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;)3re settteb to 


of the 

of Toronto 

Rev. Kgerton Ryerson 



The first German edition of this book was published at Ber- 
lin in 1890, being Volume I. in the series of Lekrbucher des 
Seminars fur Orientalische Sprachen. As such it was dedi- 
cated to the memory of the Empress Augusta, to whose active 
interest the Seminar largely owed its existence. 

Dr. Lange was for a number of years instructor in the Ger- 
man language at what was then the Preparatory School for 
the University (Daigaku Ydbimon}, in Tokyo. Since that 
time all his energies have been devoted to the task of making 
his countrymen acquainted with the Japanese language and 

After I undertook the preparation of the English Edition, 
Dr. Lange sent me copious notes of corrections and additions 
gathered during his ten years' experience as a teacher. Justice 
to him requires me to state that I have not been a close or faith- 
ful translator. He has given me entire liberty in dealing with 
the material contained in the Lehrbuch and in his manuscript 
notes, and I have felt justified in taking this liberty, for sev- 
eral reasons. In the first place his book was written with the 
needs of a German student in view, and while the needs of an 
English-speaking student are in the main the same, there are 
many cases in which an explanation intended for the one will 
not help the other. Secondly, Dr. Lange's notes have often 
been mere suggestions, very fruitful indeed, but not fully de- 
veloped. And, finally, I felt that I had one advantage over the 
original author in that I used his text-book when I first learned 
my Japanese, and was thus in a position to test it as he could not. 
My subsequent experience in the use of the language has re- 
vealed omissions not so apparent to the author himself. Ac- 
cordingly my aim has been to recast all the material in such a 
way as to make it most helpful to the English-speaking student, 
examining the original text from time to time to make sure 


that nothing of value had been omitted. With such a method 
it was inevitable that I should mar much of Dr. Land's work, 
but I trust that the gain exceeds the loss. The circumstances 
having precluded the submission of proofs to Dr. Lange, except 
in the case of' the first thirty-two pages, he is not responsible 
for any errors. 

The aim of the book is pedagogical rather than scientific; 
hence the combination of system and no-system and the num- 
erous repetitions. The pedagogical principle has been applied, 
for example, in the study of words. When it seems likely to 
aid the memory of the student to indicate the origin of a word, 
this is done ; but when the etymology is disputed or apt to 
be confusing nothing is said about it and the student must 
learn the word as a whole. The repetitions in most cases are 
not accidental but designed; for the student must pass through 
three stages to become master of an idiom. First he needs to be 
thoroughly convinced that there is such an idiom; secondly, he 
must learn how to use it, and, thirdly, after he has entirely 
forgotten its existence he needs to be reminded that he cannot 
get along very well without it. 

The author of the most widely known colloquial grammar hith- 
erto written in Japanese has seen fit to speak very disparaging- 
ly of the pioneer work done in this department of study by for- 
eigners. He isright in thinking that a truly scientific grammar 
of the colloquial is yet to be written. But it must not be pre- 
sumed that the foreign students of the colloquial have tak- 
en the methods of the compilers of nine out often of the Eng- 
lish text-books which crowd the shelves of Japanese hookst* 
every page of which reveals the fact that the English is derived 
from the inner consciousness of some one who did not think it 
worth while to consult an Englishman while the book wa* in 
preparation. In this book the sentences have all been taken 
from the mouths of Japanese and they have been repeated- 
ly reviewed and criticised by .Japanese. Xot a single sentence 
ha< been inserted on the authority of a foreigner. The sen- 
tences to be translated from English into Japanes.- were lirst 
written out in Japanese and then translated into English with 
u view to retranslation. 


Dr. Lange in his preface acknowledges his obligations to 
Mr. Tsurutaro Senga. At every step I have leaned heavily 
on my colleagues and friends, Mr. Tadashi Igarashi and Mr. 
Jiro Maeda. The whole book has been examined and amended 
in manuscript by Mr. Iwae Trie, formerly our Mission's Teacher 
of Japanese. 

Rev. Henry K. Miller has corrected the whole manuscript, 
and also applied his valuable experience to the reading of the 
proofs. To Mrs. Miller I am indebted for performing most of 
the labor connected with the preparation of the general vocab- 
ulary at the end. 

To guard against misleading typographical errors' I have had 
the printing done at Sendai under my own eyes. This work has 
been accomplished under great disadvantages, as a glance at 
the book will show. It will, however, not detract from the 
value of the work in the eyes of some to know that from be- 
ginning to end the composition has been done by a band of stu- 
dents working their way through college. 

C. N. 

JULY, 1903. 



The Japanese language ix 

Sinico-Japanese ix 

Words derived from western languages xin 

The ideographic script xm 

Kana xiv 

Romaji xvn 

Pronunciation and euphony xvm 

The standard colloquial xxvn 

Practical hints xxvm 

Helps for further study xxx 


Number and gender 1 

Wa and ga 3 

Subordinate subjects 5 

No 7 

Ni 9 

Wo 11 

No substituted for ga 13 

Compounds, VIII., IX 15 

Derivatives 21 



Personal 27 

Honorifics 31 

Demonstratives 36 

"Some", "such" 38 

Interrogatives 42 

Indefinites 45 

"Every", "other" 49 

Translation of relatives 53 

"Self", "one another" 57 



Native forms and combinations, XXI., XXIT 61 

Chinese forms and units 67 

Dates 73 

Arithmetic 79 

Numeratives, XXVI XXVIII 82 

Ordinals 93 


In compounds 105 

Compound adjectives 109 

Forms with na 113 

Forms with no 119 

Adjectival clauses 123 

Forms derived from verbs 127 

Substantivized adjectives 131 

Comparison 135 


FIRST CLASS The Tenses 141 

Conditional and imperative 147 

Negative tenses 154 

Negative conditional and imperative 158 

Subordinate, XLIIL, XLIV ... 162 

Negative subordinative 170 

Desiderative and alternative 175 


R group 179 

Verbs in eru and iru 185 

Honorific verbs in ru 189 

Tgroup 194 

S group 199, 

Masu, Mosu 205* 

Suru 211 

^group 221 

Oku, itadaku 226 

Kuru 230 

G group 235 

B and M group 239 


Vowel group -44 

J/oraw, shimou 250 

Causatives 254 

Passives ,. 259 

Potentials 266 

Idiomatic uses of the indicative 272 

Uses of the stem 277 

Compounds, LXVL LXIX 284 

Honorifics 309 


Derived from ordinary adjectives 314 

Forms with n i 319 

Forms with to 325 

Duplicatives 330 

Substantives as adverbs 337 

Subordinates as adverbs 344 

Ordinary adverbs 349 


Postpositions proper, LXXVIII. LXXIX. ... 362 

Substantives as postpositions 383 

Subordinatives as postpositions 390 


Conjunctions proper 395 

Substantives as conjunctions 406 



ANECDOTES ... 427 



The abbreviations will hardly require explanation, except 

the letter (c), which indicates that a word is of Chinese origin. 
Marks of parenthesis ( ) indicate explanations or para- 
phrases; square brackets [ ] indicate English wunls \vliich 
are not to be translated into Japan 



The relation of the Japanese to other languages has not yet 
been satisfactorily determined. The attempt to discover an 
affinity with the Aryan languages a has, it must be said, not 
been successful ; for the pronouns and numerals differ entirely, 
and the words that are identical or even similar are too few to 
justify the inference of a common origin. A comparison of 
Japanese roots with those of the geographically adjacent Al- 
taic languages does not, in the opinion of those competent to 
judge, bring us any nearer to the solution of the problem. 
Nevertheless Japanese is usually regarded as belonging to tins' 
great group of Altaic languages, for the reason that it has in 
common with them the characteristic known as agglutination. 
That is, in Japanese, as in all agglutinative tongues, inflection 
in the ordinary sense is replaced by a loose attachment of par- 
ticles to the stem as suffixes, while the stem itself remains com- 
paratively unaffected. But it must be noted that the colloquial 
as compared with the classical Japanese seems to be in a state 
of transition from the agglutinative to the inflectional stage. 
Thus in the form natta "became" the stem of the verb and its 
termination are not so easily distinguishable as in the corres- 
ponding classical form nari-tari. In regard to syntax also the 
Japanese is very much like some of the languages that un- 
questionably belong to the Altaic group, e. g., the Manchurian. 


With Chinese the Japanese language proper has no relation 
whatever. In the former, words are properly monosyllabic and 
frequently end in consonants; in the latter they are mostly 

a See Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vol. II., p. 199 ff. 


polysyllabic, the syllables being uniformly composed of a vowel 
or of a simple consonant followed by a vowel. a The syntax too 
is utterly diiferent. 

Yet Chinese is of great importance in the study of Japa- 
nese, even of greater importance than Latin is in the study of 
English. Through the study of Chinese literature and the 
Buddhistic scriptures (which came to Japan in the form of 
Chinese translations), the importation of the Chinese arts 
and sciences, and the adoption of the ideographic script, it has 
come to pass that a great mass of Chinese words and expres- 
sions has found entrance into the Japanese language, in nu- 
merous cases even supplanting the native terms. 

Accordingly modern Japanese is a mixture of native elements 
and words borrowed from the Chinese and possesses a rich vo- 
cabulary. For many ideas there are both Japanese and Chi- 
nese terms. Of the latter the greater number are not under- 
stood except in educated circles. Many, however, have become 
thoroughly naturalized ; e. g., sen-taku laundry. b On the other 
hand the dictionaries are full of classical native words which 
are understood only by those who make their study a specialty. 

The common use of words derived from the Chinese is due 
not simply to the natural liking for foreign terms, but much 
more to the fact that the demand for new words expressing 
new conceptions is most easily and conveniently met by form- 
ing compounds from the Chinese. These are often remarkable 
for conciseness. "Telegraph" is den-shin, from den lightning 
and shin tidings. Marconi has no sooner perfected his great 
invention than the Japanese have a new word ready for the 

a The only exception is . But in genuine Japanese words, like shinan (classi- 
cal future of f/iinu to die), the n is derived from mtt. All other words ending in 
n are either imported from other languages or of onomatopoetic character. 

b It rarely happens, however, that foreign terms are regularly inflected like genu- 
ine Japanese words. The rule is to regard them as substantives, adding sum (to 
do) to form verbs, tia or no to form adjectives and /' to form adverbs. Sometimes 
a single word may serve all these purposes; e. g., teki to suitability, tckitv siiru be 
suitable, tekito tta suitable, tekito ni suitably. But we also have such regular verbs 
as tekitau, tckitalte oppose, from teki-tai; ryoni, lyotte cook, from ryo-ri; shikent, 
shikette be stormy, from shi-ke ; guchiru, gitchitte be silly (rare), from gu-chi\ tai- 
jiru, taijitc subdue (rarcj, from tai-ji, and the adjective ///</<'/, from hi-do. 


dictionary; namely, mu-sen-den-shin (mu-sen without line). 
" Concrete " is yu-kei (having form) ; " abstract, " mu-Jeei. The 
exigencies of our own time have called forth an immense num- 


ber of new scientific and philosophical terms with which the 
dictionary-makers have been quite unable to cope. 

In order to speak correctly it is often important to know 
whether a word is of Japanese or of Chinese origin, especially 
in using the honorifics (Ch. XIII.) and the numerals. a This 
distinction will be easy to make after a little practice. The 
Chinese vocables are very short. Monosyllables containing a 
long vowel or ending in n are generally of Chinese origin. 
These vocables usually occur not singly but in compounds, most- 
ly of two components. There are, however, a few hybrid com- 
pounds (Ch. IX.). 

The pronunciation of the words taken from the Chinese is 
very different from that now in vogue in China. b Originally 
derived from certain Chinese dialects, it has apparently suffered 
great phonetic changes in the course of time, so that the Chi- 
nese cannot understand it at all. The classical pronunciation 
now taken as the standard by educated people is the Itan-on 
(lit. sound of Kan}. Kan or Han was the name of the dynas- 
ties that reigned in the north from B. C. 206 to A. D. 264. c 
But many older words, especially those connected with Bud- 
dhism, are pronounced according to the go-on. Go or Wu, at 
the time when Chinese literature was introduced into Japan, 
about A. D. 300, was one of the three Chinese states and in- 
cluded the provinces south of Shanghai. More modern sounds 
are known as to-on, To or Tang having been the dynasty reigning 
from 618 to 913. Excepting proper names, there are very few 

a Another case in point is that of the word teki (different from the teki's above), 
used in formal speech as a suffix to nouns derived from the Chinese. The rule 
is that before a Chinese word no particle is needed, but before a Japanese word no 
must be added ; e. g., from ri-so ideal and nin-gen man, riso-teki-ningen ideal man, 
but riso-teki no knni ideal country. 

b See Lange, Einfiihrung in die japanische Schrift, p. 70 ff. and Chamberlain , 
" Introduction to the Study of Japanese Writing," p. 372 ff. 

c Kan often means "China" in general, but, like almost all Chinese words, oc- 
curs only in compounds; e. g., kan-go Chinese words, kan-ji Chinese characters, 
kam-bun (for kan-bun} Chinese composition, etc. See also p. 1223. 


words that follow the fr,on, the most common being "/,-r/n/, lamp 
(old style). <-ln-rltiii lantern. fu-tn cushion, t^m-bii, hala 
fu-xlttit building operations, etc. 

In a few wonls. such as nan -<>uth, the pronunciation has 
not varied. But in JA-/-/V enlightened rule, mijn-n'u-lii to-mor- 
row (nidi! day) and Jli/t the Ming dynasty, the same word 
has three different pronunciations. So the character shun in 
i -l<ii Shanghai is nj t r, in k<nnt. undjo in gnu n. Prac- 
tically only the kanon and gonn need be taken into the account, 
and the student need not trouble himself much about the dif- 
ferences between them. Usually the goon is distinguished from 
the Jct'Koh by association with old Buddhistic terms. Compare: 
Goon K' i/ioti Japanese English 

nin Jin Jtito man, person 

hi eld jitsu lii day 

sai sei nislii west 

7: in Icon into now 

in on 7:oc } oto voice, sound 

gyo Jc<~> i/ifJat go 

myo na name 

Itijo J:ci //tii/a.JiO capital 

s7io sei tdi/ti.^Jiii right 


mot* Indxn >no thing 

nmit bun f a ml letter 

ge gici'i soto outsitle 

e kir picture 

ge 7ta sJ/iht under 

ijircitNu get tfwl'i moon, month 

rilti ryolc" cliil: ]ower 

X'.t infrequently one word may be pronounced in both ways 
without changing the .sense; e. g., Tu-l:,jr, or To-l:<:i (east capi- 
tal). In most cases usige allows only one or the other. Thus 

-ay .SY//-////M w..-st capital, i. e., Kyoto, but .-' 
(lit. west south) : nnjn-ji family name (lit. name character), 
but a>-i-i,n i the full name (family name and personal name) ; 
'/<-/." surgeon (lit. externalist), but ywai-koku foreign country : 

pauper, but gv>aikoku-jin foreigner. 
The tones or accents of the Chinese are disregarded, except 


in the composition of Chinese verses. This fact and phonetic 
decay have brought it to pass that ten, twenty or thirty charac- 
ters may have exactly the same sound. This is the most distress- 
ing feature of the spoken Japanese language. Men of the same 
set or clique have no difficulty in understanding their own tech- 
nical terms, but to the uninitiated, even though they be well 
educated, rare Chinese compounds convey no sense until the 
speaker by writing in the air or by explanation indicates what 
the ideograms are. 


In comparison with the Chinese the number of words im- 
ported from the European languages is small. Thus we have 
from the Spanish and Portuguese bildoro (vidrio] glass (mod- 
ern glass, garasu^), kasuteira (cantilla] sponge cake, kotnpeitd 
(confeito) candy; from the French, shabon (savon) soap, shap- 
po (cAttpeaw) hat; from the Dutch, kohii (koffij) coffee, don- 
taku (zondag) holiday ; from the German, chifusu ( Typhus), tora- 
homu ( Trachoma] granular eyelids, etc. Many words have 
lately come in from the English ; e. g., baiorin violin, boto boat, 
burashi brush, hankechi handkerchief, inki ink, katsuretsu cut- 
let, matchi match, naifu knife, peiji page, rampu lamp, ra- 
mune lemonade, shatsu shirt, shichu stew, sutekki stick, sutei- 
shon station, tonneru tunnel, etc. From the English through 
the French: bifuteki (bifteck) beefsteak. Buranketto blanket 
has become ketto. a 


As has been remarked, the Japanese have adopted the Chi- 
nese ideographic script, in which the characters are symbols 
not of sounds, but of ideas. They are like our Arabic numer- 
als and mathematical signs, which are variously read in differ- 
ent languages, but have the same sense everywhere. To read 
Japanese texts readily one must master between four and five 
thousand characters. To accomplish this two or three years are 
required, even in the case of a bright student. But the attempt 
should bs made. Every one who aspires to become so pro- 

a There are also a few Japanese words in European languages ; e. g., the Span- 
ish biowl'o, from byobtt screen, moxa (p. 1453), riksha, kimono, etc. 


ficient as to be able to understand anything said in his pres- 
ence and to express himself freely on any subject, must mas- 
ter the Chinese elements in the language. Generally the eas- 
iest way to do this is to learn the ideograms, and the easiest 
way to learn the ideograms is to learn how to write them. The 
attempt to learn to write beautifully like a native would be in 
most cases a waste of time, if not an impossible task, but at 
least the order of the strokes should be mastered. 

But in the order of time the first and most important task 
is to get a firm hold on the grammatical structure and principal 
idioms of the language. The student who is ambitious to 
" master" the language is therefore advised to "divide," that 
is, to devote his first year to the study of the colloquial and 
postpone the study of the literary language and the characters 
to the second year. Printed helps of two kinds will be avail- 
able, those in kana, the native syllabary, and those in romaji, 
the romanized form. 


The Japanese began at a very early date to use the ideograms 
phonetically, that is, to indicate sounds without regard to the 
proper sense of the characters. They called them kana, from 
l;nrl-na borrowed name. This use of the ideograms continues 
to this day in the case of proper names. Thus America is 
written A-ine-ri-ka (5^^jv^iJJ!ni ) the characters meaning re- 
spectively : next, rice, gain, add. a In the same way the ideo- 
gram for "root," called in Japanese ne, is often substituted for 
the homonymous character ne (ini-ne) meaning "peak," as in 
JI<il;o-ne and words like yu-ne roof (ya house). 

Through this phonetic use of the Chinese ideograms there came 
into existence about A. D. 900 two syllabaries called Jcafa-hma 
and /i/rn-'jtiiia. A l;ntn-l:<i no. (7,v/fV side) is written sijuarely, 
bring in most cases a side or portion of a common character 

a The extreme of arbitrariness is reached in the case of some proper names that 
have been bodily imported from China, where the modern pronunciation approx- 
imates the original sound. Rut the Japanese conventional pronunciation is pretty 
far o:V sometimes ; e. g., New York is written UJff C'lii-iku. Here the ideograms 
give neither sense nor sound. 



having the sound represented by it; e. g., 7 (a) from ppj, 4 
(i) from ffi, *r (u) from ^, jt (fca)from^f0. The katakana 
aeJTnow used only in formal documents, in writing foreign names 
and interjections, in telegrams, etc. The hira-gana(hira level, 
ordinary) are characters written cursively and, in most cases, 
very much simplified; e.g., <>() from , V(i) from i, ^ 
(u) from ^j #> (fca) from Jp. Formerly there was a great 
variety of them, but in our own times the employment of 
movable types in printing and the policy of the Educational 
Department have had the effect of practically reducing the 
number in common use to 48, one for each sound. 

In the following table we give the hiragana arranged in the 
order of the go ju on "the fifty sounds. " Under each hiragana 
is given the corresponding katakana and under that the equiv- 
alent in Roman letters. 











































































































































columns are read in order beginning with the right: a, 
o; ka, k-i, ku, ke } ko } etc. Most dictionaries now follow 


this order, the n being sometimes regarded as a variant of mu. 
It is to be observed that there is no ///, yc, or wu. To make the 
scheme complete the corresponding syllables from the first col- 
umn are sometimes put into the vacant places. Wi, we, wo are 
scarcely distinguished in pronunciation from i, e, o. It is also 
to be noted that the Japanese do not say si, ti, tu, 1m, but ski, 
clii, tsu, /)/. The table is of great importance for th,e conjuga- 
tion of the verb. 

From the syllables in which the consonant is surd correspond- 
ing sonants are derived: from the k column, ga, gi, gu, ge, go 
(jfifjftfzf)', from the s column, za, ji, zu, ze, zo (y 5? 
zZ -t* y") ; from the t column, da, ji, zu, de, do ($f J* y* ?r 
K). Such change in the sound is called nigori (lit. turbidness, 
impurity). The h column by nigori becomes ba, bi, bu, be, bo 
(-">* t* ;?* ^ -**); by what is called han-nigori (han half), pa, 
pi, pu, pe, po (>>< t* ;7* ^ ft). In Japanese writing the 
marks of nigori are often omitted. 

There is another arrangement of the syllabary called iroha : 

i ro ha ni ho he to clii ri nu ru wo 

wa ka yo ta re so tsu ne na ra mu 

u wi no o ku ya ma ke fu ko e te 

a sa ki yu me mi shi we Id mo se su 
This is in the form of a stanza of poetry giving expression 
to Buddhistic sentiment: 

Iro iva nioedo clnrinuru wo ; 

waga yo tare zo tsnne naramu. 

I "> no okuyama kyo koetc, 

asaki yume mishi, ei mo sezu. 

Though the blossoms (hues) are fragrant they fall away: 

In this our world who will abide alway? 

To-day I crossed the very mountain-recesses <>t' mutability; 

And saw a shallow dream, nor was I intoxicated thereby. 

Though these e>ni]>arative]y easy syllabaries have been 

in existence a thousand years, they have nut supplanted the 

ideop-anis. but play only a minor role beside them. The .Japa- 

itax being 8O differenl from the C'hinese. in ordinary 

Japanese]usitio]i the liirmjn ,,,1 are interspersed among the 

characters, to indicate inodiiiers. jiartieles. terminations, etc. 


Such composition is called kana-majiri, from majiru be 
mixed. Further, for the benefit of the uneducated, hiragana 
maybe written to the right of the ideograms to indicate the pro- 
nunciation. This is called kana-tsuki, from tsuku be attached. 
It is thus possible to read most Japanese books without a 
knowledge of the ideograms. The traditional spelling corre- 
sponds to an ancient pronunciation which has been consider- 
ably modified in the course of time. In the case of native words 
the syllables of the h column have been most affected. 
kaharu be changed is pronounced kaivaru 
kahi shellfish kai 

ifu say iu 

mahe before mae 

Tioho cheek ho 

But it is in the pronunciation of the Chinese words that 
the greatest changes have occurred. Thus tou, tau, tafu are all 
pronounced to (not to speak of towo and toho in the case of 
native words); kiyau, kiyou, keu and kefu (see the iroha above) 
are all pronounced kyo. Tokyo in kana is spelled toukiyau. 
The Japanese have been so indifferent to this traditional spel- 
ling that even among educated people hardly one in ten knows 
how to spell correctly. There has been a natural tendency 
to choose the briefest forms, as keu for kyo, sen for sho, ten for 
cho, etc. The Department of Education three years ago issued 
a regulation to the effect that sounds like to should invariably 
be written to ; sounds like kyo, ki yo , etc. This reform 
makes the kana spelling of the Chinese words almost as simple 
and phonetic as romaji. a 


The system of romanization adopted for this book is identical 
with that followed by Hepburn's and Brinkley's Dictionaries. 
A fair degree of uniformity has been secured through the ef- 
forts of the Roma-ji-kiuai (Ji letter, kivai association), a society 
organized by Japanese and foreigners in 1885 for the purpose 

a For example, even in the reformed kana the following must be written alike 
but pronounced differently: kiyo I will wear and kyo to-day; katsute previously 
and katte one's own convenience. 


of effecting a substitution of the Roman script for the Chinese. a 
A committee appointed by the Educational Department to 
investigate the question of romanization submitted a tentative 
report three years ago. The system recommended differs very 
little from that now in use. The chief innovations are the 
substitution of si for shi and sya, syu, syo for sha, shu, sho, 
following the analogy of kya, kyu, kyo, etc. Further, the Com- 
mittee would write ci, ca, cu, co for chi, clia, chu, cho, follow- 
ing presumably the analogy of Italian. The changes proposed 
have not been adopted in this book for the reason that the 
Educational Department has not yet reached a final decision 
in the matter. b 

Romaji is designed to represent phonetically the standard pro- 
nunciation of the present day. In reading romaji the general 
principle to be observed is that THE VOWELS ARE PRONOUNCED 


VOWELS. As might naturally be inferred, in the case of 
English-speaking people it is the vowels rather than the conso- 
nants that are hard to pronounce. c In English the vowels are 
largely sacrificed to the accent. In Japanese the reverse is true, 

a While much of the Japanese literature, being intended for the eye, is hardly in- 
telligible without the ideograms, it is quite reasonable to expect that any conversa- 
tion commonly understood through the ear should be intelligible when reduced to 
writing by means of an adequate phonetic system. But the full realization of the 
ideal of the Romajikwai must wait until the teachers, preachers and public speakers 
of Japan have by a process of natural selection evolved a vocabulary at once intelli- 
gible to their hearers and adequate to express thought on every subject, that is, un- 
til the spoken language becomes as satisfactory a medium of expression as the pres- 
ent written language is. Forces now at work in Japan will bring this about before 
very long. 

b See K-wampo (Official Gazette), 5, Nov., 1900. The innovations proposed 
are comparatively unimportant. Others will be referred to incidentally. There are 
questions connected with romanization which press for an official solution and in 
most cases the suggestions of the Commiteeare excellent. Its report deals largely with 
the question of the division of words. For instance, the Committee would write 
oagari nasai ntase for o agari nasaimase. In regard to this question great confusion 
now prevails. It is to be regretted if the severe criticism with which the report met 
has had the effect of delaying the completion and adoption of an official system 
of romanization and its introduction into the schools. 

C A vowel is called do-in (mother sound); a consonant, shi-in (child sound). 


that is, the vowels govern the accent. What we call the long 
and short sounds of the vowels in English are really different 
sounds. In Japanese a short vowel has the same sound exactly 
as the corresponding long vowel, differing only as an eighth note 
in music differs from a quarter. a 
The sounds of the (long) vowels are: 

a like a in father (a) 

t i pique (e)^ 

u u rude (oo) 

e e prey (a) 

o o hope (5) 

LONG VOWELS. The long vowels are written a (aa), U 
(1), u (uu), ei (e), o (o). b There are practically no diph- 
thongs. Au is ordinarily pronounced and written o ; iu, yu; 
eu, yd ; ou, o. The combinations ai, oi and ui come nearest 
to being diphthongs. c For the purpose of this discussion n is 
practically a vowel. In singing it may form a syllable by it- 
self. It follows that an, in, un, en, on, kan, kin, kun, etc., are 
long sounds. 

If one wishes to speak intelligibly, it is a matter of prime 
importance to DISTINGUISH LONG AND SHORT SOUNDS. It is espe- 

a There are exceptions. For a sound very much like the English short "a" 
see p. 448c. Before a double consonant or followed by a consonant there is a 
natural tendency to modify vowels so as to resemble the English short vowels. 

b K occurs almost exclusively at the end of adjectives, being a contraction oiiki 
or ishi. Theoretically there is a difference between ~e (chosen by the Romaji Com- 
mittee) and ei, but practically they are not distinguished and we write uniformly ei. 
In the same way o might be written en; and this is done in the case of a verb like 
you "get drunk. " Verbs uniformly end in u. Accordingly we write kau " buy ," 
rather than ko, though the combination a uis in the case of a Chinese word always 
written 5. For the same reason we write kuu eat, rather than kit. The combina- 
tion iu in the case of a Chinese word is written yu, the rule having been that u (or 
fit) following a syllable ending in i makes a long sound, while yu makes a short one. 
(Thus shiyu results in shu, but shiu makes shu in the reformed kana written shi 
yu ). But in the case of the verb iu "say" we depart from the rule, since the 
stem is commonly pronounced U. We should, however, write yuu if the stem were 
pronounced yui. 

c In the northern provinces and vulgarly in Tokyo ai is pronounced like ei; 
e. g., So ja net for Sbja nai That's not so. In Tokyo ae and oe are often pronounced 
like ai and oi; e. g., kaeru return, kairu; koe voice, koi. We might add to the diph- 
thongs an in kau as commonly pronounced in Tokyo. In western Japan kau is ko< 


cially important to distinguish o from o. Next in importance 
is the distinction between u and u. Compare: 
oi nephew oi many 

tori bird tori thoroughfare 

koko here ko-ko filial piety 

koto thing, affair ko-to high class 

toki time to-ki registration 

ho-hei infantry ho-hei artillery 

yo-san estimate yo-san sericulture 

kuki stalk ku-ki atmosphere 

yuki snow yu-ki courage 

To the Japanese ear the words in the one column are utterly 
different from those in the other. There are a few cases in 
which the length of a vowel is a matter of indifference. A 
final 6 is often shortened ; e. g., so shite so doing, may be pro- 
nounced so shite ; katappo one of the pair, katappo ; honto reality, 
honto. Final short vowels are sometimes lengthened ; e. g., sore 
jd, for soi' e ja if that's the case. 

SHORT VOWELS. The following points deserve notice: 
27 in shu andjw is often pronounced i, especially in Tokyo: 
e. g., s?iu-jin master becomes shijin', bi-jutsu fine arts, bij-itsu. 
This is to be avoided as a corruption. 3 But the substitution 
of i for yu is not always bad ; e. g., iku for yuku go, kami-ii 
for kami-yui hair dresser (p. 380a). 

Initial u followed by ma is practically silent, uma horse be- 
ing pronounced mma (p. lib). 

E in early romaji texts was generally written ye. This spel- 
ling has been retained in the case of only two words, ye "to" and 
yen the unit of currency. The Romaji Committee would prac- 
tically reverse this rule and write e for the postposition ye, but 
ye in other cases. The fact is that the pronunciation depends 
on the sound that precedes. The sound of yen is not en, us 
many foreigners pronounce it, nor is the y as distinct as in"yes. " 
is sometimes corrupted so as to .sound like u: e. g., hitotsu 
"one" becomes hitutsu', kom-ban this evening, kumban. This 

a In northern Japan people often reverse i and u, saying, for instance, suosu or 
even ihikosu for stt^os/ti a little. 


pronunciation should be avoided. Yoi "good" is commonly 
pronounced ii. 

As has been said, ivo is practically pronounced o. It is so 
written except in the case of the particle wo (the Romaji Com- 
mitee would write this also o), the pronunciation of which, 
like that of ye, depends on what goes before. The student 
must be on his guard in pronouncing a word like shio salt, in ka~ 
na written shi ho. The w is hardly audible, but if the student is 
not careful he is apt to say shiyo, i. e., sho. In the same way 
ki-oku memory must be carefully distinguished from km/oku 
purely and kyoku office. 

When two vqwels are brought together in. compounds a y or 
w naturally creeps in ; e. g., ba-ai case, becomes bayai or bawai. 
The Romaji Committee in such a case would write y after i 
or e, and 10 after u or o; e. g., tsukiyau, for tsuki-au associate; 
umeyaivaseru, for ume-aivascru make up a deficiency ; guwai- 
for gu-ai adjustment; owashi, for o ashi money. The Com- 
mittee recommended that a list of such words be made, which, 
is an excellent suggestion. 

QUIESCENT VOWELS. Words like kyoku, ryoku, etc., derived 
from the Chinese, were originally monosyllabic, though written 
with three kana: ki yo ku, riyo ku. Accordingly in romaniz- 
ing certain combinations the Romajikwai treated i as silent; 
e. g., kyo (ke u, now ki yo ), etc. Many Japanese would go 
further and write, for example, kyok, ryok. In native words 
there are many other cases in which the weak vowels i and 
u are practically inaudible, but the Romajikwai did not ven- 
ture to extend its principle to them, probably on account of the 
extreme difficulty of making rules to cover all cases. Not only 
does the pronunciation vary according to locality, individual 
idiosyncrasy, etc., but even the same word may be pronounced 
differently by the same person, depending on the nature of 
the context. Compare, for instance, nakute "there being none" 
and nak'te mo "though there are none." The addition of mo 
brings upon na and te a strong accent with the result that the 
u in ku disappears. A silent * or u is very apt to occur when 
ki, ku, shi, su, chi, tsu, hi, orfu precede any syllable of the k 
s, t, y and w (rarely m } n and r) series, especially when that 


syllable is accented. Final su ordinarily loses the vowel and be- 
comes ss, and the vowel in final tsu, slii and chi is barely audi- 
ble. English-speaking people are apt to go to extremes in 
clipping final vowels. The Romaji Committee has recom- 
mended that a table be made of words in which there are silent 
vowels. It would write taski for tasuki (cord to tie back the 
sleeves), dongri for donguri acorn, etc. The Japanese certain- 
ly do say taski, not tasuki. It is, however, impossible to decide 
all the cases without being more or less arbitrary. The plan 
of this book is to follow the spelling of the dictionaries, except 
in the Exercises, where apostrophes are used to indicate silent 
vowels. a Experience proves that this system is a valuable aid 
to correct pronunciation. But to avoid abuse we have been 
conservative. There are, for example, so many people who 
pronounce every vowel in watakushi that we do not feel justi- 
fied in eliding the u, as the Committee does. 

CONSONANTS. These will give the English-speaking student 
little trouble. 

G when it does not stand at the beginning of a word is com- 
monly pronounced like "ng" in "singing": Nagasaki, like Na- 
ngasaki ; uguisu bush-warbler, like unguisu', kago basket or 
cage, like kango (to be distinguished carefully from kan-go 
Chinese word). In western Japan, however, g is pronounced 
exactly as in "ago." See p. 69a. 

S before i becomes sh. In some parts of western Japan, as 
in the vicinity of Osaka and in Kyushu, s in the syllable se is 
pronounced like "h" or, more exactly, like the German "ch" ; 
e. g., omahen for omasen (dialectical) there is not. In Tokyo 
se may become shi; hence the change of se-ou carry on the 
back (se back, ou carry) to sJiou. 

Ji is formed by nigori from shi or eld. In the province of 

a Dr. Lange himself prefers to use the apostrophes throughout. The compiler 
of the English Edition has ventured to disagree with him in regard to this one point, 
on the ground that so long as the matter is not officially determined, great incon- 
venience in the use of dictionaries will result from any alteration of the present 
spelling. It seems, however, certain that the Japanese when they once take the 
matter in hand will elide more fs and w's than Dr. Lange or any other foreigner 
has thought of doing. The spelling will in turn react on the pronunciation. 


Tosa the two sounds are distinguished, the former j being like 
" z " in " azure " and the latter like " g " in "age. " In some places 
the former sound prevails, but in most parts of the country 
both 3? and ^-"are pronounced ji as in "jig." 

Zu too should have two sounds, zu and dzu, from su and tsu, 
but the distinction is not generally observed and one or the other 

T before i becomes ch ; before u, ts. 

N is pronounced "ng" before sounds of thefc series; before 
sounds of the h (I, p) andra series it becomes m : son-kei respect; 
sambyaku three hundred, from san three and liyaku hundred : 
sem-mon specialty, from sen special and mon gate, department. 
The Romaji Committee in such cases would not change the n 
to m. 

In some compounds the distinction between a final n and an 
initial n must be carefully observed. Compare gen-an original 
motion and ge-nan manservant. 

H before i in Tokyo and elsewhere is pronounced like sh, as 
in hito person. The student will do well to avoid this corrup- 

F is not quite the same as the English "f, " being formed 
by the two lips, not by the lower lip and the upper teeth. The 
study of foreign languages has, however, a tendency to make 
the / more like the English. The nigoried form offu is bu, 
not vu. There is no v in Japanese. In the h series a labial 
sound, p or f, not h, characterized the syllables originally, 
and in some provinces there are still traces of this ancient pro- 

M. before u has frequently been altered to b : e. g., eramu, 
erabu choose; samushii, sabishii lonely. 

Y (ya, yu, yo) occurs largely in combination with other con- 
sonants. One must carefully distinguish my 6 and miyo, kyo- 
ku and kiyoku, etc. In parts of northern Japan y when not com- 
bined with another consonant is commonly corrupted to 2 or/. 

R is not quite the same as the English "r," especially in the 
syllable ri. The tip of the tongue is held more closely to the 
upper gum. In many places, as in Satsuma, r sounds like d. 
It is extremely difficult for the Japanese to distinguish the 


English "1" and the English "r," their own r being an inter- 
mediate sound. The vulgar sometimes trill r; e. g., berrabo 

W after i or e sometimes becomes y ; e. g., sorya, from sore 
tva as for that. Wa and wo occur largely in Chinese words 
combined with k and g ; e. g., kwa-ji conflagration, givai-kdku 
foreign country. In some parts the distinction between kwa 
and ka, etc., is carefully observed, but is neglected in Tokyo. 
The reformed kana and the Committee's romaj'i ignore it. 
But the w is retained in this book, for reasons already indi- 
cated . 

There is no need of "q" or "x, " the former being represent- 
ed by kw and the latter by ks. 

DOUBLE CONSONANTS. While the consonants in themselves 
are not so difficult, the student will need to be especially care- 

consonants are kk, ss (ssA), tt (tch, Us), nn, pp, mm. The 
best way to get them is to give a strong accent to the preceding 
syllable and then for a moment hold the vocal organs in the 
position required to pronounce the consonant in question. The 
second of the two will then sound distinct from the first. Dis- 
tinguish carefully pairs like: 

ika cuttle-fish ikka how many days? 

dasu put forth dassu(ru) escape from 

i-slw clothes is-sJio one's whole life 

kita [he] came kitta [he] cut 

i-chi position it-chi union 

ana hole anna such 

ama nun am-ma ehampooer 

Consonants which are single in the literary language are 
frequently doubled in the colloquial ; e. g., minna for mina all, 
onnaji for onaji same, mittsu for mitsu three, ammari for 
amari too, bakkari for bakari only, massuyu for ma-sugu 
straight (adverb). 

Excepting nn and mm, the first of two double consonants is 
in kana represented by tnu. Gakko school, from gaku and ko, 
may be written either gakuko or gatsuko. The compound 
Jtattalsu development is sometimes pronounced hatsudatsu. 


Nigori. In a compound a the first consonant of the sec- 
ond member is liable to the change called nigori: [hair). b 

shiraga gray hair (shira = shiro stem of shiroi white, kami 

yakizakana baked fish (yaki stem ofyaku roast, sakana fish). 

shinjin piety (shin faith, shin heart). 

jinja Shinto temple (jin god, sha shrine). 

pandane yeast (pan bread, tanc, seed). [pack). 

kioanzume canned goods (kwan can, tsume stem of tsumcru 

tokidoki at times (toki time). 

chikajika soon (chikai near). 

sakurabana cherry blossom (sakura, hana}. 

shinjinbukai pious (shinjin piety, fukai deep). 
Since the kana for wa in native words is ha, this may also by 
nigori become ba; e. g., wo wa becomes woba. Nigori is less 
common in Chinese than in native words, and less common in 
compound verbs than in compound nouns. There is a great 
deal of fluctuation in the usage, euphony being the only guide. 
Thus we say 0-hashi Great Bridge, but Megane-bashi Eyeglass 
Bridge (so named from its shape); either 0-saka or 0-zaka Great 
Slope; an-nai-sha or annaija guide; sai-han-sho or saibanjo 
court of justice. c Nigori is not limited to compounds. The 
first consonants of some words which are commonly attached 
loosely to other words suffer nigori ; e. g., bakari only, from ha- 
karu consider. Kiri "only" may also be pronounced giri] 
kurai "about, " gurai. Mutsukashii " difficult " is often pro- 
nounced muzukashii. 

Han-nigori, that is, the change of h or /top, occurs frequent- 
ly in compounds from the Chinese when the first member 
ends in n. Thus fun be stirred and hatsu be aroused make 
fumpatsu enthusiasm; man be full smdfuku stomach, mam- 

a The vowels suffer little or no change in composition. A final e in the first 
member of a compound is often changed to a. Thus from kane metal and mono thing 
we have kanamono hardware (but with hako box, kanebako money box); homsa&e 
liquor zndya house (p. 16), sakaya liquor dealer (but with nomi stem of ncmu 
drink, sakenomi drunkard). 

b In western Japan people say shirage, from ke, which also means hair. 

c There are two sounds to the Chinese character for "god," shin and _/>'. Com- 
pare shin-gakit theology, from gaku learning, and jin-ja Shinto shrine. The Japa- 
nese, by the way, say Shin- do, not Shinto. 

x.\ v i INTliOD UCT10N. 

pku satiety. From the native words omou think and hakaru 
consider we have omompakaru cogitate. 

A preceding syllable coalescing with h or fumy result in j>p: 
Iciri stem of kiru cut and/V (c) token make kippu ticket; tetsu 
iron and ho barrel, teppo gun. For other examples see p. 69 ff. 
Of native origin is hipparu bring along, for hiki-Jiaru. An h 
between vowels tends to become pp : e. g., akeppanasu from ake- 
hanasu leave open; mappira, from ma-hira earnestly. The 
adverbs yohodo very and yaliari still are also pronounced yop- 
podo and yappari. 

ACCENT. As has been intimated, if the student will take 
care of the vowels, the accents will generally take care of them- 
selves. Among the vowels there is as it were an order of pre- 
cedence. First there are the long sounds, then a, then o and 
e, and finally u and i. The stronger tend to draw the accent 
away from the weaker. Alternate syllables seem to pair off in 
the contest, the stronger pair winning. A combination tending 
to make a vowel quiescent may also affect the accent. When a 
difference between the vowels does not interfere, a word of three 
or four syllables is naturally accented on the first and third; e.g., 
anata you, hanahada very. The a before thecaiii-ative endingse- 
ruor the potential ending reru is always accented. When a word 
is a compound, that fact naturally affects the accents, a In gen- 
eral it is to be remembered that accent is not so strong as in 
English. It is one of the disadvantages of the use ofrSmaji 
that since the words look somewhat like English words the stu- 
dent is apt to give them English accents. To correct this ten- 
dency the student who wishes to acquire a natural pronunciation 
should do a great deal of reading aloud from the Japanese script 
under a Japanese teacher of the old school, if one can be found 
who is not afraid to criticise. 

A*// 1 ?'. It is essential to good pronunciation to observe the 

a In western Japan homonymns are often distinguished by means of the accent. 
For example, hana flower has a marked accent on the first syllable as compared with 
hana nose. In the same way they distinguish hashi chopstick, hashi end, ha; hi 
bridge; kaki oyster, kaki persimmon and kaki fence ; kami hair, kami paper and 
kauri god, etc. The Japanese themselves are so much in doubt about these accents 
that the student can well afford to neglect them. 


yfcm'flit. cutting), or ku-giri (ku phrase), that is, not to pause 
in such a way as to cut off particles, etc., from preceding words 
to which they belong. 


In English there is now only a slight difference between the 
language of an essay and that of everyday conversation. In 
Japanese the written language and the spoken language have 
for centuries been developing separately. Scholars absorbed in 
the study of the ideograms and the literary style associated 
with them, have been quite indifferent to their mother-tongue 
proper. Even now it is hard to find a Japanese with any sense 
of colloquial etymology or grammar. When asked about the ori- 
gin and significance of a word your informant proceeds to discuss 
the ideograms used to write it. Ask him about the conjugation 
of a verb, and he gives you paradigms from the classical gram- 
mar which have little or no application to the matter in hand. 
The Japanese have fully caught the scientific spirit of the age and 
their scholars emulate the greatest western scientists in the in- 
vestigation of bacteria and everything of that kind, but they 
have scarcely begun to make a serious scientific study of their 
own conversational language. On the other hand, of the few 
who are interested, some re veal their inherited prejudice against 
zoku-go (vulgar language) by limiting its province to the small 
talk of everyday life. The student cannot be too wary in 
accepting Japanese opinions about the colloquial. But it goes 
without saying that the language actually employed by the 
Japanese of the present day must be our standard. 

It can no longer be said that the colloquial of Tokyo is the 
standard. Tokyo too has its dialectical peculiarities. We shall 
not go far wrong if we regard as the standard the language 
spoken in the higher educational institutions of the Empire. 
There is here a constant circulation and intermingling of teach- 
ers and students from all parts of the country, and it is here 
that the process of crystallization is going on most rapidly. 
This language of the school?, which will naturally be the lan- 
guage of the future, is being influenced both by the literary lan- 
guage and by English and other foreign languages. No obstacle 
should be placed in the way of the gradual assimilation of any 

xxvm IN TROD VCT10N. 

needed material from the comparatively more terse and expres- 
sive literary language. The ideal of the Gem-bun- it-chi-kwai 
(gen speech, bun literature, it-chi union, kwai association) 
necessarily involves the modification of the colloquial, which 
in its present condition does very well for story-telling, but for 
other literary purposes is rather a clumsy instrument. Again, 
Japanese is being modified by the influence of English much 
as European languages have been influenced by Latin. The 
student will soon perceive that the speech of a Japanese versed 
in English is much clearer to him than that of a Japanese of 
the old school, even when both are speaking to their own peo- 
ple. As nearly all Japanese students are learning English or 
some other European tongue, the inference is obvious. 

The development of the language has been most rapid around 
the centers Kyoto and Tokyo. The most peculiar dialects are 
those of the northern and western extremities of Japan proper. 
These dialects in many points preserve more of the classical lan- 
guage than the standard colloquial. For example, the people of 
the north say yogambei "it may be good, " from yokaru-beshi, 
thus preserving the classical beshi. 

In the ports there is a good deal of pidgin-Japanese ( Yoko- 
hama-kotoba) , which is to be avoided; e. g., peke = dame bad, 
spoiled. The student ought also to be on his guard against the 
slang of the laboring classes. 


It would be well for the student before he begins work on 
this book to go through a briefer course of the nature of a 
primer, but there is no primer that can be fully recommended. 
To get a general idea of the genius of the language it is well at 
the outset to read rapidly a book like Chamberlain's "Hand- 
book of Colloquial Japanese," not stopping to master the details. 
Imbrie's "English- Japanese Etymology" will be found help- 
ful later on. 

During the first year it will be a saving of time to employ 
as a teacher one who has a good knowledge of English. The 
teacher should be instructed when reading the Japanese sentences 
to vary them as much as possible. The student after translat- 


ing into English should retranslate into Japanese. He will 
then be well prepared to take up the second set of exercises. If 
the teacher knows no English, have a friend instruct him how 
to proceed. Read to him the Japanese sentences one by one and 
have him criticise the pronunciation. Let him then ask sim- 
ple questions which require the student to give the substance of 
the sentence in his replies. Let the teacher repeat each answer, 
correcting it as he does so. Don't let him ask questions about 
the grammar or definitions of words. Then translate the Eng- 
lish sentences and ask the teacher to correct the translations 
in the same way. In translation it should be the aim of the 
student to render the ideas of the original in as brief a form as 
possible, translation word for word being quite out of the ques- 
tion in nearly all cases. When learning words the student 
should try to form in his mind a vivid conception of the actual 
thing or act or relation expressed by it, without reference to 
English equivalents. The measure of one's progress is the de- 
gree in which the untranslatable elements of the language 
are mastered. 

Two peculiarities of the Japanese must be kept constantly 
in mind. One is the absence of personification. Such a sen- 
tence as "War slays its thousands, while intemperance slays its 
tens of thousands" cannot be rendered into Japanese as it 
stands. The other peculiarity is the persistent consciousness of 
the relative rank of the speaker and the person addressed as shown 
in the choice of words and grammatical forms. For the same 
idea there may be two sets of expressions, one used when the 
subject is a despised person or one's humble self, the other be- 
ing reserved for use when the subject is a person for whom one 
wishes to show respect or when it is necessary to guard one's 
own dignity in dealing with an inferior. It is not easy even 
for a native to observe the proper distinctions without being 
either rude or excessively polite. The Japanese are extraordi- 
narily polite to foreigners, and foreigners are expected to speak 
a little more politely than a native under the same circum- 

No progress is possible without the perpetration of ridiculous 
mistakes, and the time when one is still obviously "green" ia 


the most opportune time for mistakes. The people are natu- 
rally generous and indulgent to newcomers. So the beginner is 
advised, whatever may have been his previous habit, to make 
it a rule to chatter about any and everything under the sun to 
anybody that will listen. As soon as he comes to feel sensitive 
about mistakes progress will be very difficult. 


The student who has mastered this text-book should be fa- 
miliar with the grammatical structure of the colloquial and be 
well acquainted with about five thousand words. It is not 
practicable, even if it were desirable, to include more in a book 
of this character. In the selection the aim has been to gather 
a fully representative vocabulary of words that are in common 
use. Of the common words, for every one that has been taken 
one or two have been left. Words connected with one's special 
business or profession will be learned almost without effort. 
But if one aspires to be able to converse freely on any subject 
of common interest, at least double the number of words con- 
tained here will be needed. A vocabulary grows only by prac- 
tice, but practice is dependent on observation, and to prepare 
one's self for exact observation printed books are indispensable. 
It is a common experience that an entirely strange word just 
learned from a book may be heard several times within a few 
hours afterwards. 

Colloquial literature consists mostly of stories and speeches 
of various kinds. There are a few collections of extracts in 
Tuiiniji. i if -which the best are Plant, Japanisckes LescbucJi, 
Berlin, 1891 ; Kcitl:t/< >}><( no Tomo, Hongkong, 1892, and the lit- 
tle monthly periodical Ycn.-Jti'</us<i published in Tokyo. 1898 9- 

In choosing books written in the .lapam-M- script the begin- 
ner should avoid those in which the kana are small or badly 
printed. Before he undertakes to read poorly printed books 
or newspapers it is necessary thoroughly to master the hmni by 
the use of the children's first two or three readers or other col- 
loquial books in which the characters are printed large, if they 
can be found. Tin- rxi-n-ises and conversations in Ma-'Canh-y's 
"Introductory Course in .Japanese" satisfy tlii< requirement, 


but unfortunately the liiragana are written from left to right, 
an unusual arrangement not easy even for Japanese to read. 

Highly to be recommended, though the printing of the kana 
leaves much to be desired, are the Mukashi-banashi (ancient 
tales) and Otogi-banashi (entertaining tales) of Mr. Iwaya. 
In order to accustom the student to the style of these tales, one 
of them in romanized form has been appended to this book. 
Mr. Iwaya, whose nom de plume is Sazauami, also edits an in- 
teresting periodical called Shonen Sekai (Young Folks' World). 

Novels will also be very helpful . Older stories such as those 
of Encho are not so well adapted to the needs of the student as 
those dealing with present conditions. For students who are in- 
terested in the conflict between old and new ideas in modern 
Japan the novels of Mr. Tokutomi (Hototogisu, Omoiide no Ki, 
Kuroshio] are recommended. 

In almost any newspaper colloquial material may be found 
in the form of interviews, reports of addresses, etc., and the 
volume of literature written in the style of lectures is constant- 
ly increasing. But the student will need to remember that to 
make a genuine colloquial sentence more is required than to 
end it with de aru,de arimasu or de gozaimasu (beware of "col- 
loquialized" books!) ; also that a man may be a fine literary 
writer and yet have a wretched style in speaking. The style 
of the interesting old sermons of which we have had samples 
in Shingaku Michi no Hanashi, or Kyud Dowa, is of course 

In the study of colloquial grammar a beginnings have recently 
been made by Matsushita, Nihon Zokugo Bunten, Tokyo, 1901; 
Maeha, Nihongoten, Tokyo, 1901; Kanai, Nihon Zokugo Bun- 
ten, Tokyo, 1901 ; Ishikawa, Hanashikotoba no Kisoku, Tokyo, 
1901 ; Irie, Nihon Zokugo Bumporon, Sendai, 1902. Excepting 
the first and the last named, these books are themselves ex- 

a In this book the usual division of the parts of speech has been followed. In a 
scientific grammar this would probably have to be somewhat modified. Older gram- 
mars of the literary language divide all words into three classes: (i), ai-gen including 
nouns, pronouns, numerals, interjections; (2) yo-gen = ha(araku kotoba (working 
words), including the verbs and adjectives, which are inflected,and (3) teniwoha^ 
from te t ni, wo, ha ( - wa), including particles and postpositions . 


amples of the literary use of the colloquial. In the literature of 
the Geinlmn-Uchi movement, such as Yamada's Bunrei and 
Sak&i'sFutsubun, both published in Tokyo. 1901, may be found 
illustrations of the colloquial as adapted for use in letters, 
documents, etc., and interesting discussions concerning col- 
loquial style. 

Brinkley's Japanese-English Dictionary is fuller and in many 
ways more satisfactory than its predecessor, Hepburn's. It 
is disfigured by inconsistencies, omissions and bad typography 
generally, but is in substance reliable and an invaluable treas- 
ury to those who have to depend on romaji. The student 
will need to supplement it by one or more of the native go-ju- 
on dictionaries, Qtsuki's Genkai = Kotoba no llini (gen word, 
kai sea), Tokyo, 1891; Mozumi's Nihon Daijirin (dai great, 
ji word, rin forest), Tokyo, 1894, or Ochiai's Kotoba no Izumi 
(izumi fountain). Tokyo, 1899. Of these the first is said to be 
the most scholarly ; the last, most comprehensive. 

Among the desiderata are an English-Japanese dictionary, 
giving the Japanese words not only in ideograms but also in 
romaji, typographically distinguishing words in current collo- 
quial use from others, and a classified dictionary of Sinico- 
Japanese compounds on the plan of Gubbins' Dictionary, which 
is how entirely out of date. 



Generally speaking, the Japanese language has no article, no 
plural, and no gender. 

1. There is an equivalent of the English "a certain," name- 
ly, aru (lit. existing) : aru onna a certain woman. More re- 
cently this aru has come to be used also with plurals in the sense 
of "some/'" To the English article in its generic sense, as in "the 
cat" or "a cat" (speaking generally), corresponds the Japanese 
idiom : neko to iu mono what is called cat (neJco cat, to particle 
of quotation, iu say, mono thing). 

2. When there is need of bringing out the idea of plurality, 
the suffixes ra, b c?owo(from tomo companion), sliu (c) or shu 
crowd, tachi (c) or daclii all, and ga ta (from kata side), may 
be employed. These are, with the exception of the first, used 
only with words denoting persons. The last is the most polite: 

Hydkuslio peasant; hyakushodomo peasants. 
Ko child; kodomo children. 
Akindo merchant ; dkindoshu merchants. 
Onna woman; onnashu women (of servant girls, etc.). 
Oya parent ; oyataclti parents. 
Fu-jin (c) lady ; fujingata ladies. 
Many words may be made plural by doubling: 
Kuni country ; kuniguni countries. 
Hito person ; liitobito people. 

Tokvro, sho (c) place: tokorodokoro, shoslio various places. 
The plural may also be expressed by means of words used as 
prefixes meaning "many", "all," etc. 

Bankoku all countries, from ban myriad. 

Shokoku various countries (or provinces) from sho many. 

a Jilsu-mei-shi true-name-word, or simply meishi. 

b The suffix ra is in the colloquial used mostly with pronouns. The ideogram 
used to represent it is to class. Both ra and to may also have the sense of " etc. " 

c The words kodomo child, wakuishu young fellow (from wakai young), and 
tomodachi friend, have come Jo be used also in a singular sense. To make the 
plural sense of kodomo distinct, still another suffix must be added: kodomora, 
kodomoshii) kodomotachL 

2 THE NOUN, [1 

3. In the case of animals the masculine and feminine gen- 
ders may be expressed by means of the prefixes o (on) and me 
(men); or, more commonly, by osu and mesu with the geni- 
tive particle no: 

Inu dog; oinu (inu no osu) ; meinu (inu no mesu). 

Tori fowl; ondori cock; mendori hen. 

But it is to be observed that the Japanese usually leave the 
distinction unexpressed. For instance: 

Tori ga nakimashita. The (or, a) cock crowed. 
Here it is not necessary to say specifically ondori. 


akindo trader, shopkeeper. inu dog. 

hyakusho peasant. kitsune fox. 

chichi father. neko cat. 

halia mother. nezumi rat, mouse. a 

otoko man, male. shika deer. 

onna woman, female. uma (proncd. mma) horse. 

oya parent. usagi hare, rabbit. 

ko, kodomo child. usli i ox, cow. 

tomodachi friend. tori bird, fowl. 

When nouns are joined by the conjunction "and" or enu- 
merated in a series which is brought to a conclusion, to "and" 
or mo "too" is affixed to each ( mo mo=both and). 
When the series is not closed, that is, when only a few speci- 
mens of a possible list are given, ya or dano is affixed to each. 
Ya is always, and to, except in formal speech, usually, omitted 
after the last word. However the asyndetic construction is 
not uncommon in Japanese. 


Inu to neko. Oya to kodomo. Slika ya usagi y k/'tx/'ne. 
Otoko mo onna mo. Ojika to mejika ( from .s-//Y.v() . Chichi J/<///<>. 
Ili/ck'sho to akindo. Omma to memma ( from uma). Onn 
mo kodomo mo. Uma dano, ushi dano, inu dano. Kitsune ya 
ya nezumi. Ondori tit maffori. Onxhi mo mendi! mo. 

a Regarded as a variety of rat. Mice may he distinguished as hatsuka-neznmi 
20 days' rat). White mice are ninkin-ntzumi, Comp. nankin-magi white rabbit, 

II] Wa AND Ga. 3 

(In the following expressions no sign of the plural is required.) 
Both father and mother. A cat and a mouse. Dogs and 

foxes. Horses and (ya) dogs and cats. Parents and friends. 

Shopkeepers and peasants. 


Kelations like the cases in European languages are expressed 
by the particles ga (Nominative), no (Genitive), ni (Dative), 
and wo (Accusative). Further, what we call the subject in 
English is often distinguished by the particle wa. But this 
particle is also attached to the word that becomes in English 
the grammatical object; and it may be added to the particles 
no, ni, wo, de, and to other words. To explain fully and sys- 
tematically the uses of wa and its relation to ga would only 
confuse the beginner at this stage. Reserving more particular 
rules for later occasions, we shall now endeavor to state the 
main principles from which they are derived. 

1. Ga simply marks out the subject, excluding other things, 
while iva indicates that an important predicate is to follow. 

Kore ga warui. Tms(not the others) is bad(wont is bad). 
Kore wa warui. This is BAD. 

The former sentence answers the question, Which is bad ? The 
latter is a reply to the question, What sort of a thing is this ? 
(Who came? Dare ga kimashita ka. 
\ Taro came. Taro ga kimashita. 

( Where is Taro? Taro wa doko ni imasu ka. 
\ Taro just came. Taro wa tadaima kimashita. 
It is a safe rule not to use iva when there is no occasion to 
think of two or more possible predicates. Hence in subordinate 
clauses the subject almost invariably requires ga. 

Taro ga kimashita toki ni yuki gafutte imashita. 
Snow was falling when {toki ni) Taro came. 

2. When subjects only are contrasted ga is affixed to both. 
When predicates are contrasted so as to put a word in one 
sentence in antithesis to a word in another, both require wa. 

Zen wa(good) nase (do); aku iva (evil) nasu na (do not). 
Do good and not evil. 
Note that wa, not ivo, is attached here to what we should call 


the object. Logically zen and aku are subjects. It is a corol- 
lary of the above rule that wa may properly be used with the 
emphatic word in a negative sentence. 

The foreigner often finds it hard to tell whether he ought to 
use wa or ga with the subject. There are cases in which wa 
only may be used, and other cases in which ga only is permis- 
sible ; but often it depends on the point of view which is to be 
chosen. Sometimes in the same sentence either may be used 
with practically no difference in the sense. It may be in place 
also to warn the beginner that the usage is subject to consider- 
able variations in the dialects. 


ahiru duck (domestic). hayai .swift, early. 

hato dove, pigeon. osoi slow, late. 

karasu crow, raven. kuroi black. 

kiji pheasant (green). shiroi white. 

niwa yard, garden. osorosJiii frightful, terrible. 

niwa-tori barnyard fowl. ?///;/ (pron. mmai) delicious, 

suzume sparrow. agreeable to the taste. b 

tsuru crane. utsukushii pretty, beautiful. 

uguisu bush-warbler. loakai young. 

ko-uma, komma colt. a warui bad. 

ko-ushi calf. yoi good. 

cliiisai small. kono this (here). 

okii large. ano that (yonder). 

Adjectives similar to the above, ending in i, may be used 
attributively, in which case they precede the noun. They may 
also follow the noun as predicates, requiring no verb. It 
should be remembered, however, that the simple adjective is 
thus used only in familiar talk. See Ch. XI. 

Kono dhiru to kin too /////"/. d Kono kifi ICK /u/iai, ano 

a Not to be confounded with koma, which now denotes a full grown male horse. 

b Women usually say oishii. 

c Kono and ano are used before nouns like adjectives. 

d When several words are joined by to orya, wa or ga is added only to the last. 

Ill] Wa AND Ga. 5 

ahiru mo umai. a Shiroi inn. Ano utsukushii onna. Ano 
onna wa utsukushii. Kono liato wa shiroi ; ano niwatori wa 
kuroi. Kono nezumi wa okii ; ano nezumi wa chiisai. Ano 
uma wa hayai. Tsuru wa shiroi; karas' wa kuroi. Ano tori 
wa chiisai. Kono koushi wa okii. Shiroi nezumi wa utsuku- 
shii. Kono ushi wa osoi. ' Hayai uma wa yoi; osoi uma wa 
warui. Kono omma mo memma mo kuroi. Kono koushi wa 
okii. Ano inu wa osoroshii. Uguis* wa chiisai. Sh'ka ya 
usagi wa hayai. Komma dano koushi dano wa utsukushii. 
This calf is small. That horse is swift. This duck is young. 
This ox is slow. This black cat is large. That colt is beauti- 
ful. That white dove. Sparrows are small. That fowl is 
large. Cranes are beautiful. This large hen. Both pheasants 
and pigeons are delicious. That horse is small. Doves are 
beautiful. Those calves are large. Duck is delicious. This 
horse is bad. This dog is black; that dog is white. A white 
dove is beautiful. Cranes are large. 


Wa does not designate a particular case. As we have inti- 
mated, it serves to isolate a word or expression, to make it con- 
spicuous. Often it may be translated, "In regard to ." It is used 
with especial frequency after words denoting time and place. 
Konnichi wa (to-day) yoi o tenki desu. 
It is fine weather to-day. 

Konnichi wa implies at least a faint contrast with other times : 
else wa would not be used. Compare: 

Konnichi kaerimashita. He returned to-day. 

Konnichi wa kaerimasen. He does not return to-day. 
The second sentence implies, "he may return later." After 
a word with wa beginning the sentence the grammatical subject 
naturally requires ga, unless a second contrast is emphasized. 

Koko wa samusa ga tsuyoi. Here the cold is severe (strong). 
In case we wished to contrast the cold and the wind, it would be: 

Koko wa samusa wa tsuyoku nai keredomo, kaze wa tsuyoi. 

Here the cold is not severe, but the wind is high. 

a Wa or ga is usually omitted when mo is used. 

6 THE Nor*. [Ill 

A sentence like "The fox has a long tail,'' becomes: 

Kitsune iva o ga nagai. 

Here we observe that the subject with wa is grarauiatically 
disconnected from the sentence, while the predicate nagai (long) 
takes the subordinate subject o (tail) with ga. 

Nikon tva yama ga oi. Japan is mountainous. 
Literally: In regard to Japan, mountains are many. Gram- 
matically yama ga oi is a complete sentence, but the expression 
simply fills the place of an adjective. Many similar expressions 
have become idiomatic. The adjectives most commonly modi- 
fied by subjects with ga in this way are yoi and its opposite 
warm : 

kokoro-tnochi ga yoi feeling is good = comfortable. 

gen-Id ga yoi vitality is good = vigorous, vivacious, lively. 

tsu-go ga yoi circumstances are good = convenient. 

yo-jin ga yoi caution is good = careful. 

kuchi ga tvarui mouth is bad = sarcastic. 

i-ji tj(, fnrrni temper is bad = ill-natured. 

sei ga takai stature is high = tall. 

sei ga hikui stature is low = short. 

ki ga mijikai spirit is short = quick-tempered. 

yoku gafukai desire is deep = avaricious. 
In case an antithesis is involved ga may, of course, become ir</. 


ashi foot, leg. 20 elephant. 

atama head (ladies' word: hi to person, man. 

o tsumuri, o tsumu). kata side (polite for hito^). 

hana nose, snout. Nihon-jin a Japanese 

kao face. (polite: Nikon no o kata). 

ke fur. Seiijo-jiit, Seiyo no o kntt' 

koe voice. Westerner, European. 

kuchi mouth. ki spirit, humor. 

kuchi-bashi bill (of a bird), sei stature. 

from hashi bill. ;///-/,/ vitality, liveliness. 

mimi ear. /-// disjiosition, temper, ob- 

o or shippo (shiri-o) tail. stiuacy. 

tora tiger. U<>-jin caution. 
usagi-unta tl.iikf\. 

IV] No. 

hikui low. nagai long. 

mijikai short. takai high. 


Ano hito wa iji ga ivarui. Ano hyak'sho wa genki ga yoi. 
Nihonjin wa sei ga hikui. Seiyojin wa sei ga takai. Ano 
onna wa ki ga mijikai. Ushi wa ataina ga okii. Tsuru iva 
ashi ga nagai. T&ra iva ke ga utsukusliii. Uguis' iva koe ga 
yoi (sings beautifully). Ano karas' wa koe ga ivarui. Ano 
otoko wa sei ga takai. a Zo iva liana ga nagai. Ahiru iva 
koe ga ivarui. Zo wa o ga mijikai. Usagi iva mimi ga nagai; 
usagi-uma mo mimi ga nagai. Ano hito iva kuchi ga ivarui. 
Komma ya koushi wa ashi ga nagai. Tsuru wa kuchibashi 
ga nagai. Ano Nihonjin iva sei ga takai. 

He b is sarcastic. This child has a pretty face. Eats have 
long tails. Foxes and (ya} dogs are swift of foot; horses too 
are swift of foot. This dog has short ears; [his] tail also is 
short. This hare has black fur. Both doves and crows have 
short bills. He has short legs. She is careful. He is slow of 
foot. The duck has short legs. 


The particle no with a noun corresponds to the genitive case, 
and is rendered sometimes by the English possessive, and some- 
times by the preposition "of": 
Tori no koe a bird's cry. 
Nihon no ten-shi the Emperor of Japan. 

Notice that the limiting noun together with no always precedes 

the word which it limits. This is one instance of the general 

rule that all modifiers precede the principal or governing word. 

In the classical style ga performs the same function as no: 

Kimi ga yo the lord's (Emperor's) reign. 

a Ano otoko (that fellow) and atio onna are not elegant. Ano kata -wa sei ga 
takai is better. Still more polite : Ano o kata wa o sei ga tako gozaimasu. 
b Ano hito, ano kata, etc., may mean either " he" or " she." 

8 THE NO./N-. [IV 

As in other languages, the genitive may be explicative or 

Otoko no ko boy. 

Niivatori no mesu heu. 

San-nin (three persons) no kodomo three children. 

Musashi no kuni tlae country of Musashi. 


ko young, offspring, egg (in sake, shake salmon. 

the last sense, offish only), tai sca-bn-am. 

tama ball. turn cod, haddock. 

tama-go egg. unagi eel. 

karada body. onta pig (domestic). 

mi meat (offish), fruit, nut. niku (c) flesh, meat. 

sakana fish. n.ktti red. 

me eye. mazui unsavory, disagreeable 
hire fin. to the taste. 

hirame flounder, flatfish. tsuyoi strong, violent. 

koi carp. mada. still, yet. 

kuj-ira whale. kt-redomo, keredo but. a 
utaguro tunny. 


Sakana no hire. Sakana no atama. Tai no atama icu okii. 
Jfaguro no mi ^t'a akai. Tara no mi tea shiroi ; unagi no mi 
mo shiroi. Koi no kuchi wa tsuyoi. Knjira no ko. b Ann 
hito no karada wa okii. Tai no hire wa akai. loSJiake no ko 
wa mazui. Tsuru no tamago wa okii : suzinne no tamayo irn 
chiisai. Tsuru no kuchil<'*/ii tr<i mnjal. Kono koushi no ni- 
ku iva mazui. Kono buta no niku wa umai. <Ano otoko no ko 
wa iji ga loarui. Kono uma no ashi ica shiroi keredomo, ata- 
ma wo kuroi. Ano Seiyo no o kata wa genki ga yoi. Zo no 
in! mi wa okii keredomo, me wa chiisai. 

The eggs of this fish are large. The fur of this tiger is beau- 
tiful. The child (wa] of that Japanese is quick-tempered. 

a Shikashi has a stronger adversative sense, while ga is weaker. 

b In sptaking of very common animals briefer formsare usual: komma, 
koneko, koinu, etc. Kittens and pups are also called neko'go and inukoro. Note 
that ko-tori means little bird, not young bird (see Ch. VIII.). 

V] Ni. 9 

The eggs of this fowl are small. Veal is delicious. The don- 
key's ears are long. Whale's meat is unsavory. Pork is white. 
The whale has a strong tail. /O These kittens are pretty. His 
children (children of that man) are still young. This fish's 
fins are white. This dog's fur is black. This mouse's fur is 
white. This white hare's eyes are red. The head of the ox is 
large. The eyes of the flounder are small. The eggs of the 
carp are delicious. The head of the tai is delicious. 


Ni following a noun corresponds to the dative case. 

Kodomo wa oya ni nite iru (imasu^. 

Children resemble [their] parents (Latin: parentibus] . 
Notice that in such general statements wa is used, not ga. 
The Japanese idiom resembles the Latin in another particular: 

Ushi ni tsuno ga aru (arimasu]. 

To oxen are horns, i. e., Oxen have horns. 
When a comparison is involved, iva may be added to ni] or 
we may say simply: Ushi iva tsuno ga aru. Oxen have horns. 
The construction with ni is preferred when there is a close re- 
lation bstween the objects, and especially when the parts of a 
person or thing are named. 

Ningen ni te ga aru (arimasu}. Men have hands. 

Watakushi ni ica imoto ga nai (arimasen^) .* 

I have no [younger] sister. 
Other uses of ni will be explained later. 

We add a few explanations concerning the use of verbs. 
In Japanese the verb always stands at the end of the sentence. 
In nite iru "are resembling" nite is the subordinate form 
of the verb niru "to resemble," and iru means "is" or "are." 
Iru, when it stands alone, that is, not with a subordinate form, 
differs from aru in being used only when the subject is a person or 
some other living thing. The short forms iru and aru are used 
only in speaking familiarly, as to members of one's own family 
or to intimate friends. In polite speech, whether to those of 
higher rank than ourselves, or to strangers, even if they be of 

a .A 7 is not required in : Anala iva kasa ga arimasu ka. Have you an umbrella ? 

10 THE NOUN. V] 

lower rank, we must add to the concluding verb at least the 
suffixes masu (present), masJio (future or probable), mashita 
(past). These are added to the stem of the verb. 
Ari-masu </r i-masho cr i-mashita 

I-masu i-masho i-mashita 

Is, are Will or may be Was. were. 

There are two classes of verbs. In the one class the form used 
at the end of the sentence, the conclusive form, is derived by 
adding ru to the stem. In the other class the conclusive form 
substitutes u for the i of the stem. In the vocabularies verbs 
of the former class are distinguished by the use of the hyphen, 
thus: i-ru, ni-ru. In Hepburn's Dictionary verbs are arranged 
according to their stems, as i, ari ; in Brinkley's, according to 
their conclusive forms, as iru, />/. 

CO, /k^JUUZ-Aj^ t/v- 


abura fat, oil, blubber. nomi flea. 

ha tooth. ebi shrimp. 

hane feather, wing. okami wolf. 

Juiri needle, sting. saru monkey. 

hige beard. ni-ru resemble. 

tsume nail, claw, hoof. i-ru be (of living things), 

tsuno horn, feeler. live. 

koke or uroko scale (offish), aru Toe (in existence or in 

mushi insect, worm, bug. one's possession). 

did, cho-cho butterfly. nai not existent, not pos- 

hachi bee. sessed (polite: arimasen). 

hai house-fly. yokii well, frequently. 

ka mosquito. taku-san much, many, in 

kirigirisu cricket. great quantity. a 


Hai ni tea hane gaaru (arimas') ; ka ni mo hane ga aru 

("I'imas'). Nominiwa hane wa\nnl (arimasen). Hachi ni 


wahariga aru keredomo, cho niwa (hariga) nai. Buta n ickiisai 

a Taku and san are the Chinese equivalents of sawa marsh zrAyama mountain, 
b The wa after hane implies, of course, a contrast : It is not by the use of wings 
that the flea moves. 

c In the following sentences the student should change familiar forms to polite. 

VI] Wo. 11 

shippo ga aru. Koi ni wa urkko ga aru. Ushi ni iva tsuno mo 
tsume mo aru. Kirigiris' ni wa hane mo aru. a Nekoniiva 
hige ga aru. Kono kodom.o iva yoku (very much) halia ni nite 
imas\ Saru iva hito ni nite iru. Qltami wa inu ni nite iru. 
Ano inu wa kitsune ni nite imas'. Kono mushi ni wa hari ga aru. 
This bird is like a sparrow. That dog is like a wolf. 
Birds have bills. Both horses (ni mo) and deer have hoofs. 
The cat has claws. This horse resembles a donkey. Deer 
have horns. This monkey has a tail. He resembles a monkey. 
This cat has no tail. This calf (1) has no horns (3) yet (2). 
This child resembles its father (chichi-oya) very much. This 
child (1) has no teeth (3) yet (2). Hogs have a great deal of 
fat (tak j san aru). 


Wo designates the direct object. When several objects are 
connected by "and," wo is affixed to the last only. When mo 
is used, 100 is generally omitted in the colloquial. 


ha leaf. sagi heron. 

liana flower. u cormorant. 

lei tree, wood. shislii lion. 

kuwa no ki mulberry tree. kai-ko silk-worm. d 

matsu no ki pine tree. kuda-mono fruit. 

sakura no ki cherry tree. koku-motsu cereal. 

ume b no ki plum tree. ya-sai, yasai-mono vegetable. 

ue-ru plant. 0*^ nin-gen human being. 

ue-ki-ya gardener, c ryo-shi fisherman. 

kusa grass, weeds. Icure-ru give (not polite). 

semi cicada. toru take, catch. 

a That is, besides the legs by which it springs. 

b Uma, umai, ume are pronounced with the u silent. But in utni sea the is 
pronounced and accented. 

c From ue-ru to plant, ki tree, ya house or tradesman. 
d From ban keep (animals) and ko young. 


- kuu (fcw) eat, devour. cho-dai^ please give me, I 

tabe-ru eat (elegant). should like to have, 

no. ka interrogative particle. 


Uma mo ushi mo k'sa wo kuu (lemmas' ) . Ningen loa mku 
mo yasai mo taberu (tabemas'). V wa sakana wo torimas' 
(p. lOc). Shishi mo tora mo ningen no niku ico kuu. Ano liito 
wa onna no ko ni liana wo kureta c (kuremash'ta) . Ano ueki- 
ya ga kono ume no ki to sakura no ki wo uetaA Kodomo wa 
chocho ya tombo wo torn. Otoko no ko iva semi wo toru kere- 
domo, onna no ko iva chocho ivo toru. Kaiko wa kuiva no ha 
wo kuu. Kono kudamono wo cliodai. Ityoslii ga sakana wo 
tak'san torimash'ta. e 

The gardener planted a pine tree. Birds eat insects. Fishes 
also eat insects. Herons and (?/) cranes eat fish. I should 
like to have those cherry blossoms. The gardener gave the 
girl a flower. Did you plant this pine tree? No, the gardener 
planted [it]. The Japanese eat cereals (ya), fish and vegetables. 
Bush-warblers eat worms. Children often (yoku) catch but- 
terflies. The mother gave the child some fruit. The cat catches 
mice. The farmer planted mulberry trees. Foxes catch 
chickens. Deer eat grass. I should like to have those plum 
blossoms. That child often (yoku) catches dragon-flies. 

a This tie differs from the English "no" in that it denotes not so much an objec 
-live contradiction as a mere difference of opinion. It amounts to : You are under 
a false impression. 

b From two Chinese words meaning to put on the top of the head, i. e., receive 

c The familiar past tense is formed by adding ta to the stem. 

d Ga indicates that emphasis rests on ano. The man that planted the trees is 
that gardener, not some one else. If still more emphasis were needed, we might 
say : Kono ki u>o neta hito itja ano uekiya desu. 

e When brief mention is made of a single instance the simple subject commonly 
requires ga, while wa is used in general statements. The student should observe 
this distinction in the exercises to be translated into Japanese. 



The predicative expressions given in Ch. III. may also be 
used attributively by substituting no for ga : 

Anata no tokoro no j'ochu wa genki no ii (yoi) onna desu. 

Your maidservant (lit. m. of your place) is a lively woman. 

Sei no tdkai hito desu. [He or she] is a tall person. 
Such expressions occur frequently in Japanese and may be 
variously translated : 

Atama no okii sakana* A fish with a large head. 
Okii atama no sdkana would be very wrong. Nor would it be 
euphonious to repeat a noun, thus : Ano onna iva genki no ii 
onna desu. 

The reason why no may be substituted for ga is that ga was 
originally a genitive particle. See Ch. IV. As such ga is still 
used in the literary language and occurs in many proper names: 

Ume-ga-tani plum-valley. Tsuru-ga-oka crane-hill. 

The verb "is" or "are" after a predicate noun becomes de 
aru (contracted to da), de arimasu (contracted to desu), de 
gozarimasu (or de gozatmasu), the last being most polite and 
the first most familiar. Notice the difference between: 

Matsu no ki ga arimasu. There are pine trees. 

Matsu no ki desii (for de arimasu). They are pine trees. 


ayu, ai trout. ran orchid. 

iwashi sardine. un luck (un ga yoi lucky). 

nishin herring. yoku lust, passion, avarice. 

kaeru frog. kon-jo (lit. root-nature) dis- 

kawa river. position. 

nagare current, stream. kyo-shi teacher. 

nioi odor, fragrance. sei-to pupil, scholar. 

take bamboo. sen-did captain of a ship. 

tokoro place. shi-kiuan officer. 

yama mountain. Ezo-jinl .. f ^ T 

,-,. > native of Yezo. 

sumo wrestling. Ainu j 

sumo-tori wrestler. koko this place, here. 

hen region, vicinity. fukai deep. 


oi many, numerous. noru (with ni} ride, "be on, 

sukuna i, sukena i a few, scarce. a mount, get aboard. 


Tai wa atama no okii sakana des\ Nisliin wa ko no oi 
sakana des'. Anata wa kuchi no warui Ju'todcs'.^ Umegatani 
wa karada no okii s'motori des\ Ano sencho wa ydjin no yoi 
hito des'. NiJion ni wa konjo no warui uma ga oi. Tsnru 
wa kuchibashi no nagai tori des'. Ahiru wa ashi no mijikai 
tori des 1 . Take san c wa iji no icarui ko da. no nagai 
saru mo am sld, d o no mijikai saru e mo aru. Ano sh'kican ica 
konjo no warui uma ni notte imas' (is riding). Ano kyoshi 
iva ki no mijikai hito des 1 . Koko wa sh'ka no oi yama da. 
Fujikawa { iva nagare no hayai kawa des\ Tamagawa g wa 
ayu no oi kawa des'. Kono hen wa ka no oi tokoro des'. 

That European is quick-tempered. Some butterflies have 
long, while others have short feelers (there are butterflies with 
long feelers and there are also those with short feelers). Mr. 
Shimada is a cautious person. Qdate is a tall wrestler. Sar- 
dines are oily, fish.- That pupil is an ill-natured child. Japan 
is a mountainous country. That farmer is an avaricious fellow. 
That sea-captain is unlucky. Orchids are sweet-scented flowers 
(flowers of good odor). Here (koko wo) frogs are numerous. 
The Ainu have long beards. Among (ni wa} Japanese long- 
bearded men are scarce. [She] is a sarcastic woman. 

a Notice thatw and sukunai cannot be used attributively like the Enylish "many" 
and "few," except when limited by a noun with wo; e. g., hone no oi s<ik ana a bony 
fish (hone bone). 

b It would be more polite to say : Anata -wa o kuchi no wand o fata tie gozaiwasu. 

c The name of a girl. Santa or san is added to names of persons or to titles of 
important personages, such as tenshi saina Emperor, danua san master of the house. 
Santa is also used in certain polite phrases, such as o kage sama I owe my good 
fortune to you {kage shadow"), go kuro sama I have caused you much trouble. In 
the case of girls o is always prefixed unless there are more than two syllables. 

d Notice the circumstantiality of the expression. Shi is a disjunctive particle 
that marks the transition from one coordinate clause to another. In classical lan- 
guage the simple stem of the verb is used in such a position. Thus art might be 
substituted in the above for am s/ii. S/ti makes the transition more distinct. 

e Instead of repeating saru, we may say o no mijikai na mo aru. 

f A river near Mount Fuji. g A river near Tokyo, 



Japanese resembles German in the facility with which com- 
pound nouns may be formed. Compounds derived from the 
Chinese are especially n-umerous. 

1. The components may themselves be nouns: 
sakana-ichi fish-market. 

oya-yubi parent-finger, thumb. 
soto-gaiva outside, ucliigaiva inside. 
uri-zane-gao melon-seed-face, i. e., beautiful face. 
The following are of Chinese origin : 
kwa-ji fire-affair, conflagration. 
ba-sha horse-vehicle, wagon or carriage. 
tetsu-do iron-way, railroad. 
den-Id lightning-spirit, electricity. 
tetsudo-basha street car. 
denki-tetsudo electric railroad. 

2. One of the components may be an adjective: 
ao-mono green things, vegetables, from aoi. 
waka-danna young master, from ivakai. 

Numerous compounds are formed by the use of the prefixes 
o great and ko or o small: 

o-kaze great wind, typhoon. 

o-mizu great water, flood. 

o-atari great hit (in the theater or speculation). 

o-mugi barley. 

ko-mugi wheat. 

ko-yubl little finger. 

ko-zutsumi parcel, from tsutsumi bundle. 

ko-zo little priest, apprentice, errand-boy. a 

ko-goto little word, i. e., complaint, from koto word. 

lj-miya great shrine. 

0-yama little mountain. 

But it must not be presumed that such compounds may be 
formed at will, nor that a word forming a compound with one 
of the two prefixes may form one with the other also. 

a Boys in former times had the hair closely cropped or shaved, like priests. 


3. One of the components may be a verb. In genuine Chi- 
nese compounds an object-noun follows the verb that governs it, 
but in the case of pure Japanese words the object-noun precedes. 
This distinction, of course, does not apply where the verb is in- 
transitive or where tne noun is the principal component and 
the verb has the nature of a modifier. 

hi-tsuke incendiary, from /// fire and /W,v-/->/ apply: but tsu- 
ke-bi incendiary fire. 

mono-moral beggar (more commonly koj-iki), from mono 
thing and morau receive; but moral-mono gift. 

mono-old storeroom, from oku put; oki-mono an ornament 
kept in the toko-no-ma (alcove of a room). 

tate-kata style of building, from tate-ru build and kata mode : 
or tate-yo, from yd manner. a 

sei-shi manufacture of paper, from sei make and slii paper. 

ska-shin photograph, from sha to copy and shin truth. 

ji-shin earthquake, from ^7 earth and shin (intr.) to quake. 
Some nouns occurring in compounds are rarely, if ever, used 
alone; e. g., ya house, firm, tradesman. The Chinese ka (house) 
is in Japanese similarly used, but only of persons. 

Ictuftffri-ya druggist. 

tonya (toi-ya) wholesale store, from tow inquire. 

kench!kit-k(i architect, from kcn-chikn building operations. 

fuhei-ka grumbler, fiomfu-hei dissatisfaction. 

tai-shok-ka gourmand, from ti groat, tthoku eat. 


aida interval. cho street, town. 

kono-aida, konaida recently, hon book. [horses. 

hi fire. ba-sha any vehicle drawn by 

ichi market. f/trai-kukt/ foreign country. 

kttxuri drug, medicine. ji-xl<ii< earthquake. 

mono thing, person. lo'n-lcim quarrel. 

urn rear, lining. l-iu-jo vii-inity. neighborlmod. 

a Shi-kafa and j///-if arc similarly formed from the stem of tlie verb sum to do. 
These words are daily used by every one who speaks Japanese. S/iikuta g>i mil, 
or, Shtyoga not. There is no hlp for it (no way of doing). 


ki-sha railway train (lit. tate-ru build, erect. 

steam- vehicle). tsuke-ru apply, affix. 

kwa-ji conflagration. yuku, iku go. 

mei-butsu noted product. a ivakaru be clear, be under- 
sha-shin photograph. stood. c 

tetsu-do railroad. mo already, now, still. d 

watakuslii self, I. yube last night. 

doko where? (comp. koko}. zui-bun a good deal. 

aoi blue, green. ni in, by, at, to. 

chikai near. ye to, toward. e 

toi far, distant. sayo as you say, yes. 
sono that. b 


Mo niivatori ga nakimash'ta. Nihombashi f ni (at) sakanaiclii 
ga aru (arimas'). Kanda ni (in) \aomonoichi ga aru. Kono 
kisha wa doko ye ikimas' ka.g ffei,^ Takasaki 1 ye ikimas'. 
Ber'rin ni wa tetsudobasha ga oi. Yube kinjo ni kivaji ga atta 
(arimash'ta). Zuibun okiikwaji de atta(desh'ta). Ber'rin niwa 

a From met name, fame, and btitsu motto (same as motsu in kokumotsit). The 
word is applied to a product which is characteristic of a given locality and so 
comes to be associated with its name. 

b Corresponds to ano, kono. Kono may be called the pronominal adjective of the 
first person, sono, of the second,' and ano, of the third. See Ch. XIV. 

c This verb is properly intransitive and impersonal. Watakushiiva wakariniasii. 
I understand. Wakariinasen. I don't know. In some localities wakarimasen also 
means: I cannot agree; it won't do; it is impossible. 

d The beginner may find it difficult to distinguish mo and mada. The latter is 
commonly associated with negative ideas and may be used alone in the sense of 
"not yet." Mada samui. It is still cold, it is not yet warm. Mo means "still" only 
in such expressions as mo hitotsu still one, one more. 

e Words like this, corresponding to our prepositions, follow their nouns and 
should be called postpositions. See Chap. LXXVIII. 

f The name of a bridge in Tokyo {has/it bridge). In the next sentence Kanda 
is the name of a district in the same city, from kami god and ta paddy-field. 

g When an interrogative sentence is formed with a word like doko, the subject 
(or object) of the English sentence often takes wa. Ka may be omitted when 
interrogative pronouns or adverbs" are used. 

h Hei or hai is a mere interjection meaning that the speaker is attentive to the 
words which have been addressed to him. Sayo is used in the same way, when 
reflection is necessary before an answer can be given. 

i A town on the Nafasendv, one of the great highways of Japan. 


okii kivaji ga s'kunai. a Yube no kicaji wa ts'kebi de atta kere- 
domo, sono hi ivo ts'keta mono wa$ mada wakarimasen. Ko- 
naida o-jishin ga arimash'ta. Doits' ( Germany) ni wa jishin 
ga s'kunai keredomo, Nihon ni wa jishin ga oi. Anata no 
shashin ivo chodai. Kono shashin wa anata ni i/oku nite imas' . 
Kivaji wa toi ka. lie, chikai. Kono kinjo ni lionya wa ari- 
masen ka. Kono kinjo ni wa arimasen keredomo, ura-cho ni 
wa arimas'. Ano lionya wa takai. Chiisai jishin wa oi kere- 
domo, okii jishin wa s'kunai. Ano hito iva doko ye ikimas' ka. 
Oji c ye ikimas'. Kono kinjo ni sakanaichi ga nai ka. Arima- 
sen keredomo, aomonoichi iva arimas'. Tokyo ni wa kwaji ga 
oi. Edo no meibutsu iva kivaji to kenkwa da. Kivaji wa Edn 
no hana. d 

Is there a drug store (ga) in this vicinity? Where (2) does 
this horse-car (1) go? [It] goes to Asak'sa. e In Tokyo (ni wa) 
there are few horse-cars (horse-cars are few). The conflagration 
(of) last night was trifling (chiisakatta'), but the earthquake 
was severe (okikatta). f In Japan there are still few railroads. 
Are you going (do you go) to America? I do not yet know. 
This house is well built (manner of building is good). She is 
a foreigner (gwaikokujin). g Where (2) are you (1) going ? h 
I am going to the bookseller's. The gardener is planting (uete 
imas') flowers. Does this photograph resemble me (u-atakushi 
ni) ? Yes, it is a good likeness (well resembles you). There 
are many bookstores in New York. 

a If k-Maji were followed by wa, the natural implication would be that small 
fires were not infrequent. 

b Hi wo tsuketa mono the person who started the fire. Verbs, like adjectives, 
modify nouns, there being no relative pronoun in Japanese. 

c A village near Tokyo. 

d A proverb, suggested by the frequency of conflagrations in Edo (old name of 
Tokyo). The meaning is that conflagrations are the finest sights in Tokyo. Notice 
that the verb "to be" is often omitted in proverbs, for the sake of brevity. 

e The name of a district in Tokyo, from asai thin and Ansa grass. 

f Adjectives, like verbs, may be conjugated. 

g This term, 1 like Seiyojin, is practically limited to the European races. 

h In speaking of another's going, oidc dcsu is more polite than ikimastt. 



1. There are also compounds in which Chinese and Japanese 
words occur together: 

jo-bukuro envelope, from/o (c) letter and/wfcwro sack. 

ju-bako set of lacquered boxes, fromjii (c) pile up and hako. 

moto-kin capital, principal, from moto basis and kin(c) money. 

yu-to hot water vessel, from yu hot water and to (c) tub. 
Such mixed words are called jubako-yomi or yuto-yomi. Jo- 
mi means reading, or the pronunciation of the Chinese ideo- 
grams. If both characters in jubako were given the Chinese 
sound, they would read ju-so ; if Japanese, kasane-bako. So 
yuto is often read yu-oke and motokin, gwan-kin (c). 

2. In many compounds the words retain their proper meaning 
and in translation must be separated by "and": 

sai-shi (c) wife and child (ren), family. 

o-fuku (c) or iki-kaeri going and returning. 

ju-ge (c) above and below (also ue-shita^, up and down. 

3. In some cases there have been changes in the sound: 
akiudo, akindo merchant, from akinai trade and liito. 
nakodo a go-between (in marriage), from naka middle and hito. 


ie house. ne-dan price. 

ucld interior, house. ju-bako set of lacquered boxes. 

yado lodging, house. jozu skilful. a 

yado-ya hotel. Jieta unskilful. 

tonari next house, neighbor, yen circle, dollar ( two shil- 

misc shop, store. lings or 50 cents). 

kami paper. dai-ku carpenter. 

kutsu shoe. ryo-ri cooking. 

sliina, shina-mono wares. ryori-ya restaurant. 

slii-tate-ya tailor. [letter), sai-shi wife and child(ren). 

jo-bukuro envelope (of a to-butsu foreign goods. 

a Jozu, hcta and many other words used as adjectives are really nouns. When 
used as predicates they must be followed by desu (de gozaimasu}. Byoki tffstf is 
illness, i. e., is ill. Bimbo a'es is poverty, i, e., is poor, 


l.'ip-pu ticket. kuru (stem: ki) come. 

o-fuku going and returning. mwau receive. 

n ful; i!-tj ippti excursion ticket, tsnre-ru take along. 

are that one (person or thing), urn sell. 

kore this one kudasai please give me. 

dare who? tada, tatta only, merely. 

ikura how much? made until, as far as. 

ichi (c) one. de at, with, by means of. a 


Kono akindo no shinamono wa yasui. Watakushi no tonari 
wa tobutsuya des'. Ano ryoriya wa yoi ka } w&n*ii ka. Are 
iva ii ryoriya da. Kono yadoya no rydri wa yoi. Kono kinfo 
ni yadoya ga tak'san arimas'. Ii shashinya ivas'kunu-i. Diti- 
ku wa ie wo tatemas'. Kono sh'tateya wa jdzu des'. Kutsu- 
ya ga kimash'ta. Doko dejobukuro wo urimas' ka. Kamit/a 
de urimas'. Yokohama made no (to) qfkugippu (wo kudasai). 
Koi-e wa ofkugippti des' ka. Ano kuts'ya wa heta des'. Ano 
Nilionjin loa saislii wo tsurete Yoroppa ye ikimas'. Kono jii- 
bakowautsukusliii. Koreivautsukusliiijubako des'. Nihom- 
basld no kinfo ni iva akindo ga tak'san orimas'. b Kono ji>- 
bako wa ikura des' ka. Konojubako iva nedan ga yasui, tatta 
ichi yen des'. Kono yadoya no tatekata iva ii. Kono yadoi/a tea 
ii tatekata des' . Yubetonar^no uchi ni kwaji ga arimash'ta. 
Ts'kebi dc ntfii ka. Sayo, mada wakarimasen. Kono slm- 
dtin.ya wajozii </<-*\ Krto kinjo ni wa ryorii/ft n> nrumiNtt *Jti, 
yadoya mo arimas'. Ano sh'tateya wa yasui keredomo, 
des'. Ano kamiya nojobukuro wa warm. Dare ga 
Sh'tateya ga kimash'ta. 

a De is a postposition. In the sense of "at" or "in" de differs from ni in that 
it is used to indicate the scene of an action, while ni simply marks the place where 
a thing or person exists. Tokyo ni tomodachi ga arimasu. I have a friend in Tokyo, 
but Tokyo de tomodachi ni aiina.thita. I met a friend in Tokyo. 

b Oru ofiru must be used in saying that a person or a living thing is in such 
and such a place. But : wise ga tu Austin arimasu. It is, however, permissible to 
use aru even of a living thing when it is in question whether such a thing exists 
or not. So it is correct to say : Kono kinjo ni o islia san wa dritHOStft a. Is there 
no physician in this vicinity ? But here oriitiast'it would be more natural. 

c An interrogative pronoun as subject always requires^?, never ?!<<?. The subject 
of the answer also requires ga. 


This shoemaker is dear, but [he] is skilful. My tailor's house 
(uch-i) is" distant. My neighbor (tonari) is a photographer. 
How much (2) are these envelopes (1) ? These envelopes are 
cheap. Taking wife and children along he goes abroad (to for- 
eign countries). The peasant is selling (utte imas 1 ) grain. 
The gardener is planting flowers. [I] received his photograph. 
Are these lacquered boxes dear or cheap? [They] are dear. 
Who has come? The shoemaker has come. Please give me 
[some] envelopes. In this vicinity (1) there are many (3) 
dealers in foreign goods (2). In this vicinity there are no hotels, 
but there are many restaurants. My tailor is skilful, but the 
shoemaker is unskilful. At this shop do [they] sell paper also? 
Last night at the hotel next door (tonari no] there was a fire. 
That fire was due to incendiarism. This photographer is skil- 
ful. In (ni wa~) Berlin (1) there are many (3) good restau- 
rants (2). Excursion tickets are cheap. 


1. Nouns may be formed from adjective-stems by means of 
suffixes, such as sa and mi. 

atsu-sa heat, thickness from atsui. 

samu-sa cold (of weather) samui. 

tsumeta-sa cold (of things) tsumetai. 

taka-sa height takai. 

fuka-sa depth fukai. 

oki-sa size okii large. 

uma-mi deliciousness, sweet taste umai. 

yowa-mi weakness yoivai. 

Nouns in mi often denote a certain degree of the quality 
expressed by the adjective. 

niga-mi bitterish taste from nigai. 

kuro-mi blackish color kuroi. 

shiro-mi whitish color shiroi. 

aka-mi reddish tinge akai. 

In aka-mi lean meat, or red wood in the heart of a tree, shiro- 
mi white of an egg, or white wood, and ki-mi yolk, from Icii a 

a More usually called ki-iroi, from iro color. 


yellow, wn'isthe noun meaning meat, substance. 

'2. Many nouns are steins of verbs or compounds into which 
such steins enter. They may he abstract, or concrete, or both. 

ita mi pain, from litmin ache, be hurt. 

ktii'itxhiini distress, from kuntsltiimi grieve. a 

oboe memory, from oboc-ru remember. 

Itnnashi talk, story, from hanasu speak. 

liasanii shears, from hascunn place or hold a thing between 
two other tilings, as with chopsticks. 

hito-goroshi murder, murderer, from korosu kill (com]). p. 1<>). 

haim-iii! viewing the flowers, from mi-ru see. 

ijuki-mi viewing the snow, tsuki-in! viewing the moon. 


tun/it' year. 
//urn spring. 
natsu summer. 
'//,/ autumn. 
j'mjn winter. 
/*>//,-/ moon, month. 
' /", branch. 
]i<ix<i/ni shears. 
/'fit well. 
mizu water. 
yu, o iju hot water. 
ijiilci snow, 
/.'//(/i, gurai^ grade. 
do (c) degree (in measure- 

ri = 3900 meters or 2.44 m lies. 
/'//// yon (used by students). 

ii<mi. nan wliat? 
f/n//o wliich? (adjectival like 

iti (c) two. 

san (c) three. 

JH (c) ten. 

dtxi/i hot. 

samui cold, chilly (of the 

fx'tiitcttti cold (of things, air. 

water, etc.). 
It id ni cruel, dreadful. 
i>./',/c coming, going, being in 

a ]>lace (polite 2, 3). 
/.//// cut. 

kuroNU (stein: /,-o/vW//) kill. 
////-/// see. 

a From the adjectives itai and ktirushii we have also itasa and kurmhisa- 
These are more abstract, denoting rather the degree of pain or distress than Ihe 
sensation itself. 

b Enters into such combinations as ichi yen gurai about one yen, kono kiirai 
or kore kurai al>out this much. Whether to pronounce kumi or ^iirai is a matter 
of individual choice. Remember that knrai or ^nnii always follows the word 
which it moditics. 


oboe-ru learn, remember. kotoshi this year. 

t/nrJn'(ra), dotchi a which? nakanaka contrary to expec- 
(of the two), where? tation, very. 


Kotoshi no atsusa wa nakanaka hidoi. Kono kawa nofkasa 
iva dono kurai des' ka. b Konofuyu no samusa wa hidoi. Yjt 
wa nan do gurai atsui ka. San ju do des'. Kono yama no 
taJtasa iva dono kurai des' ka. Mada dono kurai des' ka 
ivakarimasen. Nilionjin wa haru yoku lianami ni ikimas'. 
Nihonjin wafuyu yukimi ni ikimas' . c Kaiva no mizu to ido 
no mizu wa dochira ga tsumetai ka. d Natsu iva ido no mizu 
ga tsumetai. WatakusTii wa oboe ga warui. Kodomo wa 
nakanaka oboe ga it. Uekiya ga hasami de ki no eda wo kitte 
imas'. Kono tetsudo no nagasa wa dono kurai des' ka. 
Niju rides'. Bitogoi^oshi wa hidoi moil* da. Aki wa tsuki- 
mi ga yoi. Anata doko ye oide des' ka. Hanami ni ikimas'. 

The cold (of) this year is very severe (strong). About how 
much is the depth of this well? Thirty meters (meitor'). e 
How high is this tree ? Twenty meters. This year ( iva] do 
you go to see the flowers? The water of this well is very cold. 
You have a good memory (Kimi iva memory is good). About 
how much is the length of this river? Thirty ri. Last night 
in Yokohama there was a murder. This year (1) there are 
many (3) incendiary fires (2). Where are you going? [I] am 
going to take a look at the snow. In summer the moonlight-views 
on the Sumida fare fine (good). In autumn the moonlight-views 
of Oji are fine. The cold in (of) Germany is very severe. 
The heat on (of) the Indian Ocean (Indo-yo) is dreadful. 

a The original sense of this word is, "which direction?" Anata wa dochira ye 
oide desu ka. Which way are you going ? 

b It is also correct to say dono kurai arimasu ka. Or we may say, Keno kawa 
Wa dono kurai fukai ka, where kurai is used adverbially. 

c In these two sentences haru nadfteyu are used like adverbs. When given the 
emphatic position at the beginning of the sentence they naturally take wa. 

d Notice the peculiar manner of expression. In such sentences the Japanese 
does not require a comparative form of the adjective. 

e It is (dtsti), or, There are (arimasu), thirty meters. 

f Sumidagawa is the name of a river that empties into Tokyo Bay at Tokyo. 



A sentence in which the predicate is an adjective ending in 
i, if the sentence is affirmative and of the present tense, needs 
no copula in familiar discourse: 

Natsu iva hi ga nagoi. In summer the days ;vre long. 

The copula must be used when the sentence is negative, or in 
a past or future tense. With forms of aru or nni the adjective 
takes the adverbial inflection by substituting the syllable ku for 
i. Such forms in ku coalesce with atta and aro in compounds 
like yokatta, yokaro. 

Fuyu iva hi ga nagakv -nni (arimascn). 

In winter the days are not long. 

Yiibe ica samukatta (x<rm>tki' arimashita). 

Last night it was cold. 

Sore wa yoroshikaro (yoroshiku arimasho}. 

That may do very well (be right). 

The most polite forms of the verb "to be" are gouanmasu, 
gozarimasen, gozarimashita, gozarimasho. usually contracted 
to t/ozd/masu, etc. When any of these forms of the verb is used 
the /, in the adverbial form of the adjective is elided and con- 
traction occurs. Thus. 

iKKjaku nag<i IKUJO 

shiroku shiron shiro 

war?ik war tit/- warn 

yori >xli ik/t yoroN/i i n yorox/i " 

Between the familiar forms like // (//"/) and the very polite 
Wins like //" i/o:-:niinasu a middle way may be taken by using 
desu. Thus: ii nodesu, iin' desu, ii tlcx/i, and so forth, (irani- 
matirally // iti'Sii and the like are o}>en to criticism, but among 
men it is becoming quite the fashion to add desu to adjectives 
in i. But one never says yoi de gozaimasu. 

The adverbial form in ktt is also used before the verb nurn 
become, natta^narimaskita^ became. //'//< m- //"/'/ <r<tr<>(utir!- 
may become, naranai (narimasen^) dors not become. 

a This chapter anticipates some points in the later and more complete discussion 
of adjectives, in order to enable the student to use them at once. 



hi day. nemui sleepy. 

kaki oyster. nurui tepid, not hot enough. 

meshi boiled rice, a meal yoroshii right, all right. 

(polite: go zen or go 7iero). ari-gatai (lit. hard to be) 
michi road. rare, precious. b 

maki-tabako cigar, cigarette. 3 naru become. 

bt/o-ki illness. kesa this morning. 

Niliongo Japanese language, yo-hodo, yoppodo a good deal. 

atarashii fresh, new. dan-dan gradually. 

furui ancient, old. kon-nichi to-day. 

itai painful. saku-nen last year. 

kitanai dirty, mean, indecent, tai-hen (lit. great change) 
mutsukasliii, muzukashii extraordinarily, very. 

difficult. kara from, after, since. c 


Mo osoku natta (narimash'ta}. Mada Jtayo gozaimas'. Mada 
osoku iva d gozaimasen. Sakunen wa watakushi no me ga tai- 
hen warukatta keredomo, kotoshi wa yoku natta. Mci ! yoroshu 
gozaimas'. e Kore kara dandan samuku f narimas'. Konni- 
chi wa o atsu gozaimas'. Watakushi iva nemukii natta. Anata 
iva o nemu gozaimas' ka. lie, nemu gozaimasen. Kotoshi tva 
hayaku samuku narimash'ta. ito gozaimas' ka. Watakushi 
iva ashi ga ito gozaimas'. Kono yu iva nuruku natta. Kono 
ido no mizu wa taihen tsumeto gozaimas'. Kono ie iva atara- 
gozaimas'. W atakushi no iewakitano gozaimas'. s Wata- 

a From maku roll, wrap. When necessary to make the distinction, a cigar is 
called Jia-makittibako and a cigarette, kami-makitabako. 

b As in arigatai oshie precious doctrine (of religion), arigatai koto something to 
be grateful for. Arigato gozaimasu. I thank you. 

c Kore kara henceforth. 

d Wa makes osoku emphatic : " It is anything but late. " Compare in the last 
sentence takaku wa. With wa the uncontracted adverbial form is used, at least in 
T6kyo : 

e J/rt is an interjection expressing satisfaction. The i in yoroshu is scarcely 
audible. The expression is about equivalent to: "Never mind; it's all right." 

f In English the comparative is more natural. 

g An expression of humility before a stranger : " I have too poor a house to en- 
tertain you properly. 


kushi ga ivarii gozaimash'ta. a Kesa no meslii wa tailien mam- 
katta. ll'dfakitski no tomodachi no bydki wa tailien yoku nari- 
mash'ta. Watdkushi no kao ga taihen akaku narimash'ta. 
Konnichi iva michi ga waru gozaimas'. Kore iva tako (dear) 
gozaimasho. lie, takaku iva gozaimasen. 

Mount Fuji b has become white. My friend's illness has be- 
come serious (difficult). [In] autumn the days gradually be- 
come shorter (short); [in] spring the days gradually become 
longer (long). That child has grown (become) very large. 
To-day it is very warm. Thank you. In (de wa) Japan oysters 
arc not dear. My illness is gradually getting better (becoming 
good). This rice is very delicious. This book is quite (yohodo) 
an old one. My shoes have gotten bad. From this on (wa) 
the days (ga) gradually become shorter. The cold (of) last 
year was very severe. The Japanese language is difficult. The 
earthquake (of) last evening was very severe. These cigars 
are cheap. Where (doko ga) does it hurt (is painful) ? My 
feet hurt. Are you sleepy? Yes, I have become very sleepy. 

a It was my mistake. Lit. I (and not another) was wrong, 
b Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan proper, between 3,700 and 3,800 meters, 
or 12,000 feet, high. It is called Fuji son, from sati (c) mountain, or Fuji noyania. 


The words corresponding to our personal pronouns are really 
nouns. They accordingly take the particles wa, ga, no, ni, ivo. 
The genitive case (with wo) corresponds to our possessi ve pronoun . 

In speaking to another person one must use different words 
according to the real or supposed rank of the one addressed. 
It is, however, usual to regard a stranger of presumably equal 
rank as one's superior, and a stranger of lower rank as one's 
equal. As a general rule it is to be observed that personal 
pronouns are not used so much as in European languages and 
may be omitted when the context makes it clear which person 
is meant. This is especially true of pronouns of the third per- 
son ; but those of the first and second persons, watakuslii and 
anata, are often used in polite conversation even in cases where 
their absence would not involve ambiguity. b 

1. The pronouns of the first person are: 

ivatakushi, ivataslii polite. 

ses-sha (lit. rude person) used by gentlemen of the old school. 

boku (lit. servant) used familiarly by men, as students, etc. 

ore, oira (ora) vulgar. 

te-mae (lit. this side, from te hand, side, and mae front, 

presence) humble. 

Watakuslii may be further contracted into icashi, but this is 
vulgar. With watafatshi, etc., iva tends to lose the sound ofw, 
thus: ivatasliia or wataslia. When the wa is very emphatic 
the a is made long: icatasha. Ore is derived from onore self; 
oira from the plural onore-ra. The classical pronoun of the 
first person, ware, and the possessive ivaga (as in waga Jcuni') 
are not used in conversation, but occur in speeches. c 

a Dai-mei-shi representative-name-word. 

b In sentences like "I will go too" the personal pronouns must, of course, be 
translated : IVatakushi mo mairirnashd. 

c Compare the proverb waga ta ye mhu wo hiku to draw water to one's own 
paddy-field, i. e., "to look out for number one." Ware really means self, and in 
some dialects is used of the second or third person. 


2. The pronouns of the second person are : 
anata Kama, anata formal, polite. 
o-mae san, omae polite toward inferiors. 
l-irni (lit. lord) corresponding to W.-//. 

ki-sma (from Id honorable) used in addressing one of 

the lower classes. 
te-mac contemptuous. 

Anata is derived from ano kata that side, that person. It is 
still used occasionally in the third person. Compare the Ger- 
man Er as formerly used of the second person. Sonata is im- 
polite. In law courts Jcisama is not permitted and sono Jto 
(from ho (c) side) is used by judges. This in ordinary spm-h 
would be contemptuous. 

With anata and other pronouns of the second person ic is 
often omitted. Anata do nasaimasliita ka. What is the 
matter (lit. How have you done)? At times anata stands 
apart from the construction like a vocative or an interjection. 

Notice that many of these pronouns which according to their 
etymology ought to be polite have in practice become familiar 
or vulgar. The classical nanji is never used in the colloquial. 
Foreigners should use anata generally, and in speaking to their 
own servants or to coolies omae. 

3. For pronouns of the third person such expressions as the 
following may be used : 

ano o kata, ano kata. 

ano o hito, ano hito. 

ano otoko, ano onna, ano ko less polite. 

are that one there. 

,nt*n (uno i/atsu'), *koitsu, soitsu vulgar. 

Of course, kono or sono may be substituted for ano in the above. 
The classical kare b is often heard in public addresses. Other 
expressions for he, she, it, they, are muko yonder side and ,<W,v 
front, which frequently take de or de wa. 

4. Plural pronouns are formed by the use of the suffixes <ji, 
i, doino and ra, or by doubling: 

a Yatsu is coming to be used more and more in the sense oimono thing or person, 
b Compare kare-korc this or that, about. 




(1) ivatdkusliidomo, a wasliira. 

(2) anatagata. 

omaesangata, omaetachi, omaera. 

(3) ano katagata. 

ano hitobito, ano hitotachi. 
Waga liai our company, is a familiar expression for "we," "us, " 

among students. 

Sometimes it is used in a singular sense. 

(Include the lists of personal pronouns.) 

baka fool, dunce. 
fude writing-brush. 
inaka country (opp. of city). 
kuruma wheel, vehicle,riksha. 
kuruma-ya > riksha-man. 
sha-fu (c) ) 
meshi-tsukai servant. 
na name. 

na-mae name (of person only). 
yd business. 
gak-ko school. 
go-fuku dry goods. 
i-slia physician. 
ka-nai household, wife. 
oku san madam, wife of one 

in good social standing. 


sen-sei master, teacher 

term of respect). 
sho-bai mercantile business, 


shoku-yyo occupation, trade. 
donata who? (more polite 

than dare). 

ikutsu how many ? how old ? 
liataclii twenty years old. 
mosu (stem: moshi) say, call 

(polite 1,3). 
oshie-ru teach. 
sum (stem: sK) do. 
ikanai (ildmaseii) it does not 

go, it won't do (German: es 

gelit nicht). 
ikenai (ikemasen) it cannot 

go, it's of no use. b 
kyo = konnichi to-day. 
nara if. 

sore nara (sonnara) if so, then. 
to that (at the end of a quo- 
hai,heil have heard you, yes, 

all right. 

a One may hear "ware-ware occasionally. 

b There is practically no difference between ikanai and ikenai. The latter is 
more common. These words may be used like adjectives, as in ikanai yatsu^ 



Anata wa doko no o katu de <jozaimas > A-r/. a Watakusln uri 
Toket^no mono de go;:<iim<ix . //'",sA/ n m-hi no mesh'teukai w 
innka no mori </<>. Kimi no sense i ir<i o.v/m7.v//V <j<i jn:.ii da? ka. 
Sayo, tailten jozu da. Sore nara boku mo iko. c Ano ko vu 
doko ye ikimas' ka. Gakko ye ikimas'. Boku no sense! ira ki/u 
hanami ni ikimas'. Omae icn to/' /ten osoi. Are tea doko n<> 
akindo des* ka. Hai, Yokolmmit no akindo des'. Ano hito K;I 
me ga warui. Koits* ica bak fl. (>u/<i< no ucJti ica doko 
k<i. Hai, A -icatakushi wa Tanaka san no kunanahiki de go- 
zaimas\ Ano okata ivaivatak uslii no sense i de gozaimas'. 
Anata no go sliokugyo wa nan de gozaimas' ka. Watakushi 
wa yqfknya de gozaimas*. Kimi wa doko ye iku ko. Bokn 
wa yukimi ni iku. . Anata (?r) donata de gozaimas' k<i. c 
Watakuslti tea ir<it<i/ ( ,if>e NaoyosJti* de yozaimuii. Ancta no 
ok'san iva o ikutftu de r/ozaimas' ka.s K<t/'i ir<i tun jii d<- 
gozaimas'. Watakushidomo no kuni ni ica tuk\vm. //<i,,/<i i/n 
gozaimas 1 . Anatagata no kuni iva samu gozaimas' k<>. >''<//,">, 
taihen sa-mu yozaimas*. Omaera -irn ii xhobai iro ftjn'f<- im.^ 
wasliidomo no shobai wa ike tut i. Yi~d>e irctakuxlti no xcJii ye 
gwaikoknjin </a ki/nash'ta; sono gicaikokujin wa akiiulodt-dcto. 
Ano hitotachi wa doko ye ikimas' ka. /Saifd, Katcasaki i ye 
tkimas'. Ano ko ica il ko da. Kore ic<> kin/i no hon da. K/- 
sama nan no yd da. Ano o kata we is/m de <jor.almas > . 

Where is he from (roan of where is he) ? [He] is from Ghosh a 

a Corresponds to our "Where are you from?" One may also say, Anata no o 
kuni laa dochira de gozaimas u kn. 

b Kei is an alternative pronunciation of kyo t the ideogram for capital. 

c I too will go (to him). 

d Hai or hfi often occurs in Japanese where we should not expect '"> 

e Or, O namae wa nan to osshaimasu ka. Assuming previous acquaintance: 
Donata de irasshaimashita kn. 

f Watanabe is the surname (myd-ji); Naoyoshi, the given name (na). The sur- 
name comes first in Japanese. 

g Or, O ikutsn ni o nari nasaimasn ka. .Yarn here does not mean "to become" 
in an objective sense. Compare the English, "1 low much docs it come to?" 

li Shite is the subordinate form of mru to do. SJwbai <> sum to do business, 

i The name f a station between Tokyo and Yokohama celebrated for its temple 
of Kobe >aishi(Daishisama}. 


(a man of Choshu). a My wife is from the country (inaJea no 
mono). My horse is still young (toshi ga ivakai). Your (Id- 
mi no) riksha-man is very slow. Where (2) is he (1) going? 
[He] is going for a bath (yu ni). Who (2) is that gentleman (1) ? 
[He] is my teacher. What is your name, please (Who are you)? 
My name is Qmori. b Are you ( kimi 1 ) going to see the flowers 
to-day (2) ? I too will go. You (temae) are a fool. Who are you 
(omae san) ? I am Mr. Matsubara's servant. To what school 
(school of where) are you (1 ) going? In our country there are 
few railways, but in your country (o kuni) there are many. How 
old (o ikutsu 2) are you ( 1 ) ? I am twenty. Is that your writing- 
brush? No, [it] belongs to the teacher (is the teacher's). His 
servant is from Toky5 (a man of Toky5). 


In connection with the pronoun of the second person it is 
desirable to call attention to a peculiarity of the Japanese lan- 
guage which must be well understood if one is to speak properly. 
In polite conversation with a person ( addressed as anata ) one 
must be careful to avoid undue familiarity in referring to things 
which belong, or stand in any important relation, to the one 
addressed. Eespect is indicated by prefixing to nouns of Japan- 
ese origin o (from on, still used in very formal speech) and 
go (rarely gyo) to Chinese words. 

Anata no o me wa ikaga de gozaimasu ka. 

How are your eyes? 

Nan no go yd de gozaimasu ka (lit. Business of what is it?). 

What are your commands ? What do you wish ? 
The same rule is observed in speaking respectfully of a third 
person. Thus to a servant at the door: 

a The name of a province at the western extremity of the main island. The 
original name is Nagato " long gate." Cho is the Chinese for " long," and shit is 
" country." 

b 'Omori to indshimasu. 70 is a particle indicating a quotation, and is sometimes 
translated by "that" but sometimes is untranslatable. Mairu to [He] 
says that he is going. Kore lua nan to moshimasn ka. What is this called ? For 
another use of nmu see the second sentence on p. 56 and p. 95 c, 


Danna sama iva o uclii dcnn- ka. 3 - 

Is Mr. (the master) at home? 

The prefixes o and go may also be attached to adjectives, 
adverbs, numerals and verbs. Attention will be called to such 
instances later. 

These prefixes have become inseparable parts of certain 
compounds : 

go sho palace (of the Emperor). 

go zen, go han cooked rice, meal. 

o tama-ya ancestral shrine, sepulcher (of princes). 

o ashi money. 

o hiya cold drinking water (woman's word). 

o naka abdomen, stomach. 

o shiroi face powder. 

With certain words these honorifics are invariably used by 
women and children, though men may dispense with them. 

go ho-bi reward. o kwa-shi cake. 

o ton tray. o yu warm water. 

o cha tea (but cha noki). o ten-ki weather. 

o hi fire. o ten-id sama sun. 

o home rice. o tsuki sama moon. 

Another prefix expressing respect, mi, occurs occasionally in 
compounds like: 

mi-kado Emperor (obsolete), from If ado gate. 

mi-kotonori imperial rescript. 

mi-ya shrine, imperial prince, from yu house. 
In o mi ashi, a woman's expression, we find both honorifics. 
Women may even be heard to say o mi o tsukc (o tsttki' soup 
made of miso), o mi o hachi (o Jtachi a vessel to hold cooked 
rice, from hachi, bowl). 

Rules for the use of honorifics are impossible: one must 
simply observe the usn^e. Some \\-onls whose Chinese origin is 
forgotten take o instead of go, like o cha, o tent<> sum". Als. > : 

a A more complete expression is o nchi de ("0 irassJiaimasu ka. Irasshani is 
polite for int. If Chinese words are used, this becomes:^' zai-tukn dcsn t j, ;<?' 
being the equivalent of arit or iru. 


o dai-ji(\\i. important matter). 3 o r?-i thanks. c 

o ka-gen state of health. b o se-ji civility, flattery . 

o ni-kai second floor, upstairs. o taku house. 

Again, go may be used with a Japanese word; e. g., with mot- 
tomo reasonableness, 41 nengoro cordiality, or with the adverb 
y/(kkiir-i to leisurely. 6 

With some words either o or go may be used: 
o tan-jo-bi or go tanjobi birthday. 
o shoku-gyd or go shokugyo occupation. 

Some words are never used with honorifics, as sen-sei teacher, 
shitsii-rei impoliteness or shik-kei disrespect (students' word). 
But: go bu-rei rudeness. 

Sometimes euphony forbids the use of an honorific. Thus 
we never hear o oku san. In some instances only special words 
may be used with o and go. Thus we say not o atama, but o 

In some cases it is usual to add the honorifics even when 
speaking to inferiors, as in Go ku-ro Thanks for your trou- 
ble (oki ni go kuro de atta). 


kami (samd] god. (o) matsuri local religious fes- 

mi-ya sama imperial prince. tival. 

(o) mi-ya shrine. (o) tsumuri head. 

danna (san) master. (o}yasliiki mansion (includ- 

o tama-i/a ancestral shrine, ing grounds). 

sepulcher (of a person of (o) kome rice. 

high rank). toki time. 

o hiya cold drinking water (o) bon tray. 

( women's word). (o) cha tea. 

a O daiji ni nasal. Take good care of yourself (lit. Make it an important thing). 

b From ka increase and gen decrease. But ki-gen temper, state of health, takes 
go only. 

c O rei may be my thanks to another or another's thanks to me. O rei -wo mo- 
shiagetai I wish to offer [you] my thanks. O rei nado ni wa oyobimasen. Thanks 
are unnecessary (lit. It does not extend to thanks and the like). 

d Go mottonio de gozaimam. You are quite right. 

e Go yukkuri nasai. Don't be in a hurry to leave, 





(o~)t(/k residence. house. 
(f>)'-/V civility, llattery. 
(o) tcn-ki weather. a 
</o sho imperial palace. 
(j/o) cJti-x<~> treat, feast, b 
cn)-jiu a distant place. 
ib'-rct beautiful, pretty, dean, 
kd-dai immense, magnificent. 
rippn splendid. 
ijijxii a cup-ful, one vessel- 

ileki-m issue, result, be pro- 

duced, accomplished. d 

ini polite for -iku, km- it 

(1, 3). 
n)txii (stem: mocJii) have, 

motte koi bring (lit. having 

[it]come!). e 
olde nasaru polite for 11: ti, 

k/irit(2, 3). 

cJtoito, cliotto just a moment. 
kom-bau this evening. 
n'lii-lxin number one, most. 
fa/-so exceedingly, very. 
ik<t</</ how ? 
oi hello ! say ! 

Danna sama^ -uekiijri </<i inairiiuash'ta. So Jca : nan it<> i/<~> 

(lel-it<i l-fi. 01, 6Ws-Y.r '. rliotfu ko/(<>i<f<'\ H<'i. i/mtnn xtiinU. 
no it ito go i/d <?<' </<>::<' IHKIN l:<i. C/ic iro nmttc l:ol. Go slto tea 
ilt- <i<wn,iniH leu. Tic, l-ono kin jo <fc (/oz<u'>ri<tn\ Tok'U- 

. T<~>k" <!<' tea 

a O tad-i tlesu. It is fine weather. 

b When a person comes by invitation to a dinner he' says : Konnichi ica &> c/iisv 
tie ifoziiiMKisit. On taking his leave: Go c/iiso ni narimashita or Go chiso snmn. 

c A7/v/, /{("'</(?/, rippa, belong to the class of adjectives, mostly of Chinese der- 
ivation, which are really nouns, requiring in the attributive position the suffix iiti, 
and in the predicative position taking tiesit (de goz'iiinusit}. The first two are apt to 
mislead the foreigner because they end in /'. Beware of saying: fcedai yashi&i ot 
A'<>>ii> /m>iii wi bird. 

d DeKimasn it can be done, one can do it. 

e Koi is too rude a word for a beginner to use acceptably even in commanding 
servants. It is better to say : Motte oiJc nasai. Oidc imsai is the imjierative of 
oid,' nasaru. 

f In addressing any one, the name is sufficient. A vocative particle is not need- 
ed. Yo is often used after the divine Name in prayer, and r<i by men in calling 
their wives, and by parents in calling their children, by name. 

g A name commonly given to men-servants. 

h In compounds /v means house, family. Ti>kn^a~i'ii is the name of a family 
whose representatives held the position of shf^ttn from l6'>j until the abolition of 
the feudal system. 


Shiba to Ueno ni arimas'. 3 - Nikko no o tamaya wa rippa 
de gozaimas'? matsuri ni wa Into ga kami sama ni mairi- 
mas'. Komban no o tsuki sama wa kirei des'. Konnichi iva 
ii o tenki de gozaimas'. Yube o tonari de go chiso ni natta 
(was entertained). Kyo no gozen wamazui. Kyoto no o shi- 
roi wa ii. Kono o shiroi iva nioi ga ii. Kore iva doko no o 
cha de gozaimas' ka. Uji no c o clia de gozaimas'. hiya ivo 
ippai chodai. yu ga atsu gozaimas' ka. Kono o bon iva 
kirei de gozaimas'. Kono o sakana iva taiso oishiu gozaimas'. 
Kotoshi wa o home ga yoku dekimash'ta. Anata no o taku iva 
dochira de gozaimas' ka. Watakushi no taku iva Shiba de go- 
zaimas' A Ano akindo iva o seji ga ii. 

$ir(danna san), Mr. Tanaka's rikshaman has come. 
What does he want (on what business came)? The im- 
perial palace at (of) Kyoto is not at all(c?e ica naij e magnifi- 
cent. Sir, what are your commands (what business is it)? 
Bri ug [some] rice ( go zen). The sepulchers of the Tokugawa 
family are in the vicinity of [my] home. Then is your residence 
in Shiba ? No, it is [in] Ueno. To-day the weather is bad. 
Are you going to see the flowers to-day ? If the weather is 
fine ( Tenki ga yokereba).Ivfi\\ go. Both the rice and the 
fish are delicious to-day (1). The tea of Uji is the best. 
Give me a cup (2) of tea (1 ). Is that cold or hot water (Is it 
cold water ; is it hot water)? At (ni wa] the Kanda festival 
fish is dear. Is your residence far [from here] ? No, it is [in] 
this vicinity. How (2) is your head(l) ? How much (2) is 
this tobacco ? It is only one yen. That prince's mansion is 

a The wa after de implies that there are also sepulchers in other places. Shi- 
ba and Ueno are names of parks in Tokyo. 

b Nikko is a place north of Tokyo, the site of the mausolea of the first and third 

c A place south of Kyoto celebrated for its tea. 

d De here does not mean " in ". It marks Shiba as a predicate noun. Lit. In 
regard to my house it is Shiba. Compare : Anata iw o taku wa kono kinjo desii 
ka. It would also be correct to say: Shiba ni arimasu or kono kinjo ni arimasii. 

e IVa is generally attached to de in a negative sentence. De wa is often con- 
tracted loja. Sdja nai- That isn't so, 



The demonstrative pronouns are: 
/."//n. ftono. a, >n adjectival. 
kore. sore, arc substantival. 

Kono anil kore have reference to persons or things connected 
with the s]>eaker; sono and sore, to those connected with the 
person addressed; a no and an' to those which are removed 
from both. Kono, sono, kore, sore, may also have reference to 
persons or things that have just been the subject of conversation. 
Kono, sono, ano are often equivalent to kore no, etc. 
Kane no kaicari ni instead of money. 
Sono kmca.ri ni instead of that. 
Hako no uclii ni inside the box. 
Sono uclti ni inside that (also, within a short time). 
Kono noclii (kono go} after this, hereafter. 
Ko,-e. sore, arc are used with words like k><rai, -fake, lio-lo, 
though we might expect kono } etc. Thus; kore <jura i (ko/io 
(jttrai is also proper), kore <lake, kore liodo this much, to this 
extent. But kono hodo means " recently." 
Kore, sore, are may denote a place or a time: 
Kore kara from this point, henceforth, next. 
Kore made until now. a 
Sore kara uchi ye. kaerimashxfa. 
After that I returned home. 
An- kara. Tokyo i/t>i>/e kidta tie mairimaxltita. 
Thence to Tokyo I went by train. 

In the compounds kon-af<f>i. ko-toslii we have the demonstra- 
tive pronoun. But in kon-nen this year, kon-yetsu this month, 
koit-itfr/n' to-day, kon-ya to-night, etc., we have the Chini--v 
njuivalent of l,. 


(Include demonstrative jm nouns.) 
(Latin: jm!^} bread. fmn' shi]>, boat. 
pen. JinrJi! pot. bowl. 

a In these examples koko, here, or /;//<?, now, might Ix; substituted for koiv. Such 
worJs as koko and ima ought really to be included in a complete list of pronouns, 


hi-bachi fire-box. kawari a substitute. 

kotatsu quilt-warmer . a kaeru return. 

dai-jin minister of state. matvaru turn, go round, 
do-butsu animal. travel about. 

dobutsu-en zoological yasumu rest, retire, sleep. 

garden! yasumi vacation. 

ji-slio dictionary. kon-getsu this month. 

mikan mandarin orange. koro period of time. c 

soko that place, there. kono-goi-o recently. 

attdkai, atatakai warm. saku-jitsu yesterday. 

ire-ru put into. fu-dan(ni) usually, 
iru is or are required, generally. 

needed. tai-gai, tai-tei for the most 
iri-yo need (noun). b part, almost. 

kawaru be changed, mata again. 

substituted. shikashi but (See p . 8a ) . 


Kore ioa nan de gozaimas' ka. Sore wa s'tobu de gozaimas'. 
Nihon ni mo gozaimas' ka. Taigai Nihon ni wa gozaimasen 
ga sono kaivari ni hibachi to kotatsu ga gozaimas'. Anata, 
konofude wa o iriyd de gozaimas' ka. lie, sonofude wa iri- 
masen ga ano fade wa irimas'. Sakujitsu ivatakushi loa 
dobutsuen ye mairimash'ta. Sore kara doko ye oide nasai- 
mash'ta ka. Sore kara rydriya ye mairimasli'ta. Kore wa 
anata no o uma de gozaimas' ka. lie, tomodaclii no des'. 
Oi, Take\ cha ivo motte oide, sore kara hi wo irete o kureA 
Kimi, kore kara doko ye fltu ka. Kore kara ucJii ye kaeru. 
Mata sono ucld ni mairimaslid. * Kono aida Itaria ni liidoi 

a A hibachi is a pot or box filled with ashes upon which charcoal is burned. 
A kotatsii, is the same arranged so that it can be covered with a quilt and used for 
wanning the feet and hands. 

b Sore iva iriyd desu. That is needed. 

c Used like kurai (See p. 22b). Itfu goro about when ? 

d Motte koi would be impolite. Insfead of the simple imperative one may also 
use the subordinate form with the imperative of knre-ru give, with or without the 
honorific o, thus : motte kite (o]kure. More polite than kure is kudasai, the impera- 
tive of kudasaru. 


ijn arima&h'ta : noun fold ni Nihn ni /<> z>'/'l/n oktijt- 
ii (i,-iiiixh'f". Kre irn irf/ri'i jisho f/r.s-'. Kniini/nro 
taihat fi <> tcttki <f< j ;/" ///m.v'. Kongetsu n'n i/t/J.-J.-r, <// 

V.N-'. a Kotoslit no IKitxii no ntKiimi /rn n<il'U'n<ik A/Wo 

ffozaimas'. Are ica Kixhii n<> mfkambunej* 

Recently a Japanese minister of state went to Germany. 
Then he went (o man-art n! narimash'ta) to Russia. Recently 
the weather has been (is) bad. Where (2) are you going next 
(1) ? Next I am going home. Is that a good pen? No r [it] 
is a bad one. Then give [me] that writing-brush. Do -the 
Japanese generally eat bread? No, instead of that they cat 
rice (meshi). To-day the school takes a vacation (it is a rest)' 
Is this a good school? Yes, [it] is a very good one.' Do you 
need (o iriyo des' A-) this dictionary? No, I don't need it. 
Then please give [it] to me. Spring (of) this year is q.uite 
warm. Is there a zoological garden in Tokyo (1) ? Yes. then- 
is (aru koto ica <//////"*'), but there are few (2) animals (1). 
This month ('") the Japanese go a great deal (yofctt) to see 
the flowers. Next I am going for a bath (yu). This flower 
is pretty : but [its] odor is bad. Is that a German (Doit*' HO) 
ship? No, it is a French (Frails' no) ship. 


"The same" is to be rendered onaji (adverbial form: ounji- 

Sore iva onaji k<>t<> r/ 

That amounts to the same thing (is the same thing). 
With some Chinese words compounds are formed by means 
of <f<~>, the Chinese equivalent of onji. 

a Notice the peculiar manner of expression. 

b A'iior A'i-s/iH (Compare Choshu p. 3Oa) is the name of a province o:; tin- cuast 
between Tokyo and Osaka, nearer the latter city. This sentence is taken from a 
popular song. Mikamlnine is com|X)uii(ll of iniknn and _///;/. 

c The stem of the verb treated as a noun, with the honorific c prelixeil. is used 
with Hiisiini or ///' mint when speaking respectfully of others, n.s alwve. 

d Omiji iuo>io would be concrete, meaning the identical object, or, inexactly, an 
object of the same class. Onaji X-c/c ( often pronounced onasli Xv/c) means rather 
the same idea. 

XV] "SAME," "SUCH." 39 

dd-koku= onaji kuni the same province. 

do-do = onaji michi the same road. 

do-nen = onaji toslii the same year. a 

dd-i, dd-setsu the same opinion. 

dd-yd the same manner. 

do-kyu-sei (lit. same class pupil) a classmate. 
"As" in "the same as" is to be rendered to. 

Kore wa are to onaji mono desu. 

This is the same as that, or, 

Kore mo are mo onaji mono desu. 

This and that are the same. 

Watakushi mo anata to ddsetsu desu. 

I too am of the same opinion with you. 
"Such" may be variously rendered: 

ko iu, kayo na } ko iu yd na, kono yd na, konna.^ 

so iu, sayd na, so iu yd nafwno yd na, sonna. c 

a iu, a iu yd na, ano yd na, anna. 

The contracted forms konna, sonna, anna used attributively 
are often contemptuous. With ni they are also used adverbially 
in the sense of "so". 

Sonna ni mutsukashiku arimasen. 

It is not so difficult [as all that]. 
Here so may be substituted for sonna ni. 


(Include words meaning "such"). 

koto thing, affair (abstract), ji (c) character, ideogram, let- 

kotoba word, language, dia- ter, word. 

lect. koku (c) country (only in 

te-gami letter, epistle. composition). 

wake sense, reason, cause. en(c)year. 

dd (c) road (only in compo- satew(c) card, note, paper 

sition). money. 

a In the sense of " the same age " onaji toshi is contracted to onaidoshi. 

b Ko in yo would be literally: thus say manner. Na is the adjectival suffix. 
Compare kodai na yashiki or kirei na liana. 

c Ko has reference usually to what is to follow in the course of the conversation ; 
so, to what precedes. 


yd (c)manner. a sukoNhi a little (substantival). 

i-mi meaning, purport. iro-iro no, iroiro na, immta 

sho-sci, (/aktt-sei student. various, from iro color. 

sho-kin specie. chit/an ditt'er. 

gwaikokn-go foreign langua- do (polite 1,3). 

ges. b iu say. 

chikn-sho beast. oi'n be (of a living thing), 

Shina China. dwell. d 

onaji, do (c) same. txt/kau use, employ. 

mezurasliii uncommon, sin- yomu read, 

gular. irna no\v. 

nikui detestable (in com- metta ni seldom (with nega- 
position: difficult). tive verbs). 

kochi, kotchi, kochira in this ko, so, a thus, in that man- 
direction, here. c ner. 

mina, minna all, all together, cja but (Sec p. Sa). 


Nihonjin wa Shina Jin to onaji ji wo ts'kaimas' Iceredomo 
yomiijn (/a cTdgaimaf. Kono tegami wa <ntoto no to onaji 
toki ni kimash'ta. Satsu wa ima shdkin to onaji koto <!<*. 
Sore wa kore to onaji nedan <le gozaimasf. Kono koto tea kd 
iu wake des\... Kono kotoba wa kd iu imi des\.. Ko in wu- 
tsirkashiiji wa taihen oboenikui. e So in shinamono wa Nilto/t 
<t<' wa mezurashiu gozaimas 1 . wa onoj! /n'fo <ja, 
ni do f kiiit'txJi'ta. }}'<itaktrxli! ira <nn>o koto to <ld inn </c '/<>- 
zaimas 1 . Kore wa are to onaji lion des' ka. lie, c/tiga,'-iiaiN\ 

a Much used in such expressions as: Ano kcdoino li'ii iji ga n'tirni vo iksit. 
That child seems to be ill-natured. 

b Compare .Yi/ioi-^o Japanese language,' and zokii-gp colloquial. 

C Compare dcclii, tiofc/ii, ticchira (p. 233). Similarly : sof/ii, soff/ii, spfJiira ; afhi, 
atc/n\ achira. The ra here is the same as the sign of the plural. These words 
are like nouns and may be used with postpositions. Kochini vc vide inisui. Come 
this way. Achi kofhi here and there. 

d Orn is synonymous with int. SeeCli. V. 

e By adding nikiti to the stems of verbs many coni|)ound adjectives like this are 
formed. The opposite of nikui or kufai^jftn) is y<isni or v< /. 'Iliu-: </',. . 
i>/'i>,' rirsitt, n'lii-nri-vusiii, -n'likitri-viii, etc. 

I I wice. See Ch. X., Vocal)ulary. 

XV] "SAME," "SUCH". 41 

Gwaikokugogakkd no sensei wa minna Nihonjin des' ka. lie, 
cln(l almas'', Shinajin ya Nihonjin ya Fr ants' jin ya Doits' Jin 
ya iroiro no kuni no hito ga orimas'. 3 - Kono yama no takasa 
tea Fujisan to onaji koto des'. Go dodo itashimasho.^ A iu 
yd na shinamono wa nedan ga takai ka. lie, so de wa ari- 
masen; yasu gozaimasho. Ko iu yd na okii uma wa Nihon 
ni orimasen. Kono sliosei iva ano shosei to donen des'. Ni- 
hon no ugvis'.u'a Seiyo no to onaji koto des' ka. lie, s'koshi 
chigaimas'. So iu kami iva kotchi ni nai. Anna warui nin- 
gen iva mezurashii. Sensei ! Kyoto no kyo wa Tokyo no kyo 
to onaji koto des' ka. c Sayo, onaji koto des'. Inu chik'sho 
ddyd no itash'kata des' A 

This character means the same (is the same meaning) as 
that character. Nihon and Nippon (to ica) are the same thing. 
Eclo and Tokyo are the same place. He (1) came by the same 
ship (3) as you (2). e The length is different, but the price is 
the same. That character has this (ku ') meaning. Such a 
word is very hard to remember. There are many such diffi- 
cult characters. Cold (3) as severe (2) as this (1) is rare. In 
(ni iva} Japan (1 ) there are fcAv (5) such (2) high (3) houses (4). 
That farmer is a man (mono) of the same province as I. 
This tree is [of] the same height as that tree. In (de ica) 
Japan such fish are cheap. My children and [my] neighbor's 
(tonari no) children are of the same age. Those children are 
uncommonly ill-natured (Such ill-natured children are un- 
common ) . Saikyo is the same thing as Kyoto, f but the mean- 
ins of the names is different. 

a In some such cases either am or iru (orif) may be used. It depends on 
whether one thinks more of the place or of the person. 

b Or O (onto (we) itashimasho, or Go dolian itashiniaslw, fn m /inn (c) to accom- 

c Is the kyo in Kyl>to the same as the kyo in Tokyo ? 

d It's a beastly way of acting. In inn chikusho we have an instance of the asyn- 
detic construction. With words like d\vo the particle to is often omitted. 

e " Ship " is in Chinese sen. Accordingly: do-sen. 

f Sai-kyo west capital, in distinction from To- kyo east capital. In Kyoto, kyo is 
the same capital and to is likewise capital or a chief city. Compare to-kzvai 
city, metropolis. 

42 l^HE PKONOUtf. [XVI 


The following serve as interrogative pronouns (gimon-dai- 

y//r/V//). a 

dare who? 

don.iitd who? (polite). 

nani, nan what? 

dare which ? ( substantival ) . 

I/OHO which? (adjectival). 

doclii, dotchi, dochira which ? (of the two, or of a very 

limited number), where? 
do iu, do iu yd na, dono yd na, donna of what kind? what 

sort of a . . . ? 

A plural is formed by doubling. Thus: dare dare, dorr- 
dorc, nani nani.^ 

The substantival forms take the same particles (ga, no, ui. 
loo, de, etc.) as nouns. Observe that ga, not wa, occurs usually 
with interrogative pronouns. 

Dni-c <jn i/tftir/)itnt<htta kit. Who came? 
Koi'e iva dare no mono desu ha. Whose is this? 
In this last mono may be omitted. 
Nani may be used like an adjective. 

Xmii l/ito (naikptto) dc yozaiiiHtxIin Jca. 
What sort of a man may he l)e? 
Nan win <irini<i*ii ka. 
How many persons are there ? 

Nau<lii J t -<i, nun dt'.st/ Jen is frequently u<ed as an expletive. 
The Japanese often say "how? " where we should say 

a Doko where? and itsn when? might also with propriety l>c included in this 
list, as they are parsed just like nouns or pronouns. 

b These words are closely joined in pronunciation and an almost inaudible //creeps 
in : dnn-intiiiY, d^rcniloiv. Hut the two parts are kept distinct in the exclamation: 
f)iy i/<>;- \VhtTc is it ? This last is often a mere interjection i-xpn-s.-iiig surprise. 

C In .\'<ini wii </<"> iKirinitjs/iifti /v? How about that matter ? we havean a]i|)arenl 
exception ; hut nani here is really used indefinitely, like our "what do-you-call-it ", 
referring to a thing or person whose name is momentarily forgotten by the speaker. 
\Ye have a real exception in /><rr,' r.w kite ilnrc T,W kiniascn k<i Who came and who 
did not come ? 


Do ilasliimaslio ka What shall I do? But: 
Omae iva nani wo sum ka What are you doing? 
Dare, like nani, may in certain connections be used like an 
adjective. Thus : dore ouzoi. dore dake, dore Jwdo are equiva- 
lent to dono gurat, etc., "how much?" See Ch. XIV. 

Instead of dono we find doko no or dochira no, when the 
place or source is the ohject of inquiry. 

Omae wa doko no gakko ye ikimasu ka. 
To what school are you going? 

Do iu, donna, etc., inquire after the nature of a thing. Do 
sliita (lit. how did?) is used in the samo way. Observe further 
the very frequent idiom nan to iu (lit. what say?) which 
inquires after the name, but in many cases is practically syn- 
onymous with do hi. 

Are wa do iu (do sliita^) Into desu ka. 
W T hat kind of a man is he? 
C Kono sakana iva nan to iimasu ka. 
\ Kore ica nan to iu sakana desu ka. 
What do you call this fish? or, What fish is this? 
Which day? (of the month) isnannichi or ikka, from iku 
how many. a 


(Include interrogative pronouns.) 

ika cuttle-fish. te-narai practicing penrnan- 

iro color. ship. 

kasa umbrella. dai-gakko, dai-gaku univer- 

kura store-house. sity. 

kane metal. gaku-mon learning. 

me-gane spectacles. Jid-ritsu law, statute. 

tate-mono building. kica-shi sweetmeats, cakes. 

do-gu utensils, furniture. moku-teki object, purpose. 

furu-dogu eecond-hand fur- suteislwn railway station. 

niture, curio. toka tenth day. 

te hand. migi the right. 

narau learn, practice. aoi green, blue, pale. 

a The Japanese in making engagements name the day of the month rather than 
the day of the week. 


tame advantage ( no tame mixc-ru show. a 

ni for). go ran see 

uclii within ( 710 uclti ni (polite 2, 3). 

among). moc/tii-rti use. 


KonoTcotoba ira <1<~> In inti dex 1 ka. Knno kaini tra not! ni 
mochiimas' ka. Kore wa tenarai ni moeltHinax. Anata ira 
duko no s'teishon ye oide nasa/imas? ka. I fa!, -n-afakt/N/t! /ra 
Shimbashi no s'teishon i/e ///air/mas'. Kono furudogn no )></>! 
de b dore ga ichiban i! ka. Konojubdko ga idiiban IL Kore 
wa do iu tokoro de gozaimas' ka. Kore ira Tokyojucho* de 
gozaimas'. Nani ivo go ran ni iremashd ka. 3/cgane ira ;/?/- 
sete kudasai. Do iu megaitc iro go ran ni -irernaslio ka. Aoi no 
ivo& misete kudasai. Doko no furudoguya ga jcju'han ii ka. 
Kono tatemono wa nan des 1 ka. Kore ira kttra des'. Kono 
nchi ni, nani ga irete arimas 1 ka. Kono xchi ni ie no dogu 
ga irete, arimas'. e Dare ga kifa ka. Anata no o tornoifarlii 
ga oi'fe nasaimasKta. Kore wa dona t a no ka*a de gn-ai'ina.S 

ka. Koi*e Wa wafakx/t! no <fe gozat'iita.J. Kijo ira nan- no 

matsuri des' ka. Ki/o wa Kompira sama f no o n/atx/iri de 

gozaimas'. Koiut/r/,/' tra nan ,//<///' de go:-a!)i/a.^ lea. Kon- 

niclii wa toka de gomimas'. Anata wa nan no iiiok'leki dc 

Seiyo ye oide nasaimas' ka. (ial-nmon no tame ni 

A""// nn gakx/t/on de gozaimas' ka. Hort'^f < 

Dok<> no dafgaktr i/e oi't/e naxa/nia.S lea. ller'rin- no dafgaku 

a More ix>lite i.s^<i ran ni ircru (lit. put into the honorable look). Another polite 
expression is : o me ni kakcrit (lit. hang on honorable eyes). 

b Notice that here de is used rather than ni. Compare: Kono furtuldgu iw nchi 
ttikatattaga ariwisu ka. 

c Tlie city-hall of Tokyo. Ordinary prefectures are called ken, but those which 
include the three great cities, Tokyo, Osaka and Kyoto, are called fit. Clio (c) means 
office. Compare kencho. 

d The green ones. Aoi no is equivalent to aoi mono, noi />/t/i, or, in vulgar parlance, 

do! I'lf/SH. 

e Dvgn 7( '(> //</< orn would mean that some one is ])utting them into the knm* 
\Mt dSguga irete aru means tliat tliev have lieen put into the knni and are there. 
The former denotes an act ibn; the latter, a state. Kquivalent to />,/< urn is haiite 
cm they are inside (entering). 

f Name of a god. See Murray's Hand-book, List of Gods. 


ye mairimas'. Kore wa nan to iu sakana des' ka. Kore wa 
ika des\ Dotclii no aslii ga warui ka. Migi no aslii ga ivarui- 
shokugyo iva nan des' ka. 

What (2) flower is that (1)? Those are cherry blossoms. 
Who lias come (came)? A European has come. Whose (2) 
is this "book (1)? [It] is the master's book. Show me an um- 
brella. What kind of an umbrella shall I show you ? What 
(2) meaning has (is) this character (1)? Whose (2) is this 
dictionary ( 1 ) ? It is my friend's. Which university is the 
best? Which restaurant is the cheapest? To what (what 
called) place are you going? I -am going to Yokkaichi. a Who 
(2) put that (1 ) into the lacquered boxes ? What do hares eat ? 
To which bookseller are you going? What kind of (2) meat 
is that (1) ? It is venison. Which flowers did the gardener 
plant? [On] what day (of the month) is the festival of Kom- 
pira ? The festival of Kompira is [on] the tenth. [Of] what 
color is the cormorant? The color of the cormorant is black. 
What bird is that? That is a heron. For what (2) do thoy 
use these lacquered boxes (1)? They put cakes into [them]. 


Interrogative pronouns may be made indefinite (fujo-dai- 
meislii)\)j adding the particles ka, mo, de mo. Thus: 
N. dare ka dare mo dare de mo 

G. dare ka no dare no mo dare no de mo 
D. dare ka ni dare ni mo b dare ni de mo 
A. dareka(ivo')dare(ivo')mo dare de mo 
Dare ka is vague and means "some one," "somebody;" in 
questions, "any one," "anybody." Dare mo is comprehensive : 
"any one," "every one." It is mostly used with negative ex- 
pressions, in which case it must be translated "no one." Dare 
de mo is likewise universal, but it individualizes ("any one 
you please"), and is more commonly used with affirmative 

a A harbor on the coast of the province of Ise. 

b Compare: Dare ni mo kikimasen. He inquires (lit. hears) of no one. Dare 
ni kiite mo so ht hanashi dtsu. Such is the story, ask whom you will, 


Dare ka kimasJ/if" lea. Has any one come? 

Dart- mokimasen. No one has come (comes). 

DII,-C d<> nin kite yoroshii. Any one at all may come. 

Dare de ///<> korarenmsen. Not a single one ran e<>me. 

Dare mo sJtitte in/ Every one knows it. 

J Jit re de mo sliitte -imasu. 

Every one (though he be a fool) knows it. 
Donata kc, etc., would he more polite. 

Similar forms may he derived from nan/', dnre. dot-Lira, do- 
ko, itftK, iktira, dono , donna*. a They are very common in 
the colloquial. 

Dore ka motte kimaft/.o ka. Shall I bring one of them? 

Dore mo motte kite kndasai. Bring them every one, please. 

Dore de mo motte kite kuduxat. Bring any one of them, please. 

Itsu mo no tori yakko //<' ikimashita. 

I went to school as usual. 

It Kit de mo yd gozniimiKit. Any time will do. 

Donna lion ni mo machigai <ja ariwasu. 

Every book has its mistakes. 

Are wa donna lx>n de mo yomiinasu. 

He reads any book. 

Donna kimono de mo yoroshii. Any clothes will do. 
The last sentence is equivalent t3: Donna kimono ico kite mo 
yoroshii. The particle mo with the subordinate form of the 
verb has concessive force, as will be explained more fully later. 
The fuller form of de mo is de nfte mo. from an'. 

But notice that the de in de mo often has the sense of at, 
with, etc. 

7^0/^0 no yakko de mo kono lion wo mochiite orin'iaxn. 

They use this book in every school. 
For de mo we may substitute to mo in certain connections. k 

Nan to ii//t<in}tif<t kn. What did lie say? 

Nan to mo i'nnn.^'n. He said nothing at all. 

a Compare da ka somehow or other, do mo in even' way, no matter how one 
tries (an exceedingly common expletive), do de nw any way you plea-c; also ,/f< ka 
/<" ka in one way or another, i. e., with difficulty. Do ka ko ka di-kiniasltita. \\'e 
did manage to get it done. 

1. This torn} and tomo together in the emphatic ryoho tomo, both, are not to be 


It is interesting to compare : 

Nani mo nai. There's nothing. 

Nan de mo nai. It's nothing at all. 

Nan to mo nai. It makes no difference to me. 

For ka, zo may be substituted, and thus nan zo is equivalent 
to nani ka. a 

In certain idioms nani without any particle may be used as 
an indefinite pronoun. Thm: nani kara nani made "the whole 
business." Notice also the very emphatic warn mo ka(ni)mo 
every thing (with emphasis on "every") and nan de mo fot(n) 
de mo. 

A common expression for "a certain person" is dare sore. 
This is used to designate a person in a supposed case, or one 
whose name it is inconvenient to give, and is equivalent to 
our "blank" or "Mr. So-and-so." It corresponds to the more 
literary form nanigashi, or nan no taregashi(soregashi). 

"Somebody" may be rendered simply by hito. "Something" 
is similarly rendered by mono. 

Hito to lianaslii ivo shite orimashita. 

Was speaking with somebody. 

Mono wo iu to say something. 

With adjectives "something" is to be rendered by mono (con- 
crete) and koto (abstract). 

Kuroi mono something black, 

Nani ka warui koto something bad, bad behavior. 


kami, kami no ke hair of the mura village, district, town- 
head, ship. 

o kami san wife, mistress of tokei clock, watch. c 

the house. b uta song, poem. d 

a Compare do zo which is used like do ka in the sense of "please !" Do zo is 
the more polite. 

b This term designates married women among the lower classes. It is especially 
common among merchants and laborers. 

c A watch may be d'stinguished as kivxi-chu-dokei (kwai-cJui pocket within). 

d To compose a poem is uta w 

48 THE PpoNorv. [XVII 

uta-ijoin! poet. go zonji desu you know 
(jakn-sha scholar, learned (polite 2,3). 

man. xliini know. 

fiJiim-bun newspaper. a /r</s///-e-ru forget. 

katappo (kcda, hd)-onG side, ton-fe^?* transmit, announce 

one of a pair. (a visitor). 

ri/o-ho two sides, Loth. I- 1 (e) spirit. 

omoshiroi interesting. /'/// enter. 

yasui easy. ki it/' irn- be liked. 

home-ru praise. //<ik . (c) office, function. 

kari-ru borrow, rent. /W*,v (stem : ta.chi) stand. 

fcrt.sM (stem: kashi) lend, rent. ?// ^. W frrf.$M be useful. 

zonz uru (stem: zonji'] think, bakarn 

, ; T, -, n\ ' 77 ronly, mst, about." 

know (polite 1,3). ooe ) "' J 


Dare A - a koi (oiWe).c Dare ka no kasa wo karimasho. }]'- 
takushi wa dare ka ni kasa ivo laxsMnietsh'ta keredotno dare 
ni kash'ta ka wakarimasen. Oi, Gons'kel dare ka kita ka. 
lie, dare mo mairimasen.^ Sono shimbun ni nan zo omoslii 
roi koto ya yozaimas' ka. lie, nani mo oinosliiroi koto ica go- 
zaimasen. Anata ica kono koto ga dekimas' ka.* Sore ica ifa- 
re de mo dekimas'. Dare kakita; dare ka toritsiigt wo sliiroS 

a A newspaper is properly called shinibun-shi, from shi paper. 

b Notice that bakari and dakc follow the words which they modify, ^a and wo 
l>eing usually omitted. Dake differs from bakari in that it sets the limit more 
definitely. Iclii yen bakari about one yen. Ichi yen dake not more than one yen. 
But they are frequently interchangeable. 

c The master of the house may say koi to his own servants; but the lady of the 
house may not. 

d Here, as is quite common in negative sentences, the present stands for the past. 
Notice that the servant Gonske in his reply uses not kitm, but the polite verb 

e The original meaning otdekirti is "come forth'', "be produced''. It is to be trans- 
lated variously, depending on the context. Ano Into u><i dckinai. 1 Ic can't do 
it. Dekimasu imm if possible. Mo shitaku ga dekitnaskita. Tin- preparations 
are now complete, even thing is ready. The person is properly put in the dative 
case. Watakuski ni wa hanashi ga dfkiinascn. [It] is imjxjssilile for me to speak. 

f S/tiro is the imperative of stint to do. This is rude and familiar like koi, 


Watakuslii wa kono uchi de (among tliese people) donata mo 
zonjimasen. Kono kotoba wa dare de mo mochiimas' ka. lie, 
utayomi bakari mochiimas'. Kono uchi de (among these 
things) dore ka o ki ni irimas' ka. lie, dye mo ki ni irimascn. 
Kore wa dare de moki ni irimas'. Dochira no asJii ga itai 
ka. Ryoho tomo itai. Anata no o me iva dochira mo ivaru 
gozaimas' ka. lie, katappo bakari (dake) waru gozaimas'. 
Kono tokei wa nan no yaku ni mo tacliimasen. Watakushi 
wa nani ka tabetai. 3 - Nani ga yd gozaimas' ka. Nan de mo 
yorosldi. Nihonjin ica dare de mo kami no ke ga kuroi. 
Anata iva sono lion wo dare kara moraimash'ta ka. Tonari no 
uchi no hito kara moraimash'ta. Dare mo ivakaranai liito iva 

I will borrow some one's writing-brush. I loaned the dic- 
tionary to some one, but have forgotten to whom I loaned it. 
Has anybody come ? Yes, the neighbor's v?ife(tonari no o ka- 
mi san) has come. Is there anything new (mezurashii)? In 
this newspaper there is nothing new. That pupil knows no- 
thing. Is that difficult (a difficult thing)? No, it is easy: 
anyone can [do it]. Do you know any one (2) among these 
people(l)? Yes, I know all (inina sama wo zonjite imatf}. 
Does every one (2) use this dictionary (1)? Only scholars use 
[it]. Among these curios which do you like ? I like them all. 
Every one praises the ancestral shrines at Nikko. Which 
[of the two] is better? Either will do (is good). This servant 
is not worth anything. There is a school in every village. 
This dictionary is not worth anything. 


In cases where we use such pronominal words as " every ", 
" all," " many," " other," etc., in Japanese the tendency is to 
use adverbial forms. 

" Every one," if referring to persons, may be rendered by 
mei-mei, or mem-men, from mei name and men face, or by 
tende ni. 

a This is the desiderative form of the verb tabe-rit. It means, I want to eat, I 
have an appetite for..,. 


With words denoting time "every " becomes mat (c) : 

i (fmai-jitsu} every day. 
t. mat-ban- every morning, every evening. 
/'-/' H (mat-toshi) every year. 
But with words denoting place the construction explained in 
the previous chapter is used : 

Doko no mura ni mo in every village. 

"All" is mina (minna) or Hokorazn. These words, like 
meimci, etc., arc commonly used adverbially, and immediately 
precede the verb. In some constructions they are to be trans- 
lated "wholly" or "entirely." Nokorazu is properly the negative 
subordinate form of the verb nok-oru meaning " not (none) 
being left. " Mina sama (san), much used in speaking of a 
company, is truly pronominal. 

"Many "is oi and " few" is sukunai; but these words, as 
has been said before, can be used only in the predicative position. 
The idea of "many" may be expressed in a different way by 
the use of the adverb dim numerously : 
ff it obi to </(( ok/f. ateumarimctshita. 
Many people assembled. 

For oku we may substitute o-zei (limited to persons), taktfftan, 
or tanto (persona and things). These words are really nouns 
used adverbially. From these are derived the adjectival uku 
no, ozei no, takusan no or taknsan na. 

" Another " is Jtoka no, ta (c) no, betsu (c) no, betsu na. 
Thus: hoka no islia, ta no isha, betsu no islia another physician. 
But the Japanese often use the ad verbial form Ituku ///where 
we use the adjective. The same idea is expressed by ///<"> with 
a numeral : mo hitotsu no hanashi another story. " The other " 

is often mnku no the opjiositc one. The one the other 

\akatappd kntajipo Instead of liokn n<> Jiitn due may 

say siinjdy Into: 

K <>,-(' irn li! to no mono dcxit. 
This belongs to another person. 

To Chinese words tti or brtxu is prefixed without //". as in 
(a-mn another person (not a relative). fn-k<-n. another prefecture 
another room. 




A peculiar expression is, Hoka de wa (de mo) arimasen ga ... 

...I just want to say that (lit. It is nothing else whatever; 

Imt ). This is used in broaching the subject about which 

one wishes more particularly to speak. 


machi street, town (=c/io). a 
tori passage, thoroughfare, 

sakari bloom, prime, culmi- 


k en prefecture. 
(o) kyaku (sail) guest, cus- 

tomer, passenger. 
tetsu iron. 
bim-bo poverty. 
bimbo-nin poor person. 
byo-in hospital. 
byd-nin sick person, patient. 
hei-tai, liei-sotsu soldier; 
kan-ji' Chinese character. 
kiva-zan volcano. 
on-sen hot spring. 
ru-su absence (rusu desu is 

not at home). 

ta other. 

Jian, ham-bun half. 

mei-mei every one, severally. 

o-zei a great number. 

ckiru scatter, disperse, wither 
and fall. 

irassharu be, come, go (po- 
lite 2, 3). 

itadaku receive with respect 
(used by a guest). 

kau buy. 

shimau finish, close. 

yalte-ru be burned. 

o agari nasai please eat, 
drink (polite 2). 

nokorazu none being left, all. 

naka inside (-no naka ni in). 

naka ni among them. 

tama ni occasionally, once in 
a while. 


Bimbonin (ni) ko (ga) tak'san (aru). b Tak'san o agari 
nasai. Mo s^koshi o agari nasai. Arigato, mo tak'san (de go- 
zaimas'). c Niho'ti no kodomo iva mina gakko ye ikimas' ka. 
Sat/o, taitci mina gakko ye mairimas'. Yube no o kyaku wa 

a In the sense of town <-///"> is used only in composition, as in cho-nai within the 
town. Technically the government determines the application of the term machi 
or cho in the sense of town; but popularly it is applied to any collection of houses 
which includes merchants' shops. 

b The shorter form is a proverb: Bimbonin ko dakiisan. 

c This is the expression generally used in declining to eat or drink more. 


ozei de irasxJtainiash'ta ka. Sayo, taVsan de gozaimaslCtn. 
Kono bynin ni tea itsu mo byonin ga ozei imas'. Doit* u! tr,, 
heitai ga tik'san- on'mas'. Miikojima no sakura tea ima sa- 
kari des' ga Ueno iva mina chitte shimaimasKta.* Mina *tm \ 
konnichi tea.* 3 Kanji no uclii ni wa oboeyasui no mo arimasn 
shi oboenikui no mo arimas'. Nihon ni ica sliima ga tak'san 
arimas'. S'motori wa taitei karada ga okii ga tama ni ira 
chiisai no mo arimas'. Nihombashidori no ie wa mina yake- 
mash'ta ka. lie, hambun gurai yakemash'ta. Nihon ni wa 
akagane ga oi kcredomo hoka no kanc wa s'kunai. c Ano liito 
wa mainen onsen ye ildmas'. Watakushi iva maitoshi saishi 
ico tsurete ha narni ni ikimas\ Mina uchi n> imasli'ta ka. lie. 
mina rmu de gozaimash'ta. Toslii no ichi ni ica liito ga mei- 
mei kai ni ikimas'A Anata no o tomodachi wa go doken no 
liito des' ka. Tie, taken no hi to des'. 

To-day [I] have eaten a great deal. To-day the patient ate 
a little. Please have a little more meat. Thank you, I have 
enough. I have forgotten almost everything. Was the school 
entirely burned ? e No, ahout half was burned. My neighbor 
has a great deal of company to-day . f In this hotel there are 
many guests. In this town there are many sick people, but 
few hospitals. The cherry blossoms have all fallen already. I 
wish you all good morning (o hayo gozaimas'). As (4) the 
weather (2) is fine (3) to-day (1) all (5) are going to see the 

a Mukojima is a place near Tokyo celebrated for its cherry-blossoms. Sliimau 
to finish is often attached to the subordinate form of a verb, as in this sentence. 
Chitte shimaimashita (lit. falling they ended) they have fallen and are all at an 

b Mitia san is vocative. Konnichi x'n is a common greeting like our, " How do 
you do?" It is elliptical for: Konncihi wa yoi o tenki desu, or the like. 

c Since there is a contrast between akagane and hoka no kanc, we should expect 
T.'<; with both; but the former takes ga because wa precedes. It would also be 
correct to say akagane -fa. 

d Toslii no iclii is a street-fair held toward the end of the year. Here one buys 
things needed for the New Year's celebrations. Kai ni iktt to go to buy. When 
the nature of the purchases to be made is not stated, ore may say indefinitely, i-ai- 
nwtio ni iku. 

e A common expression for this is : Gakko ga maru-yake deshita ka. 

f Kither tonari ni kyakit ,^<i Tec-/ orinuisu or ozei kyaku ga orimasti (imasu\ 
will do. Using desu, the sentence becomes tonari no kyaku ga ozei desu, 


flowers. There (naka ni wa) are words [that are] hard to learn, 
but this [one] is easy to learn. On this island there are many 
volcanoes. The Japanese are almost all short of stature, but 
once in a while there is a tall one. Was your house entirely 
burned ? a Yes, even (made mo] the storehouse was burned. 
In England (Eikoku) there is much iron. Recently many 
Japanese have been (arc) going to Germany. 


There are in Japanese no relative pronouns (kivankei-dai- 
meishi). Where we use a relative clause the Japanese simply 
prefix the verb of the relative clause to the noun or pronoun 
which in English would be the antecedent. As has been in- 
timated before (p. 18 b), Japanese verbs may be used just like 
adjectives. In the translations of the following examples 
notice the different cases of the relative pronoun. 

Yaketa ie the house that was burned. 

Yane no yaketa ie the house whose roof was burned. 

Uekiya no ueta ki the tree that the gardener planted. 

Sliiranai hito a man whom I do not know. 

Suzuki to iu hito a man whom [they] call Suzuki. 

Na no aru hito a man who has a name (reputation). 

Fune wo koshiraeru tokoro a place at which they build ships. 

Mi no naru ki a tree on which fruit is produced. 

But by changing the voice we may obtain similar adjectival 
constructions in English, thus: the tree planted by the gar- 
dener, an unknown man, a man named Suzuki, a fruit-bearing 
tree, etc. In Japanese the use of the passive is limited to a few 
special cases. For this reason English passive participles and 
relative clauses with passive verbs are usually to be rendered 
by active ve rbs in Japanese. 

Notice that the subject of the relative clause takes no, We 
have here the same substitution of no for ga as in the examples 
given in Ch. VII. In longer clauses ga also may be used. 

a The question may be rendered more elegantly go zen-s/io deshita ka, zois/iobe- 
ing the Chinese equivalent of tnantyake. In the answer we observe a peculiar use 
of mad,; in the sense of " even." 


When the English antecedent is indefinite or the indefinite 
relative "what" occur*, the Japanese uses an attributive verb 
with mono or koto. Mono is used also of persons synonymously 
with liito. In certain connections 710 may also be substituted 
for mono or koto. a 

Horitsu wo okasu mono one who violates the law. 

Kino mita koto what [I] saw yesterday. 

Anata no ossharu no wa go mottomo d(su. 

What you say is quite true. 

AYe have observed in the examples given above that the in- 
dicative form of the verb, like the participle in English, is 
used adjectively. Hence many of our adjectives must be trans- 
lated by the use of verb". Further, in relative clauses, as in 
dependent clauses generally, the present often stands for other 
tenses. Thus : 

Ant lii Furubeteki to in gwaflcoku no o katc ni <ti>iKt/t/f<r. 

One day I m3t a foreign gentleman named Verbeck. 

Here there is no occasion to change ant and lit to the past 
tense. Indeed they have practically become adjectives. 

The idiom to iu often serves to turn a whole sentence into 
a relative clause, in which case it is not translated. 

Ano kata ga kondo Kotogakko ni kita to in Se-iyojin door k<>. 

Is that the foreigner that came to the Higher School recently? 

As in the German, long and involved clauses may be used 
to modify nouns. Sometimes a noun may be directly limited 
by a succession of attributive verbs; but Mich multiplication 
of coordinate relative clauses is to be avoided. It is. however, 
([uite natural to attach two or more verbs to one noun if all 
but the last are in the subordinate form. 

Ima ume no /,/ ni imnattc n<iil<' irn far/ //// injinxii <I<'*n. 

The bird that is sitting (now) on the plum-tree and singing 
is a bush-warbler. 

a This use of koln with an attributive verb is to he distinguished from 
another, more abstract, use of the same construction, as in: Ant koto ~>i'<i uru 

ga (lit. As far as existing is concerned, it exists but ) There is such a 

tiling, but Tabeta koto ga aru\\UKvt eaten it before. Kiitakotoga(ft>tf)nat 

I have never heard it. Notice that mono also may be used in an abstract 
sense, as in Do sliita nion" </,>//<'*. What is d> be done? Compare: Do shit a 
A-otn </(.//<"/. \Vliat is the matter? 



Jtako box, case. namake-ru be lazy, neglect. 

mi fruit, nut. sliaberu chatter, talk. 

oni demonj devil. xxku like. b 

sho-gakkd elementary school. a sute-ru cast away, discard, 

koto-shogakko secondary forsake. 

school. tasuke-ru help, save. 

bun-ten grammar. todoku reach, arrive(of things) 

tdku-hon reader. umu give birth to (tamago 
kci-ken experience. wo umu lay eggs). 

yu-bin mail, post, amari exceedingly, too, so 
mane imitation ( no mane verv- 

ivo suru imitate). saki n i, sakki before, a short 
lianasu speak. while ago. 

kaesu return (tr.). l-ino yesterday. 

kare-ru wither, perish. ototoi day before yesterday. c 

koshirae-ru make, fabricate. ^020 please, I beg you, pray! 
naku cry, sing (of birds) . 

Exercises . 

Oil sakki kita liito wa dare(da}ka. Hal, doguya de gozai- 
mas'. Sakujitsu yaketa d ie wa donata no ie de gozaimash'ta 
l-ii. Kind yaketa ie wa gakko de gozaimas'. Kore ica dono 
shogakko de mo mochiiru lion des' ka. lie, koto shogakko ba~ 
kari de mochiiru lion des\ Mi no naru ki iva liana kara shi- 
reru (Proverb) . e Konogoro tateta ie iva yube yakete shimai- 

a There are two grades in the elementary schools, called jin-jb ordinary and 
ko-to advanced. Originally there were three classes of schools, namely, sho-gakko, 
from sho small, chu-gakko, from c/iit. middle, and dai-gakkb, from dai great. 
The scliools that train graduates of chugakko for ordinary professions and prepare 
them for daigakko are called simply koto-gakko. 

b Anata wa sumo ga o suki desu ka Are you fond of [Japanese] wrestling? 
Ano kodomo wa e no lion ga dai suki desu That child is very fond of picture-books. 
Siuiid wo sufcimasu, e no /ion wo sukiinasu, etc., would sound strange, but sukwia~ 
sen is not uncommon. 

c The Chinese equivalents for kino and ototoi are saku-jitsu and issakujitsu. 

d Attributive verbs like this yaketa need not take the polite ending waste. If the 
verb at the end of a sentence or principal clause is in the polite form, it 
makes the whole polite. 

e S'lirent is the potential or passive form and means here "is known." 


masli'ta. Konaida kimi ni ktrxJi'fn li,i in> dr>zo kacxli'te kit re. 
Anata ni (kara) o kari mosh'ta h<>a tru kore de gozaimas' k<i. 
Sayo, sore de gozaimas'. Soko ni urn -HK.HO no iichi ni <> ki 
111 irn mono wa gozaim<i.$en- k. H'dttikt/xJii im <r,n<iri dt<il.'rn 
Ji/fn iro Skiniasen. Kore ira i/oktt (a great deal) ;/"/,-" fri </. 
Kore wa yoku t<nn<i'j<> u'<> iniiti tori de.S. Kono scifo >> in-lti 
ni n<tni<il:er>t hito <j<i oi. Watakv&hi <j ototoi yubtnbako yc 
ircta tegami ga todokimasen.* U no mane ico sum. /,v//v/.s' 
(Proverb). b ^0710 bnntcn iro koshiracta hito wa dare des' k". 
Ano scnsei iva keiken no aru Into dcs'. Are wa keiken no n<n 
hito ties' kara, sonna mutsukashil koto wa dckimascn. ZiiUnm 
na no aru gak'sha ties'. S'tern krnni (<ja}arcl>a (if there arc) 
tas'keru kami mo ar u (Proverb). Wakaru koto wa wakari- 
mas\ Wakaranai koto ica nci. Watdkushiwamada magnro 
no mi ivo tabcta koto ga arimasen. Ezojin wo mita koto ga 
arimasen. Sakunen niira ni c ueta cha no ki wa mina karcte 

The man that came a while ago is a merchant. d Those 
that were burned yesterday Avere all old houses. Please give 
me the umbrella that I forgot yesterda}'. In Japan (1 ) there 
are few (5) persons (4) that do not know (s&iranat 3) the 
Chinese characters (2). Among (4) the Europeans (3) that live 
(2) in Japan (1) arc there many (8) persons (7) that speak (6) 
Japanese (5)? Among the Europeans that live in Japan there 
are few persons that know(s/'tfe orw)the Chinese characters. 
Please return the dictionary that I loaned to you. Please bring 
the newspaper that came day before yesterday. That is not to 
be put in there (not a thing that one puts in there soko ye). 
Where (cfofconi 5) is (6) the box (4) into which you(l)put(3) 
the cigara(2)? Children that do not resemble (ninn) their 
parents [are] children of the devil (Proverb). There is no remedy 
(medicine) that one may apply (ts'keru) to fools (Proverb). 6 

a The present tense is often used, as here, where we should expect the pat. 

b Such a predicate as s/iinde shiinau dies, perishes, may he supplied. Com- 
pare our proverb : Cobbler, stick to your last ! 

c We say ni-va ni, not iii^'-.i dc, because w/Viw is rather the indirect object 
than the scene of the action. 

d The subject takes wi when the predicate is a noun. 

e The verb tsitkt-m is used because the reference is to a plaster (/fr-w/v/) 
To administer medicine internally is usnri wo iwnui^cru (cause to driukj. 



The word "self" has several equivalents in the literarj' lan- 
guage, but in the colloquial is usually rendered by ji-bun, from 
ji self and bun part, or by the rather more literary form ji-shin, 
from shin body or self. In ''I myself," "you yourself," etc., "my- 
self," "yourself," etc., are to be rendered by jibun de (kara), 
usually put in the adverbial position. a In speaking respectfully 
to or of a person the honorific go is prefixed. 

Jibun no mono tuo jibun de koivashimashita. 

He himself broke his own things. 

Go jibun de oide nasaimasluta. He came himself. 

Jibun kara nanotte demashita. 

He introduced himself (telling his name came forward). 
Jibun may also be used as a simple personal pronoun, tak- 
ing the particles wo,, ga, no, ni, wo and various postpositions. 
There are also plural forms, such as jibuntachi, jibundomo, 

Jibun wa Tokyo ye itte kazoku ica Kamakura ni noko- 
shite okimasho. 

He himself will go (lit. going) to Tokyo and leave (lit. 
leaving will put) his family in Kamakura. 

Jibuntachi ga warui n'ode arimasen ka. 

Are not they themselves in the wrong? 

These examples might also be construed in the first person, ac- 
cording to the context. 

Notice the use of ji in expressions derived from the Chinese, 
such as: 

Ji-bun no dekiru koto wo ji-man shite iru. 

He prides himself on his ability (man pride). 

Ji-satsu suru to kill one's self, from satsu kill. 

Ji-go ji-toku (lit. self-act self -get). 

A man's sin brings its own punishment. 
The following idioms should also be noted in this connection .' 

Karada wo arau to wash one's self. 

a It is an unsettled question among Japanese grammarians whether adverbs or 
adverbial expressions should always immediately precede the verb or not. Ordi- 
narily jibun de is placed between the verb and its object, but in some cases it 
more naturally precedes the object. 


Khnono ?ro kiru to dress one's self. 

Kodii iro l-alicru to seat one's self (on a chair or other 
raised object). 

J/7 ir<-> fad-Hsu to hide one's self. a 

Ni-nage u'o sum to drown one's self, from nage-ru to cast. 

J/V//V (nti) wo icasurcru to forget one's self. 
The mi wliich occurs in the last few examples enters into the 
very common idiom mi-no-ue (lit. upon self) wliich means: 
one's personal fortunes, "fate." 

Mi-no-ue-banasJU tcosuru to talk about one's personal sit- 
uation . 

"One another, " "mutually," is rendered by the adverbial t<i- 
gai ni. In addition there may be added to the stem of the 
verb the auxiliary mi to meet. 

Tagai ni tafiitke-au. They help one another. 

Tnijn! ni /ifYre-cff. They fall in love with each other. 
Notice the use of the Chinese (td-shi. from (to same, together, 
and shi mm, in: Tomolachi d~>shi <le hanashi ir<> ton-it (lit. 
Friends among themselves speaking do) They hold a conver- 
sation just among themselves as friends. 


liara abdomen, stomach. zu(c] drawing, plan, map. 

jkttMi. war. hun-sho composition, sen- 
miso a kind of sauce. tence. 

samurai one of the former bun-tai style. 

military class, knight. ffe-jo maidservant. 

ttotkai messenger, envoy. ji-lnni. /V-.v////< self. 

"//"-./' father.^ l;)ju-<1<t! brother. 

l;i-nioh(t clothes. ten-xli! KUHUI emperor. 

tnlx'-mono food. de-ru corne forth, go out. 

a The idiom mi a'o JkaAiun is commonly u;>ed of a debtor hiding from his 
creditors, or of a hermit. "To hide one's self ' is more commonly expressed l>y 
the passive verb kakurt-ru to l>e hidden. 

b Oyaji may Ije used contemptuously of any old man. It may also l>o used in 
speaking humbly of one's own father. In speaking of the father of a second IH.T- 
v>n, use the [x>lite Chinese eijuivalent of cru/'i, .; r <> shim-pit (sama\ The most suit- 
able term for ordinary purjxses is chichi or chichi-wi. 

c Frjra lyo or A-t-i elder brother and ,/,i/ or A /ynmi^i-r l.nither. As a collective 
term ty9 -dot often includes si.-tcr> like the (.ierman (,', ..</ 7ivVAv. 


au meet (liito ni au meet a yokosu send. a 

person). ji-satsu suru commit suicide. 

ki ga au agree, be congenial, ato de after (following a 

hiku pull, draw (wuwoliiku past verb). 

draw a plan), tagai ni mutually, recipro- 

linrc-rn- fall in love. cally. 

kaku write, draw. is-sho ni in the same place, 

naosu mend, heal, correct. together (-to issho ni with). 

nun (nu) sew. mukashi in ancient time?. 

shinuru, shinu (stem: shini) to when, if (with a verb in 

die. the present tense). 


Ano oyajiwa jibun no kodomo ivo koroshimash'ta. Wataliu- 
shi wa niwa no ki wo taitei mina jibun d? uemash'ta. Ikeda 
sanga jibun de kimash'ta ka. lie, ts'kai wo yokoshimash'ta. 
Anata wa kono bunsho ivo <jo jibun de o kaki nasaimash'ta' ka. 
Jibun no niwa nft> deldta liana WQ jibun de motte kimash'ta. 
Ano liito wa jibun no ie ni hi wo ts'kemash'ta. Kono kodcmo 
ga jibun de kono ji ivo kakimash'ta. Ano onna iv a jibun no ki- 
mono wo inina jibun de nuimas'. Some to Hisamats' ica ta- 
gai ni horcaimash'ta , c Watakushi wa ano hito to tagai ni ki ga 
aimas'. Mukashi Nihon no samurai wa wand koto wo suru to, 
jibun de liara ivo kirimash'taA Jibun ga tabemono wo koshi- 
raeruto, umaku nai ga ; liito ga koshiracru, to, umai. y 

He (iva) killed his own father. Who planted thcpc flowers? 
I (ga) myself planted [them]. I myself will go to (ye) the physi- 
cian. Did he write this composition himself ? Yes, but some 
one probably corrected (naosh'ta deslio 3 ) the style (1) a little 
(2). It occasionally happened (koto mo arimas') in ancient 
times [that] the Japanese Emperor.3 themselves went (aide ni 

a Yokosu is used only of sending persons or things to the speaker's own house, 
or to the house in which he is at the time. The general term for "send" is okuru, 
or lodokf-m for things, and for persons tsitkawasu. 

h It is usual to say niiva ni dckita (tsitktif(a) into potatoes raised in the garden, 
but itc hi de dekita (koshiraeta)pan bread made at home, home-made bread. 

c These are the hero and heroine of a drama, O Some being the woman's name. 

d More elegantly: seppukii shiniashita, from sets-it=kiru and fiiAu=/iara. 


natta) to war. That woman killed her own children. That 
gentleman himself drew the plans of his own house. Did that 
pupil write these characters himrelf ? No, the teacher wrote 
(o kaki ni naritimsh'ta) [them]. That Woman sews her own 
clothes. People of the same country ((Id-koku) help one an- 
other. That child is congenial to his brother?. Gompachi and 
Komurasaki fell in love with each other. Shibata Katsuie a died 
together with his wife and children. After (4) Shibata (1) 
killed (3) his wife and children (2), he killed himself. Did 
the maidservant go out shopping (k-aimono ni} ? No, the mis- 
tress herself went. People in (of) the country make [their] 
miso themselves. b 

a Lord of Echizen, died 1 583. 

b In this case nc/ii tie may be better than_/V7> de. The adjective "home-made" ' 
becomes in Japanese te-seino hand-made (a case of yntd-yomi), as in tesei no jbbtiku- 
ro home-made envelopes. 



The Japanese language has two series of numerals. One con- 
sists of native Japanese words; the other is "borrowed, from the 
Chinese. The native Japanese numerals in common use a?e: 

liitotsu one mutsu six 

futatsu two nanatsu seven 

mitsu three yatsu eight 

yotsu four kokonotsu nine 

itsutsu five to ten 

Those of two syllables a?e commonly pronounced with stress on 
thet: mittsu, yottsu, muttsu, 

These numerals are used only for things, not for persons. 
They usually follow the noun. In case they precede the noun, 
they naturally take thS particle no. 

Tokei futatsu, futatsu no tokei two clocks. 

Mo hitotsu kotoba ga arimasu There is one more word. 
In telling the age of a child these numerals may be used 
alone, the word for " year " being understood. 

Hitotsu may also be used as a kind of expletive in the sense 
of our " once." 

Hitotsu yatte go rannasai Try it once (lit. one doing see). 
The native numerals above " ten " are mostly obsolete, but 
some of them still occur in certain connections. Thus the old 
word for " twenty " appears in hatachi twenty years old and 
hatsuka twenty days or the twentieth day. "Thirty, n " forty ", 
etc., would be mi-so, yo-so f i-so, mu-sa, etc. Of these, miso is 
still used in misoka the last day of the month according to the 
old calendar. Momo one hundred occurs in the classical motno 
tose one hundred years. Ya-o eight hundred appears in + he 
familiar yao~ya greengrocer ; chi one thousand, in CM-shima 
thousand ides (the Kuriles), and yoi-ozu a myriad, in ywozu- 
ya dealer in miscellaneous articles, jack-of-all-4rades. 

a Su-shi number-word, 




(Include the mum-nils 

o Jii x<nt. (.////, jijll) grand- 
father, old gentleman. 

o bit Nun- (b<dxt, bultl) grand- 
mother, old lady. 

o tottxdn (tutu) papa. 

okkn san (kukri) mamma. 

a ni older hrother. 

one older sister. 

ototo younger brother, 
younger sister. 
son. boy. 

mmiiine daughter, girl. 

lieya room, apartment. 

mado window. 

t<nt*/( bureau, chest of 

Jtiki-dasht drawer. 

kago basket, cam-. 

knki ])er.simmon. 

tfitibaki camellia. 

tsubomi flower bud. 

up to " ten.") 
i-ro-ltn syllabary. 
chu(c) = n<i\-n middle. 
intin-JTi a kind of cake. 
tsu-rei common practice, 


tuikii-t/ti. last night. 
zutsti apiece. 

lu'ijime-ru commence (tr.). 
lijinH' beginning. 

i speech, conversation, 


ii-K enter (lunttc oru be 


osowaru be taught, learn. 
oclii-ru foll. a 
sage-ru let hang, suspend, 

carry (of watches, deco- 
rations, etc.). 

icukare-ru l>e divided, part. 
yose-rn cause to approach, 

bring together, add. 


Anata no o imoio san wa o ikxtmt ni o nari 
Wntnl'uKlii no imoto wa iiiittxii <lc i/mi/ntnx'. Tuituri no mu- 
sume wa ikutsu f/r.s' l-a. Tn dcx . Watdkwhi n<> ututu icu 
kokfmotN't r/.v'. Aito hito watoki'i v j"t<itxii wujfte inm*. 
l\'ntnl:nxjii wafamagowo yottxn tuba/tnx/i'tci. Doitx n<> kudo- 
mo wa kokonots' kara chugckku ni Imlrn kutu </<i di-kiin<ix'. c 

n The verbs oclri-rtt to fall down (of things in general) and chiru (of blossoms 
and leaves) should not be confused. The subordinate forms are respectively ,-fhitf 
and (-/////<. Note also that we say_/>//v/, not < c/iini, of things which fall from above, 
like rain, snow or volcanic ash. 

b O nari iiasaru is more polite than nnrii istt. 

c Kntering is possil>le, i. e., can enter. Our " can " is often to be translated by 
the use of this idiom. 


Fiats' to mitts' wo yoseru to, itsutsu ni narimas'.* Kind no 
kwaji de kura gaftatsu yakewash'ta. Kono tails' wa hiki- 
dashi ga yottsu arimas'. b cha (ivo) liitotsu o agari nasai. 
Meimei tamago wof'tatsu zutsu tabemash'ta. Ojii san ga uchi 
no kodomo ni manju wo hitotsu zutsu kuremash'ta. Kono lieya 
ni wa mado ga mittsu arimas'. Watakushi wa mittsu no toki 
ni (at the age of three) okka san ni (by) irolia ivo osowatta. 
Muttsu ni naru toki (ni) tenarai ivo hajimemash'ta. Wataku- 
shi no hajime no ko wa (oldest child) kokonotsu no toki ni shi- 
nimash'ta. Mikan ivo liitotsu chodai. Kono kago no naka ni 
wa mikan ga to liaitte imas'. c Kono tsubaki ni wa tsubomi 
ga itsutsu arimash'ta ga mina ocliite shimaimasli'ta. hana- 
shi gafutatsu ni wakaremasli'taA ^ 

I How old is your older sister? a-My older sister is ten. ^In this 
room there are two windows, f Bring me two eggs. * American 
children go to school at (kara) the age (time) of six. ^1 learn 
ten words every day. 7 [My] older brother's son died at the age 
(time) of eight, f At (de) last evening's fire six storehouses 
were burned. ? A foreign bureau usually has three drawers. 
/ This child at the age of two could not yet talk (hanashi ga 
dekimasen desh'ta). /-How old is this child ? /Jt is five^i Please 
give me a (one) persimmon. 'fPlease give me one more. '^How 
much (3) are ten (to de 2) [of] these oranges (1)? /* That 
camellia has seven buds. 


la combination with certain words, mostly of native origin, 
the numerals ending in fe^(and ikutsu)lose that termination, 
while to becomes to, thus: hito tsuki.futa tsuki, mi tsuki, etc., 
kokono tsuki, to tsuki, from tsuki month. Some of these words 

a In Japanese one always says, not " is five," nor" makes five, " but " becomes 

b Notice that arimasit without de is used in such enumerations. / 

c In combination with the subordinate form of a verb, int or oru must be used 
even when the subject is not a living thing. 

d [They] could not agree (lit. talk divided into two). 


bun, evening, night. ma room. 

bin bottle, makii (lit. curtain) act 

hnko box. (ut a theater). 

im color, kind. tabi time (fid a tabi a second 

kutlui'i (lit. descent) line time), 

(of a page). tdkoro place. 

kumi set, class, company. tr>ri kind. a 

In hito-e single, futa-e double, ya-e eightfold, double (of flow- 
ers) the e is not a separable word. Some of the words in the 
list here given may occur also with Chinese numerals, as in 
/c/// Inn- one bottle, roku tabi six times. 

Note also: Mto-suji ni earnestly, from svji line, hito-kuchi 
ni at one mouthful, in a word, Itito-mc ni at a glance, b hito- 
omoi ni at the impulse of the moment (omoi thought), hito 
u^Jti one stop, hito iki on3 breath. Distinguish: 

futa-go twin?. 

futatsu ni naru kodomo a child two years old. 

futari no kodomo two children. 
"Triplets" is mitsu-go.* Distinguish also: 

mi kumi three sets. 

mitsu-gumi a set of three pieces. 

Certain numerals are combined with ka (old word for day) 
as follows: 

futsuka two days, the second day 

mikka three " " third 

yokka four " " fourth " 

itsuka five " fifth 

muika six sixth 

nanuka seven seventh 

yoka eight " eighth 

a Hito tori tie wa nai It's unusual. Hito t~>ri is much used as an adverb 
meaning "in the main." Ano hon iitt hito-tori yomimashita I have read the book 
in a general way (or, ones through). 

b ////<>-///< </< -^akarimashita I perceived it immediately. Ytuna kara 'i#achi T.VO 
hito-mf ni mi-orosu to take a view of a town from a mountain (;///-<>/w to look 

c Mitsugo has another mean'ng in the proverb: Mitsitgv no tamashii hyakn made 
The soul of child three years old [remains the same] until [it becomes] a hundred 
years old. 


kokonoka nine days, the ninth day 

toka ten days, the tenth day 

hatsuka twenty days, the twentieth day 

One day, or the first day, is ichi nicJii (c). The last day of the 
month according to the old calendar is misoka; and the last 
day of the last month, o-misoka : but the thirtieth is now usu- 
ally called sanju niclii (c). Distinguish: 

itsitka five days,, the fifth day. 

itsu ka at some time. 

ikka, from iku lea, how many days, which day ? (of the month) . 

In counting persons the following forms derived from native 
numerals may be used : 

hitori one person; hitori de alone. a 

futari two persons ; futari de two together. 

yottari four persons. 

ikutari how many persons ? 

To these the honorific o is often prefixed. For other numbers 
the Chinese san nin, go nin, etc., are used. The form mitari is 
obsolete in the colloquial. One may also say: ichi nin, ni nin 
iku nin] but not shi nin for four persons, because shi-nin means 
also a dead person, from shi death. 

Notice that in such combinations as chaiuan Jiito kumi, ko~ 
dorno futari, the nouns cliaivan and kodomo take the particles 
ga, wo, etc. Words like hito kumi &ud futari usually do not 
take ga or wo. 

In rapid counting the native numbers are abbreviated to hi, 
fu, mi, yo, itsu, mu, nana, ya, kono, to. 


(Include lists beginning with hitori andfutsuka). 
bin bottle. mago grandchild. 

kumi set, suit, class. hito-jini violent death, loss of 

ma room. life (hito man, shinu die). 

tali time (of repeated occur- ydke-jini burning to death . b 

rences). sake rice-beer, alcoholic liquor. 

a Hitori occurs in compounds like hitori-tmisuko an only son, hitori-mae a 
portion for one person. Go zen 100 hitori-mae motte kite kudasai. Bring a meal for one. 

b Compare further kogoc-jini freezing to death, from kogoe-ru freeze, ticJii-jini 
death in battle, from ittsu smite, fight. The corresponding verbs are yake-jini 
sum, kogoe-jini suru and uchi-jini sum. 



saka-~.).tki wine-cup, ntsurae-ru order (goods). 

kiku chrysanthemum. lc<ikr>i he hung, amount to, 

van l>owl. take (of time). 

cha-ican tea-cup. ttsu (stern : tacJti) set out, 

sen-cha infusion of tea. start, ( u m o tatsi/ leave). 

l"n (c) evening, night. a f<i::>t,,c-ru inquire, visit. 

iticJti, Jitsu (c) day (only in tomc-ru (tr.)stop, lodge, en- 
compounds), ttrtain (a guest or visitor). 

getsu, fjicatsu (c) month tontarn (intr.) stop, lodge, be 
(only in compounds). entertained ( ni tomaru) 

slw-gw atsu the first month. titagau doubt, suspect. 

kon-rei wedding. itsu when? 

tun -Jo birth. mae (postp.) before ( no mae 

tanjo-bi birth-day. ?i/). 

ayame sweet flag. oijoso about, approximately. 

slio-yu soy, a kind of sauce. 


Nana tdbi tazunete Jtito ico ntagaeJ 3 Sencli<ij<ncan no Jtito 
kumi wa ikutsu des' ka. Itsuts' ka to des\ Watakusld ica 
jnlxil'o ivo fta k)rn<i <ifxi-<if//HiNh'ta ga mada ddiii, 
.Kino no kwaji ni (de) hitojini ga arimaslfta ka. Sayo, kodojno 
ga liitori ^Itinimaftltta. Shogicatsu ni tea taitei 'i/titxu.guini no 
xiilcnzuki ico mockiimcu? keredomo konrcl no toki ni ica koko- 
nots'guini wo moclmmas 1 . Muika no ayame toka no kiku. c 
Anata ohitor-i des' ka. Sayo, inlna w/.s-// (/<>'. YokoJtai/ta kara 
Honkon made iku ni ica taitci nanitka kdkartmaef. Bcr'rin de 

a "Last evening," "this evening," and "to-morrow evening" become respectively 
saku-ban, kotn-ban and inv'o-ban. In these va may be substituted for ban. Com- 
pare the following list of Chinese compounds, all of which are in common use: 

hast This Next 

saku-jitsu kon-nichi myo-nichi 

sen-getsii iton-getsu mi-^e/sii 

sakn-nen (kyo-tien'] kon-tien myo-ntn (rni-noi) 

b I'tiigiif is the im[)erative of jtfagaii. The meaning of the proverb is: After 
you have looked for [the lost article] seven times, suspect [a thief]. 

c This proverb alludes to the third and fifth of the live great festivals, which are 
called go sfkfctt. At the third festival, which occurs on the fifth day of the fifth 
month (old style), it is customary to decorate the house with sweet flags, and at the 
fifth festival, on the ninth of the ninth month, chrysanthemums arc exhibited. The 
proverb has reference to things that come too late to be of any use. 


Nikon no shoyu iva ikura shimas' ka. a Sayo, Tiito bin ga ichi 
yen gurai shimas'. Sore wa yoliodo toko gozaimas'. Sakuban 
ikutari o kyakii ga arimash'ta ka. Yottari arimash'ta.^ 
Anata iva itsu Sliina ye tachimas' ka. Kongetsu no ydka ni 
Yokohama kara fune ga demas* kara its'ka ni koko ivo\ tatte 
Tokyo ni hito ban tomarimas'. 

It takes about twenty clays to go from Japan to America. c 
He has four grandchildren. When is your birthday (go tanjo- 
bi) ? My birthday is [on] the seventh of this month. [My] father's 
birthday is on the fourth of next month. Please keep me one 
night. Do you need (o iriyo des' ka) one room or [is it] two ? 
I need three rooms. When do you start? I start on the 
fourth or (ka) fifth of this month. At the great firQ(dkwaji) 
(of) recently four men and (m') d four women lost their lives 
(yake-jini shimash'ta). 


The Chinese numerals are : 

ichi one ju slii fourteen 

ni two ju go fifteen 

san three ju roku sixteen 

shi four ju sliichi seventeen 

go five ju liaclii eighteen 

roku six ju ku nineteen 

sliichi seven ni ju twenty 

hachi eight ni ju ichi twenty-one 

ku nine san ju thirty 

ju ten shiju forty 

ju ichi eleven go ju fifty 

ju ni twelve roku ju sixty 

ju san thirteen shichi ju seventy 

a From sum to do. Compare our How much does it make ? 

b Not orimashita or imashita. The point is that we have guests. The question 
does not ask where they are. 

c One may also say : Yokohama to Sariframhis'ko no aida wa hatsuka gurai 

d Ni is the postposition. In this connection it means "in addition to," "besides," 
and may be translated simply "and." 


liaclti ju eighty ni sen two thousand 

ku ju ninety sanzcn three thousand 

Lijal-ii hundred Imssen eight thousand 

ni hi/aku two hundred ic/ii man ten thousand a 

sambyaku three hundred ni man twenty thousand 

ski hyaku four hundred samman thirty thousand 

go Jiyaku five hundred ju man hundred thousand 

roppydku six hundred ju go man hundred and fifty 

shicJit Jiyaku seven hundred thousand 

Jitijjjii/<ikt( eight hundred Jti/aku man million 

ku Jiyaku nine hundred semman ten million 

sen (issen) thousand -ichi oku hundred million 

sen ichi thousand and one 

Some people pronounce shichi as though it were written hi- 
chi; in combination ku may be pronounced kyu. 

The most common terms used in measurements and their 
equivalents, are here inserted for the sake of convenience. 

The Japanese foot-rule is called saskt, or mono-sashi, from 
tasu to point, measure. The ordinary kanc-zashi, so called 
because carpenters' rules are made of kane metal, takes as a 
unit the sliaku, which is equivalent to 11.93 inches or .30303 
meter. b 

10 bu =1 sun 
* 10 sun =1 shaku 
" 6 shaku = 1 ken =2 yards almost 
60 ken =1 did v 


36 did =1 r/=2.44 miles 

For surfaces the unit is the tsubo, one ken (six duiku) square. 
1/30 tsubo =1 se (se-bu^) 
10 se =1 tan (tam-bu) 
10 tan =1 din (chu-bu) = 2A5 acres 

a An alternative pronunciation for mirti is ban; but ban is used, not in the exact 
sense of "ten thousand," but only in an indefinite sense like our "myriad." No- 
tice the familiar expressions txin-s,ai(sai year) Live forever! Hurrah ! sembtmarigatt t 
semban go kuro many thanks ! Compare also: man-ichi ten thousand to one, i.e., by 
a bare chance, bamban certainly. 

b The Itujira-zas/ii, so called because it was originally made of whale-bone, is 
longer by one fourth and is used for measuring dry goods. Both the kunewslii and 
the kttjinvMshi are now usually made of bamboo. 


For capacity the unit is the sho, equivalent to 1.588 quart 
or 1.804 liter." ^ 

10 shaku (seki) = 1 </o a 10 sho = 1 to 
10 go =1 sho 10 to =1 koku 

For weight the unit is the mom-me b =.1325 ounce or 3.7365 
grams. After multiples of ju and liydku it is usual to say 
simply me. One pound avoirdupois is about 120?ne. 
^ 160 me, =1 kin 

w^lOOO mom-me = 1 kivan (kwam-me) =85 pounds 
For money the unit is the yen, equal to about 50 American 

10 rin = 1 sen 100 sen = 1 yen 

For "hour," "minute," "second," the terms are ji, fun, 

These terms are all of Chinese origin except tsubo and se, 
which take the Japanese numerals, thus: liito se,futa se, mise, 

In asking for the number or amount of any of these units, 
prefix nan, or iku. This iku is ikutsu, which has lost the end- 
ing tsu, like the Japanese numerals. But in cases where iku 
and ichi are liable to be confused, nan is better. 

Up to "ten" the Chinese numerals are used almost exclusive- 
ly with words of Chinese origin. Beyond "ten" they are used 
also with words of Japanese origin. Thus: ju ichi tsubo, ju ni 
tsubo, etc. They always precede the nouns which they limit. 
In some combinations euphonic changes occur. 

Ichi (itsu) unites with words beginning with h (f), s (sh), t 
(ch) and k: 

ichi hen becomes ippen one time, once 

ichi fun ippun 

ichi sun issun 

ichi sho issho 

ichi tan ittan 

ichi cho itcho 

ichi kin ikkin 

a This go differs from go five not only in the length of the vowel but also in the 
sound of the g, which is more nasal in the case of go (ngo). 

b Here me is the word for "eye." In this connection it refers to the notches on 
the scales, and hence means the measure of weight. 


But we say: idii koku (of rice). Ikkoku, or ikkxkokii, means 
"one country." 

Ju, produces similar changes: jippen, jippun, jiwun, jix*Jt<~>. 
J iff "ii. jit din. jikki/i. 

San (as also man and nan) naturally causes nigori in the 
succeeding consonants : samben, sampun. mmzun, wmifc/i. *<nt'j>n. 
Since both slid and did through uigori become jo, it is customa- 
ry to distinguish them thus: sanjd for san slid, but san did. 
JSafctt(a8al80 Jiyaku) coalesces with li (/),as in roppcn,ropim. 
Hadii is irregular: 

liadii lien, but happy aku. 

hassun, liassen, etc. 
hasshd, hasshaku, etc. 
hattan, hatto. 

liadii kin, but hakkaknkx eight countries. 

IfJiadii hen, liadii kin, were contracted to happen, Jiakkin, they 
could hardly be distinguished from Injappen. Jn/nkkin. 

Business men to avoid mistakes generally use nana instead 
of sit idti. 

For similar reasons shi is displaced by yo in the following 
combinations : 

yo ban number four. yo mai (or shi mat) four flat 

yo dai four generations. things. (See Ch. XXVI.) 

yo (/'ii lour vehicles. yo ncn four years. 

yo do four times, or degrees, yo nin (yo inei) four persons. 
yo ji four o'clock. yo ri. 

yojd (jd= 10 shakti). yo(n) riit. 

yo jd four mats. yon sen (or */// .<?c;i). yo yen. 

Notice: ichi nidii (jitsu) a whole day. nmrn \dtl ncn a whole 
year, idiiji fora while, ittan once (tan morning). a 

Small approximate numbers like our "two or three," "three 
or four," etc., are expressed asyndetically : 
Ni san nen two or three years. 

a This last is used only in cases where we employ "once" with the perfect tense 
as in Ittan sho-ehi shita koto '<i>a kesshitf i-vaku (~i'0) itas/itHiasfit I laving once agreed 
to a thing, I will never break my promise. Compare ichi ji in A no Into ~,i'<i ichi ji 
(tt'rt) kuxii-sha HO yakn-in Jcshita He was at one time an official in the company. 




Futa koto mi koto two or three words, a brief speech. 

Shi go nin four or five persons. 

Nana yatsu no kodomo a child seven or eight years old. 

(Include Chinese numerals, and tables of units.) 


atai value. 

dote dyke, road on an 

kazu number. 

tori kind, manner. 

saka-ya liquor-dealer, liquor- 

me-kata weight. 

sashi, mono-saski foot-rule. 

to grade, class. 

jo, cliu, ge upper, middle, 
lower. a 

-i-jo over (following a num- 

i-ka under. 

jo = 10 slialsu. 

bu = ? ryo (old coin). 

dai-myo feudal lord. b 

ji-men lot (of ground). 

jin-ko population (of a coun- 
try or town). 

nin-zti number of people (in 
a smaller social unit). 

mon-ji, moji letter, character, 

ryo-clii domain, estate. 

shi-Jw four sides, square. 

slio-gun commander-in-chief, 

shn-riii.kind, species. 

so-ba market-price. 

to-fu bean-curd. 

rasha woolen cloth. 

ataru strike ( ni ataru to 
be equi valen t to ) . c 

make-ru be defeated, come 
down on the price. 

yoru depend ( ni yoru de- 
pend on). 

ben-kyo sum study, be dili- 

hodo=bakari (See p. 36, 43). 

hotondo almost. 

issko-kemmei ni with all one's 
might. d 

a The words jo-to, chii-to, ka-to (ka being an alternative reading of the character 
ge} in the sense of "first class," "medium," "low class," are constantly used, with a 
variety of applications. Recently, however, the officials have changed the names 
of the classes of railway passengers to ittd, ntto, santo. 

b Dai-myo means literally "great name." This title was given to a feudal lord 
whose estate yielded him an income of at least 10,000 koku of rice a year. The 
daimyos now belong to the kwa-zoku (nobility). Remember that with man koku 
suffers nigori, thus : ni mangoku, 

c Watakushi no oi ni atarimasu [He] is my nephew. In a sentence like this ni 
atarimasu has practically the same sense as de arimasu. 

d I/it, one life risk life. The subordinate form of naru, natte, is usually added: 
fssfwkttnmei ni natte hataraku to work with all one's might. 



Ichi ri ica san ju rokx cl < ?. TtcJio tea roku jikkc,> 

Wd rdtf skakw '/'*'. I.^lml-n /rn jixxiin <l<*. f ^'"kaifa. 
ni san ri, tofnya ni ichi v/. a fc/ti ri /'' ik n>ritnr' (nawmci- 
tor') ni atarimas' ka. Tc/ti ri />" xanr.rit leu Jt//oJ.-// /// JTi *J'c!ti 
mcitor 1 ni aturiiniix. Ii'hi un'itor' iro wnijukir xauznn ni at- 
/////'/*'. Ji/in'n l<it<> tsubo no dkisa tea <Iono k>'/-</i l:u. I//'t<> 
tsubo no ok inn ira ruJS K/tkn xliiltn <le*.^ Sftmbt/akx tm/b<> /< 
ittambv des* ', jittambv u- itc/inb/i <.'CN': itdtubti ira 01/0*1, /'<///' 
hek'tar' toonaji 'jura! </c.s'.c JA///,v/.s-/// n<> i<-hi !r ica ii/m no ic/n' 
yen no atai ga arimas'. Ima no soba ni ///<" f'/ 1 idii <!<>,' t<- 
(dollar) oyoso ni yen ni atari mas'. Yokohama i/e no ufkinjip^n- 
waikiira tic* ka. Joto iva ichi yen <jo ji^cn ; c},ntn v k>r J'- 
des'; kato no df'kugippu wa arimascn. Ji.^Jiakn iro ic/ti Jo to 
moshimas'. NiJionniiva monosashi ga ni It>rr>'i (ft a, tori) 
firima-s'; liitots' wa kujirazaslil to moshi, e mo hitots' 
zasld to moshimas' ; k>fjir(t':ahi ica sanjn di /'</// 
Jian ni atari, kanezashi ica san ju sanchimeitor' ni <it(/ri//i</x\ 
Jdd koku wa hyaku Jiachiju rittor' ni atm-innix, Jc/u' koku tva 
jitto, itto wa jissho, issho wa ju go des'. Jc/ti rittor' im 
gogohanni atarimax. Nippon nojinko wa .s7// x< : n go 
man nin des 1 . Tokyo no soba de wa konogoro komc <ja i**/to ni 
jissen des\ Ikkin wa roppyaku (fram" 1 ni atarii/inx\ 
iva Jiappyaku manyoku no rydclii ga arimash'ta. I 
wa semmomme des' . Ikkicamme wa sanzen shichi ////"/.- 
g'ram' ni atarimas'. Ktirinnayasanl Ueno made ikura lea, ne. 
Hei, ni jissen de mairimasho. Sore wa t<ik<i!.jrt <j xc,/ ni moke 
nasa.f.f Kono uchiwa ninzu ga oi kara, tv/iki ni xlini/n <jo l,<ix- 
sho gurai iri///as\ Yoshiicara yee iku dote />" 1nil<-1in (//// 
Ano ok'san wa issho-ke/itmci ni Eigo ico botkt/o sh'te 

a This saying refers to a lonely place in the country. To/it is one of the most 
important articles of food among the Japanese. 

h The scientific term for square foot is heiho-shakn; for cubic foot, rippo-shaku. 

c Such pleonasms as we have here with oyoso and knrai in the same sentence 
are not infrequent 

d Lit. if one depends on the present market price, i. e., at the present rate of ex- 

e J/ij-/// and atari are the stems of the verbs inosit and <//<////. See p. 14 d. 

f Tliis is less polite than o make ntuni. 

y The name of a district in Tokyo, fn.m ycs/ii good, lucky, and //-//./ wilderness. 


It is (am) Sri from Yokohama to Enoshima. a Eight ri are 
(ni ataru) how many miles (/'/, ium'r')? Eight ri are almost 
twenty mile. How ((/ore gurai) high is Mount Fuji? The 
height of Mount Fuji is about 3,700 meters. How far (dono 
gurai) is it from here to Tozuka? b From here (1) to Tozuka 
(2) it is (aru 6), I should say (ma 3), about (5) 10 cho (4). 
About how much do you weigh (In regard to the weight of your 
body, about how many kin are there) ? c I weigh (aru) 20 kioan. 
Twenty kican are how many pounds (pondo) ? Twenty ku'an 
are about 165 pounds. The height of this house is three jo. 
The population of Japan is over forty millions. That daimt/o 
had an income of (totte imash'ta) 20,000 koku [of rice]. Rice 
now costs (shim as? 4) about (3) fifteen yen (2) per koku (1). 
Hello, kurumayal how much is it to Enoshima? It's one 
yen and fifty sen. Four to are how many liters? Four to are 
72 liter.*. How long is this cloth? By kanezashi this cloth 
measures (aru) about three jo six sJiaku. Three jo six shaku 
are about ten yards (yar'do). The number of the katakana 
is 48 characters (ji). One mile is 14 cho [and] 45 ken. The 
length of the river Tenryu d is about GO ri' } 60 ri are 146 i miles. 


1 .The Japanese calendar has been made to correspond to our 
Gregorian calendar in every respect except that the Japanese 
reckon years, not fromthe birth of Christ, but by periods (nen-go). 
It used to be customary to create a new period whenever a great 
event occurred ; but at the time of the Restoration it was de- 
cided that henceforth nengo should correspond to the reigns of 
the Emperors. The first year of the present period, Mei-ji, 
was 1868. Hence, to find the year of Meiji one must subtract 
1867 from the Christian year. The year 1902 thus becomes: 

a A romantic little rocky island near Yokohama. The e meaning bay, is iden- 
tical with the e in Edo (bay-gate). 

b A place near Yokohama (lit. gate-mound). 

c In old Japan such a question could hardly be asked, as people had a supersti- 
tious dread of weighing themselves. 

d The Tenryugawa rises in Lake Suwa in the province of Shinano and flows 
through the province of Totomi. 


Meij'i sanju go ncn. The first year of a period is called gwan- 
nen', thus the year 1868 is Mciji <jir<irnien. 

As a mere matter of interest, we add a list of the periods 
between 1.830 and 1868, together with the years of the Christian 
era to which their first years correspond: 
Tem-po 1830 Man-en 1860 

Kd-kwa 1844 Bun-Teyu 1861 

Ka-ei 1848 Gen-ji 1864 

An-sei 1854 Kei-o 1865 

When giving a year of the Christian era use the word sei- 
reki ''western calendar." Thus the year 1888 is called seircki 
sen happyaJcu liaclii ju liaclii nen. 

A person's age may be stated by adding sai, another word 
for "year," to the number. Thus: issai, wnsai, Tiassai, jiesai. 
But in tlie colloquial it is usual to employ the simple numeral 
without sai. In stating the age of a child below ten the Jap- 
anese numerals are preferred. But in giving the ages of an- 
imals sai is commonly used. A horse five years old is called, 
not itsutsu ni narit uma, but go sai ho. Ko here is the same 
as the word meaning "child." 

2. The names of the months are formed from the Chinese nu- 
merals and givaisu. The reading getsu is less common, except 
in the case of ichi getsu January. Another name for this 
month is sho-gwatsu, from sJto right. (Compare slio-go noon). 

"One month " is ikkagetsu, from ichi kn gctnu. : " two months/' 
nikagctsu, etc. This ka, which is the same as the Jca in //,7,v/- 
koku, is much used in such enumerations, being placed between 
the numeral and the noun. It means "a piece" or "unit." 

3. In specifying the day of the month, nichi (jitsu)is used 
with -the Chinese numerals, except in those cases where forms 
VSksfutsuka, mikka, etc., are still available. So the "18th of 
January" is ichi getsu no ju JutrJn' // /<///'. Notice that the 14th 
and 24th are called jit yokka and niju yokka. The old name tor 
the first day of the month is tsnitacJii, from tfUfki moon or ni mth 
and tatsu rise, because in the old calendar the month began 
with the new moon. The 1st of January is called <//rmi-//fx//. 

In dates the order is the exact reverse of the Mtiglish. The 
"3rd of November, 1852" becomes: sen li<nn>ij<il;n <J<> jn ni nen 
/i >' hi tn-utaa mild-".. 


We add a table of the days of the month. 
iclii nichi (jitsu) } ju roku nichi 16th 

tsuitachi ] ju shichi nichi 17th 

futsuka 2nd ju Jiachi nichi 18th 

mikka 3rd ju ku nichi 19th 

yokka 4th Imtsuka 20th 

itsuka 5th ni ju ichi nichi 21st 

muika 6th ni ju ninchi 22nd 

naniika(jianoka)7tfa. ni ju sanichi 23rd 
yoka 8tli ni ju yokka 24th 

kokonoka 9th ni ju go nichi 25th 

toka 10th w*yw ro&w m'c/a* 26th 

ju ichi nichi llth ni ju sliiclii nichi 27th 

y ninchi 12th w/yw 7zc7i* w/c/w 28th 

ju sanichi 13th m ? w ku nichi 29th 

y?7 yokka 14th saw y?7 mc7w 30th 

ju go nichi 15th saw ju ichi nichi 31st 

4. As has been intimated before, the Japanese do not think 
so much of the days of the week as we do. The names of the\ 
week-days all have the suffix yo-bj,from yd (c) light, lumina- 
ry, and hi day. They are : mcM-yooi, gctsu-yobi, kwa-yobi, 
sui-yobi, moku-yobi, kin-yobi, do-yubi. The prefixes mean, 
respectively, sun' moon, fire, water, wood, metal, earth, the 
names of the seven planets (shichi-yo ) . Final bi is 'often omit- 
ted: nichi-yo, getsu-yo, etc. "One week" is isshu, from shu 
revolution. "Which clay ?" (of the week) is nani yobi. 

5. Hours of the day are indicated by adding ji (time) to the 
Chinese numerals: ichi ji, ni ji, san ji, yo ji, etc. The word 

fun (minute) combines with the numerals thus: ippun, ni fun, 
sampun. shifun, roppun, hachifun, jippun. 

ichi ji ju go fun sugi a quarter past one. 

ichi ji han half past one. 

ni ji ju go fun mae a quarter of two. 

Nan ji (nandoki) desu ka. What time is it ? 

Kisha wa nan ji ni demasu ka. 

[At] what time does the train leave ? 

In stating the length of time in hours add kan: ichi ji kan, ni 
ji kan, yo ji kan, nan ji kan, etc. This kan is the Chinese 
equivalent of aida interval. 




The same idiom may be used in stating the length of time 
in years, months, or days, thus: rokunenkan (also rokkanen 

^, rokkar/etsu k<m, nmil;<i ban, etc. Notice also : 
Sanf/ctnichi no /<t<i >r<i <lnl;n <le i/tn zoni a wo tabcmasit. 
For three days (after New Year's) zoni is eaten everywhere. 


(Include names of week-days.) 

lii sun. sei-reki European calendar 

liru noon, day-time. (of the Christian year). 

yoru night. ki/u-reki old calendar. 

de-bana first infusion (of tea), shin-reki new calendar (of 

bon, bommatswri festival of 
the dead. b 

kan (c) =aida interval. 

ko (c) prince (foil- .\vinir the 
"name). c 

fun' (c year (especially of age) 

tt'i (c) emperor (following the 

ban-cha coarse tea. 

kei-ko study, practice (kciko 
suru to study, recite). 

nen-gd period. 

i-shin renovation, reforma- 

go is-sliin the Restoration. 

ktiH-ftcn battle. 

gun-zei military force, army. 


go-zen=.hi ru -mac forenoon. 
yo-go=h iru-suyi afternoon. 
iiicln anniversary of a 

i' no the next. 
vriiku walk. 
hajimaru begin (intr.). 
k<tktirc-ru be hidden. 
/tdwiru do (polite 2,3). 
dki-ru arise from slc-ej), awake 
- be born, 
for the first time, 
only, merely (with a 
negative verb). 
sugi i>ast, after (stem oisugi- 
ru to i>ass b}' 

Oni mojii Jnn-Jii: bancha mo debana (Proverb) d J)ni 

a Zo-ni, from zo (c) miscellaneous and ni-ru to boil, is a kind of soup. 

b Also called o bon. The festival is celebrated on the l-jth, I5th and l6th of 
the yth month (old style). It begins properly on the evening of the I3th. 

c This is now the highest of the five shakn, i. e., degrees of nobility. These 
are ko prince, /v (different character) marquis, Jniku count, s/ii viscount, Jan baron. 
Jto ko Manjuis Ito. okiiina luikn Count Okuma. 

(1 K\cn a devil wlicn in the bloom of youth is beautiful and attractive ; even if 
the tea is of a poor grade, the first infusion has an excellent t;i>te. Instead of ju 
Itachi, some say ju shichi. 


Wir'her'm' tei iva sen shichi liyaku ku ju shichi nen no san 
givatsu ni ju ni nichi ni go tanjo ni narimash'ta; so sh'te sen 
happyaku hachi ju hachi nen no san givatsu kokonoka ni o ka- 
kure ni narimash'ta', sore des' kara kuju issai ni o nari'nasai- 
mash'ta. 3 - Per'ri toiu Amerika no ts'kai iva Kaei roku nen 
roku givatsu no mikka ni hajimete Nihon ye kimash'ta. Sono 
told wa kyilreki desh'ta kara, shinreki ni naos' to, shichi giva- 
tsu no nanuka ni atarimas'. Kaei to iu nengo iva sen hap- 
py aku shi ju hachi nen kara sen happnaku go ju yonen made 
desh'ta kara, Kaei roku nen tm .<f// f/"i>/>//"l'u go ju san nen 
ni atarimas'. Kono tsugi n<> /./*//" n- >i j> jii go fun sugi ni 
demas'. Shimbashi b kara mail e aruku to, ichi ji kan 
hodo kakarimas'. Anata wa mainichi keiko wo nasaimas' ka. 
Sayo, mainichi ni ji kan zutsu keiko ico itashimas' . c Anata no 
senseiiva nanji ni oide ni narimas' ka. Watakushi no sensei iva 
ban no shichi ji han ni mairimas'. Sen happyaku shichi ju nen 
ni F'rantf to Doits' no ik'sa ga arimash'ta ; sono ik'sa wa shichi- 
kagetsu kakarimash'ta* Sono ik'sa no yo nen mae ni Qs'toria to 
Proslia no ik'sa ga arimash'ta ; sono ik'sa iva tatta nanuka 
sh'ka kakarim,asen desh'ta. Anata iva nanji ni dkimas' ka. 
Fuyu iva shichi ji ni okimas'. Sen roppyaku nen no ju giva- 
tsu ni Sekigahara no d kassen ga arimash'ta. leyas' ko no 

ei WWher'ni tei\s Wilhelm I. For dai issei see Ch. XXIX. Tei means 
"sovereign." "King 1 ' is ktvo or o (sama]. The Emperor of Japan is called ten-shi 
heaven-son or teniio, from ten-o heaven-king. The general term for "emperor" is 
kivo-tei. In speaking of exalted personages, go tanjo ni naru is equivalent to o 
umare nasartt, and o kakure ni naru to o sliini nasani. Notice that with words 
denoting time the postposition, if needed at all, must be ni. What was said about 
the distinction between ni and de (p. 2oa) applies to places only. 

b The name of a bridge in Tokyo. It is a case of jubafco-yomi, shin being the 
Chinese for " new. " At Shimbashi is the terminal station of the railway between 
Tokyo and Yokohama. 

c With suru, wo is commonly omitted ; but with the more formal itasu, unless 
the object is stated, it is better to use -wo. Keiko wo may be contracted to keiko, 

d The name of a village on the Nakaseiuio. For the ga see p. 13. Seki means 
a barrier between two feudal fiefs, a place where travellers in former times had to 
show their passports, while hara means wilderness. Sekigahara was the scene of 
a great battle in which leyasu, the founder of the last line of shoguns, won a de- 
cisive victory over his enemies. 


gunzci wa sJiicJ/i man go sen nin dcxlt'ta l-crcdomo 
no gunzeiiva ji~i x<iniiiuiit nut oW/Y^/. Sun jn .s7/ irlii m-u 
mac nl 7 ("/,//" /"' <;/V.s7//// (/</ or/titash'ta', sono toki id htto <ja jit, 
man shi sen nin liodo sltinda .so f /(.-'. 

Tatkd santa * died, according to (de) the European calendar, 
in the year 1598. When (to/a ni) Taiko died his child (ko no) 
Hideyori was six years old. The Restoration began in (from) 
the year 1868. At that time the Emperor was((^> irasxlt<ii- 
mash'ta) seventeen years old. b At what hour do you usually 
retire (o yasumi nasa'nit,J ka) ? I usually retire at eleven o'- 
clock. The train for Kobe (Kobe ye iku kisha) leaves at ten 
o'clock. What time is it now (mo) ? It is probably (<fesho) 
about (fjoro) four o'clock. Now (konogoro) the sun rises (deru) 
at about eight o'clock. The festival of Suitengu is [on] the 5th 
of January. The festival of Kompira is on the 10th of Jan- 
uary. The anniversary of the death of Gong en sarna c is the 
17th of April. leyasu was born in 1542. The festival of the. 
dead begins on (from) the 13th of the 7th mouth. The summer 
vacation of the university continues (is) seventy days. I study 
German one hour every day. At what hour does your teacher 
come ? He comes [in the] morning at eight o'clock. Nobunaga 
died at the age of [<ie]48 years. This year is the 35th [year] of 
Meiji. What day (of the week) is to-day ? 

a Tai-ko in ancient times designated a retired favam-paku (prime minister). It 
is especially the title of Hideyoshi, who, though a man of low birth, attained to 
the position of >foi <ampakn. 

b Inisshaitnashita is a contraction of irassharivifisliita, as nastuHtaskita is of IHJ- 
sarimashila and ostiimas/iita of gozarimashita. As the Emperor was born in 1852, 
he really was fifteen or sixteen years of age at the time of the Restoration. But 
the Japanese count the year of one's birth as a whole year and after the next Nt_\v 
Year's day say that the child is in his second year or two years old. In speaking 
of a person's age seventeen years counted in the Japanese fashion is k<iztx-<tos/ii de 
ju sliichi (kazoe-ru reckon, toshi year). ]n other connections, as in answering the 
question how many years one has been in the country, say tie-in jit shiclii nrit or 
ashi-ltake jh shichi ncn (us/it -MO kakeru to straddle). Exactly seventeen years is 
iiiiiru ju shichi ni'>i(Kiru circle). 

c Con-gen is a Buddhistic word meaning" temporary manifestation," i. e., re-in- 
carnation of Buddha. In Tokyo this title is applied with e.-pccial frequency to 
leyasu, who is called specifically tosho-gongen (to east, sho illumine). 



The four arithmetical processes, addition, subtraction, mul- 
tiplication and division are called collectively ka-gen-jo-jo. 

ka = kmvae-ru add. jo = kake-ru multiply. 

gen = hiku subtract, jo = warn divide. 

21 ni 31 100 kmvaeru to, 52 ni narimasu. 

31 kara 17 wo hiku to, 14 ni narimasu. 

19 ni 3 wo kakeru to, 57 ni narimasu. 

200 wo 5 de waru to, 40 ni narimasu. 

The verb yose-ru "bring together" may be substituted for ku- 
waeru, thus: 

21 to 31 wo yoseru to, 52 ni narimasu. 

In the multiplication table (ku-ku) a few euphonic changes 
occur. It is here added, merely for purposes of reference. 

ni nin ga shi shi ku, 36 
ni san ga roku 

ni shi ga hachi go go, 25 

ni go, ju (to) go roku, 30 

ni roku no ju ni go shichi, 35 

ni shichi noju shi go ha, 40 

ni ha no ju roku gokku, 45 
ni ku, ju hachi 

roku roku, 36 

sa zan ga 9 roku shichi, 42 

san shi no 12 roku ha, 48 

san go no 15 rokku, 54 
sabu roku, 18 

san shichi, 21 shichi shichi, 49 

sampa, 24 shichi hachi (ha}, 56 

san ku, 27 shichi ku, 63 

shi shi no 16 Jiappa, 64 

shi go, 20 hakku, 72 

shi roku, 24 

shi shichi, 28 ku ku, 81 

shi ha, 32 


Notice the change of san to sabu in sabu rokic and compare 
Sabu-ro, a common personal name (lit. three man). The 
sound n is often interchangeable with mu and this again with 

Fractions are expressed by means of bu portion, which before 
TIO is pronounced bun : 

sainbun no ni two thirds. 

hachibun no san three eighths. 

Percentage is expressed by the units ivari and bu (orshu): 
ichi ivari go bu 15^. 

Once, twice, etc., are rendered, by means of do, hen, or tub!. 
In the same sense kicai "turn" is often used, but this is not 
strictly colloquial. 

ich-i do, ippen, hito tabi once. 

san do, samben, mi tabi three times 

i/o do, shi hen, yo tabi four times. 

ju do, jippen, to tabi ten times. 

MainicJiini do zutsu twice every day. 

Hi ni san do zutsu three times a day. 

Double, treble, etc., are rendered by the aid of the compound 
so-bai, or simply bai. 

ni sobai twice as many (much). 

sanzobai (sambai) three times as many. 

hassobai (hachi bai) eight times as many. 

Ichi ryu mambai one grain [produces] a myriad fold. 
The word bai alone means ni sobai. 


asa morning. so-bai fold. 

imo potato. 3 zen (c) whole (in composi- 

arukoru alcohol. tion). 

bu unit of interest, one <>n-fihu memorizing. 

per cent. mon-dai theme, subject un- 

bu, bun fraction. der discussion, problem. 

hen unit for times. kin-rh interest Qn 

oat double. ri-sh/\ 

a The word imo has a wider scope than our " potato, " including, as it does, a num- 
ber of edible roots. The common (Irish) potato \AJagatarOfimo 01 ja^a-uno, from 
the name of the island of Java. The sweet potato is satsuma-imo, from the name 
of the famous province at the southern extremity of Japan. 


ryo-ji, chi-ryo medical treat- wari ten per cent. 

ment (ryoj'-i sum to treat fue-ru increase (intr.). 

medically). fiikumu contain. 

shoku-ji meal (shokuji suru kubaru distribute. 

take a meal). bikkuri suru be astonished, 
kuwae-ru add. frightened. 

hiku subtract, deduct. bydki ni kakaru have an 
kake-ru hang upon (tr.). attack of sickness. 

apply, multiply. ywi, yori mo than, as (in 
u-aru split, divide. comparisons). 


Sore wo mo iclii do yonde a kudasai. Kono sake wa iclii wa- 
ri ni bu arukor' loofukunde imas'. Kono shimbun wo asa to 
ban ni b mainichi ni do zutsu kubarimas'. Kono bydki ni ka- 
kt'i-u liito wa taiteihyaku nin no uchi de ni ju nin wa shinimas'. 
Konogoro Doits' de wa kinri ga yas'kute taitei sambu han ka 
shi bu gurai des'. Nilion de wa kinri ga takai kara, ni ivari 
no risoku wo torn hito mo arimas'. Hachi bun no iclii ni ha- 
chi bun no go wo kutvaeru to, shi bun no san ni narimas'. 
Ni ku ju Jiachi. K'suri ku sobai. c Ni do bikkuriA Kyu- 
shu no okisa wa Shikoku no bai des'. e Awaji no okisa wa 
oyoso Iki no shi bai gurai des'. Watakuslii wa sono mondai wo 
san do yondakara, mo ansho ga dekimash'ta.f Roku ha shi 
ju hachi. Shina wa Doits' yori oyoso ju hassobai gurai okii. 
Kono bunsho wasambenyonda keredomo imi ga wdkarimasen. 
Jagataraimo wa shichi wari go bu mizu wofukunde iru. 

a Yonde is the subordinate form of the verb yomu to read (for yomi-te). The past 
tense \syoiida (for yomi-ta). 

b The postposition is added only to the last word, like iua. See p. 46. 

c The reference is to the large profits of the drug business. Notice the alliteration. 

d Supply shimashita or itadtittuuftita. This is a common expression for : [I] was 
greatly astonished. 

e KyTt-shTi (lit. nine countries) and Shi-koku (lit. four provinces) are the names of 
the two great islands south of the main island (Hon-do) of Japan. In the following 
sentence we have the names of smaller islands. 

f Lit. The committing to memory has been accomplished. The meaning is : I 
know it now. 



The Japanese generally eat three times a day (hi ni). The 
American envoy Perry came to Japan twice. The students of 
the School for Foreign Languages recite (keikosuru) twice every 
day. The population of Kyushu is double [that] of Shikoku. 
One sen is the hundredth part of a yen. One sun is the tenth 
part of a shakit. This sake contains 15o [of] alcohol. 99 32 
= 67. One minute is the sixtieth part of an hour. The physi- 
cian (</) has treated this patient four times. Mount Fuji is 
three times as high as Qyama. Asia is four and a half times 
as large as Europe. 17x3 = 51. My (uclii no) hares have 
within one year multiplied (become) five fold. The number 
of soldiers in (of) Germany is about one hundredth of the 
whole population. This book seller sells at a reduction of (de- 
ducting) ten per cent, a The population of this town has with- 
in twenty years increased (fuete kimash'ta) (to) four fold; 
twenty years ago there were 30,000 persons (nin\ but now 
(iva) [they] have become 120,000 (persons). 


In counting objects it is usual to make use of so-called nu- 
meral auxiliaries or nurneratives, which designate the nature 
of the unit. 

Hciko shichi ko seven boxes. b 

This ko, by the way, is an alternative pronunciation oi' the 
character read ka in flekctgeteu. Words of this kind are rare 
in English, but there are analogies in such expressions as "two 
suits of clothes" or "three head of cattle." 

In the colloquial most of the numeratives are of Chinese 
origin, but there are a few native words still in use : 

K<nni liitn Imxliira one god, from hashim post. 

lliitn f/itu tmnjfi} two pairs of pigeons. 

Koya ml mum three shanties, from nm/n' ridge (of roof). 

Zashilci yo ma four rooms, from ma space. 

Ta/< /V.v// M/O five bureaus, from sao j>ole. c 

a As ivari is of the nature of an auxiliary, wo is not required. 
b Nana hako would be rather "seven boxfuls." 

c Japanese bureaus have handles at Ixith ends near the top, arranged so that 
they may be suspended from a pole and thus easily carried, 


OM mu sitji six girdles, from suji line. 

Yofuku nana kumi seven suits of (European) clothes, from 
kumu to join. 

Kimono ya kasane eight suits of (Japanese) clothes, from 
kasane-ru to lay one over another. 

Yoroi kokono soro-i nine sets of armor, from sorou to be in 
order, be a complete set. 

Notice that the numeral with its auxiliary takes the same 
position in a sentence as a simple numeral, that is, it follows 
its noun. Analogous tofutatsu no tokei is liito hashira no kami', 
but such reversal of the order is allowable only in certain cases. 
Moreover, in the examples given above the use of the simple 
numerals liitotsu, futatsu, etc., would not be wrong. 

In this and the two following chapters a list of the most 
common numeratives is given. 

1. For objects that are long in proportion to their width 
sticks, trees, pencils, documents, needles, teeth, folding fans 
(ogi], swords, a and the like: lion. 

ippon, sambon, slii hon, roppon, liacJii hon, j'ippon, liyappon, 
nambon, iku hon. 

2. For objects that are broad and flat paper, clothes, rugs, 
boards, dishes, coins and the like: mai. 

ichi mai, sammai, yo mai or shi mai, roku mai, hachi 

mai, j'u mai, liyaku mai, nammai, iku mai. 
Note also hammai half a sheet, as in a Japanese book. 

3. For animals of all kinds : Juki. 

ippiki, sambiki, shi hiki, roppiki, hachi hiki, fippiki, hyap- 

piki, nambiki, iku hiki. 

For Itirger quadrupeds to (head) may also be used. For birds 
the specific term is wa (feather). 

ichi iva (ippa], samba, shi iva, roppa, hachi iva, j'ippa, 

hyappa, namba, iku wa. 

There is also a specific term for fishes bi (tail) but this is 
not common in the colloquial and would sound pedantic. In 
counting fishes mai and hon are often used, according to the 

a The specific numerative for swords ls/uri: katana hitofuri, etc, 




4. For persons : nin (man). 
ichi nin ( Jtitori), ni nin, (futari*), san nin, yo nin 

roku nin, hack! nin, ju nin, nan nin, ikti nin (ikutari). 
A rather classical and yet not uncommon synonym is mei 


<" 7 " I storm. 
o-kaze j 

ho sail. 

hashira post, pillar. 

lio-basliira mast. 

kanzoshi (kami, sashi) hair- 

kiri no ki paulownia. a 

ori cage, pen. 

osu, mesu male, female. 

tako octopus. 

ntntchi match. b 

cho-men note-book, account- 
lx)ok, record. 

cliu-mon orler (for goods). 

han-shi white native paper 
(about 10x13 in.). 

ji-bun (lit .time-part) time. c 

()y*"-'} official. 
kiran-n j 

sliim-motsu present. d 
sho-sen merchant vessel. 
nai-clii interior of a country. 
zak-kt/o mixed residence. e 
age-ru lift up, give (polite 


kctnt, kattc to hunt.g 
kari-inu hunting dog. 
karyudo hunter. h 
kn/t, kattc keej) (animals). 
nomu, nonde drink, smoke 

oru, otte break. 
ore-ru be broken. 

a The wood of the Jtiri tree is highly prized, being used to make bureaus, clogs, 

b The native word for "match " is sttri-tsiike-gi (lit. rub-kindle- wood). 

c Synonymous with toti. At the end of a clause toki ni or jibun ni is equivalent 
to "when." 

d A now common synonymn for shiiiintotsu is okuii-mono. Another common 
term, o nriyage, denotes, strictly speaking, a present brought by a person on his 
return from a journey. 

e Xaichi-zakkyo was a very familiar word in 1899, when the new treaties went 
into operation. Xai-chi, or nai-kokit, is the opposite Q{ givm-kokn. Compare //<;/- 
'Mti-jin natives and foreigners. 

f .-l^cinasH I give it to you. Agent may be added to the subordinate form of 
verbs that denote actions done for the benefit of the person addressed. Shimbun 
//(/< iigetnasit [I will] read the newspaper for you. 

g Henceforth in the vocabularies subordinate forms of difficult verbs will be in- 
dicated in this way. The familiar past tense may then be fanned by substituting 
a for f. h Compare afyuJo (p. 19). 


tasukaru, tasukatte be saved, ne ga tsuku take root. 

escape with one's life. tsuru, tsutte hang (tr.), catch 
tatakau, tatakatte to fight. (fish) with hook and line. 

tatafcai a fight, battle, war. uchi-jini sum die in battle. 

ne root. sonzuru, sonjite be injured. 3 

tsuku, tsuite stick, adhere. zai-ryu suru reside. 


Anata loa mainichi makitabako wo nambon zutsu nomimas* 
ka. Watdkuslii wa mainichi go hon zutsu nomimas'. Wata- 
kuslii no tomodachi iva mainichi jippon zutsu nomimas'. Ko- 
noaida iva sakana wo jippiki ts'tte kimash'ta. b Kyo wasamui 
kara, kimono wo mo ichi mai kimasho. Yube uchi no neko 
ga nezumi wo sambiki torimash'ta. Tombo ni iva hane ga yo 
mai arimas'. Kono shosen wa hobashira ga sambon arima- 
sh'ta ; ippon wa arashi de oremash'ta. Sono tatakai de sh'kwan 
ga go ju nin uchijini shimash'ta. JDozo hanshi wo ni mai ku- 
dasai ; watakushi wa ichi mai mo motte imasen kara. c Fude 
wo ippon kash'te agemasho. Ano karyildo wa kariinu wo sam- 
biki motte imad. Ano basha wa shitobiki^ des'. Tako ni wa 
ashi ga hachi lion aru. Sonofude (wa) ikura ka. Hai, ippon 
go sen de gozaimas' ; shikashi jippon o kai nasareba(ifjau. buy) 
shi ju go sen ni makete agemasho. Kono uchi ni kami ga iku 
mai haitte imas' ka. Kono gakko ni Doits'go wo keiko suru sho- 
sei ga ju yo nin arimas'. Matchi (wo) ippon chodai. Kono 
hako no uchi ni matchi ga ni hon arimas' keredomo k'suri ga 
tsuite imasen. Ano liito no byoki wo san nin no isha ga rydji 
shimash'ta keredomo tas'karimasendesh'ta. e Hirame wo ni mai 

a From son injury, loss, and sum. Compare zonsuni (p. 48). But "to lose," as 
in business, is son stint. 

b Lit. having caught with hook and line, I came. The verb kuru is used like 
shimau (p. 5 2a ) as an auxiliary. 

c Such inversion of the natural order may be allowed when the clause with kara. 
is not too long. With a negative verb ichi mai mo is analogous to dare mo, nani 
mo, etc. (Ch. XVII). Motte is the subordinate form of the verb motsu. 

d From shi four, to head (of horses) and hiki, stem of hiku to draw. Compare 
ninimbiki, used of a riksha drawn by two men. 

e By adding deshita to a negative verb a negative past tense may be formed. 
A future may be formed similarly by adding deslw. 


shimmotsv /</' ////<///, /n.^Ctn. Tori yd. nikiji ico samba eJiumon 
sJt'te kite o kure\ Ko'n<> kraut ni trn xcif <j "//<///< /' < a- turns' 
kn. X(i/c/ti-:.ckk//" n! /off,/ _///>,//, ,,i yi/>,, m' :;<//,// sji'fe o,-n 
Seiyojin tea shi *</* <j<> Injokn /</,//""' ni niit desh'te, 3 - sono wli' 
Doits' j in tea shi Jit/! JtarJti jTt ><-Jti nin de go:;< '/'/,,</*},' fn. 

In this box there are (haitte imas') a hundred matches. 
Five cigars, please ! He smokes six cigars every da}'. The 
number of leaves (kami-kazu) in (of) this note-book is thirty. 
When (Jibuti ni 4) I (1) was (otta 3) in Tokyo (2) the num- 
ber of Germans [there] all told (iitiuc de) was forty. This 
official keeps three horses. That merchantman has two masts; 
one(ttftt) was injured in (de) the recent storm. Lately the fisher- 
men (go) have not caught a single (even one) fish. I planted 
five kiri trees in my garden and (ga) all have taken root nice- 
ly (well). In (de u-a) this war 50,000 soldiers were killed. 
As I have two writing-brushes, I will lend you one. There 
are in this box a hundred cigars; each (one) costs (shimas') six 
sen. What is this bridge called? It is called Sammai-baaki.^ 
In the Zoological Garden there are over (//o mo) a hundred 
monkeys. In this cage there are two lions; both (nihiki tomo} 
are males. This dog has five pups (ko). T\vo hair-pins, please ! 
There are two birds in that cage. The population of Yokoha- 
ma is about 200,000. 


5. For places and lots (of ground) : sho (place) with kit (Com- 
pare ikkayetsu p. 74). 

ikkf is/to. saiKjasho, shikasho, rokkasho, JinkktiuJm. /Y/,7,-W/'>, 

nanyasho. c 

For houses, shops, and also temples /,-<>/ (eaves) is commonly 

lltken, sanyeit. N/H' ken, rokkat. /<'/</// /.-<//. j!kk<-n. /<"ii</<-)i. 

a The subordinate form of ift-su. 

b A narrow bridge near Uno in Tokyo, originally made of three boards. Sakura 
Sogoro on the occasion when ho handed his petition to the Shogun (for which 
offense he suffered the penalty of crucifixion) hid under this bridge. 

c It is better not to say iAn-An-s/w. \Vith numeral ives that begin with k, i&u 
is to be avoided, fur the obvious reason that confusion with ic/ii is likely to result. 


The unit here is not necessarily one building, "but rather the 
building or group of buildings occupied by one household . a 

6. For ships: so (boat). 

issd, sanzd, ski so, roku so, Jiassd, jissd, nanzd, ilcu so. 

7. For vehicles: dai (a stand, base). " Four vehicles " is yo 
dai. Specifically for heavy wagons and coaches, etc., ryo(pair 
of wheels) may be used. For rikshas the commonest term is 
did (to hold). b 

itdid, san did, ski did, roku did, liatdid, nan did, iku did. 

8. For chairs: kyaku (leg). 

ikkyaku, san kyaku, shi kyaku, rokkyaku,kakkyaku,jik- 
kyaku, nan Icy aim. 

9. For books: satsu (ticket, label, list). 
issatsu, san satsu, hassatsu, jissatsu, etc. 

Either more classical is kwan(\'o\l), which in composition with 
numerals is modified like ken. For complete sets of volumes 
the numerative is bu (department, group). 

10. For letters and documents: tsu (=tdri p. 64a). 
ittsu, san tsu, liattsu, j ittsu, etc. 

But most people use lion rather than tsu. One letter may also 
be designated ippu, fromfu seal. 


isu chair. so appearance ( so desu it 

minato harbor. is said that). 

ni-guruma cart. bes-sd villa. 

c/'tt(c)hire, fare. gun-kan war vessel. 

ka, ke(c)=ie house, family lid-yu friend. 

(in composition). kd-en public garden, park. 

bin (c) convenience, opportu- kivai-sha corporation, com- 

nity to send a message, pany. 

mail (in yu-bin) . kwa-zolwi, a noble, the nobility 

a One household or family .is called ikka, from ka (c) house, or ikka-nai (iiai 
interior) or ikka-zoku (sokii kindred). The alternative pronunciation (ke) of the 
same character is affixed to proper names to designate families, especially those of 
high rank ; e. g., Tokugavm-ke. 

b Clio is used for tools also : nokogiri ilcho one saw, ko-gatana ni cho two pen- 


kicn-kt/o the Emperor's resi- lu.i-m-n xnri(- be wrecked (of ft 

dence. ship). 

nen-9&tbeginningof the year. 8 omou, omotte think (... to o- 

sho-setsu, shosetsu-bon, novel, mou I think that). 

romance. osou, osotte attack. 

zo-scn-jo shipyard, dockyard sorou, sorotte be uniform, 

(lit. make-ship-place). complete. d 

hyakkwa-zensho cyclopedia. b tari-ru be enough. 

ji-biki dictionary. t<~>ru, t~>ttc pass through, p;i>s 

Igirisu England. by. 

Moko Mongolia. tsuku, tsuite arrive. 

ato no the remaining, the yatou, yatotte hire (a person) 

other. yobu, yondc call. 

koware-ru be broken, be mata moreover. 

wrecked. tada-ima just now, presently. 


Per'ri to iti Amerika no ts'kai ira J/ajimcte Nihon ye /,-/Vr/ c 
toki ni gunkan wo shi so motte kimash'ta. Soppyaku ncn mac 
ni Mokojinga Nihon ye f ni do osotte kimash'ta ; hajtmete kiln 
toki ni wafune ivo shi Jtyakit <jo jisso mottc 7r/, ni do me ni(ihe 
second time) kita toki ni wa nisanzen so motte kita so des'. 
Konaida no kwaji de ie ga nangen yakcmasJi'ta ka. Roppyok- 
ken yaketa so des'. Kuruma wo itcho yonde koi.s I<'/tiiti>t- 
nori de gozctinni-^ kn l ninlnnori de gozaimas 1 k. Jfut<t i<-/ii- 
nimbiki de gozaimas* ka, ninitiilnki de yozaimas' ka. Ni)tin- 

a. Ne>is/ii ni iku to go to tender New Year's congratulations. The word 
is used now exclusively in this sense of New Year's congratulations : properly 
nenshi no shu-gi or ncn-ga, from ga (c) to congratulate. 

b From hyaku hundred, ku<a branch of study, ;< complete, sho book. 

c This is synonymous with the comparatively new word ji-s/w. It is a case of 
jubako-yonri. Ji T.'<> liiku to look up a word [in a dictionary]. 

d O kyaku san ^a sonninashitn. The guests are all here. 

e Instead of the past tense the present kuni might also be used here : ///;-// toki 
ni at the time of his coming. Notice the frequent idiom mottc kuru, mottc iku. 
Wh.;n the object is a pjrxm, tmirclc must be substituted for mottc. 

f Ye here is to be construed with kimashita. 

g Yoiule koi call and come! In English we should say " Go and call !" .In 
the reply notice the double dc. gozaiinasH ka. One might also substitute vonJc ki- 
ntiulio kn (with "cv)for ,/c ^ 


nori no a ichinimbiki de ii. Tadaima Yokohama no minato 
ni gunkan ya nanzo tsuite imas' Tea. Tadaima iva gunkan ga 
sanzo tsuite imaJ ; b isso wa Doits' no gunkan de c ato no niso 
wa Igiris' no gunkan deshdto omoimas'. Konojibiki wa lias- 
satsu arimas'. Gyokuhen d to iu jibiki wa ju ni satsu des\ 
Kokijiten to iu jibiki wa ni ju shi satsu des'. Are wa, nan to 
iu lion des' ka. Are wa Motoori N&rinaga no kaita Kojikiden e 
des'. Sorotte imas' ka. lie, nisats' tarimasen (are lacking). Ano 
bashagwaisha wa basha wo ni ju dai mottc imas'. Konniclii 
iva kwoki/o no mae wo torn, toki ni^ rippa na basha wo hachi 
ri/o mimash'ta. Konaida Doits' kara teyami gani tsil kima- 
fsh'ta. Ittsu iva Amerika no bin de ki, mo ittsu iva Indo wo 
totte kimash'ta. Ueno ni wa rydriya ga ni ken arimas'. Ikken 
iva Nihonrydri wo shi, mo ikken wa Seiyoryori wo shimas'. 
Sono hyakkivazensho iva ichi bu nan satsu des' ka. Ni ju shi 
satsu des'. Kono shosetsu wa ju go satsu mono des'. Mito to 
Owari to Kishu iva mukashigo san ke to mdshimash'ta. S 

Over twenty ships were wrecked 11 iu(f/e) the storui recently. 
In the harbor of Nagasaki there are now (tsuite imas') three 
Russian men-of-war. This village has only (sh'ka arimasen) 
twenty houses. That nobleman has three villas; one (2) of 
them (1) was burned recently. What book is that? It is 

a This tw is explicative. See p. 8. 

h The subordinate form of an intransitive verb with ini or oru may denote a 
state which is the result of the action expressed by the verb. Compare haitte oru 
(p. 44e ). 

c De here is equivalent to de atte or deshite. 

d The name of a dictionary of Chinese ideograms, from gyoku=taia jewel and 
hen book. The largest dictionary in common use is called Koki-jiten. Koki is the 
name of a Chinese period (tiengo) and ji-ten is synonymous with ji-sho. Compare 
' Century Dictionary." 

eThe Kojiki(y\\.. old-afiair-record) is Japan's oldest historical work, dating from 
the beginning of the VIII. Century. Motoori, the most famous of Japanese gram- 
marians, published the text, with commentary, in a book called Kojiki-den. 

f As I passed by the palace (lit. at the time of passing the front). 

g The names in this sentence may also stand asyndetically. The princes of these 
provinces were related to the shogun. It was provided that, if he had no heir, he 
might choose a successor from one of their families. 

h Of a ship we say kmvare-ru, yabure-ru, or ha-sen sum. Of a person : hascn ni 
au. This ha is the Chinese equivalent ofyabure-m to break. 


the book called Taiheiki. a How many volume? are there? 
There are alxmt fifteen volumes, I think. How much is the 
hire ( ticitni -chin) of one riksha (for) one day? It is two yen. 
En^.ige (call) two carts. Thin company has a hundred >treet- 
cars. About how many houses do you visit (>/m"v/,v/) at New 
Year's ( ncn*hi /) ? I visit alxmt twenty. I went to the houses 
of two or three friends, but they were all out. The house of 
Shimazu held Satsuma and Qsumi until the Restoration. At 
the shipyard of Yokosuka b [they] are now constructing (kodit- 
racrn) two men-of-war. How many parks are there in Tokyo ? 
There are three. One chair is (was) broken. 


11. For vcsselfuls, bucketfuls, cupfuls: Jmi (sr//,v/.v >//,-/). 
ippai, sambai, shi ha I, roppai, hachi hai, jippai, nambai, 

ilcu hai. c 

For medicine, tobacco, or tea, the unit isftiku (kttKitri ico 
fuku sum to take medicine), which undergoes the same changes 
as Jiai.& Fuku is also used for kake-mono (hanging scrolls or 
pictures), but the ideogram in this case is different. 

12. For pairs of stockings, pantaloons and shoes: soku (foot). 
issoku, sanzoku, Juissokit, jissoku. 

For pairs of other things tsui (to correspond) is used, as in 
kirn-bin. jttMi.i a pair of vases. But a pair of animals is Ju'to 
tsuyai, from tsugai couj)le (See p. 82) 


ma=aida interval. biiru beer. 

t-Jiichi milk. e toso spiced sake.* 

knhii coffee. binln gra]M>. 

a The Tai-hei-ki (lit. great peace-record) is a famous historical work, recount- 
ing the events of the XIV. Century. 

b A naval station on the coast of Sagami, just within the entrance to Tokyo Bay. 

c Ip/>ni liesn. It is full. 

d O clta 7<'t< ippni (<> ugari nasal) Have a cup of tea! The nuinerative///X- is used 
for tea mostly in connection with the ceremonial cha-no-vn. 

e Cow's milk is usually called gytt-nyTt. GyTinshi; nyTi=chichi. 

I Toso is drunk only at New Year's. 




budo-sku wine. 

sake-nomi drinker, toper. 

tali [Japanese] sock. 

kutsu-tabi [European] sock, 
stocking. a 

geta, ashida wooden clog.b 

wara straw. 

waraji straw sandal. c 

naga-gutsu boot. 

liana-ike vase (ike-ru to keep 

kwa-bin vase (lit. flower- 

sei-fu, the government. 

kitsui intense, strong (of 
liquors, odors etc.), tight 
(of shoes). 

koi dense, strong (of tea, 

shio salt. 

karai acrid. 

sliio-karai \ -,, r d 

sJioppai ) 

iya na disagreeable. 

kirau, kiratte dislike. 6 

ne-ru go to bed, sleep. 

nemuru, nemutte sleep, slum- 

nemit-ke drowsiness. . 

you, yotte be intoxicated/ 

same-ru become sober, come 
to one's senses.g 

nodo throat. 

kawaku, kaivaite dry(intr.). 

nodo ga kaivaku be thirsty. 

lianasu separate. 

meshi-agaru take (food or 
drink polite 2, 3). 

nige-ru flee. 

ure-ru be able to sell. 

yaku, yaite burn (tr.). 

ydki-mono pottery. 

dai-bu very, pretty. 

yo-doslii the whole night 

tabi ni, tambi ni (after a 
verb) as often as, when- 


Dozo mizu wo ippai kudasai ; ivatdkushi wa shiokarai mono 
wo tabemash'ta kara, taihen(ni)nodo ga kaivaite kimash'ta. 

a Called also kutsu-shita, from shita under. 

b Geta is the generic term. Aslrida are very high clogs used in rainy weather. 

c This word is derived from wara and kutsu, thus: waragutsu, ivaranzu, waranji, 

d Shio-karai is the more elegant word of the two. 

e " I dislike it " is usually kirai desti. Sake ga daikirai desn. I dislike sake very 
much. Compare siiki desu (p. 55b). Iya desu is equivalent to kirai desn. 

f Sake ni you to be intoxicated with sake. Fune ni you to be seasick. 

g Me ja sameni to wake up. A T enmke ga saineni to recover from drowsiness. 
Yoi ga saineru to get sober after intoxication. 


din u'o ippai ikaga de gozaimas'' ka.* Arigato gozaimas 1 . 1\~a- 
taku-iJii tec ckiiaaiacJeaxttki de sake wo tada ski kaibahari nomi- 
iiifi.Nlt'ta, ftJ/ikaftJd sake ga to. then ni tsityoJcatta knrn, daibu yoi- 
/nan/iita. ]t }r<it<tl;u*li ica nemuku naru tambi ni koi cha wo 
ni samba i nomu to nemuke ga samemas'. Tabako ico ipnuku 
mesJtiagarimasen ka. c Arigato, icatakiishi wa tabako ga 
kirai de gozaimas'. Waraji wa issoku ikura des' ka. Issoku is- 
sen go rin de gozaimas'. Sonnara ni sokn kaimcuko. Sono 
Jianaike ica Jiitotsu ikura ka. Kono Jianaike ico itfi<>n' des' ka- 
ra, hitotsu Jianash'te wa d urimasen. lya iya sambai, nige 
nige go hai. e Wcctakushi ga kuniye kaerimas' toki Nihon no 
seifn kara Jianaike ivo ittsui moraimash'ta ga, sono Jianaike ica 
Satsumayaki { de gozaimasJi'ta. Sakuban koi cJia ivo sJii Ini 
nonda kara, yoddshi neraremasen desJi'ta.S Wataku-sld wa 
nagaguts' ivo ni soku kosJiiraete -/ttoraitai ga, h issoku ikura des' 
ka. Issoku go yen de gozaimas'. Issaktijitsu no ban ica biir' 
100 roppai nonda keredomo s'kosJii mo yoima-sen desJi'ta. 

A cup of tea, please ! I bought five pairs [of] socks. How 
much were they a pair ? They cost (sJiimasJi'ta) 75 sen a pair. 
Give me two pairs of clogs. I drink three glasses [of] milk 
every morning. Have another (mo) cup of coffee ! As this 
wine is pretty strong, if [a man] drinks (aoi/icba) but (mo) 
three glasses, he will become intoxicated. That man is (de) a 

a How about a cup of tea? The reply arigato gozahnasii does not imply refusal. 
In declining to drink one may say, Mo o cha loa itadakimascn. One may also use 
the polite phrase, O kamai kudasam >ia (negative imperative) Never mind! 

h ( )r, volte kitnashita got into the condition of intoxication, or (without duilni),yottc 

c Meshiagarti is synonymous with agarit, but is a little more elegant. 

d The subordinate form with TI'<? has a conditional sense and is usually followed 
by a negative verb or a verb with a negative significance. .S"<> shite -c<7 ikenai (So 
shicha. ikenat) [Vou] must not do so. "Must not" is usually to l>e rendered in this 

e This saying refers to men who like sake, but wish to be coaxed to drink. While 
they refuse they drink three cups, and while they run away they drink rive. 

f A kind of pottery, the glazed surface of which is artistically cracked. 

g \erarent is the potential form of the verb //<;//. Xcraremasen can't sleep. 

h Moraitai is the desiderative form of the verb moraii and means "should like to 
receive." Kttkiraett nwmitni. [I] desire to have made. This use of the subordi- 
nate form with meraitni or (more politely) itaJabitai is a very common idiom. 


sot (ozakenomi); he drinks a sho every clay. Please have a whiff 
(egptt&tf) of tobacco ! I have three pairs of boots ; but one pair 
has become useless (yaku ni tatanaku narimash'ta'). Won't 
you have a cup of toso ? He is an extraordinary (taihen ?ia) 
drinker ; in just a little while (chotto no ma ni} he drank ten 
glasses of beer. He drinks two or three cups of coffee every 


Ordinals (junjo-suslii) are formed by the prefix dai (c) 
"order " or by the suffixes ban (c) " number," me (p. 69b) or 
bamme. Both dai and ban may be used with one and the 
same numeral, as in dai liyaku ni ju go ban the 125th. With 
the native numerals me only is used. With the numeral 
auxiliaries me is the most common. 

Dai ichi 3 ' koto-gakko the First Higher School. 

Tchi ban no kisha (ichibangisha) the first train. 

Ni bamme no kane the second bell. 

Yo bamme no ko the fourth child. 

Shi kemme no uclii the fourth house. 

Mittsume no tama the third bullet. 

San dome (sambemme) the third time. 
But, as examples given in previous lessons show, the Japan- 
ese language in many cases where the English requires ordi- 
nals uses simple cardinals, or substitutes other expressions. 

Meiji ni ju nen the 20th year of Meiji. 

Toltugaivdke san dai no shogun (dai=yo generation). 

The third shogun of the Tokugawa line. 

Ed'iuar'd' shichi sei (sei=yo generation). 

Edward the Seventh. 

The student may recall that the first day of January is gwan- 
jitsu, from givan origin . The first edition of a book (dai ippan) 
is called sho-Jian, from sho (c) begioning; the second edition, 

a In the colloquial dai ichi is used mostly to denote superiority, as in se-kai dai 
ichi tto sei-ji-ka the foremost statesman in the world (se-kai world). 


sai-han. from sai (c}=futa tabi a second time. In numbering 
a set of two volumes the words jo and ge orka (p. 71a) are used. 
When there are three volumes they maybe numbered jo, chit, 


(o) hinfi (san) doll, puppet. b kei-satsu police. f 

nobori flag. c b un-slio branch office, station. 

han plate (for printing), edi- ki-soku regulation, rule. 

tion. kun-sho decoration, order, 
sho-han first edition. medal. 

sai-han second edition. sai-sho beginning (saisho no 
shuppan publication. d the first). 

jo (c) article, item. sek-ku one of five holidays.g 

segare son (polite 1). tai-setsu na important. 

cho-nan oldest son. ayamaru, ayamatte ") h 

clio-jo oldest daughter. machigau, machigatte j 

so-ryo heir, oldest child. ai/amari 1 

. r error. 

yo-shi adopted child. 6 machigai \ 

ban-chi street number. iivau, iivatte celebrate. 

den-iva telephone. hcai-bi holiday. 

a When volumes of a book are subdivided, the portions are designated thus: ichi 
(or ni) 110 jo first (or second) volume, first part, ichi (or ni) no ge first (or second) 
volume, second part. 

b The general term for "dolls" is nin-gvo, from ;// person and kyo form. Tlie 
term hhiu or hina-ningyo denotes properly the dolls which are formally arranged 
ami displayed at the girls' festival on the 3rd day of the 3rd month. But even or- 
dinary playing with dolls is called hina-asobi, from asobu to play, while a puppet- 
show is called ningvo-s/tibai, from shibai drama. 

c National flags and standards are called hata or kok-ki. A'obori are vertically 
long and are fastened both at the top and on one side. They may be seen at tem- 
ples and theatres, and are also displayed at the boys' festival on the 5th day of the 
5th month. 

d SJnifitifin sum to publish. Shuppan ni nant to be published (of a book). 

e To adopt is yos/ii ni stint or yoshi ni nwnui. An adoptetl daughter may also 
be called yo-jo. 

I Policemen or patrolmen a.rcjun-sa; the police stations on the streets are ko-ban 

g The !>o-sekku are : the New Year's festival on the 7th of the 1st month; the 
girls' festival, on the 3rd of the 3rd; the boys' festival, on the 5th of the 5th; the 
star festival, on the 7th of the 7th ; and the chrysanthemum festival, on the gth of 
the 9th. See p. 66 c. 

h The latter is more common in the colloquial, 


okosu, okoskitc raise, rouse, yame-ru stop (tr.), give up. 

waken. asu, ashita to-morrow. 

siimu, sunde ), ,, . , ue above (no ue ni on, 

/ r Cl v\ (MI. 1 OS 1 Cl (3 \ 

sumau, sumatte) upon). 

sumai residence. sJtita below ( no skita ni 

tsumoru, tsumotte estimate. under). 

tsumori estimate, intention. 21 


Yoritomo iva b Yoskitomo no sambamme no ko des'. Ano o 
ko san wa anata no go soryo des* lea. lie, are wa watakushi 
no ni bamme no ko des'. Chotto o tazune moshimas' ; c kei- 
satsu no bunsho wa doko de gozaimas' ka. Koko kara san gem- 
me des'. Anata no wakaranai tokoro iva nammaime des' ka. 
Ju ni maime des'. Sono hon iva nan to iu hon des* ka. Kore 
iva Wakan-sansai-zue d des\ Sore iva nan satsume des' ka. 
Kore iva nijissatsume des'. Ano hito wa Nikon no santo kun- 
sho wo sagete imas'. Anata no o taku iva doko de gozaimas' 
ka. Grima ni ckome no go ju ni banchi de gozaimas'. e Kiriya* 

a This is often attached to verbs, as in ASH Tokyo ye iku tsumori desn It is [my] in- 
tention to go to Tokyo to-morrow. But tsumori often denotes simply one's opinion 
of one's self : Ano hito iva gakusha na tsumori de orimasu He think- he i# a scholar. 
Here na is a contraction oinant (originally ni ant] the literary equivalent of </<? a- 
m. One may also say gakusha nn tsumori de oru. 

b Yoritomo of the Minamoto family ( Gen-ji) conquered the Taira family (Hei 
fa) about the end of the XII. Century, and was the first shogun in whose family 
the office became hereditary. 

c Mosit means "to say," but often, as in this case, it is a mere auxiliary attached 
to the stem of a verb. It is used principally in the first person when the object 
of the verb is a person of higher rank or a stranger of the same rank as the speak- 
er. The honorific o may not be omitted in this construction. 

d The name of a celebrated encyclopedia : wa Japan, kan China, san-sai three 
powers, i. e., heaven, earth and man, zu drawing, e picture. 

e CA5= machi means primarily a group of houses lining a thoroughfare. The 
same ideogram (cho] means also 60 ken. In the above it means a section of a long 
street, often, but not necessarily, marked off by means of prominent cross-streets 
{yoko-cho or yoko-machi). These sections may have different names or may be dis- 
tinguished as itchome, ni chorne, etc. Gin-za (lit. silver-seat, i. e., mint) is the 
name of a portion of the principal street of Tokyo. 

f Paulownia-house. Names of mercantile firms are formed in this way by the 
use of ya. Merchants often take the name of the province from which they came} 
e.g., Mikawaya, Qmi-ya. 


to iufurudoguya u'a Ginza san chome da. Naporcon issei wa 
senhappyaktt nija ichi urn no go ywutxit ft'kn ni *hiniiiislC- 
ta. leinits' ko ica Tokugatodke sandaino shofandesf. Ann. 
ta wa joto ni norimas' ka, cltntu ni nu/-t///ns l;n. Wntakiidd 
iva chnto ni noru tsumori des' keredomo anata ga joto ni o 
nori nasareba wataltuslii mo go issho ni norimasho. Kono ji- 
biki wa sailvan des' ga, sliohan no ayamari ga naosh'te arima- 
scn* Hajimete o me ni kakarimash'ta. b Kotoshi ni natte ka- 
ra c Hirokdji no kwaji wa kore de sambemme des'. Anata no 
jibiki too kash'te kudasai. Jo des' ka, dm detf ka. Chu wo 
kash'te kudasai. Nihon ni gosekku to iu iwaibi ga arimas' ; sono 
ucki (de) dai ni wa liina no sekku de, dai san wa nobori no 
sekku des'. Ash'ta no asa ichiban no kisha de Yokohama ye iku 
knra, hayaku okosh'te kudasai. Ano teibur' ?^o d ue ni notte oru 
jibiki no go .mtsurne >ro motte oide. Sliita kara sambamme no 
ji wn inndi/ifnttc ///-".v'. 

Is t\aa(kono o ko <) your oldest child? No, [it] is [my] third 
child; [my] oldest son has gone to Europe. My oldest child is 
a girl(o?iwrt). I have adopted a friend's second child. The 
fifth house from here is a primary school. Our ( ucJti no) tele- 
phone is No. 249. That regulation is written (knife (//////"*') on 
the twentieth page(mat) of this book. Please lend me the twelfth 
volume of Gyokuhen. That gentleman has received a Jap- 
anese decoration of the fourth class. That photographer's res- 
idence is [on] Japan Bridge St., Third Section, No 25. Keiki 
was the fifteenth shdgun of the Tokugawa line; after he gave 
up the office of shdgun e he lived (was living) in Shizuoka. 

a See p. 44 e. 

b This phrase is used when one is first introduced to a person. HajimemoshiU 
would be slill more polite than hajimete. O me ni kakaru is the most polite ex- 
pression for " to meet, " (.lit. be hung on honorable, eyes. Comp. p. 44a). 

c Since the year began (\\\.. from becoming this year . \Vith a verb in the sul>- 
ordmate form kura means "after, "" since. " Hiro-koji (broad lane) is the name 
of a street. Notice the peculiar use of kore i/c " with this. " 

d The word tsukiu: applies only to the low native tables. 

e "After he gave up the office of slwgtin" is rendered shogun-shokti -co yamete 
kara. This shoku means " occupation, " " office " ^in shoku-gyo}. But in the col- 
loquial one may say simi>ly shvgun wo yamete kara. Shizuoka is the principal city 
of the province of Suruga, on the coast between Tokyo and Osaka. 


The second shdgun of the Tokugawa line is called (to moshimas') 
Hidetada. Jiminu Tenno was (is) the first Emperor of Japan. a 
Takauji is the first shogun of the Ashikaga line. To-morrow 
I shall go to Yokohama by (c?e) the second train. Will you go 
first or second class (Is it first class, is it second class, by which 
do you go) ? This book is about Japan (In this book Japan's 
affairs are written); the first volume [appeared] six years ago; 
the second volume was published two years ago. Among these 
regulations the third article is the most important. Wilhelm 
I. is the grandfather of the present (ima no) Emperor of Ger- 
many. What edition (nampan) is this dictionary? It is the 
third edition. 

a " The first Emperor " is saisho (or hajimete) no tenshi or dai ichi dai no tenshi. 





In classical Japanese genuine adjectives are inflected by 
means of the three terminations ki, ku and shi, as in the follow- 
ing example: 

Kono chiisaki ki wa liana mo utsukiishiku mi mo amashi. 

The blossom of this little tree is beautiful and its fruit is 

sweet. ^ 

The attributive form ended in ki; the predicative, in shi. In 
the colloquial both these terminations have been reduced to i. 
But shi still appears in yoshi "good," "all right!" and nashi b 
"there is none," while in formal speeches the ending ki is heard 
quite often. The form in ku is now commonly used as an 
adverb and is called the adverbial form. But in the example 
given above iitsukushiku is evidently predicative and may prop- 
erly be called the connective form as contrasted with amashi, 
which is conclusive, i. e., ends the sentence. Compare: no 
nagai saru mo ari o no mijikai no mo aru (p. 14d), where ari 
is connective and aru is conclusive. Such use of the form in 
ku would now sound oratorical. In ordinary conversation we 
should say: Kono chiisai ki iva liana mo utsukushii shi mi 
mo amai, or, Konochiisaikiiva liana mo utsukushikute mi mo 
amai. The classical terminations occur with especial frequency 
in proverbs. 

It has been remarked (pp. 4, 24) that a predicate adjective 
ending in i needs no copula in familiar discourse, if the sen- 
tence is affirmative and in the present tense; and that atta 
and aro may be united with the adverbial form of the adjec- 
tive in compounds like yokatta, yokaro. We now add a para- 
digm of these and similar inflections produced by combination 
with forms of aru to be: 

a Kei-yo-shi, from kei-yo figure (of speech), metaphor, 
b Notice also the peculiar idiom tias/ii >ii in A'tirtt nashi ni "<'< nani mo 
itn One can't do anything without money. 


Present yoi is good 

Past yokatta was good 

Probable, or Future yokaro probably is good, will be good 

Conditional yokereba a if [it] is good, if [it] should 

be good 
Probable Past yokattaro probably was (might have 

been) good. 
Past Conditional yokattara(ba) if [it] has (had) been 


Alternative yokattari being at times good 

Yoi daro, yoi desho may be substituted for yokaro ; yoi nara 
(>a), for yokereba; yokatta daro, yokatta desho, for yokatta- 
ro; yokatta ntira(ba), for yokattara (ba^). 

A concessive form yokeredo(mo) "though [it] is good" 
might have been included in this list, but it is practically obso- 
lete as far as the colloquial is concerned. It is now replaced 
by yoi keredomo, ii kedo, etc., adding keredomo (p. 8a), kere- 
do, or ke(n)do to the simple present form. 

The form yokereba is derived from areba (as also yokeredo 
from aredo). It maybe further contracted to yokerea, yokerya. 
tenki ga yokereba undokivai iva omoshirokaro. 
If the weather is fine, the sports (excursion) will likely 

be interesting. 

tenki ga yokattara undokwai iva motto omoshirokattaro. 
If the weather had been fine, the sports might have been 

more interesting. 

The past conditional is past only with reference to the verb 
of the apodosis. Often yokattara is practically synonymous 
with yokereba. 

Kagen ga yokattara kanarazu mairimasho. 
If [I] feel well, [I] will surely come. 

Alternative forms are used most commonly in pairs, and 
often with shite, thus : 

tenki wa yokattari ivarulcattari ikko sadamarimasen. 
The weather, being now favorable and again unfavorable, 
is not at all settled (lit. one direction is not determined). 

a One may also say yoku(ni)ba, but this inflection cannot be applied to other 
adjectives except nai and desideratives like tabetai. 


Ano hito u'<t kt'(/c/t ga yokattari ivarukattari (shite) cliodo 

Icodomo no yd desu. 
Sometimes he is in a good humor and .sometimes not, 

just like a child. 

Atsukattari samukattari shite leomartmasw. 
There being so much variation of heat and cold, one does 

not know Avhat to do (lit. is perplexed). 
The word nai "not existent "is also inflected like an adjective. 
nai is not (none) 
nakatta was not (none) 

ncikaro probably is not (none), will not be, will be none. 
. nakereba a if it is not, if it should not be, etc. 
nakattaro probably was not, might not have been. 
nakattara(ba) if it has (had) not been. 
nakattari at times not being 

By joining these with the adverbial form of an adjective a par- 
adigm of negative inflections may be formed, thus: yoku nai, 
yoku nakatta, yoltu nakaro> yoku nakereba, etc. In the same 
manner negative verbs may be inflected: u-akaranai is not to be 
understood, wakaranakatta, icakaranakaro, ivakaranakereba, 
etc. But wakaranai daro is more common than wakaran"- 
karo, So also desideratives like tabetai "desire to eat" may be 
inflected. Details will be given under the head of " The Verb. " 
In polite discourse, especially at the end of a sentence or prin- 
cipal clause, instead of the plain forms given above, the con- 
tracted adverbial form with gozaimasu(\). 24) is required. In 
this case many adjectives take the honorific o : b 
atsu gozaimasu. It is warm. 
isogashiu gozaimasho. You are probably busy. 
Observe thatna&tf is not contracted to no except in certain dia- 
lects: it is customary to say not no gozaimasu but goza'uimwu. 
But tabetai becomes tabeto gozaimaxit. 

It has already been remarked (p. 24) that there is a tenden- 
cy to say ii desu, omoshiroi desu, etc., thus avoiding the fa- 

a Also naku[tn~)f>a , as in O iya </e nakuba If [you] do not dislike [it]. 

b The honorific o may be prefixed to yoroshikcreba also: O yoroshikercba if you 
like; likewise to yokereba ; but, if one wishes to speak politely, in this connection 
yoroshii is better than vw. Oyo goniimasH narfi(J>a} is perfectly polite. 


miliarity of the plain adjective on the one hand, and the stiff 
formality of gozaimasu on the other. But ii desliita is never 
heard. Yet ii n' desliita is not uncommon. Whatever may 
"be said about the past and present tenses, expressions like ii de- 
slid are indisputably correct. Thus: 

Mutsukasliii desho is probably difficult. 

Yoku nai desho is probably not good. 

As regards politeness these are intermediate between mutsuka- 
shikaro and mutsukashiu gozaimashd, yoku nakaro and yd go- 
zaimasu mat. 

The subordinate form is obtained by adding te to the adver- 
bial form ; e. g., yasukute, from yasut, itakute, from itai, omo- 
shirokute, from omoshiroi', so also nakute, ivakaranakute, tabe- 
takttte. These are often pronounced yasukutte, itakutte, omo- 
shirokutte, etc. 

This subordinate form has several uses. 
(1.) When one subject has two predicate adjectives the first 
is subordinated to the second. 

Wasliinton no machi iva hirokute kirei desu. 

The streets of Washington are broad and clean. 
(2. N < A clause with a predicate adjective may be subordinated 
to another clause. In this case the former describes a circum- 
stance or condition, which is usaally at the same time a cause . 

Aslii ga itakute deraremasen, 

As my feet hurt, I can't go out. 

Kurakute asliimoto ga miemasen. 

It is so dark that I cannot see where I am going (ashi- 
moto that which is about the feet). 

Samukute shiyd ga nai. 

It is unbearably cold (lit. being cold, there is no way of 


To state the cause explicitly, one must say itai kara, etc. To 
state the result explicitly, liodo may be added : Kurakute aslii- 
moto ga mienai liodo desu. 

(3.) Of two clauses involving a contrast the first may be 
subordinated to the second. 

Shim-mai iva umdkute ko-mai iva mazui. 

New rice is delicious, [but] old rice is unpalatable. 




(4.) When ic is added to the subordinate form it is made 
emphatic. In most cases it then has a conditional sense and 
is often followed by a negative word like ikemasen or narima- 
sen or by a verb like komarimasu "[am] perplexed." The te 
wa is commonly contracted to cha. 

Omokucha ikemasen It mustn't be heavy. 

Ndkucha narimasen [I] must have [it]. 
These forms may also be pronounced omokutcha, nakutcha. 

(5.) The addition of mo to the subordinate form gives it a 
concessive sense. 

yasitkute mo though it may be cheap. 

itdkute mo though it may hurt. 

okute mo (oku to mo, oku mo) at the greatest. 

sukunakute mo(sukunaku to mo, sukunaku MO) at least. 


hima leisure. 

hokori dust. 

Jiosh-i star. 

kega wound. 

kokoro heart, mind. 

moto bottom, foot ( no mo- 
toni under). 

aslii-moto what is under or 
about one's feet. 

ho-bune, ho-kake-bune sail- 

furu-hon second-hand book. 

bozu priest. 

kesa priest's scarf. 

i (c) stomach. 

baku-rd jockey, horse-dealer. 

betto groom, hostler. 

krt-ki air, atmoepbere. 

za-shiki room, apartment. 

himojii hungry. a 
hisashii long continued (/'- 
sashiku for a long time). 

isoqashii ) , 

J. busy. 
seicaslm ) 

loirai dark. 

nigai bitter. 

okashii ridiculous, funny. 

otonasliii quiet, well-behaved. 

semai narrow. 

suzushii cool. 

yakamasliii noisy, clamorous. 
i cheap. 

familiar, inti- 

1nk(te-ru to be moderate. 

komaru, komatte IK) perplexed, 

IK visible, seen. 

a The usual expression for "to be hungry'' is hnra a hctta {lii'rimashitti} from 
hem to diminish, or, especially among women and children, o ntiku a sni/a (suJki- 
mashita), from snkit to ]>e empty, thinned out. 


negau, negatte desire, request, jitsu (c) ni ") truly, really, 

tamaru is endurable. makato ni J indeed. 

yosu stop (tr.), give up. kyii (c) ni i suddenlv 

sam-po suru take a walk. nhvdka ni j 

de-kake-rn go out ( from one's slii-ju from beginning to end, 

house). constantly, always. 

sampo ni de-ru (dekdke-ru) naze why? (with ka at the 

go out for a walk. end of the sentence). 

chitto a little. doka in some way or other, 

chitto mo not in the least please! (p. 47a). 

(with a negative word). domo an expletive (p. 46a). 
oi-oi (m) gradually. 


Kono lion wa ivakariyas'kute omoshiro gozaimas'. Nodo ga 
itakute hanashi ga dekimasen. Kono ji ica mutsukashikute 
oboeniku gozaimas*. Kono zash'ki ni wa hito ga oikara, kuki 
ga warui. Tok'te mo arukimashd. Bimbo him a nashi.* 
Takak'te mo kaimasho. Okash'kute tamarimasen. b Wata- 
kushi wa nemukute tamarimasen. Yas'kute mo kaimasen. 
Domo, samukute tamarimasen. Ji ga yok'te mo bunsho ga 
warui. Omae wa okash'ku nai ka. lie, chitto mo okash'ku 
nai. Naze sonna ni yakamashii ka. Uchi no kodomo iva oto- 
nash'ku nakute makoto ni komarimas'. Watakushi wa isogashi- 
kute hima ga gozaimasen. Domo, nomi ga okute komarimas'. 
Domo, kurakute miemasen. Hoshi ga miendku narimasKta. 
Sensei no oshieta ji iva kazu ga okute komarimas'. Anata iva 
o kuni ye kaerito gozaimasen ka. lie, Tokyo wa omoshiroi to- 
koro des* kara, kuni ye iva c kaerito gozaimasen. Himojii toki 
ni mazui mono nashi.^ Hima no aru toki ni iva tabako ga 
nomitaJcu narimas'. e Ano kata wa micM ga chikak'te mo 
shiju baslia ni norimas'. Itto basJia ni noi'imasho ka, ni to ni 

a The language of proverbs approaches the literary style, and particles are used 
sparingly. Bimbo=bimbd-nin. 

b It is too funny : one can't help laughing. 

c This ~Ma marks the antithesis between Tokyo and kuni. 

d "Hunger is the best sauce". 

e Notice that here ga occurs, whereas we naturally expect wo. The latter also 
would be correct. 


ka. Ni to basha wa kitanakute norcmascn. Tokyo 
no tori wasemai tokoro ga oi. Natsu no hi wa nagak/'fc r/.sr< no 
koto wo (what happened in the morning) ivasuremas'. Yas'- 
kereba kaimadio ; tokakcrcba yofthimasho. I)ili o nfxifkir 
narimash'ta. Oioi o samuku narimash'ta. Hifmf>/t'ku o me ni 
kukarimasen desh'ta. 3 - Hafimete o me ni Jcakartmadfto : do- 
ka, o kokoroyas'ku negaimas'.b Yorosh'ku ncgaimas'. c Kc- 
nofuruhon wa urn hito ga dkute kau hito ga s'kunai kara, t/a- 
su gozaimas 1 . Bctto to bakurd iva hito no warui A mono ga o go- 
zaimas'. Ryd-yaku (= yoi k'suri) wa kuchi ni nigax/tf 
(Proverb). Ji ga mutsukashikiicha ikemasen. kega ga na- 
kutte yd gozaimash'ta. e Sozu ga nikukerya kesa made nikii! 
(Proverb). Yoku mo nakereba waruku mo nai. f Kotoba o- 
kereba shina fi'kunashi ( Proverb ).g 

To-day it has become very cool; until (made wa) yester lay. 
there being no wind, h it was quite hot. It lias suddenly be- 

a This is the usual formula on meeting a friend after a long separation. Fie- 
quently only the first word of the sentence is used. For kisashitu we may substi- 
tute slribaraku. 

b Here also we have a very common phrase. More fully expressed it would be o 
kokorovasitku o majhi.<ari (or l$uki-ai) ii'0 neg(iii/i<ist(, or o kokorcyasuku shite kudasa* 
ru yd ni ncgaimasu ^lit. I desire that you will please do familiarly) I hope we may 
Income well acquainted. Kmiasant to condescend is the verb from which the 
imperative kndasai is derived (p. 37d). In shite kitdasam vo ni negainiasu \ve 
have a still higher degree of politeness than in shite kitdctsai. 

c Fully expressed this would be something VSutyavsUktt nusatte kndasani yo ni 
negaiinasu (lit. I desire that you will do favorably) Please deal kindly with me. Na- 
satte or iiaftte is the subordinate form of nasarn, the polite ecjuivalent oi sum to do, 
from which the imperative nasai is derived. In Sn/d san ni yoroshiku iifgaimasu 
the word "to say" is understood: Sato san ni yoroshiku ittt- kndnsani yo ni tic^ni- 
masu (lit. I desire that you will please speak favorably to Mr. Sato) Please remem- 
ber me kindly to Mr. Sato. Ittc is the subordinate form of /' to say. One may say 
more briefly, Sato san ni yoroshiku ittc kudasai or simply .S'<//<; sun ni yoroshiku, or, 
if the circumstances make the meaning plain, votvshiku negnii/iasn. 

d Ilito is often used as here in the sense of character. 

e It was fortunate that you were not hurt. 

fin this sentence the conditional inflection is used simply in lieu of a connective: 
It is neither good nor bad. 

g Many words, little sense. The original meaning of shina (p. 19) is substance. 

h This may be translated kazc gu nakitte or kazc ga arimasen dcshita kani. Best, 
perhaps, would be ka r ~c ^u nai no de, which conveys the idea of cause more distinct- 
ly than the first and not so expressly as the second. The Japanese naturally prefer 
a hazy expression, and kara indicates the relation of cause and effect with a degree 
of precision not required in such a sentence. 


come cold. The weather is doubtful (difficult) to-day. The 
dust is so dreadful (Tiidoi} that [one] can't go out (derarcma- 
seri) . The fishermen's boats are not out (dete imasen), because 
the wind was [too] strong. The sailboats do not go out, because 
there is no wind. The wind being strong, the dust is dreadful. 
As this beer is bitter, I cannot drink it (nomemasen). Even 
though the water (?/?) is tepid, it's all right. This book is hard 
to understand and not interesting. As my throat is sore(itai), 
I cannot smoke. He smokes even though his throat is sore. 
In (?#) this room the air is good, because there are few persons 
[in it]. These characters are small and hard to read. These 
characters, though small, are easy to read. [I] eat (am eating) 
moderately (Jiikaete'), because [my] stomach is bad. Really it 
is unendurably hot(being hot it is not endurable). A.s[I]have 
no time [I] cannot go out for a walk. Though it is dark, I 
can sec where I am going (what is under the feet can be seen). 
It is so dark that the way has become indistinct (wdkaranai) . 
The characters which the master [has] taught [me] are hard to 
remember, even though the number is small (few). I wish to 
return to my own country (kurii ye). I have become thirsty 
for a glass of water. 


In the classical language the attributive form of the adjective 
may be used as a noun, a word like hito, mono, kata or Jid (c) 
being understood ; e. g., tadashiki righteousness, from tadashi 
(coll. tada.sJiii). Such a form in ki sometimes occurs in speeches, 
as in the phrase JianaJiadasJiiki ni itatte 100. "in an extreme 
case" (lit. reaching to extreme). Compare yoshi ashi* good 
and evil, i. e., qualities, characteristics. 

In the following instances adjectives in the colloquial form 
are used as substantives: 

Atsui sarniii heat and cold. 

a Ashi is contracted from ashishi, the literary equivalent uiwanti. Excepting 
ashishi, adjectives whose stems end in sAi are inflected thus : yoroshiki, yoroshikii, 
voroshi. Notice that in Brinkley's Dictionary adjectives are arranged according to 
their conclusive forms, but not consistently. 


Amai mo karai mo sliitte oru. 

He is a man of insight (lit. knows both sweet and bitter). 

Kane no aru nai mo shiranai >Ie int.* 

He doesn't know whether he has money or not. 
The stem of an adjective may be used as a noun: 

taka the amount, from takai high. 

ara offal (of fish), from arai coarse. b 

shiro the wliite, from shiroi. 

kxro the black (of dogs or of the stones used in playing 

go, a game like checkers). 

Notice the expression omoshiro hambun half in jest. 
The stem may also occur in compounds. 

(1.) It may be united with another adjective: 
furu-kusai trite, antiquated, obsolete, from fur ui old and 

kitsai (lit. malodorous). 

hoso-nagai slim, from hosoi slender and nagai long. 
nsu-gurai dimly lighted, gloomy, from usui thin and ku- 
rai dark. 

(2.) The stem may be combined with the verb sugiru to 
exceed: taka-sugiru it is too high (dear). It is usual pleonas- 
tically to prefix amari, thus: 

Amari atsmugimasu it is too hot. 

(3.) The stem may enter into combination with a noun 
(Com pare p. 15): 

aka-nasu tomato, from akai red and nasu egg-plant 
k/iro-shio the Japan Current, from kuroi black, dark and 

shio salt, brine, tide, current. 
fthira-uioo name of a small white fish, from shirasMro 

and in/;, fish. 
usu-cha a drink made of a small quantity of very strong 

tea (in cha-no-yu). 
The drink made by taking a larger quantity of weaker tea is 

kn! rjiri, not k 

n One way of making the negative sutxmlinate fonn of a verb is to add iff to a 
negative form. Thus shiranai d<- iru corresponds to the jx>sitive shittf int. 

1) Am also means " defect " : <im wo tit to criticise. Ara ;*a wakarinuuen No 
defect is perceptible. 




To this claas belong compounds with so "appearance:"* To-so 
desu. It seems far. Compare: Tot so desu. It is said to be far. 
So na (or da) so desu So it is said (For na compare p. 95a) 
From yoi and nai are derived the irregular forms yososd desu 
it seems good and nasasd desu there seems to be none, or (with 
an adjective) it does not seem. Notice kawai-sd desu is piti- 
able or kaivai-so iia hito desu is a pitiable case (person), from 
kaivaii lovely. 


higashi east. 

nishi west. 

minami south. 

kita north . b 

akari light. 

akari-tori an opening in the 

wall or roof for lighting a 

room (toru to take). 
ame rain. 
katawa cripple. 
nasu, nasubi egg-plant. 
aka-nasu tomato. 
uri melon. 
moo fish. c 
liitoe-mono unlined garment 

(hitoe p. 64). 
awase lined garment (awase- 

ru to join). 
wata cotton. 

wata-ire padded garment. 
lid direction, side, region. 
ro-ka corridor. 
ryo-skin(=fiita-oya) parents 
un-dd movement, exercise. 
abunai dangerous. 
hosoi thin, narrow, fine. 
kashikoi clever, shrewd. 
kusai malodorous, offensive. 
itsui thin, rare, light. 
kaivaii lovely, charming. 
karvaiso na pitiable. 
furu-kusai trite. 
hoso-nagai slender. 
fuku,fuite blow. 
furu, futte fall down from 


ame ga/uru it rains. 
ki-ru wear, put on (clothes). 

a The idea of " to seem " may also be expressed by yd desu with an attributive 
adjective or verb. 

Kivaji iua toiyo desu. The fire seems distant. 
Chikaiyo de taihen toi desu. It seems near, but is very far. 
Aid o mezame ni natta yd desu. He seems now to be awake, 
b The points of the compass are here given in the Japanese order. The four 
points are called collectively td-zai-nam-boku, from to, sai, nan, hoku(z\ 

c Uiuo is the classical word. Etymologically saka-na means fish as food, but it 
is now applied also to living fish. 


nol:n-naru, iml;tiiitte dis- subcru, snbette .slide. 

appear (naJnmatta is lost, kuri ice. 

dead). a kori-sxberi skating. 

sitgi-ru pass by, exceed. tsitke-rv soak, pickle. b 

i. tn ite kindle, heat, cook, motto more. 


Kono lieya wa mado ga s'kunakute mugurai. Ann Ljirim? 
Jin wa taihen ni hosonagai. Tenki lua yosaxo des'. Kcmo JKHI 
wa amari omoshiroku nasaso des'. Kwnji irn toi so des'. Yn 
ga amari atsust"/ /'/// kara, mizu wo ippai irete moraitai. c 
Kono ni san nichi wa hitoeanono ivo kite wa d suzusliisugiru yd 
de$\ Kono roka ica <ik<iritori <ja ii'ikntc ufwyurai. K>/o vn 
miHiri auzuskMugimaa 1 koi'd aicasc wo kimaslw. Kotoshi no 
In i r if- n't' aiiuiri <iH<il;<is>iijij,i<ix. Kni'lNl'ln'ri ir<i <nit<*h!rox<~> <1< x' 

kercdomo cdnauti.ka to omoimas\ e fioretoa nak'te mo yosaso 
des 1 . Kono kimono tea yosugima-S. Ktji~> in> taihen ni wniut- 
fiij des'. Shirouri wa misozuke ni suru to, f taiso umd gozai- 
intix. S/n'rauwo wa chiisai sakana no na des'; iro ga yuki 
it<> //O ni sJtiroi S kara, shim >/>/<> to iimas 1 . Ano katawa ?/v/ 
hitori de arukemasen h kara, kaioaiso des'. Nihon de wa akc- 
nasu ga yoku dekimafen,. Kono tsiikcmcno wa umaso des'. 
lie, shiogakarakiitc mazu gozaimas' . Sono hanashi wo fxruk'- 
^ii. Kono hen wa kuroshio ga kiiru karri, to then nttaka des'. l 
Higashi-kaze de amari attakasug i r it kara ame ga furu ka mo 

a Lit. Income not existent. With suru a corresponding active verb may be 
formed: Kyonen kodomo'i'o san nin naku sJHmasAttalsetjeu [I] lost three child. 

h From the stem of this verb may be formed such nouns as tsiikc-mono pickle, 
shio-zuke salt pickle, kasu-zuke (Aasu the dregs of sake], miso-zuke, etc. 

c See p. 92h 

d Here kite iva has a conditional sense. Compare omokuie T.V, etc. (p. 102). 

e Ka simply helps to express doubt and is not to l>e translated. 

f Translate : If you pickle white cucumters in mho (lit. make into miso pickle). 

g Translate: white as snow (lit. white after the manner of snow). 

h ////(;/ tie arukemasen cannot walk alone. From verbs of the first class described 
on page IO the potential form may be derived by substituting c-rn or are-ru for the 
of the conclusive form, thus : anikc-nt or arulmre-ni, from arnkit. Verbs of the 
second class substitute rarc-ru for m: lierarc-nt, from dc-m. 

i For nttakn J^tt bee Cli. XXX I II. 


shiremasen. 3 - Mada wataire wo kiru ni wa liayo gozaimas'. 
Kono lion wa omoskiroku nai so des'. 

That Chinaman is slender. It seems cold, but anyhow (sore 
de mo) [I] will go out for exercise. [That] was a dreadful 
storm last night, but to-day the weather seems fine (good). 
This book is interesting, it is said. Because the cold b at (of) 
Boston is too severe (strong), I will go south (minami no ho ye~). 
Because the bath (yu)istoo tepid, I wish you would heat it 
more. c Skating seems difficult. She is very clever, it is said. 
It does not seem cold to-day. That child, both parents being 
dead (ndkunatte), is to be pitied (kaivaiso). This tai is too 
dear at (de iva) one yen. The pupils will forget everything 
(all), because the summer vacation is too long. 


An adjective may be derived from a noun by adding rasliii. 
This usually means "having the appearance of," but frequently 
it denotes a real quality, like our suffixes "ish," "ly," etc. 

yakusha-rashii resembling an actor. 

shosei-rashii resembling a student. 

otona-rashii resembling an adult. 

liontd -rasliii sounding like the truth, plausible. 

uso-rasliii sounding like a lie. 

so-rashii apparently so. 

baka-rashii foolish, looking like a fool. 

kodomo-rashii childish, looking like a child. 

otoko-rasliii manly. 

This rasliii may even be added to verbs ; e. g., kimatta-rasliii 
apparently decided, from kimatta it has been decided. It may 
be added to the stem of an adjective; e. g., niku-rashii, from 
nikui detestable, kaivai-rashn, from kawaii charming, beloved. 

a It may perhaps rain (lit. It may rain ? one cannot know). This ka mo shire- 
masen, like ka to owoimasa, is much used to round off sentences. In the former 
the ka is strongly accented. 

b Use here wa. Grammatically " the cold " is, at least in English, in a dependent 
clause, but it is the logical subject. 

c Motto taite moraitai. With taku,furo ni hi wo is understood (faro bath). 
To heat the water is yit wo wakasu (wakasu cause to boil). One may also say/uro 
wo wakasu or J "tiro wo tafe-ru. 


If there is any difference in the sense, kawai-rashit is more 
objective than k(iic<u'i. 

The suffix gamasldi also denotes a resemblance, or a quality 
described by the word to which it is attached : 

tanhi-gamasliii behaving like a stranger, distant. 

Icatte-gamcuikii apparently inconsiderate, from katte 
one's own convenience. 

saslii-de-gamasliii intruding, impertinent. 

shittc-iru-gamasldi pretending to know. 

These words are used in a bad sense. Thus tanin-yamashii is 
an epithet applied to one who really is a relative or was a 
friend, but acts as though he were not (for ta-nin see p. 50). 
The word katte-gamashii is a term applied apologetically to 
one's own conduct : 

Amari katte gamasli it koto ivo mosliiagemasu ga 

Excuse the presumption, but 

Kisamasonna sliitteiruyamaslin koto wo iu mon' ja not. 

You have no business to be talking about things you don't 


An adjective may be a compound derived from a noun and 
an adjective: 

na-dakai famous, from na name and takal high. 

shlo-karai salty, from shio salt and karal acrid. 

shinjin-bukai pious, from shin-jin piety and/A-/ deep. 

aburakkoi fatty, from abura fat and koi dense, thick. 

te-arai violent, from te hand and arai rough. 
Notice especially the frequent use in compounds of the 
adjective kitsai malodorous, offensive. It indicates that the 
idea expressed by the word with which it is combined is dis- 
tasteful or disgusting : 

mendd-kitst'ii, niendokusai vexatious, from mendo trouble. 

inaka-kusai rustic, from imiku country. 

jijii-kitsai, from jijil old man. 

seii/o-kusai (an epithet applied to unwelcome importation! 

from western countries). 

Attention has already been called (p. 40 e) to the formation 
of adjectives from the stem of a verb and yawii (y<>i) or 
(kata i) : 


oboe-yasui (yoi) easy to remember. 

loakari-yasui (yoi) easy to understand. 

loakari-nikui hard to understand. 

kokoroe -gatai hard to perceive, strange. 
The following are similarly formed : 

machi-doi long in coming, from matsu to wait and toi far. 

maiuari-doi circuitous, from maivaru to go around. 

kiki-gnrushii disagreeable to hear. 

mi-gurushii ugly. 

The verbal auxiliary beki (beku, beshi),* which occurs fre- 
quently in the literary language (e. g., yuku beshi may go, or, 
should go) is sometimes heard in the colloquial, especially before 
hazu. This noun hazu ("fitness") often follows a verb, mean- 
ing in such a connection "ought." 

Kore kara wa attaka ni naru hazu desu. 

It ought to grow warmer from this time on. 

Kodomo wa oya no iu koto ivo kiku beki hazu da. 

Children ought to obey their parents (lit. hear what the 

parents say). 

Notice that beki is suffixed to the conclusive form of verbs, not 
to the stem. But in the case of verbs whose stem ends in e it 
may be attached either to the stem or to the conclusive form 
thus: age-beki or ageru beki (classical: agu-beki). 


hazu fitness (hazu desu ko-gi lecture. 

ought). men-do trouble. 

kugi nail. nin-gyo doll (p. 94b). 

otona adult. o-sho Buddhist priest. b 

(o) tera Buddhist temple. se-kai world. 

uso lie. shin-jin piety. 

yatsu fellow (contemptuous), shu-ha, shil sect. 

thing (p. 28a). yaku-sha actor. 

a Compare the adverbial expression naru beku as much as possible, as in A r aru 
beku hayaku koshiraete agemasu [I] will make it for you as soon as possible. 

I) This is the respectful term as compared with boat, which now has a tinge of 


)rti-(fdki(sha | one versed in tsuku, tsxite. strike, thrust, 
koku-yakusha j native classi- utter. 

cal literature.* usoivotsiiku (in) lie. 

hon-to no true, real. shin-satsit sum examine med- 
hon-to ni really. ically. 

maicuri-dm roundabout, asoko, asiiko there. 

tedious. nochi ni after, afterwards. 

na-dakai famous. b toki-doki at times, now and 
nikif-rafthii odious. then. 

isogu, isoide hurry. tabi-tabi at times, often. 

Iciku, kiite hear, inquire. naru beku J 

matsu, matte wait. naru take (dake) > as as 

machi-doi ]ong delayed. dckiru </"/,v ) possible.* 


Sonna bakarashii (baka na) koto wo iu na. e Ano hito wa 
shoseirashiu gozai/nas'. Sono hanaslti wa hontorashiu gozai- 
mash'ta ga nochi ni kiitara { uso de gozaimash'ta. Bis'mar'k? 
ko wa sekai ni nadakai hito des'. Sugaivara no Michiuumc 
ivaS taihen ni nadakai gak'slia desh'ta. Mtsozuke to iu mono 
wa taihen shiokcrai. H'ahtkushi iva him ni shiokarai mono wo 
tabemash'ta kara taiso nodo ga kawaite kimash'ta. As'lco ni 
iru no ?fo h kmriiinishii iiko des'. Ano kwanri tea gakusha- 
rashii. Kono bunsho wa taiso mawaridoku kaite arimas', 
machido sama desh'ta. 1 kyaku ga sakki kara kite imas' ka- 

a A contrast with kan-gakusha (Chinese scholar) is implied. 

b Equivalent to this is na no aru or yu-mei na from the Chinese y7t=ani and 

c Like ato de (p. 59) this may be used as a conjunction, but only after a past verb. 
When it is used as a conjunction, ni may be omitted. Both alo Je and nochi tn are 
used also as adverbs. The former is rather more common in the colloquial than 
the latter. 

d With adverbs these are synonymous. But standing alone mint bcku () or 
mint dake means "if at all possible," while dckiru duke means "as much as possible." 
*\'<irn beku (dake) niiiirimnsho. Dckint dake itashimasho. 

e Negative imperative from iu to say. 

f Past conditional from kiku to hear, inquire. 

g Died a thousand years ago (903). The no between the family-name and the 
given name may be omitted: it is the rule to omit it in all modern namci. 

h This no is equivalent to mono. 

i A frequent apology : Pardon me for keeping you waiting. 


ra machidoku omotte iru desho. Kono bydin de iva mainichi 
nadakai isha gaftari shinsatsu shimas'. Watakuslii wa Bcr'- 
rin ni orimash'ta jibun ni nadakai daigaku no sensei no^-ko- 
gi wo kikimash'to. Kanji wo narau no wa b mendok'sai. Ano 
liito iva hontorashii nso wo ts'kimas'.. Ano Seiyojin no kao wa 
Nihonjinrashii. Ano f tar i no tomodachi iva taihen naka ga 
yd gozaimas' ka. Sorashiu gozaimas'. Mbnto-shu iva sliinjin- 
bukai ho des'. c Kono hako no naka ni kugi ga tak'san aru 
( beki) liazu des'. Ima no gakko ni iva bozuk'sai sensei wa naku 
narimash'ta. Naru beku isoide koshiraete kudasai. Honto ni 
nikurashii yatsu da yo. 

Motoori was a famous Japanese scholar. That gentleman looks 
like an official. The story seemed false, but it was true. Koya 
san d in (of)Kishu is a famous Buddhist temple. That old lady is 
pious and often goes (mairu) to the Buddhist temple. This is 
a lovely doll. How (do sh'te) have you become so (sonna ni] 
thirsty ? Because (kara des') I have eaten some very salty her- 
ring. That old gentleman is childish. That Japanese has 
(sli'te imas') a face like a European. He says many (yoku) 
foolish things. That man looks like an actor. It is such a 
bother (vexatious 3) to write (no iva 2) letters (1). The 
Japanese do not eat very (amari) fatty foods. That girl is like 
an adult. Kivobo Daislii Avas a very famous Buddhist priest, n 


A great many words that are really substantives are used as 
adjectives. In the attributive position they take the suffix na, 
a contraction of narn (ni aru=de aru) ; in the predicative 
position they take da, desu, de gozaimasu (See p. 34c). The 
particles ni and de may also be affixed. The form with ni is 

a Either : a famous university professor, or, a professor of a famous university. 

b This no is equivalent to koto. 

c The Mon-to (inon gate, i, e., school, to followers) sect is commonly called Shin 
(truth) sect. Like Protestant Christians, it emphasizes salvation by faith rather 
than by works. Its founder was Shinran Shonin. See Murray's Hand-book, List 
of Celebrated Personages. In this sentence ho side with shinjinbukai gives the 
sense of comparatively pious, pious as compared with other sects. 

d Founded by Kivobo Daishi, who spent his last days there. 



adverbial; that with <lc corresponds to the subordinate form. 
To this class belong many words ending in ka, such as: 
akiraka na clear, evident. 
niyit/akana thronged, bustling, lively. 
KJtizukfi na quiet, calm, slow. 

The stems of a few adjectives in i are combined with na 
(w/, tie, desu) in the same manner : 
attaka na warm, from attakai. 
komaka na fine, minute, from koinakai. 

na soft, tender, from yawarakai. 
no deep red, from makkai (ma real, akal red). 
oki na great, from okii. 
chii&a na small, from chiisai. 
okaxlti mi ridiculous, from okaskii. 

But it is to be observed that the last three are not combined 
with ni, de, desu, except in the case of the adverb oki nl greatly, 
very. The regular inflections of the forms in / are used instead. 

Other words of native origin are likewise made to serve as 
adjectives : 

baka na foolish. 

iya na disagreeable. 

sakan na flourishing, prosperous. 

suki na agreeable, favorite. 

mono-zuki na curious, meddlesome. 

Most of the adjectives of this class are compounds derived 
from the Chinese : 

cho-ho na convenient, useful, valuable. 
kek-ko na grand, splendid, capital. 
nifu-wa na gentle, amiable. 
ri-ku n" i-lever, smart. 
xJi/kkei na disrespectful, rude. 
x/i/n-setsu na kind, careful. 
sho-jiki na honest, artlo-. 
fu-shojiki na dishonest. 
t<n'-so na largte, magnificent. 
t"ku-8an na many. 

na regrettal)lo. 


Simple Chinese words may also be used in this way: 

hoi na strange, peculiar, dubious. 

myd na strange, wonderful, admirable. 
To the same class belong yd na (Compare kayo na, etc., p. 

Anata no yd na hito a person like you. 

Instead of no yd na one may say mita yd na (mi-ru see), often 
contracted to initai na : 

Bdzu (ivo) mita yd na hito a man looking like a priest. 

Kuma (M?O) mitai na otoko 'a fellow looking like a bear. 
Observe also so na, which is added to the stems of adjectives 
and verbs : 

Kasliiko-8d na (rikd-sd ma) hito a clever-looking person. 

Ame gafuri-sd desu. It seems to be raining. 

Ame gafuri-sd na mon' desu. We shall likely have rain. 

Deki-sd na mon 9 desu. It seems practicable. 
The effect of adding man' in the last two sentences is to bring 
out the subjective aspect of the idea, suggesting the hope that 
it will rain or that the plan may be accomplished. 


(Include the adjectives given above.) 

aji taste. shiru-ko a dish made of mo~ 

fuji wistaria. chi, an and sugar. 

ishi stone. te-nugui towel (nuguu wipe), 

(o) kayu gruel made of rice, den-shin telegraph. b 

kaze wind. ge-nan 1 manservant, 

sora sky. dnmobe J " boy. " c 

soroban abacus. gi-ji-dd legislative assembly 
takara treasure, wealth. hall. 

zeni coins, cash, change. a lien-ji reply. 

furu-mai behavior. ke-shiki, kei-slwku scenery. 

a Zeni originally denoted various kinds of coins which in feudal times were 
made of iron or bronze and had a hole in the center. 

b Den-shin may also mean a telegraphic dispatch, but a telegram is more com- 
monly called detn-po. 

c With ge-nan compare ge-jo. Shimo-be (as also shiio-me}, from shitno=ge (c) 
or shtta, is rather a classical word, 


Tcen-cli tku building ( sum to odor it dance- 

build). xtticaru sit. b 

kok-kicai diet, parliament, //"/-M send, give, do. c 

congress. Itima wo yarn, discharge, dis- 
nin-ki temper of the people. miss (with ni). 

Jia-zukatihii ashamed, shame- tali (wo] sum .journey. 

ful. a yoru approach ( ni yorn 
karui light (of weight). call upon). 

osliii prized, regrettable. tnku, toite loose, disentangle, 
owaru end, finish. explain. 

otoarino }, , -.. toki-akasu explain. 

7 . . > last, concluding. 

sliimai no j lo-saki u'o ktru take a 

atsumaru assemble (intr.). percentage. d 

kiizusu tear down (a house), sugu (ni) 7 . ,. , , 

change (money). J/ki (ni) ) 

nagame-ru gaze at. zan-ji a little while. 

u throw, fling. to with. 


Kyo wa sliiznka na hi des'; kaze mo nani mo arimasen.* Oi- 
oi attaka ni narimas'. Konnichi iva attaka des' kara, awase 
wo kimasho. Shogwatsu loa nigiyaka des'. Asak'sa no Kivan- 
non wa f nigiyaka na tokoro des'; mainichi tak'san na hito ga 

a Like our English word "fearful," iajtuiasAitmay be either objective (dreadful, 
shameful) or subjective (afraid, ashamed). But, while in English the context 
makes it plain which sense is intended, the Japanese seem to be hardly aware of 
the distinction. 

b This properly means sitting in Japanese fashion. "To sit on a chair" is isit ni 
koshi wo kake-ru (p. 58). To unbend the limbs and stretch them out on the floor 
as foreigners generally do is hiza ~u>o kitziisu (/tizn knee). 

c The polite word for "to give" is ii^v-rit; buiyaru is the more suitable word to 
use toward one's servants or children. In the sense of "to do" : Aimta u<a tadiiiina 
nani 100 yatte oidc inisaiitisu k<i. What are you doing now ? See also example 
on p. 6l. 

d From bo a pole used by coolies, or the bar of a balance, and saki tip. The 
peculiar expression "to cut the tip of the stick" is used of a chief cooly taking a 
percentage of the wages of those whom he employs, or of a servant who slyly takes 
a commission on purchases that he makes for his master, or, what amounts to the 
same thing, accepts a bribe from a tradesman. 

e There is no wind nor any thing [to disturb the tranquility of the day]. 

f A famous temple of the Jiuddhist divinity Kwannon, 


demos'. Taiso kekko na o tokei de gozaimas'. Shojiki' de riko 
na shimobe iva ie no takara des'.* Ano kata wa riko na Into 
des' keredomo fushojiki des'. Bettd wa taitei fushojiki na mono 
des'. Denshinya denwa to iumono wachoho na mono des j ; zanji 
no aida ni toi tokoro ni iru hito to (ni) mo hanashi wo suru ko- 
to ga dekimas'. Anata no genan wa shojiki des' ka. Sayd, 
t'l.Uien shojiki de chitto mo bdsaki wo kirimasen. Shojiki na 
Itakurd iva s'kunai; shojiki na bettd mo s'kunai. Ano kydshi 
wa taihen ni shinsetsu de mata osliieru no mo jozu c?es'. b Ano 
hito tea kdgi ga saisho heta desh'ta ga konogoi'O wajdzu ni na- 
rimash'ta. Sonna baka na koto ivo suru na. c Sakura no Jtana 
wa nakanaka kirei des' keredomo oshii koto ni iva A jiki ni chitte 
xJtimaimas' . Watakuslii wa zannen na koto wo itashimash'ta. 
Ano onna wa nyuwa de riko des'. Sore wa hyak'sho no yd na 
furumai des'. Ano hito iva iya na kao wo sh'te imas 1 . Anata 
iva odori ga o s'ki des* ka. Dai s'ki ties' keredomo heta des'. G 
shiruko wa onna no s'ki na mono des 9 . Tetsudo wa Jiayaku 
tabi ga dekite choho na mon' des'. Ano hito wa shikkei na hi- 
to des'. Naze des' ka. Watakuslii ga tegami wo yarimash'te 
mo f henji wo yokosh'te kuremasen. Kono bunslio no imi wa 
akiraka ni narimash'ta ka. Sayd, sensei ga shinsetsu ni toki- 
akash'te kuremash'ta kara yoku wakarimash'ta. Sake ni yotte 
kao ga makka ni natta. ^)saka wa taiso sakan na tokoi'O des'. 
Konoftari noko iva uri woftatsu ni watta yd des'.z Tawa- 
raka na tenugui wo motte koi, kore de wa ikenai kara.* 1 Ko- 

a In this semi-proverbial expression one may substitute for' 'shimobe its Chinese 
equivalent boku. 

b The idiom is ordinarily kogi ga jozu destt, oshieru no ga jozu desu, or Aogi ga 
heta desu, oshieru tto ga Jieta desu. 

c Negative imperative from suru to do. 

d Oshii koto standing alone would mean "How affecting !" With ni wa this ejac- 
ulation becomes an adverbial phrase. 

e Dai siiki very fond, from dai (c) great (p. 55b). The opposite is dai kirai 
(p. 9le). 

f Yarimashite mo though (one) sends. Compare yasukute mo, etc. (p. 102). 

g Compare tho German "They resemble each other as one egg is like another," 
or the English "They are as like as two peas." In such sentences yd is to be trans- 
lated "as if, "as though": liiattayo des as though one divided. 

h Compare kore de wa ikenai with omokute wa ikenai (p. 102). Compare also: 
Sore de ii That will do. Futatsu de takusan desu. Two are enough. 


no (jaklfo ni wa soroban no taisd joz>/ nn *< Mi /' ga arimas'. 
Kokkwai-gijidd no kenck&u tea taiso na mon' des'. Kore wa 
iiniaso na miknn flu. Kyo wa samuso na t<'nki <1cs\ Do /," 
shiyo fja aviso na mon' ties'. a Kono lion ica fur ni //<"> (?ts'. To- 
kyo no liito ica monozuki ties' ; tadn kmra ni /sj/i /r<> itngeta ba- 
kari de mo sugu ni Into ga tak'san yotte kimas' : kochira no 
n ink i //to so des' ; tada dare ka soi'a wo nagameta bakari de 
mo hito ga sugu ni atsumatfc kin/as'. Kiyo san ica hazuk<i- 
shiso ni suicattc irasshoimas'. Anata no o ko san ica o riku </> >' 
kdi-ti i/nkumon ga yoku o deki nasaimasho. b 

This poem seeuis difficult. The shrines of Nikko are very 
grand; the scenery also is grand. Kaga was a great dahny<~>c 
Sick persons for the most part (yoku} eat gruel or soft rice. In 
( ica) spring there are many calm days. To-day, since the wea- 
ther seems fine (good), we will go to Kameido d to see the 
wistaria blossoms (fuji wo mi ni). From this time on it will 
grow (grows) gradually warmer (warm). Cut that up fine 
(komakfi ni). This salt pickle has a peculiar taste (myo na aji ga 
shimas'). Have you [any] small change? Yes (Jiai), I have. 
Then please change this large hill. Having received from you 
(jfadctkimash'te) recently a valuable gift (thing), I thank ycai 
very much (oki ni) . The teacher explained (tok/fakoBhtte kxrr- 
mash'ta) this carefully, but I do not yet understand [it]. The 
last day of the festival of the dead (See p. 76b) is very lively. 
Since it is a warm day there are many who go to Mukojima to 
see the blossoms. Why (do iu wake de) did you dismiss your 
boy? Because he was a dishonest fellow. Skilful tailors an- 
dear. Don't say such foolish things. AVhat kind <>f wood is tin- 
wood of the kiri (tree) ? It is light and soft. This dictionary 
seems bad. Those vases seem to be expensive (high). 1 It- 
seems to be a clever person. 6 He has a face like a monkey's. 

a There ought to l>e a way of managing it somehow (iio k<i~). 

1) Notice the polite form of dekimasho. One may even hear o ari nasani for tint. 

c The daimyb of Kaga, a province on the coast of the Sea of Japan, held a lief 
which yielded annually an income of more than a million koku of rice. 

d Kamc-iJo "tortoise-well" is the site of a famous shrine in honor of Sugawara 
Miclmane in Tokyo. 

e Translate rikb tin yH t/fsit or rikb-so desu. So in the SI-MM.- ( >f "-appearance" is 
immediately affixed to adjectives of the clas> described in this chapter; ;vV 
(da) 30 desu would mean : "He is said tu be ckvcr." 



Many adjectives are formed by means of the particle no: 

hidari no the left. 

migi no the right. 

ue no the upper. 

shita no the lower. 

tsugi no the next (kono tsugi no next to this). 

makoto no true. 

moto no original. 

mukaslii no ancient. 

nama no raw, uncooked. 

nami no common, ordinary. 

atari-mae no usual, ordinary. 

Adjectival expressions denoting time, place or material, 
formed by adding no to substantives, are especially numerous : 

konogoro no recent. 

asoko no yonder. 

Nikon no Japanese. 

Amerika no American. 4 

ki no wooden. 

kane no metallic. 

The stems of common adjectives are occasionally used with 
the postposition no : 

Aka no meshi(go zen) rice cooked with red beans. 

Shiro no kinu-ito white silk thread. 

The stems of verbs may be turned into adjectives in the same 
way. Notice especially compounds with tate. b 

owari no, sliimai no the last. 

kane-mochi no rich. 

ki-tate no just arrived, from kuru to come. 

kumi-tate no fresh (of water), from kumu to draw (water). 

taki-tate no fresh (of cooked rice), from taku to cook (rice). 

umi-tate no fresh (of eggs), from umu to lay. 

a In some connections the no may be omitted, as in Nihon serf it the Japanese 
Government, Doitsu tel the German Emperor (but Doitsu no tenshi). 

b Observe also mizu shirazu no tanin a stranger whom I never saw and don' t 


Technical adjectives like "scientific," "botanical," etc., are 
formed by the addition of jo (c)=we above, i. e., concerning 
(compare the German uber). For example, gakumon-jo means 
what pertains to learning: 

Gakumonjo kara iu nunilxi to speak scientifically. 

gdkumonjo no scientific. 

shoku-bietsu-gaku-jd no botanical (shoku^sue-m, lnln, 

dd-btfteu-gaku-Jo no zoological. 

i-gaku-jo no medical. 

Most of the words which with no form adjectives, as de- 
scribed above, may be used as nouns: 

Watdkuslii ica niku no nama ico konomimasen.* 

I do not like raw meat. 

Kanemochi iva shiwai. The rich are stingy. 
The adverbial form, the subordinate form and the predicative 
form are derived by adding ni, de and da (desii), respectively. 
With some words either no or na may be used : 

hadaka no or hadaka na naked. 

kanemochi no or kanemochi na rich. 

ivazuka no or ivazuka na little, trifling. 


(Include the adjectives given above.) 

c. picture. kara-kane bronze (l^iru 
Jtashi bridge. China). 

kane money. mono-goto affairs. 

shiro castle. samttda-mushti tape-worm. 

' //' collar. shaclii-/Kiko grampus. b 

l-'ira collar (European). kiit gold. c 

l>'t it/ami mirror (kage refiec- gin silver. 

tion, mi-rn see). KO statue. 

a Collo<|uially the word nama is much used in the .sense of " hard cash,' 1 K-ini; 
tfjiiivalent to gen-kin ready money. 

b The term shachihoko also denotes an architectural ornament, a conventional i/ed 
grampus, placed on the end of the ridge of a roof, 

c Kin is the Chinese equivalent of kunc metal or money. In the sense of "money" 
or "metal" Ainis used only in composition. On the other hand, kunc is never used 
in the sense of "gold." 


dai-butsu large statue of mimi ga kikoenai be quite 

Buddha. deaf. 

en-zetf;u address, oration. mimi ga toi be somewhat 
fii-zoku manners and customs. deaf. 

gyii-niku beef (comp. p. 90e). kumu, kunde draw (water). 

shin-dai property. sasu stick, thrust, wear (in 
erai great, eminent. the hair, girdle, etc.). 

ji-yu na free. sashi-tsukae ga aru there is 
fu-jiyu na restricted. a a hindrance, [I] have an 

kennon na dangerous, risky. b engagement. 

agaru, agatte go up. c sewa assistance (comp. sewa- 
arau, aratte wash. d sh-ii). 

dasu put forth, bring out. no sewa wo suru assist, 
kikoe-ru can hear, can be take care of. 

heard, sound. 


Atarashii kara wo dastiimaslio ka. lie, kind no kara de ii. e 
Ano liito iva kanemochi des' ka. lie, atarimae no shindai des'. 
Ano shosei iva kash'koi ka. lie, atarimae des'. Nama no 
niku u'o taberu to yoku sanadamushi ga dekimas'. Kodomo 
wa oya no f sewa wo suru no. ga atarimae da. Nihonjin wa 
yoku nama no sakana wo tdbemas'. g Izanagi to iu kami 
sama ga n umi de o kao ivo o arai iiasatta toki ni migi no o me 
kara Amateras' to iu hi no kami sama ga o de nasatte hidari 
no o me kara Tsukiyomi to iu tsuki no kami sama ga o de na- 

a Fujiyu is commonly pronounced fuju. The word_/y'R in the Japanese mind 
generally signifies the possession of ample means, anAfujiyn, accordingly, means the 
lack of facilities or conveniences. 

b Probably a corruption of ken-nan, from ken peril and nan distress. 

c This is the polite word to use in speaking of going to or entering into a 
person's house. 

d Notice that verbs whose stems end in n or z'and do not add ru in the conclus- 
ive form but substitute u for / (p. 10), like agaru and arau, have subordinate forms 
in lie. 

c < )ne may also say kino no de ii. 

f This is the objective genitive. 

g Namazakana is fresh fish as contrasted with salted or dried fish. 

h The language used in speaking of the gods is extremely polite. I/anagi and 
Izanami are the two deities who, according to Japanese mythology, created japan 
and its people. Amaterasu is derived from ante heaven and terasu to illumine ; Tsu- 
kiyomi, from tsuki moon, yo night and ;ni-ru to see. 


ftntta. Nama no tamagowomittsu motte I- iff kudasai. Kore 
wa >ti/i/t<if' i,<> tiiiHin/it lies' ka. Sayo, umitate tie gozaimas'. 
Jgir/'x'j'/n n t'l/in it! knN/iii'aetti Kivd-jislio ga nakute makoto 
nifujiijn de$\ a Nihon no onna trn //<>/,// gin HO kaiuashi WO 
sa.shhnas'. Ano Jtito wa kicazoku des' ka. lie, nami no Into 
'Ax 1 . Ttikitnfr uogozende nakerebaoish'ku arimasen. /?///'/ 
no iichi ni ira kane nokagami ga tatete arimas'. Anohitoica 
ikirra kane ico motte imas' ka. Ut/nk>' ///'/// yen motte imas'. 
Krai kimonochi ties' ne\ Yoroppa de ica kiri no ki ico shoku- 
bvtaugdkvjd no na de "Paulownia imperialis" to iimas'. Kono 
e tea mitkasliinofuzoku ga kntfc or /'mas'. UcM no gejo ?/>/ 
kitate ni ica monogoto ga yoku icakarimasen desli'ta. Kiincniii- 
ya wa macJii no naka wo hoflaka de aruite wa ikemasen.^ 
Kore wa kiimitate no mizii des' ka. Sayo, tadaima k/r/t'/<i 
bakari des'. Wazuka na koto de kenkwii wo sh'ta. Ano shosei 
mi kaneiitocJii na islia no tokoro ye ynshi ni \kwuuHfta. 

I do not know the medical name (wa) of this disease (byoki). 
I am very fond of (dai s'ki des') raw beef. The earthquake 
(of) last evening was dreadful. The address (of) just now 
was very interesting. The Daibntsu of Kamakura c is a bronze 
statue ; its height is about fifty feet. On the castle of Xagoya 
there are two golden sJtachihoko. Do you know the zoological 
name of this fish? The original name of Kyushu was (called) 
Tsukushi. That happened long ago (is an ancient affair). 
Hhall I bring to-day's newspaper? No, please bring yesterday's. 
Does your left hand hurt, [or] is it the right hand? His right 
ear is deaf. Fresh eggs are delicious. The Japanese govern- 

a Ei-K'a English-Japanese. The chief nations of the world are designated by 
single ideograms, thus: 

.V/V///or H'n Japan J?/ England Dokn Germany 

Shin, fCan or To China Bei America Fitfsu Y ranee 

A'ni Corea A'trii Holland A'o Russia 

Of these Shin, A'un (Corea), F.i, Bci, 7<'n/stt and A'o are combined with koi-H : Shin- 
knktt, Ki-koL-ii, etc. H'a-kan-suHsni-zuf (p. 95d). .\is-shin sen-so the war between 
Japan and China. Doku-futsu sen-so the P'ranco-Gcrman war. *\'ichi-fi do-mei the 
Anglo-Japanese alliance. Ko-shin gin-ko the Russo-Chinese Bank. 

I) Antitf is the subordinat<: form ftamantittto walk. Notice that tliis verb may 
take an object. Kor ,irnitc r."/ ikcmasen see p. njh. 
c Kamakura is near Yokohama. Yoritomo made it his capital in 1192. 


ment hires many (yoku) foreigners. In (ni /) Japan there 
are many wooden bridges (wa), but stone bridges are still 
scarce. Next Saturday (ni wa) I have an engagement ; so I will 
come to your house on Friday. 3 The last day of the year is 
called o-mifioka. It is risky to eat (taberu no wa) raw meat. 
Is that the botanical name ? 


As has been intimated previously (pp. 6, 13), the functions 
of an adjective may be performed by short clauses, such as ya- 
ma ga oi mountainous, kuclii ga ivarui sarcastic, etc., which 
in the attributive position become yama no oi f kuclii no ivarui, 
etc. Such expressions are very common in Japanese: 
islii no oi stony. 

machigai no oi inaccurate (opp. nai). 
Jin-ko no oi populous (opp. sukunai). 
kao (ki-ryo) no ii beautiful (PP- ioarui). 

sliiawase no ii (or shiawase no) fortunate 
un no ii lucky 

ben, benzetsu no ii eloquent ,, 

ben-ri no ii (or benri na) convenient, useful 
tsu-go no ii convenient, suitable 

yo-jin no ii cautious 

Icon-jo no ii good-natured 

i-ji no ivarui ill-natured, obstinate 
gen-ki no ii (or genki na) vigorous (opp. nai). 
ashi no hayai swift (of an animal). 
nagare no hayai (of a river). 
ki no hayai prompt, sensitive. 
ki no noroi phlegmatic (noroi sluggish). 
ki no nagai patient. 
ki no mijikai irritable. 
ki no tsuyoi determined to win, courageous. 
ki no yoivai easily yielding, cowardly (yowai weak). 

a The polite term to be used, here is agaru. But if a common word is used, it 
must l>e //, not /cum. Foreigners often puzzle the Japanese by using hum in 
such cases. 


ki no okii valiant, magnanimous. 
ki no chiisai timid, pusillanimous. 
wi no takci tall (opp. hiku-i). 
Icir! no f ideal foggy (kiri fog). 
yok no fukai avaricious (opp. na-i). 
me no ckikai near-sighted. 
inimi no tdi deaf. 

So also instead of na-dakui (p. 110), one may say no, no ta- 
/."/; instead of shinjin-bukai, shinjin nofiikai. 

The opposites of some of the expressions given above may be 
formed by means of/it (bit) or mu negative prefixes derived 
from the Chinese: 

fu-shiawase na unfortunate. 
fu-un na unlucky. 
fu-benri na inconvenient. a 
fu-tsugo na inconvenient, improper, wrong. 
bu-kiryo (fu-kiryd) na homely. 
bu-yojin (fu-yojin) na careless, unsafe. 
mu-yok-u na unselfish. 

Compare fii-shojiki na dishonest (p. 114). fit-shinsetau na un- 
kind, bu-rei na impolite (p. 33), mu-byo na healthy. b 


(Include the list given above.) 

fitna a fish resembling a carp, hatake a plot of cultivated 
hakama loose trousers, divided ground, field, garden. d 
skirt. c iwa rock. 

a "Inconvenient" is more commonly ftt-ben na. l&a&fu-ben IM (different char- 
acter) might also mean "not elotjuent/' though the more common word is totsu- 
ben na from totsu (c) to stammer. 

b From yd need (in iri-yo) is derived fu-yo or niu-ya unnecessary. The latter 
also senses as a sort of negative imperative, as in the notice posted up in the Hon- 
gwanji Temple in Tokyo: Hini-ne nuiyo Midday naps forbidden ! Another negative 
prefix, mi, means "not yet": nii-jnkn not yet ripe. Compare ftt-shinja unl>eliever 
and mi-sliinjii one not yet a believer. 

c Worn by gentleman in full dress. There are special names for certain varieties, 
such as nntti-nori-bakania used formerly by samurai when riding on horseback, 
nagi-bakiiiiiii the trailing kind used at court, etc. The hakama now in vogue 
among school-girls arc simply plaited skirts. 

d A plot kept under water fur the cultivation of ric:, etc., is called ta. 




se shoal. 

haya-se rapids. 

sode sleeve. 

sumi charcoal. 

to door. 

maioari surroundings (no 
maioari ni around). 

soto exterior (wo soto ni out- 
side of). 

ha-gaki postal card. 

mizu-umi ) , -, 
., <, lake. 

KO-SUI(JC.) j 

(o)tera~mairi visting a (Bud- 
dhist) temple. 
toshi-yori aged person. 
kai-gan sea-shore, bund. 
yo-fuku European clothes. 
sei-j-i political affairs. 
seiji-ka politician, statesman. 
to-myo-dai lighthouse. 
Cho-sen Corea. 
aku, aite open (intr.). 

ana hole. 

ana ga aku a hole is made. 

haku, haite wear (shoes, trou- 
sers, etc.). 

Jiataraku, Jiataraite work. a 

nagare-rn flow, be carried 
along by a current. 

shime-ru shut. 

shirase-ru inform. 

tanomu, tanonde ask, engage, 
rely upon, b 

ii-tsuke-ru command. 

osu push, press. 

oshi-age-ru push up. 

sei-batsu sum punish( rebels), 
make war upon. 

zen-kwai suru fully recover 
(from sickness). 

hi (kwa-ji) ivo dasu start a 

koto -ni especially. 

hi-jo ni extraordinarily. 


Hida wa yama no oi kuni da kara, jinko ga s'kunai. Nikon 
no kawa wa taigai nagare ga liayai kara, oki na ishi ga nagare- 
te kimas'. Anata no go tsugo no yoi toki ni mairimasho. c 
Dozo go tsugo no yoi toki wo shirasete kudasai. Nihon no 
maivari no umi iva Tiijo ni sakana ga oi. Ano hito wa konjo 
no wand hito des' kara, tomodachi ga s'kuno gozaimas', Shin- 

a This word is also used like make-ru to be defeated in the sense of "to come down 
on the price," but without an object : Nijissen makete agemasit I will deduct twenty 
sen. Hachijissen tmule hata>aile agemasu I will make (sell) it for the low price of 
eighty sen. 

b The idiom is : hito ni koto wo tanomii to call upon a person for assistance, to 
ask a favor of one. O tanomi moshimasu. Please do me the favor. This phrase 
may be usel by a caller to attract the attention of some one in the house. 

c Lit. at your convenient time, i. e., whenever it suits you. 


,//// iio/'ka! Jii'fn n-fi yoku teramairi wo shim as'. Anata no o 
(ait san wa go zenkicai na$aimash'ta ka. lie, s'koshi yokti imfti- 
kara, a ydj'in ga icarukute hayakusoto ye demash'ta kara, mata 
warukn itarimash'ta. Sh'ka to iu mono ica b taihen ashinohai/m' 
mon' des'. Ano hito wa tosJiiyori des' keredomo genki ga yd 
gozaimas'. Nihon no kaigan wa hen ga oi kara, seifu de c to- 
myddai wo tak'san tatemash'ta. Sencho iva yojin no ii Jtito 
des' kara, shizuka nifune wo yare to d iits'kemash'ta keredomo, 
kir i ga fkakute tomyodai no akari ga micmasen desh'ta e kara, 
fane ivo iwa ni oshiagemash'ta ; sJtikashi fune no soko ni ana ga 
akimasen desh'ta kara, ahiaivase no ii koto desh'ta. Nihon wa 
ki no oi kun-i des' kara, yoku sumi wo ts'kaimas'. Ki no s'kunoi 
kuni wa mizu ga s'kunai. Taiko ica ki no okii hito defih'to kara, 
Chosen made mo fseibatsu sltirnaslfta. Yofku wa sode ga nal-ii- 
tehakama ico hakimasen kara, haturakf ta//te ni S bdtri no ii 
mon' des'. ltd ko iva daiseijika de benzetsu mo ii. To tco 
shimenai de nete wa buyojin des'. 

Farmers dislike stony fields. Postal cards are convenient 
things. The French are sensitive, but the Germans are phleg- 
matic. Both Yamato and Kisliu are mountainous countries. 
Mountainous places are sparsely populated (population is scarce). 
As the Fuji River is swift, there are many rapids. The Lake 
of Omi (wa or ni wa) is full of fish ; large carp and (ya\funa (2) ? 
are especially (1) numerous (many 3). h He is obstinate and 

a Translate : after recovering somewhat (p. 960). 

b The idiom to iu mono ten corresponds to our article "the." 

c We should say : "the government has erected." The Japanese idiom is : "on 
the part of the government [they] have erected." When speaking of what is done 
by societies, corporations, etc., this is the usual construction. 

d Imperative from yarn to send \fnnc wo yam to move a ship forward. In Japa- 
nese, quotations are usually given in the form of direct discourse, the dependence 
of the phrase on the principal verb being denoted simply by the particle to. In 
the case of imperatives a phrase may be changed into indirect discourse by the use 
of yo ni: shizuka n! fnnc wo yarn yo ni iitsuktmaMta (comp. p. ic4bc). A polite 
command quoted by the person to whom it was addressed is changed into the im- 
polite form : Dete /<>/ to moshimashita He said I should come out. 

e See p. 850. f See p. 533. 

g Translate : "for working." When the postposition tame is added to verbs, 
w is not required. 

h Owi no kositi or ffhoa-ko, from biwa the name of a musical instrument which 
it resembles in form and ko-=-mhunmi, is the largest body of fresh water in Japan, 
It is situated near Kyoto. 


doesn't do what one asks of him (tanonda koto}. These sen- 
tences are so inaccurate that correction is impossible (mistakes 
being many [one] can not mend). The maidservant through 
carelessness (being careless) started a conflagration. She is 
homely, but her character is good (hito ga ii). The Bridge of 
Seta is a very famous bridge. 3 


In the chapter on relative pronouns (p. 53) it has been ob- 
served that in Japanese a verb may modify a noun like an ad- 
jective. It follows that many English adjectives are represented 
in Japanese by verbal expressions : 

dekl-ru possible, feasible (opp. dekinai'). b 

namake-ru, namakete iru lazy. 

wakaru intelligent. 

ben-kyo sum (shite iru} diligent (oipp.fu-benkyo no,). 
Expressions like gdku-mon ga aru may perform the office of 
an attributive adjective by changing the ga to no c (Compare 
the previous chapter) : 

kagiri no aru limited, from kagiri limit. 

tsumi no aru guilty, from tsumi crime, sin. 

sai no aru talented, from sai ability. 

jim-bo no aru popular, from jim-bo popularity. 
These may be turned into their opposites by substituting nai for 

Observe also the following combinations : 

kusuri ni naru curative, nutritious. 

tame ni naru beneficial, advantageous. 

doku ni naru poisonous, noxious, from doku (c) poison. 

gai ni naru injurious, from gai injury. 

a A bridge over the Lake of (>/;' at the point where it empties its waters into the 
river called (at the lower end of its course) Yodogawa. 

b With the adverb yofcn, deklru also means "capable" :yoku dekirn hito an able 
man, ongakii no yokn dekirn hito a man well versed in music, a capable musician. 
But yoku dekite iru means "well made" (of a thing). 

c The no is omitted in some cases, thus : tai-mo am hito an ambitious person, fttm- 
betsti aru hito a discreet person, gi-ri aru kyodai a step-brother or brother in law, 
from gi-ri right, obligation. 


me ni tatsu (medatsu) conspicuous. 

i/iiku ni tatsu useful. 

Most of the verbs that serve as adjectives, if denoting a con- 
dition, are used in the past tense when attributive, and in the 
subordinate form with -i-ru or oru when predicative (p. 89b): 

aitu vacant, from akit -open (intr.). 

hiraketa. civilized, from hirake-nt be opened. 

futotta fleshy, stout, fromfutoru become stout. 

yaseta lean, emaciated, from ya-se-ru become lean. 

ikita live, alive, from iki-ru survive. 

shinda dead, from shinu die. a 

kawatta different, fromfca icaru be changed. 

kumotta cloudy, from kumoru be clouded. 

shareta stylish, witty, from share-ru be elegant. 

sorotta complete, from sorou be uniform. 

yogoreta dirty, from yogore-ru be soiled. 

iki-sugita conceited, from iku go and sugi-ru exceed. 

komi-itta complicated, from komu be crowded, and /V" 

iri-kunda complicated, from iru enter and k inn it knit to- 
gether, b 

oclii-tsuita calm, composed, sane, from ochi-ru fall and 
tsuku arrive. 

ivakari-kitta obvious, from and kiru cut, finish. 

ippai haitta full, from ippai (p. 90c) and hairu enter. 

ki no kiita smart, from kl spirit and kiku be efficacious, c 

ncn no itta thoughtful, painstaking, from nen thought, 
attention and iru enter. 

assart .shift i plain, simple. 

Jmkkiri sliita clear, distinct. 

shikkari dtita substantial, trustworthy. d 

sube-sube shita smooth, slippery, from subcru slide. 

a Shindc iru may be used only of persons or animals which are in the presence of 
the speaker. In other cases " he is dead " must be translated Mmmoskita, 

b Komiitta is r .it her more common than irikitmia. 

c Compare : Kiunri g<i sugu kikimaslnta. The medicine acted immediately. 
Kono pompu -i'ti Ai/kaHaAn tmrimashita. This pump doesn't work any more. 

d The beginner may be puz/.led by the similarity between hakkiri to distinctly, 
shikkari to substantially, slnkiri ni persistently, sukkari entirely, ihakkitri hie-, 
cough, etc. 




The predicative forms are aite iru(oru), hi get kiite iru(oru), 
etc. But some expressions of this class cannot be used pred- 
icatively : 

tai sliita great, important, serious. 

tonda surprising, extraordinary, great, from tobu, fly, spring. 

(Include the adjectival expressions given above.) 

kale plastered wall. a 

kaki fence, enclosure. 

ishi-gaki stone wall. 

kemuri smoke. 

botan peony. 

moclii a pasty food made by 
pounding a special kind of 
rice (mochi-gome) in a mor- 

bota-mochia, ball of rice which 
has been boiled and then 
brayed in a mortar. 

ki-chigai lunatic (ki spirit, 
chigau differ). 

ko-zukai errand-boy, servant 
(ko small, tsukau use). 

shi-goto work, task. 

(o) rei bow, thanks, present. 

an-shin peace of mind. 

fu-ansliin uneasiness. 

mei-ivdku annoyance. 

shoku-motsu (= tabe-mono) 
food, victuals. 

tei-shu, tei-shi master of a 
house, landlord (of a hotel), 

micri na unreasonable, absurd. 

hare-ru clear off (of the sky) . 

katsugu, katsuide carry on the 

go-hei sticks holding cut pa- 
per used in Shinto shrines 
as symbols of divinity. 

goJiei-katsugi a superstitious 

konare-ru } . 
, _ , v be digested. 

slio-Kwa suru \ 

tsuzuku, tsuzuite continue, 
hold out (intr.). 

ni ki iv o tsuke-ru pay at- 
tention to, take care of. 

nige-dasu escape. 

batsu (c), bachi punishment. 

bassuru punish. 

basserare-ru, bassare-ru be 

sJii-kata (shi-yo) ga nai can't 
be helped (p. 16a). 

i-zen previously.b 

i-go afterwards. 

betsu ni specially. 

chika-goro lately. 

ima-sara no longer, no more 
(with a negative word). 

a Kabe means properly a wall of a house. A wall around a garden is hei (c), or 
do-bei, from do (c) earth. A high board fence is ita-bei, from ita board. A fence 
is kaki or kaki- tie ; a hedge, iki-gaki. 

b Zen=mae;So.nochi, Compare z^ and *-. p. 71. The Vindicates comparison. 




Kore wet assari sh'ta e des'. Nihon no tabemono wa assari 
sh'ta mono ga o gozaimas'. a Yaseta hito iva hayaku arukemas'. 
Ano yadoya no teishu wa taihen ftotta hito des'. Ano kozukai 
wa ki no kiita otoko des'. Ano hito wa tsumi ga aru ka nai ka 
mad n Jiakkiri to wakarimasen. Goheikatsugi wa taigai kyoiku 
no nai hito des'. Ano hito wa taihen nen no itta hito des' ; hito 
no uchi ni yobaremas' to, b ato de sugu nireini ikimas'. Are 
wa taihen nen no itta hito des' kara, so machigatta koto wa ori- 
mas'm at. c Kido wa taiso jimbo ga arim ash'ta . d Nihon ni wa 
ima jimbo no aru daijin ga nai. Bis'mar'k? ko wa izen jimbo 
ga nakatta. Kono mushi wa kaiko no gai ni narimas'. Sake 
wa karada no doku ni narimas'. Hiraketa knni de ioa yol-u 
ko'fomo no kyoiku ni ki ivo ts'kemaf? , Aita knchi ni botamochi. e 
Chichi wa k'suri ni narimas'. Aita heya ga arimas' ka. Chika- 
gofo wa ikaga de gozaimas' ka. Arigatd, betsu ni kawatta 
koto mo gozaimasen.t Rore iva nen no itta shigoto des'. Yogo- 
reta kuts' ivo haite imas' kara, agarimasen. Chugakko no Eigo- 
ki/oshi ni wa ydku dekiru hito ga s'kunakute komarimas'. 
Kagiri no aru karada des' kara, so wa tsuzukimasen. Amari 
medatsu kimono wokite wa narimasen.% Ko iu komiitta koto 
wa gwaikokugo de wa hanashinikui. Sono hito wa sakunen 
kichigai ni natta ga, tadaima de wa ochitsuite oru so des'. 
}\'nk<irn n ing en naraba sonna muri na koto wo iivanai^ hazu da 
Imasara sonna wakarikitta koto ivo iwanak'te mo yoroshii. 

a By assari sHta e is understood a sketch, not highly colored. By assari s/ita 
tabemono is understood the opposite of rich food. 

b Yobareru is the passive olyobu to call or invite. (O) tei ni iku to go to offer 
thanks ; in this case, to make a party call. See p. 33C. 

c Negative probable form of aritnasu. 

d Kido was a samurai of Clwslin who distinguished himself in connection with 
the Restoration of 1868. 

e The meaning is : an unexpected piece of luck, a windfall. 

f Translate : there has been no special change. One may also say kmuari mo 
gozaimascn. It is polite to inquire : O kawari mo gozaimaseii ka. Are you in 
good health ? 

g Equivalent to kite ion ikcmasen (p. I22b). 

h Iwanai is the familiar negative form of in to say. For wakam, -(.'akatta or 
mono no wakatta might be substituted. 


Tonda meiwaku wo itashimash'ta. Anna ikisugita yats' iva 
shikata ga nai. 

The physician says it is not (there is not) a serious matter. 
Now (ima iva) it is cloudy, but later (nocTii ni iva) it may clear 
off. Is this novel complete? [I] loaned just (daJce) one vol- 
ume, to a friend. Is that bottle empty? No, it's full. The 
walls o f the castle are very substantial. Since the door of the 
cage is open, the birds may escape. Wrestlers are usually fleshy. 
This duck is very lean. Simple foods are easy to digest. Have 
you any room (Is there still a vacant room)? a Yes, all are 
vacant. That student is talented, but he is a lazy fellow 
(namake-mono). Eels are slippery fish. A guilty man is 
always uneasy. He is a very trustworthy person. b Though 
(no ni) innocent, he was punished. Smoke is injurious to the 
eyes. Unlearned people don't use this word. He is diligent 
(benkyo iva sh'te imas'), but he is not talented. This food is 
poisonous, it is said. Our (uchi no] maidservant is smart, but 
dishonest. The fish dealer was selling live sardines. A distinct 
answer is not yet possible. Mrs. Kakamura is very stylish. / 


A substantive may be formed from any adjective or adjec- 
tival expression by adding the particle no : 

Chiisai no ga nakereba okii no wo kaimasho. 
If you have no small one, I will buy a large one, or, 
If you have no small ones, I will buy large ones. 
To such substantival forms the particles iva, ga, mo, no, ni, 
100, de, etc., may be added. An adjective formed by means of 
no, like hidari no (p. 119), may without an additional no take 
these particles and be treated as a substantive. Thus : yoro- 
shii no iva, siiki na no wa, macliigai no oi no iva, doku ni naru 
no iva, but nama no wa. No wa mav be contracted to na. 

a Instead of aita heya, one may also say aki-ma. 

b The common expression, Are wa nakanaka shikkari-mono dew has a rather 
sjangy flavor, 


No no occurs in Chiisai no no koto desu I mean the small one. 
These substantival forms may denote a concrete object, the 
?io being equivalent to mono, especially before da, desu, etc. 

Taihen takai no desu. It is a very expensive article. 
When a contrast is involved, ho side is substituted for no: 

Kwc ica takai ho desu. This is the more expensive. 
Before da, desu, etc., no is usually contracted : 

Taihen takai n' desu. It's a very expensive one. 

Takai n'ja( =de wa)nain' desu It's not an expensive one. 

Taiso rippa na n' desu. It's a very fine one. 
Often there is no difference in the sense between a simple 
predicate adjective and the adjective followed by n'da(n'desu), 
which simply serves to round off the sentence. Thus there is 
no appreciable difference between Mo ii and Mo n n' da(desu) 
That'll do (polite: Mo yoroshiu gozaimasu}. 

In many cases the substantival forms are to be translated by 
means of abstract nouns: 

Samui no wa ii ga atsui no ni im komarimasu. 

[I] don't mind the cold, but find the heat oppressive. 
The particle ni following a substantivized adjective gives it 
a concessive sense, unless the particle is directly dependent on 
the verb: 

Samui no ni itsu mo no tori sampo shite imasu. 

In spite of the cold, he is taking a walk, as usual. 

JZodomo no riko na no ni odorokimashitc. 

[I] was astonished at the cleverness of the child. a 
The wo may be omited: samui ni, riko mi ni. 

The particle de following a substantivized adjective may 
indicate a cause or reason (p. 104h). 

A'//o wa amari samui no de sampo ni di'kdke/iid.xfu. 

Since it is too cold to-day, I shall not go out for a walk. 
By saying samui to iu no de the speaker may avoid asserting ex- 
plicitly that it is really too cold to take a walk. Compare : 

Samui kara to itte sampo ni dekakemaee*. 

Pleading that it is too cold, he does not go out for a walk. 

a The ni in riko na no ni odorokimashita and in alsui no ni kontarimasn is pro- 
bably related to the ;//' used to denote the agent with a passive verb, as in 
ni or him") shikarareta was scolded by the teacher (shikaru to scold). 




The de does not indicate a cause in a sentence like: 

Yasui no de yorosliii. A cheap one will 'do (p. 117h). 
The following idiom must be accepted without explanation : 
Atsui no atsuku nai no 'tte (=to itte] yakeso desliita. 
Talk about heat ! It seemed as if I were burning. 
Itai no itciku nai no 'tte sliinu ka to omotta. 
I was in such pain I thought I was dying. 


ase perspiration. a 

gomi dirt, dust, rubbish. 

gomi (liokori) ga tatsit dust 

hashi chopsticks. 

itoma=hima leisure. 

oki the open sea. 

sugata form, figure. 

uruslii lacquer. 

usliiro rear {no usliiro ni 

kado gate (in mi-kadd). 

kado-matsu two pine trees 
placed one on each side of 
the gate at New Year's. 

kokoro-atari clew. 

kokoro-atari ga aru [I] hap- 
pen to know. 

momo thigh. 

momo-hiki [Japanese] close- 
fitting trousers. 

zubon [European] trousers. 

zubon-shita drawers. 

sliibai theater, drama. b 

ue-ki-bachi flower-pot. 

sai-ku artificers' work.c 

zas-slii magazine, journal. 

kan-dan-kei thermometer 
(lit. cold-warmth-measure). 

shabon soap ( French savon). 

atsui thick. 

omoi heavy, grave. 

marui round. 

shi-kaku na square. 

harn stretch, extend (intr.). 

Jcori ga Jiaru ice forms. 

itaru reach (ni itaru extend 

itatte very. 

nuru paint. 

nuri-mono lacquered ware. 

odoroku, odoi'oite be aston- 

toke-ru be loosed, be solved, 
melted, thawed. 

yowaru be weak, debilitated. 

a "To perspire," the subject being understood, is ase ga deru; with a subject, 
ase IUQ dasu or ase mo kaku, 

b From shiba grass and i-ru to sit. Theatrical performances used to be held in 
the open air and actors were called kawara-kojiki, from kawara (kawa, hara*) dry 
river bed and kojiki beggar. 

c From this are derived such words as gin-zaiku (shirokatte-zaifai) silver-ware, 
zoge-zaikit ivory- ware, urushi-zaiku lacquered ware, etc . 



Kandankei ica chdhd na mon' des; sugu ni atsui no to samui 
no ga wctkarimas'. Kono kadomats' wa chiisai ; old na HO tea 
nai ka. Atarashii zubon wo motte kite o kure ; furm no tea 
kuriimaya ni yatte yorosluL Kono sliinamono ica icarui; ii 
no ica nai ka. GozaimaJ kcrcdomo* itattc toko gozaima.S. 
Tdkei ni, wa (p.30b) shimbun ga tak'san arimas' kcredomo 
yoi no wa s'kund (s'kend) gozaimas'. Haslii no (n<-lti ni) ica 
marui no mo arimasu shi, sliikaku no mo b arimas'. Kwe to 
onajl yd na no iva gozaimasen ka. Gozaimas'. Kd atsui no 
ni, anata iva ase ga chittomo demasenka. Anata ica jozu na 
isha wo go zonji de gozaimasen ka. So des' ne, heta na no ico 
ikutari mosh'tte imas' keredomo, jozu na no ica hitori mo shiri- 
masen. Miya no uclii ni ica okinano mo arimasu slii, chiisa 
na no mo arimas'. Ano onna iva ushiro kara miru to, sugata 
ga taiso yoi keredomo; mae kara miru to, kao no warui no ni 
iva odorokimas'. c Michi ga toi no ni komarimas'. Kono byd- 
l:i wa omoku nai no ni, ano isha wa omoi yd ni iimas'. d Ano 
sliibai ica omoshiroku nai no ni, ano hito ica omoshiroi yd ni 
iimas*. Omoshiroi no ni, omoshiroku nai yd ni iimas'. Kd 
samui no ni, yoku oide nasaimash'ta. e Samui no de kdri ga 
h"i'imash'ta. Tenki ga ii no de kdri ga tokemash'ta. Oki no 
kurai no(hd)ni shiraho ga mieru ; are wa Kishu no mikam- 
buneJ Tabetai no ni, tabetaku nai yd ni iu. Akai ho ni na- 
saimas' ka, aoi ho ni nasaimas' ka. g Oi ! s,habon ga nakunatta 
ka.ra, hitotJ kattc kite moraitai. Akai no wo katte mairima- 
shd ka, shiroi no wo katte mairimasho ka. Ataras/iii kilts' wo 

a In a reply the verb of a question is repeated: O wakari deshita ka. M'akarima- 
shita. Did you understand ? Yes. Expressions like hei, hai, sayo, sayo de gozaima- 
sie, so desu ne, etc., may precede the reply, but are really noncommittal (p. I7h). 
But so desu implies very definite assent. 

b Notice that na is omitted as if the adjective belonged to the same class as hida- 
ri rw. 

c The ni here, as also in the following sentence, is dependent on the verb. 

d Translate : " talks as if it were a grave case. " 

e Yokii oide nasaimas/itia or yoku irasshaimashita (lit. you have well come) is a 
common expression used in welcoming a visitor. 

f See p. 380. Shira-ho white sail. 

g The idiom ni swu (itasu, tiasaru) often means " to decide upon'' 


o haki nasaimas' ka,furui no ivo ohaki nasaimas' ka. Ten- 
ki ga yokereba, atarashii no wo hako. a 

Shall I bring the old garment (kimono) or shall it be(m itaslii- 
masho) the new one ? Bring the new one. The paper that I bought 
lately was too light (thin) : haven't you any heavier ? b Among 
magazines there are both good ones and bad ones. It being so 
hot, everybody is debilitated. How much are these fish ? The 
large ones are (de) one yen; the small ones (are) fifty sen. 
The wind being strong, dust rises. Among lacquered wares 
there are cheap articles and also expensive ones. As our ( uclii 
no) manservant is dishonest I dismissed him ; don't you happen 
to know(o kokoroatari wa gozaimas'maika)some honest fellow? 
Just now I don't happen to know any. Really (domo) honest 
ones are scarce. The one sitting on the left side of Mr. Ito is 
(de) Mr. Tsuzuki ; [the one on] the right side is Mr. Furuya. 
As for the flower-pots, shall I buy large ones, or shall they be 
small ones? Small ones will do (de yorosliii). How about a 
cup of tea ? Do you like it (o s'ki des 1 ka) strong or weak ? c 


There are no inflections corresponding to our degrees of com-' 

The comparative degree d may be expressed by means of such 
words as motto, mo snkoshi, mo chitto, mo isso (so layer), nao, 
nao-sara, etc. 

Motto yoroshii no iva gozaimasen ka. 
Have you no better ones ? 
Sore mo ii ga are wa nao it. 
This will do, but that is still better. 

a The word hako is the plain or familiar future of haku. It is not polite, being 
used in speaking to a servant. 

b Motto atsui. For the comparative degree see the following chapter. 

c In this case we have a contrast, not of predicates, but of subjects and must, 
accordingly, use ga, not wa. If willing to accept the tea, one may say : Ipfai c/to- 
dai itashimasu ; if not, Dozo, o kamai kudasaru na. 

d Hikaku-kyu, from hi-kaku comparision and kyu degree. The superlative is 
saijo-kyu (sat - mottomo, jo - ue). 


Sometimes the word lid side conveys the idea of comparison : 
Dochira ga oki ni //////"*" /.-", ini</df Itn </< *// Jen. mijll-ni 

ho desuka. 

"Whieh do you like better, the longer or the shorter? 
Ikusa no nal ho ga ii. It is better not to have war. 
If the object which serves as the standard of comparison is 
stated, as when we use "than," the adjective does not require 
any modifier to indicate the comparative degree. " Than " is 
to be rendered by yori, //on' mo, or yori wa. This yori is the 
literary equivalent of form " from" (Compare the Latin abla- 
tive as used with comparatives) : 

Chosen wa Itaria yori okli (Jdroi). 

Korea is larger than Italy. 

U'atakushi no zaisan wa ano hito no yori mo suknnmi. 

My property is less than his. 

Anata wa ano hito yori mo kaxji ic<> i/okci go zonji dc yo- 

zaimasu. You know more characters than he. 
In the last example yo-kci is an adverb meaning "in ex 
Notice: Nani yori ii. [It] is better than any [other], Nothing 
could be better (for nani see p. 47). One may also say: Sore 
wa nani yori dcsu. 

When there is a choice between two evils, maslii, from masu 
to increase, may be used : 

Kono sake toawarui keredamo, mizu yori ica 'nmdi! <lesu. 
This sake is bad, but still preferable to wati-r. 
Isso (no koto} shinda ho ga ma-shi dc*//. 
It were better to die. 
No sign of the comparative is required in such seiitL-nn- u: 

Dandan(o/'/. HKIHHIIKIKK} nl-!kn n<i,-intaSU. 

[It] is gradually grow ; ng larger. 
Dochira ga yn (/o^iimafoi l-n. Which is better ? 
"The more the better" and similar o\-]nv<sion< may be- 
translated by the use ofhodo following the adjective <r verb : 
o'l hodo yoi'oshii. The more the better. 
Ano musume iva mirelxi. mii-n //<><!<> /.//</ <l<-su. 
The more I look at that girl, the prettier she seems, (lit. 
If I look at that girl, to the degree thatl look she is pretty). 
The superlative is expressed by inearisof tcM-frafl before the 


adjective (classical: mottomo). Notice also other idioms : 

Himaraya-san iva sekai-ju de a icliiban takai yama desu. 

The Himalayas are the highest mountains in the world. 

Nihon-ichi no kosui thje largest lake in Japan. 

Tokyo-ju de no bijin the most beautiful woman in Tokyo. 

Kivantd-kitte no b kanemochi the richest man in Kwanto. 
" Most, " " mostly" is to be rendered by the adverbs tai-gai, 
tai-tei, o-kata, oku ioa, or by the adjectival expressions taigai 
no, taitei no. 


mugi cereals like barley and ina-zuma, ina-bikari light- 
wheat (p. 15). ning. c 

nakaba middle. mon=rin. d 

naslii pear. ba-ai occasion, case. e 

ni, nl-motsu baggage, freight, dan-go [Japanese] dumpling. 

ringo apple. gi-ron, ron debate, argument . 

sara plate, saucer. Tian-tai op position, the re verse. 

tdki waterfall. kwogo (sama) Empress. 

uji lineage, family-name. riku-gun army. 

utsuiva vessel, utensil. sek-kyo 

waslii eagle. sep-po c 

yamai disease. sho-ko evidence, proof. 

ine rice plants. shippo-yaki cloisonne. 

tsuma consort, wife. Butsu Buddha. 

a Jn = chu uchi. Compare kono ttchi de among these things. As a suffix ju is 
emphatic, so that sekai-ju means not simply "in the world," but "in the whole world". 

b Kwan seki (p. 77<i) ; to higashi. The provinces along the coast east of the 
barrier at Hakone, including Tokyo and Yokohama and extending to Shirakawa, are 
called Kwanto. Kitte is the subordinate form of kirn to cut, finish (comp. wakan- 
kitta p. 128). For no with the subordinate form compare hajimete tu>(p. 97a). 

c Lightning occurs most frequently when the rice is earing. It was formerly sup- 
posed to have the effect of fertilizing the rice-plants. 

d The mon was formerly one tenth of a riii, being a perforated coin made of iron 
while the rin was made of copper. 

e Pronounced by some bayai or bawai. 

f Sep-po, from setsu toku explain and ho law, is a Buddhistic term. As slang 
seppo stint is also used in the sense of " to scold, " " read a lecture. " 

g From shippo (shield ho] a Buddhistic word meaning " seven jewels" and yaku 
to burn. Compare yaki-mono. 




Buk-kyo Buddhism. 

Bukkyo-to a Buddhist. 

Kirisuto-kyfcto a Christian. a 

Jiaba breadth. 

////"/ broad, spacious. 

liuha ga hiroi wide (opp. 

kmt'iN/iii sad. 
koicai fearful, terrible. 
tattoi highly prized, honorable 

iti'itsai annoying. 
jo-bu na strong, robust, 

healthy. b 

yo-kei na excessive. 
yo-kei ni in excess, too much, 

masu increase (tr. and intr.). 

mashi desu is better. 
nozomu, nozonde hope for, 

wish for. 
ok a. <>/te put, place, employ 

(a servant). 

motsu, matte last, endure. 
ncf/a-mochi sum last a long 

sodatsu, sodatte grow up, be 


kokoro-mochi ga yoi \ 
koko-chi ga yoi / f ee l 
ki-mochi ga yoi 
ki-bun ga yoi 

asu no asa 
ashita no asa 


(p. 66a). 


Ka wa hai yori mo urusai des\ Kane no utsmva wa ki no 
utsuwa yori mo nagamochi gashimas'. Anata wa Nihonryori 
yori mo Seiyoryori ga o s'ki deslio. Nihonjin iva Seiyojin 
yori mo sei ga hikii gozaimas 1 . Bukkyo iva Yasokyo yori mo 
fur it, gozaimas'. Kono baai ni wa ivo to iuji wo ts'keru ho ga 
tsureides'. Motto shizuka ni (slowly) yonde kudasai. Washi 
ivaichiban hayai tori des'. Karigi yori araigi (Proverb). c 
Hana yori dango (Proverb). Sakura wa Nihonjin no ichiban 
s'ki na liana des'. lion yoi'i shoko( Pro verb). Kojiki ica Ni- 
hon no ichibanfurui rek'shi des'. Nihon no ku'dgo sama ir<i 
tenshi sama yori f tats' toshi ga ue des'. d Fuji no yam a wa 

a The word Yaso-kyo, from Yaso, which is the Japanese sound of the ideograms 
that stand for " Jesus " in the Chinese, was once universally current as a designation 
of Christianity. But the Christians themselves now say Yesit, not Yaso. The 
latter has anjndelible tinge of contempt and is becoming more and more a vulgar- 

b Dai- jobu (tlesii) It's all right ; without'fail. 

c From ki clothing (in ki-mono*) t /tari-ru to borrow and arait to wash. 

d "Older" may also be expressed by the idiom toshi ga vi; "younger," by toshi 
ga sukunai. 


Nihon no ichiban takai yama des' keredomo, S'wittsur' no ichi- 
ban takai yama yori wa hikui. Kono jisho wa warui keredo- 
mo, nai yori wa mashi des'. Baka yori kowai mono naxhi 
(Proverb). Oyaji no yamai wa yoku narimashd to isha ga 
mdshimash'ta keredo, dandan waniku narimas'. Idowafkai 
hodo mizu ga ii. Mydasa iva mo chitto hayaku okosh'te kurc. 
Kono shippdyaki no sara ga mo s'koshi yas'kereba kaimashd. 
Jnu iva neko ywi mo yaku ni tachimas'. Kono uma no uchi de 
dochira ga yd gozaimas' ka. Sayd de gozaimas', kono ho wa 
wakakute hayd gozaimasu shi, ano ho wa dkikute jdbu de gozai- 
mas' ga, dochira mo yd gozaimas'. Yuki gafuru hodo mugi 
ga yoku dekimas'. Ko iu baai ni iva ga no ho ga tsurei des'. 
Sampo iva yoru yori liiru no lid ga yoroshiu gozaimas'. Te- 
gami wo yarn yori atte hanash'ta hd ga yd gozaimaslid. a Ju 
ni gwatsu no ni ju iclii nichi wa ichinenju de ichiban hi ga 
mijikai. Sore wa nani yori kanashiu gozaimas'. Kueba kuu 
hodo umaku naru. Tokyo no nigiyaka na koto wa Nihon ichi 
des'. Ontake-san wa Nihon de nibamme no (takai) yama des'. b 
Uji yori sodachi (Proverb). Omotta yori mutsukashii. Undo 
sureba suru hodo kokochi ga ii. 

Please speak a little louder (with a little greater voice). 
Mount Ontake is lower than Mount Fuji. Kyoto is older than 
Tokyo. There are more Buddhists than Christians in Japan. 
I wish to employ (okitai) a manservant. Do you desire (o no- 
zomi des' ka) a married (kanai no aru) one, or (is it) an un- 
married one ? A married one would be better (is good). Jap- 
anese horses are smaller than American horses. Which is 
more extensive, Washington or Tokyo (as for Washington and 
Tokyo, which of the two is broader) ? (The side of) Tokyo is more 
extensive. It is said that the waterfall of Nachi is the highest 
(waterfall)in Japan (Nihon-ju de). c This riksha is poor(bad), 
but better than none. In Japan the hot season extends (it is 

a Notice that yori may be attached to a verb immediately. Atte is the subordi- 
nate form of au to meet. For hanashita the present tense might be substituted. 
Compare : Kikuyori hayaku kake-dashimashita. Scarcely had he heard it when 
he ran out (lit. he ran out sooner than he heard it). 

b Mount Onlake lies between the provinces of Hida and Shinano. 

c Nachi is in the province of Kishu. The largest cataract is several hundred 
feet high : the Japanese estimate it at from 800 to looo feet. 


hottest) from the middle of July to (made ga) the middle uf 
August. The tu-i is the most highly prized fish in Japan. 
The Lake of Qmi is Japan's largest lake; [its] length [is] eight- 
een ri; its width at (<Ic) the broadest place is seven //, and 
(mata) its depth at the deepest place is about three hundred 
feet (thirty jo). There is nothing swifter than lightning. In 
Japan the number of men is greater than [that of the] women, 
but in Germany it is the reverse. The population of Kyoto is 
less than [that of] Osaka. In travelling (tabi 100 si/r>' ni i/-<() 
the less baggage the better. I can not give (yorarewoew)eTeii a 
'iimn more (yokei ?m) than this. Won't you have {("./">' >i] 
a little more ? The shorter the sermon the better. Japan is 
larger than England. It is said that Germany has the best 
army (as for the army, Germany is best). The deepest place 
in (of) the ocean is over (ijo mo aru') 8, 000 meters. Which is 
the stronger of these cigars ? This one (side) is the stronger. 
I like pears better than apples. This grammar is poor, but 
better than none. >SW,v is stronger than beer. 



1. The Japanese verb differs in many respects from the 

(1.) There are no inflections to distinguish number or person. 
Both must be determined from the context. Ordinarily pro- 
nouns are used only when perspicuity requires them (p. 27). 
But in polite conversation the first and second persons are often 
plainly indicated by the nature of the verb or auxiliary used, 
a humble verb like itasu being used only in the first (or third) 
person, while the corresponding honorific verb nasaru is used 
only in the second (or third) person. 

(2.) The Japanese language having no negative adverb cor- 
responding to "not," negation is expressed by special inflections. 

(3.) Peculiar to the Japanese verb are the subordinative 
form b ending in te (negative zu), the alternative form c in tari 
(dari), and the desiderative form in tai. 

(4.) The use of the passive is much more limited than in 
English. It may not be used except when the subject is a 
living thing. 

(5.) By means of certain terminations derivative verbs may 
be formed. There are potential forms indicating ability or 
possibility, and also causative forms. 

(6.) There is nothing corresponding to our infinitive, which 
is variously rendered. "To eat" is taberu koto wa or taberu no 
iva. "Go to see" is mi ni iku. Verbs are named by their pre- 
sent form. 

a Dd-shi, from do (c) to move, act. 

b This may be a clumsy word, but its meaning is plain. The other terms pro- 
posed, "participle" (Aston) and " gerund" (Chamberlain), are not calculated to 
enlighten a beginner. The subordinative is not an adjective like a participle ; 
much less is it a " past " participle, for it may also indicate an act simultaneous with 
that of the principal verb. The subordinative is not a noun like a gerund. More- 
over the Latin gerund never indicates an act completed with reference to the prin- 
cipal verb, while the subordinative is never future with reference to the principal 
word of the sentence. 

c Called also " frec 4 uentative " in other grammars. 


2. There are two classes of verbs. In the first the stem 
remains unchanged ; in the second the final vowel of the stem 
(p. 10) undergoes changes in conjugation. There are also a 
few irregular verbs. 

Stems of verbs of the first class end in e or /; those of the 
second class end always in i, which in conjugation may be 
changed to a, e or >/. 

To derive the stem from the present form in the case of verbs 
ending in e-ru or i-ru, like tabe-ru eat, mi-ru see, drop ru. 
In the case of verbs of the second class, like kau buy. substitute 
i for u : kai.* One must be careful not to mistake the verbs 
described in Ch. XLYIIL, which, ending in eru and iru, ap- 
parently belong to the first class, but really belong to the second, 
Yikeshabenf. chatter, hairu enter, whose stems are sliaberi, Jmiri. 
A few verbs have forms of both classes ; like aki-ru or aku be 
surfeited, kari-ru or karu borrow, tar i-ru or taru be enough. 
Distinguish further : 

kae-ru exchange. Ja'cni (taerf) return. 

i-ru be, dwell. iru (//'/) enter, be needed. 

he-ru pass through. Itcru (Jicri) decrease (intr.). 

ne-ru sleep. ncru (ncri) soften, train. 

3. Stems of verbs may be used as substantives (Ch. LXV.). 
It must be remembered that in polite conversation with 

one's equals or superiors b the plain forms of the conjugations 
now to be studied are not used when the verb occupies an im- 
portant position (pp. 10, 55d). Ordinarily politeness requires 
that masu be' added to the stem. In the second (or third) 
person the honorific o may be prefixed and (nasaimasu} 
or ni naru (narimasu) added: ok' nasaimashito (/</ 

a In the cases of verbs ending in su and tsn the stems end respectively in s/ii 
and f/it, thus : mac hi, from matsu wait ; hanashi, from hanasu speak. 

b Servants in the house of a friend, clerks in a store, employees in a hotel, etc., 
are to l>e addressed politely. Even in speaking to one's own servants, riksha-men, 
coolies, etc., the tendency is to soften the forms of speech. The plain forms seem 
destined, like the German dii, to become characteristic of conversation among in- 


mashita) you (or he) wrote. Similary itasu* or mosu may be 
used with the stem to denote the first person when the act 
affects other persons : o susume itasliimashita I exhorted, o ai 
moshimashita I met. 

But in speaking to intimate friends or to inferiors these em- 
bellishments may be dispensed with. Men are more free in 
this respect than women. In monologues, proverbs, etc., the 
plain forms only are used (See also p. 126d). 

4. The tenses of verbs of the first class are inflected thus : 
Present tabe-ru eat b mi-ru see 

Past tabe -ta ate, have eaten mita saw, have seen 

Future or 1 . . . 

T, , , , > taoe-yo will eat mt-yo will see 

Probable ) 

Probable Past tabeta-ro probably ate, mita-ro probably saw, 
might have eaten might have seen 

5. A few explanations concerning the uses of these tenses 
may be helpful. 

(1.) The present is used (a) in general statements, in 
which case it may be rendered " is wont to, " etc.; (b) instead 
of the future when one means to speak of an event as certain 
to occur ; (c) instead of the past in narratives (the historical 
present) and in dependent clauses (p. 88e). 

(2.) The past is to be translated as a pluperfect in such 
phrases as meshi 100 tabeta ato de (noclii ni) after he had eat- 
en. It sometimes stands for our present : arimashita there it 
is (when one has been looking for a thing), kimashita there he 
comes. This is especially the case when the present denotes a 
process : 

Sugu ni dekimasu. It will soon be done. 
Mo dekimashita. It is now done. 

(3.) Taberu daro (desho) and tabeta daro (desho) are com- 
mon periphrastic forms, used chiefly in the third person. Tabe- 

a What is here said about the use of itasu with the stems of verbs does not ap- 
ply necessarily to its more common use with Chinese compounds: ben-kyo itash- 
mashita I (or he) studied. 

b For brevity's sake the first person only is given in the translation. The verb tabe- 
ru is properly transitive and requires an object. In the first (or third) person it 
is a polite word ; but in the second (or third) agam or meshiagant is better. 




iju is future rather than probable, and is used only in the first 
person, except in questions or dependent clauses : 

Ano seiyojin ica saslt'nni ico tabeyo /.". 

[Do you think] that European would eat sash/' at i ? 
To the future or probable forms such adverbs as o-kata or 
ta-bun " probably " may be added. Often to omou is added : 

Kane loogiriko ye azukeyo to omoimasu. 

I will deposit my money in the bank. 

Notice that in dependent clauses the plain forms without such 
auxiliaries as masu, etc., may be used even in polite conversation 
if the principal verb is polite. 

6. In classical Japanese the attributive termination of verbs 
which in colloquial end in e-ru is uru, and the conclusive is p, 
thus : dkuru, aku from ake-ru to open. Forms in urn an- 
heard not infrequently : 

Akiirx lit </tikko wo yasumimashita. 

The next day (lit. opening day) I stayed away from school. 


dorobo robber. 

kfune, kame no ko tortoise, 

kO (c) shell, armor. 

tortoise-shell . a 


knsht comb. 

///<', ko-no-me (=ki no me) 


in mi shelf. 
hon-dana bookshelf. 
hom-bako bookcase (closed 

box with shelves). 
toko, ne-doko bed. 


liai ashes. 

loii-fuki spittoon (made of a 

section of bamboo) . 
lil-moto origin of a conflagra- 

/tun/ to sound (intr.). 
l-tiini-nrt.i'i thunder (kami 


k(i/iii-ii"i'/ <fc nrlt/'-ru light- 
ning strikes, 
shell, hull. 

i >yster-shell. 
closet. b 

samiscn, shamiscn thn-i 1 - 
stringed musical instrunu'iit. 
i plectrum, 

a The term kame no ko denotes the shell on the back of a tortoise or turtle ; 
bekko is the material obtained from the shell of a species of turtle called tai-mai. 
b A closet with shelves, a cupboard, is to-duita (door-sht-lf). 




ja (c) serpent (large). 

liebi snake. 

no dramatic performance with 
chorus, lyric drama. 

fit-ton wadded bedquilt, com- 
forter, cushion. 

ya-gu bedding. 

cjin-ko bank. 

slw-kin specie. 

yaku-slio office. 

zo-ge ivory. 

yubin-sen, yu-sen mail-ship. 

ake-ru open (tr.). 

yo=yoru night. 

yo ga ake-ru day dawns. 

azuke-ru entrust, deposit. 

kutabire-ru ) > f , . , 
I be fatigued. 

tsukare-ru ) 

Jioe-ru bark, howl. 

sue-ru set, place. 

kyii wo sue-ru apply the 

rnoxa. a 
tame-ru accumulate, save 

(money, etc.). 
kata-zuke-ru lay aside, put in 

order, dispose of. 
saku, saite bloom. 
omoi-dasu, omoidashite call 

to mind, recall. 
liana wo ike-ru keep a flower 

alive, put a flower into a 


o-kata ) for the most part, 
ta-bun ) probably. 
sendatte recently. 


Washi WCL kutabireta kara, sugu ni neyo. b Omae wa kesa, 
nandoki ni oklta ka. Hon iva tansu ye ireru mon' ja (=c?e 
ira) nai ; Jiombako ye ireru mon' da. Kurumaliiki iva mo 
meshi wo tabetaro. Soko no teibur' no ue ni aru mono wo 
doko ye katazukeyo ka. Fton wo oshiire ni ireyo. Kimi iva 
tameta kane ivo doko no ginko ye azuketa ka. Boku wa Yoko- 
hama Sliokin Ginko ye azuketa. Danna iva mo yak'sho ye 
deta ka. Shikkari (certainly) sliiranai (p. 130h) keredomo, 
okata detaro. Anata wa ika to iu sakana wo mita koto ga 
arimas* ka. Sayo, mita bakari de wa naku tabeta koto mo 

a The English word " moxa " is derived from the Japanese mogttsa, which desig- 
nates a preparation of the dried and pulverized leaves of the yontogt, a species of 
Artemisia. Physicians of the old school (J:ani-po-i Chinese-method-physician) apply 
small portions of wogitsa to the skin and then set fire to it. This sort of cautery 
is called kyu. 

b It may be neccessary to remind the student once more that the use of a verb 
in its simple form as a final predicate is permissible only in conversation between 
those who are on terms of intimacy. But in the following exercises it may be well 
t o use them for the sake of practice. 



gozaimas\ & Naze konoki ga kareta ka. Uckata ga wand 
kara, karetard. Kyd wa nani wo kiyd ka ; encase wo kiyd 
l;<i, Idtoemono icokiyd ka. ^Fd shield ji da kara, okiyd. Md 
hachi ji sugi da kara. ffanntt ga okitaro. Anata wa Nilion- 
rydri ico tabeta koto ga arinias' ka. Sayd, ni san Jo tabeta 
koto ga arimas' keredomo umaku wa gozaimasen desh j ta. Ki- 
nd taisd kutabireta kara, ana kara ban made ichi nichi m-tn. 
Tana kara botamochi ga ochiru yd na koto iva metta ni arima- 
sen. b Haif'ki kara ja ga deru. c Uso kara deta makoto 
(Proverb). Kameido no ike no uchi ni wa koi mo kame no ko 
mo tak'san iru. Mo attaka ni naru kara, konome ga jiki ni 
deru dard. Nihonjin iva taigai hayaku ok iru. Kono kushi 
iva bekko de dekite iru . d Ki de dekita kushi moaru deshd. Md 
meshi ga dekita ka. Qkata dekitard. Kind nokeikoye gak'sei 
ga ikutari deta ka. Shikkari oboenai ga, okata roku nin guf/i 
iva delard. Amerika no yubinsen ga md sakki minato ivo deta. e 
Konaida atsuraeta kutsu ga dekita ka. Sayd, kuts'ya ga sakki 
motte kimash'ta. Nani yd ga dekita ka. f Inu ga hoeta kara, 
dorobd ga nigeta. No wo mita koto ga ar-imas' ka. Sayd, ni 
san do mita koto ga gozaimas'. Ume no liana no hanashi wo suru 
to, sitgu ni nguis' wo omoidas 1 .?. Uguis' ica ume no liana no 
saku koro ni naki-hajimeru. Kami sama ni iva maiasa akar/ 
ivo agent. Konaida tonari no niica no ki ni kam iimri ga 
ochita ga, shikashi kega wa nakatta. }l Yo ga akeru to. karas' ga 
naki?nas'. KotosJt i tea sam ni kara, ki no me no deru no ga osoi.i 

a For mita bakari de 'va nakii one may substitute mita no wa mochirvn no koto 
(tnochi-ron without dispute, of course). The latter is somewhat supercilious. 
kari de ~i>a = not only but also--. 

]> May be said to one who does not work, hoping to get rich through some lucky 

c A proverb apropos when one has been treated to an exaggerated story. For 
ja, wna may be substituted. 

d Dekite iru or dekita (in the next sentence) corresponds to the English " is made 
of." For dc one may substitute kara. In dekite int the second i is almost silent : 

e The difference between TW deru and kara dent (<;V/V hint') is slight, as be- 
tween the English "leave "and "come out of." 

f Said when one has been called : What is it ? 

g The n^itisu is usually associated with plum-blossoms in art and jxjetry. 

h No one was hurt. Comp. kega(wo)suru to hurt one's self, Acga-nin an injured 
person. i Or, de-yo ga osoi (p. l6a). 


The riksha-man appearing (miete) to be very tired (that he 
was very tired), went to bed early. Why did you get up so 
late? To-morrow (iva) I will get up early, as I am going on 
a journey (tabi ni deru). Who put this into the bookcase? 
This is not to be put into the bookcase; it is to be put up (agete 
oku) on the bookshelf. I will put the bedding a into the closet 
presently. The foreigners living (iru) in Japan now number 
about (hodo da) 10,000, it is said. In this cage there were three 
birds until recently (konaida made). Recently 2,000 houses were 
burned in Tokyo, it is said. Where did the fire originate(was the 
origin of the fire) ? It started (deta) from Oyster Shell Street 
(Kakigaracho), it is said. That (sono) region, is often (yoku) 
burned, isn't it (ne) ? Have you ever seen a Japanese monkey ? 
Yes, I have seen two or three. The flowers which you put [into 
the vase] immediately spoiled (ikenaku natta) . The Japanese 
usually go to bed early. This is made of tortoise-shell. Break- 
fast is probably ready. The maidservant went out (soto ye) 
some time ago (sakki). He is a very forgetful person (a person 
who forgets things well). b Japanese often apply the moxa. 
To whom did you (kimi) entrust the money? On New Year's 
Eve (omisoka no yoru) in (of) 1874 1 saw the burning (yake-ru 
no tvo) of the temple called Zoj6ji. c The plectrum of a sami- 
sen is usually made of ivory. 


Conditional . tabe-reba if [I] eat, mi-reba if [I] see, 

if [I] should eat if [I] should see 

Past " tabe-tara(ba) mi-tara(ba) 

if [I] have (had) eaten if [I] have (had) seen 

Imperative tabe (tabei) eat! mi (TOM) see! 

tabe-ro mi-ro 

(o) tabe na mi na 

o tabe yo o mi yo 

a Either ya-gu or toko. 

b This may be translated yoku mono-wasure wo sum hito. If the sense is that 
he forgets not facts, but things, such as umbrellas, etc., (wasure-mono), it must be 
wasure-mono wo sum hito. Compare mono-moral and moral-mono, etc., p. 16. 

c A temple with mausolea of some of the shoguns in Shiba, Tokyo. 

148 THE VERB. [XL 

1. In ordinary conversation periphrastic conditional forms 
like fi-i bcr>i i:ir(i(t>} are rather more common than tulcrcba 
ete. a But tfibet<ii'o(lta} is not so often displaced by talxfn 
nti,-"l>". Another substitute for these forms is fnj>c,->r to. Xotice 
that to is used only with the present tense. Moshi or moslii mo 
also may be prefixed to a conditional clause. 

(1.) For the use of the conditional forms compare p. 99. 
It is sometimes a matter of indifference whether tabereba or 
fubHc'i-c bo.) be used. In some cases the past conditional 
occurs where we should expect the other form: 

U'"t"k>'*Jt/' if", yoru yokei tabereba (tabctara)neraremasen. 

If I eat too much in the evening, I cannot sleep. 

Taikutsu shitara lion wo yoinimasho. 

If time hangs heavy (lit. tedium have done), we shall read. 

ai nas'ttara so itte nitc k/xlnxdi. 
If you meet him, please tell him so. 
Go zen ga dckitan'" smjtt, nl tabaiwsJtd. 
If dinner is ready, I will eat at once. 

In the last sentence dekircba would mean: i; if it is possible" 
(to prepare a dinner). 

(2.) A conditional inflection maybe used in lieu of a connec- 
tive, especially when the principal verb is in a past tense: 
Noclti utt kilter" *'> de gozaimasJt/f". 

1 inquired afterwards and it proved to be (was) a lie. 


By the looks [of the sky] this morning I judged that it 

would rain, but it cleared off entirely. 
Observe the peculiar use of the conditional in: 
Uketamaioareba <j<> bijoL-i <le attci so desu. 
1 hear that you have been sick. 
(lit. If I hear, you were sick, it is said) 
'/'",( //o mokawareba l;ir<irn i,in <i<i. 
\\\\- Tfikyf, lia< ehan^etl ! 
(lit. r rr-ky.~. too. if it changes, changes.) 

a The conditional clause may be made somewhat indefinite by using the prob- 
able.form : SMU /T^W/// ics labcyo moti nnra, okkn s<in >ii shikarartHiasn yo, 
You will l>e scolded by your mother, if you eat that cake(to a child). 


Akunln mo arcba zennin mo aru. 

There are good men as well as bad men (comp. p. 104f). 
It is a peculiarity of the Japanese language that a conditional 
clause may include an interrogative word : 

Do oshiemashitara yorosliiu gozaimaslio. 

How shall I explain it to them ? 

(lit. if how I have taught, will it be well?) 
(3.) In a sentence containing a conditional clause, ga, no ni, 
or mono wo may be added to the principal verb or adjective. 
These have an adversative or concessive sense and, if the ellipsis 
were filled out, would introduce a statement of a contrary fact, 
a declaration of doubt concerning the possibility of fulfilling 
the condition, or an expression of regret : 

Tabako ivo yamereba ii ga. 

It would be well for him to give up tobacco. 

(lit. if be should give up tobacco good, but... ) 
Here ga may imply not only that the man is not likely to give 
up tobacco (yamemai), but also that he will hardly be able to 
do so (yameraremai). It suggests personal interest on the 
part of the speaker, while no ni indicates a rather nonchalant 
attitude. Accordingly no ni is rarely used with the first person. 
The no in no ni may be dispensed with after ii and yokatta, 
and is usually omitted after the probable forms yokaro and 

Mo suL'OfsJii hayaku dekaketara yokatta (yokattaro) ni. 

He ought t<> have started a little earlier. 
In this sentence, by substituting yokaro we get the sense "he 
ought now to be on the way, " but has not yet started). 

By means of ga or mono wo 3 - following /*' or yokatta one may 
render optative expressions beginning with " If only ", " Would 
that, " " I wish that, " etc. : 

Mo sukoslii yoku kosliiraereba ii ga. 

If only he would make [it] a little better ! 

Ame ga harereba ii ga. If only it would clear off ! 

Togamereba ii ga. If he would only warn [him] ! 

Togametara yokatta ga. If he had only warned [him] ! 

a Compare also the use of mono wo with a verb in the past tense : Yurushite 
yatta mono wo. Would that I had forgiven him ! 

150 THE VERB. [XL 

If we had only started a little earlier ! 

Shineba yokatta 'mono ico. Would that [I] liad died ! 

2. In the case of verbs of the first class the plain imperative 
is identical with the stem. The honorific o may-be prefixed; 
e.g., o kure (p.37d). There is a tendency to make the final vowel 
long : tabci, mii. But it is usual to add ro, in which case the 
honorific must not be used. The particles yo and na are not 
pronounced like regular suffixes, the stem of the verb being 
strongly emphasized, while the particle comes in after a very 
slight pause as a distinct but unaccented word. The forms o ta- 
ke na and o tube yo are used mostly by women. Occasionally 
men may be heard to say tabc /ta. a 

But in general the plain imperative forms characterize the 
speech of the lower classes, or of men who have lost their tem- 
per, or of those who choose to speak to their inferiors peremp- 
torily. Compare further p. 126d. What has been said in the 
previous chapter about the use of plain forms of speech among 
intimate friends does not apply to the imperatives. A father 
may, however, say to a child who has through disobedience 
met with a calamity: Sore r/u'ro. The form in ro occurs also 
in proverbs : 

Ifarau yori narero. Practice rather than study. 

Among comrades ta mae, from, tamau, an honorific auxiliary, 
is added to the stem: 

To wo slrirue tamae. Shut the door! 

The form (o) shime nasai is scarcely more polite than(o)sfo'- 
me na, assuming that the act is to be done for the benefit of 
another. But the case is different when the request is made 
in the interest of the person addressed: hake nasai. Take a 
seat ! But o shime nas'tte kudasai is under any circumstances 
sufficiently polite. 

As in English, a request or suggestion may be expressed in 
the form of a question : To wo shimenai ka ; shimeru n' ja n<n 
ka. Note also: To wo shimeru ga II; shimeta ho ga ii; shi- 

a Observe that hire tia is vulgarly contracted to kuniia. Compare sennara, 
from sore mini. 


merebaii', a shimetara yokaro ; shimetara do desu Tea. Such, 
expressions are rude or familiar. To wo o shime nas'ttara yd 
gozaimasho is quite elegant. 

The subordinative enters into a great variety of imperative 
expressions. We add a partial list, placing the least polite 
first and the most polite last: 

shimete ii shimete mo ii 

shimete kure b * shimete kurenu ka 

shimete moraitai 

shimete o kunnasai (o kure nasai) 
t* shimete kudasai shimete kudasaimasen ka 

shimete itadakitai shimete cho-dai 

shimete itadakitai mon' desu ne 

shimete itadakimasho 

shimete itadakaremasho ka 

shimete itadakito gozaimasu 

The subordinative alone may also be used elliptically as a sub- 
stitute for the imperative; e. g., Katazukete. Take that away! 


kinu silk. tsuri-rampu hanging lamp. 

kzise habit, propensity. gaku hanging tablet, framed 
omocha toy. picture. 

shiba turf, lawn. am-bai disposition, temper, 
yoso another place, abroad. manner, state of health. 

amado wooden sliding doors gtvai-to overcoat. 

on the outside of a house, kon-do this time, next time. 

closed at night or in time nen-gen term of years (lit. 

of rain (awe). year-limit). 

mi-lion sample. seki-tan coal (seki=ishi, tan 
mizu-ire a small vessel hold- =sumi"). 

ing water for use in writing, sho-ji sliding doors or sashes 
o-mizu flood. covered with paper. 

a To wo shimereba ii and To wo shimeru nara ii differ slightly. The former 
means : "You may shut the door;" the latter cannot be used as a substitute for the 

b Women say o kure. 

152 THE VERB. [XL 

#hi-taku preparations. nobi-ru become long, grow, 

toi-kutsu tedium, ennui. be extended, be postponed. 

yo-shoku western food. >////<<_/>/ bury, fill in (//>' n! 

Jtoshii desiring. a mizn wo"). 

sosokkafthii \\-Asty, heedless. kube-ni put into (a fire). 

ja-ltnn na sufficient. 1<> [I" />"/<-/" tin? sun 

/// vxli int nxli i atsui sultry. the day closes. 

ka.e-ru change, exchange akari wo tsukc-rit light ;i 

(with to or ni). lain]). 

ki<'-ru be extinguished, van- iti )/tiz ten kakc-ru water. 

ish. o mcsld nasaru (polite 2, i) 

nifize-ru mix (tr.). use, eat. wear, ride (,,/, i 

iiare-ru- become accustomed iti). 

(with hi), become tame. 


Ot, Gons'kc ! sono shiba ni miza iro kciki'ro (kakcte kre). 
*-Yu fja atsusuyiru kara, mizu wo ipjtai macro (.nietc kurc). 
.* Hi ya ku-rctara, akari wo o ts'ke yo (ts'luti' > k>/ /<). '-/Jinn 
sugu ni amado wo o shimc yo (sliimcte o kure). XZash'ki /i<> 
ttchi (ja b musktmwhiafati ka.rc. xhu/'i imakcte ktircrn (kurc^. 
& Kodomo fja yosoye detara oiuocJia ico okc.tazukc (katuzukctc o 
k>!i-e).-y Kondo kara (korc kara) motto ki wo o ts'kc yo (ts'kctc 
ti ki(re*).% Sh'ta ni iro (ove). c f Kim I ira ash'ta no <i*<i mni ji 
id nk'iru ka.S&Yo ga aketara, okii/o. '/ Okitara. XIKJII />/' <j< 
wo tabeyd. /%Go Kenya dekittinilm. .s- ////// /// nmttc ki. ^ K>iri'n)n 
IK, vh't'ikii '/" <frkifii/-(i, dehakema&hd. /Wv///-////^/ i> */t'tnk <j<> 
hayaku dekireba ii yajfMoclii ic<> hitotxit ktirc./t>0)>'< mtt<> 
ki wo ts'ketara //akntf" ni : />/'/, /' x<>t<nkk'iN/tii koto iro .v//V//. 
/7 M" x'koxJti t/takete okvrcjfyMo c/tftto niok,'hi,-o <!<> t/m-o. /&Mott,> 
n gwa&ckugonolce&otoolMJimetora, i/nlcutto /,/. 

a Kodomowa omocha ga hoshikute twite iiiiiim. The child cries fur (desiring) 
the toy. The particle 'i<o is also used with hos/iii, but less commonly, except with 
the derivative verb hesJiigani -.oinocha K-O /wsfii^itfr. 

1) I. it. the interior of the room. 

c From iiii or om. "Down with you 1" was the cry of those who in feudal 
times had charge of the train of a Jai-myo or other peison of high rank. The 
]>eople on the street were then expected to prostrate themselves to the ground a 
the proceabion went by. 


iva do In ambai ni- oshietara, yd gozaimashd. Komban tsuki 
ga dereba ii ga. Samui kara, motto atsui kimono wo kitara 
yokatta ni. Kono teuriramp' \ga ochitara taihen des'. a Yuki 
</(t tokctttrii. dinizu ga dcru ka mo shirenai. b Hayaku go zen 
ivo o koshirae (Jtosldraete o kure). Taikutsu da kara,kisha ga 
hayaku dereba iiga. c Kntabiretara, yamemashd. Ano hito 
ga^bunten ico koshiraereba (kosMraetara), yd gozaimashd. 
Michi ico tazunetara yokatta ni. Gicaikokujin ga Nihon no 
xhokumotsu ninaretara, yd gozaimashd. Kono twl ga naretara, 
omoshirokard. S'koshi narereba (naretara'), sitgu ni dckimas'. 
Kydslii wa shosci wo nagaku oshiereba oshieru hodo jdzu. ni 
narimas'. e Kono ic/iami wo yiibinbako ye iretckudasai. Kinn 
no mihon ico misete chddai. Kane ga dekireba dekiru hodo 
hosh'ku nai'u. 

I wish he would give up tobacco. How (do sh'tc) shall I get 
rid of this habit (if how I have stopped this habit, will it be 
good) ? Put a little water iiito this mizuire. This sake is too 
strong : mix [it with] a little water. This book is defective 
(bad ) : exchange it for a good one. As it is very cold, you might 
put on a little more coal (if you have put on a little more coal, 
it will be well). Shut the door tight (shikkari to]. If(moshi) 
you go out, put on [your] overcoat. To-morrow when the day 
dawns (if the day has dawned) I Avill start on a journey (tabi 
ni dcru}. Get up earlier to-morrow than [you did] this morning. 
When you get up, open the amado at once. If only we had 
started out earlier ! f It will be well to inquire (if we have 
inquired) the way. I wish breakfast could be served (dekiru) 
soon. Put (tsukent) this baggage upon the horse. It will be 
well to begin the study of English as early as possible. If only 
(they) had put (ireru) this sick person into the hospital ! 

a Tailicn desu it will he terrible (tai-hen great change). This phrase is often 
used as an expression of consternation. 

b Qmisn ga Jem there is (will be) a flood. By /ia mo sfiii'<:nai(s&e p. loga) one 
may often render the English "may," "likely," "possibly." 
c Taiktitsu da (desu) it is wearisome, [I] am tired. 

d Notice that the particle is ga, not wa (comp. p. ioo.b) : He would be the man 
to write a grammar. 

e Compare p. 136. 

f Instead of the past conditional, one may also use the past tense with ho (p. 136} . 




If that picture falls (past), it will "be a terrible smash 
} lung the picture on the wall. I wish I could become accustomed 
to foreign food. When you awake (p. 91g past), get up at 
once. It will probably be sufficient if you sleep (past) from 
ten p. m. (yoru) to six a. m. ($). I wish the term of years 
were longer (became long). 


The negative indicative forms are 
Present tabe-nai _ 

tabe-nu, tabe-n 

do not eat 
Past tabe-ncikatfa 


did not eat 

have not eaten 
Future or talc-inn! 
Probable tabe-nakaroj 

will hardly eat 
Probable fabe-ndbattaro 
Past tale-nandaro 

probably did not eat 

iui-nu. 'ii>.i-h 

do not see 



did not see 

have not seen 



will hardly see 



probably did not see 

might not have seen 

than tabenu. As lias 

might not have eaten 

The form tabenai is more common 
been observed before (p. 100), the form ending in nai may U> 
inflected, the adverbial form in naku being used with especial 
frequency before naru to become; e. g., -iiu'euaku naru to be- 
come invisible. Compare nakxitaru, p. 108a. 

In some provinces tabenanda is more common than tabena- 
katta, but the latter is the usual form in most parts of the coun- 
try. ' 

For the future or probable tense taberumai also occurs. Ta- 
benakaro and such periphrastic forms as tabenai daro, tabc- 
nakatta darO, etc., like the corresponding positive forms, are 
u-'-d chiefly in the third person and denote a mere conjecture. 
The form in mai differs from the corresponding positive form 
in yd in that it is not so strongly predicative and may be used 


in the third person. Thus in reply to the question Ano seiyo- 
jin wa Sashimi wo tabeyo ka one may say, Tabemai ; but if the 
reply were positive, it would be, Taberu daro, not Tabeyo. a 
The present is often used as a substitute for the past : 

Neta ka nenai ka wakarimasen. 

I don't know whether I slept or not. 

Kesa no shimbun wa mada mimasen. 

L have not yet seen this morning's newspaper. 
Notice the use of negative verbs with mae, uchi a,nd. kagiri: 

Shimbun wo minai mae ni shitte imashita. 

I knew it before I saw the newspapers. 

Minai uchi wa ivakarimasen. 

I can't judge until I see it. 

Minai kagiri iva shinjiraremasen. 

I can't believe that unless I see it. 

Observe further that with mae and uchi when a fact is stated, 
ni is used ; but when the predicate is negative, wa is the correct 
particle. Kagiri always refers to a future or supposed event. 


o shiroi face-powder. yamu, yande cease (intr.). 

ko-no-haki no ha leaf. amado ivo tate-ru shut up 

fuda card, label, placard. the house, "put up the 
slid-fuda price-mark, from shutters." 

sho (c) right, true, real. makase-ru commit, entrust, 

ya-kwai evening party. leave. c 

yo-ko travelling abroad. b kokoro ni makase-nu not act- 

ryo-ko travelling. ing as one wishes, contrary 

ryoko-ken passport (ken to one's preferences (of 

ticket). things). 

hageshii violent. iv o tabi suru travel through. 

hae-ru sprout, grow. shuppan suru sail (slmtsu = 

same-ru become cool. de-ru, han=ho). 

a But tabeyo (ka) to omoiinasu or tab etnas ho may be used of the third person, 
b Compare yo-fuku, yo-shoku, etc. Yd means ocean ; Sei-yo, western ocean. Ko 

to go. In the next word ryo -- tabi suru. 
c makase moshimasu. I give you carte blanche. 

156 THK YKUI-.. [XLI 


<le iff i <n, ,d,-i ni/Kjcn no ':<"> iro l t -<>nli!r<n>t<- 
koto vu mwteukashikute <I<'k/nni. ^Sonokatdba u-n mo. 
chiinaileoto tm no! /,-< ,-<'<lo,,/o. mcttd ni moc/iiinai. ^ Ximotxn 
kd,-n odihidi ijo ni hi wotsukero, $' Kono hon ten <jo 
mint lid\n <1<i <jo. /,!</>/ /xW*// *///,'/ (lenai. b 

xn, i nidki'td kdi'd. ntn iiKtlti'indi. ) S'koxjii //to //H'JiCti I'd. 

no x]riinltn iro mitd Icn.^ I!< . nnn/d minai,/* jSakujitiu tmkd- 
zc ga kagesh'kitte fune <jn ifi-imkattd L-<'r<'<loiuo, L-onn/c/ii im 
knzc t/a iiandd karii. mind ddaro. " Yiibinscn <jo xul-njitxii 
xjmnndn x/i'fd J t -K/^.Kaze ya txtnjul-dttd led ,-<i . demoktxtfaro** Hi- 
baclii no hi <ja kicii'if >jn , t > /,/ K\> f.<?V,T^- <> karc. >v ir<'h(kt'*lii 
n'd nid'tnlchi sampo ni <lcra </<i. sakujitsu iro (n/n/ri fenki ijn 
} no <le d'ettdkdtfd. /s' Doits' jin tea F'r",t,S ,> fk'xd </ 
i <lo mo makenakatfa*/i Kono bydnln vd nun/ft, okimn' ho 

<Jd it to Is/id, dd in~>shiindx1ftd./} Xi/tOn ni l''d clu'tto iilO nik>' H'o 

tdl> t ',i /i/to i/d arimatf Jt Kurakute //d, ( i ui<> iniciiin. fKippit no 
itdi /i/'to u-d ircHd! (admit) so des* .**>Sono hito wet- Tokci ni it-d 
mo imaijjMutsukashii mono, dekindi /^ /.-./. da.**Jfitonokuchi 

nl to tfo tdtcrn koto </<i dekinai. c ^3Uri no tune ni mixnb! //-d 
/mrn>t (PfOVerb).lf Aew "" ij<>l:n yiJ/o/c/ot/, httndsJti i/d d(kt- 
fd kcrco'dHio. mind lfdx>i,-<>td kd.i'd. i, to /tdndftjii i/d t/i'kiiitdi. 

2^3" Dekinai koto wa nai kc/'cilo/no, mttfattko8h f kard.MJMd kidm </d 
defaka.XjMada demai. A *t Ateuraeta yofku <ja mada 

^<fNihO)t (fc ll'd hi j xd a xl,i I'-o mi 'j'i ' "'I duidri O 

wo t^kcitdi. ^Samtii ,/,, ' e ', , ,,,//' 7,77. 

' . ,f<> <ja 

< /,/ . mru 

dekinai.&Kdkoro ni nidkdx<-n' mono u-d k&lakara.% 

a When the subordinative is closely connected with a negative verb the negative 
termination affects it also. 

b To be translated by means of the perfect tense. 

c The usual form of the proverb is : Hito no kucJii ni to r.w taterarftuu(p, Io8h). 

d To l>e translated as if it were a probable past. 

e Here hi means live cnals. 

f < )riginally charcoal from the town of Sakura east of Tokyo. The term has come 
to mean " first class charcoal. '' 

g This expression tits into the mouth of a childless person. Children (/v) are 
treasures (/. 7 {<:. ^ which connot l>e obtained by every one who wants them. 


/ That will hardly be feasible, as it is too difficult.^- This cha- 
racter (wa) is seldom used i^one seldom uses) ^5 The leaves of 
the trees have not yet fallen (pr.X^ Of ^wa) this dictionary but 
(sh'ka) five volumes have as yet been issued (pr.) ; altogether 
(in tun fie") there are to be twenty volumes. *- As the price-mark 
is attached (tsintc //"), he will hardly deduct [anything]. 
Take care that the bath (yw) does not become cool. 1 He is 
still sleeping, not yet having become sober. a rln (de wa) a 
quarrel he is seldom beaten by any one (hito ni).y Until I see 
it, I cannot judge whether it is good or bad./ There are 
(not being is not) wolves in (ni mo) Japan, but (ga) there 
are not many (takfsan wa inai).A Before (izcnni ira)the 32nd 
year of Meiji Europeans could not dwell (zakkyo suru) in the 
interior /zAt that time (jibun) also they could not travel through 
the interior without (nak'tewa) a passport. x* In the interior 
of Japan there are places (tokoro mo ani) where [the: people] 
seldom eat fish/pAs he did not live in Japan a long time (nagaku), 
he probably cannot speak J^panese.b /<JWhy haven't you shut 
up the house (pr.) ?AIt seems that of (tea) this dictionary just 
one volume is lacking (is not enough)/? I have not seen (pr.) 
this play (shibai), but they say it's very interesting/I' Of this 
camellia as yet not one blossom has fallen (pr.)*flt is his inten- 
tion (tsiiiitori de iru p. 95a)to give up sake, but he will hardly 
be able (to do so)^This word has gone out of use (become not 
used), because it is too vulgar (AvY<7/).-z-/The ship is already 
out of sight (has become invisible) 22ls Siam(/S%m) a civil- 
ized or an uncivilized country ?23 The snow has not yet thawed 
(pr.).vt/ Having gone (dent) to an evening party last night, 
I was up (did not sleep) the whole night. J-JThe leaves of the 
bamboo do not fall even in winter (fnyu ni natte mo). 

a See pp. gig and 104.11. 

b One may say simply : A'ipf>an^o wa defciiiiai. If the person spoken of is still 
living in Japan, use the present tense : itiai has not been living. 






Negative Past 





if [I] do not eat 
if [I] should not eat 
tabe-nakaftara(ba ) 

if [I] have not eaten 
if [I] had not eaten 
tabe-ru na 
o tabe dc nai yo 
don't eat ! 





if [I] do not see 

if [I] should not see 

m i-nakattara [ ba ) 


if [I] have not seen 

if [I] had not seen 

mi-ru na 

o mi dc nai yo 

don't look ! 

Tabenai nara(ba}* may be substituted for tabenakereba ; 
tabenakatta nara(ba) for tabenakatta ra. Instead of the 
conditional forms tabenai to may be used. 

By means of the conditional with naranai (narimasen} or 
ikenai (i/:emasen) b the English " ought " or '' must" may be 
rendered : 

Minakereba narimasen [I] must see it. 

There is scarcely any difference between naranai and ikenai. 
The former conveys the sense of obligation, while the latter 
rather suggests the inconvenient consequences that will follow 
in case the condition is not fulfilled. 

Taberu na corresponds to the positive tabero ; o tabe de nai 
yo, to o tabe yo. But a student may say to another, To ico 
slihneru na (or shimetamau na), though he would hardly say 
shhiiero. Other periphrastic forms are : 

a The negative probable form is occasionally found in this 'position :tabe-nakaro 
man' nara (Com. p. 1483). 

b For ikcnai see p. 2Qb. Naranai it does not become. Do mo naranai I can't 
manage it in any way . Compare : J'':tshigi dc naranai. It is too strange (lit. 
beint; marvelous, it does not Ijecomj). From what is said above it appears that 
there is really no equivalent for " ought " or " must " in Japanese. Compare also 
the use of beki and /UIZH (p. in). 




To ivo (o) sliime nasaru na 

shimenai (ho) ga ii shimenakute mo ii 
shimete kureru na sliimenaide (o) kure 
shimenaide mwaitai sliimenaide kudasai 
shimete kudasaru na shimete kudasaimasu na, etc. 
For shimenaide see p. 106a. A distinction may be drawn 
between (o) shime nasaru na and shimete kureru na. The 
former implies that the speaker makes the request in behalf of 
the person addressed or of others ; the latter, that the speaker 
himself is the one for whose benefit the act is to be done. 
Compare what is said about o shime nasai (p. 150). 


kizu wound, scar. a 

nae young plant, seedling (of 

rice, etc.). 
ya-ne roof. 
yane-ya roofer. 
ki-no-ko mushroom. 
ku district, ward. 
yaku, hon-yaku translation. 
do-zo storehouse, "godown" 

(do earth, zo = kura). 
ji-kan period of time, time, 

hour (ji=toki. kan = aida) 
jo-chu maidservant (more 

polite than ge-jo). 
ki-chu mourning. 
ko-yaku medicinal plaster. 
matsuri-bi 1 festival day, 
sai-jitsu(c) j holyday. 
sho-sho certificate. 
akarui light, clear. 

kuwasliii minute, detailed, 

well versed. 
awase-ru cause to meet, join, 


kime-ru | fi decide>b 
sadame-ru ) 
oknre-ru be late. 
shirabe-nc inquire, investi- 



todoke-ru deliver (p. 

report officially. 
yashinau nourish, support. 
yashinai ni naru nutritious. 
hiki-komoi'u stay at home 

(on account of mourning 

or sickness). 
ue-tsuke-ru plant. 
moshi, moshi mo if (with 

conditional form, to or toki 

a Kizu is more concrete than kega. Thus one may say : Te ni kizti ga am, but 
not Te ni kega ga am. To wound a person is kizu wo tsttke-m ; to be wounded, 
kega (n/0) sum. 

b Kimeru is more common in the colloquial than sadameni. 


kessJtitc positively, never zc-lri(ni) by all means, neces- 

(with a negative word). sivily. a 

maru clc entirely. 


Kono //a mi iru /,,/':;// wo kctkendkereba l-"/-< masho. Kono 
kinoko in i <lokn Ja kara, kessh'te otabr dc nai yet. Kono b//o- 
nin ica ynsliinai ni naru mono wo tdbenakereba ymoarimasho. 
Omae hayaku yasi'),/>/ km-", Jtai/akf okiitakereba ikenai. //'"- 
takusM m> tokei ir<i okureta kara, awasendkereba narimasen.^ 
M, old nlcorxi kara, amcnlo ico sJtimetc kureru na. Nikko ir<> 
kekko t<> /'/' na. c Jibiki <lc minakereba^ icul'dr!- 
Kono ji wa shiju sono imi <lc mochiinakereba nnri~ 
maeenka. lie. sliljii sono tmi de mocJiitnakereba naninai to 
iu koto ici i a,-/', //risen. e Kono shosho ica yak it ico ts'kcnakcre- 
ba yiddknk/ij't/i n! iru wakcerivnasenJ Xiii<-it ini zclii 
itiku ico tcibcnakcrel'ii imrmii koto ica nai. Tclako im <lc>- 
kit des' kara, yaritenakereba narinKixi-n. Kon<> xtikmut >n> x/tiu 
i</ <> tn'ke ilc it! yo.8 Moslii Jtayaku <?o?.d no to wo slnmenu- 
l;<itt<i,-u i, /nr>' </< tfriki'fa <lcsltn. Y(tiifi/ti <ja ano toki ni ki f" 
ttfkenakattara orliiin rfe.sJio. Mnxlii nt<i<l<> m, akenakattara to- 
ri ijn nigenoJcattaro. Konni<-}ii ten fwijitxi' '/<*' L-i-. i! kimo- 
no ico kinebn imrrmasen. K<>i'<' irn motto knicuxlfku ft]n'r<il-- 
Ramui kara, mado wo akete ki'rcni no. 

a From ze (c) good and its opposite ///. One may say also : zf/ii toino (Jomo to- 

h Compare : TftetgaattumU inmsti. The clock is fast(sHsnnin advance). Tokci 
ga attc The clock is just right (an meet). To set the clock is /c/v; T.-V ii:sci- 
sc:-nf, a-i.'ascru being the causative of un. 

c \iAko, from tile hi sun and rcv light, is famous all over Japan not only for its 
l>eautifiil scenery, but also for its magnificent temples. Kekkt to in 11,1 don't say 
" splendid. " You have no right to use the word Atkko until the temples and 
gates of .,\7/('Xv have taught you its meaning. 

d Jibiki dc mini look up in a dictionary. Jibiki r.v /////< mini (p. 88c) is the 
usual idiom. 

e Here to in before i-oto may be omitted. The accumulation of many negative 
wnrds in one sentence is more common than in Knglish. 

f Observe that '.'nkum and dckirn are really impersonal (pp. I7d, 341!) verbs 
and that the subject of the Knglish sentence accordingly takes the postposition ///. 

^ 1 >istinguish shio ni tsttkent to pickle in salt(p. loSb) and 
ni to put salt on. 


Kono kuse ivo yamenai to ikenai. Kodomo ga umareru to, 
ku-yak'sho ni todokenakereba narimasen. Kicliu des' kara 
Ju'kikomotte maker eba narimasen. 

1 Don't open this bottle. *- Don't eat too much (yokei). ^You 
must water this flower (ni or ni wa}, every day. ^ If you don't 
water this camellia (wa or niiva) every day, the flowers will fall 
off (oclii-ru).* If [we] don't eat that (sore iva}, it will spoil (be- 
come bad). <If I don't inquire a of some one (hito ni], I shall 
not understand. Jit I na( i n t P u * a plaster on the wound (iva), 
it might have become worse (bad) . tf As I get up early, I must 
go to bed early, f Don't go out (soto ye) while I am absent (in 
the time of my absence). /^The maidservant must go out to buy 
things (p. 52d). b //The farmers must now (kore kara} plant 
their [rice] seedlings, y^ince somebody has come, I must get 
up. )Jlf the window is not shut (one does not shut the window), 
the dust will enter (haitte kuru}J^At nine o'clock I must go 
to the district-office J vlt will be (pr.) inconvenient (fietsugo), 
if the clothes are not done by New Year's.^ If [they] had not 
stopped the train at that time, there might have been consider- 
able (zuibun) loss of life. f*) When (from when) must I begin 
my studies (keiko)? Must [I] fix the hours of study at once 
(mo jiki ni] ? I hope there are no mosquitoes. e 

a The most common expression for " inquire " in the colloquial is kiite mi-ru, 

b In sentences like this and the one following, wa must be used with the subject, 
because logically it is the subject of the whole sentence, and not merely of th e 
conditional clause. 

c The precise equivalent of " at nine o'clock " is kitji ni. Of a performance which 
begins at nine we may say knji kara. Kisha ga kuji ni to-chaku shimasu. The 
train arrives at nine o'clock. Kuji kara enzetsu-kwai wo hirakimasu. We will 
open the lecture-meeting at nine o'clock. 

d " By New Year's " is to be rendered : shinnen made ni. Distinguish : Ban 
made hen wo yoinimasu. I will read the book [continuously] until this evening. 
Ban made ni fwn wo yomimasu. I shall have read the book by this evening. 

e This is to be translated like the examples in Ch. XL. : If there are no mosqui- 
toes, good, but... Sentences beginning with "I hope" " I fear, " etc., must always 
be paraphrased in some such manner : O kega de mo nakereba ii (go). I hope you 
are not hurt. Wakatta tsumoridesn. I hope I understand. Hayaku naoshitai 
mono desn. I hope I shall soon be well. Futte ni yowanakereba ii (ga~). I fear 
I shall be seasick. Kimi iva kondo no shiken ni rakudaisuru ka mo shirenai. I 
fear you will fail in the examination. Sometimes the simple probable or future 
form of the verb suffices : Dekimasho (to omoimasif). I hope it may be accom- 
plished. Dekimasumai (to omoimasti). I fear it may not be accomplished, 




The positive subordinative of the verb, as of the adjective, 
ends in te ; e. g., tabe-te, mi-te. * 

1. It is a peculiarity of the Japanese colloquial that of two 
sentences which in English would naturally be coordinate one 
is subordinated to the other by means of te : b 

J\fado 100 shimete kimasho Tea. 

Shall I go and shut the window ?(p. 88g) 

Tokiwa wa c kodomo tvo san nin tsurete nigemashita. 

Tokiwa took the three children and fled. 
The second sentence may also be translated : Tokiwa fled with 
the three children. 

2. Subordinatives are frequently to be translated by means 
of adverbs or adverbial expressions; e. g., nen ivo irete carefully, 
Jiajimete for the first time, sore ni hiki-kaete on the contrary. 

3. Often in cases where the English employs a simple verb 
the Japanese combines the verb in the subordinative form with 
another verb. 

tsurete kuru bring (a person or domestic animal). 

tsurete ytiku take (a person or domestic animal). 

dete kuru come out (making one's exit come). 

kurabete miru compare (comparing see). 

tatnete oku save (saving put). 

karete shimau die (withering finish of a plant). 

oshiete yarn teacli (teaching give). 

oshiete ageru inform (a superior) . 

oshiete kureru(kudasaru) instruct (an inferior). 

Sanzan shikatte yarimashita. [I] scolded [him] severely. 

4. The subordinative with iru or oru denotes continued or 
unfinished action, especially action that is in progress at some 
definite time : 

a This te combined with ni, ini, l>i of stems of verbs of the second class becomes 
fide ; shinde, from shinn die ; vondf, from yomtt rcad;_v<Wi', from yobu call. 

b In the classical language the stem performs the same function as the subordi- 
native in the colloquial. This usage appears in the speech of the learned, in ora- 
tions and in long stories. 

C Tokiwa was a famous leauty, concubine of Yoshitomoand mother of Yoshitsune. 


Gozen wo tabete orimasu. He is (now) eating. 

Gozen wo tabete imashita. He was eating (at the time). 
In this construction iru or oru is a mere auxiliary and may be 
used also of inanimate things (p. 63c). a Notice contractions 
like kiiteru or kiitoru am listening, or inquiring, yonderu 
or yondoru am reading, or calling. In kiite iru the i is elided ; 
in kiite oru, the e. 

5. The subordinative with iru or oi'u may denote a condition 
that is the result of an action and may in some cases be trans- 
lated by means of the perfect tense. 

Ochite iru. It is down (having fallen). 

Kite iru. He is here (having come). 

Yofuku wo kite imasu. 

He is wearing foreign clothes (having put them on). 

Megane wo kakete imasu. 

He is wearing glasses (having put them on). 

Shinja ni natte orimasu. 

He is a believer (having become one). 

But in the case of transitive verbs aru is more commonly 
used with the subordinative to express a condition, the com- 
pleted act rather than the agent being the object of attention. 

Irete aru. They are inside (=haitte iru). 

Tomete aru. I have a note of it(tome-ru make a note of). 

Kaite aru. It stands written. 

Isu wa koshiraete ar imasu. 

The chairs are finished. I have made the chairs. 

Daidokoro ni mizu wo (ga) Mite aru. 

Water is brought (in pipes) to the kitchen. 
In the last sentence observe how wo may bejised in this con- 

6. If ii or yorosliii follows a subordinative, the idea of per- 
mission or acquiescence is conveyed : 

Kyo asobi ni dete ii. 

You may take a vacation to-day (go out to play). 

a Students of the English language have revived an obsolete idiom in order to 
translate progressive forms like "I am going," etc., using tsufsu aru with the stem 
of the verb: iki tsutsti ant is going. This construction is not infrequently heard in 
speeches, etc. The subordinative of an intransitive verb may be progressive or 
perfect, as explained above ; but iki tsutsii aru is free from ambiguity. 




7. The postposition kara may follow the subordinative(p. 96c), 
giving the clause a temporal meaning. In the following sen- 
tence kara may also be omitted : 

Konna koto wa umarete (kara) liajimete da. [a thing. 
It is the first time since I was born that I have seen such 

8. The subordinative may be used elliptically : 
Yoku ki ivo tsukete Take good care ! 

Cha ivo irete Make the tea ! 
Yume bakkari mite (yoku yasumimasen). 
I did nothing but dream. 
Notice also shitte no tori as you know. 


fucJii rim, border. 

kata shoulder. 

saka slope, ascent. 

su vinegar. 

tako kite. 

tako 100 age-ru fly a kite. 

ato track, trace. 

aslii-ato foot-print. 

Tiiru-meslii } noonday meal, 

liiru-lian J luncheon, tiffin. 

kami=ue above. 


kane-ire purse. 

zoku outlaw, rebelj&bber. 

dai, dai-ka price. 5 

dai-kon large radisV* (lit. 
great root). 

hyd-tan gourd (used mostly 
for carrying small quan- 
tities of sake when travel- 
ling), flask. 

sa-to sugar. 

toku-i customer. 

kei-ho criminal law, criminal 

zai-nin (=tsumi-bito') crim- 

ko-clio head of a school. b 

sha-rei honorarium, fee. 

slio-motsu book.c 

rem-pei military drill. 

ryo-sen fishing boat. 

kan-goku, kangoku-sho prison. 

gwai-mu-shd Department of 
Foreign Affairs. 

nai-mu-slio Department of 
the Interior, Home Office. 

sJii-hd-sho Department of 

sen no former. 

sen ni formerly. 

kesu extinguish, erase. 

a Dai substitute, ka value. Dai is more concrete than nctlnii. 

b From ko school (in gakko) and did senior. Clio enters into a great many com- 
pounds; e. g., in-cho superintendent of a hospital {/>yo-in'), shi-chb mayor of a city, 
son-chb head of a village, cho-cho burgess, sen-cho captain of a ship, etc. 

c From shf> - kaku write and niotsii tiiono thing. But kaki-wotio, meaning docu- 
ment, is not synonomous with sho-motsn. 


hi-keshi 1 ^ osore-ru fear. 

i- r- s f nreman. . 

s/io-bo-fu ) osore-iru [amj very much 

fcostt cross (a mountain or obliged (lit. am in dread). 

river). yuru swing, shake (tr.). 

moe-ru burn (intr.). ji-shin ga yuru (or sum) 

seme-ru attack, assault. there is an earthquake. 

tom.e-ru make a note of. me-gane ivo kake-ru put on 

wake-ru divide. spectacles. 

tsutome-ru be diligent. te-gami wofuzuru seal a let- 

ni tsutome-ru be employed ter. 

in. yatto with difficulty, at last. 
ki-kae-ru change (clothes). 


/ S'koshi ivdkete kure. ^Koi~e wa liambun wakete agemaslio 

ga warui kara, hikaete (mono wo) tabenake- 
reba narimasen to islia ga iimash'ta. r me ni kakemaslio ka 
(p. 44a).J~Z)6zo misete kudasai. (>Ima wakogi no jikan dake 
kimete oite a ato de sliarei no koto wo kimemasho. y Odawara 
no sliiro tva b Hideyoslii ga sliichikagetsu Tiodo semete yatto oclii- 
mash'ta. <gAno hito wa itsu mo raslia no kimono wo kite imas\ 

? Mo o kyaku ga mina kite oi^imas 1 kajoHitori kaftari sh'ka ki- 
te imasenji Kono gakko no kyoslii wa kocho ivo irete (including) 
shichi nin des' s^Sakuban gozen ivo tabete ita toki ni jisliin ga 
yurimash'ta kara, sugu ni to ivo akete soto ye nigemash'ta.' 

/SSoketsu to iu Shinajin wa tori no asliiato wo mite hajimete ji 
wo koshiraeta to iu hanashi ga arimas'./tsKono sliimbun wo 
mite kara (mitara} sampo ni demaslio. /^Keiho ivo sliirdbete 
minakereba sono bats' wa wakarimasen. /6 Koliii ni sato wo 
irete agemashdka.l^Iie, sato wa itadakimasen. /$4kete misete 
kure. IfDanna wa doko ni imas' ka.^Ima yu kara dete kimono 
wo kikaete imas'.^-i Tegami wa dekite imas', shikashi mada 
fujite arimasen. -^Naporeon issei wa RosTiia de makete kara 
ni san nin no tomo wo tsurete Frans' ye nigete kimash?taf33oko 

a The subordinative of oku, used here as an auxiliary (Ch. LV.). Dake is often 
equivalent to "only" (p. 480). 

b Odaivara, on the To-kai^do (east-sea-road) between Tokyo and Hakone, was 
in the XVI. Century the castle-town of the Hojo family. Ochiru may be used, 
like the English "fall," of the surrender of a castle or fort. 


ni orjiitc irit. dioii/ots' wo katuzvkcte knre. 2*Nihoitj'nt ira kaki 
wo (oysters) su to dt<~>ijti ni t*'ket<- t<iln-ii,n*. ^'Ano zainin mi 
kainjoFsho wo dete kern it ldt<> ni narimaah'ta.ZtByotan ico 
kata ni kakctc Jminn/ii ni //v///W<V'>. ^]Ano seiifiei ni Doitwt'jo 
wo oshietemoraimash'tayqOtokui sama des'kara, cMttomakete 
agemasho. -rfKancire wo icft*>'fete kite komarimad . jfffhiisai 
kodomo ni tea e wo misete oshiemas'. *,fAno hito ice <!<>l;o no 
yak'sho ni ts'tomete imas' ka^Sc/t /// ic nuimuftlin nitsftomete 
imash'ta ga, rum ica ywaimusJio ni ts'tometc imcis'. t^Kimbuchi 
no (gold-riinmed) megane wokxkete imatf .^ifMtJeashi wa l:<nni- 
shimowo 3 ' kite no wo mimash'ta'$ < Dozo ichidotaziinefe /i/it<- 1-- 
dasai^Dokka ni tomete arimas^Ichiban o shimai no sJiO<j>in icn 
konogoro made ikite irasslialmasli'ta ; ima mo ikite irasshor/i 
ka do ka zonjimasen3tGo ju no saka wo kosh'tc imas' tyjOswe- 
irimash'te gozaimas'. c 

' The Japanese eat a great deal of (yokt(') duikon, ]>ickling it 
in salt (p. 160g). *- Shall I give you half ?-?The fishing boats 
are all out at sea. ^/-After this I will eat moderately. *' He wears 
poor (bad) clothes when he is at work (xhiyoto ico sum). (Arc 
the pupils all here? 7 [There] are five who (no ga) have 
not yet come.^To(?ii' wa) publish the book yen 500 are required 
(kakaru), d including the cost of the paper (kami-dai). 9 The 
master has eaten lunch and is resting (y as nude irassJiaimas'). 

b Shall I open the door for you? ''Please open [it]. >fcln Japan 
is tea drunk with milk and sugar (do they drink tea putting 
into [it] milk and sugar) ? & After the rebel army (zoku-gint) 
was defeated in Qshu, it fled (fleeing went) to Ye/o.yy Is the 
gardener here ? Ar Yes, he is watering the flowers in the garden. 

/cThat official is employed at the Department of Justice.^He is 
not like his older brother./ ? Taiko's face resembled a monkey's. 
it is said. /?The soldiers are all out for drill.^The children (of 

a Kami-shimo, composed of kata-ginu (shoulder-garment) and hakama, was for- 
merly gentlemen's full dress. 

b Is past fifty years of age (lit. has crossed the summit of fifty). 

c This is the extremely polite form of osoreirimashita I am quite embarrassed by 
your kindness. 

d Observe that kakartt is used in stating tho amount of rime, labor or expense 
required for an undertaking. But in simply stating the price of a thing one says, 
Co hyakuyen shimasu. 


the house) are now flying kites. I/Bring the camellia blossoms 
lying (having fallen) there.i-zls the fire still burning ?*j The 
firemen came after the fire was extinguished. -iylt is (written) 
in (ni tva) the newspaper, but it is false (uso). 


The subordinative followed by wa generally a has a conditional 
sense (p. 102) : 

Keiko wo yamete wa do desu. 

How would it be if we gave up the study? 
If then a negative word like naranai or ikenai b is added, 
the whole phrase is to be translated by means of "must not" 
(pp. 92d, 130g): 

Ima keiko wo yamete, iva narimascn. 

You must not give up the study now. 

Akete mite wa ikemasen. You must not open it. 
As in the case of adjectives, te iva may be contracted to cha; 
but such contractions are avoided in polite or formal discourse. 
Followed by mo the subordinative has a concessive sense and 
must be translated by means of "even though," ''even if" (p. 
117f). If yoroshii or a similar expression follows, the sentence 
has a permissive sense like the English "injiy." Such a sentence 
is often a polite command. 

$0 nas'tte mo yoroshiu gozaimasu. 

There is no objection to your doing so. 

Nete mo yoroshiu gozaimasu ka. May I go to bed ? 
For the subordinative with mo the past tense with 'tte 
(to itte, tote] may be substituted: 

Dare ni kikaseta 'tte honto to omoi wa shinai. 

No matter to whom you tell it, no one will think it true. 
Kikase-ru is the causative of kiku to hear. Kikaseta 'tte is 
equivalent to kikasete mo. Omoi wa shinai, often pronounced 
omoya shinai, is a very emphatic way of saying omowanai. 

a The rule does not apply to sentences like the following : Kimatte wa imasen It 
is not fixed (regular). Komban watakushi nouchiye tomatte wakuremaika^a^A. 
he (you) not stay at my house to-night ? 

b When reference is made to one's relations with other persons, sumanai is 
inexcusable, from sumu to be ended, settled, composed, may be used: Omaesontia 
ninamakete ite wa o tottsan ni sumanai zo It is unfilial to, your father to be so idle. 




kabura turnip. 

nisliiki brocade. 

tsuzure rags. 

stimi India ink. 

kara-kasa [Japanese] umbrel- 
la. 3 

komori bat. 

kdmori-gasa [European] uin - 

ri reason, principle, right. 

nik-ki diary. 

nikkinitsuke-runote in a dia- 

tdku-an, takuan-zuke pickled 

daikon. b 

yaku-soku agreement, cove- 

tagae-ru alter. 

yrikusoku wo tagae-ru break 
a promise. 

Roma-ji Roman characters. 

suppai sour (of taste). 

tsumarana I worthless, foolish . 

in ml a no vain, of no use. 
fu-yo na not needed, useless. 
asobn, asonde play, amuse 

one's self. 

asobi ni de-ru go out for rec- 

JiasJriru, hase-ru'go fast, run. c 
l-o ni tnt licetl. mind. 
katsu, kattc win a] victory 

( n i katsu defeat ) . 
nose-ru place on top ( ni 

iv o noser u). 
nure-ru get wet. 
btsshori nure-ru get wet to the 


<>r/-ru desceril, alight. 
sage-ru opp. age-re, 
tamaru be accumulated (of 

ude-ru cook by boiling in 

water. d 

ico alri-ru bathe in. 
no ma /// mi U- in time for. 6 

a Kara ^ To (p. I22a) is prefixed to the names of articles formerly imported from 
abroad; e. g., kara-kane bronze, ittfa-Jtami^nilpuper, or screens made of the same. 

b From Taku-an the name of a priest who is said to have invented this now in- 
dispensable article of diet. Pickles in general are called (o) Jko-to, from &o (c) 

c Synonymous with hashiru is kake-ru, but the latter is used of animals or men 

d To cook in shoyu is ni-ru ; e. g., sakana ivo nint. To cook rice is meshi wo 
taku ; to boil water is yu wo wakastt. Wakasu is the causative of ~i'aku : yu ga 
waite tmasu. The water is boiling. 

e Lit meet the time. Kisha no ma ni an catch the train. The expression is also 
used in the more general sense of "to be sufficient ": Kore de ma ni aimasht This 
will probably be sufficient; causative : Kore dc ma ni a-^asemasho We will make 
this do. 



Kono kabura wa udete mo yawaraka ni narimas'mai. Son- 
na tsifmaranai koto wo nikki ni ts'kete wa (ts'kecha) ikemasen. 
Omae kyd wa kutabiretara, sugu ni nete mo ii. Fuyd na mono 
wa s'tete mo yd gozaimas' ; iriyd na mono wa s'tete wa (s'teclia) 
narimasen* Sonna muda na koto wa ivasurete mo yd gozai- 
mas'. Mo uchi ni yd ga nai kara, omae kaimono ni dete mo 
ii. Kimono wa ima sugu ni atsuraete mo slidgivatsu made ni 
wa dekimas'mai (shdgwatsu no ma ni iva almas' mai). Kore 
wa itsu tabete mo umai des'. b Mo kodomo ga itsutsu ni nari- 
mash'ta kara tenarai no keiko wo hajimete iva do de gozaimas' 
ka. Omae ni ji kan ka san ji kan iva asobi ni dete mo ii. 
Shokuji no sh'takn ga dekitara sugu ni tabete mo yd gozaimas'. 
Soko ni aru mono wo tansu no hikidashi ni irete mo tana ni 
nosete mo ii. Seiydrydri wo tabete wa (tabeclia) ikaga des'. 
Md (mo) cliitto makete wa (makecha) do des'. Kowarete mo 
kamaimasen. c Ron ni makete mo ri ni katsu ( Proverb). d 
Mukashi samurai wa shibai wo mite wa (miru koto wa) nari- 
masen desh'ta ; shikashi no wa mite mo yd gozaimash'ta. Kyd 
wa atsui kara, kawa no mizu wo abite wa (abiclia) do des'. 
Tetsuddbasha no Jiashitte iru uclii ni orite wa (oricha) abunai 
des'. Kono lieya no kuki ga warui kara, mado wo akete mo 
yd gozaimas' ka. Sayd, akete mo yoi^osliii. Kono gaku wa 
s'koshi sagete mo agete mo dochira de mo yorosliii. e Sono 
uchi no mono wo mite mo ii ka. Sayd, mite mo yd gozaimas'. 
Tsuzure wo kite mo kokoro wa nisJiiki (Proverb). Sensei ga 
nani wo oshiete mo shosei ni iva omoshiroku arimasen. Dare 
ga oshiete mo kamaimasen. 

a By means of this negative expression one may translate the English " keep" 
or "preserve." 

b Itsu tabete mo every time I eat it. Similar constructions occur frequently : 
nani wo tabete mo no matter what I eat, dare ga kite mo no matter who comes, do 
kangaete mo thinking it over in every possible way. Compare the last two sentences 
in the exercises, also p. 45b. 

c The verb kamau generally occurs in the negative form. Kamaimasen I don't 
mind ; it makes no difference. Kamaivanai ho gayokatta It might have been better 
not to pay any attention to it. Dozo o kamai naku Please do not trouble yourself. 

d With katsu, ni is ordinarily used to denote the object : teki-gun ni katsti to de- 
feat the enemy. But here it is exactly equivalent to the English "in." 

e Sageru to hang lower; ajeru to hang higher. 


How would it be if wo made (koshiraerv) an English -Japa- 
nese dictionary in (of) liomaji ? >Even if we made such a dic- 
tionary ( ica 1 ), there would probably be few buyers (people who 
buy would be few). ^ As it has become late, may I go to bed? 

*f Since these pickles have become sour, you may throw them away 
(s'teru).if Since I still need that (wa 1), you must not throw 
it away. L One must not break a promise, i As there is nothing 
more to do (yd ga nai), you may go to bed. A Even if he gives up 
sake, he will hardly save anything (money will hardly accumu- 
late), a As it has become too late, it will be (is) of no use 
even if it is finished (dekite kuru). (tHow would it be if we put 
[him] into (ireru) the hospital? ^May I stay (ini) here or shall 
I go elsewhere (lioka ye deru)? cxHe will (does) not give up 
tobacco, though he knows (shitte iru) that it injures him (dok/t 
ni naru koto). ^7 How would it be if we changed rikshas here? 
dinner is not yet ready, we may eat afterwards (nnchi ni). 
would it be to go out for recreation ? l u This plate will 
hardly break even though it falls. ,^ Sumi is useful even if it 
is broken. H! will take an umbrella: it is unpleasant (komaru) 
to get (if one gets) wet through and through. a j^As the weather 
is dubious (difficult), you must not forget [your] umbrella. 

1/D Though I sleep well at night, when I awake I feel as if I had 
not slept (nenai yd na kimochi ga shimas'). 


Negative Subor- tabe-zu(shite) tni-zu(slilte) 

dinative tabe-zu ni r/n-zn ni 

tabe-naide(-nde) m i-naidc(-ude) 
tdbe-ndkute mi-nakute 

For the uses of these forms compare the preceding chapters. 
1. In the literary language zu is the termination of the nega- 
tive conclusive, as well as of the connective or inconclusive, 
form of verbs : 

Chu-sliin ni kun ni tsukaezu. 

A loyal subject does not serve two masters. 

a When one has actually been wet, one may say : nttrete komaru. But iva 
added to nurete indicates a general supposition. 


Atarazu to iedomo tokarazu (tdku, arazu}. 

Though it did not hit [the mark], it is not far [from it]. 
This use occurs in proverbs and other sentences adopted from 
the classical language. But in the colloquial the last predica- 
tive verb in a series of coordinate negative clauses must take 
one of the endings given in Ch. XLL, ro, if itself subordinated, 

Chikagoro iva liima ga nakute liito wo mimau koto mo 
dekizu, sampo sum koto mo dekinaide komatte imasu. 

I have had a hard time of it lately because for lack of 

time I can neither visit people nor go out for a walk. 
In formal addresses shite may be added to the form in zu. a 
But in general the use of this form smacks of the literary style. 
In the colloquial the forms in zu ni and naide are more com- 
monly used to indicate the subordination of a clause. 

2. The form in zu (ni) may be used adverbially : 
nokorazu all, none being left (p. 50). 
tarazu closely, from taru be enough. 

mono mo iivazu silently, from iu to say. 

omowazu shirazu unintentionally, unawares, from omou 

think, sJdru know. 

muko mizu ni blindly, from muko what is in front of one. 
Compare shirazu shirazu no aida before [I] knew it. 

3. As in the case of the positive subordinative, irn or wu 
may be added to denote continuance or a condition. Only the 
forms in zu ni and naide may be so used: 

Tabezu ni oru 1 have eaten nothing, or, 
Tabenaide oru ) continue to eat nothing. 

4. By the addition of wa the negative subordinative acquires 
a conditional sense: 

Tabezu ni wa oraremasen. [I] cannot exist without eating. 
Such words as naranai and ikenai (p. 158) may follow only 
the forms in naide wa and nakute wa. b In Tokyo the latter 
is preferred : 

a Compare the use of shite with kara : sore da kara shite since that is the case, 
b May be contracted to nakucha(iiakutcha), as also naide wa to iiaija. In the 
next example also otte wa may be contracted to otcha; ite wa to icJia. 


Tabete minakute too, ivcikarimasen. I must first taste it. 
While naranai, etc., cannot follow tabezu ni lua immediately, 
one may say: 

Mono wo tabezu ni otte (tYe) loa narimasen. 

[You] must not continue to fast. 

(lit. must not be without eating something). 
5. The particle mo gives the negative subordinative a conces- 
sive sense. The idiom is tabezu to mo, not tabezu ni mo. a One 
may also say, tabenaide mo, tabendkutc mo: 

Minakute mo it. It is not necessary to see it. 

(lit. it is good though [I] do not see.) 

Sore loa iwazu to mo shireta b koto desu. 

It is unnecessary to speak of it. 

(lit. though none says it, it is a thing that one could know.) 

Mono mo iwazu mata tabe mo shinaide mo (shinai no ni) 
nodo ga ltd gozaimasu. 

My throat hurts even when I neither speak nor eat. 
Shinaide is the negative subordinative from sum to do. For 
the sake of emphasis suru is often used with the stem of a verb, 
as here. 


oto sound, noise. yoroi armor. 

oto ga suru there is a sound, te-hon model, pattern, copy. 

oto too saseru make a sound, yu-meslti} supper, evening 

tatami a thick straw mat for yii-han ) meal. 

the floor (3 ft. x 6). l-un kiini master, lord. c 

yome bride, young wife. bun-seki analysis (chemical). 

yome wo toru (morait) marry clii-ri geography. 

a wife. reki-shi history. 

a Idioms like tabezu ni de mo are sometimes heard. Tabezu ni mo may occur 
in such a sentence as : Masaka tabezu ni mo oraremasen kara, konna tstimaranai 
mono de mo tabete imasu. Because it is quite impossible to exist without eating 
at all, I eat even such wretched stuff as this. The word masaka is used commonly 
before suppositions which are absurd or not likely to be fulfilled. 

b Compare p. 55e and the list p. 128. 

c Kun may be added, like son, to the surname of a man when the speaker is on 
terms of good fellowship with him. 




ji-ken affair, case. 
Icai-sho square script. 3 
so-sho cursive style. 
ke-rai a retainer (of a noble), 

a samurai (in relation to 

his lord). 
ku-fuku hunger. 
kufuku nijiaru get hungry. 
kyu-byo sudden illness. 
yaku-sliu drug. 
yo-ji business. 

an-nai guidance, knowledge . b 
annai-ja (annai-sha) guide. 
em-bi-fuku swallow-tailed 

coat. c 
sai-ban judgment (at a court 

of justice). 

saiban-slio courthouse. 
kyu na sudden, urgent. 
kake-ru run (p. 168c). 
koe-ru pass over, cross ( fcosw). 

sliitatame-ru write (a letter 

or document). 
uttae-ru accuse ( wo sai- 

bansho ni) . 

ni wabi-ru make an apo- 
logy to. 

san-kei sum go for worship 
(to a shrine or temple). 

kokoro-mi-ru 'try, tempt. 

tori-shirabe-ru investigate. 

karuta wo torn play cards. 

kane (zeni) wo kake-ru stake 

mekata ivo kake-ru deter- 
mine the weight. 

ni sawaru come into con- 
flict with. 

no ki ni saivaru offend. 
ai-kawarazu without chang- 
ing, as always. 

kitcliiri (to) exactly, precisely. 


Michi wa wakarimas' kara, annaija wo tsurezu ni iku tsumori 
des\ Ramp 1 ni hi ivo ts'kenaide okeA Omae koi'e kara ki ivo 
ts'kenak'te wa, (ts'kenakuclia} ikenai. Omae maiasa rokujini 
okinak'te ioa(okinakucTia}naranai. Watakuslii wa kuji s'koslii 
mae ni denak'te iva (denakucha) narimasen. Kimi Tanaka 
kun no ki ni sawaru koto ivo itta (past from in) kara, wabina- 

a The kai-sho, from kai model and sho^kaku, is the unabridged form of the 
character. So-sho is derived from so grass. An intermediate style is called gyo- sJw. 

b Go annai itashimasho I will show you the way. Go annai de gozaimasho you 
probably know. Go amiai no tori as you know. 

c A literal translation : en swallow, bi tail, fuku garment. A frock coat is called 
by its English K'xm.z.frokKkdto; a common sack coat is se-biro se back, hiroi 

d Oku with the negative subordinative may be translated by means of " leave " 
and a passive participle : tsukenaide oku to leave unlighted. In this connection 
the form in zu ni may also be used . 


k'te u'a (ivaliiiakucJia) ikenai. J Sonna ni kakezu to mo ii des'; 
kisJta no dent toki made niwamada yohodo*aida ga arimas'. 

%Kesa gozen wo tabezu ni demash'ta kara, domo kfifku ni nntte 
tamarimasen. j Kokorominaide wa (kokorominaijajb wal:ri- 
masen.)&Sonna war id koto wa sense i ni todokcnak'te wa(todoke- 
nakuclia) narimasen. // Todokete mo todokenak'tc mo do de mo 
kamaimasen./isYome wo torn to kuyak'sho ni todokenak'te wa 
narimasen. /^Sono hako no mekcfc icn knkete miuak'te mo 
ivakarimas'.M Sonna koto wo saibansho ye uttaezu to mo yokatta 
ni.)tlma wafcimenak'te mo yd gozaimas'.lt>Kono tegami tva 
kyu na yoji de loa nai kara, ima sh'tatamezu to mo ii n' des'. 

\']Kono yak'shu iva nan' des' ka./<JlJunseki sh'te minak'te wa 
ivakarima^en.l^Kono baivai ni iva, iva to in ji wo ts'kezu to mo 
ii n' des' . c iyc>Telion wo mizu ni o kaki nasai. TJ^aislio to sosho 
to ryoho tomo oboenak'te wa narimasen. tfKichu no aida wa 
cldtto mo soto ye dezu, niku mo sakana mo tabezu, mata ie no 
uchi de takai (loud) oto wo saseru koto mo dekimasen.'^'^Ddzo 
aikawarimasezuA Tabe mo sJtinai de tabeta yd na koto wo 

One must take care that (yd ni) the fire of the pipe (tobacco) 
does not fall on (ni) the mats. Within (uchi ni) one year I 
must learn at the least about (hodo) a thousand Chinese char- 
acters. As I went to bed last night without supper, I am 
faint with hunger (becoming hungry cannot endure) this morn- 
ing. As I must go out at five o'clock, we will begin our lesson 
(keiko) precisely at four. When (to) [a man] adopts a person 
(receives an adopted son), he must report to the district-cilia-. 
Must I wear a swallowtail to go there ? You need not wear 
a swallowtail. I cannot teach history without teaching geog- 

a The_y0 myohodo is not derived f rom yoi, but is the Chinese equivalent of nma- 

b Instead of kokoromirit one may also say \yattc inhu from yarn to do (p. I i6c). 

c Translate : In this case wa is not needed. For bawai see p. I37e. 

d Some such phrase as go kon-i ni nc^mniasu I desire [that you will treat me] 
in a friendly manner, is understood. The phrase is used on various occasions. 
In offering New Year's congratulations it is used in the form, /Vci', konnen mo ai- 
J!tt-<i'ariin<isi"ii I hope we shall be good friends this year also. The ai politely 
prefixed to verbs in foimal speech has lost its original meaning of " mutually. "Com- 
pare ai-nanilii'/cit u>a if possible (p. II2(1\ 




raphy. That Japanese intended to investigate our police sys- 
tem, (the matter of the police of this place) for two years, but 
on account of (de) the sudden illness of his father ho, returned 
to [his] country without investigating [it]. This case must be 
brought before ( uttaeru ) the court. As the hot water has be- 
come tepid, you need not put in (umeru) any cold water. 
Without seeing the copy I cannot write. Sanetomo, disregard- 
ing (kikazu ni) what his retainer said, went for worship to the 
[temple of] Hachiman of Kamakura without wearing armor 
under his garments ; consequently he was murdered (kwosareru)* 
Please leave the window unopened as dust is rising outside (soto 
ni) just now. Without crossing the mountain, we will go this 
way(locMra no michi ico yuku). We left it undecided. We 
played cards without staking [any] money. 







wish to eat 

tabe-taku nai 

do not wish to eat 


at times eating 



at times not eating at times not seeing 
1. As has been observed before (p. 100), the desiderative 
is an adjective and may be inflected as such : 

Tdbetaku narimashita. I have become desirous to eat. b 
Tabetakute komarimasu. I am very anxious to eat. 
Tabetakereba, tabete mo ii. You may eat, if you wish. 
The adverbial ending taku becomes to before gozaimasu (p. 


wish to see 

mi -taku nai 

do not wish to see 


at times seeing 



a Sanetomo, son of Yoritomo, was appointed s/wgun in 1203, and in 1219 was 
murdered by his nephew Kugyo. Hachiman is the name of the god of war. For 
Kamakura see p. 1220. 

b The word "hungry" is hardly a correct translation for tabetai. "I have be- 
come hungry," literally translated into Japanese is, Himojiku narimashita, or, Ku- 
fuku ni narimashita. The idea of " hungry " and the idea of tabetai usually coin- 
cide, but not always. See the last of the English sentences. 


100). To the form in tai may bo added mono desu, no desu, 
or simply desu. By adding to omoimasu (to omotte imasii) the 
speaker may avoid expressing his wish too bluntly or committing 
himself too definitely. 

It is to be noted carefully that the desiderative cannot be 
used of the third person except (a) when one speaks in behalf 
of another; (b) when a derivative verb is formed by adding 
garu to the desiderative stem (comp. hosldyaru p. 152a); or 
(c) when to in is added : 

Kono kodomo wa Amerika ye ikitai no desu. 

This boy wants to go to America. 

Watakushi no ototo wa Amerika ye ikitagatte wu ga ; 
tsurete itte kudasaru koto wa, dekimasumai ka. 

My younger brother is desirous to go to America ; could 
you not take him with you? 

Mairitai to itte orimasu. He says he wants to go. 
The word which is the object in the English sentence may 
take ga in Japanese (p. 103e) : Gozen ga tabetai desu. In 
this case the personal subject takes iva. Desideratives may also 
be used attributively with the nouns which are their objects. 

2. The alternative is used when acts or states occur by turns 
(comp. p. 99) : 

Heya wo Jiaitari fuitari shite orimashita. 

[I] was sweeping and wiping [the floors of] the rooms. 
Alternatives may be translated by means of "at times at 
times," "now again," or, in some cases, simply by "and." 
They cannot be inflected and ordinarily are not used except 
with forms of sum to do. Notice the following elliptical con- 
struction : 

Sore wa negattari 1^'imttori desu. 

It is just what I want (lit. desiring, obtaining). 


oboe memory. hatsu-ynme first dream of the 

yume dream. yrar. a 

a This hatsu is the equivalent of s//n, in sho-han (p. 93), much used as a prefix 
in the sense of "first." It must not be confused with the Chinese hatsu \- 


l'nl;c-mono a picture or writ- seiyo-zukuri no built in Euro- 
ing in the form of a roll pean style, 

which may be opened and atsume-ru gather, assemble, 
hung on a wall. collect. 

gu-ai adjustment, condition. a koto-zuke-ru send a verbal 

hcn-kwa change, grammati- message. 

cal inflection. sashi-age-ru lift up, give 

do-shinohen-kiva conjugation, (more formal t\\&nageru). 

ji-dai age, epoch. heru, hette decrease. 

ji-dai no aru antique. hara ga heru become hungry 

kwa-dan flower bed. (p. 102a). 

mim-po civil law, civil code. goku (c) very. 

nado, nazo, nanzo et cetera . b saki-hodo a little while ago. 

tsulfiiru make, build (a house), totemo by no means (with 
raise (a crop). a negativejvord).c 


' ll'utakuslii wa Nihon no mono wo s'koshi atsumeto gozaimas'. 
^Donna mono des' ka^JSayo, jidai no aru kakemono nazo ga yd 
gozaimas'. ^Matsubara san ni kotozuketai koto ga arimas'. 
xAnata wa issho ni oide nasaru o hima ga gozaimasen ka.&Ta- 
tjfraima tegami wo sh'tatametd gozaimas' kara, o ato kara& mai- 
' rimasho. *)Watakuslii wa P'rosha no mimpo no koto ivojoi'i- 
shirabeto gozaimas' ga, ii lion wo go zonji de arimasen ka. 
iNihongo iva sonna ni keiko wo yametari hajimetari sh'te wa 
oboeraremasen (p. 108h). jKyo iva o tenki des' kara, asobi ni 
detaku narimasli'ta. toMizu wo abiru to mono- wo tabetaku na- 
* Dozo Nihon ye itte mitai mon' des'.f 

a Amado wagitaiga -wami. The sliding'doors do not fit well into their grooves. 
U'atakushi wa kmogoro gnat ga warm. I have been under the weather lately. 

b These words are attached to a noun immediately, and precede such particles 
as wa, ga, etc. 

c Kesshitc is used of a firm resolution or of a statement for which the speaker 
makes himself personally responsible : Kessfiite sonna koto ?va arimasen. I assure 
you there will be nothing of the kind. Totemo is not so positive and indicates 
merely that there are serious difficulties in the way : Totemo tasukarimasmnai. 
There is almost no chanca of his recovery. 

d O ato kara afterwards, after you. 

e Mono is indefinite (p. 47).- Mono wo tabetaku naru become hungry. 

f Dozo (lit. somehow or other) here serves 10 express the fervor of the desire 
and may be translated "very much." Itte mitai wish to visit (lit. go and see). 



sonna ni shiju akct"',-,' xlt/mrto-ri sl'tr //>/ to, ij/mi </ 
Hfu'iim'iH. *Sokthodo ItimcisKta sltosci ico mcita nigohon ico 
okari mosli'tai to ittc imash'ta. An"t<i no i/o ni kanjino kaki- 
yo ICQ oboetai mono dcs' /,-</< '/<<//;</ t>,f, mo ohocru koto ica dcki- 
mas'mai. If Arc ica mturi ok it a r I sh'tc imas*. k Hito ico so/ai" 
ni agctari sagetari sli'tc it a ikewascn.* rjKomban no hatsui/x- 
me ni wa Fuji no yama no yuuic dc mo mitaimon' des\ b f&Ni- 
ica no saknra go. sakimash'ta kara, oidc ico negatte c ippai saslii- 
agetai mon' des'.jfJZicadan ni botan ico ippon v.etai' t mon' des'. 
i* Domo bunsho ico kaite mitakute mo ii kangae ga demascn kara, 
yoshimasho.iA Do/no shibai ico mitakute famarimasen. 

Often when (to) I hear [of] the beauty (iikotcr) of Japanese 
scenery I become desirous to go and see [it]. The room will 
become (becomes) very cold, if you continue (suru^) opening 
and shutting the door. I wish to show you [some] Japanese 
photographs. I wish to learn to write (Jcck" koto wo) Chinese 
characters; don't you know [of] a good teacher? I wish to 
borrow (o kari mosu) a little money; will you please loan me 
[some] ? I should like to learn the conjugation of Japanese 
verbs. As I have [some] leisure to-day, I wish to go out for a 
little recreation * chotto asobi ni). [Our] neighbor wishes to 
build a house in European style, but probably [his] money 
not yet suffice for that (sore ni ica). I should like to eat Japa- 
nese food (cooking) once. He wants to learn Chinese character-, 
but his memory is bad and he immediately forgets (forgetting 
finishes) the characters he has learned (osoicatta). Look ! yonder 
a ship i< at tiling visible and at times out of sight (hidden). 

a Here agent and sageru have the derived senses of "praise '' and "Mame : '. 

b It is considered a sign of good luck to dream of Mount Fuji on the night of 
the second of January. no yuine ii<o Mint to dream of (lit. see a dream of), lla 
tketa yitme wo miniashita. I dreamed that I lost a tooth (a tooth was ex- 
tracted). Notice that de mo may be added to nouns as well as pronouns (Ch. XVII.), 
making the sense indefinite : a dream of Fuji or a dream of that kind. Compare 
the sentence p. 1723 The hawk (takiT) and the egg-plant (tiasiibi^ are also 

favorable omens in a hatsityume.* Hence the proverb : Ichi, Fuji; ni, taka; sait, 

c Oide wo negaimasit Please come to see me (lit. I beg your presence). Sake 
wo is understood with iai. 




As I wish to get off (descend), stop (tomeni) ! a He wants to 
visit Germany. He wants to borrow a grammar of (ni) you. 
I should like to study and learn Japanese, but I haven't much 
(amari) leisure. The children want to fly kites. As I have 
become hungry (stomach has decreased), I want to eat (p. 143a). 


Verbs of the second class (p. 142) may be divided into 
groups, according to the consonants which precede the u of 
the present tense. To the first group belong verbs in ru. 
1. Paradigm oftoru (stem tori) to take: 
Positive Negative 

torn toranai, toran(ti) 

totta toranakatta, nanda 

toro torumai^ 

torn daro toranai daro, toran daro 

tottaro toranakattaro, nandaro 

totta daro torandkatta daro 

toreba (toraba) c toranakereba d (toranakuba) 
toru nara(ba) toraneba 

toranai nara(ba) 

toranakattara, nandara(ba) 

toranakatta nara(ba) 

twu na 

o tori de nai yo 

Future or 

Probable Past 







totta nara(ba) 


(o) twri na 

ojori (yo) 



torazu (shite), torazu ni 
toranaide, torande 
twitaku nai 
toranafcattari, nandari 

\ a If the kurumahiki is standing with th shafts in his hands, one may say : oro- 
shite /cure, from orosu to let down. 

b Forms like toranakaro (comp. tabenakaro p. 1 54) are sometimes heard, but 
the propriety of including them in a 'paradigm is disputed. 

c Toraba, as also the negative toranakuba, are classical forms. 

d Forms like toranakereba are variously contracted : torankereba, toranakeiyci 
(emphatic : toranakeiyTi), toranafya, toranya. 


2. The characteristic vowels are i, a. e and u. 


The forms tottc, tottari, totta are derived by elision and 
assimilation from the stem tori and te, tari, ta. The ending ta 
is a contraction of the classical taru (attributive) or tar I (con- 
clusive). Such uncontracted forms as tor it e and toritaru (in 
the attributive position) are sometimes heard in speeches and 
occur in proverbs. Observe that the i of the stem does not 
suffer elision in the desiderative. 


The form two is a contraction of toram(u'), which in the 
classical language becomes toran.* Such forms as toran creep 
into speeches, especially with to suru : sliinan to sum liito a man 
about to die. Observe that the vowel of the stem is changed 
to a in the positive future and in all the negative forms except 
the future and the imperative. 


In the positive imperative and conditional the vowel of the 
stem is changed to e: /ore, toreba. 


In the negative imperative and future, as in the positive 
present, the vowel becomes u: torn no,, torwimi. 

3. The verbs am to be and naru to become are included in 
this group. 

There are many verbs ending in aru which are passive or 
intransitive (ji-doshi) and correspond to transitive verbs (ta- 
ddshi) in e-m, both being in most cases represented by the 
same ideogram. b 

agaru go up, take (food, etc.). agent lift up, give. 

ataru strike, meet (p. 71c). ateru apply, hit, guess. 

atsumaru assemble. <itxiinn-i->i Cither. 

azukaru take charge of. aziikeru entrust. 

hajimam begin (intr.). ltuj(in<-i->t begin (tr.). 

Tcakaru be hung. kakwt hang. 

a From verbs of the first class similar forms may be derived : talen, win. 
b But it must not be supposed that this is a general rule or that the list here 
given is complete. See interesting tables in Imbrie's Etymology p. 2"jK. 




magaru be bent, turn. 
mazaru be mixed. 
osamaru be governed, pacified. 
osamaru be paid (of taxes). 
sagaru descend, return. 
shizumaru become calm. 
tamaru be accumulated. 
tasukaru be saved, recover. 
tomaru stop, be entertained. 
wakaru be divided, understood. 
kawaru be changed, vary. 
suwaru sit (in native manner). 

mageru bend. 
mazer u mix. 
osameru govern, pacify. 
osameru pay (taxes). 
sageru take down, suspend. 
shizumeru tranquillize.* 
tameru accumulate. 
tasukeru save, help. 
tomeru stop, entertain. 
wakeru divide. 
kaeru change. 
sueru set. 

In some cases forms in aru are contractions of potential or 
honorific forms (see also Ch. XLIX.). 

makaru be able to come down on the price, from makerareru. 
nasaru do, from nasareru. 
kudasaru bestow, from kudasareru. 
irassJiaru be, come, go, from iraserareru. 
ossharu say, from oserareru. 


(Include the verbs given above.) 
httka grave. riku ni agaru to land. 

ito board. saku produce, yield, crop. 

mi body, self (p. 58). shi poem. b 

namida tears. shi wo tsukuru compose a 

sliita tongue. poem. 

yudan negligence, inattention, rei politeness. 
bo pole, club, beam. bu-rei rudeness. 

riku land (opp. sea). sen-do sailor, boatman. 

a These verbs should not be confused with shizninu sink, be immersed, and the 
corresponding transitive shizume-ru. 

b The teim shi is now general and is'applied to all foreign and to modern Japa- 
nese poetry, but in old Japan shi was understood to mean Chinese verses. In the 
sense of poetry the word iita is limited to verses written in the old native style, 
but in the sense of song it is universally applicable. 




tei-haku anchoring. 
tci-filia-basuteislion station. 
slio (c) many, several (p. 1). 
amaru be in excess. 
damaru be silent. 
horu dig, carve. 
kusaru decay, be malodorous. 
naoru be repaired, cured 

(comp. naosu). 
ni-ru boil, cook (p. 168d). 
ni noboru ascend. 
okoru arise, break out, get 

saivagu, saivaidc be noisy, 

shikaru scold. 
taru=tari-ru be enough (p. 


tomu be rich. 
tomi riches, lottery. 
tomi ni ataru'yr'm in a lottery. 
ivataru cross. 

t*iii,H>,->i In- piled ii]t. accumu- 

yoru twist. 

ko-yori (k<t in i. //o/v) paper 
twisted into a string. 

hone bone. 

hone ivo oru exert one's self 
(lit. break bones). 

hone-ori effort. 

deki-agaru be finished. 

tsuki-ataru come up against. 

liaslii wo kakc-ru build a 

wake ni (ica) ikanui may 

kare-kwe about (p. 28b). 

san-zan (ni) recklessly, harsh- 
ly, severely. 

wk-kaku with special pains, 

to-chu de on the Avay. 


' J fa. matte iru, hito tea y/rifii/i </<(, dckuiai.* ZBunslid ivo tsukuru 
ni wa imi ga wakaranaku-.naranaide naru dake mijtk<i]:n 
iu yd ni ki wo ts'kenakereba narimasen. jKono kin wa gin ga 
ntuzatte imas' kara, ahiromi-gakatte /y/^/.s'. 1 ' v'l\'ix<~> tfoirtitftt. 

ZWatakusld ica ik'sa ga okorcba (okottam) sugu ni kun! ;/< 
kaeranakereba narimasen. tAnohito wa naze vk<>rinuixtt'hi k. 

jDomo komarimas' ; ano hito wa ki ni iran koto ga a/'ilm Niign 
ni dkorimas'. fAnata sugu (ni~) o kaeri ni narimas' ka.f /'< . 

a More fully expressed : Yudan sum koto ga tiekinai. One must be wary in deal- 
ing with a taciturn man. Many sentences of this kind end in the negative impera- 
tive yudan sum a. 

b Has a white tinge, from shiromi (p. 2l) and kakant. One'may'also say : s/ti- 
romi fa katte imam the white tinge prevails, from katsu to conquer. 


s'koshi. mawatte kaerimas'./AJibun no mi no osamaran liito ga 
tnk'san arimas'. flTokyo no mono wa san gwatsu no ju go niclii 
ni ame gafuru to, Umeivdka no namida da to iimas' .^Mukashi 
wa tabi wo suru liito ga "ren-dai" to iu ita ni bo wo ni lion 
ts'keta mono ni notte Qigawa wo^ watatta ga, konogoro wa 
hashi ga kakatte irnas'J3Nilion ni wa hashi no kakatte oran 
kiiwa ga talc' san arimas' '. jtyWatdkuslii no tomodachi wa tochii 
de kane ga nakunatte komatta to iu tegami wo yokoshimash'ta. 

;5 Tadaima wa Shimbash' kara Ueno made tetsudo ga kakatte 
orimas'/6 Ikura hone ivo otte yatte mo, hayaku dekiagarimasen. 

/?En no Shokaku to iu liito wa c ashi gajobu de shokoku ivoma- 
ivatta so des'; sore da kara sli'te ima de mo yoku sJiokoku ivo 
maicaru liito ga waraji ico sono liito no zo ni kakemas'/ Fuji 
san ni nobotta koto ga arimas' ka./? Sayd, nobotta koto ga ari- 
mas'. xoNobori wa nan jikan kakarimash'ta kalSayo, kare- 
Icore liaclii jikan kakarimash'ta. AzKono sakana iva doku da ka- 
ra, o agari de nai yo.3 Ni san nichi no aida Niliongo ivo ha- 
nasanai to, sh'ta ga maivaranaku narimas'2$Vatakuslii ga ku- 
ni ye ~kaeru toki Honkon nifune ga teihaku shimash'ta kara, ri- 
ku ni agatte liito ban yadoya ni tomarimasli'ta, shika-shi liido- 
kn atsui no de, yoddslii nemasen desh'ta-Zffllukashi wa Tenryii- 
gawa wofune de ivatatta ga, ima wa hashi ga dekite orimas'. 

JiiAme gafuttari yuki gafuttari sli'te komarimas'.x?Koyori wa 
kamiwoyotte koshiraeta mono des' .^g R' satte mo tai (Proverb). 

yjKono taki wa ura no lid ni mawatte mint, koto ga dckimas' ka- 
ra, Uramigataki to moshimas'.dJoTomi ni atatte kanemochi ni 
naritai mon' des'./ Wakatta ka wakaranai ka wakarimasen. 
wa wakarimasen. e JzWakatte mo wakaranai kao ivo sli'te 

a Umewaka is the name of a child who was kidnapped from a noble family in 
Kyoto and died af Mukojima in Tokyo. At a little temple erected there in its 
honor a memorial service is held on the 1 5th of March every year. 

b This river, which forms the boundary between the provinces of Suruga and 
Totomi, must be crossed by travellers on the Tokaido, the highway between Kyoto 
and Tokyo. 

c A hermit and priest of the seventh century, round whose name many legends 

d A waterfall in the neighborhood of Xikko. 

e I do not understand ALL, i. e., there are parts that I do not understand. Mina 
wakarimasen. It is all dark to me. 


imash'ta:3jfi'l< />/ l;<nni gn a, -elm fnx'l.-<-,-// hi mi ///<> 
ja kono sliinamono wo o azuk<i,-i /7W//r okima8h 
kf'ki' tics' kara go chisd ni <i::nl;<ii-iin<ixliu (narivnasho)^ Ano 
kicJiigai ico oitii ni Hfiii'iiiftc (,ru keredomo, Jtki ni x/t /'::>/ inn rn. 
yo.^fTeishaba ye mavrimccswru /// trnd/n ittnrn //o/W^V goza- 
imaslid (Jea).jfSayo t soko wo tsukiatatte lti<l<iri no h<~> //< ma- 
gnrcba macltignf imku s'teislion ye oide nasaru koto ga dcki- 
IIKIN. yiKfil;<n-i no Itito icn mo BogarimasKta.^ 

' Names of things vary according to (depending on) locality 
( place ).i-Be silent! 6 _5 In (ni ira) ^sikko (1) there is (8) also 
the grave (7) of the horse (0) on which leyasu (2) rode (.j) 
at (ni) the l>attle (4) of ^ekigaliara (3).</The teacher got an- 
gry and scolded the pupils severely. a'Plea-e hand (t<n-/>) me 
that dictionary. ^Did you (kiwi ~2) compose (3) this Chinese 
poem (iva 1) ? ^The daimyos' mansions ^vhich were in Tokyo 
for the most part have been changed (being changed have 
finished) to offices.J5 Please help (tuxkctc //"/<") him. f frlf you 
go (irassharu past cond.) to Ikao. S your malady (go byuki) 
may (p. 109a) be cured. /^If there were no (are not) unsavory 
things, the flavor (?////"////' i/t<>) of delicious things would hardly 
be appreciated (understood). //In Japan crops are poor (bad) 
if rain does not fall abundantly (tafc'ttzn) from May to(x//,W,v/r) 

a This proverb fils into the mouth of one who wishes to comfort himself or 
another in time of distress. 

1) Notice that aznkani in the sense of "to take charge of" lake^ Ti'c. In the next 
sentence it means "to participate in" and takes ;//. In the latter sense a^itkaru 
is not used so much in the colloquial, and smacks of the epistolary style. 

c For euphony's sake the ending masit here becomes masuru, but ninsit also 
would be correct. 

d The man in charge has left the office. Here we have another very common 
use of kakant in the form of its stem. I\akari itc Jiito may aKo mean all the officials 
in a department. As a suflix kak,ni forms many ci'mpoumls; e. ^., k-vnikci-kakan 
treasurer, from k-,i.<iti-kci finance. The verb .\<i^<int is used of men leaving an office 
at the close of the day's work or of pupils returning home from school, the office 
or school being regarded as an exalted place. 

e The imperative of daniaru is of course not polite. To lie polite one must say : 
Clwtto klite kiuiasai. 

i The verb tasukeru is used in a case of peril, distress or poverty. To help one 
to do a task is tetsmfati, tetsiuiatte. 

g A famous summer resort, with hot springs, in the province of Kozuke near 

XLVIII] VEHBS IN eru AND hit. 185 

June. /iWhen you went to Shinshu recently did you ascend 
Mount Asama ?vjl wished to make the ascent (ascend), but, as it 
was raining constantly, I returned without making the ascent. 

/a Though [we] dug never so (ikura") deep, we struck no water 
(water did not come forth )/sr~Si nee this (1) is not mine, [I] 
may not give it to another (7Yo)y 4 This meat is not sufficiently 
cooked (iii-kata is not sufficient )./-^Too many sailors run the 
ship aground (The sailors being numerous, the ship ascends the 
mountain). 1 ^ ^Excessive politeness (politeness being in excess) 
becomes rudeness (Proverb)/^ Dust accumulating becomes a 
mountain (Proverb) j^This horse is not worth (does not become 
even) a mon. 2-/Caii you not deduct (maJtaru) even a little? 

* t^es, I will deduct two sen (i0a).i&What did you say ? 


There are a few verbs which, ending in eru or iru, are often 
mistaken for verbs of the first class. A partial list of them is 
here given c with the recommendation that the student as he 
goes over it pronounce the subordinative distinctly, thus: asette, 
chitte, etc. 

aseru hurry. keru kick. 

chiru scatter (p. 62a). kiru cut, divide. 

nifukeru be addicted to. mairu=iku, kuru (polite 1,3). go to bed. majiru=rrfm$ru be mixed. 

hairti enter. nejiru twist, screw. 

liasltiru go fast, run. n&ru knead, soften, train. 

her it decrease. nig iru grasp. 

liinc-ru twist. shaberu chatter. 

ijiru meddle with, tease. shiktijiru fail, forfeit. 

it-a enter, be needed. sJtiinenl be damp. 

tm parch, roast. shiru know. 

return. suberu slide, slip. 

iru limit, be limited. teru shine (of the sun). 

i iru gnaw. 

a An active volcano near Karuizawa. 
b Compare the English : "Many cooks spoil the broth." 

c Assuming that this list is mastered, we will discontinue the use of the hyphen 
in verbs of the first class. 




(Include the verbs 
futa cover, lid. 

kataki foe. 
kire slice, piece. 
kxl)i neck. b 
(o) musubi ball of rice used 

for lunch (musubu make 

into a ball with the hands). 
niji rainbow. 
niji go, tatsu (deru) a rain- 

bow appears. 
nori paste made of starch, 

saki tip, point. 
sue end. 

tokkuri a sake bottle. 
harusame (haru, amc) spring 


nankin-mame peanuts. 
/.nit a Japanese syllabic char- 

acters. d 

kaya mosquito net. e 
//W//vo Shinto shrine. 
setsu opinion. 


bun, sentence, literary com- 
position (in bun-sho). 

kivan government office (in 

cho-jo 1 ., 

4. i '7 c summit. 
itaaa/ci j 

gi-shi loyal samurai. 

rulcii-dai failure in exami- 

sep-puku suicide by cutting 
the abdomen. f 

sliu-jin master. 

ken-so na precipitous. 

sliin-chiltu no neAvly built. 

abareru become fractious. 

l'<il;ii scratch. 

nusumu steal. 

okotaru be lazy, neglect. 

oshimu prize, deplore, be- 

hameru insert, fit. 

ate-hamcrt' assign, adjust, 

ate-hamaru be suited, a}>pli- 

a A mori is smaller and denser than a hayashi. The term mori is specially ap- 
plied to the grove surrounding a temple or shrine. 

b Not to be confused with the classical kobc head. 

c From the name of a Chinese city. Comp. nankin-iiczunii (p. 2a). 

d From karu borrow, na name. The syllabary is derived from certain Chinese 
characters. The hira-gaiia, from hira level, plain, are extremely simplified forms 
of the characters as written cursively. The less familiar kata-kana, from kata side, 
are fragments of the characters as written squarely. 

e Made like a square tent and suspended by strings attached to the corners (and 
sides) of the top. 

f From setsu =- kiru,fnku ham. The word " harikari" found in some English 
dictionaries is a corruption of hara-kiri. Some say kap-puku {kalsu ivarti'). 

XLVIII] VERBS IN eru AND iru. 187 

sonaer u provide, furnish, offer, chodo exactly, just. compare by way of muyami ni recklessly. 

illustration. sukkari (to) entirely. 13 

tatoeba for example. a perapera rapidly (of talk) 

ne-giru beat down the price ho-bo several directions, 

(ne price, kiru cut). everywhere. 

seme-iru enter forcibly. to-tei by no means, at all 

ho wo kakeru spread the sails. (with a negative verb). 

so-ba wo yarn, engage in spec- zo-sa naku without trouble, 

ulation. easily. 


Kono jibiki ni iva iranai ji ga tak'san arimas'; tatoeba 
Manyoshu no c kotoba nazo iva kessh'te irimasen. Nihon no 
bun iva kanji ni kana ga majitte orimas'. Shi ju shichi nin 
no gishi ga Kira Kozukenos'ke no yashiki ni semeiri, kataki 
no kubi 100 kitte Sengakuji ye motte kite shujin no haka ye 
sonae, sore kara mina seppukush'te shinimash'ta. d Kono shi- 
goto wa ikura asette yatte mo kongetsu no sue no ma ni iva ai- 
mas'mai. Ma-da hirugozen wo tabezu ni orimas' kara, taiso 
hara ga hette mairimash'ta. Konya wa hayaku fusette myo- 
cho hayaku okimasho. Kono daigaku no shosei no kazu ga oioi 
hette kite machi no mono ga komarimas'. Yoku shaberu hito 
wa o shaberi to moshima^. Hoka ye e itte uclii no koto wo 

a The verb tatocru appears in the phrase, tatoete mireba. The regular condition- 
al form in the colloquial would be tatoereba. The form tatoeba is borrowed 
from the classical language. " An example" is tatoe or rei. To "give an example" 
is rci ii'0 fern, hiku or ageru. Sore wa ii rei de waarimasen, or, Soiw rei wayoku 
atehamarimasen. That is not a good illustration. 

b Sappari\s> often synonymous with sukkari, but sapparimay also have the sense 
of " clearly. " See also p. I28d. 

c The name of the oldest anthology : man 10,000 or many,_j/5 leaf, shu collection. 

d This is the plot of the celebrated drama ChTishingura (chu-shin loyal subject), 
better known by the title " The Forty -seven Ronin. " A ro-nin is a samurai with- 
out a master (j-o wave, vagrant, nin man). The Forty-seven are called also Ako 
HO gishi. At Sen-gaku-ji (fountain-mountain-temple) in Shiba, Tokyo, was the 
grave of the daitnyo of Ako, the lord cfthe Forty-seven. Kdzuke-no-suke was orig- 
inally an official title which later came into use as agiven name. Compare Kttra- 
no-suke, Wakasa-no-suke, etc. In this sentence the stem is used for the subordi- 
native, as is often the case in narratives (p. l62b). 

e Hoka ye to others, outsiders. Itte is from iku to go. 


sliabette wa (sliabetclia) warui yo. Ano chiisai mus'me wa 
perapcra sliabette imas' . Fujisan no choj'd ni wa oki na ana 
ga aite imas' ; soko ni kenso im f/,-<>r<> g uttc Oya Shirazu Ko 
Shirazu to moshimas' ; (naze naraba] a moshihito ga ayamatte 
soko ni suberiocliiru to, oya wa ko wo s'te ko wa oya wo s'trtc 
okanakereba it<ii-im<isen kara, so iu n<t ga dekimasKta. Jli ga 
tettari ame gafuttari sli'te tenfci ga yoku kaivatte komarimatfi 
Kaltura no chiru no wo oshimanu hito wa arimasen. Har/>- 
same wa saknrabana no chiru no wo oshimu hito no namida 
I'd mo shir enai (namida de mo arimasho ka}.^ Ueno no 1m mi 
wa chittc shimaimash'ta ka. lie, ima chodo wi.kni-i <!es'. Ko- 
no tokkuri ni wa go go hairanai. me ga naze akakt/ nari- 
mash'taka. Muslii ga liaitte komarimash'ta. Wadoku no 
Jibiki wo motte mairitai to omoimash'te hobo tazunemasli'ta 
keredomo, gozaimasen. Kono ie wa shinchiku dcs' kara lieya ga 
shimette orimas'. Yoshitsune wa Koromogawa no tatckai ni 
///nkete Jiara wo kitta to iu setsu mo art, mata Ezo yc //igrfir 
to iu setsn mo aru. c Muts'kashikute atama ni luiirinmx* n. 
Kono sakana wo ikutnu ni kitte agemasho ka. Sayo, mi k/'rc 
ni sh'te kudasai. Ano gakusei wa asobi nifukette beiikyo -wo 
okotatte imas' kara rakudai suru desho. Ni lion Jin iva kangacru 
t<>l-i ni k>'/>/' in> liint rim as' ga d Sdijnjin irci atanni iro kaku so 
ift'.J. frozen de nori wo nette kurc. Baltato It! tm ijirn. 1n><I<> 
okoru (Provorl)). Jrimame to iu mono wa mame ivo iff* 1 
k- xhdyu wo ts'keta mono de, mameiri to mo iimas'. - 
wo nigitte o knre. e Konofuta ica ///</<iri i/<> //<> ///' ncjireba zdsa 

toremas'.f Kodomo ga yokufusette orimas' 


a Nazi' naraba is elliptical for Nav ka to naraba if [you ask] "why. " An ex- 
]>lanatiun is frequently introduced by this phrase or ;/</;< /<> /// ;//. The expression 
(>r<7 Sliirn'M A'<> S/iirazu often occurs as a designation of a dangerous place. The 
most noted place that bears this name is a rough part of the coast of Kchigo. 

b A paraphrase in prose of a poem in the ant hology Ko-kiii-vti-kti-shn (kn fiinii, 
kin-iina, wa ~ Japan, k<i nt<t). Xainidd kti is elliptical for iniiniiiu <la (i/i's/t) kit, 

c The Koromo is a small river in the north emptying into the Kitakami River 
near Ichinoseki. Yoshitsune was a famous hero of the XII. century (p. 1620). 

d " To twist the neck " here means simply to incline the head to one side. 

e The balls of rice which so often serve as a simple lunch are also called ttigiri- 

f Translate : one can take it off (p. io8h). 

XL VIII] VERBS IN eru AND iru. 189 

'When the winter is extraordinarily cold (in an extraordina- 
rily cold time of winter) there is skating (skating is possible) 
even a,t(de mo) Yokohama. >If (to) the sun shines while (ucki 
ni) it is raining (rains) a rainbow appears. 3 You must not beat 
down the price so. v- He stole public funds (kwan-kin) and 
forfeited [his] office. cfHe pretended not to to know (was 
making a face that knows not). (, What (koto) I have just now 
said, not being limited to this word, is applicable to other words 
also. ?The gohei* being (a thing) limited to [Shinto] shrines, is 
not [found] in [Buddhist] temples & Among these wares is there 
none that you like (entered your spirit) ?? All are satisfactory 
(good), but as they are dear I will give them up. /a I do not 
yet quite understand (it does not yet entirely enter my head). 

)i What is in those godowns ? /*. In those godowns there are clothes, 
books, money and so forth b various things./3 Shall I cut the 
tip of [your] cigar ? jf Please do so (I request). <rThe horse 
became fractious and kicked the groom. /fcThe cherry [blossoms] 
of Mukojima too have probably fallen (falling finished) already. 

>70ne must not cut [down] a forest recklessly. /yThe ship runs 
about 15 kai-ri an (one) hour if one spreads the sails. /? Last 
night one mosquito got into (naka ni hairu) the net and I 
couldn't sleep at all. 2<jThe longer he is in (haitte oru} the 
school, the more indolent (fu-benltyd) does he become. *v Bats 
have gnawed the bookcase. iiHe engaged in speculation and 
failed.^Are these peanuts fresh roasted? (p. 119 bottom) 


1. The polite verbs nasaru, kudasaru, and irassliaru are used 
in the second (or third) person both independently and as aux- 
iliaries. Usually masu is added, and ari in nasarimasu, kuda- 
sarimasu, irassJiarimasu is contracted to aiA So also are in 

a ThegoAei 'see Vocabulary p. 129), made of white; paper or metal, is the char- 
acteristic decoration of a Shinto shrine. Its significance is not clearly known : 
some say that it is a symbol of divinity or purity. 

b In such a list conjunctions may be dispensed with. See p. 2, middle. 

c A kai-ri(jkaiumisesL) is a knot about 1.15 miles. 

d In the same manner osskarimasu and gosaritnasu are contracted. 


the imperatives noaore, kudaaare and //vW/r/ir is contracted to 
ai. The imperative of masu is mase or mashi. Thus the im- 
peratives of these verbs are nasai or nasaimasht, kudasai <>Y 
kudcuaimcuihi, irasshai or irasshaimaslti. The before tta, tie 
thn'i, etc., is commonly elided: nos* tta, nets' tie, nas'ttari; kuda- 
s'tta, kudas'tte, etc.; irassh'tta, etc. 

(I.) Nasaru is used independently. It is also used with 
Chinese compounds or with the stems of verbs as the polite 
equivalent of sum : 

Go katte ni nasai. 

Consult your own convenience. 

Nani wo go kembutsu nasaru o tsumori desu ka. 

What do you intend to see ? 

Sukoshi o make nasai. Make the price a little lower. 

Oide 3 - nasaimasliita. You (he) went, came, were. 
(2.) Kudasaru as an independent verb means "grant conde- 
scendingly." As an auxiliary it is used with either the stem 
or the subordinative of a verb (but generally with the latter), 
and may be literally translated "condescend to", "deign to" : 

Kono shashin wo kudasaimasen ka. 

Will you not be so good as to give me this photograph ? 

Go men kudasai. Please excuse me. I beg your pardon. 

yomi (or yonde} kudasai. Kindly read it. 

Shinsetsu ni oshiete kudasaimashit". 

He was good enough to explain [it] carefully. 

Go ran nas'tte kudasai. Condescend to look at it. 
Constructions like o yomi nas^tte kudasai are formal and polite. 
Familiarly one may substitute kurcru for kuda^irt'. but only 
with the simple subordinative, not with the stem: osJt 

(3.) Irassharu means "go", "come", "be". Irassliaru and 
oide nasaru are practically synonymous. In speaking of per- 
sons de irassharu = de aru (p. 78b). As an auxiliary trass/it >- 
ru is used with the subordinative of a verb and is the polite 
equivalent of iru or or" : 

a From the honorific o and the stem of the classical izu, the older form of Jem 
(p. 144, 6). Notice that the honorific o or go is required in the above examples 
(p. 7 2f). 



Kyo sampo ni irasshaimasu Tea. 

Will you go for a walk to-day ? 

Kochira no ho ye irassliai. Come this way, please. a 

Go buji de irasshaimasu Jca. Are you well ? 

Danna sama iva go zaitaku de irasshaimasu ka. 

Is the master at home ? 

Tdltiid ni sumatte irasshaimasu. He resides in Tokyo. 

U v 

Itte irasshai is the polite equivalent ofitte koi (lit. go and 
come") Go! Good bye ! 

2. Negative forms of aru, such as aranai, etc., are not used, 
"being replaced by forms of nai (p. 100). The only exception 
is the future or probable arumai, which is used along with na- 
karo, nai daro. In the classical language arazu=nai, niara- 
zu = de nai. 

For de aru, de atta, de aro the contractions da, datta, daro 
are usually employed ; for de arimasu, etc., desu, deshita, de- 
sho. The uncontracted de aru is heard only in speeches. The 
use of ja as a contraction of de aru survives in Buddhist ser- 
mons and in some dialects. b 

The very formal equivalent of aru is gozarimasu, usually pro- 
nounced gozaimasu. The simple gozaru c ( negative : gozarami) 
is rarely used in conversation, but may be heard in theaters. 

It should also be noted that such expressions as ni natte oru 
(p. 163, 5) are often used where we should expect aru. 

kane bell. kat-te one's own convenience. 11 

a The simple imperative irasshai has been somewhat vulgarized by doorkeepers 
of places of amusement, etc. 

b The particles de wa are also contracted to/^, which occurs with special fre- 
quency inyVz nai ka: Clwtto mi ni iko ja nai ka. Shan't we go to see it? So 
osshatta ja arimasen ka. You said so, did you not? 

c This word is derived from the honorific go and za (c) seat. It is of course 
unusual to form verbs by adding ru to Chinese elements, but there are analogous 
instances. The native equivalent of gozarn is owasu or cnvashimasu, an honorific 
verb used like aide nasaru or irassharu. Another form of the same verb, omasu, 
is still used in the Kyoto dialect as an equivalent of aru : so de omasu or so dosu 
so desu. If this is not the explanation of the origin of gozaru, it is at least an in- 
structive analogy. 

d Comp. kattegamashii p. 1 10. The adjective katte na means selfish, inconsid- 
erate. In speaking to a person, go may be prefixed to katte. 

192 THE VERB. 

do-yd the dog days. Imi-l-en sum look at ( polite- 1 ) 

jo-go one who is fond of sake, ska-xkiit (/<, (<>,-</ take (or sit 

sot. for) a photograph. 

ge.-l'o one who prefers sweets d<ti-Ji ni RUTH take good care 

to sake, teetotaler. of (p. 33a). 

lini-byo consumption, phthisis l;an>j<n-,'n think, ivihrt. 

Icciii-bntxii sight-seeing. nolxriujfic ten kiktt seek the 
ko-ski minister, ambassador. advice of. 

xJtitsu-rei discourtesy, impo- It<nilun1<i very, very much. 

liteness. ktu'tte on the contrary, rather. 

so-skiki funeral. llt ,,to originally. 

shd-luayamef- yiikkuri (to), yururi (to) lei- 
Iml'u-butsu-'kivan museum. surelv (p. 33e). 

on-sem-ba 1 hot spring ikigake -won the way (going). 

fo-./i-&a. J sanitarium. Iwrigake ji/onthe way back. 

ira/cwJM take across, hand over mac Jiigai naJcu without fail, 

(comp. wataru). surely. 


i Doits' tci no go sosh'ki wo go ran nas'tta ka.ZJSayo, mimash'- 
t". 3 Go ran nas'ttara leatnktix/ii n! trntnxft'tc lottdcisai. rO sa- 

skits'kae gaarimasen nara dozo oide -mi-Sitc kudasai. it) kacr/- 
gake ni tvat<il;n.*lt! n !></>/ ni <> yorf xnx'tte kvdasai.b *Nihon 
ni irassh'tta told ni nan no o skirabemono wo nasaimash'ta k. c 
WaUakttohi no sJiaskin wo tottc kudasai. % Sono l;<mc </ nakn- 
nattara do ;c/.W//^/.y' l-a. ?Mu JkoxJif Im i/akn oidc ti(t*'tf<ir<' <> 
ma ni aimash'tard ni./iHorikiri no d kanaskobu ic<> mi ni 
nasaranka. no kakiibuts'kwan wo lu'inlntt*n ni <>><!> n- 
saimasenka. /^Do o kangae nasai infix /,". llitntx>i n 
nas'tte kuda*<n. i^loto Ber'rin ni oide nas'tta Ni/mit n<> 

a Ayame is rather the classical word. Usage has, however, differentiated ayaiae 
and s/iobu, so that it is not strictly correct to call them synonymous. But the us- 
age is not consistent. The ayame or s/w/>n of the proverb (p. 66c) is the sweet 
flag or calamus, whose blossom is inconspicuous. Varieties of the iris family 
which have showy flowers are called hatM-shol'ii or Iitina-nvanic. 

b Hilo no tic hi (Jokord) ni ( ir) voni to call upon a jx;rson. 

c Shirabcmono wo stint to make an investigation. Comp. U'asiin'ti; 
sum p. I47b. 

d A garden in the vicinity of Tokyo renowned for its exhibitions of irises. 


wa kuni ni o kaeri nasatte, ima wa tojiba ni irasshaimas' . 
'Mo kane ga natta de wo, arimasen ka. /gMuko no kuni no koto- 
ba ga o wakari nasaimasen kara (p. 118b), tochude o komari 
nas'ttard./jKonaida oide no toki ni o yak'soku ni narimash'ta 
Jion wo motte kite kudasaimash'ta ka. ^/fAno o kata wa geko de 
irassharu kara, o kwashi de mo sashiagemasho.b/?Anata wa 
kitchiri roku ji ni o oki nasaimas' Tta.ZoSayo, tokei ganaru to, 
sugu ni okimas'.^/Anata Nihon ye oide nasaru toki doko no 
fune ni notte irasshaimash'ta ka; Frans* nofune des' ka, Igi- 
ris' no des' kajt-lie, Doits' nofune ni norimash'ta.VZAnata iva 
Kyoto ye irassh'tta koto ga arimas' ka. mlie, mada arimasen: 
kondo no doydyasumi ni kembutsu ni mairu tsumori des > s 2 35ek- 
kaku o tazune kudasaimash'te hanahada osoreirimash'taA 
/Sekkaku odaijini (nasaimashi).J?Asak'sa no Kwannon sama 
wa e yoku negaigoto wo okiki nasaimas'.Ztfppuku meshiagari 
nasaimasen kaJfSekkaku Seiyo ye irassh'tta. no ni, { sugu ni hai- 
byd ni natte o slrini nasaimash'ta. Oide kudasaimas' no iva 
jitsu ni arigato gozaimas' keredomo, sore de iva kaette osorei- 
rimas'.zjfGo katte na koto ivoii nasaru na. 
1 Have you heard that (no wo~) the temple of Kdya san was 
burned at the beginning of last year ? -^ You must not consult 
.your own convenience too much (amari).$ It may be well to 
seek the advice of the teacher. /yWere you at home at the time 
of the earthquake, or were you out? j -Where was the master 

a Oide no toki ni at the time of your presence, i. e., when you were here. Stems 
of verbs or nouns are often used when we should expect an indicative verb, thus : 
go zonji desu, go zonji no hito, go zonji no hazu desn. Compare : o tanomi no /ton the 
book for which you asked me, satikcino hito the people who visit the temple. 

b By substituting flfc mo for u>o the expression is made indefinite, it being implied 
that one might offer something else perhaps. 

c lie in this sentence means " neither." 

d The adverb sekkaku indicates that there are difficulties (expenditure of time, 
money, etc.,) connected with the act. It maybe variously translated, according to the 
context ; sometimes it is untranslatable. In this sentence it may be rendered, " you 
have taken the trouble ; " in the following sentence, " specially." Notice that 
o soreiriniashita is used for the present tense (p. 143, 5, 2). 

e A well known Buddhist divinity. 

f The no ni means " although. " Comp. p. 132. 

g Here osoreirimasu means " I am distressed to have you do so. " In a case of 
real loss or suffering one may say itami-inmasu, from itatmt ache. 


194 THE VERB. [L 

(goskujin) when the fire "broke out (dcru or hajimrtru) ? 4 If 
you were in my place (fi/mfn n<n-<i \. what would (do) you do 
in this case (toki) ? 7 Indeed (honto ni) you must have been 
embarrassed.^ Did you go to the Rokumetkwan yesterday ? a 
ft Just (chotto) see whether what I have written is erroneous 
(macliigatte imas' ka do des? fca). /^When you have written 
[it] I will look [at it]. //If you don't understand, please say 
(ossharu) so. |Come for a little chat (chitto o hanadti ;</). 
Where are you going next?.$I ani going to see (haikcn ni'j the 
newly built Imperial Residence. H}I beg (p. 104b)that you will 
all (1) come without fail. ^Please give me (I beg) your reply 
when you have decided. Please rest leisurely. I am very sor- 
ry that I was away from home (I was indeed impolite, being 
away from homertMfc de), though (no ni) you took the 
trouble to come [to see me]. 


To the second group belong verbs in tsu. The u of the pres- 
ent tense is hardly audible. 

Paradigm of matsu (stem : machi) to wait, await: 

Positive Negative 

Present matsu matanai, matan(u) 

Past math i matanakafta, nanda 

Future or mato mntsumai 

Probable matsy dard mutanai daro, innfint daro 

Probable mattaro matanakattaro, nandaro 

Past matta daro mafanakatfa <lru 
Conditional mateba (mataba) mestcmakereba [matanakttba) 

1'a-t ('on- mctftara(ba) matanakcrftara,nandara(ba) 


a The name of a building erected by the Government for the entertainment of 
distinguished guests from abroad, etc., from roku stag, mei cry, kwan building. 
The origin of the name is to be found in a famous Chinese poem, 

L] THE T GROUP. 195 

Imperative mate matsu na 

(o) machi na o maclii de nai yo 

o machi (yd) 

Subordina- matte matazu (shite), matazu ni 

tive matanaide, matande 


Desiderative machitai machitaku nai 

Alternative mattari matanalzattari, nandari 

Tne fact that the Japanese modify the sound of [t [before i 
and u, saying not ti, tu, but chi, tsu, must be remembered in 
conjugating verbs of this class. With te, tari, ta, etc., the chi 
of the stem naturally unites to form tie, ttari, tta. 

The verbs belonging to this class are not numerous. Besides 
matsu we have : 

Itatsu win a victory ( ni "katsu defeat). 

motsu hold in the hand, have. 

motsu last, endure. 

tatsu stand, rise (from a seat), rise (of dust, waves, etc.), 

pass (of time), leave (a place). 
tatsu cut (paper, cloth, etc.), sunder, have nothing more 

to do with. 
utsu strike, clap (hands), shoot, a play (a game of chance). 

The verbs wakatsu divide, distinguish, hanatsu separate, let 
loose, shoot, tamotsu have, defend, and ayamatsu err, belong 
properly to the written language. Their colloquial equivalents 
are wdkeru, hanasu, motsu and machigau. 


(Include the verbs given above.) 

chi blood. (o) miyage, mil/age-mono a 

h ibari skylark. present brought by the giver 

hototogisu cuckoo. 1 ' in person (p. 84d). 

a " To shoot with a gun " is teppo de wo utsu. " To fire a gun " is teppo luo 
b The cuckoo's cry impresses the Chinese and Japanese as being very pathetic, 



tono (samara, respectful term 
designating a nobleman 
(as a former daimyo). 

hi-iichi-gane steel for striking 

hi-uchi-ishi flint for striking 

kane bell. 

sute-gane a signal of three 
strokes preparatory to strik- 
ing the hour. 

te-ma time spent on a task. 

ken a game played with the 
hands. a 

on (c) kindness, benefits. 

baku-chi gambling. b 

lan-ji(Yit. 10,000 things) all 
things, in every respect. 

kd-kwai repentance. 

ktcun-yun Government army. 

zoku-gun rebel army. 

sen-so battle, war. 

slio-go noon. 

ta-Jio cannon. 

(o) to-myo a light offered to 
a god. 

ko-ri, kori a traveller's trunk 

made of wickerware, a pair 

of baskets one of which tel- 

escopes into the other. 
yanagi willow. 
yanagi-gori a kori made of 


yubin-kyoku post office. 
.fti-itfirc no, inexpert. 
ucld-jii no all in the house 

(fdi-jobu na secure, all right 

(p. 138b). 

kinzuru, kiitjite prohibit. 
oyamu worship. 
oyobu reach. 
ni oyobanai it is not neces- 

sary to. d 
naku-suru lose (p. 108a). 

a From the Chinese word for "fist. " In the variety called is/ri-ken orjan-ken 
three things are represented : ishi stone, kami paper and hasami shears. A stone 
may be wrapped in paper, paper may be cut by shears, and shears must yield to 
stones. The players extend their hands simultaneously, each representing one of 
these three things. For instance, if A. makes the sign of the stone, he wins in case 
B makes the sign of the shears, but has to yield to the paper. Another variety is 
miis/ii-ken, in which the characters are hebi snake, kaeru frog and namekujislug. It 
seems that the snake fears the slug. Still another is kitsmie-ken, or tohachi-ken, in 
which appear s/id-yu (old word for son-rfahezd of a village), teppd gun and kitsune 
fox. The fox is regarded as having power to bewitch a man. "To play ken" is 
ken wo utsH. 

b From the Chinese baku a board used for games and nchi, the stem of utsu. 
" To gamble " is bakuchi -w utstt (<*///*). 

c From the negative fu (p. 124) and the .stem of tmreru U-come accustomed. 
There are other instances of the combination of/u with stems of native verbs : e. g., 
fu-soroi oa\. \m\foTm, fu-tsttri-ai not balanced, out of proportion. 

d Notice the very common phrase : Go shimfui ni wi c-yol'imasen. YOU need not 
feel any concern about it, 

L] THE T GROUP. 197 

hori-mono ivo suru carve, en- tsuide convenience, opportu- 

grave. a nity. 

ho-to suru be profligate. tsuide ni on occasion, by the 

shut-tatsu suru set out on a way, incidentally. 

journey, start. 1 ' ydyaku,ydyatto,ydyo finally, 

hatsu uumerative for dis- with difficulty, barely. 

charges of a gun. sas-soku very soon. 

ippatsu utsu to fire once. sho-sho a little. 

hajime (ni or wa or ni iva} nagara at the ' same time, 

at first. while, though. 


1 Mateba nagai. d "^Kanii sama no o tomyo iva hiuchiishi de 
utte agemas'.^ Kokwai saki ni tatazu.z^Domo ha ga itakute 
tatte mo suwatte ite mo iraremasen.* -JKonaida o tanomi no 
meshits'kai wo tsurete mairimash'ta ga, indka no mon' des' ka- 
ra, sliojiki des' keredomo, banjifunare de o yaku ni wa tachi- 
mas'mai.Z ( Seinan no ik'sa de ivah kwangun ga hajime tabi- 
tabi makete nochi ni yoyaku kachimash'ta. JNihonjin wa yoku 
ken wo uchimas' ; sono ken ni iroiro arimash'te mushiken ya 
kitsunekenya tak'san shurui ga arimas 1 .%" Nilion de wa baku- 
chi wo uts j ~koto~ 100 kinjite arimas'. jNilionjin iva kami sama 
100 ogamu toki niivasan do te wo uchimas'./ftCM no deru liodo 
kodomo too butte wa, ikemasen.i /jToki no kane wa saki ni mit- 

a Hori-Hwno also has the sense of tattooing in its more elaborate forms, including 
figures of men and animals. Simple tattooing, such as that in vogue among Ainu 
women, is called ire-zumi. 

b This is a curious compound of the Chinese shutsu=.deru and the native verb 
tatm to set out. 

c Nagara is used with stems of verbs or with Chinese compounds. 

d One may also say : Matte iru to nagai mono desu. Matsu mi wa tsurai (tsurai 
afflicted, suffering). It is hard to wait (often of lovers). 

e Proverbs, as has been remarked before (p. iO3a), are expressed in classical forms. 
For tatazu see p. 171, top. The meaning is: Repentance, as it always comes too 
late to un do the wrong, is of no use. 

f See p. io8h. Oraremasen may be substitued for iraremasen. 

g Here de stands for de atte. For o tanomi no see p. 1933. 

h Sei=- sat west ; nan south (p. lojb). Seinan no ikusa designates the Satsuma 
rebellion of the year 1877. 

i Translate /iodo " so that. " Compare p. IOI (2). 

198 THE VERB. [L 

iro >ttte sore kctrn k<i:-:>/ dake 
,?c mi I>d ilc (matte) lc<mc tr<> uckim 

Ij, Shosho o machi kudasai&Koko <lc .v'/.W// unite. T<'nm </<i 
iiiHxrtt nurii machimashd.b r/uwe wo o m<><-///' 

)%S'koshi matte kt/re, KIUJH -n! Icacrn kcra. ''-fjllatazti, ni >!,/' t/c 
kaern lio </a yol-ro. (go away) mc HI zc//i (mute no o 
taku ni agariiiuixlid. tyltsu o taclii ni n<n-ini</^ 
?io sh'takti (fa dekitara sassolar tadtimas'.'&Kono 
mada mochimashd 7.r/.' S"i/o, daijobu detfr^Konaida o ?/<'/>'- 
soku no shashin wo motte matrimash'taffoOyaji <j iirliijit no 
mono ni mil/age tco matte /,vav////r/.s7/ 1 /V/.- - r j\/'i(fc ni l-no te- 
yami wo yubtrikyoku i/c motte oide (nasai)s\%Hid(tri Jinyoro 
wa& Mdari no te de (motte} jozn ni horimono wo sli'ta so r/r.s'. 
^Hototogisu iva tobi nagara naJtimcis' go, Jiibari wa tachi 
ra nakimas' .*P Oide no jibun ni chodo yo ji wo utte i 
Kowo motte shiru oya no on (Proverb). 6 Mototva ie wo 
nai mono wa /</</' it in mae no hito de nai to moshimash'ta.i 

In ancient times (wa) [people] Idndled fire with steel and 
flint. I have brought the book which you asked for(o tanomi 
no), but [I fear] it will not be of any use. The Government 
army won at the battle of Ueno and the rebel army fled to 0- 
shu. Do you often play ken ? Through profligacy and gam- 
bling 11 he lost all (sitkkftri) his property. - He struck him 

a After the subordinative such expressions as sore kara and so shife often occur. 
They add nothing to the sense. In the following sentence motte, which often follows 
dc, is likewise pleonastic. 

b Tema ga toreru. It takes time. 

c Translate : Please lake this along. " Please hold this " would be : Kore wo 
motte itc kudasai. 

d A famous carver in wood (died 1634). The critics say that the story of his having 
been left-handed is a myth based on the fact that he came from the province of 

e For the sake of emphasis the order is inverted. Oya no on is the object of 

f Ie means not "house," but "household." For ichi nin mat' compare hitori-inac, 
p. 6$a. 

g ~Oshu designates the provinces at the northern end of the main island. Some 
hink it is hardly fair to call the opponents of the Government at that time rebels. 
I listorians use the term ti>-^iin (jto east). " Battle " is tatakai, kasscn, or sens*. 

h Use alternatives with shite. 


that "blood flowed (comes out). In Tokyo at noon a gun is fired 
(they fire the gun once) . Japanese eat (things) with chopsticks. 
The" lord of wari held a fief yielding ( of) 550,000 koku. Has 
it struck eight o'clock ? Not yet, a but it will soon strike. 
[We] have been waiting a half-hour (mo), but he has (does) .not 
yet come (pres.). I will wait here until you return. It is not 
necessary to wait. He seems (yo des') to have money. Please 
hold this a moment. I have brought the photographs for which 
you asked recently. He brings the children gifts every time he 
comes. When wilt he leave for home (kuni ye)? He wanted to 
leave at the end of this year, but as (no de) he has been taken 
(kakatta or natta) with consumption, he must return at once, 
it is said. Europeans living in Japan take plenty of food along 
when they travel (go) into the interior. May I take this along? 
Shrewd people win by yielding (makete). When will you go 
into the country ? I intend to start after (tatte) two or three 


To the third group belong verbs in su. As in the case of 
verbs in tsu, the u is hardly audible. 

Paradigm of hanasu (stem hanashi) to speak, or, to separate : 

Positive Negative 

Present hanasu hanasanai, hanasan(u) 

Past lianashita hanasanakatta, nanda 

Future or hanaso Jianasumai 

Probable hanasu daro hanasanai daro 

hanasan daro 
Probable hanashitaro hanasanakattaro, nandaro 

Past Jianashita daro hanasanakatta daro 

Condi- Jianaseba hanasanakereba 

tional (hanasaba) (Jianasanakuba) 

hanasu nara(jba^) hanasaneba 

hanasanai nara(ba) 

a Instead of repeating the verb (negative present) with mada, one may say siin 
ply nuula desu. 

200 THE VERB. [LI 

Past Con- h<i)t(i*ltitara(ba) hana&anakattara(ba) 
ditional hanashita nara(ba) kana9anawlara(bd^ 

hanasanakatta nara(ba) 
Imperative, hanasu na 

(o) hanashi na o hanashi de nai yo 

o hanashi (yo} 

Subordina- hanashite Imnasazu (shite), hanasazuni 

tive hanasanaide, lianasande 


Desiderative hanashita > hanashitaku n<ii 

Alternative hanashitari hanasanakattari, naudart 

Verbs of this group are very numerous. They are all transi- 
tive, a In most cases the corresponding intransitives are derived 
from the same root. b 

Many are synonymous with regular causatives : 

aivasu=aivaseru cause to meet, introduce, join, from an meet. 

kawakasu = kaicakaserudry, desiccate, from kcncaku. 

narasu=naraseru sound, ring, from naru resound. 
The transitive derived from ivdku boil is wakasu, never traka- 
seru. The form in su often differs in sense from that in sen/. 
Thus chirasu means scatter, from chiru, while chiraseru means 
to see fall down (poetically used of leaves and blossoms). So 
korobasu, from korobu tumble, means roll, while korobaseru 
means cause to tumble. From meguru = mawaru go round, Ave 
have two verbs, megurasu revolve in the mind, used in the 
semi-classical compound omoimegurasu reflect, and megumscru 
cause to go round. 

In some cases su is simply substituted for the ru of an intran- 
sitive verb : 

amasu leave over. amaru be in excess. 

a One exception is masu increase, which may be transitive or intransitive. Its 
coojugation is regular, while that of the auxiliary masu (see the next chapter) is 
somewhat irregular. The mashi of mas hi desu (p. 136, middle) is the stem of this 

b The following lists are by no means exhaustive. The words given are selected 
simply with a view to prepare the student for further observation. For the regular 
causatives see Ch. LXI. 

LI] THE 8 GROUP. 201 

hesu (herasii) decrease. heru decrease. 

liitasu immerse, soak. hitaru be immersed. 

kaesu(kayasu) send back, repay, kaeru come or go back. 
kasu lend, rent. karu (kariru) borrow. 

kaiuasu exchange. kaivaru change (intr.). 

kudos u cause to descend. kudaru descend. 

mawasu turn round, pass round, mawaru go round. 
modosu send back, vomit. modoru come or go back. 

naosu mend, heal. naoru be mended, healed. 

nosu(noseru) place on, record, noru be on, ride. 
okosu raise, start, begin. okoru arise, break out. 

tosu cause or allow to pass. torn pass through or by. 
tvatasu take across, hand over, ivataru cross. 
The eru or iru of verbs of the first class may become asu; 
iru often becomes osu : 

chirakasu scatter about, chirakeru be scattered about. 

dasu put out, give. deru issue forth. 

fuyasu augment, multiply, fueru increase. 

kogasu scorch, burn. kogeru be scorched. 

makasu defeat, beat down, makerit yield, come down. 

narasu train, tame. a nareru become accustomed. 

nigasu allow to escape. nigeru escape. 

nurasu wet. nureru get wet. 

samasu cool. sameru become cool. 

Hamasu waken, recover from, sameru become awake, sober. 

tokasu dissolve, melt. tokeru be dissolved, melted. 

tsuiyasu spend, waste. tsuieru be spoiled, spent. 

nobasu extend, postpone. nobiru be extended, postponed. 

liorobosu overthrow. horobiru be overthrown. 

hosu dry, ventilate. Mru dry, ebb. 

okosu waken. dkiru get up. 

orosu let down. oriru descend, alight. 

otosu drop, lose, omit, take, ochiru fall (p. 165b). 
To some transitives in su correspond intransitives in reru. 

hanasu separate. hanareru be separated. 

hazusu displace, miss, avoid, hazureru be displaced, fail. 

a Besides narasu tame and narasur'mg, we have also narasu from naru become 
or be produced (of fruit) and narasu level or grade (land). 

202 THE VERB. [LI 

k'tkxsu hide. kckureru be hidden. 

Icoltosu pour, spill. k<>l><>iT-r>> overflow. 

pulverize, digest. kn//nr< />/ be digested. 
break, destroy. koicareru be broken. 
ktizusu tear down (p. 11 fib), go to pieces. 
nagasu let flow, forfeit. nagarcru flw. 
faosw prostrate, kill. faorerv fall over (of tall things). 

Finally it is to be noted that some transit! ves are formed by 
means of the termination ka*>f, which is often interchangeable 
with su or sent : 

hiyakasu,* liiijuxii cool, from hicru -become cool. 
jirdka&v, jira&t tease, tantalize, fromjireru be irritated. 
magirakasu, magirasu confuse, bamboozle, from mayin'rn 

(jmagiru) be mixed up. 
nekasUf neseru put to sleep, from neru sleep. 


(Include the lists given above.) 

fuki name of an edible plant, fnslii knot, knob (as on a tree). 
furi air, appearance. katsuo-bushi dried bonitoJ' 

mold. tsuki-hi months and days. 

kabiru ) , , times. 

kabi ga haeru] kompcito (from the Spanish 
okwi origin, etymology. confeito') confection, candy. 

tnka amount (usually a suffix fukit (c) luck, felicity. 

in the form dd/ca). N/i/ki (c) rite, ceremony. 

tmitHiij! azalea. za (c) seat. 

hinata sunny place, sunshine, gu-chi silliness, twaddle. 

fu-moto( fu r i mi walk on, moto guchi wo kobosu grumble. 

bottom) foot (of a hill or sei-zo manufacture. 

mountain). xliin-ja believer. 

kami-irc pocket-book. sui-k/m watermelon. 

katsuo bonito. zd-kin cloth for mopping floi .rs. 

a Hyattuu has also the meaning of "to make a fool of" and is used especially 
of those who examine and price things exposed for sale when they have no inten- 
tion of buying. 

b Variously contracted to katsubushi, katstw orfnshi. 

c Buddhist believers arc usually called shin-to. 


zol'u-go colloquial, vulgarism, utsusu copy. 

tnoshii delightful, happy. hik-kosu remove ( residence) . a 

hiyayaka na cool. kiki-awaseru gather informa- 
tas-shana vigorous, proficient. tion, inquii*e about. 

inoru pray ( wo inoru pray toshi-yoru become aged. 

for). hanashite kikaseru tell (lit. 
okuru pass (time), lead (a life). speaking cause to hear) . 

damakasu, damasu deceive, kasa ivo sasu hold up an um- 

impose upon. brella. 

sasu propagate by means of lii-bana wo chirasu make 

cuttings (sashi-ki wo sum}. the sparks fly. 

yurusu set at liberty, pardon, o itomq mosn take one's leave. 

permit. saiivai (ni) happily. 


Hilo nofuri mite wagafuri naose (Proverb). b Watakushi ga 
soto ye detara ramp' ivo kesh'te kure. Moto wa Edo ye iku 
koto wo kudaru to mosh'te, Kyoto ye iku koto ivo noboru to mo- 
shimash'ta. Dozo kuruma wo tosli'te kudasai. c Hikeslii wa 
kaze ga tsuyokute hayaku hi ivo kes' koto ga dekinakatta kara, 
kinjo no ie wo koivash'ta. Katsuobuslii to iu mono wa katsuo 
no hosh'ta n' des'.^ Nihon ni wa yama no fumoto ni yoku 
" umagaeslii" to iu tokoro ga arimas' ; kono na no okori wa koi*e 
kara saki wa miclii ga kenso de tdrenai (p. 108h) kara, uma 
ivo kaes' to iu koto des'. Fuki no ha ivo hosh'te tabako ni 
mazete nomu hito mo arimas'. Soko ni wa hashi ga nai kara, 
fune de hito ivo watashimas' . Anata ga Doits'go wo tassha ni 
hanash'te mo sonna mutsukashii koto ivojibun hitori de (alone) 
kikiaivaseru koto wa dekimas'mai. Watakushi ga ivaru gozai- 
mash'ta kara, o yurushi kudasai. Sono ue no gaku wo oro- 

a The verb kosu cross is transitive, but this compound, like onioi-megurastt, is in- 

b IVaga (comp. p. 2yc) is, of course, not used in ordinary colloquial. Furi 
denotes matters of etiquette, clothes, etc. 

c When people stand in the way, one may say politely : Go men nasai. Excuse 
me ! Beg pardon ! 

d The ' stands for no and is equivalent to mono. 


sh'tc mi*ete kmlafifi.i. Kangok'sho yori mo gakko ni kanc ico 
f*//ii/ns' ho ga yd gozaimas'. Fiiku no kami ni inoru yori 
kuchi wo herase (Proverb). a Kcsa ico sash'te kite mo bisshori 
nuremash'ta. Karint told no Jizogao, kaes* told no Emma- 
goo (Proverb). b Tsutsuji no eda loa sash'te mo c ts ) kimas'. 
Soko ni aru ishi iva oinoi kara koi'obasu yori Jioka shi- 
k"ta ga nai. Ano C'kii ki ico kiri-taosu no tea oshii koto 
des'. Omoimeguraseba ni ju go nen no mukashi Doits 7 <!<' 
tanoshii tsitkihi ico okutte orimash'ta. Hiyamizu ica ikcuni: 
irtikash'te nome. Tenrilcyo no ho de ica kompeito ni nani ka 
myo na k'suri wo irete sliinja wo damakash'te otta so dcs'A 
Suikwa tea mizu ni hiyash'te talent to oishiii gozaimas'. Ka- 
rita kane wo komban made ni modosanak'te wa narimascn. 
Sono koto wakesa no sJiimbun ni nosete arimas 1 . Omae pan 
wo sonna ni kogash'te do sh'ta no da. Amari yakamask'kv sum 
to sekkaku nekasJi'takodomo ga me wo samashimas'. Kfdti ga 
ivarui kara shdji wo hazush'tara yokaro. Toshiyoru, to guclii 
wo koboshimas'. Amari kodomo wo jirash'te lua iji ga WH- 
ruku narimas'. Fune niyou to, tabeta mono too modoshimas'. 

f will now (mo orkore (/e)take leave for (iva) this eveniug(l). 
When you have finished copying this, })lease show [it to me]. 
This child at once breaks its toys. The French two hundred 
years ago took the castle at (of) Heidelberg. Take care that 
{yd ni) you do not break these teacups. In the mountainous re- 
gions (yamaguni) of Japan [people] eat a great deal of dried 
fish. Dried fish is called liimono. Among the teachers of the 
Medical School there are many who speak German freely. 
That old gentleman has often told me of old times (mukashi u 
koto). This bird, even though you set it free (hanash'te yaru), 

a The word " mouths " means the number of children, servants, etc., belonging 
to one's house. There are seven fttku no kami. They are often called shichi 
fuku-jin (shin tawf). 

b Jizo is a gracious buddha and has a kindly face. Emma(sanui), the prince of 
hell, has a fearful face. 

c Mo here has the sense of "though only." WithtstMmastt is understood >ie ga. 

d Ten-ri-kyo (heaven-reason-doctrine) a new religious sect very popular among 
the lower classes. It makes much of faith healing. Some newspapers have charged 
the priests with slyly administering morphine to the believers. 


comes back again (returning comes). In (de wo] the cere- 
mony of koicha they pass the teacup round. We will go to 
tease (hiyakaslii ni) the shopkeepers (shops). Put the shoes 
out into the sunshine in order that (yd m')they may not mold. 
Kashihonya means (to iu koto des') a shop that loans books. 
These trees are multiplied (one multiplies) by means of cuttings. 
Will you wear (mesu)* the new garments or (shall it be) the 
old ones ? It seems to me that (yd ni omow) I dropped my 
pocket-book somewhere on the way (michi de]. He has three 
houses and rents (renting puts) two of them to others. You re- 
move often. Please translate it (naosu) into the colloquial. 
Will it do to erase this character ? Correct that character with- 
out erasing it. Happily, as there was no wind, they extinguished 
the fire at once. In Japan they have what they call (to 
mosh'te) doyd-boshi; when the dog-days come (ni naru) peo- 
ple air their clothes. He has often told us of Japan . It is said 
that there are sixty million people that speak German. In 
Japan there has been a great increase in the manufacture of beer 
(biir' no seizodaka increasing has come). In order to avoid 
(avoiding) conversation he left his seat. They wet their sleeves 
with tears (Letting flow tears they wet their sleeves). Don't 
spend all the money, but save (not spending all the money leave 
over) some. Soak this zdltin in hot water. We are annoyed 
(komaru)\>y the children scattering things about. They fought 
until the sparks flew (scattering sparks). You must not con- 
fuse your words so. Alexander overthrew the Persian Empire. 
As it is so hot that I can't drink it, please cool it. 


1. The auxiliary masu (masuru}\s in some respects irregular: 

Positive Negative 

Present masu, masuru masen(u) 

Past mafshita masen deshita 

masen(a)katta, nanda 

a The verb mesu has a wide range of meanings. The riksha-man says to his pas- 
senger : (Jinrikisha ni) o rnes/ii nasaimashi. Please seat yourself in the riksha. 
Notice the use of mesu in compounds: meshi-agaru eat or drink, <^w/'-w<?,y think., 




Future or maslio 
Probable masn desho 

Probable mashitarti 
Past mash ii<t <h>xkn 


masen (a}Jcattaro, 
masen (a')katta desho 
masen nara(ba) 

Conditional masureba 
maau(ru) nara(ba} masciik<'t-//a 


Past Con- masftttara(ba) 
ditional mashita nara(ba) 

Imperative mase 

mashi, mashi na 
Subordina- mashite 


Desiderative - 
Alternative masAt^art 

masen deshitara ( la ) 
masen(a)kattara ( ba ) 
masenandara( la] 
masen(a}katta nara(ba) 
masu na, masuru na 

masezu (shite], mascz>r ni 

masen (a Rattan', 

The conditional masureba, etc., and the negative imperative 
masuru na are derived from the longer form rnasuru, which 
often occurs also in the present tense, especially in formal speech. 

In the negative forms the characteristic vowel is e, not a. 
In the present tense the form in nai is wanting. 

The desiderative is wanting; in its stead the desidorativf <>f 
the plain verb with gozaimasuor omoimasu is used : not 1m- 
nashima&hitai, but hanashito gozaimasu or hanashitai to 

2. This masu is used only as an auxiliary attached to the 
steins of other verbs. It indicates that the speaker wishes to 
be courteous. See p. 142, 3. It is quite proper to use HHIXK 
in speaking to inferiors. But many tuiviiriHT.-; make their 
spe.rh too monotonous by using iu<t*u with all verbs iiidiM/rimi- 
nately. For \ariety's sake verbs in inconspicuous positions 
should ordinarily be plain. Further ///"*// may l>e more readily 
omitted with verb-; that are in themselves honorific than 
with common verbs. One must be more earel'ul to add // 
to verbs in the first pev.-ou thsui in the third, The use of masu 

LIT] Masii, mosu. 207 

is incongruous : (a) in a monologue or in repeating something 
previously said to the speaker; (b) in a conversation where the 
speaker is boku and his hearer kimi ; (c) in clauses dependent 
on a verb which is plain. When moved with indignation or 
in the heat of debate the natural tendency is to use curt forms. 
3. In formal speech one uses as auxiliaries special verbs such 
as nasaru, kudasaru and irassliaru (Ch. XLIX.). The verb 
mosu 3 - is also used as an auxiliary, chiefly in the first person, 
when the hearer is the direct or indirect object of the action. 
It follows the stem of a verb, the honorific o being prefixed : 

negai moshitai koto ga gozaimasu. 

1 wish to ask a favor. 

tanomimosu. I request your assistance (p. 125b). b 
Masu may be added to honorific verbs : nasaimasu, kudasai- 
tnasu, irassliaimasu, o negai moshimasu, etc. 


kaki-tome registration (postal). Ian checker-board, chess- 

naka-ma company, associates. board (numerative for games 

clia-no-yu ceremonial tea. c of checkers or chess), 

(o) itoma-goi leave -taking. koma chessman. 

itomagoi ni deru come fora setsu(c) season, period, time, 

parting call. en-ryo reserve (enryo suru 

go a game like checkers. feel diffident). 

go ico utsu play checkers. (9) enryo naku without re- 

sho-gi chess. serve, frankly. 

shogi ivo sasu play chess. fu-jin lady. 

a Mosu used as a principal verb means "say." As it implies respect for the per- 
son addressed, it cannot ordinarily be used in the second person. But a judge 
speaking as a representative of the Sovereign may say : Sotw ho no mosu tokoro wa 
(jnoshi-tateru lokoro -wa, or moshi-tate wo) tatanai. What you say is not valid. 
A master may speak similarly to a servant. One may say to a friend : Sato san ni 
yoroshiku moshita to osshatte kadasai. Please say to Mr. Sato that I wished to be 
remembered. Elliptically one may say : yoroshiku moshite kudasai. 

b At the door of a house or at a telephone one may say simply moshi\ moshi\ to 
attract attention. The answer is hai or at. In former times the reply to such a 
call was dore. 

c The^'tt is now written with the character for "hot water," but originally it was 
probably a variant of e, one reading of the character kwai assembly, 




k >/o -gen comedy, drama, play. 

kyo-ju professor. a 

kyu-ka holidays, vacation, 
leave of absence. 

sai-soku urging the fulfilment 
of an obligation, dun. 

shak-kin borrowing money, 

so-dan consultation. 

yak-kai trouble, care (for 
another), assistance. 

710 yakkai ni naru be aided 
by, be dependent on. b 

yo-su circumstances, condi- 
tion, appearance, gestures. 

kaburu, kamuru wear on the 

kom uru receive from a supe- 

go men your permission 
(polite 2). 

go men wo komurimasliite by 
your kind permission. 

sagasu search, inquire for. 

sumu come to an end, be fin- 

sugosu (in trans, sugiru) pass 

tsnbusu (intrans. tsubureru) 
crush, rub off. destroy. 

toki (him a) icotsulnisu waste 

ukagau peep, spy, inquire, 
pay a call. 

kashikomaru respectfully ac- 

itkeru receive, accept. 

itke-au assure, guarantee. 

sl.inzurn, sliinjite believe. 

sliim-po suru make progress, 

mattaku entirely, truly. 

mo-haya already, soon, no 
more (with a negative verb). 

nani-bun by all means, please ! d 

nochi-gata after a little while. 

waza to (m), icazciwaza pur- 
posely, specially. 

a The general term for teacher is kyo-shi or kyo- in. The terms kyo-ytt and kyo- 
ju are official titles, the former being applied to those who are duly qualified to 
teach in ordinary Middle Schools, Normal Schools, etc., while the latter are of a 
higher grade. Those who have simply graduated from a university and have not 
taken the post-graduate studies necessary to secure the degree of hakn-shior haka- 
se are called gaku-shi; e. g., i-gakinhi graduate in medicine, ri-gaknshi graduate in 
natural sciences. The American A. B. is rendered Beikoku bitn-gakushi (Inm let- 
ters). The degree of hakttshi being given only by the Government, our "doctor" 
cannot be translated haktishi without qualification. The German Ph. D. is Doitsu 
tetsngaku-hakushi. Foreigners employed as teachers by the ( 'lovcrnment are o va- 
toi kyoshi. Missionaries are scit-kyoshi or den-kyoshi (sen proclaim, den transmit). 

b Go yakkai ni narimashita I am under obligations to you. A quaint expression 
is: keisatsu no yakkai ni naru to be accommodated by the police (said of a criminal)- 

c This verb is used chiefly in the form kashikoinarimashita, signifying that the 
speaker will do as he has been told. It may be rendered "at your service" or 
"with pleasure." 

U For nani bun ni mo in every part (Ch. XVII.) . 

LII] Masu, mo'su. 209 

tori just as, just like. a zannen nagara it is too tad, 

go(c)=nochi after. but.... (comp. p. 197c). 


Tabitabi shakkin no saisokn ivo ukete komarimas'. Nani ivo 
sh'te toki wo sugoshimashd ka. Anata wa shogi wo sashimas* 
ka. Sayo, Seiyo no shogi nara dekimas' ga, Nilion no wa sa- 
sh'ta koto ga arimasen. Sore nara oshiete agemasho. Seiyo 
no shogi to chigaimas' ka. Sayo, s'kosJii chigaimas' ; koma 
mo yokei (m) arimas'. Anata Nihon ni oide nasaimash'ta 
toki ni go ivo uchimasen desh'ta ka. Metta ni uchimasenkatta 
kara, taitei wasuremash'ta. Dozo go wo oshiete kudasaimashi. 
Yoroshiu gozaimas' ; sono kawari (ni] kar'ta wo oshiete kuda- 
saimasen ka. Yd gozaimas' ; shikashi go no keiko wa amari 
Jiima ga kakarimas' nara yoshimasho. Zannen nagara, koko 
de o ivakare moshimasho. Yilbinkyoku ye itte kono tegami 
wo kakitome ni sh'te dash'te kudasaimasen ka. Hei, sassoku 
itashimasho. Tadaima irassh'tta o kyaku wo koko ye o tsure 
moshimasho ka.^ Sayo, koko ye o tsure mosh'te kure. Myo- 
nichi wa inaka ye tachimas' kara, o itomagoi ni demash'ta. 
Kore wo utsush'te kudasaimasen ka. Hanahada osoreirimas' 
ga so o lianaslii nas'tte kndasaimashi. Kono shinamono wa 
daijobu des' ka. Sayo, ukeaimas'. Sore wo honto to omoimas' 
(ni nasaimas'] ka. lie, mattaku shinjimasen. Senjitsuoha- 
nashi nasaimash'ta tori des' ka. Sayo, o hanashi moshimash'ta 
tori de gozaimas'. kaeri ni naru made koko de o machi 
mosh'te imasho. nakama-iri wo itashimash'ta kara, nani- 
bun yorosh'ku negaimas'. Nihon no yds' ivo mimasureba go 
isshin go wa nanigoto de mo (nan de mo) yohodo shimpo sh'te 
orimas'. Sakunenju wa iroiro go yakkai ni narimash'te ; kon- 
nen mo aikawarimasezu. c JVatakushi wa chanoyu wo naraitd 
gozaimas' ga, yoi sensei wo sagash'te kudasaimasen ka. Ka- 

a Sono tori like that. Jifsu mo no tori as always. Osshaiiuashita tori (or ose no 
tori) as you said. 

b Said by a servant. Instead of o tsure mdsu one may say also o toshi mom. 

c Both expressions are elliptical. Such phrases are apropos in offering New 
Year's congratulations. The iroiro is adverbial: in various ways. With aikawa- 
rimasezu is understood go kon-ini (intimately) negaimaszt, o snva sama ni naritnq* 
s u or similar words (p. 



sh'kom a rim a *7t 't< < ; kckoroafari ga gozaimas' /."/". tst/ide ni 
kiitc mimasho. Ano kata ica mohaya ni ju ncn mo Nilian ni 
irassliaimas' kara, kotoba tea mart' <!< Xilt<>njin no yd de gozai- 
masho. Go men ico komvrimash'te o saki ni rnfiirintashd. 
Sono uchi ni mata irasshaimaslti. Wazaitfftusa* o tazune ktidn- 
saimash'te jitsu ni domo arigatd gozaimas'. Kondo mata o 
negai moshimasho. b Omae nani ico sh'te hima ico tsubush'ta 
ka. Osoreirimash'ta', domo miclii ga icarukute fsh'kata ga go- 
zaimasen desh'ta. 

If you don't like (o kirai nara} it, please say [so] frankly. 
Shall we play a game of checkers? I have never played ; please 
teach me. If a person does not play often, he cannot (does not) 
"become expert. I will call soon again. Having a [matter for] 
consultation I visited him (visiting went), but, as he was sick 
(Injoki de),I returned without meeting him (aicazu ni}. Jap- 
anese ladies go out (sotou-o and' if) without wearing anything 
on [their] heads. What shall I offer (give) you? As they say 
that a new play begins (from) to-day, I want to go to see it 
(kembutxn ni). When my work is done, I will go with you. 
If I am hindered (theie is a hindrance) to-day, I will go to- 
morrow (asu n i itasu). If you send ( dasu) a letter to Mr. kubo, 
please remember me to him. As I am going to that neighbor- 
hood later, I will call (calling go) there. This gentleman c 
having come in your absence (o rusu ni) fora parting call, re- 
turned asking to be remembered (saying yorosh'ku). He was 
in Japan a year, but he doesn't know a bit of Japanese (Japa- 
nese is not even a little possible). As I have brought various 
samples, please look [at them]. If you understand (past cond.) 
that (to iu koto) s<dc (tea 1) is injurious, why don't you give it. 
up ? As the holidays are coming to a close (sltiimn ni naru), 
the professors of the university have probably returned. Since 
at present {konosettti "</) 1 have not very much (amari) btisi- 
-. I will come for study (k<'ik ni at/ant) every day. At 
what time shall I come ? 

a Wazawaza denotes that the call was not made incidentally, hut that the visitor 
had come specially for the purpose of making this particular call. Translate: 
took the trouble to. Domo is an interjection. 

b Said by a merchant to his customer, as when goods asked for are not in stock. 
An American would say : "Call again !" 

C Said by a servant presenting a visitor's card. 




1. The verb sum (stem ski] is also irregular : 

Positive Negative 

Present sum shinai , senai, sen(u) 

Past sliita shinakatta 

sen(a)katta, senanda 
Future or sliiyo, sho shimai, shinai daro 

Probable sum daro semai, senai daro, sen(u) daro 
Probable shitaro shinakattaro 

Past sliita daro sen(a)kattaro, senandaro\ 

shinakatta daro, sen(a)katta daro 

Conditional sureba, surya shinakereba, sen(a)kereba 
seba seneba {sezuba) 

sum nara(ba) shinai nara(ba), etc. 
Past Con- shitara(ba^) shinakattara(ba^) 
ditional shita nara(ba) sen(a)kattara(ba] 

shinakatta nara(ba), etc. 
sum na 
o shi de nai yo 



se(yo), sei 

(o) shi na 

o shi (yo) 




sezu ni, shizu ni 
shinaide, senaide, sende 
sliinakute, senakute 

Desiderative shitai shitaku nai 

Alternative shitari sliinakattari 

sen(a)kattari, senandari 

The briefer form su appears in the literary language and in 
the adjectives su-beki that ought to be done (p. Ill), su-beka- 
razaru that ought not to be done (conclusive, su-bekarazu). 

The only forms derived from sum are the conditional sureba 
and the negative imperative sum na. 

In the negative conjugation the characteristic vowel is e, as 
in the case of masn ; but suru differs from masu in having a 


form in iiai. Semai is irregular. Suinrti is rarely heard: So 
sumai zo. Don't do so! (You wouldn't do so.) 

2. Sometimes sum is to be rendered '''make/' as, for example, 
with the adverbial forms of adjectives: yoku sum make good, 
correct ; waruku sum make bad, spoil. a 

3. Notice also the following idioms: 
Do shimasho ka. What shall I do ? 
Do shite sono sara wo koicash'ta ka. 
How did you break that plate ? b 

Do shite mo deldmasen. It is utterly impossible. 

Do shita n' da. What have you done ? 

Do shita mon' daro. What shall I (we) do? 

Do shita hito desu. What kind of a man is he? 
So shite (p. 198a), so sum to, so shitara(ba) and so shita 
tokoro ga c may mark a transition in a narrative, like our 
"then," "so," "and," etc. So shite is often used pleonastically 
after a subordinative. See also p. 171 a. 

4. The following are examples of the use of sum taking an 
object with wo. 

Hen na kao ivo shite i,,ni*u. He makes a peculiar face. 

Shosei wo shite im aida kane ga nakatta. 

While I was a student I had no money. 

Yoshi ico shimashita. He took an adopted sou. 
Similarly many verbal expressions are derived from substan- 
tives. The wo may be omitted: 

ikusa wo sum, make war. kudu inn wo sum (ga dem) 

l<ili! 100 sttrtt make a journey, sneeze. 

shitaku wo sum make prep- shigoto wo sum work. 

a rations. kcga wo sum be wounded 

dkubiivo sum (gaderu) \n\\\\. (p. 159a). 

a "To make" in the ordinary sense is koshiracrn or tsukunt. Distinguish yoku 
sum and /Vc ni frosliiracm construct well; waruku snnt and heta in koshiracrti 
construct poorly. 

b When do shite is strongly emphasized it means rather "why." 
c The expression tokoro ga here has the same sense as the conjunction w. It 
sometimes means "when." One inay say so shimashita ga, but not sT> shita ga. A 
master may, however, say to a servant so shita g<i it. It may be well to do so. See 
p. 150, bottom. 

LIIl] Suru, 213 

Verbal stems are used in the same way, alone or in combi- 

kake wo sum wager, from kakeru (p. 173, Voc.). 

seki ivo sum cough, from seku. 

tsuri wo sum fish with hook and line. 

nui wo suru embroider, nui-mono wo sum sew. 

shirabe-mono wo suru make an investigation. 

mi-nage wo suru drown one's self (p. 58). 

te-narai wo suru practice penmanship. 

5. It is by the use of suru that numerous Chinese compounds 
are made to serve as verbs. With these ivo is more commonly 
omitted than with the expressions given above : 

an-nai suru guide, invite, san-jo suru make a call (san 

an-slio suru memorize. = mairu, jo = agaru). 

ben-kyo suru study, \)G diligent, shim-bo suru persevere. 

cho-dai suru=itaddku. a - shitsu-mon suru ask a ques- 

i-ju suru emigrate. tion. 

jo-dan suru jest. shitsu-rei suru be impolite. 

ken-chiku suru build. sho-bi suru praise. 

ken-yaku suru economize. sho-chi suru be aware, con- 

ko-gyo suru perform (theat- sent. 

rical plays, etc.). shu-zen suru repair. 

toko-saisuru associate with, so -ji suru clean. 

niktvan-kei suru have rela- sotsu-gyo suru graduate 
tions with. (from a school). 

man-zoku suru be satisfied. yo-jin suru take precautions. 

Almost all compounds of this kind are used also as substan- 
tives: go shochi no tori as you know; benkyo desu is diligent, 
etc. To some of them negative prefixes may be attached 
(p. 124). In this case suru may not be used : fu-benkyo desu', 
fu-manzoku desu; bu-yojin desu, etc. 

6. In some cases an object with no is made to limit the sub- 
stantive : 

no lianaslii ivo suru speak of. 

no uwasa wo suru gossip about. 

a Both chodai sum and itadakti have the sense to receive from a superior or 
from a person considered as such and are used of gifts , refreshments offered to a 
guest, etc. For a fuller discussion see Ch. LV. 


no jama wo sum be in the way of. 

no samatage wo sum hinder, from sumataycru. 

no mane wo sum imitate, from maneru. 

no scica wo sitru assist, take care of. 

no tomo ico suru accompany. 

But in most cases the substantive unites with sxru to form 
a true verbal expression, which may then take a direct object 
with wo (or indirect with ni): 

gwaikoku ico tab I *>//// travel in foreign countries. 

yome too seiva suru secure a wife (for another). 

te ico kega suru (te ni key a wo suru') get a wound in the 

hasJii wo shu-zen suru repair a bridge. 

gakko wo sotsu-yyo suru graduate from a school. 

benshi ni shit sum on suru ask the speaker a question. 
In some cases either construction is allowed. One may >ay 
shakkin no saisoku ivo suru or shakkin ivo saisoku xnru ; but 
in the former case wo must not be omitted after saisoku, 
while in the latter it must not be used. 

7. With some monosyllabic words derived from the Chinese 
suru coalesces: 

bassuru punish, from batsu. 

kessuru decide, resolve upon, settle, from ketsu. 3 - 

sassuru conjecture, sympathize with (sentiments, etc.), 

from satsu. 
After n, or a long vowel, by m'gori su becomes zu and sh i, ji : 

anzuru be anxious, be concerned about. b 

fiizuru seal (a letter). 

kenzuru offer as a gift. c 

kinzuru prohibit, forbid. 

sonzuru be injured (p. 85a). 

a In ketsu-gi, which denotes a resolution of a public assembly. From kessuru 
is derived the adverbial kesshite positively (p. I77c). 

b Anzuru, like sassuru, may not take a personal object: H'atakushi no kokoro 
wo sasshite kudasai, Sympathize with me. Oya wa shiju kodomo no koto wo anjite 
int. Parents are always anxious about their children. 

c Ikkon kenjimashd. Have a cup ! {ol sake}. Kon, the numerative for cups 
f sake, is really a variant reading of ken in kenzuru. 

LIII] Suru. 215 

tenzuru change (tr. and intr.), remove (intr.). 
zonzuru think, know (polite 1 ) . 

Since the stems of these verbs are anji,fiiji, etc., they are 
in the colloquial frequently inflected as though they belonged 
to the first class : anjiru, anjireba, etc. 

Observe also the euphonic changes in the following verbs. 
These are, however, more common in the literary style than in 
true colloquial : 

omonzuru esteem, from omoku suru ( omoi heavy, impor- 

karonzuru despise, from karoku suru (karui light, insig- 
nificant classical karoshi). 

8. Many intransitive verbs are formed by adding suru to ad- 
verbs. Most of the adverbs so used end in ri or belong to the 
duplicatives, largely onomatopoetic, in which the language 
abounds (comp. p. 128, bottom) : 

bikkuri suru be astonished, frightened. 

bonyari(to) suru be vague, distracted, stupid. 

sappari (to) suru become clear (p. 187b). 

bishibishi (mishimishi, gishigishi) suru creak (of timbers). 

cliiracliira suru flicker, flutter, become dim (of eyes). 

ukauka(to) suru be heedless, lazy. 

9. In some expressions suru is used just like aru : 

no aji ga suru there is a taste of, taste like. 

no nioi ga suru there is a smell of, smell like. 

no oto (koe) ga suru there is a sound of, sound like. 
indbikari ga suru it lightens. 

yd na kokoromochi (kimochi) ga suru feel as if. 
nagamochi ga suru last a long time. 

ji-shin ga suru (yuru) there is an earthquake. 
zu-tsu ga suru have a headache. 

10. The expression ni suru may mean "determine upon" 
(p. 1 34g) . The same idiom may also correspond to the Eng- 
lish "make of " 

Kono bunsho ivo lion ni shite dashimaslid. 
I will issue these essays in the form of a book. 

wo yoshi ni suru make an adopted son of, adopt. 

wo yome ni suru make a wife of, take to wife. 

wo ki ni suru take to heart, be concerned about. 

THE VERB. [Lilt 

Kono go konna koto 100 shinai yd ni shimasho. 

I will see to it that he does nothing of the kind hereafter. 
AVith a verb in the future tense to su,-u- means "be about 
to," "intend to" (p. 180,2 A). In other cases to Huni means 
"regard as" ; to sureba may be translated "taking it to be," "as- 
suming that," "if" : 

Amcrika ye iko to shite Yokohama made mairimaxhltn. 

Intending to go to America, I went to Yokohama. 

Kimi ga iku mono to sureba, ko in, baai ni do torrx ka. 

If you were going, what would yon do in such a case ? 
The idioms ni shite (wa) and to shite (wa) are equivalent to 
the English "for" and "as" in some of their uses: 

Kodomo ni shite wa yoku kaite arimasu. 

It is well written for a child. 

Anata wa daihyoslia to shite o hanashi ni narirnaxu. k<i. 

Do you speak as a representative ? 

11. The formal, polite equivalents of suru are itasu in the 
first (less frequently the third) person and nasaru in the sec- 
ond (less frequently the third) person. Accordingly do ita- 
fthimasho ka is more formal and polite than do shimasho ka', 
do nasaimashita ka, than do shiiitnxhita ka. 

12. It has been stated (pp. 142, 3 and 190a) that the hono- 
rific should be prefixed to the stem of a verb with itasu or /'- 
saru. The honorifics are naturally prefixed to any substantive 
that denotes the action of a person for whom respect is shown. 
Even in the case of the first person honorifics are in order 
when the act concerns a person for whom one wishes to show 

o tomo wo suru (itasu) go along. 

o jama disturb. 

o sewa render assistance. 

oj'i-gi ,, make a bow. 

go an-nai show the way. 

go chi-so furnish entertainment. 

go ho-mon pay a call. 

go sho-kai introduce. 

go sho-tai ., ,. invite. 
When the personal object is stated it may tak.- nl (ur no). 




But sliokai suru and shotai suru take a direct object with wo. 
Observe also: 

(Anata ivo) ltd san ni sliokai itasldmaslid lea. 

May I introduce you to Mr. I to? 

(Anata to] go isslio itasliimaslio. I will go with you. 

(Include the verbs in the above lists.) 

koto-gara nature of the thing, 
matter, circumstances. a 

tori-i the characteristic por- 
tal of a Shinto shrine. 

uri-zane-gao oval face. b 

ko (c) fragrance, incense. 

ben-shi speaker, orator. 

bu-joku insult, contempt. 

han-sho fire bell, fire alarm. 

ho-tei court (of justice). 

ki-kivai opportunity. 

kyo-in teacher. 

mei-sho noted place, place 
worth seeing. 

o-rai going and coining, thor- 

orai-dome closing a thor- 
oughfare (tomeru stop). c 

shu-kan week. d 

iri ga aru (oi) attendance is 

kaneru do at the same time 

(two things), be unable 

to do. e 
nokoru be left over (tr. no- 

kosu ) . 

tataku strike, beat, knock. 
kaze 100 hiku take cold. 

ni mukau, no ho ye mukau 

ni tort-kakaru commence 
work on. 

aclii-koclii here and there. 
chikai u'chi (ni} within a 

short time, soon. 
kitto surely. 

a The suffix gam denotes "kind," "quality," as \ngara no ii shina stuff of good 
quality, cloth of a good pattern, ie-gara no yoi Into a person of good family, a per- 
son of quality. ~Wiihji-setsu season gar a forms an elliptical expression: Jisetsu 
gara o daiji ni nasai. It being such a season, take good care of your health. The 
following example illustrates the use of kotogara: Kotoba wa wakarimasu ga koto- 
gara iua wakarimasen. I understand the words, but don't know what it is all 

b See p. 15. The word sane denotes only such seeds as those of the melon or 
peach. The general colloquial word for "seed" is tane. 

c A common notice on the streets: "Closed !" "No thoroughfare!" 

d The week was used even in old times as a measure of time : hito ma\vari,fn- 
ta mawari, etc. See Ch. XXIV. 

e In the second sense kaneru is added as a suffix to the stems of verbs : mairi- 
kanemasu cannot go (or come). 


shikirl ni persistently, con- i-rai since (following a noun 

stantly (p. 128d). or a verb in the subordi- 

txati(ni) at last, finally. nate form). 

nitsxite in regard to. oya exclamation of surprise. 


.'Do sliiyo ka. ^L>o shimasho ka. JDo itashimasho ka. V Ko 
itash'tara yorosliiu gozaimasho. $Kono lid u-a su<j>i ni t<>ri- 
kakara kotn ni itas/<i>nashd. bKo sli'te tnimaslio. 7 Nihonjin 
wa Matsushima no kcsh'ki tco taihen shobi shimas'. 3 - $Shiz>'k<t 
ni sltiro.^ty Shimbo sli'te kau/aku wo sureba kitto kane ga no- 
kartmasf&Benski ! sliitsumon sh'tai koto ga am. ti Omae shim- 
bo sh'te ts'tomero. /^- Sliiyo to omou koto lua sugu ni sum ga ii. 
ij> jigi ivo o shi yo. c ftMada icdl'iiri/nn^'n kara, sensei ni shi- 
tsumon it(iK/tii//asho. tfOtomo (ico) ifashimaahd. fa Do itfixhi- 
mash'te.A) 1 ] Kakc n- itxshimasho ka. flSakirjitsit ica taihen na 
<i.r<ixlii de yozaimadi'ta ga konnic/ti ica x<nnm,-i it<ixltiiit<iHlSta 
(sappari to lx'r< nt*]i't<i}tf 3/nkoto ni o jama (wo) itashin/d- 
sh'ta. e pO jama ivo itashimas' ka mo sMremasen.ilSenjiteu ica. 
i itashimash'ta.f ftJ)are ka to ivo tataku oto ga sum ; 
ga kita ka akcte mite kuret-50 saki ni i-Juldai itashimas'. & 
' kara hajimemash'ta kyogeu ica ikka bakari kogyo 
' ka.^rSayd sa, ni shukan gurai itas' so des'; shikashi 
iri ga <~>kerebafta ts'ki mo itashimasho.i^Yasumichu (ni^a- 
'Jtikochi tabi shimash'ta. >*}Kono saki no liaslii ica shuzen sh'- 

a A group of numerous islets covered with pines, in a corner of the Bay of Sendai. 

b Here shiro is to be translated "be." Shizuka ni is to be parsed as an adverb. 
Politely one might say : O shizuka ni nasaimashi. 

c This may be said by a woman to her own child. 

d Often : Do itashimashite ; sore ni ua oyobimasen. Why ? Don'r mention it. 
Do itashimashite is the usual response when pardon is asked, thanks are expressed, 
etc. The phrase is elliptical for something like : Do shite so iu o kotoba -u>o ukeru 
neuchi ga arimaslio ka, 

e Pardon the interruption. Notice that o, not go, is used with ja-tna, a word 
probably of Chinese-Buddhistic origin (ja evil, ma hindrance, spirit ). 

f This expression is used when one meets a friend. The allusion is to a pre- 
vious meeting. No honorific is required with shitsurei p. 33). The whole ex- 
pression may be abbreviated to Senjitsu 'i'a. 

g In this manner one may excuse himself for beginning to eat before another. 

h For clni compare p. I37a. Translate : during vacation. 

LIII] Sum. 219 

tc imas' kara, a oraidome des' ; s'koshi mawatte ikimasholffia- 
ni wo go ansho nas'tte irasshaimas' ka^JJKono sakana iva myo 
na aji ga shimas'. JoKonaida ano kata ni michi de aimash'ta 
gaminufuri wo sh'te ikimash'ta.^ tjKono bunsho wa bonyari 
sh'te imas'. >Sugawara no Michizane wa do sh'ta Into des' ka. 
& Sore kara tenjite so iu imi ni narimasli'ta. <&J-Nihon de iva uri- 
zanegao wo ( p. 15 ) ichiban ii to sh'te arimas'&O tenki ni sh'- 
tai mon' des' .tyOmae naze zash'ki wo soji shinai ka (zash'ki no 
soji wo shinai ka )&7iKonna ni kitanaku sh'te do sh'ta n' (mon') 
des'.jftAnata ga Tokyo ye oide ni narimash'tara hobo no mei- 
sho ye (wo) go annai itashimaslio.&fAnata noiu koto iva honto 
to iva omoivaremasen ; * shikashi moshi honto to sureba taihen 
des'.ijO Omae so shinakereba shochi shinai zo. ifiJishin ga sum 
( yuru ) to, ie ga bishibishi suru ( iu ) ftKozukai ga ukauka sh'- 
te ite komarimas' .IfZKono baai ni wa do sh'te mo wa to iu ji wo 
ts'kenakereba narimasen (p. Il^c^.iffShinajin ni sh'te wa yo- 
ku Eigo ga dekimas'. ^ Tokyo ni sh'te wa hidoi oyuki de wa 
arimasen kaj Go jodan nas'tte kudasaru na. ^IGo yojin na- 
saitftTaihen bikkuri itashimash'taHftGakko no kyoin wa seiji ni 
kwankei subekarazaru hazu da. $oTanaka Shozo san wa hotei 
de akubi wo sh'ta tame ni kwanri-bujoku no tsumi de bassera- 
remash'ta. $ I Dare ka watashi no uwasa wo sh'te iru to miete 
kushami ga dete naranai. f &Chiisa na koto de mo karonjite wa 
naranai. &Kayo na kotogara wa hito no mina omonzuru tokoro 
des'. 3^Sekkaku go shotai kudasaimash'ta ga, shosho sashits'kae 

a Translate : the bridge ahead of us. Compare : here kara saki no michi the way 
we are going. Notice that shuzen suru can be construed either transitively or in- 
transitively : They are repairing the bridge ahead of us, or, the bridge ahead of 
us is a-repairing. 

b With a preceding verb furizuo shita may be translated: " pretended that," 
"acted as though." 

c In philology tenzuru is often used of changes in the meanings of words. 

d Lit. I should like to make good weather of it = I hope the weather will be 

e I cannot think, omowareru being the potential of omou. 

f For naranai compare: Fushigi de naranai (p. I58b). The Japanese have a 
notion that when a man sneezes it is a sign that some one is talking about him. 

g Compare the Chinese saying: Issun no Awo-in karonzitbekarazu {isstm a 
little bit, kwo-in light and shade, time ). 

220 THE VERB. [LIIl 

ga gozanitii- nrci, znnxc/t iiinjdrti an/o 
t'lk/tdti' no kokoro mo s'koshi tea fta-wlSte fetu2oat. rcfefeon k<-n- 
jitui inon' des'. ^Gakkd u'o sotst/i/yd dihmi tn-lti ten ///</, -i 
tK'hi ( my family) no seica iro *>//// koto ga dehima8en.5\0ya } 
kono zash'ki ire It id ok". t'tbnko no idol <j<( */<///>"*' koto ! $C\Ano 
hito wa shiri mo shin-aide sli'tta kao wo sh'te imas'.vQJibun hi- 
tori no kangae de sh'ta koto de mo artmas'inai. 

What I ought to do I don't know. What ought I to do ? I in- 
tended to ask the speaker various questions, but refrained (hi- 
kdrj'tt). The number of Germans that have emigrated to 
America since the year 1820 is said to be four million. I Avill 
do it day after to-morrow, because to-morrow I have no time. 
Since my son cannot study (gaknmon g<( dekinai), I will 
make a farmer of him. Please do so. Europeans do not praise 
the scenery of Matsoshima so much as ( yd ni ) the Japanese. 
It seems as if (-yd des' ) the fire alarm were sounding. Ascend 
the roof and see where (dokoga) the fire is. In my neighbor- 
hood they have built a primary school. 'As my eyes are dim I 
can't s;.-e anything. Since he associates a great di ; al with Jap- 
anese, he speaks (dekirti) the (Japanese) language well (u- 
mnlcu}. The interior of a [Buddhist] temple smells of ince: 
That child appears to have taken a cold and is constantly 
sneezing, is it not (j<i /tui ka)? One must not cough in the 
face of (facing) a person. It is said that a woman drowned 
herself last night. No matter ho\v (ikirra mo) well it is done, 
he is not satisfied. If I have time, I will visit [him] soon. 
Shall I introduce Mr. Goto to you ? If [you ] fail to ( do not ) 
decide things ( monogoto} quickly and miss the opportunity, it 
will finally become f.>re\vr impossible. In regard to this mat- 
ter be not at all (Av.wAVc) anxious. In Japan it is forbidden 
to take ( ) horses and vehicles within ( nalca ye ) the por- 
tal of a shrine. I am troubled with ( doing ) headache this 

a The sense is : Try to put yourself in my place. Walahishi no kokoro mo 
don't look at the matter entirely from your own point of view ; stikoshi u<a it is 
not reasonable to expect that you should enter into my feelings entirely. 



To the fourth group belong verbs in ku. 

1. Paradigm of kiku (stem kiki} to hear, or to be efficacious 

Positive Negative 

Present kiku kikanai, kikan(u) 

Past kiita kikanakatta, nanda 

Future or kiko kikumai 

Probable kiku daro kikanai daro, kikan daro 

Probable kiitarb kikanakattarb, nandarb 

Past kiita daro kikanakatta daro 

Conditional kikeba (kikaba} kikanakereba (kikanakuba) 
kiku nara [ba) kikaneba 

kikanai ndra(ba) 
Past Condi- kiitara(ba] kikanakattara, nandara(ba) 

tional kiita nara (ba) kikanakatta nara(ba) 
Imperative kike kiku na 

(o) kiki na o kiki de nai yo 
o kiki (yo~) 

Suborclinative kiite kikazu (shite], kikazu ni 

kikanaide, kikande 

Desiderative kikitai kikitaku nai 

Alternative kiitari kikanakattari, nandari 

The double i in kiite, etc., arises from- the elision of the k in 
kikite. Compare the following: kaku, kakite, kaite; tsuku, 
tsukite, tsuite', maneku, manekite, maneite', oku, okite, oite. 

2. The verb yuku or iku, to go, is somewhat irregular. Such 
forms as yuite, yuita, etc., arejnot injisg. From iku are derived 
not iite, iita, but itte, if fa. ctc. a 

3. Some intransitive verbs of this group correspond to transi- 
tive verbs in keru. Thus the expression Id ga tsuku fire kindles 
corresponds to hi wo tsukeru ; ki ga tsuku be attentive, to ki 
wo tsukeru', akai iro ga tsuite iru have a red color, to akai 

a These must be carefully distinguished from the corresponding forms of iru to 
enter, or to parch (p. 185). Also in to say m&yu to dress (the hair) take the 
game inflections ordinarily, though iute, iu!a> etc,, are also current, 


iro wo tsukeru to color red; k-i ga oclii-t suite iru the mind is 
composed, to ki wo ochltsnkeru. Observe also: 

kitttsuku adhere firmly. kuttmtkeru attach firmly. 

akit open (intr.). (ikeru open (tr.). 

mtiku face. mukerit -turn. 

kirtia/tiiki', incline, lean. katamukeru incline, bend. 

todoku reach, arrive. todokeru deliver, report. 

tsuzulcu continue, hold out. tsuzukeru continue, keep up. 

But quite as often the relation is just the reverse, the verb 
in keru being a passive or intransitive form derived from the 
verb in kit : 

hirc&u open, begin, clear. a Mrakeru become civilized. 

kudaku break, crush. kudakeru be broken, crushed. 

mitku peel, skin. mukeru peel (intr.). 

nuku draw, extract. nukeru be extracted, escape. 

saku tear, rip. salteru be torn, ripped. 

toku melt, dissolve. tokeru be melted, thawed. 

toku loose, explain. tokeru be loosed, solved. 

ydku burn, roast, bake. yakeru be burned, baked. 

4. Tho suffix-verb ineku to resemble, appear, usually in the 
form ///'//, lm (oru), deserves passing notice in this connection : 
k<>d<>,,tt>itt<'ik- iru is childish, Iturtinicite oru is spring-like, etc. 


(Include the verbs given above.) 

don the noon signal given kire cloth. 

by firing a cannon. b km-inni walnut, butternut. 

fue flute, pipe. namekuji skog. 

fue ivofuku play the flute. f" rice field. 

koto a large stringed musical Ao<rse.-d. 

instrument, harp. ten!:! side, si<ie at' the chest 
koto ivo hiku play tlie koto. (including armpit). 

kitji lot. <ix<t-<j,in inurnin^-u'lory. 

l:i'l ten ],ikn (\\-A\\ lots. //i-iii'itni,-/ suillinwer. 

a The verb hiraku is used intransitively of the opening of a door, the bloom 
ing of a flower, etc. 

b The more elegant term \sgo-Ko (go noon, ho cannon}. 





kotoivaza proverb, maxim. 
ryo-gae-ya money changer. 

in writin g)- 

kaiva side (in spto-gaiva). 

en, en-gaiva veranda. 

am-ma shampooer, blind 
person. a 

za-to blind minstrel, blind 

cliii-bu paralysis. 

do-dai foundation. 

go-gaku linguistics, language 

ji-ko climate, weather. 

sei-ko success. 

setsu-bun the transition from 
one season to another, es- 
pecially the night when 
winter changes to spring, 
according to the old calen- 
dar (lit. season dividing). 

tai-yo the sun. 

sho-kai-jo letter of introduc- 

kayui, kaii itchy. 

tayasui easy to accomplish. 

ko-dai no of ancient times, 

ko-ban ancient gold coin, el- 
liptical in shape. b 

kata form, pattern, mold. 

nari form, shape, appearance. 

kdban-nari no 

koban-gata no 

daku hold in the arms, em- 

fuku wipe. 

hibiku resound, sound. 

kamu chew, bite. 

maku sow, scatter, sprinkle. 

maneku invite. 

may oti go astray. c 

mayoi-go, mai-go lost child. 

okonau do, perform, practice. 

okonai conduct, behavior. 

shiku spread (mats, etc.), lay 
(a railroad). 

ugoku move, be influenced 
(tr. ugokasu). 

uzuku ache (like a tooth). 

mi-otosu overlook. 

ni moto-zuku take as a ba- 
sis, base upon. 

itazura wo suru act to no 
purpose, be in mischief. 

a From an grasp, ma rub. To shampoo or perform massage is ammo, -wo torn 
or iiiotnu (rub). Professional shampooers are usually blind men or women. A sham- 
pooer who is not blind is called me-aki no amma. The anima piping shrilly in the 
streets to advertise his presence, especially at night, is a characteristic feature of 
Japanese life. In the Tokugawa era the Government organized the blind into 
guilds. Officially recognized blind minstrels or shampooers were called za-to (lit. 
seat-head, i. e., head minstrel). "Blind person" is more exactly mo-jin; colloquial 
me-kura ; classical me-shii. 

b The o-ban (p. 15) was a larger coin equal to ten koban. 

c To lose the way is michi ni mayou, rarely michi wo may OH. One may also 
say ; michi -wo rnacAigau, 


nedan u-o liiku reduce the swosoro slowly, softly, gradu- 

price. ally. 

kaze ga fulfil a wind blows. kin-jltxu in few days (kin = 

jibiki ico hikn consult a die- cJn'kai}. 

tionary. isso (no koto} rather. 
tsune ni always. 


/ Watakuslii ica kinjitsu Igiris 1 ye tachimas' kara, shokaijo 
wo kaite kudasaimasen ka. JYoroshiu gozaimas 1 ; ni san tsii 
(ni sambon) kaite agemasho^B Samui kara, s'tobu ni z hi wo 
taite kure. ^Hei, tadaima siigu ni takimas'. ^Ha ga uzukii 
kara, islia ni nuite moraimashd.bDfush'ken wo ids' toki ni hebi 
to namekuji to deru to, namekuji ga kachimas'', naze naraba 
namekuji ga hebt ni kictteuku to, hcbi ga tokctf x/it'i/m" kara 
da so des'. b 7 Tilt<~-!txnr('i to in xlioiimlx u-n XiJion u<> kciho 
u'okfi/tti irliila n/i/i->'i Itoa des'. tfMakanu tn/tc ica haaui 
(Proverb). jAnofiic tea nun dcslio ; amina w.<- gafite tcofii- 
ite iru ja nai ka.lvOwari no Seta t<> la mttra <Ie t/akimito ic<> 
sum ie tea hacJii Jikkcit Itodo ari/nas\ c (fAnata no scnci ica 
i ni mo oxlilctc ka<lMi->t Jti/na ga arriitaxho ka. j^Dd 
kono tnkigi tea hi ga tsttkanui ka f/iira (=shiran)./^Ka- 
am kara, t*!>k>' Imzu da ga, ne. JyKaii tokoro ni te ga 
t<><li>l;ntai yd da. d JSKono ie ica <!<><l<ii <ja warukute jishin <j 
yarn t<>, tuifoi ugdkimas'.llKono kyogen <> m ' -.'/tic 

tn'fcafta /to dcs' ka. )~)Ko(hu no rckixhi ni tn/'>:.a/fc 
mon 3 di'.S. Ifalaiijoj'/nlii ir<t btmclii in H<II,;HC vn 1:<iHc 
ni ts'kcte am kohmiiiiiri no ta<l d,*' ; sore d<t kura l;n<Ii,moga 

a Notice carefully the use of the postposition ni in this connection. The stove 
is, as it were, the indirect object. One may say also sutolm tee takii. Ki -so tuktt 
burn wcxxl ; hence taki-gi firewood. 

b Compare p. l88a. When an explanation begins with na~c naraba or set* wa, 
it ends in kara desu. l>ut when sere 'Cti introduces an explanation of a word, idiom 
or proverb, the sentence may t;nd with to in koto desit. 

c Seta in the province of Ou'uri is famous for its manufacture of porcelain. 
Hence the general term f*ir porcelain is seto-mono. 

d A proverb derived from the ( 'liiiK--!.- : kakit kuw sl> tv (lit. tlirough shoe scratch 
itch). The reference is to an annoying difficulty. Of an agreeable experience 
or a clever person one may also say : Kaii tokoro ni te ga todoku yd da. 


michi ni mayotte mo sugu ni sono uclii ga ivakarimas' . WNihon 
no kotoivaza ni jibun no ta ye mizu ivo Mku to iukoto ga gozai- 
mas' (p. 27c)2oAno hito iva chubu ni kakatte imas' kara, te aslii 
ga^kikanaku narimash'ta.,ti Nilion no zash'ki ni wa tatami wo 
shiite arimas'. AlKuruma ni noru yori wa isso aruita ho ga 
yd gozaimas'&Jilto ga sorosoro harumeite mairimash'tajfKono 
ringo wa taiso yoku iro ga tsuite imas 9 . y.^Gogaku no keiko wa 
shi/u tsuzukenakereba totemo seikd shimasen.XNihon no ie wa 
taigai minami-muki ties' .ZTRis 1 iva katai kurumi no kara ivo 
tayas'ltu Itami-kudakimas* . ?%Miclii ni kiite miclii ni toku.b 

) These matches won't burn (fire does not kindle), because 
they are damp. 2Js the bath ready (has the hot water boiled) ? 

J Yes, it has been boiling (is boiling) for some time (since a little 
while ago). if\ will reduce the price as much as possible. S You 
will hardly understand it if you do not consult (consulting see) 
a dictionary. bEbisu c holds a tai under his arm (waki). 7 Go 
to the money changer and inquire the rate of exchange (market 
price of the dollar), f Please explain the reason for that (sono). 

<f Shall I peel the melon for you ? /0When you go (travel) to Eu- 
rope, I will write you a letter of introduction. //As it is raining 
to-day, the noon signal sounded louder (hidoku) than usual. 

>2-On the evening of setsubun the master of the house scatters 
roasted beans in every direction (hobo ni) and says: "Luck (iva) 
in (uchi), demons out." ^This is what a girl ten years of age 
wrote; indeed it is well done (p. 127b). '/The shampooers walk 
[through] the streets at night blowing (fuki nagara) [their] 
flutes. AJYou must wipe the veranda every day./>0n the paper 
slides of tobacco shops there is usually painted (written) a to- 
bacco leaf. /^This picture is one that Kano Motonobu d painted 
(wrote). /'fin Japan recently [they] have built (laid) railroads 

a For te to as/it ga. With words that are often paired in common usage the con- 
junction may be omitted : oya ko parent and child, asa ban morning and evening, 
karni hotoke gods and buddhas, narni kaze waves and winds, sake sakana viands, 
kbfu-kd happiness and unhappiness, suru koto nasu koto every deed (nasu being 
the classical equivalent of suru). 

b The Japanese rendering of a Chinese proverb. The reference is to a display of 
ill-digested learning. 

c One of the seven gods of luck (shichifukujiri). 

d The most famous of the Kano family of painters (XVI. Century). 



in every direction./? As there is now a railroad (laid) from 
Tokyo to Sendai, more people will be going to Matsushima 
(people that go to M. will be more) than before (maye yori). 

74 Please draw one of these lots. 2JThat blind minstrel plays the 
koto well. 2-3 have taken a cold and have a headache. AiThe 
water of the Tarna Elver is brought (p. 163, 5) to Tokyo. 

2-V Shall we walk or (shall we) ride ?3SWe will walk, for if we go 
by kuruma we shall overlook many (yoku) things. 2 tJn Berlin 
they sprinkle water on the streets twice a day .47 Please under- 
score (draw aline under) thatJgThat man's behavior is childish. 

>f This cloth will be beautiful if you color it red. &>That house 
has leaned over very much (Jiidoku) on account of (de) last 
night's earthquake.^/ The (flower of the) sunflower always 
faces in the direction of the sun<^*Please deliver this book to 
Mr. Sato. -13 The morning-glory opens early every morning, 
children have been in mischief and torn the book.irl shall 
invite [some] friends to-morrow ; for it is my birthday. 


The verbs oku and itadaku are often used in combination 
with the subordinatives of other verbs. 

Okt> to set, put, place, with a subordinative means "leave in 
that condition": 

irete oku put it in (intending to leave it in). 

kane wo iamete oku lay money by (tameru accumulate). 

azukete oku deposit (azukeru entrust). 

utchatte oku let it alone (utcharu throw away). 

Sono mama ni shite okimasho. I shall let it be as it is. 

Sono mama sutete dkimashita. 

I let it be as it was (sttteru cast away). 

Shitaku shite okimasho. 

I will (make my preparations and) be ready. 

Rusui ni kahi wo oite okimasho.* 

\Ve will put the maidservant in charge of the house. 

a OUe oku is occasionally heard in the sense of "to employ," but tmkatte cttf, 
yatottc cXv/, tam>nJe okn t etc., are more natural in this connection, 

I/V] O'ku, itadaku. 227 

Itte oku (ittoku) koto ga aru. I have something to tell you. 

When oku follows a negative subordinative, it may be ren- 
dered by means of "leave" with a passive participle (p. 173d). 

Itadulci/ (or chudai suru) "to rix'oivy from above" with a 
suborcHiiative indicates that the act denoted by the subordinated 
verb is for the benefit of the speaker. It may be rendered 
in some cases by means of "have" with the infinitive. But to 
bring out the deference expressed by itaddku a paraphrase is 
usually necessary': 

Anata ni sore wo oshiete itadakito gozaimasu. 

Please teach me that (I wish to have you teach me that). 
The verb morau (p. 92h, Ch. LX.) is used in the same way, 
but itaddku is more respectful. For the use of these verbs in 
preferring requests compare also p. 151. 


mama original condition, sliibui astringent, austere. 

natural preference. a shibu the juice of unripe per- 

sliiru juice, soup. b - simmons. c 

taru keg, barrel. shibu-kaki unmellowed per- 

fuyu-gi [Japanese] winter simmons. 

clothing. ko-gai buying in small quan- 

fuyu-fuku [European] winter tities. 

clothing (comp. yo-fuku^). uri-kai mercantile transac- 

hachi-ue potted plants. tions, trade. 

maku to roll up. gwa (c) picture, drawing. 

mold-mono roll (picture or ka-hi=ge-jo maidservant. 

writing). kan-seki Chinese books. d 

a Shake ya masu u<o naiiia no mama (de] taberu no u<a kennon desu. It is risky 
to eat salmon or masu raw. Nan no kangae mo naku kiita mama (nt) hanashima- 
shita. Unthinkingly I said just what I had heard. Yononaka no koto wa ware- 
ware no onicu mama ni wa naranu. The things of the world do not go according 
to our liking. These three sentences illustrate the most common uses of mama. 

b The honorific o is usually prefixed when shiru is used in the sense of " soup .' 
Women say also (j) mi) o tsitke (p. 32}. 

c This is much used as a stain for wood or paper (shibu-kami*). Shibu also de- 
notes the astringent rind of a chestnut. 

d Compare sho-seki books, also pronounced shojaku. 




I'i-yen fixed period. a 

t la i-fuku-ch o day-book. b 

ju-zai-nin one guilty of hei- 
nous crime, felon (Ju = 

amai sweet. 

shio ga' amai not salty 

kibishii strict, severe. 

yasashii gentle, easy. 

(o)ki-no-doku na regrettable. 

kana-ntajiri no mixed with 
liana (of compositions writ- 
ten in ideograms ). d 

Itoru, lioru throw. 

hotte oku, hottoku let-*1tlone, 
be indifferent. 

kfin-sho suru interfere. 

sarasu expose, bleach. 

no kubi ico sarasu, wo 
sarashikubi ni suru expose 
the head of (a criminal). 

sasu pour into, drop upon. 

ak^-banasu ( akeppanasu ) , 
ake banashi ( akeppa n a */< i ) 
ni suru leave open. 

saru leave, depart from, get 
rid of. 

oki-zari ni suru abandon. 

uke-tamaicarureveive (a com- 
mand), hear (polite 1). 

utcharu (nchi-yaru^) throw 
away, reject, let alone. 

to kara long since. 

to ni a long time ago. 

icJti nichi old ni ") every oth- 

kaku-jitsu (c) ni ) er day. 

ni oite at, in regard to. 


/ To wo akeppanash'te (akeppanashi ni sh'te^) oke. * JUado wo 
aJtezunidkimasho k(ij>Konokane ica kt/ni nikaeru imtJc iranai 
kara, Yokohama no ginko ye azukete oko. ^Kono sakana wo ya- 
ku mae ni ni jikan ka san jili<m .*// o// ni ts'kete oku to, taihen 
umaku nui-i/i/ax' . fJlojubun ni kanji ico naraimash'ta kar", 
nani ka yasaxhii lion ga yomitai to omoimasu; dozo, kanama- 
jiri no hon wo sagash'te itadakaremasen ka. 6 Korc ica aru- 
kdr' ni ts'kete oku to, k'sarimasen.*] Kore made shouu wokoga.i 

a Distinguish the three homonymns ki-gen temper, state of health (p. 33b), ki~ 
gen era, as in kigen-aen B. C. and kigcn-go, or simply kigen, A. D., and the above. 

b From dai great, fukn luck, wealth, and cho notebook (in chd-men"). Another- 
word is de-iri-cho or shittsit-nyu-cho. The technical term is sui-to-bo (sni shutsu=. 
dasn, to or no osa merit or irent, bo book). A ledger is dai-cho (dai foundation). 

c Lit. poison of spirit. The phrase o kinodoku i/esu is often used as an expres- 
sion of sympathy or as an apology. 

d The classical equivalent of mazem is maju (niajiu), sometimes appears 
in the colloquial in the form majieru. The intransitive verb, corrcsjxinding to 
14, is majiru (Ch. XL VIII.) 

LV] Oku, itadaku. 229 

(ni) shite orimasli'ta ga, kore kara wa taru de totte okimasho. 
%Kono mae (at the previous lesson) sensei ni (kara) osowatta 
koto iva wakarimasen kara, mo ichi do tokiakash'te itadakima- 
sho. T Seifu ga kore wo sono mama ni hotte oite wa ikemasen. 
/ 1> Sono mama ni sh'tq-oke. " Kigen wo sadamete kane wo ginko ye 
azukete oku to, ristf&u ga takaku tsukimas'./->Myd-nichitabini 
demos' kara, komban o itoma womosh'te okimasho ^jDanna sama 
ga o rusifnara kakinokosh'te okitai koto ga arimas' kara, dozo 
pen to kami wo kash'te kudasaitfflHai, tadaima sugu ni dash'te 
sashiagemas' . )S Watakushi wa Fukiage no o niwaivo 3 - haiken 
itash'to gozaimas' kara, doka go tsugo no yoi toki ni tsurete itte 
itadakaremas'mai ka. y 4>Fo gozaimas' ; mo ni san nichi tatsu to 
haiken ni mairu yd ni tomodachi to mo yak'soku sh'te okima- 
sli'ta kara, sono told b go issho ni mairimasho (go issJio itashi- 
masJio). C]Kono nochi sonnakoto wo shinai yd ni kodomo ni 
kibish'kv- iits'kete okimasho. /^ Uekiya san, kono niwa no ddgu 
100 kdtazukete o kure; sonna ni chirakasli'te oite wa (oicha) ko- 
marimas'. llSakujitsu sensei ni oshiete itadakimash'ta bakari 
des' kara,ckitto oboete imasho. $00 kinodoku des' ga, itadaite 
okimasho. 2 / Kono o mi o ts'ke iva chitto shio ga amai kara, ,9'- 
koshi shoyu wo sash'te cJiodai.^Ko iu baai ni (oite) iva seifu ga 
kansho shinakereba naranai.^Kono heya wo soji (mo) shina- 
ide itsu made mo utchatte oite iva ikenai. tySoko made ni Ha- 
sh' te okimasho. A 

' Because you left the door of the cage open, the bird has es- 
caped (escaping finished), j. You must not leave the window 
open. j> Go to the storehouse and bring the box in which are 
the rolls; then, (so sh'te) when you have come ot, shut it 
(shutting put) well, f- German fishermen, when they catch 
herring, at once pickle them in salt. ^Daikon if pickled too 

a The name of a park in the old castle grounds, the present kwokyo, in Tokyo. 
Haiken surn.(hai=ogamu, ken miru) is used for mini, especially in the first person, 
of objects belonging to the one addressed or to an exalted personage. In the latter 
case it may be used in the second person also. 

b The postposition ni is understood. Compare aru hi one day, for am hi ni, ko- 
no nochi hereafter, for kono nochi ni. 

c Compare tadaima kuiida bakari desu (p. 122, middle). After a past verb ba- 
kari de, bakari desu, may be translated "just." 

d The usual formula at the end of a lesson or lecture. 

230 THE VERB. [LV 

long in salt becomes [too] salty. **! wish you would change the 
hour for recitation (keiko no). 7 I wish to learn Japanese 
drawing (Niliongwa) ; please inquire for a good teacher. < Shall 
I cut the branches of this pine tree a little??No, leave it as it is. 
^The account book in which shopkeepers record (tsukeru) their 
transactions (urikaidaka) is called daifitkuchd. I wish you 
would take me to the theater once. /^Abandoning Avit'e and 
children, he went (going finished)to America- In Japan [they] 
formerly exposed the heads of felonsy^Put these potted plants 
out into the garden, ci have made an agreement with a friend 
to (yd ni) read Chinese books together every other day. A Com- 
mand the maidservant that she do nothing like that hereafter 
(kono go}. '/You must not leave the books scattered about like 
that. / '/I have heard that you are good at checkers (go ga o 
jozu] ; please teach me a little (hitotsu) . fy I ordered winter 
clothing long since, but it is not finished yet.-r I will come 
down to ten yen (p. 125a)>?Even though one makes an agree- 
ment, difficulties (sashits'kae) often occur (dekimas' ).**& you 
put unmellowed persimmons into rice, they become sweet. a 


1. The verb kuru (stem k-i) is irregular: 
Positive Negative 

Present kuru konai, lton(u}, kinti.i 

Past kita kon^d^katta, khi"k<iffn. konanda 

Future or koyo, kiyo komai, kumui 

Probable kuru daro kmtta' </ni-r>. kmi <l'i,-n 

Probable kitaro kon^a^kattaro, konamtaru 

Past kita daro kon tlatturn, konakoffn i/uru 

Conditional kureba konakereba (konakuba) 

koeba k/nakcrcba (kinakvba) 

kuru nara(ba) koi/' 

kuiKii UK /-a (l>d}. /.",/ nara(ba) 

Past Con- l;!t(ira(ba) koriakattara(ba), konandara(ba) 

ditional kita nara(ba) kmt'tloiffd nara(ba) 

a One may also say : shibu ga nukemasu. 

LVI] Kuru. 231 

Imperative koi kuru na 

ki na kuru(n') de nai (yo) a 

Subordina- kite kozu (shite}, kozu ni 

tive konaide, konde 


Desiderative kitai kitaku nai 

Alternative kitari konakattari, konandari 

kinakattari, kinandari 

The briefer form ku appears in ku-beki (compare su-beki). 
From, kuru are derived the conditional kureba and the nega- 
tive imperative kuru na. 

The ko in koyo, koeba, koi and the negative forms is irregular. 

2. The imperative koi (pp. 34e, 37d, 48c) is peremptory. 
Familiarly one may say oide, oide na, oide yo] politely, oide 
nasai, irasshai. 

3. Polite equivalents ofkimasu are: for the first (or third) 
person, mairu(jnairimasu^or agaru; for the second (or third) 
person, irassliaru (irassliaimasu] , oide nasaru r oide ni' naru.* 

4. Kuru often follows the subordinatives of other verbs: 
dete kuru come out 

haitte kuru come in 

kaette kuru come back 

nagarete kuru come floating 

hette kuru decrease . 

mashite kuru increase 

Sometimes kuru with a subordinative may be translated 
"begin "(p. 92b) : 

Ame gafutte kimashita. It has begun to rain. 

Samuku natte kimashita. It begins to be cold. 

For such expressions as " Shall I go and shut the window?" 
"Go and buy it, " kuru with the subordinative is used (p. 88g) : 
Mado ivo shimete kimasho ka. Sore wo katte kite kure. Notice 
the frequent idiom: motte (tsurete) kuru (mairu, etc.) bring. b 

a Notice that the stem of the verb may not be used here as in other paradigms. 
b A polite expression isjt-san sum (ji=motsti, san mairu*): Jisan itashimashita. 
I brought. Gojisan nasaimashita. You brought. 




kiri limit. a 

tsuchi earth. 

momo peach. 

tsubame, tsttbdkura (from 
the classical tsubaknrame) 
chimney swallow. 

akambo baby, infant. b 

botchan, (o) bo sun boy (po- 

(o) jo san, jo cJuin girl (po- 

. lite). 

o kacliin (katsu pound, ii 
boiled rice)=7?zoc/. 

kami wo yuu (iu) dress the 

kami-yuij kami-ii hair dres- 
ser. c 

mage cue, coiffure. 

toko-ya barber-shop, barber. 

yabu grove, thicket. 

talca-ydbu bamboo grove. 

kitte stamp, check. 

yubin-kitte, yubin-gitte post- 
age stamp. 

kurc-gata evening, twilight. d 

takc-no-ko bamboo sprouts 
(an article of food). 

gan (c) wild goose. 

dem-po telegram (p. 115b). 

dempo wo utsn (or kakcrn or 
dasu) send a telegram. 

gwan-jitsu- the first day of 
the year. 

ji-setsu season. 

kwai-jo circular letter. 

sen-taku washing, laundry 
( sum wash). 

hai-tatsu distribution, deliv- 


-i . 7 j t postman. 6 
yubin-Kubari ) L 

sen-ryu brief witty poem. 
han-kiri, letter paper. f 
doro mud. 

a From /&// cut. A'iri may limit another word following it, like gumi, bakari 
dake or hodo (pp. 22b, 48b). It is more emphatic than any of them and often 
occurs in the expression Kore kiri shika ttai (lit. this only besides not). 

b Also aka san, or aka chan, chan being the children's equivalent of san. A 
baby may be called polifely o chiisai no. The term bo is a designation common to 
priests, blind men and boys (p. I5a) and as a suffix means " fellow " : ktirombo 
negro, kechimbo miser, asanebo a late sleeper. 

c Men do not now require the services of a kaiinvui, since the custom of wearing 
the cue has been abandoned. A barber-shop is called also ri-hatsu-ten (dress hair- 
shop) or zam-patsu-ya (zan cut). 

d Also hi-gure, from kwertt set (of the sun). The sunset itself is nichi-botsu; 
sunrise, niss/nttsu or hi-no-de. Ban-gala andyri-^a/a are synonymous with kure-gata. 

e In the post office the technical term is shu-hai-nin (shii = atsument, hai=kn- 

f The long narrow sheets called hankiri (or hankire) are usually pasted together 
to form a continuous roll called maki-gami. 

LVI] Kuru. 233 

doro-dardke no muddy. a wo nozdku no hoka except- 

ma-jika no very near. ing. 

harau clear away, sweep, chigai difference, mistake. 

brush. ni (tva) chigai (</) nai 

homuru bury. there is no doubt that, 

shimau put away. . certainly. 

ato 100 katazukeru, ato-kata- aratameru change, renew, re- 

zuke (wo) sum, ato-jimai view. 

(?yo) sum clear away aratamete again. 

things (as after a meal). b sappari clearly, wholly, at all 

ine wo karu harvest the rice. (with a negative verb). 

dai-sho wo sasu wear the two tsui unconsciously. 

swords (dai great, sho ik-kd entirely, at all (with a 

small). negative verb comp. p. 

nozoku remove, except. 99, bottom). 


' Yubinhaitatsugakitaraso itte kure.^ubimvakorekiri(dake) 
shika kimasen. ^Kamiii ni sassoku kuru yd ni itte okimash'ta 
ga, naze kimasen ka wakarimasen. faTaiso hara ga hette kima- 
sh'ta; nodo mo kawaite kimash'ta. g"Mo yitbin ga kita ka. 

fa Say o, tadaima kimash'ta ; sliikaslii o kuni kara iva tegami 
ga kimasen: sliiinbun dake des\ %Sugu ni yubinkitte wo 
katte kimasho ka. ffShokuji no atojimai (atokatazuke) wo sTi'te 
shimattara katte koi. ^Kono kimono wa dorodarake da kara, 
yoku haratte koiflGanu to iu Shinajin ga oyaji ivo liomutte ita 
toki ni karas 1 ga tsuchi ivo motte kita to iu hanashi ga arimas'. c 

( }Mosd to iu Shinajin ga takayabu ni haitte naita toki ni takeno- 
ko ga yuki no sh'ta kara dete kita so des 1 . ttjnu wa neta kiri& 
okite konai ; do sh'ta no da.r&Gwanjitsuya kino no oni ga rei 

a As a suffix darake is much used to form adjectives having the general sense of 
slovenly or disagreeable : aka-darake filthy, chi-darake bloody, Jiai-darake (7w ashes), 
hokori-darake dusty, kusa-darake (of a garden), mizu-darake (of a room), sumi-da- 
iake,yama-darake (of a country), shakkin-darake, fu-shimatsu-darake$rum. shi- 
matsu good management, economy (lit. beginning and end). 

b Merely to take things back to the kitchen is o zen wo sagerii, 

c Ganu and Moso belong to the twenty-four Chinese heroes celebrated for their 
filial piety the niju ski kb (for ko-shi filial child). 

d Jfiri is here equivalent to mama. 


ni kurutoiu senryu ga arimas'.* ff-Anata Zv/Z-o yc. kihrri ko- 
mnidari sh'te iva ikemasen. h'Shiju kondkereba nan'/////*,,!. 
/ ^Konaida Osaka hen de araslii gafuite ie ga tak'san tsubure, b 
hitojini mo atta to iu dempd ga kimash'ta.IjTaisd osokti natta 
kara, mo komai. l&ie, kuru ni chigai nai. tfHitori no o bd san 
ga katva de sentaku wo sh'te ita toki ni oki na momo ga naga- 
rete kita kara, soi'e wo uclii ye motte kite ivatte miru to, oki na 
akambo ga dete kita so des' . c&An o seito wa konogoro ikk<~> k imasen 
ga, do shimash'ta. uKonaida atta (from au meet} toki ni kon- 
nichi kara koyo to iimash'ta. JZ-Kokku-ai no hirakeru no mo 
majika ni natte Idmash'ta. ^Ano hito wa salcunen wa yoku ki- 
mash'ta ga, konnen wa sappari konaku narimash'ta. 
It was my intention (p95a) to bring [you] the book of which 
I spoke recently, but I quite (tsui) forgot it (forgetting 
came) . ^The meaning of this word has gradually changed 
(changing came)^ Go and buy some (s'koshi) letter paper and 
en velopes.4 Let me know (oshieru) when the barber comes (past 
coud.)I ordered him (iits'kete oku) to (yd ni) bring [it] at once; 
why doesn't he bring it (prob.) ? 6 Has the newspaper not yet 
come (pres.)?7 At present (tadaima de iva) much foreign rice 
(givaikokumai') comes to Japan.< In your absence (o rusu ni) 
a circular letter came from the school : I told the messenger 
(mdsh'te yarn) to bring it again [in the] evening, f I made 
(making put) an agreement that (yd ni) he should come this 
evening ; why doesn't he come ? ft This year the cold begins 
(it has become cold) early. Hln Japan when a person comes to 
tender New Year's congratulations (p. 88a), people serve (dasu) 
sake or mochi. f'^Prince (p.76c) lemitsu brought it about (yd 
ni sum') that, excepting Dutchmen (Orandajin), Europeans 
could no longer come to Japan. 15 When Japanese first went to 
America, they still had (aubord. of y >(>') cues and wore (were 

a By oni is understood the creditor who comes on the last day of the year to col- 
lect money due him. Ya is a kind of interjection. 

b ~Qsaka hen de in the vicinity of Osaka. For arashi ga fuku compare /' 
Jnkn. Tsubure is the inconclusive form of tsuburcru and is here equivalent to tsu~ 

c This is the beginning of the famous tale of Momotaw. For momo ivo want 
compare take a/o ii'<i>'ti to split bamboo. 


wearing) the two swords. M The season of rice harvest (when 
people harvest rice) has not yet come. /y In Japan when the 
swallows go away (return), the wild geese come. /bA. girl (ojo 
saw) has brought [some] beautiful have brought 
the little boy a toy for (ni) a present. / Shall I send (sending 
come) a telegram ? 


To the fifth group belong verbs in gu. 

Paradigm of nugu (stem nugi) to take off (an article of 
clothing) : 

Positive Negative 

Present nugu nuganai, nugan(u) 

Past nuida nuganakatta, nanda 

Future or nugo nugumai 

Probable nugu daro nuganai daro, nugan daro 

Probable nuidaro nuganakattaro, nandaro 

Past nuida daro nuganakatta daro 

Conditional nugeba (nugaba) nuganakereba (nuganakuba) 
nugu nara(ba) nuganeba 

nuganai nara(l)a~) 
Past Con- nuidara(ba] nuganakattara, nandara(J)d) 

ditional nuida nara(ba) nuganakatta nara(ba) 
Imperative nuge nugu na 

(o) nugi na o nugi de nai yo 
o nugi (yo) 

Subordinative nuide nugazu(shite), nugazu ni 

nuganaide, nugande 

Desiderative nugitai nugitaku nai 

Alternative nuidari nuganakattari, nandari 

In such forms as nuide, derived from nugite. the g is elided 
and by compensation for the loss of the nigori in g the t is 

The verbs of this group are not numerous. The most com- 
mon are : 
aogu fan. fusegu ward off. liagu patch together. 




hagu peel, strip off. a 

isogu hurry. 

kagu smell. 

kasegu toil, work diligently 

katsugu carry (on the shoul- 

kogu row, scull. 

matagu straddle, step over. 

nagu be calm (of winds, 
waves, etc.). 

oyogu swim. 

sawagu be noisy, excited. 
sogu cut obliquely, slice off. 
sosogu sprinkle (mizu wo), 

rinse (mizu de). 
susugu, yusugu rinse (mizu 


togu whet, grind, wash (rice). 
tsugu join, graft (t*"gi-ki wo 

suru^), inherit. 
tsugu pour. b 
tsunagu tie, hitch, moor. 
yurugu shake, quake, be loose. 

ato succession. 

no ato wo tsugu inherit the 

estate or office of. 
Jiada naked body, skin. 
Ittt'tn u'o nugu expose the 

upper part of the body. 
A-/.S-/;/ bank, shore. 
km' post, stake, pile. 
ogi folding fan. c 
shiri bottom, base.' 1 
eta pariah. 
k-gawa brook. 
ko-girc small piece 


leurombd negro. 
seto-mono porcelain. 


(Include the above list.) 

kamoi upper groove, lintel. 
sh ikii lower groove, threshold. 
shiki-mono rug, carpet. 
toisJri whetstone. 
to-garashi cayenne pepper. 
te-tsuke-kh), te-tsuke earnest 

money, bargain money. 
zei tax, tariff. 
zen good. 
rtku evil. 
zennaku, zen-aku good and 

gen-ku'an, gcnka vestibule of 

;i residence, main entrance. 
no-fu agriculturist, farmer. 
tern-lilt balance. 

(as of 

a In the literary language the verb hagu may also be intransitive; hence the 
derived form Jiagasn, corrupted to hegasit. These and the rare form hegit are all 
synoymous with hagu above. The colloquial intransitive is hageru "be stripped 
off," also "become bald." 

b These verbs must not be confused with tsugeru tell. 

c From aogu. Fans that do not fold are called uchhva. 

d The inside bottom of a nabe (pot for cooking) is soko; the outside, shiri. It 
is not an elegant word, but there is no other. 


tem-bim-bo pole carried on soru, sum shave. 

the shoulder with a burden kami-swi, kami-suri razor. 

suspended from either end. tsumazuku stumble. 

e-no-gu pigments for paint- ivareru be split, cracked 

ing. (tr. warn}, 

ramune lemonade. mi ga naru fruit is produced, 
asai shallow. bear fruit. 

hirou pick up, find. yoshi ni iku enter a family 
isamu be bold. as an adopted child. 


/ Zen wa isoge (Proverb). cTia wo tsuide agemashd ka. 

jDozo, tsuide kudasai. y Sore iva ki ni take ivo tsuida yd na 

Tianashi des\ S'Ano hito no ato wa yoshi ga tsugimash'ta. 
^Naru take isoide koi. J Nauru beku isoide itashimasho. '-^Ama- 
ri isogu koto de mo nai kara, ash'ta itte mo yorosliii. a ^ Sake 
wo tsugu toki ni wa migi no te de tokkuri ivo motte liidari no 
te ivo shiri ni atemas'./fi'Toislii ivo katte kite kamisori wo toide 
koi. I i Mizu 100 oyogu no iva b tailien karada no tame ni nari- 
mas'.fiKaeru wa yoku mizu wo oyog im as' ; sore da kara hito 
gajozu ni mizu ivo oyogu to, kaeru no yd da to iimas'./^Seiron 
(Ceylon) no minato de fune kara umi ni kane wo nageru to, 
kurombo ga kaeru no yd ni oyoide sugu ni hiroimas' . /fMuka- 
shi wa eta to iu mono ga atte sliinda uslii ya uma no kaiva wo 
haide imash'ta./S'dno onna wa kogire wo liaide kimono wo 
koshiraete imas'.t i Hada wo nuide soto wo aruku no wa keisa- 
tsu de c kinjite arimas' ga, kurumaliiki nado wa inaka-michi 
de hito no inai toki ni wa ats'ku naru to, kimono wo nugimas'. 
/ j Nihon no zashiki ni wa tatami ga (wo) shiite arimas' kara, 
geta wa genkwan ni nuide agarimas'./QSeiyojin mo kuts' wo 
nuide agaranakereba narim.asen. tfFune wokogu no wo s'ki na 
hito ga (kogu koto no s'ki na hito ga) arimas'. %> Minato wo dete 
kara kaze ga naide koganakereba naranakatta kara, taiso oso- 

a Itte in this sentence is from iku. De mo nai corresponds to the English "It 
is not at all," "it is not exactly." Kotvwaza de mo ariinasen ga It is not ex- 
actly a proverb, but 

b Mizu wo oyogu swim in the water. Compare soto ivo aruku, 

C For ka'satsu de compare p. I26c. 


ktt nariina!<li'1.:' Sh'ka no kawa ico lutidc sltikimono ni (for) 
ts > kaimaf?.i?<K.ono niku wo ikk/'n liotlo ftoide rnoraitai.t^Sono 
furni y&birikitte wo licgaxlt'te rlinilai. -^Kuitnk/ti w<> //i(r/></"*h'- 
te go ran.l> Amckaze ga amm-i tmnjokatta kara. wslt'ki no sho- 
jl '/a. 'iiuna hagete shimatta^Amari togarashi ico tabcta kara 
anna ni atama ga hagetaro. y^Omae ica kono kogaica wo mata- 
gu koto ga dekiru ka.^Shikii ico matagu tcki ni ica ki iro 
ts'ken to tsumazuku yo.rf Saita sakui-a ni naze korna tsunagu; 
koma ga isameba liana ga cliiru (Song). a >?^2e nofuku to- 
ki yuruganu monoiva densldm-baslnra ni (and) ushi no tsu- 
no (Song).iv Kono hana wo kaide go ran. 

Shall I pour you [some] tea ? * Please let me have it ( lend 
it) ; [I] will pour it myself. J Come back as soon as you can 
(hurrying as much as possible). </ As I am in a hurry (I hurry) 
to-day, I will now take my leave. b j'As it is not at all(f?e mo) 
an urgent (hurrying) matter, deliver the goods to-morrow; 
shall I leave (oku) bargain-money ? -6 I will try to mend (join 
and see) this tea-cup with lacquer. ?Are you aware (gosJtvcJti 
des 1 ka) that (koto wo), when they mend cracked porcelain, 
they hide the cracks (kizu) with paint? 9" Yes, I know. 
tree will not bear fruit unless you (if you do not) graft it 
took off his clothes and swam across (swimming crossed) the 
river. //As the river was (pres.) shallow, I took off my slices 
and went across./^The Japanese carry a great deal of freight by 
means of (de) tcmbiinboS*>K swimming place having been made 
(oyogi-ba ga dekite) in the Sumida River, I also often swam 
[there]. A/ The farmers are excited because the taxes are too 
high^Shall I pour you some lemonade ?/& Since his older brother 
died, he was not adopted (negative subord.), but became 
the heir of his family (inherited the house)./ ;?It is unendur- 
ably hot; fan [me] with that o{//there/^Farmerstoil from morn- 
ing till night (bet nt //I"' /<)/ f The boat is moored (active subord.) 
to the bank and the fishermen are asleep. 

a Ufa ar<; like jokes: they cannot be explained very successfully. This song ex- 
presses the feeling of a samurai whose tender regard for the cherry-blossoms is 
rudely disturbed by some irreverent fellows who don't know any better than to 
tie a prancing colt to a tree covered with delicate cherry-blossoms. 

b Translate: kore dc (or mt>) go men wo komurimasu (lit. I now have your per- 





To the sixth group belong verbs in bu or mu. 
Paradigm of yobu (stem yobi] to call : 


Present yobu 
Past yonda 

Future or yobo 

Probable yobu daro 
Probable yondaro 

Past yonda daro 
Conditional yobeba (yobaba) 

Past Con- yondara(ba] 

diti onal yonda nara ( ba) 
Imperative yobe 

(o) yobi na 

o yobi (?/o) 

Subordi- yonde 



yobanai, yoban(ji} 
yobanakatta, nanda 

yobanai daro, yoban daro 
yobanakattaro, nandaro 
yobanakatta daro 
yobanakereba (yobanakuba^) 
yobanai naraCba} 
yobanakattara, nandara(ba) 
yobandkatta nara(ba) 
yobu na 
o yobi de nai (yo) 

Desiderative yobitai 
Alternative yondari 

yoba?M (sliite\ yobazu ni 
yobanaide, yobande 
yobitaku nai 

yobanakattari, nandari 
In forms like yonde, derived from yobite, after the elision of 
the i, the b is changed to n. The same change occurs in the 
case of verbs in mu ; so that the subordinative and alternative, 
together with the past and its derived forms, ofyomu to read are 
homonymous with the corresponding forms of yobu (p. 162a). 
There are some verbs belonging to this group to which cor- 
respond verbs in eru having a transitive or causative sens : 
itamu ache, be hurt. itameru injure, afflict. 

komu be crowded. komeru force into. a 

shizumu sink, be immersed, shizumeru sink, immerse. 
susumu advance. susumeru promote, urge. 

a In compounds komu may be transitive : kugi ivo uchi-komu drive a nail in. 
Compare the verbs konioni be shut up (in hiki-konwnt] and komaru be perplexed, 


tsumu be packed. tsumeru pack. a 

yamu cease (as rain). yameru stop, give up. 

yasumu rest, retire. yasumeru cause to rest. 

yurumu be loose, moderate, yurumeru loosen. 

narabu be in a row, be parallel, naraberu arrange. 

ukabu float. ukaberu launch. b 

To some transitive verbs correspond passive forms in eru, e. 
g., momu rub, momeru l)e rumpled, troubled. 

The stem of the verb shinu or shinuru die is shini. In the sub- 
ordinative, the past, etc., it is conjugated like the above verbs : 
shinde, shinda, etc., In the present ru may be added to nu 
(compare masuru, sum), and in derived inflections there are 
longer and shorter forms. Thus the probable is shinu daro or 
shinuru daro; the conditional, shinureba or shineba; the ne- 
gative imperative, shinuru na or shinu na : adding beki we 
have shinu-beki or shinuru-beki. The other inflections are de- 
rived regularly from shinu; e. g., shinitai, shino (shin an), shi- 
nanai, shine, shinumai. 


(Include the above verbs.) 

kaji rudder, helm. hito-yarni crowd. 

nami wave. yama-buslii hermit (fusu lie 
tombi black kite. down, lodge). 

tsuna roi>e. c kanjiki snowshoe. 

yubi finger. d toge mountain pass. 

haru-saki (lit. spring-front), an-sho hidden rock, reef, 

early spring, springtime. nin-jin ginseng. 

a Compare tsttmaru be clogged, oppressed. These verbs must be distinguished 
from httniu pile up, to which corresponds the intransitive tsumont. 

b Kokoro ni ukattda it occurred [to me]. 

c Tsuna means a strong rope, made usually of hemp (asa"). The lighter rope 
made of straw is tiawa; if made of hemp, asa-mm'fi. Cord or twine is hoso- 
naii'a. String or thread is ito. 

d The thumb is oya-yubi, from oya parent ; the index finger, hito-sashi-yiibi, from 
hito "wo sasit point out a person; ihe middle finger, naka-y ubi, or taka-taka-ynbi 
(children's word), from takai; the ring finger, kusuri-yubi, alluding to its use in 
applying salve, or beni-sashi-ytibi (women's word), from beni wo sasu apply rouge ; 
the little finger, ko-yubi. The great toe is as/ii no oya-ynbi. 




bai-u the early summer rain, 
the rainy season. 3 

cha-ya (lit. tea-house) res- 
taurant, saloon. 

ke-sliiki expression (efface), 

ki-kai machine, engine. 

kivo-zan mine. 

ma-lio magic. 

maho ivo tsukau practice 

nin-soku cooly. 

ri-so ideal. 

sai-nan misfortune. 

Sei-sho Bible. 

sen-ko stick of incense. 

sliim-pai anxiety (p. 196d). 

sliin-rui 1 -. ,. , 
7 . T > relatives, b 
shtn-zoKU ) 

shoku-nin workman, artisan. 

jo-ki steam. 

jdki-sen, ki-sen steamboat. 

go som-pu (sama) your fa- 
ther (more polite than o tot- 

sasu point out, indicate. 

sashitaru special. 

sumanai inexcusable, rude 
(p. 167b). 

so-so na heedless. 

mu-jitsu no untrue, innocent. 

mujitsu no tsumi false accu- 
sation . 

amu braid, knit, crochet. 

erabu, eramu choose. 

hakobu carry, transport. 

kaeru be hatched (tr. kaesu). 

kazoeru count, number. 

konomu like, be fond of. 

kukuru bind. 

kubi wo kukuru hang one's 

kumu weave, d knit together, 
frame, compose (type). 

musubu tie, bear (fruit), 
make (a contract). 

in wo musubu make (magi- 
cal) signs with the fingers. 

nomu drink, swallow. 

tsumu pile up, load, accumu- 

liwi-dasu dig out, unearth. 

liai-sliaku sum borrow (po- 
lite 1). 

tada gratis, free of charge. 

zutto all the way, direct. 

ma-mo-naku in a moment, 
immediately, soon. 

yoku-jitsu the following day. 

a Lit. plum-rain, i. e., rain that falls when plums are maturing. The conven- 
tional date for the rainy season is the last three weeks of June. The most com- 
mon name for it is nyu-bai {nyu i'ru~), a word which originally meant the begin- 
ning of the rainy season. Another word for baiit is tsuyu, derived from tsuyu dew. 

b The latter is a little more elegant than the former. The words rui and zoku 
form collective nouns. Comp. kin-rui, kin-zoku metals. 

c Hakobti is also used intransitively in the sense of "to make progress." Tenki 
ga yoi to, do shite mo shigoto go. hayaku hakobimasu. The work naturally makes 
rapid progress when the weather is fine. Nakanaka hakobiga tsukimasen. Prog- 
ress is slow. d To weave on a loom is ortt. 




Koronde mo tad a wa okinu.* 1 En no Shokaku iva in wo 
musunde maho wo ts'katta so des'. -'-irutakushi wa sumanai 
koto ivo sh'ta. -> Watakushi wa soso na koto ivo itash'te makoto ni 
sumimasen.^ Kenkwa ga sunde bo ivo nigiru. b J Kono uchi no 
ichiban yoi no wo erande kudasaimashi. ~) Nagaku keiko wo 
yasunde wa ikemasen. c %-Kono onachi wa Nihombashidori to 
narande orimas'. <?Ninsoku ga sorou made ano chaya de s'ko- 
sliiyasunde mairimashd.A/tOmae asonde (asunde) bakari ite 
wa ikemasen.ll Muika Jiataraite nanukame ni iva yasumana- 
kereba naranai to Seisho ni kaite arimas'.'^Getsuydbi ni mo 
asobu (yasumu} shokunin ga tak'san arimas'.- ' JRyukyti- (Loo- 
choo Islands }de wa onna ga Jiataraite otoko ga asonde imas'. 
I^Gomi wo tsundafune iva gomibune to mosliimas*. n' Ano Into 
iva taiso sake ga s'ki des' keredomo, kane wo osliinde nomiii/a-> Mo ame ga yamimasJi'ta ka. // Ima yamiso na kesh'ki 
des'.^Kaze ga yandara attaka ni naru desho.^ Go sliimpal ni 
wa oyobimasen.'/b Shinda ko no toslii ivo kazoeru (Proverb). 
Fune ga ansJio ni atatte soko ni ana ga aita kara, sugu ni *hi- 
zumimash'ta. ^'Nihonjin wa matsu noki wo taiso kononde yoku 
niwa ni nemos'. '. Tombi ga taka wo unda to iu no wa oya yo- 
ri erai ko ga dekita to iu koto des'.ft u lsha wo tanonde agemasho 
ka.e^'Iie, sash'tarukoto de mo arimasen kara, tanomanaide mo 
yoroshiu gozaimasho.j. Jibitn hitori de dekiru mono nara, hito 
ivo tanomanai ho ga ii. Tonari no hito wo tanondara yokatta 
ni. Johisen no kikai ga ifamimash'ta no de futs'ka hodo yo- 
kei minato ni tomaranakereba narimasen desh'ta. Amma san 
ni hitotsu monde moraimaslid. Wada-toge f hen de wuftiji n<> 

a The proverb describes a very avaricious spirit. 

b The usual form of the proverb is : kenkwa sugitc no bochigiri. Bo-chigiri and 
chigiri-ki are equivalents of bo. A club is of no use after the quarrel is over. 

c Observe Qatyasttmtt may take an object with nv where the English would 
require a preposition. 

(I Ytisitmfi' mairimasJid I will rest and then go. But niairimaslw is hardly to be 
taken so literally ; it may remain untranslated. 

e hha wo tanomu call a physician. But when there is a direct object denot- 
ing the thing requested, the person becomes the indirect object with ni (p. I25b). 

f The Wada Pass is on the .Yahisen(ii>}\is\. beyond A'tini^dicn, Yiiti no ue 109 
iubern slide over the snow, 


eda de anda kanjiki wo ts'kaimas*; sono ura ni kire wo ts'kete 
yoku yuki no ue wo suberimas\ Watakushi wa keiko no sun- 
da yokiijitsu ni inaka ye tachimash'ta. Tsurei Seiyojin wa 
yubi wo kunde Kami wo ogamimasu ga, Nihonjin iva te ivo 
aicasete (awash'te) ogamimas'. Ano Jiito wakaivaiso ni mu- 
j'itsu no tsumi de shinimash'ta. Sara wo kitte shine (shinde 
shimae). Anna tvarumono wa shinde mo dare mo kamaima- 
sen. Nochi ni naru to oioi komimas' kara, zutto mae no ho ye 
o tsume kudasai. Hito-gomi no naka ye iku to zutsu ga shimas'. 
Asagao no liana iva hi ga deru to mamonaku shibonde shimai- 
mas'. Hammok' (hammock) no tsuna ga yurumimash'ta kara, 
musubi-naosanakucha abunai. Harusaki ni nareba dandan 
samusa mo yurumimas'. Riso no nai hito wa chodo nami no 
ue ni ukande oru kaji no naifune no yo na mono des'. CJiof- 
to konna kangae ga kokoro ni ukabimash'ta. Tonda go sainan 
de gozaimash'ta. 

j This part (tokoro) is very difficult; I finally understood the 
meaning [only] after reading [it] repeatedly (tabitabi). *H[ 
awoke after the earthquake was over. * ^ You have made great 
progress (advanced much) in language study (gogaku ga). 

^When the rainy season is over (sumti), [people] air [their] clothes; 
this is called doyoboshi. 5 In mushiken, when the snake and the 
frog appear (deru), the snake wins, because (naze to iu ni) 
snakes swallow (swallowing finish) frogs. /,When a person dies 
the relatives [and] friends (kara) send sticks of incense. 7 The 
yamabushi often make magical signs with [their] fingers. 

s. When I have finished reading the book that I borrowed of you 
recently, I will at once return it to you. -J The Japanese often 
read books with (de} a loud (takai) voice. I o This (koko) is a 
very beautiful place : we will rest a little and [then] go [on]. 

> ' That steamboat sank near (no kin-kai de) Japan. '- The copper 
dug out from this mine is carried by horses to (made) the Kitakami 
River and loaded (tsumi-komu) into boats, ty The bird has 
laid eggs, but has not yet hatched them. In a Japanese proverb 

a In such a context yamu is better than sumu. 
b The verbs are all active. 


tlu-ysay: To drink ginseng and hang one's self. a I have a 
request to make of you (There is a matter about which I wish 
to request you). In Japan when [you] goto a person's house 
you call out with a loud (great) voice in tkegenkican : " 1 re- 
quest!" In a Turkish (Tor'ko no) proverb they say : If lost 
things return (returning come), the dead father too returns. 
Have you read the Rongo ? b I am now reading [it]. She 
gave birth to a dead child. Is your father still living ? c No, 
father (ica) died a long time ago. That sick person will prob- 
ably die soon : for he drinks too much sake ( sake wo nom i- 
xiKjiru). About (koto wa) a dead person [one] must not speak 
ill. If one sinks, one floats [again] (Proverb). d 


To the seventh and last group belong verbs in which a vow- 
el precedes the u of the present tense. 

Paradigm ofkau (stem kai) to buy, or to keep (animals) : 

Positive Negative 

Present k<( kaicanai, kaican(u) 

Past kattd. kota kaicdttakatta, nan<l 

Future or kao kaumai 

Probable lean daro kan-d.nai darn, kcuni/i darn 

Probable kattaro, kotaro kaivanakattaro, nandaro 

Past katta daro kOfWanakatfa 

kota daro 

Conditional kaeba (kawaba) JMwanakereba (kaicanakuba) 
kau nara(ba) kaivaneba 

kmi-iiitui /tara(ba) 
Past Condi- kattara(ba) k<iirnn"L-d1tara(ba) 

l,-dtta nara(ba) kmrnmil-ntta nara(bcC) 
kdta nara(ba) 

a. The point is that ginseng is extremely expensive. By the time a man has con- 
sumed enough to effect a cure there will be nothing left in life but a hopeless strug- 
gle against poverty. 

1) Known among us as the Analects of Confucius. 

c Very polite : Co sompu snma wa inada go zomtnei de irasshaimasu &?, 

d Compare the proverb, p. 1843. 


Imperative kae kau na 

(o) kai na o kai de nai yo 
o kai (yd) 

Subordinative katte, kote kawazu (shite), kawazu ni 

kawanaide, kawande 

Desiderative kaitai kaitaku nai 

Alternative kattari, kotari kawanakattari, nandari a 

The vowel preceding the u of the present tense may be a, o 
or u. Compare omou think, kuu or ku eat. In the negative 
inflections the characteristic vowel a becomes wa. The positive 
subordinative, as also the past tense, etc., has two forms, omotte 
or omote, kutte or kute. The forms with the long vowel, such 
as kote, omote, kute, are more common in Kwanzei, the 
western provinces, than in Kwanto. But even in Tokyo a verb 
like ton ask is conjugated tote, tota, not totte, totta. 

The only verb in which i precedes the u is in say. It is 
conjugated itte or iute, itta or iuta, etc. The forms itte, itta 
are homonymous with the corresponding inflections of iku go 
and iru enter or iru parch (p. 221a). The verb yuu or yu 
bind (the hair) is in Kivantd inflected just like iu say. b 

The form iwaba (lit. if I say) has peculiar uses. It may 
sometimes be rendered "so to speak," "in a word," "'for in- 
stance"; in some cases it is untranslatable: 

Tatoete iwaba to speak by way of illustration. 
Tennis wa iwaba Nilion no ddkyu no yo na mono desu. 
Tennis is, one might say (for instance), like Japanese ddkyu. 
Chanoyu iva iwaba hitotsu no nagusami no yo ni miema- 

su ga honto iva seishin ivo ocliitsukeru jutsu desu. 
Chanoyu seems like a kind of amusement, but in reality 

it is an art by which one composes the mind. 
Forms of iu enter into many idioms in which the original 
sense of "say" has been obscured: to iedomo "although" 
(p. 171, top) ; toiukoto iva or to iu mono iva "the" (p. 126 

a Negative alternatives in tiaidari, such as tabenaidari, toranaidari, shinaidari, 
kawanaidari, etc., are not infrequently heard. 

b Observe the pun in the saying: Yoku iute ivaruku iwaruru goke no kami. A 
widow is ill spoken of when she does up her hair nicely. 


b); to iu no de "on the ground that" (p. 132 bottom) ; a 
to itte, tote, 'tte(pp. 133 top, 167 bottom); to iu to=to } etc. 

Sam ui 'ttara ndkatta. It was indescribably cold. 
To the seventh group belongs also the auxiliary tamau used 
by students, etc., to form an imperative (p. 150): Oki tamae. 
Get up ! If the action is requested for the benefit of the speaker 
kiire tamae must be used: Kono tegami wo yubinbako ni 
iretc kiire tamae. Drop this letter into a mail box, will you? 
This being the last chapter on the conjugation of the verb, 
the student's attention may be directed to a distinction which 
he is now prepared to appreciate. Besides the past conditional 
in tara (ba), one may rarely hear a form in tarebaJ* The 
two forms are commonly confused, but properly the latter in- 
dicates the connection of actual events or conditions, while the 
former is truly hypothetical : 

Kind Jianami ni ittareba mo sakari <ja siiyite orhnasltita . 
Yesterday I went to see the blossoms, but they were already 

past their prime. 
Seinen ga Tokyo no yd na tokoro ye ittaraba yohodo clt >'/ i 

100 senu to tokaku shippai wo shimasu. 
When a young man goes to a place like Tokyo, he is apt 
to be ruined if he is not very careful. 


atari=hen vicinity, in the kan-jo reckoning, account, 

region of, about. bill. d 

haslii extremity, end, begin- ko-saku cultivation (of land) . 

ning, margin. )iyu-yd = iri-yd need. 

a This idiom is often a mere connective equivalent to no de (p. 10411). 

b Compare nareba, which is practically synonymous with ttara(ba). These 
forms, derived from naru^ ni ani=de ant, must not be confused with the con- 
ditional of naru to become. 

c The end of a machi or group of houses is hazure, rarely has/it. 

d Kanjo wo sum to reckon, draw up accounts. Kanjo -a'o shite kiidasai, or, Go 
kanjo wo tugaimasu. Please make out your bill, or, Please settle the account. This 
may be said by either party to a transaction. To collect a bill is kanjo wo torn 
or morau; to pay a bill, kanjo wo harau. At hotels it has become the 
fashion with some to substitute Int'aikei for kanjo \ Go fovaikei wo negaimasit. 
Please settle your bill. Kioaiktiwo shite kiuiasai. What is the bill? 




share witticism, pun. 

yami darkness. 

yo, yo-no-naka world. 

ja-ko musk. 

jim-min people. 

j'un-sa policeman. 

slio-no camphor. 

doku-shin (doku=hitoii, shin 
=mi) celibacy. a 

dokushim-mono bachelor, wid- 
ower, spinster. 

habakaru be afraid, feel 
backward. b 

Imrau pay. 

kanau accord, suit, obtain 
(a wish). 

katvaigaru love, be fond of. 

kayou go back and forth. 

kitaru come (literary). 

kurau eat (literary). 

kuiru, kuyuru repent of, feel 
remorse for. 

mukuiru, mukuyuru requite.c 

ada injury, foe. 

ada wo mukuyuru (kaesu) 
take revenge. 

okasu violate (law), commit 

soroeru arrange in order, fur- 
nish (intr. sorow). 

ni sou be joined to, go 
along with (tr. soeru add). 

ton ask, visit. d 

u^au sing. 

ivarau laugh, smile. e 

ted suru=mukau face. 

ni tai shite (mukatte) in 
regard to, against. 

tori-yoseru procure, import. 

o se-ji wo iu speak courte- 
ously, flatter. 

hidoi me ni au have a dread- 
ful experience. 

yalmri, yappari still, not- 
withstanding, too. 

tatoi although, even though. f 

matawa or. 

a Ah! Oh! 

a A widow is yamonte or go-ke (nochi, te~). A. widower is oloko-yamome (classi- 
cal yamod). There is no special word for "old maid." In the rare cases when 
such a word is needed yamome may be used: Sanjunosaka wo koskita no ni, mada 
yamome (dokushin} de imasu ka. In spite of having turned thirty is she still single ? 

b Sensei no mae wo habakaru be afraid of the teacher. Seken no temae wo haba- 
karu be afraid for one's reputation. A common apologetic expression is habakari 
nagara or habakari desuga. Excuse me for asking, but... 

c These two verbs (stems kid, mukiii} belong to the first class. There is dan- 
ger of confusing them with the verbs described in the present chapter. Compare with 
the latter ni muku or nimukau face, mukeru turn, send, mukaeru go td meet, 

d In the sense of to "ask" or "inquire" kiku (p. i6ia) or (in the case of a discussion) 
shitsumon sum is more common ; in the sense of to "visit," tazuneru or homon suru. 

e Classical : emu. To smile is more exactly hoho-emu ; in Chinese, bi- slid suru 
(light laugh). To deride a person is hito (no koto} wo ivarau. 

i With following mo. Compare moshi nara if (p. 159 bottom). 



/ Hito ni wa sotte (sole) i/u'ro. inna ni irn >>ft< /////. a .!/</</ 
too kawatigotfv yori inn wo kae ( Proverb ).'^Nmii ka id to omotte 
n'uxii.ri'tc KJii/iiti.imash'ta. il Warau kad<> ni toa fokukifaru.b 

Hito go i/i'i'-higatta koto wo itta tote (itta'tte) warau no wa 
(icaratte iva) shitxnn-i des'.kAno liito iva yoku slian im ////?"*'. 
Xakujitxu itta no wamachigaidesh'ta, shikashi Koshi mo "A>f<i- 
matte aratamuru ni habakaru nakare" c to moslumaah'ta k<i,-u, 
naoshimas'. % Ise no Yokkaic-hi kara Yokohama made jokfxcn 
ga kayoimas'. T Nanibun (iiambun} yorosh'ku negaimas'. 
An ! shimatta.^ < ( Ano liito wa o seji bakari ittc ikcnai hit </< -' . 

f*Uso wo iu na.^ So ittc yatte mo e yd gozaimasho. |4 Mmhi no 
kmcanai yd ni kimono ni shono wo irete o kure^^Fur niton tru 
yoku inushi ga kutte imas\ 1 1 Kore to onaji sliina <j nakcreba 
s'koshi chigatta no de mo ii kara, katte kite kure.^J Fund hon 
ni ica Nichiren Slidnin ga f mahd ivo ts'katta to kaite arimas 1 . 
wa takakute yoku nai; kaivanai ho ga yokatta ni. tCfSon- 
na koto wa iwazu to mo ii des* SyvMaebashi atari de vo //oka 
kaiko wo katte imas'.Z^ Nihon no yamaguni de wa taiga i iixhi 
wo ts'katte kdsaku shima.s'. ',Kore made wa kana wo naratte 
orimash'ta ga, soi*e wo yamete chitto kanfi no keiko ir itadn- 
Soi'e iva te de niiMa mono ni chigai nai. Kessh'te 

a A proverb : Don't judge by first impressions. Compare : Sumeba miyako. If 
you live [in a place, it becomes like] a metropolis. 

b In this proverb kado stands by metonymy for ie. 

c This saying is taken from the Rongo. Jfoshi is Confucius. In the classical 
style a verb takes the attributive form (p. 144, 6) before a particle like ni. Haba- 
karu {koto) nakare is the classical equivalent of habakaru na. 

d Lit. It is all over. This expression is used in the sense of " It is too bad ! " 
Shimatta koto wo shita. I made a mistake. 

e Itte yaru send word, give orders. 

f Xichi-ren (sun-lotus), the founder of the sect called by his name, lived in the 
XIII. Century. SKo-nin (sho=jo^ne, nin -hito) is an honorary title applied to 
priests. The Nichiren-shh is distinguished for its spirit of intolerance. It is called 
also Hokke-shu, from the name of its sacred book Hoke-kyo (ho law, ke flower, 
kyo canon). 

g Maebashi is an important town in Kbtsuke. Xotstike is a contraction of 
Jfami-tsu-ke ^ upper ke, this ke being the old name of the country and tsu the classi- 
cal genitive particle. Compare Shimotside. Xotstd-e is commonly called Jo-shit 
(jd = ne or kami, shu country). Compare Cho-shu p. 31 a. The word kaiko is 
derived from the stem of kau keep and ko young, worms. 


hito no koto ni o kamai de nai yo. Rainen no koto wo ieba 
(iu to) oni ga ivarau (Proverb). Kono lion ga go nyuyo nara, 
Tokyo ye itte yatte toriyosete agemasho. Sakujitsu o me ni 
kakeyo to omoimash'ta ga, tsui wasuremash'ta. Tdbitabi mo- 
shimasho to omoimash'ta ga, ima made shimbo sh'te damatte 
imash'ta. Nikon de wa kessh'te sonna koto ivo iiya sliimasen. a 
So iwandi koto wa nai ga, amari kitanai des'. Mus'me no 
uchi wa yoku shimada ivo^> iimas' ; yome ni itte kara de mo 
ivakai uclii iva shimada wo yu mono ga arimas'. Wakara- 
nai koto wa jibun de kangaete bakari iru yori hito ni tou ho 
ga ii. Ash'ta boku mo issho ni ikitai kara, matte tie kure ta- 
mae. Tatoi hito ga jibun ni tai sh'te donna tsumi wo okash'te 
mo c katte ni ada wo mukuiru koto wa ima no horitsu de yuru- 
shimasen. Bo hodo negatte hari hodo kanau. d 'Dare de mo 
umai mono iva kuitai. Kore wa negattari kanattari des' 
(p. 176). Doka wo kuraivaba sara made mo. e Nome ya\ 
utae ya \ issun saki iva yami no yononaka. f Are iva yoku 
ivarau hito des'. Hankiri no hashi wo yoku sorou yd ni kitte 

/ The Nakasendo road in some places follows the Kiso River 
(there are also places that go along the K. River).-- In Berlin 
you must pay taxes if you keep a clog^ Europeans say that the 
Japanese are a laughing people (people that laugh well).y Even 
though you make mistakes (say things about which you erred), 
I (watakushi ni iva) still understand, j; 'You must not lie (say a 
lie).<b Put away the food so that the rats don't eat it. ? I in- 
tended to wear at once the clothes that I put here ; why did 
you put them away?^" Tell the honest truth (honto no koto) 

a See p. 167, bottom. Some say iya shimasen. 

b A kind of mage. See Brinkley's Dictionary, p. 865. 

c The combination tatoi donna mo^may be translated "no matter what." 
Compare the use of interrogatives in conditional clauses (p. 149, top). 

d The idea of the proverb is that the attainment always comes far short of the 

e Swallow your poison, plate and all. This proverb is used in a bad sense. If 
you happen to eat poison, then, since you must die anyhow, eat everything you 
want. That is, if you know that you are destined to die, there is no use in being 

f Such expressions may be heard in a carousal. " Let us eat and drink, for to- 
morrow we die. " 


without flattering.? I never (kcwh'te) flatter. /^Don't talk fool- 
ishly (foolish things). 3 ulf you have (past cond. of ant) leisure 
at some other time (rnata), send word to that effect (so tell 
and send; by (ni) some one. \Z No matter how often I reckon, 
it's always different J3 He makes a face as when (yd na) Emma 
has eaten musk. b \tf These clothes have been so eaten (active 
subord.) by moths (miiski) that they are useless. Though a 
bachelor, c he spends (tsukau) a great deal of money. That 
official keeps (is keeping) two horses. Is it batter to learn ka-isho 
or gyosho? You must learn both. I don't trouble myself 
(kamau) about (ni iva) other people's business. Don't talk 
too much (yokei na koto). Any way will suit me (However it 
be, I don't mind). Since I have had no time to-day, I think 
I shall go to Yokohama to-morrow. In (de) the rain we 
got wet through and through and had a dreadful time of it. 
It is better not to use this word. It may be well to ask that 
policeman (ni). Arrange (arranging put) the shoes in the 
entrance. Repenting of his crime he committed suicide. 


The verbs morau receive, and shimau finish, often follow the 
subordinates, positive or negative, of other verbs. 

Morau is used just like 'itadaku (Ch. LV.), but is quite in- 
f orma i an( j ^s use should be avoided in speaking of what has 
been done or is to be done by the person addressed, unless that 
person is a subordinate or a familiar friend : 

Machi ye -iku tiara, kono ttyaini wo dashite moraimashp. 

If you go down town, please mail this letter. 

Sono hako too akenaide moraitai. Don't open that box. 

Common expressions are isha ni mite morau be examined 

by a physician, hito ni oshiete morau be instructed by a person. 

The latter, however, is used rather of casual explanation or in- 

formation than of regular instruction at a school. In speaking 

a One may say ironically: Baka ie. Some say baka ie {ba&a for baka wo). 

b The god of hell is thought to look more furious than ever when he eats musk. 

c Translate : Dokuslrimmono no kuse ni. Compare : Gakttsha no kuse ni konna 
yasashii koto de mo wakaranu. Though a scholar, he does not understdUd even 
such a simple thing as this. 

LX] Morau, shimau. 251 

of teaching in the ordinary sense of the word osoivaru or narau 
take the place of oshiete morau or the passive oshierareru : 

Nihongo wa dare ni osowarimashita ka. 

By whom were you taught Japanese ? 

Amerikajin ni butsurigaku ivo naratta. 

I studied physics under an American. 

Shimau with a subordi native may sometimes be rendered 
by a word like " finally " or " completely " ; but generally it 
only adds emphasis and can not be translated. Its very com- 
mon use is due to the disposition of the Japanese to prefer com- 
pound verbal expressions to simple verbs. a 

Nete sliimaimashita. He has retired. 

Nokorazu tabete shimaimashita. He has eaten it all. 

Shinde shimaimashita. He is dead. 

Kono sashimi wa oku to waruku narimasu kara, tabete shi- 
maimasho. We will eat the sashimi all up, because it 
will spoil if we leave it. 

Yube kyaku ga atte toto dekakenaide shimatta. 

Having company last evening, we at last failed to go out. 
In familiar conversation various contractions occur; e. g., 
yatchimatta, or yatchatta, for yattc shimatta. 


dekimono, o deki sore, ulcer, hi-bun \ sepulchral inscrip- 

boil. hi-mei ) tion, epitaph. 

ni-zukuri ) t ,. ho-ko domestic service. 

ni-goshirae)^ 1 kei-ba horse races. 

e-kaki painter, artist. haku-ran-kwai exposition, 

te-cho notebook (smaller than fair. 

chomen}. ryo-ji consul. 

do-ri reason, truth, right. ryoji-kiuan consulate. 

dori desuii is natural, proper, sho-gwa-kwai assembly of 
right. artists. b 

a It must be remembered that in Japanese verbs are not combined with prepo- 
sitions as in European languages. To "dig out" is horidasu; to "drive in" is ttchi- 
kotnit: to " drink up" or "drink down" is nonde shimau. 

b From sho writing, g^va painting, kwai assembly. At such an assembly artists 
write or paint free of charge for those who are admitted. 

252 THE VERB. [LX 

Jiij-so smallpox (lit. pox-sores), shi-tateru get ready, make 

U r l * d \ vaccination. "P ( as clothes )- , 

BMirto ) KMIM v<> karu cut the hair. 

ten-nen-to smallpox (lit. na- S eru hold an auction. 

tural smallpox) . S eri de uru sell by auction. 

ki-tai na uncommon, extraor- seri-uri, seri auction. 

dinary, strange (p. 34c). tsumaru tokoro, tsumari after 
manabu learn, study. all, i ri the end, finally. 

su-u,8u suck, smoke (tobacco). td-to,'tdto at length, finally 
na-tsuku, nazuku become at- (synonymous with t* f HI). 

tached, become tame. a 


f Sono dekimono ivo isha ni mite moraimash'ta ka. **-Hai, mite 
moraimash'ta, shikashi nan de mo nai to mushimash'ta. b J W- 
tnkushi wa meshits'kai ivo oko to omou ga. lc<nt>i/' no aru mono 
de shofiki na liito wo seiva sh'te mcrraitai. if Yofku wo Jiito In/ mi 
naru beku Jiayaku sh'tatete moraitai.fTAno ekaki ni e wo knife 
movaimasli'ta. iTamago wa k'satte sliimatta mono; kaeran 
no mo dori des\ c 7 jit san wa (sake ni) yotte shii/niiinnsh'ta. 
^ Ginko ni yd ga arimash'ta kara, tomodachi ni twa-ctc kite mo- 
raimash'ta. f Shogwakwai de ano hito ni nani ka Intois* kaite 
moraimasho./bGozen ivo tabete slti i/nttiura sugu ni dcfotkc/-// 
tsumori des' kara, nimoku ga soi'otte iru yd ni ki txkete o 
kifff. Tokaidd ni mo tetsudd wo kakete 
kitabako ivo sashiagemaslid ka. &Arigatd : l;<>lctt 
ga^arimas' kara, kore ivos'tte shimaimashd/'~/Chd//t< /( ni 
nai to, sugu ni wa#urete shimaimas'./bSore tea domitu ni 
ete moraimash'ta ka. f^Dare kn,-<i Jciita no de mo arimasen ga, 

a From nareru and tsuku. Compare iiatsukashii homesick : Haha ga iiatsid-a 
shikiUe tamarimasen. I am dreadfully homesick for my mother. 

b A person may say of himself nan to mo nai: Kayitku mo nan to mo nai. I don't 
feel any itch or any thing. To the question, li'atakitshi tw me wa akiiku imtte ima- 
sho ka. Is my eye red ? one may reply, lie, nan to mo nai yo. I don't see any 
thing (p. 47, top). 

c That they do not hatch is natural, i. e., naturally they have failed to hatch. 
For dori desu one may say also atarimae desn. 

d Translate : a partially smoked cigar, \omi-kakcru begin to smoke. Compare 
furi-kakfnt begin to rain. 

LX] Morau, SJiimau. 253 

lion ni so kaite arimasli'ta./ Doits' de wa kodomo ga ju ni sai ni 
naru to, kanarazu ni dome no ueboso wo sk'te morawanakere- 
ba narimasen. Itami ga hidoku nareba, isJia ni mite mora- 
wandkereba narimas'mai. Watakushi iva gwaito wo sh'tatete 
moraitai ; anata wa jozu na sh'tateya ivo go zonji de wa ari- 
masen ka. Watakushi iva lieta des' kara, kanai ni nigoshirae 
ico sh'te moi'aimasho. Nihon ni oru Seiyojin wa kuni ye kae- 
ru toki ni wa ie no dogu wo seri de utte shimaimas' (seriuri 
ni shimas'). TIchi noinu no ko wa waki ye yatte shimaimashd.* 
Hikeshi ga kita toki ni wa mo ie ga mina yakete shimatte ita. 
Kono hon wo shimatte (put away) shimaimasho. Parii no ha- 
kurankwai ye itte taihen kane wo ts'katte shimaimash'ta. Ba- 
kuchi wo uttari keiba no kake ivo sh'tari sh'te taiso kane wo ts'- 
katte shimaimash'ta. Amegafuri-kaketa kara, ikazu ni shimai- 
mash'ta. Sonna koto wo sh'te moi*au hazu de wa nakatta. b Ko- 
naida omizu ga dete ichi man nin no hito ga shinde shimatta 
.vo des'. Naka ni haitte kenkwa wo wakete shimaimash'ta. 

/ She spent a lot of money on (making) clothes. iWith (de 
wa) this warm weather the ice will thaw. ,5 Finally I cured it 
myself (hitori de) without being examined by a physician, 
you have thLs wound (p. 159a) examined by a physician ? 
, after I had had it examined he said that if it does not 
heal immediately, he must cut (cutting finish) [it].' I wish you 
would secure (sewa sum) a servant who has never served 
(lioko sh'ta koto no nai) in a foreigner's house. 7 This picture 
I had painted (written) at a shogwakivai. ?He had his own 
epitaph written while (uclii ni) he was [yet] living; isn't it 
strange ? If I drink about three glasses of beer I become en- 
tirely drunk. tfAs I have business at (ni} the consulate but 
don't know the way yet, I will have a friend take me there. 

il I wanted to sell these old books, but I finally failed to sell [them]. 

/-z-The pupils who study Chinese at the School for Foreign Lan- 
guages are taught by a Chinese and a Japanese. v If I don't 
make a note of it in a notebook, I shall forget it entirely (all). 

a Waki ye yarn give away (lit. send to a side, send aside); uchino inu our dog. 
b I should not have been treated like that, or, It was not the understanding that 
J should be treated so, 

254 THE VERB, [LX 

Under whom did you learn Japanese ? I was taught by an 
old (toshitotta} Japanese scholar. He has become younger 
[looking], having cut off (otosu) his beard. I want my hair 
cut. It is risky to (wo ?t?a)get vaccinated by an inexpert phy- 
sician. In Germany (1 ) the number of deaths (those who die) 
from (de) smallpox has considerably (yohodo) decreased since 
(kara7) the regulation (5) was issued (deru-Q") that (to n<4) 
[people] must be vaccinated (3) twice (2). When I returned 
(pres.) \\OKie(kuni ye), I sold my furniture at auction. It was 
my intention to give away all the pups, but at last, as they 
became attached to rne(natsuita mon' des' kard), I kept (ended 
in not giving) [them]. When I have finished writing (past 
cond.) this letter, I will go out a little for a walk. 


In Ch. LI. we gave various examples of irregular causatives. 
Kegular causatives may be derived from any verb, excepting 
the auxiliary ma-su. 

In the case of verbs of the first class saseru is added to the 

tabe-saseru cause to eat, allow to eat, give to eat. 
In the case of verbs of the second class the characteristic 
vowel becomes a (iva), as in the negative conjugation, and 
seru is added : a 

xhiraseru, from s/tm^/'let know, inform. 
sumaseru, from sumu, cause to come to an end, settle. 
mataseru, from matsu, let wait, make stay. 
motaseru, from motsu. have hold, let carry. b 
aivaseru, from au, cause to meet, join, add together. 
kmvaseru. from kuu, cause to eat, feed. 
Some verbs of the first class have also a form in seru, beside* 
the one in saseru : 

let see. m/xt-ru show. 

,-11 have bathe (intr.). abiseru pour(water) over. 

a In Shinto and Christian prayers shimeru, from the classical S/I/HIU, may be 
substituted for seru; e. g., arashimc tamae cause to be! In the classical language 
the common causative inflection has an honorific use : tamkesase tamae save ! 

b Motasete yarn send (by a person). 


The shorter forms have, however, come to have special mean- 
ings and may properly be regarded as independent verbs. 

The causative of suru is saseru; of kuru, kosaseru ; of dekiru, 
dekisaseru or dekasaseru. 3 - 

The causatives are inflected like verbs of the first class: but 
sometimes seru may become su, the conjugation following in 
part the paradigm of hanasu (Ch. LI.); e. g., tabesasu,tabesa- 
shite, tabesasliita for tobesaseru, tabesasete, tabesaseta. 

The above examples show that causatives may be variously 
translated, using such words as "cause/' "make," "have," "let," 
"allow," "see," etc. The meaning ranges all the way from 
the active, agency expressed by "cause a man to drown" to the 
passive attitude indicated by "see a man drown." 

Jibun wa oyogi wo shiranai mono desu kara, tcwukeru koto 
mo dekinaide misumisu ano kodomo ivo oboresasete shimai- 
mashita. As I don't know how to swim, I was unable to save 
the child and saw it drown right before my eyes. 

In the case of a causative derived from a transitive verb 
whose direct object is expressed or clearly understood, the agent 
becomes the indirect object with ni', otherwise the agent takes 

Sliafu ni niiva wo soji sasero. 
Have the rikshaman clean the garden. 
Hito wo ioa.rawa.seru make a person laugh. 
Oya wo nakaseru cause the parents to weep. 

As in English one may use language inexactly; e. g., ie ivo 
tateru build a house, for ie wo tatesaseru have a house built, 
kimono wo kosliiraeru make clothes, for kimono ivo koshiraesa- 


furo bathtub, bath. na-ate 1 address 

ai-te partner, opponent (in a ate-na ) (of a letter). 

game). tama-tsuki playing billiards a frog of a brown- (lit. ball striking). 

ish color. tsuku construct (of earth, etc.). 

a There is also a transitive verb dekas^^ : Kore ivo asu made ni dtkashite kudasqi, 
Please have this done by to-morrow, 




tsiiki-yama artificial moun- 
tain, rockery. a 

sen-sui (c) artificial pond. 

Jianashi-ka professional story- 

fu a kind of food made of 
wheat gluten. 

fu custom, manner, style. 

seki mat, seat, room. 

bappai (batsu, hai] a cup of 
sake drunk for a forfeit. 

do-raku debauchery, profli- 

O * 

i-byu dyspepsia. 

kai-do highway. 

kioa-so cremation. b 

man-zai strolling comic dan- 
cer. c 

mon-jin disciple (lit. gate- 

shi-gai corpse. 

yui-gon instructions of a dy- 
ing person, verbal will. 

sei-hon bookbinding. 

seilion-ya bookbinder. 

nama-nurui tepid. 

kan epilepsy, irritability. 

kan no tsuyoi irritable, pee- 

karu cut, mow. 

mwu leak. 

tozuru, tojiru bind (a book). 

liaku, haki-dasu vomit, spit. 

kuru reel. 

kuri-kaesu repeat. 

te-ire sum repair, attend to 
(p. 213,6). 

nambo (nani hodo)=ikura. 

om-bin ni quietly, in a private 


' Akambo ni shokwa no ivarui mono ii'otabesasete(tabesasttte) 
wa ikemasen. Shosei ni wa yonda tokwo wo tabitnbi kurikn- 
esasenakereba narimasen. J Bydnin ni k'fturi ivo nomasemash'- 
ta(nomashimas1i > to}ga, mina hakidashimash'ta. - Ano Jn'to ira 
tamats'ki ga jozu des* kara, itsu de mo aite ni ]:"/ ir<> dasa- 
semas 1 . fYonde kikasete agemasho ka. d ^Dozo yonde kikase- 
te kudasai. *] sash its itkac ga arimcuk'taraba, x<~> */<ir<i*e na- 
s'tte kudasai. <(Kame no ko nifu ivo tabesasemas' . jAno m<n/- 
zai wa omoshiroi koto wo itte yukn ]iit<> ivo warawasemas' . ) oMa- 
J.-'-fahito ni bappai ivo nomascmas' './ ' Danna sama ! tu'l<iiui<t, du- 

a Compare Tsuki-ji (lit. made land), the name of the former foreign concession 
in Tokyo. 

b From kwa fire and so burial (in so-shiki funeral). Interment is mai-so(mai= 
Hutment inter). 

c From man 10,000, many, and sai year. .}f,i>tzui go about at New Year's con- 
gratulating people and amusing them with their performances, for which they re- 
ceive money. 

d Yonde tti&aseru read. Comp. Jtanashite kikaitru tell. 


guya ga mairimash'ta. 'Vfma sliokuji wo hajimeta tokoro da 
Tear a, s'koshi matasete oite kure. i^Nilionjin iva uma ni mame 
wo kuwasemas'. I \4Kawaii ko ni wa tali wo sasero (Proverb). 
i^Kan no tsuyoi kodomo ni wa akagaeru ivo tabesasemas' . I LAm- 
ma wo yonde kata wo momase nagara kono machi no hanashi- 
wo kiitara do des' ka. ^Ddzo, sono hon'wo misete kudasai. \$o- 
no kurumaya iva yowaso des' kara, isogaseru no wa kawaiso 
des' ; shikashi isogasenai to kisha no ma ni aimas'mai. ;j Kono 
liako ico sugu ni motte ikimasho ka, ato kara motte kosasema- 
shd Motte, kosaseru ho ga yd gozaimasho.. Koko ni hon nado 
wo chirakash'te oita mama dete ikimas' kara, hito wo hairasete 
wa ikemasen. Ano mus'ko wd ddraku de oya wo nakasemas'. 
Ddsho to iu bozu ga b monjin ni yuigon wo sh'te jibun no shigai 
wo yakasemash'ta ; sore ga kwaso no hajimari da to iimas'. 
Kore wa tsumetai mizu des' ka. lie, sore wa namanurui kara, 
o yoshi nasai ; c tadaima kumitate no wo motte kosasemasho. 
Kozukai ni o taku ye motash'te agemasho. Furo ga moru kara, 
naosash'te kure. Oi, Matsul d kono tegami wo sugu ni yubin- 
kyoku ye dash'te kite o kure. Watakushi iva tadaima sliokuji 
no sh' taku ivo sh'te imas' ga, kurumaya ni dasasete mo yoro- 
sliiu gozaimas' ka. So ka, e shikashi isogi no yd da kara, sugu 
ni ikash'te o kure. Uekiya ni tanonde niiva wo ts'kurasetara 
yokatta ni. Mats' wa hisash'ku teire ivo sasenai to, ivaruku 
narimas'. Mina aivasete nambo ni narimas' ka. Ki wo kika- 
sete hayaku kaerimash'ta. f Tonda koto de o saiuagase moshi- 
mash'ta. g 

' As this picture is very pretty, I will have it copied. "-! will 
have the bath heated (caus. of ivakasu) once more. 3 Feed to 
the horses the grass that the gardener has cut. V Where do you 

a Ato kara after us. Comp. p. 1776. A merchant would say to a customer : 
Motashite agemasho ka or O todoke moshimasho ka. Shall I send it to you ? 

b The priest Ddsho lived in the VII. Century. 
(<1 O yoshi nasai. Don't use it (lit. stop !). 
vjyA frequent abbreviation of such a name as Matsutaro, Matsujiro, Matsjigoro, etc. 

e So ka, for so desu &a, is very familiar. 

f Compare ki no kiita (p. 128). This may be said of a visitor who has observed 
that his presence was embarrassing and has cut his visit short. 

g Such an apology is in order when a fire or a similar occurrence in one's house 
has disturbed the neighbors, 



have bookbinding done ? * I have [bool^s] bound at the book- 
binder's on Onari-kondd, a but they are not very skilful [there]. 

Formerly (moto ica) [they] made children read from the very 
&rst(hajime kara) difficult books like (yd nn) ikeDaigaku, b but 
now they have [them] read very easy (from very easy) books. 

^ As I can't write Rornaji, I will have our student c write the 
address of this letter. ^ Since the dog does not get well, we will 
poison (feed poison and kill) [him]. '> Shall I read to you what 
is (written) in the paper in regard to that matter? ' If you are 
at leisure, let [me] know. I 1 If you do not have the pupils write 
Chinese characters often they will forget [them] all. rv That 
story-teller says interesting things and makes people laugh. 
My horse seems very tired ; d I can't make [him] run fast. 
Have the barber wait a little. I will have my garden made 
(ts?(kurn}m Japanese style (Nihon-fu). Then you must have 
a pond and rockery made (koshiraeru). Every day after (to) 
my preparation for (of) school is finished, my father makes me 
read two or three pages (mat) of the Daigaku. He has pupils 
translate English sentences (Ei-bun)inio Japanese, e This too 
is (becomes) a good exercise (kciko). How would it be to call a 
story-teller and have him give [us] a recitation ? f My watch 
is very fast; I must set [it] (p. 160b). As he has dyspepsia, 
the physician said that we must not feed [him] anything but 
(no hoka)soft rice. Happily we settled the thing in a private 
way. Please have this done by this evening. He sent it by the 
maidservant. We will have the hostler clean the garden. The 
Japanese feed hens rice. You must n't let the children come 
into this room. 

a The name of a street leading to Ueno Park in Tokyo. The sAcfit/i when he 
visited the graves of his ancestors used to pass through this street ; hence the name 
Onari, o nari being equivalent to oide in speaking of an Emperor or a sh. 

b From dai great, gaku learning, the name of a Chinese classic. 

c Students are often employed in return for lodging or board to perform such ser- 
vices as tending the door, etc. 

d Translate " be tired" in the case of a horse tsitkareru, not kiUabireru. 

e "To translate" is vaku sum or ttaosu. " To translate into Japanese" may be 
rendered tua-yakii suru. 

f To give a recitation in this case is is-seAi ha>iasn, seki being used as a nuniera- 
tive. In some cases seki&nA. za are synonymous, but ifAiza means the whole com- 
pany (of a theatrical troupe). Comp. ic/ii nic/ii, p. 70. 



The passive and the potential forms of Japanese verbs are 
usually the same, both having been formed originally by ad- 
ding the syllable e, stem of eru (classical uru, u) to get. a The 
identity of the two forms may be illustrated by means of the 
English sentence: "Silk sells well," which may be understood 
to mean either that much silk is sold or that one can easily sell 
silk. The original Japanese idiom in both cases is: "Silk gets 
sale." Kinu iva ydku ureru (for uri-eru). b 

Attention has previously been called to intransitives in eru 
derived from transitive verbs, as hirakeru become civilized, 
from hiraku (p. 222), Such verbs may for the purposes of 
this chapter be classed as irregular. They are, like irregular 
verbs in any language, very much used, and for this reason are 
easy to memorize. 

It is to be observed, by the way, that verbs of this kind as 
passives may be predicated of inanimate things, while regular 
passives are naturally used when the subject is a person. c Some 
of them are also used in a passive potential sense ; e. g., 

toreru be taken, be obtainable, from toru. 

sliireru be known, be evident, from shiru. 

ureru be sold, be salable, from uru. 

kaeru be bought, be purchasable, from kau. 

kikoeru be heard, be audible, from kiku. 

mieru be seen, be visible, from miru. 
Generally they may also be used of a personal subject as active 

a The verb eru is not much used in the colloquial, being usually replaced by 
other verbs, such as morau, ukeru, komuru, tawawaru, etc. It occurs iu : Mata 
ori wo ele ukagaimasho. I will call again when I have an opportunity. Go san- 
sei wo etai to omoimasu. I desire your approval. 

b Compare the adverb yamuoezu unavoidably, from yatnu wo ezu (lit. not. getting 

c In dealing with the Japanese language such a distinction must be made with 
some allowance. As has been hinted before (p. u6a), the genius of the language 
does not demand the expression or even the clear conception of the subject of a 
sentence. Moreover, as has been suggested, a sentence may have a double subject, 
a personal subject with wa and a subordinate impersonal subject with ga. But what 
is said above is correct if we have in mind the true subject of a passive verb, that 
is, the direct object of the action denoted by it. 

260 ThE VERB. [LXII 

potentials in the senses "can get," "be in a position to know," 
etc. , a but as passives they cannot be used of a personal subject. b 
The following examples illustrate the manner in which they are 
used : 

Yohodo tema ga toremasu ka. Will much time be required ? 

Tetsudo-kofu wa taiso kane ga toremasu. 

Kailroad laborers earn a great deal of money. 

Jozu na ryoslii (ni) wa so iu sakana de mo toremasu. 

An expert fisherman can catch even such fish. 

Yoku sliircte iru koto desu. It is a well known fact. 

Shimbun ni de mo kivokoku ivo dasanakercba liito ni shi- 
remasumai. If we do not advertise in a newspaper 
or something, it will hardly become public. 

Watashi ni wa totei so iukomakaikoto wa shiremasumai. 

I am hardly in a position to know such details. 

We will now confine our attention to the regular passive 

forms, used only when the subject is a person. In the case of 

verbs of the first class the passive is derived by adding rareru 

to the stem, i. e., substituting it for the ru of the present tense : 

togame^)*areru be blamed, from togame-ru. 
In the case of verbs of the second class the characteristic vowel 
becomes a (iva), as in the negative and causative forms, and 
reru is added: 

nusumareru be robbed, from nusn/>ni. 

shikarareru be scolded, from shikari?. 

kirawareru be disliked, from kirau. 
There is no passive form of the suffix masu. 

a See the following chapter. When kikoeru and mieru are used as active 
potentials it is natural for them to take a subordinate subject : mimi ga kikoeru, me 
ga mieru. The verb kikoeru may be used also of other than physical possibility: 
Sore wa dbnio kikoenai koto desu. Really, that is unreasonable talk. 

b The verb mieru in some of its senses is an exception. In the sense of " to be 
present " it may be used of a person, though not of the speaker himself: Sensei ga 
miemashita ka. Has the teacher come ? Kino o tnie jiasaimasen deshita, ne. You 
didn't put in an appearance yesterday. In the sense of " to look " it may be used 
in any person: Taiso ftikete an'emasu desho. I presume I look quite old. O toshi 
Jwdo ni iva miemasen. You don't look as old as you are. The verb shireru may 
be used of the discovery of a criminal. 

c In these examples observe the tendency to use ;/;' r.w with the personal subject 
ami to avoid making the thing an object with wo. The verbs are properly neither 
passives nor potential, but iutransitives. 


The passive of sum is serareru or sareru: 
Shakkin wo saisoku sarete komarimasu. 
I am annoyed by being dunned for debts. 
The passive of such a verb as kinzuru or kinjiru (p. 214,7) is 
kinjirareru or kinzerareru, not kinzareru. 

Passives may be derived from causatives ; e. g., atvaserareru 
or aivasareru , from awaseru or aivasu cause to meet, introduce: 
Hidoi me ni awascrareta (aiuasareta) . 
He (or I) was caused to meet with a dreadful experience. 
Sake ivo ogoraserareta (ogorasareta) . 
He (or I) was compelled to set up the sake. 
The passive of kuru come is korareru. It is a peculiarity 
of the language that passives can be formed from intransitives : 
Kyaku ni korareta had visitors. 
TeisJm ni shinareta lost her husband (sliinu die). 
Ame nifurareta was rained upon (ame gafuru). 
These examples show also that the person or thing that 
would be the subject in the active construction takes the parti- 
cle ni (less commonly kara or no tame ni) in the passive. 
A passive verb may have an object: 
Suri ni kane tvo toraremasliita. 
He was robbed of his money by a pickpocket. 
Mune wo uchi-nukareta was shot through the breast. 
The passive is not used as much in Japanese as in English. 
As has been said above, regular passives cannot ordinarily be 
predicated of inanimate things. 3 An active verb often takes 
the place of an English passive : b 

Hada Tokyo wo Edo to moshimashita koro. 
When Tokyo was still called Edo. 

a This does not apply to the literary language : Waga koshikwan wa Shinajin 
ni yakaretari. Our legation was burned by the Chinese. A few exceptions are 
to be found also in genuine colloquial : Shiro go, torareta. A castle was taken. 
Sono ki wa tofb kirarete shimaimashita. That tree was at last cut down. 7^e(su 
de mo ens an ni wa tokasarete shimaimasu. Even iron can be dissolved by hydro - 
chloric acid. 

b Compare the examples on p. 53. In English the passive is often preferred to 
the active because it is unnecessary or inconvenient to name the agent, as in the 
case of the small boy who tells his mother : "My pants got torn. " An active verb 
in Japanese requires no subject and in this respect may be quite as vague as a pas. 


Again, English passives are often represented by intransitive 
verbs or Chinese compounds. 

Ya ni atatte uchijini shimashita. 

He fell struck by an arrow. 

Fume ga liasen shimashita. The ship was wrecked (p.89h). 
An intransitive verb often differs in sense from the regular 
passive derived from the same stem. Thus, tasukaru means 
"escape with one's life," but tasukcrareru means " be saved": 

Sendo wa tasukebune de tasukarimashita. 

The sailors escaped in a lifeboat. 

Tasukebune ni tasukeraremashita. 

They were saved by a lifeboat. 

In some cases a verb like ukeru or komuru may perform 
the function of a passive inflection: hazukashime (or bu-jokii) 
wo ukeru be insulted = hazukashimerareru or buj'oku sareru. 

yobi-dashi wo ukeru be summoned (by a court of justice). 

i-rai wo ukeru be requested. 

ko-geki wo ukeru be attacked. 

shi-ken wo ukeru be examined. 

meslii wo komuru be called (Christian phrase). 

batsu wo komuru be punished. 

go men wo komuru be excused. 

kan-kwa wo komuru be influenced. 

Some substantives like those with which suru is used to form 
active verbs may with ni naru convey a passive sense : 

(o) sewa ni naru, (go] yakkai ni naru be assisted. 

men-shoku ni naru be discharged. 

go chiso ni naru be entertained (polite 1, 3). 
The verb omoivareru in the sense "the thought occurs to me" 
may be construed either as a potential or as a passive. Com- 
pare "methinks." It is also used as an ordinary passive: 

Hito ni yoku omowareru hito desu. 

He is a person well thought of by others. 


buyu, buto name of an in- hatago, hatago-sen, hata go- 
sect with a very venomous ryo price of lodging, 

sting. hisashi a small roof over a 

fukuro bag, sack. door or window. 




obiru gird on, wear in the 

obi girdle, belt. 

taka hawk . 

ama-gasa rain umbrella. a 

asa-se shoal, ford (compare 
haya-se ) . 

ma-mushi viper. 

omo-ya the main house. 

shita-yomi rehearsal, prepa- 
ration (of a lesson). 

tabi-bito traveler. 

uru-doshi leap year. b 

ivaki-zashi short sword. 

sue-ko, suekko, bas-shi (c) 
the youngest child. 

sliappo (Fr. chapeau) ) , , 

bo, boshi ) 

ro, ro-ya prison. 

to party. 

jiyu-to Liberal Party. 

doku-ja poisonous snake (of 
the larger kinds). 

gi-in member of a delibera- 
tive assembly. 

ken-sa inspection. 

kensa wo ukeru be inspected. 

kun-shu sovereign (lit. lord, 

mo-ju wild beasts. 

ryu-gdku being abroad for 
purposes of study. 

sen-kyo election. 

shi-kei the death penalty. 

sliu-gi congratulation, con- 
gratulatory gift. 

tai-sho general, commander. 

koku-ji-han political offense 
(koku = kuni, ji = koto, 
han offense). 

kotoioaru give notice, refuse. 

nikumu hate. 

okuru send, escort (p. 59a). 

ou carry on the back. c 

sasu sting. 

shiiru force (a thing on a 
person) . 

soshiru slander. d 

nagasu banish. 

tamawaru bestow, receive. e 

twaeru ~t 

> seize, arrest. 
tsukamaeru j 

ukareru be buoyant, light- 
hearted, giddy. f 

a In distinction from hi-gasa parasol, the latter being made of unoiled paper. 

b Urudoshi properly denotes the leap year of the old lunar calendar, according 
to which every fifth year has thirteen months. This year may also be called uru- 
zuki no aru toshi. 

c From this are derived obuu carry (a child) on the back and the children's word 
ombu (pmbcT) sum. Another synonymn is shou, from se-ou (se back). 

d This verb (subord. soshitte} belongs to the class described in Ch. XL VIII, but 
it was not included there because it occurs very rarely in the colloquial. 

e Derived from the classical tamau. It may be used as a passive, or as an hon- 

f From uku float. One may also say ki (kokorei*) ga uite imasu {ukiuki shite 


kui-tsukti bite (of an animal sho sum sentence (a crimi- 

sucli as a dog or a snake). nal). 

atsukau, tori -atsukau man- shi-kci ni sho sum condemn 

age, treat. to death. 

yobi-kaesu call back, recall. kai ga aru it is worth 

ike-dor u, ike-dori ni sum while to (opp. nai). 

take alive. kwam-pi de at Government 

baka-su befool, bewitch. expense. 


> Watakushi wa Frans' to ik'sa ga okotta told zchi heitai /ti 
naro to omoimash'ta ga, kensa 100 uketara amari l;ra<la ga 
yowakute kotowararemash'ta. llnu hone otte taka ni torarcru.* 
lZiftM& wo kash'te omoya mo torareru (Proverb). 0PjHamtta& 
ni kamareta kara, isha ni mite moraivanakereba narimasen. 
'Ryuku ni iva dokuja ga tak'san orimas' ; kuits'karetara sugu 
ni sono tokoro wo kitte shimawanakereba narimasen. ( Jf'c/"- 
kushi wa, inu ni aslii 100 kamaremash'ta kara, arul:cmasen. 
(^arukaremasen) J Kaze ni shappo wo toraren yd ni go yojin wo 
nasai. - Mujitsu no tsumi de shikei ni sho serareta liito mo nai 
de loa nai. fOda Nobunaga wa Alteclii Mitsulihle to iu jibun 
no kerai de atta taisho ni korosara/iaxh'ta. b lOKodomo ga 
amari itazura ico sh'te junsa ni sh'kat-arc/nash'ta. tiHanfu to 
iu Shinajin ^va haha no koto wo waruku itta no de oki na Jicbi 
ni nomareta so des'. c /lYomu to iu Shinajin wa o/foj'i im koro- 
sh'ta no de kaminari ni utarete shinda so des' '. i3 Shosei ga 
wo nonde ukarete uta wo utaimash'ta. 't/Nihonjin trn 
takoku ye iku koto wo kinfirarete (kinzerarete) int<ixh't<(. 
shu ka/rawakizashi wo tamawatte seppuku womoshite'kerareta d 
koto moatta.'fTonariniko ga umaremash'ta kara, shiigi ni sa- 
kana wo okurimashGSlOtoko no ko noumaretaie de wa sonoto- 
shikara shichi nen no aida maitoshi go gwatsuno its'ka ni no- 

a The object of torareru in this proverb is to be supplied. One labors and an- 
other enjoys the fruit. 

b Akechi murdered Nobunaga in 1582 in order to usurp the supreme power. 

c The stories of Hanfu and Yomu are taken from the Do-ji-kyo (de-ji or ji-do 
children, kyo = oshie). 

d Moshi-tsukeru = ii-tsukeru command. 


bwiivotatemas'. Aits' wadorobo ivosh'te kangoku ye okurare- 
mash'ta, Uslii ni hikarete Zenkivojimairi. a Qta ko ni oshie- 
rarete asase wo wataru (Proverb). Hito ivokoros' to, kubi too ki- 
raremas'. Shina mo chikai uchini motto hirakeru daro to omo- 
loaremas'. YoshidaShoin tva b givaikoku ye iko tosh'ta tame ni 
toraerareteroya ni ireraremash'ta. Nihonnoseifu ni wa gwai- 
kokujinga tak'sanyatowareteimas'. Ichinen no uclii ni wa Ni- 
hongo no Jianashi gajiyu nidekimasho to omoimash'ta ga,ima 
keiko wo hajimete miru to, totemo dekiso ni wa omowaremasen. 
Ber'rin de wa taiteijiyuto no giin gasenkyo saremas'. Tabibiio 
wayoku kire de nagaifukuro ivo koshiraete sore ni kane ivoire- 
te torarenai yd ni obi no sli'ta ni shimete orimas\ Watakuslii 
wa konaida liacld ju yen misumaremash'ta ; keisatsu ni todo- 
keta keredomo, kane ga kaerimasenakatta. Sensei ga taihen 
shosei ni yararcmash'ta. c Domo, ame nifurarete komarimas'. 
Nikumarete yo ni iru kai wa nakeredo, kaioaigararete sliinu 
(shinuru) yori maslii da. d Atama ivo tatakaremash'ta. Bu- 
to ni sasareru to, saisJio wa nan to mo arimasen ga, ni san 
nichi tatte itaku narimas'. Kyo wa o kyaJm ni ittara, e sake- 
100 shiirarete komarimash'ta. Watakushi mo kodomo no toki- 
ni iva kitsune ni bakasareru koto wo osorete orimash'ta. 
Sakuban tomatta yadoya de taihen hatagosen wo toraremasli'ta. 
In the eleventh year of Meiji Okubo Toshimitsu was killed 
at Kioizaka by Shimada Ichiro [and] others (ra). { I always get 

a Zen-kwo-ji a famous temple of the buddha Amida at Nagano in Shinano. Zen- 
kwo or Yoshimitsu is the name of a person who brought the gold image of the bud. 
dha from Naniwa (JOsaka~). It is said that a woman pursuing an ox which had 
caught some of her wash on its horns unconsciously followed it so long a distance 
that she at last reached Zenlnuoji and had the joy of being able to worship Buddha 
there. The proverb is applicable to one who is gradually led to go a long distance 
or accomplish a great task without any intention of doing so at the start. 

b A scholar from Choshii who attempted to go abroad on one of Commodore 
Perry's ships in order to acquaint himself with western civilization. 

c The verb yaru is here used in the sense of "tease" or "humiliate." 

d A T akeredo = nai keredomo (comp. yokeredo, p. 99). Similar forms may be 
derived from the past tense : yokattaredo, itakattaredo. Verbs also may be inflected 
in the same way, substituting do for ba in the conditional, but the indicative with 
keredo^jno] is more commonly used. 

e Kyaku ni iku (ycbarertt) go as a guest, be invited out. 

f Qkubo was Home Minister. Ka after the name of Shimada Ichiro is equiva- 
lent to nado, nazo. 


scolded by the teacher because I am not prepared (don't make 
preparation and come). There is a saying (mas' koto) that if 
you sneeze once, you are praised (inconc.) by some one; if twice 
(you do it), you are slandered (inconc.) by some one; if thrice 
(you do it), you catch a cold. 3 A Japanese proverb says (In a 
Japanese proverb they say) that if you lie you will get your 
tongue pulled out (nuku} by Emma after you die. There is 
also a proverb that says: To have your hand bitten by your pet 
dog (kai-inu). They say that one born in leap year is patient. 
The number of people killed (kami-korosu) by wild beasts and 
poisonous snakes in British India (Ei-ryo Indo] in (chu nty 
the year 1886 was (there were) 24,000, it is said. Yesterday 
I did not go to take my lesson (keiko ni) because I was invited 
out (called). He was sent (caused to be) abroad for study at 
the expense of the Government; but as he was not diligent, 
he was recalled.^ -The youngest child is loved most by its par- 
ents. There being a fire in the neighborhood last night, I was 
wakened by my servant. When you are robbed of money by a 
thief, you must report [the factjto the police. About 80 years ago 
the Russian captain Golownin was arrested by the Japanese and 
put into prison, but it is said that he was quite kindly treated. 
As I have no umbrella I shall indeed be troubled if I am overtak- 
en by rain (rained upon). In the war he was shot in the thigh. 
For (no wake de) a political offense he was banished to Tsushi- 
ma. b Sugawara no Michizane was banished to Dazaifu c and 
died there. Taira no Munemori was captured alive at the battle 
of Dan no Ura d and sent to Kamakura. Being told that there 
was no one there, I was very much astonished. 


The regular potential, denoting possibility, is identical in 
form with the regular passive described in the previous chapter: 

a The pronouns, of course, are not to be translated. 

b An island between Japan and Corea. 

c In Chikuzen, the province on the south side of the Straits of Shimouoseki. In 
ancient times Dazaifu was the residence of the governor of Kyushu. 

d Along the coast of ChbshTt, near Shimonoseki. It was in 1185 the scene of a 
decisive uaval battle between the houses of Gen-ji{Mi>uinioto)vn&Hei-kt{Taira). 


tabe-rareru be able to eat, from tabe-ru. 

mi-rareru be able to see, from mi-ru. 

nrareru be able to sell, from uru. 

tatareru be able to stand, from tatsu. 

itadakareru be able to receive, from itadaku. 

aivareru be able to meet, from au. a 

Besides the form in (a)reru there is, in the case of verbs of 
the second class, b a shorter one in (e)rw derived by changing 
the characteristic vowel to e and adding ru. Thus from iku 
go we have ikareru or ikeru; from iu say, iivareru oTteru. c 
The longer form is rather more polite in speaking of another 
person. The longer form is especially to be preferred when 
the idea of being permitted to do a thing is to be expressed : 

Kono tabako iva karakute nomemasen (or nomaremasen ) . 

This tobacco is so strong that I can't smoke it. 

Tetsudobasha no ndka de wa tabako ivo nomaremasen 
(not nomemasen). One may not smoke in a street car. d 

The potentials of kuru and suru are also identical in form 
with the passives. But there is not much, use for serareru 
(sareru), the construction with suru koto ga dekiru or simply 
dekiru taking its place. 

Anslio (suru koto'] ga dekimasen. I can't memorize it. 
While uncontracted potential forms are inflected like verbs 
of the first class, contracted forms like makaru (p. 181) and 
mokaru, from mokeru gain, belong to the second. 

The subject of a potential verb is naturally a person (or ani- 
mal), because the idea of will is involved. In speaking of things 

a The most explicit and emphatic expression of potentiality is found in the idiom 
koto ga (wa) dekiru. 

b In some of the provinces verbs of the first class too have two potential forms; 
e. g., from oboeru remember, learn, oboe-rareru and oboe-reru. 

c Kikoerti and mieru (p. 26ob) are irregular. The form kikeru belongs to the 
verb kiku be efficacious (p. 221). ltd iva kite hi ga kikeru mono da kara, ano mura 
de wa ibalte imasu. Ito, being eloquent, is carrying himself high in that township. 
In the sense of "tolerable to the ear" kikeru may also serve as a potential of ki- 
ku hear : Piano wo are gurai hikeba, nia, kikeru sa, ne, 

d In previous treatises on the grammar of the colloquial the fine distinction be- 
tween physical possibility and moral possibility, between "can" and "may," has re- 
ceived more emphasis than the facts warrant. Very few Japanese are aware of the 


the simple indicative is sufficient: Kore mo hairimasu. This 
too can go in. But one may also say: 

Ki ga sodatenai. Trees can't grow. 

Kislia ga ugokenai (or hashirenai) . 

The train can't move (can't run). 

Fune ga susumenai (or torenai). 

The boat can't advance (can't pass). 

Sonna koto ga ararcmasho ka. Arareyo liazu ga nai. 

Can such a thing be ? It can't be. a 

With a potential, as with a desiderative (p. 176, middle), 
the word which is the object in English may take ga instead 
of 100. b 

Besides the passive and the potential uses of the longer forms 
in (a)reru there is an honorific use: e.g., shinareru for shin x- 
ru, kinzerareru for kinzuru, korareru for kuru, nasaru for nasu, 
kudasaru for kudasu, irassliaru for iru, kuru, or yuku, etc. 
The last is from iraserarerii, the honorific form of the causa- 
tive of iru, the causative also having had an honorific use. 
These honorific forms differ from the corresponding simple 
verbs only in being used of the acts of exalted personages or of 
those whom one wishes to honor. 


koslii loins. moya fog. c 

kurai rank, title, throne. nazo riddle. 

kurai nitsuku(noboru) ascend nazo ivo kakent- propound a 
the throne. riddle. 

a It would be useless to attempt to decide in every case whether the subject of 
the verb is the person or the thing. The Japanese themselves do not think of such 
a distinction, especially when the verb is in the attributive position. Kono hocho 
wa yoku kireru. This kitchen-knife cuts well. Koiio fude wa zitibtui kakcru. 
This writing-brush does quite well. Kanari yomeru /ion desu. It is quite a read- 
able book. Ko in sakatia de mo ryori no shiyo niyolte "Ma nakanaka kiicmasu. 
Even such fish can be eaten if properly cooked (lit. depending on the cooking). 

b Note lhat whileone may say: 7"abakoga tiomaremasen. "I can't smoke tobacco," 
this phrase can never mean: "Tobacco is not smoked." Compare: 1 ~ona ga sakatta 
ni nomartinashita. Jonah was swallowed by a fish. 

C We may say ///;' gafuru a mist falls, but with moya we may not use/urn, 
only kakaru. Haze, such as appears in the spring, is kasuini. A fog ou the sea 
is in Hokkaido called gasu (E-ng. "gas"). 




warabi fern, brake. 

se, se-naka, sena back. 

sliini-me the moment of 

te-gata certificate, passport, 
check. a 

to flower stalk (of a vege- 

to ga tatsu go to seed. 

clii-hd locality, province. 

chi-ji governor. 

fti-sen balloon. 

go-bo burdock. 

ho-cho kitchen knife. 

ho-ken feudalism. 

jo-skin report to a superior 
(jo = ue, shin = mosu ) . 

ke-byo feigned sickness. 

ktva-hei coin, specie. b 

kyo-so competition. 

niku-gan the naked eye. 

ron-setsu, rom-bun essay, ar- 

seki-sho barrier (p. 77d). 

shin-kei nerves. 

tep-po gun. 

u-ten rainy ' weather. 

zap-po miscellaneous news. 

cho-ren drill. 

chorem-ba parade -ground. 

ji-chi-sei self-government. 

de-iri no daiku the carpenter 
usually employed about the 
house. c 

yondokoronai unavoidable, 
necessary. d 

kaku (c) every, all. 

kiva-bin na too keen, nervous. 

mokeru establish, make, gain, 

motsureru be tangled, con- 

suru rub, polish. 

sureru be rubbed, worn. 

sumu be clear, distinct. 

mimi wo sumasu listen in- 

sashi-komu penetrate into, 
enter (of light). 

tori-kiru take all, exhaust 
the supply of. e 

bachi ga ataru suffer punish- 
ment (lit. punishment 

kasuka ni faintly, dimly. 

rdku ni easily, happily. 


f Ano hito wa kebyo wo ts'kattara bachi ga atatte honto ni 
okirarenaku narimash'ta. J-Anata wa kono shimbun wo raku ni 

a The modern technical word for "passport" is ryoko-menjo or simply ryo-ken. 
b Paper money is shi-hei, from shikami. Compare kin-kwa gold coin, gin- 
kwa silver coin, do-kwa copper coin. 

c From deru go out and iru come in. Compare deiri no isha family physician, 
d Yondokorc' is derived fcomyori-dokoro, that on which one can rely, resource, 
e The compound verbs will be treated in Ch, LVI. 


<& y'ur^'^c/C'icc c>-nx> (Lf^YyvCStA*. in <vu 

yomema^ho. '- Zappo wa yomemas' keredomo ronsets' iva yo- 
memasen. *' Choremba ye itte mo hito ga okute nani mo mie- 
mas'mai. .' Mienai koto wa arimas'mai. ^Fusen ga dandan to- 
ku natte mo nikugan de wa miemasen. ~) Yakamash'kutc kiko- 
emasen. Sit inkc i ga kwabin it i natte neraremasen. ; Sake tea ya- 
meraremas'\ga, tabako wa yameraremasen/-;Joko ni icarabi ga 
tak'san arimas' ; ikura totte mo torikiremasen. ' //Tak'san 
chodai itashimash'ta ; mo itadakaremasenJ^Deiri no daiku no 
uchi ye itte sugu ni korarenai ka kiite kite kure. ' ^Danna 
sama, tadaima kaette mairimash'ta ; daiku wa yondokoi'onai 
yd ga aru to mosh'ta kara, sugu ni wa mairaremas'mai. l^no 
hito no yamai wa mo naorimas'mai ka.'.'' Domo ukeawarema- 
sen.f+Se ni hara wa kaerarcnu (Proverb). ^Kyo wa kaze ga 
kaivatte toki no kane ga kikoemasen. a i^fiore tva iwazu to 
mo shireta koto des'. t^Kakken no b chifi wa mina sono cTiilio 
ni jichisei ga okonawaremas* ka, okoncnvaremasen ka wo c tori- 
shirabete naimu-daijin nijoshin shinakereba narimasen. / ]]\i- 
rui nazo to kakete nan to toku. Motsureta kami to toku ; kobaro 
tva toku ni tokarenu.^ Anata go ga ittemas' ka. S'koshi wa 
utemas'. Kyokd to iu Shinajin wa taiso bimbo sh'te ite mo 
hidoku benkyo shimash'ta; abura ga kaenakatta kara, kabe ni 
ana wo akete tsuki no akari ivo sashikomasete lion wo yomima- 
sh'ta. Sensei ni shitsumon itashimash'ta ga, sensei n i m o waka- 
rimasen to mosaremash'ta. Go no s'ki na hito wa oya no sh>.- 
nime ni aivarenai. So mo ienai koto wa nai keredomo, metta 
ni iimasen. Shina no gakumon wa taiso irikunda mono de 

a There are such bells in Buddhist temples. Comp. p. 198, top. 

b Kakken, for kaku-ken all the prefectures, or rather every prefecture. The 
collective "all" is rather she. Comp. kakkokn every country, every province, 
kakkyokwai every church. 

c The particle wo after ka makes the question dependent on torishirabetc. 

d In solving an English conundrum we usually have to explain why two given 
things are similar, i. e., may be described by means of the same words. In a Japa- 
nese conundrum only one of the two tilings is named and the other must be found. 
The question here is: "What is like a poor conundrum?" The answer is: "Tangled 
hair." Kokoro means "sense," "explanation." It is quite usual to prefix to a neg- 
ative potential verb the indicative of the same verb with ni. Literally toku ni 
to hnrenu may be rendered : " in explaining you can't explain, " or "when you try to 
explain (untangle), you can't explain (untangle}. 


Seiydjin ni wa koshi no magaru made a naratte mo totemo obo- 
eraremasen. Sono nedan de wa uraremasen. Teppd no oto 
ga kikoemas' ; nan desho. Ima Jcane ga natte imas' ka. Mimi 
100 sumash'ie kiku to, kas'ka ni kikoemas'. Konaida wa so ie- 
masen to iimash'ta ga, yoku shirabete mimash'tara yahari so 
mo iemas'. Ano yama wo haraisagetara zuibun mdkarhnashd.^ 
' You can't use hashi (wa) until you become accustomed [to 
them]. ^-Europeans (ni iva) can't sit like (yd ni) Japanese. 

3 As I have written too much, my hand is so painful that it has 
now become impossible to write (p. 101, 2). y The letters are 
worn so that one can't read them.of I can't cut well with this 
knife. The Qigawa is so swift that one can't cross it by boat. 

7 When(toH ni wa) the weather is fine (harete oru), the smoke 
of the volcano of Qshima can be seen even from (kara de mo) 
Enoshima. '< He got so drunk last night that he couldn't walk. 

i It was so foggy (p. 124 top) that Fuji could not be seen 
from the ship, /o This burdock has gone to seed and become 
inedible// He said (itte ofcw)that as he was busy he would proba- 
bly not be able to come.'a-The former German Emperor (Doi- 
ts' no sen-tei) died c immediately after (to) he ascended the 
throne^ In the feudal age there were barriers at various places, 
(achikochi) on (of) the high ways (kaido-suji), so that without 
(p. 98b)a passport one could not go through (torn), f Really, 
I can't believe that (wa). The inscription (letters) on this 
coin (wa) is worn off so that it is illegible. Until now people 
thought (were thinking) that that mountain was inaccessible (a 
place that one can't ascend). I can't buy at (de wa) that price. 
I could not start on account of (de) the rainy weather. Come 
down on the price a little more. Really, I can't come down. 
As it is dreadfully smoky (smoke rises dreadfully), we can't 
stay (iru) here. In this neighborhood I can't make much 

a Until a man's back is bent, i. e., until one becomes an aged man. 

b The verb harai-sageru is used of sales of government property ; yama may 
denote a forest or a mine. Mokaru is like the intransitive verbs described in the 
previous chapter; it may l>e construed either as a passive or as a potential. 

C Use the honorific form of shinuru or nakunaru. One may also say o ka.kure 
ni naru (p. y;a) or go ho-gyo ni naru. The la.Uer expression is properly applicable 
only to a Japanese Emperor. 


[money], as there are many people in (of) the same business and 
competition is severe (hageshii}. The (sound of the) bells of 
Shiba can be heard faintly. At (wa) this hotel both Fuji and 
the sea can be seen, so that the scenery is fine. Even though 
you go, I cannot guarantee that you will surely be employed by 
the Japanese Government. When (subord. ?m) I am spoken 
to in that manner, I can't keep silent. 


This chapter will treat of certain peculiar idiomatic uses of 
the indicative forms of verbs. a 

1. A verb, like an adjective, may be made a substantive by 
adding no. A substantivized verb may have either a concrete 
or an abstract sense. 

In the former case the no is is equivalent to mono or koto. b 
Such particles as iva, ga, ni, wo, mo, de may be added : c 
Sashidasu no wo te ni totte mimashita. 
I took into my hands what was presented and examined it. 
Sakujitsu itta no iva machigai deshita. 
AYhat I said yesterday was a mistake. 

Observe the idiom to iu no ica (or ga, etc.) "what is called," 
"the expression," "the assertion that." d 

Ainu to iu no wa Ezo no dojin no koto desu. 
The Ainu are the aborigines of Ezo. 

Konna sliigoto de kane wo inokeyo to iu no iva okadtif j 
arimasen ka. Is n't it ridiculous to talk about making 
money in such a business? 

A substantivized verb usually has an abstract sense, denot- 
ing merely the idea of the action or state expressed by the verb. 
The no desu, ordinarily contracted to n' desu, which occurs so 

a Re-read the introductions to chapters XIX. and XXXVII. 

b In such expressions as Mita koto ga arimasen. I have [not seen it, no may 
not be substituted for koto. Mita no ga arimasen would mean "There is no one 
that has seen if. " 

c In the literary style these particles may be added immediately to the verb. 
See the second sentence in the Japanese exercises. 

d In defining a word or explaining a phrase to iu no wa is often contracted to 
to wa, but this has rather a literary flavor. 


often at the conclusion of a sentence is in many instances a 
mere flourish. But no desu may also add something to the 
sense. Thus while Ame gafurimashd,furudesho, andfurun' 
desho do not differ appreciably, the expression furu no desho 
plainly implies that the statement is meant to be an explanation 
of a given condition of things, as, for example, of an oppres- 
sive atmosphere. Note also: 

Amerika ye iku n' desu. He is to go to America. 
Amerika ye iku n' deshita. Ha was to go to America. 
Ano told ni bydki de nakereba loatakushi mo itta n' desu. 
At that time, if I had not been sick, I should have gone too. 
Here itta n' desh'ta would indicate still more strongly that it 
had been definitely decided to go. But itta n' desu may also 
be a mere circumlocution for itta he has gone. 
One may even hear such expressions as: 

So iu n' ja nai n' da. It isn't so. It is a mistake. a 
In familiar talk, especially among women, no may be usedel- 
liptically for no desu or no desu ka, the accent showing whether 
the sentence is an assertion or a question : 

Kasa ga aru no. Have you an umbrella ? 
Aru no (?/o). I have. 

After an indicative no ni may have an adversative sense 
(pp. 149 and 193f ). But no ni may also have other meanings, 
as in the following examples : 

Koko kara Kobe ye iku no ni (wa) pyoso ichi jikan hodo 


It takes about one hour to go from here to Kobe. 
Naze to iu no ni me ga ivarukuteji ga yomenai kara desu. 
The reason is that my eyes are so bad that I cannot read. 
Watakushi ga (or no) omoimasu no ni (t0a) go shatei 
san no ho ga o ivarui yd desu. In my opinion your 
younger brother seems to be in the wrong. 

a Taking to iu in the sense of "such, " this sentence may also be rendered : They 
are not of that kind. Compare : So iu {yd na~) no ga oi. There are many such. 
So in it ja nai (yo) may also mean: You must not say so. The writer once heard 
a man scold a cooly like this: Kisama sv iu koto ivo iu mod ja nai ja nai ka, 
Don't you know that it is unbecoming for you to talk like that ? 



Sensei no iu no ni (ica) Doitsu ni mo tsuru cja oru to iu 
koto desu. According to what my teacher says, there 
are storks in Germany also. 
In these examples no may be omitted. 

2. In certain connections verbs may take wa, ga, etc., with- 
out koto, mono, or no. In Aru koto iva arimasu the koto may 
be omitted. a 

Motte kuru ga ii. You had better bring [it] (p. 150, bottom). 

Yomu ni (?m) tarimasen. It is not worth reading. 

Miru ni (wa) oyobimasen. It is not necessary to look at it. 

Koraeru ni koraerarenu. One cannot endure it (p. 270d). 

Kakusu ni kakusarenai. It cannot be hid. 

Iu ni iwarcnai kanashimi. Unutterable sorrow. 
Desu (rarely da) may be added to a predicate verb: 

So itte mo ivakaru desu. Such an expression is understood . 
In the same way ,/a nai ka or de wa gozaimasen ka (p. 191b) 
may be used. One must not say Wakatta desu or }\'<ikaru de- 
shita. But there is a growing tendency to use expressions like 
the former; e. g., So itta desu. DesJu't<( is regularly used with 
the negative of the auxiliary masu: So iimasen deshita. 


haji shame. ka-betsu distinction, differ- 
sono garden. ence, classification. 

miya-ko capital, metropolis. b setsu-mei explanation. 

son loss (p. 8oa). shit-ji (shn = narau) pen- 
ni-fid hospitality, entertain- manship. 

ment. ki/n-kd going in haste (7. - o = 
is-shd one's whole life. c yuku). 

it-tan one instance, once (p. res-sha train (on a railway). 

70a). L-j/uko-ressha express train. 

a Here if no be substituted for koto the sense is changed to : There are some that 
have [them], Saishi tn> am bozu mo arimasu ka. Are there also priests who have 
families? Aru no wa arimasu ga, amari tattol>a>\-mascn. There are some that 
have, but they are not very highly respected. 

b The ko is an old word denoting pjace. Compare the final syllable in koko, 
doko, etc. 

C For issho compare issho-kemmei (p. 7 id). 


iwayuru so called (classical asa-ne wo sum sleep late in 
for iwareru). the morning. 

/ O 

aratamaru be altered, amend- ni kanzuru be moved or 

ed ( tr. aratameru ) . affected by. 

kotaeru answer. nikan-shin(orkam-puku) 

de-au meet on the way. sum feel admiration for. 

kaki-kaeru rewrite. kanshin (kampuku) desu is 

naga-biku be protracted. admirable, wonderful. 

nisumi-nareru bylongres- o-yo suru put into practice, 

idence become accustomed apply, adapt, 
to, come to feel at home in. 


i Kanji wa narau no ni mutsukash'kute sugu wasurete shimai- 
mas'. }Tou wa ittan no haji, towanu wa issho no haji. a * Aru 
liito no moshimas' ni wa goku mukashi wa Ezojin ga Nilion zen- 
koku ni sunde ita to iu koto des' ga, lionto de gozaimasho ka. b 
u Sore wa lionto de gozaimasho ; Nilion no rekishi ni mo kaite ari- 
mas'kara.\ Shiroi kiji gaaruto'iujiowa-honto des'ka.^ Sayo sa, 
lionto des' ka do des' ka wakarimasen, shikashi mukashi tenshi 
ni shiroi kiji wo kenjita liito ga atta to rekishi ni kaite arimas'. 
7 Hon wo chirakash'te oku no wa gak'sha no kuse des'. % Saku- 
jitsu itta no wa machigaimash'ta kara, konnichi naosliimaslio. 
<f Yube Qkuma san ni deaimash'ta no wa doko desh'takke. c 
H Kono dekimono wo kirazu ni utchatte oku to, naoru no ga na- 
gabikimas'. jt Anata no tokiakash'te kudasaimash'ta no wa ma- 

a Another form of this proverb : Kiku wa ittoki no haji, shiranu wa matsu-dai 
no haji {matsu end, dai generation). 

b Observe that while the words no iu niwa, etc., at the beginning of a quota- 
tion seem to correspond to the English '' say that," a verb of saying or an ex- 
pression like to iu koto desu is required to complete the sentence. Comp. p. 22^b . 

c This takke is a remnant of the classical tarikeri, an emphatic past termination- 
Anokojiki wa kino mo kite imashitakke. That beggar was around here yesterday too* 
The so called past tense of a Japanese verb is not always definitely past (p. 143, 5, 
2); but the addition of kke helps to recall vividly a situation in the past. It is used 
only in familiar conversation. In a question kke indicates a conviction that the 
event occurred even though there is doubt about the exact circumstances. Ka may 
be added before shir an : Are wa mita koto no aru yd na hito desu ga, doko de mi- 
mashitakke ka shiran. He seems like a person that I have seen before, but where 
was it that I saw him ? 


da yoku wakarimasen kara, mo ichi do oshiete itadakito goza- 
itt<a-s'. i* Aratamatta toki ni (aratamareba) so iu n' des'. a 
no kawari ni NI wo ts'kau no wa macliigai da to itte mo hi- 

to ga ts'kau kara, shikata ga nai.\\\ Watakushi wa asane ivo 
suru no ga s'ki des'. foSumeba miyako to iu no tea do iu imi 
des* ka.\/ Sayo, suminareta tokoi'o ga ichiban ii to iu imi des'. 
KyTikoressha de Qsaka ye iku ni wa hanjikan hodo kakarimas'. 
Go zonji(gd) nai nodes' ka. b Watol-ushi ica shijn isogashiugo- 
zaimash'te tadaima ni sampun no liima wo mite c chottootazune 
mosh'ta tokoro de gozaimas'. Sekkaku o tazune kudas'tta no ni, 
nan no o also mo gozaimasende mdkoto ni shitsurei de gozaima- 
sli'ta. Aa, o isha sama wa o rusu de atta ka. Swya sekkaku itte 
kureta no ni kinodoku de atta neA Bis'mark' ko no kao wa 
e ni kaku no ni tsugo no ii kao des'. Yasui mono ivo kau no 
wa kaette son des' . e Doits' kara Nihon ye riku de iku ni wa 
do iufu niittara yd gozaimaslid. Sensei, "sono" to iu no to, 
"niiva" to iu no to do iu yd ni chigaimas' ka. f Amari taba- 
ko ivonomunodebyoki ni narimash'ta. Amaritoku made g aru- 
ita no de taiso kutabiremash'ta. Anata ga hayaku Nihongo 
u'o oboe nas'tta no wa kanshin des'. 

I My son is too young (still a little small) to (ni wa} go to 
school. Mt is healthy (becomes medicine of the body) to (no 
wa) bathe in cold water. - Even though a foreigner speaks 
incorrectly (uses mistaken words), it is impolite to laugh. > My 
tooth aches very much, but I dislike (iya des') to have it 

a In this sentence aratamatta toki ni means: when one is serious and formal, i. 
e., not familiar. 

b Notice that when a positive sentence ending in da, Jesu, etc., is turned into a 
negative, de may be dispensed with : waJtorfffa nakatta kara since you did net 
understand (positive : o -a'aAari i/es fit/a). Dekiso mo nai. It does not seem prac- 
iticable (positive : dekiso desu). Ikareso mo nai. It is not likely that I (or he) 
will be able to go. Alito mo tuti (for tnitakit mo nai, contracted also to mittomo- 
nai). It's disgusting (lit. I don't want to see). Skutitaiunai I don't want to die. 

c Hima wo mite is for hima no am no TI'<> mite. 

d Said by a man to his servant. Sor)>a = sorf wa. 

e There is a proverb: Vasn-mono-kai no zeni-ushinai (iis/ti/ian lose). For Si>u 
desu one often says son ga ikimasu. 

f " What is the difference betwin sono and tiiw.i ?" The latter word is mjre 
common in the colloquial. 

g This adverb is used like a sxibstantive. 


extracted. *' Is this your first visit to Kyoto (is your coining to 
K. hajimcte) ? (To explain this minutely would take (takes) 
considerable time. 7 To correct this is the same thing as to re- 
write [it] entirely.^ I don't go to Japanese houses (houses of 
Japanese) very much because it is such a bother to take off 
(nugu^) my shoes.f It is easy to ask [questions], but difficult to 
answer [them], jo In my opinion it will be very difficult to 
adapt Romaji to the Japanese languages //Is it true that (to 
iu no wa) there were [once] so-called jindai-moji?^ 3 '' IK What 
you said yesterday was a mistake (o macliigai') + When an 
old man gets sick, [the illness] is usually protracted. Did you 
understand what I said yesterday ?* Formerly it took about a 
month to go from Edo to the middle provinces ; c but now if 
one goes by steamer, one can do it (go) in (c?e) 2? days. To 
learn to write (kaki-kata) Chinese characters, how had I bet- 
ter begin (if in what manner I have begun will it be good) ? It 
will be well to engage a teacher of penmanship and learn to 
write (kdku no wo) large characters with a writing-brush. 
What is written in this book is almost all false (lies). For a 
congratulatory gift it is usual to send raw fish, but since raw 
fish spoils easily (ivarultu nariyasui) many send other things. 
What is the difference between wa and ga (What they 
and what they call ga, what sort of distinction is there) ? 


The uses of the stems of verbs with auxiliaries have been 
explained in previous chapters. Some other idiomatic uses of 
stems will now be described. 

1. Many substantives are originally stems of verbs; e.g., 
samurai, from samurau serve, tori thoroughfare, from toru pass 
through. Comp. pp. 22, top and 119, bottom. Stems of verbs, 

a A sentence beginning with no omoit ni wa or no kangae de wa ends with 
an expression like yd desu. 

b Characters, not Chinese, said to have been used in prehistoric times in " the 
age of the gods" (jm god, dai age). 

c The middle provinces (chTi-goktf] are the eight westernmost provinces of the 
main island. 


as substantives, often take the place of English verbs, especiall y 
in formal conversation : 

tanomi no hon the book for which you asked (p. 193a). 

~6se no tori as you say (p. 209a). 

Go zonji no tori as you know. 

Go zonji de wa (or fj} tn-ii/iawn ka. 

Don't you know about it? 

Go zonji no l/n:.n '/< .sv/. You ought to know. 

Oide no jibun ni when you (he) were here (were there. 
came, went, come, go). 

Oidc ?ro ncrffiiimin)!. I beg you to come. 

Mo o kaeri desu ka. Are you going home so soon ? a 

loakari deshita ka. Did you understand? 
Stems of verbs often occur elliptically in proverbial expres- 
sions ; e. g., Setsunai toki no kamidanomi praying to the gods 
in time of distress. 

2. In speaking of the actions of others one may use the stem 
of any simple verb with the honorific o and ni m.iru : 

wakari ni nari/i/adtita ka. Did you understand? 
me-zame ni narimashita ka. Are you awake? 
Itsu o tachi ni narimasu ka. When do you start? 
Jdyaku-kaisei ica o yame ni narimashita. 
The revision of the treaty has been given up. 

3. With verbs that denote an act done in order that a cer- 
tain purpose may be accomplished, such verbs as "go" 
"come" "send," etc., the purpose may be expressed by the 
stem of a verb with ni. b This may have an object. It is to 
be translated by means of the infinitive: 

Isha 100 yobi ni iku go to call a physician. 
Sumo ivo mi ni iku go to see the wrestling. 
kuyami ni agaru come to condole. 
yorokobi ni agaru come to congratulate. 

4. When a verb stands in antithesis to another or is to be 

a A riksha man when he has brought some one home shouts at the gate: O ka- 
erii. One in the house may then say to another :0 kaeri desu O'O- Th* one w ^ 
has come home is greeted with the words : O kaeri nasaimashi. 

b With Chinese compounds the stem of sum is not required. "To come to see 
the sights " is keinbutsu ni kuru, more commonly than kembutsu shi ni kunt. 


emphasized, the stem may be used with wa (in rapid speech 
ya) and suru (p. 249a) : 

Shini wa sliimasumai. He will not die. 

Wakari wa shimasu ga ... I understand, "but 

Sonna shina wa arya (for ari iva) shinai. 

There are no such things. 

In a conditional clause, as in "If you just understand that's 
enough, " the particle sae a may be substituted for wa : Wakari 
sae sureba ii. Ari sae sureba sashiagemasu ga ... I would 
give it if I had it, but .... Similarly the stem may be used in 
clauses translated by means of " both and, " " neither nor " : 

Nihon no ji wo yome mo suru shi b kake mo shimasu. 

He can both read and write Japanese. 

Gozen mo taberaremasen shi, nerare mo shimasen. 

I can neither eat nor sleep. 

Ano bydnin wa nomi mo kui mo shinai kara, shinimasho. 

That patient will die, since he neither eats nor drinks. 

5. Observe the following emphatic expressions: 

kct.eri nasaru no ivo machi ni matte imashita. 
We were waiting and waiting for his return. 
Korae ni koraete kurushii no wo gaman shite otta. 

1 have borne the suffering to the utmost limit of endurance. 
Soroi mo sorotte fushigi na hitotachi bakari da. 

They are queer people without exception. 

6. The stem of a verb may be joined to certain words, such as 
nagara c or shi-dai (lit succession-order), which are used like 
conjunctions to form adverbial phrases: 

Hon wo yomi nagara while reading a book. 
Hdbakari nagara (or desu go), kore wo negaimasu. 
With great diffidence I make this request. 

a Sae may also be used with other substantives : Kane sae areba donna koto de 
mo dekiru. You can do anything, if only you have money. 

b For suru shi the simple ]stem shi may stand here (comp. p. I4d). Yome and 
kake are stems of potentials. 

c See p. 1970. This nagara is also used with the negative stem in zu: Oyobaz^l 
nagara o tetsudai itashimashb. I will assist to the best of my poor ability (lit. 
though not reaching). The word nagara originally meant "actual condition," as 
in untare-nagara no niekura one born blind, 


Dekl sJtidai motte kimasho. 
He will bring it as soon as it is done. 
The idiom to wa ii nagara is equivalent to " though " : 

Ainu wa yabanjin to wa ii nagara ndkanaka shigoto ga 

takumi desu. 
The Ainu, though barbarians, are skilful workmen. 

7. Adjectives are formed by adding so to the stein of a verb: 
Mo ame ga yamiso desu. The rain seems to be stopping. 
Nan to ka sMyo ga ariso na mon' desu. 

I hope it may be managed somehow (p. 115, middle). 

8. In long sentences, especially in formal speech or in nar- 
ratives, the stem may take the place of the subordinative (p. 
187d). This feature is derived from the literary language, in 
which the verbs of coordinated clauses, with the exception of 
the concluding clause, are in the form of the stem. In nega- 
tive clauses the form in zu corresponds to the stem (p. 171). 

Observe the idioms wo hajime and to ii: 

Kocho wo hajime shosei made mo kima-shita. The whole 

school, from the principal down to the students, came. 
Kotoba-zukai to ii, mi-buri to ii, ketten no nai enzetsnka 

<l'.i. Both in his use of words and in his gestures he is 

a faultless orator. 


tune cane. maJksuri-goto political all'airs. 

Juima seacoast, beach. government=se?y/ (//<- 

kuri chestnut. /// worship). 

hama-guri clam. '/</ accomplishment, eiiter- 

de-guchi way out, exit. taining performance. 

ii'i-ltuchi entrance. kam-lun Chinese composi- 

Jtiki-shio 1 ,-, ,.j tion, Chinese literature. 

shio-hi j ryo-lti travelling expenses. 

michi-shio*\ ten-ka (lit. under heaven) 

sashi-shio > flood tidr. the whole country, Japan. 

age-shio ; ji-zen charity, benevolence. 

na-fuda ~\ jizen-shi bazaar (shi = ich-i 

te-fuda > visiting card. market). 

'-thi(c) ; sen-k'Jc" a little while ago. 


zu-e pictures. a shuttai sum (from shutsu- 

shi-dai order, circumstances, rai = dekiru) be finished, 

reason. k be done, happen. 

hayasu allow to grow long mi-ataru be found. 

(intr.'/iaerw). chanto precisely, properly, 

kimaru become settled, cer- just, right. 

tain (tr. kimeru). shibaraku for some time. 

suzuinu cool one's self off. sahodo so much. 

ji-san sum bring, take (p. sazo how you must (with 

231b). probable form). 


I kasa wo o mochi ni narimash'ta ka (omochi de gozaimas' 
fca).v Iie,jisan itashimasen desh'ta; watakuslii no agarimasu- 
rujibun ni wa c o tenki ga taiso yoroshiu gozaimash'ta no de. 

i Nihon de wa akindo ga sakana ya yasai wo Tiito no uchi ye uri 
ni kimas'. <-f Watakushi no itta koto ga o wakari ni narimas' 
ka. Wakari iva shimas' keredomo, kotoba-zukai ga s'koshi oka- 
shiu gozaimas'.[,Ano bydnimva shinimasho ka."] Shini iva (ya) 
shimas'ma-i keredomo, sukkari naoru no iva mutsukashiu } gozai- 
mashd.Z/ Kimono iva deki sliidai^ motte kuru yd ni sh'tateya 
ni itte koi. j Anata kono atsusa de oyowari desho. j^Ndni, e sa- 
hodo d$ mo arimasen. \ < Anata ichi nichi o aruki nas'tta kara, 
sazo o kutdbire desho. ivlie, watakusJii wa aruki-narete imas' 
kara, kutabiremasen^Kindmdshiageyd to omoimash'ta ga, oide 
ga nakatta kara, tegami ni (p. 56c) kaite agemasli'ta. /4 ta- 
nomi no Edo-meislio-zue f wo konnichi jisan itashimash'ta. 

\5Watakushi wa chotto tonari no uchi ye hanashi ni iku kara, wa- 
takushi no matte iru tegami ga todoitara sugu ni motte kite kure. 

a Comp. p. 95d. The word zue is used only in compounds. Reversing the 
order, we have e-zu, which may mean a single drawing, map or picture. 

b Shidai desti(de gozaimasti) is often used as a formal ending to a sentence, without 
adding anything to the sense. But compare : Omae wa toto kaette kita to iu shidai 
ka. So! have you come back at last? 

c Translate : when I came (p. I2ic). The auxiliary masu may be lengthened in 
formal conversation. 

d Shidai is used in the sense of "as soon as " only in speaking of the future. 

e Ndni, from nani what, may be rendered : " Oh, no ! " 

f Illustrated guide to noted places in Edo. 


l*>Horits' ico okasJti sac shinaki'rrbct <l<ntit koto wosk'tcmoyoro- 
xltix <jo:.niiitas\ \\Kesa ni do korareta o katu v<i ,cnkkn k<trn 
o macJu'lcfinc de gozaimat? .O toale&ri ni nairimash'tara, ic 
kushi ni mo itte kikascte kudasai. ' Ani<i sakki k>nn <> 
kanc ilc gozaimasho.J Oyaji v watakushi ni hayaku 
ye kaette mora&agatte, /o njnli! ir<> nktrtte kuremash'ta; ri/nJn' 
ga tsuki skid a i Jcaette kure to if t<'<j<niu mo yokoskimash'ta. 
Ichi mon oslthni no Ju/aku shirazu.* Rongo yomi no Kongo' 
shirazu. b Itikugitn no koto u~o toriyJii/'ube ni Yor<n>p<i //' iki- 
ttHtK/t'tti. KIJQ no kidaore, Osaka no kuidaorc. c Anata mo o 
hikkosfti iti imrimash'ta ka. lie, ma-da des'; shikadti t^nfjo no 
ii ic ga miatari shidai hikkoso to omoimas'. Anata mo go zonji 
no Tanaka san ga mairimash'ta. Donata ka oide no yd dn : 
dare ka hayok" tnrit*n<ji iro sJtiro. Gwaikokn no k"fn i/ti kn<> 
niifudau'o o daslii ni natte siigu ni o kaeri ni n<i,-i n/<i*lSt(i. Sazo 
o kutabire de gozaimasho kara, go ynruri to o ywnin nasai- 
mashi. Nana korobi ya oki. d Anata sakuban okacri ni n<itt<> 
kara sugu ni o yasn IK i ni narlwfislitft ka. lie, shimbun wo 
mite k"rn nfina..^ta. Sonna ni yok k'ikn<ik'te mo ivakm'i 
sae sureba ii. Shogwatsit ni iva manzai wo zash'ki ni agcte e 
iroiro na get too saeete taVscw r.c/tf tr<> ijnriinas'. 
ga nai nara, mo ichi do tokiakaslite agemashu. Yu <j 
shidai hairimasho. Ke wo hayash'te iru bozu f mo ari, haya- 
sh'te inai no mo am. 

\ In Tokyo, wlien the tide is out (at the time of ebb tide), 
people often go to Susakisto gather (hirou) clains. 5. Tomor- 

a Compare the English : Penny wise, pound foolish. Oshimi, as also yomi in 
the following proverb, has a concrete sense -- oshiinu hito. 

b The sense is : He reads the Rongo diligently, but does not understand nor 
observe its precepts. 

c According to this proverb, the people of Kyoto waste their money on fashions; 
those of "Qsa ka, on dainties (Jtiru wear, kuu cat, taoreru fall). 

d This proverb inculcates perseverance in spite of repeated failures. Nana and 
ya are numerals. 

e Zashiki ni ageru have come into the house. 

f It would, of course, be rude to use this word in the presence of a priest . Say 

g On the shore of Tokyo Bay in Fukagawa. There is here a famous temple of 
Benten, guddess of luck. 


row, if it is (has become) fine weather (p. 34a), I will go 
fishing. 5 In (wa) summer I went every day to the Sumida 
River for a swim, tf As you know, formerly the Emperor en- 
trusted the government of the whole country to the sliogun. 
Shan't we go to Ekoin a to see the wrestling? '( Are you going 
to buy things, or are you only going to tease (p. 202a) ? *i We 
will go to the Sumida River to cool ourselves oif. <% Many stu- 
dents, instead of attending (without hearing) the lectures, go 
to amuse themselves. a Did you have a cane? ^Yes, I left (put) 
it at the entrance of the genkwan. \\ Is it raining? /vlt is not 
raining, but it is foggy. ^Gro to the shoemaker's and tell him 
to bring the shoes as soon as they are done^ You have worked 
the whole day without resting: how tired you must be! s^Qn* 
account of (ni) the earthquake (of) last night I awoke (me 
wa samemash'ta'), but I did not get upjuWe will decide (decid- 
ing put) just when you will come (pres.) next time. J'7I have 
brought the Nihongi^ for which you asked, but as it is written 
in Chinese style (a Chinese composition), you will hardly un- 
derstand it. f$Come again for a chat (lianaslii). v Did no com- 
pany (guest) come during (no ma ni) my absence? Yes, one 
student came. When I said (past cond.) that you would come 
immediately, he waited (was waiting) for a short time, but, as 
you did not return (there was no returning), being unable to 
wait (p. 217e) he went away (returning finished). Where 
are you moving? I don't know yet. I am now looking for 
(sagash'te iru tokoro des') a house. Was the R6kumeikivan c 
finished (mo shuttai sh'te imash'ta ka) before you left Tokyo? 
They opened a bazaar there recently. Are you going out just 
now? Sir, will you (do you) stop at this hotel? It seems 
dirty here (koko wa) . There may be a better one if we go 1o 
the next town. At first (hajime wa} I disliked (p. 91e) sake, 
but gradually came to like it (siiki ni nani). You mustn't 
laugh. I am not laughing, but I think it queer (Tien ni). 
You mustn't think about other things while you are reading 

a A famous temple in Honjo, Tokyo, where great exhibitions of wrestling are held 
in January and in May of each year. 

b The Nihongi{ki record) is an old historical work dating from the VIII. Century, 
c The Rokumeikwan (p. I94a) no longer exists. 


a book. Have you given up the study of German ? I have 
not given (do not give) it up, but I haven't very much time 
to study. You ought to know that. 


Compound verbs are very numerous. Some are derived from 
u noun and a verb: 

egal'u draw, from e picture, kaku write. 

kut'izxkeni lay aside, fromkata side, tsukeru affix, put. 

motozuku be based on, from moto base. 

namidaguniu be moved to tears, from namida tears. fnkmitK 

ncgiru beat down the price, from ne price, kiru cut. 

toshiyoru or toshitoru become aged, from toshi year, yoru 

gather, twu take. 
Others are derived from an adjective and a verb : 

nagabiku be protracted, from nagai long, hiku draw. 

tozakeru keep at a distance, withdraw from, from toi far, sa- 
kcru avoid (also nUozakaru). 

atsusugiru be too hot (p. 106). 

amanzuru, a/itanj/ru relish, be satisfied, from amai sweet. 
With the last compare omonzuru and karonzuru, p. 215. 

The suffix garu is much used to form compounds with the 
stems of adjectives and desideratives : 

linshigaru desire (p. 152a) . omoshirogaru feel interested in. 

ikitagaru want to go (p. 176). liairitagaru want to enter. 
The verb burn* "puton airs" entrs into some compounds: 

gakushaburu pose as a scholar. 

takaburu be arrogant, boast, from takai high. 

Most numerous are the compounds derived from two verbs. 
As we have before observed (p. 251a), the Japanese language 
has no prefixes or prepositions by means of which compound 
verbs may be formed, as in European languages. Consequently 

a This bum is related io/uri air, appearance, in otoko-buri ga voi, onna-buri ga 
yoi is handsome. Note also the suffix baru, from ham stretch, extend: kowa- 
fmru be stiff, from kowai hard, i-baru be haughty, yoku'baru be avaricious, gisfuki- 
baru be excessively formal, etc. 


in very many cases one of the two verbs in a compound serves 
as a kind of auxiliary to the other and in not a few instances 
is practically meaningless. Accordingly we divide compound 
verbs, somewhat arbitrarily, into three classes: (a) those 
in which the components are correlative ; (b) those in which 
the second component serves to modify the sense of the first ; 
and (c) those in which the first modifies the second. One can 
not always be sure to which class a given compound should be 
assigned; but the distinction is practically helpful. 

A. Usually transitive verbs are joined with transitive, and 
intransitive with intransitive. But the components often dif- 
fer and then usage rather than grammar must be consulted in 
determining the voice (pp. 203a, 239a). 

ateluameru apply, from ateru hit, hameru fit. 

hipparu (hikiharu) pull and stretch, bring along. 

iiharu insist, from iu say, haru stretch. 

kdk'itoru note down, write at dictation. 

kamikudaku crunch, from kamu bite, kudakti crush. 

ketsu?nazuku stumble, fmmkeru kick, tsumazuku stumble. a 

surimiiku rub oif, abrade, skin, from suru rub, muku peel. 

tsukikwosu stab (or gore) to death, from tsuku pierce. 

ukeau guarantee, from ukeru receive, au meet. 

ukeou contract for, from ou carry. 

In Kwanzei compounds with oru are formed, corresponding to 
the subordinative with iru or oru (p. 163) : ikioru (also pro- 
nounced ikiyoru) is going (but itte oru is gone). This idiom 
is derived from the literary language. b 

B. In the second class we include a number of verbs which as 
suffixes form well defined groups of compounds. In many in- 
stances either the intransitive or the transitive form maybe used . 
Thus to "commence to rain" is either furikakaru orfurikake- 
ru; "happen to be on hand" is ariau or ariaioaseru. The fol- 
lowing list is not a complete one. 

a In the literary language the stem of kerti is ke. Comp. ke-mari football. In 
the colloquial keru belongs to the second class (Ch. XLVIIL). 

b Some apparently simple verbs were originally compounds : dekiru, from deru 
and kitru; /w/v<,from han creep and iru enter; mochiiru, ftommvtsu have and iru 


1. Ageru, agaru: (a) "up," i. e., "upward" ;(b) "up," i. e., 
"completely"; (c) a polite termination. 

kttringcru move up, carry for- kakictyeni finish writing. a 

ward, rearrange, from kuru shiageru, yariagern finish. 13 

reel. shibariageru tie up, from slii- 
ii/ look up to. laru tie. 

nobiagaru stretch one's self deldagaru be finished. 

up, straighten up. mosldageru tell. c 

tobiagaru fly up, jump up. kaiageru purchase (on the 
okiagaru rise up. part of the Government). d 

tsukeagaru " be stuck up." meshiagaru take (food, etc.). 

2. Au, aicaseru: (a) "mutually"; (b) " together "; (c) " hap- 
pen to." 

tasukeau help each other (p. ochiau come together (ofriv- 

58). ers or of persons), from o- 

niramiau glare at each other, dtiru fall. 

from niramu stare. sureau be rubbed together, 

shiriau be mutually acquaint- chafe, be on bad terms, pass 

ed. in close proximity. 

toriau take hold of each other, liiltiawaseru gather informa- 

pay attention. tion, inquire. 

tsukiau associate, become ac- moshiaioaseru reach an agree- 

quaintcd. ment. 

miaivaseru look at each other dekiau happen to be finished, 

(kao wo), forego, give up. be ready made. 

deau meet on the road. ariau, ariaivaseni happen to 

komiau be crowded together. be on hand. 6 

These verbs may be used with the postpositions ni and to. 
Those into which atuaserii enters may also take objects with wo. 

a Compare the older compound kakageru hoist, publish, inscribe. The verb ka- 
ku means also "scratch." 

b Yariagent cannot be used in the sense " put on a finishing touch. '' Yariagem 
may also mean "get up in the world." 

c Compare o age mosu give. 

d The opposite is urisageru, used, for instance, of selling postage stomps. 
Another verb, haraisageru, is used of selling property which the Government no 
longer needs. Comp. p. l84d. 

e These compounds usually occur in the form of the adjectives itekiai iif-a.n<\ <i ri- 
al iw or ariawase no, 


3. CTiigau, chigaeru: (a) "differently"; (b) "mistakenly." 
ikicliigau go in opposite directions without meeting. 
surechigau pass closely on the road. 

kikichigau, kikichigaeru hear incorrectly, mishear. 
omoichigau, omoichigaeru misapprehend, misconjecture 
( wo to omoichigati mistake for ). 

4. Deru, dasu or idasu : (a) " out, " " from " ; ( b) " suddenly, " 
"begin to" (dasu only). 

kogideru, kogidasu row out. omoidasu call to mind. 
fukidasu blow out, burst out sagasliidasu search out,look up 

into laughter. abaredasu suddenly become 

furidasu shake out, remit, fractious. 

from furu shake, scatter, iidasu utter, begin to speak. 

pay. nakidasu begin to cry. 

nigedasu escape, run away. 

5. Hater u, Jiatasu: "completely," "utterly." 
akirehateru be utterly astonished (and disgusted), from 

akireru be surprised. 
korihateru be taught a good lesson, from koririt be warned, 

punished (comp. korashimeru chastise). 
sliinihateru die out (of a family). 
yoivarihateru be utterly exhausted, nonplussed. 
tsukaihatasu use up. 

6. Iru, ireru: (a) "in"; (b) a suffix, originally intensive, 
added to some verbs of feeling (iru only). 

semeiru enter forcibly, from osoreiru be much obliged, be 
semeru assault. overwhelmed by another's 

kaiireru buy in, buy up. condescension (p. 193g). 

kakiireru write in , mortgage, hajiiru be very much ashamed . 

shiireru lay in (goods). kanjiiru feel great admiration. 
yobiireru call in. 


(Include the compounds given above. Easily understood 
compounds are not explained.) 

hiza knee. no soba ni beside. 

ito thread, raw silk. soba ni yoru approach near. 

soba side, vicinity. tayori communication, news. 




hama-be seacoast. a 

kake-ne fictitious price. 

kakene too iu {suru) ask an 
amount in excess of the 
proper price. 

mi-bun station in life. 

sai-tori middleman, "broker. 

toku (c) profit, gain. 

en-nichi monthly festival day 
at a Buddhist temple. 

hi-nan censure, criticism. 

sek-kan chastisement. 

sok-ki stenography. 

koku-shi-byo black plague 
(lit. black death disease). 

ureshii joyful. 

aware na pitiful. 

ivaga-mama na wilful, way- 
ward, selfish. 

yo-i na easy. 

yu-kwai no. delightful. 

kimari disposition, order. 

kimari ga warm be embar- 

shidara no nai unsystematic, 
badly managed. 

akirameru give up all hope, 

feel resigned. b 
N/n'bireru, shibire ga kireru 

benumb, asleep (of limbs). 
iitsiimuku- bend the face 


yuzuru relinquish, yield. 
shimaru be tight, strict. 
tori-xhiiiHtrit. supervise (tr.). 

hara ico tatcru 7 

get angry. 

rip-piiku sum 

dossari abundantly, largely. 

hyoi to, hyotto suddenly, acci- 

hisashi-buri de after a long 

aku, akiru (p. 142, middle) 
be surfeited. 

aku made to the utmost. 

hon ni really (in hon-to). 

ip-po one step. 

is-sai altogether, at all. 

to-kaku in one way or an- 
other, almost inevitably, 
be apt to. 


Kono kikai wa ippun no uchi ni mizu 100 sen rittor' yurai 
8uiagemas\ Matsuyama kun iva kimi no kotb<i ir<> kikichi- 
gaete taiso okotte otta yo. Ittan iidash'ta koto wa yoi ni kae- 
rareru mono de nai. Ano o kami san iva oku no mono wo to- 
rishimaranakereba naranai inilmn <!< or// n<> id, Jiwti tdkiatte 
mimash'tara sono shidara no nai no ni wa akirehatete shimaf- 

a The suffix be is equivalent to hot vicinity: yama-be region near a mountain. 

b Used with to: TTbtei dekituii mono to akiramete iru be convinced that it is utterly 
impossible. The verb akirament meant originally "understand clearly." Comp. 
nkiraka na t 


mash'ta. Sono ji ga nukete imas'*kara, koko ye kakiirete o- 
l-imasho. Kono ushi wa abarete hito wo ts'kikorosh'ta koto ga 
art mas'. Omae san, kakene wo itchd komaru. lie, kessh'te, 
kakene wa moshiagemasen. Hisashiburi de atta (from au) 
moii 1 des' kara, tagai ni dakiatte ureshi-namida ivo nagashi- 
mash'ta. Sumi ya takigi ivo samuku naran uchi ni kaiirete 
oku ho ga yas'kute toku des\ Nagai aida suwatte ite tachia- 
garo to shimash'tara, shibire ga kirete tatemasen desh'ta. Ano 
hito wa sei ga takai kara, nobiagattara atama ga kamoi ni to- 
dokimasho. Tagai ni kao ivo miaioasete kimariivaruso ni 
vtsumukimash'ta. Hakurankwai iva kok'shibyo ga dekita tame 
ni miaivase ni natta so des. Sendatte ryoko chu ni kane ga 
nakunatte shimatte kaeru koto ga dekizu betsu ni sldriai no hi- 
to mo nai no de yoivarihatemash'ta. Yasui told ni tak'san 
shiirete okimash'ta kara, dossari mokarimash'ta. Uchijini sh'- 
ta to akiramete ita ani kara tayori ga atta no de tobiagaru ho~ 
do ureshiu'ta. 'Qmiya de kudari no kisha to nobori 
no kisha ga(to) swechigai ni natta .ty As 1 wa mina san to mb- 
shiawasete hanami ni mairimasho. Sakihodo tegata ivo furi- 
dash'te yarimash'ta. c Taihen machigatta koto wo itash'te 
hajiitta shidai de gozaimas 9 . Suitengu no ennichi ni wa aru- 
ku koto mo dekinai hodo komiaimas'. Inu iva, shinda no ka to 
omotte soba ni yottara ugokidashimash'ta. Takayama hakase 
no rombun ivo yomu tabi ni fude no tassha na no ni wa kanfi- 
irimas'.d ltd san iva miageru hodo rippa ni narimash'ta. 
Donna muri wo itte koyo to, e issai toriaivan ho ga yoroshiu 
gozaimas'. Sono hon wa ima Tokyo ni aru ka do ka kikiawa- 
sete agemasho. Doits' to F'rans' iva itsu mo sureatteimash'ta. 
Aits' wa gak'shabutte nanigoto ni mo kuchi wo dasu (ireru)kara, 
hito ni s'lcarenai. Hyotto omoidashimash.'ta. Donna hinan 

a Translate: is omit ted; lit. has escaped (in the process of writing). 

b Kudari no kisha the train going in the direct ion from the capital; nobori no 
kisha the train going in the direction to the capital. The verb surechigau is not so 
common as ko-kwan sum. 

c The verb yarn as used with subordinatives may sometimes he translated "for" 
but is often untranslatable. It belongs to the same class as agent, ok-n, kum, shi- 
man, etc. 

d The wordfiea'e is used by metonymy for style. 

e A future verb with /<?, abbreviated from to mo, is one of the idioms denoting con- 
cession. Translate : No matter how unresonably he speaks to you. 



ga attc mo amanjite nkcru tsu/nori deJ. M<~> diigoto go, ari- 
masen kara, konnidu' ic<i jikan ivo kuriagete san ji nl lc< rn 
koto ni itashimasho. Time to Take ga n inyyo irolt ijyx 
toto koicti*}/'t>- shimatmash'ta. Asa hayaJcu okite 
tattc toku oki ye kogidete orufune ivo nagameru no wa makoto 
ni yukwai des'. Ikura hantai sarete mo aku made jibtni 
no sets' wo iilmtte ippo mo yuzurimasen. Ainu wa Jibuti no 
kao-katachi ivo egakareru no wo kowagarimas' . Betsu ni ( s7i'- 
taku wo sh'ta no de wa gozaimasen; lion no ariawase no sldna 
ico sasJiiageru no des'. b 

/I will deliver them as soon as they are finished.^ Since they 
are brothers, they ought to help one another, but (hazu na no 
ni} they are constantly quarreling. 3.1t was my intention to meet 
him at the Club (K'rab"), but on the way we passed without 
meeting. u\i is said that recently iu Egypt a boat five or six 
thousand years old (mae no) has been dug out. 5"This child by 
burning (yaita no ni) its hand once has learned a good lesson 
and no longer goes (has become not approaching) near the lire. 
That broker has gone to Maebashi to buy in raw silk. 7 I stum- 
bled and fell and skinned my knee. 7 Having fallen and 
struck my knee dreadfully, for a little while I could not rist- 
up. ^ I was guilty of (did) great impoliteness, mistaking the 
lady of the house (ok' san) for the servant. ^ The horse sud- 
denly became fractious and smashed the carriage. // In that 
family (house) all have died out, from (hajime) the old to the 
young, and now only that one child is left (it has become that 
one child)/2.Have you taken down the lecture P^Ycs, I have taken 
it in shorthand (stenographing put)./? If you treat (sh'tc t/aru) 
servants and the like-(nazo) too gently, they get stuck up and 
are apt to become wilful.ATSince [they] will be expensive it' you 
order [them], it would be better to buy ready-made goods/4 It 
is not easy to look up a character in (de) the Kok ////<//. 
will o for a walk after 1 have finished writin this letter. 

/fl3oth glared at each other for a while without saying anything, / 
It was too much for us became fotfiaranrn' and we burst out 

laughing. TheHirose River and the Xatori River come together 

a Triple compounds like this are not uncommon, 
b An apology for a meal. 


in the vicinity of Sendai. A fox runs away at once when 
it sees a dog. Mr. Inouye is a very interesting person when 
you get acquainted with him (associating see). It will still 
take considerable time to (made ni iva) finish this. When 
you have finished reading that book please lend it to me. 
When stone and metal are rubbed together, fire is produced 
(r7erw). Though I said I would go home (kaeru), Tanaka 
pulled my sleeve and did not allow me to go home (kae- 
su). A really able (deldru) man never boasts before others. 
We withdrew from the others (hito) and consulted until late (oso- 
ku made) at night. Since you will become fatigued and un- 
able to return if you swim out too far, please be cautious. It 
is said that the carpenter who contracted for the building of 
the school has fled. Hearing that pitiful story, they were un- 
consciously (oboezu*) moved to t&ars Saying that the child 
had been in mischief, he got dreadfully angry and chastised it 
by (subord.) tying up its hands and feet. The Government 
has purchased that lot to (tame ni) build a court house. By 
profligacy (hoto wo sh'te) he used up all his property within 
one year. How would it be to call in that amma and have 
him shampoo us a little (liitotsu or s'koshi). 


7. Kaeru, Icaivaru change: "re ," " trans , " the idea of 

kakikaerti rewrite. uekaeru transplant. 

kikaeru change (clothes). irikawaru enter by turns. 

harikaeru re-cover, from ha- ni narikawaru take the 

ru spread, paste, cover. place of. 

iikaeru say in other words. iimarekaivaru be reborn, 
irekaeru replace, put in afresh. transmigrate, be regener- 
norikaeru change cars, etc. ated, become a new man. 

8. Kaeru, kaesu return: "re ," "back." 

fttrikaefu turn around. torikaesu, torimodosu take 

ikikaeru revive, be refreshed. back. 
kurikaesu repeat, yobikaesu, yobimodosu recall. 




9. Kakeru,kakaru:(K') "on," "at"; (b) "by chance"; (c) 
"begin to." 

nagekakeru throw on or at. 

oikakeru, okkakeru pursue, 
from on chase. 

fwrikdkaru fall upon, happen. 

torikakern, torikakaru hap- 
pen to pass. 

dehdkertt start out. 

fortka&erv^forfkakaru begin 
to fall (of rain, etc.). 

kakikakeru begin to write. 

skikakeru, yarikakeru begin 
to do. 

chirikakartt begin to fall (of 

10. Kaneru : "find it hard to, " " be unable to". 
machikaneru wait impatient- moshikaneru hesitate to say. a 

ly, be unable to wait. 

11. Kiru, kireru: (a) "completely," "entirely," "all"(comp. 
wakarikitta p. 128); (b) "through"; (c) "cease." 

torikiru take all, exhaust the hairikireru all go in. 

supply of. 

kacshiklru, return all. 
urikiru sell out. 
urekireru be sold out. 


surekircru be worn through. 

'in ilci rx abandon, clear off. 
omoikiru cease to think about, 
reach a decision. 

12. Koeru, kosit: (a) "across"; (b) "past." 

tobikoeru, tobikosu leap over, norikoeru, noriliv*n ride ]>ast, 
jump across. 

13. Komu: "in." 
taehtkomu shine in. 
tsumikomu load in. 
f/ikikomu blow in. 
hiJdcomu draw in, retire. b 
irikomu enter in. 
kikikomu hear (lit. take in 

by hearing). 

moshikomu put in a request. 
nayekomu throw in. 

nomikomu swallow, under- 

ochtkomu fall in. 

omoikomu get an impression. 

orikuiit/r weave in, from <>,// 

N/tiko/H/t lay in (goods), teach 
(something), ediu-alc. 

a i Imri'koiit n } >e captivated. 

a Very common are the compounds: wi> koraekaneru, tti tackatifrn and 
tamarikaneru be unnlilc to endure. The last is used only in the form of the sub- 

h To be distinguished from hekomu become hollow, from /icm decrease. l r or 
he compare ketstancatuku (p. 2853). 

cThe verb kikiirent means "assent," "grant" (a rc<|iifstj. 




14. Naosu: "re ," "again," "a second time," "over." 
denaosu come (or go) again, ninaosu reboil. 
kangaenaosu change one's yarinaosu, shinaosu do over. 


15. Nuku, nukeru: (a) "through"; (b) "out." 
tsukinuku pierce through. erinuku, ywinuku choose out, 
ucliinuku strike through. select, from eru choose. 
torinukeru pass through. 

(Include compounds given above.) 

liitai forehead. 

hor-i ditch, canal, moat. 

inoclii life. 

kabuto helmet. 

kf:Jt-i opening, demand (for 
services or goods). 

twktt to open up, be thinned 
out (p. 102a). 

suki, suki-ma crack, opening. 

suso lower border of a gar- 
ment, skirt. 

tsuyu dew. 

ya arrow. 

yumi bow. 

ama-mori leak in the roof 
(lit. rain-leak). 

sato village, one's native place. 

faru-sato 1 birthplace, 

ko-kyo (c) y home. 

ki-mae disposition, temper- 

hata side. 

michi-bata roadside. 

nodo-bue windpipe. 

sa-naka the very midst. 

mi-naslii-go orphan. a 

yopparai drunkard. 

teki enemy. 

cho-ka = machi-ya house of 
a merchant. b 

do-chu journey. 

ji-jo condition, circum- 
stances, special reasons. 

kok-kin national interdict 
(comp. kinzuru}. 

mo-yo pattern, design, state 
of things. c 

nem-matsu end of the year. 

sai-sen offering of money at 
a place of worship. 

sei-nen young man (lit. green 

a Lit. a child without mi. The word mi means not only " self," but also one's 
condition or relations in life (compare mi-no-ue, p. 58). Accordingly minashigo 
means a child without relatives. 

b la former times the samurai lived in the midst of ample grounds along back 
streets, while the crowded town was occupied by shopkeepers. 

c Kesa no nioyo de iva ante gafuriso deshita ga, saiwaifttrazii ni shimaimashita. 
This morning it looked like rain, but happily there has been none. 


boto boat (English). ni sawaru touch. 

hakanai transient. sod at cm bring up, rear (intr. 

yoginai unavoidable. sodatsu). 

ken-go na firm, substantial. tetsudau help. 

omoi (mo^yoranu unexpected, todomaru = tomum st< >]>. stay. 

kei-ki appearance, state of hiki-iikeru take over, make 

trade. one's self responsible for 

kciki (ja yoi times are good (coinp. ukeau*). 

(op'p'fu-keiki}. Jn'ki-zitru drag. 

fuku roof, thatch. a in^an ni generally. 


Kimono ga nurcta km-a. Itdsu no to kikacmasho. Tsurezu- 
regusano b bunsho wa tailn-n l-irci <l<i /"/". k"i'ikac$h'te yoini- 
mash'ta. Ma-koto ni mosliiagekancmas' ga, s'kosJu' M-^n.dntte 
itadakaremas'mai ka. Kotoshi icalteiki </" //okv.te 7,v/ ////// 
mono iva mina urekircmash'ta. 7V/v/ //a m'nj //< *<inL-<.'I \ ///;/. 
liito wa saisenbako ni zcni ivo nagekomimas'. Ato no bOf <j 
saki no wo norikoshimash'ta. So iu muk<i*Jti no sJt/'ki n<> koto 
ga kono lion ni kaite arimas' to omoimash'ta ga, domo 
masen. Nani\ kaite aru sa. Sonnara mo iclii do 
shimashd. Tailio no tama ga atsui kabe wo uclnnuite Pel: in 
no yd na kengo na shiro wo mo otoxJu',,>nHk'ta. Cha wo Jtitot*n 
irekaete kite kure. Amari /// watkash'kute watakudi i ni mi int- 
karikanemas'. Sekkaku no o kotoba desu ga, konnich! n'n 
yoginai koto ga gozaimash'te zannen nagara agariko-m"m<i*. 
Ikura hataraite mo shigoto ga sh'kircito/'. Matsuri no toki ni 
wa inakamono ga ozei machi ni irikomimatf. Knn (>UHK]X'> 
wa machigaidarake dakd/". l-L-/'/u/o^/t/ n<i*<ii. }'////< <j fn- 
ruku natte amamori ga suri' 7.v//-//. fukikueyo to 
Sonna abunai koto wo sum to, ato de tor-ikaesJi-i no 

a The different kinds of roofs are: warabiiki, from warn straw; fcavaliuki, from 
0^0 rush; tugikawabuJti, from j//^/cryptomeria and /vrTk'<7 bark ; kobabuki shingled ; 
kawarabuki tiled; freifbuki or sckibattbitki slated; totanbuki roofed with galva- 
nized iron, etc. 

b Miscellanies written by A'enko in the XIV. Century. Tsurezitre means " lei- 
sure hours"; kusa(\\\.. grass) "miscellanies." Compare faisagusa no various. 

c The negative of the verb tsuku is used in this and similar idioms in the sense 
of dekiitai. 


ayamachi wo shimas' yo. Omoi mo yoranu sainan ga furika- 
katte mairim-ash'ta. Miru ni mikanete (p.274,2) tas'kete yari- 
mash'ta. Yoi kuchi ga attara sewa wo sh'te kureru yd ni md- 
shikonde okimash'ta. Kono kimono wa nan da ka guai ga wa- 
rui yo da kara, nuinaosh'te moraitai. Yumi no ya ga kabuto 
ivo tsukinuite teki no hitai ni atarimash'ta.n. "Jinsei chdro no 
gotoshi" a to iu no wa, iikaereba, Hito no inochi wa makoto ni 
hakanai mono de aru to iu koto des'. Toclm de kyu ni hara 
ga itamidash'ta no de aruku koto mo dekizu taorete orimash'ta 
ga, chddo soko ivo tdrikakatta no ga isha de arimash'ta kara, 
saiwai tas'keraremash'ta. Sendatte shinda kodomo no koto wa 
do sh'te mo omoikiru koto ga dekimasen. Zehi kuni ye kaerd 
to omoimash'ta ga, kangaenaoshimash'te Nihon ni todomaru 
koto ni itashimash'ta. Kono koivareta lion ivo mina tojinaosa- 
nakereba narimasen. Moto wa ikenai liito,desli'ta ga, konogoro 
wa umarekawatta yd ni yoi mono ni narimash'ta. Konnichi 
wa irikaivari tachikawari o kyaku ga kite isogashiu gozaima- 
sh'ta. Kurikaeslii knrikaeshi shinsetsu ni oshiete kuremasli'ta. 
Muri ga toreba dori ga hikkomu (Proverb). Niifima san wa b 
kokkin wo okash'te gwaikoku no fune ni norikonde Amerika ye 
mairimasJi'ta. Ittan omoikonda koto wa yoi ni aratamerarenai 
mono des'. Yopparai ivo hikizurikomarete c tonda meiwaku 
wo itashimash'ta. Dorobo no kao ni hai wo nagekakemash'ta. 
Aits' wa sake wo nomu to, sugu ni kenkwa wo sh'kakemas'. d 
Atsui sanaka ni nagadochu wo sh'te ts'karehatete shimaimash'- 
tatta ga, K shibaraku koko de yasunda no de yoyo ikikaetta yd 
na kokochi ga itashimas'. Mikirimono* des' kara, o yasuku 
agemas'. Kame no ko no kubi wa bo de sawaru to, j'ikini hik- 

a Hito no inochi -wa asa no tsuyu no yd na mono desu. 

b The founder of the Christian institution, the Doshisha, in Kyoto. He went to 
America secretly in 1864. The name is often spelled Neesima. 

c The keeper of a restaurant might express himself in these words on discovering 
that he had a drunkard on his hands. 

din this compound kakcru does not mean "begin." The man when drunk picks 
a quarrel, i. e., inflicts a quarrel on another. Compare hanashi wo shikakeru or 
hanashikakeru address one's self to. 

e The ending tatta, from te atta, is used like takke (p. 2750) to make vivid a past 

f Goods to be disposed of at a clearing sale. 


komiwas'. Nomikomi no iigejoilc*. Makashi choka de wa 
ippan ni onna no ko ni i/y<'i u'<> ftJiik<t<la V//OH' </es'. rusu 
nara, mata denaosl<'t< uniii-unnsJid. 

To go from Tokyo to Nikko you must change cars at Utsnno- 
miya. At the end of the year people everywhere re-cover their 
xJtn/i. Chrysanthemums, if not transplanted every year, do 
not bloom well (good flowers do not bloom). There is no one 
who would (does) not turn round and look back ("to />(> m'tru.') 
when he left (leaves) his birthplace. The cherry Nos-oms are 
now beginning to fall. The company has been (guests are) 
waiting impatiently for some time. This box is so small that 
the goods will hardly all go in. This building is called Kotxii- 
dd', a into it (kono ucliini} the teeth, windpipes, etc.. of dead 
people are thrown (in). Can you jump across this brook ? 
Recently a new street has been made ; fA7r ////} by which one 
can (koto no Jcl-'u-n} pass through from the Station to South 
Street. As this child (tea 1) is an orphan, we intend to take 
the place of its parents and rear it. As I am just beginning 
(to write) a letter, please wait a little. I hesitate to siy it. 
but could I borrow a little money? That dictionary is sold out 
(past). The horse fell in Avhen it attempted (p. 216 top) to 
leap over this ditch. As I made a mistake, I will do it 
From among many young men the strongest are selected and 
taken for soldiers. He was recalled to his country on the gr nind 
that (to itte) unavoidable business had turned up (Vr/.-/fr/X I 
am sorry, but there are various special reasons, so that 1 can't 
guarantee that much (sore dake^). He has not yet paid (re- 
turned) all his debts. In Japan designs and letters are woven 
into women's sashes. You can still wear this padded garment, 
if you make it over. As the thief fled, a policeman pursued 
him with all his might. I was captivated by his disposition. 
If you don't reboil this fish, it will spoil by to-morrow. The skirt 
of the kimono is worn through. I am annoyed by the snow 
blowing in through (from) a crack in (of) the door. Lately I 
heard a strange rumor. Travelers often throw their ict< 
upon trees by (of) the roadside. 

a Lit. bone-hall. Devout Buddhists desire to be buried, at least nominally, by 
the side of A~~wl>5 Daishi on Koyasan (p. 1 1 30) The Kctsudo\& provided for the 
remains of cremated bodies. 





16. Otoau: "fail to," " neglect to." 
miotosu overlook. 

kakiotosu accidentally omit in writing. 
toriotosu forget to take, leave behind. 

17. Sokonau: injure, "mis ," "wrongly." 
dekisokonau prove to be a failure. 
yarisokonau, shisokonau do amiss, spoil. 
misokonau misjudge. 

18. Sugiru, sugosu: "excessively." 
ikisugiru go too far (p. 128). 
nomisugiru, nomisugosu drink to excess. 
tsukaisugiru, tsukaisugosu use too much. 

19. Tatsu, tateru: (a) "up"; (b) "away." 

nietatsu, nitatsu boil, from ukitatsu be buoyant, excited (intr.) or niru (tr.). (p. 263f). 
umetateru fill up. oitateru drive away,- evict. 

20. Tom: "through." 
fukitosu blow through. 

yaritosu, shitosu put through, carry out. 

21. Tsuku, tsukeru: (a) the idea of approach or attachment 

-"to," "at," "against"; (b) "happen to." 

kuitsuku bite (of an animal), fukitsukeru blow against. 

natsuku, nazuku become at- 
tached (p. 252a). 

ochitsuku return to a normal 
condition, become settled. 

ni oitsuku, ottsuku over- 
take. a 

sabitsuku get rusty, from sa- 
biru rust. 

sugaritsuku cling fast, from 
sugar u cling. 

suitsuku take hold by suction. 

kakitsukeru note down. 
nagetsukeru throw at, fling. 
takitsukeru kindle. 
uchitsukeru, buchitsukeru, 

buttsukeru nail on, throw 


yosetsukeru bring close. 
iitsukeru, moshitsukerii, ose- 

tsukeru (polite 2) tell, 

yattsukeru overcome, scold. 

a Compare the adverb ottsuke presently. 


leHntsukerv happen to hear, kangactsuku, omoitsuku hap- 
overhear. pen to think of, call to 

mitsztkerv, inekkcru liappen mind, invent. 

to see, discover. 

The expressions kikitmikcte imasu, mitsukete imasu, mean also 
"be accustomed to hear," "be used to seeing." 

22. Tsukusu (intr. tsukiru] exhaust: "all." 
mitsnkusu see all. 

shits'ttkv-su, yaritsukueu do everything possible. 

23. Tsumeru. tsumaru: "to the utmost." 
iitxumeru silence (in an argument). 
oitsumeru corner. 

semjitsumeru boil down, from senzuru make a decoction. 
ikitsumaru get to a place where one can go no further. 

24. Txttziiku; tsitztikcru: ''continuously." 
feritsuziiku fall continuously (of rain, etc.). 
teritsuzuku continue bright (of the weather). 
n(iiffNi!-:i(kci-i( keep on drinking. 
yctritsiutuleeru, sliitsmukeru keep on doing. 


(Include the compounds given above.) 

ami net. kai-r/ara empty shell (of a 
hiru leech. shellfish). 

ike ]>ond. k'lji (ko-wichi) lane, alley. 

k'/koi enclosure (from knk<>tr mnja-ya row of houses under 
enclose). one roof, tenement house. 

k<nna kettle, pot for cooking. no,hara,iw-Jtfir<( plain, moor, 
mari ball. prairie. 

sunii corner. nusubito thief. 

sune shio. o-dori main street. 

ari-sama state, condition. yo-akc daybreak. 

kai shell, shellfish. osandon servant girl. a 

a O San was once a very common name for girls; don is from done, a title like 
santa, san. Compare Sansuke, the name by which the attendant at a public bath 
is usually called. The term osandon, like gejo or kahi, is applicable only to those 
who do menial work in the kitchen, etc. A servant girl of higher rank isj'o-c/tu or 




liei fence, Avail (p. 129a). 
jo, jo-mae lock. 
wan bay. 

chi-e wisdom, sagacity. 
en-kwai banquet. 
jo feeling, affection, passion. 
go-jo stubbornness (go = tsu- 

yoi, koiuai). 

gojd wo liaru be obstinate. 
lios-sliin [Buddhist] religious 

conversion(lit.arouse spirit). 
hyo-satsun&'me tablet fastened 

to a gatepost, doorplate. 
i-shi will, volition. 
kei-kieaku plan, scheme. 
nai-kaku cabinet, ministry. 
nan-gi hardship. 
nes-shin zeal, enthusiasm (lit. 

heat spirit). 

nin-tai patience, fortitude. 
ri-eki profit, advantage. 
sei-to political party. 
tetsu-bin iron teakettle. 
ton-jaku concern. 
ya-chin rent (of a house) . 
zei-taku luxury. 
sa-hai-nin real estate agent. 
garasti glass. 
gomu gum, rubber. 

arayuru all. a 

asahaka na superficial. 

tan-ki na impatient, irritable 
(tan = mijikai, p. 123). 

zan-koku na cruel. 

mukai no, muko no the op- 
posite (p. 28,3). 

ten-cJii-kan no of heaven and 
earth (kan = aida). 

haneru bounce. 

hirogeru sprea<l out, enlarge. 

magotsuku be perplexed. 

oboreru be drowned. 

todokoru be impeded, delayed, 
in arrears. 

yabureru be torn, broken, 
destroyed (tr. yaburu). 

aarau | review 

fttku-shu sum } (a lesson). 

jo-ju suru be accomplished, 
succeed, accomplish. 

ukkari (to) thoughtlessly. 

massaki(ni) at the very 

nan-to-naku 1 without any 

nan-da-ka \ special reason, 
without knowing why. c 

fu-i ni suddenly. 

ichi-men (ni) all over the sur- 


Ano liito iva so itta so des' keredomo, loatakuslii iva ukkari 
kikiotoshimasJi'ta. Ano e wa kakisokonaimash'ta kara, ima 
(or mdyichi mai kaite miru tsumori desu. Yachin ga nisan- 

a For arareru. Compare iivayuru ^p. 275, top). 

b Compare masshiroi perfectly white, makkuroi jet black, makkurai pitch dark, 
makka na deep red, vuissakari full bloom, mnnnaka the very midst, etc. 
c The second of the two expressions is rather vulgar. See p. 295, Iine4. 


kaget*" t<> / 7 .-'V///>W/Ya node xaha'uiin- ga ok<>ttc innjcnjnjTi wo 
oitatemash'ta. Knnyctsu iru im/ni-i L-mtc im As-7.v//.s^/W/Yr ,rid 
ic/ti mon mo Hdkxndtte shimaimastftd. K< >'/ //ddn/fa in> /<//*// 
tnki at //oJc/f Itei/djn ti-o mite kitd ka/'d, forinfusji'td mono w<t nni 
hazudes'. Shin&gdtoa-toan 100 vmetateb Yo/.v/r;-*/,/ ?ro//// 

yd to in ki-ikli'dkx trn *li'1f urn J/ito inn <J< >:.>'///>'. Kono kdji 

ivo ittara t<d>//n r>ifr>,-/ ></' ttc/-<r, <!" <l<ir<~> to omoimash'ta <j. ///"- 
monci.kir ikif*//n>nff<- *lti IIKI! ni*l,'t<i. Ittt'it i/iii-ikuki-tti kot<> w 
al:u iiw.ilc i/di'itose. Ko/m mae n Kimjo noasa t<r.//,t<f< ]:it 
1iit<> -in i nan to iimash'takke ; ilcui-<i, fangaete mo Icangakbfki- 
masen. Ningen no asaluiltn im cJn'c <fc tciicJtikan no ilr-ri wn 
shirits'kuxu uto/o to on/on i> va r//o L-<ti<j</,-<i </c iimi nomizu 
wn ktrui/tfi'knxo to iu no to oi(// L-oto des'. Tochu de dfotta 
omoshiroi koto wo mina nikki ni kt'ikit-^ki-ti 1 nUnt'i^li'tn. Ant 

no lt<iii<t*lt! <lc OMoifKtiifd koto <J<l dn:.d<i,idx\ ]\ 

yd ni tc'rft*>'".uife /''" tu. <j<i icd,'ct<' in? <j l-nrdc shimcetmaftho. 
Gomu no mart wo italic! ni nut/,-f *'/.>, -tr t<>. I '/nd^. ]\ 

k<> n-d kan ga okotta to >///>fr .SkoN/d /,/ ni ii'tin koto rja am. to. mm 
de mo kd/i/"/'-n:./f t<- /// >,tottc iru mono iro nagets'kete k&uxish'te 
*lti indiums'. Anozainin wa iroiro ta:. ,dx},'f,i </a. nani- 

goto mo K!II I'd an *h iran tt to ittc gojd ica karitoshimaah'ta, Jd- 
mae ga sabitsiiite tansu no hikiddshi g dlcitndxcn. Iii*indi'*k' 
ioa ishi notsuyoi hito de Jutiitdi-fr, <jn Heard. //dkdindxJtii koto ico 
ittc mo ikkd t"i(/dkt'. ndkn IcessKte jibun i>okd,///i/r iromd : 

a! nl-ii ,,iti<l<' osJn'tdsh'td kdi'd. Jt/tohito ir<i ' trkkctx// xn/'xho" to 

nidslii/ndx/t'fd. ---^ ^l//o Jn'to ird ,,<> 'tniminohayaihi& 

yononeka no Jcotnwa nan demons v //.. '/> "k <. 

n-d dindi'i jibunkatte nd k<>f<> />nf:</,-i in l:n,-<i. }//'<7<>k ydtt*'- 
ketc i/dftd. ashokemmei ni okkakemash'ta ker< 'f.S- 

ktkaMmash'td. K<nt<><ii<l<i I];<n> // il-ti tk! /</. /// ted /.//,. 

Jtara IVa *///.//. ]) Jiljn ni ndndi xli'undxlt'td i/d. l;a,-nind .>' inn 

norazu ni fold nuikd made arujcitdshimash'ta. Boku no ic tea 
ura ga noha> ni n<ittc ;// uv <h- fmjn ni narn. t. ijnki ya/ttki- 

a From tetstt iron, ketsu blood, sai-sho prime minister. A prime minister is now 
called more commonly sori-daijin. 

b Ikao is a famous hot spring in JeshTt not very far from *\faebcishi. Aft < 
ru and suku the disjunctive particle s/ii might be added to complete the grammati- 
cal construction; but in order to make the situation more vivid it is omitted. 


ts'kete jitsu ni komaru. Hito ga mizu ni oboreyo to suru baai 
ni iva nan de mo kamawazu sugar its'kimas'. Isshd no meshi 
wo tabets'kush'te shimatta no ka; kimi no taishoku ni wa odoro- 
kiitte shimau. a Nusubito ga ushiro no hayashi ni kakurete 
nakakaka wakarimasen desh'ta ga, junsa ga yoyo mekkcdashi- 
mash'ta. Dandan toitsumete itta tokoro ga, muko iva toto iitsu- 
matte shimaimash'ta. Ano bosan wa ivakai told ni iva arayuru 
zeitaku wo shits'kush'ta hito da so des' ga, aru toki senso ni itte 
sono zankoku na arisama wo mite niwaka ni hosshin sli'ta to iu 
koto des'. Yarisokonatta kara, mo ichi do shinaoshimasho. 
Yarisokonai no nai fiito iva nai keredomo, nesshin to nintai sae 
areba shimai ni wa jdju shimas'. Sendatte kaiireta sekitan 
iva mo takits'kush'te shimaimash'ta. Heya no slioji ga yabu- 
rete kaze gafukitoshi na mon' des' kara, sakuban toto kaze wo 
hikimash'ta. Toriotoshi no nai yd ni yoku ato wo shirabete o 
kure. Kono hyosats' wo mon ni uchits'kete oite kure ; hito ga 
tazunete kita toki ni wakaranaide magozuku to ikenai kara. 
Blir' iva sake hodo ni wa yowanai to itte mo, noihisugiru to 
karada no gai ni naru kara, yahari noman ho ga yorosliii. 

The servant girl rises early in the morning and kindles a fire 
under the pot (kama no sh'ta ivo}. When I went (pres.) 
into the pond with (holding) a net for the purpose of catching 
(thinking that I would cak;h) fish, at once three or four leeches 
took hold of my shins'. JwJBS bee gaining continuously of late ; 
consequently the^roatis \lw\i become extraordinarily bad. I 
must send (dasu) a.^ette^ 1 oimejmore, because there is something 
that I omitted in the previous letter. As this box has proved 
to be a failure, I will make another (befau ni) for you. .jjfheu 
spring comes (it becomes spring), wi^hoiit any special reason a 
person's spirits (&o/^;o) are buoyant. He is talented, but is 
apt to spoil^hings, being impatient. If you put a teakettle 
on a hibachi, the water (yu~) boils at once. I thought she was 
an honest person, but misjudged [her]. He chased to a corner 
of the fence the chicken that flew out of the enclosure and at 
last caught (ts'kamaeru} it. If I don't note down newly 
learned words one by one (ickiichi) in my notebook and re- 

a From twenty to thirty bowls of cooked rice are considered to amount to one 
sho. For tahhoku compare taishokka, p. 16, 


view them often, I soon forget them. As there was suddenly 
a clap of thunder (thunder suddenly sounded), the children 
were frightened and clung to their mother. I have (there is) 
one more order (//V.s-V.T/v/ koto) ; call Gonske back. At the 
banquet last evening four or five tipplers (j'ogo') having come 
together (yoriau), they kept on drinking until daybreak. The 
dog is ill-natured and dangerous; take care not to bring child- 
ren close to him (his side). As we have already seen about all 
the noted places of Tokyo, we intend soon to go to Kyoto (and 
see). The baiu is (no koto des') a rain that falls continuously 
(every day) at the beginning of summer. When the rainy 
season is over, [the weather] continues bright. Hoshi Toru was 
a much criticised man (a man about whom there was consid- 
erable criticism), but he was eminent in that (because) he car- 
ried out his ideas (kangae)to the end. Your affairs (monogo- 
to) will never succeed if you now stop and again begin, as you 
do (sonna ni] : what you have once begun you must keep on 
doing to the end. Yesterday as I hurriedly passed by the front 
of the station, I to happened to see me from a distance and per- 
sistently called after me (yobikakeru). Children have thrown 
stones at and broken much of the window-glass. The present 
(ima no} cabinet and the political parties are arguing variously 
(iroiro}] but if you boil it down, both sides (dochira mo] are 
thinking only [of] their own advantage. 


C. There are also groups of compounds which we classify ac- 
cordiftg to their first components. In some cases the prefixes 
in a marked degree add to the sense; in others they are merely 
intensive or practically meaningless. Such a prefix is ai, which 
occurs in certain formal phrases, such as: Dan-dan o seiro ///'/- 
narimashite <//-/</>it<> '/"''"'/""*". Km to go mo atkaioarimcaem. 
My obligations to you are gradually increasing. 1 'lease continue 
yum- i'avor in the future also. 

1. Furl, faomfuru shake. 

fiii-ilmn<ixn break loose. 
j'n.rih-ii'tt sever t'<uvil>ly. 

/"risuteru abandon. 


2. Hiki, from hiku draw. 

hikiaivaseru introduce, com- hikitatsu, hittatsu improve 
pare. a (hittatte mieru look better). 

hikkaesu return (intr. ). hikitateru favor, encourage. 

hikkakeru suspend. hikitomeru detain. 

hikikomoru s tay at h om e, from hittsukamaeru catch (vulgar ). 
fcomorwbeshut up(p.239a). hikiukeru make one's self re- 

hikkosu remove. sponsible for, take over. 

hikinuku pull up by the root, hikkurikaeru be overturned. 

3. Meshi, from mesu summon, use. 
meshiagaru take (food, drink, etc., 2, 3). 
meshitoru arrest. 

meshitsukau employ (as a servant). 

4. Mbchi, from motsu hold. 
mochidasu offer (a motion or bill). 
mochikuzusu ruin (self or property). 
ni hanashi wo mochikakeru solicit. 

5. Oshi, from osu push. 
oskihirogerw spread out, enlarge. 
oshikaeshite kiku ask to repeat. 

oshitsumatte kuru the end of the year approaches. 

6. Sashi, from sasu grow, rise, penetrate. 
sashiageru lift up, offer, pre- sashihiku deduct. 

sent. ni sasliiltdkaru approach. 

sasliideru intrude (in sashi- sasliitsukaeru be hindered, 

degamashii, p. 110). embarrassed, from tsukaeru 

sasliidasu offer, present, send be obstructed. 

(freight, mail, etc.). 

7. Taclii, from tatsu stand. 
tachikaeru return. 

tachidomaru stop while walking, from tomaru stop. 
tachiyoru call in j)assing. 

8. Tori, from torn take. 

toriatsultau manage, treat. torikaeru exchange. 
toriawaseru combine. torikesu retract. 

a Many of these words are becoming obsolete. Thus shokai sum is more com- 
mon than hikiawaseru in the sense of " introduce " ; tei-shutsu surtt, than mochi- 
dasu; shik-ko suru, than toriokonau, etc. 




ni torikakaru commence 
work on. 

torikuzusu tear down. 

tori'i/i'itot/icrx gather all to- 
gether, settle, from mato- 
meru bring together, ad- 

ni tnt-in<if<, take the part of. 
toriokonaii administer, per- 
form, celebrate. 

torishiraberu investigate. 
torishimaru supervise. 
torisoroeru gather all together. 
9. Uchi, from utsu strike. 

transmit, announce 

(a visitor). 
ni toritfitikti attach one's 

self to. 

tottsukamaeru catch ( vulgar). 
toritjoseru have sent to 

one's self, procure, import. 
toriixogu be in a hurry. 
ioi'il'oiiui be crowded, busy 

(of a house, hotel or store). 
torimagireru be in confusion, 

distracted, from the rare 

verb magireru (p. 202). 

ni uchikatsu overcome. 

ncliiokeru open (the heart), be candid. 

uchitokete hanasu speak frankly or familiarly. 

itchitsuzuku continue a long time. 

utcJiaru, from uchiyaru, throw away, reject, let alone. 

bukkiru, for buchikiru, hack. 

biinnayuru, forbuchinagnru, thrash, drub, from nagurit beat. 


(Include the compounds given above.) 

mizore sleet. f/i (c) righteousness, trusti- 

ness, loyalty. 
shi city. 

::cn = mae front. 
l>u-nhi samurai. b 


ori opportunity. 

toride fort, stronghold, 

hari-tsuke crucifixion. a 
f<ir/il-ki standing tree. 
tamato (te, moto} lower ]>art 

of [Japanese] aleefve(wbich 

serves as a pocket). 

cho-nin one of the trading 
class, merchant (p. 2t3b) . 

elm-! attention, hoed. rare. 
/"-/'" man and wii'c. 

a A "cross" is haritsuke-bashira. The Christian term is jn-ji-ka, from juji the 
character for 10 (-{-) and ka erection, frame. 

b From bu brave and shi man or samurai. Compare gi-shi loyal samurai, from 
gi righteousness. 




gi-an bill (in a deliberative 

assembly). a 
givan-sho, negai-sho (gioan 

= negai) petition (in 

writing) . 

haku-jo confession. 
liyd-men surface, exterior. 
jild-so direct appeal. 
ko-jin = mukashi no hito. 
kok-ka (koku = kuni, ka = ie) 


ko-no virtue, efficacy, effect. 
sai-kun wife (familiar). 
shi-sJmtsu (proncd. sliishitsu) 

sliu-nyu income, receipts. 
so-han coarse food (polite 1). 
soku-i-yo surveying. 
zai-moku lumber. 
zan-kin (nokotta kane) bal- 
dai-gi-slii representative (in 


ho-shu-to conservative party. 

tonneru 1 , , 
v tunnel. 
do-mon \ 

koishii beloved, affectionate. 

tsurenai heartless. 

hisoka na secret. 

nodoka na calm. 

samazama na(no) various. 

slii-ritsu no private (opposite 
kwanritsu no established 
by the Government). 

osaeru repress, hold back. 

tdbi-datsu set out on a jour- 

nori-ki ni naru fall in with 
a proposal. 

izure in some way or other, 
at all events. b 

tokkuri(to~) attentively, thor- 
oughly, fully. 

sono ba de on the spot. 

age-ku ni finally, besides all 


Watakushi no tainoto wo osaete sh'kiri ni liikitomeyd to shi- 
masJi'ta kerndomo, zehi kaeranakereba ndranai koto ga aru to 
itte muri ni furihanash'te nigete mairimash'ta. Tadaima 
oide nas'tta o kata iva zonfimasen kara, dozo go sJwkai (o hi- 
kiawase) ivo negaimas'. Clio-men ni hikiaivasete yoku sliira- 
bete mimasho. Multaslii Hangdku to iu onna ga arimash'ta 
ga, hijo ni chikara no tsuyoi onna de uma ni notte i nagara 
tachiki 100 hikinuite teki to tatakatta to iu koto des'. Ima Ha- 
i kun no uchi ye itte kita ga, saikun no iivareru ni iva 

a From gi discussion and an plan. Compare gi sum discuss, gi-ketsu j;-take ^a 
vote (ka-ketsu sum adopt, hi-ketsu suru reject), gi-in member of a deliberative as- 
sembly, gi-cho president, gi-ji parliamentary business <jiHioto},giji-d5 assembly 
hall, etc. A motion is do-gi, from do move. 

b Izitre is properly a classical relative pronoun. 



anata no o taku ye agaru to itte sakihodo dekakcta* toiu koto 
de atta kara, tabnn tochu de ikichigattard to omotte sugu ni 
hikkaesh'te kimash'ta. Sakura Sdgoro ga shdgun ni jikiso wo 
sh'ta no gafutsugd da to iu no de yakunin wa Sdgoro ico mcxJti- 
totte haritsuke ni shimash'ta. Konoaida hoshutd no daigishi ga 
kdiugian wo teishutsu shimash'ta (mochidashimash'ta). Dan- 
dan osliitsumatte mairimash'te sazo o isogasliiu goxaimashd. ^ 
Sohan wo sashiagetd gozaimas' kara, c komban roku ji ni oide 
Ttudasaimaslii . Chddo yamasaka ni sashikakatta toki ni mizore 
gafuridash'te kita no de hidoku nangi tvoitashimash'ta. Shi- 
baraku tachidomatte kesh'ki u'o nagamete imas' to, ushiro kara 
tomodachi ga kitefui ni kata wo tataita no de bikkuri itashi- 
mash'ta. Kyu na go yd wo osets'kerarete mydgonichi Hokkai- 
do ye slmttatsu senakereba naranai kara, d kimono nado ivo 
hayaku toriswoetc, o kure. Hei, kasliikomarimaslita. Matsu- 
_shima ni Zaimokushima e to iu domon no yd ni ana ga aite 
sono naka ivo fune no tdreru shima ga arimasu ga, anata ica 
go. ran ni narimash'ta ka. lie, amari toriisogimaslt'ta mon* 
des' kara, tsui miotoshhnash'ta.^ Mnkashi no samurai tea 
chdnin nado ga burei na koto wo suru to, da-ikon ya gobd wo 
kiruyd ni sugu ni buchikitte shimatta mon' des'. Tada 
Jiydmenjd no ts'kiai bakari de naku tagai ni vchitoketc 
ivo sh'te minakcreba liito no kokoro wa tdtei yoku wakaru 
de wa arimasen. Ano tetsudd iva liajime shiritsu no kwaisha 
de yarikakemash'ta ga, nochi ni seifu de JiikiukcmasJt'ld. 
Suzuki sail ni hanaslii, ivo mochikakete ?//// W/Vc ga, sapj>ri 
noriki ni naranai no de komatte shimaimash'ta. Jlfitko no iu 
koto ga ivakaranakatta kara, oshikaesh'te tazunema sh'ta. J\fn- 
kashi no bushi wa gi no tame niiva Hsu naitdnki de mo i/ 
wo sashidash'te kakatta mono dcs'. f Sono Doits Jin ica 

a The sentence from anata to dekaketa is a direct quotation. It is quite legit- 
mate to'repeat polite words addressed to one's self. But comp. p. 1 26d. 

b In Japan at the close of the year it is customary to settle all accounts and every 
one is busy. 

c A suitable formula for inviting a person to a meal. 

d Go yd Government business, llok-kai-do (lit. north sea way) designates Ezo 
and the Kuriles. Observe that do, like cho (p. 95e), may mean a " district" as well 
as a " road. " 

e The columns of rock look like piles of lumber . 

f The idea expressed by kakatta is that of undertaking (to serve a master or cause ). 


soka ni F'rans* no toride wo sokuryo sh'ta no de F'rans'jin ni 
totts'kamaeraremash'ta. Iroiro torikonde orimas' Jcara, ori ivo 
mite tokkuri go sodan itashimasho. Bunnagutte yarol 3 - Ai- 
kawarazu o hikitate wo negaimas 1 . Ekaki wa, iroiro enogu wo 
toriawasete samazama no iro wo dashimas'. Watakushi mo 
o me ni kakatte o ivabi wo mdsliiageru tsumori ga, anata 
kara mo nanibun yorosh'ku sensei ni o torinashi ivo negaimas'. 
Konna na koto bakari uchitsuzuita ageku ni ana- 
ta ni made so tsurenaku saremash'te wa mo toritsuku shima ga 
gozaimasen. b Asu sail ji kara sotsugyosTi'ki ivo shikko suru 
(toriokonau) so des'. Shiinyu wa hyaku yen de shishutsu wa 
hachi ju go yen ku jissen naraba, sasJiihiki zankin wa ju yo 
yenjissen ni narimas'. Rhinnen ni naru to, nantonaku no- 
doka de wakai told ni tachikaetta yd na kokochi ga itashimas'. 
Kono lion wa kami ga nukete imas* kara, hoka no to torikaete o 
kure. Ani to uchiakebanashi wo sli'te imash'ta. 

Many men for the sake of [their] country have severed ties 
of aifection (koishii naka) between (of) parent and child (p. 
225 a), husband and wife, gone to war and died in battle. 
Please introduce me to that gentleman. The child is crying, 
having flown (hikkakeru) its kite on a tree. I should like to 
enlarge my grounds (yash'ki] and plant plenty of trees. They 
presented a petition to the Home Office. Happening to pass by 
(because I passed by) your gate (go mon-zen}, I have just called 
for a moment; some other time (izure) I will soon visit you 
again. As I am a little in a hurry, I will now be excused (p. 
262, middle). Since the old castles were mostly torn down 
after the Restoration, there are now not many (amarC) left. 
As (tori) the ancients said, it is not so (sahodo) difficult to 
overthrow the rebels (zoku) in the mountains (san-chu no or 
yama no naka no), but it is truly not easy to overcome the 
rebels in one's heart (shin-chu no or kokoro no naka no). 
Abandoning wife and children, he set out for (ye) a distant 
place. The street car line was built by a private company 
(is one that a private company laid), but later the City Office 

a This is, of course, a vulgar expression, 
b We have here the figure of one lost at sea. 


(c?e) may possibly (ka mo slureiwi) take it over. He ruined 
himself 4 (ww too) by (ni) profligacy and caused (ni kakcru) his 
parents much (hijo ni} anxiety. There is nothing at all, Imt 
I will give (pres.) you what happens to be on hand. The rob- 
ber was caught on the spot, but did not confess. The goods 
you have ordered (go clmmon no) will all be gathered togeth- 
er by to-morrow and delivered at (ye) your house. As evening 
came (yiigata ni nattc) and we approached a mountain road 
(yamasaka) we were greatly perplexed. At the close (knre) of 
the year all [houses] are busy. I (ga) will make myself respon- 
sible for this matter (wa 1) and settle it. As I must go quickly 
(ki/u ni), I am distracted on account of the preparations (sh'takit 
wo sum no de). Does it also happen that (koto mo arimas' ka) 
lamps are overturned by earthquakes? If you put (ts'ken?) a 
red lining into this garment, it will look very much better. 
As he employs many people, he ought to be more careful (mot- 
to chuisuru). Though you print(tZasM)a disavowal(Yo/v7.:e.s7</)in 
the newspaper, it will not have (there will not be) much effect. 


In previous chapters attention has been called to the propriety 
of using certain special verbs and special inflections in speak- 
ing to superiors or to those to whom one wishes to show respect. 
A little attention to the original sense of an honorific expression 
is often sufficient to explain its usage. Thus y<>h<l< agent (p. 
84f) is more polite than yonde yarn (p. 289c), becau- 
means properly "lift up"; oshiete itodnku (p. 227) is more 
respectful than oshiete m<.>r">> (p. 250), because the original 
meaning of itmlnl:" is "put on the head." Then- an- aU-<> 
honorific inflections, as in nnxnrit, from nasu, and //vW/<//-K. 
from //>/. (pp.181, 2G8), changing ordinary verbs into forms 
which it would be utterly ridiculous to use of one's self. 

Polite verbs may be divided into two cla-srs. humiliativcs and 

1. There are humble verbs which arc used properly in 
the first person. 

a verb is ///<;*>/ say (p. :2o7a). M>*n, may also 


be used in the third person, to show respect to the one 
addressed. It may even be used in the second person, either 
when it is desired to impress upon the one addressed the fact 
that he is inferior or when the one addressed is not a superior 
and his act concerns a very exalted personage. But these are 
rare exceptions to the rule that verbs of the humble class 
are not used in the second person. The student will remem- 
ber that in the sense of "do" mosu is also used with stems of 
verbs a together with the honorific o, and that itasu is used with 
stems of verbs and o, or with Chinese compounds with or with- 
out go (p. 216, 12). The very formal tsukamatsuru is used just 
like itasu, though less frequently; e. g., Do tsukamatsurimash'te 
(comp. p. 218d ). A still rarer variant is tatematsuru (lit. 
offer), borrowed from the literary language for use (without o) 
in prayer and in speaking of what is done to or for the Sover- 

The humble expression for " receive " is itadaku or cJw-_ 
dai itasu, used also in a peculiar way with subordlnauves as de- 


scribed in Ch. LV. Another humble term is Jcpmuru, used of 
favors or commands, Still another is ta ; iiiaw<t.rir, used of favors 
or gifts. The compound uJcetamawa^is iikc([ only in the sense 
of "hear." 

"See" is hai-ken itasu, 'from haiogamu, ken=miru, used 
of the possessions of others, letters from others, etc. b Com- 
pare Jiai^sha^J^Qrrow, from shaku=kariru. "Show" is go 
ran ni ireru or o me ni kakeru (p. 44a). 0_jne ni kakarit. 
means '' meet. " 

Moshiageru means properly "say." It is used like mosu. 
In some localities it may also be used in the sense of "giveJJF 


but this is a provincialism. "Give" is sashiageru or 

(.skin-iei itasu, tei-jo itasu)*?" 
"Go" or "come" is mairu; "go" or "come" to the house of 

a Mosu differs from itasu in that its use is limited to acts affecting the one ad- 
dressed. In a few instances it may be used with go and a Chinese compound, but 
not when the compound is in itself honorific; e. g-,go annai mosu, or go shokai 
mosu, but never cJwdai mosu, or haiken mosu. 

b Haiken itasu may not be used of seeing a person; but a physician will say : Go 
yotai wo haiken itashimasho, or even : Go bydnin luo haiken itashimashd. One may 
also say: Kondo o umare naftta o ko san wo haiken itashitai. 






he one addressed is aa^u^Q. g., o rei ni agaru come to express 
me's obligations, o kuyami ni agaru come to condole, o ?/orofeofri_ 

tti <i<j<r,->i come to "congratulate. Tlie formal verbs *'///;.///v/ 
\(san = iiKiiru] and .SY///-/O Haw. are synonymous with agaru, 
/and so is the rather rare makan-ideru, makari being a prefix 
taken from the classical language. 

2. There are also verbs that are used to exalt the person 
addressed, or a third person. 

The student is already familiar with the uses of iiasaru, Jcu- and ni naru (pp. 190, 278). The very formal asobasu_ 
(lit. cause to play)^r asobasareru_ is used just like nasaru', espe- 
cially by |adJs' 'Tne exaltative corresponding to 
is tamau (but see also p. 246, top). 

" Use" is mesu (lit. summon); e. g., ride in rikshas. etc., is 
kuruma m mesu, put on clothes is 'kimono wo _m esu, take a 
batn is p yu ivo mesu or o yu ni mesu. a " Eat, " 

"See" is ao ran n^a^u. The old contracted form gw* 
or gorojiru is now rare, except in theaters. 

"Say" is ossharu, derived from the now rare verb oseru. 
It should be noted that the honorific form of mosu, mosareru, 
is polite even in the second person. 

For "gOj" "come," "be,^ we have irassharu^or oi< 
(p. 190 JT Ot'the Emperor the words (o) mi-yuki or gyo-ko 
nasaru ^ni naru, asWSUf^u, etc.) are usen; oi'^the jampress 
i Prince, (o) miyuki or avo-kei (ffyo=i/iiku}. * 

go, and shin 

"KeUrgT^ "go to bed' 7 is gyo-sJn'n ni naru, commonly 
contracted to gesTm ^from 
= neru go to bed. 

Note that there is a limit to the reduplication of honorifics. 
Thus we may say i'r^ha^nns^ and iraesh'tte kudasai, but n 

a For the use of mesu as a prefix see the previous chapter. Mesu also occurs as 
a suffix in the honorific oboshimesu deign to think, which is used in the colloquial, 
especially in the form oboshimeshi thought. The verb kikoshimesii deign to hear 
has passed from the sense of "hear," to that of " govern," and from this to the 
sense of "eat" or " drink," which it now has in the colloquial. One may say iron- 
ically : Suzuki kun wa ippai kikoshimeshite imasu kara, nakanaka genki ga yd 
gozaimasu. Suzuki is animated, having taken a drink. The verb shiroshimesu deign 
to know does not appear in the colloquial except rarely in the sense of "govern." 




itai. J '. 

irassluiri nasai or irassJiari ni natte itadakitai. 

membered that in very formal speech the 
more appropriate than masu. 




It should be 

kakuslii 1 ket> 
pokketto j 

hago shuttlecock (also liane). 
hago-ita battledoor. 
ni-gao portrait, likeness. 
oshi-e a picture in relief made 

of stuffed pieces of cloth. 
habutae a kind of thin silk 

cloth. a 
tan a piece of cloth between 

ten and eleven yards long. 
liiki a piece of cloth contain- 
ing two tan. 
uta isshu one poem (shu= 

go by 'd=o tamaya ancestral 

shrine, sepulcher. b 
ai-satsu salutation, answer. 
baku-fu the government of 

the shogun. 
bun-ko library, c 

dan~shi = otoko no ko boy, 
male, man. 

jo-slii = onna noko girl, fe- 
male, woman. 

em-pitsu lead pencil. 
fu-kivai displeasure, indispo- 
sition (fukwai desu is in- 
disposed) . 

han-jo prosperity (hanjo suru 
be prosperous). 

liei-ka His (or Her) Majesty. d 

kai-sei revision. 

rei-fuku ceremonial dress. 

sei-sho a clean copy. 

shi-ken examination. 

sldn-nen new year. 

shihan-gakko normal school. 

yo-dateru furnish, lend. 

mazu first of all, on the 
whole, well. 

hito-mazu once, for a while. 


tsue 100 o moclii asobashimash'ta (asobasaimash'ta) ka. 
Sayo, jisan itashimash'ta, shikashi dochira ye okimash'ta ka 

a Undyed habutae is exported in large quantities. 

b This term is applied to the sepulchers of shoguns and daimyos. The sepulcher 
of an Emperor is go ryo or mi-sasagi. 

c Libraries are now generally called sho-jak-kwan or to-sho-kwan {sho or shaku, 
seki book, to, zu, drawing). 

d The word heika is used alone as a designation of the Emperor. It is derived 
from /iet steps, ka beneath. The corresponding title of a prince is denka; of a 
high official, kakka. Another term used in speaking of the Emperor is shu-jo {shu 
lord, fo = <?). 


zonjimasen. Danna san wa doko ni iraesfaaimat? Jen. 11> I, 
tadaima yu ni haitte irasshaimaef. Mada go lion ico haisho.ku 
sh'te oi'imasu ga, o iriyd nara hitomazu o kaeshi moshimasho. 
seisho ico chotto haiken(itash'to gozaimas'}. cha wo mo 
ippuku meshiagare. Arigato, j'tyu ni chodai itashimas 1 . 
Sakuban ku ji goro ni* go monzen wo torimash'ta kora, chotto 
o yori moshimash'ta ga, mohaya geshinattc irasshaimaslita. 
Sore wa osoreirimasJi'ta ; yiibe wafkwai de arimash'te hayaku 
yasumimash'ta. Domo, kaneire ga mienaku narimaslitu ; 
hobo 100 sagash'te mo doko ye itta ka wakarimasen. Am it a 
sakujitsu o mesTii nas'tta zubon no kak'shi ico go ran nasaima- 
sh'ta ka. Sakujitsu chotto o rei ni agarimash'ta ga, o rusu 
de gozaimaslita. Chotto o fude ico haisJiaku (itash'to gozai- 
mas'). Mata sono uchi ni o me ni kakarimasho. b Balcufu no 
jibun no kwahei (zenior kane) ico go ran nas'tta koto ga go- 
zaimas' ka. lie, mada haiken itash'ta koto wa gozaimasen. 
Watakushi wa uchi ni motte imas* kara, tsuidc ga attara o me 
ni kakemasho. namae ica tabitabi liketamawarimaah'ia ga, 
mada ichi do mo o me ni kakatta koto tea gozaimasen. Jma 
Tokei no shiku-kaisei ni c torikakatte oru koto wo o kiki nasai- 
mash'ta ka. Sayd, uketairtaicarirnash'ta. jo san, sono o 
hagoita wo chotto haiken sash'te kudasai. Oya, taiso kirei na 
oshie des' koto; kore wa Fukus'ke no d nigao des' ka. Jfakoto 
ni go yakkai ni narimash'te arigato zonjimas'. Do tsukama- 
tsurimash'te. Senjitsu o hanashi moshimash'ta koto wa hito ni 
kiite mimash'tara ivatakushi no moshimash'ta tori de monake- 
reba anata no osshatta tori de mo nai so des'. e Kono 
hon wa naikakit, no bunko kara hciishaku sh'ta no des'. Anata 
Tokyo ye oide no jibun nikwokyo wo haiken nasaimash'ta ka. 
lie, haiken itashimasen desh'ta. Konaida shinnen no o utakicai 

a Translate : about nine o'clock. The addition oigoro ni (p. 370) makes the ex 
pression vague. 

b An expression used in parting from a friend. 

c From shi city, ku district, ward. The whole compound may be translated 
" redistricting." 

d Fukusuke was a famous actor in Tokyo. Battledoors are often decorated with 
portraits of famous personages done in brocade. 

e The conditional inflection in nakereba takes the place of a conjunction (p. 
148, I, 2). 


ni a tenshi samamo o utawo issliu o yomi asobasaremash'ta. Itsu 
o yu ni o meshi nasaimas' ka. Yu ga deki sliidai hairima- 
sho. mes/timono wa dore ivo o meshi ni narimas' ka (dore 
ni nasaimas' ka} . Go reifku de gozaimas' ka. Nani ivo o 
meshi ni narimas' ka. Kono habutae wo ippiki kaimaslw. 
Amari tak'san de nakereba go yodate mos' koto mo dekimas'. 
Shitsurei nagara go men wo komurimash'te koko kara go ai- 
sats' ivo moshiagemas' . b 

Have you seen photographs of the sepulchers at (of) Nikko? c 
No, I have not yet seen them ; I should like to see them if I 
might be permitted to do so(ainarimasureba or narimasurnkoto 
nara). I have none, but I will borrow (borrowing come ) them 
from a friend and show them to you. Did you see the Emper- 
or's palace when you went to Tokyo? Yes, I saw it, but I did 
not think it at all magnificent. d Which clothes (omeshimono} 
will you wear? Bring (dasu) the swallowtail; for I am going 
(deru) to an evening party to-night. I have come to return 
the umbrella (okasa} that I borrowed recently. The bath is 
now hot (boiling) ; will you take it at once? Please lend me 
your lead pencil a moment. Did the fire break out after (ato 
desh'ta ka} you went to bed? No, it was when all in the 
house (ucliiju no mono ga} were still up. e I have brought 
some old coins to show you (thinking I should like to show 
you). Recently Her Majesty the Empress f went to the Female 
Normal School and viewed the examinations (of the pupils). 
Won't you please return for a while the book that I loaned 
you (go yodate mosh'te oita}. I should like to inquire (ukagau} 
what you think (how is your thought) in regard to this matter. 
Receiving your kind favors (o hikitate) we are prospering more 
and more (oi&i}. 

a An uta-kwai is a party at which each member composes a poem on some as- 
signed theme. Because it is the Emperor's party it is called o utakwai or on titakivai. 

b Said in a party when it is inconvenient for a person to leave his seat to make 
his bows before a friend. 

c When honorific verbs are used, personal pronouns are generally superfluous. 

d Translate : kodai to wa oniowaremasen deshita. For kodni see p. 340. The 
expression to omoti may be used not only with verbs and adjectives, but also with 
nouns : Ano o kata wo Shinajin to omoiinashita. I thought he was a Chinaman. 

e Either : Mada okite oru toki, or : dare vio yasuinanai tichi. 

f In very formal speech ni wa takes the place of wa. 



Adverbs may be divided into the following groups : 

1. Adverbial forms of adjectives ending in i. 

2. Adverbs formed by means of the particle ni. 

3. Adverbs formed by means of the particle to. 

4. Duplicatives. 

5. Substantives used as adverbs of time, place, degree, etc. 

6. Subordinatives of certain verbs. 

7. Ordinary adverbs. 

In general it is to be observed that the Japanese often em- 
ploys adverbs where the English does not (Ch XVIII.), and 
vice versa. 

On the formation of adverbs from adjectives proper see 
Chapters XI. and XXX. Sometimes the contracted form, as, 
for instance, yd for yoku, is used with other verbs besides gozai- 
masu, while the uncontracted form in ku is sometimes used 
with gozaimasu: 

yd oide nasaimashita. Welcome! b 

Takdku wa gozaimasen. It is not at all dear. 
The adverb yoku is used in various senses: 

Yoku irasshaimashita. I am glad you came. 

Yoku kimasu. He comes often. 

Yoku iva sliirimasen ga I don't know exactly, but... 

Yoku nite imasu. It is very much like it. 

Yoku anuta wa Nihongo wo wasuremasen. 

It is remarkable that you don't forget your Japanese. 
The adverb yoku enters into a few compounds: 

hodo-yoku agreeably, satisfactorily, moderately. 

ori-yoku opportunely (opp. o/v'-W/ /'/,). 

shubi-yoku successfully, from shu-bi head and tail. 

tsugo-yoku conveniently. 

a Fuku-shi, ftom/ttfat soeru add. 

b The particle koso is often inserted here for emphasis : 1 'o koso oide kudasaimasKta. 


Adverbial expressions are frequently formed by combining 
ndku with substantives. The addition of mo "even" makes 
them emphatic: 

ma-mo-naku immediately, from ma interval. 
liodo (mo) naku "in no time, " from hodo quantity. 
loake-mo-naku unreasonably, exceedingly, from wake, reason. 
machigai (mo) naku, so-i (TWO) naku without fail, surely. 
itasliikata (mo) naku, ze~hi(mo)naku (comp. p. 160a) per- 
force, of necessity. 

omoigake (mo) naku unexpectedly, from omou and kakeru. 
oshige-mo-naku ungrudgingly, from osliii regrettable and 

ke in keshiki appearance. 
oy ami (mo) naku incessantly (of rain), from o little and 

yami pause. 

taema (mo) naku uninterruptedly, from tae-ma cessation. 
(0:0) en-vyo (mo) naku without reserve. 
toho-mo-naku extraordinarily, outrageously, from to way 

ho direction. 

zo-sa (wo) naku without trouble, easily. 

Corresponding adjectives in nai are also in use. a Note also 
nan-to-naku, for nan to iu koto (onvake) mo naku, without any 
special reason, not knowing why or how. 

In the cases of some adverbs in ku the corresponding adjec- 
tives are wanting or occur only in the literary language: 

shibaraku (= classical sMbashi) for some time, for a while. 
sukoshiku=sukoshi a little, somewhat. 
kotogotoku altogether, entirely, thoroughly. 
gotoku =yo ni as, like (an no gotoku as was expected). 
The particle ni is often added, pleonastically, to gotoku. 

Observe the idiom in osoroshii takai shina, toliomonai takai 
mono, where we should expect the adverbial forms osoroshiku, 

The adverbs toku far and chikaku near are often used like 

a The expression wake mo nai has, however, the sense of " not difficult ": Sore 
wa betsudan wake mo nai koto desu. That is not specially difficult. The idiom 
ni soi (ga or wa") nai or ni chigai nai is often used at the conclusion of a sen- 
tence to add emphasis : Kuru ni soi nai. He will certainly come. Compare : Ano 
hito no iu koto ni wa machigai ga nai. There is no mistake in what he says. 


substantives: t<~>k/i- <jn. t<'>k>' ye, tdku made, etc. Compare oku 
no many (p. 50), oku ica for the most part. 

The frequent idiom Mutttiku desho is apparently elliptical 
for: Muttalca so desho. It is probably quite true. 

The particles to mo added to an adverbial form give it a 
concessive sense (p. 102, 5). 

Note further the following idioms: 

bakarashiku omou consider foolish. 

ico iraruku iu speak ill of. 

muteitkaskUcu icba to use^difficult (precise) language. 

YorosJriku itte kudasai. Please speak a good word for me. 
For yoroshiku ncgaimasu and kokoroyasuku negaimasu see p. 
104, b and c; for yoroshiku mosu, p. 207a. 

The adverbial form of an adjective is regularly used with 
it' I ni (p. 24) and with suru (p. 212,2): kuroku narii become 
black, kuroku suru make black; no&wumt disappear, nakusu(ru) 
lose, etc. The inflections of the adjective are derived from the 
adverbial form and aru. From the imperative are we have 
osokare hayakare sooner or later (lit. be it late, be it early) 
=so-ba)t 8d=haai banoaoi. 


(Include the new adverbs.) 

beni rouge. an thought, expectation, plan . 

beni wo sasu (or tsukeru) byo-bu folding screen.* 

apply rouge (p. 240d). en-ki postponement. 
kumo cloud. hyd-dai title (of a book). 

kuchi-biru lips. jo-yaku contract, treaty. 

kazari decoration. ki-yen temper, state of 

matsu-kazari New Year's de- health. b 

coration = kado-matsu (p. rei-ten zero (naught point). 

133). sei-cho growth. 

a A byd-bu may have two, four, six, or eight leaves. A single-leaf screen stand- 
ing on a base is called fsttitate, 

b Seep. 2aSa. Go kigen yd is a salutation used both in meeting and in parting, be- 
ing elliptical for Go kigen vb irasshaimasu ne, or Co kigen yo irasshai. Instead of 
the former one may say to a familiar friend: Go kigcn dtsu ne, for Go kigen yo oide 
desu m. 


yo-ki cheerfulness (sunlight chijimu, cliijimaru shrink 

spirit). (tr. chijimeru). 

tai-ko drum. someru dye. 

taiko-mochi buffoon, clown. semaru be narrowed, strait- 

shin(c) new (in composition). ened. 

to(c) this, the said, the in ni semaru approach, op- 
question (in composition ). a press. 

medetai fortunate. b slii-tsukeru train. 

sabishii, samushii lonely, kuvhigakakaru be in demand 

dreary. (of singing girls, etc. ) . 

umai clever, Avell done. sayo-nara good-bye (lit. if it 

o seji no ii courteous, obsequi- be so) . 


Taiso yoku matsukazari ga dekimash'ta. Kono honyaku 
wa umaku dekimash'ta. Kono sara wa taiso us'ku dekite i~ 
mas j . Yorosh'ku o agari nasai. c Sonna koto wa bakarash'- 
ku omoimas' . Ano Jiito iva itsu mo osoku nemas' kara, yoku 
asane wo shimas'. Matsnbara san wa yoku ivatakushi no uclii 
ye kimas*. Osorosliii takai mon' da. Ano taikomochi wa o 
seji ga ii kara, yoku kucld ga kakarimas' .& Hisasli'ku sake 
tvonomimasen kara, nonde miru to, e liidoku yoimasli'ta. Hido- 
ku ats'ku naru to, hi ni (a day) ni do zutsu mim ivo abimas'. 
Nilion de ica gwanjitsu no asa lioyaku wakai liito ga ido ye 
mizu ivo kumi ni ikimas' ; sono mizu wo wakamizu to 
moshimas 1 . Dozo o kamai naku.* Tonen iva Hakodate no 

a T^-ninhe or she; to-ho de iva we; to-ji, to-setsu at this time (sono to-ji at the 
time of which we have been speaking); to- bun for the present; to-nen this year; 
to-haru this spring; to-jifsti '.he day in question, etc. Ano -lima wa tosaino kodesu. 
That horse was born this year (comp. p. 74, middle). The word hoii is similarly used. 

b medeto gozaimasu. I congratulate you. Shinnen o medelo, or Akemashite 
o medeto. Happy New Year! 

c Eat as much as you like! The expression is not one of the most refined. 

d T'aikomcchi are male (rarely old women) professional entertainers belonging 
to the same class as the young women called gei-sha. They are not so numerous 
as the latter. 
. e Lit. if I drink and observe (the result) ; translate, "when I tried to drink." 

fAn elliptical expression: Never mind (about entertaining me). Don't let me 
disturb you. "From kwnau heed, mind, 


fune ga osoku tsitkimash'ta no de yoyaku tadaima shin-sake 
(shinjake) ga miatarimash'ta.* Oya, danna, Jiisash'ku o mic 
nasaimasen desh'ta ne; itsu mo go kigen <h- kckko des'. Ho- 
doyoku itte okimasho.b Hodoyoku sJite agemasho. F'kaku 
Jtotte mita keredomo, kokowa mizu ga demasen. Ni do bikku- 
ri to tea nan nokoto des' ka. Hajime taiso yoku omotte ita 
koto ga ni dome ni miru to taiso Jiajime to chigatte oi'U no de 
odoroku koto des'. c Ano Into wa dare no koto de mo waruku 
iimas' kara, watdkuslii wa waruku iicarete mo kamaimasen. 
Fujisan ni nobottara sazo toku made miemashd. lie, taitci 
kumo ga kakatte iru kara, amari yoku miemasen. Sayonara, 
go kigen yd. Hon no hyodai wa taigai mutsukash'ku kaite ari- 
mas'. Kore wa yasasJi'ku kaite arimas' kara, anata ni mo 
wakarimasho. Kiri no ki wa hayakic seicJio shimas'. Kono 
daikon wo narubeku us'ku kitte kudasai. Nihon de iva niku 
wo komakaku kitte nimas'. Sh'ken mo shubiyoku sumimaslCte 
o medeto gozaimas'. Bunsho ico ts'kuru ni tea narudake yasa- 
sh'ku kakanakereba narimasen. Haru iva nantonakn t/uki it I 
narimas' . Ota san iva daigakko no sotsugyosh'ken wo ukete 
kara hodo (mo) -/ink/, kt/oju ni narimash'ta. Kino tea asa 
kara ban made yuki ga taema naku furimash'ta no de san- 
jaku bakari tsumorimash'ta. Sore wa mntsukash'ku icba ko 
iufu ni narimas'. Myoasa kuji made ni 6di naku koshiraete 
agemas'. Tochil de omoigake mo naku mukashi no sensei ni 
aimash'ta. Sakuban amari samukatta kara, yuki de mofuru 
ka shiran to omottara, kesa ni natte an no gotoku masshiro ni 
natte imash'ta. Saigyo wa Yoritomo kara sekkaku moratta 
gin no neko wo oshigemonaku kodomo ni kurete sJtimaimash'ta. d 
Bimbo ni semararete zeJii naku hito no mono wo nusumimaslCf". 
In (iva} the fall I feel melancholy; I don't know why (with- 
out any special reason kokoromochi becomes dreary). 

a Hakodate is the chief port of Hokkaido, the island of Ezo; sake or shake 
salmon ; miatarimashita have appeared on the market (lit. have l>een found). 

b I will speak to him so as to satisfy him. The next sentence means: I will fix it 
to suit you. 

c The phrase ni do bikkuri may also be used in the opposite sense of a thing 
which seemed very bad at first sight, but afterwards proved to be just the opposite. 

d A famous Buddhist priest and poet. His conduct in the matter of the silver 
cat illustrates the Buddhist ideal of indifference to the tilings of the world. 


don't think ill [of me]. After he took ( to) his final 
(graduating) examination he immediately became an official. 
Last month it rained continually. To-day we walked about 
seven hours without resting. The sun is up (demas/i'ta) ; we 
must start immediately. I will dye this red. I cannot wait 
long. If you do not associate a long time ( long) with Japanese, 
you cannot learn to speak (lianasu yd ni nararemasen] Japanese 
proficiently. Since I am going to the country, I shall (do) 
not see (o me ni kakaru) you for some time. The revision of 
the treaties has been postponed (enki ni naru) for a while. 
This dog being well trained, is good-tempered (otonashii) and 
performs various tricks (gei) . Yesterday ( wa\ ) it was (became) 
two (4) degrees (5) below (ika3) zero (2); to-day (wa) it 
has become a little warmer. He bought this screen cheap and 
sold it at a high price (highly). The ffakkenden composed 
(ts'kunt) by Bakin is written very interestingly. a Condense 
(chijimeru) this sentence and make (write) it a little shorter, 
as it is too long. I don't know exactly, but it is probably quite 
true. As this mountain is low, one cannot see (miemasen) far. 
Please explain it minutely once more ; I/do not yet clearly ( hak- 
kiri) understand. Japanese ladies often apply rouge to their 
lips. As that is a newly made (dekita) word, ordinary (atari- 
mae no] people will hardly understand it. v That is outrageously 
dear. He used up (entirely) all the money .he had (aru dake 
nokane). Isn't it exceedingly cold to-day? A friend coming 
opportunely, I was helped [out of my difficulties]. 


As we have observed (Chapters XXXIII., XXXIV.), sub- 
stantives which with na or no form adjectives may with the par- 
ticle ni serve as adverbs; e. g., 

omo ni mainly, chiefly. 

oki ni greatly. 

muyami ni recklessly. 

a Bakin, the great novelist, died in 1848. The Hakkenden, from hachi eight, 
ken = inu dog, den biography, narrates the adventures of eight heroes, each of 
whose names contained the word inu. 


saiwai (ni) happily, fortunately. 

tasJtika ni certainly. a 

yatara ni carelessly. 

katte ni, etc-katte ni, jibun-katte ni selfishly, inconsiderately, 

as one pleases (p. 191cl). 
ivaga-mama ni waywardly, without restraint. 
ornake ni besides, into the bargain. 
zatsu ni confusedly, not neatly, coarsely. 
zoku ni commonly, vulgarly, colloquially. 
go-gi ni enormously, extraordinarily. 
Jt i-do ni unjustly, wickedly, cruelly. 
mu-ri ni unreasonably, in spite of every thing. 
tei-nei ni carefully, politely. 
yo-i ni easily. 

kari ni temporarily, provisionally. 

(o) tagai ni mutually, reciprocal ly. ^ 

tsugi ni next. 

tsune ni always. 

sasuga (ni) under the given circumstances, as one would 

naturally expect. 
massaki (ni) at the very first. 

betsu ni, betsu-dan (ni) , kaku-betsu (ni) exceptionally, par- 
ticularly, specially. c 
sen ni formerly. 

choku-setsu ni directly, immediately (opp. kan-setsu ni). 
hi-ju ni unusually, extraordinarily. 
hon-to ni, lionto ni, lion ni really. 
ippan ni generally, at large. 

sei-sai ni, shi-wii ni (Jeomaka ni) minutely, in detail. 
ten-nen ni naturally, spontaneously. 
Konna ni, sonnet ni, anna ni (p. 39), donna ni, are irregular. 

In many cases there is no corresponding adjective: 

a The ni may be omitted when tashika is used with a verb in the probable 
form and has the weaker sense of " most likely": Tishika iku dcsho. He will 
probably go. Tashika ni ikimasu. He will certainly go. 

b O tagai ga (jva, no, etc.) is often used familiarly for the pronoun "we," 

C " Specially" in the stricter sense is tokit-bttsit ni. 


koto ni especially. 

metta ni seldom (with negatives). a 

nobetsu ni continuously. 

sugu (ni] immediately, at once. 

tama ni occasionally, once in a while. 

tende ni severally, each. 

tsui (ni) at last, finally, unconsciously. b 

tsuide ni incidentally. 

ki-mashi ni day by day, every day (masu increase). 

hito-kiichi ni at a mouthful, in a word. c 

hitori-de (ni) of itself, spontaneously. d 

j'iki (ni) immediately, at once. e 

om-bin ni quietly, peaceably, in a private way. 

sJii-dai ni gradually. 

Sometimes the particle ni is omitted, as the parentheses show. 
In a few cases mo may be added for the sake of emphasis ; e. g., 
saiivai ni mo. 

It remains to observe a few suffixes and words by means of 
which adverbial expressions may be formed. 

One is goto ni, which added to a substantive means "every": 
iegoto ni in every house, tosJiigoto ni every year. But such ex- 
pressions as doko no ie ni de mo, ieie ni, kengome ni, from ken 
(p. 86, 5) and komeru comprise, maitoshi or mainen (p. 50, top), 
etc., are more common in ordinary colloquial. 

The suffix gake may be added to stems of verbs: ikigake ni 
on the way, kaerigake ni or modorigdke ni, kigake ni, mairi- 
gake ni, torigake ni. Compare : Amerika kara kitate ni just 
after my arrival from America. 

In like manner tori, yd and/zt are used with limiting words: 

a There is also an adjective metta na, but this means " heedless ": Metta na koto 
iva ienai. It will not do to speak (lit. one cannot speak) heedlessly (anything 

b The particle ni is never added to tsui when it means " unawares. " 

c Hitcktichi as a noun means a bit (of food), a little (of a speech). 

d. From hitori and the postposition de. 

e This jiki is a variant reading of the character chokzi in chokusetm ni. It is 
used commonly of immediateness in time. A corrupted form, jika ni, is used in 
the sense "without anything between," " without intervention," being synonymous 
with cfokwetsu ni, 




Kono yo ni koshiraete o kiire. 
.Make it like this (konotorini exactly like this). 
Uma no yd ni l:uu eat like a hovsr. 
Nihon-fu. ni k>ir< white imasu. 
He is living in Japanese style. 
Pleonastically one may even say : anna yd no fu ni. 

(Include the new adverbs.) 
kura-su pass 

ete dexterity. 

katachi form, shape. 

ichi-ba market place. 

kajl-bo shafts, thills. 

dai-tan boldness. 

en-kaku development (his- 

yen-in cause. 

Icon-nan distress, difficulty. 

kon-zatsu confusion. 

ri-en divorce. 

sai-fu money bag, purse. 

sei-do institutions, system. 

ko-shi-kivan embassy, lega- 

it-ten no a single (one point). 

leudaranu, kudaranai unin- 
telligible, absurd. 

(time), live, 
make a living. 

saeru be bright (of the moon 
in the fall and winter). 

uyamau revere. 

matomaru bo brought togeth- 
er, settled (tr. matomeru). 

mochi wo tsuku make mochi 
(by pounding glutinous 
rice in a mortar). 

kiri-nukeni cut a way through. 

tori-tatern collect (bills, taxes, 

sata communication, news. 

go bu-sata u~o itasu fail to 
keep up communication 
with a friend, neglect to call 
or write a letter (polite 1). 


Shizuka nil Konna ni yakamash'kucha konmrtt. 
de mo kanai u~o etekatte ni ricn sum koto ira dektmasen. So 
iu yo ni kimattemas' (p. 163 top) ka. Ano h'tn /re ; <il-c ico 
yatura ni nonde imas'. KiltoH m> K< /'/// <li- ira //<tf<><'-/,-< /</ ^~ 
ydjin ico teinei ni toriats'kaimas' . Shogivatsu ni ira ic</ntn 
ni mochi tvo ts'ld UK IH . '/'(/x//'/;<t ni 80 </CK\ I\//<> // nan cV 
konna ni ni</i//<i/,-d */r.s-Ao /;</. Mnf.-nfn H! //<>!.// tcnh-i </ t^n^itki- 
iininh'te ii o Nlioytrutmi de <JOZU/I>/<IH\ Mo ju ni ji no tdilto <ja 
jiarimash'ta ka. lie, mada des\ tiltilcnslti jiki ni nchimasho. 


Ano hito wa kodomo ga mina nakunatte shimatte jitsu ni kino- 
doku na koto de gozaimas''. Kichigai doyo ni (p. 41d) toria- 
ts'Jcatoaremash'ta. Konofuzoku no genin wo sliisai ni torishi- 
rabemasho. Ano hito wa ha ga ivarui kara, niku wa komaka 
ni I'itte dasanakereba narimasen. Kurumaya san\ kore kara 
saki ica miclii ga ivaruku naru kara, s'kosh-i shizuka ni yatte 

kure. Kono islii wa tennen ni hito no katachi ni natte iru 
no de, riiezurashii to itte hito ga empo kara mi ni kimas'. Ma- 
koto ni go busata wo itashimash'ta. 3 - lie, o tagai sama de 
gozaimas'. Soko wa sasuga ni Bis'mar'k' des' kara, konnan 
na baai mo umaku kirinukemash'ta.^ Sasuga ni samurai no 
ko dake atte daitan des'. Makoto ni yoku tsuki ga saete imas' ; 
sora ni itten no kumo mo arimasen. Maru de ichiba no yd ni 
konzatsu sliimaslita, Senseil mukashi tenshi to shogun to no 
aida wa do iu kwankei ni natte orimash'ta ka. Sore wa Ni- 
lion no rekishi no uclii de, taiso irikunda kotogara des' kara, 
nakanaka hitokucM ni wa iemasen. Hido ni risoku wo tori- 
tatete kanemochi ni narimaslita. Sonna ni nen ivo irete ya- 
ranak'te mo ii ; zatsu ni koshiraete kurete mo ii. Shinsetsu ni 
sewa ico sh'te kitremasli'ta. Ano givaikoku no kata iva mam 
de Nihonfu ni kurash'te (no kurashi wo sh'te) imas'. Sugu 
ni kuruma no sh'taku ga dekite iru yo ni ki wo ts'kete oite o ku- 
re. Qki ni go yakkai ni narimash'te arigato gozaimas'. Sho- 
sei ga nokorazu keiko ni kuru koto w'a metta ni arimasen. 
Kurumaya san ! kajibo icv sonna ni takaku agecha abunai. 
Chodo neko no me no yd ni kaivariyasui hito des'. Saifu wo 
otosh'te omake ni kasa made nakusJite shimaimash'ta. Jibun 
no ete na koto wa yoi ni dekiru. Tende ni jibunkatte na koto 
bakari iimas' kara, sodan ga matomarimasen. Zoku ni yukino 

01 toshi wa saku ga ii to iimas'. 

a " Pardon me .for neglecting to call. This often amounts to nothing more 
than the expression of a wish to be friendly. The answer, O tagai sama Jesu, 
means: "I have been equally remiss." One may also say : Watakushi koso. I 
am the one [who should make excuses]. 

b In this sentence soko reserves as a sort of connective: "in that predicament." 
The sasuga ni desii kara may be freely rendered : As was to be expected just be- 
cause it was . Compare sasuga no His 1 mar ti mo even such a one as Bismarck. 
In the following sentence the common idiom sasuga ni dake atte may be rendered: 
As is to be expected in the case of . 


As I l)athe in (abitc imas') cold water every day, I seldom 
catch cold (there is seldom a catching cold). On my way hack 
I will call at (ye) your house. On my way to school I dropped 
my purse, but fortunately there was n't much in it (liaitte irii}. 
I am greatly troubled (Jcomarx) at having been addressed (since 
I was spoken to) in that manner (so) . It is impolite to (no ica) 
say such a thing directly. The law is provisionally enacted 
(dekite oru no des'). I am very sorry (it is truly regrettable) 
that he has lost (losing finished) the money that he has saved 
(saving put) with special pains. He investigated in detail the 
development of the feudal system. a Do as you please. He 
recklessly talks (shaberu') nonsense (absurd things). He used 
a great deal of (extraordinarily) money when he was in Berlin. 
In (ica) Nagasaki even in (de mo) winter it does not become 
specially cold; snow seldom falls (there is seldom falling of 
snoAv). In old times what relations were there between Japan 
andCorea(CVi6se)? That beinga complicated matter, I cannot 
tell you in a word. It will hardly be possible (not be easily pos- 
sible) to use lioiitoji generally. Formerly in Japan the teacher 
was revered as (do-yd, p. 41 d) a father. The disease becomes 
worse dayby day. There are unusually large trees in Japan. It 
is enormously dear. I will give it up. We will ctdl(ynttemairv) 
at t lie Legation on the way to the station. That expression is not 
used (they do not say so) generally, but it may be that (one 
cannot know whether) people say "that, depending (yotte) on 
the localitv. Shall we send it directlv to Tokyo, or shall we 

w w t 

request you [to take it along]. The parliament building is 
[only] temporarily built. If I study continuously two or three 
hours (hodo), my eyes begin to hurt (become painful). It 
will heal of itself, even if I don't give \> u [any] medicine. 
You must n't put the teakettle directly on the tatami. I met 
him just after my arrival fn in England. Y< u must make it 
exactly like this. I seldom read newspapers or (//) magaxiiies. 

a The feudal system, twktn seido (Jw fief, ken /a/cru"), is distinguished from 
gun-ken seido(gun county, ken prefecture), the modern form of government centering 
in the Emperor. The whole country is divided into ken or fit; the ken, 
CJtvri") or s/ii (cities); the^w;, into son (ww/v/^or cho (jnachi\ 



The particle to is used with a large class of adverbs. Many 
of this class end in ri : 

bikkuri (of a shock or fright). 

bonyari dimly, perplexedly. 

burari, burabura (of dangling or idling). 

chirari with one glance, cursorily. 

dossari abundantly, plentifully. 

garari, garagara (of a clattering noiee). 

hakkiri distinctly. 

Jiirari like a flash. 

honnori (of redness in the sky or a person's face). 

horori, horohoro (of teardrops). 

karari completely. 

kitchiri, kitchinto tightly, precisely. 

kossori, kosokoso on the sly, stealthily. 

mekkiri(of a fact that suddenly becomes noticeable). 

nikkori (of smiling or laughing). [uuwieldily. 

nossori, nosonoso at a snail's pace, in a strutting manner, 

patcliiri (of large, bright eyes). [manner). 

sakuri (of a thing that 'splits open readily or of a frank 

sappari clearly, wholly, at all (p. 187b). 

sarari entirely. 

shikkari firmly, faithfully, substantially. 

sukkari entirely. 

surari (of a slender form or of a smooth motion). 

tappuri abundantly, fully. a 

tokkuri (toku to) attentively, thoroughly. 

ukkari (uka to), ukauka thoughtlessly, inattentively. 

yukkuri leisurely, slowly (p. 33e). 

yururi, yuruyuru slowly, leisurely. 

Many of the above are of onomatopoetic origin. The free- 
dom with which such words are formed and used is a charac- 
teristic of the Japanese language. Like interjections, they are 
hard to define. 

a Tappuri (taputapif) futotte irn, or, Deppuri futotte int. He is very fati 


As indicated, there are in many cases corresponding dupli- 
catives (see the following chapter). These, as a rule, are more 
strictly onomatopoetic. Thus, surasura is used of a smooth 
movement, not of a slim figure. The duplicative also implies 
the idea of repetition. Thus, nikkori is used of a single smile, 
while nikoniko indicates smiling continually. The duplicative 
often has an entirely different sense; e. g., bilcubiku (of heitat- 
ing fear), chirachira (of a fluttering motion). Itiraliira (of a 
waving motion), Icarakara (of a rattling noise, as of wine 
glasses, = yaragara, or of laughter), sarasara (of a rustling 
sound, as of a river). 3 The adverb as a whole may be doubled : 
burariburari to aruku saunter. 

Properly to should be added to all, but it is generally omitted. 
The adverbs in ri may also be used with sum (p. 215, 8), and, 
accordingly, shite may be added to or substituted for to. In 
sliikiri ni "persistently" to may take the place of ni. Yahcri 
or yappari "still," "too," does not belong to this class. b 

The particle to is also used with shorter words of the same 
general character. The etymology of some is doubtful. The 
particle to is never separable and often coalesces with the word 
to which it is attached. c 

botto (of beclouded vision or unconsciousness). 

chanto precisely, properly, just, right. 

chitto a little. 

choito, chotto just a moment (choichoi occasionally). 

don to (of a loud noise). 

dotto (of sudden applause, laughter, etc.). 

gyotto (of a state of consternation). 

hatto (of surprise). 

liyoi to, hyotto accidentally, suddenly. 

a We may also say : Sonna koto iva sarasara zonjimasen. I don't know any- 
thing at all about it. 

b Notice the odd, rather slangy expression : Ikiataribattari tabete antita. I jour- 
neyed eating wherever I happened to be (z'/t go, ataru strike). Others say iki- 
nari batlari. 

c The adverb fu-to ( = hakarazu) unexpectedly, from/w not and to = hakam 
calculate, belongs to a different category. There is also an onomatopoetic futo or 
futto used of a breath: Futto rampu -wo kesu to extinguish a lamp with a putT. 


jitto firmly, steadily, with concentration. 

kitto surely. 

motto more. 

pan to (of a little explosion). 

potto (of a quickly spreading thing). 

patatto with a thud. 

pishanto, pisshari to with a slam, tight. 

pin to (of cracking glass or crockery). 

shika to firmly, certainly, exactly. 

sotto softly, gently. 

tonto totally, at all (with negative words). 

zutto all the way, direct, very much. 

With some words belonging to the class described in the pre- 
vious chapter to also is used. 

sugu (to or ni) immediately, at once. 

ivaza to (ni} purposely, intentionally (wazawaza specially, not 

yoyatto, yatto (from yoyaku} with difficulty, finally. 

zatto = zatsu ni coarsely, briefly. 

shi-zen (to or ni) naturally, spontaneously. 

totsu-zen (to or ni ) suddenly, abruptly. 

Note finally: nani-ka to = iroiro in many ways; nan to how! 
Itsu-nari to may be regarded as a briefer form of itsu nari 
to mo = itsu de mo. a 


(Include the new adverbs.) 

hagi bush-clover. nise-mono imitation, coun- 

mizo drain, ditch, groove. terfeit. 

hoy a (from hi-ya) lamp- fuku-biki (lit. luck drawing) 

chimney. distribution of prizes by 

niseru imitate (from niru drawing lots. b 

resemble ) . basho banana tree. 

a The classical nari is used in the colloquial to indicate alternatives : Migi nari, 
hidari nari, dochira. de mo ikaremastt. You can take either way, right or left. 

b This is a very common game. The slips of twisted paper drawn by lot have 
written on them names or expressions which are puns on the names of the prizes 


knk-k<~> shape, form. a n/i-kakcru get one's eyes on, 

ko-jo kind iVd'uig.-. catch sight of. 

ixH-kicai meeting for the ni buttsukam collide with, 

purpose of hearing addre?- kokoro tco irck </> repent, 

9, lecture-meeting, turn over a new leaf. 

ji-ien-dia (self-move-vehiele) hn**t/i'/t start, be produced. 

bicycle. j"ku suru become ripe, ma- 

}(iroy<(ru be spread abroad, ture. 

extend (tr. hirogertt). ayanikv, alniku unfortu- 

nozoku bend the head down nately. 

I. ><>!:. peep. kintar<i:;it assuredly, without 

toboru burn (of a light). fail. 

yokcru get out of the way. jum-ban ni in turn. 


Sore ica clioito sh'ta b Imnasld de wo, arimasen. Sazo o /'- 
karc dealio ; go yururi to o yasumi nasaimashi. Ano ie no 
uchi ni wa akari ga bonyart (to} tobottc imas\ Snknncn. ica 
nanlka to go k<~[/'<~> ni axukarimash'te ( }'. 184b); koiincn mo aika- 
irnri nKisezu. Mo s'koshi yururi to hanash'te kudasai. Shizcn 
to (ni) liasswu hoso ica tenncnto to moshimas'. Domo, udi 
no kodomo u~a itazura de waza to omocha ico kowashimatf. 
1 '//ktihik/ iro itasliim asho ; icatakushi tea kvji ico *Jtikkuri to 
motte imas 1 kara, anatagata ica jttmban -)ti <> /tiki natai. J/o 
yo f/" kurari in <tl\ niazh'ta. Karari totcnki ni n<ir!n/<i*li'tii . 
An<> Jtito no irui'inkoto wa sarari f<> inixnri'tc. shrniac. Scudai 
ll<i<ji <le, Semmats' wo c kwos' no u'o )nite Jiorori to iuu!<l<i 
ga koboremash'ta. Sake ir<> ij/j <//' n<,in'r<i I'ao ga Jtoniu.ri to 
iiki.ilc/t ntii-intdti/t'tn. Mizo ico Injui to tobikosh'ta. llnl; <,n 
don to ochita kara sh'te, me gasameta no des'. Teppo ga don 
to naru to, yane no ue no hato ga mina tatte shimaimash'ta. 

a Kak-ko =. adaka-no yoshi just about the right thing. Compare : Kakko ni shite 
a^emasn. I will sell it at a reasonable price. 

b Translate : simple, easy to understand. 

c The name of a boy in the celebrated drama called Sfiufai //&'/. The plains 
around Sendai were once famous for bush-clover; in this case Stm/ui Hagi means a 
famous tale of Sendai. The mother of Semmatsu was in a position to substitute 
her own child for the heir of her lord at a time when a plot was laid to assassinate 
the latter. 


Otdto wa sarari to kokoro ivo irekaemash'ta. Ano onna wa 
surari to sh'ta ii kakkd des'. Onna liodo yo ni arigataki mono 
iva naslii ; Shaka ya Kdshi wo hyoi liyoi to umu. a Bunshd 
ic a surasura kakanakereba narimascn. Kono ame de bashd 
no ha ga zutto nobimash'ta. Ima honyaku nas'tta tokoro wo 
zutto hajime kara mo ichi do yonde kikase nasal. Kore iva 
zutto mukashi no hanashi des'. jama ni narimas 1 kara, o 
itoma (ni} itashimashd. Md\ go yururi to.^ Kondo o me 
ni kakattara chanto kimeru yd ni itashimashd. Kochira ye 
zutto o tori nasai. Itsunari to o hanashi ni oide nasaimashi. 
Yatto hitogomi no naka wo tdrinukemash'ta. Kodomo wa liei 
ni notte ashi wo burari to sagcte imas'. Gejo tea itsu no ma 
ni ka c kossori to dete ikimash'ta. Vkkari (to) yokei ni harat- 
te yarimash'ta kara, torikaesh'te kimashd. Ukkari to nise- 
mono ivo kaimash'ta. Mekkiri (to) ats'ku narimash'ta. Nan 
to, ma, baka na koto j a naika. Fui ni kaminari ga natte hat- 
to omoimash'ta. d Ano onna iva me ga patchiri to sh'tc imas'. 
Totsuzen to jitensha ni deatte yokeru koto mo dekizu abunai 
tokoro desh'ta. Sh'ka to wa zonjimasen ga, dkata so deshd. 
Bdcho de suika wo sakuri to watte mita tokoro ga, mada juku 
sh'te imasen desh'ta. Bdtto sh'te mukd ga miemasen. Kuri 
wo hi ni irete oitara,pan to hanemash'ta. Sono toki Chamba- 
ren (Chamberlain) no uwasa ga patto hirogarimash'ta. Hako 
ni shinamono wo kitchiri oshikonda. Kak/imono wo sh'te oru 
iishiro kara e sotto nozoite mimash'ta ga, Suzuki kun tea ikkd 
ki ga ts'kimasen desh'ta (p. 221, 3). Ki no eda ni butts'katte 
gyotto shimash'ta. Sensei wa nikkori ivaratte irassharu. 

He is standing lost in thought (thinking something stands 
perplexedly). In (ni wa) Japan azaleas and camellias grow 
wild (naturally). Please hold (p. 198c) this firmly a little 
while (chotto no aida). How kind a person he must be! As 

a A humorous poem. Translate hodo " so as " ; hyoi hyoi to one after another 
very easily. Shaka is the Japanese form of Sakya, the family name of the Bud- 
dha ; Keshi Confucius. 

b The usual phrase when one urges a caller to stay longer: Don't be in a hurry. 

c Translate: no one knows when. 

d Hatto otnoiinashita == bikkuri itashimashita. 

e Observe how the adjectival phrase modifies mhiro directly. We should ex- 
pect Suzuki kun no before ushiro. 


I have been (am) a little indisposed lately, I cannot say that 
(to wo] I will surely come. On that day (tojitsu) if I feel 
well (cond.) I will visit [you] without fail (kanarazu). Is 
there a lecture-meeting in the Kinkikwan to-day? I really 
don't know; a I have not heard anything about it (that lianaslii 
I do not hear at all). Lately I called at (ye) your house just 
a moment (past cond.), [but] unfortunately you Avere out. 
When the gun went off (sounded don past cond.), the 
pheasant fell with a thud. She is slender and has a good form . 
Shut (shimeru or the shuji tight, so that (yd ni) the 
dust may not come in. Read (yonde kikaseru) once more 
from the very beginning (all the way from the beginning) what 
(tokoro) you have translated. Sit properly ! The cat has stolen 
a piece of katsuobmhi on the sly. All burst out laughing when 
(to) they hoard the story. I could n't see at all, because a tall 
man was standing (unwieldily) in front of me. I caught a 
glimpse of (with one glance got my eyes on) the fleeing rob- 
ber (the fleeing and going of the robber). A boatman, seeing 
that (no ivo) a child had fallen into the water, jumped in 
(tobikomu) like a flash and saved it. The lamp chimney 
cracked (tuareru) with a snap. Mother is in a brown study (is 
thinking steadily). 


Duplicatives form a large group of adverbs in Japanese. Wi- 
have here a language within a language, as expressive 'as it is 
unique. 3 There are in English a few analogous expressions, 
such as ticktack, dingdong, rubadub, higgledy-piggledy, little 
by little, over and over, through and through, so-so. 

Most of these words are of onomatopoetic origin, either im- 
itating a sound, or at least voicing a feeling produced by an 
action. They are used commonly without any particle: or 
with to, if with any at all. In most cases they cannot be trans- 
lated into English : 

a Translate: //saga dc-su ka, elliptical for ikaga Jcsn ka zonjimasen. Similarly 
Nan desti ka in a reply may mean: " I don't know what it is. " 

a An investigation made by Mr. Iric at the instance of the German psychologist 
Prof. Wundt resulted in a list of six hundred that are in common use. 


barabcw'Ct, barari (of things that scatter about, such as large 

raindrops, leaves of a torn Look, etc.\ 
betabeta, bettari (of sticky things). 
bishibishi ', gishigishi, miskimiski (of creaking timbers), 
bombon (of the faint ringing of a bell or the striking of a 

clock bombon-dokei) . 

boroboro, borori (of ragged or crumbling things). 
buruburu (of trembling or shuddering). 
butsiibutsu, butsuributsuri (of bubbling or grumbling). 
chibichibi a little at a time but often, in driblets. 
chirinchirin (of the ringing of a small bell). 
chokochoko (of short intervals or quick steps). Fbaby). 

chwoclioro (of the flowing of a brook or the toddling of a 
daradara, darari sluggishly, languidly, in a slovenly way. 
dondon in rapid succession, in great quantity (or of the 

sound of a drum). 

gasagasa (of a rustling sound, as of paper). 
gatagata, gatari (of a rattling, slamming or banging noise). 
geragera, getageta (of laughter). 
gogo, gugu (of snoring). 
gongon (of the sound of a large temple bell). 
gorogoro, gorori (of a rumbling noise, as of thunder) . 
gotagota (of disorder). 
guruguru round and round. 
guzuguzu (of loitering, dawdling or grumbling). 
hyoroliyoro (of staggering) . * 
janjan (of the sound of a fire-bell). 

kankan (of the sound of a bell beaten with a little hammer). 
mechamecha (of confusion). 
niyaniya (of a grin). 
perapera rapidly, fluently. 
pichipichi (of a floundering fish). 

piipii (of the sound of a flute, of whining or complaining). 
pikapika, pikaripikari (of shining, glittering, or flashing). 
pimpin in a vigorous or lively manner. 
pokaripokari (of tobacco smoke or of mild heat). 
potsupotsu, potsuripotsuri here and there, leisurely. 
pumpun (of an odor or of sullen anger). 


sawasau'a (of the murmuring of the wind). 
sesse energetically. sassa hastily. 
shikajika so and so, and so on. a 
sorosoro, sorori slowly, softly, gradually. 
sutasuta (of fast, walking). 
tcratcra, tckatcka = pik<tj>fk<i. 
tsurutsuru, tsururitsururi (of slippery things). 
icaiwai (of people in a tumult). 

zarazara, zarari (of things rough to the touch), [passing). 
zawazaiva (of a chilly feeling or of the noise made by people 
zunzun rapidly, readily. 

Some duplicatives are formed by doubling 13 ordinary words 
or their stems : 

hibi (ni), hibihibi, nichinichi = r/tainichi every day. 

hitotsubitotsu, ichiichi one by one, every one. 

iroiro (ni or to}, sliuju in various ways. 

nakanaka (ni} contrary to expectation, very, hardly or by no 

means (with negatives). 
oriori, tokidoki ut times, now and then. 
tulntiilri. shibnsJu'ba at times, often. 
chikajika (ni) in the near future, soon. 
harubaru (to) from a distance (Jiaruka na far). 
noronoro (to) sluggishly, slowly. 
shibushibu (to) with reluctance. 
kac-sugaesu (mo) repeatedly, exceedingly. 
masumasu increasingly, more and more, gradually. 
nak u nak u tearful ] y . 
kanegane formerly. 

kasanegasane repeatedly, over and over. 
kawarigawari (ni) alternately, by turns. 
kuregure (mo) repeatedly, again and again. 
oioi (ni or to) gradually. [etrate). 

shimijimi (to) penetratingly, thoroughly, (from shimiru pen- 

a Used, like the Chinese unun (pronounced tnnnni), instead of repeating all 
the words of a quotation. 

b Doubling for the sake of emphasis is very common in Japanese (compare the 
English " very, very"): Mninichi wainichi kiniasu. He comes day after day. At 
the beginning of a tale one may hear: Mnkashi mttkashi (zutto\ o-mttkashi Many, 
many years ago, in very ancient times. Compare also p. 926. 




shinobishinobi stealthily, (from shinobu conceal one's self). 

yokuyoku very carefully, exceedingly. 

iyoiyo increasingly, after all, certainly (from the classical 

iya more and more). 
tamatama rarely, unexpectedly. 
betsubetsu (ni) separately. 
dandan (ni or to) gradually (from dan step). 
konkon (to) carefully, in a kindly or friendly manner. 
noinen, saisai (ni) yearly. 
sanzan (ni) recklessly, harshly, severely. 
shosho a little. 
shidaishidai (ni) gradually. 

(Include the new adverbs). 
oke tub, (wooden) bucket. 
sasa bamboo grass. 
soko bottom (p. 236d). 
yoko side, transverse or hori- 
zontal direction (opp. tote}, 
lia-ori [Japanese] coat. 
ko-ashi little steps. 

katte 1 -i -j. \ 

7.77 > kitchen. 
daidokoro j 

an-satsu assassination. 

do-jin native, aborigine. 

fii-bun rumor. 

gi-kwai deliberative assem- 
bly, congress, parliament, 

jin-shu race (ethnological). 

jun-rei pilgrimage, pilgrim 
(properly junrei-sha). 

roku-bu pilgrim. 

kei-yo figure, metaphor (p. 

kek-kon marriage. 

setsu-yu instruction, advice, 

tai-riku continent. 
tan-tei secret investigation, 

detective (properly tantei- 


yu-nyu imports. 
yu-shutsu (often proncd. yu- 

shitsu) exports. 
ki-mi ga yoi = kokoromochi 

ga yoi (p. 138). 
areru be rough, be desolate 

(of land), be refractory. 
furueru shake, tremble. 
kasaneru pile one on top of 

another (intr. kasanaru). 
Icoru freeze. a 
migaku polish. 
sutaru be discarded (tr. sute- 


a The subordinative of kom is properly Kotte, but it is often shortened to kottf. 
Comp. horn, hotte, p. 228, Voc, 


ku stumble, stagger. -ihiki wo kokn snore. 

ato wo tsukeru follow in an-,-e-:.<i nm ni. tnu::iikcd<nn<i 

other's track. ni continuously, one after 

tabako in>fnl:<ixn smoke to- another. 

baeco. yoppite (yo Jiito yo} the whole 

hitori-goto wo iu talk to one's night. 



Anohito waansatsu saremash'ta ka. Sdiufubundesuga, ma- 
da hakktri wakarimasen (iyoiyo so a to wa iemasen). Amerika 
no dojin nokazu wa dandan (ni) hette kimas'. Ko iu (kon- 
na) kudaranai fuzoku iva oioi s'tatte kite mo yo gozaimas'. 
Iroiro o seiva sama ni narimash'te makoto ni arigato gozaimas'. 
Ano ok'san ica cJiokochoko konx/ti tie arukimas'. Ano knJtt 
iva o shiroi wo betabeta (thick) ts'kete imash'ta. Ando san 
lua yoku o taku ye internets' ka. Moto wa shibash&ba kimash'- 
ta ga, kono sets' iva sappari kotiak// noriiiiasli'ta ; do sh'tc in' k<t 
shira. Shimbun-haitatsu ga chirtiirlti'r/'ii to kane wo naraah'tc 
Rokubu wa l-anlcuu f<> kanc im fatciifc crmkimas'. 
samukunattekite, domokomarimas'. CMkajika ni 
()u(no]tetsudo ga ^ dckite shimaimasJto. Hiraganagc zunzun 
(to) yomeru km-ai (f/nrai") ni natlara, c kntiji u'o narai na*rn 
ga yd gozaimasho. Oke no naka no sctkana ga picLip/'cJ/i 1m- 
nemas'. Kono ni san nidi! ira. cl ///<////" atntakc ni narimash'ta . 
Hiniclii ga zunzun tachimas'. Kono yoko wo knruma <j </- 
ragara tr>rn e kura, i/nl.-m/inx/i'kt'fc hcukijn </n tlck/i/mxcx. fi'fa- 
s'ta aruite Jit no ktin'm/i >/<///' /// t/H</<>t/<t ///' f.Skitiin*}/'f<t. Ta- 

a. For so da; iua following a dependent clause with to puts the whole statement 
in antithesis to other possible statements, and so emphasizes its significance : that it 
is so one can not say with certainty. 

b The word o (interior same character as oku in okit san) designates the eastern 
part of the northern end of the main island, whilo // is the initial of the names of 
the corresponding western provinces, l'/.tn and I'gc, fomierly called l)c\\a. < iu is 
also called To-hokn (east-north), as it lies north-cast of the bulk of the island. 

c Translate kurai ni nattar<i wlu n y< >u gi-t -> > ] iroficient that . C'ompare the 
use of /lotto in: Kuraknte asJiimolo ga i/ii,-n,>i In Jo t/t-su (p. loi, 2). 

d Translate: the last two or three days. K< /< ;;/ .<,;/ r.if),i the rcxt two or ll.uc 

5 Yoko wo torn pass along the side (of the house). 


bako wo pokaripokari tofukash'te iru to iu no wa hima de tai- 
kutstt, sh'te sh'kata ga nai kara, tsuzultezama ni tabako wo no- 
mu t/os' wo keiyo sh'te in no des'. Sakana ga pimpin hanete 
ryori ga shinikui. Nikon no yushutsu iva nennen fuete kite yu- 
nyii yori mo oku narimash'ta. Tonari de amado wo garagara 
shimete imas'. Take ni kaze ga sawasawa fuite imas'. Soto 
ye deru to karada ga zawazawa suru kara, liaori wo kasanete 
dekakemasho. Ano oki na tokei wa bombon narimas'. Han- 
slid iva janjan, tera no kane wa gongon narimas'. Yiibe tonari 
de Into ga gogo (giigu) ibiki wo kaku kara, yoppite nerarena- 
katta. Ano liito iva nandaka butsubutsu hitorigoto ico itte 
imas'. Okame wa a nlkoniko sh'ta kao wo sh'te imas'. Ano 
hito wa niyaniya ivaratte bakari itc nandaka kokoro no soko 
no ivakaranai hito da. Kaminari wa narazu ni inabikari 
bakari pikapika shimas'. Eta wa ^Shina kara kita mon des' 
ka. lyoiyo so to iva ivakarimasen ga, so ka mo shiremasen. 
Gejo ga guzuguzu sh'te iru kara, yoru osoku naru made dai- 
dokoro ga katazukimasen. Kono hon wa nakanaka ats'kute 
ikura sassa to yonde mo yoi ni o sliimai ni nar-imasen. Sassa 
to sh'te shimae. Nilion no tegami no bun iva mutsukasJikute 
nakanaka oboeraremasen. Inu iva bydki de guruguru ma- 
watte imas'. Nilion no naikaku wa ima gotagota sh'te imas'. 
Kaminari ga garagara natte kimash'ta. c Uchi no inu wa 
kino made nete bakari -imash'taga, kyo wa pimpin sh'te imas'. 
Tegami no kakidashi (beginning) ni wa yoku masumasu go 
kigen yolcu d shikajika to in kotoba ga hairimas'. Karada ga 
daradara sh'te hatarakenai. Potsupotsu aruite itte mo yugata 
ni iva ie ni kaeremasho. Teishaba no mae ni ozei hito ga 
atsumatte waiwai sawaide orimasu ga, nani ka mezurashii. 

a The smiling face of Okame (alias Otafuktf) is familiar to all who have seen 
Japanese men (masks), her characteristic features being a flat nose, small eyes and 
projecting forehead and cheeks. She is supposed to be the same as Uzume, the 
goddess of joy and wantonness, who, according to the received mythology, danced 
so merrily before the cave in which the sun-goddess had hid herself that the latter 
was induced to open the door and look cut. She is represented as perpetually 

b The Eta were formerly the lowest class of people. One of their trades was 
th<i slaughtering and flaying of cattle. 

c Of thunder near by. The sound of distant thunder is represented by gcrogerp, 

d I hope you are quite well (lit. increasingly well). 


koto dr i/~t<~> ni-iiiti'i..^ I'n. Kmra ga sarasara nagarcte iru. 
//'/'//i'V/0 ga sesse to kascide orimas*. Ano kichiffdi ica <jeta~ 
{l<'ta (geragera) waratte bakari ite nciit>!k" ki/in ga wand. 
F////!> hi it'iru to, orai no i/uki ga kvttv ts'trntfu'ru snbette arn- 
k/'itikui. Tartfei g& shinobishtnobi dorobo no ato wo ts'kete 
ikimash'ta. Gon'ske ga yoku migaite kweta no dc kuts* ?'" 
teratera slt?tc huas\ Ai/irr/k" >lc ira kckkon no toki ni kome 
ioo barabara nagets'keru sliukwan ga gozaimas'. Hon ga ba- 
rabara ni natte tsiizuki ga ivakarimasen. Mesld ga boroboro 
sJi'te kuenai.* Te ga arete (chapped) zarazara sliimas*. 
Dondon kane wo ttfkaimas 1 . Samugatte buruburu furuete 
imas'. Kore ni wa iroiro wake ga am. Soto wa zawazaica 
suru ga, nanigoto ka okita de nai ka. Shimijimi iya ni nari- 

In this region (wa) vehicles are rattling (pass noisily) all the 
time; consequently it is so noisy that last night I couldn't sleep 
all night. He smokes tobacco from morning to night. The 
population of Japan increases yearly. When the cherry lilor- 
soms bloom every one is lazy (all idling do not work). Thun- 
der is rolling in the distance (tokti de\ A drunkard stagger- 
ing about stumbled against a stone and finally fell over. That 
old gentleman is still hale (tassJia <fe} and vigorous. Did the 
Japanese race in ancient times come across (crossing come) from 
the continent? There is (also) such an opinion; but we don't 
know certainly whether it is so or not (so ka do ka}. You 
won't catch the train if you dawdle (are dawdling) like that. 
If you don't hurry (hastily doing finish), the day will be gone 
(hi '/" k<rreru\ Chinese characters are so difficult that [I] 
will hardly (nakandka) be able to learn [them]. To-day, as 
the weather is fine, we will saunter through (idly walk the re- 
gion of) Shiba.j The French parliament is now and then 
quarrelsome (kenkica H::<> <j offc) and disorderly. It has 
begun to rain (p. 231. 4 s . L:i<t night after one o'clock it 
snowed more and more heavily (hidukit'). 1 was startled (</yotto 
sum) as a. li"ir came with a rustling sound out of a thielu-t 

a The Japanese do not like rice unless it is cooked just enough to make it stick 
together, but no more. 


of bamboo grass (sasayabu) . The brook flows with a mur- 
muring sound. When there is any little thing (nani ka s'ko- 
sld de mo) that displeases him, he is sullen and, though you 
speak [to him], does not reply. Oxen walk slowly. The sick 
one is gradually becoming weaker (yowatte kuru). A policeman 
is carefully advising [him]. He came out with reluctance. At 
(ni iva] Setsubun beans are scattered (barabara maku) all 
through the rooms (lieyagoto ni). He took leave (ivakareru) 
of (ni) his parents and went out tearfully. Lately on account 
of the snow (yuki gafuru no de) the poor are in distress and 
are complaining. Hoping (thinking) to reach the deathbed (sAz'- 
nime ni au) of my father, I came from far Formosa ( a long 
distance from Taiwan} ; but (no ni) missed it (could not meet) 
by a day (ichi nichi no chigai de). He uses up his money in 


Many words which are translated by means of adverbs are 
really substantives used adverbially. This is true of many of the 
words which we class as ordinary adverbs (Ch. LXXVIL). 
In this chapter we shall confine our attention to certain words 
denoting place, time, degree, etc., which are still in use as sub- 
stantives proper. 

Such are koko, soko, asoko (asuko), doko, dokka, soko koko, 
kochira, sochira, achira, dochira, achi kochi or achira kochira 
(to), konata here, kanata there, etc. a They take particles and 
postpositions just like nouns : 

Doko ga o ito gozaitnasu ka. 

Where have you pain (Which place is painful) ? 

Doko ivo sagasliimasliita ka. Where have you searched? 

Doko desliita ka. Where was it? 

a Konata is used politely in speaking of a host's house: Konata sama de tva mi- 
na sama go jobu de kekko de gozai/nasti. I am very glad all are well at your house. 
It is also used as a personal pronoun of the first person. Go busata wo itashite 
orimashita. fie, kona-ta kara koso shitsurei bakari itashite orimasu. I have been 
quite remiss. No, it is I who am always rude. Compare anftfa, sonata, donata^ 
pp. 28, 42, 



To the Bame category belong such substantives as mac. 
or omotc front, ura or ushiro hack, naka or vein inside, soto 
outside, ne above, xhita below, nuilid the place opposite or yon- 
der, Jioka another place, a etc., which nrve al.'-o in lieu of 
postpositions and will be treated under that head. As has 
been explained (p. 20a), words of this kind take the particle 
ni to indicate the place where a thing or person exists and de 
to indicate the scene of an event or a certain condition of things. 
This rule applies likewise to such words as empo a distant place, 
atari, or lien (kono hen. sono lien, etc.), orkimpen vicinity, etc. 
But we must keep in mind other uses of ni and de. The for- 
mer may also have the sense of "to" and indicate an indirect 
object, while the latter often performs the same function as 
the subordi native of the verb. b Compare: 

Koko ni orimasu. I am here. 

Koko ni okimasu. I shall (will) put it here. 

Koko de yasumimaslw. I shall (will) rest here. 

Koko de yom.^ni. This place will do. 

AYords denoting time when used as adverbs commonly take 
no particles. But when a contrast is implied, or when the 
corresponding adverb in the English sentence takes the first or 
emphatic position, va is required (p. 23c). A word denoting 
time in an uncmphatic position, in the few cases when a par- 
ticle is used, takes ni: inm ni, mae ni, nodi! ni. u*<i ni. fmn ni, 
etc. There are some apparent exceptions. Thus //// de tea, 
konniclii dc u'ci, etc.. arc equivalent to into ni imtl< va. etc. 
The expression ato de, in contrast with nodi ni, originally 
denoted position. Also compare: 

Atode ohanasJti mosJiimashd. I will speak to you afterwards. 

Kore wo ato ni f--lii(u J'> </<> /:'. It is better to pui-tpmr this. 

Any of those \v.)rd- m.iy by HUMPS <>l the particle no be made 

a This hoka may mean not only "elsewhere," but also "besides." Note also 
omoi-no-hoka (ni) iiH-gii'ai (c) beyond expectation, and kcto-no-hoka (;//) ex- 
ceedingly, from the koto in / > ially. 

b There are a few adv</il.> foiiiuil by iHjans of this tfe, but they aie hardly nu- 
merous enough to make a separate chapter; e. g., ato </e afterwards, m,iru dc en- 
tirtly, uttHii de allege! her, tnda de gratis, //;'/< ;-/</<? aim < (!:i I ] <. .--eiise of ".jdn- 
taneously" ni may be added), kaehi de ufojt, khashiburi dc after a long interval, 
jibun Je by cue's self, tochn de en route, 


an adjective (p. 119): miiko no otera yonder temple; ima no 
seito the present political parties, yube no kwaji last night's fUe, 
The principal adverbs of time are (comp. p. 66a): 

konnen, kotoshi, tonen this year. 

sakunen, kyonen last year. 

issakunen, ototoshi. (otodoshi) year before last. 

issakusakunen, sakiototoshi two years before last year. 

myonen. rainen next year. 

myogonen, sarainen year after next. 

kongetsu, kono tsuki this month. 

sengctsu, atogetsu, mae no tsuki last month. 

sensengetsu month before last. 

raigetsu next month. 

saraigetsu month after next. 

konshil, kono shu this week. 

senshu last week, raislm next week. 

konnichi, kyo to-day. 

sakufitsu, kind yesterday. 

issakujitsu, ototoi day before yesterday. 3 

issakusakujitsu, sakiototoi two days before yesterday. 

myonichi, asn, asliita to-morrow. 

myogonichi, asatte day after to-morrow. 

yanoasatte, shiasatte two days after to-morrow. 

aru hi (no koto] on a certain day, one day. 

yokujitsu (ni] } akuru hi (ni) the following day. 

asa (iii) in the morning (asa Imyaku early in the morning). 

koncho } kesa this morning. 

kesahodo, kesagata this morning (used later in the day). 

sakucho, kino no asa yesterday morning. [i n o' 

myocho, myoasa, asu no asa, ashita no asa to-morrow morn- 

ban (ni), banhodo, barfcala (bangata), bankei, yukata (yu- 
gata\, yukoku in the evening (p. 232d). 

sdkuban, sakuya, yube last evening. 

komban, konya, konseki this evening 

a Ototoi or otolsui is derived from ochi, yonder, far, tsu, and hi. This tsu is aa 
old genitive particle. It appears also in ouozukara or mizukara, classical forji&wn 
(fe. With ototoi compare ototoshi, from ochi and toshi. 


i. iiii/oy>i,ax>r //<> hmt. <i*liit<i no ban to-morrow evening. 

lil,-)i by day. yarn by night. 

ima (ni) now. a imagwo (nij about this time. 

tadaima now, just no\v (past), presently ( future). k 

imcK/tif". !/>i"x/< t'</(i fa. a moment ago. 

sakki, sakihodo, fi<>nkokti- a short while ago (less than a day). 

Jcono sef.i( in days. 

8(tkkon nowadays (lit. yesterday and to-day). 

Iconohodo, konoaida (konaida) lately, recently. c 

senjitsu, sakigoro a few days ago, the other clay. 

ki imen in recent years (kinchtkai). 

moto originally, formerly. 

mukashi in ancient times. 

haj'ime (ni) at the beginning, at the first. 

saisho (ni) at the very first. 

nocJiihodo, nochigata after a little while (within the day). 

kondo next time (also: this time). 

chikai uclii (ni) within a short time, soon. 

kinjitsu within a few days (kin=chtkai). 

nochinochi after some time, after a long time. 

sJiorai in the future. 

itsu, itsugoro when, about when? 

Attention may well be called once more to Jcurai, bul-or/', 
dake, liodo (pp. 22b, 36, 43, 48b), words which generally per- 
form the functions of true adverbs, taking no particles, but 
sometimes are treated just like nouns. \Y<rds like mina, ozei, 
etc. (Ch. XVIII.), are used both as adverbs and occasionally 
as substantives. So also: 

Itntji all tilings, or, in every respect. 

dditai the principal part, or, in the main. 

tasho many or few, much or little, quantity, or, more or less. 

taigai, t<iitd generality , or, for the most part, almost. 

a Practically, of course, such a word as "now" must refer either to the immedi- 
ate future or to the immediate past. Ima may also be used like mo in the sense 
of "more" : ima ippai one cup more. For imagoro note: itsu tie mo imagoro al - 
ways alxjut this time. 

1) '] 'minima differs from tatta ima in that the latter can refer only to the past. 

c Ckikagoro and konogorj may bs used either of an event in the recent past, like 
or, like kiniai,Ql a state of things continuing to the present. 




Taigai (taitei) ni shite dke. Don't take too much pains. 

To the same category belong the suffix chu or ju (p. 137a), 
as in karadaju the whole body, and ichido (lit. one and the 
same), as in Icy din seito ichido the teachers and pupils as a 
body, the whole school. Such compound expressions may be 
used adverbially, without particles, and also as substantives. 

Finally we might include the numerals, with ikutsu, ikura 
or nanihodo (vulgar nambo), etc. But the nmneratives, though 
originally substantives, never take the particles ga, 100, etc., 
and are therefore to be classed as adverbs. 


(Include the new adverbs.) 
katana sword. 
nada stretch of rough sea. 
sakai boundary, frontier. 
kake-ji = kake-mono. 
Jiarasu clear off, dispel (intr. 

hareru ) . 

mi-harashi an extensive view. 
kataru speak, tell. 
mono-gatari tale. 
oka hill, land. 
ho ear (of grain). 
oka-bo upland rice. 

yaki-ba crematory. 

_ [-public bath. 
sen-to ) 

6u, su (c) number. a 

chi-sho\ .. . i i , f 
.. , / = n-men land, lot ot 
n-sno > J 

7 . \ ground. 
to-chi ) 

hap-pu promulgation. 

hot-tan beginning. 

hyd-ban rumor ( no hyoban 
wo suru\ reputation, pop- 

kem-po the constitution. 

slii-nin dead person. 

to-ji medical treatment at a 
hot spring (to = yu), tak- 
ing the baths. 

gam-pi-shi Japanese paper of 
very fine quality. 

ko-ban-sho police substation 
(p. 94f). 

gyo-sei-kwan administrative 

sai-ban-ktvan judge. l) 

tabako-bon tobacco tray (con- 
taining a small hibachi, 
liaifiiki, etc.). 

ki-myo na strange, wonderful . 

a This is a very common word : su-gakti mathematics, dai-su algebra (dai sub- 
stitution), tan-su singular number, fufat-su plural number, ri-sn number of ', su- 
hyaku several hundred, su-ka-getsu several months. 

b The term shi-Jw-kwan (administer-law-official) includes both han-ji judges 
and ken-ji public prosecutors. 


hakaru calculate, estimate, kachi de iku go afoot. 

weigh, consider. nikki ir<> kuru leaf a diary. 

motomeru desire, search for, massugu (ni) straight. 

purchase. subete ia general, all. 


Kdko wa Qkubo san no korosarcta tokoro des\ Saku.jitsu o 
motome nasatta kakeji tea soko ni o mochi de gozairnas' ka. 
Chotto soko ye itte kimas\ a 3fnkf^/ti koko yc -a in in no kid>i 
wo sarashi'mash'ta. As'ko ni tomyodai ga dekimash'ta kara, 
mo kono nada de hasen ica arimas'mai. Doko ga o ito gozai- 
mas' ka. Doko to mo iemasen ga, karadaju (ga} ito gozaimas'.^ 
Myonichiiva yo ga aketara, sugu ni okosh'te o kure. Dare ka 
tdbakobon wo motte koi. Hai, tadaima. Konokimpen ni ku- 
bansho ga arimasen ka. Koko kara massugu ni san cho Jiodo 
iku to, (kobansho ga) arimas'. Kono gampisJii ica doko de o 
leai ni narimash'ta ka. Soko no kamiya de kaimash'ta. Ha- 
kone c nado ni iva moto sekisho ga atte tegdta ga nakcreba to- 
raremasen desh'ta. Dokka kono hen de ippai ijornkafihima- 
sho ; doko ga ii ka shira. d J///^//v/./// ga yd gozaimas' kara, 
Uwoju ye mairimasho. Jdyaku-kaisei zen de mo seifu ni ya- 
towareta gwaikokv.jin ica Nihonkdkuju doko ye de mo sinmi 
koto ga dekimash'ta. Kome wa doko ni dc mo ts'kuru to in 
ivake ni wa ikanai. Mizu wo htkeitoi toehi ni n-n ukabo no 
hoka iva ts'kurenai. e Chotto soko ye iku ?i' des' kara, ramp' 
wa kesazu ni okimasho. Kore kara saki ica saka ga oi kcra, 
kuruma kara orite aruite muirinnislw. Kok<> inr >nmi irn 
kaes 1 tokoro des" kara, oi'ite arvkanakereba itnr'ui-mm n. Si-ntd 
(yuya) wa doko ni de mo arimas'. Koko de iva jama ni nari- 
mas' kara, hibachi wo sochira ni yare. Muko ni kemuri no 

a Translate: I am going out for a little while. Soko ye is used indefinitely; for 
itte kimasu see p. 231. 

b Doko to nio iemasen. I can't say where. Compare : Nan to mo iemasen, I 
can't say. It may be. I don't know. 

c The well known pass on the Tbkaido. 

d Yarakasu is a vulgar equivalent ofvaru or sttnt; ippai yarakasn take a drink. 
Uwoju is the name of a restaurant in Mnkojima. 

e Okabo no hoka wa anything (any kind of rice) except upland rice. For the 
particle ni in these two sentences compare pp. 560, 59!!. 


deru tokoro ga arimasu ga, (are wa) nan des' ka. As'lco wa 
shininno yakiba (kivasdla) des'. Konnichi Jiajimetewakari- 
ntafth'ta. Lna kitchiri roku ji des' ka. Mada karekore jip- 
pun hodo mae deshd. Onna wa yoru soto ye deru mono de wa 
nai. Kind nikki ivo kutte mitara, konna warui tenki ga mo 
tdka bakari tsuzukimas'. Sassoku desu ga, a konnichi wa shd- 
shd o negai mdsh'tai koto ga atte mairimash'ta. Danna wa 
itsu (de) mo o rusu no yd desu ga, do sh'ta mon' deshd. lie, 
shiju rusu to iu ivake de wa gozaimasen ; bankata rokuji go ni 
irasshareba itsu moouchides'. Sensei, Godaigo tenno ga^> 
Oki ye shimanagashi ni seraremash'ta no wa itsugoro des' ka 
(itsugoro no koto des' ka). Sayd, karekoi*e gohyaku shichiju 
nen hodo mae no koto des\ Chikagoro ito wo, fkeiki des'. 
Monogatari no hottan ni wa yoku "ima wa mukasld" to kaite 
arimas'. Moto wa gyoseikwan ga saibankioan wo kanete ita 
ga, ima de wa betsubetsu ni narimash'ta. Sore iva dare ga 
saisJio ni iidash'ta koto des' ka. Konogoro iva mata joyaku- 
kaisei no liydban ga gozaimas'. Imasliigata kaminari ga nat- 
ta ja nai ka. Ima Ueno no kane wo utta yd desu ga, uclii wa 
sliimasen desli'ta ka; nan' ji no kane deslid. Tadaima niji 
wo uchimash'ta. Ni ju ni nen no haru kempd ga liappu ni 
narimasli'ta. Waslii hodo hayaku tobu tori iva nai. Kono 
chisho tea shdrai hijd ni takaku narimashd. Chikagoro wa 
kotonohoka o samu gozaimas'. Daitai delcimash'ta. 

This (koko wa) is Japan Bridge; distances in every direction 
(hdbd ye no risu) are all calculated from this bridge (they cal- 
culate making this bridge the origin). To (made wa) that 
place we can ride (go by horse). but beyond (kara iva) that we 
must dismount and go afoot. Last year (wa) I stopped here, 
but will not stop this time (wa), because the rooms were dirty. 
Where are you going this vacation (ni wa) ? I should like to 
go somewhere among the mountains (yama ye de mo). I lost 
my notebook somewhere (ye) ; no matter where I search I can- 

a By using this expression one makes an apology for proffering a request without 
the usual ceremonious preliminaries. 

b The Emperor Go-daigo, "the later Daigo" (go = nochi) reigned 1319 1338. 
Having made an unsuccessful altempt to wrest the supreme power from the H6J6 
family, he was banished to the island of Oki in the Sea of Japan. 


not find it (mtts'karimasen*). Tliis sea (1) is riot always (2) 
[so] calm as (4) [it is] to-day (3). The cold in (of) Hokkai- 
do is almost the same as [that of] Germany. In Japan there are 
agood many mountains that are as high as (Jyama. In the whole 
world there are no [other] mountains as high as the Himalayas. 
Last night it was very hot, so that I could not sleep well. To-day 
swords are often sold to Europeans, they are no longer 
needed (have become useless). What time is it now ? It is 
probably about ten o'clock. '' , Go to the neighbor's and inquire 
if the master is at home. I just now caught Right of (inikn- 
keru) him going out in (cZe) a riksha. This year the heat 
seems (yd des') to continue long. I feel queer (a strange feel- 
ing does) to-day for some reason or other (nandaka\ At the 
beginning I could] not~*sifc [in the Japanese way], but after- 
wards (iva} I gradually became accustomed [to it]. Every 
year when summer conies (it becomes summer) he goes for (ni) 
treatment to hot springs (of) here and there. Lately many 
missionaries were invited to the American Legation and enter- 
tained. Outside it looks unattractive (kitanai). but inside it 
is very fine. 


The subordinatives of certain verbs must be rendered by 
means of English adverbs ; e. g., kasanete iu say repeatedly, 
keiyo shite iu speak metaphorically, etc. The following words 
have became practically adverbs. A few of them, which we may 
designate as formal, are heard not so much in common conver- 
sation as in speeches : 

aete daringly (formal). 

aratamete again, anew. 

hajimete for the first time. 

hatashite after all, really, as was expected. a 

itatte exceedingly, very. 

kaette on the contrary, rather. 

a As is not infrequently the case, the native \vurd has become formal, in tin- .M.-MM- 
of " as was expected, " while an no gotoku generally takes its place in the colloquial, 


kanete previously. 

kiwamete extremely (formal).* 

Jcozotte all (formal). 

masliite how much more. 

narashite on an average, from narasu level (p. 201a). 

otte afterwards, by and by, from ou chase. 

sadamete in all probability, doubtless (with probable form). 

semete at least. 

sliiite compnlsorily, perforce, importunately. 

subtle in general, all. 

tatte urgently, importunately. 

wakete, tori-ivake especially. 

mae-motte = mae ni previously, before. b 

omoi-kitte decisively, resignedly (p. 292, 11). 

ori-itte persistently, earnestly. 

oshi-nabete (classical nabete) in general, on an average. 

"besshite especially, for betsu ni shite. 

kesshite (p. 214 a)positively, never (with negatives). 
Compare do shite how, how is it that, why (p. 21 2b), do 
shite mo by no means (with negatives), so shite then, so, and 
(p. 212, 3), told to shite at times. c 

The etymology of these words in all cases where it is practi- 
cally helpful will readily be guessed by the student. But it 
should be noted that the following verbs are obsolete, in the 
colloquial: aeru dare, kozoru assemble, suberu bring together, 
govern, and naberu or nameru = naraberu put in a row. 

Both hajimete and subete are used with no as adjectives: 
hajimete no koto the first instance, subete no mono all things. 
Note also motte-no-hoka = omoi-no-hoka or koto-no-hoka very 
(always used in a bad sense). 

The following are derived from negative subordinatives: 

a The verb khuamem to determine, or to carry to an extreme, is best translated 
by means of the adverb " extremely " : ogori (or zei-takif) ivo krwameru to be ex- 
tremely luxurious. 

b The adverb asatte day after to-morrow is derived from asuand satle, from saru 
leave ; sendattc, from sen and tatte, from tatsti pass, elapse. 

c The expression yaya-mo-sureba (or y ay a mo sum to , "quite often," derived from 
yaya gradually, considerably, is also practically an adverb, though it is usually to 
be rendered " is apt to," like tokaku. 


Jiakarazu (mo] unexpectedly, 

ndkorazu all. 

oboezu unconsciously. 

omowazu unintentionally. 

tarazu closely, nearly. 

kanarazu assuredly, certainly, without fail, necessarily. 

tokarazu in the near future, soon. 

mukd-mizit ni blindly, recklessly. 

yamu-WG-ezit , yamnoczu unavoidably (p. 259V. 

ai-kaicarazu as always. 

tori-'aezu immediately, in haste. 

tort-mo-naosazu namely, in other words, the same thing as. 

shirazii-sliirazu unawares. 


ie-gara lineage (p. 21 7a). to-kirai city, metropolis; 

Ice-mono hairy quadruped, yn-reki traveling for pleasure. 

beast. a shu-gi-in the Lower House, 

yuki-Jokc thawing of snow. House of Representatives 

moto-kin 1 capital, (p. 305a). 

gican-ldn ] principal. tei-shutsu-an=gi-an bill (p. 

ko. ko-ko (the second ko = o- 303a). 

konai) filial piety. mottomo na reasonable. 

fu-lo father and mother. ki-innr.trkr(shii ill-humored. 

fu-shin inaliility to coui])re- iij a <j<trit dislike. 

bend, doubt, suspicion. osamari ya txuku be settled. 

kd-zui flood. gudaguda ni you get dead 

ris-shin ~) rise in the world, drunk. 

shus-se j promotion. t,,i-za-i sum Fojcurn, stay. 

sliin-tai body. rokuroku fully, sufficiently 

shu-sho lamentation, mourn- (with negatives). 

ing. toki ni now (at the beginning 

sui-gai damage by floods. o f a sentence). 

a The term Jkedamono, from ke-tsn-mono (fsit genitive particle), exactly corres- 
ponds to the English "beast" and is almost obsolete, being used only in vulgar 
curses, while kemono, which originally denoted "domestic cattle," has been ex- 
panded so as to include all hairy beasts. 



Tembun nenkan ni hajimete Seiydjin ga Nikon ye kimash'- 
ta. a Kanete o namae wa uketamawatte imash'ta. b Amari 
teinei ni iisugiru to, kaette shitsurei ni atarimas'. Do sh'te 
mo Nihon no lion ga yomeru yd ni iva narimas'mai. Kessh'te 
sonna koto iva sum na. Do sh'te mo zenkwai iva itashimas'- 
mai. Anata hajimete Sciyd ye oide ni naru no nara, sazo to- 
kwai no tatemono no takaino ni o odoroki nasaru deslid (p. 132 
a). Hajimete go ran nasaru n' des kara, gofusliin wa go mot- 
tomo des' (p. 33d). Tonari de wa teishu ga shinimash'ta ka- 
ra, sadamete shushd sh'te iru koto deshd. Zaisan mo ari na 
mo aru hito des' kara, sadamete shiigiin giin ni senkyo sare- 
mashd. c Nihon no lion ga yomeru yd ni naranak' to mo, semete 
(wa} hanashi dake de mo jiyu ni& dekiru yo ni naritai mon' 
des'. Hobo (wo") yureki suru koto wa dekinak'te mo, semete 
Kyoto dake iva zehi kembutsu sh'tai mon' des'. Ano hito wa 
geko da no ni, shiite sake wo nomasemash'ta kara, gudaguda 
ni yoimash'ta. lyagaru no ni, shiite kodomo wo gakko ni yari- 
mash'ta. Nihonjin wa toriwake teinei des'. Doits' de wa haru 
ni naru to, yukidoke de yoku kozui ga arimasu ga, sakunen wa 
bessh'te suigai wo'uketa tokoro gad gozaimash'ta. Wo.takushi 
wa tomodachi to hanashi wo sh'te aruite iru uchi ni shirazu- 
shirazu tdi tokoro made ikimash'ta. Betsu ni keiko wa shima- 
sen desh'ta ga, shir azu- shir azu hanashi ga dekiru yd ni nari- 
mash'ta. Hisash'ku go busata wo itashimash'ta ; mina sama o 
kawari mo gozaimasen ka. Toki ni, tdkarazu izure ye ka (dok- 
ka ye) go shuttatsu ni narimas' ka. Nihongo no keiko ivo nasa- 
ru o tsumori nara,kanarazu kanji wo oboenakerebanarimasen. 
Kemono de mo ano tori des' kara, mash'te ningen wa kodomo 
wo daiji ni shinakereba narimas'en. e Mori san wa Tse no tai- 
byd ye kutsu wo haita mama (de) agatta to iu fubun ga ari- 

a Tern-bun is the name of a nengo, 1532 1555- Nen-kan is derived from 
nen = toshi and kan -- aida; translate : during the period called Tembun. 
b An expression often heard by a person when introduced to another. 
c Shugiin giin member of the Lower House. 

A. Jiyu ni freely, unrestrictedly ; jiyu ni /tanrtsit speak readily. [sttrti. 

e Ano tori refers to a previous illustration of the idea expressed by ko ivo daiji ni 


mash'ta ga, hatash'te so dcsh't" /.'/. -i "X/n'nt'ti Jij>/>/( l;rc, ico 
fubo ni uku ; aetc sokonai-ydburazaru va k<> n<> Imjimc nan'" 
to Kokyd ni kaite <irimas'. b Yokohama ni //^//v///W//'/ 
kara, toriaezu o taztinc moshtmash'to </<>. rnt<i <ir<itamete ttl-- 
gaimasho. c Sore wa torimonaosazu ko in imi des'. Jikan 
ga nakatta mon' des' kara, y<unitu'in-\ii rokttrokn htinashi mo 
x/iindide kaette mairimash'ta. Ano hito wa told to sh'te hiju 
ni khnxzi'kd.fthii koto ga gozaimas'. Tatte toi//< /// ,,/ntto dcs' 
knrii, txxi ijiihan no chiso ni natte kimaslita. Jzure otte go 
henji ico itasMmaslid. Anata ni oriittc o ncyai mosh'tai koto 
ga gozaimas*. Kono shinamono ica naraslite (narashi) liito- 
tsu ga ju go sen ni atarimas'. Kono sets' ica itattefukeiki de 
makoto ni komarimas'. Mukomizu ni yarikaketa no de nan to 
mo osamari no ts'keyo ga nakunari mash'ta. Kono ie wo tate- 
ru ni go sen yen tarazukakarimash'ta. Tadaima o tegami wo 
haiken itashfmash'tc torwc-.n sm/j'n itash'ta yd na icake de n- 
ni mo motte mairimasen kara, izure sono >'<!// ni unite t/nkku- 
ri o ukagai moshimasho. Sore ioa motienohoka futsugo <l<i. 

If not all (mina de naku to mo], return at least half (ham- 
bun dake de mo). If I can't (though I don't) make anything 
specially (betsu ni 1), I wish at least to recover (torikacsu} the 
principal. That wrestler is especially stout. To-day as it is 
very windy (the wind is very strong), you must be especially 
careful with the fire (hi no ydjin wo sum). This spring (p. 
317a) the cherry blossoms have bloomed especially early. It 
happened just as (tori ni itr/rii) I said (saying put) before. Is 
this your first trip abroad (in regard to your goinu' abroad is 
kondo the first time) ? About this time (inin<j<n-<> tr<() it ought 
(hazu da) to be getting warmer, but (no ni) on the contrary 

a Viscount Mori, Minister of Education, was assassinated on the I ith of February, 
1889, fr an alleged display of irreverence at the shrine of Ise. fse no tai-byo (tai 
great) is the largest and most celebrated temple of the sun-goddess. 

b The Ko-kyo (ko filial piety, kyo = oshie") is a Confucian Classic. Ilnppit is 
from hatsu hair and fu skin; kore wo is pleonastic, as often in the literary lan- 
guage ; uJtu is the conclusive form of ukeru receive ; mte is usually to be translated 
"dare to" ; the negative of sokonai-yaburu takes the attributive form before the 
particle uui; nari = dtnt. 

c There is an implied apology for not bringing a miyage. See also the last sen- 


it lias become gradually colder the last (Jzono} two or three days. 
As he is lazy he will doubtless fail in the examination. How 
is it that you have learned Japanese so quickly ? In this case 
you must certainly add (ts'keru] the word ica. As he is clever 
and of good family, he will doubtless rise in the world. I 
shall soon go to Atami, but intend to return [after] staying 
[there] three days. The pupils of this school are in general stu- 
dious (benkyo desu]. This is an extremely interesting book; 
do read it (reading see). The Government's bill (ni iua~) was 
opposed by (act.) all the representatives (ga). On the way 
(2) yesterday (1) I unexpectedly met your parents (go ryo- 
sliin sama). Mutsuld is the same thing as January. a 


There remains a comparatively small class of words used as 
adverbs which are without any inflection, particle, peculiar 
structure, or any external mark to indicate what they are. 

1. Some are derived from the Chinese. Note compounds with 
ichi "one" and mai "every": 

goku =.kiwamete (emphatic shi-goku, from sliiitaru) very. b 

dai-bu, dai-bun (lit. large part) very, rather. 

giuan-rai = moto-yori originally, in reality. 

hei-zei ordinarily, usually, habitually. 

irai hereafter, since (in the latter sense with a substantive 
or subordinative). c 

i-sai minutely, in detail. 

kin-rai lately, recently (p. 340c). 

mochi-ro-n, mu-ron (lit. without discussion) of course. 

sek-kaku with special pains, kindly (p. 193d). 

shi-ju (lit. beginning and end) constantly, always. 

sho-sen after all, by no means (with negatives). 

a Mutsiiki, from mutsiunashii friendly, sociable, is so-called because January is 
a month of social festivities. 

b Practically kiwamete is more emphatic even than shigoku. 

c In the sense of "hereafter": Anata wa irai so iu koto wo shite wa ikemasen. 
Osoreirimashita; iraiwa ki wo tsukemasu kara, dozo gokamben wo negaimasu. You 
must n't do such a thing again. I am very sorry; I will be careful hereafter 5 
please be patient with me, 


tii'lnm (lit. many part*) for the most part, probably, 

to-tei utterl) 7 , at all (with negatives). 

to-to, toto at length, finally. 

tsu-rei, tsu-jo usually, customarily. 

zan-ji (zan=8hibaraku } jt=toki) a little while. 

zen-tai (lit. whole body) constitutionally, originally, properly 
speaking, in reality (zentaini in general). 

zuibun (ni) a good deal, considerably. 

ikko (lit. one direction) entirely, at all (with negatives). 

ippai (ni) a whole , with one's whole (sei qipai with all 
one's might). 

issai, issrtsu entirely, at all. a 

isso (lit. one layer) doubly, more. b 

ittai (lit one body) =zentc>. 

mai-nen, mai-toshi yearly. 

mai-getsu, mai-tsuki monthly. 

mai-shu weekly, mai-nichi daily. 

mai-asa every morning, mai-ban every evoning. 

mat-do every time, often. 
Other adverbs are derived from stems of native verbs : 

amari, aininri too, so very, so much, from amaruhe in excess. 

kiri, girl merely, only, just, from kiru cut. c 

tsumari after all, in the end, so to speak, finally, from tsit- 
maru be straitened. 

ottsuke presently, soon, from ou chase (p. 297a). 

sashi-atari at present, from ator/f strike. 

yo-doslti the whole night through, from tosu cause to ] 
The following, of native origin, may be designated adverbs 
proper. The list should include ku (kayo ni), so (sa//<~> id], 

a Sai and setsu are variant readings of the same character. Issetsu is used only 
with negative words. 

b hso (no koto\ which means "rather," is probably a corruption of this. 

c See pp. 2323, 233d. J/<5 kore kiti mairimasen. I shall not come any more. 
Bakari or bakknri, from hakarn calculate, might be included in the same group 
with kiri. It is used not only with substantives and numerals in the sense of "about" 
but also with substantives, subordinates, etc., in [the sense of "only" and with 
preterits in the sense of "only" or "just"; e. g., asomic bakari int do nothing but 
play, sukoshi lott<i bnknri Jan have taken only a little, katttu bakari dcstt have just 
returned ([>. 2^9c). Note also the idiom bakari tie naku mo '-not only but 
also" (p. 1463). 


a a and do. From the last are derived dozo (nani-to-zo] , doka 
somehow or other, if possible, please (p. 177f), and domo. Note: 
So wa ikanai, or, So de iva ikenai. That '.von't do. That's 
the wrong way. 

dose (do shite mo], dodc (do de mo] any how, at any rate, 
after all. 

hanahada (from hanaliadashiC) very, very much. 

hotondo (from classical hotohoto*) almost, very much. 

ikaga (from ika ni ka) how? 

iku-bun-ka somewhat. 

ima-sara (sara ni in addition, again) after so long a time, no 
more (with negatives). 

izure in some way or other, at all events (p. 305b). 

ka-nari moderately, passably, fairly. 

katsute formerly, once before (formal). 

mada still, yet. b mata again. c 

mazu first of all, on the whole, well (hito-mazn once, for a 
while). [negatives ). d 

mo already, by this time, soon, now, still, no more (with 

mo-haya already, soon, no more (with negatives). 

moppara chiefly, principal!}-, specially. 

mottomo most. 

nani-bun, nambun (ni) in every way, at any rate, at all 
(with negatives), by all means, please(p. 208d). 

nao still more. nao-sara all the more. 

naze why? e 

no-mi only (sore nomi narazu=sore bakari de nakn]. 

a This a is used not only in a iu but also, rarely, with other verbs: ~a yatte ite 
wa toteino seiko shitnasiimai. If he acts like that, he will never succeed. 

b See p. I7d. Mada arimasu ka. Are there any left? Mada ichiji desu. It is 
only one o'clock. 

c Mata does not mean exactly "again" in: Sore iva mata nanigoto desu ka, 
And what is that ? 

d Mb jiki ni now at once; mo voroshiu gozainiasu that will do now; mo takzisan 
enough now; mo arimasen there are no more; mo (ma) sukoshi a little more or a 
little longer; mo (ma) hitotsu one more; mo ichi do once more; mo sukoshi de within 
an ace of, almost, soon. 

e Foreigners should be careful about using naze in direct address. It is rather 
familiar, and is never heard in polite conversation, except perhaps in naze desu ka, 
Use do s/iife instead of tiase. For naze naraba aiU iiane to iu no ni see p. 22^>, 


o-kata for the most part, probably. a 

ori-fuslii = or'tort. inl-iilulil now and then. 

oyoso about, approximately. 11 

sa-liodo (ni] so much (with negatives). 

sate so, then, well (in proceeding with a story or speech). 

sazo how you must (with probable form). 

shika, shik>/(i but, only (witli negatives). 

sukoshi a little. 

sunawachi that is, namely. 

tada, tatta only, merely. c 

to-kaku in one way or another, almost inevitably, is apt to. d 

tomokakumo, tomokaku, tonikdku at any rate. 

totemo, fortotemo kakutemo, by no means (with negatives). 

yagate soon, presently. 

yahari, yappari likewise, too, still, notwithstanding. 

yo-hodo, yoppodo a good deal, very (p.!74a). 

yoppite (yo hito yo) the whole night. 

yoyaku, yoyo finally, at la-4, with difficulty, barely. 

In the literary language many of these words, especially 
those derived from the Chinese, are used al<o as substantives. 
In the colloquial, too, many of them may be used with no. The 
student will generally be able to judge from the nature of the 
adverb whether it can be so used or not. Especially common 
are: mochiron no koto a, matter of course, sckkakit no dboshime- 
sht your kind intention. ::<mji lt <, <il<l<i for a little while, yv'yu- 
ku no koto de with great difficulty. 

2. There are particles of emphasis, koso, sae, sura and dmif. 
which can hardly l)e translated, unless by means of the word 
"even." /fosohas on the words which it immediately follows 

a The learned also say osorakuwa, which may be translated, "It is to be feared 
that." A similar classical form is negawaJntwa, which is equivalent to dczo or 

b The original classical form oyoso also occurs in the sense of "in general. 1 ' 
Oyoso may be used pleonastically with kitrai, etc. (p. 72c). 

C Tada is often used pleonastically with bakari, kiri or shika. Note also fnJa 
de gratis. Tada t/t-su. It costs nothing. 

d Tokakii occurs with especial fir<|i'i-nry in sentences that expr-- n i;ivt and is 
often hard to translate : Tokaku keno set : u ~i>a anu' >i fnrimnsu. It rains rx prcat 
deal thrse days. Tvkaku rtrstfi mono wa hnyaku sonjimasu. Cheap things soon 
wear out, 


the same effect as italics in English. It may be added to 
substantives (p. 323), adverbs (p. 314b), postpositions, 
conditionals and subordinatives : 

So yatte koso koko to iu mono da. 

To act like that is filial piety indeed. 

Nihonjin kara chokusetsu ni naratte koso honto no Nihongo 
ga oboerareru no ni, S'mis' san iva gioaikokujin ni tsuite ben- 
kyo wo shite orimasu. In spite of the fact that Japanese can be 
mastered best by learning directly from a Japanese, Mr. Smith 
is studying under a foreigner. 

Sae is usually added to substantives or stems of verbs in 
conditional or concessive clauses (p. 279a), and often occurs in 
the combination (de) sae (mo) : 

Kodomo de sae mo yoku ivakaru no ni 

Though even a child can understand 

Sura is used only with substantives, subordinatives and in 
the idiom (de) sura (mo) : 

Issen sura motanai. I have n't even a cent. 

Chanto shoko wo misete sura (mo) so de nai to iimasu. 

He denies it even though I show him the evidence. 

Naporeon de sura mo Rosliiajin no tame niyaburaremashita. 

Even Napoleon was defeated by the Russians. 
Dani is used, with substantives, in the same sense as sura. 

3. Finally we have the particle mo. It serves to modify the 
word which it follows and has the sense of (a) "also," "too," 
"on the other hand," and (b) "even." 

Kore mo yorosliii. This also will do. 

Anata mo oide ni narimasu ka. Will you go too? 

Shoyu 100 (o) shitaji to mo iimasu. 

Shoyu is also called shitaji. 

Ima mo so iu shukwan ga nokotte orimasu ka. 

Does such a custom persist even now ? 

Hitori mo orimasen. There is not even one there. 

Mono (wo) mo iioazu (ni) without saying anything at all. 

Hitotsu mo nokosazu (ni) without leaving a single one. 

a Observe the position of mo; one never hears shitaji mo to iimasu, 



In many negative expressions mo is untranslatable : 

kayiri mo nai unlimited, infinite. 

Tcawari mo nai unchanging. 

kono ue mo nai unsurpassed (of good things only). 

omoi mo yoranai unexpected. 

War uk u mo nai. That's not bad. 

Ariso mo nai lianaslii desu It's improbable (p. 276b). 
Compare adverbial expressions like ma-ino-naku (p. 315). 

Added to interrogatives mo makes them universal indeft- 
nites(Ch. XVII. ): 

itsu made mo for ever. 

doko made mo to the utmost, to the very end. 

ika ni mo indeed, very. a 

ikutsu mo, ikura mo, ikutari mo, etc., very many. 

When mo is repeated it has the sense of "both and," or, 
with a negative word, "neither nor": 

Kore mo are mo ii. Both this and that are good. 

Nomi mo ka mo takusan orimasu. 

Both fleas and mosquitoes are plentiful. 

Pen mo iriki mo arimasen. There is neither pen nor ink. 
Mo also serves as a conjunction (Ch. LXXXIL). b 

The combination de mo ( = de atte mo) or, more emphatic- 
ally, de sae mo or de sura mo, may be rendered "even." De 
mo is also used to make the sense of a word vague and may be 
rendered "such a thing as," "or something of the kind" (p. 
178b), or, with a negative word, "exactly" (p. 237a). Demo 
with interrogative pronouns makes emphatic indefinites (Ch. 
XVII). It takes the place not only of wa, ga and wo, but also 
of other particles. Like mo it may be added not only to sub- 
stantives, but also to particles and postpositions: 
de sae mo wakarwnasen. 

Even great scholars do not understand. 

a From the classical ika nidb how? Ika ni shite mo do shite mo. Ika iti mo 
meant originally "in every way.'' It is now often used as a response in conver- 
sation like the English "To be sure!" 

b Mo also enters into the idiom ka mo shirenai (p. loga), concessives like 
keredomo and to iedomo (pp. 99, 245), yori mo (p. 136), mosAi mo, etc., without 
making any perceptible addition to the sense. 


Empitsu de mo yoroshii. A lead pencil will do. 

Gakusha de mo gozaimasen. He isn't what you call a scholar. 

Giin ni naranai(narumai)mono de monai (common idiom). 

It is not impossible that he will become a representative. 

Do de mo kamaimasen. Any way will suit. 

Natsu de mo yasumi iva arimasen. 

[I] have no vacation even in summer. 

Seiyo no yoi shibai wa Kobe de mo a metta ni miraremasen. 

One can seldom see a good European play even in Kobe. 

Sore de mo hara wo tatemasen. 

He nevertheless did not get angry. 

lya de mo o de mo kamaimasen. b 

I don't care whether he likes it or not. 

j&fukojima made de mo ikitai to omoimasu. 

I should like to go at least as far as to Mukojima. 

Nan de mo is used adverbially in the sense of "at all events, " 

Nan de mo benkyo ga kanjin da. 

In any case diligence is the important thing. 

Nan de mo jibun de Tokyo ye ittarasliii. 

It seems likely that he himself has gone to Tokyo. 

The combination to mo in Nan to mo iemasen needs no fur- 
ther explanation (p. 342b). In other connections to mo ap- 
pears to be elliptical, as in Kayuku mo nan to mo nai (p. 252b), 
where to mo = nan to iu koto mo] or, So to mo (or wa} shirazu, 
where so to mo=sonna koto ga aru to iu koto mo. In replies 
to questions to mo is especially common and has the sense of 
"most assuredly": 

Kimasu to mo. He will certainly come. 

Arimasu to mo. Of course there are. 

4. Our "yes" corresponds to so da, so desu, sayo de gozaimasn 
(but see also p. 134a) ; "no," to so ja nai, sayo de iva gozai- 

a In this case not Kobe de de mo. But even this is a possible construction ; e. g., 
Nihon de wa Nichiyobi de mo kamawazu shobai wo itashimasu. Yokohama de de 
mo desu ka. In Japan people do business even on Sunday (lit. even on Sunday 
not heeding). Is that the case even in Yokohama ? De mo may be an ellipsis for 
ni de mo : Dare de mo dekimasu, for, Dare ni de mo dekimasu, 

b This o is the classical form of hai yes. 


masen, etc. One may also repeat the verb of the question: 
Wakarimashita ka. Wdkaritnasliita (or Wakarimaseri). Have 
you understood? Yes (or No). The word hai or hei alone 
usually means "yes "in the sense that the speaker is attentive 
to what is being said to him. Hai or hei and He or iya also 
precede verbs: Hai, wakarimashita. Yes, I understand. lie, 
wakarimasen. No, I don't understand. But it is a peculiari- 
ty of the Japanese that these words refer not so much to the 
objective fact as to the attitude of agreement or disagreement 
with what has just been said (p. 12a) : Kyo kimasen ka. Hai 
(or Sayo de gozaimasu). Isn't he coming to day? No (lit. 
Yes, i. e., as you say). 7te(or So de gozaimasen) would have 
to be translated Yes, he will (lit. No, i. e., you are mistaken). 
Hence such combinations as Sayo, kimasen, or, lie, kimasu. 


(Include the new adverbs.) 

chimba lameness, lame per- moku (=me eye) intersection 

son (or animal). of lines on a checker-board, 

momi red silk cloth. numerative for checkers. 

tsukue [Japanese] table set energy, force. 

(p. 96d). dam-pan conference, negoti- 
o ha-guro black dye for the ation. 

teeth. 3 dan-nen (dan=kiru, nen 
ma-go one in charge of a omoi) ceasing to think 

horse, hostler or driver. about, giving up. 

mayu eyebrows. fu-soku insufficiency, dissatis- 
mayu-ge " (ke hair). faction. 

naga-iki long life. nanifusoku ga nai is well oif. 

oshi-oki execution (ofcrimi- i-chi position, situation. 

nals). i-sho clothes. 

jo (c)=ba place (in composi- jis-sai actual conditions, 

tion). practice. b 

a In old times all married women blackened their teeth. It was a mark of 
faithfulness and respectability. The best quality oihaguro being made of iron ore 
it was also called kane. To dye the teeth is o haguro ivo tsukern. 

b Also used as an adverb in the sense " in reality." 




kin-skin circumspection, mod- 

mei-yo honor, reputation. 

on-do temperature. 

ri-kutsu reason, argumenta- 

ship-pai failure. 

shu-kivan habit, custom. 

tsu-sho commerce. 

tsu-yo being in common use, 

yo-jo taking care of the 

jo-bi-gun standing army. a 

kai-sui-yoku sea (water) bath- 

men-jo permit, license. 

ryoko-menjo =ryokoken pass- 

utoi distant, estranged, un- 

dame na useless, impossible. 

Jiayaru prevail, be in fashion. 

hayari no fashionable. 

me no chikai shortsighted. 

ni otoru be inferior to. 

kokoro-eru perceive, under- 

kamai-tsukeru pay attention 
to (with ivo) . 

oi-harau drive out. 

kou beg. 

ama-goi wo sum pray for 

Tiiiki sum favor, be partial to 
(with wo or ni). 

jo-yaku wo musubu make a 

i-sha ni kakarn consult a 

on-gi ni kanzuru feel grate- 
ful for kindness. 


Ikanimo ossharu tori de gozaimas'. Ima de mo Nihon no 
onna wa mayuge ivo otoshimas' ka. Sayo sa, icdkai onna wa 
mina tatete imas' ; mata toshiyori no uchi ni mo Seiyqfti ni 
tatete iru onna mo arimas'. b Anata wa hodo no ii koto bak- 
kari c (o seji bakkari) itte imas'. Kore wa kotogakko (p.55a) 
de bakari mochiiru tokuhon des\ Mada Nihon no cJia iva 
nonde mita koto ga arimasen kara, ori ga attara ippai 
nonde mitai mon' des\ Koban wa mo sappari tsuyo shinaku 

a From/5 = tsune ni, bi = sonaeru have in readiness and gim army. The first 
reserve \syo~bi-gun, homyo = arakajime beforehand; the second reserve, ko-bi-gun, 
from ko, a variant of go = nochi. 

b Mayuge is often pronounced maige. Mayuge wo otosu shave the eyebrows ; 
mayuge 'MO tateru let the eyebrows grow. 

c Hodo no ii koto flattery. With bakari the particle wo is rarely used : koto wo 
bakari. In the next sentence note the position of de : kotogakko bakari de means 
" it being only a college. " 


narimash'ta. Konogoro s'koshi mo ame ga furimascn kara, 
hyak'sJio ga komattc a/nagoi too shimas'. Ooka Echizen no 
kami too, * hito no kao wo mizu ni sailan shimash'ta; naze 
nareba kao wo mireba sliizen to docltirn lea (ni) hiiki sum 
Itokoro gaokoru kara des'. Itsu mo go kigen yd irasshaimash'te 
kckko de gozaimas'. Do iufii ni tenarai no keiko wo sh'tara yd 
gozaimashd. So de ica ikemasenga, konas'ttara yoroshu gozdi- 
mashd. Nikon no jdbigun wa tatta b ni ju man ni// *lt'k<i <iri- 
masen. Ano hito wa taisd kinshin sh'te sake mo nomanaide ori- 
mas' . Tadaima yonda bakari des' kara, oboete iru liazu desu ga . 
Sakuban no o kyaku wa ikutari desfi'ta ka. Mina de ju nin 
manekimash'ta ga, tatta roku nin sh'ka kimasen desh'ta. Gakn- 
mon sae areba meiyo no aru iclii ni noboremas'. Watakuslii 
no tokei wa mo yo ji ni narimas' ; shikashi chanto atte imas' 
ka do ka ivakarimasen. Sonna ni osoku ica gozaimasen; 
mada san ji han des'. Ano uma wa chimba da kara, tada 
de mo iya da. Inu de sae mo sliujin no on iva wasurenai. 
Amari kaze ga fuite iru yd de wa arimasen. taku de wa 
mina sama o katvari mo gozaimasen ka. Seiyo no suzume wa 
os' to mes' to wa keiro ga taiso chigatmasu ga, Nihon no wa 
mes' mo os' mo (or to) onajikoto des'. Ishikawa Goemon ga c 
o shioki ni naru told ni, watdkushi wa tada wazuka no kane 
ico nusunda bakari desu ga, HideyosJii wa tenkaju ivo nusu- 
mimash'ta no ni, naze watakushi baka-f xhirabete Hideyoshi 
wa shirabemasen ka to moshimash'ta. Gasshukoku d sci/u ir</ 
bakufu to nagaku dampan tvosh'ta ato de yoyaku tsushd-joydku 
wo musubimash'ta. Mago ni mo ishd (Proverb). 6 Kvlx'i n> 

a This is the name of a maclii-bugyo in Edo in the XVIII. Century, who is fa- 
mous among the Japanese for the Solomonic wisdom of his judgments. The city 
was governed by two l>tigydv:\\o possessed military and judicial as well as adminis- 
trative functions. Echizen is the name of a province on the coast of the Japan Sea; 
kami lord. Titles like Echizen no Kami, originally used only of the lord of the 
country, gradually became applicable to others. 

b Tatta is used when a quantity is regarded as very small. Compare /W<7 go 
yen satsu ichi mai shika molanai and tatla isseii s/iika motanai. 

c A notorious robber at the end of the XVI. Century. 

d Gas-shu-koku the United States, from go = awasertt, shu province and koku. 

e Clothes make the man. Compare the other proverb : Mttgi-'vara nii: 
isho-gara. Even a doll made of wheat straw [is judged according to] the quality 
of its clothes (p. 2173). 


mofude no ayamari (Proverb). 3 Oyako no aida mo zeni 
kane wa tanin da (Proverb). b Taikd sama no shinda no wa 
Keichd c san nen sunaivacki sen go hyaku kuju liaclii nen de- 
sh'ta. Yd iva ato ni sh'te mazu o agari nasai. Mo shakkin 
wa sukkari kaesh'Je shimaimash'ta kara, koi'e de anshin des'. 
Kyoto no jinkd wa oyoso san ju roku man nin gurai des'. 
Mo hitotsu meshiagare. Mo kore kiri kimasen ka. me wa 
ikaga des' ka. Arigatd, kono setsu wa daibu yd gozaimas'. 
Nihon ni mo kinnen wa kaisuiyokujd ga tak'san dekimash'ta. 
Watakushi wa go no sensei ni shichi moku okasete moratte mo 
shiju makete imash'ta ga, dandan jdzu ni natteima de wa yd- 
yaku katsu yd ni narimash'ta. d Fujisan wa Hsu mo yuki ga 
tsumotte ite shiroku miemas' ka. lie, goku ats'ku nareba hito 
tsuki gurai no aida yuki ga mienaku narimas'. Osoivatta ji 
wo orifushi kurikaesanai to, wasuremas'. Mo ryokdmenjd no 
negai wa dashimash'ta ga, mada menj'o iva sagarimasen. 
Omae koso uso-ts'ki (liar) da. Sonna koto wa onna de mo deki- 
mas' ; mash'te otoko wa naosara (no koto) e des'. Kono setsuioa 
tokaku hitogoroshi ga dkute komarimas'. Kore koso itte mina- 
kereba narimasen. Taisd honeotte ydyaku Nihon no hon ga 
sJidshd yomeru yd ni narimash'ta. Sonna ni ts'kue nikuttsuite 
o yomi nasaru to, o me ga nao chikaku narimas' yo. Sekkaku 
dekiagaru to, sugu ni koivarete shimaimash'ta. Sekkaku takai 
omocha ivo katte yatta no ni, sugu koivash'te shimaimash'ta. 
Tako ga ydyd agarimash'ta. Kono sets' iva amari yd mo 
arimasen kara, kashihon f de mo yomimaslid. Kore kara 
Nihongo bakari ts'kaimashd. Ano hito wa ko mo aru shi (ari) 

a Kobo is an abbreviation of Kobo Daishi, the great teacher Kbbo {ko = hiro- 
meru promulgate, 1w law). He was the founder of the Shin-gon ( = makoto no 
kotoba) sect and is renowned as a scholar and penman Cp. 30 i). 

b When it comes to a question of money even such a close relation as that between 
parent and child is like the relation between strangers. For zeni kane see p. 2253. 

c The name of a nengo, 1596 1615. 

d The checkerboard is go-ban; the checkers are go-ishi. The one who occupies 
(jski wo oku) the larger number of points (tne~) on the board wins. The teacher 
handicaps himself by allowing his pupil at the beginning of the game to occupy 
seven points. 

e Mashite naosara no koto desu, is a common pleonastic idiom, like tada 
bakari, mbshi nara, tatoi mo, etc. Naosara (no koto] desu is elliptical for nao- 
sara dekiru hazu desu. 

i An entertaining book borrowed from a kashi-hon-ya. 


kane mo am shi (an) nani liitotsu fusoku ga nai. Kessh'te 
so ill-arena i to wa iemascn ga, tsnrci *<~> im iimascn. JFaido 
kodomo ga agarimash'te o jama wo itashimas\ Do itashi- 
mash'te : nigiijaka de kaette yoroshu gozaimas'. Maido <> seica 
ni narimash'te osoreirimas\ Ano hito ica gwanrai karada ga 
amari jobu de nakatta ga, yojo ga yokatta mon' des' kara, 
nagaiki wo itashimash'ta. Isai torisTiirabeta ue dc (after) 
moshiagemasho. Ikura negatta tokoro ga, shosen kiite kvre- 
mai kara, dannen suru yori hdka arimas'mai, a Kono yd ni 
itte kika-sh'te mo kikanai nara, igo wa issetsu kamai-tsuken 
kara, so omoe. Otts'ke do ni ka narimasho.^ Ilculninka 
kokoroe no nai hito ni iva, ikura tokiakash'te yatte mo, naka- 
naka wakarimas'mai, Nanigoto ni yorazu c heizei chui sh'te 
oranai to, tokaku shippai shimas'. Anata no ossliaru koto ica 
mochiron rikutsu ni wa kanatte orimasu ga, jissai ni ica ntu 
gozaimas'. Zentai oya ga warni kara, kodomo ga anna tsuma- 
ranai mono ni natta no da. Sono kimono wa momi no ura ico 
ts'ketara isso rippa ni narimasho. Dose mutsukasJtii mono 
nara, isso ko yatte mitara do des\ Tori ya kemono de sura 
mo on wo ukete wa kaes' koto ico stttte oru no ni, hito to slCte 
ongi ni kanjirn kokwo no nai mono ica tori kemono ni mo otoru 
mono de wa arimas'mai ka. Go kigen yorosliu gozaimas 1 ka. 
Hai, kawatta koto mo gozaimasen. Isai shochi itafiJtimasJt'fa. 
Kodomo wa gakko kara yagate kacttc kuru jibun dcs\ Kono 
gakko no seito wa moppara Eigo ico benkyo sh'te orimas'. 

I have already forgotten [my] German entirely, since I can no 
longer associate with Germans (opportunities to associate \\itli 
Germans have become not existent). Why do Japanese women 
dye their teeth Mack? I don't know why it is, but such 
is the custom (it is such a custom). As it is cool to-day, there 
will hardly be so many mosquitoes (mosquitoes will hardly come 
out so much). The temperature (of) this morning was about 
five degrees below ( ika ) zero. I {ni ica ) have only one brother ; 

a Tokoro ga, or tokoro de, makes a clause concessive ; = ikura negatte mo. The 
idiom yori hoka nai there is no way but to is also a very common one. 
b Do ni ka ttaru will come to some (satisfactory) conclusion. 
c Translate : it doesn't matter what the business i.. 


he is ten this year (this year ten becoming brother but one 
there is\ In Japan not only adults but even (de mo or made 
mo) little girls use (ts'keru) face-powder. Even monkeys 
[sometimes] fall from trees. a Please speak (use) Japanese 
only. At last the preparations are (have been) finished. It 
was my intention to go second class, but, if you go first class, I 
(too) will likewise go with you (go issho ni itasu). By this 
time it is useless to consult a physician (though you consult a 
physician, it is useless). Formerly there was also in Japan a 
feudal system, but after the Restoration it went to pieces. As 
there is still work (yd) in the house, wait a little longer and 
go out (dete ike) to make your purchases afterwards. After 
(tatte) two years I at last became able to talk (at last it became 
that (yo ni} speaking was possible). After having the teacher 
explain two [or] three times, I at last understood. When may 
I send the messenger? Any time will do. You may go out 
now and then for recreation (asobi ni). As I drove him out 
of (from) the house, he will not come a second time (mo fta- 
tabi). That lady is always wearing fashionable clothes. Some- 
times (toki to sh'ie or toki ni yotte) I drink as much as (even) 
ten glasses of beer. Another day we will again speak of it 
(sore wa 1 ) . Usually the Japanese do not smoke tobacco while 
they are at work (hataraite iru aida wa). There are very few 
Europeans that can read Japanese books. At present I have 
no particularly good ideas (kangae). In your composition 
(iva 1) there are not so many mistakes; it is fairly well done. 
At any rate (nanibun), since the days are short, we can't do 
more than this (can do only this), though we work with all 
our might. Formerly when I was in Germany I met Bismarck. 

a This proverb is often joined to the one given above : Kobo ni mofude no ayamari. 



Words in Japanese which correspond to English prepositions 
must be called postpositions, for the reason that they follow the 
words that they govern. These particles may be divided into two 
groups : postpositions proper and quasi-postpositions. Postposi- 
tions proper immediately follow the words that they govern. 
Some are particles, like de, ni, and to, while others were origin- 
ally substantives, which, however, are no longer felt to be such. 
Quasi-postpositions are really substantives, still used as such, 
to which dependent words are joined by means of the particle 
no. There are also certain subordinatives that are used like 
English prepositions. 

Often where the English employs prepositions other construc- 
tions are required in Japanese: 

M : ::n iro alriru bathe in cold water. 

Machiwo aruku walk about the town (or walk the streets). 

Nikon wo (or Itara) tatsu start from Japan (or leave Japan). 

Soko wo ugoicjid ilc<-nai. You must n't move from that place. 

Gakko wo sotsugyo sum graduate from the school. 

Shina wo tabi sum travel through China. 

llito no koto 100 omou think of a person. 

Islia wo yobi ni yam send for a physician. 

Zaisan no nai liito a person without property. 

Shippo no mijikai neko a cat with a short tail. 
Wa often occurs where we should expect a postposition : kono ni 
sun niclii wa in the last two or three days, Tokyo atari ?ra in 
the region of Tokyo, about Tokyo, etc. 

To the postpositions proper belong de, ni, to, kara or yori, 
made and ye. These can be used with adverbs: yoru os< >kn 
made until late at night. Compare to kara for a long time, and 

a " Preposition" is zen-chi-shi; postposition, ko-chi-shi\ zen -- nine, to --go = no- 
chi, chi-~ oku. 

LXXYIII] De, ni, to. 363 

to ni a long time ago, from toku. Sometimes ni is added to 
another postposition, as in made ni (see the following Chapter). 
When in English a prepositional phrase is used to modify a noun, 
no is required in Japanese: 

Tokaido ye no risu distances (in ri) on the Tokaido. 

Tokyo made no kippu a ticket to Tokyo. 

Nihon to no ko-tsu intercourse with Japan. 

The remainder of the chapter will be devoted to explaining 
the uses of de, ni and to. 

1 . De may be local and instrumental, like the classical nite. 
It also performs a function similar to that of the subordinative. a 

(1.) De^. is used in a local sense, answering the question 
" Where ?_" when tha verb indicates an action or a certain state 
of things : 

Kocliira de wa sonna koto ico shimasen. 

Here we don't do anything of the kind. 

Nihon de iva do sliimasu ka. What do they do in Japan? 

Doko de o motome nasaimash'ta ka. Where did you buy it ? 

Doko de dekimasJiita ka. Where was it made ? 

Givaikoku de sliinimasliita. He died abroad. b 

Chizu de sagashidashite kudasai. Please look it up in a map. 

Koko de matte imaslio. I will wait here. 

Amerika de wa so iu shukwan ga gozaimasen. 

In America there is no such custom. 

De is used in speaking of the mere existence of a thing in a 
place when the place is contrasted with some other place, as in 
the example, p. 35a : Tokugawake no o tamaya iva doko desu 
ka. Tokyo de iva Shiba to Ueno ni arimasu. 

a This distinction between the de's may seem at first sight more subtle than 
important, but it is certainly a factor in determining the usage. In the subordina- 
tive is involved the idea of a cause, condition or circumstance which objectively or 
in a necessary way modifies the action or state expressed by the principal word of 
the sentence. Thus a Japanese would not say, Ante gafutle kaerimasho, because 
the decision to return is not necessarily connected with the rain ; but it is natural 
to say, Ante ga futte kotnarimasu. Now compare : Kore de wa komarimusu. This 
sort of thing is annoying. Kore de o -wakare nwshimasho. At this point I will 
take my leave. The connection between kore de and the verb in the former sen- 
tence is closer than in the latter. 

b "He was killed in the war between Japan and China" may be either Nisshin- 
senso de shinimashita, or, more rarely, Nisshin-senso ni shinimashita. 


Some expressions with de have passed over from a local to a 
temporal sense: ato de afterwards, a soko de now, then. b 

(2.) De mav indicatejjause or means: 

kage sama de naorimashita. 

Thanks to your aid, I have recovered (p. 14c). 

Kono attaka na tenkl de ica kori ga tdkemaslio. 

With this fine weather the ice will probably melt. 

Take de dekita shina wares made of bamboo. 

Bo de naguru beat with a club. 

Fune de (orfune ni notte) iku go by boat. 

Iclii nichi de dekimasho. It can probably be done in a day. 

Zokugo de wa ko iimasu.... In the colloquial they say... 

Yume de mita koto ga aru. I have seen it in a dream. 

Ichi yen de kaimashita. I bought it for a yen. 
Sometimes either de or ni may be used with practically no differ- 
ence in the sense. Simply to "dream of a thing" is usually 
mono wo yume ni miru. Ichi yen ni kaimashita (or urima- 
shita) does not differ from ichi yen de kaimashita (or urima- 
shita) any more than the English "buy at one yen" differs from 
"buy for one yen." 

(3.) DC may indicate a condition or a circumstance: 

Kore de ii. This will do. 

Ariawase de yoroshii. What is on hand will do. 

Mittsu de takusan desu. Three are enough. 

Mina de san ju ni arimasu. There are thirty-two in all. 

Some of the adverbial expressions into which de enters come 
under this head; e. g.. futari de the two together, etc. (p. 65), 
Jtisiixltiburi <tc sifter a Tung interval (]>. 338b). There are 
many such adverbial phrases; e. g., so/to ikioi <fe (ikioi power) 
in consequence of the impetus gained, at that ruu-: 

Sono ikioi de susumeba jiki ni Nihongo ga hanaseru yd ni 
narimasho. If he keeps on at that rate, he will soon become 
able to speak Japanese. 

a Compare: ato kara mairiniasho. I will go after you, i. e., later (p. 2573). 
O ato nifysuite} mairiniasho. I will go behind you. Hito no ato ni tatte imasu. 
He is standing behind some one. See p. 338, bottom. 

b Ima de = ima ni shite or ima ni natte under the present circumstances : ima 
de ieba according to present usage. 

LXXYIII] De, ni, to. 365 

Note also: sore de or (with a future verb) sore de iva, sore ja 
under those cireinnstamvs. then, in tliat case. 

There are also conjunctional phrases like tokoro de. 3 - r l\kv- 
ro de. or de alone, often serves as a superfluous connective be- 
tween sentences in the same way that many use "and'' in 

De is used with predicate substantives in the idioms de aru 
(de gozaimasu) and de iru (de irasshaimasu): Hei-ki de iru. 
He's unconcerned. 

(4.) De may have_thft sftnsp. "on thft-.carl.flf" and be practi- 
cally equivalent to ga, especially with words denoting a body or 
a corporation (p. 126c): 

Seifu de o haraisage ni narimashita. The Gov't has sold it. 

Jimmin no warui no de wa nai; seifu de machigatta no desu. 

It's not the people's fault; it's the Government that blundered. 
So also bakufu de the government of the Shogun, keisatsu de the 
police, kivaisha de the company, seken de the world, etc. To 
the same class mayibe assigned the peculiar expressions uchi de 
wa or temae de wa we, yado de wa b or taku de iva my husband, 
muko de iva or saki de wa he or they, etc. 

(5.) De with Eubskuitives is often equivalent to de atte or 
deshite (p. 89c): Sliimpai de naranai. I am exceedingly anx- 
ious (p. 158b). It takes the place of the ending kute with 
quasi-adjectives: By old de arukenai. c He is so sick that he 
can't walk. It is used in the same way with substantivized 
adjectives or verbs (Chapters XXXVII., LXIV.). d 

2. The particle ni has a great variety of uses. 

(1.) Ni has a Joca.1 sp.nspi, a Towering tV|e question "Where?" 
when one thinks of the mere existence of a thing in a place, 
that is, when aru, oru, iru, or one of the corresponding polite 
verbs, constitutes the predicate: 

a Tokoro de, like tokoro ga, often has an adversative sense : Yonde mita tokoro de, 
watakushi ni wa Memo wakarimastimai kara, yoshimasho. Even though I read it 
I should not understand it at all; so I will give it up. 

b The -word, yado alone may mean "lodging place" or "husband." 

c The de in, Bydki de yasemashita, He is emaciated on account of sickness, is 
felt to be different from the bydki de above. 

d The negative subordinate in naide is derived from the negative present form 
and de. 


f Tamagawa ///' <>/' <ja tul-i^fin or imasu. 

I 1 In the Tama River tliere are many trout. 
Tmnagawa de ai ga takusan toremasu. 
In the Tama River many trout are taken. 
( Boshi ica doko ni arimasu ka. Where is my hat? 

\ Doko de boshi wo kaimasJw ka. Where shall I buy a hat ? 

Sometimes ni occurs with other verbs or with adjectives 
when the idea of being in a place is the prevailing one: 

Konokatoa niiva unagi ga oi. Eels are numerous in this river. 

M"l:o ni miemasu. Over there it is (appears). 

Te ni motte imasu. He has it in his hand. a 

Soto ni hitoga matte, imasu. There is some one waiting outside. 

Soto ni gomi ga tatte imasu. It is dusty outside. 

Koko ni suwarimaslio. I will sit here. 

Ta ni kusa ga haeta. Weeds have grown in the paddy-field. b 

Kobe ni ana ga aite iru. There is hole in the wall. 

Shimbun ni kaite aru. It is in the newspaper. 

Tonari ni ie ga tatta. A house has been built next door. 
In the last examples it is a question whether the ni should not 
be parsed as the particle of the indirect object, especially when 
the verb is made transitive: kabe ni ana wo akeru, shimbun 
ni kaku, tonari ni ie wo tateru. c 

Such verbs as sumu or sumau dwell, tomaru sit (of a bird) 
or lodge, noru be on or ride, etc., fl naturally take ni with the 
word that answers the question " Where ? " 

(2.) Ni is the proper particle to use with words denoting 
time, answering the question "When ? " (p. 338): nichiyo ata- 
ri ni about Sunday, asa to ban ni in the morning and in the 
evening (p. Sib). Note also: hi ni san do zutsu three times a 
day; san nen ni ichi do once in three years. 6 

a Te de motte imasu. He holds it with his hand. 

b Compare niwa niueta ki, nhva ni dekita imo (p. 342e). 

c Tonari de would mean "on the part of my neighbor": My neighbor has built 
a house. Similarly : Shimbun de kakimashita. The newspaper has reported it. 

d We say jitensha ni noru ride on a bicycle, YmijitensAa de iku go by wheel. 
Noru may also mean " be induced to take part'' : sodan ni noru take part in a con- 
sultation (Comp. nori-ki ni nnni, p. 305). 

e Ima ni may mean "until now" or " soon ": Inia ni ko vatle knrashi wo shite 
imasu. Up to the present time I have been making my living in this way. ///;<? 
ni yoku narimasho. It will soon improve. 

LXXVIII] De, ni, to. 367 

(3.) With aru and similar words TM may denote possession 
or a close relation ( p 9a): Ushi ni tsuno ga aru. Watakushi 
ni iva imoto ga nai. 

(4.) Ni (tva) may hg.vp f the. PPTISB of "qjnfmg^- 

Kono shina ni ltd otsu ga gozaimasu. a 

Among these goods there are two kinds, first class and second. 

Kuma ni wa ke no shiroi no mo kuroi no mo arimasu. 

Among bears some have white fur and some have black. 

Ano hito no iu koto ni wa macliigai ga nai. 

There is no mistake in what he says. What he says is true. 

(5.) N%jna,y be rendered ' 'in addition to^ '^bgsides^', "and " 
(p. 67d) ; e. g., sore ni besides, moreover. In describing ideo- 
grams ni is much used : Meiji no mei wa hi Tien ni tsuki to iu 
ji 100 kakimasu. The character mei ( fjf ) in Meiji is composed 
of (written) hi (Q) and tsuki (/). b Note the idioms: nen 
ni nen wo irete taking the greatest pains; korae ni koraete 
enduring to the utmost (p. 279, 5). Note also proverbial ex- 
pressions like: Ume ni uguisu. Plum-tree and bush-warbler, 
i. e., the ume and the uguisu naturally belong together. Uri- 
kotoba ni kai-kotoba. Tit for tat (compare: "paid back in 
your own coin"). In idioms like these the idea of contrast is 
often involved: Botan ni karashishi. The peony and the lion, 
i. e., strength and beauty. 

(6.) Ni may mark the tiling into which anything enters or 
to which it is transferred : 

a Compare : Kono futari no aida ni iva ko otsu ga nai. There is no difference be- 
tween the two (no superiority and inferiority). Ko and otsu belong to a series of 
ten signs called jikkan or eto: 

ko = ki-no-e tree otsu = ki-no-to herb 

hei = ki-no-e flame tei -- hi-no-to glow 

bo tsuchi-no-e earth. ki tsuchi-no-to pottery 

ko = ka-no-e coin shin = ka-no-to hardware 

jin = mizuno-e sea water ki mizu-no-to fresh water 

These signs are used as we use A, B, C, etc. They are also used parallel with the 
twelve zodiacal signs, the ju ni shi, to name the sixty years of the old cycle. 
For practical purposes it is sufficient to learn the first four, ko, otsu, hei, tei. 

b The part of an ideogram called in English the radical, when it forms the left 
side of the character, is called hen kata side. Thus the hen 4 is niniben, from 
nin -.- hito\ |f \sgomben, iromgon kotoba. The remainder, the phonetic part, 
of an ideogram is called tsukitri body, from tsukurtt make, construct. 


Hciko ni ireru put into a box;/?-o ni liairu enter a bath. 
Hito tokoro ni atsuiimrii assemble in one place. 
Yania ni noboru ascend a mountain (also wo}. 
Nihongo ni honyaku suru translate into Japanese. 

(7.) Ni may denote an aim or a result, as in sampo ni deru 
go for a walk, shippai ni oivaru end in failure. 

For ni as used with stems of verbs to express purpose see p. 
278, 3. In the same sense it is used with substantives and may 
be rendered "for", "as"; with substantivized verbs, "to": 

Kore 100 nani ni tsukaimasu ka. What is this used for? 

rei no sliirushi (made) ni 

1 offer this as a token of appreciation. 3 

Gakusha de mo nai ga, kyoshi ni ica taihen iin' desu. 

He is not at all a scholar, but very good as a teacher. 

Kome 100 tsukuru ni wa mizu ga takusan nakereba naranai. 

To grow rice one must have plenty of water. 
Ni may have the sense "so as to become," often translated "as": 

Shichi ni oku deposit as a pledge, pawn. 

Kyaku ni iku go as a guest, be invited out. 

Yoshi ni morau receive as an adopted son. 

I'm ni appoint as a committee. 

Giin ni senkyo suru elect as a representative. 

Fujisan no koto wo uta ni yomu compose a poem about Fuji. 

Especially common are the idioms ni suru (p. 215) and ni 
naru (p. 262) : 

Koko wo niwa ni shima-su. I will make this a garden. 

Hito wo baka ni suru make a fool of a person. 

Hanashi no tane ni naru afford a topic for conversation (or 
a story). 

Tame ni naru hanashi profitable conversation. 

Kwokoku ni naru make a [good] advertisement. 

M".-chu (mu = iiumc, cliu = naka) ni itaru become absorbed . 

Ate ni naranai hito a jierson not to be relied on. 

Kodomo no byuki <ja 1:! ni nuttc hitolaujn ncrurcimkattit. 

Thechild's illness affected me so that I could not sleep all night. 
With ki ni naru compare Id ni suru, p. 215, 10. 

a A common expression employed when a gift is offered. 

LXXVIIIJ De, ni, to. 369 

(8.) Ni is used to form adverbs. In this connection note 
such phrases as: oshii koto niwa (p. 11 7d) sad to say; shiaivase 
na koto ni wa happily ; fushigi na koto ni iva strange to say. 

(9.) In the following very common idioms ni may be liter- 
ally translated "in," often having the sense of "according to' 7 
or " in regard to" : 

Kaeri ni tachiyorimasho. I will call on my way back. 

Sono koto wa hanashi ni kiita. I heard it in conversation. 

Rotowaza ni to iimas'. In a proverb it is said that 

Aru hito no hanashi ni wa to iu koto desu. 

Some one has told me that 

Kotaemasuru ni wa (or kotaete} to moshimashita. 

He replied that 

Watakushi no omoimasu ni wa (yd desu}. 

I think that a 

Naze to iu no ni kara desu. The reason is that 

Kaku ni komarimasu. It is difficult to write. 

Koraeru ni koraerarenu. One cannot endure it (p. 274,2). 

Sono kotoba wa ko iu imi ni (or de} tsukaimasu. 

They use the word in this sense. 

Tomaru ivake ni iva ikanai (or ikenai). [I] may not stay. b 

(10.) With causatives and passives ni indicates the agent. 
Compare: Watakushi ni wa dekimasen. I can't do it. 

Honorifically ni iva may take the place of wa with a subject, 
as in Kwogo lieika niwa (p. 313f). 

Ni may also indicate a cause, being equivalent to no tame ni 
"on account of": 

Fune ni you be seasick; sake ni you be intoxicated. 

Hi ni yakeru be sunburned. 

Namida ni kurete iru be blinded with tears. 

Kane ni komaru be troubled on account of money. c 

a There is no appreciable difference between watakushi no omoimasu ni wa and 
watakushi no kangae de wa. A sentence beginning with the latter phrase may 
end with to omoimasu. 

b Note that while one may say, Watakushi wa ikanakereba narimasen, a phrase 
like itte wa naranai cannot be used in the first person. But -wake niwa ikanai 
may be used in any person. 

c When the cause of distress is not an external object, a subordinative or de is 
better : Bimbo de (or ni wa) komaru, 



Shujin no kemmaku ni osorete 

Being afraid of the master's [angry] appearance 

Kao no ivarui no ni wa odorokimashita, 

I was startled by her ugliness. 

The verbs kanzuru, kanshin suru, kampuku sitru (p. 275), take 
ni: Sensei no go on ni kanjimashita. I was deeply moved by 
the master's kindness. When the object is cognate wo may be 
used: Itami wo kanjimashita. I felt pain. But kando suru 
(do = ugoku move, intr.) takes only ni, never ico. 
Ni may even be instrumental : 

Rijoho no te ni hiku lead [two] by the hand, one on each side. 

Hi ni hosu dry in the sun ; hi ni sarasu bleach in the sun. 

rei wa kotoba ni tsukusaremasen. 

1 cannot completely express (exhaust) my gratitude in words. 

It appears from the above that the particle ni has more uses 
than any other postposition. As has been intimated (Ch. V.), 
it also performs the function of what we call the Dative Case 
in other languages. With verbs ni indicates the indirect 
object. While in most cases the usage is analogous to that in 
other languages and needs no explanation, in some the Japanese 
is peculiar. 

Transitive verbs often take wo with the thing and ni with 
the person; e. g., hito ni mono ivo yarn. Note particu- 
larly verbs meaning to "ask," etc., like tou (p. 247d), inoru 
pray, negau beseech, tanomu request, -icalnru apologize, etc. 
Hito ni tazuneru is to inquire of a person, but to search for or 
call on a person is hito ivo tazuneru. As in English there is 
a shade of difference between ''mix this and that" and "mix 
this with that," so also in Japanese: kore to arc wo mazcrx- 
and kore wo are ni mazer u. The verb kaeru change is used 
in the same way. 

The following are examples of intransitive? that take ni. It 
is left to the student to decide to which of the above ten rules 
any particular case should !><> a^si^-iinl : 
ataru: tomi ni ataru win in a lottery. 

mizu ga /// ///' atntte int. water stands in the sun. [fish. 

sakana ni ataru (aternrcru} be made sick by eating spoiled 

LXXVIII] De, ni, to. 371 

shitsurei ni ataru (p. 71c) be impolite (of conduct). 
au : nangi na me ni au experience hardship. [is innocent. 

mujitsu no tsumi ni au get punished for a crime of which one 
fureru touch (mono ni te wo], infringe, violate. 
kakaru : haibyo ni kakaru get consumption. 

isha ni kakaru consult a physician. 

ni o me ni kakaru have the honor to meet. 
shigoto ni kakaru (torikakaru') begin work. 
michi ni kakatte iru be on the way. 

kamau: hito (no koto) ni kamau be concerned about other 

people's affairs (rarely ivo\ 

katsu:_tekini katsu defeat the enemy (opp. makeru). 
masaru excel. 
rnuku, mukau, tai sum face. 

Note compounds like han-tai suru or teki-tai sum oppose. 
otoru be inferior. 
oyobu Breach (p. 196d) : JEfmt ni (iva] oyobanai. It is not 

necessary to look. 

narau: liito ni narau learn of a person (but koto wo narau]. 
niru resemble (Ch. V.). 
saivaru: atsusa (shoki) ni sawaru be affected by the heat. 

no ki ni sawaru offend. 

sJiaku ni sawaru hurt one's feelings (of a thing). 
shinobiru endure: Kodomo ivo hito-te ni ivatasu ni shinobinai. 

I can't endure it to give the child to another. 
sliitagau follow, obey. 
somuku act contrary to, violate. 
sou be joined to, go along with. 
sugiru exceed : Nagusami no tame ni yatta ni suginai. He did 

it only for fun. 
takeru, chozuru (ideogram cho=nagai)\)e expert: 

keizaigaku ni chozuru be versed in economics. 
tariru, taru be sufficient : Kiku ni (iva) tarinai. It isn't worth 


tatsu : yaku (yd) ni tatsu be of use ; me ni tatsu be conspicuous. 
tetsudau: oya ni tetsudau help one's parents (but shigoto ICQ 

tetsudau, or shigoto no tetsudai wo suru], 
tsukaeru: otto nitsukaeru serve one's husband, 


tsutomeru: gwaimusho ni tsutomete iru be employed in the For- 
eign Office; sensei ni tsutomeru be attentive to the master 
(but kyoshi wo tsutomeru perform the duties of a teacher). 
tsuku adhere, arrive, etc. : 

sensei ni tsuite keiko wo sum study under a master . 
shigoto ga te ni tsukanai be unable to get on with the work. 
yoru approach, depend. 
tsuzuru be proficient in. 

kan-sho sum interfere with (but soku-baku suru is transitive). 
kivan-kei suru have relations with, 

etc., etc. 

The following will strike the student as being very peculiar : 
mayou: micliini mayou lose the way (also wo machigaeru). 
tozakaru : hito ni tozakaru keep away from a person (Jiito wo 


hazureru : kisoku ni hazurete iru be contrary to the rules. 
ivakareru : hoyu ni wakarem part from a friend (also to}. a 
hanareru: used with ni, kara, to or wo. Compare: 
Kokyo ni hanarete leaving home. [England. 

Amerika ga Igirisu karahanarete America separating from 
Boto ga lionsen to hanarete the boat parting with its ship. 
Kuni wo hanarete leaving one's country. 
Even adjectives may take ni : 

Niliongo ni liuwashii. He is well versed in Japanese. 
Tanuki iva kemuri ni yowai. A badger can't endure smoke. 
Tenka ni nadakai hito a man famous all over the country. 
3. To is exactly equivalent to the English "with," which, 
however, may be rendered more emphatically to torno ni, to issho 
ni. It is used with verbs and adjectives as in the following 
examples : 

to (or ni) hanashi wo suru speak with. 

to (or ni) tsuki-au associate with. 

to (or ni) yakusoku suru make an agreement with. 

to (or ni) onaji the same as (p. 39). 

tokokoro-yasui, l:<>u-i <la be intimate with. 

a Wakareru may also take ?t:ira in such a s^ntencs as: KOID it: 'it n 1 1 m:i j ;j no 
okii uchi kara wakareta tto dew. This house is a branch of that large house. 


De, ni, to. 


Kanai tofutari de shibai wo mi ni ikimashita. 

I went with my wife to the theater. 

Watdkushi to kyodai desu. He is my brother. 

Go issliin no told ni nengo ivo Meiji to aratamemashita. 

At the time of the Restoration the era was changed to Meiji. 

To is used with sum as explained on page 216, 10; to naru 
sounds rather bookish. With au, to is rarely substituted for 
ni, but with its compounds (p. 286, 2) to is more common. 
With chigau, to should be used, except in the common idiom 
ni chigai nai : Chi-mei ni chigai wa nai. It is certainly a 
geographical name (compare p. 315a). With majiivaru or 
ko-sai sum either to or ni may be used. 


futokoro bosom. 

hoki broom. 

ikioi power. 

kame jar. 

kasu residue, dregs. 

nabe pot, kettle, or pan for 

sliiclii pledge, pawn. 

tsura face ( not polite) . 

abura-mi fat, suet, lard. 

oku-niwa back garden. 

ume-boshi pickled plums. 

hen radical written on the 
left side of an ideogram. 

bak-kin fine. a 

choku-yaku literal translation. 

chu-kai annotation, explan- 
atory notes, commentary. 

ei-sei (lit. guarding life) 

sanitation, hygiene. 
fu-sliin building or repairing 

a house. b 
ga-gen (lit. elegant words) 

classical language. 
gak-kwa branch of study, 

lesson, curriculum. 
hik-ki memorandum, note. 
jo-rei regulation, rule. 
kan-go Chinese words. 
kei-zai economy, economics. 
kit-did favorable sign. c 
kon-i intimacy. 
kwai-gi conference, meeting, 
(o) ni-kai second story. d 
sei-shin spirit, intent. 
seki-lii stone monument. 

a In modernl egal phraseology a small fine not exceeding Y. 1.95 is called kwa-ryo. 

b From/ = amanekn at large, shin = koii beg ;fushin originally meant building 
in connection with a temple but is now synonymous with ken-chiktt. 

c The character kichi, meaning "good", "lucky," enters into many proper names. 
Synonymous with kitcko is yoi shirase. 

d The ground floor is called simply shita. The third floor is sangat. 




yubin-zci, yu-zei postage. 

sho-yu-ken proprietary rights. 

kaban trunk, satchel. 

arai rough, coarse. 

ara-mono goods made of 
coarse materials, such as 
brooms, ropes, mats, loara- 
ji, etc. 

Nihon-deki no 1 made in 

iva.-sei no $ Japan. a 

Ju-ryu na tasty, elegant, 

nani ou famous (ou carry). 

ni amaeru act like a petted 
child toward, take ad- 
vantage of. 

amayakasu pet, indulge. 

ataeru grant, bestow. 

nifureru touch, transgress. 

koeru become fat, fertile 
(tr. koyasu) . 

koyashi fertilizer, manure. b 
muragaru be gathered to- 


t-lcumo a cluster of clouds. 
ochiru flee. 

ocru = oicaru end, complete. 
te ni oenai be unmanageable. 
>/::/r//icru bury, fill in. 
somuku (so back, muku face) 

act contrary to, violate. 
ume-aiuaseru, umeaivase wo 

tsukeru make up the de- 


tsu-zuru be proficient in. 
ryu-ko sum prevail, be in 

nyu-bai ga akeru the rainy 

season ends. 
oroslii de at wholesale. 
sora de by heart, from mem- 

ory. c 


Hokkaido de wa (ni wa) kome ga yoku dekimasen. 
niwakwazanga tak'san arimas'. 31nktixlti ira l>aknfu de 
gwaikoku ye iku koto wo kinjite art-mash' ta. Stiknucn ira/tuic 
de Hakodate ye ikimash'ta ga, kondo wa riku no ho iro ikiina- 
sho. Sore dake de yd gozaimas'. Kono utcn de ica ^iknrn no 
hana ga chitte shimaimasho. Watdkuehi no kangac <l<^ ic<i 
tsumari Nihon seifu de gicaikokujin ni toclii no sho/i/'/kcn iro 
ataeru daro to omoimas'. Kodomo wa amayakas' to, kuse ni 
narimas'(get spoiled). Hanas' () to in ji ic</ ijomlcn ( - g ) ni 
sh'ta ( ! ) to iu ji wo kakimas' ( iu ji des' ) . Saikyo de 
(t taihen" to iu imi de yoku "erai" to iu kotoba 100 mochiii, 

a "Imported" is haku-rai (Jiaku ship, rai= turn"). 
b Also hi-ryo, from hi = koyasu. 

c Kore wo sora de iwaremasu ka. Can you say this by heart ? From this sora 
is derived soranzuru = ansho surtt memorize. 

LXXVIII] DC, ni, to. 375 

Mo s'koshi de (p. 351d) ju, ni ji ni narimasho. Kono uma wa 
abarete te ni oenai. Kane ga nakatta kara, tokei ivo shichi ni 
okimash'ta. Kono ike ni wa koi ni funa ga orimas'. Ebi de 
tai wo tsuru to iu no wa Doits' go no aburami de nezumi wo to- 
ru to iu kotowaza to onaji imi des'. Watakuslii no tonari ni 
gakko wo tatemash'ta. Tonari de konya konrei ga arimas' 
kara, sawaide imas'. Kono setomono wa Nihondeki ni chigai 
(wa} nai. Watakuslii wa kaze wo hiita no de zutsu ga shimas'. 
Oroshi de kau to, yasui. Kore wa Nihongo de nan to moshi- 
mas' ka. Chishima de wa shake ga dossari tor etnas'. Kyo no 
koto wa asu ni nobasu na. Warenabe ni tojibuta. a Kaeru no 
tsura ni mizu. b Ber'rin ni zairyu sh'te iru Nihonjin ni wa ka- 
nai no aru Jiito mo arimas'. Kono ninjin no ne iva nani ni 
shimas' ka. Sayo, k'suri ni shimas'. Muko ni kas'ka ni mieru 
yama iva Kanozan des'. c Nihon no gakko no kazu wa mina 
de samman rok' sen da so des'. Gakkwa no hikki wo uchi ye 
kaette seisho shimas'. Chotto kuchi ni demasen. d Kore iva 
amari takasugiru; motto yasui no ni shimasho. Shimbun- 
jorei ni furete bakkin wo toraremash'ta. Amari fubenkyo 
desh'ta kara, ima ni natte kokwai sh'te imas'. Hisashiburi de 
o me ni kakarimash'ta. e Sore wa dono tokoro ni mo motte iku 
wake ni wa ikemasen. Uri no tane ni wa nasubi ga haenu 
(Proverb). Koyasan ni Akechi Mitsuhide no sekihi ga arimas'. 
Jikogara de (p. 217 a) asaban wa yohodo suzush'ku narimash'- 
ta. Mo s'koshi de nyubai ga akemasho. Komban wa o kyaku 
ni ikimas' kara, reifku ya nazo wo yoku sh'taku sh'te oite o 
kure. Go shuttats' iva ikkagoro des' ka. Sayo de gozaimas', 
raigetsu nofuts'ka mikka goro ni narimasho. Saifu ga ya'- 
burete dokka de kane wo otoshimash'ta. Kono kuruma wa 
furuku natte yaku ni tatanaku narimaslita. Nihon ni iva take 
de koshiraeta utsuwa ga tak'san arimas'. Anata yanagigori 
ni kaban wo motte oide nasaimas' ka. Domo warui ka,e des' ; 

a Warenabe, from -vjareru be cracked and nabe kettle ; tojibnta from tojiru bind 
andyWa lid. For the meaning of the proverb compare: "Misery loves company." 

b Compare the English, "Water on a duck's back. :> 

c A mountain in the province of Kazusa, visible from various points in Tokyo. 

d The meaning is: I know it very well, but I can't for the moment express it. 

e Note the difference between hisashiburi de and hisashiku (p. 1043), the one 
being used with positive verbs and the other with negative. 


sore ni o sliimc,-! <ju ^cJu'tto mo not l;n,'<i. Jn'dni Iml-nri <!< urn- 
kanasen. ]I//<~>t<nt too sagete hanami n! /7, 1 //. n<> im j'nnjn >< f 
miemas'. Kono hdki irn kin-jo no arri)iu/oi/n </<> Icainmxlt'ta , 
nikni ni itashimasho ka, sh'ta ni it<i*1ii mn^id l-a. DocJtira 
de mo kirei na ho ga i/orox/tii. Anntn to irakan-fc l;<ir<i //((gate 
ame gafuridashimasli'ta. Mus'ko to ftwi dr * /"//" tm fx>//-/ 
ni ikimash'ta. Kono sliinibun to isslio ni te</<n/t i </ ki/nascn l;n. 
Hakurarikwai ni iku ijo ni tomodachi to yak'sokn *//'?> '</.-//, ^/.s7/'- 
ta ga } sashits'kae ga atte yamemash'ta. Umeboshi t<> In mono 
wa ume wo shio ni ts'kete (p. 160 g) sore Icnf Li/it<i ni hosh'te 
r niata ts'kcta mon' des'. W'ntultnxlil tro wtis '//icxh'ta 

ga, Jconya kwaigi ga aru yd ni teclio ni t/nctc oriittr/.^ 7,v//v, 
Itore kara dekakcnakereba narimasen. Waiakushi ica ik<in<i> 
tsnr/iori desu ga, laai ni ijotte ira ikandkereba n'minni k<( mo 
shirem.asen. ICris'tokyd wo no ico sain<it(iern no 
iva kempo no seisliin ni somukimas\ J^/'/c narenai mon" des' 
kara, watakushi ica jitensha iro norlltazusli'te sono ikioi <:<' ltd 
ivo buchikowash imash'ta. Chikagoro sit in in irn.^tno ma nut, /mka 
ni yori mo ktcaso wo sum ho ga eiseijn k'tra ittc mo 
mata tocltl n<> l:c':.<iljr> AV//V/ itte mo rydtoku (double gain) de 
aru to iu setsu ga daibu rytikd sh'te mairiiitafh'ta. Kijdto no 
Arashiyama wa na ni ou nakura no mcisho des'. " Tsi/ki ni 
murakumo liana ni kaze" to iu no u'a kono yo no r m m<i n' 
ranu koto wo (p. 227a) kcii/d sh'ta kotoba des'. ()l:uniic<i ni 
ume no hana <j suite imas' no de znslt'kijr/ t/oi nioi <j. dti'mas'. 
Kodomo wofutokoroni daitc //>//./ n<> n"k</ ni t<t1f<' ir>> <>nna 
no e wa Tokiwa ga (p. 162c) ltodonn>,-<i iro tsurete ocJ/i/c ijulcn 
tokoro wo kaita no des'. Hito ni osliieru no irn ti]icn j linen 
no keiko ni narimas' , Issdkujitsu no jishin ni udii in/ o 
itami nasaimasen desh'ta ka. Y<in<ji ni ka::-or<- (/.v/:.r in 
oreru koto) nashi (Pro verb ). 

The Government lias ])iir.'h;i<i'(l (kningt'i-u) tins lot. ir\v 
should I say that in .!a)iaii'-sr (p.149,2)? Arc I'attlcilo.u-s all 
made ofkiri? On account cf sk-knc^. I to has not LcH'ii com- 
ing to recitations (keiko ye dcnai") for some time, but he will 
at once makeup the deficiency. Are the things that apt 

a Lit. dampness, i. e., a refreshing shower. 

LXXVIII] De, ni, to. 377 

yonder mountains or clouds ? Japan formerly was not divided 
into ken. They say that it is a favorable sign if you dream 
of Fuji. At London it is seldom quite clear (mattaku harele 
oru). In Japanese books the notes are written above, but in 
Western books they are written below. He has two sons and 
three daughters. On this letter there were no (hatte nai) 
stamps; so I was charged (torareru) double (ni bai no) the 
postage. It is said that the people of Tokyo build with the ex- 
pectation (tsumori) that [the house] will burn once in three 
years. The character "pine" (f) is composed of "tree" (^c) 
and "prince"(V). This evening Igoto dinner (go chiso) at[my] 
neighbor's. I am so (Jed or konna ni) late, because (node) 
I lost the way coming here (kigake ni). The character "cry" 
(IJ!|) is composed of "mouth" (p) and "bird" (J%). The 
residue of the sardines is used for manure. I cannot say it by 
heart. The irolia is (natte iru) a song, but its meaning is hard 
to understand. At the end of December mochi is made (pound- 
ed) in every house (ieie de). The Japanese do not mind (ton- 
jaku suru) being in a draughty place (place where wind blows 
through). What is in those jars? There is tea in these jars. 
It will be finished (dekiagaru) in two hours. I have be- 
come quite intimate with him. Hideyoshi's grave is in Ami- 
dagamine. a In Shinto shrines there are (tatte iru) goliei and a 
mirror. As that is Chinese classical language (kango no gagen), 
it is not used in the colloquial. It sounds strange (lien ni kiko- 
eru) if you translate it literally into English. That is certainly 
written by a Japanese (a thing that a Japanese wrote). This 
will afford a topic for (seed of) conversation. It hurts (sawaru') 
the eyes to read by a dim (kurai) lamp. It is stated (notte iru) 
in the newspaper that (yd ni) a Russian man-of-war arrives 
at Yokohama to-morrow. We wil! spread new mats in the rooms. 
It is said that he is (de) a great scholar and is proficient in 
ten languages (languages of ten countries). Small (komakai) 
articles if not gathered together and put (irete oku) into boxes 
soon (yoku) disappear (become invisible). 

a A hill behind the Daibutsii temple in Kyoto. Amida the chief divinity of 
northern Buddhism; mine peak. 



4. Kara, yori from, since, after: a kokokara from this place; 
moto kara from the first; mukashi kara of old; saki kara since 
some time ago; kore kara from here (= koko kara), after this, 
next ; sore kara from there, after that, then ; hiru kara in the 
afternoon; asa hayaku kara early in the morning; tsunekara, 
fudan kara usually ; ura kara from the back, by way of a hint. 

Hata kara kuchi ivo dash'cha ikenai. You must n't put in 
your say (liata kara from a side, as a bystander). 

Hachijikara hajimarimasu. It begins at eight (p. 161c). 

Nihonjin no kangae kara ieba 

To speak from a Japanese point of view 

Gakumonjo kara iu naraba To speak scientifically 

Kara is also used as a conjunction (Ch. LXXXII). 

Yori (originally stem of yoru, is in the colloquial less com- 
mon than kara. Note the expressions moto-ywi of course, to 
be sure = gwanrai (p. 349), kanete yori for a long time = to 
kara. In making comparisons (Ch. XXXVIII.) kara mini to 
is sometimes substituted for yori: 

Nani yori kekko na shina ivo itadaite arigato gozaima*". 

I thank you for the handsome (incomparably splendid) gift . b 

Yoru osoku made okite iru yori m "w lunjaku okite benkyd 
suru ho ga yoku oboeraremasu. c 

One can learn batter by rising and studying early in the 
morning than by staying up late at night. 

Nashi wa ringo kara mini to yohodo assari shite orimasu. 

Pears are rather insipid as compared with appl's. 
5. Made until, as far as to, to: a 

a In the sense of "after" kara is used not only with substantives, but also with 
subordinates (p. 960). In either case t-rat(p. 3490) or kouo-kata may be sub- 
stituted for kara. The pleonastic idiom kara irai may be heard occasionally. 

b Elliptically one may say: Kore wa kore iva iicini vori 

c In such a sentence the natural predicate is a word like^w, here converted to 
yoku oboeraremasu. 

d Made is used inclusively; e. g., Doyobi made yasunde yoroshii. You may take 
a vacation until Saturday (inclusive). But compare: Kono hon wo hajime kam 
hyaku mai no tokoro made yomimashita. I read to [the beginning of] the hun- 
dredth leaf of this book. 

LXXIX] Kara, made, ye. 379 

Doko made oide ni narimasu ka. How far are you going ? 

Tokyo made iku ri arimasu ka. How many ri are there to T . ? 

Atama no teppen kara tsumasaki made doro ni mabireta. 

I was covered with mud from the crown of my head to the 

sole of my foot (lit. tips of the nails). 
THere is a difference between made and made ni (p.lGld): 

-Ban m,ade ame gafurimazlid. 

It will probably rain until this evening. 

Ban made ni furimasho. 

It will probably rain by this evening. 

Made ni is used when verbs like " come", " be finished," etc., 
form the predicates : 

Uchi de o machi moshimasu kara, yo ji made ni oide nasai. 

I will wait for you at home; come by four o'clock. a 

Mydnichimade ni dekimasho. It will be done by to-morrow. 
Note the peculiar use of made ni in the sense of " for" or "as" 
in such idioms as: 

rei no sliiruslii made ni sashiagemasu. 

1 offer this as a token of appreciation. 

Go san-ko made ni mdsliiagemasu. I offer it as a suggestion. 

Made in some connections means "everything including 
even," or simply "even," in which case the combination is 
treated as a substantive and may take case-particles or mo (p. 

Ni made also occurs: 

Shujin ga tosliiyori 100 Tiajime kodomo ni made o miyage 
100 katte kimashita. The master bought presents for all, 
from the old folks down to the children. 

Via ni made utawareru be the subject even of songs. 

Note finally the use of made with verbs, as in aku made to 
the utmost, from akiru be surfeited, and the common idiom iu 
made mo nai = muron no : Iu made mo nai warui koto desu. 
It is of course bad (lit. obvious badness). 

6. Ye to, toward : gwaikoku ye iku go abroad ; waki ye deru 
go out [of the house] ; Nihonju ye hiromaru be spread throughout 
all Japan. Ye is often substituted for ni or used pregnantly: 

a Yo ji made irasshai would mean: "Stay till four o'clock." 


Tokyo ye tsuku arrive at Tokyo; tana ye agent put on the 
shelf (metaphorically : be oblivions of); yubinkyoku ye yotte 
ilcn call at the post office on the- way : Teikoku Hoteru ye 
tomaru stop at the Imperial Hotel. Note: Nihon ye atsurae- 
ru order from Japan. 


wtant. JK-ban \ undergarment, un- 

tamctfi/tii soul, spirit. hada-yi } dershirt. b fireworks. sci-bo(=toshi no fcttre)apree- 
ko-goto complaint (p. 15,2). out made at the end of the 

tsumasaki (tsume no said} tip year. c 

of the toe (nail . so-ho (tomo) both parties (lit. 
yakedo (yake-dokoro) a burn sides). 

(yakedoivosuru be burned), so-shin the whole body. 

gun=kori (p. 324a). tep-pen summit, crown. 

slii-= samurai, shimeppoi moist, damp. d 

shukit relay-station, stopping so-matsu na coarse, rude. 

place, post. liau creep, crawl. 

II n i-n-n presents exchanged at k'.'k<i<-rn embrace, employ (as 

a betrothal. a a workman or servant). 

i-butsu legacy, relics. tobi-oriru jump down. 

yo-sho youth, juvenility. nage-suteru throw away. 


Tenshi sama wa moto kara Tokei ni irasshatta no de wa go- 
aimasen. Asa mo ha//<ik>t kara liito ni koraremas* kara. *'k<>n}t i 

a This is a case of yntT>YM>ii ^p. 19), the yui being the stem of yim to tie (in 
ttatfyuf). The i in i-bulsu (-- nokosti) is in some compounds pronounced \-ni; 
e. %- t yuf-ffon or i-f^cti verbal will (of a dying person). So also in i-btitsn-ron materi- 
alism the i (= /at/a) is often pronounced yui. 

b An outer shirt, called s/ia/stt, does not come under this head. But Japanese 
have also begun to wear flannel shatsit under their hadagi. 

c This is a case of metonymy. Compare a similar transfer of meaning in the 
case of shttgi (p. 263). 

d In speaking of the air or climate say shikke ga /sitjvi, not shimeppoi. With 
the latter compare wasitreppoi forgetful, okorippoi irritable, akippoi easily tired, 
fickle, awarcfpoi pathetic, etc. 

LXXIX] Kara, made, yc. 381 

mo hima ga arimasen. Shi ju shichi slii no (shiju shichi nin 
no gishi no] ibuts' wa ikka (nan nichi) kara miseru desho ka. 
Kesahodo gakko ye iku tochii de (michide^ko iu mezurashii 
furui hon wo kaimash'ta. Kokyd ye nish'ki (nish'ki wo kite 
kokyo ye kaeru ) . a Sen ri no inichi mo ippo yori hajimaru 
(Proverb). Danna wa tdbi ye dete rusu de gozaimas'. Yui- 
nd wo yarn no wa do iu wake des' ka. Kekkon sum mae ni 
yak'soku no sliirushi to sh'te sdho kara shinamono wo torikawasu 
no des'. Uguis' iva doko ye nigeta ka omae wa minakatta 
ka. Jibun no warui koto wa tana ye agete hito no koto wo 
iimas'. Koi iva doko made mo noboru mono des' kara, kodomo 
ga shusse sum yd ni to itte o iivai ni ts'kaimas'. Mado kara 
tsuki(no hikari)ga sashikonde imas'. Kombanfune de Qhashi 
made itte hanabi wo kembutsu shimasho. b Seifu kara c kono 
jimen wo o haraisage ni narimash'ta. Kore iva somatsu na 
mono de gozaimasu ga, o seibo(no shirushi) made ni sashiage- 
mas\ Kore iva kore iva nani yori no (o) shina wo itadaki- 
mash'te makoto ni arigato gozaimas'. Nihon no shibai iva asa 
kara ban made kakarimas'. Itsu made mo ryugaku sh'te iru 
wake ni wa ikanai kara, ima no uchi yoku benkyo shimasho. 
Yoritomo no koro made wa gunken no seido de arimash'ta ga, 
sore kara hoken-seido ni kaw arimash'ta (p. 324a). Muttsu 
kara to made no kodomo wa chi wo hau ari made (ga) niku- 
mu. Mayuge wo otos' to iu shukwan wa Shina kara kita so des'', 
Shina de iva ima de mo ko'domo made ga 'mayuge wo otoshi- 
mas'. Nihon de wa mesh'ts-ukai ga sono uchi no kodomo ni 
made mo teinei ni shimas' A Mitsugo no tamashii hyaku made 
(p.64c). Are kara dochira ye irasshaimash'ta ka. Are kara 
sugu uchi ye kaerimash'ta. Kono warnifu ga toji no hito ni 
made oyonde oru. Doyobi made azukete okimasho. Doyobi 
made ni tori nikimasho!\ Chikagoro go tdke ye o kakae ni nari- 

a The idea of the proverb is that a man should not visit his birthplace until he 
has become a distinguished person. 

b 'd-hashi, a bridge over the Sumida River at Senju in Tokyo. In Japan fire- 
works are often sent off from boats on a river. 

c Kara is here used like de (p. 365,4). For haraisageru see p. a86d. 

d 7"dnei ni snr treat courteously. In Japan a servant uses respectful language 
even to the little children of his master. 


mash'ta betto toa Kyushu no mono des 1 .* Temae kara saki ni 
dete ike. b Saki ye inns' me ga maitte orimas'. Asa kara no 
oyuki de michi ga tomarimash'ta.c BakncJii ni maketc nani 
karc nani made toraretc shimaimash'ta. Ano onna wa uguis' 
no yd da to iu no ica, koe wa ii keredomo, kao ga warui to iu 
koto wo ura kara /// no des'. Umegatani wa aku made chikara 
no tsuyoi sumdtori dc dart- //> nnrabu mono ga nakatta. Kaki- 
kata no somatsu na no de tomodaclti kara tabitabi kogoto wo 
itte kimash'ta. 

From here to the next stopping place it is about four ri. At 
what o'clock will (does) to-morrow's performance begin? From 
(the time of) [his] youth [his] eyes were bad. I have known 
(am knowing) him for a long time. A wind is blowing (fuki- 
ts'keru^) from (the side of) the sea and driving the waves up 
(nami wo uchiageru) on the shore. A fruit-bearing tree may 
be known from its blossoms (Proverb). Hello, rikshaman ! for 
(de} how much will (do) you go to the Legation? Take this 
plant out of the pot and plant it in the garden. If a priest is 
detestable, even his scarf is detestable (Proverb). In the time 
of lemitsu the water of the Tama River was brought (hiku) to 
Tokyo. A railroad from Aomori to Akita lias been completed 
(dekimash'ta). My servant is dishonest to be sure, but, as he is 
efficient(mowo^ofo ga yoku dekiru), I employ him (p. 226a)just 
as he is (sono mama). In (ni) the recent fire I jumped down 
from the second story and hurt myself. The fireman was burned 
all over (soshin) from the crown of his head to the tips of 
his toes. .Well! (oya) where are you going in this bad weather 
(in spite of the badness of the weather )? Having unavoidable 
business, I am going just for a little (as, far as) to Eyeglass 
Bridge. The cherry Hos-^nis have begun to bloom eYrry\vhnv : 
so we will go (itte mimasho) to-morrow to Mukojima. When 
(snbord. iva] the rain continues like this (ko) everything (i(- 

a Go to-ke your house here. For to see p. 3173. Compare go to-s/io, from s/io 
r^ tokoro. 

b Translate : You go out first. P'or the kara compare sei/u tarn and kc-nata kara 
(p. 3373). Saki is used in a different sense in the following sentence, where it in- 
dicates a family which the daughter has entered as a wife or as a servant, 

c Michi ga tomant the road is impassable (lit. is stop ped}. 


ni kara nani made) gets damp and one feels uncomfortable. A 
second class excursion ticket to Fujikawa, please ! From here 
to the pass the road is dreadfully bad. As I have never been 
in (gone to) that region, I think it would be better to engage 
a guide (go engaging a guide) . As I am going out just a little 
(cJiotto soko made), if a guest (dare ka o kyaku) comes (has 
appeared), say that I shall return at once. He half (liambun 
made) smoked the cigar and threw the rest (nokori) away. We 
shall finish our preparations by the time the teacher comes. 
How far had we come (yaru) ? Until the next [lesson] make 
a clean copy. Having lost (makeru) in gambling, he had [every- 
thing] taken from his coat to his shirt. 


Quasi-postpositions, as we have previously remarked, are 
really substantives. They are joined to dependent words by 
means of no and may themselves take case-particles and post- 
positions proper. Instead of a limiting substantive with no, 
the demonstratives kono, sono and ano may be used (p. 36). 
Either ni or dc, according to the context (p. 338, top) may be 
attached to quasi-postpositions denoting place; with such words 
as kaivari and tame the proper particle is ni. But this post- 
position is not infrequently omitted; e.g., with mae, aida,hoka, 
kawari, tame. Quasi-postpositions may be used as predicates: 

Yama no muko desu ka, temae desu ka. 

Is it beyond the mountain or on this side? 

Mon no soto desu ka, uchi desu ka. 

Is it outside the gate or inside ? 

1. Ue (in some connections kami*) on, over, above. Besides 
the ordinary sense, ue often means "in regard to" : 

Bumpo no ue de iva tadashu gozaimasu ga .... 

It is correct so far as the grammar is concerned, but .... 
For expressions like tetsugakujo no philosophical, rigjokujo no 
pertaining to physics, etc., see p. 120. In counting, etc., "over" 
or "above" is usually to berenderd ijd\ hachiju yen ijo(no ue) 
over eighty yen ; reiten ijo above zero ; chuto ifo no hito the 
middle and upper classes, 


2. Shita (in some connections sJtimo'} under, below, down: 
Hash! it < i xhit<i wo inrn ]>;i-s under the bri 

Kama no shita wo taku make a fire under the pot. 
Yuki no shita kf/rcr dent come out from under the snow. 
T<> ijo corresponds ika : re it en ika below zero. 

3. Mae before, in the presence of, ago : 

Me no mae ni arn mono what is before one's eyes. 
Fujin no mae de sonna koto ico itte tea shitsurei desu. 
It is impolite to talk like that in the presence of ladies. 

kado no mae (go mon-zen] wo torimasliita . 

1 passed (the front of) your gate. 

Hoku nen mae no koto desu. It happened six years ago. 
Observe that when mae is used in a temporal sense the particle. 
no is often omitted and that ni also may be omitted: roku nen 
mae six years ago; sono mae before that, previously. 

With words derived from the Chinese, zen may be substituted 
for mae: go isshin zen before the Restoration ; kiyen zen 
B. C. (p. 228a). 

Nan nen zen no koto desu ka. How many years ago was it ? 
In comparing dates izen (ni) is used (p. 129b). 

4. TTshiro behind, back. But l;u.'je \< more frequent in such 
expressions as: //ama no kaye ni behind the mountain (kaye- 
shadow ) . 

5. Omote differs from mae in that it indicates the front side 
of a thing, the surface. 

6. Ura lias a wider range of meaning and is more common than 
ushiro. It often means the opposite side of a thing, the n \ 

the rear. 

7. Saki may also be distinguished from mae. Both are used 
cither of place or of time. Saki is preferred to mae when tin-re 
is a movement forwards: Kono saki no tri desu. It is the 
street next beyond this. Compare mac n tori the street in 
front [of the house], or th< just erossrd. a 

In speaking of time *"/,/ when used of the past takes ni. but 
it is more commonly used, without ni. of the future: it/in 

a O saki ni (go men wo Aomurimastt) or snAi ni(ruj] itashimasn. Excuse me 
for going ahead of you. sakim aide nos'tlc kudasai. Please go ahead. Saki 
in saki i/e, saki yc, etc., is used as a pronoun of the third person (pp. 28, 3 and 365,4). 


sanibyalm nen bakari saki ni about three hundred years ago; 
ima kara sambyaku nen saki iva three hundred years hence. 

8. Ato, too, is used either of place or of time (p. 364a) : a 
Hito no ato ni (tsuite) iku go behind a person. 

Hito no ato kara iku follow a person. 

The synonymn nochi is used only of time. Note sono nochi 
(ni}, sono go after that, subsequently. To zen corresponds go : 
go isshin go, kigen go, etc. To izen corresponds igo. b 

9. Te-mae this side. 

10. Muko, mukai opposite side, beyond. c 

Kaioa no muko ye iku go to the other side of the river. 

11. Soba beside, near, by: torii no soba no chaya the restau- 
rant near the torii. Practically synonymous with soba are 
hata, kiwa, hotori, atari. 

12. Wald beside, at the side of. Kataiuara may be regarded 
as synonymous. 

13. Maiuari, gururi, meguri around. 

14. Aida between, during (local and temporal) : 
Yoru no aida (or uchi) ni during the night. 
Hito tsuki no aida for one month. 

Note that ni is used in defining the time of an incident, but 
not in speaking of duration of time. The Chinese equivalent 
of aida is kan : Tokyo Yokohama kan no tetsudo the railroad 
between Tokyo and Yokohama. The same word enters into 
such compounds as zok-kan (ni) among the common people, 
issliukan one week (p. 76, top), etc. 

15. Naka in, within, inside, among, in the middle of: 
Hako no naka ye irete o kure. Put it into the box. 
Tansu no naka kara dashite o kure. 

Take it out of the bureau. 

a It is a curious anomaly that ato ni is used chiefly in a local sense, while atode is 

b It is impossible to decide whether mae, saki, ato, nochi, etc., in some of the ex- 
pressions given in this chapter should be parsed as postpositions or as adverbs. 
The Englishman says three hundred years ago (or hence) ; the German, vor (or nac/i) 
drei huudert Jahren. Izen and igo, like irai (p. 349c), are also used alone or_with 
iva as adverbs. 

c Mitkai is used only in the sense of "opposite side," not in that of "beyond" : 
Kobe no muko ni beyond Kobe; Kobe no mukai {muko} ni opposite Kobe. 
{trawa) may be added to muko or mukai. 



The Chinese equivalent of naka is chu, used mostly with 
Chinese words : 

keiko chii desu ka. Are you in the midst of a lesson? 
Mada shiken chu desu. We are still having examinations. 
Yasumi chu (ni) during the vacation. 

Gown chu (ni) in the forenoon, or. at dinner. 
This chu enters into numerous compounds: kan-chu season 
of greatest cold, sho-chu season of greatest heat, do-chu journey, 
shi-chu the city, etc. a The same word in its nigoried form/w 
meaning "entire"' (p. 341,top) is used largely with words of 
native origin : uchiju the -sthole house, muraju the whole vil- 
lage, yoju the whole night, etc. 

16. Uchi b is unlike naka in that it may be used also of time: 
Hito tsuki no uchi (ni) within a month. 

Chikai uchi (ni}, sono uchi (ni) within a short time, soon. 
Note that in the sense of "among" uchi ni cannot be used 
except when the existence of a thing is in question, that is, when 
a word like aru, oru, oi or sukunai is the predicate. Compare: 

Kono uchi de donata mo zonjimasen. 

1 don't know any one among these people. 

Kono uchi ni zonjite oru hito iva hitori mo gozaimasen. 

Among these people there is not one that I know. 

Kono uchi de o ki ni iranai no iva dore desu ka. 

Among these which is it that you don't like ? 

Kono uchi ni o ki ni itta shina iva arimasen ka. 

Among these is there no article that you like? 
With Chinese words nai or dai may take the place of uchi: 
itcho-nai within a cho, i. e., the whole street : */</-(ii the city 
tci-nai the grounds (of a dwelling), kei-dai the enclosure. 

17. Soto outside. The Chinese equivalent is </irai: ka/'-i/inii 
over the sea, foreign countries, an-<jtr<i! beyond expectation. 

18. Hoka besides, except: sono hoka (ni) or sono ta (></) besides 
tliat; omoi-no-hoka (ni) lieyond expectation. 

a The viordjochn maidservant, from Jo = ottna, was originally a collective term. 
Compare ningen human being, from nin hito and gt>t = unfa, and kuntii wife (or 
family), from ka ie. 

b The word is identical with uchi house. We don't say nchi no uchi ;//, but ie no 
uchi ni. Uchi ni orimam. He is at home. 


19. Kaivari instead : sono kaivari (ni) instead of that. 

20. Tame for (final or causal): kuninotame (ni) in behalf 
of one's country; nen no tame (ni} to avoid mistakes (lit. for 
the sake of attention) ; yo-jo no tame (nij for the sake of health ; 
bo-fa no tame (ni) on account of the typhoon. Sei de (sei = ikioi) 
is synonymous with tame ni in its causal sense : 

tenki no sei de zutsii ga sliimasu. 

1 have a headache on account of the weather. 

Note such combinations as: ue-shita,kami-shimo,jo-ge', ato- 
saki before and after, or reversal of the order ; zen-go before 
or after, about; chu-giuai or nai-givai home and abroad. 

There are other words which might properly be included 
in the above list of quasi-postpositions. 


itoko cousin. suzuri (sumi-suri) ink-stone. 

kuma bear. uki-yo the world. b 

musliiro matting woven of ko merit, achievement. 

straw. bu-ke military caste (in feudal 

ruri blue flycatcher (from ru- times). 

ri emerald). ku-ge nobility formerly at- 

tsuge boxwood. tached to the Court. 

chikara-mochi athlete. bum-po grammar. 

hana-gami paper for wiping do-ro road, street. 

the nose. ge-raku fall (of prices). 

hashi-sen bridge toll. ken-ko health (kenko desu is 

koma-dori robin. healthy). 

ko-ya small house, hut, pen, mom-ban gatekeeper, porter. 

stable. shi-hei paper money (p. 269b). 

sa-tsuki azalea. a shu-ktvaku harvest, crop. c 

shiro-ato ruins of a castle. kei-satsu-sho police station. 

a Blooms later than the ordinary ti>ulsuji. The name, originally salsuki-tsutsuji, 
is derived from a classical designation of the fifth month. This again is -derived 
from sanae-tsuki (sanae sprouts of rice). 

b From uku float, the idea being that of inconstancy or change. Another ety- 
mology derives the word from the adjective tes/ii, uki sorrowful. 

C Also shukivaku-daka, deki-daka, tore-daka. 


t handkerchief. ninzuru, ninjite appoint. 

naka ga ii be on good terms, at-to sum subdue, crush. 

saezuru, saezutte sing, chirp, chin-cho suru prize. 

twitter, warble. an-gwai (ni) unexpectedly. 


Usuitoge a no muko ni Oiwake to iu mura ga arimash'te soko 
kara yoku Asamayama ni noborimas'. Angivai ni hay aim 
me ga yoku narimash'ta. Ts'kue no ue ni aru suzuribako wo 
motte oide. Kono hoka ni(wa)nani mo gozaimasen. Usuitoge 
no temae ni Sakamoto to iu mura ga arimas' ; komban wa soko 
ye tomarimasho. Go monzen wo torimash'ta kara, chotto 
ukagaimash'ta. Nenshi (no rei) ni wa matsu no uchi ni 
ikaneba narimasen. b Matsu no uchi to iu no iva shogwatsu no 
nanuka made no koto de kadomatsu no tatete aru aida wo iu 
no des'. Taiko no Chosen-seibats' wa sambyaku nen hodo mae 
no koto des'. Mukashi no shiro no mawari ni ica isJn'gak-i ga 
tsuite atte fkai hori ga hotte arimasli'ta. Ueno no ura n i 
dobutsuen ga arimas'. Watakushi ga Asamayama no ue ni 
nobotta toki ni wa taiso ku/notte ite toku no ho wa ikko micna- 
katta. Saikyo no miyako ni natta no wa nambyaku nen zen no 
koto des' ka. Sayo sa, karekore sen hyaku nen mae no koto des'. 
Fukuro no naka no nezumi. c Samurai wa meiyo no tame ni 
wa yoku inochi wo s'temash'ta. Kdmori mo tori no uchi. d 
Yononaka ni neru hodo raku na koto wa nashi : nk/'t/o no 
wa okite hataraku. e Are wa san /tin kijndui no uchi de 
no ko des'. Hoken jidai ni wa kuge ga buke no tame ni 
sarete imash'ta. En no sh'ta no chikrt'iii<>clii. f Kitlo san 

a A pass on the Wakasemfo, leading from the province of Kotsuke to Shinano. 

b Within the pines, i. e., while the pines (Aai/omatsn) still stand at the gate. 
In some localities the matsu stand until the I5th. 

c A proverbial expression indicating a being under restraint and at the mercy 
of others. 

d The above expression may lie used jocularly when a person finds himself in a 
company to which he has hardly a claim to be admitted. 

e A comic poem. 

f This proverb is applicable when a person's exertions are not noticed or appre- 
ciated by others, just as an athlete under the veranda might vainly strive to lift 
the house and no one would be the wiser for it. 


kuni no tame ni ko ga atta kara, ii o yaku ni ninzeraremask'ta. 
Bumpo no ue de iva machigai de wa arimasen ga, amari so wa 
iimasen. Momban no uclii iva jiki mon no soba ni arimas'. 
Semmai no dor' no uchi(ni)hachi ju mai nise ga atta. Sensui 
no gururi ni shiba wo itte tokorodokoro ni satsuki ya tsuge too 
uemash'ta. Me no mae ni oru mono ni sonna koto wo itcha shi- 
tsurei.des'. Dai Nihonshi wa a oyoso ni hyaku nen mae ni Mi- 
to de dekimashita hon de gozaimas'. Komei tenno no tsugi ni 
ima no tenshi sama ga kurai ni ts'karemash'ta. Kawa no 
mukogaiua de hito ga tsuri wo sh'te imas'. Sono ori no ndka 
ni kuma ga sambiki orimas*, os' ga ni Juki ni mes' ga ippiki. 
Ni ju nen mae ni wa kempojo no giron de gotagota sh'te ima- 
sh'ta. Giron no ue de iva makete mo jissai ni oite iva kachi- 
mash'ta. Kono yama no kage ni mizuumi ga arimas'. Osan- 
don ga ido no hata de o sliaberi wo sum no wo idobata-kwaigi 
to moshimas'. Hashi no kiwa ni koya ga tatte ite soko de hashi- 
sen wo torimas'. Ano onna no byoki wa mattaku ki no sei des'. 
Tokyo de mo Shinjiku atari ye iku to, mo inaka ni narimas'. 
Tatami no omote ni nani ka ji ga kaite arimas'. Anofutari 
iva shinrui de ari nagara taihen naka ga warui. 

By the torii there is a good hotel. He gave (s'teru) his life 
for his country. About twenty years ago it happened that 
(koto ga aru) paper money was below par (the market price 
of paper money fell) . The crop of rice for (of) one year in the 
whole of Japan amounts to (is) over forty million koku, it is 
said. Have you served in a foreigner's house before (made) this ? 
Are you busy (in the midst of business) just now? When did 
you return from America ? It was (is) about seven years ago. 
Hibachi are injurious to (for) the health. Among singing 
birds those most prized in Japan are the blue flycatcher and 
(ni) the robin and the bush-warbler. The blossom of the/wK 
comes out in winter from under the snow. It is said that it 
was (8) [in] 287 (7) A. D. (6) that (wo wa 5) Chinese books (1) 
first (2) came (4) to Japan (3). Put the clothes all (sukkari) 
into the (inside of the) trunk. There are many fleas under 

a A famous historical work. Mifo was the castle town of the daimyo of the 
province of Hitachi on the east coast north of Tokyo. See p. 89 g. 


these tuft I. ni i. Take the clothes out of [the inside of] the cl< * 
Formerly straw matting was laid in the prisons instead of 
fata in i. Now one can go from Yokohama to San Francisco 
within two weeks. The Japanese use paper instead of hand- 
kerchiefs and put (ireru) it into their sleeves. Shall we look 
at (kembutsu sum) the inside of the temple? The streets in 
(nai) Tokyo city are not very good. The post office is just 
(Jiki) opposite the police station. There are ruins of a castle 
on this mountain. Willow trees grow (sodatsu) well by the 
water. Who is the person that stood beside you? He is my 


The subordinatives of certain verbs correspond to English 
prepositions or expressions resembling prepositions: 
ni kakete until. 
100 motte with, by means of. a 

Kusari wo motte tsunagu fasten with a chain. 
ni mukatte, ni muite over against, vis-a-vis lacing, toward. 
ico nozoite (wo nozdku no hoka) except. 
ni oite in, at, on (formal). 
ico sashite toward, in the direction of, with reference to. 

Tokyo wo sashite iku go toward Tokyo. 

Taiin b to iu no wa tsnki (no koto) ico sashite iu no desu. 

The name taiin has (is said with) reference to the moon. 
ni shitagatte (ni shitagaeba) in accordance with (formal). 
ni shite (tva), to shite (wa) for, as (p. 216). 
sugite (sugi), tatte (tattara) after. 
100 toshite through. (Anglicism). 
ni totte for. 

Sore wa watakushi ni totte taihen shiawase na Jcoto desu. 

That is a very fortunate thing for me. 
nitsuite concerning, regarding, about, with, under (a teacher). 

Kyokwasho-jiken ni tsuite concerning the text-book affair. 

a Motte is sometimes used pleonastically with de (p. 1 983). 

b The word tai-in corresponds to tai-yo sun. The Chinese words yd and in de- 
note respectively light and shade, or positive and negative, or male and female. 
Compare San-yo-do the region south of the mountains and San-in-db the region 
north of the mountains. 




Givaikoku no sensei ni tsuite under a foreign teacher. 

ni yotte (ni yoreba, yoruto) according to, by the aid of (formal). 

ni kwan shite = ni tsuite.* 

ni tai sliite =ni miikatte. 

To this list might be added nakute (or naku} without. For 
nakute one may substitute naslii ni (p. 98b). To either form 
ica may be added when a negative verb follows: nakucha, na- 
slii ni iva. 

Politer forms may be substituted in some cases ; e. g., ni oki- 
mashite, ni tsukimashite. 

Some of these subordi natives may be used attributively: 
kore ni tsuite no o hanashi the talk about this; Sliina ni tai shi- 
te no or (tai suru} sei-ryaku the policy in regard to China. 


excuse. b 

kura saddle. 

okite law, statute, precept. 

tsuru 1 

7 , > vine. 

katsura j 

shinai a stout foil made 

of bamboo. 
ii-wdke \ 
moshi-wake j 

me-tie, meue no hito person 
of higher rank. 

me-shita, meshita no hito per- 
son of lower rank. 

nakodo go-between. 

sashi-zu directions, instruc- 
tions (sashizu wo suru di- 
rect, instruct), 

te-gara meritorious deed. 

te-suri hand-rail, banisters. 

tsuri-bashi hanging or sus- 
pension bridge. 

han fief, clan, daimiate. 

gan-kwa ophthalmology. 

hatsu-on pronunciation. 

is-shu one kind. 

kan-kwa influence. 

ken-jutsu art of fencing. 

ki-kin famine. 

nd-gyo agriculture. c 

seki-jun order of seats. 

sho-doku disinfection. 

shu-moku wooden hammer 
used in striking a bell. 

so-shiki organization, system. 

taku-hatsu (lit. trusting bowl) 
begging (of monks), mendi- 

a Kwan suru forms an exception to the rule given on p. 214, 7. 

b Moshi-wake ga gozaimasen. My behavior has been inexcusable. I can't say 
anything in my defence. 

c Compare ko-gyo manufactures, sho-gyo commerce. In former times there were 
four classes : shi samurai, no, ko and sho. 


toku-ten special favor, privi- Ji'/ti pity/ benevolence. 

lege. jihi-bukai merciful, benevo- 
un-chin charges for freight. lent. 

denshin-ryo, dempo-ryo cost shirizdku retreat. 

of a telegram. hiki-korosu kill by drawing 
ik-ka-jo one article, one ite m asunder, or by running over. 

(comp. p. 86,5). hfii stern abolish. 

isamashii brave, intrepid. meizuru command. 


Nihon zentai ni so iu fiizoku ga atta to iva iemasen; han 
han ni yotte chigatte orimash'ta kara. a Sore wa mesh'tsukai 
ni mukatte iuno des' kara, teinei ni iivanak'te mo yd gozaimas'. 
Oya-koko ni tsuite Shina ni niju shi ko no (p. 233c) hanashi 
ga arimas'. Go enryonaku (nashi ni) ossliattc k'uhtwi. Mn- 
ko no ume no eda ni kami ga tsuite imasu ga, an- ir <1<~> in 
wake des' ka. Sayo, are wa ume no liana ni tsuite yonda uta 
ga kaite aru no des'. Tomodachi ni tsuite shiraxushirazv tol 
tokoro made ikimash'ta. Jibiki nashi ni ica kotola no kciko 
wa dekimas'mai. Seiyojin mo ima de wa ryokomenjo nashi 
ni naichi ivo tabi suru koto ya dekimas'. Me ga icaruku natta 
kara, megane ga nak'cha hon ga yomemasen. Mo ippai o a- 
gari nasai. Arigato, icatakusld ni sh'te ica tak'san itadaki- 
mash'ta. Nihon no onna no ko wa hagoita to iu mono wo motte 
hane wo ts'kimas'. Nihonjin wa shinai to iu mono wo motte 
kenjutsu no keiko wo suru. Okabo to iu no iva isshuno ine de, 
komugi no yd ni mizn nashi ni ts'kuremas'. Anata ni tai sh'te 
moshitvake ga gozaimasen. Meue no hito ni tai sh'te n-a tei- 
nei ni iicanakereba narimasen. ley as' ko no o dashi nasai- 
mash'ta hyakkajo no okite b ni yotte mukashi ica zainin wo 
ushi de hikikorosh'ta mon' da ga, ima iva o haishi ni narima- 
sh'ta. Go isshin go ica ittai ni mesh'ta no mono ni mnkatteiu 
kotoba ga taihen kirei ni narimash'ta. Bul&yo nokankirf ni 
yotte hito no kokoro ga taiso jihibukaku narimash'ta. Shosei 
no sekijun wa benkyo tofubenkyo to ni yotte kimemas'. Oya 

a Inversion of the usual order in the case of a causal clause occurs not infrequently 
in conversation, 
b Also called " Laws of leyasu. " They have been variously translated. 


TIG tegara ni ywi tok'ten wo motte kivampi de Seiyo ni ryuga- 
JCK wo meizeraremash'ta. Sendai iva Tdhoku ni oite ichiban 
okii tokicai des'. Kimura san wa Amerika ye itte karaju nen 
bakari sugite kaette mairimash'ta. Chokusetsu ni wa hanashi- 
niku gozaimas* kara, tomodachi wo tosh'te sodan itashimash'ta. 
Sore wa kimi ni totte furieki de wa nai ka. Watakushi wa 
K'ris'tokyo nikioan sh'te wa ikko fuannai de gozaimas 1 (ikko 
zonjimasen}. Aizu no Byakkotai wa jii roku shichi no ivakai 
samurai de soshiki sarete arimash'ta ga, taiso isamash'ku ta- 
takatta ato de iki-nokotta mono ga ju hakku nin Bentenyama 
made shirizoitekite hitori 100 nozoku no hoka (iva)mina seppuku 
sh'te shinde shimaimash'ta. 3 - 

The child came with (ni tsuite] its mother. I can't ride a 
horse without a oaddle. You can't practice penmanship with- 
out a model. Toward guests it's impolite. In Japan one can't 
marry without a go-between. Lately I heard an interesting 
story about Count Katsu. b The pronunciation of this word 
varies (chigau) according to locality. That is very well \vritten 
for a child. Some begging priests go about (walk) striking a 
bell with a shumoku. The hand rail of this hanging bridge is 
made of wistaria vines. That gentleman writes characters well 
with his left hand. Where (doko wo sash'te] are these pilgrims 
going? They are probably going to Zenkivoji. The cost of a 
telegram depends on (varies according to) the number ofkana. 
Shipping charges (funachin) depend on the size of the freight. 
According to Japanese law foreigners may not engage in (sum) 
agriculture in the interior. In accordance with the directions of 
the physician the whole house was disinfected. Japanese chil- 
dren say otottsan [or] okkasan to (nimukatte) their parents. Ac- 

a Aizu is a famous valley in Iwashiro between Nikko and the volcano 
Bandaisan. Its capital is Wakamatsu. The Byak-ko-tai (White Tiger Company) 
distinguished itself at the time of the Restoration, when the clan of Aizu held out 
against the Mikado's army. Benten-yama, from Benten, one of the shichi fiikujin 
(p. 2O4a). Note that laa may not be used with a noun when it is modified by a 
numeral following. Reversing the order we might say ju Jiakku nin no ikino~ 
kotta mono wa. 

b Katsu A'wa (no Kami} was an official of the Bakitfu at the time of the Resto- 
ration. By his prudent negotiations for peace he averted the destruction of Edo 
by the imperial forces. 


cording to a letter just received (todoita), he will arrive to- 
morrow evening (it is said). Under whom did you learn 
German ? He studied ophthalmology under a famous physician 
in (of) Berlin. As for the apples, put all except the rotten 
ones into this box. This year there is a famine in Tohoku. 
After about a month come again and see. 



Conjunctions also are divided into two classes, conjunctions 
proper and quasi-con junctions. The latter are simply substan- 
tives used in lieu of conjunctions. In general it is to be noted 
that the essential conjunctions belong to the words or clauses 
which they follow rather than to those which they precede. 
Further it should be remembered that where the English loose- 
ly connects coordinated clauses by means of such conjunctions 
as "and" or "or, " b the Japanese language usually by means of 
verbal inflections subordinates one clause to another (p. 162,1) ; 

Atsui kimono wo kinakereba kaze wo hikimasho. 

I must put on heavier clothing, or I shall catch cold. 

1. To is used(a) in the sense of "and" with nouns, pronouns 
and numerals, but never to connect indicative verbs. c To is 
used when all the items in a series are enumerated. It is re- 
peated after each word except the last. In formal speech, as 
in the literary language, it follows the last also. To the final 
to case-particles and postpositions may be added : 

Shoyu to mirin to su to (too) sambai mazete sambaizu to iimasu. 

A mixture of soy, mirin, and vinegar is called sambaizu. d 
On asyndetic constructions see p. 225a. 

a Setsu-zoku-shi,hom setsu join (compare hito nisessuru associate with a person), 
zoku tsuzukeni connect. 

b The student needs to be on his guard against the tendency to carry English 
conjunctions over into Japanese. Foreigners often disfigure their speech by exces- 
sive use of so shite, etc. 

c This does not apply to substantivized verbs : Fusaku de atta no to sumiga yasu- 
katta no de kontien uua yarna no mono ga taihen komatte imasu. The harvests hav- 
ing been bad and charcoal cheap, the mountaineers are in great distress. 

d To vary the expression one may also substitute ni for to: Su ni mirin to shoyit 
wo mazete, etc. Mirin is a sweet kind of sake. 


(1)) To after a verb in the present tense may mean -''if," 
"when," "so soon as" (in the last sen-e also. h> */!</>( ></). It 
expresses the idea of immediate sequence, either in a hypothet- 
ical or in an actual ease. Note that the present tense is re- 
quired even when the principal verb of the sentence is past: 

Taikutsu shite kxrn to, omoshiroi lion ga yomitaku narimasu. 

I begin to want to read an interesting book when I get weary. 

Kodomo gaseicho sum to'haha no trdusuke ni mirimfisu. 

When children grow up they are helpful to their mothers. 

kyaku san ga kuru to, sugu ni shokvji ico shimasho. 
We will eat as soon as the guests come. 

Yokucho ni naru to, mina dete ikimashita. 

The next morning all went away. 

So sum to in that case, then. 

(c) To in the sense of "that" connects dependent clauses 
with verbs meaning to say, promise, hear, believe, etc. It is the 
only mark of quotation, direct or indirect, and it may not be 
omitted as "that" may be in English. "I think I'll go" is 
always Jko to omoimasu. Not infrequently the principal verb 
is omitted and the to alone indicates the indirect character of 
the clause. Sometimes the verb of the dependent clause is 
omitted, so that the to immediately follows a noun or an inter- 
rogative pronoun : 

Honto (da) to omoimasu. I think it true. 

Honto to wa omoimasen. I do not think it true. a 

Hirata to iu Jn'to a man called Hirata. k 

Koi'e wa Eigo de nan to mosliimasu ka. 

What is this called in English? 
Note the double conjunction in: 

Asu kaette kureru yd ni io tanomaremashita. 

1 was asked to return to-morrow. 

a Mark the position of wa. 

b The idiom to iu corresponds to a simple apposition in English ; e. g., Mikado to 
iu kotoba the word "mikado"; ten to fuji the character "heaven." For to 'u> 
iu no wa see p. 2j2d. For to'iu to = to see p. 245, bottom: U 'atakushi ga dekakeru 
to in to, kitto ame ga furimasu. If I go out, it is sure to rain. So sum to hi to if we 
do that. 


To may also stand between an indirect question and the verb : 
Asa kuru lea to kikimashita. 
I inquired if he would come to-morrow. 

In, flto ka to omou, I think probably I'll go, the ka simply 
expresses doubt about going. a Often ii ka to omou is practically 
equivalent to ii to omou. On the other hand ka may stand 
between a dependent clause with to and the principal verb, giv- 
ing to either or both a sense of doubt or uncertainty: 

Kuru to ka iimashita. He said, I think, that he'd ccme. 

2. Dano (de aru no?) serves to connect nouns when the series 
is not closed and one might proceed further in the enumeration. 
It must follow every word in the list, including the last. It 
may also be translated "or." An expression like iroiro usually 
follows the last dano: 

Bara dano, ajisai dano, tsubaki dano, iroiro arimasu. 
There are various kind?, roses, hydrangeas, camellias, etc. 

3. Ka is ordinarily a particle of interrogation. It is joined 
to dependent as well as to principal clauses, and is much used 
in double questions: 

Dekiru ka do ka wakarimasen. b 

I don't know whether it is feasible or not. 

Do ka ko ka sliiagemasliita. 

We got it done after a fashion . 

A single ka may serve the same purpose as the English "or" 
with nouns, numerals or sentences: 

Kono heya loa hachi jo ka jii jo desu. 

This room has eight or ten mats. 

Kiku ka ajisai ka nani ka liitotsu uemasho. [of the kind. 

I will plant chrysanthemums or hydrangeas or something 

Hairu ka hairanai ni mimashita. 

He saw it the moment he came in. 

a The idiom to omou to is used in the sense of "when I am about to. " Note 
also the elliptical construction: Mini to iva nashi ni mimashita. I happened to see 
it unintentionally. 

b Note that while one says do desu ka; in familiar talk there is a tendency to 
omit da in the expression do da ka, for the sake of euphony. Sore mita koto ka. 
Do you see ? ( = I told you so). Note also that after a principal clause ka may 
be omitted when the clause contains an interrogative word (p. I7g) : Do desu, but 
Do desu ka zonjimasen. 


The idiom to k<> is similarly used. A list of items connected by 
means of to 1: may end with hi ijo uc mono or similar words. 

4. The particle ya is in classical language used like ka. In 
the colloquial it appears in the idiom ya hm //<>, 'ma being 
a classical for in = nai: Kik ya ina ya tobidaftJiite itta. Be 
rushed out the moment he heard it. Note also : Nani ya k ya to 
forikande imasu. I am busy with all sorts of things. 1Y/ is also 
used like dano, but is omitted with the last noun, which is often 
followed \)\nado or nazo. A case-particle may then be attached : 

Kujaku ya kiji tea keiro ga utsukus/ni. 
Peafowls and pheasants (etc.) have beautiful plumage. 
Aramonoya de icahokiyasumiya tsukeginazo icourimasu. 
At coarse-goods-shops they sell brooms, charcoal, matches, etc. 

5. Yara too was originally interrogative. Its uses are anal- 
ogous to those of the interrogative particles explained above : 

Ima wakarete itsu au koto yara. 

We part now : when shall we meet again ? 

Doko ni oru (koto] yara watakushi nl wa ikko wakarimasen. 

I have n't the faintest idea where he is. 

Okuma toyara (in hito^yakorosarekaktmashita. An attempt 
ha>ln-en made to assassinate some one Qkuma, I think. 

Ano okamisan wa rambo de otokoyara onnc >/<n'<( icakai-aiiai 
hodo desit. The woman is eo unruly that one would 
hardly be able to tell whether she is a man or a woman. 

Shishi yara tora yara iroiro no dubutsn ga orhnasu. 

There are lions and tigers ami various kinds of beasts. 

6. Aruiwa is largely used as an adverb in the sense of "in 
some cases", "possibly"; especially common is its use before 

Qmu u'a aruiica icarattari (//////// ,i/'t(i,-f iroiro liito no 
mane wo A jiarrot now laughs and again 
weeps and in various ways iinitati-s ]>.ople. 

Nihon no rel:i*lii ni />/<> anriwa so /'<> /</'/" /"'/ t<> m<> k<t- 
girimasen.* In Jajiancse history too there may pos- 
sibly have Im-ii such 

:rn limit. I do not assert that (here are no such instances. One may 
substitute "< fur me, or say nai to wa iemasen* 


Aruiiva kuru lea mo shiremasen. He may come possibly. 
Aruiwa also serves as a simple conjunction in the sense of "or ": 

Uslii aruiiva uma nado ga nai to shita naraba 

If there were no oxen or horses- 
Note that aruiiva does not connect clauses except when the 
verb is in the alternative (or inconclusive) form. 

7. Matawa is synonymous with aruiiva as a conjunction, not 
as an adverb, and in a series is often for the sake of variety sub- 
stituted for aruiiva. It is used like the English "or," at the 
beginning of a sentence which ends in a question or expression 
of doubt : 

Matawa kondo no hakurankwai no koto de mo hanashima- 
sho ka. Or shall I speak of the recent Exposition ? 

8. Mosliikuwa simply connects nouns, like aruiiva or matawa. 
It is more formal. 

9. Shi is a disjunctive particle marking the transition from 
one to another of two coordinate clauses (p. 14d) : 

Niwa ni wa momo no ki mo aru shi, sakura no ki mo aru. 
In the garden there are both peach and cherry trees. 

10. Ga is mildly adversative : a 

Habakari desu ga (p. 279,6), sonofude wo totte kudasai. 
I am sorry to trouble you, but would you hand methat/MC?e? 
The second clause is often understood (p. 161e). Not infre- 
quently ga is a mere connective without any adversative sense: 
Kesa shimbun wo mite imashita ga,futo myd na koto wo 
miidashimashita. I was reading the paper this morn- 
ing when I happened to see a strange bit of news. 
At the beginning of a sentence da ga may mean li nevertheless" 
( =sore de mo], or it may mean nothing. 

11. Keredomo, originally the concessive form of the classical 
auxiliary keri, is more strongly adversative. 

12. Shikashi, shikashi-nagara, or sari-nagara, is the strong- 
est adversative. b 

a Like ga, the particles ni(no ni) and wo (jnono wo] are used as adversative 
conjunctions (pp. 149, 273). 

b Shika is the classical equivalent of so; shikari id desu. In formal speech 
variants taken from the literary language are much used; e. g., shikaru ni, shikari 
to iedonio, etc. Comp. shika mo moreover. Another equivalent is to wa in mono no. 


13. Nara(ba\ or, more rarely, nareba (p. 246b), the con- 
ditional form of the classical verb "to be," shows its original 
sense in such idioms as o iriyo nara if you need it, Sayo nara 
Goodbye! a ( lit. if it is so...). Note naze naraba "for" (p. 224b). 
In addition to nara(ba} or a conditional inflection the hy- 
pothetical character of a clause may be made more prominent 
by the use of an anticipative conjunction, moshi or man-iclii. 

14. Moshi, moshi mo, moshi ya if. 
Moslii dare lea o kyaku ga attar a... 
If a visitor should come. . . 

Moshi go yd ga arimasu wara...If you need [me]... 

15. Man-ichi (lit. ten thousand to one)=- italicized "if." 

16. Mo in the sense "even if", "although", "though only," 
may follow the subordinative (pp. 167, 172) or, rarely, the in- 
dicative. With the indicative to mo is more common. 

Sliinu to mo koko wa ugokanai. 
I'll not budge though I die for it. 
When repeated, mo is to be rendered "whether or": 
Atte mo nakute mo onaji koto desu. 
It doesn't matter whether it is there or not. 
On mo mo in the sense of "both and", "either or", 
" neither nor," see p. 354. It is thus used, not only with sub- 
stantives, but also rarely with verbs: 

Ik it mo ikanai mo ivatashi no k<>t(<' <1. 
I am free to go or not, as I please. 
Compare: Iku to mo ikanai to mo whether lie goes or not. 

Concessive clauses may be emphasized by prefixing w*/ii, 
man-ichi, f"t<>/. or yoslii. 

17. Tatoi: 

Tatoi shinu to mo yatte miimkxcltn. imrimasen. 
I must attempt it even if it costs my life. [atte mo... 

Jissai sonno /.<>/ n;i /////. */,//,-( W,/ t1<>! m>mui k<>fo ga 
In reality there i< no such thing, luit even if there were... 

18. Yoshi (t/a), yonliiinbn: 

Yoshi ya-samui hi g<> <<ll>' mo It! ir<> (nkn lilo no koto /' 

a Instead of sayo nara, people sometimes say: Sjreja^o w.ikare mjsftimasu, or 
shikkfi itashiinasii). 


arimasumai. Even if we have cold days it will scarcely 
so be cold as to make it necessary to have a fire. 

Yoshiya kore kara y<~>jin shita tokoro ga, mo nawumai. 

Even if he should be careful hereafter he'll hardly recover. 

19. Tote, 'tte (=to itte). The idiom to tote orto, 'tie 
without mo has a concessive sense: so itta 'tte=so itte mo\ shin- 
da 'tte=shinde mo. Note also: 

Gakko ni haittareba tote amari dekiru yd ni wa narumai. 

Even if he enters school he will not amount to very much. 
Compare sareba tote nevertheless. Tote may indicate purpose : 

Anokoga kono sakanaivo anata ni agetai totejibunderyo- 
ri wo itashimashita. The little girl cooked the fish her- 
self with the intention of giving it to you. 

20. Nagara (mo)" while", "though," is used after the stems of 
verbs (p. 279, 6; or Chinese compounds. In some connections 
it has a slightly adversative sense, as in habakari nagara: 

Go kuro (mendo) nagara... I am sorry to trouble you, but... 
Shitsurei nagara... Pardon me, but... 

kinodoku nagara... I am very sorry for you, but... 

21. Shidai as soon as (p. 281 b) : 

Konnichi gakko gasumi shidai agarimasho. 

1 will come to-day as soon as the school closes. 

22. Kara with an indicative verb is causal: 
Sore da kara (shite}... For that reason... 

Following a subordinative kara ( ni) means "after": 
Uchi ye kaette kara (ni) tegami wo kakimashifa. 
I wrote a letter after I got home. 

23. Yori after, since: 

Hito me miru yori shitaivashiku omoimashita. 

I felt attached to him from the time I saw him. 

Haha ga bydki ni kakatte yori konokata chitto mo soto ye 

deru hima ga arimasen. 
Since mother became sick I have not had time to go out. 

24. Made or made ni until, before (p. 379) : 
Sensei ga kuru, made slntalcu shite imasho. 
I will study until the teacher comes. 

Sensei ga kuru made ni shitakit shite okimasho. [conies. 
I will have my lesson prepared by the time the teacher 






kumo wild duck. 

Jiar-iko papier-mache. 

hi-deri drought. 

ko-sode wadded silk garment. 

namari 1 , . , 

ben | dialect ' 

bateren (Portuguese padre) 

Christian missionary of the 

XVI. Century. 
o (sama ) king. 
ba-sho place. 
doku-ritsu independence ( 

suru be independent) . 
fa-setsu rumor. 
geki-sen hard fighting. 
Tiyo-gi consultation. 
ji-slm voluntary confession. 
l-<(k-ke beriberi. 3 
ki-Jtei cavalry. 1 ' 
seki-to stone monument. 

sJu'n-seki relative (elegant, p. 

ik-ka-chu (ka house) the body 
of a feudal lord's retainers. 

kai-shaku-nin assistant, sec- 
ond (in harakiri). 

tsu-shin-ja correspondent (of 
a newspaper). 

honeppoi bony, obstinate. 

kurmhimu suffer (tr. kuru- 

tonaeru call, name, recite, 

utsuru remove (of residence), 
p\ss (of time), catch (of 
fire, disease, etc.), be re- 

ami wo utsu cast a net. 

givan=negai request, prayer. 

gwan tco kakc'ru make a vow. 


Kono dekimono ga moshi okiku narcba. zclii liiranal- 
naranai. Itsu mo no o isTia san no tokoro ye ittc sxgu ni kite 
kudasaranka tokiitc koi. c Nikko no Oammangafuchi t<> iu 
tokoro ni d Amida no zo ga tak'san tatte orimas' ; ikum 81 
kazu wo kazoete mite mo kanjo ga cliigau to iimas > . J/" 
wa shogwatsu ni naru to, Mikaica e kara Tokyo yc 

a From kaku = kyaku = as/ii leg, and ke ki in byoki illness. Kakkc is a dis- 
ease affecting the nerves and heart and resulting in partial paralysis or numbness 
of the limbs. See Chamberlain, ''Things Japanese." 

b Compare ha-hei infantry (lio = arukit), hl>-liei artillery (V/f> -- gun). 

c Itsu mo no o isha san may be translated "family physician." 

d The name of a pool (/<:/;/) in the Daiya River near Nikko. On the bank 
stand the statues of Amida alluded to above. 

e The name of a province on the TokaiJo, betsveen Tokyo and Osaka, Jt was 
the original home of the Tokugawa family. 


Sh'to wo sh'te moratta 'tte tennento ni kakaranai koto wa nai. 
Ko iu baai ni wa wo to iuji ga atte mo nak'te mo onajikoto des'. 
Kanai ga ii to, teishu wa sliimpai ga nai. Seppuku no toki ni 
iva tonin ga hara wo kiru to, soba ni kaishakunin ga otte sugu 
ni kubi wo kiriotosh'ta mon' des'. Nihon ni nagdku ite mo ben- 
kyo shinai to, lianaslii ga dekimasen. Watakushi wa sake wo 
nomu to, sugu ni kao ga akaku narimas'. Ha wo nuite mo~ 
rau to, sugu ni itami ga tomarimash'ta. Anata hodo dekima- 
sureba, Doits' ye oide nas'tte iclii nen mo tattara tassJia nihana- 
shi ga dekimasho. Tokyo ye kite ni san shukan tats' to, hai- 
byo ninarimash'ta. Sliinu ka ikiru kaf'tatsu hitotsu. a Ne- 
zumi-kozo iva b do sh'te mo ts'kamaeraremasen desh'ta kara, oya 
wo ro ni iremash'ta ; so suru to, oya no kurushinde iru no wo 
kiite tsui ni jisliu sh'te deta so des'. Nezumi-kozo no haka no 
gururi ni furui sekito ga yama no yo ni tsumiagete arimas' ; 
sore wa tomi ni ataru yo ni haka ye kite gwan wo kakete, mo- 
shi ataru to, sono o rei ni atarashii sekito ivo motte kite furui 
no ivo ivaki ye tsunde oku kara des'. Domo, kuruma ni notte 
itte mo ma ni aimas'mai. Mukaslii samurai iva iclii mon no 
zeni ivo nusunde mo ikkachu ga hyogi sh'te hara wo kirasema- 
sh'ta. Iroiro kaimono ga aru kara, hi ma nara issho ni itte 
kuren ka. Nani ivo o motome ni narimas' ka. Chikai uchi 
ni Seiyo ye kaeru kara, iroiro mezurashii mono ivo miyage ni 
katte iko to omou ; shikashi hitori de iku to, taiso kakene ivo iu 
kara, dozo issho ni itte kure. Sono matsu nofuriiva shizen ni 
a iu n' des' ka, matawa teire wo sh'te ts'kutta n' des' ka. Mo- 
rau mono nara, natsu mo kosode. c Kosode to wa kinu no wata- 
ire no koto defuyu no mono des'. Satsumajin wa seinan no 
ik'sa ?w d shinu ka ikiru kaftatsu hitotsu to kesshin sh'te hi jo 
ni gekisen shimash'ta. Tenka to iu no to tenga to iu no to do 
chigaimas' ka. G Ano hito wa ano uchi no shinseki des' ka. 

a Futatsu hitotsu expresses the idea of a dilemma. It is a matter of life and death. 

b Lit. rat-fellow (p. 153), a notorious robber in the Tokugawa era. His grave 
is behind the temple Ekoin in Tokyo. 

c As a gift costs nothing, one is glad to accept it even if there is -no immediate 
use for it. 

d From sei west, nan south; commonly called the Satsuma Rebellion. 

e The word tenka (lit. under heaven) by nigori becomes tenga. The Shogun 
used to be called Tenga Sctma, 


Betsu ni shinseki to iu ivake de mo arimasen ga, nan 1 de mo 
taiso kokoroi/asuku side oru yd des'. Ano lien ni shima ga 
aru to miete tori ga taiso tatte mas'. Kore de manzoku sure- 
ba ii ga, shikashi so wa ikimas'mai. a So in ka mo shiremasen 
ga, mada kiita koto iva arimasen. Ame nofuru no wo osorete 
soto ye denai to, sono hito wo hariko da to iimas'. Dfotoyori 
to mochiron to ica goku wazuka na chigai des'. Itsu ame ga 
yamu kotoyara. Yakamashii koto bakari iu hito wo honeppoi 
to iimas'. Ame gafutte imas' ka. Furu koto icafutte imasu 
ga, kakubetsu no koto wa arimasen. Doits' no kihei wa karada 
ga okii kara, reifku wo kirn to, taiso hittaite miemas'. Tsu- 
shinja wa shimbun no tane ga naknte komaru no de, sonnafu- 
setsu wo koshiraeta no ka mo shirenai. Yoshimune ko iva b 
sessho kindan no basho ni ami ico ucJiimash'ta kara, Qoka ni 
totts'kamaeraremash'ta. Nihonjin ica amari so iu fu ni ii- 
masen ga, zehi iicanakerela naranai baai ni ica so in yori 
Jioka ni sh'kata ga arimas'mai. Kono ike tea sessho-kindan no 
basho de dare MO torimasen kara, gan ya kamo ga tdk'san 
orite imas' (p. 163.5). Hanash'ka to iu mono tea omoshiroi 
mono de gozaimas' ka. Soyo sa, jozu heta de taiso chigai- 
mas'. Koko kara Yushima Tenjin c ye mairimas' ni wa do 
ittara yoroshu gozaimasho ka. Kore kara san cho saki ni hi- 
dari ye magaru yokocho ga ar imasu ga, soko ye ha itte sore ka- 
ra mata migi ye magatte massugu ni ikn to. sugu soko des'. 
Kusunoki Mamtsura wa chichi Masashige ga Minatogawa de 
uchijini sJite kara Kawachi ni kacrimaaWta. d Sekkaku lio- 
neotte koshiraeta no da ga, ima ja (de iva) yaku ni tutanaku 
narimash'ta. San nen saki no koto wo iu to, karas' ga warau. 

a Shitashi often follows^ pleonastically. 

b The eighth and one of the most famous of the Tokugawa shoguns. He lived 
in the first half of the XVIII. Century. Sessho-bindan, from st/su korosu, s/io 
life, kin forbid, dan ^- kotowaru, means the prohibition to kill animals. 

c A famous Shinto temple in Tokyo. Tenjin or Temmangu is the name by 
which Sugawara Michizane is worshipped ; Yushima is a district in Hongo, Tokyo. 

d Kmunoki Masashige^ father of the Masatsura named above, suffered defeat 
and killed himself on the bank of the Atinato River near Hyogo. The son after 
he became of age raised another army in behalf of the Emperor and likewise per- 
ished in battle. He is set before Japanese youths as a model of knightly virtue. 


Uclii ye kaeru ya may a byoki ni narimash'ta. Mukashi Sa~ 
tsuma-ben no mono to "Qshu-namari no mono to ga hanashi wo 
sh'ta tokoro ga, ryoho tomo sap oar i tvakaranakatta so des'. 

As soou as 1 arrive in Japan I will send you (sashiageru) a 
letter. The physician said that, as it is not at all a serious 
(tai sh'ta illness, he would come (coming see) again after 
two or three days. When English is literally translated into 
Japanese it becomes hard to understand. Is that gentleman a 
relative of yours (go shinseki) ? He is not a relative, but he 
is from (a person of) the same province [as myself]. The 
disease called kakke is apt to (yoktt) break out (okoru) when 
summer comes (it becomes! summer). From (kara iva) this 
house Mount Fuji can be seen and also the ocean (can be seen 
subord.) ; the scenery is very fine. Since I removed to To- 
kyo there has not once been (pres. } a large fire. He said that 
if he did not return by halF past eleven, we need not wait. It 
will be some time (there is still an interval ) before (made ni) 
spring comes. As the daimyo formerly were almost independ- 
ent, the padres called them ( the daimyo ) kings. These days 
it ought (hazu da] to rain, but on the contrary the drought 
continues. If it doesn't rain soon there will hardly be any 
crop of rice (rice will hardly be taken) this year. If the tree 
is dead (karete iru , dig it out (digging out finish). He would 
n't be in such distress if he had saved (saving put) money pre- 
viously. If there is any book that you need (go nyuyo no hon) 
for the study of Japanese, send me word (so saying send), [and] 
I will very soon buy [it] and send [it to you]. If you are in 
the midst of business, attend to it (yaru} without paying any 
attention to me (o kamai naku). When (no ni) it was better 
to leave it as it was. ''p. 226), why did you mend it? As Ten- 
Jin sama was fond of plum blossoms, plum trees are often 
planted around [his] shrine. A man who is irritable and easily 
(yoku) gets angry is called multappara(tachi).* If I don't 
take notes (hikki sh'te oku), I forget everything. 

a From mukau oppose, and kara ga tatsu (kara ivo tateru) get angry. 



In many cases an English conjunction has to be rendered in 
Japanese by means of a substantive, the accompanying clause 
being in the attributive position (Ch. XIX.). Many of these 
substantives have been treated under the heads of The Adverb 
and The Postposition. The most common are : 

1. JA" \in'. wci) before: kuru mae ni or, raivly. konai mae 
ni before he comes. For the use of ni and ira j-ee p. 1 
hen may be substituted for mae, especially in sj leaking of his- 
torical events. 

2. Nochi (ni, iua) after. Compare: 
Wataknshigadeta nochi nikimashita. He came after I left. 
Gakko kara kaetta nochi de ii. 

It will do after you return from school. 

3. Saki (ni, ica) before: gakko ni Itaini taki ni before he 
entered the school. Compare: 

Oya ga shinda saki wa do shite ilton/ ij<>l:<iru ka. 
How shall we manage after father is dead? 

4. Ato de after. Compare : 
Kislia ga deta ato de kimashita. 
He came after the train left. 

Gozen wo tabeta ato ni (ye) kyaku ga kimashita. 
After we had eaten, visitors came. 
Ore ga nai ato de wa after Fm gone. 

5. He de after, until after (with negatives). He, ni means 
"and in addition." 

.Vita ue de kau ka mo sliiremas< . 

I may possibly buy it after I have seen it. 

Mita ue de nakereba kaicaremasen. 

I can't buy it until after I have seen it. 

Mukesashita ue ni kai mo shinaide itte shimaimashita. 

He made him reduce the price and then went off without 

buying anything. 
N"te also iju v<> : 

Mi'kesashita ijo wa kaioanakereba narimascn. 

After you have beat down the price you- ought to buy. 
6 Aidu (ni, im] while, as long as: matsuri no oru 
a^ lung as the festival lasts. 


7. UcJii (ni t iva} while, as long as, until (with negatives): 
Inaka ni oru uchi ni while I was in the country. 
Yome ni ikan uchi until she is married. 

8. Kagiri(ni wa or w;a)as long as, unless, without (with nega- 
tives, p. 155): 

Gessha ivo osamenai kagiri wa kyojo ni iru koto ivo yurushi- 
masen. [Students] are not permitted to attend the classes 
(class-rooms) as long as they are in arrears with the tuition. 

9. Toki when, as, if: 

Chodo neyo to omou toki ni j'ishin ga yurimashita. 
There was an earthquake just as I was about to retire. 
For the present tense the past may be substituted. In trans- 
lating the English pluperfect the past is required: 
Ame ga yanda toki ni yadoya ye tsukimashita. 
We arrived at the hotel after the rain had stopped. 
. Toki iva and toki ni iva are often used hypothetically, espe- 
cially with a preceding moshi or manichi: 

Moshi tegami ga nakuiiatta toki ni wa do itashimasho ka. 
If the letter should be lost, what shall I do ? 
Substantives or adjectives may take the place of verbs with 
toki ; e. g., kodomo no toki ni when I was a child, ivakai toki ni 
when I was young. 

Various substantives denoting time may be substituted for 

toki, such as ori, koro, tsuide, setsu, ji-bun, hyd-shi: watakushi 

ga Amerika ni iru (ita) jibun ni when I was in America . 

Rondon ye tegami wo dasu tsuide ni o tanomi no hon wo 

toriyosemasho. When I write to London I will order 

the book for which you have asked. 

10. Tabi (iambi} ni, tabi-goto ni as often as, whenever : ji- 
shin ga sum tdbi ni every time there is an earthquake. 

11. Tokoro is often to be rendered "just when", "just as." a 

a Tokoro desu is often to be rendered "just": Ima dekakeru tokoro desu. I am 
just going out (to a visitor). Tadaima okita tokoro desu. I have just gotten up. 
In the literary style tokoro is used like koto: Kore wnga hossuru tokoro nan. 
This is what I desire. The learned sometimes use tokoro in this sense even in the 
colloquial. Such expressions as the following are quite common : Koronda toko- 
ro wa minakatta. I didn't see the fall. In speeches tokoro no is freely used to 
connect adjectives or attributive (relative) clauses with the substantives which 
they modify. 


It may take various particles and postposition? according to the 
nature of the principal verb of the sentence: 

Gozen ivo tabete iru tokoro ye hito ga Icivnashita. 

A person came just as I was eating. 

Kiro to suru tokoro ivo hito ga tomemaskita. 

Just as he was about to cut [at him], some one interfered. 
For the idioms tokoro ga and tokoro de as adversative conjunc- 
tions see pp. 21 2c and 365a. The latter has three distinct uses : 

Maker u (maketa) to shita tokoro ga... 

Supposing that we are defeated... 

Maketa tokwo de nigemashita. 

When defeated they at once fled. 

Shobai wo shiyd to itta tokoi'o de, motode ga nakereba da- 
me desu. You may attempt to do business, but it is of 
no use without capital. 

Watakushi ga mita tokoro de ic. . . 

According to my observation.... 

The peculiar idiom dokvro ka or dokoi'o ja nai indicates that 
something that has just been said is very wide of the mark : 

Ano hito ica uta ga dekimasu ka. Utaeru dokcro ka : y ti- 
me i na ongakusha desu. 

"Can he sing?" I should say. He's a famous musician. 

Kuru made matenai dokoro ja arimasen to mo. 

There's nothing at all to prevent my waiting till he comes. 

12. Kawari (ni) but instead: a 

Kono ryo san nichi wa kumotte imashita kaicari ni kon- 
nichi iva sukkari haremashita. It has been cloudy the 
last two or three days, but to-day it is clear. 

13. Tori (ni) just as, as : 

Naze iitsuketa tori ni shinai ka ? 

Why don't you do as I told you ? 

Mae ni mo moshita tori desu. It is just as I said before. 

Sakki mo iu tori as I said before. 

14. Tame (ni) in order that, that: icasuren tame ni that I 

a "Instead of" is usually to be rendered by means of the negative suhordi native : 
Ki wo tsukezu ni hoka no koto wo kangaete orimashita. Instead of paying attention 
I was thinking of something else. 


may not forget. In formal speech the literary idiom of the 
future tense with ga is occasionally heard: shiran ga tame ni 
that we may know. 

15. Yd (ni) in such a manner that, so that, as if: 
Subette koroban yd ni ki u'o o tsuke yo. 

]')e careful not to slip and fall. 

Sono ki wo kaze nijukitaosarenai yo ni yoku sasaete kure. 

Support the tree so -that the wind will not blow it over. 
Especially common are the idioms yd ni suru(-p. 216, top) and 
yd ni naru : 

Okurenai yd ni sliitai mon' desu. 

I should like to arrange so as not to be late. 

Shina mo chikagoro iva dandan givaikoku to majiwaru yd 
ni narimashita. Recently China too has gradually come 
to have intercourse with foreign countries. 

Jigoku de hotoke ni atta yd ni ureshn gozaimashita. 

It was as delightful as if I had met a buddha in hell. 

Hampu no abura ga tsukita yd ni miemasu. 

It looks as if the oil in the lamp were exhausted. 

Aru yd ni iimashita. He spake as if he had it (p. 134d). 
Yd ni is frequently joined with mieru a and verbs of saying, 
as above. With verbs of hearing, thinking, etc., it is usually 
to be rendered "that" : 

Nani Tea so iu koto ga aru yd ni uketamaivarimashita. 

I. have heard that there is something of the kind. 

16. Hodo so that (of result or degree) : 

Anokiiva otona gaju nin kakaranakereba kakae-kirenai 
hodofutoi. The tree is so stout that it takes ten grown 
men to encircle it (if ten grown men do not take part, 
they cannot completely embrace it). 

Ano yama loa ten ivo tsuku hodo takai. 

That mountain is so high as to touch (pierce) the sky. 

a With mieru the conjunction to may also be used, especially in the form miete: 
Tabako ga suki da to miete fatso nomimasu. He appears to be fond of tobacco and 
smokes a great deal. Are wa kino sugti ni kane ivo kaesuyo na koto wo itte ikima- 
shita ga, hon no moshiivake to miete ima ni mada nwtte kimasen. He promised 
yesterday to return the money at once, but it must have been a mere excuse; he 
has n't brought it yet. On yd desu in the sense of "it is as though," "it seems that," 
see p. H7g. 




Kutabireru Jiodo sampo sliinakereba narimasen. 

You must walk enough to tire yourself. 

In these sentences gurai may be substituted for liodo. But in 
speaking of a simple fact liodo only may be used: Kutabireru 
hodo sampo shimashita. a 

17. Yue (ni) for the reason that, because, accordingly. Yue 
belongs to formal speech. Note sore yue ni therefore, in 
narratives the verb of the clause may be omitted so that words 
like mono, koto, etc., immediately precede yue : to iu yd na 
koto yue on the ground that. 



chinami connection, blood- 

ama-gaeru tree toad (ame 

fumi-kiri railroad crossing. 

furu-mai (originally: behav- 
ior) entertainment, ban- 
quet (also kyd-d}. 



yani exudation, gum. 

matsu-yani turpentine, resin. 

me-kiki judging the character 
of a curio, a connoisseur. 

/,-'in-tei = me-kiki judging the 
quality of an article. 

uranai divination, fortune- 

uranai-ja diviner. 

uttae-goto lawsuit. 

hatoba wharf, pier. 

ei-gyo avocation, business. 

han-dan decision, judgment. 

in-kyo retiring from active 
life and from the headship 
of the family. 

ryo-shi =karindo hunter. b 

san-dai going to the Palace 
for an audience or to pay 
one's respects. 

sJmkii-lto a salute of guns. 

tsii-ko (tori-t/uki) passage. 

kden-chi=ko-cn park. 

mom-bu-sho Department of 

en-gi no ii of good omen (of- 
ten proncd. ingi). 

a in item lose presence of mind, 
become excited. 

yuwaeru, iwaeru=yuu bind, 

kiijiku crush, sprain. 

kuruu act irregularly, be out 
of order, be in a frenzy. 

wazurau suffer (yamai wo). 

hazukashimeru insult. 

a Compare : Kutabirent hodo (or JaJte") ii. 
For naru dake and dekini dake see p. H2d. 
b Ryo-shi may also mean "fisherman." 

The more tired you are the better. 



Danna sama, go skuttatsu no o sh'taku wa itsugoro made 
ni sumash'te okeba yoroshu gozaimashd ka. Itsu de mo tateru 
yd ni sh'te oke. Ano hito wa taisd lean ga tsuyoi ; giron wo 
sxru tambi ni hidoku okorimas'. Ano hito ica dekiru dake 
benkyd sum tsumori da to mdsh'te imash'ta ga, chikagoro ica 
nandaka asonde (asunde) bakari iru yd des'. Watakuslii wa 
san jissai ni naru made ichi do mo (yamai ivo) wazuratta koto 
<jn iiakatta yd ni omoimas'. Ha ga waruku naranai yd ni 
matsuyani wo kamu hito mo arimas'. Tonari no hey a de sami- 
sen no oto ga sh'te iru uchi wa do sh'te mo nemuraremasen. 
Ashi wo kujiite arukenai yd ni narimash'ta. Kazoekiren hodo 
tak'san arimas'. Mukashi ley as' kd ga Edo ni bakufu wo hi- 
raite kara manzai mo ddkoku no chinami de (wo motte} Mi- 
kawa kara Edo ni dete eigyd wo suru yd ni natta ga, kd mo 
kokyd no mono yue betsudan soi~e ivokinzerarenakatta. Ano 
scito ica Eigo wo narau tame ni mainichi ni ri hodo zutsu 
aruite gakkd ye kayotte imas' so des\ Koko ni wa so iu hon 
wa gozaimasen kara, Amerika ye teg ami wo das' tsuide ni so 
itte yatte yokosh'te moraimashd. Yubinsen no ma ni au yd ni 
kono tegami wo kaite shimatvanakereba narimasen. Wataku- 
slii iva hataraite oru uchi wa tabako wo nomimasen. Ame ga 
furidash'ta jibun ni chddo yadoya ni ts'kimash'ta. You hodo 
sake wo nonde wa ikemasen. Ano hito iva soba de kiite ora- 
renu hodo no ivarukachi wo iimas'. a Chi no hodo inu 
ni kamaremash'ta. Hito ni damasaren yd ni chui senakereba 
naranai. Watakuslii ica jishin ga suru tambi ni itsu mo 
aiuatemas'. b Sensei ga irassharu mae ni anshd sh'te okimashd. 
Fuki no to ica mada yuki no kienai uchi ni demas'. Ooka 
Echizen no kami wa mutsukashii uttaegoto wo kiku toki ni wa 
slidji no uchi de cha wo hiki nagara kikimash'ta ; sore wa hito 
no kao-katachi wo miru to, sore ni ugokasarete shirazushirazu 
handan wo ayamaru koto ga aru no to, mata kokoro ga tatte 

a Hodo with the attributive clause belonging to it is governed by luarukuchi. 
Such constructions occur not infrequently with ordinary conjunctions (see the end 
of the sentence beginning with ~Qoka, below). " 

b Itsu mo is pleonastic. 

412 THE CoN.rrxcTiox. [LXXXIII 

kuru to, te ga kumttc dm </ "/v//r// demas' kara des'. a Go 
kigrn >/n to int hitn ni ox toki HI inn /.'//,v//v/-;/ tnki ni nio iu 
kotoba des'. As'ko n! hitn <jn <>,-u i/o ni miemas*. As'ko niki 
ga uete am yd ni ;///>///"$'. Kono kitfa/m no mckiki wo nas'ttc 
ku.dasai. Watakimhi )io kantci (sum tokoro) de ica Bizen- 
mono an >jo it! nn/mrm-r/nas'. l) Watakushi no itta tor! n! nhi'm. 

ll'ittakushi no kiita tokoro de tea saki no Mombudaijin de atta 
Mori Yurei shi wa he no taibi/o de burei wo sh'ta to iu koto des'. 

Watakushi ga mita tokoro de iva shiro gozaimash'ta. Atna- 
gaeru wa ame gafuru toki ni naki/iias*. Sampo sum toki ni 
wa shiju tsue ivo motte ikimas'. Do atte mo mairu yd ni 
itashimaslw. Rydshi ga sh'ka no hashitte iru tokoro ico uclti- 
mash'ta. Kdenchi no liana ivo totte iru tokoro wo junsa ni 
mits'keraremash'ta. Chddo nei/o to sum toki ni tonari kara. hi 
ga demash'ta (broke out). Kisha ga kum tokoro ye kodomo 
ga dete hikikorosarenmsh'ta. Dekakcyo to sum tokoro ye o 
kyaku ga kimash'ta. Mukashi wa samurai ga chonin ni Jm- 
zukcuhimerareta toki ni wa sugu ni kirizute ni shimash'ta. c 
ki/akit ico sum (furinnai ico sum} d toki ni ica ryurii/a ni 
iits'kem to, nani mo ka mo motte kima*'. Ki/aku ga kima- 
sh'ta toki ica chodo hon wo yomiagete shimatta tokoro desJCta. 
I get headache every time I smoke tobacco ; so I will quit. 
America by the time (made ni wa) you return (to America) 
will probably be changed in many respects (banji). As 
(tokoro ga) L was going to the pier, a man-of-war entered the 
harbor and fired a salute of three guns (sampatsu). If you 
walk enough to tire yourself, you will probably be able to sleep. 
When you go out, shut (shutting put) the door tight. Europeans 
could not live in the interior of Japan before the treaties were 
revised (kaisei ni naru). I should like to meet you once more 
before I leave. If you study Japanese diligently (benkyo sh'te) 
[for] even one year, you will probably learn to speak (it will 

a Cha u>o hikit pulverize tea with pestle and mortar for the ceremony oicha-no- 
yu\ kokoro ga tatte hunt become agitated; te ga X-/<r/<wihe hand becomes unsteady. 

b Bizen, a province in Chugoku, opposite Shikoku, was noted for its manufacture 
of swords. 

c Kirizute ni suru cut the offender down with a sword (kiru) and let him lie, 
giving himself no further concern {siitem). 

d Have company to dinner. 


become that you can speak) a little (wci). I have written it 
(writing put) just as I heard it. Do just as you were ordered. 
In order that the shingles may not be blown off (fly) when the 
wind blows, stones are placed upon them. leyasu, after he went 
into retirement (became inkyo), moved to Sumpu a and made that 
his residence (o snmai ni naru). Rub (hiku) camellia oil on the 
swords to keep them from rusting (that they may not rust). 
Take care that the rice does n't burn. I will make a note of it 
(kakits'kete oku} ?o as not to forget it. The Japanese in order 
not to forget a thing tie a finger with a paper string. The 
Japanese don't talk much at meal time. The fog is so thick 
(deep) b that one can't Fee well, but I think (cmoicareru) 
that (yd ni) there is an island there. When a train is pas- 
sing it is a dangerous thing to go over (kosu no wa} the rail- 
road crossing. Go and say (saying come that he shall come 
without fail. Qkubo Toshimichi was assassinated &s(tochu de) 
he was going to the Palace. As Kiyomori was going to Aki, c 
a fish jumped into the boat, and (ga) a diviner said that it was 
a good sign (thing of good omen). I should like to have (yd 
ni sh'tai mon' ties') you get well soon. ] should like to have it 
finished by to-morrow. See to it ^sh'te oke) that the fire does 
n't go out. 

a Sumpu is the old name of Shizuoka (p. g6e~). 

b A verb may without hodo express result or degree when a subordinative precedes 
(p. 101,2). 

c Kiyomori, of the clan of Taira(Hei-ke}, was in the second half of the XII. 
Century Da-jd-daijin (prime minister) and the most powerful man in the country. 
Aki is a province on the main island west of Bizen, Its chief city is Hiroshima. 


Interjections may be divided into two groups. The lirst 
consists of mere sounds expressive of emotion : 

1. A Ah of a sudden perception or recollection, delight, 
admiration, alarm, weariness, etc. 

2. Ei of displeasure or contempt: b 
Ei, urusai ko da nei. 

Don't "bother me (you are an annoying child). 

3. Ma Well of pleasure, satisfaction, amazement, hesi- 
tancy, exhortation, etc. 

Md, ma, yoku irasshaimashita. 

Well, well, I'm glad you've come. 

Md, yokatta. Well, that was fine. 

Md, do shita mon' daro. Well, what shall we do ? 

Md, sonna imi desn. Well, it means something like that. 

Ma, ippiiku o agari nasai. Come, have some tea. 

4. Sa, sd Come urging, inciting, encouraging: 
Sd, ikimasho. Come, let's go. 

Sd, sd. Come (or go) on! 

5. Ya, yd of surprise, delight, alarm. 

6. 01, oioi Hello! (used mostly by men in trying to get the 
attention of others, especially inferiors). 

7. Oya, oyaoya of surprise: 

Oi/a, so desu ka Indeed ! you don't say ? 
Oyaoya, taihen na arashi desu. 
Whew! it's a dreadful storm. 
Oyaoya, o cha wo koboehimashita. 
Oh dear, I've spilled the tea. 

8. Yare, yareyare of weariness, relief: 
Yarriftirc, </<* L-ttro ifc.^/t /'/</. 

It's too bad to liavc burdened yon BO. 

9. DoJckoi, dokkoisho eiu'oura^in--. warning. 

a Kan-to-shi, from kan=-aiJn, \. c., "intiT- ".nnd/c- iinynt throw, i. c., "-jcct." 
h Hei (p. 356) is often pronounced ci: Ei, nan to ess/taimashidi fa, \Vhat di<l 
you say ? 


The second group consists of interjections which seem to have 
been derived from other words : 

1. Moshi, moskimoshi Hello! Say! (p. 207b). 

2. Nani What! Oh no! Nothing at all. 

3. Kora (kore iva} rebuking. 

4. Sora Look at that ! 

5. Ara of surprise, alarm or delight: 
Ara, taihen na koto ga dekimashita. 
Oh ! a terrible thing has happened. 

6. Do-mo of perplexity : 

Domo, ikemasen. Pshaw ! it's of no use. 
Nakandka domo (=it's exceedingly difficult). 
Md, ma, domo (of great astonishment). 

7. Naru-hodo I see, quite so, very true, indeed. Naruhodo 
may indicate the sudden perception of a new thought. It may 
also take the place of the ha's, he's, ei's, urn's etc., with which 
polite people punctuate a conversation to which they are lis- 
tening attentively. So desu kd may be used in the same way. 
Older men or provincials say also ikanimo or '/fcaso^a(p.354a). 

From the English have been imported liiydhiya (Hear, hear) 
and nond, exclamations indicating respectively approval and 
disapproval of a speech. Another expression is kin-cho = tsu- 
tsusliinde kiku I listen respectfully. a 

With the interjections should be classed the imperative par- 
ticles na and yo(p. 150,2) b and ?/a(vulgar, p. 249f); the inter- 
rogative particles ka,ya&udycera(C1a. LXXXII.),and thefainil- 
iar vocative ya (classical yo, p. 34f). Hana san may be called 
Hana ya by her superiors. A mother in calling her boy will say 
Bo ya. An aged servant may be addressed Jii ya (or Bd yd) . 

a While the speech of the average Japanese is more refined than that of the 
average foreigner, execration and the abuse of sacred words are by no means un- 
known. Vulgar people express their detestation of a person by saying Kutabare 
{kutabaru die}, or Skinde s/n'mae, or Shini-sokonai-me (lit. one who has failed to 
die). Old people express gratification by saying Namu Amida Butsu {Namu I 
adore, from the Sanscrit), just as the Germans say Gott sel Dank. Namusambo 
= Great heavens! Sambo are the three [Buddhist] treasures bnp-po-so, \. e., bulsu 
Buddha, ho law or doctrine and so priest. 

b Na andji'0 may follow even regular imperatives of the second conjugation : ff>~ 
/<' agare yo, Kitdasai na, Note also : Chodai na (said by a woman). 


Finally we have the particles of emphasis: 

1. Ne or nei at the eiid of a sentence indicates agreement or 
an appeal for assent: 

Nikko no o tamaya wa kekko desu ne. 

The ancestral shrines of Nikko are splendid, are n't they '? 

So desu ne. That's so (but see p. 134 1). 

Ne may also follow any word in a sentence to draw attention 
to it or simply to fill out a pause, like the English " You know." 
It is thus used in explaining things to a dull hearer. Ne is 
especially common in Tokyo. It characterizes the speech of 
children ; e. g., 

Tonari no o ha san ga UP, Hakuban kite ne, k)/o wa ne, Shin- 
tomiza ye ne, fsurete iku to ittn n' <Ia kara ne, ivatasha ne, matte 
iru n' da yo. The old lady next door said last evening that 
she would take me to Shintomiza a to day; so I am waiting for 

Ano ne, or simply ne, like the English "I say.'' attracts 
attention to what is to be said. 

2. Na, no. is used like ne, but only by men. 

3. No, no is becoming obsolete in mo.^t parts of the country. 

4. Sa occurs after words like sayo and nani and is very com- 
mon with elliptical constructions: 

Ikanai to sa. He says he won't go. 
Nani sa, sonna ivake wa noi. 
What do you mean? That's not the <. 
A story often ends with to sa. 

5. Yo at the end of a sentence indicates a positive assertion. 
It is used very much more by women than by men. 

Kono jibiki ni iva arimasen yo. 

It isn't in this dictionary, 1 tell you. 

Abunai yo. Look out; that's dangerous. 
Girls have a fashion of substituting the subordinative with yo 
for the indicative: 

Watdkwhi mo itte yo. I am going (or, went), too. 

6. Zo often follows sentences which contain a command or 
prohibition. It is the harshest of the interjections of emphasi- : 

a The name of a famous theater in Tokyo (s/iin new, tomi wealth). 


Sonna koto wo shicha naranai zo. 
You must n't do anything like that, do you hear ? 
Taihen mutsukasliiku natte kita zo. 
It has become very difficult, I can tell you. 
7. Ze, is vulgar except in some provinces. 

Mono may occur at the end of a sentence, especially when 
it has a tone of complaint : 

Itte mo kikanai n' desu mono. 
Though I tell him he won't listen. 

Koto following an adjective or a verb expresses surprise, 
wonder or admiration: 

Kono liana no nioi no U koto. How fragrant this flower is ! 

Samui koto. How cold it is ! 

Yoku mawarimasu koto. How it spins ! 

(In addition to the interjections.) 

toga fault, transgression. kan-nin forbearance. 

makanai (from makanau} ge-shuku-ya boarding house. 

housekeeping, a steward, omo-datta chief. 

board. wasure-gachi na forgetful. b 

fusuma sliding doors covered ai-mai na vague, ambiguous. 

with wall paper forming tondemonai=tohomonai. 

partitions between rooms, kibamu turn yellow. 

te-bukuro glove. sha sum thank, apologize. 

mo (lit. hair) one tenth of a 7aj9panodistinctly,definitely. 

rin. a saka-sama ni, sakasa ni upside 
gyu-nyu (ushi no chichi) milk. down. 

a The term rin denotes the tenth part not only of a sen, but also of a bu (unit 
of interest, p. 80, or one tenth of a sun) or of a. fun (one tenth of a momme, p. 69). 
Bu, bun and fun are variant readings of the same character. 

b Compare ari-gachi in : Kb iu baai ni -wa arigachi na (no~) koto desu kara, so 
fukaku togameru ni wa oycbimasen. You need not censure [him] severely; for in 
such a case [a blunder like that] is very apt to occur. 

c Note that verbs like naku-su (rw)and this sha-sti (Vw) in the negative conju- 
gation usually assume the form nakusanai, shasanai, etc., following not the para- 
digm of suru but that of 



Exercises, a 

Ne ! anata choito sono fusuma wo tatete kudasaimashi na. 
Ma, yoku dekimash'ta koto nei. Oya, Matsubara san I yoi to- 
koi'O de o me ni kakarimash'ta. Dochira ye irasshaimas' ka. 
Nani, chotto sampo ni itte kimash'ta tokoro sa. Yareyare, 
mendokusai kotta ( =koto da) na. Aita, omae wa hidoi koto 
ivo sum ne; nandatte (=naze) hito ivo utsu n' da. b Ara, 
utta n' ja gozaimasen yo ; hyotto atatta n' des' kara, kannin 
sh'te kudasaimashi. Ddmo, nan to mo ienai iya na kokoi'omo- 
chi ni natte kita ; do sh'ta n' daro. Ikasama, sayd na wake 
de gozaimas' ka nei. Sonna koto wo osshatte wa anata go mu- 
ri de gozaimas' iva, watashi wa nani mo zonjimasen mono. c 
A, H koto\ kore ivowatashi ni kudasaimas' no. d Mosliimoshi\ 
Kanda ni deru ni iva do ittara yoroshu gozaimasho. Ma, 
ma, sonna koto ivo itvanaide shibaraku o makase nasai ; wa- 
tashi ga yoi yd ni sh'te age?nas' kara. Oya, md, taiso kirei na 
kanzashi des' koto nei. Bo ya\ kore kara (=kara wa) sonna 
ivarusa wo sum to, yurushimasen zo. Sore de mo yokutte yo. 
Osaka ye itte Jiakurankivai ivo go kembutsu nasai ; taiso omo- 
shiro gozaimas' ze. Ei, sonna tsumaran' koto ka. Oi, nei san \ 
hayaku gozen wo dash'te kurenja komaruja nai ka. e Nani, we 
datte kane no liyaku ryo ya ni Jiyakit, ryo iva koshiraerarenai 
kotd ( =koto wa) am mon' ka.* Sa, kimil yari tamae; guzu- 
guzu sh'te oru to, hi ga kurete shimau zo. Ara, koko ni oita 
kamiire wa do sh'taro. Sora, oki na ringo ivo yaru zo. Ano 
ne, Omme san(^=o Ume san") wane, okkasan ni mo hanasanai- 
de kino Tokyo ye itta n' des' to. Ddmo, komatte shimaimas' 
wa; ikura itte kikasete mo wakaranain' des' mono. Sore wa 

a The purpose of these exercises is to enable the student to understand what is 
being said in his presence, not to furnish models for imitation. Until one has be- 
come very fluent, great caution must be exercised in using the words described in 
this chapter. It is very difficult for foreigners to use even ne gracefully so as not 
to give offense. 

b A gentleman resents being hustled in a crowd. The answer follows. 

c A lady protests against being blamed for something she knows nothing about. 

(1 Kudasaimasu tw kudasaimasu ka (p. 273, middle). 

e Nei san, from ane elder sister, is used in addressing a waitress or servant at 
a hotel. 

f The old word ryo is still used in the sense of yen. 


dai s'ki des' kara, ivatashi ni mo hitotsu chodai na. Ano Tiito 
no hanashi to kite wa (kitara) bakak'sakute kikareta mon' 
ja arimasen yo.* Mina buji ni kurash'te orimas' kara, anji- 
nai yd ni kotozukete kudasai na. Md, tonda shitsurei wo ita- 
shimash'ta ; dozo go men nas'tte kudasaimashi. Kessh'te ma- 
chigai wa arimas'mai ne. b lya, do itashimash'te, rin mo de 
mo chigai ga gozaimash'tara sngu ni o toi'ikae mdshimasho. 
Oi, sonna ni minna de waiwai itta tokoro de shikata ga nai 
kara, omaetachi no uchi kara omodatta mono ni san nin erande 
yokose; so sureba yoku sddan wo sh'te kimete yard. Oi, kimi\ 
ano koto wa. do narimash'ta ka. A, are des' ka ; mada kimaran- 
de orimas'. Are wa ddmo, nanigoto ni tsuite mo kippari sh'ta 
koto wo iwazu ni itsumoaimainahenjibakarish'tekomattamon' 
des'. Kore kara Ueno ye hanamini iko to omoimasu ga, mina 
san wa ikaga des' ka. Oya, so, watashi mo itte yo, dozo tsurete 
itte chodai na. Sakunen Ueno ye ittajibun wa omoshirokatta yo. 
So desh'ta ne, ano toki wa watashi mo nei san to issho ni itte yo. 
Anna hito ni shasanakereba (o ivabi wo shinakereba) naranai 
nante (=nado to itte}, sorya tondemonai kotta ne, nan no toga 
mo nai no nisa. Yd, odoroita. Oyaoya, md, yd koso otazune 
kudasaimashita. Okka sanl ano ningyo wo katte kudasai na. 
Otonash'ku sae sureba katte agemas' yo. Kora, igo kessh'te 
sonna itazura wo sh'te wa naranai zo. Naruhodo, o hanashi 
wo ukagatte mireba go mottomo na shidai de gozaimas. Oi, 
kurumayal chotto soko made yatte kure. Oi, kimil sampo ni 
dekakenai ka. Yareyare, kore de dekiagarimasJita. Tebu- 
kuro ivo nakusanai yd ni ki wo tsukenakucha ikenai yo. A, 
ivasureta koto wo sh'ta. Kora, sonna baka na koto wo sh'cha 
naran. Watashi wa gyunyR wa dai kirai des' yo. Boku no 
gesh'kuya wa makanai ga warukute komaru kara, utsuritai to 
omou ga, doko zo yoi tokoi'O ga arimas'mai ka nd. Md, go ran 
nasai, as'ko no shdji ni hito no odotte iru kage ga utsutte imas' . 
Kono mikan wa yohodo kibanda kara, taigai juku sh'tard yo. 
Tokaku wasuregachi de komarimas' yo. Dokkoi, so iva ikanai. 
^A sono bin wo sakasa ni sh'te wa mizu ga koboremas'. 

a The peculiar idiom to kite wa or to kitara is an emphatic equivalent of wa. 
b A gentleman inquires of a shopkeeper if he is sure that there has been no mis- 
take in measuring the goods he has bought. The answer follows. 


It is a peculiar feature of the language that in addressing a 
person or speaking of members of the family of that person or of 
one's own family, the terms employed vary according to the 
relative rank of those concerned. These distinctions are due to 
the careful grading of social classes and to the strict subordina- 
tion of the members of a family one to another. Frequently a 
polite term diifers from a common one only in having the hon- 
orific prefix o or go (Ch. XIII.) or a suffix such as sama or san 
(p. 14c) or go. In other cases the polite term is a special word 
derived from the Chinese. 

In calling a person one adds san a to the family name or says 
anata. Teachers, superiors in a profession or an art and older 
men of culture whom one wishes to treat with regard may well 
be addressed by the title sensei. Soldiers in addressing superior 
officers add dono to the title. Among equals or those who are 
on familiar terms, such as students, officials, merchants, etc., 
kun takes the place of san. In calling to coolies and one's own 
servants one usually employs their personal names, which may 
even be abbreviated (p. 257c). In talking about persons the 
same distinctions hold good. 

For the titles of persons of high rank see p. Slid. The 
following are the most important appellations: 
1 . Master of the house. 

Go zen Your Grace, His Grace. b [rank) . 

Tono sama (of former feudal lords and other people of high 

Danna sama, danna san (to the lady of the house by an 
inferior, to a servant of the person in question, by a 
servant to his master). 

Go tei-sliu the master of the house, your husband. 

Go shu-jin (to a subordinate at a store or a hotel). 

Shu-jin (by a clerk to a customer). 

" Husband " is otto, but among equals a lady commonly speaks 
of her husband by his surname or personal name without san, 

a The younger generation does not use the unabbreviated and very formal siima 
with surnames. 

b Note the homonymns in the nonsensical sentence: Go zen wa gozen ni gvzen 
wo go zfn mes/iiagtirinuisJiita. His Grace ate five bowls of rice before noon. 


while her friends use his surname with san. See also p. 365b. 
To a caller a servant may speak of his master as danna. 

2. Lady of the house. 

ue sama Your Grace. Oku gata Her Grace. 
Oku sama, oku san (corresponds to danna sama). 
Go shin-zo sama, go shin san (shin=atarashii, zo=tsukuru, 
from a former custom of a new couple's building a new 
house for their dwelling). 

Sai-kun your wife, his wife (among familiar friends). a 
Okamisan (among merchants and laborers). 13 
"My wife" is tsuma, sai, gu-sai (foolish wife), ka-nai. A 
man of the lower classes may say kakd. The word nyo-bo, 
originally elegant, is now used only in speaking familiarly of the 
wife of a third person or of one's own wife. 

3. Parents. 

Go ryo-shin sama your parents. 
"My parents" is ryoshin or oya. c 

4. Father. 

Go som-pu sama (son honorable) your honored father. 
Go shim-pn sama (shin = oya) your father. 
to sama, otottsan (from toto), your father, papa! 
"My father" is chichi, chichi-oya or oya-ji (p. 58b). 

5. Mother. 

kd sama, okka sama (from kaka) your mother. 
Okka san your mother, mamma ! 

"My mother" is haha, or haha-oya. People of the older gen- 
eration say o fukuro, but this is in most cases a vulgar word. 

6. Grandfather: jii san (jii foijiji).^ 
"My grandfather" may also \>ejiji. 

7. Grandmother: bd san (bd for baba). 
"My grandmother": baba. 

a A man must not speak of his own wife as saikun. 

b E. g., kurumaya no o kamisan. Expressions like Mrs. Taguchi, Miss Taguchi, 
must be paraphrased : Tagttchi san no oku san, Tagtichi san no o jo san, etc. 

c Oya -kata means the leader of a gang of coolies or the master of a small inn. 
Distinguish o-ya (great house) the owner of a rented house. 

d O ba san and o jii san are also used in addressing old ladies and gentlemen in 


8. Elder "brother. 

Go rei-kei (sama) your elder brother. a 
ani sama, o ani san, nii sama, nii sail. 
Ani nan, nii san (by younger brothers and sisters). 
"My elder brother" is ani. Ani-ki is vulgar now. 

9. Younger brother. 

Go slw-tei (sama) your younger brother (sha house). 
Ototo san, ototo go (to inferiors). b 

10. Elder sister: ane sama your elder sister. 

Ane san, nei san (by younger brothers and sisters). 

11. Younger sister: imoto san your younger sister. 
imoto go, imoto go (to inferiors). 

12. Son, daughter, child. 

Go shi-soku, o musukd sama, o musuko san your son. 

Jfusuko your boy (to inferiors), my boy. 

Segare my boy. 

bo san, bo san, botchan (p. 232b). 

Go cho-nan your eldest son. 

Go ji-nan your second son. Go san-nan your third son. 

jo san your daughter, miss! 

musume san your (or his) daughter. 

Musume your daughter (to inferiors), niy daughter. 

ko san your child. 

Go so-i'yo your eldest child. chiisai no your baby. 
"Father-in-law" or ''mother-in-law" is (o) sh-uto. Shido- 
ine for "mother-in-law" is a literary word. Strictly speaking 
shuto are the husband's parents. A man may speak of his wife's 
parents as kanai no chichi, kanai no haJm. 

A groom, or a husband from the point of view of the wife's 
family, is called (o)muko(san)', a bride, wife, daughter-in-law, 
sister-in-law, is(o)yome (san). "Bride" and "groom" in the 
strict sense are hana-yome, hana-muko. A wedded pair are 
(go]fnfu: Tanaka san gofiifu Mr. and Mrs. Tanaka. 

a From ret excellent and kei elder brother. Kei=ani\ tei - otolo. A'ei-fei, 
more commonly pronounced kyo-dai, designates a brother (or a sister), older or 
younger. "Your brother(or sister)is0 kyodai. Compare s/ii-mai^sAt ane, mai= 
imoto) sister. 

b Go, moderately honorific. Compare o imoto go, o musume go, oyoine go, etc. 



The order of words in a clause is rather more simple than in 
European languages. It is the same in affirmative and in in- 
terrogative sentences, in principal and in dependent clauses. 

1. The main rule is that all modifying words and clauses pre- 
cede the governing word. A modifying word is sometimes sep- 
arated by an intervening modifier from the governing word; 

e. g., 

Naddkai daigakko no kybslii a famous university professor, 

or, a professor of a famous university (p. 113a). 
Furui hydkusho no ie an old farmhouse (farmer's house). 
Likewise an adverb precedes the verb, adjective, or adverb 
which it modifies: taihen osoi very late, goku liaydku very soon. 

Chotto oide. Come just a moment. 
There are a few apparent exceptions to this rule: 
Shirimasen yoku. I don't know at least not well. 
Shitsurei shigoku. You are exceedingly rude. 
Numerals, together with the numeratives, are not modifiers 
of nouns as in English (p. 341). a 

2. Case-particles and postpositions follow their substan- 
tives. b All the conjunctions, except the auxiliaries moshi, man- 
ichi, tatoi and yoslii (which stand at the beginning of clauses) 
follow their verbs. 

3. The order in a complete sentence is ordinarily the folio wing: 
(1) subject, often understood; (2) indirect object or.adverbial 
modifier; (3) direct object, and (4) verb. 

a Numerals are used as substantives occasionally. Like adverbs (p. 352) they 
may also with no take the attributive position. 

b Such words as made, to, ka, nado, etc,, take precedence of the case particles. 
Words like kurai, bakari, may be brought under the same rule, except that they 
take the place of ga and wo. But they may also follow ni. Watakushi ni ba- 
kari kurete tomodachi ni wa yaranai. He gave only to me, not to my friend 
Compare : Shinu bakari ni natte imasu. He is at the point of death. See also 
P- 337C. 


An indirect object or an adverbial modifier, with or with- 
out wa, may take the first position for the sake of emphasis: 

Sono hito ni wa nani mo yaranakatta. 

I did n't give anything to HIM. 

Sukoshi mo shimpai ga arimasen. 

I have n't the LEAST anxiety. 

Taihen ni hito ga o gozaimasu. 

There are very many people. 

The indirect object or adverbial modifier may also stand 
more naturally between the direct object and the verb: Tokcl 
wo shield ni oldmashita. He pawned his watch. In many cases 
more depends on the stress of the voice than on the position of 
the words. Thus we may say either Inochi wo kuni no tame 
ni sutemashita or Kuni no tame ni inochi wo sutemashita : He 
gave his life for his country. Compare p. 57a. Ordinarily 
words denoting time precede words denoting place. 

Mydnichi Yokohama ye ikimas\ 

I will go to Yokohama to-morrow. 
It is a universal rule that the general precedes the particular. 

Ashita no asa go ji ni at five to-morrow morning. 

Heido ika go do five degrees below zero. 
Interrogative words do not necessarily take the first place as 
in English. 

4. The order in a subordinate clause is just the same as in an 
independent sentence, the only difference being that the prin- 
cipal verb is followed by a conjunction or inflected so as to show 
the relation of the clause to what follows. All dependent clauses 
precede the principal clause. In careless speech, however, it 
often happens that a subordi native or a dependent clause, con- 
ditional, concessive or causal, lags behind the rest of the sentence 
(pp. 85c, 392a) The same construction is sometimes chosen 
for the sake of emphasis. 

Ellipses are very common . Often a verb or auxiliary must be 
supplied : 

Yoku ki too tsukete. Take good care ! (p. 164, 8) 

medeto. Congratulations! 

Do itashimashite. 

Why, how can you? Don't mention it! (p. 218d). 


Senjitsu wa (sliitsureiitashimasliita). 
I was rude the other day. 

Kore wa domo may mean almost anything, shitsurei ita- 
shimashita, or arigato yoza-imasu, or o mezuraskii (you are 
quite a stranger), being understood. 

Ellipses are especially common in proverbs ; e. g., 
Nald-tsura ni hachi. 
Bees sting a crying face (Misfortunes never come singly). 


While, as has been said, the construction of simple sentences 
or clauses in themselves is not so difficult, the foreign student 
ambitious to master the colloquial will find that it is his most 
serious problem to join clauses together so as to form a connected, 
and to the Japanese mind luminous, whole. Japanese poetry 
is sententious and fragmentary, but colloquial narratives and 
addresses must be thoroughly coherent. When listening to a 
Japanese speech or story one need not be surprised to find no 
conclusive verb and no period until the end of the whole is 
reached. In reading connected pieces like the following anec- 
dotes it may be a good exercise for the student (1) to rewrite 
the story, breaking it up into as many short sentences as possi- 
ble, and then (2) to recombine them so as to make, if possible, 
one continuous narrative of the whole. 


Ota Mochis'ke no Hanashi. 

Jfitkashi Ota Mochis'ke a to iu taisho ga Edo ni orareta^ koro 
aru hi Tots' ka c no hen ni takagari wo saremash'ta. Sono 
told kyu ni ame gafutte kita no de, aru hyak'sho no ie ni haitte 
mino wo iclii mai karitai to iivaremash'ta. So suru to, ko- 
mus'me ga hitori dete kite yamabuki no liana wo dash'te mono 
mo iwazu ni ucld ye liaitte shimaimash'ta. Taisho iva nan 
no koto da ka ivakaranakatta kara, taiso okotte uchi ye kaette 
kinju no mono ni sono koto ivo hanasaremash'ta. So suru to, 
hitori no kerai ga: "Sore wa koka ni: 

' Nanae yae hana iva sakedomo yamabuki no 

MI NO hitotsu dani naki zo ivabisliiki ' d 

to iu koto ga gozaimas' kara, MINO ga nakute ainiku des' to 
iu imi de gozaimasho" to kotaemash'ta. Taisho iva sore ivo 
kiite naruhodo to gaten ga ikare jibun no mugaku wo hajite 
sore kara taiso benkyo sh'te nochi ni iva yumei na utayomi ni 

a This story is well known in Japan. It is found, for instance, in Edo Meisho 
Ztu (p. 28 if). The hero is better known now by the name Ota Dokwan. In 
ancient times a man might have besides the family name two or three names : a 
true name {nanori), a popular name (fsu-s/io~) and perhaps still another. Since 
the Restoration it has become the rule to have only one name. In 1456 Ota Do- 
kwan founded on the present site of Tokyo a fortress, which was later transformed 
by leyasu into the great castle of Edo. 

b For the honorific inflection of verbs see p. 268. 

c 7"otsuka a place near what is now Yokohama. 

d This poem is by Prince Kaneaki and is found in the collection called Gd-shu- 
i-shu the "Second Gleaning" (go later, shu ~ Mrcnt, i = nokon, shu = atsumeru). 
The meaning is : Yamabuki wa hana ga vae ni saku keredomo, mi ga hitotsu mo nai 
no ga zannen destt. Nanae yae (p. 64) sevenfold and eightfold, of the double blos- 
soms (compare yae-zakura double cherry blossoms) ; sakedonio = saku keredomo 
(p. 26$d); zo after naki {nai) is emphatic; wabishiki sad (variant reading 


Moshi no Halia. 

Moshi wa a kodomo no toki ni aru tera no soba ni sunde ori- 
mash'te mainichi sdsliki wo miru man' ties' kara, sono mane 
wo sh'te asobimash'ta. Soko de Moshi ho haha wa koko wa 
kodomo 100 sodateru tokoro de wa nai to omoimash'te, aru ichi- 
ba no yoko ni sumikaemash'ta. Suru to, Moshi wa kondo wa 
alcindo no mane wo sh'te asobimash'ta. Soko de mata haha 
wa koko mo ko wo sodateru tokoro de iva nai to kangaemash'te, 
kondo iva aru gakko no soba ye utsurimash'ta. So sh'ta toko- 
ro ga, Moshi iva mainichi gakko de keiko wo sum mane ivo 
sh'te asobimash'ta kara, haha iva kono tokoro koso kodomo wo 
sodateru basho da to omotte yoyaku anshin itashimash'ta. 

Sono nochi Moshi wo shugyo no tame aru empo no gakko ye 
okuri?nash'ta tokoro ga, Moshi wa benkyo ga iya ni natte uclii 
ye kaette kimash'ta. Sono toki haha wa chodo hata wo orika- 
kete imash'ta ga, Moshi no tochu de gakumon wo yamete kaette 
kita no wo mite jibun no orikakete ita Jiata wo hasami de na- 
kahodo kara kitte misemash'ta. So sh'te Moshi ni mukatte iu 
no ni iva : " Omae ga ima chiito de gakumon wo yamete shimau 
no wa chodo orikaketa hata wo kono tori kitte shimau yd na 
mono de nan no yaku ni mo tatanai" to itte iken wo itashima- 
sh'ta. Soko de Moshi wa hijo ni osoreitte kokoro wo torinaoshi 
mata saki no gakko ye kaette isshokemmei ni benkyo wo itashi- 
mash'ta. So sh'te tsui ni wa Asei b to iwareru yo na rippa na 
hito ni narimash'ta. Sore yue ima de mo hito ga Moshi no haha 
wo homete yoku kodomo wo kyoiku suru niichi wo sh'tte ita 
hito da to moshimas\ 

a The famous philosopher Meng-tse or Mencius (Japanese Rfo-shf) lived B.C. 371 
288. Having lost his father at an early age, he was educated by his mother. The 
stories here told illustrate the great solicitude with which she watched over her 
boy's education. A version in the form of the written language may be found in 
Chamberlain's " Romanized Japanese Reader. " 

b A-sei next to the sage, i. e., the greatest philosopher next to Confucius " the 
Wise" (jsei-jin). This title was first given to Mengtse by one of his commentators 
and was officially confirmed by the Chinese Emperor H'an-tsung in the year 1330. 



Aru hito ga karits'ke no mise ni kake wo sh'te okimash'ta 
ga, tsukizue ni naru to, sono kake wo tori ni kuru daro to 
omotte o kami san ni: " Moshi kake wo tori ni kitara, washi ga 
uchi ni inai to ie " to iits'kete okimash'ta. So suru to, an no go- 
toku akindo ga mairimash'ta. Soko de o kami san wa teishu 
no iits'kedori ni:"Kyo wa shujin ga rusu des' kara, mata kite 
kudasai" to moshimash'ta. Suru to, akindo wa irikuchi no 
shoji no yabure kara a uchi wo nozoite, " kami san, go shujin 
wa o uchi no yd desu ga" b to md&himash'ta. Teishu wa sore 
ivo kiku to, kami de sono ana wo fusaide, " Kore nara c rusu 
no yd ni mieru daro" to iimash'ta. Soko de akindo mo sh'kata 
naku d waratte kaette shimaimashita. 

Aoto Saemon no Keizai. 

Mukaslii Aoto Saemon e to iu hito ga hashi wo torikakaita 
toki, ni ju mon no zeni wo kaiva ye otoshimash'ta. Sore wo lii- 
roiageru tame ni ninsoku wo yatotte kite kawa ivo sagasase go 
ju mon no hiyo ivo haraimash'ta. Tokoro de aru hito ga Aoto 
ni mukatte: "Ju mon no zeni 100 hiroiageru tame ni goju mon 
no hiyo wo haratte wa sashihiki shi ju mon no son ga iki wa 
shinaika" to tazunemash'ta. Aoto wa sore ni kotaete: "Moshi 
ju mon no zeni ivo kawa ye utchatte okeba, itsu made mo tenka 
ni ju mon no zeni wo ushinai; f moshi hiroiageta naraba,nin~ 
soku ni go ju mon ivo haratte mo, sore wa yahari tenka ni tsu- 
yo suru wake yue, betsu ni tenka no keizai ni wa gai ga nai" 
to iimash'ta. 

a Yafiure a rent in the paper on the sliding door, immyabureru be torn; kara 

b Elliptical for uchi ni aide ni naru yd desu. 

c Kore nara ko shitara if one does this way. 

d Shikata naku modifies kaerimashita. The mo after akindo is untranslatable, 
signifying that the shopkeeper assented to what the man of the house said. 

e Aoto Saemon, a high official in the second half of the XIII. Century, is famous 
for his just decisions and his wise and economical administration. Aoto is the family 
name; Saemon, originally a title {sa-e-mon no jo head of the left gate guard), has 
become a part of his name. The anecdote here related is very well known and is 
frequently referred to. For this and other stories of Aoto Saemon see Chamber- 
lain's " Romanized Japanese Reader. " 

f Translate by means of the passive ; Ten mon are lost to the Empire. 


Nomi to Shirami. a 

Nomi to shirami ya Kyoto ye itte Tenshi Sama ni o memie wo 
shit/o to yak'soku sh'te tabidachi ivo itashimash'ta. Nomi wa 
haneru kara, hayakute yoppodo saki ye itte shirami wo matte 
imash'ta. Shikashi shirami no kuru no ga amari osoi karc, 
walci ye yorimichi ivo sh'te omoshiroi mono wo mi, utsuts' wo 
nukash'te b imash'ta. Sono uchi ni shirami wa norok'te mo 
yasumazu ni iku kara, saki ni Kyoto ye tsuite Tenshi Sama no 
o ts'kue no ue ni haiagar imash'ta. Tenshi Sama wa sore wo go 
ran asobasarete, "Kore wa mezurashii mushi da" to osshatte 
motte irassharu ofude de shirami no senaka ni sumi ivo o ts'ke 
nasaimash'ta. Shirami wa sono sumi wo c kurai wo itadaita 
no da to omotte kaette kuru tochu de nomi ni deaimash'ta. 
Nomi wa, taiso odoroite, " Watashi wa omae wo matte ita no 
ni, doko ye itta no ka" to tazunetara, shirami wa: " Omae /> 
ashi ga hayai kara, sadamete saki ye itta dard to omotte wa- 
tashi wa hitori de o memie ivo sh'te kono tori kurai made ita- 
daite kaette kita" to kotaemash'ta. Soko de nomi loajibun ga 
yudan wo sh'te okureta no 100 taiso hajite makka ni narimaslrta 

Sorori Shinzaemon. 

Sorori Shinzaemon d to iu hito ga Hideyoshi ko no goten ye 
dete hanashimas' ni wa\ " Watakushi ga Kiyomizu Kwannon e 
ye mairimash'tara Otowa no taki de mi no take f ichi jo go 
rok' shaku hodo oru bakemono ni deaimash'ta. Suru to, sono 
bakemono ga oki na kuchi ivo aite (=akete) watakushi wo no- 
mo to itashimash'ta kara, watakushi wa bakemono ni: ' Omae 
wa taiso okii ga, chiisaku baker u koto wa dekinaika' to iima- 
sh'ta. So itashimash'tara, bakemono wa: 'flcura de mo chiisa- 

2. This fable is not generally known to the Japanese. It is given a place here 
for the sake of its originality. 

b Utsutsu wo nukasu forget the world of reality; mikasti (causative of nitkeni^ 
allow to escape. 

c Note that the logical subject of a clause dependent on a verb like omoit may 
take ico. In such a case wo may be rendered " in regard to. " 

d Sorori Shinzaemon, an official attached to Hideyoshi, is famous for his shrewd 
sayings and wise counsels. 

e A famous temple in Kyoto. In the vicinity there is a waterfall called Otc-wa, 

i Mi tw take length of body. The particle ga is understood. 


leu bakete miseyd' to mdshimash'ta kara, 'Sonnara umeboshi ni 
natte misero' to iimash'ta. Soko de bakemono wa cliiisa no, 
umeboshi ni natte liiza no mae ni korogete mairimash'ta kara, 
watakushi wa sore wo totte hitokuchi ni nonde shimaimash'ta. 
Sore giri, a bakemono wa denaku narimash'ta ." Kono hana- 
shi iva b Hideyoshi kd ga tenka no kwambaku c de ari nagara 
kwattatsu na hito yue, tomo mo tsurezu ni hitori de yoru soto 
ni deru koto ga arimash'ta kara, moshi d teki no mono ni de 
mo deatte korosareru yd na koto no nai yd ni chui wo shinake- 
reba naranai to isameta no de arimas'. Hideyoshi no ikioi 
wa chddo old na bakemono no yd na mono des? keredo, tada hi- 
to)'i de soto ye dete wa, chiisa na umeboshi ddyd ni dare ni de 
mo korosarete shimau to iu kokoro (koto") wo omoshiroku tatoete 
mdsh'ta no de arimas'. 

Itazura Kozd. e 

Aru tera ni taisd kechi na oshd ga arimash'ta. Aru hihoka 
kara ankoromochi ivo moraimash'ta ga, kozd ni misezu ni sotto 
shimatte oite soto ye dete yukimash'ta. Kozo wa rusu no aida 
ni sore ivo nusumidash'te tabete shimaimash'ta. So sh'te an 
wo s'koshi bakari honzon sama no kuchi no atari ni ts'kete oite 
jibun iva shiran kao ivo sh'te imash'ta. Yagate oshd ga kaette 
kite ankoromochi wo tabeyd to sh'ta ga, hitotsu mo nakunatte 
imash'ta. Sore de kozo ga tabeta ni chigai (ga) nai toomotte 
kozo wo yobi, "Ankoromochi wa do sh'ta ka" to tazunemash'- 
tara, kozo wa: "Watakushi wa chitto mo zonjimasen; shi- 
kashi senkoku hondd no lid de nani ka oto ga shimash'ta kara 
itte go rannasai" to moshimash'ta. Soko de oshd wa hondd 
ni itte honzon sama no kuchi no atari ni an ga tsuite iru no 
ivo mite kore de wa honzon sama ga nusunde kutta ni chigai 
nai to hara wo tatete honzon sama wo buchimas' to, kanabutsu 

a Sore giri only that and no more ; i. e., that was the end of the ghost. 

b Kotio hanashi wa has for its predicate isameta no de arimasu : This story was [in- 
tended as] a warning to the effect that 

c For kwambaku (jtwampaJbt) see p. 783. 

d Moshi\slo be construed with naiyo ni: translate : "lest perchance." 

e A well known anecdote, llazura kozo a mischievous young priest, a naughty 


wa K VAN, K'WAN a to narimash'ta. Osho wa, "Konna niku- 
chi no atari ni an wo ts'kete oki nagara k'wan koto ga aru mon' 
ka " to kanabutsu ivo hikizuridash'te oki na kama no naka ye 
ircte nimash'ta. Suru to,kanabi(tsu mo b KUTTA KUTTA to ha- 
kujo shimash'ta. 

Tsuben no Kiten. 

Go isshin mae no koto desu ga, aru hi Nagasaki bugyo ga c 
norimono ni notte soto wo torimas' to, tochu de uma ni notte 
iru Orandajin ni deaimash'ta. Sonojibun ni wa dare de mo 
tochu de meue no hito ni au to, uma kara orite aisats' wo suru 
shitkwan desh'ta kara, bugyo wa tsuben ni, sono koto wo Oran- 
dajin nihanash'te uma kara orose to iits'kemash'ta. Shikaru 
ni sono tsuben wa yoku gwaikoku no jijo ivo sh'tte ite totemo 
Orandajin ga uma kara orimai to omotta kara, kiten wo kika- 
sh'te Orandajin ni mukai: " Watakushi no shujin ga anata no o 
uma wo taisd homete kaitai to moshimaa'kara, dozo o ori nasatte 
shujin no mae made nma wo hiite kite kudasaimasen ka" to 
moshimasJita. Orandajin wa nani mo shirimasen kara, koi'e 
iva ii shoho da to omotte sugu ni uma kara oi'ite teinei ni bu- 
gyo no mae ye kite aisatsu wo sh'ta to iu koto des'. 

Shosei no Kokatsu. 

Rai Sanyo ga d katsute aru uchi ye kyoo ni ma?iekareta toki 
teishu iva hanashiaite ni tote shosei wo mo hitoi'i yobimash'ta. 
Sate, iyoiyo gozen ni narimash'ta ga, mireba Sanyo no yaJci- 
zakana wa shosei no yori s'koshi okii no de shosei wa hara wo 
tate issaku wo e kangacdash'te Sanyo ni mukai: "So Toba no 

a Kuwanti I did (do) not eat. Kwan also represents the sound made by the me- 
tallic idol when struck. So also below : kutta is an imitation of the bubbling sound 
made by boiling water, also the preterit of kuu eat. 

b Mo after kanabutsu indicates agreement on the part of the idol (see p. 429x1). 

c Bugyo here means the governor of a city owning direct allegiance to the Shogun. 
Compare p. 358a. Nagasaki, though in the fief of thedaimyd of Omu^a, was imme- 
diately subject to the Shoyun. 

d The famous author of the work Xihon GwaisJii, a history of Japan (g-icin-shi 
external history, i. e., history of the leading families, as distinguished from the offi- 
cial history of the Court) from the times of Masakmio (\. Century) on. 

e From ichi one, scikn scheme. 


So noj'i iva uo no j'i too migi ni kaku ga yd gozaimas' ka, hida- 
ri ni kaku ga yd gozaimas' ka " to tazunemash'ta. a Sanyo wa 
nanigenaku, " Sore wa migi de mo liidari de mo onaj'i koto da " 
to kotaemash'ta. Sum to, shosei iva sugu ni, "Sore nara kore 
mo yahari migi de mo hidari de mo onaji koto desho " to itte 
yakizakana too torikaemash'ta. 

~0oka no Sabaki. 

Aru onna ga nuka no naka ye kakush'te oita kane wo nusu- 
mareinash'ta no de Qoka ni uttaedemash'ta. b Soko de ^oka wa 
sono hi onna no uchi ni otta hitobito too mina yobidash'te : 
"Izure nusunda mono no te wa mada nukak'sai* ni chigai ga 
nai kara, kore kara ichiichi &kaide miyo " to moshimash'ta. So 
suru to, sono uchi no hitoj'i ga sotto jibun no te wo hana ni atete 
kaide mita no de, yakunin ga sugu ni sore wo mits'kete, sono 
mono wo toraete gimmi wo shimash'ta tokoro ga, an no gotoku 
sono mono ga nusunda no de arimash'ta. 

Chanoyu no Kidan. 

Hideyoshi ko wa taihen chanoyu ga s'ki de atta kara, sho- 
daisho no uchi ni wa e tabitabi sono seki ni manekareru no de 
sliizen sono shiki wo kuwash'ku kokoroete oru mono ga o go- 
zaimash'ta. Hitori Katd Kiy omasa f nomi wa cha wo konomi- 
masen desh'ta kara, amari sono seki ni deta koto ga arimasen 
desh'ta. Tokoro ga, aru hi Hideyoshi ko kara wazawaza mane- 
kareta no de yamuwoezu cha no kwai ni demash'ta. Tagate 
Katd wa, g do suru mono yara, cha no nomikata wo shiranai no 

a The name of a famous Chinese literateur (bunshoka). In the character so (jgc 
or Si)> "fish" C^l) ma 7 b e put either on the left or on the right side. 

b For ~Ooka see p. 358a. Uttae-deru is transitive, though the second part of the 
compound is the intransitive verb deru. So also moshideru, ukagaidem, etc. (p.285). 

c Rice bran has an unpleasant odor. 

d Ichi-ichi one by one. 

e Shodaisho, from sho many (p. i) and tai-sho general; we may translate, "his 
generals ." No uchi ni wa is to be construed with o gozaimashita. 

f One of the two generals who commanded the expedition to Korea at the end 
of the XVI. Century. 

g In the course of a narrative either the family name or the personal name may 
stand alone. Here Kiyomasa also would be correct. In the ceremony of koi cha 
it is the custom to take only a sip and then pass the cup along (mcrwafu^. For 
the distinction between koi (ha and uswAa see p. 106, 



de, chaioan wo motte guzuguzu sh'te imas' to, Hideyoshi ko wa, 
" Kato! haydku nonde chaivan wo mawase" to mosaremash'ta. 
Soko de Kiyomasa wa hitokuchi ni a cha ivo nomihosh'te yubi 
de cJiawan wo guruguru mawashimash'ta. b 

Ikkyu no Mondo. 

Ikkyu osho ga c Hitachi no Kashima d no miya ye sankei ivo 
sareta toki ni tochu no mori no kage kara mi no take shichi 
shaku bakari mo aru yamabushi ga dete mairimash'te osho ni 
totsuzen, "Buppo wa ika ni" e to tazunemash'ta. Oshdiva sugu 
ni kotaete, "Mune ni ari" to mosaremash'ta. Tokoro ga, yama- 
bushi wa surari to katana ivo nuite, " Sore nara mune wo watte 
mii/o " to itte kirikakarimash'ta. Osho wa s'koshi mo sawagazu 
kogoe de: 

"Harugoto ni saku ya Yoshino no yamazakura 

ki wo warite miyo hana no arika wo " f 

to iu koka wo tonaeraremash'ta. Yamabushi wa kore wo kiite 
oi ni kanjimash'te sugu ni katana wo say a ni osame doko to 
mo naku nigete shimaimash'ta. g 

Taishoku no Hanashi. 

Aru hi hitori no liorafki ga h Ikkyu ni mukatte : " Watakushi 
wa konoaida mochi wo itto tabemash'ta ; amari hara ga hari- 
mash'ta kara, hara wo hes j tame ni kawa nofuchi wo aruite > 

a At one gulp. 

b He spun it (maivasu'), like a top. 

c Ikkyu, a priest of the XV. Century, is noted for his ready wit, and is the hero 
of many interesting and amusing tales. This story and the following are taken 
from Ikkyu Shokoku Monogatari Zue ShTii. The former may also be found In 
Chamberlain's Reader. 

d A famous Shinto shrine. For Hitachi see p. 3893. 

e Ika ni=ika ni arimasu ka, ni being equivalent to de in the colloquial : mune 
niarimune no naka ni arimasu. The dialogue is after the classical style. 

f According to the usual order Yoshino tto yamazakura would stand before ha- 
rtigoto ni saku; miyo, after arika wo. Ya =? an exclamation mark ; warite = the col- 
loquial -watte ; with ari-ka compare sumi-ka dwelling place. The simple blossoms 
of the cherry trees (yaina-xikura) of Yoshino in Yamatoare famous all over Japan. 

g The end of the tale has been altered somewhat. According to the original 
Japanese text, the hermit is metamorphosed into a wood sprite. 

h From hora -wofuku blow a conch, i. e., blow one's horn, brag. 

j For/ufAi wo aruktt and matsttbara ivo aruku see p. 362. 


orimash'ta. So sum to, soko nifune ga issotsunaidearimash'ta 
kara, sore wo motte kawa no mizu wo sukkari kaedashimash'ta" 
to jimangao wo sh'te hanashimash'ta. Ikkyu wa sore wo kiite 
majime na kao de kotaemas' ni wa : " Watakuslii no tomoda- 
chi ni yamabushi ga hitori arimash'ta ga, sono yamabushi mo 
anata no yd ni taishoku wo sum hito de, am hi mochi wo ni to 
kuimash'ta. Sore de hara ga liatta kara, Jiaragonashi ni ma- 
tsnbara wo aruite imash'ta. S'koshi ashi ga kutabireta kara, 
matsu no taiboku wo ippon hikinuite sono ue ni koshi wo kakete 
yasunde iru to, chiisai hebi ga kite oki na kaeru wo nonde 
kurushinde ita ga, yagate sono waki ni am minarenu a kusa 
100 kutta tokoro ga, tachimachi konarete shimaimash'ta. Ya- 
mabushi wa sore too mite, 'Kore wa ii hara wo herasu kusa b 
da' to omotte hebi no mane wo sh'te sore ivo totte taberu to, sore 
wa hito mo kaeru no yd ni tokem c kusa desh'ta kara, yama- 
bushi wa tachimachi tokete shimatte ato ni wa ni to no mochi 
ga yamabushi no shozoku no mama de nokorimash'ta" to moshi- 
mash'ta. d Horafki wa sono kotae ni hajiteftatabi Ikkyu no 
tokoro ye kaodashi ivo shimasenanda so des\ 

Ikkyu no Tonchi. 

Ikkyu ga mada ju ni san no kodomo de atta toki ni Dai- 
tokuji e de gakumon wo sh'te imash'ta. Aru hi sensei ga yoso 
kara f kwashi wo moraimash'ta. Ikkyu wa jibun ni mo sore 
wo wakete kureso na mono da to omotte ita keredomo, morau 
koto ga dekimasen desh'ta. Soi*e de waza to tobokete sensei ni, 
"Sono hako no uchi ni nani ga arimas' ka" to tazunemash'ta. 
Sensei wa : " Sore wa doku da kara, taberu koto wa naran" 
to iikikasemash'ta. Sono yokujitsu sensei no soto ye deta ato de 
Ikkyu wa sono kwashi wo mina tabete shimatte soko ni am 
sensei no daiji na hanaike wo kowash'te okimash'ta. Sensei 
wa kaette kite odoroite: "Kono hanaike wo dare ga kowash'ta 

a Such as one is not accustomed to see, rare, peculiar. 

b Ii and hara wo Jierasu are both attributive (p- 423,1). 

c Tokeru melt may be rendered here "evaporate" or "vanish ." 

d The subject of nidshimashita is Ikkyu, at the beginning of the story. 

e A Buddhist temple in Kyoto. 

f Yoso kara from some place or other, from some ond 


ka. Massugu ni hdknjo sureba yurush'te yarn ga, sa mo naku- 
ba kikanai zo" to iimas' to, Ikkyu wa buruburu shi nagara 
dete kite : " Watakushi ga soso de sono hanaike wo koivashi- 
mash'ta;senseinimoshiwakega gozaimasen kara, toomoi- 
mash'te, saiivai soko ni arimash'ta doku wo tabete shimai 
mash'ta. Shikashi mada shinemasen kara, mada hoka ni doku 
ga aru nara, chodai itash'to gozaimas'" to kotaemash'ta. 

Mata Ikkyu ga yahari kodomo no toki ni aru hi tomodachi 
to asonde imash'ta. Tomodachi iva hai wo te no uchi ni motte : 
"Kono naka no hai wa shinde oru ka ikite oru ka iiatete go 
ran" a to Ikkyu ni iimash'ta. Ikkyu wa toguchi wo mataide, 
" Watakushi wa deru ka hairu ka itte go ran" to kotaemash'ta. 

Mata Ikkyu ga kyaku no mae ni deta toki kyaku ga taiva- 
mure ni tsuitate no two, wo yubizash'te : b " Omae wa genki da 
ga, ano tora wo ts'kamaete go ran" to Ikkyu ni moshimash'ta. 
Ikkyu iva sugu ni tatte tora no ho ye muki te wo hirogete, 
"Dozo, anata oidash'te kudasai" to moshimash'ta. 

Baka Muko no Hanashi. 

Mukashi aru tokoro ni baka muko c ga arimash'ta. Am hi 
yome no sato ye mimai ni ikimash'tara, dango wo dashimash'- 
ta. d Baka muko iva taiso mnagatte tak'san dango wo tabete : 
"Kore wa makoto ni kekko na mono desu ga, nan to iu mon' 
des' ka. Na too uketamawatte, kaettara kanai ni koshiraesase- 
masho"to iimash'ta. Shujin ga, "Sore wa dango to iu mono 
de gozaimas' " to kotaemas' to, baka muko wa sono na wo 
ivasurenai yd ni sugu ni itomagoi ivo sh'te kuchi no uchi de 
shiju "Dango dango" to ii nagara kaette kimash'ta. Uchi no 
mae ni kimas' to, soko ni chiisai mizutamari ga arimash'ta. 
Soi'e wo tobu hyoshi ni hitokuchi "Dokkoi" e to iimas 1 to, haji- 
me no "Dango dango" ivo wasurete "Dokkoi dokkoi" to itte 

a. This is more familiar than^w ran nasai; so also aide nasaimay be abbreviated 
to aide. 

b Pointing with a finger. For tsuitate see p. 3163. On this screen was painted 
a tiger. 

c A recently married husband and wife are called muko zndyomt. 

d Dasu set out, offer, give to eat. 

e In such a case one may say dokkoi to gather one's self together for the effort, 
Tolw = tobikosu \ hitokuchi with in conveys the idea of an ejaculatioq, 


uchi ye hairimash'ta. Sugu ni yome ni : " Omo.e no uchi de 
kyo dokkoi to iu mono wo tabete kita ga, taiso oishikatta kara, 
kore kara koshiraete kure " to iits'kemashita. Yome wa/ushigi 
na kao wo sh'te : " Watdkushi no sato de sonna mono wo anata 
ni das' hazu wa, arimasen. Sonna mono wo watakushi wa 
ichido mo mita koto mo tabeta koto mo arimasen" to kotaema- 
sh'ta. So suru to, baka muko wa taiso liar a wo tatete, "Kisa- 
ma no sato de dash'ta mono wo kisama ga sliiranai to iu hazu ga 
nai" to itte soko ni aru ftoi bo wo totte yome no hitai wo na- 
gurimash'ta. Yome wa hitai wo osaete : " Aita, aita ! Anata wa 
hidoi hito des* ; go ran nasai. dango no yd na kobu ga deki- 
mash'ta"to iimash'tara, baka muko iva : " 0, so da, so da! So- 
no dango no koto da" to moshimash'ta. a 

Tsuru no Suimono. 

Mukashi Tokugawa no hatamoto b rti Okubo Hikozaemon to 
iu riko na hito ga arimash'ta ga, kono hito iva chugi to omoeba 
donna ni iinikui c koto de mo kamawazu shogun ni moshiage 
o kami no heigai wo tamenaoshimash'ta kara, dare de mo 0- 
kubo no jiji to ieba kowagaranai mono iva arimasen desh'ta. 
Aru toki shogunke ni tsuru no suimono no go chiso ga d arima- 
sh'te go tairo ya go roju wo e hajime Qkubo sono hoka amata 
no hatamoto ga go shotai ni azukarimash'ta. _ Okubo iva amari 
joseki no hito de nakatta mono des' kara, Okubo no suimono 
ni iva mawarikaneta to miete tsuru no niku wa hito kire mo 
haitte inaide na bakari haitte imash'ta. Okubo wa sore, wo 
fushinniomoitameshiniippaikaete f mimasKtaga, yahari tsuru 

a Sono dango no koto da. Dango that's the very thing I was talking about 1 

b Hata-moto (lit. under the banner) were immediate vassals of the Shogun who 
held fiefs yielding from 300 to 10,000 koku of rice. The hatamoto of higher rank 
had immediate access to the Shogun and held important offices. One of these was 
~Okubo Hikozaemon, of whom various quaint stories are told. For his biography 
see ^)kubo Ichidaiki. 

c Ji-nikui unpleasant to say. 

d The meat of the crane is highly prized. Shogunke ni at the Shogun's palace. 

e The go ro-ju (lit. elders' assembly) were five or six daimyo who were entrusted 
with the government of the country, like the present ministers of state. At times, 
as, for example, during the reigns of the second to the fifth Shoguns of the Toku- 
gawa family, the go ro-ju had a president called go tai-ro (lit. great elder). 

f He had them bring him another bowl. 


no niku wa hito kire mo arimasen desh'ta. Sore de (o) ryd- 
riban no fusei na koto ga wakarimash'ta. Sono ban wa sono 
mama a kaettekite, yokujitsu ni naruto, kerai ni iits'kete nawo 
tak'san kago ni ire tomo ni motase go ten ni mairimash'te 
annai wo koimash'ta. Sono toki shogun wa ni san no (go) 
kinju to niivasaki no yuki u'o nagamete irassharu tokoi'O desh'ta 
ga, Okubo no koto yiie b _sassoku, "Kochira ye maire" to o 
yurushi ga arimash'ta. Okubo iva magatta koshi de tokkotokko 
aruite shogun no irassharu tsugi no ma no engaiva no tokoro 
made susunde uyauyash'ku rydte wo tsuite c go kigen wo uka- 
gaimash'ta. Shogun wa Okubo ga rdtai de ari nagara yuki 
ni mo kamawazu sanden sh'ta no wo kidoku ni oboshimesare 
koto ni o kotoba wo yatvaragerarete: "Jijii, sazo samukatta de 
aro. Yoku kite kureta. Chikaku yore, chikaku yore ; yurus', 
yurus"' to oseraremash'ta. Soko de Okubo wa za ivosusu- 
mete sdkuya no go chiso no o rei wo d nobe mata o niiva no 
nagame no ii koto ya sono hokayomoyamano hanashi ivomoshi- 
agete orimas' to, shogun wa sasuga no e meikun de iraserare- 
mas' kara, Okubo ni mukai: "Jijii, kyo wa betsu ni nani ka 
yd ga atte kita no ka; { moshi yd ga areba, enryo naku hayaku 
itta ga ii" to oseraremash'ta. ~Qikubo iva\ " Sayo de gozai- 
mas', Jijii i kyo wa betsu ni tai sh'ta yd mo gozaimasen ga, 
saiwai oki na tsuru ga te ni irimash'ta kara, sonran ni sonaetd 
zonjimash'te h ivazaivaza jisan ts'kamatsurimash'ta. Go shono 
asobash'te kudasarimasureba arigatai shiawase ni zonjimas'" J 
to moshi nagara na ivo ireta hako wo sono mama sashidashi- 

a In that condition, i. e., without uttering a word of complaint. See below : sono 
mama sashidashimaihita. 

b Seeing it was Okubo. 

c Kept both hands on the floor in a polite attitude, as is the custom when ex- 
changing salutations in the house. 

d Sakuya 110 go chiso no o rei thanks for the feast of the previous evening. 

e For sasuga see p. 323b. 

f Kita no ka is familiar for aide nasaitnashita ka. 

g Okubo speaks of himself asjijii. 

h Son-ran ni sonaeru is very formal for mistru and means here to offer as a gift 
(son = tattoi honorable, ran look in go ran). Notice the very respectful lan- 
guage employed by Okubo in speaking to the Shogun. 

i Another expression indicative of profound respect : if your Highness deigns to 
accept it (sAo = warau laugh, i. e., laugh disdainfully, no = uketoru receive). 


mash'ta. Shogun ga kinju no hito ni sonof'ta wo dkesasete go 
ran ni narimas' to, tsuru de wa nakute tada oki na na bakari 
haitte orimash'ta. Soko de sliogun wa hen ni oboshimesarete : 
"Jijii, sochi wa ima tsuru da to itta ga, sore wa tsuru de wa 
naku na to mosu mono de wa nai ka " to oseraremash'ta. Q- 
kubo wa o kotae wo sh'te: "Sayo de gozaimas'; shikashi goten 
de tva na no koto ivo tsuru to mos' ka to zonjimas'. Sakuya 
' Tsuru no suimono ivo kudasaru yue, sanjo seyo' to (no) ose ga 
gozaimash'ta kara, ukagaimash'te o suimono wo chodai itashi- 
mash'ta ga, sono o suimono ni wa tsuru no niku wa liito kire mo 
nakute tada na bakari de gozaimash'ta*. Jijii mo hen ni 
omoimash'te ippai kaete itadakimash'ta ga, yahari tsuru wa 
hito kire mo naku mae no yd ni na bakari de gozaimash'ta 
kara, sate goten de iva na no koto wo tsuru to mos' koto ka to 
zonjimash'ta" to moshiagemash'ta. Shogun wa Ijikubo no iu 
koto wo mottomo no koto to oboshimesarete sassoku sakuya no 
ryoriban no mono ivo gimmi seraremas' to, o maneki ni azukatta 
hito ga amari okatta yue, ^)kubo no suimono ni wa tsuru no 
niku ga mattaku yukiwataranakatta a koto ga wakarimash'ta 
kara, sono ryoriban no kashira wa sassoku yaku ivo go men ni 
natte hochiku saremash'ta. 

a Yuki-wataru extend .to details (compare yuki-todoku\ Here yukiwatarana- 
katta means did not go around, did not reach, in serving the supper (compare 
mawari-kaneru above). 


Mukashi mukashi aru tokoro ni jii san to bd san ga 
sh'ta to sa. Jii san wa makoto ni i/oi hito de, kanegane icJi i 
wa no suzume 100 katte orimash'ia ga, motoyori kodomo mo nai 
koto des' kara, kono suzume woba waga ko mo dozen ni did yo 
liana yo to kaivaigatte arimash'ta. b 

Aru hi no koto c jii san wa itsu mo no tori kama to kago wo 
motte yama ni sliiba-kari ni mairimash'ta ga, sono rusu ni bd 
san wa idobata ye dete sentakv wo hajime, yagate koie ni nori 
100 ts'keyo to omotte daidokoro ye tori ni kite mimas' to, ko v" 
ika ni, d sekkaku kesa kara koskiraete oita nori ga maru de 
nakunatte shimatte tada hachi bakari nokotte orimas\ 

" Oyaoya, md, sekkaku ivatashi ga tansei sh'te nite oita mono 
ivo dare ga totte itta no daro. Honto ni nikurashii <ln 
yo. Da ga, saki kara dare mo kita ydsu ga nai no ni, naku- 
naru to wa domo fushigi da" to kokubi ico katamuke nagara 
atari too mimawashimas' to, chodo muko ni oite orn kago no 
naka kara rei no suzume ga* koe tvo kakemash'te, "0 bd sun ! 
nani wo sagaslCte irassharu." J 

"Nani, imashigata made koko ni atta nori ga minna naku- 
natte shimatta kara, domo fushigi de naranai no sa." f 

"A, sono nori des' ka." 


"Sore nara, watakushi ga minna itadaite shimaimash'ta." 

a Tongue-cut Sparrow. A well known fairy tale. This version, by Mr. Iwaya, 
is reproduced, with minor alterations, by the kind permission of the Hakubunkwan, 

b Wob<n=.wo wa; ivaga ko mo dozen ni waga ko to dbyo ni, mo being frequent- 
ly used like to with onajior do. In cho yo kanayo to, the_j'0is an interject ion; the 
combination may be translated "as if it were a butterfly or a flower. h 

c Aru hi no koto=.aru hi. This expression is very common in stories. 

d Ko iL<a ika ni-. kore wa do shita no ka has become a parenthetical expression, 
or interjection, and may be rendered " to his (or her) astonishment. " 

e Rei= itsu mo. Compare rei no tori ~ itsti mo no tori as always. Here rei no 
suzume might be rendered ''the same sparrow of which I have been speaking. " 

f For such expressions v&fushigide naranai, kimyo de naranai, etc., see p. I58b. 


"E, omae ga tabeta? Ano nori wo?" 

" Hei,jitsu wa sonna o daiji namonoto wa zonjimasezu, itsu mo 
watakushi no e wo irete itadaku ano hachi no ndka ni gozai- 
mash'ta kara, tabete mo yoi no ka to omoimash'te, tsui nokorazu 
itadaite shimaimash'ta ga, domo, tonda koto wo itashimash'ta. 
Doka, go kamben nets' tte kudasaimashi" to, suzume iva shdjiki 
des', * waga soso wo tsutsumazu hakujo shi, hitai wo kago no 
soko ye surits'kete sh'kiri ni ayamarimash'ta ga, ne ga tsumu- 
ji no magatte iru bd san, b fudan kara kono suzume wo amma- 
ri kawaigarazu kaettejama ni omotte iru yasaki c des 1 kara, 
tachimachi me Wo muite dkoridashi: " Onore nikkui chik'sho- 
me, d hito ga sekkaku tansei sh'te koshiraeta nori ivo yoku mo 
yoku mo minna tabete shimai otta na. e Sd, do sum ka oboete 
iro"to, oku kara hasami ivo motte kite, nao mo naki nagara wa- 
b it e iru suzume woba ikinari kago kara ts'kamidashi, "Onore 
kono shita de name otta ka" to, muzan ni mo suzume no 
sJtita wo nemotokara putts'ri kiris'te: " Kore de yoyo mune ga 
suita. Sd, doko ye de mo useyagare " f to, sono mama oidash'te 

Konna koto no atta to iva yume ni mo shiraga no jii san 
yama de shiba ivo tak'san katte, kore de kyo no shigoto wa sun- 
da, dory a, b hayaku uchi ye kaette kawai suzume no kao womi- 
yo ka to, nani yoii mo sore wo tanoshimi ni > sono hi no kuregata 

a Suzume wa shojiki desu is parenthetical. We might substitute da kara for desu. 

b Tsumuji the whirl of hair on the head; it is proverbial that one whose tsumuji 
is on one side of the head is cross; ne ga(tie root y modifies the whole, having prac- 
tically the force of the adverb gwanrai naturally. 

c Yasaki a point of time, juncture. 

d Oiiore^kisama. Me is aften added to contemptuous epithets. 

e Yofat mo yoku mo makes the verb emphatic. Compare: Yokuyoku baka da. You 
ARE a fool. Shimai otta shimatta. 

f Use-agare = nsete shimae get out very vulgar. 

g Shiraga means of course "gray hair," but is intended here to suggest shira- 
nai. Such plays on words are very common. With yume ni mo compare : Yu- 
me ni mo oboe ga gozaimasen. I don't know anything at all about it. One may 
also say vumeyume, which, being derived fiomyumie or itnu shun, meant original- 
ly "God forbid," and is now equivalent to kesshite. 

h Dorya, like dore, is commonly used as an interjection. It may be translated 

i Tanoshimi ni with the expectation of enjoying. 


isoide waga ya ye kaette mimas' to, do sh'ta mono Tea, kago wa 
karappo de daiji na suzume iva kage mo miemasen. Jii san 
iva f shin ni omoi, " Oi, bd san ya, ano suzume wa doko ye itta" 
to tazunemas' to, bd san wa sldrabakurete, "Doko ye itta ka 
sliirimasen yo. " 

" De mo kago no naka ni inai ze. " 

"So des' ka. Sonnara dokka ye nigeta n' desho" to, ikko 
sumash'ta kao de orimas' kara, jii san wa naosara sekikonde : 
"Nani, ano narekitte iru suzume ga do sh'te jibun kara nigeru 
mono ka. Kore wa nandemo washi no rusu no ma ni omae ga 
oidash'ta ni soi nai. Sd, kak'sazuni ii nasai" to JiosTii wo 
sasareta no de, a bd san mo ima wa kakus' ni kak'sarezu : "Jitsu 
wa omae san no rusu no ma ni watashi ga nite oita daiji na 
nori wo minna tabete shimatta kara, shita wo kitte oidash'te 
yarimash'ta" to aritci wo hanash'te kikasasemas' to, jii san 
wa nagekumai koto ka, b " Yareyare, kawaiso ni, tatoi nori wo 
tabeta kara to itte, taka ga c chik'sho no ivaza, warugi de sh'ta 
icake de mo nakaro kara, kannin sh'te yareba ii no ni, shita 
wo kitte oidas' to iva nasakenai koto wo sh'te kureta. Washi 
ga sono toki ita naraba, nan to de mo sh'te yurush'te yatta mo- 
no wo, washi ga rusu na bakari de tonda sessho wo sh'te noke- 
ta. d Kore ga nakazu ni orareyo ka" e to maru de icaga ko 
ni ivakare de mo sh'ta yo ni koe wo mo oshimazu naite orima- 
sh'ta ga, yokuyoku nats'kash'ku omotta mono ka, sono yokujitsu 
iva shigoto mo sotchinoke ni (sh'te) bd san no tomeru mo kika- 
zu, asa hayaku kara uchi wo dete suzume no yukue 100 sagashi 
ni mairimash'ta. 

" Shitakiri suzume! o yado wa doko da, shitakiri suzume. ' 
o yado wadoko da, chu, chu, chu" to ii nagara tazunete ikimas' 
to, suzume mo naganen go on wo uketa shujin no jii san no 

a Hoshi wo sasu hit the target; in the passive form, be found out. 

b Nagekumai koto ka is parenthetical ; ^ taiso nageite. 

c With taka ga (taka amount) compare ne ga p. 44ib; translate "merely," or 
"after all." 

d Noketa has the sense of shimatta, but is rather impersonal. The old man did 
not wound the sparrow himself, but reproaches himself for allowing it to be done. 
Hence the causative nokcsashita might also be used. 

e A very common idiom. It may be expanded: Kore gu nakazu ni orarent yo 
tta koto ka. 


koe des' kara, hayaku mo sore to a kikits'kete jibun no yado wo 
tobidashi tochu made omukae ni demash'te, "Kore iva, kore wa, 
o jii sama, yd koso tazunete kite kudasaimash'ta " to iimas' to, 
jii san mo yorokonde : " ! koko ni ite kureta ka. Washi wa 
omae ni wakarete kara koishikutte koishikutte tamaranai no 
de wazawaza kyo iva tazunete kita yo." 

"Swe wa, makoto ni arigato gozaimas'. Shikashi koko wa 
tochu, musakuroshu gozaimasu ga, dozo ivatakushi no yado 
made oide kudasaimashi" to shiorashiku mo jii san no te wo 
totte jibun no yado ye to annai shimash'ta. 

Motoyori suzume no yado no koto des' kara, o sadamari no 
yabu no naka de, take no hashira ni take no yane to iva ii na- 
gara nakanaka rippa na s'mai des'. 

Suzume wa saki ni tatte, "Sd, dozo kochira ye" to jii san 
wo kami no ma ye toshi: "Sate, konnichi iva yd koso o tazune 
kudasaimash'ta. ba sama no o nori woba o kotowari mo 
naku itadaite shimau nado to iu furachi-mono no wtitakushi 
yue, sazo go rippuku no koto to zonjimash'ta no ni, betsudan 
o shikari mo naku kaette ko sh'te ivazaioaza o tazune kudasai- 
mas' to iva nan to o rei ivo moshimash'te yoi yara, makoto ni 
uresh'kute ureshinamida ga deru hodo de gozaimas'" to arata- 
mete rei wo nobemas' to, jii san iva te wo sayu nifutte: "Nan 
no, nan no, b shikaru nado to wa yoso nojijii no koto. Kono oya- 
ji wa omae ga kaivaikute kawaikute ko yori mo daiji ni omotte 
iru mono wo, taka ga nori wo nameta gurai no soso de mu- 
gotarash'ku shita wo kitte oidas' to wa uchi no baba kosofurachi 
shigoku na yatsu, kind mo sanzan sh'katte yarimash'ta. Da 
ga, ko sh'te buji na kao wo mite washi mo konna ni ureshii 
koto wa nai" to hokuhoku yorokonde orimas*. 

Suzume wa daiji na onjin ga wazawaza tazunete kite kureta 
koto des' kara, nan to ka sh'te sono kokoro wo nagusametai mono 
to, c sore kara kanai no suzume ni iits'ke dekiru dake no go 
chisd wo sh'te jii san wo motenashi, mata sakana ni wa jibun- 
tachino otokui no suzumeodori nado wo sh'te miscmash'ta kara, 

a Sore to =jii san no koe da to. 
b Translate nan no " Never ! " 
c Here otnotle is understood. 


jii san wa oyorokobi, washi wa kono toshi ni naru made konna 
omoshiroi me ni atta koto wa nai to, maru de gokuraku ye de 
mo itta kokoromochi, kotonohoka no go kigen des'. 

Sono uchi ni hi mo kurekakatte kimash'ta kara, jii san wa 
ki ga tsuite : " Yareyare, o kage de kyo wa jumyo ya nobita. 
Shikashi mo hi ga kureru kara, kyo wa kore de o itoma to shi- 
yo " to iimas 1 to, suzume wa nakanaka kaeso to mo sezu : " jii 
sama, nani wo osshaimas 1 . Tatoi hi ga kuremasho to mo, o 
tomari asobaseba yoi de wa gozaimasen ka. Konna kitanai 
tokoro de wa gozaimasu ga, o iya de nakuba, iku nichi de mo 
go toryu kudasaimashi . Ima made o sewa ni narimash'ta go 
on wo omoeba, ichi nichi yafuts'ka go chiso itashimash'ta kara 
to itte nakanaka mambu ichi mo o kaeshi wa dekimasen. Dd- 
zo, komban wa o tomari wo " 

" Iya, sono kokorozashi wa ureshii keredo, washi mo uchiwo 
akeru wake ni wa ikanai kara, kyo wa hitomazu kaeru to s/'- 
masho. Sono kawari kono nochi wa tabitabi asobi ni kuru 
kara, sono toki ni wa mata kyo no yd ni omoshiroi koto wo sh'te 
misete o kure yo." 

"S'we de wa do dc mo kyo wa o kaeri de gozaimas' ka. 
Sore wa, ma, o nagori-oshu a gozaimas' ne. Shikashi so iu ko- 
to nareba, shdsho o machi kudasaimashi" to, y agate oku no ku- 
ra no naka kara tsuzura ivoftatsu motte kimash'te : "Sate, o 
jii sama, sekkaku no oide ni nan no o aiso mo naku kono mama 
o wakare moshimas 1 no wamakotoni hoi nai koto de gozaimas'. 
Ts'kimash'te wa b koko ni karui tsuzura to omoi tsuzura ga go- 
zaimasu ga, dochira de mo o ki ni meshimash'ta c ho ico miya- 
ge ni o mochi kudasaimasen ka. " 

"Nani, o miyage wo? Go chiso ni nattari o miyage wo 
morattari sore de wa domo sumanai ne. Shikashi sekkaku no 

a .Yagori, from fiartii wave and nokoru be left, waves still swelling after the wind 
has gone down, or water left on the beach by waves, has come to mean the state 
of one who is separated from a friend (or has lost a treasure). It is also written na~ 
nokori, the idea being that the name only is left. Nagori wo oshimu be sorry to 
part; nagori-oshii hard to part. 

b Tsukimashite wa, which is here translated " so, " might be classified as conjunc- 
tion. Other subordinatives used as connectives are niotte, shifagatte,yot(e (see Ch. 

c More polite than ki ni itta or ki ni atta. 


kokorozaslii da kara, enryo naku moratte iko." 

"Sore de wa kono omoi ho ivo o mochi kudasaimas' ka." 
"lyaiya, washi wa kono tori tosTii wo totte iru kara, omoi 
ho wa totemo shoenai. Karui ho de tak'san da yo." 
"Sore de wa karui ho wo o mochi kudasaimashi." 
Soko de jii san wa karui tsuzura wo senaka ni showash'te 
moral, kadoguchi made okurare nagara, "Sore de wa iroiro 
arigato. Mata sono uchi ni asobi ni kuru yo." 

" Kitto o machi mosh'te orimas'. Ki wo ts'kete o shizuka 
ni irasshaimashi. Go kigen yoroshu" to miokuru suzume ni 
mikaeru Jii san tagai ni nagori wo oshimi nagara sono hiwa 
ivakarete shimaimash'ta. 

Hanashi kawatte, ba san wa tada hitori de rusuban wo sh'te 
imash'ta ga, jii san no kaeri no osoi no ni haya butsubutsu to 
kuchikogoto: "Da kara, iwanai koto ja nai. Anna itazura- 
mono no suzume no yukigata nanzo tazunete nan no yaku ni tatsu 
n' daro. Honto ni ki no shirenai ojii san da yo" to sh'kiri ni 
warukuchi wo ii nagara kadoguchi made dete matte imas' tot 
yagatemuko kara jii san wa tsuzura wo shotte kaette kimash'ta. 
"Nan da net, omae san, imajibun ni kaette kite sa" to shi- 
karu yo ni iimas' to, jii san iva ase wo fukifuki: " Ba san! so 
kogoto wo itte kureru na. Kyo wa suzume no uchi ye itte hon- 
to ni omoshiroi omoi wo a sh'te kita ze. Sore ni kore kono tori 
o miyage made moratte kita" to senaka ni atta tsuzura wo 
oroshi: "Omoi no to karui no to dash'te dochira ga ii to itta 
kedomo, omoi no iva shotte kuru no ga taihen da kara, karui ho 
wo moratte kita. Ittai nani ga haitte iru n' daro. Hayaku 
akete miru ga ii" to iwarete ba san iva niwaka ni nikoniko: 
" So des' ka, scn-e iva, ma, ii koto wo sh'te ki nas'tta. Dore, o 
miyage ivo haiken sliiyo" to tomichi wo aruite kite kutabirete 
iru jii san ni iva shibucha ippai kunde mo yarazu, sugu ni 
tsuzura nofta ni te ivo kake, akeru ma ososhi to, naka wo mi- 
reba, sa, aru koto, aru koto, kingin shugyoku wa iu ni oyobazu, 
rippa na kimono ya kirei na takaramono ga afureru bakari 
haitte imas'. 

Kore wo mite jii san wa sakki mite kita suzumeodori no o 

a Omoi here means feeling, experience, 


sarai de mo hajimeta yd ni odoriagatte ureshigaru to, bd san 
wa nani omotta ka,fusoku-sd ni a ho wofukurashi: " Omae san 
mo ki ga kikanai nei. Konna ni ii mono ga haitteru nara, 
naze sono omoi ho wo moratte ki nasaranai. Honto ni yoku wo 
shiranai o jii san da yo." 

"Kore sa, nani baka wo iu n' da. Kore dake areba tak'san 
ja nai ka. Yokubari mo ii kagen ni sum ga ii. " b 

"Sore de mo mis'mis' omoi no ga aru no ni, karui ho wo 
moratte Isuru nante lionto ni omae san loa baka na hito da yo. 
Ii sa, kore karawataslii ga itte sono omoi ho ico moratte koyo" 
to haya tachiagarimas' kara, jii san wa sh'kiri ni tomete, " Yo- 
shi na, yoshi na, omae ga itta } tte muda da kara" to itte mo. bd 
san wa mimi ni mo irezu, sugu ni shiri wo hashotte jii san no 
tsue too sono mama ts'ki, "Shitakiri suzume, oyado wadoko da, 
chu, chu, chu" to onnaji koto wo ii nagara suzume no yado ye 

Sate, mata suzume no yado de wa jii san wo okuridash'te 
kara, sugu ni omote ivo shimete shimai, ato ni wa kanai no 
monoga yoriatsumatte: "Honto ni ano jii san wa ii kata da. 
Kondo mata oide ni nattara nan no go chiso ivo sh'te ageyo ka 
shira. Sore ni hikikaete ano o bd san no iji no warusa, taka 
ga nori ivo nameta gurai no toga ni shita wo kitte oidasu to wa 
honto ni nasake wo shiranai ni mo hodo ga aru" c nado to sh'- 
kiri ni uivasa wo sh'te oru tokoro ye kusame wo shi nagara d 
kadoguchiivo tataite, " Moshimoshi , shitakiri suzume noo yado 
wa kochira kae" e to tazuneru mono ga arimas' kara, dare ka 
to omotte akete miru to, uwasa wo sureba kage e to yara, shita 
wo kitta bd san des\ 

Suzume wa sore to mite, shita wo kirareta lira mi va ari- 
masu ga, nanishiro g naganen kawareta on mo arimas' kara, 

a Yromfu-soku insufficiency. For so see p. 107, top. 

b For yoku-baru see p. 2843; ii ktigen ni stint moderate, ka-gen being derived 
from ka increase, gen decrease : Kagen ga aru. There must be just so much, no 
more, no less. 

c The idiom ni mo hodo ga aru indicates an excessive degree. 

d Kusame - kits ha mi. See p. 2191". 

e Kae is a vulgar equivalent of destt ka. 

f Uwasa -wo sureba kage ga sasu is a proverb. Compare the English: " Speak 
of an angel and he appears at the door. " 

g Nanithiro (lit. do what you will) at any rate, 


teinei ni jigi wo sh'te: " Kore wa, kore wa, o bd san, yd koso 
aide kudasaimash'ta. Sd, dozo kochira ye" to saki ni tatte 
annai shikakemas' to, bd san ica sore wo uchikesh'te: "lya, mo 
kessh'te kamatte kudasanna. Washi wa chitto isogu no da 
kara, sugu ni o itoma ni shiyo yo. " 

"Soi'e de mo sekkaku oide ni natta no des' mono, chotto de 
mo o agari kudasaimashi. " 

"lie, mo so sh'te iva irarenai. Sugu ni kaeranakereba nara- 
nai no da kara, go chiso mo suzumeodori mo nuki ni sh'te a 
hayaku sono o miyage wo moratte ikd " to kotchi kara o miyage 
no saisoku des\ 

Suzume wa nan to iu yokubari-babd daro to kokoro no uchi 
de akire nagara mo: "So de gozaimas' ka. Sore de iva o mi- 
yage wo sashiagemashd. Shikashi karui ho iva sakihodo o jii 
sama ga o mochi ni narimash'ta kara, nokotte orimas' no iva 
omoi ho bakari de makoto ni o kinodok' sama de gozaimasu 


"lya, washi wa o jii san to chigatte mada toshi mo waka- 
shi, chikara mo aru kara, omoi ho ga kaette kekko da. Dore, 
hayaku dash'te kudasai. " 

"Sore de wa tadaima motte mairimas' " to suzume wa oku 
no ho kara oki na tsuzura wo sa mo omotaso ni motte demas' 
to, bd san wa sore wo uketotte, kore sae mwaeba mo yo wa nai, 
" Dore, suzume san, go men nasai yo" to aisatau mo roku ni wa 
sezu, dokkoisho to shoidashimash'ta. 

Tokoro ga, sono tsuzura no omoi no omoku nai no 'tie uchi 
ni aru takuan no omoshi b yori wa ni sobai mo omotai kara, 
sasuga no bd san mo odoroite yudama no yd na ase wo hitai 
kara takutaku nagashi nagara unun itte aruite kimash j ta ga, 
sore de mo kokoro no naka de wa kono omomi nara sazo tak'san 
haitteru daro to, sore wo dai ichi no tanoshimi ni isshokemmei 
ni natte yatte kimash'ta ga, nanibun omotakutte tamaranai no 
to mata hayaku naka ga mitai no to de, uchi ye kaeru made 

a Nuki ni sum omit, from nukti. 

b Omoshi = omoi ishi used to keep daikon or tta under the brine in the process of 
pickling, as is done also in making sauerkraut. For omoi no omofm nai no Y# see 
p. 133, top. 


macJiikirezu, mama yo, a kokora de dkete yare to, y agate tsuzura 
wo michibataye oroshi, ase wofiiki nagara fta ico totte mini 
to, ko ica so mo ika ni, ko wa ika ni, naka wa takaramonoto 
omoinohoka mitsumekozd nigama no nyudo, ^aruiioa mamushi 
ni kemushini kamakiri nando iu sa mo osoroshii bakemono ga 
ujauja tsumatte imas' kara, bd san wa kimo wo tsubushi, kya- 
tto c itte hikkurikaeru to, naka no bakemono wa sono koe too 
kikits'kete sorosoi'o atama 100 mochiage, mamushi ga nutto ku- 
bi 100 nobash'te bd san no teashi ni makits'keba, gama wa bero- 
bero shita wo dasli'te hoppeta wo namemaivasu to iu saicagi ni 
bd san wa mo kyiishi-issho, d " Tas'kete kure, tas'kete kure " to 
naki nagara korogaru yd ni nigedasliimash'ta ga, yatto no koto 
de uchi ye kaette jii san ni kono hanashi wo suru to, jii san 
loa kaette odordkazu : "Sore da kara iicanai kotoja nai. Amari 
yokubaru to, sonna mono da" to dandan itte kikasemash'ta no 
de, bd san mb hajimete me ga same, sore kara nochi ica zen-sh in 
ni tachikaette jii san to onashi yd na makoto ni yoi hito ni na- 
rimash'ta to sa. Medetashi, medetashi! e 

a An interjection indicating acquiescence or indifference. 

b Milsu-me-kozo a bugaboo with three eyes; gama no nwdo, horn gama toad and 
nyTulo monk, likewise a bugaboo in the shape of an enormous toad. 

c The sound of a in the exclamation kya is like the English short a. In kana 
such sounds are indicated by adding tsu. 

d From kyu nine, shi death, ichi one, sho life, there being one chance in ten of 

e Fairy tales usually end with these words. 


a Ah! Oh! 414. 

a in that manner 351a; a iu 

(yo na) such. 
abareru become fractious. 
wo abiru bathe in. 
abisaseru have bathe. 
abiseru pour (water) over. 
abunai dangerous. 
abura fat, oil, blubber. 
aburakkoi fatty. 
abura-mi fat, suet, lard. 
aclii there. 

achi-kochi here and there. 
achira=achi 337. 
ada injury, foe 247. 
adakamo just about 328a. 
aete daringly ( formal )348b. 
afureru be full, overflow. 
agaru go up 121c: take 310. 
-agaru 286. 

age-ku ni finally, besides all. 
ageru lift up, give 84f, 116c, 

286c, 308; praise 178a. 
-ageru 286. 
age-shio flood tide. 

ahiru duck (domestic). 
ai=hai yes, all right. 
ai=ayu trout. 

ai- 174d, 302. [ing 385, 406. 
aida interval 67c ; between, dur- 
ai-kawarazu without changing. 
ai-mai na vague, ambiguous. 
ai-naru = naru become (formal). 
ai-narubeku 174d. 
Ainu native of Yezo. 
ai-satsu salutation, answer. 
(o) ai-so entertainment. 
aita vacant ( past of dku } . 
a-ita Ouch ! that hurts. 
ai-te partner, opponent. 
aitsu that thing (vulgar). 
Aizu 393a. 
aji taste 215. 
ajisai hydrangea. 
aka dirt, filth. 
oka sanakambo. 
aka-gaeru a brown frog. 
aka-gane copper. 
akai red. 

* This list of Japanese words that occur in the text has been abridged as much 
as possible, omitting all easily understood words, such as easy onomatopes, de- 
rivatives, compounds, foreign terms, etc. The definitions are often curtailed, to 
save space. When fuller explanations are to be found in the body of the book the 
page is indicated; the letters then refer to footnotes. 



akambo ansliin. 

akambo baby, infant 232b. 
a ka -m i reddish tinge 21. 
aka-nasu tomato 106. 
akari light; wo tsukeru light 

a lamp. [light. 

akari-tori opening to admit 
akarui light, clear. 
dke-banasu leave open 228. 
Akechi Mitsuhide 264b. 
akemasliite 317b. 
akeppanasu = akebanas u. 
akeru open (tr.), vacate, come 

to a close; yo ga day dawns. 
dki autumn. 
Aid 413c. 

ciki-ma vacant room. 
aldnai trade. 

akindo trader, shopkeeper. 
akippoi easily tired, fickle. 
aldraka na clear, evident. 
dldrameru give up hope 288b. 
akireru be surprised, amazed. 
cikiru be surfeited 142. 
akiudo= akindo. 
Akd 187d. 
aku open (intr.), get empty ; ana 

ga aite iru there is a hole. 
aku=akiru be surfeited. 
aku evil. 

akubi ivo sum (ga c/e?'?*)yawn. 
ak it-made to the utmost 379. 
akuru hi the following day 1 -M. 
ama nun. 

ama-do wooden sliding door. 
711 amaeru take ad vantage of. 
ama-gaeru tree toad. 
ama-gasa rain umbrella. 
ama-goi wo sum pray for rain. 
amai sweet; shio ga not salty 

enough; 106. 

ama-mor-i leak in the roof. 
amaneku at large (formal). 
amanzuru, amanjiru relish. 
amari exceedingly, too, so much. 
amaru be in excess. 
amasu leave over. 
amata no many (formal). 
Amaterasu 121h. 
amayakasv pet, indulge. 
am-bai temper, manner. 
ame rain; gafuru it rains. 
ame heaven (classical). 
ami net; wo utsu cast a net. 
Ainida, Amidagamine 377a. 
amma shampooer 223a. 
ammari = amari. 
amu braid, knit, crochet. 
an sweet bean paste. 
an thought, expectation, plan. 
an no gotoku as expected 344a. 
ana hole. 

anata you (polite) 28, 420. 
an-don lamp (old style). 
ane older sister 422. 
an-gwai (ni) unexpectedly. 
ani older brother 422. 
ani-ki older brother (vulgar). 
an-koro-mochi a cake of mwhi 

rolled in an. 

anna such 39. [173b. 

an-nai guidance, knowledge 
annai-ja (annai-sha] guide. 
annai-jo letter of invitation. 
ano that (yonder) 36. 
anohito, etc., 7a,7b, 28. 
ano ne I say 416. 
ano tor! :\ \lc. 
d.ii-xtitsu assassination. 
Ansei 74. 
an-shin peace of mind. 

ansho atchi 


an-sho hidden rock, reef. 

an-sho memorizing. 

anzuru, anjiru be anxious 214b. 

aogu fan 23 6c. 

aoi blue, green, pale. 

ao-mono vegetables. 

Aoto Saemon 429e. 

ara offal (of fish), defect 106b. 

ara (interjection) 41 5. 

arai rough, coarse. 

arakajime beforehand (formal). 

ara-mono coarse goods 374. 

arashi storm; ga fuku it 


aratamaru be amended 276a. 
aratameru renew, review. 
aratamete again, anew. 
arau wash. 
arayuru all. 

are that one (person or thing) . 
areru be rough, refractory. 
ari ant. 
ari-au, ari-awaseru happen to 

be on hand 286e. 
ari-gachi na 41 7b. 
ari-gatai rare, precious 25b. 
ari-ka place where a thing is 


ari-sama state, condition. 
ari-tei the truth of the matter. 
aru be 191; (in existence or 

possession) 20b, 41a; (in e- 

numerations) 63b; oarina- 

saru 118b; Jcoto iva, no iva 

54a, 274a. 

aru a certain, some 1. 
aru hi (no koto") one day 440c. 
aruiwa in some cases, or 398. 
arukoru alcohol. 
aruku walk 122b, 434i. 

asa hemp. 

asa morning. 

asa-gao morning-glory. 

asahaka na superficial. 

asa-han breakfast. 

asai shallow, thin. 

Asakusa 18e. 

Asama 185a. 

asa-meslii breakfast. 

asa-ne wo sum sleep late. 

asane-bo a late sleeper. 

asa-se shoal, ford. 

asatte day after to-morrow 345b. 

ase perspiration ; ga deru, 

wo dasu (kaku) perspire. 
Asei Mencius 428b. 
aseru, asette hurry. 
(o mi) ashi foot, leg, step. 
ashi-ato footprint. 
ashida wooden clog 91b. 
ashii evil (formal) 105a. 
ashi-kake inclusive 78b. 
ashi-moto what is under or about 

one's feet. 
ashita to-morrow. 
asobasu deign 310. 
asobu play, amuse one's self. 
asoko there 337. 
assari shita plain, simple 130a. 
asu to-morrow. 
asuko = asoko there. 
ataeru grant, bestow. 
atai value. 
atama head. 
atarashii fresh, new. 
atari = hen vicinity 385, about. 
atari-mae no usual, ordinary. 
ataru strike 370. 
atatakai warm. 
atchi = achi. 


ate nl naranai bankata. 

ate ni naranai unreliable. 

atc-Jiamaru be suited, applicable. 

ate-hameru assign,adjust, apply. 

ate-na address (of a letter). 

ateru apply, hit, guess. 

ato track, trace, succession ; 
wo luxtanukeru clear away 
things ; wo tsukeru follow 
in another's track; ivo tsu- 
gu become heir; de after, 
afterwards 112c, 338, 406;- 
ni behind 385; kara after 
257a; no the remaining, 
the other. 

ato-getsu last month. 

ato-jimai clearing away things. 

ato-katazuke ,, 

ato-saki 387. 

atsui hot, thick (of flat things). 

atsukau manage, treat. 

atsumaru assemble (intr.). 

atsumeru gather, assemble. 

atsuraeru order (goods) 380. 

attakai = atatakai warm. 

attd.ka na warm=a^/.v//. 

at-to sum subdue, crush. 

au meet 371, 373; tokei ga atte 
iru 160b. 

-au mutually, together 58, 286. 

aware na pitiful. 

awareppoi pathetic. 

aivase lined garment. 

awaseru join, introduce, adjust. 


awateru lose presence of mind. 

ayamaru err, apologize. 

di/'itiiatsu err 195. 

ayame sweet flag 192a. 

ayaniku unfortunately. 

ayu trout. 

azukaru take charge of 184b. 
(i-:keru entrust, deposit. 
ba place; 50710 de on the spot. 
(o) bd san grandmother, old 

lady 421d. 

ba-ai occasion, case. [lady. 
baba, baba grandmother, old 
bacM plectrum, pick, drumstick. 
bachi=batsu punishment. 
bainisobai double 80. 
bat or in violin. 

bai-u early summer rain 241a. 
bakf. fool, dunce, nonsense 250a. 
baka na, bakarashii foolish;