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The basis of this book is the first volume of the series of 
Lehrbucher des Seminars far Orientalische Sprachen, publish- 
ed at Berlin in 1890. Its author, Df. Lange, before his appoint- 
ment at Berlin, had been for a number of years instructor in 
the German language at the Daigaku Yobimon (Preparatory 
School to the University) in Tokyo. Since that time all his 
energies have been devoted to the task of making his country- 
men acquainted with the Japanese language and literature. 

My own experience as a missionary student of the lan- 
guage having proved the value of this work I prepared an 
English edition which was printed at Sendai, 1901-1903. 
After I undertook the task Dr. Lange sent me copious notes 
-of corrections and additions gathered during his ten years' ex- 
perience as a teacher. Justice to him requires me to state that 
I used the material thus graciously placed at my disposal with 
.a very free hand, for several reasons. In the first place Dr. 
Lange had prepared his book with the needs of a German 
student in view, and while the needs of an English-speaking 
student are in the main the same, there are many cases in 
which an explanation intended for the one will not help the 
other. Secondly, Dr. Lange's notes were in many instances 
mere suggestions, very fruitful indeed, but not fully developed. 
And, finally, I felt that I had one advantage over the original 
author in that I had used his text-book when I first learned 
my Japanese, and was thus in a position to test it as he could 
not. My subsequent experience in the use of the language had 
revealed omissions not so apparent to the author himself. 
Accordingly it was my aim to recast all the material in such a 
way as to make it most helpful to the English-speaking student. 
This book is not a translation and Dr. Lange is not responsible 
for any errors that it may contain. 



If I had been permitted to remain in Japan I might have 
undertaken a complete reconstruction of the work ; but that is 
out of the question for the present. A call for a second edition 
having come unexpectedly soon, I have had time only for a 
superficial revision, with constant reference to the second 
German edition, which appeared at Berlin in the early part of 
this year. The new Lchrfyich contains eight hundred pages, 
of which the last two hundred are devoted to an entirely new 
German-Japanese vocabulary. Since students now have access 
to a very satisfactory English-Japanese dictionary it does not 
seem necessary to include such a feature in the English edition. 
The improvements in the body of the new German edition 
were largely anticipated by the former English edition, in the 
preparation of which, as has been stated, Dr. Lange generously 
co-operated with me. Accordingly, in the main, the arrange- 
ment and the paging remain as before. The selections at the 
end have been somewhat increased. 

The aim of the book is pedagogical rather than scientific ; 
hence the combination of system and no-system and the num- 
erous repetitions. The pedagogical principle has been applied, 
for example, in the study of words. When it seems likely to 
aid the memory of the student to indicate the origin of a word, 
this is done ; but when the etymology is disputed or apt to be 
confusing, nothing is said about it and the student must learn 
the word as a whole. The repetitions in most cases are not 
accidental but designed. For the student must pass through 
three stages to become master of an idiom- First, he needs to 
be thoroughly convinced that there is such an idiom ; secondly, 
he must learn how to use it, and, thirdly, after he has entirely 
forgotten its existence he needs to be reminded that he cannot 
get along very well without it. 

A truly scientific grammar of the colloquial is yet to be 
written. But in one respect this work may claim to be scienti- 
fic : it has been the constant aim of Dr. Lange, and of myself, 
to set forth the language as it is actually spoken by the Japan- 


ese themselves, not as we would speak it. The sentences have 
all been taken from the mouths of Japanese and repeatedly 
reviewed and criticized by competent Japanese. The senten- 
ces to be translated from English into Japanese were first writ- 
ten out in Japanese and then translated into English with a 
view to retranslation. 

Dr. Lange acknowledges his obligations to Mr. Tsurutaro 
Senga and Mr. Tsuji Takahira, who assisted him with his two 
editions respectively. In the preparation of the former English 
edition, at every step I leaned heavily on my colleagues and 
friends Messrs. Tadashi Igarashi, Jiro Maeda and Iwae Irie. 
The proofs of the present edition have been read by Mr. J. L. 
Cowen and reviewed by Prof. Isao Matsuda. Thanks are 
also due to Rev. H. K. Miller and Mr. Cowen for invaluable 



November, 1906. 



The Japanese language ix 

Sinico- Japanese ix 

Words derived from western languages xin 

The standard colloquial xin 

Practical hints xv 

Helps for further study xvi 


The ideographic script xix 

Kana xix 

Romaji xxui 

Vowels xxiv 

Consonants xxvn 

Accent xxxr 


Number and gender ... I 

IVa and ga 3 

Subordinate subjects q 

No / 

Ni 9 

Wo ... ii 

No substituted for ga 13 

Compounds, VIII , IX 15 

Derivatives 21 



Personal 27 

Honorifics 31 

Demonstratives *.. ... 36 

" Same "," such " 38 

Interrogatives 42 

Indefinites 45 

"Every", "other" 49 

Translation of relatives 53 

" Self V' one another" 57 


Native forms and combinations, XXL, XXII 61 

Chinese forms and units 67 

Dates ... 73 

Arithmetic 79 


Numeratives, XXVI XXVIII, 82- 

Ordinals 93 


Inflections 98 

Li compounds 105 

Compound adjectives 109 

Forms with na 113 

Forms with no 119 

Adjectival clauses 123. 

Forms derived from verbs 127 

Substantivized adjectives 131 

Comparison 135. 


FIRST CLASS The Tenses 141 

Conditional and imperative 147 

Negative tenses 154 

Negative conditional and imperative 158 

Subordinate, XLIIL, XL1V 162 

Negative subordinative 170 

Desiderative and alternative 175. 


R group 179 

Verbs in eru and im 185 

Honorific verbs in ru 189 

T group 194 

6" group 199 

Masu, Mosu 205 

Sum 211 

K group 221 

Oku, itadaku 226 

Kuru ' 230 

G group 235 

^and^Vgroup 239 

Vowel group 244 

Morau, Shimau 250 

Causatives 254 

Passives 259 

Potentials 266 

Idiomatic uses of the indicative 272 

Uses of the stem 277 

Compounds, LXVI. LXIX 284 

Honorifics 309. 


Derived from ordinary adjectives 3 J 4 

vi ii CONTENTS. 

Forms with ni 319 

Forms with to 3 2 5 

Duplicatives 330 

Substantives as adverbs 337 

Subordi natives as adverbs 344 

Ordinary adverbs 349 


Postpositions proper, LXXVIIL LXXIX 362 

Substantives as postpositions 383 

Subordinatives as postpositions 390 


Conjunctions proper 395 

Substantives as conjunctions '. 406 


SYNTAX .= 4 2 4 

STORIES 4 2 7 

ANECDOTES ... 434 








The abbreviations will hardly require explanation, except 
the letter (c), which indicates that a word is of Chinese 

Marks of parenthesis ( ) indicate explanations or para- 
phrases ; square brackets [ ] indicate English words which 
are not to be translated into Japanese. 



The Japanese Language is the mother-tongue of about 
50,000,000 persons. In Japan proper, excluding the recent 
accessions to the Empire, such as Taiwan (Formosa), the 
native population is linguistically homogeneous, with the ex- 
ception of a few remnants of the aborigines. Even the Ainu, 
of whom about 18,000 may still he found in Hokkaido and 
Saghalien, are being rapidly assimilated. 

The relation of the Japanese to other languages has not yet 
been satisfactorily determined. The attempt to discover an 
affinity with the Aryan languages a has, it must be said, not 
been successful ; for the words that are identical or even similar 
are too few to justify the inference of a common origin. The 
same criticism is applicable to the attempt to establish a relation 
with the Semitic languages. b A comparison of Japanese 
roots with those of certain Altaic languages, such as the 
Mongolian, Tungusic, Manchurian, Turkish, etc., does not 
bring us any nearer to the solution of the problem. c Neverthe- 
less Japanese is usually regarded as belonging to this great 
group of Altaic languages, for the reason that it has in 
common with them the characteristic known as agglutination. 
That is, in Japanese, as in all agglutinative tongues, inflection 
in the ordinary sense is replaced by a loose attachment of par- 
ticles to the stem as suffixes, while the stem itself remains com- 
paratively unaffected. But it must be noted that the colloquial 
as compared with the classical Japanese seems to be in a state 
of transition from the agglutinative to the inflectional stage. 
In regard to syntax also the Japanese is very much like some 
of the languages that belong to the Altaic group, e. g., the 


With Chinese the Japanese language proper has no relation 
whatever. In the former, words are properly monosyllabic and 
frequently end in consonants ; in the latter they are mostly 

a See Transactions of the Asiatic Society Japan, Vol. II., p. 199 tf. 
b Japan Evangelist, October, 1906. 

C Grunzel, Entivurf einer vei'gteulienden Gratnmatik der altaischen Sprachen t 
Leipzig, 1895. 


polysyllabic, the syllables being uniformly composed of a vowet 
or of a simple consonant followed by a vowel. a The syntax 
too is utterly different. 

Yet Chinese is of great importance in the study of Japanese, 
even of greater importance than Latin is in the study of 
English. Through the study of Chinese literature and the 
Buddhistic scriptures (which came to Japan in the form of 
Chinese translations), the importation of the Chinese arts 
and sciences, and the adoption of the ideographic script, it has 
come to pass that a great mass of Chinese words and expres- 
sions has found entrance into the Japanese language, in nu- 
merous cases even supplanting the native terms. 

Accordingly modern Japanese is a mixture of native elements 
and words borrowed from the Chinese and possesses a rich vo- 
cabulary. For many ideas there are both Japanese and Chi- 
nese terms. Of the latter the greater number are not under- 
stood except in educated circles. Many, however, have become 
thoroughly naturalized; e.g., sen-taku laundry. b In many 
instances the Chinese expressions have supplanted the native. 
Thus, for example, the modern peasant calls thunder rai (c)- 
rather than kami-nari. The dictionaries are full of classical 
native words which are understood only by those who make 
their study a specialty. 

The common use of words derived from the Chinese is due 
not simply to the natural liking for foreign terms, but much 
more to the fact that the demand for new words expressing 
new conceptions is most easily and conveniently met by form- 
ing compounds from the Chinese. These are often remarkable 
for conciseness. " Telegraph " is den-shin, from den lightning 
and shin tidings. Marconi has no sooner perfected his great 

a The only exception is n. But in genuine Japanese words, like shinan 
(classical future of shimt to die), the n is derived from inn. All other words 
ending in n are either imported from other languages or of onomatopoetic 

b It rarely happens, however, that foreign terms are regularly inflected 
like genuine Japanese words. The rule is to regard them as substantives, 
adding sum (to do) to form verbs, na or no to form adjectives and ni to form 
adverbs. Sometimes a single woid may serve all these purposes; e. g., teki-to 
suitability, tekito suru be suitable, tekito na suitable, tekito ni suitably. But we 
also have such regular verbs as tekitau, tekitattc oppose, from teki-tai ; rydru, 
ryotie cook, from ryo-ri ; shikeru, shikette be stormy, from shi-ke ; guchiru^. 
guchitie be silly (rare), from git-chi; taijirn, taijite subdue (rare), from tai-ji, and 
the adjective hidoi, from hido. Some nouns, like nma horse and zeni cash,, 
hive been so transformed that few suspect their Chinese origin. 


invention than the Japanese have a new word ready for the 
dictionary ; namely, mu- sen- den- shin (inn- sen without line). 
" Automobile " is ji-do-sha (self move vehicle). " Concrete " 
is yu-kei (having form) ; " abstract," mu-kei. The exigencies 
of our own time have called forth an immense number of new 
scientific and philosophical terms which the dictionary-makers 
have been quite unable fully to compile. 

In order to speak correctly it is often important to know 
whether a word is of Japanese or of Chinese origin especially 
in using the honorifics and the numerals. a This distinction 
will be easy to make after a little practice. The Chinese 
vocables are very short. Monosyllables containing a long 
vowel or ending in are generally of Chinese origin. These 
vocables usually occur not singly but in compounds, mostly - 
of two components. There are, however, a few hybrid com- 
pounds (Ch. IX) like our own " automobile." 

The pronunciation of the words taken from the Chinese is 
very different from that now in vogue in China. b Originally 
derived from certain Chinese dialects, it has apparently suffered 
great phonetic changes in the course of time, so that the Chi- 
nese cannot understand it at all. The classical pronunciation 
now taken as the standard by educated people is the kan-on 
(lit. sound of Kan). Kan or Han was the name of the dynas- 
ties that reigned in the north from B. C. 206 to A. D. 264. c 
But many older words, especially those connected with Bud- 
dhism, are pronounced according to the go-on. Go or IVu, at 
the time when Chinese literature was introduced into Japan, 
about A. D. 300, was one of the three Chinese states and in- 
cluded the provinces south of Shanghai. More modern sounds 
are known as to-on, To or Tang- having been the dynasty 
reigning from 618 to 913. Excepting proper names, there are 
very few words that follow the toon, the most common being 
an- don lamp (old style), cho-chin lantern, fu-ton cushion, tern- 
bin balance, fu-shin building operations, etc. 

a Another case in point is that of the word teki (different from the tekfs 
above), used in formal speech as a suffix to nouns derived from the Chinese. 
The rule is that before a Chinese word no particle is needed, but before a native 
word no must be added ; . g., from ri-so ideal and nin-gen man, riso -teki ningen 
ideal man, but riso-teki no kuni ideal country. 

b See Lange, Einfuhrung in die japanische Schrift, p. 70 ff and Cli amber- 
lain, "Introduction to the Study of Japanese Writing," p. 372 ff. 

c Kan often means " China " in general, but like almost all Chinese words, 
occurs only in compounds; e. g., knn go Chinese words kan-ji Chinese charac- 
ters, kam bun (for kan-bnii] Chinese composition, etc. See also p. I22a. 



In a few words, such as nan south, the pronunciation has 
not varied. But in Mei-ji enlightened rule, myo-nichi to-mor- 
row (:>& day) and Min the- Ming dynasty, the same wofd 
has three different pronunciations. So the character shan in 
Skan-hai Shanghai is sko \nkan-on and/<5 in goon. Practically 
only the kanon and goon need be taken into the account, and 
the student need not trouble himself much about the differences 
between them. Usually the goon is distinguished from the 
kanon by association with old Buddhistic terms. Compare : 











Japanese English 

hito man, person 

hi day 

okii great 

nishi west 

ima now 

koe, oto voice, sound 

yuku, okonau go, perform 









shit a 


word, speech 

moon, month 

Not infrequently one word may be pronounced in both ways 
without changing the sense ; e. g,, 7o-kyd or To-ket (east capi- 
tal). In most cases usage allows only one or the other. Thus 
we say sai-kyo west capital, i. e., Kyoto, but sei-nan southwest 
(lit. west south) ; myo-ji family name (lit. name character), 
but sei-mei the full name (family name and personal name) ; 
ge-kwa-i surgeon (lit. external branch physician), but gwai-koku 
foreign country ; bimbj-nin pauper, but gwaikoku-jin foreigner. 
The tones or accents of the Chinese are disregarded, except 
in the composition of Chinese verses. This fact and phonetic 
decay have brought it to pass that ten, twenty or thirty 
characters may have exactly the same sound. This is the 

a The Japanese equivalent of an ideogram as distinguished from the Chin- 
ese sound (on) is called koe* kun (c) explanation, or yonii reading. 


most distressing feature of the spoken Japanese language. 
Men of the same set or clique have no difficulty in understand- 
ing their own technical terms, but to the uninitiated, even 
though they be well educated, rare Chinese compounds convey 
no sense until the speaker by writing in the air or by explana- 
tion indicates what the ideograms are. 


In comparison with the Chinese the number of words im- 
ported from the European languages is small. Thus we have 
from the Spanish and Portuguese biidoro (yidrio) glass (mod- 
ern glass, garasit), kasuteira (castilla) sponge cake, kompeito 
(confeito) candy ; from the French, shabon (savoii) soap, shap- 
po (chapeau) hat ; from the Dutch, kohii (koffij) coffee, don- 
taku (zondag) holiday ; from the German, chifusu (Typhus), 
torahomu {Trachoma) granular eyelids, etc. Many words 
have lately come in from the English ; e. g., baiorin violin, 
boto boat, burashi brush, dokko dock,/ura?ieru flannel, JutobZru 
football, haikara (lit. high collar) a foreignized Japanese, 
hankechi handkerchief, inki ink, irumineishon illumination, 
kalstiretsu cutlet, matchi match, naifu knife, peiji page, pointo 
switch (on a railway), raujpu lamp, famune lemonade, sandu- 
ichi sandwich, shatsu shirt, shichu stew, sutekki stick, suleishon 
station, tonneru tunnel, .etc. From the English through the 
French : bifuteki (bifteck) beefsteak. Buranketto blanket has 
beccme ketto.* 


In English there is now only a slight difference between the 
language of an essay and that of everyday conversation. In 
Japanese the written language and the spoken language have 
for centuries been developing separately. Scholars absorbed 
in the study of the ideograms and the literary style associated 
with them, have been quite indifferent to their mother-tongue 
proper. Even now it is hard to find a Japanese with any sense 
of colloquial etymology or grammar. When asked about the 
origin and significance of a word your informant proceeds to 
discuss the ideograms used to write it. Ask him about the 
conjugation of a verb, and he gives you paradigms from the 

a There are also a few Japanese words in Eui-opem languages; e. g., the 
Spanish biombo, from bydbu screen, moxa (p. r45a). kimono, riksha, jujitsu, etc. 


classical grammar which have little or no application to the 
matter in hand. The Japanese have scarcely begun to make 
a serious scientific study of their own conversational language. 
On the other hand, of the few who are interested, some reveal 
their inherited prejudice against zoku-go (vulgar language) by 
limiting its province to the small talk of everyday life. The 
student cannot be too wary in accepting Japanese opinions 
about the colloquial. But it goes without saying that in the 
language actually employed by the Japanese of the present 
day our authoritative guide must be found. 

It can no longer be said that the colloquial of Tokyd is 
normative. Tokyo too has its dialectical peculiarities. We 
shall not go far wrong if we regard as the standard the langu- 
age spoken in the higher educational institutions of the Empire. 
There is here a constant circulation and intermingling of teach- 
ers and students from all parts of the country, and it is here 
that the process of crystallization is going on most rapidly. 
This language of the schools, which will naturally be the lan- 
guage of the future, is being influenced both by the literary lan- 
guage and by English and other foreign languages. No 
obstacle should be placed in the way of the gradual assimilation 
of any needed material from the comparatively more terse and 
expressive literary language. The ideal of the G em- bun-it- cki- 
kwai {gen speech, bun literature, it-chi union, kivai association) 
necessarily involves the modification of the colloquial, which 
in its present condition does very well for story-telling, but 
for other literary purposes is rather a clumsy instrument. 
Again, Japanese is being modified by the influence of English 
much as European languages have been influenced by Latin. 
The student will soon perceive that the speech of a Japanese 
versed in English is much clearer to him than that of a Japan- 
ese of the old school, even when both are speaking to their 
own people. As nearly all Japanese students are learning 
English or some other European tongue, the inference is 

The development of the language has been most rapid 
around the centers Kyoto and Tokyo. The most peculiar 
dialects are those of the northern and western extremities of 
Japan proper. 

Thus, for instance, in Tokyo one may say. IVatakushi ni 
kudasaran ka. (Won't you give it to me ?), while in the 
dialect of Satsuma this becomes. Atai tawawan ka. These 
dialects in many points preserve more of the classical language 
than the standard colloquial. For example, the people of the 


the north say yogambei (it may be good), from yokaru-beshi, 
thus preserving the classical beshi. 

In the ports there is a good deal of pidgin- Japanese (Yoko- 
hama-kotoha), which is to be avoided ; e. g., peke=-dame bad, 
spoiled. The student ought also to be on his guard against 
the slang of the laboring classes. 


It would be well for the student before he begins work on 
this book to go through a briefer course of the nature of a 
primer. To get a general idea of the genius of the language 
it is well at the outset to read rapidly a book like Chamberlain's 
" Handbook of Colloquial Japanese," not stopping to master 
the details. Imbrie's " English- Japanese Etymology " will be 
found helpful later on. 

During the first year it will be a saving of time to employ 
as a teacher one who has a good knowledge of English. The 
teacher should be instructed when reading the Japanese 
sentences to vary them as much as possible. The :-tudent 
after translating into English should retranslate into Japanese. 
He will then be well prepared to take up the second set of 
exercises. If the teacher knows no English, have a friend 
instruct him how to proceed. Read to him the Japanese 
sentences one by one and have him criticise the pronunciation. 
Let him then ask simple questions which require the student 
to give the substance of the sentence in his replies. Let the 
teacher repeat each answer, correcting it as he does so. Don't 
let him ask questions about the grammar or definitions of 
words. Then translate the English sentences and ask the 
teacher to correct the translations in the same way. In transla- 
tion it should be the aim of the student to render the ideas of 
the original in as brief a form as possible, translation word for 
word being quite out of the question in nearly all cases. 
When learning words the student should try to form in his 
mind a vivid conception of the actual thing or act or relation 
expressed by it, without reference to English equivalents. 
The measure of one's progress is the degree in which the 
untranslatable elements of the language are mastered. 

One peculiarity of the Japanese must be kept constantly 
in mind, namely, the persistent consciousness of the relative 
rank of the speaker and the person addressed as shown in the 
choice of words and grammatical forms. For the same idea 
there may be two sets of expressions, one used when the 


subject is a despised person or one's humble self, the other be- 
ing reserved for use when the subject is a person for whom 
one wishes to show respect or when it is necessary to guard 
one's own dignity in dealing with an inferior. It is not easy 
even for a native to observe the proper distinctions without 
being either rude or excessively polite. The Japanese are 
extraordinarily polite to foreigners, and foreigners are expect- 
ed to speak a little more politely than a native would under 
the same circumstances. 

No progress is possible without the perpetration of ridiculous 
mistakes, and the time, when one is still obviously " green " is 
the most opportune time for mistakes. The people are natu- 
rally generous and indulgent to newcomers. So the beginner 
is advised, whatever may have been his previous habit, to 
make it a rule to chatter about any and everything under the 
sun to anybody that will listen. As soon as he comes to feel 
sensitive about mistakes progress will be very difficult. 


The student who has mastered this text-book should be fa- 
miliar with the grammatical structure of the colloquial and be 
well acquainted with about five thousand words. It is not 
practicable, even if it were desirable, to include more in a book 
of this character. In the selection the aim has been to gather 
a fully representative vocabulary of words that are in common 
use. Of the common terms, for every one that has been taken 
one or two have been left. The terminology of one's special 
business or profession will be learned almost without effort. 
But if one aspires to be able to converse freely on any subject 
of common interest, at least double the number of words con- 
tained here will be needed. A vocabulary grows only by prac- 
tice, but practice is dependent on observation, and to prepare 
one's self for exact observation printed books are indispensable. 
It is a common experience that an entirely strange word just 
learned from a book may be heard several times within a few 
hours afterwards. 

Colloquial literature consists mostly of stories and speeches 
of various kinds. There are a few collections of extracts in 
roinaji, of which the best are : Lloyd, Colloquial Texts , 
Plaut, Japanisches Lesebitch, Berlin, 1891 ; Benkyoka no Toino, 
Hongkong, 1892, the little monthly periodical Yachigusa 
published in Tokyo, 1898-9, and the similar publication Romaji 
begun in 1905. 


In choosing- books written in the Japanese script the begin- 
ner should avoid those in which the kana are small or badly 
printed. Before he undertakes to read poorly printed books or 
newspapers it is necessary thoroughly to master the kana by 
the use of the children's first two or three readers or other col- 
loquial books in which the characters are printed large, if they 
can be found. The exercises and conversations in MacCauley's 
" Introductory Course in Japanese " satisfy this requirement, 
but unfortunately the hiragana are written from left to right, 
an unusual arrangement not easy even for Japanese to read. 

Of the numerous conversation books Muramatsu's Meiji 
Kwaiwahen is especially commended. Many of the expressions 
in Satow's Kwaiwahen have become antiquated, particularly 
those having references to travel in the interior. 

Highly to be recommended, though the printing of the kana 
leaves much to be desired, are the Mukashi-banashi (ancient 
talts) and Otogi-banashi (entertaining tales) of Mr. I way a. 
In order to accustom the student to the style of these tales, one 
of them in romanized form has been included among the 
selections at the end of this book. Mr. Iwaya, whose now de 
plume is Sazanami, also edits an interesting periodical called 
Shonen Sekai (Young Folks' World). 

Novels will also be very helpful. Older stones such as those 
of Encho are not so well adapted to the needs of the student 
as those dealing with present conditions. For students who 
are interested in the conflict between old and new ideas in 
modern Japan the novels of Mr. Tokutomi {Hototogisu, Omoiide 
no Ki, Kuroshio) are recommended. 

Jn almost any newspaper colloquial material may be found 
in the form of interviews, reports of addresses, etc., and the 
volume of literature written in the style of lectures is constant y 
increasing. But the student will need to remember that to make 
a genuine colloquial sentence more is required than to end it 
with de aru, de arimasu or de gozaimasu (beware of " co!- 
loquialized " books !) ; also that a man may be a fine literary 
writer and yet have a wretched style in speaking. The style 
of the interesting old sermons of which we have had samples 
in Shingaku Michi no Hanashi, or Kyuj Dowa, is of course 


In the study of colloquial grammar a beginnings have been 
made by Matsushita, Nikon Kokugo Bunten, Tokyo, 1901 ; 
Maeha, Nihongoten, Tokyo, 1901 ; Kanai, Nikon Zokugo Bun- 
ten, Tokyo, IQQ[ ; Ishikawa, Hanaskikotoba no Kisoku, Tokyo, 
1901 ; Irie, Nikon Zokugo Buinporon, Sendai, 1902. Excepting 
the first and the last named, these books are themselves ex- 
samples of the literary use of the colloquial. In the literature 
of the Gembun-itchi movement, such as Yamada's Bunrei and 
Sakai's Futsudun, both published in Tokyo, 1901, may be 
found illustrations of the colloquial as adapted for use in 
letters, documents, etc-, and interesting discussions concerning 
colloquial style. 

Brinkley's Japanese-English Dictionary is fuller and in many 
ways more satisfactory than its predecessor, Hepburn's. It 
is an invaluable treasury to those who have to depend on 
rjmaji. The student may profitably supplement it by one or 
more of the native go-ju-on dictionaries, Otsuki's Genfcai= 
Kotoba no Umi (gen word, kai sea), Tokyo, 1891 ; Mozumi's 
Nikon Daijirin (dai great, ji word, /-///forest), Tokyo, 1894, 
or Ochiai's Kotoba no Izumi (izumi fountain), Tokyo, 1899. 
Of these the first is said to be the most scholarly ; the last, 
most comprehensive. Some students will be especially in- 
terested in Churchhill's Dictionary of Military Terms and 
Expressions. The English-Japanese Dictionary of the Spoken 
Language, compiled originally by Satow and Ishibashi, third 
edition by Hampden and Parlett, Yokohama, 1904, is 

Chief among the desiderata is a new edition of Gubbins' 
Dictionary a complete classified dictionary of Sinico, Japanese 
compounds on the plan of that still valued work. 

a In this book the usual division of the -parts of speech has been followed. 
In a scientific grammar this would probably have to be somewhat modified: 
Older grammars of the literary language divide all words into three classes . 
(i), tai-gen including nouns, pronouns numerals, interjections (2) yd-gen= 
haiaraku kotoba (working words), including Ihe verbs and adjectives, which are 
inflected, and (3) teniivofia, from te, n\, wo, ha (==iva^ including particles and 

rtbograpbp an& pronunciation 


As has been remarked, the Japanese have adopted the Chi- 
nese ideographic script, in which the characters are symbols 
not of sounds, but of ideas. They are like our Arabic numer- 
als and mathematical signs, which are variously read in differ- 
ent languages, but have the same sense everywhere. To read 
Japanese texts readily one must master between four and five 
thousand characters. To accomplish this two or three years are 
required, even in the case of a bright student. But the attempt 
should be made. Every one who aspires to become so pro- 
ficient as to be able to understand anything said in his pres- 
ence and to express himself freely on any subject, must mas- 
ter the Chinese elements in the language. Generally the eas- 
iest way to do this is to learn the ideograms, and the easiest 
way to learn the ideograms is to learn how to write them. The 
attempt to learn to write beautifully like a native would be in 
most cases a waste of time, if not an impossible task, but at 
least the order of the strokes should be mastered. 

But in the order of time the first and most important task 
is to get a firm hold on the grammatical structure and principal 
idioms of the language. The student who is ambitious to 
" master " the language is therefore advised to " divide, " that 
is, to devote his first year to the study of the colloquial an4 
postpone the study of the literary language and the characters 
to the second year. a Printed helps of two kinds will be avail- 
able, those in kana, the native syllabary, and those in rdmaji> 
the romanized form. 

Kan a 

The Japanese began at a very early date to use the ideograms 
phonetically, that is, to indicate sounds without regard to the 
proper sense of the characters. They called them kana, from 
kari-na borrowed name. This use of the ideograms continues 
to this day in the case of proper names. Thus America is 
written A-nie-ri-ka (5H^|v;plJjD) the characters meaning 

a Those who read The German will be pleased with Dr. Lange's Uebungs- 
nnd Lese-buch zttni Sttidium der jafaniscken Schrifl^ Berlin 1904. The selections 
it contains are exclusivley colloquial. 


respectively : next, rice, gain, add. a In the same way the ideo- 
gram for " root," called in Japanese ne, is often substituted for 
the homonymous character ne, (ini-ne) meaning " peak," as in 
Hako-m and words like ya-ne roof (ya house). 

Through this phonetic use of the Chinese ideograms the re came 
into existence about A. D. 900 two syllabaries called kata-kana 
and hira-kana, A kata-kana (kata side) is written squarely, 
being in most cases a side or portion of a common character 
having the sound represented by it; e.g., T (a) from jjjif, >f 
(i) from ffi, *r (u) from ^, Jj (ka) from jfJD- The katakana 
are now used only in formal documents, in writing foreign 
names and interjections, in telegrams, etc. The liira-gana 
(/lira) level, ordinary) are characters written cursively and, in 
most cases, very much simplified ; e. g., $> (a) from $, V (i) 
from Ji, 5 ( u ) fr m ^i ft* (&<*) from ')j\\. Formerly there 
was a great variety of them, but in our own times the employ- 
ment of movable types in printing and the policy of the 
Educational Department have had the effect of practically 
reducing the number in common use to 48, one for each sound. 

In the following table we give the hiragana arranged in the 
order of the go ju on " the fifty sounds." Under each hira- 
gana is given the corresponding katakana and under that the 
equivalent in Roman letters, 

The columns are read in order beginning with the right : a, 
i, if, e, o ; ka, ki, ku, ke^ ko t etc. Most dictionaries now follow 
this order, the n being sometimes regarded as a variant of /;///. 
It is to be observed that there is no yi,ye, or wu. To make 
the scheme complete the corresponding syllables from the first 
column are sometimes put into the vacant places. Wi, we, wo 
are scarcely distinguished in pronunciation from i, e, o. It is 
also to be noted that the Japanese do not say si, ti, tu, hu, but 
ski, chi, tsu, fu. The table is of great importance for the 
conjugation of the verb. (See next page). 

From the syllables in which the consonant is sund correspon- 
ing sonants are derived : from the k column, ga, gi, gn, ge, go 
(if *? ^* tf 12*); from the s column, sa, fi, zu, ze, zo \*f & 
^T -t* y*) ; from the / column, da,ji, zu t de, do (#* =f y' ^ 
K). Such change in the sound is called nigori (lit turbidness, 

a The extreme of arbitrariness is reached in the case of ?ome pr per names 
that have been bodily imported from China, where the modern pronunciation 
approximates original sound. But the Japanese conventional pronunciation 
is pretty far off sometimes ; e. g., New York is written $J]f ; 'hn-iku. Here the 
ideograms give neither sense nor sound. 




















111 a 





11 a 

















impurity). The k column by nigori becomes da t bi, bu, be y bo 
(s? t* 7* ^< $?) J by what is called Jian-nigori (Jian half),/^, 
pi, pu, pe, po (^ u* 7* ^ ;tf). In Japanese writing the marks 
of nigori are often omitted. 

There is another arrangement of the syllabary called iroha : 
i ro ha ni ho he to chi ri nu ru wo 

wa ka yo ta re so tsu ne na ra inu 

u wi no o ku yo ma ke fn ko e te 
a sa ki yu me mi shi we. hi mo se su 
This is in the form of a stanza of poetry giving expression to 
Buddhistic sentiment : 

Iro wa nioedo chirinuru wo; 

waga yo tare zo tsttne naramu. 

Ui no okuyama kyo koete, 

asaki yume inishi, ei mo sezu. 

1'hough the blossoms (hues) are fragrant they fall away ; 
IM this our world who will abide alway ? 


To-day I crossed the very mountain-recesses of mutability ; 
And saw a shallow dream, nor was I intoxicated thereby. 

Though these comparatively easy syllabaries have been 
in existence a thousand years, they have not supplanted 
the ideograms, but play only a minor role beside them. The 
Japanese syntax being so different from the Chinese, 
in ordinary Japanese composition the hiragana are interspers- 
ed among the characters to indicate modifiers, particles, 
terminations, etc. 

Such composition is called kana-majiri, from majiru be 
mixed. Further, for the benefit of the uneducated, hiragana 
may be written to the right of the ideograms to indicate the pro- 
nunciation. This is called kana-tsuki, from tsuku be attached. 
It is thus possible to read most Japanese books without a 
knowledge of the ideograms. The traditional spelling corre- 
sponds to an ancient pronunciation which has been con- 
siderably modified in the course of time. In the case of 
native words the syllables of the h column have been most 

kaharn be changed is pronounced kawarit 

kahi shellfish kai 

ifu say tu 

make before mae 

hoho cheek ,, M ho 

But it is in the pronunciation of the Chinese words that 
the greatest changes have occurred. Thus tou, tau, taju are 
kll pronounced to (not to speak of towo and toho in the case of 
native words) ; kiyau, kiyou, keu and kefit (see the iroha above) 
are all pronounced kyd. Tokyo in kana is spelled toukiyau. 
The Japanese have been so indifferent to this traditional spell- 
ing that even among educated people hardly one in ten knows 
how to spell correctly. There has been a natural tendency 
to choose the briefest forms, as keu for kyo, sen for s/id, ten for 
chjy etc. Tne Department of Education three years ago issued 
a regulation to the effect that sounds like to should invariably 
be written to ; sounds like kyo, ki yo , etc. This reform 
makes the kana spelling of the Chinese words almost as 
simple and phonetic as romaji. a 

a For example, even in the reformed kana the following must be written 
alike but pronounced differently: kiyo will wear and kyd to-day; katsnte 
previously and katie one's own convenience. 



The system of romanization adopted for this book is identi- 
cal with that followed by all the roinaji dectionaries. A fair 
degree of uniformity has been secured through the efforts 
of the Roma-ji-kwai (ji letter, kwai association), a society 
organized by Japanese and foreigners in 1885 for the purpose 
of effecting a substitution of the Roman script for the Chinese. a 

A committee appointed by the Educational Department to 
investigate the question of romanization submitted a tentative 
report in 1900. The system recommended differs very little 
from that now in use. The chief innovations are the substitu- 
tion of si for shi and sya, syu, syo for ska, shu> sho, following 
the analogy of kya, kyu> kyo etc. Further, the Committee 
would write ci\ ca, cu, co for chi, cha, cJiu, cko, following 
presumably the analogy of Italian. The changes proposed 
have not been adopted in this book for the reason that the 
Educational Department has not yet reached a final decision 
in the matter, and it would be very inconvenient for the 
student to have in this book a system different from that 
followed by the dictionaries. b 

In October, 1905, a new organization was formed, the 
Rjmaji-kirome-kwai) which publishes a monthly entitled 
Rumaji. Both of the above forms of transliteration appear on 
the pages of this periodical : one writer spells shashinjiitsu 
(photography) and another syasinzitu ! 

a While much of the Japanese literature, being intended for the eyes, is 
hardly intelligible without the ideograms, it is quite reasonable to expect that 
any conversation commonly understood through the ear should be intelligible 
when reduced to writing by means of an adequate phonetic system. But the 
full realization of the ideal of the Romajikivai must wait until the teachers, 
preachers and public speakers of Japan have by a process of natural selection 
evolved a vocabulary at once intelligible to their hearers and adequate to ex. 
press thought on every subject, that is, until the spoken language becomes as 
satisfactory a medium of expression as the present written language is. Forces 
now at work in Japan will bring this about before very long. 

b See Kivainpo (Official Gazette), 5, Nov.. 1900. The innovations proposed 
are comparatively unimportant. Olhers will be referred to incidentally. There 
ere questions connected with romanization which press for an official solution 
and in most cases the suggestions of the Committee are excellent. Its report 
deals largely with the question of the division of words. For instance, the 
Committee would write oagari iiasai niase for o a^ari uasaiinizse. In regard to 
this question great confusion now prevails. See also suggestions by Mr. 
Fujioka in his Roinaji Tebiki, S' inknronsha, Tok) 6, 1906. 


Romaji is designed to represent phonetically the standard 
pronunciation of the present day. In reading romaji the 
general principle to be observed is that THE VOWELS ARE 


As might naturally be inferred, in the case of English- 
speaking people it is the vowels rather than the consonants 
that are hard to pronounce. a In English the vowels are 
largely sacrificed to the accent In Japanese the reverse is 
true, that is, the vowels govern the accent. What we call the 
long and short sounds of the vowels in English are really 
different sounds. In Japanese a short vowel has the same 
sound exactly as the corresponding long vowel, differing only 
as an eighth note in music differs from a quarter. b 
The sounds of the (long) vowels are : 

a like a in father (a) 

i i pique (e) 

u ,, u ,, rude (oo) 

e e prey (a) 

o ,, o hope (o) 

LONG VOWELS. The long vowels are written a (aa), ii 
(z), u (), ei (?), o (0u). c There are practically no diph- 
thongs. An is ordinarily pronounced and written o ; in, yu ; 

a A vowel is called bo-in (mother sound) ; a consonant, shi-in (child sound). 

b There are exceptions. For a sound very much like the English short 
"a" see kyatto. Before a double consonant or n followed by a consonant 
there is a natural tendency to modify vowels so as to resemble the English 
short vowels. 

c Ii occurs almost exclusively at the end of adjectives, being a contraction 
of iki or is hi. Theoretically there is a difference between ? (chosen by the 
Roinaji Committee) and ei, but practically they are not distinguished and we 
write uniformly ei. In the same way o might be written on, ; and this is done 
in the case of a verb like you *' get drunk.' Verbs uniformly end in u. Ac- 
cordingly we write kau " buy," rather than ko, though the combination a u is 
in the case of a Chinese word always written o. For the same reason we write 
kiai eat, rather than ku. The combination in in the case of a Chinese word 
is written yu the rule having been that u (or fit] following a syllable ending 
in i makes a long sound, while yu following such a syllable makes a short 
one. (Thus shi yu results in shtt, buts/iz?* makes shu in the reformed kana 
written shi yu]. But in the case of the verb iu * : say " we depart from the 
rule, since the stem is commonly pronounced ii We should, however, write 
yuu if the stem were pronounced vni. 


eu, yd ; ou t o. The combinations ai, oi and ui come nearest 
to being diphthongs.-' 1 For the purpose of this discussion n is 
practically a vowel. In singing it may form a syllable by it- 
self. It follows that an, in, un, en, on, kau, kin, kun, etc., 
are long sounds. 

If one wishes to speak intelligibly, it is a matter of prime 
especially important to distinguish o from o. Next in import- 
ance is the distinction between // and u. Compare : 

oi nephew oi many 

tori bird tori thoroughfare 

koko here kb-ko filial piety 

koto thing, affair kj to high class 

toki time to-ki registration 

ho hei infantry ho-hei artillery 

yo-san estimate yo-san sericulture 

kvki stalk ku-ki atmosphere 

yttki snow yu-ki courage 

To the Japanese ear the words in the one column are utterly 
different from those in the other. There are a few cases in 
which the length of a vowel is a matter of indifference. A 
final o is often shortened ; e. g., so shite so doing, may be pro- 
nounced so shite ; katappb one of the pair, katappo ; honto 
reality, honto ; benkyo diligence, benkyo- More rarely o may 
be shortened in other positions ; e. g., iinoto younger sister 
may be pronounced imoto. Final short vowels are sometimes 
lengthened ; e. g., sore jd, for sore fa if that's the case. The 
o in yoku, well, may be lengthened. 

SHORT VOWELS The following points deserve notice : 
U in shu and /a is often pronounced i, especially in Tokyo : 
e. g., shujin master becomes shijin ; bi-jutsu fine arts, bijitsu. 
This is to be avoided as a corruption. 15 But the substitution 
of i for yu is not always bad; e. g., t&uforyukM go, kauri ii 
for kami-yui hair dresser (p. 8303). 

Initial u followed by ma is practically silent, uina horse be- 

a In the northern provinces and vulgarly in Tokyo at is pronounced like 
d ; e. g., Soja net for Soja nai That's not so. In Tokyo ae and oe are often 
pronounced like ai and oi ; e.g., kaeru return, kairu ; koe voice, koi. We 
might add to the diphthongs au in kau as commonly pronounced in Toky<\ 
In western Japan kau is ko. 

b In northern Japan people often reverse i and u saying, for instance, 
utkfsit or even shikous for sukoshi a little. 


ing pronounced mma (p. lib). 

E in early romaji texts was generally written ye. This 
spelling has been retained in the case of only two words, ye 
" to " and yen the unit of currency. The Romaji Committee 
would practically reverse this rule and write e for the post- 
position ye t but ye in other cases. The fact is that the pro- 
nunciation depends on the sound that precedes. The y is 
especially prominent when the preceding word ends in a vowel 
or n ; e. g., hei shi military service (heiyeki}, meneki exemption 
from the service (inenyekt). The sound of yen is not en, as 
many foreigners- pronounce it, nor is the y as distinct as in 
" yes. " 

O is sometimes corrupted so as to sound like // : e, g., hitotsu 
"one" becomes hitutsu ; asonde amusing one's self, asunde ; 
kom-ban this evening, kumban. This pronunciation should be 
avoided. On the other hand in some dialects o is substituted 
for u; in Niigata sku-fin, master, becomes shojin. Yoi 
" good " is commonly pronounced ii. 

.As has been said, wo is practically pronounced o. It is so 
written except in the case of the particle wo (the Romaji com- 
mittee would write this also o), the pronunciation of which, 
like that of ye, depends on what goes before. The student 
must be on his guard in pronouncing a word like sh:o salt, in 
kana written shi ho. The w is hardly audible, but if the student 
is not careful he is apt to say shiyo, \. e., sho. In the same 
way ki-oku memory must be carefully distinguished from 
kiyoku purely and kyoku office. 

When two vowels are brought together in compounds a y or 
w naturally creeps in ; e. g., iz-<z/ case, becomes bayai or bawai. 
The Romaji Committee in such a case would write y after i 
or e y and w after u or o ; e. g., tsukiyau, for tsuki-au associate ; 
umey awaseru, for ume-awasefu make up a deficiency ; guwai 
for gn ai adjustment ; owashi, for o ashi money. The Com- 
mittee recommended that a list of such words be made, which 
is an excellent suggestion. 

QUIESCENT VOWELS. Words like kyoku, ryoku, etc., derived 
from the Chinese, were originally monosyllabic, though written 
with three kana: ki yo ku y ri yo ku. Accordingly in romaniz- 
ing certain combinations the Romajikwai treated i as silent ; 
e. g., kyo (ke u, now ki yo ),etc. Many Japanese would go 
further and write, for example, kyok, ryok. In native words 
there are many other cases in which the weak vowels i and 
u are practically inaudible, but the Romajikwai did not ven- 
ture to extend its principle to them, probably on account of the 


extreme difficulty of making rules to cover all cases. Not only- 
does the pronunciation vary according to locality, individual 
idiosyncrasy, etc., but even the same word may be pronounced 
differently by the same person, depending on the nature of 
the context. Compare, for instance, nakute " there being 
none " and nak'te wo " though there are none." The addition 
of mo brings upon na and te a strong accent with the result 
that the u in ku disappears. A silent z or u is very apt to 
occur when ki> ku, ski, su, chi, tsu, hi, or />/ precede any 
syllable of the k s, t, and w series, especially when that 
syllable is accented. Final sit ordinarily loses the vowel and 
becomes ss, and the vowel in final tsu, ski and chi is barely 
audible. English-speaking people are apt to goto extremes 
in clipping final vowels. The Roviaji Committee has recom- 
mended that a table be made of words in which there are silent 
vowels. It would write taski for tasuki (cord to tie back the 
sleeves), dongri for donguri acorn, etc. The Japanese certain- 
ly do say taski, not tasuki. It is, however, impossible to decide 
all the cases without being more or less arbitrary. The plan 
of this book is to follow the spelling of the dictionaries, except 
in the Exercises, where apostrophes are used to indicate silent 
vowels. a Experience proves that this system is a valuable aid 
to correct pronunciation. But to avoid abuse we have been 
conservative. There are, for example, so many people who 
pronounce every vowel in tvatakushi that we do not feel justi- 
fied in eliding the u 9 as the Committee does. 


These will give the English-speaking student little trouble. 

G when it does not stand at the beginning of a word is com- 
monly pronounced like " ng " in " singing " : Nagasaki, like 
Nangasaki ; ugnisti bush- warbler, like unguisu ; kago basket 
or cage, like kango (to be distinguished carefully from kan- go 
Chinese word). This may explain the presence of the n in the 
names of the provinces Bingo and Bun go (Bi-go } Bit-go} In 

a Dr. Lange himself prefers to use the apostrophes throughout. The 
compiler of the English Edition has ventured to disagree with him in regard 
to this one point, on the ground that so long as the matter i; not officially 
determined, great inconvenience in the use of dictionaries will result from 
any alteration of the present spelling. It seems, however, certain that the 
Japanese when they once take the matter in hand will elide more fs and it's 
than Dr. Lange or any other foreigner lias thought of doing. The spelling 
will in turn react on the pronunciation 


western Japan, however, g is pronounced exactly as in " ago." 
See p. 6Qa. 

S before i becomes sh. In some parts of western Japan, as 
in the vicinity of Osaka and in Kyushu, s in the syllable se is 
pronounced like " h " or, more exactly, like the German 
" ch" ; e. g., omahen for cmasen (dialectical) there is not. In 
Tokyo se may become shi ; hence the change of se-ou carry 
on the back (se back, on carry) to shon. 

Ji is formed by nigori from shi or chi. In the province of 
Tosa the two sounds are distinguished, the former/ being like 
" z " in " azure " and the latter like " g " in " age." In some 
places the former sound prevails, but in most parts of the 
country both $? and J~* are pronounced// as in "jig." 

Zu too should have two sounds, zu and dzu (often written 
so), from su and tsu, but the distinction is not generally 
observed and one or the other prevails. 

T before i becomes ch ; before //, ts. 

JVis pronounced " ng " before sounds of the k series ; before 
sounds of the h (b, p) and ;;/ series it becomes in: son-kei 
respect ; son-gai damage ; sambyaku three hundred, from san 
three and hyaku hundred ; sem-mon specialty, from sen special 
and mon gate, department. The Rouiaji Committee in such 
cases would not change the n to in. 

In some compounds the distinction between a final n and 
an initial n must be carefully observed. Compare gen- .an 
original motion and ge-nan manservant. 

H before i in Tokyo and elsewhere is pronounced like s/i, 
as in htto person. The student will do well to avoid this 

/MS not quite the same as the English " f," being formed by 
the two lips, not by the lower lip and the upper teeth. The 
study of foreign languages has, however, a tendency to make 
the f more like the English. The nigoried form of/"// is bu, 
not vu. There is no v in Japanese. In the h series a labial 
sound,/ or/ not h y characterized the syllables originally, and 
in some provinces there are still traces of this ancient pro- 

M before u has frequently been altered to b : e. g., eravni, 
erabu choose ; sainushii, sabishii lonely. 

Y (,y<*> yu yo) occurs largely in combination with other 
consonants. One must carefully distinguish myo and miyo, 
kyoku and kiyoku, etc. In parts of northern Japan y when not 
combined with another consonant is commonly corrupted to z 


R is not quite the same as the English " r," especially in the 
syllable ri. The tip of the tongue is held more closely to the 
upper gum. In many places, as in Satsuma, r sounds like d. 
It is extremely difficult for the Japanese to distinguish the 
English " 1 " and the English " r," their own r being an inter- 
mediate sound. The vulgar sometimes trill r\ e, g., berrabd 

W after i or / sometimes becomes^; e. g., sorjii, from sore 
wa as for that. Wa and wo occur largely in Chinese words 
combined with k and g\ e. g., kwa-ji conflagration, givai-koku 
foreign country. In some parts the distinction between kwa 
and ka t etc., is carefully observed, but is neglected in Tokyo. 
The reformed kana and the Committee's rjuiaji ignore it. 
But the w is retained in this book, for reasons already indi- 

There is no need of " q " or " x," the former being represent- 
ed by kw and the latter by ks. 

DUBLE CONSONANTS. While the consonants in themselves 
are not so difficult, the student will need to be especially 
double consonants are kk, ss (ss/i), tt (tch, Us), nn, pp, mm. 
The best way to get them is to give a strong accent to the 
preceding syllable and then for a moment hold the vocal 
organs in the position required to pronounce the consonant in 
question. The second of the two will then sound distinct from 
the first. Distinguish carefully pairs like: 

ika cuttle- fish ikka how many days ? 

dasu put forth dassu (rii) escape from 

i-sho clothes is-sho one's whole life 

kita [ ne ] came kitta [he] cut 

i-chi position it-chi union 

ana hole anna such 

ama nun am-ma shampooer 

Consonants which are single in the literary language are 
frequently doubled in the colloquial ; e. g., minna for mina all, 
onnaji for onaji same, itrittsu for mitsu three, ammari for 
amari too, bakkari for bakari only, totta for toda merely, 
massugu for uia-siigu straight (adverb). 

Excepting nn and ;;/;;/, the first of two double consonants is 
in kana represented by tsn. Gakkj school, from gaku and kd t 
may be written either gakuko or gatsu&o. The compound 
hattaltu development is sometimes pronounced hatsudatsu. 


Nigori. In a comp ,und a the first consonant of the second 
member is liable to the change called nigcri : [hair). ]> 

shiraga gray hair (s/iira = $hiro stem of shiroi white, kami 

yakizakana baked fish (ya&i stem of yaku roast, sakana fish). 

shinjin piety (shin faith, shin heart). 

jinja Shinto temple (jin god, ska shrine). 

pandanc yeast (pan bread, tane seed). [, 

kwanzuine canned goods (kwan can, tsume stem of tsuinetu 

tokidoki at times (toki time). 

chikajika soon (chikai near). 

sakurabana cherry blossom (sakura> kana). 

shinjinbukai pious (shinjin piety, fnkai deep). 
Since the kana for wa in native words is ha t this may also by 
nigori become ba ; e. g., wo wa becomes woba. Nigori is less 
common in Chinese than in native words, and less common jn 
compound verbs than in compound nouns. There is a great 
deal of fluctuation in the usage, euphony being the only guide. 
Thus we say O-hashi Great Bridge, but Megane-bashi Eyeglass 
Bridge (so named from its shape) ; either O-saka or O-zaka 
Great Slope ; an-nai-sha or annaija guide ; sai-han-sho or 
' saibanjo court of justice. c In some instances the two forms 
have different senses ; e.g., chosha an elder or a superior, 
choja a wealthy person. Nigori is not limited to compounds. 
The first consonants of some words which are commonly 
attached loosely to other words suffer nigori ; e.g., bakari 
only, from hakdru consider. Kiri " only ! ' may also be pro- 
nounced giri ; kurai " about," gurai. Mutsukashii " difficult " 
is often pronouned inusukasJiii. 

Han-nigori, that is, the change of // or / to p, occurs 
frequently in compounds from the Chinese when the first 
member ends in . Thus fun be stirred and katsu be aroused 
make Jumpatsu enthusiasm ; man be full and fuku stomach, 
inampuku satiety. From the native words oinou think and 
hakaru consider we have omompakaru cogitate. 

a The vowels suffer little or no change in composition. A final e in the first 
member of a compound is often changed to a. Thus from kane metal and mono 
thing we have kanamono hardware (but with hako box, kanebako money box)j 
from sake liquor and^/rt house (p. 16), sakaya liquor dealer (but with now* stem 
of nomu drink, sakenomi drunkard). 

b In western Japan people say shirage from ke t which also means hair. 

c There are two sounds to the Chinese character for god," shin and jin. 
Compare shin gaku theology, from gaku learning, and jin-ja Shinto shrine. 
The Japanese, by the way, say Shin do t not Shinto. 


A preceding syllable coalescing with h or / may result in 
pp : kiri stem of kiru cut and fu (c) token make kippu ticket; 
tetsu iron and ho barrel, teppo gun. For other examples see 
p. 69 ff. Of native origin is hipparu bring along, for hiki- 
haru. An h between vowels tends to become // : e.g., akep- 
panasu from akehanasu leave open ; mappira, from uia-hira 
earnestly. The adverbs yoJtodo very and yahari still are also 
pronounced yoppodo and yappari. 


As has been intimated, if the student will take care of the 
vowels, the accents will generally take care of themselves. 
Among the vowels there is as it were an order of precedence. 
First there are the long sounds, then a, then o and ?, and 
finally u and i. The stronger tend to draw the accent away 
from the weaker. Alternate syllables seem to pair off in the 
contest, the stronger pair winning. A combination tending to 
make a vowel quiescent may also affect the accent. When a 
difference between the vowels does not interfere, a word of 
three or four syllables is naturally accented on the first and 
third ; e.g., anata you, hanahada very. The a before the 
causative ending seru or the potential ending reru is always 
accented. When a word is a compound, that fact naturally 
affects accents. a In general it is to be remembered that accent 
is not so strong as in English. It is one of the disadvantages 
of romaji that since the words look somewhat like English 
words the student is apt to give them English accents. To 
correct this tendency the student who wishes to acquire a 
natural pronunciation should do a great deal of reading aloud 
from the Japanese script under a Japanese teacher of the old 
school, if one can be found who is not afraid to criticise. 

Kiri. It is essential to good pronunciation to observe the 
kiri (lit. cutting), or ku-giri (ku phrase), that is, not to pause 
in such a way as to cut off particles, etc., from preceding words 
to which they belong. 

a In western Japan homonymns are often distinguished by means of the 
accent. For example, hana flower has a marked accent on the first syllable 
as compared with hana nose. In the same way they distinguish has hi chop- 
stick, hashi end, hashi bridge; kaki oyster, kaki persimmon and kaki fence; 
kami hair, kami pnper and kami god, etc. The Japanese themselves are so 
much in doubt about these accents that the student can well afford to neglect 



The Japanese language has, properly speaking, no article, 
no plural, and no gender. 

1. There is an equivalent of the English " a certain," namely, 
aru (lit. existing) : aru onna a certain woman. More recently 
this aru has come to be used also with plurals in the sense of 
" some." To the English article in its generic sense, as in " the 
cat " or "a cat " (speaking generally), corresponds the Japanese 
idiom : neko to iu mono what is called cat (neko cat, to particle 
of quotation, iu say, mono thing). 

2. When there is need of bringing out the idea of plurality, 
the suffixes ra^ domo (from tomo companion), shu (c) or s/iu 
crowd, tachi (c) or dachi all, and gata (from kata side), may 
be employed. These are, with the exception of the first, used 
only with words denoting persons. The last is the most polite : 

Hyakusho peasant ; hyakushodomo peasants. 

Ko child ; kodomo children. 

Akindo merchant ; akindoshu merchants. 

Onna woman ; onnashu women (of servants girls, etc.). 

Oya parent ; oyatachi parents. 

Fu-jin (c) lady ; fujingata ladies. 

Many words may be made plural by doubling : 
Kuni country ; kuniguni countries. 
Hito person ; hitobito people. 
Tokoro, sho (c) place ; tokorodokoro, shosho various places. 

The plural may also be expressed by means of words used 
as prefixes meaning " many," 4< all," etc. 

Bankoku all countries, from ban myriad. 

Shokoku various countries (or provinces) from sho many* 

a Jitsu-mei-shi true-name-word, or simply meishi. 

b The suf?,x ra is in the colloquial used mostly with pronouns. The ideo- 
gram used to represent it is to " class." Both ra and to may also have the sense 
of "etc." 

c The words kodomo child, -wakaishu young fellow (from ivakai young), and 
tomodachi friend, have come to be used also in a singular sense. To make the 
plural sense of kodomo distinct, still another suffix must be added ; kodomora 
kodomoshu, kodomotachi. ,*, "* 


2 THE NOUN. [i 

3. In the case of animals the masculine and feminine gen- 
ders may be expressed by means of the prefixes o (pti) and me 
(men) ; or, more commonly, by osu and mesu wth the genitive 
particle no '. 

Inu dog ; oinu (inu no osu) ; meinu (inu no mesu). 

Tori fowl ; ondori cock ; mendori hen. 

But it is to be observed that the Japanese usually leave the 
distinction unexpressed. For instance : 

Tori ga nakimashita. The (or, a) cock crowed. 
Here it is not necessary to say specifically ondori. 


"* aftindo trader, shopkeeper. - inu dog. 

hyakusho peasant. - * kitsune f< 

.chichi father. . neko cat. 

*AaAa mother. nezumi rat, mouse. a 

tatoko man, male. sAt&adeer. 

onna woman, female. <uma (proncd. mma) horse. 

oya parent. ^ usagi hare, rabbit. 

\ ko, kodomo child. . us At ox, cow. 

tomodachi friend. \tori bird, fowl. 

When nouns are joined by the conjunction " and " or enu- 
merated in a series which is brought to a conclusion, to " and " 
or mo "too" is affixed to each ( mo mo both and). 
When the series is not closed, that is, when only a few speci- 
mens of a possible list are given, ya or dano is affixed to each. 
Ya is always, and to, except in formal speech, usually, omitted 
after the last word. However the asyndetic construction is 
not uncommon in Japanese ; e.g., oya ko parent and- child. 


Inu to neko. Oya to kodomo. SJikayausagiyakitsune. 
O toko mo onna mo. Ojika to mejika (from sti ka). Chichi haha. 
Hyatt sho to akindo. Omma to inemma (from uma). Onna 
mo kodomo mo. Uma dano, us hi dano, inu dano. Kitsune y a 
usagi y a nezumi. Ondori to mendori. Oushi mo meushi mo. 

a, Regarded as a variety of rat. Mice may be distinguished as hatsuka- 
nezwm 20 days rat). White mice are nankin-nezumi. Comp. nankm-usaoi 
white rabbit. ... . 

ir] Wa AND Ga. 3 

(In the following expressions no sign of the plural is required.) 
Both father and mother. A cat and a mouse. Dogs and 

foxes. Horses and (ya) dogs and cats. Parents and friends. 

Shopkeepers and peasants. 


Relations like the cases in European languages are expressed 
by means of the particles ga (Nominative), no (Genitive), ni 
(Dative), and wo (Accusative). Further, what we call the 
subject in English is often distinguished by the particle wa. 
But this particle is also attached to the word that becomes in 
English the grammatical object ; and it may be added to the 
particles no, ni, wo, de, and to other words. To explain fully 
and systematically the uses of wa and its relation to ga would 
only confuse the beginner at this stage. Reserving more 
particular rules for later occasions, we shall now endeavor to 
state the main principles from which they are derived. 

1. Ga simply marks out the subject, excluding other things, 
while wa indicates that an important predicate is to follow. 

Kore ga warui. THIS (not the others) is bad (warui is bad). 

Kore wa warui. This is BAD. 

The former sentence answers the question, Which is bad ? The 
latter is a reply to the question, What sort of a thing is this ? 

Who came ? Dare ga kimashita ka. 
Taro came. Taro ga kimashita. 

Where is Taro ? Taro wa doko ni imasu ka. 
Taro just came. Taro wa tadaima kiiuashita. 

It is a safe rule not to use wa when there is no occasion to 
think of two or more possible predicates. Hence in subordinate 
clauses the subject almost invariably requires ga. 

Taro ga kimashita toki ni yuki ga futte imashita. 
Snow was falling when (toki ni) Taro came. 

2. When subjects only are contrasted ga is affixed to both. 
When predicates are contrasted so as to put a word in one 
sentence in antithesis to a word in another, both require wa. 

Zen wa (good) nase (do) ; aku wa (evil) nasu na (do not). 
Do good and not evil. 

Note that wa, not wo, is attached here to what we should call : 

4 THE NOL T N.. n 

the object. Logically zen and aku are subjects. It is a corol- 
lary of the above rule that wa may properly be used with the 
emphatic word in a negative sentence. 

The foreigner often finds it hard to tell whether he ought to 
use wa or ga with the subject. There are cases in which wa 
only may be used, and other cases in which ga only is permis- 
sible ; but often it depends on the point of view which is to be 
chosen. Sometimes in the same sentence either may be used 
with practically no difference in the sense. It may be in place 
also to warn the beginner that the usage is subject to consider- 
able variations in the dialects. 


^ahiru duck (domestic). * hay at swift, early. 

, hato dove, pigeon. . osoi slow, late. 

- karasu crow, raven. kuroi black. 

't kiji pheasant (green). shiroi white. 

' niwa yard, garden. osoroshii frightful, terrible.- 

niwa-tori barnyard fowl. umai (pron. inmai) delicious, 
' suzume sparrow. agreeable to the taste. b 

+ tsuru crane. utsukushii pretty, beautiful. 

uguisu bush-warbler. wakai young. 

' ko-uma t konima colt. a ' warui bad. 

*ko-ushi calf. yoi good. 
rckiisai small. kono this (here). 

fokii large. ano that (yonder). 

Adjectives similar to the above, ending in V, may be used 
attributively, in which case they precede the noun. They may 
also follow the noun as predicates, requiring no verb. It 
should be remembered, however, that the simple adjective is- 
thus used only in familiar talk. See Ch. XI. 

Sh'ka ya kitsune wa hayaiP- Kono kiji wa umai, ana 

a Not to be confounded with koma t which now denotes a full grown male 

b Women usually say oishii. 

c Kono and ano are used before nouns like adjectives. 

d When several words are joined by to or ya, iva or ga is added only to 
the last. 

in] Wa AND Ga 5, 

ahiru mo umai* Shiroi inu. Ano utsukushii onna. Ano 
wakai onna wa utsukushii. Kono hato wa shiroi ; ano niwd- 
tori wa kuroi. Kono nezumi wa okii ; ano nezumi wa chiisai. 
Ano uma wa hayai. Tsuru wa shiroi ; karas 1 wa kuroi. Ano 
tori w a chiisai. Kono koushi wa okii. Shiroi nezumi zv a 
utsukushii. Kono ushiwa osoi. Hayai uma wa yoi. Kono 
omma mo memma mo kuroi. Ano inu wa osoroshii. Uguis 1 
wa chiisai. Komma dano kous,hi dano wa utsukushii. 

This calf is small. That horse is swift. This duck is young. 
This ox is slow. This black cat is large. That colt is beauti- 
ful. That white dove. Sparrows are small. That fowl is 
large. Cranes are beautiful. This large hen. Both pheasants 
and pigeons are delicious. That horse is small. Doves are 
beautiful. Those calves are large. Duck is delicious. This 
horse is bad. This dog is black ; that dog is white. A white 
dove is beautiful. Cranes are large. 


Wa does not designate a particular case. As we have inti- 
mated, it serves to isolate a word or expression, to make it con- 
spicuous. Often it may be translated, " In regard to." It is 
used with especial frequency after words denoting time 
and place. 

Konnichi wa (to-day) yoi o tenki desii. 

It is fine weather to-day. 

Konnichi wa implies at least a faint contrast with other times : 
else wa would not be used. Compare : 

Konnichi kaerimashita. He' returned to-day. 

Konnichi wa kaerimasen. He does not return to-day, 

The second sentence implies, " he may return later." After 
.a word with wa beginning the sentence the grammatical subject 
naturally requires ga t unless a second contrast is emphasized. 

Koko wa samusa ga tsuyoi. Here the cold is severe (strong). 
In case we wished to contrast the cold and the wind, it 
would be : 

Koko wa samusa wa tsuyoku nai keredomo, kaze wa tsuyoi. 

Here the cold is not severe, but the wind is high. 

a Wa or ga is usually omitted when mo is used. 

6 THE NOUN [n: 

A sentence like " The fox has a long tail," becomes : 

Kiisune wa o ga nagai. 

Here we observe that the subject with wa is grammatically 
disconnected from the sentence, while the predicate nagai (long) 
takes the subordinate subject o (tail) with ga. 

Nikon wa yama ga oi. Japan is mountainous. 
Literally : In regard to Japan, mountains are many. Gram- 
matically yama ga oi is a complete sentence, but the expression 
simply fills the place of an adjective. Many similar expressions 
have become idiomatic. The adjectives most commonly modi- 
fied by subjects with ga in this way are yoi and its opposite 
warui : 

kokoro-mochi ga yoi feeling is good *= comfortable. 

gen-ki ga yoi vitality is good = vigorous, vivacious, lively. 

tsu-gd ga yoi circumstances are good == convenient. 

yo-jin ga yoi caution is good = careful. 

kuchi ga warui mouth is bad = sarcastic. 

i-ji ga warui temper is bad = ill-natured. 

sei ga takai stature is high = tall. 

sei ga hikui stature is low = short. 

ki ga mijikai spirit is short = quick- tempered. . t& \ 

yoku ga jukai desire is deep = avaricious. 

In case an antithesis is involved ga may, of course, become wa,-- 

ashi foot, leg. zo elephant. 
atama head (ladies' word : hito person, man. 

otsumuri, o tsumu). kata side (polite for hito). 

hana nose, snout. Nihon-jin a Japanese 

kao face. (polite : Nihon no o kata). 

he fur. Seiyo-jin, Sei yo no o kata 

koe voice. Westerner, European. 

kuchi mouth. ki spirit, humor. 
kuchi-bashi bill (of a bird), sei stature. 

from hashi bill. gen-ki vitality, liveliness. 

mimi ear. i-ji disposition, temper, ob- 

o or shippo (shiri-o) tail. stinacy. 

tora tiger, yo-jin caution. 

Hsagi-uma donkey. anata you (polite). 

hikui low. nagai. long. 

mijikai short. takai high. 

ivj No 


Ano hito wa iji ga warui. Ano hyak 1 sho wa genki ga yoi*. 
Nihonjiu wa sei ga hikui. Seiyojin wa sei ga takai. Ano 
onna wa ki ga mijikai. Ushi wa atama ga okii. Tsuru wa 
ashi ga nagai. Tor a wa ke ga utsukushii. Uguis wa koe ga 
yoi (sings beautifully). Karas' wa koe ga warui. Ano otoko 
wa sei ga takai. 3 - Zo wa hana ga nagai. Ahiru wa koe ga 
warui. Zo wa o ga mijikai. Usagi wa mimi ga nagai ;~ 
usagi-uma mo mimi ga nagai. Ano hito wa kuchi ga warui* 
Komma ya koushi wa ashi ga nagai. Tsuru wa kuchibashi 
ga nagai. Ano akindo wa yojin ga warui. 

He b is sarcastic. This child has a pretty face. Rats have 
long tails. Foxes and (ya) dogs are swift of foot ; horses too- 
are swift of foot. This dog has short ears ; [his] tail also is 
short. This hare has black fur. Both doves and crows have 
short bills. He has short legs. She is careful. He is slow of 
foot. The duck has short legs. 


The particle no with a noun corresponds to the genitive case, 
and is rendered sometimes by the English possessive, and 
sometimes by the preposition " of " : 

Tori no koe a bird's cry. 

Nikon no ten-shi the Emperor of Japan. 

Notice that the limiting noun together with no always precedes 
the word which it limits. This is one instance of the general 
rule that all modifiers precede the principal or governing word. 

In the classical style ga performs the same function as no : 
Kimi ga yo the lord's (Emperor's) reign. 

a Ano otoko (that fellow) and ana onna are not elegant. Ano kata wa sei ga 
takai is better. Still more polite : Ano o kata wa o sei ga takd gozaimasu. 
b Ano hito, ano kata, etc., may mean either " he " or " she." 


As in other languages, the genitive may be explicative or 

Otoko no ko boy. 

Niwatori no mesu hen. 

San-nin (three persons) no kodomo three children. 

Musashi no kuni the country of Musashi. 


ko young, offspring, egg (in - sake, shake salmon. 

the last sense, of fish only). //w sea-bream. 
tama ball. tara cod, haddock. 

tama-go egg. unagi eel. 

karada body. buta pig (domestic). 

ini meat (of fish), fruit, nut. niku (c) flesh, meat. 
sakana fish. #/#*' red. 

me eye. mazui unsavory, disagreeble 

hire fin. to the taste. 

s :^ Jiirame flounder, flatfish. tsuyoi strong, violent. 

koi carp. mada still, yet. 

- kujira whale. - ^ keredomo, keredo but. a 

maguro tunny. 


Tomodachi no kodomo. Sakana no hire. Tai no atama wa 
okii. Maguro no mi wa akai. Tara no mi wa shiroi ; unagi no 
mi mo shiroi. Koi no kuchi wa tsuyoi. Kujira no ko^ Ano 
hito no karada wa okii. Tai no hire wa akai. Shake no ko 
wa mazui. Tsuru no tamago wa okii ; suzume no tarn ago wa 
chiisai. Koushi no niku wa umai. Kono buta no niku wa 
mazui. Ano otoko no ko wa iji ga warui. Kono uma no ashi 
vva shiroi keredomo, atama wa kuroi, Ano Seiyo no o kata wa 
genki ga yoi. Zo no mimi wa okii keredomo, me wa chiisai. 
Hyatt sho no uma wa osoi. 

The eggs of this fish are large. The fur of this tiger is 
beautiful. The child (wa) of that Japanese is quick-tempered. 

a Shikashi has a stronger adversative sense, while ga is weaker. 

b In speaking of very common animals briefer forms are usual : kotnniK t 
Aoushi, koneko, Jioinu, etc. Kittens and pups are also called nekogo and inukort. 
Note that ko-tori means little bird, not young bird (see Ch. VJII). 

v] Ni 9 

The eggs of this fowl are small. Veal is delicious. The don- 
key's ears are long. Whale's meat is unsavory. Pork is white. 
The whale has a strong tail. These kittens are pretty. . His 
children (children of that man) are still young. This fish's 
fins are white. This dog's fur is black. This mouse's fur is 
white. This white hare's eyes are red. The head of the ox 
is large. The eyes of the flounder are small. The eggs of the 
carp are delicious. The head of the fat is delicious. 


Ni following a noun correspondends to the dative case. 

Ano kodomo wa haha ni nite iru (imasu). 
That child resembles [its] mother. 

The Japanese idiom resembles the Latin in another particular : 
Ushi ni tsuno ga aru (arimasu). 
To oxen are horns, i. e., Oxen have horns. 

When a comparison is involved, wa may be added to ni ; or 
we may say simply : Ushi wa tsuno ga aru. Oxen have horns. 
The construction with ni is preferred when there is a close re- 
lation between the objects, and especially when the parts of a 
person or thing are named. 

Ningen ni te ga aru (arimasu). Men have hands. 

Watakushi ni wa imoto ga nai (arimasen)?- 

I have no [younger] sister. 

As a postposition ni has various other uses which will be ex- 
plained in Ch. LXXVIII. 

We add a few explanations concerning the use of verbs. In 
Japanese the verb always stands at the end of the sentence. 
In nite iru "are resembling" nite is the subordinative of the 
verb niru " to resemble," and iru means " is " or " are." Iru, 
when it stands alone, that is, not with subordinative, differs 
from aru in being used only when the subject is a person or 
some other living thing. The short forms iru and aru are used 
only in speaking familiarly, as to members of one's own family 
or to intimate friends. In polite speech, whether to those of 
higher rank than ourselves, or to strangers, even if they be of 

a Ni is not required "in : Anata tua kasa ga arimasu ka. Have you 
an umbrella? 

io THE NOUN [y 

lower rank, we must add to the concluding verb at least the 
suffixes masu (preset), masho (future or probable), mashita 
(past). These are added to the stem of the verb. 

ari-masu ari-masho ari-mashita 

i-masu i-masho i-mashita 

is, are will or may be was, were. 

There are two classes of verbs. In the one class the form used 
at the end of the sentence, the conclusive form, is derived by 
adding ru to the stem. In the other class the conclusive form 
substitutes u for the i of the stem. In the vocabularies verbs 
of the former class are distinguished by the use of the hyphen, 
thus : i-ru t ni-ru. In Hepburn's Dictionary verbs are arranged 
according to their stems, as i, ari\ in Brinkley's, according to 
their conclusive forms, as iru, aru. 


abura fat, oil, blubber. norm flea. 

ha tooth. ^ ebi shrimp. 

hane feather, wing. okami wolf. 

Iiari needle, sting. saru monkey. 

hige beard. ni-ru resemble. 

tsume nail, claw, hoof. i-ru be (of living things), 
uno horn, feeler. live. 

koke or uroko scale (of fish), aru be (in existence or in 
mushi insect, worm, bug. one's possession). 

^cho, cho-cho butterfly. nai not existent, not pos- 
- hachi bee. sessed (polite : arimaseti). 

hai house-fly. yoku well, frequently. 

ka mosquito. taku-san much, many, in 
kirigirisu cricket. great quantity. a 


Hai ni wa hane ^ ga aru (arimas') ; ka ni mo hane ga aru 
(arimas'). Nomi ni wa hane wa b nai (ariinaseri). c Hachi ni wa 
hari ga arukeredomo, cho ni wa(hariga) nai. Buta ni chiisai 

a Taku and san are the Chinese equivalents of sawa marsh and ya/na 

b The wa after hane implies, of course, a contrast : It is not by the use of 
wings that the flea moves. 

c Tn the following sentences the .student should change familiar forms 
to polite. 

vi] Wo i r 

shippo ga am. Koi ni wa uroko ga aru. Ushi ni wa tsuno mo 
t sume mo aru. Kirigiris ni wa have mo am* Neko ni wa 
hige ga aru. Kono kodomo wa yoku (very much) haha ni nite 
imas\ Saru wa hito ni nite iru. Okami wa inu ni nite iru. 
Ano inu wa kitsune ni nite iru. Kono mushi niwa hari ga aru. 

This bird is like a sparrow. That dog is like a wolf. Birds 
have bills. Both horses (iii mo) and deer have hoofs. The cat 
has claws. This horse resembles a donkey. Deer have 
horns. This monkey has a tail. He resembles a monkey. 
This cat has no tail. This calf(i) has no horns (3) yet (2). 
This child resembles its father (chichi-oya) very much. This" 
child (i) has no teeth (3) yet (2). Hogs have a great deal of 
fat (tak'san aru). 


Wo, originally a particle of exclamation, designates the direct 
object. When several objects are connected by " and," wo is 
affixed to the last only. When mo is used, wo is generally 
omitted in the colloquial. 


ha leaf. ^ sagi heron. 

hana flower. *~tombo dragon-fly. 

ki tree, wood. -u cormorant. 

kuwa no ki mulberry tree. - shishi lion. 
matsu no ki pine tree. kai-ko silk-worm/ 1 

sakura no ki cherry tree. kuda-mono fruit. 
ume b no ki plum tree. koku-motsu cereal. 

ue-ru plant. ya-sai> yasai-mono vegetable^ 

ne-ki-ya gardener. , nin-gen human being. 

ktisa grass, weeds. ryo-shi fisherman. 

semi cicada. kure-ru give (not polite). 

a That is, besides the legs by which it springs. 

b Uma, umai, tune are pronounced with the u silent. But in itini sea the it 
is pronounced and accented. 

c From iie-ru to plant, ki tree,>'# house or tradesman. 
d From kmt keep (animals) and ko young. 

i THE NOUN [vi 

kuu (kit) eat, ^ devour, cho-dai^ please give me, I 

tabe-ru eat (elegant). should like to have. 

toru take, catch. ni in, by, at, to. 

tie' 9 - no. ka interrogative particle. 


Uma mo ushi "no k'sa wo kuu (kuimas). Ningen wa niku 
ya kokumotsu ya yasai wo taberu (tabemas'). U wa sakana 
wo toru (p. ice). Shishi mo tora mo ningen no niku wo kuu. 
Ano hito waonna no ko ni hana wo kureta* (kuremastita). Ano 
uekiya ga kono ume no ki to sakura no ki ivv uetaA Kodomo 
wa chocho ya tombo wo toru. Otoko no ko wa tombo wo torn 
keredomo, onna no ko wa chocho wo toru. Kaiko wa kuwa no 
ha wo kuu. Ano kudamono wo chodai, Ryoshi ga sakana wo 
tak'san totta (torimastita)* Sakura no hana wo totta kodomo 
wa niwd ni imas' ka. 

The gardener planted a pine tree. Birds eat insects. Fishes 
also eat insects. Herons and (ya) cranes eat fish. I should 
like to have those cherry blossoms. The gardener gave the 
girl a flower. Did you plant this pine tree ? No, the gardener 
planted [it]. The Japanese eat cereals (ya) t fish and vegetables. 
Bush-warblers eat worms. Children often (yoku) catch but- 
terflies. The mother gave the child some fruit. The cat catches 
mice. The farmer planted, mulberry trees. Foxes catch 
chickens. Deer eat grass. I should like to have those plum 
blossoms. That child often (yoku) catches cicadas. 

a This He differs from the English " no " in that it denotes not so much an 
objective contradiction as a mere difference of opinion. It amounts to : You 
are under a false impression. 

b From two Chinese words meaning to put on the top of the head, i. e., 
receive respectfully. 

C The familiar past tense is formed by adding fa to the stem. 

d Ga indicates that emphasis rests on ano. The man that planted Ihe trees 
is that gardener, not some one else. If still more emphasis were needed, we 
anight say : Kono ki ivo ueta hito lua ano uekiya desu. 

e When brief mention is made of a single instance the simple subject com- 
monly requires ga, while iva is used in general statements. The student should 
observe this distinction in the exercises to "be translated into Japanese. 



The predicative expressions given in Ch III. may also be 
used attributively by substituting no for ga : 

O taku no jochii iva genki no ii (yoi) onna desu. 

Your maidservant (lit. m. of your house) is a lively woman. 

Set no takai hito desu. [He or she] is a tall person. 

Such expressions occur frequently in Japanese and may be 
variously translated : 

Atama no dkii sakana. A fish with a large head. 

Okii atama no sakana would be very wrong. Nor would it 
be euphonious to repeat a noun, thus : Ano onna wa genki no 
ii onna desu. 

The reason why no may be substituted for ga is that ga was 
originally a genitive particle. See Ch. IV. As such ga is still 
used in the literary language and occurs in many proper names ; 

Ume-ga-tani plum- valley. Tsuru-ga-oka crane-hill. 

The verb " is " or " are " after a predicate noun becomes de 
aru (contracted to da), de arimasu (contracted to desu), de 
gozarimasu (or de gozaimasu), the last being most polite and 
the first most familiar. Notice the difference between : 

Matsn no ki ga arimasu. There are pine trees. 

Matsu no ki desu (for de arimasu). They are pine trees. 


ayu, ai trout. ran orchid. 

iwashi sardine, tr un luck (un ga yoi lucky). 
^ nishin herring. yokn^ lust, passion, avarice. 

kaeru frog. konjo (lit. root-nature) dis- 

kawa river. position. 

nagare current, stream. kyd-shi teacher. 

nioi odor, fragrance. sei-to pupil, scholar. 

take bamboo. sencho captain of a ship. 

tokoro place. shi-kwan officer. 

yama mountain. Ezo-jin\ .. rvr 

sumo wrestling. - V Ainu \ natlve of Yeza 

sumo-tori wrestler. koko this place, here. 

hen region, vicinity. fukai deep. 

j. THE NOUN [vn 

oi many, numerous. noru (with ni) ride, be on, 

sukunai, sukenai a few, scarce. a mount, get aboard. 


Tat wa atama no vkii sakana des' . Nishin wa ko no oi 
sakana des\ Anata wa kuchi no ivarui hito des '. b Umegatani 
wa karada no okii smjtori des\ Ano senchi wa yojin no yoi 
hito des . Nikon ni wa konjo no warui uma ga oi. Tsurn 
wa kuchibashi no nagai tori des\ Ahiru wa as hi no mijtkai 
tori des 1 . O Take san c wa iji no warui ko da. O no nagai 
saru mo aru shi, A o no mijikai saru G mo aru, Ano sh'kwan 
wa konjo no warui uma ni no tie imas* (is riding). Ano kyoshi 
wa kino mijikai hito des . Koko wa sti ka no oi yama da 
Fujikawa f wa nagare no hayai kawa des . Tamagawa % wa 
ayu no oi kawa des\ Kono hen wa ka no oi tokoro des 1 . 

That European is quick-tempered. Some butterflies have 
long, while others have short feelers (there are butterflies with 
long feelers and there are also those with short feelers). Mr. 
Shimada is a cautious person. Odate is a tall wrestler. Sar- 
dines are oily fish, That pupil is an ill-natured child. Japan 
is a mountainous country. That farmer is an avaricious fellow. 
That sea-captain is unlucky. Orchids are sweet-scented flowers 
(flowers of good odor). Here (koko wa) frogs are numerous. 
The Ainu have long^ beards. Among (ni wa) Japanese long- 
bearded men are scarce. [She] is a sarcastic woman. 

a Notice that oi and sukitnai cannot be used attributively like the English 
" many " and " few," except when limited by a noun with no\ e. g., hone no oi 
sakana a bony fish (hone bone). 

b It would be more polite to say: Anata ?va o kucJn -no tvarui o kata de 

c The name of a girl. Sama or san is added to names of persons or to 
titles of important personages, such as tensJii sama Emperor, danna san master 
of the house. In the case of girls o is always prefixed unless there are more 
than two syllables. Sama is also used in certain polite phrases, such as o kage 
sama I owe my good fortune to you (kage shadow), go kuro sama 1 have caused 
you much trouble. 

d Notice the circumstantiality of the expression. Shi is a disjunctive 
particle that marks the transition from one coordinate clause to another. In 
classical language the simple stem of the verb is used in such a position. 
Thus art might be substituted in the above for ant ski. Shi makes the transi- 
tion more distinct. 

e Instead of repeating sant, we may say o no mijikat no mo aru. 
i A rivet near Mount Fuji. g A river near Toky5. 

vm] COMPOUNDS 1 5 


Japanese resembles German in the facility with which com- 
pound nouns may be formed. Compounds derived from the 
Chinese are especially numerous. 

1. The components may themselves be nouns: 

sakana-ichi fish-market. 
oya-yubi parent- finger, thumb. 
soto-gawct outside, uchi-gawa inside. 
uri-zane-gao melon-seed-face, i. e., beautiful face. 

The following are of Chinese origin : 

kwa-ji fire-affair, conflagration. 
ba-sha horse- vehicle, wagon or carriage. 
tetsu-do iron-way, railroad. 
den-ki lightning- spirit, electricity. 
tetsudo-basha street car. 
denki-tetsudo electric railroad. 

2. One of the components may be an adjective : 

ao-mono green things, vegetables, from aoi. 
waka-danna young master, from wakai. 

Numerous compounds are formed by the use of the prefixes 
o great and ko small (in a few proper names o) : 

o-kaze great wind, typhoon. 

o-mizu great water, flood. 

o-atari great hit (in the theater or speculation). 

o-mugi barley, ko-mugi wheat. 

ko-yubi little finger. 

ko-zutsumi parcel, from tsutsumi bundle. 

ko-zo little priest, apprentice, . errand-boy. a 

ko-goto little word, i. e., complaint, from koto word. 

O-miya great shrine. 

O-yama little mountain. 

But it must not be presumed that such compounds may be 
formed at will, nor that a word forming a compound with one. 
of the two prefixes may form one with the other also. 

a Boys in former times had the hair closely cropped or shaved, like pries! s. 

1 6 THE NOUN [vin 

3. One of the components may be a verb. In genuine Chi- 
nese compounds an object-noun follows the verb that governs 
it, but in the case of pure Japanese words the object-noun 
precedes. This distinction, of course, does not apply where the 
verb is intransitive or where tlie noun is the principal com- 
ponent and the verb has the nature of a modifier. 

hi-tsuke incendiary, from hi fire and tsuke-ru apply ; but 
tsuke-bi incendiary fire. 

mono-moral beggar (more commonly kojiki), from mono 
thing and morau receive : bui.morai-inonoglfc, 

mono-oki storeroom, from oku put; oki-mono an ornament 
kept in the toko-no-ma (alcove of a room). 

tate-kata style of building, from tate-ru build and kata mode \ 
or tate-yd, from yd manner. a 

sei-shi manufacture of paper, from sei make and ski paper. 
ska-shin photograph, from ska to copy and shin truth. 
ji-shin earthquake, from ji earth and shin (intr.) to quake. 

Some nouns occurring in compounds are rarely, if ever, used 
alone ; e. g., ya house, firm, tradesman. The Chinese ka 
(house) is in Japanese similarly used, but only of persons. 

kusuri-ya druggist. 

tony a (toi-ya) wholesale store, from ton inquire. 
kenchiku-ka architect, from ken-chiku building operations. 
fuhei-ka grumbler, from fu-hei dissatisfaction. 
tai-shok-ka gourmand, from tai great, shoku eat. 


aida interval. cho street, town. 

kono-aika, konaida recently, hon book. [horses. 

hi fire. ba-sha any vehicle drawn by 

ic hi market. gwai-koku foreign country. 

kusuri drug, medicine. ji-skin earthquake. 

mono thing, person^ f fi ken-kwa quarrel. 

ura rear, lining. kin- jo vicinity, neighborhood. 

a Shi-kata and shi-yo are similarly formed from the stem of the verb suru 
to do. These words are daily used by every one who speaks Japanese. 
Shikata ga ttai, or Shiyo ga nai. There is no help for it (no way of doing). 



ki-sha railway train (lit. 

steam-vehicle). tate-ru build, erect. 

kwa-ji conflagration. tsuke-ru apply, 

mei-butsu noted product a yuku, iku go. 

ska-skin photograph. wakaru be clear, be under- 

tetsu-dj railroad. stood. 

watakushi self, I. 1110 already, now, still. d 

doko where ? (comp. koko). yube last night. 

aoi blue, green. zui-bun a good deal. 

chikai near. ye to, toward. 6 

tot far, distant. sayo as you say, yes. 


Mo niwatori ga nakimasJita. Nihombashi f ni (at) sakanaichi 
ga aru (arimas). Kanda ni (in) aomonoichi ga aru. Kono 
kisha wa doko ye ikimas* ka Hei^ Takasaki * ye ikimas\ 
Berrin ni wa tetsudobasha ga oi. Yube kinjo ni kwaji ga atta 
(arimastita). Zuibun okii kwaji de atta (destita). Berrin ni wa 

a From met name, fame, and bntsu=tnono (same as rnotsu in kokumotsii}. 
The word is applied to a product which is characteristic of a given locality 
and so comes to be associated with its name. 

b Corresponds to ano, kono. Kono may be called the pronominal adjective 
of the first person, sono, of the second, and ano, of the third. See Ch. XIV. 

c This verb is properly intransitive and impersonal. Watakushi iva 
ivakarimasu. I understand. Wakariwasen. I don't know. In some localities 
ivakarimasen also means: I cannot agree; it won't do ; it is impossible. 

d The beginner may find it difficult to distinguish mo and mada. The 
latter is commonly associated with negative ideas and may be used alone in 
the sense of " not yet." Mada samni. It is still cold, it is not yet warm. Mo 
means " still " only in such expressions as mo hifotsn still one, one more. 

e Words like this, corresponding to our prepositions, follow their nouns 
and should be called postpositions. See Chap. LXXVIII. 

f The name of a bridge in Tokyo (ftas/ii bridge). In the next sentence 
Kanda is the name of a district in the same city, from /(vzw/god and fa paddy- 

g When an interrogative sentence is fcrmed with a word like doko t the 
subject (or object) of the English sentence often takes iva. Ka may be omitted 
when interrogative pronouns or adverbs are used. 

h Hei or hat is a mere interjection meaning that the speaker is attentive 
to the words which have been addressed to him. Sayo is used in the same 
way, when reflection is necessary before an answer can be given. 

i A town on the Nabasendo, one of the great highways of Japan. 

1 8 THE NOUN [vin 

okii kivaji ga s'kunai* Yube no kwaji wa tskebi dt atta kere- 
domo, sono hi wo ts'keta mono wa b mada wakarimasen. Ko- 
naida d-jishin ga arimasJtta. Doits (Germany) ni wa jishin 
ga s'kunai keredomo, Nikon ni wa jishin ga oi. Anata no 
shashin wo chodai. Kono shashin wa anata ni yoku nite imas\ 
Kwaji wa toi ka. lie, chikai. Kono kinjo ni honya wa ari- 
masen ka. Kono kinjo ni wa arimasen keredomo, ura no cho 
niwaarimas. Ano honya wa takai. Chiisai jishin wa ci 
keredomo, okii jishin wa s kunai. Ano hito wa doko ye ikimas 
ka. Oji c ye ikimas'. Kono kinjo ni sakanaichi ga nai ka. 
Arimasen keredomo, aomonoichi wa arimas\ Tokyo ni wa 
kivaji ga oi. Edo no meibutsit wa kwaji to kenkwa da. 
Kwaji wa Edo no hana& 

Is there a drug store (go) in this vicinity ? Where (2) does 
this horse-car (i) go ? [It] goes to Asak'sa. e In Tokyo (ni wa) 
there are few horse-cars (horse-cars are few). The conflagration 
(of) last night was trifling (chiisakattd], but the earthquake 
was severe (okikatta)* In Japan there are still few railroads. 
Are you going (do you go) to America? I do not yet know. 
This house is well built (manner of building is good). She is 
a foreigner {gwaikokujiri)& Where (2) are you (i) going? h 
I am going to the bookseller's. The gardener is planting (tiete 
imas'} flowers. Does this photograph resemble me (watakusJii 
ni) ? Yes, it is a good likeness (well resembles you). There 
are many bookstores in New York. 

a If kwaji were followed by wa, the natural implication would be that 
small fires were not infrequent. 

b Hi wo tsuketa mono the person who started the tire. Verbs, like adjec- 
tives, modify nouns, there being no relative pronoun in Japanese. 

c A village near Tokyo. 

d A proverb, suggested by the frequency of conflagrations in Edo (old name 
of Tokyo). The meaning is that conflagration^ are the finest sights in T5kyo. 
Notice that the verb " to be " is often omitted in proverbs, for the sake of 

e The name of a district in Tokyo, from asai thin and kitsa grass. 
f Adjectives, like verbs, may be conjugated. 

g This term, like Seiyojin, is practically limited to the European races, 
h In speaking of another's going, aide desu is more polite than ikiinasu 



1. There are also compounds in which Chinese and Japanese 
words occur together : 

jo-biikuro envelope, from Jj (c) letter a.ndfu&uro sack. 
ju-bako set of lacquered boxes, fromjw (c) pile up and hako- 
moto-kin capital, principal, from moto basis and kin (c) money. 
yu-to hot water vessel, from yu hot water and to (c) tub. 

Such mixed words are called jubako-yomi or yuto-yomi. Yo- 
mi means reading, of the pronunciation of the Chinese ideo- 
grams. If both characters in jubako were given the Chinese 
sound, they would read ju-so ; if Japanese, kasane-bako. So 
yuto is often read yu-oke and motokin, gwan-kin (c). 

2. In many compounds the words retain their proper meaning 
and in translation must be separated by " and " : 

sai-shi (c) wife and child (ren), family. 

o-fuku (c) or iki-kaefi going and returning, 

jo-ge (c) above and below (also ue-shita), up and down. 

3. In some cases there have been changes in the sound : 
akyudo, akindo merchant, from aki (nai) trade and kito. 
nakodo a go-between (in marriage), from naka middle and kito. 


ie house. nc-dan price. 

uchi interior, house. ju-bako set of lacqered boxes. 

yado lodging, house. jdzu skilful. a 

yado-ya hotel. heta unskilful. 

tonari next house, neighbor, yen circle, dollar (two shil- 

mise shop, store. lings or 50 cents). 

kami paper. dai-ku carpenter. - 

kutsu shoe. ryo-ri cooking. 

shina,) shiua-mono wares. ryori-ya restaurant. 

shitate-ya tailor. [letter), sai-shi wife and child(ren). 

jo-bukuro envelope (of a to-butsu foreign goods. 

a Josu, heta and many other words used ns adjectives are really nouns. When 
used as predicates they must be followed by destt {dc gozainiasti}. Byoki desit is 
illness, i. e., is ill. Bimbo desn is poverty, i. e., is poor. 

20 THE NOUN [ix 

kip-pu ticket. kuru (stem : kt) come. 

o-fuku going and returning, morau receive. 

ofuku-gippu excursion ticket, tsiire-ru take along. 

are that one (person or thing), uru sell. 

kore this one kulfysai please give me. 

dare who ? tada, tatta only, merely. 

ikura how much ? made until, as far as. 

ichi (c) one. de at, with, by means of. a 


Kono akindo no shinamono wa yasui. \Vatakushi no tonart 
wa tobutsuya des . Ano rydriya wa yoi ka, warui ka. Are 
wa ii rydriya da. Kono yadoya no rydri wa yoi. Kono kinjo 
ni yadoya ga tak* san arimas '. Ii shashinya wa s kunai> Dai- 
ku wa ie wo tatemas* . Kono sh'tateya wa jozu des\ Kutsu- 
ya ga kimastita. Doko de jobukuro wo urimas ka. Kamiya 
de urimas . Yokohama made no (to) of ' kugippu (wo kudos ai}. 
Kore wa of kugippu des ka. Ano kutsuya wa heta des' . Ano 
Nihonjin wa saishi wo tsurete Ydroppa ye ikimas\ Kono ju- 
bako wa utsukushii, Kore wa utsukushii jubako des. Nihom- 
bashi no kinjo ni wa akindo ga tafc san orimas 1 ^ Kono ju- 
bako wa ikura des ka. Kono jubako wa nedan ga yasui, tatta 
ichi yen des > Kono yadoya no tatekata wa ii. Kono yadoya wa 
ii tatekata des\ Vube tonari no uchi ni kwaji ga arimasJita. 
Ts' kebi de atta ka. Sayo, mada wakarimasen. Kono sha- 
shinya wa jozu des\ Kono kinjo ni wa rydriya mo arimasu ski, 
yadoya mo arimas* . Ano sfitateya wa yasui keredomo, heta 
des* . Ano kamiya no jobukuro wa warui. Dare ga^ kita ka. 
Sh'tateya ga kimash'ta. 

a De is a postposition. In the sense of " at " or " in " de difiers from ni in 
that it is used to indicate the scene of an action, while ni simply marks the 
place where a thing or person exists. Tokyo ni tomodachi go. arimasit. I have 
a friend in Tokyo, but 'J'dkyo de tomodachi ni aimashidi, I met a friend in, 

b Oru or irp must be used in saying that a person or a living thing is in 
such and such a place. But : urise ga taktisan arimasu. It is, however, per- 
missible to use aru even of a living thing when it is in question whether such 
a thing exists or not. So it is correct to say: Kono kinjo ni o isha san wa 
anmasen ka. Is there no physician in this vicinity? But here onmasen would 
be more natural. 

c An interrogative pronoun as subject always requires ga, never wa. The 
subject of the answer also requires ga. 


This shoemaker is dear, but [he] is skilful. My tailor's house 
(iicht) is distant. My neighbor (tonari) is a photographer. 
How much (2) are these envelopes (i)? These envelopes are 
cheap. Taking wife and children along he goes abroad (to 
foreign countries). The peasant is selling (utte imas') grain. 
The gardener is planting flowers. [I] received his photograph. 
Are these lacquered boxes dear or cheap ? [They] are dear. 
Who has come ? The shoemaker has come. Please give me 
[some] envelopes. In this vicinity (I) there are many (3) 
dealers in foreign goods (2). In this vicinity there are no hotels, 
but there are many restaurants. My tailor is skilful, but the 
shoemaker is unskilful. At this shop do [they] sell paper also ? 
Last night at the hotel next door (tonari no) there was a fire. 
That fire was due to incendiarism. This photographer is skil- 
ful. In (ni ivd) Berlin (i) there are many (3) good restau- 
rants (2). Excursion tickets are cheap. 


i. Nouns may be formed from adjective-stems by means of 
suffixes, such as sa and mi. 

atsu-sa heat, thickness from atsui. 

samu-sa cold (of weather) samui. 

tsumeta-sa cold (of things) tsumetai. 

taka-sa height takai. 

fuka-sa depth ,, ftikai. 

oki-sa size okii large. 

\ uma-mi deliciousness, sweet taste umai. 

yoiva-mi weakness yowai. 

Nouns ending in mi often denote a certain degree of the 
quality expressed by the adjective. 

niga-mi bitterish taste from nigai. 

kuro-mi blackish color kuroi. 

shiro-mi whitish color shiroi. 

aka-mi reddish tinge akai. 

In iz&z-;;/* lean meat, or red wood in the heart of a tree, shiro- 
mi white of an egg, or white wood, and ki-mi yolk, from kii a 

a More usually called ki-iroi, from ire color. 



yellow, mi is the noun meaning meat, substance. 

2. Many nouns are stems of verbs or compounds into which 
such stems enter. They may be abstract, or concrete, or both. 

itami pain, from itamu ache, be hurt. 

kurushimi distress, from kurushimu grieve. a 

oboe memory, from oboe-ru remember. 

hanashi talk, story, from kanasu speak. 

hasami shears, from hasamu place or hold a thing between 

two other things, as with chopsticks. 

kito-goroshi murder, murderer, from korosu kill (comp. p. 16). 
hana-mi viewing the flowers, from mi-ru see. 
yuki-mi viewing the snow, tsuki-mi viewing the moon. 


toshi year. 
ham spring. 
natsu summer. 
aki autumn. 
fuyu winter. 
tsuki moon, month. 
eda branch. 
hasami shears. 
ido well. 
mizu water. 
yu t o yn hot water. 
yuki snow. 

kurai, gurafo grade. tf^ 
do (c) degree (in measure- 

77 = 3900 meters or 2.44 miles. 
kimi you (used by students). 

nani, nan what ? 

dono which ? (adjectival like 

ni (c) two. 
sail (c) three. 
ju (c) ten. 
atsui hot. 
samui cold, chilly (of the 

tsumetai cold (of things, air, 

water, etc.). 
hidoi cruel, dreadful. 
o-ide coming, going, being 

in a place (polite 2, 3). 
kiru cut. 

korosu (stem: koroshi) kill. 
mi-ru see. 

a From the adjectives itai and kuntshii we have also it as a and kuntshisa. 
These are more abstract, denoting rather the degree of pain or distress than 
the sensation itself. 

b Enters into such combinations as icJii yen gurai about one yen, kono kurai 
or kore kurai about this much. Whether to pronounce kurai or gitrai is a 
matter of individual choice. Remember that kurai or gurai always follows 
the word which it modifies. 


oboe-ru learn, remember. kotoshi this year. 

dochi(ra), dote hi* which ? nakanaka, contrary to expec- 
(of the two), where ? tation, very. 


Kotoshi no atsusa wa nakanaka hidoi. Kono kawa no f ' kasa 
wa dono kurai des' ka. ^ Kono fuyu no samusa wa hidoi. Yu 
wa nan do gurai atsui ka. San ju do des' . Kono yama no 
takasa wa dono kurai des' ka. Mada dono kurai des' ka 
wakariinasen. Nihonjin wa haru yoku hanami ni ikimas' . 
Nihonjin wafuyu yukimi ni ikimas' .^ Kawa no mtzu to ido 
110 mizu wa dochira ga tsumetai ka.^ Natsu wa ido no mizu 
ga tsumetai. Watakushi wa oboe ga warui. Kodouio wa 
nakanaka oboe ga ii. Uekiya ga hasami de ki no eda wo kitte 
imas'. Kono tetsudj no nagasa wa dono kurai des tea. 
Ni ju ri des\ Hitogoroshi wa hidoi mon da. Aki wa tsuki- 
mi ga yoi. Anata doko ye oide des' ka. Hanami ni ikimas\ 

The cold (of) this year is very severe (strong). About how 
much is the qepth of this well? Thirty meters (ineitor').* 
How high is this tree ? Twenty meters. This year (wa) do 
you go to see the flowers ? The water of this well is very cold. 
You have a good memory (Kimi wa memory is good). About 
how much is the length of this river? Thirty ri. Last night 
in Yokohama there was a murder. This year (i) there are 
many (3) incendiary fires (2). .Where are you going ? [I] am 
going to take a look at the snow. In summer the moonlight- views 
on the Sumida f are fine (good). In autumn the moonlight- views 
of Oji are fine. The cold in (of) Germany is very severe. 
The heat on (of) the Indian Ocean (Indo-yo) is dreadful. 

a The original sense of this word is, " which direction?" Anata iva dochira 
ye oide desn ka. "Which way are you going ? 

b It is also correct to say dono kurai arimasu ka. Or we say, Kono kaivet 
iva dono kurai fitkai ka y where kurai is used adverbially. 

c In these two sentences harn z.\\&fuyu are used like adverbs. When given 
the emphatic position at the beginning of the sentence they naturally take iva, 

d Notice the peculiar manner of expression. In such sentences the Japan- 
ese does not require a comparative form of the adjective. 

e It is (desif), or, There are (arimasii], thirty meters. 

f Sitinidagaii'a is the name of a river that empties into Tokyo Bay at Tokyo. 

24 THE NOUN [xi 


A sentence in which the predicate is an adjective ending in 
f, if the sentence is affirmative and of the present tense, needs 
no copula in familiar discourse : 

Natsu wa hi ga nagai. In summer the days are long. 

The copula must be used when the sentence is negative, or in 
a past or future tense. With forms of am or nai the adjective 
takes the adverbial inflection by substituting the syllable ku for 
i. Such forms in ku coalesce with atta and aro in compound* 
like yokatta, yokaro. 

Fuyu wa hi ga nagaku nai (arimasen). 

In winter the days are not long. 

Yube wa samukatta (samuku arimashitd)\ 

Last night it was cold. 

Sore wa yoroshikarj {yoroshiku arimasho). 

That may do very well (be right). 

The most polite forms of the verb " to be " are gozarimasu, 
gozarimasen, gozarimashita, gozarimashd, usually contracted 
to gozaimasu, etc. When any of these forms of the verb are used 
the k in the adverbial form of the adjective is elided and con- 
traction occurs. Thus. 

nagaku nagau nago 

shiroku shirou shiro 

waruku waruu warn 

yoroshiku yoroshiu yoroshu 

Between the familiar forms like ii (yoi) and the very polite 
forms likejK<9 gozaimasu a middle way may be taken by using 
desu. Thus : ii no desu, ii ndesu, ii desu, and so forth. Gram- 
matically ii desu and the like are open to criticism, but among 
men it is becoming quite the fashion to add desu to adjectives 
in i. But one never says yoi de gozainiasu. 

The adverbial form in ku is also used before the verb naru 
become, natta (jiarimashita) became, nard or naru d aro (riari- 
masho) may become, naranai (narimasen) does not become. 

a This chapter anticipates some points in the later and more complete 
discussion of adjectives, in order to enable the student to use them at once. 



hi day. nemui sleepy. 

kaki oyster nurui tepid, not hot enough. 

meshi boiled rice, a meal yoroshii right, all right. 

(polite : go-zen or go-han. ari-gatai (lit. hard to be) rare, 
michi road. precious. b 

maki-tabako cigar, cigarette.* naru become. 

byd-ki illness. kesa this morning. 

Nihongo Japanese language, yo-hodo, yoppodo a good deal. 

atarashii fresh, new. dan- dan gradually. 

furui ancient, old. kon-nichi to-day. 

itai painful. saku-nen last year. 

kitanai$\rt.y t mean, indecent, tai-hen (lit. great change) ex- 
mutsukashii, muzukashii dif- traordinarily, very. 

ficult. kara from, after, since. 


Mo osoku natta (iiarimash? to). Mada hayo gozaimas\ Mada 
osoku wa d gozaimasen. Sakunen wa watakushi no me ga tai- 
hen warukatta keredomo, kotoshi wa yoku natta. Ma / yoroshu 
gozaimas 1 * Kore kara dandan samuku f narimas . Konnichi 
wa o atsu gozaimas . Watakushi wa nemuku natta. Anata 
wa o nemu gozaimas* ka. lie, neinu gozaimasen. Kotoshi wa 
hayaku samuku narimashta. O ito gozaimaska. Watakushi 
wa ashi ga ito gozaimas\ Kono yu wa nuruku natta. Kono 
ido no mizu wa taihen tsumeto gozaimas* . Kono ie wa atara- 
shu gozaimas* . Watakushi no ie wa kit and gozaimas* & Wata- 

a From maku roll, wrap. When necessary to make the distinction, a cigar 
is called ha-ntakiiabako and a cigarette, kami-makitabako. 

b As in arigatai oshie precious doctrine (of religion), arigatai koto something 
to be grateful for. Arigato gozaittiasn. I thank you. 

c Kore kara henceforth. 

d Wa makes osoku emphatic : "It is anything but late." Compare in the 
last sentence takaku u>a. With iva the uncontracted adverbial form is used, at 
least in Tokyo. 

e Mil is an interjection expressing satisfaction. The expression is about 
equivalent to : " Never mind ; it's all right." 

f In English the comparative is more natural. 

g An expression of humility before a stranger : " I have too poor a house to 
entertain you properly. 

26 THE NOUN [xi 

kushi ga waru gozaimastita.^ Kesa no meshi wa taihen 
mazukatta. IV at a kushi no toniodacJii no bydki wa taihen yoku 
narimash'ta. Watakushl no kao ga taihen akaku narimash'fa. 
Konnichi wa uiichi ga warn gozaiuias* . Kore wa tako (dear) 
gozaimasho. Jie, takaku wa gozaimasen. 

Mount Fuji b has become white. My friend's illness has 
become serious (difficult). [In] autumn the days gradually 
become shorter (short) ; [in] spring the days gradually become 
longer (long). That child has grown (become) very large. 
To-day it is very warm. Thank you. In (de wa) Japan oysters 
are not dear. My illness is gradually getting better (becoming 
good). This rice is very delicious. This book is quite (yo/iodo) 
an old one. My shoes have gotten bad. From this on (wa) 
the days (go) gradually become shorter. The cold (of) last 
year was very severe. The Japanese language is difficult. The 
earthquake (of) last evening was very severe. These cigars 
are cheap. Where (doko go) does it hurt (is painful) ? My 
feet hurt. Are you sleepy ? Yes, I have become very sleepy. 

a It was my mistake. Lit. I (and not another) was wrong. 

b Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan proper, between 3,700 and 3,800 
meters, or about 12,000 feet, high. It is called Fuji san, from san (c) mountain, 
or Fuji no yama. 



The words corresponding to our personal pronouns are really 
nouns. They accordingly take the particles wa, ga, no, ni, wo. 
The genitive case (with no} corresponds to our possessive 

In speaking to another person one must use different words 
according to the real or supposed rank of the one addressed. 
It is, however, usual to regard a stranger of presumably equal 
rank as one's superior, and a stranger of lower rank as one's 
equal. As a general rule it is to be observed that personal 
pronouns are not used so much as in European languages arid 
may be omitted when the context makes it clear which person 
is meant. This is especially true of pronouns of the third 
person ; but those of the first and second person, watakushi and 
anata, are often used in polite conversation even in cases where 
their absence would not involve ambiguity . b 

I. The pronouns of the first person are : 

watakushi, watashi polite. 

ses-sha (lit. rude person) used by gentlemen of the old 


boku (lit. servant) used familiarly by men, as students, etc. 
ore, oira (pro) vulgar. 
te-uiae (lit. this side, from te hand, side, and mae front, 

presence) humble. 

Watakushi may be further contracted into washi, but this is 
vulgar. With watakushi, etc., wa tends to lose the sound of 
vu, thus ; watashia or watasha. Ore is derived from onore self ; 
oira from the plural onore-ra. The classical pronoun of the 
first person, ware, and the possessive waga (as in waga kuni) 
are not used in conversation, but occur in speeches. 

a Dai-mei-shi representatis-e-name-word. 

b In sentences like "I will go too" personal pronouns must, of course, be 
translated : IVatakiislii nw tnairiniaslio. 

c Compare the proverb ivagii ta ye mizii ivo hiku to draw water to one's own 
paddy-field, i.e., " to look out for number one." Ware really means self, and 
in some dialects is used of the second or third person. 


2. The pronouns of the second person are : 

anata sama, anata formal, polite. 

o-mae san, omae polite toward inferiors. 

kimi (lit. lord) corresponding to boku. 

ki-sama (from ki honorable) used in addressing one of the 

lower classes. 
te-mae contemptuous. 

Anata is derived from ano kata that side, that person. It is 
still used occasionally in the third person. Compare the 
German r as formerly used of the second person. Sonata is 
impolite. In law courts kisama is not permitted ; but judges 
use sono hv (from to (c) side), which in ordinary speech would 
be contemptuous. 

With anata and other pronouns of the second person wa is 
often omitted. Anata dd nasaimashita ka. What is the 
matter (lit. How have you done) ? At times anata stands 
apart from the construction like a vocative or an interjection. 

Notice that many of these pronouns which according to their 
etymology ought to be polite have in practice become familiar 
or vulgar. The classical nanji is never used in the colloquial. 
Foreigners should use anata generally, and in speaking to their 
own servants or to coolies omae. 

3. For pronouns of the third person such expressions as the 
following may be used : 

ano o kata, ano kata. 

ano o kito, ano hito. 

ano oto.ko, ano onna, ano ko less polite. 

are that one there. 

aitsu (ano yatsu)* fcoitsu, soitsu vulgar. 

Of course, kono or sono may be substituted for ano in the 
above. The classical kare^ is often heard in public addresses. 
Other expressions for he, she, it, they, are muko yonder side 
and saki front, which frequently take de or de wa. 

4. Plural pronouns are formed by the use of the suffixes gata, 
tachiy domo and ra, or by doubling : 

a Yafsu is coming to be used more and more in the sense of mono tiling or 

b Compare kare-kore this or that, about. 


(1) watakushidomo, a was /lira, 

(2) anatagata. 

omaesangata, omaetachi, oinaera. 

(3) ano katagata. 

ano hitobito, ano hitotachi. 

Waga hai our company, is a familiar expression for " we," 
" us," among students. Sometimes it is used in a singular 



(Include the lists of personal pronouns.) 

baka fool, dunce. shoku-gyo occupation, trade. 

fude writing-brush. donata who ? (more polite 

inaka country (opp. of city). than dare). 

kuruma wheel, vehicle, riksha. ikutsu how many ? how old ? 

kuruma-hiki~\ hatach i twenty years old. 

kuruma-ya V riksha-man. mdsu (stem : moskt) say, call 

ska-fu(c) J (polite 1,3). 

meshi-tsukai servant. oshie-ru. ~ Gu^JL> 

na name. suru (stem : shi) do. 

na-mae name (of person only), ikanai (ikimaseii) it does not 

yd business. go, it won't do (German : es 

gak-ko school. gecht nicht. 

go-Juku dry goods. ikenai (ikemasett) it cannot go, 

i-sha physician. it's of no use. b 

ka-nai household, wife. kyd=konnichito-fay. 

oku san madam, wife of one nara if. 

in good social standing. sore nara (sonnara) if so, then. 

sen-sei master, teacher (a to that (at the end of a quo- 
term of respect). tation). 

sho-bai mercantile business, hai t hei I have heard you, yes, 

trade. all right. 

a One may hear ware-ware occasionally. 

b There is practically no difference between ikanai and ikenai. The latter 
Is more common. These words may be used like adjectives, as in ikanat yafstt, 
i hito. 



Anata wa doko no o kata de gozaimas* ka* Watakushi wa 
no mono de gozaimas'. \Vashino uchi no meshitsukai 
wa inaka no won' da. Kimi no sensei wa oshiekata ga jozu 
des ka. Sayd, taihen jozu da. Sore nara boku mo iko. c Ano 
ko wa doko ye ikimas ka. Gakkj ye ikimas" . Boku no sensei 
7Ma kyo hanami ni ikimas . Omae wa taihen osoi. Are wa 
doko no akindo des ka. Hai, Yokohama no akindo des\ Ano 
hito wa me ga warui. Koits' wa baka da. Omae no uchi wa 
doko ka. Hai,^ watakushi wa Tanaka san no kurumahiki de 
gozaimas . Ano o kata wa watakushi no sensei de gozaimas\ 
Anata no go shokugyo wa nan de gozaimas 1 ka. Watakushi 
wa gof kuya de gozaimas' '. Kimi wa doko ye iku ka. hoku. 
wa yukimi ni iku. Anata (wa) donata de gozaimas' ka. e 
Watakushi w a Watanabe Naoyoshi^ de gozaimas\ Anata no 
ok? san wa o ikutsu de gozaimas ka& Kanai wa san ju de 
gozaimas '. Watakushidomo no kuni ni wa tak'san yam a ga 
gozaimas* . Anatagata no kuni wa samu gozaimas' ka Sayo, 
taihen samu gozaimas. Omaera wa ii shobai wo shite iru, h 
washira no shobai wa ikenai. Yube watakushi no uchi ye 
gwaikokujin ga kimasJJta ; sono gwaikokujin ^va akindo 
destita* Ano hitotachi wa doko ye ikimas ka. Sayd, Kawa- 
saki i ye ikimas '. Ano ko wa ii ko da. Kore wa kimi no hon 
da, Kisama nan no yd da. Ano o kata wa isha de gozaimas m 

Where is he from (man of where is he)? [He] is from Choshu 

a Corresponds to our " Where are you from ?" One may also say, Anata no 
o kuni iva dochira de gozaiinasu ka. 

b Kei is an alternative pronunciation of kyo, the ideogram for capital. 

c I too will go (to him). 

d Hal or hei often occurs in Japanese where we should not expect " yes " in 

e Or, O namae wa nan to osshaitnasu ka. Assuming previous acquaintance : 
Donata de irasshaimashita ka. 

f Watanabe is the surname (inyd-ji}\ Naoyoshi, the given name (##). The 
surname comes first in Japanese. 

g Or, O iki.ilsu ni o nan nasaimasu ka. A r am here does not mean " to 
become " in an objective sense. Compare the English, " How much does it 
come to?" 

h Shite, is the subordinative of sum to do. Shobai wo sum to do business. 

i The name of a station between Tokyo and Yokohama celebrated for its 
temple of I^obo Daishi {Daishi satna\ 


(a man of Choshu). a My wife is from the country (inaka no 
mono). My horse is still young (toshi ga wakai). Your (kimi 
no) riksha-man is very slow. Where (2) is he (i) going ? [He] 
is going for a bath (yu ni). Who (2) is that gentleman (i) ? 
[He] is my teacher. _What is your name, please (Who are 
you) ? My name is Omori. b Are you (kimi i) going to see 
the flowers to-day (2) ? I too will go. You (tcmae) are a fool. 
Who are you (pmae san) ? 1 am Mr. Matsubara's servant. To 
what school (school of where) are you (i) going? In our 
country there are few railways, but in your country (p kuni) 
there are many. How old (p ikutsu 2) are you (i) ? I am 
twenty. Is that your writing-brush ? No, [it] belongs to the 
teacher (is the teacher's). His servant is from Tokyo (a man 
of Tokyo). 


In connection with the pronoun of the second person it is 
desirable to call attention to a peculiarity of the Japanese 
language which must be well understood if one is to speak 
properly. In polite conversation with a person (addressed as 
anata) one must be careful to avoid undue familiarity in refer- 
ring to things which belong, or stand in any important relation, 
to the one addressed. Respect is indicated by prefixing to 
nouns of Japanese origin o (from on, still used in very formal 
speech) and go (rarely gyo) to Chinese words. 

Anata no o me wa ikaga de gozaimasu ka. 

How are your eyes ? 

Nan no go yd de gozaimasu ka (lit. Business of what is it ?). 

What are your commands ? What do you wish ? 

The same rule is observed in speaking respectfully of a third 
person. Thus to a servant at the door : 

a The name of a province at the western extremity of the main island. The 
original name is Nagato " long gate." Cho is the Chinese for "long," and shTt 
is " country." 

b Omori to moshiniasu. To is a particle indicating a quotation, and is some- 
times translated by " that " but sometimes is untranslatable. Mairu to viosJii- 
masu. [He] says that he is going. Kore rva nan to mdshiinasu ka. What is 
this called ? For another use of mosu see p. 55 f and p. 95 c. 

32 THE PRONOUN [xui 

Danna sama wa o uchi desu ka* 
Is Mr. (the master) at home ? 

The prefixes o and go may also be attached to adjectives, 
adverbs, numerals and verbs. Attention will be called to such 
instances later. 

These prefixes have become inseparable parts of certain 
compounds : 

go-sho palace (of the Emperor). 

go-zen, go-han cooked rice, meal. 

o tama-ya ancestral shrine, sepulcher (of princes). 

o as hi, o was hi money. 

o hiya cold drinking water (woman's word). 

o naka abdomen, stomach. 

o shiroi face powder. 

With certain words these honorifics are invariably used by 
women and children, though men may dispense with them. 

go hd'bi reward. o kwa-shi cake. 

o bon tray. o yu warm water. 

o cha tea (but cha no ki). o ten-ki weather. 

o hi fire o ten-to or tento sama sun. 

o kome rice. o tsuki sama moon. 

Another prefix expressing respect, mi, occurs occasionally in 
compounds like : 

mi-kado Emperor (obsolete), from kado gate. 

mi-kotonori imperial rescript. 

mi-ya shrine, imperial prince, from ya house. 

In o mi ashi, a woman's expression, we find both honorifics. 
Women may even be heard to say o mi o tsuke (p tsuke soup 
made of miso], o mi o hachi (o hachi a vessel to hold cooked 
rice, from hachi bowl). 

Rules for the use of honorifics are impossible : one must 
simply observe the usage. Some words whose Chinese origin 
is forgotten take o instead of go, like o cha, o tento sama. 
Also : 

a A more complete expression is o itchi de (/') irasshaimasit ka. Irassharti 
is polite for int. If Chinese words are used, this becomes : go zaitaktt desu ka t 
zai being the equivalent of am or int. 


o dai-ji (lit. important matter). a o rei thanks. c 

o ka-gen state of health. b o se-ji civility, flattery. 

o ni-kai second floor, upstairs, o taku house. 

Again, go may be used with a Japanese word ; e.g., with 
mottomo reasonableness, d nengoro cordiality, or with the ad- 
verb yukkuri to leisurely. 6 

With some words either o or go may be used : 

o tan-jo-bi or go tanjM birthday. 

o shoku-gyo or go shokugyo occupation. 

Some words are never used with honorifics, as sen-set teach er, 
shitsu-rei impoliteness or shik-kei disrespect (student's word). 
But : go bu-rei rudeness. 

Sometimes euphony forbids the use of an honorific. Thus 
we never hear o oku san. In some instances only special words 
may be used with o and go. Thus we say not o atama, but o 

In some cases it is usual to add the honorifics even when 
speaking to inferiors, as in Go ku-ro Thanks for your trouble 
(Oki ni go kuro de atta). 


kami (sama) god. (o) matsuri local religious fes- 

mi-ya sama imperial prince. tival. 

(o) mi-ya shrine. (o) tsumuri head. 

danna (san) master. (o] ya-shiki mansion (including 

o tama-ya ancestral shrine, grounds). 

sepulcher (of a person of (o) koine rice. 

high rank). toxb'time. 

o hiya cold drinking water (o) don tray. 

(women's word). (o) cha tea. 

a O daiji ni nasai. Take good care of yourself (lit. Make it an important 

b From ka increase and gen decrease. But ki-gen temper, state of health, 
takes go only. 

c O rei may be my thanks to another or another's thanks to me. O rei wo 
vioshiagetai I wish to offer [you] my thanks. O rei nado ni wa oyobimaseti. 
Thanks are unnecessary (lit. It does not extend to thanks and the like). 

d Go mottomo de gozaiinasu. You are quite right, 

c Go yukkuri nasai. Don't be in a hurry to leave. 



(0) taku residence, house. 

(p) se-ji civility, flattery. 

(o) ten-ki \veather. a 

go-sho imperial palace. 

(go) chi-sj treat* feast. b 

tm-pj a distant place. 

ki-rei beautiful, pretty, clean. 

kd-dai immense, magnificent. 

rippa splendid. 

ippai a cup-ful, one vessel- 

deki-ru issue, result, be pro- 
duced, accomplished.^ 

mairu polite for iku, kuru ( 1 ,3). 
uiotsu (stem : mochi) have, 

h.dd. . 
motte koi bring (lit. "having 

[it] come !). e 
eide nasaru polite for iku y 

kuru (2, 3). 

choito, c hot to just a moment. 
kom-ban this evening. 
ichi-ban number one, most. 
tai-sj exceedingly, very. 
ikaga how ? 
oi hello ! say ! 


Danna sama / uekiya ga mairimasJita. So ka : nan no yo 
<de kita ka. Oi, Gons ke /& chotto koi ( oide]. Hei, danna sama, 
nan no go yj de gozaimas' ka. Cha wo motte koi. Gosho wa 
empj de gozaimas ka. lie, kono kinjo de gozaimas . Toku- 
gawake no^ o tamaya wa doko de gozaimas ka. Tokyo de wa 

a O tenki desu. It is fine weather. 

b When a person comes by invitation to a dinner he says : Konnichi wa go 
chiso de gozaimasu. On taking his leave: Go chiso ni narimashita or Go chiso 

c Kirei, kcdai y rip^a, belong to the class of adjectives, mostly of Chinese 
derivation, which are really nouns, requiring in the attributive position the 
suffix net, and in the predicative position taking desu (de gozaimasu]. The first 
two are apt to mislead the foreigner because they end in i. Beware of saying : 
Acdai yasJiiki or Kono hana iva kirei. 

d Dekiuiasu it can be done, one can do it. 

e Koi is too rude a word for a beginner to use acceptably even in command- 
ing servants. It is better to say : Motte oide nasai. Oide nasai is the imperative 
of oide nasaru. 

f In addressing any one, the name is sufficient. A vocative particle is not 
needed. Yo is often used after the divine Name in prayer, and ya by men in 
calling their wives, and by parents in calling their children, by name. 

g A name commonly given to men-servants. 

h In compounds ke means house, family. Tokugaiva is the name of a family 
whose representaihes held the position of shogtm from 1603 until the abolition 
of the feudal system. 

xinj HONOR IFICS 3:5 

Shiba to Ueno ni arimas* Nikko no o tamaya wa rip pa de 
gozaimas ^ O matsuri ni wa hito ga kami sama nl mairimas '. 
Konihan no o tsuki sama wa kirei des . Konnichi wa ii o tenki 
de gozaimas '. Yube o tonari de go chiso ni natta (was enter- 
tained). Kyo no go zen wa mazui. Kyoto no o shiroi zva ii. 
Kono o shiroi wa nioi ga ii. Kore wa doko no o cha de gozai- 
mas' ka. Uji no^ o cha de gozaimas'. hiya wo ippai chodai. 
O yu ga atsu goz aimas* ka. Kono o bon wa kirei de gozaimas '. 
Kono o sakana wa taisj oishu go.zaimas' . Kotoshi wa o kome 
ga yoku dekimastita. Anata no o taku wa dochira de go2aimas\ 
ka. Watakushi no taku wa Shiba de gozaimas'.^ Ano akindo 
wa o seji ga ii. 

Sir (danna san), Mr. Tanaka's rikshaman has come. What 
does he want (on what business came) ? The imperial palace 
at (of) Kyoto is not at all (de wa nai)* magnificent. Sir, 
what are your commands (what business is it)? Bring [some] 
rice (gozeti). The sepulchers of the Tokugawa family are in 
the vicinity of [my] home. Then is your residence in Shiba ? 
No, it is [in] Ueno. To-day the weather is bad. Are you 
going to see the flowers to-day? If the weather is fine (tenki 
ga yokerebd)) I will go. Both the rice and the fish are delicious 
to-day (i). The tea of Uji is the best. Give me a cup (2) of 
tea (i). Is that cold or hot water (Is it cold water; is it hot 
water) ? At (ni wa) the Kanda festival fish is dear. Is your 
residence far [from here] ? No, it is [in] this vicinity. How 
(2) is your head (i) ? How much (2) is this tobacco (i) ? It is 
only one yen. That prince's mansion is magnificent. 

a The wa after de implies that there are also sepulchers in other places. 
Shiba and Ueno are names of pnrks in Tokyo. 

b Nikko is a place north of Tokyo, the site of the mausolea of the first and 
third s hog uns. 

c A place south of Kyoto celebrated for its tea. 

d De here does not mean "in ". It marks Shiba as a predicate noun. Lat. 
In regard to my house it is Shiba. Compare : Anata no o taku iva kono kinjo 
desu ka. It would also be correct to say: Shiba ni arimasu or kono kinjo ni 
ariniasu. . . 

e ]Va is generally attached to de in a negative sentence. De wa is often 
contracted tJ/Vz. So ja nai\ That isn't so. 

36 THE PRONOUN [xiv 


The demonstrative pronouns are : 
kono, f sono, ano adjectival. 
kore, sore, are substantival. 

Kono and kore have reference to persons or things connected 
with the speaker ; sono and sore, to those connected with the 
person addressed ; ano and are to those which are removed 
from both. Kono, sono, kore, sore, may also have reference to 
persons or things that have just been the subject of conversation, 
Kono, sono, ano are often equivalent to kore no, etc. 

Kane no kawari ni instead of money. 

Sono kawari ni instead of that. 

Hako no uchi ni inside the box. 

Sono uchi ni inside that (also, within a short time). 

Kono noclii {kono go] after this, hereafter. 
Kore, sore, are are used with words like, kurai, dake, hodo, 
though we might expect kono, etc. Thus : kore gurai {kono 
gurai is also proper), kore dake, kore hodo this much, to this 
extent. But kono hodo means " recently." 

Kore, sore, are may denote a place or a time : 
Kore kara from this point, henceforth, next. 
Kore made until now. a 
Sore kara uchi ye kaerimashita. 
After that I returned home. 
Are kara Tokyo made kisha de mairimas/iita. 
Thence to Tokyo I went by train. 

In the compounds ko-naida, ko-toshi we have the demonstra- 
tive pronoun. But in kon-nen this year, kon-getsu this month, 
kon-nichi to-day, kon-ya to-night, etc., we have the Chinese 
equivalent of ima. 


(Include demonstrative pronouns.) 

pan (Latin : panis} bread. fune ship, boat. 

pen pen. hachi pot, bowl. A L 

a In these examples koko, here or ima, now, might be substituted for kore. 
Such words as koko and ima ought really to be included in a complete list of 





hi-bachi fire box. 
kotatsu quilt-\varmer. a 
dai-jin minister of state. 
do-but su animal. 
djbutsu-en zoological 


ji-sho dictionary. 
mikan mandarin orange. 
soko that place, there. 
attakai, atatakai warm. 
ire-ru put into. 
iru is or are required, 


iri-yo need (noun). b 
kawaru be changed, sub- 

k aw art a substitute. 

kaerii return. I 

maw aru turn, ^o' round, travel 

yasumu rest, retire, sleep. 

yasumi vacation. 

kon-getsu this month. 

koro period of time. c 

kono-goro recently. 

ttiku-jitsu yesterday. 

fa-dan (fit) usually, gener- 

tai-gai, tai-tei for the most 
part, almost 

mata again. 

shikashi but (See p. 8a). 


Kore'wa nan dg gozaimais ka. Sore wa stobu de gozaimas. 
Nikon ni mo gozaimas' ka. iTaigai Nikon ni wa gozaimasen 
ga, so no kawari ni hibachi to kotatsu ga gozaimas' . Anata, 
kono fude wa o iriyo de gozaimas ka. lie, sono fude wa iri- 
masen ga, ano Jude wa irimas\ Sakujitsu watakushi wa 
djbutsuen ye mairimastita. Sore kara doko ye oide nasai- 
mastita ka. Sore kara ryjriya ye mairimastita. l\ore wa 
anata no o uma de gozaimas' ka. Re, tomodachi no des\ 
Oi, Take ! cha ivo motte oide, sore kara hi wo irete okure. d 
Kimi, kore kara doko ye iku ka. Kore kara uchi ye kaeru. 
Mata sono uchi ni mairimashj. Konoaida Itaria ni hidoi 

a A hibachi is a pot or box filled with ashes upon which charcoal is burned. 
A kotatsu is the same arranged so that it can be covered with a quilt and used 
for warming the feet and hands. 

b Sore lua iriyo desn. That is needed. 

c Used like knrai (See p. 22b). Itsu goro about when ? 

d Motte koi would be impolite. Instead of the simple imperative one may 
also use the subordinative with the imperative of kiire-ru give, with or without 
the honorific o, thus : motte kite (o) /cure. More polite than kure is kudasai, the 


jishin ga qrinrastita ; sono toki ni Nikon ni mo zuibun okii 
jishin ga arimastita. Kore wa warui jisho de$\ Konogoro 
iv a taihen ii o ienki de gozaimas\ Kongetsu wa gakkj ga 
yasuvii des\* Kotos hi no natsu no atsusa wa nakanaka hido 
gozaimas\ Are wa Kishli no mikambune^ 

Recently a Japanese minister of state went to Germany. 
Then he went (p mawari ninariviastita) to Russia. Recently 
the weather has been (is) Jbad, Where (2) are you going" next 
(r) ? Next. I am going home. Is that a good pen ? No, [it] 
is a bad one. Then give [me] that writing-brush. Do the 
Japanese generally . eat bread? No, instead of that they eat 
rice (meshi). To-day the school takes a vacation (it is a rest). 
Is this a good school ? Yes, [itl is a- very good one. Do you 
need (Q.iriyo.des kd) this dictionary ? No, I don't need it. 
Then please give [it] Jo me. Spring (of) this year is quite 
warm. Is there a zoological garden in Tokyo (i) ? Yes, there 
is (aru koto w,a ariinas'), but there are few (2) animals (i). 
This month (wd) the Japanese go a great deal (yoku) to see 
the flowers. Next I am going for a bath (yii). This flovver 
is pretty ; but [its] odor is bad. Is that a German (Doits' no) 
ship ? No, it is a French (Frans no) ship. 


;< The same " is to be rendered onaji (adverbial form : onaji- 

, Sore wa onaji koto 
That amounts to the same thing (is the same thing). 

With some Chinese words compounds are formed by means 
of dj, the Chinese equivalent of onaji. 

a Notice the peculiar manner of expression. 

1> Kii or Ki-shu (Compare Choshu p. 3ia) is the name of a province on the 
coast between Tokyo and Osaka, nearer the latter city. This sentence is taken 
from a popular song. Mikambune is compounded of mikan and /;//. 

c The stem of the verb treated as a noun, with the honorific o prefixed, is 
used with nasaru or ni nant when speaking respectfully of others, as above. 

d Onaji mono would be concrete, meaning the identical object, or, inexactly, 
an object of the same class. Onaji koto (often pronounced onasK koto} r.iean& 
rri'.her the same idea. 

xv] "SAME" "Suon" 39, 

do-koku = onaji kuni the same province. 
do-dj = onaji michi the same road. 
do-nen = onaji toshi the same year. a 
dj-i, dj-setsu the same opinion. 
do-yj the same manner. 

dj-kyii-sei (lit. same class pupil) a classmate. 
" As " in " the same as " is to be rendered to. 

Kore wa are to onaji mono desu. 
This is the same as that, or, 

Kore mo are DIO onaji mono desu. 
This and that are the same. 

Watakushi mo anata to ddsetsu desu. 
I too am of the same opinion with you. 
." Such " may be variously rendered : 
kD iu, kayj na, kd iu yd na, kono yd na, 
so iu, sayd na, so iu yd na, sono yj na, sonnt 
a iu, a iu yd na, ano yj na, anna. 

The contracted forms konna, sonna, anna used attributively are 
often contemptuous. With ni they arc also used adverbially 
in the sense of " so ". 

Sonna ni mutsukashiku arimasen. 
It is not so difficult [as all that]. 
Here so may be substituted for sonna ni. 


(Include words meaning " such ") 

koto thing, affair (abstract). ji (c) character, ideogramy 

kotoba word, language, dia- letter, word. 

lect. koku (c) country (only in- 

te-gami letter, epistle. composition). 

f 'wake sense, reason, cause. nen (c) year. 

dj (c) road (only in com- satsu (c) card, note, paper 

position). money. 

a In l he sense of " the same age " onaji toshi is contracted to onaidoshi. 

b Ko iu yd would be literally : thus say manner. Na is the ndjectival 
Compare kcdai 12 a yashiki or kirei na hana. 

c Ko has reference usually to what is to follow i the, course of the- 
conversation ; so, 'o what precedes 

4 o 



yo (c) manner.* 

i-ini meaning, purport. 

sho-sei, gaku-sei student. 

sho-kin specie. 

gwaikoku-go foreign lan- 
guages. 15 

chiku-shj beast. 

Shina China. 

onaji, dj (c) same. 

mezurashii uncommon, sin- 

nikui detestable (in com- 
position : difficult). 

kochi, kotchi, kochira in this 
direction, here. c 

mina, minna all, all together. 

sukoshi a little. 

iro-iro no, iroiro na, ironna 
various, from iro color. 

chigau differ. 

itasu do (polite i, 3). 

iu say. 

oru be (of a living thing), 

tsukau use, employ. 

yomu read. 

ima now. 

metta ni seldom (with negative 

ko, so, n thus, in that man- 

ga but (See p. 8a). 


Nihonjin wa Shinajin to onaji ji wo t$* kaimas 1 keredomo y 
yomiyj ga chigaimas . Kono teg-ami wa anata no to onaji toki 
ni kimasKla. Satsu wa ima shjkin to onaji koto des\ Sore 
wa kore to onaji nedan de gozaimas . Kono koto wa ko iu 
wake des* ... Kono kotoba wa ko iu imi des'... Ko iu 
mutsukashii ji wa taihen ohoenikui.^ So iu shinamono wa 
Nikon de wa mezurashu gozaimas . Sakujitsu wa onaji hito 
ga ni dot kimaslita. Watakushi wa ano o kata to djnen de 
gozaimas '. Kore wa are to onaji kon des ka. lie, chigaimas'. 

a Much used in such expressions as: Aiio kodonio iva iji ga warn? yd desu. 
That child seems to be ill-natured. 

b Compare Nihon-go Japanese Language, and zoku-go colloquial. 

C Compare dochi, dotchi, dochira (p. 23a). Similarly: sochi y sotchi, sochira ; 
achi, atchi, achira. The ra here is the same as the sign of the plural. These 
words are like nouns and may be used with postpositions. Kochira ye aide 
nasal. Come this way. Achi kochi here and there. 

d Oru is synonymous with iru. See Ch. V. 

e By adding nikui to the stems of verbs many compound adjectives like this 
are formed. The opposite of nikui or katai (gafai] is yasni or yoi. Thus : 
oboe-gatai, oboe-yasiii t ivakari-yasui^ wakari-yoi, etc. 

i Twice. See Ch. X., Vocabulary. 

xv] "SAME" "" SUCH " 41 

Gwaikokugogakkd no sensei wa minna Nihonjin des* ka. fie, 
chigaimas ; Shinajin ya Nihonjin ya Fransjin ya Doits jin 
ya iroiro no kuni no hito ga orimas\* Kono yama no takasa 
wa Fujisan to onaji koto des\ Go djdj itashimashj^ A iu 
yd na shinamono wa nedan ga takai ka. lie, so de wa ari- 
masen ; yasii gozaimasho. Ko iu yj na okii uma wa Nikon ni 
orimasen. Kono shosei wa ano shosei to donen des . Nihon no 
uguis wa Seiyo no to onaji koto des' ka. lie, skoshi chigai- 
mas '. S~> in kami wa kotchi ni nai. Anna warui ningen wa 
mezurashii. Sensei ! Kyoto no kyj wa Tokyj no kyo to onaji 
koto des 1 ka? Sayd, onaji koto des\ Inu ckik'shd djyo no 
itasJi kata des A 

This character means the same (is the same meaning) as 
that character. Nihon and Nippon (to wa) are the same thing. 
Edo and Tokyo are the same place. He (l) came by the same 
ship (3) as you (2). e The length is different, but the price is 
the same. That character has this (kj iu) meaning. Such a 
word is very hard to remember. There are many such difficult 
characters. Cold (3) as severe (2) as this ([) is rare, In (ni 
wa) Japan (i) there are fe\v (5) such (2) high (3) houses (4). 
That farmer is a man (mono) of the same province as I. This 
tree is [of] the same height as that tree. In (de wa) Japan 
such fish are cheap. My children and [myj neighbor's (tonari 
no) children are of the same age. Those children are uncom- 
monly ill-natured (Such ill-natured children are uncommon). 
Saikyo is the same thing as Kyoto/ but the meaning of the 
names is different. 

a In some such cases either ant or int (oni) may be used. It depends on 
whether one thinks more of the place or of the person. 

b Or O tonio (re/0) itashiniashd, or Go dohan itashwiasho, from han (c) to ac- 

c Is the kyo in Kyoto the same as the kyd in Tdkyol 

d It's a beastly way of acting. In inn cJiikusho we have an instance of the 
asyndetic construction. With words like ddyd the particle to is often omitted. 

e " Ship" is in Chinese sen. Accordingly : do-sen. 

f Sai-kyo west capital, in distinction from Td-kyo east capital. In Jfyd'0, 
the ideogram kyo is the same capital and to is likewise capital or a.chi<f 
-city. Compare tc kwai city, metropolis. 

42 THE PRONOUN [xvi 


The following serve as interrogative pronouns (gimon-dai- 

dare who ? 

donata who ? (polite). 

nani, nan what? 

dore which ? (substantival). 

dono which ? (adjectival). 

doc hi, dote hi, dochira which ? (of the two, or of a very 

limited number), where ? 
do iu, dj iu yd na, dono yd na, donna of what kind ? what 

sort of... ? 

A plural is foraged by doubling. Thus : dare dare, dore 
dore, nani nani)* 

The substantival forms take the same particles (ga, no, ni, 
wo t de, etc.) as nouns. Observe that ga, not w a, occurs usually 
with interrogative pronouns. 

Dare ga mairimashita ka. Who came ? 

Kore iv a dare no mono desu ka. Whose is this ? 

In this last mono may be omitted. 
Nani may be used like an adjective. 

v/ Rani hito (iianibito, nampito) de gozaimasho ka. 

What sort of a man may he be ? 
Nan nin arimasu ka. 
How many persons are there ? 

Nan da ka, nan desu ka is frequently used as an expletive. 

The Japanese often say "bow?" where we should say 

a Doko where ? ar.d to/when? might also with propriety be included in. 
this list, as they are parsed just like nouns or pronouns. 

b These words are closely joined in pronounciation and an almos;t inaudible 
n creeps in : darendare, dorendore. But the two parts are kept distinct in the 
exclamation : Dore dore \\here is it? This last is often a mere interjection 
expressing surprise. 

c In Naniiva do narimashita ka How about that matter ? we have an Apparent 
exception ; but nani here is really used indefinitely, like our what-do-you- 
call-it" referring to a thing Or person wh< se name is momentarily forgotten 
by the speaker. We have a real exception in Dare - t -:<a kite a.-tre iva kimasen 
ka Who came and who did not come ? 


Do itashimashi ka What shall I do ? But : 
Omae wa nani wo shite iru ka What are you doing ? 
Dore, like nani, may in. certain connections be used like an 
adjective. Thus : dore gurai, dore dake, dore hodo are equiva- 
lent to dono gurai, etc., " how much ?" See Ch. XIV. 

Instead of dono we find doko no or dochira no, when the 
place or source is the object of inquiry. 

Omae wa doko no gakko ye ikimasu ka. 
To what school are you going ? 

Do iu, donna, etc., inquire after the nature of a thing. DJ 
shita (lit. how did?) is used in the same, way. Observe- further 
.the very frequent idiom nan to iu (lit. what say?) which 
inquires after the name, but in many cases is practically syn- 
onymous with dj iu. 

Are wa do iu (do shita) hito desu ka. 
What kind of a man is he ? 

{Kono sakana wa nan to iimasu ka. 
\Kore wa nan to iu sakana desu ka. 
What do you call this fish ? or, What fish is this ? 

Which day ? (of the month) is nan nichi or ikka, from iku 
how many. a 


(Include interrogative pronouns) 

ika cuttle-fish. te-narai practicing penman- 

iro color. ship. 

kasa umbrella. dai-gakko, dai-gaku univer- 

kura storehouse. sity. 

kane metal gaku-mon learning. 

me-gane spectacles. h^-ritsu law, statute. 

tate-mono building. kwa-shi sweetmeats, cakes. 

dj-gu utensils, furniture. moku-teki object, purpose. 

furu djgu second-hand fur- suteishon railway station. 

niture, curio. tjka tenth day. 

te hand. migi the right. 

narau learn, practice. aoi green, blue, pale. 

a The Japanese in making engagements name the day of the month rather 
than the day of the week. 

44 THE PKONOUN [xvi 

tame advantage ( no tame mise-ru show. a 

ni for). go ran nasaru see polite 
nchi within ( no uchi ni 2, 3). 

among). mochii-ru use. 


Kono kotoba wa d5 iu imi des' ka. Kono ka m i wa nani ni 
mochiimas' ka. Kore wa tenarai ni mochiimas' . Anata wa 
doko no s'teishon ye oide nasaimas' ka. Hai watakushi ^va 
Shimbashi no s'teishon ye mairimas' . Kono furudogu no uchi 
de^ dore ga ichiban ii ka. Kono jubako ga ichiban it. Kore 
wa dj iu tokoro de gozaimas' ka. Kore wa Tdkyofutfcfi de 
gozaimas' . Nani wo go ran ni iremasho ka. Megane wo 
misete kudasai. Do iu megane wo go ran ni iremashj ka. Aoi 
no wo\ misete kudasai. Doko no Jurudoguya ga ichiban ti ka. 
Kono tatemono wa nan des' ka. Kore wa kura des '. Kono 
uchi ni nani ga irete arimas' ka. Kono uchi ni ie no 
ga irete arimas '.. e Dare ga kita ka. Anata no o tomodachi 
ga oide 'nasaimash'ta. Kore wa donata no kasa de gozaimas 1 
ka. Kore wa ^vatakushi no de gozaimas '. Kyj wa nan no o 
matsuri des ka. Kyb wa Kompira sama * no o matsuri de 
gozaimas'. Konnichi wa nan nichi de gozaimas ka. Kon- 
nichi wa toka de gozaimas '. Anata wa nan no mok'teki de 
Seiyo ye oide nasaimas' ka. Gakumon no tame ni mairimas '. 
Nan no gakumon de gozaimas' ka. Horitsu de gozaimas*. 
Doko no daigaku ye oide nasaimas ka. Berrin no daigaku 

a More polite \$ go ran ni iret-u (lit. put into the honorable look). Another 
polite expression is : o me ni kakern (lit. hang on honorable eyes). 

b Notice that here de is used rather than ni. Compare: Kono furudogu no 
iff /it tit katana ga arimasu ka. 

c The city-hall of Tokyo. Ordinary prefectures are called /<?, but those 
which include the three great cities, Tokyo, Osaka and Kyoto, are called fit. 
Cho (c) -means office. Compare kencho. 

d The gieen ones. Aoi no is equivalent to aoi mono, aoibun,or t \n vulgar 
parlance, aoi yatsu. 

e Dogu ivo ireta oru would mean that some one is putting them into \\\.zkura, 
but dogu ga irete ant mean} that they have been put into the kura and are 
there. The former denote) action ; the latter, a state. Equivalent to irete tint 
is haitle oru they are inside (enteringX 

f Name of a god. See Murray's Hand-book, List of Gods. 


ye inairimas*. Kore wa nan to iu sakana des ka, Kore wa 
ika des' Dotchi no ashi ga ivarui ka. Migi no ashi ga warm. 
O shokugyo wa nan des' ka. 

What (2) flower is that(i)? Those are cherry blossoms, 
Who has come (came)? A European has come. Whose (2) 
is this book (i)? [It] is the master's book. Show me an 
umbrella. What kind of an umbrella shall I show you ? What 
(2) meaning has (is) this character (i)? Whose (2) is this 
dictionary (i) ? It is my friend's. Which university is the 
best? Which restaurant is the cheapest? To what (what 
called) place are you going ? I am going to Yokkaichi. a Who 
(2) put that (i) into the lacquered boxes? What do hares eat? 
To which bookseller are you going? What kind of (2) meat 
is that(i)? It is venison, Which flowers did the gardener 
plant ? [On] what day (of the month) is the festival of Kotn- 
pira ? The festival of Kompira is [on] the tenth. [Of] what 
color is the cormorant? The color of the cormorant is black. 
What bird is that? That is a heron. For what (2) do they 
use these larquered boxes (i) ? They put cakes into [them]. 


Interrogative pronouns may be made indefinite {fujd-dai- 
meishi) by adding the particles ka, mo, de mo. Thus : 

N. dare ka dare mo dare de mo 

G. dare ka no dare no mo dare no de mo 

D. dare ka ni dare ni md dare ni de mo 

A. dare ka (wo) dare (wo) mo dare de mo 

Dare ka is vague and means " some one," "somebody ;" in 
questions, " any one," " anybody." Dare mo is comprehensive : 
" any one," " every one." It is mostly used with negative 
expressions, in which case it must be translated " no one." 
Dare de mo is likewise universal, but it individualizes (" any 
one you please "), and is more commonly used with affirmative 

a A harbor on the coast of the province of Ise. 

b Compare : Dara ni mo kikimasen. He inquires (lit. hears) of no one. 
Dare ni kiite mo so iu hanashi desu. Such is the story, ask whom you will. 


Dare ka kimashita ka. Has any one come ? 

Dare mo kimasen. No one has come (comes). 

Dare de mo kite yoroshii. Any one at all may come. 

Dare de mo koraremasen. Not a single one can come. 

Dare mo shitte imasu. Every one knows it, 

Dare de mo shitte imasu. 

Every one (though he be a fool) knows it. 
Donata ka, etc., would be more polite. 

Similar forms may be derived from nani, dore, dochira, doko, 
itsu t ikura, dono t donna , a They are very common in the 

Dore ka motte kimashi ka ? Shall I bring one of them ? 

Dore mo motte kite kudasai. Bring them every one, please. 

Dore de mo motte kite kudasai. Bring any one of them, please. 

Itsu mo no fcri gakkj ye ikimashita. 

I went to school as usual. 

Itsu de mo yd gozaimasu. Any time will do. 

Donna hon ni mo maohigai ga arimasu. 

Every book has its mistakes. 

Are wa donna hon de mo yomimasu. 

He reads any book, 

Donna kimono de mo yoroshii. Any clothes will do. 

The last sentence is equivalent to : Donna kimono wo kite mo 
yoroshii. , The particle mo with the suboi dinative of the verb 
has concessive force, as will be explained more fully later. 
The fuller form of de mo is de atta mo, from aru. 

But notice that the de in de mo often has the sense of at, 
with, etc. 

Do'?o no gakkj de mo kono hon wo mochiite or imasu. 
They use this book in every school. 

For de mo we may substitute to mo in certain connections.^ 
Nan to iimashita ka. What did he say ? 
Nan to mo iimasen. He said nothing at all. 

a Compare do ka somehow or other, do mo in every way, no matter how one 
tries (an exceedingly common expletive), do de mo anyway you please; also 
do ka ko ka in one way or another, i.e., with difficulty. Do ka k ka deki- 
mashita. We did manage to get it done. 

b This to mo and (onto together in the emphatic ryoho tomo, both, are not to 
l>e confounded. 


It is interesting to compare : 

Nani mo nai. There's nothing. 

Nani de mo nai. It's nothing at all. 

Nan to mo nai. It makes no difference to me, 

For ka, 20 may be substituted, and thus nan zo is equivalent 
to nani ka?- 

In certain idioms nani without any particle may be used as 
an indefinite pronoun. Thus : nani kara nani made " the whole 
business." Notice also the very emphatic nani mo ka (ni] mo 
everything (with emphasis on " every ") and nan de mo ka (n) 
de mo. 

A common expression for " a certain person " is dare sore. 
This is used to designate a person in a supposed case, or one 
whose name it is inconvenient to give, and is equivalent to 
our " blank " or " Mr. So-and-so." It corresponds to the more 
literary form nanigashi, or nan no taregashi (soregashi). 

" Somebody " may be rendered simply by hito. " Something " 
is similarly rendered by mono. 

Hito to hanashi wo shite orimashita. 

Was speaking with somebody. 

Mono wo in to say something. 

With adjectives " something " is to be rendered by mono (con- 
crete) and koto (abstract). 

Kuroi mono something black. 

Nani ka wanii koto something bad, bad behavior. 


kami, kami no ke hair of the mura village, district, town- 
head, ship. 

o kami san wife, mistress of tokei clock, watch. 

the house. b uta song, poem. d 

a Compare do-zo which is used like do-ka in the sense of " please " Do-zo is 
the more polite. 

b This term designates married women among the lower classes. It is 
especially common among merchants and laborers, 

c A watch may be distinguished as kivai-chu-dokei (kivai-chu pocket within). 

d To compose a poem is uta ivo yomti. 



uta yomi poet. 

gaku-sha scholar, learned 


shim-bun newspaper.* 
katappj (kata, hj) one side, 

one of a pair. 
ryo-hj t\vo sides, both. 
omosh iroi inter esti n g. 
yasui easy. 
howe-ru praise. 
kari-ru borrow, rent. 
kasu (stem : kashi] lend, rent. 
zonzuru (stem : zonji] think, 

know (polite 1.3). 

go zonji desu you know 

(polite 2,3) 
shim know. 
wasure-ru forget. 
tori-tsugu transmit, announce 

(a visitor). 
ki (c) spirit. 
iru enter. 
ki ni iru be liked. 
yaku (c) office, function. 
tatsu (stem : tachi) stand. 
yaku ni tatsu be useful. 
bakari 1 
dake \ only ' JUSt ' about - 


Dare ka koi (oide). c Dare ka no kasa wo karimasho. 
Watakushi wa dare ka ni kasa wo kashimaslita keredomo 
dare ni kastita ka wakarimasen. Oi, Gons ke ! dare ka kita 
ka. lie, dare mo mairimasen,^ Sono shimbun ni nan zo onw- 
shiroi koto ga gozaiinas* ka. lie, nani mo omoshiroi koto wa 
gozaimasen. Anata wa kono koto ga dekimas ka. c Sore wa 
dare de mo dekimas\ Dare ka kit a ; dare ka toritsugiwo shiroS 

a A newspaper is more properly called shiiubnn-shi, from shi pnper. 

b Notice that ^tf&z/Vand dake follow the words which they modify, ga and 
ivo being; usually omitted Dake differs from bakari in that it sets the limit 
more definitely. IcJii yen bakari about one yen. Ichi yen dake not more than 
one yen. But they are frequently interchangeable. 

G The mnstcr of the house may say koi to his own servants ; but the lady of 
the house may not. 

d Here, as is quite common in negative sentences, the present stands for 
the past. Notice that the servant Gonske in his reply uses not hunt, but the 
polite verb maim. 

e The original meaning of dekim is " come forth ",." be produced." It is to 
be translated variously, depending on the context. Ano hito wa dekinai. He 
can't do it. Dekimasu nara if possible. Mo shitakii ga dekimashita. The 
preparations are now complete, everything is ready. The person is properly 
put in the dative case. IV at ok us hi ni wa hanashi ga dekimasen. [It] is im- 
possible for me to speak. 

f Shiro is the imperative of sum to do.. This is rude and familiar like km. 


Watakushi wa kono uchi de (among these people) donata mo 
zonjimasen. Kono kotoba wa dare de mo mochiimas 1 ka. lie, 
utayomi bakari mochiimas . Kono uchi de (among these 
things) dore ka o ki ni irimas 1 ka. lie, dore mo ki ni irimasen. 
Kore wa dare de mo ki ni irimas. Dochira no ashi ga itai 
ka. Ryoho tomo itai. Anata no o me .wa dochira mo waru 
gozaimas ka. lie, katappj bakari (dake) waru gozaimas '. 
Kono tokei wa nan no yaku ni mo tachimasen. Watakushi 
wa nani ka tabetai* Nani ga yd gozaimas ka. Nan de mo 
yoroshii. Nikon/in wa dare de mo kami no ke ga kuroi. 
Anata wa sono hon wo dare kara moraimastita ka. Tonari no 
uchi no hito kara moraimas/ita. Dare mo wakaranai hito wa 

I will borrow some one's writing-brush. I loaned the 
dictionary to some one, but have forgotten to whom I loaned it. 
Has anybody come? Yes, the neighbor's wife, (tonari^no 
o kami san) has come. Is there anything new (inezurashii} ? 
In this newspaper there is nothing new. That pupil knows 
nothing. Is that difficult (a difficult thing) ? No, it is easy : 
any one can [do it]. Do you know any one (2) among these 
people (i)? Yes, I know all (mina sama wo zonjite imas). 
Does every one (2) use this dictionary (i) ? Only scholars use 
[it]. Among these curios which do you like ? I like them all. 
Every one praises the ancestral shrines at Nikko. Which [of 
the two] is better? Either will do (is good). This servant is 
not worth anything. There is a school in every village. 
This dictionary is not worth anything. 


In cases where we use such pronominal words as " every," 
"all," "many," "other," etc., in Japanese the tendency is to 
use adverbial forms. 

" Every one," if referring to persons, may be rendered by 
mei-mei, or mem-men, from mei name and men face, or by 
tende ni. 

a This is the desiderative form of the verb tabe-ru. It means, I want to eat, 
I have an appetite for... 

50 THE PRONOUN [xvm 

With words denoting time " every " becomes mat (c) : 

mai-nichi (mai-jitsu) every day. 

mai-asa, mai-ban every morning, every evening. 

mai-nen (inai-toshi) every year. 

But with words denoting place the construction explained in 
the previous chapter is used : 

Doko no mura ni mo in every village. 
For a rarer idiom see goto ni, p. 321, 

" All " is mina (ininna) or nokorazu. These words, like 
meimei, etc., are commonly used adverbially, and immediately 
precede the verb. In some constructions they are to be trans- 
lated " wholly " or " entirely." Nokorazu is properly the 
negative subordinative of the verb nokoru meaning " not (none) 
being left." Mina sama (sari), much used in speaking of a 
company, is truly pronominal. 

" Many " is oi and " few " is sukunai ; but these words, as 
has been said before, can be used only in the predicative 
position. The idea of" many " may be expressed in a different 
way by the use of the adverb oku numerously : 

Hitobito ga oku atsumarimashita. 
Many people assembled. 

For oku we may substitute o-zei (limited to persons), takusan, 
or tanto (persons and things). These words are really nouns 
used adverbially. From these are derived the adjectival oku 
no, ozei no, takusan no or takusan na. 

" Another " is hoka no, ta (c) no, betsu (c) no, betsu na. 
Thus : hoka no isha, ta no isha, betsu no isha another physician. 
But the Japanese often use the adverbial form hoka ni where 
we use the adjective. The same idea is expressed by mo with 
a numeral : mo hitotsu no hanashi another story. " The other " 

is often muko no the opposite one. The one the other 

is katappd katappd (from kata one of two, hi side). 

Instead of hoka no hito one may say simply hito : 

Kore wa hito no mono desu. 
This belongs to another person. 

To Chinese words ta or betsu is prefixed without no, as in 
ta-nin another person (not a relative), ta-ken another prefecture 
bes-xhitsu another room. 




A peculiar expression is, Hoka de wa (de mo) arimasen ga 

I just want to say that (lit. It is nothing else whatever ; 

but ). This is used in broaching the subject about which 

one wishes more particularly to speak. 


machi street, town ( = 

tori passage, thoroughfare, 

sakari bloom, prime, culmi- 

shima island. ; 

dka-gane copper. 

ken prefecture. 

(o) kyaku (san) guest, cus- 
tomer, passenger. 

tetsu iron. 

bim-bo pov< 

bimbo-nin poor person. 

byo-in hospital. 

byo-nin sick person, patient. 

hei-tai, hei-sotsu soldier. 

kanji Chinese character. 

kwa-zan volcano. ^\iJ-f 

on-sen hot spiing. 

ru-su absence (rum desu is 
not at home. 

ta other. 

han, ham-bun half. 

mei-mei every one, severally. 

d-zei a great number. 

chiru scatter, disperse, wither 

and fall. 
irassharu be, come, go (polite 

itadaku receive with respect 

(used by a guest). 
kau buy. 

shimau finish, close. 
yake-ru be burned. 
o agari nasai please eat, drink 

(polite 2). 

nokorazu none being left, all. 
naka inside ( no naka ni 


naka m among them. 
tama ni occasionally, once in 



Bimbonin (ni) ko (go) tak'san (aru)? Tak'san o agari 
nasai. Mu s koshi o agari nasai. Arigatj, md tak'san (de 
gozaimas 1 )^ Nikon no kodomo wa mina gakko ye ikimas* ka. 
Sayo, taitei mina gakko ye mairimas. Yube -no o kyaku wa 

a In the sense of town cho is used only in composition, as in cho-nai within 
the town. Technically the government determines the application of the 
term machi or cho in the sense of town; but popularly it is applied to any 
collection of houses which includes merchants' shops. 

b The shorter form is a proverb : Bitnbdnin ko dakusan. 

c This is the expression generally used in declining; to eat or drink more. 1 

52 THE PRONOUN [xvm 

dzei de irasshaimash'ta ka. Sayo, ta&san de gozaimash'ta. 
Kono bydin ni wa itsu mo byonin ga dzei imas . Doits' ni wa 
heitai ga tak' san orimas '. Mukojima no sakura wa ima sakari 
desu ga, Ueno wa mina chitte shimaimasti ta* Mina san ! 
konnichi wa. b Kanji no uchi ni wa oboeyasui no mo arimasu 
ski oboenikui no mo arimas\ Nikon ni wa shima ga tak 'san 
arimas '. S'motori wa taitei karada ga okii ga, tama ni wa 
chiisai no mo arimas '. Nihombashidori no ie wa mina yake- 
mastita ka. Tie, hambun gurai yakemastita. Nikon ni wa 
akagane ga di keredomo, hoka no kane wa s kunai.^ Ano hito 
iva mainen onsen ye ikimas\ Watakushi wa maitoshi saishi 
wo tsurete hanami ni ikimas\ Mina uchi ni imasttta ka. lie, 
mina rusu de gozaimastita. Toshi no ichi ni wa hito ga 
meimei kai ni ikimas '. d Anata no o tomodachi wa go doken 
no hito des ka. Jie, taken no hito des\ 

To-day [I] have eaten a great deal. To-day the patient ate 
a little. Please have a little more meat. Thank you, I have 
enough. I have forgotten almost everything. Was the school 
entirely burned ? e No, about half was burned. My neighbor 
has a great deal of company to-day. f In this hotel there are 
many guests. In this town there are many sick people, but 
few hospitals. The cherry blossoms have all fallen already. I 
wish you all good morning (o hayo gozaimas). As (4) the 
weather (2) is fine (3) to-day (i) all (5) are going to see the 

a Mukojima is a place near Tokyo celebrated for its cherry-blossoms. 
SJdiiuiu to finish is often attached to the subordinative of a verb, as in this 
sentence. Chitfe shimaimashita {lit. falling they ended) they have fallen and 
are all at an end. 

b Mina san is vocative. Konnichi wa is a common greeting like our, " How 
do you do ?" It is eliptical for : Konnichi iva yoi o tenki desu, or the like. 

c Since there is a contrast between akagane and hoka no kane, we should 
expect iva with both ; but the former takes ga because wa precedes. It would 
also be correct to say akagane wa. 

d Toshi no ichi is a street-fair held toward the end of the year. Here one 
bays things needed for the New Year's celebrations. Kai ni iku to go to buy. 
When the nature of the purchases to be made is not stated, one may say in- 
definitely, kaimono ni iku. 

e A common expression for this is : Gakko ga maru-yake deshita ka. 

f Either tonari ni kyaku ga dzei orimasu or dzei kyaktt ga orimasu (imasit) will 
dp. Using desu, the sentence becomes tonari no kyaku iva dzei desu. 

xix] RELATIVES 53 

flowers. There (naka ni wa) are words [that are] hard to 
learn but this [one] is easy to learn. On this island there are 
many volcanoes. The Japanese are almost all short of stature, 
but once in a while there is a tall one. Was your house 
entirely burned ? a Yes, even (inade mo) the storehouse was 
burned. In England (Eikoku) there is much iron. Recently 
many Japanese have been (are) going to Germany. 


; There are in Japanese no relative pronouns (kwankei-dai- 
meishi). Where we use a relative clause the Japanese simply 
prefix the verb of the relative clause to the noun or pronoun 
which in English would be the antecedent. As has been 
intimated before (p. 18 b), Japanese verbs may be used 
just like adjectives. In the translations of the following 
examples notice the different cases of the relative pronoun. 

Yaketa ie the house that was burned. 
; Yane no yaketa ie the house whose roof was burned. 
Uekiya no neta ki the tree that the gardener planted. 
Shiranai hito a man whom I do not know. 
Suzuki to iu hito a man whom [they] call Suzuki. 
Na no aru hito a man who has a name (reputation). 
Fune wo koshiraeru tokoro a place at which they build ships. 
Mi no naru ki a tree on which fruit is produced. 

But by changing the voice we may obtain similar adjectival 
constractions in English, thus : the tree planted by the gardener, 
an unknown man, a man named Suzuki, a fruit-bearing tree, 
etc. In Japanese the use of the passive is limited to a few 
special cases. For this reason English passive participles and 
relative clauses with passive verbs are usually to be rendered 
by active verbs in Japanese. 

Notice that the subject of the relative clause takes no. We 
have here the same substitution of no for ga as in the examples 
given in Ch. VII. In longer clauses ga also may be used. 

a The question may be rendered more elegantly zen-sho deshita ka, zensho 
being the Chinese equivalent of maruyake. In the answer we observe a 
peculiar use of made in the sense of " even." 

54 THE PRONOUN [xix 

When the English antecedant is indefinite or the indefinite 
relative " what " occurs, the. Japanese uses an attributive verb 
with niono or koto. Mono is used also of persons synonymously 
with hito. In certain connections no may also be substituted 
for mono or koto.* 

Horitsu wo okasu mono one who violates the law. 
Kinj mita koto what [I] saw yesterday. 
Anata no ossharu no iva go mottomo desu. 
What you say is quite true. 

We have observed in the examples given above that the 
indicative form of the verb, like the participle in English, is 
used adjectively. Hence many of our adjectives must be trans- 
lated by the use of verbs. Further, in relative clauses, as hi 
dependent clauses generally, the present often stands for other 
tenses. Thus : 

Am hi Furubekki to iu gwaikoku no o kata ni aiinashita. 
One day I met a foreign gentleman named Verbeck. 

Here there is no occasion to change aru and tu to the past 
tense. Indeed they have practically become adjectives. 

The idiom to iu often serves to turn a whole sentence into 
a relative clause, in which case it is not translated. 

Ana kata ga kondo Kotogakkj ni kita to iu Seiyojin desu ka. 
Is that the foreigner that came to the Higher School recently ? 

As in the German, long and involved clauses may be used 
to modify nouns. Sometimes a noun may be directly limited 
by a succession of attributive verbs; but such multiplication of 
coordinate relative clauses is to be avoided. It is, however, 
quite natural to attach two or more verbs to one noun if all 
but the last are subordi natives. 

Iina ume no ki ni tomatte naite iru tori wa uguisu desu. 
The bird that is sitting^ (now) on the plum-tree and singing 
is a bush-warbler. 

a This use of koto with an attributive verb is to be distinguished from 
another, more abstract, use of the same construction, as in : Aru koto u>a aru go- 

(lit. As far as existing is concerned, it exist but ) There is such a thing, 

but Tabeta koto ga artt I have eaten it before. Kiita koto ga (rva) nail 

have never heard it. Notice that mono also may be u^d in an abstract sense, 
as in Do shita moil desho. What is the matter ? 

xix] RELATIVES 55 


hako box, case. naiuake-ru be lazy, neglect. 

mi fruit, nut. shaberu chatter, talk. 

oni demon, devil. suku like. b 

sho-gakko elementary school. * sute-ru cast away, discard, 

koto-shogakko secondary forsake. 

school. tasuke-ru help, save. 

bun-ten grammar. todoku reach, arrive (of things). 

ioku-hon reader. umu give birth to (tamago 

kei-ken experience. wo umu lay eggs). 

yu-bin mail, post. amari exceedingly, too, so 

inane imitation ( no mane very. 

wo suru imitate). saki ni y sakki before, a short 

hanasu speak. while ago. 

kaesu return (tr.). kind yesterday. 

kare-ru wither, perisji. ototoi day before yesterday. 

koshirae-ru make, fabricate, dozo please, I beg you, 

naku cry, sing (of birds) pray ! 


Oi! sakki kita hito wa dare (da) ka. Hat, doguya de 
goz almas . Sakujitsu yaketa d ie wa donata no ie de gozai- 
masJita ka. Kino yaketa ie wa gakkd de gozaimas '. Kore 
wa dono shogakko de mo mochiiru hon des ka. lie, kotd 
shogakkd bakari de mochiiru hon des . Mi no naru ki wa 
hana kara shireru (Proverb). 6 Anata ni (kara) o kari mosKta f 

a There are two grades in the elementary schools, called fin-jo ordinary and 
ko-to advanced. Originally there were three classes of schools, namely, sho- 
gakkd, from sho small, chu-gakko, from chu middle, and dai-gakko, from dai 
great. The schools that train graduates of chugakko for ordinary professions 
and prepare them for daigakko are called simply koto-gakkd. 

b Anata iva sumo ga o suki desu ka. Are you fond of [Japanese^ wrestling? 
Ano kodomo iva e no hon ga dai suki desu. That child is very fond of picture- 
books. Sumo ivo stikimasu, e no hon ivo sukimastt, etc., would sound strange, but 
sitkimasen is not uncommon. 

c The Chinese equivalents for kind and ototoi are saku-jitsu and issakujitsit. 

d Attributive verbs like this yaketa need not take the polite ending masu. 
If the verb at the end of a sentence or principal clause is in the polite form, it 
makes the whole polite. 

e Shireru is the potential or passive form and means here " is known." 

f O kari mcshita is a very polite equivalent of karita. 

56 THE PRONOUN [xix 

hon wa kore de gozaimas' ka. Sayj, sore de gozaimas' . 
Konogoro tateta ie wa yube yakete shim aim ash' ta. Soko ni 
aru mono no uchi ni o ki ni iru mono wa gozaimasen ka. 
Watakushi wa amari shaberu hito wo s kimasen, Kore wa 
yoku (a great deal) naku tori da. Kore wa yoku tamago wo 
umu tori des' . Kono seito no uchi ni namakeru hito ga oi. 
Watakushi ga ototoi yubinbako ye ireta te garni ga todokimasen. a 
U no mane wo sum karas' (Pro verb). b So no bunten wo 
koshiraeta hito wa dare des' ka. Ano sensei wa keiken no aru 
hito des' . Are wa keiken no nai hito des' kara, sonna mutsu- 
kashii koto wa dekimasen. Zuibun na no aru gak ' sha des' . 
S'teru kami (go) areba (if there are) tas' keru kami mo aru 
(Proverb). Wakaru koto wa wakarimas' . Wakaranai koto 
wa nai. Watakushi wa mada maguro no mi wo tabeta koto 
ga arimasen. Ezojin wo mita koto ga arimasen. Sakunen 
niwa 111 c ueta cha no ki wa mina karete shimaimash' ta. 

The man that came awhile ago is a merchant. d Those that 
were burned yesterday were all old houses. Please give me 
the umbrella that I forgot yesterday. In Japan (i) there are 
few (5) persons (4) that do not know (shiranai 3) the Chinese 
characters (2). Among (4) the Europeans (3) that live (2) in 
Japan (i)are there many (8) persons (7) that speak (6) Japanese 
(5) ? Among the Europeans that live in Japan there are few 
persons that know (shitte oru) the Chinese characters. Please 
return the dictionary that I loaned to you. Please bring the 
newspaper that came day before yesterday. This is not to be 
put in there (not a thing that one puts in there soko ye). 
Where (doko ni 5) is (6) the box (4) into which you (i) put (3) 
the cigars (2) ? Children that do not resemble (ninu) their 
parents [are] children of the devil (Proverb). There is no 
remedy (medicine) that one may apply (ts'keru) to fools 
(Proverb). 6 

a The present tense is often used, as here, where we should expect the past. 

b Such a predicate as shinde shimau dies, perishes, may be supplied. Com- 
pare our proverb : Cobbler, stick to your last ! 

. c We say niioa ni, not niwa de, because niwa is rather the indirect object 
than the scene of the action. 

d The subject takes wa when the predicate is a noun. 

e The verb tsukeru is used because the reference is to a plaster (kd-yaku). 
To administer medicine internally is kusuri wo nomaseru (cause to drink). 

xx] "SELF" " ONE ANOTHER" 57 


The word "self" has several equivalents in the literary 
language, but in the colloquial is usually rendered \*y ji-bun t 
from ji self and bun part, or by the rather more literary form 
ji-shin, from shin body or self. In " I myself," " you your- 
self," etc., "myself." "yourself," etc., are to be rendered by 
jibun de (kara), usually put in the adverbial position.* In 
speaking respectfully to or of a person the honorific go is 

Jibun no mono wo jibun de kowashimashita. 

He himself broke his own things. 

Go jibun de oide nasaimashita. He came himself. 
Jibun kara nanotte demashita. 

He introduced himself (telling his name came forward). 

Jibun may also be used as a simple personal pronoun, taking 
the particles wa, ga t no, ni, wo and various postpositions. 
There are also plural forms, such as jibuntachi, jibundomo, 

Jibun wa Tokyo ye itte kazoku wa Kamakura ni nokoshite 

He himself will go (lit. going) to Tokyo and leave (lit. 
leaving will put) his family in Kamakura. 
Jibuntachi ga warui n de arimasen ka. 
Are not they themselves in the wrong ? 

These examples might also be construed in the first person, 
according to the context. 

Notice the use of/* in expressions derived from the Chinese, 
such as : 

Ji-bun no dekiru koto woji-man shite iru. 
He prides himself on his ability (man pride). 

Ji-sastu suru to kill one's self, from satsu kill. 

Ji-goji-toku (lit. self-act self-get). 

A man's sin brings its own punishment. 

The following idioms should also be noted in this connection : 
Karada wo arau to wash one's self. 

a It is an unsettled question among Japanese grammarians whether adverbs 
or adverbial expressions should always immediately precede the verb or not. 
Ordinarily jibun de is placed between the verb and its object, but in some cases 
it more naturally precedes the object. 


Kimono wo kiru to dress one's self. 

Koshi wo kakeru to seat one's self (on a chair or other 
raised object). 

Mi wo kakusu to hide one's self. a 

Mi-nage wo sum to drown one's self, from nage-ru to cast, 
Ware (mi] wo wasureru to forget one's self. 
The mi which occurs in the last few examples enters into the 
very common idiom mi-no-ue (tit. upon self) which means : 
one's personal fortunes, " fate." 

Mi-no-ue-banashi wo sum to talk about one's own future. 

" One another," " mutually," is rendered by the adverbial 
tagai ni. In addition there may be added to the stem of the 
verb the auxiliary au to meet. 

Tagai ni tasuke-au. They help one another. 
Tagai ni hore-au. They fall in love with each other. 
Notice the use of the Chinese do-shi, from do same, together, 
and shi man, in : Tomodachi doshi de hanashi wo sum (lit. 
Friends among themselves speaking do). They hold a conver- 
sation just among themselves as friends. 


hara abdomen, stomach. zu (c) drawing, plan, map. 

ikusa war. bun- slid composition, sen- 
samurai one of the former tence. 

military class, knight. bun-tai style. 

tsukai messenger, envoy. ge-jo maid servant. 

oyaji father. b ji- bun, ji- shin self. 

ki-mono clothes. kyc-dai brother. 

tabe-mono food. ten-shi saina the Emperor. 

mi-so a kind of sauce. de-ru come forth, go out. 

a The idiom mi ivo kakusu is commonly used of a debtor hiding from his 
creditors, or of a hermit. "To hide one's self" is more commonly expressed 
by the passive verb kakure-ru to be hidden. 

b Oyaji may be used contemptuously of any old man. It may also be used 
in speaking humbly of one's own father. In speaking of the father of a second 
person, use the polite Chinese equivalent of oyaji, go shim-pu (sama). The most 
suitable terra for ordinary purposes is chichi or chichi-oya. 

c From kyo or kei elder brother and dai or tei younger brother. As a col- 
lective term kyo-dai often includes sisters like the German Geschivister. 

xx] " SELF " " ONE ANOTHER " 59 

au meet (fiito ni au) meet a yokosu send. a 

person). < ji-satsu suru commit suicide. 

ki ga au agree, be congenial, ato de after (following a past 

hiku pull, draw (zu wo hiku verb). 

draw a plan). tagai ni mutually, recipro- 

hore-ru fall in love. cally. 

karu write, draw. is-sho ni in the same place, 

naosu mend, heal, correct. together ( to issho ni with). 

nuu (nu) sew. mukashi in ancient times. 

shinuru, shinu (stem : skint) to when, if (with a verb in the 
die. present tense). 


Ano oyaji wajibun no kodomo wo koroskimasJita. \Vatakushi 
wa niwa no ki wo taitei minajibun de uemastita. Ike da san 
ga jibun de kimastita ka. lie, ts kai wo yokoshimastita. 
Anata wa kono bunsho wo go jibun de o kaki nasaimastita ka. 
Jibun no niwa ni b dekita hana wo jibun de motte kimastita. 
Ano hito wajibun no ie ni hi wo ts'kemastita. Kono kodomo 
ga jibun de kono ji wo kakimashita. Ano onna wajibun no 
kimono wo minajibun de nuimas . O Some to Hisamats wa 
tagai ni horeaimasti ta. c Watakushi wa ano hito to tagai ni ki 
ga aimas*. Mukashi Nikon no samurai iva warui koto wo 
suru to, jibun de hara wo kirimastita.^ Jibun ga tabemono wo 
koshiraeru to, umaku nai ga ; hito ga koshiraeru to, umai. 

He (wa) killed his own father. Who planted these flowers? 
I (go) myself planted [them]. I myself will go to (ye) the 
physician. Did he write this composition himself? Yes, but 
some one probably corrected (naostita desho 3) the style (i) a 
little (2). It occasionally happened (koto mo arimas') in ancient 
times [that] the Japanese Emperors themselves went (oide ni 

a Yokosu is used only of sending persons or things to the speakei's own 
house or to the house in which he is at the time. The general term for 
" send " is okitm, or tcdoke-ru for things, and for persons tsukawasit. 

b It is usual to say niwa ni dekita (tsukutta} into pototoes raised in the 
garden, but uchi de dekita (koshiraeta) pan bread made at home, home-made 

c These are the hero and heroine of a drama, O Some being the woman's 

d More elegantly : seppuku shimashita, from setsu=kiru a.nd/uu=/tara. 


natta) to war. That woman killed her own children. That 
gentleman himself drew the plans of his own house. Did that 
pupil write these characters himself? No, the teacher wrote 
(p kaki ni narimasti to) [them]. That woman sews her own 
clothes. People of the same country (do-kokii) help one 
another. That child is congenial to his brothers. Gompachi 
and Komurasaki fell in love with each other. Shibata Katsuie a 
died together with his wife and children. After (4) Shibata (i) 
killed (3) his wife and children (2), he killed himself. Did the 
maidservant go out shopping (kaimono ni) ? No, the mistress 
herself went. People in (of) the country make [their] miso 
themselves. b 

a Lord of Echizen, died 1583. 

b In this case uchi de may be better than jibun de. The adjective " home- 
made " becomes in Japanese te-sei no hand- made (a case oiyufayomi], as in testi 
nojobukutv home-made envelopes. 



The Japanese language has two series of numerals. One 
consists of native Japanese words ; the other is borrowed from 
the Chinese. The native Japanese numerals in common use 
are : 

hitotsu one mutsu six 

futatsu two nanatsu seven 

mitsu three yatsu eight 

yotsu four kokonotsu nine 

itsutsu five to ten 

Those of two syllables are commonly pronounced with stress 
on the / . mittsu, yottsu, muttsu, yattsu 

These numerals are used only for things, not for persons. 
They usually follow the noun. In case they precede the noun, 
they naturally take the particle no. 

Tokei futatsu, futatsu no tokei\.vjo clocks. b 

Mo hitotsu kotoba ga arimasu. There is one more word. 

In telling the age of a child these numerals may be used 
alone, the word for " year " being understood, 

Hitotsu may also be used as a kind of expletive in the sense 
of our " once." 

Hitotsu yatte go ran nasat. Try it once (lit. one doing see). 
The native numerals above " ten " are mostly obsolete, but 
some of them still occur in certain connections. Thus the old 
word for " twenty " appears in hatachi twenty years old and 
hatsuka twenty days or the twentieth day. " Thirty," " forty," 
etc., would be mi-so, yo-so, i-so t mu-so, etc. Of these, miso is 
still used in misoka the last day of the month according to the 
old calendar. Momo one hundred occurs in the classical momo 
tose one hundred years. Ya-o eight hundred appears in "the 
familiar yao-ya greengrocer ; chi one thousand, in Chi-shima 
thousand isles (the Kuriles), and yorozu a myriad, in yorozuya 
dealer in miscellaneous articles, jack-of-all-trades. 

a Sushi number-word. 

b Futatsu no tokei would suggest that there are but two. 




(Include the numerals-up to " ten.") 

ojii san (jiji> jijii) grand- 
father, old gentleman. 

o ba san (baba t babTi) grand- 
mother, old lady. 

otottsan (toto) papa. 

okka san (kaka) mamma. 

ani older brother. 

ane older sister. 

otjto younger brother. 

imjto younger sister. 

musuko son, boy. 

musume daughter, girl. 

heya room, apartment. 

mado window. 

tansu bureau, chest of 

hiki-dashi drawer. 

kago basket, cage. 

kaki persimmon. 

tsubaki camelia. 

tsubomi flower bud. 

iro-ha syllabary. 

chu (c)=-naka middle. 

manju a kind of cake. 

tsurei (lit. common practice) 

saku-ya last night. 

zutsu apiece. 

hajime-ru commence (tr.). 

hajime beginning. 

hanashi speech, conversation, 

hairu enter (Jiaitte oru be 

osowaru be taught, learn. 

ochi-ru fall a 

sage-ru let hang, suspend 
carry (of watches, deco- 
rations, etc.). 

wakare-ru be divided, part. 

yose-ru cause to approach, 
bring together, add. 


Anata no o imoto san wa o ikutsu ni o nari nasaimas* ka. *> 
Watakushi no imoto wa mittsu de gos almas' . Tonari no mu- 
sume wa ikutsu des* ka. To des\ Watakushi no ototo wa 
kokonotsu des\ Ano hito wa tokei wo ftatsu sagete imas\ 
Watakushi wa tamago wo yottsu tabemash'ta. Doits' no kodo- 
mo wa kokonots* kara chugakko ni hairu koto ga dekimas\ c 

a The verbs ochiru to fall down (of things in general) and chiru (of blossoms 
and leaves) should not be confused. The subordinates are respectively ochitc 
and chitte. Note also that we sayfuru, not oc/iirtt, of things which fall from, 
above, like rain, snow or volcanic ash. 

b O nari nasaru is more polite than narimasu. 

c Entering is possible, i.e. can enter, 
by the use of this idiom. 

Our " can " is often to be translated 


F* tats' to mitts' wo yoseru to, i'sutsu ni narimas'.* Kind no 
kwaji de kuragaf'tatsu yakemash'ta. Kono tans' wa hikidashi 
ga yottsu arimas\ b O cha (wo) hitotsu o agari nasai. Mei- 
mei tamago wof'tatsu zutsu tabemastita. O jii san ga uchi 
no kodomo ni man/ft wo hitotsu zutsu kuremash'ta. Kono hey a 
ni wa mado ga mittsu arimas' . Watakushi wa mittsu no toki 
ni (at the age of three) okka san ni (by) iroha wo osoivatta. 
Muttsu ni naru toki (ni) tenarai wo hajimemasJita. Wata- 
kushi no hajime no ko iva (oldest child) kokonotsu no toki ni 
shinimash' ta. Mikan wo hitotsu chodai. Kono kago no naka 
ni wa mikan ga to haitte imas'. c Kono tsubaki ni wa tsubomi 
ga itsutsu arimash'ta ga, mina ochite shimaimastt ta. O hana- 
shi gaf'tatsu ni wakaremastita. d 

How old is your older sister? My older sister is ten. In 
this room there are two windows. Bring me two eggs. 
American children go to school at (kara) the age (time) of 
six. I learn ten words every day. [My] older brother's son 
died at the age (time) of eight. At (de) last evening's fire six 
storehouses were burned. A foreign bureau usually has three 
drawers. This child at the age of two could not yet talk 
(hanashi ga dekimasen desh'ta). How old is this child ? It is 
five. Please give me a (one) persimmon. Please give me one 
more. How much (3) are ten (to de 2) [of] these oranges (i) ? 
That camellia has seven buds. 


In combination with certain words, mostly of native origin, 
the numerals ending in tsu (and ikutsu) lose that termination, 
while to becomes to, thus : hito tsuki, futa tsuki, mi tsuki, etc., 
kokono tsuki, to tsuki from tsuki month. Some of these words 

a In Japanese one always says, not " is five," nor " makes five," but " be- 
comes five." 

b Notice that atimasu without de is used in such enumerations. 

C In combination with the subordinative of a verb, iru or oru must be used 

when the subject is not a living thing, 
d [They] could not agree (lit. talk divided into two). 

64 THE NUMERAL [xxii 

ban evening, night. ma room. 

bin bottle. maku (lit. curtain) act (at a 

hako box. theater). 

iro color, kind. tabi \\rs\t {juta tabi a second 

kudari (lit. descent) line time). 

(of a page). tokoro place. 
kumi set, class, company. tori kind. a 

In hito-e single, futa-e double, ya-e eight-fold, double (of 
flowers) the e is not a separable word. Some of the words in 
the list here given may occur also with Chinese numerals, as in 
ichi bin one bottle, roku tabi six times. 

Note also : hito-suji ni earnestly, from suji line, hito-kuchi ni 
at one mouthful, in a word, hito-me ni at a glance, b hito-omoi 
ni at the impulse of the moment (omoi thought), hito ashi one 
step, hito iki pne breath. Distinguish : 

futa-go twins. 

futatsu ni naru kodomo a child two years old. 
futari no kodomo two children. 

" Triplets "is mitsu-go. c Distinguish also : 

mi kumi three sets. 
mitsu-gumi a set of three pieces. 

Certain numerals are combined with ka (old word for day) 
as follows : 

futsuka two days, the second day 

mikka three third 

yokka four fourth ,, 

itsuka five fifth 

muika six sixth 

nanuka seven seventh 

yoka eight eighth 

a Hito tori de iva nai It's unusual. Hito tori is much used as an adverb 
meaning " in the main." Ano hon iva hito toriyomimashita I have read the book 
in a general way (or, once through). 

b Hito-me de iveiftarimashita I perceived it immediately. Yarna kara machi 
wo hito-me ni mi-orasu to take a view of a town from a mountain (tni-orosu to 
look down). 

c Mitsugo has another meaning in the proverb : Mitsugo no tamashii hyaku 
made The soul of a child three years old [remains the same] until [it 
becomes] a hundred years old. 

xx 1 1] IN COMBINATION 65 

kokonoka nine days, the ninth day 

toka ten days, the tenth day 

hatsuka twenty days, the twentieth day 

One day, or the first day, is ichi nichi (c). The last day of the 
month according to the old calendar is misoka ; and the last 
day of the last month, d-misoka : but the thirtieth is now 
usually called sanju nichi (c). Distinguish : 

itsuka five days, the fifth day. 

itsu ka at some time. 

ikka, from iku ka, how many days, which day? (of the 

In counting persons the following forms derived from native 
numerals may be used : 

hitori one person ; hltori de alone. a 
futari two persons ; futari de two together. 
yottari four persons. 
ikutari how many persons ? 

To these the honorific o is often prefixed. For other numbers 
the Chinese san nin, go nin, etc., are used. The form mitari is 
obsolete in the colloquial. One may also say : ichi nln, ni nin 
iku nin ; but not ski nin for four persons, because ski- nin means, 
also a dead person, from ski death. 

Notice that in such combinations as chawan hito kumi, 
kodoino futari, the nouns chawan and kodomo take the particles 
ga, wo, etc. Words like hito kuini and futari usually do not 
take ga or wo. 

In rapid counting the native numbers are abbreviated to hi r 
/it, mi, yo, itsu, mu, nana, ya, kono (or koko), to. 


(Include lists beginning with Jiitori and jutsuka). 

bin bottle. mago grandchild. 

kuini set, suit, class. hito-jini violent death, loss of 
ma room. lite (Jiito man, shinu die). 

tabi time (of repeated occur- yake-jini burning to death. b 

rences). sake rice-beer, alcoholic liquor. 

a Hitori occurs in compounds like hitori-musuko an only son, hitori-mae a 
portion for one person, Cozen ivo hilori-mae motte kite kudasai, Bring a meal 
for one. 

b Compare further kogoe-jini freezing to death, from kogoe-ru freeze, luhi-jini 
death in battle, from utsu smite, fight. The corresponding verbs are yake-jini 
sitnt, kogoe-jini sum and uchi-jini sum. 

66 THE NUMERAL [xxn 

saka-zuki wine cup. sho-yu soy, a kind of sauce. 

kiku chrysanthemum. atsurae-ru order (goods). 

wan bowl. kakaru be hung, amount to, 

cha-wdn tea cup lake (of time). 

sen- c ha infusion of tea. tatsu (stem : tachi) set out, 

ban (c) evening, night. a start ( wo tatsu leave). 

nickiyjitsu (c) day (only in tazune-ru inquire, visit. 

compounds). tame-rti (tr.) stop, lodge, en- 

getsu y gwatsu (c) month tertain (a guest or visitor). 

(only in compounds). tomaru (intr.) stop, lodge, be 

sho-gwatsu the first month. entertained (ni tamaru). 

kon-rei wedding. utagau doubt, suspect. 

tan-jo birth. itsu when ? 

tanjo-bi birth-day. inae front ( no mae ni before). 

ayame sweet flag. oyoso about, approximately. 


Nana tabi tazunete hito wo utagae. b Senchajawan no hi to 
kumi wa ikutsu des ka.^ fonts' ka to des\ Watakushi wa 
jubako wo f'ta kumi atsuraemasK ta ga, mada dekimasen. 
Kino no kwaji ni (de) hitojini ga arimasttta ka. Sayo, kodomo 
ga hitori shinimasli ta. Shogwatsu ni wa taitei mitsugumi no 
sakazuki wo mochiimas* keredomo, konrei no toki ni wa koko- 
notsu gumi wo inochiimas' < Muika no ayame toka no kiku. c 
Anata o hitori des' ka. Sayd, mina rusu des\ ^Yokohama kara 
Honk on made iku ni wa taitei nanuka kakarimas*. Berlin de 

a "Last evening," " this evening," and "to-morrow evening" become 
respectively safot-ban, kom-ban and myd-ban. In these ya may be substituted for 
ban. Compare the following list of Chinese compounds, all of which are in 
common use : 

Last This Next 

saku-jitsu kon-nichi myo-nichi 

sen-getsu kon-getsu rai-getsu 

saku-nen (kyo-nen} kon-nen myo-ncn (rai-neri) 

b Utagae is the imperative of utagau. The meaning of the proverb is : After 
you have looked for [the lost article] seven times, suspect [a thief]. 

c This proverb alludes to the third and fifth of the five great festivals, which 
are called go sekku. At the third festival, which occurs on the fifth day of 
the fifth month (old style), it is customary to decorate the house with sweet 
fl , and at the fifth festival, on the ninth of the ninth month, chrysanthemums 
aic. exhibited. The proverb has reference to things that come too late to be 
->f an use. 


Nikon no shoyu wa ikura shimas* ka. a Sayd, hito bin ga ichi 
yen gurai shimas. ' Sore wa y oho do takd gozaimas . Sakuban 
ikutari o kyaku ga arimastita ka. Yottari arimash'ta.^ 
Anata wa itsu Shina ye tachimas ka. Kongetsu no ydka ni 
Yokohama karafune ga demas kara, its' ka ni koko wo tatte 
Tokyo ni hito ban tomarimas . 

It takes about twenty days to go from Japan to America. c 
He has four grandchildren. When is your birthday {go tanjd 
bi)l My birthday is [on] the seventh of this month. [My] 
father's birthday is on the fourth of next month. Please keep 
me one night. Do you need (p iriyd des ka) one room or 
[is it] two ? I need three rooms. When do you start ? I start 
on the fourth or (ka) fifth of this month. At the great fire 
(pkwajt) (of) recently four men and (ni) d four women lost their 
lives {yake-jini shimastttd). 


The Chinese numerals are : 

ichi one ju ski fourteen 

ni two ju go fifteen 

san three ju roku sixteen 

ski four ju shichi seventeen 

go five ju hachi eighteen 

roku six ju ku nineteen 

shichi seven niju twenty 

hachi eight -niju ichi twenty-one 

ku nine san ju . th i r ty 

ju ten shiju forty 

ju ichi eleven go ju -fifty 

ju ni twelve roku ju sixty 

ju san thirteen shichi ju seventy 

a From sum to do. Compare our How much does it make ? 

b Not ffrimasIiita-oTt imashita. The point is that we have guests. The 
question does not ask where they are. 

c One may also say; Yokohama to Sfuif'ratishis'ko no aida iva hatsuka gurai 

d ' Ni is the postposition. In this connection it* means "in addition to," 
besides," and may be translated simply "and " . . .. . . - ,, -' 




ni sen two thousand 
sanzen three thousand 
hassen eight thousand 
ichi man ten thousand a 
ni man twenty thousand 
saminan thirty thousand 
jit man hundred thousand 
fu go man hundred and fifty 
~ thousand 
hyakit man million 
semman ten million 
ichi oku hundred million 

hachiju eighty 

kuju ninety 

hyaku hundred 

ni hyaku two hundred 

sambyaku three hundred 

shi hyaku four hundred 

go hyaku five hundred 

roppyaku six hundred 

shichi hyaku seven hundred 

happyaku eight hundred 

ku hyaku nine hundred 

sen (issen) thousand 

sen ichi thousand and one 

Some people pronounce shichi as thought it were written 
hichi ; in combination ku may be pronounced kyii. 

The most common terms used in measurements and their 
equivalents, are here inserted for the sake of convenience. 

The Japanese foot-rule is called sashi, or mono-sashi, from 
sasu to point, measure. The ordinary kane-zashi, so called 
because carpenters' rules are made of kane metal, takes as a 
unit the shaku, which is equivalent to 11.93 inches or .30303 
meter. b 

10 bu = i sun 
IO sun = 1 shaku 
6 shaku = i &en = 2 yards almost 
60 ken = I cho 
36 cko = I ri= 2.44 miles 

For surfaces the unit is the tsubo, one ken (six shaku) square. 

30 tsubo i se (se-bu) 
io se = i tan (tam-bu) 
10 tan =i cho 

2.A acres 

a An alternative pronunciation for man is ban; but ban is used, not in thef 
exact sense of " ten thousand," but only in an indefinite sense like our 
" myriad." Notice the familiar expressions ban-zai (sat year) Live forever 
Hurrah! setnban arigato, semban go kuro, many thanks! Compare also ; man- 
ichi ten thousand to one, i.e., by a bare chance, bamban certainly. 

1) The knjira ztis/if, so called because it was originally made of whale-bone, 
is longer by one fourth and is used for measuring dry goods. Both the kan~ 
d the kujirazashi are MOW usually made of bamboo. 


For capacity the unit is the sho, equivalent to 1.804 liter, 
1.588 English quart, 1.906 American fluid quart, or 1.638 
American dry quart. 

10 shaku (seki) i go a 10 sho= I .to 
I o go = I slid I o to = I koku 

For weight the unit is the mom-me^ =.13275 ounce or 3.75 
grams. After multiples of ju and hyaku it is usual to say 
simply me. One pound avoirdupois is about 120 me. 

1 60 me = I kin. 

1000 mom-me =t kwan (&wam-me) = 8^ pounds 

For money the unit is the yen, equal to about 50 American 

i o rin = I sen I oo sen I yen 
For " hour," " minute," " second," the terms are //, ) f un, 

These terms are all of Chinese origin except tsubo and se, 
which take the Japanese numerals, thus : hito se,futa se, mi se t 

In asking for the number or amount of any of these units, 
prefix nan, or iku. This iku is ikutsu, which has lost the 
ending tsu, like the Japanese numerals. But in cases where iku 
and ichi are liable to be confused, nan is better. 

Up to " ten " the Chinese numerals are used almost exclu- 
sively with words of Chinese origin. Beyond " ten " they are 
used also with words of Japanese origin. Thus \ju ichi tsubo, 
ju ni tsubo, etc. They always precede the nouns which they 
limit. In some combinations euphonic changes occur. 

Ichi (itsu) unites with words beginning with h (/") s ( s fy * 
{ch) and k : 

ichi he n becomes ippen one time, once 

ichi fun ippun 

ichi sun ,, is sun 

ichi sho isshj 

ichi tan ,, it tan 

ichi ckd itcho 

ichi kin ikkin 

a This^o differs from, go five not only in the length of the vowel but also in 
the sound of the^, which is more nasal in the case of go (ngo). 

b Here me is the word for "eye." In this connection it refers to. the 
notches on the scale, and hence means the measure of weight. 

70 THE NUMERAL [xxm 

But we say : ichi koku (of rice). Jkkokti, or ikkdkoku, mean; 
" one country;" 

Ju produces similar changes : jippen, jippun, jissun, jissho r 
jittan, jitchj, jikkin. 

San (as also man and nan} naturally causes nigori in the 
succeeding consonants : samben, sampun, sanzun, sandan, 
sangin. Since both shj and chj through nigori become/^ it 
is customary to distinguish them thus : sanjo for san shj but 
san cho. 

Roku (as also hyakii) coalesces with h (/), as in roppen^. 
r op pun. Hachi is irregular : 

hachi hen, but happy aku. 

hachi fun. 

hassun, kassen, etc. 

hassho, hasshaku, etc. 

hattan, kattd. 


hachi kin, but hakkakoku eight countries. 
If hachi hen, hachi kin, were contracted to happen, hakkin, they 
could hardly be distinguished from hyappen t hyakkin* 

Business men to avoid mistakes generally use. nana instead 
of s hie hi. 

For similar reasons ski is displaced by yo in the following 
combinations : 

yo ban number four. yo mai (or shi mai) four flat 

yo dai four generations. things. (See Ch. XXVI.) 

yo dai for vehicles. yo nen four years. 

yo do four times, or degrees, yo nin (yo mei) four persons. 

yoji four o'clock. yo ri. 

yo jo (jo= 10 shakii}. yo () rin. 

yo jo four mats. yon sen (or shi sen, yo yen. 

Notice: ichi nichi (jitsii) a whole day, marii ichi nen a 
whole year, ichi ji for awhile, ittan once (tan morning). a 

Small approximate numbers like our " two or three," " three 
or four," etc., are expressed asyndetically : 

Ni san nen two or three .years. 

a .This last is used only in, cases where we employ '' once " with the perfect 
tense as in Ittan shd-chi shita koto wa kesshite i-yakit (wo} itashimasen. Having 
once agreed to a thing, I will never break my promise. Compare ichi ji in Ana 
hil07uaichiji(iva)kivai-shanoyctku-indeshita. He was at one time an official 
in the company. 

xxiu] CHINESE FOR&S 7^ 

Put a koto mi koto two or three words, a brief speech. 

Shi go nin four or five persons. 

Nana yatsu no kodomo a child seven or eight years old. 


(Include Chinese numerals, and tables of units.) 

atai value. mon-ji, moji letter, character, 

dote dyke, road on an em- idiogram. 

bankment. ryo-chi domain, estate. 

kazu number. shi-ho four sides, square. 

tori kind, manner. sho-gun commander-in- chief, 

saka-ya liquor-dealer, liquor- " tycoon." 

store. shu-rui kind, species. 

me-kata weight. so-ba market price. 

sashi, mono-sashi foot-rule. to-fit bean-curd. 

tj grade, class. rasha woolen cloth. 

jj, chit, ge upper, middle, ataru strike ( ni-ataru_\jo b$ 

lower. a equivalent to). c 

-/<?' over (following a num- make-ru be defeated, come 

ber). down on the price, 

/-/founder, yoru depend ( ni yoru de- 

7*<?=io shaku. pend on). 

bu = \ ryo (old coin). ben-kyo suru study, be dili- 

dai-myj feudal lord. b gent. 

'. jimen lot (of ground). hodo = bakari (See pp. 36, 

jin-ko population (of a coun- 43). 

try or town). Jiotondo almost. 

nin-zu number of people (in issho-kemmei ni with all one's 

a smaller social unit). might. 

a The words jo-to, chu-td t ka-to (k<i being an alternative reading of the 
character ge) in the sense of "first class," "inedium," " low class," are constant- 
ly used, with variety of applications. Recently, however, the officials have 
changed the names of the classes of railway passengers to itto t ni-fo, san-to. 

b Dai-myd means literally " great name." This title was given to a feudal 
lord whose estate yielded him an income of at least ioo,coo koku of rice a year* 
The dnivnyos-now belong to the kiva-zoku (nobility). Remember that kokn with 
man suffers nigori, thus : ni mangoku. 

c Watakushi no oi ni atarimasit [He] is my nephew. In a sentence like this 
ni atarimasii has practically the same sense as de ariviasit. 

d Lit. one life risk life. The subordinative of naru, natte, is usually added : 
Isshokemmei ni ri^tte Jicttaraku to work with all one's miglit. 



Ichi ri wa sanju roku cho des\ Itcho wa roku jikken des' . 
Jkken wa ro& shaku des '. Isshaku wa jissun des . Sakaya 
ni san ri, tofuya ni ichi ri. a Ichi ri wa iku meitor (tiaui- 
meitor) ni atarimas' ka. Ichi ri wa sanzen ku hyaku ni jli 
shichi meitor ni atarimas '. Ichi meitor wa sanjaku sanzun ni 
atarimas' . Jimen hito tsubo no okisa wa dono kurai ka. Hito 
tsubo no okisa wa rok' shaku shiho des' . b Sambyaku tsubo wa 
itfambu des' ; jittambu wa itchobu des ; itchjbu wa oyoso ichi 
hek'tar to onaji gurai des ' . c Mukashi no ichi bu wa ima no 
ichi yen no atai ga arimas' . Ima no soba ni yorii to, d ichi dor 
wa (dollar) oyoso ni yen ni atarimas'. Yokohama ye no of'ku- 
gippu wa ikura des ka. Jdto wa ichi yen go jissen, chuto wa 
kujissen des '; katj no of kugippu wa arimasen. Jis shaku wo 
ichi jo to moshimas\ Nikon ni wa mono'^ashi ga ni shurui 
{f'ta fcri) arimas ; hitots' wa kujirazashi to moshi, e mj hi tots 
wa kanezashi to mo shim as 1 ; kujirazashi wa san ju shichi 
*anchimeitor han ni atari, kanezashi wa san ju sanchimeitor 
ni atarimas \ Jchi koku wa hyaku hachi ju rittor ni atari- 
mas'. Ichi koku wajitto, itto wa jisshj, issho wa ju go des\ 
Ichi rittor wa oyoso go gj han ni atarimas\ Nippon no jinko 
wa shi sen go hyaku man nin des . Tokyo no sob a de wa 
konogoro kome ga isshj ni j is sen des '. Ikkin wa rof)pyaku 
gram ni atarimas'. Shjgun wa happyaku mangoku no ry^chi 
ga arimashta. Ikkwamme wa semmomme des\ Ikkiuamme 
wa sanzen shichi hyaku go ju gram' ni atarimas '. Kurumaya 
san / Ueno made ikura ka, ne. Hei, ni jissen de mairimashj. 
Sore wa takai,jn go sen ni make nasal. f Kono uchi wa ninzu 
ga oi kara, 1suki ni shjyu ga hasshj gurai irlmas' . Yoshnvara 
ye^> iku dote wa hatcho arimas'. Ano ok' san wa isshj-kemmei 
ni Eigo wo benkyj shte orimas\ 

a This saying refers to a lonely place in the country. Tofu is one of the 
most important articles of food among the Jnpancse. 

b The scientific term for square foot is heiho-shaku ; for cubic foot ripfc- 

c Such pleonasms as we have here with oyoso and gurai in the same sentence 
are not infrequent. 

d Lit. if one depends on the present market price, i.e., at the present rate 
of exchange. 

e Moshi and atari are the stems of the verbs tnosu and ataru. See p. 14 d. 

f This is less polite than o make nasai. 

g The name of a district in Tokyo, iromyoshi good, lucky, and hara wilder- 


It is (ani) 8 ri from Yokohama to Enoshima. a Eight ri are 
(ni ataru) how many miles (iku mair) ? Eight ri are almost 
twenty miles. How (dore gurai) high is Mount Fuji? The 
height of Mount Fuji is about 3,700 meters. How far (dono 
gurai) is it from here to Totsuka ? b From here (i) to Totsuka 
(2) it is. (am 6), I should say (ina 3), about (5) 10 chj (4). 
About how much do you weigh (In regard to the weight of 
your body, about how many kin are there)? c I weigh (am) 
20 kwan. Twenty kwan are how many pounds (pondo) ? 
Twenty kwan are about 165 pounds. The height of this house 
is three/*?. The population of Japan is about fifty millions. 
That daimyo had an income of (totte imastita) 20,000 kokii [of 
rice]. Rice now costs (shimas 4) about (3) fifteen yen (2) per 
koku(i). Hello, kurumaya ! how much is it to Enoshima? 
It's one yen and fifty sen. Four to are how many liters ? Four 
to are 72 liters. How long is this cloth ? By kanezashi this 
cloth measures (ant) about three jo six shaku. Three jo six 
shaku are about ten yards (yardo). The number of the kata- 
kana is 48 characters (//). One mile is 14 cho [and] 45 ken, 
The length of the river Tenryu d is about 60 ri ; 60 ri are 146^ 


i. The Japanese calendar has been made to correspond to 
our Gregorian calendar in every respect except that the Jap- 
anese reckon years, not from the birth of Christ, but by periods 
(nen-go). It used to be customary to create a new period 
whenever a great event occurred ; but at the time of the 
Restoration it was decided that henceforth nengo should cor- 
respond to the reigns of the Emperors. The first year of 
the present period, Mei-ji, was 1868. Hence, to find the 
year of Meiji one must subtract 1867 from the Christian 
year. The year 1906 thus becomes : Meiji san jit ku nen. 

a A romantic little rocky island near Yokohama. The e, meaning bay, is 
identical with the e in Edo (bay-gate). 

b A place near Yokohama (lit. gate-mound). 

c In old Japan such a question could hardly be asked, as people had a 
superstitious dread of weighing themselves. 

d The Tenryugawa rises in Lake Suwa in the province of Shinano and flows 
through the province of Totomi. 

74 THE NUMERAL [xxiv 

The first year o a period is called gwan-nen ; thus the : year 

1868 is Meiji gwannen, 

As a 'mere matter of interest, we add a list of the period^ 

between 1830 and 1868, together with the years of the Christian 

era to which their first years correspond : 

Tem-po 1830 Man- en 1860 

Ko-kwa 1844 Bun-kyu 1861 

Ka-ei 1848 Gen-ji 1864 

An-sei 1854 Kei-o 1865 

When giving a year of the Christian era use the word sei- 
reki " western calendar." Thus the year 1888 is called seireki 
sen happyaku hachi ju hachi nen. 

A person's age may be stated by adding sat, another word 
for '* year," to the number. Thus : issai, san sat, hassai,jissai. 
But in the colloquial it is usual to employ the simple numeral 
without sat. In stating the age of a child below ten the 
Japanese numerals are preferred. But in giving the ages ; of 
animals sai is commonly used. A horse five years old is called, 
not itsutsu ni naru uma, but go sai ko. Ko here is the same 
as the word meaning " child." 

2. The names of the months are formed from the Chinese 
numerals and gwatsu. The reading getsu is less common, 
except in the case of ichi getsu January, Another name for 
this month is sho-gwatsu, from sho right. (Compare ska-go 

" One month " is ikkagetsu, from ichi ka getsu ; " tw,o 
months," nikagetsu, etc. This ka t which is the same as the ka 
in ikkakoku, is much used in such enumeration, being placed 
between the numeral and the noun. It means " a piece " or 
* unit." 

3. In specifying the day of the month, nichUJitstt] is used 
with the Chinese numerals, except in those cases where forms 
\\\vz futsuka, mikka, etc., are still available. So the " 1 8th of 
January " is ichi getsu no ju hachi nichi. Notice that the I4th 
and 24th are called ju yokka and nijuyokka. The old name 
for the first day of the month is tsuitachi, from tsuki moon or 
month and tatsu rise, because in the old calendar the month 
began with the new moon. The 1st of January is cabled 

In dates the order is the exact reverse of the English. The 
: " 3rd of November, 1852 " becomes : sen happyaku go jii ni nen 
ju ichi gwatsu mikka. i 

xxiv] DATES 75 

We add a table of the days of the month. 

" ichi nichi (jitsu) 1 . ju roku nichl i6th 

tsuitachi } ju shichi nichi I /th 

futsuka 2nd ju hachi nichi i8th 

mikka 3rd ju ku nichi iQth 

yokka 4th hatsuka 2Oth 

itsuka 5th niju ichi nichi 2ist 

muika 6th niju ni nichi 22nd 

nanuka (nanokd) 7th niju san nichi 23rd 

/0/# 8th niju yokka 24th 

kokonoka pth #z/^ ^ nichi 25th 

/<?/ lOth *y r0/# zV/// 26th 

JU ichi nichi I ith niju shichi nichi 2/th 

ji ni nichi I2th *y hachi nichi 28th 

y# j<7 nichi 1 3th wz'/w ># nichi 29th 

ju yokka 1 4th sanju nichi 3<Dth 

2 1 5th sanju ichi nichi 3 1st 

4. As has been intimated before, the Japanese do not think 
so much of the days of the week as we do. The names of the 
week-days all have the suffix yo-bi, from yd (c) light, luminary 
and hi day. They are : nichi-yobi, getsu-yjbi, kwa-ydbi, sui-ydbi Y 
moku-yobit kln-ydbi, do-yobi. The prefixes mean, respectively, 
sun, moon, fire, water, wood, metal, earth, the names of the 
seven planets (shichi-yo). Final bi is often omitted : nichi-yd* 
getsu-yj, etc. " One week " is issJiu, from shii revolution. 
" Which day?" (of the week) is naniyobi. 

5. Hours of the day are indicated by addingyV (time) to the 
Chinese numerals : ichiji, niji, sanji, yo ji, etc. The word 
fun (minute) combines with the numerals thus: ippun, ni fun> 
sampun, shifun, roppun, hachi fun, jippun. 

ichijiju go fun sugi a quarter past one. 

ichi ji han half past one. 

nijiju go fun mae a quarter of two. 

Nanji (nandoki) desu ka. What time is it? 

Kisha iv a nanji ni demasu ka. 

[At] what time does the train leave ? 

In stating the length of time in hours add kan : ichiji kan, m 
jikan^yoji kan, nan ji kan, etc. This kan is the Chinese 
equivalent of aida interval. 

76 THE NUMERAL [xxiv 

The same idiom may be used in stating the length of time 
in years, months, or days, thus; roku nen kan (also rokkanen 

y rokkagetsu kan, muika kan % etc. Notice also : 
Sanganichi no aida ?va doko de mo zJrii a wo tabemasu. 
For three days (after New Year's) zoni is eaten everywhere. 


(Include names of week-days.) 

hi sun. sei-reki European calendar 

hiru noon, day-time. (of the Christian year). 

yoru night. kyn-reki old calendar. 

de-bana first infusion (of tea), shin-reki new calendar (of 

bon, bommatsuri festival of months). 

the dead. b go-zen=-hirii-mae forenoon. 

kan (c) = aida interval., go-go him sugi afternoon. 

ko (c) prince (following the mei-nichi anniversary of a 

name). c death. 

sai (c) year (especially of age), tsugi no the next. 

tei (c) emperor (following the aruku walk. 

name). hajimaru begin (intr.). 

ban-cha coarse tea. kakure-ru be hidden. 

kei-ko study, practice (keiko nasaru do (polite 2,3). 

suru to study, recite). oki-ru arise from sleep, awake. 

nen-gj period. umare-ru be born. 

i-shin renovation, reforma- hajimete for the first time. 

tion. sJiika only, merely (with a 

go is-shin the Restoration. negative verb. 

kas-sen battle/ sugi past, after (stem of sugi- 

gun-zei military force, army. ru to pass by, exceed. 


Onimojuhachi; deb ana (Proverb) d Dai issei 

a Zo-ni, from zo (c) miscellaneous and ni-ru to boil, is a kind of soup. 

b Also called o ban. The festival is celebrated on the I4th, i5th and i6th 
of the 7th month (old style). It begins properly on the evening ofthei3th. 

c This is now the highest of the five shaku, i.e., degrees of nobility. These 
are ko prince, ko (different character) marquis, haku count, ski viscount, dan 
baron. ltd ko Marquis Ito. Okuma haku Count Oku ma. 

d Even a devil when in the bloom of youth is beautiful and attractive ; even 
if the tea is of a poor grade, the first infusion has an excellent taste. Instead 
of ju hachi, some say ju shichi. 

xxiv] DATES 77 

\Virherinteiwasen shichi hyaku . ku ju shichi nen no san 
gwatsu ni jit ni nichi ni go tanjo ni narimastita ; so stite sen 
happyaku hachi ju /iac/ii nen no san gwatsu kokonoka ni & 
kakure ni narimastita ; sore des* kara ku ju issai ni o nari 
nasaimasti ta. u Perri to iu/Amerika no ts' kai wa Kaei roku 
nen roku gwatsu no mikka ni hajimete Nikon ye kimastiia* 
Sono toki wa kyureki destita kara, shinreki ni naos* to, shichi 
gwatsu no nanuka ni atarimas . Kaei to iu nengo wa sen 
happyaku shiju hachi nen kara sen happyaku go ju yo nen 
made destita kara, Kaei roku nen wa sen happyaku go jii san 
nen ni atarimas '. Kono tsugi no kisha wa yo ji ju go fun sitgi 
ni demas\ Shimbashi b kara Ueno made aruku to, ichiji kait 
/iodo kakarimas . Anata wa mainichi keiko wo nasaimas ka. 
Saya, mainichi ni ji kan zutsu keiko wo it as him as . c Anata 
no sensei wa nanji ni oTde ni narimas ka. Watakushi no 
sensei wa ban no shichi ji han ni mairimas . Sen happyaku 
shichi ju nen ni F'rans to Doits no ik'sa ga arimastita ; sono 
ik'sa wa_shichikagetsu kakarimastita. Sono i& sa no yo nen 
mae ni Ostoria to P'rosha no ik'sa ga arimastita ; sono ik 'sa 
'wa tatta nanuka sti ka kakarimasen destita. Anata wa nanji 
niokimaska. Fuyu wa shichi ji ni okimas. Sen roppyaku 
nen no ju gwatsu ni Sekigahara no d kassen ga arimastitcu 

a Dai issei WiShcSnt tei is Wilhelm I. For dai issei see Ch. XXIX. Tei 
Mieans " sovereign." "King" is kivo or o (sama}. The Emperor of Japan is 
called ten-shi heaven-son or tennd y from ten-o heaven-king. Mikado is obsolete 
in the colloquial. The general term for "emperor" is kivo-tei. In speaking 
of exalted personages, go tanjo ni narit is equivalent to o wnare nasarit, and o 
kakure ni naru to o shini nasarn. Notice that with words denoting time the 
postposition, if needed at all, must be ni. What was said about the distinction 
between ni and de (p. 20 a) applies to places only. 

b The name of a bridge in Tokyo. |.It is a case of jubako-yomi, shin being the 
Chinese for "new." At Shimbashi is the terminal station of the railway 
between TokyS and Yokohama. 

c With sitru f ivo is commonly omitted ; but with the more formal itasit, 
unless the object is stated, it is better to use ivo. Keiko ivo may be contracted to 

d The name of a village on the Nakasendo. For the ga see p. 13. Seki 
means a barrier between two feudal fiefs, a place where travellers in former 
limes had to show their passports, while kara means wilderness. Sekigahara 
was the scene of a great battle in which leyasu, the founder of the last line o f 
shoguns, won a decisive victory over his enemies. 

78 THE NUMERAL [xxiv 

r eyas ko no gunzei wa shichi man go sen nin destita keredonio t 
Mitsunari no gunzei waju samman nin desJita. San jit shicki 
nen bakari n ae ni Tokyo ni of is kin ga arimastita ; sono toki ni 
hito gaju mm shi sen nin hodo shinda so des.' 

Taikj sama* died, according to (de) the European calendar, 
in the year 1598. When (toki ni) Taiko died his child (ko no) 
Nideyori was six years old. The Restoration began in (from) 
the year 1868. At that time the Emperor was (de irasshai- 
mastita) seventeen years old. b At what hour do you usually 
retire (o yasumi nasaimas" ka)t I usually retire at eleven' 
o'clock. The train for Kobe (Kobe ye iku kisha) leaves at ten 
o'clock. What time is it now (mo) ? It is probably (desha) 
about (goro) four o'clock. Now (konogord) the sun rises (deru) 
at about eight o'clock. The festival of Suitengu is [on] the 5th 
of January. The festival of Kompira is on the xoth of January. 
The anniversary of the death of Gongen sama c is the I /th of 
April. lyeyasu was born in 1542. The festival of the dead 
begins on (from) the 1 3th of the /th month. The summer 
vacation of the university continues (is) seventy days. I study 
German one hour every day. At what hour does your teacher 
come ? He comes [in the] morning at eight o'clock. Nobu- 
naga died at the age of \_de\ 48 years. This year is the 39th 
[year] of Meiji. What day (of the week) is to-day ? 

a Tai-ko in ancient times designated a retired kivam-paktt (prime minister). 
It is especially the title of Hideyoshi, who, though a man of low birth, attained 
to the position of kivampakti. 

b Irasshaimashita is a contraction of irassharimashita, as nasaimashita is of 
nasarimashita and gozaimashita of gozarimashita. As the Emperar was born in 
1852, he really was fifteen or sixteen years of age at the time of the RestoVa- 
tion. But the Japanese count the year of one's birth as a whole year and after 
the next New Year's day say that the child is in his second year or 'two years- 
old. In speaking of a person's age seventeen years counted in the Japanese 
fashion is kazoe-doshi de ju shichi (kazoe-ru reckon, toshi year). In other con- 
nections, as in answering the question how many years one ha-s been in, , the 
country, say de-iriju shichi nen or as/it kake ju shichi nen (as At wo 
straddle). Exactly seventeen years is maru ju shichi nen (maru circle). 

c Gon-gen is a Buddhistic word meaning" temporary manifestation," i. 
incarnation of Buddha. In Tokyo this title is applied with especial frequency 
to leyasu, who is called especially Tosho-gongen (to east, sho illumine). 





The four arithmetical processes, addition, subtraction, mul- 
tiplication and division are called collectively ka-gen-jo-jo. 

ka kuwae-ru add. jo = kake-ru multiply. 
gen = hiku subtract. jo = waru divide. 
2 1 ni 3 1 wo kuwaeru to, 5 2 ni narimasu. 
3 1 kara \ 7 wo hiku to, 1 4 ni narimasu. 
19 ni 3 wo kakeru to, 57 ni narimasu. 
. 200 wo 5 <?V want to, 40 / narimasu. 

bring together " may be substituted for 

The verb yose-ru 
kuwaeru, thus : 

21 to 31 wo yoseru to, 52 ni narimasu. 

In the multiplication table (ku-ku] a few euphonic changes 
occur. It is here added, merely for purposes of reference. 

ni nin ga ski 
ni san ga roku 
ni shi ga hachi 
ni go ju (tj) 
ni roku no ju ni 
ni shichi no ju shi 
ni ha no ju roku 
ni kuju hachi 

*a zan ga 9 
san shi no 12 
san go no 1 5 
sabu roku, 18 
san shichi, 21 
samp a, 24 
san kit, 27 

shi shi no 16 
shi go, 20 
shi roku, 24 
shi shichi, 28 
shi ha, S2 

shi ku, 36 - 

go go, 25 
go roku, 30 
go shichi, 35 
go ha, 40 
gokku, 45 

roku roku, 36 

shichi, 42 

/^rt:, 48 
rokku t 54 

shichi shichi, 49 
shichi hachi (ha), 56 
shichi ku, 63 

happa, 64 
hakku, 72 

/# /&;/, 8 1 

8o THE NUMERAL [xxv 

Notice the change of san to sabn in sabu roku and compare 
Sabu-rd, a common personal name (lit. three man). The 
sound n is often interchangeable with um and this again with 

Fractions are expressed by means of bu portion, which before 
no is pronounced bun : 

sambun no ni two thirds. 

hachi bun no san three eights. 

Percentage is expressed by the units warl and bu^ (or shu) : 
ichi wari go bu 1$ % . 

Once, twice, etc., are rendered by means of do, hen, or tabi. 
In the same sense kwai " turn " is often used, but this is not 
strictly colloquial. 

ichi do, ippen, hito tabi once. 

san do, samben, mi tabi three times. 

yo do, ski hen, yo tabi four times. 

ju do t jippen, to tabi ten times. 

Mainichi ni do zutsu twice every day. 

Hi ni san dj zutsu three times a day. 

Double, treble, etc., are rendered by the aid of the compound 
so- bai, or simply bai. 

ni sjbai twice as many (much). 

sanzjbai (sambai) three times as many. 

hassjbai (tiachi bai) eight times as many. 

Ichi ryii mambai one grain [produces] a myriad fold. 
The word bai alone means ni sobai. 


asa morning. so-bai fold. 

imo potato. a zen (c) while (in composi- 

arukjru alcohol. tion). 

bu unit of interest, one an-sho memorizing. 

per cent. mon-dai theme, subject under 

du } bun fraction. discussion, problem. 

hen unit for times. kinri } . 

bai double. ri- S oku\ lnterest " m ne > r ' 

a The word imo has a wider scope than our ' potato," including, as it does, 
a number of edible roots. The common (Irish) potato \sjagatara-ime, or jaga- 
imo, from the name of the island of Java. The sweet potato is satsuma-imo, 
from the name of the famous province at the southern extremity of Japan. 




iy chi-ryo medical treat- 
ment (ryoji sum to treat 

shoku-ji meal (shokuji sum 
take a meal). 

kuwae-ru add. 

hiku subtract, deduct. 

kake-ru hang (tr.). apply, 

waru split, divide. 

wari ten per cent. 
Jue-ru increase (intr.). 
fukumu contain. 
kubaru distribute. 
bikkuri suru be astonished 

byoki ni kakaru have au 

attack of sickness. 
yori, yori mo than, as (in 



Sore wo mo ichi do yonde* kudasai. Kono sake wa ichi 
wari ni bu arukor wo jukunde imas'. Kono shimbun wa asa 
to ban ni b wiainichi ni do zutsu^kubarimas 1 . Kono byoki ni 
kakaru hito wa taitei hyaku nin no uchi de ni ju nin wa 
shinimas\ Konogoro Doits' de wa kinri ga yas* kute taitei 
sambu han ka ski bu gurai des\ Nikon de wa kinri ga takai 
kara, ni wari no risoku wo torn hito mo arimas\ Hachi bun 
no ichi ni hachi bun no go wo kuwaeru to t ski bun no san ni 
narimas '. Ni kuju hachi. Kusuri ku sobai. c Ni do bik- 
kuri. d Kyushu no okisa wa Shikoku no bai des\ e Awaji- 
shima no okisa wa oyoso Iki no shi bai gurai des\ Watakushi 
wa so no mondai wo san do yonda kara, mo ansho ga deki- 
mashta. f Roku ha shiju hachi. Shina wa Doits' yori oyoso 
fu hassobai gurai okii. Kono bunsJio wa samben yonda keredo- 
mo, mada imi ga wakarimasen. Jagatara imo wa shichi wari 
go bu mizu wo fukunde iru. 

a Yonde is the subordinativc of the verb yonm to read (for yomi-te]. The 
past tense is yonda (for yom i-ta^]. 

b The postposition is added only to the last word, like wa. See p. 4d. 

c The reference is to the large profits of the drug business, Notice the 

d Supply shimashita or itashiinashita. This is a common expression foi : [I] 
was greatly astonished. 

e Kytt-shu (lit. nine countries) and Shi-Jtoku (lit. four provinces) are the 
names of the two great islands south of the main island (Hon-do or Hon-dd] of 
Japan. In the following sentence we have the names of smaller islands. 

f Lit. The committing to memory has been accomplished. The meaning 
is : I know it now. 

82 THE NUMERAL [xxvi 

The Japanese generally eat three times a day (hi ni). The 
American envoy Perry came to Japan twice. The students of 
the School for Foreign Languages recite (keiko wo sunt) twice 
every day. The population of Kyushu is double [that] of 
Shikoku. One sen is the hundredth part of a yen. One sun 
is the tenth part of a shaku. This sake contains i$o/ [ofj 
alcohol. 9932 = 67. One minute is the sixtieth part of an 
hour. The physician (go) has treate_d this patient four times. 
Mount Fuji is three times as high as Oyama. Asia is four and 
a half times as large as Europe. 17x3 = 51. My (uchi no] 
hares have within one year multiplied (become) five fold. The 
number of soldiers in (of) Germany is about one hundredth of 
the whole population. This book seller sells at a reduction of 
(deducting) ten per cent. a The population of this town has 
within twenty years increased {fuete kimastita) (to) four fold ; 
twenty years ago there were 30,000 persons (nin), but now 
(wa) [they] have become 120,000 (persons). 


In counting objects it is usual to make use of so-called nu- 
meral auxiliaries or numeratives, which designate the nature 
of the unit. 

Hako shichi ko seven boxes. b 

This ko, by the way, is an alternative pronunciation of the 
character read ka in ikkagetsu. Words of this kind are rare 
in English, but there are analogies in such expressions as " two 
suits of clothes " or " three head of cattle." 

In the colloquial most of the numeratives are of Chinese 
origin, but there are a few native words still in use : 
Kami hito hashira one god, from hashira post. 
Hato Juta tsugai two pairs of pigeons. 
Koya mi mune three shanties, from mune ridge (of roof). 
Zashiki yo ma four rooms, from ma space. 
Tansu itsu sao five bureaus, from sao pole. c 

a As ivari is of the nature of an auxiliary, ioc is not required, 
b Nana hako would be rather " seven boxfuls." 

c Japanese bureaus have handles at both ends near the top, arranged s 
that they may be suspended from a pole and thus easily carried. 


Obi mu suji six girdles, from suji line. 

Yofnku nana kumi seven suits of (European) clothes, from 
kumu to join. 

Kimono y a kasane eight suits of (Japanese) clothes, from 
kasane-ru to lay one over another. 

Yoroi kokono soroi nine sets of armor, from sorou to be in 
order, be a complete set. 

Notice that the numeral with its auxiliary takes the same 
position in a sentence as a simple numeral, that is, it follows 
its noun. Analogous to futatsu no tokei is hito hashira no 
kami ; but such reversal of the order is allowable only in 
certain cases. Moreover, in the examples given above the 
use of the simple numerals hitotsu, futatsu, etc., would not be 

In this and the two following chapters a list of the most 
common numeratives is given. 

1. For objects that are long in proportion to their width 
sticks, trees, pencils, rolled or folded documents, needles, teeth, 
folding fans (ogt), swords, a and the like : hon. 

ippon, sambon, shi hon, roppon, hachi hon,jippon, hyappon, 
nambon, iku hon. 

2. For objects that are broad and flat paper, clothes, rugs, 
boards, dishes, coins and the like : mat. 

ichi mat, sammai, yo mai or shi mai, roku mat, hachi mat, 
ju mai, hyaku mai, nammai, iku mai. 

Note also hammai half a sheet, as in a Japanese book. 

3. For animals of all kinds : hiki. 

ippiki, sambiki, shi hiki, roppiki, hachi hiki, jippiki, 

hyappiki, nambiki, iku hiki. 

For larger quadrupeds tj (head) may also be used. For birds 
the specific term is wa. 

ichi wa (ippd) t samba, shi wa, roppa, hachi wa,jippa, 
hyappa, namba, iku wa. 

There is also a specific term for fishes bi (tail) but this is 
not common in the colloquial and would sound pedantic. In 
counting fishes mai and hon are often used, according to the 

a The specific numerative for swords \sfuri: katana hitofuri, etc. 

84 THE NUMERAL [xxvi 

4. For persons : nin (man). 

ichi nin (hit'ori), ni nin, (futari), san nin, yo nin (yottari), 
roku nin, hachi urn, ju nin t nan nin, iku nin (ikutari). 
A rather classical and yet not uncommon synonym is met 


arashi \ , ji-bun (lit. time-part) time 

o-kaze > y 7f;<M*f i offidal 

1 1- ho sail. kwan-n } 

^hashira post, pillar. ^ shim-motsit present. d 

ho bashira mast. shj-sen merchant vessel. 

kanzashi (kami, sashi) hair- nai-chi interior of a country. 

pin. zak-kyo mixed residence. e 

kiri no ki paulrownia. ^pj age-rn lift up, give (polite 
0r/cage, pen. 1,3). f 

osu, mesu male,/emale. , karu y katte to hunt. 

tako octopus ^ ^ kari-inu hunting dog. 

matchi match. b 4 karyudo hunter. h 

cho-men note book, account kau, katte keep (animals). 

book, record. kirit wear, put on (clothes). 

chu-mon order (for goods). rwmu, nonde drink, smoke. 

han-shi white native paper oru, otte break. 

(about iox 13 in.). ore-ru be broken. 


a The wood of the kiri tree is highly prized, being used to make bureaus, 
clogs, etc. 

b The native word for " match " is siiri tsuke-gi (lit. rab kindle-wood). 

c Synonymous with toki. At the end of a clause toki ni or jibun ni is 
equivalent to " when." 

d A now common synonymn for shiinniotsu is okuri mono. Another common 
term, o miyage, denotes, strictly speaking, a present brought by a person on 
his return from a journey. 

e Naichi-zakkyo was a very familiar word in 1899, when the new treaties 
went into operation. Nai-chi, or nai-koku t is the opposite of gival-koku. Com 
pare nai-gwaijin natives and foreigners. 

f Agemasu I give it to you. Age fit may be added to the subordinatives oi 
verbs that denote actions done for the benefit of the person addressed. Shitn- 
bnn -ivo yonde agemasu. [E will] read the newspaper for you. 

g Henceforth in the vocabularies subordinatives of difficult verbs will be 
indicated in this way. The familiar past tense may then be formed by sub- 
stituting a for e, 

h Compare akyTido (p. 19). 


tasukaru, tasukatte be saved, ne ga tsuku take root. 

escape with one's life. tsuru, tsutte hang (tr.), catch 
tatakau, tatakatte to fight. (fish) with hook and line. 

tatakai a fight, battle, war. uchi-jini sum die in battle. 

ne root. sonzuru, sonjite be injured. a 

tsuku, tsuite stick, adhere. zai-ryu suru reside. 


Anata wa mainrchi hamaki (p. 25 a) wo nambon zutsti o 
nomi nasaimas ka. Watakushi wa mainichi go hon zutsu 
nomimas '. Watakushi no tomodachi iva mainichi jippon zutsu 
nomimas '. Konaida wa sakana wo jippiki ts'tte kimastita. b 
Kyo wa samui kara, kimono wo mo ichi mai kimasho. Yiibe 
uchi no neko ga nezumi wo sambiki torimasJita. Tombo ni wa 
hane ga yo mai arimas\ Kono shosen wa hobashira ga samboti 
arimashta ; ippon wa arashi de oremashta. Sono tatakai de 
sJi kwan ga go ju nin uchijini shimasfita. Dozo fianshi wo 
ni mai kudasai ; watakushi wa ichi mai mo mo'te imasen 
kara. c Fude wo ippon kastite agemasho. Ano karyudo zva 
kariinu wo sambiki motte imas\ Ano basha wamtjdachi^ 
des '. Tako ni wa ashi ga hachi hon am. Sono fude wa ikura 
ka. Hai y ippon go sen de gozaimas ; shikashi jippon o kai 
nasareba (if you buy) shiju go sen ni makete agemashj. Kono 
uchi ni kami ga iku mai haitte imas ka. Kono gakkd ni 
Doits' go wo keiko suru shosei ga ju yo nin arimas '. MatcJii 
(wo) ippon c hod 'ai. Kono hako no itchi ni mate hi g a ni hon 
arimas' keredomo, kustiri ga tsuite imasen. Ano hito no bydki 
wo san nin ncrisha ga rydji shimashta keredomo, tas 1 karimasen 
deshta. e Hiram e wo ni mai shimmotsu ni moraimasfita. 

a From son injury, loss, and suru. Compare zonzurii (p. 48). But " to lose," 
as in business, is son suru. 

b Lit. having caught with hook and line, I came. The verb kum is used 
like shimau (p. 52a) as an auxiliary. Kimasho, in the next sentence, is from 

c Such inversion of the natural order may be allowed when the clause with 
kara is not too long. With a negative verb ichi mai mo is analogous to dare 
mo t nani mo, etc. (Ch. XVII). Motte is the subordinative of the verb motsit. 

d From ni two, to head (of horses) and tachi, stem of tatsu to stand. Compare 
ninvnbiki, used of a riksha drawn by two men. 

e By adding desliita to a negative verb a negative past tense may be formed. 
A future may be formed similarly by adding desho. 

86 THE NUMERAL [xxvi 

Tonya ni kiji wo samba chuuion sh'te kite o kure / Kono kumi 
ni wa seito ga nammei arimas ka. Naichi-zakkyo ni natta 
jibun ni Nihon ni zairyu stite oru Seiyojin wa ski sen go hyaku 
ni ju ni nin desk'te, a sono uchi Doits jin wa ski hyaku kachi 
ju ichi nin de gozairnaslita. 

In this box there are (haitte imas) a hundred matches. 
Five cigars, please ! He smokes six cigars every day. The 
number of leaves (kami-kazu) in (of) this note-book is thirty. 
When (Jibun ni 4) I (i) was (off a 3) in Tokyo (2) the number 
of Germans [there] all told (inina de) was forty. This official 
keeps three horses. That merchantman has two masts ; one 
(wa) was injured in (de) the recent storm. Lately the fisher- 
men (ga) have not caught a single (even one) fish. I planted 
five kiri trees in my garden and (go) all have taken root nicely 
(well). In (de wa) this war 50,000 soldiers were killed. As I 
have two writing-brushes, I will lend you one. There are in 
this box a hundred cigars ; each (one) costs (s Aim as') six sen. 
What is this bridge called ? It is called Sammai-bashi. b In 
the Zoological Garden there are over (ijo mo) a hundred 
monkeys. In this cage there are two lions ; both (ni hiki lomd) 
are males. This dog has five pups (ko). Two hair-pins, please ! 
There are two birds in that cage. The population of Yoko- 
hama is about 200,000. 


5. For places and lots (of ground) : sho (place) with ka 
(Compare ikkagetsu p. 74). 

ikkasho, sangasho, shikasho, rokkasho, hakkasho>jikkasho, 
nangasho. c 

For houses, shops, and also temples ken (eaves) is commonly 

ikken, sangen, shl ken> rokkett, hachi ken y jikken> nangen. 

a The subordinative of desit. 

b A narrow bridge near Ueno in Tokyo, originally made of three boards. 
Sakura Sogoro on the occasion when he handed his petition to the Sh5gun 
(for which offense he suffered the penalty of crucifixion) hid under this bridge. 

c It is better not to say iku-ka-sho. With numeratives that begin with k, 
iku is to be avoided, for the obvious reason that confusion with ichi is likely to 


The unit here is not necessarily one building, but rather the 
building or group of buildings occupied by one household a 

6. For ships : so (boat). 

tssd, sanzd, ski so, roku so y hassD,jisso, nansj, iku so. 

7. For vehicles : dai (a stand, base). " Four vehicles " \s yo 
dai. Specifically for heavy wagons and coaches, etc., ryj (pair 
of wheels) may be used. For rikshas the commonest term is 
cJw (to hold a handle). b 

itcko, san chj, shi chd, roku ch'j, hatch'), nan cho, iku cho. 

8. For chairs : kyaku (leg). 

ikkyaku, san kyaku, ski kyaku, rokkyaku, hakkyaku t 
jikkyaku, nan kyaku. 

9. For books : satsu (ticket, label, list). 
issatsu, san satsu. hassatsu, jissatsu, etc. 

Rather more classical is kwan (roll), which in composition with 
numerals is modified like ken. For complete sets of volumes 
the numerative is bu (department, group). 

10. For letters and documents : tsu (=tdri p. 64.3). 
iitsii, san tsu, hattsu,jittsu, etc. 

But most people use hon rather than tsu. One letter may also 
be designated ippu, from fu seal. 


isu chair. so appearance ( desu it is 

kuni country. said that). 

minato harbour. bes-so villa. 

ni-guruma cart. gun-kan war vessel. 

chin (c) hire, fare. ho-yu friend. 

ka, ke (c) = ie house, family ke-ga wound. 

(in composition). ko-en public garden, park. 

bin (c) convenience, opportu- kwai-sha corporation, com- 

nity to send a message, pany. 

mail (in yu-biri). kwa-zoku noble, the nobility. 

a One household or family is called ikka t from ka (c) house. " The whole 
family " is ikka nai (nai interior) or ikka-zoku (zoku kindred). The alternative 
pronunciation (ke} of the same character is affixed to proper names to designate 
families, especially those of high rank ; e. g., Tokugaiva-ke. 

b Cho is used for tools also : nokogiri itcho one saw, ko-ga{ana ni ehS two pen- 

88 THE NUMERAL [xxvn 

kwo-kyo the Emperor's res!*- ha-seti sum be wrecked (of a 

dence. ship. 

nen-shi beginning of the omon, omotte think ( omou 

year. a I think that). 

sho-setsu, shosetsu-bon, novel, osou, osotte attack. 

romance. sorou, sorotte be uniform, com- 
zo- sen-jo shipyard, dockyard plete. d 

(lit. make-ship-place). tari-ru be enough. 
hyakkiva-zensho cyclopedia. b toru y totte pass through, pass 
jibiki dictionary. c by. 

Igirisu England. tsubure-ru be broken, crushed. 

Moko Mongolia. tsuku, tsuite arrive. 

ato no the remaining, the yaton, yatotte hire (a person). 

other. yobu, yonde call. 

koware-ru be broken, wreck- mata moreover. 

ed. tada-ima just now, presently. 


Perri to iu Amerika no ts kai wa hajimete Nikon ye kit a e 
toki ni gunkan wo shi so motte kimastita. Roppyakn nen 
gurai mae ni Mdkojtn ga Nikon ye f ni do osotte kimastita ; 
hajimete kita toki ni wafune wo shi hyaku go j is so motte ki> 
ni do me ni (the second time) kita toki ni wa nisanzen so motte 
kita so des* . Konaida no kwaji de ie ga nangen yakemastita 
ka. Roppyakken yaketa so des\ Kuruma wo itcho yonde 
koi. % Ichininnori de gozaimas' ka> nininnoti de gozaimas' ka. 
Mata ichinimbiki de gozaimas' ka, ninimbiki de gozaimas ka. 

a Nenshi ni iku to go to tender New Year's congratulations. The word 
nenshi is used now exclusively in this sense of New Year's congratulations : 
properly nenshi no shugi, or nen-ga, from ga (c) to congratulate. 

b From hyakii hundred, kwa branch of study, zen complete sho book. 

c This is synonymous with the comparatively new word ji sho. It is a case 
oljubako-yomi. Ji wo hiku to look up a word [in a dictionary]. 

d O kyaku san ga soroimashita. The guests are all here. 

e Instead of the past tense the present kurn might also be used here : kuru 
tokini at the time of his coming. Notice the frequent idiom motte ktirtt, motte 
tku. When the object is a person, tsurcte must be substituted for motte. 

f Ye here is to be construed with kimasJiita. 

g Yonde koi call and come ! In English we should say " Go and call!" In 
the reply notice the double de gozaimas u ka. One might also substitute yonde 
kimasho ka (with wo) for de gozaimas u ka. 


nori no 3 - ichinimbiki de ii. Tadaima Yokohama nv minitto ni 
gunkan ga nanzo tsuite imas' ka. Tadaima wa gunkan ga 
sanzo tsuite imas ; b isso wa Doits no gunkan de c ato no ni so 
wa Igiris no gunkan deshj to omoimas '. Kono jibiki wa 
hassatsu arimas '. Gyokuhen d to iu jibiki waju ni satsu des\ 
Kokijiten to iu jibiki wa ni jit- ski satsu des\ Are wa nan to 
iu hon des' ka. Are wa Motoori Norinaga no kaita Kojikiden e 
des* . Sorotte imas' ka. lie, ni sats' tarimasen (are lacking). 
Ano bashagwaisha wa basha wo niju dai motte imas' . Kon- 
nichi wa kwbkyo no mae wo toru toki m f rippa na basha wo 
hachi ryo mimashta. Konaida Doits kara tegami ga ni tsTi 
kimastita. Itts'u wa Amerika no bin de ki, mo ittsil wa Indo wo 
totte kimask'ta. Ueno ni wa ryoriya ga ni ken arimas\ Ikken 
wa Nihonryori wo ski, mo ikken wa Seiyoryori wo skimas'. 
Sono hyakkwazensho wa ichi bu nan satsu des 1 ka. Niju ski 
satsu des\ Kono shosetsu wa ju go satsu mono des\ Mi to to 
Owari to Kishu wa mukashi go san to moshimastita. Mino 
to iu kuni ni wa Meiji niju yo nen no fuyu ni djishin ga atte, 
tsubureta ie gaju mangen, shinda hito ga go sen nin, sore kara 
keganin ga ichi man nin mo arimasKta to iu osoroshii koto ga 

Over twenty ships were wrecked h in (de) the storm recently. 
In the harbor of Nagasaki there are (tsuite imas') now three 
Russian men-of-war. This village has only (sh ' ka arimaseii) 
twenty houses. That nobleman has three villas ; one (2) of 
them (i) was burned recently. What book is that? It is the 

a This no is explicative. See p. 8. 

b The subordinative of an intransitive verb with ir-u or ont may denote a 
state which is the result of the action expressed by the verb. Compare haitte 
or u (p. 44e). 

c De here is equivalent to de atte or deshite. 

d The name of a dictionary of Chinese ideograms, from gyoktt-=tama jewel 
and hen book. The largest dictionary in common use is called Kokijiten. 
Koki is the name of a Chinese period (nengo) andjt-/e?t synonymous vriihjt-s/w. 
Compare " Century Dictionary." 

e The Kojiki (lit. old affair record) is Japan's oldest historical work, dating 
from the beginning of the VIII. Century. Motoori, the most famous of 
Japanese grammarians, published the text, with commentary, in a book called 

f As I passed by the palace (lit. at the time of passing the front). 

g The names in this sentence may also stand asyndetically. The princes 
of these provinces were related to the shogun. It was provided that, if he had 
no heir, he might choose a successor from one of their families. 

h Of a ship we say korvare ru, yabiire-ru, or ha-sen sum. Of a person : hasen 
ni au. This ha is the Chinese equivalent of yabure-ru to break. 

90 THE NUMERAL [xxvm 

book called Taiheiki. a How many volumes are there ? There 
are about fifteen volumes, I think. How much is the hire 
(yatoi chin} of one riksha (for) one day ? It is two yen. 
Engage (call) two carts. This company has a hundred street- 
cars. About how many houses do you visit (inawaru) at New 
Year's (nenshi ni) ? I visit about twenty. I went to the 
houses of two or three friends, but they were all out. The 
house of Shimazu held Satsuma and Osumi until the Restora- 
tion. At the shipyard of Yokosuka b [they] are now construct- 
ing (koshiraeni) two men-of-war. How many parks are there 
in Tokyo ? There are three. One chair is (was) broken. 


11. For vesselfuls, bucketfuls, cupfuls : hai (sakazuki). 

ippai, sambai, shi hai, roppai y hachi hai, jippai, nambai, 
iku hai. c 

For medicine, tobacco, or tea, the unit is fuku (kus:iri wo 
fuku suru to take medicine), which undergoes the same changes 
as hai. d Fuku is also used for kake-mono (hanging scrolls or 
pictures), but the ideogram in this case is different. 

12. For pairs of stockings, pantaloons and shoes : soku (foot). 
issoku, sanzoku, hassoku>jissoku. 

For pairs of other things tsui (to correspond) is used, as in 
kwa-bin ittsui a pair of vases. But a pair of animals is hito 
tsugai, from tsugai couple (See p. 82). 


ma = aida interval. biiru beer. 

chichi milk. e kohii coffee. 

a The Tai-hei-ki (lit. great peace-record) is a famous historical work, re- 
counting the events of the XIV. Century. 

b A naval station on the coast of Sagami, just within the entrance to Tokyo 

c Iff at dent. It is full. 

d O cha u'o ippai (p agari nasai} Have a cup of tea ! The numerative fuku 
is used for tea mostly in connection with the ceremonial cha no-yu. 
e Cow's milk is usually called gyu-nyu. Gyu=iishi; nyuchiclii. 



toso spiced sake. a 

budo grape. 

budo-shu wine. 

sake-nomi drinker, toper. 

iabi [Japanese] sock. 

kutsu-tabi [European] sock, 
stocking. b 

geta, ashida wooden clog. c 

wara straw. 

waraji straw sandal. d 

naga-gutsu boot. 

hana-ike vase (ike-ru to 
keep alive). 

kwa-bin vase (lit. flower- 

sei-Ju the government. 

kitsui intense, strong (of 
liquors, odors etc.), tight 
(of shoes). 

koi dense, strong (of tea, 

shio salt. 

karat acrid. 

'ftf"'"*' isalty. 
shoppat j 7 

iya na disagreeable. 

kirau, kiratte dislike. f 

ne-ru go to bed, sleep. 

nemuru, nemutte sleep, slum- 

nemu-ke drowsiness. 

you, yotte be intoxicated. 2 

same-ru become sober, come 
to one's senses. h 

nodo throat. 

kazvaku, kawaite dry (intr.). 

nodo ga kaivaku be thirsty. 

hanasu separate. 

meshi-agaru take (food or 
drink polite 2, 3). 

nige-ru flee. 

ure-ru be able to sell. 

yaku y yaite burn (tr.). 

yaki-mono pottery. 

dai-bu very, pretty. 

yo-doshi the whole night 

tabi ni, tainbi ni (after a 
verb) as often as, when- 


Dozo mizu wo ippai kudasai ; watakushi wa shiokarai mono 
wo tabemastita kara, daibu nodo ga kawaite kimasli ta. O 

a Toso is drunk only at New Year's. 

b Called also kutsn~shita t from shita under. 

c Geta is tlie generic term. Ashida are very high clogs used in rainy 

d This word is derived from wara and kittsu, thus : ivaragiitsu, waranzu, 
waranji, ivaraji. 

e Shio-karni is the more elegant word of the two. 

f " I dislike it " is usually kirai desit. Sake ga dai kirai desu. I dislike 
sake very much. Compare suki desu (p. 55b). Iya desu is equivalent to kirai 

g Sake ni you to be intoxicated with sake. Fune ni you to be seasick. 

h Me ga sameru to wake up. Netmike ga sament to recover from drowsiness. 
Yoi ga sameru to get sober after intoxication. 

92 THE NUMERAL [xxvin 

cha wo ippai ikaga de gozaimas ka. a Arigatj gozaimas . 
Watakushi wa chiisai sakazuki de sake wo tada ski hai bakari 
nomimash'ta, shikashi sake ga taihen ni tsuyokatta kara, daibu 
yoimasKta. b Watakushi wa nemuku naru tambi ni koi cha 
wo nisambai nomu to, nemuke ga samemas '. Tabako wo 
ippuku meshiagarimasen ka. c Arigato, watakushi wa tabako 
ga kirai de gozaimas'. Warajiwa issokn ikura des 1 ka. Issoku 
issen go rin de gozaimas*. Sonnara ni soku kaimasho. Sono 
hanaike wa hitotsu ikura ka. Kono hanaike wa ittsui des' 
kara, hitotsu hanaslite wa d uremasen. lya iya sambai, nige 
nige g o hai. e Watakushi ga kuni ye kaerimas toki Nihon no 
seifu kara hanaike wo ittsui moraimasJita ga, sono hanaike wa 
Satsumayaki f de gozaimastita. Sakuban koi cha wo shi hai 
nonda kara, yodoshi neraremasen deshta. \Vatakushi wa 
nagaguts wo ni soku koshiraete moraitai ga, h issoku ikura 
des ka. Sayd, issoku go yen de gozaimas '. Issakujitsu no 
ban wa biir wo roppai nonda keredomo, s koshi mo yoimasen 

A cup of tea, please ! I bought five pairs [of] socks. How 
much were they a pair? They cost (shimashtd) 75 sen a pair. 
Give me two pairs of clogs. I drink three glasses [of] milk 
every morning. Have another (ino) cup of coffee ! As this 
wine is pretty strong, if [a man] drinks (nomeba) but (mo) 
three glasses, he will become intoxicated. That man is (de) a 

a How about a cup of tea ? The reply arigato gozaimasu does not imply 
refusal. In declining to drink one may say, Mo o cha wa itadakimasen. One 
may also use the polite phrase, O kamai kudasaru na (negative imperative) 
Never mind ! 

b Or, yotte kimashita got into the condition of intoxication, or (without 
daibii), yotte shimaimashita. 

c Meshiagaru is synomous with ageru, but is a little more elegant. 

d The subordinative with wa has a conditional sense and is usually followed 
by a negative verb or a verb with a negative significance. So shite wa ikenai 
(So shicha ikenai} [You] must not do so. " Must not " is usually to be rendered 
in this way. 

e This saying refers to men who like sake, but wish to be coaxed to drink. 
While they refuse they drink three cups, and while they run away they drink 

f A kind of pottery, the glazed surface of which is artistically cracked. 

g Nerareru. is the potential form of the verb neru. Neraremasen can't sleep. 

h Moraitai is the desiderative of verb morau and means " should like to 
receive." Koshiraete moraitai. [I] desire to have made. This use of the 
subordinative with moraitai or (more politely) itadakitai is a very common 

xxix] ORDINALS 93 

sot (ozakenomi) ; he drinks a sho every day. Please have a 
whiff (ippukii) of tobacco ! I have three pairs of boots ; but 
one pair has become useless (yakti ni tatanaku narimastita). 
Won't you have a cup of toso ? He is an extraordinary (taihen 
no) drinker ; in just a little while (chotto no ma ni) he diank 
ten glasses of beer. He drinks two or three cups of coffee 
every morning. 


Ordinals (junjo- sushi) are formed by the prefix dai (c) 
''order" or by the suffixes ban (c) " number," me (p. 690) or 
damme. Both dai and ban may be used with one and the 
same numeral, as in dai hyaku niju go ban the I25th. With 
the native numerals me only is used. With the numeral 
auxiliaries me is the most common. 

Dai ichi* koto-gakko The First Higher School. 
Ichi ban no kisha (ichibangisha) the first train. 
Ni damme no kane the second bell. 
Yo bamme no ko the fourth child. 
Shi keiume no uchi the fourth house. 
Mittsume no tama the third bullet. 
San dome (sambemme) the third time. 

But, as examples given in previous lessons show, the Japan- 
ese language in many cases where the English requires ordi- 
nals uses simple cardinals, or substitutes other expressions. 

Meiji niju nen the 2Oth year of Meiji. 
Tokugawake san dai no shjgun (dai=-yo generation). 
The third shogun of the Tokugawa line. 
Ed' war' d' shichi set (sei=yo generation). 
Edward the Seventh. 

The student may recall that the first day of January is 
gwan-jitsu, from gwan origin. The first edition of a book (dai 
ippan) is called sho-han, from sho (c) beginning ; the second 

a In the colloquial dai ichi is used mostly to denote superiority, as in se-km 
dai ichi no sei-ji-ka th.e foremost statesman in the world (se kai world). 

94 THE NUMERAL [xxix 

edition sai-han from sai (c)~futa tabi a second time. In 
numbering a set of two volumes the words jo and ge or ka 
(p. 71 a) are used. When there are three volumes they may 
be numbered /<?, chu, ge. a 


(o) hina (san) doll, puppet. b kei-satsu police. f 

nobori flag. c keisatsu-sho police station. 

han plate (for print.), edition, ki-soku regulation, rule. 

sho-han first edition. kun-sho decoration, order. 

sai-han second edition. sai-sho beginning (saisho 110 

shuppan publication. d the first). 

jo (c) article, item. sek-ku one of five holidays, g 

segare son (polite i). tai-setsu na important. 

chj-nan oldest son. ayamaru, ayamatte ) . h 

chj-jo oldest daughter. machigau, machigatte\ 

so-ryd heir, oldest child. ayamari 

i ) 

yoshi adopted child. e machigai \ 

ban-chi street number. iwau, iwatte celebrate. 

den-wa telephone. iwai-bi holiday. 

a When volumes of a book are subdivided, the portions are designated thus : 
ichi (or ') no jo first (or second) volume, first part, ichi (or ni] no ge first (or 
second) volume, second part. 

b The general term for " dolls " is nin-gyd, from nin person and kyd form. 
The term hina or hina-ningyd denotes properly the dolls which are formally 
arranged and displayed at the girls' festival on the 3rd day of the 3rd month. 
But even ordinary playing with dolls is called hina-asobi, from asobu to play, 
while a puppet-show is called ning yo-shibai, from shibai drama. 

c National flags and standards are called hata or kok-ki. Nobori are 
vertically long and are fastened both at the top and on one side. They may 
be seen at temples and theatres, and are also displayed at the boys' festival 
on the 5th day of the 5th month. 

d Shuppan sum to publish. Shuppan ni naru to be published (of a book). 

e To adopt \syoshini suru or yoshi ni morau. An adopted daughter may 
also be called yo-jd. 

f Policemen or patrolmen arejun-sa; the police stations on the streets are 
ko-ban (sho}. 

g Thcf(hftiu are: the New Year's festival on the 7th of the 1st month; 
the girls' festival, on the 3rd of the 3rd ; the boys' festival, on the 5th of the 
5th ; the star festival, on the 7th of the 7th ; and the chrysanthemum festival, 
on the 9th of the pth. See p. 66 c. 

h The latter is more common in the colloquial. 



okosu t okoshite raise, rouse, yame-ru stop (tr.), give up. 

waken asu, ashita to-morrow. 

sumu t sunde 1 , ,, ., ue above ( no ue ni on, 

, > dwell, reside. 
suman, sumatte) upon, 

sumai residence. shita below ( no shita ni 
tsumoru, tsumotte estimate. under). 

tsumori estimate, intention. a 


Yoritomo wa b Yoshitonio no sambamme no ko des '. Ano o 
ko san wa anata no go $jryj des ka. lie, are wa watakushi 
no ni damme no ko des . Chotto o tazune mZshimas' ; c keisats- 
sho wa doko de gozaimas* ka. Sayd> koko kara san gemme 
des' . Kimi no wakaranai tokoro wa nammaime des ka. Jii 
ni maime des . Sore wa nan to lu hon des' ka. Kore wa 
Wakan-sansai-zue d des\ Sore wa nan satsume des ka. Kore 
wa nijissatsume des '. Ano kata wa Nikon no santj kunsh '> wo 
sagete imasu '. Anata no o taku wa doko de gozaimas ka. 
Ginza ni chome no go ju ni banchi de gozaimas . e Kiriya* to 

a This is often attached to verbs, as in Asu I'dkyd ye ikti tsumori desu. It is 
[my] intention to go to Tokyo to morrow. But tsumori often denotes simply 
one's opinion of one's self: Ano hito wa gakusha na tsumori de arimasu. He 
thinks he is a scholar. Here na is a contraction of naru (originally ni aru} 
the literary equivalent of de aru. One may also say gaktisha no tsumori de oni. 

b Yoritomo of the Minamoto family (Gen-ji} conquered the Taira family 
(Hei-ke] about the end of the XII. Century, and was the first shogun in whose 
family the office became hereditary. 

c Mdsit means "to say," but often, as in this case, it is a mere auxiliary 
attached to the stem of a verb. It is used principally in the first person when 
the object of the verb is a person of higher rank or a stranger of the same rank 
as the speaker. The honorific o may not be omitted in this construction. 

d The name of a celebrated encyclopedia : wa Japan, kan China, san sai 
three powers, i. e., heaven, earth and man, zu drawing, e picture. 

e Ch&=machi means primarily a group of houses lining a throughfare. The 
same ideogram (cho] means also 60 ken. In the above it means a section of a 
long street, often, but not necessarily, marked off by means of prominent 
cross-streets (yoko-cho or yoko-machi\ These sections may have different 
names or may be distinguished as itchome, ni cfwme, etc. Gin-za (lit, silver seat, 
i. e., mint) is the name of a portion of the principal street of Tokyo, 

f Paulo wnia-hoose. Names of mercantile firms are formed in this way by 
the use of ya. Merchants often take the name of the province from which 
they came ; e.g., Mika-wa-ya, Orni-ya. 

96 THE NUMERAL [xxix 

iu Juruddguya wa Ginza san chome da. Naporeon issei wa 
sen happy aku niju ichi nen no go gwatsu itska ni o kakure ni 
narimash'ta. lemits* ko wa Tokugawake san dai no shogun 
des\ Anata wa itto ni norimas* ka, nito ni norimas* ka. 
Watakushi wa nito ni noru tsumori des' keredomo, anata 
ga itto ni o nori nasareba, watakushi mo go issho ni nori- 
masho. Kono jibiki wa saihan desu ga, shohan no ayamari 
ga naosh'te arimasen. a Hajimete o me ni kakarimasti ta. l) 
Kotos hi ni natte kara c Hirokdji no kwaji wa kore de sambem- 
me des\ Anata no jibiki wo kastite kudasai. Jo des 1 ka, 
chu des ka. Chit, wo kashte kudasai. Nikon ni go sekku to 
iu iwaibi ga arimas '/ sono uchi (de) dai ni wa hina no sekku 
de, dai san wa nobori no sekku des\ Ash'ta no asa wa ichiban 
no kisha de Yokohama ye iku tsumori des kara, hayaku 
okosJite kudasai. Ano teibur no d ue ni notte oru jibiki no go 
satsume wo motte oide. Stita kara sambamme no ji wa 
machigatte imas\ 

Is this (kono o ko wa) your oldest child ? No, [it] is [my] third 
child ; [my] oldest son has gone to Europe. My oldest child is 
a girl (onnd). I have adopted a friend's second child. The fifth 
house from here is a primary school. Our (uchi no) telephone 
is No. 249. That regulation is written (kaite arimas') on the 
twentieth page (inai) of this book. Please lend me the twelfth 
volume viGyokuhen. That gentleman has received a Japanese 
decoration of the fourth class. That photographer's residence 
is [on] Japan Bridge St., Third Section, No. 25. Keiki 
was the fifteenth shogun of the Tokugawa line ; after he gave 
up the office of shogun e he lived (was living) in Shizuoka. 

a See p. 44 e. 

b This phrase is used when one is first introduced to a person. Hajime- 
mashite would be still more polite than hajimete. O me ni kakent is the most 
polite expression for " to meet," (lit. be hung on honorable eyes. Comp. p. 

c Since the year began (lit. from becoming this year). With subordinatives 
of verbs kara means " after," " since." Hiro-koji (broad lane) is the name of a 
street. Notice the peculiar use of kore de " with this." 

d The word tsukue applies only to the low native tables. 

e " After he gave up the office of sJwgun " is rendered shogun-shoktt wo yamete 
kara. This shoku means " occupation," " office " (in shoku-gyo). But in the 
colloquial one may say simply shogun tvo yamete kara. Shizuoka is the principal 
city of the province of Suruga, on the Tokyo and Osaka. 

xxix] ORDINALS 97 

The second shogun of the Tokugawa line is called (to mdshimas') 
Hidetada. Jimmu Tenno was (is) the first Emperor of Japan. a 
Takauji is the first shdgun of the Ashikaga line. To-morrow 
I shall go to Yokohama by (de) the second train. Will you go 
first or second class (Is it first class, is it second class, by which 
do you go) ? This book is about Japan (In this book Japan's 
affairs are written) ; the first volume [appeared] six years ago ; 
the second volume was published two years ago. Among these 
regulations the third article is the most important. Wilhelm I. 
is the grandfather of the present (tma no) Emperor of Germany. 
What edition (nampati) is this dictionary ? It is the third 

a " The first Emperor " is saisho (or /lajimefe) no tenshi or dai ichi dai no 



In classical' Japanese genuine adjectives are inflected by 
means of the three terminations ki y ku and ski, as in the follow- 
ing example : 

Kono chiisaki ki wa hana mo utsukushiku mi mo amashi. 
The blossom of this little tree is beautiful and its fruit is 

The attributive form ended in ki ; the predicative, in ski. In 
the colloquial both these terminations have been reduced to i. 
But ski still appears in yoshi " good," " all right !" and nashi^ 
" there is none," while in formal speeches the ending ki is 
heard quite often. The form in ku is now commonly used as 
an adverb and is called the adverbial form. But in the example 
given above utsukushiku is evidently predicative and may 
properly be called the connective form as contrasted with 
amashi, which is conclusive, i.e., ends the sentence. Compare : 
O no nagai saru mo ari, o no mijikaino mo aru (p. I4d) where 
ari is connective and aru is conclusive. Such use of the form 
in ku would now sound oratorical. In ordinary conversation 
we should say : Kono chiisai ki wa hana mo iitsukushii ski 
mi mo aniai, or, Kono chiisai ki wa hana mo utsukushikute mi 
mo amai. The classical terminations occur with especial 
frequency in proverbs. 

It has been remarked (pp. 4, 24) that a predicate adjective 
ending in i needs no copula in familiar discourse, if the 
sentence is affirmative and in the present tense ; and that atta 
and aro may be united with the adverbial form of the adjective 
in compounds like yokatta, yokaro. We now add a paradigm 
of these and similar inflections produced by combination with 
forms of aru to be : 

a Keiyd-shi, from kei-yo figure (of speech), metaphor. 

b Notice also the peculiar idiom nashi ni in: Kane nashi ni iva nani mo 
dekwiasen. One can't do anything without money. 


Present yoi is good. 

Past yokatta was good. 

Probable, or Future yokarj probably is good, will be good. 

Conditional yokereba a if [it] is good, if [it] should 

be good. 
Probable Past yokattaro probably was (might have 

been) good. 
Past Conditional yokattara(bd) if [it] has (had) been 


Alternative yokattari being at times good. 

Yoi daro y yoi desho may be substituted for yokaro ; yoi nara 
(ba) y for yokereba ; yokatta daro, yokatta desho t for yokattaro ; 
yokatta nara(ba) y for yokattara(ba). 

A concessive form yokeredo(ind) " though [it] is good " 
might have been included in this list, but it is practically 
obsolete as far as the colloquial is concerned. It is now 
replaced by yoi keredomo, ii kedo, etc., adding keredomo (p. 8a), 
keredoy or ke(ii)do to the simple present form. 

The form yokereba is derived from areba (as also yokeredo 
from aredo). It may be further contracted \&yokeftba % yokerya. 

O tenki ga yokereba undokwai wa omoshirokaro. 
If the weather is fine, the sports (excursion) will likely be 
interesting. , 

O tenki ga yokattara undokwai wa motto omoshirokattardi 
If the weather had been fine, the sports might have been 
more interesting. 

The past conditional is past only with reference tothe'verip 
of the apodosis. Often yokattara is practically synonymous; 
with yokereba. 

Kagen ga yokattara kanarazii mairiutasho. 
If [I] feel well, [I] will surely come. 

Alternative forms are used most commonly in pairs, and 
often with shite, thus : 

O tenki wa yokattari ^v aruk attar i ikko sadamarimasen. \ 

The weather, being now favorable and again unfavorable, 

is not at all settled (lit. one direction is not determined). 

a One may also say yoku(m}ba, but this inflection cannot be applied .to othei; 
adjectives except nai and desideratives like tabetai. 


Ano hito wa kigen ga yokattari ^varukattari (shite) chodo 

kodomo no yd desu. 
Sometimes he is in a good humor and sometimes not, 

just like a child. 

Atsukattari samukattari shite komarimasu. 
There being so much variation of heat and cold, one does 

not know what to do (lit. is perplexed). 

The word nai " not existent " is also inflected like an adjective. 
nai is not (none). 
nakatta was not (none). 

nakaro probably is not (none), will not be, will be none. 
nakereba a if it is not, if it should not be, etc. 
nakattaro probably was not, might not have been. 
nakattara(bd) if it has (had) not been. 
nakattari at times not being. 

By joining these with the adverbial form of an adjective a 
paradigm of negative inflections may be formed, thus : yoku 
nai, yoku nakatta, yoku nakaro ; , yoku nakereba, etc. In the 
same manner negative verbs may be inflected : wakaranai is 
not to be understood, wakaranakatta t wakaranakard, waka- 
ranakereba, etc. But wakaranai dard is more common than 
wakaranakaro. So also desideratives like tabetai " desire to 
eat " may be inflected. Details will be given under the head 
of "The Verb." 

In polite discourse, especially at the end of a sentence or 
principal clause, instead of the plain forms given above, the 
contracted adverbial form with gozaimasu (p. 24) is required. 
In this case many adjectives take the honorific o : b 

O atsu gozaimasu. It is warm. 

O isogashu gozaimashd. You are probably busy. 
Observe that naku is not contracted to no except in certain 
dialects : it is customary to say not no gozaimasu but gozai- 
masen. But tabetai becomes tabetd gozaimasu. 

It has already been remarked (p. 24) that there is a tendency 
to say ii desu, omoshiroi desu t yoku nai desu, etc., thus avoiding 

a Also naktt(ni}ba, as in O iya de nakuba If [you] do not dislike [ifj. 

b The honorific o may be prefixed to yoroshikereba also: O yoroshikereba if 
you like; likewise to yokereba ;\xv& 9 if one wishes to speak politely, in this 
connect ion yoroshii is better than yoi. O yd gozaimasu nara(ba] is perfectly 


the familiarity of the plain adjective on the one hand, and the 
stiff formality of gozaimasu on the other. But ii deshita is 
never heard. Yet ii ri deshita is not uncommon. Whatever 
may be said about the past and present tenses, expressions like 
ii deshj are indisputably correct. Thus : 

Mutsukashii deshd is probably difficult. 

Yoku nai desho is probably not good. 

As regards politeness these are intermediate between mutsuka- 
shikaro and mutsukashu gozaimasho, yoku nakaro and yd 

The subordinative is obtained by adding te to the adverbial 
form ; t.g.,yasukute y fromyasut, itakute, from itai, omoshiroku- 
te, from omoshiroi ; so also nakute, wakaranakute, tabetakute. 
These are often pronounced yasukutte, itakutte, omoshirokutte, 

This form has several uses. 

(i.) When one subject has two predicate adjectives the first 
is subordinated to the second. 

Washinton no machi wa hirokute kirei desu. 
The streets of Washington are broad and clean. 

(2.) A clause with a predicate adjective may be subordinated 
to another clause. In this case the former describes a circum- 
stance or condition, which is usually at the same time a cause. 

A shi ga itakute deraremasen. 

As my feet hurt, I can't go out. 

Kurakutf ashimoto ga miemasen. 

It is so dark that I cannot see where I am going {ashimoto 

that which is about the feet). 
Samukute shiyd ga nai. 
It is unbearably cold (lit. being cold, there is no way of 


To state the cause explicitly, one must say itai kara, etc. To 
state the result explicitly, hodo may be added : Kurakute 
ashimoto ga mienai hodo desu. 

(3.) Of two clauses involving a contrast the first may be 
subordinated to the second. 

Shim-mai wa umakute ko-mai wa mazui. 

New rice is delicious, [but] old rice is unpalatable. 



(4.) When wa is added to the subordinative it is made 
emphatic. In most cases it then has a conditional sense and is 
often followed by a negative word like ikemasen or narimasen 
or by a verb like komarimasu " [am] perplexed." The te wa 
is commonly contracted to cha. 

Omokucha ikemasen It mustn't be heavy. 
Nakucha narimasen [I] must have [it]. 

These forms may also be pronounced omokutcha> nakutcha. 

(5.) The addition of mo to the subordinative gives it a con- 
cessive sense. 

yasukute mo though it may be cheap. 

itakute mo though it may hurt. 

okute mo (oku to mo, oku mo} at the greatest. 

Sukunakute mo (sukunaku to mo, sukunaku mo) at least. 


hinta leisure. ayashii doubtful, suspicious. 

J-okori dust. himojii hungry. a 

hoshi star. hisashii long continued (Jiisa- 

kokoro heart, mind. shiku for a long time). 

moto bottom, foot ( no moto isogashii^. 

ni under). sewashii \ U ^' 

ashi-moto what is under or kurai dark. 

about one's feet. nigai bitter. 

ho-bune, ho-kake-bune sail- okashii ridiculous, funny. 

boat. otonashii quiet, well-behaved. 

furu-hon second-hand book, semai narrow. 

bozu priest. suzushii cool. 

kesa priest's scarf. yakamashii noisy, clamorous. 

* (c) stomach. yasui cheap. 

baku-ro jockey, horse-dealer, ofcoro-yasuifam\]\z.r, intimate. 

betto groom, hostler. hikae-ru to be moderate. 

kuki air, atmosphere. komaru y kornatte be perplexed, 
za-skiki apartment, room (in embarrassed. 

a hotel). mie-ru be visible, seen. 

a The usual expression for " hungry" is hara ga , hetta (tieritnashita) 
from hcr-u to diminish, or, especially among women and children, o naka get 
mita (sukimashita), from suku to be empty, thinned out. 


negau t negatte desire, request, jitsu (c) ni 1 truly, really, 

tamatu be able to endure. makoto ni ) indeed. 

yosu stop (tr.), give up. kyu (c) ni 7 suddenl 

sam-po suru take a walk. niwaka ni ) 

de-kake-ru go out (from one's shi-ju from beginning to end, 

house). constantly, always. 

sampo ni de-ru (dekake-ru) naze why ? (with ka at the 

go out for a walk. end of the sentence). 

chitto a little. doka in some way or other, 

chitto mo not in the least please ! (p. 4/a). 

(with a negative word). domo an expletive (p, 46a). 
oi-oi (ni) gradually. 


Kono hon wa wakariyas kute omoshiro gozaimas* . Nodo ga 
itakute hanashi ga dekimasen. Kono ji wa mutsukasti kute 
oboeniku gozaimas . Kono zasti ki ni wa hito ga oi kara, kuki 
ga warui. To&te mo arukimasho. Bimbo hima nashi. a 
Takak'te mo kaimasho. Okash kute tamarimasen. b Wata- 
kushi wa nemukute tamarimasen. Yas* kute mo kaimasen. 
Domo, samukute tamarimasen. Ji ga yok'te mo bunsh) ga 
warui. Kimi wa okasti ku nai ka. Jie, chitto mo okasli ku 
nai. Naze sonna ni yakamashii ka. Uchi no kodomo wa 
otonasti ku nakute mako'o ni komarimas 1 . Watakushi wa 
isogasJikute s koshi mo hima ga gozaimasen. Domo, nomi ga 
okute komarimas'. Domo kurakute miemasen. Hoshi ga 
mienaku narimasJita. Sensei no oshietaji wa kazu ga okute 
komarimas 1 . Anata wa o kuni ye kaerito gozaimasen ka. lie, 
Tokyo wa omoshlroi tokoro des* kara, kuni ye wa c kaerito 
gozaimasen. Himojii toki no mazui mono nashi. d Hima no 
aru toki ni wa tabako ga nomitaku narimas . e Ano kata wa 
michi ga chika&te mo shiju basha ni norimas . Itto basha ni 
norimashd ka, ni to ni norimasho ka. Ni to basha wa 

a The language of proverbs approaches the literary style, and particles are 
used sparingly. Bimbd=bimbd-nin. 

b It is too funny : one can't help laughing. 

c This iva marks the antithesis between T5ky6 and kuni. 

d " Hunger is the best sauce." The words mazui mono nashi, expressing the 
idea of zest or relish, are treated here like a substantive. 

e Notice that here ga occurs, whereas we naturally expect wo. The latter 
also would be correct. 


kitanakute noremasen. Tokyo no t~;ri iva semai tokoro ga oi. 
Natsu no hi wa nagakute asa no koto wo (what happened in 
the morning) wasuremas '. Yas* kereba kaimasho ; takakereba 
yoshimasho. Daibu o atsuku narimasJita. Oioi o samuku 
narimastita. Hisasli ku o me ni kakarimasen deshta. a Haji- 
mete o me ni kakarimasti ta ; doka, o kokoroyas ku negai- 
mas . b YorosJiku negaimas ^ Kono jurukon wa uru hito ga 
okute kau hito ga s ' kunai kara, yasii gozaimas . BettJ to 
bakuro wa hito no warui^ mono ga o gozaimas'. Ryo-yaku 
(=yoi kusuri) wa kuchi ni nigashi (Proverb). Ji ga mutsu- 
kasti kucha ikemasen. O kega ga nakutte yj gozaimasJita. e 
Bozu ga nikukerya kesa made nikui (Proverb). . Yoku mo 
nakereba waruku mo nai. f Kotoba okereba sh'ma s* kunashi 
(Proverb), s 

To-day it has become very cool ; until (made wa) yesterday, 
there being no wind, h it was quite hot. It has suddenly 

a This is the usual formula on meeting a friend after a long separation. 
Frequently only the first word of the sentence is used. For hisashikn we may 
substitute shibaraku. 

b Here also we have a very common phrase. More fully expressed it would 
be o kokoroyasukti o niajiwari (or tsuki-ai} ivo negaimasu t or o kokoroyasuku shite 
kudasaru yd ni negaimasu (lit. I desire that you will please do familiarly) I 
hope we may become well acquainted. K-tidasaru to condescend is the verb 
from which the imperative kudasai is derived (p. 37d) I n shite kudasaru yd ni 
negaimasu we have a still higher degree of politeness than in shite kudasai. 

c Fully expressed this would be something like yot'oshiku uasatte kndasarn 
yd ni negaimasu (lit. I desire that you will do favorably) Please deal kindly 
with me. Nasatte or nets' tte is the subordinative of nasam, the polite equiva- 
lent of s uru to do, from which the imperative nasai is derived. In Sato san ni 
yoroshiku negaimas the word " to say " is understood: Sato san ni yoroshiku itte 
kudasaru yd ni negaimasu (lit. I desire that you will please speak favorably to 
Mr. Sato) Please remember me kindly to Mr. Sato. Itte is the subordinative of 
iu to say. One may say more briefly, Satd san ni yoroshiku itle kudasai or 
simply Sato san ni yoroshiku, or, if the circumstances make the meaning plain, 
yoroshiku negaimasu. 

d Hito is often used as here in the sense of character. 

e It was fortunate that you were not hurt. 

f In this sentence the conditional inflection is used simply in lieu of a 
connective : It is neither good nor bad. 

g Many words, little sense. The original meaning of shina (p. 19) is 

h This may be translated kaze ga nakute or kaze ga aritnasen deshita kara. 
Best, perhaps, would be kaze ga nai no de, which conveys the idea of cause 
more distinctly than the first and not so expressly as the second. The 
Japanese naturally prefer a hazy expression, and kara indicates the relation 
of cause and effect with a degree of precision not required in such a sentence. 

xxx] INFLECTIONS j 05 

become cold. The weather is doubtful to-day. The dust is so 
dreadful (hidoi) that [one] can't go out (deraremaseii). The 
fishermen's boats are not out (dete imasen), because the wind 
was [too] strong. The sailboats do not go out, because there 
is no wind. The wind being strong, the dust is dreadful. As 
this beer is bitter, I cannot drink it (nomemasen). Even though 
the water (yti) is tepid, it's all right. This book is hard to 
understand and not interesting. As my throat is sore (itai), 
I cannot smoke. He smokes even though his throat is sore. 
In (wa) this room the air is good, because there are few 
persons [in it]. These characters are small and hard to read. 
These characters, though small, are easy to read. [I] eat (am 
eating) moderately (kikaete], because [my] stomach is bad. 
Really it is unendurably hot (being hot it is not endurable). 
As [I] have no time [I] cannot go out for a walk. Though it 
is dark, I can see where I am going (what is under the feet 
can be seen). It is so dark that the way has become indistinct 
(wakaranai) The characters which the master [has] taught 
[me] are hard to remember, even though the number is small 
(few). I wish to return to my own country (kuni yi). I have 
become thirsty for a glass of water. 


In the classical language the attributive form of the adjective 
may be used as a noun, a word like hito, mono, kata or ho (c) 
being understood ; e.g., tadashiki righteousness, from tadashi 
(coll. tadashii). Such a form in ki sometimes occurs in 
speeches, as in the phrase hanahadashiki ni itatte wa " in an 
extreme case " (lit. reaching to extreme). Compare yoshi 
ashi* good and evil, i.e., qualities, characteristics. 

In the following instances adjectives in the colloquial form 
are used as substantive : 

Atsui samui heat and cold. 

a Ashi is contracted from As his hi t the literaty equivalent of ivanii. Ex- 
cepting ashishi, adjectives whose stems end in shi are inflected thus : yoroshiki, 
yoroshiku t yoroshi. Notice that in Brinkley's Dictionary adjectives are ar- 
ranged according to their conclusive forms, but not consistently. 

io6 THE ADJECTIVE [xxxi 

Amai mo karat mo shitte oru. 

He is a man of insight (lit. knows both sweet and bitter). 

Kane no aru nai mo shiranai de iru. a 

He doesn't know whether lie has money or not. 

The stem of an adjective may be used as a noun : 
taka the amount, from takai high. 
ara offal (of fish), from arai coarse. b 
shiro the white, from shiroi. 
kuro the black (of dogs or of the stones used in playing 

go, a game like checkers). 

Notice the expression omoshiro hambun half in jest. 
The stem may also occur in compounds. 

(i.) It may be united with another adjective : 
Juru-kusai trite, antiquated, obsolete, from furni old and 

kusai (lit. malodorous). 

lioso-nagai slim, from hosoi slender and nagai long. 
usu-gurai dimly lighted, gloomy, from usui thin and kurai 


(2.) The stem may be combined with the verb sugiru to 
exceed : taka-sugiru it is too high (dear). It is usual pleonas- 
tically to prefix amari, thus : 

Amari atsusugimasu. It is too hot. 

(3.) The stem may enter into combination with a noun 
(Compare p. 15) : 

aka-nasu tomato, from akai red and nasu egg-plant. 
kuro-shio the Japan Current, from kuroi black, dark and 

shio salt, brine, tide, current. c 
shira-uwo name of a small white fish, from shira= shiro 

and uwo fish. 
usu-cha a drink made of a small quantity of very strong 

tea (in cha-no-yu). 

The drink made by taking a larger quantity of weaker tea is 
koi cha, not ko-cha. 

a One way of making the negative suborclinative of a verb is to add de to a 
negative form. Thus shiranai de iru corresponds to the positive shitte iru. 

b Ara also means "defect": ara wo tit to criticise. Ara ga "wakarimasen 
No defect is perceptible. 

c The character used in this connection is not the one commonly used for 
salt, but ushio, signifying the water of the ocean. 




To this class belong compounds with so " appearance:" a To- 
so desu. It seems far. Compare : Toi so desu. It is said to 
be far. So na (or da) so desu So it is said (For na compare 
p. 95a) From^/ and nai are derived the irregular forms yosaso 
desu it seems good and nasaso desu there seems to be none, or 
(with an adjective) it does not seem. Notice kawai-so desu is 
pitiable or kawai-so na hito desu is a pitiable case (person), 
from kaivaii lovely. 


higashi east. 

nishi west. 

minami south. 

kit a north. b 

akari light. 

akari-tori an opening in the 

wall or roof for lighting a 

room (toru to take). 
ame rain. 
katawa cripple. 
nasu y nasubi egg-plant. 
aka-nasu tomato. 
uri melon. 
uwo fish. c 
hitoe-mono unlined garment 

(hi toe p. 64). 
awase lined garment (awase- 

ru to join). 

wata cotton. 

wata-ire padded garment. 
ho direction, side, region. 
ro-ka corridor. 
ryo- shin (=futa-oya) parents. 
un-do movement, exercise. 
abunai dangerous. 
/losoithin, narrow, fine. 
kashikoi clever, shrewd. 
kusai malodorous, offensive. 
usui thin, rare, light (of color). 
kawaii lovely, charming. 
kawaiso na pitiable. 
furu- kusai trite. 
hoso-nagai slender. 
furu, Jutte fall down from 

ame ga Juru it rains. 

a The idea of "to seem" may also be expressed by yd desu with an attri- 
butive adjective or verb. 

Kkvaji wa tdi yd desu. The fire seems distant. 
Chikai yd de taihen toi yd desu. It seems near, but is very far. 
Md o mezame ni natta yd desu. He seems now to be awake. 
b The points of the compass are here given in the Japanese order. The 
four points are called collectively td-zai-narn boku, from to, sat, nan, hoku (c). 

c Uivo is the classical word. Etymologically saka-ria means fish as food, 
but it is now applied also to living fish. 


naku-naru. nakunatte dis- suberu, subette slide. 

appear (iiakunatta is lost, kori ice. 

dead). a kdri-suberi skating. 

sugi-ru pass by, exceed. tsuke-ru soak, pickle. b 

taku, taite kindle, heat, cook, motto more. 


Kono key a wa mado ga s'kunakute usugurai. Ano Igiris'jin 
TV a taihen hosonagai kata des". Tenki iva yosasd des\ Kono 
hon wa amari omoshiroku nasasd des . Kwaji wa tdi so des . 
Yu ga amari atsusugiru kara, mizu wo ippai irete moraitai. c 
Kono ni san nichi wa hitoemono wo kite wa d suzttshisugiru yd 
des\ Kono rdka wa akaritori ga nakute usugurai. Kyd wa 
amari suzushisugimas* kara, awase wo. kimashd. Kotoshi no 
haru wa amari attakasugimas . Kdrisuberi wa omoshirosd 
des' keredomo, abunai ka to omoimas '. e Sore wa nak'te mo 
yosasd des' . Kono kimono wa yosugimas* . Kyd wa taihen 
samusd desu . Shirouri wa misozuke ni suru to, f taiso umd 
gozaimas\ Shirauwo wa chiisai sakana no na des ; iro ga 
yuki no yd ni shiroiz kara shirauwo to Uinas 1 . Ano katawa 
wa hitori de arukemasen h kara, kawaisd des\ Nihon de wa 
akanasu ga yoku dekimasen. Kono tsukemono wa umasd des . 
lie, shio ga karakute mazu gozaimas '. Sono hanashi wa 
Juruk'sai, Kono hen wa kuroshio ga kuru kara, taihen attaka 
des\ J Higashi-kaze de amari attakasugiru kara> ame ga 

a Lit. become not existent. With suru a corresponding active verb may be 
formed: Kyonen kodomo ivo san nin nakushimashifa. Last year [I] lost three 

b From the stem of this verb may be formed such nouns as tsuke-mono 
pickle, shio-ziike salt pickle, kasn-zuke (Jsasit the dregs of sake], miso-zitke, etc. 

c See p. 9211. 

d Here kite wa has a conditional sense. Compare omokute wa, etc. (p. 102). 

e Ka simply helps to express doubt and is not to be translated. 

f Translate : If you pickle white cucumbers in miso (lit. make into miso 

g Translate : white as snow (lit. white after the manner of snow). 

h Hitori de arukemasen cannot walk alone. From verbs of the first class 
described on page 10 the potential form may be derived by substituting rare- 
ru for nt, thus : derare-ru, from dent. In the case of a verb of the other class, 
substitute e-ru or are-ru for the u of the conclusive form, thus: aruke-ruo* 
Jirukare-m, from arukn. 

\ For attaka desu see Ch. XXXIII. 


Juru ka mo shiremasen. a Mada wataire wo kirn ni wa kayo 
gozaimas 1 . Kono hon wa omoshiroku nai so des\ 

That Chinaman is slender. It seems cold, but anyhow (sore 
de mo) [I] will go out for exercise. [That] was a dreadful 
storm last night, but to-day the weather seems fine (good). 
This book is interesting, it is said. Because the cold b at (of) 
Boston is too severe (strong), I will go south (ininami no ho 
ye). Because the bath (yu) is too tepid, I wish you would 
heat it more. c Skating seems difficult. She is very clever, it 
is said. It does not seem cold to-day. That child, both 
parents being dead (nakunatte), is to be pitied (kawaiso). This 
tai is too dear at (de wa) one yen. The pupils will forget 
everything (all), because the summer vacation is too long. 


An adjective may be derived from a noun by adding rashii. 
This usually means " having the appearance of," but frequently 
it denotes a real quality, like our suffixes " ish," " ly," etc. 

yakusha- rashii resembling an actor. 

skosei-rashii resembling a student. 

otona-rashii resembling an adult. 

honto rashii sounding like the truth, plausible. 

uso rashii sounding like a lie. 

so-rashii apparently so. 

baka-rashii foolish, looking like a fool. 

kodoino-rashii childish, looking like a child. 

otoko-rashii manly. 

This rashii may even be added to verbs; e.g., kimatta- rashii 
apparently decided, from kimatta it has been decided. It 
may be added to the stem of an adjective ; e.g., niku-rashii, 
from nikui detestable, kawai-rashii t from kawaii charming, 

a It may perhaps rain (lit. It may rain ? one cannot know). This ka mo 
shiremasen, like ka to omoimasu, is much used to round off sentences. In the 
former the ka is strongly accented. 

b Use here wa, Grammatically "the cold" is, at least in English, in a 
dependent clause, but it is the logical subject. 

c Motto taite moraitai. With taku t furo ni hi wo is understood (fttro bath). 
To heat the water- is yu wo wakasu (ivakasu cause to boil). One may also say 
fui~o wo wakasn or furo wo tate-m. 


beloved. If there is any difference in the sense, kawai-rashii 
is more objective than kawaii. 

The suffix gamashii also denotes a resemblance, or a quality 
described by the word to which it is attached : 

tanin-gamashii behaving like a stranger, distant. 
katte- gamashii apparently inconsiderate, from katte 

one's own convenience. 
sashi-de-gamashii intruding, impertinent. 
shitte-iru-gamashii pretending to know. 

These words are used in a bad sense. Thus tanin-gamashii 
is an epithet applied to one who really is a relative or was a. 
friend, but acts as though he were not (for ta-nin see p. 50). 
The word katte-gamashii is a term applied apologetically to 
one's own conduct : 

Amari katte gamashii koto wo moshiagemasu ga 

Excuse the presumption, but 

Kisama sonna shitteirugamashii koto wo iu mon ja nai. 
You have no business to be talking about things you don't 

An adjective may be a compound derived from a noun and 
an adjective : 

na-dakai famous, from na name and takai high. 
shio-karai salty, from shio salt and karai acrid. 
shinjin-bukai pious, from shin-jin piety and Jukai deep. 
aburakkoi fatty, from abura fat and koi dense, thick. 
te-arai violent, from te hand and -arai rough. 

Notice especially the frequent use in compounds of the 
adjective kusai malodorous, offensive. It indicates that the" 
idea expressed by the word with which it is combined is dis- 
tasteful or disgusting : 

mendj-kusai, mendokusai vexatious, from niendj trouble. 
inaka-kusai rustic, from inaka country. 
jijii-kusaiy from/z/Vz old man. 

seiyj-kusai (an epithet applied to unwelcome importations 1 
from western countries). 

Attention has already been called (p. 40 e) to the formation 
of adjectives from the stem of a verb and yasui (yoi) or nikui 
(katai) : 

xxxi i] COMPOUND FORMS 1 1 1 

oboi-yasui (yoi) easy to remember. 
wakari-yasui (yoi) easy to understand. 
wakari-nikui hard to understand. 
kokoroe-gatai hard to perceive, strange. 

The following are similarly formed : 

machi-doi long in coming, from malsu to wait and tji far. 

mawari-doi circuitous, from mawaru to go around. 

kiki-gurushii disagreeable to hear. 

mi-gurushii ugly. 

The verbal auxiliary beki (beku, beshi},* which occurs fre- 
quently in the literary language (e.g., yuku beshi may go, or, 
should go) is sometimes heard in the colloquial, especially 
before hazu. This *ioun hazu (" fitness ") often follows a 
verb, meaning in such a connection " ought." 

Kore kara wa attaka ni naru hazu desu. 

It ought to grow warmer from this time on. 

Kodomo wa oya no iu koto wo kiku beki hazu da. 

Children ought to obey their parents (lit. hear what the 

parents say). 

Notice that beki is suffixed to the conclusive form of verbs, 
not the stem. But in the case of verbs whose stem ends in e 
it may be attached either to the stem or to the conclusive form 
thus : age- beki or ageru beki (classical : agu-beki). 


Jiazu fitness (hazu desu kd-gi lecture. 

ought). men-do trouble. 

kugi nail. j|T nin-gyo doll (p. 94-b). 

otona adultr^' o-sho Buddhist priest. b 

(p] tera Buddhist temple. se-kai world. 

uso lie. shin-jin piety. 

yatsu fellow (contemptuous), shu-ha> shu sect. . 

thing (p. 28a). yaku-sha actor. 

a Compare the adverbial expression naru beku as much as possible, as in : 
J^ T ant beku hnyaku kosJiiraete agemasu. [I] will make it for you as soon as 

b This is the respectful term as compared with bozu y which now has a tinge 
of contempt. 


wa-gakusha 7 one versed in tsuku, tsuite strike, thrust, 
koku-gakusha\ native classi- utter. 

cal literature. a uso tvo tsuku (iu) lie. 

hon-to no, honto no true, real, shin-satsu suru examine med- 
Jion-to ni really. ically. 

mawari-doi roundabout, asoko, asuko there. 

tedious. / nochi ni after, afterwards. c 

na-dakai famous. b toki-doki at times, now and 
niku-rashii odious. then. 

isogu y isoide hurry. tabi-tabi at times, often. 

kiku> kiite hear, inquire. naru beku ") 

matsu, matte wait. naru take (dake) > .,, d 

machi-doi long delayed. dekiru dake y 


Sonna bakarashii (baka no), koto wo iu na. c Ano hito wa 
shoseirashu go z almas' . Sono hanashi wa hontorashn gozai- 
mastita ga t nochi ni kiitara y f uso de gozaimastita. Bis mar* & 
ko wa sekai ni nadakai hito des\ Sugawara no Michizane 
wa g taihen nadakai gak'sha destita. Misoztike to iu mono 
wa taihen shiokarai. IVatakushi wa hiru ni shiokarai mono 
wo tabemashta kara, taiso nodo ga kawaite kimasttta. As ko 
ni itu no wa^ kawairashii ii ko des\ Ano kwanri wa gaku- 
sharashii. Rono bunsho wa taiso mawaridoku kaite arimas '. 
O machidd sama destita. i Okyaku ga sakki kara irasshatte 

a A contrast with kan-gakusha (Chinese scholars) is implied. 

b Equivalent to this is na no aru or yu-mei na from the Chinese yu=ant 
and tnei=na. 

c Like ato de (p. 59) this may be used as a conjunction, but only after a past 
verb. When it is used as a conjunction, ni may be omitted. Both ato de and 
nocJdmvte used also as adverbs. The former is rather more common in the 
colloquial than the latter. 

d With adverbs these are synonymous. But standing alone naru bekii (wa) 
or naru dake means " if at all possible," while dekirti dake means as much as 
possible." A T aru beku (dake) mairimashd. Dekiru dake itashimasho. 

e Negative imperative from iu to say. ^ 

f Past conditional from kiku to hear, inquire. 

g Died a thousand years ago (903). The no between the family-name and 
the given name may be omitted : it is the rule to omit it in all modern names. 

h This no is equivalent to mono. 

i A frequent apology : Pardon me for keeping you waiting. 

xxxu] COMPOUND FORMS 1 1 3. 

machidoku omotte trass haru desho. Kono byjin de wa mai- 
nichi nadakai is ha ga f'tari bydnin wo shinsatsu shimas\ 
\Vatakushi wa Berrin ni orimastitajibun ni nadakai daigaku 
no sensei no* kogi wo kikimastita. Kanji wo narau no wa^ 
mendjk 'sat. Ano hito wa hontorashii uso wo is* kimas . Ano 
Seiyojin no kao wa Nihonjinrashii. Ano f'tari no toinodachi 
wa taihen naka ga yd gozaimas ka. Sorashii gozaimas 1 . 
Monto-shTt wa shinjinbukai ho des . c Kono hako no naka ni 
kngi ga ta&san aru (beki) hazti des . Ima no gakko ni wa 
bozuk'sai sensei wa naku narimash'ta. Naru beku isoide 
koshiraete kudasai. Honto ni nikurashii yatsu da yo. 

Motoori was a famous Japanese scholar. That gentleman 
looks like an official. The story seemed false, but it was true. 
Kdya san (1 in (of) Kishu is a famous Buddhist temple. That 
old lady is pious and often goes (mairu) to the Buddhist 
temple. This is a lovely doll. How (do stite) have you. 
become so (sonna tit) thirsty? Because (kara des') I have 
eaten some very salty herring. That old gentleman is childish. 
He says many (jfoku) foolish things. That man looks like an 
actor. It is such a bother (vexatious 3) to write (no wa 2) 
letters (i). The Japanese do not eat very (amari) fatty foods. 
That girl is like an adult. Kobo Daishi was a very famous 
Buddhist priest. 


A great many words that are really substantives are used 
as adjectives. In the attributive position they take suffix na t 
a contraction of naru (ni ani = de ant)\ in the predicative 
position they take da, desn, de gozaimasu (See p. 34c). The 
particles ni and de may also be affixed. The form with ni is 

a Either: a famous university professor, or. a professor of a famous univer- 

b This no is equivalent to koto. 

c The Mon-to (inon gate, i, e., school, to followers) sect is commonly called 
Shin (truth) sect. Like Protestant Christians, it emphasizes salvation by faith 
rather than by works. Its founder was Shinran Shonin. See Murray's Hand- 
book, List of Celebrated Personages. In this sentence ho, side, with shinjin- 
bukai gives the sense of comparatively pious, pious as compared with other 

d Founded by Kobo Daishi^ who spent his last days there. 


adverbial ; that with de corresponds to the subordi native. 
To this class belong many words ending in a, such as : 

akiraka na clear, evident. 

nigiyaka na thronged, bustling, lively. 

skizuka na quiet, calm, slow. 

The stems of a few adjectives in i are combined with na 
(ni, de, desti) in the same manner : 

attaka na warm attakai. 

komaka na fine, minute, from komakai. 

yawaraka na soft, tender, from yawarakai. 

makka na deep red, from makkai (ina real, akai red). 

oki na great, from okii. 

chiisa na small, from c/iiisai. 

okashi na ridiculous, from okashii. 

But it is to be observed that the last three are not combined 

with ni, de, desu, except in the case of the adverb oki ni 

greatly, very. The regular inflections of the forms in / are 
used instead. 

Other words of native origin are likewise made to serve as 
adjectives : 

baka na foolish. 

iya na disagreeable. 

sakan na flourishing, prosperous. 

suki na agreeable, favorite. 

mono-zuki na curious, meddlesome. 

Most of the adjectives of this class are compounds derived 
from the Chinese : 

cho-kj na convenient, useful, valuable. 
kek-ko na grand, splendid, capital. 
nyu-wa na gentle, amiable. 
ri-ko na clever, smart. 
shikkei na disrespectful, rude. 
shin-setsu na kind, careful. 
sh:,-jiki na honest, artless. 
fu-sh.Jiki na dishonest. 
iaisj na large, magnificent. a 
taku-san n a many. 
zan-nen na regrettable. 

a It would not be in order to say fniso desu.] FORMS WITH Na 115 

Simple Chinese words may also be used in this way: 
hen na strange, peculiar, dubious. 
myd na strange, wonderful, admirable. 

To the same class belong yd na (Compare kayo na, etc., p. 

Anata no yd na hito a person like you. 

Instead of no yd na one may say mita yd na (ini-ru see), often 
contracted to mitai na : 

Bdzu (wo) mita yd na hito a man looking like a priest. 
Kuma (u>o) mitai na otoko a fellow looking like a bear. 

Observe also so na y which is added to the stems of adjectives 
and verbs : 

Kashiko-sd na (rikd-sd no) hito a clever-looking person. 

Ame ga Juri-sd desu. It seems to be raining. 

Anie gafuri-sd na mon desu. We shall likely have rain. 

Deki-sd na mon desu. It seems practicable. 
The effect of adding mon in the last two sentences is to bring 
out the subjective aspect of the idea, suggesting the hope that 
it will rain or that the plan may be accomplished. 


(Include the adjectives given above) 

aji taste, shiru-ko a dish made of mochi, 

fuji wistaria. an and sugar. 

ishi stone. te-nugui towel (iiuguu wipe). 

(p) kayu gruel made of rice, den-shin telegraph. b 

kaze wind. pe-nan 1 

sora^y. slun.ob^ nservant "boy. 

soroban abacus. gi-ji-dj legislative assembly 

takara treasure, wealth. hall. 

zeni coins, cash, change. a hen-ji reply. 

furu-mai behavior. ke-shiki, kei-shoku scenery. 

a Zeni c.riginally denoted various kinds of coins which in feudal times were 
made of iron or bronze and had a hole in the center. 

b Den-shin may also mean a telegraphic dispatch, but a telegram is more 
commonly called dem-po. 

c With ge-nan compare ge-jo. Shimo-le (as also shirno me\ from shimc=.^e 
(c) or shita, is rather a classical word. 




ken-chiku building ( sum 
to build). 

kok-kwai diet, parliament, 

nin-ki temper of the people. 

hazukashii ashamed, shame- 
ful, a 

karui light (of weight). 

oshii prized, regrettable. 

owaru end, finish. 

owari no \ , 

shima* no \ last ' conclu dmg. 

atsumaru assemble (intr.). 

kuzusu tear down (a house), 
change (money). 

nagame-ru gaze at. 

nage-ru throw, fling. 

odoru dance. 

suwaru sit. b 

yarn send, give, do. c 

hinta wo yarn discharge, dis- 

miss (with ni). 
tabi (wo) sum journey. 
yoru approach ( ni yoru call 

toku, toite loose, disentangle, 


toki-akasu explain. 
bo-saki wo kirn take a per- 

centage. d 

. immediately. 
i) ) 

zan-ji a little while. 
to with. 


Kyd wa shizuka na hi des* ; kaze mo nani mo arimasen. e Oi- 
oi attaka ni narimas'. Konnichi wa attaka des* kara, awase 
wo kimasho. Shogwatsu wa nigiyaka des . Asak'sa no Kwan- 
non wa f nigiyaka na tokoro des' ; mainichi tak? san na hito ga 

a Like our English word "fearful," hazukaskii may be either objective 
(dreadful, shameful) or subjective (afraid, ashamed). But, while in English 
the context makes it plain which sense is intended, the Japanese seem to be 
hardly aware of the distinction. 

b This properly means sitting in Japanese fashion. " To sit on a chair " is 
isu ni koshi luo kake-ru (p. 58). To unbend the limbs and stretch them out on 
the floor as foreigners generally do is hiza wo kuzusu (Jiiza knee). 

c The polite word for " to give " is age-ru ; but yarti is the more suitable 
word to use toward one's servants or children. In the sense of lt to do": 
Anata wa tadairna nani ivo yatfe oide nasaimasu ka. What are you doing now ? 
See also example on p. 61. 

d From bo a pole used by coolies, or the bar of a balance, and saki tip. The 
peculiar expression " to cut the tip of the stick " is used of a chief coolie taking 
a percentage of the wages of those whom he employs, or of a servant who slyly 
takes a commission on purchases that he makes for his master, or, what 
amounts to the same thing, accepts a bribe from a tradesman. 

e There is no wind nor any thing [to disturb the tranquility of the day]. 

f A famous temple of the Buddhist divinity Kwannon. 


demas' . TaisJ kekko na toket de go z aim as . Shyiki de riko 
na shimobe wa ie no takara des' . a Ano kata wa riko na hito 
des' keredomoyfushojiki des' . Betto wa taiteifusJijjikina mono 
des' . Denshin ya denwa to in mono wa chjhj na mono des ; 
zanji no aida ni toi tokoro ni iru hito to (iii) mo hanashi wo 
sum koto ga dekimas' . Anata no genan wa shojiki des' ka. 
Saydy taihen shojiki de chitto mo bosaki wo kirimasen. Shjjiki 
na bakuro wa s kunai ; shjjiki na bettd mo s' kunai. Ano kyoshi 
wa taihen ni shinsetsu de, mata oshiertt no mo jozu des' . b Ano 
hito w a kogi ga saisho heta desh'ta ga, konogoro wajjzu ni 
narimaslita. Sonna baka na koto wo sum na. c Sakura no 
hana wa nakanaka kirei des keredomo y oshii koto ni wa d jiki 
ni chitte s him aim as' . IVatakushi wa zannen na koto wo itashi- 
mastita. Ano onna wa nyuwa de riko des\ Sore wa hyak'- 
shj no yj na furumai des\ Ano hito wa iya na kao wo sh'te 
imas\ Anata wa odori ga o s ki des ka. Dai s' ki des' 
keredomo, heta des\ e O shiruko wa onna no s* ki na mono des . 
Tetsudo wa hayaku tabi ga dekite chJij na mon des . Sato 
wa shikkei na hito des . Naze des' ka. Watakushi ga tegami 
wo yarimaslite mo f henji wo yokosJite kuremasen. Kono btm- 
shl no imi wa akiraka ni narimaslita ka. Sayo t sensei ga 
shinsetsu ni toki akasJite kuremash'ta kara y yoku wakari- 
masJita. Sake ni yotte kao ga makka ni natta. Osaka wa 
taisj sakan na lokoro des'. Kono f'tari no ko wa uri wo 
f'tatsu ni watta yd des'. S Yawaraka na tenugui wo motte koi, 
kore de wa ikenai kara. h Kono gakkd ni wa soroban no taiso 

a Tn this semi-proverbial expression one may substitute for shimobe its 
-Chinese equivalent bokit. 

b The idiom is orclinally kogi ga jdzu dtsu, oshieni 110 gajdzu desu, or kogi ga 
heta desu, oshieru no ga heta desu. 

c Negative imperative from sum to do. 

d Oshii koto standing alone would mean " How affecting ! " With ni wa this 
ejaculation becomes an adverbial phrase. 

e Dai siifo very fond, from dai (c) great (p. 55b). The opposite is dai kirai 
(p. QIC). 

f '\ r &rimashitt mo thougli (one) sends. Compare yastukutc mo, etc. (p. 102). 

g Compare the German " They resemble each other as one egg is like 
another," or the English " They are as like as two peas." In such sentences 
yo is to be translated "as if," "as though:" ivatta yd desu as though one 

h Compare kore de iva ikenai with omokute wa ikenai (p. 102). Compare also 
Sere de ii That will do. Futatsn de takusan desu. Two are enough. 

n8 THE ADJECTIVE [xxxnr 

jdzu na sensei ga arimas . Kokkwai-gijido no kenchiku wa 
taiso na mon des\ Kore wa umaso na mikan da. Kyo wa 
samusj na tenki des . DJ ka shiyo ga ariso na mon des\ a 
Kono hon wa furui yd des . Tokyo no hito wa monozuki des '/ 
tad a kawa ni is hi wo nageta bakari de mo sugu ni hito ga 
tafrsan yotte kimas : kochira no ninki mo so des ; tada dare ka 
sora wo nagameta bakari de mo hito ga sugu ni atsumatte 
kimas . O Kiyo san wa hazukashisj ni suwatte irasshaimas\ 
An at a no o ko san wa o riko des kara, gakumon ga yoku o 
deki nasaimasho. b 

This poem seems difficult. The shrines of Nikko are very 
grand ; the scenery also is grand. Kaga was a great daimyo. c 
Sick persons for the most part (yoku) eat gruel or soft rice. In 
(wa) spring there are many calm days. To-day, since the 
weather seems fine (good), we will go to Kameido d to see 
the wistaria blossoms (fuji wo mi ni). From this time on it 
will grow (grows) gradually warmer (warm). Cut that up fine 
(komaka ni). This salt pickle has a peculiar taste (myo na aji 
ga shimas). Have you [any] small change? Yes (hai\ I 
have. Then please change this large bill. Having received 
from you (itadakimasJi te) recently a valuable gift (thing), I 
thank you very much (oki ni). The teacher explained toki- 
akasJite kuremasJita) this carefully, but I do not yet understand 
[it]. The last day of the festival of the dead (See p. ?6b) is 
very lively. Since it is a warm day there are many who go to 
Mukojima to see the blossoms. Why (do in wake de) did you 
dismiss your boy ? Because he was a dishonest fellow. Skil- 
ful tailors are dear. Don't say such foolish things. What 
kind of wood is the wood of the kiri (tree) ? It is light and 
soft. This dictionary seems bad. Those vases seem to be 
expensive (high). He seems to be a clever person. e He has 
a face like a monkey's. 

a There ought to be a way of managing it somehow (do ka]. 

b Notice the polite form of dekimasho. One may even hear o an nasaru for 

c The daimyo of Kaga, a province on the coast of the Sea of Japan, held a 
fief which yielded annually an income of more than a million koku of rice. 

d Kame-ide " tortoise-well " is the site of a famous shrine in honour of 
Sugawara Michizane near Tokyo. 

e Translate riko na yd desu or rikoso desn. So in the sense of "appearance " 
is immediately affixed to adjectives of the class described in the chapter ; riko- 
na (da) so desu would means : " He is said to be clever." 

xxx i v] FORMS WITH No 119 


Many adjectives are formed by means of the particle no : 

hidari no the 1 eft. 

migi no the right. 

ue no the upper. 

shita no the lower. 

tsugi no the next (kono tsugi no next to this). 

makoto no true. 

moto no original. 

mukashi no ancient. 

nama no raw, uncooked. 

nami no common, ordinary. 

atari-tnae no usual, ordinary. 

Adjectival expressions denoting time, place or material, 
formed by adding no to substantives, are especially numerous ; 

konogoro no recent. 
asoko no yonder. 
Nihon no Japanese. 
Amerika no American. a 
ki no wooden. 
kane no metallic. 

The stems of common adjectives are occasionally used with 
the postposition no : 

Aka no meshi {go zeri) rice cooked with red beans. 
Shiro no kinu-ito white silk thread. 

The stems of verbs may be turned into adjectives in the same 
way. Notice especially compounds with tate. b 

owari no, shimai no the last. 

kane-mochi no rich. 

ki-tate no just arrived, from kuru to come. 

kumi-tate no fresh (of water), from kuntu to draw (water). 

taki tate no fresh (of cooked rice) from taku to cook (rice). 

umi-tate no fresh (of eggs), from umu to lay. 

a In some connections the no may be omitted, as in Nihon seifu the Japanese 
Government, Doitsu tei the German Emperor (but Doitsu 110 tenshi]. 

b Observe also mizu shirazii no tanin a stranger whom I never saw and don't 


Technical adjectives like "scientific," "botanical," etc., are 
formed by the addition ofjd (c) = ue above, i. e., concerning 
(compare the German uber). For example, gakumon-jo means 
what pertains to learning : 

gakuuionjo kara iu naraba to speak scientifically. 

gakumoujj no scientific. 

shoku- butsu- gaku-jo no botanical shoku = ue-ru t butsu 

do- butsu- gaku-jo no zoological. 

i-gaku-jo no medical. 

Most of the words which with no form adjectives, as de- 
scribed above, may be used as nouns : 

IVatakushi wa niku no nama wo konoiniinasen. a 

I do not like raw meat. 

Kanemochi wa shiwai. The rich are stingy. 

The adverbial form, the subordinative and the predicative 
form are derived by adding #/, de and da (desu), respectively. 

With some words either no or na may be used : 

hadaka no or kadaka na naked. 
kanemocki no or kanemochi na rich. 
wazuka no or wazuka na little, trifling. 


(Include the adjectives given above) 

hashi bridge. kara- kane bronze (kara 
kane money. China). 

shiro castle. sanada-inushi tape- worm. 

eri collar. shachi-hoko grampus. b 

kara collar (European). e picture. 

mono-goto affairs. kin gold. c 
kagami mirror (kage reflec- gin silver. 

tion, mi-ru see). zo statue. 

a Colloquially the word nama is much used in the sense of "hard cash," 
being equivalent \.o gen-kin ready money. 

b The term shachihoko also denotes an architectural ornament, a conven- 
tionalized grampus, placed on the end of the ridge of a roof. 

c Kin is the Chinese equivalent of kane metal or money. In the sense of 
-"money" or "metal" kin is used only in composition. On the other hand, 
kane is never used in the sense of " gold." 

xxxiv FORMS WITH No 121 

dai-butsu large statue of mimi ga kikoenai be quite 

Buddha. deaf. 

en-zetsu address, oration. mimi ga toi be somewhat 
fu-zoku manners and customs. deaf. 

gyu-niku beef (com. p. QOe). kumu, kunde draw (water). 

shin-dai property. sasu stick, thrust, wear (in 
erai great, eminent. the hair, girdle, etc.). 

ji-yu na free. sashi-tsukae ga am there is a 
Ju-jiyu na restricted. a hindrance, [I] have an en- 

kennon na dangerous, risky. b gagement. 

agaru, agatte go up. c sewa assistance (comp. sewa- 
arau, aratte wash. d shii. 

dasu put forth, bring out. no sewa wo sum assist, 
kikoe-ru can hear, can be take care of. 

heard, sound. 


Atarashii kara wo dashimasho ka. lie t kind no kara de n. e 
Ano kito wa kanemochi des ka. lie, atarimae no shindai des . 
Ano shosei wa kasti koi des ka. lie, atarimae des . N.ama no 
niku wo taberu to, yoku sanadamushi ga dekimas\ Kodomo 
wa oya no f sewa wo suru no ga atarimae da. Nihonjin wa 
yoku nama no sakana wo tab em as' . & Izanagi to iu kami sama 
ga h umi de o kao wo o arai nasatta toki ni hidari no o me 
kara Amateras* to iu hi no kami sama ga o de nasatte migi 
no o me kara Tsukiyoini to iu tsuki no kami sama ga o de 

a Fujiyu is commonly pronounced fiijn. The word/Vy/i in the Japanese mind 
generally signifies the possession of ample means, and fttjiyu, accordh gly, 
means the lack of facilities or conveniences. 

b Probably a corruption of ken-nan, from ken peril and nan distress. 

c This is the polite word to use in speaking of going to or entering into a 
person's house. 

d Notice that verbs whose stems end in riot i preceded by a vowel do not 
add ru in the conclusive form but substitute u for i (p. 10), like agaru and 
arau, have subordinates in tie. 

e One may also say kino no de ii. 

f This is the objective genitive. 

g Namazakana is fresh fish as contrasted with salted or dried fish. 

h The language used in speaking of the gods is extremely polite. Izanagi 
and Izanami are the two deities who, according to Japanese mythology, created 
Japan and its people, dmaterasu is derived from ame heaven and terasu to 
illumine; 7'sttkiyotm, from tsuki moon, yo night and ini-ru to see. 

122 THE ADJECTIVE [xxxiv 

nasatta. Nama no tamago wo mittsu motte kite kudasai. 
Kore wa umitate no tamago des 1 ka. Sayo t militate de gozai- 
mas . I girls' jin no tame ni koshiraeta Eiwa-jisho ga nakute 
makoto ni Jujiyu des\ a Nikon no onna wa yoku gin no 
kanzashi wo saskimas*. Ano kilo wa kwazoku des ka. lie* 
nami no hito des' Takitate no gozen de nakereba oisti ku 
anmasen. O miya no uchi ni wa kane no kagami ga latete 
arimas 1 . Ano kata wa ikura kane wo motte imas' ka. Hyaku 
man yen motte iru so des' . Erai kanemochi des ne / Y.roppa 
de wa kiri no ki ivo shokubutsugakujo no na de " Paulownia 
imperialis " to iimas\ Kono e wa mukashi no frizoku ga kaite 
arimas\ Uchi no gejo wa kitate ni wa monogoto ga yoku 
wakafimasen destita. Kurumaya wa machi no naka wo 
hadaka de aruite wa ikemasen. b Kore wa kumitate no mizit, 
des ka. Sayo, tadaima kunda bakari des . Wazitka na koto 
de kenkwa wo stita. Ano shosel wa kanemochi na isha no 
tokoro ye yoshi ni ikimasttta. 

I do not know the medical name (wa) of this disease (byjki). 
I am very fond of (dai s ki des') raw beef. The earthquake 
(of) last evening was dreadful. The address (of) just now was 
very interesting. The Daibutsii of Kamakura c is a bronze 
statue ; its height is about fifty feet. On the tower (ten-shii) of 
the castle of Nagoya there are two golden shachihoko. Do 
you know the zoological name of this fish ? The original 
name of Kyushu was (called) Tsukushi. That happened long 
ago (is an ancient affair). Shall I bring to-day's newspaper? 
No, please bring yesterday's. Does your left hand hurt, [or] 
is it the right hand ? His right ear is deaf. Fresh eggs are 
delicious. The Japanese government hires many (yoku) 

a Ei-tua English-Japanese. The chief nations of the world are designated 
by single ideograms, thus : 

Nichi or Wa Japan Ei England Doku Germany 

Shitty Kan or Id China Bei America Futsu France 

Aan Corea I\an Holland J\o Russia 

Of these Shin, Kan (Corea), Ei> Bei, Futsic and Ro are combined with koku : 
Shinkokity Ei-koku, etc. Wa kan-sansai-zne <p. 95d). Nis-shin sen-so the war 
between Japan and China. Doku-futsn sen-so the Franco German war Nuhi- 
ei do-mei the Anglo-Japanese alliance, J\'o-shiu gin-ko the Russo-Chinese Bank. 
b. Aruite is a subordinative from anikit to walk. Notice that this verb may 
take an object. For aruite iva ikemasen see p. nyh. 

c Kamakura is near Yokohama. Yoritomo made it his capital in 1192. 


foreigners. In (ni wa) Japan there are many wooden bridges 
(wo), but stone bridges are still scarce. Next Saturday (ni 
iv a) I have an engagement ; so I will come to your house on 
Friday. a The last day of the year is called o-misoka. It is 
risky to eat (taberu no wa) raw meat. Is t;hat the botanical 
name ? 


As has been intimated previously (pp. 6, 13), the functions 
of an adjective may be performed by short clauses, such as 
yama ga oi mountainous, kuchi ga warui sarcastic, etc., which 
in the attributive position become yama no oi, knchi no warm* 
etc. Such expressions are very common in Japanese : 

ishi no oi stony. 

machigai no oi inaccurate (opp. nai). 
jin-kj no oi populous (opp. sukunai). 
otoko-buri no ii handsome (of a man opp, wartti). 
kao (ki-ryS) no ii beautiful (of a woman 

shiawase no ii (or shiawase no) fortunate 

un no ii lucky 

den, benzetsu no ii eloquent 

ben-ri no ii (or benri no) convenient, useful 

tsu-go no ii convenient, suitable 

yd-jin no ii cautious ,, 

kon-jo no ii good-natured 

i-ji no warui ill-natured, obstinate 
gen-ki no ii (or genki no) vigorous (opp. nai). 
as hi no hayai swift (of an animal). 
nagare no hayai swift (of a river). 

ki no hayai impulsive, not considering the consequences. 
ki no noroi phlegmatic (noroi sluggish). 
ki no nagai patient. 
ki no mijikai irritable. 

ki no tsuyoi determined to win, courageous. 
ki no yowai easily yielding, cowardly (yowai weak). 

a The polite term to be used here is agaru. But if a common word is used, 
it must be z'Xv/, not bunt. P'oreigners often puzzle the Japanese by using kuru 
in such cases, 

124 THE ADJECTIVE [xxxv 

ki no okii bold, enterprising, magnanimous. 

ki no chiisai cautious, circumspect, pusillanimous. 

sei no takai tall (opp. hikui). 

kiri nofukai foggy (kiri fog). 

yoku no Jukai avaricious (opp. nai\ 

me no chikai near-sighted. 

mimi no toi deaf. 

So also instead of na-dakai (p. no), one may say na no 
iakai ; instead of shinjin-bukai, shinjin no JukaL 

The opposites of some of the expressions given above may 
be formed by means of/# (bit) or mu negative prefixes derived 
from the Chinese : 

Ju-shiawase na unfortunate. 

ju-un na unlucky. 
fu-benri na inconvenient. a 

Ju-tsugo na inconvenient, improper, wrong. 

bu-kiryo {fu-kiryo) na homely. 

bu-yojin (fu-yofin) na careless, unsafe. 

vm-yoku na unselfish 

Compare Ju-shojiki na dishonest (p. 114), fu-shinsetsu na un- 
kind, bu-rei na impolite (p. 33c), mn-byd na healthy. b 


(Include the list given above) 

funa a fish resembling a carp, hatake a plot of cultivated 
hakama loose trousers, divid- ground, field, garden. d 
ed skirt. c iwa rock. 

a " Inconvenient " is more commonly fuben na. But fu-ben na (different 
character) might also mean "not eloquent," though the more common word is 
totsuben na from totsu (c) to stammer. 

b From yd need (in iri-yd} is derived fu-yd or mii-yd unnecessary. The 
latter also serves as a sort of negative imperative, as in the notice posted up 
in the Hongwanji Temple in Tokyo : Hiru-ne muyo. Midday naps forbidden ! 
Another negative prefix, mi, means " not yet : " mi-juku not yet ripe. Compare 
fu-skinja unbeliever and mi-shinja one not yet a believer. 

c Worn by gentleman in full dress. There are special names forcertain 
vaiieties, such as tima-nori-bakama used formely by samurai when riding on 
horseback, naga-bakama the trailing kind used at court, etc. The hakama 
in vogue among school girl are simply plaited skirts. 

d A plot kept under water for the cultivation of rice, etc., is called to. 


se shoal. aku, aite open (intr.). 

haya-se rap : ds. ana hole. 

sode sleeve. ana ga aku a hole is made. 

soko bottom. haku, haite wear (shoes, trou- 

sumi charcoal. sers, etc.). 

to door. hataraku, hataraite work. a 

mawari surroundings ( no nagare-ru flow, be carried 

maw art ni around). along by a current. 

sato exterior ( no soto ni shime- ru shut. 

outside of). shirase-ru inform. 

ha-gaki postal card. tanomu, tanonde ask, engage, 
mizu-umi , , rely upon. b 

ko-sui (c) } ii-tsuke-ru command. 

(p)tera-mairi visiting a (Bud- osu push, press. 

dhist) temple. oshi-age-ru push up. 

toshi-yori aged person ( no sei-batsu sum punish (rebels), 

aged). make war upon. 

kai-gan sea-shore, bund. zen-kwai suru fully recover 
yo-fuku European clothes. (from sickness). 

sei-ji political affairs. hi (fcwa-ji) wo dasu start a 
seiji-ka politician, statesman. conflagration. 

to-dai, tj- myo- dai lighthouse, koto #z especially. 

Cho-sen Corea. hi-jo ni extraordinarily. 


Hida wa yama no oi kuni da kara, jinko ga s'kunai. Nihon 
no kawa iva taigai nagare ga hayai kara, oki na ishi ga 
nagarete kimas . Anata no go tsugo no yot toki ni mairi- 
viasho. c Dozo go tsugj no yoi toki wo shirasete kudasai. 
Nihon no mawari no umi wa hijj ni sakana ga oi. Sato san 
wa ki no mijikai hito des* kara t tomodachi ga s'kuno gozai- 
mas\ Shinjin nof ' kai hito wa yoku teramairi wo shim as . 

a This word is also used like make-ru, to be defeated, in the sense of " to 
come down on the price," but without an object : Ni jissen makete agemastt. I 
will deduct twenty sen. Hachi jissen made hataraite agemasu. I will make (sell) 
it for the low price of eighty sen. 

b The idiom is : hito ni koto ivo tanomu to call upon a person for assistance, 
to ask a favor of one. O tanomi moshimasu. Please do me the favor. This 
phrase may be used by a caller to attract the attention of some one in the 

c Lit. at your convenient time, i. e., whenever it suits you. 

126 THE ADJECTIVE [xxxv 

Anata no o ani san wa go zenkwai nasaimash'ta ka. Jie, 
s'koshiyoku natte kara, a yojin get warukute hayaku soto ye 
demash'ta kara, mata wariiku narimastita. Sti ka to iu mono 
wa b taiken ashi no hayai mon des\ Ano kata wa toshiyori 
des 1 keredomo, genki ga yj gozaimas\ Nihon no kaigan wa 
iwa ga Di kara, seifu de c t^myjdai wo tak' san tatemasli ta. 
Senchj w a yojin no ii hito des kara, shizuka ni June wo yare 
/0 d His 1 kemasti ta keredomo, kiri ga f kakute tjmyodai no 
akari ga miemasen desh'ta c kara, June wo iwa ni oshiage- 
masfita ; shikashi June no soko ni ana ga akimasen destita 
no wa shiwase no ii koto deshita. Nihon wa ki no oi kuni des* 
kara, yoku sumi wo ts kaimas . Ki no s kunai kuni wa mizu 
ga s* kunai. Taikd wa ki no okii hito desJita kara, Ch sen 
made mo f seibatsu shimasKta. Yof'ku wa sode ga mijikakute 
hakama wo hakimasen kara^ hataraku tame ni& benri no ii 
mon des' (hataraku ni benri des'}. Itj ko wa daiseijika de 
benzetsu mo ii. To wo shimenaide nete wa buyojin des\ 

The bed (soko) of this river is stony. Postal cards are con- 
venient things. The French are impulsive, but the Germans 
are phlegmatic. Both Yamato and Kishu are mountainous 
countries. Mountainous places are sparsely populated (popula- 
tion is scarce). As the Fuji River is swift, there are many 
rapids. The I^ake of Omi (wa or ni wa) is full of fish ; large 
carp and (yd) funa (2), are especially (i) numerous (many 
(3). h He is obstinate and doesn't do what one asks of him 

a Translate : after recovering somewhat (p. 960). 

b The idiom to iu mono wa corresponds to our article " the " (p. i). 

c We should say : " the government has erected." The Japanese idiom is: 
"on the part of the government [they] have erected." When speaking of 
what is done societies, corporations, etc., this is the usual construction. 

d Imperative from yarn, to send \fune wo yaru to move a ship forward. In 
Japanese, quotations are usually given in the form of direct discourse, the 
dependence of the phrase on the principal verb being denoted simply by the 
particle to. In the case of imperatives a phrase may be changed into indirect 
disc n urse by the use of yd ni : shizuka ni fune wo yani yd ni iitsiikemashita 
(comp. p. iO4bc). A polite command quoted by the person to whom it was 
addr ssed is commonly changed into the impolite form : Defe koi to nioshi- 
mashita He said I should come out. 

e See p. 850. 
f See p. 53a. 

g Translate: "for working." When the pos position tame is added to 
verbs, no is not require 1. 

h Omi no fcosui or Biiva-ko, from biwa the name of. a musical instrument 
which it resembles in form and ko=mizuumi t is the largest body of .fresh 
water in Japan. It is situated near Kyoto. 


tanonda koto). These sentences are so inaccurate that cor- 
rection is impossible (mistakes being many [one] can not 
mend). The maidservant through carelessness (being careless) 
started a conflagration. She is homely, but her character is 
good (hito ga ii). The Bridge of Seta is a very famous 
bridge. a 


In the chapter on relative pronouns (p. 53) it has been 
observed that in Japanese a verb may modify a noun like an 
adjective. It follows that many English adjectives are re- 
presented in Japanese by verbal expressions : 

deki-ru possible, feasible (opp. dekinai}. b 

namake-ru, namakete iru lazy. 

wakaru intelligent. 

ben-kyo sum (shite iru] diligent (opp. Ju-benkyj no). 

Expressions like gaku-mon ga aru may perform the office of 
an attributive adjective by changing the ga to no c (Compare 
the previous chapter) : 

kagiri no aru limited, from kagiri limit. 
tsumi no aru guilty, from tsumi crime, sin. 
sai no aru talented, from sai ability. 
jim-bo no aru popular, homjim-dj popularity. 

These may be turned into their opposites by substituting nai 
for aru. 

Observe also the following combinations : 

kusuri ni naru curative, nu trio us. 

tame ni naru beneficial, advantageous. 

doku tit naru poisonous, noxious, from doku (c) poison. 

gat ni nani injurious, from gai injury. 

a Abridge over the Lake of (Jmi at the point where it empties its waters 
into the river called (at the lower end of its course) Yodogawa. 

b With the adverb yoku, dekirn also means "capable" \yoku dekiru hito an 
able man, on get kit no yoku dekiru hito a man well versed in music, a capable 
musician. But yoku dekite iru means " well made " (of a thing). 

c The no is omitted in some cases, thus : tai-mo aru liito&\\ ambitious person, 
fumbctsu aru hito a discreet person, gi-ri aru kyodai a step-brother or brother 
in law, from gi-ri right, obligation. - 

128 THE ADJECTIVE [xxxvi 

me ni tatsu (medatsu) conspicuous. 
yaku ni tatsu useful. 

Most of the verbs that serve as adjectives, if denoting a 
condition, are used in the past tense when attributive, and in 
the form of the subordinative with i-m or oru when predicative 
(p. 8 9 b) : 

aita vacant, from aku open (intr.). 

hiraketa civilized, from hirake-ru be opened. 

Jutotta fleshy, stout, homfutcru become stout. 

yaseta lean, emaciated, from yase-ru become lean. 

ikita live, alive, from iki-ru survive. 

shinda dead, from shinu die. a 

kawatta different, from kawaru be changed. 

kumotta cloudy, from kumoru be clouded. 

shareta stylish, witty, from share-ru be elegant. 

sorotta complete, from sorou be uniform. 

yogoreta dirty, from yogore-ru be soiled. 

iki-sugita conceited, from iku go and sugi-ru exceed. 

komi-itta complicated, from koinu be crowded, and iru 

iri-kunda complicated, from iru enter and kumu knit 

together. b 
ochi-tsuita calm, composed, sane, from ochi-ru fall and 

tsuku arrive. 

wakari-kitta obvious, from wakaru and kiru cut, finish. 
ippai haitta full, from ippai (p. QOc) and hairu enter. 
ki no kiita smart, from ki spirit and kiku be efficacious. 
nen no itta thoughtful, painstaking, from nen thought, 

attention and iru enter. 
assari shita plain, simple. 
hakkiri shita clear, distinct. 
shikkan shita substantial, trustworthy. d 
sub e- sub e shita smooth, slippery, from suberu slide. 

a ShinJe iru may be used only of persons or animals which are in the 
presence of the speaker. In other cases "he is dead" must be translated 

b Komiitta is rather more common than irikunda. 

c Compare : KnsuH ga stigu kikimashita. The medicine acted immediately. 
fCono poinpu zva kikanaku narimashita. This pump doesn't work any more. 

d The beginner may be puzzled by the similiarity between hakkiri to 
distinctly, shikkari to substantially, shikiri ni persistently, sukkari entirely, 
shakkuri hiccough, etc. 




The predicative forms are aite iru (oni)> ki ga kiite iru (oru). 
etc. But some expressions of this class cannot be used predi- 
catively : 

tai shita great, important, serious. 

tonda surprising, extraordinary, great, from tobu, fly spring. 


(Include the adjectival expressions given above) 

kabe plastered wall. a 
kaki fence, enclosure. 
ishi-gaki stone wall. 
kemuri smoke. 
botan peony (shrub). 
mac hi a pasty food made by 

pounding a special kind 

of rice (inochi-gome) in a 

bota-mochi a ball of rice 

which has been boiled and 

then brayed in a mortar. 
ki-chigai lunatic (ki spirit, 

chigau differ). 
ko-zukai errand-boy, servant 

(ko small, tsukau use). 
shi-go1o work, task. 
(p)rei bow, thanks, present. 
an-shin peace of mind. 
Ju-anshin uneasiness. 
mei-waku annoyance. 
shoku-motsu ( = tab e- mono) 

food, victuals. 
teishu 9 tei-shi master of a 

house, landlord (of a 

hotel), husband. 
inu-rina unreasonable, absurd. 

hare-ru clear off (of the sky). 
katsugu, katsuide carry on the 

go-hei sticks holding cut paper 

used in Shinto shrines as 

symbols of divinity. 
gohei-katsugi a superstituous 


konare-ru I 
sho-kwa suru j 
tsuzuku, tsuzuite continue, 

hold out (intr.). 

ni ki wo tsuke-ru pay at- 
tention to, take care of. 
nige-dasu escape. 
batsu (c), bachi punishment. 
b as suru punish. 
basserare-ru bassare-ru be 

shi-kata (shiyo) ga nai can't 

be helped (p. i6a). 
i-zen previously. b 
i-go afterwards. 
betsu ni specially. 
chika-goro lately. 
ima-sara no longer, no more 

(with a negative word). 

a Kabc means properly a wall of a house. A wall around a garden is het 
(c), or do-bei, from do (c) earth. A high board fence is ita-bei, from ita board. 
A fence is kaki or kaki-ne j a hedge, ike-gaki. 

b Zen=mae ; go=nochi. Compare i-jd and i-ka p. 71. The i indicates com- 

130 THE ADJECTIVE [xxx\ i 


Kore wa assart stita e des'. Nikon no tabemono wa assart 
stitamonoga o gozaimas 1 . a Yaseta hito wa hayaku aruke- 
mas\ Ano yadoya no teishu wa taihen f'totta hito des' . Ano 
kozukai wa ki no kiita otoko des' . Ano hito wa tsumi ga aru 
ka nai ka mada hakkiri shte imasen. Goheikatsugi zva taigai 
kydiku no nai hito des '. Ano kata iva taihen nen no itta hito 
des* ; hito no uchi ni yobaremas* to, l) alo de sugu ni ret ni 
ikimas\ Are wa taihen nen no itta hito des kara, sj machi- 
gatta koto wa arimasmai. c Kido wa taiso jimbo ga ari- 
masttta. d Nihon ni wa im a jimbo no aru daijin ga s kunai. 
Bis'mar ' k" kd wa izen jimbj ga nakatta. Kono inushi wa 
kaiko no gai ni narimas* . Sake wa karada no doku ni nari- 
mas\ Hiraketa kuni de wa yoku kodoino no kydiku ni ki wo 
is* keinas . Aita kuchi ni botamochi. e Chichi wa kusuri ni 
narimas*. Aita hey a ga arimas* ka. Chikagoro wa ikaga de 
gozaimas 1 ka. Arigato, betsu ni kawatta koto mo gozaimasen. f 
Sore wa nen no itta shigoto des . Yogoreta kilts' wo haite 
imas* kara, agarimasen. Chugakkj no Eigo-kydshi ni wa 
yoku dekifu hito ga s kunakute komarimas '. Kagiri no aru 
karada des 1 kara, so wa tsuzukimasen. Ainari medatsu kimono 
wo kite wa narimasen. Z Ko iu komiitta koto wa gwaikokugo 
de wa hanashinikui. Sono hito wa sakunen kichigai ni natta 
ga, tadaima de wa ochitsuite oru sj des '. \Vakaru ningen 
naraba sonna muri na koto wo iwanai h hazu da. Imasara 
sonna wakarikitta koto wo iwanak'te mo yoroshii. Tonda 

a By assart sA'ta e is understood a sketch, not highly colored. By assart 
slUta tabeniono is understood the opposite of rich food. 

b Yobareru is the passive of yobu to call or invite. (O) rei niiku to go to 
offer thanks ; in this case, to make a party call. See p. 33C. 

c Negative probable form of arimasu. 

d Kido was a samurai of ChSshu who distinguished himself in connection 
with the Restoration of 1868. 

e The meaning is : an unexpected piece of luck, a windfall. 

f Translate : there has been no special change. One may also say kauwri 
tno gozaimasen. It is polite to inquire: O kazvari mo gozaimasen ka. Are you 
in good health ? 

g Equivalent to kite wa iAemasen (p. i22b). 

h hvanai is the familiar negative form of iu to say. For wakaru, wakatta 
or mono no ivakatta might be substituted. 



meiwaku wo itashiviastita. Anna ikisugita y tits' wa shikata 
ga nai. 

The physician says it is not (there is not) a serious matter. 
Now (ima wa) it is cloudy, but later (iwchi ni wa) it may 
clear off. Is this novel complete? [I] loaned just (dake) one 
volume to a friend. Is that bottle empty ? No, its full. The 
walls of the castle are very substantial. Since the door of the 
cage is open, the birds may escape. Wrestlers are usually 
fleshy. This duck is very lean. Simple foods are easy to 
digest. Have you any room (Is there still a vacant room) ? a 
Yes, all are vacant. That student is talented, but he is a lazy 
fellow (iiainake-mono). Eels are slippery fish. A guilty man 
is always uneasy. He is a very trustworthy person. b Though 
(no ni) innocent, he was punished. Smoke is injurious to the 
eyes. Unlearned people don't use this word. He is diligent 
(benkyo wa shimasu), but he is not talented. This food is 
poisonous, it is said. Our (uchi no) maidservant is smart, but 
dishonest. The fish dealer was selling live sardines. A 
distinct answer is not yet possible. Mrs. Nakamura is very 


A substantive may be formed from any adjective or adjec- 
tival expression by adding the particle no : 

Chlisai no ga nakereba okii no wo kaimasho. 

If you have no small one, I will buy a large one, or, 

If you have no small ones, I will buy large ones. 

To such substantival forms the particles wa, ga, mo, no, ni, 
wo de, etc., may be added. An adjective formed by means of 
no, like hidari no (p. 119), may without an additional no take 
these particles and be treated as a substantive. Thus \yoroshii 
no wa, suki na no wa, machigai no oi no wa, doku ni naru no 
wa, but nama no wa. No wa may be contracted to na. No 

a Instead of ait a hey a, one may also say aki-ma. 

b The common expression, Are wa nakanaka shikkari-mono desu, has a rather 
slangy flavor. 

132 THE ADJECTIVE [xxxvn 

120 occurs in Chiisai no no koto desu I mean the small one. 

These substantival forms may denote a concrete object, the 
no being eqivalent to mono, especially before da, desu, etc. 
Taihen takai no desu. It is a very expensive article. 
When a contrast is involved, ho side is substituted for no : 
Kore iva takai ho desu. This is the more expensive. 
Before da, desu t etc., no is usually contracted : 
Taihen takai n desu. It's a very expensive one. 
Takai n'ja,( = de wa) nai n desu. It's not an expensive 


Taiso rippa na n desu. It's a very fine one. 
Often there is no difference in the sense between a simple 
predicate adjective and the adjective followed by n'da (11 desu), 
which simply serves to round off the sentence. Thus there is 
no appreciable difference between Mo //and Mo it n da (desu) 
That'll do (polite : Mo yoroshu gozaimasii). 

In many cases the substantival forms are to be translated by 
means of abstract nouns : 

Samui no iva ii ga t atsui no ni wa komarimasu. 
[I] don't mind the cold, but find the heat oppressive. 
The particle ni following a substantivized adjective gives it 
a concessive sense, unless the particle is directly dependent on 
the verb : 

Samui no ni itsumo no tori sampo shite imasu. 
In spite of the cold, he is taking a walk, as usual. 
Kodomo no riko na no ni odorokimashita. 
[I] was astonished at the cleverness of the child. a 

The no may be omitted ; samui ni, riko na ni. 

The particle de following a substantivized adjective may 
indicate a cause or reason (p. 1 04.11). 

Kyd wa amari samui no de sampo ni dekakemasen. 

Since it is too cold to-day, I shall not go out for a walk. 
By saying samui to iu no de the speaker may avoid asserting 
explicitly that it is really too cold to take a walk. Compare : 

Samui kara to itte sampo ni dekakemasen. 

Pleading that it is too cold, he does not go out for a walk. 

a The ni in riko na no ni odorokimashta and in afsuino ni komarimasu is pro 
bably related to the ni used to denote the agent with a passive verb, as in 
Sensei ni (or kara) shikararefa was scolded by the teacher (shikaru to scold). 




The de does not indicate a cause in a sentence like : 

Yasui no de yoroshii. A cheap one will do (p. i i/h). 
The following idiom must be accepted without explanation : 
Atsui no atsuku nai no 'tte ( = to itte] yakeso deshita. 
Talk about heat ! It seemed as if I were burning 1 . 

Itai no itaku nai no J tt* shinu ka to omotta, 
I was in such pain I thought I was dying. 


ase perspiration. a 

gomi dirt, dust, rubbish. 

gomi (Jiokori) ga tatsu dust 

hashi chopsticks. 

itoma~hima leisure. 

oki the open sea. 

sugata form, figure. 

urushi lacquer. 

ushiro rear ( no nshiro ni 

kado gate (in ini-kado). 

kado-matsu two pine trees 
placed one on each side of 
the gate at New Year's. 

kokoro-atari clew. 

kokoro atari ga aru [1] hap- 
pen to know. 

Diomo thigh. 

momo-hiki [Japanese] close- 
fitting trousers. 

zubon [European] trousers. 

zubon-shita drawers. 

shibai theater, drama. b 

ue-ki-bachi flower-pot 

sai-ku artificers' work. c 

zas-shi magazine, journal. 

kan-dan-kei thermometer (lit. 
cold- warmth-measure). 

shabon soap (French savoti). 

atsui thick. 

oinoi heavy, grave. 

in ami round. 

shi kaku na square. 

ham stretch, extend (intr.). 

kdri ga ham ice forms. 

itaru reach (ni itaru extend 

itatte very. 

nuru paint. 

nuri-mono lacquered \vare. 

odoroku, odoroit* be astonish- 

toke-ru be loosed, be solved, 
melted, thawed. 

yowaru be weak, debilitated. 

a " To perspire," the subject being understood, is ase ga dent ; with a sub- 
ject, ase ivo dasu or ase wo kaku. 

b Form shiba grass and ir-u to sit. Theatrical performances used to be 
held in the open air and actors were called kaivara-kojiki, from kaiuam 
(fcau'a, hara] dry river bed and kojiki beggar. 

c From this are derived such words as gin-zaiku (shirokane-zaiku} silver- 
ware, zoge-zaiku ivoiy-ware, urushi zaiku lacquered ware, etc. 

134 THE ADJECTIVE [xxxvn 


Kanaankti wa chdhd na mon des ; sugu ni atsui no to samui 
no ga wakarimas\ Kono kadoinats wa chiisai ; dki na no wa 
nai ka. Atarashii zubon TVO motte kite o kure ; furui no wa 
kurumaya ni yatte yoroshii. Kono shinamono wa warui ; ii 
no iv a nai ka. Gozaimas keredoino, a itatte takd gozaimas '. 
Tdkei ni wa (p. 300) shimbun ga tak'san arimas 1 keredoino 
yoi no wa s ' kuno (s ' keno) gozaimas . Hashi (no uchi) ni wa 
marui no mo arimasu ski, shikaku no mo ]> arimas '. Kore to 
onaji yd na no wa gozaimasen ka. Gozaimas; . Kd atsui no 
tit, anata wa ase ga chitto mo demasen ka. Anata wajdzu na 
isha wo go zonji de gozaimasen ka. So des ne, heta na no wo 
ikutari mo stitte imas* keredomd, jdzu na no wa hitori mo 
shirimasen. Miya no uchi ni wa oki na no mo arimasu ski, 
chiisa na no mo arimas . Ano onna wa ushiro kara mini to, 
sugala ga taisd yoi keredoino ; mae kara mini to, kao no warui 
no ni wa odorokimas\ c Michi ga toi no ni komarimas\ Kono 
byoki wa omoku nai no ni, ano isha wa omoi yj ni iimas . d 
Ano shibai wa oinoshiroku nai no ni, ano hito wa oinoshiroi yb 
ni iimas . Omoshiroi no ni, omoshirokn nai yd ni iimas\ 
Ko samui no ni, yoku oide nasaimasfita. e Samui no de 
kdri ga harimash'ta. Tetiki ga ii no de kcri ga tokemastita. 
Okt no kurai no (kurai h )) ni shiraho ga mieru ; are wa 
Kishu no mikambune. f Tabetai no ni, tabetaku nai yd ni iu. 
Akai hd ni nasaimas* ka, aoi hd ni nasaimas* 1 ka. ?> Oi ! 
shabon ga nakunatta kara, hitots* katte kite moraitai. Akai 
no ivo katte mairimash~> ka, shiroi no wo kattf mairimashd 

a In a reply the verb of a question is repeated : O ivakari deshita ka. 
Wakarimashita. Did you understand? Yes. Expressions like hei, hai, sayd, 
sayo de gozaimastt, so destt ne, etc., may precede the reply, but aie really 
noncommittal (p. xyh). But so desu implies very definite assent. 

b Notice that na is omitted as if the adjective belonged to the same class 
as hidari no. 

c The ni here, as also in the following sentence, is dependent on the verb. 

d Translate : " talks as if it were a grave case." 

e Yoku oide nasaitnashita or yoku irasshaimashita (lit. you have well come) 
is a common expression used in welcoming a visitor. 

f See p. 38b. Shiva ho white sail. 

g The idiom ni sum (itasn, uasant} often means to decide upon." 


ka. Atarashii kuts y wo o haki nasaimas ka, furui no wo 
o haki nasaimas ka. Tenki ga yokereba, atarashii no wa 
hako. a 

Shall I bring the old garment (kimono] or shall it be (nt 
itashimasho) the new one ? Bring the new one. The paper 
that I bought lately was too light (thin) ; haven't you any 
heavier ? b Among magazines there are both good ones and 
bad ones. It being so hot, everybody is debilitated. How 
much are these fish? The large ones are (de) one yen ; the 
small ones (are) fifty sen. The wind being strong, dust rises. 
Among lacquered wares there are cheap articles and also ex- 
pensive ones. As our (iichi no) manservant is d shonest I 
dismissed him ; don't you happen to know (o kokoroatari wa. 
gozaimas'mai ka) some honest fellow ? Just now I don't 
happen to know any. Really (domo) honest ones are scarce. 
The one sitting on the left side of Mr. Ito is (de) Mr. Tsuzuki ; 
[the one on] the right side is Mr. Furuya. As for the flower- 
pots, shall I buy large ones, or shall they be small ones? 
Small ones will do (de yoroshii). How about a cup of tea? 
Do you like it (p s j ki des ka) strong or weak ? c 


There are no inflections corresponding to our degrees of 

The comparative degree d may be expressed by means of 
such words as motto, mo sukoshi, mo chitto, mo is-so (so layer), 
nao y nao sara, etc. 

Motto yoroshii no wa gozaimasen ka. 
Have you no better ones ? 
Sore mo ii ga, are wa nao ii. 
This will do, but that is still better. 

a The word kako is the plain or familiar future of haku. It is not polite, 
being used in speaking to a servant. 

b Motto atsui. For the comparative degree see the following chapter. 

c In this case we have a contrast, not of predicates, but of subjects and 
must, accordingly, use ga, not iva. If willing to accept the tea, one may say: 
ippai chodai itashimasu / if not, Ddzo, o katnai ktidasant net. 

d Hikaku-kyn, from hi-kaku comparison and kyu degree. The superlative 
is saijo-kyTi (iaf*= 

136 THE ADJECTIVE [xxxvin 

Sometimes the word ho side conveys the idea of comparison : 
Dochira ga o ki ni irimasu ka ; nagai ho desuka, mijikai 

ho desu ka. 

Which do you like better, the longer or the shorter ? 
Ikusa no nai hj ga ii. It is better not to have war. 
If the object which serves as the standard of comparison is 
stated, as when we use " than," the adjective does not require 
any modifier to indicate the comparative degree. " Than " is 
to be rendered by yori, yori mo, or yori wa. This yoriis the 
literary equivalent of kara " from " (Compare the Latin abla- 
tive as used with comparatives) : 

Chosen wa Itaria yori okii (hiroi}. 
Korea is larger than Italy. 

Watakvski no zaisan wa ano hito no yori mo sukunai. 
My property is less than his. 

Anata wa ano kata yori mo kanji wo yokei go zonji de 
gozaimasu. You know more characters than he. 

In the last example yo-kei is an adverb meaning " in excess." 
Notice : Nani yori ii. [It] is better than any [other]. Nothing 
could be better (for nani see p. 47). One may also say : Sore 
wa nani yori desu. 

When there is a choice between two evils, mashi, from masu 
to increase, may be used : 

Kono sake wa warui keredomo, mizu yori wa mashi desu. 
This sake is bad, but still preferable to water. 
Isso (no koto] shinda hi ga mashi desu. 
It were better to die. 

No sign of the comparative is required in such sentences as : 

Dandan (oioi, masumasti) okiku narimasu. 

[It] is gradually growing larger. 

Dochira ga yj gozaimasu ka. Which is better ? 
" The more the better " and similar expressions may be 
translated by the use of hodo following the adjective or verb : 

Oi hodo yoroshii. The more the better. 

Ano musume wa mireba, miru. hodo kirei desu. 

The more I look at that girl, the prettier she seems, (lit. 

If I look at that girl, to the degree that I look she is 


The superlative is expressed by means of ichi-ban or mottomo 

xxxvni] COMPARISON 1 3 7 

before the adjective. Notice also other idioms : 

Himaraya-san wa sekai-ju de a ichiban takai yama desu. 
The Himalayas are the highest mountains in the world. 
Nihon-ichi no kosui the largest lake in Japan. 
Tokyd-jii de no bijin the most beautiful woman in Tokyo. 
Kwanto-kitte no b kanemochi the richest man in Kwanto. 

" Most," " mostly " is to be rendered by the adverbs tai-gai, 
tai-tei, o-kata, oku wa, or by the adjectival expressions taigui 
no, taitei no. 


mugi cereals like barley and ina-zuma, ina-bikari light- 
wheat (p. 1 5). ning. c 

nakaba middle. mon~rin. d 

nashi pear. ba-ai occasion, case. e 
nt, ni-motsu baggage, freight, dan- go [Japanese] dumpling. 

ringo apple. gi-ron, ron debate, argument. 

sara plate, saucer. hantai opposition, the reverse. 

taki waterfall. kwogo (sama) Empress. 

uji lineage, family-name. riku-gun army. 

utsuwa vessel, utensil. sek-kyo ) sermon / 

washi eagle. sep-pj \ 

yamai disease. sho-ko evidence, proof. 

ine rice plants. shippo-yaki cloisonne. 8 

tsuma consort, wife. Butsu Buddha. 

a Ju=chu=uchi. Compare kono uchi de among these things. As a suffix/5 
is emphatic, so that sekai-ju means not simply "in the world," but " in the 
whole world." 

b Kivan=seki (p. 77d) ; to=higashi. The provinces along the coast east of 
the barrier at Hakone, including Tokyo and Yokohama and extending to 
Shirakawa, are called Kwanto. Kittc is the subordinative of kiru to cut, finish 
(comp. ivakari-kitta p. 128). For no with the subordinative compare hajimete 
no (p. 97a). 

c Lightning occurs most frequently when the rice is earing. It was 
formerly supposed to have the effect of fertilizing the rice-plants. 

d The mon was formerly one tenth of a rin, being a perforated coin made 
of iron while the rin was made of copper. 

e Pronounced by some bayai or bawat. 

f Sep-pd, from setsu=toku explain and ho law, is a Buddhistic term. Aa 
slang seppe sum is also used in the sense of " to scold," " read a lecture." 

g From shippo (shichi ho) a Buddhistic word* meaning "seven jewels" and 
yakn to burn. Compare 



Buk-kyot Butsn- do, Bupp:> 

Bukkyj-to a Buddhist. 

Kirisuto-kyj-to a Christian. a 

haba breadth. 

hiroi broad, spacious. 

haba ga hiroi is wide (opp. 

kanashii sad. 

kowai fearful, terrible. 

tattoi highly prized, honor- 
able, precious. 

urusai annoying. 
jc-bu na strong, robust, 
healthy, b 

yo-kei na excessive. 

yo-kei ni in excess, too much, 

masu increase (tn and intr.). 
mas hi desu is better. 
nosoniu, nozonde hope for, 

wish for. 
oku, oite put, place, employ 

(a servant). 

motsu, motte last, endure. 
sodatsu, sodatte grow up, he 

ko koro-mochi ga yoi\ 

koko-chi pa yoi 

Meel well. 

ki-mochi ga yoi 
ki-bun ga yoi 
asu no asa 
ashita no asa 

to morrow 
(p. 66a). 


Ka wa hai yori mo urusai des . Kane no utsuwa wa ki no 
utsuwa yori mo nagaku mochimas 1 . Anata wa Nihonryjri 
yori mo Seiyorydri ga o s ki desho. Nihonjin wa Seiydjin 
yori mo sei ga hiku gozaimas\ Bukkyo wa Yasokyo yori mo 
furu gozaimas '. Kono baai ni wa wo to iu ji wo ts 1 kern ho ga 
tsutei des\ Motto shizuka ni (slowly) yonde kudasai. Was hi 
wa ichiban hayai tori- des. Karigi yori araigi (Proverb). 
Hana yori dango (Proverb). Sakura wa Nihonjin no ichiban 
s* ki na hana des . Ron yori shlfco (Proverb). Kojiki wa 
Nihon no ichiban furui re& shi des\ Nikon no kivogo sama 
wa tenshi sama yori f tats 1 toshi ga o ue de gozaimas '. d Fuji 

a The word Yaso-kyo, from Yaso, which is the Japanese sound of the 
ideograms that stand for " Jesus " in the Chinese, was once universally current 
as a designation of Christianity. But the Christians themselves now say 
Yesu t not Yaso. The latter has an indelible tinge of contempt and is be- 
coming more and more a vulgarism. 

b Dai-jobu (dtsti). It's all right ; without fail. 

C From z' clothing (in ki-mono] t kari-ru to borrow and aran to wash. 

d * Older " may also be expressed by the idiom toshi ga oi ; " younger," by 
toshi ga sukunai. 

xxxvi nj COMPARISON 139 

no yama wa Nikon no ichiban takai yama des keredomo, 
S'wittsur no ichiban takai yama yori wa hikui. Kono jisho 
wa warui keredomo, nai yori wa mashi des\ Baka yorl 
kowai mono nashi (Proverb). Chichi no yamai wa yoku 
narimasho to isha ga moshimasJita keredo, dandan waruku 
natimas . Ido waf'kai hodo mizu ga ii. Myoasa wa mo 
chitto hayaku okosti le o kure. Kono sJiippjyaki no sara ga 
mo skoshi yaskereba, kaimasho. Inn wa neko yori mo yaku 
ni tachimas* . Kono uma no uchi de dochira ga yd gozaimas 
ka. Sayo de gozaimas , kono hj wa ivakaknte kayo gozaimasn 
shi, ano ho wa dkikute jobu de gozaimas' ga, dochira mo yo 
go z aim as '. Yuki ga fnru hodo mugi ga yoku dekiuias\ KJ in 
baai ni wa ga no ho ga isurei des'. Sampo wa yoru yori kirn 
no hJ ga y or os hit gozaimas . Tegami wo yarn yori atte hanash ' ta 
hj ga yo gozaimasho. a Jit ni gwatsu no niju ichi nichi wa 
ichinenju de ichiban hi ga mijikai. Sore wa naniyori kanashn 
gozaimas . Kueba kuu hodo umaku naru. Tokyo no nigiyaka 
na ko o wa Nihon ichi des\ Ontake-san wa Nihon de Nibamme 
ny (takai) yama des'. k Uji yori sodachi (Proverb). Omotta 
y.ori mutsukashii. Undo sureba, suru hodo kokochi ga ii. 

Please speak a little louder (with a little greater voice). 
Mount Ontake is lower than Mount Fuji. Kyoto is older than 
Tokyo. There are more Buddhists than Christians in Japan. 
1 wish to employ (okitai) a manservant. Do you desire (o 
nozoiiii des ka) a married (kanai no ant) one, or (is it) an 
unmarried one ? A married one would be better (is good). 
Japanese horses are smaller than American horses. Which is 
more extensive, Washington or Tokyo (as for Washington and 
Tokyo, which of the two is broader) ? (The side of) Tokyo is 
more extensive. It is said that the waterfall of Nachi is the 
highest (waterfall) in Japan (Nihon-ju de). c This riksha is 
poor (bad), but better than none. In Japan the hot season 

a Notice \.\\a.tyori may he attached to a verb immediately. Atte is the 
subordinative of an to meet. For hanashita the present tense might be 
substituted. Compare: Kikit yori hayaku kake-dashiinashita. Scarcely had he 
heard it when he ran out (lit. he ran out sooner than he heard it). 

b Mount Ontake lies between the provinces of Hida and Shinano. 

c Nachi is in the province of Kishu. The largest cataract is several 
hundred feel high : the Japanese estimate it at from 800 to loco feet. 


extends (it is hottest) from the middle of July to (made go) the 
middle of August. The tat is the most highly prized fish in 
Japan. The Lake of Omi is Japan's largest lake ; [its] length 
[is] eighteen ri ; its width at (de) the broadest place is seven 
ri t and (inata) its depth at the deepest place is about three 
hundred feet (thirty /). There is nothing swifter than light- 
ning. In Japan the number of men is greater tha [that of 
the] women, but in Germany it is the reverse. The population 
of Kyoto is less than [that of] Osaka. In travelling (tabi wo 
suru ni wa) the less baggage the better. I can not give 
(yararemasert) even a mon more (yokei wa) than this. Won't 
you have (agaru) a little more ? The shorter the sermon the 
better. Japan is larger than England. It is said that Germany 
has the best army (as for the army, Germany is best). The 
deepest place in (of) the ocean is over (ijo mo aru) 8,000 
meters. Which is the stronger of these cigars ? This one 
(side) is the stronger. I like pears better than apples. This 
grammar is poor, but better than none. Sake is stronger than 



I. The Japanese verb differs in many respects from the 

(i.) There are no inflections to distinguish number or person. 
Both must be determined from the context. Ordinarily pro- 
nouns are used only when perspicuity requires them (p. 27). 
But in polite conversation the first and second persons are 
often plainly indicated by the nature of the verb or auxiliary 
used, a humble verb like itasu being used only in the first (or 
third) person, while the corresponding honorific verb nasaru is 
used only in the second (or third) person. 

(2.) The Japanese language having no negative adverb 
corresponding to " not," negation is expressed by special 

(3.) Peculiar to the Japanese verb are the subordinative 
form b ending in te (negative 2u), the alternative form c in tari 
(dari\ and the desiderative form in fat. 

(4.) The use of the passive is much more limited than in 
Knglish. It may not be used except when the subject is a 
living thing. 

(5.) By means of certain terminations derivative verbs may 
be formed. There are potential forms indicating ability or 
possibility, and also causative forms. 

(6.) There is nothing corresponding to our infinitive, which 
is variously rendered. " To eat " is taberu koto wa or taberu 
110 wa. " Go to see " is ;;// ni iku. Veibs arc named by their 
present form. 

a Do-shi, from do (c) to move, act. 

b This may be a clumsy word, but its meaning is plain. The other terms 
proposed, " participle " (Aston) and "gerund" (Chamberlain), are not cal- 
culated to enlighten a beginner. The subordinative is not an adjective like a 
participle ; much less is it a " past " participle, for it may also indicate an act 
simultaneous with that of the principal verb. The subordinative is not a 
noun like a gerund. Moreover the Latin gerund never indicates an act 
completed with reference to the principal verb, while the subordinative is 
never future with reference to the principal word of the sentence. 

c Called also " fiequentative " in other grammars. 

142 THE VERB [xxxix 

2. There are two classes of verbs. In the first the stem 
remains unchanged ; in the second the final vowel of the stem 
(p. 10) undergoes changes in conjugation. There are also a 
few irregular verbs. 

Stems of verbs of the first class end in e or i ; those of the 
second class end always in t, which in conjugation may be 
changed to a, e or u. 

To derive the stem from the present form in the case of verbs 
ending in e-ru or i-tu, like tabe-ru eat, nii-ru see, drop ru. 
In the case of verbs of the second class, like kau buy, substitute 
i for u : kai. a One must be careful not to mistake the verbs 
described in Ch. XLVIIL, which, ending in em and iru, ap- 
parently belong to the first class, but really belong to the 
second, like shaberu chatter, hairu enter, whose stems are 
shaberi, hairi. A few verbs have forms of both classes ; like 
aki-ru or aku be surfeited, kari-ru or karu borrow, tari-ru or 
taru be enough. Distinguish further : 

kae-ru change. kaeru (kaeri) return. 

i-ru be, dwell. iru (irl) enter, be needed. 

he-ru pass through. hern (Jieri) decrease (intr.). 

nc-ru sleep. neru (neri) soften, train. 

3. Stems of verbs may be used as substantives (Ch. LXV.). 
It must be remembered that in polite conversation with one's 

equals or superiors b the plain forms of the conjugations now 
to be studied are not used when the verb occupies an import- 
ant position (pp. 10, 55d). Ordinarily politeness requires that 
masu be added to the stem. In the second (or third) person 
the honorific o may be prefixed and nasarn (nasaimasu) or ni 
naru (narimasu) added : o kaki nasaimashita (ni narimashita) 
you (or he) wrote. Similarly itasu or mdsu may be used with 
the stem to denote the first person when the act effects other 

a In the cases of verbs ending in su and ten the stems end respectively in 
shi and c/n\ thus : tnachi, from mafsu wait ; hanaslii, from hanasu speak. 

b Servants in the house of a friend, clerks in a store, employees in a hotel, 
etc., are to be addressed politely. Even in speaking to one's own servants, 
riksha-men, coolies, etc., the tendency is to soften the forms of speech. The 
plain forms seem destined, like the German dn, to become characteristic of 
conversation amonsr intimates. 

xxxix] THE TENSES 143 

persons : o susume itashimashita I exhorted, o ai moshimashita 
I met. a 

But in speaking to intimate friends or to inferiors these 
embellishments may be dispensed with. Men are more free in 
this respect than women. In monologues, proverbs, etc., the 
plain forms only are used (See also p. 1 26d). 

4. The tenses of verbs of the first class are inflected thus : 

Present tabe-ru eat b tni-ru see 

Past tabe-ta ate, have eaten mi-ta saw, have seen 

ProtTbhT ( tabe-yo, will eat mi-yo will see 

Probable Past tabeta-rj probably ate, mita-rj probably saw, 
might have eaten might have seen 

5. A few explanations concerning the uses of these tenses 
may be helpful. 

(i.) The present {gen-zai) is used (a) in general statements, 
in which case it may be rendered " is wont to," etc. ; (b) 
instead of the future when one means to speak of an event as 
certain to occur; (c) instead of thi past in narratives (the 
historical present) and in dependent clauses (p. 88e). 

(2.) The past (kwa-ko) is to be translated as a pluperfect in 
such phrases as meshi wo tabeta ato de (nochi ni) after he had 
eaten. It sometimes stands for our present : arimashita there 
it is (when one has been looking for a thing), kiinashila there 
he comes. This is especially the case when the present de- 
notes a process : 

Sugu ni dekimasu. It will soon be done. 
Mo dekimashita. It is now done. 

(3.) Taberu darj (desho) and tabeta daro (desho) are common 
periphrastic forms, used chiefly in the third person. Tabeyo 
is future rather than probable, and is used only in the first 
person, except in questions or dependent clauses : 

a What is here said about the use of itasn with the stems of verbs does not 
apply necessarily to its more common use with Chinese compounds : ben-kyo 
itashimcishita I (or he) studied. 

b For brevity's sake the first person only is given in the translation. The 
verb tabeni is properly transitive and requires an object. In the first (or 
third) person it is a polite word; but in the second (or third) agaru or meshi- 
agam is better. 

144 THE VERB [xxxtx 

Ano Seiydjin wa sashimi wo tabeyo ka. 

[Do you think] that European would eat sashimi? 
To the future or probable forms such adverbs as o-kata or 
ta-bun " probably " may be added. Often to omou is added : 

Kane wo ginko ye azukeyo to omoimasu. 

I will deposit my money in the bank. 

Notice that in dependent clauses the plain forms without such 
auxiliaries as masu, etc., may be used even in polite conversa- 
tion if the principal verb is polite. 

6. In classical Japanese the attributive termination of verbs 
which in colloquial end in e-ru, or i-ru (except mi-ru, ni-ru) is 
uru t and the conclusive is u, thus : afruru, aku from ake-ru to 
open. Forms in uru are heard not infrequently : 

Afrtitu hi gakko wo yasumimashita. 

The next day (lit. opening day) I stayed away from school. 
Similarly the classical past ending tart (attributive taru) and 
the future n occur sporadically in the colloquial (p, 1 80). 


dorobo robber. hai ashes. 

frame, frame no fro tortoise, hai-fuki spittoon (made usual- 

turtle. ly of a section of bamboo). 

fro (c) shell, armor. hi-moto origin of conflagra- 
frame no frj 7, , u u i ^ on - 

btk-ko {tortoise-shell.* , to sound (intr.). 

kushi comb. kami-nari thunder (ktuni 
me, fro-no-me ( = ki no me) god). 

bud. kami-nari ga ochi-ru light- 
tana shelf. ning strikes. 

hon-dana bookshelf. frara shell, hull. 

hom-bako bookcase (closed kaki-gara oyster-shell. 

box with shelves). oshi-ire closet. b 

toko 9 ne-doko bed. samisen, shamisen three-string- 

asa-meshi ) . ed musical instrument. 


asa-han j l bachi plectrum, drumstick. 

a The term /came no ko denotes the shell on the back of a tortoise or turtle 
the material obtained from the shell of a species of turtle called 

b A closet with shelves, a cupboard, is to-dana (door-shelf). 

xxxixl THE TENSES 

r 45 

ja (c) serpent (large). hoe-ru bark, howl. 

hebi snake. sue-ru set, place. 

no dramatic performance with kyu wo sue-ru apply the 

chorus, lyric drama. moxa. a 

fu-ton wadded bedquilt, com- tame-rti accumulate, save 

forter, cushion. (money, etc.). 

ya-gu bedding. kata-zuke-ru lay aside, put irt 
gin-ko bank. order, dispose of. 

sho-kin specie. saku. saite bloom. 

yaku-sho office. omoi-dasu, oinoidashite call to 
zc-ge ivory. mind, recall. 

yubin-sen, yu-sen mail-ship. hana wo ike-ru keep a flower 
ake-ru open (tr.). alive, put a flower into a- 

yo=yoru night. vase. 

yo ga ake-ru day dawns. o-kata 1 for the most part, 

azuke-ru entrust, deposit. ta bun j probably. 

be fatued - stttdatu recently- 


Washi wa kuiabireta kara, sugu ni neyd. b Omae wa kesa 
nandoki ni okita ka. Hon wa tansu ye ireru mon* ja { = de 
wa) nai ; hombako ye ireru mon da. Kurumahiki wa mo 
meshi wo tabetaro. Soko no teibur no ue ni aru mono ivo 
doko ye katazukeyd ka. F'ton wo oshiire ni ireyo. Kimi wa 
taweta kane wo doko no ginko ye azuketa ka. Sayo, Yoko- 
hama Shokin Ginko ye azuketa. Danna wa moyak'sho ye 
deta ka. Shikkari (certainly) shiranai (p. 130!:) keredomo, 
dkata detarj. Anata wa ika to iu sakana wo mita koto ga 
ariuias 1 ka. Sayj, mita bakari de wa naku tabeta koto mo 

a The English word '' moxa " derived from the Japanese inog-nsa, which 
designates a preparation of the dried and pulverized leaves of t\\& yorno^i, a 
species of Artemisia. Physicians of the old school (kam-fd-i Chinese-method- 
physician) apply small portions of tnogusa to the skin and then set fire to it. 
'1 his sort of caulery is called kyn. 

b It may be necessary to remind the student once more that the use of a 
verb in its simple form as a final predicate is permissible only in conversation 
between those who are on terms of intimacy. But in the following exercises 
it may be well to use the plain forms for the sake of practice. 

146 THE VERB [xxxix 

gozaimas*. a Naze kono ki ga kareta ka. Uekata ga warui 
kara, karetard. Kyd wa nani wo kiyd ka ; awase wo kiyd 
ka, hitoemono wo kiyd ka. Mo shichiji da kara, okiyd* Mo 
Jtachi ji sugi da kara, danna ga okitard. Anata wa Nihon- 
rydri wo tabeta koto ga arimas ka. Sayd, ni san do tabeta 
koto ga arimas' keredomo, umakuwa gozaimasen destita. Ki- 
nd taisd kutabireta kara, asa kara ban made ichi nichi neta. 
Tana kara botamochi ga ochiru yd na koto wa inetta ni arima- 
se?i. b Haifki kara ja ga deta. c Uso kara deta makoto 
(Proverb). Kameido no ike no uchi ni wa koi mo kame no ko 
mo tak'san iru. MJ attaka ni narn kara, konome ga jiki ni 
deru dard. Nihonjin wa taigai hayaku okiru. Kono kushi 
wa bekkj de dekite iru. cl Ki de dekita kushi mo aru deshd. Mo 
vieshi ga dekita ka. Ok at a dekitard. Kino no keiko ye gak* set 
ga ikutari deta ka. Shikkari oboenai ga, dkata roku nin gurai 
wa detard. Amerika no y^ibinsen ga md sakki minato wo deta.^ 
Konaida atsuraeta kutsu ga dekita ka. Sayd kutsuya ga sakki 
motte kimasJita. Nani yd ga dekita ka. f Inu ga hoeta kara, 
dorobd ga nigeta. No wo mita koto ga arimas' ka. Sayd, ni 
san do mita koto ga gozaimas\ Ume no hana no hanashi wo 
sum to, sugu ni ugnis* wo omoidas . g Uguis wa time no hana 
no saku ko*o ni naki-hajimeru. Kami sama ni wa maiasa 
nkari wo agent. Konaida tonari no niwa no ki ni kaminari ga 
ochita ga shikashi kega wa nakatta. h Yo ga .. 'tent to, karas* 
ga nakimas\ Kotos hi wa samui kara, ki no me no deru no 
ga osoi. A 

a For mita bakari de wa naku one may substitute mita no iva mochiron no 
koto (mochi-ron without dispute, of course). The latter is somewhat supercili- 
ous. . ba^aii de iva wz/(v////0=mt only but also . 

b May be said to one who does not work, hoping to get rich through some 
lucky accident. 

c A prover > apropos when one has been treated to an exaggerated story. 
for ja, inna may be substituted. 

d Dekite iru or dekita (in the next sentence) corresponds to the English f is 
made of." For de one may substitute kara. In dekite iru the second i is almost 
silent : dekiterit. 

e The difference between ivo deru and kara deru (dete kunt\\& slight, as 
between the English "leave" and "come out of." 

f Said when one has been called : What is it ? 

g The ugni-su is usually associated with plum-blossoms in art and poetry. 

h No one was hurt. Comp. kega (wo) suru to hurt one's self, kega-nin an 
injured person. 

i Or, de-vo ga osoi (p. i6a). 

xxxix] THE TENSES 147 

The riksha-man appearing (mieti) to be very tired (that he 
was very tired), went to bed early. Why did you get up so 
late? To-morrow (wa) I will get up early, as I am going on 
a journey (tabi ni deru). Who put this into the bookcase ? 
This is not to be put into the bookcase; it is to be put up 
(agete okii) on the bookshelf. I will put the bedding a into the 
closet presently. The foreigners living (iru) in Japan now 
number about (hodo da) 10,000, it is said. In this cage there 
were three birds until recently (konaida made). Recently 
2,000 houses were burned in Tokyo, it is said. Where did the 
fire originate (was the oiigin of the fire)? It started (deta) 
from Oyster Shell Street {Kakigarachj), it is said. That (sono) 
region, is often (yoku) burned, isn't it (ne) ? Have you ever 
seen a Japanese monkey ? Yes, I have seen two or three. 
The flowers which you put [into the vase] immediately spoiled 
(ikenaku natta). The Japanese usually go to bed early. This 
is made of tortoise-shell. Breakfast is probably ready. The 
maidservant went out (soto ye) some time ago (sakkt). He is 
a very forgetful person (a person who forgets things well). b 
Japanese often apply the moxa. To whom did you (kimi) 
entrust the money ? On New Year's Eve (jmisoka no yoru) 
in (of) 1874 I saw the burning (yake-ru no wo) of the temple 
called Zojoji. c The plectrum of a samisen is usually made of 


Conditional tabe reba if [I] eat, mi-reba if [I] see, 

if | IJ should eat if [ 1 1 should see 

Past " tabe-1ara(ba) mi~tara(ba) 

if [ I] have (had) eaten if [IJ have (had) seen 

Imperative tabe eat ! //// see ! 

tabe-ro mi-ro 

(o) tabe na (p) mi na 

o tabe yo o mi yo 

a Either ya-git or toko. 

b This may I >e translated yoku mono-ivasurc ivo sum hito. If the sense is 
that he forgets not facts, but things, such as a umbrellas, etc., (wasure-mono), it 
must be luasu re-mono ivo sum hito. Compare mono-morai and moral-mono^ etc., 
p. 1 6. 

c A temple of the Jodo sect, with mausolea of some of the shoguns, in 
Shiba, Tokyo. 

148 THE VI-RIJ [xi 

i. In ordinary conversation periphrastic conditional forms 
like taberu nara (ba) are rather more common than tabereba 
etc. a But tabetara (ba) is not so often displaced by tabeta 
naraba. Another substitute for these forms is taberu to. 
Notice that to is used only with the present tense. Moshi or 
moshi mo also may be prefixed to a conditional clause. 

(i.) For the use of the conditional (ka-tei-ho) forms compare 
p. 99. It is sometimes a matter of indifference whether tabere- 
ba or iabetara (ba) be used. In some cas:s the past conditional 
occurs where we should expect the other form : 

Waiakushi wa yoru yokei tabereba (tabetara), nerare- 

If I eat too much in the evening, I cannot sleep. 

Taikutsu shitara, hon wo yomimasho. 

If time hangs heavy (iit. tedium have done), we shall read. 

ai nasttara, so itte oite kudasai. 
If you meet him, please tell him so. 
Go zen ga dekitara, sugu ni tabemasho. 
In dinner is ready, I will eat at once. 

In the last sentence dekireba would mean ; " if it is possible " 
(to prepare a dinner). 

(2.) A conditional inflection may be used in lieu of a connec- 
tive, especially when the principal verb is in a past tense : 

Nochi ni kiitara, uso de gosaimashita. 

1 inquired afterwards and it proved to be (was) a lie. 

Kesa no yosu de wa ante gafuru ka to omottara sukkart 

By the looks [of the sky] this morning I judged that it 

would rain, but it cleared off entirely. 

Observe the peculiar use of the conditional in : 

Uketamaivareba go byjki de atta so desu. 

I hear that you have been sick. 

(lit. If I hear, you were sick, it is said.) 

Tokyo mo kawareba kawaru mon da. 

How Tokyo has changed ! 

(lit. Tokyo, too, if it changes, changes.) 

a The conditional clause may be made somewhat indefinite by using the 
probable form : Sono kivashi ivo tabeyo mon' nara, okka san ni shikararemasit 
yo. You will be scolded by your mother, if you eat that cake (to a child). 


Akunin mo ateba zennin 1110 aru. 

There are good men as well as bad men (comp. p. iO4f). 
It is a peculiarity of the Japanese language that a conditional 
clause may include an interrogative word : 

DJ oshiemashitara yoroshii gozaimasho. 

How shall I explain it to them ? 

(lit. if how I have taught, will it be well ?) 
(3). In a sentence containing a conditional clause, ga, no ni, 
or mono wo may be added to the principal verb or adjective. 
These have an adversative or concessive sense and, if the 
ellipsis were filled out, would introduce a statement of a 
contrary fact, a declaration of doubt concerning the possibility 
of fulfilling the condition, or an expression of regret : 

Tabako wo yamereba ii ga. 

It would be well for him to give up tobacco. 

(lit. if be should give up tobacco good, but...) 
The expression no ni suggests more strongly the idea of the 
hopelessness of the situation. Accordingly no ni is rarely used 
with the first person. The no in no ni may be dispensed with 
after ii and yokatta, and is usually omitted after the probable 
forms yokaro and yokattaro. 

Mo sukoshi hayaku dekaketara yokatta (yokattaro) ni. 

He ought to have started a little earlier. 

In this sentence by substituting yokaro we get the sense, " he 
ought now to be on the way," (but has not yet started). 

By means of ga or mono wo {mono ni) a following ii or 
yokatta one may render optative expressions beginning with 
" If only ", " Would that," " I wish that," etc. : 

Mo sukoshi yoku koshiraereba ii ga. 

If only he would make [it] a little better ! 

Ame ga harereba ii ga. If only it would clear off! 

Togamereba ii ga. If he would only warn [him] ! 

Togametara yokatta ga. If he had only warned [him] ! 

Mo sukoshi hayaku dekaketara yokatta ga. 

If we had only started a little earlier ! 

Shineba yokatta mono wo. Would that [I] had died ! 
The last is rather a classical expression. 

a Compare also the use of mono ivo with a verb in the past tense : YuriisJtite 
yatta mono too. Would that I had forgiven him ! 


2. In the case of verbs of the first class the plain imperative 
(inei-rei-ho) is identical with the stem. The honorific o may* 
be prefixed ; e.g., o kure (p. 3/d). There is a tendency to 
make the fi^al vowel long : tabet, mil. Imperatives like tabere 
and wire, formed after the analogy of verbs of the second 
class, also occur. When ro is added the honorific is inadmissi- 
ble. The particles yo and na are not pronounced like regular 
suffixes, the stem of the verb being strongly emphasized, while 
the particle comes in after a very slight pause as a distinct but 
unaccented word. The forms o ta-be na and o tabe yo are used 
mostly by women. Occasionally men may be heard to say 
tabe na. a 

But in general the plain imperative forms characterize the 
speech of the lower classes, or of men who have lost their 
temper, or of those who choose to speak to their inferiors 
peremptorily. What has been said in the previous chapter 
about the use of plain forms of speech among intimate friends 
does not apply to the imperatives. They are used in quota- 
tions concerning one's self (p. I26d) and in military commands : 
Ki wo tsuke. Attention ! The forms in ro, especially, have 
an angry or intentionally gruff tone. A father may say to a 
child who has through disobedience met with a calamity : 
Sore miro. The form in ro occurs also in proverbs : 

Narau yori narero (or nare). Practice rather than stud}*. 

Among comrades tamae, from tamau, an honorific auxiliary,, 
is added to the stem : 

To wo shime tamae. Shut the door ! 

The form (o) shime nasai is scarcely more polite than (o) 
shime na, assuming that the act is to be done for the benefit of 
another. But the case is different when the request is made 
in the interest of the person addressed : O kake nasai. Take 
a seat ! But o shime nasite kudasai is under any circumstances 
sufficiently polite. 

As in English, a request or suggestion may be expressed in 
the form of a question : To wo shimenai ka ; shimeru u fa nai 
ka. Note also: To wo shimeru ga ii ; shime ui hj ga ii ; 

a Observe that knre na is vulgarly contracted to kiinna. Compare sonnara^ 
from sore tiara. 


shinier eb a ii ; a shimetara yokarj ; shimetara do desu ka. Such 
expressions are rude or familiar. 1 o wo o shime nasttara yd 
gozaimashj is quite elegant. 

The subordinative enters into a great variety of imperative 
expressions. We add a partial list, placing the least polite- 
first : 

shimete ii shimete mo ii 

shimete kure^ shimete kurenu ka 

shimete moraitfti 

shimete o kunnasai (p kure nasai ) 

shimete kudasai shimete kudasaimasen ka 

shimete itadakitai shimete cho-dai 

shimete itadakitai mori desu ne 

shimete itadakimasto 

shimete itadakaremasho ka 

shimete itadakitj gozaimasu 

The subordinative alone may also be used elliptically as a 
substitute for the imperative ; e.g., Katazukete. Take that 
away ! 


kinu silk. tsuri-rampu hanging lamp. 

kuse habit, propensity. gaku hanging tablet, framed 

omocha toy. picture. 

shiba turf, lawn. am-bai disposition, temper,. 

yoso another place, abroad. manner, state of health. 

amado wooden sliding doors givai-tj overcoat. 

on the outside of a house, kon-do this time, next time. 

closed at night or in time nen-gen term of years (lit. 

of rain (ami). year-limit). 

mi- /ion sample. seki-tan coal (seki=ishi, tan- 

mizu-tre a small vessel hold- =sumi). 

ing water for use in writing, sho-ji sliding doors or sashes 

o-mizu flood. covered with paper. 

a To wo shiuiereba ii and To wo shiine ru iiara ii difler slightly. The former 
means: " You may shut the door;" the latter cannot be used as a substitute 
for the imperative. 

b Women say o /cure. 

152 THE VERB [xi 

shi-taku preparations. nobi-ru become long, grow, be 
tai-kutsu tedium, ennui. extended, be postponed. 

y'-shoku western food. ume-ru bury, fill in (yu n' 
hoshii desiring. a mizu wo}. 

sosokkashii hasty, heedless. kube-ru put into (a fire) 

ju-bun na sufficient. hi ga kure-ru the sun sets, the 
mushimushi atsui sultry. day closes. 

kae-ru change, exchange akari wo tsuke-ru light a 

(with to or ni). lamp. 

kie-ru be extinguished, van- ni mizu wo kake-ru water. 

ish. o weshi nasaru (polite 2, 3) 
maze-ru mix (tr.). use, eat, wear, ride (uma 

nare-ru become accustomed ni). 

(with ni) t become tame. 


Oi, Chokichi / sono shiba ni mizu wo kakero (kakete kure). 
Yu ga atsusugiru kara, mizu wo ippai uinero (timete kure). 
Hi ga kuretara, akari wo o ts ke yo (ts' kete o kure]. Ima 
sugu ni amado ivo o shime yo (shim etc o kure]. ZasJi ki no 
uchi ga b mushimnshi atsui kara, shoji wo akete kurero (kure). 
Kodomo ga yoso ye detara, omocha wo o katazuke (katazukete 
o kure). Kotido kara (kore kara) motto ki wo o ts ke yo (ts" kete 
o kure). Sh'ta ni iro (ore). c Kimi wa ashta no asa nan ji 
ni okiru ka. Yo ga aketarv, okiyo. Okitara, sugu ni gozen 
ivo tabeyo. Gozen ga dekitaraba, sugu ni motte koi. Kuruma 
no stitaku ga dekitara, dekakeyo. Kuruma no sJitaku ga 
Jiayaku dekireba ii ga. Mochi wo kitotsu o kure. Omae motto 
ki wo tsketata yokatta ni ; amari sosokkashii koto wo stfta. 
MJ skoshi makete o kure. MJ chitto maketara do daro. 
Motto hayaku gwaikokugo no keiko wo hajimetara yokatta ni. 

a Kodomo wa omocha ga hoshikute naite iniasu. The child cries tor (desiring) 
the toy. The particle ivo is also used with hoshii \ but less commonly, except 
Avith the derivative verb hoshigaru : omocha too hoshigatte. 

b Lit. the interior of the room. 

c From irit or oru. " Down with you !" was the cry of those who in feudal 
times had charge of the train of a daimyo or other person of high rank. The 
people on the street were then expected to prostrate themselves to the ground 
as the procession went by. 


Kore wa do in ambai ni oshietara yj gozaimasho. Komban 
tsuki ga dereba ii ga. Konna ni sainui no nara, motto atsui 
kimono wo kitara yokatta ni. Kono tsuriramp' ga ocJiitara 
taihen des . a Yuki ga toketara, omizu ga deru ka mo shire- 
nai. b Hayaku gozen wo o koshirae (koshiraete o kure). 
Taikutsu da kara, kisha ga hayaku dereba ii ga. c Kutabire- 
tara, yamemasho. Ano hito ga d bunten wo koshiraereba 
(koshiraetara) yj gozaimasho. Michi wo tazunetara yokatta ni. 
Gwaikokujin ga Nikon no shokumotsu ni naretara yd gozai- 
mashj. Kono tori ga naretara omoshirokaro. S ' koshi 
narereba (iiaretara), sugu ni dekimas '. Kydshi wa shosei wo 
nagaku oshiereba, oshieru hodo jozu ni narimas. e Kono 
tegami ivo yubinbako ye irete kudasai. Kinu no mihoti wo 
misete chodai. Kane ga dekireba, dekiru hodo hosJi ku naru. 

I wish he would give up tobacco. How (do s/ite) shall I get 
rid of this habit (if how I have stopped this habit, will it be 
good) ? Put a little water into this mizuire. This sake is too 
strong : mix [it with] a little water. This book is defective 
(bad) : exchange it for a good one. As it is very cold, you 
might put on a little more coal (if you have put on a little 
more coal, it will be well). Shut the door tight (shikkari to). 
If (inoshi} you go out, put on [your] overcoat. To-morrow 
when the day dawns (if the day has dawned) I will start on a 
journey (tabi ni deru). Get up earlier to-morrow than [you 
did] this morning. When you get up, open the amado at once. 
If only we had started out earlier ! f It will be well to inquire 
(if we have inquired) the way. I wish breakfast could be 
served (dekiru) soon. Put (tsukerii) this beggage upon the 
horse. It will be well to begin the study of English as early 
as possible. If only (they) had put (ireru) this sick person into 

a Taihen desu it will be terrible (tai-hen great change}. This phrase is 
often used as an expression of consternation. 

b Umizu ga deru there is (will be) a flood. By ka mo shirenai (see p. 190.1) 
one may often render the English " may," "likely." 

c Taikntsu da (desti) it is wearisome, [I] am tired. 

d Notice that the particle is^vr, not iva (comp. p. igob) : lie would be the 
man to write a grammar. 

e Compare p. 136. 

f Instead of the past conditional, one may also use the past tense with ho 
(P- 136). 




the hospital ! If that picture falls (past), it will be a terrible 
smash (taiheti). Hang the picture on the wall. I wish I could 
become accustomed to foreign food. When you awake (p. 91 g 
past), get up at once. It \\ ill probably be sufficient if you 
sleep (past) from ten p.m. (yoni) to six a. m. (asa). I wish 
the term of years were longer (became long). 


The negative indicative forms are : 

Present tabe-nai 

tabe-nu, tabe-n 

do not eat 
Past tabe-nakatta 


did not eat 

have not eaten 
Future or tabe-mai 
Probable tabe-nakarj 

will hardly eat 
Probable tabe-nakattaro 
Past tabe-nandarj 

probably did not eat 

might not have eaten 

The form tabenai is more common 


mi-nu, mi-n 

do not see 



did not see 

have not seen 



will hardly see 


mi-n and fir j 

probably did not see 

might not have seen 

than t a be nu. As has 

been observed before (p. 100), the form ending in nai may be 
inflected, the adverbial form in naku being used with especial 
frequency before naru to become ; e.g., mienaku naru to be- 
come invisible. Compare nakunant, p. loSa. 

In some provinces tabenanda is more common than tabena- 
katta, but the latter is the usual form in most parts of the 

For the future or probable tense taberumai also occurs. 
Tabenakarj and such periphrastic forms as tabenai dar ;, tabe- 
nakatta daro, etc., like the corresponding positive forms, are 
used chiefly in the third person and denote a mere conjecture. 
The form in mai differs from the corresponding positive form 
in yj in that it is not so strongly predictive and may be used 


in the third person. Thus in reply to the question Ano Seiyo- 
jin wa sashimi wo tabeyd ka one may say, Ta'bemai ; but if the 
reply were positive, it would be, Taberu darj, not, Tabeyd. a 

The present is often used as a substitute for the past : 

Neta ka nenai ka wakarimasen. 

I don't know whether I slept or not. 

Kesa no shim bun wa mada mimasen. 

I have not yet seen this morning's newspaper. 
Notice the use of negative verbs with mae t uchi and kagiri : 

Shimbun wo minai mae ni shitte imashita. 

I knew it before I saw the newspapers. 

Minai uchi wa wakarimasen. I can't judge until I see it. 

Minai kagiri wa shinjiraremasen. 

I can't believe that unless I see it. 

Observe further that with mae and uchi when a fact is stated, 
ni is used ; but when the predicate is negative, wa is the 
correct particle. Kagiri always refers to a future or supposed 

The classical negative ending zu (attributive, nu or zaru) : 
Chu-shin ni (ji) kun ni tsukaezu. 
A loyal subject serves not two lords. 


o shiroi face-powder. yamu, yande cease (intr.). 

ko-no-ha = ki no ha leaf. amado wo tate-ru shut up 
fuda card, label, placard. the house, " put up the 

sho-Juda price-mark, from shutters." 

sh~> (c) right, true, real. makase-ru commit, entrust, 
ya-kwai evening party. leave. c 

yD-ko travelling abroad. b kokoro ni makase-mt not act- 
ryo-ko travelling. ing as one wishes, contrary 

ryoko-ken passport. to one's preferences (of 

ha<reshii violent. things). 

gebi-ru be vulgar. wo tabi sum travel through. 

hae ru sprout, grow. shuppan sum sail (s/tutsu = 
same-ru become cool. de-ru, 

a But tabeyd {ka} to oinoiniasn or tabemashd may be used of the third person. 
b Compare yd fuku^ yd-shoku, etc. Yd means ocean ; Sei-yo, western ocean. 
d=yuku to go. In the next word ryo=tabi sum. 
c O makasc nwsJiiinasn. I give you carte blanche. 

156 THE VERB [xu 


Nikon de wa amari ningen no so wo koshiraete tatenai. a 
Konna koto wa mutsukasJi kuie dekiinai. Sono kotoba ivo 
mochiinai koto wa nai keredomo, metta ni mocJiiinai. Ni- 
motsu ga nma kara ochinai yd ni ki wo tsukero. Kono hon 
wa go satsu ni naru hazu da ga^ mada issatsu sJi ka denai. b 
Tak'san maketa kara, m) makemai. S ' koslii mo maken ka. 
Kesa no shimbun wo mita ka. lie, mada minai. Sakujitsu 
wa kaze ga hagesti kute June ga denakatta keredomo, konnichi 
wa kaze ga yanda kara, inina detarj. Yubinsen ga sakujitsu 
shuppan sJi ta ka. Kaze ga tsuypkatta kara, denakattarj. 
Hibachi no hi ga kienai yj ni ki wo ts kete o kure. Watakushi 
wa mainichi sampo ni deru ga, sakujitsu wa amari tenki ga 
warui no de denakatta. Doits jin wa F'rans 1 no ik 'sa de wa 
icJii do mo makenakatta, Kono byjnin wa mada okinai Jij 
ga ii to isha ga mosJiimasJita. Nikon ni wa ctiitto mo niku 
wo taben hito ga arimas . Kurakute nani mo mienai. Kipfiu 
no nai kito wa irenai (admit) sj des '. Sono hito wa Tukei ni 
wa mo imai. Mutsukashii mono, dekinai hazu da. Hito no 
kuchi ni to wo tateru koto ga dekinai. c Uri no tane ni 
nasubi wa haenu (Proverb.) Izen wa yoku Nihongo de 
hanashi ga dekita keredomo, mina wasureta kara, mj hanashi 
ga dekimai. Dekinai koto wa nai keredomo, mutsukasJi karj. 
Mo kisha ga deta ka. Mada demai. d Atsuraeta yjf'ku ga 
mada dekinai. Nikon de wa niju san ski wo sugita onna wa 
amari o shiroi wo ts'kenai. Samui no ni naze hibachi ni hi 
wo e irenai ka. Sakurazumi wa f takai kara, katj no hito wa 
mochiiru koto ga dekinai. Kane ga tak 'san nakereba yjkj ga 
(ydko sum koto go] dekinai. Ko(oro ni makasen mono wa 

a When the subordinative is closely connected with a negative verb the 
negative termination affects it also. 

b To be translated by means of the perfect tense. 

c The usual form of the proverb is : Hito no kiif/ii ni to ii>a taterarena. 
(p. loSh). 

d To be translated as if it were a probable past. 

e Here ///means live coals. 

f Originally charcoal from the town of Sakura east of Tokyo. The term ha; 
come to mean " first class charcoal." 

g This expression fits into the mouth of a childless person. Children (J-ui 
are treasures (takara] which connot be obtained by every one who want 1 


That will hardly be feasible, as it is too difficult. This 
character (wa) is seldom used (one seldom uses). The leaves 
of the trees have not yet fallen (pr.). Of (wa) this dictionary 
but (slika) five volumes have as vet been issued (pr.) ; 
altogether (mina de) there are to be twenty volumes. As the 
price-mark is attached (tsuite iru), he will hardly deduct 
[anything]. Take care that the bath (yu) does not become 
cool. He is still sleeping, not yet having become sober. a In 
(de wa) a quarrel he is seldom beaten y any one (hi to ni). 
Until I see it, I cannot judge whether it is good or bad. There 
are (not being is not) wolves in (ni mo) Japan, but (go) there 
are not many (tak'san wa inai). Before (izen ni wa) the 32nd 
year of Meij Europeans could not dwell (zakkyo sum) in the 
interior. At that time (jibun) also they could not travel 
through the interior without (nak'te wa) a passport. In the 
interior of Japan there are places (tokoro mo aru) where [the 
people] seldom eat fish. As he did not live in Japan a long 
time (nagaku), he probably cannot speak Japanese. b Why 
haven't you shut up the house (pr.) ? It seems that of (wa) this 
dictionary just one volume is lacking (is not enough). I have 
not seen (pr.) this play (shibai), but they say its very interest- 
ing. Of this camellia as yet not one blossom has fallen (pr.). 
It is his intention (tsumori de iru p. 95a) to give up sake, but 
he will hardly be able [to do so). This word has gone out 
of use (become not used), because it is too vulgar (gebiie iru). 
The ship is already out of sight (has become invisible.) Is 
Siam (Sham) a civilized or an uncivilized country ? The snow 
has not yet thawed (pr.). Having gone (dent) to an evening 
party last night, I was up (did not sleep) the whole night. 
The leaves of the bamboo do not fall even in winter (Juyu ni 
natte mo). 

a See pp. 8ig and 104]). 

b One may say simply : Nippongo wa dekunai. If the person spoken of is 
=till living in Japan, use the present lease : inai has not been living. 






Negative Past 


tabe n* kereba 
tabe neba 
if 1 1] do not eat 
if [I | should not eat 
tabe-nakattara (ba) 
tabe-nandara (ba) 
if [I] have not eaten 
if [I] had not eaten 
tabe-ru na 
o tabe de nai yo 
don't eat ! 

mi-ri kereba 
mi-neb a 
if [I] do not see 
if [I] should not see 
mi-nakattara (ba) 
mi-nandara (ba) 
if [I] have not seen 
if [I] had not seen 
mi-ru na 
o mi de nai yo 
don't look ! 

Tabenai nara (ba) a may be substituted for tabenakereba ; 
tabenakatta nara (ba) for tabenakattara. Instead of the 
conditional forms tabenai to may be used. 

By means of the conditional with nafanai (tiarimaseii) or 
ikenai (ikemaseii) b the English " ought " or " must " may be 
rendered : 

Minakereba narimasen. [I] must see it. 

There is scarcely any difference between naranai and ikenai. 
The former conveys the sense of obligation, while the lattei 
rather suggests the inconvenient consequences that will follow 
in case the condition is not fulfilled. 

Taberu na corresponds to the positive tabero ; o tabe de nai 
yo, to o tabe yo. But a student may say to another, To wo 
shimeru na (or shime tamau na\ though he would hardly say 
shimero. Other periphrastic forms are : 

a The negative probable form is occasionally found in this position : tabe- 
nakaro inoiH nara (Comp. p. I48a). 

b For ikenai see p. 2Qb. Naranai it does not become. Do mo narana 1 
can't manage it in any way. Compare : Fushigi de naranai. It is too strange 
(lit. being marvelous, it does not become). From what is said above it appears 
that there is really no equivalent for "ought" or "must" in Japanese. 
Compare also the use of beki and hazu (p. in). 


To wo shimeru won* ja nai 
(o) shime nasaru na 
shimenai (Jio) ga it 
shimete kureru na 
skimenaide moraitai 

shime te kudasaui na 
shimenakute mo ii 
shimenaide (p) kure 
shimenaide kudasai 
shimete kudasaimasu na, etc. 

For shimenaide see p. io6a. A distinction may be drawn 
between (p) shime nasaru na and shimete kureru na. The 
former implies that the speaker makes the request in behalf of 
the person addressed or of others ; the latter, that the speaker 
himself is the one for whose benefit the act is to be done. 
Compare what is said about o shime nasai (p. 150). 


kizu wound, scar. a 

nae young plant, seedling 

rice, etc.). 
ya-ne roof. 
yane-ya roofer. 
ki-no-ko mushroom. 
ku district, ward. 
yaku, hon-yaku translation. 
do-zj storehouse, "godown " 

(do earth, zo = kura). 
ji-kan period of time, time, 

hour (ji=toki, kan~aida) 
fo-chu maidservant (more 

polite than ge-jo). 
ki-chu mourning. 
ko-yaku medicinal plaster. 
matsuri-bi 1 festival day, 
sai-jitsu (c) j holyday. 
shj-sho certificate. 
akarui light, clear. 

kuwaskii minute, detailed, 

well versed. 
awase-ru cause to meet, join, 


kitne-ru ) fi dedd b 
sadame-ru } 
okure-ru be late. 
shirabe-ru inquire, investi- 
todoke-ru deliver (p. 5Qa), 

report officially. 
yashinau nourish, support. 
yashinai ni naru nutritious. 
hiki-kojtioru stay at home 

(on account of mourning or 

ue-tsuke-ru plant. 
mosJii, vi os hi mo if (with 

conditional form, to or toki 


a Atsit is more concrete than kcga. Thus one may say : 1e ni kizu ga aru, 
but ii'i t Te ui kega get aru. To wound a person is kizu ivo tsuke-rii ; to be 
wounded, kega (wo) sum. 
, b Jiiweru is more common in the colloquial than sadament. 


kesshite positively, never ze-hi (ni) by all means, neces- 

(\vith a negative word). sarily. a 
iiiaru de entirely. 


Kono hana wa misu wo kakenakereba karemasho. Kono 
kinoko wa do kit da kara, kesstite o tabe de nai yo. Kono 
byjnin wa yashinai ni -naru mono wo tabenakereba yoivariuia- 
shj. Omae hayaku yasumu kara, hayaku okinakereba ikenai. 
Watakushi no tokei wa okureta kara, awasenakereba nari- 
masen. ^ Mada akarui kara, amado wo skimete kureru na. 
Nikko wo minakereba, kekko to iu na. c fibiki de uiinakereba^ 
tvakarimasen. Kono ji wa shiju sono imi de mochiinakereba 
narimasen ka. lie shiju sono imi de mochiinakereba naranai 
to iii. koto wa arimasen. e Kono sJi sho wa yaku wo is 1 keua- 
kereba, gwaikokujin ni wa wakarimasen. f Ningen wa zehi 
niku wo tabenakereba naranai koto wa nai. Tabako wa doku 
des kara, yamenakereba narimasen. Kono sakana wo shio ni 
o ts 1 ke de nai yo. Moshi hayaku dozj no to wo shimenakatta- 
ra, maru de yak eta deshi. Yaneya ga ano toki ni ki wo 
ts kenakattara, ochita deshj. Moshi mado wo akenakattara, 
tori ga nigenakattaro. Konnichi wa saijitsu des kara, ii 
kimono wo kinakereba narimasen. Kore wo motto kuwasti ku 
shirabenakereba narimasen. Samui kara, mado wo akete 

a From zs (c) good and its opposite hi. One mny say also : zehi totno (loiuo 

b Compare : Tokei ga susiinde iniasii. The clock is fast (siisuinu advance). 
Tokei ga atte imasu. The clock is just right (au meet). To set the clock is 
tokei wo awase-ru, awaseru being the causative of au. 

e Nikko, from nichi sun and kivo light, is famous all over Japan not only for 
its beautiful scenery, but also for its magnificent temples. Kekkoto i^^ na don't 
say "splendid." You have no right to use the word kekko until the temples 
and gates of Nikko have taught you its meaning. 

d Jibiki de mint, look up in a dictionary. Jibiki ivo liiite mini (p. 88c) is the 
usual idiom. 

e Here to in before koto may be omitted. The accumulation of many 
negative words in one sentence is more common than in English. 

f Observe that wakaru and dekiru are really impersonal (pp. jyd, 34d) 
verbs and that the subject of the English sentence accordingly takes the 
postposition ni. 

g Distingush shio ni isukeru to pickle in salt (p. loSb) and ni shio ivo 
tsttke-ru to put salt on. 


kureru na. Kono kuse wo yamenai to ikenai. Kodomo ga 
tunareru to, ku-yak?sho ni todokenakereba narimasen. Kichu 
des* kara, hikikoinotte inakereba narimasen. 

Don't open this bottle. Don't cat too much (yokei). You 
must water this flower (ni or ni wa), every day. If you don't 
water this camellia (wa or ni wa) every day, the flowers will 
fall off (ochi-ru}. If [we] don't eat that (sore wa), it will spoil 
(become bad). If I don't inquire a of some one (hito ni), I 
shall not understand. If I had not put a plaster on the wound 
(wa), it might have become worse (bad) As I get up early, 
1 must go to bed early. Don't go out (soto ye) while I am 
absent (in the time of my absence). The maidservant must go 
out to buy things (p. 52d). b The farmers must now (kore 
hard) plant their [rice] seedlings. Since somebody has come, 
I must get up. If the window is not shut (one does not shut 
the window), the dust will enter (haitte kuru). At nine 
o'clock c I must go to the district-office. It will be (pr.) in- 
convenient (futsugj), if the clothes are not done by New 
Year's. d If [they] had not stopped the train at that time, 
there might have been considerable (zuibun) loss of life. 
When (fiom when) must I begin my studies (keiko) ? Must [1] 
fix the hours of study at once (mo jiki ni) ? I hope there are 
no mosquitoes. e 

a The most common expression for " inquire-" in the colloquial is kiite 

b In sentences like this and the one following, iva must be used with the 
subject, because logically it is the subject of the whole sentence, and not 
merely of the conditional clause. 

c The precise equivalent of " at nine o'clock " is kit ji ni. Of a performance 
which begins at nine we may say ku ji kara. Kisha ga kit jini to-chaku 
shimasu. The train arrives at nine o'clock. Ku ji kara enzetsu-k%vai wo 
hirakimasu. We will open the lecture-meeting at nine o'clock. 

d " By New Year's " is to be rendered : s hitmen made ni. Distinguish : Ban 
made /ion ivo yoniimasu. I will read the book [continuously] until this evening. 
Ban made ni hon ivo yomimasu. I shall have read the book by this evening. 

e This is to be translated like the examples in Ch. XL. : If there are no 
mosquitoes, good, but. ..Sentences beginning with "I hope" "I fear," etc., 
must always be paraphrased in some such manner : O kega de mo nakereba ii 
(ga). I hope you are not hurt. \Vakattatsumoridesit. I hope I understand. 
Hayaku naoshitai mono desu. I hope I shall soon be well. Funt ni ynvana- 
kereba ii (ga), I fear I shall be seasick. Almi iva kondo no shiken ni rakudai 
suru ka mo shirenai. I fear you will fail in the examination. Sometimes the 
simple probable or future form of the verb suffices : Dekimasho (to omoimasu). 
I hope it may be accomplished. Dekimaswnai (to omoimastt). I fear it mny 
not be accomplished. 



The positive subordinative of the verb, as of the adjective, 
in te ; e. g., tabe te, mi-te. a 

1. It is a peculiarity of the Japanese colloquial that of two 
sentences which in English would naturally be coordinate one 
is subordinated to the other by means of te : lj 

Mado wo shimete kimasho ka. 

Shall I go and shut the window ? (p. 88g). 

Tokiwa zva c kodomo wo san nin tsurete nigemashita. 

Tokiwa took the three children and fled. 

The second sentence may also be translated : Tokiwa fled with 
the three children. 

2. Subordinatives are frequently to be translated by means 
of adverbs or adverbial expressions ; e. g., nen wo irete care- 
fully, hajimete for the first time, sore ni hiki-kaete on the 

3. Often in cases where the English employs a simple verb 
the Japanese combines the verb in the form of the subordinative 
with another verb. 

tsurete kuru bring (a person or domestic animal). 

tsurete yuku take (a person or domestic animal). 

dete kuru come out (making one's exit corne). 

kurabete miru compare (comparing see). 

tamete oku save (saving put). 

karete shimau die (withering finish of a plaril). 

oshiete ageru inform (a superior). 

oshiete kureru (kudasaru) instruct (an inferior). 

oshiete yaru teach (brusque). 

Sanzan shikatte yarimashita. [I] scolded [him] severely. 

4. The subordinative with iru or oru denotes continued or 
unfinished action, especially action that is in progress at some 
definite time : 

a This te combined with , mi, M of stems of verbs of the second class be- 
comes nde ; shinde, from shinu, die \yonde, from yomu read ; yonde, from yobu 

b in the classical language the stem performs the same function as the 
subordinative in the colloquial. This usage appears irv the speech of the 
learned, in orations and in long stories. 

c Tokiwa was a famous beauty, concubine of Yoshitomo and mother of 


Gozen ivo tabete orimasu. He is (now) eating. 

Gozen wo tabete imashita. He was eating (at the time). 

In this construction iru or oru is a mere auxiliary and may be 
used also of inanimate things (p. 63c). a Notice contractions 
like kiiteru or kiitoru am listening, or inquiring, yonderu or 
yondoru am reading, or calling. In kiite iru the i is elided ; in 
kiite oru, the e. 

5. The subordinative with iru or oru may denote a condition 
that is the result of an action and may in some cases be trans- 
lated by means of the perfect tense. 

Ochite itu. It is down (having fallen). 

Kite iru. He is here (having come). 

Dete iru. He is out (having gone out). 

Yqfuku wo kite iniasu. 

He is wearing foreign clothes (having put them on). 

Megane wo kakete irnasu. 

He is wearing glasses (having put them on). 

Shin j a ni watte oriutasu. 

He is a believer (having become one). 

But in the case of transitive verbs aru is more commonly 
used with the subordinative to express a condition, the com- 
pleted act rather than the agent being the object of attention. 

Irete aru. They are inside ( haitte iru). 

Tomete aru. I have a note of it (tome-ru make a note of). 

Kaite aru. It stands written. 

hu wa koshiraete arimasu. 

The chairs are finished. I have made the chairs. 

Daidokoro ni inizu ga (wo) kiite ant. 

Water is brought (in pipes) to the kitchen. 

6. If ii or yoroshii follows a subordinative, the idea of 
permission or acquiescence is conveyed : 

Kyj a s obi ni dete ii. 

You may take a vacation to-day (go out to play). 

a Students of the English language have revived an obsolete idiom in order 
to translate progressive forms like " I am going," etc., using tsutsu ant with the 
stem of the verb : iki tsutsn aru is going. This construction is not infrequently 
heard in speeches, etc. The subordinative of an intransitive verb may be 
progressive or perfect, as explained above ; but iki tsutsn arte is free from 




7. The postposition kara may follow the subordinative (p. 
960), giving the clause a temporal meaning. In the following 
sentence kara may also be omitted : 

Konna koto zva umarete kara hajimete da. 
It is the first time since I was born that I have seen such 
a thing. 

8. The subordinative may be used elliptically : 
Yoku ki iv o tsukete. Take good care ! 
Cha ivo irete. Make the tea ! 

Yume bakkari mite (yoktt yasumimaseti). 
I did nothing but dream. 

Kotice also shitte no tori as you know. 


juchi rim, border. 

kata shoulder. 

saka slope, ascent. 

su vinegar. 

tako kite. 

tako wo age-ru fly a kite. 

ato track, trace. 

aski-ato foot-print. 

hiru-meshi 1 noonday meal, 

hiru-han 3 luncheon, tiffin. 

kami=ue above. 

shimo = skita below. 

kane-ire, zeni-ire purse. 

zoku outlaw, rebel, robber. 

dai, dai-ka price. a 

dai-kon large radish (lit. 
great root). 

hyj-tan gourd (used mostly 
for carrying small quan- 
tities of sake when travel- 
ling), flask. 

sa-tj sugar. 

toku-i customer. 

kei-ho criminal law, criminal 

zai-nin ( = tsumi-bito) crim- 

ko-cfw head of a school. b 

sha-rei honorarium, fee. 

sho-Diotsii book. c 

rein-pei military drill. 

ryo-sen fishing boat. 

kan-goku, kangoku-sho prison. 

gwai-mu-shd Department of 
Foreign Affairs. 

nai-mu-sho Department of the 
Interior, Home Office. 

&ki-kd*sho Department of 

sen no former. 

sen ni formerly. 

kesti extinguish, erase. 

a Dai substitute, kn value. Dai is more concrete than nedan. 

b From kd school (in gakko] and cho senior. Cho enters into a great many 
compounds ;e ^.^in-chd superintendent of a hospital (l>yo-iti), shi-cJio mayor 
of a cily, son- cho head of a village, cho-cho burgess, sen-cho captain of a ship, etc. 

c From shc=kaku write and nwtsu=mono thing. But kaki-mono, meaning 
document, is not synonomous with sho-mofsu 


hi-keshi ) r ki-kae-ru change (clothes). 

cJij-bo-Jii ) osore-ru fear. 

kosu cross (a mountain or osore-iru [am] very much 

river). obliged (lit. am in dread). 

moe-ru burn (intr.). yuru swing, shake (tr.). 

seme-ru attack, assault. ji-shin ga yuru (or suru) there 

toine-ru make a note of. is an earthquake. 

wake-ru divide. me-gane wo kake ru put on 

isuiome-ru be dilgent. spectacles. 
ni tsutomeni be employed te-gamiwo ffizuru seal a letter. 

in. yatto with difficulty, at last. 


S'koshi wakete kure. Kore wa hambun wakete agemasJio 
(p. 84f ). Hara ga warui kara, (mono wo) hikaete tabenakereba 
n&rimasen to isha ga iimash'ta. O me ni kakemashj ka 
(p. 44a). DJZO misele kudasai. Ima wa kogi no jikan dake 
kimete oite a ato de sharei no koto wo kimemasho. Odawara 
no shiro wa b Hideyoshi ga shichikagetsu hodo semete yatto 
ochimaslita. Ano hito wa itsu mo rasha no kimono ^vo kite 
unas\ Mo o kyaku ga mina-kite orimas' ka. Hitori ka ftari 
sfi ka kite imasen. Kono gakko no kyoslii wa kochj wo irete 
(including) skichi nin des\ Sakuban gozen ivo tabete ita toki 
ni jishin ga yurimastita kara, sugu ni to wo akete soto ye 
nigemastita. Scketsu to iu Shinajin wa tori no ashiato wo 
mite hajimete ji wo koshiraeta to iu hanashi ga arimas . Kono 
shimbun wo mite kara (initara) sampo ni demaskj. Keihj wo 
shirabete minakereba sono bats' wa wakarimasen. Kdhii ni 
sato wo irete ageiiiashj ka. lie, satd u*a itadakimasen. Akete 
misete kure. Danna zva doko ni imas ka. Ima o yu kara 
dete kimono wo kikaets irasshaimas\ Tegamiwa dekite imas\ 
shikashi mada fu-jite arimasen. Naporeon issei wa Rosha de 
makete kara ni san nin no toino wo tsurete F'rans ye nigete 
kimastita. Soko ni ochite iru shomots' wo katazukete kure. 

a The subordinative of oku, used here as an auxiliary (Ch. LV.). Dake is 
often equivalent to " only " (p. 48!)). 

b Odawara, on the Td-kai-do (east-sea-road) between Tokyo and Hakone, 
was in the XVL Century the castle-town of the IIojo family. Ochiru may be 
a set!, like the English " fall," of the Surrender of a castle or fort. 


Nihonjin wa kaki wo (oysters) su to shoyu ni ts kete tabemas . 
Ano zainin wa kangoft sho wo dete kara ii hito ni narimastita. 
Hyjtan wo kata ni kakete hanami ni ikimasKta. Ano sensei 
ni Doitsugo wo oshiete moraimasJi ta. O tokui sama des kara, 
chitto makete agemasho. Kane ire wo wasurete kite komarimas\ 
Chiisai kodomo ni wa e wo misete oshiemas . Ano kata wa 
doko no yak'sho ni ts'tomete irasshaimas ka. Sen ni wa 
naimusho ni ts'tomete imash'ta ga ima wa gwaimushj ni 
ts'tomete imqs . Kimbuchi no (gold- rimmed) megane wo 
kakete imas. Mukashi wa kami-shimo wo* kite n~) wo 
mimastita. Dozo, ichido tazunete mite kudasai. Dokka ni 
tomete arimas . Ichiban o shimai no sh'ogun wa konogoro 
made ikite irasshaimasJita ; ima mo ikite irassharu ka do ka 
zonjimasen. Go ju no saka wo kosJite imas '. b Osore- 
irimastite gozaimas . c 

The Japanese eat a great deal of {yokii) daikon, pickling it 
in salt (p. i6og). Shall I give you half? The fishing boats 
are all out at sea. After this I 'will eat moderately. He wears 
poor (bad) clothes when he is at work (shigoto wo sum). Are 
the pupils all here ? [There] are five who (no ga) have not 
yet come. To (ni wa) publish the book yen 500 are required 
(kakarii), d including the cost of the paper (kami-dai}. The 
master has eaten lunch and is resting (yasunde irasshaimas}. 
Shall I open the door for you? Please open [it |. In Japan 
tea is drunk with milk and sugar (do they drink tea putting 
into [it] milk and sugar) ? After the rebel army (zo ku-gwi) 
was defeated in Oshu, it fled (fleeing went) to Yezo. Is the 
gardener here ? Yes, he is watering the flowers in the garden. 
That official is employed at the Department of Justice. He is 
not like his older brother. Taiko's face resembled a monkey's, 
it is said. The soldiers are all out for drill. The children (of 

a Kaini-shinw, composed of kata-gimt (shoulder-garment) and hakama, was 
formerly gentlemen's full dress. 

b Is past fifty years of age (lit. has crossed the summit of fifty). 

c This is the extremely polite form of osoreirimashita : I am quite em- 
barrassed by your kindness. 

d Observe that kakaru is used in stating the amount of time, labor or 
expense required for an undertaking. But in simply stating the price of a 
thing one says, Go Jiyaku yen shimasit. 


the house) are now flying kites. Bring the camellia blossoms 
lying (having fallen) there. Is the fire still burning? The 
firemen came after the fire was extinguished. It is (written) 
in (ni wa) the newspaper, but it is false (uso). 


The subordinative followed by w a generally a has a condi- 
tional sense (p. 102) : 

Keiko wo yamete wa do desu. 

How would it be if we gave up the study ? 
If then a negative word like naranai or ikenai b is added, 
the whole phrase is to be translated by means of " must not" 
(pp. 9 2d, i30g): 

Ima keiko wo yamete wa narimasen. 

You must not give up the study now. 

Akete mite wa ikemasen. You must not open it. 
As in the case of adjectives, te wa may be contracted to 
cha ; but such contractions are avoided in polite or formal 

Followed by mo the subordinative has a concessive sense 
and must be translated by means of " even though," " even 
if " (p. n/f). If yoroshii or a similar expression follows, the 
sentence has a permissive sense like the English " may." Such 
a sentence is often a polite command. 

So nas'tte mo yoroshu gozaimasu. 

There is no objection to your doing so. 

Nete mo yoroshu gozaimasu ka. May I go to bed ? 
For the subordinative with mo the past tense with 'tte (fa 
itte, tote) may be substituted : 

Dare ni kikaseta 'tte honto to omoi wa shinai. 

No matter to whom you tell it, no one will think it true. 
Kikase-ru is the causative of kiku to hear. Kikaseta 'He is 
equivalent to kikasete mo. Omoi zva s/iinai, often pronounced 
omoya shinai, is a very emphatic way of saying omowanai. 

a The rule does not apply to sentences like the following : Kimatte v>a 
imasen. It is not decided. There is no rule to that effect. Komban ivatakitshi 
no uc/ii ye tomatte iua kiiremai ka. Would he (you) not stay at my house 

b When reference is made to one's relations with other persons, sittnanai 
is inexcusable, from sumu to be ended, settled, composed, may be used : Omae 
sonna ni namakete ite iva otottsan ni sumanai zo. It is unfilial to your father 
to be so idle. 





Classical concessive forms, like mi-redo (ino) though he sees, 
mi-taredo (mo) though he saw, occur now and then. 

kabura turnip. muda na vain, of no use. 

nishiki brocade. fa- yd na not needed, useless. 

tsuztire rags. asobn, asonde play, amust 
sumi India ink. one's self. 

kara-kasa [Japanese] umbrel- asobi ni de-ru go out for rec- 

la. a reation. 

kdinoti\y&\.. haskiru. hase-ru go fast, run.' 

komori-gasa [European] um- kamau heed, mind. 


ri reason, principle, right. 
nik-kt diary. 
nikki ni tsuke-ru note in a 


katsu, kutte win a victory 

( ni katsu defeat). 
nose-ru place on top ( n 

wo nosern). 
jinre-ru get wet 

taku-an^ 1akuan-zuke pickled bisshori nure-ru get wet to the 
daikon. b 

yaku-soku agreement, cove- 

tagae-ru alter. 

yakusoku wo tagae-ru break 
a promise. 

Roma-ji Roman characters. 

suppai sour (of taste). 


ori-ru descent, alight. 
sage-ru opp. age-ru. 
tamaeru be accumulated 

ude-ru cook by boiling 

water. d 
wo abi-ru bathe in. 



tsumaranai worthless, foolish. no in a ni nu be in time for. e 

a Kara=T*d (p. I22a) is prefixed to the names of articles formerly imported 
from abroad ; e. g., kara-kane bronze, leant- k ami wall paper, or screens made of 
the same. 

b From Taku-an the name of a priest who is said to have invented this now 
Indispensable article of diet. Pickles in general are called (o) ko-ko, from ko 
(c) fragrant. 

c Synonymous with hashiru is kake-rn y but the latter is used of animals or 
men only. 

d To cook in shoyu is ni-rti ; e. g., sakana wo niru. To cook rice is meshi 
tuo taku ; to boil water is yu ivo ivakasti. IVetkasu is the causative of wakti : 
Yu ga ivaite imasu. The water is boiling. 

e Lit. meet the time. Kisha no ma ni an catch the train. The expression 
is also used in the more general sense of " to be sufficient " : Kore cle ma ni 
aimasho. This will probably be sufficient; causative: Kore df ma ni au<ase~ 
masho. We will make this do. 



Kono kabura wa udete mo yaivaraka ni narimas'mai. Sonna 
tsumaranai koto wo nikki ni ts kete wa (ts kechd) ikemasen. 
Omae kyo wa kutabiretara, sugu ni nete mo ii. Fuyd na mono 
wa s'tete mo yd gozaimas' ; iriyd na mono wa s tete wa {s techa] 
narimasen. a Sonna muda na koto wa wasurete mo yd gozai- 
mas' . Mo uchi ni yd ga nai kara, omae kaimono ni dete mo 
ii. Kimono wa ima sugu ni atsuraete mo shdgwatsu made ni 
wa dekimasmai (sJidgwatsu no ma ni wa aimas'mai}. Kore 
wa itsu tabete mo umai des\ b Mo kodomo ga itsutsu ni 
narimastita kara, tenarai no keiko wo hajimete wa do de 
gozaimas ka. Omae ni jikan ka san jikan wa asobi ni dete 
mo ii. Shokuji no sh'taku ga dekitara, sugu ni tabete md yd 
gozaimas'. Soko ni am mono wo tansu no hikidashi ni irete 
mo tana ni nosete mo ii. Seiydrydri wo tabete iva (tabecha) 
ikaga des\ Mo (wo) chitto makete wa (inakecha) do des . 
Kowarete mo kamaimasen. c Ron ni makete mo ri ni katsu 
(Proverb). d Mukashi samurai wa shibai wo mite wa (mini 
koto wa) narimasen desJita ; shikashi no wa mite mo yd 
gozaimastita. Kyd wa atsui kara, kawa no mizu wo abite wa 
(abicha) do des\ 'felsudobasha no hashitte iru uchi ni orite wa 
(pricha) abunai des\ Kono hey a no kuki ga warui kara, mado 
wo akete mo yd gozaimas ka. Sayo, akete mo yoroshii. Kono 
gaku wa s koshi sagete mo agete mo doc /lira de mo yoroshii. e 
Sono nchi no mono wo mite mo ii ka. Sayd, mite mo yd 
gozaimas*. Tsuzure wo kite mo kokoro wa nisti ki (Proverb). 
Sensei ga nani wo oshiete mo shosei ni wa omoshiroku nai des\ 
Dare ga oshiete mo kamaimasen. Kore wa nete mo okite mo 
(samete mo) wasureraremasen. 

a By means of this negative expression one may translate the English 
' keep " or " preserve." 

b Ilsu tabete mo every time I eat it. Similar constructions occur frequently : 
nani ivo tabete mo no matter what I eat, dare ga kite mo no matter who comes, 
do kangaetemo thinking it over in every possible way. Compare the last two 
sentences in the exercises, also p. 45b. 

c The verb kamait generally occurs in the negative form. ICamaimastn- 
I don't mind ; it makes no difference. Kamawanai ho ga yokatta. It might 
have been better not to pay any attention to it. Ddzo o kamai naku. Please 
do not trouble yourself. 

d With katsu, ni is ordinarily used to denote the object : teki-gim ni katsu to 
defeat the enemy. But here it is exactly equivalent to the English " in." 

e Sageru to hang lower; agent to hang higher. 


How would it be if we made {koshiraeru} an English- 
Japanese dictionary in (of) Rdmajif Even if we made such a 
dictionary (wa i), there would probably be few buyers (people 
who buy would be few). As it has become late, may I go to 
bed ? Since these pickles have become sour, you may throw 
them away (s terii}. Since I still need that (wa i), you must 
not throw it away. One must not break a promise. As there 
is nothing more to do (yd ga nai) t you may go to bed. Even 
if he gives up sake, he will hardly save anything (money will 
hardly accumulate). As it has become too late, it will be (is) 
of no use even if it is finished (dekite kuru). How would it be 
if we put [him] into (ireru) the hospital ? May I stay (ifu) here 
or shall 1 go elsewhere (fioka ye deru)1 He will (does) not 
give up tobacco, though he knows (shitte irti) that it injures 
him (doku ni naru koto}. How would it be if we changed 
rikshas here ? If dinner is not yet ready, we may eat after- 
wards (nochi ni). How would it be to go out for recreation ? 
This plate will hardly break even though it falls. Sumi is 
useful even if it is broken. I will take an umbrella : it is 
unpleasant (komarii) to get (if one get) wet through and 
through. a As the weather is doubtful, you must not forget 
[yourj umbrella. Though I sleep well at night, when I awake 
1 feel as if I had not slept (nenai yo na kimochi ga shiinas). 


Negative Subor- tabe-zu (shite] mi-zu (shite) 

dinative tabe-zu ni mi-zu ni 

tabe-naide (-nde) mi-naide (-nde) 

tabe-nakute mi-nakute 

For the uses of these forms compare the preceding chapters. 

i. In the literary language zu is the termination of the 
negative conclusive, as well as of the connective or inconclu- 
sive, form of verbs : 

Atarazu to iedomo tokarazu (toku, arazti). 

Though it did not hit [the mark], it is not far [from it]. 

a When one has actually been wet, one may say : nurefe koinani. But i 
added to nurefe indicates a general supposition. 


This use occurs in proverbs and other sentences adopted from 
the classical language. But in the colloquial the last predica- 
tive verb in a series of coordinate negative clauses must take 
one of the endings given in Ch. XLI , or, if itself subordinated, 
n aide. 

Chikagoro wa him a ga nakute hito wo mimau koto mo 
dekizu sampo suru koto mo dekinaide komatte imasu. 

I have had a hard time of it lately because for lack of 

time I can neither visit people nor go out for a walk. 
In formal addresses shite may be added to the form in zu. a 
But in general the use of this smacks of the literary style. In 
the colloquial the forms in zu ni and naide are more commonly 
used to indicate the subordination of a clause. 

2. The form in zu (ni) may be used adverbially : 
nokorazu all, none being left (p. 50). 

tarazu closely, from tatu be enough. 

mono mo iwazu silently, from iu to say. 

omowazu shirazu unintentionally, unawares, from omou 

think, shim know. 
muko mizu ni blindly, from mukd what is in front of one. 

Compare shirazu shirazu no aida before [I] knew it. 

3. As in the case of the positive subordinative, iru or oru 
may be added to denote continuance or a condition. Only the 
forms in zu ni and naide may be so used : 

Tabezu ni oru 1 have eaten nothing, or, 

Tabenaide oru \ continue to eat nothing. 

Suki na mono a" atte mo tabenaide orimas\ 

He refrains from eating even things of which he is fond. 

4. By the addition of wa the negative subordinative acquires 
a conditional sense : 

Tabezu ni Tva oraremasen. [I] cannot exist without eating. 
Such words as naranai and ikenai (p. 158) may follow only 
the forms in naide wa and nakute wa. b In Tokyo the latter 
is preferred : 

Tabete minakute wa wakarimasen. I must first taste it. 

a Compare the use of shite with kara : soreda kara shite since that is the 

b May be contracted to nakucha (jiakutcha], as also naidt iva to naija. In 
the next example also otte tea may be contracted to ofcha ; ite lua to icha. 


While naranai> etc.,- cannot follow tabezu ni wa immediately, 
one may say : 

Mono wo tabezu ni otie (ite) wa narimasen. 

[You] must not continue to fast. 

(lit. must not be \\ithout eating something). 

5. The particle mo gives the negative subordinative a conces- 
sive sense. The idiom is tabezu to mo, not tabezu ni mo. a One 
may also say, tabenaide mo, tabenakute mo : ii. It is not necessary to see it. 

(lit. it is good though [I] do not see.) 

Sore wa iwazu to mo shiieta^ koto desu. 

It is unnecessary to speak of it. 

(lit. though none says it, it is a tiling that one could 

Mono mo iwazu mata tabe mo shin aide mo (shinai no ni) 

nodo ga it'j gozaimasu. 
My throat hurts even when I neither speak nor eat. 

Shinaide is the negative subordinative from sum to do. For 
the sake of emphasis suru is often used with the stem of a verb, 
as here. 


oto sound, noise. yoroi armor. 

oto ga suru there is a sound, te-hon model, pattern, copy. 

oto zvo saseru make a sound, yu-meshi 1 supper, eveivng 

tatami a thick mat (3 ft. X 6) yu-han \ 'meal. 

made of straw and cover- kun (c) = //;;// master, iord. c 

ed with finer matting. bun-seki analysis (chemical). 

yome bride, young wife. chi-ri geography. 

yome wo torn (inorau) marry, reki-shi history. 

a Idioms like tabezu ni de mo are sometimes heard. 7 abezu ni mo may occiu* 
in such a sentence as : Masaka tabezu ni tno orareinaseii. kara, konna /stimaranai 
mono de mo tabele imasu. Because it is quite impossible to exist without eating 
at all, I eat even such wretched stuff as this. The word tnasaka is used 
commonly before suppositions which are absurd or not likely to be fulfilled. 

b Compare p. 556 and the list p. 128. 

C Kun may be added, like san, to the surname of a man, when the speaker 
is on terms of good fellowship with him. 




ji-ken affair, case. 
kai-sho square script. a 
so-sho cursive style. 
ke-rai a retainer (of a noble), 

a samurai (in relation to 

his lord). 
ku-fukti hunger. 
kujuku ni naru get hungry. 
kyu-byo sudden illness. 
yaku-shu drug. 
yo-ji bu iness. 

rf-tf<7f guidance, knowledge. k 
annai-ja (annai- sha) guide. 
fuibi-fukit swallow-tailed 

coat. c 
sai-ban judgment (at a court 

of justice). 

saiban-sho courthouse. 
kyu na sudden, urgent. 
kake-ru run (p. i68c). 
koe-ru pass over, cross ( fcosu). 

shitatame-ru write (a letter or 

uttiie-ru accuse ( wo saiban- 

sho ni). 

ni wabi-ru make an apology 

sankei sum go for worship (to 

a shrine or temple). 
kokoro-mi-ru try, tempt. 
tori-shirabe-ru investigate. 
karuta wo toru play cards. 
kane (zeni) wo kake-ru stake 

niehata wo kakeru determine 

the weight. 

ni sawaru come into con- 
flict with. 

no ki ni sawaru offend. 
ai-kawarazu without chang- 

ing, as always. 
kitchiri (to) exactly, precisely. 


Michi wa ^vakari1nas kara, annaija wo tsurezu ni iku 
tsumori des\ Ramp' ni hi wo is* kenaide oke. (l Ouiae kore 
kara yoku ki wo ts 1 kenak'te wa (ts kenakitcka] ikenai. Omae 
viaiasa rokuji ni okinak'te wa (pkinakuchd) naranai. Wata- 
kushi wa kuji s koshi mae ni dena&te wa narimasen. Kimi 
wa Tanaka kun no ki ni sawaru koto wo itta (past from ///) 

a The kai-sho, from kai model and sho=kaku t is the unabridged form of the 
character. Sc~sho is derived from so grass. An intermediate style is called 
gyo sho. 

b Go annai itashimasho I will show you the way. Go annai de gozaimasho. 
You probably know. Go annai no tori as you know. 

c A literal translation : en swallow, bi tail, fuku garment. A frock coat is 
called by its English HZCKIZ f roktt koto ; a common sack coat is se-biro (se back, 
Jiiroi broad). 

d Oku with the negative subordinative may be translated by means of 
'* leave " and a passive participle : tsukenaide oku to leave unlighted. In this 
connection the form in ztt ni may also be used. 


kara, ivabinaide wa ikemasen. Sonna ni kakezu to mo ii ; 
kisha no deru toki made ni wa mada yohodo a aida ga arimas*. 
Kesa gozen wo tabezu ni demasJita kara, domo, kuj'ku ni 
natte tamarimasen. Kokorominaide wa (kokoroininaija)^ 
wakarimasen. Sonna warui koto wa sensei ni todokenafcte 
wa narimasen. Todokete mo todokenafcte mo do de mo 
kamaimasen. Yome wo torn to, kuya&sho ye todokena&te wa 
narimasen. Sono hako no mekata wa kakete minak'te mo 
wakarimas . Sonna koto wo saibansho ye uttaezu to mo 
yokatta ni. Ima wa kimena&te mo yJ gozaimas . Kono 
tegami wa kyu na yyi de wa nai kara t ima sJitatamezu to mo 
ii n' des '. Kono yak' shu wa nan des* ka. Sayo, bunseki stite 
mina&te wa wakarimasen. Kono bawai ni wa, wa to iuji wo 
ts'kezu to mo ii n des\ c Tehon wo mizu ni o kaki nasai. 
Kaisho to sosho ryoho tomo oboena&te wa narimasen. Kicftii 
no aida wa chitto mo soto ye dezu, niku mo sakana mo tabezu, 
mdta ie no uchi de takai (loud) oto wo saseru koto mo dekima- 
sen. Dozo aikaivarimasezu. d Tabe mo shinaide tabeta yd na 
koto wo iimas'. 

One must take care that (yo ni) the fire of the pipe (tobacco) 
does not fall on (ni) the mats. Within (uchi ni) one year I 
must learn at the least about (hodo) a thousand Chinese char- 
acters. As I went to bed last night without supper, I am 
faint with hunger (becoming hungry cannot endure) this morn- 
ing. As I must go out at five o'clock, we will begin our lesson 
(keiko) precisely at four. When (to) [a man] adopts a person 
(receives an adopted son), he must report to the district-office. 
Must I wear a swallowtail to go there ? You need not wear 
a swallowtail. I cannot teach history without teaching geog- 

a The^fl \nyohodo is not derived from yoi, but is the Chinese equivalent of 

b Instead of kokoromiru one may also say: yatte mini from yarn to do (p. 

c Translate : In this case wa is not needed. For bawai see p. I37e. 

d Some such phrase as go kon-i ni negaimasii I desire [that you will treat 
me] in a friendly manner, is understood. The phrase is used on various 
occasions. In offering New Year's congratulations it is used in the form : Dozc t 
konnen mo ciikawarimasezu. I hope we shall be good friends this year also. 
The ai politely prefixed to verbs in formal speech has lost its original meaning 
of " mutually." Compare ai-narnbeku wa if possible (p. H2d). 

XI Vj 



raphy. That Japanese intended to investigate our police sys- 
tem (the matter of the police of this place) for two years, but 
on account of (de) the sudden illness of his father he returned 
to [his] country without investigating [it]. This case must be 
brought before (uttaeru) the court. As the hot water has be- 
come tepid, you need not put in (umeru) any cold water. 
Without seeing the copy I cannot write. Sanetomo, disregard- 
ing (kikazu ni) what his retainer said, went for worship to the 
[temple of] Hachiman of Kamakura without wearing armor 
under his garments ; consequently he was murdered (korosare 
ru)* Please leave the window unopened as dust is rising outside 
(soto ni} just now. Without crossing the mountain, we will 
go this way {kochira no michi wo yukii). AVe left it undecid- 
ed. We played cards without staking [any] money. 



Negative ' 
Negative " 


wish to eat 

tabe-taku nai 

do not wish to eat 

tab e- tat i 

at times eating 




at times not eating 


wish to see 

mi-taku nai 

do not wish to see 


at times seeing 




at times not seeing 

i. As has been observed before (p. 100), the clesiderative 
is an adjective and may be inflected as such : 

Tabetaku narimashita. I have become desirous to eat. b 
Tabetakute komarimasu. I am very anxious to eat. 
Tabetakereba, tabete mo ii. You may eat, if you wish. 
The adverbial ending taku becomes to before gozaimasu (p. 

a Sanetomo, son of Yoritomo, was appointed shogun in 1203, and in 1219 
was murdered by his nephew Kugyo. Hachiman is the name of the god of 
war. For Kamakura see p. I22C. 

b The word " hungry " is hardly a correct translation for tabeta.i. " I have 
become hungry," literally translated into Japanese is, Himojikii narimashita, 
or, KTtfuku ni narimashita. The idea of " hungry " and the idea o f f tabetai 
usually coincide, but not always. See the last of the English sentences. 

176 THE VERB [ 

100). To the form in tai may be added mono desu, no desu, 
or simply desu. By adding to omoimasu (to omotte tmasu) the 
speaker may avoid expressing his wish too bluntly or com- 
mitting himself too definitely. 

Jt is to be noted carefully that the desiderative cannot be 
used of the third person except (a) when to iu or no desu is 
added ; (b) when a derivative verb is formed by adding garu 
to the desiderative stem (comp. hoshigaru p. 1 5 2a) ; or (c) 
when one speaks in behalf of another and in his presence : 

Mairitai to itte orimasu. He says he wants to go. 

Kono kodomo wa Amerika ye ikitai no desu. 

This boy wants to go to America. 

Watakushi no ofcto wa Amerika ye ikitagatte iru ga ; 
tsurete itte kudasaru koto wa dekimasumai ka. 

My younger brother is desirous to goto America; could 

you not take him with you ? 

The word which is the object in the English sentence may 
take ga in Japanese (p. 1036): Gozen ga tabetai mon desu. 
In this case the personal subject takes wa. Desideratives may 
also be used attributively with the nouns which are their 

2. The alternative is used when acts or states occur by turns 
(comp. p. 99) : 

Heya wo haitari fuitari shite orimashita. 

[I] was sweeping and wiping [the floors of] the rooms. 
Alternatives may be translated by means of " at times at 
times," "now again/' or, in some cases, simply by "and." 
They cannot be inflected and ordinarily are not used except 
with forms of sum to do. Notice the following elliptical 
construction . 

Sore wa negattari kanattari desu. 

It is just what I want (lit. desiring, obtaining). 


oboe memory. hatsu-yume first dream of the 

yume dream. vear. a 

a This hatsu is the equivalent of sho, in sho-han (p. 93), much used a.s a 
prefix in the sense of" first." It must not be confused with the Chinese hatsn 
to start, originate. 


kake-mono a picture or writ- seiyo-zukuri no built in Euro- 
ing in the form of a roll pean style, 
which may be opened atsmne-ru gather, assemble,. 
and hung on a wall. collect. 

gn-ai adjustment, condition. a koto-zuke-ru\s&e an opportunity 

hen-kwa change, grammati- to despatch anything, send 
cal inflection. word. 

do- ski no hen-kwa conjugation, saski-age ru lift up, give (more- 
ji-dai age, epoch. formal than ageru). 

ji dai no aru antique. hern, hette decrease; ham ga 

kwa-dan flower-bed. become hungry. 

mim-pj civil law, civil code, goku (c) very. 

nado, nazo, nanzo et cetera. b saki-hodo a little while ago. 

frft/tt/7* make, build (a house), totemo by no means (with a 
raise (a crop). negative word). c 


Watakushiwa Nikon no mono wo s koshi atstimetJ gozaimas\ 
Donna mono des 1 ka. Sayo,jidaino aru kakemono nazo ga yi> 
gozaimas . Matsubara san ni kotozuketai koto ga arimas\ 
Anata wa issho ni oide nasaru o hima ga gozaimasen ka. Ta~ 
daima te garni wo stitatametj gozaimas kara, o ato kara d 
mairimashj. Watakushi wa P'rosha no mimpj no koto ga 
torishirabetj gozaimas' ga, ii hon zvo go zonji de arimasen ka* 
Nihongo wa sonna ni keiko ^vo yametari hajimetari sJite wa 
oboeraremasen (p. io8h). Kyo wa o tenki des* kara, asobi ni 
detaku narimaslita. Mizu wo abiru to, mono wo tabetaku na- 
rimas\ e Doka, Nihon ye itte mitai mon des . f Shoji wa 

a Amado wa guai ga warui. The sliding doors do not fit well into their 
grooves. Wataktishi ?va konogoro guai ga warui. I have been under the 
weather lately. 

b These words are attached to a noun immediately, and precede such 
particles as iva,ga, etc. 

c Kesshite is used of a firm resolution or of a statement for which the speaker 
makes himself personally responsible : Kesshite sonna koto wa arimasen. I 
assure you there will be nothing of the kind. Totemo is not so positive and 
indicates merely that there are serious difficulties in the way : Totemo tasukari- 
masumai. There is almost no chance of his recovery. 

d O ato kara afterwards, after you. 

e Mono is indefinite (p. 47). Mono wo tabetaku naru become hungry. 

f Doka (lit. somehow or other) here serves to express the fervor of the 
desire and may be translated " very much." Itte mitai wish to visit (lit. go and 


sonna ni shiju aketari shimetari sh'te iru to t guai ga waruku 
narimas . Atsui to, mizu ga y abitaku narimas*. Kyd wa s 1 koshi 
kibun ga warukute sampo ni detaku wa arimasen. Sakihodo 
kimaslita shosei wa anata ni go hon wo o kari moshital io 
itie iinastita Anata no yj ni kanji no kakiyo wo oboetai 
mono des keredomo, toleino oboeru koto wa dekimas'mai. Are 
*iva netari okitari stite imas . Hito wo sonna ni agetari 
sagetari sJi te wa ikemasen. a Koinban no hatsuyume ni wa 
Fuji no yama no yume de mo mitai mon des 1 . b Niwa no 
sakura ga sakimastita kara, oide wo negatte c ippai sashi- 
agetai mon des' . Anata ni sashiagetai mono ga arimas*. 
Kwadan ni botan wo ippon uetai mon des\ Djmo, bunshj wo 
baite mitak'te mo, ii kangae ga deinasen kara, yoshimashj. 
Domo, shibai ga mitakute tamarimasen. 

Often when (to) I hear [of] the beauty (ii koto) of Japanese 
scenery I become desirous to go and see [itj. The room will 
become (becomes) very cold, if you continue (surii) opening 
and shutting the door. I wish to show you [some] Japanese 
photographs. I wish to learn to write (kaku koto wo) Chinese 
characters; don't you know [of ] a good teacher? i wish to 
borrow (o kari m^su) a little money; will you please loan me 
[some]? i should like to learn the conjugation of Japanese 
verbs. As I have [some] leisure to-day, I wish to out for a 
little recreation (chotto asobi ni). [Our] neighbor wishes to 
build a house in European style, but probably [his] money 
does not yet suffice for that (sore ni wa). I should like to eat 
Japanese food (cooking) once. He wants to learn Chinese 
characters, but his memory is bad and he immediately forgets 
(forgetting finishes) the characters he has learned (psoivattd). 
Look ! yonder a ship is at times visible and at times out of 

a Here ageru and sagertt have the derived senses of "extol" and "dis- 
parage ". 

b It is considered a sign of good luck to dream of Mount Fuji on the night 
of the second of January. no yume -wo mini to dream of (lit. see a dream of). 
Ha ga nukcta ytttne no mvnaslnta. I dreamed that I lost a tooth (a tooth was 
extracied). Notice that de mo may be added to nouns as well as pro- 
nouns (Ch. XVII.), making the sense indefinite : a dream of Fuji or a dream 
of that kind. Compare the sentence p. 172.1. The hawk (taka} ami the egg- 
plant (nasnbi] are also favorable omens in a hatsuyume. Hence the proverb : 
If/ii, Fuji ; ni y taka ; san, nasubi. 

c Oide wo negaimasu. Please come to see me (lit. I beg your presence). Sake 
wo is understood with i 



sight (hidden). As I wish to get off (descend), stop 
(tomeru) ! a He wants to visit Germany. He wants to borrow 
a grammar of (ni) you. I should like to study and learn 
Japanese, but I haven't much (amari) leisure. The children 
want to fly kites. As I have become hungry (stomach has 
decreased), I want to eat (p. I43b). 


Verbs of the second class (p. 142) may be divided into 
groups, according to the consonants which precede the u of 
the present tense. To the first group belong verbs in ru. 

I. Paradigm of torn (stem tori) to take : 

Future or 

Probable Past 





toranaiy toran (u) 
toranakatta, nanda 





torn daro toranai daro, toran daro 

tottaro toranakattarOy nandaro 

totta daro toranakatta daro 

toreba (toraba) c toranakereba d (toranakuba) 

toru nara (ba) toraneba 

toranai nara (ba) 

toranakattara, nandara (ba) 

toranakatta nara (ba) 

toru na 

o tori de nai yo 



tottara (ba) 

totta nara (ba) 


(o) tori na 

o tori (yo) 


tori tat 

torazu (shite), torazu ni 
toranaide, torande 
tontaku nai 

toranakattariy '- nandari 

a If the kiirumahiki is standing with the shafts in his hands, one may say": 
oros/iife /;-<?, from orosu to let down. 

b Forms like toranakaro (comp. tabenakard p. 154) are sometimes heard, but 
the propriety of including them in a paradigm is disputed. 

c Tor aba t as also the negative toranakuba^ is a classical form. 

d Forms like toranakereba are variously contracted : toranakereba^ torctna- 
kerya (emphatic : toranakery~^ torankya tor any a. 


2. The characteristic vowels are i t a, e and u. 

I The forms totte, tottari, totta are derived by elision and 
assimilation from the stem tori, and te, tari, ta. The ending ta 
is a contraction of the classical tarn (attributive) or tari (con- 
clusive). Such uncontracted forms as torite and toritaru (in 
the attributive position) are sometimes heard in speeches and 
occur in proverbs. Observe that the i of the stem does not 
suffer elision in the desiderative. 

A The form toro is a contraction of toram (u), which in 
the classical language becomes toran. a Such forms as tor an 
creep into speeches, especially with to sum : shinan to sum 
hiio a man about to die. Observe that the vowel of the stem 
in changed to a in the positive future and in all the negative 
forms except the future and the imperative. The classical 
negative forms torazu, toranu (attributive), and toraji (future) 
would also come under this head. 

E In the positive imperative and conditional the vowel of 
the stem is changed to e : tore, toreba. Here would belong the 
classical concessive toredoino) t which, however, rarely occurs 
in the colloquial 

U In the negative imperative and future, as in the positive 
present, the vowel becomes u : torn na, torumai. 

3. The verbs aru to be and naru to become are included 
in this group. 

There are many verbs ending in aru which are passive or 
intransitive [ji-ddshi) and correspond to transitive verbs (ta- 
doshi) in e-ru t both being in most cases represented by the 
same ideogram. b 

agaru go up, take (food, etc.). agent lift up, give. 
ataru strike, meet (p. /ic). aterti apply, hit, guess, 

atsumaru assemble. atsumeru gather. 

azukaru take charge of (p 1840). azukeru entrust. 
hajimaru begin (intr.). hajimeru begin (tr.). 

kakaru be hung. kakeru hang. 

a From verbs of the first class similar forms may be derived : taben, mm. 

b But it must not be supposed that this is a general rule or that the list 
here given is complete. See interesting tables in Imbrie's Etymology p. 2-jff. 

c This naru must be distinguished from the naru derived from ni aru (Ch 
XXXIII ; c. g. t Jibuti no kerai naru chushin a true liegeman, being his own 


magaru be bent, turn. mageru bend. 

mazaru be mixed. mazeru mix. 

osamaru be governed, pacified, osameru govern, pacify. 
osamaru be paid (of taxes). osameru pay (taxes). 

sagaru descend, return. sageru take down, suspend, 

shizumaru become calm. shizumeru tranquillize. a 

tamarit be accumulated. tameru accumulate. 

tasukaru be saved, recover. tasukeru save, help. 

tomaru stop, be entertained. tomeru stop, entertain. 
wakaru be divided, understood, ivakeru divide. 
kawaru be changed, vary. kaeru change. 

suwaru sit (in native manner), sueru set. 

In some cases forms in am are contractions of potential or 
lionorific forms (see also Ch. XLIX.). 

makaru be able to come down on the price, from make- 


nasaru do, from nasareru. 
kudasaru bestow, from kudasareru. 
irassharu be, come, go, from iraserareru. 
ossharu say, from oserareru. 


(Include the verbs given above.) 

haka grave. saku produce, yield, crop. 

ita board. ski poem. b 

mi body, self (p. 58). shi wo tsukuru compose 

namida tears. poem. 

shita tongue. rei politeness. 

bo pole, clr.b, beam. bu-rei rudeness. 

riku land (opp. sea). sen-do sailor, boatman. 

riku ni agaru t-.j land. tei-haku anchoring. 

a These vtrbs should not be confused with shizumu sink, be immersed, and 
the corresponding transitive shizume-rtt. 

b The term shi is now general and is applied to all foreign and to modern 
Japanese poetry, but in old Japan shi was understood to mean Chinese verses. 
In the sense of poetry the word uta is limited to verses written in the old 
native style, but in the sense of song it is universally applicable. 

1 82 



yu-dan negligence, inattention. 
tei-sha-ba = suteishon station. 
sho (c) many, several (p. i). 
amaru be in excess. 
damaru be silent. 
honi dig, carve, 
kusaru decay, be malodorous. 
naoru be repaired, cured 

(comp. naosu). 
ni-ru boil, cook (p. i68d). 
ni noboru ascend. 
okoru arise, break out, get 

sawagu, sawaide be noisy, 

shikaru scold. 
taru = tari-ru be enough (p. 


tomu be rich. 
tomi riches, lottery. 
tomi ni ataru win in a lottery. 
wataru cross. 

tsumoru be piled up, accumu- 

yoru twist. 

ko-yori (kami, yori) paper 
twisted into a string. 

hone bone. 

hone wo oru exert one's self 
(lit. break bones). 

hone- on effort. 

deki-agaru be finished. 

tsuki-ataru come up against, 
go straight toward. 

hashi wo kake-ru build a 

wake ni (wa) ikanai may 

kare-kore about (p. 28b). 

san-zan (ni) recklessly, harsh- 
ly, severely. 

sek-kaku with special pains,, 

to-chu de on the way. 


Damatte iru hito wa yudan ga dekinai.** Bunshj wo 
ts kuru ni wa imi ga wakaranaku naranaide narudake 
mijikaku iu yd ni ki wo ts kenakereba narimasen. Kono kin 
wa gin ga mazatte imas* kara, shiromi-gakatte imas . b Taiso 
yowatta. Watakushi wa i&sa ga okoreba (okottara), sugu ni 
kuni ye kaeranakereba narimasen. Ano hito wa naze obori- 
masJita ka. Domo, komariinas' ; ki ni iran koto ga areba t 
sugu ni okorimas\ Anata sugu (ni) o kaen ni narimas ka. fie, 

a More fully expressed: Ytidau sum koto ga dekinai. One must be wary in 
dealing with a taciturn man. Many sentences of this kind end in the 
negative imperative yudan suru na. 

b Has a white tinge, from shiromi (p. 21) and kakarii. One may also say: 
shirorni ga katle itnasu the white tinge prevails, from katsn to conquer. 


s* koshi mawatte kaerimas . Jibun no mi no osamaran hito ga 
tak'san arimas' . 7*okyo no mono wa san gwatsu no ju go nichi 
ni awe ga furu to, Umewaka no namida da to iinias . a 
Mukasti wa tabi wo suru hito ga " ren-dai " to iu ita ni b& 
ivo ni hon ts keta mono ni notte Oigaiva wo^ watatta ga+ 
konogoro wa hashi ga kakatte imas\ Nikon ni wa hashi no 
hakatte oran kawa ga tak'san arimas '. \Vataknshi no 
tomodachi wa iochu de kane ga nakunatta kara, komatta 
tegami wo yokoshimastita. Tadaima wa Shiuibasti kara Ueno 
made tetsudj ga kakatte orimas . Ikura hone wo otte yatte 
mo, hayaku dekiagarimasen. En no Shjkaku to iu hito wa c 
as hi ga jDbu de shokoku wo maivatta sJ des ; sore da kara 
sttte, ima de mo yoku shokoku wo mawaru hito ga waraji wo 
sono hito no zo ni kakemas '. Fuji san ni nobotta koto ga arimas 
ka. Sayo, nobotta koto ga arimas '. Nobori wa nan jikan 
kakarimastita ka. Sayo, karekore hachi jikan kakarimashta. 
Kono sakana wa doku da kara, o agari de nai yo. Ni san 
nichi no aida Nihongo wo hanasanai to, stita ga mawaranaku 
narimas?. Watakusht ga kuni ye kaeru tofci, Honkon ni June 
ga teihaku shimasJita kara, riku m agatte hito ban yadoya ni 
tomarimastita ; shikashi hidoku atsui no de, yodoshi nemasen 
deslita. Mukashi wa Tenryugaiva wo fune de watatta ga t 
ima wa hasai ga dekite orimas '. Ame ga futtari yuki ga 
Juttari stite komarimas . Koyori iva kami wo y otte koshiraeta 
mono des\ K 'satte mo tai (Proverb). Kono taki wa ura no 
ho ni mawatie miru koto %a dekimas kara, Uramigataki to 
moshimas . d Tomi ni atatte kanemochi ni naritai mon des** 
\Vakalta ka wakaranai ka wakarimasen. Mina wa wakan- 
masen. e Wakatte mo wakaranai kao uo stite iwashta. 

a Umewaka is the name of a child who was kidnapped from a noble family 
in Kyoto and died at Mukojima in Tokyo. At a little temple erected there in 
its honor a memorial service is held on the 15111 of March every year. 

b This river, which forms the boundary between the provinces of Suruga 
and Totomi, must be crossed by travellers on the Tokaido, the highway 
between Kyoto and Tokyo. 

c A hermit and priest of the seventh century, round whose name many 
legends cluster. 

d A waterfall in the neighborhood of Nikko. 

e I do not understand ALL, i. e., there are parts thzt I do not understand, 
Mi no, wakarimasen. It is all dark to me. 


S'teru kami ga areba tas* kern kami mo aru. a Sore j a kono 
shinamono wo o azukari itastite okimashj.^ Sekkaku ties 
Aara, go chiso m azukarimasho (narimaskd). Ano kichigai 
<wa anna ni sawaide oru keredomo, jiki ni shizumaru yo. 
Teishaba ye mairimasuru ni zva c dd ittara yoroshu gozai- 
masho (ka). Sayd, soko wo tsukiatatte hidari no ho ye ma- 
gareba, machigai naku s'teishon ye oide nasani koto ga deki- 
mas\ Kakari no hito wa mo sagarimaslj ta. d 

Names of things vary according to (depending on) locality 
(place). Be silent! 6 In (ni wa) Nikko (i) there is (8) also 
the grave (7) of the horse (6) on which leyasu (2) rode (5) 
at (ni) the battle (4) of Sekigahara (3). The teacher got 
angry and scolded the pupils severely. Please hand (toni) me 
that dictionary. Did you (kimi 2) compose (3) this Chinese 
poem (wa i)? The daimyos* mansions which were in Tokyo 
for the most part have been changed (being changed have 
finished) to offices. Please help (tas' kete yaru) him. f If you 
go (irassharu past cond.) to Ikao, S your malady (go byjki) 
may (p. icga) be cured. If there were no (are not) unsavory 
things, the flavor (umami mo) of delicious things would hardly 
be appreciated (understood). In Japan crops are poor (bad) 
If rain does not fall abundantly (tak'san) from May to (ni 

a This proverb fits into the mouth of one who wishes to comfort himself or 
another in time of distress. 

b Notice that azukaru in the sense of " to take charge of" lakes ivo. In 
the next sentence it means " to participate in " and takes ni. In the latter 
cnse azukaru is not used so much in the colloquial, and smacks of the 
epistolary style. 

c For euphony's sake the ending masu here becomes masuru, but masu also 
Tvould be correct. 

d The man in charge has left the office. Here we have another very 
common use of kakaru in the form of its stem. Kakari no hito may also mean 
all the officials in a department. As a suffix kakari forms many compounds ; 
e. g., k^vn^kel- kakari treasurer, from kivai-kei ^ finance. The verb sagaru is used 
of men leaving an office at the close of the day's work or of pupils returning 
home from school, the office or school being regarded as an exalted place. 

e The imperative of damaru is of course not polite. To be polite one must 
say : Chotlo ktite kudasai. 

f The verb tasukeru is used in a case of peril, distress or poverty. To help 
one to do a task is tetsudau, tetsudatte. 

g A famous summer resort, with hot springs, in the province of Kozuke 
71 ear Matbnshi. 

XLVIII] VERBS IN eru AND iru 185 

kakete] June. When you went to Shinshu recently did you 
ascend Mount Asama ? a I wished to make the ascent (ascend), 
but, as it was raining constantly, I returned without making the 
ascent. Though [we] dug never so (ikura) deep, we struck no 
water (water did not come forth). Since this (i) is not mine, 
[I] may not (wake ni wa ikimasen) give it to another (Jiito). 
This meat is not sufficiently cooked (iii-kata is not sufficient). 
Too many sailors run the ship aground (The sailors being 
numerous, the ship ascends the mountain.) b Excessive polite- 
ness (politeness being in excess) becomes rudeness (Proverb). 
Dust accumulating becomes a mountain (Proverb). This horse 
is not worth (does not become even) a nion. Can you not 
deduct (makaru) even a little ? Yes, I will deduct two sen 
(wa). What did you say ? 


There are a few verbs which, ending in eru or iru, are often 
mistaken for verbs of the first class. A partial list of them is 
here given c with the recommendation that the student as he 
goes over it pronounce the subordinative distinctly, thus ; asette, 
chitte, etc. 

as eru hurry. kajim gnaw. 

chiru scatter (p. 62a). kerti kick. 
ni jukeru be addicted to. kiru cut, divide. 

fuseru go to bed. mairu = iku, kuru (polite I, 3), 

hairu enter. majiru mazaru be mixed. 

hashiru go fast, run. nejiru twist, screw. 

heru decrease. neru knead, soften, train. 

hineru twist. nigiru grasp. 

ijiru meddle with, tease. shaberu chatter. 
iru enter, be needed, set (of shikujiru fail, forfeit. 

heavenly bodies). shimeru be damp. 

iru parch, roast. shiru know. 

kaeru return. suberu slide, slip. 

kagiru limit, be limited. teru shine (of the sun). 

a An active volcano near Karuizawa. 
b Compare the English : " Many cooks spoil the broth." 
c Assuming that this list is mastered, we will discontinue the use of the 
hyphen in verbs of the first class. 

1 86 




(Include the verbs given above) 

futa cover, lid. 

hayashi) { 

mori ) 

kataki foe. 

kire slice, piece. 

kubi neck. b 

(o) musubi ball of rice used 
for lunch (inusubu make 
into a ball with the hands). 

niji rainbow. 

niji ga tatsu (deru) a rain- 
bow appears. 

nori paste made of starch, 

saki tip, point. 

sue end. 

tokkuti a sake bottle. 

harusame (haru, ame) spring 

mame bean. 

nankin-mame peanuts. c 

kana Japanese syllabic char- ate-hameru 
acters. d apply. 

kaya mosquito net. e ate-hamam 

oskaberi (j-shaberi) chatterbox, cable. 

yashiro Shito shrine. 
setsu opinion. 
kwan government office 


gi-shi loyal samurai. 

raku-dai failure in examina- 

sep-puku suicide by cutting 
the abdomen. f 

shu-jin master. 

ken- so na precipitous. 

shin-chiku no newly built. 

abareru become fractious. 

kaku scratch. 

nusumu steal. 

okotaru be lazy, neglect. 

oshimu prize, deplore, be- 

/lament insert, fit. 

assign, adjust, 

be suited, appli- 

a A mori is smaller and denser than a hayashi. The terra mori is specially 
applied to the grove surrounding a temple or shrine. 

b Not to be confused with the classical kobe head. 

c From the name of a Chinese city. Coinp. nankin- neznmi (p. 2a) 

d From karu borrow, na name. The syllabary is derived from certain 
Chinese characters. The hira-gana, from /lira level, plain, are extremely 
simplitied forms of the characters as written cursivcly. The less familiar 
kata-kan.a, from kata side, are fragments of the characters as written squarely. 

e M-ide like a square tent and suspended by strings attached to the corners 
(and sides) of the lop. 

f From setsu=kiru, fukn=hara. The word "harikari" found in some 
English dictionaries is a corruption of hara-kiri. Some say kap-puku 

[XLVIII] VERBS IN eru AND iru 187 

sonaeru provide, furnish, offer, chodo exactly, just. 

tatoeru compare by way of muyami ni recklessly. 

illustration. sukkari (to) entirely. b 

tatoeba for example. a petapera rapidly (of talk). 

ne-giru beat down the price ho-bj several directions, 

(ne price, kiru cut). everywhere. 

seme-iru enter forcibly. to-tei by no means, at all 
ho wo kakeru spread the sails. (with a negative verb). 

so-ba wo yaru engage in spec- zd-sa naku without trouble, 

ulation. easily. 


Kono jibiki ni wa iranai ji ga tak'san arima$ y ; tatoeba 
Manyoshu no c kotoba nazo wa kesstite irimasen. Nihon no 
bunsho wa kanji ni kana ga majitte orimas '. Shi ju shichi 
nin no gishi ga Kira KOzukenos? ke no yasJiki ni semeiri, 
kataki no kubi wo kitte Sengakuji ye motte kite shujin no haka 
ye sonae. sore kara mina seppuku sti te shinimashta. d Kono 
shigoto wa ikura asette yatte mo kongetsu no sue no ma ni wa 
aimasmai. Mada hirugozen wo tabezu ni orimas' kara, taiso 
kara ga hette mairimastita. Konya wa hayaku fusette 
myccJw hayaku okimashj. Kono daigaku no shosei no kazu 
ga oioi hette kite machi no mono ga komarimas '. Yoku 
shaberu hito wa oshaberi to mo shim as . Hoka ye* itte uchi 

a The verb tatoerit appears in the phrase, tatoete viireba. The regular 
conditional form in the colloquial would be tatoereba. The form tatoeba is 
borrowed from the classical language. " An example " is tatoe or rei. To 
" give an example" is rei ivo tow, hiku or ngeru. Sore ?va it rei de iva arimasen^ 
or, Sono rei iva yokti atehatnarimasen. That is not a good illustration. 

b Sctppari is often synonymous with sukkari, but sappari may also have the 
sense of "clearly." :-ee also p. I28d. 

c The name of the oldest anthology : man 10,000 or many, yd leaf, shu 

d This is the plot of the celebrated drama Chushingura (chu shin loyal 
subject), better known by the title "The Forty-seven Ronins" h.\ro-nin is a 
samurai without a master (i~o wave, vagrant, nin man). The Forty-seven are 
called also Ako no gishi. At Sen-gaku-jt r (fountain-mountain-temple) in Shiba* 
.Tokyo, w-iS the grave of the daiinyo of Ako the lord of the For I y- seven. 
Kdziike-no-*iike was originaly an official title which later came into use as 
a given name. Compare Kura-no sitke, Wakasa-no-suke, etc. In this sentence 
the (em is used for the subordinative, as is often the case in narrative*, 
(p. i62b). 

e Hoka ye to others, outsiders. 7/fc is from iku to go. 


no koto wo shabette wa (shabetcha] warui yo. Ano chiisai 
musme wa perapera shabette imas\ Fujisan no chjjo ni wa 
oki na ana ga aite imas* ; soko ni kenso na tokoro ga atte Oya 
Shirazu Ko Shirazu to mdshimas ; (naze naraba}* moshi hito 
ga ayamatte soko ni suberiochiru to, oya wa ko wo ste ko wa 
oya wo s'tete okanakereba narimasen kara, so iu na ga deki- 
masJita. Hi ga tettari ame ga Juttari shte tenki ga yoku 
kawatte komarimas y . Sakura no chiru no wo oshimanu hito 
iva arimasen. Harusame wa sakurabana no chiru no wo 
osliimu hito no namida ka mo shirenai (namida de mo 
arimashj ka). b Ueno no hana wa chitte shimaimastita ka. 
lie, ima chjdo sakari des . Kono tokkuri ni wa go gj hairanai. 
O me ga akaku narimastita no wa do iu wake des' ka. 
Mushi ga haitte komarimasti ta. Wadoku nojibiki wo motte 
mairitai to omoimastfte hobo tazunemasfi ta fceredomo, gozai- 
masen. Kono ie wa shinchiku des kara, heya ga shimette 
~orimas\ Yoshitsune wa Kotomogawa no tatakai ni makete 
hara wo kitta to iu setsu mo ari t mata Ezo ye nig eta to iu setsu 
mo aru. c Mutsukash } kute atama ni hairimasen. Kono sakana 
wo ikutsu ni kitte agemashj ka. Sayj, mi kire ni sh'te 
kudasai. Ano gakusei wa as obi ni fukette benkyo wo okotatte 
imas* kara, raktidai suru desJio. Nihonjin wa kangaeru 
toki ni ktibi wo hinerimas ga> d Seiydjin wa atama wo kaku 
-so des' . Gozen de nori wo nette kure. Baka to hi wa ijiru 
hodo okoru (Proverb). Irimame to iu mono wa marne wo itte 
satJ ka shjyu wo ts ' k 'eta mono de, mameiri to mo iimas\ O 
musubi wo nigitte o kure. e Kono futa wa hidari no hj ni 
nejireba zjsa naku toremas\ f Kodomo ga yoku fusette 

a Naze naraba is elliptical for Naze ka to naraba if [you ask] "why." An 
explanation is frequently introduced by this phrase or naze to iu ni. The 
expression Oya Shirazu Ko Shirazu often occurs as a designation of a dangerous 
place. The most noted place that bears this name is a rough part of the coast 
of Echigo. 

b A paraphrase of a poem in the anthology Ko-kin-wa ka-shu (ko=furtti t 
kim=ima, wa= Japan, ka=uta\ Namida ka is elliptical for namida da (desu) ka. 

c The Koromo is a small river in the north emptying into the Kitakami 
River near Ichinoseki. Yoshitsune was a famous hero of the XII. century 

(p. I62C). 

d ' To twist the neck" here means simply to incline the head to one side, 
e The balls of rice which so often serve as a simple lunch are also called 

f Translate: one can take it off (p. io8h) 

XLVIII] VERBS IN eru AND iru 189 

When the winter is extraordinarily cold (in an extra- 
ordinarily cold time of winter) there is skating (skating is 
possible) even at (de mo) Yokohama. If (to) the sun shines 
while (uchi ni) it is raining (rains) a rainbow appears. You 
must not beat down the price so. He stole public funds 
(kwan-kiri) and forfeited [his] office. He pretended not to 
know (was making a face that knows not). What (/<?/<?) I 
have just now said, not being limited to this word, is applica- 
ble to other words also. The^/^/ a being (a thing) limited 
to [Shinto] shrines, is not [found] in [Buddhist] temples. 
Among these wares is there none that you like (entered your 
spirit)? All are satisfactory (good), but as they are dear I 
will give them up. I do not yet quite understand (it dojs not 
yet entirely enter my head), What is in those godowns ? In 
those godowns there are clothes, books, money and so forth b 
various things. Shall I cut the tip of [your] cigar ? Please 
do so (I request). The horse became fractious and kicked the 
groom. The cherry [blossoms | of Mukojima too have proba- 
bly fallen (falling finished) already. One must not cut [down] 
a forest recklessly. The ship runs about 15 kai-ri*- an (one) 
hour if one spreads the sails. Last night one mosquito got 
into (paka ni hairu) the net and I couldn't sleep at all. The 
longer he is in (fiaitte oni) the school, the more indolent 
{Ju-benkyj) does he become. Rats have gnawed the book- 
case. He engaged in speculation and failed. Are these 
peanuts fresh roasted ? (p. 119 bottom}. 


i. The polite verbs nasaru, kudasaru, and irassharu are 
used in the second (or third) persbn both independently and as 
auxiliaries. Usually masu is added, and ari in nasarimasu, 
kudasarimasu, irassharimasu is added, and at. d So also are 

a The gohei (see Vocabulary p. 129), made of white paper or metal, is the 
characteristic decoration of a Shinto shrine. Its significance is not clearly 
known : some say that it is a symbol of divinity or purity. 

b In such a list conjunctions may be dispensed with. See p. 2, middle. 

c A kai ri(kai=utni sea) is a knot about 1.15 miles. 

d In the same manner ossharimasu and gozarimasu are contracted. 



in the imperatives nasare, kudasare, and irasshare is contract- 
ed to ai. The imperative of masu is mase or mashi. Thus 
the imperatives of these verbs are nasai or nasaimashi, kuda- 
sai or kudasaimashi> irasshai or irasshaimashi. The a before 
tta t tte, ttari, etc., is commonly elided : nas'tta, nastte, 
nets' ttari ; kudaslta, kudus' tie, etc. ; irass/itta, etc. 

(i.) Nasaru is used independently. It is also used with 
Chinese compounds or with the stems of verbs as the polite 
equivalent of sum : 

Go katte ni nasai. 

Consult your own convenience. 

Nani wo go kembutsu nasam o tsumori desu ka. 

What do you intend to see ? 

Sukoshi o make nasai. Make the price a little lower. 

Oide* nasaimashita. You (he) went, came, were. 

(2.) Kudasaru as an independent verb means " grant con- 
descend ing 1 y." As an auxiliary it is used with either the stem 
or the subordinative of a verb (but generally with the latter), 
and may be literally translated " condescend to ", " deign to " : 

Kono shashin wo kudasaimasen ka. 

Will you not be so good as to give me this photograph ? 

Go men kudasai. Please excuse me. I beg your pardon. 

O yomi (or yonde) kudasai. Kindly read it. 

Shinsetsu ni oshiete kudasaimashita. 

He was good enough to explain [it] carefully. 

Go ran nastte kudasai. Condescend to look at it. 

Constructions like o yomi nas'tte kudasai are formal and 
polite, Familiarly one may substitute kureru for kudasaru, 
but only with the simple subordinative, not with the stem : 
oshiete kuremashita. 

(3.) Irassharu means "go", "come", "be". Irassharu 
and oide nasaru are practically synonymous. In speaking of 
persons de ira$sharu-=-de aru (p. 786). As an auxiliary 
itassharu is used with the subordinative of a verb and is the 
polite equivalent of iru or oru : 

a From the honorific o and the stem of the classical izu, the older form of 
dew (p. 144, 6). Notice that the honorific o or go is required in the above 
examples (p. yaf \ 


Kyo sampo ni irasshaimasu ka. 

Will you go for a walk to-day ? 

Kochira no ho ye irasshai. Come this way, please. a 

Go buji de irasshaimasu ka. Are you well ? 

Danna sama wa go zaitaku de irasshaimasu ka. 

Is the master at home ? 

Tokyj ni sumatte irasshaimasu. He resides in Tokyo. 

lite irasshai is the polite equivalent of itte koi (lit. go and 
come) Go ! Good bye ! 

2. Negative forms of aru, such as aranai, etc., are not 
used, being replaced by forms of nai (p. 100). The only 
exception is the future or probable arumai y which is used 
along with nakard, nai ddrj. In the classical language arazu 
= nai, ni arazu = de nai. 

For de aru, de atta, de aro the- contractions da t datta, darD 
are usually employed; for de arimasu y etc., desu, deshita y 
desJi~>. The uncontracted de aru is heard only in speeches. 
The use ofyVz as a contraction of de aru survives in Buddhist 
sermons and in some dialects. b 

The very formal equivalent of aru is gozarimasu, usually 
pronounced gozaimasu. The simple gozaru c (negative : goza- 
ranii] is rarely used in conversation, but may be heard in 

It should also be noted that such expressions as ni natte oni 
(p. 163, 5) are often used where we should expect aru. 


kane bell. kat-te one's own convenience. d 

a The simple imperative irasshai has been somewhat vulgarized by 
doorkeepers of places of amusement, etc. 

b The particles de iua are also contracted to fa which occurs with special 
frequency in, ja nai ka: CJiotlo mi ni ikoja nai ka. Shan't we go to see it? 
So osshatta ja arimasen ka> You said so, did you not? 

c This word is deiived from the honorific^ and za (c) seat. It is of course 
unusual to form verbs by adding ru to Chinese elements, but there are 
analogous instances (Introduction, Xb) The native equivalent of gozarti is 
owasu or owashitnasn, an honorific verb used like aide nasaru or imssharu. 
Another form of the same verb, omastt, is still used in the Kyoto dialect as an 
equivalent of aru : so de otncisu or so dosu=so desu. If this is not the explana- 
tion of the origin of gozarti, it is at least an instructive analogy. 

d Comp. kaUtganWihn p, no. The adjective katte na means selfish, 
inconsiderate. In speaking to a person, go may be prefixed to katfe. 

192 THE VERB [xnx 

do- yd the dog days. hai-ken sum look at (polite i). 

jo-go one who is fond of ska-shin wo torn take (or sit 

sake, sot. for) a photograph. 

ge-ko one who prefers sweets dai-ji ni sum take good care 

to sake, teetotaler. of (p. 33a). 
hai-byd consumption, phthisis, kangaeru think, reflect 

kem-butsu sight seeing. no kangae wo kiku seek the 

ko-shi minister, ambassador. advice of. 

shitsu-rei discourtesy, im- hanakada very, very much. 

politeness. kaette on the contrary, rather. 

so-shiki funeral. moto originally. 

shj-bu = ayame* yukkuri (to), yururi (to) lei- 

haku-butsu-kwan museum. surely (p 33e). 

on-sem-ba 1 hot spring ikigake ni on the way (going). 

to-ji-ba \ sanitarium. kaerigake ni on the way back. 

watasu take across, hand machigai naku without fail, 

over (comp. wataru). surely. 


Doits' tei no go sdsh? ki wo go ran nastta ka. Sayo mimasJita. 
Go ran nas'ttara, watakushi ni watastite kudasai. O sashi- 
ts'kae ga arimasen nara, dozo oide nas'tte kudasai. O kaeri- 
gake ni watakushi no uchi ni o yori nastte kudasai. b Nihon 
ni irasstitta toki ni nan no o shirabemono wo nasaimashta ka. c 
Watakushi no shashin wo 1otte kudasai. Sono kane ga naku- 
nattara, do nasaimas ka. Mo s koshi hayaku oide nas'ttara, o 
ma ni aimash'taro ni. Horikirl no d hanashjbu wo mi ni oide 
nararan ka. Ueno no hakubuts* kwan wo go kembutsu ni oide 
nasaimasen ka. Do o kangae nasaimas 1 ka. Hitotsu o kangae 
nas'tte kudasai. Moto Berrin ni oide nas'tta Nihon no koshi 

a Ayatne is rather the classical word. Usage has, however, differentiated 
ayame and shobu, so that it i* not strictly correct to call them synonymous. 
But the usage is not consistent. The ayame or shobn of the proverb (p. 66c) 
is the sweet flag or calamus, whose blossom is inconspicuous. Varielies of the 
iris family which have showy flowers are called hana-shobu or hana-ayame. 

b Hito no tichi (tokoro) ni (ye) yoru to call upon a person. 

C Shirabemono wo suru to make an investigation. Comp. wasuremono wo 
suru p. I47b. 

d A garden in the vicinity of Tokyo renowned for its exhibitions of irises. 


iva kuni ni o kaeri nasatte, ima wa tojiba ni irasshaimas* . 
Mo kane ga natta de wa arimasen ka. Muko no kuni no 
kotoba ga o wakari nasaimasen kara (p. 1 1 8b), tochii de o 
koman nas'tta desko. Konaida oide no toki ni o yak? soku ni 
narimasJita hoti wo motte kite kudasaimastita ka. a Ano o 
kata u a geko de irassharu kara, o kivashi de mo sashiage- 
mashd. b Anata wa kitchiri toku ji ni o oki nasaimas* ka. 
Say I), tokei ga naru to, sugti ni okimas\ Anata Nikon ye oide 
nasaru toki doko no fune ni notte irasshaimasti ta ka ; Ftans 
no June des ka t Igiris no des ka. lie, Doits no fune ni 
norimashta. c Anata wa Kyoto ye irastitta koto ga arimas 
ka. Iie> mada arimasen ; kondo no doydyasumi ni kembutsu 
ni mairu tsumori des . Sekkaku o tazune kudasaimastite 
hanahada osoreirimastita. cl Sekkaku o daiji ni (nasaimaski). 
Asak'sa no Kwannon saina wa e yoku negaigoto zt'0 o kiki 
nasaimas\ Ippuku meshiagari nasaimasen ka. Sekkaku Seiyd 
ye irasstita no ni, f sngu ni haibyo ni natte o shini nasaimastita. 
Oide kudasaimas* no wajitsu ni arigatj gozaimas* keredomo t 
sore de wa kaette osoreirimas \ Z Go katte na koto wo ii nasaru 

Have you heard that (no wo) the temple of Kdya san was 
burned at the beginning- of last year ? You must not consult 
your own convenience too much (amari). It may be well to 
seek the advice of the teacher. Were you at home at the time 
of the earthquake, or were you out? Where was the master 

a Oide no toki ni at the time of your presence, i. e., when you were. Stems 
ot verbs or nouns are often used when we should expect an indicative verb, 
thus : go zonjidesu, go zonji no hit o, go zonji no Jiazu desu. Compare: o tanomi 
no hon the book for which you asked me, sankei no hito the people who visit 
the temple. 

b By substituting de tno for 100 the expression is made indefinite, it being 
implied that one might offer something else perhaps. 

c lie in this sentence means " neither." 

d The adverb sekkakii indicates that there are difficulties (expenditure of 
time, money, etc.,) connected with the act. It may be variously translated, 
according to the context; sometimes it is untranslatable. In this sentence it 
may be rendered, '' you have taken the trouble ;" in the following sentence, 
" specially." Notice that osoreiriwetshita is used for the present tense (p. 143, 

e A well known Buddhist divinity. 

f The no ni means " although." Comp. p. 132. 

g Here osoreirimasu means " I am distressed to have you do so." In a case 
of real loss or suffering one may say ifami-inmastt, from itamu ache. 

194 THE VERB [L 

{go shujiri) when the fire broke out (deru or hajimani) ? If 
you were in my place (anata nara), what would (do) you do 
in this case (toki)l Indeed (honto ni) you must have been 
embarrassed. Did you go to the Museum yesterday ? Just 
{chotto) see whether what I have written is erroneous (machi- 
gatte imas' ka do des' ka). When you have written [it] I 
will look [at it]. If you don't understand, pleass say (ossharu) 
so. Come for a little chat (chitto o hanashi ni). Where are 
you going next ? I am going to see (haiken ni) the newly 
built Imperial Residence. I beg (p. iO4b) that you will all (i) 
-come without fail. Please give me (I beg) your reply when 
you have decided. Please rest leisurely. I am very sorry 
that I was away from home (I was indeed impolite, being away 
from home rusu de) t though (no ni) you took the trouble to 
come [to see me]. 


To the second group belong verbs in tsu. The u of the 
present tense is hardly audible. 

Paradigm of matsu (stem : mac hi) to wait, await : 

Positive Negative 

Present matsu matanai, matan (u) 

Past malta matanakatta t nanda 

Future or mato matsumai 

Probable matsu daro matanai daro, matan daro 

Probable mattaro matan akattarj, nandaro 

Past matta daro matanakatta daro 

Conditional mateba (inataba) matanakereba (inatanakuba) 

matsu nara (ba) mataneba 

matanai nara (ba) 

Past Con- mattara (ba) matan ak attar a, nandara (ba) 

ditional matta nara (ba) matanakatta nara (ba) 

Imperative mate matsu na 

(o) mac hi na o machi de nai yo 
o machi (yo) 


Subordina- matte matazu (shite], matazu nt 

tive matanaide, matande 


Desid era tive machitai machitaku nai 

Alternative mattari matanakattari, nandari 


The fact that the Japanese modify the sound of / before i 
and ?/, saying not ti, tu, but chi t tsu, must be remembered in 
conjugating verbs of this class. With te, tari, ta, etc., the chi 
of the stem naturally units to form tie, ttari> tta. 

The verbs belonging to this class are not numerous. Besides 
matsu we have : 

katsu win a victory ( nt katsu defeat). 

kobotsu break, destroy, demolish. 

motsu hold in the hand, have. 

motsu last, endure. 

sodatsu grow up, be reared 

tatsu stand, rise (from a seat), rise (of dust, waves, etc.), 
pass (of time), leave (a place). 

tatstt cut (paper, cloth, etc.), sunder, have nothing more to 
to do with. 

utsu strike, clap (hands), shoot, a play (a game of chance). 

butsu (vulgar) = utsu. 

The verbs wakatsu divide, distinguish, hanatsu separate, let 
loose, shoot, tamotsu have, defend, and ayamatsu err, belong 
properly to the written language. Their colloquial equivalents 
are tvakeru> hanasu, motsu and machigau. 


(Include the verbs given above) 

chi blood. (p) miyage, miy age-mono a 

hibari skylark. present brought by the giver 

hototogisu cuckoo. b in person (p. 84d). 

a " To shoot with a gun " is teppd de wo titsn. " To fire a gun " is tefpo wo 


b The cuckoo's cry impresses the Chinese and Japanese as being very 




tono (sama) a respectful term 
designating a nobleman 
(as a former daimyo). 

hi-uchi-gane steel for strik- 
ing fire. 

hi-uchi-ishi flint for striking 

kane bell. 

sute-gane a signal of three 
strokes preparatory to 
striking the hour. 

1e-ma time spent on a task. 

ken a game played with the 
hands. a 

on (c) kindness, benefits. 

baku-chi gambling. b 

-_// (lit. 1 0,000 things) all 
things, in every respect. 

ko-kwai repentance. 

kwan-gun Government army 

zoku-gun rebel army. 

sen-so battle, war. 

sho-go noon. 

tai-hi) cannon. 

(p] to-myo a light offered to 
a god. 

zai-san property. 

ko-ri, kori a traveller's trunk 
made of wickerware, a pair 
of baskets one of which tel- 
escopes into the other. 

yanagi willow. 

yanagi-gori a kjri made of 

yubin-kyoku post office. 

fu-nare na inexpert. c 

Kchi-ju no all in the house 

(P. i37a). 
dai-jobu na secure, all right 

(p. I3b). 

kinzuru, kinjite prohibit. 

ogainu worship. 

oyobu reach. 

ni oyobanai it is not ne- 
cessary to. d 

naku-suru lose (p. io8a). 

a From this Chinese word for "first." In the variety called ishi-ken or 
Jan-ken three things are represented : isJii stone, kaini paper and hascimi : shears. 
A stone may be wrapped in paper, paper may be cut by shears, and shears 
must yield to stones. The players extend their hands simultaneously, each 
representing one of these three things. For instance, if A makes the sign of 
the slone, he wins in case I> makes the sign of the shear, but has to yield to the 
paper. Another variety is m-ushi ken, in which the characters are hebi snake, 
&aern from and rtaM&uJi.*\Hg. It seems that tho snake fears the slug. Still 
another kitsuue-ken t or fohachi-ken, in which appear sho- va (old word for son-cho 
head of a village), teppd gun and kit suite fox. The fox is regarded as having 
power to bewitch a man. ** To play ken " is ken 7ao utsu. 

b Fiom the Chinese baku a board used for games and nchi, the stem of 
iitsn " To gamble " is baku c hi too utsu (butsit). A gambler is baktichi-uchi. 

c Fiona the negative//* (p. 124) and the stem of narcnt become accustomed. 
There are other instances of the combination offu with stems of native verbs : 
e. g.,/u-so/-0i not uniform, fii-tsttri-ai not balanced, out of proportion. 

d Notice the very common phrase : Go shimpai ni iva oyobimasen. You need 
not feel any concern about it. 


hori-mono wo sum carve, tsuide convenience, opportu- 

engrave. a nity. 

ho-t~j sum be profligate. tsuide ni on occasion, by the 

shut-tatsu sum set out on a way, incidentally. 

journey, start. b yjyaku, yjyo, yoyatto,yatto fin- 

hatsu numerative for dis- ally, with difficulty, barely. 

charges of a gun. sas-soku very soon. 

ippatsu utsu to fire once. sho-sho a little. 

hajime (ni or wa or ni wa) nagara at the same time, 

at first. while, though. c 


Mateba, nagai. tl Kami saina no o tomyj wa hiuchiishi de 
utte agemas\ Kokwai saki ni tatazu. e Domo> ha ga itakute 
tatte mo suwatte ite mo iraremasen. f Konaida o tanomi no 
meshitsukai wo tsurete mairimastita ga, inaka no mon des* 
kara, shojiki des keredomo, banji Junare de o yaku ni ^va 
tachimas'mai. Z Seinan no ik 'sa de wa h kivangun ga hajime 
tabitabi maketa ga, nochi ni yoyaku kachlmd&Kta. Nihonjin 
wa yoku ken wo uchimas" ; sono ken ni iroiro arimastite ishiken 
ya mushiken ya kitsuneken ya tak* san shurui ga arimas\ 
Nihon de wa bakuchi ivo uts koto wo kinjite arimas . Nihon- 
jin wa kamisama zvo ogamu toki ni wa san do te wo uchimas\ 
Chi no deru hodo kodomo wo butte wa ikemasen. l Toki no 

a Hori-mono also has the sense of tattooing in its more elaborate forms, 
including figures of men and animals. Simple tattooing, such as that in vogue 
among Ainu women, is called ire-zittni. 

b This is a curious compound of the Chinese shitfsu=.deni and the native 
verb tatsu to set out. 

c Nagara is used with stems of verbs or with Chinese compounds. 

d One may also say: Afat/e iru to nagai mono des it. Jtfatsn mi iva tsurai 
(fsurai afflicted, suffering). It is hard to wait (often of lovers). 

e Proverbs, as has been remarked before (p. iO3a), are expressed in classical 
forms. For tatazu see p. 171, top. The meaning is : Repentance unfortunately 
does not come soon enough to prevent the wrong. 

f See p. io8h. Oraremasen may be substitued for iraremasen. 

g Here de stands for de atte. For o tanotni no see p. I93a. 

h S^i=sai west ; nan south (p. iO7b). Seinan no iknsa designates the Satsuma 
rebellion of the year 1877. 

i Translate hodo " so that." Compare p. 101 (2). 

198 THE VERB [L 

kane wa saki ni mittsu stegane wo utte sore kara kazu dake 
nchimas a Nikon de wa oki na bane wa bo de (inotte) uchi- 
mas . Chotto o mac hi nasai. Shosho o machi kudasai. Koko 
de s' koshi mate. O tema ga toremasen nara, machimasho. b 
Kore wo o mochi nastte kudasai. c S* koshi matte kure, sugu 
ni kaem kara. Matazu ni uchi ye kaeru ho ga yokaro. Tatsu 
(go away) mae ni zehi anata no o taku ni agarimasho. Itsu o 
tachi ni narimas ka. Nimotsu no slitaku ga dekitara, sassoku 
tachimas\ Kono yanagigZri wa mada mochimashj ka. Sayo, 
daijobu des\ Konaida o yaftsoku no shashin wa moite mairi- 
mastita. Chichi ga uchiju no mono ni miyage wo motte 
kaerimasJita. Tsuide ni kono tegami wo yubinkyoku ye motte 
aide (nasai). Hidari Jingoro wa d hidari no te de (inotte)jozu 
ni horimono wo stita so des\ Hototogis' wa lobi nagara 
nakimas* ga, hibari wa tachi nagara nakimas '. Oide no jibun 
ni chodo yoji wo utte imashta. Ko wo motte shiru, oya no on 
(Proverb). e Moto zva ie wo motanai mono wa ichi nin mae no 
hito de nai to moshimasttta. f Ko wa sodachigatasti (Proverb). 

In ancient times (wa) [people] kindled fire with steel and 
flint. I have brought the book which you asked for (o tanomi 
no), but [I fear] it will not be of any use. The Government 
army won at the battle of Ueno and the rebel army fled to 
Oshii. S Do you often play ken ? Through profligacy and 
gambling h he lost all (sukkari) his property. He struck him 

a After the subordinative such expressions as sore kai~a and so shite often 
occur. They add nothing to the sense. In the following sentence motte, which 
often follows de y is likewise pleonastic. 

b Tema ga toreru. It takes time. To show respect, the speaker, a riksha- 
man, add o. 

c Translate : Please take this along. * Please hold this" would be : Kore wo 
inotte ite kudasai. 

d A famous carver in wood (died 1634). The critics say that the story of 
his having been left-handed is a myth based on the fact that he came from 
the province of Hida. 

e For the sake of emphasis the order is inverted. Oya no on is the object 
of skint. 

f Ie means not " house," but " household." For ichi nin mae compare 
hitori-mae, p. 95a. 

g ~Oshu designates the provinces at the northern end of the main island. 
Some think it is hardly fair to call the opponents of the Government at that 
time rebels. Historians use the term to-gun (to east), " Battle " is 
kassen, or senso. 

h Use alternatives with shite. 


that blood flowed (comes out). In Tokyo at noon a gun is 
fired (they fire the gun once), Japanese eat (things) with 
chopsticks. The lord of Ovvari held a fief yielding (of) 550,000 
koku. Has it struck eight o'clock ? Not yet, a but it will soon 
strike. [We] have been waiting a half-hour (ino} t but he has 
(does) not yet come (pres.). I will wait here until you return. 
It is not necessary to wait. He seems {yd des} to have 
money. Please hold this a moment. I have brought the 
photographs for which you asked recently. He brings the 
children gifts every time he comes. When will he leave for 
home (kuni ye) ? He wanted to leave at the end of this year, 
but as (no de) he has been taken {kakatta or natta) with 
consumption, he must return at once, it is said. Europeans 
living in Japan take plenty of food along when they travel 
(go) into the interior. May I take this along ? Shrewd people 
win by yielding (inakete). When will you go into the 
country? I intend to start after (tatte) two or three days. It 
will be a serious matter (taihen des 1 ) if you break this plate. 


To the third group belong verbs in su. As in the case of 
verbs in tsu, the u is hardly audible. 

Paradigm of hanasu (stem kanashi) to speak, or, to separate : 

Positive Negative 

Present hanasu hanasanai, hanasan (u) 

Past hanashitA hanasanakatta y nanda 

Future or hanaso hanasumai 

Probable hanasu daro hanasainai daro 

hanasan darj 
Probable hanashitaro hanasanakattaro, nandara 

Past hanashita daro hanasanakatta daro 

Condi- hanaseba hanasnnakereba 

tional (hanasaba) (hanasan a kuba) 

hanasu nara (ba) hanasaneba 

hanasanai nara (ba) 

a Instead of repeating the verb (negative present) with inada, one may say 
simply mada desu. 


Past Con- hanashitara (ba) hanasanakattara (ba) 
ditional hanashitanara (ba) hanasanandara (ba) 

hanasanakatta nara (ba) 
Imperative hanase hanasu na 

(p) hanashi na o hanashi de nai yo 
o hanashi (yo) 

Subordina- hanasJiite hanasazu (shite), hanasazu nl 

live hanasanaidc, hanasande 


Desiderative hanashitai hanashitaku nai 

Alternative hanashitari hanasanakattari, nandari 


Verbs of this group are very numerous. They are generally 
transitive. a In most cases the corresponding intransitives are 
derived from the same root. b 

Many are synonymous with regular causatives : 

awasu = awaseru cause to meet, introduce, join, from au 


kawakasu^kawakaseru dry, desiccate, from kawaku. 
narasu = naraseru sound, ring, from naru resound. 

The transitive derived from ivaku boil is wa.kasu, never 
wakaseru. The form in su often differs in sense from that in 
sent. Thus chirasu means scatter, from chitu, while chiraseru 
means to see fall down (poetically used of leaves and 
blossoms). So korobasu, from korobu tumble, means roll, 
while korobaseru means cause to tumble. From i?ieguru=* 
maivaru go round, we have two verbs, megurasu revolve in the 
mind, used in the semi-classical compound oinoimegurasu 
reflect, and meguraseru cause to go round. 

In some cases su is simply substituted for the ru of an 
intransitive verb : 

amasu leave over. amant be in excess. 

a One exception is masu increase, which may be transitive or intransitive. 
Its conjugation is regular, while that of the auxiliary masu (see the next 
chapter) is somewhat irregular. The was/it of mashi desu (p. 136, middle) is 
the stem of this verb. 

b The following lists are by no means exhaustive. The words given are 
selected simply with a view to prepare the student for further observation. 
For the regular causatives see Ch. LXT. 


hesu (Jierasu) decrease. keru decrease. 

hitasu immerse, soak. hitaru be immersed. 

kaesu (kaya su) send back, repay, kaeru come or go back. 
kasu lend, rent. karit (karini) borrow. 

kawasu exchange. kawaru change (intr.). 

kudasu cause to descend. kudaru descend. 

mawasu turn round, pass round, maivaru go round. 
modosu send back, vomit. modem come or go back. 

naosu mend, heal. naoru be mended, healed. 

nosu (noseni) place on, record, noru be on, ride. 
okosu raise, start, begin. okoru arise, break out. 

tosu cause or allow to pass. torn pass through or by. 
watasu take across, hand over, wataru cross. 

The eru or im of verbs of the first class may become asu ; 
iru often becomes osu : 

chirakasu scatter about. chirakeru be scattered about. 

dasu put out, give. deru issue forth. 

fuyasu augment, multiply. Juerii increase. 

kogasu scorch, burn. kogeru be scorched. 

makasu defeat, beat down. makeru yield, come down. 

narasu train, tame. a nareru become accustomed. 

nigasu allow to escape. nigeru escape. 

nurasu wet. nureru get wet. 

sain asu cool. sameru become cool. 

sawasu waken, recover from, sameru become awake, sober. 

tokasu dissolve, melt to keru be dissolved, melted. 

tsuiyasu spend, waste. tsuieru be spoiled, spent. 

nobasu extend, postpone. nobiru be extended, postponed. 

horobosu overthrow. ho rob iru be overthrown. 

hosu dry, ventilate. hint dry, ebb. 

okosu waken. okiru get up. 

or osu let down. or iru descend, alight. 

otosu drop, lose, omit, take. ochirit fall (p. 1650). 
To some transitives in su correspond intransitive^ in reru. 

hanasu separate. hanareru be separated. 

hazusu displace, miss, avoid, hazureru be displaced, fail. 

a Besides narasu tame and narasu ring, we have also nxrasu from naru 
become or be produced (of fruit) and naraait level or grade (land\ 

202 . THE VERB [LI 

kakusu hide. kaknreru be hidden. 

kobosu pour, spill. koboreru overflow. 

konasu pulverize, digest. konareru be digested. 

kowasti break, destroy. kowareru be broken. 

kuzusu tear down (p. n6b). kuzureru go to pieces. 

nagasu let flow, forfeit. nagareru flow. 

taosu prostrate, kill. taoreru fall over (of tall things). 
tsubusu crush, rub off, destroy, tsubureru be broken, crushed. 

Finally it is to be noted that some transitives are formed by 
means of the termination kasu, which is often interchangeable 
with su or seru : 

hiyakasu t a hiyasu cool, hieru become cool. 
jirakaiU) jirasu tease, tantalize, {romj'ireru be irritated. 
magirakasu, magirasu confuse, bamboozle, from magircru 

(magiru) be mixed up. 
nekasu, neseru put to sleep, from neru sleep. 


(Include the lists given above) 

Juki name of an edible plant, katstio bonito. 

Petasites japonicus. fus/tiknot, knob (as on a tree). 

furi air, appearance. katsuo-bushi dried bonito. b 

kabi mold. tsuki-hi months and days, 

kabiru 7 , , times. 

kabi ga haeru ) kompeito (from the Spanish 

okoti origin, etymology. conjeitd) confection, candy. 

taka amount (usually a suffix fuku (c) luck, felicity. 

in the form dakd). ju (c) gun, rifle, arms. 

tsutsuji azalea. shiki (c) rite, ceremony. 

hinata sunny place, sunshine, za (c) seat. 
fu-moto (Jumu walk on, moto gu-chi silliness, twaddle. 

bottom) foot (of a hill or guchi wo kobosu grumble. 

mountain). seizo manufacture. 

kami-ire pocket-book. shin-fa believer. c 

a Hiyakasti has also the meaning of "to make a fool of" and is used 
especially of those who examine and price things exposed for sale when they 
have no intention of buying. 

b Variously contracted to katsubushi, katsuo or f us hi. 

c Buddhist believers are usually called shin-to. 


sui-kwa watermelon. yurusu set at liberty, pardon, 

ZG-kin cloth for mopping permit. 

floors. utsusu copy. 

zoku-go colloquial, vulgarism, hik-kosu remove (residence). a 

tanoshii delightful, happy. kiki-awasefu gather informa- 

hiyayaka na cool. tion, inquire about. 

tas-sha na vigorous, profi- toshi-yotu become aged. 

cient. hanashite kikaseru tell (lit. 

inoru pray ( u'o inoru pray speaking cause to hear). 

for). kasa wo sasu hold up an um- 

okuru pass (time), lead (a life), brella. 

damakasu, damasu deceive, hi-bana wo chirasu make t^e 

impose upon. sparks fly. 

sasu propagate by means of o itoma mosu take one's leave. 

cuttings (sashi-kiwo sum), saiwai (ni) happily. 


Hito no furl mite waga furi, naose (Proverb). b Watakuski 
ga soto ye detara, ramp' wo kestite kure. Moto wa Edo ye 
iku koto wo kudaru to mostite Kyoto ye iku koto wo noboru to 
mdshimash* ta. Doso, kuruma wo tostite kudasai. c Hikes hi 
wa kaze ga tsuyokute hayaku hi wo kes 1 koto ga dekinakatta 
kara t kinjo no ie wo kowastita. Katsuobushi to iu mono wa 
katsno no hosJi ta n des . d Nihon ni wa yama no Jumoto ni 
yoku " umagacshi" to iu tokoro ga ariinas' ; kono na no okori 
vua kore kara saki wa michi ga kenso de tjrenai (p. io8b) 
kara, uma wo kaes to in koto des . Fuki no ha wo hosttte 
tabako ni inazete noinu hito vio arimas\ Soko niwa hasJii ga 
nai kara, f tine de Jiito wo watashimas 1 . Kimi ga Doits go TVO 
tassha ni hauasli te mo sonna mutsukashii koto wo jibun hitori 
de (alone) kikiaivas koto wa dekimasmai. Watakushi ga 
gozaimasJita kara y o yurushi kudasai. Sono ue no gaku 

a The verb kosu cross is transitive, but this compound, like omoi-tnegurasu, 
is intransitive. 

b Waga (comp. p. 270) is, of course, not used in ordinary colloquial. Furi 
denotes matters of etiquette, clothes, etc. 

c When people stand in the way, one may say politely : Go men nasai- 
Excuse me ! Beg pardon ! 

d The ' stands for no and is equivalent to mono. The no after ka/suo is 

2O4 THE VERB [i i 

wo orosKte misete kndasai. KangoVsho yor 1110 gakkj iu 
bane wo tsuiyas* ho ga yo gozaimas\ Fuku no kanii ni inoru 
yori kuchi wo her as e (Proveib) a Kits a wo sastite kite mo 
bisshori nuremasIJta. Kariru toki no Jizogao, kaes* toki no 
Emmagao (Proverb) b Tsutsuji no eda wa sastite mo c ts ki- 
mas '. Soko ni aru ishi ita omoi kara korobasu yori hoka 
sti kata ga nai. Ano okii ki wo kiri-taosu no wa oshii koto 
des . Oinoimeguraseba ni ju go nen no mukashi Doits' de 
tanoshii tsukihi wo okutte orimastita. Hiyauiizu wa ikenai ; 
wakastite nome. Tenrikyd no ho de wa kompeitj ni nani ka 
myo na kusuri wo irete shinja wo damakastite otta sj des\ a 
Suikwa wa mizu ni hiyastite taberu to, oishh gozaimas\ 
Karita kane wo komban made ni modosanak'te wa narimasen. 
Sono koto wa kesa no shimbun ni nosete arimas\ Omae pan 
wo sonna ni kogastite do slita no da. Amari yakamasti ku 
sum to sekkaku nekastita kodoino ga. me wo samashimas' . 
Kuki ga war ui kara, shdji wo hazuslitara yokaro. Toshiyoru 
to, guchi wo koboshimas\ Amari kodomo wo jiras/it ewa iji 
ga waruku narimas . Fune ni you to, tab eta mono wo modoshi- 

I will now (mo or kore de) take leave for (wa) this evening 
(i). When you have finished copying this, please show [it to 
me]. This child at once breaks its toys. The French two 
hundred years ago took the castle at (of) Heidelberg. Tlike 
care that (yd ni) you do not break these teacups. In the 
mountaineous regions (yamaguni) of Japan [people] eat a 
great deal of dried fish. Dried fish is called kimono. Among 
the teachers of the Medical School there are many who speak 
Germ n freely. That old gentleman has often told me of old 
times (mukashi no koto). This bird, even though you sst it 
free (Jianastite yarn), comes back again (returning comes). 

a The word '< mouths" means the number of children, servants, etc., 
belonging to one's house. There are seven fitku no kami. They are often 
called shield fuku-jin (shin=kami\ 

b Jizo is a gracious buddha and has a kindly face. Emma (sama\ the prince 
of hell, has a fearful face. 

c Mo here has the sense of "though only." With tsukimasu is understood 
ne ga. 

d Ten-ri-ky?! (heaven-reason doctrine) a new religious sect very popular 
among the lower classes. It makes much of faith healing. Some newspapers 
have charged the priests with slyly administering morphine 1o the believers. 

e A military command. The e is pronounced very long : orosei. 

LII] Tut: S GROUP 205 

la (de wa) the ceremony of koicha they pass round the teacup, 
We will go to tease (Jiiyakashi ni) the shopkeepers (shops). 
Put the shoes out into the sunshine in order that (yd ni) they 
may not mold. Kashihonya means (to in koto des') a shop 
that loans books. These trees are multiplied (one multiplies) 
by means of cuttings. Will you wear (inesu) a the new gai- 
inents or (shall it be) the old ones ? It seems to me that (yd ni 
omou) I dropped my pocket-book somewhere on the way 
(inichi de). He has three houses and rents (renting puts) two 
of them to others. You remove often. Please translate it 
(naosu) into the colloquial. Will it do to erase this character ? 
Correct that character without erasing it. Happily, as there 
was no wind, they extinguished the fire at once. In Japan 
they have what they call (to mostite) doyo-boshi ; when the 
dog-days come (ni naru) people air their clothes. He has 
often told us of Japan. It is said that there are seventy 
million people that speak German. In Japan there has been 
a great increase in the manufacture of beer (biir* no seizodaka 
increasing has come). In order to avoid (avoiding) conversa- 
tion he left his seat. They wet their sleeves with tears 
(Letting flow tears they wet their sleeves). Don't spend all 
the money, but save (not spending all the money leave over) 
some. Soak this zokin in hot water. We are annoyed 
{koinani) by the children scattering things about. They 
fought until the sparks flew (scattering sparks). You must not 
confuse your words so. Alexander overthrew the Persian 
Empire. As it is so hot that I can't drink it, please cool it. 


I. The auxiliary masu (inasuni) is in some respects irregular : 

Positive Negative 

Present masu, masuru inasen (u) 

Past mashita masen deshita 

niasen (a) kattu, nanda 

a The verb inesu has a wide range of meanings. The riksha man says to 
his passenger : (Jinrikisha ni} o meshi nasaimashi. Please seat yourself in the 
riksha. Notice the use of mesn in compounds: meshi agent eat or drink, 


Future or masho masum&i 

Probable masu desho mas en desho 

Probable mashitaro masen deshitaro 

Past mashita desho masen (a) kattaro, nandaro 

masen (a) katta desho 

Conditional masureba masen nara (ba) 

masurya masen (a) kereba 

masu (ru) nara (ba) masenkerya 


Past Con- mashitara (ba) masen deshitara (ba) 

clitional mashita nara (ba) masen (a) kattara (ba) 

masenandara (ba) 
masen (a) katta nara (ba) 
Imperative mase masu na, masuru na 

mashi, mashi na 

Subordina- mashite masezu (shite), masezu ni 

tive masende 


Alternative mashitari masen (a) kattari, nandari 

The conditional masureba, etc., and the negative imperative 
masuru na are derived from the longer form masuru, which 
often occurs also in the present tense, especially in formal 

In the negative forms the characteristic vowel is e, not a. 
In the present tense the form in nai is wanting. 

The desiderative is wanting ; in its stead the desiderative of 
the plain verb with gozaimasu or omoimasu is used : not 
hanashimashitat, but hanashito gozaimasu or hanashitai to 

2. This masu is used only as an auxiliary attached to the 
stems of other verbs. It indicates that the speaker wishes to 
be courteous. See p. 142, 3. It is quite proper to use masu 
in speaking to inferiors. But many foreigners make their 
speech too monotonous by using masu with all verbs indis- 
criminately. For variety's sake verbs in inconspicuous positions 
should ordinarily be plain. Further masu may be more readily 
omitted with verbs that are in themselves honorific than with 
common verbs. One must be more careful to add masu to 
verbs in the first person than in the third. The use of masu is 


Masu, mosu 


apt to be incongruous : (a) in a monologue or in repeating 
something previously said to the speaker ; (b) in a conversation 
where the speaker is boku and his hearer kimi ; (c) in clauses 
dependent on a verb which is plain. When moved with 
indignation or in the heat of debate the natural tendency is to 
use curt forms. 

3. In formal speech one uses as auxiliaries special verbs 
such as nasaru, kudasaru and ir as sham (Ch. XLIX.). The 
verb mosu a is also used as an auxiliary, chiefly in the first 
person, when the hearer is the direct or indirect object of the 
action. It follows the stem of a -verb, the honorific o being 
prefixed : 

negai mo shit ai koto ga gozaimasu. 

1 wish to ask a favor. 

O tanomi mosu. I request your assistance (p. I25b). b 
Masu may be added to honorific verbs : nasaimasu, kudasai- 
masu> irasshaimasu, o negai mo shim a su, etc. 


kaki-tome registration (postal), ban checker-board, chess- 
naka-ma company, associates, board (numerativefor games 

cha-no-yu ceremonial tea. c 
(0) itoma-goi leave-taking. 
itomagoi m deru come for a 

parting call. 

go a game like checkers. 
go wo utsu play checkers. 
shd-gi chess. 
shogi wo sasu play chess. 

of checkers or chess). 

koma chessman. 

setsu (c) season, period, time. 

en-ryo reserve (enryo suru feel 

(go) enryo naku without re- 
serve, frankly. 

fujin lady. 

a Jlfdsu used as a principal verb means " say." As it implies respect for the 
person addressed, it cannot ordinarily be used in the second person. But a 
judge speaking as a representative of the Sovereign may say : Sono ho no mosu 
tokoro iua (tndshi-tateru tokoro iva t or nioshi-tate iva) tatanai. What you say will 
not hold. A master may speak similarly to a servant. One may say to a 
friend : Sato san ni yoroshiku nioshita to osshatte kudasai. Please say to Mr. 
Sato that I wished to be remembered. Eliiptically one may say : yoroshiku 
tnoshite kudasai. 

b At the door of a house or at a telephone one may say simply moshi ! 
moshi ! to attract attention. The answer is hai or ai. In former times the 
reply to such a call was ddre. 

c The;VM is now written with the character for <l hot water," but originally 
it was probably a variant of e, one reading of the character kwai assembly. 




ky~-geti comedy, drama, play. 

kyo-jn professor. a 

kyuka holidays, vacation, 
leave of absence. 

sai-soku urging the fulfilment 
of an obligation, dun. 

shak-kin borrowing money, 

so-dan consultation. 

yak-kai trouble, care (fbr 
another), assistance. 

no yakkai ni naru be aid- 
by, be dependent on. b 

yo-su circumstances, condi- 
tion, appearance, gestures. 

kaburu, kamuru wear on the 

komuru receive from a supe- 

go men your permission 
(polite 2). 

go men wo komurimashite 
by your kind permission. 

sagasu search, inquire for. 

sumii come to an end, be 

sngosu (in trans, sugiru] pass 

toki {/lima) wo tsubusit waste 

ukagau peep, spy, inquire, pay 
a call. 

kashikomani respectfully ac- 
quiesce. c 

ukeru receive, accept. 

uke-au assure, guarantee. 

shinzuru, shinjite believe. 

shim-po sum make progress, 

mattaku entirely, truly. 

nio-Jiaya already, soon, no 
more (with a negative verb). 

nani-bun by all means, please ! d 

nochi-gata after a little while. 

was a to (ni), wazawaza pur- 
posely, specially. 

a The general term for teacher is kyb shi or kyo-in, The terms kyo-yu and 
kyo-ju are official titles, the former being applied to those who are duly 
qualified to teach in ordinary Middle Schools, Normal Schools, etc., while the 
latter are of a higher grade. Those who have simply graduated from a 
university and have not taken the post-graduate studies necessary to secure the 
degree of haku-shi or haka-se are called gaku-shi ; e. g., i-gakushi graduate in 
medicine, in ri-gakushi graduate in natural sciences. The American A. B. is 
rendered Beikoku bun-gakushi (bun letters). The degree of hakusJn being 
given only by the Government, our " doctor " cannot be translated hakushi 
without qualification. The German Ph. D. is Doitsu tetsitgakii hakushi. 
Foreigners employed as teachers by the Government are o yato! kydshi. 
Missionaries are sen-kydshi or den-kydshi (sen proclaim, den transmit). 

b Go yakkai ni narimashita I am under obligations to you. A quaint ex- 
pression is: keisatsu no yakkai ni n am to be accommodated by the police (said 
of a criminal). 

c This verb is used chiefly in the ibrm kashikoniarimashita, signifying that 
the speaker will do as he has been told. It may be rendered " at your service " 
or " with pleasure," 

d For nani bun ni mo in every pait (Ch. XVII.). 

xn] Masu, mosu 209 

tori just as, just like. a zannen nagara it is too 

go (c) nochi after. but...(comp. p. 1970). 


Tabitabi shakkin no saisoku wo ukete komarimas . Nani 
wo stite toki ivo sugoshimasho ka. Anata wa shogi wo 
sashimas ka. Sayo, Seiyo no shogi nara dekimas* ga t Nikon 
no wa sashta koto ga arimasen. Sore nara oshiete agemasho. 
Seiyo no shogi to chigatmas ka. Sayo, s' koshi chigaimas ;. 
kouia mo yokei (ni) arimas. Anata Nikon ni oide nasaimashta 
toki ni go ivo ucJiimasen destita ka. Metta ni uchimasen 
desJita kara, iaitei wasuremashta. Dozo, go wo oshiete 
kudasaimashi. Yoroshu gozaimas' ; so no kawari (ni) karta 
wo oshiete kudasaimasen ka. Yd gozaimas ; shikashi go no 
keiko wa amari hima ga kakarimas' nara, yoshimasho. Zan- 
nen nagara, koko de o wakare moshimashi. Yiibinkyoku ye 
itts kono tegauii wo kakitome ni shte dashte kudasaimasen ka. 
Hei, sassoku itashimasho. Tadaima irassJita o kyaku wo 
koko ye o tsure moshimashd ka. b Sayo, koko ye o tsure moshte 
kure Myonichi wa inaka ye tachimas fcara, o itomagoi ni 
demash ta. Kore wo utsustite kudasaimasen ka. Hanahada 
osoreirimas ga^ so o hanashi nastte kudasaimashi. Kono 
s/iinamono wa daijobu des ka. Sayd, o ukeai moshimas\ 
Sore wo Jionto to omoimas* (ni nasazmas') ka. lie, mattaku 
shinjimasen. Senjitsu o hanashi nasaimashta tori des ka, 
Sayo, o hanashi moshimashta teri de gozaimas'. O kaeri ni 
naru made koko de o machi mjshite imashd. O nakama-iri 
wo itashimasJita kara, nanibun yorosJJ ku negaimas . Nikon 
no yds wo mm:asureba y go isshin go wa nanigoto de mo (nan 
de mo] yohodo shimpo sh"te orimas*. Sakunenju wa iroiro go 
yakkai ni narimaslite ; konnen mo aikawarimasezu. c Wata- 
kushi wa chanoyu wo naraito gozaimas' ga, yoi sensei ^vo 
sagashte kudasaimasen ka. Kash komarimasttta ; kokoro- 

a Sono tori like tliat. Itsu mo no tori as always. Osshaimashita tori (or ose 
no tori] as you said. 

b Said by a servant. Instead of o tsure idsu one may say also o toshi mdsu. 

c Both expressions are elliptical. Sueh phrases are apropos in offering New 
Year's congratulations. The iroiro. is adverbial : in various ways. With 
aikawarimasezu is understood koti-i ni (intiniately) uegaimasu, o seiva saina ni 
nariniasu or similar words (p. 


atari ga gozaimas kara, tsuide ni kiite mimashj. Ano kata 
iva mohaya nijunen mo NiJion ni irasshaimas kara, kotoba 
wa uiaru de Nihonjin no yo de gozaimashi. Go men wo 
komurimastite o saki ye mairimasho. Sono uchi ni mata 
irasshaimashi. Wazawaza a o tazune kudasaimastite jitsu ni, 
d^mo, arigatj gozaimas '. Kondo mata o negai moshiuiasho. b 
Omae nani wo stite hima wo tsnbuslita ka. Osoreirimastita ; 
djmo, michi ga ivarukute sti kata ga gozaimasen destita. 


If you don't like (o kirai nard) it, please say [so] frankly. 
Shall we play a game of checkers? I have never played ; 
please teach me. If a person does not play often, he cannot 
(does not) become expert. I will call soon again. Having a 
matter forj consultation i visited him (visiting went), but, as 
he was sick (bydki di). I returned without meeting him (awasu 
ni}. Japanese ladies go out (soto wo arukii) without wearing 
anything on [their] heads. What shall I offer (give) you? 
As they say that a new play begins (from) to-day, I want to 
go to see it (kembutsu ni). When my work is done, I will go 
with you. If I am hindered (there is a hindrance) to-day, I 
will go to-morrow (asu ni itasii). If you send (dasu) a letter 
to Mr. Okubo, please remember me to him. As I am going to 
that neighbourhood later, I will call (calling go) there. This 
gentleman c having come in your absence (o rusu ni) for a 
parting call, returned asking to be remembered (saying yoro- 
sti kit). He was in Japan a year, but he doesn't know a bit of 
Japanese (Japanese is not even a little possible). As I have 
brought various samples, please look [at them]. If you 
understand (past cond.) that (to iu koto] sake (iva i) is injuri- 
ous, why don't you give it up? As the holidays are coming 
to a close (shimai ni nani), the professors of the university 
have probably returned. Since at present (kono setsu wd) I 
have not very much (aviari) business, I will come for study 
{keiko ni agaru) every day. At what time shall I come ? 

. a Wazawaza denotes that the call was not made incidentally, but that the 
visitor had come specially for the purpose of making this particular call 
Translate: took the trouble to... Domo is an interjection. - 

b Said by a merchant, to his customer, as when goods asked for are not in/ 
stock. An American would say : " Call again !" 

c Said by a servant presenting a visitor's card. 



21 I 

i. The verb surti (stem ski) is also irregular: 

Past . 

Future or 



Past Con- 




shit a 

shiyo, sJu 
suru darj 
shita daro 

sureba, surya 


suru nara (da) 

shitara (bd) 

shita nara (da) 


se (yo), sei 
(o) shi na 
o shi (yo) 



senai, sen (u), shinai 
sen (a) katta, senanda, 

semai, shimai, sumai 
senai darj, sen (u) daro t etc. 
sen (a) kattar'J, senandard 

sen (rf) katta darj, shinakatta daro 
sen (a) kereba, shinakereba 
seneba (sezuba) 
senai nara (ba), etc. 
sen (a) kattara (ba) 
senandara (ba) 
shinakattara (bd) 
senakatta nara (bd), etc. 
suru na 
o shi de nai yo 

sezu (shite) 

sezu ni, shizu ni 

sen aide t sende, shin aide 

senakute, shinakute 

shitaku nai 

sen (a) kattari, senandari 


The briefer form su appears in the literary language and in 
the adjectives su-beki that ought to be dona (p, in), su-beka- 
razaru that ought not to be done (conclusive, su-bekarazit). 

The only forms derived from suru are the conditional sureba 
and the negative imperative suru na. 

In the negative conjugation the characteristic vowel is e, as 
in the case of masu ; but suru differs from..;;/#,f# in having a 


form in nai. In compounds sanai also occurs : Nakusanal 
does not lose \jukusanai is not ripe, tekisanai does not suit. 
Semai is irregular. Sumai is rarely heard : So sumai zo. 
Don't do so ! (You wouldn't do so.) 

2. Sometimes suru is to be rendered " make," as, for ex- 
ample, with the adverbial forms of adjectives : yoku suru make 
good, correct ; zuaruku suru make bad, spoil. a 

3. Notice also the following idioms : 

Do shimasho ka. What shall I do ? 

Do shite sono sara wo kowashta ka. 

How did you break that plate ? b 

Do shite mo dekimasen. It is utterly impossible. 

Do shit a n' da. What have you done ? 

Do shita hito desu. What kind of a man is he? 

Do shita mon dard. What shall I (we) do ? 

So shite (p. igSa), so suru to, so shitara (bo] and so shita 
tokoro ga c may mark a transition in a narrative, like our 
" then," " so," " and," etc. So shite, or so shite is often used 
pleonastically after a subordinative. See also p. i/ia. 

4. The following are examples of the use of sum taking an 
object with wo. 

Hen na kao wo shite imasu. He makes a peculiar face. 
Shosei wo shite iru aida kane ga nakatta. 
While I was a student I had no money. 

Similarly many verbal expressions are derived from substan- 
tives. The wo may be omitted : 

ikusa wo suru make war kushami wo suru (ga deru) 

tabi wo suru make a journey. sneeze. 

shitaku wo suru make prep- shigoto wo suru work. 

arations. kega wo suru be wounded 

akubi ivo suru (ga deru} yawn. (p. 1 5Qa). 

a " To make " in the ordinary sense is koshircteru or isukuru. Distinguish 
yoku sum and jdzu ni koshiracru construct well, wartiku suru and heta ni 
koshiraet-u construct poorly. 

b When do shite is strongly emphasized it means rather " why." 
c The expression tokvro ga here has the same sense as the conjunction ga. 
It sometimes means" when.'* 

LIU] Suru 2 1 3 

Verbal stems are used iti the same way, alone or in combi- 
nation : *^/^d(^ 

kakt wo suru wager, from kakeru (p. 173, Voc.). 

seki wo suru cough, from seku. 

tsuri wo suru fish with hook and line. 

nui wo suru embroider, nui-mono wo suru sew. 

shirabe-inono wo suru make an investigation. 

ini-nage wo suru drown one's self (p. 58). 

te-narai wo suru practice pemanship. 

5. It is by the use of suru that numerous Chinese compounds 
are made to serve as verbs. With these wo is more commonly 
omitted than with the expressions given above : 

an-nai suru guide, invite. san-jo suru make a call (san 

an-sho suru memorize. =mairu,jd-=-agarii}. 

ben-kyosuru study, be diligent, shim- bo suru persevere. 

chd-dai suru = itadaku. a shitsu-mon suru ask a ques- 

i-ju suru emigrate. tion. 

jo-dan suru jest. shitsu-rei suru be impolite. 

ken-chiku suru build. shd-bi suru praise. 

ken-yaku suru economize. sho-chi suru be aware, con- 

ko-gyo suru perform (theat- sent. 

rical plays, etc.). shu-zen suru repair. 

to ko-saisuru associate with, so-ji suru clean. 

ni kzvan-kei suru\ rela- sotsu-gyd suru graduate (from 

tion with. a school). 

man-zoku suru be satisfied. yo-jin suru take precautions. 

Almost all compounds of this kind are used also as substan- 
tives : go shdchi no tori as you know ; benkyo desu is diligent, 
etc. To some of them negative prefixes may be attached 
(p. 1 24). In this case suru may not be used : Ju-benkyo desu ; 
fu-manzoku desu bu-ydjin desu, etc. 

6. In some cases an object with no is made to limit the 
substantive : 

no hanashi wo suru speak of. 

no uwasa wo suru gossip about. 

a Both cJwdai suru and itadaku have the sense to receive from a superior or 
from a person considered as such and are used of gifts, refreshments offered to 
a ue-t, etc. For a fuller discussion see Ch. LV. 

214 THE VERB [ LIIi 

no jama wo suru be in the way of. 

no samatage wo sum hinder, from samatageru. 

no inane wo suru imitate, from maneru. 

no sewa wo suru assist, take care of. 

no tomo wo suru accompany. 

But in most cases the substantive unites with suru to form 
a true verbal expression, which may then take a direct object 
with wo (or indirect with ni) : 

gwaikoku wo tabi.suru travel in foreign countries. 

yome wo sewa suru secure a wife (for another). 

te wo kega suru (te ni kega wo suru) get a wound in the 

has hi wo shu-zen suru repair a bridge. 

gakkd ivo sotsu-gyj suru graduate from a school. 

bens hi ni shitsumon suru ask the speaker a question. 
In some cases either construction is allowed- One may say 
shakkin no saisoku wo suru or shakkin ^vo saisoku suru ; but 
in the former case wo must not be omitted after saisoku, 
while in the latter it must not be used. 

7. With some monosyllabic words derived from the Chinese 
suru coalesces : 

bassuru punish, from batsu. 

kessuru decide, resolve upon, settle, from ketsu. a 

sassuru conjecture, sympathize with (sentiments, etc.). 

After n, or a long vowel, by nigori su becomes zu and shi t 

anzutu be anxious, be concerned about. b 

kenzuru offer as a gift. c 

kinzuru prohibit, forbid. 

sonzuru be injured (p. 85a). 

tenzuru change (tr. and intr.), remove (intr.). 

zonzuru think, know (polite i). 

a In ketsu-gi, which denotes a resolution of a public assembly. From 
kessuru is derived the adverbial kesshite positively (p. I77c). 

b Anzunt, like sassuru, may not take a personal object : Watakushi no kokoro 
ivo sasshite kudasai. Sympathize with me. Oya iva shiju kodomo no koto wo 
anjiie int. Parents are always anxious about their children. 

c Ikkon kenjimashd. Have a cup ! (of sake]. Ron, the numerative for cups 
of sa/:e t is really a variant reading of /cen in kenzuru. 

LIII] Suru 215 

fuzuru seal (a letter). 
meizuru command, order. 

Since the stems of these verbs are anji, kenji kinji, etc., they 
are in the colloquial frequently inflected as though they belong- 
ed to the first class : anjiru, anjireba. etc. 

Observe also the euphonic changes Sri the following verbs. 
These are, however, more common in the literary style than in 
true colloquial : 

omonzuru esteem, from omoku sum (pmoi heavy, impor- 

karonzurit despise, from karoku sum (kami light, insig- 
nificant classical karoshi). 

8. Many intransitive verbs are formed by adding suru to 
adverbs. Most of the adverbs so used end in ri or belong to 
the duplicatives, largely onomatpoetic, in which the language 
abounds (comp. p. 128, bottom and Ch. LXXIV.) : 

bikkitri sum be astonished, frightened. 

bonyari (to) suru be vague, distracted, stupid. 

sapparl (to) suru become clear (p. i8/b). 

bishibishi (mishimiski, gishigishi} sum creak (of timbers). 

chirachira suru flicker, flutter, become dim (of eyes). 

ukauka (to) suru be heedless, lazy. 

9. In some expressions suru is used just like aru : 

no oji ga suru there is a taste of, taste like. 

no nioi ga sum there is a smell of, smell like. 

no oto (koe) ga suru there is a sound of, sound like. 
inabikarl ga sum it lightens. 

yo na kokoroinochi (kimochi} ga suru feel as if. 
nagamochi ga suru last a long time. 

ji-shin ga suru (yum} there is an earthquake. 
zu-tsu ga suru have a headache. 

10. The expression ni suru may mean " determine upon " 
(p. I34g). The same idiom may also correspond to the English 
"make of ". 

Kono bunshj wo hon ni shite dashimcsho. 
I will issue these essays in the form of a book. 
- wo yoshi ni suru make an adopted son of, adopt. 

zvo yoine ni suru make a wife of, take to wife. 

wo ki ni suru take to heart, be concerned about. 

2i6 THE VERB [i.iu 

Kono go konna koto wo shinai yj ni shimasho. 

I will see to it that he does nothing of the kind hereafter. 

With a verb in the future tense to sum means " be about 
to," "intend to" (p. i8o,2A). In other cases to suru means 
" regard as " ; to sureba may be translated " taking it to be," 
"assuming that," "if": 

Amerika ye ikd to shite Yokohama made mairimashita. 
Intending to go America, I went to Yokohama. 
Kimi ga iku mono to sureba, kj in baai ni do sum ka. 
If you were going, what would you do in such a case. 

The idioms ni shite (wa) and to shite (wo) are equivalent to 
the English "" for " and '* as " in some of their uses : 

Kodomo ni shite wa yoku kaite arimasu. 

It is well written for a child. 

Anata wa daihyZsha to shiie o lianas hi ni narimasu ka. 

Do you speak as a representative ? 

11. The formal, polite equivalents of suru are itasu in the 
first (less frequently the third) person and nasaru in the second 
{less frequently the third) person. Accordingly do itashimasho 
ka is more formal and polite than do shimashj ka ; do nasai- 
mashita ka. 

12. It has been stated (pp. 142, 3 and io.oa) that the honorific 
should be prefixed to the stem of a verb with itasu or nasaru. 
The honorifics are naturally prefixed to any substantive that 
denotes the action of a person for whom respect is shown. 
Even in the case of the first person honorifics are in order when 
the act concerns a person for whom one wishes to show respect. 

o tomo wo suru (itasu) go along. 

ojama disturb. 

o sewa render assistance. 

o ji-gi make a bow. 

go an-nai show the way. 

go chi-so ,, furnish entertainment. 

go ho-mon pay a call. 

go sh'-kai introduce. 

go shd-tai invite. 

When the personal obiect is stated it mav take ni for no). 




But shokai sum and s/i tai sum take a direct object with tvo. 
Observj also : 

(Ana! a wo) ltd san ni sJiokat itashimasho k&. 

May 1 introduce you to Mr. Ito? 

(Ana fa to) go issho itashimashj. I will go with you. 


(Include the verbs in the above lists) 

koto-gara nature of the thing, 
matter, circumstances. a 

tori-i the characteristic por- 
tal of a Shinto shrine. 

uri-zane-gao oval face. b 

ko (c) fragrance, incense. 

ben- ski speaker, orator. 

bu-joku insult, contempt. 

han-sho fire-bell, fire alarm. 

hs-tei court (of justice). 

ki-kwai opportunity. 

kyo-in teacher. 

mei-sho noted place, place 
worth seeing. 

o-rai going and coming, 

oral-dome closing a thor- 
oughfare (tomeru stop). c 

shu-'kan week. d 

iri ga ant. (pi) attendance is 

large (at theaters, etc.) 
kanern do at the same time 

(two things), be unable to 

do. e 
nokoru be left over (tr. no- 

talaku Strike, beat, knock. 
kaze wo hiku take cold. 

ni mukau, no hj ye mukau 

ni tori-kakaru commence 
work on. 

achi-kochi here and there. 
chikai uchi (ni) within a short 

short time, soon. 
kitto surely. 

a The suffix gara denotes " kind,'' " quality,'' as \ngarano ii sldna stuff of 
good quality, cloth of a good pattern, ie-g(ii'(i 120 yoi hito a person of good 
family, a person of quality. With Ji-setsu season gara forms an elliptical 
expression \Jiselsit gara o daiji ni nasai. It being such a season, take good care 
of your health. The following example illustrates the use of kotogara : Kotoba 
iva ivakariinasu ga, kotogara tea wakarini'isen. I understand tade words, but 
don't kno.v what it is all about. 

b See p. 15. The word sane denotes only such seeds as those of the melon 
or peach. The general colloquial word for " seed" is tarn. 

c A common notice en the streets : " Closed ! " " No thoroughfare ! " 

d The week was used even in old times as a measure of time : hito maivari 
f;ita maivari, etc. See Ch. XXIV. 

e In the second sense kanern is added as a suffix to the stems of verbs : 
viairikanemasii cannot go (or come). 


shikiri ni persistently. i-rai since (following a noun or a 

isui (ni) at last, finally. verb in the subordinate form).; 

sen-jitsu the other day. oya exclamation of surprise. 


Do shiyd ka, Do shimasho ka. Do itashimasko ka. Kd 
itasJitara yoroshu gozaimashd. Kono ho wa sugu ni tori- 
kakaru koto ni itashimasho. Kd stite mimasho, Nihonjin wa 
Matsushima no kesti ki wo taihen shobi shimas. a Shizuka ni 
shiro. b Shimbo stite kenyaku wo sureba, kitlo kane ga 
nokotimas*. Benshi ! shitsuinon stitai koto ga aru. Omae 
shimbo stite tstomero. Shiyo to omou koto wa sugti ni suru ga 
ii. O jigi wo o shi yo. c Mada wakarimasen kara t sensei ni 
shitsumoii itashimashj. O tomo (wo) itashimashj. DJ itashi- 
masJi te. d Kake wo itashimasho ka. Sakujitsu iva taihen na 
arasJii de gozaimastita ga, konnichi wa sappari itashimasJi ta 
(sappari to hare mask' to). Makoto ni o jama (wo) itashi- 
mastita. e O jama wo itashimas 1 ka mo shiremasen. Senjitsu 
wa sliitsurei itashimastita. f Dare ka to wo tataku oto ga 
suru ; dare ga kita ka akete mite kure. O saki ni chodai 
itashimas . Sakujits* kara hajimemasJita kyogen wa ikka 
bakari kogyD shimas ka. Sayo sa, ni shukan gurai itas so 
des* ; shikashi iri ga okereba, f'ta ts ki mo itashimasho. 
Yasumichu (ni) ll achikochi tabi shimasti ta. Kono saki no 

a A group of numerous islets covered with pines, in a corner of the Bay of 

b Here shiro is to be translated " be.'' SJtizuka ni is to be parsed as an 
adverb. Politely one might say : O shizuka ni nasaimashi. 

c This may be said by a woman to her own child, 

d Often: Do itashimoshite ; sore ni tea oyobimasen. Why? Don't mention 
it. Do itashii)iashite is the usual response when pardon is asked, thanks are 
expressed, etc. The phrase is ell ipiical fox- something like: Do shite so iu o 
kotoba wo iikern nenchi ga ariniasho ka. 

e Pardon the interruption. Notice that o, not go, js used with ja-ina, a word 
probably of Chinese-Buddhistic origin (jet evil, ma hindrance, spirit). 

f This expression is used when one meets a friend. The allusion is to a 
previous meeting. No honorific is required with shitsitm (p. 33). The whole 
expression may be abbreviated to Senjitsn -a'a. 

g In this manner a man may excuse himself for beginning to eat before 

h For chu compare p. 1370, Translate : during vacation. 

LIII] Suru 219 

hashiwa shuzen stite imas* kara, * oraidome des*' ; s*koshi 
mawatte ikimashd. Nani wo go ansho nas*tte irasshaimns* 
a. Kono sakana wa myo na aji ga shimas\ Kotiaida ano 
kata ni michi de aimastita ga, minu furiwo stite ikimastita. l) 
Kono bunshd wa bony art stite imas . . Sugawara no Michizane 
wa do stita hito des* ka. Sore kara tenjite so iu imi ni nari- 
inastita. c Nihon de wa urizanegao wo (p. \^) ichiban ii to 
stite aritnas . O tenki ni stitai mon des\ d Oinae naze 
zasti ki wo soji shinai ka (zasti ki no soji wo shinaika). 
Konna ni kitanaku stite do stita ri' (mon} des 1 . Anatd ga 
'Tokyo ye oide ni narimastitara, hobo no meisho ye (wo) go 
annai itashimashd. Anata no ossharu koto wa honto to wa 
omowaremasen ; e shikashi moshi honto to sureba taihen des\ 
Omae so shinakereba shochi shinai zo, Jishin ga sum (yum) 
to, le ga bishibishi suru (iu). Kozukai ga ukauka stite ite 
komarimas\ Kono baai ni wa do stite mo wa to iu ji wo 
is* kenakereba narimasen (p. 1/40). Shinajin ni stite wa yoku 
Eigo ga dekimas 1 . Tokyo ni stite wa hidoi dyuki de wa 
arimasen ka. Go jodan nastte kudasaru na. Go yojin nasai. 
Taihen bikkuri itashimastita. Gakko no kyoin wa seiji ni 
kivankei subekarazaru hazu da. Tanaka Shozd san wa hotei 
de akubi wo stita tame ni kwanri-bujoku no tsumi de basse- 
raremastita. Dare ka watashi no uwasa wo stite iru to miete 
kushami ga dete naranai. f Chiisa na koto demo karonjite wa 
naranai. S Kayo na kotogara wa hito no mina omonzurn 
tokoro des 1 . Sekkaku go shotai kudasaimastita ga, shosh) 
sas hits' kae ga gozaimas kara, zannen nagara sanjd itasti- 

a Translate : the bridge ahead of us. Compare : kore kara saki no uric hi the 
way we are going. Notice that shuzen suru can be construed either transitively 
or intransitively : They are repairing the bridge ahead of us, or, the bridge 
ahead of us is a-repairing. 

b With a preceding \erbfitri wo shita may be translated : " pretended that/ 
"acted as though.' 

c In philology tenzuru is often used of changes in the meanings of words. 

d Lit. I should like to make good weather of=I hope the weather will be 
fine. Compare the peculiar expression : Ashita iva ftirasetaku nai. I hope it 
won't rain to-morrow (lit. I don't want to make it rain). 

e I cannot think, ommvarem being the potential of onion. 

f For naranai compare : Fushigi de naranai (p. I58b). The Japanese have 
a notion that when a man sneezes it is a sign that some one is talking about 

g Compare the Chinese saying: Issnn no fond in karonzubeftarazu (issun a 
little bit, kit'o-iii light and shade, time). 


kanemas*. Watakushi no kokoro vio skoshi wa sasstite 
kudasai. a Ikkon kenjitai man des . Gakko ivo sotsugyj 
shinai uchi wa amari uchi (my family) no seiva wo sum koto 
ga dekimasen. Oya, kono zasli ki wa hidoku tabako no nioi 
ga shimas koto ! Ano hito wa shiri mo shinaide slitta kao 
wo stile imas\ Jibun hi tori no kangae de stita koto de mo 

What I ought to do i don't know. What ought I to do ? 
J intended to ask the speaker various questions, but refrained 
(hikaeni). The number of Germans that have emigrated to 
America since the year 1820 is said to be four million. I will 
do it day after to-morrow, because to-morrow I have no time. 
Since my son cannot study (gakumon ga dekinai), I will 
make a farmer of him. Please do so. Europeans do not 
praise the scenery of Matsushima so much as (yd ni wa) the 
Japanese. It seems as if (yd des) the fire alarm were sounding. 
Ascend the roof and see where (doko go) the fire is. In my 
neighborhood they have built a primary school. As my eyes 
are dim I can't see anything. Since he associates a great deal 
with Japanese, he speaks (dekirii) the (Japanese) language 
well (uniaku). The interior of a [Buddhist] temple smells of 
incense. That child appears to have taken a cold and is 
constantly sneezing, is it not (fa nai ka} ? One must not 
cough in the face of (facing) a person. It is said that a woman 
drowned herself last night. No matter how (ikuramo) well 
it is done, he is not satisfied. If I have time, I will visit [him] 
soon. Shall 1 introduce Mr. Goto to you? If [you] fail to 
{do not) decide things (monogoto) quickly and miss the oppor- 
tunity, it will finally become forever impossible. In regard to 
this matter be not at all (kesstite) anxious. In Japan it is 
forbidden to take (ireru) horses and vehicles within (naka ye) 
the portal of a shrine. I am troubled with (doing) headache 
this morning. 

a The sense is : Try to put yourself in my place. IVataknshi no kokoro 
mo don't look at the matter entirely from your own point of view ; sufcoshi 
iva it is not reasonable to expect that you should enter into my feelings 



22 f 


To the fourth group belong verbs in ku. 

i. Paradigm of kiku (stem kiki) to hear, or, to be efficacious- 
(p. 1280): 

Positive Negative 

Present kiku kikanai, kikan (u) 

Past kiita kikanakatta, nanda 

Future or kiko kikumai 

Probable kiku daro kikanai daro, kikan daro 

Probable kiitaro kikanakattaro, nandard 

Past kiita daro kikanakatta daro 

Conditional kikeba (kikabd) kikanakereba (kikanakubd) 

kiku nara (da) kikaneba 

kikanai nara (da) 

Past Condi- kiitara (bd) kikanakattara, nandara (bd) 

tional kiita nara (bd) kikanakatta nara (bd) 

Imperative kike kiku na 

(6) kiki na o kiki de nai yo 
o kiki (yo) 
Subordinative kiite 



kikazu (shite), kikazu m 
kikanaide, kikande 
kikitaku nai 

kikanakattarij nandari 
kikanai dan 

The double i in kiite, etc., arises from the elision of the k in 
kikite. Compare the following : kaku, kakite, kaite ; tsuku, 
tsukite tsuite ; maneku, manekite, maneite ; oku t okite, oite. 

2. The verb yuku or iku, to go, is somewhat irregular. 
Such forms as yuite, yuita, etc., are not in use. From iku are 
derived, not iite, iita, but itte, itta, etc. a 

3. Some intransitive verbs of this group correspond to 
transitive verbs in keru. Thus the expression hi ga tsuku fire 
kindles corresponds to hi wo tsukeru ; ki ga tsuku. be attentive, 
to ki wo tsukeru ; akai iro ga tsuite iru have a red color, to- 

a These must be carefully distinguished" from the corresponding forms of 
iru to enter, or to parch (p. 185). Also iu to say and yn to dress (the hair) 
take the same inflections ordinarily, though iute, iuta, etc., are also current. 


akai iro wo tsukeru to color red; ki ga ochi-tsuite iru the mind 
is composed, to ki ivo ochitsukeru. Observe also : 

kuttsuku adhere firmly. kuttukeru attach firmly, 

aku open (intr.). akeru open (tr.). 

muku face. mukeni turn. 

kaiamuku incline, lean. katamukeru incline, bend. 

todoku reach, arrive. todokeru deliver, report. 

tsuzuku continue, hold out. tsuzukeru continue, keep up. 

But quite as often the relation is just the reverse, the verb 
in keru being a passive or intransitive form derived from the 
verb in ku : 

hiraku open, begin, clear. a hirakeru become civilized. 

kudaku break, crush. kudakeru be broken^ crushed. 

muku peel, skin. mukeni peel (intr.). 

nuku draw, extract. nukeru be extracted, escape. 

saku tear, rip. sakeru be torn, ripped. 

toku melt, dissolve. tokeru be melted, thawed. 

toku loose, explain. tokeru be loosed, solved. 

yaku burn, roast, bake. yakeru be burned, baked. 

4. The suffix-verb meku to resemble, appear, usually in the 
form incite iru (pru) t deserves passing notice in this connection : 
kodoinomeite iru is childish, hatumeite oru is spring-like, etc. 


(Include the verbs given above) 

don the noon signal given hire cloth. 

by firing a cannon. b kurumi walnut, butternut. 

fue flute, pipe. namekuji slug. 

Jue wofuku play the flute. ta rice field. 

.koto a large stringed musical tane seed. 

instrument, harp. waki side, side of the chest 
koto wo hiku play the koto. (including armpit). 

-kuji lot. asa-gao morning-glory. 

" 'kuji wo hiku draw lots. fii-mawari sunflower. , 

. a The verb hiraku is used intransitively of the opening of a door; tht 
glooming of a flower, etc. 

K The il?ore e l*?ant term is gc-ho (go noon, M cannon), 




kntiumi 1 ir j 

m ) 

kotowaza proverb, maxim. 
ryo-gae-ya money changer. 

[ line (in writing). 
sen 3 

kawa side (in soto-gawd). 

en, en-gawa veranda. 

am-ma shampooer, blind 
person. a 

za-to blind minstrel, blind 

chu-bu paralysis. 

do-dai foundation. 

go-gaku linguistics, language 

ji-ko climate, weather. 

sei-ko success. 

setsu-bun the transition from 
one season to another, es- 
pecially the night when 
winter changes to spring, 
according to the old calen- 
dar (lit. season dividing). 

tai-yj the sun. 

sho-kai-jo letter of introduc- 

kayui, kaii itchy. 

layasni easy to accomplish. 

ko-dai no of ancient times, 

ko-ban ancient gold coin, el- 
liptical in shape. b 

kata form, pattern, mold. 

nari form, shape, appearance. 

koban-nari no\ '.. , 

kobon-gata no | e "'P tlCal - 

daku hold in the arms, em- 

fuku blow (tr. and intr.) ; kaze 
ga a wind blows. 

Juku wipe. 

hibikti resound, sound. 

kainu chew, bite. 

maku sow, scatter, sprinkle. 

maneku invite. 

mayou go astray. c 

m ay oi- go, mai-go lost child. 

okonau do, perform, practice. 

okonai conduct, behavior. 

shiku spread (mats, etc.), lay 
(a railroad). 

ugoku move, be influenced (tr. 

uzuku ache (like a tooth). 

mi-otosu overlook. 

ni moto-zuku take as a 
basis, be based on. 

a From an grasp, ma rub. To shampoo or perform message is amma wo sttru 
or 11I01HU (rub). Professional shampooers are usually blind men or women. A 
shampooer who is not blind is called me-'aki no ainina. The amtna piping 
shrilly in the streets to advertise his presence, especially at night, is a 
characteristic feature of Japanese life. In the Tokugawa era the Government 
organized the blind into guilds. Officially recognized blind minstrels or 
shampooers were called za-to (lit. seat-head, i. e. head minstrel). " Blind 
person" is more exactly mojin ; colloquial me-kura ; classical me-shii* 
b The d-ban (p. 15) was a larger coin equal to ten koban. 

c To lose the way is michi ni mayou, rarely michi wo mayou. One may also 
say : michi ivo machigaern. 


itazura wo suru act to no tsune ni always. 

purpose, be in mischief. sorosoro slowly, softly, gradu- 

n g dan wo hiku reduce the ally. 

price. kin-jitsu in a few days (kin 

jibiki wo hiku consult a die- chikai). 

tionary. is so (no koto] rather. . 


Watakushi wa kinjitsu Igiris* ye tachimas* kara, sJukaijj 
wo kaite kudasaimasen ka. Yoroshu gozaimas" ; ni san ts~u 
(fit s&rnbon) kaite agemasho. Samui kara, s'tobu ni a hi wo 
taite kure. Hei, tadaima sugn ni takimas\ Ha ga uzuku 
kara, isha ni nuite moraimasho. Mushiken wo uts* toki ni, 
hebi to namekuji ga deru to, namekuji ga kachimas* ; naze 
naraba namekuji ga hebi ni kuttsuku to, hebi ga tokete shimau 
kara da so des\ b Taihoritsurei to in shomots wa Nikon no 
keiho wo kaita ichiban furui hon des . Makanu tane wa kaenu 
(Proverb). Anofue ^va nan deshj ; amma san ga Jue zvo Juite 
iruja nai ka. Oivari no Seto to iu mura ni yakimono zt'o 
suru ie ga hachijikken hodo am so des '. c Anata no sensei wa 
watakushi ni mo oshiete kudasaru hima ga arimashd ka. DJ 
stite kono takigi wa hi ga ts kanai ka shira ( = shirati). Ka- 
waite owi kara, tsuku liazu da ga, ne. Kaii tokoro ni te no 
todokanai yd da. d Kono ie wa dodai ga warukute jishin ga 
yuru to, taiso ugokimas . Kono kyogen wa nani ni motosuite 
ts kutta 110 des ka. Kodai no rettshi ni motozuite ts ' kutta 
mon des\ Maigofuda wa banchi to namae wo kaite kodomo 
ni ts* kete aru kobannari no Juda des ; sore da kara kodouio ga 

a Notice carefully the use of the postposition ni in this connection. The 
stove is, as it were, the indirect object. One may say also sutobtt ivo taku. Ki 
ivo taku burn wood ; hence taki-gi firewood. 

b Compare p. i88a. When an explanation begins with naze nareba or sore 
iva t it ends in kara desu. But when sore iva introduces an explanation of a 
word, idiom or proverb, the sentence may end with to iu koto desn. 

c Sefo in the province of Owari is famous for its manufacture of porcelain. 
Hence the general term for porcelain is seto-mcno. 

d A proverb- derived from the Chinese : Kakii kwa so yo (lit. through shoe 
scratch itch). The reference is- to annoying difficulty. Of an agreeable 
experience or a clever- person one may also say : Kaii toko ro ni te ga todoku yo 


michi ni mayotte mo sugu ni sono ucki ga wakarimas . Nihon 
no kotowaza ni jibim no ta ye mizu wo hiku to iu kot<> get 
gozaimas (p. 2/c). Ano hito wa chubu ni kakatte imas kara, 
te ashi ga a kikanaku narimashta. Nikon no hey a ni wa 
tatami zvo shiite arimas '. Kuruma ni noru yori wa isso cirnita 
ho ga yd gozaimas . Jiko ga sorosoro harumeite mairiuiashta. 
Kono ringo wa taisd yoku iro ga tsuite imas . Gogaku na 
keiko wa shiju tsnzukenakereba totemo seikd shimasen. Nihon 
no ie wa taigai minami-muki des '. Ris* wa katai kurumi no 
kara wo tayas } ku kami-kudakimas '. Micht ni kiite michi ni 
toku. b Kaita mono ga shoko da. 

These matches won't burn (fire does not kindle, because 
they are damp. Is the bath ready (has the hot water boiled) ? 
Yes, it has been boiling (is boiling) for some time (since a little 
while ago). I will reduce the price as much as possible. You 
will hardly understand it if you do not consult (consulting see) 
a dictionary. Ebisu^ holds a tai under his arm (waki). Go 
to the money changer and inquire the rate of exchange (market 
price of the dollar). Please explain the reason for that (sono). 
Shall I peel the melon for you? When you go (travel) to- 
Europe, I will write you a letter of introduction. As it is 
raining to-day, the noon signal sounded louder (hidoku) than 
usual. On the evening of setsubun the master of the house 
scatters roasted beans in every direction (hobo ni) and says : 
" Luck (wa) in (ucki), demons out." This is what a girl ten 
years of age wrote; indeed it is well done (p. I2;b). The 
shampooers walk [through] the streets at night blowing {Juki 
nagara) [their] flutes. You must wipe the veranda every day. 
On the paper slides of tobacco shops there is usually painted 
(written) a tobacco leaf. This picture is one that Kano 
Motonobu d painted (wrote). In Japan recently [they] have 

a For te to ashi ga. With words that are often paired in common usage the 
conjunction may be omitted : oya ko parent and child,, asa ban morning and 
evening, kami hotoke gods and buddha, nami kaze waves and winds, sake sakana 
viands, kofu-ko happiness and unhappiness, suru koto nasu koto everything one 
does (nasu being the classical equivalent of sum}. 

b The Japanese rendering of a Chinese proverb. The reference is to a 
display of ill-digested learning. 

C One of the seven gods of luck (shichi fukujin). 

cl The most famous- of the Kano family of painters (XVI. Century). 


built (laid) railroads in every direction. As there is now a 
railroad (laid) from Tokyo to Sendai, more people will be 
going to Matsushima (people that go to M. will be more) than 
before (maye yori). Please draw one of these lots. That 
blind minstrel plays the koto well. I have taken a cold and 
have a headache. The water of the Tama River is brought 
(p. 163, 5) to Tokyo. Shall we walk or (shall we) ride ? We 
will walk, for if we go by kuruma we shall overlook many 
(yokii) things. In Berlin they sprinkle water on the streets 
twice a day. Please under-score (draw a line under) that 
That man's behavior is childish. This cloth will be beautiful 
if you color it red. That house has leaned over very much 
(Jiidoku) on account of (de) last night's earthquake. The 
{flower of the) sunflower always faces in the direction of the 
sun. Please deliver this book to Mr. Sato. The morning- 
glory opens early every morning. The chidren have been in 
mischief and torn the be :>k. I shall invite [some] friends to- 
morrow ; for it is my birt. day. 


The verbs oku aand itadaku are often used in combination 
with the subordinati ves of other verbs. 

Oku to set, put, place, with a subordinative means " leave in 
that condition " : 

irete oku put it in (intending to leave it in). 

kane wo tamete oku lay money by (tameru accumulate). 

azukete oku deposit (azukeru entrust). 

ntchatte oku let it alone (utcharu throw away). 

Sono mama ni shite okimashj. I shall let it be as it is. 

Sono mama sutete okimashita. 

I let it be as it was \suteru cast away). 

Shitaku shite okimashj. 

I will (make my preparations and) be ready. 

Rusui ni kahi wo oite ikimashD. a 

We will put the maidservant in charge of the house. 

a Oile oku is occasionally heard in the sense cf " to employ," but tsiriatte 
ofat, yalctte oku t tanonde oku, etc., are more natural in this connection. 

LV] Oku, itadaku 227 

lite oku (ittoku) koto ga aru. I have something to tell you. 

When oku follows a negative subordinative, it may be 
rendered by means of " leave " with a passive participle pre- 
ceded by the negative prefix " un- " (p. i/3d). 

Itadaku (or chodai suru) " to receive from above " with a 
subordinative indicates that the act denoted by the subordinat- 
ed verb is for the benefit of the speaker. It may be rendered 
in some cases by means of " have " with the infinitive. But to 
bring out the deference expressed by itadaku a paraphrase is 
usually necessary : 

An at a ni sore wo oshiete itadakito gozaimasu. 

Please teach me that (I wish to have you teach me that). 

The verb morau (p. p2h, Ch. LX.) is used in the same way, 
but itadaku is more respectful. For the use of these verbs in 
preferring requests compare also p. 151. 


mama original condition, shibui astringent, austere. 

natural preference. a shibu the juice of unripe per- 
shiru juice, soup. b simmons. c 

taru keg, barrel. shibu-kaki unmellowed per- 
fuyu-gi [Japanese] winter simmons. 

clothing. ko-gai buying in small quan- 
fuyu-fuku [European] winter titles. 

clothing (comp. yo-fuku). uri-kai mercantile transac- 
hachi-ue potted plants. tions, trade. 

maku to roll up. gwa (c) picture, drawing. 

maki-mono roll (picture or ka-hige-jo maidservant. 

writing). kan-seki Chinese books. d 

a Shake ya masu wo nama no mama (de] taberu no wo. kennon desu. It is 
risky to eat salmon or masu raw. Nan no kangae mo naku kiita mama (ni\ 
hanashimashita. Unthinkingly I said just what I had heard. Yo no naka no 
kofo wa ivareware no omou mama ni iva naranu. The things of the world do 
not go according to our liking. These three sentences illustrate the most 
common uses of mama. 

b The honorific o is usually prefixed when shiru is used in the sense of 
" soup." Women say also (o mi} o tsuke (p. 32). 

c This is much used as a stain for wood or paper (shibu-kami}. Shibu also 
denotes the astringent rind of a chestnut. 

d Compare sho-seki books, also pronounced shojaku. 

228 THE VERB [L 

ki-gen fixed period. a no kubi wo sarasu, wo 

dai-fuku-cho day-book. b sarashikubi m suru expose 

ju-zai-nin one guilty of hei- the head of (a criminal). 

nous crime, felon (/ = sasu pour into, drop upon. 

omoi\ ake-banasu (akeppanasu}, ake- 

amai sweet. banashi (akeppanashi) m 

shio ga amai not salty sum leave open. 

enough. saru leave, depart from, get 

kibishii strict, severe. rid of. 

yasashii gentle, easy. okizari ni suru abandon. 
(o) ki-no-doku na regretteb\e. c u&e-tamawarit receive (a com- 

kana-majiri no mixed with mand), hear (polite i). 

kana (of compositions writ- utcharu (uchi-yarti) throw 

ten in ideograms). d away, reject, let alone. 

horn, horu throw. to kara long since. 

hotte oku, hottoku let alone, to ni a long time ago. 

be indifferent. ichi nichi oki ni 7 every other 

kan-sho suru interfere. kaku-jitsu (c) ni ) day. 

sarasu expose, bleach. ni cite at, in regard to. 


To wo akeppanasttte (akeppanashi ni stite) oke. Mado wo 
akezu ni okimasho ka. Kono kane wa kuni ye kaeru made wa 
iranai kara, Yokohama no ginkd ye azukete oko. Kono sakana 
wa yaku mae ni ni jikan ka san jikan no aida shoyu ni ts ' kete 
oku to, taihen umaku narimas* . Mo jubun ni kanji wo narai- 
mastita kara, nani ka yasashii hon ga yomitai to omoimas ; 
dozo, kanamajiri no hon wo sagastite itadakaremasen ka. 
Kore wa arukor ni is* kete oku to, & sarimasen. Kore made 

a Distinguish the three homonymns ki-gen temper, state health (p. 33b), 
kigen era, as in kigen-zen B. C. and kigen-go, or simply kigen, A. D., and the 

b From dai great, fuku luck, wealth, and cho notebook (in cho-nien}. 
Another word is de-iri-cho or shutsii-nyu-cho. The technical term is sui-to-bo 
(szti=shutsu=dasu, (d or nd==-osamertt or ireru, bo book). A ledger is dai-cJto 
\dai foundation). 

c Lit. poison of spirit. The phrase o kinodoku desu is often used as an ex- 
pression of sympathy or as an apology. 

d The classical equivalent of mazeru is maju (majiu^, which sometimes 
appears in the colloquial in the form majieru. The intransitive verb, corre- 
sponding to mazaru, is majiru (Ch. XLVIII.) 

LV] Oku, itadakii 229 

shdyu wo kogai (ni) stite orimastita ga, kore kara wa taru de 
totte okimashj. Kono mae (at the previous lesson) sensei ni 
(kara) osowatta koto wa wakarimasen kara, mo ichi do toki- 
akasJite itadakimashd. Seiju ga kore wo sono mama ni hotte 
oite wa ikemasen. Sono mama ni sJite oke. Kigen wo 
sadamete kane wo ginkd ye azukete oku to, risoku ga takaku 
ts kimas . Mydnichi tabi ni demas* kara, komban o itoma wo 
mdsh'te okimashd. Danna sama ga o rusu tiara, kakinokostite 
okilai koto ga arimas* kara, ddzo pen to kami wo kastite 
kudasai. Hai, tad aim a sugu ni dastite sashiagemas . llata- 
kushi wa Fukiage no o niwa ivo a haiken itasJitd gozaimas 
kara, djka go tsugd no yoi toki ni tsurete itte itadakaremasmai 
ka. Yd gozaimas' ; mo ni san nichi tatsu to, haiken ni mairu 
yd ni tomodachi to mo yak 1 soku sh'te okimasJita kara, sono 
toki^ go issho ni mairimashd {go issho i'ashimash')). Kono 
nochi sonna koto wo shinai yd ni kodomo ni kibisti ku iits kete 
okimashj. Uekiya san, kono niwa no djgu wo katazukete 
o kure ; sonna ni chirakash'te oite wa (pichd) kouiarimas . 
Sakujitsu sensei ni oshiete itadakimasK ta bakari des kara, c 
kitto oboete irnasho. O kinodoku des ga, itadaite okimasho. 
Kono o mi o Is 1 ke wa chitto shio ga amai kara, s koshi shdyu 
wo sastite chddai. Kd iu baai ni (oite) iva seifu ga kanshd 
shinakereba naranai. Kono heya wo sdji (mo) shinaide ilsu 
made mo utchatte oite wa ikenai. Soko made ni itash'te 
okimasho. d 

Because you left the door of the cage open, the bird has 
escaped (escaping finished). You must not leave the window 
open. Go to the storehouse and bring the box in which are 
the rolls ; then, (so stite) when you have come out, shut it 
(shutting put) well. German fishermen, when they catch 
herring, at once pickle them in salt. Daikon if pickled too 

a The name of a park in the old castle grounds, the present ftivokyo, in 
Tokyo. Haiken suru (Jiai=ogainn, ken=mi>-ii} is used for mint, especially in 
the first person, of obiects belonging to the one addressed or to an exalted 
personage. In the latter case it may be used in the second or third person 

b The postposition tit is understood. Compare aru hi one day, for artt Id 
/, kono nocJii hereafter, for kono nochi ni. 

c Compare tadaima ktinda bakari desn (p. 122, middle). After a past verb 
bakari de, bakari desu, may be translated "just." 

d The usual formula at the end of a lesion or lecture. 


long in salt becomes [too] salty. I wish you would change 
the hour for recitation (keiko no). I wish to learn Japanese 
drawing (Nihongwa) ; please inquire for a good teacher. Shall 
I cut the branches of this pine tree a little ? No, leave it as it 
is. The account book in which shopkeepers record (ts keru) 
their transactions (urikaidaka) is called daifukucho. I wish 
you would take me to the theater once. Abandoning wife and 
children, he went (going finished) to America. In Japan 
[they] formerly exposed the heads of felons. Put these potted 
plants out into the garden. I have made an agreement with 
a friend to (yd ni) read Chinese books together every other 
day. Command the maidservant that she do nothing like that 
hereafter (kono go). You must not leave the books scattered 
about like that. I have heard that you are good at checkers 
{go ga o josu)\ please teach me a little (kitotsu). I ordered 
winter clothing long since, but it is not finished yet. I will 
come down to ten yen (p. I25a). Even though one makes an 
agreement, difficulties (sashits* kae) often occur (dekimas 1 ). If 
you put unmellowed persimmons into rice, they become sweet. a 


i. The verb kuru (stem ki) is irregular : 

Positive Negative 

Present kuru konai, kon (u), kinai 

Past kita kon (a) katta, konanda, kinakatta 

Future or koyo, kiyo komai 

Probable kuru daro konai daro, kon daro 

Probable kitaro kon (a) kattard, konandaro 

Past kita daro kon dattaro, konakatta daro 

Conditional kureba konakereba (konakuba) 

kuru nara (ba) koneba 

konai nara (ba), kon nara (da) 

Past Con- kitara (ba) konakattara (ba), konandara (bay 
ditional kita nara (ba) konakatta nara (ba) 

One may also say : shibu ga nukemasu. 

LVI] Kuru 23.1 

Imperative koi kuru na 

ki na kuru (n) de nai (yo) a 

Subordina- kite kozu (shite), kozu ni 

tive konaidf\ konde 


Desiderative kitai kitaku nai 

Alternative kitari konakattari, konandan 

kinakattari, kin an dart 

The briefer form ku appears in kubeki (compare su-beki). 
From kuru are derived the conditional kureba and the negative 
imperative kuru na. 

The ko in koyo, koi (from koyo] and the negative forms is 

2. The imperative koi (pp. 34e, 3/d, 48c) is peremptory. 
Familiarly one may say aide, aide na, aide yo ; politely, tide 
nasai, irasshai. 

3. Polite equivalents of kimasu are : for the first (or third) 
person, mairu (inairimasu) or agaru ; for the second (or third) 
person, trass karu (trass haimasu), oide nasaru, tide ni naru. 

4. Kuru often follows the subordinates of other verbs : 
dete kuru come out 

haitte kuru come in 
kaette kuru come back 
nagarete kuru come floating 
hette kuru decrease 
mashite kuru increase 

Sometimes kuru with a subordinative may be translated 
" begin " (p. 92) : 

Ame ga Jutie kimashita. It has begun to rain. 

Samuku natte kimashita. It begins to be cold. 
For such expression as " Shall I go and shut the window ?" 
" Go and buy it," kuru with the subordinative is used (p. 88g) : 
Mado wo shimete kunashi ka. Sore wo katte kite kure* 
Notice the frequent idiom : motte (tsurete) kuru (maim, etc. 

a Notice that the stem of the verb may not be used here as in other 

b A polite expression is ji-san sum {ji=nwtsu, san=.maini) : Jisan ilashi- 
mashita, I brought. Go Jisan nasaimashita. You brought. 





kiri limit. a 

tsuchi earth. 

mono peach. 

lsubame> tsubakura (from 
the classical tsubakurame) 
chimney swallow. 

akambj baby, infant b 

botchatiy (o) bo san boy (po- 

{o)jo san t jo chan girl (po- 

o kachin (katsu pound, it 
boiled rice) = mochi. 

kami wo yuu (iii) dress the 

kami-yui, kamii hair dres- 
ser. c 

mage cue, coifTure. 

toko-ya barber-shop, barber. 

yabu grove, thicket. 

taka-yabu bamboo grove. 

kitte stamp, check. 

yubin-kitte, yubin-gitte postage 


kure-gata evening, twilight. d 
take- no- ko bamboo sprouts 

(an article of food). 
gan (c) wild goose. 
dempd telegram (p. 1150). 
dempj wo utsu (or kakfru or 

dasii) send a telegram. 
gwan-jitsu the first clay of the 


ji-setsn season. 
Rwai-fo circular letter. 
sen-taku washing, laundry 

( sum wash). 

hai-tatsu distribution, deliv- 

yubin haitatsu 1 

_ , . , 7 . > postman. e 
yuoin-kuban } ' 

sen ryu brief witty poem. 
han-kiri, letter paper. f 
doro mud. 

a From kirti cut. Kiri may limit another word, following it like gitra,, 
bakari, dake or hodo (pp. 22b, 48b). It is more emphatic than any of them and 
often occurs in the expression Kore kiri shika nai (lit. this only besides not). 

b Also aka snn t or aka t/ian, chan being the children's equivalent of san. A 
baby may be called politely o chiisai no. The term bo is a designation common 
to priests, blind men and boys (p. i5a) and as a suffix means " fellow " : kurombo 
negro, kechimbo miser, asanebo a late sleeper. 

c Men do not now require the services of a kamiyui t since the custom of 
wearing the cue has been abandoned. A barber shop is called also ri-hatsu-ten 
(dress-hair-shop) or zai/i patsu-ya (zan cut). 

d Also hi-gure, from kureru set (of the sun). The sunset itself is nich : - 
botsu ; sunrise, nisshutsu or hi-no-de. Ban-gata and yu gata are synonymous 
Avith ktire gat a. 

e In the post office the technical term is shu-hai-nin (s/iu=atsitm:nt, hai=z 

f Tin long narrow sheets called hankiri (or hankire] are usually pasted 
together to form a continuous roll called maki- garni. 

LVI] Kuru 233 

doro-darake no muddy. a wo nozoku no hoka except- 

ma-jika no very near. ing. 

harau clear away, sweep, chigai difference, mistake. 

brush. ni (wa) chigai (go) nai 

komuru bury. there is no doubt that, 

shimau put away. certainly. 

ato wo katazukeru, ato kata- atataweru change, renew, re- 

zuke (wo) surit, ato-jimai view. 

(wo) suru clear away aratamete again. 

things (as after a meal). b sappari clearly, wholly, at all 

ine wo karu harvest the rice. (with a negative verb), 

dai-sho wo sasu wear the tsui unconsciously. 

two swords (dai great, ik-ko entirely, at all (with a 

sho small). negative verb comp. p. 99, 

nozoku remove, except. bottom). 


Yubinhaitatsu ga kitara, so itte kure. Y fid in wa kore kiri 
(dake) shika kimasen. Kamiii ni sassoku kuru yd ni itte 
okimasJita ga, naze kimasen ka wakarimasen. Taiso hara 
ga hette kimastita ; nodo mo kawaite kimasJita. MJ yubin 
ga kita ka. Sayd, tadaima kimash'ta ; skikashi o kuni kara 
wa tegami ga kimasen : shim bun dake des\ Sugn ni yubin- 
kitte wo katte kimasho ka. Shokuji no ato wo katazukete 
shimattara, katte koi. Kono kimono wa dorodarake da kara, 
yoku haratle koi. Ganu to iu Shinafin ga oyaji wo hjuiutte 
ita toki ni karas 1 ga tsuchi wo motte kita to iu hanashi ga 
arimas. c Moso to iu Shinafin ga takayabu ni haitte naita 
toki ni takenoko ga yuki no slita kara dete kita so des . Inu 
wa neta kiri^ okite konai ; do sJita no da. Gwanjitsu ya, 

a As a suffix darake is much used to form adjectives having the gerteral 
sense of slovenly or disagreeable : aka-darake filthy, chi-darake bloody, hai- 
darake (hai ashes), hokori-darake dusty, kusa-darake (of a garden), inizit darakt 
(of a room), sumi-darake, yama- darake (of a country), shakkin-darake, fu- 
5himatsii'darake y from shimatsu good management, economy (lit. beginning and 

b Merely to take things back to the kitchen is o zen ivo sageru. 

C Ganu and Moso belong to the twenty-four Chinese heroes celebrated for 
their filial piety the ni ju shi ko (for ko-shi filial child). 

d Kin is here equivalent to mama. 


kino no oni ga rei ni kuru to iu senryu ga arimas\ a Anata 
keiko ye kitari konandan sJite wa ikemasen ; shiju konakereba 
narimasen. Konaida Osaka hen de arashi ga fuite ie ga 
tak? san tsubure, b hitofini mo atta to iu dempj ga kimaslita. 
Taiso osoku natta kara mo komai. lie, kuru ni chigai nai. 
Hitori no o ba san ga kawa de sentaku wo sh'te ita toki ni dkt 
na momo ga nagarete kita kara sore wo uchi ye motte kite 
watte mini to, dki na akambd ga dete kita so des . c Ano seito 
wa konogoro ikko kimasen ga, do shimask'ta. Konaida atta 
(from au meet) toki ni konnichi kara koyo to iimastita. Kok- 
kwai no hirakeru no mo majika ni natte kimasJita. Ano kata 
wa sakunen wa yoku kimasJita ga, konnen wa sappari konaku 

It was my intention (p. 95a) to bring [you] the book of 
which I spoke recently, but I quite (tsui) forgot it (forgetting 
came). The meaning of this word has gradually changed 
(changing came). Go and buy some (s koshi) letter paper and 
envelopes. Let me know (shiraseru) when the barber comes 
(past cond.). I ordered him (iits kete oku) to {yd ni) bring [it] 
at once ; why doesn't he bring it (prob.) ? Has the newspaper 
not yet come (pres.) ? At present (tadaima de wa) much 
foreign rice (gwaikokumai} comes to Japan. In your absence 
(o rusu ni) a circular letter came from the school : I told the 
messenger (inostite yani) to bring it again [in the] evening. I 
made (making put) an agreement that (yd ni) he should come 
this evening ; why doesn't he come ? This year the cold 
begins (it has become cold) early. In Japan when a person 
comes to tender New Year's congratulations (p. 88a), people 
serve (dasu) sake or mochi. Prince (p. /6c) lemitsu brought 
it about (yd ni suru) that, excepting Dutchmen (Orandajin), 
Europeans could no longer come to Japan. When Japanese 
first came to America, they still had (subord. of yuu) cues and 
wore (were wearing) the two swords. The season of rice 

a By oni is understood the creditor who conies on the last day of the year 
to collect money due him. Ya is a kind of interjection. 

b Osaka hen de in the vicinity of 7)saka. For arashi ga fukti compare kaze 
%afuku. Tsubure is the inconclusive form of tsuburern and is here equivalent 
to tsuburete. 

c This is the beginning of the famous tale of Momotaro. For momo wo warn 
compare take ivo ivarti to split bamboo. 


harvest (when people harvest rice) has not yet come. In Japan 
when the swallows go away (return), the wild geese come. A 
girl (pjo sail) has brought [some] beautiful flowers. I have 
brought the little boy a toy for (ni) a present. Shall I send 
(sending come) a telegram ? 


To the fifth group belong verbs in gu. 

Paradigm of nugu (stem nugi) to take off (an article oi 
clothing) : 

Positive Negative 

Present nugu nuganai, nugan (u) 

Past nuida nuganakatta, nanda 

Future or nugo nugumai 

Probable nugu daro nuganai daro, nugan daro 

Probable nuidaro nuganakattaro, nandaro 

Past nuida daro nuganakatta darj 

Conditional nugeba(iiugabd)nuganakereba (iiuganakuba) 
nugu nara (ba) nuganeba 

nuganai nara (ba) 
Past Con- nuidara (da) nuganakattara, nandara (ba) 

ditional nuida nara (ba) nuganakatta nara (ba) 
Imperative nuge nugu na 

(o) nugi na o nugi de nai yo 
o nugi (yo) 

Subordinative nuide nugazu (shite), nugazu ni 

nuganaide* nugande 

Desiderative nugitai nugitaku nai 

Alternative nuidari nuganakattari, nandan 


In such forms as nuide, derived from nugite, the g is elided 
and by compensation for the loss of the nigori in g the t is 

The verbs of this group are not numerous. The most com- 
mon are : 

aogu fan. jusagu shut up, abstract. 

fusegu ward off. hagu patch together. 




hagu peel, strip oft a 

isogu hurry. 

kagu smell. 

kasegu toil, work diligently 

katsugu carry (on the shoul- 

kogu row, scull. 

matagu straddle, step over. 

nagu be calm (of winds, 
waves, etc.). 

oyogu swim. 

sawagu be noisy, excited. 
sogu cut obliquely, slice off. 
sosogu sprinkle (rather classic- 

susugu, yusugu rinse (intzit 


togu whet, grind, wash (rice). 
tsugu join, graft tsugi-ki wo 

surii), inherit. 
tsugu pour. d 
tsunagu tie, hitch, moor. 
yurugu shake, quake, be loose. 


(Include the above list) 

ato succession. 

no ato wo tsugu inherit 

the estate or office of. 
hada naked body, skin. 
hada wo nugu expose the 

upper part of the body. 
kishi bank, shore. 
kui post, stake, pile. 
dgi folding fan. c 
shiri bottom, base. d 
tta pariah. 
ko-gaiva brook. 
ko-gire small piece ^as of 


kurombo negro. 
se to- mono porcelain. 

kamoi upper groove, lintel. 
shikii lower groove, threshold. 
shiki-mono rug, carpet. 
toishi whetstone. 
to-garashi cayenne pepper. 
te-tsuke-kin, te-tsuke earnest 

money, bargain money. 
zei tax, tariff. 
zen good. 
aku evil. 
zennakUy zen- aku good and 

genkwaH) genka vestibule of a 

residence, main entrance. 
nofu agriculturist, farmer. 
tern-bin balance. 

a In the literary language the verb hagu may also be intransitive ; hence 
the derived form htigasu, corrupted to hegasit. These and the rare from hegu 
are all synonymous with hagu above. The colloquial intransitive is hageru 
" be stripped off," also " become bald. ' 

b These verbs must not be cou fused with tsugeru tell. 

c From aogu. Fans that do not fold are called uchiwa. 

d The inside bottom of a nabe (pot for cooking) is soko ; the outside, shiri. 
It is not an elegant word, but there is no other. 


tem-bim-bo pole carried on soru, sum shave. 

the shoulder with a burden kami-sori, kami-suri razor. 

suspended from either end. tsumazuku stumble. 

e-no-gu pigments for paint- wareru be split, cracked 

ing. (tr. waru). 

ramune lemonade. mi ga naru fruit is produced, 

asai shallow. bear fruit. 

hirou pick up, find. ydshi ni iku enter a family 

isamu be bold. as an adopted child. 


Zen wa isoge (Proverb). O cha wo tsuide agemasho ka. 
Ddzo y tsuide kudasai. Sore wa ki ni take wo tsuida yd na 
hanashi des\ Ano hito no ato wa yoshi ga Isugimasttta. 
Narutake is aide koi. Narubeku isoide itashimasho. Ama- 
ri isogu koto de 1110 nai kara, astita itte mo yoroshii. a Sake 
wo isugu toki ni wa, migi no te de tokkuri wo motte hidari no 
te wo sono shiri ni atemas\ Toishi wo katte kite kamisori wo 
toide koi. Mizu wo oyogu no wa b taihen karada no tame ni 
narimas* . Kaeru wa yoku mizu zvo oyogimas ; sore da kara 
hito ga jozu ni mizu wo oyogu to, kaeru no yo da to iimas". 
Seiron (Ceylon) no minato de fune kara umi ni kane wo nageru 
to, kurombo ga kaeru no yd ni oyoide sugu ni hiroimas '. Muka- 
shi wa eta to iu mono ga atte shinda ushi ya uma no kawa wo 
haide imastita. Ano onna wa kogire wo haide kimono ^vo 
koshiraete imas . Hada wo nuide soto wo aruku no wa keisa- 
tsu de c kinjite arimas 1 ga, kurumahiki nado wa inaka-micht 
de hito no inai toki ni wa ats ku naru to, kimono wo nugimas\ 
Nihon no zasli ki n't wa tatami ga (wo) skiite arimas ka>a, 
geta wa genkwan ni nuide agarimas '. Seiyojin mo kuts' wo 
nuide agaranakereba narimasen. Fune wo (kogu koto no s* ki 
na hito ga kogu no wo suku hito go) arimas . Minato wo dete 
kara kaze ga naide koganakereba naranakatta kara, taisd oso- 

a Itte in this sentence is from iku.. De mo nai corresponds to the English 

"It is not at all/' " it is not exactly." Kotowaza de mo arimasen ga It is 

not exactly a proverb, but 

b Mizu ivo oyogu swim in the water. Compare soto ivo aruku. 

c For keisatsii de compare p. I26c. 


tku narimash'ta. SKka no kawa wo haide shikimono ni (for) 
s kaimas\ Kono niku wo ikkin hodo soide moraitai. Sono 
Jurui yubinkitte wo he gash' te chjdai. Kono kuiwoyurugash'- 
te go ran. Amekaze ga amari tsuyokatta kara, 2 as W ki no sho- 
ji ga mina hagete shimatta. Amari togarashi wo tabeta kara, 
anna ni atama ga hagetaro. Omae iva kono kogawa wo mata- 
gu koto ga dekiru ka. Shikii wo matagu loki ni wa ki wo 
tsken to, tsumazuku yo. Saita sakura ni naze koma tsunagu ; 
koma ga isameba, hana ga chirii (Song). a Kaze no Juku to- 
ki yuruganu mono wa denshim-bashira ni (and) ushi no tsu- 
no (Song). Kono hana tvo kaide go ran. 

Shall I pour you [some] tea ? Please let me have it (lend 
it) ; [I] will pour it myself. Come back as soon as you can 
(hurrying as much as possible). As I am in a hurry (I hurry) 
to-day, I will now take my leave, b As it is not at all (demo) 
an urgent (hurrying) matter, deliver the goods to-morrow ; 
shall I leave (okii) bargain-money ? I will try to mend (join 
and see) this tea-cup with lacquer. Are you aware (go shochi 
des* ka) that (koto wo), when they mend cracked porcelain, 
they hide the cracks (kizu) with paint ? Yes, I know. This 
tree will not bear fruit unless you (if you do not) graft it. He 
took off his clothes and swam across (swimming crossed) the 
river. As the river was (pres.) shallow, I took off my shoes 
and went across. The Japanese carry a great deal of freight 
by means of (de) tembimbo. A swimming place having been 
made (oyogi-ba ga dekite) in the Sumida River, I also often 
swam [there]. The farmers are excited because the taxes are 
too high. Shall I pour you some lemonade ? Since his older 
brother died, he was not adopted (negative subord,), but became 
rhe heir of his family (inherited the house). It is unendurably 
hot ; fan [me] with that ogi there. Farmers toil from morn- 
ing till night (bammade). The boat is moored (active subord.) 
to the bank and the fishermen are asleep. 

a Uta are like jokes : they cannot be explained very successfully. This 
song expresses the feeling of a samurai whose tender regard for beautiful 
flowers is rudely disturbed by some irreverent fellows who don't know any 
better than to tie a prancing colt to a tree covered with delicate cherry- 

b 'Iranslate : kore de (or mo) go men ivo komurimasit (lit. I now have your 





To the sixth group belong verbs in bu or mu. 
Paradigm of yobu (stem yobi) to call : 


yobanai, yoban (u) 
yobanakatta, nanda 

yobanai darj, yoban daro 
yobanakattarj, nandaro 
yobanakatta daro 
yobanakereba (yobanakubd) 
yobanai nara (da) 
yobanakattara, nandara (ba) 
yobanakatta nara (da) 
yobu na 
o yobi de nai yo 


Present yobu 
Past yonda 

Future or yobo 

Probable yobu daro 
Probable yon daro 

Past yonda daro 

Conditional yobeba (yobabd) 
yobu nara (ba) 

Past Con- yondara (da) 

ditional yonda nara (ba) 
Imperative yobe 

(o) yobi na 
o yobi (yd) 

Subordi- yonde yobazu (shite), yobazu ni 

native yobanaide, yobande 

yobitaku nai 
yobanakattari, nandafi 

In forms like yonde, derived from yobite, after the elision of 
the i, the b is changed to n. The same change occurs in the 
case of verbs in mu ; so that the subordinative and alternative, 
together with the past and its derived forms, of yomu to read are 
homonymous with the corresponding forms of yobu (p. i62a). 

There are some verbs belonging to this group to which cor- 
respond verbs in eru having a transitive or causative sense : 

itainu ache, be hurt. itameru injure, afflict. 

komu bo crowded. komeru force into. a 

shizumu sink, be immersed, shizmneru sink, immerse. 

susumu advance. susumeru promote, urge. 

Desiderative yobitai 
Alternative yondari 

a In compounds komu may be transitive : kugiivo uchi-komu drive a nail in. 
Compare the verbs komoru be. shut up (in Mki-komoni) and kemaru be perplexed. 


tsuniu be packed. tsuuiern pack. a 

yamu cease (as rain). yameru stop, give up. 

yasumu rest, retire. yasumeru cause to rest, 

yununu be loose, moderate. yurumeru loosen. 
narabu be in a row, be parallel, narabetu arrange. 
ukabu float. ukaberu launch. b 

To some transitive verbs correspond passive forms in eru, e. 
g., 111011111 lub, moment be rumpled, troubled. 

The stem of the verb sJiinu or shinuru die is shini. In the 
subordinative, the past, etc., it is conjugated like the above 
verbs: shinde> shinda^ etc.. - In the present ru may be added to 
nu (compare masuru, sum), and in derived inflections there 
are longer and shorter forms. Thus the probable is shinu daro 
or shinuru daro ; the conditional, shinureba or shineba ; the 
negative imperative, shinuru na or shinu na : adding beki we 
have shinu-beki or shinuru-beki. The other inflections are de- 
rived regularly from shinu ; e. g., shinitai, shino (shinan), shi- 
nanai, shine, shinumai. The dialectical inuru, return, is inflect- 
ed like shinuru. 


(Include the above verbs.) 

kaji rudder, helm. hito-gomi crowd. 

nami wave. yama-bushi hermit {fusil lie 
toinbi black kite. down, lodge). 

tsuna rope. c kanjiki snowshoe, 

yubi finger. d toge mountain pass. 

haru-saki (lit. spring-front) an-shj hidden rock, reef, 

early spring, springtime, nin-jin ginseng. 

a Compare tsumam be clogged, oppressed. These verbs must be distinguish- 
ed from tsiunu pile up, to which corresponds the intransitive tsumoru. 

b Koko.-o t:i ukanda it occurred [to me]. 

c Tsuna. means a strong rope, made usually of hemp (asa]. The lighter 
rope made of straw is w^wrt / if made of hemp, asa-uaiva. Cord o:: twine is 
hoso-nawa. String or thread is ito, 

d The thumb is oya-yubi, from oya parent ; the index finger, hito-sashi-yubi 
from hito wo sasit point out a person; the middle finger, naka-yubi, or taka- 
laka-ytibi (children's word), from takai ; the ring finger, kusuri-yubi, alluding 
to its use in applying salve, or beni-saski-yubi (women's word), from bmi ivo 
sasu apply rouge ; the little finger, koyttb:. The great toe is ashi na cyci-yub'>. 




bai-u the early summer rain, 
the rainy season. a 

cha-ya (lit. tea-house) res- 
taurant, saloon. 

ke-shiki expression (efface), 

ki-kai machine, engine. 

kwo-zan mine. 

ma-ho magic. 

malto wo tsukau practice 

nln-soku cooly. 

ri-s~j ideal. 

sat- nan misfortune. 

Sei-sho Bible. 

sen-ko stick of incense. 

shini-pai anxiety (p. I96d). 

shin-rui \ , .. ,\ 
,. , > relatives. d 
sntn-zoku } 

shoku-nin workman, artisan. 

jo-ki steam. 

jdki-sen t ki-sen steamboat. 

go som-pu (samd) your fa- 
ther (more polite than o 

sasu point out, indicate. 

sashitaru special. 

sumanai inexcusable, rude 
(p. i6 7 b). 
so-so na heedless. 

mu-jitsu no untrue, innocent. 

mujitsu no tsumi false accu- 

aunt braid, knit, crochet. 

erabu, eraniu choose. 

hakobu carry transport, b 

kaeru be hatched (tr. kaesu). 

kazoeru count, number. 

konomu like, be fond of. 

kukiiru bind. 

kubi ivo kukuru hang one's 

kumu weave, knit together, 
fame, compose (type). 

musubu tie, bear (fruit), 
make (a contract). 

/'// wo musubu make (magi- 
cal) signs with the fingers. 

nomu drink, swallow. 

tsumu pile up, load, accumu- 

hori-dasn dig out, unearth. 

hai-shakit suru borrow (po- 
lite i). 

tada gratis, free of charge. 

zutto all the way, direct. 

ma-mo-naku in a moment, 
immediately, soon. 

yoku-jitsu the following day. 

a Lit. plum-rain, i. e.. rain that falls when plums are maturing. The conven- 
tional date for the rainy season is the last three weeks of Juoe. The most 
common name for it is nyu bai (nyu =///*), a word which originally meant the 
beginning of the rainy season. Another word for baitt is tsuyu, derived from 
tsuyu dew. 

b The latter is a little more elegant than the former- The words rui and 
zoku form collective nouns. Comp. kin-rui kin-zoku metals. 

c Hakobu is also used intransitively in the sense of "to make progress." 
Tenki ga yoi fo t do shite mo shigota go, hnyaku hakobimasu. The work naturally 
inakes rapid progress when the weather is fine. A r a Kanaka hakobi ga tsukiina- 
sen. Progress is slow 

d To weave on a loom is oru. 



Korjnde mo tada wa okinu. 3 - En no shokaku wa in wo 
musunde maho wo ts'katta so des\ Wataknshi wa sumanai 
koto ivo stita. Watakushi wa soso na koto wo itask'te makoto 
ni sumimasen. Kenkwa ga sunde bo wo nigirit. b Kono uchi no 
ichiban yoi no wo erande kudasaimashi. Nagaku keiko wo 
yasunde wa ikemasen. c Kono machi wa Nihombashid ri to 
narande orimas\ Ninsoku ga sorou made ano chaya de s ko- 
shi yasunde mairimasho. cl Omae asonde (asunde) bakari ite 
iva ikemasen. Muika hataraite nanukaine ni tva yasumana- 
kereba naranai to Seisho ni kaite (irimas '. Gelsuyjbi ni mo 
asobu (yasumu) shokunin ga tak'san arimas. Ryukyu (Loo- 
choo Islands) de wa onna ga hataraite otoko ga asonde imas\ 
Gomi wo tsunda fime wo gomibune to mjshimas '. Ano hito 
wa taiso sake ga s 1 ki des* keredomo, kane wo oshinde nomima- 
sen. Mo ame ga yamimastita ka. Ima yamiso na kesh? ki 
des . Kaze ga yandara, aitaka ni naru desk's. Go shimpai ni 
wa oyobimasen. Shinda ko no toshi wo kazoeru (Proverb). 
Fune ga anshj ni atatte soko ni ana ga aite kara, sugu ni shi- 
zumimastita. Nihonjin wa matsu no ki wo taiso kononde yoku 
niwa ni uemas . Tombi ga taka wo unda to iu no wa oya yo- 
ri erai ko ga dekila to in ko'o des . Isha wo tanonde agemasho 
ka. e lie, sastitaru koto de mo arimasen kara, tanomanaide mo 
yoroshu gozaimash : . Jibun hitori de dekiru mono nara, hito 
wo tanomanai ho ga ii. Tonari no hito wo tanondara yokatta 
ni. Jokisen no kikai ga itamimash'ta no de futs ka hodo yo- 
kei minato ni tomarana kereba narimasen destita. Amma san 
ni hitotsu monde moraimashj. Wada-toge f hen de wa Juji no 

a The proverb describes a very avaricious spirit. 

b The usual form of the proverb is : kenkwa sugite no bochigiri. Bo-chigiri 
and chigiri-ki are equivalents of bo. A club is of no use after the quarrel is over. 

c Observe \\ivA. yastttmi may take an object with wo where the English would 
require a preposition. 

d Yasunde mairimasho. I will rest and then go. But mairimasho is hardly 
to be taken so literally ; it may remain untranslated. 

e Isha too tanomu call a physician. But when there is a direct object denot- 
ing the thing requested, the person becomes the indirect object with ni 
(p. I2 5 b.) 

f The Wada Pass is on the Nakasendo just beyond Karuizawa. Yitki no ite 
100 siibeni. 


eda de anda kanjiki wo ts* kaiinas'' ; sono ura ni kire ivo is* kete 
yoku yuki no ue wa suberimas '. Watakushi wa keiko no sun- 
da yokujitsu ni inaka ye tacJiimasti ta, Seiyojin wa ts~iirei y 
ynbi wo kunde Kami wo ogamimas, ga> Nihonjin wa te wo 
awasete (awash te) ogamimas* . Ano hito wa kawaiso ni mu- 
jitsu no tsumi de shinimaslita. Hara ivo kitte shine (shinde 
shimae). Anna warmnono wa shinde mo dare mo kamaima- 
sen. Nochi ni naru to 0:01 komimas* kara> zutto mae no ho ye 
o tsume kudasai. Hito-gomi no naka ye iku to, ziitsu ga shimas* . 
Asagao no hana wa hi ga deru to, mamonaku shibonde shlmai- 
mas\ Hammotf (hammock) no tsuna ga yurumimastita kara, 
musitbi-naosanakucJia abunai. Harusaki ni nareba dandan 
samusa mo yurumimas\ RisD no nai hito wa ch'jdo nami no 
ue ni ukande oru kaji no nai June no yo na mono des . Chot- 
to konna kangae ga kokoro ni ukabimastita. Tonda go sainan 
de gozaimastita. 

This part (tokoro) is very difficult ; I filially understood the 
meaning- [only] after reading [it] repeatedly (tabitabi). I 
awoke after the earthquake was over. a You have made great 
progress (advanced much) in language study (gogaku go). 
When the rainy season is over (sumu), [people] air [their] 
clothes ; this is called doyoboshi. In mushiken, when the snake 
and the frog appear (deru), the snake wins, because (naze to in 
ni) snakes swallow (swallowing finish) frogs. When a person 
dies the relatives [and] friends (kara) send sticks of incense. 
The yamabushi often make magical signs with [their] fingers. 
When I have finished reading the book that I borrowed of 
you recently, I will at once return it to you. The Japanese 
often read books with a loud voice. b This (koko) is a very 
beautiful place ; we will rest a little and [then] go [on]. That 
steamboat sank near (no kin-kai de) Japan. The copper dug 
out from this mine is carried by horses to (made) the Kitakami 
River and loaded (tsumi- komu] into boats. c The bird has 
laid eggs, but has not yet hatched them. In a Japanese proverb 

a In such a context yamu is better than suniu. 

b Takai koe de, or, koe ivo agete. There is a word for reading aloud, 
namely, on-dokii. 

c The verbs are all active. 




they say : To drink ginseng and hang one's self. a I have a 
request to make of you (There is a matter about which I wish 
to request you). In Japan when [you] go to a person's house 
you call out with a loud (great) voice in the genkwan : " I re- 
quest! " In a Turkish (Tor } ko no] proverb they say : If lost 
things return (returning come), the dead father too returns. 
Have you read the Rongo?^ I am now reading [it]. She 
gave birth to a dead child. Is your father still living? No, 
father (wa) died a long time ago. That sick person will prob- 
ably die soon ; for he drinks too much sake (sake wo noini- 
sugirtt). About {koto ^va) a dead person [one] must not speak 
ill. If one sinks, one floats [again] (Proverb). d 


To tfce seventh and last group belong verbs in which a vow- 
el precedes the u of the present tense. 

Paradigm of kau (stem kat) to buy, or to keep (animals) : 


Past katta, kota 

Future or kad 

Probable kau daro 



Past Condi- 

kattaro, kotaro 
katta daro 
kota daro 
kaeba (kawaba) 
kau nara (ba) 

kattara (da) 
kotara (ba) 
katta nara (bii) 
kota nara (ba) 


kawanai, kawan(u) 

kaivanakatta> nanda 


kazvanai daro, kawan daro 

kawanakattard) nandaro 

kaivanaktta daro 

kawanakereba (kaivanakuba) 
kawanai nara (bo) 
kawanakattara (ba) 
kawanandara (ba) 
kawanakatta nara (ba) 

a The point is that ginseng is extremely expensive. By the time a man has 
consumed enough to effect a cure there will be nothing left in life but a hope- 
less struggle against poverty. 

b Known among us as the Analects of Confucius. 

c \ ery polite : Go sontpu snnia rva inada go zomtnei de irasshaintasu ka. 

tl Compare the proverb, p. iS4a. 







(o) kai na 
o kai (yo) 
batte t kote 

kau na 

o kai de nai yo 


kattari, kotari 

kaivazu (shite), kawazu ni 
kaivanaide, kawandt 
kaitaku nai 

kawanakattari) nandari 

The vowel preceding the u of the present tense may be a, o 
or . Compare omou think, kuu or ku eat. In the negative 
inflections the characteristic vowel a becomes wa. The 
positive subordinative, as also the past tense, etc., has two 
forms, omotte or omote, kutte or kute. The forms with the long 
vowel, such as kote t oinote, kute, are more common in Kwansei t 
the western provinces, than in Kwanto. But even in Tokyo a 
verb like tou ask is conjugated tote, tota, not totie totta. 

The only verb in which / precedes the u is iu say. It is 
conjugated itte or tute, itta or tufa, etc. The .forms itte, itta 
are homonymous with the corresponding inflections of iku go 
and iru enter or iru parch (p. 221 a). The verb yuu or yu 
bind (as, for example, the hair) is in Kwanto inflected just like 
iu say. a 

The form iwaba (lit. if I say) has peculiar uses. It may 
sometimes be rendered " so to speak," " in a word," " for 
instance " ; in some cases it is untranslatable : 

Tatoete iwaba to speak by way of illustration. 
Tennis wa iwaba Nikon no dakyu no yd na mono desu. 
Tennis is, one might say (for instance), like Japanese dakyu. 
Chanoyu wa iwaba hitotsu no nagusami no yd ni miema- 

su ga honto wa seishin wo ochitsukeriijutsu desu. 
Chanoyu seems like a kind of amusement, but in reality 

it is an art by which one composes the mind. 
Forms of iu enter into many idioms in which the original 
has been obscured : to iedomo " although " 
to iu koto w 'a or to iu mono wa " the " (p. 126 

sense of " say " 
(p. 1 71, top); 

a Observe the pun in the saying: Yoku iute tvaruku iwaruru goke no kami. 
A widow is ill spoken of when she does up her hair nicely. 


b) ; to iu no de " on the ground that" (p. (32 bottom); 11 
to itte, tote, 'tte (p. 133 top, 167 bottom) ; to iu to to, etc. 
Saiimi 'ttara nakatta. It was indescribably cold. 

To the seventh group belongs also the auxiliary tainau used 
by students, etc., to form an imperative (p. 150) : Oki tamae. 
Get up ! If the action is requested for the benefit of the speaker 
kure tar'ae must be used : Kono tegami wo yubinbako ni irete 
kure tamae. Drop this letter into a mail box, will you ? 

This being the last chapter on the conjugation of the verb, 
it may be well to note a distinction in the classical language 
which occasionally influences the colloquial. In the classical 
there are two forms of the conditional, akeba and akureba, 
(akereba), sugiba and svgureba (sugireba), miba and mireba, 
toraba and toreba, etc., the former in each case being con- 
ditional in the proper sense and the latter temporal. In the 
colloquial the latter forms prevail and are used in both 

Besides the past conditional in tara (bo), one may rarely 
hear a form in tareba. lj The two forms are commonly confus- 
ed, but properly the former is truly hypothetical while the 
latter indicates the connection of actual events or conditions : 
Kind hanami ni iitareba mo sakari ga sugite orimashita. 
Yesterday I went to see the blossoms, but they were already 
past their prime. 


iitari=ken vicinity, in the kan-jo reckoning, account, 

region of, about. bill.* 1 

kashi extremity, end, begin- ko-saku cultivation (of land). 

n ing, margin. c nyu-yo=in-yd need. . 

a This idiom is often a mere connective equivalent to no de (p. 104!!.) 

b Compare narsba, which is practically synonymous with nara (bo). These 
forms, derived from narn^=ni aru, must not be confused with the con- 
ditional of tjartt lo become. 

c The end of a machi or group of houses is hazure, rarely hashi. 

d Kanjo ivo sum to reckon, draw up accounts. Kanjo wo shite kudasai t or, 
Go kanjo wo negaimasu. Please make out your bill, or, Please settle the 
account. This may be said by either party to a transaction. To collect a 
bill is kanjo wo torn or morau ; to pay a bill, kanjo wo harau. At hotels it has 
become the fashion with some to substitute hiuaikei for kanjo : Go kwalkei wo 
negaiiiiasu. Please settle your bill. Kkvaikei ivo shite kudasai. What is 
the bill? 




share witticism, pun. 
yaini darkness. 
yo, yo-no-naka world. 
ja-ko musk. 
jim-min people. 
jun-sa policeman. 

sho-no camphor. 

doku-shin (dokuhitori, shin 
=;;//) celibacy. a 

dokushim-mono bachelor, wid- 
ower, spinster. 

habakaru be afraid, feel 
backward. b 

harau pay. 

kanau accord, suit, obtain 
(a wish). 

k aw aig am love ; be fond of. 

kayou go back and forth. 

kitaru come (literary). 

kurau eat (literary). 

ninau, carry on the shoulder. 

kuiru, kuyuru repent of, feel 
remorse for. 

mukuiru, mukuyuru requite. 

ada injury, foe. 

ada iv o mukuyuru (kaesu) 
take revenge. 

okasu violate (law), commit 

soroeru arrange in order, fur- 
nish (intr. sorou). 

ni sou be joined to, go 
along with (tr, soeru add). 

tou ask, visit. d 

utau sing. 

war au laugh, smile. e 

tai suru=mukau face. 

ni tai shite (inukatte) in 
regard to, against. 

tori-yoseru procure, import. 

o se-ji wo iu speak courte- 
ously, flatter. 

hidoi me ni au have a dread- 
ful experience. 

yahari, yapp art still, not- 
withstanding, too. 

tatoi although, even though. f 

matawa or. 

'a Ah ! Oh ! 

a A widow is yamome or go-ke (iiochi, ie}. A widower is otoko-yatnomo (classi- 
cal yamoo}. There is no special word for "old maid." In the rare cases when 
such a word is needed yamome may be used : San ju no saka ivo koshila no ni, 
mada yamome (doknshin] de imasu ka. In spite of having turned thirty is she 
still single? 

b Sensei no mae ivo habakaru be afraid of the teacher. Seken no teinae wo 
habakani be afraid for one's reputation. A common apologetic expression is 
habakari nagara or habakari desu ga. Excuse me for asking, but... 

c These two verbs (stems kid, mukui'] belong to the first class. There is 
danger of confusing them with the verbs described in the present chapter. 
Compare with the latter ni muku or ni umkau face, mukeni turn, send, 
imikaeru go to meet, summon. 

d In the sense of to " ask " or * inquire " kiku (p. i6ia) or (in the case of a 
discussion) shitsumon sum is more common ; in the sense of to " visit," 
tazuneru or hdmon suru. 

e Classical: emu. To smile is more exactly hoho-einii ; in Chinese, bis ho 
suru (light laugh). To deride a person is Into (no koto] ivo ivarau. 

f With following mo. Compare tnoshi nara if (p. 159 Ijottom). 

248 THE VERB [ux 


Hito ni wa sotte (sote) miro, uma ni wa notte miro. a Mago 
wo kawaigaru yori inu wo kae (Proverb). Nani ka id to omotte 
wasurete shimaimasKta. Warau kado ni wa Juku kitaru. b 
Hito ga inachigatta koto wo iita tote (ittatte) warau no wa 
(waratte wa) shitsurei des. Ano hito wa yoku share wo iimas*. 
Sakujitsu itta no wa machigai desh'ta, shikashi Kdshi mo 
" Ayamatta aratamuru ni habakaru nakari " c to mdshimastita 
kara. naoshimas '. 1st no Yokkaichi kara Yokohama made 
jdkisen ga kayoimas\ Nanibun (iiamburi) yorosti ku negaimas\ 
A ! shimatta. d Ano hito wa o seji bakari itte ikenai hito de s'. 
Uso wo iu na. So itte yatte mo e yd gozaimashd. Mushi no 
kmvanai yd ni kimono ni s ho rid wo irete o kure. Furuhon wa 
yoku mushi ga kutte imas. Kore to onaji shina ga nakeraba, 
s' koshi cliigatta no de mo ii kara, katte kite kure. Kono hon 
ni wa Nichiren Shdnin ga f maho wo t$* katta to kaite arimas . 
Sore wa takakute yoku nai ; kawanai hj ga yokatta ni. Son- 
na koto wa iwazu to mo ii des . Maebashi atari de wa yoku 
kaiko wo katte imas\ Nihon no yamaguni de wa iaigai us/it 
wo ts katte kosakti shimas 1 . Kore made wa kana wo naratte 
orimastita ga, sore wo yamete chitto kanji no keiko wo itashi- 
masho. Sore wa te de nutta mono ni chigai nai, Kesstite 

a A proverb : Don't judge by iirst impressions. Compare: Suineba miyako. 
If you live [in a place, it becomes like] a metropolis. Notice the rhyme in 
sotte, notte. 

b In this proverb kade stands by metonymy for te. 

c This saying is taken from the Kongo. Kdshi is Confucius. In the classi- 
cal style a verb takes the attributive form (p. 144, 6) before a particle like ni. 
Habakaru (koto] nakare is the classical equivalent of habakaru na. 

d Lit. It is all over. This expression is used in the sense of "'It is too 
bad !" Shimatta koto wo shita. I made a mistake. 

e Itte yarn send word, give orders. 

f Nichi~ren (sun-lotus), the founder of the sect called by his name, lived in 
the XIII. Century. Shd-nin(sho=jo^ue, nin=.hito] is an honorary title appli- 
ed to priests. The Nichiren-shu t is distinguished for its spirit of intolerance. 
It is called also Hokke-shu, from the name of its sacred book Hoke-kyo (ho law, 
he flower, kyd canon). 

g Maebashi is an important town in Kolsuke. Kotsuke is a contraction of 
A"(7//-/j-/'<f=upper ke, this k* being the old name of the country and tsu the 
classical genitive particle. Compare Shimotsuke. Kotsuke is commonly called 
Jo-shu (;o=ue or kanri, shu country). Compare Cho-sJiu p. 3ia. 


hito no koto ni o kamai de nai yo. Rainen no koto wo ieba 
(iu to) oni ga warau (Proverb). Kono hon ga go nyuyo nara, 
Tokyo ye itte yatte toriyosete agemasho. Sakujitsu o me ni 
kakeyo to omoimastita ga. tsui wasuremastiia. Tabitabi mo- 
shimasho to omoimastita ga, ima made shimbo sh'te damatte 
imasttta. Nikon de wa kessh'te sonna koto wo i' wa (iiya) 
shimasen. a So iwanai koto wa nai ga, amari kitanai des 
Mus me no uchi wa yoku shimada ^vo b iimas ; yome ni itte 
kara de mo ivakai uchi wa shimada wo yu mono ga arimas\ 
IVakaranai koto wa jibun de kangaete bakari iru yon hito ni 
ton ho ga ii. Asti ta boku mo issho ni ikitai kara t matte iU 
kure tamae. Tatoi hito ga jibun ni tai stite donna tsumi wo 
okasKte mo c katte ni ada wo mukuiru koto wa ima no horitsu 
de yurushimasen. Bo hodo negatte hari hodo kanau. d Dare 
de mo umai mono wa kuitai. Kore wa negattari kanattari 
des (p. 1 76). Doku wo kurawaba sara made mo. e Nome ya ! 
utae ya ! issun saki wa yami no yononaka.^ Are wa yoku 
warau hito des\ Hankiri no hashi wo yoku sorou yd ni kitte 
kure. Ninae, fu / 

The Nakasendo road in some places follows the Kiso liiver 
(there are also places that go along the K. River). In Berlin 
you must pay tax if you keep a dog. Europeans say that the 
Japanese are a laughing people (people that laugh well). Even 
though you make mistakes (say things about which you erred), 
I (watakushi ni wa) still understand. You must not lie (say a 
lie). Put away the food so that the rats don't eat it. I in- 
tended to wear at once the clothes that I put here ; why did 
you put them away ? Tell the honest truth \hont$ no koto) 

a See p. 167, bottom. Some say tyU shimasen. 

b A kind of w<7*. See Brinkley's Dictionary, p. 865. One may also say 
shimada ni yu. 

c The combination tatoi donna mo may be translated * no matter what." 
Compare the use of interrogntives in conditional clauses (p. 149, top). 

d The idea of th proverb is that the attainment always comes far short ol 
the intention. 

e The proverb commends the courage of desperation. If you happen to eat 
poison, swallow it all ! In such a case there is no use in being cautious 
or scrupulous. 

f Such expressions may be heard in a carousal. Let us eat and drink, foj 
to-morrow we die." 


without flattering. I never (kessJJte) flatter. Don't talk fool- 
ishly (foolish things). a If you have (past cond. of aru) leisure 
at some other time (inata), send word to that effect (so tell 
and send by (ni) some one. No matter how often I reckon, 
its always different. He makes a face as when {yd no) Emma 
has eaten musk. b These clothes have been so eaten (active 
subord.) by moths (muski) that they are useless. Though a 
bachelor, c he spends (tsukau) a great deal of money. That 
official keeps (is keeping) two horses. Is it better to learn 
kaisho or gyosho ? You must learn both. I don't trouble 
myself (kamau) about (/ ^va) other people's business. Don't 
talk too much (yokei na koto). Any way will suit ir.e (How- 
ever it be, I don't mind). Since I have had no time to-day, I 
think I shall go to Yokohama to-morrow. In (de) the rain we 
got wet through and through and had a dreadful time of it. 
It is better not to. use this word. It may be well to ask that 
policeman (ni). Arrange (arranging put) the shoes in the 
entrance. Repenting of his crime he committed suicide. 


The verbs morau receive, and shimau finish, often follow the 
subordinates, positive or negative, of other verbs. 

Morau is used just like itadaku (Ch. LV.), but is quite in- 
formal and its use should be avoided in speaking of what has 
been done or is to be done by the person addressed, unless 
that person is a subordinate or a familiar friend : 

Mac hi ye iku nara> kono te garni wo das kite moraimasho. 
If you go down town, please mail this letter. 
Sono hako wo akenaide moraitai. Don't open that box. 
Common expressions are isha ni mite morau be examined 
by a physician, hito ni oshiete morau be instructed by a person. 
The latter, however, is used rather of casual exp'anation or in- 
formation than of regular instruction at a school. In speaking 

a One may srty ironically : Baka is. Some say tiaKa ie (bakii r baka wo). 

b The god of hell is thought to look more furious than ever when he has 
eaten musk. 

c Translate : Dokushimmono no knse m. Compare . Gaknsha no kits: n; 
konua yasashii koto de mo ivakaranu. Though a scholar, he does not under- 
stand even such a simple thing as this. 


Morau> shimau 


of teaching in the ordinary sense of the word osowaru or narau 
take the place of oshiete morau or the passive oshierareru : 

Nihongo wa dare ni osowarimashita ka. 
By whom were you taught Japanese? 
Amerikajin ni butsnrigaku wo naratta. 
I studie 1 physics under an American. 

Shimau with a subordinative may sometimes be rendered 
by a word like " finally " or " completely " ; but generally it 
only adds emphasis and can not be translated. Its very com- 
mon use is due to the disposition of the Japanese to prefer 
compound verbal expressions to simple verbs. a 

Nete shimaimashita. He has retired. 

Nokorazu tabete shimaimashita. He has eaten it all. 

Shinde shimaimashita. He is dead. 

Kono sashimi wa oku to, waruku narimasu kara, tabete 

shimaimasho. We will eat the sashimi all up, because 

it will spoil if we leave it. 
Yube kyaku ga atte tota dekakenaide shimatta. 
Having company last evening, we at last failed to go out. 
In familiar conversation various contractions occur ; e. g., 
yatchimatta, or yatchatta, for yatte shimatta. 


dgktmono, o deki sore, ulcer 

ni-zukuri 7 , . 

j . [packing. 

e-kaki painter, artist. 
te-cho notebook (smaller than 


do-ri reason, truth, right. 
ddri desii it is natural, proper, 


! sepulchral inscrip- 
tion, epitaph. 

hi- bun 


ho-ko domestic service. 

kei-ba horse races. 

haku-ran-kwai exposition, 


ryo-ji consul. 
ryoji-kivan consulate. 
sho-gwa~kwai assembly of 

artists. b 

a It must be remembered that in Japanese verbs arc not combined with 
prepositions as in European languages. To "dig out" is horidasu ; to - r drive 
in " ucliikomii : to " drink up " or " drink down !> is nonde shimau. 

b From sho writing, giua painting, kivai assembly. At such an assembly 
art sts write or paint free of charge for those who are admitted. 


ho -so smallpox (lit. pox-sores.) shi~tateru get ready, make 

ue-boso \ up (as clothes). 

, \ vaccination. ,, v . ^ , '. ., t . 

shu-tj } kaim wo karu cut the hair. 

ten-nen-tj smallpox (lit. na- seru hold an auction. 

tural smallpox). sen de itru sell by auction. 

ki-tai na uncommon, extraor- seri-uri, seri auction. 

dinary, strange (p. 34c). tsumaru iokoro, tsumari after 
manabu learn, study. all, in tlu end, finally. 

jw, su suck, smoke (tobacco), to-tj^ tjto at length, finally 
na-tsuku, nazuku become at- (synonymous with tsui ni). 

tached. a 


Sono de kimono wo isha ni mite moraimaslita ka. I/ai, mite 
moraimash'ta, shikashi nan de mo nai to moshimastita. b Wa- 
takushi wa meshitsukai wo oko to omou ga, kanai no aru mono 
de shojiki na hito wo sewa stite moraitai. Yof kit wo hito 
kumi narubeku hayaku stitatete moraitai. A no ekaki ni e wo 
kaite moraimasKta. Tamago wa fcsatte shimatta mmo ; 
katran no mo ddri des . c O jii san wa (sake ni) yotte shimai- 
masKta, Ginko ni yd ga arimash'ta kara, tomodachi ni tsurete 
kite moraimasli ta. Shogwakwai de ano hito ni nani ka hitots* 
kaite moraimasho. Gozen wo tabete shimattara, sugu ni deka- 
keru tsumori des 1 kara, ninsoku ga sorotte iru yd ni ki'^vo ts kete 
o kute. Tdkaido ni mo tetsudo wo shiite shimaimash'ta. Ma- 
kitabako wo sashiagemasho ka. Atigato ; koko ni nomi-kake 
ga d arimas kara, kore wo site shiinaimashi. Ckomen ni ts'ke- 
nai to, sugu ni wasurete shimaimas* . Sore wa donata ni oshi- 
ete moraimastita ka. Dare kara kiita no de mo arimasen ga, 

a From narerti and tsuku. Compare uatsukasJiii homesick : ffa/ia ga 
natsukashikute tamaritnasen. I am dreadfully homesick for my mother. 

b A person may say of himself nan to mo nai: Kaynku mo nan to mo nai. 
I don't feel any itch or anything. To the question, Watakmhi no me -iva 
akaku natte imasho ka. Is my eye red? one may reply, //>, nan to mo nai yo, 
I don't see any thing (p. 47, top). 

c That they do not hatch is natural, i. e, naturally they have failed to 
hatch. For dori desu one may say also atarimae desti. 

d Translate: a partially smoked cigar. Nonv.-kakeru begin to smoke. 
Compare furi-kakerti begin to rain. 

LX] Moran, shimau 253 

hon ni so kaite arimastita. Doits de wa kodomo ga fu ni sat 
ni naru to, kanarazu ni dome no ueboso wo stite morawanakere- 
ba narimasen. Itami ga hidoku nareba, isha ni mite mora- 
ivanakereba narimas^mai. Watakushi wa gwaito wo stitatete 
moraitai ; anata wa jozu na stttateya wo go zonji de wa art- 
masen ka. Watakushi wa heta des" kara, kanai ni nigoshirae 
ivo slite moraimasho. Nihon ni oru Seiyojin wa kuni ye kae- 
ru toki ni wa ie no dogu wo seri de utte shimaimas* (seriuri ni 
shimas'). Uchi no inu no ko wa waki ye yatte shimaimasJio. a 
Hikeshi ga kita toki ni wa mo ie ga mina yakete shimatte ita. 
Kono hon wo shimatte (put away) shimaimasho. Parii no ha- 
kurankwai ye itte taihen kane wo is* katte shimaimasti ta. Ba- 
kuchi wo uttari keiba no kake wo s&tari stite taisb kane wo ts'- 
katte shimaimasK ta. Takakute kawazu ni shimaimasti ta. 
Ame gafuri-kaketa kara, ikazu ni shimaimasJita. Sonna koto 
ivo sh'te morau hazu de wa nakatta. b Konaida omizu ga 
dete ichi man nin no hito ga shinde shimalta so des\ Naka 
ni haitte kenkwa wo ivakete shimaimasti ta. 

She spent a lot of money on (making) clothes. With (de 
wa) this warm weather the ice will thaw. Finally I cured it 
myself (Jiitori de) without being examined by a physician. 
Did you have this wound (p. 1 593) examined by a physician ? 
Yes, after I had had it examined he said that if it does not 
heal immediately, he must cut (cutting finish) [it], I wish you 
would secure (sewa suru) a servant who has never served 
(Jioko slita koto no nai) in a foreigner's house. This picture 
I had painted (written) at a shogwakwai. He had his own 
epitaph written while (itchi ni) he was L vet ] living ; isn't it 
strange? If I drink about three glasses of beer I become en- 
tirely drunk. As I have business at (ni) the consulate but 
don't know the way yet, I will have a friend take me there. 
I wanted to sell these old books, but I finally failed to sell 
[them]. The pupils who study Chinese at the School for 
Foreign Languages are taught by a Chinese and a Japanese. 
If I don't make a note of it in a notebook, I shall forget it 

a Waki ye yarn give away (lit. send to a side, send aside); itchi no inn 
cur dog. 

b I should not have been treated like that, or, It was not the understanding; 
that I should be treated so. 


entirely (all). Under whom did you learn Japanese? I was 
taught by an old (toshitotta) Japanese scholar, He has become 
younger [looking], having cut off (sotte niorau or otosu) his 
beard. 1 want my hair cut. It is risky to (uo wa) get 
vaccinated by an inexpert physician. In Germany (i) the 
number of deaths (those who die) from (de) smallpox has 
considerably (yohodo) decreased since (kara 7) the regulation 
(5) was issued (deru 6) that (to iu 4) [people] must be vaccinat- 
ed (3) twice (2). When I returned (pres.) home (kuni ye), I 
sold my furniture at auction. It was my intention to give 
away all the pups, but at last, as they became attached to me 
(natsuita man' des kara), I kept (ended in not giving) [them]. 
When I have finished writing (past cond.) this letter, I will go 
out a little for a walk. 


In Ch. LI. we gave various examples of irregular causatives. 
Regular causatives may be derived from any verb, excepting 
the auxiliary inasu. 

In the case of verbs of the first class saseru is added to the 

tabe-sasent cause to eat, allow to eat, give to eat. 

In the case of verbs of the second class the characteristic 
vowel becomes a (wa), as in the negative conjugation, and 
seru is added : a 

shiraseniy from shiru, let know, inform. 
sumaseru, from sumu, cause to come to an end, settle. 
matasefu, from matsu, let wait, make stay. 
motaseru, from motsu, have hold, let carry. b 
awaseru, from au, cause to meet, join, add together. 
kuwaseru, from kuu, cause to eat, feed. 

Some verbs of the first class have also a form in sent, beside* 
the one in saseru : 

misaseru let see. miseru show. 

abisaseru have bathe (intr.). abiseru pour (water) over. 

a In Shinto and Christian prayers seshimem and shimeru, may be substituted 
for saseru and sent ; e. g., arashime tamae cause to be ! In the classica 
language the common causative inflection has an honorific use ; 
tamae save ! 

b IWotasete yarn send (by a person). 


The shorter forms have, however, come to have special mean- 
ings and may properly be regarded as independent verbs. 

The causative of suru is saseru ; of kuru, kosaseru ; of 
dekiru t dekisaseru or dekasaseru. a 

The causatives are inflected like verbs of the first class ; but 
sometimes sent may become su, the conjugation following in 
part the paradigm of hanasu (Ch. LI.) ; e. g., tabesasu, tabesa- 
shite, tabesashita, for tabesaseru, tabesasete, tabesaseta. 

The above examples show that causatives may be variously 
translated, using such words as "cause," "make," "have," 
" let," " allow," ' : see," etc. The meaning ranges all the way 
from the active agency expressed by " cause a man to drown " 
to the passive attitude indicated by " see a man drown." 

Jibun wa oyogi wo shiranai mono desu kara, tasukeru koto 
mo dekinaide misumisn ano kodomo ivo oboresasete shimai- 
mashita. As 1 don't know how to swim, I was unable to save 
the child and saw it drown right before my eyes. 

In the case of a causative derived from a transitive verb 
whose direct object is expressed or understood, the agent 
becomes the indirect object with ni ; otherwise the agent 
takes wo : 

Shafu ni niwa ivo soji sasero. 
Have the rikshaman clean the garden. 
Hito wo warawaseru make a person laugh. 
Oya wo nakaseru cause the parents to weep. 

As in English, one may use language inexactly ; e. g., ie wo 
tateru build a house, for ie wo tatesaseru have a house built, 
kimono wo koshiraeru make clothes, for kimono wo koshiraesa- 
seru, etc. 


Juro bathtub, bath. na-ate Jaddress 

di-te partner, opponent (in a ate-na )(of a letter). 

game). tama-tsuki playing billiards 
aka-gaeru a frog of a brown- (lit. ball striking). 

ish color. tsuku construct (of earth, etc.). 

a There is also a transitive verb dekasu : Kore wo asu made ni dekashits 
kitdasai. Please have this done by to-morrow. 

b This te t hand, is often used in the sense of person, as also its Chinese 
equivalent shu ; e. g., rappa-shu trumpeter, from rappa trumpet. 



tsuki-yama artifical moun- 
tain, rockery. a 

sen-sui (c) artifical pond. 

hanashi-ka professional story- 

fit a kind of food made of 
wheat gluten. 

fu custom, manner, style. 

seki mat, seat, room. 

bappai (batsu, hai) a cup of 
sake drunk for a forfeit. 

do-raku debauchery, profli- 

i-byo dyspepsia. 

kai-do highway. 

kwa-so cremation. b 

man-zai strolling conrc dan- 
cer. c 

mon-jin disciple (lit. gate- 

shi-gai corpse. 

yui-gon instructions of a dy- 
ing person, verbal will. 
sei-hon book binding. 

seihon-ya book binder. 

nama-ntirui tepid. 

kan epilepsy, irritability. 

kan no tsuyoi irritable, pee- 

karu cut, mow. 

kireru be used up, 

morn leak. 

tozuru, tojiru bind (a book). 

haku, haki-dasu vomit, spit. 

kuru reel. 

ktiri-kaesu repeat 

te ire suru repair, attend to 

nambo (riant hodo)ikura. 

om-bin ni quietly, in a private 


Akambo ni shokwa no warui mono wo tabesasete (tabesasti te) 
wa ikemasen. Shosei ni wa yonda tokoro wo tabitabi kurika- 
esasenakereba narimasen. Byonin ni kusuri wo nomasemasti- 
ta (rtomashimasJi to) ga> mina hakidashimastita. A,no hito wa 
tamats ki ga jozu des' kara, itsu de mo aite ni kane wo dasa- 
sewas . Yonde kikasete agemaslio ka. d Dozo, yonde kikase- 
te kudasai. O sashitsukae ga atimastitaraba, si) o shirase na- 
stte kudasai. Kame no ko ya koi ni ju wo tabesasemas\ Ano 
manzai wa omoshiroi koto wo itte yoku hito wo warawasemas . 
Maketa hito ni bappai wo nomasemas . Danna sama ! tadaima 

a Compare Tsuki-ji (lit. made land), the name of the former foreign 
concession in Tokyo. 

b From kiva fire and so burial (in so-shiki funeral). Interment is mai-sd 
^^nai=uz^^fner^l inter). 

c From man 10,000, many, and sat year. Manzai go about at New Year's 
congratulating people and amusing them with their performances, for which 
they receive money. 

d Yonde kikasem read. Comp. hanashif-e kika tell. 


guy a ga mairimasJita. Ima shokujc wo hajimeta tokoro da 
kara, 5* koski maiasete oite kure. NiJionjin wa uma ni mame 
to mugi wo kuwaseinas\ Kawaii ko ni wa tabi wo saseit'o) 
(Proverb). Kan no tsuyoi koctomo ni wa akagaeru wo tabe- 
sasemas\ Amma no yonde kata wo momase nagara kono 
mac hi no hanashi wo kiitara do des* ka. Ddzo, sono hon wo 
misete kudasai. Kono kiirumaya wayowasd des kara> isogasern 
no wa kawaisd des ; shikashi isogasenai to, kisha no ma ni 
aimasmai. Kono hako zvo sugu ni motte ikimashd ka, ato kara 
motte kosasemashd ka. a Motte kosaseru lid ga yd gozaimashd. 
Koko ni Jion nado wo chirakastite oite mama dele ikimas* kara, 
hito wo hairasete wa ikemasen. Ano inns' ko wa djraku de oya 
wo nakasemas . Ddshd to iu bdzu ga" monjin ni yuigonwa 
sti te jibun no skigai wo yakasemastita ; sore ga kwasd no haji- 
mari da to iimas . Kore wa tsumetai mizu des' ka. lie, sore 
wa namanuriti kara, o yoshi nasai ; c tadaima kumitate no wo- 
rn otte kosasemashd. Kozukai ni o taku ye motastite agemashd. 
Furo ga moru kara y naosastite kure. Ot, Matsu ! d kono 
tegami wo sugu ni yubinkyokii ye dash'te kite o kure. \Vata- 
kushi wa tadaima shokuji no sJitaku ivo stite imas ga. 
kurumaya ni dasasete mo yoroshu gozaimas* ka. So ka, e 
shikashi isogi no yd da kara, sugu, ni ikasJite o kure. Uekiya 
ni tanonde niwa wo ts kurasetara yokatta ni. Mats' wa 
hisasti kit teire ^vo sasenai to, warukti narimas '. Mina awasete 
nambo ni narimas 1 ka. Ki wo kikasete hayaku kaerimasli ta. f 
Tonda koto de o sawagase mdshimash'ta. % KirasJite orimas '. h 
As this picture is very pretty, I will have it copied. I will 
have the bath heated (cans, of wakasii) once more. Feed to 

a Ato kara after us. Comp. p. *77(l. A merchant would say to a customer : 
Motashite agemashd ka or O todoke moshimasho ka. Shall I send it to you ? 

b The priest Dosho lived in the VII. Century. Notice i\\Q ga's the logical 
subject being, not Dosho, but the origin of cremation. 

c O yoshi nasai. Don't use it (lit. stop!) 

d A frequent abbreviation of such a name as Matsutard, Matsujird, 
Matsugoro, etc. 

e So ka, for so des^i ka, is very iamiliar. 

f Compar.e ki no kiita (p. 128). This may be said of a visitor who has 
observed that his presence was embarrasiag and has cut his visit short. 

g Such an apology is in order when a fire or a similar occurrence in one's 
house has disturbed the neighbor. 

h Said by a merchant when his stock of any article is exhausted (kireru\ 


the horses the grass that the gardener has cut. Where do you 
have bookbinding done? I have [books] bound at the book- 
binder's on Onari-kaido,* but they are not very skilful [there]. 
Formerly (inoto iva] [they] made children read from the very 
first (Jiajime kara) difficult books like (yd no) the Daigaku, b 
but now they have [them] read very easy (from very easy) 
books. As I can't write Romaji, I will have our student write 
the address of this letter. Since the dog does not get well, we 
will poison (feed poison and kill) [him]. Shall I read to you 
what is (written) in the paper in regard to that matter ? If you 
are at leisure, let me [me] know. If you do not have the pupils 
write Chinese characters often they will forget [them] all. 
That story-teller says interesting things and makes people 
laugh. My horse seems very tired ; d I can't make [him] run 
fast. Have the barber wait a little. I will have my garden 
made (tsukuru} in Japanese style (Nihon-fu). Then you must 
have a pond and rockery made (koshiraeni). Every day after 
(to) my preparation for (of) school is finished, my father makes 
me read two or three pages (inai) of the Daigaku. He has 
pupils translate English sentences (Ei-bun) into Japanese. e 
This too is (becomes) a good exercise {keiko). How would it 
be to call a story-teller and have him give [us] a recitation ? f 
My watch is very fast; I must set [it] (p. i6ob). As he has 
dyspepsia, the physician said that we must not feed [him] 
anything but (no hoka) soft rice* Happily we seitled the thing 
in a private way. Please have this done by this evening. He 
sent it by the maid servant. We will have the hostler clean 
the garden. The Japanese feed hens rice. 

a The name of a street leading to Ueno Park in Tokyo. The shogun when 
he visited the graves of his ancestors used to pass through this street ; hence 
the name Onari, o nari being equivalent to aide in speaking of an Emperor or 
a shogun. 

b From dai great, gaku learning, the name of a Chinese classic. 

c Students are often employed in return for lodging or board to perform 
such services as tending the door, etc. 

d Translate " be tired " in the case of a horse tsukarcru, not kutabireru. 

e "To translate" is yaku sum or naosn. "To translate into Japanese" 
may be rendered iva-yakii sum. 

f 1o give a recitation in this case is is-seki hanasii, seki being used as a 
numerative. In some cases seki and za are synonymous, but ichi za means the 
whole company (oi a theatrical troupe). Comp. ichi nick',, p. 70. 



The passive and the potential forms of Japanese verbs are 
usually the same, both having been formed originally by ad- 
ding the syllable e, stem of eru (classical urn, u) to get. a The 
identity of the two forms may be illustrat.-d by means of the 
English sentence : " Silk sells well," which may be understood 
to mean either that much silk is sold or that one can easily sell 
silk. The original Japanese idiom in both cases is ; " Silk gets 
sale." Kinu iva yoku ureru (for uri-eru). b 

Attention has previously been called to intransitives in eru 
derived from transitive verbs, as hirakeru become civilized, 
from hiraku (p. 222). Such verbs may for the purposes of 
this chapter be classed as irregular. They are, like irregular 
verbs in any language, very much used, and for this reason are 
easy to memorize. 

It is to be observed, by the way, that verbs of this kind as 
passives may be predicated 01 inanimate things, while regular 
passives are naturally used when the subject is a person. c Some 
of them are also used in a passive potential sense ; e. g., 

toreru be taken, be obtainable, from torn, 
shireru be known, be evident, from shiru. 
ureru be sold, be salable, from uru. 
kaeru be bought, be purchasable, from kau. 
kikoeru be heard, be audible, from kiku. 
intent be seen, be visible, from miru. 

Generally they may also be used of a personal subject as active 

a The verb o n is not much used in the colloquial, being usually replaced 
by other verbs, such as moratt, ukeru, kotmtru, tamawaru, etc. It occurs in: 
JMata o>-i ivo etc ukagaimasho. I will call again when I have an opportunity. 
Go sansei wo etai to omoiinasit. I desire your approval. 

b Compare the adverb yajiiitoezu unavoidably, from vcitnu 1^0 ezit (lit. not 
getting stop). 

c In dealing with the Japanese language such a distinction must be made 
with some reserve. As has been hinted before (p. n6a), the genius of the 
language does not demand the expression or even the clear conception of the 
subject oi a sentence. Moreover as has been suggested, a sentence may have 
a double subject, a personal subject with tva and a subordinate impersonal 
subject with ga. But what is said above is correct if \ve have in mind the true 
subject of a passive verb, that is, the direct object of the action denoted 
by it. 


potentials in the senses " can get," " be in a position to 
know," etc., a but as passives they cannot be used of a personal 
subject. b The following examples illustrate the manner in 
which they are used : 

Yohodo tema ga totemasu ka. Will much time be required? 

Tetsudo-kofu iva taiso kane ga toremasu. 

Railroad laborers earn a great deal of money. 

Jozu na ryoshi (ni) wa so iu sakana de mo toremasu. 

An expert fisherman can catch even such fish. 

Yoku shirete itu koto desu. It is a well known fact. 

Shimbun ni de mo kwokoku wo dasanakereba hito ni shi- 

remasumai. If we do not advertise in a newspaper 

or something, it will hardly become public. 

Watashi ni wa totei so iu komakai koto wa shiremasumai. 

I am hardly in a position to know such details. c 

We will now confine our attention to the regular passive 

forms, used only when the subject is a person. In the case of 

verbs of the first class the passive is derived by adding rareru 

to the stem, i. e., substituting it for the ru of the present tense : 

togame-rareru be blamed, from togame-ru. 
In the case of verbs of the second class the characteristic 
vowel becomes a (wa), as in the negative and causative forms, 
and rent is added : 

nustnnareru be robbed, from nusuinu. 

shikarareru be scolded, from shikaru. 

kirawareru be disliked, from kirau. 
There is no passive form of the suffix masu. 

a See the following chapter. When kikoeru and mieru are used as active 
potentials it is natural for them to take a subordinate subject : mimi ga kikoeru.^ 
me ga mieru. The verb kikoeru may be used also of other than physical 
possibility : Sore wa, domo, kikoenai koto desu. Really, that is unreasonable 

b The verb mieru in some of its senses is an exception. In the sense 01 
"to be present" it may be used of a person, though not of the speaker him- 
self: Sensel ga miemashita ka. Has the teacher come ? Kino o mie nasaimasen 
deshita, ne. You didn't put in an appearance yesterday. In the sense of " to 
look" it may be used in any person: 1'aiso fnkete miemasu desJio. I presume 
I look quite old. O toshi hodo ni wa miemasen. You don't look as old as you 
-are. The verb shireru may be used of the discovery of a criminal. 

c In these examples observe the tendency to use ni wa with the personal 
subject and to avoid making the thing an object with wo. The verbs are 
properly neither passives nor potentials, but intransitives. 


The passive of suru is sgrareru or sareru : 
Shakkin wo saisoku sarete komarimasu. 
I am annoyed by being dunned for debts. 

The passive of such a verb as kinzuru or kinjiru (p. 214,7) is 
kinjirareru or kinzerareru, not kinzareru. 

Passives may be derived from causatives ; e. g., awaserareru 
or awasareru, from awaseru or awasu cause to meet, introduce : 
Hidoi me ni awaserareta (aw as at eta). 

He (or I) was caused to meet with a dreadful experience. 
Sake wo ogoraserareta (pgorasareta). 
He (or I) was compelled to set up the sake. 
The passive of kuru, come, is korareru. It is a peculiarity 
of the language that passives can be formed from intransitives : 
Kyaku ni korareta had visitors. 
Teishu ni shittareta lost her husband (shinu die). 
Ante ni furareta was rained upon (ame ga furii). 
These examples show also that the person or thing that 
would be the subject in the active construction takes the parti- 
cle ni (less commonly kara or no tame ni) in the passive. 
A passive verb may have an object : 

Suri ni kane wo toraremashita. 

He was robbed of his money by a pickpocket. 

Mune wo uchi-nukateta was shot through the breast. 

The passive is not used as much in Japanese as in English. 
As has been said above, regular passives cannot ordinarily be 
predicated of inanimate things. a An active verb often takes 
the place of an English passive : b 

Mada Tokyo wo Edo to mjshimashita koro. 
\Yhen Tokyo was still called Edo. 

a This dees not apply to the literary language : Waga kdshikwan ion Shin- 
kan-hei-ni yakaretari. Our legation was burned by Chinese and Korean 
soldiers. A few exceptions are to be found also in genuine colloquial : SJiiro 
ga toraremaskiia. A castle was taken. Kurtz ga urarcmashita. The country is 
betrayed (sold). Sono ki iva (old kirarctc shimainiashita. That tree'was at last 
cut down. Jelsu de mo fnsan- ni wa lokasarete shimaitnasu. Even iron can be 
dissolved by hydrochloric acid. 

b Compare the examples on p. 53. In English the passive is often prefer- 
red to the active because it is unnecessary or inconvenient to name the agent, 
as in the case of the small boy who tells his mother: "My pants got torn." 
An active verb in Japanese requires no subject and in this respect may be 
quite as vague as a passive. 


Again, English passives are often represented by intransitive 
verbs or Chinese compounds. 

Ya ni atatte uchijin' shimashita. 

He fell struck by an arrow 

Fune ga hasen shimashita. The ship was wrecked (p. 8Qh). 
An intransitive verb often differs in sense from the regular 
passive derived from the same stem. Thus, tasukaru means 
" escape with one's life," but tasukerareru means " be saved " : 

Sendo wa tasukebune de tasukarimashita. 
The sailors escaped in a lifeboat. 
Tasukebune ni tasukeraremashita. 
They were saved by a lifeboat. 

In some cases a verb like ukeru or komuru may perform 
the function of a passive inflection : hazukashime (or bu-jokii) 
wo ukeru be insulted = haz:ikashimerareru or bujoku sareru. 

yobi-dashi wo ukeru be summoned (by a court of justice). 

i-rai wo ukeru be requested. 

ko-geki wo ukeru be attacked. 

sJii-ken wo ukeru be examined. 

mesJn wo komuru be called (Christian phrase). 

batsu wo komuru be punished. 

go men wo komuru be excused. 

kan-kwa wo komuru be influenced. 

Some substantives like those with which sum is used to 
form active verbs may with ni naru convey a passive sense : 

(0) sewa ni naru, (go) yakkai ni naru be assisted. 

men-shoku ni naru be discharged. 

go chisd ni naru be entertained (polite I, 3). 
The verb cmowarent in the sense " the thought occurs to- 
me " may be construed either as a potential or as a passive. 
Compare " methinks." It is also used as an ordinary passive ; 

Ilito ni yoku omowareru hito desu. 

He is a person well thought of by others. 


buyu y buto name of an in- hat ago 9 _ hatago-sen> hatago* 
sect with a very venomous ryd price of lodging, 
sting. hisashi a small roof over a 

fukuro bag, sack. door or window 




obiru gird on ; wear in the 

obi girdle, belt, sash. 

taka hawk. 

awa-gasa rain umbrella. a 

asa-se shoal, ford (compare 
hay a- si). 

do-maki money belt (do 
trunk of body, maku roll). 

wci- in usJii vip e r. 

omo-ya the main house. 

shita-yomi rehearsal, prepa- 
ration (of a lesson). 

ta bi-bito t ra vel e r. 

uru-doshi leap year, b 

waki-zasJii short sword. 

sue-ko, suekko, bas-shi (c) 
the youngest child. 

shappo (Fr. chapeau) 1 , 

lad, boshi j 

ro, ro-ya prison (obsolescent). 

to party. 
jiyu-t'j Liberal Party. 

doku-ja poisonous snake (of 
the larger kinds). 

gi-in member of a delibera- 
tive assembly. 

ken-sa inspection. 

kensa wo ukeru be inspected. 
kun-shu sovereign (lit. lord, 


mo-ju wild beasts. 
ryu-gaku being abroad for 

purposes of study. 
sen-kyo election. 
shi-kei\\\Q death penalty. 
shu-gi congratulation, con- 

gratulatory gift. 
tai-shd general, commander. 
koku-ji-han political offense 

(koku = kuni, ji=koto y han 


kotoivaru give notice, refuse. 
nikumu hate. 

okuru send, escort (p. 59a). 
on carry on the back. c 

sasu sting. 
shiiru force 


on a 


soshiru slander. d 
nagasu banish. 
tamawaru bestow, receive. e 
toraeru 1 

trnkamatru \ SelZe ' arresL 
ukareru be buoyant, light- 

hearted, giddy. f 

a In distinction from hi-gasa parasol, the latter being made of unoilecl 

b UrTidoshi properly denotes the leap year of the old lunar calendar, 
according to which every fifth year has thirteen months. This year may also 
be called uruzuki no ant toshi. 

c From this are derived obitu carry (a child) on the back and the children's 
word ombu (oinbo) sum. Note the contracted passive causative obusaru be carri- 
ed on the back. Another synonymn is shou, from se-ou ' (se back). 

d This verb (subord. soshitte] belongs to the class described in Ch. XLVIIL, 
but it was not included there because it occurs very rarely in the colloquial. 

e Derived from tainaii. It may be used as a passive, or as an honorific. 

f From nku float. One may also say ki (kokoro] gn ui/e irnasu (itkiuki 
shi f e iniasti). 


kui-tsuku bite (of an animal sho sum sentence (a crimi- 

such as a dog or a snake). nal). 

atsukau, tori- atsukau man- shi-kei ni sho sum condemn 

age, treat. to death. 

yobi-kaesu call back, recall. kai ga am it is worth 

ike-doru, ike-dori ni suru while to (opp. nai). 

take alive. kwam-pi de at Government 

baka-su befool, bewitch. expense. 


IVatakushi wa Frans* to i&sa ga okotta toki zehi heitai ni 
nard to owoimasli ta ga. kensa wo ukeiara, amari karada ga 
yowakute kotowarareinastita. Inu honeotte iaka ni torareru. a 
Hisashi wo kastite oinoya mo torareru (Proverb). Mamushi 
ni kamareta kara, isha ni mite morawanakereba narunasen. 
Ryukyu ni wa dokuja ga tak'san orinias* ; kuits ' karetara, sugu 
ni sono tokoro wo kitte shiinawanakereba narunasen. IVata- 
kushi wa inu ni ashi wo kamareinastita kara, arukeinasen. 
(arukaremasen}. Kaze ni shappo wo toraren yd ni go yojin wo 
nasal. Mujitsu no tsumi de shikei ni sho serareta Into mo nai 
de wa nai. Oda Nobunaga wa Akechi Mitsushide to iu jibun 
no kerai de atta taisho ni korosaremasli ta b Kodomo ga 
ainari itazura wo stite junsa ni sti kararemastita. Hanju to 
iu Shin aj in wa haha no koto wo waruku itta no de okt na iiebi 
ni nomareta so des\ c Yomu to iu Shinajin wa oyaji wo koro- 
sh'ta no de kaminari ni utarete shinda so des\ Shosei ga sake 
wo nonde ukarete uta wo utaimasJita. Nihonjin wa uiukashi 
takoku ye iku koto wo kinjir arete {kinzer arete] imash'ta. Kun- 
shu kara wakizashi wo tainawatte seppuku wo mo shits kera re- 
ta& koto mo atta. Koyasan no bozu bakari wa Deshiina 
ni e hairu koto wo ytirusarete imastita. Tonari ni ko ga 
umaremasJita kara, shugi ni sakana wo okuriniashd. Otoko 
no ko no uiiiareta ie de wa sono toshi kara shichi nen no aida 
maitoshi go gwaisu no its' k a ni noboti wo tutteuias '. Aits wa 

a The object of torareru in this proverb is to be supplied One labors and 
another enjoys the fruit. 

b Akechi murdered Nobunaga in 1582 in order to usurp the supreme power. 

c The stories of Ilanfu and Yomu are taken from the Do-ji-kyd (do-ji or 
ji-do children, kyc'-=.oshie}. 

d Mdshi-tsukeru-=^ii-tsukcru command. 

e Deshima was under the old regime the Dutch Concession in Nagasaki, 
the only place in the Empire open to foreigners. 


dorobo wo stite kangokn ye okuraremash'ta. Us hi ni hikarete 
Zenkwojimairi. a Ota ko ni o shier arete asase wo wataru 
(Proverb). Hi to wo koros to, kubi wo kiraremas . Shina mo 
chikai uchi ni motto hirakeru daro to omcwaremas 1 . Yoshida 
Shoin wa^> gwaikoku ye iko to stita tame ni toraerarete rdya ni 
ireraremasttta. Nikon no seifu ni wa gwaikokujin ga tatf san 
yatowarete imas . Ichi nen no uchi ni wa Nihongo no hanashi 
gajiyu ni dekimashd to omoimastita ga, ima keiko ivo hajimete 
miru to, totemo dekisd ni wa omowaremasen. Ber'rin de wa 
taitei jiyiitj no giin ga senkyo sareuias\ Tabibito wa yoku kire 
de domaki to iu nagai fukuro wo koshiraete, sore ni kane wo 
irete, t'jrarenal yj ni obi no stita ni shimete orimas\ Watakushi 
wa konaida hachi ju yen nnsumaremasJita ; keisatsu ni todo- 
keta keredomo, kane ga kaerimasenakatta. Sensei ga taihen 
shosei ni yararemashta. c Ddmo, ame ni Jurarete komarimas . 
Nikumarete yo ni iru kai wa nakeredo, ka^va^gararete shinu 
(shinuni) yori mashi da. d Atama wo tatakaremastita. Bu- 
to ni sasareru to, saisho wa nan to mo arimasen ga t ni san 
nichi tatte itaku narima^ . Kyo wa o kyaku ni ittara^ sake 
wo shiirarete komarimasJi ta. Watakushi mo kodoino no toki 
ni wa kitsune ni bakasareru koto wo osorete oriinastt ta. 
Sakuban tomatte yadoya de taihen hatagosen wo torareniash'ta. 
In the eleventh year oi Meiji Okubo Toshimichi was killed 
at Kioizaka by Shimada Ichiro [and] others (ra). f I always get 

a Zen-kivd'ji a famous temple of the buddha Amida at Nagano in Shinano. 
Zenkivo or Yoshimitsu is the name of a person who brought the gold image of 
the buddha from Nanhva (Osaka). It is said that a woman pursuing an ox 
which had caught some of her wash on its horns unconsciously followed it so 
long a distance that she at last reached Zenkivdji and had the joy of being 
able to worship Buddha there. The proverb is applicable to one who is 
gradually led to go a long distance or accomplish a great task without any 
intention of doing so at the start. 

b A scholar from Ch5shu who attempted to go abroad on one of Commodore 
Perry's ships in order to acquaint himself with western civilization. 

c The verb yarn is here used in the sense of ' tease " or " humiliate." 

d Nakeredo=nai keredomo (comp. yokeredo, p. 99). Similar forms may be 
derived from the past tense : yokatlaredo, nakattaredo. Verbs also may be 
inflected in the same way, substituting do for ba in the conditional, but the 
indicative with keredo (?no) is more commonly used. 

e Kyaku ni ikit (^yobareni} go as a guest, be invited out. 

f Okubo was Home Minister. Ra after the name of Shimada Ichiro is 
equivalent to nado, nazo< 


scolded by the teacher because I am not prepared (don't make 
preparation and come). There is a saying (mas'- koto) that if 
you sneeze once, you are praised (inconc.) by some one ; if twice 
(you do it), you are slandered (inconc.) by some one ; if thrice 
(you do it), you catch a cold. a A Japanese proverb says (In a 
Japanese proverb they say) that if you lie you will get your 
tongue pulled out (tiukii) by Emma after you die. There is 
also a proverb that says : To have your hand bitten by your pet 
dog (kai-inii). They say that one born in leap year is patient. 
The number of people killed (kami-korosii) by wild beasts and 
poisonous snakes in British India (Ei-ryo Indo) in (chu ni) 
the year 1886 was (there were) 24,000, it is said. Yesterday 
I did not go to take my lesson (keiko ni) because I was invited 
out (called). He was sent (caused to be) abroad for study at 
the expense of the Government; but as he was. not diligent, 
lie was recalled. The youngest child is loved most by its par- 
ents. There being a fire in the neighborhood last night, I was 
wakened by my servant. When you are robbed of money by a 
thief, you must report [the fact] to the police. About 90 years 
ago the Russian captain Golownin was arrested by the Japanese 
and put into prison, but it is said that he was quite kindly treat- 
ed. As I have no umbrella I shall indeed be troubled if I am 
overtaken by rain (rained upon). In the war he was shot in 
the thigh. For (no wake de) a political offense he was banished 
to Tsushima. b Sugawara no Michizane was banished to 
Dazaifu c and died there. Taira no Munemori was captured 
alive at the battle of Dan no Ura d and sent to Kamakura. 
Being told that there was no one there, I was very much 


The regular potential, denoting possibility, is identical in 
form with the regular passive described in the previous chapter : 

a The pronouns, of course, are not to be translated. 

b A group of islands between Japan and Korea. 

c In Chikuzen, the province on the south side of. the Straits of Shimono- 
seki. In ancient times Dazaifu was the residence of the governor of Kyushu. 

d Along the coast of Choshu, near Shimonoseki. It was in 1185 the scene 
of a decisive naval battle between the houses of Gen-ji (Minamo.'d) and Hei-kt 
( Taira}. 


tabe-rareru be able to eat, from tabe-ru. 

mi-rareru be able to see, from mi-ru. 

urareru be able to sell, from uru. 

tatareru be able to stand, from tatsu. 

itadakarent be able to receive, from itadaku. 

awareru be able to meet, from ait. a 

Besides the form in (a)reru there is, in the case of verbs of 
the second class, b a shorter one in (e)ru derived by changing 
the characteristic vowel to e and adding ru. Thus from iktt 
go we have ikareru or ikeru ; from iu say, iwareru or ieru. c 
The longer form is preferable when the idea of being permitted 
to do a thing is to be expressed : 

Kono tabako wa karakute nomemasen (or nomaremaseii). 

This tobacco is so strong that I can't smoke it. 

Tetsudobasha no naka de wa tabako wo noinaremasen 
(not nomemaseti). One may not smoke in a street car. d 

The potentials of kuru and suru are also identical in form 
with the passives. But there is not much use for serareni 
(sareru), the construction with suru koto ga dekiru or simply 
dekiru taking its place. 

Ansho (suru koto) ga dekimasen. I can't memorize it. 
While uncontracted potential forms are inflected like verbs 
of the first class, contracted forms like makaru (p. 181) and 
inokaru, from mokeru gain, belong to the second. 

The subject of a potential verb is naturally a person (or ani- 
mal), because the idea of will is involved. In speaking of things 

a The most explicit and emphatic expression of potentiality is found in the 
idiom koto ga (jva} dekiru. 

b In some of the provinces verbs of the first class too have two potential 
forms; e. g., from oboeni remember, learn, oboe-rareru and oboe-rent. 

c Kikoeni and mierit (p. 26ob) are irregular. The form kikent belongs to 
the verb kiku be efficacious (p. 221). ltd wa kuchi ga kikeru mono da kara t ana 
mura de iva ibatte imasit. Ito, being eloquent, is carrying himself high in that 
township. In the sense of " tolerable to the ear" kikent may also serve as a 
potential of kiku hear : Piano wo are gurai hikeba, jna, kikeru sa, ne. 

d In previous treatises on the grammar of the colloquial the fine distinction 
between physical possibility and moral possibility, between "can" and 
' may," has received more emphasis than the facts warrant. Very few Japan- 
ese are aware of the distinction. In this connection contrast : Totenio ikeina- 
sen. It will never do. Totemo ikai-etnasen. I can't possibly go. 


the simple indicative is sufficient : Kore mo hairimasu. This 
too can go in. But one may also say : 

Ki ga sodatenai. Trees can't grow. 

Kisha ga ugokenai (or hashirenai). 

Tiie train can't move (can't run). 

Fune ga susumenai (or torenat). 

The boat can't advance (can't pass). 

Sonna koto ga araremasho ka. Arafeyo hazu ga nai. 

Can such a thing be ? It can't be. a 

With a potential, as with a desiderative (p. 176, middle), 
the word which is the object in English may take ga instead 
of wo. b 

Besides the passive and the potential uses of the longer forms 
in (a)reru there is an honorific use ; e. g., shinareru for shinu- 
ru y kinzerareru for kinzuru, korareru for kuru, nasaru for nasu, 
kudasaru for kudasu> irassharu for iru t kuru, or yuku, etc. 
The last is from iraserareru, the honorific form of the causa- 
tive of iru, the causative also having had an honorific use. 
These honorific forms differ from the corresponding simple 
verbs only in being used of the acts of exalted personages or 
of those whom one wishes to honor. 


koM loins. mcya fog. c 

kurai rank, title, throne. nazo riddle. 

kurai ni Isuku (noboru) ascend nazo wo kakeru propound a 

the throne. riddle. 

a It would be useless to attempt to decide in every case whether the subject 
of the verb is the person or the thing. The Japanese themselves do not think 
of such a distinction, especially when the verb is in the attributive position. 
Kono hocho zva ;>oku kireru. This kitchen-knife cuts well. Kono fude iva 
zuibun kakeru. This writing-brush does quite well. Kanari yomeru hon desu. 
It is quite a readable book. Ko in sakana de mo ryori no shiyo ni yotte iva 
nakanaka kuemasu. Even such fish can be eaten if properly cooked (lit. 
-depending on the cooking). 

b Note that while one may say : Tabako ga nomaremasen. " I can't smoke 
tobacco," this phrase can never mean: " Tobacco is not smoked." Compare: 
Yona ga sctkana ni nomaremashita, Jonah was swallowed by a fish. 

c We may say kiri ga furu a mist falls, but with may a we may not use 
Jiint, only kakaru. Haze, such as appears in the spring, is kaswni A fog 
on the sea is in Hokkaido called gasu (Eng. " gas "). 



ivarabi fern, brake. 

se t se-naka, sena back. 

shini'tne the moment of 

te-gaia certificate, passport, 
check. a 

to flower stalk (of a vege- 

to ga tatsu go to seed. 

chi-ho locality, province. 

chi-ji governor. 

fu-sen ) , ,, 
7 -7-7 ~\ balloon. 
kei-ki-kyu ) 

go-bo burdock. 

hd-chd kitchen knife. 

ho-ken feudalism. 

jo- shin report to a superior 
(Jo = ue, shin = mosu) , 

ke-byd feigned sickness. 

kwa-hei coin, specie. b 

kyd-sd competition. 

niku-gan the naked eye. 

ton-setsu, rom-bun essay, ar- 

seki-sho barrier (p, 7/d). 

shin-kei nerves. 

tep-po gun. 

u-ten rainy weather. 

zap-po miscellaneous news. 

cho-ren drill. 

cho rem-ba \ 

. . ._ \ parade ground. 
rem-pei-jo } * 

ji- chi-sei self-government. 

de-iri no daiku the carpenter 
usually employed about the 
house. c 

yondokoronai unavoidable,, 
necessary. d 

kaku (c) every, all. 

kwa-bin na too keen, nervous. 

mokerti establish, make, gain,, 

motsureru be tangled, con- 

sum rub, polish. 

sureru be rubbed, worn. 

tumu be clear, distinct. 

mimi wo sumashite kiku listen 

sashi-komu penetrate into, 
enter (of light). 

tori-kiru take all, exhaust 

the supply of. e 

bachi ga ataru suffer punish- 
ment (lit. punishment 

kasuka ni faintly, dimly. 

raku ni easily^ happily. 


Ano hito wa kebyo wo is* kattara, bachi ga attate honto ni 
okirarenaku narimasJita. Anata wa kono shimbun wo faku ni 

a The modern technical word for * ; passport" is ryoko-menjo or simply 
ryo- ken. 

b Paper money is shi-hei, from shi=kami. Compare kin-kiva gold coin, gin- 
kiva silver coin, dd-kwa copper coin. 

c From deru go out and iru come in. Compare deiri no isha family physician. 

d Yondokoro is derived from yori-dokoro, that on which one can rely, 

e The compound verbs will be treated in Ch. LXVI. LXIX. 


yomeinasho. Zappo wa yomemas* keredomo, ronsets* wa yo- 
memasen. Mo ronsetsu mo yomeru yo ni narimash'ta. Cho- 
remba ye itte mo hito ga okute nani mo mieuias'mai. Meinai 
koto wa arimasmai. Fusen ga dandan toku natte mo nikugan 
de wa miemasen. YakamasW kute kikoemasen. Shinkei ga 
kwabin ni natte nerareinasen. Sake wa yameraremas 1 ga, 
tabako wa yamefaremasen. Koko ni warabi ga ta&san 
arimas : ikura totte torikiremasen. Tak'san chodai 
itaskimastita ; mo itadakaremasen. Deirl no daiku no uchi 
ye itte sugu ni korarenai ka kiite kite kure. Danna sama, 
tadaima kaette mairimastita ; daiku wa yondokoronai yd ga 
atte sassoku wa mairemasen to moshiinasNta. Ano Jiiio no 
yawai wa mo naorimas 'mai ka. Domo : ukeawaremasen. Se 
ni hara wa kaerarenu (Proverb). Kyo wa kaze ga kawatte 
toki no kane ga kikoemasen. a Sore wa izvasu to mo shireta 
koto des . Kakken no^ chiji wa mina sono cJiiko ni jichisei ga 
okonazvarema? ka, okonawaremasen ka wo c torishirabete 
naimu-daijin ni jo shin shinakereba rtarimasen detlita. \Va- 
rui nazo to kakete nan to toku. Motsureta kami to toku ; kokoro 
wa, toku ni tokarenu. d Anata go ga utemas ka. S' koshi wa 
?ttewas'. Kyokd to iu Shinajin wa taiso bimb) slite ite mo 
hidoku benkyo shimastita ; abura ga kaenakatta kara t kabe ni 
ana wo akete is* ki no akari wo sashikomasete hon wo yomiina- 
sJi fa. Sensei ni shitsumon itashimastita ga, sensei ni mo waka- 
rimasen to mosaremastita. Go no s* ki na hito wa oya no shi- 
nime ni awarenai. So mo ienai koto wa nai keredomo> metta 
ni iimaseti. Shina no gakumon wa taiso komiita mono de 

a There are such bells in Buddhist temples. Comp. p. 198, top. 

b Kakken, for kaku-ken all the prefectures, or rather every prefecture. The 
collective " all "-is rather sho. Comp. kakkokit every country, every province, 
kakkyokrvai every church. 

c The particle wo after ka makes the question dependent on torishirabete. 

d In solving an English conundrum we usually have to explain why two 
given things are similar, i. e., may be described by means of the same words 
In a Japanese conundrum only one of the two things is named and the other 
must be found. The question here is: "What is like a poor conundrum?*' 
The answer is : " Tangled hair." Kokoro means <{ sense," " explanation." It 
is quite usual to prefix to a negative potential verb the indicative of the same 
verb with ni. Literally toku ni tokarenu may be rendered : " in explaining 
you can't explain," or "when you try to explain (untangle), you can't explain 


Seiyojin ni wa koshi no magaru made^ narat!-j mo ioieino cbo~ 
eraremasen. Sono nedan de wa uraremasen. Teppo no oto 
ga kikoemas' ; nan desho. Ima kane ga natte imas* ka. Mi-mi 
wo stunastite kiku to, kas ka ni kikoemas'. Konaida wa so ie- 
masen to iimastita ga y yoku shirabete mimastitara, yahari so 
mo iernas '. Ano yama wo haraisagetara, zuibun mokari- 
masho.^> Warawasu ni wa oraremasen. Ki no shire HU 
hito des. 

You can't use kas hi (wa) until you become accustomed [to 
them]. Europeans (ni wa) can't sit like (yd ni) Japanese. 
As I have written too much, my hand is so painful that it has 
now become impossible to write (p. 101, 2). The letters are 
worn so that one can't read them. I can't cut well with this 
knife. The Oigawa is so swift that one can't cross it by boat. 
When (toki ni wa) the weather is fine (harete oni), the smoke 
of the volcano of Oshima can be seen even from (kara de mo} 
Enoshima. He got so drunk last night that he couldn't walk. 
It was so foggy (p. 124 top) that Fuji could not be seen 
from the ship. This burdock has gone to seed and become 
inedible. He said (itte oku) that as he was busy he would proba- 
bly not be able to come. The former German Emperor (Doi- 
ts 1 no sen-tei) died c immediately after (to) he ascended the 
throne. In the feudal age there were barriers at various places 
(achikochi) on (of) the highways (kaido-suji), so that without 
(p. QSb) a passport one could not go through (tdrti). Really, 
I can't believe that (wa). The inscription (letters) on this 
coin (wa) is worn off so that it is illegible. Until now people 
thought (were thinking) that that mountain was inaccessible (a 
place that one can't ascend). I can't buy at (de wa) that price. 
I could not start on account of (de) the rainy weather. Come 
down on the price a little more. Really, I can't come d^wn. 
As it is dreadfully smoky (smoke rises dreadfully), we can't 
stay (iru) here. In this neighborhood I can't make much 

a Until a man's back is bent, i. e., until one becomes an aged man. 

b The verb Jiarai-sageru is used of sales of government property j ya//ia may 
denote a forest or a mine Mokani is like the intransitive verbs described in 
the previous chapter ; it may be construed either as a passive or as a potential. 

c Use the honorific form of shinurti or nakunarii. Ore may also say o 
kakure ni nam (p. yya) or go Iw-gyo ni naru. The latter expression is proper- 
ly applicable only to a Japanese Emperor. 


[money], as there are many people in (of) the same business and 
competition is severe (hageshii). The (sound of the) bells of 
Shiba can be heard faintly. At (wa) this hotel both Fuji and 
the sea can be seen, so that the scenery is fine. Even though 
you go, cannot guarantee that you will surely be employed by 
the Japanese Government. When (subord. wa) I am spoken 
to in that manner, I can't keep silent. 


This chapter will treat of certain peculiar idiomatic uses of 
the indicative forms of verbs. a 

i. A verb, like an adjective, may be made a substantive by 
adding no. A substantivized verb may have either a concrete 
or an abstract sense. 

In the former case the no is equivalent to mono or koto.^ 
Such particles as wa, ga t ni< wo, ino t de may be added : c 

Saskidasu no wo te ni totte mimashita. 

I took into my hands what was presented and examined it. 

Sakujitsu itta no wa machigai deshita. 

What I said yesterday was a mistake. 

Observe the idiom to iu no wa (or ga, etc.) " what is called/' 
" the expression," " the assertion that." d 

Ainu to iu no wa Ezo no dojin no koto desu. 

Trie Ainu are the abDrigines of Ezo. 

Konna shigoto de kane wo mokeyd to iu no wa okashii ja 

arimasen ka. Isn't it ridiculous to talk about making 

money in such a business ? 

A substantivized verb usually has an abstract sense, denot- 
ing merely the idea of the action or state expressed by the verb. 
The no desu, ordinarily contracted to n desu, which occurs so 

a Re-read the introductions to chapters XIX. and XXXVII. 

b In such expressions as Mi!a koto get arimasen. I have not seen it, no may 
not be substituted for koto. Mita no ga arimasen would mean " There is no one 
that has seen it." 

c In the literary style these particles miy be added immediately to the 
verb. See the second sentence in the Japanese exercises. 

d In defining a word or explaining a phrase 'to in no wa is often contracted 
to to iva t bat this lias rather a literary flavor. 


often at the conclusion of a sentence is in many instances a 
mere flourish. But no desit may also add something to the 
sense. Thus while Awe ga Jurimashd, fnru desho, and Jut u ' 
desho do not differ appreciably, the expression Juru no desho 
plainly implies that the statement is meant to be an explana- 
tion of a given condiiion of things, as, for example, of an 
oppressive atmosphere. Note also : 

Kiku n'datta ni ; oshii koto wo shita. 
I should have heard it ; it's too bad tliat I missed it. 
Amerika ye iku n desu. He is to go to America 
Amerika ye iku rideshita. He was to go to America. 
Ano toki ni byoki de nakereba, watakushi mo ilta ridesu. 
At that time, if I had not been sick, I should have gone too. 

Here itta n'destita would indicate still more strongly that 
it had been definitely decided to go. But itta n desu may 
also be a mere circumlocution for itta he has gone. 
One may even hear such expressions as : 

So in nja nai n'da. It isn't so. It is a mistake. a 
Hoka ni shiyo ga nai n ja arumai ja nai ka, 
There is no other way, don't you see. 

In familiar talk, especially among women, no may be used 
elliptically for no desu or no desu ka, the accent showing 
whether the sentence is an assertion, a question or an 
exclamation : 

Kasa ga ant no. Have you an umbrella ? 
Aru no (yo}. I have. 

After an indicative no ni may have an adversative sense 
(pp. 149 and I93Q. But no ni may also have other meanings, 
as in the following examples : 

Kobe ye iku no ni (wa), dyoso ichijikan hodo kakarimasu. 
It takes about one hour to go to Kobe. 
Naze to in no ni> me ga warukute ji ga yomenai kara desu. 
The reason is that my eyes are so bad that I cannot read. 
Watakushi ga (or no) ouioimasu no ni (iva), go shatei san 

no ho ga o warui yo desu. In my opinion your younger 

brother seems to be in the wrong. 

a Taking so in in the sense of " such," this sentence may also be rendered : 
They are not of that kind. Compare : So in (yd w<?) 1:0 ga oi. There are many 
such. So iu n'ja nai (yo) may also mean : You must not say so. The writer 
once heard a man scold a coolie like this : Kisama so in koto ivo i'u niorfja nai 
ja nai ka. Don't you know that it is unbecoming for you to talk like that ? 


Sensei no iu no ni (wo), Doitsu ni mo tsuru ga oru to in 
. koto desu. According to what my teacher says, there 

are storks in Germany also. 
In these examples no may be omitted. 

2. In certain connections verbs may take wa, ga, etc., with- 
out koto, mono, or no. In Aru koto wa arimasu the koto may 
be omitted. a 

Motte kuru ga ii. You had better bring [it J (p. 150, bottom). 

Yomu ni (iva) tarimasen. It is not worth reading. 

Mirti ni (wa) oyobimasen. It is not necessary to look at it. 

Koraeru ni koraerarenu. One cannot endure it (p. 2/od). 

Kakusu ni kakusarenai. It cannot be hid. 

/// ni iwarenai kanashimi. Unutterable sorrow. 

Desu (rarely da) is often added to a predicate verb : 

So itte mo wakaru desu. Such an expression is understood. 

In the same way /# nai ka or de iva gozaimasen ka (p. 19 ib) 
may be used. One must not say Wakatta desu or Wakani de- 
shita. But there is a growing tendency to use expressions like 
the former ; e. g., So itta desu. Deshita is regularly used with 
the negative of the auxiliary masu : So iimasen deshita. 

The student will note that some of the expressions given 
above are rather slangy. They are quoted for study, not 
for imitation. 


haji shame. ku-betsu distinction, differ- 

sono garden. ence, classification. 

miya-ko capital, metropolis. 1 * setsu-mei explanation. 

son loss (p. 85a). shu-ji (shu~narau) pen- 

ai-so hospitality, entertain- manship. 

ment. kyu-ko going in haste (&o = 

is-sho one's whole life. c yukii). 

it-tan one instance, once (p. res-sha train (on a railway). 

7oa). kyuko-ressha express train. 

a Here if wo be substituted for koto the sense is changed to: There are 
some that have [them]. Saishi no aru bdzu mo arimasu ka. Are there also 
priests who have families? Aru no taa arimasu ga> amari tattobaremasen. 
There are some that have, but they are not very highly respected. 

b The ko is an old word denoting place. Compare the final syllable in 
koko, dofco, etc. 

c For issho compare issho-kemmei (p. 7 id). 


iwayuru so called (classical asa-ne wo sum sleep late in 

for iwareni). the morning. 

aratamaru be altered, amend- ;//' kanzuru be moved or 

ed (tr. aratament). affected by. 

kotaeru answer. ni kan-shin (or kain-pukit) 

de-au meet on the way. sitru feel admiration for. 

kaki-kaeru rewrite. k an shin (ka'inpukii) desu is 

ni su mi-n areru by long res- admirable, wonderful, 

idence become accustomed o-yo sum put into practice, 

to, come to feel at home in. apply, adapt. 

ci-kakeru pursue. 


Kanji wa narau no ni wa mutsukasJi kute sugu wastirete 
skiniaiinas . Ton wa ittan no haji, towanu wa issho no haji. a 
Aru.hito no moshimas* ni wa, goku mukashi wa Ezojin ga 
Nikon zenkoku ni sunde ita to iu koto des\ ga. honto de gozai- 
masko ka. b Sore wa konto de gozaimash'i ; Nikon no re k' ski ni 
ino kaite ariinas kara. Shiroi kiji ga aru to iu no wa kont't 
des ka. Sayo sa, honto des 1 ka, dj des ka, wakariinasen, 
skikaski mukashi tenshi ni shiroi kiji wo kenjita hito ga atta to 
rek'ski ni kaite ariinas*. Hon wa chirakastite oku no wa 
gak' sJia no kuse des\ Sakujitsu itta no wa mackigai desh'ta 
kara y konnichi naoshimasho. Yiibe Okuma san ni deairinasfi ta 
no wa doko destitakke. c Kono dekimono wo kirazu ni utchatte 
oku to, naoru no ga nagabikimas 1 . Anata no tokiakash te 
kudasaimastita no wa mada yoku wakarimasen kara, ml icki 

a Another form of this proverb: Kiku wa ittoki no haji, shiranii wa iiiatsu- 
dai no haji (inatsii end, dai generation). 

b Or : Ant hito no hanashi ni wa. Observe that while the words no in ni 
wa, etc., at the beginning of a quo'ation seem to correspond to the English 
say that," a verb of saying or an expression like to in koto desu is required 
to complete the sentence. Comp. p. 224b. 

c This takke is a remnant of the classical tarikeri, an emphatic past termina- 
tion. Ano kojiki wa kino mo kite imashitakke. That beggar was around here 
yesterday too. The so called past tense of a Japanese verb is not always 
definitely past (p. 143^ 5, 2); but the addition of kke helps to recall vividly a 
situation in the past. It is used only in familiar conversation. - In a question 
kke indicates a conviction that the event occurred even though there is doubt 
about the exact circumstances. Ka may be added before shiran : Are wa mitd 
koto no ant yd na hito desu ga, doko de mimashitakke ka shiran. He seems like 
a person that I have seen before, but where was it that I saw him? 

276 Tin-: VEKI; LXTV] 

do oshiete itadakito gozaiinas . Aratainatta toki ni (aratama- 
reba< so iu rides'. * YE no kawari ni NI wo tifcau no wa 
machigai da to itte mo hito ga ts ' kau kara, sti kata ga nai. 
M'atakushi wa asane wo suru no ga s ki des . " Sumeba 
miyako " to in no wa do in imi des' ka. Sayd, suminareta 
tokoro ga ichiban it to iu imi des 1 . Kyiikoressha de Osaka ye 
iku ni wa hanjikan hodo kakarimas\ Go zonji (ga) nai no 
des ka. b Watakushi wa shiju isogashu gozaimash'te tadaima 
ni sanipun no hima wo mite c chotto o tazune mosJita tokoro de 
gozaimas* . Sekkaku o tazune kudas'tta no ni, nan no o aiso 
mo gozaimasende makoto ni shitsurei de gozaimasJita. A t o 
isha sama wa o rusu de atta ka. Sorya sekkaku itle kureta 
no ni kino do ku de atta ne. d Bis mar & ko no kao wa e ni 
kaku no ni tsugo no ii kao des' . Yasumono wo kau no wa 
kaette son des* . e Doits kara Nihon ye riku de iku ni wa do 
iu fu ni ittara yo gozaiinasho. Sensei, " sono " to iu no to, 
" niwa " to iu no to do iu yo ni chigaimas ka. ^ Amari taba- 
ko wo nomu no de bydki ni narimastita. Amari toku madez 
aruita no de taiso kutabiremastita. Anata ga hayaku Nihongo 
LVO oboe nas'tta no wa kanshin ties' . Dorobo no nigeru no wo 
oikakemastita. h 

My son is too young (still a little small) to (ni wd) send (yarn) 
to school. It is healthy (becomes medicine of the body) to (no 
iva) bathe in cold water. Even though a foreigner speaks 
incorrectly (uses mistaken words), it is impolite to laugh. My 

a In this sentence aratatnatla toki ni means : when one is serious and formal, 
i. e., not familiar. 

b Notice that when a positive sentence ending in da t dtsn, etc., is turned into 
a negative, de may be dispensed with : O ivakari ga uakatfa kara since you 
did not understand (positive : o ivakari des hi fa]. Dekiso mo nai. It does not 
seem practicable (positive : dekiso desti). Ikareso mo nai. It is not likely that I 
(or he) will be able to go. Mito mo nai (for mitaku mo nai, contracted also to 
mittomonai}. It's disgusting (lit. I don't want to see). Shintiomonai. I don't 
want to die. 

c Hima wo mitt is for hima no ant no ivo ntiJc. 

d Said by a man to his servant. Sorya=sore iva. 

e Yasiti mono things bought at a low price. Yusu-mono cheap stuff. There is 
a proverb : Yasu-mono-kai no zeni-ushinai (itshinau lose). For son desit one 
often says son ga ikimasu. 

i' " What is the difference between sono and niwa ? " The latter word is more 
common in the colloquial. 

g This adverb is used like a substantive. 

h In English we say the fleeing robber, not the fleeing of the robber. 


tooth aches very much, but I dislike (iya des') to have it 
extracted. Is this your first visit to Kyoto (is your coming to 
K. hajimete) ? To explain this minutely would take (takes) 
considerable time. To correct this is the same thing as to re- 
write [it] entirely. I don't go to Japanese houses (houses of 
Japanese) very much because it is such a bother to take off 
(nugu) my shoes. In my opinion it will be very difficult to 
adapt Rjomaji to the Japanese language. a Is it true that (to 
iu no iva) there were [once] so-called jindai-moji?^ What 
you said yesterday was a mistake (p machigat). Did you 
understand what I said yesterday ? Formerly it took about a 
month to go from Edo to the middle provinces ; c but now if 
one goes by steamer, one can do it (go) in (de) 2 J days, To 
learn to write (kaki-kata) Chinese characters, how had I better 
begin (if in what manner I have begun will it be good) ? It 
will be well to engage a teacher of penmanship and learn to 
write (kaku no wo) large characters with a writing-brush. 
What is written in this book is almost all false (lies). For a 
congratulatory gift it is usual to send raw fish, but since raw 
fish spoils easily (waruku nariyasui) many send other things. 
What is the difference between wa and ga (What' they call wa 
and what they call ga y what sort of distinction is there) ? It 
is easy to ask [questions], but difficult to answer [them], d 


The uses of the stems of verbs with auxiliaries have been 
explained in previous chapters. Some other idiomatic uses of 
stems will now be described. 

i. Many substantives are originally stems of verbs ; e. g., 
samurai, from samurau serve, tori thoroughfare, from toru pass 
through. Comp. pp. 22, top and 119, bottom. Deki ga ivariri. 

a A sentence beginning with no onion ni wa or no kangae de iva ends with 
an expression like yd desii. 

b Characters, not Chinese, said to have been used in prehistoric times iu 
*' the age of the gods " (jin god, dai age). 

c The middle provinces (chu-gou} are the eight westernmost provinces of 
the main island. 

d Tn the literary language : Ton wa ycisnkn, kofavnrn. T.YZ kafashi. 


It is poorly done. Stems of verbs, as substantives, often take 
the place of English verbs, especially in formal conversation : 

O tanoini no hon the book for which you asked (p. I93a). 

Ose no tori as you say (p. 2O9a). 

Go zonji no tori as you kno.v. 

Go zonji de wa (or ga} ariiuasen ka. 

Don't you know about it ? . 

Go zonji no hazu desu. You ought to know. 

Oide no jibun ni when you (he) were here (were there, 
came, went, come, go). 

Oide tuo negaimasu. I beg you to come. 

Mo o kaeri desu ka. Are you going home so soon ? a 

O wakari deshita ka. Did you understand? 

Stems of verbs often occur elliptically in proverbial expres- 
sions ; e. g., Setmnai toki no kamidanomi praying to the gods 
in time of distress. 

2. In speaking of the actions of others one may use the stem 
of any simple verb with the honorific o and ni naru : 

O wakari ni narimashita ka. Did you understand ? 
O me-zame ni narimashita ka. Are you awake ? 
Itsu o lachi ni narimasu ka. When do you start ? 
Seifu de o shirabe ni narimashita. 
The Government has been investigating. 

3. With verbs that denote an act done in order that a cer- 
tain purpose may be accomplished, such verbs as " go " 
" come " " send," etc., the purpose may be expressed by the 
stem of a verb with #*. b This may have an object. It is to 
be translated by means of the infinitive : 

Isha wo y obi ni iktt go to call a physician. 
Sumo wo mi ni iku go to see the wrestling. . 
O kuyarni ni agaru come to condole. 
O yorokobi ni agaru come to congratulate. 

4. When a verb stands in antithesis to another or is to be 

a A riksha-man when he has brought some one home shouts at the gate: O 
kaern. One in the house may then say to another : O kaeri desu (yo). The 
one who has come home is greeted with the words : O kaeri nasainiashi. 

b With Chinese compounds the stem of sum is not required. To come to 
see the sights " is kembutsn ni knnt, more commonly than kenibtitsn shi ni kuru* 


emphasized, the stem may be used with iva (in rapid speech 
ya) and suru (p. 2493) : 

Siiini w<i skimasumai. He will not die. 
Wakari wa shimasu ga ... I understand, but ..... 
Sonna shina wa arya (for art wa) shinai. 
There are no such things. 

In a conditional clause, as in " If you just understand that's 
enough," the particle sae* may be substituted for wa,: Wakari 
sag sureba ii. Art sag sureba sashiagemasti ga ... I would 
give it if I had it, but .... Similarly the stem may be used in 
clauses translated by means of " both and," " neither nor " : 

Nihon no ji wo yoine 1110 suru shi^ kake 1110 shimasu. 
He can both read and write Japanese. 
Gozen mo taberaremasen shi, nerare mo shimasen. 
I can neither eat nor sleep. 

, Ano by^nm wa nomi mo kui mo shinai kara, shinimasho. . 
That patient will die, since he neither eats nor drinks. 

5. Observe the following emphatic expressions : 

kaeri nasaru no wo machi ni matte imashita. 
We were waiting and waiting for his return. 
Korae ni koraete kurushii no wo gaman shite otta. 

1 have borne the suffering to the utmost limit oi endurance. 
Soroi mo scrotte fushigi na hitotachi bakari da. 

They are queer people without exception. 

6. The stem of a verb may be joined to certain words, such as 
nagara^ or shi-dai (lit. succession-order), which are used like 
conjunctions to form adverbial phrases : 

Hon wo yoini nagara while reading a book 
Habakari nagara (or desu go), kore wo negaimasu. 
With great diffidence I make this request. 

a Sae may also be used with other substantives : Kane sae areba, donna koto 
de mo dekiru. You can do anything, if only you have money. 

b For stttit shi the simple stem ski may stand here (comp. p. I4d). Yome 
and kake are stems of potentials. 

c See p. 1970. This nagara is also used with the negative stem in zu . 
Oyobazu nagara o tetsndai itashitnasJid. I will assist to, the, best of my poor 
ability (lit. though not reaching). The word nagara originally meant "actual 
condition." as in umare-nagara no inekura one born blind. 




Deki shidai motte kimasho. 
I will bring it as soon as it is done. 

The idiom to wa ii nagara is equivalent to " though " : 
Ainu wa yabanjin to wa ii nagara nakanaka shigoto ga 

takumi desu. 
The Ainu, though barbarians, are skilful workmen. 

7. Adjectives are formed by adding so to the stem of a verb : 
Mo ame ga yamiso desu. The rain seems to be stopping. 
Nan to ka shiyd ga ariso na won desu. 

I hope it may be managed somehow (p. 115, middle). 

8. In long sentences, especially in formal speech or in nar- 
ratives, the stem may take the place of the subordinative (p. 
iS/d). This feature is derived from the literary language, in 
which the verbs of coordinated clauses, with the exception of 
the concluding clause, are in the form of the stem. In nega- 
tive clauses the form in zu corresponds to the stem (p. 171). 

Observe the idioms wo hajime and to ii : 

Kocho wo hajime shosei made mo kimashita. The whole 

school, from the principal down to the students, came. 
Kotoba-zukai to ii % mi- bur i to ii, ketten no nai enzetsuka 

da. Both in his use of words and in his gestures he is 

a faultless orator. 


tsue cane. 

hama seacoast, beach. 
kuri chestnut. 
hama-guri clam. 
de-guchi way out, exit. 
iri-kuchi entrance. 
hiki-shio 1 

tkio-ki i 

michi-shio \ 
sashi-shio \ flood tide. 
age-shio j 

shio no sashi-hiki ebb 
flow of the tide. 

, , t .j 

ebb tide - 


na-fuda \ 

te-Juda [visiting card. 

mei-shi(c) J 

gei accomplishment, enter- 
taining performance. 

kain-bun Chinese composi- 
tion, Chinese literature. 

ryo-hi travelling expenses. 

ten-ka (lit. under heaven) 

the whole country, Japan. 
ji-zen charity, benevolence. 
jizen-shi bazaar (ski = ichi 


tei-koku empire. shuttai suru (from shutsu- 

zu-e pictures. a rai=dekini) be finished, 

shi-dai order, circumstances, be done, happen. 

reason. lj mi-ataru be found. 

hay aw allow to grow long chanto p ecisely, properly, 

(intr. haeru). just, right. 

kimaru become settled, cer- shibaraku for some time. 

tain (tr. kimerii). sahodo so much. 

suzuinu cool one's self off. sazo how you must (with 

ji-san suru bring, take (p. probable form). 

23 ib). sen-koku a little while ago. 


O kasa wo o mochi n4 narimasJita ka (o woe hi de gozaimas* 
ka). lie^jisan itashimaseu desh'ta ; watakushi no agarimasu- 
ru jibun ni wa c o tenki ga taiso yoroshu gozaimashta no de. 
Nikon de wa akindo ga sakana ya yasai wo hito no uchi ye itri 
ni kimas '. Watakushi no itta koto ga o wakari ni narimas 
ka. Wakari wa shimas keredomo, kotoba-zukai ga s* koshi oka- 
shu gozaimas . Ano byonin iva skinimasho ka. Shini wa (ya) 
shiwas'mai keredomo, sukkari naoru na wa mutsukashu gozai- 
masho. Kimono ga deki shidai^ motte kuru yd ni stitateya 
ni itte koi. Anata kono atsusa de o yoivari desho. Nani, e 
sahodo de mo arimasen. Anata ichi nichi o aruki nas'tta kara> 
sazo o kutabite desho. lie, watakushi wa aruki-narete imas* 
fcara, kutabiremasen. Kino moshiageyo to omoimastita ga, oide 
ga nakatta kara, te garni ni (p. 5Cc) kaite agemastita. O ta- 
nomi na Edo meisho-zue f wo konnichi jisan itashimash'ta. 
Watakushi wa chotto tonari no uchi ye hanashi ni iku fcara, wa- 
takushi no matte iru te garni ga todoitara, sugu ni motte kite 
kure. Horits" wo ok as hi sae shinakereba, donna koto wo slite 

a Comp, p. 95d. The word zne is used only in compounds. Reversing the 
order, we have e-zu, which may mean a single drawing, map or picture. 

b Shidai desn (de gozaimas 11) is often used as a formal ending to a sentence, 
without adding anything to the sense. But compare: Omae tua fold kaeite 
kita to in shidai ka. So ! have you come back at last ? 

c Translate when I came (p. I2ic). The auxiliary masit may be lengthen- 
ed in formal conversation. 

d Shidai is used in the sense of " as soon as " only in speaking of the future. 

e Naniy from nani what, may be rendered : " Oh, no I " 

f Illustrated guide to noted plnces in Edo. 


mo ii to omou kito ga dtiindsga, nakanaka so wa ikemas'mai. 
Kesa ni do korareta o kata ga senkoku kara o machikane de 
goz almas'. O wakari ni narimastttara, watakushi ni mo itte 
kikasete kudasai. Anata sakki kara o machikane de gozai- 
mashj. Oyaji wa watakushi ?;i hayaku Nihon ye kaette 
moraitagatte, mo ryohi zvo okutte kuremasJi ta ; ryohi ga tsuki 
shidai kaette kure to iu te garni mo yokoshimasJita. Ichi mon 
oshimi no hyaku shirazu. a Kongo yonii no Kongo shirazu. b 
Rikugun no koto -wo torishirabe ni Yuroppa ye ikimastita. 
Kyo no kidaore^ Osaka no kuidaore. c Anata mo o hikkoshi ni 
narimastita ka. lie, mada des ; shikashi tsugo no ii ie ga 
miatari shidai hikkoso to omoimas '. Anata mo go sonji no 
Tanaka san ga mairtmasJita. Donata ka aide no yd da ; 
dare ka hayaku toritsugi ^vo shiro. Gwaikoku no kata ga kono 
najuda wo o dashi ni natte sugu ni o kaeri ni narimash\fa. 
Sazo o kutabire de gozaimasho kara t go yururi to o yasumi 
nasaimashi. Nana korobi ya oki.^ Anata sakuban okaeri ni 
natte kara sugu ni o yasumi ni narimaStita ka. lie, shimbun 
wo mite kara nemasttta. Sonna ni yoku kakanafrte mo, 
wakari sae sureba ii. ^hogwatsu ni wa manzai ivo zasti ki ni 
agete e iroiro na get wo sasete tak'san zeni wo yarimas\ O 
wakari ga nai nara. mo ichi do tokiakastite agemasho. Yu 
ga waki shidai hairimasho. Ke wo hay ash* te iru bozu f mo 
ari y hay ash' te inai no mo aru. Sazo o komari de gozaimasho. 

In Tokyo, when the tide is out (at the time o! ebb tide), 
people often go to Susakig to gather (Jiirou) clams. To-mor- 

a Compare the English : Fenny wise, pound foolish. Oshimi, as also yomi 
in the following proverb, has a concrete sensc=osfiimu hito. 

b The sense is: He reads the Kongo diligently, but does not understand 
nor observe its precepts. 

c According to this \ reverb, the people oi Kyoto waste their money on 
fashions; tho T e of Osaka, on dainties (kiru wear, kuu eat, taorcm fall). 

d This proverb inculcates perseverance in spite of repeated failures. Nana 
and ya are numerals. 

e Zashiki ni ageru have come into the house. 

It would, of course, be rude to use this word in the presence of a priest. 
Say bosan. 

g On the shore of Toky5 Bay in Fukagawa. There is here a famous temple 
of Benten, goddess of luck. 


row, if it is (has become) fine weather (p. ,34a), I will go 
fishing. In (wa) summer I went every day to the Sumida 
River for a swim. As you know, formerly the Emperor en- 
trusted the government o. the whole country to the shogun. 
Shan't we go to Ekoin a to see the wrestling ? Are you going 
to buy things, or are you only going to tease (p. 2O2a) ? We 
will go to the Sumida River to cool ourselves off. Many stu- 
dents, instead of attending (without hearing) the lectures, go 
to amuse themselves. Did you have a cane ? Yes, I left (put) 
it at the entrance of the genkwan. Is it raining ? It is not 
raining, but it is foggy. Go to the shoemaker's and tell him 
to bring the shoes as soon as they are done. You have worked 
the whole day without resting; how tired you must be ! On 
account of (ni) the earthquake (of) last night I awoke (me 
wa sawemasli'ta), but I did not get up. We will decide (decid- 
ing put) just when you will come (pres.) next time. I have 
brought the Nihongi^ for which you asked, but as it is written 
in Chinese style (a Chinese composition), you will hardly un- 
derstand it. Come again for a chat (hanasht). Did no com- 
pany (guest) come during (no ma ni) my absence? Yes, one 
student came. When I said (past cond.) that you would come 
immediately, he waited (was waiting) for a short time, but, as 
you did not return (there 'was no returning), being unable to 
wait (p. 21/e) he went away (returning finished). Where are 
you moving ? I don't know yet. I am now looking for (sagastite 
iru tokoro des') a house. Was the Imperial (Empire) Hotel 
finished (mo shuttai sh'te imash'ta ka) before you left Tokyo ? 
They opened a bazaar there recently. Are you going out just 
now? Sir, will you (do you) stop at this hotel? It seems 
dirty here (koko wa). There may be a better one i!" we go to 
the next town. At first (hajime wa) I disliked (p. 91 e) sake, 
but gradually came to like it (suki ni naru). You mustn't 
laugh. I am not laughing, but I think it queer (hen ni). 
You must n't think about other things while you are reading 

a A famous temple in Honjo, Tokyo, where great exhibitions of wrestling 
are held in January and in May of each year. 

b The Nihongi (ki record) is an old historical work dating from the VIII. 


a book. Have you given up the study of German ? I have 
not given (do not give) it up, but I haven't very much time 
to study. You ought to know that. 


Compound verbs (kumi tate-doshi) are very numerous. Some 
are derived from a noun and a verb. 

egaku draw, from e picture, kaku write. 

katazukeru lay aside, from kata side, tsukern affix, put. 

motozuku be based on, from moto base. 

namidagumu be moved to tears, from namida tears, Jukumu 

negini beat down the price, from ne price, kiru cut. 

toshiyoru or toshitoru become aged, from toshi year, yom 

gather, torn take. 
Others are derived from an adjective and a verb : 

nagabiku be protracted, from nagai long, hiku draw. 

t'jzakeru keep at a distance, withdraw from, from toi far, sa- 
keru avoid (also ni tozakani). 

atsusugiru be too hot (p. 106). 

amanzuru, amanjiru relish, be satisfied, from amai sweet. 
With the last compare omonzuru and karonzuru, p. 215. 

The suffix garu is much used to form compounds with the 
stems of adjectives and desideratives : 

hoshigaru desire (p. 1523). onto shifo garu ieel interested in. 

ikitagaru want to go (p. 176). hairitagafu want to enter. 
The verb burn* " put on airs " enters into some compounds : 

gakushaburu pose as a scholar. 

takaburu be arrogant, boast, from takai high. 

Most numerous are the compounds derived from two verbs. 
As we have before observed (p. 251 a), the Japanese language 
has no prefixes or prepositions by means of which compound 
verbs may be formed, as in European languages. Consequently 

a This bum is related iofuri air, appearance, in otoko-buri ga yoi, onna-buri 
ga yoi is handsome. Note also the suffix barn, from haru stretch, extend. 
kowabaru be stiff, from kowai hard, i-bant be haughty, yoku-bam be avaricious, 
gishiki-baru be excessively formal, etc. 


in very many cases one of the two verbs in a compound serves 
as a kind of auxiliary to the other and in not a few instances 
is practically meaningless. Accordingly we divide compound 
verbs, somewhat arbitrarily, into three classes : (a) those in 
which the components are correlative; (b) those in which 
the second component serves to modify the sense of the first ; 
and (c) those in which the first modifies the second. One can 
not always be sure to which class a given compound should be 
assigned ; but the distinction is practically helpful. 

A. Usually transitive verbs are joined with transitive, and 
intransitive with intransitive. But the components often differ 
and then usage rather than grammar must be consulted in 
determining the voice (pp. 2O3a, 2393). f 

atthameru apply, from ateru hit, haineru fit. 
hipparu (Jiikihani) pull and stretch, bring along. 
iiharu insist, from iu say, haru stretch. 
kakitoru note down, write at dictation. 
kamikudaku crunch, from kamu bite, kudaku crush. 
ketsmnazukn stumble, from kern kick, tsumazukn stumble. a 
surimuku rub off, abrade, skin, from suru rub, muku peel. 
tsukikorosu stab (or gore) to death, from tsuku pierce. 
ukeau guarantee, from nkern receive au meet. 
ukeou contract for, from on carry. 

In Kwanzei compounds with oru are formed, corresponding 
to the subordinative with irn or oru (p. 163) : ikioru (also pro- 
nounced ikiyoru) is going (but itte orn is gone). This idiom 
is derived from the literary language. b 

B. In the second class we include a number of verbs which 
as suffixes form well defined groups of compounds. In many 
instances either the intransitive or the transitive form may be 
used. Thus to " commence to rain " is either furikakarn or 
fnrikakern ; " happen to be on hand " is ariau or ariawaseru. 
The following list is not a complete one. 

a In the literary language the stem of keru is ke. Comp. ke-mari football. 
In the colloquial ken*, belongs to the second class (Ch. XLVIII.). 

b Some apparently simple verbs were originally compounds: dekiru,itom 
dent and kuni ; haim, from hau creep and int enter ; mochiini, from motsu have 
nml int be. 


1. Agent, agani : (a) "up," i. e., "upward" ; (b) "up/* i. e., 
"completely"; (c) a polite termination. 

knriageru move up, carry for- kakiageru finish writing. a 
ward, rearrange, from kum shiageru, yariageru finish. b 
reel. shibariageru tie up, from shi- 

miageru look up to. baru tie. 

nobiagaru stretch one's self dekiagaru be finished. 

up, straighten up. mbshiageru tell. c 

tobiagaru fly up, jump up. kaiageru purchase (on the 
okiagaru rise up. part of the G >vernment). d 

tsukeagaru " be stuck up." iueshiagaru-\.2ko. (food, etc.). 

2. Au, awaseru : (a) "mutually"; (b) "together"; (c) 
" happen to. " 

tasukeau help each other (p. ochiaii come together (of riv- 

58). ers or of persons), from a- 

niramiau glare at each other, chir:i fall. 

from nirainu stare. sureau be rubbed together, 

shiriau be mutually acquaint- chafe, be on bad terms, pass 

ed. in close proximity. 

toriau take hold of each other, kikiawaserii gather informa- 

pay attention. tion, inquire. 

tsukiau associate, become ac- mdshiawaseru reach an agree- 

quaintcd. ment. 

miawastfu look at each other dekiau happen to be finished, 

(kao wo\ forego, give up. be ready made. 
. deau meet on the road. ariaii, ariawaseru happen to 

komiau be crowded together. be on hand. e 

These verbs may be used with the postpositions ni and to. 
Those into which awaseru enters may also take objects with wo. 

a Compare the older compound kakagem .hoist, publish, inscribe. The verb 
kaku means also " scratch." 

b Yariageru cannot be used in the sense " put on a finisliing touch." Yari- 
ageru may also mean " get up in the world." 

c Compare o age titdsu give. 

d The opposite is .urisageru? used, for instance, of selling postage stamps. 
Another verb, haraisagertt, is used of selling property which the Government 
no longer needs. Comp. p. i84d. 

e These compounds usually occur in the form of the adjectives dekiai tin 
and ariai no or ariatvase no. 


3. Chigaii) cJiigaeru : (a) " differently " ; (b) " mistakenly." 
ikichigau go in opposite directions without meeting. 
surechigau pass closely on the road. 

kikichigau, kikichigaeru hear incorrectly, mishear. 
ouioichigaU) omoichigaeru misapprehend, misconjecture 
( wo to oinoichigau mistake for ). 

4. Deru,dasu<xidasu: (a) "out," "from"; (b) "suddenly," 
" begin to " (dam only). 

kogideru, kogidasu row out. oinoidasu call to mind. 
fukidasu blowout, burst out sagashidasu search out, look up 

into laughter. abaredasu suddenly become 

juridasu shake out, remit, fractious. 

from 1uru shake, scatter, iidasu utter, begin to speak. 

pay. nakidam begin to cry. 

nigedasu escape, run away. 

5. Hateru, hatam : " completely," " utterly." 
akireliateru be utterly astonished (and disgusted), from 

akireru be surprised. 
korihaleru be taught a good lesson, from koriru be warned, 

punished (comp. korashiineru chastise). 
shinihateru die out (of a family). 
yowarihateru be utterly exhausted, nonplussed. 
tsukaihatasu use up. 

6. frit, ireru : (a) "in"; (b) a suffix, originally intensive, 
added to some verbs of feeling (iru only). 

semeiru enter forcibly, from osoreiru be much obliged, be 

semeru assault. overwhelmed by another's 

kaiirern buy in, buy up. condescension (p. I93g). 

kakiireru write in, mortgage, hajiifu be very much ashamed. 

shiireru lay in (goods). kanjiiru feel great admiration. 
yobiireru call in. 


(Include the compounds given above. Easily understood 
compounds are not explained.) 

hiza knee. no soba ni .beside. 

ito thread, raw silk. soba ni yoru approach near. 

soba side, vicinity. tayori communication, news. 




hama-be sea coast. a 

kake-ne fictitious price. 

kakene wo iu (surii) ask an 
amount in excess of the 
proper price. 

mi bun station in life. 

sai-tori middleman, broker. 

toku (c) profit, gain. 

en-nichi monthly festival day 
at a Buddhist temple. 

hi-nan censure, criticism. 

sek-kan chastisement. 

sok-ki stenography. 

koku-shi-byo black plague 
(lit. black death disease). 

ureshii joyful. 

aware na pitiful. 

waga-mama na wilful, way- 
ward, selfish. 

yo-i na easy. 

yu-kwai na delightful. 

kimari disposition, order. 

kimari ga warui be embar- 

shidara no nai unsystematic, 
badly managed. 

akirameru give up all hope 
feel resigned. 

shibireru, shibire ga kireru 
be numb, asleep (of limbs). 

ntsumuku bend the face 

yuzuru relinquish, yield. 

shimaru be tight, strict. 

tori-shimam supervise (tr.). 

hara wo tateru 

rip-puku suru 

dossari abundantly, largely. 

hyoi to, hyotto suddenly, acci- 

hisashi-buri de after a long 

aku, akiru (p. 142, middle) 
be surfeited. 

aku made to the utmost. 

hon ni really (in hon-to). 

ip-po one step. 

is-sai altogether, at all. 
to-kaku in one way or an- 
other, almost inevitably, 
be apt to. 


Kono kikai wa ippun no uchi ni mizu %vo sen rittor gitrai 
suiageinas* . Matsuyama kun wa kimi no kotoba wo kikizhi- 
gaete taiso okotte otta yo. Ittan iidasJita koto wa ybi ni kae- 
rarerit mono de nai. Ano o kami san wa oku no mono wo to- 
rishimaranakereba naranai mibun de aru no ni, jissai ts kiatte 
mimastttara, sono shidara no nai no m wa akirehatete shimai- 

a The sufiix be is equivalent to hen vicinity : vama-be region near a mountain. 

b Used with to: Totei dekinai mono to akiramete int be convinced that it is 
utterly impossible. The veib akirameru must originally " understand clearly." 
Comp. akiraka na. 


mastita. Sono ji ga nukete imas* a kara, koko ye kakiirete o- 
kimasho. Kono ushi wa abarete hito wo ts 1 kikorostita koto ga 
afimas*. Omae san, kakcne wo itcha komaru. lie, kesstite 
kakene wa moshiagemasen. Hisashiburi de atta (from au) 
mon des kara, tagai ni dakiatte ureshi-namida wo nagashi- 
mastita. Sumi ya takigi wo samuku naran uchi ni kaiirete 
oku ho ga yas* kute toku des'. Nagai aida suwatte ite tacJiia- 
garo to shimastitara, shibtre ga kirete tatemasen de stita. Ano 
hito wa set ga takai kara, nobiagattara, atama ga kamoi ni 
todokimasho. Tagai ni kao wo miawasete kimariwarusd ni 
utsumukimasti ta (stita wo mimas/ita). Hakurankivai wa 
ko& shibyo ga dekita tame ni miawase ni natta so des '. Sen- 
datte ryoko chu ni kane ga nakunatte shimatte, kaeru koto ga 
dekizu, betsu ni shiriai no hito mo nai no de, yowarihate- 
mastita. Yasui toki ni tak 'san shiirete okimastita kara, 
dossari mdkarimastita. Uchijini stita to akiramete ita ani 
kara tayori ga atta no de tobiagaru ho do ureshu gozaiinash'ta. 
Omiya de kudari no kisha to nobori no kisha ga (to) surechigai 
ni natta. b As wa mina san to mjshiaivxsete hanami ni 
viairimasho. Sakihodo tegata wo Juridastite yarimastita. c 
Taihen machigatta koto uo itaslite hajiitta shidai de gozaimas* . 
Suitengu no ennichi ni wa aruku koto mo dekinai hodo 
koiniaimas '. fnu wa shinda no ka to omotte soba ni yottara 
ugokidashimashta. Takayama hakase no rombun wo yomu 
tabi ni fude no ta^sha na no ni wa kanjiiriuias . d ltd san wa 
miageru hodo rippa ni narimastita. Donna muri wo iite koyo 
to, e issai toriawan ho ga yoroshu gozaimas*. Sono hon wa 
ima T^kyo ni aru ka d_> da ka kikiawasete agemashj. Doits 
to F'rans wa itsu mo sureatte imasltta. Aits wa gak* shabittte 
nanigoto ni mo kuchi wo das' (ireni) kara, hito ni iyagarare- 
mas . Hyotio omoidashimasfita. Donna hinan ga atte mo 

a Translate : is omitted ; lit. has escaped (in the process of writing). One 
may also say ochite imas* . 

b Kudari no kisha the train going in the direction from the capital ; nobori 
no kisha the train going in the direction to the capital. The verb surechigau 
is not so common as ko-kwan sttrtt. 

c The verb yat~u as used with subordinatives may sometimes be translate^ 
" for" but is often untranslatable. It belongs to the same class as agent, oku, 
kttru, shitiiau, etc. 

d The wordyW*? is used by metonymy for style. 

e A future verb with to, abbreviated from to mo, is one of the idioms denot- 
ing concession. Translate: No matter how unreasonably he speaks to you. 


amanjite ukeru tsumori des\ MJ shigoto ga artmasen kara, 
konnichi wa jikan wo kuriagete san ji m kaeru koto ni itashi- 
inasho. O Ume to O Take ga ningyo wo hippariatte totd 
kowastite shiniaimaslita. a Asa hayaku okite hamabe ni tatte 
toku oki ye kogide'e oru June wo nagameru no wa makoto ni 
yukwai des'. Ikura hantai sarete mo aku made jibun no sets 
wo iihatte ippo mo yuzurimasen. Ainu wa jibun no kao- 
katachi wo egakareru no wo go^vagarimas > . Betsu m stitaku 
wo stita no de wa gozaimasen ; hon no ariawase no shina wo 
sashiageru no des'. b 

I will deliver them as soon as they are finished. Since they 
are brothers, they ought to help one another, but (Jiazu na no 
ni) they are constantly quarreling. It was my intention to meet 
him at the Club (K'ratf), but on the way we passed without 
meeting. It is said that recently in Egypt a boat five or six 
thousand years old (inae no) has been dug out. This child by 
burning (yaita no ni) its hands once has learned a good lesson 
and no longer goes (has become not approaching) near the fire. 
That broker has gone to Maebashi to buy in raw silk. I stum- 
bled and fell and skinned my knee. Having fallen and struck 
my knee dreadfully, for a little while I could not rise up. I 
was guilty of (did) great impoliteness, mistaking the lady of 
the house (ok'sati) for the servant The horse suddenly 
became fractious and smashed the carriage. In that family 
(house) all have died out, from (hajime) the old to the young, 
and now only that one child is left (it has become that one 
child). Have you taken down the lecture ? Yes, I have taken 
it in shorthand (stenographing put). If you treat (stite yaru) 
servants and the like (nazo) too gently, they get stuck up and 
are apt to become wilful. Since [they] will be expensive if you 
order [them], it would be better to buy ready-made goods. It 
is not easy to look up a character in (de) the Kokijiten. I will 
go for a walk after I have finished writing this letter. Both 
glared at each other for a while without saying anything. It 
was too much for us (became tamaranai) and we all burst out 

laughing. The Hirose River and the Natori River come together 

a Triple compounds like this are not uncommon. 
b An apology for a meal. 


in the vicinity of Sendai. A fox runs away at once when it 
sees a dog. Mr. Inouye is a very interesting person when you 
get acquainted with him (associating see). It will still take 
considerable time to (inade ni wa) finish this. When you 
have finished reading that book please lend it to me. When 
stone and metal are rubbed together, fire is produced (deni). 
Though I said I would go home (kaerit), Tanaka pulled my 
sleeve and did not allow me to go home (kaesti). A really 
able (dekini) man never boasts before others. We withdrew 
from the others (hito) and consulted until late (psoku made) 
at night. Since you will become fatigued and unable to return 
if you swim out too far, please be cautious. It is said 
that the carpenter who contracted for the building of the 
school has fled. Hearing that pitiful story, they were un- 
consciously (pboezu) moved to tears. Saying that the child 
had been in mischief, he got dreadfully angry and chastised it 
by (subord.) tying up its hands and feet. The Government 
has purchased that lot to (tame nt) build a court house. By 
profligacy (Jioto wo sh'te) he used up all his property within 
one year. How would it be to call in that amma and have 
him shampoo us a little (hitotsu or s'koshi)* 


7. Kaeru, kawaru change : " re ," " trans ," the idea of 

kakikaeru rewrite. nekaeru transplant. 

kikaeru change (clothes). irikawaru enter by turns. 

harikaeru re-cover, from ha- ni narikawaru take the 

ru spread, paste, cover. place of. 

iikaeru say in other words. umarekawaru be reborn 

irekaeru replace, put in afresh. transmigrate, be regener- 

norikaeru change cars, etc. ated, become a new man. 

8. Kaeru, kaesu return : " re ," " back." 

Jurikaeru turn around. torikaesu, torimodosu take 

ikikaerti revive, be refreshed. back. 

kurikaesu repeat. y obi kaesu, yobimodosu recall. 




9. Kakeru, kakaru : (a) " on," " at " ; (b) " by chance " ; (c) 
begin to." 

furikakeru,, furikakaru begin 
to fall (of rain etc.). 

kakikakeru begin to write. 

shikaktru, yarikakeru begin 
to do. 

chirikakaru begin to fall (of 

10. Kaneru : " find it hard to," " be unable to." 
machikaneni wait impatient- moshikaneru hesitate to say. a 

ly, be unable to wait. 

1 1. Kiru, kireru: (a) "completely," " entirely," "all " (comp. 
ivakarikitta p. 128) ; (b) " through " ; (c) " cease." 

lorikiru take all, exhaust the hairikireru all go in. 

nagekakeru throw on or at. 

oikakeriiy okkakeru pursue, 
from ou chase. 

furikakaru fall upon, happen. 

torikakerUj lorikakaru hap- 
pen to pass. 

dekakeru start out. 

supply of. 

kaeshikiru return all. 
urikiru sell out. 
urekireru be sold out. 

surekirerti be worn through. 
mikiru abandon, clear off. 
omoikiru cease to think about, 
give up. 

12. Koeru, kosu : (a) " across " ; (b) " past." 

tobikoeru, tobikosti leap over, norikoeru, norikosu ride past, 
jump across. overtake. 

13. Komu : "in." 
sashikomu shine in. 
tsumikomu load in. 
Jukikomu blow in. 
hikkomu draw in, retire. b 
irikomu enter in. 
kikikomu hear (lit. take in 

by hearing). c 

vwshikoniu put in a request. 
nagekomu throw in. 

nomikomu swallow, under- 

ochikoimi fall in. 

omoikomu get an impression. 

orikoinu weave in, from oru 

shikomu lay in (goods), teach 
(something), educate. 

ni horekomtt be captivated. 

a Very common are the compounds : ivo koraekaneru, ni taekamnt and 
tamarikaneru be unable to endure. The last is used only in the form of the 

b To be distinguished from hekomu become hollow, from hern decrease. 
For he compare ketsumazukit (p. 285a). 

t The verb kikiireru means " assent,' " grant,'-' (a request). 


14. Naosu : "re ." "again," "a second time/' "over." 
denaosu come (or go) again, ninaosu reboil. 
kangaenaosu change one's yarinaosu, shinaosu do over. 


15. Nuku, nukeru : (a) " through " ; (b) " out." 
tsukinuku pierce through. erinuku, yorinuku choose out, 
uchinuku strike through. select, from eru choose. 
torinukeru pass through. 


(Include compounds given above.) 

hitai forehead. frafa-slde. 

hori ditch, canal, moat. michi-bata roadside. 

inochi life. sa-naka the very jnidst. 

kabuto helmet. mi-nashi-go orphan. a 

kuchi opening, demand (for yopparai drunkard. 

services or goods). teki enemy. 

suku to open up, be thinned cho-ka = machi-ya house of 

out (p. iO2a). a merchant. 5 

sufci, suki-ma crack, opening, do-chu journey. 

suso lower border of a gar- ji-jo condition, circumstances, 

ment, skirt. special reasons. 

tsuyu dew. kok-kin national interdict 
ya arrow. (comp. kmsuru\. 

yumibo\v. mo-yo pattern, design, state 
ama-wori leak in the roof of things, c 

(lit. rain-leak). nein-matsu end of the year. 

sato village, one's native place, sai-sen offering of money at 
furu-sato | birthplace, a place of worship. 

ko-kya (c) ) home. sei-nen young man (lit. green 
ki-mae disposition, temper- years). 

ament. kwo-tai-shi crown prince. 

a Lit. a child without mi. The word mi means not only " self " but also 
one's condition or relations in life (compare mi-no ue, p. 58). Accordingly 
minashigo means a child without relatives. 

b In former times the samurai lived in the midst of ample grounds along 
back streets, while the crowded town was occupied by shopkeepers. 

c Kesa no moyo de wa ame ga furiso deshita ga, saiwai furazit iii shimaimashita. 
This morning it looked like rain, but happily there has been none. 


bdto boat (English). ni sawaru touch. 

hakanai transient. sodateru bring up, rear (intr. 

yoginai unavoidable. sodatsu). 

ken-go na firm, substantial. tetsudau help. 

ontoi(ino)yoranu unexpected, todomaru = tomaru stop, stay. 

kei-ki appearance, state of hiki-ukeru take over, make 

trade. one's self responsible for 

keiki ga yoi times are good (comp. ukeaii). 

(opp. fu-keiki). hiki-zutu drag. 

fuku roof, thatch. a ippan ni generally. 


Kimono ga nureta kara, betsu no to kikaemasho, Tsurezu- 
regusa no^ bunsho wa taihen kirei da kara. kurikaestite yomi- 
masJita. Makoto ni moshiagekaneiuas ga, s koshi tetsudatte 
itadakaremasmai ka. Kotoshi wa keiki ga yokute kaiireta 
mono wa inina urekireuiastita. Ttra ya iniya ye sankei sum 
Jiito wa saisenbako ni zeni wo nagekomimas 1 . Ato no bo? ga 
saki no wo norikoshimastita. Sj iu mukashi no shiki no koto 
ga kono hon ni kaile arimas to omoimasJita ga, ddmo, miatari- 
masen. Nani ! kaite aru sa. Sonnara mo ichi do yominao- 
shimasho. Taiho no tama ga atsui kabe wo nchinuite Pekin 
no yo na kengo na shiro wo mo otoshimastita. Cha wo hitotsit 
irekaete kite kure. Amari muzukasJi kute watakushi ni wa wa- 
karikanemas '. Sekkaku no o kotoba des' ga> konnicki wa yogi- 
nat koto ga gozaimaslite zannen nagara agarikanemas \ Ikura 
benkyd stite hataraite mo shigoto ga sti kirenai. Matsuri no toki 
ni wa inakamono ga ozei machi ni irikomimas . Kotio buns/id 
laa machigaidarake da kara, kakinaoshi nasai. Yane ga fu- 
ruku natte amamori ga sum kara, fukikaeyo to omoimas '. 
Sonna abunai koto wo sum to, ato de torikaeshi no ts'kanai c 

a The different kinds of roofs are: ivarabuki, from ivara straw; kayabuki, 
from kaya rush ; stigikaivabuki, fromsugi cryptomeria and kaiva bark ; 'kobabuki 
shingled ; kaivarabuki tiled ; j' ' reifbuki or sekibanbnki slated ; totanbuki roofed 
with galvanized iron, etc. 

b Miscellanies written by Kenko in the XIV. Century. Tsurezure means 
** leisure hours " ; kusa (lit. grass) " miscellanies." Compare kusagusa no various. 

c The negative of the verb tsuku is used in this and similar idioms in the 
sense of dekinai. 


ayamachi wo shimas* yo. Omoi mo yoranu sainan ga jurika- 
katte mairimastita. Miru ni mikanete (9.274,2) tas* kete yari- 
mastfta. Yoi kuchi ga attara, sewa wo stite kurefu yo ni mo- 
stikonde okimasti ta. Kono kimono wa nan da ka guai ga wa- 
rui yj da kara, nuinaosJite moraitai. Yumi no ya ga kabuto 
wo ts'kinu'ite teki no hitai ni atarimastita. " Jinsei choro no 
got os hi " a to iu no wa, iikaereba, Hito no inochi wa ma koto ni 
hakanai mono de am to iu koto des '. Tochu de kyu ni hara 
ga itamidastita no de, arukn koto mo dekizu. taorete orimastita 
ga, chddo soko wo totikakatta no ga isha de afimastita kara* 
saiwai tas keraremasJita. Sendatte shinda kodoino no koto wa 
d.y stite mo oinoikiru koto ga dekimasen. Zehi kuni ye kaerd 
to omoimastita ga, kangaenaoshimastite Nikon ni todomarn 
koto ni itashimasko. Kono kowareta hon wo mina tojinaosa- 
nakereba narimasen. Moto wa ikenai hito destita ga, konogoro 
wa umarekawatta yd ni yoi mono ni narimastita. Konnichi 
wa irikawari tachikawari o kyaku ga kite isogashu gozaima- 
stita. Kurikaeshi kurikaesJii shinsetsu ni oshiete kuremastita. 
Mu ft ga toreba, dori ga hikkomu (Proverb). Niijima san wa^ 
kokkin ivo okastite gwaikoku no June ni norikonde Amerik-i ye 
mairimastita. Ittan oinoikonda koto wa yji ni aratamerargnai 
mono des\ Yopparai wo hikizurikomarete* tonda meiwaku 
wo itashimasJi ta. Dorobo no kao ni hai wo nagekakemastita. 
Aits' wa sake wo nomu to, sugu ni kenkwa wo sti kakemas\ d 
Atsui sanaka ninagadochu wo stite, ts* karehatete shimaimasti- 
tatta ga, e shibaraku koko de yasunda no de, yoyo ikikaetta yo 
na kokochi ga itashimas . Mikirimono f des 9 kara, o yas* ku 
agemas . Kame no ko no kubi wa bo de sazvaru to, jiki ni hik- 

a Hito no inochi wa asn no tsuyii no yd na mono desit. 

b The founder of the Christian institution, the Doshisha, in Kyoto. He 
went to America secretly in 1864. The name is often spelled Neesima. 

c The keeper of a restaurant might express himself in these words on 
discovering that he had a drunkard on his hands. 

d In this compound kakeru does not mean begin." The man when drunk 
picks a quarrel, i. e., inflicts a quarrel on another. Compare hanaski wo 
shikakeru or hanashikakeru address one's self to. 

e The ending tatta, from U atta, is used like takke (p. 2750) to make vivid a 
past situation. 

f Goods to be disposed of at a clearing sale. 


komimas\ Nomikomi no ii gejo des\ Mukashi choka de wa 
ippan ni onna no ko ni yugei wo sh'konda mon des . O rusu 
nara, mata denaoslite mairimasho. Rosha no kwjtaishi ga 
Otsu de horosarekakemastita. 

To go from Tokyo to Nikko you must change cars at Utsuno- 
miya. At the end of the year people everywhere re cover their 
shoji. Chrysanthemums, if not transplanted every year, do 
not bloom well (good flowers do not bloom). There is no one 
who would (does) not turn round and look back (ato wo miru) 
when he left (leaves) his birthplace. The cherry blossoms are 
now beginning to fall. The company has been (guests are) 
waiting impatiently for some time. This box is so small that 
the goods will hardly all go in. This building is called Kotsu- 
do ; a into it (kono uchi ni) the teeth, etc , of dead people are 
thrown (in). Can you jump across this brook? Recently a 
new street has been made (dekiru) by which one can {koto no 
dekiru) pass through from the Station to South Street. As 
this child (wa i) is an orphan, we intend to take the place of 
its parents and rear it. As I am just beginning (to write) a 
letter, please wait a little. I hesitate to say it, but could I 
borrow a little money ? That dictionary is sold out (past). The 
horse fell in when it attempted (p. 216 top) to leap over this 
ditch. As I made a mistake, I will do it over. From among 
many young men the strongest are selected and taken for 
soldiers. He was recalled to his country on the ground that (to 
itte) unavoidable business had turned up (dekttci). I am sorry, 
but there are various special reasons, so that I can't guarantee 
that much (sore dake). He has not yet paid (returned) all his 
debts. In Japan designs and letters are woven orikomu active) 
into women's sashes. You can still wear this padded garment, 
if you make it over. As the thief fled, a policeman pursued 
him with all his might. I was captivated by his disposition. 
If you don't reboil this fish, it will spoil by to-morrow. The 
skirt of the kimono is worn through. I am annoyed by the 
snow blowing in through (from) a crack in (of) the door. 
Lately I heard a strange rumor. Travelers often throw their 
waraji upon trees by (of) the roadside. 

a Lit. bone-hall. Devout Buddhists desire to be buried, at least nominally, 
by the side of K5bo Daishi on Koyosan (p. H3d). The Kotsudo is provided 
for the remains of cremated bodies. 



16. Otosu : " fail to," " neglect to." 
miotosit overlook. 

kafcioto&u accidentally omit in writing. 
toriotosu forget to take, leave behind. 

17. Sokonau injure : " mis ," " wrongly." 

dekisokonau prove to be a failure. 
yarisokonau, shisokonau do amiss, spoil. 
misokonau misjudge. 

1 8. Sugiru, sugosu : " excessively." 

ikisugiru go too far (p. 128). 
nomisugiru, nowisugosu drink to excess. 
tsukaisugiru, tsukaisugosu use too much. 

19. Tatsu, latent : (a) " up " ; (b) " away." 

nietatsu, nitaisu boil, from nkitaisu be buoyant, excited 

nieru (intr.) or niru (tr.) (p. 263Q. 

nmetateru fill up, oitateru drive away, evict. 

20. Tosu: "thiough." 
fukitosu blow through. 

yaritosU) shitosu put through, carry out. 

21. Tsuku, tsukerii : (a) the idea of approach or attachment 

- " to," " at," " against " ; (b) " happen to." 

kuitsuku bite (of an animal), fukitsukeru blow against. 

natstiku, nazuku become at- kakitsukeru note down. 

tached (p. 252a). nagetsukeru throw at, fling. 

ochitsuku return to a normal takitsukeru kindle. 

condition, become settled, uchitsukeru, buchitsukeni, 

ni oitsuku, ottsuku over- bnttsukeru nail on, throw 

take. a at. 

sabitsuku get rusty, from sa~ yosetsukeru bring close. 

blru rust. iitsukeru, moshitsukeru, ose- 
siigaritsuku cling fast, from tsukerii (polite 2) tell, 

sugaru cling. command. 

suitsuku take hold by suction, yattsukeru overcome, scold. 

a Compare the adverb ottsuke presently. 


kikitsukeru happen to hear, kangaetmku, omoitsuku hap- 
overhear. pen to think of, call to 

mitsukeru, viekkeru happen mind, invent. 

to see, discover. 

The expressions kikitsukete imasu, mitsukete imasu^ mean also 
" be accustomed to hear/' " be used to seeing." 

22. Tsukusu (intr. tsukiru) exhaust : "all." 
mitsukusu see all. 

shitsukusu, yaritsukusu do everything possible. 

23. Tsumeru, tsumaru : "to the utmost." 
iitsumeru silence (in an argument). 
oitmmeni corner. 

senjitsumeru boil down, from senzuru make a decoction. 
ikitsumaru get to a place where one can go no further. 

24. Tsuzuku, tsuzukert4 : " continuously." 
furitsuzuku fall continuously (of rain, etc.). 

teritsuzitku continue bright (of the weather). 
nomitsuzukeru keep on drinking. 
yaritsuzukeru, shitsuzukeru keep on doing. 


(Include the compounds given above.) 

ami net, kai-gara empty shell (of a 
him leech. shellfish). 

ike pond. kdji (ko-micht) lane, alley. 

kakoi enclosure (from kakou naga-ya row of houses under 

enclose). one roof, tenement house. 

kama kettle, pot for cooking, no, hara, no-hara plain, moor, 
mart ball. prairie. 

mini corner. nusubito thief. 

sune shin. o-dori main street. 

ari-sama state, condition. yo-ake daybreak. 

kai shell, shellfish. osandon servant girl. a 

a O San was once a very common name for girls; don is from deno, a title 
like sama, san. Compare Sansuke, the name by which the attendant at a 
public bath is usually called. The term osandon, like gejo or kahi, is applicable 
only to those who do menial work in the kitchen, etc. A servant girl of 
higher rank is jo-chu or naka-bataraki. 




hei fence, wall (p. 1293). 
jo,jd-mae lock. 
wan bay. 

bosan Buddhist priest (p. 28 2f). 
chi-e wisdom, sagacity. 
en kwai banquet. 
jo feeling, affection, passion. 
go-jo stubbornness (go = tsu- 

yoi, kowai). 

gojd wo haru be obstinate. 
hos-shin [Buddhist] icligious 

conversion (lit. arouse spirit). 
hyj-satsu name tablet fastened 

to a gatepost, doorplate. 
i-shi will, volition 
kei-kwaku plan, scheme. 
nai-kaku cabinet, ministry. 
nan-gi hardship. 
nes-shin zeal, enthusiasm (lit. 

heat spirit). 

nin-tai patience, fortitude. 
ri-eki profit, advantage. 
set- to political party. 
tetsu-bin iron teakettle. 
ton-jaku concern. 
ya-chin rent (of a house). 
zei-taku luxury. 
sa-hai-nin real estate agent. 
garasu glass. 
goinu gum, rubber. 

arayuru all. a 

asahaka na superficial. 

tan-ki na impatient, irritable 
(tan = mijikai 9 p. 123). 

zan-koku na cruel. 

mukai no, muko no the op- 
posite (p. 28,3). 

ten-chi-kan no of heaven and 
earth (kan=-aida). 

haneni bounce. 

hirogeru spread out, enlarge. 

magotsuku be perplexed. 

oboreru be drowned. 

todokoru be impeded, delayed, 
in arrears 

yabureru be torn, broken, 
destroyed (tr. yaburtt). 

sarau ) re view 

fuku-shu sum) (a lesson). 

jo-ju sum be accomplished, 
succeed, accomplish. 

ukkari (to) thoughtlessly. 

massaki (ni) at the very 
first. b 

nan-to-naku 7 without any 

nan-da-ka \ special reason, 
without knowing why. c 

fu-i-ni suddenly. 

ichi-men (ni) all over the sur- 


Ano hito wa so itta so des* keredomo t watakushi wa ukkari 
kikioioshimasfita. Ano e wa kakisokonaimastita kara, ima 
(or mo) ichi mai kaite mini tsumori des. Vac kin ga nisan- 

a For arareru. Compare iwayuru (p. 275* top). 

b Compare masshiroi perfectly white, makkuroi jet black^ makkurai pitch 
dark, makka na deep red, massakan full bioom, mannaka the very midst, etc. 
c The second of the two expressions is rather vulgar. See p. 295, line 4 


kagetsu tcdokorimasttta no de sahainin ga okotte uagayaju (jio 
hito] wo oitatemasJita. Kongetsu wa amari kana wo ts kai- 
sugostite mo ichi mon mo naknnatte shimaiuiasJita. Kesa 
yadoya wo tats* toki ni yoku heyaju wo mite kita kara, tori- 
otostita mono wa nai hazu des\ Shinagawa-ivan wo umetatete 
Tokyj-shi wo hirogeyj to iu keikwaku wo slite oru hito n;o 
gosaimas . Kono koji wo ittara, tabun oddri ni derareni darj 
to omoimastita ga, mamonaku ikitsumatte sJiiinaiiiiasJi ta. 
Ittan yankaketa koto wa aku made yarit se. Kono mae no 
Kinyo no asa tazunete kita hito wa nan to iimastitakke ; ikura 
kangaete mo kangaets' kimasen. Ningen no asahaka no chie de 
tenchikan no dori ^vo shirits 1 kuso nado to oinoa no wa chjdo 
kaigara de umi no mizu wo k limits' ku so to in no to onaji koto 
des . J^ochu de deatta omoshiroi koto wo mina nikki ni kaki- 
ts kete okimasJita. Anata no o hanashi de omoitsuita koto ga 
gozaimas* . Kono setsu no yo ni teritsuzuite wa ta ga warete 
ine ga karete shimaimasho. Gomu no marl wo itabei ni 
nagets 1 keru to t hanekaerimas . Kono ko wa kan ga okotta to 
miete, s* koshi ki ni iran koto ga aru io t nan de mo kamawazii 
te ni motle irn mono wo nagets 1 kete kowaslite shiuiaimas . Ano 
zainin wa iroiro tazuneraremash'ta ga nanigoto mo shirami 
shiranu to itte gojo wa fiaritdshimasJita. J.mae ga sabitsuite 
tansu no hikidashi ga akimasen. Bis mar k' wa isha no tsuyoi 
hito de, hantai-to ga ikura yakauiashii koto wo itte mo, ikkj 
tonjaku naku kesstite jibun no kangae wo magezu ni, aku made 
oshitosWta kara y hitobito wa " tekketsu saishj " to moshi- 
masfita. a Ano hito wa makoto ni mimi no hayai hito de 
yofwnaka no koto wa nan de mo massaki ni kikits kemas\ Aits' 
wa amari jibunkatte na koto bakari iu kara, hidoku yaHs* kete 
yatta. Isshjkemmei ni okkakemash'ta keredomo> totJ otts 1 - 
kikanemastita. Konoaida Ikao ye iku toki ni, hi wa kureru, 
hara wa suku^ hijd ni nangi shimasJita ga t kuriima ni mo 
norazu ni, toto mnkj made arukitoshimasli ta. Boku no ie wa 
ura ga nohara ni natte oru no de,fuyu ni naru to, yuki ga Juki- 


a From tetsu iron, ketsu blood, sai-sho prime minister. A prime minister is 
now called more commonly sori-daijin. 

b Ikao is a famous hot spring in Joshu not very far from Maebashi. After 
kureru and suku the disjunctive particle shi might be added to complete the 
grammatical construction ; but in order to make the situation more vivid it 
is omitted. 


is kete fiisu ni koniaru. Hito ga mizu ni oboreyd to sum baai 
ni wa nan de mo kamaivazu sugarits* kimas\ Issho no meshi 
ivo tabets* kush'te sJiimatta no ka ; kimi no taishoku ni wa odoro- 
kiitte sJiimau. a Nusubito ga ushiro no hayashi ni kakurete 
nakanaka wakarimasen destita ga y junsa ga ydyd mekkedashi- 
masJita. Dandan toitsumete itta tokoro ga, muko iva toto iitsu- 
matte shimaimash'ta. Ano bosan wa wakai toki ni wa arayuru 
zeiiaku wo shits kustita hito da so des ga, aru toki senso ni itte 
sono zankoku na arisama wo mite niwaka ni hosskin shta to iu 
koto des' . Yarisokonatta kara, mo ichi do shinaoshimashj. 
\arisokonai no nai hito wa nai keredomo, nesshin to nintai sae 
areba, shimai ni wa joju shimas\ Sendatte kaiireta sekitan 
iva mo takits' kustt te shimaimasti ta. Heya no shoji ga yabu- 
rete kaze ga Jukitoshi na man' des' kara, sakuban to to kaze wo 
hikimash'ta. Toriotoshi no nai yd ni yokti ato wo shirabete o 
/cure. Kono hydsats wo mon ni tic hits' kete oite kure ; hito ga 
tazunete kita toki ni wakaranaide magotsuku to ikenai kara. 
Biir wa sake hodo ni wa yowanai to itte mOj nomisugiru to, 
karada no gai ni naru kara, yahari noman ho ga yoroshii. 

The servant girl rises early in the morning and kindles [a 
fire] under the pot (kama no sh'ta wo). When I went (pres.) 
into the pond with (holding) a net for the purpose of catching 
(thinking that I would catch) fish, at once three or four leeches 
took hold of my shins. It has been raining continuous.y of late ; 
consequently the roads have become extraordinarily bad. I 
must send (dasii) a letter once more, because there is something 
that I omitted in the previous letter. As this box has proved 
to be a failure, I will make another (betsu ni) for you. When 
spring comes (it becomes spring), without any special reason a 
person's spirits (kokoro) are buoyant. He is talented, but is 
apt to spoil things, being impatient. If you put a teakettle 
on a hibacki, the water (yii) boils at once. I thought she was 
an honest person, but misjudged [her]. He chased to a corner 
of the fence the chicken that flew out of the enclosure and at 
last caught (ts kamaeni) it. If I don't note down newly 
learned words one by one (jchiichi) in my notebook and re- 

a From twenty to thirty bowls of cooked rice are considered to amount to 
one sho. For taishoku compare taishokka, p. 16. 


view them often, I soon forget them. As there was suddenly 
a clap of thunder (thunder suddenly sounded), the children 
were frightened arid clung to their mother. I have (there is) 
one more order (iits keru koto); call Gonske back. At the 
banquet last evening four or five tipplers (jogo) having come 
together (yoriait), they kept on drinking until daybreak. The 
dog is ill-natured and dangerous; take care not to bring child- 
ren close to him (his side). As we have already seen about all 
the noted places of Tokyo, we intend soon to go to Kyoto (and 
see). The baiu is (no koto des') a rain that falls continuously 
(every day) at the beginning of summer. When the rainy 
season is over, [the weather] continues bright Hoshi Torn was 
a much criticised man (a man about whom there was consid- 
erable criticism), but he was eminent in that (because) he car- 
ried out his ideas (kangae) to the end. Your affairs (inonogo- 
to) will never succeed if you now stop and again begin, as you 
do (sonna ni) ; what you have once begun you must keep on 
doing to the end. Yesterday as I hurriedly passed by the front 
of the station, ltd happened to see me from a. distance and per- 
sistently called after me {ypbikakeru). Children have thrown 
stones at and broken much of the window-glass. The present 
(iina no) cabinet and the political parties are arguing variously 
(iroiro) ; but if you boil it down, both sides (doc him 1110) are 
thinking only [of] their own advantage. 


C. There are also groups of compounds which we classify ac- 
cording to their first components. In some cases the prefixes 
in a marked degree add to the sense ; in others they are merely 
intensive or practically meaningless. Such a prefix is 'ai, which 
occurs in certain formal phrases, such as : Dandan o stiva ni 
ainariinashite arigato gozaimasu. Konogo mo aikawariuia- 
sezu. My obligations to you are gradually increasing. Please 
continue your favor in the future also, 
i . Furl, from furu shake. 

furikanasu break loose. 

Jurikiru sever forcibly. 

furisuteru abandon. 


2. Hiki, from hiku draw. 

hikiawaseru introduce, com- hikitatsu, hittatsu improve 
pare. a (Jiiitatte mieru look better). 

hikkaesu return (intr.). Jiikitateru favor, encourage. 

hikkakeru suspend. hikitomeru detain. 

hikikomoru stay at home, from hittsukamaeru catch (vulgar). 
komoni be shut up (p. 2393). hikiukeru make one's self re- 

hikkosu remove. sponsible for, take over. 

hikinuku pull up by the root, hikkurikaeru be overturned. 

3. Meshi, from mesu summon, use. 
meshiagaru take (food, drink, etc., 2, 3). 
meshitoru arrest. 

ineshitsukau employ (as a servant). 

4. Mochi, from motsu hold. 
mochidasu offer (a motion or bill). 
mochikuzusu ruin (self or property). 
ni hanashi wo mochikakeru solicit. 

5. Oski, from osu push. 
oshihirogeru spread out, enlarge. 
oshikaeshite kiku ask to repeat. 

oshitsumatte kuru the end of the year approaches. 

6. Sashi, from sasit grow, rise, penetrate. 
sasJiiageru lift up, offer, pre- sashihiku deduct. 

sent. ni sashikakaru approach. 

sashideru intrude (in sashi- sashitsukaeru be hindered, 

degamashii, p. 1 10). embarrassed, from tsukaeru 

sashidasu offer, present, send be obstructed. 

(freight, mail, etc.). 

7. Tachi, from tatsu stand. 
tachikaeru return. 

tachidomaru stop while walking, from tomaru stop. 
tachiyoru call in passing. 

8. Tori, from torn take. 

toriatsukau manage, treat. torikaeru exchange. 
toriawaseru combine. torikesu retract. 

a Many of these words are becoming obsolete. Thus shokai sum is more 
common than hikiaivaseru in the sense of " introduce " ; tei-shutsu suru, than 
vicefiidasu; shik-kd surtt, than toriokonau, etc. 



ni torifcakaru commence 
work on. 

torikususu tear down. 

torimatomeru gather all to- 
gether, settle, from mato- 
merit bring together, ad- 

ni torinasu take the part of. 
toriokonau administer, per- 
form, celebrate. 

iorishiraberu investigate. 
torishimaru supervise. 
torisoroeru gather all together. 
Uchi, from utsu strike. 

ni uchikatsu overcome. 
uchiakeru open (the heart), be candid. 
nchitokete hanasu speak frankly or familiarly. 
uchitsuzuku continue a long time. 

utcharu, from xchiyaru, throw away, reject, let alone. 

bukkifu, for buchikiru, hack. 

bunnaguru, for buchinaguru, thrash, drub, from naguru beat. 

totitsugu transmit, announce 

(a visitor). 
ni toritsuku attach one's 

self to. 

tottsukamacru catch (vulgar). 
toriyoseru have sent to 

one's self, procure, import. 
toriisogu be in a hurry. 
torikomu be crowded, busy 

(of a house, hotel or store). 
torimagireru be in confusion, 

distracted, from the rare 

verb magireru (p. 202). 


(Include the compounds given above) 


mizore sleet. 

ori opportunity. 

toride fort, stronghold, 

hari-tsuke crucifixion. a 
tachi-ki standing tree. 
tamoto (te, moto] lower part. 

of [Japanese] sleeve (which 

serves as a pocket). 

gi (c) righteousness, trusti- 
ness, loyalty. 

ski city. 

zen mae front. 

bu-shi samurai. b 

cko-nin one of the trading 
class, merchant (p. 293b). 

chu-i attention, heed, care. 
fu-fu man and wife. 

a A " cross " is haritsuke-bashira. The Christian term is ju-ji-ka t from juji 
the character for lo (-|-) and ka erection, frame. 

b From bu brave and ski man or samurai. Compare gi-shi loyal samurai^ 
from gi righteousness. 




gi-an bill 


(in a deliberative 

assembly). a 
gwan-sho, negai-sho (gwan 

= negai ) peti tion. 
haku-jo confession. 
hyo-iaen surface, exterior. 
jiki-so direct appeal. 
kan-ja spy. 

ko-jin = mukasJu no Iiito. 
kok-ka (kokii kuni> ka = ie) 


ko-nj virtue, efficacy, effect. 
sai-kuii wife (familiar). 
shi-shutsu (proncd. shishitsii) 

shu-nyu income, receipts. 
so-han coarse food (polite i). 
soku-ryo surveying'. 
zai-moku lumber. 
zan-kin (nokotta kani) bal- 

dai-gi-shi representive (in 


ho-shu-to conservative party. 

tonnem 1 t , jmlel 

do mon j 

koiskii beloved, affectionate. 

tsurenai heartless. 

hisoka na secret. 

nodoka na calm. 

samasaina na (no) various. 

shi-ritsu no private (opposite 
kwanritsu no established 
by the Government). 

osaeru repress, hold back, 

tabi-datsit set out on a jour- 

nori-ki 111 naru fall in with 
a proposal. 

izure in some way or other,, 
at all events. b 

tokkuri (to) attentively, thor- 
oughly, fully. 

sono ba cie on the spot. 

age-ku ni nnally, besides all 


WatakusJii no tauioto ivo osaefe sti kiri ni hikitomeyo to shi- 
mastita kcredoino zeki kaeranakereba naranai koto ga uru to 
itte mnri ni furihanastite nigete mairiinastita. Tadaima 
oide nas'tta o kata wa zonjiuiasen kara, djzo go shokai (o Jii- 
kiawase) wo negaimas*. Clioinen ni hikiaivasete yoku shira- 
bete mimasho. Mukashi Hangaku to in onna ga ariuiasJita 
ga, hijo ni chikara no tsnyoi onna de, uuia ni notte i nagara 
tachiki wo hiklnnite teki to tattakaia to iu koto des '. Iina Ha- 
yasJii kun no ucJii ye itte kita ga. saikun no iwareru ni wa 

a From gi discussion and an plan. Compare gi sum discuss, gi-kelsu sum 
take a vote (Jsa-ketsu snru adopt, hi-ketsu sum reject), gi-in member of a deliber- 
ative assembly, gi t/io president, gi-ji parliamentary business ( ji-=koto], giji d~> 
assembly hall, etc. A motion is dd-gi y from do move. 

b Izure is properly a classical relative pronoun. 


anata no o taku ye agaru to itte sakihodo dekaketa a to iu koto 
de atta kara, tabun tochu de ikicJiigattaro to oinotte sugu ni 
hikkaesJite kimasJita. Sakura Sogoro ga shogun ni jikiso wo 
stita no gafutstigo da to iu no de yakunin wa Sogorj wo mesti- 
totte harits ke ni shimastita. Konoaida hoshuto no daigishi ga 
kj iu gian wo teishutsu shimastita (mochidashimastitd}. Dan- 
dan oshitsitmatte mairimasJfte sazo o isogashu gozaimasha. b 
Sohan wo sashiagefo gozaimas kara, c koinban roku ji ni oide 
kudasaimashi. Chodo yamasaka ni sashikakatta toki ni mizore 
ga Juridastite kita no de hidoku nangi wo ita shimastita. Shi- 
baraku tachidomatte kestiki wo nagamete imas 1 to, ushiro kara 
tomodachi ga kite fui ni kata wo tataita no de bikkuri itashi- 
mastita. Kyu na go yj wo osets 1 kerarete mydgonichi Hokkai- 
do ye shuttatsu senakereba naranai kara^ kimono nado wo 
hayaku lorisoroete o kure. Hei, kashikomariinasli ta. Matsu- 
shirna ni Zaimokushima c to iu domon no yd ni ana ga aite 
sono naka wo fune no toreru shima ga arimas'ga^ anata zua 
go ran ni narimastita ka. Iie t amari toriisogimastita mon y 
des kara, tsui miotoshimasti ta. Mukashi no samurai wa 
chonin nado ga burei na koto wo suru to, daikon ya gobo wo 
kiru yj ni sugu ni buchikitte shimatta mon des . Tada hyd- 
menjo no ts'kiai bakari de naku tagai ni ucJiitokete hanashi 
wo stite minakereba, kito no kokoro wa totei yokuwakaru mono 
de wa arimasen. Ano tetsudo wa hajime shiritsu no kwaisha 
de yarikakemastita ga, nochi ni seifu de hikiukemastita. 
Suzuki sail ni hanashi -wo mochikakete mimastita ga, sappari 
norlki ni naranai no de komatte shimaimastita. Muko no iu 
koto ga wakdranakatta kara, oshikaestite tazunemasttta. Mu- 
kashi no bushi wa gi no tame ni 7va itsu nandoki de mo inochi 
wo sashidastite kakatta mono des'. f Doits no kanja ga 

a. The sentence from anata to dekaketa is a direct quotation. It is quite 
legitimate to repeat polite words addressed to one's self. But comp. p. i26d. 

b In Japan at the close of the year it is customary to settle all accounts and 
every one is busy. 

c A suitable formula for inviting a person to a meal. 

d Go yd Government business. Hok-kai-do (lit. north sea way) designates Ezo 
and the Kuriles. Observe that do, like cho (p. 95e), may mean a " district" as 
well as a " road." 

e The columns of rock look like piles of lumber. 

f The idea expressed by kakatla is that o( undertaking (to serve a master 
or cause). 


soka ni F* rails' no toride wo sokuryo stita no de F' reins' jin ni. 
totts kamaeraremastita. Irolro torikonde orimas kara> ori wo 
mite tokkiiri go sodan itashimasho. Bunnagtitte yarj / a Ai- 
kawarazu o hikitate wo negaimas\ b Ekaki wa iroiro enogu wo 
toriaivasete samazama no iro wo dashimas . Wataknski mo 
o me ni kakatte o wabi wo mjshiageru Isumori des ' ga, anata 
kara mo nanibun yorosJi kit sensei ni o torinashi wo negaimas . 
Konna ni fuskiazvase na koto bakari uchitsuzuita ageku ni ana- 
ta ni made sj tsurenaku saremastite wa mo toritsuku skim a ga 
gozaimasen. b Asu san ji kara sotsugyosttki wo shikko suru 
(toriokonau) so des\ Shunyu wa hyakit yen de shishutsu wa 
hachi jii go yen kit jissen naraba, sasJiihiki zankin wa ju yo 
yen jissen ni narimas '. Shinnen ni naru to, nantonaku no- 
doka de wakai toki ni tachikaetta yd na kokochi ga itashimas\ 
Kono hon wa kami ga nukete imas'kara, Jioka no to torikaete o 
kure. Ani to uchiakebanashi wo sJi te imasJita. 

Many men for the sake of [their] country have severed ties of 
affection (koishii naka) between (of) parent and child (p. 225 
a), husband and wife, gone to war and died in battle. Please 
introduce me to that gentleman. The child is crying, having 
flown (Jiikkakerii) its kite on a tree. I should like to enlarge 
my grounds {yastiki) and plant plenty of trees. They present- 
ed a petition to the Home Office. Happening to pass by (be- 
cause I passed by) your gate {go mon-zen\ I have just called for 
a moment ; some other time (izure) I will soon visit you again. 
As I am a little in a hurry, I will now be excused (p. 262. 
middle). Since the old castles were mostly torn down after the 
Restoration, there are now not many (amari) left. As (tori] 
the ancients said, it is not so (sahodo) difficult to overthrow the 
rebels (zokti) in the mountains (san-chu no or yama no naka 
no), but it is truly not easy to overcome the rebels in one's heart 
(shin-chu no or kokoro no naka no). Abandoning wife and 
children, he set out for (ye) a distant place. The street car 
line was started by a private company (is one that a private 
company established mdkerii), but later the City Office (de) 

a This is, of course, a vulgar expression. 

b We have here the figure of one lost at sea. 

c Hikiaivasete kudasai, or, more commonly, go shokai ivo ncgaimasii. 


may possibly (ka mo shirenaf) take it over. He ruined himself 
(;;// wo) by (ni) profligacy and caused (;// kakerii) his parents 
much (hijo ni) anxiety. There is nothing at all, but I will give 
(pres) you what happens to bj on hand. The robber was 
caught on the spot, but did not confess. The goods you have 
ordered (go chum on no) will all be gathered together by to- 
morrow and delivered at (ye) your house (p. 261, bottom). As 
evening came (yugata ni natte) and we approached a mountain 
road (yamasaka) we were greatly perplexed. At the close (kure) 
of the year all [ houses] are busy. I (go) will make myself respon- 
sible for this matter (wa i) and settle it. As I must go quickly 
(kyu tii), I am distracted on account of the preparations (sh'taku 
wo sum no de). Does it also happen that (koto mo arimas ka) 
lamps are overturned by earthquakes? If you put (ts ktni) a 
red lining into this garment, it will look very much better. 
As he employs many people, he ought to be more careful (mot- 
to chui sum). Though you print (dasii) a disavowal (iorikeshi) in 
the newspaper, it will not have (there will not be) much effect. 


In previous chapters attention has been called to the propriety 
of using certain special verbs and special inflections in speak- 
ing to superiors or to those to whom one wishes to show respect. 
A little attention to the original sense of an honorific expression 
is often sufficient to explain its usage. Thus yonde ageru (p. 
849 is more polite than yonde yarn (p. 28QC), because ageru 
means properly "lift up " ; oshiete itadaku (p. 227) is more 
respectful than oshiete morau (p. 250), because the original 
meaning of itadaku is "'put on the head." There are also 
honorific inflections, as in nasaru, from nasu, and irassharu, 
from iru (pp. 181, 268), changing ordinary verbs into forms 
which it would be utterly ridiculous to use of one's self. 

Polite verbs may be divided into two classes, humiliatives 
and exaltatives. 

I. There are humble verbs which are used properly in the 
first person. 

Such a verb is mosu say (p. 2O/a). Mosu may also be used 


in the third person, to show respect to the one, addressed. It 
may even be used in the second person, either when it is 
desired to impress upon the one addressed the fact that he is 
inferior or when the one addressed is not a superior and his act 
concerns a very exalted personage. But these are rare excep- 
tions to the rule that verbs of the humble class are not used in 
the second person. The student will remember that in the 
sense of " do " mosu is also used with stems of verbs a together 
with the honorific o, and that itasii is used with stems of verbs 
and o, or with Chinese compounds with or without^? (p. 216, 
12). The very formal tsukamatsuru is used just like itasu, 
though less frequently ; e. g., Do tsukamatsurimashite (comp. 
p. 2t8d). A still rarer variant is tatematsuru (lit. offer), borrow- 
ed from the literary language for use (without o) in prayer 
and in speaking of what is done to or for the Sovereign. 

The humble expression for " receive " is itadaku or cho- 
dai itasu, used also in a peculiar way with subordinatives as 
described in Ch. LV. Another humble term is komuru, used 
of favors or commands. Still another 13 tamawaru, used of 
favors or gifts. The compound uketainaivaru is used only in 
the sense of " hear." 

" See " is hai-ken itasu, from hai=ogamu, ken=^miru y used 
of the possessions of others, letters from others, etc. k Com- 
pare hai-shaku borrow, from shaku=*kariru. " Show " is go 
ran ni ireru or o me ni kakem (p. 4-j.a). O me ni kakaru 
means " meet." 

Moshiageru means properly " say." It is used like mosu. 
In some localities it may also be used in the sense of " give," 
but this is a provincialism, " Give " is sashiageru or skin-jo 
itasu (shin-tei itasu, tei-jd itasii). 

" Go " or "come" is maim ; "go" or "come" to the house 
of the one addressed is agani ; e.g.. o rei ni agaru come to 
express one's obligations, o kuyami ni agaru come to condole, 

a Mosu differs from itasu in that its use is limited to acts affecting the one 
addressed. In a few instances it may be used with go and a Chinese compound, 
but not when the compound is in itself honorific ; e. g., go annai mosu, go shokai 
mosu, go henkyakit mosu return (a borrowed article), but never chedai tudsu, or 
Jiaikeii mosu 

b Ilniken itasu may not be used of seeing a person; but a physician will say: 
Go ydtai ico haiken itashimasho, or even : Go i>vonin ivo Jiaiken itashifiiasho. One 
also sny : A'oiulo o ntaare nets' f to. o ko san 7;>o haiken ilctsJiitai. 


o yorokobi ni agaru come to congratulate. The formal verbs 
sanzuru(san = mairti) and-san-j? itasu are synonymous with 
agaru, and so is the rather rare makari-ideru, inakari being a 
prefix taken from the classical language. 

2. There are also verbs that are used to exalt the person 
addressed, or a third person. 

The student is already familiar with the uses of nasaru, ku- 
dasaru and ni naru (pp. 190, 278). The very formal asobasu 
or asobasareru is used just like nasaru, especially by ladies ; but 
the regular causative, asobaseru, retains the original sense of 
" cause to play. The exaltative corresponding to tatematsuru 
is tamau (but see also p. 246, top). 

"Use " is mesu (lit. summon); e. g., ride in rikshas, etc., is 
kuruma ni mesu, put on clothes is kimono wo mesu, take a 
bath is o yu wo mesu or o yu ni mesu. a " Eat," " drink " or 
" smoke " is agaru or meshi- agaru. 

" See " is go ran nasaru. The old contracted form gorozuru 
or gorojiru is now rare, except in theaters. 

"Say" is ossharu, derived from the now rare verb bseru. 
It should be noted that the honorific form of m'su, namely,, 
mosareru, is polite even in the second person. 

For "go," "come," "be," we have irassharu or oide nasaru 
(p. 190). Of the Emperor the words (o) mi-yuki or gyo-ko 
nasaru {ni naru, asobasareru, ga aru, etc,) are used; of the 
Empress or Crown Prince, (o) miyuki or gyb-kei (gy5=yuku. 

" Retire," " go to bed " is gyo-shin ni naru, commonly 
contracted to geshinaru, from gyo, a variant of go, and shin 
= neru go to bed. 

Note that there is a limit to the reduplication of honorifics. 
Thus we may say irasshaimashi and irassk'tte kudasai, but 
not irasshari nasai or irasshari ni natte itadakitai. It should 

a For the use of mesu as a prefix see the previous chapter, jlfes.'t also occurs 
as a suffix in the honorific oboshimesu deign to think, which is used in the 
colloquial, especially in the form dboshitneshi thought. Theveib kikoshiinesit 
cle : gn to hear, has passed from the sense of " hear," to that of " govern," and 
from this to the sense of" eat" or "drink,'' which it now has in the colloqui- 
al. One may say ironically: Sitzuki kun wa ippai kikoshimeshife imasti kara. 
nakanaka genki ga yd gozaimasu. Suzuki is animated, having taken a drink, 
The verb shitvshttnesti deign to know, does not appear in the colloquial except 
rarely in the .sense of govern." 


be remembered that in very formal speech the ending masuru 
is more appropriate than masu. 




W*"" } a cold. 
fu-ja > 

hago shuttlecock (also hane). 
hago- ita battled ore. 
ni-gao portrait, likeness. 
oshi-e a picture in relief made 

of stuffed pieces of cloth. 
habntae a kind of thin silk 

cloth. a 
tan a piece of cloth between 

ten and eleven yards long. 
hiki a piece of cloth contain- 
ing two tan. 
uta isshu one poem (shu 

go byj o tamaya ancestral 

shrine, sepulcher. b 
ai-satsu salutation, answer. 
baku-fu the government of 

the shogun. 

bun-ko library. c 

dan-shi~otoko no ko boy,, 
male, man. 

jo-shionna no ko girl, fe- 
male, woman. 

nn-pitsu lead pencil. 

Ju-kwai displeasure, indispo- 
sition (fu&wai desu is in- 

han-jd prosperity (hanjd suru 
be prosperous). 

hei-ka His (or Her) Majesty.. 6 

kai-sei revision. 

rei-fuku ceremonial dress. 

sei-sho a clean copy. 

ski-ken examination. 

shin-nen new year. 

shihan-gakkj normal school. 

yo-dateru furnish, lend. 

mazu first of all, on the 
whole, well. 

hito-mazu once, for a while. 


O tsue wo o mochi asobashimaslita (asobasaiinasttta) ka. 
Sayo. jisan itashimastita, shikashi dochira ye okimash ta ka 


a Undyed habutae is exported in large quantities. 

b This term is applied to the sepulchers of shoguns and daimyos. 
sepulcher of an Emperor is go ryo or tm-sasagi. 

c Libraries are now generally called sho~jak-kwan or to-sho-kivan (sho or 
shaku, seki book, to, xu, drawing). 

d The word heika is frequently used by itself as a designation of the 
Emperor. It is derived from hei steps, ka beneath. The corresponding title 
of a prince is denka ; of a high official, kakka. Another term used in speaking 
of the Emperor is shu-jd (shu lord, jo=ue]. 

312 THE VERB [i.xx 

zonjimasen. Danna san wa doko ni irasshaimas* ka. Hei, 
tadaima yu ni haitte irasshaimas\ Mada go hon wo hatshaku 
sh te orimas* ga, o iriyo nara, hitomazu o kaeshi moshimashd. 
O seisho wo c hot to haiken (itash'to gozaimas). O cha wo mo 
ippuku meshiagare. Arigatj, jiyu ni chodai itashimas . 
Sakuban ku ji goro w/ a go monzen wo torimasJita kara, c hot to 
4) yori moshimasJita ga, mohaya geshinatte irasshaimasli ta. 
Sore wa osoreirimasti ta; yube waf'kivai de arimashte hayaku 
yasumimasJita. Domo, kaneire ga inienaku narimasli ta ; 
hobo wo sagastite mo doko ye itta ka ivakarimasen. Anata 
sakujitsu o mesJii nastta zubon no kak' sJii wo go ran nasaiina- 
sJila ka. Sakujitsu chotto o rei ni agarimaslita ga, o rusu 
dt gozaiuiastita. Chotto o fude wo haishaku (itasti to gozai- 
mas'). Mata sono uchi (ni) o me ni kakarimasho. b Bakuju 
no jibttn no kwaJiei (zeni or kane) wo go ran nas'fta koto ga go- 
zainias* ka. lie, mada haiken itash'ta koto wa gozaimasen. 
WatakusJii wa uchi ni motte imas kara, tsuide ga attara y o me 
ni kakeinasho. O naina wa tabitabi uketam.awarimasJi ta ga, 
mada ichi do mo o me ni kakatta koto tva gozaimasen. Ima 
Tokei no shiku-kaisei ni c torikakatte oru koto wo o kiki nasai- 
masJtta ka. Sayd, uketamawarimashta. O jo sax, sono o 
hagoita wo chotto haiken sasJite kudasai. Oya, taiso kirei na 
oshie des koto ; kore wa Fnkuske ;/0 d nigao des ka. Makoto 
ni go yakkai ni narimasJite arigatj zonjimas '. DJ is kama- 
tsurimaslite. Senjitsu o Jianashi moshimasJita koto wa, hito ni 
kiite mimastttara, watakushi no moshimasJita tori de mo 
nakereba, anata no osshatta tori de mo nai so des\ e Kono hon 
iva naikaku no bunko kara haishaku sfita no des\ Anata 
Tokyo ye oide no Jibuti ni kwokyo wo haiken nasaimastita ka. 
lie, haiken itasJtimasen desJita. Konaida shinnen no o utakwai 

a Translate : about nine o'clock. The addition of^jw ni (p. 370) makes the 
expression vague. 

b An expression used in parting from a friend. 

C From shi city, ku division, district ward. In this connection the term 
has reference to the straightening and widening of (he streets. 

d Fukusuke was a famous actor in Tokyo. Battledores are often decora) ed 
with portraits of famous personages done in brocade. 

e The conditional inflection in nakereba takes the place of a conjunction 
<p. 148, I, 2). 


ni 9 - tenshi sama mo o uia wo isshu o yomi asobasareinash'ta. 
llsu o yu ni o me ski nasaimas* ka. Yu ga deki shidai kairima- 
shi. O meshiwono wa dore wo o meshi ni narimas ka (dore 
ni nasaimaskd). Go reij' ku de gozaimas'ka. Nani wo o 
meshi ni iiarimas*ka. Kono habutae ivo ippiki kaimasho. 
Amari tak'san de nakereba, go yodate mos koto mo dekimas*. 
Shitsurei fiagara go men wo komurimasJite koko kara go ai- 
satsivo mosJiiagemas '. b Komban wa o tomari asobase na. 

Have you seen photographs of the sepulcheis at (of) Nikko? c 
No, I have not yet seen them ; I should like to see them if I 
might be permitted to do so (ainarimasureba or narimasuru koto 
nara). 1 have none, but I will borrow (borrowing come) them 
from a friend and show them to you. Did you see the Emper- 
or's palace when you went to Tokyo ? Yes, I saw it, but I did 
not think it at all magnificent, d Which clothes (o meshimono) 
will you wear ? Bring (dasti) the swallowtail ; for I am going 
(deni) to an evening party to-night. I have come to return 
the umbrella (p kasd) that I borrowed recently. The bath is 
now hot (boiling) ; will you take it at once ? Please lend me 
your lead pencil a moment. Did the fife break out after (ato 
destita ka) you went to bed ? No, it was when all in the 
house (uchiju no mono go) were still up. e I have brought 
some old coins to show you (thinking I should like to show 
you). Recently Her Majesty the Empress f went to the Female 
Normal School and viewed the examinations (of the pupils). 
Won't you please return for a while the book that I loaned 
you (go yodate mostite oila). I should like to inquire (ukagatt) 
what you think (how is your thought) in regard to this matter. 
Receiving your kind favors (o hikitate) we are prospering more 
and more (oioi). You are catching (mesu) a cold. 

a An uta-kiuai is a party at which each member composes a poem on some 
assigned theme. Because it is the Emperor's party it is called o n/akwai or on 

b Said in a party when it is inconvenient for a person to leave his seat to 
make his bows before a friend. 

c When honorific verbs are used, personal pronouns are generally 

d Translate : kodai to iva onioivaretnasen deshita. For k'od'ri see p. 340. The 
expression to oniou may be used not only with verbs and adjectives, but also 
with nouns: Ano o kata ivo Shinnjin to omoitnashita. I thought he was a 

e Either : Mada okite oni toki, or : dare ino yasutnaiiai uchi. 

f In very formal speech ni ?ua takes the place of TI-YZ. 



Adverbs may be divided into the following groups : 

1. Adverbial forms of adjectives ending in i. 

2. Adverbs formed by means of the particle ni. 

3. Adverbs formed by means of the particle to. 

4. Duplicatives. 

5. Substantives used as adverbs of time, place, degree, etc. 

6. Subordinates of certain verbs. 

7. Ordinary adverbs. 

In general it is to be observed that the Japanese often em- 
ploys adverbs where the English does not (Ch. XVIII.), and 
vice versa. 

On the formation of adverbs from adjectives proper see 
Chapters XI. and XXX, Sometimes the contracted form, as, 
for instance, yd for yoku, is used with other verbs besides gozai- 
masif, while the uncontracted form in ku is sometimes used 
with gozaimasu : 

Yd oide nasaimashita> Welcome ! b 

Takaku wa gozaimasen. It is not at all dear. 
The adverb yoku is used in various senses : 

Yoku irasshaiiuashita. I am glad you came. 

Yoku kimasu. He comes often. 

Yoku wa shiriinasen ga. I don't know exactly, but... 

Yoku nite imasti. It is very much like it. 

Yoku anata wa Nihongo wo wasuremasen. 

It is remarkable that you don't forget your Japanese. 
The adverb yoku enters into a few compounds : 

Jiodo-yoku agreeably, satisfactorily, moderately. 

ori-yoku opportunely (opp. ori-ashiku). 

shubi-yoku successfully, from shu-bi head and tail. 

t nig j- yoku con ve n i en tly . 

a Fuku-shi, from fukn=soeni add. 

b The particle fcoso is often inserted here for emphasis: Yd koso oide 
kudasa imastita. 


1 'Adverbial expressions are frequently formed by combining 
naku with substantives. The addition of mo " even " makes- 
them emphatic : 

ma-mo-naku immediately, from ma interval. 
hodo (mo) naku " in no time," from hodo quantity. 
wake-mo-naku unreasonably, exceedingly, from wake reason. 
machigai (mo) naku, so-i (mo) naku without fail, surely. 
itashikata (mo) naku. ze-hi (mo) naku (comp. p. i6oa) per- 
force, of necessity. 

omoigake (mo) naku unexpectedly, from omou and kakeru. 
oshigc-mo-naku ungrudgingly, from oshii regrettable and 

ke in keshiki appearance. 
oyami (mo) naku incessantly (of rain), from o little and 

yami pause. 

taenia (mo) naku uninterruptedly, from tae-ma cessation. 
(go) en-ryo (mo) naku without reserve. 
toho-wo-naku extraordinarily, outrageously, from to way 

ho direction. 

zo-sa (mo) naku without trouble, easily. 

Corresponding adjectives in nai are also in use. a Note also 
nan-lo-naku, for nan to iu koto (or wake) mo naku, without any 
special reason, not knowing why or how. 

In the cases of some adverbs in ku the corresponding adjec- 
tives are wanting or occur only in the literary language : 

shibaraku ( = classical shibashi) for some time, for a while. 
sukoshiku = sukoshiz. little, somewhat. 
koto goto ku altogether, entirely, thoroughly. 
gctoku=yo ni as, like (an no gotoku as was expected). 
The particle ni is often added, pleonastically, to gotoku. 
Observe the idiom in osor oshii takai shina, tohdmonai takai 
mono, where we should expect the adverbial forms osoroshiku, 

The adverbs fiku far and chikaku near are often used like 

a The expression wake mo nai has, however, the sense of " not difficult " : 
Sore iva betsudan ivake mo nai koto desu. That is not specially difficult. The 
idiom ni soi (ga or wa] nai or ni chigai nai is often used at the conclusion 
of a sentence to add emphasis: Kuru ni soi nai. He will certainly c me. 
Compare: Ano hito no iu koto ni iva machigai ga nai. There is no mistake in 
what he says. 


substantives : toku ga, 1oku ye y toku wade, etc. Compare okn 
no many (p. 50). oku *va for the most part. 

The frequent idiom Mattaku desho is apparently elliptical 
for : Mattaku, so d?sho. It is probably quite true. 

The particles ta mo added t > an adverbial form give it a 
concessive sense (p. 102, 5). 

Note further the following idioms : 
bakarashiku omoit consider foolish. 
wo warn kit iu speak ill of. 

mulsukashiku ieba to use difficult (precise) language. 
Yoroshiku itte kudasai. Please speak a good word for me. 

For yoroshiku negaimasu and kokoroyasuku negaiinasu see 
p. 104, b and c ; for yoroshiku mdsu, p. 2O7a. 

The adverbial form of an adjective is regularly used with 
tiaru (p. 24) and with suru (p. 212, 2): kuroku naru become 
black, kuroku suru make black ; nakunaru disappear, nakusu 
(rii) lose, etc. The inflections of the adjective are derived from 
the adverbial form and a* u. From the imperative are we have 
osokare hayakare sooner or later (lit. be it late, be it early) 
=-so-ban so 



(Include the new adverbs.) 

beni rouge. an thought, expectation, plan. 

beni wo sasu (or tsukent] byd-bu folding screen. a 

apply rouge (p. 24Od). en-ki postponement. 

kumo cloud. hyd-dai title (of a book). 

kuchi-biru lips. jo-yaku contract, treaty. 

kazari decoration. ki-gen temper, state of 
matsu-kazari Yew Year's dc- health. b 

coration = kado-matsii (p, rei-ten zero (naught point). 

133). sei-cho growth. 

a A byd bit may have two, four, six, or eight leaves. A single-leaf screen 
standing on a base is called tsuitate, 

b See p. 228a. Go kigen yd is a salutation used both in meeting and in 
parting, being elliptical for Go kigen yo lie, or Go kigen yd irnss/ifti. 
Instead of the former one may say to a familiar friend: Go kigen desti ne, ic r 
Go kigtn yd aide desu ne. 


yd-ki cheerfulness (sunlight chijiniu, chijimaru shrink 
spirit). (tr. chijimeru\ 

iai-ko drum. someru dye, 

taiko-mochi buffoon, clown. semaru be narrowed, strait- 

shin (c) new (in composition). ened. 

to (c) this, the said, the in ni semaru approach, op- 
question (in composition). a press. 

medetai fortunate. b shi-tsukeru train. 

sabishii, samushii lonely, kite hi ga kakaru be in demand 
dreary. (of singing girls, etc.). 

iimai clever, well done. sayd-nara good-bye (lit. if it 

o seji no ii courteous, obsequi- be so), 


Taiso yoku matsukazari ga dekimash'ta, Kono honyaku wa 
umaku dekimask'ta. Kono sara wa taiso us'ku dekite iiuas '. 
Yorosti ku o agari nasai. c Sonna koto wa bakarasJi ku oinoi- 
mas. Ano hito wa itsu mo osoku nemas'kara, yoku asane wo 
shimas . Matsubara san wa yoku ivatakushi no nchi yt 
kimas\ Osoroshii takai mon da. Ano taikomochi wa o seji 
ga ii kara, yoku kuchi ga kakariuias\ d HisasK ku sake wo- 
nomiuiasen kara, nonde mini to, e hidoku yoimastita. Hido- 
ku atsku naru to, hi ni (a day) ni do zutsu mizu wo abimas\ 
Nihon de wa gwanjitsu no asa hayaku wakai hito ga ido ye 
mizu wo kumi ni ikimas ; sono mizu wo wakamizu to 
mdshimas 1 . Duzo o kamai naku. f Tonen wa Hakodate no 

a Td-iiin he or she ; to-Jw de iva we to-ji, to-setsit at this time (sono lo-ji at 
the time of which we have been speaking); to-bun for the present; to-nen this 
year; to-hani this spring ; to-jitsu the day in question, etc. Ano uma wa tosai no 
ko desu. That horse was born this year (comp. p. 74, middle). The word hon- 
is similarly used. 

b O inedelo gozainiatti. I congratulate you. SJiinnen o medelo, or Akemashite 
o mcdtto. Happy New Year ! 

c Eat as much as you like ! The expression is not one of the most refined. 

d Taikomochi are male (rarely old women) professional entertainers belong- 
ing to the same class as the young women called gei-sha. They are not so 
numerous as the latter. 

e Lit. if I drink and observe (the result); translate, "when I tried to 

f An elliptical expression : Never mind (about entertaining me). Don't 
let me disturb you. From kamau heed, mind. 



fuiie ga osoku tfkimash'ta no de yjyaku tadaiuui shin- sake 
(shinjake) ga miatarimasJi ta. a Oya> danna, hisasJi ku o mie 
nasaimasen desh'ta ne ; itsu mo go kigen de kekkj des\ Ho- 
doyoku itte okimasho.^ Hodoyoku sh'te agemashj. F ' kaku 
hotte mita keredomo, koko wa mizu ga demasen. Ni do bikku- 
ri to wa nan no koto des'ka. Hajime taiso yoku omotte ita 
koto ga> ni dome ni mint to. taiso hajime to cJiigatte oru no de 
odoroku koto des'. c Ano hito wa dare no koto de mo warukit 
iimas > kara t watakushi wa waruku iware e mo kamaimasen. 
Fujisan ni nobottara y sazo toku made mieinasho. fie, taitei 
kumo ga kakatte iru kara, amari yoku miemasen. Sayonara^ 
go kigen yd. Hon no hyjdai wa taigai mutsukasti ku kaite ari- 
mas\ Kore wa yasasJiku kaite arimas kara, anata ni mo 
wakarimasha. Kiri no ki wa hayaku seichj shimas, . Kono 
daikon wo narubeku us'&u kitte kudasai. Nihon de wa niku 
wo komakaku kitte nimas\ Stiken mo shubiyoku sumimasJite 
o medeto gozaimas\ Bunsho wo ts 1 kuru ni wa narudake yasa- 
stt ku kakanakereba narimasen. Hani iva nantonaku ydki ni 
narimas\ Ota san wa daigakko no sotsugyosti ken wo ukete 
kara hodo (mo) naku kyoju ni narimastita. Kinj wa asa 
kara ban made yuki ga taema naku furimastita no de san- 
jaku bakari tsumorimash'ta. Sore wa, mutsukasJi ku ieba, ka 
in ju ni narimas\ Myoasa ku ji made ni soi naku koshiraete 
agemas . Tochu de omoigake mo naku sensei ni aimastita. 
Sakuban amari samukatta kara, yuki de mo furu ka shiran to 
omottafa, kesa ni natte an no gotoku masshiro ni natte imastita. 
Saigyo wa Yoritomo kara sekkaku moratta gin no neko wo 
oshigemonaku kodomo ni kurete shimaimash' ta. d Bimbo ni 
semararete zehi naku hito no mono wo nusumimaslita. 

In (wa) the fall I fell melancholy ; I don't know why (with- 
out any special reason kokoromochi becomes dreary). Please 

a Hakodate is the chief port of Hokkaido, the island of Ezo ; sake or shake 
salmon; miatarimashita have appeared on the market (lit. have been found). 

b I will speak to him so as to satisfy him. The next sentence means : I 
will fix it to suit you. 

c The phrase ni no bikktiri may also be used in the opposite sense of a 
thing which seemed very bad at first sight, but afterwards proved to be just 
the opposite. 

d A famous Buddhist priest and poet. His conduct in the mattef of the 
silver cat illustrates the Buddhist ideal of indifference to the things of the 


don't think ill [of me]. After he took (iikeru to) his final 
(graduating) examination he immediately became an official. 
Last month it rained continually. To-day we walked about 
seven hours without resting. The sun is up (demaslitii) ; we 
must start immediately. I will dye this red. I cannot wait 
long. If you do not associate a long time (long) with Japanese, 
you cannot learn to speak (Jianasn yd ni nararemaseii) Japanese 
proficiently. Since I am going to the country, I shall (do) 
not see (p me ni kakani) you for some time. The revision of 
the treaties has been postponed (enki ni nani) for a while. 
This dog being well trained, is good-tempered (otonashii) and 
performs various tricks (gel). Yesterday (zva i) it was (became) 
two (4) degrees (5) below (ika 3) zero (2) ; to-day (wa) it has 
become a little warmer. He bought this screen cheap and 
sold it at a high price (highly). The Hakkenden composed 
(ts'kuni) by Bakin is written very interestingly. a Condense 
(chijiimrii) this sentence and make (write) it a little shorter, 
as it is too long. I don't know exactly, but it is probably quite 
true. As this mountain is low, one cannot see (iniemaseii) far. 
Please explain it minutely once more ; I do not yet clearly (Jiak- 
kiri} understand. Japanese ladies often apply rouge to their 
lips. As that is a newly made (dekita) word, ordinary (atari- 
mae no) people will hardly understand it. That is outrageously 
dear. He used up (entirely) all the money he had (aru dake 
no kane). Isn't it exceedingly cold to-day? A friend coming 
opportunely, I was helped [out of my difficulties]. 


As we have observed (Chapters XXXIIL, XXXIV.), sub- 
stantives which with na or no form adjectives may with the 
particle ni serve as adverbs ; e. g., 

oino ni mainly, chiefly. 
oki ni greatly. 
inuyami ni recklessly. 

a Bakin, the great novelist, died in 1848. The Hakkenden, from hachi eight, 
ken=inn dog, den biography, narrates the adventures of eight heroes, each of 
whose names contained the word tnu. 


saiwai (ni) happily, fortunately. 

tashika ni c e r t a i n ly . a 

yatara ni carelessly. 

katte ni, ete-fcatte ni,jibun-katte ni selfishly, inconsiderately, 

as one pleases (p. 19 id). 

ivaga-ntama ni waywardly, without restraint. 
zatsu ni confusedly, not neatly, coarsely. 
zoku ni commonly, vulgarly, colloquially. 
go-gi ni enormously, extraordinarily. 
hi-do ni unjustly, wickedly, cruelly. 
mu-ri ni unreasonably, in spite of every thing. 
tei-nei ni carefully, politely. 
yd"i ni easily. 

kari ni temporarily, provisionally. 

(0) iagai ni mutually, reciprocally. b 

tsugi ni next. 

tsune ni always. 

sasuga (ni) under the given circumstances, as one would 
naturally expect. 

massaki (ni) at the very first. 

betsu ni, betsu-dan (ni), kaku-betsu (ni) exceptionally, par- 
ticularly, specially. c 

sin ni formerly. 

hoku-setsu ///directly, immediately (opp. kati-setm ni). 

hi-jo ni unusually, extraordinarily. 

hon-tj ni) honto ni, hon ni really. 

ippan ni generally, at large. 

sei-sai ni, shi-sai ni (kornaka ni) minutely, in detail. 

ten-nen ni naturally, spontaneously. 

Konna ni, sonua ni, anna ni (p 39), donna ni, are 

In many cases there is no corresponding adjective : 

koto ni especially. 

a The ni may be omitted when tashika is used with a verb in the probable 
form and has the weaker sense of "most likely": Tashika iku desho. lie 
will probably go. Tasliika ni ikimasn. He will certainly go. 

b O iogai ga (?ua, no, etc.) is often used familiarly for the pronoun : < we." 

*; " Specially " in the stricter sense is toku-bttsn ni. 

ixxii] FORMS WITH Ni 321 

metta ni seldom (with negatives). a 

nobetsu ni continuously. 

sugu (ni) immediately, at once. 

tama ni occasionally, once in a while. 

tende ni severally, each (duplicate ve from te hand). 

tsui (ni) at last, finally, unconsciously. b 

tsuide ni incidentally. 

hi-mashi ni day by day, every day (inasii increase). 

hito-kuchi ni at a mouthful; in a word. c 

hitori-de (ni) of itself, spontaneously. d 

o make ni besides, into the bargain. 

jiki (ni) immediately, at once. e 

om bin ni quietly, peaceably, in a private way. 

shi-dai ni gradually. 

Sometimes the particle ni is omitted, as the parentheses show. 
In a few cases mo may be added for the sake of emphasis ; e. g., 
saiwai ni mo. 

It remains to observe a few suffixes and words by means of 
which adverbial expressions may be formed. 

One is goto ni, which added to a substantive means " every" : 
iegoto ni in every house, toshigoto ni every year. But such ex- 
pressions as doko no ie ni de mo, ieie ni, kengome ni, from ken 
(p. 86, 5) and kouieru comprise, maitoshi or mainen (p. 50, top), 
etc., are more common in ordinary colloquial 

The suffix gake may be added to stems of verb? : ikigake ni 
on the way, kaerigake ni or modorigake ni, kigake ni, mairi- 
gake ni, torigake ni. Compare : Amerika kara kitate ni just 
after my arrival from America. 

In like manner tori, yd and fu are used with limiting words : 

a There is also an adjective metta na, but this means " heedless" : Melta na 
koto wa ienai. It will not do to speak (lit. one cannot speak) heedlessly (any- 
thing heedless). 

b The particle ni is never added to tsui when it means " unawares." 

C Hitokuchi*.* a noun means a bit (of food), a little (of a speech). 

d From hitori and the postposition de. 

e ThisyY/t>z is a variant reading of the character choku in chokusetm ni. It is 
used commonly of immediateness in time. A corrupted form, jika ni, is used 
in the sense "without anything between," "without intervention," being 
synonymous with cliokusetsu ni. 


Kono yd ni koshiraete o kure. 

Make it like this (kono tori ni exactly like this). 

Unia no yd ni kuu eat like a horse. 

Nihon-fu ni kurashite imasu. 

He is living in Japanese style. 

Pleonastically one may even say : anna yd na fa ni.. 


(Include the new adverbs.) 

ete dexterity. kurasn pass (time), live, 

katachi form, shape. make a living. 

ichi-ba market place. saeru be bright (of the moon 

kaji-bd shafts, thills. in the fall and winter). 

dai-tan boldness. uyainau revere 

en-kaku development (his- matomaru be brought togeth- 

torical). er, settled (tr. matoineni). 

gen-in cause. mochi zvo tsuku make mochi 
kon-nan distress, difficulty. (by pounding glutinous 

kon-zatsu confusion. rice in a mortar). 

ri-en divorce. kiri-nukeru cut a way through. 

sai-ju money bag, purse. tori-tateru collect (bills, taxes, 
sei-do institutions, system. etc.). 

kd-shi-kwan embassy, lega- sata communication, news. 

tion. go bu-sata wo itasu fail to 
it-ten no a single (one point). keep up communication 
kudaranu, kudaranai unin- with a friend, neglect to call 

telligible, absurd. or write a letter (polite i). 


Shizuka ni ! Konna ni yakamasti kucha komaru. Nihoti 
de mo kanai wo etekatte ni rien sum koto wa dekimasen. So 
iu yd ni kimattetnas* (p. 163 top) ka. Ano hito wa sake wo 
yatara ni nonde imas\ Nikon no seifu de wa yatoi-ireta Sei- 
ydjin wo teinei ni toriats kaimas . Shjgwatsu ni zva iegoto 
ni mochi wo ts kimas\ Tasti ka ni so des . Kyd wa nan de 
kjnna ni nigiyaka deshd ka. Makoto ni yoku tenki ga Isuzuki- 
masJi te ii o shdgwatsii de gozaimas\ M'j fu ni ji no taihd ga 


.narimash'ta ka. lie, mada des* y shikashi jiki ni narluiasho 
Ano kata wet kodomo ga mina nakunatte shiuiatte jitsu ni kino*- 
doku na koto de gozaimas . Kichigai ddyd ni (p. 4 id) toria- 
ts kaTvaremastita. Kono fuzdku no genin wo shisai ni torishi- 
rabemasho. Ano hito wa ha ga warui kara, niku wa komaka 
m kitte dasanakereba narimasen. Knruniaya san ! kore kara 
saki wa michi ga waruku naru kara, s koshi shizuka ni yatte 
o kure. Kono is hi wa tennen ni hito no katachi ni natte iru 
110 de, mezumshii to itte hito ga empo kara mi ni kimas\ Ma- 
koto ni go busata wo itashimash'ta. a lie, o tagai saina de 
gozaimas'. Soko wa sasuga ni Bis mar K des kara, konnan 
na baai mo umaku kirinukemasJita. b Sasuga ni samurai no 
ko dake atte daitan des? Makoto ni yoku tskiga saete imas '; 
sora ni itten no kumo mo arimasen. Marti de ichiba no yd ni 
konzatsu shimasJtta. Sensei! mukashi tenshi to shogun to no 
aida wa dj in kwankei ni natte orimastita ka. Sore wa Ni- 
hon no rek'shi no uchi de taiso irikunda kotogara des kara, 
nakanaka hitokuchi ni tva ievtasen. Hidj ni risoku wo tori- 
tatete kanemochi ni narimasJita. Sonna ni nen wo irete ya- 
rana&te mo it ; zatsu ni koshiraete kurete mo ii. Shinsetsu ni 
sewa ivo sttte kuremasKta. Ano gwaikoku no kata wa maru 
de Nihonfu ni kurasJite (no kurashi wo sk'te) imas. Sugu 
ni kuruma no stitaku ga dekite iru yd ni ki %vo tskete oite o ku- 
re. Oki nigo yakkaini narimastite arigaft gozaimas . Sho- 
sei ga nokorazu keiko ni kuru koto wa metta ni arimasen. 
Kurumaya san ! kajibd wo sonna ni takaku agecha adunai. 
Chodo neko no me no yd ni kawariyasui hito des\ Saiju wo 
otosh'te omake ni kasa made nakusfite shimaimasti ta. Jibun 
no ete na koto wa ydi ni dekiru. Tende ni jibunkatte na koto 
bakari iimas kara, sodan ga matomarimazen. Zoku ni yuki 
no oi toshi wa saku ga ii to iimas\ 

a " Pardon me for neglecting to call. This often amounts to nothing more 
than the expression of a wish to be friendly. The answer, O tagai sama desu t 
means : " I have been equally remiss." One may also say : \Vatakushi koso. 
am the one [who has been remiss]. 

b In this sentence soko wa serves as a sort of connective : *' in that predica- 
ment." The sasuga ni desu kara may be freely rendered : As was to be 
expected just because it was . Compare sasuga no Bifmar'K 1 mo even such a 
one as Bismarck. In the following sentence the commDn idiom sasuga ni dak 
atie may be rendered : As is to be expected in the case of. 


As I bathe in (abite imas} cold water every day, I seldom 
catch cold (there is seldom a catching cold). On my way back 
I will call at (ye) your house. On my way to school I dropped 
my purse, but fortunately there was n't much in it (Iiaitte ir?i). 
I am greatly troubled (komani) at having been addressed (since 
I was spoken to) in that manner (so). It is impolite to (no wa) 
say such a thing directly. The law is provisionally enacted 
(dekite oru no des). I am very sorry (it is truly regrettable) 
that he has lost (losing finished) the money that he has saved 
(saving put) with special pains. He investigated in detail the 
development of the feudal system. a Do as you please. He 
recklessly talks (shabeni) nonsense (absurd things). He used 
a great deal of (extraordinarily) money when he was in Berlin. 
In (wa) Nagasaki even in (de mo) winter it does not become 
specially cold ; snow seldom falls (there is seldom falling of 
snow). In old times what relations were there between Japan 
and Corea (Chdseti) ? That being a complicated matter, I cannot 
tell you in a word. It will hardly be possible (not be easily pos- 
sible) to use Rjmaji generally. Formerly in Japan the teacher 
was revered as (do-yd, p. 41 d) a father. The disease becomes 
worse day by day. There are unusually large trees in Japan. It 
is enormously dear. I will give it up. We will call (yotte mairu) 
at the Legation on the way to the station. That expression 
is not used (they do not say so) generally, but it may be 
that (one cannot know whether) people say that, depending 
(yotte) on the locality. Shall we send it directly to Tokyo, 
or shall we request you [to take it along]. The parliament 
building is [only] temporarily built. If I study continuously 
two or three hours (ho do), my eyes begin to hurt (become 
painful). it will heal of itself, even if I don't give you 
[any] medicine. You must n't put the teakettle directly on 
the tatami. I met him just after my arrival from England. 
You must make it exactly like this. I seldom read news- 
papers or (yd) magazines. 

a The feudal system, Jwken seido (Jto fief, ken='atei-u] t is distinguished from 
gun-ken seido (gun county, ken prefecture), the modern form of government 
centering in the Emperor. The whole country is divided into ken or fit ; the 
ken, into gun (kori} or j/ (cities) ; the gun, into son (mum'} or cho (machi). 



The particle to is used with a large class of adverbs. Many 
of this class end in ri : 

bikkuri (of a shock or fright). 

bonyari dimly, perplexedly. 

burari) burabura (of dangling or idling). 

chirari with one glance, cursorily. 

dossari abundantly, plentifully. 

garari, garagara (of a clattering noise). 

hakkiri distinctly. 

hirari like a flash. 

honnori (of redness in the sky or a person's face). 

horori, horohoro (of teardrops). 

karari brightly, completely. 

kitchiri, kitchinto tightly, precisely. 

kossori, kosokoso on the sly, stealthily. 

mekkiri (of a fact that suddenly becomes noticeable). 

nikkori (of smiling or laughing). [unwieldily. 

nossori, nosonoso at a snail's pace, in a strutting manner, 

patchiri (of large, bright eyes). [manner). 

sakuri (of a thing that splits open readily or of a frank 

sappari clearly, wholly, at all (p. 1 87b). 

safari entirely. 

shikkari firmly, faithfully, substantially. 

sukkari entirely. 

surari (of a slender form or of a smooth motion). 

tappnri abundantly, fully. a 

tokkuri (toku to) attentively, thoroughly. 

ukkari (iika to}, ukauka thoughtlessly, inattentively. 

yukkuri leisurely, slowly (p. 33e). 

yururi, yuruyuru slowly, leisurely. 

Many of the above arc of onomatopoetic origin. The free- 
dom with which such words are formed and used is a charac- 
teristic of the Japanese language. Like interjections, they are 
haid to define. 

i (tapufapii) futotte irn, or, Deppuri futtott int. He is very fat. 


As indicated, there are in many cases corresponding dupli- 
catives (see the following chapter). These, as a rule, are more 
strictly onomatopoetic. Thus, surasura is used of a smooth 
movement, not of a slim figure. The duplicative also implies 
the idea of repetition. Thus, nikkori is used of a single smile,, 
while nikoniko indicates smiling continually. The duplieative 
often has an entirely different sense ; e. g., bikiibiku (of hesitat- 
ing fear), chirachira (of a fluttering motion), hirahira: (of a 
waving motion), karakara (of a rattling noise, as of .wine 
glasses, garagara, or of laughter), sarasara (of a * rustling 
sound, as of a river). a The adverb as a whole may be doubled : 
burariburari to aruku saunter. 

Properly to should be added to all, but it is generally omitted. 
The adverbs in ri may also be used with sum (p. 215, 8), and, 
accordingly, shite may be added to or substituted for to. In 
shikiri ni " persistently " to may take the place of ni. Yahari 
or yappari " still," " too," does not belong to this class. b 

The particle to is also used with shorter words of the same 
general character. The etymology of some is doubtful. The 
particle to is never separable and often coalesces with the word 
to which it is attached. c 

botto (of beclouded vision or unconsciousness). 

chanto precisely, properly, just, right. 

chilto a little. 

choito^ chotto briefly, just a moment (choichoi occasionally). 

don to (of a loud noise). 

dolto (of sudden applause, laughter, etc.). 

gyotto (of a state of consternation). 

hatto (of surprise). 

hyoi to, hyotto accidentally, suddenly. 

a We may also say: Senna kctoiva sarasara zonjitnasen. I don't know 
anything at all about it. 

b Notice the odd, rather slangy expression: Ikiatari baiiari tahe'te andta. 
I journeyed eating wherever I happened to be (iku o 1 ", ntant strike). Others 
say ikinari battari. 

c The adverb fu-to (=hakarazii) unexpectedly, from fit not and to=.hakaru 
calculate, belongs to a different category. There is also an onomatopoetic futo 
or fulto used of a breath : futto rampu ivo kesn to extinguish a lamp with. 

LxxmJ FORMS WITH To 327 

jiito firmly, steadily, with concentration. 
kitto surely. 
mo'lo more. 

pon to (of a little explosion). 
patto (of a quickly spreading thing). 
patatto with a thud. 
piskanto, pisshari to with a slam, tight. 
pin to (of cracking glass or crockery). 
sJiika to firmly, certainly, exactly. 
sotto softly, gently. 

ton to totally, at all (with negative words). 
zntto all the way, direct, very much. 

With some words belonging to the class described in the 
previous chapter to also is used. 

sugu (to or ni) immediately, at once. 

waza to (tii) purposely, intentionally (wazawana specially, 

not incidentally). 

ydyatto, yatto (from ydyaku) with difficulty, finally. 
zatto zatsu ni coarsely, briefly. 
ski zen (to or ni) naturally, spontaneously. 
iotsu-zen (to or ni) suddenly, abruptly. 

Note finally : nani-ka to=-iroiro in many ways ; nan to how I 
Itsu-nari to may be regarded as a briefer form of itsu nari 
to mo = itsu de mo. a 


(Include the new adverbs). 

hagi bush- clover. nise-mono, nise imitation, coun- 

mizo drain, ditch, groove. terfeit. 

hoya (from hi-yd) lamp- juku-biki (lit. luck drawing) 

chimney. distribution of prizes by 

niseru imitate (from niru drawing lots. b 

resemble). basho banana tree. 

a The classical nari is used in the colloquial to indicate alternatives : Migi 
nari, hidari nari, dochira de mo ikaremasu. You can take either way, right 
or left. 

b This is a very common game. The slips of twisted paper drawn by lot 
have written on them names or expressions which are puns on the names of 
the prizes given. 




kak'ko shape, form. a 

ko-jo kind feelings. 

enzeku-kivai meeting for the 
purpose of hearing addres- 
ses, lecture-meeting. 

ji-ten-sha (self-move-vehicle) 

hirogttru be spread abroad, 
extend (tr. hirogeni). 

nozoku bend the head down 
to look, peep. 

toboru burn (of a light). 

yokeru get out of the way. 

mi-kakeru get one's eyes on, 
catch sight of. 

ni butt suk am collide with. 

kokoro wo irekaeru repent, 
turn over a new leaf. 

hassuru start, be produced. 
juku sum become ripe, ma- 

ayaniku, ainiku unfortu- 

kanarasu assuredly, without 

jum-ban ni in turn. 


Sere wa choito sJita* hanashi de wa arimasen. Sazo o ts*- 
kare desh'j ; go yururi to o yasumi nasaimashi. Ano ie no 
uchi ni wa akari ga bonyari (to] tobotte imas\ Sakunen wa 
nanika to go kojo ni azukarimasti te (p. i84b) arigato ; konnen 
mo aikawarimasezu. Mo s ' koshi yururi to Jianastite kudasai. 
Shizen to (ni) hassuru ho so wa tennento to moshimas . Domo, 
uchi no kodomo wa itazura de waza to omocha ivo koivashimas . 
Fukubiki ^vo itashimasho ; watakushi wa kuji wo shikkari to 
motte imas kara, anatagala wa jumban ni o hiki nasai. Mo 
yo ga katari to akeinastita. Karari to tenki ni nariinastita. 
Ano hito no warui koto wa sarari to wasurete shimae. 
Sendai Hagi de Seminalswo* korosno wo mite horori to 
n amid a ga koboremasJita. Sake wo ippai nondara kao ga 
honnori to akaku nariinastita. Mizo wo hyoi to tobikostita. 
Hako ga don to ochita kara stite, me ga saw eta no des\ 
Teppo ga don to naru to, yane no ue no hato ga mina tatte 

a Kak-koadakamo yoshi just about tlie right thing. Compare: Kakkd ni 
shite agemasu. I will sell it at a reasonable price. 

b Translate : simple, easy to understand. 

c The name of a boy in the celebrated drama called Sendai Hagi. The 
plains around Sendai were once famous for busli clover; in this case Sendai 
Hagi means a famous tale of Sendai. The mother of Semmatsu was in a 
position to substitute her own child for the heir of her lord at a time when a 
plot was laid to assassinate the latter. 


shimaimasJi ta. Ototo wa sarari to kokoro zvo irekaemasJita. 
Ano onna wa surari to stita ii kakko des.' Onna hodo yo 
ni arigataki mono wa nashi ; Shaka ya Kdshi wo hyoi hyoi 
to num. a Kono ame de bashd no ha ga zutto nobimash'ta. 
Ima honyaku nas'tta tokoro wo zutto hajime kara nw ichi do 
yonde kikase nasai. Kore wa zutto moto no imi des . O 
jama ni narimas* kara, o itoma (ni) itashimashd. Ma ! go 
yururi to. b Kondo o me ni kakattara, chanto kimeru ya ni 
itashimashd. KocJiira ye zutto o tori nasai. lisunari to o 
hanashi ni oide nasaimasJii. Yatto hitogomi no naka ivo 
torinukemastita. Kodomo ga hei ni notte ashi wo burari to 
sagete imas . Gejo wa itsu no ma ni ka c kossori to dete 
ikimasJi'ta. Ukkari (to) yokei ni Jiaratte yarimastita kara, 
torikaesJite kimasho. Ukkari to nisemono wo kaimash'ta. 
Mekkiri (to) ats'ku narimastita. Nan to, wa, baka na koto 
ja nai ka. Fui ni kaminari ga natte hatto omoimastita. d 
Ano onna wa me ga patchiri to sJite imas . Totsuzen to 
jitensha ni deatte yokeru koto mo dekizu abunai tokoro desJtta. 
Sh * ka to wa zonjimasen ga, okata so desho. Hoc/id de suikwa 
wo sakuri to watte mita tokoro ga, mada juku sti te imasen 
desJita. Botto stite mnko ga miemasen. Kuri wo hi ni 
irete oitara. pon to hanemaslita. Sono toki Chambaren 
(Chamberlain) no uwasa ga patto hirogarimastita. Hako 
ni shinamono wo kitcJiiri oshikonda. Kakimono wo s/ite oru 
usJiiro kara* sotto nozoite mimaslita ga, Suzuki kun wa ikko 
ki ga ts kimasen desJita (p. 221, 3). Ki no eda ni butts' katte 
gyotto shunasJita. Sensei wa nikkori waratle irassharu. 

He is standing lost in thought (thinking something stands 
perplexedly). In (;// wa) Japan azaleas and camellias grow 
wild (naturally). Please hold (p. 1980) this firmly a little 
while (chotto no aida). How kind a person he must be! As 

a A humorous poem. Translate hyoi hyoi to one after another very easily. 
Shaka is the Japanese form of Sakya, the family name of the Buddha ; Kdshi 

b The usual phrase when one urges a caller to slay longer : Don't be in 
a hurry. 

c Translate : no one knows when. 

<! Hatto omoi))iashita=^bikkuri itashimasliita. 

e Observe how the adjectival phrase modifies nshiro directly. We should 
expect Suzuki kun no before ufhiro. 


I have been (am) a little indisposed lately, I cannot say that 
(to wa) I will surely come. On that day (tojitsu) if I feel 
well (cond.) I will visit [you] without fail (kanarazii). Is 
there a lecture-meeting in the Kinkikwan to-day ? I really 
don't know ; a I have not heard anything about it (that hanashi 
I do not hear at all). Lately I called at (ye) your house just 
a moment (past cond.), [but] unfortunately you were out. 
When the gun went off (sounded don past cond.), the 
pheasant fell with a thud. She is slender and lias a good form. 
Shut (shimeni or taterii] the shDji tight, so that (yd ni) the 
dust may not come in. Read (yonde kikasent] once more 
from the very beginning (all the way from the beginning) what 
(tokoro) you have translated. Sit properly ! The cat has stole i 
a piece of katsuobiishi on the sly. AH burst out laughing when 
(to} they heard the story. I could n't see at all, because a tall 
man was standing (unwieldily) in front of me. I caught a 
glimpse of (with one glance got my eyes on) the fleeing rob- 
ber (the fleeing and going of the robber). A boatman, seeing 
that (no wo) a child had fallen into the water, jumped in 
(tobikoinu) like a flash and saved it. The lamp chimney 
cracked (warerii) with a snap. Mother is in a brown study (is 
thinking steadily). 


Duplicatives form a large group of adverbs in Japanese. We 
have here a language within a language, as expressive as it is 
unique. a There are in English a few analogous expressions, 
such as tickrack, .dingdong, rubadub, higgledy-piggledy, little 
by little, over and over, through and through, so-so, etc. 

Most of these words are of onomatopoetic origin, either im- 
itating a sound, or at least voicing a feeling produced by an 
action. They are used commonly without any particle ; or 
with to, if with any at all. In most cases they cannot be 
translated into English : 

a Translate : Jkaga desu ka, elliptical for ikaga desu ka zonjimasen. Sim- 
ilarly Nan desu ka in a reply may mean : " I don't know what it is-." 

b An investigation made by Mr. Trie at the instance of the German psy- 
chologist Prof. Wundt resulted in a list of six hundred thnt are in common use. 


bafabara, barari (of things that scatter about, such as large 

raindrops, leaves of a torn book, etc.). 
betabeta, bettari (of sticky things). 

bishibishi, gishigishi, mishimishi (of creaking timbers). 
bombon (of the faint ringing of a bell or the striking of a_ 

clock bombon-dokei). 

boroboro, borori (of ragged or crumbling things). 
bufuburu (of trembling or shuddering). 
butsubutsu, butsuributsuri (of bubbling or grumbling). 
chibichibi a little at a time but often, in driblets. 
chinckin, ckirinchirin (of the ringing of a small bell). 
chokochoko (of short intervals or quick steps). 
chorochoro (of the flowing of a brook or the toddling 

of a baby). 

daradara, darari sluggishly, languidly, in a slovenly way. 
dondon in rapid succession, in great quantity (or of the 

sound of a drum). 

gasagasa (of a rustling sound, as of paper). 
gatagata, gatari (of a rattling, slamming or banging noise). 
geragera, getageta (of laughter). 
gogo, gugu (of snoring). 

gongon (of the sound of a large temple bell). 
gorogoro, gorori (of a rumbling noise, as of thunder). 
gotagota (of disorder). 
guruguru round and round. 
guzuguzu (of loitering, dawdling or grumbling). 
hyorcrfiyoro (of staggering). 
janjan (of the sound of a fire-bell). 

kankan (of the sound of a bell beaten with a little hammer)^ 
mechainecha (of confusion). 
niyaniya (of a grin). 
perapera rapidly, fluently. 
pichipichi (of a floundering fish). 

piipii (of the sound of a flute, of whining or complaining). 
pikapika, pikaripikari (of shining, glittering, or flashing). 
pimpin in a vigorous or lively manner. 
pokaripokari (of tobacco smoke or of mild heat). 
potsupotsii, potsutipotsnri here and there, leisurely. 
puinpun (of an ordor or of sullen anger). 


sazvasawa (of the murmuring of the wind). 

sesse energetically. sassa hastily. 

sorosoro, sorori slowly, softly, gradually. 

sutasuta (of fast walking). 

teratera, tekateka=pikapika. 

tsnrutsuru, tsururitsururi (of slippery things). 

waiwai (of people in a tumult). 

zarazara % zarari (of things rough to the touch). 

zawazawa (of a chilly feeling or of the noise made by 

people passing). 
zunzun rapidly, readily. 

Some duplicatives are formed by doubling ordinary words 
or their stems : 

shikajika so and so, and so on. a 

hibi (ni), hibihibi, nichinichi= mainichi every day. b 

hitotsubitotsu , ichiichi one by one, every one. 

iroiro (ni or to), shuju in various ways. 

nakanaka (ni) contrary to expectation, very, hardly or by no 

means (with negatives). 
oriori, tokidoki at times, now and then. 
tabitabi shibashiba at times, often. 
chikajika (ni) in the near future, soon. 
harubaru (to) from a distance (haruka na far). 
noronoro (to) sluggishly, slowly. 
shibushibu (to) with reluctance. 
kaesugaesu (mo) repeatedly, exceedingly. 
masumasu increasingly, more and more, gradually. * 
nakunaku tearfully. 
k an eg an e formerly. 

kasanegasane repeatedly, over and over. 
kawarigawari (ni) alternately, by turns. 
kuregure (vw) repeatedly, again and again. 
oioi (ni or to) gradually. [etrate). 

shimijimi (to) penetratingly, thoroughly, (from shimiru pen- 

a Used, like the Chinese unun (pronounced ufinuii), instead of repeating all 
the words of a quotation. 

b Doubling for the sake of emphasis is very common in Japanese (compare 
the English " very, very "): Mainichi mainichi kimasu. He comes day after 
day. At the beginning of a tale one may hear : Mukashi mukashi (zutto) 
J>-tnukashi Many, many years ago, in very ancient times. Compare also p. o?e. 


shinobishinobi stealthily, (from shinobu conceal one's self). 

yokuyoku very carefully, exceedingly. 

iyoiyo increasingly, after all, certainly (from the classical 

iya more and more). 
tamatama rarely, unexpectedly. 
betsubetsu (ni) separately. 
dandan (ni or to) gradually (from dan step). 
konkon (to) carefully, in a kindly or friendly planner. 
nennen, saisai (ni) yearly. 
sanzan (ni) recklessly, harshly, severely. 
shoshd a little. 
shidaishidai (ni) gradually. 


(Include the new adverbs). 

oke tub, (wooden) bucket. kek-kon marriage. 

sasa bamboo grass. seisu-yu instruction, advice, 

yoko side, transverse or hori- reprimand. 

zontal direction (opp. tate). tai-riku continent. 

ha-ori [Japanese] coat. tan-tei secret investigation, 

ko-ashi little steps. detective (properly tanteiri). 

katte \\\\ yu-nyu imports. 

daidokoro ) C yu-shutsii (often proncd. yu- 

an-satsu assassination. skitsu) exports. 

do-jin native, aborigine. ki-mi ga yoi=kokorojnochi 

fit- bun rumor. ga yoi (p. 138). 

gi-kwai deliberative assem- areru be rough, be desolate 

bly, congress, parliament, (of land), be refractory. 

diet. furueru shake, tremble. 

jin-shu race (ethnological). kasaneru pile one on top of 
mn-rei pilgrimage, pilgrim another (intr. kasanaru). 

(properly junrei-sha). koru freeze. a 

roku-bu pilgrim. migaku polish. 

kei-yo figure, metaphor. sutaru be discarded (tr. suterii). 

a The subordinative of kont is properly kotte, but it is often shortened to 
iotic. Comp. horu, hotte, p. 228, Voc. 


yoromeku stumble, stagger. ibiki wo kaku snore. 

ato wo tsukeru follow in tsuzuke-zama ni, tsuzukedama 

another's track. ni continuously, one after 

tabako wo fukasu smoke to- another. 

bacco. yoppite (yo hito yo) the whole 

hitori-goto wo iu talk to night. 

one's self. 


Ano hito wa ansatsu saremasJita ka. So iu fubundes* ga, ma- 
da hakkiri wakariuiasen (iyoiyo so a to wa iemaseit). Amerika 
no dojin no kazu wa dandan (ni) hette kimas . Ko in (konna) 
kudaranai fuzoku wa oioi statte kite mo yo gozaimas . Iroiro 
o sewa sama ni narimastite makoto ni arigato gozaimas . Ano 
ok' san wa chokochoko koashi de aru kimas '. Ano kahi wa o 
-shiroi wo betabeta (thick) ts'kete imastita. Ando san wa yoku 
o taku ye miemas'&a. Mo to wa shibashiba kimastita ga, 
kono sets' wa sappari konaku narimastita ; do sJite iru ka 
shira. Shimbun-haitatsu ga chirinchirin to kane wo narasfite 
kimastita. Rokubu wa kankan to kane wo tataite anikimas* . 
Masumasu samitku natte kite, domo, komarimas . Chikajika ni 
On (no) tetsudo ga b dekite shimaimasho. Hiragana ga zunzun 
\to) yomeru kurai (gurai) ni nattara t c kanji wo narai nasarti 
ga yj gozaimaskd. Oke no naka no sakana ga picJiipichi ha- 
nemas . Kono ni san nichi wa d iyoiyo atataka ni narimash'ta. 
Hinichi ga zunzun tachimas. Kono yoko wo kuruma ga ga- 
ragara torn e kara, yakamastikute benkyo ga dekimasen. S' fa- 
s' ta aruite hi no kurenai uchi ni yadoya ni is* kimasti td. Ta- 

a "For so da; wa following a dependent clause with to puts the whole state- 
ment in antithesis to other possible statements, and so emphasizes its signifi- 
cance : that it is so one can not say with certainty. 

b The word 5 (interior same character as okit in oku san) designates the 
eastern part of the northern end of the main island, while u is the initial of 
the names of the corresponding western provinces, Uzen and Ugo, formerly 
called Dewa. Ou is also called Td-hoku (east-north), as it lies north-east of 
the island. 

c Translate kurai ni nattara when you get so proficient that . Compare 
the use of hodo in: Kurakute ashimoto ga mienai hodo desu (p. IOI, 2). 

d Translate : the last two or three days. Koko ni san nichi the next two 01 
three days. 

e Yoko wo t5ru pass along the side (of the house). 


bako wo pokaripokari tofukastite iru to in no wa hima de tai- 
kutsu stite sti kata ga nai kara, tsnzukezama ni tabako ivo no- 
inn yds 1 wo keiyj stite iu no des '. Sakana ga piiupin hanete 
ryori ga shinikui. Nikon no yuskuts'wa nennen fuete kite yu- 
nyu yori mo oku narimastita. Tonari de amado wo garagara 
sJiimete imas '. Take ni kaze ga sawasawa fuile imas' . Soto 
ye deru to, karada ga zawazawa sum kara, haori wo kasanete 
dekakemasko. Ano oki na tokei wa bombon narimas'. Han- 
skj wajanjan, tera no kane wa gongon naritnas '. Yube tonari 
de hito ga gogo {guyu} ibiki wo kaku kara, yoppite nerarena- 
katta Ano hito wa nandaka butsubutsu hitorigoto wo itte 
imas\ Okaine wa a nikoniko stita kao wo stite imas'. Ano 
hito wa niyaniya waratte bakari ite nandaka kokoro no soko 
no wakaranai hito da. Kaminari wa narazu ni inabikari 
bakari pikapika shimas '. Eta wa^ Shina kara kita mon des' 
ka. Jyoiyo s3 to wa wakarimasen ga, sJ ka mo shiremasen. 
Gejo ga guzuguzu stite iru kara, yoru osoku naru made dai- 
dokoro ga katazukimasen. Kono hon wa nakanaka ats* kutc 
ikura sassa to yonde mo yoi ni o shimai ni narimasen. Sassa 
to stite shimae. Nikon no tegami no bun wa mutsukasti kute 
nakanaka oboeraremasen. Inu wa byoki de guruguru ma- 
watte imcis '. Nikon no naikaku wa ima gotagota sti te imas . 
Kaminari ga garagara natte kimastita. c Uchi no inu wa 
kind made nete bakari imasti ta ga, kyd wa pimpin stite imas\ 
Tegami no kakidasJii (beginning) ni wa yoku masumasu go 
kigen yoku d skikajika to iu kotoba ga hairimas '. Karada ga 
daradara stite hatarakenai. Potsupotsu aruite itte mo yugata 
ni wa ie ni kaeremasho. Teishaba no m^t ni ozei hito ga 

a The smiling face of Okarae (alias Otafukti] is familiar to all who have 
seen Japanese men (masks), her characteristic features being a flat nose, small 
eyes and projecting forehead and cheeks, bhe is supposed to be the same as 
Uzume, the goddess of joy and wantonness, who, according to the received 
mythology, danced so merrily before the cave in which the sun-goddess had 
hid herself that the latter was induced to open the door and look out. She is 
represented as perpetually smiling. 

b The Eta were formerly the lowest class of people. One of their trades 
was the slaughtering and flaying of cattle. 

c Of thunder near by. The sound of distant thunder is represented by 

\ I hope you are quite well (lit. increasingly well). 

336 THE ADVERB [i.xxiv 

atsumatte waiwai sawaide orimas'ga, nani ka mezurashii 
koto de mo arimas* ka. Kawa ga sarasara nagarete irn, 
Hya& sho ga sesse to kaseide orinias\ A no kichigai wa geta- 
geta {geragera} war a tie bakari ite nandaka kimi ga warui. 
Fuyu ni n>.iru to, oral no yuki ga kjtte tsurutsuru subette arn- 
kinikui. Tautei ga shinobishinobi dorobo no ato ivo ts kete 
ikimastita. Cons' ke ga yoku migaite bur eta no de kutsiva 
teratera s/ite imas\ Amerika de wa kekkon no toki ni koine 
ivo barabara nagets* keru shukwan ga gozaimas . Hon ga ba- 
rabara ni natte tsnzuki ga wakarimasen. Me ski ga borob&ro 
sfite knenai. a Te ga arete (chapped) zarazara shimas. 
Dondon kane wo is* k aim as . Samugatte buruburu furue:c 
imas . Kore ni wa iroiro wake ga am. Soto wa zawazawa 
sum ga, nanigoto ka okita de nai ka. Shimijimi iya ni nari- 

in this region (wa) vehicles are rattling (pass noisily) all the 
time ; consequently it is so noisy that last hight I couldn't sleep 
all night. He smokes tobacco from morning to night. The 
population of Japan increases yearly. When the cherry blos- 
soms bloom every one is lazy (all idling do not work). Thun- 
der is rolling in the distance (tdkti de), A drunkard stagger- 
ing about stumbled against a stone and finally fell over. That 
old gentleman is still hale (tassha de) and vigorous. Did the 
Japanese race in ancient times come across (crossing come) from 
the continent? There is (also) such an opinion ; but we don't 
know certainly whether it is so or not (sd ka dj ka). You 
won't catch the train if you dawdle (are dawdling) like that. 
If you don't hurry (hastily doing finish), the day will be gone 
(Jii ga kureni). Chinese characters are so difficult that [I] 
will hardly {nakanakd) be able to learn [them]. To-day, as 
the weather is fine, we will saunter through (idly walk the 
region of) Shiba. The French parliament is now and then 
quarrelsome {kenkiva nazo ga atte) and disorderly. It has 
begun to rain (p. 231, 4). Last night after -one o'clock |t 
snowed more and more heavily (Jiidokii). I was startled (gyotto 
suru) as a bear came with a rustling sound out of a thicket 

a The Japanese do not like rice unless it is cooketi just enough to muke it 
stick together, but no more. 


of bamboo grass (sasayabti). The brook flows with a mur- 
muring sound. When there is any little thing (nani ka s'/co- 
shi de mo) that displeases him, he is sullen and, though you 
speak [to him], does not reply. Oxen walk slowly. The sick 
one is gradually becoming weaker (yowatte kuru). A police- 
man is carefully advising [him]. He came out with reluctance. 
At (ni wo) Setsubun beans are scattered (barabara makii) all 
through the rooms (heyagoto ni). He took leave (wakareni) 
of (ni) his parents and went out tearfully. Lately on account 
of the snow (ynki ga Jufu no de) the poor are in distress and 
are complaining. Hoping (thinking) to reach the deathbed 
(shinime ni an) of my father, I came from far Formosa (a long 
distance from Taiwan) ; but (no ni) missed it (could not meet) 
by a day (ichi nichi no chigai de). He uses up his money in 


Many words which are translated by means of adverbs are 
really substantives used adverbially. This is true of many of 
the words which we class as ordinary adverbs (Ch. LXXVII,). 
In this chapter we shall confine our attention to certain words, 
denoting place, time, degree, etc., which are still in use as 
substantives proper. 

Such are koko, soko, asoko (asuko), doko, dokka, soko, koko t 
kochira, .sochira, achira, dochira, achi kocJii or achira kochira 
(to), konata here, kanata there, etc. a They take particles 
and postpositions just like nouns : 

Doko ga o itj gozaiwasu ka. 

Where have you pain (Which place is painful) ? 

Doko ivo sagashiuiasJiita ka. Where have you searched ? 

Doko deshita ka. Where was it? 

a Konata is used politely in speaking of a host's house : Konata sama de ?c-<7 
inina sama go jdbu de kekko de gozainiasu. I am very glad all are well at your 
house. It is also used as a personal pronoum of the first person. Go busata ivo 
itashite oriniashila. lie, konata kara koso shitsurei bakari itashite orirnasii. I 
have been quite remiss. No, it is I who am always rude. Compare anafa, 
sofinfci. donata, pp. 28 42. 



To the same category belong such substantives as mae, saki 
or ouwte front, ura or ushiro back, naka or uc'hi inside, soto 
outside, ne. above, shita below, muko the place opposite or yon- 
der, hoka another place, a etc., which serve also in lieu of 
postpositions and will be treated under that head. As has 
been explained (p. 2oa), words of this kind take the particle 
ni to indicate the place where a thing or person exists and de 
to indicate the scene of an event or a certain condition of things. 
This rule applies likewise to such words as empo a distant place, 
atari, or hen (kono hen, sono hen, etc.), or kimpen vicinity, etc. 
But we must keep in mind other uses of ni and de. The for- 
mer may also have the sense of " to J> and indicate an indirect 
object, while the latter often performs the same function as 
the subordinative termination of the verb. b Compare : 

Koko ni oriiuasu. I am here. 

Koko ni okimasu. I shall (will) put it here. 

Koko de yasumimasho. I shall (will) rest here. 
Koko de yoroshii. This place will do. 

Words denoting time when used as adverbs commonly take 
no i>ai teles. But when a contrast is implied, or when the 
corresponding adverb in the English sentence takes the first or 
emphatic position, wa is required (p. 23c). A word denoting 
time in an unemphatic position, in the few cases when a par- 
ticle is used, takes ni : ima ni, mae ni, nochi ni, asa ni, ban 
ni, etc. There are some apparent exceptions. Thus ima de 
wa, konnichi de wa, etc., are equivalent to ima ni natte 
wa, etc. The expression ato de, in contrast with nochi ni, 
originally denoted position. Also compare : 

Ato de o hanashi mo shim a slid. I will speak to you afterwards. 

Kore wo ato ni shita hj ga ii. It is better to postpone this. 

Any of these words may by means of the particle no be made 

a This hoka may mean not only "elsewhere," but also "besides." Note 
also omoi-no hoka (iii}=an-gwai (c) beyond expectation, and koto-no-hoka (ni} 
exceedingly, from the koto in koto ni especially. 

b There are a few adverbs formed by means of this de, but they are hardly 
numerous enough to make a separate chapter; e. g., ato de afterwards, maru de 
entirely mina de altogether, tada de gratis, hitori de alone (in the sense of 
"spontaneously" ni may be rdded), kachi de afoot, hisashiburi de after a long 
interval, jibun de by one's self, tochu de en route. 


an adjective (p. 119) : mukd no o tera yonder temple; ima no 
seitd the present political parties, yube no kwaji last night's fire. 
The principal adverbs of time are (comp. p. 66a) : 

konnen, kotoshi, tdnen this year. 

sakunen, kyonen last year. 

issakunen, ototoshi (otodoshi) year before last. 

issakusakunen, sakiotoioshi two years before last year. 

mydnen, rainen next year. 

mydgonen, sarainen j'ear after next. 

kongetsu, kono tsuki this month. 

sengetsu, atogetsu, mae no tsuki last month. 

sensengetsu month before last. 

raigetsu next month. 

saraigetsu month after next. 

konshu, kono shu this week. 

senshu last week, raishu next week. 

konnichi t kyd to-day. 

sakujitsu, kind yesterday. 

issakujitsu, ototoi day before yesterday. a 

issakusakujitsu, sakiototoi two days before yesterday. 

mydnichi, asu, ashita to-morrow. 

myogonichii asatte day after to-morrow. 

yanoasafte, shiasatte two days after to-morrow. 

aru hi (110 koto] on a certain day, one day. 

yokujitsu (nt), akuru hi (nt) the following day. 

asa (fit) in the morning (asa hayaku early in the morning). 

koncko t kesa this morning. 

kesahodo, kesagata this morning (used later in the day). 

sakucho, kind no asa yesterday morning. [i n g 

viyocho, my das a, asu no asa, ashita no asa to-morrow morn- 

ban (ni) banhodo, bankata (bangatd], bankei, yukata (yu- 

gata), yukoku in the evening (p. 23 2d). 
sakuban, sakuya, yube last evening. 
komban, konya, konseki this evening. 

a Ototoi or ototsui is derived from ochi, yonder, far, tsu, and hi. This tsu is 
an old genitive particle. It appears also in onozukara or mizukara y classical 
for jibun de. With ototoi compare ototoshi, from ochi and toshi. 


myoban, mydya, asu no ban, nshita no ban to-morrow evening. 

him by day. yoru by night. 

ima (ni) now. a imagoro (ni) about this time. 

tadaivia now, just now (past), presently (future). b 

imagata, imashigata a moment ago. 

sakki, sakihodo, senkoku a short while ago (less than a day). 

kono setsu in these days. 

sakkon nowadays (lit. yesterday and to-day). 

konohodo, konoaida (konaida) lately, recently. c 

senjitsit, sakigoro a few days ago, the other clay. 

kinnen in recent years (kin = chikai). 

inoto originally, formerly. 

mukashi in ancient times. 

hajime (ni) at the beginning, at the fin;t. 

saisho (ni) at the very first. 

nochihodo, nochigata after a little while (within the day). 

kondo next time (also : this time). 

chikai uchi (ni) within a short time, soon. 

kinjitsu within a few days (kin chikai). 

nochinochi after some time, after a long time. 

shorai in the future. 

itsu, itsugoro when, about when ? 

Attention may well be called once more to kurai % bakan, 
dake, hodo (pp. 22b, 36, 43, 48b), words whicU generally per- 
form the functions of true adverbs, taking no particles, but 
sometimes are treated just like nouns. Words like mina, ozei, 
etc. (Ch, XVIII.), are used both as adverbs and occasionally 
as substantives. So also : 

banji all things, or, in every respect. 

daitai the principal part, or, in the main. 

tasho many or few, much or little, quantity, or, more or less. 

taigai, taitei generality, or, for the most part, almost. 

a Practically, of course, such a word as "now" must refer either to the 
immediate future or to the immediate past, Ima may also be used like mo in 
the sense of " more " : ima ippai one cup more. For ijnagoro note : t/sii de mo 
imagoro always about this time. 

b Tadnima differs from tatla ima in that the latter can refer only to the past. 

c Chikagoro and konogoro may be used either of an event in the recent past, 
like konohodo and konoaida, or, like kinrai, of a state of tilings continuing to 
the present. 




Taigai (taitei) ni shite oke. Don't take too much pains. 

To the same category belong the suffix chu or ju (p. 13/a), 
as in karadaju the whole body, and ichido (lit. one and the 
same), as in kyoin seito ichido the teachers and pupils as a 
body, the whole school. Such compound expressions may be 
used adverbially, without particles, and also as substantives. 

Finally we might include the numerals, with ikutsu, ikura 
or nanihodo (vulgar natnbo) % etc. But the numeralives, though 
originally substantives, never take the particles ga % wo, etc,, 
and are therefore to be classed as adverbs. 


(Include the new adverbs.) 

katana sword. 

nada stretch of rough sea. 

sakai boundary, frontier. 

kake-ji= kake-mono. 

karasu clear off, dispel (intr. 


mi-harashi an extensive view, 
kataru speak, tell. 
viono-gatari tale. 
oka hill, land. 
ho ear (of grain). 
oka-bo upland rice. 
yaki-ba crematory. 

yu-ya \ , ,. , ., 
^ ' ^ } public bath. 
sen-to j r 

su, su (c) number. a 

chi-sho\ i j 

ji-sho =>'' land 

to-chi J round 
hap-pu promulgation. 

i i. r 
lot of 

hot- tan beginning 

hyd-ban rumor ( no Jiyoban 

wo sum}, reputation, pop- 


kem-pj the constitution. 
shi-nin dead person. 
io-ji medical treatment at a 

hot spring (tj=yu), tak- 

ing the baths. 
gam-pi-shi Japanese paper of 

very fine quality. 
ko-ban-sho police substation 

(p. 94f). 

gyo-sei-kwan administrative 

cc. i 

sai-ban-kwan judge. b 

tabako-bon tobacco tray (con- 
tahli a smal , ^ aM 

haifuki, etc.). 
ki-niyo na strange, wonderful. 

a This is a very common word: su~gaku mathematics, dai-sTt algebra (dni 
substitution), tan-sit singular number, fuku-su plural number, ri-stt number of 
;-?', su-Jiyakn several hundred, su-ka-getsu several months. 

b The term shi-ho-kwan (administer-la\v-of?icial) includes both han-ji judges 
and l-en-ji public prosecutors. 


hakaru calculate, estimate, nikki ivo knru turn leaves of 

weigh, consider. a diary. 

motomeru desire, search for, massugu (ni) straight. 

purchase. subete in general, all. 
kachi de iku go afoot. 


Koko wa Okubo san no korosareta tokoro des.' Sakujitsii a 
motome nas'tta kakeji wa soko ni o mochi de gozaimas'ka. 
Chotlo soko ye itte kimas\ a Mukashi koko ye zainin no kubi 
wo sarashimasK ta. As ko ni tomyodai ga dekimasJita kara, 
mo kono nada de hasen wa arimas'mai. Doko ga o ito gozai- 
mas'ka. Doko to mo iemasen ga, karadaju (go) ito go z aim as . b 
Myonichi wa yo ga aketara, sugu ni okosh'te o kure. Dare ka 
tabakobon ivo motte koi. Hai, tadaima. Kono kimpen ni ko- 
bansho ga arimasen ka. Koko kara massugu ni san cho hodo 
iku to, (kobansho go) arimas 1 . Kono gampisJii wa doko de o 
kai ni narimasJita ka. Soko no kamiya de kaimasJi ta. Ha- 
kone c nado ni wa moto sekisho ga atte, tegata ga nakereba. to- 
rafemasen destita. Dokka kono hen de ippai yarakashima 
sho ; doko ga ii ka shira d Miharashi ga yj gozaimas 1 karn, 
Uwoju ye mairimasho. Joyaku-kaisei zen de mo seifu ni ya- 
towareta gwaikokujin wa Nihonkokuju doko ye de mo sumu 
koto ga dekimastita. Kome wa doko ni de mo ts kuru to 
in wake ni wa ikanai. Mizu ivo hikenai tochi ni wa okabo 
no hoka wa is kurenai. e Chotto soko ye iku n des* kara, ramp' 
wa kesazu ni okimasho. Kore kara saki wa saka ga oi kara, 
kuruma kara orite aruite mairimasho. Koko zva nma wo 
kaes* tokoro des'kara, orite arukanakereba narimasen. Sento 
{yuya) wa doko ni de mo arimas'. Koko de wa jama ni 
naru kara, hibachi wo sochira ni yare. Muko ni kemuri no 

a Translate : I am going out for a little while. Soko ye is used indefinitely; 
for itte kimasu see p. 231. 

b Doko to mo ietnasen. I can't say where. Compare : Nan to mo iemasen. I 
can't say. It may be. I don't know. 

c The well known pass on the Tokaido. 

d Yarakasu is a vulgar equivalent of yaru or suru; ippai yarakasu take 
a drink. Uwoju is the name of a restaurant in Mukojimo. 

e Okabo no hoka wa anything (any kind of rice) except upland rice. For 
the particle ni in these two sentences compare pp. 56c, 59b. 


deru tokoro ga arimasga, (are wa) nan derka. As* ko wa 
shinin no yakiba (kwasoba) des\ Konnichi hajimete wakari- 
masJita. Ima kitchiri roku ji deska. Mada karekore jip- 
pun hodo mae desho. Onna wa yoru soto ye defu mono de wa 
nai. Kinj nikki wo kutle mitara, konna warui tenki ga ma 
tjka bakari tsuzukimas\ Sassok' desu ga, a konnichi wa sho- 
sh'j o negai mostttai koto ga atte mairimash'ta. Danna wa 
itsu (de) mo o rum no yd des ga> do sJJta mon' desho. fie, 
shijn rusu to in wake de wa gozaimasen ; bankata roku ji go ni 
irassJiareba, itsu mo o uchi des. Sensei^ Godaigo fenno ga^ 
Oki ye shimanagashi ni seraremash'ta no wa itsugoro des* ka 
(itsugoro no koto des' kd). Sayo, karekore go hyaku s hie hi ju 
nen hodo mae no koto des. Chikagoro ito wa f'keiki des\ 
Monogatarino hottan ni wa yoku " ima wa mukashi" to kaite 
arimas'. Molo wa gyjseikivan ga saibankwan wo kanete ita 
ga, ima de wa betsubetsu ni narimash'ta. Sore wa dare ga 
saisho ni iidastita koto des 1 ka. Konogoro wa mata joyaku^ 
kaisei no hydban ga gozaimas '. Jmashigata kaminari ga nat~ 
ta ja nai ka. Ima Ueno no kane wo utta yd des' ga, uchi wa 
shimasen desJfta ka ; nanji no kane desho. Tadaima ni ji 
ivo tichimastita. Ni ju ni nen no haru kempo ga happu ni 
narimasJita. Washi hodo hayaku tobu tori wa nai. Kono 
cJiisho ^va shdrai hijo ni takaku narimasho. Chikagoro wa 
kotonohoka o samu gozaimas . Daitai dekimasJita. 

This (koko wa) is Japan Bridge ; distances in every direction 
(fiobj ye no risu) are all calculated from this bridge (they cal- 
culate making this bridge the origin). To (wade wa) that 
place we can ride (go by horse), but beyond (kara wa) that we 
must dismount and go a foot. Last year (wa) I stopped here, 
but will not stop this time (wa), because the rooms were dirty. 
Where are you going this vacation (ni wa) ? I should like to 
go somewhere among the mountains (yaina ye de mo). I lost 
my notebook somewhere (ye) ; no matter where I search I 

a By using this expression one makes an apology for proffering a request 
without the usual ceremonious preliminaries. 

b The Emperor Go-daigo, " the later Daigo" (go=nochi) reigned 1319 1338. 
Having made an unsuccessful attempt to wrest the supreme power from the 
Hojo family, he was banished to the island of Oki in the Sea of Japan. 


cannot find it (inils karimasen). This sea (i) is not always 
(:>) [so] calm as (4) [it is] to-day (3). The cold in (of) Hokkai- 
do is almost the same as [that of] Germany. In Japan there 
are a good many mountains that are as high as Oyama. In 
the whole world there are no [other] mountains as high as the 
Himalayas. Last night it was very hot, so that I could not 
sleep well. To-day swords are often sold to Europeans, 
because they are no longer needed (have become useless). 
What time is it now ? It is probably about ten o'clock. Go 
to the neighbor's and inquire if the master is at home. I just 
now caught sight of (jnika-keni) him going out in (de) a 
riksha. This year the heat seems (yd des') to continue long. 
I feel meer (a strange feeling does) to-day for some reason 
or other (iiandakci). At the beginning I could not sit [in the 
Japanese way), but afterwards (?va) I gradually became accus- 
tomed [to it]. Every year when summer comes (it becomes 
summer) he goes for (ni) treatment to hot springs (of) here 
and there. Lately many missionaries were invited to the 
American Legation and entertained. Outside it looks unat- 
tractive (tttattai), but inside it is very fine. 


The subordinates of certain verbs must be rendered by 
means of English adverbs ; e. g., kasanete iu say repeatedly, 
keiyo shite iu speak metaphorically, etc. The following 
words have became practically adverbs. A few of them, which 
we may designate as formal, are heard not so much in common 
conversation as in speeches : 

aele daringly (formal). 

aratamete again, anew. 

hajimete for the first time. 

hatashite after all, really, as was expected. a 

itatte exceedingly, vetyi.l- 

kaette on the contrary, rather. 

a As is not infrequently the case, the native word has become formal, in 
the sense of" as was expected," while an no gotoku generally takes its place in 
the colloquial. 


kanete previously. 

kiwamete extremely (formal). a 

kozotte all (formal). 

viashite how much more. 

narasliite on an average, from narasu level (p. 201 a). 

otte afterwards, by and by, from ou chase. 

sadamete in all probability, doubtless (with probable form). 

semete at least. 

shiite compulsorily, perforce, importunately. 

subete in general, all. 

tatte urgently, importunately. 

yuakete, tori-wake especially. 

viae-inotte = mae #/ previously, beforehand. b 

omoi-kitte decisively, resignedly (p. 292, n). 

ori-itte persistently, earnestly. 

oshi-nabete (classical nabete] in general, on an average. 

besshite especially, for betsu ni shite. 

kesshite (p. 2i4a) positively, never (with negatives). 
Compare do shite how, how is it that, why (p. 2i2b), do 
shite mo by no means (with negatives), so shite then, so, and 
(p. 212, 3), toki to shite at times. c 

The etymology of these words in all cases where it is practi- 
cally helpful will readily be guessed by the student. But it 
should be noted that the following verbs are obsolete, in the 
colloquial : aern dare, kozoru assemble, suberu bring together, 
govern, and naberu or nameni=-naraberu put in a row. 

Both hajimete and subete are used with no as adjectives : 
hajimete no koto the first instance, subete no mono all things. 
Note also i)iotte-no-Jioka=-omoi-no-hoka or koio-no-hoka very 
(always used in a bad sense). 

The following are derived from negative subordinatives : 

a The verb kiivamern to determine, or to carry to an extreme, is best tran- 
slated by means of the adverb "extremely " : ogori (or zei-takti) ivo kiwamertt 
to be extremely luxurious. 

b The adverb asatle day after to-morrow is derived from asu and satte, from 
s a nt leave ; sendatte, from sen and tatte, from tatsu pass, elapse. 

c The expression yaya-jno sureba (or yaya mo sum to) " quite often," derived 
from yaya gradually, considerably, is also practically an adverb, though it is 
usually to be rendered " is apt to," like tokakit. 




hakarazu (ino) unexpectedly. 

nokorazu all. 

oboezu unconsciously. 

omowazu unintentionally. 

tarazu closely, nearly. 

kanarazu assuredly, certainly, without fail, necessarily. 

tokarazu in the near future, soon. 

muko-mizu ni blindly, recklessly. 

yamu-ivo-ezu, yamuoezu unavoidably (p. 25Qb), 

ai-kawarazu as always. 

tori-aezu immediately, in haste, provisionally. 

tori~mo-naosazu namely, in other words, the same thing as. 

shirazu-shirazu unawares. 


ie-gara lineage (p. 21 /a). 

ke-viono hairy quadruped, 
beast. a 

yuki-doke thawing of snow. 

vioto-kin ) capital, 

gwan-kin ) principal. 

kd, ko-ko (the second ko = o- 
konai) filial piety. 

fit-bo father and mother. 

Ju-shin inability to compre- 
hend, doubt, suspicion. 

ko-zui flood. 

ris-s/iml rise in the world, 

shus-se ) promotion. 

shin-tai body. 

shu-sho lamentation, mourn- 

sui-gai damage by floods. 

to-kwai city, metropolis. 
yu-reki traveling for pleasure. 
shu-gi-in the Lower House, 

House of Representatives' 

(p. 305a). 
tei-shiitsu-angi-an bill (p. 

mottomo na reasonable. 
ki- m uzukashii ill-humored. 
iyagaru dislike. 
osamari ga tsuku be settled. 
gudagnda ni you get dead 


tai-zai sum sojourn, stay. 
rokuroku fully, sufficiently 

(with negatives), 
toki ni now (at the beginning 

of a sentence). 

a The term kedamono, from ke-tsu-inono (tsu genitive particle), exactly 
corresponds to the English " beast " and is almost obsolete, being used only in 
vulgar curses, while kemono, which originally denoted "domestic cattle," has 
been expanded so as to include all hairy beasts. 



Tembun nenkan ni hajimete Seiydjin ga Nihon yg kimasti- 
ta.* Kanete o nawae iva uketamawatte iwastita.^ Amari 
teinei ni iisugiru to, kaette sliitsurei ni atariuias '. DJ stitr 
mo Nihon no hon ga yomeru yd ni wa narimas mai. Resstite 
sonna koto wa snru na. DJ stite mo zenkzvai wa itashimas- 
mai. Anata hajimete Seiyd ye oide ni naru no nara, sazo to- 
kwai no tateinono no takai no ni c odoroki nasaru deshd (p. i 32 
a). Hajimete go ran nasaru n des'kara, go f us kin wa go mot- 
tomo des (p. 33d). Tonari de wa teishu ga shinimasJi ta ka- 
ra, sadamete stiushd stite iru koto deshd. Zaisan mo an, na 
mo aru hito des kara, sadamete shugiin giin ni senkyo sare- 
mashd. c Nihon no hon ga yomeru yd ni naranak'to mo y semete 
(wa) hanashi dake de mo jiyu ni& dekirti yd ni naritai mon 
des\ Hdbd (wo) yureki suru koto wa dekinak'te mo, seiuete 
Kyoto dake wa zehi kembutsu sJitai inondes\ Ano hito wa 
geko da no ni t shiite sake wo nomasemasJita kara gudaguda 
ni yoimasJi'ta. Jyagaru no ni, shiite kodomo wo gakkd ni yari- 
mastita. Nihonjin wa torizuake teinei des . Doits de wa haru 
ni naru to, yukidoke de yoku kdzui ga arimas'ga, sakunen wa 
besstite suigai wo uketa tokoro ga d gozaimastita. }Vatakushi 
wa tomodachi to hanashi wo stite aruite iru itchi ni shirazu- 
shirazu tdi tokoro made ikimastita. Betsu ni keiko wa shima- 
sen destita ga, shirazu-shirazu hanashi ga dekiru yd ni nari- 
mastita. Hisastiku go busata wo itashimastita ; mina sania o 
kawari mo gozaimasen kd. Toki ni, tdkarazu izure ye ka (dok- 
ka ye) go shuttatsu ni narimas ' ka. Nihongo no keiko wo nasa- 
ru o tsumori nara, kanarazu kanji wo oboenakereba narimasen. 
Kemono de mo ano tori des* kara, mastite ningen wa kodoma 
wo daiji ni shinakereba narimasen, e Mori san wa Ise no tai- 
byd ye kutsu wo haita mama (de) agatta to iu fubnn ga ari- 

a Teni-bun is the name of a nengo, 1532 1555. Nen-kan is derived from 
nen=toshi and kan=aida ; translate : during the period called Tembun. 

b An expression often heard by a person whea introduced to another. 

c Shugiin giin member of the Lower Mouse. 

d Jiyu 111 freely, unrestrictedly ; jiyu ni hanasu speak readily. 

e Ano tori refers to a previous illustration of the idea expressed by ko tvo 
daiji iii snru. 


mash'ta ga t hatash'te sD desttta ka. a " Shintai happu kore wo 
fubo ni uku ; aete sokonai-yaburazaru wa ko no hajime nari" 
to Kokyo ni kaite arimas' . b Yokohama ni mairimastite 
toriaezu o tazune mosJiimasti ta ga, mata aratamete uka- 
gaimasho. c Sore iva toriinonaosazu ko iu imi des\ Jikan 
ga nakaita mon des* kara, yamuwoezu rokuroku Jianashi mo 
shinaide kaette mairimastita. Ano hito iva toki to stite hijo 
ni kimuzukashii ko'o ga gozaimas\ Tatte tomeru mono des* 
kara, tsui yuhan no chiso ni natte kimasltta. Izure otte go 
henji wo itashimasho. Anata ni oriitte o negai mosh'tai koto 
ga gozaimas . Kono shinamono iva narasJite (narashi) hito- 
tsu ga ju go sen ni atarimas\ Kono sets' wa itatte Jukeiki de 
makoto ni komarimas*. Mnkdinizu ni yarikaketa no de nan 
to mo osamari no ts'keyd ga nakunarimash'ta. Kono ie 
wo tate-ru ni go sen yen tarazu kakarimastita. Tadaima o 
tegami wo haiken itashimash'te toriaezu sanjo itasJita yj na 
wake de, nani mo motte mairimasen kara, izure sono uchi ni 
mata yukku-ri o nkagai moshimasho. Sore wa mottenohoka 
ftitsugd da. 

If not all (inina de naku to mo], return at least half (Jiam- 
bun dake de md). If I can't (though I don't) make anything 
specially (betsu ni i), I wish at least to recover (torikaesu) the 
principal. That wrestler is especially stout. To-day as it is 
very windy (the wind is very strong), you must be especially 
careful with the fire (hi no yojin wo snru). This spring (p. 
3i?a) the cherry blossoms have bloomed especially early. It 
happened just as (tori ni narti) I prophesied (beforehand saying 
put). Is this your first trip abroad (in regard to your going 
abroad is kondo the first time) ? About this time (imagoro wa) 
it ought (ha zu da) to be getting warmer, but (no ni) on the 

a Viscount Mori, Minister of Education, was assassinated on the nth of 
February, 1889, for an alleged display of irreverence at the shrine of Tse. he no 
tai-byo (tai great) is the largest and most celebrated temple of the sun-goddess- 

b The Ko-kyd (ko filial piety, kyd=oshie) is a Confucian Classic. Happu is 
from hatsu hair and fu skin ; kore wo is pleonastic, as often in the literary 
language ; uku is the conclusive form of ukeru receive ; aete is usually to be 
translated "dare to"; the negative of sokonai-yabum takes the attributive 
form before the particle wi ; naridesit. 

c There is an implied apology for not bringing n miyage. 


contrary it has become gradually colder the last (kond] two or 
three days. As he is lazy he will doubtless fail in the examina- 
tion. How is it that you have learned Japanese so quickly ? 
In this case you must certainly add (ts keni) the word wa. As 
he is clever and of good family, he will doubtless rise in the 
world. J shall soon go to Atami, but intend to return [after] 
staying [there] three days. The pupils of this school are in 
general studious (benkyo des). This is an extremely interest- 
ing book ; do read it (reading see). The Government's bill 
(ni wa) was opposed by (act.) all the representatives (go). On 
the way (2) yesterday (i) I unexpectedly met your parents 
(go ryoshin savui). Mutsuki is the same thing as January. a 


There remains a comparatively small class of words used as 
adverbs which are without any inflection, particle, peculiar 
structure, or any external mark to indicate what they are. 

i. Some are derived from the Chinese. Note compounds 
with ichi " one " and mai " every " : 

goku=-kiwamete (emphatic shi-goku, from shiitarii) very. b 

cho-do exactly, just. 

dai-bu, dai-bun (lit. large part) very, rather. 

gwan-rat moto-yori originally, in reality, 

hei-zei ordinarily, usually, habitually. 

irai hereafter, since (in the latter sense with a substantive 
or subordinative). c 

i- sai minutely, in detail. 

kin-rai lately, recently (p. 34Oc). 

mochi-ron, mu-ron (lit. without discussion) of course. 

sek-kakn with special pains, kindly (p. iQjd). 

shi-ju (lit. beginning and end) constantly, always. 

sho-sen after all, by no means (with negatives). 

a Mutsuki, from mtitsumashii friendly, sociable, is so-called because January 

is a montli of social festivities. 

b Practically kiivaintte is more emphatic even than shigokn, 

c In the sense of " hereafter " : Anata wet irai so in koto wo sliite wa ikeina- 

sen. OsoreirimasJiila ; irai iva ki ivo tsukemasu kai-a, dozo, go kaniben wo negcii- 

masu. You must n't do such a thing again. I am very sorry, I will be careful 

hereafter ; please be patient with me. 


ta-bun (lit. many parts) for the most part, probably. 

to-tei utterly, at all (with negatives). 

to-to, toto at length, finally. 

tsu-rei, tsu-jo usually, customarily. 

zan-ji (zan = shibaraku,ji=toki) a little while. 

zen-tai (lit. whole body) constitutionally, originally, properly 
speaking, in reality (zentai ni in general). 

zuibun (ni) a good deal, considerably. 

ikkj (lit. one direction) entirely, at all (with negatives). 

ippai (ni) a whole , with one's whole (sei ippai with all 
one's might), 

issaij issetsu entirely, at all. a 

isso (lit. one layer) doubly, more. b 

ittai (lit. one body) = 2entai. 

mai-nen> mai-toshi yearly. 

mai-getsu, mai-tsuki monthly. 

mai-shu weekly, mai-nichi daily. 

mai-asa every morning, mai-ban every evening. 

mai-do every time, often. 
Other adverbs are derived from stems of native verbs : 

amari, ammari too, so very, so much, from amaru be in excess. 

kiriy girt merely, only, just, from kiru cut. c 

tsumari after all, in the end, so to speak, finally, from tsu- 
maru be straitened. 

ottsuke presently, soon, from on chase (p. 29/a). 

sashi-atari at present, from ataru strike. 

yo-doshi the whole night through, from tosu cause to pass. 
The following, of native origin, may be designated adverbs 
proper. The list should include ko (kayo ni), so (sayo ni), 

a Sat and selsu are variant readings of the same character. Issetsu is used 
only with negative words. 

b Isso (no koto], which means " rather," is probably a corruption of this. 

c See pp. 2323, 233d. Mo kore kiri mairimasen, I shall not come any more. 
Bakari or bakkari, from hakaru calculate, might be included in the same group 
with kiri. It is used not only with substantives and numerals in the sense of 
{{ about " but also with substantives, subordinatives, etc., in the sense of 
"only" and with preterits in the sense of "only" or "just" e.g., asonde 
bakari irtt do nothing but play, stikoshi totta bakari desu have taken only a 
little, kaetta bakari desu have just returned (p. 22QC). Note also the idiom 
bakari de naku mo " not only but also " (p. I46a). 


a* and do. From the last are derived ddzo (nani-to-z6) y ddka 
somehow or other, if possible, please (p. 17/f), and domo. 
Note : So wa ikanai, or, So de wa ikenai. That won't do. 
That's the wrong way. 

dose (do shite mo), dode (do de mo) any how, at any rate, 
after all. 

hanahada (from hanahadashii) very, very much. 

hotondo (from classical hotohoto) almost, very much. 

ikaga (from ika ni kci) how ? 

iku-bun-ka somewhat. 

ima-sara (sara ni in addition, again) after so long a time, no 
more (with negatives). 

izure in some way or other, at all events (p. 305 b). 

ka-nari moderately, passably, fairly. 

katsute formerly, once before (formal). 

mada still, yet. b mata again. c 

mazu first of all, on the whole, well (hito-mazu once, for a 
while). [negatives). d 

mo already, by this time, soon, now, still, no more (with 

mo-haya already, soon, no more (with negatives). 

moppara chiefly, principally, specially. 

mottomo most. 

nani-bun, nambun (ni) in every way, at any rate, at all 
(with negatives), by all means, please (p. 2o8d). 

nao still more. nao-sara all the more. 

naze why ? e 

nomi only (sore nonii narazu = sore bakari de nakii). 

a This a is used not in a iu but also, rarely, with other verbs : a yatte it 
iva totetno seiko shimasumal. If he acts like that, he will never succeed. 

b See p. I7d. Mada arimasu ka. Are there any left ? Maka ichi ji desu. It 
is only one o'clock. 

c Mata does not mean exactly ** again " in: Sore wa mata nanigoto desu ka. 
And what is that ? 

d Mo jiki ni now at once ; mo yoroshu gozaimasu that will do now ; mi takusan 
enough now ; mo arimasen there are no more ; mo (?na) sukoshi a little more or 
a little longer ; mo (ma) hitotsu one more; mo ichi do once more j mo sukoshi de 
within an ace of, almost, soon. 

e Foreignes should be careful about using naze in direct address. It is 
rather familiar, and is never heard in polite conversation, except perhaps in 
naze desu ka. Use do shite instead of naze. For naze naraba and naze to in no 
ni see p. 224b. 


c-kata for the most part, probably. a 

ori-fushi=oriori, tokidoki now and then. 

oyoso about, approximately, b 

sa-hodo (ni) so much (with negatives). 

sate so, then, well (in proceeding with a story or speech). 

sazo how you must (with probable form). 

shika shikya but, only (with negatives). 

sukoshi a little. 

sunawachi that is, namely. 

tada, tatta only, merely. c 

to-kaku in one way or another, is apt to, sad to say. (1 

tomokaknmo % tomokaku, tonikaku at any rate. 

totemo, for totemo kakutemo, by no means (with negatives). 

yagate soon, presently. 

yahariy yappari likewise, too, still, notwithstanding, 

yo-hodo, yoppodo a good deal, very (p. I74a). 

yoppite (yo hito yo) the whole night. 

yoyaku, yoyo finally, at last, with difficulty, barely. 

In the literary language many of these words, especially 
those derived from the Chinese, are used also as substantives. 
In the colloquial, too, many of them may be used with no. 
The student will generally be able to judge from the nature of 
the adverb whether it can be so used or not. Especially 
common are : mochiron no koto a matter of course, sekkaku no 
oboshiuteshi your kind intention, zanji no aida for a little 
while, yjyaku no koto de with great difficulty. 

2. There are particles of emphasis, koso, sae, sura and dani, 
which can hardly be translated, unless by means of the word 
"even." Koso has on the words which it immediately follows 

a The learned also say osorakuwa, which may be translated, "It is to be 
feared that." A similar classical form negaivakuwa, which is equivalent to 
dozo or naniiozo. 

b The original classical form dyoso also occurs in the sense of " in general." 
Oyoso may be used pleonastically with kurai, etc. (p. 720). 

c Tada is often used pleonastically with bakari, kiri or shika. Note also 
tada de gratis. Tada desit. It costs nothing. 

d Tokaku occurs with especial frequency in sentences that express regret 
and is oiten hard to translate (=German leider}: Tokaku kono sefstt tun atne 
ga furimasu. It rains a great deal these days. Tokaku yasui mono iva hayaku 
sonjimaiu. Cheap things soon wear out. 


the same effect as italics in English. It may be added to 
substantives (p. 323), adverbs (p. 314^)* postpositions, con- 
ditionals and subordinatives : 

Sv yatte koso koko to iu mono da. 
To act like that is filial piety indeed. 

Nihonjin kara chokusetsu ni naralte koso hontd no Nihongo 
ga oboerareru no ni, S'missan wa gwaikokujin ni tsuite ben- 
kyo wo shite orimasu. In spite of the fact that Japanese can be 
mastered best by learning directly from a Japanese, Mr. Smith 
is studying under a foreigner. 

Sae is usually added to substantives, adverbs or stems of 
verbs in conditional or concessive clauses (p. 2/Qa), and often 
occurs in the^combination (de) sae (mo) : 

Kodomo de sae mo yoku wakaru no ni 

Though even a child can understand 

Sura is used only with substantives, postpositions, subordina- 
tives and in the idiom (de) sura (ino) : 
Issen sura motanai. I have n't even a cent. 
Chanto shoko wo misete sura (ino) so de nai to iimasu. 
He denies it even though I show him the evidence. 
Naporeon de sura mo Roshiajin no tame ni yaburaremashita. 
Even Napoleon was defeated by the Russians. 

Dani is used, with substantives, in the same sense as sura. 

3. Finally we have the particle mo. It serve to modify the 
word which it follows and has the sense of (a) " also," " too," 
" on the other hand," and (b) " even." 

Kore mo yoroshii. This also will do. 

Anata mo oide ni narimasu ka. Will you go too ? 

Shoyu wo (o) shiiaji to mo iimasu. 

Shoyu is also called shitaji. 

Ima mo so iu shukivan ga nokotte orimasu ka. 

Does such a custom persist even now ? 

niton mo orimasen. There is not even one there. 

Mono (wo) mo iivazu (ni) without saying anything at all. 

Hitotsu mo nokosazu (ni) without leaving a single one. 

Observe the position of mo; one never hears shitaji mo to iimasu. 


Do sum koto mo dekizu. It can't be helped ( = Shikata ga nai). 
In many negative expressions mo is untranslatable : 

kagiri mo nai unlimited, infinite. 

kawari mo nai unchanging. 

kono ue mo nai unsurpassed (of good things only). 

omoi mo yoranai unexpected. 

Waruku mo nai. That's not bad. 

Arise) mo nai hanashi desu. It's improbable (p. 2/6b.) 
Compare adverbial expressions like ma-mo-naku (p. 315). 

Added to interrogatives mo makes them universal indefi- 
nites (Ch. XVII.) : 

itsu made mo for ever. 

doko made mo to the utmost, to the very end. 

ikutsu mo t ikura mo, ikutari mo, etc., very many. 

ika-ni-mo indeed, very. a 

When mo is repeated it has the sense of "both and," or. 
with a negative word, '* neither nor " : 

Kore mo are mo it. Both this and that are good. 

Nomi mo ka mo takusan orimasu. 

Both fleas and mosquitoes are plentiful. 

Pen mo inki mo arimasen. There is neither pen nor ink. 
Mo rarely serves as a conjunction (p. 400, 16). b 

The combination de mo ( = de atte mo) or, more emphatic- 
ally, de sae mo or de sura mo, may be rendered " even." De 
mo is also used to make the sense of a word vague and may be 
rendered " such a thing as," " or something of the kind " (p. 
1780), or, with a negative word, " exactly " (p. 23/a). De mo 
with interrogative pronouns makes emphatic indefinites (Ch. 
XVII). It takes the place not only of wa, ga and wa, but also 
of other particles. Like mo it may be added not only to sub- 
stantives, but also to particles and postpositions : 

Daigakusha de sae mo wakarimasen. 
Even great scholars do not understand. 

a From the classical ika ni=do how ? Ika ni shite mo-=do shite mo. Ika ni 
mo meant originally iu every way." It is now often used as a response in 
conversation like the English To be sure ! " 

b Mo also enters into the idiom ka mo shirenai (p. loga), concessives like 
keredotno and to iedotno (pp. 99, 245), yori mo (p. 136), moshi mo, etc., without 
making any perceptible addition to the sense. 

xxxvi i] ORDINARY ADVERBS 355 

Empitsu de mo yoroshii. A lead pencil will do. 

Gakusha de mo gozaimasen. He isn't what you call a scholar. 

Pen de mo empitsu de mo arimasen. 

There is not a pen of any sort nor any pencil. 

Giin ni naranai (iiarumai) mono de mo nai (common idiom). 

It is not impossible that he will become a representative. 

Do de mo kamaimasen. Any way will suit. 

Natsu de mo yasnmi wa arimasen. 

[I] have no vacation even in summ r. 

Seiyo no yoi shiba wa Kobe de mo a metta ni miraremasen. 

One can seldom see a good European play even in Kobe. 

Sore de mo hara wo tatemasen. 

He nevertheless did not get angry. 

Jya de mo o de mo kamaimasen. b 

1 don't care whether he likes it or not. 

Mukojima made de mo ikitai to omoimasu. 

I should like to go at least as far as to Mukojima. 

Nan-de-mo is used adverbially in the sense of " at all events," 
" probably." : 

Nan de-mo benkyo ga kanjin da. 

In any case diligence is the important thing. 

Nan-de-mo jibun de Tokyo ye ittarashii. 

It seems likely that he himself has gone to Tokyo. 

The combination to mo in Nan to mo iemasen needs no fur- 
ther explanation (p. 3420). In other connections to mo ap- 
pears to be elliptical, as in Kayuku mo nan to mo nai (p. 2526), 
where to mo = nan to iu koto mo ; or, So to mo (or wa) shirazu, 
where so to mo = sonna koto ga ant to iu koto mo. In replies 
to questions to mo is especially common and has the sense of 
" most assuredly " : 

Kimasu to mo. He will certainly come. 

Arimasu to mo. Of course there are. 

4. Our " yes " corresponds to so da, so desu, sayd de gozai- 
masu (but see also p. I34a) ; " no/' to so ja nai, sayo de wa 

a In this case not Kobe de de mo. But even this is a possible construction ; 
e. g., Nikon de iva Nichiyobi de mo kamawazu shobai ivo itashimasit. Yokohama 
de de mo desu ka. In Japan people clo business even on Sunday (lit. even on 
Sunday not heeding). Is that the case even in Yokohama? De mo may be w 
ellipsis for ni de mo : Dare de mo dekimasit, for, Dare ni de mo dekimasu. ' 

b This o is the literary equivalent of hai yes. Compare dziu'u or djiru 
agree or comply with. 


gczaimasen, etc. One may also repeat the verb of the ques- 
tion. Wakarimashita ka. IVakarimashita (or Wakarimaseti}. 
Have you understood ? Yes (or No). The word hai or hei 
alone usually means " yes " in the sense that the speaker is 
attentive to what is being said to him. Hai or hei and tie or 
iya also precede verbs : Hai, wakarimashita. Yes, I under- 
stand. //>, wakarimasen. No, I don't understand. But it is 
a peculiarity of the Japanese that these words refer not so 
much to the objective fact as to the attitude of agreement or 
disagreement with what has just been said (p. I2a): Kyi) 
kimasen ka. Hai (or Sayo de gozaimasii). Isn't he coming 
to day ? No (lit. Yes, i. e., as you say). lie (or So de gozai- 
masen) would have to be translated Yes, he will (lit. No. i. e., 
you are mistaken). Hence such combinations as Sayo, kimasen, 
or, //>, kimasu. 


(Include the new adverbs.) 

chtmba lameness, lame per- moku ( = me eye) intersection 

son (or animal). of lines on a checker-board, 

moini red silk cloth. numerative for checkers. 

tsukue [Japanese] table sei energy, force. 

p. 96d). dam- pan conference, negoti- 
o ha-guro black dye for the ation. 

teeth. a dan-nen (dankiru, nen = 
ma-go one in charge of a omot) ceasing to think 

horse, hostler or driver. about, giving up. 

mayu eyebrows. fu-soku insufficiency, dissatis- 
mayu-ge " (ke hair). faction. 

naga-iki long life. nani fusoku ga nai is well off. 

o shi-oki execution (of crimi- i-chi position, situation. 

nals). i-sho clothes. 
jo (c) = &a place (in composi- jis-sai actual conditions, 

tion). practice. b 

a In olden times all married women blackened their teeth. It was a mark of 
faithfulness and respectability. The best quality of hagttro being made of iron 
ore it was called kane. To dye the teeth is o hagitro wo tsukeini. 

b Also used as an adverb in the sense " in reality." 




kin- shin circumspection, mod- 

mei-yo honor, reputation. 

on-do temperature. 

rt-kutsu reason, argumenta- 

shi-dan division (of the army). 

ship-pai failure. 

s-hu-kwan habit, custom. 

tsu-sho commerce. 

tsu-yd being in common use, 

yo-jo taking care of the 

jo-bi-gun standing army. a 

kai-sui-yoku sea (water) bath- 

men-jo permit, license. 

ryoko- menjo = ryokoken pass- 

utoi distant, estranged, un- 

dame na useless, impossible. 

hay aru prevail, be in fashion. 

hayari no fashionable. 

me no chikai shortsighted. 

HI otoru be inferior to. 

kokoro eru perceive, under- 

kamai-tsukeru pay attention 
to (with wo}. 

oi-harau drive out. 

kou beg. 

ama-goi wo sum pray for 

hiiki sum favor, be partial to 
(with wo or ni). 

jo-yakn ivo musubu make a 

i-sha ni kakaru consult a 

on-gi ni kanzuru feel grate- 
ful for kindness. 


Ikanimo ossharu tori de gozaimas* . Ima de mo Nihon no 
onna wa mayuge ivo otoshimas* ka. Sayd sa t wakai onna wa 
mina tatete imas* ; mata toshiyori no uchi ni mo Seiy'fu ni 
tatete iru onna mo arimas' . b Anata wa hodo no ii koto bak- 
kari c (o seji bakkari) itte imas*. Kore ^va kotjgakko (p. 5 5 a) 
de bakari mochiiru tokuhon des\ Mada Nikon no cha wa 
nonde mita koto ga arimasen fcara, ori ga attafa, ippai 
nonde mitai mon' des 1 . Koban wa mc> sappari tsuyd shinaku 

a From jd=tsune ni, bi=sonaeru have in readiness, and gun army. The 
first reserve is yo-bi-gun t fiom yo=arakajitue beforehand ; the second reserve, 
ko-bi-gun, from ko, a variant of go=nochi. 

b Mayuge is often pronounced tnciige. Mayuge wo otosu shave the eyebrows* 
mayuge wo tatem let the eyebrows grow. 

c Hodo no ii koto flattery. With bakari the particle wo is rarely used : koto 
ico bakari. In the next sentence note the position of de : kotogakkd bakari de 
means " it being only a college." 


mogoro s* koshi mo ante ga furiuiasen kara, 
te amagoi wo shimas . Ooka Echizen no 
kami wa a hito no kao wo mizu ni saiban wo shimasJita ; naze 
nafeba, kao wo mireba, shizen to dochira ka (ni) hiiki sum 
kokoro ga okoru kara des . Itsu mo go kigen yj irasshaimasJite 
kekko de gozaimas\ Do iu fu ni tenarai no keiko wo sJitara yd 
gozaimasho. So de wa ikemasen ga, ko nas tiara yoroshu gozai- 
masho. Nikon no jobigun wa tatta^ ju san shidan s/ika ari- 
masen. Ano hito wa taiso kinshin stite sake wo nomanaide ori- 
mas. Tadaimayonda bakari des 1 kara, oboete iru hazu des ' ga. 
Sdkuban no o kyaku wa ikutari desh'ta ka. Mina de ju nin 
manekimastita ga t tatta roku nin sti ka kimasen destita. Gaku- 
mon, sae areba, meiyo no aru ichi ni noboremas'. \Vatakushi 
no tokei wa mo yo ji ni narimas ; shikashi chanto atte irii 
ka do da ka wakarimasen. Sonna ni osoku wa gozaimasen 
mada san ji han des'. Ano uma wa chimba da kara, tadt 
de mo iya da. Inu de sae mo shujin no on wa wasitrenai 
Amari kaze ga fuite iru yd de wa arimasen . O taku de wt 
mina sama o kawari mo gozaimasen ka. Seiyo no suzume wt 
os 1 to mesto wa keiro ga taiso chigaimas ga, Nihon no ivi 
mes'mo os' mo (or to) onaji koto des\ Ishikawa Goemon ga c 
o shioki ni naru toki ni, watakushi wa tada wazuka no katii 
wo nusunda bakari des'ga, Hideyoshi wa tenkaju wo nusu 
mimasttta no ni, naze watakushi bakari shirabete Hideyosh 
?va shirabemasen ka to mdshimash'ta. Gasshukoku d seifu Wi 
bakufu to nagaku dampan wo stita ato de ydyaku tsushd-joyak, 
wo uiusubimastita. Mago ni mo is/id (Proverb). e Kobo n 

a This is the name of a machi-bugyd in Edo in the XVIII. Century, who 
famous among the Japanese for the Solomonic wisdom of his judgments. Th 
city was governed, by two bugyo who possessed military and. judicial as well 2 
administrative functions. Echizen is the name of a province on the coast c 
the Japan Sea; kami lord. Titles like Echizen no Kami, originally used onl 
of the lord of the country, gradually became applicable to others. 

b Tatta is used when a quantity is regarded as very small. Compare taa ^ 
go yen satsti ichi mai shika motanai and tatta issen shika motanai. 

c A notorious robber at the end of the XVI. Century. 

d Gas-shft-koJtti the United States, from gd=awaseru, shu province and kok; . 

e Clothes make the man. Compare the other proverb : Mugi-iuara ning > 
mo isho-gara. Even a doll made of wheat straw [is judged according to] tl r 
quality of its clothes (p. 2iya). 


mo fade no ayamari (Proverb). a Oya &9^Sf ^mno zeni 
kane wa tanin da (Proverb). b Taikd saina^^^ ^Kda no wa 
Keichd c san nen sunawachi sen go hyaku ku ji^tachi nen de- 
sk' (a. Yd ^ua ato ni stite mazu o agari nasai. Mo shakkin 
wa sukkari kae stite shimaimasti ta kara, kore de anshin des\ 
Kydto no jinkd wa oyoso san ju roku man nin gurai des*. 
Mo hitotsu meshiagare. Mo kore kiri kimasen ka. O me wa 
ikaga des ka. Arigatd, kono setsu wa daibu yd gozaimas\ 
Nikon ni mo kinnen wa kaisuiyokujd ga tak 'san dekimasti ta. 
Watakushi wa go no sense i ni shichi moku okasete moratte mo 
shiju makete imastita ga t dandan jdzu ni natte ima de wa yo- 
yaku katsu yd ni narimastita. d Fujisan wa itsu mo yuki ga 
tsumotte ite shiroku miemas'ka. lie, goku ats' ku nareba, hito 
tski gurai no aida yuki ga mienaku narimas\ Naratta ji 
wo orifushi kurikaesanai to, wasuremas\ Mo ryokdmenjd no 
negai wa dashimastita ga, mada menjd wa sagarimasen. 
Omae koso uso-ts ki (liar) da. Sonna koto wo onna de mo deki- 
mas 1 ; masJite otoko wa naosara (no koto) e des . Kono setsu wa 
tokaku hitogoroshi ga dkute komarimas' . Kore koso itte mina- 
kereba narimasen. Taisd honeotte ydyaku Nikon no hon ga 
shdshd yomeru yo ni narimastita. Sonna ni is* kue ni kuttsuite 
o yomi nasaru to, o me ga nao chikaku narimas'yo. Sekkaku 
dekiagaru to, sugu ni kowarete shimaimasti ta. Sekkaku takai 
omocha wo katte yatta no ni, sugu kowash'te shimaimasti ta. 
Tako ga ydyd agarimasti ta. Kono sets'wa amari yd mo 
arimasen kara, kashihon f de mo yomimashd. Kore kara 
Nihongo bakari is kaimashd. Ano hito wa ko mo aru ski (art) 

a Kobo is an abbreviation of Kobo Daishi, the great teacher Kobo (ko=-hiro- promulgate, ho law). He was the founder of the Shin-gon (==makoto no 
kotoba) sect and is renowned as a scholar and penman. 

b When it comes to a question of money even such a close relation as that 
between parent and child is like the relation between strangers. For zeni 
kane see p. 2253. 

c The name of a nengo, 1596 1615. 

d The checkerboard is go-ban' t the checkers are goi-ishi. The one who 
occupies (ishi wo okn^ the larger number of points (tne] on the board wins. 
The teacher handicaps himself by allowing his pupil at the beginning of the 
game to occupy seven points. 

e Mashite naosara no koto desu, is a common pleonastic idiom, like tada 
bakari) moshi nara, tatoi mo y etc. Naosara (itokotd} desit is elliptical for nao~ 
sara dekiru hazu desu. 

f An entertaining book borrowed from a kashl-hon-ya. 


kane mo aru shi (art) nani hitotsu Jusoku ga nai. Kesstite 
so iwarenai to iva iemasen ga, tsurei sj wa iimasen. Mai do 
kodomo ga agarimasJi te o jama wo itashimas\ Do itashi- 
mastite ; nigiyaka de kaette yoroshu gozaimas'. Maido o seiva 
iii narimastite osoreirimas . Ano liito wa givanrai karada ga 
amari jdbu de nakatta ga, yojo ga yokatta mondes kara, 
nagaiki wo itashimasti ta. Jsai torishirabeta tie de (after) 
moshiagemasho. Ikura negatta tokoro ga, sliosen kiite kure- 
mai kara, dannen sum yori hoka arimasmai. a Kono yd ni 
itte kikastite mo kikanal nara, igo wa issetsu kamai-tsnken 
kara, so omoe. Otts ke do ni ka narimashd. b Ikubunka 
kokoroe no nai hito ni wa. ikura tokiakastite yatte mo, naka- 
naka ivakarimas'mai. Nanigoto ni yorazu^ heizei chui stite 
oranai to, tokaku shippai shimas\ Anata no ossharu koto wa 
wochiron rikutsu ni wa kandtte orimas ga, jissai ni wa uto 
gozaimas '. Zentai oya ga warui kara, kodomo ga anna tsuma- 
ranai mono ni natta no da. Sono kimono wa momi no ura wo 
1s ke tar a, isso rippa ni narimasJw. Dose, mutsukashii mono 
nara, isso ko yatte mitara do des\ Tori ya kemono de sura 
mo on wo ukete wa kaes koto wo stttte oru no ni, hito to sh'te 
ongi ni kanjiru kokoro no nai mono wa tori kemono ni mo otoru 
mono de wa arimasmai ka. Go kigen yoroshu gozaimas' ka. 
Hai, kawatta koto mo gozaimasen. Isai shochi itashimastita. 
Kodomo wa gakko kara yagate kaette kuru jibun des\ Kono 
gakko no seito wa moppara Eigo wo benkyj stite orimas '. 

I have already forgotten [my] German entirely, since I can no 
longer associate with Germans (opportunities to associate with 
Germans have become not existent). Why do Japanese women 
dye their teeth black? I don't know why it is, but such 
is the custom (it is such a custom). As it is cool to-day, there 
will hardly be so many mosquitoes (mosquitoes will hardly come 
out so much). The temperature (of) this morning was about 
five degrees below (ika) zero. I (ni wa) have only one brother; 

a Tokoro ga, or tokoro de, makes a clause concessive \=iknra negaite mo. The 
idiom -yori hoka nai there is no way but to is also a very common one. 

b Do ni ka naru will come to some (satisfactory) conclusion. 
c Translate : it doesn't matter what the business is. 


he is ten this year (this year ten becoming brother but one 
there is). In Japan not only adults but even (de mo or made 
mo) little girls use (ts keru) face-powder. Even monkeys 
[sometimes] fall from trees. a Please speak (use) Japanese 
only. At last the preparations are (have been) finished. It 
was my intention to go second class, but, if you go first class, I 
(too) will likewise go with you (go issho ni itasu). By this 
time it is useless to consult a physician (though you consult a 
physician, it is useless). Formerly there was also in Japan a 
feudal system, but after the Restoration it went to pieces. As 
there is still work (yd) in the house, wait a little longer and 
go out (dete ike) to make your purchases afterwards. After 
(tatte) two years I at last became able to talk (at last it became 
that (yo ni) speaking was possible). After having the teacher 
explain two [or] three times, I at last understood. When may 
I send the messenger? Any time will do. You may go out 
now and then for recreation (asobi ni). As I drove him out 
of (from) the house, he will not come a second time (mo fta- 
iabi). That lady is always wearing fashionable clothes. Some- 
times (toki to stite or toki ni yotte) I drink as much as (even) 
ten glasses of been Another day we will again speak of it 
(sore wa i). Usually the Japanese do not smoke tobacco while 
they are at work (hataraite iru aida wa). There are very few 
Europeans that can read Japanese books. At present I have 
no particularly good ideas (kangae). In your composition 
(wa i) there are not so many mistakes ; it is fairly well done. 
At any rate (nanibun) t since the days are short, we can't do 
more than this (can do only this), though we work with all 
our might. Formerly when I was in Germany I met Bismarck. 

a This proverb is often joined to the one given above : Kobo ni mo fude ni 



Words in Japanese which correspond to English prepositions 
must be called postpositions, for the reason that they follow the 
words that they govern. These particles may be divided into 
two groups : postpositions proper and quasi-postpositions. 
Postpositions proper immediately follow the words that they 
govern. Some are particles, like de, ni, and to, while others 
were originally substantives, which, however, are no longer 
felt to be such. Quasi-postpositions are really substantives, 
still used as such, to which dependent words are joined by 
means of the particle no. There are also certain subordinatives 
that are used like English prepositions. 

Often where the English employs prepositions other construc- 
tions are required in Japanese : 

Mizu wo abiru bath in cold water. 

Machi wo aruku walk about the town (or walk the streets). 

Nikon wo (or kara) tatsu start from Japan (or leave Japan). 

Soko wo ugoicha ikenai. You must n't move from that place. 

Gakko wo sotsugyo sum graduate from the school. 

Shina wo tabi sum travel through China. 

Hito no koto wo omou think of a person. 

Is/ia wo yobi ni yam send for a physician. 

Zaisan no nai hito a person without property. 

bhippo no mijikai neko a cat with a short tail. 

Wa often occurs where we should expect a postposition: kono 
ni san nichi wa in the last two or three days, Tokyo atari wa 
in the region of Tokyo, about Tokyo, etc. 

To the postpositions proper belong de, nt, to, kara or yori, 
made and ye. These can be used with adverbs : yoru osoku 
made until late at night. Compare to kara for a long time, and 

a "Preposition" is zen-chi-shi' postposition, kd-cki-shi; zen=iiiae, ko=go= 

LXXVIII] De, ni, w 363 

tj ni a long time ago, from toku. Sometimes ni is added to 
another postposition, as in made ni (see the following Chapter), 
When in English a prepositional phrase is used to modify a 
noun, no is required in Japanese : 

Tdkaido ye no risu distances (in rt) to [points on] the Tokaido. 

Tokyo made no kippu a ticket to Tokyd. 

Nihon to no ko-tsu intercourse with Japan. 

The remainder of the chapter will be devoted to explaining 
the uses of de, ni and to. 

I. De ma/ be local and instrumental, like the classical nite. 
It also performs a function similar to that of the subordinative. a 

(i.) De is used in a local sense, answering the question 
" Where ? " when the verb indicates an action or a certain state 
of things : 

Kochira de wa sonna koto wo shimasen. 

Here we don't do anything of the kind. 

Nihon de wa do shimasu ka. What do they do in Japan ? 

Doko de o motome nasaimastita ka. Where did you buy it ? 

Doko de dekimashita ka. Where was it made ? 

Gwaikoku de shinimashita. He died abroad. b 

Chizu de sagashidasJiite kudasai. Please look it up in a map. 

Koko de matte imasho I will wait here. 

Amerika de wa so iti shukwan ga gozaimasen. 

In America there is no such custom. 

De is used in speaking of the mere existence of a thing in a 
place when the place is contrasted with some other place, as in 
the example, p. 3$a : Tokugawake no o tamaya wa doko desu 
ka. Tokyo de wa Shiba to Ueno ni arimasn. 

a This distinction between the de's may seem at first sight more subtle than im- 
portant, but it is certainly a factor in determining the usage. In the subordina- 
tive is involved the idea of a cause, condition or circumstance which objectively 
or in a necessary way modifies the action or stale expressed by the principal 
word of the sentence. Thus a Japanese would not say, Aim ga futte kaerimcishd, 
because the decision to return is not necessarily connected with the rain ; but 
it is natural to say, Atm ga futte kf-inarimasu. Now compare : Korf de wa 
komarimasu. This sort of tiling is annoying. Kore de o ivakare nwshiinasho. 
At this point I will take my leave. The connection between /core de and the 
verb in the former sentence is closer than in the latter. 

b " He was killed in ihe war between Japan and China" may be either 
Nisshinsensd de shinimashita, or, more rarely, Nisshinsen-senso ni shiniinashita. 


Some expressions with de have passed over from a local to a 
temporal sense : ato de afterwards, a soko de now, then. b 

(2.) De may indicate cause or means : 

O kage saina de naorimashita. 

Thanks to your aid, I have recovered (p. I4c). 

Kono attaka na tenki de wa kori ga tokemasho. 

With this fine weather the ice will probably melt. 

Take de dekita shina wares made of bamboo. 

BJ de naguru beat with a club. 

Fune de (or fune ni notte) iku go by boat. 

Ichi nichi de dekimasho. It can probably be done in a day. 

Zokugo de wa ko iimasu In the colloquial they say... 

Yume de mita koto ga aru. I have seen it in a dream. 

Ichi yen de kaimashita. I bought it for a yen. 
Sometimes either de or ni may be used with practically no 
difference in the sense. Simply to "dream of a thing" is 
usually mono w0 yume ni miru. Ichi yen ni kaimashita (or 
urimashita) does not differ from ichi yen de kaimashita (or 
urimashita} any more than the English " buy at one yen " 
differs from " buy for one yen." 

(3.) De may indicate a condition or a circumstance : 

Kort de ii. This will do. 

Ariawase de yoroshii. What is on hand will do. 

Mittsu de takusan desu. Three are enough. 

Mina de san ju ni narimasu. There are thirty-two in all. 

Raigetm de wa osoija nai ka. Won't next month be too late ? 

Some of the adverbial expressions into which de enters come 
under this head : e.g., futari de the two together, etc. (p. 65), 
hisashiburi de after a long interval (p. 338b). There are 
many such adverbial phrases ; e. g., sono ikioi de (ikioi power) 
in consequence of the impetus gained, at that rate : 

Sono ikioi de susumeba jiki ni NiJiongo ga hanaseru yd ni 
narimashd. If he keeps on at that rate, he will soon become 
able to speak Japanese. 

a Compare : O ato kara mairimasho. I will go after you, i. e., later (p. 257a). 
O ato ni (tsnite} mairimasho. I will go behind you. Hito no ato ni tatte imasu 
He is standing behind some one. See p. 338, bottom. 

b Ima de=ima ni shite or ima ni natle under the present circumstances: iina 
de ieba according to present usage. 

LXXVIII] De, ni, to 365 

Note also : sore de or (with a future verb) sore de zva, sore ja 
in those circumstances, then, in that case. 

There are also conjunctional phrases like tokoro de. a Toko- 
ro de, or de alone, often serves as a superfluous connective be- 
tween sentences in the same way that many use " and " in 
Knglish. Note the elliptical expression : Ddri de, Quite right I 

De is used with predicate substantives in the idioms de aru 
(de gozaimasti) and de iru (de irasshaimasii) : Hei-ki de iru. 
He's unconcerned. 

(4.) De may have the sense " on the part of " and be practi- 
cally equivalent to ga, especially with words denoting a body 
or a corporation (p. I26c) : 

Seiju de o karaisage ni narimashita. The Gov't has sold it. 
Jimmin no ivarui no de wa nai ; seifu de mackigatta no desu. 

It's not the people's fault ; it's the Government that blundered. 
So also bakufu de the government of the Shogun, keisatsu de 
the police, kwalsha de the company, seken de the world, etc. 
To the same class may be assigned the peculiar expressions 
uchi de wa or temae de wa we, yado de wa b or taku de wa my 
husband, muko de wa or saki de wa he or they, etc. 

(5.) De with substantives is often equivalent to de atte or 
deshite (p. SQC.) : Skimp ai de naranai. I am exceedingly anx- 
ious (p. I58b). It takes the place of the ending kute with 
quasi-adjectives : Byoki de arukenai. c He is so sick that he 
can't walk. It is used in the same way with substantivized 
adjectives or verbs (Chapters XXXVII., LXIV.). d 

2. The particle ni has a great variety of uses. 

(i.) Ni has a local sense, answering the question " Where? " 
when one thinks of the mere existence of a thing in a place, 
that is, when aru, oru, iru, or one of the corresponding polite 
verbs, constitutes the predicate : 

a Tokoro de, like tokoro ga t often has an adversative sense : Yonde mita 
tokoro de, ivatakushi ni wa totemo ivakarimasumai kara, yoshimasho. Even though 
I read it I should not understand it at all; so I will give it up. 

b The word yado alone may mean " lodging place " or " husband." 

c The de in, Byoki de yasemashita, He is emaciated on account of sickness, is 
felt to be different from the bydki de above. 

d The negative subordinative in naide is derived from the negative present 
lorn and de. 


Tamagawa ni at ga takusan orimasn. 
In the Tama River there are many trout. 
Tamagawa de ai ga takusan toremasu. 
In the Tama River many trout are taken. 

SBoski wa doko ni arimasu ka. Where is my hat ? 
Doko de boshi wo kaimasho ka. Where shall I buy a hat ? 

Sometimes ni occurs with other verbs or with adjectives 
^vhen the idea of being in a place is the prevailing one : 

Konokawa ni wa unagi ga oi. Eels are numerous in this river. 

Muko ni miemasu. Over there it is (appears). 

Te ni motte imasu. He has it in his hand. a 

Soto ni hito ga matte imasu. There is some one waiting outside. 

Soto ni gomi ga tatte imasu. It is dusty outside. 

Koko ni suwarimasho. I will sit here. 

Ta ni kusa ga haeta. Weeds have grown in the paddy-field. b 

Kabe ni ana ga aite iru. There is a hole in the wall. 

Shimbun ni kaite aru. It is in the newspaper. 

Tonari ni ie ga tatta. A house has been built next door. 
In the last examples it is a question whether the ni should not 
be parsed as the particle of the indirect object, especially when 
the verb is made transitive : kabe ni ana wo akeni, shimbun 
ni kaku, tonari ni ie wo taterti. c 

Such verbs as sumu or sumau dwell, tomaru sit (of a bird) 
or lodge, noru be on or ride, etc., d naturally take ni with the 
word that answers the question " Where ? " 

(2.) Ni is the proper particle to use with words denoting 
time, answering the question " When ? " (p. 338) : nichiyd ata- 
ri ni about Sunday, asa to ban ni in the morning and in the 
evening (p, 8ib). Note also: hi ni san do zutsu three times a 
day ; san nen ni ichi do once in three years. e 

a Te de motte imasu. He holds it with his hand. 

b Compare niwa ni ueta ki, niwa ni dekita imo (p. 3426). 

c lonari de would mean " on the part of my neighbor " : My neighbor has 
built a house. Similarly : Shimbun de kakimashita. It is reported in the news- 

d We say ji 'tens ha ni noru ride on a bicycle, but jitensha de iku go by wheel. 
Noru may also mean <; be induced to take part " : sedan ni noru take part in a 
consultation (Comp. nori-ki ni narit, p. 305). 

e Ima ni my mean " until now " or " soon " : Inia ni ko yatte kurashi ivo shite 
imasu. Up to the present time I have been making my living in this \vay. 
Ima ni yokit narimasho. It will soon improve. 

LXXVIII] De, m, to 367 

(3.) With aru and similar words ni may denote possession 
or a close relation (p. Qa) : Uski ni tsuno ga aru. Watakushi 
ni wa imoto ga nai. 

(4.) Ni (wa) may have the sense of " among " : 

Kono skina ni ko otsu ga gozaimasu. a 

Among these goods there are two kinds, first class and second. 

Kuma ni wa ke no shiroi no mo kuroi no mo arimasu. 

Among bears some have white fur and some have black. 

Ana hito no iu koto ni wa machigai ga nai. 

There is no mistake in what he says. What he says is true. 

(5.) Ni may be rendered " in addition to, " besides ", " and " 
(p. 6/d) ; e. g., sore ni besides, moreover. In describing ideo- 
grams ni is much used : Meiji no mei zva hi hen ni tsiiki to iu 
ji wo kakimasu. The character mei (IpJ) in Meiji is composed 
of (written) hi (0) and tsuki (/}). b Note the idioms: nen 
ni nen wo irete taking the greatest pains ; korae ni koraete 
enduring to the utmost (p. 2/9, 5). Nate also proverbial ex- 
pressions like : Ume ni ugtiisu. Plum-tree and bush-warbler, 
i. e., the ume and the uguisu naturally belong together. Uri- 
kotcba ni kai-kotoba. Tit for tat (compare : " paid back in 
your own coin "). In idioms like these the idea of contrast is 
often involved : Botan ni karashishi. The peony and the lion, 
i. e., strength and beauty. 

(6.) Ni may mark the thing into which anything enters or 
to which it is transferred : 

a Compare ; Kono fn(a. no aida ni zva ko otsu ga nai. There is no difference 
between the two (no superiority and inferiority). Ko and otsu belong to a 
series of ten signs called jikkan or eto. 

ko=ki-no-e tree o!su=ki-no-to herb 

hei=hi-no-e flame tei=hi-no-to glow 

l)o=fsuchi-no- e earth kitsuchi-no-to pottery 

k5=ka-no-e coin sliin^=.ka-no-to hardware 

jin=mizu-no-e sea water ki=mizu-no-to fresh water 

These sign are used as we use A, B, C, etc. They are also used parallel with 
the twelve zodiacal signs, the/w ni shi y to name the sixty years of the old cycle . 
For practical purposes it is sufficient to learn the first four, ko, otsu, hei t tei. 

b The part of an ideogram called in English the radical, when it forms the 
left side of the character, is called hen=kata side. Thus the hen J( is nimben, 
from nin=hito || is gomben, from gon=kotoba. The remainder, the phonetic 
part of an ideogram is called tsukitri body, from tsukuni make, construct. 


Plako ni ireru put into a box ; furo ni hairu enter a bath. 

Hito tokoro ni atsumaru assemble in one place. 

Yama ni noboru ascend a mountain (also wo). 

Nihongo ni honyaku suru translate into Japanese. 

(7.) Ni may denote an aim or a result, as in sampo ni deru 
go for a walk, shippai ni owaru end in failure. 

For ni as used with stems of verbs to express purpose see p. 
278, 3. In the same sense it is used with substantives and may 
be rendered " for ", " as " ; with substantivized verbs, " to " : 

Kore wo nani ni tsukaimasu ka. What is this used for ? 

ret no shiruski (made) ni sashiagemasu. 

1 offer this as a token of appreciation. a 

Gakusha de mo nai ga, kydshi ni wa taiken ii ri desti. 

He is not at all a scholar, but very good as a teacher. 

Kome wo tsukuru ni wa mizu ga takusan nakereba naranai. 

To grow rice one must have plenty of water. 
Ni may have the sense "so as to become," often translated " as" : 

Shichi ni oku deposit as a pledge, pawn. 

Kyaku ni iku go as a guest, be invited out. 

Yoshi ni morau receive as an adopted son. 

Tin ni ageru appoint as a committee. 

Giin ni senkyo suru elect as a representative. 

Fujisan no koto wo uta ni yomu compose a poem about Fuji. 

Especially common are the idioms ni suru (p. 215) and ni 
naru (p. 262) : 

Koko wo niwa ni shimasu. I will make this a garden. 

Hito wo baka ni suru make a fool of a person. 

Hanashi no tane ni naru afford a topic for conversation (or 
a story). 

Tame ni naru hanash* profitable conversation. 

Kivokoku ni naru make a [good] advertisement. 

Mu-chu (mu=yume, chu=^naka) ni naru become absorbed. 

Ate ni naranai hito a person not to be relied on. 

Kodomo no byoki ga ki ni natte hitobanju nerarenakatta. 

The child's illness affected me so that I could not sleep all 
night. With ki ni naru t compare ki ni suru t p. 215, IO. 

a A common expression employed when a gift is offered. 

LXXVIII] De, ni, to 369^ 

(8.) N't is used to form adverbs. In this connection note 
such phrases as: oshii koto ni wa (p. u/d) and to say; 
shiawase na koto ni iva happily \ fushigi na koto ni wa strange 
to say. 

(9.) In the following very common idioms ni may be liter- 
ally translated " in," often having the sense of " according to " 
" or in regard to " : 

Kaeri ni tacJiiyorimasho. I will call on my way back. 

Sono koto iva lianaslii ni kiita. I heard it in conversation*. 

Kotowaza ni to iiwas . In a proverb it is said that ^ 

Aru hito no hanashi ni iva to iu koto desu. 

Some one has told me that 

Kotaeinasuru ni wa (or kotaete) to woshiinashita. 

He replied that 

Wataknshi no omoimasu ni wa ... ., (yd desu). 

I think that a 

Naze to iu no ni kara desu. The reason, is that 

Kaku ni komarimasu. It is difficult to write. 

Koraeru ni koraerarer.u. One cannot endure it (p. 274,2). 

Sono kotoba iva ko iu imi ni (or de] tsukaimasu. 

They use the word in this sense, namely 

Tomaru wake ni wa ikanai (or ikenat). [I] may not stay. b 

(10.) With causatives and passives ni indicates the agent. 
Compare: \Vaiakushi ni wa dekimasen. I can't do it. 

Honorifically ni wa may take the place of wa with a subject, 
as in Kwogo heika ni wa (p. 3i3f). 

Ni may also indicate a cause, being equivalent to no tame ni 
" on account of" : 

Fune ni you be seasick ; sake ni you be intoxicated. 

Hi ni yakeru be sunburned. 

Namida ni kurete iru be blinded with tears. 

Kane ni komaru be troubled on account of money. c 

a There is no appreciable difference between ivatakushi no omoimasu ni ?ca 
and ivatakushi no kangae de iva. A sentence beginning with the latter phrase 
may end with to omoimasu. 

b Note that while one may say, Watakushi iva ikanakereba narimascn, a 
phrase like itte wa naranai cannot be used in the first person. But wake ni 
iva ikanai may be used in any person. 

c When the cause of distress is not an external object, a subordinative or 
de better : Bimbo de (or ni iva] komaru. 


Shujin no keminaku tti osorete...... 

Being afraid of the master's [angry] appearance 

Kao no warui no ni wa odorokiniashita. 

I was startled by her ugliness. 

The verbs kanzuru, kanshin sum, kampuku suru (p. 275), take 
ni : Sensei no go on ni kanjimashita. I was deeply moved by 
the master's kindness. When the object is cognate wo may be 
used : Itami wo kanjimashita. I felt pain. But kando sum 
(do = ugoku move, inter.) takes only ni, never wo. 
Ni may even be instrumental : 

Ryoho no te ni hiku lead [two] by the hand, one on each side. 

Hi ni hosu dry in the sun ; hi ni sarasu bleach in the sun. 

rei wa koioba ni tsukusaremasen. 

1 cannot completely express (exhaust) my gratitude in words. 
It appears from the above that the particle ni has more uses 

than any other postposition. As has been intimated (Ch. V.), 
it also performs the function of what we call the Dative Case 
in other languages. With verbs ni indicates the indirect, 
object. While in most cases the usage is analogous to that in 
other languages and needs no explanation, in some the 
Japanese is peculiar. 

Transitive verbs often take wo with the thing and ni with 
the person; e. g., hito ni mono wo yarn. Note particularly 
verbs meaning to " ask," etc., like ton (p. 24/d), inoru pray 
negati beseech, tanomu request, wabiru apologize, etc. Hito n, 
tazuneru is to inquire of a person, but to search for or call on r 
person is hito wo tazuneru. As in English there is a shade o 
difference between " mix this and that " and " mix this witl 
that," so also in Japanese : kore to are wo mazeru and kore wt 
are ni mazeru. The verb kaeru change is used in the same 

The following are examples of intransitives that take ni. I 
is left to the student to decide to which of the above ten rule, 
any particular case should be assigned : 
ataru : tomi ni ataru win in a lottery. 

mizu ga hi ni atatte iru water stands in the sun. 
sakana ni ataru (aterareru) be made sick by eating spoiiec 

LXXVIII] De t ni, to 371 

shitsurei ni ataru (p. 710) be impolite (of conduct). 
au : nangi na Die ni au experience hardship. 

mujitsu no tsuini ni au get punished for a crime of which one 

is innocent. 

furerii touch (mono ni te wo), infringe, violate. 
kakaru : haibyo ni kakaru get consumption. 

isha ni kakaru consult a physician. 

ni o me ni kakaru have the honor to meet. 
shigoto ni kakaru (torikakarti) begin work. 
michi ni kakatte iru be on the way. 

kamau : hito (110 koto] ni kamau be concerned about other 

people's affairs (rarely wo). 

karakau banter : kodomo ni karakau tease a child. 
katsu : teki ni katsu defeat the enemy (opp. makefii). 
masaru excel (opp. otoru). 
muku, mukau, tai sum face. 

Note compounds like han-tai suru or teki-tai sum oppose. 
oyobu reach (p. I96d): Miru ni (ivd) oyobanai. It is not 

necessary to look. 

narau : hito ni narait learn of a person (but koto wo naraii). 
niru resemble (Ch. V.). 
sawaru : atsusa (shoki) ni sawaru be affected by the heat. 

no ki ni sawaru offend. 

shaku ni saivaru hurt one's feelings (of a thing). 
shinobiru endure : Kodomo wo hito-te ni watasu ni shinobinai. 

I can't endure it to give the child to another. 
shitagau follow, obey. 
somuku act contrary to, violate. 
sou be joined to, go along with. 
sugiru exceed : Nagusanii no tame ni yatta ni suginai. He did 

it only for fun. 
takeru, chozuru (ideogram cJio = nagai] be expert : 

keizaigaku ni chozuru be versed in economics. 
tariru, taru be sufficient : Kiku ni (wd) tarinai. It isn't worth 


tatsu : yaku (yo) ni tatsu be of use ; me ni tatsu be conspicuous. 
tetsudau : oya ni tetsudau help one's parents (but shigoto wo 

tetsudau, or shigoto no tetsudai wo suru). 
tsukaeru : otto ni tsukaeru serve one's husband. 


tsutovieru : gwaimusho ni tsutowefe iru be employed in the For- 
eign Office ; sensei ni tsutomeru be attentive to the master 
(but kyoshi wo tsutomeru perform the duties of a teacher). 
tsuku adhere, arrive, etc. : 

sensei ni tsuite keiko wo suru study under a master. 

shigoto ga te ni tsukanai be unable to get on with the work. 
yoru approach, depend. 
tsuzuru be proficient in. 

kan-sho suru interfere with (but soku-baku suru is transitive). 
kivan-kei suru have relations with. 
kyudai suru : shiken ni kyudai s. pass an examination (opp. 

raku-dait s.). 
The following will strike the student as being very peculiar : 

viayou : michi ni mayou lose the way (also wo machigaeru). 

tozakaru : hito ni tozakaru keep away from a person (Jtito 
wo tozakere) 

hazureru : kisoku ni hazurete iru be contrary to the rules. 

wakareru : hoyu ni wakareru part from a friend (also to). a 

hanareru : used with ni, kara, to or wo. Compare. 

Kokyo ni hanarete leaving home. [England. 

Amerika ga Igirisu kara hanarete America separating from 

Boto ga honsen to hanarete the boat parting with its ship. 

Kuni wo hanarete leaving one's country. 
Even adjectives may take ni : 

Nihongo ni kuwashii. He is well versed in Japanese. 

Tanuki wa kemuri ni yowai. A badger can't endure smoke. 

Tenka ni nadakai hito a man famous all over the country. 

3. To is exactly equivalent to the English " with," which, 
however, may be rendered more emphatically to tomo ni, to 
issho ni. It is used with verbs and adjectives as in the follow- 
ing examples : 

to (or ni) hanashi wo suru speak with. 

to (or ni) tsuki-au associate with. 

to (or ni) yakusoku suru make an agreement with. 

to (or ni or mo) onaji the same as (p. 39). 

to kokoro-yasui y kon-i da be intimate with. 

a Wakareru may also take kara in such a sentence as : Kono nchi wa muko 
no dkii uchi kara ivakateta no desu. This house is a branch of that lar^e house. 

LXXVIII] De, m\ to 373 

Kanai to futari de shibai wo mi ni ikimashita. 

I went with my wife to the theater. 

Watakushi to kyodai desu. He is my brother. 

Go isshin no toki ni nengo ^vo Meiji to aratamemashita. 

At the time of the Restoration the era was changed to Meiji. 

To is used with sum as explained on page 216, 10 ; to naru 
sounds rather bookish. With an, to is rarely substituted for 
ni, but with its compounds (p. 286, 2) to is more common. 
With ckigau, to should be used, except in the common idiom 
ni chigai nai : Chi-mei ni chigai wa nai. It is certainly a 
geographical name (compare p. 3153). With majiivaru or 
ko-sai suru either to or ni may be used. 


futokoro bosom. ei-sei (lit. guarding life) 

hoki broom. sanitation, hygiene. 

ikioi power. fu-shin building or repairing 

kame jar. a house. b 

kasu residue, dregs. ga-g* n (lit. elegant words) 

nabe pot, kettle, or pan for classical language. 

cooking. gak-kvva branch of study, 

shichi pledge, pawn. lesson, curriculum. 

tsura face (not polite). hik-ki memorandum, note. 

abura-mi fat, suet, lard. jo-rei regulation, rule. 

oku-niwa back garden. kan-go Chinese words. 

vme-boshi pickled plums. kei-zai economy, economics. 

hen radical written on the kit-chd favorable sign. c 

left side of an ideogram. kon-i intimacy. 

bak-kin fine. a kwai-gi conference, meeting. 

choku-yaku literal translation, (o) ni-kai second story. d 

chu-kai annotation, explan- set- shin spirit, intent. 

atory notes, commentary. seki-ki stone monument. 

a In modern legal phraseology a small fine not exceeding Y. 1.95 is called 

b From juamaneku at large, shen=kou beg ; fushin orginally meant 
building in connection with a temple but is now synoymous with ken-chikti. 

c The character kichi, meaning "good," "lucky," enters into many proper 
names. Synonymous with kitcho is yot shirase. 

d The ground floor is called simply shita. The third floor is sangai. 




yubin-zei, yu-zei postage. 

sho-yu-ken proprietary rights. 

kaban trunk, satchel. 

arai rough, coarse. 

ara-mono goods made of 
coarse materials, such as 
brooms, ropes, mats, wara- 
ji, etc. 

NiJion-deki no 1 made in 

wa-sei no } Japan. a 

fu-ryu na tasty, elegant, 

na ni ou famous (ou carry). 

ni amaeru act like a petted 
child toward, take ad- 
vantage of. 

amayakasn pet, indulge. 
ataeru grant, bestow. 

ni Jurem touch, transgress. 
koeru become fat, fertile 

(tr. koyasu}. 

koyashi fertilizer, manure. b 

nntragaru be gathered to- 

mura-kumo a cluster of clouds. 

ochiru flee. 

oeru = owaru end, complete. 

te ni oenai be unmanageable. 

uzumeru bury, fill in. 

sowuku (so back, muku face) 
act contrary to, violate. 

time-awaseru, umeyawase wo 

tsukeru make up the de- 

tsu-zuru be proficient in. 

ryu-ko sum prevail, be in 

nyu-bai ga akeru the rainy 
season ends. 

or o ski de at wholesale. 

sora de by heart, from mem- 
ory. c 


Hokkaido de wa (ni wa) kor,ie ga yoku dekimasen. Nikon 
ni wa kwazan ga ta& san ariinas . Mukaski wa bakuju de 
gwaikokn ye iku koto wo kinjite arimaslita. Sakunen wa June 
de Hakodate ye ikimastita ga, kondo wa riku no ho wo ikima- 
sho. Sore dake de yo gozaimas* . Kono uten de wa sakura no 
hana ga chitte skimaimasho. Watakuski no kangae de wa 
tsumari Nikon seiju de givaikokujin ni tocki no skoyuken wo 
ataeru dard to omoimas'. Kodomo wa atnayakas'to kuse ni 
narimas* (get spoiled). Hanas (|) to iu ji wa gomben (=) 
ni sKta (g-) to iu ji wo kakimas 1 (iu ji des>}. Saikyo de wa 
u taiken " to iu imi de yoku " erai " to iu kotcba wo mockiimas . 

a Imported " 5s haku-rai (haku ship, rai=kitru). 
b Also hi-ryo, from hi=.koyasu. 

c A'ore wo sora de iivaremasii ka. Can you say this by heart? 
ra is derived soranznru=atishd snrti memorize. 

From this- 

LXXVIII De, ni, to 375 

Mo s* koshi de (p. 3 5 id) ju ni ji ni narimasho. Kono uina wa 
abarete te ni oencii. Kane ga nakatta kara, to ^ei wo sklcki ni 
okiinastita. Kono ike ni wa koi ni funa ga orimas . Ebi de 
tai ivo tsuru, to iu no wa Doits' go no aburami de nezumi wo ta- 
rn to iu kotowaza to onaji imi des\ Watakushi no tonari ni 
gakko ga tackimastita. Tonari de konya konrei ga arimas* 
kara, sawaide imas . Kono setomono wa Nikondeki ni chigai 
(wa) nai. Watakuski wa kaze wo kiita no de zvtsu ga skimas' 
Oroski de kau to, yasni. Kore wa Nikon go de nan to mo ski- 
mas ka. Chiskima de wa shake ga dossari toremas*. Kyd no 
koto wa asu ni nobasu na. W arenabe ni tojibuta. a Kaeru no 
tsura ni mizu. b Berrin ni zairyu sh'te iru Nikonjin ni wa ka- 
nai no am hito mo arimas\ Kono ninjin no ne iva nani ni 
shimaska. Sayo, kusuri ni skimas '. Mukd ni kas* ka ni mien* 
yama wa Kandzan des\ c Nikon no gakko no kazu wa mina 
de samman ro& sen da so des\ Gakkwa no hikki wo uchi ye 
kaette seisJio skimas '. Chotto kn c hi ni demasen. d Kore wa 
amari takasugiru ; motto yasui no ni shimasho. Shimbun- 
jdrei ni furete bakkin u'o toraremasJita. Amari fubenkyo 
desJita kara, ima ni natte kokwai stite imas\ Hisashiburi de 
o me ni kakarimastita.^ Sore wa doko ni mo motte iku 
wake ni wa ikemasen. Uri no tane ni wa nasubi ga haenu 
(Proverb). Kdyasan ni Akechi Mitsukide no sekiki ga arimas**. 
Jikogara de (p. 2i/a) asa ban wa yokodo suzusJiku narimasti- 
ta. Mo s koski de nyubai ga akemasho. Komban wa o kyaku 
ni ikimas kara, reifku ya nazo wo yoku sJitakn sh'te oite o 
kure. Co shuttats 1 wa ikkagoro des ka. Sayo de gozaiinas\ 
raigetsu no juts ka mikka goro ni narimasko. Zeniire ga ya- 
burete dokka de kane wo otoskimasttta. Kono kuruma wa 
fnriiku natte yaku ni tatanaku nariinasJi ta. Nikon ni wa take 
de koshiraeta utsuwa ga tak'san arimas '. Anata yanagigori 
ni kaban wo motte oide nasaimas 1 ka. Domo, war Hi kaze des ; 

a Ware.nabe, from ivareru be cracked and nabe kettle ; tojibuta from tojiru 
bind andy/<7 lid. For the meaning of the proberb compare; "Misery loves 

1) Compare the English, * : Water on a duck's back." 

c A mountain in the province of Kazusa, visible from various points in 

d The meaning is : I know it very well, but I can't for the moment express 

e Note the difference between hi sashibnri de an 1 hisasJdku (p. iO4a), the one 
being used with positive verbs and the other with negative. 


ni o shinier i ga (rain) chitto mo nai kara hidoi hokori de 
arukemasen. Hyotan wo sagete hanami ni iku no iva furyu 
ni miemas. Kono hoki wa kinjo no aramonoya de kaimastita. 
O nikai ni itashimasho ka, stita ni itashimasho ka. Dochira 
de mo kirei na ho ga yoroshii. Anata to wakarete kara y agate 
ame ga furidashimasJi ta. Mus ko to f'tari de sakana wo 
tsuri ni ikimaslita. Kono shimbun to issho ni tegami ga 
kimasen ka. Hakurankwai ni iku yd ni tomodacki to yak ' soku 
slite okimasJita ga, sashits* kae ga atte yamemastita. Ume~ 
fioshi to in mono wa ume wo skio ni ts 1 kete (p. i6og) sore kara 
hinata ni hosttte mata is* keta mondes\ Watakushi wa wasn- 
rete orimastita ga, konya kwaigi ga am yd ni techo ni iomele 
arimaskara, kore kara dekakenakereba narimasen. Watakuski 
wa ikanai tsnmori des'ga, baai ni yotte wa ikanakereba 
naranai ka mo skiremasen. K'ristokyo wo shinzuru no wo 
samatageru no wa kempo no seishin ni somukimas '. Mada 
naretiai mon 'des 1 kara, watakushi wa jitensha wo norihazustite 
sono ikioi de hei ivo buchikowashimasti ta. Ckikagoro skinin 
wo sono mama haka ni uzumeru yori mo kwaso wo sum ho ga 
*iseijd kara itte mo mata locki no keizaijo kara itte mo ryotoku 
(double gain) de aru to iu setsu ga daibn ryuko sli te mairi- 
mastita. Kyoto no Arashiyama wa na ni ou sakura no meisho 
des '. " Tsuki ni murakumo hana ni kaze " to iu no wa kono 
yo no mama ni naranu koto wo (p. 22/a) keiyd stita kotoba 
des . Okuniwa ni ume no hana ga saite iinas'no de zasti kiju 
yoi nioi ga shimas '. Kodomo wo futokoro ni daite yuki no 
naka ni tatte iru onna no e wa Tokiwa ga (p. 1620) kodomora 
wo tsurele ochite yuku tokoro wo kaita no des . Hito ni oshiern 
no iv a taihen jibun no keiko ni nariinas . Issakujiisu no jishin 
ni o it c ki wa o it ami nasaimasen deslita ka. Yanagi ni 
kaza-ore (kaze ni oreru koto) nashi (Proverb). Bakin no kaita 
Hakkenden wa Nihonjin de shiranai hito wa arimasen. 
Kuchi ni (de) wa so iimas'ga, kara no uchi de wa ko omotte 

The Government has purchased (kaiageni) this lot. How 
should I say that in Japanese (p. 149,2)? Are battledores all 
made of kiri ? On account of sickness, ltd has not been com- 
ing to recitations (keiko ye denai] for some time, but he will 
at once make up the deficiency. Are the things that appear 

LXXVIII] De, ni, to 377 

at once make up the deficiency. Are the things that appear 
yonder mountains or clouds? Japan formerly was not divided 
into ken. They say that it is a favorable sign if you dream 
of Fuji. At London it is seldom quite clear (mattaku harete 
orii). In Japanese books the notes are wiitten above, but in 
Western books they are written below. He has two sons and 
three daughters. On this letter there were no (hatte nai) 
stamps ; so I was charged (torareni) double (ni bai no) the 
postage. It is said that the people of Tokyo build with the 
expectation (tsumort) that [the house] will burn once in three 
years. The character " pine " (J) is composed of " tree " (^c) 
and " prince " (fc). This evening I go to dinner (go chiso) at 
[my] neighbor's. I am so (ko or konna ni) late, because (no 
de) I lost the way coming here (kigake ni). The character 
41 Cr 7 " (1ft) is composed of " mouth " (P) and " bird " (|J). 
The residue of the sardines is used for manure. I cannot say it 
by heart. The iroha is (natte iru) a song, but its meaning is 
hard to understand. At the end of December mochi is made 
(pounded) in every house (ieie de). The Japanese do not mind 
(tonjaku sum) being in a draughty place (place where wind 
blows through). What is in those jars ? There is tea in these 
jars. It will be finished (dekiagani) in two hours. I have 
become quite intimate with him. Hideyoshi's grave is in Ami- 
clagamine. a In Shinto shrines there are (tatte iru) gohei and a 
mirror. As that is Chinese classical language (kango no gugeri). 
it is not used in the colloquial. It sounds strange (hen ni kiko- 
nt) if you translate it literally into English. That is certainly 
written by a Japanese (a thing that a Japanese wrote). This 
will afford a topic for (seed of) conversation. It hurts (sawaru 
the eyes to read by a dim (kurai) lamp. It is stated (notte iru) 
in the newspaper that (yd ni) a Russian man-of-war arrives at 
Yokohama to-morrow. We will spread new mats in the rooms. 
It is said that he is (de) a great scholar and is proficient in ten 
languages (languages of ten " countries). Small (komakai) 
articles if not gathered together and put (irele okii) into boxes 
soon (yoku) disappear (become invisible). 

a A hill behind the Daibutsn temple in Kyoto. Aniida the chief divinity 
>f northern Buddhism ; mine peak. 



4. Kara, yori from, since after : a koko kara from this place ; 
moto kara from the first ; mukashi kara of old ; saki kara since 
some time ago ; kore kara from here ( = koko kara), after this, 
next; sore kara from there, after that, then ; him kara in the 
afternoon-; asa hayaku kara early in the morning; tsune kara, 
fudan kara usually ; ura kara from the back, by way of a hint. 

Hata kara kuchi wo dasticha ikenai. It will not do to intrude 
one's, opinions. (Jiata kara from a side, as a bystander). 

Hachi ji kara hajimarimasu. It begins at eight (p. 161 c ). 

Anala kara o hajiine nasai. You begin. 

Nihojin no kangae kara ieba 

To speak from a Japanese point of view 

Gakumonjo kara iu naraba To speak scientifically 

Kara is also used as a conjunction (p. 401). 

Yori (originally stem of yoru, is in the colloquial less com- 
mon than kara. Note the expressions moto-yori of course to 
be sure = gwanrai (p. 349), kanete yori for a long time = id 
kara. In making comparisons (p. 136) kara viiru to is some- 
times substituted te* yori : 

Nani yori kekko na shina wo itadaite arigata gozaimasu. 
I thank you for the handsome (incomparably splendid) gift. b 
Yoru osoku made okite iru yori vio asa hayaku okite betikyo 

suru ho ga yoku oboerareinasu. c 
One can learn better by rising and studying early in the 

morning than by staying up late at night. 
Nashi wa ringo kara mini to, yohodo assari shite orimasu, 
Pears are rather insipid as compared with apples. 

5. Made until, as far as to, to : d 

a In the sense of "after" kara is used not only with substantives, but also 
with subordinatives (p. 960). In either case i-rai (p. 3490) or kono-kata may 
be substituted for kara. The pleonastic idiom kara irai may be heard 

b Elliptically one may say : Kore iva kore tva nani yori 

c In such a sentence the natural predicate is a word like yoi, here convert- 
ed to yoku oboerareinasn. 

d Made is used inclusively ; e.g., Doyobi made yasunde yoroshii. You may 
take a vacation until Saturday (inclusive). But compare : A'ono /ion wo hajiine 
kara hyaku mai no tokoro made yotni mas hita, I read to [the beginning of] the 
hundredth Jeaf of this bock. 

LXXIX] Kara, made, ye 379 

Doko made oide ni nariinasuka. How far are you going ? 

Tokyo made iku ri arimasuka. How many ri are there to T. ? 

Atama no teppen kara tsumasaki made doro ni mabireta. 

I was covered with mud from the crown of my head to the 

sole of my foot (lit. tips of the nails). 
There is a difference between made and made ni (p. i6id) : 

Ban made ame gafurimashd. 

It will probably rain until this evening. 

Ban made nifurimasho. 

It will probably rain by this evening. 

Made ni is used when verbs like " come ", " be finished," etc., 
form the predicates : 

Uchi de o machi mdshimasu kara, yoji made ni irasshai. 

I will wait for you at home ; come by four o'clock. a 

Myonichi made ni dekimashd. It will be done by to-morrow. 
Note the peculiar use of made ni in the sense of " for " or 
" as " in such idioms as : 

rei no shirushi made ni sashiagemasu. 

1 offer this as a token of appreciation. 

Go sanko made ni moshiagemasu. I offer it as a suggestion. 

Made in some connections means " everything including 
even," or simply " even," in which case the combination is 
treated as a substantive and may take case-particles or mo 

(P- 53*) 

Ni made also occurs : 

Shujin ga toshiyori zvo hajime kodomo ni made mo o miyage 
wo katte kimashita. The master bought presents for all, 
from the old folks down to the children. 

Uta ni made mo utawareru be the subject even of songs. 

Note finally the use of made with verbs, as in aku made to 
the utmost, from akiru be surfeited, and the common idiom iu 
made mo nai = mitron no : hi made mo nai warui koto desu. 
It is of course bad (lit. obvious badness). 

6. Ye to, toward : gwaikoku ye iku go abroad ; waki ye dent go 
out [of the house] ; Nihonju ye hiromaru be spread throughout 
all Japan. Ye is often substituted for ni or used pregnantly: 

Yo ji made irasshai would mean : " Stay till four o'clock." 


Tokyo ye tsuku arrive at Tokyo ; tana ye ageru put on the 
shelf (metaphorically : be oblivious of) ; yubinkyoku ye yotte iku 
call at the post office on the way ; Teikoku Hoteru ye tomaru 
stop at the Imperial Hotel. Note : Nikon ye atsuraeru order 
from Japan. 


ar i ant. ju-ban ) undergarment, un- 

tamashii soul, spirit hada-gi \ dershirt. b 

hana-bi fireworks. seibo ( = toski no /cure) a pre- 

ko-goto complaint (p. 15,2). sent made at the end of the 

tsumasaki (tsume no saki) tip year. c 

of the toe (nail). so-ho (tovio) both parties (lit. 

yakedo (yake-dokoro) a burn sides). 

(yakedo wo suru) be burned.) sd-skin the whole body. 

gun = kori (p. $24.3). tep-pen summit, crown. 

shi samurai. shimeppoi moist, damp. d 

shuku relay-station, stopping so-matsu na coarse, rude. 

place, post. hau creep, crawl. 

yui-no presents exchanged at kakaeru embrace, employ (as 

a betrothal. a a workman or servant). 

i-butsu legacy, relics. tobi-oriru jump down. 

yo-sho youth, juvenility. nage suteni throw away. 


Tenshi sarna wa moto kara Tdkei ni irasskatta no de wa go- 
jsaimasen. Asa mo hayaku kara hito iii koraremas* kara, s 1 koshi 

a This is a case of yutdyomi (p. 19), the yui being the stem of^ww to tie (in 
kainiyui}. The in i-butsu (=nokosu} is in some compounds pronounced yui ; 
e -S-> yui-gon or i-gon verbal will (of a dying person). So also in i-butsu ran 
materialism the i(=tada) is often pronounced yui. 

b An outer shirt, called shatsu, does not come under this head. But Japan- 
ese have also begun to wear flannel shatsu under their hadagi. 

c This is a case of metonymy. Compare a similar transfer of meaning in 
the case of shugi (p. 263). 

d In speaking of the air or climate say shikke (shimeri-ke) ga tsuyoi, not 
thuneppoi. With the latter compare ivasureppoi forgetful, okorippoi irritable, 
akippoi easily tired, fickle, awareppoi pathetic, etc. 

LXXIX] Kara, made, ye 381 

mo hiina ga arimasen. Shi ju shichi ski no (shi ju shichi nirt 
no gishi no) ibuts'wa ikka (nan nicht) kara miseru desho ka. 
Kesahodo gakko ye iku tochu de (inichi di) ko iu mezurashii 
furui hon wo kaimastita. Kokyo ye nistiki (nish ki ivo kite 
kokyd ye kaeru). a Sen ri no michi mo ippo yori hajimaru 
(Proverb). Danna wa tabi ye dete rusu de gczaimas . Yui- 
no wo yarn no wa do iu wake des ka. Kekkcn sum mae ni 
yak'soku no shirushi to sJite soho kara shinamono wo torikaivasu 
no des . Uguis'wa doko ye nigeta ka omae wa minakatta 
ka. Jibun no warui koto wa tana ye agete hito no koto wo 
iimas . Koi wa doko made mo noboru mono des' kara, kodomo 
ga shusse suru yd ni to itte o iwai ni ts kaimas . Mado kara 
ts'ki (no hikari) ga sashikonde imas\ Komban June de O has hi 
made itte hanabi wo kembutsu shimasho. b Seifu kara c kono 
jimen wo o haraisage ni narimastita. Kore wa somatsu na 
mono de gozaimas* ga, o seibo (tw shirushi) made ni sashiage- 
mas\ Kore wa, kore wa nani yori no (o) shina wo itadaki- 
mastite makoto ni arigato gozaimas\ Nikon no shibai wa asa 
kara ban made kakarimas* . Itsu made mo ryugaku shte iru 
wake ni wa ikanai kara, ima no uchi yoku benkyo shimasho. 
Yoritomo tio koro made wa gunken no seido de arimastita ga, 
sore kara ho ken- seido ni kawarimashta (p. 3243.) Mutts' 
kara to made no kodomo wa chi wo hau ari made (go) mkii- 
mu. Mayuge wo otos'to iu shukivan wa Shina kara kita so des ; 
Shina de wa ima de mo kodomo made ga mayuge wo otoshimas\ 
Nikon de wa meshitsukai ga sono uchi no kodomo ni made ma 
teinei ni shim as" '. d Mitsugo no tamashii hyaku made (p. 640). 
Are kara dochira ye irashaimashta ka. Are kara siigu 
(ni) uchi ye kaerimasJfta. Kono warui fu ga tdji no hito ni 
made oyonde oru. Doyobi made azukete okimasho. Doyobi 
made ni tori ni kimasho. Chikagoro go toke ye o kakae ni nari>- 

a The idea of the proverb is that a man should, not visit his birthplace 
until he has become a distinguished person. 

b O-hashi, a bridge over the Sumida River at Senju in Tokyo. In Japan 
fireworks are often sent off from boats on a river. 

c Kara is here used like d* (p. 365,4). For haraisageru see p. 286d. 

d Teinei ni suru treat courteously. In Japan a servant uses respectful 
language even to the little children of his master. 


mash* td betto wa doko no kuni no mono de gosaimas* ka. a 
Temae kara saki ni dete ike.^ Saki ye mus'me ga maitte 
ornnas\ Asa kara no oyuki de micki ga tomarimastita. c 
Bakucki ni makete nani kara nani made torarete shimaimasti ta. 
Ano onna wa uguis'no yd da to iu no wa, koe wa ii keredomo, 
kao ga warui to iu koto wo ura kara iu no des\ Umegatani 
wa aku made chikara no tsuyoi sumdtori de dare mo narabu 
mono ga nakatta. Kakikata no somatsu na no de tomodachi 
kara tabitabi kogoto wo itte kimasJita. Asa kara no oyuki des. 

From here to the next stopping place it is about four ri. At 
what o'clock will (does) to-morrow's performance begin ? From 
(the time of) [his] youth [his] eyes were bad. I have known 
(am knowing) him for a long time. A wind is blowing (fuki- 
ts 1 keru) from (the side of) the sea and driving the waves up 
(nami wo uchiageru) on the shore. A fruit-bearing tree may 
be known from its blossoms (Proverb). Hello, rikshaman ! for 
(de) how much will (do) you go to the Legation ? Take this 
plant out of the pot and plant it in the garden. If a priest is 
detestable, even his scarf is detestable (Proverb). In the time 
of lemitsu the water of the Tama River was brought (Jiikii) to 
Tokyo. A railroad from Aomori to Akita has been completed 
(dekimastita). My servant is of course dishonest but, as he is 
efficient (monogoto ga yoku dekiru), I employ him (p. 226a) just 
as he is (sono mama). In (ni) the recent fire I jumped down 
from the second story and hurt myself. The fireman was burned 
all over (soshin) from the crown of his head to the tips of 
his toes. Well ! (pyd) where are you going in this bad weather 
(in spite of the badness of the weather) ? Having unavoidable 
business, I am going just for a little (as far as) to Eyeglass 
Bridge. The cherry blossoms have begun to bloom everywhere ; 
so we will go (itte mimasho) to-morrow to Mukojima. When 
(subor. wa) the rain continues like this (ko) everything (na- 

a Go to-ke your house here. For to see p. 3173. Compare go to-sho, from 

b Translate: You go out first. For the kara compare seifu kai-a and koiiata 
kara (p. 337a). Saki is used in a different sense in the following sentence, 
where it indicates a family which the daughter has entered as a wife or as a 

c Michi ga tomaru the road is impassable (lit. is stopped). 


ni kara nani made) gets damp and one feels uncomfortable. A 
second class excursion ticket to Fujisawa, please ! From here 
to the pass the road is dreadfully bad. As I have never been 
in (gone to) that region, I think it would be better to engage 
a guide (go engaging a guide). As I am going out just a little 
(chotto soko made), if a guest {dare ka o kyakti), comes (has 
appeared), say that I shall return at once. He half (hambnn 
made) smoked the cigar and threw the rest (nokori) away. We 
shall finish our preparations by the time the teacher comes. 
How far had we come (yarn) ? Until the next [lesson] make 
a clean copy. Having lost (makeru) in gambling, he had 
[everything] taken from his coat to his shirt. 


Quasi-postpositions, as we have previously remarked, are 
really substantives. They are joined to dependent words by 
means of no and may themselves take case-particles and post- 
positions proper. Insted of a limiting substantive with no, 
the demonstratives kono> sono t and ano may be used (p. 36). 
Either ni or de, according to the context (p. 338, top) may be 
attached to quasi-postpositiotis denoting place; with such 
words as kawari and tame the proper particle is ni. But this 
postposition is not infrequently omitted ; e, g., with mae, aida, 
koka, kawari, tame. Quasi-postpositions may be used as 
predicates : 

Yam a no muko desu ka, temae desu ka. 

It is beyond the mountain or on this side ? 

Mon no so to desu ka t tic hi desu ka. 

It is outside the gate or inside ? 

i. Ue (in some connections kami] on, over, above. Besides 
the ordinary sense, ue often means " in regard to " : 

Biimpo no ue de wa tadasku gozaimasu ga 

It is correct so far as the grammar is concerned, but 

Kotoba no ue kara mireba Literally , 

For expressions like ietsugakujo no philosophical, rigakujo no 
pertaining to physics, etc, see p. 120. In counting, etc., 
" over " or " above" is usually to be rendered ijo : hachi ju 
yen ijo (no ue) over eighty yen ; reiten ijo above zero ; chuto 
ijo no hito the middle and upper classes. 


2. Shita (in some connections shimo) under, below, down : 
Hashi no shita wo torn pass under the bridge. 

Kama 110 shita wo taku make a fire under the pot. 
Yuki no shita kara deru come out from under the snow. 
To ijd corresponds ika : reiten ika below zero. 

3. Mae before, in the presence of, ago : 

Me no mae ni ant mono what is before one's eyes. 
Fujin no mae de sonna koto wo itte wa shitsurei desu. 
It is impolite to talk like that in the presence of ladies. 

kado no mae (go mon-zeri) wo tdrimasliita. 

1 passed (the front of) your gate. 

Roku uen mae no koto desu. It happened six years ago. 
Observe that when mae is used in a temporal sense the particle 
no is often omitted and that ni also may be omitted", ju nen 
mae ten years ago ; sono mae before that, previously. 

With words derived from the Chinese, zen may be substituted 
for mae : go isshin sen before the Restoration ; kigen zen 
B. C. (p. 228a). 

Nan nen zen no koto desu ka. How many years ago was it ? 
In comparing dates izen (ni) is used (p. 1 2Qb). 

4. Ushiro behind, back. But kage is more frequent in such 
expressions as : yama no kage ni behind the mountain (kage 

5. Omote differs from mae in that it indicates the front side 
of a thing, the surface. 

6. Ura has a wider range of meaning and is more common 
than nshiro. It often means the opposite side of a thing, the 
reverse, the rear. 

7. Saki may also be distinguished from mae. Both are used 
either of place or of time. Saki is preferred to mae when there 
is a movement forwards : Kono saki no tori desn. It is the 
street next beyond this. Compare mae no tori the street in 
front [of the house], or the street just crossed. a 

In speaking of time saki when used of the past takes ni t but 
it is more commonly used, without ni, of the future : ima kara 

a O saki ni(go men wa komuritnasu) or O saki nt (wo] itashiinasu. Excuse me 
for going ahead of you. O saki ni oide nas'tte kudasai. Please go ahead. Saki 
in saki de, saki ye, etc., is used as a pronoun of the third person (pp. 28, 3 and 


sauibyaku nen bakari saki ni about three hundred years ago ;_ 
ima kara sambyaku nen saki wa three hundred years hence. 

8. Ato, too, is used either of place or of time (p. 364%) : a 
Hito no a!o ni (tsnite) iku go behind a person. 

Hito no ato kara iku follow a person. 

Ju nen ato ten years ago. 

The synonymn nochi is used only of time. Note sono nochi 
(ni), sono go after that, subsequently. To zen corresponds go : 
go isshin go, kigen go, etc. To izen corresponds igo. b 

9. Te-mae this side. 

10. Muko, mukai opposite side, beyond. 

Kawa no inukd ye iku go to the other side of the river. 

11. Soba beside, near, by : torii no soda no chaya the restau- 
rant near the torii. Practically synonymous with soba are 
hat a, kiwa, hotori, atari. 

12. Waki beside, at the side of. Katawara may be regarded 
as synonymous 

13. Mawari) gururi, uieguri around. 

14. Aida between, during (local and temporal) : 
Yoru no aida (or ucki) ni during the night. 
Hito tsuki no aida for one month. 

Note that ni is used in denning the time of an incident, but 
not in speaking of duration of time. The Chinese equivalent 
of aida is kan : Tokyo Yokohama kan no tetsudd the railroad 
between Tokyo and Yokohoma. The same word enters into 
such compounds as zok-kan (ni) among the common people,. 
isshukan one week (p. 77, top), etc. 

15. Naka in, within, inside, among, in the middle of: 
Hako no naka ye irete o kure. Put it into the box. 
Tansu no naka kara dashite o kure. 

Take it out of the bureau. N 

a It is a curious anomaly that ato ni is used chiefly in a local sense, while 
ato de is temporal. 

b It is impossible to decide whether tnae, saki, ato, nochi, etc., in some of 
the expressions given in this chapter should be parsed as postpositions or as 
adverbs. The Englishman says three hundred years ago (or hence) ; the 
German, vor (or nacli) drei hunderi Jah'-en, Izen and igo, like irai (p. 349c), 
are also used alone or with wa as adverbs. 

c Mukai is used only in the sense of "opposite side,** not in that of 
' beyond " : Kobe no muko ni beyond Kobe \ Kobe no mukai (miiko] ni opposite 
Kobe, A'awf* (garva} may be added to 


The Chinese equivalent of naka is chu, used mostly with 
Chinese words : 

keiko chu desu ka. Are you in the midst of a lesson ? 
Mada shiken chu desu. We are still having examinations. 
Yasumi chu (ni) during the vacation. 

Gozen chu (ni} in the forenoon, or, at dinner. 
This chu enters into numerous compounds : kan-chu season 
of greatest cold, sho-chu season of greatest heat, do-chu journey, 
shi-chu the city, etc, c The same word in its nigoned formju 
meaning " entire " (p. 341, top) is used largely with words of 
native origin : uchiju the whole house, muraju the whole vil- 
lage, yoju the whole night, etc. Konnichiju (ni) before the 
day is over. 

1 6. Uchfo is unlike naka in that it may be used also of time : 
Hito tsuki no uchi (ni) within a month. 

Chikai tic hi (ni), sono uchi (ni) within a short time, soon. 
Note that in the sense of " among " uchi ni cannot be used 
except when the existence of a thing is in question, that is, 
when a word like aru y oru, di or sukunai is the predicate. 
Compare : 

Kono uchi de donata mo zonjimasen. 

1 don't know any one among these people. 

Kono ttchi ni zonjite oru hito iva hitori mo gosaimasen. 

Among these people there is not one that I know. 

Kono uchi de o ki ni iranai no wa dore desu kn. 

Among these which is it that you don't like ? 

Kono uchi ni o ki ni itta shina wa arimasen ka. 

Among these is there no article that you like? 
With Chinese words nai or dai may take the place of uchi : 
iicho-nai within a cho, i. e,, the whole street ; shi-nai the city 
tei-nai\\\c grounds (of a dwelling), kei-daifas enclosure. 

17. Soto outside. The Chinese equivalent is givai : kai-gwat 
over the sea, foreign countries, an-givai beyond expectation. 

1 8. Hoka besides, except: sono hoka (ni) or sono ta (ni) 
besides that ; omoi-no-hoka (ni) beyond expectation. 

a The word jochu maidservant, from jo=onna t was originally a collective 
term. Compare ningen human being from nin=hito and gen=aida, and kanai 
wife (or family), from ka=ie and nai=uchi. 

b The word is identical with uchi house. We don't say uchi no uchini, but 
ie no ttchi ni. Uchi ni orimasu. He is at home. 




19. Kawari instead : sono kawari (ni) instead of that. 

20. Tame for (final or causal) : kuni no tame (ni) in behalf 
of one's country ; nen no tame (ni) to avoid mistakes (lit. for 
the sake of attention) ; yo-jo no tame (ni) for the sake of health ; 
bo-fu no tame (ni) on account of the typhoon. Sei de (sei= ikioi) 
is synonymous with tame ni in its causal sense : 

lenki no sei de zutsu ga shimasii. 

1 have a headache on account of the weather. 

Note such combinations as: ne -shitd, kami-shimo, jo-ge ; 
atosaki before and after, or reversal of the other ; zen-go 
before or after, about ; chu-gwai or nai-givai home and abroad. 

There are other words which might properly be included 
in the above list of quasi-postpositions. 


itoko cousin. 

hum a bear. 

muskiro matting woven of 

run blue flycatcher (from ru- 

ri emerald). 
tsuge boxwood. 
chikara-mochi athlete. 
hana-gami paper for wiping 

the nose. 

hashi-sen bridge toll. 
koma-dori robin. 
ko-ya small house, hut, pen, 


sa-tsuki azalea. a 
shiro-ato ruins of a castle. 

suzuri (sumi-sur'i) ink- stone. 

uki-yo the world. b 

ko merit, achievement. 

bu-ke military caste (in feudal 

ku-ge nobility formerly at- 
tached to the Court. 

bum-po grammar. 

do-ro road, street. 

ge-rakti fall (of prices). 

ken-ko health (kenko desu is 

mom-ban gatekeeper, porter. 

shi-hei paper money (p. 26Qb). 

shu-kwaku harvest, crop. c 

kei-satsu-sho police station. 

Blooms later than the ordinary tsutsuji. The name, originally satsuki- 
fsutsuji, is derived from a classical designation of the fifth month. This again 
is derived from sanat-tsuki (sanae sprouts of rice). 

b From ukti float, the idea being that of inconstancy or change, Another 
-etymology derives the word from the adjective ushi. ttki sorrowful. 

c Als > shukivaku-daka, deki-daka, tore-daka. 


hankecki handkerchief. ninzuru, ninjite appoint, 

naka ga ii be on good terms, at-to sum subdue, crush. 

saezuru, saezutte sing, chirp, chin- c ho suru prize. 

twitter, warble. an-gwai (ni) unexpectedly. 


Usuitoge* no mufco ni Oiwake to m mura ga arimastite, 
soko kara yoku Asamayama ni noborimas . A ngivai ni hayaku 
me ga yoku narimastita. Ts kue no ue ni aru suzuribako wo 
motte aide. Kono hoka ni (wa) nani mo gozaimasen. Usuitoge 
no temae ni Sakamoto to iu mura ga arimas 1 ; komban zva soko 
ye tomarimasho. Go monzen wo tdrimastita kara, chotto 
" ukagaimash'ta. NensJii (no rei] ni wa matsu no uchi ni 
ikaneba narimasen. b Matsu no uchi to iu no ^va Tokyo de wa 
shogwatsu no nanuka made no koto de kadomatsu no tatete 
aru aida wo iu no des . Taiko no Chosen-seibatswa sambyaku 
nen hodo mae no koto des' . Mukaski no shiro no mawari ni 
zva ishigaki ga tsuite att? f kai hori ga hotte arimashta. Ueno 
no kden no uchi ni ddbutsuen ga arimas . \Vatakushi ga 
Asamayama no ue ye nobotta toki ni wa taiso kuuiolte ite loku 
no ho wa ikko mienakatta. Saikyo no miyako ni naita no wa 
iiambyaku nen zen no koto des ka. Sayo sa, karekore sen hyaku 
nen mae no koto des\ Fnkuro no naka no nezumi.^ Samurai 
wa meiyo no tame ni wa yoku inochi wo stemashta. Komori 
mo tori no uchi. d Yononaka ni neru hodo raku wa nakere- 
domo ; ukiyo no baka wa okite hataraku. e Are wa san nin 
kyodai no uchi de naka no ko des' . Hdken jidai ni wa kuge 
ga bnke no tame ni atto sare'e imashta. En no s/ita no 
chikaramochi. f Kido san wa kuni no tame ni ko ga atta, ii 

?. A pass on the Nakasendo, leading from the province of Kotsuke to 

b Within the pines, i.e , while the pines {kadoinatsii} still stand at the gate. 
In some localities the matsu stand until the I5th. 

c A proverbial expression indicating a being under restraint and at the 
mercy of others. 

d The above expression may be used jocularly when a person finds himself 
in a company to which he has hardly a claim to be admitted. 

e A comic poem ; roku=^roktt na koto. 

f This proverb is applicable when a person's exertions are not noticed or 
appreciated by other?, just as an athlete under the veranda might vainly strive 
to lift the house and no one would be the wiser for \\. 


yaku ni ninzerareuuistita. Biuupd no ue de wa machigai de 
wa arimasen ga, ainari so zva iimasen. Momban no uchi wa 
jiki man no soda ni arimas 1 . Semwai no dara (dollar) no 
ucki (ni) hachi ju mai nise ga atta. Sensiri no gurnri ni shiba 
wo itte (245) tokorodokoro ni sats ki ya tsuge wo uemasJtta. 
Me no via e ni orii mono ni sonna koto wo itcha shitsnrei des '. 
Dai Nihonshi zva* oyoso ni Jiyaku nen uiae ni Mito de 
dekimashita lion des . Komei tenno no tsugi ni ima no tenshi 
sama ga kurai ni ts karemastita (o is" ki ni narimaslita). 
Kaiva no mukogaiva de hito ga tsuri wo sJite imas '. Sono ori 
no naka ?ii kuma ga sambiki orimas* , os ga ni hiki ni mes* ga 
ippiki. Ni ju nen mae ni wa kempojo no giron de gotagota 
sJite imasiita. Giron no ue de wa makete mojissai ni oite wa 
kachimasJita. Kono yama no kage ni mizuumi ga arimas . 
Osandon ga ido no hata de o shaberi wo sum no wo idobata- 
kwaigi to mo shim as . Hashi no kiwa ni koya ga tatte lie soko 
de Jiashisen "u.o torimas\ Ano onna no bydki wa mattaku ki 
no sei des'. Tokyo de mo Shinjiku atari ye iku to, mo inaka 
ni narimas\ Tatami no omote ni nani ka ji ga kaite arimas\ 
Ano futari wa shinrui de ari nagara taihen naka ga warui b 
Fufu no naka ni mada hitori no ko ga nai. Chichi no hoka 
(wa) mina korasaremastita. Chichi no hoka (ni) kodoino ga 
futari korosareiuash'ta. Konna ni Iioneotte hataraite orimas* 
(no) mo kono tsubure-kakatta ie wo okoso ga tame de gozaimas 1 . 

By the torii there is a good hotel. He gave (steni) his life 
for his country. About twenty years ago it happened that 
(koto ga ani) paper money was below par (the market price 
of paper money fell). The crop of rice for (of) one year in the 
whole of Japan amounts to (is) over forty million koku, it is 
said. Have you served in a foreigner's house before (made) 
this ? Are you busy (in the midst of business) just now ? 
When did you return from America ? It was (is) about seven 
years ago. Hibachi are injurious to (for) the health. Among 
singing birds those most prized in Japan are the blue flycatcher 
and (ni) the robin and the bush- warbler. The blossom of the 
fuki comes out in winter from under the snow. It is said that 
it was (8) [in] 287 (7) A. D. (6) that (no wa 5) Chinese books 
(i) first (2) came (4) to Japan (3). Put the clothes all (siikkari) 
into the (inside of the) trunk. There are many fleas under 

a A famous historical work. Mito was the castle town of the daitnyo of the 
province of Hitachi on the cast coast north Tokyo. See p. 89 g. 

b With iiaka in this idiom compaie aida in ro\u shitishii aida a very 
intimate relation. 


these tatauii. Take the clothes out of [the inside of] the closet. 
Formerly straw ma 1 . ting was laid in the prisons instead of 
tatami.. Now ore can go from Yokohama to San Francisco 
within two weeks. The Japanese use paper instead of hand- 
kerchiefs and put (ireru) it into their sleeves. Shall we look 
at (kembntsu surii) the inside of the temple ? The streets in 
(nai) Tokyo city are not very good. The post office is just 
(jiki) opposite the police station. There are ruins of a castle 
on this mountain. Willow trees grow (sodatsu) well by the 
water. Who is the person that stood beside you ? He is my 


The subordinates of certain verbs correspond to English- 
prepositions or expressions resembling prepositions : 
ni kakete until. 
wo motte with, by means of. a 

Kusari wo motte tsunagu fasten with a chain. 
ni mukatte, ni muite over against, vis-a-vis, facing, toward. 
wo nozoite (wo nozoku no hoka) except. 
ni oite in, at, on (formal). 
wo (ye) sashite toward, in the direction of, with reference to, 

Tokyo wo sashite iku go toward Tokyo. 

Taiin^ to iu no iva tsuki (no koto) wo sashite iu no desu. 

The name taiin has (is said with) reference to the moon. 
ni shitagatte (ni shitagaebd) in accordance with (formal). 
ni shite (wo), to shite (wa) for, as (p. 216). 
sugite (sugi), tatte (tattard) after. 
wo toshite through (Anglicism). 
ni totte for. 

Sore tva watakushi ni totte taihen shiawase na koto desu. 

That is a very fortunate thing for me. 
nitsuite concerning, regarding, about, with, under (a teacher). 

Kyokivasho-jiken ni tsuite concerning the text-book affair. 

a Motte is sometime used pleonastically with de (p. 198 a). 

b The word tai-in corresponds to tai-yd sun. The Chinese word yd and in 
denote respectively light and shade, or positive and negative, or male and 
female. Compare San-yd-do the region south of the mountains and San-in-do 
the region north of the mountains. 


Gwaikoku no sensei ni tsuite under a foreign teacher. 

ni yolte (ni yoreba, yoruto] according to, by the aid of 

ni kwan shite ni tsuite. a [(formal).. 

ni tai shite = ni mukatte. 

ni djite in accordance with. 

To this list might be added nakute (or naku) without. For 
nakute one may substitute nashi ni (p. 98b). To either form 
wa may be added when a negative verb follows : nakucha, na- 
shi ni w a. 

More polite forms may be substituted in some cases ; e. g.,, 
ni okimashite, ni tsukimashite. 

Some of these subordinatives may be used attributively : 
kore ni tsuite no o hanashi the talk about this ; Shina ni tai 
shite no or (tai suru) sei-ryaku the policy in regard to China. 

Some are used with clauses, like conjunctions ; e. g., toshi 
wo torn ni shitagatte (djite] with increasing age. 


kura saddle. te-suri hand-rail, banisters. 

okite law, statute, precept. fsurt-bashi hanging or sus- 
tsuru 1 . pension bridge. 

katsura \ v han fief, clan, daimiate. 

shinai a stout foil made no-gyo agriculture. c 

of bamboo. gan-kwa ophthalmology. 

ii-wake ) r b hatsu-on pronunciation. 

inoshi-wake ) e is-shu one kind. 

vie-ue, meue no hito person kan-kwa influence. 

of higher rank. ken-jutsu art of fencing. 

me-shita t meshita no hito per- ki-kin famine. 

son of lower rank. seki-jun order of seats. 

nakodo 1 , . sho-doku disinfection. 

bai-skaku-nin ) ^" shu-moku wooden hammer 
sashi-zu directions, instruc- used in striking a bell. 

tions (sashizu wo suru di- so-shiki organization, system. 

rect, instruct). taku-hatsu (lit trusting bowl), 

te-gura } .. . begging (of monks), men- 

.,* _ [ meritorious deed. 

fro ro 3 dicant. 

a Kivan sum forms an exception to the rule given on p. 214, 7. 

b Mdihiwake go. gozaimasen. My behavior has been inexcusable. I can't 
say anything in my defence. 

c Compare ko-gyo manufactures, sho-gyd commerce. In former times there 
were four classes : shi samurai, no, ko and sho. 


toku-ten special favor, privi- isamashii brave, intrepid. 

lege. jihi pity, benevolence. 

un-chin charges for freight, jihi-bukai merciful. 

denshin-ryo, dempo-ryo cost shirizoku retreat. 

of a telegram. hiki-korosu kill by drawing 

ik-ka-jo one article, one item asunder, or by running over. 

(com p. p. 86, 5). hai-surn, hai-shi s abolish. 


Nikon zentai ni so iu fuzoku ga atta to iva iemaseu ; han 
Jian ni yotte chigatte orimasJita kara. a Sore wa mestitsukai 
nimukatte iu no des kara, teinei ni iwanak'te wo yd gozaimas? 
Oya-koko ni tsuite Shina ni ni ju shi ko no (p. 233c) h anas hi 
ga arimas* . Co enryo naku (iiaslii ni) oshatie kudasai. Mv- 
ko no ume no eda ni kami ga tsuite imas* ga> are wa do iu ivake 
des ka. Sayo, are wa ume no hana ni tsuite yonda uta ga kaite 
aru ro des '. Tomodachi ni tsuite shirazushirazu toi tokoro 
made ikimash'ta. Jibiki naski ni wa kotoba no keiko wa 
dekiinas'uiai. Seiyojin mo ima de wa ryokomenjo naski ni 
naichi wo tabi snru koto ga dekimas . Me ga waruku natta 
kara, megane ga nak'cha hon ga yomeinaseu. Mo ippai o a- 
gari nasai. Arigato, ivatakushi ni sJi te wa tak' san itadaki- 
mastita. Nikon no onna no ko wa hagoita to iu mono wo inotte 
hane ii'o ts' kimas* . Nihonjin wa shinai to iu mono wo motte 
kenjutsu no keiko wo suru. Qkabo to iu no wa isshu no ine de, 
komugi no yd ni mizu nashi ni ts' kuremas\ Anata ni tai stite 
moshiwake ga gozaimasen. Meue no hito ni tai stite iva teinei 
ni iii'anakereba narimasen. leyas ' ko no o dashi nasaimastita 
hyakkajo no okite^ ni yotte mukashi wa zainin wo us hi de 
hikikorosti ta uwrf aa ga, sono nocJii o haishi ni narimastita. 
Go isshin go wa ittai ni mesJita no mono ni mukatte iu kotoba 
ga taihen kirei ni narimastita. Bukkyo no kankwa ni yotte 
hito no kokoro ga taiso jihibukaku narimastita. Seito no seki- 
fun wa benkyo to fubenkyd to ni yotte kimemas 1 . Saigo san wa 

a Inversion of the usual order in the case of a cause cccurs not infrequently 
in conversation. 

b Also called *' Laws of leyasu." They have been variously translated. 


oya 110 tegara ni yori to&ten wo motte kwampi de Seiyo ye 
ryugaku wo uieizerareinasJita. Sendai wa Tohokn ni oite 
ichiban okii tokwai des\ Kimnra san iva Amerika ye itte kara 
ju wen bakari sngite kaette mairimasti ta. Ckokusetsu ni wa 
hanashiniku gozaimas kara, towodachi U'otoslite sodan itaski- 
uiaslita. Sore wa kimi ni totte fitrieki de wa nai ka. IV at a- 
kushi wa K'ristokyo ni kwan sJtte wa ikko fuannai de 
gozaimas' (ikko zonjhnasett). Aizu no Byakkotai wa ju roku 
shichi no wakai samurai de soshiki sarete arimastita ga t taiso 
isamasti ku tatakatta ato de> iki-nokotta mono ga ju hakku nin 
Bentenyama made shirizoite kite, hitori wo nozoku no koka 
(wa] inina seppuku stite skinde shimaimasJi ta. a 

The child came with (ni tsuite) its mother. I can't ride a 
horse without a saddle. You can't practice penmanship with- 
out a model. Toward guests its impolite. In Japan one can't 
marry without a go-between. Lately I heard an interesting 
story about Count Katsu. b The pronunciation of this word 
varies (chigaii) according to locality. This is very well written 
for a child. Some begging priests go about (walk) striking a 
bell with a shumoku. The hand rail of this hanging bridge is 
made of wistaria vines. That gentleman writes characters well 
with his left hand. Where (doko wo sask'te) are these pilgrims 
going? They are probably going to Zenkwoji. The cost of a 
telegram depends on (varies according to) the number of kana. 
.Shipping charges (funachin) depend on the size of the freight. 
According to Japanese law foreigners may not engage in (sum) 
agriculture in the interior. In accordance with the directions of 
the physician the whole house was disinfected. Japanese chil- 
dren say otoltsan (or) okkasan to (ni mukatte) their parents. Ac- 

a Aizu is a famous valley in Iwashiro between Nikko and the volcano 
B.indaisan. Its capital is Wakamatsu. The Byak-ko-tai (White Tiger 
Company) distinguished itself at the time of the Restoration, when the clan of 
Aizu held out against the Mikado's army. Benten-yctina, from Benten, one of 
the shield fukujin (p. 2O4a). Note that iva my not be used with a noun when 
it is modified by a numeral following. Reversing the order we might say ju 
hakku nin no ikinokctta mono iva. 

b Katsu Awa (110 Kami} was an official of the Bakufti at the time of the 
Restoration. By his prudent negotiations for peace he averted the destruction 
-of Edo by the imperial forces. 


cording to a letter just received (todoite), he will arrive to- 
morrow evening (it is said). Under whom did you learn 
German ? He studied ophthalmology under a famous physician 
in (of) Berlin. As for the apples, put all except the rotten 
ones into this box. This year there is a famine in Tohoku. 
After about a month come again and see. 



Conjunctions also are divided into two classes, conjunctions 
proper and quasi-conjunctions. The latter are simply substan- 
tives used in lieu of conjuctions. In general it is to be noted 
that the essential conjunctions belong to the words or clauses 
which they follow rather than to those which they precede. 
Further it should be remembered that where the English loose- 
ly connects coordinated clauses by means of such conjunctions 
as " and " or " or," b the Japanese language usually by means 
of verbal inflections subordinates one clause to another (p, 
162,1); e.g., 

Atsui kimono ivo kinakereba kaze wo hikimasho. 

I must put on heavier clothing, or I shall catch cold. 

I. To is used (a) in the sense of "and" with nouns, pronouns 
and numerals, but never to connect indicative verbs. c It is- 
in order when ail the items in a series are enumerated. It is 
repeated after each word except the last, but in formal speech, 
as in the literary language, it follows the last also. To the 
final to case-particles and postpositions may be added : 

Shoyu to inirin to suto (wo) sambai inazete sambaizu to 

A mixture of soy, inirin t and vinegar is called sambaizu. d 
On asyndetic constructions see p. 225a. 

a Setsii-zoku-shi, from setsu join (compare hito ni sessuru associate with a 
person), zokn=-tsuzukerti. 

b The student needs to be on his guard againt the tendency to carry English 
conjunctions over into Japanese. Foreigners often disfigure their speech bjr 
excessive use of so shite, etc. 

c This does not apply to substantivized verbs : Fusaku de atta no to sunii ga 
yasukatta no de kontien ivci yaina no mono ga taihen kcmatte tmasu. The harvests 
having been bad and charcoal cheap, the mountaineers are in great distress. 
Another apparent exception is: So shiyd to omae no katte da. It is for you to 
decide whether you will do so or not. 

d To vary the expression one may also substitute ni for to : Su ni mirin to 
ivo inazete, etc. Mirin is a sweet kind of sake. 


(b) To after a verb in the present tense may mean " if/' 
4< when," " so soon as " (in the last sense also, to sugu ni). It 
expresses the idea of immediate sequence, either in a hypothet- 
ical or in an actual case. Note that the present tense is re- 
quired even when the principal verb of the sentence is part : 

Taikutsu shite kuru to, omoshiroi hon ga yomitaku narimasu. 

I begin to want to read an interesting book when I get weary. 

Kodomo ga seicho suru tp,haha no ledasuke ninarimasu. 

When children grow up they are helpful to their mothers. 
, O kyaku snn ga kuru to, sugu ni shokuji wo shim as ho. 

We will eat. as soon as the guests come. 

Yokucho ni naru to, mina dete ikimashita. 
- The next morning all went away. 

So suru to\n that case, then. 

(c) To in the sense of " that " connects dependent clauses 
with verbs meaning to say, promise, hear, believe, etc. It is the 
only mark of quotation, direct or indirect, and it may not be 
omitted .as " that " may be in English. " I think I'll go " is 
always Iko to omoimasu. Not infrequently the principal verb 
is omitted and the to alone indicates the indirect character of 
the clause. Sometimes the verb of the dependent clause is 
omitted, so that the to immediately follows a noun or an inter- 
rogative pronoun : 

Honto (da) to omoimasu. I think it true. 
Honto to wa omoimasen. I do not think it true. a 
Hirata to in hito a man called Hirata. b 
Kore wa Eigo de nan to moshimasu ka. 
Note the double conjunction in : 

Asu kaette kureru yo ni to tanomaremashita. 

I was asked to return to-morrow. 

Kiku, to ka ajisai to ka nani ka kitolsu uemasho. 

I will plant chrysanthemums or hydrangeas or something. 

a Mark the position of wa. 

b The idom to in corresponds to a simple apposition in English; e.g., 
J\Hkado fo ill kotoba the word " mikado " ; ten to iu ji the character " heaven." 
For iu no iva see p. 272d. 1'or to iu to=^to see p. 245, bottom: Wala- 
kushi ga dekakeru to iu to, kitto ame ga furiinasu. Whenever I go out, it is sure 
to rain. So suit' fo hi to if we do that. 


To may also stand between an indirect question and the verb : 
Asu ki4ru ka 1o kikimashila. 
I inquired if he would come to-morrow. 

In, Iko ka to oujou, I think probably I'll go, the ka simply 
expresses doubt about going. a Often ii ka to omou is practically 
equivalent to ii to omoit. On the other hand ka may stand 
between a dependent clause with to and the principal verb, giv- 
ing to either or both a sense of doubt or uncertainty : 

Knru to ka iimashita. He said, I think that he'd come. 

2. Dano (de am no f) serves to connect nouns when the 
series is not closed and one might proceed further in the 
enumeration. It must follow every word in the list, including 
the last. It may also be translated " or." An expression like 
iroiro usually follows the last dano : 

Bara dano, ajisai dano, tstibaki dano, iroiro ariinasu. 
There are various kinds, roses, hydrangeas, camellias etc, 

3. Ka is ordinarily a particle of interrogation. It is joined 
to dependent as well as to principal clauses, and is much used 
in double questions : 

Dekiru ka do ka wakarimasen. b 

I don't know whether it is feasible or not. 

Niru ka yoku ka dochira ka ni shimasu. 

We either boil or bake [it.] 

Da ka ko ka shiagemashita. 

We got it done after a fashion. 

Art may serve the same purpose as the English "or "with 
nouns, clauses or numerals : 

Kono key a wa hachi jo .ka ju jo desu. 

This room has eight or ten mats. 

Hairu ka hairanai ni mimashita. 

He saw it the moment he came in. 

a The idiom to omou to is used in the sense of "when I am about to.' r 
Note also the elliptical construction : Mini to wa nashi ni inijnashita. I happen- 
ed to see it unintentionally. 

b Note that while one says do desu ka, in familiar talk there is a tendency to 
omit da in the expression do da ka, for the sake of euphony. Sore mita koto ka. 
Do you see? (=1 told you so). Note also that after a principal clause ka 
may be omitted when the clause contains an interrogative word (p. 17??): D& 
desu, but Do desu ka zonjimasen. 


A list of items connected by means of to ka may end with in 
yd na mono or similar words. 

4. The particle ya is in classical language used like ka. In 
the colloquial it appears in the idiom ya ina ya, ina being 
a classical form= nai : Kiku ya ina ya tobidaskite itta. 
He rushed out the moment he heard it. Note also : Nani ya 
ka ya to torikonde imasu. I am busy with all sorts of things. 
Ya is also used like dano, but is omitted with the last noun; 
which is often followed by nado or nazo. A case-particle may 
then be attached : 

Kujaku ya kiji wa keiro ga utsukushii. 
Peafowls and pheasants (etc.) have beautiful plumage. 
Aramonoya de wa hokiya sumiya tsukegi nazo wo ur imasu. 
At coarse-goods-shops they sell brooms, charcoal, matches, etc. 

5. Yara too was originally interrogative. Its uses are anal- 
ogous to those of the interrogative particles explained above : 

Ima wakarete itsu au koto yara. 

We part now : when shall we meet again ? 

Doko ni oru (koto] yara watakushi ni wa ikkj wakarimasen* 

I_have n't the faintest idea where he is. 

Okuma to yara (in hito) ga korosarekakemashita. An 

attempt has been made to assassinate some one Okuma, 

I think. 
Ano o kami san wa rambo de otoko yara onna yara wakara- 

nai hodo desu. The woman is so unruly that one would 

hardly be able to tell whether she is a man or a woman. 
Shishi yara tora yara iroiro no dobntsu ga orimasu. 

6. Aruiwa is largely used as an adverb in the sense of ' in 
some cases ", " possibly " : especially common is its use before 
alternatives : 

Omu wa aruiwa warattari aruiwa naitari iroira hito no 
mane wo itashimasii. A parrot now laughs and again 
weeps and in various ways imitates people. 

Nikon 110 rekishi ni mo aruiwa so iu rei ga nai to mo ka- 
girimasen. a In Japanese history too there may pos- 
sibly have been such instances. 

a Xagiru limit. I do not assert that there are no such instances. One 
may substitute wa for mo, or say nai to iva ietnasen. 


Aruiwa kuru ka mo shiremasen. He may come possibly. 
Aruiwa also serves as a simple conjunction in the sense of 
" or " : 

Ushi aruiwa uma nado ga nai to shita naraba... 

If there were no oxen or horses... 

Note that aruiwa does not connect clauses except when the 
verb is in the alternative (or inconclusive) form. 

7. Matawa is synonymous with aruiwa as a conjunction, 
not as an adverb, and in a series is often for the sake of variety 
substituted for aruiwa. It is used like the English " or," at 
the beginning of a sentence which ends in a question or ex- 
pression of doubt : 

Matawa kondo no hakurankwai no koto de mo hanashima- 
sho ka. Or shall I speak of the recent Exposition ? 

8. Moshikuwa simply connects nouns, like aruiwa or 
matawa. It is more formal. 

9. Shi is a disjunctive particle marking the transition from 
one to another of two coordinate clauses (p. I4d) : 

Niwa ni wa momo no ki mo aru shi, sakura no ki mo aru. 
In the garden there are both peach and cherry trees. 

10. Ga is mildly adversative : a 

Habakari desu ga (p. 279,6), sono fude wo toite kudasai. 
I am sorry to trouble you, but would you hand me that 


The second clause is often understood (p. i6ie). Not infre- 
quently ga is a mere connective without any adversative sense: 
Kesa shimbun wo mite imashita ga, futo uiyD na koto wo 
miidashimashita. I was reading the paper this morn- 
ing when I happened to see a strange bit of news. 
At the beginning of a sentence da ga may mean "neverthe- 
less { = sore de mo), or it may mean nothing. 

11. Keredomo t originally the concessive form of the classical 
auxiliary keri, is more strongly adversative. 

12. Skikashi) shikashi-nagara, or sari-nagara, is the strong- 
est adversative.b 

a Like ga, the particles ni (no ni) and wo (mono wo) are used as adversative 
conjuctions (pp. 149, 273.) 

b Shika is the classical equivalent of so\ s/iikari=so desu. In formal speech 
variants taken from the literary language are much used ; e.g., shikaru ni, shikari 
to iedomo, etc. Comp. shika mo moreover. Another equivalent is to wa in mono 


13. Nara (ba) or, more rarely, nareba (p. 246b), the con- 
ditional form of the classical verb " to be," shows its original 
sense in such idioms as o iriyd nara if you need it, Sayo nara 
Good bye ! a (lit. if it is so...). Note, naze naraba " for '' (p. 
224b). In addition to nara (ba) or a conditional inflection the 
hypothetical character of a clause may be made more promin- 
ent by the use of an anticipative moshi or man-ichi.. 
14 Moshi> moski mo, moshi y a if. b 
Moshi dare ka o kyakn ga at tar a... 
If a visitor should come... 

Moshi go yd ga arimasu tiara. .Ai you need [me]... 
MosJiimo no kotoga atta toki ni... If anything should 

15. Man- ic hi (lit. ten thousand to one) = italicized "if." 

16. Mo in the sense "even if", "although", "though 
only," may follow the subordinative (pp. 167, 172) or, rarely, 
the indicative. With the indicative to mo is more common. 

Shinu to mo koko wa ugokanai. 
I'll not budge though I die for it. 

When repeated, mo is to be rendered u whether or " : 
Atte mo nakute mo onaji koto desu. 
It doesn't matter whether it is there or not. 
On mo mo in the sense of "both and", "either or", 
*' neither nor," see p. 354. It is thus used, not only with 
substantives, but also rarely with verbs : 

Iku mo ikanai mo wataski no katte da. 
I am free to go or not, as I please. 

Compare : Iku to mo ikanai to mo whether he goes or not. 
Concessive clauses may be emphasized by prefixing moshi, 
kit tatoi, or yoshi. 

1 7. Tatoi : 

Tatol skinu to mo yatte minakucha^jiarimasen. 
I must attempt it even if it costs my life. \atte mo-.* 

Jissai sonna koto wa nai, ski k as hi tatoi sonna koto ga 
In reality there is no such thing, but even if there were... 
Tatol ika ni bimbo ni nareba tote... No matter how poor 
one becomes ., 

18. Yoshi (ya), yoshimba. 

Yoshi y a samui hi ga atte mo hi wo taku hodo no koto wa 

a Instead of sayo iiara, people sometimes say : Sore j a (p ivaka 
or shikkei itashiinasn). 

I) Moskiya go zonji iva anmafeii ka. Don't you know perhaps? 


arimasumai. Even if we have cold days it will scarcely 
be so cold as to make it necessary to have a fire. 

Yoshiya kore kara yojin shit a tokoro ga, mo naorumai. 

Even if he should be careful hereafter he'll hardly recover. 

19. Tote, 'tie ( = to itte). The idiom ta tote or ta 'tte 
without mo has a concessive sense : so itta *tte=sd itte mo ; 
shinda 'tte shinde mo. Note also : 

Gakko ni haittareba tote amari dekiru yo ni zva narumai. 

Even if he enters school he will not amount to very much. 
Compare sareba tote nevertheless. Tote may indicate purpose : 

Ano ko ga kono sakana wo an at a ni agetai tote jibun de 
ryori wo itashimaskita. The little girl cooked the fish 
herself with the intention of giving it to you. 

20. Nagara (mo) " while ", " though," is used after the stems 
of verbs (p. 2/9, 6) or Chinese compounds. In some connections 
it has a slightly adversative sense, as in habakari nagara : 

Go kuro (mendo) nagara... I am sorry to trouble you, but... 
Shitsurei nagara... Pardon me, but... 

kinodoku nagara. ..I am very sorry for you, but..* 

21. Shidai as soon as (p. 28 ib) : 

Konnichi gakko ga sumi shidai agarimasho. 

1 will come to-day as soon as the school closes. 

22. Kara with an indicative verb is causal : 
Sore da kara (M/V<f)...For that reason... 

Following a subordinative kara (ni) means " after ": 
Uchi ye kaette kara (ni) te garni wo kakimashita. 
I wrote a letter after I got home. 

23. Yori after, since : 

Hito me miru yori shitawashiku omoimashita. 

I felt attached to him from the time I saw him. 

Haha ga bydki ni kakatte yori konokata chitto mo soto ye 

deru hima ga arimasen. 
Since mother became sick I have not had time to go out. 

24. Made or made ni until, before (p. 379) : 
Sensei ga kuru made shitaku shite imasho. 
I will study until the teacher comes. 

Sensei ga kuru made ni shitaku shite okimasho. [comes. 
I will have my lesson prepared by the time the teacher 





kamo wild r'uck. 

hariko papier-mache. 

hi-deri drought. 

ko-sode wadded silk garment. 

(o) shuto parent-in-law. 

namari \ ,. , 
ben [d,alect. 

baler en (Portuguese padre) 
Christian missionary of the 
XVI. Century. 

o (sama) king. 

ba-sho place. 

doku ritsu independence ( 

sum be independent). 
jukuju submission, obedience. 
fu-setsu rumor. 

geki-sen hard fighting. 

gu-soku accoutrements. 

hyo-gi consultation. 
ji-shu voluntary confession. 

kak-ke beriberi. a 

kam-byo nursing the sick. 

ki-hei cavalry. b 

seki-to stone monument. 

shin-seki relative (elegant). 

ik-ka-chu (ka house) the body 
of a feudal lord's retainers. 

kai-shaku-nin assistant, sec- 
ond (in harakiri). 

tsu-shin-ja correspondent (of 
a newspaper). 

kurushimu suffer (tr. kuru- 

naderu stroke, rub. 

susumeru administer (medi- 

tonaeru call, name, recite, 

utsuru remove (of residence), 
pass (of time), catch (of 
fire, disease, etc.), be re- 

ami wo utsu cast a net. 

gwan = negai request, prayer. 

gwan wo kakeru make a vow. 


Kono dekimono ga moshi okiku nareba, zehi kiranakereba 
naranai. Itsu mo no o isha san no tokoro ye itte sugu ni kite 
kudasaran ka kiite koi. c Nikko no Gammangafuchi to iu 
tokoro ni^ Amida no zo ga tak*san tatte orivias* ; ikura sono 
kasu wo kazoete mite mo kanjo ga chigau to iimas . Shuto 

a From kaku=kyaku=ashi leg, and ke=ki in kydki illness. Kakke is a dis- 
ease affecting the nerves and heart and resulting in partial paralysis or 
numbness of the limbs. See Chamberlain, " Things Japanese." 

b Compare ho-hei infantry (ho=aruktt) y ho-hei artillery (^=gun), ko-hei 

c Itsu mo no o isha san may be translated " family physician." 

d The name of a pool (fuchi] in the Daiya River near NikkS. On the bank 
stand the statues of Amida alluded to above. 


wo sh'te moratta 'tie tennentd ni kakaranai koto wa nai. Kd 
iu baai ni wa wo to iu ji ga atte mo nak'te mo onajikoto des '. 
Kanai ga it to, teishu ni shimpai ga nai. Seppuku no toki ni 
wa tdnin ga hara wo kiru to, soda ni kaishakunin ga otte sugu 
ni kubi wo kiriotostita mon des'. Nikon ni nagaku ite mo ben- 
kyo shinai to, banashi ga dekimasen, Watakushi zva sake wo 
nomu to, sugu ni kao ga akaku narimas' . Ha wo nuite mo- 
rau to, sitgu ni itami ga tomarimash' ta. Anata hodo dekima- 
sureba, Doits' ye oide nas'tte ichi nen mo tattara, tassha ni hana- 
shi ga dekimashd. Tokyo ye kite ni san shukan tats' to, hai- 
byd ninarimastita. Shinu ka ikiru ka f tatsu ni hitotsu. a Ne- 
zumi-kozd wa^> do sh'te mo ts' kamaeraremasen desJita kara, 
oya wo rd ni iremash'ta ; so sum to, oya no kurushinde iru no 
wo kiite tsui ni jishu sh'te deta so des' . Nezumi-kozo no haka 
no gumi ni furui sekito ga yama no yd ni tsumiagete arimas'; 
sore wa tomi ni atatu yd ni haka ye kite gwan wo kakete, mo- 
shi ataru to, sono o rei ni atarashii sekito wo motte kite furui 
no wo waki ye tsunde oku kara des'. Ddmo, kuruma ni notte 
itte mo ma ni aimas'mai. Mukashi samurai wa ichi mon no 
zeni wo nusunde mo ikkachu ga hyogi sJite hara wo kirasema- 
stita. Iroiro kaimono ga am kara, hima nara, issho ni itte 
ktiren ka. Nani wo o motome ni narimas' ka. Chikai uchi 
ni Seiyo ye kaeru kara, iroiro mezurashii mono wo miyage ni 
katte ikd to omou ; shikashi hitori de iku to, taisd kakene wo iii 
kara, dozo t issho ni itte kure. Sono matsu no furl wa shizen 
ni a tu n* des'ka, matawa teire wo stite ts'kutta n des' ka. Mo- 
rau mono nara, natsu de mo kosode. c Kosode to wa kinu no 
wataire no koto de fuyu no mono des'. Satsumajin wa seman 
no ik'sa ni d shinu ka ikiru kaf tatsu ni hitotsu to kesshin^sh'te 
hijo ni gekisen shimash'ta. Tenka to iu no to tenga to iu no to 
do chigaimas' ka. e Ano hito wa ano uchi no shinseki des ka. 

a. Futatsu ni hitotsu expresses the idea of a dilemma. It is a matter of life 
and death. Compare the saying : Ichi ka bachi ka yatte mimasho. I will try 
it come what may (bdchi=hachi eight). 

b Lit. rat-fellow (p. I5a), a notorious robber in the Tokugawa era. His 
grave is behind the temple Ekoin in Toky5. 

c As a gift costs nothing, one is glad to accept it even if there is no im- 
mediate use for it. The proverb is also applied to a case of blind avarice. 

d From j<?/west, nan south ; commonly called the Satsuma Rebellion. 

e The word tenka (lit. under heaven) by nigori becomes tenga. The.Shdgim ; 
used to be called Tenga Satna. - t 


Betsu ni shinseki to iu ivake de mo arimasen ga, nandemo 
taiso kokoroyas ku sKte oru yd des\ Ano hen ni shima ga 
am to miete tori ga taiso tachimas\ Kore de manzoku sure- 
ba ii ga, shikashi so wa ikimasmai. a So iu ka mo skiremasen 
ga, made kiita koto wa arimasen. Ame no furu no wo osorete 
soto ye denai to, sono hito wo hatiko no yo da to iimas . Molo- 
yori to mochiron 1o wa goku zvazuka na chigai des\ Itsu ame 
ga yamu koto yara. Ame ga futte imas ' ka. Furu koto wa 
futte imas 1 ga, kakubetsu no koto wa arimasen. Doits no kihei 
wa karada ga okii kara, gusoku wo kiru to, taiso hittatte 
miemas\ Tsushinja wo shimbun no tane ga nakute komaru no 
de, sonna fusetswo koshiraeta no ka mo shirenai. Yoshimune 
ko wa b sessho kindan no basho ni ami wo uchimash'ta kara, 
Ooka ni totis kamaeraremasJi ta. Nihonjin wa amari so in Ju 
ni iimasen ga, zehi iivanakereba naranai baai ni wa so iu yori 
hoka ni sti kata ga ariinas^mai. Kono ike wa sessho-kindan 
no basho de dare mo torimasen kara, gan ya kamo ga ta&san 
orite imas' (p. 163,5). Hanasttka to iu mono wa omoshiroi 
mono de gozaimas* ka. Sayo sa y jozu he fa de taiso chigaimas . 
Koko kara Yushima Tenjin c ye mairimasni wa do ittara 
yoroshu gozaimasho ka. Kore kara san cho saki ni hidari ye 
magatu yokocho ga arimas ga t soko ye haiite sore kara mata 
migi ye magatte massugu ni iku to, sugu soko des\ Kusunoki 
Masatsura wa chichi Masashige ga Minatogawa de uchijini 
s/ite kara Kawachi ni kaerimash'ta. d Sekkaku honeotte 
koshiraeta no da ga, ima ja (de wa) yaku ni tatanaku nari- 
uiash'ta. San nen saki no koto wo iu to, karas ga warau. 
Kuni ye kaeru ya inaya bydki ni narimash'ta. Mukashi Sa- 
tsuma-ben no mono to Oshu-namari no mono to ga hanashi w& 

a. Shikashi often follows ga pleonastically. 

b The eighth and one of the most famous of the Tokugawa sh5guns. He 
lived in the first half of the XVIII. Century. Sessko-kindan, from setsu^=korosu t 
sho life, kin forbid, dan^=kotoivaru t means the prohibition to kill animals. 

c A famous Shinto temple in Tokyo. Tenjin or 7'emmangu is the name by 
which Sugawara Michizane is worshipped ; Yushima is a district in Kongo, 

d Ktisunoki Masashigc, father of the Masatsura named above, suffered defeat 
and killed himself on the bank of the Minato River near Hyogo. The son after 
he became of age raised another army in behalf of the Emperor and likewise 
perished in battle. He is set before Japanese youths as a model of knightly 


stita tokoro ga y ryoho tomo sap part wakaranakatta so des*. 
Kusuri wo susumeni yarn, senaka wo naderu yara, kotondo ne 
mo nenu gurai ni kambyo itashimasJita. Nani ya ka ya 
s koshi no hima mo naku hatarakimaslita. Honto ka uso ka 
shirimasen. Hyatt shd ka chonin no ie ye ydshi ni yaritai. 
Hyak' sho no mus'me daro to mo kivazoku no mus'ine daro to 
mo, yome ni ittctra, shuto ni fukuju shinakereba narimaseti. 

As soon as I arrive in Japan I will send you (sashiageru) a 
letter. The physician said that, as it is not at all a serious 
(tai s}ita illness, he would come (coming see) again after two 
or three days. When English is literally translated into 
Japanese it becomes hard to understand. Is that gentleman a 
relative of yours {go shinseki) ? He is not a relative, but he 
is from (a person of) the same province [as myself]. The 
disease called kakke is apt to (yokii) break out {okorii) when 
summer comes (it becomes summer). From (kaia wa) this 
house Mount Fuji can be seen and also the ocean (can be seen 
subord.) ; the scenery is very fine. Since 1 removed to To- 
kyo there has not once been (pres.) a large fire. He said that 
if he did not return by half past eleven, we need not wait. It 
will be sometime (there is still an interval) before (made ni) 
spring comes. As the dainty o formerly were almost independ- 
ent, the padres called them (the daimyo) kings. These days 
it ought (hazu da] to rain, but on the contrary the drought 
continues. If it doesn't rain soon there will hardly be any 
crop of rice (rice will hardly be taken) this year. If the tree 
is dead (karete iru), dig it out (digging out finish). He wouldn't 
be in such distress if he had saved (saving put) money pre- 
viously. If there is any book that you need {go nyuyd no hon} 
for the study of Japanese, send me word (so saying send), [and] 
I will very soon buy [it] and send [it to you]. If you are in 
the midst of business, attend to it {yarit} without paying any 
attention to me {o kamai nakii). When (no ni) it was better 
to leave it as it was (p. 22), why did you mend it? As Ten- 
jin sama was fond of plum blossoms, plum trees are often 
planted around [his] shrine. A man who is irritable and easily 
(yokii) gets angry is called mukappara (tachi). a If I don't 
take notes (hikki sttte oku), I forget everything. When a 
young man goes (past cond.) to a place like Tokyo he is apt to 
be ruined (skippai suru) if he is not careful {chui surii). 

From mukmi oppose, and hara ga tatsu (Jiara wo taleni) get angry. 



In many cases an English conjunction has to be rendered in 
Japanese by means of a substantive, the accompanying clause 
being in the attributive position (Ch. XIX.). Many of these 
substantives have been treated under the heads of The Adverb 
and The Postposition. The most common are : 

1. Mae (ni, wo) before : kuru mae ni or, rarely, konai mae 
ni before he comes. For the use of ni and wa see p. 155. 
Izen may be substituted for mae, especially in speaking of his- 
torical events. 

2. Nochi (tit, wa) after. Compare : 

Watakushi ga deta nochi ni kimashita^ He came after I 
Gakko kara kaetta nocki de ii. [left. 

It will do after you return from school. 

3. Saki (ni, wa) before : gakko ni hairu saki ni before he 
entered the school : wasuren saki before I forget it. Compare : 

Oya ga shinda saki wa do shite ittara yokaro ka. 
How shall we manage after father is dead ? 

4. Alo de after. Compare : 
Kisha ga deia ato de kimashita. 
He came after the train left. 

Gozen wo tabeta ato ni (ye) kyaku ga kimashita. 
After we had eaten, visitors came. 

5. Ue de after, until after (with negatives). Ue ni means 
" and in addition." 

Mita ue de kau ka mo shiremasen. 

I may possibly buy it after I have seen it. 

Mita tie de nakereba kawareuiasen. 

I can't buy it until after I have seen it. 

Makesashita ue ni kai mo shinaide itte shimaimashita. 

He made him reduce the price and then went off without 

buying anything. 
Note also ijo wa : 

Makesashita ijo wa kawanakereba narimasen. 

After you have beat down the price you ought to buy. 

6. Aida (ni, wa) while, as long as : matsuri no am aida 
as Ions 1 as the festival lasts. 


7. Uchi (ni, wd) while, as long as, until (with negatives) : 
Inaka ni oru uchi ni while I was in the country. 
Yome ni ikan uchi until he is married. 

8. Kagiri (ni wa or wa) as long as, unless, without (with 
negatives, p. 155) : 

Gessha wo osamenai kagiri wa kyojo ni iru koto ivo yurushi- 
masen, [Students] are not permitted to attend the classes 
(class-rooms) as long as they are in arrears with the tuition. 

9. Toki (ni, wa, ni wa) when, as, if: 

Chodo neyd to omou toki ni jishin ga yurimashita. 
There was an earthquake just as I was about to retire. 
For the present tense the past may be substituted. In trans- 
lating the English pluperfect the past is required : 

Ame ga yanda toki ni yadoya ye tsukimashita. 
We arrived at the hotel after the rain had stopped. 
Toki wa and toki ni wa are often used hypothetically, espe- 
cially with a preceding nioshi or manic hi : 

Moshi tegami ga nakunatta toki ni wa do itashimasho ka. 
If the letter should be lost, what shall I do ? 
Substantives or adjectives may take the place of verbs with 
toki ; e. g., kodomo no toki ni when I was a child, wakai toki 
ni when I was young. 

Various substantives denoting time may be substituted for 
toki, such as ori, koro, tsuide, setsu, ji-bun, hyd-shi : watakushi 
ga Amerika ni iru (ita) jibun ni when I was in America. 

Rondon ye tegami wo dasu tsuide ni o tanomi no hon wo 
chumon shimasho. When I write to London I will 
order the book for which you have asked. 

10. Tabi (tambi) ni, tabi-goto ni as often as, whenever : ji- 
shin ga sum tabi ni every time there is an earthquake. 

11. Tokoro is often to be rendered " just when ", "just as." a 

a Tokoro desu is often to be rendered "just M : Inia dekakeru tokoro desu. I 
am just going out (to a visitor). Tadaima okita tokoro desu I have just gotten 
up. In the literary style tokoro is used like koto: Kore waga hossuru tokoro 
nari. This is what I desire. The learned sometimes use tokoro in this sense 
even in the colloquial Such expressions as the following are quite common: 
Koronda tokoro ^va minakatta. I didn't see the fall. In speeches tokoro no is 
freely used to connect adjectives or attributive (relative) c'otises with the 
substantives which they modify. 


It may take various particles and postpositions according to 
the nature of the principal verb of the sentence : 

Gozen wo tabete iru tokoro ye hito ga kimashita. 

A person came just as I was eating. 

Kiro to suru tokoro wo hito ga to'nemashita. 

Just as he was about to strike (cut), some one interfered. 
For the idioms tokoro ga and tokoro de as adversative conjunc- 
tions see pp. 2I2C and 3653. The latter has three distinct uses : 

Makeru (maketd) to shit a tokoro ga,.. 

Supposing that we are defeated... 

Maketa tokoro de nigemashita. 

When defeated they at once fled. 

Shobai wo shiyd to itta tokoro de, niotode ga nakereba da- 
me desu. You may attempt to do business, but it is of 
no use without capital. 

Watakushi ga mita tokoro de wa... 

According to my observation... 

The peculiar idiom dokoro ka or dokoro ja nai indicates that 
something that has just been said is very wide of the mark : 

Ano hito wa uta ga dekimasu ka : Utaeru dokoro ka : 
yumei na ongakusha desu. 

Can he sing ? Sing ! Why, he's a noted musician. 

Kuril made matenai dokoro ja arimasen to mo. 

There's nothing at all to prevent my waiting till he comes. 

Sore dokoro j a nai. That's not the worst of it. 

12. Kawari (ni) but instead : a 

Kono ryo san nichi wa kumoite imashita kawari ni kon* 
nichi wa sukkafi haremasJiita, It has been cloudy the 
last two or three days, but to-day it is clear. 

13. Tori (ni) just as, as : 

Naze iitsuketa tori ni shinai ka ? 

Why don't you do as I told you ? 

Mae ni mo moshita tori desu. It is just as I said before. 

14. Tame (ni) in order that, that: wasuren tame ni that I 

a Instead of" is usually to be rendered by means of the negative subor- 
elinative : A"i wo tsukezu ni hoka no koto wo kangaete orimashita. Instead of 
paying attention I was thinking of something else. 


may not forget. In formal speech the literary idiom of the 
future tense with ga is occasionally heard : shiran ga tame ni 
that we may know. 

1 5. Yd (ni) in such a manner that, so that, as if : 
Subette koroban yd ni ki wo o tsuke yo. 

Be careful not to slip and fall. 

Sono ki wo kaze ni fukitaosarenai yd ni yoku sasaete kure. 

Support the tree so that the wind will not blow it over. 
Especially comrnon^are the idioms yd ni suru (p. 216, top) and 
yd ni naru : 

Okurenai yd ni shitai mon* desu. 

I should like to arrange so as not to be late. 

Shin a mo chikagoro wa dandan gwaikoku to majiwaru yd 
ni narimashita. Recently China too has gradually 
come to have intercourse with foreign countries. 

Jigoku de hotoke ni atta yd ni ureshu gozaimashita. 

It was as delightful as if I had met a buddha in hell. 

Rampu no a bur a ga tsukitayd ni miemasu. 

It looks as if the oil in the lamp were exhausted. 

Aru yd ni iimashita. He spake as if he had it (p. I34d). 
Yd ni is frequently joined with mieru* and verbs of saying, 
as above. With verbs of hearing, thinking, etc., it is usually 
to be rendered "that": 

Nani ka so iu koto ga aru yd ni uketamawarimashita. 

I have heard that there is something of the kind. 

16. Hodo (ni) so that (of result or degree) : 

Ano ki wa otona gaju nin kakaranakereba kakae-kirenai 
hodo futoi. The tree is so stout that it takes ten grown 
men to encircle it (if ten grown men do not take part, 
they cannot completely embrace it). 

Ano yaina wa ten ni todoku hodo takai. 

That mountain is so high as to reach the sky. 

a With mient the conjunction to may also be used, especially in the form 
miete : Tabako ga suki da to miete taiso nomimasu. He appears to be fond of 
tobacco and smokes a great deal. Are iva kino sugu ni kane ivo kaesu yd na koto 
-wo itfe ikimashita ga, hen no moshiivake to miete ima ni mada motte kimasen. He 
promised yesterday to return the money at once, but it must have been a mere 
excuse ; he has n't brought it yet. On yo desu in the sense of " it is as though," 
*' it seems that," see p. 




Kutabireru hodo sampo shinakereba narimasen. a 

You must walk enough to tire yourself. 
In these sentences gurai may be substituted for hodo. 

17. Yue (*) for the reason that because, accordingly. Yue 
belongs to formal speech. Note sore (go) yue ni therefore. 
In narratives the verb of the clause may be omitted so that 
words like mono, koto, etc,, immediately precede yue : to iu yd 
na ko yue on the ground that. 


chinami connection, blood- 

soft spoon. 

ama-gaeru tree toad (ante 

fumi-kiri railroad crossing. 

fvru-mai (originally : behav- 
ior) entertainment, ban- 
quet (also kyd-o). 

k - ba , l {shingle. 
yane-ita ) 

yani exudation, gum. 

matsu-yani turpentine, resin. 

me-kiki judging the character 
of a curio, a connoisseur. 

fran-tei=- me-kiki judging the 
quality of an article. 

uranai divination, fortune- 

uranai-ja diviner. 

uttae-goto lawsuit. 

hatoba wharf, pier. 

ei-gyo avocation, business. 

han-dan decision, judgment. 

in-kyo retiring from active 
life and from the headship 
of the family. 

ryd-shi-=karyudo hunter. b 

san-dai going to the Palace 
for an audience or to pay 
one's respects. 

shuku-ho a salute of guns. 

tsu-kd (tori-yuki] passage. 

kden-chiko-en park. 

mom-bit- sko Department of 

en-gi no ii of good omen (of- 
ten proncd, ingi}. 

awateru lose presence of 
mind, become excited. 

yuivaeru, iwaeru=yuu bind, 

kujiku crush, sprain. 

kuruu act irregularly, be out 
of order, be in a frenzy. 

wazurau suffer (yamai wo). 

hazukashimeru insult. 

a Compare : Kutabireru hodo (or dake] ii. The more tired you are the 
better. For naru dake and dekiru dake see p. H2d. 
b Ryd-shi may also mean 'fisherman. ' 



Danna sama, go shuttatsu no o slitaku wa itsugofo made 
ni sumasfite okeba yoroshu gozaimashd ka. Itsu de mo tateru 
yd ni sJite oke. A no kata zva giron wo suru tambi ni hidoku 
okorimas. Ano kata wa dekiru dake benkyd suru tsumori da 
to mdsKte imash'ta ga, chikagoro wa nandaka asonde (asunde) 
bakari iru yd des\ Watakushi wa san jissai ni naru madr 
ichi do mo (yamai wo) wazuratta koto ga nakatta yd ni omoi- 
mas\ Ha ga warttku naranai yd ni matsuyani wo kamu hito 
mo arimas\ Tonari no heya de samisen no oto ga shite iru 
uchi wa do stite mo nemuremasen. Ashi wo kujiite arukenai 
yd ni narimash'ta. Kazoekiren hodo tak 'san arimas '. Muka- 
shi leyaJ kd ga Edo ni bakufu wo hiraite kara manzai mo 
ddkoku no chinami de (wo motte) Mikawa kara Edo ni dete 
eigyd ^vo suru yd ni natta ga t kd mo kokyd no mono yue betsudan 
sore wo kinzerarenakatta. Ano seito wa Eigo wo narau tame 
ni mainichi ni ri hodo zutsu aruite gakkd ye kayotte imas* so 
des\ Koko ni wa so iu hon wa gozaimasen kara, Amerika ye 
tegami wo das' tsuide ni so itte yatte yokosJite moraimashd. 
Yubinsen no ma ni au yd ni kono tegami wo kaite shimawana- 
kereba narimasen. Watakushi wa hataraite oru uchi wa 
tabako wo nomimasen. Ame ga JuridasJi ta jibun ni chddo 
yadoya ni is* kimastita. You hodo sake wo nonde zva ikema- 
sen. Ano hito wa sob a de kiite orarenu hodo no warukuchi wo 
iimas . a Chi no deru hodo inu ni kamaremash'ta. Hito ni 
damasaren yd ni chui senakereba naranai. Watakushi wa 
jishin ga suru tambi ni itsu mo aivatemas . b Sensei ga iras- 
sharu mae ni anshd sJite okimashd. Fuki no td wa mada yuki 
no kienai uchi ni demas\ Ooka Echizen no kami wa mutsuka- 
shii uttaegoio wo kiku toki ni wa shdji no uchi de cha wo hiki 
nagara kikimasti ta ; sore wa hito no kao-katachi wo miru to* 
sore ni ugokosarete shirazushirazu handan wo ayamaru koto 
ga am no to, mata ki ga tatte kuru to, te ga kurutte cha ga 

a Hodo with the attributive clause belonging to it is governed by -ivarukuchi. 
Such constructions occur not infrequently with ordinary conjunctions (see the 
end of the sentence beginning with Oo6a, below). 

'* //sit mo is pleonns'ic. 


araku demas kara des 1 . a Go kigen yd to wa hito ni au toki 
ni mo wakareru toki ni mo iu kotoba des' . As'ko ni hito ga 
oru yd ni miemas . As ko ni ki ga uete aru yd ni miemas" '. 
KOJIO katana no mekiki wo nastte kudasai. Watakushi no 
kantei (sum tokord) de wa Bizenmono no yd ni omoivaremas* . b 
Washi no itta tori ni shiro. Watakushi no kiita tokoro de 
wa saki ni Mombudaijin de atta Mori Yurei ski wa he no 
taibyd de burei wo stita to iu koto des'. Watakushi ga mita 
tokoro de wa shird gozaimastita. Amagaeru wa ame ga furu 
toki ni nakimas\ Sampo suru toki ni wa shiju tsue wo motte 
ikimas\ Rydshi ga sti ka no hashitte iru tokoro wo uchi- 
masjjta. Kdenchi no hana wo totte iru tokoro wo junsa ni 
mits' keraremastita. Chddo neyd to suru toki ni tonari kara hi 
ga demastita (broke out). Kisha ga kuru tokoro ye kodomo ga 
dete hikikorosaremasttta. Dekakeyd to suru tokoro ye o kyaku 
ga kimastita. Mukashi wa, moshi samurai ga chonin ni ha- 
zukashimerareta toki ni wa sugu ni kirizute ni shimastita. c 
O kyaku wo suru (furumdi wo suru) d toki ni wa ryjriya ni 
iits keru to, nani mo ka mo motte kimas . Kyaku ga kima- 
stita toki wa chddo hon wo yomiagete shimatta tokoro desh'ta. 
Yuki ga, michi mo wakarazu kuruma mo tdranu hodo ni 
tsumorimash'ta. Oisha sama mo saji wo oite kubi wo kata- 
mukeru gurai ni narimash'ta. e Ore no ikite iru uchi wa 
sonna koto wo sasemasen. Sore wa anata no naotta ato de yd 
gozaimashd. f 

I get headache every time I smoke tobacco ; so I will quit. 
America by the time (made ni zva) you return (to America) 
will probably be changed in many respects (baiiji). As 
(tokoro go) 1 was going to the pier, a man-of-war entered the 
harbor and fired a salute of three guns (sampatsii). If you 
walk enough to tire yourself, you will probably be able to sleep. 

a Cha ivo hiku pulverize tea with pestle and mortar for the ceremony of 
cha-no-yu ; ki ga tatte kuru become agitated; te ga kuruu the hand becomes 

b Bizen, a province in Chtigoku, opposite Shikoku, was noted for its manu- 
facture of swords. 

c Kirizute ni suru cut the offender down with a sword (kin?) and let him lie, 
giving himself no further concern (suteru), 

d Have company to dinner. 

e The physician was nonplussed. 

f Compare : Atomaivashi ni shimisJio. 


When you go out, shut (shutting put) the door tight. Euro- 
peans could not live in the interior of Japan before the treaties 
were revised (kaisei ni naru). I should like to meet you 
once more before I leave. If you study Japanese diligently 
(benkyo slite) [for] even one year, you will probably learn to 
speak (it will become that you can speak) a little (wa). I 
have written it (writing put) just as I heard it. Do just as you 
were ordered. In order that the shingles may nqt be blown 
off (fly) when the wind blows, stones are placed upon them, 
leyasu, after he went into retirement (became inkyo), moved 
to Sumpu a and made that his residence (o sumai ni naru). 
Rub (Jiiki*) camellia oil on the swords to keep them from 
rusting (that they may not rust). Take care that the rice 
does n't burn. I will make a note of it (kakits kete oku) so as 
not to forget. The Japanese in order not to forget a thing tie 
a finger with a paper string. The Japanese don't talk much 
at meal time. The fog is so thick (deep) b that one can't see 
well, but I think (omowareru) that (yd ni) there is an island 
there. When a train is passing it is a dangerous thing to go 
over (kosu no wa) the railroad crossing. Go and say (saying 
come) that he shall come without fail. Okubo Toshimichi 
was assassinated as (tochu de) he was going to the Palace. As 
Kiyomori was going to Aki, c a fish jumped into the boat, and 
(ga) a diviner said that it was a good sign (thing of good 
omen). I should like to have (yd ni sJttai morides') you get 
well soon. I should like to have it finished by to-morrow. 
See to it (sJite oke) that the fire does n't go out. 

a Sumpu is the old name of Shizuoka (p. 960). 

b A verb may without Jwdo express result or degree when a subordinative 
precedes (p. 101,2). 

c Kiyomori) of the clan of Taira (Hei-ke), was in the second half of the XII. 
Century Da-jd-daijin (prime minister) and the most powerful man in the 
country. Aki is a province on the main island west of Bizen. Its chief city 
is Hiroshima. 



Interjections may be divided into two groups. The first 
consists of mere sounds expressive of emotion : 

1. A Ah of a sudden perception or recollection, delight, 
admiration, alarm, weariness, etc. 

A, ii koto. Ah how fine ! 

A, shimatta Ah, too bad ! (p. 248d). 

2. O Oh of fright or pain. 

3. Ei of displeasure or contempt : b 
Ei t imaimashii. Pshaw ! Hard luck ! 
Ei t urusai ko da net. 

Don't bother me (you are an annoying child). 

4. Ma, Well of pleasure, satisfaction, amazement, hesi- 
tancy, exhortation, etc. 

Ma, ma, yoku irasshaimashita. 

Well, well, I'm glad you've come. 

Ma,yokatta. Well, that was fine. 

Ma, do shita mon 1 daro. W T ell, what shall we do ? 

Ma, sonna imi desho. Well, it means something like that. 

Ma, ippiiku o agari nasai. Come, have some tea (or, a 

5. Sa, sa Come urging, inciting, encouraging : [smoke). 
Sa, ikimasho. Come, let's go. 

Sa t sa. Come (or go) on ! 

6. Ya, ya of surprise, delight, alarm. 

Ya, o kuma san. Well, is that you Kuma? 

7. Yai calling, reproaching : 

Yai, nani wo $uru n da. For shame ! what are you 
doing ? 

8. Oi, oloi Hello ! (used mostly by men in trying to get the 
attention of others, especially inferiors). 

9. Oya, oyaoya f surprise : 

Oya, so desn ka Indeed ! you don't say ? 
Oyaoya, taihen na fukiburi desu. 
Whew ! it's a dreadful storm. 
Oyaoya, o cha wo koboshimashita. 
Oh dear, I've spilled the tea. 

a Kan-to-shi, from kan=aida, i.e., " inter-" and td=znageru throw, i.e., 

b Hei (p. 356) is often pronounced ei : Ei t nan to osshainifishita ka. What 
did you say? 


10. Dokkoi, dokkoisho encouraging, warning. 
The second group consists of interjections which seem to 
have been derived from other words : 

1. Kore, kora, rebuking. 

2. Sore, sora look at that ! 

3. Are, ara of surprise : 

Are, niji ga dekimashita. See ! there's a rainbow. 
Ara, taihen na koto ga dekimashita. 
Oh ! a terrible thing has happened. 

4. Nani, nani what ! Oh no ! Nothing at all. 

5. Dore, dore, dore dore. Well ! (p. 42b, 2070). 

6. Hate (na) of perplexity, 

Hate, myd na koe ga suru. That's a queer sound. 
ffate, komatta na. Dear me ! What a fix ! 

7. Moshi, moshimoshi. Hello ! Say ! (p. 2070). 

8. Yare, yareyare of relief, pleasure: 
Yareyare, go kuro deshita. 

It is too bad to have burdened you so. 
Yareyare, striken ga sumimashita. 
At last the examination is over. 

9. A-ita (from a, itai) Ouch ! That hurts. 

10. Do-mo of perplexity : 

Domo, ikemasen. Pshaw ! it's of no use. 

Nakanaka, domo (=it's exceedingly difficult). 

Oya, ma, domo, ma omoigakenai. Well, I'm amazed. 

11. Naru-hodo I see, quite so, very true, indeed. Naruhodo 
may indicate the sudden perception of a new thought. It may 
also take the place of the has, he's, ei's, urn's, etc., with which 
polite people punctuate a conversation to which they are lis- 
tening attentively. So desu ka may be used in the same way. 
Older men or provincials say also ikanimo mikasama (p. 354a). 

From the English have been imported hiyakiya (Hear, hear) 
and nono, exclamations indicating respectively approval and 
disapproval of a speech. Another expression is kin-cho tsu- 
tsushinde kiku I listen respectfully. a 

a While the speech of the average Japanese is more refined than that of the 
agerage foreigner, execration and the abuse of sacred words are by no means 
unknown. Vulgar people express their detestation of a person by saying 
Kutabare (kutabaru die), or Shinde shimae, or Shini-sokcnai-me (lit. one who ha$ 
failed to die. Old people express gratification by saying Namu Amida Butsu 
(Namu I adore, from the Sanscrit), just as the Germans say Gatt set Dank. 
JVamitsam&d=GTea.i heavens ! Sambo are the three [Buddhist] treasures 
so, i.e., butsu Buddha, ho law or doctrine and so priest. 


With the interjections should be classed the imperative par- 
ticles na and/0 (p. i5<D,2) a and ya (vulgar, p. 249!) ; the inter- 
rogative particles ka, ya and yara (pp. 397-8), and the familiar 
vocative ya (classical yo, p. 34f). O Hana san may be called 
Hana ya by her superiors. A mother in calling her boy will say 
Bo ya. An aged servant may be addressed Jii ya (or Ba ya). 

In this connection note the particles of emphasis : 

1. Ne or net at the end of a sentence indicates agreement or 
an appeal for assent : 

Nikko no o tamaya wa kekko desu ne. 

The ancestral shrines of Nikko are splendid, are n't they ? 

So desu ne. That's so (but see p. I34a). 

Ne may also follow any word in a sentence to draw attention 
to it or simply to fill out a pause, like the English " You know." 
It is thus used in explaining things to a dull hearer. Ne is 
especially common in Tokyo. It characterizes the speech of 
children ; e. g., 

Tonari no o ba san ga ne t sakuban kite ne, kyo wa ne, Shin- 
tomiza ye ne, tsurete iku to itta n da kara ne t watasha ne, 
matte iru ;/' da yo. The old lady next door said last evening 
that she would take me to Shintomiza b to-day ; so I am 
waiting for her. 

Ano ne t or simply ne, like the English " I say," attracts 
attention to what is to be said. 

2. Na, na is used like ne in Kyoto ; in Tokyo only by men. 

3. No, no is becoming obsolete in most parts of the country. 

4. Sa occurs after words like sayo and nani and is very 
common with elliptical constructions : 

Ikanai to sa. He says he won't go. 
Nani sa, sonna wake wa nai. 
What do you mean ? That's not the case. 
A story often ends with to sa. 

5. Wa : Ma, honto ni iya da wa. I certainly do dislike it. 

6. Wai : Kore wa migoto da wai. This is surely handsome. 

7. Ya : Yare, ureshii ya. How delightful ! 

8. Ye may follow a question : So ka ya. That so ? 

9. Yo at the end of a sentence indicates a positive assertion. 
It is used very much more by women than by men. 

a Na and yo may follow even regular imperatives of the second conjugation 1 : 
ippai agare yo. Kudasai na. Note also : Chodai na (said by a woman). 
b The name of a famous theater in Tokyo (shin new, tomi wealth). 


Kono jibiki ni wa arimasen yo. 

It isn't in this dictionary, I tell you. 

Abunai yo. Look out ; that's dangerous. 

Girls have a fashion of substituting the subordinative with yo 
for the indicative : 

Watakushi mo itte yo. I am going (or, went), too. 

10. Zo often follows sentences which contain a command or 
prohibition. It is the harshest of the interjections of emphasis : 

Sonna koto wo shicha naranai zo. 

You must n't do anything like that, do you hear ? 

11. Ze is vulgar except in some provinces. 

Mono may occur at the end of a sentence, especially when 
it has a tone of complaint : 

Itte mo kikanai n desu mono. 

Though I tell him he won't listen. 

Koto following an adjective or a verb expresses surprise, 
wonder or admiration : 

Kono hana no nioi no ii koto. How fragrant this flower is ! 

Samui koto. How cold it is ! 

Yoku mawarimasu koto. How it spins ! 

Ritai no yosu da koto. How extraordinary ! 


(In addition to the interjections) 

toga fault, transgression. kan-nin forbearance. 

makanai (from makanau) ge-shuku-ya boarding house. 

housekeeping, a steward, omo-datta chief. 

board. wasure-gachi na forgetful. b 

fusuma sliding doors covered ai-mai na vague, ambiguous. 

with wall paper forming tondemonai=tohomonai. 

partitions between rooms, kibamu turn yellow. 

te-bukuro glove. sha suru thank, apologize. 

mo (lit. hair) one tenth of a kippari /<? distinctly, definitely. 

tin. a saka-sama ni, sakasa ni upside 
gyu-nyu (nski no chichi) milk. down. 

a The term rin denotes the tenth part not only ot a sen, but also of a bu 
(unit of interest, p. 80, or one tenth of a sttri) or of a fun (one tenth of a mom- 
me t p. 69). Bu, bun and fun. are variant readings of the same character. 

b Compare ari-gachi in : Ko iu baai ni iva arigachi na (no) koto desu kara, so 
fukaku togamerti in wa oyobimasen. You need not censure [him] severely; for 
in such a case [a blunder like that] is very apt to occur. 


Exercises a 

Ne / anata choito sono fusuma wo talete kudasaimashi na. 
Ma, yoku dekimaslfta koto nei. Oya t Matsubara san / yoi to- 
koro de o me ni kakarimash* ta. Dochira ye irasshaimas ka. 
Nani, chotto sampo ni itte kimastita tokoro sa. Yareyare, 
mendok* sai kotta { koto da) na. Aita, omae wa hidoi koto 
wo sum ne ; nandatte (naze) hito wo utsu n* da. b Ara, 
utta ri ja gozaimasen yo ; hyotto attata n des* kara> kannin 
stite kudasaimashi. Domo t nan to mo ienai iya na kokoromo 
chi ni natte kita ; do sh'ta n' daro. Ikasama, sayo na wake 
de gozaimas'ka na. Sonna koto wo osshatte wa anata go mu- 
ri_ de gozaimas'wa, watashi wa nani mo zonjimasen mono. c 
A, ii koto / kore wo watashi ni kudasaimas*no. d Moshimoshi / 
Kanda ni deru ni wa do ittara yoroshu gozaimasho. Ma, 
ma, sonna koto wo iwanaide shibaraku o makase nasai ; wa- 
tashi ga yoi yd ni sh'te agemas* kara. Oya, ma, taiso kirei na 
kanzashi des* koto nei. Bo ya ! kore kara ( kara wa) sonna 
warusa wo sum to t yurushimasen zo. Sore de mo yokuite yo. 
Osaka ye itte hakurankwai wo go kembutsu nasai \ taiso omo- 
shiro gosaimas ze. i, sonna tsumaran koto ka. Oi, nei san ! 
hayaku gozen wo dastite kurenja komaruja nai ka. c NTini, ore 
datte kane no hyaku ryo ya ni hyaku ryo wa koshiraerarenai 
koia (=koto wa) aru mon ka. f Sa, kimi ! yari tamae ; guzu- 
guzu stite oru to, hi ga kurete skimau zo. Ara, koko ni oita 
kamiire wa do stitaro. Sora, oki na ringo wo yarn za. Ano 
ne, Omme san (~o U me san) wa ne, okkasan ni mo hanasanai- 
de kind Tokyo oe itta n des'to. Ddmo, komatte shimaimas* 
wa ; ikura itte kikasete mo wakaranai n' desmono. Sore wa 

a The purpose of these exercises is to enable the student to understand 
what is being said in his presence, not to furnish models for imitation. Until 
one has become very fluent, great caution must be exercised in using the words 
described in this chapter. It is very difficult for foreigners to use even ne 
gracefully so as not to give offense. 

b A gentleman resents being hustled in a crowd. The answer follows. 

c A lady protests against being blamed for something she knows nothing 

d Kudasaimasu no=kudasaimasu ka (p. 273, middle). 

e Nei san, from ane elder sister, is used in addressing a waitress or servant 
at a hotel. 

f The old word ryo is still used in the sense of yen. 


dai s'ki des' kar:i, watashi ni mo hitotsu chddai na. Ano hito 
no hanashi to kite wa (kitard) bakak'sakute kikareta mon* 
ja arimasen yo. a Mina buji ni kurash'te orimas'kara, anji- 
nai yd ni kotozuketc kudasai na. Ma, tonda shitsurei wo ita- 
shimastita ; ddzo, go men nastte kudasaimashi. Kessh'te ma- 
chigai wa arimasmai ne. b lya, do itashimashte, tin mo de 
mo chigai ga goz aim ash' tar a sugu ni o torikae mdshimashd. 
Oi t sonna ni minna de waiivai itta tokoro de sti kata ga nai 
kara, omaetachi no uchi kara omodatta mono ni san nin erande 
yokose : so sureba, yoku sddan wo sJt'te kimete yard Oi, kimi ! 
ano koto wa do narimastita ka. A, are des 1 ka ; mada kimaran- 
de orimas 1 . Are wa, ddmo nanigoto ni tsuite mo kippari stita 
koto wo iwazu ni itsu mo aimai na henji bakari stile komatta 
mondes\ Kore kara Ueno ye hanami ni ikd to oinoimas ' ga, 
mina san wa ikaga des'ka. Oya, so, watashi mo itle yo, 
ddzo, tsurete itte chddai na. Sakunen Ueno ye itta jibun wa 
omoshirokatta yo. So destita ne, ano toki wa watashi mo nei 
san to issho ni itte yo. Anna hito ni shasanakereba (p wabi 
wo shinakereba) naranai nante ( = nado to itte), sorya tondemo- 
nai kotta ne, nan no toga mo nai no ni sa. Va, odoroita. 
Oyaoya, ma, yd koso o tazune kudasaimastita. Okka san / 
ano ningyd wo katte kudasai na. Otonastiku sae sureba katte 
agemasyo. Kora, igo kesstite sonna itazura wo stite wa 
wa naranai zo. Naruhodo^ o hanashi wo ukagatte mireba, go 
mottomo na shidai de gozaimas\ Oi, kurumaya / chotto soko 
made yatte kure. Oi, kimi / sampo ni dekakenai ka. Yare- 
yare, kore de dekiagarimastita. Tebukuro wo nakusanai yo 
ni ki wo tskenakucha ikenai yo. A, wasureta koto wo stita. 
Kora, sonna baka na koto wo sticha naran. Watashi wa 
gyunyu wa dai kirai desyo. Boku no gestikuya wa makanai 
ga warukute komaru kara, utsuritai to omou ga, doko zo yoi 
tokoro ga arimasmai ka na. Ma, go ran nasai, as' ko no shdji 
ni hito no odotte iru kage ga utsutte imas\ Kono mikan wa 
yohodo kibanda kara, taigai juku stitard yo. Tokaku wastire- 
gachi de komarimas'yo. Dokkoi, so wa ikanai. A, sonna bin 
wo sakasa ni sh'te wa mizu ga koboremas\ Are, are, atchi ni 
kirei na chd ga tonde iru yo ; hayaku itte ts'kamae na yo. 

a The peculiar idiom to kite wa or to kitara is an emphatic equivalent of wa. 
b A gentleman inquires of a shopkeeper if he is sure that there has been 
no mistake in measuring the goods he has bought. The answer follows. 


It is a peculiar feature of the language that in addressing a 
person or speaking of members of the family of that person or 
of one's own family, the terms employed vary according to tKfe 
relative rank of those concerned. These distinctions are due to 
the careful grading of social classes and to the strict subordina- 
tion of the members of a family one to another. Frequently a 
polite term differs from a common one only in having the hon- 
orific prefix o or go or a suffix such as sama or san or go. In 
other cases the polite term is a special word. 

In calling a person one adds sa?i* to the family name or says 
anata. Teachers, superiors in a profession or an art and older 
men of culture whom one wishes to treat with regard may well 
be addressed by the title sensei. Soldiers in addressing superior 
officers add dono- to the title. Among equals or those who are 
on familiar terms, such as students, officials, merchants, etc., 
fcun takes the place of san. Teachers and officers may address 
students and soldiers by their family names without san (a 
practice called yobi-suti). The master of the house usually 
calls coolies and his own servants by their personal names, 
which may even be abbreviated (p. 25/c) ; but others in the 
family add san. In talking about persons the same distinctions 
hold good. 

For the titles of persons of high rank see p. Slid. The 
following are the most important appellations : 

I. Master of the house. 

Go zen Your Grace, His Grace. b [rank). 

Tono sama (of former feudal lords and other people of high 
Danna sama, danna san (to the lady of the house by an 

inferior, to a servant of the person in question, by a 

servant to his master). c 

Go tei-shu the master of the house, your husband. 
Go shu-jin (to a subordinate at a store or a hotel). 
>hu-jin (by a clerk to a customer). 

** Husband " is otto, but among equals a lady commonly speaks 
of her husband by his surname or personal name without san, 

a The younger generation does not use the unabbreviated and very formal 
sama with surnames. 

b Note the homonymns in the nonsensical sentence : Go zen wa gozen ni 
gozen tvo gozen meshiagat-imashita. His Grace ate five bowls of rice before noon. 

c Shopkeepers usually address a gentleman customer as danna (sama}. 


while her friends use his surname with san. A wife may also 
use such terms as yado or taku (p. 3656) or shujin. To a 
caller a servant may speak of his master as danna. 

2. Lady of the house. 

O ue sama Your Grace. Oku gat a Tier Grace. 
Oku sama, oku san (corresponds to danna sama). 
Go shin-zo sama t go shin san (shin = atarashii, zo=ztsukuru 9 
from a former custom of a new couple's building a new 
house for their dwelling). 

Sai-kun your wife, his wife (among familiar friends). a 
O kami san (among shopkeepers and laborers). b 
" My wife " is tsuma, sat, gu-sai (foolish wife), ka-nai. A 
man of the lower classes may say kaka. The word nyo-bo t 
originally elegant, is now used only in speaking familiarly of 
the wife of a third person or of one's own wife. 

3. Parents. 

Go ryo-shin sama your parents. 

"My parents" is rybshin, oya, c futa*>ya or fu-bo (chichi- 
ha ha). 

4. Father. 

Go som-pu sama (son honorable) your honored father. 
Go shim-pu sama (shin = oya) your father. 
Oya-go sama your father. 

O to sama, otiosan (from toto), your father, papa ! 
" My father " is chichi, chichi- oy a or oya-ji (p. 580). 

5. Mother. 

Go som-bo, go bo-kd your honored mother. 
H aha- go, haha sama your mother. 
O ka sama, okk sama (from kakd) your mother. 
Okka san your mother, mamma ! 

" My mother " is kaka, or kaka-oya. People of the older gen- 
eration say ofukuro, but this is in most cases a vulgar word. 

a A man must not speak of his own wife as saikun. 

b E. g., kuruniaya no o kcwii san. In Kyoto o kami san is also used by polite 
people. Expressions like Mrs. Taguchi, Miss Taguchi, must be paraphrased: 
Taguchi san no oku san, Taguchi san no o jo san, etc. 

c Oya-kata means the leader of a gang of coolies or the master of a small 
inn. Distinguish o-ya (great house) the owner of a rented house. 


6. Grandfather : Go so-fu (sama), o jii san (jii forji/t). a 
" My grandfather ' ' may also be so-fu or jiji, jii. 

7. Grandmother : Go ro-bo (sama) o ba san (ba or baba). 
" My grandmother " : so-bo or baba. 

8. Elder brother. 

Go son-kei (sama), go rei-kei (sama) your elder brother. b 
O ani sama, o ani san, nii sama, nii san. 
Am sattj nii san (by younger brothers and sisters). 
" My elder brother " is ani. Ani-ki is vulgar now. 

9. Younger brother. 

Go sha-tei (sama) go rei-tei (sama) your younger brother 

(sha house). 
Ototo san, ototo-go (to inferiors). 

10. Elder sister : O ane sama your elder sister. 

Ane san, net san (by younger brothers and sisters). 

11. Younger sister : O imoto san your younger sister. 
O imoto-go, imoto-go (to inferiors). 

12. Son, daughter, child. 

Go shi-soku (san), go reisoku o musuko sama (san) 

your son. 

Musuko your boy (to inferiors), my boy. 
Segare my boy, son. 
O bo san t bo san y botchan (p. 232b). 
Go chd-nan your eldest son. 

Go ji-nan your second son. Go san-nan your third son. 
Go rei-jo your daughter. 
O jo san your daughter, miss ! 

O musuine san, o musume-go your (or his) daughter. 
Musume your daughter (to inferiors), my daughter. 
Go cho-jo your eldest daughter. 

Go batsu-jo (inatsu-jo) your youngest daughter (batsu end). 
O ko san your child. 

a O bn san and o jii san are also used in addresing old ladies and gentlemen 
in general. 

b From re' excellent and kei elder brother. A'ei=ani ; tci=ototo, Kei-tei> 
more commonly pronounced kyo-dai, designates a brother (or a sister, older or 
younger. " Your brother (or sister) is^v? kyddai. Compare shi-mai (shi=ane, 
mai=inioto) sister. 


Go sd-ryo your eldest child (so all, ryo govern). 

O chiisai no your baby. 

" Father-in-law " or " mother-in-law " is (o) shuto. Shuto- 
me for ' mother-in-law " is a literary word. Strictly speaking 
shuto are the husband's parents. A man may speak of his 
wife's parents as kanai no chichi, kanai no haha. 

A groom, or a husband from the point of view of the wife's 
family, is called (o) muko (sari) ; a bride, wife, daughter-in-law, 
sister-in-law, is (o) yome (san). " Bride " and "groom " in the 
strict sense are hana-yome, hana-muko. A wedded pair are 
(g) fafu ' Tanaka san go iufu Mr. and Mrs. Tanaka. 
13. Grandchild. 

O mago (sari) your grandson, grandchild. 

O mago-musuwe your granddaughter. 
14. Uncle, nephew, etc. 

O-ji sama (sari) your uncle, Uncle ! 

da sama (sari) your aunt, Aunt ! 

Oi-go sama (sari) your nephew. 

O mei-go sama (san) your niece. 

O itoko san your cousin. 



The order of words in a clause is rather more simple than in 
European languages. It is the same in affirmative and in in- 
terrogative sentences, in principal and in dependent clauses. 

1. The main rule is that all modifying words and clauses 
precede the governing word. A modifying word is sometimes 
separated by an intervening modifier from the governing 
word ; e, g., 

Nadakai daigaku no kyoju a famous university professor, 

or, a professor of a famous university (p. H3a). 
Furui hyakusho no ie an old farmhouse (farmer's house). 
Likewise an adverb precedes the verb, adjective, or adverb 
which it modifies : taihen osoi very late, goku hayaku very soon. 

Chotto oide. Come just a moment. 
There are a few apparent exceptions to this rule : 
Shirimasen yoku. I don't know at least not well. 
Shitsurei shigoku. You are exceedingly rude. 
Numerals, together with the numeratives, are not modifiers 
of nouns as in English (p. 341). a 

2. Case-particles and postpositions follow their substan- 
tives. 11 All the conjuctions, except the auxiliaries moshi, man- 
ichi, tatoi and yoshi (which stand at the beginning of clauses) 
follow their verbs. 

3. The order in a complete sentence is ordinarily the follow- 
ing : (i) subject, often understood ; (2) indirect object or ad- 
verbial modifier; (3) direct object, and (4) verb. 

a Numerals are used as substantives occasionally. Like adverbs (p. 352) 
they may also with no take the attributive position. 

b Such words as made, to, ka, nado, etc., may separate case particles from 
their nouns. Words like kttrai^ bakari, may be brought under the same rule, 
except that they take the place of ga and ivo. But they may also follow ni. 
Watakushi ni bakari kiirete tomodachi ni lua yaranai. He gave only to me, not 
to my friend. Compare : Shinu bakari ni natte imasti. He is at the point of 
death. See also p. 3570. 


An indirect object or an adverbial modifier, with or with- 
out wa, may take the first position for the sake of emphasis : 

Sono hito ni wa nani mo yaranakatta. 

I did n't give anything to HIM. 

Sukoshi mo shimpai ga arimasen. 

I have n't the LEAST anxiety. 

Taihen ni hito ga d gozaimasu. 

There are very many people. 

The indirect object or adverbial modifier may also stand 
more naturally between the direct object and the verb : Tokei 
wo shichi ni okimashita. He pawned his watch. In many cases 
more depends on the stress of the voice than on the position of 
the words. Thus we may say either Inochi wo kuni no tame 
ni sutemashita or Kuni no tame ni inochi wo sutemashita : He 
gave his life for his country. Compare p. 5 /a. Ordinarily 
words denoting time precede words denoting place. 

Myonichi Yokohama ye ikimas*. 

I will go to Yokohama to-morrow. 
It is a universal rule that the general precedes the particular. 

Ashita no asa go ji ni at five to-morrow morning. 

Reido ika go do five degrees below zero. 
Interrogative words do not necessarily take the first place as 
in English. 

4. The order in a subordinate clause is just the same as in an 
independent sentence, the only difference being that the prin- 
cipal verb is followed by a conjunction or inflected so as to 
show the relation of the clause to what follows. All dependent 
clauses precede the principal clause. In careless speech, how- 
ever, it often happens that a subordinative or a dependent 
clause, conditional, consessive or causal, lags behind the rest of 
the sentence (pp. 85c, 3Q2a) The same construction is some- 
times chosen for the sake of emphasis. 

5. While, as has been said, the construction of simple sen- 
tences or clauses in themselves is not so difficult, the foreign 
student ambitious to master the colloquial will find that it is his 
most serious problem to join clauses together so as to form a 
connected, and to the Japanese mind luminous, whole. Japan- 
ese poetry is sententious and fragmentary, but colloquial 
narratives and addresses must be thoroughly coherent. When 
listening to a Japanese speech or story one need not be 
surprised to find no conclusive verbs and no period until the 
end of the whole is reached. In reading connected pieces like 


the following selections it may be a good exercise for the 
student (t) to rewrite the story, breaking it up into as many 
short sentences as possible, and then (2) to recombine them so 
as to make, if possible, one continuous narrative of the whole. 

6. Ellipses are very common. Often a verb or auxiliary 
must be supplied : 

Yoku ki wo tsukete. Take good care ! (p. 1 64, 8) 

medeto. Congratulations ! 
Do itashimashite. 

Why, how can you? Don't mention it ! (p. 2i8d). 
Senjitsu wa (shitsurei itashimashita). 

1 was rude the other day. 

Kore wa dorno may mean almost anything, shitsurei ita- 
shimashita, or arigaid gozaimasu, or o mezurashii (you are 
quite a stranger), being understood. 

Ellipses are especially common in proverbs ; e. g., 
Naki-tsura ni hachi. 
Bees sting a crying face (Misfortunes never come singly). 


Ichiban Tsuyoi Mono 

Aru nezumi no fufu ni taihen utsukushii onna no ko ga deki- 
mash'ta kara t sekaiju de ickiban tsuyoi mono ni katazukete shusse 
saseyd to omoimastita. Soko de taiyo no tokoro ye itte, 
" Dofca, watakushidomo no mus'me wo yome ni sh'te kudasai " 
to tanomimas' to , taiyo wa sono wake wo kiite mos'ni wa : 
" Sekkaku tdi michi wo oicte nas'tte arigato gozaimas'ga, mada 
hoka ni watakushi yori tsuyoi mono ga arimas 1 . Tatoeba, kumo 
ga deru to, watakushi ga ikura teraso to omotte mo kakusaretf 
tern koto ga dekimasen" JMezumi wa sore wo mottomo to omotte 
kumo no ho ye itte tanomimas' to , kumo nomos'ni wa : " Naru- 
hodo, watakushi ni wa taiyo no hikart wo kakus 1 chikara wa 
arimas ga, kaze ga watakushi yori tsuyoi des\" Soko de nezumi 
ga kondo wa kaze no ho ye itte tanomimasto, mata kaze no 
mos'ni wa : " Naruhodo, watakushi wa kumo yori tsuyoi des\ 
Shikashi kabe wa motto tsuyoi des '. Watakushi ga sore wo 
fukitaoso to omotte mo t tao remasen. " a Sore kara nezumi ga 
kabe ye itte tanomimas to , kabe wa : " Kaze no itta tori, wata- 
kushi wa yotsu no uehi de wa ickiban tsuyoi des . Shikashi 
nezumi wa watakushi wo kajitte ana wo akemas kara, wata- 
kushi yori nao tsuyoi des\" Soko de nezumi ga sekai ni jibun 
yori tsuyoi mono wa nai to wakatte, to to mus'me wo onaji nezumi 
no uchi ye katazukemash ta. 

Nomi to Shirami^ 

Nomi to shirami ga Kyoto ye itte Tenshi Sama ni o memie wo 
shiyo to ya&soku stite tabidachi wo itashimashta. Nomi wa 
haneru kara, hayakute yoppodo saki ye itte shirami wo matte 
imashta. Shikashi shirami no kuru no ga amari osoi kara, 
waki ye yorimichi wo shte omoshiroi mono wo mi t utsutswo 
nukasJite^ imashta. Sono uchi ni shirami wa norok'te mo 
yasumazu ni iku kara, saki ni Kyoto ye tsuite Tenshi Sama no 

a Note the change of the subject. 

b This fable is not generally known to the Japanese. It is given a place 
here for the sake of its originality. 

c Utsutsu wo nukasu forget the world of reality ; nukasti (causative of nukeru) 
allow to escape. 

428 Itazura kozo 

o ts'kue no ue ni haiagarimasti ta. Tenshi Sama wa sore ivo go 
ran as ob as arete, " Kore wa mezuraskii muski da" to osskatte 
motte irasskaru o fude de shirami no senaka ni sumi wo o ts 1 ke 
nasaimash' ta. Skirami wa sono sumi wo* kurai wo itadaita 
no da to omotte kaette kuru tochu de nomi ni deaimastita. 
Nomi wa taisd odoroite, " Watashi wa omae wo matte ita no 
ni, doko ye itta no ka " to tazunetara, shirami wa, " Omae wa 
ashi ga kayai kara, sadamete saki ye itta dard to omotte wa- 
taski wa kitori de o memie wo shte kono tori kurai made ita- 
daite kaette kita " to kotaemastita. Soko de nomi wa jibun ga 
yudan wo sIJte okureta no wo taisd hajiite makka ni narimashta. 


Aru tera ni taisd kechi na oshd ga arimasJita. Aru hi hoka 
kara ankoromochi wo moraimashta ga, kozo ni misezu ni sotto 
shimatte oite soto ye dete yukimastita. Kozo wa rusu no aida 
ni sore wo nusumidash te tabete shimaimasti ta. So sh'te an 
wo s' koshi bakari honzon sama no kuchi no atari ni ts 1 kete oite 
jibun wa shiran kao wo sh'te imashta. Yagate osho ga kaette 
kite ankoromochi wo tabeyd to shta ga, hitotsu mo nakunatte 
imashta. Sore de kozo ga tabeta ni chigai (go) nai to omotte 
kozo wo yobi> " Ankoromochi wa do sh'ta ka " to tazunemash- 
tara, kozo wa : " Watakushi wa chitto mo zonjimasen ; shi- 
kashi senkoku hondd no ho de nani ka oto ga shimash'ta kara 
itte go ran nasai " to mdshimashta. Soko de osho ^va hondd 
ye itte honzon sama no kuchi no atari ni an ga tsuite iru no 
wo mite, kore de wa honzon sama ga nusunde kutta ni chigai 
nai to hara wo tatete honzon sama wo buchimas'to, kanabuts'wa 
K'WAN, K'WAN C to narimashta. Oshd wa, " Konna ni kuchi no 
atari ni an no tsuite oru no ni k'wan koto ga aru moiJka " to 
kanabuts'wo idobata ye hikizuridash te ido no uchi ye nagekomi- 
mash'ta. Suru to, kanabutsu mo d KUTTA KUTTA to hakujd sh'te 

a Note that the logical subject of a clause dependent on a verb like omou 
'-may take wo. In such a case ivo may be rendered '' in regard to." 

b A well known anecdote. Itazura kozo a mischievous young priest, a 
naughty acolyte. 

c Kitivanu I did (do) not eat. Kkvan also represents the sound made by the 
.metallic idol when struck. So also below : kiitta is an imitation of the bub- 
bling sound of the water, also the preterit of knu eat. 

d Mo after kanabutsu indicates agreement on the part of the idol (see 
p. 429^). 

Kaketori Tsuben no Kiten 429 


Aru hito ga karris' ke no mise ni kake wo sltte okimastita 
ga, ts'kizue ni nant to, akindo ga kake wo tori ni kuru dard to 
omotte o kami san ni : " Mo ski kake wo tori ni kitara, washi ga 
uchi ni inai to ie " to iits'kete okimastita. So sum to, an no go- 
toku akindo ga mairimashta. Soko de o kami san wa teishu 
no iits 1 keddri ni : " Kyd wa shujin ga rusu des 1 kara, mata kite 
kudasai " to moshimastita. Suru to, akindo wa irikuchi no 
shdji no yabure kara a uchi wo nozoite, " O kami san go shujin 
wa o uchi no yds'des 1 "^ to moshimastita. Teishu wa sore 
wo kiite kami de sono ana wo f us aide, " Kore nara, c rusu no 
yd ni mieru daro " to iimastita. Soko de akindo mo stikata 
naku d waratte kaette shimaimastita. 

Tsuben no Kiten 

Go is shin mae no koto des'ga, aru hi Nagasaki bugyd ga e 
norimono ni notte soto wo tdrimas'to, tochu de uma ni notte 
iru Orandajin ni deaimashta. Sono jibun ni wa dare de mo 
tochu de meue no hito ni au to, uma kara orite aisats'wo suru 
shukwan destita kara, bugyd wa t sub en ni, sono koto wo Oran- 
dajin ni hanashte uma kara orose to iits' kemasfi ta. Shikaru 
ni sono t sub en wa yoku gwaikoku no jijd wo shtte ite totemo 
Orandajin ga uma kara orimai to omotta kara, kiten wo kika- 
stite Orandajin ni mukai : " Watakushi no shujin ga anata no 
o uma wo taisd homete kaitai to mdshimas 1 kara, ddzo o ori nasatte 
shujin no mae made uma wo hiite kite kudasaimasen ka " to 
mdshimashta. Orandajin wa nani mo shirimasen kara, kore 
wa ii shdhd da to omotte sugu ni uma kara orite teinei ni bu- 
gyd no mae ye kite aisats'wo stita to iu koto des\ 

a Yabure a rent in the paper on the sliding door, from yabureru be torn; 
kara through. 

b Elliptical for uchi ni oide it* naru yd desu. 

C Kore nara=-ko shitara if ore does this way. 

d Shikata naku modifies kaerivnashita. The mo after akindo is untransla- 
table, faintly indicating that the shopkeeper assented to what the man of the 
house said. 

e Bugyd here means the governor of a city owning direct allegiance to the 
Shogun. Compare p. 358a. Nagasaki, though in the fief of the daimy5 of 
Omura, was immediately subject to the Shogun 

43 Tekiyaku Saikun no Share Baka Miiko 

Tekiyaku a 

Aru nadakai isha no uchi ye ba san ga kite, " Watakushi no 
inns' ko wa bydki des'kara, ddka, kusuri wo kudasai" to mds'no 
de, isha ga, " Nan no bydki da" to kiku to, ba san ga, *' Mus'ko 
iva dorobd wo sum bydki ga ar'unas* ; ddka, kusuri wo itadaite 
sono bydki wo naostitd gozaimas* " to tanomu to, isha ga nani ka 
kusuri wo dashte yarimashta. O ba san ga yorokonde kaetta 
ato de, deshidomo ga, " Sensei / bydki no nai hito ni kusuri wo 
kuremastita no wa do iu wake des 1 ka " to kiku to, isha no kotae 
ni, " Watakushi wa yoi omoits ki ga deta kara, kusuri wo yatta. 
Are wa hai no zd wo kawakas'mon da. Moski tdnin pa shiju 

<> J 

seki wo suru to, dorobd no shigoto ga dekinai dard to iu no de, 
deshidomo wa, " Sasuga wa sensei da" to itte mina kanskin 
itashimash ' ta 

Saikun no Share 

Saikun : Hana ya ! konnichi wa o tenki ga yoi kara, s'koshi 
sentakumono wo sh'te o kure. Hana : Hei. S. Shabon wa aru 
ka. H. Hei, mada shdshd gozaimas\ S. Sakujitsu jissen^ 
katta ri da kara, mada aru dard. H. Hei. S. Danna sama 
no o shiroji no hitoemono wo sammai to skats' wo yo mai to tsuide 
ni watakushi no yumaki wo ni mai to nemaki wo go mai, sore 

kara H. Oyaoya, shdshd sentaku wo sh'te kure to wa kiite 

akiremas\ S. Nani wo iu ka. H. lie. c 5". Sore kara danna 
sama to watakushi no tabi wo shichi soku. H. Oyaja nai 
hei, hei de wa shabon ga tarimas'mai. S. Tarinak'te mo, 
s'koshi zutsu ts'katte araeba, tariru dard. H. De mo t go shinzd 
sama, totemo totemo dekimas'mai. S. Sore wo sore dake de arau 
ga onna no tsumashii tokoro da. H. De mo..,,.. S. De mo, de 
mo, nan de mo, sore de araemas\ H. Do itashimashte. 
S. SEKKEN& shte ts'kau n' da. 

Baka Muko 

Mukashi aru tokoro ni baka muko e ga arimash'ta. Aru ht 
yome no sato ye mimai ni ikimashtara, dango wo dashimash- 
ta. f Baka muko wa taisd umagatte tak'san dango wo tabete, 

a Appropriate medicine, a specific (tekito na kusuri]. Compare ryd-yaku. 

b Jissenjissen no bunryd ten cents' worth. 

c =//V nani mo nwshimasen. 

d The word sekken may mean either " soap ' or "economy" 

e A recently married husband and wife are called muko and. yome. 

f Dasu set out, offer, give to eat. 

Dorobo to Bimbonin 431 

41 Kore wa makoto ni kekkd na mono des'ga, nan to iu man* 
des'ka. Na wo uketamawatte, kaettara, kanai ni koshiraesase- 
mashd " to iimash'ta. Shujin ga, " Sore wa dango to iu mono 
de gozaimas' " to kotaemas'to, baka muko wa sono na wo 
wasurenai yd ni sugu ni itomagoi wo sk'te kuchi no ucki de 
shiju " dango dango " to ii nagara kaette kimask'ta. Ucki no 
mae ni kimas'to, soko ni chiisai mizutamari ga arimaskta. 
Sore wo tobu hydshi ni hitokucki " dokkoi " a to iimas'to, kajime 
no " dango dango " wo wasurete " dokkoi dokkoi" to itte ucki 
ye kairimastita. Sugu ni yome ni, <l Omae no ucki de kyd 
dokkoi to iu mono wo tabete kita ga^ taiso oisttkatta kara, 
kore kara koskiraete kure " to Uts* kemask ta. Yome wa fushigi 
na kao TVO sh'te, " Watakushi no sato de sonna mono wo anata 
ni das'kazu wa arimasen. Sonna mono wo wataktishi wa 
ichido mo mita koto mo tabeta koto mo arimasen " to kotaema- 
sk'ta. So sum to, baka muko wa taiso hara mo tatete, " Kisa- 
ma no sato de dash! t a mono wo kisama ga skiranai to iu hazu 
ga nai " to itte soko ni aruftoi bo wo totte yome no kitai wo na- 
gurimask'ta. Yome wa hittai wo osaete, " Aita t aita ! Anata 
wa hidoi kito des* ; go ran nasai, dango no yd na kobu ga deki- 
masttta " to iimastitara, baka muko wa, " O, so da, so da / So- 
no dango no koto da" to mdshimastita. b 

Dorobo to Bimbonin 

Aru bimbonin no ucki ye dorobd ga kairimash'ta tokoro ga, 
bimbonin no ucki no koto des'kara, nani mo totte kaerd to omou 
mehoskii mono mo arimasen. So suru to dorobd ga, " Korya 
shikujitta ; konna koto to sktta nara, kito no me wo shinonde 
haitte ki wa skinai ; imaimaskii koto da" to kogoto wo itte 
kaette ikimasKta. Uskirokage wo miokutte bimbonin no shujin 
wa toko no naka kara yobikakete iu ni wa, " Oi, dorobd ! boku 
no tame ni sono to wo tatete kuren ka " to. Sasuga no dorobd 
mo. " So ka nn, skikashi ore mo kisama ni tazunetai koto ga 
aru. To wo tatete nan no yaku ni tats'ka" 

a In such a case one may say dokkoi to gather one's self together for the effort. 
Tobu=.tobikosu hitokuchi with iu conveys the idea of an ejaculation, 
b Sono dango no koto da. Dango that's the very tiling I was talking about ! 

432 Hizakurige 


Nikon ni Docku Hiakurige to iu kokkei no kon ga arimashte, 
Yajiro to Kidahacki to iu mono ga futari de Edo kara Kyoto 
made iku koto ga okastiku kaite arimas* . Sono ucki ni kd in 
omoshiroi kanashi ga arimas 1 : 

Yajiro to Kidahachi ga Shioigawa to iu kawa ni kita toki, 
sono mae no hi ni dame ga futte hashi ga ochimasJita kara, orai 
no kito ga mina kono kawa wo kachi de watatte orimasJita. 
Soko ye Kyonobori no zato de b Inuichi to Santichi to iu no ga 
futari kite tazunent no ni : " Mo ski ! mizu ga kiza made 
gozaimas'ka" Kidahachi no kotae ni : " Sayo, sayo, skikashi 
mizu ga hayai kara, abunai. Yojin shte w atari nasai" Inu- 
ichi ; " Ha t naruhodo t mizu no oto ga y oho do hayai" to ii nagara 
ishi wo hirotte kawa no naka ye nagekonde kangaete orimashta 
ga : " Kokora ga asai yd da. Korya, Saruichi ! futari nagara 
kyahan wo toru no wa mendo da kara, omae wakai yaku de c 
washi wo obutte kure. Saruichi; "Ha, zurui koto da. Ken 
de mairo& Maketa mono ga obutte wataru no da. Yoi ka." 
Inuichi: Kore wa omoshiroi. Sa, omae f " Soko de, " ryan 
go sai, ryan go sai " to katate de ken wo utte, so ho kara migi no 
te wo dashte tagai ni hidari no te wo nigiriaimastt ta. e Inu- 
ichi : ** Katta zo, katta zo." Saruichi: " i, imaimashii" 
Sonnara kono furosh kizutsumi wo omae ni yaru zo. Sa, koi, 
koi" to obuu shtakuwo shte se wo mukemashta. Yajiro wa 
kore wo yoko kara mite Inuichi no kawari ni Saruichi ni 
obuwareru to, Saruichi wa zato to omotte sassa to kawa no naka 
ye haitte mukd ye watarimashta. Inuichi wa konata no kishi 

a This incident is from a humorous work of Ikku (died 1831). See Astons* 
History of Japanese Literature, p. 371. The book describes the adventures of 
two worthies, Yajirobei and Kidahachi, as they tramp over the Tokaido. The 
name Hizakurige, from hiza knee and kuri-ge chestnut-colored fur, is an 
allusion to the " shank's mare " that they rode. 

b Blind men going up to Kyoto. 

c Yaku means here role ; wakai yaku, the role of the young man. 

d We will decide the matter by means of a game of ken (p. I96a). The 
players repeat as a signal the formula ryan go sai. Ryan is " two " (to -on}; go 
is five ; the meaning of sai is not known. The blind are very fond of games of 

e They played with their left hands, and each used his right hand to feel 
the movements made by the other. 

Hizakiirige 433 

ni nokotte ite, " Yoi, Maruichi yo ! do sum ka. Hayaku kawa wa 
wataranai ka." Saruicki wa sore wo muko kara kiite hara wo 
tatete : " Korya okaski na yatsu da. Tadaima watastita na 
ni, mata sotcki ye kaette watakushi wo naburu ri da." Inuicki : 
" Baka wo ie. Omae kitori de watatte futoi yatsu da" Saru- 
ichi : " ly a, futoi to wa sotchi no koto da" Inuicki : " Korya 
anibun ni mukatte gongododan. Hayaku kite watasan ka" to 1 
skirome wo daskte kara wo tatemaskta kara, Saruicki ga 
sk kata naku mata kotchi ye watatte kaette, " Sa t sonnara 
obusari nasai" to itte senaka wo daskimaskta. So suru to, 
Kidakacki wa skimeta to omotte a obusarimask ta kara, Saruicki 
wa mata sassa to kawa ye hairimaskta. Soko de Inuicki wa 
taiken sekikonde, 4< Saruicki , doko ni oru ka" to oki na koe de 
zu to, Saruicki iva kawa no naka de, " Koitsu wa dare da" to- 
Kidakacki wo mizu no naka ye domburi otoskimask ta. Kida- 
kacki wa, " tas'kete kure, tas'kete kure " to te aski wo mo gait e 
nagarete oru kara, Yajiro wa tobikonde hikiagemask ta ga, 
Kidakacki wa atama kara aski no saki made bisshori nurete : 
Ei, zatome ga tonda me ni aivaseta." Yajiro wa, " Ha, ka, ka,, 
mazu kimono wo nuide skibotte yard " to itte, Kidakacki ga 
kadaka ni natte gatagata zenskinfuruete, kimono wo skibotte irit 
tic hi ni t zato wa kawa wo watt ate torisugimasti ta. 

a Shimela may be an exclamation of joy ; I've got it." 


Hanawa Ilokiichi a 

Hanawa Hokiichi to iu sensei wa shichi sat ni naru to, 
gauibyo ni kakatte mekura ni nariniasJita. Sore kara biiva 
ya amma no keiko wo shimash'ta ga, amari oinoshiroku nakat- 
ta kara, Edo ye dete Wakan no gakumon ivo benkyd sh'te 
y 11112 ei na gak? sha ni narimastita. Aru ban shosei wo atsumete 
Genji Monogatari no^ koshaku wo stite imas* to natsu no koto 
des" kara, c kaze ga fuite kite akari ga kiemastita. Shosei ga 
soko de sensei m\ " Shosho o machi nastte kudasai ! akari wo 
ts ' keneba narimasen " to moshimasto, sensei wa, " Me no aru 
mono wafujiyu na mono da " to itte waraimash'ta. 

Ooka no Sabaki 

Aru onna ga nuka no naka ye kakustite oita kane wo nusu- 
maremasti ta no de Ooka ni uttaedemastita. d Soko de Ooka wa 
sono hi onna no uchi ni otta hitobito wo mina yohidastite : 
" Izure nu sun da mono no te wa in a da nukak? sai e ;//' chigai ga 
nai kara, kore kara ichiichi f kaide miyo " to moshimastita. So 
suru to, sono uchi no hitori ga sotto jibun no te wo hana ni atete 
Jtaide mita no de y yakunin ga sugu ni sore wo mits 1 kete, sono 
mono wo toraete gimmi wo shimasJita tokoro ga t an no go'oku 
sono mono ga nusunda no de arimasJita. 

Shosei no Kokatsu 

Rai Sanyo ga S katsute aru uchi ye kyoo ni manekareta toki 
te.shu wa Jtanashiaiie ni tote sJiosei wo mo iiitori yobimash } ta. 

a A noted scholar and author, died J82I at the age of 76. 

b A classical romance written about the year icoo by a lady of the 
Murasaki Shikibu. See Aston, History of Japanese literature, p. 92. 

c The shoji were pushed aside to admit fresh air. 

d For Ooka see p. 3583. Uttae-deru is transitive, though the second part of 
the compound is the intransitive verb dent. So also nwshiden^ nkagaideru, etc. 
(P. 285). 

e Rice bran has an unpleasant odor. 

f IcJii-ichi one by one. 

g The famous author of the work Nihon Gwaislii, a histojy of Japan (givai- 
shi external history, i. e., history of the leading families, as distinguished from 
the official history of the Court) from the times of Masakado (X. Century) on, 
published in 1837. 

Moshi no Ha ha 435 

Sate, iyoiyo gozen ni narimash'ta ga t mireba Sanyo no yaki- 
zakana wa shosei no yori s'koshi dkii no de shosei wa hara ivo 
tale issaku wo* kangaedaslite Sanyo ni mitkai : So J^dba no 
So no ji wa uo no ji wo migi ni kaku ga yd gozaimas* ka, hida- 
ri ni kaku ga yd gozaimas ka " to tazunemashta. b Sanyo wa 
nanigenaku, " Sore wa migi de mo hi dart de mo onaji koto da" 
to kotaemaslita. Sum to, shosei wa sugu ni t " Sore nara kore 
mo yahan migi de mo hidari de mo onaji koto deshd " to itte 
yakizakana wo torikaemastita. 

Mdshi no Ha ha 

Mdshi wa c kodomo no toki ni am tera no soba ni sunde ori- 
masti te mainichi sdsli ki ivo mini mon lies' kara, sono mane 
ivo stite asobimasJita. Soko de haha wa koko wa kodomo wo 
sodateru tokoro de wa nai to omoimastite, aru ichiba no yoko 
ni tenkyo shimasJi ta. Sum to, Mdshi wa kondo wa akindo 
no mane wo stite asobimastita. Soko de mata haha wa koko mo 
ko wo sodateru tokoro de wa nai to kangaemastite, kondo wa 
aru gakkd no soba ye hikkoshimastita. Sd sh 'ta tokoro ga t 
Mdshi wa mainicJii gakkd de keiko wo sum mane wo slite 
asobimasJita kara, haha wa koko ga ko wo sodateru basJto da 
to omotte ydyaku anshin itashimastita. 

Sono noc hi Mdshi wo shugyd no tame aru empd no gakkd ye 
okurimasJita tokoro ga, Mdshi wa benkyd ga iya ni natte uchi 
ye kaetle kimastita. Sono toki haha wa chodo hata ivo orika- 
kete imastita ga t Mdshi no tochu de gakumon ivo yamete kaette 
kita no wo mile jibun no orikakete ita hata wo hasami de na- 
kahodo kara kitte misemasJita. Sd sJite Mdshi ni mukatte iu 
no ni wa, " Omae ga ima chuto de gakumon wo yamete s/iiwau 
no wa chddo orikaketa hata wo kono tori kitte shimau yd na 
mono de nan no yaku ni mo tatanai" to itte iken wo shimastita. 
Soko de Mdshi wa hijd ni osoreilte kokoro ivo torinaosJii mata 
saki no gakkd ye kaette isshdkemmei ni benkyd wo itashimasJita. 

a From icJd one, sakti scheme. 

b The name of a famous Chinese literateur (bunsJwka^. In the character so 
(!$: or ^), " fish " (^) may be put either on the left or on the right side. 

c The famous philosopher Meng-tse or Mencius (Japanese Mo-shi) lived B.C 
371 288. Having lost his father at an early age, he was educated by his 
mother. The stories here told illustrate the great solicitude with which she 
watched over her boy's education. . She is commonly referred to as Mobo (bo= 
Jiaha], A version in the form of the written language may be found in 
Chamberlain's <{ Romanized Japanese Reader." 

436 Aoto Saernon no Keizai Ota Dokivan 

So stite Isui ni wa Asei 3 - to iwareru yd na rippa na hito 
ni narimastita. Sore yite ima de mo hito ga Moshi no haha 
wo homete yoku kodomo wo kyoiku sum michi wo stitte ita 
hito da to mdshimas* . 

Aoto Saemon no Keizai 

Mukashi Aoto Saemon Fujitsuna b to iu hito ga hashi wo 
tdrikakatta toki ni t ju mon no zeni wo kawa ye otoslite, sore wo 
hiroiageru tame ni ninsoku wo yatotte kite kawa wo sagasasete 
go ju mon no hiyo wo haraimastita. Tokoro de, aru hito ga 
waratte Aoto ni mukatte, " Ju mon no zeni wo hiroiageru noni go 
ju mon no zeni wo haratte wa sashihiki ski ju mon no son ga 
iki wa shinai ka " to tazunemas'to, Aoto ga kotaete, iu no ni, 
" Moshi ju mon no zeni wo kawa ye utchatte okeba, iisu made 
mo tenka ni j^i mon no zeni wo ushinai ; c moshi hiroiageta 
naraba, ninsoku ni go ju mon wo haratte mo dochira mo yahari 
tenka ni tsuyo sum wake yue, betsu ni tenka no keizai ni wa 
son ga nai " to iimasfita. 

Ota Dokwan no Plauashi 

Mukashi Ota Mochis" ke d to iu daimyo ga Edo ni orareta e 
toki aru hi Tots ka no hen de takagari wo saremastita. Son* 
toki kyu ni ame ga futte kita no de, hyak ' sho no ie ni haitte, 
" Mino wo ichi mat karitai " to iwaremasJita. So sum. to, 
komus'me ga hitori dete kite yamabuki no hana wo sasfiidastite- 

a A-sei next to the sage, i. e., the greatest philosopher next to Confucius 
< the Wise " (sei-jin\ This title was first given to Mengtse by one of his 
commentators and was officially confirmed by the Chinese Emperor Wan-tsung 
in the year 1330. 

b Aoto Saemon, a high official in the second half of the XIII. Century, is 
famous for his just decisions and his wise and economical administration. 
Aot& is the family name; Saemon, originally a title (sa-e-mon no jo head of the 
left gate guard), has become a part of his name ; Fujitsuna is the given name. 
The anecdote here related is very well known and is frequently referred to. 
For this and other stories of Aoto Saemon see Chamberlain's Japanese Reader." 

c Translate by means of the passive : Ten mon are lost to the Empire, 

d This story is well known in Japan. It is found, for instance, in Edo 
Meisho Zite (p. 28if). The hero is better known now by the name Ota Dokwan. 
In ancient times a man might have besides the family name two or three 
names : a true name (nanorty, a popular name (Aj^) and perhaps still another. 
Since the Restoration it has become the rule to have only one name. In 1456 
Ota Dokwan founded on the present site of Tokyo a fortress, which was later 
transformed by leyasu into the great castle of Edo. 

e For the honorific inflection of the verbs see p. 268. 

Ikkyu no Tone hi 437 

mono mo iwazu ni obu ye haitte shimaimastita. Ota wa nan 
110 koto da ka wakaranai kara, taiso okotte kaette kinju no 
mono ni sono koto ivo hanasareinash'ta. Soko de Jiitori no 
kerai ga iu no ni, " Sore wa koka ni, a 

' Nanae yae hana wa sakedomo yamabuki no 

MI NO hitotsu dani naki 20 wabishiki ' b 

to arimas 'kara, MINO ga nakute ainiku desto iu tsnmori de 
gozaimasho " to kotaeinastita. Ota wa sore wo kiite naruJiodo 
to gaten ga ikare jibun no mugaku wo hajite sore kara taiso 
benkyo stite nochi ni wa yumei no utayomi ni narimastita. 

Ikkyu no Tonchi 

Ikkyu ga c kodomo no toki ni Daitokuji d de gakumon wo 
sttte imastita. Am hi sensei ga yoso kara* kivashi wo 
moraimas/ita. Ikkyu wa jibun ni mo sore wo ivakete kureso 
na mono da ta omotte ita keredomo, morau koto ga dekiinasen 
desh'ta. Sore de waza to tobokete sensei ni, " Sono kako no 
uchi ni nani ga arimas" ka " to tazunemastita. Sensei wa, 
" Sore wa do kit da kara, taberu koto wa naran " to iikikase- 
mash'ta. Sono yokujitsu sensei no solo ye deta alo de Ikkyu 
wa sono kwashi wo mina tabete shimatte soko ni aru sensei no 
daiji na hanaike wo kowas'Wte okimastita. Sensei wa kaette 
kite odoroite, " Kono hanaike wo dare ga kowastita ka. 
Shojiki ni hakujo siireba yurusJite yaru ga, sa mo nakuba 
kikanai zo" to iimas to, Ikkyu wa burn burn shi nagara dete 
kite, " Watakushi ga soso de sono hanaike tvo kowashiwasttta. 
Sensei ni moshiwake ga gozaimasen kara, shino to ouwimastite, 
saiwai soko ni arimastita doku wo tabete shimaimasli ta, 
Shikashi mada shineinasen kara, mada hoka ni doku ga 
arimas'nara, chodai it ash' to gosaimas' " to kotaemastita. 

a Connect koka ni with arimasu (=kaite arimasii], 

b This poem is by Prince Kaneaki and is found in the collection called 
Gd-shu-i-shu the " Second Gleaning " (go later, shu=hirou, i=nokori, shn= 
a /sit merit}. The meaning is: yamabuki wa hana ga yae ni saku keredomo, mi 
ga hitotsu mo nai no ga zannen desu. Nanae yae (p. 64) sevenfold and eightfold, 
of the double blossoms (compare yae-zakura double cherry blossoms); sakedomo 
=saku keredomo (p. 265d); zo after naki (=nai] is emphatic; wabishiki sad 
(variant reading kanashiki}. 

c Ikkyu, a priesi of the XV. Century, is noted for his ready wit and is the 
hero of many interesting tales. 

d A Buddhist temple in Kyoto. 

*. Yoso kara from some place or other, from some one. 

43 8 Ikkyu 110 Mondo TaisJioku no H anas hi 

Mata Ikkyu ga kyaku no mae 'ni deta 1oki kyaku ga tawa- 
mure ni t suit ate no tor a uo ynbizastiie, a " Omae wa genki da 
ga, ana tora ivo ts'ka maete go ran " h to Ikkyu ni nwshimaslita. 
Ikkyu wa sugu ni tatte tora no /id ye nmki te wo hirogete, 
" Dczo 9 anata oidask'te kudasai " to moshimastita. 

Ikkyu no Mondo 

Ikkyu os ho ga Hitachi no Kashima c no miya ye sankei iva 
Sdtefa toi'i ni toe frit no mori no kage kara mi no take shidii 
shakn bakari v.o aru yamabushi ga dele mairimashte osho ni 
tottuzen, " Buppo wa ika ni " d to taztineinasJi ta. Osho wa 
sugu ni kotaete, " Mune ni an " to mosareniastita. Tokoro ga, 
yamabushi wa surari to katana wo nuite, " Sore nara mune wo 
zvatte rniyo " to itte kirikakariuiasJi ta. Os/w wa s'koshi ma 
saivagazu kogoe de, 

" Hani goto ni narn ya Yoshino no yamazakura 

ki wo warite miyo hana no arika zvo " e 

to iu koka wo tonaeraremasJita. Yamabushi wa kore wo kiite 
OL ni kanjimasJite sugu ni katana wo saya ni osaine doi'o to 
mo naku nigete shimaimastita. f 

Taishoku no Hanasht 

Am hi hitori no horaf ki ga?> Ikkyu ni mukatte, " Wata- 
kushi wa konaida mochi wo itto tabemasti ia ; amari hara ga 
harimaslita kara t hara wo lies tame ni kawa no fuchi ivo 
orimashta. So sum to, soko ni June ga isso tsunaide 

a Pointing with a finger. For tsuitate see p 36ia. On this screen was 
painted a tiger. 

b This is more familiar than go ran nasai. So also aide nasai may be 
abbreviated to aide 

c A famous Shinto shrine. For Hitachi see p. 389^ 

d Ika ni=^ika ni arimasu /:a t iii being equivalent to de in the colloquial : 
mune ni ari=?nune no naka ni arimasu. The dialogue is after the classical 

e According to the usual order Yoshino no yamazakura would stand before 
harugolo ni saku , miyo, after arika wo. Frt=an exclamation mark; warite= 
the colloquial loatte . with ari-ka compare sunri-ka dwelling place. The 
simple blossoms of the cherry trees {yania-zakura^ of Yoshino in Yamato are 
famous all over Japan. 

f The end of the tale lias been altered somewhat. According to the original 
Japanese text, the hermit is metamorphosed into a wood sprite. 

g From Jiora u>o fuku blow a conch, i. e., blow one's horn, brag. 

h For fuchi -co artiku and matsubara tvo ariikn see p. 362. 

Sorori Shinzaemon 439 

ar'nnasJita kara, sore wo motte kawa no mizu wo sukkari 
kaedashimash'ta " to jimangao wo sJite hanashimasrfta. 
Ikkyu wa sore wo kiite majiine na kao de kotaeinas ni wa r 
" Watakushi no tomodachi ni yamabushi ga Jiitori arimastita 
ga, sono yamabushi mo anata no yd ni taishoku wo sum hito 
de, atu hi mochi wo ni to kuimasJi 'ta. Sore de hara ga hatta 
kara, haragonashi ni matsubara wo aruite iinastita. S* koshi 
asJii ga kutabireta kara, matsu no taiboku wo ippon hikinuite 
sono ne ni koshi wo kakete yasunde iru to, ckiisai hebi ga kite 
dki na kaeru wo nonde kurnshinde ita ga, yagate sono waki ni 
aru minarenu a kusa wo kutta tokoro ga, tackimachi konarete 
shimaimashta. Yamabushi wa sore wo mite, ' Kore wa ii 
hara ivo herasu kusa b da to oinotte Iiebi no mane wo stite sore 
wo taberu 1o, sore wa hito vio kaeru no yd ni token c kusa 
destita kara, yamabushi wa tachimachi tokete shimatte ato ni 
wa ni to tio mochi ga yainabusJii no shdzoku no mama de 
nokoriuiasfi ta " to moshiniasJita.^ Horaf'ki wa sono kotae 
ni hajite f'ttftabi Ikkyu no tokoro ye kaodashi wo shimasenda 
so des\ 

Sorori Shinzaemon 

Sorori Shinzaemon e to in hito ga Hideyoshi kd no goten ye 
dete hanashimas'ni iva : " \VatakusJii ga Kiyomizu Kzvamiou f 
ye mairimash'tara, Otowa no taki de mi no take ichi jd go 
rott shaku hodo aru bakemono ni deaimashta. Suru to, sono 
bakemono ga dki na kuchi wo aits ( akete) watakushi wo no- 
md to itashimash'ta kara, watakushi wa bakemono ni, ' Oniae 
wa taisd dkii ga, chiisaku bakeru koto wa dekinai kato iima- 
slita. So itashimasJftara, bakemono wa, ' Ikura de mo cliiisa- 
ku bakete miseyd'to mdshimasJita kara, ' Sonnara umeboshi ni 
natte miseroto iimaslita. Soko de bakemono wa chiisa ua 
umeboshi ni natte hiza no mae ni korogete mairimastita kara+ 
watakushi wa sore wo totte hltokuchi ni nonde shimaimash ta. 

a Such as one is not accustomed to see, rare, peculiar, 
b Ii and hara ivo herasu are both attributive (p. 423,1). 
c Tokeru melt may be rendered here " evaporate " or " vanish." 
d The subject of mdshimashita is Ikkyu, at the beginning of the story. 
e Sorori Shinzaemon, an official attached to Hideyoshi, (1536,. ..1598), noted 
for his shrewd sayings and wise counsels. 

f A famous temple in Kyoto. In the vicinity there is a waterfall called 
Alt no take length of body. The particle ga is understood. 

44 o Kato Kiy omasa 

Sore giri, a bakemono wa denaku nariinastita" Kono hana- 
shi wa b Hideyoshi kd ga tenka no kwambaku c de ari nagara 
kwattatsu na hito yue, iomo mo tsurezu ni hitori de yoru soto 
ni deru koto ga arimastita kara, moshi^ teki no mono ni de 
mo deatte korosareru yd na koto no nai yd ni chui wo shikake- 
reba naranai to isameta no de arimas* . HideyosJii no ikioi 
wa chddo dki na bakemono no yd na mono des* keredo, tada hi- 
iori de soto ye dete wa, chiisa na umeboshi ddyd ni dare ni de 
mo korosarete shimau to iu kokoro (koto) wo omosJiiroku tatoete 
mdstita no de arimas. 

Kato Kiyomasa 

Hideyoshi kd wa tat hen chanoyu ga s ki de atta kara, sho- 
daishd no uchi ni wa G tabitabi sono seki ni makekareru no de 
shizen sono skiki wo kuwash? ku kokoroete oru mono ga d go- 
zaimastita. Hitori Kato Kiyomasa f nomi wa cka ivo konoini- 
masen desttta kara, amari sono seki ni deta koto ga arimasen 
destita. Tokoro ga, aru hi Hideyoshi kd kara wazawaza mane- 
Jeareta no de yamuwoezu cha no kwai ni demasttta. Yagate 
Kato zva, S do sum mono yara, cha no nomikata wo shiranai no 
de, chawan wo motte guzuguzu sk'te imas to. HideyosJii kd wa } 
" Kato ! hayaku nonde chawan wo mawase ' to mdsaremastita. 
Soko de Kiyomasa wa hitokuchi ni^ cha wo nomihostite yubi 
de cJiawan wo guruguru mawashimastita. i 

fx Sore giri only that and no more ; i. e., that was the end of the ghost. 

b A'otio hanashi wa has for its predicate isaineta no de arimasu : This story 
was [intended as] a warning to the effect that 

c For kivanibaku (kivampakii) see p. 78a. 

d Moshi is to be construed with nai yd ni : translate: " lest perchance." 

e Shodaisho, from sho many (p. i) and tai-sho general; we may translate, 
** his generals." A r o uchi ni wa is to be construed witli d gozaiinashita. 

f One of the two generals who commanded the expedition to Korea at the 
nd of the XVI. Century. 

g In the course of a narrative either the family name or the personal name 
may stand alone. Here Kiyomasa also would be correct. In the ceremony 
of koi cha it is the custom to take only a sip and then pass the cup along 
{tnawasti). For the distinction between koi cha and itsiuha see p 106. 

h At one gulp. 

i He spun it (inaivasti) , like a top. 

Tsuru no Suimono 441 

Tsuru no Suimono 

Mtikashi Tokugawa no hatamoto a ni Okubo Hikozaemon to 
iu rikd na hito ga arimasJita ga, kono hito wa chugi to omoeba 
donna ni iinikui^ koto de mo kamaivazu shogun ni moshiage 
o kami no heigai wo tamenaoshimattita kara, dare de mo O- 
kubo no jiji to ieba kowagaranai mono wa arimasen desJita. 
Aru toki sJiogunke ni tsuru no suimono no go chiso ga c arima- 
sJtte, go tairo ya go roju wo& hajime Okubo sono hoka amata 
no hatamoto ga go shotai ni azukarimash 'ta. Okubo wa amari- 
jdseki no hito de nakatta mono deskara, Okubo no suimono 
ni wa maivarikaneta to miete tsuru no niku^ wa hito kire mo 
haitte inaide na bakari haitte imastita. Okubo wa sore wo 
fushin ni omoi tameshi ni ippai koete e mimastita ga, yahari 
tsuru no niku wa hito kire mo arimasen desJita. Sore de (o) 
rydriban no fusel na koto ga wakarimash'ta. Sono ban wa 
sono mama * kaette kite, yokujitsu ni naru to, kerai ni iits ' ke'e 
11 a wo tak'san kago ni ire tomo ni motase go ten ni mairiwasti te 
annai wo koimastita. Sono toki shogun iva ni san no (go) 
kinju to niivasaki no yuki wo nagamete irassharu tokoro destita 
ga, Okubo no koto yue% sassoku, " Kochira ye maire" to o 
yurushi ga arimastita. Okubo iva magatta koshi de tokko- 
tokko aruite shogun no irassharu tsugi no ma no engawa no 
tokoro made susunde uyauyasti ku ryote wo tsuite h go kigen wo 
ukagaimastita. Shogun wa Okubo ga rolai de ari nagara 

a Hata-moto (lit. under the banner) were immediate vassals of the Shogun 
who held fiefs yielding from 300 to io,cco kokti of rice. The hatamoto of higher 
rank had immediate access to the Shogun and held important offices. One of 
these was Okulo Hikozaemon, of whom various quaint stories are told. For his 
biography see Okubo Ichidaiki. 

b li-nikui unpleasant to say. 

c The meat of the crane is highly prized. Slwgunke ni at the Shogun's 

d The go ro-jn (lit. elders' assembly) were five or six daimyo who were 
entrusted with the government of the country, like the present ministers of 
state. At times, as, for example, during the reigns of the fifth Shoguns of the 
Tokugawa family, the0 ro-ju had a president called go tai ro (lit. great elder). 

e He had them bring him another bowl. 

f In that condition, i. e., without uttering a word of complaint. See below: 
sono mama sashidashimashita. 

g Seeing it was Okubo. 

h Kept both hands on the floor in a polite attitude, as is the custom when 
-exchanging salutations in the house. 

442 Tsuru no Suimono 

yuki ni mo kamawazu sanden stita no wo kidoku ni oboshi- 
mesare koto ni o kotoba wo yawaragerarete, " Jijii, sazo 
samukatta de ard. Yoku kite kureta. Chikaku yore, chikaku 
yore ; yurus 1 , yurus* " to dseraremastita. Soko de Okubo wa za 
wo susumete sakuya no go chisd no o rei wo a node, mata o niwa 
no nagame no ii koto ya sono hoka yomoyama no hanashi wo 
mdsliiageto orimas'to, shogun wa sasuga no b meikun de irase- 
r are in as ' kara, Okubo ni mukai* "Jijii, kyd wa betsu ni nani 
ka yd ga atte kita no ka ; c moshi yd ga areba, enryd naku 
hayaku itta ga ii" to dserareinastita. Okubo wa, " Sayd de 
gozaimas\ jijii & kyo wa betsu ni tai stita yd mo gozaimasen 
ga t saiwai dki na tsuru ga te ni irimastita karat sonran ni 
sonaetd zonjimastite* wazawaza jisan ts* kamatsuriuiastita. 
Go shdno asobastite kudasarimasureba, arigatai shiawase ni 
zonjimas " f to moshi nagara na wo ireta kako wo sono mama 
sashidashimastita. Shogun ga kinju no hito ni sono fta wo 
akesasete go ran ni narimas'tOy tsuru de wa nakute tada oki na 
na bakari haitte orimastita. Soko de shogun wa hen ni 
oboshimesarete, " Jijii t sochi wa ima tsuru da to itta ga, sore 
wa tsuru de wa naku na to mosu mono de wa nai ka " to 
oseraremasJi'ta. Okubo wa o kotae wo sttte, " Sayo de 
gozaimas ; shikashi goten de wa na no koto wo tsuru to mds'ka 
to zonjimas . Saftuya, * Tsuru no suimono wo kudasaru yue, 
sanjo seyo to (no) ose ga gozaimasJi ta kara> ukagaimastite 
o suimono wo chodai itashimasJita ga, sono o. suimono ni wa 
tsuru no niku wa hito kire mo nakute tada na bakari de gozai- 
mastita. Jijii mo hen ni omoimashte ippai kaete iiadaki- 
mash'ta ga, yahari tsuru wa hito kire mo naku mae no yd ni 
na bakari de gozaimashta kara, sate goten de wa na no koto- 
wo tsuru to mos' koto ka to zonjimash'ta " to mdshiagemastita. 

a Safatya no go chiso no o rei thanks for the feast of the previous evening. 

b For sasuga see p. 323!). 

c Kita 110 ka is familiar for aide nasaiinashita ka. 

d Ukubo speaks of himself as jijii. 

e Son ran ni sonaeru is very formal for miseru and means here to offer as a 
gift (son=tattoi honorable, ran look in go ran}. Notice the very respectful 
language employed by Okubo in speaking to the Shogun. 

f Another expression indicative of profound respect : if your Highness 
deigns to accept it (sho=ivaran laugh, i. e.. laugh disdainfully, no=iiketoni 

Tsuru no Suimono 443 

Shogun wa Okubo no iu koto wo mottomo no koto to oboshi- 
mesarete sassoku sakuya no ryoriban no mono wo gimmi 
seraremasta t o maneki ni azukatta hito ga amari okatta yue+ 
Okubo no suimono ni iva tsuru no niku ga mattaku yuki- 
vuataranakatta*- koto ga wakarimastita kara, sono fyoriban 
no kaskira wa sassoku yaku wo go men ni natte hochiku 

a Yuki-ivatctru extend to details (compare yuki-todoktt}. Here yiikiivatarana- 
katta means did not go around, did not reach, in serving the supper (compare 
inawari-kaneru above). 


" Tanoshimi iva haru no sakura ni aki no ts'ki 
fuju naka yoku san do kuu meshi " b 

Go fufu naka no yoi to iu no wa ma koto ni kekko dt 
gozaimas ga t shikashi, domo, go fujin no o yakimochi wa 
tsutsushimanakereba narimasen. Kono o yakimochi ni tsuite 
*wa zuibun o hanashinikui koto ga ikura mo gozaimas'. 

Sai : c Danna sama ^ua y ma, taihen ni yoku netsuite irassharu 

koto! Oya, nani ka, unasarete moshi, danna, anata do 

nas'tta ka. O mezame ni narimasen ka. O kaze wo me ski- 
mas yo. Danna, danna ! 

Otto : O, a, domo, sukkari vete shimatta. 

Sai : Nan des' ' ka. Taihen ni negoto wo osshaimasJita. 
Ano ne, " Ma koto ni naganaga o kokoroyas'ku shimastita ga, 
izure ni san nichi no uchi ni o me ni kakarimas 1 " to osshai- 
mash'ta ga, nan no yume ivo go ran nasaivtask'ta ka. 

Otto: Nani, sonna koto wo ii ya shinai. 

Sai : lie, watakushi wa chanto kikimastita. 

Otto: Nani, chonai no mujin ni itta& kaerigake ni 
.aisatswo sh'ta yume wo mita n da yo. 

Sai : Sore wa ikemasen ; mujin no o kaeri ni " Nagafaku 
o kokoroyas* ku itashimashta " to iu no wa okashii ja gozaima- 
sen ka. Fufu no naka de kakus'to iu no wa do iu wake 
de gozaimas' '. 

Otto : Mattaku sono yume ni chigai nai kara, sJikata 
ga nai. 

Sai: Stikata ga nai to osshatte mo yd gozaimas. 

Anata o kakushi nasaimashi ! Kit to anata dare ka ii hito ga 

a The " Dream Widom," by En-yu. This is a good example of the 
stories told by hanashika in the amusement-halls called yose, and will give the 
student some idea of the language used in families of a certain class. 

b A humorous poem (J;yo-ka). There are three great joys, namely, cherry 
blossoms, the autumn moon and the daily life of a happy wedded pair. 

c The situation is : A recently married young shopkeeper has been taking 
a nap on the floor and has been talking in his sleep. His wife (sai} over- 
hearing what he says, is stirred to jealousy. 

d Certain men in the did (p. 95e) have formed an organization called 
-uut-jin (literally: inexhaustible) or niit-jin-kd. Each member pays a certain 
sum monthly and every month the proceeds are given to one member, the 
order of the distribution determined by lot. The husband pretends that the 
words which his wife has heard were spoken to one of his men friends as he 
was par I ing from him. 


dekite sono yume wo go ran nastta n desho. O tot* s an wa 
watashi no yd na mono de 1110 fubin to omotte kudas'tte s ki na 
sake da ga, san nen kinjiru kara, dozd, shimbo wo sh'te kure t& 
anata ni o tanomi ni natta de iva arimasen ka. a Sore iuo 
anata wa nan to mo oboshimesazu ni nani ka mata onna no 
koto de mo omotte irassharu kara, sono yume wo go ran 
nas'tta n desho. 

Otto : Aha, domo, koitswa yowatta ne. Nani ka sore wa 
machigai daro. 

Sai : lie, task' k a ni osshaimastita. O Chd mo O Han a 
mo kiite it a nei> 

Otto : Dorno, osoreitta ne. lya, sonnara in ga, omae, yume 
da kara t okotcka ikenai yo. 

Sai : Anata ga honto no koto wo osshatte kudasareba, nan 
de wataski ga okoru mono dei ka. 

Otto : Sore jd hanas'ga, jitswa ne> Oiso no kaisuiyoku 
ye^ itta yume wo mita no sa. Yume to iu mono wa myo na 
mon'de tonarizasti ki ni oru onna wa toshigoro ni ju go roku 

no otsu na onna de omae okotcha ikenai, okoru to, hanashi 

ga dekinai, yume da kara, ne sore kara, ma, kokoroyas kit 

natte ore wa kaero to iu to, sono onno mo yappari Tokei ni 
kaeru to iu kara, ni to no kisha no fujinshitsu ni futari 
de notta. 

Sai: Ara, ma, domo t anata kesJikararide wa arimasen 
ka. Dai icki fujinskitsu de wa tabako wo nomu koto ga 
dekinakutte ikenai to kanete anata osshatte iru jd arimasen ka. 

Otto : Ma, sa, sore ga yume nan da kara, so muki ni natte 
okotcha ikenai. Sore kara tsuide ni Enoshima ye iko to iu no 
de zutto Enoshima ye itte 

Sai : Honto ni anata wa uchi no koto mo omowanaide kiraku 
jd arimasen ka. 

Otto : lya, sa, yume da yo. Sum to, kondo Yokes' ka ye iku 
koto ni natta. 

Sai : Yokes' ka ye anata o hitori de irasshaimasti ta ka. 

Otto : Sore ga kondo Haskidatego c to iu shinzdsen no shin- 
suish'ki ga aru no de kippu wo moratta kara, dekakeyd to omou 

a The father of the young man, knowing the weaknesses of his son and 
desiring to influence him to mend his ways, in order that he may bring no 
distress to his wife, has vowed to abstain from sake, of which he himself is 
very fond, for three years. 

b Oiso, a well known bathing resort on the Tokaido. 

c A man-of-war named Hashidate. 


to, sono onna mo issho ni iko to iu kara, ma, issko ni itte shinsui- 
sk'ki wo mita ga, nakanaka ii mono da na. Fune ga zutto 
deru toki ni t ga&tai ga ii kokoromocki ni ongakti wo so suru. 
Makoto ni tsutsuga naku fune wa umi ye deru. Kore wo mite 
kaerigake ni Yokohama de ydtaski wo stite sore kara kiska ni 
notte kaero to sum to, sono onna ga s'teiskon de matte orimas* to 
itte itto no machiai de ickijikan bakari matte ite kureta. 

Sai : Namaiki na onna des'ne ; anata no yd wo tas'aida 
matte iru nante. 

Otto : Yiime da kara, s}i kata ga nai. Sore kara Yokohama 
kara Shimbashi ye kuru to, sono onna ga '* Watashi no taku wa 
jiki Kobikicho ku chome no shimmichi de gozaimas'kara, zehi o 
tachiyori wo negaimas* " to iu kara, issho ni itta tokoro ga, chot- 
to ii uchi dayo. Soko no uchi wa ni ken\ni ni ken han no skim a t- 
ta kura mo ari } nakaniwa mo niju tsubo bakari atte, oku gajujo 
ni hachi jo ni roku jo. Hanare ga atte chashitsu nado mo ari, 
nakanaka otsu na sumai yo. a Ore ga yorit to, wazawaza tai 
sh'ta go chisd, sake nado wa Masamune ga ippon ts kete ari, b 
cha ga s ki to miete dogu ga yoku totonotte ite bonsai mo tak'san 
aru kara, domo, kono o dogu ya bonsai wo oyaji ni miseto 
gozaimas' to iu to, muko de wa sh kiri ni teats' ku sJite t dozo, 
kaette kureru na to iu no ni t izure kinjitsu o me ni kakarimas' to 
itte kaette kita tokoro wo, omae ni okosareta ri da ga, marumaru 
ytime no koto de ore ga kontd j ni itta wake ja nai kara, 
shimpai wo ski nasanna. 

Sai: Ara, ma, hontd ni hidoi ja arimasen ka. Nandatte 
anata sono uchi ye ikimastita. Ammari des'yo. Kitto fitftiyak 1 - 
soku ka nan ka n'asatta ri desho. 

Otto : Baka na koto wo ii nasanna ; yume da yo. 

Sai : Tatoe yume de mo kokoro ni so iu koto wo omotte iras- 
sharu kara, yume ni mini ri des\ Kono koto wo otofsan ni 
moshiagete go shinrtiiju ye fur em aw a shim as 'kara, so omotte oide 
nasai. Ei, kuyashii. 

Otto : Kore, sa, naitcha komaru yo. Ytime da no ni, sd 
kara wo tatete naicha shiyo ga nai. 

Sai: Sonnara nan de anata kakoimono nanzo o oki 
nasaimasJita ? 

Shimaffa here means small: the storehouse measured 12 feet by 15. The 
iwa, a court surrounded by rooms, is rather large. A lianare, separated 
room, is either a little house standing apart or a room connected with the end 
of the house. A cha-shitsu is a special room for the ceremony of chanoyu. 

b Tsukete ari=zeu ni nosele alta. Masamune designates the best sake, said 
to be named after Okazaki Masamune, a famous sworcl-smitli. 


Otto: Oki ya shinai. Yume da yo. 

Sai : lie, ikemasen. 

Otto : Mittomonai yo. * Yume wo honto ni sarecha komaru.*- 

Sai: A, zvatakska konto ni kuckioshu gozaimas\ Kore 
kara sono onna no tokoro ye itte te wo kitte moraimas* . b 

Otto : Sonna koto ivo itte mo yume da kara, doko da ka, 
wakaranai yo. 

Sai: Tdkyoju guruguru maw arimas . O Cho ya, gonimbiki* 
no kuruma wo c yonde kite o kure. 

" Bakabakaskii na " to wakadanna mo komatte imas' tokoro 
ye o tot' san ga kaette kite. 

Ckicki : Mata kenkiva ka. 

Sai : O tot'san, irasskaimaski ! 

Ckicki: Nan da, bakabakashii fiifugenkwa wa inu mo 
ktiwanai. d Yoi kagen ni sum ga yoi. Mata nani ka yome ni 
skimpai ivo keketa n' daro. 

Otto : O tofsan, watakuski wa skimpai mo nani mo kakeya 

Ckicki: Sore datte nan da kono sawagi wa yome ga 

naite saw aider ujd nai ka. 

Sai : Danna ga kakoimono wo okimastita. 

Ckicki: Nani ! Kakoimono tondemonai y at sit da. 

Kore, segare ! Yo'ku kike ! Temae ga ddraku wo sh'te kono 
yome ni skimpai wo kakeru no ga kinodoku da kara, ore ga 
s ki na sake wo san nen tatte kisama wo maningen ni skiyo to 
omou ni, kisama wa sore wo nan to kokoroete kakoimono wo 
oku ka. Sonna yatsu da kara, anshin wo sJite skindai ga 
yuzurarenai n da. e Doko ye kakoimono wo oita. Ore ga itte 
sugu ni te wo kitte kite yaru. Doko da t ucki wa 

Otto : O to f san, makoto ni, domo, o sore ir imas Ji ta na. Yume 
nan de. 

Ckicki : Nani, yume da to iu no ka. 

Otto : Hei, watakushi ga sono ytime wo mita bakari da no 
ni, nandemo kokoro ni omotteru kara, yume ni miru n' daro 
kara, Tdkyoju atooskits ' ki no kuruma de garagara norimawas 1 
to iu n' des' ga t domo, komarimas . 

a It is distressing to have my dream made an actuality. 

b 7e ivo kirn sever the relation. 

c A riksha with five coolies is of course an exaggeration. 

d A proverb. A quarrel between husband and wife is such poor stuff that 
not even a dog will eat it. 

e Anshin wo shite is governed by the negative : I can't with ease of mind 
transfer my property to you. 


Ckichi : Uiri , sore wa komaru ; ddmo, ornae bakabakashii 
ja nai ka. Segare wa ytime da to itte oru id nai ka 

Sai : lie, anata made sonna koto wo osshaimas 'ga, kokoro 
ni nai koto wa yume ni mimasen. Wakadanna wa kitto 
watakushi wo dasd to iu koto wo osshatta ni chigai nai ; mukd 
no onna mo onna des '. Hito no danna same wo nusumitord to 
sttte chi&skd 

Chichi : Kore, kore, sonna koto wo itte wa komaru ; mise 
no mono ni kikoete mo gwaibun ga warui. a 

Sai : Nandemo sono onna no te wo kitte kudasaranakereba, 
ivatakushi wa ido ye tobikonde shinde wakadanna ni totts 1 kimas\ 

Otto : Sonna koto wo sarechd taihen da . 

Ckichi : Yoski, yoshi. Sonnara ore ga kore kara itte te wo 
kitte kite yarn. Segare, uchi wo shitteru ka. 

Otto : Yume da kara, tada mdrd to sttte Kobikickd no yd na 
kokoromochi mo sureba, Negishi no yd na ki mo suru ski ; mata 
Honchdddri no yd ni mo omoit ri de. b 

Chichi : Sore wa ikan na. 

Sai : O tot'san, ddzo, hayaku te wo kitte kite ! 

Chichi : Tonda meiwaku na hanashi da. Stikata ga nai. 
Yume no koto da kara t ore mo nete yume de kotow ari ni ikd. 
Ddka, makura wo motte ki na? A, bakabakashii onna to iu 
mono wa tsumarari koto wo ki ni suru mono da nd, Ima ore ga 
kitoneiri* nete yume de pittari kotow atte kite yarn kara, skimp ai 
ski nasanna ! Sd, s'koski shizuka ni ski na yo ! Neru ri da 

Otto : O tot ' san, ddmo, o kinodoku sama. 

Chichi : Tondemonai koto wo shoikonda ; kore, shizuka ni 
shinai ka. 

Sai: Sd, hayaku itte kudasaimashi yo ! 

Chichi : Sawagi nasanna ! Shizuka ni ski na yo ! 

Sai: Hayaku itte kudasai ! Watakuski wa kuyashu 
gozaimas' ! 

Chichi : Shizuka ni ski na, shizuka ni ski na / 

Sai : A, kuyashii. 

Ckichi : Skizuka ni, shizuka ni gogd. 

Sai : Oya, md oyotta yo ! 

Ckichi : Gogd. 

a If the clerks in the shop hear this, people will talk and our reputation 
will suffer. 

b The three places that the son names are in entirely different sections of 
the city. 

c Hito-iieiri a nap. 


Sat: Itte irasshai mashi ! a Choito O Hana ! O tot'san 
wa go jobu da kara, nets' ki no hayai koto ! 

Hana : Ara, munyamunya itte irasshaimas'yo. Kitto kurumci 
no ne ka nani ka ts'kete oide nasaru ri des yo. 

Chichi : A, Kobikicho ku chome no Shimmichi to iu to> 
kokora dard. Koko ga, nan da ka, hanashi no yd na uchi da 
na. Ni ken ni ni ken han de kura ga atte niwa no yos^ga* 
domo, sorashii, O jochu, chotto mono ga ukagaito gozaimas\ 

Onna : Nan de gozaimas\ 

Chichi : Kono go kimpen ni Oiso no kaisuiyoku ye oidt ni 

natta go fujin no o taku to itte mo o wakarini wa narimas 1 - 

mat ga 

Onna : A , taku de gozaimas'ga anata wa 

Chichi : Watak'shi wa Honcho kara mairimashta ga 

Onna: A, Fukuzumi no odanna^ de gozaimas* ka. Ma, 
yoku oide nasaimashta. Anata no go shisoku sama ni Oiso de 
kochira no go shinzo ga taihen ni o sewa wo itadaita so des\ 
Go shin san, go shin san ! Honcho no danna sama no o to? san 
ga irasshaimashta. 

Shu : c Ma t ma, ureshii koto ! Dozo, kochira ye ! 

Chichi: Kore wa, domo, kekko na o sumai de doko 

kara doko made ikitodoita tokoro wa makoto ni osoreirimashta. 

Shu: Md, domo, o tofsan! Kochira ye ano t nan de 

go z aim as* , iroiro Oiso de wakadanna ni go yakkai ni natte 
honto ni fushigi na go en da to iu no de, uchi ye kaette maitte 
mo shiju o uwasa bakari itashte orimas'no. O kage sama de 
Enoshima wo kembutsu ski, Yokos'ka de Hashidatego to iu fune 
no shinsuish ki wo haiken shte taihen ni hoyo wo itashimask? to- 
ga, domo, wakadanna no o yasashii koto ! Go yds' no ii koto / 
Donna ni oyago sama wa go yos ga ii dard to onnadomo to 
moshte orimashta ga, honto ni ikiutsushi desnei. 

Chichi: Segare ga iroiro o sewa ni natta so de ma^ 

oyorokobi de na. Tokoro ga, sono segare ni wa kanai ga gozai- 
mashte kanai ga, hei anata fukai naka ni de mo 

a Good bye ! 

b O-danna the elder master of the house, as contrasted with ivaka-danna. 

c Shu=shu-jin the mistress of the house, a young widow. 


iya sonna baka na koto wa art wa sen ga, anata ga o hit or i 

de irasskaru koto wo kiite kanai ga tsumaranai skimped ivo shte 

nani, sonna koto wa am wake no mono de wa nai ga, 

shikashi ki no semai onna de aha nyobo no yaku ho do 

teisku mote mo sezu de 3 - wakai mono yue, ki ni suru mo 

muri no nai tokoro de, dozo, are ni wa kanai ga go z aim as* kara t 
hitotsu sono tokoro wo ofukumi nas'tte kudasaru yd ni negaimas.' 

Shu : Ara, ma, o tofsan, watakuski wa sonna koto nado wa 
ari ya shimasen yo. Watakuski mo ko yatte ite betsu ni skinrui 
to iu mono mo gozaimasende, s'koski bakari zaisan. ga arimas* 
kara, shikarubeki otoko ga attara, kwaikei no koto wo tanonde 
icki nen ni ichi do zutsv mo mimawatte itadaite ucki no shimari 
wo ts'kete itadako to oiaotte otta tokoro ga, wakadanna ni o me 
ni kakarimaskte, a, ko iu go shinsetsu na o kata ni ucki wo o 
makase mosh'tara, watakuski mo honto ni anshin daro to onna- 
gokoro ni omotta tokoro kara fukuzo naku o kanashi wo skte 
makoto ni skitsurei wo itaskimaslita. Ano, o tofsan wa taihen 
ni o ckazuki de kotto ga taiso o s 1 ki da so de irasshaimas'nei. 
Ma, dozo, konnichi wa go yukkuri to nas'tte ! 

To, kore kara o cha wo ippuku das'. Chodo Masamune no 
kucki wo akeru tokoro de atta kara. 

Shu : Hayaku go zen wo ! O tofsan, dozo, hitokuchi / 

Chichi : lie, watakuski wa go shu no tokoro wa shisai atte b 
s'koski mo itadakimasen kara. 

Shu : Sonna koto wo ossharazu ni. 

Chichi : lie, doka t go sku wa o azuke ni itashimas '. c Sore 
de wa kore de go men wo komurimas'. 

Sku : Ma, o tofsan, ma, iija arimaserf ka& So des'ka. 

Dozo, mata kinjitsu zeki wakadanna mo, dozo, ichi nen ni 

icki do de mo yoroshu go z aim as* kara. 

Ckicki : Hai, kitto yokoskimas ; domo, makoto ni iziirg mata 

a A poetical reminiscence. The more jealous the wife is, the less is her 
husband loved by other women. Motern here means to be loved. 

b P'or a certain reason. 

c I will leave it with you for the next time (a frequent idiom). 

d Can't you stay? The following so desu kn indicates the perception that 
the visitor has made' up his mind to go. 


Sai : Moshi, o tofsan, o tofsan ! 
Chichi ' : O, a. 

Sai : O tofsan, o mezame ni narimash'ta ka. Do nasai- 
mastita. Te wo kitte kite kudasaimasti ta ka. 

Chichi : A, yoyaku uchi ga shir eta yo. 

Sai : O, shiremastita ka. 

Chichi : Sayo, sono onna ni atta ga, nani t omae no aru no 
wo shitteru yo ; so sh'te nyobo nazo ni naru to iu kokoromachi 
wa nai. Segare ga nen ni ichi do de mo ii kara, kite kudasaru 

yd ni to itte kottomono wo misete tonda hoyo wo shte 

kimasJita A y yume de atta ka. \ r ume wa gozo no wazurai a 

to iu ga, kitai na mono da na. Shikashi Masamune wa ippon 
ts'kerareta ga t a, yume da to sh'tte ottaraba, ano sake wo 
nomeba yokatta. 

a A proverb : A dream is a disease of the five organs of the body. 


Mukashi mukaski aru tokoro ni jii san to ba san ga arima- 
sh'ta to sa. Jii san wa makoto ni yoi hito de, kanegane icht 
wa no suzume wo katte orimastita ga, motoyori kodomo mo nai 
koto des'kara, kono suzume woba waga ko mo dozen ni cho yo 
hana yo to kawaigatte orimastita.^ 

Aru hi no koto c jii san zua itsu mo no tori kama to kago wo 
motte yama ni shiba-kari ni mairimash'ta ga, sono rusu ni ba 
san wa idobata ye dete sentaku wo hajime, yagate kore ni nori 
wo ts'keyo to omotte daidokoro ye tori ni kite mimas'to, ko wa 
ika ni,& sekkaku kesa kara koshiraete oita nori ga maru de 
nafamatte shimatte tada hachi bakari nokotte orimas\ 

" Oyaoya, ma, sekkaku watashi ga tansei stite nite oita mono 
wo dare ga totte itta no daro. Honto ni nukurashii yatsu da 
yo. Da ga, saki kara dare mo kita yds 1 ga nai no ni, naku- 
naru, to wa, domo,fuskigi da" to kokubi wo katamuke nagara 
atari wo mimawaskimas'to, chodo mukd ni oite aru kago no- 
naka kara rei no suzume ga e koe wo kakemash'te, ^ O ba san ! 
nani wo sagash'te irassharu" 

" Nani, imaskigata made koko ni atta nori ga minna naku- 
natte shimatta kara : domo, fushigi de naranai no sa" f 

" A, sono nori des'ka" 

" A." 

" Sore nara, watakushi ga minna itadaite shimaimastt ta" 

a Tongue-cut Sparrow. A well-known fairy tale. This version, by Mr. 
Iwaya, is reproduced, with minor alterations, by the kind permission of the 
Haktibunk-wan, Tokyo. The style is not altogether colloquial. 

b Wobaivo iua ; ivaga ko mo dozen ni=waga ko to ddyo ni, mo being frequent- 
ly used like to with o~aji or do. In cho yo hana yo to, the yo is an interjec- 
tion ; the combination may be translated "as if it were a butterfly or 
a flower." 

c Aru hi no koto=aru hi. This expression is very common in stories. 

d Ko wa ika ni=.kore iva do shita no ka has become a parenthetical express- 
ion, or interjection, and may be rendered "to his (or her) astonishment." 

e Rei=i(su mo. Compare rei no tori-=itsu mo no tori as always. Here rei no 
siiziune might be rendered " the same sparrow of which 1 have been speaking." 

f For such expressions as fushigi de naranai, kimyo de naranai, etc., seer 
p. xs8b. 


" E, omae ga tabeta ? Ano noti wo f " 

" I-fei, jits' w a sonna o daiji na mono to wa zonjimasezu, itsu 
mo watakuski no e wo irete itadaku ano kacki no naka ni gozai- 
masttta kara, tab etc mo yoi no ka to omoimask'te, tsui nokorazu 
itadaite skimaimaslita ga, domo, tonda koto wo itashimask'ta. 
Doka, go kamben nas'tte kudasaimashi " to, suzume wa shojiki 
des\ a waga soso wo tsutsumazn hakujo ski, hitai wo kago no 
soko ye surits'kete sttkiri ni ayamarimasJita ga t ne ga tsumuji 
no magatte iru ba san, b fudan kara kono suzume wo amma- 
ri kawaigarazu kaette jama ni omotte iru yasaki^ des kara> 
tackimacki me wo muite okoridashi, " Onore nikkui chik-shd- 
me, d hito ga sekkaku tansei shte koshiraeta nori wo 
yokit mo minna tabete shimai otta na e Sd, do sum ka 
iro " to, oku kara hasami wo motte kite, nao mo nani nagara 
wabite iru suzume woba ikinari kag