdl down (poetically used of leaves and 
blossoms). So korobasii, from korobu tumble, means roll, 
while korobasern means cause to tumble. From ines:nru=- 
inazvaru go round, we have two verbs, megurasu revolve in the 
mind, u'^ed in the semi-classical compound ojnoimegurasu 
reflect, and viegtiraserii cause to go round. 

In some cases su is simply substituted for the rti of an 
intransitive vero : 

amasu leave over. aniaru be in excess. 

a One exception is iitasn iucrease, which may be transitive or intransitive. 
Its conjugation is' regular, while that of the auxiliary niaui (see the next 
chapter) is somewhat irregular. The viashi of vtashi dcsii (p. 136, middle) is 
the stem of this verb. ... 

b Tlie following lists arc by no means exhaustive. The words given are 
'selected simply with Ja'view to prepare tlie student for further observation. 
P'or the reiTular ca'.salives £ee Ch. I. XI. 


The 6* Group 


hesu (Jierasii) decrease. hem decrease. 

hitasii immerse, soak. hitaru be immersed. 

kaesu{kayasii)SQn<\h'3.c\<.,XQ\)?i.y.kaeru come or go back. 

^asu lend, rent. karu {karini) borrow. 

kazvasu exchange, kazvarti change (intr.). 

kudasii cause to descend. kudarii descend. 

w«T£'rt:j7^turn round, pass round, inazvarii go round. 

v/iodosii send back, vomit. modorii come or go back. 

naosii mend, heal. naorii be mended, healed. 

^nosti ijiGserii) place on, record, noni be on, ride. 

okosu raise, start, begin. okoru arise, break out. 

tjsii cause or allow to pass, toru pass through or by. 

• ivatasu take across, hand over, wataru cross. 

The eru or iru of verbs of the first class may become asti ; 
iru often becomes osu : 

chirakasu scatter about. 
dasu put out, give. 
fuyasii augment, multiply. 
kogasu scorch, burn. 
inakasu defeat, be'it down. 
narasii train, tame. ^ 
nigasii allow to escape. 
niirasu wet. 
saviasii cool. 

chirakeru be scattered about. 
deni issue forth. 
fiieru increase. 
kogerii be scorched. 
Diakeru yield, come down, 
nareru become accustomed. 
nigeru escape. 
nureru get wet. 
samerii become cool. 

sainasu waken, recover from, saineru become awake, sober. 

iokasii dissolve, melt. 
tsuiyasu spend, waste. 
nobasn extend, postpone. 
horobcstc overthrow. 
Jiosn dry, ventilate. 
okosu Waken. 
orosii let down. 
o^osu drop, lose, omit, take. 

tokeru be dissolved, melted. 
tsuieru be spoiled, spent. 
nobiru be extended, postponed. 
horobiru be overthrown. 
hiru dry, ebb. 
okiru get up. 
oriru descend, alight. 
ochiru fall ([). 165I)), 

To some transitives in su correspond inlransitivcs in rem. 
hanasii separate. lianareru be separated. 

hazusii displace, miss, avoid, hazurerii be displaced, fail. 

a VjvsiAc?, njrnsu tame and narasii ring, we have also nai-asii frnm naru 
become f/r be jnoducctl (of fruit) and nnra^ii level or erratic (land). 


The Verb [i.i 

kakusii hide. kaknreru be hidden. 

kohosii pour, spill. koboreru overflow. 

ko7iasu pulverize, digest. konareru be digested. 

kowasu break, destroy. kozvareru be broken. 

kuzusii tear down (p. 1 1 6b). kuzurerii go to pieces. 

nagasH let flow, forfeit. nagareru flow. 

taosu prostrate, kill. taorerit fall over (of tall things). 
^sjfbusu crush, rub off, destroy, tsubiirerii be broken, crushed. 

Finally it is to be noted that some transitives are formed by 
means of the termination kasu,^ which is often interchangeable 
with su or serii : 

hiyakasu, ^ hiyasu cool, hieru become cool. 
jirakasii,jirasu tease, tantalize, ixoxn j'ireru be irritated. 
magirakasu, viagirasti confuse, bamboozle, from viagireru 

{inagirii) be mixed up. 
7iekasu, neseru put to sleep, from neru sleep. 


(Include the lists given above) 

////^z name of an edible plant, katsuo bonito. 

Petasites japonicus. ft{s hi \<.\\ot, knob (as on a tree). 

ftiri air, appearance. katsuo-bushi dried bonito. ^ 

kabi mold. tsiiki-hi months and days, 

kabiru 7 ,, times. 

kabi ga haeni \ ' kompeito (from the Spanish 

okofi origin, etymology. confeito) confection, candy, 

/^/^rz amount (usually a suffix fuku (c) luck, felicity. 

in the form dakd). ju (c) gun, rifle, arms. 

tsutsuji azalea. sliiki (c) rite, ceremony. 

hinataswwny place, sunshine, za (c) seat. 
fu-moto {Juinii walk on, moto gu-clii silliness, twaddle. 

bottom) foot (of a hill or guchi wo kobosii grumble. 

mountain). seizD manufacture. 

kami-ire pocket-book. shin-ja believer. <^ 

a Hiyakasu has also the meaning of "to make a fool of" and is used 
especially of those who examine and price things exposed for sale when they 
have no intention of buying. 

b Variously contracted to katsubushi, kaisito ox f us hi. 

c Buddhist believers are usually called shin-fn 

Li] The 6" Group 203 

sui-kzva watermelon. yunisu set at liberty, pardon, 

zd-kin cloth for mopping permit. 

floors. utsusu copy. 

^^-^M-^i? colloquial, vulgarism, hik-kosii remove (residence). ^ 

tanoshii delightful, happy. kiki-atuaseru gather informa- 

hiyayaka na cool. tion, inquire about. 

tas-sha na vigorous, profi- /(3.y///-^£»/?^ become aged. 

cient. hanashite kikaseni tell (lit. 

inoru pray (— zvo inoru pray speaking cause to hear). 

for), kasa ivo sasu hold up an uni- 

okurii pass (time), lead (a life). brella. 

davuikasu, dainasu deceive, hi-bana wo chirasu make the 

impose upon. sparks fly. 

^ sasu propagate by means of itoina inosu take one's leave. 

cuttings {sashi-kiwo suru). saiwai {ni) happily. 


Hito 710 furi mite waga furi naose (Proverb). ^'' Watakusld 
ga soto ye detara, ramp' zvo kesJite kure. Moto zva Edo ye 
iku koto zvo kudani to viusJi te Kyoto ye iku koto wo Jioborii to 
moshiinaslita. Dozo, kiiruma zvo tosJite kudasai. ^ Hikeshi 
iva kase ga tsuyokute hayakti hi zvo kes koto ga dekinakatta 
kara, kinjo no ie zvo kowas/ita. Katsiiobushi to in mono zva 
katsuo no hosli ta n des\^ NiJion ni zva yama no Jumoto ni 
yoku " umagaeshi " to iu tokoro ga arimas ; kono na no okori 
2va kore kara safci wa miclii ga kenso de tZrenai {^\). loSh) 
kara, 11 ma zvo kaes to iu koto des' . Fuki no ha zvo JiosJt te 
tabako ni m.azete nomu hito mo arimas' . Soko ni zva JiasJii ga 
iiai kara, fune de hito zvo zvatashimas'. Kimi ga Doits go zvo 
tassha 7ii hauash' te mo sonna muisukashii koto zvo jibun hitori 
de (alone) kikiawas koto zva dekivias^mai. Watakiishi ga 
warn gozaimash'ta kara, yurushi kudasai. Sono ve no gaku 

a The verb kosu cross is transitive, I)Ut this compound, like omoi megurasu, 
is intransitive. 

b W^rt'^a (comp. p. 27c) is, (jf course, not used in ordinary colloquial. Furi 
denotes matters of etiquette, clothes, etc. 

c When people stand in the way, one may say politely : Go men uasaf 
Excuse nie I Beg pardon ! 

d The «' stands for no and is equivalent to mono. Tide no after kafsuo is 

204 The Verb [li 

wo orosJiie viisete ktidasai. KangoV sJio yori vw gakko nt 
kane wo tsuiyas ho ga yd gozaivias. Fuku no kami ni ifioru 
yori kuchi tvo Jierase (Proverb)^ Kasa 7vo saslite kite vio 
bisshori nureinash'ta. Kariru toki no Jizogao, kaes' toki no 
Eininagao (Proverb) ^ Tsutsuji no eda zva sasJite mo <^ is' ki- 
Dias" . Soko ni am ishi tva onioi kara korobasii yori hoka 
sJi kata ga nai. Ano okii ki zvo kiri-taosu no wa- oshii koto 
des . Omoi-ineguraseba ni ju go iieti no inukaslii Doits de — 
tanoshii tsukihi wo okutte oriviasJita. Hiyamizu wa ikenai ; 
wakasJite nonie. Tenrikyo no ho de zva koiupeito ni nani ka 
inyo na kusiiri zvo irete sJiinja zvo daniakash' te otta so des . ^ 
Suikwa zva iiiizu 7ii JiiyasJite tabern to, oishh gozainias' . 
Karita kane zvo koinban made ni modosanak'te wa nariniasen. 
Sono koto zva kesa no shivibun ni noseie arivias\ Ouiae pan 
zvo sonna ni kogash' (e do sh' ta no da. Aniari yakainash^ku 
sum to sekkaku nekasJi ta kodonio ga me zvo samashimas*. 
Kuki ga zvarui kara, shoji zvo hazush'tara yokaro. Toshiyoru 
to, guchi zvo koboshimas" . Amari kodonio zvo jiraslC^te zva iji 
ga zvaruku narinias'. Fune ni you to, tab eta mono wo modoshi- 
mas\ Orose, jTi ! ^ 

I will now {ino or kore de) take leave for (zf«) this evening 
(i). When you have finished copying this, please show [it to 
mej. This child at once breaks its toys. The French two 
hundred years ago took the castle at (of) Heidelberg. Take 
care that {yd ni) you do not break these teacups. In the 
niountaineous regions (yamaguni ) of Japan [people] eat a 
great deal of dried fish. Dried fish is called Jiimono. Among 
the teachers of the Medical School there are many who speak 
Germ n ficely. That old gentleman has often told me of old 
times {mukashi no koto). This bird, even though you set it 
free {JiauasJite yaru), comes back again (returning conies). 

a The word "moutlis" means the numlier of children, servants, etc., 
belonging to one's- house. There are seven fuku no kami. They are often 

b Jizo is a gracious buddha and has a kindly face. Einiiia [sam<i), the prince 
of liell, has a fearful face. 

c ^y^ here lias tlie sense of " though only." \^\\.\\ tsiilciniasu '\% understood 
ne ga. 

d 7i?»i-77-/{;yr» (heaven-reason doctrine) a new religious sect very popular 
among the lower classes. ~ It makes much of faith healing. Some newspapers 
■have charged the priests with slyly administering morphine to the believers. 

e A military command. The e is pronounced very long: orosei. 


fy^yO -^--^^^ 


The xS Group 203 

In (de wa) the ceremony of koicha they pass round the teacup. 
We will go to tease {Jiiyakashi ni) the shopkeepers (shops). 
Put the shoes out into the sunshine in order that {yJ ni) they 
may not mold. KasJiiJionya means {to iu koto des') a shop 
that loans books.- These trees are multiplied (one multiplies) 
by means of cuttings. Will you wear {^iiiesti}^ the new gar- 
ments or (shall it be) the old ones ? It seems to me that {yJ ni 
ovioti) I dropped my pocket-book somewhere on the way 
{luichi de). He has three houses and rents (renting puts) two 
of them to others. You remove often. Please translate it 
{tiaosti) into the colloquial. Will it do to erase this character? 
Correct that character without erasing it. Happily, as there 
was no wind, they extinguished the fire at once. In Japan 
they have what they call {to mosJite) doyo-boshi ; when the 
dog-days come {ni nam) people air their clothes. He has 
often told us of Japan. It is said that there are seventy 
million people that speak German, In Japan there has been 
a great increase in the manufacture of beer {biir' no seizodaka 
increasing has come). In order to avoid (avoiding) conversa- 
tion he left his seat. They wet their sleeves with tears 
(Letting flow tears they wet their sleeves). Don't spend all 
the money, but save (not spending all the money leave over) 
some. Soak this zbkin in hot water. We are annoyed 
{koviaru) by the children scattering things about. They 
fought until the sparks flew (scattering sparks). You must not 
confuse your words so. Alexander overthrew the Persian 
Empire. As it is so hot that I can't drink it, please cool it. 


I. The auxiliary masu {niasnrii) is in some respects irregular 

Positive Negative 

Present masu, masuric viasen {li) 

Past mashita niasen deshita 

mas en {a) katta, —-nanda 

a The verb tiiesu lias a wide range of meanings. The riksha-nian rays lo 
his passenger : { Jin7-ikisha 9ii) o ineshi nasaimashi. Please seat yourself in the 
riksha. Notice liie use of inesii in compounds: meshi agent eat or drink, 
pboshj-iitesu Uiiiili. . 


The Verb 


Future or tnaskd 

Probable viasu desho 
Probable viashitaro 

Past mashita desho 

inasu {ru) nora {bti) 

Past Con- inashitara {to) 
ditional mashita tiara {pa) 

Imperative inase 

viashi, vtashi na 
Subordina- iiiashite 


Alternative mashitari 


viasen deshd 

masen deshitaro 

inasen (a) kattaro, — ?iandarj 

masen (rf) katta desho 

masen nara {bd) 

maseji (a) kereba 



masen deshitara iba) 

inasen {a) kattara {bd) 

masenandara {bd) 

■masen {a) katta nara {bd) 

masu na, masurii na 

masezu {shite), niasezu ni 

viasen {a) kattari, — nandari 

The conditional masureba, etc., and the negative imperative 
masurii na are derived from the longer form masuru, which 
often occurs also in the pi'esent tense, especially in formal 

In the negative forms the characteristic vowel is e, not a. 
In the present tense the form in nai is wanting. 

The desiderative is wanting ; in its stead the desiderative of 
the plain verb with gozaimasti or omoimasu is used : — not 
hanashimashitai, but hanashito gozaimasu or hanashitai to 

2. This masu is used only as an auxiliary attached to the 
stems of other verbs. It indicates that the speaker wishes to 
be courteous. See p. 142, 3. It is quite proper to use masu 
in speaking to inferiors. But many foreigners make their 
speech too monotonous by using masu with all verbs indis- 
criminately. For variety's sake verbs in inconspicuous positions 
should ordinarily be plain. Further masu may be more readily 
omitted with verbs that are in themselves honorific than with 
common verbs. One must be more careful to add masu to 
verbs in the first person than in the third. The use of masu is 


Mas 21, fndsu 207 

apt to be incongruous : (a) in a monologue or in repeating 
something previously said to the speaker ; (b) in a conversation 
where the speaker is doku and his hearer kivii ; (c) in clauses 
dependent on a verb which is plain. When moved with 
indignation or in the heat of debate the natural tendency is to 
use curt forms. 

3. In formal speech one uses as auxiliaries special verbs 
such as nasarii, kudasaru and irassharii (Ch. XLIX.). The 
verb iiwsu ^ is also used as an auxiliary, chiefly in the first 
person, when the hearer is the direct or indirect object of the 
action. Itjollo ws the stem of g- >^'b, the h on oj;ific_j2.- being 
pr£fi>ced : 

iiegai viosJiitai koto ga gozaiinasu. 

1 wish to ask a favor. 

O tanovii inosu. I request your assistance (p. 125b). '^ 

Masii may be added to honorific verbs : nasaimasu, kiidasai- 
iiiasH, irosshaiuiasii, negai uioshimasu, etc. 


/^rt-^z-/(?///<? registration (postal), dati checker-board, chess- 

naka-ma company, associates.' board (numerativefor games 

cha-no-yii ceremonial tea. ^ of checkers or chess). 

{p) iioina-goi leave-taking.^ koma chessman.*^ 

itoniagoi ni defii come for a setsii (c) season, period, time. 

parting call. ■ en-ryo reserve [enryo sunt feel 

go a game like checkers. diffident). 

^<? ze'(? ?//.f/^ play checkers. ' {.go) enryo nakii without re- 
shu-gl chess. - serve, frankly. 

shogi wo sasu play chess. Jujin lady. 

a Mosu used as a principal verb meaus " say." As it implies respect for the 
person addressed, it cannot ordinarily be used in the second person. 13ut a 
judge speakin£^ as a representative of the Sovereign may say : Soito ho no viosii 
tokoro iva [indshi-taleru iokoro wa, or vmhi-tate wa) taianai. Wliat you say will 
not hold. A master may speak similarly to a servant. One may say to a 
friend : Sato san ni yoroshikii moshita to osshntte kuciasai. Please say to Mr. 
Sato that I wished to be remembered. EUiptically one \\\v.y za.y : ^'oros/iikit 
vioshite ktidasai. 

b At the door of a house or at a telephone one may Kay simply inoshi ! 
tnoslii ! to aUract attention. The answer is hai or ni. In former times the 
reply to such a call was ddre. 

c The>'« is now written with the character for ''hot water," I)Ut originally 
it Was probably a variant of e, one reading of the character kivai zs%c\\\\Ay. 

2o8 The Verb [lii 

hyd-gen comedy, drama, play, sagasu search, inquire forX 

kyd-ju professor. ^ suvin come to an end, be 

kyuka holidays, vacation, finished. ■ 

leave of absence. sugosu (intrans, sugirii) pass 

sai-sokii urging the fulfilment (time). 

of an obligation, dun. '" ioki {Jiimd) wo tsubusn waste j 

shak-kin borrowing money, time. 

debt- . ukagaii peep, spy, inquire, pay '^ 

sd-dan consultation. '' a call. 

yak-kai trouble, care (for kasJiikoniarii respectfully ac- " 

another), assistance.' quiesce. '^ 

— no yakkai jii 7iaru be aid- ukeric receive, accept, • 

ed by, be dependent on. ^ iike-au assure, guarantee.'^ 

yo-su circumstances, condi-, shinzuru, sJiinjite believe. 

tion, appearance, gestures, shim-po sum make progress,'* 

kabiirii, kamuru wear on the advance. 

head. • viattaku entirely, truly. ' 

/^5;«z^rz/; receive from a supe- vio-haya already, soon, no/ 

rior. more (with a negative verb). . 

go men your permission ?;««z-(!5«« by all means, please 1*^ '^^i 

(polite 2). nochi-gata after a little while. 

go men wo kdmurimashite waza to {jii), -ivazawaza pur^- 

by your kind permission, posely, specially. 

a The general term for teacher is kyo shi or kyd-in. The terms kyo-yu and 
kyd-ju are official titles, the former being applied to those who are duly 
qualified to teach jii ordinary Middle Schools, Normal Schools, etc., while the 
latter are of a higher grade. Those who have simply graduated from a 
university and have not taken the post-graduate studies necessary to secure the 
degree of // (?/'«- j/// or //«/'(? jtf are called ga/ctt-s/iz ; e. g., z'-ga/ms/ii graduate in 
medicine, in rz-^'rt/'/«/;z graduate in natural sciences. The American A. B. is 
rendered Beikoku bun-gakusin {J>un letters). The degree of hakiisin being 
given only by the Government, our " doctor " cannot be translated hakiishi 
witliout qualification. The German Ph. D. is Doitsn ietsugakuhakiishi. 
Foreigners employed as teachers by the Government are yatoi kydshi. 
Missionaries are sen-kydshi or den-kydshi {sen proclaim, den transmit). 

b Go yakkai ni narimashita I am under obligations to you. A quaint ex- 
pression is: keisatsu no yakkai ni nam to be accommodated by the police (said 
of a criminal). 

c This verb is used chiefly in the form kashikotnari/nasliita, signifying that 
the speaker will do as he has been told. It may be rendered <' at your service '-' 
or *' with pleasure." 

d For nani bun ni vio in every palt (Ch. XVII.). 

xii] Masu, niosu 209 

ten just as, just like. ^ zannen nagara ' it is too bad, 

go {c) = nochi 2A\.^x. but...(comp. p. 197c). 


Tabitabi shakkin 710 saisoku zvo iikete koinarimas . Nani 
wo sJite toki wo sugosh'uiiashj ka. Anata zva shogi wo 
sashimas ka. Sayo, Seiyo no shogi nara dekivias' ga, Nihon 
710 wa sasliia koto ga arimasen. Sore nam osJiiete ageuiaskD. 
Seiyo no shogi to chigaimas ka. Sayo, s' koshi chigaimas ; 
koina 1110 yokei {jii) ariinas' . Anata Nihon 7ii oide nasaiviash'ta 
toki 7ii go wo uchiviasen desh'ta ka. Metta ni uchiinasen 
deslita kara, taitei wasjireviash'ta. Dozo, go zvo oshiete 
kudasaimashi. YorosJiii gozaiinas' ; sono katvari (?ii) kar'ta 
wo oshiete kudasaiinasen ka. Vo gozaimas ; shikashi go no 
keiko wa aniari hiina ga Aakariinas' nara, yoshiviasho. Zan- 
nen nagara, koko de o wakare moshiviashj. Yiibinkyokii ye 
itte kono tegaini wo kakitoine ni sh'te dash'te kudasaiinasen ka. 
Heiy sassoku itashimasho. Tadaiiua irassh'ta o kyaku zvo 
koko ye tsure inoshiviasho ka. '^ Sayo, koko ye tsnre vwsh'te 
kure. Myonichi wa inaka ye tachivias kara, o itoniagoi ni 
deniash'ta. Kore wo utsush'te kudasaiinasen ka. Hanaliada 
osoreirimas ga, s'> o hanashi nas'tie kudasaimashi. Kono 
shinainono wa daijobu des" ka. Sayo, ukeai moshivias' . 
Sore wo honto to oi/ioimas' {ni nasaimas'') ka. lie, inattakii 
shinjiniasen. Senjitsu o hanashi nasainiash'ta tdri des' ka. 
Sayo, o hanashi inoshimash'ta tori de gozaimas' . O kaeri ni 
naru made koko de machi mjshite imasho. O nakama-iri 
wo itashimasJita kara, nanibun yorosh' ku negaimas' . Nihon 
no yds" zvo min/asureba, go isshin go zva naiiigoto de mo {nan 
de mo) yohodo shimpo sh'te orimas . SakunenjU wa iroiro go 
yakkai ni narimaJh' te ; konnen mo aikazvarimasezu. ^ IVata- 
kushi zva chanoyu zvo naraito gozaimas' ga, yoi sensei zvo 
sagash'te kudasaiinasen ka. hash' komarimash' ta ; kokoro- 

a Sono tori like that, Ilsu mo no tori as always. Osshaiinashita tori (or use 
no tori) as you said. 

b Said by a servant. Instead of o tsure tnbsn one may say also o toshi i/iusti. 

c Both expressions are elliptical. Such phrases are apropos in offering New 
Year's congratulations. The iroiro is adverbial : in various ways. With 
aikawaritnasezH is understood j^o Icon-i //?' (intimately) negaimasa, o sewa sdina tii 
uarimasn or similar words (p. I74d). 

2IO The Verb [lii 

atari ga gozaimas^ kara, tsiiide 7ii kiite inimasJiJ. Ano kata 
wa mohaya ni ju nen nw NiJion ni irasshaii/ias' kara, kotoba 
wa Diaru de Nihonjin no yo de gozainiasJiJ. Go men wo 
koiniiriinasJi ie o saki ye inairimasJio. Sono tichi ni inata 
irasshaimashi. Wazawaza^ o tazune kudasaiviasJi te jitsu ni, 
doino, ayigatj gozainias . Kondo viata o negai indsJiiniasho. ^ 
Oinae nani zvo sliie hiiua tvo tsubitsJita ka. OsoreiriniasJita ; 
domOy niichi ga xvarukiite sh'kata ga gozaiinasen desJita. 

If you don't like {o kirai nard) it, please say [so] frankly. 
Shall we play a game of checkers? I have never played ; 
please teach nie. If a person does not play often, he cannot 
(does not) become expert. I will call soon again. Having a 
[matter forj consultation 1 visited him (visiting went), but, as 
he was sick {byoki de). I returned without meeting hini {awazu 
ni). Japanese ladies go out {soto zvo anikti) without wearing 
anything on [their] heads. What shall I offer (give) you? 
As they say that a new play begins (from) to-day, I want to 
go to see it {keinbutsu ni). When my work is done, I will go 
with you. If I am hindered (there is a hindrance) to-day, I 
will go to-morrow (^asti ni iiasu). If you send {dasu) a letter 
to ]\Tr. Okubo, please remember me to him. As I am going to 
that neighbourhood later, I will call (calling go) there. This 
gentleman ^ having come in your absence {o riisu ni) for a 
parting call, returned asking to be remembered (saying /^r£>- 
sJi kn). He was in Japan a year, but he doesn't know a bit of 
Japanese (Japanese is i<bt even a little possible). As I have 
brought various samples, please look [at them]. If you 
understand (past cond.) that {to iu koto) sake {zva i) is injuri- 
ous, why don't you give it up? As the holidays are coming 
to a close {skiniai ni nam), the professors of the university 
have probably returned. Since at present {kono setsu wa) I 
have not very much {amari) business, I will come for study 
{keiko ni agarii) every day. At what time shall I come ? 

a Wazawaza denotes that the call was not made incidentally, but that the 
visitor had come specially for the purpose of making this particular call 
Translate : took the trouble to. Domo is an interjection. 

b Said by a merchant to his customer, as when goods asked for are not in 
stock. An American would say : " Call again !" 

c Said by a servant presenting a visitor's card. 





I. The verb stirtt (stem ski 

Present stiru 

Past shiia 

Future or 
Probable • 


shiyd, sho ] 
siiru daro^ 
shitaro \ 
shita darj" 

Conditional siireba, surya 


sum iiara {ba) 
Past Con- shitara ibd) 
ditional shita nara {bd) 




se {yd), sei 
ip) sJii Jia 
o shi {yd) 

Desiderative shitat 
Alternative shitari 

) is also irregular: 


seiiai, sen {u), shiiiai 

sen {a) katta, senanda, 


seinai, shimai, stnnai 

senai daro, sen {u) daro, etc. 

sen {(i) kattard, sencxndarD 


sen {d) katta daro, shinakatta daro 

sen {a) kereba, shinakereba 

seneba {sezuba) 

senai nara (ba), etc, 

sen (a) kattara {ha) 

senandara {ba) 

shinakattara {ba) 

senakattajiara {ba), etc. 

sttrii na 

o shi de nai yo 

sezu {shite) 

sezu ni, shizu ni 

senaide, sende, shinaide 

senaktite, shinakute 

shitaku nai 

sen {a) kattari, senandari 


The briefer form su appears in the literary language and in 
the adjectives su-beki that ought to be done Q). i ii), su-beka- . 
razatu that ought not to be done (conclusive, su-bekarazu). 

'The cjnly forms derived from sum are the conditional sureba 
and the negative imperative sum na. 

\\\ the negative conjugation the cliaracteristic vowel is e, as 
in the case of ?//<'?i/^; but 5?/r// differs Uo\\\ inasu in having a 

2I2. The Verb [liii 

form in nai. ' In compounds sanai also occurs : Nakusanai 
^OQS wotXosit; jiikiisanai is not ripe, tekisanai does not suit. 
Seinai is irregular. Sumai is rarely heard : So sinnai zo. 
Don't do so ! (You wouldn't do so.) 

2. Sometimes suru is to be rendered " make," as, for ex- 
ample, with the adverbial forms of adjectives : yoku suru make 
good, correct ; warukii sum make bad, spoil. ^ 

3. Notice also the following idioms: 

Do shimashb ka. What shall I do ? 

Do shite sono sara wo kowasJita ka. 

How did you break that plate? '^ 

Do shite mo dekimasen. It is utterly impossible. 

Do shita n da. What have you done ? 

Doshila hito desn. What kind of a man is he ? 

Do shita 111071 daro. What shall I (we) do ? 

So shite (p. 198a), sj suru to, so shitara {bd) and so shita 
tokoro ga ^ may mark a transition in a narrative, like our 
" then," " so," '* and," etc. So shite, or so shite is often used 
pleonastically after a subordinative. See also p. 171a. 

4. The following are examples of the use of suru taking an 
object with ivo. 

Hen na kao wo shite intasu. He makes a peculiar face. 
Shosei wo shite irii aida kane ga tiakatta. 
While I was a student I had no money. 

Similarly many verbal expressions are derived from substan- 
ti\es. The wo may be omitted : 

ikusa wo suru make war, kushami zvo suru {ga derii) 

tab'i wo suru make a journey. sneeze. 

shitaku wo suru make prep- shigoto wo suru work. 

arations. kega wo suru be wounded 

akubi zvo suru {ga deru) yawn. (p. 1 59a). 

a " To make " in the ordinary sense is /^w/«'r/7^r/< or tsiikit-ni. Distinguish 
yokii sunt and jdzu ni koshiraem construct well, ivanikii sum and hefa ni 
koshiraeitt construct poorly. 

h When do shite is strongly emphasized it means rather " why." 
c The expression loltoro ga here has the same sense as the conjunction _i,''«. 
It sometimes means " when." 

LIIl] Sui'U 213 

Verbal stems are used in the same way, alone or in combi- 
nation : 

kake wo siiru wager, from kakeru (p. 173, Voc). 

seki wo sum cough, from seku. 

tsuri wo sum fish with hook and line. 

nui tvo sum embroider, nui-viono zvo suru sew, 

shirabe-viono wo suru make an investigation. 

mi-nage zvo suru drown one's self (p. 58). 

te-narai wo suru practice pernanship. 

5. It is by the use of suru that numerous Chinese compounds 
are made to serve as verbs. With these zvo is more commonly 
omitted than with the expressions given above : 

an-nai suru guide, invite. san-jo suru make a call {san 

an-s/iJ sum n^emorize. ^=inairu, jo=-agaru). 

^.f/z-z^^/J^/^r^study, be diligent, shini-bj suru persevere. ' 
cho-dai suru = itadaku. ^ shiisu-ino?i suru ask a ques- 

i-ju suru emigrate. '^ tion. 

Jo-dan suru jest. " shitsu-rei suru be impolite. 

ken-chiku suru build. ■ sho-bi suru praise. 

ken-yaku suru economize. sho-chi suru be aware, con- 
ko-gyo sum perform (theat- sent. 

rical plays, etc.)."' shu-zen suru repair. 

— to ko-saisuru associate with, so-ji suru clean,, 
— ni kwan-kei suru\\?i.MQXQ\.i.- sotsu-gyd suru graduate (from 

tion with. a school). 

inati-zoku suru be satisfied. yo-jin suru take precautions. 

Almost all compounds of this kind are used also as substan- 
tives : go shochi no tori as you know ; benkyo desu is diligent, 
etc. To some of them negative prefixes may be attached 
(p. 124). In this case suru may not be used : Ju-benkyo desu ; 
fu-inanzoku desu ; bu-ybjin desu, etc. 

6. In somo cases an object with no is made to limit the 
substantive : 

— no hanashi wo suru speak of. 

— no uwasa tvo suru gossip about. 

a Both chodai sunt and itadnku have tlie sense to receive from a superior or 
from a person considered as such and arc used of t;ifls, refresh niciils ofTcrcd to 
a gue?t, etc. For a fuller discussion see Cli. I.V. 

214 ^^^"^^ Verb [liii 

— no jama wo surti be in the way of. 

— no samatage ivo suru hinder, from sauiatageru. 

— no inane wo suru imitate, from inaneni. 

— no seiva zvo suru assist, take care of. 

— no tonio wo suru accompany. 

But in most cases the substantive unites with suru to form 
a true verbal expression, which may then take a direct object 
with wo (or indirect with ;//) : 

gwaikoku wo tabi suru travel in foreign countries. 

yonie wo sewa suru secure a wife (for another). 

te ivo kega suru {te ni kega zvo suru) get a wound in the 

hashi zvo shu-zen suru repair a bridge. 
gakko wo sotsu-gyd 57/ r// graduate from a school. 
benshi ni shitsunton suru ask the speaker a question. 

In some cases either construction is allowed One may say 
shakkin 710 saisoku zvo suru or shakkin zvo saisoku suru ; but 
in the former case zvo must not be omitted after saisoku, 
while in the latter it must not be used. 

7. With some monosyllabic words derived from the Chinese 
suru coalesces : 

bassuru punish, from baisu. 

kessuru decide, resolve upon, settle, from ketsu. ^ 

sassuru conjecture, sympathize with (sentiments, etc.). 

After «, or a long vowel, by nigori S7i becomes zu and shi^ 
ji : 

anzuru be anxious, be concerned about. '^ 

kenzuru offer as a gift. ^ 

kinzuru prohibit, forbid. 

sonzuru be injured (p. 85a). 

tenzuru change (tr. and intr.), remove (intr.), 

zonzuru think, know (polite i). 

a In ketsn-gi, which denotes a resolution of a public assembly. From 
kessuru is derived the adverbial kesshite positively (p. 177c). 

b Anzuj-ii, like sassuru, may not take a personal oljject : WntakusJii no kokoro 
100 sassliite kuJasai. Sym.pathize witli me. Oya 7va shiju kodoino no koto ivo 
anjite iru. Parents are always anxious about their children. 

c Ikkon keiijiinashd. Have a cup ! (of sake). Aon-, the numerative for cups 
g{ sake, is really a variant readint^ o^ ken in kenzuru. 

LIIl] SW'U 2 1 5 

fuziiric seal (a letter). 
lueizurii command, order. 

Since the stems of these verbs are anji^ kenji kinji, etc., they 
are in the colloquial frequently inflected as though they belong- 
ed to the first class : anjiru, anjireba. etc. 

Observe also the euphonic changes in the following verbs. 
These are, however, more commoi:i in the literary style than in 
true colloquial : 

omonzuru esteem, from ovioku siiru {piiioi heavy, impor- 

karonzurii despise, from karoku sum {karni light, insig- 
nificant — classical karoski). 

8. Many intransitive verbs are formed by adding suru to 
adverbs. Most of the adverbs so used end in rl or belong to 
the duplicatives, largely onornatpoetic, in which the language 
abounds (comp. p. 128, bottom and Ch. LXXIV.) : 

bikkiiri sum be astonished, frightened. ^ 

bonyari {to) sur2i be vague, distracted, stupid. 

sappari {to) suru become clear (p. 187b). '^ 

bishibishi {niishimishi, gishigishi^ suru creak (of timbers). 

chirachira suru flicker, flutter, become dim (of eyes).^' 

ukauka {to) suru be heedless, lazy. 

9. In some expressions suru is used just like aru : 

— fw aji ga suru there is a taste of, taste like. 

— no 7iioi ga suru there is a smell of, smell like. / 

— 110 oto Qcoe) ga suru there is a sound of, sound like. 
, inabikari ga suru it lightens. -'' 

— yd na kokoroniocJn {kiuiocJii^ ga suru feel as if. 
nagainochi ga suru last a long timei' 

ji-shin ga suru {yiiru) there is an earthquake. 
zti-tsii ga suru have a headache. - 

10. The expression 7/z .y/^r« may mean "determine upon" 
(p. I34g). The same idiom may also correspond to the English 
" make — of — ". 

Kono buHshj zvo I'loii ni shite dashimasho. 

I will issue these essays in the form of a book. 

— zvo yoshi ni suru make an adopted son of, adopt. 

— wo yoiiie ni suru make a wife of, take to wife. 

— wo ki ni suru take to heart, be concerned about. 


The Verb 


Kono go konna koto wo shinai yo ni shimasho. 

I will see to it that he does nothing of the kind hereaftei-. 

With a verb in the futurc tense to sun t, means "be about 
to," "intend to" (p. i8o,2A). In other cases to sum means 
" regard as " ; to siireha may be translated " taking it to be," 
" assuming that," " if " : 

Amerika ye iko to shite Yokohama made iiniirlinashita. 
Intending to go America, I went to Yokohama. 
Kiint ga iku mono to stireba, ko iu baai ni dj suru ka. 
If yiiu were going, what would you do in such a case. 

The idioms ni shite {wa) and to shite (wa) are equivalent to 
the English " for " and " as " in some of their uses: 

Kodomo ni shite wa yokti kaite arimasu. 

It is well written for a child. 

Anata zva daihyosha to shite o hanashi ni narimasu ka. 

Do you speak as a representative ? 

11. The formal, polite equivalents of sunt- are itasii in the 
first (less frequently the third) person and nasaru in the second 
(less frequently the third) person. Accordingly do itashiinasho 
ka is more formal and polite than do shimashd ka ; do nasai- 
viashita ka. 

12. It has been stated (pp. 142, 3 and 190a) that the honorific 
should be prefixed to the stem of a verb with itasu or nasaru. 
The honorifics are naturally prefixed to any substantive that 
denotes the action of a person for whom respect is shown. 
Even in the case of the first person honorifics are in order when 
the act concerns a person for whom one wishes to show respect. 

o tomo 
o jama 
\/go an-nai 
go chi-so 
go ho-mdn 
go sho-kai 
go sho-tai 

ivo suru {itasii) 

go along. 


render assistance. 

make a bow. 

show the way. 

furnish entertainment. 

pay a call. 



When the personal object is stated it may take ni (or no). 




But shokai sum and sJtotai sunt take a direct object with xvo. 
Observe also : 

{Anata wo) ltd san ni shokai itashiniashb ka. 

May 1 introduce you to Mr. Ito ? 

{Anata to) go issho iiashiniashd. I will go with you. 


(Include the verbs in the above lists) 

koto-gara nature of the thing, 
matter, cii'cumstances. ^ 

tori-i the characteristic por- 
tal of a Shinto shrine, 

uri-zane-gao oval face. ^ 

ko (c) fragrance, incense. 

ben-ski speaker, orator. 

bu-joku insult, contempt. 

hafi-shj fire-bell, fire alarm. 

ho-tei court (of justice). 

ki-kwai opportunity. 

kyo-in teacher. 

inei-sho noted place, place 

worth seeing. 


o-rai going and 

ofai-dome closing a thor- 
oughfare {toineru stop). '^ 

shu-kan week. ^ 

iri ga am {di) attendance is 

large (at theaters, etc.) 
kaneru do at the same time 

(two things), be unable to 

do. e 
nokorii be left over (tr. iio- 

talakii strike, beat, knock. 
kaze wo hikii take cold. 

— ni inukau, no ho ye mtikaii 

— ni tori-kakaru commence 
work on. 

achi-kocJii here and there. 
chikai uchi {ni) within a short 

short time, soon. 
kitto surely, i^ 

a The suffix ^ara denotes " kind," " quality," as in gara no it shina stuff of 
good quality, cloth of a good pattern, ie-gai-a no yoi hilo a person of good 
family, a person of quality. With Ji-setsu season gara forms an elliptical 
expression •.Jiselsn gara o dniji ni nasai. It being such a season, lake good care 
of your health. The following example illustrates the n^^oi Icologara : Kotoba 
7va 'ivakariinasu ga, /co'ogara iia laa/carimtisen. 1 understand tadc words, hut 
don't know what it is all about. 

b See p. 15. The word sane denotes only such seeds ns ihose of llie melon 
or peacli. 'i'he general collcxpiial word for " seed " is (aiie. 

C A comiion notice on the streets : " Closed I " " No tlioroughfarc !" 

d The week was used even in old times as a measure of lime : ////o /ii,r:oart 
fii/a niaivari, etc. See Ch. XXIV. 

e In the second sense Jmnertc is added as a sufAx to the stems of verbs: 
viaiii/^aiieiiiasii cannot go (or come). 

2i8 Tiiii Verb [liii 

shikiri ni persistently. i-rai since (following a noun or a ■ 

tsiii {ni) at last, finally. verb in the subordinate formj. 

sen-jitsn the other day.' oya exclamation of surprise. "^-^ S' 


Do shiyd ka, Do shiinasJu ka. Do itashiinashd ka. Ko 
itasJi-tara yoroshit gosaimasho. Kono JiJ wa siigu niton- 
kakaru koto ni itashimaslO. Ko sJite mimasko. Nihonjin zva 
Matsushivia no kesJi ki zvo iaihen sholn shimas. ^ Shisuka ni 
shiro. 1^ Shiinbo sJite kenyakn zvo sureba, kitlo kane ga 
nokofiwas. Benshi ! shitsinnon sh'tai koto ga aru. Oniae 
shimbo sJite tstoniero. Shiyj to ouiou koto zva sugu ni sum ga 
ii. O jigiwo shi yo.^ Mada zvakarimasen kara, sensei ni 
shitsiinion itashimasJij. O tomo {zvo) itashimasJu. Dj itashi- 
maslite. <^ Kake zvo itashiinashd ka. Saktijitsu zva taihen na 
araski de gozaimash'ta ga, konnichi zva sappari itashiniasJi ta 
{sappari to haremash ta). Makoto ni o jauia {zvo) itashi- 
inash'ta. "" O Jama zvo itashinias ka mo shiremasen. Senjitsu 
zva shiisiirei iiasJiimash'ta^ , Dare ka to zvo tataku oto ga 
sum; dare ga kita ka akete~'mite kiire. O saki ni chodai 
itashinias . S Sakujits" kara hajimemaslita kyogen zva ikka 
bakari kogyo shimas' ka. Sayo sa, ni shlikan giirai itas so 
des ; shikashi iri ga okereba, f'ta is ki mo itashimasho. 
Yasumichii {ni) ^' achikochi tabi shimash'ta. Kono saki no 

a A group of numerous islets covered with pines, in a corner of the Bay of 

b Here shiro is to be translated " be.'"' Shhuka «/ is to be parsed as an 
adverb. Politely one might say : O shizuka ni iiasaiinaslii. 

c This may be said by a woman to her own child. 

d Often: Do itashimashite ; sore ni lua oyobimasen. Why? Don't mention 
it. Do itasJmnashite is the usual response when pardon is asked, thanks are 
expressed, etc. The phrase is elliptical for something like: Do shite so in o 
koloba tuo nkeru neuchi ga ariniasho ha. 

e Pardon the interruption. Notice that o, not go, is used with ja-ma, a word 
probably of Chinese-Buddhistic origin {ja evil, via hindrance, spirit). 

f This expression is used when one meets a frienil. The allusion is to a 
previous meeting. No honorific, is required with shilsnrei (p. 33). The wliole 
expression may be abbreviated to Senjitsu va. 

g In this manner a man may excuse himself for beginning to cat before 

h For clifi compare p. 137a. Translate : during vacation. 


Siiru 2 1 9 

has hi 7Va sJiuze)i sh'le ivias' kara, ^ oraidome des ; s'koshi 
mmuatle ikiinasJio. N'nni zvo go anshj nas tie irassJiaviias' 
ka. Kono sakmia wa myo na aji ga shim as" . Konaida ano 
kata ni iiiichi de aimash'ta ga, initiu fu ri wp sh' ie ikiuiash' in. '^ 
Kono hunsJiJ zva bonyari sJt te imasT Sugawara no Michizane 
wa dj sJita Jiito des' ka. Sore kara teiijite so in inti ni nari- 
inasJita. ^ Nilioii de zva jirizanegao zvo (p. 1 5) ichiban it to 
sh'te arlvias O tenki ni sJiiai vion des' . ^ Omae naze 
zash- ki zvo soji shinai ka {zash' ki no soji zvo shinai ka). 
Konna ni kiianaku sJite dJ sJi'ia 71 {inon) des' . Anata ga 
Tokyj ye oide ni nariinaslitara, hobJ no ineisho ye (zvo) go 
annai iiashimasho. Anata no osshant koto zva Jiontj to zva 
omowareviasen ; « shikashi moshi honto to siireba taiJien des' . 
■ Oviae sJ sJiinakereba shochi shinai zo. Jishin ga surii {yum) 
to, ie ga bishibislii sum {in). Kozukai ga ukaiika sh'te ite 
koniariinas' . Kono baai ni zva do sh'te mo zva to iuj'izuo 
is' kenakereba narimasen {p. 174c). Shinajin 7ii sh'te zva yoku 
•^X?'^ S^ dekimas' . Tokyo ni sh'te zva hidoi oyiiki de zva 
arimasen ka. Go jodan nas'tte kudasaru na. Go yojin Jiasai. 
Taihen bikkuri itashiniash' ia. Gakko no Icyoin zva seiji ni 
kzvankei siibekarazarii Jiazu da. Tanaka Shjzo san zva hJtei 
de aktibi zvo sh'ta tame ni kzvanri-bujoku no tsnvii de basse- 
rareinash' ta. ^Dare ka zvatashi no uzvasa zvo sh'te irii to niiete 
kushami ga dete naranai. ^ Chiisa fia koto de mo karonjite zva 
Jiaranai. S Kayo na kotogara zva Jiito no mina omonzuru 
tokoro des' . Sekkakii go shotai kiidasaimash'ta ga, shosh'> 
sashits kae ga gozaivias' kara, zannen nagara sanjo itash'- 

a Translate : the bridge ahead of us. Compare : kore kara saki no michi the 
way we are going. Notice that shuzen suric can be construed either transitively 
or intransitively : They are repairing the bridge ahead of us, or, the bridge 
ahead of us is a-repairing. 

1) Witli a preceding xnxh f/tri li'o shita may be translated : " pretended that," 
'• acted as though. ' 

c In philology tenz-.tni is (.ften used of changes in the meanings of words. 

d Lit. I sliould like to make good weather of=:T hope the weather will be 
fine. Compare the peculiar expression : Ashita wa furaselaku nai. I hope it 
won't rain to-morrow (lit. I don't want to make it rain). 

e I cannot \.\\\y\\, — omowai-erii being the potential of onion. 

f For ;/^yY7«(?/ compare : FmJiigi de naranai (p. 158b). The Japain.':c liave 
a notion tliat when a man sneezes it is a sign that some one is talking about 

g Compare the Chinese saying: Issun no kwo in karonziibekarazii [issiin a 
little bit, kwo in light and shade, time). 

2 20 The Verb [liii 

kanetJias*. Wataktishi no kohoro nio s'kosli'i wa sassJite 
kndasai. ^ Ikkon kenjitai vion des . Gakko wo solsugy3 
shinai uchi wa aviari uchi (my family) no sezva wo sum koto 
ga dekiinasen. Oya, kono zasJi ki zva hidokii tabako no nio't 
ga shinias koto / Ano hito wa shiri mo shinaide sJi tta kaa 
wo s/ite ivias" . Jibun hitori no kangae de sJita koto de vio 

What I ought to do I don't know. What ought I to do ? 
I intended to ask the speaker various questions, but refrained 
{/iikaeru). The number of Germans that have emigrated to 
America since the year 1820 is said to be four million. I will 
do it day after to-morrow, because to-morrow I have no time. 
Since my son cannot study {gakiijuon ga dekitiai), I will 
make a farmer of him. Please do so. Europeans do not 
praise the scenery of Matsushima so much as {yd ni 2va) the 
Japanese. It seems as if {yo des) the fire alarm were sounding. 
Ascend the roof and sec where {doko ga) the fire is. In my 
neighborhood they have built a primary school. As my eyes 
are dim I can't see anything. Since he associates a great deal 
with Japanese, he speaks {dekini) the (Japanese) language 
well {iimakii). The interior of a [Buddhist] temple smells of 
incense. That child appears to have taken a cold and is 
constantly sneezing, is it not {ja nai ka) ? One must not 
cough in the face of (facing) a person. It is said that a woman 
drowned herself last night. No matter how {ikura — vio) well 
it is done, he is not satisfied. If I have time, I will visit [him] 
soon. Shall 1 introduce Mr. Got5 to you ? j If [you] fail to 
(do not) decide things {juonogoto) quickly and miss the oppor- 
tunity, it will finally become forever impossible. In regard to 
this matter be not at all {kessJite) anxious. In Japan it is 
forbidden to take {irerii) horses and vehicles within {jiaka ye) 
the portal of a shrine. I am troubled with (doing) headache 
this morning. 

a The sense is : Try to put yourself in my place. Wataktishi no kokoro 
;//«>— don't look at the matler entirely from your own point of view; sukoshi 
iva — it is not reasonable to expect that you should enter into my feelings 


The A' Group 



Future or 

Probable kiku daro 
Probable kiitaro 


To the fourth group belong verbs in ku. 

I. Paradigm oi kiku (stem kiki) to hear, or, to be efficacious 
(p. 128c): 


kikanai, kikan (u) 
kikanakatta, — nanda 
I kikajiai daro, kikan daro 
kikatiakaitaro, — • nandard 
kikanakatta daro 

kikeba {kikaba) kikanakereba (^kikajiakuba) 

kiku nara {bd) kikaneba 

kikanai nara (bd) 

kiitara {bd) kikanakattara, — nandara {bd) 

kiita nara {bd) kikatiakatia nara (ba) 
kiku na 
o kiki de nai yo 


Past Condi- 

kiita daro 


{p) kiki na 
o kiki (yd) 
Subordinative kiite 

Desiderative kikitai 
Alternative kiitari 

kikazti (shite), kikazu m 
kikanaide, kikande 
kikitaku nai 

kikanakattari, — nandari 

The double i in kiite, etc., arises from the elision of the k in 
kikite. Compare the following : kaku, kakite, kaite ; tsukii, 
tsukite tsuite ; 7naneku, manekite, iiianeiie ; oku, okite, cite. 

2. The verb yuku or iku, to go, is somewhat irregular. 
Such forms 2,s yuiie, yuita, etc., are not in use. P'rom ikii are 
derived, not iite, iita, but itte, itta, etc. ^ 

3. Some intransitive verbs of this group correspond to 
transitive verbs in keru. Thus the expression hi ga tsuku fire 
kindles corresponds to hi zvo tsiikeru ; ki ga tsuku be attentive, 
to ki wo tsukeru ; akai iro ga tsuite iru have a red color, to 

a These must be carefully distinguished from the corresponding; forms of 
irte to enter, or to parch (p. 1S5). Also in to say and ylt to dress (the hair) 
lake the same inflections ordinarily, thougli ii(fe, ititn, etc., are also current. 


The Verb 


akai iro tvo tstikerji to color red; Id ga ochi-tsiiite irit the mind 
is composed, to ki ivo ochitsukeru. Observe also : 

kuttstikii adhere firmly. 

akii open (intr,). 

muku face. 

kataniuku incline, lean. 

todoku reach, arrive. 

isuzuku continue; hold out. 

kiittukeru attach firmly. 
akerii open (tr.). 
inn kern turn. 

katavmkeru incline, bend. 
todokeni deliver, report. 
tsuziikeru continue, keep up. 

But quite as often the relation is just the reverse, the verb 
in kent being a passive or intransitive form derived from the 
verb in /'// .• 

hirakii open, begin, clear. ^ 
kiidaku break, crush. 
nmku peel, skin. 
7mku draw, extract. 
sakii tear, rip. 
^oku melt, dissolve. 
tokiiXoozQ, explain. 
yakit burn, roast, bake. 

hirakern become civilized. 
kiidakeru be broken, crushed. 
inukeru peel (intr.). 
nukenc be extracted, escape. 
sakeru be torn, ripped. 
tokeru be melted, thawed. 
tokerti be loosed, solved. 
yakeru be burned, baked. 

4. The suffix-verb meku to resemble, appear, usually in the 
form lueite iru {prii), deserves passing notice in this connection : 
kodouiomeite iru is childish, harwneite oru is spring-lik'e, etc. 


(Include the verbs given above) 

don the noon signal given kire cloth. 

b}' firing a cannon, t> 
ftie flute, pipe. 
^Jue ivo/tiku play the flute. 
< koto a large stringed musical 

instrument, harp. 
^koto wo Jiiku play the koto. 
• kuji lot. 
vkuji wo hiku draw lots. 

kuruuii walnut, butternut. 
name kuji slug. 
ta rice field. 
taiie seed. 
^'waki side, side of the chest 

(including armpit). 
^asa-gao morning-glory. 

hi-7/iawari sunflower. 

a The verb Iiiraku is used intransitively of (he opening of a door, the 
blooming of a flower, etc. 

b The more elegant term \sgo-/w [go noon, ho cannon). 


The K Group 223 

ki-nezm/n 7 - , 'ko-dat no of ancient times, 

\ squirrel . , ' 

'■'rtsu ) ^ ancient. 

.-^(^/^zc'rt^c? proverb, maxim. ^o-ban ancient gold coin, el- 

/ ryd-gae-ya money changer. liptical in shape. ^ 

'bo ) ,. /. •^- \ \kata form, pattern, mold. /^ 

\ line (in writing). ^ • r 1 i I 

sen ) ^' fnari form, shape, appearance. { t 

kazva side (in soto-gawa). ^koban-nari no \ iy .• i ^^ 

] z^ 7 J f elliptical. 

• e7i, en-gazva veranda. i kooan-gata no 3 ^ 

-avi-ina shampooer, blind ^'daku hold in the arms, em- 
person. ^ brace. 
(za-to blind minstrel, blind ^fuku blow (tr. and intr.) ; kaze 

person. ga — a wind blows. 

( chli-bu paralysis. ^ fuku wipe. 

V^(?-^(;?z foundation, <7/Z(52/(7^ resound, sound. 

'{go-gak7i\\\.\gn'\i>\\cs, language ^'^^/ZiC chew, bite. 

study. ^inakii sow, scatter, sprinkle. 

"^ji-ko climate, weather. '^maneku invite. 

isei-ko success. Vmayou go astray. ^ 

^setsu-bun the transition from -\viayoi-go, inai-go lost child, 
one season to another, es- ^okonan do, perform, practice, 
pecially the night when ^okonai conduct, behavior, 
winter changes to spring, ' shiku spread (mats, etc.), lay 
according to the oldcalen- (a railroad), 
dar (lit. season clividing). 'icgokti move, be. influenced (tr. ■ 
h\tai-yd the sun. ugokasu). 

yiho-kai-jo letter of introduc- ^uziiku ache (like a tooth). 

tion. iiii'Otosu overlook. 

^ kayui, kaii \tc\\y. '^ — 7n inoto-zuku take as a 

', tayasiii easy to accomplish. basis, be based on. 

a From an grasp, ma rub. To shampoo or perforin massage is aiuvia luo sum 
or iiioiiiu (rub). Professional sliampooers arc usually blind men or women. A 
shampooer who is not blind is called tne-aki no aiitnia. Tlic ainina piping 
shrilly in Ihc streets to advertise his presence, especially at niglit, is a 
characteristic feature of Japanese life. In the Tokugawa era tlic Government 
organized the Ijlind into guilds. Officially recognized Idind minstrels or 
sliampooers were called za-to (lit. seat-head, i. e. head minstrel). •' IJliiid 
person " is more exactly jndjin ; colloquial iiic-kura ; classical ine shii. 

b The d-ban (p. 15) was a larger coin equal to ten kohan. 

C To lose the way is miclii ni mnyoii, rarely tnichiivo niayoit. One may also 
say : tnichi zi'o tnachii^aeru. 

2 24 The Verb [liv 

itdzura wo sum act to no isune ni always. 

purpose, be in mischief. sorosoro slowly, softly, gradu- 

vedan zvo hiku reduce the ally. 

price. kin-jitsii in a few days {kin = 

jibiki zvo hiku consult a die- chikai). 

tionary. isso {no kolo) rather. 


Watakiishi rua kinjitsii Igiris ye tachimas" kara, shokaijo 
wo kaite kudasaiviasen ka. Yoroshu gozaimas ; ni san tsu 
{ni sainbo)i) kaite ageviasho. Savmi kara, s'iobu ni ^ hi wo 
taite knre. Hei, tadaiina sngu ni takimas . Ha ga nzu/cu 
kara, isJia ni jiiiite inorainiasho. MusJiikeit wo tits toki fii, 
hebi to namektiji ga deru to, 7iameknji ga kachiiiias ; naze 
naraba naviekuji ga hebi ?ii kuttsukii to, hebi ga tokete shiuian 
kara da so des . ^ Taihoritsurei to in shomots wa AUhon no 
keihj wo kaita ichiban fund hon des . Makami tane wa haenu 
(Proverb). Anofue wa 7ian desho ; aninia san ga Jiie wo Juite 
iruja nai ka. Ozvari no Seto to iu vmra ni yakiviono zvo 
sum ie ga Jiachi jikken hodo am so des' . ^ Anata no sensei zva 
watakushi ni dio oshiete kudasaru hiina ga ariviasho ka. Do 
sh'te kono tafcigi zva hi ga tsWeanai ka shira {=shiran). Ka- 
waite oru kara, tsuku hazu da ga, ne. Kaii tokoro ni te Jto 
iodokanai yd da. <^ Kono ie zva dodai ga zvarukute jishin ga 
yiiru to, taiso ugokinias' . Kono kyogen wa nani ?ii niotozuite 
ts kiitta no des' ka. Kodai no rek'shi ni motoziiite ts kutta 
inon des'. Maigofuda wa banchi to naniae zvo kaite kodomo 
ni ts kete aru kobannari no Juda des' ; sore da kara kodomo ga 

a Notice carefully the use of the postposition wz in this connection. The 
stove is, as it were, the indirect object. One may say also sutobu ivo laku. Ki 
xuo iakti burn wood ; hence taki-gi firewood. 

b Compare p. l88a. When an explanation begins with jiaze iiareba or sore 
wa, it ends in kara desu. But when sore i^<a introduces an explanation of a 
word, idiom or proverb, the sentence may end with to in kolo desu. 

c Seto in the province of Owari is famous for its manufacture of porcelain. 
Hence the general term for porcelain is seto-mono. 

d A proverb derived from the Chinese : Kaktt ktva so yd (lit. through shoe 
scratch itch). The reference is to annoying difficulty. Of an agreeable 
experience or a clever person one may also say : Kaii tokoro ni te ga todoku yd 


The K Group 22 

michi ni viayotte mo sugii ni sono uchi ga wakarimas\ Nilion 
no kotozvnza ni jibun. no in ye viizii zvo hiku to in koti ga 
gozainias (p. 27c). Ano hiio -wa chnbii ni kakatte iinas" kara, 
ie oshi ga ^ kikanaku narimasJi ta. Nihon no heya ni wa 
iataini zvo shiite arinias'. Kiirinna 7ii noru yori zva isso aruita 
hj ga yd gozaiinas . Jikj ga soroioro harumeite viairimasli ta. 
Kono ringo zva iaiso yoku iro ga tsiiite inias\ Gogaku no 
keiko zva shiju tsuzukeiiakereba totenio seiko shiviasen. Nihon 
no ie zva taigai vtinaini-muki des' . Ris' zva katai kuriimi no 
kara zvo iayas'ku kaini-kndakinias . Michi ni kiite michi ni 
tokn. ^ Kaita mono o-o. shoko da. 

i> ' 

These matches won't burn (fire does not kindl^ because 
they are damp. Is the bath ready (has the hot water boiled) ? 
Yes. it has been boiling (is boiling) for some time (since a little 
while ago). I will reduce the price as much as possible. You 
will hardly understand it if you do not consult (consulting see) 
a dictionary. Ebisu ^ holds a tai under his arm (zvaki). Go 
to the money changer and inquire the rate of exchange (market 
price of the dollar). Please explain the reason for that (sono). 
Shall I peel the melon for you ? When you go (travel) to 
Europe, I will write you a letter of introduction. As it is 
raining to-day, the noon signal sounded louder (hidokn) than 
usual. On the evening of setsubiin the master of the house 
scatters roasted beans in every direction {Jiobo ni) and says : 
*' Luck {zva) in {uchi), demons out." This is what a girl ten 
years of age wrote; indeed it is well done (p. 127b). The 
shampcoers walk [through] the streets at night blowing {Juki 
nagara) [their] flutes. You must wipe the veranda every day. 
On the paper slides of tobacco shops there is usually painted 
(written) a tobacco leaf. This picture is one that Kano 
Motonobu ^ painted (wrote). In Japan recently [they] have 

a For /e to aslii ^a. Willi words tliat arc often paired in connnon usage the 
conjunction may be omitted : c)'/; /c parent and child, asa ban morning and 
evening, kami hotoke gods and buddha, naini kaze waves and winds, sake sakcina 
viands, kofu-ko happiness and unhappiness, sum koto nasu koto everything one 
does {iiasu being the classical equivalent oi sum'). 

b The Japanese rendering of a Chinese proverb. The reference is to a 
display of ill-digested learning. 

C One of the seven gods of luck (skichi fukujhi]. 

d The most famous of the Kano family of painters (XVF. Century). 

2 26 The Verb [liv 

built (laW) railroads in every direction. As there is now a 
railroad (laid) from Tokyo to Sendai, more people will be 
going to Matsusbima (people that go to M. will be more) than 
before {in aye yori). Please draw one of these lots. That 
blind minstrel plays the koto well. I have taken a cold and 
have a headache. The water of the Tama River is brought 
(p. 163, 5) to Tokyo. Shall we walk or (shall we) ride? We 
will walk, for if we go by kuruma we shall overlook many 
{yokii) things. In Berlin they sprinkle water on the streets 
twice a day. Please under-score (draw a line under) that. 
That man's behavior is childish. This cloth will be beautiful 
if you color it red. That house has leaned over very much 
{Jiidokii) on account of {cie) last night's earthquake. The 
(flower of the) sunflower always faces in the direction of the 
sun. Please deliver this book to Mr. Sato. The morning- 
glory opens early every morning. The chidren have been in 
mischief and torn the book. I shall invite [some] friends to- 
morrow ; for it is my birthday. 


The verbs oku aand itadaku are often used in combination 
with the subordinatives of other verbs. 

Oku to set, put, place, with a subordinative means " leave in 
that condition " : 

irete oku put it in (intending to leave it in). 

kane wo tainete oku lay money by {tameru accumulate). 

azukete oku deposit [azukeru entrust). 

vtchatte oku let it alone {titcharn throw away). 

Sono mama ni shite okiviashj. I shall let it be as it is. 

Sono mama sutete okimashita. 

I let it be as it was {sitter u cast away), 

Shitaku shite okimasko. 

I will (make my preparations and) be ready. 

Rusui ni kahi wo oite ikimashd. ^ 

We will put the maidservant in charge of the house. 

a Oi/e oi'ii is occasionally lieard iu the sense of " to employ," but tsukatte 
okti, yalctte oku, tanonde okti, etc., are more natural in this connection. 

i.vj Oktc, itadaku 2 2j^ 

lite okii {ittokii) koto ga am. I have something to tell you. 

When oku follows a negative subordinative, it may be 
rendered by means of " leave " with a passive participle pre- 
ceded by the negative prefix " un- " (p. 173d). 

Itadaku (or chodai sum) " to receive from above " with a 
subordinative indicates that the act denoted by the subordinat- 
ed verb is for the benefit of the speaker. It may be rendered 
in some cases by means of " have " with the infinitive. But to 
bring out the deference expressed by itadaku a paraphrase is 
usually necessary : 

Anata ni sore zvo oshiete itadakito gozaiinasu. 

Please teach me'that (I wish to have you teach me that). 

The verb morau (p. 92h, Ch. LX.) is used in the same way, 
but itadaku is more respectful. For the use of these verba in 
preferring requests compare also p. 151. 


mama original condition, shibui astringent, austere. 

natural preference. ^ shibu the juice of unripe per- 

shiru juice, soup, ^ simmons. ^ 

taru keg, barrel. ^shibu-kcxki unmellowed per- 

fuyu-gi [Japanese] winter simmons. 

clothing. ko-gai buying in small quan- 

' fuyu-fuku [European] winter titles. 

clothing {covn^. yu-fuku). .tiri-kai mercantile transac- 

//rt'^Z/z-w^ potted plants. tions, trade. 

^iiiaku to roll up. ' gzua (c) picture, drawing. 

^ maki-viono roll (picture or ka-hi=ge-jo maidservant, 

writing). kan-seki Chinese books. ^ 

• a Shake y a ihcisil ivo tiaiiin no viaina (j/e) talent no wa keniion desu. It is 
risky to eat salmon or inasii raw. A^an no kattgae mo naku kiila viama Qn) 
hanashiviashita. Unthinkingly i said just wliat I had heard. Yo no naka no 
kofo xva ivareivare no oinoii }>tainn niwanaranu. Th^ things of the world do 
not go according to our liking. Tlicsc three sentences illustrate the mos^ 
common uses of mama. 

b The honorific o is usually prefixed when shim is used in tlie sense of 
" soup." Women Say also {o t/ii) o (siike (p. 32). 

c This is much used as a stain for wood or paper {shibu- kaiiii). Shibu also 
denotes the astringent rind of a chestnut. 

d Compare j/^tf-j-^/J-z books, also pronounced 5//<?/rt/7/. 

228 Trii>; Verb [lv 

ki-gen fixed period. ^ — no kubi tvo sarasn, — wo 

"^dai-fuku-chd day-book. ^ sarashikubi ni sum expose 

Yju-zai-nin one guilty of hei- the head of (a criminal), 

nous crime, felon {]n= sasn pour into, drop upon. 

onioi). ake-bajiasu {akeppamisii), ake- 

' amai sweet. butiashi {akeppanashi) ni: 

\l shio ga amai not salty sum leave open. 

enough. sarn leave, depart from, get 

, kibishii strict, severe. rid of. 

iyasashii gentle, easy. ^okizari ni siiru abandon. 
{p) ki-no-doku na regi'eitahlG.^uke-iamazvaru receive (a com- 
kana-niajiri no mixed with mand), hear (polite i). 

/^rtWrt (of compositions writ- titdiarn {iichi-yani) throw 

ten in ideograms). ^ away, reject, let alone. 

horn, horn throw. Ho kara long since. 

' hotte oku, Jiottoku let alone, "^to 7ii a long time ago. 

be indifferent. ichi fiichi oki Jii \eve\y other 

'^'kan-shj sum interfere. ' kaku-jitsu (c) ni ) day. 

X sarasu expose, bleach. -^ ni oiie at, in regard to. 


To wo akeppanasJite {akeppanashi ni sKte) oke. Mado zvo 
akezu ni okimasho ka. Kono kane wa kuni ye kaerii made wa 
iranai kara. Yokohama no gifiko ye aziikete okd. Kono sakana 
wa yaku viae ni nijikan ka sanjikan no aida shoyu ni ts'kete 
oku to, iaihen timakn narimas' . Mj jiibun ni kanji zvo narai- 
mash'ta kara, nani ka yasashii hon ga yomitai to omoimas' ; 
ddzo, kanamajiri no hon zvo sagash'te itadakaremasen ka. 
Kore zva amkor ni ts' kete oku to, k'sarimasen. Kore made 

a Distinguish the tliree homonymns ki-gen temper, state Iiealtli (p. 33b), 
kigen era, as in kigen-zen B. C. and kigeii-go, or simply kigen, A. D., and the 

b From dai grea% fuku luck, wealth, and cho notebook (in cho-meit).^ 
Another word is de-iri-clio or sJuitsu-ityu-chd. The technical term is sui-to-bcf 
{siti:^:stue(sii=zdnsn, fo or iidr=osanieru or irerti, bo book). A ledger is dai-cJto 
{dai foundation). 

c Lit. poison of spirit. The plirase o kinodokn desti is often used as an ex- 
pression of sympatliy or as an apology. 

d The classical equivalent of tjtazertt is niajTe [tiiajhi^, which sometimes 
appears in the colloquial in the form niajieru. The intransitive verb, corre- 
sponding to mnza>-ii, \s /nft/trti- [Ch. XLVIII,') 


Okie, itadaku 229 

shdyu wo kogai {tii) s/ile oriinasfita ga, kore kara iva tarn de 
totte okimashd. Kono viae (at the previous lesson) seiisei ni 
{kara) osowatta kolo wa iiakarimasen kara, mo ichi do toki- 
akasJite itadakimashj. Seiju ga kore wo sono mama ni hotte 
cite wa ikemasen. Sono mama Jii sJite oke. Kigen ivo 
sadamete kane wo ginko ye asiikete oku to, risoku ga takaku 
is kimas . Myonichi tabi ni demas' kara, komban o itoma wo 
mZsJite okimashd. Danna sama ga o rusu nara, kakinokoslite 
okitai koto ga arinias kara^ dozo pen to kavii wo kasJite 
kiidasai. Hai, tadaima sugu ni das/ite sashiagemas' . II ata- 
kiisJii wa Fukiage no o nitva ivo ^ haiken itasJitj gozaimas 
kara, dzka go tsugo no yoi toki ni tsurete iite itadakaremas mai 
ka. Yd gozaimas" ; mo ni san nichi tatsu to, haiken ni mairu 
yd ni tomodachi to mo yak'soku sh'te okimash'ta kara, sono 
toki^ go issho ni mairimashd {^o issho ifashimasho). Kono 
noclii sonna koto zvo shinai yd ni kodomo ni kibish ku iits'kete 
ckimashj. Uekiya san, kono niiva no ddgu zvo kataziikete 
o kure ; sonna ni chirakash'te oiie wa {picha) komarimas" . 
Sakujitsti sensei ni osJiiete itadakimash' ta bakari des kara, '^ 
kiito oboete imasho. O kinodoku des ga, itadaite okimashd. 
Kono o mi o is ke xva cJiitto shio ga amai kara, s koshi shdyu 
wo saslt te chddai. Kd in baai ni (oite) wa sei/u ga kanshd 
shinakereba naranai. Kono heya zvo sdji [mo) shinaide ilsu 
made mo utchatte oite wa ikenai. Soko made ni itash'te 
okimashd. ^ 

Because you left the door of the cage open, the bird has 
escaped (escaping finished). You must not leave the window 
open. Go to the storehouse and bring the box in which are 
the rolls ; then, {sd sh'te) when you have come out, shut it 
(shutting put) well. German fishermen, when they catch 
herring, at once pickU; them in salt. Daikon if pickled too 

a The nnnie of a park ii» the old castle grounds, the present kwokyo, in 
Tokyo. Haiken sum (^/ini=ogainit, keii=?ntru) is used for tnint, especially in 
the first person, of objects belonging to the one addressed or to an exalted 
personage. In llic latter case it miy be used in the second or third jierson 

b The postposition ni is understood. Compare am hi one day, for aiu hi 
ni, kono nochi liereaftcr, for kono nnchi ni. 

C C</mpare tadaima kiinda baknri de'sn (p. 122, 'middle). After a i)ast verb 
bakari de, bakari dem, may be tr:\iislated "just." 

<1 The usual formula at the end of a lesson Or lecture. 


The Verb 


loiif^ in salt becomes [too] salty. I wish you would change 
the hour for recitation {Jceiko no). I wish to learn Japanese 
drawing i^NiJiongzva) ; please inquire for a good teacher. Shall 
I cut the branches of this pine tree a little ? No, leave it as it 
is. "^ The account book in which shopkeepers record {ts keru) 
their transactions {urikaidaka) is called daifukucho. I wish 
you would take me to the theater once. Abandoning wife and 
children, he went (going finished) to America. In Japan 
[they] formerly exposed the heads of felons.X Put these potted 
plants out into the garden. I have made an agreement with 
a friend to {yo jii) read Chinese books together every other 
day. Command the maidservant that she do nothing like that 
hereafter {kono go). You must not leave the books scattered 
about like that. I have heard that you are good at checkers 
{go ga o jozii); please teach me a little (Jiitotsti). I ordered 
winter clothing long since, but it is not finished yet. I will 
comedown to t^n yen (p. 125a). Even though one makes an 
agreement, difficulties {sashits' kae) often occur {dekimas'^. If 
you put unmellowed persimmons into rice, they become sweet.* 


The verb kurti (stem ki 




koyd, kiyj 

kuru daro 


kita daro 


kuru nam {bd) 

Future or 



Past Con- 

kitara {I'd) 
kita nara {ba) 

) is irregular : 

konai, kon («), khiai 
kon {a) katta, konanda, kinakatia 

konai daro, kon daro 
kon {a) kattard, konandaro 
kon dattaro, koiiakatta daro 
konakereba {konakubd) 

konai nara {ba), kon nara {ba) 
konakatiara {ba), konandara {ba) 
konakatta nara {ba) 

a One may also say : s/iifm ^n 7m,{cmasu. 

xvi] ^' 






ki 71 a 








kiiru na 

ktiru (n) de uai {yo) ^ 
kozti {shite), ko2u ni 
konaide, konde 
kitakii nai 

konakattari, konandari 
kinakailari, kinandari 

The briefer form ku appears in kubeki (compare sii-beki). 
From kuni are derived tlie conditional kiireba and the negative 
imperative kurii na. 

The ko in koyo, koi (from koyd) and the negative forms is 

f 2] The imperative koi (pp. 34e, ^yd, 48c) is peremptory, 
raniiliarly one may say oide, aide na, oid/^ yo ; politely, oide 
nasai^ irasshai. 

3. Polite equivalents of kirnasii arc : for the first (or third) 
person, mairu {inairiniasti) or agaru ; for the second (or third) 
person, irassJiaru (irasshaimasu), oide nasaru, oide ni nam. 

4. Kuril often follows the subordinatives of other verbs : 
dete kuru come out 

haitte kuru come in 
kaette kuru come back 
nagarete kuru come floating 
hette kuru decrease 
inashite kuru increase 

Sometimes kuru with a subordinative may be translated 
"begin " (p. 92) : 

Aine ga Jutte kimashita. It has begun to rain. 

Sainuku natte kimashita. It begins to be cold. 
For such expression as " Shall I go and shut the window ?" 
" Go and buy it," kuru with the subordinative is used (p. 8Sg) : 
Mado wo shiniete kiinashj ka. Sore ivo katte kite kure. 
Notice the frequent idiom : motte {tsurete) kuru {mairu, etc. 

a Notice that the stem of the verb may not be used licrc ac in othc? 

b A polite expression is ji-snn sum {^jv^:=inohu, snitr=.inairu): /tsan iia%hi 
ninshila. I brought. Go jisan 7iasaiinashitn. You brouglil. 

232 The Verb ^lvi 


kiri limit. * yubm-kitte, yubin-gitte postage 
tsiichi earth. stamp. 

mono peach. Jaire-gata evening, twilight. «^ 

tsitbame, tsubakura (from take- no- ko bamboo sprouts 

the classical tmbakurame) (an article of food). 

chimney swallow. gan (c) wild goose. 

akamb'j baby, infant. ^ dempo telegram (p. 115b). 

botchatt, {0) bo san boy (po- deinpj wo ntsu (or kakerii or 

lite). das'-i) send a telegram. 

{o) jo san, Jo chan girl (po- givan-jitsii the first day of the 

lite). year. 

o kachin {katsu pound, ii ji-setsu season. 

boiled nce) = viochi. kwai-jo circular letter. 

kami zvo yim {ill) dress the seii-taku washing, laundry 

hair. ( — stmi wash). 

kanii yui, kaviii hair dres- hai-tatsu distribution, deliv- 

ser. c ery. 

mage cue, coiffur( 
ioko-ya barber- 

yabu grove, thicket. sen ryu brief witty poem. 

taka-yabu bamboo grove. han-kiri, letter paper, f 

kiile stamp, check. doro mud. 

ffure. yulnn kaitatsu ) 

, , , , ■ r / • { postman, 

r-sliop, barber, yubin-knbari ) ' 

a From /■?'?-« cut. Kiri may limit anotlier word, following it like giirai, 
bakari, dake or hodo (pp. 22b, 48h). It is more emphatic than any of them and 
often occurs in the expression Kore kiri shika «rz/(lit. this only — besides not). 

b Also aka san, or aka chan, chan being the children's equivalent u{ san. A 
baby may be called politely o chiisai no. The term bo is a designation common 
to priests, 1)1 ind men and boys (p. 15a) and as a suffix means " fellow " : kiirombo 
negro, kechimbo miser, asanebo a late sleeper. 

c Men do not now require the services of a kamiyni, since the custom of 
wearing the cue lias been abandoned. A barber shop is called also ri-hatsii-(en 
(dress-hair-shop) or zam patsii-ya [zan cut). 

d Also hi-gure, from kiireru set (of the sun). The sunset itself is nichi- 
boisii ; sunrise, }iisshutsu or hi-node. Ban-gala and yu gata are synonymous 
with kill e gata. 

e In the post office the leclmical term is slin-hai-nin {shu:=^atsumerii, ha{=. 

f The long narrow sheets called hnnkiri (or hankire) are usually pasted 
together to form a continuous roll called :naki-S:ami. 




doro-daralce no muddy. * 

ma-jika no very near. 

Iiarau clear away, sweep, 

honniru bury. 

shiinaii put away. 

ato wo katazukeru, ato kaia- 
znke {zvo) sum, ato-jiinai 
{■ivo) sum clear away 
things (as after a meal). ^ 

ine wo karu harvest the rice. 

dai-sJw wo sasu wear the 
two swords {dai great, 
shd small). 

nozoku remove, except. 

— wo nozoku no hoka except- 


chigai difference, mistake. 

— ;// {wd) chigai (ga) nai 
there is no doubt that, 

atatameru change, renew, re- 

aratantete agahi. 

sappari clearly, wholly, at all 
(with a negative verb), 

tsui unconsciously. 

ik-ko entirely, at all (with a 
negative verb— comp. p. 99, 



Yubinhaitatsu ga kitara, sj itte kure. Yubin zua kore kiri 
{dake) sJiika kiniasen. Kaviiii ni sassoku kum yo ni itte 
okiniasJi ta ga, naze kimasen ka wakarimasen. Taiso hara 
ga hette kiinasJita ; nodo mo kazvaite kiviasJita. Mj yubin 
ga kita ka. Sayo, tadaima kimash'ta ; shikaslii o kuni kara 
wa tegann ga kiniasen : shimbun dake des\ Sugu ni yubm- 
kitte wo katte kiviasho ka. Shokuji no ato wo katazukete 
shnuattara, katte koi- Kouo kimono wa dorodarake da kara, 
yoku liatatte koi. Ganti to iu Shin af in ga oyaj'i wo lumiutte 
iia toki ni karas' ga tsucJii wo motte kita to iu hanashi ga 
arijnas . ^ Musj to iu Shinajin ga takayabu ni haitte naita 
toki ni takenoko ga yuki no sh'ta kara dete kita so des. Inn 
wa neta kiri '^ okite konai ; dj sh'ta no da. Gzvanjitsu ya, 

a As a suffix darnke is much used to form adjcclives liavinj; the c;epcr,-.l 
sense of slovenly or disagreeable: aka-darake filthy, chi-dnrake bloody, hai- 
dai-nke [hai ashes), Iiokori-darake dusty, kusadarake (of a garden), inizii darake 
(of a room), sumi-daiake, yama-dnrake (of a country), s/iakkin-damke, fu- 
shimatsu-darake, from shiinatsu good management, economy (Hi. bei^imiing and 

Ij Merely to lake things back to tlic kitchen is o zen ivn ui^erii. 

c 6V?/^/< and /l/i;^."' belong to the twenty-four Cliiiiese heioes celcbrateil for 
llieir [liety- the vi ju slii kv (for ko ski filial cliild). 

d A'iri is here tniiiv.ilent lo viaiiin. 

'234 The Verb [lvi 

kino 110 oni ga ret ni kuru to in senryu ga ariinas . ^ Anata 
keiko ye kiiari konandari sJite wa ikemasen ; shijTi konakereba 
nariviasen. Konaida Osaka hen de arashi ga fuite ie ga 
tak'san tsubure, ^ hitojini mo atta to in devipo ga kiviasltta. 
Taisj osoku natta kara mo komai. lie, ktini Jii cJiigai luti. 
Hitori no o ba san ga kazva de sentakii wo sWie ita toki ni uki 
na monio ga nagarete kita kara sore wo tichi ye motte kite 
zvatte mini to, oki na akambo ga dete kita so des\ ^ Ano seito 
2va konogoro ikko kimasen ga, do shimasJi'ta. Konaida atta 
(from au meet) toki ni konnicJii kara koyo to iimasJita. Kok- 
kwai no hirakeru no mo majika ni tiaite kimash'ta. Ano kata 
zva sakuuen wa yoku kimash'ta ga, konnen wa sappari konaktt 
narimash' ta. 

It was my intention (p. 95a) to bring [you] the book of 
which I spoke recently, but I quite {tsni ) forgot it (forgetting 
came). The meaning of this word has gradually changed 
(changing came). Go and buy some {s'koshi) letter paper and 
envelopes, ll^ct ■mQ\<.no\v (shiraserii) when the barber comes 
(past cond.); I ordered him {iits'kete okii) to i^yo ni) bring [it] 
at once ; why doesn't he bring it (prob.) ? Has the newspaper 
not yet come (pres.) ? At present {tadaima de zvd) much 
foreign rice (^gzvaikokumai) comes to Japan. In your absence 
{o riisu ni) a circular letter came from the school : I told the 
messenger {inosh' ie yarn) to bring it again [in the] evening. I 
m.ade (making put) an agreement that {^yo fii) he should come 
this evening ; why doesn't he come ? This year the cold 
begins (it has become cold) early. In Japan when a person 
comes to tender New Year's congratulations (p. 88a), people 
serve (dasu) sake or mocJii. Prince (p. 76c) lemitsu brought 
it about {^yo 7ii surti) that, excepting Dutchmen {Orandajin), 
Europeans could no longer come to Japan. When Japanese 
first came to America, they still had (subord. oi ynu) cues and 
wore (were wearing) the two swords. The season of rice 

a By oni is understood the creditor who comes on the last day of the year 
to collect money due him. Ya is a kind of interjection. 

b Osaka hen de in the vicinity of Osaka. For arasJii gafukti compare kaze 
ga fiikn. Tsiihiire is the inconclusive form oi tsiihnreru and is here eqtuvalent 
to tsiibmete. 

c This is the beginning of the famous tale of Momotaro. Yqx nioino wo warn 
compare take %<jo war'n to split bamboo. 




The G Group 


harvest (when people harvest rice) has not yet come. In Japan 
when the swallows go away (return), the wild geese come. A 
girl (ojo san) has brought [some] beautiful flowers. I have 
brought the little boy a toy for (?n) a present. Shall I send 
(sending come) a telegram? 


To the fifth group belong verbs in ^u. 

Paradigm of jit/^ti (stem nugi) to take off (an article of 


miganai, nugan {ti) 
nuganak atta, — nand a 
niigumai " ■■ 




nuganai daro, nugan daro 
nuganakattaro, — nandaro 
nuganakatta daro 



Future or nugo 

Probable 7iiigu daro 
Probable nuidaro 

Past nui da daro. 

Conditional nugebaijiugabd) miganakereba {iiuganakubd) 
migu nara {ba) nuganeba 

miganai nara (ba) 
Past Con- niiidara {ba) nugatiakattara, — • nandara {ba) 

ditional nuida nara {ba) miganakatta nara {ba) 
Imperative " nuge nugu na 

{0) nugi na o nugi de nai yo 

o nugi {yo) 
Subordinative nuide 

Desiderative nugitai 
Alternative nuidari 

nugazu {shite), nugazu ?n 
nuganaide, nugande 
nugitaku nai 

nuganakaitari, — nandari 

In such forms as nuide, derived from nugite, the g is elided 
and by compensation for the loss of the nigoii in g the t is 

The verbs of this group are not numerous. The most com- 
mon are : 

aogu fan. fusagu shut up, ebstruct 

fusegu ward oft. hagu patch together. 



The Verb 


hagn peel, strip off. ^ 

isogu hurry. 

kagu smell. 

kasegu toil, work diligently 

katsugu carry (on the shoul- 

kogu row, scull. 

matagii straddle, step over. 

nagu be calm (of winds, 
waves, etc.). 

oyogu swim. 

sawagu be noisy, excited. 
sogu cut obliquely, slice off. 
sosogu sprinkle (rather classic- 

siisugu, yusugu raise yviizu 

togii whet, grind, wash (rice). 
tstigu join, graft tsugi-ki wo 

sum), inherit. 
tsugu pour. ^Lv 
tsunagu tie, hitch, moor. 
yurugu shake, quake, be loose. 

ato succession. 

— no ato wo tsugu inherit 

the estate or office of. 
haJa naked body, skin. 
hada wo iiugu expose the 

upper part of the body. 
kishi bank, shore. 
kui post, stake, pile. 
ogi folding la)i. ^ 
shiri bottom, base. ^ 
eta pariah. 
ko-gawa brook. 
ko gire small piece (as of 

kurombo negro. 
seto-mono porcelain. 


(Include the above list) 

kamoi upper groove, lintel. 

shikii lower groove, threshold. 
shiki-iuono rug, carpet. 
toishi whetstone. 
to-garashi cayenne pepper. 
ie-tsuke-kin, te-tsuke earnest 

money, bargain money. 
zei tax, tariff. 
zen good. 
aku evil. 
zennaku, zen- aku good and 

genkwan, genka vestibule of a 

residence, main entrance. 
nofu agriculturist, farmer. 
tevi-biii balance. 

a In the literary language the verb has^ii m-.y also be intransitive ; hence 
the derived form hngnsu, corrupted to heoasii. These and the rare from hegit 
are all synonymous with hagu above. Tlie colloquial intransitive is. hageru 
"be stripped off," also " become l)ald." 

b Th'-se verbs must not be coufused with tstigeru tell. 

c From aogti. Fans that do not fold are called iichkva. 

d The inside bottom of a w^z^^ (pot for cooking) is soko ; the outside, shii-u 
It is not an elegant word, but there is no other. 

Lvii] The G Group 237 

tein-biin-bd pole carried on soru, suru shave. 

the shoulder with a burden kavii-sori, kaini-suri razor. 

.'uspended froni either end. tsuuiazuku stumble. 

e-no-gii pigments for paint- wareru be split, cracked 

ing. (tr. ivarii). 

ramune lemonade. mi ga tiani fruit is produced, 

asai shallow. bear fruit. 

hirou pick up, find. yoshi ni iku enter a family 

/ isainu be bold. as an adopted child. 


Zen zva isoge (Proverb). O cJia wo tsuide ageniasho ka. 
Dozo, tsuide kiidasai. Sore wa kl ni take zvo tsitida yd na 
hanashi des . Ano hito no ato zva yoshi ga Isuginiash' ta. 
Narutake isoide koi. Narubeku isoide itashiviaslio. Aina- 
ti isogii koto de 1110 nai kara. asJita itte mo yoroshii. °- Sa ie 
ivo tsugu ioki ni wa, viigi no te de iokkuri zvo niotte hidari no 
ie wo son^-ioAes" ni atevias" . Toishi wo katte kite kaniisori wo 
toide koi. Mizu wo oyogu no zva '^ taihen karada no tame ni 
narimas\ Kaeru zva yoku mizu zvo oyogimas' ; sore da kara 
hito ga jozu ni mizu wo oyogu to, kaeru no yd da to iiinas\ 
Seiron (Ceylon) no minato de/une kara uuii ni kane zvo nageru 
to, kurombj ga kaeru no yd ni oyoide sugu ni hiroimas' . Muka- 
sJu wa eta to iu mono ga atte shinda ushi ya uma no kazva zvo 
haide imas/i'ta. Ano omia wa kogire zvo haide kimono zvo 
koshiraetc imas\ Hada zvo nuide soto wo aruku no zva keisa~ 
tsu de^ kinjite artmas' ga, kicruniahiki nado zva inaka-michi 
de hito no inai toki ni wa ats ku naru to, kimono wo mcgimas\ 
Nihon no zash'ki ni wa tatami ga {wo) shiite arimas" kwa, 
geta wa genkwan nt miide agarimas\ Seiydjin mo kuts zvo 
?tuufe agaranakereba narimasen. Fune zvo ko^u koto no s'ki 
va hito ^a{kogu no zvo suku hito ga) arimiis" . Minato zvo dete 
kara kaze ga naide koganakereba naranakatta kara, taisd oso- 

a Kte in thii sentence is from ikit. De mo nai corres[j;)iids lo the English 

" It is not at all,'' " it is not exactly." Kotozuaza de mo arimasen ga Jit is 

not exactly a provcil), but 

I) Mizu wo oyoi^u swiui in the water. Compare soto wo aruku. 

C I-'or keisa!su de c .impare p. 126c. 


8 The Verb [i.vii 

ku narimaslita. Sli ka no kaiva wo haide shikimono ni (for) 
iskaimas, Kono nikii wo ikkin hodo soide inoraitai. Sono 
fund yubinkitte wo hegaslite chddai. Kono ktii wo ytiriigasJi- 
te go ran. Aviekaze ga ainari tsiiyokatta kara, zas/i'ki no sko- 
ji ga inina hagete shiinatta. Ainari togarashi ivo tabeta kara, 
anna ni atavia ga hagetard. Oniae tva kono kogatva wo niata- 
gu koto ga dekiru ka. Shikii wo malagii ioki ni wa ki ivo 
is ken to, tsumasuku yo. Saita sakura ni naze kouia tstinagu ; 
konia ga isameba, kana ga chiru (Song).^ Kaze no Juku to- 
ki yurugann mono wa densJiivi-bashira ni (and) nshi no isn- 
no (Song). Kono Jiana wo kaide go ran. 

Shall I pour you [some] tea? Please let me have it (lend 
it); [I] will pour it myself. Come back as soon as you can 
(hurrying as much as possible). As I am in a hurry (I hurry) 
to-day, I will now take my leave, b As it is not at all {demo) 
an urgent (hurrying) matter, deliver the goods to-morrow ; 
shall I leave {phi) bargain-money ? I will try to mend (join 
and see) this tea-cup with lacquer. Are you aware {go shocJii 
des' ka) that {koto wo), when they mend cracked porcelain, 
they hide thti cracks {kizu) with paint ? Yes, I know. This 
tree will not bear fruit unless you (if you do not) graft it. He 
took off his clothes and swam across (swimming crossed) the 
river. As the river was (pres.) shallow, I took off my shoes 
and went across. The Japanese carry a great deal of freight 
by means of {de) tembimbj. A swimming place having been 
made {oyogi-ba ga dekite) in the Sumida River, I also often 
swam [there]. The farmers are excited because the taxes are 
too high. Shall I pour you some lemonade ? Since his older 
brother died, he was not adopted (negative subord ), but became 
the heir of his family (inherited the house). It is unendurably 
hot; fan [me] with that J^/ there. Farmers toil from morn- 
ing till night {bavnnade). The boat is moored (active subord.) 
to the bank and the fishermen are asleep. 

a 67a are like jokes: they cannot be explained very successfully. This 
song expresses the feeling of a samurai whose tender regard for beautiful 
flowers is rudely disturbed by some irreverent fellows who don'i know any 
better than to tie a prancing colt to a tree covered with delicate clierry- 
blossoms. ' 

b Translate : /wv </;? (or w5)^o men ivo komttrimasu (lit. I now have your 


The B and M Group 



To the sixth group belong verbs in bu or inu. 
Paradigm o( yolnc {sitm y obi) to call : 

Present yobu 

Past yonda 

Future or yobo 

Probable 7<?^/if daro 
Probable yondaro 

Past yonda daro 

Conditional yobeba {yob aba) 
yobu not a {bd) 

Past Con- yondara {bd) 
ditional yonda nara {bd) 

Imperative yobe 

{d) yobi na 
yobi {yd) 

yobanai, yoban {u) 
yobanakatta, — nanda 

yobanai daro, yoban daro 
yobanakattaro, — nandaro 
yobanakatta daro 
yobanakereba {yobanakubd) 
yobanai nara {ba) 
yobanakaitara, — nandara {ba) 
yobanakatta nara {ba) 
yobu na 
o yobi de nai yo 


Desiderati ve yobitai 
Alternative yondari 

yobazu {shite), yobazu ni 
yobajiaide, yobande 
yobitaku nai 
yobanakattari, — nandari 
yobanaidari — 

In forms like yonde, derived from yobiie, after the elision ot 
the i, the b is changed to n. The same change occurs in the 
case of verbs in inn ; so that the subordinative and alternative, 
together with the p ast and its derived forms^ of/^/;/?^ to read are 
homonymous with the corresponding {oxxws o{ yobu (p, 162a). 

There are some verbs belonging to this group to which cor- 
respond verbs in eru having a transitive or causative sense : 

itaviu ache, be hurt. itameru injure, afllict. 

koniu be crowded. kovieru force into. ^ 

sliizumu sink, be immersed, shizuineru sink, immerse. 

susuinu advance. susumeru promote, urge. 

a In compounds komu may Lc transitive: kui^iivo uchi-koniu drive a nail in. 
Compare the verbs komoiit be shut up (in hikikomont) and komant be perplexed. 

240 The Verbs [lvui 

tsuinu be packed. isuuieni pack. ^ 

yauni cease (as rain). yaiiieru stop, give up. 

yasiivtu rest, retire. yasuineru cause to rest. 

yuriimu be loose, moderate. yuruiueru loosen. 

narabu be in a row, be parallel, naraberu arrange. 
ukabii float. ukaberu launch.'^ 

To some transitive verbs correspond passive forms in eru, e„ 
g., vio^Jiu rub, Diomeru be rumpled, troubled. 

The stem of the verb sJiimi or sliimini die is shini. In the 
subordinative, the past, etc., it is conjugated like the above 
verbs: shitzde, shinda, etc.. In the present rii may be added to 
nu (compare iiiasuru, sum), and in derived inflections there 
are longer and shorter forms. Thus the probable is shinu daro 
or shinurii daro ; the conditional, shiiiureba or shineba ; the 
negative imperative, shinuru na or shinu na : adding beki we 
have shinii-beki or shinuric-beki. The other inflections are de- 
rived regularly from shinu ; e. g., shinitai, shino {sJiinari), shi- 
nanai, shine, shinuinai. The dialectical Inuru, return, is inflect- 
ed like shinuru. 


(Include the above verbs.) 

kaji rudder, helm. hiio-gomi crowd. 

nami wave. yavia-bushi hermit {fiisu He 
toiiibi black kite. down, lodge), 

tsuna xo^Q..'^ kanjiki snowshoe. 

yubi finger. ^ ioge mountain pass. 

harii-saki (lit. spring-front) an-shJ hidden rock, reef, 

early spring, springtime, nin-j'in ginseng. \^j-,j^^^a 

a Compare tswnaru be clogged, oppressed. These verbs must be distinguish- 
ed from fsnmn pile up, to which corresponds the intransitive tsiunoru. 

b Kokoro ni ukanda it occurred [to me]. 

c Tsunn means a strong rope, made usually of hemp {asn). The lighter 
rope made of straw is «(Z7frt,- if made of hemp, asa iimva. Cord or twine is 
hoso-naxva. Siring or thread is ito. 

d The thumb is oya-ynbi, from oya parent ; the index finger, hito-sashi-yubi 
irora. hilo wo sasu T^o\\\\. ovtX. a person; the middle finger, naka-yubi, or iaka- 
/rt/'rt->'2<^? (children's word), from ^-rtZ-rtz,- the ring finger, kusuri-yubi, ^\\\xCi\n% 
to its use in applying salve, or beni-sashi-yubi (women's word), from beni wo 
sasu apply rouge ; the little finger, koyubi. The great toe is ashi no oya-yubi. 


The B and M Group 


bai-ii the early summer rain^ 
the rainy season. ^ 

cha-ya (lit. tea-house) res- 
taurant, saloon, 

ke-shiki expression (of face), 

ki-kai machine, engine. 

ktvo-zan mine. 

ina-ko magic. 

viaho tvo tsukaii practice 


nin-soku cooly. , 

ri-sd ideal. 

sai-nan misfortune. 

Sei-sho Bible. 

sen-ko stick of incense. 

shivi'pai anxiety (p. I96d). 

, . , >■ relatives. *i 

shoku-nin woikman, artisan, 
jo-ki steam. 
joki-sen, ki-sen steamboat. 

go sovi-pu {sanid) your fa- 
ther (more polite than o 

sasu point out, indicate. 

sashitaru special. .. 

suinanai inexcusable, rude 
(p. 167b). 

sO'Sd na heedless. 

tnn-jitsii no untrue, innocent. 

vmjitsu no tsuvii false accu- 

ainu braid, knit, crochet. 

erabii, erainu choose. 

hakobu carry transport.,^ 

kaeriiho. hatched (tr. kaesii). 

kazoeru count, number. 

konouiu like, be fond of. 

ktikuru bind, 

kubi wo kukurii hang one's 
self. 1 

kumu weave, \ knit together, 
/feme, compose {X.yY>Q). 

vmsubii tie, bear (fruit), 
make (a contract). 

in tvo musiibii make (magi- 
cal) signs with the fingers. 

noviu drink, swallow. 

tsuviu pile up, load, accumu- 

hori-dasu dig out, unearth. 

hai-shakii sum borrow (po- 
lite i). 

tada gratis, free of charge. 

zutto all the way, direct. ' 

Dia-vio-naku in a moment, 
immediately, soon. 

yoku-jiisii the following clay. 

a Lit. i>lum-rain, i. e.. rain tliat falls when p'ums nic maturing. Tiic conven- 
tional (late for the rainy season is the last three weeks of June. The most 
common name for it is nyu bai {nyu=irit), a wcrd which ori'^inally meant the 
beginning of the rainy season. Another word for bain \s, isiiyii, cU-rived from 
tsuyit dew. 

b The latter is a little more elegant than t lie former. The words r«/ and 
zo/iu form collective nouns. Comp. kin-rul kin-?,oku medals. 

" C IJakobu is also used intransitively in the sense of "to make progress," 
Tettki ga yoi to, do shile iiio s/tigoia ga hnvaku hakobiniasu. 'J'lie work naturally 
makes rapid progress when the weather is fine. Nnkanaka hakobi ga i'sitkima- 
till.. Progress is slow. ' . 

d To wcav^oii a loom is orii. 

242 The Verb \ [lviii 


Koronde mo tada wa okinii. ^ En no shokaku wa in wo 
vtusunde inaho wo iskatta so des\ IVataknshi zua suinanai 
koto wo sJita. Watakiishi wa soso na koto wo itash'te makoto 
ni sumimasen. Kenkzva ga sunde bo zvo nigiru. ^ Kono uchi no 
ichiba7t yoi no wo erande kudasaiviashi. Nagaku keiko zvo 
yasunde wa ikemasen. ^ Kono machi zva Nihonibashidori to 
narande oriinas' . Ninsokii ga soron made ano chaya de s" ko- 
shi yasunde mairimasho. ^^ Omae asonde (asunde) bakarl ite 
zva ikemasen. Muika hataraite nanukame ni zva yasumana- 
kereba naranai to SeisJio ni kaite arimas . Getsiiydbi ni mo 
asobti (jyasumu) shoknnin ga tak'san arimas'. Ryiikyu (Loo- 
choo Islands) de wa onna ga hataraite otoko ga asonde imas\ 
Gomi wo tsunda fune wo gomibiine to indshimas\ Ano hito 
zva iaiso sake ga s" ki des^ keredomo, kane wo oshinde nomima- 
sen. Mo ame ga yamimasfita ka. Ima yamiso na kesJi ki 
des\ Kaze ga yandara, aitaka ninaru desJio. Go shiuipaini 
wa. oyobiviasen, Shinda ko no tosJii zvo kazoeru (Proverb). 
Fune ga ansho ni atatte soko ni ana ga aite kara, sugu ni shi- 
zu7uiinas/i ta. Nikonjiti zva matsu no ki zvo taiso kononde yoku 
nizva ni tie mas'. Tombi ga taka zvo U7ida to in no zva oya yo- 
ri erai ko ga dekiia to in koto des\ /ska zvo ianonde ageniasho 
ka. ^ lie, sash'taru koto de mo arimasen kara, tanomanaide mo 
yoroshii gozaimasho. Jibiin hitori de dekiru mono nara, hito 
wo tanonianai ho ga ii. Tonari no hito zvo tanondara yokatta 
ni. Jokisen no kikai ga itamimash' ta no de futs ka hodo yo- 
kei viinato ni tomaranakereba narimasen desh'ta. Amma san 
ni hitotsu monde moraimasho. Wada-toge ^ hen de wa Jiiji no 

a The proverb describes a very avaricious spirit, 

b The usual form of the proverb is : Icenkwa stigile no bochigiri. Bo-chigiri 
and chigiri-ki are equivalents of bo. A club is of no use after the quarrel is over. 

c Observe Xh'o.i yasumn may take an object with zvo where the English would 
require a preposition. 

d Yasunde mairimasho. I will rest and then go. But mairimas/ia is hardly 
to be taken so literally; it may remain untranslated. 

e Is/ia ICO tanoniH call a physician. But when there is a direct object denote 
ing the thing requested, the person becomes the indirect object with ni 
(p. 125b,) 

f The Wada Pass is on the Nakasendo just beyond Karuizawa. Ynki no ue 
rvo siiberu. 

Lviii] The B and M Group 243 

eda de anda kanjiki zvo ts' kaivias' ; sono lira ni kire ivo ts keie 
yoku yuki no ue wo siiberimas , WatakusJii zva keiko no sun- 
da yokujitsu ni inaka ye tachiniasJi ta. Seiyojin wa tsurei, 
yubi wo kunde Kami zvo ogainintas ga, Nihonjin zva te zvo 
awasete {atvasJite) ogainivias' . Ano hito zva kazvaiso ni inu- 
jitsii no isuini de shiniinaslita. Hara wo kitle shine ishinde 
shimae). Anna zvarumono zva sJiinde 1110 dare 1110 kamainia- 
sen. Nochi ni naru to oioi koniimas' kara, sutto mae no ho ye 
tsnme kudasai. Hito-gonii no naka ye ikii to, ztitsu ga shimas\ 
Asagao no hana wa hi gd derii to, niamonaku shibonde shiviai- 
mas' . Hanimok' (hammock) 710 tsnna ga ytirumimash'ta kara, 
mustibi-7iaosatiakucha abunai. Harusaki ni nareba dandan 
samusa mo yurHmimas\ Risj no nai hito zva chodo nami no 
ue ni tikande oni kaji no nai June no yo na mono des\ Chot- 
to konna kangae ga kokoro ni ukabimash'ta. Tonda go sainan 
de gozaimash'ta. 

This part {tokoro) is very difficult ; I finally understood the 
meaning [only] after reading [it] repeatedly {iabitabi). I 
awoke after the earthquake was over. ^ You have made great 
progress (advanced much) in language study {gogaku ga). 
When the rainy season is over {sumii), [people] air [their] 
clothes ; this is called doyoboshi. In mushiken, when the snake 
and the frog appear {deni), the snake wins, because {jiaze to in 
ni) snakes swallow (swallowing finish) frogs. When a person 
dies the relatives [and] friends {kara) send sticks of incense. 
The yamabushi often make magical signs with [their] fingers. 
When I have finished reading the book that I borrowed of 
you recently, I will at once return it to you. The Japanese 
often read books with a loud voice. ^ This {Jcoko) is a very 
beautiful place ; we will rest a little and [then] go [on]. That 
steamboat sank near [rio kin-kai de) Japan, The copper dug 
out from this mine is carried by horses to (jnade) the Kitakami 
River and loaded {tsumi-komii) into boats. ^ The bird has 
laid eggs, but has not yet hatched them. In a Japanese proverb 

a In such a context yainu is better than sttinu. 

\i Tnkai koe de, or, koe ivo agete. 'I'licrc is a word for reading aloud, 
namely, on-doku. 
^"The verbs are all active. 


The Verb 


they say : To drink ginseng and hang one's self. ^ I have a 
request to make of you (There is a matter about whicli I wish 
to request you). In Japan when [you] go to a person's house 
you call out with a loud (great) voice in the geyikzvan : " I re- 
quest! " In a Turkish {Tor'i'o jio) proverb they say : If lost 
things return (returning come), the dead father too returns. 
Have you read the Rongo f^^ I am now reading [it]. She 
gave birth to a dead child. Is your father still living P^ No, 
father {wa) died a long time ago. That sick person will prob- 
ably die soon ; for he drinks too much sake {sake zvo nomi- 
sugirii). About {Jv'oto wd) a dead person [one] must not speak 
ill. If one sinks, one floats [again] (Proverb). ^ 


Present kau 

Past katta, kbia 

Future or kao 

Probable kau daro 

To the seventh and last group belong verbs in which a vow- 
el precedes the // of the present tense. 

Paradigm of kau (stem ka,i) to buy, or to keep (animals) : 


kazvanai, kazvan{u) 
kazvanakatta, — nanda 

kazvanai daro, kazvaii daro 
kaivanakattaro, — nandaro 
kazvanakatta daro 

kazvanakereba {kazvanakubd) 
kazvanai nara {ba) 
kazvanakattara {ba) 
kazvanandara {ba) 
kazvanakatta nara {ba) 



kattaro, kotaro 
katta daro 
kota daro 
kaeba {kazvabd) 
kail nara {ba) 

Past Condi- kattara {ba) 
tional kotara {ba) 

katla nara {bd) 
kota nara {b a) 

a The point is that ginseng is extremely expensive. By the time a man has 
consumed enough to effect a cure there will be nothing left in life but a hope- 
less struggle against poverty. '•■■'■•■-;-'•' 

b Known among us as the Analects of Confucius. 

c Very polite : Go sompu savia iva mada go zomviei de irasshaimasu ka. 

d Compare tiie proverb, p. 184a. 

i^ixj The Vowel Group 24c 

Imperative kae kau na 

ip) km na o kai de nai yo 

o kai {yo) 
SuborJinative katte, kote kazvazii {shite)^ kawazu ni 

kawanaide, kawande 
Desiderative kaitai kaitaku nai 

Alternative kattari, kotari kazvanakatiari, — nandari 

The vowel preceding the u of the present tense may be a, o 
or II. Compare ouiou think, kuu or ku eat. In the negative 
inflections the characteristic vowel a becomes wa. The 
positive subordinative, as also the past tense, etc., has two 
forms, oniotte or ouiote, kutte or kuie. The forms with the long 
vowel, such as kote, oniote, kiite, are more common in Kwanzei, 
the western provinces, than in Kwanto. But even in Tokyo a 
verb like ton ask is conjugated tote, toia, not totte iotta. 

The only verb in which i precedes the u is in say. It is 
conjugated itte or iute, itia or iuta, etc. The forms itte, itta 
are homonymous with the corresponding inflections of iku go 
and irii enter or irii parch (p, 221a). The verb yiiii or yu 
bind (as, for example, the hair) is in Kzuanto inflected just like 
iu say. ^ 

The form iwaba (lit. if I say) has peculiar uses. It may 
sometimes be rendered " so to speak," " in a word," " for 
instance " ; in some cases it is untranslatable : 

Tatoete iwaba to speak by way of illustration. 
Tenhis wa izvaba Nihon no dakyu no yd na mono desti. 
Tennis is, one might say (for instance), like Japanese dakyu. 
Chanoyu wa iwaba hitotsu no nagusauii no yd ni niieina- 

su ga honto wa seishin wo ochitsiikeru jiitau desu. 

Chanoyu seems like a kind of amusement, but in reality 

it is an art l>y which one composes tlu: mind. 

F(jrnis of iu enter into many idioms in which tlie original 

sense of "say" has been obscured: — to iedomo "although" 

(p. 171, top) ; — to iu koto wa or — to iu iiiO)io wa " the " (p. 12,6 

a Ohservc the \n\ti iu the saying: Vo/.-/t itite '<varnku iivanini f^oke no kmiii. 
A widow is ill s[)()kcii uf when sin; docs li[) licr li:iir iiici-ly. 

246 The Verb [lix 

b) ; — to ill no de "on the ground that" (p. f32 bottom) ;''» 
— to itte, tote, 'tte (p. 133 top, 167 bottom) ; — to in to=to, etc. 
Sautui'ttara nakatta. It was indescribably cold. 

To the seventh group belongs also the auxiliary taviau used 
by students, etc., to form an imperative (p. 150) : Oki taniae. 
Get up ! If the action is requested for the benefit of the speaker 
kiire taviae must be used : Kono tegami zvo yiibinbako ni irete 
/cure taniae. Drop this letter into a mail box, will you ? 

This being the last chapter on the conjugation of the verb, 
it may be well to note a distinction in the classical language 
which occasionally influences the colloquial. In the classical 
there are two forms of the conditional, — akeba and akureba, 
(akereba), sugiba and svgnreba (siigireba), miba and niirebay 
toraba and tofeba, etc., the former in each case being con- 
ditional in the proper sense and the latter temporal. In the 
colloquial the latter forms prevail and are used in both 
wa> s. 

Besides the past conditional in tara {ba), one may rarely 
hear a form in tareba.^^ The two forms are commonly confus- 
ed, but properly the former is truly hypothetical while the 
latter indicates the connection of actual events or conditions : 
Kino hananii ni ittareba mo sakari ga sngite oriniasJiita. 
Yesterday I went to see the blossoms, but they were already 
past their prime. 


atari=hen vicinity, in the kan-jo reckoning, account, 

region of, about. bill.^^ 

/^rt'^A/ extremity, end, begin- ko-sakii cultivation (of laud). 

ning, margin.*^ nyu-yo^iri-yo need. 

a This idiom is often a mere connective equivalent to no de (p. iO-)h.) 

b Compare iiareba, which is practically synonymous with na^-a {bn). These 
forms, derived from iiartiz=:u{ arii=de ant, must not be confused with the con- 
ditional of 7taru to become. 

c Tlie end of a t/iachi or group of houses is hazure, rarely hashi. 

d Kanjo ivo sum to reckon, draw up accounts. Kanjo 100 sJiite kndasai, ox. 
Go kanjo wo iiegaimasu. Please make out your bill, or, Please settle the 
account. This may be said by either party to a transaction. To collect a 
bill is kanjo tuo torn or inoi-mi ; to pay a bill, kanjo luo harati. At hotels it has 
become the fasliion with some to substitute hwaikei for kanjo : Go k'oaikei wo 
tiegciiinasti. Please settle your bill. K-vaikei ivo shite kudasai. What is 
the bill? 


The Vowei- Group 


share witticism, pun. 

yavii darkness. 

yo^ yo-no-naka world. 

ja-ko musk. 

jim-min people. 

jnn-sa policem-m. 

sho-no camphor. 

doktt-sJun {dokii^iitori, shin 

z=^jiii) celibacy, ^ 
dokushim-viono bachelor, wid- 
ower, spinster. 
habakani be afi'aid, feel 

backward. ^ 
harau pay, 

ada ivo inukiiyuru {kaesii) 
take revenge. 

okasu violate (law), commit 

soroeru arrange in order, fur- 
nish (intr. soron). 

— ni sou be joined to, go 
along with (tr, soeru add). 

toil ask, visit. ^ 

2itau snig. 

zvarau laugh, smile. ^ 
tai suru=^inukau face. 
— ni tai shite {uiukatte) in 
regard to, against. 

kanau accord, suit, obtain tori-yoseru procure, import. 

(a wish). 
kawaigaru love ; be fond of. 
\kayou go back and forth. 
kitatu come (literary). 
kiiraii eat (literary). 
ninau, carry on the shoulder 

se-ji zvo iu speak courte- 
ously, flatter. 

hidoi me ni an have a dread- 
ful experience. 

yahari, yappari still, not- 
withstanding, too. 


kuiru, ktiyuru repent of, feel /^//(j/ although, even though. ^ 

remorse for. viatawa or. 

imikiiirii, mukuyurii requite. ^ Ti Ah 1 Oh I 
ada injury, foe. 

'•■ a A. viiAov) \s yaniome or go-ke {nocht,ie). A ^'id^ower is o/ofco-yavioniJ {c\\- 

calyamoo). There is no special word for " old maid." In the rare cases when 
such a word is needed yamotne may be used : San ju ?to saka tvo koshu'a no ni, 
mada yaiHome {dokushtn) de iiiiasu ka. In spite of having turned thirty is she 
still single? 

b Sensei no inae luo habakaru be afraid of the teacher. Seken no teniae -ivo 
habakani be afraid for one's reputation. A common apologetic expression is 
habakari nagara or habakari desu ga. Excuse me for asking, but... 

c These two verbs (stems kiii, tnukni) belong to the first class. There is 
danger of confusing them with the verbs described in the present chapter. 
Compare with the latter — ni niuku or — ni iniikait face, miikeru turn, send, 
imikaei-u go to meet, summon. 

d In the sense of to " ask " or * inquire '' kikii (p. l6ia) or (in the case of a 
discussion) shilsmnon sum is more common; in the sense of to "visit,' 
tazunern or hutiwn sunt. 

e Classical: emu. To smile is more exactly holio-einu ; in Chinese, /'/ i//<5 
sum (light laughj. To deride a person is hilo {no koto) wo ■marau. 

f With following mo. Compare iiioshi—nara if (p. 159 bottom). 

248 The Verb [mx 


Hito ni toa soite isote) uiiro, uiiia ni zva notte miro. ^ Mago 
wo kaivaigaru yori inu wo kae (Proverb). Nam ka id to ouiotie 
wastirete shimaimaslita. Warau kado ni wa Jukii kitaru. '> 
Hito ga viachigatta koto wo iita tote {ittatte) waraii no wa 
{zvaratte 2va) shitsiirei ties' , Ano hito zua yoku share wo iimas\ 
Sak'ujitsii itta no- wa machigai desh'ta, shikashi Koshi mo 
" Ay am alt e arataniuru ni habakara nakare " '^ to inoshitnash'ta 
kara. naosJiimas\ Ise no Yokkaichi kara Yokohama made 
jokisen ga kayoimas\ Nanibun {nambiin) yorosh' ku negaimas" . 
A ! sJiiniatta. ^ Ano hito wa sej'i bakari itte ikena'i hito des\ 
Uso wo ill na. So itte yatte nio ^ yd gozaimashj. MnsJii no 
kuzvanai yd ni kimono ni shono wo irete ,0 kufe. 'Furuhon wa 
yoku mushi ga kutte imas\ Kore to onaji shina ga nakeraba, 
s' koshi chigatia no de vio ii kara, katte kite kure. Kono hon 
ni zva Nichiren Shonin ga^ maho zvo ts' katta to kaite arinias\ 
Sore zva takaknte yoku nai ; kazvanai ho ga yokat(a 7ii. Son- 
7ia koto zva izvazu to mo ii des\ Maebashi atari de zva yoktt 
kaiko zvo katte imas . s Nihon no yaniaguni de zva taigai ushi 
wo ts' katte kosakti shi)nas\ Kore made wa kana zvo naratte 
orimash'ta ga, sore zvo yaniete chitto kaiiji no keiko zvo itashi- 
masho. Sore zva te de niitta mono ni chigai nai. f Kessh'te 

a A prcA'crl) : Djn't judge by first inipressinns. Compare: Siuneba niiyafco. 
If yon live [in a place, it becomes like] a metropolis. Notice the rhyme iii 
solte, iiotle. 

b III this proverb kado stands by metonymy for ie. 

c This saying is taken from the Kongo. Koshi is Confucius. In the classi- 
cal style a verb takes the attributive form (p. 144, 6) before a particle like ni, 
Ilabaknrii {^koto^ nakare is the classical etjuivalent of habakarii na. 

d Lit. It is all over. This expression is used in the sense of ''It is too 
bad !" Shimatta kola wo sliita. I made a mistake. 

e It!e yarn send word, give orders. 

f Niclii~ren (sun-lotus), the founder of the sect called by liis name, lived in 
the Xni. Century. Shd-nin[shd=jd=!ie,ninr=h{to') is an honorary title appli- 
ed to priests. The Alchiren-shu, is distinguished for its spirit of intolerance. 
It is called also Hokke-shu, from the name of its sacred book Hoke-kyo [Jio law, 
ke flower, kyZi canon). 

g Maebashi is an important town in Kolsuke. Kotsuke is a contraction of 
K'ami-fsti-ke;=U]ppei ke, this ke being the old name of the country and tsu the 
classical genitive particle. Compare Shiniotitike. Kotsiike is commonly called 
Jo-shu [jc=ice or kanii, shu country). \C(>mi)are_67/<?-5//« p. 31a. 

Lix] The Vowel Group 24-9 

hito no koto ni kainai de nai yo. Rdinai fto 7cofo wo i'eba 
{in to) oni ga warau (Proverb), f Kono hon ga go nyuyo nai'a, 
Tokyo ye itte yatte toriyosete ageviasho. Sakiijitsu o me ni 
kakeyo to ouioiniasli ta ga^ tsui wasureinaslL ta. Tabiiabi ino- 
shiviasJio to omoimasJita ga, ima made shiinbj sJite daniatie 
iviash-ta. Nikon de wa kessh'te sonna koto zvo ii wa (jiyd) 
shimasen. ^ So iwanai koto wa nai ga, amari kitanai des 
Musine no uchi wa yoku shiniada zvo^- iiinas ; yoiiie ni itte 
kara de mo ivakai uchi zva shiuiada wo yu inono ga ariuias . 
Wakaranai koto wa jibiin de kangaete bakari ifii yori Into Jii 
ton ho ga ii. Ash'ta boku mo issho ni ikitai kara, matte ite 
kure tamae. Tatoi hito ga jibiin ni tai sh'te donna tsiivii zuo 
okash'te nio^ katte ni ada wo mukuirii koto wa ima no horiisu 
de yurushimasen. Bo hodo negatte hari hodo kanaiiA Dare 
de 1110 uniai mono zva kuitai. Kore wa negattari kanattari 
des' ip 176). Doku 7JU0 kurazvaba sara made mo.^ Nomeya! 
utae ya ! issun saki wa yami no yononaka.^ Are wa yoku 
icarau hito des . Hankiri no hashi wo yoku sorou yd ni kitte 
kure. Ninae, jii I 

The Nakasendj road ia some^places follows the Kiso River 
(there are also places tliat go^along the K. River).. In Berlin 
you must pay tax if you keep a dog. Europeans say that the 
Japanese are a laughing people (people that laugh well). Even 
thuugh you make mistakes (say things about which you erred), 
I [watakushi ni wa) still understand. You must not lie (say a 
lie). Put away the food so tliat the rats don't eat it. I in- 
tended to wear at once the clothes that I put here ; why did 
you put them away? Tell the honest truth [Jionto no koto) 

a See p. 167, bottom. Some say iyu shimasen. 

b KV\x\(\. oi Diage. See Brinkley's Dictionary, p. 865. One may .-ilso say 
ihiviada ni yu. 

c Tlie combination /m^oi — donna — >/io may be translated " no matter wliat." 
Compare the use of intcrrogntives in conditional clauses (p. 149, top). 

d The idea of the proverb is tliat the attainment always comes far short of 
Ihe intention. 

e The proverb commends the courage of desperation. If you Imppcn lo cat 
poison, swallow it all ! In such a case there is no use in l)citi]^ ciiiitious 
or scrupulous. 

f Stch expressions may be heard in a carousal. ' Let us eat .ind drink fur 
to-morrow we die." 

250 The Verb [lix 

without flattering, I never {kessJite) flatter. Don't talk fool- 
ishly (foolish things), ^ If you have (past cond, of arii) leisure 
at some other time {luatd), send word to that effect (so tell 
and send by (///) some one. No matter how often I reckon, 
its always different. lie makes a face as when {yd no) Emma 
has eaten musk. t> These clothes have been so eaten (active 
subord.) by moths {innshi) that they are useless. Though a 
bachelor, ^ he spends {tsukau) a great deal of money. That 
official keeps (is keeping) two horses. Is it better to learn 
kaisJio or gydsho ? You must learn both. I don't trouble 
myself {kajuau) about {ni zva) other people's business. Don't 
talk too much {yokei na koto). Any way will suit me (How- 
ever it be, I don't mind). Since I have had no time to-day, I 
think I shall go to Yokohama to-morrow. ' In {de) the rain we 
got wet through and through and had a' dreadful time of it. 
It is better not to use this word. It may be well to ask that'' 
policeman (;//).( Arrange (arranging put) the shoes in the 
entrance.; Repenting of his crime he committed suicide. 


The verbs inorati receive, and shimaii finish, often follow the 
subordinatives, positive or negative, of other verbs. 

Morau is used just like itadakti (Ch, LV.), but is quite in- 
formal and its use should be avoided in speaking of what has 
been done or is to be done by the person addressed, unless 
that person is a subordinate or a familiar friend : 

Machi ye iku nara, kono tegaini wo das kite moraimasko. 

If you go down town, please mail this letter. 

Sono hako zvo akenaide nioraitai. Don't open that box. 

Common expressions are isha ni mite morau be examined 
by a physician, hito ni oshiete morau be instructed by a person. 
The latter, however, is used rather of casual exp'anation or in- 
formation than of regular instruction at a school. In speaking 

a One may say ironically: Baka ie. Some say baka ie [l>aka for ba/;n ivo). 

h The god of hell is thought to look more furious than ever when he has 
eaten musk. 

c Translate: Dokushimmono no kiise ni. Compare. Gakiisha no kitse ni 
lonna yasashii koto de mo ivakaranti. Though a scholar, lie does not under- 
si and even sucli a simple thing as this. 

Lx] Mora? I, shimau 251 

of teaching in the ordinary sense of the word osowaru or narau 
take the place of oshieie morau or the passive oshierareru : 

Nikon go wa dare nl osowariuiashita ka. 
By whom were you taught Japanese? 
Amerikajin ni butsurigakii tvo naratta. 
I studie.i physics under an American. 

Shiviaii witli a subordinative may sometimes be rendered 
by a word like " finally " or " completely " ; but generally it 
only adds emphasis and can not be translated. Its very com- 
mon use is due to the disposition of the Japanese to prefer 
compound verbal expressions to simple verbs. ^ 

Nete shiniaiviasJiita. He has retired. 

Nokorazu tabete sJiiriiainiashita. He has eaten it all, 

Shinde sJiiiriaiviashita. He is dead. 

Kono Sashimi wa oku to, waniku narimasu kara, tabete 

shiinaiinasho. We will eat the sashimi 7i\\ up, because 

it will spoil if we leave it. 
Yube kyaku ga atte tjto dekakenaide shimatta. 
Having company last evening, we at last failed to go out. 

In familiar conversation various contractions occur ; e. g., 
yaicJiimatta, or yatcJiatta, for yatte shimatta. 


dehmono, deki sore, ulcer Jii-bun 1 sepulchral inscrip- 

boil. hi-mei 3 tion, epitaph. 

ni-zukuri ) , . ho-ko domestic service. 

tii-goshiraey^ ^' kei-ba horse races. 

e-kaki painter, artist. haku-ran-kivai exposition, 

te-cho notebook (smaller than fair. 

chovien). ryd-ji consul. 

do-ri reason, truth, right. rydji-kwan consulate. 

^/Jr/^^i'^ it is natural, proper, sho-giva-kwai assembly of 
right. ^ artists. 1' 

a It must be rtnneml^ercd tliat in Japanese verbs are not c( mljiiicd vviili 
prepositions as in European languages. To "dig out " is hcrulnsii ; to " drive 
in " iichikotim : to " drink up " or " drink down " is nonde siniiiaii. 

b From sho writing, gwn painting, kmni assembly. At such nn assembly 
art sis wiilc or paint free of cliargo for Ibosc who arc admitted. 

!52 The Verb [lx 

ko-so smallpox (lit. pox-sores.) shi'taieru get ready, make 

ne-bosd \ . ^. up (as clothes). 

, ^_ \ vaccination. , '. ^ , \ ,, , . 

s/iu-to ) kauii wo karn cut the hair. 

ten-Jien-tJ smallpox (lit. na- seru hold an auction. 

tural smallpox). seri de iiru sell by auction. 

ki-tai na uncommon, extraor- seri-iiri, seri auction. 

dinary, strange (p. 34c). tsiimani iokoro, tsuuiari after 

Dianabii learn, study. all, in the end, finally. 

stilly sic suck, smoke (tobacco), to-to^ toto at length, finally 

na-isukii, nazuku become at- (synonymous with tsni ni). 

tached. ^ 


Sono dekimoriowo islia ni initemoraimasJita ka. Hat, mite 
inoraiinasJiia, shikashi nan de mo nai lo moshiinas/ita. ^ IVa- 
takusJii zva meshitsiikai zvo oko to omou gOj kanai no am mono 
de shojiki na hito zvo sewa s/rte moraitai^ Yo/'ku zvo hito 
kumi nariibekii hayaku sJitatete morailai. Ano ekaki ni e zvo 
kaite moraimasJi\ta. Taviago zva k'satte shiniatta mdno ; 
kaeran no mo dori des\ ^ O jii san zva {sake ni) yotte shimai- 
mas/ila, Glnko ni yd ga ariuiask'ta kara, tomodachi ni tsureie 
kite moraimasJi ta. Shogzvakzvai de ano hito ni 7iani ka hitots^ 
kaite moraimasho. Gozen zvo tabete shimattara, siigu ni deka- 
kerti tsumori des' kara, ninsokii ga sorotte irii yd ni kizvo ts kete 
o kiite: Tokaido ni' mo tetsiido wo shiite shimaimasJita. Ma- 
kitabako zvo sasliiagemashd ka. Afigato ; koko 7ii jiomi-kakg 
ga '^ arimas kara, kore zvo s'tte shimaimasJij. Chomen ni ts'ke- 
nai to, sugti ni zvasiirete shimainias\ Sore zva. donata ni os ki- 
ite moraimasJi ta ka. Dare kara kiita no de 1110 arimasen ga. 

a From narerii and tsuku. Compare iiatsiikashii nomesick : Ilaha ga 
natsukashikute lamariniasen. I am dreadfully homesick for my mother. 

b A person may say of himself w«« to.nio nai: Kayuku mo nan fo mo nai. 
I don' I feel any itch or' anything. To the question, Watakuslii no vie 7ua 
akaku natle hnasho ka. Is my eye led? one may reply. He, nan to mo nai yo, 
I don't see any tiling (p. 47, top). 

c That they do not hatch is natural, i. e, naturally tliey have failed to 
hatch. For dbri desu ov\^ may say tAso a/an'jnae desu. 

d Tianslate: a partially smoked cigar. Nomi-kakern begin to smoke. 
Compare fiiri-kakerii begin to rain. 

Lx] Morati, shimau ^ 253 

ho7i ni so kaite arimasJita. Doits de iva kodorno ga fti ?ii sai 
ni nam to, kanarazii ni dome no tiebosd wo s/ite iiiorawanakere- 
ba 7iariinasen. Itaini ga Jiidoku nareba, isha ni mite mora- 
"wanakereba narimas' mai. Watakushi iva gwaiia wo sJitatete 
Dioraitai ; anata wa jozu na sJiiateya wo go zonji de wa ari- 
inasen ka. Watakushi zva heta des kara, kanai ni nigoshirae 
IV0 sli te moraimasho. Nikon ni oru Seiyojin zva kuni ye kae- 
ru toki ni wa ie no dogii wo seri de titte shimaimas^ {seriuri m 
shimas^). Uchi no inn no ko wa waki ye yatte shimaimasho. ^ 
Hikeshi ga kita toki ni wa mo ie ga mina yakete shimatte ita. 
Kono lion zvo shimatte (put away) shimaimasho. Parii no ha' 
kurankwai ye itte taihen kane wo ts'katte shimaimash'ta. Ba- 
kuchi wo uttari keiba no kake wo sh'tari sh'te taiso kane wo ts'- 
katte shimaimash'ta. Takakute kawazu ni shimaimash'ta. 
Ame ga fiiri-kaketa kara, ikazit ni shimaimasJUta. Sonna koto 
Tvo sh'te inorau hazu de wa nakatta. ^ Konaida omizu ga 
dete ichi man nin no hito ga shinde shimatta so des'. Naka 
7ii haitte kenkwa wo wakete shimaimash' ta. 

^She spent a lot of money on (making) clothes. With {de 
'wd) this warm weather the ice will thaw. Finally J cured it 
myself {Jiitori de) without being examined by a physic'an. 
Did you have this wound (p. 1 59a) examined by a physician ? 
Yes, after I had had it examined he said that if it does not 
heal immediately, he must cut (cutting finish) [it], I wish you 
would secure {sewa suru) a servant who has never served 
{Jioko sh'ta koto no nai) in a foreigner's house. This picture 
I had painted (written) at a shogwakwai. lie had his own 
epitaph written while {uchi ni) he was [yet] living; isn't it 
strange? If I drink about three glasses of beer I become en- 
tirely drunk. As I have business at {ni) the consulate but 
don't know the way yet, 1 will have a friend take me there. 
1 wanted to sell these old books, but I finally failed to sell 
[them]. Tlic pu[)i[s who study Chinese at the School for 
Foreign Languages are taught by a Chinese and a Jaijanese. 
If I don't make a note of it in a notebook, I sliall forget it 

a IValii ye yarn give away (lit. semi lo a cicle, send aside); tic/ii no iiitk 
our dog. 

b I should not have been treated like tliat, or. It was not the uildcrstanding. 
that I shoulil Ijc treated so. . . i 

2 54 The Verb [lx: 

entirely (all). Under whom did you learn Japanese ? i was 
taught by an old {tosJiitotla) Japanese scholar, lie has become 
younger [looking], having cut off {sotte viorau or otosn) his 
beard. 1 want my hair cut. It is risky to {710 7va) get 
vaccinated by an inexpert physician. In Germany (i) the 
number of deaths (those who die) from {de) smallpox has 
considerably {yohodo) decreased since {kara 7) the regulatioa 
(5) was issued {derii 6) that {to in 4) [people] must be vaccinat- 
ed (3) twice (2). When I returned (pres.) home {kiini ye), I 
sold my furniture at auction. It was my intention to give 
away all the pups, but at last, as they became attached to me 
{jiatsuita mon des" kard), I kept (ended in not giving) [them]. 
When I have finished writing (past cond.) this letter, I will go 
out a little for a walk. • . ,:. ^ 

.Vi^#^-^^ CHAPTER LXI ^^ >'. 

In Ch. LI. we gave various examples of irregular causatives. |p 1^) 
Regular causatives may be derived from any verb, excepting 
the auxiliary viasn. 

In the case of verbs of the first class saseru is added to the 

tabe-saseru cause to eat, allow to eat, give to eat. 

In the case of verbs of the second class the characteristic 
vowel becomes a (wd), as in the negative conjugation, and 
seru is added : ^ 

shiraseru, from shiru, let— know, inform. 
siunaseru^ frorn sianti, cause — to come to an end, settle. 
■inatasetu, from inatsii, let — wait, make — stay. 
motaseruy from viotsu, have — hold, let — carry. '^ 
awaseru, from an, cause — to meet, join, add together. 
kuwaserii, from ktiu, cause — to eat, feed. 

Some verbs of the first class have also a form in seru, besides 
the one in saseru : 

misaseru let — see. iniseru show. 

abisaseru have — bathe (intr). abiseru pour (water) over. 

a In Shinto and Christian prayers seshiinerii and shiineru, may be bubstituteJ 
for saseni and seru; e. g., arashime iamae cause to be! In tlie classical 
language the common causative inflection has an honorific use ; (asukesase 
(amae save ! 

b ]\Iotaset( yaru send (by a person). 


Causative s 255 

The shorter forms have, however, come to have special mean- 
ings and may properly be regarded as independent verbs. 

The causative of sum is saseru ; of kurii, kosaseru ; of 
dekiru, dekisaserti or dekasaseru.^ 

The causatives are inflected like verbs of the first class ; but 
sometimes serti may become su, the conjugation following in 
part the paradigm of hanasu (Ch. LI.) ; e. g., tabesasu, tabesa- 
skite, tabesashita, for tabesaseru, tabesasete, tabesaseta. 

The above examples show that causatives may be variously 
translated, using such words as "cause," "make," "have," 
" let," " allow," '' see," etc. The meaning ranges all the way 
from the active agency expressed by " cause a man to drown " 
to the passive attitude indicated by " see a man. drown." 

Jibun wa oyogi zvo shiranai mono desu kara, iasnkeru koto 
mo dekinaide misinnisu ano kodomo zvo oboresasete shimai- 
mashita. As I don't know how to swim, I was unable to save 
the child and saw it drown right before my eyes. 

In the case of a causative derived from a transitive v«rb 
whose direct object is expressed or understood, the agent 
becomes the indirect object with ni ; otherwise the agent 
takes zvo : 

Shafu ni nizva zvo soji sasero. 

Have the rikshaman clean the garden. 

Hito zvo zjvarazvaseru make a person laugh. 

Oya zvo nakaseru cause the parents to weep. 
As in English, one may use language inexactly ; e. g., ie zvo 
tateru build a house, for ie zvo tatesaserii have a house built, 
kimono zvo koshiraeru make clothes, for kimono zvo kosluraesa- 
seru, etc. 


furo bathtub, bath. na-ate laddress 

ai-te partner, opponent (in a ate-na )(of a letter). 

game). tama-tsuki playing billiards 
aka-gaeru a frog of a brown- (lit. ball striking). 

ish color. tsuku construct (of earth, etc.). 

a There is also a transitive verb de/casu ; Kore wo asu made ni deJ:ashiie 
kudasai. Please have this done by to-morrovir. 

b This /(?, hand, is often used in the sense of person, as also its Chinese 
equivalent slui- ; e, g., rappa shu trumpeter, from rappa trumpet. 


The Verb 


tsnki-yania ai'tifical moun- 
tain, rockery. ^ 
\j sen-sui (c) artifical pond. 

hanashi-ka professional story- 

fu a kind of food made of 
wheat gluten. 

fu custom, manner, style. 

seki mat, seat, room. 

bappai {batsu, Jiai) a cup of 
sake drunk for a forfeit. 

do-rakti debauchery, profli- 


i-byo dyspepsia. 

kai-do highway. 

kwa-so cx^vcx^Ssowy 

man-zai strolling com'c dan- 
cer, c 

mon-jin disciple (lit. gate- 

shi-gai corpse. 

yui-gon instructions of a dy- 
ing person, verbal will. 
, sei-hon book binding. 

seihon-ya book binder. 

iiavia-nurui tepid. 

kan epilepsy, irritability. 

kan no tsuyoi irritable, pte- 

karn cut, mow. 

kireru be used up. 

viorii lealc. 
,tozuru, tojiru bind (a book). 

haku, Jiaki-dasu vomit, spit. 

kiiru reel. 

kuri-kaesu repeat 

te ire siiru repair, attend to 

nambo {natii hodo)=ikura. 

oin-bin ni quietly, in a private 


Akambo ni shokwa no wariii mono wo tabesasete {tabesasJi te) 
wa ikeinasen. Shosei ni zva yonda tokoro wo tabitabi kurika- 
esasenakereba narimasen. Bydnin ni kiisuri wo nomaseniash'- 
ta {noinashiniash'in) ga, viiiia hakidashimash' ta. Ano hito wa 
taviats ki ga jozu des" kara, itsii de mo aite ni kane wo dasa- 
sevias . Yonde kikasete agemaslid ka. ^ Dozo, yonde kikase- 
te kudasai. O sashitsukae ga arimasJi taraba, so o shirase na- 
s^tte kudasai. Kame no ko ya koi ni Jii wo tabesasemas\ Ano 
inanzai wa onioshiroi koto zvo itte yoku hito wo zvarawasemas" . 
Maketa hito ni bappai wo noviasenias\ Danna sama ! tadaiina 

a Compare Tsiiki-ji (lit. made land), the name of the former foreign 
concession in Tokyo. 

b From kwa fire and so burial (in so-shiki funeral). Interment is mai-s'a 
{fna{=tiztimerH inter). 

c From wrt« JO,ooo,maoy, and. j:(T« year, Manzai go about at New Year's 
congratulating people and amusing them with their performances, for which 
they receive money. 

d Yonde kikaseru read. Comp. hanasliite kika seru tell 

LXl] <;)aUSATI^S 257 

oLo griya ga inair'nnasJita. Tuia shoktiji wo hajimeia tokoro da 
kara, s^ koshi i}iatas,ete oite kure. ^'-^ihonjin wa Uma ni iname 
to inugi zvo kuwasemas' . Kazuaii ko ni wa tabi zvo sase{ro) 
(Proverb). Kan no tsiiyoi kodouio 7ii zva akagaeric zvo tab e- 
saseuias'. Annna wo yonde kata wo inomase nagara kotw 
uiachi no hanashi zvo kiitara dj des' ka. Dozo, sono hon zvo 
inisete kitdasai. Kono kurmiinya zvayozvaso des kara, isogaseru 
no wa kawaisj des ; shikashi isogasenai to, kisha no ma ni 
aimasinai. Kono hako zvo sugii ni niotte ikiinashj ka, ato kara 
motte kosasemasho ka. ^ Motte kosaseru hJ ga yj gozaimashd. 
Koko ni lion nado wo chirakasliie oita mama dete ikinias' kara, 
hito wo hairaseie zva ikemasen. Ano mus'ko wa djraku de oya 
wo nakasemas . Dosho to in bozu ga^^ monjin ni yiiigonzvo 
sJite jibun no shigai zvo yakasemaslita ; sore ga kwaso no haji- i 

a Ato kara after us. Comp. p. 177(1. A merchant wouKl say to a cusf.oiuer : 
Motnshite agemasho ka or O todoke vwshiinashd ka. Shall I send it to you ? 

b Tlie priest Z>ii5/w lived in tiie VII. Century. Notice the ^.V.? the logical 
subject being, not Dosho, but the origin of cremation. 

c O yoshi iiasai. Don't use it (lit. stop!) 

d A fre<[uent abljrcvialiun of such a name as Malsutaiv, Ma/sujirdf 
AIatsu}^ord, etc. 

e So ka, for so desit ka, is very familiar. 

f Compare ki no kiita (p. 128). This m.iy be said of a vlsilor wlio lias 
observed that liis presence was embarrasing and has cut his visit short. 

g Such an apology is in order when a Hro or a similar occurrence in one's 
house has disturbed tiie neiglihor. 

h Said by a merchant when his stock of any article is exhnusied {kiieni). 


inari da to iivias' . Kore zva tsumetai mizii des' ka. lie, sore 
zva namamirni kara, o yoshi nasai ;'^ tadaiuia kumitate no zvo 
motte kosasemasho. Kozukai ni takii ye motasli (e agemasho. 
Furo ga morn kara, naosash'te kure. Oi, Matsii ! ^ kotw W 
tegavii wo sugii ni yiibinkyokii ye das/ite kite o kure. Wata- 
kushi zva tadaima shokiiji no sh'taku zvo sh'te imas ga, 
kuriimaya ni dasasete mo yorosJiu gozaimas' ka. Sj ka, ^ 
shikashi isogi no yd da kara, siigii ni ikash'te o kure. Uekiya 
ni tauonde nizva zvo ts kurasetara yokatta ni. Mats zva J^ 
kisash'ku teire zvo sasenai to, zvarukii narimas\ Miua azvasete 
nambo ni narinias ka. Ki zvo kikasete. hayaku kaerimash' ta. ^ - 
Tonda koto de o sazvagase mDs/ni/iash' ta. S KirasJi te orimas\ '' 

As this picture is very pretty, I will have it copied. I will 
have the bath heated (cans, of zvakasti) once more. Feed to 


258 The Verb [lxi 

the horses the grass that the gardener has cut. Where do you 
have bookbiadhig done ? I have [books] bound at the book- 
binder's on Onari-kaido,^ but they are not very skilful [there]. 
Formerly {inoto wa) [they] made children read from the very 
first ijiajime kard) difficult books like [yd no) the Daigaku, ^ 
but now they have [them] read very easy (from very easy) 
books. As I can't write Komaji, I will have our student*^ write 
the address of this letter, Since the dog does not get well, we 
will poison (feed poison and kill) [him]. Shall I read to you 
what is (written) in the paper in regard to that matter ? If you 
are at leisure, let me [me] know. If you do not have the pupils 
write Chinese characters often they will forget [them] all. ^ 
That story-teller says interesting things and makes people 
laugh. My horse seems very tired \^ I can't make [him] run 
fast. Have the barber wait a little. I will have my garden 
made {tstikuni) in Japanese style {Ni/wn-fu),' Then you must 
have a pond and rockery made {kosJiiraeni). Every day after 
{to) my preparation for (of) school is finished, my father makes 
me read two or three pages {inai) of the Daigaku. He has 
pupils translate English sentences {Ei-dun) into Japanese. ^ 
This too is (becomes) a good exercise {keiko). How would it 
be to call a story-teller and have him give [us] a recitation ? ^ 
My watch is very fast ; I must set [it] (p. i6ob). As he has 
dyspepsia, the physician said that we must not feed [him] 
anything but {fio hokd) soft rice. Happily we settled the thing 
in a priv^ate way. Please have this done by this evening. He 
sent it by the maid servant. We will have the hostler clean 
the- garden. The Japanese feed hens rice. 

a The name of a street leading to Ueno Park in Tokyo. Tlie sliogun when 
he visited the graves of his ancestors used to pass through this street ; lience 
the name Onaii, iiaii being equivalent to oide in speaking of an Emperor or 
a shogun. 

b From dat gre^.\., gakit learning, — the name of a Cliinese classic. 

c Students are often employed in return for lodging or board to perform 
such services as tending the door, etc. 

d Translate " be tired " in the case of a horse isukareni, not kiitahirern. 

e " To translate " is yaku stiru or naosu. " To translate into Japanese " 
may be rendered loa-yaJm suru. 

f To give a recitation in this case is is-seki hanasii, seki being used as a 
numerative In some cases seki and za are synonymous, but ichi za means the 
whole company (of a theatrical troupe). Comp. ichi nichi, p. 70. 

1-XiiJ Passives 259 


The passive and the potential forms of Japanese verbs arc 
usually the same, both having been formed originally by ad- 
ding the syllable e, stem of eru (classical tirii^ u) to get. ^ The 
identity of the two forms may be illustrated by means of the 
English sentence : " Silk sells well," which may be understood 
to mean either that much silk is sold or that one can easily sell 
silk. The original Japanese idiom in both cases is ; " Silk gets 
sale." Kinii zva yoku ureru (for uri-eru). ^ 

Attention has previously been called to- intransitives in erii 
derived from transitive vei-bs, as hirakerti become civilized, 
from hiraku (p. 222). Such \'crbs may for the purposes of 
this chapter be classed as irregular. They are, like irregular 
verbs in any language, very much used, and for this reason are 
easy to memorize. 

It is to be observed, by the way, that verbs of this kind as 
passives may be predicated of inanimate things, while regular 
passives are naturally used when the subject is a personf 5 Some 
of them are also used in a passive potential sense ; e. g., 

ioreni be taken, be obtainable, from torn. 
sJiireru be known, be evident, from shim, 
urern be sold, be salable, from urn. 
kaerii be bought, be purchasable, from kau. 
kikoeni be heard, be audible, from kikn. 
mierii be seen, be visible, from iniru. 

Generally they may also be used of a personal subject as active 

a Tlie verb ent is not much used in the colloquial, being usurilly replaced 
by other verbs, such as utoi-an, ukerii, komuru, taniawaru, etc. It occurs in: 
Mala ori -ii'o ele ukagaiinasho. I will call again when I have an C;pporUinity. 
Go sansei jvo etai lo oinoimasu. I desire your approval. 

b Compare the adverb yamucezii unavoidably, from yanni wo ezti (lit. not 
4;etting stop). 

c In dealing witli the Japanese language such a distinction must be made 
with some reserve. As lias been hinted before (p. ii6a), the genius of the 
language does not demand the expression or even tlie clear conception of the 
subject of a sentence. Moreover, as has been suggested, a senlenco may have 
a double subject, a personal subject with %ua and a subordinate impersonal 
subject with ga. But what is said above is correct if we have in mind Ihc true 
subject of a passive verb, that is, the direct object of the action denoted 
by it. 

26o The Verb [lxii 

potentials in the senses "can get," "be in a position to 
know," etc.,^ but as passives they cannot be used of a personal 
subject.^ The following examples illustrate the manner in 
which they are used : 

Yohodo tenia ga toremasu ka. Will much lime be required^ 

Tetsiido-kofii wa taiso kajie ga toremasu. 

Railroad laborers earn a great deal of money. 

fozti na ryoshi {/li) wa so in sakana de vio toremasu. 

An expert fisherman can catch even such fish. 

Yoku shirete ini koto desu. It is a well known fact. 

Shimbu7i ni de mo kivokokii zvo dasanakereba hito nl shi- 

remasuiiiai. If we do not advertise in a newspaper 

or something, it will hardly become public. 

Watashi ni wa totei so iu komakai koto wa shiremasitmai. 

I am hardly in a position to know such details. ^ 

We will now confine our attention to the regular passive 
forms, used only when the subject is a person. In the case of 
verbs of the first class the passive is derived by adding rjirerii 
tq^the stem, TTe^, substituting it for the ru of the present tense : 
togame-rarerii be blamed, from togame-ru. 
In the case of verbs of the se cond class the characteristic 
vowel becomes a (wa) , as in the negative and causative forms, 
and reru is added : 

fiusu7narer?4 be robbed, from nusuiim. 
shikararerii be scolded, from shikaru. 
kirawareru be disliked, from kiran. 
'^ There is no passive form of the suffix masii.j 

a See the following chapter. When fcikoerii and !?iierii are used as active 
potentials it is natural for them to take a subordinate subject : miiiii ga kikoeru, 
me ga mierti. The verb kikoeru may l)e used also of other than pliysical 
possibility : Sore zva, d'omo, kikoenni ko/o desu. Really, that is unreasonable- 

b The verb ?niei-u in some of its senses is an exception. In the sense ol 
"to be present" it may be used of a person, though not of tlie speaker him- 
self ; Sensei ga miemashila ka. Has the teacher come ? Kitio o mie nasaimasen 
deshita, ne. You didn't put in an appearance yesterday. In the sense of "to 
look" it may be used in any person: laiso fukete niiemasu desho. I presume 
I look quite old. O ioshi hodo ni iva ?niemaseii. You don't look as old as you 
are. Tlie verb shirerii may be used of the discovery of a criminal. 

c In these exainples observe the tendency to use iii zva with the personal 
subject and to avoid making the thing an object with ivo. The verbs are 
properly neither passives r.or potentials but Intransitives. 


Passives 261 


The passive of 57/ r?^ is serarerii or sareni : 
Shakkhi wo saisoku sarete koiiiarintasu. 
I am annoyed by being dunned for debts. 

The passive of siicii a verb as kinziiru or kinjirii (p; 214,7) is 
kiiijirareru or kinzerareru, not kinzareru. 

Passives may be derived from causatives ; e. g., azvaserareni 
or azvasareru, from azvaseru or awasii cause to meet, introduce : 

Hidoi me ni awaserareta {(iivasateta). 

He (or I) was caused to meet with a dreadful experience. 

Sake wo ozoraserar eta {ogorasaretii). 

He (or I) was compelled to set up the sake. 

The passive of kurii, come, is korareru. It is a peculiarity 
of the language that passives can be formed from intiansitives : 
Kyaku ni korareta had visitors. 
Teishu ni shinarela lost her husband {shinu die). 
Aine ni f7irareta was rained upon {ame ga fiirti). 

These examples show also that the person or thing that 
/ would be the subject in the active construction takes the parti- 
\ cle iii (less covavcionXy kar a or no tame 711) in the passive. 

A passive verb may have an object : 

Suri ni kane wo toraremashita. 

He was robbed of his money by a pickpocket. 

Jllune wo uc hi- nil k at eta was shot through the breast. 

The passive is not used as much in Japanese as in English. 
As has been said above, regular passives cannot ordinarily be 
predicated of inanimate things.^ An active verb often takes 
the place of an-English passive:'^ 

Mada Tdkyj zvo Edo to indshimashita koro. 

When Tok)o was still called Edo 

a This does not apply to the literary language : IVa^a koshi/cwan loa S/iin- 
kan-hei-ni yakarelari. Our legation was burned by Chinese and Korean 
sohliers. A few exceptions are to be found also in genuine coUocjuial : Sliiio 
}^a loraremashila. A castle was taken. JCuni ga uraremashita. Tiie country is 
betrayed (soldj. Sono ki zva Ibid kirarele shimaiinashiln. That tree was at last 
cut down. 1 elsu de t/io ensnn ni iva lokasarele shiinaiinasu. Iwcn iron can he 
dissolved by hytlrochloric acid. 

b Compare the examples on p. 53. In English the passive is often prefer- 
red to the active because it is unnecessary or inCt)nvenicnt to name the agent, 
as in the case of the small boy who tells his mother: " My pants got torn." 
An active verb in Japanese rcfiuires no subject and in lliis respect may he 
cjuite as vague as a passive 

262 The Verb [lxii 

Again.. English passives arc often represented by intransitive 
verbs or Chinese compounds. 

1,^1 ni atatte ncJiijini shunashita. 

He fell struck by an arrow 

Ftine ga hasen shimashita. The ship was wrecked (p. SqIi). 

An intransitive verb often differs in sense from the regular 
passive derived from the same stem. Thus, tasiikaru means 
" escape with one's life," but tasukerareru means " be saved " : 

Sendo iva tasiikebiine de iasukarimashita. 
The sailors escaped in a lifeboat. 
Tasukebune ni tasiikeraremashifa. 
They were saved by a lifeboat. 

In some cases a verb like iikerii or koinuru may perform 
the function of a passive inflection : JiazukasJiiuie (or btt-jokii) 
wo ukerii be ms\x\\.&d=^hazukashiinerareru or bujokii sareru. 

yobi-dashi wo ukerii be summoned (by a court of justice). 
i-rai wo ukeru be requested. 
ko-geki wo ukeni be attacked. 
shi-ken xvo nkeru be examined. 
mesJii wo kouiuru be called (Christian phrase). 
batsu wo kdmurii be punished. 
go men zvo koinuru be excused. 
kan-kwa wo koinuru be influenced. 
Some substantives like those with which sum is used to 
form active verbs may with ni nam convey a passive sense : 

{o) sewa ni naru^ {go) yakkai ni nam be assisted. 

men-shoku ni nam be discharged. 

go chisD ni nam be entertained (polite I, 3). 

The verb oinowareru in the sense " the thought occurs to 
me " may be construed either as a potential or as a passive. 
Compare "methinks." It is also used as an ordinary passive : 

Hito ni yoku oinowareru hito desu. 

He is a person well thought of by others. 


buyu, buto name of an in- hatago, hatago sen, Jiatago^ 
sect with a very venomous ryo price of lodging, 
sting. hisashi a small roof over a 

fukuro bag, sack. door or window 

LXii] Passives 263 

obiru gird oil; wear in the kensa zvo iikerti be inspectecl. 

belt. kun-sJm sovereign (lit. lord, 

<?/5/ girdle, belt, sash. ..-^ ^master). 

taka hawk, md-ju wild beasts. 

ama-gasa rain umbrella. ^ ryu-gakii being abroad for 

asa-se shoal, ford (compare purposes of study. 

haya-se). sen-kyo election. 

do-maki money belt {do shi-kei the death penalty. 

trunk of body, Wrt/f// roll), shu-gi congratulation, con- 

i)ja-mushi viper. gratulatory gift. 

oino-ya the main house. tai-sho general, commander. 

shita-yonii rehearsal, prepa- kokii-ji-han political offense 

ration (of a lesson). {^koku = kiaii, ji—k.oto, han 

tabi-bito traveler. offense). 

urU'dosJii leap year, ^ kotowarii give notice, refuse. 

waki-zashi short sword. nikuuiu hate. 

sue-ko, siiekko, bas-shi (c) okiiru send, escort (p. 59a). 

the youngest child. ou carry on the back. ^ 

shappo (Fr chape an) ) , sasu sting. 

bo, boshi J ■ shiirii force (a thing on a 

to, ro-ya prison (obsolescent). person). 

id party. soshiru slander. ^ 

jiyu-io Liberal Party. nagasu banish. 

doku-ja poisonous snake (of tainazvarii bestow, receive. ^ 

the larger kinds). (oraeni 1 . . 

V seize arrest. 

gi-z'n member of a delibera- isukamaerii ) ' ' 

tive assembly. ukarerii be buoyant, light- 

ken-sa inspection. hearted, giddy. ^ 

a In distinction from ki-gasa parasol, the latter being made of unoiled 

b Uritdoshi properly denotes the leap year of the old lunar calendar, 
according to which every fifth year has thiiteen months. Tliis year may also 
be called uruzuki no am toshi. 

c From this are derived ohuu carry (a child) on the back and the children's 
word ombii {oinho) stem. Note the contracted passive causative o!)iisanc be cirri- 
ed on the l)ack. Another synonymn is shoii, from se-oit [se back). 

d This verb (subord soshitte) belongs to the class described in Ch. XLVIU., 
but it was not included tlierc because it occurs very rarely in tlie colloquial. 

e Derived from tainaii. It may be used as a passive, or as an honorific. 

f l''rom itkn float. ()r;e may also say // {/cokoro) j;a iiiU i/iinsu {nkiiil-i 
shite iiiiasu) 

264 The Verb [lxii 

kui-tmkn bite (of an animal sho siiru sentence (a crimi- 

such as a dog- or a snake). nal). 

aUukau, tori-atsukau man- shi-kei ni sho sum condemn 

age, treat. ., ■ > to death. 

yobi-kaesu call back, recall. — kai ga am it is worth 

tke-doni, ike-dori ni sum while to (opp. ttai). 

take alive. kwavi-pi de at Government 

baka-sii befool, bewitch. expense. 


IVatakushi wa Frans" to ik'sa ga okotta tokl zehi heitai ni 
nard to o^noiviasli ta ga, kensa zvo uketara, aviari karada ga 
yowaiute kotoivararei/iash'ta. Inn honeolte taka ni torareru, ^ 
Hisaski zvo kaslite oi/ioya mo torareru (Proverb). Maviushi 
ni kaviiifeta kara, isJia ni mite morawanakereba narimasen. 
Ryukyu ni iva doktija ga tak'saji orimas' ; kuits karetara, sugii 
ni sono tokoro zvo kiite shiniazvanakereba narimasen. JVata- 
kushi zva inii ni ashi zvo kamareinasJita kara, amkeuiasen. 
{am i-are/nasen). Kaze ni shappo zvo toraren yd ni go yojin zvo 
nasai. Mujitsu jio tsnmi de sJiikei ni sho serareta hito mo nai 
de zva nai. Oda Nobunaga zva Akechi Mitsii hide to iu jibiin 
no kerai de atta taisho ni korosaremash' ia '^ Kodomo ga 
aniari itaziira zvo sh'te junsa ni sJi kararemasJi ta. Hanjii to 
iu Shinajin zva haJia no koto zvo zvarukn itta no de okt na hebi 
ni nomareta sD des\ ^ Yoniii to in Shinajin zva oyaji wo koro- 
sh'ta no de kaviinari ni v.tarete shinda so des'. Shosei ga sake 
zvo nonde ukarete iit.i zvo ntainiasJi ta. Nihonjin zva innkashi 
takoku ye iku koto zvo kinjirarete {kinzerarete) imash'ta. Kun- 
shu kara zvakizashi zvo tainazvatte seppuku zvo ihjs hits' kerare- 
ta '' koto mo atta. Koyasan no bUzii bakari zva Desliinia 
ni^ liaim koto zvo yiirusarete imash'ta. Tonari ni ko ga 
nmaremash'ta kara, shiigi ni sakana zvo okuriviashJ. Otoko 
no ko no uinayeta ie de zva sono toshi kara shicJii nen no aida 
maitoshi go gzvaisu no its ka ni noboti zvo tatemas" . Aits zva 

a Tlie object oi torareru in this proverb is to be supplied One labors and 
another enjoys the fruit. 

b Akechi murdered Nobuniga in 1582 in order to usurp the supreme power. 

C The stories of llanfu and Yomu are taken from the Do-ji-kyo (do-ji or 
ji-do children, kyj-=oshie). 

<1 ]\Tdshi-tsukeruz=.ii-tsukeru command. 

e BeshiritavidiS under the old regime the Dulcli Concession in Nagasaki, 
the only place in tlie Empire open to foreigners. 


Passives' 265 

dofobo wo sh'te kangoku ye okuraremasJita. l/shi ni hikarete 
Zenkzvojiuiairi. ^ Ota ko ni osJiierarete asase ivo wataru 
(Proverb). Hito ivo koros to, ktibi wo kirareinns\ SJiina nia 
chikai tichi ni motto hirakeru daro to ouiczvaremas . Yoshida 
Shoin zva^ gwaikoku ye iko to s/ita tame ?n toraerarete rJya 7ii 
irerareiiiasJita. Nikon no seifu ni wa gwaikokiijin ga tak'san 
yatowarete inias . Ic/ii nen no uchi ni wa Nihongo no hanashi 
go. jiyu ni dekimash'j to onioimasJitd ga, iina keiko wo hajiviete 
mini to, totemo dekisj ni wa omowaremasen. Berrin de wa 
taitei jiyiitj no giin ga senkyo sareuias'. Tabibito wa yoku kire 
de domaki to in nagai fttkuro zvo koshiraete, sofe 7ii kane wo 
irete, tjrarenai yj ?ii obi no sJi ta ni shimete orimas\ Watakushi 
zva konaida hachi ju yen nnsumareniasJi' ta ; keisaisu ni todo- 
keta keredomo, kane ga kaerimasenakatta: Sensei ga taiken 
shosei ni yararemasJita,'^ Domo, ame ni Jurarete komarimas . 
Nikumarete yo ni iru kai zva nakeredo, kazvaigarareie shinu- 
ishinurii) yori inashi da. ^ Atama zvo tatakareniasJita. Bu- 
to ni sasarerii to, saisko zva nan to mo arimasen ga, ni san 
nichi tatte iiakii narima'i'. Kyj wa o kyaku ni ittara,^ sake 
wo shiir.irete koniarimasJi ta. Watakushi mo kodomo no toki 
ni zva kitsune ni bakasarerit koto wo osorete orimasJi ta. 
Sakuban tomattayadoya de taihen hatagosen wo toraremasJi ta. 

In the eleventli year of Meiji Okubo Toshimichi was killed 
at Kioizaka by Shimada Ichiro [and] others {ra). f I always get 

a Zen kwo-ji a famous temple of the buddha Amlda at Nagano in Shiiiano. 
Zenkivo or Yoshiini/su is the name of a person who brought the goUl image of 
tlie buddha from Nanhva {Osaka). It is said that a woman pursuing an ox 
which had caught some of her wash on its horns unconsciously followed it so 
long a distance that she at last reached Zeiiktuoji and had the joy of being 
able to worship Buddha there. '1 he proverb is' applicable to one who is 
gradually led to go a long distance or accomplish a great task without any 
intention of doing so at the start. 

b A scholnr from Choshu who attempted to go abroad on one of Commodore 
Perry's ships in order to acquaint himself with western civilization. 

c The Mdth yarn is liere used in llie sense of " tease " or •' liumilialc." 

d Nakeredo^nai keredomo (comp. yokercdo, p. 99). Similar forms may be 
derived from the past tense : yokattaredo, nakaUaredo. Verbs also m;iy be 
inflected in tlie same way, substituting do for ba in tlie conditional, but the 
indicative with keredo (mo) is more commonly used. 

e Kyakti ni iku [yoOareru) go as a guest, lie invited cul. 

f Okubo was Home Minister. A'n after tlie name of Shimada Icliiro is 
ef|nivaU'nt to nndo, nazo. 


£66 The Verb [lxii 

scolded by the teacher because I am not prepared (don't make 
preparation and come). There is a saying {mos koto) that if 
you snce/.e once, you are praised (inconc.) by some one ; if twice 
(you do it), you are slandered' (inconc.) by some one ; if thrice 
(you do it), you catch a cold. ^ A Japanese proverb says (In a 
Japanese proverb they say) that if you lie you will get your 
tongue pulled out {jiukii) by Emma after you die. There is 
also a proverb that says : To have your hand bitten by your pet 
dog {kai-mti). They say that one born in leap year is patient. 
The number of people killed {kavii-korosu) by wild beasts and 
poisonous snakes in British India {Ei-ryo Indd) in {chu ni) 
the year i8S6 was (there were) 24,000, it is said. Yesterday 
I did not go to take my lesson {keiko ni) because I was invited 
out (called). He was sent (caused to be) abroad for study at 
the expense of the Government ; but as he was not diligent, 
he was recalled. The youngest child is loved most by its par- 
ents. There being a fire in the neighborhood last night, T was 
wakened by my servant. When you are robbed of money by a 
thief, you must report [the fact] to the police. About 90 years 
ago the Russian captain Golownin was arrested by the Japanese 
and put into prison, but it is said that he was quite kindly treat- 
ed. As I have no umbrella I shall indeed be troubled if I am 
overtaken by rain (rained upon). In the war he was shot in 
the thigh. For {jio wake de) a political offense he was banished 
to Tsushima. ^^ Sugawara no Michizane was banished to 
Dazaifu^ and died there. Taira no Munemori was captured 
alive at the battle of Dan no Ura"^^ and sent to Kamakura. 
Being told that there was no one there, I was very much 


The regular potential, denoting possibility, is identical in 
torm with the regular passive described in the previous chapter : 

a The pronouns, of course, are not to be translated. 

1) A group of islands between Japan and Korea. 

c In Chikuzen, the province on the south side of the Straits of Sliimono- 
seki. In ancient times Dazaifu was tlie residence of the governor of Kyushu. 

d Along tlie coast of Chushu, near Shimonoseki. It was in 1 185 tlie scene 
of a decisive naval battle between the houses of Gen-ji {^JMinaino'o) and Ilei-ke 
( 7\iira ). 


Potentials 267 

tahe-rareru be able to eat, from tabe-ru. 

vii-rareru be able to see, from vii-ru. 

urareru be able to sell, from urn. 

iatarern be able to stand, from tatsii. 

itadakareni be able to receive, from itadaku. 

atvarerii be able to meet, from ati. ^ 
Besides the form in {a)reru there is, in the case of verbs of 
the second class,'' a shorter one in {e)ru derived by changing 
the characteristic vowel to e and adding ru. Thus from ii'U 
go we have ikareru or ikeru ; from in say, iwareru or iertc. ^ 
The longer form is preferable w hen the idea o f being permitted 
to do a thing is to be expressed : 

Kono tabako iva karakute nouieinasen (or nomareiuasen). 

This tobacco is so strong that I can't smoke it. 

Tetsudobasha no vaka de wa tabako wo nomareviasen 
(not nomeinaseti). One may not smoke in a street car. <' 

The potentials of kiiru and sum are also identical in form 
Avith the passives. But there is not much use for serareru 
{sarerii), the construction with stiru koto ga dekiru or simply 
dekiru taking its place. 

Ansho {sum koto) ga dekiniasen. I can't memorize it. 
While uncontracted potential forms are inflected like verbs 
of the first class, contracted forms like makam (p. 18 [) and 
iiwkaru, from inDkeru gain, belong to the second. 

The subject of a potential verb is naturally a person (or ani- 
mal), because the idea of will is involved. In speaking of tilings 


a The most explicit and cmpliatic expression of potentiality is found in llu 
idiom /coio ga {lua) dekirtt. 

b In some of the provinces verl)S of tlie llrst class too have two 
forms; e. g., from oboeru remember, learn, oboe-rareru and oboe-reru. 

c Kikoeni and niierii (p. 2Gob) are irregular. Tlic form Hkerii liclon^^s to 
the verb kikii be efficacious (p. 22l). ltd wa kuchi ga kikeru mono da kani, ano 
tiiura de wa ibalte imasii, Ito, being eloquent, is carrying himself high in Ihat 
towuship. In the sense of " tolerable to the ear" kikoni may also serve as a 
potential of kiku hear : Piano 7tJ0 are gurai hikeba, tna, kikerii sa, ne. 

d In previous treatises on the grammar of the colloquial I lie line (list iicl ion 
between pliysical possibility and moral yiossibility, between "can" and 
" may," has received more emphasis than the facts warrant. Very few Japan- 
ese arc aware of the distinction. In tliis connection contrast : 'I'otcnio ikcinci- 
sen. It will never do. '/'o.'cino ikarernnscn. 1 can't possibly go. 

268 The Verb [lxiii 

the simple indicative is siafficient : Kore mo hairiinasu. This 
too can go in. But one may also say : 

Ki ^a sodatenai. Trees can't grow. 

Kisha ga ugokenai (or hasJiirenai). 

Tlie train can't move (can't run). 

Fune ga susiimenai (or tarenai). 

The boat can't advance (can't pass). 

Sonna koto ga arareinasJiJ ka. Arareyo liazii ga nai. 

Can such a thing be ? It can't be. ^ 

With a potential, as with a desiderative (p. 176, middle), 
the word which is the object in English may take ga instead 
of wo. ^ 

Besides the passive and the potential uses of the longer forms 
in {a)reru there is an honorific u-e ; e. g., shinareni for sJnnii- 
ru, kinzerareru for kinziiru, korareru for kurii, nasani for nasii, 
kit d IS aril for kudasu, irassJiaru for iru, kurii, or yuku, etc. 
The last is from iraserareru, the honorific form of the causa- 
tive of iru, the causative also having had an honorific use. 
These honorific forms differ from the corresponding simple 
verbs only in being used of the acts of exalted personages or 
of those whom one wi-hes to honor. 


koshi loins. inoya fog. ^ 

kurai rank, title, throne. nazo riddle. 

kurai ni Isuku {iioboru) ascend jiazo wo kakeru propound 3 
the throne. riddle. 

a It woulil be useless to attempt to decide in every case whellier the subject 
of the verb is the person or the thing. The Japanese themselves do not think 
of such a distinction, especially when the verb is in tlie attributive position. 
A'ouo hocho iva yoku kireni. This kitchen-knife cuts well. Kono fiide -wa 
ziiibim kakeru. This writing-brush does quite well. Kanari yoinerii /ton destt. 
It is quite a readable book. Kb iu sakaim de mo ryari no sJiiyo ni yotte 7va 
nakanaka kuemasu. Even such fish can be eaten if properly cooked (lit- 
dependiiig on the cooking). 

b Note that while one may say : Tabako ga notnaremasen. " I can't smoke 
tobacco," this phrase can never mean: " Tobacco is not smoked." Compare: 
Yona ga sakana ni tiotnaremashita. Jonah was swallowed by a fish. 

c We may say kiri ga furii a mist falls, but with tnoya we may not use 
fni It, — only kakarti. Haze, such as appt-ars in the spring, is kasitini. A fog 
on tlie sea is in Hokkaido called gasu {E.wg. " gas "). 




parade ground. 

/ Tvarabi fern, brake. rempei drill, 

sey se-naka, sena back. rempeiba ) 

skini-vte the moment of rein-pei-Jo \ 

deatli. ji-chi-sei self-government, 

te-gata certificate, passport, de-iri no daikii the carpenter 

check, a usually employed about the 

to flower stalk (of a vege- house. ^ 

table). I yo7idokoronai unavoidable, 

to ga tatsu go to seed. "^ 

chi-ho locality, province. 
chl-ji governor. 
go-bo burdock. 
lij-cho kitchen knife. 
/ ho-keri feudalism. 



kakti (c) ever}'-, all. 
/ kwa-lin 71a too keen, nervous 

inokeru establish, make, gain, 

motsurenc be 

sum rub, polish. 



jo-shin report to a superior /hireru be rubbed, worn. 

{Jo = ue, shin = inosii). 

ke-byo feigned sickness. 

kwa-kei coin, specie. ^ 

kyo-so competition. 
/^ niku-gan the naked eye. 

ron-setsu^ roin-bun essay, ar- 

seki-sho barrier (p, //d). 

shin-kei nerves. 

iep-pj gun. 

u-/e7i rainy weather. 

smnu be clear, distinct. 

mivii ivo sinnasJiite kiku listen 

sashi-komii penetrate into, 
enter (of light). 

tori-kiru take all, exhaust 

the supply of. ^ 
bachi ga ataru suffer punish- 
ment (lit. punishment 

kasiika «z' faintly, dimly. 

/ zap-po miscellaneous news. \ raku ni easily, happily. 


Ano Into wa kebyo wo ts' kaitara, bachi ga aitate honlJ ni 
okirarenaku narimash'ta. Anata wa kono shiuibun wo raku ni 

a The modern technical word for ' passport" is ryoko-Dienjo or simply 
ryo ken. 

b Paper money is shi-hei, from shi=ka>nt. Compare kin kwci gohl coin, i^in- 
kioa silver coin, di'-kioa copper coin. 

c From derii ijo out and iiu come in. Compare deiri no isha family physician. 

d Yondokoro is derived from yori-dokofo, that on wliich one c;in rely, 

c The conip', mil vcrljs will h'.- tr' a'.e'l in Cii. I,X VI. — I-X I .\. 

2/0 TiJE Verb [lxiii 

yomemashd. Zappd iva yoineinas' keredoino, ronsets' iva yo- 
Vieviasen. Mo rometsii mo yovieru yd }ii nariuiasJita. Kevi- 
feiba ye itte mo Jiito ga okute nani mo miemas'mai. Meinai ^>^l<-^'^ 
koto %va arimas'mai. Fusen ga dandan ioku iiikugan 
de wa mieinascn. Yakamasli kute kikoemasen. Shinkei ga 
ktvabin iii iiatte Jieraremasen. Sake zva yameraremas ga, 
tabako zva yameraremasen. Koko nl zuarabi ga tafcsati 
arimas : ikura totte mo torikiremasen. Tak- san chodai 
iiasJiimasJi ia ; inb itadakaremasen. Deirl no daiku no nchi 
ye itte sugu ni korarenai ka kiite kite kure. Danna sama, 
tadainia kaette mairimasJi ta ; daikn zva yondokoronai yd ga 
atte sassokii zva inairemasen to moshiniasJi ta. Ano Jii!o no 
yaiiiai zva ^ao naorimas'mai ka. D'lmo. nkeazvaremasen. Se 
ni Jiara zva kaeraferiii (Proverb), Kyo zva ^^ze ga kazvatte 
ioki 77.0 kane ga kikoemasen. ^ Sore zva izvazti to mo sJiireta 
koto des . Kakken no^^ chiji wa mina sono chihd nijicJii^ei ga 
okonazvareuias ka, okonazjvaremasen ka zvo ^ torishirabete 
naimu-daijiii ni josJiin shinakereba narimasen desJi ta. \Va- 
rui nazo to kakete nan to toku. Moisureta kami to tokii ; kokoro 
zva, toku. ni tokarenu. ^ Anata go ga utenias ka. S'koshi zva 
nteinas' . Kyokd to in Shinaj'in zva taiso bimbo sJite ite mo 
hidoku benkyd shiniasJi ta ; abura ga kaenakatta kara, kabe ni 
ana zvo akete ts ki no akari zvo sashikomasete hon zvo youiima- 
sh' ta. Sensei ni shiisumon itashimas/ita ga, sensei ni mo zvaka- 
rimasen to mosaremasiJita. Go no s' ki na hito zva oya no shi- 
nime ni azvareuai. So mo ienai koto zva nai kertdomo, metta 
ni iimasen. Shina no gakumon zva taiso komiita mono de 

a Tliere are sucli bells in Buddhist temples. Conip. p. 198, top. 

h Kakken, for kaku-ken all the prefectures, or rather every prefeclure. The 
collective " all " is rather sho. Comp. kakkokii every country, every province, 
kakkyokioai every church. 

c The particle ivo after kn makes the question dependent en torisJdrabefe. 

d In solving an English conundrum we usually have to explain why two 
given things are similar, i. e., may be described by means of the same words. 
In a Japanese conundrum only one of the two thnigs is named and the other 
must be found. Tlie question here is; "What is like a poor conundrum?" 
The answer is: " Tangled hair." Ao/-c';(? means '■ sense," " explanation." It 
is quite usual to prefix to a negative potential verb tlie indicative of the same 
verb with tii. Literally ioku ni lokarenu may be rendered : " in explaining 
you can't explain," or " wlien you try to explain (untangle), yoa can't explain 

Lxiii] Potentials 2 7 1 

Seiybjin ni iva koshi no inagaru made ^ naraite mo totemo obo- 
eraremasen. Sono nedan de wa uraremasen. Teppo no oto 
ga kikoevias' ; nan desho. Ima kane ga natte imas' ka. Minn 
zvo sumasJite kiku io, kaska ni kikoemas'. Konaida wa so ie- 
inasen io iimaslita ga, yokn shirabete mitnas/itara, yaJiari so 
mo iemas\ Ano yama zoo haraisagetara, ztiibun niokari- 
masho.^ Warawazu ni zva oraremasen. Ki no sJiirenu 
hito des\ 

You can't use hashi (wa) until you become accustomed [to 
them]. JEuropeans {ni wa) can't sit like (yb ni) Japanese. 
As I have written too much, my hand is so painful that it has" 
now become impossible to write (p. loi, 2), The letters are 
worn so that one can't read them. I can't cut well with this 
knife. The Oigawa is so swift that one can't cross it by boat. 
When (ioki ni zva) the weather is fine {harete oni), the smoke 
of the volcano of Oshima can be seen even from {kara de mo) 
Enoshima. He got so drunk last night that he couldn't walk. 
It was so iog^Y (p. 124 top) that Fuji could not be seen 
from the ship. This burdock has gone to seed and become 
inedible. He said {itte okii) that as he was busy he would proba- 
bly not be able to come. The former German Emperor {Doi- 
ts'' no se7i-tei) died ^ immediately after {to) he ascended the 
throne. In the feudal age there were barriers at various places 
{achikochi) oii.(of) the highways {kaido-suji), so that without 
(p. 98b) a pa.ssport one could not go through {turn). Really, 
I can't believe that {zva). The inscription (letters) on this 
coin {wa) is worn off so that it is illegible. Until now people 
thought (were thinking) that that mountain was inaccessible (a 
place that one can't ascend). I can't buy at {de zva) tliat price. 
I could not start on account of {de) the rainy weather. Come 
down on the price a little more. Really, I can't come down. 
As it is dreadfully smoky (smoke rises dreadfully), we can't 
stay {iru) here. In this neighborhood I can't make much 

a Until a man's liack is Ijcnt, i. c, until one becomes an aged man. 

b The verb harai-sagem is used of sales of government properly; yama may 
denote a forest or a mine, yl/j/'i?/-^ is like tlie intransitive verbs dcscril)ed in 
the previous chapter ; it may be construed either as a passive or as a potential. 

c Use the honorific form of shinnrti or nakunaru. Oiic may also say o 
l:akure ni nai u (p. 77a) or go ho-gyo ni nam. The latter expression is proper- 
ly applicable only to a Japanese Emperor. 

2/2 The Verb [lxiii 

[money], as there are many people in (of) the same business and 
competition is severe {hagesJiii). The (sound of the) bells of 
Shibacan be heard faintly. At {zva) this hotel both Fuji and 
the sea can be seen, so that the scenery is fine. Even though 
you go, cannot guarantee that you will surely be employed by 
the Japanese Government. When (subord. zvcx) I am spoken 
to in that manner, I can't keep silent, 


This chapter will treat of certain peculiar idiomatic uses of 
the indicative forms of verbs. ^ 

I. A verb, like an adjective, may be made a substantive by 
adding no. A substantivized verb may have either a concrete 
or an abstract sense. 

In the former case the no is equivalent to mono or koto. ^' 
Such particles as zva, ga, ni. wo, mo, de may be added : ^ 

Sashidasu no wo ie ni totte mimashita. 

I took into my hands what was presented and examined it. 

Sakiijitsu itta no zva macJiigai desliita. 

What I said yesterday was a mistake. 

Observe the idiom to in no wa (or ga, etc.) " what is called." 
" the expression," " the assertion that." ^^ 

Ainu to ill no zva Ezo no dojin no koto desii. 

The Ainu are the aborigines of Ezo. 

Konna shigoto ds^ kane wo mokeyj to iii no wa okashii ja 

arimasen ka. Isn't it ridiculous to talk about making 

money in such a business ? 

A substantivized verb usually has an abstract sense, denot- 
ing merely the idea of the action or state expressed by the verb. 
The no desii, ordinarily contracted to n desii, which occurs so 

a Re-read the introductions to chapters XIX. and XXXVII. 

b In such expressions as Aliia koto ga aritnasen. I have not seen it, no may 
not be substituted for koto. Mita no ga aiimase;i would mean " There is no one 
tliat lias seen it." 

c In the literary style these particles m:xy be added immediately to the 
verb. See the second sentence in the Japanese exercises. 

d In defining a word or explaining a phrase to in no wa is often contracted 
to to wa, but this has rather a literary flavor. 


Uses of the InIdicative 2']2i 

often at the conclusion of a sentence is in many instances a 
mere flourish. But no desii may also add something" to the 
sense. Thus while Auie ga jiiriuiashd, furu desJu, a.ndjt/ru u 
deshd do not differ appreciably, the expression pirii no deslu 
plainly implies that the statement is meant to be an explana- 
tion of a given condiiion of things, as, for example, of an 
oppressive atmosphere. Note also : 

Kikti ndaita ni ; oshii koto wo shita, 
I should have heard it ; it's too bad that I missetl it. 
Ajueri.ia ye iku ndesii. He is to ^o to America 
Avierika ye iku ndeshita. He was to go to America. 
Ano toki jii bydki de nakereba, zvataknshl mo iita n'desu. 
At that time, if I had not been sick, I should have gone too. 

Here itta 71 desJita would indicate still more strongly that 
it had been definitely decided to go. But itta n desu may 
also be a mere circumlocution for iita he has gone. 

One may even hear such expressions as : 

So in 11 ja nai nda. It isn't so. It is a mistake. ^ 
Hoka ni shiyo ga nai n ja aruinai Ja nai ka. 
There is no other way, don't you see. 

In familiar talk, especially among women, no may be used 
elliptically for no desu or 710 desu ka, the accent showing 
whether the sentence is an assertion, a question or an 
exclamation : 

Kasa ga aru no. Have you an umbrella ? 
Aru no (yo). I have. 

After an indicative no nL may have an adversative sense 
(pp. 149 and I93f), But no ni may also have other meanings, 
as in the following examples : 

Kobe ye iku no ni (wa), dyoso ichijikan kodo kakari/nasu. 
It takes about one hour Co^go to Kobe, 
o _^Naze to in no ni, me ga ivarukute ji ga yonienai kara desu. 
The reason is that my eyes are so bad that I cannot read. 
IVatakusJii ga (or no) ovioimasunoni (wa), go sluitei san 

no ho ga o warui yd desu. In my opinion your younger 

brother seems ^^ be in the v)a-o:ig. 

a Taking so in in the sense of " sucli," this sentence may also be rendered : 
They are not of that kind. Compare: So iu {^yd no) 110 ^a bi. There are many 
such. So iu li'ja nai {yo) may also mean : You must not say so. The writer 
once lieard a man scold a coolie like this; Kiuinta so iu kofo too iti moii'ja iiiii 
jattiii /id. Don't you know that it is unbecoming for you to talk like that'.' 

^74 The Verb [lxiv 

Sensei no in iw n i {jvd)y Do'itsu ni mo tsuru ga oru to in 
koto desu. According Xq what my teachers^^, there 
are storks in Germany alsor"^ — ^ 

In these examples no may be omitted. 

2, In certain connections verbs may take wa, ga, etc., with- 
out koto, mono, or no. In Am koto wa arimasn the koto may 
be omitted. °- 

~Motte kuru ga ii. You had better bring [it] Qo. 150, bottom). 
Yomti ni (zva) tarimasen. It is not worth reading. 
Miyu ni {zva) oyobimasen. It is not necessary to look at it. 
-- Koraeru ni koraerarenu. One cannot endure it (p. 270d). 
X^^^Kakusu ni kakusarenai. It cannot be hid. 

Ill ni iivarenai kanashimi. Unutterable sorrow. 
Desu (rarely da) is often added to a predicate verb ; 

So itte mo wakaru desu. Such an expression is understood. 
In the same way j'a nai ka or de wa gozaimasen ka (p. 191b) 
may be used. One must not say IVakatta desu or JVakaru de- 
shita. But there is a growing tendency to use expressions like 
the former ; e, g., So itta desu. Deshita is regularly used with 
the negative of the auxiliary masu : So iimasen deshita. 

The student will note that some of the expressions given 
above are rather slangy. They are quoted for study, not 
for imitation. 


haj'i shame. ku-betsu distinction, differ- 

sono garden. ence, classification. 

miya-ko capital, metropolis. ^ setsu-mei explanation. 

son loss (p. 85a). shu-ji {shu~narari) pen- 

\rUii-sd hospitality, entertain- manship. 

' nient. kyu-ko going in haste {kd = 

is-sho one's whole life. <^ yukii). 

it-tan one instance, once (p. res-sha train (on a railway). 

70a). kyuko-ressha express train. 

a Here if noh^ substituted for kolo the sense is changed to: There are 
some that liave [them]. Sahhi no aru bozu mo arimasn ka. Are there also 
priests who have families? A>-u rio wa arimasn ga, amari taltoharemasen. 
There are some that liave, but they are not very highly respected. 

b The Ico is an old word denoting place. Compare the final syllable in 
koko, doko, etc. . 

c For rVr/w compare tsshd-kimmci {^. 7id). 

Lxiv] Uses of the Indicative 


i\'- ^'^''^XWU so called (classical , asd-iie 2uo sunt sleep late In 

' , for kvareru). the morning, 

y'^rt'rrt/^wrtrw be altered, amend- — ;// kanzuru be moved or 

ed (tr, aratiwierii). affected by. 

kotaeru answer. . . — ;// kan-shin (or kaiii-piikti) 

</(?-/7« meet on the way. . .yw^// feel admiration for. 

kaki-kaeru rewrite. kanshin {kainpuku) desu is 

— ;// j-///;//'«^r^r/^ by longres- jtdmirable, wonderful, 

idence become accustomed o-yd sunt i^nt into practice, 

to, come to feel at home in. apply, adapt. 
oi-kakeni pursue. 


Kanji wa narau no ni wa mtitsitkasJi kute sugu tvasurete 
shiiJiaiiiias\ Tou zva ittan no kaji, towanu wa issho no hg^i. ^ 
Aru hito no 1110 shim as" ni wa, goku mukashi wa Ezojin ga 
Nihon zejikoku ni sunde ita to iit koto des' ga. honto de gozni- 
inasho ka. ^ Sore zva honto de gozainiash^' ; Nihon no rek'shi ni 
mo kaite orivias kara. Shifoi kiji ga am to in no zva hont't 
des ka. Sayo sa, honto des ka, dj des ka, zvakariuiasen, 
sJiikasJii viukasJii tensJii ni shiroi kiji zvo kenjita hito ga atta to 
rek'shi ni kaite arinias\ Hon wo chirakash' te okit no zva 
gak'sha no kuse des\ Sakttjitsit itta no wa inachigai desJi ta 
kara, konnichi jiaoshiniasho, Yube Okunia san ni deainiash' ta 
no zva doko desh'takke. ^ Kono dekiniono zvo kirazii ni titchatte 
oka to, naorii no ga nagabikivias\ Anata no tokiakash'te 
kiidasainiash'ta no wa niada yokti zvakariuiasen kara, in~ ichi 

a Another form of this proverb: Kikn wa iiioki no haji, shirami wa tnaistt- 
dcti 110 hciji {jna/sti end, dai generation). 

b Or: Aru hito no hanashi ni wa. Observe that while the words — no iti iii 
iva, etc., at tlic beginning of a quo'.ation seem to correspond to the English 
" — say that," a verb of saying or an expression like to in koto deai is required 
to complete the sentence. Comp. p. 224b. 

c This takke is a remnant of the clnssical tarikei i, an emphatic past termina- 
tion. Ano kojiki iva kino tiio kite iiiiashitakke. That lieggar was around here 
yesterday too. The so called past tense of a Japanese verb is not always 
definitely past (p. 143^ 5, 2); but the addition of kke liclps to recall vividly a 
situation in tlie past. It is usetl only in familiar conversation. In a (lucstion 
kke indicates a conviction that the event occurred even though tlicrc is iloUbt 
about tlie exact circumstances. Ka may be added before s/iiran : Are wa tnitii 
koto no aru yo na hito desu ga, doko de iinina<:liitiikke ka slinnii. lie seems like 
s. person that I have jcen before, but where was it tliat I saw hini? 

276 ... Tiiii Verb lxiv] 

do oshiete itadakito gozaivias. Aratamatta toki ni {aratavia- 
reba) sj iu 7i'des' . ^ Yk no kawari ni ni wo ts' kati no lua 
inachigai da to itte nto hito ga is'kaic kara, sJi kata ga nai. 
WatakusJii zua asane wo sum no ga s'ki des . " Sumeba 
iniyako " to in no iva do in imi des' ka. Sayo, swninareta 
tokoro ga ichiban ii to iu imi des'. Kyukdressha de Osaka ye 
iku ni wa hanjikan hodo kakariiitas' . Go sonji (ga) nai no 
des ka. ^' WatakusJii zva shiju isogashu gozaiinasli te tadaivia 
ni sainpun no him a wo miie'^ chot o o tazuns mos/ita- tokoro de 
gozaiuias'. Sekkaku o tazune kiidas'ita no ni, nan no aiso 
vio gozaimasende makoto ni sJiitsurei de gozaimasJita. Ay o 
isha sama wa o rusu de aita ka. Sorya sekkaku itte ktireta 
no ni kinodoku de atta ne. ^ Bis mar k' ko no kao wa e nt 
kaku no ni tsugo no ii kao des'. Yasumono wo kau no zva 
kaette son des' . '^ Doits:' kara NiJton ye riku de iku 7ii zua do 
iu fit ni ittara yd gozaimasho. Sensei, " sono " to iu no to, 
" niwa " to iu no to do iu yd ni cJiigaimas' ka. ^ Amari taba- 
ko wo noinu no de byoki ni nnriviasJi'ta. Amari tJku made-i 
aritita n.) de taiso kutabiremasJi ta. Anata ga hayaku Nihongo 
zvo oboe nas'tia no zva kanshin des'. Dcrobo no nigeru no zvo 
oikakemash' ta. ^ 

I\Ty sou is too young (still a little small) to (;// zvd) send {yarn) 
to school. It is healthy (becomes medicine of the body) to {jio 
zva) bathe in cold water. Even though a foreigner speaks 
incorrectly (uses mistaken words), it is impolite to laugh. My 

a In til is sentence aratamalta toki tii Jneans : when one is serious and formal, 
i e., not fiimiliar. 

b Notice that when a positive sentence ending in da, desu, etc., is turned into 
a negative, de may be dispensed with : O ivakari ga nakatta kara since yen 
did not understand (positive : o ivakaii deshila). Dekiso mo nai. It docs not 
seem practicable (positive : dekiso desu]. Ikareso vio nai. It is not likely that I 
(or he) will be able to go. Mild mo nai [hr mitaku mo nai, contracted also to 
inillomo)2ai.). It's disgusting (lit. I don't want to see). SlnnUomcnai, I don't 
want to die. 

c IIi»ta -MO mite is for hima no a)-u no 7vo mite. 

d Said by a man to his servant. Sorya=zzsore wa. 

e F<7«/z wi5/?£? things bought at a low price. Ya su-7nono che^^ siuii. 'I'here is 
a pre verb : Yasn-monokai no zeni tishinni {itshinaii lose). For sen desu one 
often says son ga ikimasu. 

f " What is the difference between sono and tiiiva ? " The latter word is more 
common in the colloquial. 

g This adverb is used like a substantive. 

h In English we say Ihe fleeing robber not the fleeing of the robber. 


tooth aches very much, but I disHke {iya' des') to have It 
■extracted. Is this your first visit to Kyoto (is your coming to 
K. Jiajimete)? To explain this minutely would take- (lakes) 
considerable time. To correct this is the same thing as to re- 
write [it] entirely. >T don't go to Japanese houses (houses of 
Japanese) very much because it is such a bother to take off 
{nugii) my shoes. In my opinion it will be very difficult to 
adapt /vJwrt/V to the Japanese languaige. ^ Is it true that (/<? 
in no wd) there were [once] so caWed jijidai-vioji ?^ What 
you said yesterday was a mistake {o inachigai). Did you 
understand what I said yesterday ? Formerly it took about a 
month to go from Edo to the middle provinces ; ^ but now if 
one goes by steamer, one can do it (go) in {de) 2\ days. To 
learn to write {kaki-kata) Chinese characters, how had I better 
begin (if in what manner I have begun will it be good)? It 
will be well to engage a teacher of penmanship and learn to 
write {kakii no tvo) large characters with a writing-brush. 
What is written in this book is almost all false (lies). For a 
congratulatory gift it is usual to send raw fish, but since raw 
fish spoils easily {zvaruku iMriyasui) many send other things. 
What is the difference between wa and ga (What they call wa 
and what they call ga, what sort of distinction is there) ? It 
is easy to ask [questions], but difficult to answer |themj. '^ 


The uses of the stems of verbs with auxiliaries have been 
explained in previous chapters. Some other idiomatic uses of 
stems will now be described., 

I. Many substantives are originally stems of verbs ; e. g., 
samurai, fvoni sajfiurau setve, A^r/ thoroughfare from iorn pass 
through. Comp. pp. 22, top and 1 19, bottom. Deki ga warui. 

a A sentence beginning with — no onion ni wa or — >io kniii^ac de ■•on end? with 
an expression like yd dcsu. 

b Characters, not Chinese, said to have been used in prehistoric times— -in 
'' the a^e of the godi " (/V« god, diii age). 

C Tlie middle provinces i^chu-^okii) are llic eight westernmost i)ri)viiices of 
the main island. 

d In the literary language : 'Ion wa yasuku, kotnyHin ~(<a kalashi. 

278 The Verb, ; [lxv 

It is poorly done. Stems of Verb^, as substantives, often" take 
the place of English verbs, especially in formal conversation: 

O tanonii no hon the book fof which you asked (p. 193a). 
■ * '^Ose no tori as you say (p. 209a). 

' " Gv zonji no tori diS you kiio.v.; ■' • 
•• • ' 'Go zonji di 7va (or £-a) ariniiiseii I'd. 
' -'' Don't you know-about it ? 

Go zonji no hazil desii. You ought to know. 
- '■ ' Oide no jibun ni when you (he) were here (were there, 

came, went, corrt^, go). ■ •• ^' 
-•■ Oide wo negaimasu. I beg you to come. 

' Mo o kaeri desu ka. Are you going home so soon ? ^ 
O ivakari deshita ka. Did you understand ? 

'^^ Stems of verbs often occur elliptically itl proverbial expres- 
"sions ; e. g., Setsimai toki no kaviidanoini praying to the gods 
in time of distress. 

.2. hi speaking of the actions of others one may use the stem 
of any simple verb with the honorific ^^and ni nam : 

O wakari ni narimashita ka. Did you understand ? 
O vie-zavie ni, narimashita ka. Are you awake ? 
JtsH o tachi f^i nariniasu ka. When do you start ? 
Sei/ii de o shirabe ni narimashita. \ 

The Government has been investigating. 

3^' With verbs that denote an act done in order that a cer- 
tain purpose may be accomplished, — such verbs as "go" 
" come " " send," etc., — the purpose may be expressed by the 
stem of a verb with «/. '^ Tliis may have an object. It is to 
be translated by means of the infinitive : 

Isha zvo yobi ni iku go to call a physician. 
' Siuno wo ini'ni iku go to see the wrestling. 

' O kuyanii ni agaru .come to condole, 

O yorokobi ni agaru come to congratulate. 
'' 4* When a verb stands in aivtitliesis to another or is to be 

' ■ a A riksha-man wlienlie hi's brought some one home sliouts at the gate: Q 
kaetii. One in tlie house may then say to anotlier: O Icaoi desii (>'<?). The 
one who has come home is greeted with the words: O kaei:i nasai/nnshi. 

h With Chinese compounds the stem of suru is not required. *• To Come to 
see the sigh's " is keinbU'sil «'' l-tiiti, more commonly than ke'mbutsu ski ni kurti* 

Lxv] Uses of the Stem 279 

emphasized, the stem may be used with tvd (m rapid speech 
ya) and suru (p. 249a) : 

Skint wa shimasuniai. He will not die. 
Wakari tva shiinasii ga ... I understand, but .... 
Sonna shina %va arya (for ari wa) shinai. 
There are no such things. 

In a conditional clause, as in " If you just understand that's 
enough," the particle sae ^ may be substituted for iva : Wakari 
sae stireba ii. Ari sae sureba sashiageniasu ga ... I would 
give it if I had it, but .... Similarly the stem may be used in 
clauses translated by means of " both — and," '* neither — nor " ; 

Nikon 710 ji wo yonie mo suru shi^ kake mo skimasu. 
He can both read and write Japanese. 
Gozen mo taberaremasen ski, nerare vio skimasen. 
I can neither eat nor sleep. 

Ano byunin zva nomi mo kui mo sJiinai kara, skiniviasko. 
That patient will die, since he neither eats nor drinks. 

. 5. Observe the following emphatic expressions : 

kaeri nasaru no wo machi ni matte imaskita. 
We were waiting and waiting for his return. 
Korae ni koraete kuruskii no wo gaman sJiite otta. 

1 have borne the suffering to the utmost limit of endurance. 
Soroi mo sorotte fuskigi na kitotacki bakari da. 

They are queer people without exception. 

6. The stem of a verb may be joined to certain words, such as 
nagara "^ or ski-dai (lit. succession-order), which are used like 
conjunctions to form adverbial phrases: 

Hon zvo yomi nagara while reading a book. 
Habakari nagara (or desu go), kore zvo negaimasu. 
With great diffidence I make this request. 

a Sae mdiy also be used witli otlier substantives: Kane sae arelia, donna koto 
de fiio dekirti. You can do anything, if only you liave money. 

b For suru shi the simple stem shi may stand here (comp. p. I4d). Yoine 
and kake are stems of potentials. 

c See p. 197c. Tliis nagara is also used with the negative stem in zu : 
Oyobazu nagara o telsudai itasliimashd. I will assist to the best of my poor 
ability (lit though not reaching). The word nagara o\\^\w\\\y meant "actual 
condilioiij" as in tiinare nagara no iiiekara one born IjUucI. 


The Verb 


Deki shidai inotte kiuiasho. 

I will bring it as soon as it is done. 

The idiom — toJwa ii nagara is equivalent to " though " : 
Ainu wa yabanjin to wa ii nagara 7iakanaka sliigoto ga 

iakunii desu. 
The Ainu, though barbarians, are skilful \ ' ^-^n. 

7. Adjectives are formed by adding so to the stem of a verb : 
Mo anie ga yavtiso desu. The rain seems to be stopping. 
Nan to ka shiyo ga ariso 71a man desu. 

I hope it may be managed somehow (p. 115, middle). 

8. In long sentences, especially in formal speech or in nar- 
ratives, the stem may take the place of the subordinative (p. 
iS/d). This feature is derived from the literary language, in 
which the verbs of coordinated clauses, with the exception of 
the concluding clause, are in the form of the stem. In nega- 
tive clauses the form in zu corresponds to the stem (p. 171). 

Observe the idioms —wo hajiine and — to ii : 

Kocho wo hajivie shosei made mo kiniashiia. The whole 

school, from the principal down to the students, came. 
Kotoba-ziikai to ii, uti-buri to ii, ketten no nai enzetsuka 


a faultless orator 

Both in his use of words and in his gestures he is 


tstie cane, 

hama seacoast, beach. 
kuri chestnut. 
hania-guri clam. 
de-guchi way out, exit, 
iri-kuchi entrance. 
(\inichi-shio \ 

sasht'shio } flood tide. 
age-shio j 

shio no sashi-hiki ebb and 
flow of the tide. 

ebb tide. 

visiting card. 

r gei accomplishment, enter- 
taining performance. 
kam-buji Chinese composi- 
tion, Chinese literature. 
ryo-hi travelling expenses. 
ten-ka (lit under heaven) 

the whole country, Japan. 
ji-zen charity, benevolence. 
jizen-shi bazaar {ski = ichi 

LxvJ Uses of the Stem 28.1 

tei-koku empire. shuttai sum (fioin sluitsn- 
^■.v-^ pictures. ^ rai — dekini) be finished, 

j/i/-^^?z order, circumstances, be done, happen. 

reason.'^ / vii-ataru be found. 

hayasii allow — to grow long chanto p ecisely, properly, 

(intr. haeni). just,, right. 

kimaru\ S settled, cer- shibaraku for some time. 

tain (tr. kinierti). sahodo so much. 

stczumii cool one's self off. sazo how — you must (with 
ji-san sum bring, take (p. probable form). 

231b). seii'koku a little while ago. 


O kasa zvo viochi ni nariviasJi ta ka {o inochi de gozaiinas 
kd). lie, jisan itasJiiniasen desh'ia ; zvataktishi no agariviasu- 
ru jibiDi ni zva ^ tenki ga taiso yoroshu gozaiviasJita no de. 
Nikon de wa akindo ga sakana ya yasai zvo Into no nchi ye uri 
ni kivias' . Watakushi no itta koto ga o zvakari jd nariinas 
ka. Wakari zva s lamas' keredovio, kotoba-zukai ga s kosJii oka- 
shu gozainias' . Ano byonin zva sJiininiasho ka. Shini zva {ya) 
shiniasviai keredoiiio, sukkari naorii no zva viutsukashu gozai- 
inasJio. Kimono ga deki shidai^ motte ktiru yd ?ii sJitateya 
ni itte koi. Anata kono atsusa de yozvari desho. Nani^ ^ 
sahodo de mo arimasen. Anata ichi nichi o aruki nastta kara, 
sazo kutabire desho. lie, zvataktishi zva aruki- narete intas 
kara, kutabireiuasen Kino moshiageyo to omoimash'ta ga, oide 
ga nakatta kara, tegami ni (p. 5Cc) kaite agemasICta. O ta- 
nomi no Edo ineishozue^ zvo konnichi j'isan itashimash'ta. 
Watakushi zva chotto tonari no nchi ye hanashi ni iku kara, zva^ 
takushi no matte iru tegami ga todoitara, sugu ni motte kite 
kure. Ilurits' zvo okashi sae shinakereba, donna koto zvo sh'te 

a Comp p. 95(1. The word zne is used only in compounds. Reversing the 
order, we have e-zn, which may mean a single drawing, map or picture. 

b S/iidai desu [de gozairnnsu) is often used as a formal ending to a sentence, 
without adding anything co the sense. Rut compare : Oi)tne -ma fold kactU 
kila to in shidai ka. So ! have you come back at last ? 

C Translate : when I came (p. I2ic). The auxiliary tnasti may l>c lengthen- 
ed in formal conversation. 

d Shidni is used in the sense of " as soon as " only iu speaking of the fulurc. 

e Nntii, frmn nani what, may be rendered : " Oh, no ! " 

f Illustrated guide to noted places in 

282 The Verb [lxv 

mo it to oinou hito ga atini'as'ga, nakanaka so iva zkivias'inai. 
Kesa ni do korareta kata ga se^ikokii kara viachikane de 
gozainias' . O ivakari ni narimasJitara, watakusJii ni mo itte 
kikasete kudasai. Anata sakki kara viachikane de gozai- 
ntashd. Oyaji wa watakiishi ni hayaku Nikon ye kaette 
moraitagaite, mo ryohi wo ohitte kureinasJi ta ; ryohi ga tsuki 
shidai kaette kure to in tegavii mo yokoshimaslita. IcJii nion 
oshivii no hyakii shirazii. ^ Kongo yoini no Kongo shirazu. ^ 
Kikugun no koto wo torisJiirabe ni Yoroppa ye ikiniash'ta. 
Kyo no kidaore, Osaka no kiiidaore. <^ Anata mo hikkoshi ni 
nariuiasJita ka. lie, mada des ; shikashi tsugo no ii ie ga 
miatari shidai hikkoso to omoimas\ Anata mo go zonj'i no 
Tatiaka san ga mairimash'ta. Donata ka oide no yd da ; 
dare ka hayaku toritsugi wo shiro. Givaikoku jio kata ga kono 
najuda wo dashi ni natte sugii ni kaeri ni narintask' (a. 
' Sazo kutabire de gozaiviasho kara, go ynruri to yasumi 
nasaimashi. Nafta korobi ya oki.^ Anata sakuban okaeri ni 
iiatte kara sugu ni o yasumi 711 Jiarimash' ta ka. lie, shimbmi 
wo mite kara nemash' ia. Sonna ni yoku kakanak' te mo, 
wakari sae siireba ii. Shogwatsu ni wa manzai wo zash^ki ni 
agete^ iroiro na gei wo sasste tak'san zeni wo yarimas\ O 
wakari ga nai na^a, mo ichi do tokiakash'te agemashj. Yu 
ga waki shidai hairimasho. Ke zvo hayaslite iru bozu^ mo 
art, hay ash' te inai fio mo am. Sazo o komari de gozaimashd. 

In Tokyo, when the tide is out (at the time of ebb tide), 
people often go to Susakis to gather ijiiroti) clams Tomor- 

a Compare the English : Penny wise, pound foolish. Oshimi &.% zXso yomi 
in the following proverb, has a concrete sense.=zos/iiiHtt hito. 

b The sense is : He reads the Kongo diligently, but does not understand 
nor observe its precepts. 

c According to this proverb, the people of Kyoto waste their money on 
fashions; thoe of Osaka, on dainties {^kiru wear, kuu eat, iaoiein fall). 

d This proverb inculcates perseverance in spite of repeated failures. Nana 
and ya are numerals. 

e Zashiki ni agerii have — come into the house. "^ 

f It would, of course, be rude to use this word in the presence of a priest. 
Say bosan. 

g On the shore of Tokyo Bay- in Fukagawa. There is here a famous temple 
of Benlen, goddess of luck. ,V. i 

:LxvJ Uses of the Stem 283 

vow, if it is (has become) fine weather (p. 34a), I will go 
fishing. In {zua) summer I went every day to the Sumida 
River for a swim. As you know, formerly the Emperor en- 
trusted the government of the whole country to the shjgun. 
Shan't we go to Ekoin ^ to see the wrestling ? Are you going 
to buy things, or are you only going to tease (p. 202a) ? We 
will go to the Sumida River to cool ourselves off. Many stu- 
dents, instead of attending (without hearing) the lectures, go 
to amuse themselves. Did you have a cane ? Yes, I left (put) 
it at the entrance of the genkwayi. Is it raining? It is not 
raining, but it is foggy. Go to the shoemaker's and tell him 
to bring the shoes as soon as they are done. You have worked 
the whole day without resting; how tired you must be ! On 
account of («/) the earthquake (of) last night I' awoke {ine 
7va sainejnash'ta), but I did not get up. We will decide (decid- 
ing put) just when you will come (pres.) next time. I have 
brouglit the Nihongi^^ for which you asked, but as it is written 
in Chinese style (1 Chinese composition), you will hardly un- 
derstand it. Come again for a chat {hanasJii). Did no com- 
pany (guest) come during {no ma Jit) my absence? Yes, one 
student came. When I said (past cond.) that you would come 
immediately, he waited (was waiting) for a short time, but, as 
you did not return (there was no returning), being unable to 
wait (p, 2i7e) he went away (returning finished). Where are 
you moving ? I don't know yet. I am now looking for {sagas/ite 
irii tokoro des') a house. Was the Imperial (Empire) Motel 
finished {ihj shuttai slite iuiash'ta kd) before you left Tokyo? 
They opened a bazaar there recently. Are you going out just 
now ? Sir, will you (do you) stop at this hotel ? It seems 
dirty here {koko zua). There may be a better one if \ve go to 
the next town. At first {Jiajime zua) I disliked (p. 91 e) sake, 
but gradually came to like it {suki ni naru). You must n't 
laugh. I am not laughing, but I think it queer {hen ni). 
You must n't think about other things while you are reading 

a. A famous temple in Honjo, Tokyo, where great exhil)i ions of wrestling 
arc held in January and in May of each year. 

b The Nihongi (/■; record) is an old liistorical work dating from Ihc VIII. 

284 '1^"E Verb ' [lxvt 

a book. Have you given u[) the study of Geiman ? I have 
not given (do not give) it up, but I haven't very much time 
to study. You ought to know that. 


Compound verbs {kumi tate-ddsJii) are very numerous. Some 
/ are derived from a noun and a verb. 

egakii draw, from e picture, kaku write. 

katasukeru lay aside, from kata side, tsukera affix, put. 

motosukii be based on, from vioto base. 

namidagumu be moved to tears, from nainida tears, Jukuinu 

jiegiru beat down tiie price, from ne price, kiru cut. 
toshiyoni or tosJiitorii become aged, from tosJii year, yoru 

gather, torn take. 
' j Others are derived from an adjective and a verb : 

nagabiku be protracted, from nagai long, liiku draw. 
t'zakeru keep at a distance, withdraw from, from toi far, sa- 

keru avoid (also — ni tozakani). 
atsusiigiru be too hot (p. 106). 

anianzuru, amanjiru relish, be satisfied, from aviai sweet. 
^ , With the last compare ovtonzuru and karonzuru, p. 215. 

The suffix gam is much used to form compounds with the 
stems of adjectives and desideratives : 

koshigaru desire (p. 152a). ouiosJiirogaru teel interested in. 
ikitagaru want to go (p. 176). hairitagaru want to enter. 
/i The verb buru^ " put on airs " enters into some compounds : 
' gakushabiiru pose as a scholar. 

takabtirii be arrogant, boast, from takai high. 

/ Most numerous are the comi^ounds derived from two verbs. 

As we have before observed (p. 251a), the Japanese language 
has no prefixes or prepositions by means of which compound 
verbs may be formed, as in European languages. Consequently 

a This bum is related to ftcri air, appearance, in olQ/;o-buri gn yoi, onnn hurt 
ga yoi is handsome. Note also the suffix barn, from haru slretcii, extend: 
ko-wabar-u be stilT, from kmvai hard, i-baru Le haughty, V(?/(v//^(7/-/< be avaricious, 
qiskili barn be excessively formal, etc 

Lxvi] Compounds 285 

in very many cases one of the two verbs in a compound serves 
as a kind of auxiliary to the other and in not a few instances 
is practically meaningless. Accordingly we divide compound 
verbs, somewhat arbitrarily, into three classes : (a) those in 
which the components are correlative; (b) those in which 
the second component serves to modify the sense of the first ; 
and (c) those in which the first modifies the second. One can 
not always be sure to which class a given compound should be 
assigned ; but the distinction is practically helpful. 

A. Usually transitive verbs are joined with transitive, and 
intransitive with intransitive. But the components often differ 
and then usage rather than grammar must be consulted in 
determining the voice (pp. 203a, 239a). 

atehameru apply, from aterii hit, havieru fit. 
hipparu {Jiikihani) pull and stretch, bring along. 
iiharu insist, from iu say, hatji stretch. 
kakitorii note down, write at dictation. 
kaniikudahi crunch, from kainu bite, kudaku crush. 
ketsuinazuku stumble, from kern kick, tsuinazuku stumble. '^ 
suriinuku rub off, abrade, skin, from sum rub, miikti peel. 
tsitkikorosii stab (or gore) to death, from tsukti pierce. 
nkeau guarantee, from ukefu receive, au meet. 
ukeoii contract for, from on carry. 

In Ktvanzei compounds with orii are formed, corresponding 
to the subordinative with iru or ortt (p. 163) : ikioru (also pro- 
nounced ikiyoni) is going (but itte orii is gone). This idiom 
is derived from the literary language. ^ 

B. In the second class we include a number of verbs which 
as suffixes form well defined groups of compounds. In many 
instances either the intransitive or the transitive form may be 
used. Thus to " commence to rain " is cither furikakaru or 

fiirikakeru ; " happen to be on hand " is arian or ariawaseru. 
The following list is n jt a complete one. 


„ In the literary language tlie stem of /y/-« is /-tf. Comp. ke-iiiaii football. 
n the collomiial keni belongs to the second class (Ch. XLVIII.), 
b Some apparently simple verbs were originally compounds: dehiru, ^xnm 
•ru and, /.-u/ii ; /mine, from /lau creep and z>« enter; mochiirn, froui violsu have 


and iru be 

286 The Verb [lxvi 

1. Agent, agaru: (a) "up," i. e., "upward"; (b) "up," i. e., 
*' completely " ; (c) a polite termination. 

kuriageru move up, carry for- kakiageru finish writing. * 
ward, rearrange, from kurii shiageru, yariageru finish. ^ 
reel. shibariagern tie up, from shi- 

miageru look up to. bam tie. 

nobiagarii stretcli one's self dekiagarii be finished. 

up, straighten up. moshiagerii tell. <= 

iobiagaru fly up, jump up. kaiageru purchase (on the 
okiagaru rise up. part of the Government). <* 

tsiikeagaru " be stuck up." Diesliiagarii take (food, etc.). 

2. Au, azvaseru : (a) "mutually"; (b) "together"; (c) 
*' happen to." 

tasukeau help each other (p. ochiau come together (of riv- 

58). ers or of persons), from o- 

tiiraviiau glare at each other, chiru fall. 

from niraviti stare. sureau be rubbed together, 

shiriau be mutually acquaint- chafe, be on bad terms, pass 

ed. in close proximity. 

/^r/rt:K take hold of each other, kikiawaseru gather informa- 

pay attention. tion, inquire. 

isukiau associate, become ac- indshiawaseru reach an agree- 

quaintod. ment. 

viiawasern look at each other dekiau happen to be finished, 

{kao wo), forego, give up. be ready made. 
deau meet on the road. ariau, ariawaseru happen tQ 

komiau be crowded together. be on hand. « 

These verbs may be used with the postpositions ni and to. 
Those into which awaseru enters may also take objects with wo. 

a Compare the older compound kakageiu hoist, publisli, inscribe. The verb 
Icakti means also " scratch." 

b Yariageru cannot be used in the sense "put on a finishing touch." Yart- 
tigerti may also mean " get up in the world." 

c Compare age iiidsu give. 

d The opposite is tirisageni, used, for instance, of selling postage stamps. 
Another verb, haraisageru, is used of selling property which the Government 
no longer needs. Comp. p. 18 id. 

c These compounds usually ccciir in the form of the adjectives dekini no 
and ariai no or aria-,case no. 

Lxvi] Compounds 287 

3. Chigaii, cJiigaeru : (a) " differently " ; (b) " mistakenly." 
ikichigaii go in opposite directions without meeting. 
stirecJiigau pass closely on the road. 

kikichigaii, kikicJiigaefu hear incorrectly, mishear. 
ovioichigaii, omoichigaeru misapprehend, misconjecture 
( — wo — to oiHoichigati mistake — for — ). 

4. DerUydasu ()x idasu: (a) 'out," "from"; (b) "suddenly," 
" begin to " {dasti only). 

kogideru, kogidasu row out. oinoidasu call to mind. 

fukidasii blow out, burst out ^<r^.w/;/<^(^j?/ search out, lookup 

into laughter. abaredasii suddenly become 

furidasu shake out, remit, fractious. 

from Juru shake, scatter, iidasti utter, begin to speak. 

pay. nakidasu begin to cry. 

nigedasu escape, run away. 

5. Haterii, hatasu : " completely," " utterly." 
akirehateru be utterly astonished (and disgusted), from 

akireni be surprised, 
korihaieru be taught a good lesson, from koriru be warned, 

punished (comp. korashimeru chastise). 
shinihatern die out (of a family). 
yowarihateru be utterly exhausted, nonplussed. 
tsukaihatasu use up. 

6. Iru, ireru : (a) " in " ; (b) a suffix, originally intensive, 
added to some verbs of feeling {irii only). 

semeiru enter forcibly, from osoreirii be much obliged, be 

seineni assault. overwhelmed by another's 

kaiireru buy in, buy up. condescension (p. I93g). 

kakiireru write in, mortgage, hajiiru be very much ashamed. 

shiireru lay in (goods). kanjiiru feel great admiration. 
yobiireni call in. 


(Include the compounds given above. Easily understood 
compounds are not explained.) 

hiza knee. — no soba ni beside. 

ifo thread, raw silk. soba ni yoru approach near. 

soba side, vicinity. tayori communication, news. 


The Verb 


hama-be seacoast. ^ 
kake-ue fictitious price. 
kakene wo in (juru) ask an 

amount in excess of the 

proper price. 
;/// bu7i station in life. 
sai'iori middleman, broker. 
iokii (c) profit, gain. 
en-nichi monthly festival day 

at a shrine; 
hi-7ian censure, criticism. 
sek-kaii chastisement. 
■ J' I? /{'-/^/stenography.. 
kokii-sJii-byd black plague 

(lit. black death disease). 
uresJiii joyful. 
aware na pitiful. 
waga-i)iaina na wilful, way- 
ward, selfish. 
yd-i na easy. 
yu-kzvai na delightful. 
kiniari disposition, order. 
kivi a ri ga wanii be embar- 

shidara no nai unsystematic, 

badly managed. 

akiranieru give up all hope, 

feel resigned, ^ 
shibirern, sJiibire ga kireru 

be numb, asleep (of limbs). 
utsiiinuku bend the face 

yuzuru relinquish, yield. 
shimaru be tight, strict. 
iori-shimaru supervise (tr.). 
hara ivo tateni 1 
rip-pnkusuru ]g<^t angry. 

dossari abundantly, largely. 
hyoi to, hyotto suddenly, acci- 

Jiisashi-btiri de after a long- 

aku, akirii (p. 142, middle) 

be surfeited. 
aku made to the utmost, 
hon ni really (in hon-to). 
ip-po one step. 
is-sai altogether, at all. 
to-kaku in one way or an- 
other, almost inevitably, 
be apt to. 


Kono kikai wa ippun no uchi ni viizu zvo sen ritlor gurai 
suiageinas' . Matsuyavia kiin wa kivii no' kotoba wo kikidii- 
gaete taiso okotte otta yo. Titan iidaslita koto zua yoi ni kae- 
rareru mono de nai. Ano kauii san zva oku no mono wo to 
rishimaranakereba naranai mibun de aru no ni, jissai is kiatte 
mimasJiiara, sono shidara no nai no m zva akireJiatete shiniai- 

a The suffix be is equivalent to lien vicinity : yania-be region near a mountain. 

b Used with z*;? .• Td!ei dekinai mono to akiramete irii be convinced that it is 
utterly impossible. Tlie veib akiranui u must originally " understand clearly." 
Cojtip. nkiraka na. 

Lxvi] Compounds 289 

mashta. Sono ji ga mikete ivias ^ /earn, koko ye kakiirete o- 
kimasho. Kono usJii iva abarete Jtito wo is' kikorosJi ta koto ga 
ariiiias' . Oviae san, kakcne wo licha komaru. lie, kessJite 
kakfne wa vtoshiagemasen. HisasJiiburi de aita (from aii) 
moil des kara, tagai ni dakiatte nreshi-naniida wo nagashi- 
1/uish' ta. Siivii ya takigi zva sainukii naran uclii ni kaiirete 
oku Iij ga yas kute'\toi'ii des'^ Nagai aida suwatte ite tacJiia- 
garj to shiinasliiara. shibire ga kirete tatemasen desk' in. Ano 
hi o iva sei ga takai kara, nobiagattara, atama ga kamo'i iii 
iodokimashd. '\Tagai ni kao ivo niiaivasete kiviariwarusj ni '] 
titsuumkiniasJita (sli ta zvo inimas/ita).) Hakiirankwai wa 
kok'shibyD ga dekita lavie ni iniawase ni natta so des\ Sen- 
datte ryokJ cliu ni kane ga nakunatte shiviatte, kaeru koto ga 
dekizu, betsu ni shiriai no Into 1110 nai no de, yozt arihate- 
VKislita. Yastii toki in tak san shiirete okimasJi ta kara, 
dcssari iiiokarunasli ta. Uckijiiii sJita to akiraviete ita ani 
kara tayori ga atta no de tobiagarii Jiodo iireshu gozatniasJi ta. 
Omiya de kndari no kisJia to nobori no kisha (to) ga surechigai 
m no ita. ^ As' zva mina san to nidshiazv^isete ha nam I ni 
iiiairinuisho. Sakihodo tegata zvo Jnridas'ite yarimasli ta. c 
Tailie>i viachigatta koto ec o itaslite hajiitta shidai de gozaiuias' . 
Suiteiigu no enniclii ni zva aruku koto mo dekinai hodo 
ko'iiiainias\ Inn zva sliiuda no ka to omotle soba ni yottara 
tigokidasJii'nasJi ta. Takayania hakase no rouibun zvo yoniu 
tahi in fude no ta sha na no ni zva kanjiirimas' ."^ It J san zva ■ 
mi a gem hodo rippa ni nariniasli ta. Donna vinri wo iite koyd 
to, *^ issai toriazvan Jio ga yotO'^Jiii gozaiuias'. Sono, lion zva 
inia T kyb ni am ka do ka kikiazvaset^ ageniaskj. Doits' 
to F' rans wa itsu mo sureatte nnask ta. Aits' zva gak' shabutte 
nanigoto ni mo kiichi wo das' {iretti) kara, hito ni iyagarare- 
nias' . IJyotio ovioidashiniasli ta. Donna hinan ga atte mo 

a Trauslale : is omitted ; lit. has escaped (in tlie process of writ ing). One 
may also say ochite imns' , 

b Kiidari 110 kislia the train going in the direction from tlie capital ; nobofi 
no kisha the train going in the tlirecliou to tlie capital. The verb sni (cldi^ait 
is not So coiniiion as t;d Izwaii suru. 

. c 'I'lie verb yam as used witli subordinalivcs may sometimes be translated 
" for'' but is often -jntranslataljle. It belongs to the same class as n:;eni, oku, 
tcurii, sininnu, elc. 

d 'I'he \v^)tl^fuc^e is used by metonymy for style. 

e A (uturc verb with to, abbreviated from fo mo, i= one of the idioms denot- 
ing concession. Translate: No matter how unreasonably he speaks to you. 

290 The Verb [lxvi 

amanjite ukeru tsumori des\ Mj sJiigolo ga ariinasen kara, 
konnichi zva jikan wo kuriagete san ji in kaeru koto ni itashi- 
masho. O Uuie to O Take ga ningyj ivo hippariatte totj 
kowasJite sJihnaiviasJi ta. ^ Asa hayaku okite haviabe Jii iatte 
tJku oki ye kogidete oru June wo naganieru no zva inakoto ni 
yukzvai des' . Ikura hantai sarete vio aku made jibun no sets 
zvo iihatte ippo mo yttzuriniasen, Amu zva jibun no kao- 
katachi zvo egakareru no zvo kozvagarimas' . Betsii ni s/itaku 
zvo sh'ta no de zva gozaimasen ; Jion no ariaivase no sJiina zvo 
sashiageru no des'. ^ 

1 will deliver them as soon as they are finished. Since they 
are brothers, they ought to help one another, but {kasu na no 
ni) they are constantly quarreling. It was my intention to meet 
him at the Club {K'rab'), but on the way we passed without 
meeting. It is said that recently in Egypt a boat five or six 
thousand years old (jnae no) has been dug out. This child by 
burning {yaita no Jii) its hands once has learned a good lesson 
and no longer goes (has become not approaching) near the fire. 
That broker has gone to Maebashi to buy in raw silk. I stum- 
bled and fell and skinned my knee. Having fallen and struck 
my knee dreadfully, for a little while I could not rise u[). I 
was guilty of (did) great impoliteness, mistaking the lady of 
the house {ok' san) for the servant. The horse suddenly 
became fractious a'nd smashed the carriage. In that family 
(house) all have died out, from {Jiajime) the old to the young, 
and now only that one child is left (it has become that one 
child). Have you taken down the lecture ? Yes, I have taken 
it in shorthand (stenographing put). If you treat {sJite yarn) 
servants and the like {nazo) too gently, they get stuck up and 
are apt to become wilful. Since [they] will be expensive if you 
order [them], it would be better to buy ready-made goods. It 
is not easy to look up a character in {de) the Kokijiten. I will 
go for a walk after I have finished writing this letter. Both 
glared at each other for a while without saying anything. It 
was too much for us (became tamaranai) and we all burst out 
laughing. The Hirose River and the Natori River come together 

a Triple compounds like this are not uncommon, 
b An apology for a meal. 

LX \' l] Co M PO U N 1 )S 291 

in the vicinity of Sendai. A fox runs away at once when i^ 
sees a dog. Mr. Inouye is a very interesting person when you 
get acquainted witli him (associating see). It will still take 
considerable time to {inade ni wti) finish this. When you 
have finished reading that book please lend it to mc, When 
stone and metal are rubbed together, fire is produced {dene). 
Though I said I would go home {kaeni), Tanaka pulled my 
sleeve and did not allow mc to go home {kaesii). ^A really 
able {dekirii) man never boasts before others. We withdrew 
from the others {hito) and consulted until late {psokti made) 
at night. Since you will become fatigued and unable to return 
if you swim out too far, please be cautious. It is said 
that the carpenter who contracted for the building of the 
school has fled. Hearing that pitiful story, they were un- 
consciously {oboezu) moved to tears. Saying that the child 
had been in mischief, he got dreadfully angry and chastised it 
by (subord.) tying up its hands and feet. The Government 
has purchased that lot to {tame 7ii) build a court house. By 
profligacy {/loto wo sJite) he used up all his property within 
one year. How would it be to call in that amma and have 
him shampoo us a little {Jiitotsu or s koslii). 


7. Kaeru, kazvarii change : " re — ," " trans — ," the idea of 

kakikaeru rewrite. uekaeru transplant. 

kikaeru change (clothes). irikazvaru enter by turns, 

harikaeru re-cover, from ha- — ni liarikawaru take the 

rii spread, paste, cover. place of 

iikaeru say in other words, umarekawaru be reborn^ 
zV^/^rf^r?/ replace, put in afresh. transmigrate, be rcgener- 
norikaeru change cars, etc. ated, become a new man. 

8. Kaeru, kaesu return : " re — ," " back." 

Jurikaeru turn around. torikaesu, toriuiodosu take 

ikikaeru revive, be refreshed. back. 

kiirikaesu repeat. y obi kaesu, yohimodosu recall. 

292 The Verb [lxvii 

9. Kakeru, kakaru : (a) " on," " at " ; (b) " by chance " ; (c> 
** begin to." 

nagekakeru throw on or at. funkakeru,, fiirikakaru begin 
oikakeru, okkakerii pursue, to fall (of rain etc.). 

from ou chas^. kakikakeru begin to write. 

fiirikakaru fall upon, happen, shikakeru, yarikakeru begin 
torikakerii, torikakaru hap- to do. 

pen to pass. chirikakaru begin to fall (of 
dekakeru start out. blossoms). 

10. Kanerii : " find it hard to," " be unable to." 

machikaneru wait impatient- moshikanerii hesitate to say. ^ 
ly, be unable to wait. 

I r. Kirii, kireru : (a) "completely," " entirely," "all " (comp. 
wakarikitta p. 128) ; (b) " through " ; (c) " cease," 

iorikiru take all, exhaust the hairikireru all go in. 

supply of. surekireru be worn through. 

kaeshikiru return all. mikiru abandon, clear off. 

nrikiru sell out. ovioikiru cease to think about, 
nrekireru be sold out. give up. 

12, Koeru, kosu : (a) " across " ; (b) " past." 

tobikoern, tobikosu leap over, norikoeru, norikcsu ride past, 
jump across. overtake. 

13. Kouni : '•' in." 

sashikoinu '~\\\\\q\\\. 7iomikoviu swallow, luider- 

isumikomu load in. stand. 

Jukikoiiiu blow in. ochikomii fall in. 

hikkomu draw in, retire. "^ oiuoikomu get an impr-ssion. 

irikoinu enter in. orikouiu weave in, from orn 

kikikouiu hear (lit. take in weave. 

by hearing), c shikomu lay in (goods), teach 
moshikoinu put in a request. (something), educate. 

nagekoiim tinow in. — ;// horekomu be captivated. 

a Very common are the compounds : — ivo Jzoraekaneru, — jii tackaneru and 
tamarikaneru be unable to endure. The last is used only in tlie form of the 

b To be distinguished from hekoniu become hollow, Uon\ lient decrease. 
For he compare kefstimaz'iku (i). 285a). 

C The verb ki/dirern means " assent," " grant," (a requesl) 


Compounds 293 

14, A'aosH • " re — ," "again," "a second time." "over." 
denaosii come (or go) again. ;//7^^^5-^^ reboil. 
kangaenaosu change one's yarinaosic, sJiiiiaosu do over. 


15. Nnku, niikeru : (a) " through " ; (b) " out." 
tsukimikii pierce through. erinuku, yorinuku choose out, 
uc/iinu/cii strike through. select, from eni choose. 
tormukem pass through. 


(Include compounds given above.) 

hitai forehead. hata side. 

hori ^\\\.c\^, canal, moat. michi-bata roadside. 

iiiochi life. sa-naka the very midst. 

kabuto helmet. ini-nashi-go orphaji. ^ 

kuclii opening, demand (for yopparai drunkard. 

services or goods). teki enemy. 

suku to open up, be thinned chj-ka=-iuachi-ya house of 

out (p. 102a). a merchant. t> 

y///^/, .f?//{v'-w^? craclv, opening. <^J<r/z« journey. 

suso lower border of a gar- ji--jo condition, circumstances, 

ment, skirt special reasons. 

tsiiyu dew. kok kin national interdict 
ya arrow. (comp. kinzuru). 

yniiii bow. mo yo pattern, desigU; state 
avia-viori leak in the roof of things, ^ 

(lit. rain-leak). //^w-zz/rt'/j?/ end of the year. 

j<7/6' Village, one's native place, sai-sen offering of money at 
fnru'Saio |l)irthplace, a place of worship. 

/co-/^y>{c) ) home. .f^z-//^« young nuui (lit. green 
ki-mae disposition, temper- years). 

anient. kiv^-tai-shi crown prince. 

a Lit. acliilfl witboiit mi. The word 7iii means not only "self" but also 
one's coiulilion or lekitions in life (compare ini-iio ire, p. 58). Accordini;ly 
viinashii^o means a child vvilhoul relatives. 

b In former limes the snmiirai lived in the midst ol .iin[jlo "^rcuiids along 
i)ack Etri-els, while the crowded town was occupied \<y shopkeepers. 

c A'esn no inoyd de -iva nine gn fmiso de'sliitn ga ,sain<ai fmazn iii sliiiniiiniashita. 
This morninj; it looked like rain, but happily there has been n^ne. 


The Ver]5 [lxvii 

boto boat (English). — ni sazvaru touch, 

//^z/'^?;/^?/ transient. sodateru bring up, rear (intr. 

yoginai unavoidable. sodatsu), 

ken-go na firm, substantial. telsudnu help. 

oinoi{ino)yoranu unexpected, todomam = tomaru stop, stay. 

kei-ki appearance, state of Jiiki-nkeru take over, make 

trade. one's self responsible for 

keiki ga ^^/ times are good (comp. tikeau). 

(opp. fii-keiki). hiki-zti'u drag. 

////'« roof, thatch, a ?/'/^7;^ «; generally. 


Kimono ga nureta kara, betsu no to kikaeinashd. Tsurezu- 
regusa jio^ buns ho ma taihen kirei da kara., kurikaesli te yo'ni- 
viaslita. Makoto ni inoshiagekanenias ga, s'koshi tetsudatte 
itadakaremasviai ka. Kotos hi wa keiki ga yokute kaiireta 
mono xva viina urekiremash'ta. Tera ya viiya ye sankei sum 
kilo iva saisenbako ni zeni zvo n.agekoniinias . Ato no botoga 
saki no zvo norikoshiniash'ta. So in mukashi no shiki no koto 
ga kono hon ni kaite arinias to ovioiinash'ta ga, dovio, viiatari- 
masen. Niini ! kaite am sa. Sonnara mo ichi do yonnnao- 
shimasho. Taiho no tama ga atsui kabe wo nchinnite Pekin 
no yd na kengo na shiro wo mo ofoshimash'ta. Cha zvo Jiitotsu 
irekaete kite kure. Aniari muzitkash kiite zvatakushi ni zva zva- 
karikanemas'. Sekkaku no o kotoba des ga, konnichi zva yogi- 
nai koto ga gozaimash'te zannen nagara agarikanemas'- Ikiira 
benkyb sh'ie liataraite mo shigoto ga sJi kirenai. Matsiiri no toki 
ni zva inakamono ga dzei machi ni irikomimas . Kono bunsho 
•wa machigaidarake da kara, kakinaoshi nasai. Vane ga fu- 
rukn natte amamori ga sum kara, ftikikaeyo to on/oimas\ 
Sonna abiinai koto zvo sum to, ato de torikaeshi no ts kanai^ 

a The different kinds of roofs are: ivambn/ei, from -wdra straw; kavabnki, 
from kaya rush ; sugi/caivalm/a, from sugi cryptomeria and kawa bark ; kobabnki 
shins^led ; /ea-Marabuki iWed ; s'leii'buki ax sekibanbiiki slated ; iotaiibuki roofed 
with galvanized iron, etc. 

b Miscellanies written by Kenko in the XIV. Century. Tsiireziue me^wi, 
" leisure liours " ; knso. (lit. grass) " miscellanies." Compare knsagiisa 710 various. 

C The negative of Uie verb tsiikii is used in this and similar idioms in the 
sense of dekinai. 

Lxvi] Compounds 295 

ayaniacki zvo shiinas* yo. Onioi mo yof^anu sainan ga furika- 
katte mairimashUa. Mini ni mikanete (p. 274,2) tas' kete yari-' 
masJita. Yoi kuchi ga attara, sezva zvo sJite kurerii yd iii ma- 
sk' konde okiniasli ta. Kono kimono iva nan da ka guai ga zua- 
rui yd da kara, nuinaosli te vioraitai. Yiimi no ya ga kabuto 
wo ts'kinuite teki no Jiitai ni atariviasJi ta. '^ finsei chZro no 
gotoshi " ^ to i'l no zva, iikaereba, Hito no inochi iva Diakoto ni 
hakanai mono de aru to in koto des\ Tochu de kyJi ni hara 
ga jtauiidasJita no de, arnku koto mo dekizii, taorete orimasJi ta 
ga, chodo soko zvo tofikakatta uo i^a isJia de arimasJi ta kara, 
saizvai tas" keraremasJi ta. Sendatte shinda kodomo no koto zva 
d' slite mo onioikirti koto »a dekimasen. Zeki kuni ye kaero 
to omoiinasJi ta ga, kangaenaoshiviasJi te Nikon ni todouiara 
koto nj_ itashiniasHo. Kono kozvareta Jion zvo ntina tojinaosa- 
nakereba iiarimasen. Moto zva ikenai hito des/ita ga, ko)io_i^oro 
zva umarekazvatta yd 7ii yoi mono ni Jiarim isli ta. Konnichi 
zva irikazvari tacliikazvari o ky ,ku ga kite isogashii gozaima- 
s/ita. Kiirikaeshi kurikaeshi skinsetsu ni oshiete kuremash'ta. 
Muri ga t^reba, ddri ga hikkoniu (Proverb). Niijima san zva ^ 
kokkin zvo okasJite gzvaikoku no June ?n norikonde Amenka ye 
mnirimash' ta. Ittan oinoikonda koto zva y i ni aratamerarenai 
mono des'.\^ Yopparai zvo hikizurikomarete'^ tonda meizvaku 
zvo itashimasli ta. Dorobd no kao ni hai zvo nagekakenias'i ta. 
Aits zva sake zvo nomn to siiou ni kenkwa zvo sJi kakevias\ ^ 
Atsiii sanaka ni nagaddchii zvo slite, ts karehatete shimaiviash'- 
tatta ga, ^ shibaraku koko de yasnnda no de, ydyd ikikaetta yd 
na kokochi ga itasJiimas' . Mikiriuiono ^ des kara, o yas' ku 
agemas' . Kame no ko ?io knbi zva bd de sazvaru to, j'iki ni hik- 

a Hiio no inochi lun asn no tsuyii no yd na mono desn. 

b The fouiulei- of the Christian institution, the Doshisha, in Kyoto. lie 
went to America secretly in iS6.i. The name is often spelled Neesima. 

c The kee; cr of a restaurant might express himself in these words on 
discovering that lie had a drunkard on his hands. 

d In this compound kakern does not mean " begin." The man wlientlrmik 
picks a quarrel, i. e , inflicts a quarrel on another. Compare hanns/ii 7C'0 
shikakeru or hanashikakeru address one's self to. 

c The ending latin, from le alia, is used like lakke (p. 275c) to make viviil a 
past siluation. 

f Goods to be disposed of at a clearing sale. 

296 The Verb [lxvii 

komiinas' . Nomikoini no ii gejo des\ Mukashi choka de zva 
ippan lit onna no ko ni yiigei wo sli kouda vioii des . O 
nam, viata denacs/iie inairimashd. \Rosha no kwjiaishi ga 
Otsu de korosarekakeviasJi ta.") 

' To g-o from Tdl-cyo to Nikk5 you must change cars at Utsuno- 
miya. At the end of the year people everywhere re cover their 
slwji. Chrysanthemums, if not transplanted every year, do 
not bloom well (good flowers do not bloom). There is no one 
who would (does) not turn round and look back {ato ivo iniru) 
when he left (leaves) his birthplace. The cherry blossoms- are 
now beginning to fall. The company has been (guests are) 
waiting impatiently for some time. This box is so s nail that 
the goods will hardly all go in. This bnil ling is called KotsK- 
do ,• ^ into it [kono uchi ni) the teeth, etc , of dead people are 
thrown (in). Can you jump across this brook? Recently a 
new street has been made {dekiru) by which one can {koto no 
dekiru) pass through from the Station to Sout 1 Street- As 
this child (voa l) is an orphan, we intend to take the place of 
its parents and rear it. As I am just beginning (to writ^) a 
letter, please wait a little. I he->itatc to say it, but could I 
borrow a little money .-' That dictionary is sold out (pastj. The fjll in when it attempted (p 216 top) to leap over t.iis 
ditch. As 1 made a mistake, 1 will do it over. From arroiig 
many young men the stro.igest are selected and taken for 
soldiers. He was recalled to his countr)' Oii the ground that {to 
itte) unavoidable business h id turned up {dek:tii) I am sony, 
but there are various special reaso ;s, so that I can't guarantee 
that much {sore dake). He has not ye: paid (returned) all his 
debts. In Japan designs and iet:ers are woven orikovin — active) 
into women's .sashes. You. can still wear this padde 1 garment, 
if you mak-e it over. As the tliief (led, a policeman pmsued 
him with all his might. I was captivated by his tli-p isition. 
If )'ou don't reboil this fish, it will .spoil by to-morrow. The 
skirt of the kimono is worn through. I am aiuioyed by the 
snow blowing in through (from) a crack in (of) the door. 
Lately I heanl a strange ; umor. Travelers often throw their 
waraji upon trees by (of) the roadside. 

a Lit. bonc-iiall. Devout Buddhists desire to be buried, at least nominally, 
by the side of Kobo D.iislii on Koyosan (p. 113d). The Kotsiuio is provided 
for the remains of cremnteil liodies. 

Lxvm] Compounds 297 


16. Otosu : " fail to," " neglect to." 
viiotosu overlook. 

kakid'osu accidentally omit in writing. 
toriotosu forget to take, leave behind. 

17. Sokonau injure : " mis — ," " wrongly." 

dekisokonan prove to be a failure. 
yarisokonau, sJiisokonau do amiss, spoil. 
■niisokoiiau misjudge. 

18. Sugirii, sugosii : "excessively." 

ikisugiru go too far (p. 128). 
noniisiigiru, tiouiisugosxi drink to excess. 
tsiikaisiigiru, tsiikaisiigosu use too much. 

19. Tatsu, intern : (a) " up " ; (b) " away." 

nietatsu, nitatsn b;>i!, from ukilatsu h& buoyant, excited 

iiiern (intr.) or aim (tr.) {p. 263 f). 

umefateru fill up, oitateru drive away, evict. 

20. T. sii : "tliiough." 
fukitjsii blow through. 

yaritjiu^ shitJsu put through, carry out. 

21. Tsuku, intkern : (a) the idea of approach or attachment 
— " to," '■ at," " against " ; (b) " happen to." 

kiiitsuku bite (of an animal), fukitsukeni blow against. 

7iatsiikii, nazukii become at- kakitsukeru note down. 

tached (p. 252a). nagetsukeru throw at, fli'ig. 

flcJiitsiiku return to a normal takltiukeru kindle, 

condition, become settled. ucJiitsiikeru, hue Jiitsxi kern, 

— ni oitsnkn, ottsukii over- huttsukeru nail on, throw 

take, a at. 

sabitsiukn get rusty, from sa- yosetsnkeru bring close, 

biru rust. iitsukeru, mJshitsukeru, use- 
sugaritsuku cling fast, from tsukeru (polite 2) tell, 

sugaru cling. connnand. 

j«2V.y«/^/<! take hold by suction, yattsukeru overcome, scold. 

a Compare the adverb ottsii/;e presently. 

298 The Verb [lxviii 

kikitsjikeru happen to hear, kajigaetsiiku, omoitsuku hap- 

oveihcar, pen to think of, call to 

mitsiikent, inekkeru happen mind, invent. 
to see, discover. 

The expressions kikitsukete imasu, viitsiikete iinasu^ mean also 
" be accustomed to hear," " be used to seeing." 

22. Tsukiisti (intr. tsukirii) exhaust: "all." 
mitsukusu see all. 

shitsukusu, yaritsukusu do everything possible. 

23. Jsuiueni, tsiiviarii : " to the utmost." 
iitsuDieru silence (in an argument). 
oitstivieru corner. 

senjitiumeru boil down, from senzum make a decoction. 
ikitsuviaru get to a place where one can go no further. 

24. Tsiizuku, tsiizukeru : " continuously." 
furitsiizuku fall continuously (of lain, etc.). 
teritsiizukn continue bright (of the weather). 
noinitsuznker)i keep on drinking. 
yaritSHZukerUy skitsuzukeru keep on doing. 


(Include the compounds given above.) 

ami net, kai-gara empty shell (of a 
hint leech. shellfish). 

ike pond. kdji{ko-inichi) lane, alley, 

kakoi enclosure (from kakoii iiaga-ya row of houses under 

enclose). one roof, tenement house. 

kama kettle, pot for cooking, no, Juxra, no-hara plain, moor, 
inari ball. prairie. 

smni corner. nusiibito thief. 

sune shin. o-dori main street. 

ari-sama state, condition. yo-ake daybreak. 

kai shell, shellfish. osandon servant girl. ^ 

a O San was once a very common name for girls; don is from a'oiio, a title 
like S'H/ia, san. Compare Sansul:e, tbe name by wliich the attendant at a 
public Ijath is usually called. The term osandon, like gejo or kalii, is applicable 
only to those wh.o do menial work in the kitchen, elc. A servant girl of 
higher rank is jo-chh or naka-baiaraki. 




//^/" fence, wall (p, 129a), 
jo, jo- lime lock. 
ivan bay. 

bosan Buddhist priest (p 2S2f). 
cJii-e wisdom, sagacity. 
en kivai banquet. 
jo feeling, affection, passion. 
go jo stubbornness {gd = tsii- 

yoi, kowai). 
gojo wo ham be obstinate. 
hos-sJiin [Buddhist] leligious 

conversion(lit. arouse spirit). 
hyd-satsu name tablet fastened 

to a gatepost, doorplate. 
i-shi will, volition 
kei-kiiaku plan, scheme. 
nai-kakii cabinet, ministry. 
nan-gi hardship. 
ries-shin zeal, enthusiasm (lit. 

heat spirit). 
■fiin-tai patience, fortitude. 
ri-eki profit, advantage. 
sei-to political party. 
ietsu-biii iron teak'ettlc. 
ion-jnku concern. 
ya-chin rent (of a house). 
zei-taku luxury. 
sa-hainin real estate agent. 
garasti glass 
£omu gum, rubber. 

arayuru all. '■^ 

asaliaka va superficial. 

ian-ki na impatient, irritable 
{tan = }/iijikai, p. 123). 

zan-koku na cruel. 

vmkai no, vmkj no the op- 
posite (p. 28,3). 

ien-chi-kan no of heaven and 
earth {kan=^ aida). 

kanerii bounce. 

hirogeru spread out, enlarge. 

magotsukii be perplexed. 

ohorern be drowned. 

todokdru be impeded, delayed, 
in arrears 

yabiirern be torn, broken, 
destroyed (tr. yaburn) 

sarau ) review 

fukii shu surii\ (a lesson). 
jojii sum be accomplished, 
succeed, accomplish. 

ukkari {to) thoughtlessly. 

inassaki {ni) at tlie very 
first. '' 

nan-to-naku ) without any 

7ian-da-ka \ s[)ecial reason, 

without knowing why. ^ 
fu-i-iii suddenly. 

icki'Vten {jii) all over the sur- 


Ano Jiito tia so itta so des' keredonio, ivatakushi wa ukkari 
kikiotoshiviasli ta. Ano e wa kakisokonaimasJi ta kara, una 
(or 1110) tchi viai kaite mini tsumori des. Yachin ga tiisan- 

•A For nrarerti. Compare iwayiiru (p. 275, loi>). 

t; CoiTipare masshiroi perfectly while, viakktiroi )c\. l)lack, makkitrni pitcli 
<l;iik, vinkkn na deep red, innssnkari full bioom, manimka the very midsl, elc. 
c Tiic second of tlie two expressions is rallicr vulgar. See \>. 295^ line .\ 


The Verb [lxviii 

kagetsu tcdokjriinash'ta no ds sahaiiiin ga okotte nagayaju {no 
liito) wo oitateiiiasli ta. Kongetsii zva ainari kane wo ts*kai- 
sugoslite mo icJii mon vw nakmiaite shiviaiinasJi ta. Kesa 
yadoya ivo tats' toki ni yokii. heyajii ivo mite kita kara, tori- 
otoslita mono wa nai hazu des . Shinagazva-wan wo iimetatete 
Tokyj-shi zvo hirogeyj to iu keikivaku ivo sJite oni hito mo 
gosaimas' . Kono kjji wo ittara, tabun oddri ni deratent dard 
to omoimasJita ga, mamouaku ikitsiimatte shiniaimaslita. 
Ittaii yarikaketa. koto wa aku made yarit?se. Kono mae no 
Kinyj no asa taziinete kita hito zva nan to iimasJitakke ; ikitra 
kangaete mo kangaets' kimasen. Ningen no asnhaka no chie de 
tenchikan no dori zvo shirits" kuso nado to omoii no zva clijdo 
kaigara de iimi no viizu zvo kranits' kiisD to iu no to onaji koto 
des . TocJiii de deatta omoshiroi koto zvo mina mkki ni kaki- 
ts'kete ckimaslita, A a at a no o Jumashi de omoitsuita koto ga 
g02aimas\ Kono setsu no yj ni teritsuzuite zva ta ga zvarete 
tne j;a Aarele shimaiinasJij. Gomu jio mari wo itabei ni 
nagets kern to, hanekaerimas . yKono ko wa kan ga okotta to 
imeie, s'kosld ki ni iran koto ga am to, nan de mo kamawazu 
te in i/iot'e ini mono zvo Jiagets kete kowasJi te shimaimas. Auo 
zainni zva 7roifo tazuneraremasJi ta ga^ naitigoto mo sJiiranu 
shiran?/ to itte gZjo zvo haritjsJiimasJi ta. Jviaega sabiisnite 
tansn no hikidashi ^a akimasen. Bis mar k' w.i ishkjio tsuyoi 
hito de, hajitai-tj ga ikura yakamasJiii koto zvo itte mo, ikko 
tonjakn nakn kessli te jibnn no kangae wo inagezn ni, aku made 
oshitlsh'ta kara, hitobu'o zva " tekkelsu saisJO " to mjshi- 
mash'ta. ^ Ano hito zva makoto ni mimi no hayai hito de 
yo- onak.i no koto zva nan de mo massaki ni ki kits' ke mas' . Aits* 
wa amari jibnnkaU' na ko:o bakari in kara, hi:iok:i yatts' kete 
yatUi. Issk kemmei m o'cka'cema-ihUa keredomo, tot) otts'- 
kicanemash' ta. Konoaida Ikao ye iku toki ni, hi zva kureni, 
kara zva sukii,'^ hijj ni naiigi shimasli ta ga, kuruma ni nio 
noyazit ni, muk'j made arnkitJshimash' ta. Boku no ie zva 
lira ga nohara ni natte orii no de,fuyii ni nam to, yuki ga Juki- 

a P'roiu lels:i iron, Jce'sii bloo-.l, sni-shd prime minialer. A prime minister is 
now cal!e.l more Cunimunly son-daijiu. 

b I/cao is a famous hot spring in Jo-^hu not very frir from Maehnslii. After 
kitrei n and su/iu tlie disjunctive particle slii might be added to complete the 
grammatical construction; but in order to make the situation more vivid it 
is omitted. 

Lxvni] Compounds 301 

ts kete jitsu ni kouiarii. Hito ga inizii ni oboreyj to sura baai 
ni %va nan de ino kamazvazii sugarits' kiuias'. Isslu no vieslii 
ivo tabets' knslite sJnmatta no ka ; kivii no taisJioku ni wa odoro- 
kiitte shiniau. ^ Nusiibito ga nskiro no IiayasJii ni kakiirete 
nakanaka wakariinasen desJiia ga, jiinsa ga yoyj inekkedasJii- 
inasJi ta. Dandan toitsiiniete itta tokoro ga, niukJ zua totJ iitsn- 
matte sliiuiaiinasJi ta. Ano bosan wa wakai toki ni wa arayurn 
zeitakii wo sJiits kush'ta hito da so des ga, am toki se'is'j ni itte 
sono zankokii na arisauia wo mite niwaka ni hosshin sh'ta to in 
koto des'. Yarisokonatta kara, mo ichi do shinaoshi'iiashd. 
Yarisokonai no nai hito wa nai keredomo, tiesshin to ninfai sae 
areba, shiviai ni wa Jojti sJiiuias . Sendatte kaiireta sekitan 
■wa mo iakitsC knsJi te shimaimasJi ta. Heya no shJji ga yabii- 
rete kaze ga jukitbshi na mon des kara, sakuban tutj kaze wo 
hikimasJita. Toriotoshi no nai yo ni yoku ato wo shirabete o 
kure. Kono Jiyosats zvo mon 7ii tichits kete oite kure ; Into ga 
tazunete kita toki ni wakaranaide magotsukic to ikenai kara. 
Biir' wa sake hodo ni wa yowanai to it'e mo, noniisugirii to, 
karada no gai ni nam kara, yahari tiovian ho ga yoroshii. 

The servant girl rises early in the morning and Icindles [a 
fire] under the pot {kama no sh'ta zvo). When I went (pres.) 
into the pond with (holding) a net for the purpose of catciiing 
(tliinking that I would catch) fish, at once three or four leeches 
took hold of my shins. It has been raining continuously of lale ; 
consequently the roads have become extraordinarily bad. I 
must send {dasii) a letter once more, because there is soir;cthing 
that I omitted in the previous letter. As this box has proved 
to be a failure, I will make another {betsu ni) for you. When 
spring comes (it becomes spring), witliout any special reason a 
person's spirits {kokoro) are buoyant. Hj is talented, but is 
apt to spoil things, being impatient. If you put a teakettle 
on a hibachi, the water {yn) boils at once. I thought she was 
an honest person, but misjudged [her]. He chased to a corner 
of the fence the chicken that flew out of the enclosure and at 
last caught {ts' kamaeni) it. If I don't note down newly 
learned words one by or,e {ichiichi) in my notebook and re- 

a From twenty to tliirly bowls of cooked rice are consulfred to amouiU to 
one slid. Voi taishokii coini)are Iciisliokka, p. l6. 



The \'kkb [lxviii 

view them often, I soon forget theni. As there was suddenly 
a clap of thunder (thunder suddenly sounded), the children 
were frig-litcned and clung to their mother. I have (there is) 
one more order {iits kern koto) ; call G jnske back. At the 
banquet last evening four or five tipplers {jjgo) having come 
together {yoriaii), they kept on drinking until daybreak. The 
dog is ill-natured and dangerous ; take care not to bring child- 
ren close to him (his side). As we have already seen about all 
the noted places of TokyO; we intend soon to ^o to Kyoto (and 
see). The bain is {no koto des) a rain that falls continuDusly 
(every day) at the beginning of summer. When the rainy 
season is over, [the weather] continues bright, Hoshi Toru was 
a much criticised man (a man about whom there was consid- 
erable criticism), but he was eminent in that (because) he ear- 
ned out his ideas {kangae) to the end. Your affairs {inouogo- 
(0) will never succeed if you now stop and again begin, as you 
do [sonna ni) ; what you have once begun you must keep on 
doing to the end. Yesterday as I hurriedly passed by the front 
of the station, Ito happened to see me from a distance and per- 
sistently called after me {yobikakerti). Children have thrown 
stones at and broken much of the window-glass. The present 
{ivia no) cabi et and the political parties are arguing variously 
{iroiro) ; but if you boil it down, both sides {docliira nid) are 
thinking only [ufj their own advantage. 


C. There are also groups of compounds which we classify ac- 
cording to their first components. In some cases the prefixes 
in a marked degree add to the sense ; in others they are merely 
intensive or practically meaningless. Such a prefix is ai, which 
occurs in certain formal phrases, such as : Dandan o setva ni 
ainariniashite arigatj gozainiasn. Konogo vio aikazvarima- 
lezu. My obligations to you are gradiially increasing. Please 
continue your favor in the future also. 
I. Furi, {xon\ fiiru shake. 

fiirihanasu break loose. 

Jurikiru sever forcibly. 

fiirisutet u abandon. 

Lxix] Prefix-Verbs 303 

2. Hiki, from hikii draw. 

hikiai. yseru introduce, com- hikitatsu, hittatsii improve 
pare. ^ (Jiittatte mieru look better). 

h'lkkaesxi return (intr.), hikitaterti favor^ encourage. 

hikkakerii suspend. hikitovuru detain. 

//2/^z7'«?;//^r7/ stay at home, from liittstikaniaern catch (vulgar). 
komorii be shut up (p. 239a). Jiikiiikerii make one's self rc- 

hikkosii remove. sponsible for, take over. 

hikimikii pull up by the root. Jiikkiirikaerii be overturned. 

3. Meshi, from mesn summon, use. 
meshiagaru take (food, drink, etc., 2, 3). 
meshitoru arrest. 

meshitsiikaii employ (as a servant). 

4. Mochi, from motsii hold. 
inochidasii offer (a motion or bill). 
mochikuzusii ruin (self or property). 
— ;// hanasJii wo viochikakem solicit, 

5. Oshi, from osu push. 
oshiJiirogeru spread out, enlarge. 
osJiikaesJiite kiku ask to repeat. 

oshitsumatte kiiru the end of the year approaches. 

6. SasJii, from sasu grow, rise, penetratCc 

sasJiiageni lift up, offer, pre- sashihiku deduct, 

sent. — - ni sashikakaru approach. 

sasJiideru intrude (in sashi- sashitsukaerii be hindered, 

degaviashii, ^. iio). embarrassed, from /.y«/^v?^A'.'^ 

saskidasii offer, present^ send be obstructed, 
(freight, mail, etc.). 

7. TacJii, from tatsii stand. 

tacJfkaeru return. 

tachidomarji stop wliilo walking, from tomaru stop. 

tacJiiyoru call in passing. 

8. Tori, from torn take. 

toriatsukau manage, treat. torikaeru exchange. 

toriawaseru combine. torikesu retract. 

a Many of llicse words are becoming o])Soletc. Thus shukai sum is more 
common tlian hikinwaseru in the sense of "introduce"; tei-shtitsu sunt, than 
mcchidasu ; sliik-/;d siiru, llian loriokonau, etc. 

304 Ijie Verb [lxix 

— ;// torikakaru commence totitsiigu transmit, announce 
work on. (a visitor). 

torikuzusu tear down, — «z toritsuku attach one's 

toriviaiomeru gather all to- self to. 

gether, settle, from inato- tottiukainaeru catch (vulgar). 

vieru bring together, ad- toriyoseru have — sent to 

just. one's self, procure, import. 

— ni torinasu take the part of. toriisogti be in a hurry, 
toriokonau administer, per- torikovm be crowded, busy 

form, celebrate. (of a liouse, hotel or store). 

iorisJiiraberii investigate. toriinagirerit. be in confusion, 

torisJiiinarii supervise. distracted, from the rare 

/(;;'/5-c'r(?^/'« gather all together. veib viagireni (p. 202). 

9. UcJii, from utsii strike. 

— ni uchikatsu overcome. 
uchiakeru open (the heart), be candid. 
nchitokete hanasii speak frankly or familiarly. 
ttchitsuzuku continue a long time. 

uicharu, from uchiyaru, throw away, reject, let alone. 

biikkiru, for bnclukirii, hack. 

bunnaguru, for buchinagiiru, thiash, drub, from nagtcru beat. 


(Include the compounds given above) 

inizore sleet. gi (c) righteousness, trusti- 
ori opportunity. ness, loyalty. 

ioride fort, stronghold, in- sJii city. 

trenchmcnt. zen = i/icre front. 

hari-tmke crucifixion. ^ bu-shi samurai. ^ 

iachi-ki standing tree. cJu-nin one of the trading 
iainoto {te, vioio) lower part. class, merchant (p. 293b). 

of [Japanese] sleeve (which chli-i attention, heed, care. 

serves as a pocket). /u-/u man and wife. 

a A "cross " is haritstike-basJiira. The Christian term is ju-ji-ka, irom. jiiji 
the character for lo (-[-) and ka erection, frame. 

b From bzi brave and s/ii man or samurai. Compare gl-shi loyal samurai, 
from n ricrhteousness. 




gi-an bill (in a deliberative 
assembly). ^ 

gwan-sho^ negai-sho {gwan 
= Tiegai) petition. 

kakii-jj confession. 

hyd-uien surface, exterior. 

jiki-so direct appeal. 

kan-ja spy, 

kO'jin^=viukashi no Jiito. 

kok-ka {koku — kuni, ka = ie) 

kd-nj virtue, efficac}', effect. 

sai-ktin wife (familiar). 

shi-sJmtsu (proncd. shishitsn') 

shu-nyic income, receipts. 

so-han coarse food (polite l). 

sokii-ryo surveying. ^ 

zai-vwku lumber. 

zaii-kin {jiokotta kane) bal- 

dai-gi-shi representive (in 
Parliament). '"' 


ho-sJm-tJ conservative party. 


do mon 

koishii beloved, affectionate. 

tsiireiiai heartless. 

Jiisoka iia secret. 

nodoka na calm. 

saniazarna na {no) various. 

shi-ritsu no private (opposite 
kzvanriisn no established 
by the Government). 

osaeru repress, hold back. 

tabi-datsu set out on a jour- 

nori-ki ni nam fall in with 
a i:)roposal. 

izure in some way or other, 
at all events, ^ 

tokkiiri {(o) attentively, thor- 
oughly, fully. 

sono da de on the spot. 

age-kii ni finally, besides all 


Watakushi no tanioto wo osaete sh' kiri ni hikitomeyo to shi~ 
niasJi ia keredonio zeki kaeranakereba naranai koto ga am to 
itie mnrl ni fnrihanasii te Jiigele niairimash'ta. Tadaiuia 
aide nas tta o kata zva zotijimasen kara, djzo go sJijkai {0 hi- 
kiawase) wo negaimas'. Ckoinen ni hikiaivasete yokii shira- 
bete viiniasho. MukasJii Ilangaku to in onna ga ariniask'ta 
ga, hijo ni chikara no tsuyoi onna de. tint a ni no tie i n agar a 
iachiki wo hikiiniite teki to tatakatla to in koto des' . fnia Ha- 
yasJii ktin no ucki ye itte kita ga. saikun no izvareru ni zva 

a Vrom gi discussion and an plan. Compare i^i sum discuss, gi-kefsn sum 
t.ikc a vole [kn-kefsit. sum adopt, hi~ke/sn sum reject), f:;i-in nicniljer of a deliber- 
ative asscnildy, gi did president, gi-ji parliamentary i)usiness {^ji=^koto), i^iji do 
assembly hall, etc. A motion is do gi, from do move. 

1) hwe is properly a classical relative pronoun. 

3o6 The Verb [lxix 

anatcu no o takii ye agaru to itte sakihodo dekaketa^ to in koto 
de atta kara, tabiin tochu de ikichigattaro to omotte sugu ni 
JtikkaesJite kimasJi ta. Sakura Sogoro ga shognn 7ii j'ikiso wo 
s/ita no gafutsugo da to in no de yakunin zva Sjgoro wo inesli- 
totte harits'ke ni shiniasJi ta^ Konoaida hoshiito no daigishi ga 
ko in gian wo teishutsn sJiiviasIi ta {jnochidashiviasJc to). Dan- 
dan osJiitsuviatte inairiinasJiUe sazo o isogashic gozainiasho. '^ 
So/tan zvo saskiagetJ gozaivias kara, ^ koviban rokn ji ni oide 
kndasainiashi. Chudo yaniasaka ni sashikakatta toki ni inizore 
ga JuridasJi'te kita no de hidokii nangi wo itashivtask'ta. Shi- 
barakii tachidoniatte kesh'ki wo naganiete inias' to, nsJiiro kara 
toviodachi ga kite /ni ni kata wo tataita no de bikknri itashi- 
maslita. KyJi na go yj wo usets'kerarete vtyogonichi Hokkai- 
do ye shnttatsn senakereba naranai kara, '^ kimono nado wo 
hayaku torisoroete o knre. Hei, kashikoniariniasJi ta. Matsn- 
sJiivia ni ZainioknsJiivia '^ to in donion no yd ni ana ga aite 
sono naka zvo fnne no toreru shinia ga arimas" ga, anaia zva 
go ran ni narimasJi ta ka. lie, aniari toriisoginiasJita rnon' 
des kara, tsni miotoshimash' ta. Mukashi no samurai zva 
chjuin nado ga bnrei na koto zvo sum to, daikon ya gobo zvo 
kirn yj ?ii sngji ni buchikitte shimatta inon des\ Tada JiyD- 
inenjj no ts'kiai bakari de nakn tagai ni ucJiitokete lianMsIn 
wo s/ite minakereba, hito no kokoro zva totei yokn zvakarn mono 
de zva arivtasen. Ano tetsudo zva hajinie sliiritsn no kwaisha 
de yarikakemasJi ta ga, nocJii ni seific de liikiukemasli ta. 
Suzuki san ni hiinashi zvo mochikakete mimasli ta ga, sappari 
nor'ikt ni naranai no de komatte shimaimasli ta. Mnko no in 
koto ga zvakaranakatta kara, oshikaes/ite taznnejnash'ta. Mu- 
kashi no busiti zva gi no tame ni zva itsu nandoki de mo inochi 
zvo sashidaslite kakatta mono des\ f Doits' no kanj'a ga 

a The sentence from anata to dekaketa is a direct quotation. It is quite 
legitimate to repeat polite words addressed to one's self. But comp. p. i26d. 

b In Japan at the close of the year it is custom.^ry to settle all accounts and 
every one is busy. 

c A suitable formula for inviting a person to a meal. 

d Go yd Government business. IIok-/cai-dd{\it. north sea way) designates Ezo 
and the Kuriles. Observe that do, like cho (p. 95e), may mean a "district" as 
well as a " road." 

e The colum.ns of rock look like piles of lumber. 

f The idea expressed by kakatta is thart oi undertaking (to serve a master 
or cause). 

i.xix] Prefix- Verbs 307 

hisokani F'rans no toride ivo sokuryo s/ita no de F' rims' jin ni 
iotts kninaerareniasJi ta. Iroiro torikonde orivtas' kara, orl wo 
mite tokkuri go sodan itashiniaihj. Biinnagntte yard .'^ Ai- 
kaivarazu o Jiikitate wo negaimas . ^ Ekaki wa iroiro enogu wo 
toriazvasete samazania no iro wo dashivias' . Watakushi mo 
o vie ni kakatte o tvabi wo lUjsJiiageru isumori des'ga, anata 
kara mo nanibun yorosJi kti sensei ni o torinashi zvo negaimas\ 
Konna ni fusliiaiuase na koto bakari uchitsnzuita ageku ni ana- 
ta ni made sj isurenaku saremaslite wa mo toritsiiku shima ga 
gozaimasen. ^ Asu san ji kara sotsugyosJi ki wo shikko sum 
{toriokonau) so des\ Shunyu zva hyaku yen de sJiishutsu wa 
hachi jTi go yen ku jissen naraba, sashikiki zankin zva jii yo 
yen jissen ni narimas\ Shinnen ni nam to, nantonaku no- 
doka de zvakai toki ni tacJiikaetta yd na kokochi ga itashimas\ 
Ko7io lion wa kami ga nukete iiitas'kara, hoka no to torikaete o 
kure. Ani to ucJiiakebanashi wo sJi te iniasli ta. 

Many men for the sake of [their] country have severed ties of 
affection {koisJiii naka) between (of) parent and child (p. 225 
a), husband and wife, gone to war and died in battle. Please 
introduce^ me to tliat gentleman. The child is crying, having 
flown (Jiikkakerii) its kite on a tree. I should like to enlarge 
my grounds {yas/iki) and plant plenty of trees. They present- 
ed a petition to the Home Office. Happening to pass by (be- 
cause I passed by) your gate {go mo?i-zen), I have just called for 
a moment ; some other time {iziire) I will soon visit you again. 
As I am a little in a hurry, I will now be excused (p. 262. 
middle). Since the old castles Vv^ere mostly torn down after the 
Restoration, there arc now not many {amari) left. As {tori) 
the ancients said, it is not so {sahodo) difficult to overthrow the 
rebels {zokii) in the mountains {san-chu no or yania no naka 
no), but it is truly not easy to overcome the rebels in one's heart 
{shin- chic jio or kokoro no naka no). Abandoning wife and 
children, he set out for {ye) a distant place. The street car 
line was started by a private company (is one that a private 
•company established — mokeru), but later the City Office {de) 

a Til is is, of course, a vulgar expression. 

1) We liave here the figure of one lost at sea. 

c Ilikiawasete fcudasai, or, more commonly, go shokai wo negaintasu. 

3o8 TuK Verb [lxix 

may possibly (/ca mo sliireiia'i) take it over. He ruined himself 
(;/// zvd) by (///) pr()ni;4acy and caused {jui kakerii) his parents 
much {Jiijo lit) anxiely. There is nothing at all, but I will give 
(pres) you what happens to bj on hand. The robber was 
caught on the spot, but did not confess. The goods ) ou have 
ordered {go chuinoit no) will all be gathered together by to- 
morrow and delivered at {ye) }'our house (p. 261, bottom). As 
evening came {yugata iii natte) and we approached a mountain 
road {ymnasaka) we were greatly perplexed. At the close {krire) 
of the year all [ houses] are busy. I {ga) will mike myself respon- 
sible for this matter {zva i) and settle it. As I must go quickly 
{kyu III), 1 am distracted on account of the preparation-; {s/i'iaku 
1V0 sum no de). Does it also happen that {koio 1110 arinias kd) 
lamps are overturned by earthquakes? If you put {ts ktni) z. 
red lining into this garment, it will look very much better. 
As he employs many people, he ought to be more careful {mot- 
to chili suru). Though you print {dasu) a disavowal {/orikeshi) in 
the newspaper, it will not have (there will not be) much effect. 


In previous chapters attention has been called to the propriety 
of using certain special verbs and spec'al inflections in speak- 
ing to superiors or to those to whom one wishes to show respect. 
A little attention to the original sense of an honorific expression 
is often sufficient to explain its usage. Thus yonde a<^eru (p. 
84^ is more polite than yonde yarn (p. 289c), because agent 
means properly " lift up " ; oshiete itadaku (p. 227) is more 
respectful than oshiete morau (p. 250), because the ori^^inal 
meaning of itadaku is "put on the head." There are also 
honorific inflections, as in nasaru, fi-om nasu, and irassharu, 
from iru (pp. i8[, 26S), changing ordinary verbs into forms 
which it would be utterly ridiculous to use of one's s_df. 

Polite verbs may be divided into two classes, humiliatives 
and exaltatives. 

I. There are humble verbs which are used properh' in the 
first person. 

Such a verb is mdsu s^iy (p. 207a).-, JlTosu may also be used. 


in the third person, to show respect to the one addressed. It 
may even be vised in the second person, either when it is 
desired to impress upon the one addressed the fact that he is 
inferior or when the one addressed is not a superior and liis act 
concerns a \'e\y exalted personage. But these are rare excep- 
tions to tlie rule that verbs of the humble class arc not used in 
the second person. The student will lemeniber that in the 
sense of " do " 7;ic)su is also used with stems of verbs ^ together 
with the honorific o, and tliat i/asu is used with stems of verbs 
and 0, or with Chinese compounds with or without ^ifi? (p. 216, 
12). The very formal tsiikamatsuru is used just like itasH, 
though less frequently ; e. g., Dj tsukainatsurimas!iite (comp. 
p. 2i8d). A still rarer variant is tateinaisnrii (lit. offer), borrow- 
ed from the literary language for use (without 0) iii prayer 
and in speaking of what is done to or for the Sovereign. 

The humble expression for " receive " is itadakn or cho- 
dai itasH, used also in a peculiar way with subordinatives as 
described in Ch. LV. Another humble term is kjiiuiru, used 
of favors or comniands. Still another is fainawaru, used of 
favors or gifts. The compound iiketainazvani is used only in 
the sense of " hear." 

" See " is Jiai-ken itasu, from hai=ogamu, ken — uiiru, used 
of th.e possessions of others, letters from others, etc. ^' Com- 
pare Jiai-shaku borrow, from shaku = karirii. " Show " is go 
ran ni treru or o me ni kakerii (p. 44a). O me ni kakaru 
means " meet." 

Moshiageru means properly " say." It is used like nusu. 
In some localities it may also be used in the sense of " give," 
but this is a provincialism. " Give " is sashiageru or shin-jo 
itasu {shin-tei itasu, tei-jo itasu). 

" Go " or "come" is maim ; "go" or "come" to the house 
of the one addressed is agaru ; e.g.. o rei ni agaric come to 
express one's obligation.?, o_kuyaini ni agaru come to condole. 

a I\ldsu differs from itasu in that its use is limilcl to ads affecting the one 
addrcsicii. In a few instances it may be used with go and a Chinese compound, 
but not when the compound is in itself lic^norific ; c. g., ^0 aiiiiai i/idsu, go s/id/c<ii 
iiidsii, go iieitkyaku fiidsu return (a borrowed article), but never clwdai tiiosii, or 
liaiken mosti 

b I/nilen ilasu may not be used of sc-cinp; a person; but a physician will s.iy: 
Co yolai -co liaikcn i/ns/n'inns/tZ, or cv. n : Co hyoniii lao Jiai/^cr. itnshiinashd. One 
may also s:iy : l\'oiido o iitii.iie iins'ttn a l-o inn ivo haikeii ilasliitai. 

3 TO The Verb [lxx 

o yorokobi ni agaru come to congratulate. The formal verbs 
sanzuru {san = inairii) and san-jo itasti are synonymous with 
agaru, and so is the rather rare makari-iderit, viakari being a 
prefix taken from the classical language. 

2. There are also verbs that are used to exalt the person 
addressed, or a third person. 

The student is already familiar with the uses of nasarii, kti- 
dasaru and ni nam (pp. 190, 278). The very formal asobasn 
or asobasareru is used just like nasaru, especially by ladies ; but 
the regular causative, asobaseru, retains the original sense of 
" cause to play." The exaltative corresponding to tatematsiiru 
is tamau (but see also p, 246, top). 

" Use " is inesu (lit. summon) ; e, g., ride in rikshas, etc., is 
kuriii//a ni inesu, put on clothes is kimono wo inesu, take a 
bath is yu wo inesu or yu ni niesu. ^ " Eat," " drink " or 
" smoke " is agaru or ineshi-agaru. 

" See " is go ran nasaru. The old contracted form gorozuru 
or gorojiru is now rare, except in theaters. 

" Say " is osshar'u, derived from the now rare verb oseru. 
It shoukl be noted that the honorific form of mosn, namely,. 
inosareru, is polite even in the second person. 

For "go," "come," "be," we have irassharu or oide nasaru 
(p. 190). Of the Emperor the words (<?) or gyd-ko 
nasaru {ni naru, asobasareru, ga am, etc. ) are used ; of the 
Empress or Crown Prince, {o) iniyuki or gyo-kei {gyo^yuku. 

"Retire," "go to bed" is gyo-sJiin ni naru, commonly 
contracted to geshinaru, from gyo, a variant of go, and shin 
= neru go to bed. 

Note that there is a limit to the reduplication of honorifics. 
Thus we may say irasshaiviaski and irasslitte kudasai, but 
not irasshari nasai or irassJiari ni natte itadakitai. It should 

a For the use of mesn as a prefix see the previous chapter. Mesn also occurs 
as a sufiix in the honorific cboshimesii deign to think, which is used in the 
colloquial, especially in the form oboshimesJii thought. Tlie verb kikoshimesu 
de'gn to hear, lias passed from tlie sense of " hear," to that of " govern," and 
from this to the sense of " cat " or " drink," which it now has in the colloqui- 
al. One may say ironically: Suzuki kun iva ippai kikoshiineshite iniasu /cam. 
nakanaka genki ga yd gozaimasu. Suzuki is animated, having taken a drink. 
The verb shirosJdmesu deign to know, does not appear in the colloquial except 
rarely in the sense o<" •' govern." 



be remembered that in very forma! speech tlie ending masuru 
is more appropriate than masii. 



kakushi ) , 
pokketto IP^"' 

S^J^^^^ la cold. 

hago shuttlecock (also hane). 
Jiago-ita battledore. 
ni-gao portrait, likeness. 
os/ii-e a picture in relief made 

of stuffed pieces of cloth. 
habiitae a kind of thin silk 

cloth, a 
tan a piece of cloth between 

ten and eleven yards long. 
hiki a piece of cloth contain- 
ing two tan. 
lit a isshu one poem {sJiu = 

go dyj = o taniaya ancestral 

shrine, sepulcher. ^ 
aisatsH salutation, answer. 
baktc-fii the government of 

the shogun. 

bun-ko library. ^ 

dan-shi=otoko no ko boy, 
male, man. 

jo-shi=onna no ko girl, fe- 
male, woman. 

em-pitsii lead pencil. 

Ju-kwai displeasure, indispo- 
sition {/ukzuai desii is in- 

han-jo prosperity {Jianjo suru 
be prosperous). 

hei-ka His (or Her) Majesty.. *^ 

kai-sei revision. 

rei-fuku ceremonial dress. 

sei-sJw a clean copy. 

sJii-ken examination. 

shin-nen new year. 

shihan-gakkj normal school. 

yj-dateru furnish, lend. 

inazu first of all, on the 
whole, well. 

hito-niazu once, for a while. 


O isue wo o mochi asobasJiiniasJi ta {asobasainiask' ta) ka. 
Sayd^ jisan itashiviasJi ia, shikashi docJiira ye okiniasli ia ka 

a U' dyed habutae is exported in large quantities. 

b This term is applied to the sepulchers of shoguns and daimyos. The 
sepulcher of an Emperor '\s go ryd or tin-sasa)^i. » 

c Libraries are now generally called sho-jak-kivait or io-sho-kwan {sho or 
shaku, se/n book, lo, zu, drawiog). 

d The word heika is frequently used by itself as a designation of the 
Emperor. It is derived from Itei steps, /;a beneath. The corresponding title 
of a prince is denkn ; of a high official, kakka. Another term used in speaking 
of the I'^mpcror is shii-jb {s/in lord, ju=ne). 


I 2 

The Verb [lxx 

zoujiviasen. Danna san zva doko ni irasshaiuias ka. Hei, 
tadaima yii jii Jiaitie iras'ihaiinas . Mada go Jion zvo haishaku 
s/i ie orimas' ga, o iriyj nara, hitoviazu o kaeshi nioshiviashd. 
O seisJio wo c hot to haiken {itash'to gozaiinas). O cJia zvo mo 
ippnku vieshiagare. ArigatD, jiyu ni chodai itasJiinias . 
Sakuban kii ji goro ni'^ go vionzeti zvo tJriinasJita kara, c hot to 
o yori mdshimash' ia ga, v!o)iaya geshinatte irassJiainiasJi ia. 
Sore zva osoreiriviash^ ta ; yuhe zini f kzvai de ariniasli te hayaku 
yasiimimash'ta. DJnio, kaneire ga niienaku narnnash' ta ; 
hobo zvo sagash'te mo doko ye itta ka zvakarimasen. Anata 
saknji.tsu meshi nas tta znboii no kak' shi zvo go ran nasainia- 
sh'ia ka. Sakujitsn cJioito o rei ni aganniash'ta ga, o riisu 
de gozainiasli ta. C'lotto o fude zvo haishaku {itash'to gozai- 
inas'). Mata sono ncJii {}ii) o me ni kakarimashJ. ^ Bakufu 
no jibun no kzvahei {zeni or kane^ zvo go ran nas' tta koto ga go- 
zainias ka. lie, mada haiken itasJita koto zva gozainiasen. 
Wataknshi zva iichi ni motte inias" kara, tsiiide ga attara, o me 
ni kakeniash'). O naniae zva tabitabi uketamazvariniash' ta ga, 
mada ichi do mo o me ni kakatta koto zva gozainiasen. Inia 
Tokei no shikuknisei 7ii^ ionkakatie oru koto zvo o kiki fiasai- 
mash'ta ka. SayD, nketaniazvariniash ta. O jo san, sono o 
hagoita zvo c hot to haiken sash' te kudasai. Oya, taiso kirei na 
osJiie des koto ; kore zva Fukuske no'^ nigao des' ka. Makoto 
ni go yakkai ni nanmash' te arigato zonjimas\ D > ts kania- 
tsurimash'te. Senjitsu o hanashi mjsJiiniash' ta koto zva, hito ni 
kiite mimash'tara, zvatakushi no mjshimash' ta tJri de mo 
nakereba, anata no osshaita tjri de mo nai sj des\ ^ Kono hon 
zva naikakn no bunko knra haishaku sh'ta no des\ Anata 
Tbkyj ye oide no jibun ni kzvjkyo zvo haiken nasainiash'ta ka. 
lie, haiken itashimasen desh' ta. Konaida sJiinnen 7io o utakzvai 

a Translate : about nine o'clock. The addition ol goro ni (p. 37c) makes the 
expression vague. 

b An expression ufd in parting from a friend. 

c From ski city, kn division, district warfi. Tntliis connection the term 
has reference to the straightening and widening of the streets. 

d I'ukiisukc was a famous actor in Tokyo. B.ittledores are often decorated 
with portraits of famous personages done in brocade. 

e Tlie conditional inflection in nakereba takes the place of a conjunction 
(p. uS, 1, 2;. 



ni^ tenshi savia mo o uta zvo issJiu a youii asobasareinasJt ta. 
Itsu o yii ni vies/ii nasaimas' ka. )« ga deki shidai hairivia- 
shj. O viesJniiiorio rva dore ivo uit^shi ni }ii>riinas ka {dore 
ni nasaivias kd). (jO reij' ku de gosaii/ias' ka. Nuni wo 
ineshi ni nariuias ka. Kono habutae zvo ippiki kaimasho. 
Ainari tak'saji de nakereha, go yodate mjs koto mo dekinias". 
Sh.tsiirei nas;ara go men zvo kdmurimasli te koi'O kara go ai- 
satszvo inoshiagemas . ^ Komdan zva tomari ai.obase na. 

Have you seen photographs of the scpulcheis at (of) Nikl<o?<^ 
No, I have not yet seen them ; I should Hke to see tht-m if I 
might be permitted to do so {ainarimasnreba or nayimasnni koto 
nard). I have none, but I will borrow (borrowing come) them 
from a friend and show tliem to you. Did you see tlie Emper- 
or's palace when you went to 1 okyo ? Yes, I saw it, but I did 
not think it at all magnificent. ^ Which clothes {0 ineshiniono) 
will }'ou wear? Bring idasii) the swallowtail ; for I am going 
{deru) to an evening party to-night. I have come to relura 
the umbrella {o kasa) that I borrowed recently. The bath is 
now hot (boiling) ; will you take it at once ? PL-ase lend me 
3'our lead pencil a moment. Did the fire break out after {ato 
desJita ka) you went to bed? No, 't was when all in the 
house {uchiju no mono ga) were still up. ^ I have brouLjht 
some old coins to show you (thinking 1 should like to show 
you). Recently Her Majesty the Empress ^ went to the Female 
Normal School and viewed the examinations (of the pupils). 
Won't you please return for a while the book that 1 loaned 
you {go yodate mos/i te oiia). I should like to in([uire {ukagan) 
what you think (how is your thought) in regard to this matter. 
Receiving your kind favors {0 hikitate) we are prospering more 
and more {oioi). You are catching {inesu) a cold. 

a An ntn-ktvai is a party at whicli each ineinoer coir.i:oses a pc^cm on some 
assi'^ried tlieme. Because it is the Emperor's parly it is called iifakwni ox on 

b Said in a party when it is inconvenient for a pirsun to leave his scat to 
inr.kc liis bows before a friend. 

c When honorific verbs are used, personal jiroLouns arc generally 

d Translate: kodai fo ivn oiiinicnreinasen desIiiliT. l'''ir kijdri 9.01 ]). 34c. The 
expression — fo oiiioii iiiriy be used not only with verbs and adjectives, but also 
wiih nouns: Ano kala vo Sliinajin to oinoiiiiaslula. I liiou^it lie was a 

e Either: ATadn okite o' ti toki, ox : dare 1110 yasimiaiiai uchi. 

f in very f)rmal speech ni zva takes the place ()f -icn. 



Adverbs may be divided into the following groups : 

1. Adverbial forms of adjectives endinfj in i. 

2. Adverbs formed by means of the particle nt. >c^^^^ 

3. Adverbs formed by means of the particle to. 

4. Duplicatives. 'h,^- _,j|^^^ 

5. Substantives used as adverbs of time, place, degree, etc. 

6. Suboidinatives of certain verbs. 

7. Ordinary adverbs. 

In general it is to be observed that the Japanese often era- 
ploys adverbs where the English does not (Ch. XVIII.), and 
vice versa. 

On the formation of adverbs from adjectives proper see 
Chapters XI. and XXX. Sometimes the contracted form, as, 
for instance, yd iot yokii^ is used with other verbs besides gozai- 
inasu, while the uncontracted form in ^11 is sometimes used 
witli gozaiinasu : 

Yd oide nasaiuiashiia. Welcome ! ^ 

Takaku wa gozaiviasen. It is not at all dear. 
The adverb ^^/'« is used in various senses : 

Yokii irassJiaimashita. I am glad you came. 

Yoku kiuiasu. He comes often. 

Yoku zva shirhnasen ga. I don't know exactly, but... 

Yoku nite iiiiasu. It is very much like it. 

Yoku anata wa Nihongo tvo wasureviasen. 

It is remarkable that you don't forget your Japanese. 
The adverb yoku enters into a few compounds : 

hodo-yoku agreeably, satisfactorily, moderately. 

ori-yoku opportunely (opp. ori-asliikii). 

shubi-yoku successfully, from shu-bi head and tail. 

tsugo-yokii conveniently. 

a Fttku-shi, from fukn^^soeru add. 

b The particle koso is often inserted here for emphasis: Yd koso oide 
kudasaimash^ ta. 


xxxi] From Ordinary Adjectives 315 

Adverbial expressions arc frequently formed by combining 
naku with substantives. The addition of 1110 " even " makes 
them emphatic : 

ma-vio-7iaku immediately, from ma interval. 
Iiodo ijiid) naku •' in no time," from /lodo quantity. 
wake-mo-naku unreasonably, exceedingly, from wake reason. 
" inacliigai {mo) naku, so-i iino) naku without fail, surely. 
itasliikata {ino) naku. ze-hi {ino) naku (comp. p. i6oa) per- 
force, of necessity. 
oinoigake {ino) naku unexpectedly, from ontou and kakem. 
osliige-vto-naku ungrudgingly, from oshii regrettable and 

ke in keshiki appearance. 
oyanii {ino) naku incessantly (of rain), from o little and 

yavii pause. 
ttema {mo) naku uninterruptedly, from tae-ina cessation. 
{go) en-ryo {mo) naku without reserve. 
tohd-ir.O'iiaku extraordinarily, outrageously, from to way 

IiJ direction. 
zo-sa {ino) naku without trouble, easily. 
Corresponding adjectives in nai are also in use. ^ Note also 
nan-io-naku, for nan to iu koto (or ivake) mo naku, without any 
special reason, not knowing why or how. 

In the cases of some adverbs in ku the corresponding adjec- 
tives are wanting or occur only in the literary language : 

sliiharaku ( = cla3sical shibashi) for some time, for a while. 
sukoshiku = sitkoshi ■di little, somewhat. 
kotogotcku altogether, entirely, thoroughly. 
gctoku=yd ni as, like {an no gotoku as was expected). 
The particle ni is often added, pleonastically, to gotoku. 
Observe the idiom in osorosJiii takai sJilna, tohd;;:onai takai 
mono, wiicre we should expect the adverbial forms osoroshiku, 

The adverbs i'jku far and chikaku near arc often used like 

a The expression wake vio nai has, however, Ihe sense of " not difllciilt": 
Sore 7rn betsiidan 7vake 1110 nni koto desii. Tliat is not speciilly difricult. The 
idiom — id soi [ga or 7ua) nai or — ni chigai itii is often used at the conclusion 
of a sentence to add eniijliasis: Kurtt ni soi iiai. He will ccrlainly c^ime. 
Compare: Ano kilo no in kolo ni wa machinal ga tiai. Tlierc is no mistake in 
what lie says. 


1 6 The Adverb [lxxi 

substantives: toku ga, tokuye, toku made, etc Coinpare oku 
no many (p. 50). oku zva for the most part. 

TIic frequent idiom Mattaku desJio is apparently elliptical 
for: Mattakii sj desho. It is probably quite true. 

Tlie particles to iiio added to an adverbial form give it a 
co:icessive sense (p. 102, 5). 

Note further the following idioms : 
bakarashikii ouiou consider foolish. 
— ivo waruku in speak ill of. 

iniitsiikashikii ieba to use difficult (precise) language. 
Yoroshikti itte kudasai. Please speak a good word for me. 

For yorosliikii negaimasu and kokoroyasiiku negaimasii see 
p. 104, b and c; for yoroshikti niosu, p. 207a. 

The adverbial form of an adjective is regularly used with 
ttarii (p. 24) and with sum (p. 212, 2): kiuokii riani become 
h\a.c\<., kicrokji sum. n\3.\<.Q black; nakunaru disappear, nakiisu 
{ru) lose, etc. The inflections of the adjective are derived from 
the adverbial form and a>u. From the imperative are we have 
osokare kayakare sooner or later (lit. be it late, be it early) 
= sd-ban {sd = hayai, dan = osoi). 


(Include the new adverbs.) 

beni rouge. an thought, expectation, plan. 

belli wo sasu (or tsukerii) byobu folding screen. ^ 

apply rouge (p. 240d). ^//-/-/postponement. 

ku7no cloud. hyo-dai title (of a book). 

kucki-biru lips. jo-yaku contract, treaty. 

kazari decoration. ki-geii temoer, state of 
matsu- kazari Yew Year's de- liealth. "^ 

coration = kado-matsu (p. rei-ten zero (naught point). 

133). sei-cJio growth. 

a K byd bu may liave two, four, si.K, or eiglit leaves. A single-leaf screen 
standing on a base is called tsuitate. 

b See p. 228a. Go kigen yd is a salutation used both in meeting and in 
parting, being elliptical for Go kigen yd irasshaiviasti ne, or Go /cii^en yd irnsshai. 
Instead of the former one may say to a familiar friend : Go kigen desu ne, ft r 
Go kigc^n yd aide desu ne. 


From Ordinary Adjectives 317 

yd-ki cheerfulness (sunlight chijimu, chijiviarti shrink 
spirit). (tr. chljivieni). 

iai-ko drum. sonieru dye. 

taiko-mochi buffoon, clown. seinaru be narrowed, strait- 

shin (c) new (in composition). ened. 

id (c) this, the said, the — in — 7ii seuiaru approach, op- 
question (in composition). ^ press. 

medetai fortunate. ^ shi-tsukeru train. 

sabishii, samtisJiii lonely, kuclii ga kakarnhQ\\\AQix\2^\\6. 
dreary. (of singing girls, etc.). 

wwcrz clever, well done. sayd-nara good-bye (lit. if it 

o seji no ii courteous, obsequi- be so). 



Taiso yokii matsukazari ga dekivtas/iia, Kono honyaku 7va 
UDiaku dekimasJi ta. Kono sara wa taiso us' kii dekite inias' . 
Yorosli ku o agari nasal. ^ Sonna /co'o wa bakarasli kn omoi- 
iiias' . Ano Into zva itsn mo osoku nevias kara, yokn asane zvo 
shivujs' . Matsicbara san wa yoku watakushi no vchi ye 
kiinas\ Osoroshii takai vion'da. Ano taikoniochi wa seji 
ga ii kara, yokn kuchi ga kakarinias' A Hisasli ku sake wo 
noviiniaseii kara, nonde mini to, ^ kidoku yoimasn ta. Hido- 
ku ats'ku nam to, hi ni (a day) ni do zutsu mizu zuo abimas\ 
Nikon de "iva gwanjitsu no asa Jiayaku zvakai Jiito ga ido ye 
mizu zva kumi ni ikinias ; sono mizu zvo zvakaniizu to 
vidshivias\ Dozo kaviai naku. ^ Tonen zva Hakodate no 

a Td-niii he or slic ; lolw de iva we ; to-ji, to-setsu at tlii.s time [soiio lo-ji ;it 
the time of wliich \vc have Ijcen speaking); iobuii for tlie present; to-nen lliis 
year; Id-hani this spring ; lo-jilsu tlie day in question, etc. Ano iinia iva timn no 
/io lies II. Tliat liorse was born this year (comp. p. 74, middle). The word lion 
is similarly used. 

b O viedelo gozaiiiiasii. I congratulate you. Shinuen niedcto, or .Skeinas/ii/e 
o mcdtlo. Happy New Year ! 

c Eat as nuich as you like I The expression is not one of tlie most refined. 

<1 7'ai /coinoc hi o.rc male (rarely old women) professional entertainers lielong- 
ing to the same class as the young women called gei-sha. 'I'hcy are not so 
numerous as the latter. 

e Lit. if 1 drink and oljservc (ihe result); translate, " wlicn 1 tried to 

f An elliptical expression: Never mind (about me). Don't 
(ct n)c dislurb you. I'rom I^aiiinit heed, mind. 

3i8 The Adverb [lxxi 

fune ga osoku is' kiiiiasJi ta no de y'>yakn tadaivia shin-sake 
{shinjake) ga miatarliuasJi ta. ^ Oya, daiiiia, hisasJi kti o mie 
nasaitnasen des/iia ne ; itsii mo go kigen de kekkj des\ Ho- 
doyoku itte okimasho. ^ Hodoyokii sJi te ageniasJu. F'kaku 
hotte inita keredomo, koko wa inizu ga demasen. Ni do bikku- 
ri to zva nan no koto des ka. Hajiine taiso yoku oiiiotte ita 
koto ga, lit dome ni mini to. taisj Jiajime to cJiigatte oru no de 
odoroku koto des' . '^ A no Into wa dare no koto de mo zvaruku 
iinias^kara, xvataknshi zva zvaruku iware'e mo kamaimasen. 
Fujisan ni noboitara, sazo toku made mieniashd. lie, taitei 
kumo ga kakatte iru kara, ainari yoku 7inemaseii. Sayjnara., 
go kigen yd. Hoti no hyjdai zva taigai mutsukasli ku kaite ari- 
inas\ Kore zva yasasJi ku kaite arimas' kara, anaia ni ma 
zvakarimasho. Kiri ne ki zva hayaku seicJiJ shinias' . Koiio 
daikon zva narubeku us' ku kiite kudasai. Nikon de zva niku 
zvo komakaku kitte nimas\ SJi ken mo shubiyoku suminiasJi te 
o medeto gozaimas\ Bimsho zvo ts'kuru ni zva narudake yasa- 
sK ku kakanakereba narimasen. Hara zva nantonaku yoki ni 
narinias\ Ota san zva daigakko no sotsngyosJi ken zvo ukete 
kara hodo {mo) naku kyjju ni jiariviasJita. Kin7> zva as a 
kara ban made yuki ga taema naku furimash' ta no de san- 
jaku bakari tsumorimasJita. Sore zva, mutsukasli ku ieba, ko 
ill ju ni narinias\ Mydasa ku ji made ni sJi naku kcshiraete 
agemas\ TocJiTi de ovioigake mo naku sensei ni aimash'ta. 
Sakuban amari samukaita kara, yuki de mo furu ka sJiiran to 
omottara, kesa ni natte an no gotoku masshiro ni natte imas/ita. 
Saigyd zva Yoritomo kara sekkaku nioratta gin no neko zvo 
oshigemonaku kodomo ni kurete shiinaimasJi ta.'^ Bimbd 7ii 
semararete zehi 7iaku hiio no mono zvo nusumimas/ita. 

In {zva) the fall I feJl melancholy ; I don't know why (with- 
out any special reason kokoroniochi becomes dreary). Please 

a Hakodate is the chief port of Hokkaido, the island of Ezo ; sake or shake 
salmon; iniatarimashita liave appeared on the market (lit. have been foundX 

b I will speak to him so as to satisfy him. The next sentence means: 1 
will fix it to suit you. 

c The phrase vi do hikkuri may also be used in the opposite sense — of a 
thing which seemed very bad at first sight, but afterwards proved to be just 
the opposite. 

d A famous Buddhist priest and poet. His conduct in the matter of the 
silver cat illustrates the Buddhist ideal of indifference to the tilings of the 

Lxxi] From Ordinary Adjectives 319 

don't think ill [of me]. After he took {ukeni to) his final 
(graduating) examination he immediately became an official. 
Last month it rained continually. To-day we walked about 
seven hours without resting. The sun is up [deJiiasJitii) ; we 
must start immediately. I will dye this red. I cannot wait 
long. If you do not associate a long time (long) with Japanese, 
you cannot learn to speak {Jianasu yo ni narareuiaseri) Japanese 
proficiently. Since I am going to the country, I shall (do) 
not sec {0 me ni kakarii) you for some time. The revision of 
the treaties has been postponed {enki ni nam) for a while. 
This dog being well trained, is good-tempered {otonasliii) and 
performs various tricks {gel). Yesterday {wa i) it was (became) 
two (4) degrees (5) below {ika 3) zero (2) ; to-day {ivd) it has 
become a little warmer. He bought this screen cheap and 
sold it at a high price (highly). The Hakkenden composed 
its kurii) by Bakin is written very interestingly. ^ Condense 
{chijiintrii) this sentence and make (write) it a little shorter, 
as it is too long. I don't know exactly, but it is probably quite 
true. As this mountain is low, one cannot see {niieniasen) far. 
Please explain it minutely once more ; I do not yet clearly {hak- 
kiri) undeistand. Japanese ladies often apply rouge to their 
lips. As that is a newly made {dekita) word, ordinary {iitari- 
inae no) people will hardly understand it. That is outrageously 
dear. He used up (entirely) all the money he had {^cirn dake 
no kane). Isn't it exceedingly cold to-day? A friend coming 
opportunely, I was helped [out of my difficulties]. 


As we have observed (Chapters XXXIII., XXXIV.), sub- 
stantives which with na or 710 form adjectives may with the 
particle ni serve as adverbs ; e. g., 

OHIO ni mainly, chiefly. 
oki ni greatly. 
iHuyavii ni recklessly. 

a Bakin, the novelist, died in 1848. The HaJckettden, from haclii c\v\\X, 
ken=inu dog, den biography, narrates the adventures of ciglit heroes, cacli of 
whose names contained the word inti. 

320 The Adverb [lxxii 

sahvai {tit) happih^, fortunately. 

tashika ni certainly. ^ 

yatara ni carelessly. 

katte ni, ete-katte ni,jibun-katte «/ selfishly, inconsiderately, 

as one pleases (p. 19 id). 
waga-viama ni waywardly, without restraint. 
zatsu ///confusedly, not neatly, coarsely. 
zokii ni commonly, vulgarly, colloquially. 
go-gi ni enormously, extraordinarily. 
hi-do ni unjustly, wickedly, cruelly. 
inu-ri ni unreasonably, in spite of every thing. 
tei-nei ///carefully, politely. 
yo-i ni easily. 

kari ni temporarily, provisionally. 

(<?) lagcii ni mutually, reciprocally. '^ 

tsugi hi next. 

tstme ni always. 

sasuga {ni) under the given circumstances, as one would 
naturally expect. 

inassaki (ni) at the very fiist. 

ieisti ni, hetsu-dan {ni), kaku-betsii {ni) exceptionally, par- 
ticularly, specially.*^ 

sen ni formerly. 

chokn-setsu ni directly, immediately (opp. kan-setsu 7ii). 

hi-jj ni unusually, extraordinarily. 

lion-tJ ni, Jionio ni, lion ni really. 

ippan ni generally, at large. 

sei-sai ni, shi-sai ni {koniaka ni) minutely, in detail. 

ten-nen ni naturally, spontaneously. 

Konna ni, sonna ni, anna ni (p 39), donna ni, are 
In many cases there is no corresponding adjective : 

koto ni especially. 

a The «2 may be omitled when lasliika is used with a verb in the probable 
form and has the weaker sense of ' most likely": Tashika ikii desho. He 
will probably go. lashika ni iki/nasti. He will certainly go. 

b O togai ga [zva, no, etc.) is often used familiarly for the pronoun ■' we." 

C " Specially " in (he stricter sense is iokii-betsu ni. 

Lxxii] Forms with Ni 321 

metta ni seldom (with negatives). ^ 
nobetsu 7ii continuously. 
sugu (ill) immediately, at once. 
iama ni occasionally, once in a while. 
teiide ni severally, each (duplicative from te hand), 
tsui {ni) at last, finally, unconsciously. ^ 
tsuide ni incidentally. 

hi-inashi ni day by day, every day {jiiasu increase). 
hito-kiichi ni at a mouthful; in a word. ^ 
hitori-de {ni) of itself, spontaneously.*^ 
make ni besides, into the bargain. 
jiki {ni) immediately, at once. ^ 
om-bin ni quietly, peaceably, in a private way. 
shi-dai ni gradually. 

Sometimes the particle ni is omitted, as the parentheses show. 
In a few cases vio may be added for the sake of emphasis ; e. g., 
saiwai ni mo. 

It remains to observe a few suffixes and words by means of 
which adverbial expr.-ssions may be formed. 

One is goto ni, which added to a substantive means " every" ; 
iegoto 7ii in every house, toshigoto ni every year. But such ex- 
pressions as doko no ie ni de mo, ieie ni, kengonie ni, from /cen 
(p. 86, 5) and ko'neru comprise, inaitoshi or niainen (p. 50, lop)^ 
etc., are more common in ordinary colloquial 

The suffix gjxke may be added to stems of vcrbi : ikigake ni 
on the way, kaerigake ni or viodorii^ake ni, kigake ni, mairi- 
gake ni, torigake ni. Compare : Amerika kara kitate ni just 
after my arrival from America. 

In like manner tori, yd and fu are used with limiting words : 

a There is also an adjective inetla na, but this means " heedless" : Metia na 
koto -lua ieiiai. It will not do to speak (lit. one cannol speak) htcdlcssly (any- 
thing heedless). 

b The particle 7ii is never added lo A^/when it means "unawares." 

C Ili/oA-Hchi ^% a noun means a hit (of food^, a little (of a speech). 

d From hitoiiz.nA the p(>stpositii)n de. 

e This/?'/'/ is a variant readin'^ of tlie characlcr choku in chokusetsit ni. It is 
used commoidy of immcdiatcncss in time. A corrupted form, jika ni, is used 
in the sense "without anytliing between," "without intervention," i)ein<j 
synonymous with c/ioi-uselstt ni. 


The ' Adverb 


Kono yd 7ii koshiraete o hire 

Make it like this {kono iori ni exactly like this). 

Uina no yd ni ktiii eat like a horse. 

NiJion-fu 7ii kurashite iinasu. 

He is living ia Japaiiese style. 

Pleonastically one may even say : a)ina yd na fit ni.. 


(Include the 

ete dexterity. 
katachi form, shape. 
idii-ba market place. 
kaji-bd shafts, thills. 
dai-tan boldness. 
en-kaku development (his- 

gen-in cause. 

kon-nan distress, difncullj/. 
ko}i-zaisti confusion. 
ri-en divorce. 
sai-Ju money bag, purse. 
sei do institutions, system. 
kd-shi-kivan le<Tation. 
it-ten no a single (one point). 
kudaranu, kudaran<.n unin- 
telligible, absurd. 

new adverbs.) 

kurasii pass (time), live, 
make a living. 

saeru be bright (of the moon 
in the fall and winter). 

uyavtau revere 

niatoniarti be brought togeth- 
er, settled (tr. viatovierii). 

viochi wo tsiikn make luocJii 
(by pounding glutinous 
rice in a mortai). 

kiri-mikeru cut a wav through. 

tori-tateru collect (bills, taxes, 

snta communication, news. 

go tm-sata wo itasu fail to 
keep up comnumication 
with a friend, neglect to call 
or write a letter (polite i). 


Shiziika ni ! Komia ni yakaniasJi kucha koinaru. Nihon 
de mo kanai wo etekatts ni rien sum koto wa dekiviasen. So 
ill yd ni kiniattevias (p. 163 top) ka. Ano hito zua sake wo 
yatara ni ?ionde ivias\ Nikon no seifu de zva yatoi-ireta Sei- 
ydjin wo teinei ni toriats kaimas\ SJiogivatsu ni zua i ego to 
ni inochi wo ts" kimas\ Task' k a ni so des\ Kyd zva nan de 
konna ni nigiyaka dsskd ka. Makoto 7ii yokii tenki ga tsuzuki- 
masJite ii o shdgzvatsu de gozaimas'. Mo ju ni ji no taihd ga 

Lxxii] Forms \yith Ni 323 

nariinasJCia ka. lie, utada des' , shikashi jikl ni norimaskd. 
Alio kata wa kodovio ga inina nakiinatte sJiiinatte jitsu ni kino- 
doku na koto de gozaimas . Kichigai doyj ni (p. 4icl) toria- 
is kazvaremasJita. Koiio fiizokii no geniti wo sJiisai ni torishi- 
rabe^iiasJij. Alio hi to tva ha ga wariii kara, niku wa koviaka 
111 kitte dasanakereba nariiiiasen. Kuriimaya san ! kore kara 
saki wa michi ga wanikii nam kara, s koshi sliizuka ni yatte 
kiire. Koiio isJii wa iennen ni hifo no katacJii ni naite iru 
no de, viezurashii to itte hito ga enipo kara mi ni kivias' . Ma- 
koto ni go busata wo iiashiviasJi ta. ^ lie, o tagai saina de 
gozaivias . Soko wa sasuga ni ISis'niark' des kara, konnan 
na baai mo uiiiaku kirinukemasJita. '^ Sasuga ni samurai no 
ko dake aite daitan des.' Jllakoto ni yoku ts'ki ga saete imas^ ; 
sora ni iiten no kumo mo ariviasen. Marii de ichiba no yo ni 
konzatsu shimash'ta. Sensei I mukashi tenshi to shogiin to no 
aida wa dJ in kwankei ni natte orimasJita ka. Sore zua Ni- 
kon no rek'shi no nchi de taisj iriknnda kotogara des kara, 
nakanaka Iiitokiiclii ni wa iemaseii. Hid'j ni risokii tvo tori- 
tatete kaneniochi ni narimash'ta. Sonna ni nen wo irete ya- 
ranak'ie mo ii ; zatsu ni koshiraete kiirete mo ii. Shinsetsu jii 
sewa zuo sJi ie kureniash' ta. Ano gzvaikokii no kata wa niaric 
de NiJionfii ni kurasli te {no kurashi zvo sh'te) ivias\ Siigu 
ni knruma no sJitaku ga dekite iru yj ni ki zvo ts'' kete oite kic- 
te. <Vii ni go yakkai ni narimasJite arigatj gozaimas" . Sho- 
sei ga nokorazu keiko ni kuru koto zua metta ni arimasen. 
Kurumaya san ! kajibj zvo sonna ni iakakii agecha abunai. 
Cliudo neko no me no yj ni kawariyasui hito des\ Saiju zvo 
otosh'te oniake ni kasa made nakusli te shimaimasli ta. Jibiin 
no ete na koto zva yoi ni dekirn. Tende ni jibunkatte na koto 
bakari iimas kara, sodan ga matomarimasen. Zoku ni yuki 
no oi toshi zva saku ga ii to iiiiias\ 

a " Pardon me for neglecting lo call. 'I'his often amuimts to nothing more 
Ihan the expression of a wish to be friendly. Tlic ans.vsr, O tagai sctiiia desti, 
mean.s : "I have been equally remiss." One may also say: Walakushi koso. 
am the one [who has been remiss]. 

b In this sentence soko wa serves as a sort of connective : '• in that picdica- 
nient." The sasuga ni — desu kara m;\y lie freely rendered : As was to be 
ex[)ccted just because it was — . Compare sasuga no Bis^nar'' k'' mo even such a 
one as Uismarck. In the following sentence the C(mim jn idiom sasuga ni —dake 
atle may Ijc rendered : As is to be expected in the c sc nf — . 

324 Ihe Adverb [lxxii 

As I bathe in {abite imas) cold water every day, I seldom 
catch cold (there is seldom a catching cold). On my way back 
I will call at {ye) your house. On my way to school 1 dropped 
my purse, but fortunately there was n't much in it {Jiaitte ir>i). 
I am greatly troubled {komarii) at having been addressed (since 
I was spoken to) in that manner {so). It is impolite to {no wa) 
say such a thing directly.^ The law is provisionally enacted 
{dekite oru no des"). I am very sorry (it is truly regrettable) 
that he has lost (losing finished) the money that he has saved 
(saving put) with special pains. He investigated in detail the 
development of the feudal system.^ Do as you please. He 
recklessly talks {shabeni) nonsense (absurd things). He used 
a great deal of (extras >rdinarily) money when he was in Berlin. 
In {zva) Nagasaki even in {de mo) winter it does not become 
specially cold ; snow seldom falls (there is seldom falling of 
snow). In old times vvhat relations were there between Japan 
and Corea {Chosen) ? That being a complicated matter, I cannot 
tell you in a word. It will hardly be possible (not be easily pos- 
sible) to use Rjinaji generally. Formerly in Japan the teacher 
was revered as {dj-yo, p. 4id) a father. The disease becomes 
worse day by day. There are unusually large trees in Japan. It 
is enormously dear. I will give it up. We will call {yotie maim) 
at the Legation on the way to the station. That expression 
is not used (they do not say so) generally, but it may be 
that (one cannot know whether) people say that, depending 
{yotte) on the locality. Shall we send it directly to Tokyo, 
or shall we request you [to take it along]. The pai'liament 
building is [only] temporarily built. If I study continuously 
two or three hours {/lodo), my eyes begin to hurt (become 
painful). It will heal of itself, even if I don't give you 
[any] medicine. You must n't put the teakettle directly on 
the tatavii. I met him just after my arrival from England. 
Vou must make it exactly like this. I seldom read news- 
papers or {yd) magazines. 

a 'I'hc feudal system, hdken seido [hu fief, keii=^'ateru), is distinguislied from 
gnn-keii seido {gmi county, A-en prefecture), the modern form of government 
centering in the Emperor. The whole country is div'ded into /•.-;/ or fii ; the 
ken, into s^iiii {kori) or i-^z' (cities) ; \.\\c gnu, into son {jnnra) or did {jnnchi). 

Lxxiii] Forms with To 325 


The particle to is used with a large class of adveibs. Many 
of this class end in ri : 

bikkiiri (of a shock or fright). 

bonyari dimly, perplexedly. 

biirari, burabura (of dangling or idling). 

chirari with one glance, cursorily. 

dossari abundantly, plentifully. 

garari, garagara (of a clattering noise). 

hakkiri distinctly. 

hirari like a flash. 

hoiinori (of redness in the sky or a person's face), 

liorori, horoJioro (of teardrops), 

karari brightly, completely. 

kitcliiri, kitchinto tightly, precisely. 

kossori, kosokoso on the sly, stealthily. 

viei-kirt (ol a fact that suddenly becomes noticeable). 

nikkori (of smiling or laughing). [unwieldily. 

vossori, nosonoso at a snail's pace, in a strutting manner, 

patckiri (of large, bright eyes). [manner). 

saktiri (of a thing that splits open readily or of a frank 

sapparL clearly, wholly, at all (p. 187b). 

sarari entirely. 

shikkari firmly, faithfully, substantially. 

sukkari entirely. 

svrari (of a slender form or of a smooth motion). 

iappnri abundantly, fully. ^ 

tokkuri {tokii to) attentively, thoroughly. 

ukkari {tika to), ukaiika thoughtlessly, inattentively. 

yukkuri leisurely, slowly (p. 33e). 

yuriiri, yuruyuru slowly, leisurely. 

Many of the above arc of onomatopoetic origin. The free- 
dom with which such words are formed and used is a charac- 
teristic of the Japanese language. IJke interjections, they are 
hard to define. 

a Tapptiri {^taputaptt) futolte iru, or, Deppui i futtote int. lie is very fat. 

326 The Adverb [lxxiii 

As indicated, there are ia many cases corresponding dup'.i- 
catives (see the following chapter). These, as a rule, are more 
strictly onomatopoetic. Thus, surasnra is used of a smooth 
movement, not of a slim figure. The duplicative also implies 
the idea of repetition. Thus, nikkori is used of a single smile, 
while niko7iiko indicates smiling continually. The dup'icative 
often has an entirely different sense ; c. g., bikubiku (of hesitat- 
ing fear), cJiirachira (of a fluttering motion), Jiirahira (of a 
waving motion), karaknra (of a rattling noise, as of wine 
^7\.ssQ?,,= garagara, or of laughter), sarasara (of a rustling 
sound, as of a river). ^ The adverb as a whole may be doubled : 
huraribnrari to aruku saunter. 

Properly to should be added to all, but it is generally omitted. 
The adverbs in r/ may also be used with sum (p. 215, 8), and, 
accordingly, shite may be added to or substituted for to. In 
shikiri ni " persistently " to may take the place of ni. Yahari 
or yappari " still," " too," does not belong to this class. '^ 

The particle to is also used with shorter words of the same 
general character. The etymology of some is doubtful. The 
particle to is never separable and often coalesces with the word 
to which it is attached. ^ 

botto (of beclouded vision or unconsciousness). 

chiinto precisely, properly, just, right. 

chitto a little. 

choito, chotto briefly, just a moment {choichoi occasionally). 

doti to (of a loud noise). 

dotto (of sudden applause, laughter, etc ). 

gyotto (of a state of consternation). 

hatto (of surprise). 

hyoi to, hyoito accidentally, suddenly. 

a We may also say : Somia koto wa sarasara zonjunasen. I don't know 
anything at all about it. 

b Notice the odd, rather slangy expression: Ikialari ballari tabe/e aruita. 
I journeye<l eating wherever I happened to he {i/cuo^, ,r?/rt;7^ strike). Others 
Sti.y iHnari baUari. 

c The adverb yV^-Zc {=z^hakarazii) unexpectedly, from fu not and lo^^hakaru 
calculate, belongs to a different category. Tliere is also an onomatopoetic y^/i? 
ox futto used of a breath : y^/Zt; rainpu wo. kesu to extinguish a lamp with 
a puff. 

Lxxiii] Forms with To 327 

jiito firmly, steadily, with concentration. 
kitto surely. 

motto more. ■ . 

pon to (of a little explosion). 
patio (of a quickly spreading thing). 
patatto with a thud. 
pishanto, pisshari to with a slam, tight. 
pill to (uf cracking glass or crockery). 
shika to firmly, certainly, exactly. 
i"<?//^ softly, gently. 

tonto totally, at all (with negative words). 
zutio all the way, direct, very much. 

With some words belonging to the class described in the 
previous chapter to also is used. 

sugu {to or ni) immediately, at once. 

waza to {ni) purposely, intentionally {wazaivaza specially, 

not incidentally). 
yoyatto, yatto (from yjyaku) with difficulty, finally. 
zatto = zatsii ni co^.rstt\y, briefly. 
shi zen {to or ;//) naturally, spontaneously. 
totsii-zen {to or ni) suddenly, abruptly. 

Note finally : natii-ka to = iroiro in many ways ; nan to how ! 
Itsu-7iari to may be regarded as a briefer form of itsii nari 
to mo — itsii de mo. ^ 


(Include the new adverbs). 

hagi bush-clover. nise-mono, nise imitation, coun- 

inizo drain, ditch, groove. terfeit. 

hoya (fron-i hi-ya) lamp- fu/cn-bi/ci (lit. luck drawing) 

chimney. distribution of prizes by 

nisetu imitate (from nirii drawing lots. '^ 

resemble). basho banana tree. 

a The classical nari is used in the colloquial to indicate alternatives : Mi^i 
lari, hidari iiari^ dochi' a de mo iknremasit. You can take eitlier way, right 
or left. 

b Tills is a very common game. The slips of twisted paper drawn by lot 
have wriUen on thi-in names or expressions wliich are puns on the names pf 
the prizes given. 

328 The Adverb [lxxiii 

kak'ko shape, form. » vii-kakeru get one's eyes on, 
ko-jo kind feelings. catch sight of. 

enzetsu-kzvai meeting for the — ni buttsukaru collide with. 

purpose of hearing addres- kokoro zuo irekaerti repent, 

ses, lecture-meeting. turn over a new leaf. 

fi-ten-sha (self-move-vehicle) hassuru start, be produced. 

bicycle. jukii sura become ripe, ma- 
hiroi^arii be spread abroad, ture. 

extend (tr. hirogerii). ayanikii, ainiku unfortu- 
nozoku bend the head down nately. 

to look, peep. kanarazu assuredly, without 
toboru burn (of a light). fail. 

yokerii get out of the way. jiivi-ban ni in turn. 


Sere iva choito slita * hanashi de zua arimasen. Sazo o is'- 
kare desk,' go yururi io o yasuini nasaimaslii. Ano ie no 
uchi ni rva akari ga bonyarl (to) tobotte inias\ Sakiinen zva 
nanika to go kjjo ni azukarimasli te (p. 184b) arigatj ; konnen 
1710 nikawatimasezH. Mj s koshl yururi to hatios/ite kudasai. 
Shizen to {ni) liassnru hdso wa tennentd to mo shim as" . Domo, 
uchi no kodonio iva itazura de xvaza to oniocha wo kozvashimas' . 
Fukubiki zvo itashimasho ; watakushi zva kuji zvo shikkari to 
iiiot:e iuias kara, anatagaia zua juiuban ni o hiki nasai. Mo 
yo ga k<i>ari to akeniasJi ta. Karari to tenki ni fiariviash'ta. 
Auo hito no zvarui koto zva sar<.jri to zvasurete shiuiae. 
Sendai Hagi de Seninats'zvo^ koros'710 zvo mite horori to 
naiinda ga koboretnash' ta. Sake zvo ippai nondara kao ga 
honnori to akiku narimash'ta, Mizo zvo hyoi to tobikos'i'ta. 
hako ga don to ochita kara sh'te, me ga saineta no des\ 
Tepp'> ga don to Jiaru to, yaJie no tie no hato ga inina tatte 

a Kok-koz^adnkamo yoshi ju«t about tlie right thing. Compare: Kakko ni 
shite ai^emnsH. I will sell it at a re.isonable price. 

b Translate : simple, easy to understand. 

c TIie name of a 1 oy in tlie celebrated drama called Sendai Hagi. The 
plains around Sendai were once famous for bush clover; in this case Sendai 
Hn::^ means a famous tale of Sendai. The mother of Semmatsu was in a 
position to subsiiiute her own child for the heir of her lord at a time when a 
plot was laid to assassinate the latter. 


shiinaimnsJita. Ototo tva snrari to kokoro zvo irekaeinasJita. 
Afio onna zva surari to sJita ii ka'cko des.^ Oiiiia hoio yo 
ni arigataki mono wa naski ; Shaka ya Koshi wo hyoi Jiyoi 
to uinu. °- Koiio ante de bashd no lia ga sutto nobiviasJi ta. 
Ima honyakn nastta tokoro wo zutto hajivie kara i/io ichi do 
yonde kikase tiasai. Kore wa zutto i/ioio ho ivii des . O 
jama ni narimas' kara, o itoma {ni) ilaihijnas/ij. Ma ! go 
yiiruri to.^ Kondo me ni kakattara, chanto kimeru yD ni 
itashimasho. Kockira ye zutto o tZri nasai. lisunari to o 
hanashi ni oide nasaimashi. Yatto Jiitogoini no naka wo 
torinukemash' ta. Kodoiuo ga hei ni notte asJii wo hurari to 
sagete imas . Gefo wa itau no ma ni ka'^ koswfi to dete 
ikimasli ta. Ukkari {to) yo'^ei ni haratte yarimasli ta kara, 
torikaesJi te kimasho. Ukkari to nisemono zvo kaimas/ita. 
Mekkiri {to) ats' kit narimasli ta. Nan to, ma, baka na koto 
j'a nai ka. Fui ni kaminari ga natte hatto omoiniasJi ta. ^ 
Ano onna iva me ga patchiri to slite imas . Totsuzen to 
jitensha ni dea'te yokeru koto mo de'cizu abiinai tokoro deslita. 
S/t ka to wa zonjimasen ga, okata so des/ij. HJck'j de suikwa 
wo sakuri to wa.'te mita tokoro ga, mada juku s/i te imasen 
deslita. Bjtto slite uiuko ga mieinasen. Kuri wo hi ni 
irete oitara. pon to lianemasli ta. Sono toki Chavibaren 
(Chamberlain) no nwasa ga patto Jiirogarimasli ta. Hako 
ni shinaviono wo kitckiri oshikonda. Kakunono wo sJi te oru 
ushiro kara^ iot'o nozoite viimas/i ta ga, SuzuH kun iva ikkd 
ki ga ts kimasen deslita (p. 221, 3). Ki no eda ni b'ltts' katte 
gyotto shimasli ta. Sensei wa nikkori waratte irass/iaru. 

He is standing lost in thoufjjht (thinking something stands 
pei'i:»lexedly). In (;// wa) Japan azaleas and camellias grow 
wild (naturally). Please hold (p. 198c) this firmly a little 
while {cJiotto no aida). ] low kind a person he must be! As 

a A liumorous poem. Translate Jiyoi hyoi lo one ^{yct aiinlhcr very easily. 
Sliakn is ilie Japanese form of Sakya^ the family name of the IJiidiilia ; Koshi 

1) '1 lie usual phrase when one urges a caller to slay lonj^er : Don't be in 
a hurry. 

c Translate : no one knows wlien. 

<1 Ilntto Pmoi tnns hit n=.hi/; kuri i/nshimn<:liita. 

e Observe Ho-a tlie adjectival phrase modifies //.r/f?'/(j directly. We should 
exj)ect Suzuki kun no before ushiro. 

330 The Adverb [lxxiii 

I have been (am) a little indisposed lately, I cannot say that 
{to wii) I will surely come. On that day {tojiisu) if I feel 
well (cond.) I will visit [you] without fail {kanarazu). Is 
there a lecture-meeting in the Kinkikvvan to-day ? I really 
don't know ; ^ I have not heard anything about it (that hanashi 
I do not hear at all). Lately I called at {ye) your house just 
a moment (past cond.), [but| unfortunately you were out. 
When the gun went off (sounded doii — past cond.), the 
pheasant fell with a tiiud. She is slender and has a good form. 
Shut {shinieni or taterti) the shoji tight, so that {yd n'l) the 
dust may not come in. Read {yonde kikaserii) once more 
from the very beginning (all the way from the beginning) what 
{tokoro) you have translated. Sit properly I The cat has stolen 
a piece of katsnobiishi on the sly. All burst out laughing when 
ito) they heard the story. I could n't see at all, because a tall 
man was standing (unwieldily) in front of me, I caught a 
glimpse of (with one glance got my eyes on) the fleeing rob- 
ber (the fleeing and going of the robber). A boatman, seeing 
that {no 7vo) a child had fallen into the water, jumped in 
{tobikomii) like a flash and saved it. The lamp chimney 
cracked {warerii) with a snap. Mother is in a brown study (is 
thinking steadily). 


Duplicatives form a large group of adverbs in Japanese. We 
have here a language within a language, as expressive as it is 
unique, '^''^ There are in English a few analogous expressions, 
such as ticktack, dingdong, rubadub, higgledy-piggledy, little 
by little, over and over, through and through, so-so, etc. 

Most of these words are of onomatopoetic origin, either im- 
itating a sound, or at least voicing a feeling produced by an 
action. They are used commonly without any particle ; or 
with to, if with any at all. In most cases they cannot be 
translated into Engrlish : 

a Translate: Jkaga desn ka, elliptical for ikaga desu /'a zonji/naieii. Sim- 
ilarly A'aii desit ka in a reply may mean : " I don't know what it i?." 
' 1) An investigation made by Mr. Trie at the instance of llic German psy- 
chologist Prof. Wundt resulted in a list of six hundred tliat are in common use. 


barabara, barari (of things that scatter about, such as large 

raindrops, leaves of a'torn book, etc.). 
betabeta, bettari (of sticky things). 

bishibis/i!, gishigishi, mishiviishi (of creak hig timbers). 
bombon (of the faint ringing of a bell or the striking of a 

clock — bouibon-dokei). 
bo>oboro, borori (of ragged or crumbling thing^r,, ;. 
buruburii (of trembling or shuddering). 
biitsubutsii, biitsuributsuri {pi hnhbWng or grumbling). 
-J cJiibichibi a little at a time but often, in driblets. 
cJiinchin, chirinchirin (of the ringing of a small bell). 
/;/;(?/f(?/://(^/^<7 (of short intervals or quick steps). 
chorochoro (of the flowing of a brook or the toddling 

of a baby). 
daradara, darari sli ishly, languidly, in a slovenly way. 
dondon in rapid succession, in great quantity (or of the 

sound of a drum). 
gasagasa (of a rustling sound, as of paper). 
gatagata, gatari (of a rattling, slamming or banging noise). 
geragera, geiageta (of laughter). 
gogo, gugu (of snoring). 

gongon (of the sound of a large temple bell). 
gorogoro, gorori (of a rumbling noise, as of thunder). 
gotagota (of disorder). 
guruguru round and round. 
guzuguzu (of loitering, dawdling or grumbling). 

hyorohyoro (of staggering). 
jarijan (of the sound of a fire-bell). 

kankan (of the sound of a bell beaten with a little hammer). 

inecJianiecha (of confusion). 

niyaniya {p{ -a. ^n\\). 
perapera rapidly, fluently. 

pichipichi {o^ :i floundering fish). 

papa (of the sound of a flute, of whining or complaining). 

pikapika, pikaripikari (of shining, glittering, or flashing). 

pinpin in a vigorous or lively manner. 

pokaripokarl (of tobacco smoke or of mild lu^at). 

potshpotsti, potsuripotsuri here and there, leisurely. 

puDipJin (of an oi^dor or of sullen anger). .": 


'.^2 The Adverb [lxxiv 


scuvasaiva (of the murmuring of the wind). 
sesse energetically. sassa hastily. 
sorosoro, sorori slowly, softly, gradually. 
sutasuta (of fast walking). 
V ierntera, iekateka =pikapika. 
tsurutsuru, isiiruritsururi (of slippery things). 
wahvai (of people in a tumult). 
zarazara, zarari (of things rough to the touch). 
zawazawa (of a chilly feeling or of the noise made by 

people passing). 
zunzun rapidly, readily. 

Some duplicatives are formed by doubling ordinary words 
or their stems : 

shikajika so and so, and so on. ^ 

hibi {iii), hibihibi, nichinichi=inainichi every day.^ 
hitotsiibitotsu, ichiicJii one by one, every one. 
iroiro {ni or to), shtijii in various ways. 

nakanaka {ni) contrary to expectation, very, hardly or by no 
means (with negatives). 
^ oriori, iokidoki at times, now and then. 
tabitabi shibashiba at times, often. 
chikajika (ni) in the near future, soon. 
hatubaru {to) from a distance {Jiaruka na far). 
noronoro {to) sluggishly, slowly. 
sliibushibu {to) witii reluctance. 
kaesugaesu {mo) repeatedly, exceedingly. 
masiiniasu increasingly, more and more, gradually. 
yiakunaku tearfully. 
kanegane formerly. 

kasanegasane repeatedly, over and over. 
kawarigawari {ni) alternately, by turns. 
kuregure (mo) repeatedly, again and again. 
oioi {ni or to) gradually. [etrate). 

shiviijivii {to) penetratingly, thoroughly, (from shiviiru peii- 

a Used, like the Chinese unun (pronounced unniiti), instead of repeating all 
the Words of a quotation. 

b Doubling for the sake of emphasis is very common in Japan^^e (compare 
the English "very, very"): Mainichi mainichi kimasii. lie comes day after 
day. At the beginning of a tale one may hear: Mukashi inukashi [iulto) 
d-mnknshi Many, many years ago, in very ancient limes. Compare also p. 92e. 




s/izf!odis/nno5i stQa.]ihi\y, (from shinobu conceal one's self). 
yokuyokii very careful!}', exceedingly. 

iyoiyo increasingly, aftei all, certainly (from the classical 
iya more and more). 
V taviatciina rarely, unexpectedly. 
bets'ibetm {ni) separately, 
daiidaii {ni or to) gradually (from dati step). 
konkon {to) carefully, in a kindly or friendly manner. 
nennen, saisai {ni) yearly. 
sanzan {ni) recklessly, harshly, severely. 
sh:.slu a lilt'e. 
shidaishidai {ni) gradually. ^ 


(Include the 

oke tub, (wooden) bucket. 
sasa bamboo grass. 
yoko side, transverse or hori- 
zontal direction (opp. tate). 
ha-ori [Japanese] coat. 
ko-ashi little steps. 

katte ) 1 -^ 1 

, ■ J J H<:itclien. 
daidokoro ) 

an-s itsrt assassination. 

dc-jin native, aborigine. 

fit bun rumor. 

gi-kwai d diberative assem- 
bly, congress, parliament, 

jin-sJui race (ethnological). 

jun-rei pilgrimage, pilgrim 
(properly junrei-slia). 

roku-bic pilgrim. 

kei-yd figure, metaphor. 

new adverbs). 

kek-kon marriage. 

seisu-yu instruction, advice, 

tiii-riku continent. 
tan-tei secret investigation, 

detective (properly tanteiri). 
yu-nyu imports, 
yii-shiitsii (often proncd. yu- 

shitsu) exports. 
ki-ini ga yoi= kokoroinochi 

ga yoi (p. 1 38). 
areru be rough, be desolate 

(of land), be refractory. 
fiirueru shake, tremble. 
kasaneru pile one on top of 

another (intr. kasanarii). 
kjrn freeze, ^ 
viigaku polish. 
sutaru be discarded (tr, suterii). 

a The suboidinative of koni is properly /^'tte, but it is often shortcricJ lo 
kolte. Coinp. Iidru, hotte, p. 228, Voc. 

334 '^^^^ Adverb [lxxiv 

yoroviekii stumble, stagger. ibiki xvo kaku snore. 

ato 1V0 tsiikeru follow in tsuztike-sauia ni, tsuzukedanta 

another's track. /// continuously, one after 

tabako zvo fukasu smoke to- another. 

bacco. M-Yv'^'U^ yoppite {yo Jiito yd) the whole 

hiiori-goto ivo in talk to night. 

one's self. 


Ano Jiito wa ansatsu saremasJi ta ka. So iufiibun des" ga, ma- 
da Jiakkiri tvakarimasen {iyoiyo sj^ to tva ieinasen). Ai/ierika 
no dojin no kazu wa dandan {ni) Jiette kimas . Ko iu {kofina) 
kiidaranai Juzoku zva oioi s tatte kite vio yj gozainias . Iroiro 
seiva savia Jii narivtasJi te makoto ni arigato gozainias. Ano 
ok^ san iva cJiokocJioko koasJii de arukimas'. Ano kahi Ufa c 
shiroi ivo betabeta (thick) is' keie iuiaslita. AndD san iva yoku 
o taku ye niientas ka. Moto wa shibasJiiba kiinas!iia ga, 
kono setszva sappari konakii narimasJi ta ; do sJi ie iru ka 
sliira. Shinibun-Jiaitatsu ga chirijichirin to kane vjo narasJi ie 
kiniash' ta. Roktibn wa kankan to kane wo tataite arukivias' . 
Masuiuasn saviuku natte kite, djvio, koniarimas' . Cliikajika ni 
Ou iiio) ietsudo ga ^^ dekite shimaiinashd. Hiragana ga ziinzun 
{to) yovieru kurai {gurai) ni nattara, ^ kanji wo narai nasarti 
ga yo gozainiasho. Oke no naka no sakana ga pichipichi ha- 
neuias\ Kono ni san nichi zva'^ iyoiyo atataka ni nariniaslita. 
Hinichi ga zunzun tacJiinias . Kono yoko zvo kuriinia ga ga- 
ragara torn. ^ kara, yakaviasli knte benkyo ga dekiviasen. S' la- 
s' ta aruite hi 7io kurenai nchi ni yadoya ?ii ts kiuiasJi ta. 7a- 

a For so da ; tva following a dcpendenl clause with to puts tlie whole stale- 
ment in antithesis to other possible statements, and jo eniphnsizcs its signifi 
cancc : that it is so or.e can not say witli certainty. 

h The word 5 (interior — same character as oka in ('/&« xrt«) designates the 
eastern part of the northern end of the main island, while ii is tlia initial of 
the names of the corresponding western provinces, Uzen and Ugo, formerly 
called Dewa. (Ju is also called Td-hoJcu (east ncrtli^, as it lies north-east of 
the island. 

c Translate — km-ai ni 7iaitara wlien ycu get so proficient that — . Compare 
the use of Jiodo in: Ktirakiite ashirtioto ga mienai Jiodo des;i (p. lOi, 2). 

d Tianslate : the last two or three days. A'o/co ni san niclii the next two or 
three days. 

e Yoico 7V0 lorn pass along (lie side (of the house). 


bako wo pokaripokari to fiikasJi te irti to in no wa hiuia de tai- 
kutsu s/ite sJi kata o-a nai kara, isiizukezavia ni tabako wo no- 
inu ydszvo keiyj sJiie in no des\ Sakana ga piinpin Jiaiiete 
ryori ga shinikui. Nikon no yiishutsiva nennen fiiete kite y 11- 
nyu yori iiio oku nariviasJi ta. Tonari de amado wo garagara 
shiniete imas . Take ni kaze ga sawasazva fuite imas' . Soto 
ye derii to, karada ga zazvazaiva snru kara, haori wo kasanete 
dekakeuiasJio. Ano oki na tokei wa bombon narimas" . Han- 
sha wCi jan^an, tera no kane wa gongon narimas . Yube tonari 
de hito ga gogo (gnyu) ibiki wo kakii kara, yoppite nerarena- 
katta Ano hito zva nandaka butsubiiisu hitorigoto wo itte 
ivias' . Okame wa^ nikoniko sJi ta kao wo sJiteinias. Ano 
hito wa niyaniya waratte bakari ite nandaka kokoro no soko 
no wakaranai hito da Kauiinari zva narazii ni inabikari 
bakari pikapika skiinas . Eta wa "^ Shina kara kita moii des' 
ka. lyoiyo sj to wa zvakariniasen ga, so ka mo shireniasen. 
Gejo ga guzugnzu sh' te irii kara, yoni osoku naru made dai- 
dokora ga katazukiniasen. Kono hon zua nakanaka ats'kute 
ikura sassa to yoiuie nio yoi ni shiuiai ni nariniasen. Sassa 
to sh'te sJiiviae. Nihon no tegavii no bun zva inutsukash' kute 
nakanaka oboerareuiasen. Inn zva byoki de guruguru via- 
zvatte imas . NiJion no naikakii wa inia gotagota sh' te imas' . 
Kaminari ga garagara natte kiniash' ta. '^ Uchi no inn zva 
kino made nete bakari imash' ta ga, kyJ zva pinpin sh' te imas" . 
Teganii no kakidashi (beginning) ni zva yoku masiimasu go 
kigen yoku '^ shikajika to in kotoba ga Jiairiuias\ Karada ga 
daradara sit te Jiaiarakenai. Potsupotsii aruite itte mo yitgata 
ni zva ie ni kaeremasho. Teishaba no mae ni ozei hito ga 

a The smiling face of Okame (alias Otafukti) is familiar to all who have 
seen Japanese men (masks), her characteristic features being a flat nose, small 
eye3 and projecting forehead and checks, bhe is supposed to be the same as 
Uzume, the goddess of joy and wantonness, who, according to the received 
mythology, danced so merrily before the cave in which the sun-goddess had 
hid herself that the latter was induced to open the door and look out. Slie is 
represented as perpetually smiling. 

b Tlie Eta were formerly tiie lowest class of people. One of their trades 
was the slaughtering and flaying of cattle, 

c Of thunder near by. Tlic sound of distant tluinder is represented by 

d I hope you are quite well (lit. increasingly .veil). 

^2,6 The Adverb [lxxiv 

atsuiuatte zvahvai sazvaide orinias' ga, natii ka vieziirasJui 
koto de Ji!o ariinas' ka. Kawa ga sarasara nagarete iru. 
Hyak^ sJu ga sesse to kaseide orimas' . A no kichigai wa geta- 
gtta {geragera) waratte bakari ite nandaka kinii ga warui. 
Fiiyu ni n.iru to, oral no yii i-i ga kjtte isurutsiiru subet'e aru- 
kinikui. Taniei ga shinoln.\liinobi dorobo }io ato wo ts kete 
ikimasli ta. Gons" ke ga yokn viigaite kureta no de kuts'iva 
teratera sli te iinas\ Aiuenka de wa kekkon no toki ni kouie 
wo barabiira nagets" keru slmkwan ga gozainias . Hon ga ba- 
rabara ni n-^itte tsuzuki ga luakariniasen. MesJii ga boroboro 
sh' ie knenai. ^ Te ga arete (cha[)ped) zarazara shimas . 
Dondon kaiie wo is kaivias . Saniugatte buruburu Jurneie 
imas\ Kore ni wa iroiro wake ga arn. Soto wa zawazawa 
siirii ga, nanigoto ka okita de nai ka. Shiuiijiini iya ni nari- 

In this region {zva) vehicles are rattling (pass noisily) all the 
time ; consequently it is s > noisy that last hight I couldn't sleep 
all niglit. He smokes tobacco from morning to night. The 
population of Japan increases yearly. When the cherry blos- 
soms bloom every one is lazy (.ill idling do not work). Thun- 
der is rolling in the distance {tjkii de) A drunkard stagger- 
ing about stumbled against a stone and finally fell over. That 
old gentleman is still hale {tassha de) and vigorous. Did the 
Japanese race in ancient times come across (crossing come) from 
the continent? There is (also) such an opinion ; but we don't 
know certainly whether it is so or not {sj ka dJ ka). You 
won't catch the train if you dawdle (are dawdling) lil'Ce that. 
If }'ou don't hurry (hastily doing finish), the diy will be gone 
(/// ga kiirent). Chinese characters are so difficult that [I] 
will hardly {7iakanaka) be able to learn [them]. To-day, as 
the weather is fine, we will saunter through (idly walk the 
region of) Shiba. The French parliament is now and then 
quarrelsome {kenkxva naso ga atti) and disorderly. It has 
begun to rain (p. 231, 4). Last night after one o'clock it 
snowed more and more heavily {hidokii). I w^s startled {gyotto 
sum) as a bear came with a rustling sound out of a thicket 

a Tlie Japanese do not like rice unless it is cooked just enough to make it 
stick together, but no more. 

Lxxv] Substantives as Adverbs ^2)7 

of bamboo grass {sasayabu). The brook flows with a mur- 
muring sound. When there is any little thing {nani ka s'ko- 
shi de Did) that displeases him, he is sullen and, though you 
speak [to himj, does not reply. Oxen walk slowly. The sick 
one is gradually becoming weaker {yowatte knrii). A police- 
man is carefully advising [him]. He came out with reluctance. 
At {)u wa) Setsubiui beans are scattered {barabara viaku) all 
through the rooms {Jieyagoto nt). He took leave {ivakarerii) 
of (;/z) his parents and went out tearfully. Lately on account 
of the snow {yuki ga Jurii no de) the poor are in distress and 
are complaining. Hoping (thinking) to reach the deathbed 
{shinime 7ii an) of my father, I came from far Formosa (a long 
distance from Takvcm) ; but {no ni) missed it (could not meet) 
by a day {ichi nicki no chigai de). He uses up his money in 


Many words which are translated by means of adverbs are 
really substantives used adverbially. This is true of many of 
the words which we class as ordinary adverbs (Ch. LXXVIL). 
In this chapter we shall confine our attention to certain words 
denoting place, time, degree, etc, which are still in use as 
substantives proper. 

Such are kofco, soko, asoko (asuko), doko, dokka, soko, koko, 
kochira, sochira, achira, dochira, achi kocJii or achira kochira 
{to), konata here, kanata there, etc. ^ They take particles 
and postpositions just like nouns : 
Doko ga o ltd gozaivuisu ka. 
Where have you pain (Which place is painful) ? 
Doko %vo sagasJiiniasJiita ka. Where have you searched ? 
Doko deshita ka. Where was it? 

a Konala is used politely in speaking of a host's house : Konata sania de iva 
iniiia sama go jobii de kekko de gozaimnsu. I am very glad all are well at your 
house. It is also used as a jiersonal pronoum of the first person. Go busala wo 
ilasliite oriniashita. lie, konata kara koso shitsurei bakari itashite oritnasu. 1 
have been quite remiss. No, it is I who am always rude. Compare auata, 
sonata; donala, pp. 28 42. 

7,T,S The Adverh [lxxv 

To the same categor}' belong such substantives as inae, saki 
or ov:ote front, lira or ushiro back, naka or iichi inside, soio 
outside, ne above, sliita below, inuko the place opposite or yon- 
der, hoka another place, ^ etc., which serve also in lieu of 
postpositions and will be treated under that head. As has 
been explained (p. 20a), words of this kind take the particle 
ni to indicate the place where a thing or person exists and ^ 
to mdicate the scene of an event or a certain condition of things. 
This rule applies likewise to such words as evipo a distant place, 
atari, or hen {kono hen, soiio hen, etc.), or kivipoi vicinity, etc. 
But we must keep in mind other uses of ni and de. The for- 
mer may also have the sense of " to " and indicate an indirect 
object, while the latter often performs the same function as 
the subordinative termination of the verb. '^ Compare: 

Koko ni orimasu. I am here. 

Koko ni okiniasu. I shall (will) put it here. 

Koko de yastanimasho. I shall (will) rest here. 

Koko de yorosJiii. This place will do. 

Words denoting time when used as adverbs commonly take 
no particles. But when a contrast is implied, or when the 
corresponding adverb in the English sentence takes the first or 
emphatic position, zva is required (p. 23c). A word denoting 
time in an unemphatic position, in the few cases when a par- 
ticle is used, takes 7n : inia ni, viae ni, nochi ni, asa Jii, ban 
ni, etc. There are some apparent exceptions. Thus inia de 
zva, konnichi de wa, etc., are equivalent to ivia ni natte 
zoa, etc. The expression ato de, in contrast with nochi ni, 
originally denoted position. Also compare : 

Aio de o Jianashi moshiniashd. I will speak to you afterwards. 

Kore wo ato ni shita hj ga ii. It is better to postpone this. 
Any of these words may by means of the particle no be made 

a This /fc/'^ may mean not only "elsewhere," bul also "besides." Note 
zXzo oinoi-iio hoka [tii)=zan-gTuni (c) beyond expectation, and l-ofo-no-hoka [ni] 
exceedingly, from the /;o^o in /;ofo «/ especially. 

b There are a few adverbs formed by means of this de, but tliey are hardly 
numerous enough to make a separate chapter ; e. g., a/o de afterwards, 7!iaru de 
entirely. )ni>ia de altogether, /ada de gratis, /lifoi-i de alone (in the sense of 
"spontaneously" «« may be added), kac/ii de a^ooi, hisashiburi de a.hGX a. long 
interval, yV(5//« de by one's self, iochu de en route. 

i.xxv] Substantives as Adverbs 339 

an adjective (p. 119); vinko no tera yonder temple ; inia no 
seit'j the present political parties, yube no kzvaji last night's fire. 
The principal adverbs of time are (comp. p. 66a) : 

konneii, kotos hi, iotien this year. 

saknnen, kyonen last year. 

issakunen, ototosJii {oiodoshi) year before last. 

issakusakunen, sakiototosJii two }ears before last year. 

inydnen, rainen next year. 

myog-onen, saraitien year after next. 

kongetsu, kono tsiiki this month. 

sengetsu, atogetsu, viae no tsuki last month. 

sensengetsu montli before last. 

raigetsu next month. 

saraigetsu month after next. 

konsJiu, kono shTi this week. 

senshu last week, raishu next week. 

konnichi, kyo to-day. 

saktijitsu, kino yesterday. 

issakujitsu, ototoi day before yesterday. » 

issakiisaknjitsn, sakiototoi two days before yesterday. 

niyjuichi, asu, ashita to-morrow. 

viyogonichi, asatte day after to-morrow. 

yanoasatle, shiasatte two days after to-morrow. 

am 111 {fio koto) on a certain day, one day. 

yokujitsu {ni), aknrn hi {ni) the following day. 

asa {ni) in the morning {asa hayaku early in the morning). 

konchd, kesa this morning. 

kesa/iodo, kesagata this morning (used later in the day). 

sakitc/iJ, kino no asa yesterday morning. [ii^g* 

viydcho, viyoasa, asu no asa, ashita no asa to-morrow morn- 

ban {m) baiihodo, bankata {bangata), bankei, yiiiata {yu- 

giitci), yukokn in the evening (p. 23 2d), 
sakuban, saktiya, yube last evening. 
komban, konya, konseki this evening. 

a Ololoi or otolstii is derived from ochi, yonder, far, tut, and hi. This Isti is 
an. old genitive particle. It appears also in oiiozitkarn or tiiizii/cniri, classical 
iox jibun de. With ololoi compare ototoshi, from ochi and toshi. 

340 The Adverb [lxxv 

inyolxni, mydya, asu no ban, asJiita no ban to-morrow evening. 

Jiiru by day. yoru by night. 

iiua {ni) now. ^ iniagoro {ni) about tliis time. 

tadaivia now, just now (past), presently (future). ^ 

iinagata, iinashigata a moment ago. 

sakki, sakiJiodo, senkoku a short while ago (less than a day). 

kono setsu in these days. 

sakkon nowadays (lit, yesterday and to-day). 

konohodo, konoaida {konaida) lately, recentl)^. c 

senjitsu, sakigoro a few days ago, the other day. 

kin)ien in recent years {kin = chikai). 

iiwto originally, formerly. 

viukashi in ancient times. 

hajime (nz) at the beginning, at the firsjt. 

saisho {ni) at the very first. 

nocJiiJiodo, nochigata after a little while (within the day). 

kendo next time (also : this time). 

chikai uchi {tit) within a short time, soon. 

kinjitsu within a few days {Jcin^^ chikai). 

nochinochi after some time, after a long time. 

shbrai in the future. 

itsu, itsngoro when, about when ? 

Attention may well be called once more to kurai, bakari, 
dake, Jiodo (pp. 22b, 36, 43, 48b), words which generally per- 
form the functions of true adverbs, taking no particles, but 
sometimes are treated just like nouns. Words like viina, Dzei, 
etc. (Ch, XVIII.), are used both as adverbs and occasionally 
as substantives. So also : 

banj'i all things, or, in every respect. 

daiiai the principal part^ or, in the main. 

tasho many or few, much or little, quantity, or, more or less. 

taigai, taitei generality, or, for the most part, almost. 

a Pract ically, of course, such a word as "now" must refer either to tlie 
immediate future or to the immediate past. Ima may also be used like dw in 
the sense of " more " : ima ippai one cup more. For iiuagoro note : i/sn de mo 
iniagoro always about this time. 

b 7'adaima differs from ia/la ima in that the latter can refer only to the past. 

c Chikagoi-o and konogoro may be used either of an event in the recent past, 
like konohodo and konoaida, or, like kiiirai, of a state of things continuing to 
tlie present. 


Substantives as Adverbs 


Taigai {taitei) ?ii shite oke. Don't take too much pains. 

To the same category belong the suffix chu or ju (p. 137a), 
as in karadaju the whole body, and ichido (lit. one and tlie 
same), as in kydin seito ichido the teachers and pupils as a 
body, the whole school. Such compound expressions niay be 
used adverbially, without particles, and also as substantives. 

Finally we might include the numerals, with ikuisu, ikura 
or nanihodo (vulgar nambo), etc. But the numeratives, though 
originally substantives, never take the particles ga, ico, etc., 
and are therefore to be classed as adveibs. 


(Include the n 

katana sword. 

nada stretch of rough sea. 

sakai boundary, frontier. 

kake-ji= kake-mono. 

karasu clear off, dispel (intr. 

lui-harashi'a.n extensive view. 
kataru speak, tell. 
mono-gatari tale. 
oka hill, land. 
Jio ear (of grain). 
oka-bo upland rice. 
yaki-ba crematory. 

yu ya \ |-jjj^ bath. 
sen- to J ^ 

su, su (c) number. ^ 


=ji-]iien land, lot of 

n-sko \ ^ , 

tochz j ^^■^""^- 
hap-pu pronmlgation. 

ew adverbs.) 

hot-tail beginning 

hyd-ban rumor ( — no hydban 
wo sum), reputation, pop- 

kem-po the constitution. 

shi-nin dead person. 

to-ji medical treatment at a 
hot spring {tj=^ytc), tak- 
ing the baths. 

gain-pi-sJii Japanese paper of 
very fine quality. 

ko-ban-sho police substation 

(p. 940- 

gyo-sei-kwan administrative 

sai-ban-kwan judge, j' 

iabako-bon tobacco tray (con- 
taining a small hibachi, 
hai/uki, etc.). 

ki-inyo na strange, wonderful. 

a This is a very common word: sTi-gaku mathematics, dai-sTi alL;eI)ra dai 
siibstitiUion), /(Z«-j« sini;ular \\\x\w\ie.x, fuku-su plural nuiiiljcr, /«.?;"/ number of 
ri, SH-hya/cii several huiulrcd, ^ti-ka-getsti several montlis. 

b Tlie term shi-hd-kwan (adminlEter-law-ofTicial) includes Ijoth hait-ji judges 
and /-tf^-zV public prosecutors. 

342 The Adverb [lxxv 

hakarti calculate, estimate, nikki wo knm turn leaves of 

weigh, consider. a diary. 

molomeru desire, search for, viassugu {iii) straight. 

purchase. subete in general, all. 
kachi de iku go afoot. 


Koko wa Okubo san no korosareta tokoro des' Sakujitsu o 
vwiovie nastta kakeji zva soko ni o iiiochi de gozaiinas' ka. 
Chotio soko ye itte kinias . ^ Mukashi koko ye zainin no kubi 
7V0 sarasJiiuiasfi in. As ko ni tJinyodai-ga dekimasJita kara, 
mo kono nada de hasen wa arlmasmai. Doko ga o ito gozai- 
inos' ka. Doko to mo iemasen ga, karadaju (ga) ito gozaiinas' . '' 
Alyouiclii wa yo ga aketara, sugu ni okosh'te o hire. Dare ka 
iabakohoii u o viotte koi. Hai, tadainia. Kono kimpen ni ko- 
bansko ga ariinasen ka. Koko kara viassugu ni san cho Jiodo 
iku to, [kobansJio ga) ar'iwas'. Kono ganipishi wa doko de o 
kai ni nariviasJi ta ka. Soko no kauiiya de kaiviasJi ta. Ha- 
kone ^ nado ni wa vioto sekisJio ga a tie, tegata ga nakereba, tj- 
rareuiasen desJita. Dokka kono hen de ippai yarakasJiima- 
Slid ; doko ga ii ka shira f^ Miliaraslii ga yo gozainias' kara, 
Uwoju ye mairiinasho. Joyakn-kaisei zen de mo seifu ni ya- 
tozvareta gwaikokujin wa NiJionkokuju doko ye de mo sumu 
koto ga dekimasJi ta. Koine zva- doko ni de mo ts kuru to 
in zvake ni wa ikanai. Mizu ivo hikenai toclii ni wa okabo 
no Jioka zva ts" kurenai. ^' CJiotto soko ye iku ii des' kara, ramp" 
wa kesazu jii okimashj. Kore kara saki zva saka ga oi kara, 
kuruma kara orite ariiite niairiniasJiJ. Koko wa unia wo 
hoes' tokoro deskara, orite arukanakereba nariniasen. Sentd 
(^yuya) zva doko ni de mo arimas'. Koko de zva jama ni 
■nam kara, JiibacJii zvo socJiira ye yare. Muko ni keniuri no 

a Translate : I am going out for a little wliilc. Soko ve is useil indefinitely; 
for tUe khnasu see p. 231. 

b Doko to mo iemasen. T can't say where. Compare : A'an !o iiio iemasen. I 
can't say. It may Ije. I don't know. 

C The well known pass on the Tokaido. 

d Yarakasu is a vulgar equivalent oi yaiii or sni-u ; ippd yarakasii take 
a drink. Uwoju is the name of a restaurant in Mukojimo. 

e Okabo no hoka iva anything (any kind of rice) except upland rice. For 
the particle /;/ in llicse two sentences compare pp. q6c, 50b. 

Lxxv] Substantives as Adverbs 343 

deru tokoro ga arinias ga, {are tva) nan des ka As ko laa 
shinin 710 yakiba {kzvasobci) des . Konnichi hajhnete ivakari- 
DiasJita. Iiiia kiicJiirl rokii ji des ka. UTada kirekore jip- 
pun hodo viae desho. Onna wa yoru soto ye def/i mono de wa 
nai. Kin') nikki zvo kutle mitara, ko}ina wariii ienki ga ino 
t')ka bakari tsuziikimas' . Sassok' desu ga, ^ konnicJii iva sho- 
sh ' o negai inosli tai koto ga atte inairiniasli ta. DcDiiia wa 
itsii {de) ino o rusu no yj des ga, do sJi ta mondes/u. lie, 
shijii rusu to in zvake de wa gozainiasen ; bankata roku ji go ni 
irasshareba, itsii nio o ucJii des . Sensei^ Godaigo tennj ga^^ 
Oki ye sJiinianagashi ni serareniaslita no wa itsugoro des' ka 
{itsugoro no koto des' ka). Sayo, karekore go hyaku sliichi jii 
nen hodo viae no koto des\ CJiikagoro iio wa f'keiki des\ 
Monogatari no Jiottan ni wa yoku " inia tva viukashi " to kaite 
arinias' . I\foto tva gydseikivan ga saibankivan wo kanete ita 
ga, iina de wa betsubetsu ni nariniasJi ta. Sore wa dare ga 
saisho ni iidasJita koto des' ka. Konogoro wa niata joyaku- 
kaisei no hyoban ga gozainias" . luiashigata. kaniinari ga nat- 
ia J a nai ka. Inia Lie no no kane 7vo titta yj des'ga, uchi wa 
shimasen des/ita ka ; nanji no kane desho. Tadainia ni ji 
wo ncJiiinash' ta. Ni ju ni ne>i no ham kenipd ga liappu ni 
nariviasJi ta. Washi hodo hayaku toon fori zva nai. Kono 
chisho zva shorai hijo ni takaku yiariniasho. Chikagcrc zva 
kotonoJioka sainii gozainias' . Daitai dekiniasJita. ^ 

This {koko zva) is Japan Bridge ; distances iu every direction 
{hobo ye no risu) arc all calculated from this bridge (they cal- 
culate making this bridge the origin). To {made zva) that 
place we can ride (go by horse), but beyond {kara zva) that we 
must dismount and go a foot. Last year (wa) I stopped here, 
but will n(jt stop this time {z'Ja), because the rooms were dirty. 
Where are you going this vacation {ni zva) ? I should like to 
go somewhere among the mountains {yauia ye de mo). 1 lost 
my notebook somewhere {ye) ; no matter where I search 1 

a By using this expression one makes an apology for proffering a request 
without the u^^ual ceremonious preliminaries. 

b Tlie Emperor Go-daij^o, " tlie later Daigo" {go=noctd) icignetl 1319 — 1338. 
Having made an unsuccessful atlcmpt to wrest the supreme power from the 
IIojo family, he was banished to the island of Oki in tlic Sea of Jnpan. 

344 The Adverb [lxxv 

cannot find it [iniis karimasen). This sea (i) is not always 
(2) I so] calm as (4) [it is] to-day (3). The cold in (of) Hokkai- 
do is almost the same as [that of] Germany. In Japan there 
arc a good many mountains that' are as high as Oyama. In 
the whole world there are no [other] mountains as high as the 
Himalayas. Last night it was very hot, so that I could not 
sleep well. To-day swords are often sold to Europeans, 
because they are no longer needed (have become useless). 
What time is it now ? It is probably about ten o'clock. Go 
to the neighbor's and inquire if the master is at home. I just 
now caught sight of {inika-kerii) him going out in {de) a 
riksha. This year the heat seems {yd des') to continue long. 
I feel queer (a strange feeling does) to-day for some; reason 
or other {jiandakd). At the beginning I could not sit [in the 
Japanese way), but afterwards {zua') I gradually became accus- 
tomed [to it]. Every year when summer comes (it becomes 
summer) he goes for (///') treatment to hot springs (of) here 
and tb ;e. Lately many missionaries were invited to the 
Ameri(, m Legation and entertained. Outside it looks unat- 
tractive {I'itafiai), but inside it is very fine. 


The subordinatives of certain verbs must be rendered by 
means of English adverbs ; e. g., kasanete iu say repeatedly, 
keiyj shite in speak metaphorically, etc. The following 
words have became practically adverbs. A few of them, which 
wc may designate as formal, are heard not so much in common 
conversation as in speeches : 

aete daringly (formal). 

arotaniete again, anew. 

hajiDieli? for the first time. 

hatasJiite after all, really, as was expected. ^ 

itatie exceedingly, very. 

kaette on the contrary, rather. 

a As is not infrequently the case, the native word has become formal, in 
the sense of «' as was expected," while an no gotoku generally takes its place in 
the Colloquial. 


katiete previously. 

kiwamete extremely (formal). ^ 

kozotte all (formal). 

iriashite\\o\\' much more. 

narasliite on an average, from narasu level (p. 201 a). 

otte afterwards, by and by, from ou chase. 

sadamete in all probability, doubtless (with probable form). 

seuiete at least. 

sJiiite compulsorily, perforce, importunately. 

snbete in general, all. 

tatte urgently, importunately. * 

tvakete, tori-7i'cxke especially. 

inae- vwtte=inae Jii previously,, beforehand. ^ 

ovwi-kitte decisively, resignedly (p. 292, 1 1). 

ori-itte persistentl}^ earnestly, 

oshi'uabete (classical nabete) in general, on an average. 

bessliite especially, for betsii ill shite. 

kesshite (p. 214a) positively, never (with negatives). 

Compare do shite how, how is it that, why (p. 212b); do 
shite mo by no means (with negatives), so shite then, so, and 
(p. 212, 3), toki to shite at times. '^ 

The etymology of these words in all cases where it is practi- 
cally helpful will readily be guessed by the student, But it 
shoul'.l be noted that the following verbs are obsolete, in the 
ccilioquial: aeru dare, kozorii assemble, suberu bring together, 
govern, and ftaberu or uajneni = naraberu put in a row. 

Both hajiviete and snbete are used with no as adjectives : 
hajiniete no koto the first instance, subeie no mono all things. 
Note also viotte-no-hoka = ovioi-no-boka or kolo-no-hoka very 
(always used in a bad sense). 

The following are derived from negative subordinativcs : 

a 'I'lie verb kiivameru to determine, or to carry to an extreme, 's licst tran- 
slated by ineans of the adverb "extremely " : ogori (or zei-taku^ wo /dicnfuem 
to be extremely luxurious. 

b The adverb nsai/e day after to-morrow is derived from asti and sn/fe, from 
sani leave ; sendatle. from sen and tatte, from tatsti pass, elapse. 

c Tlie expression yaya-mo sureba (or yaya mo sum to) " quite oft cii," derived 
from >'^/rt gradually, considerably, is also practically an advcrl), th'.UL;h it is 
usually to be rendered " is apt to," like tokaku. 


46 The Adverb [lxxvi 

hakarazu {ind) unexpectedly, 

nokorazii all. 

oboezu unconsciously, 

omozvazu unintentionally. 

iarazu closely, nearly. 

kanarazii assuredl;', certainly, without fail, necessarily. 

tokarazu in the near future, soon. 

muko-inizii 7ii blindly, recklessly. 

yainu-wo-ezti, yanmoezu unavoidably (p. 259b). 

ai-kaivarazii as always. 

tori-aezii immediately, in haste, provisionally. 

tori-uio-naosazu namely, in other words, the same thing as, 

shirazu-sJiirazii unawares. 


ie-gara lineage (p. 217a), to-kivai cxiy, metropolis. 

ke-mono hairy quadruped, ^/^-r^/'/ traveling for pleasure. 

beast. ^ shu-gi-in the Lower House, 
;y«/&/-^^i'<f thawing of snow. House of Representatives 

moto-kin 7 capital, (p. 305a), 

gii'an-k'm\ principal, tei-shutsn-an=gi-aii bill (p, 
ko, ko-ko (the second kd=^o- 303a). 

konai) filial piety. viottoiuo na reasonable, 

Ju-bo father and mother, ki-viiiziikashii ill-humored. 

/u-shin inability to compre- iyagaru dislike. 

hend, doubt, suspicion. osamari ga tsukii be settled. 

ko-zui flood. gutaguta ni you get dead 
ris-skinl rise in the world, drunk. 

shus-se ) promotion. tai-zoi sum so]o\\\:i\, stdiy. 

shin-tai body. rokuroku fully, sufficiently 
shu-sho lamentation, mourn- (with negatives). 

i'lg. toki ni now (at the beginning 
j;^/-^r«' damage by floods. of a sentence). 

a 'Jlie term kedaniono, from ke-tsu-tiioiio [/su genitive particle), exactly 
corresponds to the English " beast " and is almost obsolete, being used only in 
vulgar curses, while kemouo, which originally denoted 'Ulomestic cattle," has 
been expanded so as to include all hairy beasls. 



Teinbun nenkan ni hajimeie Seiyojin ga Nikon ye kimasJi - 
ta. ^ Kanete o naviae zva ukeiamawatie iiiiash^ ta. ^ Aniari 
ieinei iii iisugirii to, kaette sJiitsnrei nv atarimas . Dj sJite 
mo Nikon no Jion ga youieru yd ni wa narinias' niai. Kessk'ie 
sonna koto zva sum na. Do sh^ie vio zenkzvai wa itaskimas'- 
mai. Anata Jiajiviete Seiyo ye oide ni nam no nara, sazo to- 
kivai no tateniono no takai no ni odoroki nasaru desko (p. 132 
a). Hajimete go ran nasaru «' des'kara, go fuskin wa go inot- 
tonio des' (p. 33d). Tonari de zua teiskii ga skiniinasJi ta ka- 
ra, sadaviete skusho sJite iru koto deshj. Zaisan mo ari, na 
mo am hito des'kara, sadaviete skTcgiin giin ni senkyo sare- 
viashj. ^ Nikon no kon ga yovieru yd ?ii naranak'to mo, seviete 
{wa) kanaski dake de mo jiyu ni^ dekirii yd ni nariiai mon 
des\ Hobi) {zvo) yureki sum koto wa dekinak'te mo, seniete 
Kyoto dake iva zeki kenibutsu sJitai mondes\ Ano hito zva 
geko da no ni, shiite sake wo nomaseiiiasJi ta kara giitagutd 
iii yoiniask'ta. Jyagaru no ni, skiiie kodoino wo gakkd ni yari- 
mask'ta. NiJionjin wa toriwake teinei des\ Doits' de zva karu 
)ii nam to, yukidoke de yoku kdzui ga arimas'ga, sakunen zva 
besslC te suigai zvo uketa tokoro ga gozaimask' ta. Waiakuski 
zva tomodacJii to kanaski zvo sJi te amite im ucki ni sliirazii- 
skirazu tdi tokoro made ikiuiasli ta. Betsu 711 keiko zva skima- 
sen desk'ia ga, skirazu-skirazu kanaski ga dekim yd ni iiari- 
inash'ta. Hisask' ku go busata zvo itaskimask'ta ; mina saina 
kazvari mo gozaimasen ka. Toki ni, tdkarazu izure ye ka {liok- 
ka ye) go skuttatsu ni narivias' ka. Nihongo no keiko zvo nasa- 
ru o tsumori nara, kanarazu kanji zvo oboenakereba ?iarii/iasen. 
Kemono de mo ano tdri des" kara, mask' te ningen zva kodomo 
wo daiji ni skinakereba narimasen. ^ Mori san zva Ise no tai- 
byj ye kiitsii zvo Jiaita mama {de) agatta to :n fubun ga ari- 

a 7 em bun is the name of a neiigo, 1532 — 1555. A^cn-kan is derived from 
nen=^los/ii cinA kan=zaidn ; translate: during l!ie pcriiKl cillcd Tembun. 

h Aa expression often heard by a pcrs!)n whei introduced to another. 

C SliTig'.in giin member of llie Lower House. 

d Jiyu ui frcr:]y, unrestrictedly ; /lyFt 7ii Iimiasu speak readily. 

e Afio /o/i rcicis to a previous illustration of the idea expressed by /'i; 7t>o 
daiji ni sun. 

The Adverb [lxxvi 

viaslita ga, hatasJi te so dexJita ka. ^ " Shintai happu kore ivo 
fubo ni tiku ; aete sokonai-yaburazant wa ko no Jiajivie Jiari" 
to Kokyo ni kaiie ariiiias' ^^ YokoJiama ni vuiiriviasJi te 
toriaezH o tazune inisJiiviasIi ta i^a, niata arataniete uka- 
gaimasho.^ Sore iva torimonaosixzu ko in iini des\ Jikan 
ga nakaita inondes'kara, yaimizvoezxi rokuroku Iianashi mo 
shinaide kaette viairiinasJita. Ano Jiito iva ioki to sJite 'lijo 
ni kiinuznkashii ko'o ga gozaiinas\ Tatte tomern mono des* 
kara, tsui ynhan no chiso ni natte kimasJita. Izure otte go 
henji %vo itashiviasho. Anata ni oriitie o negai mosh'tai koto 
ga gozaimas . Kono shmamono wa narasli te {naras/ii) Jnto- 
tsu ga ju go sen ni atarimas' . Kono setsiva iiatte -Jukeiki de 
makoto ni komarimas . Mukomizii ni yarikaketa no de nan 
to mo osamari no tskeyo ga nakunarimas/ita. Kono le 
IVO tate-rn ni go sen yen iarazu kakarimasJi ta. Tadainia o 
tegami wo Jiaiken itashimasli te toriaezn sanj'o itash'ta yd na 
wake de, nani mo motte mairin-.asen kara, izure sono tichi ni 
mata ynkku-ri o tikagai mbshimasho. Sore wa moitenoJioka 
futsiigd da. 

If not all {inina de nakn to mo), return at least half {ham- 
dun dake de mo). If I can't (though I don't) make anything 
specially {betsu ni i), I wish at least to recover {torikaesu) the 
princi[)al. That wrestler is especially stout. To-day as it is 
very windy (the wind is very strong), you must be especially 
careful with the fiie {Jii no yojin zvo sum). This spring (p. 
317a) the cherry blossoms have bloomed especially early. It 
happened just as (tori ni nam) I prophesied (beforehand saying 
put). Is this \'our first trip abroad (in regard to }-our going 
abroad is kondo the first time) ? About this lime {imagoro wa) 
it ought {Jiazu da) to be getting warmer, but {no ni) on the 

a Viscount Mori, Minister of Education, was assassinntcd on tlic iitii of 
February, 1889, for an allec;ed display of irreverence at tlie shrine of Ise. Ise no 
iai-l>yd {tat s,Tea.\.) is the largest and most celebrated temple of the sun-goddess- 

b lihe Ko-kyo (/^5 filial piety, X'v5=M///'<r) is a Confucian Classic. Happu \s 
from hatsu hair and fu skin ; kore tvo is pleonastic, as often in tlie literary 
language; ukii is the conclusive form of iikerii receive; aele is usually to be 
translated "dare to"; the negative of sokonai-y'dntru the attributive 
form before the particle 702 ; itariz^^desu, 

c There is an implied apology for not bringing a miyage. 

LxxviiJ Ordinary Adverbs 349 

contrary it has become gradually colder the last {kono) two or'-^' 
three da3's. 'As he is lazy he will doubtless fail in the examina- 
tion. How is it that you have learned Japanese so quickly ? 
In this case you must certainly add {ts kerii) the word iva. As 
he is clever and of good family, he will doubtless rise in the 
world. 1 shall soon go to Atami, but intend to return [afterj 
staying [there] three days. The pupils of this school are in 
general studious {beakyo des). This is an extremely interest- 
ing book ; do read it (reading see). The Government's bill 
(;// zvii) was opposed by (act.) all the representatives (^g^i). On 
tlje way (2) yesterday (1) I unexpectedly met your parents 
{^go rydsJiin saiiia). Mutsuki is the same thing as January. °- 


There remains a comparatively small class of words used as 
adverbs which are without any inflection, particle, peculiar 
structure, or any external mark to indicate what they are. 

I. Some are derived from the Chinese. Note compounds 
with i'c/ii " one " and j/iai " every " : 

goktL=-kizvaiiiete (emphatic shi-goku, from shi= itarii) very. ^ 

cko-do exactly, just. 

dai-bii, dai-biDi (lit. large part) very, rather. 

gwan-rai — moio-yori originally, in reality, 

hei-zei ordinarily, usually, habitually; 

irai hereafter, since (in the latter sense with a substantive 

or subordinative). ^ 
i-sai minutely, in detail. 
kin-rai lately, recently (p. 340c). 

mochi-roti, uiu-ron (lit. without discussion) of course, 
sek-kaku with special pains, kindly (p. 193d). 
shi-ju (lit. beginning and end) constantly, always. 
sho-sen after all, by no means (with negatives). 

a RIntstiLi, from mutstimashii friendly, sociable, is so-called because January 
isa inoiitli of social festivities. 

1) Practically kiivamite is more emphatic even than s/nifoku. 

c In the sense of '• hereafter " : /ffia/a iva irni so in koto wo shite tva ikeinn- 
sen. Osoieiniiiiishila ; irai wa hi ivo isitkemasu km a, dozo, go kainben wo negai- 
ntiisu. You must n't do such a thing again. I am very sorry, T will be careful 
hereafter; please be patient with me; 


350 The Adverb [lxxvii 

ta-bun (lit. ni;uiy parts) for the most part, probably. 

tj-tei utterly, at all (with negatives). 

to-to, toto at Iciitjth, finally. 

tsn-rei, tsu-jo usually, customarily. 

zaJi-ji {zan^=shibaraku, ji==toki) a little while. 

zen-tal (lit. whole body) constitutionally, originally, properly 
speaking, in reality {^zentai ni in general). 

zuibun {iii) a good deal, considerably. 

ikkj (lit. one direction) entirely, at all (with negatives), 

ippai {iii) a whole — , with one's whole — {sei ippai with all 
one's might), 

issai, issetsu entirely, at all. "^ 

isso (lit. one layer) doubly, more. '' 

ittai (lit. one hody) = zentai. 

inai-nen, mai-tosJii yearly. 

inai-getsii, viai-tsuki monthly. 

inai-shu weekly, inai-niclii daily. 

viai-asa every morning, inai-ban every evening. 

inai-do every time, often. 
Other adverbs are derived from stems of native verbs : 

aiuari, avmiari too, so very, so much, from amarn be in excess. 

— kiri, girt merely, only, just, from kiru cut. ^ 

ismuari after all, in the end, so to speak, finally, from tsu- 
iiiaru be straitened. 

ottsnke presently, soon, from on chase (p. 297a). 

sashi-atari at present, from aUxru strike. 

yo-dosJii the whole night through, from tosu cause to pass. 
The following, of native origin, may be designated adverbs 
proper. The list should include ko {/cayo in), so {sayo ni), 

fi Sat a.-nA se/sit are variant readings of the same cliaracter, Issetsu is used 
only with negative words. 

b Isso {ito koto), wliich means " rather," is probably a corruption of this. 

c See pp. 232a, 233d. Mo kore Jciii iiiairimasen. I sliall not come any more. 
Bakariox bakkari, from hakani calculate, might be. included in the same group 
witli ki)i. It is used not only with substantives and numerals in the sense of 
'= about " but also with substantives, subordinatives, etc., in the sense of 
"only" and with preterits in the sense of "only" or ''just" e. g., asomie 
bakari im do nothing but play, sukoshi totta hakari destt liave taken only a 
little, kaetta bakari desu have just returned (p. 229c). Note also the idiom 
— bakari de iiakii — mo " not only — but also " (p. 146a). 

Lxxvii] Ordinary Adverbs 351 

7] a and do. From the last are derived dozo {nani-to-zo), doka 
somehow or other, if possible, please (p. 17/0, and ddmo. 
Note : So zva ikanai, or, So de wa ikenai. That won't do. 
That's the wrong way. 

dose {do shite mo), dode {do de ind) any how, at any rate, 
after all. 

hanahada (from hanahadashii) very, very much. 

Jiotondo (from classical hotohoto) almost, very much. 

ikaga (from ika ni kd) how ? 

ikn-bun-ka somewhat. 

iina-sara {sara iii in addition, again) after so long a time, no 
more (with negatives). 

izure in some way or other, at all events (p. 305b). 

ka-nari moderately, passably, fairly. 

katsute formerly, once before (formal). 

viada still, yet. ^ viata again. ^ 

mazu first of all, on the whole, well {Jiitoviazii once, for a 
while). [negatives).^ 

mo already, by this time, soon, now, still, no more (with 

1110-haya already, soon, no more (with negatives). 

Dioppara chiefly, principally, specially. 

mottonio most. 

nani-bun, nainbun {jii) in every way, at any rate, at all 
(with negatives), by all means, please (p. 2o8d). 

nao still more. nao-sara all the more. 

naze why ? ^ 

nomi only {sore nomi narazii=-sore bakari de nakii). 

a This n is used not in a iit but also, rarely, with other verbs : a yatle ite 
wn toteino seiko shiinaminai. If he acts like that, he will never succeed. 

b ^ee -p. iTi\.,J\Iada arimasu /ca. Are there any left ? Mada ichi ji desu. It 
is only one o'clock. 

c Mala does not mean exactly " again " in: Soie. iva viata naiiii^oto desu I;a. 
And what is that ? 

d Mo jifd ni now at once ; tub yoroshu gozainiasu tliat will ilo now ; ;;w iakasan 
enough now ; vw ai-i/imaen there arc no more ; mo (uia) sukoshi a little more or 
a little longer ; iitb [inn) liitolsu one more ; mo ichi do once more ; mo sukoshi de 
within an ace of, almost, soon. 

e Foreignes should be careful about using naze in direct address. It is 
rather familiar, and is never lieard in polite conversation, except perhaps in 
naze desu ka. Use do shile instead of naze. For naze naraha and naze lo lu no 
ni see p. 224b. 

352 The Adverb [lxxvii 

o-kata for the most part, probably. ^ 

ori-fiishi=oriori, tokidoki now and then. 

oyoso about, approximately, ^^ 

sa-hodo {ni) so much (with negatives). 

sate so, then, well (in proceeding with a story or speech). 

sazo how — you must (with probable form). 

— sJiika, shikya but, only (with negatives), 

sukoshi a little. 

stinazvachi that is, namely. 

tada, tatta only, merely. "^ 

io-kakti in one way or another, is apt to, sad to say. ^ 

toviokakuino, toniokaku, tonikaku at any rate. 

toisino, for toteuio kakuteuio. by no means (with negatives). 

yagate soon, presently. 

yahari, yappari likewise, too, still, notwithstanding. 

yo-hodo, yoppodo a good deal, very (p. 174a). 

yoppiie {yo hito yo) the whole night. 

ydyakii. yoyo finally, at last, with difficulty, barely. 

In the literary language many of these words, especially 
those derived from the Chinese, are used also as substantives. 
In the colloquial, too, many of them may be used with no. 
The student will generally be able to judge from the nature of 
the adverb whether it can be so used or not. Especially 
common arc : viochiron no koto a matter of course, sekkaku no 
oboshimeshi your kind intention, zanji no aida for a little 
while, ydyaku no koto de with great difficulty, x ^ 

2. Ihere are particles ot emphasis, koso, sae, surii and dani, 
which can hardly be translated, unless by means of the word 
*' QVQn," ■[ Koso has on the words which it immediately follows 

a Tlie learned also say osoraktciva, which may be translated, " It is to be 
feared that." A similar c.laEsical form negawnkiriva, which is equivalent to 
dozo or nanitozo. 

b The original classical form oyoso also occurs in the sense of " in general." 
Oyoso may be used pleonastically with ktirai, etc. (p. 72c). 

c Tada is often used pleonastically with bakari, kiri or shika. Note also 
tada de gratis, l^ada desn. It costs nothing. 

d Tokaku occurs witli especial frequency in sentences that express regret 
and is olten hard to translate (=;German leider): Tokaku kono setsu wa ante 
gaf7i-ri»iasu. It rains a great deal these days lokakii yasiii viono zva hayakii 
sotijimani. Cheap things soon wear out. 

Lxxvii] Ordinary Adverbs 353 

the same effect as italics in English. It may be added to 
/ substantives (p. 323),' adverbs (p. 3 14b),' postpositions, con- 
ditionals and subordinatives : 

So yatte koso kokd to in mono da. 
To act like that is filial piety indeed, 

Nihonjin kara cJiokiisetsu ni naratte koso honto no Nihongo 
ga oboerareni no ni, S' /uis'san wa gwaikokuj'in ni tsuite ben- 
kyd wo shite oriniasu. In spite of the fact that Japanese can be 
mastered best by learning directly from a Japanese, Mr. Smith 
is studying under a foreigner. 

i^j .Sae is usually added to substantives, '"^adverbs or stems of 
verbs in conditional or concessive clauses (p. 2793), and often 
occurs in the combination i^de) sae (mo) : 

Kodovto de sae mo yoku wakani no ni 

Though even a child can understand 

' Sura is used only with substantives, postpositions, subordina- 
tives and in the idiom {de^ sura {ind) : 
Is sen siira motanai. I have n't even a cent. 
Chanto slioko wo misete sura {mo) so de iiai to iimasu. 
He denies it even though I show him the evidence. 
Naporeon de sura mo RosJiiajin no tame ni yabiirareniashita. 
Even Napoleon was defeated by the Russians, 

<^i Dani is used, with substantives, in the same sense as sura. 

3. Finally we have the particle mo. It serve to modify the 
word which it follows and has the sense of (a) "also," " too,'" 
" on the other hand," and (b) " even." 

Kore mo yoroshii. This also will do. 
Anata mo oide ni narimasu ka. Will you go too? 
A Shdyu wo ((?) shitaji to mo iimasu. > - 
.Shoyu is also called shitaji. 
Ima mo so in shukzvan ga nokotte orimasu ka. 
Does such a custom persist even now ? 
Hitori mo orimasen. There is not even one there. 
Mono {wo) mo iivazu {ni) without saying anything at all. 
Hitotsu mo nokosazu {ni) v^ithout leaving a single one. 

a Observe the position of jjto ; one never licnrs ihi/aji mo to iimasu. 

354 The Adverb [lxxvii 

Do sum koto mo dekizu. It can't be helped ( — Shikata ga nai). 
In many negative expressions mo is untranslatable ; 

kagiri vio nai unlimited, infinite. 

kawari mo nai unchanging. 

kono ne mo nai unsurpassed (of good things only). 

onioi mo yoranai unexpected, 

Waruku mo na:. That's not bad. 
, Ariso mo nai hanashi desu. It's improbable (p. 276b.) 
Compare adverbial expressions like ma-mo-naku (p. 315). 

Added to interrogatives mo makes them universal indefi- 
nites (Ch. XVII.) : 

itsu made mo for ever. 

doko made mo to the utmost, to the very end. 

ikutsu mo, ikiira mo, ikutari mo, etc., very many. 

ika-ni-mo indeed, very. ^ 

When mo is repeated it has tlie sense of "both- — and," or, 
with a negative word, " neither — nor " : 

Kore mo are mo ii. Both this and that are good, 

Novii mo ka mo takusan orimasu. 

Both fleas and mosquitoes are plentiful. 

Pen mo inki mo arimasen. There is neither pen nor ink. 
Mo rarely serves as a conjunction (p. 400, i6). ^ 

The combination de mo { = de atte mo) or, more emphatic- 
ally, de sae mo or de sura mo, may be rendered " even." De 
mo is also used to make the sense of a word vague and may be 
rendered " such a thing as," " or something of the kind " (p. 
178b), or, with a negative word, " exactly " (p. 237a). De mo 
with interrogative pronouns makes emphatic indefinites (Ch. 
XVII). It takes the place not only of zva, ga and zv?, but also 
of other particles. Like mo it may be added not only to sub- 
stantives, but also to particles and postpositions : 

. Daigakusha de sae mo tvakarimasen. 
Even great scholars do not understand. , 

a From the classical ika n-i=dd how? Ika ni sliife ino=^db ihite mo. Ika :ii 
mo meant originally " in every way." It is now often used as a response in 
conversation like the English " To be sure ! " 

b ]Mo also enters into the idiom— /vz mo s/drenai (p. 109a), concessivcs like 
l^erednnio and to iedoiiio (pp. 99, 245J, yori mo (p 136), moshi mo, etc., witliout 
making any perceptible addition to the sense. 

ixxvii] Ordinary Adverbs 355 

liuipitsu de 1110 yorosliii. A lead pencil will do. 

Gakusha de vio gozaiinasen. He isn't what you call a scholar. 

Pen de mo euipitsu de 1110 ariviasen. 

There is not a pen of any sort nor any pencil. 

Gun ni naranai {nariimai^ mono de mo nai (common idiom). 

It is not impossible that he will become a representative. 

Dj de mo kamaimasen. Any way will suit. 

N'atsu de mo yasumi iva arimasen. 

[1] have no vacation even in summer. 

Seiyd no yoi shibaiiva Kobe de vio ^ metta ni mirareuuisen. 

One can seldom see a ^^ood European play even in K5be. 

Sore de mo ham wo tatemasen. 

He nevertheless did not get angry. 

Jya de mo o de mo kamaimasen. '' 

I don't care whether he likes it or not. 

Mukr>jiina made de mo ikitai to omoimasu. 

I should like to go at least as far as to Mukojima. 

Nan-de-mo is used adverbially in the sense of " at all events," 
" probably." : 

Nan de-mo benkyo ga kanjin da. 

In any case diligence is the important thing. 

Nan-de-mo jibun de Tokyo ye ittarasJiii. 

It seems likely that he himself has gone to Tokyo 

The combination to mo in Nan to mo iemasen needs no fur- 
ther explanation (p. 342b). h\ other connections to mo ap- 
pears to be elliptical, as in Kayiikii mo nan to mo nai (p. 252b), 
where to mo — nan to in koto vio ; or, So to mo (or 7va^ sliirazu, 
where so to mo — sonna koto ga am to in koto mo. In replies 
to questions to mo is especially common and has the sense of 
" most assuredly " : 

Kimasu to mo. He will certainly come. 
Arimasu to mo. Of course there are. 

4. Our " yes " corresponds to so da, so desu, sayd de gosai- 
///c/^;/: (but see also p. 134a); "no," to so ja nai, sayj de zva 

a In this case not Kol>e tic de mo. Ikil cvtii lliis is n possible construction ; 
c. g., Nihon de va Nichiyobi dc mo l^amnivazit shdbai wo itashimosu, Yokohami 
de de vio dcsti tea. Tn people do business even on Sunday (lit. even on 
Sunday not lieeding). Is that the case even in Yokohama? De ino may I)e an 
ellipsis for ni de mo : Dare de mo dekimasn, for, Dare ni de mo dekimasu. 

1) This o is the literary equivalent of liai yes. Compare ozurn or ojim 
ac;rce or comply willi. 


56 The Adverb [lxxvii 

gczaiviaseiJ, etc. One may also repeat the verb of the ques- 
tioa. Wakariviashita ka. Wakariviashita (or Wakar'niiaseii). 
Have you understood ? Yes (or No). The word hai or heir 
alone usually means " yes " in the sense that the speaker is 
attentive to what is being- said to him. Ilai or Jiei and He or 
iya also precede verbs : Hai, ivakarimashita. Yes, I under- 
stand, lie, wakari!;:asen. No, I don't understand. But it is 
a peculiarity of the Japanese that these words refer not so 
much to the objective fact as to the attitude of agreement or 
disagreement with what has just been said (p. 12a): Kyd 
kiviasen ka. Hai (or Sayo de gozaiviasu). Isn't he coming 
to day? No (lit. Yes, i. e., as you say). lie (or So de gozai- 
viaseti) would have to be translated Yes, he will (lit. No. i. e., 
you are mistaken). Hence such combinations as Sayo, kiviasen, 
or. He, kiinasn. 


(Include the new adverbs.) 

clninba lameness, lame per- mokn { = !!ie eye) intersection 

son (or animal). of lines on a checker-board, 

momi red silk cloth. numerative for checkers. 

tsukue [Japanese] table sei energy, force. 

p. 96d). dam-pan conference, negoti- 
o ha-giiro black- dye for the ation 

teeth. ^ daji-nen {dan^=kiru, nen — 
ma-go one in charge of a omoi) ceasing to think 

horse, hostler or driver. about, giving up. 

mayu eyebrows. fu-sokii insufficiency, dissatis- 
mayii-ge " {ke hair). faction. 

naga-iki long life. nani Jusokii ga nai is well off. 

o ^/^z-^/{'z execution (of crimi- i-chi position, situation, 

nals). i-sho clothes, 
y^ (c) = <^a place (in composi- jis-sai actual conditions, 

tion), practice.'^ 

a In olden times all married women blackened their teeth. It was a mark o! 
faithfulness and respectability. The best quality of Iiaguioh^\\\% made of iron- 
ore it was called kane. To dye the teeth is o hagiiro ico fsukerii. 

1) Also used as an adverb in the sense " \v. reality." 

Lxxvii] Ordinarv Adverbs 357 

v'kin-shi>i circumspection, mod- dame na useless, impossible. 

eration, hay am prevail, be in fashion, 

iiiei-yo honor, reputation. hayari no fashionable. 

on-do temperature. ;;/<? no cJiikai shortsighted. 

ri-kuisu reason, argumenta- — ni otorn be inferior to. 

tion. kokoro-eru perceive, under- 

shi-dan division (of the army). stand. 

ship-pai failure. kaviai-tsukeru pay attention 

shukwan habit, custom. to (with 'ivo^. 

isu-sho commerce. oi-harau drive out. 

tsu-yj being in common use, kou beg. 

currency. ania-goi n>o sunt, pray for 

yo-jo talving- care of the rain. 

health. hiiki sum favor, be partial to 

jo-bi-gun standing army. ^ (with wo or ni). 

kai-siii-yokti sea (water) bath- jo-yakii wo uitisubu make a 

ing. treaty, 

vioi'jo permit, license. i-slia ni kakarii consult a 

ryokd-nienjo = ryokdke)i pass- physician. 

port. on-gi ni kanznru feel grate- 

lUoi distant, estranged, un- ful for kindness. 



Ikaniuio ossJiam tori de gosaimas. Ima de mo Nikon no 
onna 7va mayuge wo otoshimas' ka, Sayo sa, wakai onna wa 
mina tatete imas ; mata toshiyori no uchi ni mo Seiy.o/ii ni 
tatete irii onna mo arimas'. 1' Anata wa, Jiodo no ii koto bak- 
kari^ {o seji bakkari) itte imas\ Kore tua kotjgakko (p. 55 a) 
de bakari mochiiru tokuhon des\ Mada Nihon no cha wa 
nonde mita koto ga arimasen kara, ori ga attara, ippai 
fionde Diitai inon des" . Kobaii zva mo sappari tsuyo shinakti 

a Yiom jd:=:isuite >ii, bi=^sonaeru have in readiness, and }^iin army. 1 lie 
first reserve is yo-bi-gun, fiom yo=araknjiine beforehand; the second reserve, 
kd-bi-^Hii, from ko, a variant o^ go=znochi. 

Ij Jlfayiige is often pronounced maige. Mayuge 7('0 otosu shave tlic eyebrows i 
inayugt 1V0 tateni let I lie eyebrows grow. 

c I/otlo 110 ii kcfo ^aiXcry. Willi bakni i \hc particle 7('<7 is rarely used: kofo 
'ivo luikafi. In the next sentence note llu- position of tie: kbt(>^akkd bnkari de 
means " it being only a college." 

358 The Adverb [lxxvh 

iiarii)uisJita. Konogoro s" kosJii mo nine git furimaseii /cam, 
hyak'sJio ga kouiatte aviagoi wo shim as'. Ooka Echizen no 
kami wa ^ hito no kao wo misu ni saiban zvo shimaslita ; naze 
vai^eba, kao ivo mireba, shizen to docJiira ka {ni) Itiiki sura 
kokoro ga okorii kara des\ Itsu mo go kigen yo irasshaiuiasliie 
kekko de gozainias\ Do hi fu ni tenarai no keiko wo s/itara yo 
gozainiash'j. So de wa ikeniasen ga, kj nas tiara yorosliYi gozai- 
inasho. Nikon no jobigun iva tatta^ j'Yi san shidan sh'ka ari- 
masen. Ano hito xva taiso kinshin sJite sake wo nonianaide ori- 
mas' . Tadainia yonda bakari des' kara, oboete ir:i Jiazu des'^a.^ 
Sakuban no kyaku wa ikntari desh'ta ka. Mina de pi nin 
inanekimasJi ta ga, tatta roku nin sh' ka kiniasen desk' ta. Gakn- 
vion, sae areba, meiyo no am ichi ni noborenias' . Watakiishi 
no tokei wa mo yo ji ni narimas ; shikashl cJianto atte irii 
ka do da ka wakarimasen. Sonna ni osoku wa gozainiasen \ 
mada san ji han des\ Ano uma iva chiinba da kara, tada 
de mo iya da. Inn de sae mo sJiiijin no on wa ivasurenai. 
Amari kaze ga fuite irn yj de wa arimasen . O takii de xva 
mina sania o katvari mo gozaimasen ka. SeiyJ no siizume wa 
OS to mesto wa keiro ga iaiso c'ligaimas ga, Nikon no wa 
mes'moos'mo (ov to) onaji koto des\ Tskikawa Goemon ga'^ 
o skioki ni nam toki ni, ivataknshi wa tada wazuka no kane 
IVO nusmida bakari des" ga, HideyosJii wa tenkajii wo niisn- 
niimasJ^ta no ni, naze watakuski bakari skirabete IlideyosJii 
iva sliirabemasen ka to moskimasJi ta. Gasskukoku '^^ seifu wa 
baknfu to nagakti dampan wo slita aio de ydyakii tsusko-joyaku 
wo musubiniask'ta. Mago ni mo isJio (Proverb). "^ Kobo ni 

a This is Ihe name of a machi-hugyo in Edo in the XVIII. Century, who is 
famous among the Japanese for tlie Solomonic wisdom of his judgments. The 
city was governed by two bugyo who possessed military and judicial as well as 
administrative functions. Echizen is tlie name of a province on the coast of 
the Japan Sea; kami lortl Titles like Echizen no Ka;ni, originally used only 
of tlie lord of the country, gradually became applicable to others. 

b Tatta is used when a quantity is regarded as very small. Compare fada 
go yen satsn ichi inai shika motanai and tatta issen shika viotatiai. 

c A notorious robber at the end of the XVI. Century. 

d Giissliu-kokii the United States, from gd^=^awaserii, shit province and kokn. 

e Clothes make the man. Compare the other proverb ; I\Iiigi-ivnra iiingyo 
mo ishd-g:7ra. Even a doll made of wheat straw [is judged according to] the 
qnalitv (:f its clothes fp 217a). 

Lxxvii] Ordinary Adverbs 359 

vio Jude no ayainnri (Proverb). ^ Oya ko no nida vio sent 
kane wa tanin da (Proverb). ^' Taiko savia no shinda no wa 
Keicho ^ san nen sunaivachi sen go hyakii ku ju Jiaclii nen de- 
sk' ta. Vo IV a ato m sh'te inazti agari nasai. Mo shakkin 
iva sukkari knesJCte sJiimaimasli ta kara, kore de anshin des\ 
Kyjio no jinko zva oyoso san ju roku man nin giirai des' . 
Mj hitotsu uieshiagare. Mo kore kiri kintasen ka. O me wa 
ikaga des ka. Arigatj, kono setsti wa daidn yd gozaimas'. 
Nikon ni mo kinnen tva kaisuiyoktijo ga tak'san dekimask'ta. 
Wataktishi wa go no sense i ni skicki mokii okasete morat'e mo 
skiju inakete imask'ta ga, dandan jozu ni ftatie ima de zva yd- 
yaku kaisu yd ni nariinash'ta. ^ Fujisan wa itsii mo yiiki ga 
tsumotte ite sJiirokii miemas'ka. lie, goku ats'ku nareba, kito 
ts' ki giirai no aida yuki ga mienaku narinias" . Naratta ji 
wo orifiiski knrikaesanai to, wasuremas\ Mo ryokomenjo no 
negai wa dasJiiniasJita ga, mada vienj'o tua sagarimasen. 
Omae koso uso-ts' ki (liar) da. Sonna koto wo onna de mo deki- 
mas" ; mask'te otoko wa naosara {no koto) ^ des\ Kono setsu zva 
tokakii Jiitogorosin ga okute komarimas\ Kore koso itte mina- 
kereba narimaseu. Taiso koneotte ydyaku Nikon no kon ga 
shosko yoineru yo ni narimask'ta. Sonna ni is" kiie ni kuttsuite 
yonii nasaru to, o me ga nao ckikaku narimas'yo. Sekkakn 
dekiagaru to, siigu ni kowarete sliimaimasJi ta. Sekkakn takai 
oniocJia zvo katte yatta no ni, sngu kowask'te skimaimask'ta. 
Tako ga yoyo agari mask' ta. Kono sets' zva amari yd 7110 
ariinasen kara, kaskikon ^ de mo yomimasko. Kore kara 
Nikongo bakari is' kaimasho. Ano kito zva ko mo aru ski {ari) 

a A'odo is an abbreviation of A'o/m Daislii, the great teacher Kdbo [/■:d=/nro- 
vieru promulgate, hd law). He was the founder of the Shin-gon {==makoeo no 
kotoba) sect and is renowned as a scholar and penman. 

b When it comes to a question of money even such a close rclalioii as that 
between parent and child is like the relation between strangers. I'or zeiii 
/cane see p. 225a. 

c Tlie name of a nengo, 1596 — 1615. 

d The checkerboard is go-ban; the checkers are go-islii. '1 lie one who 
occupies {ishi wo oku) the larger number of poinls (///<?) on llie board wins. 
The teacher handicaps himself Ijy allowing liis pupil at the beginning of the 
game to occupy seven points. 

c Maihi/e — naosara\no kolo desii, is a common pleonastic idiom, like /<ida — 
baknii, inosld ■, tatoi — ;«<?, etc. A'aosnrn [noko/o) desii is elliptical for nao- 
snrn deldm /lasu desu. 

f An entertaining book borrowed from a kashi-hon-yi}. 

360 The Adverb [lxxvii 

kane mo am sJii {ari) naui hitotsu Jusoku ga nai. Kessli te 
so izvarenai to wa ieinasen ga, tsurei so wa iimasen. Maido 
kodouio ga agarimasJi te jama wo itashimas\ Do itashi- 
inasJi te ; nigiyaka de kaette yorosJm gozaimas\ Maido o se7ua 
lit iiarimaslite osoreirimas' . Ano hiio tva givanrai karada ga 
amari jobn de nakatia ga, yojo ga yokatta mofides' kara, 
Jiagaiki wo itashimaslHta. Isai torishirabeta tie de (after) 
mdshiagemasJiJ. Ikura negatta tokoro ga, shosen kiite knre- 
inai kara, dannefi sum yori hoka arimas mai. ^ Kotio yd ni 
itte kikaslite mo. kikanai nara, igo wa issetsu kamai-tsuken 
kara so omoe. Oils' ke do ni ka nariviasho. '^ Ikubunka 
kokoroe no nai hito ni wa. ikura tokiakasli te yatte mo, naka- 
naka ivakarimas mai. Nanigoio ni yorazu ^ heizei chili s/ite 
orafiai to, iokaku shippai shimas\ Anata no ossJiam koto tva 
mochiron rikutsu ni zva kanatte orimas ga, jissai ni wa uto 
gozaimas\ Zentai ay a ga warui kara, kodomo ga anna tsuina- 
ranai mono Jii natta no da. Sono kimono wa monii no ura wo 
ts' keiara, isso rippa ni narimasho. Dose, mutsukashii mono 
nara, isso ko yatte miiara do des' . Tori ya kemono de sura 
mo on %vo ukete wa kaes'koto zvo sh'tte om no ni, hito to sh'te 
ongi 7ii kanjiru kokoro no nai mono wa tori kemono ni mo otoru 
mono de %va arimas'mai ka. Go kigen yoroshu gosaimas'ka. 
Ilai, kawatta koto mo gozaimasen. Isai sJiochi itashimash'ta. 
Kodomo zva gakko kara yagate kaette kurii jibun des". Kono 
gakko no seito wa moppara Eigo wo benkyo sh'te orinias\ 

I liave already forgotten [my] German entirely, since I can no 
lon.i^er associate with Germans (opportunities to associate with 
Germans have become not existent). Why do Japanese women 
dye their teeth black? I don't know why it is, but such 
is the custom (it is such a custom). As it is Cool to-day, there 
will hardly be so many mosquitoes (mosquitoes will hardly come 
out so much). The temperature (of) this morning was about 
five degrees below {ikd) zero. I {nl tva) have only one brother; 

a Tokoro ga, or tokoro de, makes a clause concessive •,={kurn negatte mo. The 
idiom — yori hoka nai there is no way but lo — is also a very common one. 

1) Do ui ka nam will come to some (satisfactory) conclusion. 

c Translate: it doesn't matter what the business is. 

i.xxvii] Ordinary Adverbs 361 

he is ten this year (this year ten becoming brother — but one 
there is). In Japan not only adults but even {de 1110 or viade 
ind) little girls use {ts kerti) face-powder. Even monkeys 
[sometimes] fall from trees. ^ Please speak (use) Japanese 
only. At last the preparations are (have been) finished. It 
was my intention to go second class, but, if you go first class, I 
(too) will likewise go with you {go issho ni itasu). By this 
time it is useless to consult a physician (though you consult a 
physician, it is useless). Formerly there was also in Japan a 
feudal system, but after the Restoration it went to pieces. As 
there is still work {yd) in the house, wait a little longer and 
go out {dete ike) to make your purchases afterwards. After 
{tatte) two years I at last became able to talk (at last it became 
that {yd Jii) speaking was possible). After having the teacher 
explain two [or] three times^ I at last understood. When may 
I send the messenger? Any time will do. You may go out 
now and tlien for recreation {asobi ni). As I drove him out 
of (from) the house, he will not come a second time {1110 fta- 
tabi). That lady Ls always wearing fashionable clothes. Some- 
times {toki to slite or toki ni yotte) I drink as much as (even) 
ten glasses of beer. Another day we will again speak of it 
{sore zua 1). Usually the Japanese do not smoke tobacco while 
they are at work {hataraite irii aida wa). There are very few 
Europeans that can read Japanese books. At present I have 
no particularly good ideas {kangae). In your composition 
{wa i) there are not so many mistakes; it is fairly well done. 
At any rate {nanibun), since the days are short, we can't do 
more than this (can do only this), though we work with all, 
our might. Formerly when I was in Germany I met Bismarck. 

a This proverb is often joined to the one given above : ICobo ni mo f tide no 



Words in Japanese which correspond to English prepositions 
must be called postpositions, for the reason that they follow the 
words that they govern. These particles may be divided into 
two groups : , postpositions proper and quasi-postpositions. 
Postpositions proper immediately follow the words that they 
govern. Some are particles, like de, ni, and to, while others 
were originally substantives, which, however, are no longer 
felt to be such. Quasi-postpositions are really substantives, 
still used as such, to which dependent words are joined by 
means of the particle ?io. There are also certain subordinatives 
that are used like English prepositions. 

Often where the English employs prepositions other construc- 
tions are required in Japanese : 

Mizu zvo abiru bath in cold water. 

Machi zvo ariikii walk about the town (or walk the streets). 

NiJion wo (or karci) tatsn start from Japan (or leave Japan). 

Soko wo ttgoicha ikenai. You must n't move from that place. 

Gakko wo sotsiigyd sum graduate from the school. 

Shina wo iubi sura travel through China. 

Hito no koto zvo omoii think of a person. 

Isha wo yobi ni yarn send for a physician. 

Zaisan no nai hito a person without property. 

Sliippo no inijikai neko a cat with a short tail. 

\Va often occurs where we should expect a postposition : kono 
ni san nichi zva \\\ the last two or three days, Tokyo atari zva 
in the region of Tokyo, about Toky5, etc. 

I'o the postpositions proper belong de, ni, to, kara or yori, 
made and ye. These can be used with adverbs : yoru osoku 
made until late at night. Compare to kara for a long time, and 

a "Preposition" is zen-chi-ski ; postposition, /co-chis/ii; zeii^=iiiae, /co=go=: 
tto-chi, c/n=oku. 

Lxxviii] De, ni, to 

to ni a long time ago, from toku. Sometimes ni is added to 
another postposition, as in made ni (see the following Chapter). 
When ill English a prepositional phrase is used to modify a 
noun, no is required in Japanese : 

Tokaido ye no risYi distances (in ri) to [points on] the Tokaido. 

Tokyo made no kippu a ticket to Tokyo. 

NiJion to no ko-isu intercourse with Japan. 

The remainder of the chapter will be devoted to explaining 
the uses of de, ni and to. 

I. De may be local and instrumental, like the classical nile. 
It also performs a function similar to that of the subordinative. ^ 

(i.) De is used in a local sense, answering the question 
*' Where? " when the verb indicates an action or a certain state 
of things : 

Kochira de zva sonna koto xvo shiviasen. 

Here we don't do anything of the kind. 

Nihon de zva do shiniasu ka. What do they do in Japan ? 

Doko de viotonie nasainiasJita ka. Where did you buy it ? 

Doko de dekiviashita ka. Where was it made? 

Givaikokn de shininiashita. He died abroad. ^ 

Chizu de sagashidashite kudasai. Please look it up in a map. 

Koko de matte iniasho. I will wait here. 

Amerika de wa so in shukivan ga gozainiasen. 

In America there is no such custom. 
De is used in speaking of the mere existence of a thing in a 
place when the place is contrasted with some other place, as in 
the example, p. 35a : Tokngazvake no o taniaya zva doko desu 
ka. Tokyo de zva SJiiba to Ueno ni ariniasu. 

a This distinction between the de s may seem at first sight more subtle than im- 
portant, but it is certainly a factor in determining the usage. In tlie subordina- 
tive is involved the idea of a cause, condition or circumstance which objectively 
or in a necessary way modifies the action or stale expressed by t)ic principal 
word of tlie sentence. Thus a Japanese would not say, Ante ga f title kaerimask'o, 
because the decision to return is not necessarily connected with tlie rain ; but 
it is natural to say, Ame ga ftitte kcttiaiimasii. Now compare : h'ore de ica 
Acmaritnasit. This sort of thing is annoying. Koi e de wakai-e mdshiinnshd. 
t\.\. tliis point I will take my leave. The connection between Kore de and the 
Verb in the former sentence is closer tlian in the latter. 

b " Fie was killed in ilie war between Japan and Cliina" may be citlier 
A'iishiiiseitU) de shiiiiiitaihila, or, )n(;re rarely, jVissMnsen-senso ni shiniinns/iif.i. 

364 The Postposition [lxxviii 

Some expressions with de have passed over from a local to a 
temporal sense : ato de afterwards, =^ soko de now, thenJ' 

(2.) De may indicate cause or means : 

O kage sain a de naorimashita. 

Thanks to your aid, I have recovered (p. 14c). 

Kono attaka na tenki de zva kbri ga tokeniasho. 

With this fine weather the ice will probably melt. 

Take de dekita shina wares made of bamboo. 

Bo de iiaguru beat with a club. 

Furie de (or fiine ni notte) iku go by boat. 

IcJii nichi de dekiinasho. It can probably be done in a day. 

Zokugo de iva ko iiinasu In the colloquial they say... 

Yinne de inita koto ga aru. I have seen it in a dream. 

Iclii yen de kaiinashita. I bought it for a yen. 
Sometimes either de or ni may be used with practically no 
difference in the sense. Simply to "dream of a thing" is 
usually mono wo yutne ni viiru. IcJii yen ni kaiviashiia (or 
uriviasJiita) does not differ from ichi yen de kaimashita (or 
urnnashitd) any more than the English " buy at one yen " 
differs from " buy for one yen." 

(3.) De may indicate a condition or a circumstance : 

Kore de it. This will do. 

Ariazvase de yoroshii. What is on hand will do. 

Miltsn de iakusan desu. Three are enough. 

Mina de san ju ni narimasu. There are thirty-ft»@ in all. 

Raigetsu de iva osoija nai ka. Won't next month be too late ? 

Some of the adverbial expressions into which de enters come 
xinder this head : e.g., fntari de the two together, etc. (p. 65), 
hisashiburi de after a long interval (p. 338b). There are 
many such adverbial phrases ; e. g., sono ikioi de {ikioi power) 
in consequence of the impetus gained, at that rate : 

Sono ikioi de stisnuieba jiki ni Nihongo ga hanaserii yd ni 
nariniashd. If he keeps on at that rate, he will soon become 
able to speak Japanese. 

a Compare : O ato /cam mairiinasho. I will go after you, i. e , later (p. 257a). 
O ato ni [tsuiti) tnairimashd. I will go behind you. Ilito no ato tii tatte imasu 
He is standing behind some one. See p. 338, bottom. 

b Ima de=tma ni shite or ima ni natte under the present circumstances: inia 
de ieba according to present usage. 

ixxviii] De, id, to 365 

Note also : sore de or (with a future verb) sore de zva, sore Ja 
in those circumstances, then, in that case. 

There are also conjunctional phrases like tokoro de. ^ Toko- 
ro de, or de alone, often serves as a superfluous connective be- 
tween sentences in the same way that many use " and " in 
Knglisli. Note the elliptical expression : Dori de. Quite right I 

De is used with predicate substantives in the idioms de am 
{cle gozaiijiasit) and de iru {de irasshaimasii) : Hei-ki de irii. 
He's unconcerned. 

(4.) De may have the sense " on the part of " and be practi- 
cally equivalent to ga, especially with words denoting a body 
or a corporation (p. 126c) : 

Seijn de liaraisage ni nariniaskita. The Gov't has sold it. 

fiinmin no zvarui ?io de zva nai ; sei/u de inachigatta no desu. 

It's not the people's fault ; it's the Government that blundered. 
So also bakiific de the government of the Shogun, keisatsii de 
the police, kivaisha de the company, seken de the world, etc. 
To the same class may be assigned the peculiar expressions 
ucki de zva or teniae de zva we, yado de zva^ or takii de zva my 
husband, nmko de zva or saki de zva he or they, etc. 

(5.) De with substantives is often equivalent to de atte or 
deshite (p. 89c.) : Shinipai de naranai. I am exceedingly anx- 
ious (p. 158b). It takes the place of the ending kiite with 
quasi-adjectives : Byoki de arukenai. ^ He is so sick that he 
can't walk. It is used in the same way with substantivized 
adjectives or verbs (Chapters XXXVII.. LXIV.). '^^ 

2. The particle ni has a great variety of uses. 

(i.) Ni has a local sense, answering the question " Where? " 
when one thinks of the mere existence of a thing in a place, 
that is, when aru, oru, iru, or one of the corresponding polite 
verbs, constitutes the predicate : 

a Tokoro de, like ioko ga, oflen lias an adversative sense : YonJe viifa 
tokoro de, ivatakushi ni 10a iotemo wakari?nasutnai kara, yosItiiiiasJi7>. Vmcw ilK)Ugh 
I read it I should not understand it at all ; so I will give it up. 

I) The ^oxiS. yado alone may mean " lodging place " or " liusband." 

c The de in, Byoki de yaseinashita. He is emaciated on account of sickness, is 
felt to be diffcrcnl from llic byoki de above. 

d Tlic negative subordinal ive in iinide is derived from the negative present 
form and de. 

366 The Postposition [lxxviii 

'Jai/nnraiva ni ai i^a takusau orimasu. 

In the Tama River there are many trout. 

I'aniagaiva de ai go. takiisan toremasu. 

Li the Tama River man)' trout are taken. 
C Boshi IV a doko ni arimasa ka. Where is my hat? 
\ Doko de boski %vo kaiuiasko ka. Where shall I buy a hat? 

Sometimes ni occurs with other verbs or with adjectives 
when the idea of being in a place is the prevailing one : 

Konokawa ni iva unagi ga oi. Eels are numerous in this river. 

Mitko ni Diiemasu. Over there it is (appears). 

Te ni motte irnasu. He has it in his hand. ^ 

Soto ni hiio ga matte iviasu. There is some one waiting outside. 

Soto 7ii gonii ga tatte iniasii. It is dusty outside. 

Koko m suzvarivias/ij. 1 will sit here, 

Ta ni kzisa ga kaeta. Weeds have grown in the paddy-field. ^ 

Kabe ni ana ga aite iru. There is a hole in the wall. 

Shivibun ni kaite' aru. It is in the newspaper. 

Tonari ni ie ga tatta. A house has been built next door. 

In the last examples it is a question whether the ;// should not 
be parsed as the particle of the indirect object, especially when 
the verb is made transitive : kabe ni ana wo akeni, skinibun 
ni kakiiy tonari ni ie zvo tatern. '^ 

Such verbs as siimu or suinan dwell, toiiiani sit (of a bird) 
or lodge, noni be on or ride, etc.,'^ naturally take ni with the 
word that answers the question ** Where ? " 

(2.) Ni is the proper particle to use with words denoting 
time, answering the question " When ? " (p. 338) : nichiyo ata- 
ri ni about Sunday, asa to ban ni in the morning and in the 
evening (p, 8ib). Note also: hi ni san do zutsii three times a 
day ; san nen ni ichi do once in three years. ^ 

a Te de iiid/e iinmu. He holds il witli Iiis hand. 

b Compare iihua iii tiela ki, iihca ni dekita iiiio (p. 3420). 

C Tonari de would mean "on the pari of my neighbor" : My neighbor has 
built a house. Similarly : Shiinbiin de kakiinashita. It is reported in the news- 

d We sa.y Ji/enska ni nont ride on a bicycle, but jileiislia de iku go by wheel. 
Norn may also mean '■ be induced to take part " : sTnlan iii noru taVe part in a 
consultation (Comp. nori-Ai fii nam, p. 305). 

e Liin ni my mean " until now " or " soon " : Ii/ia ni ko yatte Icurashi ivo shile 
iniaszi. Up to the present time I have been makini^ "^y living in this w.iy. 
]ina hi yokti naiimashv. It will soon improve. 

Lxxviii] De, fit, to 367 

(3 ) With aru and similar words ni may denote possession 
or a close relation (p. 9a) : Ushi ni tsimo ga aru. Watakushi 
ni iva iinbto ga nai. 

(4.) Ni (zaa) may have the sense of " among '^ 

Kono skina ni ko otsu ga gozaimasu. ^ 

Among these goods there are two kinds, first class and second. 

KuDia ni wa ke no s'niroi no mo kuroi no mo arimasu. 

Among bears some have white fur and some have black. 

Ano hito no in koto ni iva machigai ga nai. 

There is no mistake in what he says. What he says is true. 

(5.) Ni may be rendered " in addition to, " besides ", " and " 
(p, 67d) ; e, g., sore ni besides, moreover. In describing ideo- 
grams ni is much used : Meiji no mei zva hi ken ni tsiiki to iit 
ji wo kakimasu. The character mei (P^) in Meiji is composed 
of (written) hi (0) and tsuki (/]). ^^ Note the idioms: 7ien 
ni nen wo irete taking the greatest pains ; korae ni kotaete 
enduring to the utmost (p. 279, 5). Note also proverbial ex- 
pressions like : Unie ni uguisu. Plum-tree and bush-warbler, 
i. e., the nine and the uguisu naturally belong together. Uri- 
kotcba ni kai-kotoba. Tit for tat (compare : " paid back m 
your own coin "j. In idioms like these the idea of contrast is 
often involved : Botan ni karashishi. The peony and the lion, 
i. e,, strength and beauty. 

(6.) Ni may mark the thing into which anything enters or 
to which it is transferred : 

a Compare ; Kono fiitari no aidn ni 7oa ko olsu ga nai. There is no difference 
between the two (no superiority and inferiority). Kb and otsu belong; to u 
scries of ten signs caWcA. jikka)i or eto. 

ho=^ki-no-e tree o/SH=/ii-no-to herb 

Iiei=hi-noe flame iei=hi-no-to glow 

f)d=fsuc/ii-no e earth ki=^isuchi-no-to pottery 

kd = ka-no-e coin shin=ka-no-io hardware 

jin=mizit-no-e sea water ki^^mizu-nOrto fresh water 

These sign are used as we use A, ]', C, etc. They are also used parallel with 
the twelve zodiacal signs, they'/? ;/?' 5//«', to name the sixty years of tlie old cycle. 
I'^or practical jjurposes it is sufficient to learn the first four, kc, o/sii, Iiei, tei. 

1) Tlie part of an ideogram called in JCnglish the radical, wlien it forms the 
left side of the character, is called hen=kata side. Thus the lien /{ is niinhen, 
from idn=hi[o ; '^ is gomhen, from gon=::ko'o/)a. The icmaindtr, the phonetic 
part of an ideogram is called tsickiui ho<\y, from tsukuric make, consliuct. 


68 The Postposition [lxxviii 

//(z/,'o ni ireru put Into a box ; furo ni hairii eater a bath. 

Ilito tokoro ni atsinnaru assemble in one place. 

Yama ni noboru ascend a mountain (also wo). 

Nikongo ni konyaku siiru translate into Japanese. 

(/.) lYi may denote an aim or a result, as in sanipo ni deni 
go for a walk, shippai ni owaru end in failure. 

For ni as used with stems of verbs to express purpose see p. 
278, 3. In the same sense it is used with substantives and may- 
be rendered " for ", " as " ; with substantivized verbs, " to " : 

Kore wo nani ni tsukaiuiasii ka. What is this used for? 

rei no shirnsJd {made) ni sashiageniasn. 

1 offer this as a token of appreciation. ^ 

Gakusha de mo nai ga, kydshl ni wa taiken ii n desii. 

He is not at all a scholar, but very good as a teacher. 

Kome wo tsuhiru ni zva mizu ga takusan nakereba naranai. 

To grow rice one must have plenty of water. 
Ni may have the sense " so as to become," often translated " as" : 

Shichi ni okn deposit as a pledge, pawn. 

Kyakii ni iku go as a guest, be invited out. 

Yoski ni morau receive as an adopted son, 

lin ni agerii appoint as a committee. 

Giin ni senkyo sum elect as a representative. 

Fujisan no koto wo ttta ni yomu compose a poem about Fuji. 

Especially common are the idioms ni sum (p. 215) and ni 
naru (p. 262) : 

Koko wo niwa ni shimasu. I will make this a garden. 

Hito too baka iii sunt make a fool of a person. 

Hanashi no tone ni naru afford a topic for conversation (or 
a story). 

Tame ni naru hanashi profitable conversation. 

Kwokoku ni nam make a [good] advertisement. 

Mu-chu {inii=yume, chii — naka) ni naru become absorbed. 

Ate ni naranai hito a person not to be relied on. 

Kodomo no bydki ga ki ni natte hitobanju nerarenakatta. 

The child's illness affected me so that I could not sleep all 
night. With ki ni naru, compare ki ni suru, p. 215, lO. 

A common expression employed when a gift is offered. 

Lxxviii] De, m, to 369 

(8.) Ni is used to form adverbs. In this connection note 
such phrases as: oshii koto ni xva (p. ii/d) and to say; 
shiazvase na koto ni zva happily ;fushigi na koto ni wa strange 
to say. 

(9.) In the following very common idioms 7ii may be liter- 
ally translated " in," often having the sense of " according to " 
'' or in regard to " : 

Kaeri ni tacliiyoriinaslio. I will call on my way back. 
Sono koto zva Jianashi ni kiita. I heard it in conversation. 

Kotowaza ni to iivias' . In a proverb it is said that 

Aru Into no hanashi ni zva to iu koto desn. 

Some one has told me that 

Kotaeviasuru ni zva (or kotaete) to mosJiiinashita. 
He replied that...... 

WatakusJii no ovioiinasu ni zva.. .....{yd desn). 

I think that "^ 

Naze to iu no ni kara desu. The reason is tiiat 

Kakii ni koinariinasu. It is difficult to write. 

Koraern ni koraerarei.u. One cannot endure it (p. 274,2). 

Sono kotoba zva ko iu inii ni (or de) isukainiasu. 

They use the word in this sense, namely 

Tomaru zvake ni wa ikanai (or ikenai). [I] may not stay. '^ 

(lO.) With causatives and passives ni indicates the agent. 
Compare: Watakushi ni zva dekiniasen. I can't do it. 

Honorifically ni zva may take the place of zva with a subject, 
as in Kzvogo heika ni zva (p. 3i3f). 

Ni may also indicate a cause, being equivalent to no tame ni 
" on account of" : 

Ftine ni you be seasick ; sake ni you be intoxicated. ^'' - ''^ ' 

/// 7ii yakeru be sunburned. 

Naviida ni kurete irti be blinded with tears. 

Kane ni koniaru be troubled on account of money. ^ 

a There is no appreciable difl'erencc between ivatakiishi no otitoiinasu ni wa 
and ivatakiishi no ka}ii^ae de iva. A sentence beginning with the latter phrase 
may end with /o o/noiinasit. 

b Note tliat wliile one may say, Watakushi wa ikanakei eba nariinasen, a 
phrase like itle iva na/a/tai cannot Ije used iu the first person. But — wake ni 
70a ikaiiai may be usexl in any person. 

c Wlicn the cause of distress is not an external object, a subordinative or 
de Ijetler : Bitnbo de (or «?' loa') kr>nai-N. 

370 The Postposition [lxxviii 

Shujin no kemniaku ni osorete 

Being afraid of the master's [angry] appearance 

Kao no ivartii no ni %va odorokimashita. 
I was startled by her ugliness. 

The verbs kanzuru, kansJiin sum, kampukii S7iru (p, 275), take 
ni : Sensei no go on ni kanjiviashita. I was deeply moved by 
the master's kindness. When the object is cognate zvo may be 
used : Itanii ivo kanjiviashita. I felt pain. But kajido suru 
{(id = iigokii move, inter.) takes only ni, never wo. 
Ni may even be instrumental : 

RydJio no te ni hiku lead [two] by the hand, one on each side. 

Hi 7ii hosii dry in the sun ; hi ni sarasu bleach in the sun. 

rei zva kotoba ni tsukusareniasen. 

1 cannot completely express (exhaust^my gratitude in words. 
It appears from the above that the particle ni has more uses 

than any other postposition. As has been intimated (Ch. V.), 
it also performs the function of what we call the Dative Case 
in other languages. With verbs ni indicates the indirect 
object. While in most cases the usage is analogous to that in 
other languages and needs no explanation, in some the 
Japanese is peculiar. 

Transitive verbs often take wo with the thing and ni with 
the person ; e. g., liito ni mono wo yarn. Note particularly 
verbs- meaning to " ask/' etc., like ton (p. 247d), inorii pray, 
negau beseech, tanoimi request, wabiru apologize, etc. Hito ni 
tazujieru is to inquire of a person, but to search for or call on a 
person is hiio wo tazuneru. As in English there is a shade of 
difference between " mix this and that " and " mix this with 
that," so also in Japanese : kot'e to are wo luazeni and kore 7uo 
are ni mazeru. The verb kaeru change is used in the same 

The following are examples of intransitives that take ni. It 
is left to the student to decide to which of the above ten rules 
any particular case should be assigned : 
ataru : tomi ni ataru win in a lottery. 

mizu ga hi ni atatte iru water stands in the sun. 
sakana ni ataru {aterarerii) be made sick by eating spoiled 

Lxxviir] De, ni, to 371 

skitstirei ni atarii (p. 71c) be impolite (of conduct), 
an : nangi ua vie ni mi experience hardship. 

inujitsu no tsitmi ni an get punished for a crime of which one 
is innocent. 
fureru touch {mono ni te wo), infringe, violate. 
kakarii : haibya ni kakarii get consumption. 

isha ni kakarii consult a physician. 

— ni o me ni kakarii have the honor to meet. 
sJiigoto ni kakaru {torikakarii) begin work. 
inichi ni kakatte iru be on the way. 

kamau : Jiito {jio koto) ni karnau be concerned about other 

people's affairs (rarely wo), 
karakau banter : kodouio ni karakaii tease a child. 
katsii : teki ni katsu defeat the enemy (opp. inakerii). 
masarii excel (opp. otoru). 
muku, mil kail, tai siiru face. 

Note compounds like Iian-tai siiru or teki-tai sum oppose. 
oyobu reach (p. \^6-S): Mini ni {zva) oyobanai. It is not 

necessary to look. 
naraii : hito ni naraii learn of a person (but koto zvo narau). 
nirii resemble (Ch. V.). 
sawaru : atsiisa {shoki) ni sazuaru be affected by the heat. 

— no ki ni sawaru offend. 

shakti ni sawaru hurt one's feelings (of a thing). 
sliinobiru endure : Kodomo wo hito-ie ni zuatasu ni shinobinai. 

I can't endure it to give the child to another. 
shi'agaii follow, obey. 
sonmku act contrary to, violate. 
sou be joined to, go along with. 
stigiru exceed : Nagusamino tame ni yatta ni siiginai. He did 

it only for fun. 
takeru, cJwziiru (ideogram cJio = nagai) be expert; 

keizaigaku ni cJiozurii be versed in economics. 
tariru, tarn be sufficient : Kiku ni (jva) tarinai. It isn't worth 

tatsn : yaku {yd) ni tatsu be of use ; me ni tatsu be conspicuous. 
tetsudan : oya ni tetsudati help one's parents (but shigoio wj 

tetsudau, or shigoto no tetsudai wo sum), 
-tsukaeru : otto ni tsukaeru serve one's husband. 

^^^2 The Postposition [lxxviii 

isutovierti : oivaivnisho ni ■isutoviete iru be employed in the For- 
eisrn Office ; sensei ni tsutomeru bo attentive to the master 
(but kyoshi wo tsutomeru peiToini the duties of a teacher). 
tsuku adhere, arrive, etc. : 

sensei ni tsnite keiko wo siiru study under a master. 

shigoto ga te ni tsukanai be unable to get on with the work. 
yoru approach, depend. 
isnztirii be proficient in. 

kan-sJio sum interfere with (but soku-baku sunt is transitive). 
kxvan-kei sum have relations with. 
kyudai sum : shiken ni kyudai s. pass an examination (opp. 

rakii-dai, s.). 
The following will strike the student as being very peculiar : 

may on : viichi ni vmyoii lose the way (also 'wg viachigaet'n'). 

tozakaru : hito ni tozakaru keep away from a person {hita 
wo tdzakere) 

hazureru : kisoku ni hazureie iru be contrary to the rules. 

wakareru : hoyii ni zvakareru part from a friend (also to). ^ 

hanarerti : used with ;//, kara, to or wo. Compare. 

Kokyo ni hanarete leaving home. [England. 

Anierika ga Igirisii kara hanarete America separating from 

Boto ga honsen to Jianareie the boat parting with its ship. 

Kuni tvo Jianarete leaving one's country. 
Even adjectives may take ni : 

Nihongo ni kuwashii. He is well versed in Japanese. 

Tanuki wa kenmri ni yowai. A badger can't endure smoke. 

Tenka ni nadakai hito a man famous all over the country. 

3. To is exactly equivalent to the English " with," which, 
however, may be rendered more emphatically to tonio ni, to 
issho ni. It is used with verbs and adjectives as in the follow- 
ing examples : 

— to (or ni) kanashi zvo sum speak with. 

— to (or ni) isuki-au associate with. 

— to (or ni) yakusokii sum make an agreement with. 

— to (or ni or mo) onaji the same as (p. 39). 

— to kokoro-yasui, kon-i da be intimate with. 

a Wakareru may also take kara in such a sentence as : Kono nc/ii ica miiko 
no okii uchi kara waknre'a no desn This house is a l)ranch of that lari^e house. 


De, niy to 


Kanai to futari de shibai wo mi ni ikimashita. 

I went with my wife to the theater, 

Watakushi to kyodai desu. He is my brother. 

Go isskin no toki ni nengo zvo Meiji to aratamemashita. 

At the time of the Restoration the era was chanijcd to Meiji. 

To is used with sriru as explained on page 216, 10; to nam 
sounds rather bookish. With an, to is rarely substituted for 
ni, but with its compounds (p. 286, 2) to is more common. 
With cJiigau, to should be used, except in the common idiom — 
;// ckigai nai : Chi-niei ni chigai wa nai. It is certainly a 
geographical name (compare p. 315a). With uiajiivaru or 
ko-sai snru either to or ni may be used. 


futokoro bosom. 

hoki broom. 

ikioi powder. 

kanie jar. 

kasti residue, dregs. 

nabe pot, kettle, or pan for 

skicki pledge, pawn. 

tsura face (not polite). 

abura-ini fat, suet, lard. 

o ku-niwa hz.c\^ garden. 

Kvie-bosJii pickled plums. 

hen radical written on the 
left side of an ideogram. 

dak-kin fine. ^ 

choku-yaku literal translation. 

chu-kai annotation, explan- 
atory notes, commentary. 

ei-sei (lit. guarding life) 

sanitation, hygiene. 
fu-shin building or repairing 

a house. '' 
ga-gen (lit. elegant words) 

classical language. 
gak-kzva branch of study, 

lesson, curriculum 
hik-ki memorandum, note. 
jo-rei regulation, rule. 
kan-go Chinese words. 
kei-zai economy, economics. 
kit-cho favorable sign. <^ 
kon-i intimacy. 
kzvai-gi conference, meeting. 
{0) ni-kai second story. '^ 
sei-shiti spirit, intent. 
seki hi stone monument. 

a In modern les^al pliraseology a small fine not exceeding Y. 1.95 is called 

h Y\o\\\ Jii=^ainaneku al large, s/ien—koii hcg; /us/nn orginally meant 
building in connection with a temple but is now synoymous with /ien-chil--u. 

c The character kichi, meaning "good," "lucky," enters into mmy proi)cr 
jiarries. Synonymous with kitcho \s yoi shirase. 

d The ground floor is called simply shi/<i. Tiie third floor is s.rnj^rjt. 

374 TiiE Postposition [lxxmh 

yubin-zei, yu-zei postage. koyasJii fertilizer, manure. '^ 

sho-yu-ken proprietary rights, vmragaru be gathered to- 

kaban trunk^ satchel. gether. 

ami rough, coarse. miira-kumo a cluster of clouds. 

ara-iuono goods made of ochirii flee. 

coarse materials, such as oeru = ozvaru cnd_. complete. 

brooms, ropes, mats, warn- te ni oenai be unmanageable. 

jit etc. uzumerii bury, fill in. 

Nilion-deki no \ made in soumkii {so back, vmkii face) 

wa-sei no \ Japan. ^ act contrary to, violate. 

fu-ryu na tasty, elegant, nine-awaseru, wneyawase ivo 

aesthetic. tsukeru make up the de- 

na ni on famous {on carry). ficiency. 

— ni aviaeru act like a petted tsu-znru be proficient in. 
child toward, take ad- ryu-ko sum prevail, be in 
vantage of. fashion. 

amayakasu pet, indulge nyu-bai ga akeru the rainy 

ataeni grant, bestow. season ends. 

— ni fnreni touch, transgre^s, oroshi de at wholesale. 
koeru become fat, fertile sora de by heart, from mem- 

(tr. koyasri). ory. ^ 


Hokkaido de zva {ni wd) koine ga yokn dekiviasen. Nikon 
ni wa kzvazan ga tak'snn arimas' . Mukaski zva bakuju de 
gzvaikokn ye ikn koto zvo kinjite ari'uasJi to. Sakiinen zva June 
de Hakodate ye ikivtashSta ga, kondo zva rikii no ha zvo ikima- 
slio. Sore dakede^yo gozainias' . Kono nten de zva saknra no 
kana ga chitle sJuniaiinashj. WatakusJd no kangae de zva 
tsumari Nikon sei/u de gzvaikokuji?i ni tocki no shoyuken zvo 
ataeru data to onioimas' . Kodomo zva ainayakas' to kiise ni 
narimas (get spoiled). Hanas (ffj) to in ji zva gomben (^) 
ni sk'ta (^') to in ji zvo kakinias' {in ji des''). Saikyo de zva 
'* taiken " to in iini de yokn " erai " to in kotoba zvo vicckiivias' . 

a " Iniporled" is haku-rai [Jiaku ship, rai=^kti.iti). 
b Also lii-ryo, from Iii^=koyasu. 

c Kore -iVO so7-a de i'iVa7-eiiiasH ka. Can you say tliis by heart? I'roni this 
Sora is derived soranzurti^ans/io suiti memorize. 

Lxxviii De, m\ to 375 

Aid skoshi de (p. 35id)y« )ii ji iii nariinasJio. Kono uvia %va 
abarete te ni oenai. Kane ga nakatta kara, to 'cei wo skichi ni 
okimask'ta. Kono ike ni zva koi ni /una ga oriinas . Ebi de 
tai wo tsuru to iu no iva Doits go no ahnravii de nezu7ni zvo to- 
rn to iu kotowaza to onaji iini des'. Watakuski no tonari ni 
gakko ga iackinias/ita. Tonari de konya konrei ga ariuias' 
kara, sawaide ii?ias\ Kono setomono wa Nihondeki ni chigai 
(zva) nai. Watakuski wa kaze zvo kiita no de zutsit ga skimas' 
Oroski de kan to, yasui. Kore wa Nikon go de nan to mo ski- 
ma s ka. Ckiskinia de wa skake ga dossari torevias\ Kyd no 
koto wa asu ni nobasn na. W arenabe ni tojibuta. ^ Kaeru no 
tsnra ni mizii. ^ Berrin ni zairyYi sk'te iru Nikonjin ni wa ka- 
nai no am kito mo ariinas\ Kono ninjin no ne tva nani ni 
sJiivias ka. Sayo, kusuri ni shimas' . Muko ni kas" ka ni mieru 
yaina wa Kanozan des\ ^ Nikon no gakko no kazn wa mina 
de saniman rok'sen da so des\ Gakkzva no Jiikki zvo ncki ye 
kaetle seis^w skimas\ Ckot'.o kncki ni drmasen.^ Kore zva 
aniari takasugirii ; motto yasui no ni skimasko. Skiinbun- 
jorei ni furete bakkin zvo iornremask'ta. Aniari fube^ikyd 
desk'ta kara, ima ni naite kokzvai skJte inias\ Ilisaskiburi de 
o vie ni kakatimasJi ta.^ Sore zva doko ni mo ir(0'!e iku 
wake ni zva ikemasen. (Jri no tane ni zva nasuli ga kaenn 
(Pioverb). Koyasan ni AkecJii Mitsukide no sekiki ga arinias\ 
Jikogara de (p. 217a) asa ban zva yokodo suzusk'ku narinursk'- 
ta. Mo s'Aoski de nynbai ga akeniasko. Kontban zva o kyaku 
ni ikiuias kara, reif'kn ya nazo zvo yoku slitaku sk' te oite o 
kure. Go skuttats wa i/ckajioro des' ka. Sayo de gozainias" , 
raigetsu no Juts ka mikka goro ni nariniasko. Zen ire ga ya- 
burete do'cka de kane wo otoikimask' ta. Kono kurnnia zva 
furuku natte yakii ni tatanaku nariniask' ta. Ni/ion ni wa take 
de koshir rcta ntsuzva ga tak'san arinias' . Anjt.i yonagigori 
ni kaban wo matte oide nasainias ka. Donio, warui kaze des ; 

a IVarencihe, from ivareru be cracked and nahe kettle; tojibnla from tojiru 
bind 7\.uA fitia lid. For llie meaning of the proberb compare ; " Misery loves 

b Compare the English, •■ Water on a duck's back." 

c A mountain in the [ire^vincc of Ka/.usa, visiljlc from various points in 

d '1 lie meaning is: I know it very well, but I can't for the moment express 

e Note the difference between liisnsliihitii de and Itisnslti/iU (p. 104a), the one 
being used with positive verbs and the other with negative. 

376 The Posii'osition [lxxviii 

sore ni o sJiiiueri ga (rain) chit to vio nai kara, hidoi hokori de 
arukemasen. Hyotmi wo sagete hanami ni iku no wa fiirpi 
iii miemas . Koiio hoki wa kinjo no arauionoya de kaiinash'ta. 
^ O nikai ni itashiinasho ka, sk'ta ni itaskimasko ka. Dochira 
de 1710 kirei na ko ga yoroshii. Anata to zvakarete kara y agate 
avie ga furidashiinasli ta. Mus ko to f'tari de sakana wo 
tsnri ni ikimasli ta Kono shinibun to issJio ni teganii ga 
kimasen ka. Hakurankzvai ni iku yd ni tomodacki to yak' soku 
s/ite okimask'ia ga, saskits' kae ga atte yamemash'ta. Uine- 
boshi to in mono wa time wo skio ni is'kete (p. i6oGf) sore kara 
hinata ni kosJtte mata ts keta mondes\ Watakushi wa xvasit- 
rete orimash' ta ga, konya kzvaigi ga am yo ni techo ni tomete 
arimas kara, kore kara dekakenakereba narimasen. Watakuski 
wa ikanai tsumori des ga, baai ni yotte zva ikanakereba 
naranai ka mo shiremasen. K' ris tokyo zvo skinznrii no zvo 
saiiiatageru no wa kempo no seishin ni soniukimas\ Mada 
narenai mondes^kara, watakciishi zva jitensha zvo norihazuslite 
sono ikioi de hei zvo buchikozvashiuiasJi ta. Chikagoro shinin 
zvo sono mania haka ni iizunierii yori vio kzvaso zvo sum ho ga 
eiseijo kara itte mo mata tochi no keizaijo kara itte mo ryotoku 
(double gain) de am to in setsu ga daibii ryuko sh' te mairi- 
mash'ta. Kyoto no Arashiyama zva na ni ou sakura no nieisho 
des\ " Tsiiki ni miirakunio kana ni kaze " to iu no zva kono ' 
yo no mama ni naranu koto zvo (p. 227a) keiyo sJita kotoba ' 
des\ Oktinizva ni ui/ie no hana ga saite imas' no de zash'kiju 
yoi nioi ga shimas\ Kodomo zvo fiitokoro ni daite yuki no 
naka ni tatle iru onna no e zva Tokiwa ga (p. 162c) kodomora 
zvo tsurete ochite yuku tokoro wo kaita no des. Hito ni oshiem 
no zva taiJien jibun no keiko ni narinias' . Issakiijiisu no jishin 
ni tichi zva o itami nasainiasen desh'ta ka. Yanagi ni 
kaza-ore {kaze ni oreru koto) nashi (Proverb), Bakin no kaita 
Hakkenden zva Nihonjin de shiranai hito wa arimasen. 
Kuchi ni {de) zva so iimas'ga, hara no iichi de zva ko omotte 
imas' . 

^ The Government lias purchased {kaiageni) this lot. How- 
should I say that in Japanese (p. 149,2)? Are battledores all 
made of kiri ? On account of sickness, Ito has not been com- 
ing to recitations {keiko ye denai) for some time, but he will 
at once malce up the deficiency. Are the things that appear 

Lxxviii] De, 112, to ^"/j 

at once make up the deficiency. Are the things that appear 
yonder mountains or clouds ? Japan formerly was not divided 
into ken. They say that it is a favorable sign if you dream 
of Fuji. At London it is seldom quite clear {inattaku harete 
orii). In Japanese books the notes are vviitten above, but in 
Western books tliey are written below. He has two sons and 
three daughters. On this letter there were no {hatte nai) 
stamps ; so 1 was charged {torarerii) double {ni bal no) the 
postage. It is said that the people of Tokyo build with the 
expectation {tsuniori) tliat [the house] will burn once in three 
years. The character " pine " (|^) is composed of " tree " (tJc) 
and " prince " (^). This evening I go to dinner {^go c/iiso) at 
[my] neighbor's. I am so (^ko or konna ni) late, because {no \ 
de) I lost the way coming here {kigake ni). The character 
" cry " {M) is composed of " mouth " (p) and " bird " {%). 
The residue of the sardines is used for manure. I cannot say it 
by heart. The iroha is ifiatte irii) a song, but its meaning is 
hard to understand. At the end of December mochi is made 
(pounded) in every house {ieie de). The Japanese do not mind 
{tonjaku sum) being in a draughty place (place where wind 
blows through). What is in those jars? There is tea in these 
jars. It will be finished {dekiagaru) in two hours. I have 
become quite intimate with him. Hideyoshi's grave is in Anii- 
dagamine. ^ In Sliinto shrines there are {tatte ifu) gohei and a 
mirror. As that is Chinese classical language {kango no g'^gen). 
it is not used in the colloquial. It sounds strange {hen ni kiko- 
eni) if you translate it literally into English, That is certainly 
Vi'rittcn by a Japanese (a thing that a Japanese wrote). This 
will afford a topic for (seed of) conversation. It hurts {sawaru 
the eyes to read by a dim {kiirai) lamp. It is stated {jiotte irti) 
in the newspaper that {yd ni) a Russian man-of-war arrives at 
Yokohama to-morrow. We will spread new mats in the rooms. 
It is said that he is {de) a great scholar and is proficient in ten 
languages (languages of ten coiuitries). Small {koviakai) 
articles if not gathered together and put {irele oku) into boxes 
soon {j'oku) disappear (become invisible). 

n A liill lieliind the Daihn/sn temple in Kyoto. Ainida the chief divinity 
of nortlicrn l>u<l<Uiisni ; tniiie peak. 

378 The Postposition [lxxix 


4. Kara, yorl from, since after : * koko kara from this place ; 
nioto kara from the first ; mukashi kara of old ; saki kara since 
some time ago ; kore kara from here {=koko kara), after this, 
next; sore kara from there, after that, then ; hir?i kara in the 
afternoon ; asa hayakii kara early in the morning ; tsime kara, 
ftidan kara usually ; ura kara from the back, b)^ way of a hint. 

Hata kara kucki wo dasJicha ikenai. It will not do to intrude 
one's opinions. {Jiata kara from a side, as a bystander). 

Hachi ji kara Jiajirnariinasu. It begins at eight (p. 161 c). 

Anata kara o hajivie nasal. You begin. 

Nihojin 110 kavgae kara ieba 

To speak from a Japanese point of view 

Gaktunonjo kara in naraba To speak scientifically 

Kara is also used as a conjunction (p. 401). 

Yori (originally stem o{ yoru, is in the colloquial less com- 
mon than Zv/n?. Note the expressions inoto-y or i o{ coxmsc to 
be sure = gxiuinrai (p. 349), kanete yori for a long time = id 
kara. In making comparisons (p. 136) kara ;//?>«/(? is some- 
times substituted {or yori : 

Nani yori kekko na shina %vo itadaite arigato gozaivmsn. 
I thank you for the handsome (incomparably splendid) gift. ^ 
Yorn osoku made okite iru yori mo asa hayakii okite benkyd 

sum ho ga yoku oboerareniasn. ^ 
One can learn better by rising and studying early in the 

morning than by staying up late at night. 
Nashi zva riiigo kara iiiirn to, yokodo assari shite oriinasu. 
Pears are rather insipid as compared with apples. 

5. Made until, as far as to, to 'A 

a In the sense of " after" Lam is used not only witli substantives, but also 
with subordinalives (p. 96c). In eitlier case i-rai (p. 349c) or koiio-kata may 
be subsiiiuled for kara. Tlie pleonastic idiom — kara irai may be heard 

b Elliplically one may say : Kore raa kore iva nani yori 

C In such a senleiicc the natural predicate is a word like vc/, here convert- 
ed to yoku oboerareniasn. 

d Made is used inclusively ; e.g., Doydbi made yasunde yoros/iii. You may 
take a vacation until Saturday (inclusive). But compare : A'oiio koit wo hajiine 
kara kyakn rnai no fdkoro made yoiiii/iias/iiia. I read to [the beginning of] the 
hundredth leaf of this bock. 

Lxxix] Kara, made, ye 379 

Doko made oide ni nariniasuka. How far are you going ? 
lokyd made iku ri arimasuka. How many ri are there to T. ? 
Ataina nj teppen kara tsiimasaki made doro ni mavitreta. 
I was covered with mud from the crown of my head to the 
sole of my foot (lit. tips of the nails). 
There is a difference between made and made ni (p. i6id) : 
Ban made ame ga fiiriniasJid. 
It will probably rain until this evening. 
Ban made nifitrimasho. 
It will probably rain by this evening. 

Made «/ is used when verbs like "come ", " be finished," etc., 
form the predicates : 

Uchi de macki moshimasu kara, yoji made ni irasshai. 
I will wait for }"ou at home ; come by four o'clock. ^ 
MyonicJii made ni dekimashd. It will be done by to-morrow. 
Note the peculiar use of made 7ii in the sense of " for " or 


as " in such idioms as 

rei no sliiruski made ni sashiagemasu. 

1 offer this as a token of appreciation. 

Go sanko made ni moshiagemasu. I offer it as a suggestion. 

Made in some connections means "everything including 
even," or simply " even," in which case the combination is 
treated as a substantive and maj^ take case-particles or mo 

(P- ^Z^) 

Ni made also occurs : 

Sh'ijin ga ioshiyori wo liajime kodomo ni uiade mo miyage 
wo katte kimaskita. The master bought presents for all, 
from the old folks down to the children. 

Uta ni v:ade mo iita^vareru be the subject even of songs. 

Note finally the use of made with verbs, as in ak7i made to 
the utmost, from akiru be surfeited, and ihe common idiom in 
made mo nai — miiron no : In made mo ?iai warui koto desu. 
It is of course bad (lit obvious badness). 

6. Ye to, toward : givaikoku ye iku go abroad ; ivaki ye dent go 
out [of the house] ; Nilionju ye Jiiromaru be spread throughout 
all Japan, Ye is often suljstituted for 7ii or used jjicgnantly : 

a Yo ji made iiassliai would mean : " Stay till four o'clock." 

So The PosTrosirioN [lxxix 

'JDkyd ye tsuku arrive at Tokyo ; tana ye ogerii put on the 
slielf (metaphorically : be oblivious of) ; yubinkyoku ye yotte ikii 
call at ihe post office on the way ; Teikokii Hoteru ye tomarii 
stop at the Imperial Hotel. Note : Nikon ye atsuraeru order 
from Japan. 


<7n ant. ju-ban 7 undergarment, un- 

lamaskii soul, spirit hada-gi \ dershirt. ^ 

hana-bi fireworks. seibo { = t'jski no kure) a pre- 
/f'<3-^<?/'i7 complaint (p. 15,2). sent made at the end of the 

tsumasaki {tsume no saki) tip year. ^ 

of the toe (nail). so-ho {tovio) both parties (lit. 
yakedo {yake-dokoro) a burn sides). 

{yakedozvo suru^hchvimeA.) so- skin ihe. whole body. 

giin = kdri (p. 324a). tep-pen summit, crown. 

ski = samurai. ; 5/^zw/^^(3z moist, damp. '^ 

skuku relay-station, stopping so-matsu na coarse, rude. ' 

place, post. Jiati creep, crawl. 

yui-no presents exchanged at kakaeru embrace, employ (as 

a betrothal. ^ a workman or servant). 

i-butsu legacy, relics. tobi-criru jump down. 

yo-sko youth, juvenility. nage-suteni throw away. 


Tenski sania wa mcto kara Tokei ni irasskatta no de zva go- 
zaimasen. Asa mo hayaku kara kilo ni koraremas kara, s'koski 

a This is a case o{ yu/oyo/ni {\>. 19), Ihe y/ii being llie stem o{ yiiu to iie (in 
kamiyui). The i in i-bulsu {z=nokosu) is in some compcunds pronounced ^«»; 
e.g., yi/i-£^on or t'-go/i verbal will (of a dying person). So also in i-biitsu ton 
materialism the i {=fada) is often pronounced yiii. 

b An outer shirt, called s/ia/sii, does not come under this head. But Japan- 
ese have also begun to wear flannel shatsu under their hndagi. 

c This is a case of metonymy. Compare a similar transfer of meaning in 
the case of shugi (p. 263). 

d In speaking of the air or climate say shikke {shimeri-ke) ga tstiyoi, not 
shinieppoi. With the latter compare ivasureppoi forgetful; okoippoi irritable, 
akippo! easily tired, fickle, aioareppoi patlietic, etc. 

Lxxix] Kara, made, ye 381 

mo him a ga ariniasen. Shi ju shicJii shi 710 {shi ju shichi nin 
110 gishi no) ibuts'iva ikka {nan nichi) kara iniseru desho ka. 
Kesahodo gakko ye ikii tochu de {inichi de) ko iu mezurashii 
furui hon xvo kaiviash'ta. Kokyo ye nish'ki {nish'ki xvo kite 
kokyd ye kaerii). ^ Sen ri no inichi nio ippo yori hajiniaru 
(Proverb). Danna iva tabi ye dele rusu de gczaiinas' . Yui- 
no wo yam no iva do in zvake des ka. Kekkon sum viae ni 
yak^soku no shirushi t o sh'te soho kara shinainono zvo torikawasu 
no des . Ugiiis'vua doko ye nigeta ka onuie wa niinakatta 
ka. Jibtin no ivarii'i koto wa tana' ye agete hito no koto zvo 
iimas' . Koi zva doko made mo noboru mono des' kara, kodomo 
ga shiisse sum yd ni to itte izjuai ni ts kaimas\ Mado kara 
ts'ki {no hikari) ga saskikonde imas\ Komban June de Ohashi 
made itte hanabi zvo kembutsu shimasho. '^ Seifii kara ^ kono 
jimen zvo haraisage ni narimash' ta. Kore zva somatsu na 
mono de gozaimas ga, o seibo {no shimshi) made ni sashiage- 
inas\ Kore zva, kore zva nani yori no {0) shina zvo itadaki- 
mash'te ma koto ni arigato gozaimas\ Nihon no shibai zva asa 
kara ban made kakarimas\ Itsu made mo ryugaku sh'te irii 
•wake ni zva ikanai kara, ima no iichi yokn benkyo shimasho. 
Yoritomo no koro made zva giinken no seido de arimash'ta ga, 
sore kara hoken-seido ni kazvariinash'ta (p. 324a.) Mutts' 
kara to made no kodomo zva chi zvo hau ari made {ga) Jiiku- 
viu. Mayuge zvo otos'to iu shukzvan zva Shina kara kita so des'; 
Shina de zva ima de mo kodomo made ga mayuge zvo otoshimas" . 
Nihon de zva meshitsukai ga sono tichi no kodomo ni made mo 
teinei ni shim as'. "^^ Mitsugo no tamashii hyaku made (p. 64c). 
Are kara dochira ye irasJiaimash'ta ka. Are kara sugu 
{ni) uchi ye kaerimasJc'ta. Kono zvarui /u ga tdji no hito ni 
made oyonde oru. Doyobi made azukete okiviasho. Doyobi 
made ni tori ni kijnasho. Chikagoro go Soke ye kakae ni nari- 

a The idea of the proverb is that a man shotilil not visit his hirthplaco 
until he has become a distinguished person. 

b O-hashi, a bridge over the Sumida River at Scnjii in Tokyo. In Japan 
jireworks are often sent off from boats on a river. 

c Kara is here used like de (p. 365,4). For haraisageru see p. 286d. 

d leiiui ni sunt treat courteously. In Japan a servant uses respect fill 
Inntru^ge even to the little ciiildren of his master. 

^82 Tni: Postposition [lxxix: 

viasJi'ta bctto wa doko no kuui no v:oiio de gozaiinas' ka. * 
Teviae kara saki ni dele ike. '' Saki ye nms'iue ga inaitte 
oriinas' . Asa kara no oyuki de niicld ga tomariinasJi ta. ^ 
BakucJu ni makete iiani kara nani made tor arete shimaimas/ita. 
Ano anna zva uguisno yd da to in no wa, koe wa ii keredotno, 
kao ga warni to iu koto wo ura kara iu no des\ Uinegatani 
wa aku made chikara no tsuyoi sunwtori de dare n:o narabu 
mono ga nakatta. Kakikata no somatsu na no de tomodachi 
kara tabitabi kogoto wo itte kimas/ita. Asa kara no oyiiki des\ 

From here to the next stopping place it is about four ri. At 

what o'clock will (does) to-morrow's performance begin ? From 

(the time of) [his] youth [his| eyes were bad. I have known 

(am knowing) him for a long time. A wind is blowing {/uki- 

ts'keru) from (the side of) the sea and driving the waves up 

{jiami wo uckiageru) on the shore. A fruit-bearing tree may 

be known fi'om its blossoms (Proverb), Hello, rikshaman ! for 

{de^ how much will (do) you go to the Legation? Take this 

plant out of the pot and plant it in the garden. If a priest is 

detestable, even his scarf is detestable (Proverb). In the time 

of lemitsu the water of the Tama River was brought {Jiikii) to 

Tok)o. A railroad from Aomori to Akita has been completed 

{dekinias/ita). My servant is of course dishonest but, as he is 

efficient {inoiiogoto ga yoku dekirii), I employ him (p. 226a) just 

as he is {sono mama). In {tii) the recent fire 1 jumped down 

from the second story and hurt myself. The fireman was burned 

all over {sosJun) from the crown of his head to the tips of 

his toes. Well ! {^oya^ where are you going in this bad weather 

(in spite of the badness of the weather) ? Having unavoidable 

business, I am going just for a little (as far as) to Eyeglass 

Bridge. Tlic cherry blossoms have begun to bloom everywhere ; 

so we will go {itte miviasho) to-morrow to Mukojima. When 

(subor. wa^ the rain continues like this ijco) everything {iia- 

a Go io-ke your liouse here. I'or to see p. 317a. Compare t^o to-sko, froir. 

b Translate : You go out first. For the kara compare seifu kara and kimata 
kara (p. 337^). Saki is used in a different sense in the following sentence, 
where it indicates a family which the daughter has entered as a wife or as a 

c l^Jichi i:;a Icmaiu the road is impassable (lit. is stopjied). 

Lxxx] Substantives as Postpositions 383 

ni kara ttani uiade) gets damp and one feels uncomfortable. A 
second class excursion ticket to Fujisawa, please ! From here 
to the pass the road is dreadfully bad. As I have never been 
in (gone to) that region, I think it would b.^ better to engage 
a guide {^2,0 engaging a guide). As I am going out just a little 
{chotto soko made), if a guest {dare ka kyaku), comes (has 
appeared), say that I shall return at once. He half {liavibnn 
made) smoked the cigar and threw the rest {nokori) away. We 
shall finish our preparations by the time the teacher comes. 
How far had we come {yarn) ? Until the next [lesson] make 
a clean copy. Having lost {inakerii) in gambling, he had 
[everything] taken — from his coat to his shirt. 


Quasi-postpositions, as we have previously remarked, are 
really substantives. They are joined to dependent words by 
means of no and may themselves take case-particles and post- 
positions proper, Insted of a limiting substantive with no, 
the demonstratives kouo, sotio, and ano may be used (p. 36). 
Either ni or de, according to the context (p. 338, top) may be 
attached ' to quasi-postpo^itions denoting place ; with such 
words as kawari and tame the proper particle is ni. But this 
postposition is not infrequently omitted ; e, g., with inae, aida^ 
hoka, kazvari, tame. Quasi-postpositions may be used as 
predicates : 

Yavia no muko desti ka, teinae desii ka. 
It is beyond the mountain or on this side? 
Mon no soto desu ka, uchi desu ka. 
It is outside the gate or inside ? 
1, Ue (in some connections kami) on, over, above. Besides 
the ordinary sense, ue often means " in regard to " : 

Binnpo no tie de wa tadasku gozaimasu ga 

It is correct so far as the grammar is concerned, but 

Kotoba no ue kara mireba Literally 

For expressions like tetsugakujo no philosophical, rigakujo no 
pertaining to physics, etc, see p. I20. In counting, etc., 
" over " or "above" is usually to be rendered ijo : Jiachi ju 
yen ijo {no ue) over eighty y<i\\ ; reiteii ijo above zero ; ckuto 
ijo no Jiito the middle and upper classes. 

384 The Postposition [lxxx 

2. 5hitii (in some connections shivio) under, below, down : 
Hashi no shita wo torn pass under the bridge. 

Kama no shita xvo taku make a fire under tlie pot. 
Yuki no shita kara dene come out from under the snow. 
To ij'o corresponds ika : reiten ika below zero. 

3. Mae before, in the presence of, ago : 

Me no viae ni am mono what is before one's eyes. 
Fuj'in no viae de sonna koto ivo itte tva shitsurei desn. 
It is impolite to talk like that in the presence of ladies. 

kado no viae {go vion-zen) wo toriuiashita. 

1 passed (the front of) your gate. 

Roku ven viae no koto desn. It happened six years ago. 
Observe that when viae is used in a temporal sense the particle 
710 is often omitted and that ni also may be omitted : fu nen 
viae ten years ago ; sono viae before that, previously. 

With words derived from the Chinese, zen may be substituted 
for viae : go isshin zen before the Restoration ; kigen zen 
B. C. (p. 228a). 

Nan nen zen no koto desu ka. How many years ago was it ? 
In comparing dates izen {ni) is used (p. 129b). 

4. Ushiro behind, back. But kage is more frequent in such 
expressions as : yavia no kage ni behind the mountain {kage 

5. Oviote differs from niae in that it indicates the front side 
of a thing, the surface, 

6. lira has a wider range of meaning and is more common 
than ushiro. It often means the opposite side of a thing, the 
reverse, the rear. 

7. Saki may also be distinguished from viae. Both are used 
either of place or of time. Saki is preferred to viae when there 
is a movement forwards : Kono saki no tori desu. It is the 
street next beyond this. Compare viae no tori the street in 
front [of the house], or the street just crossed.*'^ 

In speaking of time saki when used of the past takes ni, but 
it is more commonly used, without ni, of the future : tvia kara 

a O snlci ni{go men ivo koiniiriinasu) or O saki ni [jvo) it as }ii in a sit. Excuse aie 
for going ahead of you. O saki ni aide nas'tte kndasai. Please go ahead. Saki 
in saki de, saki ye, etc., is used as a pronoun of the third person (pp. 28, 3 and 

Lxxx] Substantives as Postpositions 385 

savibyakii nen bakari saki 7ii about three hundred years ago; 
ima kara sambyaku nen saki wa three hundred years hence. 

8. Ato, too, is used either of place or of time (p. 364a) : ^ 
Hiio no ato ni {tsuite) iku go behind a person. 

Hito no ato kara iku follow a person. 
Ju nen ato ten years ago. 

The synonymn tiochi is used only of time. Note sono nochi 
{ni), sono go after that, subsequently. To zen corresponds go : 
go issJiin go, kigen go, etc. To izen corresponds igo. '^ 

9. Te-mae this side. 

10. AInko, iiiukai opposite side, beyond. ^ 

Kawa no viuko ye iku go to the other side of the river. 

1 1. Soba beside, near, by : torii no soba no chaya the restau- 
rant near the torii. Practically synonymous with soba are 
hata, kiwa, hotori, atari. 

12. Waki beside, at the side of. Katazvara may be regarded 
as synonymous 

13. Mazuari, gururi, meguri around. 

14. Aida between, during (local and temporal) : 
Voru no aida (or 7icJii) ni during the night. 
Hito tsuki no aida for one month. 

Note that ni is used in defining the time of an incident, but 
not in speaking of duration of time. The Chinese equivalent 
of aida is kan : Tokyo Yokohama kail no ietsudo the railroad 
between Tokyo and Yokohoma. The same word enters into 
such compounds as zok-kan (ni) among the common people, 
isshukan one week (p. "JJ , top), etc, 

15. Naka in, within, inside, among, in the middle of: 
Hako no naka ye irete kure. Put it into the box, 
Tansu no naka kara dashite kure. 

Take it out of the bureau. 

a It is a curious anomaly that ato ni is used chiefly in a local sense, while 
ato de is temporal. 

\) It is impfssible to decide whether nine, saki, ato, nochi, elc, in some of 
the expressions given in this chapter should be parsed as postpositions or as 
adverljs. The ICnglishman says three hundred years ago (or hence) ; tlie 
German, -uor {ox nach) drei Imudert Jaliren. Izen and i^o, like irai (p. 349c), 
are also used alone or with lua as adverbs. 

c Mtikai is used only in the sense of "opposite side," not in lh:Tt of 
' beyond " : Kobe ?to inuko in beyond Kobe ; Kobe tto mtikai {iniiko) tii opposite 
Kobe, Ka-va (gnwa) may I)e added to mttko or vttikai. 

^S6 The PosTrosiTioN [lxxx 

Tlie Chinese cciuivalent of tia/ca is c/w, used mostly with 
Chinese words : 

keiko elm desii ka. A\c you in the midst of a lesson ? 
Mada shiken chu desu. We are still having examinations. 
Yasinni chu {ni) during the vacation. 

Gozen chu {ni) in the forenoon, or, at dinner. 

This chu enters into numerous compounds : kan-chu season 
of greatest cold, sJio-cJm season of greatest heat, do c hit journey, 
shi-chu the city, etc. ^ The same word in its nigoried form/w 
meaning "entire" (p. 341, top) is used largely with words of 
native origin : uchiju the whole house, uiuraju the whole v\\- 
IsLge, yoj'u the whole night, etc. Kounichiju (in) before the 
day is over. 

16. Uchi^ is unlike 7iaka in that it may be used also of time : 
Hito isuki no nchi {ni) within a month. 

Cliikai ucJii {ni), sono uchi {ni) within a short time, soon. 

Note that in the sense of "among" uchi ni cannot be used 
except when the existence of a thing is in question, that is, 
when a word like aru, oru, oi or sukunai is the predicate. 
Compare : 

Kono ucJii de donata mo zonjimasen. 

1 don't know any one among these people. 

Kono uchi ni zonjite oru hito wa Jiitori mo gozaimasen. 
Among these people there is not one that I know. 
Kono uchi de o ki ni iranai no wa dare desu ka. 
Among these which is it that you don't like ? 
Kono uchi ni ki ni itta shina wa arimasen ka. 
Among these is there no article that you like? 

With Chinese w^ords nai or dai may take the place of uchi : 
itcho-nai within a cho, i. e., the whole street ; shi-nai the city 
Ui- nai ihe grounds (of a dwelling), kei-dai the enclosure. 

17. vS<?^(? outside. The Chinese equivalent is ^'■zf^^z .• kai-gzvai 
over the sea, foreign countries, an-gwai beyond expectation. 

18. Hoka besides, except: so7io hoka {ni) or sono ta {nt) 
besides that ; ovioi-no-Jioka {ni) beyond expectation. 

a The word jochu maidservant, from jo=omia, was originally a collective 
term. Compare niiigcn human being from nm=:^Iiilo and geii^^aida, and kanai 
wife (or family), from ka=^ie and iiai-=^nclii. 

b Tlie word is identical with wr/^z house. We don't say uchi no uchini, but 
ie 110 iicliini. Uclii ni orimasit. He is at home. 

Lxxx] Substantives as Postpositions 387 

19. Kazvari instead : sono kaivari {111) instead of that. 

20. Tame for (final or causal) : kuni 110 tavie {ni) \\\ behalf 
of one's country ; 7! en no tame {nf) to avoid mistakes (lit. for 
the sake of attention) ; yo-jo no tame {jii) for the sake of health ; 
bo-fu no tavie (ni) on account of the typhoon. Set de {sei^^ikioi) 
is synonymous with tame ni in its causal sense : 

tenkl no sei de zutsu ga s/iimasu. 

1 have a headache on account of the weather. 

Note such combinations as: ue shita, kami-shinio, jo-ge ; 
iUosaki before and after, or reversal of the other ; zen-go 
before or after, about ; chu-gwai or nai-gtvai home and abroad. 

There are other words which might properly be included 
in the above list of quasi-postpositions. 


itoko cousin. snzuri {sumi-snri) ink- stone. 

kumahiia.w uki-yo the world. '^ 

inushiro matting woven of kd merit, achievement. 

straw. bu-ke military caste (in feudal 

riiri\i\wc flycatcher (from ru- times). 

ri emerald). ku-ge nobility formerly at- 

tstige boxwood. tached to the Court. 

chikara-mochi 7A\AQ\i^. btim-po grammar. 

hana-gami paper for wiping do-ro road, street. 

the nose. ge-raku fall (of prices). 

hashi-sen bridge toll. ken-ko health {ke>/kd desit is 

koma-dori robin. healthy). 

ko-ya small house, hut, pen^ mom-ban gatekeeper, porter. 

stable. shi-]iei paper money (j), 269b). 

sa-tsuki azalea. ^ shu-kzvakn harvest, crop. ^ 

shiro-ato ruins of a castle. kei-satsu-sho police station. 

a Blooms later than the ordinary Isnhuji. 'l"he name, originally safsiiki- 
Isiitsiiji, is derived from a classical designation of the fifth month. Tliis again 
is derived from sniiae-tsuki {snnae sprouts of rice). 

1) From u!m float, the idea being that of inconstancy or change. An )tlicr 
etymology derives the word from the adjective nshi, «/(■«' sorrowful. 

c Also sJiTikwaku-daka, deki-daka, loredakii. 

388 The PosTrosiriON [lxxx 

Jiankechl handkerchief. ninzuru, ninjite appouit. 

naka ga ii be on good terms, at-to sum subdue, crush. 

saeziiru, saezutte siiify, chirp, chiii-cko sum prize. 

twitter, warble. ati-gwai {iii) untxpectedly. 


Usuitoge^ no uiuko ni Oiwake to in viura ga ariiuashUe, 
soko kara yoku Asaviayavia ni noborinias . Angwai ni hayaku 
me ga yoku nariniasJi ta. Ts' kue no ne n; arn sttzuribako wo 
inolte oide. Kono lioka ni { naiii vio gozaimaseii. Usnitoge 
no teniae ni Sakamoto to in niura ga ariinas' ; koviban wa soko 
ye toinariniashd. Go vionzen ivo toriniaslita kara, chotto 
ukagaiinasJi ta. NensJii {jio rei) ni zva inatsu no uchi ni 
ikaneba nai iinasen.^'' Matsii no nchi to in no zva Tokyo dezva 
shbgzvatsu no nannka made no koto de kadomatsu no tatete 
aru aida wo in jio des' . Taiko no C/iosen-seibats'zva sambyaku 
7ien hodo viae no koto des . MnkasJii no shiro no niawari ni 
zva iskigaki ga twite atte f kai Jiori ga liotte arimaslita. Ueno 
no kden no nchi ni dobutsuen ga arimas\ Watakushi ga 
Asaviayavia no ne ye nobotta toki m zva taiso knmotte ite toku 
no ho zva ikko niienakatta. Saikyo no miyako ni naita no zva 
nambyaku nen zen no koto des' ka. Sayo sa, karekore sen hyaku 
nen inae no koto des\ Fnkuro no naka no neziivii. ^ Samurai 
zva iiieiyo no tame ni wa yoku inochi zvo s' teivask ta. Komori 
mo tori no uchi. *^ ( Yononaka ni nern hodo raku zva nakere- 
dovio ; ukiyo no baka wa okite hotaraku. ^' Are zva san niu 
kyodai no uchi de naka no ko des\ Iloken j'idai ni zva kuge 
ga buke no tame ni atto sare!e imaslita. En no sh'ta no 
chikaramochi. f Kido san wa kuni no tame ni ko ga ntta kara^ ii 

a A pass on the Naknsendo, leading from tlio province of Kotsuke to 

b \Vitliiii the pines, i.e , while the pines {kadomatsu) still stand at the gate. 
In some localities the ntatsii stand until the 151I1. 

c A proverbial expresfion indicating a being under restraint and at the 
mercy of others. 

d The above expression may be used jocularly when a person finds himself 
in a company to which lie has hardly a claim to be ac^mitted. 

e A comic poem ; i-okti=:zrokti, na koto. 

f This proverb is applicable when a person's exertions arc not noticed or 
appreciated by others, just as an athlete under the veranda might vainly strive 
to lift tlie house and no one w )uld be the wisei f c r it. 

Lxxx] Substantives as Postpositions 389 

yaku ni yiinzerareniasJC ta. Buvipo no lie de iva macJiigai de 
zva ariiiiasen ga, amari so wa iijiiasen. Momban no iichi wa 
jiki inon no soba ?n arinias. Semvtai no darn (dollar) 710 
nchi {ni) hachi ju viai nise ga atta. Sensiii no gururi ni sliiba 
1V0 it^e (245) tokorodokoro ni sats ki ya tsnge wo ueviash' ta. 
Me no viae ni orii mono ni sonna koto wo itcha shitsurei des', 
Dai Nikon sJii zva^ oyoso ni Jiyaku nen inae ni Mi to' de 
dekiinashita hon des . Koniei tenno no isugi ni iiiia no tenshi 
saina ga kurai ni ts karemasfi ta {p ts ki ni nariinas/ita). 
Kawa no miikogazva de hito ga tsiiri wo sJi te inias" . Sono ori 
no naka ni kunia ga sanibiki orinias' , os ga ni hiki ni vies' ga 
ippiki. Ni ju nen uiae ni wa kevipdjo no giron de gotagota 
slite iniasJita. Giron no ue de wa niakete vio jissai ni cite wa 
kackiniasJita. Kono yania no kage ni mizunini ga arinias". 
Osandon ga ido no Iiata de o shaberi wo sum no wo i dob at a - '^^aJJL 
kwaigi to vwshimas . PlasJii no kizva ni koya ga tntte He soko i^>-^ 
de hashisen zto torinias'. Ano onna no byoki wa luattaku ki " 
no sei des' . Tokyo de mo Shinjiku atari ye iku to, nio inaka 
m narimas' . Tatami no omote ni nani ka ji ga kaite arinias'. 
Ano futari wa shinrui de ari nagara taiJien naka ga warui^ 
Fufu no naka ni niada hit ori mo ko ga nai. Chichi no hoka 
(zva) mina korasareniash'ta. Chichi no hoka {ni) kodonio ga 
futari korosarentasJita. Konna ni honeotte hataraite orimas* 
{no) mo kono tsubure-kakatta ie zvo okoso ga tame de gozaimas'. 

By the torii there is a good hotel. He gave {s' tern) his life 
for his country. About twenty years ago it happened that 
{koto ga aril) paper money was below par (the market price 
of paper money fell). The crop of rice for (ot) one yca"r in the 
whole of Japan amounts to (is) over forty million koku, it is 
said. Have you served in a foreigner's house before {made) 
this? Are you busy (in the midst of business) just now? 
When did you return from Amciica? It was (is) about seven 
years ago, liibachi are injurious to (for) the health. Among 
singing birds those most prized in Japan are ihc blue flycatcher 
and {ni) the robin and the bush warbler. The !)lossom of the 
fuki comes out in winter from under the snow It is said that 
it was (8) [in] 287 (7) A. D. (6) that {no wa 5) Chinese books 
(i) first (2) came (4) to Japan (3). Tut the clothes all {sukkari) 
into the (inside of the) trunk. There are many fleas under 

a A famous historical work, Mi/o wjs tlic castle lowii of ilie dininyo of the 
province of Hitachi on the cast coast north Tokyo. See p, 89 g. 

b With tia/m in this idiom compaie atdn in i^o'.n a/iilis/tii aidn a very 
intimate relation. 

390 The Postposition [lxxxi 

these tataiiii. Take the clotlies out of [the inside ofj the closet. 
Formerly straw matting was laid in the prisons instead of 
tatanii. Now oiie can go from Yokohama to San Francisco 
within two weeks. The Japanese use paper instead of hand- 
kerchiefs and put {irerii) it into their sleeves. Shall we look 
at {koiibiitsu surii) the inside of the lemple ? The streets in 
(//<?/) Tokyo city are not very good. The post office is just 
{jiki) opposite the police station. There are ruins of a castle 
on this mountain. \Villow trees grow {sodaisn) well by the 
water. W'ho is the person that stood beside you ? He is my 


The subordinatives of certain verbs correspond to English 
prepositions or expressions resembling prepositions : 
/// kakete until. 
1VO motte with, by means of. ^ 

Kusari zvo motte tsunagu fasten with a chain. 
ni niukatle, Jii muite over against, vis-a-vis, facing, toward. 
1U0 nozoite {ivo iiosoku no hokd) except. 
ni oite in, at, on (formal). 
IVO {ye) sashite toward, in the direction of, with reference to. 

Tokyo wo sashite iku go toward Tokyo. 

Taiin'^ to in no zva tsiiki {no koto) wo sashite iu no desu. 

The name taiin has (is said with) reference to the moon. 
ni shitagatte {ni shitagaeba) in accordance with (formal). 
;// shite {wa), to shite {^va) for, as (p. 216). 
— sugite {sugi), — tatte {tattara) after. 
zvo ioshite through (Anglicism). 
ni totte for. 

Sore wa watakushi ni totte taihen shiazvase na koto desu. 

That is a very fortunate thing for me. 
nitsuite concerning, regarding, about, with, under (a teacher). 

Kyokwasho-j'iken ni tsuite concerning the te:.t-book affair. 

a Motte is sometime used pleonastically with de (p. igSa). 

b The word tai-in corresponds to tai-yo sun. The Chinese word >'5 and in 
denote respectively light and shade, or positive and negative, or male and 
female. Compare San-yo-do the region soutli of the mountains and San-in-do 
the region north of the mountains. 

Lxxxi] Substantives as Postpositions 391 

Gzvaikoku no sensei ni tsnite under a foreii^n teacher. 

ni yotte {ni yoreba, yonito) accordiiif^ to, by the aid of 
. ni kwan shite~ni tsnite. ^ [(formal). 

ni tai shite = ni mukatte. 

ni djite in accordance with. 

To this Hst might be added nakiite (or nakii) without. For 
naktite one may substitute nashi ni (p. 98b). T o eltlier fo rni 
ivajm 3.y be add ed when a negative_verbToUows ; nakucha, na- 
shi ni IV a. 

More polite forms may be substituted in some cases ; e. g., 
ni okimasliite, ni tsukimasJiite. 

Some of these subordinatives may be used attributively: 
kore ni tsnite no hanasJii the talk about this ; SJuna ni tai 
shite no or (tai sum) sei-ryaku the policy in regard to China. 

Some are used with clauses, like conjunctions ; e. g., toshi 
wo torn ni sJiitagatte {djite) with increasing age. 


kiira saddle. te-suri hand-rail, banisters. 

okite law, statute, precept. tsuri-basJu hanging or sus- 
tsiirii I . pension bridge. 

katsura \ ' han fief, clan, daimiate. 

shinai a stout foil made no-gyd agriculture. ^ 

of bamboo. gan-kwa ophthalmology. 

il-wake \ ^^^,,^^ b hatsu-on pronunciation. 

_ , J c excuse. ■ , 1 • 1 

moshi-7uake ) is-snn one kind 

vie-ue, iiieue no hito person kan-kwa influence. 

of higher rank. ken-jutsu art of fencing. 

ine-shita,meshitano hito'^Q.x- ki-kin famine. 

son of lower rank. seki-jun order of seats. 

nakodo \ , , sho-doku disinfection. 

bai-shakn-nin ) ^ ' slin-niokii wooden hammer 

sashi-2u directions, instruc- used in striking a bell. 

tions {sashizu zvo sum di- so-shiki organization, system, 

rect, instruct). taku-hatsn (lit. trusting bowl) 

te-gara ) ... , , begging (of monks), mcn- 

r- - > meritorious deed. r ,. 

ko ro \ dicant. 

a Kivnn sunt forms an exception to the rule t;iven on \i. 214, 7. 

h ]\'ldihiwnke ^a gnzaiinaseii. My heliavior has been inexcusable. I can't 
say anytliin^ in my defence. 

C Compare kb-i'^yo manufactures, sho-gyd commerce. In former times there 
were four classes : sln=:saiini)ni, no, ko and slid. 

392 The PosTrosrnoN [lxxxi 

toku-ten special favor, privi- isamashii brave, intrepid. 

leg'e. jiJii pil-y, benevolence. 

U7i-chin charges for freight. jihi-biikai merciful. 

densJiifi-ryo, dempdryo cost sJtirizoku retreat. 

of a telegram. hiki-korosu kill by drawing 
ik-ka-jo one article, one item asunder, or by running over. 

(comp. p. 86, 5). hai-suru, hai-shi s abolish. y' 


Nikon zentai ni so in fuzoku ga atta io iva ieinasen ; han 
han ni yotte cJiigatte oriinasli ta kara. ^ Sore wa uiesJiisukai 
ni luukatie in no des kaVa, teinei ni izuanak'ie mo yd gozaimas.'' 
Oya-koko ni t suite Shin a ni ni ju ski ko no {p. 233c) hanashi 
ga ariinas' . Go enryo naku {juishi ni) oshatte kudasai. Mu- 
ko no nine no eda ni kaini ga tsuile ivias" ga, ore wa do iu wake 
des'ka. Sayo, are wa 7iine no hana ni fsuite yoiida tit a ga kaite 
aru vo des . Toinodachi ni tstiite shirazushirazu toi tokoro 
made ikimas/ita. Jibiki nashi ni wa. kotoba no keiko zva 
dekimasviai. Seiyofin mo inia de wa ryokomenjo nashi ni 
naichi zvo tabi sum koto ga dekimas\ Me ga tvarnku natta 
kara, niegaue ga nak'cha ho:i ga yo:neniasetA. Mo ippai o a- 
gari iiasai. Arigato, zvatakushi ni sh' te wa tak' san itadaki- 
mash'tii. Nihofi no onna no ko zva hagoita to iu mono wo motte 
hane zco ts' kimas\ Nihonjin wa shinai to in mono wo motte 
kenjntsu no keiko zvo sum Okabo to in no zva isshu no ine de, 
komugi no yd ni mizn nashi ni ts'kuremas\ Anata ni tai sh'te 
moshizvake ga gozaimasen. Meiie no hito ni tai sJtte zva teinei 
ni izvanakereba narimasen. leyas'ko no o dashi nasaimash'ta 
hyakkajo no okite '* ni yotte mtikashi zva zainin zvo ushi de 
hikikorosh' ta monda ga, sono nochi o haishi ?u narimash'ta. 
Go isshin go zva ittai ni mesJita no mono ni mukatte iu kotoba 
ga taihen kirei ni narimash'ta. Bukkyo ?io kankzva ni yotte 
hito no kokoro ga taiso jihibukaku narimash' ta. Seito no seki- 
jiin zva benkyo to fubenkyd io ni yotte kivienias' . Saigo san zva 

a Inversion of the usual order in the case uf a cause occurs not infrequently 
in conversation. 

b Also called " Laws of leyasii." They have been variously translated. 

Lxxxi] Substantives as Postpositions 393 

oya no iegara ni yori iok'ten zvo motte kwampi de Seiyo ye 
ryugakii zvo vieizeraremasli ta. Sendai tva IDhoku ni oite 
icJdban okii tokzvai des . Kimnra san wa Avierika ye itte kara 
ju nen bakari sugite kaette niairiinasJi ta. Chokusetsu jii tva 
hanashiniku gozainias^ kara, toniodacki zvo tosliie sodaii itashi- 
maslita. Sore zva kinii jii totte fiirieki de wa nai ka. JVafa- 
knski tva K'ristokyo ni kwan s/ite tva ikko fuannai de 
gozaiinas' {ikko zonjiinasen). Aizu no Byakkotai tva ju roku 
shichi no tvakai samurai de soshiki sarete arimasJita ga, taiso 
isainasJt ku tatakatta aio de^ iki-nokotti mono ga Jii hakku nin 
Bentenyama made shirizoite kite, hitori tvo nozoku no hoka 
{tva) viina seppnkn sJite shinde shimaimas/i ta. ^ 

The child came with (//z tsuite) its nwther. I can't ride a 
Jioise without a saddle. You can't practice penmanship with- 
out a model. Toward guests its impolite. In Japan one can't 
marry without a go-between. Lately I heard an interesting 
story about Count Katsu. ^ The pronunciation of this word 
varies {chigaii) according to locality. This is very vjqW written 
for a child. .Some begging priests go about (walk) striking a 
bell with a shumoku. The hand rail of this hanging bridge is 
made of wistaria vines. That gentleman writes characterswell 
with his left hand. Where {doko tvo sask'te) are these pilgrims 
going? They are probably going to Zenkwoji. The cost of a 
telegram depends on (varies according to) the number of kana. 
Shipping charges {/unachin) depend on the size of the freight. 
According to Japanese law^ foreigners may not engage in {sum) 
agriculture in the interior. In accordance with the directions of 
the physician the whole house was disinfected. Japanese chil- 
dren say otottsan (or) okkasan to {ni mukatte) their parents. Ac- 

a Aizu is a famous valley iti Iwashiro between Nikko anil the vi)lcaiio 
Bandaisan. Its capital is Wakamatsu. The Byak'/co-tai (Wliite Tiger 
Company) distinguished itself at the time of the Restoration, when the clan of 
Aim held out against the Mikado's army. Benlen-yaina, from Ben/en, one of 
the shiclii ftihitjin (p. 204a). Note that wa my not he used with a noun when 
it is modified by a numeral following. Reversing the order we might say ju 
Jinkku nin no ikinokotla mono wa. 

b A'atsu A7va {no Kami') was an official of the Bakufii at the time of llie 
Restoration. By liis prudent negotiations for peace he averted the destruction 
of Edo by the imperial forces. 


94 The PosTPosniOiN [lxxxi 

cordiiif^ to a letter just received {todoite), he will arrive to- 
morrow evening (it is said). Under whom did you learn 
German ? lie studied ophthalmology under a famous physician 
in (of) Berlin. As for the apples, put all except the rotten 
ones into this box. This year there is a famine in Tohoku. 
After about a month come again and see. 



Conjunctions also are divided into two classes, conjunctions 
proper and quasi-conjunctions. The latter are simply substan- 
tives used in lieu of coiijuctions. In general it is to be noted 
that the essential conjunctions belong to the words or clauses 
which they follow rather than to those which they precede. 
Further it should be remembered that where the English loose- 
ly connects coordinated clauses by means of such conjunctions 
as " and " or " or," ^ the Japanese language usually by means 
of verbal inflections subordinates one clause to another (p. 
162,1); e.g., 

Atsui kimono ivo kinakereba kaze wo hikiviasho. 

I must put on heavier clothing, or I shall catch cold. 

I. To is used (a) in the sense of "an_d" with nouns, pronouns 
and numerals, but never to connect indicative verbs. ^ It is 
in order when all the items in a series are enumerated. It is 
repeated after each word except the last, but in formal speech, 
as in the literary language, it follows the last also. To the 
final to case-particles and postpositions may be added : 

Shoyii to viirin to suto (wo) saiubai mazete sanibaizu to 

A mixture of soy, viirlii, and vinegar is called sainbaizu. '' 
On asyndetic constructions see p. 225a. 

a Setsu-zoku-sM, from setsii join (compare Into ni sessiiru associate with a 
person), zoku=lsuzitkeni. 

b The student needs to he on his guard againt ilic tendency to carry Englisli 
conjunctions over into Japanese. Foreigners often disfigure their speech hy 
excessive use of so shite, etc. 

c This does not apply to suhstantivized verbs : Fusa/cu de alta no lo siiini ga 
yasukalla no de konnen lua yavia no tnono c;a taihen kcviatle itnasu. The harvests 
having been had and charcoal cheap, the mountaineers arc in great distress. 
Another apparent exception is : So shiyo to oinae no katle da. It is for you lo 
decide whether you will do so or not. 

d To vary the expression one may substitute ni for to: Sit ni iiiirhi to 
s/ioyti mo mazete, etc. Miiin is a sweet l<ind of sake. 

\g6 The Conjunction [lxxxii 


(b) To after a verb in the present tense may mean " if," 
hen," " so soon as " (in the last sense also, ^o sugii ni). It 

expresses the idea of immediate sequence, either in a hypothet- 
ical or in an actual case. Note that the preseijtjense^ is re- 
quired even when the principal verb of the sentence is papt : 

Taikutsii sJiite kurii to, oiiwsliiroi hon ga yomitakii narimasit. 
1 begin to want to read an interesting book when I get weary. 
KodoJHo ga seicho sum to, haha no tedasuke ni nariinasii. 
When children grow up they are helpful to their mothers. 

kyaku san ga ktiru to, siigu ni shokuji ivo shimasho. 
We will eat as soon as the guests come, 

Yoknchd ni nam to, viina dete ikimashita. 
The next morning all went away. 
So sum to in that case, then. 

(c) Tq in the sense of '"that" connects dependent clauses 
with veibs meaning to say, promise, hear, believe, etc. It is the 
only mark of quotation, direct or indirect, and it may not be 
omitted as " that " may be in English. " I think I'll go " is 
always Iko to omoiinasn. Not infrequently the principal verb 
is omitted and the to alone indicates the indirect character of 
the clause. Sometimes the verb of the dependent clause is 
omitted, so that the to immediately follows a noun or an inter- 
rogative pronoun : 

Honto {da) to omoiinasn. I think it true. 
Jlonto to iva omoiviasen. I do not think it true.* 
Hirata to iu hito a man called Hi rata. t> 
Kcre iva Eigo de nan to inoshimasu ka. 
Note the double conjunction in : 

Asu kaette kureru yd ni iQ tanoviareniashita. 

1 was asked to return to-morrow. 

Kiku, to ka ajisai to ka nani ka hitotsu uemasho. 

I will plant chrysanthemums or hydrangeas or something. 

a M.irk the position of wa. 

b The idom io in corresponds to a simple apposition in English; e.g.. 
Mikado to iu kotoba the word " mikado " ; ten to iu ji the character " heaven." 
For iowa=io iu vo loa see p. 272d. For to iu to=to see p. 245, bottom : JVata 
kHshi ga dekakem to iu to, kitto ante ga fnrijnasii. Wlienever I go out, it is sure 
to rain. So sum to iu to if we do tliat. 

[lxxxii Conjunctions Proper 397 

To may also stand between an indirect question and the vedj : 
Asii kuru ka io kikimasliita. 
1 inquired if he would come to-morrow. 
In, Iko ka to oviou, I think probably I'll go, the ka simply 
expresses doubt about going. ^ Often ii ka to 07nou is practically 
equivalent to ii to oinon. On the other hand ka may stand 
between a dependent clause with to and the principal verb, giv- 
ing to either or both a sense of doubt or uncertaint}' : 

Ktirn to ka iimashita. He said, I think .that he'd come. 

2. JJano {de am 710 /) serves to connect nouns when the 
series is not closed and one might proceed further in the 
enumeration. It must follow every word in the list, including 
the last. It may also be translated " or." An expression like 
iroiro usually follows the last dano : 

Bara daiio, ajisai dano, tsubaki dano, iroiro arimasu. 
There are various kinds, roses, hydrangeas, camellias etc. 

3. Ka is ordinarily a particle of interrogation. It is joined 
to dependent as well as to principal clauses, and is much used 
in double questions : 

Dekiru ka do ka zvakarimasen. '^ 

I don't know whether it is feasible or not. 

Niru ka yakii ka dochira ka ni shiinasu. 

We either boil or bake [it.] 

Do ka ko ka skiageinashita. 

We got it done after a fashion, 
/frt may serve the same purpose as the English "or "with 
nouns, clauses or numerals : 

Kono hey a tva ha c hi jo kaju jo destt. 

This room has eight or ten mats. 

Haini ka hairanai ni iniviashita. 

He saw it the moment he came in. 

a The idiom /o onion to 13 used in tlic sense of "when I am about to." 
Note also llie clli]itical construction : Miru to lua nashi iii mimasliita. I happen- 
ed to sec it unintentionally. 

1) Nolo that while one ST^ys, do clesii ka, in ramiliar talk there is a tcmlcncy to 
omit da in the expression do da l;a, for the sake of euphony. Sore viita koto lea. 
Do you see? (=T told you so). Note also that after a principal clause ka 
may he omitted when the clause contains an interrogative word (p. i7k)= ^^^ 
desu, hut Do dcsn ka zonjiniasen. 

SgS The Conjunction [lxxxu 

A list of items connected by means of /<? ,i-tr may end with t'u 
yd na mono or similar words. 

4. The particle ya is in classical lanf^uage used like ka. In 
the colloquial it appears in the idiom — ya ina ya, ina being 
a classical form = — 71a i : Kiku ya ina ya tobidaskite ilia. 
He rushed out the moment he heard it. Note also : Nani ya 
ka ya to torikoiide imasii. I am busy with all sorts of thin<js. 
Ya is also used like daiio, but is omitted with the last noun, 
which is often followed by 11 ado or nazo. A case-particle may 
then be attached : 

Kuja/cu ya kiji wa keiro ga litsukushii. 
Peafowls and pheasants (etc.) have beautiful plumage. 
Aravionoya de iva hoki ya suvii ya tsukegi nazo zvo uriuiasu. 
At coarse-goods-shops the}^ sell brooms, charcoal, matches, etc. 

5. Vara too was originally interrogative. Its uses are anal- 
ogous to those of the interrogative particles explained above : 

Ima wakareie itsu aii koto yara. 
We part now : when shall we meet again ? 
Doko ni oru {koto) yara watakushi ni wa ikko tvakarimasen. 
. I have n't the faintest idea where he is. 
Okuma to yara {in hiio) ga korosarekakemashita. An 

attempt has been made to assassinate some t)ne — Okuma, 

I think. 
Alio o kanii san iva rainbo de o'.oko yara oiina yara wakara- 

nai hodo desu. The woman is so unruly that one would 

hardly be able to tell whether she is a man or a woman. 
Shishi yara tora yara iroiro no dobutsu ga orimasu. 

6. Aruiwa is largely used as an adverb in the sense of •' in 
some cases ", " possibly " : especially common is its use before 
alternatives : 

Omu zva aruhva zvarattari aruiwa vaitari iroiro hito no 
inane wo itashiinasu. A parrot now laughs and again 
weeps and in various ways imitates people. 

Nikon no rekishi ni mo aruizva so iu rei ga nai to mo ka^ 
girimasen. ^ In Japanese history too there may pos- 
sibly have been such instances. 

a Kagirti limit. I do not assert that there are no such instances. One 

may substitute wa for mo, or say iiai to iva iemasen. 

[lxxxii Conjunctions Proper 399 

Aruhva kuru ka 1110 sJiireniasen, He may come possibly. 
Aruizua also serves as a simple conjunctioa in tlie sense of 
' or : 

Ushi aruhva uma nado ga nai to shita naraba... 

If there were no oxen or horses... 
Note that aruhva does not connect clauses except when the 
verb is in the alternative (or inconclusive) form, 

7. Mataiva is synonymous with afuiwa as a conjunction, 
not as an adverb, and in a series is often for the sake of variety 
substituted for aruhva. It is used like the English " or," at 
the beginning of a sentence which ends in a question or ex- 
pression of doubt : 

Mataiva kondo no Jiakurankzvai no koto de vio hanashiiua- 
sho ka. Or shall I speak of the recent Exposition? 

8. Moshikinva simply connects nouns, like aruhva or 
viatazva. It is more formal. 

9. .Shi is a disjunctive particle marking the transition from 
one to another of two coordinate clauses (p. I4d) : 

Nhva ni zva viovio no ki 1110 aru shi, sakura no ki ino aru. 
In the garden there are both peach and cherry trees. 
!i^ Ga is mildly adversative:^ 

Habakari desu ga (p. 279,6), sono fude zvo toite kudasai. 
I am sorry to trouble you, but would you hand me that 
fude ? 
The second clause is often understood (p. 161 e). Not infre- 
quently ga is a mere connective without any adversative sense: 
Kesa shhnbun zvo mite iinashita ga, futo viyo na koto wo 
luiidashiniasliita. I was reading the paper this morn- 
ing when I happened to see a strange bit of news. 
At the beginning of a sentence da ga may mean " neverthe- 
less { = sore ds 1110), or it may mean nothing. 

11. Keredomo, originally the concessive form of the classical 
auxiliary keri, is more strongly adversative. 

12. ShikasJii, shikashi-nagara, or sari-na^ara, is the strong- 
est adversative. '•• 

a Like ga, the particles iii [ito_m) and luo {inono 7w) are used as adversative 
conjuctions (pp. 149, 273,) 

1) Shil-n is the classical equivalent cA so; s}tikari=sd desu. In formal speech 
variants taktn from the literary language are much used ; e.g., shikaru ni,sInL-ari 
to iidomo, etc. Coinp. s/iiA-n mo moreover. Another equivalent is /o wa hi vioiio 

400 The Conjunction [lxxxii 

13. Nara {ba) or, more rarely, nareba (p. 246b), the con- 
ditional form of the classical verb " to be," shows its original 
sense in such idioms as o iriyo nara if you need it, Sayo nara 
Good bye ! -^ (lit. if it is so...). Note naze naraba "for" (p. 
224b). \\\ addition to nara (ba) or a conditional inflection the 
hypothetical character of a clause may be made more promin- 
ent by the use of an anticipative moshi or vian-ichi. 

14. Moshi, moshi mo, moshi y a if. t> 
Moshi dare ka o kyaku ga at tar a... 
If a visitor should come... 

Moshi go yd ga ariviasu nara...\{yo\-\ need [me|... 
Moshimo no kotoga atta toki ni...\{ anything should 

15. Man-ichi (lit. ten thousand to one) = italicized " if." 

16. Mo in the sense "even if", "although", "though 
only," may follow the subordinative (pp. 167, 172) or, rarely, 
the indicative. With the indicative to mo is more common. 

Shinn to mo koko tva tigokanai. 
I'll not budge though I die for it. 
When repeated, mo is to be rendered " whether — or " : 
Atte mo nakute mo onaji koto desu. 
It doesn't matter whether it is there or not. 
On mo — mo in the sense of "both — and", "either — or", 
" neither — nor," see p. 354. It is thus used, not only with 
substantives, but also rarely with verbs : 

Iku mo ikaiiai mo zvataski no kaite da. 
I am free to go or not, as I please. 
Compare : Ikii to mo ikanai to mo whether he goes or not. 

Concessive clauses may be emphasized by prefixing moshi, 
man-ichii iatoi, or yoshi. 

1 7. Tatoi : 

Tatoi shitiu to mo yatte minakucha narimasen. 
I rnus'c attempt it even if it costs my life, \j^tte mo-.. 

Jissai sonna koto zva nai, shikashi tatoi sonna koto ga 
In reality there is no such thing, but even if there were... 
Tatoi ika ni bimbo ni nareba tote... No matter how poor 
one becomes ,. 

18. Yoshi [ya), yoshiniba. 

Yoshi y a samiii hi ga atte mo hi wo takii hodo no koto zva 

a Instead oi sayo nara, people sometimes say : Sore j a [o wakaie moshitiiasu, 
or sJiikkei itashimasuy 

b Moshiya go zonji u<a arimasen ka. Don't you know perhaps? 

Lxxxii] Conjunctions Proper 401 

ariinasuviai. Even if we have cold days it will scarcely 
be so cold as to make it necessary to have a fire. 

Yoshiya kore kara yojin shit a tokoro ga, mo naoruniai. 

Even if he should be careful hereafter he'll hardly recover. 

19. Tote, 'tte { = to itte). The idiom — ta tote or — ta 'tie 
without mo has a concessive sense: so itta 'tte = sd itte uio ; 
shinda 'tte = shinde mo. Note also : 

Gakko ni haittareba tote aviari dekiru yd ni wa naruniai. 
Even if he enters school he will not amount to very much. 
Compare sareba tote nevertheless. Tote may indicate purpose : 
Ano ko ga kono sakana wo anata ni agetai tote Jibuti de 
ryori wo itashiviashita. The little girl cooked the fish 
herself with the intention of giving it to you. 

20. Nagara {mo) " while ", *"' though," is used after the stems 
of verbs (p. 279, 6) or Chinese compounds. In some connections 
it has a slightly adversative sense, as in kabakari nagara : 

Go kiird {inendo) nagara.. .\ am sorry to trouble you, but... 
Shitsnrei nagara. ..VdiXdon me, but... 

kinodokii nagara., A am very sorry for you, but... 
2 r . Shidai as soon as (p. 2.8 1 b) : 

Konnichi gakko ga sumi shidai agariniasho. 

1 will come to-day as soon as the school closes. 

22. Kara with an indicative verb is causal : — 
Sore da kara {shite)... ¥ot that reason... 

Following a subordinative kara {ni) means " after ": — 
Uchi ye kaette kara {ni) tegami wo kakimashita. 
I wrote a letter after I got home. 

23. Yori after, since : 

Hito me mint yori shitawashikii onioimashita. 

I felt attached to him from the time I saw him. 

Haha ga byoki ni kakatte yori konokata chitto mo soto ye 

derii hima ga arimasen. 
Since mother became sick I have not had time to go out. 

24. Made or made ni until, before (p. 379) : 
Sensei ga kufu made shitakii shite imasho. 
I will study until the teacher comes, 

Sensei ga kitrii made ni shitaku shite okiinasho. [comes. 
I will have my lesson prepared by the time the teacher 


The Conjunction 



kamo wild duck. 

Jiariko papier-mache. 

hi-deri drought. 

ko-sode wadded silk garment. 

((?) shuto parent-in-law. 

ben \ ^'^^^''^- 

bateren (Portuguese padre) 

Christian missionary of the 

XVI. Century. 
[sama) king. 
ba-sho place. 
dokn ritsu independence ( — 

suru be independent). 
fukiijTi submission, obedience. 
fu-setsu rumor. 
geki-sen hard fighting. 
gu-soku accoutrements. 
hyd-gi consultation. 
ji-shti voluntary confession. 
kak-ke beriberi. ^ 
kani-byo nursing the sick. 
ki-hei cavalry. ^ 

seki-to stone monument. 

shin-seki relative (elegant). 

ik-ka-chu {ka house) the body 
of a feudal lord's retainers. 

kai-shakii-iiin assistant, sec- 
ond (in harakiri). 

tsu-shin-ja correspondent (of 
a newspaper). 

kuriishiniu suffer (tr. kum- 

iiaderu stroke, rub. 

SHSumern administer (medi- 

tonaerii call, name, recite, 

utsiiru remove (of residence), 
pass (of time), catch (of 
fire, disease, etc.), be re- 

ami zvo ntsii cast a net. 

gwan — negai request, prayer. 

gwan ti'o kakern make a vow. 


Kono dekimono ga moshi okiku nareba, zehi kiranakereba 
naranai. Ttsti mo no a isha san no tokoro ye itle sugtt fii kite 
kudasaran ka to kiite koi, ^ Nikko no Gamniangafuchi to iti 
tokoro ni'^ Amida no zo ga tak' san tatte orivias ; ikura sono 
kazu wo kazoete mite mo kavjo ga chigau to iimas . Shuto 

a From kakiiT^kyaku=nshi leg, and ke=ki in kyoki illness. Knkke is a dis- 
ease affecting the nerves and heart and resulting in partial paralysis or 
numbness of the limbs. See Chamberlain, <' Things Japanese." 

b Compare ho-hei infantry [ho=aiuku), Iw-hei artillery (/w=gun), ko-hei 

c Itsti mo no o isha san may be translated " family physician." 

d The name of a pool {fuchi) in the Daiya River near Nikko. On the bank 
stand the statues of Amida alluded to above. 

Lxxxii} Conjunctions Proper 403 

zvo sh'le moratta Ute tenneuto ni kakaranai koto zua nai. Kd 
iu baai ni wa wo to in j'i ga atte mo nak' te mo onajikoto des\ 
Kanai ga it to, teishu ni shimpai ga nai. Seppuku no toki ni 
7va toniii ga hara zvo kirn to, soba ni kaisJiakunin ga otte sugu 
ni kiibi zvo kiriotosJita uion dcs\ N ihojuii^na gakti ite ilio ben- 
kyo shinai to, hanashi ga dekimasen. IVatakushi wa sake zvo 
nomu to, sugu ni kao ga akakti narimas . Ha zvo niiite mo- 
ran to, sugu ni itami ga tomarimasJita. Anata hodo dekima- 
sureba, Doits' ye oide nastte ichi nen mo tattara, tassha ni hana- 
shi ga dekimasho. Tokyo ye kite ni san sJiukan tats' to, hai- 
byo ni narimash'ta. SJiinu ka ikiru ka ftatsu ni hitotsu. ^ Ne- 
zumi'kozo zva^' do sh'te mo is' kamaetaremasen desJtta kara, 
oya zvo ro ni iremasJC ta ; so sum to, oya no kurushinde iru no 
zvo kiite tsui ni jishu sh^te deta so des'. Nezutni-kozo no haka 
no gufuri ni ftirui sekito ga yama 710 yd ni tsumiagete arimas' ; 
sore zva tomi ni atatti yd ni haka ye kite gtvan zvo kakete, mo- 
shi ataru to, sono rei ni atarashii sekito zvo motte kite furui 
no zvo zvaki ye tsnnde- oku kara des\ Domo, kuruma ni notte 
itte mo ma ni aimas'mai. Miikashi samurai zva ichi mon no 
zeni zvo nusunde mo ikkachu ga hyogi sh'te hara zvo kirasevia- 
sh^ ta. Iroiro kaimono ga am kara, hima nara, issho ni itte 
kuren ka. Nani zvo o motonie ni narimas' ka. CJiikai uchi 
ni Seiyo ye kaeric kara, iroiro mezurasJiii mono zvo miyage ni 
katte iko to omou ; shikashi hitori de iku to, taiso kakene zvo iii 
kara, dozo, issho ni itte kure. Sono matsu no furi zva shizen 
ni a tu n' deska, matawa teire zvo sh'te ts'kutia n des' ka. Mor 
raujmono nara, natsu de vio kosode. ^ Kosode to zva kinu no 
zvataire no koto de fuyu no niono des\ Satsumajin zva seinan 
no ik'sa ni^ shinu ka ikiru ka ftatsu ni hitotsu to kesshin sh'te 
hijo ni gekisen shimash'ta. Tenka to in no to tenga to iu no to 
do chigaimas'ka. ^ A no hito zva ano uchi no shinseki des' ka. 

a Ftitatsti ni lii/otsu exi)resses tlic idea of a dilemma. It is a matler of life 
and death. Compare the saying: Ichi /;a baclii /;a ya/fe ininiashd. I will try 
it come what may (bachi=^haclii eight). 

1) Lit. rat-fellow ([>. i5n.), a notorious robber in the Tukugawa era. His 
grave is behind the temple Ekoin in Tokyo. 

c As a gift costs nothing, one is glad to accept it even if thrrc is no im- 
mediate use for it. Tlic proverb is also applied to a case of blind avarice. 

<1 I'rom 5(f/ west, nan south ; commonly called the Salsuma Rebellion. 

e The word tentca (lit, under lieaven) by mz]^'-^'/* becomes /enqa. The Sh5gun 
-used to be called Tenga Santa. 

404 Ihk Conjunction [lxxxii 

Beisu ni shinseki !o in wake de 1110 arimasen ga, naiidemo 
taiso kokoroyas' kti sk'/e oni yd des . A710 hen ni shim a ga 
arti to Diiete tori ga taiso tachiinas\ Kore de inanzokn sure- 
da ii ga, shikashi so wa ikinias mai. ^ So iti ka mo sJuremasen 
ga, made kiita koto zi'a arimasen. Ame no fiiru no wo osorete 
soio ye denai to, sono hi to zuo hatiko no yd da to iimas' . Moto- 
yori to mochiron to wa goku zvazuka na cJiigai des\ Itsu ame 
ga yaniu koto yara. Ame ga futte inias' ka. Furii koto tva 
futte imas'ga, kakubetsii no koto wa arimasen. Doits' no kiJiei 
wa karada ga okii kara, gusoku zvo kirn to, taiso hittatte 
iniemas' . Tsushitija zva sJiimbnn no tane ga nakute komaru no 
de, sonna fusets'wo koshiraeta no ka mo shirenai. Yoshimune 
ko wa^ sessho kindan no basJio ni ami ivo uchimash'ta kara, 
Ooka ni totts^ kamaerareinask' ta. Nihonjin zva amari so iu Ju 
ni iimase7i ga, zehi izvanakereba naranai baai ni zva so in yori 
koka ni sh'kata ga arintas'mai. Kono ike zva sessho-kindan 
no basho de dare vio torimasen kara, gan ya kamo ga tak'san 
orite imas' (p. 163,5). Hanash'ka to in mono zva omoshiroi 
mono de gozaimas ka. Sayo sa,jdzu heta de taiso chigaimas' . 
Koko kara YusJiima Tenjifi ^ ye inairinias'ni zva do ittara 
yoroshu gozaimasho ka. Kore kara san did saki ni Jiidari ye 
inagarn yokocho ga arimas ga, soko ye Jiaitte sore kara mata 
inigi ye magatte massugu ni iku to, sugn soko des\ K^isnnoki 
Masatsura zva chichi Masashige ga Minatogaiva de nchijini 
sh'te kara Kazvachi ni kaerimash'ta. ^ Sekkaku honeotte 
koshiraeta no da ga, ima ja {de zva) yakn ni tatanakn nari- 
inash'ta. San nen saki no koto zvo in to, karas ga zvaran^ 
Kuni ye kaern ya inaya bydki ni narimasJita. Mukaski Sa- 
tsuma-ben no mono to Osku-namari no iho>io to ga hanashi zvo 

a Shi/cashi ohcn follows _^.^j pleonastically. 

b The eighth and one of the most famous of the Tokugawa slioguns. lie 
lived in tlie first half of the XVIIT. Century. Sessho-Hndan, from se/sii=i-orosn, 
slid life, kin forbid, dan=kot07oani, means the prohibition to kill animals. 

c A famous Shinto temple in Tokyo. Tenjin or 7'eiiimangu is the name by 
whicli Sugawara Miclii/ane is worshipped ; Yushima is a district in Hongo, 

d KtisuiioH Masashige, father of the Masatsura named above, suffered defeat 
and killed himselfou the bank of the Minato River near HyOgo. The son nfler 
he became of age raised another army in behalf of ihe Emperor and likewise 
perished in battle. lie is set liefore Japanese youths as a model of kni'Thtly- 

Lxxxii] Conjunctions Proper 405 

s)ita tokoro ga, ryoho tomo sappari zvakaraiiakatia so des'. 
Kusuri 1V0 susuiueru yara, senaka wo naderu yara, kotondo ne 
vio nenu gnrai ni kauibyo itashimasJita. Xani ya ka ya 
s koshi no hima vio nakii katarakiniasJi ta. Uonto ka uso ka 
skiriuiasen, Hyak' sho ka ckonin no ie ye yoski ni yaritai. 
PJyak' sho no iniis'ine daro to mo kivazoku no vinsnie daro to 
mo, yoiiie ni ittara, shufo ni fukuju shinakereba narimasen. 

As soon as I arrive in Japan I will send you {sashiageni) a 
letter. The physician said that, as it is not at all a serious 
{tai j^Z/'Az/ illness, he would come (coming see) again after two 
or three days. When English is literally translated into 
Japanese it becomes hard to understand. Is that gentleman a 
relative of yours {^go sJiinseki) ? He is not a relative, but he 
is from (a person of) the same province [as myself]. The 
■disease called kakke is apt to {yoku) break out {pkoni) when 
summer comes (it becomes summer). From {kara iva) this 
house Mount Fuji can be seen and also the ocean (can be seC'i 
— subord.) ; the scenery is very fine. Since I removed to To- 
kyo there lias not once been (pres.) a large fire. He said that 
if he did not return by half past eleven, we need not wait. It 
will be some time (there is .still an interval) before {made 7ii) 
spring comes. As the daimyo formerly were almost independ- 
ent, the padres called them (the daimyo) kings. These days 
it ought ijiazu da) to rain, but on the contrary the drought 
continues. If it doesn't rain soon there will hardly be any 
crop of rict; (rice will hardly be taken) this year. If the tree 
is dead {karete iru), dig it out (digging out finish). He wouldn't 
be in such distress if he had saved (saving put) money pre- 
viously. If tiicrc is any book that you need {go uyYiyo no hon) 
for the study of Japanese, send me word (so saying send), [and] 
I will very soon buy [it J and send [it to youj. if you are in 
the midst of busines.s, attend to it {yam) without paying any 
attention to me {0 kamai Jiakii). When {no ni) it was better 
to leave it as it was (p. 22)»'why did you mend it? As Ten- 
jin sama was fond of plum blossoms, plum trees are often 
planted around [his] shrine. A man who is irrita!)lc and easily 
{yoku) gets angry is called mukappara {tachi).°- if I don't 
take notes {hikki s/ite okti), 1 forget everything. When a 
young man goes (past cond.) to a place like Tok} o he is .ipt to 
be ruined {skippai snru) if he is not careful {chui sum). 

n J-'roiil tnul-nii opposi;, n;;il timn tui l.i/m [hmn ;. o fn/erit) iji-l .nii'j^ry. 

-■ ^ 'J' ^ 

4o6 The Conjunction [lxxxih 



^ In many cases an English conjunction has to be rendered in 

Japanese by means of a substantive, the accompanying clause 

being in the attributive position (Ch. XIX.). Many of these 

substantives have been treated under the heads of The Adverb 

and The Postposition. The most common are : 

1. Mae (jii, wa) before : kurii viae ni or, rarely, konai viae 
ni before he comes. For the use of ni and xua see p. 155. 
Izen may be substituted for viae, especially in speaking of his- 
torical events. 

2. Nochi {ni, wa) after. Compare : 

WatakusJii ga deta nochi ni kiinasJiiia. He came after I 
Gakko kara kaetta nocki de H. [left. 

It will do after you return from school. 

3. Saki {ni, wd) before : gakko ni hairii saki ni before he 
entered the school : wasuren sakih^^oxc I forget it. Compare : 

Oya ga shinda saki wa do shite it tar a yokaro ka. 
How shall we manage after father is dead ? 

4. Aio de after. Compare : 
Kisha ga deia ato de kiviashita. 
lie came after the train left. 

Gozen wo tabeta ato ni {jie) kyaku ga kiviashita. 
After we had eaten; visitors came. 

5. Ue de after, until after (with negatives). Ue ni means 
" and in addition." 

Mita ue de kau ka mo shireviasen. 
I may possibly buy it after I have seen it. 
Jlfiia lie de nakereba kawareniasen. 
I can't buy it until after I have seen it. 
Makesashita ue ni kai vio shinaide itie shiviaiviashita. 
He made him reduce the price and then went off without 
buying anything. 
Note also ijo iva : 

Makesashita ijo zva kaivanakereba narivtasen. 

After you have beat down the price you ought to buy. 

6. Aida {ni, wa) while, as long as : niatsuri no am aida 
as lonir as the festival lasts. 

Lxxxiii] Substantives as Conjunctions 407 

7. Uchi {ni, wci) while, as long as, until (with negatives) : 
Inaka ni orii uchi ni while I was in the countij''. 
Yome ni ikan uchi until he is married. 

8. Kagiri {ni iva or ^vii) as long as, unless, without (with 
negatives, p. 155) : 

Gessha tvo osanienai kagiri wa kyojd ni iru koto wo yurushi- 
masen. [Students] are not permitted to attend the classes 
(class-rooms) as long as they are in arrears with the tuition. 

9. Toki {iii, zva, ni wd) when, as, if: 

Chodo neyd to oniou toki ni jisJiin ga furimashita. 
There was an earthquake just as I was about to retire. 
For the present tense the past may be substituted. In trans- 
lating the English pluperfect the past is required : 

Avie ga yanda toki ni yadoya ye tsukiniashita. 
We arrived at the hotel after the rain had stopped. 
Toki wa and toki ni wa are often used hypothetically, espe- 
cially with a preceding inosJii or man-ichi : 

Moshi ie garni ga ?iakunatta toki ni wa do itaihiinasho ka. 
If the letter should be lost, what shall I do ? 
Substantives or adjectives may take the place of verbs with 
toki ; e. g., kodomo no toki ni when I was a child, wakai toki 
ni when I was young. 

Various substantives denoting time may be substituted for 
toki, such as ori, koro, tsuide, setsu, j'i-dun, hyd-shi : watakushi 
ga Ainerika ni iru {ita) j'ibun ni when I was in America. 

Rondon ye tegaini wo dasu tsuide ni o tanomi no hon tvo 
chuinon shimasho. When I write to London I will 
order the book for which you have asked. 

10. Tabi {tavibi) ni, tabi-goto ni as often as, whenever ; ji- 
shin ga suru tabi ni every time there is an earthquake. 

11. Tokoro is often to be rendered " just when ", "just as."*^ 

a Tokoro dean is often to be rendered " jiisl "; I/iin (ie/cn/:erii tokoro desit. I 
am just going out (to a visitor), 1 adaiina ok'ita fokoro desu I have just gotten 
up. In the literary style tokoro is used like koto: Kore 7vaga hossiiru tokoro 
nnri. This is what I desire. The learned somelimcs use tokoro in this sense 
even in the colhKjuial Sucli expressions as the following are quite common : 
Korcnda tokoro 'iva minakattir. I didn't see the fall. In speeches tokoro no is 
freely used to connect adjectives or attriliutive (relative') clauses with the 
substantives wli ich they modify. 

4oS The Conjunction [lxxxiii 

It may take various particles and postpositions according to 
the nature of the principal verb of the sentence : 

Gozen wo tabete iru tokoro ye hito ga kimashita. 
A person came just as I was eating. 
Kifd to suru tokoro wo hito ga tonientashiia. 
Just as he was about to strike (cut), some one interfered. 
For the idioms tokoro ga and tokoro de as adversative conjunc- 
tions see pp. 2I2C and 365a. The latter has three distinct uses : 
Makeru {niaketa) to shit a tokoro ga... 
Supposing that we are defeated... 
Maketa tokoro de nigemashita. 
When defeated they at once fled. 

Shobai wo shiyo to itta tokoro de, motode ga nakereba da- 
me desu. You may attempt to do business, but it is of 
no use without capital. 
Watakushi ga viita tokoro de zva... 
According to my observation... 
The peculiar idiom dokoro ka or dokoro ja nai indicates that 
something that has just been said is very wide of the mark : 

Ano hito zva iita ga dekiviasu ka : Utaeru dokoro ka : 

yuuiei na ongakusha desu. 
Can he sing ? Sing ! Why, he's a noted musician. 
Kuril made matenai dokoro J a arimasen to mo. 
There's nothing at all to prevent my waiting till he comes. 
Sore dokoro ja nai. That's not the worst of it. 
I 2. Kawari (ni) but instead : » 

Kono ryo san nichi wa kuviotte imashita kazvari ni kon- 
nichi zva sukkari hareviashita. It has been cloudy the 
last two or three days, but to-day it is clear. 

13. 'Jori {ni) just as, as : 

Naze iitsuketa tori ni shinai ka ? 

Why don't you do as I told you ? 

Mae ni vio vwshita tori desu. It is just as I said before. 

14. lajne {ni) in order that, that: zvasuren tame ni that I 

a "Instead of " is usually to be rendered by means of the negative subor- 
dinative: A'i 7vo tsukezu 7ti lioka uo I;oto wo kangaeie orimashita. Instead of 
paying attention I was thinking of something else. 

ixxxiii] Substantives as Conjunctions 409 

may not forget. In formal speech the literary idiom of the 
future tease with ^a is occasionally heard : shiran ga tame ni 
that we may know. 

15. Yd {ill) in such a manner that, so that, as if: 
Subette koroban yd ni ki wo o tsuke yo. 

Be careful not to slip and fall. 

Sono ki tvo kaze ni fukitaosarenai yd ni yoku sasaete kure. 

Support the tree so that the wind will not blow it over. 
Especially common are the idioms ^J ;// sum (p. 216, top) and 
yd ni nam : 

Okurenai yd ni shitai viol desu. 

1 should like to arrange so as not to bj late. 

Shina mo chikagoro wa dandan gtvaikoku to majitvaru yd 
ni narimashita. Recently China too has gradually 
come to have intercourse wilh foreign countries. 

Jigoku de hotoke ni atta yd ni uresliu gozaimashita. 

It was as delightful as if I had met a buddha in hell. 

Ranipii no abura ga tsukita yd ni miemasu. 

It looks as if the oil in the lamp were exhausted. 

Aru yd ni iimashita. He spake as if he had it (p. I34d). 

Yd ni is frequently joined with mieru'^ and verbs of saying, 
as above. With verbs of hearing, thinking, etc., it is usually 
to be rendered " that " : 

Nani ka sd iu koto ga aru yd ni uketamaivarimashita. 
I have heard that there is something of the kind. 

16. Hodo (ni) so that (of result or degree) : 

Ano ki wa otona gajii nin kakaranakereba kakae-kirenai 
hodo futoi. 1 he tree is so stout that it takes ten grown 
men to encircle it (if ten grown men do not take part, 
they cannot completely embrace it). 

Ano yaina wa ten ni todoku hcdo takai. 

Tliat mountain is so high as to reach the sky. 

a With inieru the conjunction to may also be used, especially in tiie form 
viiele : Tabnko ga suki da to niiele taisb noinimasu. lie appears to be fond of 
tobacco and smokes a great deal. Are -icn kind siigu ni kane ivo kaesii yd va kolo 
wo itte i/cimashita f^a, hen no tiivshiiva/ce to miete iina ni inada ?notte kiinaien, lie 
promised yesterday to return the money at once, but it must have been a mere 
excuse; he has n't brought it yet. On yd dtsu in the sense of" it is as though," 
''it Fcems tliat," .'icc p. ii7g. 


The Conjunction 


Kutablreru ho.Io sanipo shinakereba narimasen. ^ 
. You must walk enough to tire yourself. 
In these sentences gurai may be substituted for hodo. 

17. Yue {tii) for the reason that because, accordingly. Yue 
belongs to formal speech. Note sore {go) yue ni therefore. 
In narratives the verb of the clause may be omitted so that 
words like mono, koto, etc., immediately precede yue : — to iu yo 
na ko yue on the ground that. 


ckinami connection, blood- 

saji spoon. 

ama-gaeru tree toad {anie 

fuini-kiri railroad crossing. 

furii-iiiai (originally : behav- 
ior) entertainment, ban- 
quet (also kyo-o). , 


.. ^shingle. 

yani exudation, gum. 

vtatsu-yani turpentine, resin. 

me-kiki\\x(\^w\^ the character 
of a curio, a connoisseur. 

kan-tei= vie-kiki judging the 
quality of an article. 

urajiai divination, fortune- 

uranai-ja diviner. 

uttae-goto lawsuit. 

hatoba wharf, pier. 

ei-gyo avocation, business, * 

han-dan decision, judgment. 

in-kyo retiring from active 
life and from the headship 
of the family. 

ryd-shi= karyudo hunter. t> 

san-dai going to the Palace 
for an audience or to pay 
one's respects. 

shuku-ko a salute of guns. 

tsu-ko (ytdri-yuki) passage. 

kden'chi= ko-en park. 

Dioin-bu-sho Department of 

en-gi no ii of good omen (of- 
ten proncd, ingi). 

azvateru lose presence of 
mind, become excited. 

yuzvaeru, iwaeru=-yuu bind, 

kujiku crush, sprain. 

kuriiu act irregularly, be out 
of order, be in a frenzy. 

wazurau suffer {yaniai wo)/ 

hazukashimeru insult. 

a Compare ; A'ufabireiu hodo (or dake) ii. The more tired you are the 
better. For naru dake and dekiru dake see p. ii2d. 
b /i'>'5-5y^/ may also mean 'fisherman." 

Lxxxiii] Substantives as Conjunctions 411 


Danna savia, go skuttatsii no o sliiaku wa itsugoro made 
ni smnash'te keba yoroshu gozaiinasho ka. Itsu de mo taterii 
yd ni sJite oke. Ano kata tua giron zvo sum tambi ?ii hidoku 
okorimas . Ano kata wa dekiru dake benkyd sum isumori da 
to mosli ie iviasJi ta ga, ckikagoro wa nandaka asonde {asunde) 
bakari iru yd des\ Watakushi wa san jissai ni nam made 
ichi do mo {yaniai wo) wazuratta koto ga nakatta yd ni onioi- 
inas\ Ha ga xvaruku naranai yd ni inatsuyani wo kamu hito 
vio ariinas\ Tonari no Jieya de saniiseii no oto ga shite iru 
uchi wa dd sk'te mo neniureviasen. AsJii wo kujiite amkenai 
yd 7ii narimasfi ta. Kazoekiren hodo tak'san ariinas\ Mtika- 
shi leyas'' kd ga Edo ni bakufii zvo hiraite kara manzai mo 
ddkoku no chinavii de {wo motte) Mikazva kara Edo ni dete 
eigyd zvo sum yd ni natta ga, kd mo kokyd no mono yue betsudan 
sore wo kinzerare nakatta. Ano seito zva Eigo zvo narau tame 
ni mainichi ni ri hodo zutsii aruite gakkd ye kayotte imas" sd 
des\ Koko ni wa sd iu hon wa gozainiasen kara, Amerika ye 
iegavii zvo das tsuide ni sd itte yatte yokosh'te moraimashd. 
Yubinsen no ma ni an yd ni kono te garni wo kaite shimawana- 
/cereba narimasen. Watakushi wa hataraite oru uchi zva 
tabako wo noniimasen. Ame ga Juridash'ta jibun ni chddo 
yadoya 7ii ts' kiniash^ta. Vou hodo sake zvo nonde zva ikemn- 
sen. Alio Into wa soba de kiite orarenu hodo no zvamkuchi zvo 
iimas\ ^ Chi no deru hodo inu ni kamaretnash' ta. Hito ni 
damasaren yd ni chui senakereba naranai. Watakushi zva 
jishifi ga sum tambi ni itsu mo azvatemas\ ^ Sensei ga iras- 
sharu mae ni anshd sh'te okimashd. Fuki no td zva mada yuki 
no kienai uchi ni denias'. Ooka Echizen no kami zva mutsuka- 
shii uttaegoto zvo kikii toki ni wa shdji no uchi de cha wo hiki 
nagara kikimash'ta ; sore zva hito no kao-katachi zvo mim to, 
sore ni ugokosarete shirazushirazu handan zvo ayamaru koto 
ga am no to, mata ki ga tatte kuru to, te ga kurutte cha ga 

a Hodo with the attributive clause belonging to it is governed by ■nmrukiichi. 
Sucli constructions occur not infrequently with ordinary conjunctions (sec tlio 
end of the sentence beginning witli OoI;a, below). 

L) Itsu mo is pleonastic. 

U2 The Conjunction [lxxxiii 

arakn demos kara des\ ^ Go kigen yd to iva hito ni an toki 
ni 1110 ivakareru toki ni mo iu kotoba des\ As'ko ni hito ga 
oru yd ni inieinas' . As' ko ni ki ga iiete arti yd ni ijiiemas". 
Koiio katana no inekiki zvo nas'tte kudasai. Watakushi no 
kantei {stiru iokoro) de wa Bizemnono no yd ni onioivaremas\ '* 
Washi 710 itta tdri ni skiro. Watakushi no kiita tokoro de 
wa saki ni Mombudaijin de atta Mori Yurei shi wa Ise no 
taibyd de burei wo sh'ta to iu koto des. Watakushi ga mita 
tokoro de wa shird gozaimash'ta. Aviagaeru wa ame ga furii 
toki ni nakivias' . Saiupo suru toki ni wa shijii tsue wo motte 
ikiutas . Rydshi ga sh'ka no hashitte iru tokoro wo ucki- 
mask'ta Kdenchi no hana zi'o totte iru tokoro zvo junsa ni 
niits'keraremash'ta. Chddo neyd to suru toki ni tonari kara hi 
ga demash'ta (broke out). Kisha ga kuru tokoro ye kodomo ga 
dete hikikorosaremash' ta. Dekakeyd to suru tokoro ye o kyaku 
ga kunash'ta. Mukashi zua, inoshi samurai ga chdnin ni ha- 
zukashimerareta toki ni zua sugu ni kirizute ni shiniash'ta. ^ 
O kyaku zvo suru {/urumai zvo suru) <l toki ni zva rydriya ni 
iits'keru to, nani mo ka mo motte kimas . Kyaku ga kima- 
sh'ta toki zva chddo hon zvo yomiagete shiniatta tokoro desh'ta. 
Yuki ga, michi mo zvakarazu kuruma mo tdranu hodo ni 
tsumoriuuzsh'ta. Oisha sama mo saj'i zvo oite kubi zvo kata- 
mukeru gurai ni narimash'ta. ^ Ore no ikite iru uchi zua 
sonna koto zvo sasemaseu. Sore zva anata no naotta ato de yd 
gozaimashd. ^ ^ 

I get headache every time I smoke tobacco ; so I will quit. 
America by the time {made ni zva) you return (to America) 
will probably be changed in many respects {banji). As 
{tokoro ga) I was going to the pier, a man of-war entered the 
harbor and fired a salute of three guns {sampatsu). If you 
walk enough to tire yourself, you will probably be able to sleep. 

a Chn 1V0 lii/;u pulverize lea with pestle and mortar for the ceremony of 
eha-no-yu; H ga tntte ktiruhtcoxa.^ agitated; /<? ga ktiruu the 1 1 and becomes 

b Bizen, a province n Chugoku, opposite Shikoku, was noted for its manu- 
facture of swords. 

c Kirhule ui sum cut the offender down with a sword {kirti) and let him lie, 
giving himself no further concern {^siiterit). 
d Have company to dinner, 
e The physician was nonplussed. 
f Compare: Atomaioaski ni shim slid. 

ixxxiii] Substantives as Conjunctions 41 j 

When }'ou go out, shut (shutting put) the door tight. Euro- 
peans could not Hve in the interior of Japan before the treaties 
were revised {kaisei ni nam). I should like to meet you 
once more before I leave. If you study Japanese diligentl}^ 
{he)ikyd sJite) [for] even one year, you will probably learn to 
speak (it will become that you can speak) a little {iva). I 
have written it (writing put) just as I heard it. Do just as you 
were ordered. In order that the shingles may not be blown 
off (fly) when the wind blows, stones are placed upon them, 
leyasu, after he went into retirement (became i}iky6), moved 
to Sumpa ^ and made that his residence {0 siiviai ni nam). 
Rub {Jiiku) camellia oil on the swords to keep them from 
rusting (that they may not rust). Take care that the rice 
does n't burn. I will make a note of it (^kakits ketc oku) so as 
not to forget. The Japanese in order not to forget a thing tie 
a finger with a paper string. The Japanese don't talk much 
at meal time. The fog is so thiclc (deep)^ that one can't sec 
well, but I think {pinowareni) that {^yo ni) theie is an island 
there. When a train is passing it is a dangerous thing to go 
over (A'osu no zvd) the railroad crossing. Go and say (saying 
come) that he shall come without fail, Okubo Toshimichi 
was assassinated as {tocitu de) he was going to the Palace. As 
Kiyomori was going to Aki, ^ a fish jumped into the boat, and 
i^ga) a diviner said that it was a good sign (thing of good 
omen). I should like to have {yd ni sfiiai inondes') you get 
well soon. I should like to have it finished by to-morrow. 
See to it {s/iie oke) that the fire does n't go out. 

a SumpH is the old name of Shizuoka (p. 96e). 

b A verli may without licdo express result or degree when a subordinative 
precedes ([). 101,2). 

C Kiyomori, of tlie clan of Taira {^Ilei-ke), was in tlie second half of the XII. 
Century Dn-ju-daijitt (prime minister) and the most powerful man in the 
country. Aki is a province on the main island west of Bizeii. Its chief city 
is Iliroshinia. 



Interjections may be divided into two groups. The first 
consists of mere sounds expressive of emotion: 

1. A Ah — of a sudden perception or recollection, delight, 
admiration, alarm, weariness, etc. 

A, ii kotc. Ah how fine ! 

A, shimatta Ah, too bad ! (p. 248d). 

2. <9 Oh — of fright or pain. 

3. Ei — of displeasure or contempt -^ 
Ei, imaiviashii. Pshaw ! Hard luck ! 
Ei, urusai ko da nel. 

Don't bother me (you are an annoying child). 

4. Ma, Well — of pleasure, satisfaction, amazement, hesi- 
tancy, exhortation, etc. 

Ma, via, yokii irasshaiviashita. 

Well, well, I'm glad you've come. 

Ma, yokatta. Well, that was fine. 

Ma, do shit a Dion'' daro. Well, what shall we do? 

Ma, sonna iini desho. Well, it means something like that. 

Md, ippukii o agari nasai. Come, have some tea (or, a 

5. Sa, sa Come — urging, inciting, encouraging : [smoke). 
.S'^, ikimasho. Come, let's go. 

Sa, sa. Come (or go) on ! 

6. i'a, ya — of surprise, delight, alarm. 

Vd, o kiima san. Well, is that you Kuma? 

7. Yai — calling, reproaching : 

Yai, nani wo sum «' da. For shame ! what are you 
doing ? 

8. Oi, o:oi Hello ! (used mostly by men in trying to get the 
attention of others, especially inferiors). 

9. Oya, oyaoya — of surprise : 

Oya, sJ desn ka Indeed ! you don't say ? 
Oyaoya, taihen na fukibiiri desu. 
Whew ! it's a dreadful storm. 
Oyaoya, cha wo koboshimasJiita. 
Oh dear, I've spilled the tea. 

a Kan-lo shi, from kan=aida, i.e., " inter-" and ed=nageru throw, i.e., 

b Hei (p. 356) is often pronounced ei : Eu nan to osshahnashitn kn. What 
did you say? 

Lxxxiv] The Interjection 415 

10, Dokkoi, dokkoisho — encouraging, warning. 
The second group consists of interjections which seem to 
have been derived from other words : 
k/ \. Kore, kora, — rebuking. 
2. Sore, sofa look at that! 
/ 3. Are, ara — of surprise : 
^ Are, niji ga dekimashita. See ! there's a rainbow. 
Ara, taihen na koto ga dekiinasJdta. 
Oh ! a terrible thing has happened. 

4. Nani, nani what ! Oh no ! Nothing at all. 

5. Dore, dure, dore dore. Well ! (p. 42b, 207b). 

6. Hate {no) — of perplexity, 

Hate, viyo na koe ga sum. That's a queer sound. 
Hate, koiiiatta 7ia. Dear me ! What a fix 1 

7. Moshi, mosJiiiuoshi. Hello ! Say ! (p. 207b). 

8. Yare, yareyare — of relief, pleasure: 
Yareyare, go kuro deshita. 

It is too bad to have burdened you so. 
Yareyare, sJiiken ga suitiiuiashita. 
At last the examination is over. 
'/q. A-ita (from 7i, itai) Ouch! That hurts. 

10. Do-mo — of perplexity : 

Doino, ikeiuasen. Pshaw ! it's of no use. 

Nakanaka, doino (=it's exceedingly difficult). 

Oya, ma, donio, ma onioigakenai. Well, I'm amazed. 

11. Naru-Jiodo I see, quite so, very true, indeed. NartiJiodo 
may indicate the sudden perception of a new thought. It may 
also take the place of the has, he's, ei's, um^s, etc., with which 
polite people punctuate a conversation to w^hich they arc lis- 
tening attentively. So desii ka may be used in the same wa)^. 
Older men or provincials say also ikanimo or ikasama (p. 354a). 

From the English have been imported hiyahiya (Hear, hear) 
and nono, exclamations indicating respectively approval and 
disapproval of a speech. Another expression is kin-chd — tsu- 
tsushinde kikii I listen respectfully.-'^ 

a \Vhile the speech of the average Japanese is more refined than that of the 
agerage foreigner, execration and the abuse of sacred words are by no means 
unknown. Vulgar people express their detestation of a person by saying 
Ktttaba) e {^hntabaru die), or Shinde shimae, or Shiiii-sokciiai-we (lit. one who lias 
failed to die. Old people express gratification by saying A'aiitu Ainida Butsu 
{^Nainu I adore, from the Sanscrit), just as the Germans say Golt set Dank. 
Nanmsainbd=^Qxc's.\. heavens ! Sambo arc the tlirce [I'u'' ''"isl] treasures biip-pd- 
so, i.e., biit<;u Buddha, ho law or doctrine and so pr' 

4\6 The Interjection [lxxxvi 

With the interjections sliould be classed the imperative par- 
ticles na and yo (p. 150,2) --^ and/.? (vulgar, p. 2491) ; the inter- 
rogative pai tides ka, ya and yara (pp. 397-8)> ^'^^ the familiar 
vocative ya (classical yo, p. 34f). O Hana sail may be called 
Haiiaya by her superiors. A mother in calling her boy will say 
Bo ya. An aged servant may be addressed Jn ya (or Ba ya). 

In this connection note the particles of emphasis : 

1. A^e or nei at the end of a sentence indicates agreement or 
an appeal for assent: 

Nikko 110 taviaya wa kekko desu ne. 

The ancestral shrines of Nikko are splendid, arc n't they ? 

So desu ne. That's so (but see p. 134a). 

Ne may also follow any word in a sentence to draw attention 
to it or simply to fill out a pause, like the English " You know." 
It is thus used in explaining things to a dull hearer. Ne is 
especially common in Tokyo. It characterizes the speech of 
children ; e. g., 

Totiari no o ba san j^m ne, sakuban kite ne, kyo zva ne, SJnn- 
toiniza ye ne, tsurete ikii to itta n' da kara tie, zvataska ne, 
matte iru w' da yo. The old lady next door said last evening 
that she would take me to Shintomiza ^^ to-day ; so I am 
waiting for her. 

Ano ne, or simply ne, like the English " I say," attracts 
attention to what is to be said. 

2. Na, na is used like ne in Kyoto ; in Tokyo only by men. 

3. No, no is becoming obsolete in most parts of the country. 

4. Sa occurs after words like sayo and natii and is very 
common with elliptical constructions : 

Ikanai to sa. He says he won't go. 
Nani sa, sonna ivake wa nai. 
What do you mean ? That's not the case. 
A story often ends with to sa. 

5. Wa : 3Id, Iwnto 7ii iya da wa. I certainly do dislike it. 

6. Wai : Kore zva inigoto da zvai. This is surely handsome. 

7. Ya : Tare, ureshii ya. How delightful ! 

8. Ye may follow a question : So ka ye. That so ? 

y/ 9. Yo at the end of a sentence indicates a positive assertion. 
It is used very much more by women than by men. 

a Na and yo may follow even regular imperatives of the second conjugation : 
ippai agare yo. Kudasai na. Note also : Cliodai na (said by a woman). 
b The name of a famous theater in Tokyo {shin new, toini wealth). 


Lxxxiv] The Intekjection 417 

Kono jibiki ni tva ariviasen yo. 

It isn't ill this dictionary, I tell you. 

Abtinai yo. Look out ; that's dangerous. 
Girls have a fashion of substituting the subordinative with yo 
for the indicative : 

Watakushi mo itte yo. I am going (or, went), too. 

10. Zo often follows sentences which contain a command or 
prohibition. It is the harshest of the interjections of emphasis : 

Somia koto ivo shicha naranai zo. 

You must n't do anything like that, do you hear? 

11. Ze is vulgar except in some provinces. 

Mono may occur at the end of a sentence, especially when 
it has a tone of complaint : 

Itte mo kikanai 11 desu mono. 

Though I tell him he won't listen. 
Koto following an adjective or a verb expresses surprise, 
wonder or admiration : 

Kono hana no nioi no ii koto. How fragrant this flower is ! 

Sainui koto. How cold it is ! 

Yoku mawariviasu koto. How it spins 1 

Kitai no yosii da koto. How extraordinary ! 


(In addition to the interjections) 

toga fault, transgression. kan-nin forbearance. 

inakanai (from makanati) ge-shnku-ya boarding house. 

housekeeping, a steward, omo-datta chief 

board. wastire-gachi na forgetful. '' 

fusuina sliding doors covered ai-mai na vague, ambiguous. 

with wall paper forming tondemonai=tohdmonai. 

partitions between rooms, kibamu turn yellow. 

te-bukuro glove. ska sum thank, apologize. 

vw (lit. hair) one tenth of a kippari /^distinctly, definitely. 

fin. ^ saka-sama ni, sakasa ni upside 
gyu-7iyu {ushi no chichi) niillc. down. 

a The term rin denotes tlie tenth part not only 64 a sen, but also of a bit 
(unit of interest, p. 8o, or one tenth of a siin^ or of a fun (one tenth of a tnoin- 
vie, p. 69). Bit, hnn Mulftin arc variant readings of the same cliaractcr. 

b Compare ari-gachi in : Ku in baai ni 7va arigadii na {no) koto desu kara, so 
fiikaku togaiiieru ni wa oyobiinasen. You need not censure [him] severely; for 
in such a case [a like thai] is very apt to occur. 

41 8 The Interjection [lxxxiv 


Ne ! aiiata clioito sono fnsmna zvo taiete kudasaiinashi na. 
Ma, yoku dekimash'ta koto vei. Oyo, Matsubara san / yoi io- 
koro de o me ni kakafimasJita. Dochira ye irasshaimas ka. 
Nani, cliotto sanipo ni itte kimasJita tokoro sa. Yareyare, 
mendok'sai kotta ( = koto da) na. Aita, omae wa liidoi koto 
ivo stiru ?ie ; nandatte {=naze) hito wo ntsu n' da."^ Ara, 
utta 71 ja gozainiasen yo ; hyotto attata ii des*kara, kannin 
sliie kjidasaimashi. Donio, nan to vio ienai iya na kokoromo ■ 
cJii ni natte kita ; do s/ita n data. Jkasama, sayd na wake 
de gozaimas" ka na. Sonna koto zvo osshaite wa anata go mu- 
ri de gozaimas'zva, watashi wa nani vio zonjiviasen mono. ^ 
A, ii koto ! kore wo watashi 7ii kudasaimas'no. '^ Moshimoslii / 
Kauda ni deru ni zua do ittara yoroshu gozaimasho. Ma, 
via, sonna koto zvo iivanaide sJiibarakic o makase nasai ; wa- 
tashi ga yoi yd ni sh'te agemas kara. Oya, ma, taiso kirei na 
kanzashi des'koto nei. Bo ya ! kore kara { = karawa) sonna 
wariisa wo snrn to, ynrushimasen zo. Sore de mo yokuite yo. 
Osaka ye itte haknrankzvai zvo go kembntsn fiasai ; taiso omo- 
sJiiro gozaimas ze. Ei, sonna tsuviaraii koto ka. Oi, 7i-ei san f 
hayaku gozen zvo dash'te kurenja komaru ja nai ka. ^ Nani, ore , 
datte kane 7io hyaku ryo ya 7ti hyakti ryo zva koshiraerarenai • 
kota { = koto wa) am mo7i ka. f Sa, kind ! yari tamae ; giizii- 
guzii sWte oru to, hi ga knrete shiman zo. Ara, koko ni oitar 
kaniiire wa do sh'taro. Sora, oki 7ia ri7igo zvo yarn zo. Ano 
ne, Online sa7i { = o Vine san) zva ne, okkasan ni nio hanasatiai- 
de kind Tokyo ye itta n desto. Domo, komatte sJiimaiinas 
zva ; ikura itte kikasete mo zvakaranai ;/' desmono. Sore zva 

a Tlic purpose of llicse exercises is to enable the student to understand 
what is being said in liis presence, not to furnish models for imitation. Until 
one has become very fluent, great caution must be exercised in using the words 
described in this chapter. It is very difficult for foreigners to use even ne 
gracefully so as not to give offense. 

b A gentleman resents being hustled in a crowd. The answer follows. 

C A lady protests against being blamed for sometliing she knows nothing 

d Kudasawiasn no=kudasnivunn ka (p 273, middle). 

e Kei snii, from aiie elder sister, is used in addressing a waitress or servant 
at a hotel. 

f The old word /yd is still used in the sense of >'^/;. 

Lxxxiv] The Interjection 419 

dai s'ki desWeara, watashi ni mo hitotsu chodai na. Aiio kifo 
no hanashi to kite iva {kitarii) bakak'sakute kikareta inon^ 
ja ariviasen yo. ^ Mina buji ni kurash'te orimas' kara, anji- 
nai yd ni kotozukete kudasai na. Ma, ionda shitsurei wo ita- 
shimasJi ta ; dozo, go men nasite ktidasaimashi. Kessh'te ma- 
chigai zva arimas mai ne. ^' Fya, do itashimasJite, tin mo de 
mo chigai ga gozaimaslitara sugu ni o torikae moshimasho. 
Oi, sonna ni minna de waizuai itta to/coro de sh'kata ga nai 
kara,, 0}naeiachi no ncJii kara oviodatta mono ni san nin erande 
yokose : so sureba, yoku sodan zvo sh^te kimete yard. Oi, kimi ! 
ano koto zva do narimasJi ia ka. A, are des^ka ; mada kiviaran- 
de orimas' . Are zva, domo nanigoto ni tsuite mo kippari s/ita 
koto zvo iivazu ni itsti mo aimai na Jienji bakari s/ite komatta 
mon des\ Kore kara Ueno ye hanami ni iko to omoiniasga, 
mina san zva ikaga des^ka. Oya, so, zvatasJii mo itte yo, 
dozo, isiirete itte chodai na. Sakunen Ueno ye itta jibun zva 
omoshirokatta yo. So desh'ta ne, ano ioki zva zvatashi mo nei 
san to issho ni itte yo. Anna hito ni shasanakereba {p zvabi 
zvo shinakereba) naranai nante { = nado to itte), sorya tondemo- 
nai kotta ne, nan no toga mo nai no ni sa. ^Va, odoroita. 
Oyaoya, ma, yd koso o tazune kudasaimash'ta. Okka san .' 
ano ningyo zvo katte kudasai na. Otonash'ku sae suteba katie 
agenias yo. Kora, igo kessh'te sonna itaziira zvo sh'te zva 
naranai zo. Naruhodo, o hanashi zvo ukagatte mireba, go 

mottoino na shidai de gozaimas\ Oi, knrumaya ! chotto soko 
made yatte kure. Oi, kiuii ! sampo ni dekakenai ka. Yare- 
yare, kore de dekiagarimash' ta. Tebukuro zvo naknsanai yd 
ni ki zvo ts ketiakucha ikenai yo. A, zvasureta koto zvo sh'ta. 
Kora, sonna baka na koto zvo sh'cha naran. Watashi zva 
gyunyu zva dai kirai des'yo. Boku nc gesh'kuya zva niakanai 
ga zvariikute komaru kara, utsnritai to onion ga, doko zo yoi 
tokoro ga arimas' mai ka na. Ma, go ran nasai, as" ko no slidji- 
ni hito no o4otte iru kage ga utsutte imas\ Kono mikan zva 
yohodo kibanda kara, taigai juku sh'tard yo. Tokaku zvasnrc 
gachi de komarimas'yo. Dokkoi, so zva ikanai. A, sonna ni bin 
zvo sakasa ni sh'te zva mizii ga koboremas\ Are, are, atchi ni 
kirei na chd ga tonde iru yo ; liayaku itte ts'kamae na yo. 

a The peculiar idiom lo Idle iva or to Htara is an emphatic equivalent of wn. 
h A c^cntleman inquires of a shopkeeper if ho is sure that there has hecti 
no mistake in measuring the jjoods lie lias houghl. The answer follows. 


It is a peculiar feature of the language that in addressing a 
pei".son or speaking of members of the faniily of tliat person or 
of one's own family, the terms employed vary according to the 
relative rank of those concerned. These distinctions are due to 
the careful grading of social classes and to the strict subordina- 
tion of the members of a family one to another. T'Vequently a 
polite term differs from a common one only in having the hon- 
orific prefix or go or a suffix such as sama or sail or go. In 
other cases the polite term is a special word. 

In calling a person one adds sail ^ to the family name or says 
anata. Teachers, superiors in a profession or an art and older 
nien of culture whom one wishes to treat with regard may well 
be addressed by the title sensei. Soldiers in addressing superior 
officers add doiio to the title. Among equals or those who are 
on familiar terms, such as students, officials, merchants, etc., 
/cun takes the place o{ san. Teachers and oflicers may address 
students and soldiers by their family names without san (a 
practice called yobi-sute). The master of the house usually 
calls coolies and his own servants by their personal names, 
which may even be abbreviated (p. 257c) ; but others in the 
family add sail. In talking about persons the same distinctions 
hold good. 

For the titles of persons of high rank see p. 31 id. The 
following are the most important appellations : 

T. Master of the house. 

Go zen Your Grace, His Grace. '^ [rank). 

Tono sama (of former feudal lords and other people of high 
Danna sama, danna san (to the lady of the house by an 

inferior, to a servant of the person in question, by a 

servant to his master). ^ 
Go tei-shu the master of the house, your husband. 
Go shu-jin (to a subordinate at a store or a liotel). 
Shu-jiii (by a clerk to a customer). 

"Husband " is otto, but among equals a lady commonly speaks 
of her husband by his surname or personal name without san, 

a The younger generation does not use tlie unabbreviated and very formal 
irtina with surnames. 

b Note the homonymns in the nonsensical sentence: Go zen iva gczeii 7ii 
^ozen 'WO gczen meshinf^arimashila. His Grace ale five bowls of rice before noon. 
C Shopkeepers usually address a gentleman cuslomer as ilauna [sama). 

Appellations 421 

while her friends vise his surname with san. A wife may also 
use such terms as jfado or ia^u (p. 365b) or shujin. To a 
caller a servant may speak of his master as danna. 

2. Lady of the house. 

O lie sama Your Grace. Oku gain Her Grace. 
Okti sama, oku sail (corresponds to datina sama). 
Go sliin-zo sama, go shin san {shin = atarashii, zo = tsnkiiru^ 
from a former custom of a new couple's building a new 
house for their dwelling). 
Sai-hni your wife, his wife (among familiar friends). ^ 
O kami ^««>(among shopkeepers and laborers). '^ 
" My wife " is tsuma, sai, gu-sai (foolish \\\{€), ka-nai. A 
man of the lower classes may say kakTi. The word fiyo-do, 
originally elegant, is now used only in speaking famiharly of 
the wife of a third person or of one's own wife. 

3. Parents. 

Go ryo-sJnji sapm your parents. 
" My parents " is ryoskin, oya, ^ fiita-oya or fti-bo {chichi- 

4. Father. 

Go som-pii sama {son honorable) your honored father. 
Go shiin-pu sama {shin ^=- oya) your father. 
Oya-go sama your father. 

O to sama,^totfsaji{ivom. toio), your father, papa ! 
" My father " is chichi, chichi-oya or oya-ji (p. 58b). 

5. IMother. 

Go som-bo, go bo-kb your honored mother. 
H aha- go, ha ha sain a your mother. 
O k?t sama, okkasania (from kaka) your mother. 
Okka san your mother, mamma ! 
" My mother " is haha, or haha-oya. People of the older gen- 
eration say o/uhiro, but this is in most cases a vulgar word. 

a A man must not speak of his own wife as saikun. 

h E. g., kill iiinaya no o kami san. Tn Kyoto o knini san is also used hy polite 
people. Expressions like Mrs. 'laguclii, Miss Tagucli i, must be parn))hrase(l! 
Tagitchi san no oka san, 7'aguchi san no o jo san, eic. 

C Oyn-kata means the leader of a gang of coolies or the master of a small 
inn. Distinguigli oya (great housc^ the owner of a rented Jiousc. 



6. Grandfather : Go so-fu {samd), o jii san {jii iov jiji). » 
" My grandfather " may also be so-fu or jiji, Jii. 

7. Grandmother : Go ro-bo {sania) o ba san {ba or baba). 
" My grandmother " : so-bo or baba. 

8. Elder brother. 

Go son-kei {samd), go tei-kei {samd) your elder brother. '> 
O aiii saina, o ani san, nii saina, nit sail. 
Ani san, nii san (by younger brothers and sisters), 
" My elder brother " is ani. Ani-ki is vulgar now. 

9. Younger brother. 

Go sha-tei {samd) go rei-tei {sama) your younger brother 

{ska house). 
Otolo san, ototo-go (to inferiors), 

10. Elder sister : O ane saina your eider sister, 

Ane san, nei san (by younger brothers and sisters). 

11. Younger sister : O ivioto san your younger sisto)'. 
O imoto-go, iinoto-go (to inferiors). 

12. Son, daughter, child. 

Go sJii-sokn {san), ^o reisokn, musuko sama {san) 

your son. 
Musuko your boy (to inferiors), my boy. 
Segare my boy, son. 
O bo san, bo san, botchan (p. 232b). 
Go cho-nan your eldest son. 

Go ji-nan your second son. Go san-nan your third son. 
Go rei-jd your daughter. 
O jo san your daughter, miss 1 

O innsume san, niusume-go your (or his) daughtei'. 
Musume your daughter (to inferiors), my daughter. 
Go cJio-jo your eldest daughter. 

Go batsu-jo {viatsn-jo) your youngest daughter {batsu end). 
O ko san your child. 

a O dn sail and o jii sait are p.lso used in addresing old ladies and gentlemen 
in general. 

b From rel excellent and hei elder brother. I\ei=zaiii ; /ei=^o/d(o, Kei-lei, 
more commonly pronounced /'j^-^^/?, designates a brother (or a sister, older or 
younger. " Your brollier (ur sislcr) \s go kydJai Compare shi-mai [s/n'=^aiie. 
t>iai:^imo/o) sister. 

Appellations 423 

Go sd-ryo your eldest child {so all, ryo govern). 

O ckiisai no your baby. 
" Father-in-law " or " mother-in-law " is (<?) shnto. SJiuto- 
me for *' mother-in-law " is a literary word. Strictly speaking 
shYito are the husband's parents. A man may speak of his 
wife's parents as kanai no cJiichiy kanai no haha. 

A groom, or a husband from the point of view of the wife's 
family, is called (<?) muko {son) ; a bride, wife, daughter-in-law, 
sister-in-law, is {0) youte {sati). " Bride " and "groom " in the 
strict sense are kana-yoine, hana-muko. A wedded pair are 
{go) /ufii : Tanaka san go jYifn Mr, and Mrs. Tanaka. 
13. Grandchild. 

O mago {san) your grandson, grandchild. 

O mago-inustune your granddaughter. 
14. Uncle, nephew, etc. 

O-j'i sama {san) your uncle. Uncle ! 

O ba sama {sari) your aunt. Aunt ! 

Oi-go sama {san) your nephew. 

O mei-go sama {san) your niece. 

O iioko san your cou->iu. 



The order of words in a clause is rather more siniple than in 
European languages. It is the same in affirmative and in in- 
terrogative sentences, in principal and in dependent clauses. 

1. The main rule is that all modifying words and clauses 
precede the governing^ word. A modifying word is sometimes 
separated by an interv^ening modifier from the governing 
word ; e.g., 

Nadakai daigaku no kydjii a famous university professor, 

or, a professor of a famous university (p. 113a). 
Furui hyakusho no ie an old farmhouse (farmer's house). 
Likewise an adverb precedes the verb, adjective, or adverb 
which it modifies : taiJien osoi very late, goku Jiayaku very soon. 
Chotto oide. Come just a moment. ^ 

There are a few apparent exceptions to this rule : 
Shirimasen yoku. I don't know — at least not well. 
Shitsiirei shigoku. You are exceedingly rude. 
Numerals, together with the numerativcs, are not modifiers 
of nouns as in English (p. 341). ^ 

2. Case-particles and postpositions follow their substan- 
tives.'^ All the conjuctions, except the auxiliaries moshi, man- 
ichi, tatoi and yoshi (which stand at the beginning of clauses) 
follow their verbs. 

3. The order in a complete sentence is ordinarily the follow- 
ing : (i) subject, often understood ; (2) indirect object or ad- 
verbial modifier; (3) direct object, and (4) verb. 

a Numerals are used as substantives occasionally. Like adverbs (p. 352) 
they may also with 110 take the attributive position. 

b Such words as made, to, ka, nado, etc., may separate case particles from 
their nouns. Words like kurai, bakari, may be brought under the same rule, 
except that they take the place of ga and wo. But they may also follow 7ii. 
Walakushi tii bakari hirete totnodachi ni zva yaranai. He gave only to me, not 
to my friend. Compare: Shinii bakari 711 natte imasu. He is at the point of 
death. See also p. 357c. 

Lxxxv] Syntax 425 

An indirect object or an adverbial modifier, witli or witli- 
out wa, may take the first position for the sake of emphasis : 

Sono hito ni wa nani mo yaranakatta. 
1 did n't give anything to him. 
Sukoski mo shimpai ga arimaseii. 
I liave n't the least anxiety. 
Taihen ni hito ga o gozaimastt. 
There are very many people. 

The indirect object or adverbial modifier may also stand 
more naturally between the direct object and the verb : Tokei 
wo shicki ni okimashita. He pawned his watch. In many cases 
more depends on the stress of the voice than on the position of 
the words. Thus we may say either Inochi zvo kiini no tame 
ni siitemashita or Kuni no tame ni inochi wo sutemashita : He 
gave his life for his country. Compare p, 57a. Ordinarily 
words denoting time precede words denoting place. 

Myonichi Yokohama ye ikimas . 
I will go to Yokohama to-morrow. 
It is a universal rule that the general precedes the particular. 
Ashita no asa go ji ni at five to-morrow morning. 
Reido ika go do five degrees below zero. 

Interrogative words do not necessarily take the first place as 
in English. 

4, The order in a subordinate clause is just the same as in an 
independent sentence, the only difference being that the prin- 
cipal verb is followed by a conjunction or inflected so as to 
show the relation of the clause to what follows. All dependent 
clauses precede the principal clause. In careless speech, how- 
ever, it often happens that a subordinative or a dependent 
clause, conditional, consessive or causal, lags behind the rest of 
the sentence (pp. 85c, 392a) The same construction is some- 
times chosen for the sake of emphasis. 

5. While, as has been said, the construction of sim[)le sen- 
tences or clauses in themselves is not so difficult, the foreign 
student ambitious to master the colloquial will find that it is his 
most serious problem to join clauses together so as to form a 
connected, and to the Japanese mind luminous, whole. Japan- 
ese poetry is sententious and fia^:;^mentary, but colloquial 
narratives and addresses must be thoroughly coherent. When 
listening to a Japanese speech or slory one need not be 
surprised to find no conclusive verbs and no period until the 
end of the whole is reached. In reading connected pieces like 

4 26 Syntax [lxxxv 

the following selections it may bo a good exercise for the 
student (i) to rewrite the story, breaking it up into as many 
short sentences as possible, and then (2) to recombine them so 
as to make, if possible, one continuous narrative of the whole. 

6. Ellipses are very common. Often a verb or auxiliary 
must be supplied : 

Vo/i'ii ki zvo tsukete. Take good care ! (p. 164, 8) 

iiiedeto. Congratulations ! 
Do itashimashite. 

Why, how can you? Don't mention it! (p. 2i8d). 
Senjitsu wa {shiisurei itashimashita). 

1 was rude the other day. 

Kore wa domo may mean almost anything, shitsiirei ita- 
shimashita, or arigato gosainiasu, or o inezurashii (y<ju are 
quite a strangei'), being understood. 

Ellipses are especially common in proverbs ; e. g., 

Naki-tstira ni hachi. 

Bees sting a crying face (Misfortunes never come singly). 


Ichiban Tsuyol Mono 

Aru neziwii no fufii ni taihen utsiikiiskii onna no ko ga deki- 
masJtta kara, sekaiju de ickibaii tsiiyoi ni kataztikete shusse 
saseyo to oinoiviasltta. Soko de taiyo no tokoro ye itte, 
" Doka. watakuskidouio no inns' me zvo yoine ni sh'te kudasai" 
to tanoniiviasto, taiyo zva sono zvake ivo kiite uios'ni zva : 
" Sekkakii toi inichi ivo oide nastte arigato gozaivuxs ga, mada 
koka ni tvatakusJd yori tsiiyoi mono ga arimas'. I'atoeba, kiano 
ga deru to, zvatakuski ga iknra teraso to omotte mo kakusarete 
teru koto ga dekimasen." Nezumi zva sore zvo mottomo to omotte 
kumo no ko ye itte tanomimasto, ki-nno no mos'ni zva : '* Naru- 
hodo^ zvatakushi ni zva taiyo no lukari zvo kakuschikara zva 
arimas' ga, kaze ga zvatakushi yori tsnyoi des'." Soko de ftezumi 
ga kvndc zzia kaze no ko ye itte tanomimas'to, mata kaze no 
mos'ni zva : " Nariikodo, zimtakuski zva kumo yori tsiiyoi des' . 
Skikashi kabe zva motto tsnyoi des'. Watakuski ga sore wo 
fukitaoso to omotte mo, taoremasen." ^ Sore kara Tiezumi ga 
kabe ye itte tanomimas' to , kabe zva : " Kaze no itta tori, zvata- 
knski zva yotsii no ncki de zva ickiban tsnyoi des' . Skikaski 
nezumi wa zvatakuski zvo kajitte ana zvo akemas' kara, zvata- 
kushi yori nao tsnyoi des ." Soko de nezumi ga sekai nd jibnn 
yori tsnyoi mono zva nai to zvakatte, to to iinisme zvo onaj'i nezumi 
no ucki ye kafazukemask' ta . 

Nomi to Sliiravn^^ 

Nomi to skirami ga Kyoto ye itte Tenski Sama ni o memie zvo 
shiyo to yak'soku sh'te tabidacki zvo itashimask'ta. Xomi zva 
haneru kara, kayakiite yoppodo saki ye itte shiranii zvo matte 
imask' ta Skikashi skirami no kurn no ga amari osoi kara, 
ivaki ye yorimichi zvo sk'te omoskiroi v:ono zvo mi, utsiits'zvo 
nukask'te^ imask' ta. Sono ticki ni skirami zva noro'z'te mo 
yasumazu ni iku kara, saki ni Kyoto ye t suite J enski Sama no 

a Niile the change ('f llie subject. 

b Tliis fable is not generally known lo llic Japanese. It is given a plnce 
liere for the sake of its originality. 

c Ulsutsti IVO iiukasti forget the woild of reality ; nnkast (causative of iiuA-erii) 
allow to escnpc. 

^28 Ilazura koso 

ts' kue no ue ni haiagarimasJi ta. Tenshi Saina zva sore wo go 
ran asobosarete, " Kore wa mezurashii imishi da " to osshatte 
inotte irassharu o f^ide de shirami no senaka ni sunii 2vo o ts ke 
nasaimaslita. Skirami wa sono sumi wo^ knrai wo itadaita 
no da to oniotte kaette kurii tochu de nonii ni deaintasJt ta. 
N^onti wa taiso odoroite, " IVataski wa oniae wo matte ita no 
ni, doko ye itta no ka " to tazimetara, skirami wa, " Omae 7ua 
aski ga Jzayai kara, sadamete saki ye itta daro to omotte wa- 
taski wa kitori de o memie wo sJtte kono tori kurai made ita- 
daite kaette kit a " to kotaemask'ta. Soko de no mi wa jihun ga 
yudan zvo sk'te okufeta no zvo taiso kajite makka ni itarimash'ta. 

Itazura Kozo^ 

Aru tera ni taiso kecki na osho ga arimash' ta. Am ki hoka 
kafa ankoromocki wo moraimask' ta ga, kozo ni misezu ni sotto 
skimatte oite soto ye dete ytikimasJita. Kozo wa rusii no aida 
ni sore wo nusumidasJi te tabete sJdmaimasJi ta. So sk'te an 
7V0 s' koski bakari honzon sama no kiicki no atari ni ts' kete oite 
jibim wa skiran kao wo sk'te imask'ta. \ 'agate osko ga kaette 
kite ankoromocki wo tabeyo to sk'ta ga, %itotsu mo nakunatte 
imask'ta.!^ Sore de kozo ga tabeta ni ckigai \gd) nai to omotte 
kozo wo yobi, " Ankoromocki wa do sk'ta ka " to tazune///ask'- 
tara, kozo wa : " IVatakuski zva chit to mo zonjimasen ; ski- 
kaski senkoku kondo no ko de 7tani ka oto ga skimash' ta kara 
itte go ran nasai " to moskimask'ta. Soko de osko wa kondo 
ye itte konzoii sama no kucki no atari ni an ga tsuite iru no 
wo mite, kore de wa konzon sama ga misunde kutta ni chigai 
nai to kara wo tatete konzon sama wo bnckimas'to, kanabuts'wa 
k'wan, k'nyan*^ to narimask'ta. Osko wa, " Konna ni hicki no 
atari ni an no tsuite oru no ni k'wan koto ga aru mon'ka " to 
kanabuts'wo idobata ye kifiizuridas]:,' te ido no ucki ye nagekomi- 
mask'ta. Sum to, kanabutsu mo^ kutta kutta to kakujo sk'te 
skiziimimash ' ta . 

a. Note that the logical siiliject cf a clause dependent on a verb like oiiioti 
may take wo. In such a case ivo may be rendered ' in regard to." 

b A well known anecdote. Itazma A-ozd a mischievous young priest, a 
naughty acolyte, 

c Ktiwanu I did (do) not eat. Kican nlso represents tlie sound made by the 
metallic idol when struck. So also below : kutta \^ z-n. imitation of the bub- 
bling sound of the water, also the preterit o\ ktiii eat. 

d Mo after katiabtitsii indicates agreement on the part of tlie idol (see 
p. 4 29(1). 

• Kaketori — Tsubeu no Kiteii 429 


Am kito ga karits' ke no mise ni kake wo slite okiniash'ta 
ga, ts kizue ni nam to, akindo ga kake wo tori ni kum daro to 
oniotte o kaini san ni : " MosJd kake wo tori ni kitara, waski ga 
iicki ni inai to ie " to iits kete okiinash'ta. So sum to, an no go- 
toku akindo ga inairimasK ta. Soko de o kami san wa teiskn 
no iits kedori ni : " Kyo wa skujin ga rusu deskara, viata kite 
kiidasai " to indshiniaskJta. Siiru to, akindo zva irikiichi no 
skoji no yabure kara ^ nchi zvo nozoite, " O kami san go skujin 
•wa o ucki no yos'des'"^ to moshiniask' ta. Teisku wa sore 
•wo kiite kami de sono ana wo fusaide, *' Kore nara, ^ rusu no 
yd ni iniem daro " to iimask'ta. Soko de akindo mo sk'kata 
naku ^ waratte kaette shimaimask'ta. 

Tsuben no Kiten 

Go isskin mae no koto desga, am ki Nagasaki biigyo ga ^ 
norimono ni Jtotte so to zvo torimas'to, tockic de itma ni notte 
iru Orandajin ni deaimask'ta. Sono jibun ni zva dare de mo 
tochu de meue no kito ni au to, uma kara orite aisats'wo sum 
skukwan desk'ta kara, bugyo wa tsuben ni, sono koto wo Oran- 
dajin ni kanasJtte uma kara orose to iits' kemas/i ta. Shikaru 
ni sono tsuben zva yoku gwaikokii no jijo wo sk'tte ite tote mo 
Orandajin ga uma kara orimai to omotta kara, kiten zvo kika- 
sk'te Orandajin ni mukai : " Watakushi no skujin ga anata no 
o uma wo taiso komete kaitai to moskimas kara, dozo o ori nasatte 
skujin no mae made uvia wo kiite kite kudasaimasen ka" to 
moskimask'ta. Orandajin zva nani mo skirimasen kara, kore 
"wa ii skoko da to omotte sugu ni uma kara orite teinei ni bu- 
gyo no mae ye kite aisats'wo sk'ta to iu koto des' . 

a Yabme z. rent in the paper on llie sliding door, from yabtireru he torn; 
/:aia throULjli. 

1) Elliptical for itchi ni aide ni naru yd desu. 

c Kore 7iaia^=^kd shilara if one does this way. 

d Sliika(a naku modifies /caeriinashiia. Tlie mo after akindo is untransla- 
lablc, faintly indicating that the shopkeeper assented to wliat tlie man of tlie 
house said. 

e Bugyo here means the {governor of a city owning direct allec^iance lo tiic 
Sliogun. Compare p. 358a. Nagasaki, though in the fief of the daimyo of 
Omura, was immediately subject to the Shogun. 

430 Tekiyaku — Saikiin no Share — Baka- Miiko 

Tekiyakn ^ 

Am nadakai iska r.o ncki ye ba sail j:^a kite, " Wtitakushi no 
in?is'ko zva byoki des' kara, doka, knsuri 7vo kndasai" /o inds*no 
de, iska ga, " Nan no byoki da " to kika to, ba san ga, " Mils' ko 
wa dorobo wo siirii byoki ga arlinas ; dbka, ktisiiri zvo itadaite 
sono byoki 7vo naosJito gozainias' " to ta-ioum to, iska ga nain ka 
knsuri wo dask'te yariinasJi ta. O b'a san ga yorokonde kaetta 
ato de, deskidowo zva, " Seiisci ! byoki 1:0 nai kito ni kiisuri wo 
kiiremask'ta no wa do vt zaake des'ka " to kihi to, iska no kotae 
ni, " Washi wa yoi o:}ioits ki ga deta kara, kiisiiri ivo yatta. 
Are 7va kai no z~x wo kazcakas'r/o:: da. A/oski tonin ga skijYi 
seki zvo sum to, dorobo no skigoto ga dekinai daro to in no de, 
deskidovio wa, " zva sensci da " to ittc inina kanskin 

Saikun no Skare 

Saikun : Hana ya ! konnicki wa o tenki ga yoi kara, s koshi 
sentaknmono wo sk'te o hire. Hana : Hei. S. Skabon zva aru 
ka. II. Hei, niada skdsko gozainias . S. Saknjitsu j'issen^ 
katta n da kara, mada aru daro. // Hei. S. Danna sama 
HO shiroji no kitoeniono zvo saniniai to skats' wo yo mai to tsiiide 
ni waiasJii no yumaki wo ni mai to ncniaki zvo go mai, sore 

kara //. Oyaoya, skdsko sentakn zvo sk'te kure to zva kiite 

akiremas\ S. Nani wo iu ka. //. lie. ^ S. Sore kara danna 
sama to wataski ni tabi zvo skicki sokn. H. Oya — -ja nai 
— kei, kei — de wa skabon ga tarimas'mai. S. Tarinak' te mo, 
s'koski zutsu ts'katte araeba. tariru daro. H. De mo, go skinzo 
sama, totemo totemo dekimas'inai. S. Sore wo sore dake de araii 

ga onna no tsumaskii tokoro da. H. De mo 6". De mo, de 

mo, nan de mo sore de araemas\ II. Do itaskimask'te. 
S. SEKKEN'^ sk'te ts'kaa n da. 

Baka Miiko 

Mukaski aril tokoro 7ii baka muko ^ ga arimask'ta. Aru ki 
yome no sato ye mimai ni ikimasklara, daitgo zvo daskimask' - 
ta. ^ Baka muko zva taiso umagatte tak'san dango zvo tabete. 

a Appropriate medicine, a specific [tekilo na Aiisiiri). Compare lyd-ynku. 

b Jissenz:=jissen no biiniyo ten cents' worlli. 

C =//<? itaui vio vidsliimasen. 

d l"!<e word sekkeii may mean eillier " soap " or "^^ economy" 

e A recently married luisband and wife are called muko 2,w\ yome. 

f Dam Set out, ofTer, give to eat. 


Dorobo to Buiibduiu 431 

" Kore wa inakoto ni kekko na mono design, nan to in nion 
des'ka. Na wo tiketamawatte, kaettaray kanai ni koskiraesase- 
inasho " to iimas/ita. Shujin ga, " Sore wa dan go to in mono 
de gozaimas " to kotaemasto, baka imiko wa so no na wo 
wasiirenai yd ni sugu 7ii itoniagoi wo sJite kucki no itcki de 
shiju " dan go dango " to ii nagara kaette kimash'ta. Ucki no 
mae ni kimasto, soke ni chiisai miziitamari ga arimask'ta. 
Sore wo tobii kyoski ni kitokucki " dokkoi " ^ to iimas'to, kajime 
no " dango dango " zvo zvasurete " dokkoi dokkoi'' to itte iicki 
ye kairimash'ta. Sugu ni yome ni, " Omae no ucki de kyo 
dokkoi to ill mono zuo tabete kita ga^ taiso oisk' katta kara, 
kore kara koskiraete kure " to zits'kemask'ta. Yome zva fiiskigi 
na kao zto sJite, " Watakuski no sato de mono zvo anata 
ni das'kazzi zva arimasen. Sonna mono zvo zvatakuski zva 
ickido mo mita koto mo tabeta koto mo arimasen ' ' to kotaema- 
sk'ta. So sunt to, baka muko zva taiso kara mo tatete, " Kisa- 
ma no sato de dask'ta mono zvo kisama ga skiranai to in kazti 
ga nai " to itte soko ni ariif'toi bo zvo totte yome no kitai zvo na- 
gurimaskJta. Yome zva kittai zvo osacte, '' Aita, aita / Anata 
zva kidoi kito des ; go ran nasai, dango no yd na kobu ga deki- 
maskJta " to iimask'tara, baka muko zva, " O, so da, so da / So- 
no dango no koto da " to moskimash' ta. '' 

Dorobo to Bimbonin 

Am bimbonin no ucki ye dorobo ga hairimask- ta tokoro ga, 
bimbonin no ucki no koto des kara, nani mo totte kaero to onion 
meboskii mono m,o arimasen. So sum to dorobo ga, " Korya 
skikiijitta ; konn.a koto to sh'tta nara, kito no me zvo skinonde 
haitte ki zva skinai ; imaimaskii koto da " to kogoto zvo itte 
kaette ikiniasJtta. Uskirokage zvo miokutte bimbonin no shujin 
wa toko no naka kara yobikakete in ni zva, " Oi, dorobo / 
sovo to zvo tatete kuren ka " to. Sasuga no dorobo mo. '" So 
ka na, shikashi ore mo kisama ni tazunetai koto ga am, To 
wo tatete nan no yaku ni iats'ka." 

a In such c. case one may say do/Jcoi lo gather one's self lotrcllicr for the < flort. 
■J obu=^tobikosn ; hilokuchi with in conveys the idea of an ejaculation, 
h Sonc da„so "O kdo da. Daugo-ih:^^' ^ the very Ihin^; T was lalkin;^ about ! 

432 Hizakiirige 

Hizakurige ^ 

Nikon ni Dochu Hlsakiirige to in kokkei no /ton ga ariniask'te, 
Yajiro to Kidakacki to iu mono ga fntari de Edo kara Kyoto 
made ikii koto ga okash' ku kaite arimas' . Sono ucki ni ko in 
onioskiroi kanaski ga arimas': 

Yajiro to Kidakacki ga Skioigazva to iu kawa ni kita toki, 
sono mae no ki ni dame ga futte kashi ga. ockimask' ta kara, orai 
no kito ga mina kono kawa zvo kacki de ivatatte orimask'ta. 
Soko ye Kyonobori no zato de ^^ Iniiicki to Saniicki to in no ga 
futari kite taznneru no ni : " Moski / viizn ga kiza made 
gozaiinas' ka." Kidakacki no kotae ni : ^' Sayo, sayo, skikaski 
mizu ga kayai kara, abunai. Yojin sk'te w atari 7tasai." Inii- 
icki ; ' ' Ha, narukodo, mizii no oto ga yokodo kayai, ' ' to ii Jiagara 
iski zvo kirotte kazva no naka ye nagekonde kangaete orimask'ta 
ga : " Kokora ga asai yd da. Korya, Saruicki ! fntari nagara 
kyakan wo torn no wa mendo da kara, omae zvakai yakn de '^- 
waski wo obntte kiire. Saruicki; '^ Hd, zurui koto da. Ken 
de mairo'^ Maketa mono ga obntte zvataru no da. Yoi ka.'' 
Inuichi : Kore lua onioskiroi. Sa, omae ! ^^ Soko de, '' ryan 
go sai, ryan go sai ' ' to katate de ken wo ntte, soko kara migi jio 
te zvo dask'te tagai ni hidari no te wo nigiriaimask' ta. ^ Tnn- 
icki : '' Katta zo, katta zo." Sarnicki : " Ei, imaimaskii." 
Sonnara kono furosk' kizutsnmi zvo omae ni yarn zo. Sa, koi, 
koi" to obuu sk'takn zvo sk'te se zvo mukemask'ta. Yajiro zva 
kore wo yoko kara mite Inuicki no kawari ni Saruicki ni 
obuwarerii to, Saruicki wa zato to oniotte sassa to kazva 7io naka 
ye kaitte miiko ye watarimask'ta. Inuichi zva konata no kiski 

a This incident is from a lii>moious work of Ikku (died 1S31). See Astor;S» 
History of Japanese Literature, p. 371. The book describes the adventures of 
two worthies, Yajirobei and Kidahachi, as they tramp over the Tokaido, The 
name Hizakurige, from hiza knee and /airi-ge chestnut-colored fur, is an 
allusion to tlie '= shank's mare " that they rode. 

b Blind men going up to Kyoto. 

c Yakti means here role; laakni yakn, the role of the young m;in. 

d We will decide the matter by means of a game of ken (p. 196a). The 
players repeat as a signal the formula ryan go sai. Ryan is '< two " {to on); go 
is five ; the meaning of sai is not known. The blind are very fond of games of 

e They played with their left hands, and each used his right hand to feel 
the movements made by the other. 

Hizaku7'ige 433 

ni nokotte ite, " Yai, Saruichi yo ! do sum ka. Hayaku kawa xvo 
wataranai ka'' Saruicki wa sore zvo inuko kara kiite ham wo 
tatete : '' Korya okaski na yatsu da. Tadaima tvatash'ta no 
ni, inata sot c hi ye kaette was hi wo naburii n da.'' Inuichi : 
" Baka wo ie. Oinae hitori de watatte fiitoi yatsu da." Saru- 
ichi : " Iya,futoi to wa sotchi no koto da.'' Inuichi : " Korya 
anibun ni niukatte gongododan. Hayaku kite watasan ka," to 
shiroine wo dash'te hara zvo tateinash'ta kara, Saruichi ga 
sk'kaia naku mata kotchi ye watatte kaette, " Sa, sonnara 
obusari nasai " to itte senaka wo dashiniash'ta. So sum to, 
Kidahachi wa shinieta to oniotte^ obusariinasli ta kara, Saruichi 
wa inata sassa to kazva ye hairimash'ta. Soko de Inuichi zva 
taihen sekikonde, " Saruichi, doko ni oru ka" to oki na koe de 
ill tOy Saruichi wa kawa no naka de, " Koitsu wa dare da" to 
Kidahachi wo inizu no naka ye doviburi otoshiinash'ta. Kida- 
hachi wa, " tas'kete hire, tas'kete kure " to te as hi zuo niogaite 
nagarete oru kara, Yajiro wa tobikonde hikiageviash' ta ga, 
Kidahachi wa atama kara ashi no saki made bisshori nurete : 
Ei, zatonie ga tonda me ni azvaseta." Yajiro zva, " Ha, ha, ha, 
mazu kimono wo nuide shibotte yard " to itte, Kidahachi ga 
hadaka ni natte gatagata fume nagara, kimono wo shibotte iru 
uchi ni, zato zva kawa wo wattate torisugimash' ta. 

Shimeta may be an exclamation of joy ; " I've got it." 


Hanazva Ilokiichi ^ 

Ilanaiva Ilokiichi to iu sensei zva shichi sai ni nam toki, 
gaiiibyo ni kakatte inekura ni narimasJiia. Sore kara biiva 
ya amma no keiko zuo shimasJita ga, aviari oinoshirokti nakat- 
ia kara, Edo ye dete Wakan no gaknnion zvo benkyo shUe 
yuniei na gak'sha ni narinias/ita. Am ban shosei %vo atsuinete 
Genji UTonogatari no^^ koshaku wo s/ite inias to natsu no koto 
des kara, ^ kaze ga fiiite kite akari ga kiemasfi ta. Shosei ga 
soko de sensei ni, " Shosho o mac hi nas'tte kudasai I akari zvo 
ts'keneba nariinasen" to moshinias'to, sensei wa, '■^ Me no aru 
mono zva fiijiyu na mono da " to itte zvaraimash'ta. 

Ooka no Sabaki 

Aru onna ga niika no naka ye kakush'te oita kane zvo nusii- 
niaremash' ta no de Ooka ni iittaedeviasJita. ^ Soko de Ooka zva 
sono hi onna no uchi ni otta hiiobito zvo mina yobidash'te : 
" Iziire nusunda mono no te zva mada nukak'sai*^ ni chigai ga 
nai kara, kore kara ichiichi ^ kaide miyo " to moshiniasJita. So 
sum to, sono nchi no hitori ga sotto jibun no te zvo hana ni atete 
kaide mita no de, yakunin ga sngn ni sore zvo viits' kete, sono 
mono zvo toraete gimnii zvo sJiiviasJita tokoro ga, an no gotoku 
sono mono ga nusunda no de ariuiasJita. 

Shosei no Kokatsu 

Rai Sanyo ga?> katsute aru nchi ye kyoo ni manekareta toki 
teishu zva hanashiaite ni tote shosei zvo mo hitori yobiniasli ta. 

a A noted scholar and author, died J821 at tlie age of 76. 

b A classical romance written about the year 1000 by a lady of the Court^ 
Murasaki Shikibu. Sec Aston, History of Japanese literature, p. 92. 

c The shoji were pushed aside to admit fresh air. 

d For Ooka see p. 358a. Uttae-derii is transitive, thougli the second part of 
the compound is the intransitive verb dent. So also nmhiderti, ukagnidei-u, etc. 
(p. 28s). 

e Rice bran has an unpleasant odor. 

f Ichi-ichi one by one. 

g The famous author of the work JVi/ion G'u'ais/ii, a history of Japan {g^ivai- 
s/ii external history, i. e., history of the leading families, as distinguished from 
the official history of the Court) from the times of Masakado (X. Century) on, 
published in 1837. 

Mdslu no Haha 435 

Sate, iyoiyo gozeii vi nariviasJi'ta ga, inireba Sanyo no yaki- 
zakana wa sJiosei no yori s'koshi okii no de sJiosei xva hara zvo 
taie issaku zuo^ kangaedashUe Sanyo ni iniikai : So Toba no 
So no ji tva no no ji wo migi ni kaku ga yd gozaiinas ka, hida- 
ri ni kaku ga yd gozaimas" ka " to tazuneinaslita. '^ Sanyo zva 
nanigenakii, " Sore wa migi de mo hidari de mo onaji koto da" 
to kotaemasJita. Sum to, sJiosei wa sugu ni, " Sore nara kore 
mo yahari migi de mo hidari de mo onaji koto desho " to itte 
yakizakana wo torikaemas/ita. 

Moshi no Haha 

Moshi wa ^ kodomo no toki ni am tera no soba ni sunde ori- 
masli te mainichi sos/i ki wo mirti mon des kara, sono mane 
wo s/ite asobijnash'ta.s^ Soko de haha zva koko tva kodomo zvo 
sodateni tokoro de zva nai to omoimasJite, aru ickiba no yoko 
ni tenkyo s/nmash'ta. Sum to, Moshi zva kofidoziut akindo 
no mane zvo s/i'te asobimash'ta. Soko df mata haha zva koko mo 
ko wo sodateru tokoro de zva nai to kangaemash'te, kondo wa 
aru gakko no soba ye hikkoshimash'ta. So sJtta tokoro ga, 
Mushi zva mainichi gakko de keiko zvo sum mane zvo sh'te 
asobimash'ta kara, haha zva koko ga ko zvo sodateru basho da 
to omotte yoyakti anshin itashiviash^ta. 

Sono nochi Moshi zvo shugyd no tame am empo no gakko ye 
okurimas/ita tokoro ga, Moshi zva benkyo ga iya ni natte uchi 
ye kaette kimasnta. Sono toki haha zva chodo hata zvo orika- 
kete iinash'ta ga, Moshi no tochu de gakumon zvo yauiete kaette 
kita no zvo mite jibun no orikakete ita hata zvo hasanii de na- 
kahodo kara kitte misemash'ta. So sh'te Moshi ni mukatte in 
no ni zva, " Omae ga ima chutb de gakumon zvo yamete shiinau 
no zva chodo orikaketa hata zvo kono tori kitte shiniau yd na 
mono de nan no yakn ni mo tatanaV to itte ike a zvo sJiimash'ta. 
Soko de Moshi zva hijo ni osoreilte kokoro zvo torinaoshi mata 
saki no gakko ye kaette isshokeinmei ni benkyo zvo itashimash'ta. 

a From ichi one, saku scheme. 

h The name of a famous Cliinesc literateur (J>iiiislroka'). In llie charactor so 
(l/f; "■■ *^a). " fi-1' " (^) '"^y be put cither on the left or on the right side. 

c The famous philosopher Meng-he or Mencius (Japanese Mo-shi) lived r..C. 
371 — 288. Having lost his father at an early age, lie was educated by his 
motlier. The stories here told illustrate the great solicitude with which she 
watched over her boy's education. She is commonly referred to as Moho [t>o= 
Iinlin). A version in the form of the writlcn language may lie found in 
Chamberlain's " Romanized Japanese Reader." 

436 Aoto Saemon no Keizai — Ota Ddkivan 

So sJtte isni ui 7ra Asei^ to iivarern yd na rippa na hito 
ni narimaslita. Sore yue ima de vio hito ga Moshi no Jiaha 
zvo hoDiete yoktc kodovio wo kyoikii sum inichi wo sKtte iia 
hito da to mosliimas'. 

Aoto Saeinoji no Keizai ^ 

Mukashi Aoto Saemon Fujiisuna^ to in hito ga hashi wo 
torikakatta ioki ni,j'u won no zeni wo kazva ye otosh'te, sore %vo 
hiroiageru tame ni ninsokn zvo yatotte kite kaiva zvo sagasasete 
go ju mon no hiyo zvo Jiaraimash'ta. Tokoro de, am hito ga 
zvaratte Aoto ni mukatte, "Ju mon no zeni zvo hiroiageru noni go 
JU mon no zeni zvo haratte zva sashihiki ski ju mon no son ga 
iki zva shinai ka " to tazunemas'to, Aoto ga kotaete, iu no ni, 
" Moshi ju moji no zeni zvo kazva ye ntchatte okeba, iisti made 
uic tenka ni fit mon no zeni zvo ushinai ;^ moshi hiroiageta 
naraba, ni^isoku ni go ju mon zvo haratte mo docliira mo yaliari 
tenka ni isuyo sum wake yue, betstt ni tefika no keizai ni zva 
son ga nai " to iimasUta. 

Ota Dokzvan no Hanashi 

Mukashi Ota Mochis" ke^ to iu daimyo ga Edo ni orareta^ 
ioki aru hi Tots' ka no hen de takagari zvo saremash'ta. Sono 
ioki kyu ni ante ga futte kita no de, hyak'sho no ie ni haitte, 
" Mino wo ichi mat karitai " to izvaremash'ta. So sum to, 
komusme ga hitori deie kite yamabuki no hana wo sashidash'te 

a A-sei next to the sage, i. e., tlie greatest philosopher next to Confucius 
" the Wise " {sei-jin). This title was first given to Mengtse by one of his 
commentators and was officially confirmed by the Chinese Emperor Wan-tsung 
in the year 1330. 

b Aoto Saemon, a high official in the second half of the XIII. Century, is 
famous for his just decisions and his wise and economical administration. 
Ao/o is the family name; Saemon, originally a title [sa-e-ntoii tio jo head of the 
left gate guard), lias become a part of his name ; Fiijilsuiia is tlie given name. 
The anecdote here related is very well known and is frequently referred to. 
For this and other stories of Aoto Saemon see Chamberlain's Japanese Reader." 

c Translate by means of the passive : Ten mon are lost to the Empire, 

d This story is well known in Japan. It is found, for instance, in Edo 
Meisho Ziie (p. 28if). The hero is better known now by the name Ota Dokwan. 
In ancient times a man might have besides the family name two or three 
names : a true name {iianori'), a popular name {JsTt'Sho) and perhaps still another. 
Since the Restoration it has become the rule to have only one name. In 1456 
Ota Dokwan founded on the present site of Tokyo a fortress, which was later 
transformed by leyasu into the great castle of Edo. 

e For tlie honorific inflection of the verbs see p. 268. 

Ikkyn no Tonchi 437 

mono mo iwazu ni oku ye haitte shiinaimasJita. Ota wa nan 
no koto da ka wakaranai kara, taiso okotte kaette kinjii no 
mono ni sono koto wo hanasaremasJita. Soko de hi tori no 
kerai ga in no ni, " Sore wa koka ni, ^ 

' Nanae yae hana wa sakedomo yamabiiki no 

MI NO Jiitotsii dani naki zo kanashiki ' ^ 
to arimas'kara, mino ga naknte ainiku des'to in tsuviori de 
gozaimasho " to kotaeuiashUa. Ota wa sore zvo kiite narnhodo 
to gaten ga ikare jibun no vingaku wo Jiajite sore kara taiso 
benkyo sh'te nochi ni wa yumei no utayomi ni narimasJi ta. 

Ikkyu no Tonchi 

Ikkyu ga '^ kodoino no toki ni Daitokuji ^ de gakumon wo 
sh'te iniash'ta. Am hi sensei ga yoso kara ^ kzvashi 7ro 
inoraimash'ta. Ikkyu wa jibtin ni mo sore zvo zvakete kureso 
na mono da to oniotte iia keredomo, morau koto ga dekiviasen 
desh'ta. Sore de waza to tobokete sensei ni, " Sono hako no 
nchi ni nani ga arivias'' ka " to tazuneviasiLia. Sensei wa, 
'■ Sore zva dokii da kara, taberii koto zva naran " to iikikase- 
mash'ta. Sono yokujitsu sensei no soto ye deta ato de Ikkyu 
wa sono kzuashi zvo mina tabete shiniatte soko ni am sensei no 
daiji na hanaike zvo kozvasJi te okiniash'ta. Sensei zva kaette 
kite odoroite, " Kono hanaike zvo dare ga kozvash'ta ka. 
Shojiki ni hakujo sureba ynrnsh'te yarn ga, sa vio nakuba 
kikanai 20" to iimas' to, Ikkyu zva bnruburu shi n agar a dete 
kite, " Watakuslii ga soso de sono hanaike zvo kozvasIiimasJi ta. 
Sensei ni moshizvake ga gozaimasen kara, shino to onioiniasJite, 
saizvai soko ni arimash'ta doku zvo tabete shiniaimash'ta. 
Shikashi niada shineniasen kara, viada hoka ni doku ga 
arimas'nara, chodai itash'to gozaimas " to kotaetnash'ta. 

a Connect ^o/:a ni witli ariiiiasii {==kinte arimasii). 

b Tliis poem is by I'rince Kaneaki and is found in the collection called 
Go-shu-i-shu the "Second Gleaning" {^go later, s/utz=hirou, i=no/vOri, shu== 
a/sumertc]. The meaning is: Yamabuki wa hana qa yae ni saku keredomo, mi 
ga hitotsu mo iiai no <;a zaiiiien desu. N^cinae yae (p, 61) sevenfold and eightfold, 
of the double blossoms {covn-^:^\^ yae-znkura double cherry blossoms); sakedomo 
=.%akii keredomo (p. 265d); zo after 7inki [.=nai) is emphatic; wabishiki sad 
(variant reading kanashiki). 

C Ikkyu, a priest of the XV. Century, is noted for his ready wit and is the 
hero of many interesting tales. 

d A Buddhist temple in Kyoto. 

e YoiO kara from some plncc or oilier, from some one. 

43^ Ikkyu no Mondo — Taisliokn no liana shi 

Mata Ikkyu ga kyaku no viae ni deta ioki kyaku ga tawa- 
viure ni isuitate no torn uo yubizasJi ie, ^ " Oiiioe zva genki da 
ga, ano torn zvo ts'kaviaete go ran " ^^ to Ikkyu ni uidshiviasJita. 
Ikkyu 7va siigu ni tatte tora no ho ye inuki ie wo hirogete, 
" Doso, atiata oidash'te kuda.uii " io inoshinias/ila. 

Ikkyu no Mondo 

Ikkyu osko ga Hitachi no Kashima^ no iniya ye sankei wo 
sareta toki ni tochu no inori no kage kara mi no take shichi 
shakn bakari no am yamabuski ga dete niairinmsh'te osho ni 
toisuzen, " Buppd wa ika ni " '^ to tazunemosk' ta. Osho zva 
stigu ni kotaete, " Mime ni an " to inosareniash'ta. Tokoro ga, 
yainabushi zva surari to katana zvo nnite, " Sore nara inline wo 
zvatte viiyo " to itte kirikakariv.iash' ta. Osho wa s'koshi mo 
saivagazu kogoe de, 

" Harugoto m saku ya Yoshino no yamazakura 

ki zvo zvarite i/iiyo hana no arika wo " ° 
to in koka zvo ton ae rarem as h' ta. Yainabushi zva kore zvo kiite 
oi ni kanjiniash' te sugn ni katana zvo saya ni osaiiie doko to 
mo nakit nigete shimaimash'ta. ^ 

Taishoku no Hanashi 

Am hi hitori no horaf'ki gaS. Ikkyu ni mukatte, " JVata- 
knshi zva koriaida mochi zvo itto tabemash^ ta ; aniari hara ga 
JiarimasJi ta kara, hara zvo Jies'tavie ni kaiva no fuchi zvo 
aruite^^ oriiiiash' la. So sum to, soko ni fane ga isso tsunaide 

a Pointing witli a finger. For tsiiitate see p 361a. On this screeji was 
painted a 

b This is more familiar llian ^0 ran nnsai. So also oide ncsni rnay lie 
abbreviated to oide 

c A famous Shinto slirine. For Hitachi see p. 3893. 

d Ika m'=iA'a ■ni arimasii l-a, ni being equivalent to de in the colloquial : 
titittie iti ariz=^iiiui!e no iiaka ni aritiiasn. The dialogue is after the classical 

e According to tlie usual order Yos/iino no yatiiaza/ciira would stand 1-)efcre 
hnrtigolo ni saku; miyo, after aHka ivo. ]'V7=an exclamation mark; variler=. 
the colloquial -cval/e . with ari-ka compaie sitmi-ka dwelling place. Tlie 
simple blossoms of the cherry trees [yamazaknra) of Yoshino in Yamato are 
famous all over Japan. 

f The end of the tale l)as been altered somewhat. According to the original 
Japanese text, the hermit is metamorphosed into a wood sprite. 

g From tiora wo fiiku blow a conch, i. e., blow one's horn, brag. 

li Vox fiuhi 700 ariikti and vtC Isiibarn 700 arukit see p. 362. 

Sorori Shinzaeinon 439 

ariviasJi ta kara, sore wo utotle kawa 110 uiizu wo sukkari 
kaedashiviasJi ta " to jiinangao wo sh'te hanashiDiash' ta. 
Ikkyu wa sore zvo kiite majinie na kao de kotcxevias'ni wa, 
" Watakushi no tomodachi ni yaiiiabuski ga hi tori arimas/i'ta 
ga, sono yaviabnshi 1/10 anaia no yd ni taiskoku wo sum Jiito 
de, ani hi viochi zvo ?ii to kuiniasJi ta. Sore de hara ga hatta 
kara J haragonashi ni matstibara ivo aruiie iviasJi ta. S'koshi 
ashi ga kutabireta kara, matsu no taiboku wo ippon hikinnite 
sono tie 7ii koshi wo kakete yasiuide iru to, chiisai hebi ga kite 
oki na kaeru wo nonde kurnshinde ita ga, y agate sono waki ni 
am minarenn ^ knsa ivo kiitta tokoro ga, tachimachi konarete 
shiniaiinash'ta.''Yaviabushi wa sore zvo mite, ' Kore wa ii 
hara xvo herasu kusa ^ da to oinotte hebi no mane wo sh'te sore 
zvo taberii to, sore wa hito mo kaeru no yd ni tokern ^ kiisa 
desh'ta kara, yamabushi zva tachimachi tokete shlniatte ato ni 
zva ni to no mochi ga yamabushi no shozoku no mama de 
uokorimash'ta" to moshimash'taA Horaf'ki wa sono kotae 
ni hajite f'tatabi Ikkyu no tokoro ye kaodashi wo shinakatta 
so des\ 

Soron Shinzaemon 

Sorori Shinzaemon ^ to in hito ga Hideyoshi ko no goten ye 
dete hanashimas" ni zva : " JVntakushi ga Kiyomizu Kzvannon ^ 
ye mairimash'tara, Otowa no taki de mi no takeZ ichi jo go 
rok' sJiakn hodo aru bakemono ni deaimash'ta. Suru to, sono 
bakemono ga oki na kuchi zvo aite { — akete) zvaiakushi zvo no- 
mo to itashimash' ta kara, zvatakushi zva bakemono ni, * Omae 
zva taiso okii ga, chiisaku bakeru koto wa dekinai kato iima- 
sh'ta. So itashiniaskUara, bakemono zva, ' Ikura de mo chiisa- 
ku bakete miseyo' to mosJiiniash'ta kara, ' Sonnara unieboshi nt 
natte misero" to iimasJCta. Soko de bakemono zva chiisa na 
umeboshi ni natte hiza no mae ni korogete mairiniash'ta kara, 
watakushi wa sore zvo totte hitokuchi ni nonde shiniaimash' ta. 

a Such as one is not accustomed to see, rare, peculiar. 

1) It and /lara wo herasu are both attributive (i). 423,1). 

c Tokeru melt may be rendered here " evaporate " or '• vanish." 

d The subject of iimhimashita is Ikkyu, at the bcginnint; of the story. 

e Sorori Shinzaemon, an official attached to Hideyoshi, (1536,. ..1598), noted 
for his shrewd sayings and wise counsels. 

f A famtus temple in Kyoto. Tn the vicinity there is a waterfall called 

g AH no lake Icnglh of body. Tlic particle ^rt is understood. 

44 o Kato Kiy omasa 

Sore giri, ^ bakemono iva denakti nariuiask'ta." Kono hana- 
shi zva ^ HldeyosJii ko ga tenka no kivambaku ^ de ari nagara 
kwattatsu na hito yue, ioino mo tsurezii ni Jiitori de yoru soto 
ni deru koto ga arimasJita kara, vioshi'^ ieki no mono ni de 
mo deatte korosareru yd na koto no nai yd ni chui zvo shinake- 
reba naranai to isameta no de arirnas\ HideyosJii no ikioi 
iva chodo oki na bakemono no yd na mono des'keredo, tada hi- 
iori de solo ye dete wa, cJiiisa na umeboshi doyo ni dare ni de 
mo korosarete shimati to iu kokoro {koto) wo omoshiroku tatoete 
mosJita no de arimas". 

Kato Kiyomasa 

Hideyoshi ko wa taihen chanoyu ga s' ki de atta kara, sho- 
daimy'o no uchi ni wa ^ tabitabi sono seki ni manekarerii no de 
shizen sono shi'H luo kuwasJi ku kokoroete oru mono ga o go- 
zaimash'ta. Ilitori Kato Kiyomasa ^ nomi wa cha ivo konomi- 
masen deslita kara, aniari sono seki ni deta koto ga ariviasen 
des/ita. Tokoro ga, aru hi Hideyoshi ko kara wazazvaza mane- 
kareta no de yamtnvoezu cha no kzuai ni demash'ta. Yagaie 
Kato zva, S do siiru mono yara, cJia no ncmikata wo shiranai no 
de, chaw an zvo motte guzugiizu shUe imas to. Hideyoshi ko wa, 
" Kato ! hayaku nonde chaivan wo mazvase ' to mosarejiiash' ta. 
Soko de Kiyomasa zva hitokuchi ni^^ cha zvo nomihoshUe yiibi 
de chazvan zvo guruguru mawashimash' ta. ' 

a Sore gi?-i onXy that and no more; i. e., that was tlie end of the gliost. 

b AowiJ //rt!;/rti'/«zwrt has for its predicate isameta no de miinasii : This story 
was [intended as] a warning to the effect tliat 

c For k'wambakti {J;7vampakti) see p. 78a. 

d Moshi is to be construed with nai yd ni : translate: " lest perchance." 

e Shodaisho, from sho many (p. i) and tai-slio general ; we may translate,