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Case Shelf 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 

PEABODT HUSETTM OF AHEBIOAN 
A£OE£OLOGT AITD ETHITOLOaT 

TRANSFBRKBD FROM 

Library of the Museum 
of Oompeurative Zoology 

Received At>ril 30, 1937 



: I 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY: J. W. POWELL, DIRECTOR 

;-^ 



TEXTILE FABRICS OF ANCIENT PERU 



ti,., 



iMa 



WILLIAM H. F-FOLMES 



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9008 1 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1889 



(^, S'cc. /-^^ /^(T. f c 



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LIBRARY OF THE 
MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 



THIS BOOK IS DEPOSITED TEMPORARILY 
IN THE LIBRARY OF THE 




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Fig. 


11.- 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

—The mnmmy pack and accompanyiDg burials. 
—Spindle of wood weighted with a whorl of polished terra-cotta. 
-Series of implements, most of which were probably used in weaving. 
-Curiously conventionalized figure in gobelins. 

—Highly conventionalized animal motive introduced into geometric pat- 
terns. 
-Human figure in rich colors, a masterpiece of textile art. 
-Analysis of the weaving of life forms in gobelins. 
-Small piece of gobelins showing slits open and closed. 
-Silhouette of a small piece of open gobelins. 
—The weavimg of curved forms in gobelins. 

-Portion of a fringed mantle of remarkable construction and great beauty. 

3 



TEXTILE FABRICS OF ANCIENT PERU. 
By William H. Holmes. 

The occasion for tlie preparation of this paper wa« famished by the 
request of Mr. E. A. Barber, of Philadelphia, that I shoald make a 
brief study of a small but select series of Peruvian fabrics belonging 
to him, and forwarded to me for examination. In prosecuting this 
work I had occasion to examine the fine collections of ancient Peruvian 
textiles recently acquired by the Bureau of Ethnology. These fabrics, 
so far as is known, are representative of the best period of aboriginal 
textile art, and are conceded by all to be marvels of execution and de- 
sign. 

But little is known chronologically of the various groups of art prod- 
ucts obtained from the burial places of the coast belt of Peru, but 
most of them belong in all probability to what may be called the Inca- 
rial epoch. Little definite information has been gained in regard to the 
relationships of the people, racial or political, with the historic na- 
tions, and for the present we must content ourselves with a study of 
their remarkable art remains. Many of the more cultured American 
nations were skilled in the weaver's art, as we learn from the accounts 
of the Conquerors, yet with a few exceptions extremely meager traces 
of the fabrics themselves have been preserved to our time. The an- 
cient inhabitants of Peru, as is customary with many peoples of corre- 
sponding grades of culture, buried a multitude of useful and valued 
objects along with the dead, and it happened that the dry sands in 
which the tombs were excavated, preserved, through a process of des- 
iccation, not only the bodies but most of the fragile articles and deli- 
cate fabrics that accompanied them. In the Sierra and upland regions, 
where the conditions of burial were not so favorable, but slight traces of 
the more perishable articles appear to have been preserved. 

By far the greater portion of cloths and richly ornamented garments 
were wrapped about the bodies of the dead and may now be unfolded, 
layer after layer, piece after piece, from the half-decayed mummies. 
Additional fabrics are contained in rolls, baskets, nets, and vases. 

In Fig. 1 we have an example of burial given by Eeiss and Sttibel,^ 
showing the appearance of the mummy pack and the character of the 
accompanying articles. The various articles are intended to be shown 
^ Reiss and Stiibel : The Necropolis of Ancon, Berlin, 1880. 



6 TEXTILE FABRICS OF ANCIENT PERU. 

in the identical positions in which they were discovered. At the right 
are earthen vessels, baskets, and net-covered gourds, containing various 
articles of food and art, and on the left a group of sepulchral banners, 
and trophies of unknown use and significance. 

The burial grounds of Ancon, on the coast near Lima, have probably 
furnished the greatest quantity of rich stuffs, and many museums are 
now well stocked with handsome specimens from this famous necropolis ; 
but similar finds are reported from Pachacamac, Paramonga, Cosma, 
Huanico, Chimu, and other places scattered up and down the coast. 

The magnificent work of Eeiss and StUbel, with its realistic chromo- 
lithographic plates, places these relics before the world in the most sat- 
isfactory manner possible, and the handsome work of Wiener,^ although 
without color«ed plates, contains a multitude of instructive illustra- 
tions. All of these textiles are much alike and appear to be the product 
of a single period of culture, and, we may fairly assume, of kindred or 
closely associated peoples. 




Fig. 1.— The mummy pack and accompanying burials. 

The grade of culture represented by this work would seem to be very 
high, considering American products only, but its equivalent in old- 
world culture must be sought in remote ages. This is shown in a strik- 
ing manner when we place the more delicate pieces of Peruvian work 
beside fabrics taken from the mummies of ancient Egypt. In quality 
of fabric, method of construction, color, and style of embellishment, 
the correspondence is indeed remarkable. The closest analogy, so far 

3 Charles Wiener : P^rou et Bolivie, Paris, 1880. 



TEXTILE FABRICS OF ANCIENT PERU. 7 

as my observation extends, is with some Egyptian fabrics of tbe first 
few centuries of the Christian era. 

With the Americans, as with the ancient peoples of the East, the 
appliances of manufacture were exceedingly simple, but primitive 
weavers make up for the lack of refined machinery by a degree of 
painstaking only permissible with workmen who place slight value 
upon time. N^o looms have been discovered. A frame to stretch the 
threads of the web, and simple tools or devices for the separation ot 
these and the insertion of the woof, appear to have been the only requi- 
sites in the production of ordinary fabrics. Wiener found in a grave 
at Pachacamac an unfinished piece of gobelins still attached to the two 
round poles, one of which probably had been fastened to some fixed 
object and the other perhaps to the person of the workman. By con- 
sulting the ancient manuscripts of Mexico we find that a similar device 
was in use in that country. Fabrics are woven upon similar frames by 
the Peruvian natives of to-day as well as by many other American 
tribes. For larger work more complete looms with healds and other 
devices similar to those used by the Pueblos of to-day may have been 
employed. Closer examination of the fabrics themselves may lead to 
a better knowledge of the methods of weaving. 

The strands employed in all classes of work were spun from cotton 
and other vegetable fibers, or from the wool of the llama, the alpaca, 
the vicuna, and the guanaco, and were generally moderately fine and 
exceedingly even and well twisted. Dyes of numerous rich and brill- 
iant colors were used, but their nature is not known to us. 

Spindles of wood were used, and the artistically shaped and decorated 
whorls with which they were weighted were generally made of clay. 



Fig. 2.— a spindle of wood weighted with a neat whorl of polished and painted terra<K)tta. 

The spindles of many nations are very similar to this. The threads 
were twisted by twirling the shaft between the fingers and the thumb 
or between the palm and some convenient part of the person. In 
Fig. 3 we have examples of a number of implements used in spinning, 
sewing, netting, weaving, and embroidering. Nearly all are made of 
wood, and many are shaped with neatness and evident regard for taste- 
ful appearance. Copper and bone also appear to have been consider- 
ably used. 

In a and b we have neatly shaped needles, the first with an eye at the 
upper end and a straight shaft, and the second with an encircling groove 
in place of an eye, and a slender curved point; c is an ordinary bone 
awl ; and d a delicate needle pointed at both ends. A wooden spool is 
shown in c, a netting mesh in/, a weaving band in ^, and a thin, sym- 
metrical, shuttle-like piece of wood, well adapted to the parting of the 
fine web strands, in h. The peculiar tool shown in i has a head shaped 



8 



TEXTILE FABRICS OF ANCIENT PERU. 



somewhat like that of a fish, has an incision at the month, and is notched 
and perforated at the neck. It may have been used in netting or in 
managing the threads in weaving. The remaining figures illustrate 
varieties of spindles and spindle-like implements, some of which are 
neatly carved and painted. 



b o d 

a .1 



Fig. 3.— Series of implement**, most of which were probably used in textile work. 

The textile products of the Peruvians included a wide range of arti- 
cles and utensils. So far as the relics show, the great body of the finer 
textiles consisted of wearing apparel. 

For the head there were caps, richly colored bands, and pendent orna- 
ments. For the body there were mantles, shirts, girdles, sashes, and a 
variety of wraps; all of which had elaborate ornamental figures woven 
in, and many were furnished with a profusion of textile appendages. 
For. the feet, sandals of various kinds were braided. Besides these 
there were probably blankets, hangings for the doors and walls, and a 
variety of tissues employed in sheltering from the sun and elements. 
There were ceremonial fabrics and strange banners to accompany the 
dead. For use in the various arts there were mats, baskets, bags, slings, 
nets, and other articles in great variety. All are purely American in 
character, having apparently no suggestion of Spanish or other foreign 
influence. 

Many of these articles were woven in their entirety, but it was cus- 
tomary to weave a garment in parts which were afterwards stitched 
together. There was no cutting and fitting. Goods were not woven 
"by the yard,'' as we would express it. 

A very large percentage of the articles forwarded to our museums are 
embellished with designs woven in the fabric or added as a surface 
finish. Many cloths were woven with a view to ordinary use and were 



TEXTILE FABRICS OP ANCIENT PERU. 9 

strong and durable, but it is clear that durability was a secondary con- 
sideration in a very large part of the work, and that beauty was the thing 
most desired. It would be a great mistake to suppose that there was 
in this embellishment any lack of refinement of taste as judged by 
European standards. Many of the rich garments were doubtless in- 
tended for display in the fantastic ceremonies of a barbarous race and 
must have been admired for their gaudy effects, but there is throughout 
a purity of design and a refinement of color that could be studied to 
advantage by the foremost decorators of the world. 

A most noticeable feature of these fabrics, and one calculated to chal- 
lenge the attention of students of art development, is the employment 
of animate forms in decoration. Both animal and vegetable forms ap- 
pear, but the former greatly predominate. This free delineation of 
animals is characteristic of the native Americans, and is suggestive of 
the close relationship held by them to exist between man and his brute 
associates. Jn their painting upon pottery they drew their forms with 
a free hand. They carved them in wood, stone, and shell, modeled them 
in clay, and cast them in metal with much vigor. In fabrics the de- 
lineations take a character of their own, a character dependent upon 
the technical restraints of the art. The remarkable influence of the 
web and woof upon design, and the causes thereof, have been fully set 
forth in a paper in the Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology. 
I do not need here to go over that ground, but shall call attention to 
some especial features of the Peruvian work. 

Generally the colors employed in weaving animal figures are not ar- 
ranged with any reference to the colors of nature, but are selected and 
skillfully alternated to give the desired effect to the decoration. 

The cleverness shown in introducing irregular forms of nature into 
geometric outlines without destroying them completely may be illus- 
trated by almost any example selected at random. One furnished by 
Mr. Barber is given in Fig. 4. Here the form of some unidentified 
creature is imposed upon an ordinary scroll pattern, the head in each 
repetition taking the place of the interlinked ends of the scroll units, 
whilst the various parts of the body appear along the connecting curves. 

A still more formal treatment of animal motives is shown in Fig. 5. 

In this case it is barely possible to identify the features of a life form 
as the lines all conform to the rectilinear geometricity of the fabric, but 
the head with the eyes and the mouth appear at the termination of each 
hook, and in their proper relations to one another. Beyond this very 
formal presentation we have still higher stages of convention, in which 
the merest traces of animal features may be found. 

A most interesting example of the conventional rendition of life forms 
is shown in Fig. 6. The fabric is a magnificent piece of gobelins, col- 
lected by Reiss and StUbel, and presented in all its rich colors in the 
great work published by them. It had been separated into two parts 
near the middle, and through an oversight, perhaps, these parts were 



10 



TEXTILE FABRICS OF ANCIENT PERU. 



not properly correlated by the authors. Joining the parts, we have the 
complete human figure as here shown, decked in plumes and clothed in 
garments of elegant patterns and varied colors. It is placed upon a 




Fig. 4.— Curiously conventionalized animal figure in gobelins. 

crimson field and is surrounded by varied devices, mostly of animal 
origin, which are probably symbolic. This piece is a triumph of skill 
and taste, and one of which no adequate idea can be given in a mere 
sketch. 




Fig. 5.— Highly conventionalized animal motive introduced into geometric patterns. 

It will be observed that all the examples given are woven in the 
tapestry style. 



TEXTILE FABRICS OF ANCIENT PEEU. 



11 




Fio. 6.— Human figure in rich colors ; a masterpiece of textile art. 



12 TEXTILE FABRICS OF ANCIENT PERU. 

We find that this was the method almost universally employed in 
richly decorated stuffs, and for the reason no doubt that complex pat- 
terns and pictorial effects are much more easily achieved by this than 
by any other method. In plain weaving, where two series of filaments, 
the web and the woof, are employed, the best possible texture for simple 
utility is produced. Both series connect more or less completely across 
the piece and are interlaced approximately at right angles, giving great 
strength to the work ; but designs, excepting checkers and plain geo- 
metric figures, are introduced with much difficulty. 

The gobelins style partakes of the nature of embroidery, and patterns 
of various kinds are worked out with comparative ease. 

The Peruvian workman stretched his series of warp threads side by 
side, usually twenty or thirty to the inch, between two holding-rods, 
and upon this warp as a foundation he began his fabrics. It seems that 
he did not begin as in ordinary weaving at one end of the piece, carry- 
ing the work uniformly thread by thread to the other end, but worked 
more or less in patches, setting in independently one entire bit of color, 
carrying the yarn back and forth over that area and pressing it down 
until the web was entirely hidden and both sides of the work exhibited 
the same figure. Other patches of color were added to this until the de- 
sired pattern was developed. 




€1 

Fi^j. 7* — AnolyeiB of the w*avJDg of lifa form a hi tapeatry. 

As a result of the peculiar methods employed some unusual effects were 
produced, two of which need further elucidation. The most notable 
feature is the open-work effect characteristic of these fabrics. Holding 
a piece up against the light, the figures appear partly outlined as trans- 
parencies, the effect being very pleasing. In all cases the slits consti- 
tuting the open work are found to run with the warp and occur where 
the outlines of the color areas follow the warp. 

The conditions giving rise to these slits may be readily illustrated. 



TEXTILE FABRICS OF ANCIENT PERU. 13 

The bit of gobelins shown in Fig. 7 represents on a large scale a por- 
tion of a figure of a bird and the ground surrounding it The warp 
threads are shown projecting above and below. On these the colored 
threads of the figure were carried back and forth. In the first place, 
perhaps, the bird was partially or entirely outlined by carrying a black 
thread around it. Beginning at any point within the outline, say, for 
example, at a in the lower margin of the section given, the black 
thread — or two bla<5k threads if a solid outline were desired — would 
be carried obliquely,upward to the left across the web until the turn at 
the throat were reached. Above this point the outline takes a vertical 
direction and is parallel with the warp. Throughout this vertical dis- 
tance the black thread must be wrapped about a single warp strand, 
entirely inclosing it, and the same thing must occur whenever a vertical 
line is to be employed as at the other turns of the neck, at the end of 
the beak, at the back of the head, and on the right and left of the eye. 
When the outline is all set, the filling in of the color areas begins.^ First, 
supposing the head is to be red, a red thread is inserted and carried back 
and forth, omitting the eye space. Now, when in the process the ends 
of the beak or the back of the head is reached, we discover no means of 
connecting the red yarn with the black vertical outline strand without 
covering or obscuring the latter, and the red yarn must therefore be 
turned about the last free thread and then be carried back across the 
head, and so on. Vertical slits are thus left between the red and the 
black, and the same thing occurs along all vertical outlines. It will 
further be seen that when the ground is put in about the figure, cor- 
responding slits are left on the outside of the black lines, so that the 
wrapped part of the black outline remains quite free or unattached. 

The effect, in cases where no outline of a distinct color is used, is 
shown in the vertical line of junction between the color areas of the 
ground at the right and left of the bird. In Fig. 8, the yarn of the 
color areas passes around contiguous strands of the web without con- 
necting across, and an open slit, the whole height of the ornament, 
results. In pieces where many long vertical lines are employed, the 
fabric is much weakened, and in many cases in this Peruvian work the 
sides of the openings have been stitched together with a needle as in. 
dicated at the right. The transparency effect of this work when placed 
against the light is shown in Fig. 9, which represents in silhouette a 
portion of the border from which the preceding figure is taken. 

Large, elaborately figured pieces are extremely interesting when 
viewed as transparencies. Similar but very simple open-work effects 
are occasionally secured in ordinary weaving, patterns employing two 
or more colors being woven in patches independent of each other, the 
ground being filled in by ordinary methods of woof insertion. The work 

1 It is possible that these figures were formed step by step as the fabric advanced, 
the workman carrying each color one step forward with each movement of the healds, 
if such were need, but the peculiarities of the goods will be as clearly understood 
from the point of view I have taken. 



14 



TEXTILE FABRICS OP ANCIENT PERU. 



in such cases progresses systematically from one end of the piec^ to the 
other, as in the loom work of the Pueblo Indians. 

The slits, as in the tapestry, occur only on outlines that run with the 
web. In Pueblo work the junction line is closed by passing the threads 
of both neighboring color areas around a common web thread, causing 
a slight enlargement along the line. 



!i!ii?'1?^^^?P^^??1^it^^^^^^^^l?HUtlie^?SJ5^ 



>^i^lriH!v^^^ir;^lfi 




Fig. 8. — Small piece of gobelins showing slits open and closed. 

Another feature of tapestry, in which its superiority in the jdelineation 
of natural forms is shown, is illustrated in Pig. 10. 




Fig. 9.— Silhouette of a small piece of open gobelins. 

In ordinary weaving the woof threads cross the warp at right angles, 
or nearly so, and the processes of insertion and beating down make it 
difficult to vary from this formal relation of parts, but in tapestry there 
is much freedom, as it is possible to carry the threads to a certain ex- 
tent with the curves of the figures. It will be seen, however, by refer- 
ence to Pig. 10, that the amount of mobility is limited ; when it is at- 
tempted to fill in the curved beak of the bird the threads are inclined 
downward, conforming to the curved outline. When the final turn is 
reached at the curve of the beak, and the outline descends with the 
warp, wrapping must be resorted to and a straight line is produced, but 
it is more restricted than in rectangular work. Beyond this, in com- 
pleting the hooked bill, the threads are inclined downward to the right. 

Jn every vertical turn there must, therefore, be an imperfection in the 
curve, caused by reversing the direction of the threads, 

It will prove tedious to describe in detail the numerous varieties of 



TEXTILE FABRICS OF ANCIENT PERU. 



15 



weaving, and the very great diversity of effect produced, but a few 
salient features may be noted. 

For all the more ordinary forms of fabrics, the prevailing method of 
combining the web and the woof is that of simple interlacing. By this 
method, which is known as plain weaving, many differently appearing 
stuffs are produced. We have open work ranging in character from 
coarse coffee sacking to Une, gauze-like mummy cloth. There are more 
compact fabrics, varying from heavy sail cloth to fine muslins, and in 
closely impacted forms we have a ribbed surface, in which the warp 
series of strands is entirely obscured by the woof. In all of this work 
the decorations when employed are highly geometric, but animal form 
are often cleverly introduced. 




Pig. 10. — The weaving^ of curved forms in gobelins. 

In open work, and especially in that variety intended as a foundation 
for embroidery, what is known as the twined combination is employed. 
In this the woof threads are twined together in pairs, inclosing in each 
half turn one of the warp threads. In this way the mesh is firmly 
fixed, after the manner of a net. This combination is not adapted to 
the weaving of compact cloths, nor to the introduction of varied orna- 
ments. It is much used in basketry. 

A number of varieties of combination are sometimes employed in a 
single piece, all being woven into the same warp. It is also very usual, 
as already noted, to see cloths made up of variously woven and diversely 
colored sections stitched together. 

We find a great variety of netted stuffs and netted articles, such as 
bags, poucZies, and covers for articles of domestic use. Threads of 
varying degrees of coarseness were used, and the intersections were 
thoroughly knotted as in our fish-nets. Knitting was common also, but, 
as the interloopings are very difficult to describe, I will not now under- 
take to analyze them. 



16 TEXTILE FABRICS OF ANCIENT PERU. 

Among the most remarkable work I may mention the fabrics in which 
dual series of warp and woof threads are combined. 

In a fine, richly decorated example in the collection of the irrational 
Museum the warp and the woof each consists of a brown and a white 
series alternating, thread for thread, and the patterns are all ^olid 
brown or solid white. While the two browns are employed on one side 
weaving a brown figure, the two whites are on the other side inde- 
pendently weaving a corresponding white figure. The two layers of 
stuff, the white and the brown, are therefore entirely free over the area 
of a single pattern or color area, but are connected at the margin of the 
figures where the two series of threads cross ea<3h other in passing to 
opposite sides. 

This cloth also shows all the figures as transparencies when held up 
to the light, since at the crossings of threads from back to front slight 
openings occur. 

In another style of weaving an auxiliary series of threads is carried 
loosely across the wrong side of the goods to be brought through to the 
right surface, when a figure in that color is desired. This is used in 
fabrics intended to expose only the one surface, as in bags, banners, etc. 

Hardly less interesting are some superb pieces of stuff, in which the 
colored patterns are produced by carrying along a supplementary series 
of warp threads, which appear only on the right side of the cloth, where 
they are held in place by passing at proper intervals under threads of 
the woof. The effect is precisely the same as that of embroidery in 
which the colored threads are attached by lifting the surface threads 
and passing them under. Indeed, in some cases it is difficult to say 
whether the ornament is woven in or embroidered. The skill exhibited 
is truly marvelous. 

The ancient peoples were exceedingly fond of fringes, and some of their 
tasseled garments are marvels of elaboration. A large mantle now in my 
possession has a compound foundation fabric of patchwork and passe- 
menterie work, consisting upon the surface of separately woven ro- 
settes, into which faces or geometric figures are worked, and upon which 
a multitude of tassels and clusters of tassels are fixed. The fringe. 
Fig. 11, consists of clusters of tassels, and is upward of 20 inches long. 

The head of each principal tassel represents rudely a human or animal 
head, the features being in relief and in color. There are upwards of 
three thousand tassels in all, and years must have been consumed in 
the execution of the garment. 

Marvelous skill was shown in the manufacture of very attenuated 
articles, such as bands and cords. Thus slings, which were in some 
cases made of raw hide or simple cords, were often braided of colored 
wools in the most tasteful manner imaginable. Ornamental cords were 
woven, one of which is nearly half an inch in diameter, the surface con- 
sisting of a dense, richly colored pile, giving the effect of a fine plush. 

So skillful had these workmen become that various animal forms were 
woven or knitted in the round. I have seen figures of llamas, dogs, etc., 



TEXTILE FABRICS OF ANCIENT PERU. 



17 



done in colors in fairly close imita- 
tion of nature. Such objects were 
probably toys for children. 

There are also embroideries of ex- 
cellent quality and most pleasing de- 
sign. They are mostly worked upon 
a net-like fabric done in the twined 
style, and are in some cases so delicate 
as to resemble lace. 

Strong, compact cloths were some- 
times used as a foundation for em- 
broideries, and especially for the 
application of designs in feathers. 
Stamped or printed figures appear to 
be extremely rare, and I know of no 
well-authenticated examples. 

Devices were used in dyeing by 
means of which spots arranged in 
simple patterns were left uncolored. 

Painting on fabrics was quite ex- 
tensively practiced. The figures em- 
ployed are in most cases copied from 
the formal sub-geometric figures of 
the woven work, and are often crude 
in conception and execution. 

A full discussion of the textile relics 
of the sea-board belt of Peru would 
require many additional illustrations. 
These can not now be prepared to ad- 
vantage as our collections are very 
incomplete. So far ajs a presentation 
of the articles themselves is concerned 
the work of Eeiss and Stiibel makes 
the publication of additional illustra- 
tions for that purpose seem superflu- 
ous. What is now particularly called 
for is a thorough study of the bearing 
of this great group of art products 
upon the questions of technical and 
aesthetic evolution, but this work is 
better postponed until more thorough 
exploration of the many burial sites 
is made. 




Fig. ll.—Portion of a fringed mantle of remark- 
able construction and great beauty. 



9008 2 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY: J. W. POWELL, DIBECTOB 



THE 



PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS 



BY 



CYRUS THOMAS 




WASHINGTON 

OOVEENMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1830 

i 6 I <-•■- 



\^<^C . /\^<-, "^tO, ^73P 



/r^^^ k'o^^/.- y. 



LIBRARY OF THE 
MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 



THIS BOOK IS DEPOSITED TEMPORARILY 

IN THE LIBRARY OF THE 

imm OF THE 
PEABODY MUSEUM 



CONTENTS. 



Pag«. 

Introdaction 7 

Chapter I. Historical evidence 1) 

Chapter II. Similarity of tbe art« aud customs of tbe mound-builders to those 

of ludians .. 14 

Architecture 14 

Tribal divisions 18 

Similarity in burial customs 18 

Removal of the flesh before burial 19 

Burial beneath or in dwellings 21 

Burial in a sitting or squatting posture 21 

The use of fire in burial ceremonies 21 

Similarity of the stone implements and ornaments of various tribes 22 

Mound and Indian pottery 23 

Chapter III. Stone graves and what they teach 25 

Chapter IV. The Cherokees as monnd-builders 31 

Chapter V. The Cherokees and the Tallegwi - 38 

3 



i 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fig. 1. — Part of an iron blade from a North Carolina mound 31 

Fig. 2. — Engraved shell gorget from a Tennessee mound 34 

Fig. 3. — Shell gorget with engraving of coiled serpent 35 

Fig. 4. — ^Twined fabric impressed on a iiiece of pottery obtained from a mound 

in Jefferson County, Tennessee 30 

Fig. 5. — Pipe from Hamilton County, Ohio 39 

Fig. 6. — Pipe from Hamilton County, Ohio 40 

Fig. 7. — Pipe from Sullivan County, Tennessee 40 

Fig. 8.— Pipe from Caldwell County, North Carolina 40 

5 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 



By Cybus Thomas. 



INTEODUCTION. 

No other ancient works of the Fniti»,d States have become so widely 
known or have excited so much interest as those of Ohio. This is due 
in part to their remarkable character but in a much greater degree to 
the "Ancient Monuments of the. Mississippi Talley,'' by Messrs. Squier 
and Davis, in which these monuments are described and figured. 

The constantly recurring question, " Who constructed these works?'' 
has brought before the public a number of widely different theories, 
though the one which has been most generally accepted is that they 
originated with a i)eople long since extinct or driven from the country, 
who had attained a culture status much in advance of that reached by 
the aborigines inhabiting the country at the time of its discovery by 
Europeans. 

The opinion advanced in this paper, in support of which evidence 
will be presented, is that the ancient works of the State are due to In- 
dians of several different tribes, and that some at least of the typical 
works, were built by the ancestors of the modern Cherokees. The dis- 
cussion will be limited chiefly to the latter proposition, as the limits of 
the paper will not permit a full presentation of all the data which might 
be brought forward in support of the theory, and the line of argument 
will be substantially as follows : 

First. A brief statement of the reasons for believing that the Indians 
were the authors of all the ancient monuments of the Mississippi Val- 
ley and Gulf States; consequently the Ohio njounds must have been 
built by Indians. 

Second. Evidence that the Cherokees were mound builders after 
reaching their historic seats in East Tennessee and western North 

7 



§ THE PROBLEM OF THfi OHlO MOtlNDS. 

Carolina. This and the preceding positions are strengthened by the 
introduction of evidence showing that the Shawnees were the authors 
of a certain type of stone graves, and of mounds and other works con- 
nected therewith. 

Third. A tracing of the Cherokees, by the mound testimony and by 
tradition, back to Ohio. 

Fourth. Seasons for believing that the Cherokees were the Tallegwi 
of tradition and the authors of some of the typical works of Ohio. 



CHAPTER 1. 

THE HISTOEICAL EVIDENCE. 

Space will not permit any review here of the various theories in re- 
gard to the builders, or of the objections made to the theory that they 
were Indians, or of the historical evidence add ucible in support of this 
theory. Simple declaration on these points must suffice. 

The historical evidence is clear and undisputed that when the region 
in which the mounds appear was discovered by Europeans it was inhab- 
ited by Indians only. Of their previous history nothing is known ex- 
cept what is furnished by vague and uncertain traditions or inferred 
from the study of their languages and customs. On the other hand 
there is no historical or other evidence that any other race or people 
than the Indians ever occupied this region, or any part of it, previous 
to its discovery by Europeans at the close of the fifteenth century. 

We enter the discussion, therefore, with at least a presumption in 
favor of the conclusion that these works were built by the Indians — 
a presumption which has not received the consideration it deserves; 
indeed, it is so strong that it can be overcome only by showing that 
those mounds, or the specimens of art found in them, which were un- 
questionably the work of the builders, indicate an advancement in skill 
and knowledge entirely beyond that reached by the Indians previous 
to contact with Europeans. But all the genuine discoveries so far made 
in the explorations of the mounds tend to disprove this view. 

If it can be shown that tribes occupying the mound region at the 
time they were first visited by Europeans used mounds, and in some 
cases built them, it will be a fair inference that all these structures are 
due to the same race until the contrary is proved. 

The objection urged by many that the Indian has always been a rest- 
less nomad, spurning the restraints of agriculture, has been effectually 
answered, especially by Mr. Lucien Oarr.^ History also bears us out 
in the assertion that at the time of the discovery nine tenths of the 
tribes in the mound district had fixed seats and local habitations, de- 
pending to a great extent for sustenance upon the cultivation of the 
soil. So fiir as the southern districts, now comprising the Gulf States, 
are concerned, it goes furthec^and asserts over and over again that the 
tribes of that section were mound-builders when first encountere^l by 
the whites. To verify this assertion it is only necessary to read the 

* Mounds of the Mississippi Valley Historically Cousidered. 



10 THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

chronicles of De Soto's expedition and the writings of tbe pioneer trav- 
elers and French missionaries to that section. This evidence proves 
conclusively not only that this had been a custom, but that it was con- 
tinued into the eighteenth century. 

Such statements as the following, attested by various contemporane- 
ous authors, should suffice on this point: 

The caciqaes of this country make a cnstom of raising near their dwellings very 
high hills, on which they sometimes bnild their honses.^ 

The Indians try to place their villages on elevated sites, but inasmuch as in Florida 
there are not many sites of this kind where they can conveniently build, they erect 
elevatioiis themselves in the following manner, etc.* 

The chiefs house stood near the beach upon a very high mount nmde by hand for 
defense,^ 

The last, which was on Tampa Bay, was most likely near Phillippi's 
Point, where tradition fixes De Soto's landing place, and where a num- 
ber of mounds and shell heaps have been found. One of these, opened 
by Mr. S. T. Walker,^ was found to consist of three layers. In the 
lower were " no ornaments and but little pottery, but in the middle 
and top layers, especially the latter, nearly every cranium was encircled 
by strings of colored beads, brass and copper ornaments, trinkets, etc. 
Among other curious objects were a pair of scissors and a fragment of 
looking-glass." 

An earlier exploration is thus described: "The governor [De Soto] 
opened a large temple in the woods, in which were buried the chiefs 
of the country, and took from it a quantity of pearls * ♦ ♦ which 
were spoiled by being buried in the ground."^ 

Another chronicler says: " This house stood on a high mound {€erro)j 
similar to others we have already mentioned. Bound about it was a 
roadway sufficiently broad for six men to walk abreast." * (There are 
good reasons for believing this to be the Etowah mound near Carters- . 
ville,Ga.)'' 

The town of Talise is described as being strong in the extreme, in- 
closed by timber and earth.^ 

Herrera speaks of " a town of 400 houses, and a large square, where 
the cacique's house stood upon a mound made by art.^' ^ 

Father Gravier^^ speaks of mounds of the Akansea and '^Tounika" 
villages. 

M. La Harpe says " the cabins of the Yasous, Oourois, Offbgoula, 
and Ouspie [along the Yazoo about 1700] are dispersed over the coun- 

> Biedma, Hist. Coll. La. , vol. 2, p. 105. 

2 Garcilasso de la Vega, Hist. Fla., ed. 1723, p. 69. 

3 Gentleman of Elvas. Bradford Club series, vol. 5, p. 23. 
* Smithsonian Report, 1879 (1880), pp. 392-422. 

5 Biedma, Hist. Coll. La., vol. 2, p. 101. • 

« Garcilasso de la Vcnra, Hist. Fla., ed. 1723, p. 139. 

'Thomas, Mag. Am. Hist., May, 1884, pp. 405, 406. 

8 Garcilasso, Hist. Fla., p. 144. 

'♦Hist. Am., Stevens's traosl., vol. 6, p. 5. 

10 Shears Early French Voyages, pp. 126, 136. 



THE PROBLEM OP THE OHIO MOUNDS. 11 

try upon mounds of earth made with their own hands, from which it is 
inferred that these nations are very ancient and were formerly very 
numerous, although at the present time they hardly number two hun- 
dred and fifty persons.'' ^ (This seems to imply that there were numer- 
ous mounds unoccupied.) " In one of the IJatches villages,'' says Du- 
mont, " the house of the chief was placed on a mound." ^ 

Another writer says : " When the chief [of the iNatchez] dies they 
demolish his cabin and then raise a new mound on which they build 
the cabin of him who is to replace him in this dignity."^ 

According to Bartram, in the Cherokee town of Stico the council- 
bouse was on a mound^ as also at Cow6.* 

The same writer says ^ the Choctaws raised mounds over their dead 
in case of communal burials. 

It is apparent from Jefferson's language ^ that the burial mounds of 
Virginia were of Indian origin. 

These references, which might be indefinitely multiplied, are suffi- 
cient to bear out the assertion that history testifies that the southern 
tribes were accustomed to build mounds. 

It is a matter of surprise that so little is to be found regarding the 
mounds in the older records of the Northern States. There is but one 
statement in the Jesuit Relations and no mention in the writings of the 
Recollects, so far has been found, and yet one of the missionaries 
must have passed a good portion of the winter of 1700 in the very midst 
of the Oahokia group. Colden notes that ''a round hill was sometimes 
raised over the grave in which a corpse had been deposited."' Carver 
noticed ancient earthworks on the Mississippi near Lake Pepin, but knew 
nothing of their origin.^ Heckewelder observed some of these works 
near Detroit, which he was informed had been built by the Indians. An 
account of them was published in a Philadelphia periodical in 1780 or 
1790. This description was afterwards given briefly in his " History of 
the Manners and Customs of the Indian iNaticms." 

These older records mention facts which afford a reasonable explana- 
tion of some of the ancient monuments found in the northern section 
of the country; as for example the communal or tribal burials, where 
the bones and remains of all the dead of a village, region, or tribe, who 
had died since the last general burial (usually a period of eight to ten 
years) were collected and deposited in one common grave. This method, 
which was followed by some southern tribes, has been described by Bar- 

» La Harpe, Hist. Coll. La., part 3, p. 108, New York, 1851. 
2M6m. Hist. La., vol. 2, p. 109. 

'^La Petit, Hist. Coll. La., vol. 3, pp. 141, 142, note. Also Lettres Mifiantes et curioses, 
vol. I, pp. 260, 261. See Du Pratz, Histoire Louisiane, 1758, vol. 3, p. 16. 
* Bartram's Travels, pp. 345, 367. « 
ft Ibid., p. 516. 

"Notes on Virginia, 4th Am. ed., 1801, pp. 142-147. 
'Hist. Five Nations, introd., vol. 1, London, 1755, p. 16. 
sTravels, ed. 1798, Phila., p. 36; ed. 1779, London, p. 57. 



12 THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

train,^ Dumont,^ RomaDS,^ and others, bat most fully by Jean de Brebeuf.* 

It is a well-attested fact that northern as well as southern Indians 
were accustomed to erect palisades around their villages for defense 
against attack. 

Some evidences of mound building by northern Indians may be found 
in the works of comparatively modern writers. Lewis C. Beck ^ affirms 
that " one of the largest mounds in this country has been thrown up on 
this stream [the Osage] within the last thirty or forty years by the Osages, 
near the great Osage village, in honor of one of their deceased chiefs.'' 
It is probable this is the mound referred to by Major Sibley,^ who says 
an Osage Indian informed him that a chief of his tribe having died 
while all the men were off on a hunt, he was buried in the usual man- 
ner, with his weapons, etc., and a small mound was raised over him. 
When the hunters returned this mound was enlarged at intervals, every 
man carrying materials, and so the work went on for a long time, and the 
mound, when finished, was dressed off to a conical form at the top. The 
old Indian further said he had been informed, and believed, that all 
the mounds had a similar origin. 

Lewis and Clarke mention not only the erection of a mound over a 
modern chief, but also numerous earthworks, including mounds, which 
were known to be the work of contemporaneous Indians."' 

L. V. Bierce* states that when Nicksaw, an old Wyandotte Indian 
of Summit County, was killed, "the Indians buried him on the ground 
where he fell, and according to their custom raised a mound over him 
to commemorate the place and circumstances of his death. His grave 
is yet to be seen.'' 

Another writer says : *' It is related by intelligent Indian traders that 
a custom once prevailed among certain tribes, on the burial of a chief or 
brave of distinction, to consider his grave as entitled to the tribute of a 
portion of earth from each passer-by, which the traveler sedulously car- 
ried with him on his journey. Hence the first grave formed a nucleus 
around which, in the accumulation of the accustomed tributes thus paid, 
a mound was soon formed."^ 

The same author says ^° the tumulus at the Great Butte des Morts 

1 Travels (1791), p. 516. 

2 M<5inoire8 Hist. La., vol. 1, p. 246. 

3 Nat. and Civil Hist. Fla., pp. 88-90. 

* lu his accoQDt ** Des c^r6inonies quUls [les Hiirons] gardent en lenr sepulture et 
de leur deuil," and " De la Feste soleninelle des morts."— Jesuit Relations for 1636, 
pp. 129-139. See translation in Thomas's ** Burial Mounds of the Northern Section 
of the United States," Fifth Annual Kept. Bur. Ethnol., p. 110. See also Lafitiu, 
" Moeurs des Saavages," vol. 2, pp. 447-455. 

^ Gazetteer of the States of III. and Mo., p. 308. 

« Featherstonhaugh, Excur. through Slave States, p. 70. 

7 Travels, Dublin ed., 1817, pp. 30, 31, 55, 67, 115, 117, 122-125, etc. 

« Historical Reminiscences of Summit County, Ohio, p. 128. 

9 Smith's History of Wisconsin, vol. 3, 1854. p. 245. 
10 Ibid., p. 262. 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 13 

(Great Hill of the Dead) was raised over the bones of Oatagami (Fox 
Indian) warriors slain in battle with the French in 1706. 

According to a Winnebago tradition, mounds in certain localities in 
Wisconsin were built by that tribe, and others by the Sacs and Foxes.^ 

There is another Indian tradition, apparently founded on fact, that 
the Essex mounds in Clinton County, Mich., are the burying places of 
those killed in a battle between the Chippewas and Pottawatomies, 
which occurred not many generations ago.^ 

1 Wis. Hist.^oc, Kept. 1, pp. 88, S! 

^ Smithsonian Eepoit, part 1, 1684, p. 848. 



CHAPTER II. 

SIMILARITY OF THE ARTS AND CUSTOMS OF THE MOUND BUILDERS 
TO THOSE OF INDIANS. 

The historical evidence is, as we have seen, conclusive that some of 
the tribes of Indians were mound-builders. 

The explorations by the Bureau of Ethnology in the South and West 
have also brought to light so many corroborative facts that the question 
may be considered settled. These will shortly be given to the public ; 
only a few can be noticed here, and that in a very brief and general way. 

As the country was inhabited only by Indians at the time of its dis- 
covery, and as we have no evidence, unless derived from the mounds, 
of its having ever been occupied by any other people, every fact indi- 
cating a similarity between the arts, customs, and social life of the 
mound-builders and those of the red Indians, is an evidence of the 
identity of the two peoples. The greater the number of these resem- 
blances, the greater the probability of the correctness of the theory, so 
long as we find nothing irreconcilable with it. 

ArcJiitecture, — One of the first circumstances which strike the mind 
of the archaeologist who carefully studies these works as being very 
significant, is the entire absence of any evidence in them of architect- 
ural knowledge and skill approaching that exhibited by the ruins of 
Mexico and Central America, or even equaling that exhibited by the 
Pueblo Indians. 

It is true that truncated pyramidal mounds of large size and some- 
what regular proportions are found in certain sections, and that some 
of these have ramps or roadways leading up to them. Yet when com- 
pared with the pyramids or teocalli of Mexico and Yucatan the differ- 
ences in the manifestations of architectural skill are so great, and the 
resemblances are so faint and few, as to furnish no grounds whatever 
for attributing the two classes of works to the same people. The facts 
that the works of the one people consist chiefly of wrought and sculp, 
tured stone, and that such materials are wholly unknown to the other, 
forbid the idea of any relationship between the two. The difference 
between the two classes of monuments indicates a wide divergence — a 
complete step— in the culture status. 

Mexico, Central America, and Peru are dotted with the ruins of stone 
edifices, but in all the mound-building area of the United States not 
the slightest vestige of one attributable to the people who erected the 
14 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 15 

earthen structures is to be found. Tbe utmost' they attained in this 
direction was the construction of stone cairns, rude stone walls, and 
vaults of cobble- stones and undressed blocks. This fact is too signifi- 
cant to be overlooked in this comparison, and should have its weight 
in forming a conclusion, especially when it is backed by numerous other 
important differences. 

Though hundreds of groups of mounds marking the sites of ancient 
villages are to be seen scattered over the Mississippi Valley and Gulf 
States, yet nowhere can there be found an ancient house. The inference 
is therefore irresistible that the houses of the mound-builders were con- 
structed of perishable materials ; consequently that the builders were 
not sufficiently advanced in art to use stone or brick in building, or 
else that they lived a roving, restless life that would not justify the 
time and trouble necessary to erect such permanent structures. As the 
last inference is irreconcilable with the magnitude and extent of many 
groups of these remains we are forced to the conclusion that the first 
is true. 

One chief objection to the Indian origin of these works is, as already 
stated, that their builders must have been sedentary, depending largely 
upon agriculture for subsistence. It is evident, therefore, that they had 
dwellings of some sort, and as remains of neither stone nor brick struct- 
ures are found which could have been used for this purpose, we must 
assume that their dwellings were constructed of perishable material,, 
such as was supplied in abundance by the forest region in which they- 
dwelt. It is therefore apparent that in this respect at least the dwell, 
ings of mound-builders were similar to those of Indians. But this 
is not all that can be said in reference to the houses of the former, for 
there still remain indications of their shape and character, although 
no complete examples are left for inspection. In various places, espec- 
ially in Tennessee, Illinois, and southeast Missouri, the sites of thou- 
sands of them are yet distinctly marked by little circular depressions 
with rings of earth around them. These remains give the form and 
size of one class of dwellings that was common in the regions named. 
Excavations in the center usually briug to light the ashes and hearth 
that mark the place where the fire was built, and occasionally unearth 
fragments of the vessels used in cookiug, the bones of animals on whose 
flesh the inmates fed, and other articles pertaining to domestic use. 

During the explorations of the Bureau in southeastern Missouri and 
Arkansas, finding the remains of houses in low, flat mounds was a 
common occurrence. Although the wood in most cases had disap- 
peared, what had not been converted to coals and ashes having rotted 
away, yet the size and form, and, in part, the mode of construction, 
were clearly indicated. The hard-tramped, circular, earthen floor gave 
the size and form; the numerous fragments of burnt clay forming a 
layer over the floor — often taken by explorers for brick — revealed the 
method of plastering their dwellings ; the charred remains of grass and 



16 THE PROBLEM OP THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

twigs showed that it had beeu strengthened by this adinixtare; the 
impressions left on the inner face of these lumps of burnt plastering 
revealed the character of the lathing, which was in some ca^s -branches 
and twigs, but in others split cane. The roof was thatched with grass 
or matting, the charred remains of which were found in more than one 
instance. In probably nine cases out of ten it was apparent these 
dwellings had been burned. This was found to be due to the custom 
of burying the dead in the floor and burning the dwelling over them, 
covering the remains with dirt often before the fire had ceased burning. 

As a general rule the strata are found in this order: (1) a top layer 
of soil from 1 foot to 2 feet thick; (2) a layer of burnt clay from 3 to 12 
inches thick (though usually varying from 4 to 8 inches) and broken 
into lumps, never in a uniform, unbroken layer; immediately below 
this (3) a thin layer of hardened muck or dark clay, though this does 
not always seem to be distinct. At this depth in the mounds of the 
eastern part of Arkansas are usually found one or more skeletons. 

Take, for example, the following statement by Dr. Edward Palmer 
in regard to these beds: 

As a general and almost universal rule, after removing a foot or two of top soil, a 
layer of burnt clay in a broken or fragmentary condition would be fouud, sometinu's 
with impressions of grass or twigs, and easily crumbled, but often hard, and stamped, 
apparently, with an implement made of split reeds of comparatively large size. This 
layer was often a foot thick, and frequently burned to a brick-red or even to clinkers. 
Below this would be found more or less ashes, and often 6 inches of charred grass 
immediately over the skeletons. These skeletons were found lying in all directions, 
some with the fare up, others with it down, and others on the side. With each of 
these were one or more vessels of clay. 

Eemains of rectangular houses were also discovered, though much 
less frequent than other forms. These consisted of three rooms, two in 
front and one in rear. For example. Dr. Palmer found in a broad plat- 
form-like elevation not more than 3 feet high*the remains of a house of 
this form which he traced by the burnt clay. The lines of the upright 
walls w ere very apparent, as also the clay which must have fallen from 
them, and which raised the outer marginal lines considerably higher 
than the inner area. Dr. Palmer remarks: 

The fire must have been very fierce, aid the clay around the edges was evidently 
at some height above the floor, as I judge from the irregular way in wJiich it is scat- 
tered -around the margins. 

Excavations in the areas showed that they were covered with a layer 
of burnt clay, uneven and broken; immediately below this a layer of 
ashes 6 inches thick, and below this black loam. On these areas large 
trees were growing, one a poplar 3 feet in diameter. Below one of these 
floors were found a skeleton, some pottery, and a pipe. A large oak 
formerly stood at this point, but it has been blown down. 

Subsequently the remains of another dwelling of precisely the same 
form, that is, two square rooms joined and a third of the same si^se 
immediately behind these two, were discovered in the same region by 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 17 

Colonel Korris. In this case remnants of the upright posts and reed 
lathing forming the walls were foand, also the clay plastering. 

Prof. G. C. Swallow* describes a room formed of poles, lathed with 
split cane, plastered with clay both inside and out, which he found in a 
mound in southeastern Missouri. Colonel iNorris found parts of the de- 
cayed poles, plastering, and other remains of a similar house in a large 
mound in the same section. 

From the statements of the early writers, a few of which are given 
here, it is evident that the houses of the Indians occupying this region 
w hen first visited by the whites were very similar to those of the mound- 
builders. 

La Harpe, speaking of the tribes in some parts of Arkansas, says : 
<^ The Indians build their huts dome-fashion out of clay and reeds." 
Schoolcraft says the Pawnees formerly built similar houses. In Iber- 
ville's Journal* it is stated that the cabins of the Bayogoulas were 
round, about 30 feet in diameter, and plastered with clay to the height 
of a man. Adair says: ^'They are h^thed with cane and plastered 
with mud from bottom to top within and without with a good covering 
of straw.'' 

Henri de Tonty, the real hero of the Preuch discoveries on the Mis- 
sissippi, says the cabins of the Tensas were square, with the roof dome- 
shaped, and that the walls were plastered with clay to the height of 12 
feet and were 2 feet thick.** 

A description of the Indian square houses of this southern section 
by Du Pratz^ is so exactly in point that I insert a translation of the 
whole passage : 

The cabins of the Datives are all perfectly square ; none of them are less than 15 
feet in extent in every direction, but there are some which are more {ban 30. The 
following is their manner of building tbem : The natives go into the new forest to 
seek the trunks of young walnut trees of 4 inches in diameter and from 18 to 20 feet 
long ; they plant the largest ones at the four corners to form the breadth and the 
dome; hut before fixing the others they prepare the scaffolding; it consists of four 
poles fastened together at the top, the lower ends corresponding to tbe four corners; 
on these four poles others are fastened crosswise at a distance of a foot apart ; this 
makes a ladder with four sides, or four ladders joined together. 

This done, they fix tbe other poles in the ground in a straight line between those 
of the corners ; when they are thus planted they are strongly bound to a pole which 
crosses them within each side [of the house]. For tbis purpose large splints of stalks 
are used to tie them at the height of 5 or 6 feet, according to the size of the' cabin, 
which forms the walls; these standing polos are not more than 15 inches apart from 
caeh other; a young man then mounts to the end of one of the corner poles with a 
cord in his teeth; he fastens the cord to the polo, and as he mounts within, the pole 
bends, because those who are below draw the cord to bend the pole as much as is 
necessary ; at the same time another young man fixes the pole of the opposite corner 
in the same way ; the two poles being thus bent at a suitable height, they are fastened 

^ 8th Rept. Peabody Museum, 1875, pp. 17, 18. 

^Relation in Margry, D^couvertos, 4th part (March, 1699), p. 170. 

3 Relation of Henry de Tonty in Margry, D6couvertes, vol. 1, 1876, p. 600. 

4Hi8t.La., vol.2, French ed., 1758, pp. 173-175; English ed., )764, p. 359. 

9009 2 



18 THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

strongly and evenly. The same iq done with the poles of the two other corners as 
they are crossed over the first eues. Finally all the other poles are joined at the 
point, which makes altogether the figure of a bower in a summer-honse such as wc 
have in France. After this work they fasten sticks on the lower sides or walls at a 
dibtance of about 8 inches across, as high as the pole of which I have spoken, which 
forms the length of the wall. 

These sticks being thus fastened, they make mud walls of clay, in which they put 
a sufficient amount of Spanish moss; these walls are not more than 4 inches thick ; 
they leave no opening but the door, which is only 2 feet in width by 4 in height ; 
there are some much smaller. They then cover the frame-work which I have just de- 
scribed with mats of reeds, putting the smoothest on the inside of the cabin, taking 
care to fasten them together so that they are well joined. 

After this they m'ake large bundles of grass, of the tallest that can be found in the 
low lands, and which is 4 ol- 5 feet long ; this is put on in the same way as straw 
which is used to cover thatched houses ; the grass is fastened with large canes, and 
splints, also of canes. When the cabin is covered w*ith grass they cover all with a 
matting of canes well bound together, and at the bottom they make a ring of " bind- 
weeds '' all around the cabin, then they trim the grass evenly, and with this defense, 
however strong the wind may be, it can do nothing against the cabin. These cover- 
ings last twenty years without being repaired. 

iNunierous other references to the same effect might be given, but 
these are sufficient to show that the remains found in the mounds of 
the South are precisely what would result from the destruction by fire 
of the houses in use by the Indians when first encountered by Euro- 
peans. 

It is admitted now by all archaeologists that the ancient works of 
New York are attributable to Indians, chiefly to the Iroquois tribes. 
This necessarily carries with it the inference that works of the same 
type, for instance those of northern Ohio and eastern Michigan, are due 
to Indians.. It is also admitted that the mounds and burial pits of Can- 
ada are due, at least in part, to the Ilurous.^ 

Tribal divisions. — As the proofs that the mound-builders pertained to 
various tribes often at war with each other are now too numerous and 
strong to be longer denied, we may see in them evidences of a social con- 
dition similar to that of the Indians. 

Similarity in burial customs. — There are perhaps no other remains of 
a barbarous or unenlightened people which give us so clear a concep- 
tion of their superstitions and religious beliefs as do those which relate 
to the disposal of their dead. By the modes adopted for such disposal, 
and the relics found in the receptacles of the dead, we are enabled not 
only to understand something of these superstitions and beliefs, but 
also to judge of their culture status and to gain some knowledge of 
their arts, customs, and modes of life. 

The mortuary customs of the mound-builders, as gleaned from an ex- 
amination of their burial mounds, ancient cemeteries, and other depos- 
itories of their dead, present so many striking resemblances to those of 
the Indians when first encountered by the whites, as to leave little 

» Dftvid Boyle, Aun. Kept, Cftnadiau Institute, 18a6-'87, pp, 9-X7 j Ibid., 1^88, p. 57. 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 19 

room for doabt regardiug their ideatity.* Nor is this aimilarity liinitt^d 
to the customs in the broad and general sense, but it is carried down to 
the more minute and strikhig peculiarities. 

Among the general features in which resemblances are noted are the 
following : 

The mound- builders were accustomed to dispose of their dead in many 
different ways; their modes of sepulture were also quite varied. The 
same staf^ements will apply with equal force to the Indians. 

"The commonest mode of burial among North American Indians," 
we are informed by Dr. H. C. Yarrow,' "has been that of interment iu 
the ground, and this has taken place in a number of ways.'' The dif- 
ferent ways he mentions .nre, in pits, graves, or holes in the ground; 
in stone graves or cists; in mounds; beneath or in cabins, wigwams, 
houses or lodges, and in caves. 

The most common method of burial among the mound-builders was 
by inhumation also, and all the different ways mentioned by Dr. Yar 
row as practiced by the Indians were in vogue among the former. It 
was supposed for a long time that their chief and almost only place of 
depositing their dead was in the burial mounds, but more thorough 
explorations have revealed the fact that near most mound villages are* 
cemeteries, often of considerable extent. 

The chief value of this fact in this connection is that it forms one 
item of evidence against the theory held by some antiquarians that the 
mound-builders were Mexicans, as the usual mode of disposing of the 
dead by the latter was cremation.^ According to Brasseur de Bour- 
bourg the Toltecs also practiced cremation.'* 

Removal of tlieflesli before burial. — This practice appears to have been 
followed quite generally by both Indians and mound-builders. 

That it was followed to a considerable extent by the mound-builders 
of various sections Is shown by the following evidence: 

The confused masses of human bones frequently found in mounds 
show by their relation to each other that they must have been gathered 
together after the flesh had been removed, as this condition could not 
possibly have been assumed after burial in their natural state. In- 
stances of this kind are so numerous and well known that it is scarcely 
necessary to present any evidence iu support of the statement. The 
well-known instance referred to by Jefferson in his " Notes on Virginia''^ 

^ Evidence bearing on this point will be found in the paper on The Burial Mounds 
of the Northern Sections, by C. ThouMts, iu the Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau 
of Ethnology. 

* First Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institutiou, 1879-80 
(1881), p. 93. 

^Clavigero, Hist. Mex., CuUen's transl., 1,325; Torqneniada, Monarq. Ind.,I, p. 60, 
etc. 

*H. H.Bancroft, Native Races, vol. 2, 1882, p. 609. 

^Fourth Am. ed., 1801, p. 143 ; p. 146, in 8th ed. 



20 THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

is one in point. *' The appearance," he tells us, " certainly indicates that 
it [the barrow] has derived both origin and growth from the customary 
collections of bones and deposition of them together.'^ 

Notices of similar deposits have been observed as follows : In Wis- 
consin, by Mr. Armstrongj^ in Florida, by James BelP and Mr. Walker f 
in Cass County., 111., by Mr. Snyder 5* in Georgia, by C. C. Jones.^ 
Similar deposits have also been found by the assistants of the Bureau 
of Ethnology in Wisconsin, Illinois, northern Missouri, Korth Carolina, 
Kew York, and Arkansas. 

Another proof of this custom was observed by Mr. J. D. Middleton 
and Colonel Korris in Wisconsin, northeastern Missouri, and Illinois. 
In numerous mounds the skeletons were found packed closely side by 
side, immediately beneath a layer of hard, mortar-like substance. The 
fact that this mortar had completely filled the interstices, and in many 
cases the skulls also, showed that it had been placed over them while 
in a plastic state, and as it must soon have hardened and assumed 
thC" condition in which it was found, it is evident the skeletons had 
been buried after the flesh was removed. 

As additional evidence we may mention the fact that in stone graves, 
so small that the body of a full-grown individual could not by any pos- 
sible means be pressed into them, the bones of adult individuals are 
sometimes found. Instances of this kind have occurred in Tennessee, 
Missouri, and southern Illinois. 

From personal examination I conclude that most of the folded skele- 
tons found in mounds were buried after the flesh had been removed, as 
the folding, to the extent noticed, could not possibly have been done 
with the flesh on them, and the positions in most cases were such that 
they could not have been assumed in consequence of the decay of the 
flesh and settling of the mound. 

The partial calcining of the bones in vaults and under layers of clay 
where the evidence shows that the fire was applied to the outside of the 
vault or above the clay layer, can be accounted for only on the suppo- 
sition that the flesh had been removed before burial. 

Other proofs that this custom prevailed among the mound-builders 
in various sections of the country might be adduced. 

That it was the custom of a number of Indian tribes, when first en- 
countered by the whites, and even down to a comparatively modern 
date, to remove the flesh before final burial by suspending on scaf- 
folds, depositing in charnel-houses, by temporary burial, or otherwise, 
is well known to all students of Indian habits and customs. 

necke welder says, "The Kanticokes had the singular custom of re- 
moving the bones from the old burial place to a place of deposit in the 
country they now dwell in."^ 

* Smitlisoiiian Rept. , 1879, p. 337. * Smithsonian Kept. , 1881, p. 573. 

2 Smithsonian Kept., 1881, p. 636. » Antiq. So. Inds., p. 193. 

3 Smithsonian Rept. , 1879, p. 398. ^ Hist. Manners and Customs Ind. Nations, p. 75. 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 21 

The account by Brebceuf of tbe communal burial amoug the Hurons 
heretofore referred to is well kuownJ The same custom is alluded to 
by Lafitau.* Bartram observed it among the Choctaws.' It is also 
mentioned by Bossu,* by Adair,* by Barnard Romans,** and others. 

Burial beneath or in dwellings. — The evidence brought to light by the 
investigations of the Bureau of Ethnology, regarding a custom among 
the mound-builders of Arkansas and Mississippi, of burying in or under 
their dwellings, has been given, in part, in an article published in the 
Magazine of American History.'' It is a well-attested historical fact 
that such was also the custom of the southern Indian tribes. Bartram 
affirms it to have been in vogue among the Muscogulgees or Ci-ceks,* 
and Barnard Romans says it was also practiced by the Chickasaws.^ 
C. 0. Jones says that the Indians of Georgia " often interred beneatli 
the floor of the cabin, and then burnt the hut of the deceased over his 
head;''^® which furnishes a complete explanation of the fact observed 
by the Bureau explorers, mentioned in the article before alluded to. 

Burial in a sitting or squatting posture. — It was a very common prac- 
tice among the mound-builders to bury their dead in a sitting or squat- 
ting posture. The examples of this kind are too numerous and toa 
well known to require repetition. I may add that the yet unpublished 
reports of the Bureau show that this custom prevailed to a certain ex- 
tent in Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, North Carolina, Missouri, Ohio, and. 
West Virginia. Instances have also been observed elsewhere.^^ That 
the same custom was followed by several of the Indian tribes is attested 
by the following authorities : Bossu,^* Lawson,^^ Bartram,^* and Adair.^* 

The use of fire in burial ceremonies. — Another observance in which the 
burial customs of mound-builders corresponded with those of Indians 
was the use of fire in funeral ceremonies. The evidences of this custom 
are so common in mounds as to lead to the supposition that the mound- 
builders were in the habit of offering human sacrifices to their deities. 
Although charred and even almost wholly consumed human bones <are 
often founds showing that bodies or skeletons were sometimes burned, it 
does not necessarily follow that they were offered as sacrifices. More- 
over, judging from all the data in our possession, the weight of evidence 
seems to be decidedly against such conclusion. 

Among the Indians fire appears to have been connected with the 
mortuary ceremonies in several ways. One use of it was to burn the 

* Jesuit Relations for 1636. Transl. in » Travels, p. 505. 

Fifth Ann. Kept. Bur. EthnoL, p. 110. ^ Nat. Hist. Florida, p. 71. 

'Moeurs des Sauvages, vol. 2, pp. 420- »« Antiq. So. Indians, p. 203. 

435. »i Jones's Antiq. So. Indians (Georgia 

3 Travels, p. 516. and Florida), pp. 183-185. 

'* Travels through Louisiana, p. 298. ** Travels, vol. 1, p. 251. 

* Hist. Am. Indians, p. 183. '3 Hist. Carolina, p. 182. 
6 Nat. Hist. Florida, p. 90. '* Travels, p. 515. 

^ February, 1884. . i* Hist. Ara. Indians, p. 182. 



22 THE PROBLEM OP THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

flesh and softer portions of the body when removed from the bones.^ 
BrebcBuf also mentions its use in connection with the communal burial 
of the Hurons.^ According to M. B. K^ent^ it was the ancient custom 
of the Sacs and Foxes to burn a portion of the food of the burial feast 
to furnish subsistence for the spirit on its journey. 

Pickett says* the Ohoctaws were in the habit of killing and cutting 
up their prisoners of war, after which the parts were burned. He adds 
further, in reference to their burial ceremonies:' "From all we have 
heard and read of the Choctaws, we are satisfied that it was their custom 
to take from the bone-house the skeletons, with which they repaired in 
funeral procession to the suburbs of the town, where they placed them 
on the ground in one heap, together with the property of the dead, 
such as pots, bows, arrows, ornaments, curiously-shaped stones for dress- 
ing deer skins, and a variety of other things. Over this heap they 
first threw charcoal and ashes, probably to preserve the bones, and the 
next operation was to cover all with earth. This left a mound several 
feet high." This furnishes a complete explanation of the fact that un- 
charred human bones are frequently found in Southern mounds imbed- 
ded in charcoal and ashes. 

Similarity of their stone implements and ornaments. — In addition to the 
special points of resemblance between the works of the two peoples, ot 
which a few only have been mentioned, we are warranted in asserting 
that in. all respects, so far as we can trace them correctly, there are to 
be found strong resemblances between the habits, customs, and arts 
of the mound-builders and those of the Indians previous to their change 
by contact with Europeans. Both made use of stone implements, and 
so precisely similar are the articles of this class that it is impossible to 
distinguish those made by the one people from those made by the other. 
So true is this that our best and most experienced archjeologists make 
no attempt to separate them, except where the conditions under which 
they are found furnish evidence for discrimination. Instead of bur- 
dening these pages with proofs of these statements by reference to 
particular finds and authorities, I call attention to the work of Dr. 0. 
O. Abbott on the handiwork in stone, bone, and clay of the native 
races of the northern Atlantic sea board of America, entitled '^Primitive 
Industry." As the area embraced in this work, as remarked by its 
author, "do(iS not include any territory known to have been perma- 
nently occupied by the so-called mound-build(»rs," the articles found 
here must be ascribed to the Indians unless, as suggested by Dr. Abbott, 
some of a more primitive type found in the Trenton gravel are to be 
attributed to an earlier and still ruder people. Examining those of the 

1 Barnard Romans, Nat. Hist. Florida, p. 90. 

2 Jesuit Relations for 1G36, p. 135. 

3 Yarrow^s Mort. Customs N. A. Indians, Ist Ann. Rept. Bur. Ethnology (1881), p. 95. 
* Hist. Alabama, 3d ed., vol. 1, p. 140. 

6 Ibid., p. 142. 



THE PROBLEM OP THE OHIO MOUNDS. 23 

first class, which are ascribed to the IndiaDs, we observe almost every 
type of stone articles found in the mounds and mound area ; not only 
the rudely chipped scrapers, hoes, celts, knives, and spear and arrow 
heads, but also the polished or ground celts, axes, hammers, and chisels, 
or gouges. 

Here we also find drills, awls, and perforators, slick stones and 
dressers, pipes of various forms and finish, discoidal stones and net 
sinkers, butterflys tones and other supposed ceremonial objects, masks or 
face figures and bird-shaped stones, gorgets, totems, pendants, trink- 
ets, etc. Nor does the resemblance stop with types, but it is carried 
down to specific forms and finish, leaving absolutely no possible line of 
demarkation between these and the similar articles attributed to the 
mound-builders. So persistently true is this that had we stone articles 
alone to judge by, it is probable we should be forced to the conclusion, 
as held by some writers, that the former inhabitants of that portion of 
the United States east of the Rocky Mountains pertained to one nation, 
unless possibly the prevalence of certain types in particular sections 
should afford some data for tribal districting. 

This strong similarity of the stone articles of the Atlantic coast to 
those of the mound area was noticed as early as 1820 by Caleb Atwater, 
who, knowing that the former were Indian manufactures, attributed the 
latter also to the same people although he held that the mounds were the 
work of the ancestors of the civilized nations of Mexico and Central 
America. 

Mound and Indian pottery. — The pottery of the mound-builders has 
often been referred to as proof of a higher culture status, and of an 
advance in art beyond that reached by the Indians. The vase with a 
bird figure found by Squier and Davis in an Ohio mound is presented 
in most works on American archaeology as an evidence of the advanced 
stage of the ceramic art among the mound-builders; but Dr. Ran, who 
examined the collection of these authors, says: 

Having seen the best speclmeDS of ^'monnd" pottery obtained during the sarvey 
of Messrs. Sqnier and Davis, I do not hesitate to assert that the clay vessels fabricated 
at the Cahokia Creek were in every respect equal to those exhomed from the mounds 
of the Mississippi Valley, and Dr. Davis himself, who examined my specimens from 
the first-named locality, expressed the same opinion.^ 

The Cahokia pottery which he found along the creek of that name 
(Madison County, 111.) he ascribes to Indians, and believes it to be of 
comparatively recent origin. 

Most of the mound pottery is mixed with pulverized shells, which is 
also true of most Indian pottery,* Du Pratz says that ** the Natchez 
Indians make pots of an extraordinary size, cruses with a medium-sized 
opening, jars, bottles with long necks holding two pints, and pots or 

» Smithsonian Rept., 1866, p. 349. 

^Damont, M^m. Hist. La., vol. 2, 1753, p. 271; Adair, Hist. Am. Indians, p. 424; 
Loekiel, Gtesell. der Miss., p. 70, etc. 



24 THE PROBLEM OP THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

erases for boldiDg bear's oil;''^ also that they colored them a beaatifal 
red by using ocher, which becomes red after burniDg. 

As is well known, the bottle-shaped vase with a long neck is the 
typical form of clay vessels found in the mounds of Arkansas and 
southeastern Missouri, and is also common in the mounds and stone 
graves of middle Tennesse^. Those colored or ornamented with red 
are often found in the mounds of the former sections. It is worthy of 
notice in this connection tUat the two localities — near Saint Genevieve, 
Mo., and near Shawne^town, 111 — where so many fragments of large 
clay vessels used in making salt have been found, were occupied for a 
considerable time by the Shawnee Indians. As will hereafter be shown, 
there are reasons for believing this pottery was made by the Shawnees. 

The statement so often made that the mound pottery, especially that 
of Ohio, far excels that of the Indians is not justified by the facts. 

Much more evidence of like tenor might be presented here, as, for 
example, the numerous instances in which articles of European manu- 
facture have been found in mounds where their presence could not be 
attributed to intrusive burials, but the limits of the paper will not 
admit of this. I turn, therefore, to the problem before us, viz, "Who 
were the authors of the typical works of Ohio!" 

As before stated, the answer is, "These works are attributable in 
part at least to the ancestors of the modern Cherokees." 

As a connecting link between what has been given and the direct evi- 
dence that the Oherokees were mound-builders, and as having an im- 
portant bearing upon btth questions, the evidence derived from the 
box-shaped stone graves is introduced at this point. 

» Hist. La., p. 79. 



CHAPTER III. 

STONE GRAVES AND WHAT THEY TEACH. 

In order to state clearly the argument based upon these works it is 
necessary U) present a brief explanation. 

There are several forms and varieties of stone graves or cists found 
in the mound area, some being of cobble-stones, others of slabs ; some 
round, others polygonal 5 some dome-shaped, others square, and others 
box shaped, or parallelograms. Reference is made at present only to 
the last mentioned — ^the box-shaped type, made of stone slabs. If the 
evidence shows that this variety is found only in certain districts, per- 
tains to a certain class of works, and is usually accompanied by certain 
types of art, we are warranted in using it as an ethnic characteristic? 
or as indicating the presence of particular J;ribes. If it can be shown 
that graves of this form are found in mounds attributed to the so-called 
mound-builders, and that certain tribes of Indians of historic times 
were also accustomed to bury in them, we are warranted in assuming 
that there was a continuity of custom from the mound-building age to 
historic times, or that graves found in the mounds are probably attrib- 
utable to the same people (or allied tribes) found using them at a later 
date. This conclusion will be strengthened by finding that certain pe- 
culiar types of art are limited to the regions where these graves exist, 
and are found almost exclusively in connection with them. 

These graves, as is well known, are formed of rough and unhewn 
slabs or flat pieces of stone, thus : First, in a pit some 2 or 3 feet deep 
and of the desired dimensions, dug for the purpose, a layer of stone is 
placed to form the floor ; next, similar pieces are set on edge to form 
the sides and ends, over which other slabs are laid flat, forming the 
covering, the whole when finished making a rude, box-shaped coffin or 
sepulcher. Sometimes one or more of the six faces are wanting ; occa- 
sionally the bottom co nsists of a layer of water- worn bowlders ; some- 
times the top is not a single layer of slabs, but other pieces are laid over 
the joints, and sometimes they are placed shingle-fashion. These 
graves vary in length from 14 inches to 8 feet, and in width from 9 
inches to 3 feet. 

It is not an unusual thing to find a mound containing a number of 
these cists arranged in two, three, or more tiers. As a general rule, 
those not in mounds are near the surface of the ground, and in some 
instances even projecting above it. It is probable that no one who has 

25 



26 THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

cxamiDed them has failed to note their strong resemblance to the Eu- 
ropean mode of burial. Even Dr. Joseph Jones, who attributes them 
to some *^ ancient race," was forcibly reminded of this resemblance, as 
he remarks : 

In looking at the rude stone coffins of Tennessee, I have again and again been im- 
pressed with the idea that in some former age this ancient race must have come in 
contact with Europeans and derived this mode of burial from them.^ 

The presence of stone graves of the type under consideration in the 
vicinity of the site of some of the *' over-hill towns'' of the Cherokees 
on the Little Tennessee River, presented a diflSciilty in the way of the 
theory here advanced, as it is well known that the Cherokees and^haw- 
nees were inveterate enemies from time immemorial. But by referring 
to Schoolcraft's History of the Indians the following statement solves 
the riddle and confirms the theory: 

A discontented portion of the Shawnee tribe from Virginia broke oflf from the 
nation, which removed to the Scioto country, in Ohio, about the year 1730, and 
formed a town known by the name of Lulbegrud, in what is now Clark County 
[Kentucky], about 30 miles east of this place [Lexington]. This tribe left this coun- 
try about 1750 and went to East Tennessee, to the Cherokee Nation.^ 

Some years ago Mr. George E. Sellers discovered near the salt spring 
in Gallatin County, 111., oi^the Saline River, fragments of clay vessels 
of unusually large size, which excited much interest in the minds of 
antiquarians, not only because of the size of the vessels indicated by 
the fragments, but because they appeared to have been used by some 
prehistoric people in the manufacture of salt and because they bore im- 
pressions made by some textile fabric. In the same immediate locality 
were also discovered a number of box-shaped stone graves. That the 
latter were the work of the people who made the pottery Mr. Sellers 
demonstrated by finding that many of the graves were lined at the 
bottom with fragments of these large clay "salt pans."^ 

Mention of this pottery had b een made long previously by J. M. Pock 
in his " Gazetteer of Illinois,"* 

He remarks that " about the Gallatin and Big Muddy Salioes large 
fragments of earthenware are very frequently found under the surface 
of the earth. They appear to have been portions of large kettles used, 
probably, by the natives for obtaining salt.'' 

The settlement of the Shawnees at Shawneetown, on the Ohio River, 
in Gallatin County, in comparatively modern times, is attested not 
only by history but by the name by which the town is still known. 
There is evidence on record that there was an older Shawneetown 
located at the very point where this "salt-kettle'' pottery and these 
stone graves were found. This is mentioned in the American State 
Papers' in the report relating to the famous claim of the Illinois and 

1 Aboriginal Remains of Tennessee, pp. 34, 35. 

« Vol.1, p. 301. 

3 Popular Science Monthly, vol. 11, 1877, pp. 573-584. 

^ 1834, p. 52. 

» Public Lands, Class VIII, vol. 2, p. 103, Gales and Seaton ed. 



THE PROBLEM OP THE OHIO MOUNDS. 27 

Wabasb Land Companies. The deed presented was dated July 20, 1773, 
and recorded at Kaskaskia, September 2, 1773. In this mention is 
made of the "ancient Shawnee town " on Saline Creek, the exact locality 
of the stone graves and salt-kettle pottery. The modern Indian village 
at Shawneetown on the Ohio Eiver had not then come into existence, 
and was but in its prime in 1806, when visited by Thomas Ashe.^ 

As proof that the people of this tribe were in the habit of making 
salt the following evidence is presented: Collins, in his "History of 
Kentucky,"^ gives an account of the capture and adventures of Mrs. 
Mary Ingals, the first white woman known to have visited Kentucky. 
In this narrative occurs the following statement: 

The first white woman in Kentucky was Mrs. Mary Ingals, w(fe Draper, who, in 1756 
with her two little boys, her sister-in-law, Mrs. Draper, and others was taken pris- 
oner by the Shawnee Indians, from her home on the top of the great Allegheny ridge, 
in now Montgomery County, W. Va. The captives were taken down the Kanawha, 
to the salt region, and, after a ftw days spent in making sali, to the Indian village at 
the mouth of Scioto River. 

By the treaty of Fort Wayne, June 7, 1803, between the Delawares, 
Shawnees, and other tribes and the United States, it was agreed that 
in consideration of the relinquishment of title to "the great salt spring 
upon the Saline Creek, which falls into the Ohio below the mouth of 
the Wabash, with a quantity of land surrounding it, not exceeding 4 
miles square," the United States should deliver "yearly, and every year 
for the use of said Indians, a quantity of salt not exceeding 150 bushels."^ 

Another very significaut fact in this connection is that the fragments 
of large earthen vessels similar in character to those found iu Gallatin 
County, 111., have also been found in connection with the stone graves 
of the Cumberland Valley, and, furthermore, the impressions made by 
the textile fabrics show the same stitches as do the former. Another 
place where pottery of the same kind has been found is about the salt- 
lick near Saint Genevieve, Mo., a section inhabited for a time by 
Shawnees and Delawares.* 

Stone graves have been found in Washington County, Md.^ History 
informs us that there were two Shawnee settlements in this region, one 
in the adjoining county of Maryland (Allegany), and another in the 
neighborhood of Winchester, Ya.® 

Mr. W. M. Taylor'' mentions some stone graves of the type under 
consideration as found on the Mahoning Kiver, in Pennsylvania. An 

* Travels in America, 1808, p. 265. 

«Vol.2, p.55. 

'Treaties of United States with Indian tribes, p. 97. 

"^C. C. Royce in American Antiqnarian, vol. 3, 1S81, pp. 188, 189. 

^Smithsonian Report for 1882 (1884), p. 797. 

<* C. C. Royce in American Antiquarian, vol.3, 1881, p. 186. Virginia State Papers, 
l,p.63. 

, 7 Smithsonian Report for 1877, p. 307. Mentions only known instance of mound with 
Delaware village. 



28 THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

important itemia this coanectioa is that these graves wereia a mound. 
He describes the mound as 35 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, having 
on one side a projection 35 feet long of the same height as the mound. 
IS'ear by a cache was discovered containing twenty one iron implements, 
such as axes, hatchets, tomahawks, hoes, and wedges. He adds the 
significant statement that near the mound once stood the Indian (Del- 
aware) village of Kush-kush-kee. 

Graves of the same type have been discovered in Lee County, Va.* 
Others have been found in a mound on the Tennessee side, near the 
southern boundary of Scott County, Ya. Allusion has already been 
made to the occasional presence of tlie Shawnees in this region. In 
the map of North America by John Senex, Ohaonanon vilhiges are 
indicated in this particular section. 

The presencerof these graves in any part of Ohio can easily be ac- 
counted for on the theory advanced, by the well-known fact that both 
Shawnees and Delawares were located at various points in the region, 
and during the wars in which they were engaged were moving abouo 
from place to place; but the mention of a few coincidences may not be 
out of place. 

In the American Antiquarian for July, 1881, is the description of one 
of these cists found in a mound in the eastern part of Montgomery 
County. Mr. Royce, in the article already referred to, states that there 
was a Shawnee village 3 miles north of Xenia, in the adjoining county-, 
on Mad River, which flows into the Miami a short distance above the 
location of the mound. 

Stone graves have been found in great numbers at various points along 
the Ohio from Portsmouth to Ripley, a region known to have been oc- 
cupied. at various times by the Shawnees. 

Similar graves have been discovered in Ashland County .^ These, as 
will be seen by reference to the same report (page 594), are precisely in 
the locality of the former Delaware villages. 

The evidence is deemed sufiicient to show that the Shawnees and Del- 
awares were accustomed to bury in stone graves of the type under con- 
sideration, and to indicate that the graves found south of the Ohio are 
to be attributed to the former tribe and those north to both tribes. 

As graves of this kind are common over the west side of southern 
Illinois, from the mouth of the Illinois to the junction of the Ohio and 
Mississippi Rivers, attention is called to some evidence bearing on their 
origin. 

Hunter, who traveled in the West, says that some of the Indians he 
met with during his captivity buried their dead in graves of this kind. 

According to a statement made by Dr. Ran to Mr. C. C. Jones, and 
repeated to me personally, ''it is a fact well remembered by many per- 
sons in this neighborhood [Monroe County, 111.] that the Indians who 

^ Eleventh Report of the Peabody Museum, 1878, p. 208. 
2Suntli8onian Report for 1877, pp. 261-267. 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 29 

inhabited this region during the early pert of the present century (prob- 
ably Kickapoos) buried their dead in stone coffins."^ 

Dr. Shoemaker, who resided on a farm near Columbia, in 1861, showed 
Dr. Eau, in one of his fields, the empty stone grave of an Indian who 
had been killed by one of his own tribe and interred there within the 
memory of some of the farmers of Monroe County. An old lady in 
Jackson County informed one of the Bureau assistants that she had 
seen an Indian buried in a grave of this kind. 

It is doubtful whether Dr. Eau is correct in ascribing these graves to 
the Kickapoos, as their most southern locality appears to have been in 
the region of Sangamon County.^ It is more probable they were made 
by the Kaskaskias, Tamaroas, and Cahokias. Be this as it may, it is 
evident that they are due to some of the tribes of this section known 
as Illinois Indians, pertaining to the same branch of the Algonquin 
family as the Shawnees and Delawares. 

That the stone graves of southern Illinois were made by the same 
people who built those of the Cumberland Valley, or closely allied 
tribes, is indicated not only by the character of the graves but by other 
very close and even remarkable resemblances in the construction and 
contents as well as in the form and size of the mounds; the presence 
of hut-rings in both localities, and the arrangement of the groups. 

Taking all the corroborating facts together there are reasonable 
grounds for concluding that graves of the type now under consideration, 
although found in widely-separated localities, are attributable to the 
Shawnee Indians and their congeners, the Delawares and Illinois, and 
that those south of the Ohio are due entirely to the first named tribe* 
That they are the works of Indians must be admitted by all who are 
willing to be convinced by evidence. 

The fact that in most cases (except when due to the Delawares, who 
are not known to have been mound-builders) the graves are connected 
with mounds, and in many instances are in mounds, sometimes in two, 
three, and even four tiers deep, proves beyond a doubt that the authors 
of these graves were mound-builders. 

The importance and bearing of this evidence does not stop with what 
has been stated, for it is so interlocked with other facts relating to the 
works of the "veritable mound-builders" as to leave no hiatus into 
which the theory of a lost race or a "Toltec occupation" can possibly 
be thrust. It forms an unbroken chain connecting the mound-builders 
and historical Indians which no sophistry or reasoning can break. Not 
only are these graves found in mounds of considerable size, but they 
are also connected with one of the most noted groups in the United 
States, namely, the one on Colonel Tumlin's place, near Cartersville, Ga., 
known as the Etowah mounds, of which a full description will be found 
in the Fifth Annual Eeport of the Bureau of Ethnology. 

In the smallest of the three large mounds of this group were found 
1 ALiitiquities So. Indiaae, p. 220. * Reynolds's Hist. Illinois, p. 20. 



30 THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

Stone graves of precisely tlie type attributable, when fouod south of 
the Ohio, to the Shawnees. They were not iu a situation where they 
could be ascribed to intrusive burials, but iu the bottom layer of a com- 
paratively large mound with a thick and undisturbed layer of hard- 
packed clay above them. It is also worthy of notice that the locality 
is iutermediate between the principal seat of the Shawnees in the Cum- 
berland Valley, and their extreme eastern outposts in northeastern 
Georgia, where both tradition and stone graves indicate their settle- 
ment. The tradition regarding this settlement has been given else- 
where.* 

In th«se graves were found the remarkable figured copper plates and 
certain*engraved shells, of which mention has been made by Mr. W. 
H. Holmes 2 and by myself^ in Science. It is a singular corroboration 
of the theory here advanced that the only other similar copper plates 
were found at Lebanon, Tenn., by Pi of. F. W. Putnam; in a stone 
grave in a mound at Mill Creek, southern Illinois, by Mr. Earle; in a 
stone grave in Jackson County, 111., by Mr. Thing; in a mound of Mad- 
ison County, III., by Mr. H. K. Howlaud ; and in a small mound at 
Peoria, 111., by Maj. J. W. Powell. All, except the specimens found by 
Professor Putnam and Mr. Ilowland, were secured by the Bureau of 
Ethnology, and are now in the National Museum. 

There can be but little doubt that the specimens obtained from simple 
stone graves by Professor Putnam and Mr. Thing are to be attributed 
to Indian burials, but surely not to Indian manufacture. 

We have, therefore, two unbroken chains connecting the Indians of 
historic times with the ** veritable mound builders,'^ and the facts which 
form the links of these chains throw some additional light on the history 
of that mysterious people, the Shawnees. 

It may be stated here that in the report relating to the claim of the 
Wabash Land Company* is a statement giving a list of articles fur- 
nished the Indians, among which we notice nine ear-wheels. These we 
suppose to be the same as the spool shaped ear ornaments found iu 
stone graves and elsewhere. 

The engraved shells also form a link which not only connects the 
mound-builders with historic times but corroborates the view advanced 
in regard to the Shawnees, and indicates also that the Cherokees were 
mound-builders. But before introducing this we will give the reasons 
for believing that the mounds of eastern Tennessee and western North 
Carolina are due to the last-named tribe. 

1 Am. Antiq., vol. 7, 1885, p. 133. ' 

2 Science, vol. 3, 1884, pp. 436-438. 

3 Ibid., pp. 779-785. 

^American State Papers, Land Affairs, Appendix, p. 20. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THK CHEROKEES AS MOUND BUILDERS. 

As the evidence on this poiut has to a large extent been presepted in 
my article on '^Burial Mounds of the Northern Section,''* also in articles 
published in the Magazine of American History' and in the American 
Naturalist,^ it will be necessary here only to introduce a few additional 
items. 

The iron implements which are alluded to in the above-mentioned 
articles also in Science,* as found in a North Carolina mound, and which 
analysis shows were not meteoric, furnish conclusive evidence that the 
tumulus was built after the Europeans had reached America; and as 
it is shown in the same article that the Cherokees must have occupied 
the region from the time of its discovery up to its settlement by the 
whites it is more than probable they were the builders. A figure of 
one of the pieces is introduced here. 




Fig. 1. Part of an iron blade from a North Carolina monnd. 

Additional and perhaps still stronger evidence, if stronger be needed, 
that the people of this tribe were the authors of most of the ancient 
works in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee is to be found 
in certain discoveries made by the Bureau assistants in Monroe County, 
Tenn. 

A careful exi)loration of tlie valley of the Little Tennessee River, from 
the point where it leaves the mountains to its confluence with the Hol- 
ston, was made, and the various mound groups were located and sur- 
veyed. These were found to correspond down as far as the position of 

"^ ^ Fifth Ann. Kept. Bur. Ethuol, ' ^Vol. 18, 1884, pp. 232-240. 

.« May; 1884, pp. 396-407. * Science, vol. 3, 1884, pp. 308-310. 

31 



32 THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

Fort Loudon and even to the island below with the arrangement of 
the Cherokee "over-hill towiis" as given by Tiinberlake in his map of 
the Cherokee country called "Over the Hills,"^ a group for each town, 
and in the only available spots the valley for this distance affords. As 
these mounds when explored yielded precisely the kind of ornaments 
and implements used by the Cherokees, it is reasonable to believe they 
built them. 

Ramsey also gives a map,^ but his list evidently refers to a date cor- 
responding with the close of their occupancy of this section. Bartram^ 
gives a more complete list applying to an earlier date. This evidently 
includes some on the Holston (his "Cherokee") Kiver and some on the 
Tellico plains. This corresponds precisely with the result of the ex- 
plorations by the Bureau as will be seen when the report is published. 
Some three or four groups were discovered in the region of Tellico 
plains, and five or six on the Little Tennessee below Fort Loudon and 
on the Holston near the junction, one large mound and a group being 
on the "Big Island'' mentioned in Bartram's list. 

The largest of these groups is situated on the Little Tennessee above 
Fort Loudon and corresponds with the position of the ancient " beloved 
town of Chota" ("Great Chote" of Bartram) as located by tradition and 
on both Timberlake's and Eamsey's maps. According to Kamsey,* at 
the time the pioneers, following in the wake of Daniel Boone near the 
close of the eighteenth century, were pouring over the mountains into 
the valley of the Watauga, a Mrs. Bean, who was captured by the Cher- 
okees near Watauga, was brought to their town at this place and was 
bound, taken to the top of one of the mounds and about to be burned, 
when Nancy Ward, then exercising in the nation the functions of the 
Beloved or Pretty Woman, interfered and pronounced her pardon. 

During the explorations of the mounds of this region a peculiar type 
of clay beds was fwiud in several of the larger mounds. These were 
always saucer shaped, varying in diameter from 6 to 15 feet, and in 
thickness from 4 to 12 inches. In nearly every instance they were found 
in series, one above another, with a layer of coals and ashes between. 
The series usually consisted of from three to five beds, sometimes only 
two, decreasing in size from the lower one upward. These apparently 
marked the stages of the growth of the mound, the upper one always 
being near the present surface. 

The large mound which is on the supposed site of Chota, and pos- 
sibly the one on which Mrs. Bean was about to be burned, was thor- 
oughly explored, and found to contain a series of these clay beds, which 
always showed the action of fire. In the center of some of these were 
found the charred remains of a stake, and about them the usual layer 
of coals and ashes, but, in this instance, immediately around where the 
stake stood were charred fragments of human bones. 

1 Memoirs, 17G5. 3 Travels, pp. 373, 374. 

* Annals of Tennessee, p. 376. * Annals of Tennessee, p. 157. 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 33 

As will be seen, when the report which is now in the hands of the 
printer is published, the burials in this mound were at various depths, 
and there is nothing shown to indicate separate and distinct periods, 
or to lead to the belief that any of these were intrusive in the true sense. 
On the contrary, the evidence is pretty clear that all these burials were 
by one tribe or i)eople. By the side of nearly every skeleton were one 
or more articles, as shell masks, engraved shells, shell pins, shell beads, 
perforated shells, discoidal stones, polished celts, arrow-heads, spear- 
heads, stone gorgets, bone implements, clay vessels, or copper hawk- 
bells. The last were with the skeleton of a child found at the depth 
of 3J feet. They are precisely of the form of the ordinary sleigh-bell 
of the present day, with pebbles and shell-bead rattles. 

That this child belonged to the people to whom the other burials are 
due will not be doubted by any one not wedded to a preconceived 
notion, and that the bells are the work of Europeans will also be 
admitted. 

In another mound a little farther up the river, and one of a group 
probably marking the site of one of the "over-hill towns," were found 
two carved stone pipes of a comparatively modern Cherokee type. 

The next argument is founded on the fact that in the ancient works 
of the region alluded to are discovered evidences of habits and customs 
similar to those of the Cherokees and some of the immediately sur- 
rounding tribes. 

In the article heretofore referred to allusion is made to the evidence 
found in the mound opened by Professor Carr of its once having sup- 
ported a building similar to the council-house observed by Bartram on 
a mound at the old Cherokee town Cow^. Both were built on mounds, 
both were circular, both were built on posts set in the ground at equal 
distances from each other, and each had a central pillar. As tending 
to confirm this statement of Bartram's, the following passage may be 
quoted, where, speaking of Colonel Christian's march against the Cher- 
okee towns in 177G, Kamsey^ says that this officer found in the center 
of each town ''a circular tower rudely built and covered with dirt, 30 
feet in diameter, and about 20 feet high. This tower was used as a 
council-house, and as a place for celebrating the green-corn dance and 
other national ceremonials.'' In another mound the remains of posts 
apparently marking the site of a building were found. Mr. M. C. Bead, 
of Hudson, Ohio, discovered similar evidences in a mound near Chat- 
tanooga,^ and Mr. Gerard Fowke has quite recently found the same 
thing in a mound at Waverly, Ohio. 

The shell ornaments to which allusion has been made, although occa- 
sionally bearing designs which are undoubtedly of the Mexican or Cen. 
tral American type, nevertheless furnish very strong evidence that the 
mounds of east Tennessee and western North Carolina were built by 
the Cherokees. 

' Annals of Tennessee, p. 169. « Smithsonian Rept. for 1867 (1868), p. 401. 
9009 3 



34 



THE PROBLEM OP THE OHIO MOUNDS. 



Lawson, who traveled through North Carolina in 1700, says ^ " they 
[the Indians] oftentimes make of this shell [a certain large sea shell] a 
sort of gorge, which they wear about their neck in a string so it hangs 
on their collar, whereon sometimes is engraven a cross or some odd sort 
of figure which comes next in their fancy." 

According to Adair, the southern Indian priest wore upon his breast 
"an ornament made of a white conch-shell, with two holes bored in the 
middle of it, through which he ran the ends of an otter-skin strap, and 
fastened to the extremity of each a buck-horn white button.'^ ^ 

Beverly, speaking of the Indians of Virginia, says : " Of this shell 
they also make round tablets of about 4 inches in diameter, which they 
polish as smooth as the other, and sometimes they etch or grave thereon 
circles, stars, a half-moon, or any other figure suitable to their fancy.'' ^ 

Now it so happens that a considerable number of shell gorgets have 
been found in the mounds of western North Carolina and east Tennes- 
see, agreeing so closely with those brief descriptions, as may be seen 
from the figures of some of them given here (see Figs. 2 and 3J, as to 




Fia. 2. Engraved aball gorget from a Tenneasee mound. 

leave no doubt that they belong to the same type as those alluded to 
by the writers whose words have just been quoted. Some of them were 
found in the North Carolina mound from which the iron articles were 
obtained and in connection with these articles. Some of these shells 
were smooth and without any devices engraved upon them, but with 
holes for inserting the strings by which they were to be held in posi- 
tion ; others were engraved with figures, which, as will be seen by ref- 
erence to the cuts referred to, might readily be taken for stars and half- 
moons, and one among the number with a cross engraved upon it. 

1 Hist, of N.C., Raleigh, reprint 1860, p. 315. 

* Hist. Am. Indians, p. 84. 

^ Hist. Virginia, London, 1705, p. 58. 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 



35 



The evidence that these relics were the work of Indians found in 
possession of the country at the time of its discovery by Europeans, is 
therefore too strong to be put aside by mere conjectures or inferences. 
If they were the work of Indians, they must have been used by the 
Cherokees and buried with their dead. It is true that some of the en- 
graved figures present a puzzling i)roblem in the fact that they bear 
unmistakable evidences of pertaining to Mexican and Central Ameri- 
can types, but no explanation of this which contradicts the preceding 
evidences that these shells had been in the hands of Indians can be 
accepted. 




Fig. 3. Shell gorget with engraviog of coiled serpent. 

In these mounds were also found a large number of nicely carved soap- 
stone pipes, usually with the stem made in connection with the bowl, 
though some were without this addition, consisting only of the bowl 
with a hole for inserting a cane or wooden stem. While some, as will 
hereafter be shown, closely resemble one of the ancient Ohio types, others 
are precisely of the form common a few years back, and some of them 
have the remains of burnt tobacco yet clinging to them. 

Adair, in his " History of the North American Indians,"^ says: 

They make beautiful stone pipes, and the Cherokees the best of any of the Indians, 
for their mountainous country contains many different sorts and colors of soils proper 
for such uses. They easily form them with their tomahawks and afterwards finish 
them in any desired form with their knives, the pipes being of a very soft quality 
tiU they are smoked with and used with the fire, when they become quite hard. They 
are often full a span long, and the bowls are about half as large again as our English 
pipes. The fore part of each commonly runs out with a sharp peak 2 or 3 fingers 
broad and a quarter of an inch thick. 

Not only were pipes made of soapstone found in these mounds, but 
two or three were found precisely of the form mentioned by Adair, with 
the fore part running out in front of the bowl (see Fig. 6, p. 39). 

1 P. 433. 



36 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 



Joues says:^ 

It has been more than hinted at by at least one person whose statement is entitled 
to every belief, that among the Cherokees dwelling in the mountains there existed 
certain artists whose professed occupation was the manufacture of stone pipes, which 
were by them transported to the coast and there bartered away for articles of use 
and ornament foreign to and highly esteemed among the members of their own tribe. 

This not only strengthens the conclusions drawn from the presence of 
such pipes in the mounds alluded to, but may also assist in explaining 
the presence of the copper and iron ornaments in tliem. 

During the fall of 1886 a farmer of east Tennessee while examining a 
cave with a view to storing potatoes in it during the winter unearthed 
a well preserved human skeleton which was found to be wrapped in a 
large piece of cane matting. This, which measures about G by 4 feet, 
with the exception of a tear at one corner is perfectly sound and pliant 
and has a large submarginal stripe running around it. Inclosed with 
the skeleton was a piece of cloth made of flax, about 14 by 20 inches, 
almost uninjured but apparently unfinished. The stitch in which it is 
woven is precisely that imprinted on mound pottery of the type shown 
in F/ig. 96 in Mr. Holmes's paper on the mound-builders' textile fabrics 
reproduced here in Fig. 4.^ 




Fig. 4. Twined fabric impressed on a piece of pottery obtained from a moand in Jefferson County, 

Tennessee. 

Although the earth of the cave contains salts which would aid in pre- 
serving anything buried in it, these articles can not be assigned to any 
very ancient date, especially when it is added that with them were the 
remains of a dog from which the skin had not all rotted away. 

These were presumably placed here by the Cherokees of modern times, 
and they form a link not easily broken between the prehistoric and his- 
toric days. 

It is probable that few persons after reading this evidence will doubt 
that the mounds alluded to were built by the Cherokees. Let us there- 
fore see to what results this leads. 

In the first place it shows that a powerful and active tribe in the in- 
terior of the country, in contact with the tribes of the North on one 
side and with those of the South on the other, were mound-builders. 
It is reasonable to conclude, therefore, that they had derived this cus- 

1 Antiq. So. ludians, p. 400. 2 pif fcb Ann. Rept. Bur. Etbuol., p. 415, Fig. 96. 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 37 

torn from their neighbors on one side or the other, or that they had, to 
some extent at least, introduced it among them. Beyond question it 
indicates that the mound-buihling era had not closed previous to the 
discovery of the continent by Europeans.^ 

^ Since the above was in type one of the assistants of the Ethnological Barean dis- 
covered in a small monnd in east Tennessee a stone with letters of the Cherokee 
alphabet rndely carved npon it. It was not an intrnsive barial, hence it is evident 
that the monnd mnst have been bnilt since 1820^ or that Quess was not the anthor of 
the Cherokee alphabet. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE CHEROKEES AND THE TALLEGWI. 

The ancient works of Ohio, with their <* altar mounds,'' "sacred en- 
closures,'' and "mathematically accurate" but mysterious circles and 
squares, are still pointed to as impregnable to the attacks of this Indian 
theory. That the rays of light falling upon their origin are few and 
dim, is admitted ; still, we are not left wholly in the dark. ^ 

If the proof be satisfactory that the mounds of the southern half of 
the United States and a portion of those of the Upper Mississippi Val- 
ley are of Indian origin, there should be very strong evidence in the 
opposite direction in regard to those of Ohio to lead to the belief that 
they are of a different race. Even should the evidence fail to indicate 
the tribe or tribes by whom they^ were built, this will not justify the 
assertion that they are not of Indian origin. 

If the evidence relating to these works has nothing decidedly opposed 
to the theory in it, then the presumption must be in favor of the view 
that the authors were Indians, for the reasons heretofore given. The 
burden of i)roof is on those who deny this, and not on those who 
assert it. 

It is legitimate, therefore, to assume, until evidence to the contrary 
is produced, that the Ohio works were made by Indians. 

The geographical position of the defensive works connected with 
these remains indicates, as has been often remarked by writers on this 
subject, a pressure from northern hordes which finally resulted in driv- 
ing the inhabitants of the fertile valleys of the Miami, Scioto, and 
Muskingum, southward, possibly into the Gulf States, where they be- 
came incorporated with the tribes of that section.^ If this is assumed 
as correct it only tends to confirm the theory of an Indian origin. 

But the decision is not left to mere assumption and the indications 
mentioned, as there are other and more direct evidences bearing upon 
this point to be found in the works of art and modes of burial in this 
region. That the mound-builders of Ohio made and used the pipe is 
proven by the large number of pipes found in the mounds, and that 
they cultivated tobacco may reasonably be inferred from this fact. 

The general use of the pipe among the mound-builders is another 
evidence of their relation to the Indians; while, on the other hand, 
1 Force : "To what race did the mound-builders belong ? " p. 74, etc. 
38 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 39 

this fact aud the forms of the pipes indicate that they were not con- 
nected with the Kahua, Maya, or Pueblo tribes. 

Although varied indefinitely by the addition of animal and other fig- 
ures, the typical or simple form of the pipe of the Ohio mound-builders 
appears to have been that represented by Squier and Davis ^ in their Fig. 
68, and by Eau in Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, No. 287.^ 
The peculiar feature is the broad, flat, and slightly-curved base or stem, 
which projects beyond the bowl to an extent usually equal to the per- 
forated end. Reference has already been made to the statement by 
Adair that the Oherokees were accustomed to carve, from the soft stone 
found in the country, '^ pipes, full a span long, with the fore part com- 
monly running out with a short peak two or three fingers broad and 
a quarter of an inch thick." But he adds further, as if intending to 
describe the typical form of the Ohio pipe, '* on both sides of the bowl 
lengthwise.'' This addition is important, as it has been asserted^ that 
no mention can be found of the manufacture or use of pipes of this 
form by the Indians, or that they had any knowledge of this form. 

E. A. Barber says:* 

The earliest stone pipes from the mounds were always carved from a single piece, 
and consist of a flat curved base, of variable length and width, with the bowl rising 
from the center of the convex side (Anc. Mon., p. 227). * * * 

The typical mound pipe is the AToni for form, as it maybe termed, possessing a short, 
cylindrical urn, or spool-shaped bowl, rising from the center of a flat and slightly- 
curved base.** 

Accepting this statement as proof that the "Monitor" pipe is gen- 
erally understood to be the oldest type of the mound-builders' pipe, It 
is easy to trace the modifications which brought into use the simple 
form of the modern Indian pipe. For example, there is one of the form 
shown in Fig. 5, from Hamilton County, Ohio ; another from a large 
mound in Kanawha Yalley, West 
Virginiaj^ several taken from In- 
dian graves in Essex County, Mass. ;'' 
another found in the grave of a 
Seneca Indian in the valley of the 
' Genesee;^ and others found by the 
representatives of the Bureau of 
Ethnology in the mounds of western 

-,T ^i ^ , . Fig. 5. Pipe from Hamilton County, Ohio. 

North Carolina. 
So far, the modification consists in simply shortening the forward 

^ Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, 1847, p. 179. 

n876, p. 47, Fig. 177. 

3 Young Mineralogist and Antiquarian, 1885, No. 10, p. 79. 

* Am. Nat., vol. 16, 1882, pp. 265, 266. 

^For examples of this form see Rau : Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, No. 
287, p. 47, Fig. 177. 
«Science, 1884, vol. 3, p. 619. 
7 Abbott, Prim. Industry, 1881, Fig. 313, p, 319 j Bull. Essex Inst., vol. 3, 1872, p. 123. 

* Morgan, League of the Iroquois, p. 356. 




40 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 



projection of the stem or base, the bowl remaining perpendicular. The 

next modification is shown in Fig. 6, 
which represents a type less common 
than the preceding, but found in sev- 
eral localites, as, for example, in Hamil- 
ton County, Ohio 5 mounds in Sullivan 
County, east Tennessee (by the Bu- 
reau) 5 and in Virginia.^ In these, al- 
though retaining the broad or winged 
stem, we see the bowl assuming the 
FIG. 6. Pipe from Hamuton Connty, Ohio, f^^^^ard slopc and in some iustauccs (as 
some of those found in the mounds in Sullivan County, Tenn.) the pro- 
jection of the stem is reduced to a simple rim or is entirely wanting. 





Fig. 7. Pipe from Snllivan County, Tennessee. 

The next step brings us to what may be considered the typical form 
«f the modern pipe, shown in Fig. 8. This pattern, according to Dr. 




Fig. 8. Pipe from Caldwell Connty, North Carolina. 

Abbott,=^ is seldom found in ;N"ew England or the Middle States, " ex- 
cept of a much smaller size and made of clay." He figures one from 
Isle of Wight County, Ya., " made of compact steatite." A large num- 
ber of this form were found in the Korth Carolina mounds, some with 
stems almost or quite a foot in length. 

It is hardly necessary to add that among the specimens obtained from 
various localities can be found every possible gradation, from the an- 
cient Ohio type to the modern form last mentioned. There is, there- 

A Rail : Smitlisonian Contributions to Knowledge, No. 287, p. 50, Fig. 190. 
2 Prim. Industry, 1861, p. 329. 



THE PROBLEM OP THE OHIO MOUNDS. 41 

fore, iu this peculiar line of art and custom an unbroken chain connect- 
ing the mound-builders of Ohio with the Indians of historic times, and 
in the same facts is evidence, which strengthens the argnment, discon- 
necting the makers from the Mexican and Central American artisans. 

As this evidence appears to point to the Cherokees as the authors of 
some of the typical mounds of Ohio, it may be as well to introduce here 
a summary of the data which bear upon this question. 

Reasons which are thought* well-nigh conclusive have already been 
presented for believing that the people of this tribe were mound-build- 
ers, and that they had migrated in pre-Columbian times from some 
point north of the locality in which they were encountered by Euro- 
peans. Taking up the thread of their history where it was dropped, 
the following reasons are offered as a basis for the conclusion that their 
home was for a time on the Ohio, and that this was the region from 
which they migrated to their historic locality. 

As already shown, their general movement in historic times, though 
limited, has been southward. Their traditions also claim that their 
migrations previous to the advent of the whites had been in the same 
direction from some point northward, not indicated in that given by 
Lederer, but in that recorded by Haywood, from the valley of the 
Ohio. But it is proper to bear in mind that the tradition given by 
Lederer expressly distinguishes them from the Virginia tribes, which 
necessitates looking more to the west for their former home. Haywood 
connects them, without any authority, with the Virginia tribes, but the 
tradition he gives contradicts this and places them on the Ohio. 

The chief hostile pressure against them of which we have any knowl- 
edge was from the Iroquois of the north. This testimony is further 
strengthened by the linguistic evidence, as it has been ascertained that 
the language of *this tribe belongs to the Iroquoian stock. Mr. Horatio 
Hale, a competent authority on this subject, in an article on Indian 
migrations published in the American Antiquarian, ^remarks as follows: 

Following the same course of migration from the northeast to the southwest, which 
leads us from the Hurons of eastern Canada to the Tusearoras of central North Caro- 
lina, we come to the Cherokees of northern Alabama and Georgia. A connection 
between their language and that of the Iroquois has long been suspected. Gallatin, 
in his " Synopsis of Indian Languages," remarks on this subject : "Dr. Barton thought 
that the Cherokee language belonged to the JLroquois family, and on this point I am 
inclined to be of the same opinion. The affinities are few and remote, but there is a 
similarity in the general termination of the syllables, in the pronunciation and 
accent, which has struck some of the native Cherokees. * * * 

The difficulty arising from this lack of knowledge is now removed, and with it all 
uncertainty disappears. The similarity of the two tongues, apparent enough in 
many of their words, is most strikingly shown, as might be expected, in their gram- 
matical structure, and especially in the affixed pronouns, which in both languages 
play so important a part. 

More complete vocabularies of the Cherokee language than have 
hitherto been accessible have recently come into possession of the Bu- 

^ Am. Antiquarian, vol. 5, 1833, p. 20. 



42 THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

reaii of Ethnology, aud their study serves to confirm the above con- 
clusion that the Cherokees are an oflFshoot of Iroquoian stock. 

On the other hand, the testimony of the mounds all taken together 
or considered generally (if the conclusion that the Oherokees were the 
authors of the North Carolina and East Tennessee mounds be accepted) 
seems to isolate them from all other mound-building people of that 
portion of the United States east of the Eocky Mountains. Keverthe- 
less there are certain remains of art which indicate an intimate relation 
with the authors of the stone graves, as the engraved shells, while there 
are others which lead to the opinion that there was a more intimate 
relation with the mound-builders of Ohio, especially of the Scioto Val- 
ley. One of these is furnished by the stone pipes so common in the 
Ohio mounds, the manufacture of which appears also to have been a 
favorite pursuit of the Cherokees in both ancient and modern times. 

In order to make the force of this argument clear it is necessary to 
enter somewhat further into details. In the first place, nearly all of 
the pipes of this type so far discovered have been found in a belt com- 
mencing with eastern Iowa, thence running eastward through northern 
Illinois, through Indiana, and embracing the southern half of Ohio } 
thence, bending southward, including the valley of the Great Kanawha, 
eastern Tennessee, and western Korth Carolina, to the northern bound- 
ary of Georgia. It is not known that this type in any of its modifica- 
tions prevailed or was even in use at any point south of this belt. 
Pipes m the form of birds and other animals are not uncommon, as may 
be seen by reference to PI. XXIII of Jones's Antiquities of the Southern 
Indians, but the platform is a feature wholly unknown there, as are 
also the derivatives from it. This is so literally true as to render it 
strange, even on the supposition here advanced 5 only a single one (near 
Kashville, Tenn.), so far as known, having been found in the entire 
South outside of the Cherokee country. 

This fact, as is readily seen, stands in direct opposition to the idea 
advanced by some that the mound-builders of Ohio when driven from 
their homes moved southward, and became incorporated with the tribes 
of the Gulf States, as it is scarcely possible such sturdy smokers as 
they must have been would all at once have abandoned their favorite 
pipe. 

Some specimens have been found north and east of this belt, chiefly 
in New York and Massachusetts, but they are too few to induce the 
belief that the tribes occupying the sections where they were found 
were in the habit of manufacturing them or accustomed to their use ; 
possibly the region of Essex, Mass., may prove to be an isolated and 
singular exception. 

How can we account for the fact that they were confined to this belt 
except upon the theory that they were made and used by a single tribe, 
or at most by two or three cognate tribes ? If this be admitted it gives 
as a result the line of migration of the tribe, or tribes, by whom they 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 43 

were made ; and the gradual modification of the form indicates the di. 
rection of the movement. 

In the region of eastern Iowa and northern Illinois, as will be seen 
by refiereuce to the Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural 
Sciences,^ and the Smithsonian Eeport for 1882,2 ^]j^ original slightly- 
curved platform base appears to be the only form found. 

Moving eastward from that section, a break occurs, and none of the 
type are found until the western border of Ohio is reached, indicating 
a migration by the tribe to a great distance. From this point eastward 
and over a large portion of the State, to the western part of West Vir- 
ginia, the works of the tribe are found in numerous localities, showing 
this to have long been their home. 

In this region the modifications begin, as heretofore shown, and con- 
tinue along the belt mentioned through West Virginia, culminating in 
the modern form in western North Carolina and East Tennessee. 

As pipes of this form have never been found in connection with the 
stone graves, there are just grounds for eliminating the Shawnees from 
the supposed authors of the Ohio works. On the other hand, the en- 
graved shells are limited almost exclusively to the works of the Shaw- 
nees and Cherokees (taking for granted that the former were the au- 
thors of the box-shaped stone graves south of the Ohio and the latter 
of the works in western North Carolina and East Tennessee), but are 
wanting in the Ohio mounds. It follows, therefore, if the theory here 
advanced (that the Cherokees constructed some of the typical works of 
Ohio) be sustained, that these specimens of art are of Southern origin, 
as the figures indicate, and that the Cherokees began using them only 
after they had reached their historical locality. 

Other reasons for eliminating the Shawnees and other Southern tribes 
from the supposed authors of the typical Ohio works are furnished by 
the character, form, and ornamentation of the pottery of the two sec- 
tions, which are readily distinguished from each other. 

That the Cherokees and Shawnees were distinct tribes, and that the 
few similarities in customs and art between them were due to vicinage 
and intercourse are well-known historical facts. But there is nothing 
of this kind to forbid the supposition that the former were the authors of 
some of the Ohio works. Moreover, the evidence that they came from a 
more northern locality, added to that furnished by the pipes, seems to 
connect them with the Ohio mound-builders. In addition to this there 
is the tradition of the Delawares, given by Heckewelder, which appears 
to relate to no known tribe unless it be the Cherokees. Although this 
tradition has often been mentioned in works relating to Indians and kin- 
dred subjects, it is repeated here that the reader may judge for himself 
as to its bearing on the subject now under consideration : 

The Lenni Lenape (according to the tradition handed down to them by their ances- 
tors) resided many hundred ye«ars ago in a very distant country in the western part of 

1 Vol. 1, 1876, Pi. IV. 

2 Smithsonian Report for 1832 (1884), Figs. 4-6, pp. G89-692. 



44 THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

the American coutineut. For some reason which I do not find accounted for, they de- 
termined on migrating to the eastward, and accordingly set out together in a body. 
After a very long journey and many nights' encampments ^ by the way, they at length 
arrived on the Namaesi-SipUj^ where they fell.in with the Mengwe,^ who had likewise 
emigrated from a distant country, and had struck upon this river somewhat higher up. 
Their object was the same with that of the Delawares ; they were proceeding on to the 
eastward, until they should find a country that pleased them. The spies which the 
Lenape had sent forward for the purpose of reconnoitring, had long before their arrival 
discovered that the country east of the Mississippi waa inhabited by a very powerful 
nation who had many large towns built on the great rivers flowing through their 
land. Those people (as I was told) called themselves TalUgew or Tallegewi. * * • 
Many wonderful things are told of this famous people. They are said to have been 
remarkably tall and stout, and there is a tradition that there were giants among 
them, people of a much larger size than the tallest of the Lenape. It is related that 
they had built to themselves regular fortifications or intrenchments, from whence 
they would sally out, but were generally repulsed. I have seen many of the fortifi- 
cations said to have been built by them, two of which, in particular, were remarkable. 
One of them was near the mouth of the river Huron, which empties itself into the 
Lake St. Clair, on the north side of that lake, at the distance of about 20 miles north- 
east of Detroit. This spot of ground was, in the year 1776, owned and occupied by a 
Mr. Tucker. The other works, properly intrenchments, being walls or banks of earth 
regularly thrown up, with a deep ditch on the outside, were on the Huron River, east 
of the Sandusky, about six or eight miles from Lake Erie. Outside of the gateway of 
each of these two intrenchments, which lay within a mile of each other, were a 
number of large flat mounds in which, the Indian pilot said, were buried hundreds 
of the slain Talligewi, whom I shall hereafter, with Colonel Gibson, call AUigewi. 
Of these intrenchments Mr. Abraham Steiner, who was with me at the time when I 
saw them, gave a very accurate description, which was published at Philadelphia 
in 1789 or 1790, in some periodical work the name of which I can not at present 
remember. 

When the Lenape arrived on the banks of the Mississippi they sent a message to the 
Alligewi to request permission to settle themselves in their neighborhood. This was 
refused them, but they obtained leave to pass through the country and seek a settle- 
ment farther to the eastward. They accordingly began to cross the Namaesi-Sipu, 
when the Alligewi, seeing that their numbers were so very great, and in fact they con- 
sisted of many thousands, made a furious attack upon those who had crossed, threat- 
ening them all with destruction, if they dared to persist in coming over to their side 
of the river. Fired at the treachery of these people, and the great loss of men they 
had sustained, and besides, not being prepared for a conflict, the Leuapi consulted 
on what was to be done; whether to retreat in the best manner they could, or to try 
their strength, and let the enemy see that they were not cowards, but men, and too 
high-minded to sufi'er themselves to be driven oif before they had made a trial of 
their strength and were convinced that the enemy was too powerful for them. The 
Mengwe, who had hitherto been satisfied with being spectators from a distance, 
offered to join them, on condition that, after conquering the country, they should be 
entitled to share it with them ; their proposal was accepted, and the resolution was 
taken by the two nations, to conquer or die. 

Having thus united their forces the Lenape and Mengwe declared war against the 
Alligewi, and great battles were fought in which many warriors fell on both sides. 
The enemy fortified their large towns and erected fortifications, especially on largo 
rivers and near lakes, where they were successfully attacked and sometimes stormed 
by the allies. An engagement took place in which hundreds fell, who were after- 

' ** Many Nights* encampment " is a halt of one year at a place. 

2 The Mississippi or The River of Fish ; Namaea, a fish, and Sipu a river. 

3 The Iroquois, or Five Nations. 



TUE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 45 

wards buried in holes or laid together in heaps and covered over with earth. No 
quarter was given, so that the AUigewi at last, finding that their destruction was 
inevitable if they persisted in their obstinacy, abandoned the country to the con- 
querors and fled down the Mississippi River, from whence they never returned. 

The war which was carried on with this nation lasted many years, during which 
the Le:iape lost a great number of their warriors, while the Mengwe would always 
hang back in the rear leaving them to face the enemy. In the end the conquerors 
divided the country between themselves. The Mengwe made choice of the lauds 
in the vicinity of the great lakes and on their tributary streams, and the Lenape took 
possession of the country to the south. For a long period of time, some say many 
hundred years, the two nations resided peacefully in this country and increased very 
fast. Some of their most enterprising huntsmen and warriors crossed the great 
swamps, and falling on streams running to the eastward followed them down to the 
great bay river (meaning the Susquehanna, which they call the great bay river from 
where the west branch f^Us into the main stream), thence into the bay itself, which 
we call Chesapeake. As they pursued their travels, partly by land and partly by 
water, sometimes near and at other times on the great salt-water lake, as they call 
the sea, they discovered the great river which we call the Delaware. 

This quotatioD, although not the entire tradition as given by Hecke- 
welder, will suffice for the present i^urpose. 

The traces of the name of these mound-builders, which are still pre- 
served in the name ''Allegheny," applied to a river and the mountains 
of Pennsylvania, and the fact that the Delawares down to the time 
Heckewelder composed his work called the Allegheny Eiver ''Allegewi 
Sipu," or river of the Allegewi, furnish evidence that there is at least 
a vein of truth in this tradition. If it has any foundation in fact there 
must have been a people to whom the name "Tallegwi"^ was applied, 
for on this the whole tradition hangs. Who were they ? In what tribe 
and by what name shall we identify them? That they were mound- 
builders is positively asserted, and the writer explains what he means 
by referring to certain mounds and inclosures, which are well known 
at the present day, which he says the Indians informed him were built 
by this people. 

It is all-important to bear in mind the fact that when this tradition 
was first made known, and the mounds mentioned were attributed to 
this people, these ancient works were almost unknown to the investi- 
gating minds of the country. This forbids the supposition that the 
tradition was warped or shaped to fit a theory in regard to the origin 
of these antiquities. 

Following the tradition it is fair to conclude, notwithstanding the 
fact that Heckewelder interpreted " Kamaesi Sipu'^ by Mississippi, that 
the principal seats of this tribe or nation were in the region of the Ohio 
and the western slope of the Allegheny Mountains, and hence it is not 
wholly a gratuitous supposition to believe they were the authors of some 
of the principal ancient works of eastern Ohio (including those of the 
Scioto Yalley) and the western part of West Virginia. Moreover, there 

^ There appears to he no real foundation for the name Allegewi, this form being a 
mere supposition of Colonel Gibson, suggested hy the name the Lenape applied to 
the Allegheny River and Mountains. 



46 THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

is the statement by Haywood, already referred to, that the Cherokees 
had a tradition that in former times they dwelt on the Ohio ^and built 
mounds. 

These data, though slender, when combined with the apparent simi- 
larity between the name Tallegwi and Cherokee or Chellakee, and the 
character of the works and traditions of the latter, furnish some ground 
for assuming that the two were one and the same people. But this as- 
sumption necessitates the further inference that the pressure which 
drove them southward is to be attributed to so.me other people than the 
Iroquois as known to history, as this movement must have taken place 
previous to the time the latter attained their ascendancy. It is proba- 
ble that Mr. Hale is correct in deciding that the "i^Tamaesi Sipu" of 
the tradition was not the Mississippi.^ His suggestion that it was that 
portion of the great river of the North (the St. Lawrence) which con- 
nects Lake Huron with Lake Erie, seems also to be more in conformity 
with the tradition and other data than any other which has been offered. 
If this supposition is accepted it would lead to the inference that the 
Talamatan, the people who joined the Delawares in their war on the 
Taliegwi, were Hurons or Huron-Iroquois previous to separation. That 
the reader may have the benefit of Mr. Hale's views on this question, 
the following quotation from the article mentioned is given : 

The country from whicli the Lenape migrated was Shinakif the ^' land of fir trees," 
not in the West hut in the far North, evidently the woody region north of Lake Su- 
perior. The people who joined them in the war against the AUighewi (or Taliegwi, 
as they are called in this record), were the Talamatan, a name meaning *^not of them- 
selves," whom Mr. Squier identifies with the Hurons, and no douht correctly, if we 
understand by this name the Huron-Iroquois people, as they existed before their sep- 
aration. The river which they crossed was the Messusipu, the Great River, beyond 
which the Taliegwi were found " possessing the East." That this river was not our 
Mississippi is evident from the fact that the works of the mound-builders extended 
far to the westward of the latter river, and would have been encountered by the 
invading nations, if they had approached it from the west, long before they ar- 
rived at its banks. The ** Great River" was apparently the upper St. Lawrence, and 
most probably that portion of it which flows from Lake Huron to Lake Erie, and 
which is commonly known as the Detroit River. Near this river, according to Hecke- 
welder, at a point west of Lake St. Clair, and also at another place just south of Lake 
Erie, some desperate conflicts took place. Hundreds of the slain Taliegwi, as he 
was told, were buried under mounds in that vicinity. This precisely accords with 
Cusick's statement that the people of the great southern empire had '* almost pene- 
trated to Lake Erie" at the time when the war began. Of course in coming to the 
Detroit River from the region north of Lake Superior, the Algon quins would be ad- 
vancing from the west to the east. It is quite conceivable that, after many geneia- 
tions and many wanderings, they may themselves have forgotten which was the true 
Messusipu, or Great River, of their traditionary tales. 

The passage already quoted from Casick's narrative informs us that the contest 
lasted '* perhaps one hundred years." In close agreement with this statement the 
Delaware record makes it endure during the terms of four head-chiefs, who in suc- 
cession presided in the Lenape councils. From what we know historically of Indian 
customs the average terms of such chiefs may be computed at about twenty-flve 

'Am. Antiquarian,. vol. 5, 1883, p. 117. 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 47 

years. The following extract from the record' gives their names and probably the 
fullest account of the conflict which we shall ever possess: 

** Some went to the East, and the Tallegwi killed a portion. 

"Then all of one mind exclaimed, War! War! 

" The Talamatan (not-of- themselves) and the Nitilowan [allied north-people] go 
united (to the war). 

**Kinnepehend (Sharp- Looking) was the leader, and they went over the river. 
And they took all that was there and despoiled and slew the Tallegwi. 

**Pimokha8uwi (Stirring-about) was next chief, and then the Tallegwi were much 
too strong. 

•'Tenchekensit (Open-path)* followed, and many towns were given up to him. 

" Paganchihiella was chief, and the Tallegwi all went southward. 

"South of the Lakes they (the Lenape) settled their council- fire, and north of the 
Lakes were their friends the Talamatan (Hurons ?).^' 

There can be no reasonable doubt that the Alleghewi or Tallegwi, who have given 
their name to the Allegheny River and Mountains, were the mound-builders. 

This supposition brings the pressing hordes to the northwest of the 
Ohio mound-builders, which is the direction, Colonel Force concludes^ 
from the geographical position of the defensive works, they must have 
come. 

The number of defensive works erected during the contest shows it 
must have been long and obstinate, and that the nation which could 
thus resist the attack of the northern hordes must have been strong in 
numbers and fertile in resources. But resistance proved in vain ; they 
were compelled at last, according to the tradition, to leave the graves of 
their ancestors and flee southward in search of a place of safety. 

Here the Delaware tradition drops them, but the echo comes up from 
the hills of East Tennessee and Korth Carolina in the form of the Cher- 
okee tradition already mentioned, telliug us where they found a resting 
place, and the mound testimony furnishes the intermediate link. 

If they stopped for a time on Kew River and the head of the Holston, 
as Haywood conjectures,^ their line of retreat was in all likelihood up 
the valley of the Great Kanawha. This supposition agrees also with 
the fact that no traces of them are found in the ancient works of Ken- 
tucky or middle Tennessee. In trnth, the works along the Ohio Eiver 
from Portsmouth to Cincinnati and throughout northern Kentucky per- 
tain to entirely different types from those of Ohio, most of them to a 
type found in no other section. 

On the contrary, it happens precisely in accordance with the theory 
advanced and the Cherokee traditions, that we find in the Kanawha 
Valley, near the city of Charleston, a very extensive group of ancient 
works stretching along the banks of the Stream for more than two miles, 
consisting of quite large as well as small mounds, of circular and rectan- 
gular inclosures, etc. A careful survey of this group has been made, 
and a number of the tumuli, including the larger ones, have been ex- 
plored by the representatives of the Bureau. 

1 The Bark Record of the-Leni Leiiape. 

'^Nat. and Aborig. Hist. Tenn., p. 223.— See Thomas, "Cherokees probably mouud- 
• builders," Magazine Am. Hist., May, 1884, p. 398. 



48 THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

The result of these explorations has been to bring to light some very 
important data bearing upon the question now under consideration. In 
fact we find here what seems to be beyond all reasonable doubt the 
connecting link between the typical works of Ohio and those of East 
Tennessee and North Carolina ascribed to the Cherokees. 

The little stone vaults in the shape of bee-hives noticed and figured 
in the articles in Science and the American Naturalist, before referred 
to, discovered by the Bureau assistants in Caldwell County, N. C, and 
Sullivan County, Tenn., are so unusual as to justify the belief that they 
are the work of a particular tribe, or at least pertain to an ethnic type. 
Yet under one of the large mounds at Charleston, on the bottom of 
a pit dug in the original soil, a number of vaults of i)recisely the same 
form were found, placed, like those of the Sullivan County mound, in 
a circle. But, though covering human remains moldered back to dust, 
they were of hardened clay instead of stone. Nevertheless, the simi- 
larity in form, size, use, and conditions under which they were found 
is remarkable, and, as they have been found only at the points men- 
tioned, the probability is suggested that the builders in the two sections 
were related. 

There is another link equally strong. In a number of the larger 
mounds on the sites of the " over-hill towns," in Blount and Loudon 
Counties, Tenn., saucer-shaped beds of burnt clay, one above another, 
alternating with layers of coals and ashes, were found. Similar beds 
were also found in the mounds at Charleston. These are also unusual, 
and, so far as I am aware, have been found only in these two localities. 
Possibly they are outgrowths of the clay altars of the Ohio mounds, and, 
if so, reveal to us the probable use of these strange structures. They 
were places where captives were tortured and burned, the most common 
sacrifices the Indians wQre accustomed to make. Be this supposition 
worthy of consideration or not, it is a fact worthy of notice in this con- 
nection that in one of the large mounds in this Kanawha grouj) one 
of the so-called "clay altars" was found at the bottom of precisely the 
same pattern as those found by Squier and Davis in the mounds of 
Ohio. 

In these mounds were also found wooden vaults, constructed in ex- 
actly the same manner as that in the lower part of the Grave Creek 
mound 5 also others of the pattern of those found in the Ohio mounds, 
in which bark wrappings were usod to enshroud the dead. Hammered 
copper bracelets, hematite celts and hemispheres, and mica plates, so 
characteristic of the Ohio tumuli, were also discovered here; and, as in 
East Tennessee and Ohio, we find at the bottom of mounds in this 
locality the post-holes or little pits which have recently excited consid- 
erable attention. We see another connecting link in the circular and 
rectangular inclosures, not combined as in Ohio, but analogous, and, 
considering the restricted area of the narrow valley, bearing as strong 
resemblance as might be expected if the builders of the two localities 
were one people. ' 



THE PROBLEM OF THE OHIO MOUNDS. 49 

It wonld be unreasonable to assume that all these similarities in cus- 
toms, most of which are abnormal, are but a<!cidental coincidences due 
to necessity and environment. On the contrary it will probably be 
conceded that the testimony adduced and the reasons presented justify 
the conclusion that the ancestors of the Gherokees were the builders 
of some at least of the typical works of Ohio ; or, at any rate, that they 
entitle this conclusion to favorable consideration. Few, if any, will 
longer doubt that the Gherokees were mound-builders in their historic 
seats in North Garolina and Tennessee. Starting with this basis, and 
taking the mound testimony, of which not even a tithe has been pre- 
sented, the tradition of the Gherokeei^, the statement of Haywood, the 
Delaware tradition as given by Heckewelder, the Bark Record as pub- 
lished by Brinton and interpreted by Hale, and the close resemblance 
between the names Tallegwi and Ghellakee, it would seem that there 
can remain little doubt that the two peoples were identical. 

It is at least apparent that the ancient works of the Kanawha Valley 
and other parts of West Virginia are more nearly related to those of 
Ohio than to those of any other region, and hence they may justly be 
attributed to the same or cognate tiibes. The general movement, there- 
forC; must have been southward as indicated, and the exit of the Ohio 
mound-builders was, in all probability, up the Kanawha Valley on the 
same line that the Gherokees appear to have followed in reaching their 
historical locality. It is a singular fact and worthy of being mentioned 
here, that among the Gherokee names signed to the treaty made be- 
tween the United States and this tribe at Tellico, in 1798, are the fol- 
lowing:^ Tallotuskee, Ghellokee, Yonaheguah, Keenakunnah, and Tee- 
kakatoheenah, which strongly suggest relationship to names found in 
the Allegheny region, although the latter come to us through the Del- 
aware tongue. 

If the hypothesis here advanced be correct, it is apparent that the 
Gherokees entered the immediate valley of the Mississippi from the north- 
west, striking it in the region of Iowa. This supposition is strength- 
ened not only by the similarity in the forms of the pipes found in the 
two sections, but also in the structure and contents of many of the 
mounds found along the Mississippi in the region of western Illinois. 
So striking is this that it has been remarked by explorers whose opin- 
ions could not have been biased by this theory. 

Mr. William McAdams, in an address to the American Associatien 
for the Advancement of Science, remarks : '^ Mounds, such as are here 
described, in the American Bottom and low-lands of Illinois are seldom, 
if ever, found on the bluffs. On the rich bottom lands of the Illinois 
Eiver, within 50 miles of its mouth, I have seen great numbers of them 
and examined several. The people who built them are probably con- 
nected with the Ohio mound-builders, although in this vicinity they 

1 Treaties between the United States of America and the several Indian tribes 
(1837), p. 182. 

9009 4 



60 THE PROBLEM OP THE OHIO MOUNDS. 

seem not to have made many earthen embankments, or walls inclosing 
areas of land, as is common in Ohio. Their manner of burial was sim- 
ilar to the Ohio mound-builders, however, and in this particular they 
had customs similar to the mound-builders of Europe." ^ One which 
he opened in Calhoun County, presented the regular form of the Ohio 
<' altar.'' 

A mound in Franklin County, Ind., described and figured by Dr. G. 
W. Homsher,^ presents some features strongly resembling those of 
the North Carolina mounds. 

The works of Cuyahoga County and other sections of northern Ohio 
bordering the lake, and consisting chiefly of iuclosures and defensive 
walls, are of the same type as those of IJew York, and may be attrib- 
uted to people of the Iroquoian stock. Possibly they may be the 
works of the Eries who, we are informed, built inclosures. If such 
conclusion be accepted it serves to strengthen the opinion that this 
lost tribe was related to the Iroquois. The works of this type are also 
found along the eastern portion of Michigan as far north as Ogemaw 
County. 

The box-shaped stone graves of the State are due to the Delawares 
and Shawnees, chiefly the former, who continued to bury in sepulchers 
of this type after their return from the East. Those in Ashland and 
some other counties, as is well known, mark the location of villages of 
this tribe. Those along the Ohio, which are chiefly sporadic, are prob- 
ably Shawnee burial places, and older than those of the Delawares. 
The bands of the Shawnees which settled in the Scioto Valley appear 
to have abandoned this method of burial. 

There are certain mounds consisting entirely or in part of stone, and 
also stone graves or vaults of a peculiar type, found in the extreme 
southern portions of the State and in the northern part of Kentucky, 
which can not be connected with any other works, and probably owe 
their origin to a people who either became extinct or merged into some 
other tribe so far back that no tradition of them now remains. 

Recently a resurvey of the remaining circular, square, and octagonal 
works of Ohio has been made by the Bureau agents. The result will 
be given in a future bulletin. 

1 Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 29th (Boston) meeting, 1880 (1«81), p. 715. 
« Smithsonian Report for 1882 (1884), p. 722. 



INDEX. 



^ Page. 

Abbott, C. C, on Indian handiwork 22 

on pipes 39,40 

Aboriginal remains of Tennessee, Joseph . 

Jones, cited 26 

Adair on plastered houses 17 

on mound bnrial 21 

on native pottery 23 

on shell ornaments 34 

on pipes 35 

AJlegewi, Alligewi, Alleghewi, Allegwl, 

Tallegewi, or Tallegwi 8,38-50 

Ancient monuments of the Mississippi Val- 
ley, Squier and Davis, cited 7, 39 

Annals of Tennessee, Bamsay, cited 32, 83 

Antiquities of the Southern Indians, C. C. 

Jones, cited 21,29,36,42 

Architecture of Indians and mound-build- 
ers similar 14-18 

Arkansas, house remains or mounds in — 15 

bnrial mounds in 20,24 

Armstrong on burial mounds 20 

Ashe, Thomas, en Shawnee village 27 

Atwater, Caleb, cited on stone articles 23 

B. 

Bancroft, H. H., cited on Toltec cremation . . 19 

Barber, E. A., on pipes 39 

Bartram, William, on Cherokee and Choc- 
taw mounds 11 

on Creek burial and 

buildings 21 

on location of Chero- 

kees 32,33 

Bean, Mrs., rescued from burning on a 

Cherokee mound 32 

Beck, Lewis C, on Osage burial mounds. .. 12 

Bee-hive burial stone vaults 48 

Bell, James, on burial mouDds 20 

Beverly on shell ornaments 84 

Biedma on mound-building by Indians 10 

Blerce, L. Y., on Wyandotte burial mound . . 12 

Bossn on mound burial 21 

Bottle-shaped vases in mounds. » 24 

Bourbourg, Brasseur de, on Toltec crema- 
tion 19 

Boyle, David, X cited on Huron burial 

mounds l6 



Page. 
Brebeuf, Jean de, on Indian bnrial mounds. 12 
on Huron communal 

burial 21 

on Huron mortuary use 

of fire 21 

Burial customs of Indians and mound-build- 
ers similar 18,19 

moands 10,11,12,19,20,21 

under houses 16 

C. 

Cahokia origin of certain stone graves prob- 
able 29 

Canada mounds partly Huron 18 

Carr, Lucien, cited against nomadic life of 

Indians. 9 

on council-house mound 33 

Cartersville, Ga., Etowah burial mounds. . . 10, 29 
Carver, Jonathan, on ancient earthworks 

near Lake Pepin 11 

Cass County, HI., burial mounds in 20 

Charleston, W. Vs., mounds near, connect 

those of Ohio and Tennessee 47, 48 

Chellakee... 49 

Cherokee migration 49 

letters on a stone in a Tennessee 

mound 37 

stone graves 26 

Cherokees and the Tallegwi 8, 38-50 

distinct from Shawnees 43 

probable mound-builders 7, 8 

probable mound-builders of Oh io 8 
probable mound-builders of Ten- 
nessee and North Carolina. 30, 31-37 

Chickasaw burial under dwellings 21 

Chippeway and Pottawatomie bnrial 

mounds 13 

Choctaw burial mounds 11 

mortuary use of fire 22 

Clavigero cited on Mexican cremation 19 

Clinton County, Michigan, mounds 13 

Colden on burial mounds 11 

Collins on salt-making 27 

Copper bells, European, in burial mounds . 33 

Cow6, Cherokee mound at 11,33 

Creek burial under dwellings 21 

Cuyahoga County, Ohio, mounds, Iroquoian 50 

61 



62 



INDEX. 



D. 



Page. 



Dayis. See Sqaier and DaTis. 

Delaware salt-kettle pottery 27 

Btone graves 28,50 

tradition of migration applies to 

Cherokees 43 

De Soto cited on mound 10 

Dumont on Natchez monnds H 

on moand pottery 23 

Dn Pratz on bnrial mounds 11 

on square houses 17,18 

on natiTO pottery 23 

Dwellings of Indians and mound-builders 

similar 15 



Earle found a copper plate in Illinois 80 

Eariy French yoyages, Shea,clted 10 

Eries possible builders of some works in 

Ohio 80 

Essex County, Mass., pipes ftt>m graves in. 89 

Essex mounds, Clinton County, Hich 13 

Etowah burial mounds 10,29 

European articles in mound graves 83 

Excursion through Slave States, Feather- 

stonhaugh, cited 12 



Featherstonhaugh on burial mounds 12 

Fire in mortuary ceremonies 22 

Florida^ residence mounds in 10 

burial mounds in 20 

Force on direction of Indian migration. ... 47 

Fort Wayne treaty as to salt grant 27 

Fowke, Gerard, found council-house mound 53 

Fox burial mound 13 

mortuary use of fire 22 



Gallatin County, Dl., salt-kettle pottery.24, 26, 27 

Garcilasso de Yega on mound-building 10 

Gazetteer of lUinois, J. M. Peck, cited 26 

the States of Illinois and Mis- 
souri, Lewis C. Beck, cited . . 12 

Georgia, burial mounds in 10,20,29 

burial under dwellings in 21 

Gravier on mound-building 10 

H. 

Hale, Horatio, on Indian migrations 41,42 

on identity of the Kamaes 

SipuEiver 46,47 

Haywood on Cherokee tradition of mounds 

ontheOhio 46 

on Indian migration 47 

Heckewelder, John, on Indian works 11 

on removal of bones 

for burial 20 

on Delaware tradition 

of migration 43,45 

Herreraon mound-building 10 

Historical reminiscences of Summit 
County, Ohio, L. Y. Bierce, cited 12 



Page. 

History of Alabama, Pickett, cited 22 

Carolina, Lawson, cited 21,84 

Hllnois, Beynolds, cited 29 

Kentucky, Collins, cited 27 

the Five Nations, Colden, cited. 11 
the Indians, Schoolcraft', cited . 2$ 
the Manners and Customs of the 
Indian Tribes, John Hecke- 
welder, cited 11,20,43-45 

the North American Indians, 

Adair, cited 21,23,84,85 

Yirginia, Beverly, cited 84 

Holmes, W. H., on engraved shells 30 

on Indian fabric 86 

Homsher, G. W., on Indian moonds 60 

Houses of Indians and moond-boilders per- 
ishable 15 

rectangular .\. Iff 

square 17,18 

Howland, H. E., found a copper plate in 

Illinois 8Q 

Hunter on stone graves 28^ 

Huron burial mounds 18,21 

I. 

Hlinois, sites of houses identified in 15 

burial mounds in 20,21,24 

stone graves in 28 

copper plate found in 30 

and Ohio, mound-builders in, prob- 
able identity of 49 

Indian migrations 41-50 

mound-builders of Mississippi Yal- 

ley and Gulf States 7 

Indiana, pipes in 42 

Indians and mound-builders^ 

similar socially. 18 

in burial customs 18, 19, 22, 23 

in use of stone 22,23 

in pottery 22,23 

Ingals, Mary, first white woman in Ken- 
tucky, captive 27 

Iowa, mounds in 21 

pipesin 42 

Iron blade fh>m North Carolina mound .... 31 

Iroqnoian works in New York 18 

connection of Cherokees 42 

J. 

Jefferson, Thomas, on Indian mounds in 
Yirginia 11,19,20 

Jesuit Belations cited 11,21,22 

Jones, C. C, on burial mounds 20 

on burial under dwellings 21 

on stone graves 28,29 

on pipes 36,42 

Jones, Joseph, on Tennessee stone graves. . 26 

K. 

Kanawha mounds connect those of Ohio and 
Tennessee 47,48 

Kent, M. B., on Sac and Fox mortuary use 
of fire 22 



INDEX. 



55 



Page. 
Kaskaskia origin of certain stone grarea 

probable 29 

Kiokapoo origin of stone graves doabtfol . . 29 

L. 

liafitan on bnrial mounds 12,21 

I<a Harpe on monnd-bnilding 10,11 

on honse-bnilding 17 

I«ake Pepin, ancient earthworks near 11 

1a Petit on Natohea burial mounds 11 

Lawson on Indian bnrial 21 

on shell ornament 34 

Lea;;ne of the Iroquois, Lewis H. Morgan, 

cited 59 

Lederer on Indian migrations 41 

Lewis and Clarke on Indian earthworks. . . 12 
Loskiel cited on native pottery 23 



MoAdams, William, on identity of Ohio and 

Illinois mound-builders 49,50 

Ifahcming Biver, stone graves on the 27, 28 

Maryland, Shawnee settlements in 27 

Massachusetts, pipes in 39 

Mexicans and Central Americans not In- 

dians 41 

Michigan, mounds in 13 

Middleton, J. D., observed burial mounds . 20 

Migrations, Indian 41-50 

Cherokee 49 

Delaware, traditions of 43 

MlBsissippi and Kamaes Sipu of doubtful 

identity 45, 4« 

Mississippi Valley and Gulf States, Indians 

ftie mound-builders of 7 

Missouri, remains of houses in mounds .... 15, 17 

burial mounds in 20,21,24 

Monroe County, HI., stone graves in 28, 29 

Morgan, Lewis H., on pipes 39 

Mound-builders— 

unlike Mexicans, etc 14 

and Indians similar — 

socially ]8 

in burial customs 18, 19, 22, 23 

in use of stone 22,23 

in pottery 22,23 

Mounds of the Mississippi Yalley Histor- 
ically Considered, Lucien Carr, cited 9, 33 



N. 



Namaes Sipu of doubtful identity with 

Mississippi 45,40 

Xanticokes removed bones of the dead 20 

Katural History of Florida, Barnard Bo- 
mans, cited 21,22 

"Sew York, ancient works in, of Indian ori- 
gin 18 

burial mounds in 20 

pipes in 42 

Kicksaw, a Wyandotte, buried under a 

mound 12 

Korris on mounds 17,20 



Page. 
Kortb Carolina, Cherokees monnd-builders 

in 7 

burial mounds in 20,21 

Notes on Virginia, Thomas Jefferson, 
cited 10,11,19 

O. 

Ohio, mounds in, built by Indians 7, 9 

burial mounds in 21 

stone graves in 28 

council-house mound in 33 

pipes in 89,40,42 

and Illinois mound-builders, identity 
of 49,50 

Ornaments, similar among Indians and 
mound-builders 22 

Osage burial mounds 12 

P. 

Palmer, Edward, on house mounds Id 

Pawnee clay and reed houses 17 

Peck, J. M., on native pottery 20 

Pennsylvania, stone graves in 27,28 

Peoria, III , copper plate found near 30 

Pickett on Choctaw mortuary use of fire . . 22* 
Pipes, modem Cherokee stone, in mound. . 83 

in mounds 33,38^-4a 

Pottawatomie and Chtppeway burial 

mounds 13 

Pottery, Indian and mound-builder, slmOar 23 

salt-kettle 24,26,27 

Powell, J. W., found a copper plate in Illi- 
nois 3<> 

Primitive Industry, C. C. Abbott, cited 22, 39, 40 
Putnam, F. W., found a copper plate in 
Tennessee 80 

B. 

Bamsey on Cherokee mounds 32,33 

map cited 32 

Kau, Charles, on native ceramic art 23 

on stone graves 28,29 

on pipes 89 

Bead, M. C, on council-house mound 83 

Bomans, Barnard, on mound burial 12, 21, 22 

Boyce, C. C, on stone graves 27 

on Shawnee locations 27 

S. 

Sao and Fox mounds 13 

mortuary use of fire 24, 27 

Saint GenevicTe, salt-kettle iK>ttery at . ... 24, 27 

Salt-kettle pottery 24,26,27 

Schoolcraft, H. B., on Pawnee houses 17 

an Sha wneo stone graves 2& 
Sellers, George £., found primitive pottery 

in Illinois 26 

Senex, John, map of Korth America, cited 28 

Shawnee salt-kettle i>ottery 24, 26, 27 

settlements in Maryland 27 

stone graves 50 

Shawneesin Ohio 28 

distinct from Cherokees 43 

Shawneetown, 111., Indian salt works at — 24 
Shea's Early French Voyages cited 10 



64 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Shoemaker showed stone graves 29 

Sibley on Osage bnrial mounds 12 

Smith, History of Missouri, cited 12 

Snyder on bnrial moonds 20 

Sqoier and Davis cited on mounds 7 

on ceramic collection 23 

onpipes 39 

Stone graves 20,25-30 

implements and ornaments among In* 
dians and mound-builders similar. . 22 
Swallow, 0. C, on plastered honses 17 

T. 

Tallegwi, the Cherokees and the 8, 38-50 

Tamaroa origin of certain stone graves prob* 

able 29 

Taylor, W.M., on stone graves in Pennsyl- 
vania 27 

Tennessee, Cherokees mound-builders in .. 7 
sites of houses identilied in ... . 15 

burial mounds in 20 

salt-kettle pottery in 27 

stone graves in 26,28 

copper plate found in 30 

mounds in 31-37 

pipes in 40,42 

Tensas cabins 17 

Thing found a copper plate in Illinois 30 



Page. 

Timberlake, map cited 82 

Tolteo cremation 19 

Tonty, Henry de, on cabins of the Tensas . . 17 
Travels in America, Thomas Ashe, cited . . 27 
Treaty of Fort Wayne on salt grant 27 

V. 

Virginia, burial mounds in 11,19,20 

stone graves in 27,28 

pipesin .^... 40 

W. 

Walker, S. T., contents of Florida mound 

opened by 10,20 

Ward, Kancy, rescued Mrs. Bean firom 

burning on a Cherokee mound.... 33 

Washington, Md., stone graves at 27 

West Virginia, mounds in 24 

pipesin 39 

mounds connect those of 

Ohio and Tennessee 47, 48 

Winnebago mounds.... 13 

Wisconsin burial mounds 12,13,20,21 

Wyandotte burial mound 12 

Y. 

Yarrow, H. C, on Indian burial 19 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY: J. W. POWELL, DIRECTOR 

— I — 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



\' 



\ 



OF THE 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES 



BY 



JAMES CONSTANTINE PILLINGh 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1889 












'•7 J^^^' 



LIBRARY OF THE 
MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 



THIS BOOK IS DEPOSITED TEMPORARILY 

IN THE LIBRARY OF THE 



UBRARY OF m 

fUboDY mmts 



I 



PREFACE. 



A number of years ago the writer undertook the compilation of a 
bibliography of North American languages. In the course of his work 
he visited the principal public and private libraries of the United 
States, Canada, and northern Mexico, carried on an extensive corre- 
spondence with librarians, missionaries, and others interested in the 
subject, and examined such printed authorities as were at hand. The 
results of these researches were embodied in a single volume, of which 
a limited number of copies were printed and distributed — an author's 
catalogue, including all the material then in hand. Since its issue he 
has had an opportunity to visit the national libraries of England au(f 
France, as well as a number of private ones in both these countries, 
and to revisit a considerable number in this country and Canada. A 
suflBcient amount of new material has thus been collected to lead to the 
belief that a series of catalogues may well be prepared, each referring 
to one of the more prominent groups of our native languages. Of this 
series three have been published, relating respectively to the Eski- 
mauan, the Siouan, and the Iroquoian families. The present is the 
fourth, and the fifth, now in preparation, will relate to the Algonquian. 
The family names employed in these catalogues are taken from the 
linguistic map in course of construction by the Bureau of Ethnology. 
Their adoption for th^t work is based upon the law of priority. 

In the compilation of this catalogue the aim has been to include 
everything, printed or in miinuscript, relating to the subject — books, 
pamphlets, articles in magazines, tracts, serials, etc., and such reviews 
and announcements of publications as seemed worthy of notice. 

The dictionary plan has been followed to its extreme limit, the sub- 
ject and tribal indexes, references to libraries, etc., being included 
in one alphabetic series. The primary arrangement is alphabetic by 
authors, translators of works into the native languages being treated 
as authors. Under each author the arrangement is, first, by printed 
works, and, second, by manuscripts, each group being given chronolog- 
ically } and m the case of printed books each work is followed through 
its various editions before the next in chronologic order is taken up. 

Anonymously printed works are entered under the name of the au- 
thor, when known, and under the first word of the title, not an article 
or preposition, when not known. A cross reference is given from the 



IV PREFACE. 

first words of anonymous titles when entered under an author, and 
from the first words of all titles in the Indian languages, whether 
^anonymous or not. Manuscripts are entered under the author when 
known, under the dialect to which they refer when he is not known. 

Each author's name, with his title, etc., is entered in full but once; 
i. e.j in its alphabetic order. Every other mention of him is by sur- 
name and initials only, except in those rare"cases when two persons of 
the same surname have also the same initials. 

All titular matter, including cross-references thereto, is in a larger 
type, all collations, descriptions, notes, and index matter in a smaller 

type. 

In detailing contents and in adding notes respecting contents, the 
spelling of proper names used in the particular work itself has been 
followed, and so far as possible the language of the respective waiters 
is given. In the index entries of tribal names the compiler has adopted 
that spelling which seemed to him the best. As a general rule initial 
<iapitals have been used in titular matter in only two cases: first, for 
proper names, and, second, when the word actually appears on the title- 
page with an initial capital and with the remainder in small capitals or 
fower case letters. In giving titles in the German language the capi- 
tals in the case of all substantives have been respected. 

Each title not seen by the compiler is marked with an asterisk within 
curves, and usually its source is given. 

There are in the present catalogue 521 titular entries, of which 467 
relate to printed books and articles and 54 to manuscripts. Of these, 
469 have been seen and described by the compiler — 429 of the prints 
and 40 of the manuscripts, leaving as derived from outside sources 38 
printed works and 14 manuscripts. Of those unseen by the writer, titles 
and descriptions of more than one-half have been received from persons 
who have actually seen the works and described them for him. 

In addition to these, there are given a number df full titles of printed 
<»,overs, second and third volumes, etc., all of which have been seen and 
described by the compiler; while in the notes mention is made of 69 
printed and manuscript works, 43 of which have been seen and 26 de- 
rived from other (mostly printed) sources. 

So far as possible, comparison has been made direct with the respect- 
ive works during the reading of the proof. For this purpose, besides 
his own books, the writer has had access to those in the libraries of 
Congress, the Bureau of Ethnology, the National Museum, the Smith- 
sonian Institution, and Maj. J. W. Powell, and to those in one or two 
other private libraries in this city. Mr. Wilberforce Eames has com- 
pared the titles of books contained in his own library and in the Lenox 
Library, and Mr. Charles H. Hull, assistant librarian of Cornell Uni- 
versity, has performed a like service for me with the books contained 
in that institution. The result is, that of the 469 works described de visu, 
comparison of proof has been made direct with the original sources in 



PREFACE. 



the case of 373. In this latter reading, collations and descriptions have 
been entered into more fully than had been previously done, and capital 
letters treated with more severity. 

It has given me pleasure to make acknowledgment throughout the 
work of the kind oflSces of many persons to whom I have placed myself 
under obligation. To several, however, I am under special indebted- 
ness, notably to Mr. Wilberforce Eames, for his constant aid and advice 
in bibliographic matters; to Mrs. A. E. W. Robertson, so long and so 
favorably known as a missionary to the Creeks ; and to the Rer. John 
Edwards, the Rev. John Fleming, and the Rev. R. M. Loughridge, 
missionaries to the Muskhogeans, for much and varied information con- 
cerning the writers and writings in these languages. 

As in all my bibliographic work, my principal aid in preparing this 
<5atalogue has come from my assistant, Mr. P. C. Wafman, upon whom 
bas fallen much of the detail and minutitne inseparable from such a 
-work. It bears its own testimony of the faithfulness and accuracy with 
Tvhich he has performed his task. 

Washington, D. C, May 15, 1889. 




BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



By James 0. Pillino. 



[ An asterisk within parentheses indicates that the compiler has seen no copy of the work referred to. ] 



Act of faith [Choctaw]. See TTSTilliams 

(L. S.) 

Acts of the apostles » *• * Choctaw. 
SeeByington(C.) 

Adair (James). The | history | of the | 
American ludians ; | particularly | Those 
Nations adjoining to the Missisippi 
[«tc], east and | west Florida, Georgia, 
South and | North Carolina, and Vir- 
ginia: I containing I An account of their 
Origin, Language, Manners, Religious 
and I Civil Customs, Laws, Form of Gov- 
ernment, Punishments, Conduct in | 
War and Domestic Life, their Habits, 
Diet, Agriculture, Mann- ] factures, Dis- 
eases and Method of Cure, and other 
Particulars, snffi- | cient to render it | 
a I complete Indian system, j With I Ob- 
servations on former Historians, the 
Conduct of our Colony | Governors, Su- 
perintendents, Missionaries, <&c. | Also { 
an appendix, [ containing | A Descrip- 
tion of the Floridas, and the Missisippi 
Isic'i Lands, with theirProduc- 1 tions — 
The Benefits of colonising Gcorgiana, 
and civilizing the Indians— ] And the 
way to make all the Colonies more val- 
uable to the Mother Country. | With a 
new Map of the Country referred to in 
the History. | By James Adair, Esquire, | 
A Trader with the Indians, and Resi- 
dent in their Country for Forty Years. | 
London: | Printed for Edward and 
Charles Dilly, in the Poultry. | 
MDCCLXXV [1775]. 

Half title verso blank 1 1. title verso blank 1 1. 
dedication 2 II. preface 1 1. contents 1 1. text pp. 
1-464, map, 4°. 

MUSK 1 



Adair (J. ) — Continued. 

Argument y, Their laognage and dialects, 
pp. 37-74 ; Argument vi, Their manner of count- 
ing time, pp. 74-80 ; and Argument xxii. Their 
choice of names adapted to their circumstances, 
pp. 191-194, contain terms in various Indian 
languages, among them the Choktah, Chik- 
kasah, and Muskohge— Chlkkasah andChok- 
tak numerals 1-11, 20, 100, 1000, pp. 78-79.— ^Mus- 
kohge numerals 1-10, p. 79. 

Copiet teen : Astor, Bancroft, Boston Athe- 
nteum, Brinton, British Museum, Brown, Bu- 
reau of Ethnology, Congress, Dunbar, Lenox, 
Massachusetts Historical Society, Trumbull, 
Watkinson. 

Priced in Stevens's Nuggets, No. 33, 11. U. 
Brought at the Field sale, No. 13, $9.50 ; at the 
Menzies, No. 7, half crushed blue levant mo- 
rocco, gilt top, uncut, $15.50; at the Squier, 
No. 7, $9.75. Priced by Leclerc, 1878, No. 17. 
50 fr. ; by Quarltch, No. 11607, 11. 16*. At the 
Brinley sale. No. 5352, an uncut copy brought 
$7. and a broken copy, No. 5353, $5.50; at the 
^Inrphy sale, No. 14, it sold for $12. Quaritch 
again prices it. No. 29910, with " pencil notes," 
21. lOf., and another copy. No. 29911, 21. ; Clarke, 
of Cincinnati, 1886, No. 6254, $15; Stevens, cat. 
for Dec. 1887, No. 3091, fine copy, half calf, 21. 
7t. 6d. ; Nield, of Bristol. Eng.. cat No. 132, No. 
1, calf copy, 41. IC*. 

I have seen a German translation, Breslau, 
1782, 8°, which contains no linguistics. (Brown.) 

Most of the linguistic matter was reprinted 
in Adeinng (J. C.) and Vater (J. S.), Mithri- 
dates, Berlin, 1806-1817. 

Reprinted in part as follows : 

History of the North American In- 
dians, their customs, <&c. By James 
Adair. 

In King (E.), Antiquities of Mexico, vol. 8, 
pp. 273-375, London, 1848, folio. 

Contains Arguments i-xxiii of Adair's work, 
followed by "Notes and illustrations to Adair's 
History of the North American Indians,*' by 

1 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Adair (J.) — Continued. 

Lord Kingaboroagh, which occupies pp. 375- 
400. Argument v, pp. 295-311; Argument vi, 
pp. 311-314 ; Argument xxii, pp. 3G3-36i. 

JamM Adair, Indian trader and author, lived 
in the 18th century. He resided among the 
Indians (principally the Chickasaws and Cher- 
okees) from 1735 to 1775, and in the latter year 
published his "History of the American In- 
dians." In this he attempted to trace the descent 
of the Indians from the Jews, basing his assump- 
tion upon supposed resemblances between the 
customs of the two races. At that ti me such an 
hypothesis was regarded as visionary, but the 
idea has since found many supx>orter8, among 
them being Boudinot in his ' * Star of the West. " 
Unsatisfactory as are his vocabularies of In- 
dian dialects, they are the most valuable part of 
his writings.— A^p?«ton'» Cyclop, of Am. Biog. 

Adam (Lucien). Examen grammatical 
compare de seize languesamdricaines. 

In Gongr^s Int. des Am^ricanistes, Compte- 
rendu, second session, voL 2, pp. 161-244, Luxem- 
bourg & Paris, 1878, 8°. 

The five folding sheets at the end contain a 
number of vocabularies, among them one of the 
Chacta. 

Issued separately as follows : 

Examen grammatical compart | de | 

seize langues am^ricaines | par | Lucien 
Adam | conseiller h, la cour de Nancy, j 

Paris I Maisonneuve et C*«, J^diteurs, | 
S5, Quai Voltaire, 25 | 1878. 

Pp. 1-88 and six folding tables, 8°. 

Copies seen : Astor, Boston Public, Congress, 
Powell. 

Triibner, 1882 catalogue, p. 3, prices a copy 
6s. i Leclerc, 1887 supp.,p.iii, 15 fr. ; Maison- 
neuve et Leclerc, 1888 cat., p. 42, 15 fr. 

Adam (Wilban). [A letter in the Choc- 
taw language.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. 7, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T., July, 1887, 49. 

The letter is addressed to the editor and is 
signed with the above name; occupies about 
half a column of the paper. 

Adelung ( Johann Christoph) [and Vater 
(J. S.)]. Mithridates | oder | allge- 
meine | SpracLenkande | mit | dem Va- 
ter Unserals Spracliprobe | in bey nahe | 
fUnfhundert Sprachen und Mundarten, | 
von I Joliann Christopli Adelung, | Chur- 
fttrstl. Sachsischem Hofrath und Ober- 
Bibliotliekar. | [Two lines quotation. ] | 
Er8ter[-Vierter] Theil. | 

Berlin, | in der Vossiscben Buchband- 
lang, I 1806[-1817]. 

4 vols. (voL 3 in three parts), 8°.— Vol. 3, pt. 
3, contains the following Muskhogean linguistic 
material : 



Adelung (J. C. ) and Vater (J. S. ) — Con- 
tinned. 

Chikkasah grammatic comments, vol. 3, pt. 3, 
pp. 300-304 ; vocabulary, vol. 3, pt. 3, p. 292 and 
(from Adair) pp. 304-305. 

Choktah grammatic comments, vol. 3, pt. 3 
pp. 300-304; vocabulary, voL 3,pt. 3, p. 292 and 
(from Adair) pp. 304-305. 

Muskhoge grammatic comments, vol. 3, pt. 3, 
pp. 288-295; vocabulary, vol.3, pt. 3, p. 292 and 
(from Adair) pp. 304-305. 

Copies seen: Astor, Bancroft, British Mu- 
seum, Bureau of Ethnology, Congress, Eames, 
Trumbull, Watkinson. 

Priced by Triibner (1856), No. 503, 11. 16«. 
Sold at the Fischer sale. No. 17, for 11. ; another 
copy. No. 2042, for 16». At the Field sale. No. 
16, it brought $11.85; at the Squier sale. No. 9, 
$5. Leclerc ( 1878) prices it, No. 20 J2, 50 fr. At 
the Pinart sale. No. 1322, it sold for 25 fr. and at 
the Murphy sale. No. 24. a half-calf, marble- 
edged copy brought $4. 
Advertisement: 

Choctaw See Indian Champion. 

Choctaw Lawrence (J. R.) 

Muskoki Muskoki. 

African servant [Choctaw]. See "Wil- 
liams (L. S. ) 
Ai-yimmika ua kauiohmi [Choctaw]. 

See "Williams (L. S.) 
Alabama : 

Numerals See Trumbull (J. H.) 

Vocabulary Gatschet (A. S.) 

Vocabulary Pike (A.) 

Allen (Joshua). [An article in the Choc- 
taw language. ] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 8, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T., August, 1888, 4°. 

No heading except date; signed with the 
above name ; occupies half a column. 
Almanac, Choctaw. See Byington (C.) 

Am I a Christian ? [Choctaw] See Wright 
(A.) and Byington (C.) 

American Antiquarian Society: These words fol- 
lowing a title or inclosed within parentheses 
after a note indicate that a copy of the work 
referred to has been seen by the compiler in the 
library of that society, Worcester, Mass. 

American Bible Society: These words following 
a title or within parentheses after a noto in- 
dicate that a copy of the work referred to has 
been seen by the compiler in the library of that 
institution. New York City. 

American Bible Society. 1776. Centen- 
nial exhibition. 187G. | Specimen verses 

I from versions in different | languages 
and dialects | in which the | Holy Script- 
ures I have been printed and circulated 
by the | American Bible Society 1 and 
the I British and Foreign Bible Society. 

I [Picture and one line quotation.] | 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



American Bible Society — Continued. 

New York : | American Bible Society, | 
instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1876. 

Pp. 1-48, 160 — St John ui, 16, in the Choctaw, 
p. 37 ; in the Muskokee, p. 38. 

Copies seen: American Bible Society, Towell, 
Tramball. 

An edition similar except in date appeared 
in 1879. (Powell.) 

Specimen verses | from versions in 

different | languages and dialects { in 
wbich the \ Holy Scriptures | have been 
printed and circulated by the \ Ameri- I 
can Bible Society | and the | British and , 
Foreign Bible Society. | [Picture of j 
Bible and one line quotation.] | Second 
edition ) enlarged. | | 

Now York : | American Bible Society, | 
instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | I 
1886. j 

Pp. 1-M» 16°.— St. John iii, 16, in Choctaw, j 
p. 46 ; in Muskokee, p. 48. I 

Copies seen: PowelL | 

Issued also with title as above and in addi- 
tion the following, which encircles the border | 
of the titlepago: Souvenir of the World's In- i 
dnstrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition. | ' 
Bureau of Education : Department of the In- 
terior. 1 New Orleans, 1885. (Powell.) } 

Muestras de verslculos | tornados de ! 

las versiones en diferentes | lenguas ! 
y dialectos | en que las | Sagradas Es- ' 
crituras | han sido impresas y puestas en 
circulacion por la 1 Sociedad Biblica , 
Americana i y la | Sociedad Biblica In- 
glesa y Extranjera. | [Design and one 
line quotation.] | 

Nueva York : | Sociedad Biblica 
Americana. \ Fundada en el Alio de 1816. 
I 1889. 

Title as above verso picture etc. 1 1. text pp. 
3-50, historical and other observations pp. 51- 
60, index pp. 61-63, picture and description p. 
64, 160.— St. John iii, 16, in Choctaw, p. 48 ; in 
Muskokee, p. 49. 

Copies seen : Pilling. 
American Board of Commissioners : These words 
following a title or within parentheses after a 
note indicate that a copy of the work referred 
to has been seen by the compiler in the library 
of the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Kissions, Boston, Mass. 

American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions. Books in the lan- 
guages of the North American Indians. 

In Missionary Herald, vol. 32, pp. 268-269, 
Boston, 1837, 8o. (PilUng.) | 

A catalogue of the books, tracts, etc. which j 



American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions — Continued, 
had beeu prepared and printed, under the pat- 
ronage of the American Board of Commission- 
ers for Foreign Missions, in the languages of 
the several Indian tribes among whicli the mis- 
sions of the board had been established ; it em- 
braces a number in Choctaw and in Creek. 

American Philosophical Society: Those words 
following a title or within parentheses after a 
note indicate that a c ipy of the work referred 
to has been seen by the compiler in the library 
of that society, Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Tract Society : These wonls following 
a title or within parentheses after a note indi- 
cate that a copy of the work referred to has 
beeu seen by the compiler in the library of that 
institution, New York City. 

Analogies, Choctaw See Edwards (J.) 

Apalachi. [Documents in the Apalachi 
language.] (*) 

Manuscript, mentioned by Gatschet in his 
"Migration legend," vol. 1, p. 76, as follows: 
"Other documents written in Apalachi arc 
preserved in the archives of Havana, the seat 
of the archbishopric, to which Apalachi and 
all the other settlemen ts comprised within the 
diocese of St Helena belonged." 

Mr. Gatschet informs me further that M. 
Pinart saw these documents at Havana ; but 
their nature I am unable to lenrn. 
Apalachi: 

Text See Apalachi. 

Text Smith (B.) 

Vocabulary G atschet ( A . S. ) 

Arithmetic, Choctaw See Wright (Alfred). 

Armby (Charles). 'A letter in the Choc- 
taw language. ] 

In Our Brother in Red, vol. 6, no. 52, p. 5, 
Muscogee, Ind. T. September 1, 1888, folio. 

Headed "From Caddo, I. T." and signed 
"Charles Armby Local preacher." 

[A letter in the Choctaw language.] 

In Our Brother in lied, vol. 7, no. 5, p. 2, 
Muskogee, Ind. T. October 6, 1888, folio. 

Headed "From Boggy Circuit," signed 
"Charles A rmbey. Local preacher," and oc- 
cupies half a column. 

Asbury {Ilev, Daniel B.) Muskokvlke 
enakcokv esyvhiketv. ] The Muscogee 
hymn hook. | Collected and revised ' hy 
order of the | Methodist committfe^Lstc] 
on translation. [ By Daniel B. Asbury. 
I [Three lines quotation.] | 

Baptist mission press, C. N. : I J. 
Candy, Printer. 1855. 

Title verso blank 1 1. text in Miiskoki (with 
English and Muskoki headings to the hymns), 
pp. 3-82, index 1 1. 24^, 

Copies seen : Congress, Powell. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Aabury(D. B.)-— Coutiuued. 

See Loughridge (R. M.) aud Wins- 

lett(D.) 

Seo Loughridge (R. M.), Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

Dauiel B. Asburj, a full-blood Cn'ck. was 
born in the old Creek nation, Alabama, about 
the year 1818. He was sent, with other yonnj; 
Creeks, to Johnson's school in Kentucky. He 
probably received his English name from the 
Methodists. He went west in 1837, teaching 
school in his early manhood and for many years 
laboring as a minister in the Methodist church. 
"While the Creeks were governed in two divis- 
ions he was, in 1856, second chief in the Arkan- 
sas district. In 1857 he was sent as a delegate 
to Washington, where ho died. —Mrs. Robertson. 

Aspberry (D. P.) See Harrison (P.) 
and Aspberry (D. P.) 

Trobably the same person as Asbory (D. B.) 

Assistant, Muskoki See Fleming (J.) 

Aster: This word following a title or within 

parentheses afte^ a note indicates that a copy 

of the work referred to has been seen by the 

compiler in the Astor Library, New York City. 

Austin (Daniel). Seo Robertson (A. E. 

W.) 

Daniel Austin and his half-sister, FoUio Fife, 
balf-breed Creeks, who gave me the Chicasaw 
found in a copy of Albert Pike's vocabulary 
[q. o.], grew up partly among the Chicasaws, 



Austin (D.) — Continued. 

from their mother^s having fled to the Chica- 
saw country daring the war. Both* used the ' 
Chicasaw, Creek, aud English with ease, and 
were Tullahassee pupils. 

Daniel was sent by his tribe to school in tho 
States. His intelligence and pleasing manners 
seemed to give promise of great usefulness 
among his people, and his early death, from 
consumption, in 1882, was widely mourned. 

He had married Susan Ferryman, one of his 
most talented schoolmates, who had given me 
much help in the Muskokee words aud phrases 
collected by General Pike. She, too, is dead.— 
Mrs. Robertson. 
Authorities: 

See American Board of Commissioners. 

Bagster (J.) , , 

Brintou(D.G.) 

Byington (C.) 

Clarke IR.) &, Co. 

Field (T. W.) 

Laurie (T.) 

Leclorc (C.) 

Ludewig(H.E.) 

0'Callaghan(E.B.) 

Pick (B.) 

Pott (A. F.) 

Sabin (J.) 

Schoolcraft (H.R.) 

Steiger (E.) 

Triibner & Co. 

Trumbull (J. H.) 

Vater(J.S.) 



B. 



[Bagster (Jonathan), editor, ] Tbe Bible 
of Every Land. | A history of | the sa- 
cred scriptures | in every language and 
dialect | into which translations have 
been made : | illustrated with | specimen 
portions in native characters ; | Series 
of Alphabets ; ] coloured ethnographical 
maps, 1 tables, indexes, etc. | Dedicated 
by permission to his grace the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. | LVignette and 
one line quotation. ] | 

London : | Samuel Bagster and sons, { 
15, Paternoster row ; | warehouse for 
bibles, new testaments, prayer books, 
lexicons, grammars, concordances, { and 
psalters, in ancient and modern lan- 
guages. [1848-1851.] 

8 p. 11. pp. xvii-xxviii, 1-4, xxxiii-lxiv (of 
alphabets), 2 11. pp. 1-406, 1 1. pp. 1-12, plates, 
maps, 4°.— St. John i, 1-14, in Choctaw,p. 379. — 
Contains also bibliographic notes on American 
languages, among them tho Choctaw. 

Copies seen : American Bible Society, Boston 
Athenceum, Lenox. 



Bagster (J. ) — Continued. 

[ ] The Bible of every Land ; | or, | A 

History, Critical and Philological, | of 
all the Versions of the Sacred Script- 
ures, I in every language and dialect 
into which | translations have been 
made ; | with | specimen portions in their 
own characters : | including, likewise, | 
the History of the original texts of 
Scripture, | and intelligence illustrative 
of tho distribution and | results of each 
version : | with particular reference to 
the operations of the British and For- 
eign Bible Society, and kindred insti- 
tutions, I as well as those of the mission- 
ary and other societies throughout the 
world. I Dedicated by permission to his 
Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury. | 
[Vignette.]! 

London : | Samuel Bagster and Sons, 
I 15, Paternoster Row ; | Warehouse for 
Bibles, New Testaments, prayer books, 
lexicons, grammars, concordances, and 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



Bagster (J.) — Continaed. 

psalters^ { in ancient and modern lan- 
guages. [Quotation, one line.] [1848- 
la'il.] 

11 p. VL pp.xvii-lxiv.4 11. pp. 1-406, 1-4,2 11. 
pp. 1-12, 3 11.4°.— Linguistics as ander previoas 
title. 

Copies seen : Astor. 

[ ] The Bible of Every Land, i A his- 
tory of I the Sacred Scriptares*! in every 
language and dialect | into which trans- 
lations have been made : | illustrated by 
I specimen portions in native charac- 
ters ; I Series of Alphabets ; | coloured 
ethnographical maps, | tables, indexes, 
etc. I New edition, enlarged and en- 
riched. I [Design and one line quota- 
tion.] I 

London : | Samuel Bagster and sons : I 
at the warehouse for Bibles, New Tes- 
taments, church services, prayer books, 
lexicons, grammars, | concordances, and 
X»8alters, in ancient and modern lan- 
guages; I 15, Paternoster row. [I860.] 

27 p. 11. pp. 1-36,1-475, 6 nnnambered pp. 
map8,4C'.— St. John i, 1-14, in Choctaw, p. 461. 

Copies seen : Boston Public, Confess, Eamos. 

Baker {Kev. Benjamin). Choctaw page. 
Isht vnnumpah kvniohmi hokeh. 

In Indian Missionary, toI. 3, no. 5, p. 5, 
Atoka, Ind. T., March, 1887, 4o. 

Apparently a letter; dated "Jacks Fork 
County, Jan. 11, '87," and signed with the above 
name. It is preceded by four numbered para- 
. graphs, probably verses of Scripture ; the whole 
occupying a page and a half of the paper. 

Choctaw page. Baibil asilhhichit 

toshowa hoke. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. G, p. 6, 
Atoka, Ind. T., April, 1887, 4°. 

A sermon, apparently ; signed with the above 
name and dated November 17. 1886 ; heading as 
above ; occupies two columns of the paper. 

Vba anumpa ilbvsshb. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. G, p. G, 
Atoka, Ind. T., April, 1887, 4°. 

A prayer of ten lines, in the Choctaw lan- 
guage; heading as above. 

Chihowa i nan vlbpisa. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. 8, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T., August, 1887, 4°. 

Seems to consist largely of passages of Script- 
ure translated into the Choctaw language ; oc- 
cupies two-thirds of a column. Heading as 
above, and signed with the above name. 

[A letter in the Choctaw language.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. 12, p. 3. 
Atoka, Ind. T. December, 1987. 4°. 



Baker (B.) — Continued. 

The letter is addressed to the editor of the 
paper, is dated "Jacks Fork Co., C. N., Novem- 
ber 8th, 1887," and signed with the above name. 
It occupies half a column. 

Chihowa hrt Eblam a, [etc.] 

In Indian Missionary, voL 4, no. 5, p. 2. 
Atoka, Ind. T., May. 1888, 4°. 

An article in the Ch«>ctaw language, nn- 
lieaded and unsigned, occupying one and one- 
fourth cxilumns, and beginning as above. It is 
an exhortation to appreciate the work and 
words of Christian mis8ionarie& 

[A letter in the Choctaw langnage.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, na 10, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T., October, 1888, 4°. 

The letter is dated "Jacks Fork County, 
Aug. 28, 1888," is signed with the above name, 
and occupies one column of the paper. 

[Two articles in the Qhoctaw lan- 
guage.] 

In Indian Missionary, vuL 5, no. 1, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. January, 1889, folio. 

The first article, occupying nearly half a col- 
umn, is an appeal to churches to raise funds for 
missionary colportage; the second, which oc- 
-cupies more than a column of the paper, is an 
exhortation to Choctaws to write, read, and 
subscribe for the paper. 

These two articles were reprinte<l in the 
Muskc-^ee Phoenix, vol. 1, no. 47, p. 8, Mus- 
kogee, Ind. T. January 3, 1889, folio. 

Mr. Baker is a native Choctaw preacher of 
the Baptist Church. 

Balbi (Adriano). Atlas | ethnographique 
du globe, { ou | classilication des pen- 
pies I anciens et modemes | d'apr<^s 
Icurs langues, | prdcddd | d^un discours 
sur rutilitd et riraportance de Pdtude 
des langues appliqnde h plusieurs 
branches des connaissances humaines; 
d'unaper^u | surles moyens graphiques 
employes par les dilf<5rens peuples de la 
torre; d'un coup-d^ceil sur Phistoire | de 
la langue slave, et sur la marche pro- 
gressive de la civilisation | et de la lit- 
tdrature en Russie, \ avec environ sept 
cents vocabulaires des principaux idi- 
omes connus, | et suivi | du tableau 
physique, moral et politique | des cinq 
parties du monde, | D<Sdi<5 it S. M. TEm- 
pereur Alexandre ; | par Adrien Balbi, | 
ancien professeur de geographic, de 
physique et de mathdmatiques, | mem- 
bre correspondant de rAth^nde de Trd- 
vise, etc. etc. | [Design.] | 

A Paris, | Chez Rey et Gravier, li- 
braires, Qua! des Angustins, N<* 55. | 
M. DCCC. XXVI [1826]. | Imprimd chez 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Balbi (A.) — Continued. 
Paul Renouard, Rue Garenci^re, N^ 5. 
F.-S.-G. 

73 unnumbered II. folio.^Tableau polyglotte 
des langues am^ricaines, plate xli, contains a 
vocabulary of twenty-six words of a number of 
languages, among them the Muskohgee and 
Choktah. 

Copies seen: Astor, British Museum, Con- 
gress, Powell, Watkinson. 

Priced by Leclerc, 1878, No. 2044, 30 fr. Sold 
atthe Murphy sale. No. 136*, for $3.50. Maison- 
neuve et Leclorc, 1888 cat., p. 43, price it 10 fr. 

Ballard (Rev, Edward). See School- 
craft (H. R.) and Trumbull (J. H.) 

Bancroft : This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to has been seen by the com- 
piler in the library of Mr. H. H. Bancroft, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Harnett (Charles). See Robertson (W. 

S.)and'Winslett(D.) 
Barnw^ell (David). Methodist discipline. 
Section V. 1158. Of the church con- 
ference. (Translated into the Creek 
language by David Barnwell.) 

In Our Brother in Red, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 4-5, 
Muskogee, Ind. T. August, 1887, 4°. 
Occupies nearly two columns. 

Barton (Boujamin Smith). New views | 
of the I origin | of the | tribes and na- 
tions I of. I America. | By Benjamin 
Smith Barton, M. D. | correspondent- 
member [&c. ten lines]. | 

Philadelpliia : | printed, for the au- 
thor, I by John Bioren. | 1797. 

Pp. i-xii, i-cix, 1-83, 8°.— Comparative vocab- 
ulary of 54 words of a number of Indian lan- 
guages, including the Muskohgc, Chikkasah, 
and Choktah (all from Adair), pp. 2-79. 

Copies seen: Boston Athenaeum, British Mu- 
seum, CoDgrcss. 

At the Field sale, Ko. 106, a half-morocco, 
uncut copy, brought $3 ; at the Brinlcy sale. No. 
5359, a. half-calf, largo, line copy, brought $9; 
the Murphy copy, half calf, No. 183, brought 
$5.50. 

Second edition, corrected and enlarged, as 
follows : 

New views | of the | origin | of the | 

tribes and nations | of | America. | By 
Benjamin Smith Barton, M. D. | corre- 
spondent-member [&c. ten lines]. | 

Philadelphia: | printed, for the au- 
thor, \ by John Bioren. \ 1798. 

Title as above reverse blank 1 1. pp. i-cix, 
1-133, appendix pp. 1-32, 8°.— Linguistics as 
above, pp. 2-133. 

Copies seen: Astor, British Museum, Con- 
gress, Eamos, Wisconsin Historical Society. 



Barton (B. S.) — Continued. 

A copy at the Field sale, No. 107, brought $8. 
Leclerc, 1878, No. 809, prices an uncut copy 40 
fr. At the Murphy sale, No. 184, a half-morocco 
copy brought $9.50. 

Reviewed and extracts given in The Port- 
Folio, vol 7, pp. 507-526, PhUadelphia, 1811, SP. 
(Congress.) 

Benjamin Smith Barton, physician, bom in 
Lancaster; Pa., February 10, 1766 ; died in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., December 19, 1815. After a course 
of general studies under Dr. Andrews, at York, 
Pa., he followed the instruction given at the 
Philadelphia College, now University of Penn- 
sylvania. Then during 1786-'88 he studied 
medicine and the natural sciences in Edinburgh 
and London, and received his medical degree 
from the University of Gottingen, Germany. 
On his return he settled in Philadelphia, where 
he soon acquired an extensive and lucrative 
practice. In 1789 he was appointed professor 
of natural history and botany, and in 1795 of 
materia medica in the college of Philadelphia. 
In 1813 he succeeded Dr. Benjamin Rush as 
professor of the theory and i>racticc of medicine 
in the University of Pennsylvania. He was 
elected president of the Philadelphia Medical 
Society in 1809, and was some time vice-presi- 
dent of the American Philosophical Society, 
and also a member of many other American 
and European societies. Ho contributed nn 
morons papers to the "Transactions of the 
American Philosophical Society," and to the 
"Medical and Physical Journal," which was 
published by him. His most important works 
are: "Observations on Some Parts of Natural 
History " (London, 1787) ; " New Views on the 
Origin of the Tribes of America" (1797); 
••Elements of Botany," Philadelphia, 1803, 2d 
ed., 2 vols., 1812-'14; an edition of Cullen's 
" Materia Medica ;" '* Eulogy on Dr. Priestley ;" 
"Discourse on the Principal Desiderata of 
Natural History" (Philadelphia, 1807); and 
"Collections toward a Materia Medica of the 
United States " (3d ed., Philadelphia, 1810).— 
Appleton's Cyclop, of Am, Biog. 

Bartram (William). Travels | through | 
North & South Carolina, | Georgia, | 
east & west Florida, | the Cherokee 
country, the extensive | territories of 
the Muscogulges, | or Creek confeder- 
acy, and the | country of the Chactaws ; 
I containing | an account of the soil 
and natural | productions of those re- 
gions, toge- 1 ther with observations on 
the I manners of the Indians. | Embel- 
lished with copper-plates. | By William 
Bartram. | 

Philadelphia: | Printed by James & 
Johnson. I M,DCC,XCI [1791]. 

Title 1 1. contents, introduction, &c. pp. i- - 
xxxiv, text pp. 1-522, 8°.— Lists of the towns 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



Bartram (W.) — Continued. 

and tribes in lea^^e, and which constitnte the 
powerful confederacy or empir j of the Creeks 
or Muscogulges, pp. 462-464. 

Appended and occupying pp. 481-522 is : 

An I account | of the | persons, manners, cus- 
toms I and I government | of the | Muscogulges 
or Creeks, | Cherokees, Chactaws, &c. | abo- 
rigines of the continent of | North America. | 
By Wmiam Bartram. | 

Philadelphia: | PrintedbyJamos& Johnson. 
I M,DCC.XCI [1791]. 

Chapter vi. Language and manners [of the 
Mascogulges and Cherokees], pp. 519-522. 

Copies seen : British Museum, Congress, Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society, Watkinson. 

At the Field sale, No. 110, a "poor copy, half- 
morocco," brought $3.25. The Brinley copy, 
No. 3481, brought $3.50, and the Murphy, No. 
187. $5.50. 

Travels [ tlirough | North and South 

Carolina, | Georgia, | East and West 
Florida, [ the Cherokee Country, | the ex- 
tensive Territories of the Muscogulges 
I or Creek Confederacy, ' and the Coun- 
try of the Chactaws. : Containing \ an 
Account of the Soil and Natural produc- 
I tions of those regions ; [ together with 
observations on the manners of the In- 
dians. I Embellishe^l with copper-plates. 
I By William Bartram. | 

Philadelphia: Printed by James and 
Johnson. 1791. | London : | Reprinted 
for J. Johnson, in St. PauFs Church- 
yard. I 1792. 

Pp. i-xxiv, 1-520, 6 11. map, 8°.— Language 
and manners, pp. 517-520. 

Copies seen : British Museum. Brown, Trum- 
bull. 

Brought at the Squicr sale, No. 69, $4.50; at 
the Menzies, No. 140, half blue morocco, gilt 
top. uncut, $8.50; at the Brinley, No. 4344, 
$4.50; at the Pinart, No. 80, 11 fr. ; at the Mar- 
phy, No. 180, $5.50. Priced by Quaritch, No. 
29919, half-calf, 15*., calf, 18*. ; by Stevens & 
Son, cat. for July 1888, No. 4499, half-calf copy, 
18*. 

Travels | through | North and South 

Carolina, | Georgia, | East and West 
Florida, | the Cherokee Country, | the 
Extensive Territories of the Muscogul- 
ges I or Creek Confederacy, ; and the 
Country of the Chactaws, | containing | 
an Account of the soil and natural pro- 
due- I tions of those Regions ; | together 
with I observations on the manners of 
the Indians. | Embellished with Copper- 
plates. I By William Bartram. | 

Dublin : | For J. Moore, W. Jones, R. 
McAllister, and J. Rice, i 1703. 



Bartram (W.) — Continued. 

Pp. i-xxiv, 1-520, index 6 11. map, plates, S®.— 
Language and manners, pp. 517-520. 

Copies seen .- Boston Athenaeum, Danbar. 

Priced in Stevens's Nuggets, No. 224, Ss. 6d. 
Sold at the Field ssle. No. 112, for |3.50. Lit- 
tlefield, of Boston, catalogue for November 
1887, No. 48, prices a calf copy, $5. 

William Bartram's | Reisen | 

durch \ Nord- und S&d-Karolina, | Qeor- 
gien, Ost- und West-Florida, \ daa Ge- 
biet I der Tscherokesen, Krihks und 
Tschaktahs, | nebst umstiindlichen 
Nachrichten | von den Einwohnern, 
dem Boden und den Naturprodukten | 
dieser wenig bekannten grossen Lan- 
der. I Aus dem Englischen. | Mit erlUu- 
temden Anmcrkungen ] von | E. A. W. 
Zimmermann, \ Hofrath und Professor 
in Braunschweig. 

Pp. i-xxvi, 1 1. pp. 1-501 (erroneously num- 
bered 469), sm. 8°. Forms pp. 1-501 of: 

Magazin | von morkwiirdigen nenen ] Reisc- 
beschreibangcn, | aus fremden Sprachen Qber- 
setzt I und mit | erlantemden Anmerknngen 
begleitet. | Mit Kupfem. \ Zehnter Band. | 
Berlin, 1793. | In der Yossischen Bnchhand- 
Inng. 

Sprache und Denkmaler, pp. 491-494. 

Copies seen: Congress. 

Travels ! through | North and South 

Carolina, \ Georgia, | east and west 
Florida, | the Cherokee country, | the 
extensive territories of the Muscogul- 
ges I or Creek confederacy, | and the 
country of the Chactaws. ' Containing | 
an account of the soil and natural 
produc- I tions of those regions; | 
together with | observations on the 
manners of the Indians. | Embellished 
with copper-plates. | By William Bar- 
tram. I The second edition in London. | 

Philadelphia : printed by James and 
Johnson. 1791. | London : | reprinted 
for J. Johnson, in St. PauVs church- 
yard. I 1794. 

Title verso blank 1 1. contents pp. iii-vii, in- 
troduction pp. viii-xxiv, text pp. 1-520, index 
4 11. 8<^.— Language and manners, pp. 517-520. 

Copies seen: British Museum, Brown, Con- 
gress, Massachusetts Historical Society, "Wat- 
kinson. 

Priced in Stevens's Nuggets, No. 225, 8#. 6d. 
At the Field sale, No. Ill, a half-morocco, uncut 
copy brought $0. 

The Carter Brown catalogue titles an edition, 
in Dutch : Haarlaem, Bohn, 1794, SP, Sabin's 
Dictionary, No. 3873, titles an edition: Haarlem, 
1794-1797; and another (quoting from de Jong) : 
Amsterdam, 1797, 3 parts. 



8 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Bartram (W.) — Continued. 

Voyage | dans les parties sud | de 

rAmdrique | septeutrionale; | Savoir: 
les Carolines septeutrionale et m^ridio- 1 
nale, la Georgie, les Florides orientale 
et I occidentale, le pays des Clierokdes, 
lo vaste I territoire des Muscogulges ou 
de la conf<6d6- | ration Creek, et le pays 
des Cliactaws ; | Contenant des details 
sur lo sol et les productions natu- | 
relies de ces contr^es, et des observa- 
tions sur les I niceurs des Sauvages qui 
les habitent. | Par Williams \,8ic'\ Bar- 
tram. I Imprim^ h Philadelphie, en 
1791, et k Londres, | en 1792, et trad, do 
Fangl. par P. V. Benoist. | Tome premier 
[-second]. | 

A Paris, | Chez Carteret et Brosson, 
libraires, rue Pierre- 1 Sarrasin, Nos. 13 
et 7. 1 Dugour et Durand, rue et raaison 
Serpente. | An VII [1799]. 

2 vola. : 2 U. pp. 1-457, 1 1. map ; 11. ppi 1-436, 
1 1. 12°.— Langage, moenrs, etc. [Muscogalge et 
Cherok6e], vol. 2, pp. 419-424. 

Copies seen: British Museum, Brown, Con- 
gress. 

Voyage | dans les Parties Sud | de 

TAm^rique | Septeutrionale; | Savoir: 
les Carolines septeutrionale et mdridio- 1 
nale, la Georgie, les Florides orien- 
tale et I occidentale, le pays des Chero- 
kdes, le vaste | territoire des Muscogul- 
ges ou de la conf^d^- 1 ration Creek, et 
le pays des Chactaws ; | Contenant des 
details sur le sol et les productions | 
naturelles de ces contrdos, et des ob- 
servations sur les I mcBurs des Sau- 
vages qui les habitent. | Par William 
Bartram. | Imprimd h Philadelphie, en 
1791, et b, Londres, | en 1792, et trad, 
de Tangl. par P. V. Benoist. | Tome 
Premier [-Second ] . 

' A Paris, | Chez Maradan, Libraire, 
rue Parde Saint-Andrd- 1 des-Arcs, No. 
16. I An IX [1801]. 

2 vols. 8°.— Langage, moDurs, etc. vol. 2, pp. 
419-424. 

Copies seen: Brown. 

Sold by Leclerc, 1867, No. 122, for3 fr. 50, and 
priced by him, 1878, No. 810, 18 fr. Dnfosa6, 
1887 catalogue, No. 24975, priced it 8 fr., andLit- 
tlcfield, of Boston, catalogue for November 
1887, No. 49, $3.50. 

Bartram's Travels is partly reprinted in The 
"Wonderful Magazine and Marvellous Chroni- 
cle, vol. 5, pp. 313-323, 355-366, London, n. d. 
8°, the linguistics appearing on pp. 363-366. 



Bartram (W.) — Continued. 
Observatious on the Creek and Che- 
rokee Indians. By William Bartram. 
1789. With prefatory and supplement- 
ary notes. By E. G. Squier. 

In American Ethnol. Soc. Trans. voL 3, pt. 1, 
pp. 1-81, l<ew York, 1853, 8°. 

The article by Mr. Bartram occupies pp. 11- 
58, the remaining pages being taken up with 
Mr. Squier's notes. 

There are a few Creek and Cherokee terms 
scattered throughout. 

William Bartram' botanist, born in Kiogses- 
sing. Pa., February 9, 1739 ; died there July 22 
1823. He removed to North Carolina and there 
became engaged in business. This he aban- 
doned before reaching the age of thirty, and, 
accompanying his father to Florida, settled 
on the banks of St. John's River, where for 
several years he cultivated indigo. In 1771 
he returned to the botanical gardens and sub- 
sequently devoted his attention almost entirely 
to botany. From 1773 till 1778 ho traveled ex- 
tensively through the Southern States in order 
to examine the natural products of the country. 
An account of his experiences, under the title 
of " Travels through North and South Carolina, 
Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee 
Country, the extensive Territories of the Mus- 
cogules or Creek Confederacy, and the Country 
oftheChoctaws," waspubhshed (Philadelphia, 
1791, and London, 1792-'94). In 1782 he was 
elected professorof botany in the University of 
Pennsylvania, but declined the place on ac- 
count of his health. In 1786 he became a mem- 
ber of the American Philosophical Society, and 
he was also connected with other scientific 
bodies. Mr. Bartram was the author of "An- 
ecdotes of a Crow," "Description of Certhia," 
and " Memoirs of John Bartram." In 1789 he 
wrote " Observations on the Creek and Chero- 
kee Indians," which was published in 1851 
("Transactions American Ethnological Soci- 
ety," vol. iii). He drew the illustrations in 
Barton's "Elements of Botany," and many of 
the most curious and beautiful plants of North 
America were illustrated and first made known 
by him. He also published the most complete 
list of American birds previous to Alexander 
Wilson, whom he greatly assisted at the outset 
of his career. — Appleton's Cyclop, of Am. Biog. 

Beadle ( J. H. ) The | undeveloped West ; 
I or, I live years in the territories : | be- 
ing I a complete history of that vast re- 
gion be- 1 tween the Mississippi and the 
Pacific, I its resources, climate, inhabi- 
tants, natural curiosities, etc., etc. | 
Life and adventure on | prairies, mount- 
ains, and the Pacific coast. | With two 
hundred and forty illustrations, from 
original | sketches and photographic 
views of the scenery, | cities, lands. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



Beadle (J. H.) — Continued. 

mines, people, and curi- 1 osities of the 
great West. | By J. H. Beadle, | western 
correspondent of the Cincinnati Com- 
mercial, and author | of ** Life in Utah," 
etc., etc. [three lines.] [ 

Published by | the National Publish- 
ing Co., I Philadelphia, Pa., Chicago, 
111., and St. Louis, Mo. [1873. J 

Title 1 1. pp. 15-823, map ond 8 plates, 8°.— 
Creek liymn, pp. 384-385. 

Copies seen : Brooklyn Pablic, Confess. 

There ia an edition with title but slightly 
different from the above except in imprint, 
which is aa follows : National Pablishing Com- 
pany, I Philadelphia, Pa. ; Chicago, IlL ; Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio ; I St Loais, Mo. (Boston Athen- 
8Bum, Congress.) 

Bennett (Leo E. ), editor. See Muskogee 
Phoenix. 

Bergholtz (Gustaf Fredrik). The Lord^s 
Prayer | in the | Principal Languages, 
Dialects and | Versions of the World, | 
printed in | Type and Vernaculars of 
the ^Different Nations, | compiled and 
published by | G. F. Bergholtz. | 

Chicago, Illinois. i, 1884. 

Pp. 1-200, 120.— The Lord's prayer in Choc- 
taw, p. 38; in Mnskokee, p. 132. 

Copies seen: Congress. 

BerryhiU (Rev. D. L.) Methodist Dis- 
cipline. Section XV. Of Stewards. 
Question 2. Answers 1 and 2. (Trans- 
lated into the Muskogee language by 
Rev. D. L. BerryhiU.) [1887.] 

A single column, with aboTe heading, on a 
slip of paper 12 inches in length. Mrs. Robert- 
son informs me that the Rev. M. A. Clark had 
the translation made in 1887. 
Copies seen: Pilling. 

Methodist discipline. Section I. Of 

public worship. Question 1. Answer 
1. (Translated into the Muskogee lan- 
guage by Rev. D. L. BerryhiU.) 

In Our Brother in Red, vol. 5, no. 7, p. 7, 
Muskogee, Ind. T. March, 1887, 4°. 

Followed by some instructions from the pre- 
siding elder "to the preachers of the Creek 
and Seminole Nations who are called Metho- 
dist; " the whole translated into Muskogee by 
Mr. BerryhiU. 

The portion of the discipline (but not thein- 
. structions) is republished in the same periodi- 
cal, voL 5, no. 12, p. 5, August, 1887. 

Creek hymn. (Translated by Rev. 

D. L. BerryhiU.) 

In Our Brother in Red, vol. 6, no. 20, p. 3, 
Muskogee, Ind. T. January 21, 1888, folio. 



BerryhiU (D. L.)— Continued. 

Creek hymn. 

In Our Brother in Bed, vol. 6, no. 24, p. 3, 
Muskogee, Ind. T., February 18, 1888, folio. 

Five stanzas; dated "Okmulgee, L T.Jan. 
26, 1888." 

Discipline. 

In Oar Brother in Red, vol. 7, no. 15, p. 3, 
Muskogee, Ind. T. April 6, 1889, folio. 

In the Muskoki language. Probably a por- 
tion of the discipline of the Methodist church. 
•' To be continued." 



Bible: 






Portions 


Choctaw See Talley( A.) 


Portions 


Choctaw 


Wright (A.) and By. 
ington (C.) 


Pentateuch 


Choctaw 


Byington (C.) 


Genesis 


Muskoki 


Ramsay (J. R.) 


Joshua 


Choctaw 


Wright (Alfred). 


Judges 


Choctaw 


Wright (Alfred). 


Ruth 


Choctaw 


Wright (Alfred). 


Samuel I, II 


Choctaw 


Wrigjit (Alfred). 


Kings I 


Choctaw 


Wright (Alfred). 


Kings II 


Choctaw 


Edwards (J.) 


Psalms 


Choctaw 


Edwards (J.) 


Psahns 


Muskoki 


Ramsay (J. R.) 


New Test. 


Choctaw 


Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 


New Test. 


Muskoki 


Robertson (A. E. 
W.) and others. 


Four Oos- 


Choctaw 


Wright (A.) and By- 


I>els 




ington (0.) 


Matthew 


Choctaw 


Byington (C.) 


(pt) 






Matthew 


r Choctaw 


Wright (Alfred 


(pt.) 






Matthew 


Choctaw 


Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C). 


Matthew Muskoki 


Davis (J.) and Ly- 


(pt.) 




kins (J.) 


Matthew 


Muskoki 


Loughridge (R. M.) 


Matthew Muskoki 


Robertson (A. E. 


(pt) 




W.) 


Mark 


ChocUw 


Wright (A.) and By. 
ington (C.) 


Mark (pt.) 


Muskoki 


Davis (J.) and Ly- 
khis (J.) 


Mark 


Muskoki 


Robertson (A. B. 
W.) 


Luke (pt.) 


Choctaw 


Byington (C.) 


Luke 


Choctaw 


Wright (Alfred). 


Luke 


Choctaw 


Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 


Luke 


Muskoki 


Robertson (A. E. 
W.) 


John (pt.) 


Choctaw 


American Bible So- 
ciety. 


John (pt.) 


Choctaw 


Bagster (J.) 


John (pt.) 


Choctaw 


Bible Society. 


John 


Choctaw 


Wright (Alfred). 


John 


Choctaw 


Wright (A.) and By. 
ington (C.) 


John (pt.) 


Muskoki 


American Bible So- 
ciety. 


John (pt.) 


Muskoki 


Bible Society. 



i 



10 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Bible — Continued. 
John Maskoki 



John 



Muskoki 



John( pt.) Muskoki 
John Muskoki 

Acts (pt.) Choctaw 
Acts Choctaw 

Acts Muskoki 

Romans Muskoki 

Corinthians Muskoki 

Galatians Muskoki 

Ephesiaus Muskoki 

Philippians Muskoki 

Colossians Muskoki 

Tiiessalon* Muskoki 

ians I, II 
Timothy I, Muskoki 

II 
Titos Muskoki 

Philemon Muskoki 

Hebrews Muskoki 



E. 



Bucknor (H.F.) and 

Herrod (G.) 
Davis (J.) and Ly- 

kins (J.) 
Loughridge (R. M.) 
Loughridge (R. M.) 

and others. 
British. 
Byington (C.) 
Robertson ( A. 

W.) 
Robertson 

W.) 
Robertson 

W.) 
Robertson 

W.) 
Robertson (A. E. 

W.) 
Robertson 

W.) 
Robertson 

W.) 
Robertson 

W.) 
Robertson (A. E. 

W.) 
Robertson 

W.) 
Robertson 

W.) 
Robertson 



(A E. 
(A. E. 



(A. E. 



(A. E. 
(A. E. 



(A. E. 



(A. 



(A. E. 



(A. E. 



James 
James 



Choctaw 
Muskoki 



Peter I, II Muskoki 



John l-III 
John I-III 
Jude 



Choctaw 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 



Revelation Choctaw 

(pt.) 
Revelation Muskoki 



W.) 
Wright (Alfred). 
Robertson (A. E. 

W.) 
Robertson (A. E. 

W.) 
Wright (Alfred). 
Robertson (W. S.) 
Robertson (A. E. 

W.) 
Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 
Robertson (A. E. 
W.) 
Bible Holisso [Choctaw]. See Wright 

(A.) and Byington (C.) 
Bible of every land. See Bagster (J.) 
Bible Society. Specimen verses | in 164 | 
Languages and Dialects | in which the | 
Holy Scriptures | have been printed and 
circulated by the | Bible Society. | [De- 
sign and one line quotation.] | 

Bible House, | Corner Walnut and 
Seventh Streets, | Philadelphia. [1876?] 
Printed covers, pp. 3-46, 18o.— St John iii, 16, 
in Choctaw, p. 37 ; in Muskokee, p. 38. 
Copies se^n : Eames, Pilling, Powell. 
The later edition, [1878?] "in 215 languages, " 
does not contain these versions. (Eamea, 
Powell.) 



Bible stories : 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 



See Williams (L. S.) 
Wright (H. B.) and 
Dnkes (J.) 

' Chahta. See^Will- 



Bible stories. * 

iams (L, S.) 
Bibliographical ca tal ogue of books. See 

Schoolcraft (H. R.) 

Blake (W. P.), editor. See Indian mis- 
sionary. 
Bland ( Col. Theodorick), jr. List of In- 
dian words (supposed to he Chickasaw). 
In the Bland Papers, v^pl. 1, pp. 151-152, Pe- 
tersburg, 1840-'43, 8o. 

Not Chickasaw, but Delaware. 

BoUaert (William). Observations on the 
Indian Tribes of Texas. By William 
Bollaert, F. R. G. S. 

In Ethnological Soc. of London Jour. vol. 2, 
pp. 262-283, London, n. d. 8^. 

A few words in Muscogee, p. 283. 

Book of the Psalms * * * Choctaw. 

See EdTvards (J.) 
Books of Genesis * * " Choctaw. See 

Byington (C.) 

Books of Joshua. * * * Choctaw. 
See Wright (Alfred). 

Boston Athenaium : These words following a title 
or within parentheses after a note indicate 
that a copy of the work referred to has been seen 
by the compiler in the library of that institu- 
tion, Boston, Mass. 

Boston Pubhc: These words following a title or 
within parentheses after a note iodicate that a 
copy of the work referred to has been seen by 
the compiler iu that library, Boston, Mass. 

Boudinot (Rev. Elias). A | star in the 
west; I or, I a humble attempt to dis- 
cover I the long lost 1 ten tribes of Israel, 
I preparatory to their return to their he- 
loved city, I Jerusalem. | By Elias Bou- 
dinot, LL. D. I [Seven lines quota- 
tions.] I 

Trenton, N. J. | published by D. Fen- 
ton, S. Hutchinson, and | J. Dunham. | 
George Sherman, Printer. | 1816. 

Title verso copyright notice 1 1. contents pp. 
iii-iv, preface pp. i-xxi, introduction pp. 23-31, 
text pp. 33-312, 8°.— Chapter IIL An inquiry 
into the language of the American Indians, 
pp. 89-107, contains a vocabulary of several 
languages, among them the Creek, pp. 102-103. 

Copies seen: Bancroft, Boston Athenaeum, 
British Museum, Congress, Dunbar, Harvard, 
Trumbull. 

At the Sqnier sale, Ifo. 108, a half-calf, gilt 
copy brought $2.25 ; at the Brinley sale a copy 



MUSKHOQEAN LANGUAGES. 



11 



Boudinot (E.) — Continued. 

■with "fine portrait inserted" sold for $2.75; 
the Murpby copy, catalogue No. 305, half-mo- 
rocco, top edge gilt, brought $4.75. Clarke & 
Co., 1886 catalogue, No. 6281, priced it $1.76. 

Elias Boudinot, philanthropist, born in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., May 2, 1740; died in Burlington, 
N. J., October 24, 1821. His greatgrandfather, 
Elias, was a French Huguenot, who fled to this 
country after the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes. After re<reiving a classical education, 
he studied law witb Richard Stockton, and be- 
came eminent in his profession, practicing in 
New Jersey. He was devoted to the patriot 
cause. In 1777 appointed commissary-general 
of prisoners, and in tbe same year elected a 
delegate to Congress from New Jersey, serving 
from 1778 till 1779, and again from 1781 tUl 1784. 
Ho was chosen president of Congress on No- 
vember 4, 1782, and in that capacity signed the 
treaty of peace with England. He then re- 
sumed the practice of law, but, after the adop- 
tion of tbe constitution, was elected to the first, 
second, and third Congresses, serving from 
March 4, 1789, till March 3, 1795. He was ap- 
pointed by Washington in 1795 to succeed Rit* 
tcnhonse as director of the mint at Philadel- 
phia, and held the oflBce till July 1805, when ho 
resigned, and passed the rest of his life at Bur- 
lington, N. J., devoted to the study of biblical 
literature. He had an ample fortune and gave 
liberally. He was a trustee of Princeton Col- 
lege, and in 1805 endowed it With a cabinet of 
natural history, valued at $3,000. In 1812 he 
was chosen a member of the American board 
of commissioners for foreign missions, to which 
he gave £100 n 1813. He assisted in founding 
the American Bible Society in 1816, was its 
first president, and gave it $10,000. He was 
interested in attempts to educate the Indians, 
and when three Cherokee yonth were brought 
to the Foreign Mission Scbool in 1818, he al- 
lowed one of them to take his name. This boy 
hecame afterward a man of influence in his 
tribe and was murdered on June 10, 1839, by 
Indians west of the Mississippi. Dr. Boudinot 
was also interested in the instruction of deaf- 
mutes, the education of young men for the 
ministry, and eflForts for the relief of the poor. 
He bequeathed his property to his only daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Bradford, and to charitable uses. 
Among his bequests were one of $200 to buy 
spectacles for the aged poor, another of 13,000 
acres of land to the mayor and corporation of 
Philadelphia, that the poor might be supplied 
with wood at low prices, and another of 3,000 
acres to the Philadelphia hospital for the benefit 
of foreigners. Dr. Boudinot published "The 
Age of Revelation," a reply to Payne (1790); an 
oration before tbe Society of the Cincinnati 
(1793); "Second Advent of the Messiah" 
(Trenton, 1815), and " Star in the West, or An 
Attempt to Discover the Long-Lost Ti ibes of 
Israel " (1816), in which he concurs with James 
Adair in the opinion that the Indians are the 
lost tribes. He also wrote, in " The Evangcli- 



Boudinot (E.) — Continued. 

cal Intelligencer" of 1806, an anonymous memoir 
of the Rev. William Tennent, D. D.—Appteton'* 
Cyclop, of Am. Biog. 

Boolet {Rev. J. B.), editor. See Youth's. 

[Bourgeois (—)] Voyages | int^ressans | 
dans I diff<6rentes colonies | fran^aises, | 
espagnoles, anglaises, &:c ; | Contenant 
des Observations importantes relatives 
h ces I contr^es ; &, an M^moire sur lea 
Maladies les plus \ communes h Saint- 
Domingue, leurs remMes, & le | moyen 
de s'eu preserver moralement & pliisi- 
quement : | Avec des Anecdotes singu- 
li^res, qui n'avaient jamais 6i6 \ pu- 
bli^es. I Le tout rMigd & mis au jour, 
d'apr^sun grand uombrede | raauuscrits, 
parM. N | [ScrolL] | 

A Loudres ; | £t se trouve a Paris, | 
Chez Jean-Francois Bastien. | M.DCC- 
LXXXV1II[1783]. 

Half-title 1 1. title 1 1. advertisement 2 11. text 
pp. 1-504, table pp. 505-507, 12o.— Catalogue de 
queIquesmots[45] de lalangue dessauvagesdn 
Missisaipi (Choctaw], avcc leur signification en 
Fran^ais, pp. 296-297. 

Copies seen: Congress. 

Brantz (Lewis). Some words from the 
language of the Choctaws. 

In Schoolcraft (H. R.), Indian Tribes, vol. 3, 
p. 347, Philadelphia, 1853, 4°. 

Brinley : This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to was seen by the com- 
piler at the sale of books belonging to the late 
George Brinley, of Hartford, Conn. 

Brinley (George). See Trumbull (J. 
H.) 

Brinton : This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to has been seen by the 
compiler in the library of Dr. D. G. Brinton, 
Media, Pa. 

Brinton (Dr. Daniel Garrison). The 
Natchez of Louisiana, an offshoot of the 
civilized nations of Central America. 
By D. G. Brinton, M. D. 

In Historical Mag. second series, vol. 1, pp. 
16-18, Morriaania, N. Y., 1867, am. 4°. 

Contains a few words of Choctaw and other 
Mnskhogean languages. 

The National legend of the Chahta- 

Muskokee tribes. By D. G. Brinton, 
M. D. 

In Historical Mag. second series, vol. 7, 
pp. 118-126, Morrisania, N. T. 1870, sm. 4°. 
Contains a few native terms with English 



12 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OP THE 



Brlnton (D. G.)— -Continued. 

signification, and the tribal divisions of the 
Maskokees according to several authors. 
Issued separate!}' as follows : 

The I national legend [ of the | Chalita- 

Muskokee tribes. | By | D. G. Briuton, 

M. D. I 

. Morrisania, N. Y. : | 1870. 

Printed cover, title 1 1^ prefatory note 1 1, 
text pp. 5-13, large 8°. , 

Copies seen : Astor, Dunbar, Earoes, Mas.sa- 
chusetts Historical Society, "Wisconsin Hisicn 
cal Society, Yale. 

A copy at the Field sale. No. 211, sold for 
$1.12. 

See Gatschet ( A. S.) 

Contribntions to a grammar of the 

Muskokee language. By D. G. Brlnton, 
M.D. 

In American Philosoph. Soc. Proc. vol. 11, 
pp. 301-309, Philadelphia, 1871, 8°. 

Historical notes on the language, its dialects, 
affinities, and literature (including a short list 
of Muskokee books), pp. 301-304.— The Alpha- 
bet, pp. 304-305.— Remarks on Buckner's Mas- 
kokee Grammar, pp. 305-308.— The Muskokee 
verb, pp. 307-308.— Specimen sentence, pp. 303- 
309. 

Issued separately as follows : 

Contributions | to a | grammar | of 

the I Muskokee language, | by | D. G. 
Brinton, M. D., | Member [&c. three 
lines]. I (From the Proceedings of the 
American Philosophical Society.) | 

Philadelphia: i McCalla & Stavoly, 
Printers, 237-9 Dock Street, | 1870. 

Printed cover 1 1. pp. 301-309, 8°. 

Copies seen : Astor, Dunbar, Eamcs. Trum- 
bull, Wisconsin Historical Society. 

At the Field sale, No. 214, a copy sold for 25 
cents. Dufos86, No. 296 15, prices it 1 f r. 50. 

On the language of the Natchez. 

In American Philosoph. Soc. Proc. vol. 13, 
pp. 483-499, Philadelphia, 1873, S°. 

Comparison of Natchez terms with those of 
a number of American languages, among them 
the Muskoki, Seminole, and Choctaw. 

Issued separately as follows: 

On the language of the Natchez. | By 

D. G. Brinton, M. D. | (Read before the 
American Philosophical Society, De- 
cember 5th, 1873.) I 

[Philadelphia. 1873?] (♦) 

No title, heading as above ; pp. 1-17, 8°. De- 
scription from Mr. Wilberforce Eamcs, from a 
copy in his possession. 
Aboriginal American literature. 

In Congrds des Am6ricaniates, Compte- 
rendu, fifth session, pp. 54-64, Copenhagen, 
1884, 8o. 

Rewritten, and reprinted as follows : 



Brlnton (D. G.) — Continued. 

Aboriginal j American authors | and 

their productions; | especially those in 
the native languages. | A Chapter in 
the History of liiterature. | By | Daniel 
G. Brinton, A. M., M. D., | Member [&c. 
six lines]. \ [Design, with a line de- 
scriptive thereof beneath. ] | 

Philadelphia : | No. 115 South Seveutli 
Street. | 1883. 

Title reverse blank 1 1. preface reverse blank 
1 1. contents pp. vil-viii, text pp. 9-63, 8''.— 
Keferences to Muskokee literature, pp. 22-23, 
35 ; to the Choctaw, p. 44. 

Copies seen: British Museum, Eames, Pilling. 

See Byington (C.) 

See Gatschet (A. S.) 

Daniel Garrison Brinton, ethnologist, born 
in Chester County, Pa., May 13, 1837. Ho was 
graduated at Yale in 1858 and at the Jefferson 
Medical College in 1861, after which he spent a 
year in Europe in study and in travel. On his 
return he entered the army, in August, 1862, as 
acting ass stant surgeon. In February of the 
fuUowiug year he was commissioned surgeon, 
and served as surgeon-in-chief of the second 
division, eleventh corps. He was present at 
the battles of Chancellorsvllle, Gettysburgh, 
and other engagements, and was appointed 
medical director of his corps in October, 1863. 
In consequence of a sunstroke received soon 
after the battle of Gettysburgh he was dis- 
qualified for active service, an;l in the autumn 
of that year he became superintendent of hos> 
pitals at Quincy and Springfield, 111., until 
August, 1865, when, the civii war having closeil. 
he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel and dis- 
charged. He then settled in Philadelphia, 
where he became editor of " The Medical and 
Surgical Reporter," and also of the quarterly 
•'Compendium of Medical Science.' Dr. Briu- 
ton has likewise been a constant contributor to 
other medical journals, chiefly on questions of 
public medicine and hygiene, and has edited 
several volumes on therapeutics and diag- 
nosis, especially the popular series known as 
" Napheys's Modern Therapeutics," which lias 
passed through so many editions. In the medi- 
cal controversies of the day, he has always 
taken the position that medical science should 
be based on the results of clinical observation, 
rather than on physiological experiments. He 
has become prominent as a student and a writer 
on American ethnology, his work in this direc- 
tion beginning while he was a student in col- 
lege. The winter of 1856-'67, spent in Florida, 
supplied him with material for his first pub- 
lished book on the subject. In 1884 he was ap- 
pointed pro'essor of ethnology aud archaeology 
in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia. For some years he has been president 
of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



13 



Brinton (D. G.) — Contiuued. 

Philadelphia, and in 188G bo was elected vice- 
president of tho America-i Association fur the 
Advancement of Science, to preside over the 
section on anthropology. During tho same 
year he was awarded the modal of the " Soci6t6 
Am6ricaino de France" for his "numerous 
and learned works on American ethnology," 
being the first native of the United States that 
has been so honored. In 1885 the American 
publishers of the " loonographic Encyclo- 
psodia " requested him to edit the first volume, 
to contribute to it the articles on "Anthro- 
pology" and "Ethnology," and to revise that 
on "Ethnography," by Professor Gerland, of 
Strasburg. He also contributed to the second 
volume of the same work an essay on the "Pre- 
historic Arch£Dology of both Hemispheres." 
Dr. Brinton has established a library and pub- 
lishing house of aboriginal American litera- 
ture, for the purpose of placing within the 
reach of scholars authentic materials for the 
study of the languages and culture of the native 
races of America. Each work is the produc- 
tion of native minds and is printed in the origi- 
nal. The series, most of which were edited by 
Dr. Brinton himself, include "The Maya Chroni* 
cles " (Philadelphia, 1882); " The Iroquois Book 
of Rites" (1883); "The GUegiience: A Comedy 
Ballet in the Nahuatl Spanish Dialect of 
Nicaraguii" (1883); "A Migration Legend of 
the Creek Indians" (1884); "The Lenape and 
Their Legends" (1885); "The Annals of the 
Gakchiquels " (1885). Besides publishing num- 
erous papers he has contributed valuable re- 
ports on his examinations of mounds, shell- 
heaps, rock inscriptions, and other antiquities. . 
He is the author of " The Floridian Peninsula: 
Its Literary History, Indian Tribes, and An- 
tiquities" (Philadelphia, 1859); " The Myths of 
the Xew World : A Treatise on the Symbolism 
and Mythology of the Red Race of America " 
(New York, 1808); " The Religious Sentiment: 
A Contribution to the Science and Philosophy 
of Religion" (1876); "American Hero Myths: 
A Study in the Native Religions of the West- 
em Continent" (Philadelphia, 1882); "Aborigi- 
nal American Authors and their Productions, 
Especially those in tho Native Languages" 
(1883); and "A Grammar of the Cakchiquel 
Language of Guatemala" (1884). — Appleton's 
Cyclop, of Am. Biog. 

British and Foreign Bible Society : These words 
following a title or within parentheses after a 
note indicate that a copy of the work has been 
seen by tho compiler in the library of that in- 
stitution, 146 Queen Victoria Street, London, 
Eng. 

British and Foreign Bible Society. 
Specimens | of some of the ] languages 
and dialects | in which the \ British and 
Foreign Bible Society \ has printed and 
circulated the Holy Scriptures. | [ Pict- 
ure.] i 



British and Foreign Bible Society —Con t. 

No. 10, Earl Street, Blackfriars, Lon- 
don. ; Printed by W. M. Watts, Crown 
Court, Temple Bar, London, | from 
types principally prepared at his 
foundry. |[1865T] 

Pp. 1-16, 8°.— Acts ii, 8, in Choctaw, p. 15. 

CopieM teen : British and Foreign Bible So- 
ciety, Powell. 

A previous issue of the "Specimens " by tho 
Society, on a broadside, does not contain the 
Choctaw version. 

Specimens | of some of the ] lan- 
guages and dialects { in which the | 
British and Foreign Bible Society j has 
printed and circulated the Holy Script- 
ures. I [Picture, and one line.] | 

London. | 1868. | Printed by W. M. 
Watts, 80, Gray's-Inn Road, from types | 
principally prepared at his foundry. 

Pp. 1-16, 18°.— Acts ii, 8, in Choctaw, p. 15. 

Though agreeing in most respects with the 
[1865] edition, this is not from the same plates. 

Copiet seen: British and Foreign Bible So- 
ciety, Powell. 

There have been a number of later issues of 
this work in English, French, German, and 
Bussian (titles of which will be fuaiid in the 
Bibliography of the Eskimo langnage, and of 
the Iroquoian languages), none of which con- 
tain the Choctaw material. 
British Museum : These words following a title 
or within parentheses after a note indicate that 
a copy of the work referred to has been seen 
by the compiler in the library of that institu- 
tion, London, Eng. 
Brooklyn Public: These words following a title 
or within parentheses after a note indicate that 
a copy of the work referred to has been seen by 
the compiler in that library, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Brown: This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to has been seen by the 
compiler in the library of the late John Carter 
Brown, Providence, R. I. 

Buckner (H. F.) and Herrod (G.) The 
gospel I according to John. | cjpttjnvkr 
hera chanichoayvten, | oksumkvlki ir- 
kinvkv, | H. F. Buckner | (ichcjhcjnv- 
nwv), I inyvtikv G. Herrod itipake 
Ma8kGL)keimGdpGL)nvkvtG^htYlhOeehvfcet 
Gomls. I Pfijhesayechv Chesus hechkvte 
atekat ojhroolcope | chcakpi rokkcjhvm- 
kin,ch(»kpi chinv- | pakin, pali-epakv- 
tis. I 

Marion, Ala. : ,' published by the do- 
mestic and Indian | mission board of 
the southern | Baptist convention. | 
X860. 



14 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Buckner (H. F.) and Herrod (G.) -Cont. 

Title 1 1. certificate of commission p. 3, Creek 
alphabet pp. 4-G, preface pp. 7-14, text pp. 15- 
186, 2 U. 16°.— Gospel of John in Creek with 
nnmerous footnotes, pp. 15-185.— Names and 
titles of Christ in John, p. 186 n. n.— Words 
which have reference to the Levitical law, p. 
187 n. n. — Theological words and phrases, p. 188 
n. n. — Bemarks, in English, on the names of the 
Supreme Being, p. 189 n. n.— Creek hymn 
••Morning worship," p. 190 n.n. 

Copies seen : American Bible Society, Con- 
gress, Eames, Powell, Tmmbnll. 

Clarke & Co., 1886 catalogue, No. 6727, priced 
a copy 75 cents. 

A I grammar | of the | Maskc^ko, 

or Creek language. | To which are pre- 
fixed I lessons in spelling, reading, and 
defining. | By | H. F. Buckner, | a mission- 
ary, under the patronage of the domestic 
and Indian | mission board of the south- 
ern Baptist convention ; | assisted by 
his interpreter, | G. Herrod, | superin- 
tendent of public instruction, etc., | 
Micco Creek nation. | 

Marion, Ala. : | published by | the 
domestic and Indian mission board | of 
the southern Baptist convention. 1 1860. 

Certificate of commission 1 1. title 1 1. intru- 
duction pp. 5-13, Maskoke alphabet p. 15, the 
"white man's Creek alphabet " pp. 16-17, text 
pp. 18-138, index 1 1. 12o.— The first portion of 
the work is devoted to lessons in spelling, de- 
fining, derivation, etc., easy reading, pp. 37-48 ; 
the grammar proper, pp. 49-138. 

Copies seen: Boston Athenaeum, Congress, 
Dnnbar. PiUing, Powell, Trumbull. 

Maskoke hymns. | Original, col- 
lected, and revised. | By | H. F. Buck- 
ner, I a Baptist missionary, | and |G. Her- 
rod, I interpreter. | [Two lines quota- 
tion.] I 

Marion, Ala. : | published by the | 
domestic and Indian mission board | of 
the southern Baptist convention. 1 1860. 

Pp. 1-140, 24c>.— A printed note says many of 
the hymns were revised and corrected from an 
old mannscript collection, composed or trans- 
lated by Elder James Ferryman, a native Bap- 
tist preacher. 

Copies seen: Boston Athena3um, Congress, 
Trumbull. 

Clarke & Co., 1886 catalogue, No. 6726, price 
a copy 60 cents. 

Rev. H. F. Buckner, D. D., became an or- 
dained Baptist missionary to the Creeks in the 
summer of 1849, and continued his labors among 
them until his death, which occurred December 
3, 1882, at Eufaula, Ind. T. Ho was educated at 
Maryville College, Tenn., and was a man of 
unusual talent and a popular speaker. 



Bureau of Ethnology : These words following a 
title or within parentheses after a note indicate 
that a copy of the work referred to has been 
seen by the compiler in the library of the Bu- 
reau of Ethnology, "Washington, D. C. 

[Byington {.Rev, Cyrus).] Holisso | 
hvshi holhtena isht anoli. | Chahta al- 
manac I for the year of our Lord | 1836 : 
I adapted to the latitude of the Choc- 
taw country. | [Five lines Choctaw.] | 
Union: | Mission Press, John F. 
Wheeler, printer. | 1836. 

Pp. 1-16, 160. 

Copies seen: American Board of Commis- 
sioners. 

[ ] Holisso I hvshi holhtena isht anoli. \ 

Chahta almanac | for the year of our 
Lord i 1837: | calculations copied from 
the Louisiana and Mississippi alma- 1 nac 
— adapted to the latitude and merid- 
ian of Natchez. | [Eight lines Choc- 
taw.] I 

Union: | Mission Press, John F. 
Wheeler, printer, | 1836. 

Pp. 1-24, 16°. 

Copies seen : American Board of Commis- 
sioners. 

[ ] Holisso I hvshi holhtena isht anoli 

afvmmi 1839. | Chahta almanac | for the 
year of our Lord | 1839. | [One verse 
Choctaw and one verse English.] | 

Park Hill : | Mission Press, John F. 
Wheeler, printer. [1838.] 

Pp. 1-24, 163. 

Copies seen: American Board of Commis- 
sioners, American Tract Society. 

[ ] Chahta Almanak | Hvpin Chito- 

kakayvt vtta tok a afvmmi holhtena | 

1843. I [Three lines English, three lines 
Choctaw.] I Chalaki yakni ak o aivlhta 
ha tok. I 

Park Hill: | Mission Press, John 
Candy, Printer. [1842.] 

Pp. 1-44, 16'5. . 

Copies seen: American Board of Commis- 
sioners. 

[ ] Chahta Almanak | Hvpin Chito- 

kaka y vt vtta tok a afvmmi holhtina. | 

1844. I [Three lines English, three lines 
Choctaw.] I Chalaki yakni ak o aivlhta 
Iia tok. I 

Park Hill: | Mission Press, John 
Candy, Printer. | 1843. 

Pp. 1-24, 16°. 

Copies seen: American Board of Commis- 
sioners. 



MOSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



15 



Byington (C.)— Continued. 
C ] The I Acts of the Apostles, | trans- 
lated into the ; Choctaw language. | 
Ohisus Kilaist j im anumpeshi vhliha 
vmmona kvt nana akaniohmi j tok pnta 
isht annoa, Chahta annmpa | isht ata- 
shoa hoke. | 

Boston : | Printed for the American 
Board of Commissioners ,' for Foreign 
Missions, by Crocker & Brewster. ] 1839. 

Pp. 1-165, 120. 

Copies teen: Amerioau Board of Commis- 
sioners, Boston Atbenienm. 

Sold at the Field sale, No. 245, for $1.50, and 
at the Murphy, No. 435, for 60 cents. 

Holisso anumpa tosholi. | An 1 En- 
glish and Choctaw definer ; \ for the | 
Choctaw academies and schools. | By | 
Cyrus Byington. | First edition , 1500 
copies. I 

New York :S. W. Benedict, 16 Spruce 
street. | 1852. 

Titlo (verso "Published by the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions ") 
1 1. Choctaw alphabet 1 1. text pp. 5-250, index 
pp. 251-252, I60.— Tables 43, 44, parts of Mat- 
thew and Luke (pp. 191>-207), are given as " lit- 
eral translations into Choctaw."— Tables 45-51, 
parts of Matthew, Luke (pp. 203-248), etc., are 
•* literal translations of Choctaw into English." 

Copiee seen : Astor, Boston Athenaeum, (/on- 
gross, Harvard, Pilling, Trumbull, Wisconsin 
Historical Society. 

Priced by Triibner in 1856, No. 650, 5s. At the 
Fischer sale, No. 2236, a copy with '* comers of 
a few leaves defective" sold for 2«. Qd. The 
Squier copy. No. 151, brought 70 cents. Priced 
by Triibner in 1882, p. 38, 7s. 

Vocabulary of the Choctaw. 

In Hepurt upon the Indian tribes, in Keports 
of Explorations for Pacific R. R., vol. 3, pt. 3, pp. 
62-64, Washington, 1856, 4°. 

[ ] The books | of | Genesis, Exodus, 

Leviticus, Numbers, | and Deuteron- 
omy, I translated into | the Choctaw 
language. | Chenesis, Eksotrs, Lefi- 
tikrs, Nt;mbas, | micha Tutelonomi ho- 
lisso I aiena kvt toshowrt | Chahta 
annmpa toba hoke. { 

New York: | American Bible Society, 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1867. 

Title verso blank 1 1. half-title verso blank 
1 1. text in the Choctaw language pp. 5-564, 
I60. —Chenesis, pp. 5-146 ; Eksotvs, pp. 147-260; 
Lefitikvs, pp. 261-343; Numbas, pp. 345-461; 
Tutelonomi, pp. 463-564. 

The Rev. John Edwards informs me a first 
rough draft of this translation was mailo by 
Capt. Joseph Dukes. 



B3ring;ton (C.) — Continued. 

Copies seen : American Board of Commission- 
ers, Brinton, Congress, Eames, Pilling, Powell, 
Trumbull, Wisconsin Historical Society. 

Sold for $1.25 at the Field sale, No. 354. 

Grammar of the Choctaw language. 

Prepared by the Reverend Cyrus By- 
ington, and edited by Dr. Brinton. 

In American Philosoph. Soc. Proc. vol. 11, 
pp. 317-367, Philadelphia, 1871, SP. 

Introduction by Dr. D. G. Brinton, pp. 317- 
320. —Part 1. Orthography, pp. 320-324 - Part 
2. Grammatical forms and inflections, pp. 324- 
367. 

Issued separately as follows : 

' Grammar : of the | Choctaw lan- 
guage, I by the [ Rev. Cyrus Byington. | 
Edited from the original MSS. in the 
Library of the American | Philosophical 
Society, | by | D. G. Brinton, M. D., | 
Member of [&c. three lines.] | 

Philadelphia: | McCalla & Stavely, 
Printers, 237-9 Dock Street. 1 1870. 

Cover title, title verso blank 1 1. introduc- 
tion pp. 3-5, text pp. 7-56, 8°. 

For a detailed account of the manuscript 
upon which this work is based, see biography 
of Mr. Byington, below. 

Copies seen : Astor, Boston Public, Brinton, 
Congress, Eames, Pilling, Trumbull, Wisconsin 
Historical Society. 

At the Field sale, No. 244, a copy brought 
$1.25. Priced 18 fr. by Leclerc in 1878, No. 2161, 
and 7«. Qd. by Triibner in 1882, p. 38. The 
Murphy copy. No. 353, brought $1. Priced by 
I'riibner in 1885, p. 45, Is. Od. ; by Koehler, cata- 
logue No. 440, No. 939, 5 M. ; by Francis, of New 
York, catalogue for March 1887, No. 377, "su- 
perbly bound," $4; by Clarke & Co., of Cincin- 
nati, 1886 catalogue. No. 6716, paper, $3.50; by 
Koehler, No. 329 of catalogue No. 465, 5 M. 

Choctaw Bibliography. [ A list of the 

books prepared and published in the 
Choctaw I langnage by the Missionaries 
of the American | Board of Com. for 
Foreign Missions * *. [1865 T] 

In Byington (C), Grammar of the Choctaw 
language (the manuscript described below). 

The bibliography occupies four leaves of the 
grammar, paged in pencil 43-50, being written 
mostly on the rectos of the leaves. It is divided 
into eight parts : I. Spelling Books. II. Choc- 
taw Definer. III. Hymn Books. IV. Portions 
of the Scripture. V. Catechism. VI. Other 
Books. VII. Tracts. VIII. Tracts of Ameri- 
can Tract Society. A concluding note is as 
follows : 

" The name of the author or translator of any 
one of the preceding works is not published on 
the title-page, except in a very few instances. 
The principal authors and translators were 
members of the Choctaw Mission as conducted 



16 



BIBLIOGliAPHY OF THE 



Byington (C.) — Continued. 

by the American Board of Commissioners for 
Forei^ Missions. In translating they were 
aided by the most skillfal interpreters they 
could find among the educated Choctaws. The 
missionaries who have devoted themselves to 
tlie labor of preparing books in the Choctaw 
language, more than any of their associates, 
are Rev. Alfred "Wright, Loring S. "Williams, 
and Cyrus Byington. Mr. "Williams is not now 
a member of the mission. Several hymns in 
the hymn-book were composed by native Choe- 
taws, as well as by the mixed blooded whites." 

[Choctaw Dictionary : Choctaw-En- 

glisli and English-Choctaw. 1865 T] 

Manuscript, 5 vols, folio, in the library of the 
Bureau of Ethnology. 

Contains about 16,000 Choctaw words with 
English definitions. The material has been 
placed in the hands of Prof. O. T. Mason, of the 
National Museum, to be edited and prepared for 
publication as one of the series of "Contribu- 
tions to North American Ethnology." There 
has been compiled from it an EnglishChoctaw 
dictionary of 10,000 words to accompany the 
original work; these are on slips. 

Grammar of the Choctaw language. 

[1865?] 

Manuscript in the library of the Bureau of 
Ethnology. 

This mateiial also is being prepared for pub- 
lication by the Bureau, as one of the series of 
Contributions to North American Ethnology. 

As left by Mr. Byington it consists of sev- 
eral parts. The first is dated Stockbridge, 
Choctaw Nation, June 23, 1865, and contains 85 
pages of an old journal sewed together, in 
which a first attempt is made at systematizing 
the principles of the language. The remainder 
appears to be subsequent revisions of the chap- 
ters in the first edition. It is in the form of 
two or more foolscap sheets pinned or stitched 
together. Of some of the least understood por- 
tions of the language there are four or five 
copies, and it is not always possible to select 
the latest. 

The grammar evidently was designed to con- 
sist of nine chapters: 

1 . Introduction and alphabet. 

2. Article-pronouns. [Post positives, quan- 
(itives. and determinatives.] 

3. Pronouns. 

4. Verbs. 

5. Prepositions. 
G. Nouns. 

7. Adjectives. 

8. Adverbs. 

9. Conjunctions and interjections. 

Mr. Byington's material was left in an un- 
finished condition ; it needs but a casual glance 
at his manuscript, however, to find that he 
looked forward to the wanU even of our most 
advanced philology. 

For an extended notice of this manuscript 
see biography of Mr. Byington, below. 



Byington (C.) — Continued. 

See Edwards (J.) and B3rington 

(C.) 

See 'Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 

" This eminent scholar and missionary, 
whose name is inseparably connected with the 
later history of the Choctaw Nation, was bom 
at Stockbridge, Berkshire County, Massachu- 
setts, March 11, 1793. He was one of nine chil- 
dren, and his parents were in humble circum- 
stances, but industrious and respected. His 
father was at one time a tanner, and subse- 
quently a small farmer. Necessarily, there- 
fore, his early education was limited. 

' ' When a well-grown lad he was taken into the 
family of Mr. Joseph Woodbridge, of his native 
town, from whom he received some instruction 
in Latin and Greek, and with whom he after- 
ward read law. In 1814 he was admitted to the 
bar, and practiced a few years with success in 
Stockbridge and Sheffield, Mass. 

"His father though a moral was not a re- 
ligious man, and it seems to have been only 
after he reached manhood that Mr. Byington 
became, as he expressed it, 'a subject of diriue 
grace.' He then resolved to forsake the bar 
and devote himself to missionary life. With 
this object in view he entered the theological 
school at Andover, Mass., where he studied 
Hebrew and theology, and was licensed to 
preach, September, 1819. At this time ho 
hoped to go to the A^rmenians in Turkey, but 
Providence had prepared for him another and 
an even more laborious field. 

"For about a year he preached in various 
churches in Massachusetts, awaiting some 
opportunity for missionary labor. Toward the 
close of the summer of 1819 a company of 
twenty or twenty-five persons left Hampshire 
County, Mass., under the direction of the 
American Board of Missions, to go by land to 
the Choctaw Nation, then resident in Missis- 
sippi. They passed through Stockbridge in 
September, and were provided with a letter 
from the Board asking Mr. Byington to take 
charge of them and pilot thorn to their destina- 
tion. He was ready at a few hours' notice. 

" The company journeyed by land to Pittn- 
burgh, where they procured flat-boats, and 
floated down the Ohio and Mississippi to a 
point near the mouth of the Yalobusha River, 
whence a land journey of two hundred miles 
brought them to their destination. 

" Thus commenced Mr. Byington's mission- 
ary life among the Choctaws. It continued 
for nearly fifty years, and resulted, with the 
blessing of Providence and the assistance of 
some devoted co-workers in the nation, espe- 
cially the Rev. A. Wright and the Rev. Cyrus 
Kingsbury, in redeeming the nation from drunk- 
enness, ignorance, and immorality to sobriety, 
godliness, and civilization. There are no lives 
which in the eyes of the philanthropist are more 
worthy of admiration or more deserving of 
record than those of such men, who not only 



MUSKHOQEAN LANGUAGES. 



17 



Byington (C.) — Continued. 

rescue thonsands of individnals from spiritual 
and physical degradation, bat preserve with 
enlightened care the only memorials of whole 
nations. 

" For throughout his missionary life Mr. By- 
ington appreciated the value which a knowl- 
edge of the language and traditions of the 
Choctaws would have to scholars. From his 
arrival among them, therefore, he devoted as 
siduous labor to their language, with a view to 
comprehend its extremely difficult construc- 
tion, and to render it available for the mission- 
ary and philological student. The first draft of 
his grammar was completed in 1834. It was 
written and re-written, until at the time of his 
death, which occurred at Belpr^, Ohio, Decem- 
ber 31, 1868, he was at work upon the seventh 
revlsal. This had proceeded as far as the close 
of Part I. This much, therefore, of the gram- 
mar is almost precisely as the author left it. 

•• Part II, commencing with the Article-Pro- 
nouns, I have arranged from the manuscripts 
of the fifth and sixth rovisals, deposited in the 
library of the American Philosophical Society, 
at Philadelphia, by the family of the author. 

' ' In undertaking this task I have throughout 
adhered closely to the language and arrange- 
ment of the original, even where a different 
nomenclature and an altered arrangement sug- 
gested themselves, as in better accordance 
with modem philological views. It is, I think, 
more proper to maintain strict fidelity to the 
forms chosen by so thorough a Choctaw scholar 
as the Kev. Mr. Byington, in the explanation of 
so difficult a tongue, than to run any risk of 



Byington (C.) — Contmaed. 

misrepresenting his views by adopting a more 
modem phraseology. 

•' Mr. Byington's own views of what he had 
accomplished deserve recording. In his diary, 
under date March 11, 1864 (his birthday), he 
writes: 

" * The last year I revised the Choctaw Gram> 
mar, going over the ground twice. The last 
effort I hope is my best, and will be of use to 
learners of Choctaw and to Choctaw scholars 
in schools, but it needs further revision, and 
then to be well transcribed. I commit these 
efforts in my old age to the Lord. I have en- 
joyed these labours very much. The pleasure 
of happily resolving difficulties in these studies, 
and of success in the work is gratifying and 
reviving to the mind.' 

" In 1867 he wrote : • This work can be much 
improved hereafter by other hands. It may be 
compared to the first survey and making of a 
road in a new country.' 

"In spite of these deficiencies, of which no 
doubt the author was more distinctly aware 
than any one else, his grammar remains one of 
the most valuable, original, and instructive of 
any ever written of an American language. It 
is the result of nigh half a century of concen- 
trated study, and we may well doubt if ever 
again a person will be found who will combine 
the time, the opportunities, and the ability to 
make an equal analysis of the language. 

"Mr. Byington also prepared a Choctaw dic- 
tionary, containing about 15,000 words, which 
remains in manuscript, in the possession of his 
family. ''-^Brinton. 



C. 



Callaghan (S. M.), editor. Soo Indian 

Journal. 
Campbell (John). On tlio origin of some 
American Indian tribes. By John 
Campbell. [Second article.] 

In Montreal Nat. Hist. Soc. Proc. vol. 0, pp. 
193-212, Montreal, 1879, 8°. 

Kadiak and Aleutian words compared with 
Cherokee-Choctaw, p. 207. 
The affiliation of the Algonquin lan- 
guages. By John Campbell, M. A. 

In Canadian Inst. Proc. new series, vol. 1, pt. 
1, pp. 15-53, Toronto, 1879, 8°. 

Comparison of characteristic forms in Algon- 
quin with tho same in the neighboring families 
[Athabascan, Iroquois, Dacotah, and Choctaw], 
pp. 45-50. 

Issued separately, repaged, as follows : 
The Affiliation of the Algonquin Lan- 
guages. By John Campbell, M. A., 
Professor of Church History, Presby- 
terian College, Montreal. [1S79.] 

No title-page ; pp. 1-41, 8°. 

Copies seen: Shea. 
MUSK 2 



Campbell (J. ) — Continued. 

The unity of the human race, con- 
sidered from an American standpoint. 
In British and Foreign Evangelical Review, 
new series, No. 37, pp. 74-101, London, January, 
1880,80. (PUling.) 

By a copious exhibition and comparison of 
grammatical and lexical forms, this article pro- 
fesses to discover in America two main families 
of speech, and to connect these with tho North- 
ern Asiatic and Malay Polynesian families, re- 
spectively. It abounds in words and sentences 
from, and remarks concerning, the Iroquois, 
Choctaw, Quiche, Algonquin, Creek, Eadiak, 
Tchuktchi, Cherokee, Dacotah, Mohawk, Ojib- 
beway, Cree, New England, Illinois, Penobscot, 
Menomeni, and Maya. 

— .- Asiatic tribes in North America. By 
John Campbell, M. A. 

In Canadian Inst. Proc. new series, vol. 1, pp. 
171-206, Toronto, 1884, 8°. 

Comparative vocabulary of the Cherokee- 
Choctaw and Peninsular languages, pp. 192-*^ 
194. 

Issued separately, repaged, as follows : 



18 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Campbell (J.) — Continued, 

Asiatic tribes in North America. By 

John Campbell, M. A., Professor of 
Church History, Presbyterian College, 
Montreal. [1884.] 

Half-title reverse blank 1 1. pp. 3-38, 8°. Ex- 
tract from the Proceedings of the Canadian In- 
stitute. 

Linguistics as above, pp. 22-24. 

Copies seen : Brinton, Powell. 

Etruria capta. By John Campbell, 

M. A. 

In Canadian Inst. Proc. new series, vol. 3, pt- 
4, pp. 144-266, Toronto, 1886, 8<^. 

A list of 32 words showing superficial affin- 
ities between the Japanese and Choctaw, pp. 
189-190.— The same of Choctaw and. Basque, p. 
190. 

Issued separately as follows : 

Etruria capta. | By the | Rev. John 

Campbell, M. A. | professor [&c. one 
line.] ! Reprinted from the ** Proceed- 
ings of the Canadian Institute," Vol. 
Ill, 1886. I 

Toronto : | The Copp, Claik company 
(limited), printers, 167 & 169 Colborne 
street. 1 1886. 

Half-title 1 1. title as above 1 1. text pp. 1- 
123, 8°.— Linguistics as above, pp. 46-48. 

Copies seen : Pilling, Powell. 

Casey (Capf. J. C.) Hitchittee or Chell- 
o-kee dialect numeration. 

In Schoolcraft (H. R.), Indian Tribes, vol. 2, 
pp. 220-221, Philadelphia, 1852, 4°. 

Gives the numerals 1-20, 30, 40, etc., 100, 200, 
etc., 1000, as "spoken by several tribes of the 
great Muskokee race." 

••Chell-o-kee" is a Muskoki word meaning 
speaJdngin a foreign language, and the Hitchit- 
tee is recognized by the Muskokis as a foreign 
language. 

Vocabulary of the Muskogee or 

Creek. 

In Schoolcraft (H. R.), Indian Tribes, vol. 4, 
pp. 416-429, Philadelphia, 1854, 4°. 

About 300 words. 

and "Waldron ( — ). A vocabulary 

of the Seminole language (English-Sem- 
inolc), with some additions made by 
Lieut. Waldron. (*) 

Manuscript in possession of Dr. J. Hammond 
Trumbull, Hartford, Conn., who has furnished 
me with title and note. Something was added 
by Francis Kidder, who obtained the original 
manuscript in Florida in 1851. Contains up- 
wards of 900 words and phrases. 

Castiglioni (Luigi). Viaggio | negli ] 
Stati Uniti | dell' | America Setten1>rio- 
nale | fatto negli anni 1785, 1786, e 1787 



Castiglioni (L.) — Continued. 

I da I Luigi Castiglioni | Patrizio Mi- 
lanese [&c. three lines]. | Con alcune 
Osservazioni sui Vegetabili | piii utili 
di quel Paese. | Tomo prime [-secondo]. | 

Milano. | Nella Stamper ia di Giuseppe 
Marelli | Con Permissione. i 1790. 

2 vols. : title 1 1. preface contents &c. pp. 
v-xii, text pp. 1-403; title 1 1. index pp. v-vi, 
text pp. 1-402, 3 folding tables, 8°.— Vocabulary 
of the Chactaw and Cerochese (about 170 words 
each), vol. 1, pp. 259-266. 

Copies seen : Astor, Boston AthenjeiHu, Brit- 
ish Museum, Congress. 

Luigi Castiglioni^s, | Maylaudischen 

Patriziers, | des St. Stephansordeus p. 
m. Ritters, und der philo- | sophischen 
Gesellschaffe zu Philadelphia, so wie 
der I patriotischen Societa,t zu Mayland | 
Mitgliedes &c. | Reise | durch | die 
vereinigten Staaten | von | Nord-Ame- 
rika, | in | den Jahren 1785, 1786 und 
1787. I Nebst Bemerkungen | fiber die 
nfttzlichsten Gew&chse dieses Landes. | 
Aus dem Italienischen 1 von | Magnus 
Petersen. | Erster Theil. | Mit Kupfern. | 

Memmingen, | bey Andreas Seyler. 
1793. 

Title and 7 other p. 11. pp. 1-495, maps and 
plates, sm. 8°. Vol. 1 all that was published.— 
Vocabulary in Deutsch, Chactawisch, and 
Scherokeaisch, pp. 322-328. 

Copies seen: Congress. 

Catalogue 1 of | one hundred and seven- 
teen ] Indian Portraits, | representing | 
eighteen different tribes, | accompanied 
by I a few remarks | on the | characte]?, 
<fcc. of most of them. | Price 12J cents, 
[1850?] 

No imprint ; pp. 1-24, 8°.— A Ust of promi- 
nent persons belonging to various American 
tribes, whose portraits were painted by King, 
of Washington, and copied by Inman. The 
names of most of them are given, with the 
English signification. Among the peoples rep- 
resented are the Muscogee or Creek, and the 
Choctaw. 

Copies seen: Powell, Wisconsin Historical 
Society. 

Catalogue of the library of George Brin- 
ley. See Trumbull (J. H.) 



Catechism : 




Choctaw 


See Colbert (H.) 


Choctaw 


Shorter. 


Choctaw 


Wright (Alfred). 


Creek 


Loughridge (R. M.) 


Creek 


Loughridge (R. M.) 




and Winslett (D.) 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



19 



Catlin (George), Catalogue | of | Cat- 
lin's Indian gallery | of | portraits, 
land-scapes, | manners and customs, | 
costumes <&c. &c., \ collected during 
seven years' travel amongst thirty-eight 
dif- I ferent tribes, speaking different 
languages. | 

New- York : | Piercy & Reed, printers, 
7 Theatre alley. 1 1837. 

Title as above verso blauk 1 1. pp. 3-36, 12°.— 
A list of promineDt personages of different 
tribes, including a number of Muscogee, Choc- 
taw, and Seminole, giving their names, with 
English meanings. 

Copies seen : Harvard, Powell. 

Catalogue | of | Catlin's Indian gal- 
lery I of I poi-traits, landscapes, | man- 
ners and customs, | costumes, &c, &c. 
' I Collected during seven years* travel 
amongst thirty-eight | different tribes, 
speaking different languages. | 

New York : | Piercy & Reed, printers, 
7 Theatre alley. I 1838. 

Pp. 1-40, 16°.— Names of persons, with En- 
glish signification, of the Muskogee, Choctaw, 
and Seminole. 

Copies seen: Harvard, Wisconsin Historical 
Society. 

A I descriptive catalogue | of | Cat- 

lin's Indian gallery ; | containing | por- 
traits, I landscapes, costumes, <&c. | 
and I representations of the manners 
and customs | of the | North American 
Indians, i Collected and painted entirely 
by Mr. Catlin, | during seven years' 
travel amongst 48 tribes, mostly speak- 
ing different languages. 1 Exhibited for 
nearly three years, with great success, 
in the | Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, Lon- 
don. I Admittance One Shilling. 

Colophon: C. and J. Adlard, printers, 
Bartholomew Close, London. [1840.] 

Title 1 1. text pp. 3-48, 4°.— Linguistic con- 
tents as above. 

Copies seen: Boston Athenaeum, British Mu- 
seum, Powell. 

The descriptive catalogue is reprinted in the 
various editions of Catlin's Notes of eight years' 
travel and residence in Europe, for titles of 
which see below. 

Catalogue raisonnd | de | La Galerie 

Indienne de M^ Catlin, | renfermant | 
des portraits, | des paysages, des cos- 
tumes, etc., I et I des scenes de mceurs 
et coutumes | des | Indiens de PAmd- 
rique du Nord. | Collection euti^rement 
faite et peinte par M'" Catlin | Pendant 
un sdjour de 8 ans parmi 48 tribus sau- 



Catlin (G.) — Continued, 
vages, parlant trente langues diff<$- 1 
rentes, et formant une population d'un 
demi-million d'ames. | 

[Paris:] 1845. ! Imprimerie de Wit- 
t^ersheim, | Rue Montmorency, 8. 

Title as above on cover, pp. 1-48, 8°.— Lin- 
guistic contents as above. 

Copies seen: Powell. 

Some copies of this date have title-page diflfer- 
ing slightly from above. (Harvard.) 
A descriptive catalogue | of | Cat- 
lings Indian collection, | containing | 
portraits, landscapes, costumes, &c., | 
and I representations of the manners 
and customs | of the j North American 
Indians* | Collected and painted en- 
tirely by Mr. Catlin, during eight years' 
travel amongst | forty-eight tribes, 
mostly speaking different languages. | 
Also I opinions of the press in England, 
France, and the United States. | 

London: | published by the author, | 
at his Indian collection. No. 6, Water- 
loo Place. 1 1848. 

Title (reverse "London : Printed by "William 
Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street ") 1 1. pp. 3-92, 
8°.--Proper names, with English significations, 
of the Muskogee, Choctaw, and Seminolee, pp. 
31-32. 

Copies seen: Harvard, Powell. 

North and South American Indians. | 

Catalogue | descriptive and instruct- 
ive I of I Catlings | Indian Cartoons. | 
Portraits, types, and customs [«ic]. \ 
600 paintings in oil, 1 with | 20,000 full 
length figures [ illustrating their vari- 
ous games, religious ceremonies, and | 
other customs, , and , 27 canvas paint- 
ings I of ■ Lasalle's discoveries. | 

New York : j Baker & Godwin, Print- 
ers, I Printing-house square, | 1871. 

Abridged title on cover, title as above revoi se 
blank 1 1. pp. 3-99, 8°.— Names of Creek, p. 21 ; 
Choctaw, p. 22 ; Seminolee, pp. 22, 23. 

Copies seen: Astor, Congress, Eames, Pow- 
ell, Wisconsin Historical Society. 
The Catlin Indian collection, con- 
taining portraits, landscapes, costumes, 
&C.J and representations of the man- 
ners and customs of the North American 
Indians. Presented to the Smithsonian 
Institution by Mrs. Thomas Harrison, 
of Philadelphia, in 1879. A descriptive 
catalogue. By George Catlin, the artist. 
In Rhees (William J.), Visitor's guide to the 
Smithsonian Institution and United States 
National Museum, in Washington, pp. 70-89, 
Washington, 1887, 8°. 



20 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Catlin (G.) — Continued. 

Names of Maskogoe persons, p. 81 ; Choctaw 
and Seminoleo, p. 82. 

Copies seen : Pilling, Powell. 

Part V. The George Catlin Indian 

gallery in the National Museum (Smith- 
sonian Institution), with memoir and 
statistics. By Thomas Donaldson. 

In Annaal Keport of the Board of Regents of 
the Smithsonian Institution * * * July, 
1885, part 2 (half-title 1 1. pp. i-vii, 3-939), Wash- 
ington, 188G, 8°. 

Descriptive catalogue of Indian portraits 
(pp. 13-230), includes proper names,' some with 
English signification, of the Muskogee, Choc- 
taw and Semiuolee, pp. 210, 212, 215-217. 

Issued separately, with title-page, as follows : 

The I George Catlin Indian gallery | 

in the I U. S. National Museum | 
(Smithsonian Institution), | with | 
memoir and statistics. | By [ Thomas 
Donaldson. | From the Smithsonian re- 
port for 1885. I 

Washington : | Government Printing 
Office. I 1887. 

Title verso blank 1 1. contents pp. i-iii, illus- 
trations pp. v-vii, text pp. 3-915, index pp. 9i7- 
939, 8°. 

Copies seen: Pilling, Smithsonian Institution. 

Issued also with the following title-page : 

The i George Catlin | Indian gallery, j 

in the j U. S. National Museum, ] (Smith- 
sonian Institution.) I with memoir and 
statistics I By Thomas Donaldson. | 

Washington, D. C. | W. H. Lowder- 
milk & Co. 1 1888. 

Title reverse blank I 1. contents pp. i-iii, 
illustrations pp. v-yii, text pp. 3-915, index pp 
* 917-939, 8°. — Linguistics as above. 

Copies seen: Lowdermilk. 

Catlings notes | of | eight years' trav- 
els and residence j In Europe, j with his 
I North American Indian collection : | 
with anecdotes and incidents of the 
travels and adventures of three i differ- 
ent parties of American Indians whom 
he introduced | to the courts of | Eng- 
land, France and Belgium. | In two vol- 
umes octavo. I Vol. I[-n]. I With nu- 
merous illustrations. | 

New-York : | Burgess, Stringer & Co., 
•222 Broadway. \ 1848. 

2 vols. 8°. — Descriptive catalogue, containing 
proper names, with English meanings, in Mus- 
kogee, Choctaw, and Seminolee, voL 1, pp. 253- 
277. 

Copies seen : Powell, Watklnson. 

At the Fischer sale a copy, No. 350, brought 
2s. ; the Field copy. No. 305, sold for $2.50. 



Catlin (G.) — Continued. 
Catlings notes | of | eight years' trav- 
els and residence | In Europe, | with his 
I North American Indian collection : | 
with anecdotes and incidents of the 
travels and adventures of three | differ- 
ent parties of American Indians whom 
ho introduced | to the courts of | Eng- 
land, France, and Belgium. { In two 
volumes octavo. | Vol. I[-II]. | With 
numerous illustrations. | 

New York: | puhlished hy the au- 
thor. I To be had at all the bookstores. { 
1848. 

2 vols.: pp. i-xvi, 1-298; i-xii, 1-336 ; plates, 
8P. — Descriptive catalogue etc. as above, voL 1, 
pp. 253-277. 

Copies seen: Congress. 

Catlings notes | of | eight years' trav- 
els and residence | in Europe, | with his 
I North American Indian collection. | 
With I anecdotes and incidents of the 
travels and adventures of I three differ- 
ent parties of American Indians whom 
he I introduced to the courts of | Eng- 
land, France, and Belgium. | In two 
volumes, octavo. | Vol. I[-II]. | With 
numerous illustrations. | Second edi- 
tion. I 

London : | published by the author, | 
at his Indian collection, No. 6, Water- 
loo Place. I 1848. 

2 vols. : pp. i-xvi, 1-296; i-xii, 1-336; plates, 
8°.— Descriptive catalogue etc. vol. 1, pp. 248- 
296, containing proper names, with English 
meanings, in Muskogee, Choctaw, and Semi- 
nolee, pp. 276, 277. 

Copies seen: British Museum, Congress, 
Lenox, Wisconsin Historical Society. 

Clarke & Co. of Cincinnati, 1886 cat., No. 
6322, price a half-morocco copy $4 ; Gagnon of 
Quehec, in 1888, No. 46. half-russia, $3. 

Some copies, otherwise as above, have ' * Third 
edition" (Congress); and I have seen a copy 
of vol. 2 whose title, otherwise the same, has 
" Fourth edition " (Bareau of Ethnology). 

Adventures | of the | Ojibbeway and 

loway Indians { in | England, France 
and Belgium ; | being notes of | eight 
yeara travels and residence in Europe | 
with his I North American Indian Col- 
lection, I by Geo. Catlin. I In two vol- 
umes. I Vol. I[-II]. i With numerous 
Engravings. | Third edition. | 

London : | published by the author, | 
at his Indian collection. No. 6, Water- 
loo Place. I 1852. 

2 vols. 8<>. A reprint of Notes of eight years' 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



21 



Catlin (G.) — Continued. 

travel in Europe. — Descriptive catalogoo etc. 
vol. 1, pp. 253-277, containing proper names in 
Muskogee, Choctaw, and Seroinolee, pp. 276-277. 

Copies seen : Astor, Boston Atbenasum, Bu- 
reau of Ethnology, Wisconsin Historical So- 
ciety. 

George Catlin, painter, born in Wilkesbarre, 
Pa., in 1790 ; died i!i Jersey City, N. J., Decem- 
ber 23, 1872. Ho studied law at Litchfield, 
Conn., but after a few years' practice went to 
Philadelphia and turned his attention to draw- 
ing and painting. As an artist he was entirely 
self-taught. In 1832 he went to the Far West 
and spent eight years among the Indians of 
Yellowstone Biver, Indian Territory, Arkan- 
sas, and Florida, painting a unique series of 
Indian portraits and pictures, which attracted 
much attention on their exhibition both in this 
country and in Europe. Among these were 470 
full-length portraits of a large number of pic- 
tures illustrative of Indian life and customs, 
most of which are now preserved in the National 
Museum, Washington. In 1852-'57 Mr. Catlin 
traveled in South and Central America, after . 
which ho lived in Europe until 1871, when be 
returned to the United States. One hundred 
and twenty-six of his drawings illustrative of 
Indian life were at the Philadelphia exposition 
of 1876. He was the author of " Notes of 
Eight Tears in Europe" (New York, 1848); 
" Manners, Customs, and Condition of the 
North American Indians " (London, 1857) ; 
" The Breath of Life, or Mai-Respiration " (New 
York, 1861) ; and "O-kee-pa: A Religious Cer- 
emony, and other Customs of the Mandans " 
(London, 1867).— Appleton's Cyclop, of Am. 
Biog. 

Cesvs Klist estomen [Maskoki]. See 

Loughridge (R. M.), T?7iii8lett (D.), 

and Land (J. H.) 
Cesvs Klist * • * Marocoyvte * * * 

Maskokee. See Loughridge (R. M.) 
Cesvs oh vyares • * » Creek. See 

Ferryman (T. W.) and Robertson (A. 

E. W.) 
Chahta almanak. See Byington (C.) 
Chahta holisso. See Wright (A.) and 

Byington (C.) 
Chahta liolisso a tukla * * » Chahta. 

See Wright (A.) and B3rington (C.) 
Chahta holisso ai isht. See Wright (A . ) 

and Byington (C.) 
Chahta holisso it im annmpaii. See 

Wright (A.) and Bjrington (C.) 
Chahta i kana. See Wright ( A. ) and By- 
ington (C.) 
Chahta ikhanancLi. See Wright (A.) 

andWiUiams(L. S.) 



Chahta leksikou. See Wright (Allen). 
Chahta na-bolhtina * ^ • See Wright 
(Alfred). 

Chahta vba isht. See Wright (A.) and 

Byington (C.) 
Chahta yakni. See Wright (Alfred). 
Chamberlain (Alexander Francis. ) The \ 
Catawba Language, | by | A. F. Cham- 
berlain, B. A., I Fellow in Modern Lan- 
guages in University College, Toronto. | 
Toronto : Imrie &, Graham, Printers, 
Jan nary, 18 S8. 

2 11. 8°; half-title as above, reverse Catawba- 
Siouan vocabulary; recto 2d loaf Catawba and 
Choctaw-Muskogee vocabulary, verso blank. 
Copies seen: Pilling, Powell. 

The affinities of the Muskogee with 

the Iroquois tongues. (*) 

Manuscript 4 pp. in possession of its author. 
Contains comparative vocabularies of 1^1 usko- 
gee and Seneca. A copy of the chief portions 
has been furnished the Bureau of Ethnology. 

Chamberlayne (Joannes) [and Wilkins 
(D.)], editors. Oratio | dominica I in 
diversas omnium fere | gentium liu- 
guas I versa ' et \ propriis cvjvsqve lin- 
gvae I characteribvs expressa, | Una 
cum Dissertation ibus nonnullis de Lin- 
guarum | Origine, variisque ipsarnm 
permutationibns. | Editore | Joanne 
Chamberlaynio | Anglo-Britanno, Ro- 
giao Societatis Londinensis <& \ Bero- 
liuensis Socio. ; [Vignette.] | 

Amstelsedami, | Typis Guilielmi &, 
Davidis Goerei. ; MDCCXV [1715]. 

Folding plate 1 L title reverse blank 1 1. de- 
dication (signed "Joannes Chamberlayne") 3 II. 
reverse of 5th 1. begins *' Lectori benevolo David 
Wilkins S. P. D.," which extends, to verso of 
25th 1. text pp. t-94. appendix 3 11. i^. A second 
folding plate between pp. 22-23. 

"Appendix continens quatuor prtccipuas 
voces in Orationibus Dominicis occurrentes 
.... ex Americanis," viz: pater, coelum, 
terra, panis, including Creek and Choctaw, fol- 
lows p. 94. 

Copies seen: Astor, British Maseum, Con- 
gress, Lenox, Watkinson. 

At the Murphy sale a copy, No. 537, brought 
90 cents. 

Charity (Logan). [A letter in the Choc- 
taw language.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 12, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. December, 1888, 4°. 

Occupies two-thirds of a column. 

Charter of the Choctaw and Chickasaw 
Central Railroad Company. See Pom- 
eroy ( J. M.) 



22 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Charter of the Choctaw and Chickasaw 
35th Parallel Railroad Company. See 
Pomeroy (J. M.) 

Chateaubriand (Vicomie Francois Au- 
guste de). Voyages ] en | Am6riqiie \ 
et en ] Italic: | par | le Vicomte de Cha- 
teaubriand. I En deux volumes. | Tome 
I[-II]. I 

Paris I et Londres, chez Colburn, li 
braire, | New Burlington street. | 1828, 

2 vols. : 2 p. 11. pp. i-iv, 1 1. pp. 1^00 ; 3 p. 11 
pp. 1-123, 8°.— Langues indicnnesr^vol. 1, pp, 
273-286, includes comments upon and compari 
sons of the Creek with other American Ian 
gnaj^es. 

Copies seen: Congress. 

Travels | in | America and Italy, ' 

by I Viscount de Chateaubriand, | au- 
thor of Atala, Travels in Greece and 
Palestine, I The Beauties of Christian- 
ity, &c. ! In two volumes. \ Vol. 
IL-IIJ. I 

London : | Henry Colbnrn, New Bur- 
lington Street. | 1828. 

2 vols. : 3 p. 11. pp. 1-356 ; 2 p. II. pp. 1-429, go.— 
Indian languages, vol. 1. pp. 255-266. 

Copies seen : British Museum, Congress, "Wis- 
consin Historical Society. 

OE a vres completes | deM. le Vicomte 

de Chateaubriand, ! membre de 
I'Acad^mie frangoise. \ Tome premier 
[-trente-sixi^me]. | 

Paris. I Pourrat fr^res, dditeurs. | M. 
DCCC.XXXVI[-M.DCCC.XL] [1836- 
1840]. 

36 vols. 8°.— Vol. 12, Voyage en Am6rique, 
contains : Langnes indiennes, pp. 167-176. 

Copies seen : British Museum. Watkinson. 

There is an edition : Paris, 1826-1831, 28 vols. 
8°. (*) 

(Euvres completes \ de M. le Vicomte 

I de Chateaubriand, | membre de 
rAcad6mie fran^oise. | Tome premier 
[-trente-sixi^me]. | Essais sur la vie et 
les ouvrages de M. de Chateaubriand. | 
[Picture.] | 

Paris. I Pourrat fibres, ^diteurs. | M. 
DCCC.XXXVIII [1838]. | 

36 vols. 8°.— Vol. 12, Voyage en Am6iique, 
contains : Langues indiennes, pp. 167-176. 

Copies seen : Congress. 

There is an edition : Paris, 1859-1861, 12 vols. 
8°. (*) 

— ^- Chateaubriand illu8tr<S | Voyages | 
en Italic et en Am^rique. | 

Lagny — Imprimerie dc Vialat et Cic. 
[1850?] (•) 



Chateaubriamd (F. A. de) — Continued. 

No title-page, illustrated heading only ; pp. 
1-112, folio. Imprint at bottom of p. 1. — Lan- 
gues indiennes, pp. 72-75. 

Title furnished by Mr. "W. Eamcs from copy 
in the Lenox Library. 

Voyages \ en Am6rique | en Italic, 

etc. j par | M. De Chateaubriand | avec 
des gravures | 

Paris ; Bernardin-B6chet, Libraire | 
31, Qnai des Augustins [1865.] 

Printed cover, half-title 1 1. pp. 1-380, 8°.— 
Langnes indiennes, pp. 138-144. 

Copies seen : Bancroft. 

Atala, I Ren6, | les Abenc^rages, | 

suivis du I voyage en Am^rique, | par M. 
le vicomte | de Chateaubriand. | 

Paris, ; Librairie de Firmin Didot 
fr^res, 1 imprimenrs de rinstitut, [ rue 
Jacob, 56. 1 1850. 

Halftidel L title 11. pp. 1-526, 12©.— Langues 
indiennes, pp. 400-409. 

Copies seen : Lenox, Ifational Museum. 

Atala, ] Ren^, ! les Abenc^rages, | 

suivis du \ voyage en AmMque, | par 
M. le vicomte | de Chateaubriand. | 

Paris, ! Libraire de Firmin Didot 
fr^res, fils et cie., | imprimeurs de I'ln- 
stitut de France, | rue Jacob, 56. 1 1857. 

2 p. 11. pp. 1-525, 1 1. 12°.— Languea indiennes, 
pp. 400-409. 

Copies seen: Shea. 

Fran9oi8 Auguste, viscount de Chateaubri- 
and, French statesman, born in St Malo in 
September, 1768 ; died in Paris July 4, 1848. He 
sprang from a noble family of Brittany, and 
received his education at the colleges of D6le 
andHennes. He was destined for the church, 
but preferred the army, and received a com- 
mission as second lieutenant in 1785. His first 
production, an idyllic poem, "L'amour de la 
campagne," revealed nothing of the genius he 
afterward manifested. He had no sympathy 
with the revolutionary movements in Paris, 
and in the spring of 1791 embarked for the 
United States, ostensibly in search of the 
Korthwest passage. In Philadelphia he dined 
with "Washington, and when the President al- 
luded to the obstacles in the way of a polar 
expedition, the young traveler said : " Sir, it is 
• less difficult than to create a nation, as you 
have done." Chateaubriand then visited New 
York, £oston, and Albany, and went among the 
Indian tribes, living with them, and exploring 
the country bordering on the great lakes. He 
afterward traveled through Florida, and spent 
some time among the Natchez. These wander- 
ings among the savages, the strange beauties 
of the American Continent, the size of its 
rivers, the solitude of its forests, made a pow- 
erful impression upon his imagination. Hear- 



MlTSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



23 



Chateaubriand (F. A. de) — ContlDued. 
ing of the flight and arrest of Louis XVI, he 
retarned to France, hat, finding that he conld 
not henefit the royal cause, joined the emi- 
grants at Cohlentz, and afterward enlisted in 
a company that followed the Prussian army in 
their invasion of France. He was wounded 
and left for dead near Tbionville, taken to Jer- 
sey by a charitable i>er8on, and from 1793 till 
1800 was an exile in England, where he was re- 
duced to extreme poverty. He was converted 
from matorialism by the dying appeal of his 
mother, and in 1798 began to compose his 
*'G6nie da Christianisme." He returned to 
France under an assumed name and completed 
this work, publishing it in 1802. The romance 
of "Atala," a picture of life among the Ameri- 
can ahorigines, which was incorporated in this 
^work, had previously appeared in the "Mer- 
cure de France " in 1801, and attracted much 
attention. His work gained him a diplo- 
matic appointment from Bonaparte; but aftor 
the execution of the Due d'Enghien he resigned 
it, and afterward bitterly assailed the Emperor. 
Chateauhriand's political career was somewhat 
wayward. He called himself a "Bourbonist 
from a point of honor, a royalist by reason, a 
republican by taste and disposition." He had 
published a political pamphlet entitle<l "De 
Bonaparte et des Bourbons" (1814), which did 
good service in the king's cause, and after the 
restoration he became minister of State and a 
peer of Franco. Forfeiting the royal favor, he 
lost his office, but, becoming reconciled, he was 
minister to Berlin in 1820, to London in 1822, 
and, as a member of the Congress of Verona, 
was instrumental in bringing about the French 
expedition to Spain. On hia return he was 
made minister of foreign affairs. Throughout 
this time he remained a royalist, till on being 
dismissed from office by the prime minister de 
Villete, in 1824, he joined the liberals. He 
made himself popular by advocating Greek in- 
dependence, but after 1830 ceased to be active 
in politics and gave himself up to literary pur- 
suits. Among his numerous works, besides 
those already noticed, are "Les Martyrs" 
(1809); "Itin6raire de Paris h Jerusalem," 
notes of his travels in Greece, Asia Minor, and 
Egypt (1811); "Etades, ou discours histo- 
riques," an introduction to a history of France 
on a gigantic plan (1831) ; ' * Essai sur la litt6ra- 
ture anglaise ;" and ' ' M6moires d'outre-tembe, " 
an autobiography (12 vols., 1849-'50) ; New Ed., 
illustrated, 8 vols., 1856; C vols., 1861; German 
ti'anslation, 2d ed., Jena, 1852. This work he 
sold in advance in 1836, and lived on an annuity 
secured by the proceeds. His life was spent 
in retirement, the drawing-room of his friend. 
Mme. K^camier, being almost the only placebo 
• visited. There he conld be seen every evening 
among the 61ite of the literary world. But a 
profound melancholy clouded his latter years. 
Most of his works have been translated into 
the English, German, and other languages. 
The complete and separate editions are uumer- 



Chateaabriand (F. A. de) — Continaed. 
ous. The best of the former is by Sainto-Beuve 
(12 vols., 1859-*61), with a review of his literary 
labors. A new and complete 'illustrated edi. 
tion, to consist of fourteen volumes, was begun 
in 1864. Marin*8 "Histoire de la vie et des 
ouvrages de M. de Chateaubriand " appeared 
in 1833. and M. Villemain's "Chateaabriand, sa 
vie, ses Merits, son influence sur son temps "in 
ISSS.—AppleUm's Oydop. of Am. Biog, 

Checote ( Chief Samuel). See Robertson 
(A. E. W.) 

Chihowa [Choctaw]. See WiUiams 
(L. S.) 

Chihowa hvt asha [Choctaw ]. See WiU- 
iams (L. S.) 

Chikasha okla. See Wright (Allen). 

Ohikasaw: 

Adjectives See Gatschet (A. S.) 

Constitution Wright (Allen). 

General discussion Mcintosh (J.) 

General discussion Scher merhom (J. F. ) 

Gentes Morgan (L.H.) 

Grammatic comments Adelung (J. C.) and 

Vater (J.S.) 
Grammatic comments Featherman (A.) 
Grammatic comments Gatschet (A. S.) 
Laws Wright (Allen). 

Numerals Gatschet (A. S.) 

Numerals Haines (E. M.) 

Numerals James (B.) 

Numerals Jarvis (S. F.) 

Relationships Copeland (C. C ) 

Relationships Gatschet ( A. S. ) 

Text Kilbat (H.) 

Text Pomeroy (J. M.) 

Text Treaty. 

Treaty Treaty. 

Vocabulary Adolung (J. C.) and 

Vater (J. S.) 
Vocabulary Barton (B.S.) 

Vocabulary Gallatin (A.) 

Vocabulary Gatschet ( A. S. ) 

Vocabulary Gibbs (G.) 

Vocabulary Hale (H.) 

Vocabulary Hawkins (B.) 

Vocabulary Robertson (A.. E. 

W.) 
Vocabulary Smith (D.) 

Words Adair (J.) 

Words Gatschet ( A. S. ) 

Words Loudon (A.) 

Words Pickett (A. J.) 

Words Smet (P. J. de). 

Words Vater (J. S.) 

Child's book on the creation « * * 
Chahta. See WiUiams (L. S.) 

Child's book on the soul * * * Choc- 
taw. See Williams (L. S.) 

Chisvs Kilaist Chihowa [Choctaw], See 
Wimams(L. S.) 



24 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OP THE 



Chitokaka i nitak [Choctaw]. See 
'Williams (L. S.) 

Chocta^^v. •Vocabulaire Chactas. Ea 
Anglais Isic for I^an^ais] Choctaw. ( * ) 
Manuscript in the Lenox Library, New York 
City ; 2 leaves, 4^, containing 3 pages written in 
double columns, eacb column containing the 
French before the Indian. About 140 words 
in alphabetical order, followed by numerals 
1-200, and a few sentences. Apparently writ- 
ten about the year 1800, in a plain handwriting. 
Title from Mr. "Wilberforce Eames. 

I have seen what is apparently a copy of the 
above vocabulary, as follows : 

Choota-w. Vocabulaire Chactas, en An- 
glais Isic for Franpais] Choctaw. 

Manuscript in the library of the American 
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pa. It 
forms No. L of a collection made by Mr. Du- 
ponceau, and is recorded in a folio account-book, 
of which it occupies pp. 156-158. It is without 
date or name of author. Alphabetically ar- 
ranged by French words, in four columns to 
the page— two of French and two of Choctaw— 
and contains about one hundred and sixty 
words. 

The vocabulary is again copied on pp. 163- 
165 (No. Lirr of the collection) of the same 
book. 

A closing note says : " Je n'ai jamais rien pn 
comprendre ^leursverbes, k cause do leur trop 
irr6gularlt6s," &c. 

Chocta'w. Vocabulary of the Choctaw 
language. (*) 

Manuscript, 5 pp. 8°, 180 words, in the library 
of Dr. J. G. Shea, Elizabeth, N. J. 

Choctaw : 



Advertisement 

Advertisement 

Almanac 

Analogies 

Arithmetic 

Authorities 

Authorities 

Authorities 

Authorities 

Authorities 

Bible: 

Portions 

Portions 

Pentateuch 

Joshua 

Judges 

Ruth 

Samuel I, II 

Kings I 

Kings II 

Psalms 

New Testament 



Four Gospels 
Matthew (in part) 



See Indian Champion. 
Lawrence (J. R.) 
Byington (C.) 
Edwards (J.) 
Wright (Alfred). 
Byington (C.) 
Laurie (T.) 
Pick (B.) 
Steiger (E.) 
Triibner & Co. 



Talley (A.) 

Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 

Byington (C.) 

Wright (Alfred). 

Wright (Alfred). 

Wright (Alfred). 

Wright (Alfred). 

Wright (Alfred). 

Edwards (J.) 

Edwards (J.) 

Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 

Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 

Byington (C.) 



Chocta^^v — Continued. 
Matthew (in part) 
Matthew 

Mark 

Luke (in part) 

Luke 

Luke 

John (in part) 

John (in part) 
John (in part) 
John 
John 

Acts 

Acts (in part) 

James 

John I, II, III 

Revelation (in 
part). 
Bible stories 
Bible stories 

Catechism 
Catechism 
Catechism 
Constitution 
Definer 
Dictionary 
Dictionary 
Dictionary 
Exhortation 
General discussion 
General discussion 
General discussion 
General discussion 
General discussion 
General discussion 
General discussion 
General discussion 
Gentes 

Geographic names 
Grammar 
Grammar 
Grammatic comments 

Grammatic comments 
Grammatic comments 
Hymn-book 

Hymns 

Hymns 

Hymns 

Hymns 

Hymns 

Laws 

Letter 

Letter 

Letter 

Letter 

Letter 

Letter 

Lord's prayer 



Wright (Alfred). 

Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 

Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 

Byington (C.) 

Wright (Alfred). 

Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 

American Bible So- 
ciety. 

Bagster (J.) 

Bible Society. 

Wright (Alfred). 

Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 

Byington (C.) 

British. • 

Wright (Alfred). 

Wright (Alfred). 

Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 

Williams (L.S.) 

Wright (H. B.) and 
Dukes (J.) 

Colbert (H.) 

Shorter. 

Wright (Alfred). 

Wright (Alfred). 

Byington (C.) 

Byington (C.) 

Rouqnette (A.) 

Wright (Allen). 

Baker (B.) 

Edwards (J.) 

Gatschet (A.S.) 

Miiller (F.) 

Rouqnette (A.) 

Rouqnette (D.) 

Schermerhom (J. F. 

TenKate(H.F.C.) 

Trumbull (J. H.) 

Morgan (L.H.) 

Morgan (L.H.) 

Byington (C.) 

Edwards (J.) 

Adelung (J. C.) and 
Vater(J.S.) 

Feather man (A.) 

Gallatin (A.) 

Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 

Goode(W.H.) 

James (A.B.) 

Pitchlynn (P.P.) 

Robb (C.) 

Triumphant. 

Wright (Alfred). 

Adam (W.) 

Baker (B.) * 

Charity (L.) 

Hancock (S.) 

Johnson (W.) 

Kam-pi-lub-bee. 

Bergholtz (G.F.) 



MUSRHOGEAN LANGl/AGES. 



25 



loctaw — ConMnaed. 


Choctaw^ — Contionec 


I. 


Lord's prayer 


Fauvel-Gouraud (P.) 


Text 


Wright (A.) and By- 


Lord's prayer 


Folsom (L) 




ington (C.) 


Lord's prayer 


Shea (J. G.) 


Tract 


Copeland (C. C.) 


Lord's prayer 


Youth's. 


Tract 


Dukes (J.) 


Numerals 


Drake (S.G.) 


Tract 


Edwards (J.) 


Numerals 


Drennen (J.) 


Tract 


Murrow (J. S.) 


Numerals 


Emerson (E.R.) 


Tract 


Robb (C.) 


Numerals 


Haines (E.M.) 


Tract 


Williams (L.S.) 


Numerals 


Haldeman (S.S.) 


Tract 


Wright (A.) and By. 


Numerals 


Holmes (A.) 




ington (C.) 


Numerals 


James (E.) 


Tract 


Wright (H. B.) and 


Numerals 


Jarvis (S. F.) 




Dukes (J.) 


Numerals 


Trumbull (J. H.) ' 


Treaty 


Treaty. 


Numerals 


Young (P.B.) 


Treaty 


United States. 


Periodical 


Indian Champion. 


Vocabulary 


Adam (L.) 


Periodical 


Indian Journal. 


Vocabulary 


Adelung (J. C.) and 


Periodical 


Indian Missionary. 




Vater(J.S.) 


Periodical 


Muskogee Phoenix. 


VocabuUry 


Balbi (A.) 


Periodical 


Our Monthly. 


Vocabulary 


Barton (K S.) 


Periodical 


Star. 


Vocabulary 


Bourgeois (N.) 


Prayer 


Baker (B.) 


Vocabulary 


Brantz (L.) 


Prayer 


Folsom (L) 


Vocabulary 


Byington (C.) 


Primer 


(S'right (A.) and 


Vocabulary 


CampbeU (J.) 




Williams (L.S.) 


Vocabulary 


Castiglioni (L.) 


Proper names 


Catalogue. 


Vocabulary 


Chamberlain (A. F.) 


Proper names 


Catiin (G.) 


Vocabulary 


Choctaw. 


Proper names 


Indian catalofhe. 


Vocabulary 


Domenech(E.H.D.) 


Seader 


Wright (A.) and By- 


Vocabulary 


Gallatin (A.) 




ington (C.) 


Vocabulary 


Gat8chet(A.S.) 


Relationships 


Copeland (C. C.) 


Vocabulary 


Haines (E.M.) 


Relationships 


Edwards (J.) and 


Vocabulary 


Hale (H.) 




Byington (C.) 


Vocabulary 


Hawkins (B.) 


Relationships 


Morgan (L. H.) 


Vocabulary 


Holmes (A.) 


Scripture passages 


Baker (B.) 


Vocabulary 


Hudson (P.) 


Scripture passages 


Colbert (G.) 


Vocabulary 


Latham (R.G.) 


Scripture passages 


Dickerson (J.H.) 


Vocabulary 


Morgan (L.H.) 


Scripture passages 


Robb (C.) 


Vocabular3' 


Pitchlynn (P. P.) 


Sentences 


Campbell (J.) 


Vocabulary 


Schoolcraft (H. R.) 


Sentences 


Gallatin (A.) 




and Trumbull (J. 


Sermon 


Baker (B.) 




H.) 


Sermons 


Ronquette (A.) 


Vocabulary 


Tomlin (J.) 


Spelling-book 


Wright (A.) and By. 


Vocabulary 


Vose (H.) 




ington (C.) 


Vocabulary 


Young (F.B.) 


Teacher 


Wright (A.) and 


Vocabulary 


Wright (Allen). 




Williams (L.S.) 


Words 


Adair (J.) 


Text 


Allen (J.) 


Words 


Brinton(D.G.) 


Text 


Armby (C.) 


Words 


Campbell (J.) 


Text 


Baker (B.) 


Words 


Chamberlayne (J.) 


Text 


Cobb (C.) 




and Wilkins (D.> 


Text 


Colbert (G.) 


Words 


Fritz (J. F.) and 


Text 


Edwards (J.) 




Schultze (B.) 


Text 


General. 


Words 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Text 


Indian Champion. 


Words 


Grasserie (R do la). 


Text 


Ittihapishi. 


Words 


Holmes (A.) 


Text 


Jones (C. A.) 


Words 


Latham (R.G.) 


Text 


Eam-pilnb-bee. 


Words 


Lincecum (G.) 


Text 


McEinney (T.) 


Words 


Pickett (A. J) 


Text 


Murrow (K. L.) 


Words 


Ronquette <D.) 


Text 


O-las-se-chub-bee. 


Words 


Schomburgk(RH.) 


Text 


Pomeroy (J.M.) 


Words 


Soto (H. de). 


Text 


Robb (C.) 


Words 


Vator (J. S.) 


Text 


Treaty. 


Words 


Yanklewitch (P.) 


Text 


United States. 






Text 


Williams (L. S.) 


Choctaw Baptist Hymu Book. Seo Robb 


Text 


Wright (Alfred). 


(C.) 





26 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Choctaw teacher. See Wright (A. ) and 
WiUiams (L. S.) 

Chronicles of the Northamerican Sav- 
ages. Vol. I. May, 1835. No. 1 [-Sep- 
tember, 1835, No. 5]. 

No title-page; pp. 1-80, 8°.— Vocabulary of 
tbe Sawke and Masqnawke Indian tongae, 
pp. 11-16, 46-48, 80. 

Copies seen: Congress, "Wisconsin Historical 
Society. The copy in the Library of Congress 
is ininns the first sixteen pages. 

Clarke (Robert) & Co. Blbliotheca' 
AmericaDa, 1883. | Catalogue | of a valu- 
able collection of | books and pamphlets 
I relating to | America. | With a | de- 
scriptive list of Robert Clarke & Go's | 
historical publications. | 

For sale by | Robert Clarke & co. | 
Cincinnati. 1 1683. 

Printed cover, title 1 1. pp. iii-viii, 1-266, 1-42, 
8*^. — Indian languages, pp. 252-254, contains a 
number of titles in Muskhogean langaages. 

Copies seen : Bureau of Ethnology, Congress, 
Eames, Pilling. 

Bibliotheca Americana, 1886. | Cata- 
logue I of a valuable collection of | 
books and pamphlets | relating to | 
America. | With a | descriptive list of 
Robert Clarke & Co's ] historical publi- 
cations. I 

For sale by | Robert Clarke & co. | 
Cincinnati. | 1886. 

Printed cover, title as above reverse blank 1 
1. pp. iii-vii, 1-280, 1-51, 8o.— Titles of books 
relating to Indians and archaeology, pp. 236- 
254 ; to Indian languages (including a number 
of Muskhogean titles), pp. 254-257. 

Copies seen : Bureau of Ethnology, Eames. 

I have seen copies of this house's catalogue 
for the years 1873, 1875, 1876, 1878, and 1879, and 
understand that there were Issues for 1869, 
1871, 1877, and 1887. In several of them works 
relating to the Indian languages are grouped 
under the heading "Indians and American 
antiquities." 

Coachman (Charles). See Gatschet (A. 

S.) 

Cobb (L. W.) [A letter in the Choctaw 
language. ] 

In Our Brother in Red, voL 6, no. 47, p. 6, 
Muskogee, Ind. T. July 28, 1888, folio. 

Headed "From Atoka," occupies a column 
of the paper, and signed with the above name. 

Cokv Cenis mekusapvlke. See Robert- 
son (A. E.W.) 

Cokv enhvteceskv mekusapvlke. See 
Robertson (W. S.) 



Cokv enhvteceskv * * » vpastel Pal 

Kvlenrvlko * * * Muskokee. See 

Robertson (A. E.W.) 
Cokv mekusapvlke vtekat [Muskoki]. 

See Robertson (A. E. W.) 
Cokv vpastel Pal Felepvlke * • * 

Muskokee. See Robertson (A. E. W.) 
Cokv vpastel Pal Hepluvlke. * * * 

Muskokee. See Robertson (A. E. W.) 
Cokv vpastel Pal Kelesvlke * * * 

Muskokee. See Robertson (A. E. W.) 
Cokv vpastel Pal Lomvnvlke *• * • 

Muskokee. See Robertson (A. E^ W.) 
Colbert (Bev. George). Sprinkling, trans- 
lated into Choctaw language. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. 7, p. 7, 

Atoka, Ind. T. July, 1887, 4°. 

Passages of scripture bearing on the subject 

of baptism ; heading as above. 
Continued as follows : 

Na bvptismo George Mula vt isht ae 

anumpohole tok. 

♦im Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. 9, p. 3, no. 
11, p. 5, Atoka, Ind. T. September and Novem- 
ber, 1887, 4°. 

In the Choctaw language. The above head- 
ing is taken from the November number of the 
paper, wherein appears the note: "Continued 
from Sept. number." The portion in the Sep- 
tember number begins abruptly, without head- 
ing, and ends in the same manner, but the 
numerical subdivisions of the two portions 
enable one, though unfamiliar with the lan- 
guage, to identify it as the complement of the 
November portion. The latter is signed 
" Greorge Colbert, Translator." 

[Colbert (i2et\ Humphrey).] Klaist im 
okla hiraita alheha, nan i ponaklo. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 11, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. November, 1888, 4°. 

Bible questions and answers, in Choctax^ ; 
four columns of the paper. 

Collins (JudsonDwight). See Gatschet 

(A. S.) 

[Connelly (Rev. James Martin).] The 
*' Pater Noster " | written by | Students 
of the Propaganda (Rome) | in their va- 
rious tongues I Collection made by | 
Rev. J. M. C[onnelly]. | Rome, 1883-84. 
Manuscript, 62 11. S°, bound, in the library of 
Rev. Jacob A. Walter, Washington, D. C. 
The above titular matter appears on 1. 3, where 
an index to the versions also begins, ending on 
1. 6. The versions, 55 in all, occupy the rectos 
of 11. 7-61. On the recto of 1. 1 is the follow- 
ing dedication: "To Rev. Jacob A. Walter 
with the Affectionate Regards of the Collec- 
tor."— The Lord's Prayer in the Mexican Ian- 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



27 



Connelly (J. M.) — Continued. 

guage (No. 52), 1.58.— "Mohigan"* (No. 53), 
1. 59. — " Seminole "* (No. 5i), 1. 60. 

In a note on 1. 3 the collector remarks : ' ' Lan- 
guages not marked (*) were written by those 
speaking the langaage as mother or adopted 
tongue." 
Congress : This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to has been seen by the 
compiler in the Library of Congress, "Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
Conjngations : 

Creek 

Hitchiti 

Muskoki 
Constitution : 

Chikasaw 

Choctaw 

Creek 



See Grayson (G.W.) 
Pike (A.) 
Pike (A.) 



See Wright (Allen) 
Wright (Altred) 
Perryman (S. W.) and 
Perry man (L.C.) 

Constitution and laws * * Choctaw. 

See Wright (Alfred). 
Copeland (i?cv. Charles Cook). Come to 
Jesus. I Chisvs a ho im ai vlah. | Chah- 
ta anumpa atoshowa hoke. | By Rev. C. 
C. Copeland, | Missionary to the Choc- 
tavvs, 1868. I 

Published hy the | American Tract 
Society : j New York. [1869 ?] 

Pp. 1-102, 16°, in the Choctaw language. 

Copies seen: American Board of Commis- 
sioners. 

Rev. John Edwards, of Wheelock, Ind. T. 
writes me: "1, have a manuscript tract in 
Chahta, written evidently by the late Rev. 
Charles C. Copeland, but I can not now lay 
my hands npon it." This may be the original 
draught, or a copy, of the above tract 

Terms of relationship of the Chocta 

and Chickasa, collected by the Rev. 
Charles C. Copeland, missionary, Ben- 
nington, Choctaw Nation. 

In Morgan (L. H.), Systems of consanguinity 
and aflanity of the human family, pp. 293-382, 
lines 29-30, Washington, 1871, 4°. 

Rev. Charles Cook Copeland was born at 
Dover, Vt, January 18, 1818. Ho attended 
school in Vermont and afterward tanght in New 
Jersey. In the summer of 1811 his attention 
was drawn toward missionary work among the 
Choctaws, and on the 6th of November of that 
year he sailed from Boston for New Orleans. 
He commenced school at Stockbridge, Mr. By- 
ington's station, the following spring, and in 
1843 was assigned to the school station at Nor- 
walk. About this time he commenced the 
study of theology under the Rev. Alfred 
Wright, and was licensed to preach in 1845 or 
1846. In June, 1849, Mr. Copeland went to Mt. 
Pleasant station ; in 1855 to Bennington, and in 
1860 to Wheelock. He died at Washington, 
Ark., in the summer of 1889. 



Corners (Minnie). See Wilson (E. P.) 

Correspondence. Docament512. { Cor- 
respondence I on the suhject of the | 
Emigration of Indians, | hetweeu | the 
30th November, 1831, and 27th Decem- 
ber, 1833, I with abstracts of expendi- 
tures by disbursing agents, | in the | 
Removal and Subsistence of Indians, 
&c. &c. I Furnished | in answer to a 
Resolution of the Senate, of 27th De- 
cember, 1833, I by the Commissary Gen- 
eral of Subsistence [George Gibson]. | 
Vol.I[-IV].| 

Washington: | Printed by DuflF Green. ) 
1834. 

4 vols. ! pp. vii, 3-1179 ; 1 1. pp. 1-972 ; 1 1. pp. 
1-846 ; 1 L pp. 1-771, 8o.— Census of the Creek 
Nation, 1832, with names of heads of fatailies, 
voL 4, pp. 230-294. 

Copies seen: Congrose, Trambnll. 



Creek : 




Authorities See Laurie (T.) 


Catechism 


Loughridge (R. M.) 


Catechism 


Longhridge (R. M.) 




and Winslett (D.) 


Conjugations 


Grayson (G. W.) 


Constitution 


Ferryman (S.W.) and 




Perryman (L. C.) 


Dictionary 


Loughridge (R. M.) 


General discussion 


Boulinot (E.) 


General discussion 


Chateaubriand (F. A. 




de) 


General discussion 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


General discussion 


Schermerhorn (J.F.) 


Gentes 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Gentes 


Morgan (L.H.) 


Geographic names 


DoBrahm (J. G. W.) 


Geographic names 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Geographic names 


Hawkins (B.) 


Glossary 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Grammatic comments 


Featherman (A.) 


Grammatic comments 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Grammatic comments 


Loughridge (R. M.) 


Grammatic comments 


Robertson ( A. E.W.) 


Grammatic treatise 


Loughridge (R. M.) 


Hymn 


Beadle (J. H.) 


Hymn 


BerryhiU (D. L.) 


Hymn 


Perryman (T. W.) 




and Robertson (A. 




E.W.) 


Hymn 


Robertson (A. E.W.) 


Hymn-book 


Longhridge (R. M.) 




and Winslett (D.) 


Laws 


Perryman (S.W.) and 




Perryman (L. C.) 


Legend 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Numerals 


Haldeman (S. S.) 


Numerals 


Jar\ris(S.F.) 


Numerals 


Trumbull (J. H.) 


Proper names 


Correspondence. 


Proper names 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Proper names 


Indian treaties. 



28 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



eek — Continued. 




Creek — Continued. 




Proper names 


Jacl^^on (W. H.) 


Vocabulary 


Pope (J.) 


Proper names 


Stanley (J. M.) 


Vocabulary 


PvObertson(A.E.W.) 


Proper names 


Treaties. 


Vocabulary 


Schoolcraft (H. R.) 


Header (Ist) 


Robertson (W. S.) 




and Trumbull (J. 




andWin8lett(D.) 




H.) 


Reader (2d) 


Robertson (W. S.) 


Vocabulary 


Sanford (E.) 




and Winslett(D.) 


Words 


Bartram (W.) 


Helationships 


Loughridge(R.M.) 


Words 


Chamberlayno (J.) 


Belationships 


Morgan (L. H.) 




and Wilkins (D.) 


Text 


Barnwell (D.) 


Words 


Duncan (D.) 


Text 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Words 


Featherman (A.) 


Text 


Hario(H.M.) 


Words 


Fritz (J. F.) &nd 


Text 


Loughridge (R. M.) 




Schultze (B.) 




and others. 


Words 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Tract 


Perryman (T.W.)and 


Words 


Hawkins (B.) 




Robertson (A.. E. 


Words 


Newcomb(H.) 




W.) 


Words 


Pickett (A. J.) 


Treaty 


Harjo(H.M.) 


Words 


Swan (C.) 


Vocabulary 


Gatscbet(A.S.) 


See, also, Muskoki. 




Vocabulary 


Gibbs(G.) 






Vocabulary 


Grayson (G.W.) 


Creek hymu. 




Vocabulary 


Haines (E. M.) 


In Indian Journal, vol. 3, no. 3, Eufanla, Ind. 


Vocabulary 


Hawkins (B.) 


T. September 18, 1878, 4° 




Vocabulary 


Howitt (E.) 


It is the hymn "Am I 


a soldier of the cross," 


Vocabulary 


Morgan (L. H.) 


from the second edition of the Muskoki hymn- 


Vocabulary 


Pike (A.) 


book. 





D. 



Davis (John). See Loughridge (R. M.) 
and Winslett (D.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.), Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson ( W. S.) 

and Lykins (J. ) Heeat | oponaka 

hera | Cane | coeatetest, | momeu | mata 
oponakan | Cane Tyfet Canetan Liken, | 
tepake | Maskoke ponaka | escoeatetest. | 

Shawanoe Baptist Mission, Ind. Ter. 
I J. Meeker, Printer. | 1835. 

Literal translation: This word good John 
wrote, and that word John Davis, Jonathan 
Lykins together Maskoke language wrote in. 

Pp. 1-190, 240. -John xxi, 24, ends on p. 187.— 
Matt, iii, 13-16, 27; Mark x\r, 15-18, p. 189.- 
Hymn, p. 190. 

Copies t,een : American Board of Commis- 
sioners. 

John Davis, a full-blood Creek, was born in the 
" Old Nation." Id the warof 1812, when aboy, he 
was taken prisoner, and was raised by a white 
roan. He emigrated from Alabama in 1829, and 
was educated at the " Union Mission " after 
coming to the Indian Territory. Ho had good 
talents, and in early manhood became a valua- 
ble helper to the missionaries as interpreter 
and speaker in public meetings. He was an 
active worker in 1830, and died about ten years 
later. Two daughters survived him, who were 
educated in the Presbyterian boarding-school, 
one of whom, Susan, wife of John Mcintosh, 
still lives, and she and her husband being near 
neighbors to Tullahassee, they have often 



Davis (J.) aud Lykins (J.)— Continued, 
given mo valuable help in my Creek work.— 
Mrs. Robertson. 

De Brahm (John Gerar William). His- 
tory I of the I province of Georgia : | 
with I maps of original surveys. | By | 
John Gerar William De Brahm. | His 
Majesty's Surveyor-General | for the 
southern district of | North America. | 
Now First Printed. | 

Wormsloe. | MDCCCXLIX [1849]. 

Pp. 1-55, 1 1, large 4°. Printed privately for 
the editor (George Wymberley- Jones). The 
impression was limited to forty-nine copies.— 
List of Cherokee Indian towns in the Province 
of Georgia, p. 64. — List of Creek Indian towns 
in the Province of Georgia, pp. 54-55. 

Copies seen: Astor, Boston Athenaeum, Brit* 
ish Museum, Congress, Lenox. 

Definer, Choctaw. Seo Byington (C), 

Dickerson (J. H.) [.Three passages of 
Scripture in the Choctaw language.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. March, 1887, 4°. 

Ko heading; signed with the above name. 
The passages are 1st Col. xiv, 40 ; 1st Col. ix, 11 
and 14 ; and Luke x, 7. "^ 

[Three passages of Scripture in the 

Choctaw language.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. March, 1887, 4°, 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



29 



Dickerson (J. H.) — Continued. 

:N"o heading ; signed " S. [for J.] H. Dicker- 
son." The passages are Komans ri, 23 ; John 
ii, IG ; and John iii, 36. 
Dictionary : 

Choctaw SeeByington (C.) 

Choctaw Bouqnette (A.) 

Choctaw Wright (Allen) 

Creek Loagh ridge (B. M. ) 

Do as you would be done by [Cboctaw]. 

See Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 
Domenech {AhhS Emmanuel Henri Dieu- 
donu6). Seven years* residence | in the 
great ! deserts of North America | by 
the I Abb^ Em. Domenech | Apostolical 
Missionary : Canon of Montpellier : 
Member of the Pontifical Academy 
Tiberina, | and of the Geographical and 
Ethnographical Societies of France, 
&c. i Illustrated with fifty-eight wood- 
cuts by A. Joliet, three | plates of an- 
cient Indian niuslc, and a map showing 
the actual situation of | the Indian 
tribes and the country described by the 
author | In Two Volumes | Vol. I[-II]. | 

London | Longman, Green. Longman, 
and Roberts | 1860. | The right of trans- 
lation is reserved. 

2 vols. 8°.— Vocahularies &c. vol. 2, pp. 164- 
180, contain 84 words in the Choctaw language. 

Copies seen : Astor, Boston Athenseam, Brit- 
ish Museum, Congress, "Watkinson. 

At the Field sale a copy, No. 550, brought 
$3.37, and at the Pinart sale. No. 328, 6 fr. 
Clarke, 1886, No. 5415, prices a copy $5, and 
Dufos86, 1887 catalogue. No. 25057, 15 fr. 

Emmanuel Henri Diendonnd Domenech, 
French author, born in Lyons, France; Novem- 
ber 4, 1825; died in France in June, 1886. He be- 
came a priest in the Roman Catholic Church, and 
was sent as a missionary to Texas and Mexico. 
During Maximilian's residence in America, 
Domenech acted as piivate chaplain to the 
emperor, an<l he was also almoner to the French 
army during its occupation of Mexico. On 
his 'return to France he was made honorary 
canon of Montpellier. His " Manuscrit picto- 
graphique Am^ricnin, pr6c6de d'uue notice sur 
rid6ographie des Peaux Bouges" (1860), was 
published by the French government, w'ith a 
£Eic simile of a manuscript in the library of the 
Paris arsenal, relating, as he claimed, to the 
American Indians ; but the German orientalist, 
Julius Petzholdt, declared that it consisted only 
of scribbling and incoherent illustrations of a 
local German dialect Domenech maintained the 
authenticity of the manuscript In a pamphlet 
entitled "La v6rit6 sur le livre des sanvagos" 
(1861), which drew forth a reply from Petz- 
holdt, translated into French under the title of 
"Lelivro des sauvages an point devue dela 



Domenech (E. H. D.) — Continued, 
civilisation Fran9aise" (Brussels, 1861). He 
has also published "Journal d*un misssionnaire 
au Texas et au Mexique" (J 857); "Voyage 
dans les solitudes Am6ricaines, le Minnesota " 
(1858); "Voyage pittoresque dans les grands 
ddsertsduNonveaumonde" (1861); "Les Gorges 
dn Dlable, voyage en Islande" (1864); "L6. 
gendes islandaises" (1865); "Le Metiquetel 
qn'ilest" (1867); and "Histoire du Mexiqne, 
Juarez et Maximilien. correspondances in6- 
dites" (1868). The historical accuracy of the 
last-named work has been questioned by sev- 
eral writers, including General Prim. Dom- 
enech also published *^Quand j*6tais jouroa- 
liste" (1869); "Histoire de la campagne de 
1870-71 et de la deuxidme ambulance de la 
presse Fran9aise " (1871) ; and " L'6criture syl- 
labique (Maya) dans le Yucatan d'apr^a les 
d6couvertes de rAbb6 Brasseur de Bourbourg" 
(1883) ; and during the latter part of his life he 
produced also several works pertaining to re- 
ligion aud ancient history. ~App{eton'« Cyclop, 
of Am. Biog. 

Donaldson (Thomas). See Catlin (Q.) 

Dorsey : This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to has been seen by the 
compiler in the possession of Rev. J. O. Dorsey, 
Washington, D. C. 

Drake (Samuel Gardner). Biography 
and history | of the | Indians of North 
America. | From its first discovery to the 
present time ; | comprising | details in 
the lives of all the Aost distinguished 
chiefs and | counsellors, exploits of war- 
riors, and the celebrated | speeches of 
their orators ; | also, | a history of their 
wars, I massacres and depredations, as 
well as the wrongs and | sufferings which 
the Europeans and their | descendants 
have done thorn ; [ with an account of 
their | Antiquities, Manners and Cus- 
toms, I Religion and Laws ; | likewise | 
exhibiting an analysis of the most dis- 
tinguished, as well as absurd | authors, 
who have written upon the great ques- 
tion of the I first peopling of America. | 
[Monogram and six lines quotation.] | 
By Samuel G. Drake. | Fifth Edition, | 
With large Additions and Corrections, 
aud numerous Engravings. | 

Boston : | Antiquarian Institute, 56 
Cornhill. | 1836. 

1 p. 1. pp. i-xii, 1-48, 1-120, 1-144, 1-96, 1-168, 
8o.~Numeral3 1-10 in Choctaw, book 4, p. 24. 

Copies seen: Astor, British Musenm, Con- 
gress. 

A copy is priced by Quaritch, No. 11968, 10*. 
and again, No. 29941, Is. 6e{. At the Marphy 



30 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Drake (S. G.) — Continued. 

sale, No. 831, a copy, "calf extra, gilt edges, 
with portrait of Mr. Drake iDserted," brought 
$3.75. 

Some copies are dated 1837. (Astor.) The 
••Seventh edition," •'1837," has title-page other- 
wise similar to the above. (Astor, Congress.) 

The earlier editions of this work do not con- 
tain the above linguistics. 

The I book of the Indians ; | or, | 

biography and history | of the | Indians 
of North America, | from its first dis- 
covery I to the year 1841. | [Nine lines 
quotations.] | By Samuel G. Drake, | 
Fellow [&c. two lines]. | Eighth edi- 
tion, I With large Additions and Cor- 
rections. I 

Boston : | Antiquarian Bookstore, 56 
CornhiU. | M.DCCC.XLI [1841]. 

Pp. i-xii, 1-48, 1-120, 1-156, 1-156, 1-200, and 
index, pp. 1-16, 8°.— Linguistics as in fifth edi- 
tion, supra. 
^ ^ Copies seen : Boston Athenaeum, British Mu- 
seum, Congress. 

According to Sabin's Dictionary, No. 20688, 
there was a ninth edition, Boston, 1845, 748 pp. 
9P, and a tenth edition, Boston MDCCCXL 
[Vini, 8°. 

Biography and history | of the | 

Indians of North America, | from its 
first discovery. | [Quotation, nine 
lines.] I By Samuel G. Drake. | Elev- 
enth edition. | , 

Boston : | Benjamin B. Mussey & Co. 
I M.DCCO.LI [1851]. 

Pp. 1-720, plates, 8°.— Linguistics as in fifth 
edition, p. 364. 

0(tpies seen : British Museum, Eames, Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society, Wisconsin His- 
torical Society. 

History | of the | Early Discovery of 

America, | and | Landing of the Pil- 
grims. I With a I Biography | of the | 
Indians of North America. | [Quotation, 
nine lines.] [ By Samuel G. Drake. | 

Boston: | fliggins and Bradley. | 
1854. (») 

Pp. 1-720, plates, 8<5.— Linguistics as in fifth 
edition, p. 364. 

Title from Mr. Wilberforce Eamos. 

According to Sabin's Dictionary, No. 20868, 
there is an edition with the imprint : Boston, 
Sanborn, Carter & Bazin, 1857; and another: 
Boston, 1858. 

The I Aboriginal Races | of | North 

America; | comprising | Biographical 
Sketches of Eminent Individuals, | and | 
an Historical Account of the Different 



Drake (S. G.) — Continued. 
Tribes, | from | the First Discovery of 
the Continent | to | the Present Period | 
With a Dissertation on their | Origin, 
Antiquities, Manners and Customs, | 
Illustrative Narratives and Anecdotes, | 
and a | copious analytical index | By 
Samuel G. Drake. | Fifteenth Edition, 
revised, with valuable additions, | by 
J. W. O'Neill. I Illustrated with Numer- 
ous Colored Steel-plate Enti:ravings. | 
[Quotation, six lines.] | 

Philadelphia : | Charles Desilver, | 
No. 714 Chestnut Street. ; 1860. 

Pp. 1-736, 8°. This is the Biography of the 
Indians, with a new title-page and some addi- 
tions.— Lingnistics as aboTe, p. 364. 

Copies seen : Astor, Bancroft. 

The I Aboriginal races | of | North 

America; | comprising biographical 
sketches of eminent individuals, | and { 
an historical account of the different 
tribes, | from | the first discovery of the 
continent | to | the present period | with 
a dissertation on their | Origin, Anti- 
quities, Manners and Customs, | illus- 
trative narratives and anecdotes, | and| 
a I copious analytical index | by Samuel 
G. Drake. | Fifteenth edition, | revised, 
with valuable additions, | by Prof. H. 
L. Williams. 1 [Quotation, six lines.] 

New York. | Hurst & company, pub- 
lishers. I 122 Nassau Street. [1882.] 

Pp. 1-787, 8°.— Choctaw numerals 1-10 p. 
364.— Comparative vocabulary of the Seminole 
and Mikasuke tongues (from B. Smith), pp. 
763-767. 

Copies seen : Astor, Congress, Wisconsin His- 
torical Society. 

Clarke, 1886, No. 6377, prices a copy $3. 

Drenneu (John). Numerals of the Choc- 
taw language. 

In Schoolcraft (H. R.), Indian Tribes, vol.2, 
pp. 204-206, Philadelphia, 1852, i°. 

Numerals 1-1,000,000,000. 

[Dukes (Joseph).] The | history | of | 
Joseph and his brethren. | In the Choc- 
taw language. [ 

Utica : | press of William Williams. | 
1831. 

Pp. 1-48, 24°. Verso of title-page says: 
" This little tract is indebted for its existence 
to Mr, Joseph Dukes, a native interpreter." 

Copies seen: American Board of Commis* 
sioners, American Tract Society, Boston 
AthencDum. 

I have seen mention of a reprint of 1830. 



HUSKHOGBAN LANGUAGES. 



31 



Dukes (J.) — Continued. 

See Byington (C.) 

See Wright (A.) and Byington (C. ) 

See Wright (H. B.) and Dukes (J.) 

Captain Joseph Dukes was born in the Choc- 
taw nation, in what is now the State of Missis- 
sippi, in 1811. His parents were half-breed 
Choctaw Indians. He was edacated in one 
of the early mission schools, at Mayhew, 
where he made such progress that he often 
acted as interpreter for Rev. Cyrus Kingsbury, 
the pioneer missionary, who never learned the 
langua;;e. After the sale of the country, he 
remained in Mississippi some years, helping 
Mr. Byington prepare a grammer and diction- 
ary of the language. In preparing the latter, 
he took an'English dictionary, and made deflivi- 
tions of all the words in Choctaw. Mr. Bying- 
ton revised it. When I made his acquaintance, 
in 1851 or 1853, he was preaching under the 
direction of the Rev. Alfred Wright, at 
Whoelock, and in the region around, and aldo 
assisting Mr. Wright in translating the Old 
Testament. When I succeeded Mr. Wright, 
in 1853, he taught me Choctaw and aided me in 



Dukes (J.) ~ Continued. 

translation in addition to his preaching. I 
think that the first draft of the whole of the 
Old Testament, from Genesis to 2 Kings, as 
well as of the Psalms, was made by him; 
probably also some portions of the New Testa- 
ment. He died in ISKH.—Edwards. 

Dunbar : This word following a title or included 
within parentheses after a note indicates that 
a copy of the work referred to has been seen by 
the compiler in the library of Mr. John B. Dun* 
bar, Bloomfleld, N. J. 

Duncan {Prof. David). American Races. 
I Compiled and abstracted by | Profes- 
sor Duncan, M. A. 

Forms Part of Spencer (H.), Descriptive 
Sociology, London, 1878, folio. 

Comments on language, with examples of 
the Creek, pp. 40-42. 

Copies seen : Congress. 

Some copies have the imprint : New York, 
D. Appleton & Co. [n.d.] (Powell.) 

Dwight (Rev.J.E.). Soo T?7right (A.) 
and Byington (C.) 



E.. 



Eames : This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to has been seen by the 
compiler in the library of Mr. Wilberforce 
Eames, New York City. 

[Ed^^vards (i?ei?. John).] The | second 
book of Kiogs, | translated into | the 
Choctaw language. | Miko t^hleha ; isht 
auumpa atakla kvt | toshowvt | Chah- 
ta anumpa toba hoke. | 

New York : | American Bible Society, 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
X856. 

Title reverse blank 1 1. half-title reverse 
blank 1 L text in the Choctaw language pp. 
261-339,120. Appended to Wright (A.), First 
and second books of Samuel. 

Copies seen: Powell. 

A later edition as follows : 

[ ] The I second book of Kings, | 

translated into |the Choctaw language. | 
Miko vhleha | isht anumpa atukla kt^t | 
toshowrt I Chahta anumpa toba hoke. | 

New York : 1 American Bible Society, | 
instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. j 
1871. 

Title reverse blank 1 1. half-title reverse 
blank 1 1. text in the Choctaw language pp. 
^61-339, 12°. 

Popies seen : Eames, Pilling, Powell. 



Edwards (J.) — Continued. 

[ ] The I book of the Psalms, | trans- 
lated into I the Choctaw language. | 
Atvloa hnlisso | tushowvt | Chahta 
vnnumpah tuba hoke. | 

New York : | Ameiican Bible Society. | 
Instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1886. 

Title verso blank 1 1. text in the Choctaw 
language pp. 3-192, 12<). In a letter to me Mr. 
Edwards says : " I began the translation of the 
Psalms about thirty years ago, but found the 
difficulty of the Hebrew tenses so great that I 
failed at that time to make a satisfactory trans- 
lation. I found it necessary to know just why 
one of the Hebrew tenses was nscd instead of 
another, in order to give the right expression 
in Choctaw. Failing to And this, I failed in the 
translation, notwithstanding the spare time of 
some four years was spent upon it. At the same 
time, in the close study of the Choctaw and He- 
brew together, I found analogies in the former 
which to my mind were very suggestive as to 
this supreme difficulty of the latter. Some nine 
or ten years since, I gave myself to special study 
of the Hebrew, with a view to developing and 
applying the ideas thus suggested so far as they 
are applicable to the Choctaw. To my mind I 
have in large measure solved the difficulty, and 
so was able, with the help of several Choctaws, 
to make what I think is at least a fair transla- 
tion. 



32 



BIBIJOGRAPHY OP THE 



Edwards (J.) — Continued. 
Copies seen : Pilling, Powell. 
Several chapters from this work have been 
republished as follows : 

Att^loa balisso hoke. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. 7, p. 5, no. 8, 
p. 6, no. 9, p. 3, no. 12, p. 5; vol.4, no. 6, p. 7 ; 
Atoka, Ind. T. July, August, September, De- 
cember, 1887; June, 1888; 4°. 

Chnpters 1-10, 23, 24, 121 of the book of Psalms 
In the Choctaw language; heading as above. 

[ ] [Two lines quotation.] Yvmmak 

bano? [1888.] 

Translation : Is that all ? 

No title-page, heading as above, pp. 1-8, 16°. 
A tract entirely in the Choctaw language. 
Note at end: "This tract is donated to the 
Choctaws by the First Baptist Church, Cleve- 
land [sic], Ohio." 

Copies seen: Pilling, Powell. 

[Grammar of the Choctaw lan- 
guage. 1887.] (») 

Manuscript, 162 pp. folio ; unfinished. 

The author writes mo concerning this man- 
uscript as follows : 

••Under Orthography I discnss letters and 
sounds, syllables, accent, defects of the alpha- 
bet, and defects in it« use. Under Etymology I 
classify as ^I) Significant words, mclading (1) 
words representing (A) some existence, (a) 
nouns, (6) pronouns, (B) some action, state, or 
quality, (a) verbs; (2) Words qualifying (a) 
nouns, adjectives, (&) verbs and adjectives, ad- 
verbs; (3) "Words expressing simply feeling, (a) 
interjections. (II) "Words which define signi. 
flcant words and show the relation between 
them— particles, including (a) prepositions, (&) 
article-conjunctions. I treat them in the follow- 
ing order: Personal pronouns, verbs, nouns, 
acyectives, advorbs. interjections, prepositions, 
article-conj unctions and other pronouns. I am 
not yet [January, 1887] through the last head. 
I prepared the work in somewhat this form be« 
fore the war, and since my return have re- writ- 
ten and extended it. For help I am more in- 
debted to my old interpreters, Capt. Noel Gard- 
ner and Capt Joseph Dukes, and to the late 
Rev. Allen Wright, than to any others." 

[Some analogies in the Choctaw 

which throw light on the use of the 
tenses in Hehrew. 1887.] (*) 

Manuscript of about 74 folio pages. Con- 
cerning it the author writes me : "One result 
of the diflftculty I met with in translating the 
Psalms [see note under that title] was the em- 
bodiment of my notions, in part, iu a paper I 
recently sent to Professor Whitney, which I en- 
titled as above. It amounts to a now theory 
of the use of the tenses." 



Ed^^vards (J.) — Continued. 

The Choctaws, their origin, lan- 
guage, manners, customs, &c. 1887. (*) 
Manuscript— a lecture, in possession of its 
author, concerning which Mr. Edwards in a 
late letter says : " It opens with a salutation in 
English, followed with the same in Chahta, and 
with some brief remarks on some of the most 
prominent features of the language." 

and Byington (C.) Terms of rela- 
tionship of the Chocta (Chatii) col- 
lected hy Rev. John Edwards and Rev. 
Cyrus Byington, missionaries, Whee- 
lock, Choctaw nation. 

In Morgan (L. H.), Systems of consanguinity 
and affinity of the human family, pp. 293-382, 
linj)28, "Washington, 1871, 4°.- 

Mr. Edwards was bom at Bath, Steuben 
County, New York, January 21, 1828; was 
graduated from the college of New Jersey, at 
Princeton, in 1818; completed the course in 
Princeton Theological Seminary in 1851, and 
went to Spencer Academy, Choctaw Nation, 
the same year as a missionary teacher of the 
Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions ; re- 
moved to Wheelock, under the American 
Board of Foreign Missions, in 1853 ; on their 
abandonment of the mission, in 1850, returned 
to the Presbyterian Board. Compelled to leave 
by the outbreak of the war in 1861, in 1862 he 
went to California. After a residence there of 
twenty one years, he returned to the Choctaws 
in March, 1883, under the Presbyterian Board 
of Home Missions, being at Atoka, Ind. T. 
one and one-half years, and then returning to 
Wheelock, which has since been his home. 

Bllett (Kate Lois). See Murrow (K. L.) 

Emerson (fallen Russell). Indian myths 
I or I legends, traditions, and symbols 
of .the I ahorigines of America { Com- 
pared with Those of Other Countries | 
including Hindostan, Egypt, Persia, | 
Assyria, and China | by | Ellen Russell 
Emerson | Illustrated | [Monogram.] | 

Boston I James R. Osgood and Com- 
pany I 1884 

Frontispiece 1 L title 1 1. preface pp. iii-vi, 
contents pp. vii-xvii, text pp. 1-677, 8°.— Choc- 
taw numerals 1-10, p. 278. 
Copies seen : Congress. 

Epistle of James * • * Choctaw. See 
T?7ri6ht (Alfred). 

Epistles of John * * * Chahta. See 
Wright (Alfred). 

Explanation of the ten commandments 
[Choctaw]. See Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 



MUSKHOGEAN LANQUAQES. 



33 



p.. 



Fauvel-Gouraud (Frangois) . Practical | 
Cosmoplionograpliy ; | a System of 
Writing and Printing all 1 tUe Principal 
Languages, with tlieir exact Pronun- 
ciation, I by means of an original | Uni- 
versal Phonetic Alphabet, | Based upon 
Philological Principles, and represent- 
ing Analogically all the Component 
Elements of the Human | Voice, as they 
occur io I Different Tongues and Dia- 
lects; I and applicable to daily use in 
all the branches of business and learn- 
ing ; I Illustrated by Numerous Plates, | 
explanatory of the | Calligraphic, Steno- 
Phonographic, and Typo-Phonographic 
I Adaptations of the System; | with 
specimens of [ Th(5 Lord's Prayer, | in 
One Hundred Languages : | to which is 
prefixed, | a General Introduction, | 
elucidating the origin and progress of 
language, writing, stenography, phon- 
ography, I etc., etc., etc. | By | Francis 
Fauvel-Gouraud, D. E. S. | of the Royal 
University of France. | 

New York : | J. S. Redfield, Clinton 
Hall. 1 1850. 

1 p. 1. pp. 1-186, 1 1. plates 1-21 and A-T, 8o.— 
The Lord's Prayer in Choctaw, plate 14, Na 59. 

Copies seen: Astor, British Museum. 

Featherman (A.) Social history | of the 
I races of mankind. 1 First division : , 
Nigritiaus [-Third division : | Aoneo- 
Maranonians]. { By i A. Featherman. | 
[Two lines quotation.] i 

London : | TrGbner & co., Ludgate 
Hill. I 1885[-1889]. \ (All rights re- 
served.) 

3 vols. 8°.— The Mobilians, vol. 3, pp. 151- 
168, contains a brief discussion of the Creek, 
Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chickasaw, chiefly 
with regard to grammar, and on p. 156 a few 
Creek words. 

Copies seen: Congress. 

Field (Thomas Warren). An essay | to- 
wards an I Indian bibliography. | Beiug 
a I catalogue of books, | relating to the 
I history,- antiquities, languages, cus- 
toms, religion, \ wars, literature, and 
origin of the | American Indians, | in 
the library of | Thomas W. Field. | With 
bibliographical and historical notes, 
MUSK 3 



Field (T. W.) —Continued, 
and I synopses of the contents of some 
of I the works least known. | 

New York : | Scribner, Armstrong, and 
CO. 1 1873. 

Title as above verso printers 1 1. preface pp. 
iii-lv, text pp. 1-430, 8°. 

Copies seen : Congress, Eames, Filling. 

Titles and descriptions of works in Musk- 
hogean langaages passim. 
Catalogue | of the | library | belong- 
ing to I Mr. Thomas W. Field. | To be 
sold at auction, | by | Bangs, Merwin 
& CO., I May 24th, 1875, | and follow- 
ing days. I 

New York. 1 1875. 

Printed cover, title as above verso blank 1 1. 
notice etc. pp. iii-viii, text pp. 1-376, list of 
prices pp. 377-393, supplement pp. 1-59, 8<». 
Compiled by Joseph Sahin, mainly from Mr. 
Field's £8say.~Contains titles of a number of 
works in the Mnskhogean languages. 

Copies seen: Bureau of Ethnology, Con- 
gress, Eames. 

Fife (Pollie). SeeRobertson (A. E. W.) 

First and second books of Samuel * * 
Choctaw. See Wright (Alfred). 

First three chapters of the Revelation 
of John * • Choctaw. See Wright 
(A. ) and Byington (C.) 

Fisk (Rev. Pliny). Seo Wright (A.) and 
Byington (C.) 

Fitch ( Dr. Asa). Names of insects in the 
languages of several tribes of American 
Indians (Lenape or St. Francis dialect, 
Muskokee, He-che-ta, Yu-che, etc.). 
Followed by : Muskokee Indian words 
(from Fleming's Muskokee Assis- 
tant). (*) 
Manuscript, 4 pp. 8<^, in possession of Mr. John 
B. Dunbar, Bloomfleld, K. J. 

Asa Fitch was barn at Fitch's Point, N. Y. 
February 24, 1809, and died April 8, 1879. He 
was at first an agriculturist and country physi- 
cian, but relinquished medical practice in 1838 
to derote his time to scientific agriculture and 
the study of natural history. He was made 
Kow York State Entomologist in 1854, and for 
many years published annual reports on insects 
injurious to veget^tion.~- Appleton's Cyclop, of 
Am. Biog. 

[Fleming (Rev. John).] The | Mvskoki 
Imvnaitsv. | Muskokee (Creek) Assis- 
tant. I [Picture.] | 



34 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Fleming (J.) —Continued. 

Boston : | Printed by Crocker & Brews- 
ter, i 47 Washington Street. | 1834. 

Pp. 1-101, 18°, Muskoki and English; 500 
copies printed. 

Copies seen : American Board of Commission- 
ers, American Tract Society, Trumbull. 

Istutsi in naktsokv. | Or | the child's 

book. I By Rev. John Fleming. | Mis- 
sionary of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for I Foreign Missions. | 
[Picture.] I 

Union: | Mission press: John F. 
Wheeler, | printer. | 1835. 

Title verso blank 1 1. Muskoki alphabet pp. 
3-4, text (illustrated) in the Muskoki language 
pp. 5-24, 18°. 

Copies seen : Congress, Powell, Trumbull. 

A short sermon : | also | hymns, | in 

the Muskokee or Creek language. | By 
Rev. John Fleming, | Missionary of the 
American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign | Missions. | 

Boston : | printed for the board, by 
Crocker & Brewster, I 47 Washington 
Street. | 1835. 

Title verso blank 1 1. Muskokee alphabet pp. 
3-4, text in Muskokee pp. 5-35, 18°. — Sermon 
(John iii, 16), pp. 5-11.— Hymns, pp. 13-35. 

Copies seen .- Boston Athenaeum, Brinton.Cou- 
. gress, Eames, Pilling, Powell, Trumbull. 

Leclerc in 1867 sold a copy, No. 574, for 1 fr. 
50, and iu 1878 priced a copy. No. 2362, 10 fr. 
The Brinley copies, Nos. 5754 and 5755, sold for 
75 cents each ; the Murphy copy. No. 2953, 
for $1. 

[ ] The I Maskoke semahayeta, | or | 

Muskokee teacher. | Cemo hayate. | 

Union: | Mission Press: John F. 
Wheeler, printer. | 1836. 

Title verso blank 1 1. text pp. 3-5*, 16°. 
Primer in the Muskokee language. 

Copies seen: Congress. 

Mr. Fleming's works are printed in the Pick- 
ering alphabet. 

See Loughridge (R. M.) and Wins- 

lett (D.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.), Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

See Robertson (A. E. W.) 

See Robertson ( W. S. ) and Winslett 

(D.) 

Mr. Fleming was bom in 1806 in eastern Penn- 
sylvania. He received his collegiate education 
at Jefferson College, and his theological at 
Princeton. Licensed to preach by the Hunt- 
ington Presbytery October 15, 1832, he set out 
for the Creek nation, and on Christmas day of 
that year landed from a small steamboat at Fort 



Fleming (J.) — Continued. 

Gibson. He has spent the remainder of his life 
on the frontier among the Indians and new set- 
tlements of the West. 

He writes me as follows concerning his lin- 
guistic work : 

Ayb, Nebb., November 5, 1888. 

DbabSiu: I entered upon my work among 
the Creeks December 25, 1832, which, in my 
fifth year, was brought suddenly and unex- 
pectedly to a termination through causes over 
which I had no control. It was sudden expul- 
sion on the charge of abolition— that I was seek- 
ing the liberation of the few slaves who were 
within the bounds of the territory. The charge 
was utterly withont foundation, but the agent 
gave credence to the charge and ordered me out. 

As I said, I entered on my work there on the 
25th of December, 1832. I was under appoint- 
ment from the A. B. of F. Missions in Boston, 
and was the pioneer missionary, or the first ever 
especially designated to the Muskogee nation. 
The acquisition of their language was the first 
work that engaged my attention. Securing a 
young man who was familiar with the English, 
I had to construct an alphabet in which I 
could reduce the langu >ge to writing, as it bad 
never been as yet a written language. In this 
I was graatly aided by the adoption, to a great 
extent, of Pickering's system, and I am sorry 
that it was not subsequently retained by tUoso 
who have followed me in tbat mission work. 
The Muskogee language is not a difficult lan- 
guage to acquire. It is remarkably regular iu 
the construction of its verbs, and having se- 
cured the root of the verb, it can be run with 
ease through its persons, moods, and tenses. 

^was enamored with the language, and to 
secure its speedy acquisition separated myself 
from my family days and weeks at a time, living 
in families where I heard only their own lan^ 
guage among themselves. To construct an ele« 
mentary book of short words and simple sen* 
tences, to meet the necessities of our little 
school, was my first effort at book -making. 

To furnish hymns in their own language for 
use in our Sabbath services was among my 
earliest efforts to meet the wants of the people. 
I had in this work an excellent assistant in the 
person of James Perry man, at the time a mem- 
ber of my church. He was not a full-blood 
Indian, but was an earnest and faithful worker 
in the elevation of his people. In addition to 
the goodly number of hymns which I secured, 
I wrote a short essay on creation and the re- 
demption of the world by Christ; and this 
with the hymns formed one book. The manu- 
script of my elementary book was now ready 
for publication, and I sent all to Boston, where 
they were printed— in how large an edition I 
can not now say— and duly returned to me at 
my mission in the Indian Territory. 

It was very soon after the return of my 
printed works from Boston that the calamity 
to which I have referred in the beginning of 
this short sketch of my mission life among the 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



35 



Fleming (J.)— Continued. 

Creeks overtook me, and in the haste and per- 
turbation in which I was harried oat of the 
nation I forgot to carry any copies of my works 
with me. But my labors there daring the few 
years I spent on that field have been warmly and 
gratefolly acknowledged by those who have 
sacceeded me. 

Polsom {Capt. David). See Wright (A.) 
and Byington (C.) 
Captain David Folsom was the son of Na- 
' tbaniel Eolsom, a white man, by a Choctaw 
woman. Before the commencement of the 
mission, in 1818, he had gone to the State of 
Tennessee, I believe, and there had attended 
school six months. On his retnm ho found his 
people still living without chairs, tables, or 
other furniture, as he had left them. His first 
impulse was to abandon them and take up his 
abode among the whites. Afterwards he con- 
cluded to stay and set them a better example. 
When the missionaries came be gave them a 
most cordial welcome and all the help he 
could, as they bad come to teach his people. At 
first the chief interpreters were white men 
who had learned the language. They said the 
gospel could not be interpreted into the Choc- 
taw; Folsom said it could, and encouraged 
them. When the missionaries were learning 
the language they often went to him for help. 
"I could only give it to them rough," he said ; 
but Ue helped them all he could. He was the 
first elected chief, and was repeatedly chosen 
to that position. The date of his death I 
know not, but it was prior to my com'ng to 
the nation in IS51.— Edwards. 

Folsom (E. W.), editor. See Star Vindi- 
cator. 
Folsom {Rev. Israel). Cbibowa itn 
auumpa ilbrslia. 

In Robb (C), Choctaw Baptist Hymn Book, 
p. C8, St. Louis, 1880, oblong 12°. 
A prayer in the Choctaw language. 

Pin cbitokakaim anumpab ilbf 3sba. 

lu Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. March, 1887, 4°. 

The Lord's prayer iu the Choctaw language ; 
heading as above. 

See Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 



Forc]ihammer(/Vo/. — .) Vergleicbung 
dor anierikauiHcben Spracben mi t den 
ural-altaiscben binsicbtlicb ibrer Gram- 
matik. 

In Congrds int. des Americauiistus, compte 
rendu de la seconde se.«tsiou, vol. 2, pp. 56-75, 
Luxembourg et Paris, 1878, 8^. 

The American language chiefly treated of is 
the Choctaw. 

This is not a full memoir, but a resume pre- 
sented to the congress by Mr. Prosper Mul- 
lendorff. 
Four gospels * * Cboctaw. See 
Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 

[Fritz ( Jobann Friedrlcb) and Schiiltze 
{B.)f editors.'l Orientaliscb;? und Occi- 
dentaliscber , Spracbmeister, | welcber 
I niebt allein bundert Alpbabeto | uebst 
ibrer Ausspracbe, ] so bey denen meisten 
I Europiiiscb^ Asiatiscb^ Africaniscbi 
nnd 1 Americaniscben Volokern und 
Nationen | gebriiucblicb sind, { audi 
einigen Tabulis Polyglottis verscbie- 
dener \ Spracben und Zableu vor Augen 
logot, I Sondern aiicb | das Gebet des 
Herrn, | in 200 Spracben und Mund< 
Arten mit derselben Cbaractercn und 
Lesung, nacb cincr | geograpbiscben 
Ordnung niittbeilet. | Aus glaubwiir- 
digen Auctorlbus zusainnien getragcn, 
und mit ' darzu uotbigen Knpfern 
verseben. | 

Leipzig, I zu flnden bey Cbristian 
Friedricb Gessnern. | 1748. 

10 p. U. pp. 1-224, 1-128, appendix 7 11. 8^ 
The preface is subscribed by Fritz, but a dedi- 
cation, which precedes it, is by Scbiiltzo, who 
had been a Danish missionary at Tranquebar 
and whose good offices Fritz acliuowledges. 
It is probable ho was the real editor of tho work. 

Short vocabulary (4 words) of a number of 
American languages, among them tho Choctaw 
and Creek, appendix, p. 6 (unnumbered). 

Copies seen: Astor. British Museum, Trum- 
bull. 



G. 



Gallatin (Albert). A synopsis of tbo In- 
dian tribes witbin tbe United States 
east of the Rocky Mountains, and in tbe 
British and Russian possessionsin North 
America. By the Hon. Albert Gallatin. 

In American Antiquarian Boc. Trans. (Ar- 
chaDologia Americana), vol. 2, pp. 1-122, Cam- 
bridge. 1836, 8^. 

Grammatic notice of the Choctaw (from 



Gallatin (A.) — Continued. 

Missionary Spelling Book and Alfred Wright's 
notes), pp. 252-256; of the Muskoghs (from 
Compare), pp. 256-258.— Vocabulary of the 
Chocta (from Wright), pp. 305-367, 382-396, 
405-406 ; of tho Chicaaas, pp. 305-367 ; of the 
Muskhogoe, pp. 305-367, 372, 382-396, 405-400 ; 
of the Hitchitee, p. 377. — Select sentences in 
Muskhogee and Chocta, pp. 408-413.— Lord's 
prayer in Muskhogee, p. 421. 



36 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Gallatin (A.) — Continued. 
Hale's Indians of North-West Amer- 
ica, and vocabularies of North America ; 
with an introduction. By Albert Gal- 
latin. 

In American Ethnological Soc. Trans, vol. 2, 
pp. xxiii-clxxxviii, 1-130, New York, 1848,8°. 

Comparative vocabulary of the Chocta and 
Muskhogee (97 words), p. cxii.— Vocabulary of 
the Choctaw and Muakhog (about 180 words), 
pp. 82-88. 

A comparative vocabulary of the 

Ucheo, Natches, Muskohgue, & Hitchit- 
tee languages. • 

Manuscript in the library of the American 
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 

It is a copy made by Mr. Duponceaa, and 
forms No. LXIII of a collection made by him 
and recorded in a folio account-book, of which 
it occupies pp. 180-186. 

It is arianged in 5 columns, the English oc- 
cupying the first, and contains about 225 words. 
On p. 185 is "Additional Muskhogue [words 
I about 20)], by Kidge." Then follow 2 col- 
umns Uchee and Natches words and phrases. 

Albert Gallatin was born in Geneva, Switz- 
erland, January 29, 1761, and died in Astoria, 
L. I. August 12, 1849. He was descended from 
an ancient patrician family of Geneva, whose 
name had long been honorably connected with 
the history of Switzerland. His father, Jean 
Gallatin, was engg-ged in trade, and died when 
the boy was two years old, while his mother, 
Sophie Albertine Rolaz du Rosey, survived 
her husband seven years. Young Albert, who 
had been baptized by the name of Abraham 
Alfonso Albert, was confided to the care of 
Mademoiselle Pictet, a relative of his father, 
and from her he received his early education. 
In 1773 he was sent to a boarding-school, and a 
year later entered the University of Geneva, 
where he was graduated in 1779, standing first in 
mathematics, natural philosophy, and Latin 
translation. The liberal spirit of the times was 
not without its influence on the young man. 
His grandmother, Madame Susanue Gallatiu- 
Vandenet, was a woman of strong character, 
with many friends, among whom were Fred- 
erick, landgrave of Hesse Cassel, and Voltaire. 
Through her influence a commission of lieuten- 
ant-colonel in the Hessian troops, then serving 
in America, was offered to Gallatin ; but he de- 
clined it, saying that he would "never serve a 
tyrant." In opposition to the wishes of his 
family he secretly left Geneva in April, 1780, 
with his college friend, Henri Serre, for Amer- 
ica, where they might " drink in a love for in- 
dependence in the freest country of the Uni- 
verse." He sailed from I'Orient late in May, 
1780, and reached Boston on July 14. * * * 
He entered Congress on December 7, 1795, as 
a follower of James Madison, who was then the 



Gallatin (A.) — Continued. 

leader of the Republican opposition, and con- 
tinued a member of that body until his appoint- 
mentas Secretary ofthe Treasury in 1801. * * » 
When Thomas Jefferson became President, 
Gallatin was made secretary of the treasury, 
and held the oflice continuously until 1813. * * * 
His services were rewarded with the appoint- 
ment of minister to France in February, 1815, 
but he spent some time in travel both in Europe 
and in the United States, finally entering on the 
duties of his office in January, 1816. Mean- 
while he took part in the commercial conven- 
tion held in London during the summer of 1815. 
During his career in Paris he aided John 
Qttincy Adams in preparing a commercial 
treaty with Great Britian, and also was associ- 
ated with "William Eustis in negotiating a 
treaty with the Netherlands in 1817. He left 
France in 1823 and returned to the United 
States, where he was occupied for some time in 
attention to his private affairs, refusing a seat 
in the cabinet as secretary of the navy and de- 
clining to be a candidate for the vice-presi- 
dency, to which he was nominated by the 
Democratic party. In 1826, at the solicitation 
of President Adams, he accepted the appoint- 
ment of envoy extraordinary to Great Britain, 
and negotiated commercial treaties by means 
of which full indemnification was obtained from 
England for injuries that had been sustained by 
citizens of the United States in consequence of 
violations of the treaty of Ghent. On his return 
to the United States he settled in New York 
City, where, from 1831 till 1839, he was president 
- of the National Bank of New York. * * * 
In 1842 he was associated in the establish- 
ment of the American Ethnological Society, 
becoming its first president, and in 1843 he was 
elected to hold a similar office in the New York 
Historical Society, an honor which was an- 
nually conferred on him until his death. His 
scientific publications include "Synopsis of 
the Indian Tribes within the United States 
East of the Rocky Mountains, and in the British 
and Russian Possessions in North America " 
(Cambridge, 1836), and "Notes on the Semi- 
Civilized Nations of Mexico, Yucatan, and 
Central America, with Conjectures on the Ori- 
gin of Semi-Civilization in America" (New 
York, lSi5). ^Appleton's Cyclop, of Am. Biog. 

Gatschet : This word following a title or within pa- 
rentheses after a note indicates that a copy ofthe 
work referred to has been seen by the compiler 
in the library of Mr. Albert S. Gatschet, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Qatschet (Albert Samuel). Adjectives 
of color in Indian languages. By Albert 
S. Gatschet. 

In American Naturalist, vol. 13, pp. 475-485, 
Philadelphia, 1879, 8°. 

Creek adjectives of color, pp. 482-483, 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



37 



Gatschet (A. S.) — Continued. 
Maskoki [its derivation and mean- 
ing; also "Hitchiti"]. , 
In American Antiquarian, vol. 2, pp. 171-172, i 
Chicago, 1879-80, 8°. I 
Contains Hitchiti and Creek tenns. I 

Qnelqucs noms g^ograpbiques du 

snd-est des fitats-Unis d^Amdrlque. 

In Kevne de Linguistiqne, vol. 15, pp. 293- 
299, Paris, 1882, 8°. 

Indian (Cherokee and Maskoki) names of 
prominent geographic features in Georgia, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, Florida, North Carolina, and 
Tennessee. 

Brinton's library of | aboriginal 

American literature. | Number IV. | A j 
migration legend | of tbe | Creek In- 
dians, I witb a linguistic, bistoric and : 
ethnographic | introduction, | by | ; 
Albert S. Gatschet, | of the U. S. Bureau ; 
of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. ', Vol- 
ume I. ! [Three lines quotation.] | 

Philadelphia: 1 D. G. Brinton. | 1884. 

Vol. 2, first title: A I migration legend | 
of the i Creek Indians, ; texts and glossaries in 
Creek and Hitchiti, with a linguistic, historic, 
and ethnographic | introduction and commen- 
tary, I by ; Albert S. Gatschet, ; of the U. S. 
Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. I Vol- 
ume II. I . 1 

St. Louis, Mo. : i printed for the author. | I 
1888. ! 

Second title : TcliikilU's Kasi'hta legend | in 
the I Creek and Hitchiti Languages, , with a | 
critical commentary and full glossaries to both 
texts, I by | Albert S. Gatschet. ] of the U. S. 
Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. \ 
IThree lines quotation.] ; Copyrighted. 1888. 
All rights reserved. | i 

St. Louis, Mo. I printed by R. P. Studley Sc \ 
CO. 1 1888. i 

2 vols. : title verso copyright etc. 1 1. general 
title of the series verso blank 1 1. note preface \ 
and contents pp. iii-vii, text pp. 9-231 ; first 
title verso blank 1 1. second title p. 1, preface ; 
pp. 2-3, text pp. 4-193, index to the two vol- I 
nmes pp. 194-205, errata pp. 206-207 ; maps, 8°. | 
The second volume has two paginations, one ' 
as above and oho in brackets (beginning with ! 
the preface), pp. 34-239. The latter is the ! 
numbering of vol. 5 of the St Louis Academy j 
of Sciences Transactions, of which it forms a , 
part. The two maps which should have 
accompanied the first volume arc included 
in the second. A note at the bottom of vol. 2, 
p. 73, says: "The Creek text appears in this 
volume [pp. 8-25] in a revised and correct 
ehapo, and parties owning the first volume 
should therefore remove pp. 237-251 [of the 
first volume] before sending it to the biuder." 
Linguistic groups of the Gulf States, vol. 1, 
pp. 10-49.— The common Maskoki language 
(pp. 53-58) includes, p. 56, a comparative table of 



Gatschet (A. S.) — Continued. 

39 words which corresx>ond in two or more 
of the following dialects : Cha'hta, Chicasa, AH- 
bamu, Koassati, Creek, Seminole, Hitchiti, Apa- 
lachi, Mikasuki, p. 56. -The name Maskoki. its 
use and signification, pp. 58-62.— Hunter's song 
in Hitchiti, with English translation, p.79.— 
The Hitchiti dialect, pp. 83-85.— A few terms in 
which Chicasa differs from main Cha'hta, p. 90.— 
The Cha*hta language, pp. 116-118.— List of 
Creek towns, with English signification, pp. 
124-151. — List of Creek gentes, with deriva- 
tions, pp. 155-156. — Creek war-names and war- 
titles, with English signification, pp. 161-164.— 
Creek medical plants, with English significa- 
tions, pp. 178-179.— The Creek dialect, pp. 198- 
213.— Tchikilli's Kasi'hta Legend, the text, 
followed by translation into English, pp. 235- 
251.— The Creek text of the legend, with En- 
glish translation on alternate pages, vol. 2, pp. 
8-19.— The Hitchiti text, pp. 20-25.— Explana- 
tory and critical remarks, pp. 26-71 —Direc- 
tions for the use of the two glossaries, pp. 
72-75.— Creek glossary, alphabetically arranged 
by Creek words, pp. 74-130.— Special directions 
for the use of the Hitchiti glossary, pp. 131- 
133.— Hitchiti glossary, alphabetically arranged 
by Hitchiti words, pp. 134-179.— Bart ram's list 
of Maskoki towns, p. 180.— Topographic list of 
the Creek towns and villages, pp. 181-182.— 
The Creek towns of Georgia, p. 182.— Li»t of 
towns now extant in the Creek Nation, Indian 
Territory, pp. 184-186.— The Creek towns in the 
war of 1813-14, pp. 189-190— Yuchi-Maskoki 
loan-words, pp. 190-191.— Cberoki- Maskoki 
loan-words, pp. 191-192.— Naktcho- Maskoki 
loanwords, pp. 192-193. 

"TchiklUi, the head-chief of the Upper and 
Lower Creeks, delivered the legend in an allo- 
cution held before Governor James Oglethorpe, 
at Savannah, Georgia, in the year 1735. The 
British colonial authorities and people were 
present, and also some sixty men of Tchikilli's 
Indian retinue. After delivery, the interpreter 
handed it over (written upon a buffalo-skin) to 
the colonists, and the same year it was brought 
to England. It appears from an article in the 
'American Gazetteer,' London, 1762, vol. li. 
Art. Georgia, that the contents were written 
in red and black characters (pictographic signs, 
we suppose), and that afterwards it was hung 
up in the Georgia office, in Westminster, 
London. Upon Dr. D. G. Brinton's request, 
Mr. Nicholas Trilbner sought to trace this pic- 
tured relic in the London offices, but without 
success. The text of the narrative ha« been 
fortunately preserved in a German translation, 
and this is far more important for us than the 
preservation of the painted buffalo-skin would 
be. It is found in a collection of German 
pamphlets treating of American colonies, pub- 
lished from 1735 to 1741. The title of the first 
volume runs as follows: Ausfuehrliche Nach- 
richt von den Saltzburgischen Emigrautcn, die 
sich iu America nicdergelassen haben. Worin, 
etc. etc. ; lierausgegoben von Samuel Urlsper- 



38 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Gatschet (A. S.) — Continued. 

ger, Hallo, MDCCXXXV. Oar legend is con- 
tained on pp. 8G9 to 876 of this first volame, and 
forms the sixth chapter of Von Reek's ' Jonr- 
nal,' the title of which raos as follows : Herrn 
Philipp Georg Friedrichs von Reck Diarinm 
von Seiner Reise nach Georgien im Jahr 1735. 
This officer had been the commissary of the 
Gorman Protestant emigrants, whom religious 
persecution had expelled from Salzburg, the 
capital of Styria, their native city. 

"After Dr. Brinton had discovered the legend 
in that collection and studied it, he prepared a 
publication on the subject, which appeared in 
the 'New York Historical Magazine,' Morris- 
nuia, April, 1870, under the title ' The National 
Lcgendof the Ciiahta-Muskokee Tribes,' 13pp. 
This article also embodies a shorter narrative 
of the same legend, preserved by B. Hawkins, 
in his 'Sketch,' pp. 81-83, which is instructive 
in many respects and locates the place where 
the Kasi'hta, Kawita, and Chicasa ' originated,' 
west of the. Mississippi River. Dr. Brinton's 
English rendering is reproduced in this volume 
and formed the basis for the retranslation of the 
legend into the Creek and Hitchiti dialects, 
which was satisfactorily accomplished by my 
friend. Judge Geo. W. Stidham, who is a bom 
Hitchiti Indian, now residing in Eufaula, Ind. 
T. I have subsequently revised the Indian 
texts, and especially the glossaries, with the 
aid of other Indians familiar with the same dia- 
lects. "—Prc/a<^. 

Copies seen: Bureau of Ethnology, Eames, 
Gatschet, Pilling, Powell. 

The first volume priced by Clarke & Co., in 
1886, No. 6704, $3; by Leclerc in 1887, No. 3227, 
15 fr. ; by Hicrscmann, of Leipsic, No. 435 of 
cat. No. 30, 13 M ; and by Koehlcr, of Leipsic, 
No. 312 of cat. No. 465, 10 M. My copy of the 
second volume cost me $2. 

Vol. 1 reviewed in Science, vol. 4, pp. 499-500, 
Cambridge, Mass., 1884 ; also iu the Critic, the 
Americau Antiquarian, and the Literary 
World. 

Since the above description of Gatschet's 
Migration legend was seni to the printer, a. 
coi)y of vol. 5 of the Transactions of the Saint 
Louis Academy of Sciences has reached me, and 
I hero insert the half-title of vol. 2, which ap- 
pears therein, asproof passes through my hands. 

Tcliikilli^s Kasi'lita Legend in the 

Creek autl | Hitchiti Langnages, | with 
a I critical commentary and fall glos- 
saries to both texts, 1 by j Albert S. 
Gatschet, | of the U. S. Bureau of Eth- 
nology, Washington, D. C. | [Three 
lines quotation.] | Copyrighted. 18SS. 
All rights reserved. | 

Half-title p. 1 [33], preface, text, etc. as 
given above. 

Copiessecn: Bureau of Ethnology, Gnt'chet. 



Gatschet (A. S.) — Continued. 

On the substantive verb in some 

North American languages, by Albert 
S. Gatschet. 

In American Philolog. Ass. Trans, vol. 15, 
appendix, pp. xxvi-xxxiii, Cambridge, 1885, 8®. 
"Maskoki Family" gives words and sen- 
tences in Creek, Hitchiti, and Cha^hta, pp. 
xxxii-xxxiii. 

Creek or Maskoki linguistic material 

obtained from General Pleasant Porter 
and Mr. D. M. Hodge, delegates of the 
Creek Nation to the United States Gov- 
ernment, 1879-'80. 

Manuscript, 4 11. folio, principally phrases 
and sentences. 

[Linguistic material of the Ch^'hta 

Language, as spoken in the parishes 
north of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisi- 
ana.] 

Manuscript, 82 11. 4°. Recorded in a copy of 
Powe'l's introduction to the study of Indian 
languages, 2d ed. It coii tains over 1,000 terms 
and sentences. Obtained from Indians in New 
Orleans, La., and at Mandeville, St Tammany 
Parish, La , 1881-82. 

[Words, phrases, and sentences iu 

the Alibamu language.] 

Manuscript, pp. I'-l?, sm. 4°. Collected March 
5, 1885, in "Wealaka, Creek NatioD, with the as- 
sistance of Charles Coachman, of Wetnmpka, 
Creek Nation, and recorded in a quarto blank 
book. 

Koass^ti. I Obtained from Mrs. Susan 

Hosmer, | a Koass(iti woman, at Musco- 
gee, Ind. Ter. | March 1835. | By Alb. S. 
Gatschet. 

Manuscript, 14 11. sm. 4° blank book. "Words, 
phrases, and sentences. 

Mask6ki or Creek | taken down | by 

Albert S. Gatschet, Bur. of Ethn. | 
from G. W.Xxrayson & others ; | Feb. 
1885, I at Eufaula, Ind. Ty. 

Manuscript, pp. 1-26. Consists of words, 
phrases, sentences, and text, in large part dup- 
licative and explanatory of the Creek column 
in the small quarto blank book next described. 

Na^htchi language. | Obtained by 

Albert S. Gatschet, at Eufaula, Creek 
Nation, Ind. Territory, 1 February 18S5. | 
Manuscript, pp. 1-83. Recorded in a small 
quarto blank book, stiff covers. Consists of 
words, phrases, sentences, gramraatic material, 
and texts, in English and Na'htchi. The 
Na'htchi is not a Muskhogean language, but 
the work is included in this bibliography be- 
cause a parallel column of the corresponding 



UnSKnOGEAN LANaUAGES. 



39 



Gatschet (A. S.) — Continued. 

Creek rans throagh the greater part of the 
book, the Indian assistant ("Mister L&sli," a 
pure Na'htcki) beins; able to turn Na'htchi into 
Creek better tlian into any other language. 

Creek Langaage. | Inflectional para- 
digm I of ] ndfkiia \ to strike. ] By Al- 
bert S. Gatscliefc. 1 1886. | 

Manuscript, 11. 1-133, 201-212, 301-303, 401-405. 
501-503, folio. The intervening vacant leaves 
were left to be filled at some future time. Ob- 
tained from George "W. Grayson, of Bufanla, 
Ind. T. 

Words, phrases and sentences , in 

the I Cha'hta language. | Collected in 
October, 1886, at Trout Creek, | Cata- 
houla Parish, Louisiana, j by | Albert 
S. Gatschet. 
Manuscript, 11 11. of a copy-book, am. 4°. 

Names and terms from [ the j Hitchiti 

language | obtained through Judge G. 
W. Stidham | of Enfaula, Creek Na- 
tion, I Ind. Terr. | by Alberts. Gatschet 
— Febr. 1886. 

Manuscript, pp. 1-3, foolscap. 

An ethnologic text, ] with glossary, [ 

in the | Hitchiti language | obtained 
through Judge G. W. Stidham, of Eu- 
faula. Creek Nation | Ind. Ty. ] by Al- 
bert S. Gatschet— February 1887. 
Manuscript, pp. 1-0, foolscap. 

Words, phrases and grammatic ele- 
ments I of the I Chicasa language | ob- 
tained from 1 Judson D wight Collins, | 
delegate of the tribe to the U. S. Gov*t, 
I by I Albert S. Gatschet. | 1889. 

Manuscript; title veno notice 1 1. pp. 3-39 ; a 
small quarto 1>1ank book of 20 11. or 40 pp. 

Belationships, etc. pp. 3-5. — Parts of human 
body, pp. 6-10.— Animals, pp. 11-14. — Plants, 
pp. 15-17. — Terms of topography, celestial bod- 
ies, etc. pp. 19-21. — Dwellings, manufactured 
articles, etc. pp. 23-30— Arts, professions, ro- 
ligion, pp. 32-33.— Adjectives, pp. 34-36.— Nu- 
merals, p. 36.— Verbs, pp. 37-39. 

Those manuscripts are in the library of the 
Bureau of Ethnology. In transcribing this 
material Mr. Gatschet has nsed the alphabet 
employed by the Bureau, with such modifica- 
tions or additions as were demanded by the lan- 
guage. 

Albert Samuel Gatschet was born in St. Beat- 
enberg, in the Bernese, Oberland, Switzerland, 
October 3, 1832. His propedeutic e<lucation 
was acquired in the lyceums of Neunhatel 
(1843-'45) and of Berne (1846 -'52), after which 
he followed courses in the universities of Berne 
and Berlin (1852-'58). His studies had for their 
object the ancient world in all its phases of 
religion, history, language, and art, and thereby 



Gatschet ( A. S.) — Continued. 

his attention was at an early day directed to 
philologio researches. In 1865 he began the 
publication of a series of brief monographs 
on the local etymology of his country, enti- 
tled "Ortsetymologische Forschungen aus der 
Schweiz" (1865-67). In 1867 he si>ent several 
months in London pursuing antiquarian studies 
in the British Museum. In 1868 he settled in 
New York and became a contributor to various 
domestic and foreign periodicals, mainly on 
scientific subjects. Drifting into a more atten- 
tive study of the American Indians, he pub- 
lished several compositions upon their lan- 
guages, the most important of which is " Z wolf 
Sprachen aus dem Siidwesten Nordamorikas," 
Weimar, 1876. This led to his being appointed 
to the position of ethnologist in the United 
States Geological Survey, under M^. John 
W. Powell, in March, 1877, when he removed to 
Washington, and first employed himself in ar- 
ranging the linguistic manuscripts of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, now the property of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, which forms a part of 
the Smithsonian Institution. Mr. Gatschet has 
ever since been actively connected with that 
bureau. To increase its linguistic collections, 
and to ext-end and intensify his own studies of 
the Indian languages, he has made extensive 
trips of linguistic and ethnologic exploration 
among the Indians of North America. After 
returning from a six montho' sojourn among 
the Klamaths and Kalapnyas of Oregon, set- 
tled on both 8ide»of the Cascade Kange, ho 
visited the Kataba in South' Carolina and the 
Gha*htaand Shetimasha of Louisiana in 1831-82, 
the Kayowe, Comanche, Caddo, Naktche, 
Modoc, and other tribes in tlie Indian Terri- 
tory, the Tonkawe and Lipnns in Texas, and 
the Atakapa Indians of Louisiana in 1884-'85. 
In 1883 he saw the Tlaskaltecs at Saltillo, 
Mexico, a remnant of the Nahua race, brought 
there about 1575 from Anahuac, and was the 
first to discover the affinity of the Boloxi lan- 
guage with the Siouan family. He also com- 
mitted to writing the Tunixka or Tonica lan- 
guage of Louisiana, never before investigated, 
and forming a linguistic family of itself. Ex- 
cursions to other parts of the country brought 
to his knowledge other Indian languages, like 
the Tuskarora, Caughnawaga, Penobscot, and 
Karankawa. 

Mr. Gatschet is compiling an extensive report 
embodying his researches among the Klamath- 
Lake and Modoc Indians of Oregon, which will 
form Vol. II of " Contributions to North Amer- 
ican Ethnology." Among the tribes and lan- 
guages discussed by him in separ.ito publica- 
tions are the Tiraucna (Florida), Toiikawe 
(Texas), Tuma (California, Arizona, Mexico), 
ChtimSto (California), Beothuk (Newfound- 
land), Creek and Hitchiti (Alabama). His 
numerous publications are scattered through 
magazines and government reports, some being 
contained in the Proceedings of the American 
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. 



40 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



General discussion 




Chikasaw 


See SchermerhoiTi (J. F.) 


Chikasaw 


Mcintosh (J.) 


Choctaw 


Edwards (J.) 


Choctaw 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Choctaw 


MiiUer (F.) 


Choctaw 


Rouquette (A.) 


Choctaw 


Eouquette (D.) 


Choctaw 


Schermerhorn (J. F.) 


Choctaw 


Ten Kate (H.F.C.) 


Choctaw 


Trumboll (J.H.) 


Creek 


Bondioot (E.) 


Creek 


Chateaubriand (F. A. 




de). 


Creek 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Creek 


Schermerhorn (J. F.) 


Hitchiti 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Muskoki 


Bartram (W.) 


Mnskokl 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Muskoki 


Mcintosh (J.) 


Maskoki 


Trumbull (J.H.) 


General rules i 


of the 1 United Societies 



I of the Methodist Episcopal | Church. 
I Translated into the Chahta language. 
I Mehlotist iksa | i nana vlhpisa puta. ] 
Chahta anumpa isht atoshowa hoke. | 

Park Hill. | Mission Press, John 
Candy, printer. | 1841. 

Pp. 1-24, 24®. 

Copies seen : American Board of Commission- 
era, Boston AthenflBum. 
Gentes : 



Chikasaw .^ 


See Morgan (L. H.) 


Choctaw 


Morgan (L. H.) 


Creek 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Creek 


Morgan (L.H.) 


Geographic names : 




Choctaw 


See Morgan (L. H.) 


Creek 


De Brahra (J.G.W.) 


Creek 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Creek 


Hawkins (B.) 


Muskoki 


Gatschet ( A. S.) 


Muskoki 


Haines (E.M.) 


Muskoki 


Pickett (A. J.) 


Muskoki 


Schoolcraft (H.R.) 


Seminole 


Hawkins (B.) 


Gibbs (George). 


Vocabulary of the 


Chikasaw. 




Manuscript, 10 11. 4°, 200 words. Collected 


iu 1866. 





Vocabulary of the Creek. 

Manuscript, 10 11. folio, 200 word.s Collected 
in 1866. 

Vocabulary of theHitchittie, or Mi- 

kasnki. 

Manuscript, 10 U. 4°, 200 words. Collected 
in 1866. 

These manuscripts are in the library of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. 

The following notes are compiled from a 
memorial tribute by John Austin Stevens, jr., 
read before the New York Historical Society, 
October 7, 1873 : 



Gibbs (G.) — Continued. 

George Gibbs, the son of CoL Geo. Gibbs, was 
bom on the 17th of July, 1815,at Sunswick, Long 
Island, near the village of Hallett's Cove, now 
known as Astoria. It was the intention of the 
father to give his son a West Point education 
and to fit him for an army career. As a pre- 
liminary stop he was sent to the Bound Hill 
School, at Northampton, Mass., then kept by 
Mr. George Bancroft, the historian, and Mr. 
Cogswell, the late learned and distinguished 
superintendent of the Astor Library. At 
seventeen, it having been found impossible to 
secure for the youth an appointment to the 
Military Academy, he was taken to. Europe, 
where he remained two years eiyoying the ad- 
vantage of foreign travel, observation, and 
study. On his return from Europe he com- 
menced the reading of law, and in 1838 took 
his degree of bachelor of law at Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

In 1848 Mr. Gibbs went overland from 
Saint Louis to Oregon, and established him- 
self at Columbia. In 1854 he received the ap- 
pointment of collector of the port of Astoria, 
which he held during Mr. Fillmore's administra- 
tion. Later he removed from Oregon to Wash- 
ington Teriitory, and settled upon a ranch a 
few miles from Fort Steilacoom. Here ho had 
his headquarters for several years, devoting 
himself to the study of the Indian languages, 
and to the collection of vocabularies and tra- 
ditions of the northwestern tribes. During a 
great part of the time he was attached to the 
United States Government Commission iu lay- 
ing the boundary, as the geologist or botanist 
of the expedition. He was also attached as 
geologist to the survey of a railroad route to 
the Pacific, under Mf^jor Stevens. In 1857 ho 
was appointed to the northwest boundary sur- 
vey, under Mr. Archibald Campbell, as com- 
missioner. 

In 1860 Mr. Gibbs returned to New York, 
and in 1861 was on duty in Washington in 
guarding the Capitol. 

Later he resided in Washington, being 
mainly employed in the Hudson Bay Claims 
Commission, to which he was secretary. Ho 
was also engaged in the arrangement of a large 
mass of manuscript bearing upon the ethnol- 
ogy and philology of the American Indians. 
His services were availed of by the Smithson 
ian Institution to superintend its laboi-s in this 
field, and to his energy and complete knowledge 
of the subject it greatly owes its success in 
this branch of the service. The valuable and 
laborious service which he rendered to tho In- 
stitution was entirely gratuitous, and in his 
death that establishment as well as tho cause 
of science lost an ardent friend and important 
contributor to its advancement. 

In 1871 Mr. Gibbs married his cousin. Miss 
Mary K. Gibbs, of Newport, R. I., and removed 
to New Haven, where he died on the 9th of 
April, 1873. 



KUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



41 



Glossary : 

Creek See Gaiscbet (A. S.) 
Hitcliitl Gatachet (A. S.) 

Muskoki RoberUon (A.E.W.) 

Goode {Rev. William Henry). Outposts 
of Zion, I with I limniDgs of mission life. 
I By I Rev. William H. Goode, | ten years 
a member of frontier conferences. | 

Cincinnati: | published by Poe & 
Hitchcock, I corner of Main and Eighth 
streets. | R. P. Thompson, printer. | 
1863. 

Title 1 1. preface pp. 3-4, contents pp. 5-19, 
half-title 1 1. text pp. 23-464, 8°. —Contains one 
verse (six lines) of a Choctaw hymn, p. 134 

Copies Been: Congress. 

Gospel according to John * * Choc- 
• taw. See "Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 
Gospel according to Luke * * Choc- 
taw. See "Wright (A.) and Byington 
(C.) 

Gospel according to Mark * * Choc- 
taw. See "Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 

Gospel according to Matthew * * Choc- 
taw. See "Wright (A.) and Byington 
(C.) 
G-rammar : 

Choctaw See Byington (C^ 

Choctaw Edwards (J.) 

Maskoki Backner (H. F.) and 

Herrod (G.) 
Grammatic comments : 

Chikasaw See Adeluog (J.C.) and 

Vater(J.S.) 
Chikasaw Featherman (A.) 

Chikasaw Gatschet (A.S.) 

Choctaw Adelung (J. C.) and 

Vater(J.S.) 
Choctaw Featherman (A.) 

Choctaw Gallatin (A.) 

Creek Featherman (A.) 

Creek Gatschet (A.S.) 

Creek Loughridge (R. M.) 

Creek Robertson (A. E. 

W.) 
Maskoki Adelung (J.C.) and 

Vater (J. S.) 
Muskoki Gallatin (A.) 

Muskoki Shea(J.G.) 

Seminole Sketch. 

Graznxnatic treatise : 
» Creek See Loughridge (R. M.) 

Muskoki Brinton (D.G.) 



Grasserie (Raoul do la). £tndes de 
grammaire compar6e. De la veritable 
nature du pronom. 

In Le Mus6on, voL 7, pp. 152-161, 292-301, 
Louvain, 1888, 8°. 

Some North American languages are re- 
ferred to and examples drawn from them— the 
Chiapandque, Choctaw, Nahuatl, and Qalch6; 
but the material relating to any one is small. 

Issued separately as follows : 

fitudes de | grammaire compar6e | 

De la veritable | nature du pronom | 
par I Raoul de la Grasserie | Docteur en 
droit, I Jnge au tribunal de Rennes, 
Membre de la Soci6t6 de Liuguistique 
de Paris. | (Extrait du Mus^on.) | 

Louvain | imprimerie Lefeverfr^res et 
sceur I 30, Rue des OrpUelins, 30 | 1888. 

Printed cover as above, title as above reverse 
blank 1 1. dedication (on verso, recto blank) 1 
1. text pp. 1-50, 8o. 

Copies seen: Gatschet. 

Grayson (George Washington). Este 
Maskoke vrahkv. 

In Indian Journal, voL 4, nos. 26-33, Musco- 
gee, Ind. T. March-April, 1880, folio. 

"For the sake of the Muskoki people." in the 
Muskoki language. ' 

Nak Onvkv. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 6, no. 40, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. June 9, 1881, folio. • (*) 

A legend, in the Muskoki language. 

Words, phrases, sentences, and con- 
jugations of the Maskoki or Creek lan- 
guage. 

Manuscript, pp. 77-228, 9 11. 4°, in the Bureau 
of Ethnologj'. Compiled during June, July, and 
August, 1885, at Eufaula, Ind. T., and recorded 
in a copy of Powell's Introduction to the Study 
of Indian Languages, second edition. AU the 
schedules except Nos. 15 and 17 are wall filled. 
The 9 11. at end are filled with extended conju- 
gations of the equivalents of the verbs to eat 
and to go. 

See Gatschet (A. S.) 

editor. See Indian Journal. 

George TVashington Grayson, nearly a full- 
blood Creek, was born near Eufaula, Ind. T., in 
June, 1843. He attended a boarding-school 
near by some three or four years, and was then 
sent to a school in Fayettevi;le, Ark. ; but his 
studies were broken up by the war. More re- 
cently he has represented the Interests of the 
Creeks before the Departments and committees 
of Congress at Washington. 



42 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OP THE 



H. 



Haikischika ik acbukmo [Cboctaw]. 
See Williams (L. S.) 

Haines (Elijah Middlebrook). The | 
American Indian | (Uh-nish-iu-na-ba). | 
The Whole Subject Complete in One 
Volume. I Illustrated with Numerous 
Appropriate Engravings. | By Elijah 
M. Haines. | [Design.] | 

Chicago : | the Mas-sin-na'-gan com- 
pany, I 1888. 

Title verso copyright notice etc. 1 L preface 
pp. vii-viii, contents and list of illustrations pp. 
9-22, text pp. 23-821, 8°.— Names of the moons 
or months of the Creeks, p. 431.— Hitchittee or 
Chell-okee numerals 1-1000 (from Captain 
Casey), pp. 440-441.— Choctaw numerals 1-10, p. 
447; Muskogee (from Adair), p. 448; Choktah 
and Chiksah (from Adair), p. 448.— Muscogee or 
Creek vocabulary (70 words), pp. 673-674.— 
Four words (I, thou, yes, no) in Choctaw, p. 
676.— Indian geographical names, alphabetically 
arranged, with derivations (from Heckewelder, 
Schoolcraft, Trumbull, Morgan, and others), 
containing some Muakhogean, pp. 704-806. 

Copies seen : Congress, Pilling. 

Haldeman (Samuel Stehman). Analytic 
orthography M ^^ I investigation of the 
sounds of the voice, | and their | alpha- 
betic notation ; | including { the mechan- 
ism of speech, | and its bearing upon { 
etymology. | By | S. S. Haldeman, A. 
M., I professor in Delaware college ; | 
member [&c. six lines]. | 

Philadelphia: | J. B. Lippincott & 
CO. I London: TrUbner & co. Paris: 
Benjamin Duprafr. | Berlin : Ferd. 
Dttmmler. | 1860. 

Half title "Trovely.in prize essay" ver.so 
blank 1 1. title as above vcr.-*o blank 1 1. pp. v- 
viii, 5-148, 1 1.4°. — Lord's prayer in Cherokee 
and Wyandot, with interlinear tran.slation, pp. 
132-134.— Numerals 1-10 of the Crook and Choc- 
taw, p. 144. 

Copies seen : Boston Athenroum, British Mu- 
seum, Bureau of Ethnology, Eamos, Trumbull. 

Samuel Stehman Haldeman, naturalist, was 
born in Locust Grove, Lancaster County, Pa. 
Angust 12, 1812 ; died in Chickies, Pa. Septem- 
ber 10, 1880. He was educated at a classical 
school in Harrisburg, and then spent two years 
in Dickinson College, but was not graduated. 
Scientific pursuits wereapproved by hisparents, 
but for a time he was compelled to manage a 
siiw-niill. In 1836 Henry D. Rogers, having 
been appointed state geologist of New Jersey, 
sent for Mr. Haldeman, who had been his pupil 
at Dickinson, to assist him. A year later, on 



Haldeman (S. S.) —Continued. 

the reorganization of the Pennsylvania geolog- 
ical survey, Haldeman was transferred to hia 
own State, and was actively engaged on Iho 
survey until 1842, preparing five annual re- 
ports, and personally surveying the counties of 
Dauphin and Lancaster. * * ♦ Professor 
Haldeman made numerous visits to Europe for 
purposes of research, and when studying the 
human voice in Rome determined the vocal 
r6pertoire of between forty and fifty varieties 
of human speech. His car was remarkably 
delicate, and he discovered anew organ of sound 
in lepidopterous insects, which was described 
by him in Silliman's "American Journal of 
Science" in 1848. He made extensive re- 
searches among Indian dialects, and also in 
Pennsylvania Dutch, besides investigations in 
the English, Chinese, and other languages.— 
AppUton's Cyclop, of Am. Diog. 

Hale (Horatio). Indian migrations, as 
evidenced by language. 

In American Antiquarian and Oriental Jour- 
nal, vol. 5, pp. 18-28, 108-124, Chicago, 1883, 8^. 

Words showing similarity between Cherokee, 
Choctaw, and Chicasa, p. 120. 

Issued separately as follows : 

Indian migrations, | as evidenced by 

language: | comprising | The Huron- 
Clierokee Stock: The Dakota Stock: 
The Algonkins : | The Chahta-Mnskoki 
Stock: The Monndbuilders : | The 
Iberians. | By Horatio Hale, M. A. | A. 
Paper read at a Meeting of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advance- ] ment 
of Science, held at Montreal, in Angnst, 
1832. I Reprinted from the "American 
Antiquarian" for January and April, 

i8a3. 1 

Chicago: | Jameson & Morse, Print- 
ers, 162-164 Clark St. 1 1883. 

Printed cover as above, tiile as above verso 
blank 1 1. text pp. 1-27, 8°. 

Copies seen : Brinton, Eamcs, Pilling, Pow* 
ell, Trumbull. 

Clarke, 1886, No. 6418, prices a copy 35 cents. 

Horatio Hale, ethnologist, born in Newport, 
N. H., May 3, 1817, was graduated at Harvard in 
1837, and was appointed in the same year phil- 
ologist to the TTnited States exploring expedi- 
tion under Capt. Charles Wilkes. In thi* ca- 
pacity he studied a large number of the lan- 
guages of the Pacific Islands, as well as of 
North and South America, Australia, and 
Africa, and also investigated the history, tradi- 
tions, and customs of the tribes speaking those 
languages. The results of his inquiries are 
given in his "Ethnography and Philology " 



HUSKHOGEAN LANOnAOBS. 



43 



Hale (II.) — Continued. 

Philadelphia, 1846), which forms the seventh 
volame of the oxpedition reports. Dr. Bobert 
G. Latham, the English philologist, speaks of 
it as comprising "the greatest mass of philo* 
logical data ever accamalated by a single in- 
qnirer." On the completion of this work he 
spent some years in travel and in literary 
and scientific studies, both in Europe and in 
the United States. Sabscquontly he stndied 
law, and was in 1855 admitted to the bar in | 
Cliicago. A year later ho removed to Canada 
to take charge of an estate acquired by mar- 
riage. Mr. Hale took up his residence in the 
town of Clinton, Ontario, whore he has since 
devoted his time in part to the practice of his 
profession and in part to scientific pursuits. He 
has published numerous memoirs on anthropol- 
ogy and ethnology, is a member of many learned 
societies both in Europe and in America, and 
in 1886 was vico-presidont of the American As- 
sociation for tlie Advancement of Science, 
presiding over the section of anthropology. 
His inlroductory address, on "The Origin of 
Languages and the Antiquity of Speaking 
Man," proposed some novel theories, which 
have excited much interest and discussion. 
His other publications include "Indian Migra- 
tions as evidenced by Language" (Chicago, 
1883), " Tlic Iroquois Book of Rites " (PbiUdel- 
phia, 1883), and a "Report on the Blackfoot 
Tribes," presented to the British Association 
for the Advancement ofScience at its Aberdeen 
meeting in l^o.—Appleton's Oydop. of Am. 
Biog. 

Hambly ( Miss Wilmot). See Loughridge 

(R. M.) and "Winslett (D.) 
See Loughridge (R. M.), "Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson ( VV. S. ) 

Hancock (Siuion): [A letter in the 
Choctaw language.] 

In Indian Mis'«ionary, . vol. 3, no. 7, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. July, 1887, 4°. 

The letter is add ressM to the editor, is dated 
" Sanbai Kaunti, ('lion 27, '87," and signed with 
the above name, and occupies about one-third 
of a column of the paper. 

[Haijo {Bev. If. M.)] Etenfvccofcv. 

In Maslcogce Tlioenix, vol. 1, no. 52, supple- 
ment, Muskogee, Ind. T. February 7, 1889, folio. 

Articles of cession and agreement, in tlie 
Creek language ; a treaty entered into at Wash- 
ington, January 19, 1883, between the United 
States and the Muskogee Nation of Indians, 
wherel>y the latter cede the western part of 
their country. The English text appears on 
the first page of the same paper. 

Issued separately as follows: 

I ] The treaty. Etenfvccotv. 

Colophon: Pres-s of Muskogee Pboo- 
Dix, 1889. 

2 II. or 4 unnumboro<l pp. 8°. The English 



Haxjo (H. M.) — Continaed. 

text, headed '* The treaty," occnpies the first 2 
pp. and is in double columns; the Creek, 
headed "Etenfvccotv," occupies the last 2 pp. 
and is in a single column of double width. The 
above colophon crosses the foot of pp. 2 and 3 
in a single line. 

Copies seen : Eames, Pilling, Powell. 

Harrison {Rev. Peter). See Loughridge 
(R. M.) and "Winslett (D.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.), "Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson ( W. S.) 

and Aspberry (D. P.) The ; Mas- 

koke hymns, i Prepared and translated 
by I Rev. P. Harrison and D. P. Asp- 
berry, I native missionaries, j 

Park Hill: | Mission Press: J. Candy 
and E. Archer, printers. | 1847. 

Pp. 1-101, 24°. Includes also the ten com- 
mandments. Lord's prayer, and chief com- 
mandments. 

Copies seen : Boston AthenfBum. 

The i Mnskoke spelling book. | 

Prepared by j Rev. P. Harrison and D. 
P. Aspberry, | native missionaries. | 
Mvskokvlke en nakgvkvg. | 

Park Hill, Cherokee Nation: j Mission 
Press: Edwin Archer, printer. | 1847. 

Pp. 1-36. 24°. 

Copies seen : Boston Athonficum, 
Harvard: This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to has been seen by the 
compiler in the library of Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Hatak yoshnba [Choctaw]. See Will- 
iams (L. S.) 
Hawkins (Benjamin). A j sketch of the 
Creek country 1 in 1798 and 99. | By | 
Col. Benjamin Hawkins, | U. S. agent 
for Indian affairs. | With an introduc- 
tion and historic sketch ] of the | Creek 
confederacy. | By W. B. Hodgson, | of 
Savannah, Georgia. | 

New York: [ Bartlett & Welford. | 
1848. 

Title verso blank I 1. introduction pp. 3-4, 
sketch of the author pp. 5-11, text pp. 13-88, 8°. 
Forms vol. 3, pt 1, Georgia Historical Society 
collections. A few Creek words, pp. 8-9.— The 
towns on Chat-to-hoche, p. 25. —The towns on 
Coo-sau and Tal-la-poo-sa, p. 25.— The towns of 
the Seminoles, p. 26.— Names of physic plants 
and a number of Crock terms passim. 

Copies seen: Congress. 

A sketch of the Creek country with 

a description of the tribes, government, 
and customs of the Creek Indians. By 



44 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Hawkins (B.) — Continued. 
Colonel Benj. Hawkins, for twenty 
years resident agent of that Nation. 
Preceded by a memoir of the author 
and a history of the Creek confederacy. 

Published by the Georgia Historical 
Society. Savannah. 1848. (*) 

1 p. 1. 88pp. 83. Title from Sabin'e Dictiouary, 
No. 30947, and Field's Essay, No. 668. 

The Field copy, No. 926, sold for |3.50. 

Extracts from this work, includins: a few 
linfjuistic terms, will he fonnd in Pickett (A. 
J.), History of Alabama, Charleston, ISM, 12o. 
(Congress.) And in White (G.), Statistics of 
the State of Georgia, Savannah, 1849, 8°. (Con- 
gress.) 

A comparative vocabulary of the 

Mnskhogce or Creek, CJiickasaw, 
Choktaw and Cherokee languages. 
By the late Col. Benjamin Hawkins, 
late agent of the United States to the 
Creek nation, and by him communi- 
cated to Mr. Jefferson. [1790?] 

Manuscript in the library of the American 
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia; a copy 
by Dnponcean, forming No. VII of a collection 
made by him, and occupying pp. 26-41 of a folio 
account-book. The vocabularies occupy facing 
pages, the English, Creek, and Chickasaw on 
the left, the Choktaw and Cherokee on the right. 
There are about 300 words and phrases of each 
language. 

The Cherokee is by Judge Campbell, and 
was copied by Duponcoau from another manu- 
script In the same library, for comparison. 

"The author was for more than thirty jears 
employed by the Government of the United 
States in its interconrso with the Indians. He 
was styled by the Creeks. Choctaws, Chicka- 
saws, and Cherokees the Beloved Man of the 
Four Nations. He wrote eight volumes of 
material relating to the history of the various 
Indian tribes with whom he treated. These 
volumes are filled with details of treaties, *■ * * 
vocabularies of Indian languages * * * 
This treatise is filled with sketches of all these 
particulars as existing in the Creek Nation." — 
Field's Essay, p. 1C2. 

Vocabulary of the Cherokee (over 

hill) and Choctaw Languages. Com- 
municated to Mr. Jefferson by Col. Ben- 
jamin Hawkins. [1790T] 

Manuscript in the library of the American 
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia,- a copy, 
forming No. VI of a collection by Duponceau 
occupying pp. 21-25 of a folio account book. 
The vocabulary is arranged in triple columns- 
English, Cherokee, and Choctaw— and consists 
of 160 words of each. 

The following extract is from a letter from 
Washington to Lafayette, which may be found 



Ha'wkins (B.) — Continued. 

in vol. 9 of Sparks's •' Writings of George 
Washington," Boston, 1835, pp. 305-308. 

* * * "I likewise send a shorter specimen 
of the language of the Southern Indians. It 
was procured by that ingenious gentleman, Mr. 
Hawkins, a member of Congress from North 
Carolina, and lately a commissioner from the 
United States to the Indians of the South. I 
heartily wish the attempt of that singularly 
great character, the Empress of Bussia, to form 
a universal dictionary, may be attended with 
the merited success." 

Benjamin Hawkins, statesman, born in War- 
ren County, N. C, August 16, 1754 ; died in 
Hawkins ville, Ga., June 6, 1816 ; was a student 
in the senior class at Princeton when the Rev- 
olution began, and his proficiency in moftlern 
languages, especially French, caused General 
Washington to appoint him interpreter be. 
tween the American and French officers of his 
staflf. Hawkins served at the battle of Mon- 
mouth, and probably in other engagements, 
and in 1780 was commissioned to procure amu- 
nition and arms at home and abroad. * * * 
He was elected by the legislature to Congress 
in 1782, in 1785 was appointed to treat with the 
Cherokee and Creek Indians, and concluded 
the treaties of Josephinton and Hopewell. He 
was reelected to Congress in 1786, and in 1789 
became one of the two first United States 
Senators from North Carolina. At the expi- 
ration of his term in 1797 he was appointed 
agent fur "superintending all Indians south of 
the Ohio." Although he possessed a large 
fortune, he removed to the Creek wilderness, 
established a settlement, built cabins and mills 
and manufactured implements. He tendered 
his resignation to each saccessive President 
from Washington to Madison, but it was always 
refused. The city of Hawkinsville, Ga., the 
headquarters of his statron, was named in his 
honor. His manuscripts are in the possession 
of the Georgia Historical Society, and two of 
them, on *' Topography " and " Indian Charac- 
ter," have been privately printed.— A ppleton's 
Oydop. of Am. Biog. 

He that toucheth you j^Choctaw]. See 
"Wright (A.) and Byinel^on (C.) 

Heeat oponaka * * * Maskoke. See 
Davis (J.) and Lykins (J.) 

Heiston (T. B.), editor. See Star Vindi- 
cator. 

Herrod (Goliah). See Buckner (H. F.) 
and Herrod (G.) 

Goliah Herrod was quite an intelligent 
Creek, one of the Indian students sent to 
"Johnson's Academy " in Kentucky. He was 
known most widely among his people as a sn- 
perintendent of public schools and as an in- 
ten^reter, chiefly in connection with Rev. H. F. 
Buckner, D. D., Baptist, under whom also he 
worked as translator in John's Gospel, a hymu* 



MUSKIIOOEAN LANGUAGES. 



45 



Herrod (G.) — Continued. 

book, and a Creek reader and grammar pre- 
pared by Dr. Buckner for the press. The war 
interrupted their work, and he did not survive 
it manj years. 

His wife (Mary Lewis) survives, and has 
been for many years one of the most efficient 
teachers from anM>ng the Tnllahassee pupils, 
and, whenever opportunity offered, a good 
helper to the writer, in the Creek— Jfr«. Sob- 
ertson. 

Himona vtta [Choctaw]. See "Will- 
iams (L.S.) 
HiniU Ubokaia [Choctaw]. See "Wright 

(A.)andByington(C.) 
History of Joseph » » * Choctaw. 

See Dukes (J.) 
Hitchiti : 

Conjugations 

General discussion 

Glossary 

■ Legend 

Numerals 

Numerals 

Song 

Text 

Vocabulary 

Vocabulary 

Vocabulary 

Vocabulary 

Vocabulary 

Vocabulary 



Words 
Words 
See, also, Mikasnki. 



See Pike (A.) 

Gatschet (A. S.) 
Gatschet (A.S.) 
Gatschet ( A. S.) 
Haines (E. M.) 
Trumbull (J. n.) 
Gatschet (A. S.) 
Gatschet (A.S.) 
Casey (J. C.) 
Gallatin (A.) 
Gatschet (A.S.) 
Gibbs (G.) 
Pike (A.) 
Schoolcraft (H. 
R.)andTrum- 
buU(J.H.) 
Fitch (A.) 
Gatschet (A.S.) 



Hodge (David McKillop). See Gatschet 

(A.S.) 
See Loughridge (R. M.) and "Wins- 

lett (D.) 

Sec Loughridge (R. M.), "Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

See Robfertson (A. E. W.) 

See Robertson (W. S.) 

See Robertson (W. S.) and "Wins- 
lett (D.) 

Holisso auumpa tosholi. See Byington 
(C.) 

Holisso holitopa * * " Chahta. See 
"Wright (Alfred). 

Holisso hvshi * * * Cbabta almanac. 
See Byington (C.) 

Holmes (Rev. Abiel). [Memoir of the 
Moheagan Indians.] 

In Massachusetts Hist. Soc. Coll. first series, 
voL a, pp. 75-99, Boston, 1804, 8°. 

Contain^, pp. 90-99, a discussion on the Ian- 



Holmes (A.) — Continued. 

guage of these Indians, and includes specimens 
of the Chactaw language, pp. 91-95.— Compara- 
tive vocabulary of 10 words of the Chactaw 
and Moheagan, p. 96.— Numerals 1-10 of the 
Chactaw and Moheagan, p. 97. 
Issued separately as follows : 

[ ] A I Memoir | of the | Moheagan In- 
dians, I written in the year M. DCCC. IV. 
[Boston: 1804.] (•) 

Half-title, pp. 1-27, 8*^. Title from Dr. Samuel 
A. Green, of the Massachusetts Hist. Soc. 

Hopuetakuoe haptisetv [Muskoki]. 
See Loughridge (R. M.), Winslett 
(D.), and Land (J. H.) 
Hosmer {Mrs, Susan). See Gatschet (A. 

S.) 
Ho'w do we know there is a God [Choc- 
taw] ? See Williams (L. S.) 
Howitt (Emanuel). Selections | from | 
letters i written during a tour through | 
the United States, | In the Summer and 
Autumn of 1819 ; , illustrative of | the 
character of the native Indians, | and 
of their descent from | the lost ten 
tribes of Israel ; j As well as descriptive 
of, the present situation and | suffer- 
iugs of emigrants, | and of the | soil and 
state of agriculture. | By E. Howitt. | 
[Quotation four lineo.] | 

Nottingham: j Priuted and sold hy 
J. Dunn, Market-place ; | sold also hy | 
Baldwin, Cradock & Joy, and Darton, 
Harvey & Darton, London ; | H. Moz- 
ley, Richardson & Haudford, Derby ; 
Collinson and j Langley, Mansfield, and 
all other Booksellers. [1820 ?] 

Title reverse blank 1 L pp. iii-xxii, 1-230, 10°. 

The advertisement is dated: " Mansfield, 
8tb month, 10th, 1820." 

" Langua<;e " (j^eucral remarks), with a short 
comparative vocabulary of English, Charribeo, 
Creek, and Hebrew subjoined (from Edwards's 
West Indies), pp. 107-169. 

Copies seen: Congress. 

Hozie (Walter). Seminole Indian words 
relating to parakeets; also, Seminole 
names of mammals. 

Manascript, 1 p. 4^, in the archives of the 
Bureau of Ethnology. Collected In Brevard 
County, Florida, in the fall of 1888. 

Hudson (Peter). "Words, phrases, and 
sentences in the Choctaw language. 

Manuscript, pp. 1-104, 4°, in the library of 
the Bureau of Ethnology. Becorded in a copy 
of Powells Introduction to the Study of In- 
dian Languages, first edition. Schedule 1 is 
filled ; schedules 2, 7-11, 13-10, 18. 19, 21. and 23 



46 



BIBLIOGBAPUY OF THE 



Hudflon (P) — Ckrutinued. 

ace well filled ; 3, 5, C, 12, and 2t are sparsely 
filled ; and 4, 17. 30, 22 are Idank. Written 
Jaanary, 18«5. while If r. Hudson, aa Indian 
student, was in the sophomore class of Dmry 
College, Korth Springfield, Mo. Prof. Paul 
Itonlet of that institution writes mo : "He came 
to ns six years ago, not knowing a word of 
En^ish, and has proved himself far superior 
in intellectual power to any wo hare yet had 
from the Indian Territory." 

Hvtok illi or resorrection [Choctaw]. 
Seo -wmiaxDB L. S.) 

Hymn-book: 
Choctaw 



Creek 



lioskoki 
Moskoki 



Muskoki 
Hnskoki 



See Wright (A.) and By- 

ington (C.) 
Longhridge (B. M.) 

and Winslett (D.) 
Asbnry (D.B.) 
Bnckner (H. F.) and 

Herrod (G.) 
Fleming (J.) 
Longhridge (B. M.) 



Hymn-Book- 

Moskoki 

Moskoki 

Mnakoki 
Vaskoki 

Hymns: 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Creek 
Creek 
Creek 



Crock 
Muskoki 



Muskoki 
Moakoki 



- Cod tinned. 

Longhridge (C M.) 

and Winslett (D.) 
Longhridge (B. M.) 

and others. 
Bobertson<A.E.W.) 
Hurison (P.) aud 

AspberryiD.r.) 

See Goodo ( W. H.) 
James (A.B.) 
Pitchlynn(P.P.) 
Kobb (C.) 
Triumphant. 
Beadle (J. H.) 
BerryhiUp.L.) 
Ferryman (T. W.) 
' and Bobertsdn (A. 

E.W.) 
BobertsoD(A.£.W.) 
Davis (J.) and Ly- 

kins (J.) 
MuskokL 
Bobertson (A. E. W.) 



I. 



I "wiU give liberally [Choctaw]. Se<3 
Williams (L. S.) 

nekostiuinchi or rex)cutaace [Choc- 
taw]. Sco 'Williams (L. S.) 

Incorrigible sinuer [Choctaw]. See 
Wright (A.) aud Byiugtou (C.) 

Indian catalogue. 

1 1. broadside, 4*^. Contains list of 55 proper 
names, with English translation, of members 
of a number of tribes, among them the Choc- 
taws and Scminoles. 

Issued, perhaps, by a Government bureau, 
to bo sent to Indian agents, as it is accom- 
panied by a circular letter (a separate sheet) 
asking fur certain Information concerning the 
Indians named. 

Copies seen: Powell. 

Indian Champion. The Indian Champion. 
I Vol. 2. No. 24. Atoka, Indian Terri- 
tory, August 15 [-No. 38. December 
28], 1885. 

An eight-page, folio, weekly, " L. n. & K. M. 
llobcrts, Propr's." It was suspended with the 
last issue named above— that for Dec. 28, 1885. 
I have not seen the issues previous to August 
15, 1885. 

Choctaw department, 1884 nan ahlpesa toba 
tok, Bill No. 8 [-511, vol. 2, no. 24[-38]. Ap- 
parently no texts of bills introduced into the 
legislature of the Choctaw Nation. 

[Advertisement in the Choctaw language], 
vol. 2, no. 24 [-38]. A medical advertisement, 
"O.I. C." (Old Indian Cure), followed by the 
English equivalent. 

Copies seen: Pilling. 



Indian Journal. Muscogee, Indian Ter- 
ritory. Vol.1. No. 1. [May] 187() 
[-Vol. XI. No. 26, March 23, 1887.] 

A weckl3' newspaper, established by M. P 
Roberts. CoL Wm. P. Iloss and M. P. Roberts 
were its first editors. The office, press, and 
types were destroyed by fire Dec. 24, 1876, after 
the issue of no. 35. In the spring of 1877 its 
publication was resumed at Eufaula, a joint 
stock company having been formed to establish 
it, "each stockholder being an Indian ; " Win. 
P. Ross, president; Samuel Grayson, iroasuror; 
and M. P. Roberts, editor,— Colonel Ross retir- 
ing from the editorship after the removal to 
Eufaula. From no. 38, vol. 1, the Journal was 
conducted by Mr. Roberts until his death, Dec. 
4, 1881 (vol. 6, no. 13). After Mr. Roberts' death 
it was edited by W. L. Squier (R. M. Roberts, 
local editor and publisher, and L. H. Roberts 
business manager) till January, 1883, when R. 
M. Roberts became solo editor and L. H. andR. 
M. Roberts proprietors. In October, 1878, the 
office was again removed to Muskogee. The 
last number I have seen is that for March 23, 
1887 ~ no. 26 of vol. 11, which was published at 
Muskogee, with R. M. Roberts as editor and L. 
n. Roberts business manager, but Mrs. Robert- 
son info: ms mo that no number has been missed 
since that date. It seems that the place of pub- 
lication was again changed to Eufaula, and that 
Mr. S. M. Callaghan became editor of the sheet. 
TJnderdate of January 3, 1889, Mr. G. W.Gray- 
son, of Eufaula, writes mo as follows: "Your 
favor of December 13, 1888, to Mr. Callaghan, 
then editor of the Indian Journal, has been 
handed to me in consequence of a change in the 
management which makes me associate editor. 



MUSKHOGEAM LANQUAOES. 



47 



Tndian Journal — Continued. 

We are not yet so circamstanoed as to treat any- 
thin«; either ethDoIoj^cal or linj^oiAtio, but may 
do so later on. We have none of the back nam* 
bers you desire." 

The paper was at first a folio of 24 columns, bnt 
vras changed to quarto (double folio) form, 48 
columns, in December, 1877 (vol. 2, no. 16). It 
has been an official organ of the Creek Nation, 
though the announcement that it was " char- 
tered by the Creek Council," placed at the head 
of its columns in February, 1878, was dropped 
in November, 1879. 

Greek hymn : "Am I a soldier of the cross f *' 
(From the second edition of the Muskokee 
hymn book], vol. 3, no. 3, Sept 18, 1878. 

Grayson (G. W.) Este Maskoke vrahkv, 
voL 4, nos. 26>33, March- April, 1880. 

Nak onvkv, vol. 5, no. 40, June 9, 183L 

Z<and (J. H.) Kometv momet enhopoyetv, 
vol. 2. no. 31 , April 3, 1878. 

Evketeckv, vol. 2, no. 50, Aug. 14, 1878. 

Longhridge (K.M.) On double consonants 
in the Creek language, vol. 4, no. 47, July 27, 
1880. 

Palmer (W. A.) Old customs of the Musko- 
ki, voL 4, no. 47, July 29, 1880. 

Ferryman (L. C.) Este Maskoke en cato 
konawa, voL 3, no. 22, Fob. 6, 1879. 

Maskokalke em ekana, vol. 3, no. 22, Feb. 

6, 1879. 

Laws of the Creek nation [Muskoki and 

EnglUh], vol. 5, no. 25, Feb. 24, 1881. 

Cokv Mahvyv, vol. 5, no. 48, Aug. 4, 1881. 

Pitchlynn (P. P.) A Chihowa chl bilika li 
("Nearer my God to Thoc," iu Choctawl, vol. 
11, no. 17, Jan. 19, 1887. 

Porter (J. S.) Letter on farming, vol. 4, no. 31, 
AprU 8, 1880. 

Robertson (A. E. W.) Este Maskoke vu 
nessvlke toyatskat, vol. 2, no. 25, Feb. 20, 1878. 

Siyonvlke momet Elapvhovlke svlvf- 

kvlke [The Cheyenne and Arapaho prisoners], 
vol. 2, no. 30, March 27, 1878. 

Pu hutcn vpeycs [Hymn " We're going 

homo," sung at an exhibition of the TuUahassee 
manual labor school], voL 2, no. 47, July 24, 1878. 

Perehera Kococvrapv [Hymn: Star of 

Bethlehem], vol. 2, no. 50, August 14, 1878. 

Cane Poatok, voL 3, no. 22, Feb. 6, 1879. 

Ilesaketvmeso estomis hvmcoioot omes, 

vol. 4, no. 3, Sept. 25, 1879. 

Ccsva vo vnokeces [" Jesus loves me "], 

vol 4, no. 4, Oct 2, 1879. 

Ccsvs omaret komis [Hymn: "I want 

lo bo like Jesus"], vol. 4, no. 23, Feb. 12, 1880. 

Maro 6,1-14 [Matt 6: 1-14, with ques- 

tions and comments], vol. 4, no. 25, Feb. 26, 1880. 

Ccsvs vn tisem vc vnokeces ["Jesus 

oves even me "), vol. 4, no. 48, Aug. 5, 1880. 

Double consonants in the Creek lan- 
guage, vol. 5, no. 42, Juno 23, 1881. 

and Sullivan (N. IJ.) Este Mvskoke em 

ohouvkv [Speech of Hon. Wui. P. Koss, on 
early Creek history, etc.], vol. 5, no. 1, Sept 9, 
1880. 



Indian Journal — Continued. 

SaUiran (N.B.) Sepv ekvnv em mokko* 
hokte Sslomvn mekko en cukopericvte, voL 2, 
no. 40, June 5, 1878. 

Winslett (D.) Wewvhomo svkerkuoe, vol. 2, 
DO, 27, March 6, 1878. 

I have seen bnt a partial set of this publica- 
tion, that belonging to M%i. J. W. Powell ; and 
Dr. Trumbull has kindly supplied mo with in- 
formation concerning the contents of the miss- 
ing numbers. 

Indian Missionary. [One line Bible 
quotation.] Vol. 1. Eufaula, Indian 
Territory, August, 1884. No. 1 [-Vol. 5. 
Atoka, Indian Territory, April, 1889. 
No. 4]. 

An eight-page, quarto, monthly. I have not 
seen all the earlier numbers. It was at first 
edited by W. P. BUke and A. F. Ross. In 
1886 Daniel Bogers was editor. The first num- 
ber has two headings, on difierent pages— one 
being dated "Eufaula, August, 1884." theother 
"McAlester, September, 1881." This double 
heading is C9ntinuod through vol. 1, both head- 
ings naming the same month, however, after 
the first issue. In nos. 7 and 8 of voL 2 (March 
and April, 1886)— the earliest numbers of that 
volume I have seen — a single heading appears, 
and this gives the place of publication as 
McAlester. In no. 10 of vul. 2 (Jane, 188C), the 
place of publication appears as South Canadian. 
The next number I have seen is no. 2 of vol. 3 
(December, 1886), and in that number the Rev. 
J. S. Murrow appears as editor and proprietor, 
and the place of publication is changed to Atoka. 

Adam ( W.) Letter in the Choctaw language, 
vol. 3, no. 7, p. 3, July, 1887. 

Allen (J.) An article in the Choctaw lan- 
guage, vol. 4, no. 8, p. 2. August, 1888. 

Baker (B.) Isht vunumpah koniohmi hokeh, 
[letter in Choctaw], vol.3, no. 5, p. 5, March, 
1887. 

Baibil asilhhichit toshowa hoke [»u)rmon 

in Choctaw], vol 3, no. 6, p. 6, ALpril, 1887. 

Vba anumpa ilbvsshb [prayer in Choc- 
tawl, voL 3, no. 6, p. 6, April, 1887. 

Chihowa i nan dhpisa [passages of Scrip- 
ture in Choctaw], vol. 3, no. 8, p. 3, August, 1887. 

Letter in the Choctaw language, voL 3, 

no. 12, p. 3, December, 1887. 

Chihowa hvt Eblam a [exhortation in 

Choctaw], vol. 4, no. 5, p. 2, May, 1888. 

Letter in the Choctaw language, vol. 4, 

no. 10, p. 2, October, 1888. 

Two articles in the Choctaw language, 

voL 5, no. 1, p. 3, January, 1889. 

Charity (L.) A letter in the Choctaw lan- 
guage, vol. 4, no. 12, p. 3, December, 1888. 

Colbert (G.) Sprinkling, translated into Choc- 
taw, vol. 3, no. 7, p. 7, July, 1887. 

Na bvptismo George Mula vt isht ae an- 

umpohole tok [continuation of preceding], vol. 
3, no. 9, p. 3, no. 11, p. 5, September and Kovem* 
ber, 1887. 



48 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Indian Missionary — Continued. 

Colbert (H.) Klaist irn okla Limita alheha, 
nan iponaklo iBiUle quoations and answers], 
vol. 4, no. 11, p. 2, November, 1888. 

Dickerson (J. H.) Three passages of Scrip- 
ture in Choctaw, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 3, March, 1887. 

Three [other] passages of Scripture in 

Choctaw, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 3, March, 1887. 

Edwards (J.) Atwloa hiilisso hoke [portions 
of Psalms in Choctaw], vol. 3, no. 7, p. 5, no. 8, p. 
5, no. 9, p. 3, no. 12, p. 5 ; vol. 4, no. 6, p. 7 ; July, 
August, September, and December. 1887; June, 
1888. 

Folsom (I.) Pin chitokaka im anumpah 
ilbvssha [Lord's prayer in Choctaw], vol. 3, 
no. 5, p. 3, March, 1887. 

Hancock (S.) Letter in the Choctaw lan- 
guage, vol. 3, no. 7, p. 3, July, 1887. 

James (A.B.) Sweet by-and-by [hymn in 
Choctaw], vol. 4, no. 2, p. 2, February, 1888. 

Hymn in the Choctaw language, vol. 4, 

no. 12. p. 3, December, 1888. 

Johnson (W.) Letter in the Choctaw lan- 
guage, vol. 4, no. 7, p. 2, July, 1888. 

Kam-pi-lub-bee (Rev.) An article in the 
Choctaw language, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 2, March, 1888. 

Letter in the Choctaw language, vol. 4, 

no. 4, p. 3, April, 1888. 

Kilbat (H.) Association notice, vol. 5, no. 4, 
p. 7, April, 1889. 

Lawrence (J. R.) Advertisement in Choctaw, 
vol. 4, nos. 2-12, p. 7, February-December, 1888. 

McEinney (T.) An article in the Choctaw 
language, vol. 3, no. 7, p. 3, July, 1887. 

Martin (H. A.) Enduring pleasure, Vfacketv 
kawapotv [ Muskoki], vol. 4, no. 8, p. 2, August, 
1888. 

Heyan ohhketohcakes [Muskoki], vol.4, 

no. 12, p. 2, December, 1888. 

Two articles in the Muskogee language, 

vol. 5, no. 2, p. 2. February, 1889. 

Apohkv [Muskoki], vol. 5, no. 3, p. 7, 

March, 18S9. 

Dialogue on baptism [Muskoki], vol. 5, 

no. 3, p. 7, no. 4, p. 7, March and April, 1889. 

Mekko (Cane). An article in the Muskoki lan- 
guage, vol. 3, no. 9, p. 6, September, 1887. 

Tecvkkeyvte toyackat [Muskoki], vol. 

4, no. 4, p. 6, April, 1888. 

Murrow (K. L.) An article in the Choctaw 
language, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 2, February, 1888. 

O-las-se -chub -bee (Rev.) Inta, nanaka auok 
flllit pisi he, vlhpiesashke [Choctaw], vol.3, 
no. 8, p. 5, August, 1887. 

Two articles in the Choctaw language, 

vol. 4, no. 1, p. 2, January, 1888. 

An article in the Choctaw language, vol. 

4, no. 2, p. 2, February, 1888. 

An article in the Choctaw language, vol. 

4, no. 3. p. 2, March, 1888. 

Obituary notice, in the Choctaw lan- 
guage, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 2, March, 1888. 

An article in the Choctaw language, vol. 

4, no. 4, p. 3, April-, 1888. 



Indian Missionary — Continued. 

O-las-se-chnb-bee (Rev.) An article in the 
Choctaw language, vol. 4, no. 12, p. 3, Decem- 
ber, 1888. 

rilwppa hopesa [Choctaw], vol. 4, no. 12, 

p. 3, December, 1888. 

Sunday thoughts [Choctaw], vol. 5, no. 

3, p. 2, March, 1889. 

Pitchlynn (P.P.) Nearer my God to Thee 
[hymn in Choctaw], vol. 3, no. 3, p. 2, January, 
1887. 

Robb (C.) Vba isht taloa [hymn in Choctaw], 
vol. 3, no. 5, p. 3, March, 18-J7. 

Golden texts for the 2nd quarter, etc. 

[Choctaw], vol. 4, no. 7, p. 2, July, 1888. 

Bible reading. The way of life [Choc- 
taw], voL 5, no. 2, p. 2, February, 1889. 

Bible readhig [Choctaw], vol. 5, no. 4, p. 

7, April, 1889. 

Robertson (4. E. W.) Hymn in English and 
Creek, voL 4, no. 4, p. 7, April, 1888. 

Heromke estomaham [the hymn 

"Amazing Grace" in Muskoki], vol. 4, no. 7, 
p. 3, July, 1888. 

Smith (J.) Letter in the Muskogee language, 
vol. 5, no. 2, p. 2, February, 1889. 

Smith (W.) Letter in the Muskoki language, 
vol. 3, no. 7, p. 3, July, 1887. 

Copies seen : Pilling. 

Indian treaties, | and | laws and regula- 
tions I relating to Indian affairs: 1 to 
which is added | an appendix, | contain- 
ing the proceedings of the old Congress, 
and other | important state papers, in 
relation to Indian affairs. | Compiled 
and published under orders of the De- 
partment of War of I the 9th February 
and 6feh October, 1825. | 

Washington City : | Way & Gideon, 
printers. | 1826. 

Pp. 1-xx, 1-661, 80, pp. 531-661 consisting of a 
supplement, with the following half-title: 
•'Supplement containing additional treaties, 
documents, &c. relating to Indian Affairs, to 
the end of the twenty-first Congress. Offi- 
cial."— Names of chiefs, with English signifi- 
cation, in Creek, pp. 193-194. 

Copies seen: British Museum, Bureau of 
Ethnology. 

Irreverence in the house of God [Choc- 
taw]. See Wright (A.) and Byington 
(C.) 

Istutsi in naktsokv [Muskoki]. See 
Fleming (J.) 

Ittihapishi humma ma 

In Our Brother in Red, vol. 6, no. 29, p. 3, 
Muskogee, Ind. T. March 24, 1888, folio. 

In the Choctaw language. Occupies three- 
fourths of a column ; headed as above ; signed 
" Cbi kana ahli Chahta Sia hoke." I have not 
succeeded in ascertaining the name of its au. 
thor. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



49 



J. 



Jacksou (Nocher). Seb Robertson (A. 
E. VV.) 

Nocher Jackson, of thu Creek town of the 
Tai)ke'<;ee8, camo to the Tallabassoe boarding- 
school (then iinilor the care of the Presbyterian 
Board of Forcisu Missions, and supported 
chiefly by the Creeks) about the year 1875, 
^hen a young man, and showed such eager- 
ness to learn that the trustees admitted him, 
although contrary to their general rale that 
only younger pupils should be admitted where 
knowledge of English was lacking. Ho re- 
mained al Tollahassoe four years, and by his 
perseverance learned enough greatly to in- 
crease his usefulness among his people. He 
had previously attended a day-school for two 
years, but had gained little knowledge of Eng- 
lish by it. 

He had been for the last four 3-ears a much- 
respected member of the Creek Council and a 
member of the Presbyterian church, and his re- 
cent death is much lamented.— ifr<. Robertson. 

Jackson (William Henry). Departnieot 
of the Interior. ; United States Geolog- 
ical Survey of the Territories. | F. V. 
Hayden, U. S. Goologist-in-Charge. | 
Miscellaueoas publications — No. 5. | 
Descriptive catalogue | of | the photo- 
graphs I of the I United States Geolog- 
ical Survey | of ; the Territories, | for , 
The Years 1869 to 1873, inclusive. | W. 
H. Jackson, | photographer. { 

Washington : | Government Printing 
Office. 1 1874. 

Printed cover, pp. 1-83, 8°.— Catalogue of 
photographs of Indians, Including proper 
names, with English signification, of the Creeks, 
pp. 69-83. 

Oopiet seen: British Museum, Bureau of 
Ethnology, National Museum, Pilling, Powell. 

Department of the Interior. \ United 

States Geological Survey of the Terri- 
tories. I F. V. Hayden, U. S. geologist. | 
Miscellaneous puhlications, No. 9. | De- 
scriptive catalogue j of | photographs | 
of i North American Indians. | By | W. 
II. Jackson, I photographer of the Sur- 
vey. I 

Washington : | Government Printing 
Office. I 1877. 

Printed cover as above, title as above reverse 
blank 1 1. pp. iii-vi, 1-124, 8^.— Names of chiefs 
(with English signiflci.tiona) of a number of In- 
dian tribes, among them the Creeks, pp. 91-90. 

Copies seen : Bureau of Ethudlogy, National 
Museum, Pilling, Fowell. 

MUSK i 



James (A. B.) Sweet by-and-by. Him- 
mak ai Achukma he. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 2, Atoka, 
Ind. T. February, 1888, 4°. 

A hymn of three stanzas in the Choctaw Ian- 
cnage ; headings as above, and signed with the 
above name. 
Pass me not. 

In Indian Missionary, voL 4, no. 13, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. December, 1888, 4°. 

A hymn of four stanzas, in the Choctaw lan- 
guage ; headed as above. 

James (Edwin). A 1 narrative \ of j the 
captivity and adventures | of | John 
Tanner, ; (U.S. interpreter at the Saut 
de Ste. Marie,) | during | thirty years 
residence among the Indians | in the | 
interior of North America. | Prepared 
for the press i by Edwin James, M. D. | 
Editor of an Account of Major Long's 
Expedition from Pittsburgh | to the 
Rocky Mountains. ,' 

New- York : | G. & 0. & H. Carvill, 
108 Broadway. ; 1830. 

Pp. 1-426, 8^.— NumeraU 1-10 in a numbor of 
American languages, among them the Mus- 
kwake, pp. 32&-32C ; Muskogee (from Adair), p. 
327 ; Choktah and Chiksah (from Adair), p. 327. 

Copies seen: Boston AthensBum, Brinton, 
Congress, Dunbar, Lenox, Trumbull. 

At the Field sale, No. 1113, a half-morocco 
copy brought $3.63 ; at the Squier sale. No. 552, 
a similar copy, $3.38. Priced by Leclerc, 1878, 
No. 1020, 35 frs. The Murphy copy. No. 2449, 
half green calf, brought $3.50. 

A 1 narrative | of | the captivity and 

adventures | of \ John Tanner, | (U. S. 
interpreter at the Saut de Ste. Marie,) | 
during | thirty years residence among 
the Indians | in the i interior of North 
America. | Prepared for the press | by 
Edwin James, M.D. | Editor of an Ac- 
count of Major Long^s Expedition from 
Pittsburgh | to the Rocky Mountains. | 
London: | Baldwin & Cradock, Pa- 
ternoster Row. I Thomas Ward, 84 High 
Holborn. | 1830. 

Pp. 1-426, portrait, 8^. The American edition 
with a now title-page only. 

Copies seeii : Astor, Trumbull. 

Clarko, 188G, No. 66*)2, prices a copy in boards 
$5. 

S.ibins Dictionary, No. 35685, titles an edition 
in German, Leipzig, 1810, H^; and one in French, 
Paris, 1855, 2 vols. 8^. 



50 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



James ( E. ) — Con tinned. 

Edwin Jamos, geologist, born in W03' bridge, 
Vt. August 27, 1797 ; died in Burlington, Iowa, 
October 28, 1881. He was graduated at Middle- 
bury College in 1816, and then spent three 
years in Albany, where he studied medicine 
with his brother. Dr. Daniel James, botany 
with Dr. John Torrey, and geology under Prof. 
Amos Eaton. In 1820 he was appointed botanist 
and geologist to the exploring expedition of 
Miy. Samuel H. Long, and was actively en- 
gaged in field work during that year. For two 
years following he wai occupied in compiling 
and preparing for the press the report of the 
' • Exi>edition to the Rocky Mountains, 1 81 8-'19 " 
(2 Tols. with atlas, Philadelphia and London, 
1823). He then received the appointment of 
surgeon in the U. S. Army, and for six years 
was stationed at frontier outpostp. During 
this time, in addition to his professional duties, 
he was occupied with the study of the native 
Indian dialects, and prepared a translation of 
the New Testament in the Ojibway language 
(1833). In 1830 he resigned his commission and 
returned to Albany, where for a short time he 
was associated with Edward C. Delavan in the 
editorship of the '* Temperance Herald and 
Journal." Meanwhile he also prepared for the 
press "The Narrative of John Tanner," a 
strange frontier character, who was stolen 
when a child by the Indians (New York, 1830). 
In 1834 he again went west, and in 1836 settled 
in the vicinity of Burlington, Iowa, where he 
spent the remainder of his life, mainly in agri- 
cultural pursuits. Dr. James was the earliest 
botanical explorer of the Rocky Mountains, and 
his name was originally given by Major Long 
to the mountain that has since been known as 
Pike's 'Pea'k.—Appleton's Cyclop, of Am. Biog. 

James (Jolin). See Murrow (J. S.) 
Jarvis (Samuel Farmar). A discoorse on 
the religion of the Indian tribes of 
North America: delivered before the 
New- York Historical Society, December 
20, 1819. By Samuel Farmar Jarvis. 
• In New York Hist Soc. CoU.vol. 3, pp. 181- 
268. New York, 1821, 8°. 

Numerals 1-10 of the Chickasaw, Choctaw, 
and Creek or Muskohgee (from Adair), p. 230. 
Issued separately as follows: 

A I discourse j on the | religion of 

the Indian tribes ; of | North America. 
I Delivered before | the New-York His- 
torical Society, | December 20, 1819. | 
By Samuel Farmar Jarvis, | D. D. A. 
A. S. I [Four lines quotation.] | 

New- York: | published by C. Wiley 
& Co. 3 Wall street. | C. S. Van 
Winkle, Printer. ; 1820. 

Pp. 1-111, 8°.— Linguittics as above, p. 72. 

Copies seen: Boston AthenaBum, Boston Pub- 
lic, British Museum. Congress, Eames, Trum- 
bull. 



Jarvis (S. F.) — Continued. 

At the Field sale a copy, No. 1115, sold for 
$2.12. The Squier copy. No. 554, brought $1, 
and the Brinley copy, No. 5412, half morocco, 
uncut, $1.50. 

Reviewed by J. Pickering in the North Amer- 
ican Review, vol. 11, pp. 103-113, Boston, 1820. 

Samuel Farmar Jarvis, clergyman, bom in 
Middletown, Conn. January 20, 1786; died there 
March 26, 1851 ; was graduated at Yale in 1805, 
and ordained priest April 5, 1811. Tbe same 
year he took charge of St. Michael's Church, 
Bloomingdale, N. Y. and in 1813 was also made 
rector of St. James's Church, New York City, 
retaining both parishes until May, 1819. Id 
the latter year he was appointed professor of 
biblical learning in the recently established 
New York General Theological Seminary, bat 
he resigned in 1820 on being elected the first 
rector of St. Paul's, Boston, Mass. Here he re- 
mained six years, when he gave up his charge 
to sail for Europe, with a view of qualifying 
himself for certain works he had projected, re- 
lating to the history of the church. During a 
nine years' absence he visited all the important 
libraries and explored every accessible source 
of information on the subjects to which his at- 
tention had been directed. On his return in 
1835 he accepted the professorship of oriental 
literature in Washington (now Trinity) College, 
but resigned in 1837 to become rector of Christ 
Church, Middletown, Conn. Having been ap- 
pointed church historiographer by the general 
convention of 1838, he resigned his charge in 1842, 
and devoted the remainder of his life to literary 
labors. He received the degree of D. D. from 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1819, and that 
of LL. D. from Trinity in 1837. Dr. Jarvis was 
a trustee of Trinity College and of the General 
Theological Seminary, secretary and treasurer 
of the Christian Knowledge Society, and secre- 
tary of his diocese. He was a fl no classical and 
biblical scholar, and also took a great interest 
in art, having collected during hib residence 
abroad a gallery of old paintings, mostly of the 
Italian school. These were exhibited on his 
return for the benefit of a charitable association , 
but were finally sold after his death, together 
with his valuable library.— Ai>pfeeon'« Cyclop, 
of Am. Biog. 

Johnson (Wiley). [A letter in the Choc- 
taw language.] 

In Indian Missionary, voL 4, no. 7, p. 2, Atoka, 
Ind. T.July, 1888, 40. 

The letter is written from •* Hickory Station, 
Newton Co., Miss.," an 1 occupies nearly half a 
column. 

Jones (C. A.) [A letter in the Choctaw 
language.] 

In Our Brother in Red, vol. 7, no. 5, p. 3, Mus- 
kogee, Ind. T. October 6, 1888, folio. 

Headed "From "White Sand," and signed 
with the above name. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



51 



K. 



Kam-pi-lub-bee (Rev,) [An article in 
the Choctaw language.] 

Iq Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. March, 1883, 4°. 

Occupies nearly half a colamn. Dated ' ' Feh. 
16, 1888, Tobaksy Connty, Ghahta Yakni ; *' no 
other heading ; signed with the above name. 

[A letter in the Choctaw language.] 

In Indian Missionary, voL 4, no. 4, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. AprU, 1888, 4°. 

The letter is addressed to the editor and 
dated at the top; no other heading; occupies 
one-third of a column. 

Keti Bilaun [Choctaw]. Soo Wright 
(A.) and Byington (C.) 

Kidder (Francis). See Casey ( J. C. ) and 
Waldron (— ). 

Kilbat (H.) Association notice. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 7, 
Atoka, Ind. T. April, 1889, 4°. 



KUbat (H.) — Continued. 

A short notice in the Chikasaw language, 
headed "Istonwal, Chikasha Yakni, Much 
nitak 3d, 1889,*' and signed " H. Kilbat, Pastor, 
R. Keani holissochi." 

Kingsbury (John P.) Seo Wright (A.) 
and Byington (C.) 

Eoassati : 

Vocabulary Soo Gatschot (A.S.) 

"Vocabulary Pike (A.) 

Kovdr {Dr. Emil). Ueber die Bodeutung 
des possesivischoa Pronomen fiir die 
Ausdrucksweiso des substantivischen 
Attributes. 

In Zeitscbrift fur Volkorpsychologio und 
Sprachwisscnscbaft, vol. — , pp. 386-39i, Berlin, 
1886. 

Examples in a number, of American lan- 
guages, among tUem the Choctaw, p. 390. 

Title from Prof. A. F. Chamberlain from 
copy in the library of Toronto TTniversity. 



L. 



Land (Joseph Henry). Kometv momet 
enhopoyetv. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 2, no. 31, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. April 3, 1878, folio. (*) 

"To desire and to seek," in the Muskoki 
language. 

Evketeckv. 

In Indian Journal, voL 2, no. 50, MnscDgee, 
Ind. T. Aug. 14, 1878, folio. (*) 

" Taking heed to one's self," in the Muskoki 
language. 

See Loughridge (R.M.), Winslott 

(D.), and Land (J. H.) 

See Robertson (A. E. W.) 

Joseph Henry Land, son of Bev. — Land, a 
white minister of the Baptist church, who mar- 
ried among the Creeks, was bom at Chdska, Ind. 
T. in 1839. He lost his mother in infancy, and 
spent a few of his earlier years with his father 
in the States. Brought back to his mother's 
friends, he was for some time a Tullahassee 
pupil, where he learned to help in printing 
** Our Monthly'." Friends helped him to get 
to Park College, Mo., where he was a diligent 
student and a busy worker. After several 
years there, he returned to the Creeks, among 
whoui he has taught almost constantly since. 
He united early with the Prosbyteriau church, 
in which he Is now a llceusod roiuistor, while 
still teaching day and Sabbath schools. He is 
qnlt« a successful interpreter, and has trans- 
lated many of the Creek Hws, by appointment 
of council. — Mrs. Robertson. 



Latham ( Robert Gordon ). Miscellaneous 
contributions to the ethnography of 
North America. By R. G. Latham, M. D. 

In Philological Soc. [of London], Proc. vol.2, 
pp. 31-50, [Londonl, 1846, 8^ 

Table of words showing affinities between 
the Ahuenim language and a number of Amer- 
ican languages, among them the Muskogheand 
Choctaw, pp. 32-31. 

Reprinted in the same author's " Opnscnla" — 
second title below. 

On the languages of the Oregon Ter- 
ritory. By R. G. Latham, M. D. 

In Ethnological Soc. of London, Journal, vol. 
1, pp. 151-166, Edinburgh, [1848], 8°. 

Twenty-foar words of Shoshone showing 
miscellaneous affinities, "such as they are," 
with a number of other American languages, 
among them the Choctaw, pp. 159-160. 

This article reprinted on pp. 249-265 of the 
following : 

Opuscula. I Essays | chiefly | philo- 
logical and ethnographical | by | Rob- 
ert Gordon Latham, | M. A., M. D., F. 
R. S., etc. I late fellow of Kings Col- 
lege, Cambridge, late professor of En- 
glish ] in University College, London, 
late assistant physician | at the Middle- 
sex Hospital. I 

Williams & Norgato, | 14 Henrietta 
street, Covent garden, London | and I 



52 



BIBLIOGBAPHY OF THE 



Latham (R. G.) — Coutiniicd. 
20 South Frederick street, Edinburgh. 
I Leipzig, R. Hartuiann. ! 1860. 

Title verso priotor 1 1. pp. iii-vi, 1-418, 8°. 
A reprint of a number of articles which ap- 
peared in the pablicaiions of the Ethnological 
and Philological Societies of London, including 
the two above. Addenda and Corrigenda, pp. 
37a-il8. 

Copies seen: Astor, Boston Public, Brinton, 
Bureau of Ethnology, Congress, Eames, Wat- 
kinson. 

A presentation copy, No. 639, brought $2.37 at 
the Squier sale. The Murphy copy, No. 1438, 
sold for $1. 

— — ElemeutB | of | comparative jihilol- 
ogy. I By I R. G. Latham, M. A., M. D., 
F. R. S., &o., I late fellow of Kings Col- 
lege, Cambridge ; and late professor of 
English I in University College, Lon- 
don. I 

London : | Walton and Maberly, | 
Upper Gower street, and Ivy lane, 
Paternoster row; | Longman, Green, 
Longman, Roberts, and Green, j Pater- 
noster row. I 1862. 1 The Right of Trans- 
lation is Reserved. 

Pp. i-xxxii, errata 1 1. pp. 1-774, 8°.— Compar- 
ative vocabulary of the Cherokee, Choctaw, 
and Muscogiilge, p. 468. 

Copies seen: Astor, British Museum, Con- 
gress, Eames, Watkinson. 

Dufoss6, 1887 catalogue. No. 24561, priced a 
copy 20 fr. ; and Hierseniann, No. 30 of cata- 
logue 16, 10 M. 

Kobert Gordon Latham, the eldest son of 
the Kcv. Thomas Latham, was born in the vicar- 
age of Billingsborough, Lincolnshire, March 
24,1812. In 1819 he was entered at Eton. 
Two years afterwards ho was admitted on the 
foundation, and in 1829 went to Kings, where 
he took his fellowship and degrees. Ethnology 
was his first passion and his last, though for 
botany he had a very strong taste. He died 
March 9, ISiS.— Theodore Watts in The Athe- 
nceum, March 17, 1888. 

Laudonniere (Reu6). [Vocabulary of 
the Muskoki.] (*) 

Title from Dr. Brinton's Contributions to a 
grammar of the Muskokee language, where he 
says: "In 1562 Ren6 Laudonnidre, coasting 
among the sea islands between the mouths of 
the Savannah and St. John rivers, collected a 
vocabulary, which unfortunately he did not 
think of sufficient interest to insert in his nar- 
rative." 

Laurie {Rev. Thomas). The Ely volume ; 
I or, I The Contributions of our Foreign 
Missions | to science and human well- 
being. 1 By Thomas Laurie, D. D., | 



Laurie (T.) — Continued, 
formerly a missionary of the A. B. C. 
F. M. I [Three lines quotation.] | 

Boston: | American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, | Congre- 
gational hotise, I 188 L 

Frontispiece 1 1. title verso copyright 1 L dedi- 
cation verso blank 1 1. contents verso illustra- 
tions 1 1. introduction pp. vii-ix, test pp. 1-484, 
appendices pp. 485-524, index pp. 525-532, S°. 

Appendix ii, list of the publications of tbe 
several missions of the A. B. C. F. M. in the 
languages of the countries where they are sit- 
uated, closes with "Indian dialects," including 
Creek and Choctaw, p. 523. 

Copies seen: Congress. 

La'wreuce (Joseph R.) [Advertisement 
of the Missouri" Pacific railway, in the 
Choctaw language.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, nos. 2- 12, pp. 7, 

Atoka, Ind. T. February-December, 1888, 4°. 

Occupies half a column, and is accompanied 

by an advertisement in English, which seems to 

be in equivalent language. 

Laws : 

Chikasaw See Wright (Allen). 

Choctaw Wright (Alfred). 

Creek Ferryman (S. W.) and 

Perryman (L. C ) 
Muskoki Perryman (L. C.) 

Le Baron (J. Francis). Seminole vo- 
cabulary. 

Manuscript, 2 11. 4*^, in the library of the Bu- 
reau of Ethnology. Collected at a village near 
Lake Pierce, Fla , in 1882. 

Leclerc (Charles). Bibliotheca | ameri- 
cana { Catalogue raisonud | d'nne tr5s- 
pr^cieuse | collection de livres anciens | 
et modernes | sur PAm^rique et les 
Philippines | Classes par ordre alpha- 
b^tique de noma d^Auteurs. | R<Sdig6 
par Ch. Leclerc. | [Design.] | 

Paris I Maisonneuve & C*® | 15, quai 
Voltaire ! M. D. CCC. LXVII [1867] 

Printed covers, half-title verso details of sale 
1 1. title as above verso blank 1 1. preface pp. 
v-vii, text pp. 1-407, 8°.— Contains titles of a 
number of works in the Muskhogean lan- 
guages. 

Copies seen : Congress, Eames, Pilling. 

At the Fischer sale, a copy. No. 919, brought 
10«. ; at the Squier sale, Ko. 651, $1.50. Leclerc, 
1878, No. 345, prices it 4 fr. The Murphy copy. 
No. 1452, brought $2.75. 

Bibliotheca | americana | Histoire, 

geographic, | voyages, arch6ologie et 
linguistique | des \ deux Am^riques i et \ 
des lies Philippines | r^dig^e | Par Ch. 
Leclerc | [Design] | 



MUSKH06EAK LANGUAGES. 



53 



If eclerc (C. ) — ContlQae<l. 

Paris I MaisoDneuve et C", libraires- 
(ScUteurs | 25, quai Voltaire, 25. | 1878 

Printed covers, half-title verso blank 1 1, title 
as above verso blank 1 L pp. i-xx, 1-737, 1 1. 8°.— 
The lin^istic part of this volume occupies pp. 
537-643 and is arranged under fainilics, the 
Choctaw occurring on pp. 567-568; the Mus- 
kohgee, p. 615. 

Copies seen : Boston Athonaoum, Eamcs, Pil- 
ling. 

Priced by Quaritch, No. 12172, 12«. ; another 
copy, No. 12173, large paper, Ills. Leclerc's 
Supplement, 1881, No. 2831, prices it 15 fr.,anu 
No. 2832, a copy on Holland paper, 30 fr. A 
large-paper copy is priced by Quaritch, No. 
30230, 12«. ; by Leclerc's Supplement, 1887, p. 
121, 15 fr. ; by Maisonnenvo et Leclerc in 1888, 
p. 28, 15 fr. 

Bibliotbeca | americaua j Histoire, 

gdographie, | voyages, arcb^ologie ct 
lingaistique | (lea | deux AnK^riques j 
Sappldment [ N** I [-2]. Novembrc 
1881 1 [Design] | 

Paris I Maisonneuve & C*", libraires- 
dditeurs \ 25, quai Voltaire, 25 | 1881 
[-1887] 

2 vols. : printed cover as above, title as above 
verso blank 1 L advertisement 1 1. pp. 1-102, 1 L ; 
printed cover, title differing slightly from the 
above (verso blank) 1 1. pp. 3-127; SP. Those 
supplements have no separate section devoted 
to works relating to Muskhogean languages, 
but titles of a few such works appear passim. 

Copies seen : Congress, Earaes, Pilling. 

Leeds (Grace). See Robertson (W. S.) 

and'Wiii8lett(D.) 
Legend : 

Creek See Gatschet (A. S.) 

HitchiU Gatschet (A. S.) 

Muskoki Robertson ( A. E. W. ) 

Lenox: This word follow ng a title or within 

parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 

of the work referred to has be^n seen by the 

compiler in the Lenox Library, New Tork City. 

Lesley (Robert). See Gatschet (A. S.) 

See Robertson (W. S.) aud "Wins- 

lett(D.) 

Letter: 

Choctaw See Adam (W.) 

Choctaw Baker (B.) 

Choctaw Charity (L.) 

Choctaw Ilancock (S.) 

Choctaw Johnson (W.) 

Choctaw Kampi-lub-bco. 

Muskoki Smilh (W.) 

Lincecum {Dr. Gideou). [Traditional 
bistory of the Choc taws, aud of tbe 
origin of tbe mounds.] 

Manuscript, pp. 1-531 of letter paper stitched 
in parts lettered a to w. The account was ob- 



Lincecum (G. ) — Continued. 

tained by Mr. Lincecum by repeated visits to 
the house of Chahta immatahah, on Bogne 
tuklo, Miifsissippi, between the years 1822 ami 
1825. It was originally written as the old man 
delivered it, in the Choctaw language, and was 
translated into Eoglish by Mr. Lincecum be- 
tween the years 1802 and 1874. It is accom- 
panied by an "Addenda," pp. 1-95, letter paper 
and foolscap, which consists of a history of 
Apushimataha, the great chief of one of the 
three districts into which the Choctaw nation 
was formerly divided. 

Many Choctaw terms, proper names with 
iiieanings, etc. occur throughout the work. 
The original draft, in Choctaw, is destroyed or 
lost 

The manuscript is now the property of Mrs. 
S. L. Doran, Uempstead, Texas, a daughter of 
the collector, who forwarded it to the Bureau 
of Ethnology for examination in March, 1889. 
Lord's prayer: 

Choctaw See Borgholtz (G. F.) 

Choctaw Fanvol-Gooraud <F.) 

Choctaw Folsom (I.) 

Choctaw Shea (J. G.) 

Choctaw Youth's. 

Muskoki Bergholtz (G. F.) 

Muskoki Gallatin (A.) 

Muskoki Harrison (D.) and 

Aspberry (D. P.) 
Muskoki Loughridge (R.M.) 

Seminole Connelly (J. M.) 

Lord's Prayer in Cboctaw. 

In Schoolcraft (Q.K.), Indian Tribes, part 5, 
p. 592, Phlhidelphia, 1855, 4°. 

Loudon (Arcbibald). A | selection, j of 
sonie I of tbe most interesting | narra- 
tives, I of I outrages, committed j by tbe 
I Indians, | in | Tbeir Wars, | witb tbe 
white people. | Also, | An Account of 
tbeir Manners, Customs, Traditions, [ 
Religious Sentiments, Mode of Warfare, 
Military | Tactics, Discipline and En- 
campments, Treatment j of Prisoners, 
&c. wbicb are better Explained, and 
I more Minutely Related, tban bas been 
beretofore | done, by any otber Autbor 
on tbat subject. Many | of tbe Articles 
have never before appeared in print. | 
Tbe wbole Compiled from tbe best Au- 
tborities, | By Arcbibald Loudon. ! Vol- 
ume I [-II]. 1 

Carlisle : | From tbe Press of A. Lou- 
don, ! (Wbiteball.) | ISOet-lSII]. 
2 vols. : title as above verso copyright 1 1. pro- 

• face pp. iii-vii, letter to the author pp. viii-x, 
contents pp. xi-xii, text pp. 5-355, 1 p. adv. ; title 
slightly diflfering from above verso copyright 
1 1. contents pp. iii-iv, text pp. 13-369 ; 16°.— 
Indian terms and expressions occur hero and 



54 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Loudon (A.) — Continued. 

there in both volames : Iroqaoian, vol. I, pp. 154, 
157, 158, 159, 165, 166, 193, 229, 242, 280, 282 ; Al- 
gonquian, vol. 1, pp. 280, 303, 305, 315, 316, 320, 
322, 333, 334, 338, 339, 341, 354 ; Chikkaaah, vol. 2, 
pp. 264-270, 278, 313, 314, 355, 357, 365. 

Copies seen: Congress. 

Reprinted as follows: 

A I selection, | of some | of the most 

interesting | narratives, 1 of | outrages, 
committed | by the | Indians, | in | Their 
Wars, I with the white people. | Also, | 
An Account of their Manners, Customs, 
Traditions, Religious Senti- | ments, 
Mode of Warfare, Military Tactics, Dis- 
cipline and Encamp- 1 ments, Treatment 
of Prisoners, &c. which are better Ex- 
plained, and I more Minutely Related, 
than has been heretofore done, by any 
other I Author on that subject. Many 
of the Articles have never before ap- 1 
peared in print. The whole Compiled 
from the best Authorities, | By Archibald 
Loudon. I Volume I [-II]. | 

Carlisle : | From the Press of A. Lou- 
don, I (Whitehall.) | 1808[-1811]. 

2 vols. : half-title verso note, etc. 1 1. title as 
above verso original copyright 1 1. pp. iii-x, 1- 
301, 1 p. ; title nearly like above verso original 
copyright 1 1. pp. iii-iv, 5-357, &°. " This re- 
print ['Harrisburg Publishing Companj^ 1888'] 
of one of the rarest of American books has 
been carefully compared with the original in 
the possession of the State Library of Pennsyl- 
vania. No change has been made in the or- 
thography, and the vulumes, although not in- 
tended to be a fac simile edition, are near 
enough, that being impossible owing to differ- 
ence in size of page, type, etc. which varies in 
the original." 

Indian terms and expressions: Iroquoian, 
vol. 1, pp. 132, 133, 139, 1C2, 193, 237 ; Algonquian, 
vol. l,pp. 236,257,267,286,287; Chikkasah, vol. 
2, pp. 254, 255, 258, 259, 2G0, 269, 303, 343, 34C, et al. 

Copies seen : Bureau of Ethnology. 

Longhridge {Rev, Robert McGill). Nak- 
chokv esyvhiketv. | Muskokee hymns, 
collected and revised | by | Rev. R. M. 
Loughridge. | [Picture.] | 

Park Hill : Mission Press. John 
Candy, printer. | 1845. 

Pp. 1-47, 24°. Includes the ten commandments 
and the Lord's prayer. 

Copies seen : Boston Athenaeum. 

For later editions, see Longhridge (R. M.) 
and Winslett (D.); also Loughridge (R. M.). 
Winslett (D.), and Robertson (W. S.) * 

Mvskoko mopunvkv, | nakchokv 

setempohetv. | Translation of the in- 
troduction to the I shorter catechism 



Loughridge (R. M.) — Continued, 
into the | Creek language. | By | R. M. 
Loughridge, | missionary to the Creek 
Indians. | 

Park Hill, | Mission Press : J. Candy 
& E. Archer, printers. ] 184G. 

Pp. 1-31, 24°. 

Copies seen: American Board of Commis- 
sioners, Congress. 

For later editions, see Loughridge (R. il.) 
and Winslett (D.) 

[ ] Cesvs Klist, j em-opunvkv-hera, | 

Maro coyvte. | The | gospel | according 
to I Matthew. | Translated into the 
Muskokee Language. ] 

Park Hill: | Mission Press: Edwin 
Archer, Printer. | 1855. 

Pp. 1-153, 24°. Appended, pp. 1-7, is " Op- 
unvkv hcra, Cane coyvte," (he first chapter of 
John. 

Copies seen: American Bible Society, Arair- 
ican Board of Commissioners, Lenox. 

[ ] Cesvs Klist | em opunvkv-herv | 

Maro coyvte. | The gospel according to 
I Matthew, | translated ] from the orig- 
inal Greek | into the Muskokee lan- 
guage. I 

New York : i American Bible Society, 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. 
i 1867. 

Title verso bUnk 1 1. text in Muskokee pp. 
3-92, 10°. Mr. Loughridge was assisted by 
David "Winslett as interpreter, and the work 
was revised by "W. S. Robertson and Mrs. A. E. 
W. Robertson. 

Copies seen: American Bible Society, Briu- 
ton, British and Foreign Bible Society, Pilling, 
Powell, Trumbull. 

[ ] Cesvs Klist | em opunvkv-herv | 

Maro coyvte. | The gospel according to 
' i Matthew, | translated | from the orig- 
inal Greek | into the Muskokee lan- 
guage. I 

New York : | American Bible Society, 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVL 
I 1875. 

Title verso blank 1 1. text in the Muskohro 
language pp. 3-92, 16°. 

Copies seen: Astor, British and Foreign Bible 
Society, Congress, Dunbar, Eames, Pillin. » 
Powell. 

Terms of Relationship of the Creek, 

collected by Rev. R. M. Loughridge, 
missionary, Talahasse mission. Creek 
agency. 

In Morgan (L. H.), Systems of consanguin. 
ity and affinity of the human family, pp. 293- 
382, line 31, Washington, 1871, 4°. 



MUSKH06EAN LANGUAGES. 



55 



iK^ughxidge (R. M.) — Cod tinned. 

On double consonants in the Creek 

language. 

In Indian Joaroal, vol. 4, no. 47, Muskogee, 
Ind. T. July 29, 1880, folio. (*) 

See Robertson ( A. E. W.) for an article on the 
same subject. 
A brief grammar of the Creek lan- 
guage. [18S2.] 

Manuscript, 18 U. written on both sides, 4°, 
in the library of the Bureau of Ethnolofcy. 
English and Creek dictionary. Col- 
lected from various sourcest and revised 
by Rev. R. M. Loughridge, A.M., Pres- 
byterian Mission, Wealaka, I. T., 
1882. (*) 

Manuscript in possession of its author. It is 
written on both sides the sheets and is in two 
parts. The first part. Creek and English, con- 
tains 713 pp., averaging about 14 words to the 
page— a total of about 10,000 words. The sec- 
ond part, English and Crock, contains 198 pp., 
averaging 34 words to the page— a total of 
about 6,500 words. At the end of the second 
part is a list of tne names of the months and of 
the numerals. Both parts are alphabetically ar- 
ranged. See Robertson (A E. W.) 

and Winslett (D.) Nakcokv es- 

y vhiketv , Muskokee hymns : [ collected 
and revised | by ] Rev. R. M. Lough- 
ridge, I of the Presbyterian Mission, | 
and I David Winslett, | interpreter. | 
[One line quotation. ] | [T^o lines Mus- 
kokee.] j 

Park Hill : | Mission Press : | Edwin 
Archer, printer : | 1851. 

Pp. 1-144, 24°.— Temperance pledge, English 
and Muskokee, p. 139. 

Copies seen : Congress. 

For an earlier edition, see Longhridge (R. M.) 
Nakcokv esyvhiketv. | Musko- 
kee hymns. 1 Collected and revised by [ 
Rev. R. M. Loughridge, A. M. i of the 
Presbyterian Mission, 1 and | David 
Winslett, ] interpreter. [ Two lines quo- 
tation, one Muskokee, one English.] | 
Third edition, revised and enlarged. | 

New York : | Mission House, 23 Centre 
street. ; 18c9. 

Title rerso Muskokee alphabet 1 1. text pp. 
1-210, index pp. 211-216, ICo.— Four Yoochee 
hymns, pp. 199-203. 

Copies seen : Congress. 

The Brinley copy, No. 5756, new, sold for 50 
cents. 

Fo7 fourth edition, see Loughridge (R.M.), 
Winslett (D.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

Nakcokv esyvhiketv. ; Muskokee 

Hymns. | Collected and revised by | 
Rev. R. M. Loughridge, I). D., of the 
Presbyterian Mission, | and Rev. David 



Iioushxidge (R. M.) and Winslett (D.)— 
Continued. 

Winslett, ' interpreter. [Two lines quo- 
tation, one English and one Muskokee.] 

I Fifth edition, revised. \ 

Philadelphia : | Presbyterian board of 
publication ] and sabbath-school work, 
1 1334 Chestnut Street. [1889. ] 

Title as above verso Muskokee alphabet 1 1. 
text pp. 3-213, index pp. 214-220, names of trans- 
lators or writers of hymns p. 221, 2 M. 24'^.— 
Hymns in Muskokee, ^ith English headings, 
pp. 3-212.— Temperance pledge in English and 
Muskokee, p. 21^— Hymn " More love to Thee, 
O Christ," English and Muskokee opposite, 2 
final IL 

The list of translators or writers, given on p. 
221, is as follows: 

D. A. Rev. Daniel Asbury. 

J. B. ' John Davis. 

J. F. Rev. John Fleming. 

D. H. David Hodge. 

P. H. Rev. Peter Harrison. 

W. H. Miss Wilmot Hambly. 

J. L. John Liken. 

R. M. L. Rev. R M. Loughridge. 

J. P. Rev. James Ferryman. 

J. M. P. Rev. Joseph M. Ferryman. 

H. F. Henry Ferryman. 

L.F. Lewis Ferryman. 

L. C. F. Legus C. Ferryman. 

J. R. R. Rev. J. Ross Ramsay. 

A. K. W. R. Mrs. A. E. W. Fwobertson. 

D. W. Rev. David Winslett 

Copies seen: Filling, Fowell. 

— Nakcokv setempohetv. | Intro- 
duction i to the I shorter catechism. | 
Translated into the Creek language. | 
By i Rev. R. M. Loughridge, A. M. | 
and I Rev. David Winslett. [ Second edi- 
tion. Revised and improved. | 

Philadelphia: i Presbyterian Board of 
Publication, | No. 821 Chestnut Street, 
I 1858. 

Title verso Muskokee alphabet 1 1. text pp. 
3-34, 18°.— Creek catechism, pp. 8-25.— Confes- 
sion of faith in Creek, pp. 27-30.— Confession of 
faith in English, pp. 31-34. 

Copies seen : Brinton, Congress, Lenox, Fow- 
ell, TrumbulL 

For the first edition, see Loughridge (R. M.) 

Nakcokv setempohetv. | Intro- 

d.uction I to the j shorter catechism. | 
Translated into the Creek language. | 
By I Rev. R. M. Loughridge, A. M. j 
and i Rev. David Winslett. | Third edi- 
tion. I Revised and improved. { 

Philadelphia : I Presbyterian board of 
publication, 1 1880. 

Title verso Muskokee alphabet 1 1. text pp. 
3-30, 18°.— Creek catechism, pp. 3-22.— Confes- 



56 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Loughridge (R. M. ) and 'Winslett (D.)— 
Continued. 

sion of faith in Creek, pp. 23-26.— Confession of 
faith in English, pp. 27-30. 

This edition was revised by Mrs. A. E. W. 
Robertson and N. B Sallivan. 

Copies teen : Pilling, Powell. 
Nakcokv setempohetv. | Intro- 
duction I to the I shorter catechism, j 
Translated into the Creek language 1 
by i Rev. R. M. Loughridge, D. D., | and 
\ Re^. David Winslett. | Fourth edition. 
I Revised and improved. ] 

Philadelphia : \ Presbyterian board of 
publication, j No. 1334 Chestnut Street. 
[1886?] 

Printed cover : Introduction | to the | shorter 
catechism | in the i Creek language. | 

Philadelphia: | Presbyterian board of pub- 
lication, I No. 1334 Chestnut Street 

Printed cover 1 1. title verso Muskokeo al- 
phabet 1 1. text pp. 3-31, 24°.— Creek catechism, 
pp. 3-23.~Confes8ion of faith in Creek, pp. 24- 
27.— Confession of faith in English, pp. 28-31. 

Copies seen: Eames, Pilling, Powell. 

and Land (J. H.) Cesvs Klist 

estomen | Paptisetv Mvhayet Emeu 
Vfastvte. I The mode of baptism taught 
and I practiced by Jesus Christ. | By | 
Rev. R. M. Loughridge, A. M. | Rev. 
David \V. Winslett | and ] Mr. J. H. 
Laud, interpreters. 1 

Muskogee, I. T. : | by the Indian 
Journal steam job office, j 1885. * 

Print 0(1 cover 1 1, title verso blank 1 1. text in 
the Mnskoki language pp. 3-13, 8°. 

Copies seen : Pilling, Powell. 

A ppended s the following : 

Hopuetakuce X Bap- 

tisctv. 1 Infant baptism, i By | Rev. 
R. M. Loughridge, A. M. | Rev. David 
W. Winslett, and j Mr. J. H. Land, in- 
terpreters. I 

Muskogee, I. T. : | by the Indian 
Journal steam job office. I 1885. 

Title verso blank 1 1. text pp. 17-24, S'^, in the 
Mnskoki language. 

Copies seen: Pilling, Powell. 
and Robertson (W. S.), Nak- 
cokv Esyvhiketv. Muskokee hymns, 
collected and revised by Rev. R. M. 
Loughridge of the Presbyterian Mission 
and Rev. David Winslett, Interpreter. 
Fourth edition, revised and enlarged.. 
By Rev. W. S. Robertson. 

New York, Mission House, 23 Centre 
Street, 1868. (*) 

221 pp. 24°. Title from Field's Essay, No. 957. 

Messrs. S. "W. and T. W. Pcrryman assisted 
as interpreters in the revision of this edition. | 



Loughridge (R. M.) and others — Con- 
tinued. 

The Field copy. No. 1395, sold for $1 37. 
Nakcokv esyvhiketv. ; Mus- 
kokee hymns, i Collected and revised by 
I Rev. R. M. Loughridge, A. M. I of the 
Presbyterian Mission, i and 1 Rev. David 
Winslett, i interpreter. ? [Two lines quo- 
tation, one English, one Muskokee. ] | 
Fourth edition, revised and enlarged, j 
By Rev. W. S. Robertson. | 

Now York : | Mission House, *23 Centre 
Street. 1 1871. 

Title verso Muskokee alphabet 1 1. text (in 
Muskokee, with headings to hymns in English) 
pp. 3-21?, index pp. 214-222, 16°. 

Copies seen: Congress, Trumbull. 

I have seen editions of this work in all 1*0- 
spects similar to above except change of date, 
and all called fourth edition, as follows: 1873 
(Congress), 1878 (Congress), 1880 (Powell), and 
1882 (Powell). 

The following persons are named as the trans- 
lators or writers of the hymns in these editions : 



Eev. Daniel Asbury, 

John Davis, 

Rev. John Fleming, 

llev. Peter Harrison, 

David Hodge, 

Miss TVilmot Ham- 
bly, 

Kev. R. M. Lough- 
ridge, 

Rev. James Perry- 
man, 



Rev. Joseph M. Per- 

ryman, 
Henry Perryman, 
Legus C. Perryman, 
Lewis Perryman, 
Rev. J. Ross Ram. 

say, 
Mrs. A. E. W.Rob- 
ertson, 
Rev. David Wins- 
lett. 



" In giving the authorship of the translations 
of hymns for the fourth edition of ' Muskokee 
Hymns,' I credited to the second edition (E. 
2od) those translations which were found in 
that edition, but whoso authors' names I could 
not learn. Tho printer mistook the 2 for Q, 
hence the ludicrous and troublesome mistake. 
It is explained at Iho foot in 'Explanation of 
Index ' at the close of the fourth edition, but is 
naturally overlooked by cursory readers."— 
Mrs. A. E. W. Robertson. 

For titles of earlier and later editions, see 
Loughridge (R. M.); also Loughridge (R. M.) 
and Winslett (D.) 

, Robertson (A. E. W.) and Rob- 
ertson (W. S.)] Opunvkv hera, | Cane 
coyvte. I The gospel according to | John, 
I translated | from tho original Greek | 
into tho Muskokee language. | 

New York : | American Bihle Society, 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. 
11871. 

Pp. 1-73, IG^'. The first chapter was trans- 
lated by Mr. Loughridge (q.v.) and appende<l 
to Cesvs IClist * *. Gospel of Matthew 
Park Hill, 1855, pp. 1-7. 

Copies seen : American Bible Society, Con- 
gress. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



57 



Iioughridge (R. M.) and others — Con- 
tinned. » 

[ ] Opunvkv bora, | Cane 

coyvte. I The gospel accord! n;]j to 1 
John, I translated \ from the original 
Greek | into the Muskokee language. | 
New York: | American Bible Society, 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. 
I 1875. 

Title verao blank 1 1. text in Mnskokce pp. 
3-73. 16°. 

Copies seen : Congress, Eames, Pilling, 
Powell. 

Bobert McGill Longbridgo, D. D., wa3 born 
at Lanrensville, S. C, December 24, 1809. His 
father, James Loughridge, was a native of the 
north of Ireland, and his mother, Deborah Ann 
McGill, a native of Sooth Carolina. When he 
was fourteen years of ago his father moved to 
Alabama. When twenty-one years of age, 
having determined to enter the ministry, after 
a few months* stady ander his pastor, he en- 
tered the Mesopotamia (Ala.) Academy, and 
fonr years afterwards (November, 1834) Miami 
University, at Oxford, Ohio, from which he was 
gradnated in 1837. He then spentone year at the 
Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J., and 
two years in private stndy under his pastor, at 
Eutaw, Ala., being licensetl to preach April 9, 
1841. 

Having been selected by the Presbyterian 
Board of Foreign Missions to visit the Creeks 
and to ascertain their attitude toward the min- 
istration of the gospel amongst them, on Nov- 
vember 2, 18 tl, he started for the Indian Terri- 
tory, and there made arrangements for teaching 
and preaching among the Creeks, after which 
he returned to Alabama. On the 15th of Octo 
ber, 1842, he was ordained to the full work of the 
ministry as a missionary to the Creek Indians. 
On the 5th of Febrnary, 1813, he arrived with 
his wife at the Verdigris Landing, and imme- 
diately established a school at the town of 
Kowetah. The Kowetah Boarding-School be- 
came very popular and gradnally increased in 
numbers, until finally it was not only itself en- 
larged, but the Tallahassee Manaal Labor 
School was established, of which Mr. Lough- 
ridge was made superintendent. The Tulla- 
hassee school continued in a very prosperous 
condition untilJoly 10, 1861, when it was sud- 
denly suspended because of the war between 
the States. The Kowetah school was also 
brought to a close and never again opened. 
Mr. Loughridge thereupon moved to the Chero- 
kee Nation, and subsequently to Texas, where 
for several years he was engaged in the min- 
istry. 

In December, 1880, Mr. Loughridge and his 
wife were reappointed by the Foreign Board as 
missionaries to the Creek Indians in the Indian 
Territory. Tbo Tallahassee Boarding-Scliool 
building having accidentally been burned, the 



Loughridge (R. M.) — Continued. 

Nation determined to rebuild on a larger scale, 
and to locate it at Wealaka. Accordingly a 
largo brick building was erected and placed 
under the care of the Presbyterian Board of 
Foreign Missions. Mr. Loughridge was ap- 
pointed superintendent, and opened the school 
with the fall number of one hundred pupils in 
November, 1882. After two years' service in 
that capacity he resigned, and has since de- 
voted himself to preaching in various places 
among the people and to the preparation of 
books in the Creek or Mnskoki language. 

Ludewig (Hermann Ernst). The | litera- 
ture I of I American aboriginal lan- 
guages. I By I Hermann E. Ludewig. | 
With additions and corrections | by 
professor Wm. W.Turner. | Edited by 
Nicolas Triibner. j 

London : 1 Triibner and co., CO, Pater- 
noster row. I MDCCCLVIII [1858]. 

Half title " Triibnor's bibliothcca glottica I " 
verso blank 1 1. title as above verso printer 
1 L pp. v-viii, contents verso blank 1 1. editor's 
advertisement pp. ix-xii, biographical memoir 
pp. xiii-xiv, introductory pp. xv-\xiv, text 
pp. 1-246, index pp. 247-256, errata pp. 257-258, 
8^. Arranged alphabetically by families. Ad- 
denda by Wm. W. Turner and Nicolas Triib- 
ner, pp. 210-246. 

Contains alistof grammars and vocabularies, 
and among others of the following peoples: 
Chickasaw, p. 39; Choctaw, pp. 46,218; Creek 
or Muskohgee, pp. 127, 232; Hitchitce, p. 81; 
Sominoles, pp. 169, 238. 

Copies seen : Congress, Eames, Pilling. 

At the Fischer sale a copy. No. 930, brought 
5s. Qd. ; at the Field sale, No. 1403, $2.63; at the 
Squior sale, No. 099, $2.62 ; another copy, No. 
1906, $2.38. Priced by Leclerc, 1878, No. 2075, 
15 fr. The Pinart copy, No. 565, sold for 25 fr., 
and the Murphy copy. No. 1540, for $2.50. Priced 
by Clarke, 1886, No. 6751, $4 ; by Koehler, 10 M. 

Dr. Ludewig has himself so fully detailed the 
plan and purport of this work that little more 
remains for me to add beyond the mere state- 
ment of the origin of my connection with the 
publication, and the mention of such additions 
for which I am alone responsible, and which, 
during its progress through the press, have 
gradually accumulated to about one-sixth of 
the whole. This is but an act of justice to the 
memory of Dr. Ludewig; because at the time of 
his death, in December, 1856, no more than 172 
pages were printed off, and these constitute the 
only portion of the work which had the benefit 
of his valuable personal and final revision. 

Similarity of pursuits led, during my stay in 
New York iu 1855, to an intimacy with Dr. 
Ludewig, during which he mentioned that he, 
like myself, Lad been making bibliographical 
memoranda for years of all books which serve 
to illustrate the history of spoken language. 



68 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Ludewig (H. E.) — Continued. 

As a first section of a more extended work on 
the literary history of language generally, he 
had prepared a bibliographical memoir of the. 
remains of aboriginal languages of America. 
The manuscript had been deposited by him in 
the library of the Ethnological Society at New 
York, but at my request heat once most kindly 
placed it at my disposal, stipulating only that 
it should be printed in Europe, under my per- 
sonal superintendence. 

Upon my return to England, I lost no time in 
carrying out the trust thus confided to me, in- 
tending then to confine myself simply to pro- 
dacing a correct copy of my friend's manu* 
script. But it soon became obvious that the 
transcript had been hastily made, and but for 
the valuable assistance of literary friends, both 
in this country and in America, the work would 
probably have been abandoned. My thanks 
are more particularly due to Mr. E. G. Squier, 
and to Prof. William W. Turner, of Washington, 
by whose considerate and valuable co-operation 
many difficulties were cleared away, and my 
editorial labors greatly lightened. This en- 
couraged me to spare neither personal labor nor 
expense in the attempt to render the work as 
perfect as possible. With what success must 
be loft to tho Judgment of those who can fairly 
appreciate the labors of a pioneer in any new 
field of literary research. — Editor's advertise- 
ment. 

Dr. Ludewig, thongli but little known in this 
countiy [England], was held in considerable 
esteem as a jurist, both in Germany and the 
United States of America. Born at Dresden in 
1809, with but little exception ho continued to 
reside in his native city until 18 W, when he 
emigrated to America; but though in both 
countries ho practiced law as a profession, his 
bent was the study of literary history, which 
was evidenced by his "Livre des Ana, Essaido 
Catalogue Manuel," published at his own cost 
in 1837, and by his "Bibliothekonomie," which 
appeared a few years later. 

But even whilst thus engaged, he delighted 
in investigating the rise and progress of the land 
of his subsequent adoption, and his researches 
into the vexed question of the origin of the peo- 
pling of America gained him the highest consid- 
eration, on both sides of the Atlantic, as a man 
of original and inquiring mind. He was a con- 
tributor to Naumann's "Serapaeum; " and 
amongst the chief of his contributions to that 
journal maybe mentioned those on "American 
Libraries," on the "Aids to American Bibliog- 
raphy," and on the "Book-trade of the United 
States of America. ' ' In 1846 appeared bis" Lit- 



Ludewig (H. E.) — Continued. 

erature of American Local-History," a work of 
much importance, and which required no small 
amount of labour and perseverance, owing to 
the necessity of consulting the many and 
widely-scattered materials, which had to be 
sought out from apparently the most unlikely 
channels. 

These studies formed a natural induction to 
the present work on " The Literature of Amer- 
ican Aboriginal Languages," which occupied 
his leisure concurrently with the others, and 
the printing of which was commenced in 
August, 1856, but which he did not live to see 
launched upon the world ; for at the date of his 
death, on the 12th of December following, only 
172 pages were in type. It had been a labour 
of love with him for years ; and if ever author 
were mindful of the nonumprematur in annum, 
he was when he deposited his manuscript in 
the library of the American Ethnological So- 
ciety, diffident himself as to its merits and 
value on a subject of such paramount interest. 
He had satisfied himself that in due time the 
reward of his patient industry might be the 
production of some more extended national 
work on the subject; and with this he was con- 
tented; for it was a distinguishing feature in 
his character, notwithstanding his great and 
varied knowledge and brilliant acquirements, 
to disregard his own toil, even amounting to 
drudgery if needful, if he could in any way as- 
sist the promulgation of literature and science. 
Dr. Ludewig was a corresponding member 
of many of the most distinguished European 
and American literary societies, and few men 
were held in greater consideration by scholars 
both in America and Germany, as will readily 
be acknowledged should his voluminous cor- 
respondence ever see the light. In private life 
he was distinguished by the best qualities 
which endear a man's memory to those who 
survive him— he was a kind and affectionate 
husband and a sincere friend. Always acces- 
sible, and ever ready to aid and counsel those 
who applied to him for advice upon matters 
pertaining to literature, his loss will long be 
felt by a most extended circle of friends, and 
in him Germany mourns one of the best repre- 
sentatives of her learned men in Ameiica— a 
genuine type of a class in which, with singular 
felicity, to genius of the highest order is com- 
bined a painstaking and plodding perseverance 
but seldom met with beyond the confines of the 
• * FsitheTl&nd."— Biographic memoir. 



Lykins (Jonathan). 
Lykins (J. ) 



See Davis (J.) and 



MnSKR06EAN LANGUAGES. 



59 



M. 



MacCauley {Rec, Clay). The Semiuole 
Indians of Florida. By Clay MacCau- 
ley. 

In Bureau of Etbnolosy, fifth ann. rept pp. 
409-531, Washington, 1887, 8°. 

Besides a number of scattered terms, this ar- 
ticle contains the numerals 1-20 and division.) 
of time in the Seminole language. 

Issued separately as follows : 

The I Seminole Indians of Florida | 

by j Clay MacCaaley | Extracfc from the 
Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of 
Ethnology [ fDesign] | 

Washington | Government Printing 
Office ! 1838 

Printed cover, half-title verso blank 1 1. 
contents pp. 471-472, illustrations p. 473, text 
pp. 475-531, royal 8°. 

Oopiegseen: Bureau of Ethnology, Pilling, 
Powell. 

Mcintosh (John). The | discovery of 
America, j by | Christopher Columbus ; 
I and the | origin | of the \ North Amer- 
ican Indians. ' By J. Mackintosh Isic']. , 
Toronto : j printed by W. J. Coates, 
King street. | 18:>6. (*) 

Pp. 1-152, 8^. — A comparative view of the In- 
dian and Asiatic languages, pp. 100-103, con- 
tains wflfftls from a number of American lan- 
guages, amon;; them the Chickasaw and Mns- 
kohge. 

Title furnished by Mr. Charles H. Hull, from 
a copy in the library of Cornell TJniversity. 

The I origin | of the | North American 

Indians; | with a faithful description 
of their manners and customs, both 
civil I and military, their religions, lan- 
guages, dress, and | ornaments. | To 
which I is prefixed, a brief vifw oe Isic] 
the creation of the world, the situation ; 
of the garden of Eden, the Antedilu- 
vians, the foundation of | nations by the 
posterity of Noah, the progenitors ] of 
the N. Americans and the discovery | of 
the New World by Columbus. | Conclud- 
ing with a copious selection of Indian 
speeches, the antiquities | of America, 
the civilization of the Mexicans, and 
some I final observations on the origin 
of the I Indians. | By John Mcintosh. | 
New York : | Published by Nafis & 
Cornish, ; 278 Pearl Street. ' 1843. 

Pp. iii-xxxvi, 37-311, 8^.— Linguistics as 
above, pp. 100-103. 



Mcintosh (J.) — Continued. 

Oopietseen: Aster, British Mnsonm, Con- 
gress. 

Some copies titled as above bear the date 
1814. (») 

The ; Origin | of the | North Amer- 
ican Indians ; | with a [ faithful descrip- 
tion of their manners and { customs, 
both civil and military, their | religions, 
languages, dress, | and ornaments: [ in- 
cluding I various specimens of ludiau 
eloquence, as well as histor- | ical and 
biographical sketches of almost all the | 
distinguished nations and celebrated | 
warriors, statesmen and orators, | among 
the I Indians of North America. New 
edition, improved and enlarged. | By 
John Mcintosh. | 

New- York: Published by Nafis & 
Cornish, ! 278 Pearl Street. | Philadel- 
phia—John B. Perry. [1844.] 

Pp. i-xxxv, 30-345, 12<^.— Linguistics as above, 
pp. 101-104. 

Copies seen : British Musaam. 

Some copies with title as above have slightly 
differing imprints, the third lino thereof being : 
St Louis, (Mo.)— Nafis, Cornish & Co. (*) 

The Brinley sale catalogue. No. 5427, titles an 
edition New York [18161, a copy of which sold 
for $1. 

The I origin | of the | North American 

Indians ; { with a | faithful description 
of their manners and | customs, both 
civil and military, their | religions, lan- 
guages, dress, | and ornaments : { includ- 
ing I various specimens of Indian elo- 
quence, as well as histor- | ical and bio- 
graphical sketches of almost all the | 
distinguished nations and celebrated | 
warriors, statesmen and orators, ' among 
the I Indians of North America. 1 New 
edition, improved and enlarged. | By 
John Mcintosh. | 

New York: | Cornish, Lamport & 
Co., publishers, | No. 8 Park Place. | 
1849. 

Pp. 1-345, 8^.— Linguistics as above, pp. 101- 
104. 

Copies seen : Boston Public, British Museum. 

Leclerc, 1878, No. 945, prices a copy 20 fr. 

There is an edition of 1853, which is in all 
otherrespocts similar to the above. (Congress.) 

The I Origin | of the | North American 

Indians; | with a | faithful description 



60 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 0*F THE 



Mcintosh (J.) — Continued, 
of their manners and | castoms, botli 
civil and military, their | religions, lan- 
guages, dress, I and ornaments. | Includ- 
ing I various specimens of Indian elo- 
quence, as well as histor- 1 ical and bio- 
graphical sketches of almost all the | 
distinguished nations and celebrated | 
warrioi-s, statesmen and orators, | among 
the I Indians of North America. | New 
Edition, improved and enlarged. | By 
John Mcintosh. | 

New York : | Sheldon, Blakeman and 
Co..| No. 115 Nassau Street. 1 1857. 

Ip. L pp.v-xxxv, 39-345, 80.— Linguistics as 
above, pp. 101-104. 

Copies seen : British Museum. 

Some copies with the foregoing title, and with 
the same collation and contents, have the im* 
print, New York : [ Sheldon and Company, i 
Ko. 115 Nassau Street. | 1858. (Wisconsin His- 
torical Society.) Some copies with the latter 
imprint are dated 1859. 

McKiUop (John). See Robertson (W. 
S.), McKillop (J.), and 'Winslett (D.) 
John McKillop was one of the younger chil- 
dren of a Scotch-Irish minister who came to the 
United States in youth and married a sister 
of Rev. James Ferryman. John was a young 
man of iine talents, and was educated at the 
Cowetah and Tullahassee mission schools. 
The translation of Kev. Newman Hall's tract 
"Come to Jesus,*' in which Mr. McKillop had 
a largo share, is much liked by the Creeks, as 
it is so well e?cpressed. He was early left an 
orphan, and died in 1854. — Mrs. Jtohertson. 

McKinney (Thompson). [An article in 
the Choctaw language. ] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. 7, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. July, 1887, 4°. 

The article occupies about one-third of a col- 
umn of the paper, and consists of an interview 
between an old Muskoki chief and General 
Oglethorpe at Tamacraw Bluff, near Savannah ; 
translated by the Hon. Thompson McKinney, 
ex- governor of the Choctaw Nation. 

McPherson (G. ), editor. See Star Vindi- 
cator. 

Martin (Henry A.) Enduring pleasure. 
Vfacketv kawapetv. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 8, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. August, 1888, 4P. 

An article in English followed by the equiv- 
alent Muskoki, headed respectively as above. 
The translation into Muskoki was made by Mr. 
Martin and occupies two-thirds of a column. 

Paptisctv ohfatcT. Translated by 

Henry [ A. ] Martin, a Seminole. [ 1888. ] 
No title, heading as above, pp. 1-8, 16°.— 
" Facts on baptism, " in theMnskoki language. 
Copies seen : Pilling, Powell. 



Martin (H. A.)— Continued 

Heyan ohhketehcakes. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 12, ]). 2, 
Atoka. Ind. T. December, 1888, 4°. 

"Take notice of this," being a translation 
into the Muskoki language of a notice to sub- 
scribers, in English, which immediately pre- 
cedes ; occupies half a column. 

[Two articles in the Muskoki lan- 
guage.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. February, 1889, folio. 

The first article occupies nearly the whole 
of the first column, and is signed "Henry A. 
Martin. " The second article occupies portions 
of the second and third columns, and is headed 
" Translation from an article in the Christian 
Advocate." Though it is not signed, the infer- 
ence that^ Mr. Martin made the translation is 
drawn from an editorial commencing: "We 
have secured the service of Bro. Henry A. Mar- 
tin, of the Indian University, as editor of the 
Muskogee Department" 

Apohkv [in the Muskoki language]. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 7, 
Atoka, Ind. T. March, 1 889, 4°. • 

It occupies tlie larger part of one column, 
and is signed by Mr. Martin. The general 
editor of the paper informs mo that the article 
is a salutatory. 

[Dialogue on baptism, in the Mus- 
koki language.] 

In Indian Missionary, voL 5, no. 3, p. 7, no. 4, 
p. 7, Atoka, Ind. T. March and April, 1880, 4°. 

Occupies two columns in the Malbh number 
and one in the April ; nnsigned. The discus- 
sion is between " Herity " and " Dr. Jones." 

Mr. Martin is a Seminole, at present a theo- 
logical student in the Indian TJniversity, Mn sco- 
gee, Ind. T., and is said to be abright and prom- 
ising young man. 

Maskoke semahayeta. See Fleming 

(J.) 
Massachnsetts Historical Society: These words 
following a title or within parentheses after a 
note indicate that a copy of the work referred 
to has been seen by the compiler in the library 
of that society, Boston, Mass. 

Mekko (Cane). [An article in the Mus- 
koki language.] 

In fndlan Missionary, vol. 3, no. 9, p. 6, 
Atoka, Ind. T. September, 1887, 49. 

The article is dated "Depo Fork, Ind. T., 
Hocust 15, 1887," and signed with the above 
name. No heading. Occupies half a column. 

Tecvkkeyvte toyackat. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 6, 
■ Ato^a, Ind. T. April, 1838, 4°. 

"Our brethren," in the Muskoki language ; 
occupies one-third of a column ; signed " Cane 
Mekko." 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



Gl 



Methodist discipliue. Stekapuke (1156). 
No. I. 

In Our Brother iu R»m1, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 3, Mus- 
kogee, Ind. T. September 15, 1888, folio. 

In the Muskoki langaage. Occupies half a 
column. Headed as above and closed with the 
statement " To bo continued." 

Mikko ( Jobn). See Mekko (Cane). 

Mikasnki: 

Vocabulary See Qatachet (A. S.) 

Vocabulary * Olbbs (G.) 

See also Hitchiti ; also Muskoki. 

Morgan (Lewis lieury). Smithsonian 
Contributions to Knowledge. | ^18 { Sys- 
tems I of I consanguinity and affinity | 
of the I human family. | By I Lewis H. 
Morgan. | 

Washington City : | published by the 
Smithsonian Institution. { 1871. 

Title on cover as above, inaide title differing 
from above in imprint only 1 1. advertisement 
p. iii verso blank, .preface pp. v-ix verso blank, 
contents pp. xi-xii, text pp. 1-590, 14 plates, ¥>. 
Forms vol. 17 of Smithsonian contributions to 
knowledge, such issues having no cover title, 
but the general title of the series and 6 other 
preL 11. preceding inside title given above. 

Comparative vocabulary of the Minnataree, 
Crow, Choota (from Byington), Creek (from 
Casey and othere), p. 183.— Table of relation- 
ships in Chocta, p. 194. 

System of consanguinity and affinity of the 
Ganowanian family, pp. 291-382, includes (lines 
28-31) the following languages : Chucta (from 
Edwards and Byington), Choota (from Cope- 
land), Chickasa (from Copeland), and Creek 
(from Loughridge). 

Copies seen : Astor, British Museum, Bureau 
of !E2thnology, Congress, Eames, PlUiog, Trum- 
bull. 

At the Squier sale a copy, No. 839, sold for 
$5.50. (^ritcb, No. 12425*. priced a copy Al. 

Ancient society 1 or \ researches in 

the lines of human progress | from 
savagery, through barbarism | to civ- 
ilization I by I Lewis H. Morgan, LL. 
D j Member of the National Acatlomy 
of Sciences. Author of **Tbo League 
of the Iroquois," | " The American 
Beaver and his Works,'^ ** Systems of 
Consanguinity and | Affinity of the Hu- 
man. Family," Etc. I [Two lines quota- 
tion.] I [Design.] j 

New York | Henry Holt and com- 
pany , 1877. 

Tit!o as above verso copyright notice 1 1. dodi- 
caiiou verso quotation 1 1. preface pp. v-viii, 
contents pp. ix-xvi, text pp. 1-551, index pp. 
555-560, 8o.— List of gentes of the Creeks, p. 161 ; 



Morgan (L. H.) — Continued. 

of the Choctaws, p. 162 ; of the Chickasa wa, p. 
» 163. 

Copies seen : British Museum, Bureau of Eth- 
nology, Congress. 

Priced by Clarke, 1886, No. 0534, $4. 
Some copies with title otherwise as above 
have the imprint: London | Macmillan and Co. 
I 1877. (British Museum.) There is alHO a 
New York edition of 1878, with title other- 
wise as above. (Bureau of Ethnology.)^ 

Aboriginal geographic terms, chiefly 

river names. [1880.] 

Manuscript, 7 pp. in the library of the Bureau 
of Ethnology'. Among the languages repre- 
sented is the Chocta. 

Lewis n. Morgan was boin in Aurora, Cayuga 
County, N. Y. November 21, 1818. He was 
graduated by Union College, Schenectady, in 
the class of 1840. Kcturning from college to 
Aurora, Mr. Morgan joined a secret society 
composed of the young men of the village and 
known as the Grand Order of the Iroquois. 
This had a great influence upon his future 
career and studies. The order was instituted 
for sport and amusement, but its organization 
was modeled on the governmental system of the 
Six Nations; and, chiefly under Mr. Morgan's 
direction and leadership, the objects of the order 
wore extended, if not entirely changed, and its 
purposes improved. To become better ac- 
quainted with the social polity of the Indians, 
young Morgan visited the aborigines remain- 
ing in New York, a more remnant, but yet re- 
taining to a great extent their ancient laws 
and customs; and ho went so far as to be 
adopted as a member by the Senecas. Before 
the council of the order, in the years 1844, 1845, 
and 1816, ho read a series of papers on the 
Iroquois, which, under the nom do plume of 
"Skenandoah," vere published as above. Mr. 
Morgan died in Koch ester, N. Y. December 17, 
1881. 

Miiller (Z>r. Friedrich). Die Si)rachen | 
(ler I .schlichthaarigen Rassen | von | D^ 
Friedrich MUUer | Professor [&o. eight 
lines]. 1 1. Abtheilung. | Die Sprachen 
dor austral ischen, dor hyperboreischen 
I und der amerikau ischen Rasse l8io'\. \ 
Wien 1832. | Alfred Holder | K. K. 
Hof- und Uuiversitiits-Buchhandler | 
Rothenthurmstrasso 15. 

Printed cover, general title recto blank 1 1, 
title as above verso notice 1 1. dedication verso 
blank 1 1. preface pp. vii-viii, contents pp. ix-x, 
text pp. 1-440, SP. Forms pt. 1 of vol. 2 of 
Grundriss der Sprachwisaenschaft, "Wien, 1876- 
1882, 2 vols. 8°.— Die Sprache der Choctaw (a 
granimatic sketch of the language), pp. 232-238. 
Numerals 1-12. 20, 20, 100, 1000 of the Choctaw 
and Maskoki, p. 238. 

Copies seen: Astor, British Museum, Bureau 
of Ethnology, Watkinson. 



62 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Munroe (C. K.) Tho | Florida Annual | 
Impartial and Unsectioual | 1884 1 With 
I large new sectional map. { Edited by | 
C. K. Munroe | 

Office of publication | 140 Nassau 
itreet. New York 1 1883 

P|k 1-2Q7, mi^ £°. — Seminole terms for 
"orange," " sweei orange»" ''sour orange," p. 
181. — Seminole and English YooalHilia^ of about 
160 words, and namerals I-IO, pp. 204 and 206. 

Oc^sseen: Congress. 

[Murrow (Rev, Joseph Samuel).] Oka 
isht baptismochi | micha | opiaka impa 
|keyukmi7t. | [Four lines in Choctaw.] \ 

Tanisin, Teksis : | Murray, holisso ai 
ikbe. [1887.] 

Title as abovo, pp. 2 -8, 18°.— A tract on bap- 
tism and communion, in the Choctaw language. 
In its preparation Mr. Murrow had the assist- 
ance of John James. . 

Copies teen: Pilling, PowelL 
, editor. See Indian Missionary. 

Joseph Samuel Murrow was born in Rich- 
mond County, Georgia, Juno 7, 1835. He ac- 
quired his education at Springfield Academy, 
Effingham County, and at Mercer TJniversity, 
Green County, Georgia. In the fall of 1857 ho 
was appointed a missionary to the Indians by 
the Behoboth Baptist Association of Georgia, 
and has t*inco labored among tho Muskokis, 
Choctaws, Seminoles, Chikasaws, and Chero- 
kees, having organized thirty churches, or- 
dained thirty-eight native preachers, and bap- 
tized over fifteen hundred persons, mostly In- 
dians. 

Murrow (Mrs, Kathrina Lois). [An 
article in the Choctaw language.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. February. 1888, 4o. 

No heading; signed "K. L. Ellett" (Mrs. 
Murrow's maiden name). Occupies nearly a 
column of tho paper. 

Mrs. Kathrina Lois Murrow (nSe EUett), was 
born at Bedford, Cayahoga County, Ohio, 
March 29, 18*8. Her education was acquired 
at Oberlin and Granville, and she taught school 
in that State some four years. After gradu- 
ating from tho Women's Baptist Home Mis- 
sionary Society Training School, at Chicago, she 
went to the Indian Territory as a missionary of 
that society in August, 1881. For five years she 
taught in the Indian University and did general 
missionary work among Indian women. June 
20, 1888, she was married to the Rev. J. S. Mur- 
row, of Atoka, editor of The Indian Missionary. 

Muskogee Phoeuix. | Volume I. Mus- 
kogee, Indian Territory, Thursday, 
February 16, 1883. Number I [-Vol. 
2. Number 14. xMay 23, 1889.] 

Begun as a four-page folio, on August 10 it 
was enlarged to eight pages, an editorial iu that 
issue saying : " Phoenix greets its readers with 



Muskogee Phoenix — Continued. 

this, its twenty-seventh issue — tho first iu tho 
now half year of its usefulness^in a new and 
greatly enlarged form." At.first the names of 
Leo E. Bennett as manager and F. C. Hnbhard 
as assistant appeared on tho editorial page; 
later, these titles were changed to editor and 
manager, respectively. 

I have seen all the issues to May 23. 1889, 
except eight. 

Baker (B.) (Two articles in tho Choctaw 
- languagb], vol 1, no. 47, p. 8, January 3, 1889. 

Harjo (H. M.) Etenfvccety f Creek |. vol. 1, 
no. 52, supplement, February 7, 1889. 

Copies seen: Pilling. 

Muskoki. [Advertisements in English 
and Muskoki. St. Louis, 1884.1 

Two large posters or hand-bills in Muskoki, 
accompanied by the English equivalent on 
separate sheets. They begin: "Still ahead 
and don't you forget it," and 'Quit playing 
cards ! Hang up your fiddle ! and go to Tur- 
ner's in Okmulgee." 
Copies seen : Pilling, Powell. 
Muskoki : 

Advertisement See MuskokL 

Assistant Fleming (J.) 

Authorities Pick (B.) 

Bible: 
Genesis Eamsay (J.B.) 

Psalms Ramsay (J. B.) 

New testament Robertson (A. E.W.) 

and others. 
Matthew (in part) Davis (J.) and Ly- 

kins (J.) 
Matthew Longhridge ( R. M. ) 

Matthew (in part) Robertson ( A. E. W. ) 
Mark (in part) Davis (J.) and Ly- 

kins (J.) 
Mark Robertson (A. E.W.) 

Luke Robertson (A. E.W.) 

John (in part) American Bible So- 

ciety. 
John (in part) Bible Society. 

John Buckner (H.F.) and 

Herrod (G.) 
John Davis (J.) and Ly- 

kins (J.) 
John (in part) Loughridge (R. M.) 

John Loughridge (R. M.) 

and others. 
Acts Robertson (A. E. W. ) 

Romans Robertson (A E.W.) 

Corinthians Robertson (A. E.W.) 

Galatians Robertson (A. E.W.) 

Ephesians Robertson (A. E.W.) 

Philippians Robertson (A. E.W.) 

Colossians Robertson (A E.W.) 

Thessalouians i, ii Robertson (A E.W.) 
Timothy i, ii Robertson (A. E. W.) 

Titus Robertson (A. E.W.) 

Philemon Robertson (A. E.W.) 

Hebrews Robertson (A. E.W.) 

James Robertson (A. E.W.) 

Peter i, ii Robertson ( A. E. W. ) 



MUSKUOOEAM LANGUAGES. 



63 



Maakoki — Continued. 
Bible— Continaod. 

John I, II, III 

Jude 

Revelation 
Conjugations 
General diacnssion 
General diacnssion 
General discussion 
General discussion 
Geographic names 
Geographic names 
Geographic names 
Geographic names 
Glossary 
Grammar 

Grammatic comments 

Grammaiic comments 
Grammatic comments 
Grammatio treatise 
Hymn-book 
Hymn book 

Hymn-book 
Hymn-book 
Hymn-book 

Hymn-book 

Hymn-book 
Hymn-book 

Hymns 

Hymns 
Hymns 
Laws 
Legend 
Letter 

Lord's prayer 
Lord's prayer 
Lord's prayer 

Lord's prayer 

Numerals 

Numerals 

Numerals 

Numerals 

Periodical 

Periodical 

Periodical 

Periodical 

Periodical 

Periodical 

Primer 

Proper names 

Proper names 

Proper names 

Proper names 

Sentences 

Sermon 

SpeIling-b;>ok 

Teacher 



Robertson (W. S.) 
Robertson (A.E.W.) 
Robertson (A.E.W.) 
Pike (A.) 
Bartram (W.) 
Gatschet ( A. S.) 
Mcintosh (J.) 
Trumbull (J. H.) 
Gatschet (A. S.) 
Haines (E.M.) 
Pickett (A. J.) 
Schoolcraft (H. R.) 
Robertson <A. E.W.) 
Bnckuer (H.F.) and 

Hcrrod (G.) 
Adelung (J. C.) and 

Vater (J. S.) 
Gallatin (A.) 
Shea (J.G.) 
Brinton (D. G.) 
Asbury (D.B.) 
Backner (H. F.) and 

Herrod (G.) 
Fleming (J.) 
Loughridge (R.M.) 
Loughridge (R. M.) 

and Winslett (D.) 
Loughridge (R. M.) 

and others. 
Robertson (A.E.W.) 
Harrison (P.) and 

Aspberry (D. P.) 
Davis (J.) and Ly- 

kins (J.) 
Muskoki. 

Robertson (A. E.W.) 
Perryman (L. C.) 
Robertson (A.E.W.) 
Smith (W.) 
Bergholtz (G. F.) 
Gallatin (A.) 
Harrison (D.) and 

Aspberry (D. P.) 
Loughridge (R. M.) 
Haines (E. M.) 
James (E.) 
Jarvi8(S.F.) 
Miiller (F.) 
Indian Champion. 
Indian Journal. 
Indian Missionary. 
Muskogee Phoenix. 
Our Brother in Red. 
Our Monthly. 
Fleming (J.) 
Catalogue. 
Catlin (G.) 
Muskoki. 
Treaties. 
Gallatin (A.) 
Fleming (J.) 
Harrison (P.) and 

Aspberry (D. P.) 
Fleming (J.) 



Maskoki - - Continued. 



Text 

Text 

Text 

Text 

Text 

Text 

Text 

Text 

Text 

Text 

Text 

Text 

Text 

Text 

Text 

Tract 

Tract 

Tract 
Vocabulary 

Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Vocabulary 
Words 
Words 
Words 
Words 
Words 
Words 
Words 
Words 
Words 
Words 
Words 
See also Greek; 



Berryhill (D.L.) 
Grayson (G.W.) 
Indian Journal. 
Land (J.H.) 
Martin (H.A.) 
Mekko (C.) 
Methodist 
Palmer (W. A.) 
Perryman (L. C.) 
Robertson (A. E.W.) 
Smith (G. G.) 
Smith (J.) 
Setekapake. 
SulUvan(N.B.) 
Winslett (D.) 
Mariin (H.) 
Robertson (W. S.) 

and others. 
Winslett (D.) 
Adelung (J. C.) and 

Vater (J. S.) 
Balbi (A.) 
Barton (B.S.) 
Casey (J. C.) 
Chamberlain (A. F.) 
Chronicles. 
Drake (S. G.) 
Gallatin (A.) 
Gatschet (A. S.) 
Haines (E. M.) 
Latham (R. G.) 
Laudonni^re (R.) 
Muskoki. 
Schoolcraft (H. R.) 
Smith (B.) 
Adair (J.) 
BoUaert (W.) 
Brinton (D. G.) 
Fitch (A.) 
Latham (R. G.) 
Rockwell (E. F.) 
Schombnrgk(R.H.) 
Schoolcraft (H. R.) 
Smet(P.J.de) 
Vaa(E.A.) 
Vater (J.S.) 
also Mikasnki. 



Muskoki Lymn : What a friend we have 
iu Jesus. 

Manuscript, 1 1. folio, in the library of the 
Bureau of Ethnology. 

Muskoki names. [186-] 

Manuscript, 4 11. 4^ and folio, in the library 
of the Bureau of Ethnology. Probably by 
Gen. Albert Pike. 

Names of places, some with English mean- 
ings, II. 1-2.— Chiefs and officers in 1861, 1. 2.— 
Other Indian names, 1. 3.— Chiefs of Comanches, 
Wichitas, Caddas, Toucawos, and Delawares, 
1. 3.— The six bands of Comanches or Ne-um, 
with English meanings, 1. 4.— Other bands (4), 
with English meanings, 1. 4. 



64 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THF. 



Muskoki vocabulary, Creek dialect. 
[1867.] 

Manuscript, 10 11. folio, 211 words, in the li 
brary of the Bureau of Ethnology. Tho Creek 
is accorapanied by a parallel column of Chero- 
kee. 

Muskoki vocabulary. (*) 

Manuscript, 11 pp. folio, iu tho library of Dr. 

J. G. Shea, Elizabeth, N. J. 
Muskokvlke eaakcokv. See Aabury 

(D. B.) 



Mvakoke mopunvkv. See Loughridge 

(R. M.) 

Mvskoke nakcokv oskerretv. See 
Robertson (W. S.) and "Winslett 

(D.) 

Mvskoke nettvcakv. See Robertson 

(A. E. W.) 

Mvskoki imvnaitsv. See Fleming (J.) 



N. 



Nakchokv esyvhiketv Muskokec. See 

Loughridge (R. M.) 
Nakcokv cs koretv * » * Muskokee. 

See Robertson (W. S.) and "Winslett 

(D.) 
Nakcokv esyvhiketv Muskokee. See 

Loughridge (R. M. ) and 'Winslett (D. ) 
Nakcokv esyvhiketv Muskokee. See 

Loughridge (R. M.), ^Winslett (D.), 

and Robertson (W. S.) 
Nakcokv setompohetv * * * Creek. 

See Loughridge (R. M.) and Winslett 

(D.) 
Nana a kaniolimi [Choctaw], See Will- 
iams (L. S.) 
New birth [Choctaw]. See "Williams 

L.S.) 

New Testament * * * Choctaw. See 
"Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 

Newcomb ( Harvey ). The | North Amer- 
ican Indians: | being | a series of conver- 
sations I between | a mother and her 
children, | illustrating the | character, 
manners, and customs | of tho | natives 
of North America. | Adapted both to tho 
general Reader and to the Pupil of the 
I Sabbath School. | in two volumes, i 
Vol. I [-IIJ. By Harvey Newcomb. \ 

Pittsburgh: | published by Luke 
Loomis, I No. 79, Market street. | 
[1835.] 

2 vols. : pp. i-viii, 9-169 ; i-iv, 5-1C9, IGo.— Ap- 
pendix, vol. 1, pp. 155-169, contains remarks on 
Indian languages, from Boudinot's Star in the 
West, Adair, Golden, and Edwards, and a table 
from Edwards of Englisli, Chairibboo, Creek, 
MoUogan, and Ilibrow words. 

Copies seen : British Museum, Congress, Wis- 
consin Historical Society. 

Uarvey Newcomb, clergyman, born in Thet- 



Newcomb (H.) — Continued. 

ford, Yt. September 2, 1803 ; died in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. August 30, 1863. He removed to west- 
em New York in 1818, engaged in teaching for 
eight years, and from 1820 till 1831 edited sev- 
eral journals, of which the last was tho " Chris- 
tian Herald," in Pittsburgh, Pa. For tho ten 
following years he was engaged in writing and 
preparing books for tho American Sunday- 
School Union. He was licensed to preach in 
1840, took charge of a Congregational church 
in West Hoxbury, Mass. and subsequently 
held other pastorates. He was an editor of tho 
Boston "Traveller" in 18J9, and in 1850-'51 
assistant editor of the "Xew York Observer," 
also preaching in the Park Street Mission 
Church of Brooklyn, and in 1859 he became pas- 
tor of a church in Hancock, Pa. He contributed 
regularly to tho Boston "Recorder" and to 
tho " Youth's Companion, " and also to religious 
journals. He wrot« 178 volumes, of which four- 
teen are on church history, the others being 
chiefly books for children. He also was the 
author of "Manners and Custo!ns of the 
North American Indians" ^2 vols. Pittsburgh, 
1835).— Appleton's Cyclop. o/Am.Biog. 

Nitvk hollo nitvk [Choctaw]. See'WiU- 
iams (L. S.) 

Notices I of I cast Florida, | with an ac- 
count I of tho I Seminole nation of In- 
dians. I By a recent traveller iu the 
province. | 

Charleston: | printed for the author, 
i By A. E. Miller, 4 Broad-street. | 182-^. 

Pp. 1-106, IGo.— Vocabulary of tho Seminole 
language, pp. 97-105. 

Copies seen : Boston Public. 

Nougaret (Pierre Jean Baptisto). See 
Bourgeois ( — ). 

Numerals : 

Alabama See Trumbull (J. H.) 
Chikasaw Gatschet (A. S.) 

Chikasaw Haines (E. M.) 

Chikasaw James (E.) 

Chikasaw Jarvis (S. F.) 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



65 



omerals- 


-ContiDued. 


Numerals — Cou 


tinued. 


Choctaw 


Drako (S. G.) 


Chostaw 


YounR (F. B.) 


Choctaw 


DrenneB (J.) 


Creek 


Haldeman (S.S.) 


Choctaw 


Emergon (E.R.) 


Creek 


Jarvi8(S.F.) 


Choctaw 


Haines (E. M.) 


Creek 


Trumbull (J. H.) 


Choctaw 


Haldemaa (S. 8.) 


Hitchiti 


Haines (E. M.) 


Choctaw 


Holmes (A.) 


Hitchiti 


TrumbuU(J.H.) 


Choctaw 


James (E.) 


Muskoki 


Haines (E. M.) 


Choctaw 


Jarvia (S. F.) 


Moskoki 


James (E.) 


Choctaw 


MttUer (F.) 


Moskoki 


Jarvis (S. F.) 


Choctaw 


Trumbull (J. H.) 


Moskoki 


MiiUer (F.) 



0. 



O'Callaghan (EdmuDd Bailey). A ', list | 
of editions | of the | holy scriptures | 
and parts thereof, | printed in America 
X)reviou8 to 1860: | with | introduction 
and bibliographical notes. | By £. B. 
O'Callaghan. | 
Albany : i Munsell & Rowland. ; 1861. 

Title as above verso copyright 1 1. dedication 
verso blank 1 1. introduction pp. v-liv, list of 
some of the errors and variations found in 
modern Douay bibles 3 unnumb. 11. (verso of the 
last, eirata), text pp. 1-392, index pp. 393-415, 
plates, large 8<^. Arranged chronologically. 
— Titles of parts of the bible in various Ameri- 
can languages, amongthem the Choctaw, appear ' 
passim. 

Copies seen : Bureau of Ethnology, Congress, 
Eames, Lenox. 

The Menzies copy, No. 1516, half blue levant 
morocco, gilt top, uncut, brought $9.25. Qua- 
ritch. No. 30233, priced a half morocco, gilt top 
copy, 21. 16«. ; Clarke & Co., 1886 cat. No. 5873, 
a half calf, gilt top copy, $0 ; Leclerc, 1«87 
Supp., No. 3403, an uncut copy, 75 fr. 

Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan, historian, bom 
ill Mallow, county Cork. Ireland, February 29, 
1797; died in New York City, May 27, 1880. 
After completing his collegiate course he spent 
two years in Paris. In 1823 ho emigrated to 
Quebec, and in 1827 ho was admitted to the 
practice of medicine. In 1834 he was editor of 
'*The Vindicator," and in 1830 he was elected 
a member of the assembly of Lower Canada, but 
after the insurrection he removed to New York, 
and he was for many years employed in the office 
of the secretary of state at Albany in editing 
the records of the State. Afterward, in 1870, he 
removed to New York City. His works include 
••History of Now Netherlands" (New York, 
1810; 2d ed. 2 vols. 1818); •'Jesuit Relations" 
(1847) ; •• Documentary History of New York " 
(4 vols. Albany, 1849-'51) ; "Documents relat- 
ing to the Colonial History of New York," pro- 
cured in Holland, England, and France by John 
B. Brodhead (11 vols. 1855-'61 ) ; " Kemonstrance 
of New Netherland" (1856); the "Orderly 
Books " of Commissary Wilson (1857), and Gen. 
MUSK 5 



O'Callaghan (E. B.) — Continued.^ 
John Burgoyne (1880) : " Names of Persons for 
whom Marriage Licenses were issued previous 
to 1784 " (1880) ; TVooley's "Two Years' Jour- 
nal in New York" (I860); ••Journals of the 
Legislative Councils of New York " (2 vols. 
1861) ; " The Origin of the Legislative Assem- 
blies of the SUte of Now York" (1861); "A 
Calendar to the Land Papers" (1864); "The 
Register of New NetherUnd " (1865) ; ''A Cal- 
endar of Historical Manuscripts in the Office of 
the Secretary of State " (1865) ; '• The Voyage 
of George Clarke to America, " with notes (1867) ; 
and "Voyages of the Slavers 'St. John' and 
•Arms'" (lBQ7).~-Appleton"s Cydop. qf Am. 
Biog. 

Oka isht baptismochi [Choctaw]. See 

Murrow(J. S.) 
Oka obmi ishko [Choctaw]. See 

-WiUiams (L. S.) 
O-las-se-chub-bee {Rev.) luta, nanaka 

anok iillit pisa he, vlhpiesashke. 
In Indian Missionary, voL 3, no. 8, p. 5, 

Atoka, Ind. T. August, 1887, 4°. 
In the Choctaw language ; signed with the 

above name and dated " Atoka, I. T. July 28, 

1887;" heading as above; occupies half a 

column. 

[Two articles in the Choctaw lan- 

gnaj^e.] 

In Indian Missionary, voL 4, no. 1, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. January, 1888, 4°. 

The articles have no heading (except date), 
but occupy the greater portion of a column 
headed "Choctaw and Chickasaw depart- 
ment," and each is signed with the above name. 
They are preceded by a '• Recipe for making 
tea cakes," also in Choctaw. 

[An article in the Choctaw lan- 
guage.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. February, 1888, 4o. 

No heading (except data) ; signed " Olase- 
chubbie ;" occupies about one- third of a col- 



66 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



O-las-se-chub-bee (Z^ev.) — Continued. 

[A.n article in the Choctaw lan- 
guage.] 

In Indian Missionary, voL 4, no. 3, p. 2, 
Atoka, IncL T. March, 1888, i°. 

No heading (except date) ; occupies half a 
column ; signed Rev. " Olase Chubhee." 

[Ohituary notice of] Rev. Simon 

Hancock. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. March, 1888, 4°. 

In the Choctaw language ; occupies half a 
column. 

[An article in the Choctaw lan- 
guage.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. April, 1888, 4°. 

No heading (except date) ; signed " Rev. 
Olassochobbe ;" occupies half a column. 

[An article in the Choctaw lan- 
guage.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol 4, no. 12, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. December, 1888, 4P. 

No heading (except date); occupies half a col- 
umn. 

Ilrppa ho pesa. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 12, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. December, 1888, 4°. 

An article in the Choctaw language, headed 
as above and occupying nearly half a column. 

Sunday thoughts [in the Choctaw 

language]. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. March, 1889, 4°. 

Seems to consist principally of passages of 
scripture ; occupies half a column, and is signed 
" Rev. Olase Chubbi." 

Opunvkv herv Cane * * Muskokee. 
See Loughridge (R. M.), Robertson 
(A.E. W.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

Opunvkv - herv Luk ** * Muskokee. 
See Robertson (A. E. W.) 

Opunvkv- herv Mak * * Muskokee. 
See Robertson (A. E. W.) 

Orientalisch- und Occidental ischer 
Sprachmeister. See Fritz (J. F.) and 
Schultze(B.) 

Our Brother in Red. | [One line motto.] | 
Volume I. Muskogee, Indian Territory, 
April, 1883. Number 8 [-Volume VII. 
Muskogee, Indian Territory, Saturday, 
March 30, 1889. Numher 14]. 
7 vols. 4° and folio, 



Our Brother in Red — Continued. 

I have not seen the first seven nnmbers of 
vol. 1, nor any number of voL 2, nor the first ten 
numbers of voL 3 ; and other numbers are miss- 
ing from the file before me. No. 8 of voL 1 is a 
quarto of 16 pp., J. F.Thompson and T.F. Brewer 
publishers. In no. 2 of vol. 4, October, 1885, 
Rev. Theo. F. Brewerappears as editor and Rev. 
E. W. Brodie and Rev. M. L. Butler as corre- 
sponding editors. It was published monthly 
until the beginning of vol. 6, September 3, 1887, 
when it was changed to a weekly of 4 pp. folio. 
With no. 8 of vol. 6, October 22, 1887, it was en- 
larged to 8 pp. Mr. Brewer remains the editor, 
but the Rev. L. W. Rivers has superseded Mr. 
Brodie as one of the corresponding editors, and 
Walter A. Thompson is business manager. 

Armby (C.) [A letter in the Choctaw Lin- 
guage], vol. 6, no. 52, p. 5, Sept. 1, 1888. 

[A letter in the Choctaw language], vol. 

7, no. 5, p. 2, Oct. 6, 1888. 

Barnwell (D.) Methodist discipline, vol. 5, 
no. 12, pp. 4-5, Aug. 1887. 

Berryhill (D. L. ) Methodist discipline, vol. 
5, no. 7, p. 7, March, 1887. 

Creek hymn,vol.6,no. 20,p.3, Jan.21,1888. 

Creek hymn,vol.6,no.24,p. 3,Feb. 18,1888. 

Discipline, vol. 7. no. 15, p. 3, Apr. 6, 1889. 

Oobb (L. W. ) [A. letter in the Choctaw Ian- 
guage], voL 6, no. 47, p. 6, July 28, 188a 

Ittihapishi humma ma, vol. 6, no. 29, p. 3, 
March 24, 1888. 

Methodist discipline, vol.7, no. 2, p. 3, Sept 15, 
1888. 

Perrymah (T. W.) and Robertson ( A. E. W. ) 
[Hymn in the Creek language], vol. 2, no. 1, 
SeptlW'S. 

[Hymn in the Creek language], vol. 

2, no. 9, May, 1881 

Robertson (A.E.W.) [Hymn in tho Crcok 
language], vol. 2, no. 11, July, 1884. 

Amazing grace, vol. 6, no. 39, p, 1, Juno 2, 

1888. 

Smith (Gr. G. ) Infants' catechism, vol. 6, no, 
5, p. 2, et seq., Oci 1887-Apr. 1888. 

Setekapake, vol. 6, no. 45, p. 7, July 14, 1888; 

Copies seen: Powell. 

Our Monthly. | Jan 1873 Tullahasseo 
Creek Nation. Vol. II No. I [-Vol. IV, 
No. 10, Octoher, 1875]. 

A four-page quarto paper, issued irregularly, 
but usually at intervals of one month ; Rev. W. 
S. Robertson and Miss A. A. Robertson editors, 
Mrs. A. E. W. Robertson manager and chief 
contributor in the Muskoki language. Vol. 1, 
begun in 1870, was in manuscript. Tho first 
printed issue consisted of 2 pp. only. It is al- 
most wholly in Muskoki, and forms a valuable 
contribution to Muskhogean linguistics. 

Copies seen: Pilling, Powell, 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



67 



P. 



Palmer ( Wattie A. ) [Old customs of 
the Muskoki.] 

In Indian Journal, vol. 4, no. 47, Moscogoo, 
Ind. T. July 29, 1880, foUo. (*) 

In the Muskoki Linguage. 

Wattie Palmer is a ^rand nephew of Captain 
**£cho Harjo," a French and Creek half-breed, 
who fought for the United States against the 
Seminolea under Jackson, and was a noted man 
in the war. He is also a grandson of Homer 
Kernels, who fought in the war of 1812, and 
who is now (1889) about one hundred years 
old, with mind so active still that he is a very 
entertaining narrator of the past events of his 
life. Micco Hiitkee, Mr. Palmer's uncle, was 
first a town chief, and later second chief of the 
Creeks. 

Mr. Palmer was brought up by an Indian 
woman, having been early left an orphan. He 
was old enough when he applied for admission 
to the Tallahassee school to need to be made 
an exception U> the ru*es, but his perseverance 
and earnestness won the coveted opportunity. 
In the fall of 1880 he was sent, among others, 
at the expense of his tribe, to a school in Hen- 
derson, Tenn. He was for some years a help- 
ful member of the council, and is now ' ' national 
auditor " for his tribe. 

For some of these biographic notes, as well 
as others relating to other translators. I am in- 
debted to the knowledge and kindness of Col. 
"William Robison.— Jfr«. Robertson. 

Parents* neglect [ Chocta w ] . See Wright 

(A.) and Bylngton (C.) 
Patient Joe [Choctaw]. See Wright 

(A.) and Byington (C.) 
Periodical : 



Choctaw 




See Star Vindicator. 


Choctaw 


and Mus- 


Indian Champion. 


koki 






Choctaw 


and Mus- 


Indian Journal. 


koki 






Choctaw 


and Mus- 


Indian Missionary. 


koki 






Choctaw 


and Mus- 


Muskogee Phoenii. 


koki 






Choctaw 


and Mus- 


Our Brother in Red. 


koki 






Muskoki 




Our Monthly. 



Perryman (Henry). See Loughridge 
(R. M.) and Winslett (D.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.), Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson (W. 8.) 

PerrymcLn (Rev. James). See Lough- 
ridge ( R. M. ) and Winslett (D.) 

See Loughridge (R. M. ), Winslett 

(D.), :^nd Rob9rt9ou (W. S.) 



Perryman (J.) — Continued. 

See Robertson (A. E. W.) 

Rev. Jas. Perryman, for the last thirty years 
of his life an honored minister of the Bap- 
tist Church, was one of six brothers, and was 
probably bom within the last decade of the 
eighteenth century in the " Old Creek Nation " 
in Alabama. He went west among the earlier 
emigrant Creeks, and attended school at the 
Fnion Mission, then among the Osages, but at 
which were gathered both Creeks and Chero- 
kees. Between 1830 and 1835 he was interpreter 
for Rev. John Fleming, of the A.B.C.F.M., 
among the Creeks, was a member of the Pres- 
byterian Church, and aided him in translating 
two of the first books ever printed for the 
Creeks. After the expulsion of the mission- 
aries by the U. S. Indian agent, he prepared a 
Muskokee primer, founded on his work with 
Mr. Fleming, but using only English charac- 
ters, and simplifying the work of learning to 
read the Muskokee. During the later years 
of his life he assisted me in translating Ephe- 
sians, Titus, and James, and in two-thirds of 
Acts. In the Creek hymn-book thirty-two 
hymns ai'e his work, either in composition or 
translating. He died about the year 1882, hav- 
ing continued preaching very nearly to the end 
of his life, notwithstanding feeble health. — 
Mrs. Robertson. 

Perryman {Bev, Joseph Moses). See 
Loughridge (R. M.)and Winslett (D.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.), Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

See Robertson (W. S.) and Wins- 
lett (D.) 

Joseph Moses Perryman, ex-principal chief 
of the Muskokees, a son of Moses Perryman and 
nephew of Rev. James Perryman, was born 
about the year 1837, and was educated in the 
Presbyterian Mission boarding-school at Cow- 
etah, where he gratified his teachers by rapid 
progress. Ho was married at an early age to a 
schoolmate, and began interitreting for his 
teachers younger, probably^ than any one had 
done before him, proving an excellent helper. 
He united with the Presbyterian Church, and 
years later was ordained a Presbyterian minis- 
ter. He afterwards united with the Baptists. 
Before being elected principal chief, he served 
as national treasurer for some y ears.— Mrs. 
Robertson. 

[Perryman (LegusChoteau).] Este Mas- 
koke en cato konawa. 

In Indian Journal, vol 3, no. 22, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. Feb. 6, 1879, folio. (*) 

*' Creek finances," ia the Maskoki language, 
Sigoea"Lekaie," 



i 



68 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Ferryman (L. C.) — Continued. 

[ ] Maskokalke em ekana. 

Ill Indian Journal, vol. 3, no. 23, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. Feb. 13 (?), 1879, folio. (*) 

" The Muskokee'sland," in the Muskoki Ian- 
gua;;e. Signed " Lelsaso." 

Laws of the Creek nation. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 5, no. 25, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. Feb. 24, 1881 , folio. (*) 

In Muskoki and English. 

Cokv mvhayv. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 5, no. 48, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. Aug. 4, 1881, folio. (*) 

"Book teacher," in the Muskoki language. 
An article concerning the late Rev. W. S. Rob- 
ertson, who was called, among the Creeks, The 
Teacher. 

See Loughridge (R. M.) and "Wins- 

lett (D.) 

See Loughridge (R.M.), "Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson (W. S.) 
See Ferryman (S. W.) and Perry- 
man (L. C.) 

See Robertson (A. E. W.) 

See Robertson (W. S.) and "Wins- 

lett (D.) 

Hon. Legus Choteau Perryman, principal 
chief of the Muskokees, half-brother of Hon. S. 
W. Perryman and of Rev. T. W. Perryman, was 
born in 1837, and, like his brother Thomas, re- 
ceived his education at Tullahasaee, where he 
excelled as a scholar, especially in mathematics. 
He has also special musical talent, and while a 
pupil took lessons of me, giving in return aid 
in the preparation of an English and Creek 
dictionary, in whica ho did very rapid work 
as penman and linguist^ but the work was early 
interrupted. 

During the war he was sergeant-major in the 
loyal Indian regiment, where his education won 
him respect among white officers. Since the 
war ho has served as judge, as member of coun- 
cil, and as delegate to Washington, and was 
elected principal chief in 1887. 

He assisted both Dr. Loughridge and myself 
in work on the Testament, and translated a part 
of the Creek laws.— Jfr«. Robertson. 

Perryman (Lewis). See Loughridge 
(R. M.) and Winslett (D.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.), Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

See Robertson (W. S.) and "Wins- 
lett (D.) 

Perryman (Sandford Ward). See Lough- 
ridge (R. M.), Winslett (D.), and 
Robertson (W. S.) 

See Robertson (W. S.) and Wins- 
lett (D.) 

and Perryman (L. C. ) Constitution 

and laws I of the | Muskokee or Creek 



Perryman (S. W.) and Perryman (L. 
C.) — Continued, 
nation, | translated into | Muskokee lan- 
guage, I by 1 S. W. & L. C. Perryman, 
by I an act of the national council. | 

Washington City : | McGill & With- 
erow, printers and stereotypers. | 1868. 
Title verso blank 1 1. text pp. 3-16, 8°.— Con- 
stitution, pp. 3-9 ; laws, pp. 11-16. Preceded by 
the same in English, 15 pp. 
Oopietseen: Powell. 

Hon. Sandford Ward Perryman was a son of 
Lewis, the brother of Rev. James Perryman, 
mentioned above, who greatly assisted the mis- 
sionaries as an interpreter and translator. The 
epistles and most of the gospel of John are 
of his translation with Rev. W. S. Robertson. 
Sandford was also oldest half-brother of Rev. 
David "Winslett, and much like him in talent. 
He began attending school at the Cowctah 
Presbyterian boarding-school, and finished at 
TuUahassee, where his quick, deep thinking 
made it a joy to instruct him. Within a short 
time after his leaving school ho was married to 
Miss C. J. Garrison, a TuUahassee teacher from 
Greenfield, Mo. He was most remarkable ns a 
quick and literal interpreter, and as a presiding 
officer in the councils of his tribe, and was de- 
pended on by them for correct interpretation of 
United States documents. 

He was foryears an elder in the Presbyterian 
Church, and an efficient trustee of the TuUa- 
hassee school. He died of hemorrhage of the 
lungs in the summer of 1876, aged about 42.— 
Mrs. Robertson. 
Perryman (Thomas Ward). Seo Lough- 
ridgeCR. M.), "Winslett (D.), and Rob- 
ertson (W. S.) 

See Robertson (A. E. W.) 

See Robertson (W. S.) 

See Robertson (W. S.) and "Wins- 
lett (D.) 

and Robertson {Mrs. A. E. W.) 

Cesvs oh vyares. | I will go to Jesus. 
I By Rev. J. B. Waterhury, D. D. \ 
Translated into Creek | by Thomas Fer- 
ryman, esq., I and | Mrs. A. E. W. Robert- 
son, I Tallahassee mission. | 

Published by the \ American Tract 
Society 1 150 Nassau-street, New York. | 
[1871?] 

Printed cover verso blank 1 1. title verso 
blank 1 1. text in the Creek pp. 3-23, 24°.— Pp. 
21-23 are occupied with hymns. 

Copies seen : Brinton, Pilling, Powell. 
Mrs. Robertson informs me that two of these 
hymns have since appeared as follows: 

[Hymn in the Creek language. ] ^ 

In Our Brother In Red, vol. 2, no. 1, Mus- 
kogee, Ind. T. Sept. 1883, 4°. (*) 
A translation of the hymn " Come, humble 
sinner." 



MU8KH0GEAN LANQUAQES. 



69 



Ferryman (T. W.)ancl Robertson (A. E. 
W. ) — Continued. 

[Hymn in the Creek language.] 

In Oar Brother in Bed, yol. 2, no. 0, Masko- 
goo, Ind. T. May. 1884, 4°. (*) 

A translation of the hymn " Hark, ten thon- 
sand harps and voices." 

Rev. Thomas Ward Ferryman, yoonger 
brother of Sandford W. Ferryman, above men- 
tioned, was born in the year 1846. He received 
his English education at the Tallahassee school, 
and was a diligent pnpil there for several years, 
nntil feeble health demanded a change, and the 
war soon after suspended the school. Before 
the w&r was over, he married a woman of his 
tribe, who afterward died. Before being or- 
dained as a Fresbyterian minister, he had 
taught for some time, was a district attorney, 
and had served as elder in the church. He has 
been for some years a member of the Creek 
council, giving extra service as chaplain and 
momber of the educational committee. 

For his second wife he married £Ua, daughter 
of Robert Brown, of Kittanning, Fa., and both 
are now engaged in the Nuyaka Mission school. 
He has spent more time on revision of trans- 
lations with me than has any other except N. 
B. Sullivan, his work having been chiefly on 
the final revision of the Kew Testament. —Mn. 
Roberdon. 

PhiUips : This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy of 
tho work referred to has been seen by the com- 
piler in the library of the late Sir Thomas 
Phillips, Cheltenham, England. 

Pick {Rev, Bernliard). The Bible in the 
languages of America. By Rev. B. 
Pick, Ph.D., Rochester, N.Y. 

In New-York Evangelist, no. 2518, New 
York, June 27, 1878. (Pilling, Powell.) 

An article on twenty-four different versions 
of portions of the Bible extant in the lan- 
guages of America. Choctaw, no. 11; Mnsko- 
kce or Creek, no. 14. 

A later article by Mr. Pick on tho same sub- 
ject, as follows : 

The Bible in the lans:uages of 

America. By Rev. B. Pick,Pb. D. 

In Fresbyterian Banner, vol. 75, no. 2, p. 2, 
no. 3, p. 2, Pittsburgh, July 11 and 18, 1888. 
(Pilling, Powell.) 

A history of the translation and publication 
in twenty-eight American languages of the 
whole or portions of the Bible. The versions 

. arc aiTanged alphabetically, the Choctaw beiug 
numbered 6, Muskokoe or Creek 21. 

Pickett (Albert James). History | of | 
Alabama, \ and incidentally of | Georgia 
and Mississippi, | from tho earliest 
period. | By | Albert James Pickett, j Of 
Montgomery. | In two volumes, | vol. I 
[-II]. I Second edition. | 



Pickett (A. J.) — Continued. 

Charleston : | Walker and James, | 
1851. 

2 vols. 12<^.— A few terms in Mnscoj^ee or 
Creek, Clioctaw, and Chickasaw, with lists of 
towns, etc. (from Bartram and Hawkins), scat- 
tered through. 

OopieMieen: Congress. 

A copy at tho Menzies sale. No. 1590, brought 
$14.50. 

First edition, Charleston, 1851, 2 vols. 12°. (* ) 

History | of | Alabama, j and incident- 
ally of I Georgia and Mississippi, | from 
the earliest period. | By j Albert James 
Pickett, I Of Montgomery. | In two vol- 
umes, I vol. I[-II]. I Third edition. | 

Charleston : | Walker and James, | 
1851. 

2 vols. 12^. — ^Linguistics as above. 

Copies ieen: Cougress, Boston Athenaeum, 
Boston Public. 

Pike (Gen, Atberi), Verbal forms in the 
Muscoki language. [1861T] 

Manuscript, 20 11. folio. Seven verbs, mn 
through various tenses and modes. 

Verbal forms of the Muscoki and 

Hichitathli languages. Ll^l^ 
Manuscript, 27 11. folio. 

Vocabularies of the Creek or Musco- 
gee, Uchee, Hitchita, Natchez, Co-os- 
au-da or Co-as-sat-te, Alabama, and 
Shawnee. [1861?] 

Manuscript, 58 11. folio. These vocabularies 
are arranged in parallel columns for compaiisoo, 
and contain from 1,500 to 1,700 words each. The 
manuscript was submitted to Dr. J. H. Trum- 
bull, of Hartford, Conn., for examination, and 
was by him copied on slips, each contaiuin<! one 
English word and its equivalent in tUo dialects 
given above, spaces being reserved for other 
dialects. They were then sent to Mrs. A. E, W. 
Hobertson, then at Tullahassoe, Ind. T., who 
inserted the Chikasaw equivalents. 

These manuscripts were formerly in posses- 
sion of the Smithsonian Institution, later trans- 
ferred to tho Bureau of Ethnology, and finally 
at his request returned to the author. 

See Muskoki names. 

Albert Pike, lawyer, bom in Boston, Mass., 
December 29, 1809. He entered Harvard in 
1826, and after a partial course became principal 
of Newburyi>ort grammar-school. In March, 
1831, he set out for the partially explored re- 
gions of the west, traveling by stage to Cin- 
cinnati, by steamer to Nashville, thence on 
foot to Paducah, then by keel-boat down the 
Ohio, and by steamer up the Mississippi. In 
August, 1831, he accorapaniel a caravan of ten 
wagons, as one of a party of forty men, uuclei 
Capt Charles Bout, from St. Louis to SantA 



70 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Pike ( A. ) — Continued. . 

F6. He arrived at Taos on November 10, hav- 
ing walked Ave hundred miles from Cimarron 
River, whore his horse ran off in a storm. 
After resting a few days, he went on foot from 
Taos to Santa F6, and remained there as clerk 
until September, 1832, then Joining a party of 
forty-five, with which he went down the Pecos 
River and into the Staked Plain, then to the 
head-waters of the Brazos, part of the time 
without food or water. Finally Pike, with 
four others, left the company, and reached Fort 
Smith, Ark., in December. The following 
spring he turned his attention to teaching, and 
in 1833 he became associate editor of the "Ar- 
kansas Advocate." In 1834 he purchased en- 
tire control, but disposed of the paper two 
years later to engage in the practice of law, for 
which he had fitted himself during his editorial 
career. In 1839 he contributed to "Black, 
wood's ^lagazino" the unique productions en- 
titled "Hymns to the Gods," which he had 
written seviral years before while teaching in 
New England, and which at olice gave hira an 
honored place among American poet?. As a 
lawyer he attained a high reputation in the 
southwest, though ho still devoted part of his 
time to literary pursuits. During the Mexican 
war ho commanded a squadron in the regimont 
of Arkansas mounted volunteers in 1846-'47, 
was at Buena Vista, and in 1847 rode with 
forty-one men from Saltillo to Chihauhua, re- 
ceiving the surrender of the city of Mapimi on 
the way. At the beginning of the civil war he 
became Confederate commissioner, negotiating 
treaties of amity and alliance with several In- 
dian tribes. While thus engaged he was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general, and organized bodies 
of Indians, with which he took part in the bat- 
tles of Pea Ridge and Elkhom. In 1866 he en- 
gaged in the practice of law at Memphis. 
During 1867 he became editor of the " Memphis 
Appeal," but in 1868 he sold his interest in the 
paper and removed to Washington, D. C, where 
ho practiced his profession in the supreme and 
district courts. ' He retired in 1880, and has 
since devoted his attention 'to literature and 
FrwmsLSonTy.^Appleton's Cyclop o/ Am. Biog. 
Pilling: This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to is in the possession of 
the compiler of this catalogue. 

Pitchlynn (Peter P.) A Chihowa clii 
Bilika li. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 11, no. 17, p. 1, Musko- 
gee, Ind. T. Jan. 19, 1887, folio. 

The hymn, "Nearer, my God, to Thee," in 
Choctaw ; translated by Mr. Pitchlynn. 

A ppearod also in the following : 
<* Nearer my God to Thee." (Trans- 
lated into Choctaw by P. P. Pitchlyn, in 
1887.) A Chihowa chi bilika li. 

In Indian Missionary, voL 3, no. 3, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. Jan. 1887, 4°. 

A hymn of six stanzas, with heading as above. 



Pitchlynn (P. P.) — Continued. 

Choctaw vocabulary. (*) 

Manuscript, 19 pp. folio, in the library of Dr. 
J. G. Shea, Elizabeth, N. J. 

See Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 

Peter P. Pitchlynn, Chcctaw chief, bom in 
Hush-ook-wa (now part of Koxubee County, 
Miss.) January 30, 1806, died in Washington, 
D. C, in January, 1881. His father was a white 
man, bearing General Washington's commis- 
sion as an interpreter, and his mother was a 
Choctaw. He was brought up like an Indian 
boy, but manifesting a desire to be educated, 
he was sent 200 miles to school in Tennessee, 
that being the nearest to his fother's log cabin. 
At the end of the first quarter he returned home 
to find his people engaged in negotiating a 
treaty with the general government. As he 
considered the terms of this histrument a fraud 
upon his tribe, he refused to shake hands with 
Gen. Andrew Jackson, who had the matter in 
charge on behalf of the Washington authorities. 
He afterward attended the Columbia (Tenn.) 
Academy, and was ultimately graduated at the 
University of Nashville. In 1828 he was ap- 
pointed the leader of an Indian delegation sent 
by the United States Grovemment into the Osage 
country on a peace-making and exploring ex- 
pedition, preparatory to the removal of the 
ChoctawB, Chickasaws, and Creeks beyond the 
Mississippi. Six months were occupied in the 
journey, and the negotiations were every way 
successful, Pitchlynn displaying no little diplo- 
matic skill and courage. He emigrated to the 
new reservation with his people, and built a 
cabin on Arkansas River. At the beginning of 
the civil war in 1861 Pitchlynn was in Wash- 
ington attending to public business for his 
tribe, and assured Mr. Lincoln that he hoped 
to keep his people neutral; but he could not 
prevent three of his own children and many 
others from joining the Confederates. He him- 
self remained a Union man to the end of the 
war, notwithstanding the fact that the Con- 
federates raided his plantation of 600 acres and 
captured all his cattle, while the emancipation 
proclamation freed his one hundred slaves. He 
was a natural orator, as his address to the 
President at the White House in 1855, his 
ppeeches before the Congressional committees 
in 1868, and one delivered before a delegation 
of Quakers at Washington in 1869, abundantly 
prove. According to Charles Dickens, who 
met him while on his first visit to this country, 
Pitchlynn was a handsome man, with black 
hair, aquiline noso, broad cheek-bones, sun- 
burnt complexion, and bright, keen, dark, and 
piercing eyes. He was buried in the Congres- 
sional Cemetery at Washington with Masonic 
honors, the poet, Albert Pike, delivering a 
eulogy over his remains. See Charles Dickens' 
"American Notes," and Charles Lanmac's 
'* Recollections of Curious Characters," Edin- 
burgh, 1881.— Applcton'« Cyclop, of Am. Biog. 
I formed a very pleasant acquaintance with 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



71 



Pitchlynn (P. P.) — Continued. 

Col. Pitchlynn in 1846 in steamboat travel on 
the Mississippi, when he was acting; as inter- 
preter and helper to Miyor Armstrong; in the 
remoral of two hundred of his people from 
Mississippi to the Indian Territory. I was 
greatly pleased to see what inflaence his kind 
and gentlemanly bearing had given him among 
them ; and it was needed in inducing them to 
trust themselves in a boat on a river too wide, 
thoy thought, to allow them to swim to land in 
case of accident.— Jfr«. Bobertson. 

Poison tree [ Choctaw] . See Wright ( A. ) 
and B3rington (C.) 

[Pomeroy (James Margarum ). ] Charter | 
of the I Choctaw and Chickasaw | Cen- 
tral I Hailroad Company. | Published for 
the information of the Choctaw and 
Chickasaw peoples. | Chahta Chik^ka 
itataklo | Chata | iklvna tvli hina kvm- 
peni oke. | Chahta mikmvt Chikasha 
okla nana akostenecha chi pnlla kuk q 
holisso illvpvt toba hoke. 

Little Rock, Ark.: | Woodrnflf and 
Blocher, printers, binders and station- 
ers, Markham street. 1 1870. (*) 
Pp. V, 21 and 24 (double numbers), alternate 
English and Choctaw facing each other, royal 
B9. Marginal notes in English and Choctaw. 
On p. iii Mr. Pomeroy is named as editor. 

[ ] Charter of the Choctaw and 

Chickasaw | 35th Parallel | Railroad 
Company. | Published by the company, 
for the information of the Choctaw and 
Chickasaw peoples. | Chahta Chikasha 
itatuklo I Chata | Palelil pokole tnchena 
akocha tvlhape bachaya ka tvli hina 
kvmpeni oke. | Chahta mikmvt Chika- 
sha okla nana akostanecha chi pulla 
kuk o kvmpeni illvpvt holisso ha ikbe 
tok oke. I 

Little Rock, Ark. : | Woodruff and 
Blocher, printers, binders and station- 
ers, Markham street. 1 1870. (*) 
Pp. V, ^4 and 21 (double numbers), alternate 
English and Choctaw facing each other, royal 
8°. Marginal notes in English and Choctaw. 
On p. iii Mr. Pomeroy is named as editor. 

The two titles above are from a bibliography 
of the writings of the alumni and faculty of 
TVesleyan University, Middletown, Conn, by 
G. Brown Goode and Newton P. Scudder. 

Poor Sarah [ Choctaw] . See "Wright ( A. ) 
and Byington (C.) 

Pope (John). A | tonr | through the | 
southern and western territories | of 
the I United States | of \ North- America ; I 
the I Spanish dominions | on the river 
Mississippi, | and the | Floridas ; | the 



Pope (J.) — Continued, 
countries of the | Creek nations ; | and 
many | uninhabited parts. | By John 
Pope. I Multorum, paucorum, plurium, 
omnium, interest. { 

Richmond : printed by John Dixon. | 
For the author and his three children, 
Alexander D. | Pope, Lucinda C. Pope, 
and Anne Pope. | M,DCC,XCII. (") 

Title reverse blank 1 L pp. iii-iv, 5-104, S°. 
Title from Mr. W. Eames, from a copy belong- 
ing to Charles L. "Woodward, New York, which 
he sold for $30. 

••June 29th. The Little King of the Broken- 
Arrow returned, a.d furnished me with the fol- 
lowing catalogue of Indian Words, with a lit- 
eral translation to each by Mr. Darisouz, Lin- 
guist to the Lower Creeks." 

This consists of a list of about 78 Creek words 
with English definitions, and an explanation of 
four local names, pp. 65-66. 

Literally '• reprinted, with index, for Charles 
L. Woodward, ^ew York, 1888." The index 
occupies pp. i-iv at the end. (Eames, Pilling.) 

Porter (John Snodgrass), jr. [Letter 
from Ockmulgee.] 

In Indian Journal, vol. 4, no. 31, Muscogee, 
Ind. T.April 8, 1880, folio. (*) 

In the Muskoki language. 

John Snodgrass Porter, jr., is the third in 
line of that name, and is first cousin to Hon. 
Pleasant Porter. J. S. Porter, his grandfather, 
was from Korristown, Pa., educated at the 
Military Academy, and served under Jackson 
as first lieutenant, afterwards bre vetted cap- 
tain. At the close of the war he resigned at 
Fort Mitchell, among the Creeks, by whom 
he and his family were adopted, as he had iden- 
tified himself to such an extent with their in- 
terests. His son, John S., married a ••half- 
breed,'* and his grandson, JotiD, was bom about 
the year 18.31, and educated chiefly at Boons- 
borough Academy, Ark. Ho was for some time 
•' National auditor " for the Creeks, and is now 
an influential member of their council.— -3fr#. 
Jtobert^on. 

Porter {Gen. Pleasant). See Gatschet 

(A. S.) 

Gen. Pleasant Porter was bom in the Creek 
nation, on the Arkansas Kiver, September 26, 
1840. His father, Benjamin E. Porter, of Nor- 
ristown, Pa., was a white man; his mother, a 
nearly full-blood Creek, was the daughter of 
Tartope Tustonuggi, chief of the Okmulgees. 
His grandmother was a sister of Samuel and 
Benjamin Perryman. 

"When ten years of age he was sent to the 
Presbyterian mission school at Tullahassee, 
which he attended for five or six years, after 
which he engaged in farming, which has always 
been hia occupation. He served four years as 
a Confederate soldier, enlisting as a private 



72 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Porter (P. ) — ContiQued. 

and receiving snccessive prbmotions until he 
reached a first lieutenancy. At the close of the 
war he returned to the C reek nation and resumed 
work on his farm. Being much interested in 
the education of his people, he gave consider- 
able time to the re-establishment of the schools 
which had been closed during tne war, and for 
several terms acted as school superintendent. 

Mr. Porter has served twelve years as a mem- 
ber of the Creek council— four years in the 
lower and eight years in the upper house. Of 
the latter he was presiding officer for four 
years. He has been a delegate at Washington 
during thirteen different sessions of Congress, 
attending to the interests of his people, and he 
has contiibuted largely to the success of many 
of the more important measures affecting the 
policy and management of the Indians. 

In the troubles which the Creek nation has 
passed through since the war, growing out of 
the change from their original institutions to 
the formation of a system of government, in- 
surrections amounting to almost civil war have 
occurred at three different periods. Mr. Porter 
was commissioned a general by the council, 
and to him largely belongs the merit of putting 
down these insurrections with but little blood' 
shed. He is interested in the unification of all 
the Indian nations in the Territory and in se- 
curing to them, as early as possible, citizenship 
and Statehood. 

Portions of the Bible * * * Choctaw. 

See "Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 
Postoak (Taylor). See Robertson (A. 

E. W.) 

Taylor Postoak is the son of a town chief, 
and has himself been a prominent man among 
his people for the last thirty years. During 
the war he went with the division of the 
Creeks who went to Kansas, but after their 
return was one of the most active in the 
work of uniting his people under a constitu- 
tional government. Under that he has served 
one term as second chief, and I think has also 
been a member of the council. 

He is an elder in the Presbyterian church, 
and is probably at least seventy years old. He 
speaks no English, but has always taken great 
pains to have his children educated.— ifr«. Bob- 
ertson. 

Pott (August Friedrich). Einleitnng in 
die allgemeine Sprachwissenschaffc. 

In Internationale Zeitschrift iiir allgemeine 
Sprachwlssenschaft, voL 1, pp. 1-68, 329-354; 
voL 2, pp. 54-115, 209^251; vol. 3, pp. 110-126, 24©- 
275, Supp. pp. 1-193 ; vol. 4, pp. 67-96 (and to be 
continued), Leipzig, 1884-1887, and Heilbronn, 
1889 (?), 8°. 

The literature of American linguistics, vol. 
4, pp. 67-96. This portion waa published after 
Mr. Pott's death, which occurred July 5, 1887. 
The general editor of the Zeitschrift, Mr. Tcch- 
mer, states in a note' that Pott's paper is con- 



Pott (A. F.) — Continued. 

tinned from the manuscript which he left, and 
that it is to close with the languages of Aus- 
tralia. 

In this section of American linguistics pub- 
lications in all the more important stocks of 
North America are mentioned, with brief char- 
acterization. 

[Potter (Woodburne).] The | war | in | 
Florida : | heing | an exposition of its 
causes, I and | an accurate history | of 
the I campaigns | of | Generals | Clinch, 
Gaines and Scott. | [Two lines quota- 
tion. ] I By a late staff officer. | 

Baltimore: ] Lewis and Coleman. | 
1836. 

Title 1 1. dedication 1 L preface pp. v-vili, 
text pp. 1-184, map, 12°.— Names of Seminole 
ch^fs, pp. 9-10, 30. 

Copies seen : British Museum, Congress. 

The Field copy, No. 1852, brought $2.75. 
Priced $1.50 by Clarke & Co., 1886 cat.. No. 2017. 
Powell: This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy of 
the work referred to has been seen by the com- 
piler in the library of Maj. J. W. Powell, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Pray for them [Choctaw]. See Wright 
(A.) and Byington (C.) 

Prayer : 

Choctaw See Baker (B.) 

Choctaw Folsom (I.) 

Primer : 

Choctaw See Wright (A.) and 

Williams (li. S.) 

Muskoki Fleming (J.) 

Proper names : 

Choctaw See Catalogue. 

Choctaw CatliD (G.) 

Choctaw Indian catalogue. 

Creek Correspondence. 

Creek Gatschet (A. S.) 

Creek Indian treaties. 

Creek Jackson (W.H.) 

Creek Stanley (J. M. ) 

Creek Treaties. 

Muskoki Catalogue. 

Muskoki CAtlin (G.) 

Muskoki Muskoki. 

Muskoki Treaties. 

Seminole Catlin <G.) 

Seminole Indian catalogue. 

Seminole Potter (W.) 

Seminole Stanley ( J. M . ) 

Seminole Williams (J. L.) 

Providence acknowledged [Choctaw]. 

See Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 
Psalm 116. Anumpa [Choctaw], See 

Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 
Pu pucase momet * * Mucvsat. See 

Robertson (A. E. W.) and others. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



73 



R. 



Ramsay {Rev, Jamos Ross). [The book 
of Psalms in tho Muscoj^eo lan- 
guage. 1885.] (*) 

Manuscript in possession of Mr. Hamsay, 
who informs me that it has not yet been revised 
ami put into final bhape, but consists of the 
original draft, by himself, directly from the He- 
brew. Ho expects that the American Bible 
Society will publish it eventually. 

[Genesis in the Muscogee lan- 
guage.] (•) 
Manuscript, 223 pp. 8 by 10 inches in size, in 
p >ssossion of Mr. Ramsay, who informs me that 
it was translated from the Hebrew by himself 
in the winter of 1885-'d6, and revised with tho 
assiiitance of native interpreters ; that the man- 
uscript has been reviewed and approved by a 
committee cf tho presbytery of Muscogee, and 
by roprosontativo men, and that lie expects it 
to bo published by tho American Bible Society. 

See Loughridse (R. M.) and "Wins- 

lett(D.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.), Wlnslett 

(D.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

See Robertson (A. E. W.) 

Rev. James Ross Ramsay was born April 9, 
1822, in Harford County, Md. He was edu- 
cated at the York County Academy, York, Pa., 
and at Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, gradu- 
ating in the class of 1840 ; pursued his theo- 
logical course in Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary, New Jersey, graduating with the class 
of 1849. 

Mr. Ramsay commenced missionary work 
among the Creek Indiaus at Kowetah Mission 
August 20, 1849. After laboring in that mission 
and vicinity nearly three years, he was com- 
pelled by sickness in his family to resign and 
return to his homo in Pennsylvania. In Feb- 
ruary of 1858 he returned to missionary work, 
but this time among the Semiuoles at Oak 
Ridge Mission, and throughout the Seminole 
Nation, in which he continued until September, 
1860. Soon thereafter, while visiting his native 
homo, the civil war commenced, and by it he 
was prevented from immediately returning ; 
but in December, 1866, he returned to mission- 
ary work among the Seminoles, at Wewoka, 
whore superintending a boarding-school, 
preaching, and translating tho Scriptures into 
tho Muskoki language fully occupy his time. 

Ho has given considerable attantion to the 
study of the Muskoki languag3, writing and 
speaking it in daily intercourse with, and in 
the instruction of, tho adult natives who do not 
understand or spoak English. 



Reader : 

Choctaw See Wright (A.) and By- 

ington (C.) 
Creek Robertson (W. S.) 

and Winslett (D.) 

Regeneration by the Holy Spirit fChoc- 
taw]. See WiUiams (L. S.) 

Relationships : 

Chikasaw See Copeland (C. C.) 

Chikasaw Qatschet (A.S.) . 

Choctaw Copeland (C. C.) 

Choctaw Edwards (J.) and By- 

ington (C.) 
Choctaw Morgan (L. H.) 

Creek Loughridge (R.M.) 

Creek Morgan (L.H.) 

ReUgious tracts in the Cboctaw lan- 
guage. See WiUiams (L. S.) 

Resurrection and final judgment [Choc- 
taw]. See WiUiams (L. S.) 

Rice (Samnel). See Robertson (A. E. 

W.) 

Samuel Rice was early left an orphan, and 
was brought up by his uncle. Judge James 
Gray, who placed him in the Asbury Boarding- 
School, at Eufaula, under the care of tho M. E. 
Church South, where he spent his vacations. 
He wa<) always thought a quick scholar there. 
Later he spent some time in La Grange Col- 
lege, Clinton, Mo. He was a licensed preacher 
in the Baptist Church, and one of the best in- 
terpreters among his people, though prevente<l 
by feeble health during the last two years of 
his life from making much use of his voice. 
He died young in 1888.— 3fr«. Robertson. 

Ridge ( ). See GaUatin (A). 

fRobb {Mrs. Czarina).] Choctaw | Bap- 
tist Hymn Book. 1 Original and trans- 
lated hymns. | 

St. Louis : 1 1830. 

Outside title: Choctaw \ Baptist Hymn Book.j 
Original and translated hymns. | 

St. Louis: \ Presbyterian pub. co., Choct.aw 
l>ook publishers, ! 207 N. Eighth st. 

Title on cover, inside title verso blank 1 1. 
index of first lines pp. iii-v, text pp. 1-70, ob 
long 12°.— Choctaw hymns with tunes, pp. 1-25 ; 
without tunt s, pp. 20-67.— Articles of faith in 
Choctaw, pp. 68-70. 

Folsom (I.), Chihowa im anumpa ilbusha [a.» 
prayer], p. 68. 

Tho names and initials of the following per- 
flans appear attached to hymns as composers 
or translators : 



74 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OP THE 



Robb (Mrs, C.) — Continued. 

Beivjamin Beko. F. 

W. W. N. Dukes. 

Jas. Williams. F. L., translator. 

J. B. Israel Folsom. 

A. Brown. David Folsom. 

P. P. Pitcblj-nn. C. B. 

Mrs. C. Bond. Fisk. 

Loring S. Williams. 

Copiei ieen : Rev. John Edwards, Wheelock, 
lud. T. 

I ] Articles of Faith, j Choctaw and 

Chickasaw | Baptist association, | Indian 
Territory. | 

Tiinisin, Teksis: | Mnrray, holisso ai 
ikbe. [1887.] 

Title as above verso design 1 1. text pp. 3-8, 
18°. In the Choctaw language. 
Copies seen: Pilling, PowelL 

[ ] Chvch im iksa ittibaiachvffa i nak- 

sish biohli putta im annmpa noshkobo. 
[1887.] 

Pp. 1-4, 24° ; heading as above. A constitu- 
tion of the Women's Baptist Home Missionary 
Society, for an association or collection of church 
societies; translated into Choctaw by Mrs. 
Robb. 

Copies seen: Pilling, Powell. 

[ ] Ohoyo Baptist na-yimmi ittibai- 

achrffa ira anumpa noshkobo. [1837. J 

3pp.24<^; heading as above. Constitution of 
the Women's Baptist Home Missionary Society 
for a single church or local society ; translated 
into Choctaw by Mrs. Robb. 

Copies seen: Pilling, Powell. 
[ ] Fba isht taloa. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. March, 1887, 4°. 

A hymn of three stanzas and chorus, with 
heading as above. "Choctaw Baptist Hymn 
Book No. 5; Gospel Hymns No. 59." 
Golden texts for the 2nd quarter, etc. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 7, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. July, 1888, 4°. 

In the Choctaw language. Occupies nearly 
a column of the paper ; heading as above. 

Bible reading— The way of life. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. February, 1889, 4°. 

Consists of passages of scripture from the 
Epistles translated into the Choctaw language. 

Bible reading. 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 7, 
Atoka, Ind. T. April, 1889, 4°. 
One column. In the Choctaw language. 
Roberts (M. P.), editor. See Indian 

Journal. 
Roberts (R. M.), editor. See Indian 

Journal. 
Robertson (Miss A. A.), editor. Sec Our 
Monthly. 



[Robertson (Jfra. Ann Eliza Worcester). ] 
Cokv Cems I Mekusapvlke omvlkvn 
ohtotvte. I Cokv vpastvl Pal | Titvs 
ohtotvte. i Cokv vpastvl Pal | Efesv- 
nvlken ohtotvte. \ The general epistle of 
James, | and the epistles of Paul | to 
Titus and to the Ephesians, | translated 
from the original Greek | into the Mus- 
kokee language. | 

New York : i American Bible Society, 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1876. . 

Title verso blank 1 1. text in (he Muskoki pp. 
3-31, 16°.— General epistle of James, pp. 3-12.— 
Titus, pp. 13-17.— Ephesians, pp. 19-31. 

Mrs. Robertson was assisted in the transla- 
tion by Messrs. J. and T. W. Ferryman and D. 
M. Hodge. 

Copies seen: American Bible Society, Con- 
gress, Eames, Pilling, Powell, Smithsonian 
Institution, Trumbull 

Este Maskoke vn Hessvlke toyats- 

kat. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 2, no. 25, Muskogee, 
Ind. T. February 20, 1878, folio. (*) 

" My friends, theMuskokis," in the Muskoki 
language. 

Siyenvlke monict Elapvhovlke 

svlvfkvlke. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 2, no. 30, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. March 27, 1878, folio. (*) 

"The Cheyenne and Arapaho prisoners," in 
the Muskoki language. 

Pa huten vpcyes. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 2, no. 47, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. July 24, 1878, folio. (*) 

A hymn, ""We're going homo," sung at an 
exhibition of the Tullahassee Manunl Labor 
School ; in the Muskoki language. 

Perehom Kococvmpv. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 2, no. 50, }^[uscogeo, 
Ind. T. August 14, 1878, folio. (*) 

Hymn, "Star of Bethlehem," in the Mus- 
koki language. 

[ ] Vpastelvlke em fnlletv. i The acts 

of the apostles, | translated from | the 
original Greek | into | the Miiskokee 
language. | 

New York : [ American Bible Society, 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1879. 

Title verso blank 1 1. text in Muskokee pp. 
3-94, Corrigenda) pp. i-ii, 16°. Originally trans- 
lated in 1860-'61 by Legus Perryraan and D. M. 
Hodge, under the supervision of Rev. IL M. 
Loughridge. Ketranslated between ten and 
tweiity years later by Mrs. A. E. W. Robertson, 
assisted by Rev. James Perry man, Rev. Thos. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



75 



Robertson (Mrs, A. E. W. ) — Continaed. 
W. Peiryman, Legus Porry man; and Miss K. K. 
Winslett 

Copietseen: Eamos, Pilling, Powell, Trum- 
bull. 

Ciiue Postok. 

In Indian Jouroal, vol. 3, no. 22, Mnscogoe, 
1 ud. T. February 6, 1879, folio. ( *) 

An account, in the Muskoki lang:uage, of 
John Postoak, a young Crook Indian, wbo was 
executed at Fort Smith, Ark. for mnrder. 

Hcsaketvmeso estomis hvinocicct 

omes. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 4, do. 3, linscogoe, 
Ind. T. September 25, 1870, folio. (*) 

"God i8 every where," in the Muskoki lan- 
guage. 

Written by Mrs. Robertson for the Creek 
second reader. 

Cosvs vc vnokeces. 

In Indian JoiHual, vol. 4, no. 4, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. October 2, 1879, folio. (♦) 

Hymn, "Jesus loves me," in the Muskoki 
language. 

Mvskokc ) nettvcako cokv-hockv 1 

cokv esyvhiketv. | Yvhiketv **puavkv.- 
herv csyvhikotv" | moinetcokv etiacn- 
kvpvket. I Tlie Maskokee S. S. soDg- 
book. I From gospel songs and other 
collections. 1 By A. E. W. Robertson. | 

[New York :] From the jtress of the 1 
American Tract Society. 1 1880, 

Title verso blank 1 1. text (in Muskokeo with 
English and Mnskokee headings to the hymns) 
pp. 3-92, Muskokee index pp. 93-04, English 
index pp. 95-90, 16^. Mrs. Robertson was 
assisted by T. W. Perry man and N. B. Sullivan. 

Copies seen : Eames, Pilling, Powell. 

There is an edition of 1884, differing from the 
above only in date. (Eames.) 

[ ] Opunvkv-herv | Luk coyvte. jThe 

gospel according to ] Luke, I translated 
from I the original Greek | into the Mns- 
kokee language. | 

New York : | American Bible Society, 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. j 
1880. 

Title verso blank 1 1. text in Muskokeo pp. 3- 
99, 160. Translated originally by Rev. Mr. Ram- 
say, of the Seminole Mission, with iho help of 
an incompetent interpreter. It was retrans- 
lated by Mrs. Robertson, with the assistance, 
in correcting, of Rev. Thos. W. Pcrryman and 
N.B. Sullivan. 

Copies seen : Eames, Pilling, Powell. 

[ ] Opunvkv-herv | Mak coyvte. | The 

gospel according to^j Mark, | translated 
from I the original Greek | into the Mus- 
kokee language. | 



Robertson (Mrs, A. E. W.) —Continued. 

New York: | American Bible Society, 
1 instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1880. 

Title verso blank 1 1. text in the Muskokeo 
language pp. 3-59, 16^. Mrs. Robertson was 
assisted by Rev. Thos. W. Perryman and N. B. 
Sullivan in correcting the above work. 

Copies seen : British and Foreign Riblo Soci- 
ety, Eames, Pilling, Powell. 
Cesvs omaret komis. 

In Indian Journal, voL 4, no. 23, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. February 12, 1880, folio. ( ♦) 

Hymn, "I want to belike Jesus," in the Mus- 
koki language. From the Muskokeo hymn 
book. 
Maro 6, 1-14. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 4, no. 25, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. February 2C, 1880, folio. (*) 

Matt 6, 1-14, with questions and comments ; 
iu the Muskoki language. 
Cesvs vn tisem vc vnokeces. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 4, no. 48, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. August 5, 1880. folio. (* ) 

Hymn, "Jesus loves even mo," in the Mus- 
koki language. Originally printed in the Mns- 
kokee S. S. song-book. 

Double consonants in the Creek lai.- 

gaage. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 5, no. 42, Muskogee, 
Ind. T., June 23, 1881, folio. (*) 

Mrs. Robertson informs me that she has in 
manuscript a second article on this subject, 
entitled "Double Consonants in the Muskokee 
as exhibited in Muskokee verbs and other 
words,'* which she thinks of publishing. 

[ ] Cokv vpastel Pal | Lomvnvlke 

ohtotvte. I The epistle of Paul the apos- 
tle to the I Romans, i translated | from 
the original Greek | into the Mnskokee 
language. | 

New York : | American Bible Society, | 
. instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1881. 

Title verso blank 1 1. text in Muskokee pp. 3- 
41, W. Mrs. Robertson was assisted by Rev. 
Thos. W. Perryraan, N. B. Sullivan, and Chief 
Samuel Chccote. 

Copies seen : Eames, Pilling, Powell. 

[ ] Cokv enhvteceskv | svhokkalat te- 

pakat I vpastel Pal | Kvlenrvlke ohto- 
tolvte. I The epistles of Paul the apos- 
tle to the I Corinthians, | translated | 
from the original Greek | into the Mus- 
kokee language. | 

New York: | American Bible Society, | 
instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1833. 
Title verao blank 1 1. text in Muskokee pp. 



76 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Robertson {Mrs. A. E. W.)— Continued. 
3-67, 16°. Rev. T. W. Perryuaan, N. B. Sullivan, 
and Chief Saraael Cbecoto assisted in revising 
this work. 

Copies seen : American Bible Society, Eames, 
Pilling, Powell. 

[Hymn in the Creek or Mnskoki 

language.] 

In Onr Brother in Ked, vol. 2, no. 11, Mus- 
kogee, Ind. T. July, 1684, 4°. (*) 

Mrs. Kobcrtson informs me that it is a trans- 
lation of the hymn "And let this feeble body 
fail." 

[ ] Cokv vpastelPal | Felepvlke, Kol- 
as vlke, I Resvlonikvlke I. &. II., | Te- 
more I. &. II., &. Filemvn. | The epistles 
of Paul the apostle to the | Philippians, 
Colossians, 1 1. <& II. Thessalonians, 1 1. 
& II. Timothy, & Philemon. | Trans- 
lated I from the original Greek | into the 
Muskokee language. | 

New York: | American Bihle Society, | 
instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1885. 

Title reverse blank 1 1. text in Muskokee pp. 
3-56, 16°.— Cokv vpastel Pal Felepvlke ohto- 
tvte, pp. 3-12.— Cokv vpastel Pal Kolasvlke 
ohtotvte, pp. 13-21. — Cokv enhvteceskv vpastel 
Pal Resvlonikvlke ohtotvte, pp. 22-30.— Cokv 
Pal Besvlonikvlke ohtotvte svhokkolat, pp. 31- 
35.— Cokv enhvteceskv vpastel Pal Temore 
ohtotvte, pp. 36-46.— Cokv vpastel Pal Temore 
ohtotvte svhokkolat, pp. 47-54.— Cokv vpastel 
Pal Filemvn ohtotvte, pp. 55-56. 

In correcting the above work Mrs. Kobertson 
was assisted by N. B. Sullivan, Rev. T. W. Per- 
ryman, and Judge G. W. Stidbam ; and it was 
approved by Chief J. M. Perryraan and Hon. 
James Scott. 

Copies seen : Pilling, Powell. 

Priced 3 fr. 50 byLeclerc in 1887 Supp.,No. 
3069. 

[ ] Cokv vpastel Pal | KelesvlkiB ohto- 
tvte. I The epistle of Paul the apostle to , 
the I Galatians, | translated | from the 
original Greek | into the Muskokee lan- 
guage. I 

Now York : | American Bible Society, | 
instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. i 
1885. 

Title as above verso blank 1 1. text pp. 3-16, 
16^. 

Mrs. Robertson was assisted, in correcting 
this work, by N. B. Sullivan, Rev. T. W. Perry- 
man, and Hon. G. W. Stidham. 

Copies seen : Eames, Pilling, Powell. 

[ ] Cokv Mekusapvlko vtekat Petv 

ohtotvte enhvteceskv. 

[New York : American Bible Society. 
1886.1 



Robertson {Mrs. A. E. W.)— Continued. 

No title-page, heading only, pp. 1-68, 16° ; in 
the Mnskoki language. 

Inclndes epistle of Peter i (as above), pp. 1- 
11. -Cokv svhokkolat * * Petvt (Peter n), 
pp. 12-18.-Cokv * » Cntv5et(Jude),pp.l9- 
21.— Lefelesvn (Revelation), pp. 22-68. 

Mrs. Robertson was assisted by T. W. Porry- 
man and N. B. Sullivan. 

Copies seen: Pilling, Powell. 

[ ] Cokv vpastel Pal | Hepluvlke ohto- 
tvte. I The epistle of Paul the aposllc 
to the I Hebrews, | translated | from the 
original Greek | into the Muskokee lan- 
guage. I 

New York : | American Bible Society, | 
instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1886. 

Title reverse blank 1 1. text pp. 3-32, 16°. 

Copies seen : Pilling, Powell. 

[Hymn in the Creek language.] 

In Our Brother in Red, voL 4, no. 6, p. 3, 

MuHkogee, Ind. T. February, 1886, 4°. 
Hymn *• The Rock that is higher than I," 

in English and Creek. Mrs. Robertson has 

furnished mo, in manuscript, with a literal 

English translation of the Creek. 

[Muskokee glossary. 

New York, 1887.] 

Pp. i-iv, 16°. Privately printed, and intended 
to accompany the Mnskokee New Testament, 
but with which it could not be bound lest it 
should be an infringement on the rule which 
requires the American Bible Society to give 
the Scriptures "without note or comment" 
Mrs. Robertson informs me the glossary " gives 
the meaning of transfcri'ed or, i>erhap8 more 
properly, adopted words." 

Copies seen : Pilling, Powell. 

[Hymn in English and Creek.] 

In Our Brother in Red, vol. 6, no. 26, p. 1, 

Muskogee, Ind. T. March 3, 1888, folio. 
It is the hymn beginning "More Love to 

Thee, O Christ." 
Appeared also in Indian Missionary, vol.4, 

no. 4, p. 7, Atoka, Ind. T. April, 1888, 4°. 

Amazing grace. 

In Our Brother in Red, vol. 6, no. 39, p. 1, 
Muskogee, Ind. T. June 2, 1888, folio. 

A hymn of eight stanzas in the Mnskoki 
language, preceded by the English hymn of 
which it is a translation, and entitled as above. 

It also appeared about the same time as fol- 
lows: 

Heromke estomaham. * 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 4, no. 10 [sie for 7], 
p. 3, Atoka, Ind. T. Jply, 1888, 4°. 

A hymn in the Muskoki language, preceded 
by the English original, which is entitled 
" Amazing Grace, " and followed by an account. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



77 



Robertson {Mrs. A. E. W.) — Continued. | 
iu Maskoki, of tbo composer of the English l 
hymn — Rev. John Newton. j 

Copies seen : Pilling ; which copy shows 
numerous pen corrections of the ^uskoki 
print, made by the translator. 

[English and Creek vocabulary. 

1860-1889.] (*) 

Manuscript in possession of its aathor. who 
writes me concerning it as follows : 

"As to my English and Creek vocabulary, its 
existence has been rather an unfortunate one. 
I began copying it (or rather havijig Legus 
Terryman do the penmanship), but we had only 
gone into the letter E when he loft for home. 
I then took the pen myself, with Lewis Wins- 
Ictt (a very talented boy, who was lost during 
the war) as interpreter, but the war soon ended 
our work. Had I confined myself to correcting 
and copying material already on hand, it would 
probably have been wiser than procoediilg as I 
did on a larger plan, hoping to get a work of 
sufficient completeness to be a real help to Eng- 
lish-speaking students of the Creek. The first 
part of that— the letter A and a part of B— I lent 
to Dr. Loughridge, who went to Texas during 
the war, leaving most of his library behind, and 
that also, which is the last I know of it. So the 
greater part of my collection of Creek words is 
in the crudest shape imaginable, done chiefly 
with a pencil in greatest haste, I often running 
to my little book, no matter how busy with 
other things, to record a new word obtained 
from pupils, manuscripts, or books, and tying 
now leaves within the covers as needed. I 
would have preferred Creek and English to 
English and Creek, but for Dr. Loughridge's 
having begun the former. What I have iu pen 
and ink was done with a school edition of the 
English dictionary in hand, selecting the most 
commonly used words in going over it. Should 
my life be spared I may get this work into bet- 
ter shape, as I would be very glad to do, since 
I probably have a good many nouns, at least, 
not given by others. But while the ' full blood ' 
Creeks have so little reading matter, and so 
few to furnish any for them, it does not seem as 
if I ought to turn aside from the work which I 
am doing now." 

In another letter Mrs. Robertson B&ya the 
foundation for both Mr. Longhridge's English 
and Creek dictionary and this voc&bulary of 
hers, which work on the Crook Testament has 
prevented her completing, was laid by Rev. 
John Fleming, whose manuscript book was 
among those he mentions having left behind on 
leaving the Creeks. 

Vocabulary of the Chicasaw. [1875?] 

Manuscript, in the library of the Bureau of 
Ethnology. Mrs. Robertson was assisted in 
its collection by Daniel Austin and his sister, 
Pollie Fife, as translators. See Pike (A.) 



Robertson {Mrs. A. E. W.) — Continued. 

The corti fable, iu the Muskokee 

language. [1885.] 

Manuscript, pp. 1-12, folio, in tho library of 
the Bureau of Ethnology. The fablo is accom- 
panied by an interlinear literal translation in 
English, written in red ink. Pp. 9-12 consist 
of a free translation in English. Mrs. Robert- 
son received the fablo from Taylor Postoak, 
second chief of the Muskokis. 

See Loughridge (R. M.) 

See Loughridga (R. M.), Robert 

son (A. E. W.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.) and "Wins- 

lett(D.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.), Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

See Our Monthly. 

See Ferryman (T. W. ) and Robert- 
son (A. E. W.) 

See Pike (A.) 

See Robertson (W. S.) and "WinE- 

lett (D.) 

and Sullivan (N. B.) Este Mvskoke 

em ohonvkv. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, Muscoge.\ 
Ind. T. September 9, 1881, folio. (*) 

History of the Muskoki people— a speech by 
the Hon. William P. Ross. Issued also as fol- 
lows: 

[ ] Early Creek History | Speech 

of I Hon. William P. Ross j at the | Tul- 
lahassee manual labor boarding school. 
I July 18th, 1878. 

Colophon: Translated by Mrs. A. 
E. W. Robertson and N. B. Sullivan. | 
Printed at the Office of the Indian 
Journal. [Muskogee, Creek Nation, 
1881.] 

No title-page, heading only ; 4 pp. double col- 
umns, S°. A speech delivered in English, and 
translated iuto Muskoki by Mrs. Robertson, 
with tho assistauco of N. B. Sullivan. Mrs. 
Robertson has furnished the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy with an interlinear English translation. 

Copies seen: Bureau of Ethnology, Ea-nos, 
Pilling, Powell. 

[ and others]. Pu pucase momet | pu 

I heaayecv Cesvs Klist | en Testement 
Mucvsat. I Klekvlke em punvkv | mv 
ofv enhvteceskv cohoyvte aosseu | 
tohtvlecicvhotet os. | 

New York : | American Bible Society, 
I instituted iu the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1887. 

Title verso blank 1 1. contents verso blauk 1 
1. Matthew (no title-paire), pp. l-DO.—Mark 
(with title-page, 1830), pp. 1-60.— Luke (with 
title-page, 1880),pp. 1-99.— John (with title page, 



78 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Robertson {Mrs, A. E. W.) aad others — 

1875), pp. 1-73.— Acts (with tiUepa^e, 1879), 
pp. 1-91. — Ck>rrigeB«liB, pp. i-4L — Bomans (with 
tltle-pago, 1881), pp. 1-41.— (^linthiaiu (with 
title-page, 1883), pp. 1-C7.— Galatians (with title- 
page, 1885), pp. 1-16.— Epaesians (no title-p»ge), 
pp. 19-31. — Philippians, Colossians, Thessalo. 
nians I, ii ; Timothy I, ii ; and Philemon (with 
title-page, 1885), pp. 1-50.— Titus (no title-page), 
pp. 13-17. — Hebrews (with title-page, 1886), pp. 

1-32.— James (no title-page), pp. 3-12 John (no 

title-page), pp. 1-14. — Peter (no title-page), pp. 
1-18.— Jude (no title-page), pp. 19-21.— Revela- 
tion (no title-page), pp. 22-68.— Corrigenda 1 1. 
160. 

It will be noticed that, contrary to the usual 
order, Titus and Peter follow Philemon and 
John, respectively. This is the first appear- 
ance in bound form of Hebrews, l and ii Peter, 
Jude, and Eevelation in Muskoki; and Mat- 
thew is essentially a new version. These ad- 
ditions m&^e the !N"ew Testament complete— all 
these portions having been translated by Mrs. 
Bobertson, with the aid of natives and others 
named below. The remaining {portions of the 
work, by various translators, have appeared 
previously at various times, and will be found 
under their proper entries hei-ein. 

Mrs. Bobertson was assisted more or less in 
these translations by the following persons ; 

Rev. T. W. Perryman, Chief Legus Perry man, 
Judge G.W. Stidham, SamaelRice, James Scott, 
J. Henry Land, N. B. Sullivan, Nochor Jackson, 
and Chief Samuel Checote. 

Copies seen : Pilling, Powell. 

Mrs. Ann Eliza Worcester Robertson, daugh- 
ter of Ann Orr, of Bedford, N. H., and Rev. 
Samuel A.Worcester, D. D. (son of Rev. L. Wor- 
cester, of Peacham,Yt., and missionary of the 
A.B.C.F.M.among the Cherokees), was born 
at the Brainerd Mission, Eastern Cherokee Na- 
tion, in Tennessee, November 7, 1826. She was 
educated in Vermont, chiefly at the St. Johns- 
bury Academy, and in the fall of 1816 returned 
to the Cherokees an appointed teacher of the 
A. B. C. F. M. April 16. 1850, she was married 
to W. S. Robertson, A. M., principal of the 
Tullahassee Manual Labor Boarding-School, 
among the Creeks, and during its history 
as an Indian school either assisted in the 
school work or studied and worked in the 
Creek language. In the latter work she has 
since continued, having now on hand (Novem- 
ber 1, 1888) the revision of books for a new 
edition of the Creek New Testament and the 
translation of the historical parts of the Old 
Testament. 

She assisted in all the books published by her 
husband, in two editions of the Creek Hymn- 
Book, and two of the Creek Catechism, by Rev. 
R. M. Loughridge, D D., and did her first Testa- 
ment translating on the last third of John's 
Gospel ; next, with the help of Rev. Jas. Ferry- 
man, Ephesians, Titus, and James ; then Acts, 
workipg on foundatloiw laid by R©v, R. M. 



Robertson {Mrs. A. E. "W.) — Contioaed. 

Loughridge with young interpret^ers, foUowel 
by Luke, having ou two-thirds of it the help of 
what Rev. J. R. Ramsay ha1 done with an un- 
skillful interpreter. Next came Mark, and the 
reat bf the books followed in their order, until 
in 188T th» irhole volume appeared. Mean- 
while she had preipawciil tli0 Gxeek &S. Song- 
Book of sirty-siz Creek songs and tw»Sag}iak. 

Robertson {Bev, William Schenck). 
Cokv enbvteceskv | mekasapvlke vt^ 
kat 1 Cano | ohtotvto. | 

[New York: American Bible Society. 
1875.] 

No title-page, heading only, pp. 1-14, 16°. 
Epistles of John in the Muskoki language.— 

John I, pp. 1-10.— John ii, pp. 11-12 John in, 

pp. 13-14. 

Mr. Robertson was assisted by Messrs. T. W. 
i?eiTyman and D. M Hodge. 

Copies ieen: Congress, Eames, Pilling, Pow- 
cH, Trumbull. 

See Loughridge (R. M.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.), Robertson 

(A. E. W.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.), "Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

editor. See Our Monthly. 

and Winslett (D.) Nakcokv es 

keretv enbvteceskv. | Muskokee, | or| 
Creek first reader. | By | W. S. Robert- 
son, A. M., I and 1 David Winslett. | 

New York : ] Mission house, 23 Centre 
street. 1 1856. 

Pp. 1-48, 160. 

Copies seen: Lenox, Wisconsin Historical 
Society. 

Priced 6«. by Triibner in 1856, No. 654. The 
Field copy, No. 2010, sold for 40 cents. 

Nakcokv es Kerretv Euhvte- 

ceskv. I Muskokee or Creek | First 
Reader. | By | W. S. Robertson, A. M., | 
and I David Winslett. | Second Edition. | 

New York : | Mission House, 23 Centre 
street. | 1867. | E. O. Jenkins, Printer, 
20 North William Street, New York. 

Printed cover as above, title (differing only 
in the capitalization of a few words and the 
omission of the name and address of printer) 
followed on verso by the text, pp. 2-48, 16°. 

Copies seen : Brinton, Eames, Trnmboll. 

Nakcokv es kerretv enhvte- 

ceskv. I Muskokee or Creek | First 
Reader. | By | W. S. Robertson, A. M., | 
and j David Winslett. | Fourth edition. | 
New York : | Mission Honse^ 23 Centre 
Street. 1 1870. 
Pp.M8,lSo, 



MUSKHOGEAN LANQUAQES. 



n 



Robertson (W. S.) aud Winslott (D.) — 
ContiDued. 

Copies seen : American Tract Sooioty, Trum- 
boll. 

I have aeen editions of 1871, 1875 (Congress), 
1878 (Powell), and 1882 (Danbar), with no 
change of title-page from the above except in 
date. 

Mvskoke | nakcokveakerretv es- 

vliokkolat. I Creek | second reader. | Eev. 
W. S. Robertson. | Rev. David Winslett. | 
[Picture.] | 

Published by tlie | American Tract 
Society, | 150 Nassau-street, New York. 
[1871.] 

Title verso blank 1 1. list of contributors pp. 
3-4, text in Creek pp. 5-90, 12®. 

The following persons are named as trans- 
lators of material comprising this reader : 
Kev. John Fleming. Rev. J. M. Perry- 

David Hodge. man. 

Grace Leeds. Thomas Perry man. 

Josiah Perryman. Charles Barnett. 

Sandford Perryman. Lewis Perryman. 
Robert Lasley. Mrs. A. E. W. Rob- 

Rev. David Winslett ertson. 

Legus Perryman. 

Copies seen : Congress, Pilling, Powell, Trum- 
bull. 

McKiUop (J.) and "Winslett (D.) 

Come to Jesus. | Cesvs a oh vtes. | Er- 
kenvkv ball | coyvte, momen | W. S. 
Robertson, John McKillop, | Rev. David 
Winslett, | esyomat Mvskoke enipunvk v 
ohtvlecicet os. | 

From the press of the [ American Tract 
Society, 1 150 Nassau-street, New York. 
[18581] 

Outside title as above verso blank 1 1. half- 
title verso blank 1 1. text in Muskoki pp. &-C2, 
hymn in Muskoki p. 63, 16^. 

Copies seen : Congress, Pilling, PowoU, Trum- 
bull. 

The Field copy, No. 2009, sold for 35 cents. 

Rev. "W. S. Robertson, a son of Rev. Samuel 
Robertson , of the P resbyterian Church , was bom 
in Huntington, L. I., January 11, 1820. Ho 
fitted for college in various academies in Kew 
Yoik State, and graduated from Union Col- 
lege, Schenectady, in 1843. After going two- 
thirds thi ongh a courao of medicine, he decided 
to adopt teaching as his profession, in which ho 
became an enthusiastic worker aud to which 
ho devoted his life. 

In 1849 he offered himself as a missionary to 
the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, 
was accepted for their work among the In- 
dians, aud was sent as principal of the Talla- 
hassee Manual Labor Boardiug-3cboo| among 
the Crocks, in'which work he continued wljile 
he lived, with the exception of five years' in- 
^rruptioi) froa^ tbo war, during wljiclj Ijo 



Robertson (W. S.) — Continued. 

taught in other places. In the fall of 18G3 he 
returned to the Creeks, having been ordained 
asaminister just before his return. In addi- 
tion to most diligent work as a teacher, he had 
previously prepared a Creek First Reader for 
the press, " Come to Jesus," translated at his 
expense by a pupil, J. McKillop, and a tract on 
the Sabbath ; besides getting the Creek Second 
Reader nearly ready for the press. 

While waiting for the renewal of relations 
between the United States Qovemment and 
the Creeks, he employed himself in preaching 
and Sunday-school work, and in preparing new 
editions of Creek books, besides the Epistles of 
John, Hon. S. W. and Rev. T. W. Perryman, 
half-brothers of his former interpreter. Rev. 
D Winslett, being his translators. He later 
attended to the publishing of the little Creek 
paper, "Our Monthly," for four years. This 
was printed on a hand-press by his yonng son, 
aided by one or two school->>oys, and it gave 
the Creeks a very strong stimulus towards 
reading their own language. 

In 1876, having gone east to recruit his health, 
the United States Government placed him in 
charge of the Indian educational exhibit at 
the Centennial Exposition, where he spent a 
month, greatly increasing his knowledge of 
and interest in the Indians. 

The "Indian International Fair" was an 
object of earnest work with him from its foun- 
dation to the time of his death, as he felt the 
support of industry to be so Important among 
the Indians. 

December 19, 1880, the school building was 
destroyed by fire, which was followed by work, 
exposure, and disappointment, which proved 
too much for his strength, and June 26, 1884, 
he died at the age of sixty-one. He is buried 
atParkHUl, Ind.T. 

April 16, 1850, he was married to Ann Eliza, 
daughter of Rev. S. A. Worcester, D.D., mis- 
sionary of the A. B. C. F. M. among the Chero- 
kees. 

Rockwell {Prof, E. F.) Analogy be- 
tween the proper names in Japan, and 
the Indian proper names in the United 
States. By Professor E. F. Rockwell, 
of Davidson College, N. C. 

In Historical Magazine, second series, vol. 3, 
pp. 141-142, Morrisania, N. Y. 1868, sm. 4°. 

Principally names of Muskhogean, Iroquoian, 
and Algonquian derivation. 

Rogers (Daniel), editor. See Indian 
Missionary. 

Rouquette (7?<jV. Adrien). [Works in or 
concerning the Choctaw language.] (*) 
1. Les Indiens: a contribution of twelvQ 
chapters to "Le Propagateur Catholi(}i|e,'' 
Also the following manuscripts : 
^. Dictionnaire Cb^lita.Fran^i*. 



80 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Rouquette (A.) — Continued. 

Contains "no words not found in published 
dictionaries." 

3. Collection de Sermons en Chahta, tires de 
passages du Nouveau Testament. 

4. Notes sur le langage Chahta. 

•'These notes " the author informed me, * ' are 
numerous, many of them etymological, but not 
yet put in order so as to form a work ready fur 
publication. In fact, I have never had in view 
the publication of any of my work on the 
Chahta language.'' 

Father Rouquette was born in New Orleans, 
February 13, 1813, and died at the Hdtel-Dieu, 
in the same city, July 15, 1887. His parents 
were natives of France. Ho had been a mis- 
sionary among the Choctaws since 1859, and 
was called Chahta-Ima, which meaus, he says, 
ChoctaW'like. He kindly furnished me the 
foregoing list of his works on the Choctaw lan- 
guage a short time previous to his death, his 
feeble condition preventing him from describ- 
ing them more in detail. Dr. Joseph Jones, of 
New Orleans, informs mo that the Very Rev. 



Rouquette (A.) — Cou tinned. 

H. Picharit, of Vicksburg.Miss., is said to have 
charge of Father Rouquette's manuscripts. 

Rouquette (Dominique). Meschac^- 
b^ennes | poesies | par | Dominique 
Rouquette. | [Three lines quotation.] 
1 [Design.] | 

Paris. I Librairio do Sauvaignat, | 
Carrefour Bnssy, 1, ot Quai Malaquais, 
3. I 1839. 

Half-title verso blank 1 1. title 1 1. pp. i-vi, 7- 
162, 16°.— "Notes," pp. 143-159, contain mean- 
ings of Choctaw terms occurring in the i>oems, 
and on pp. 151-152 are some remarks on the 
Choctaw language. 

Copies seen : Dunbar. 

Ross (A. F.), editor. See Indian Mis- 
sionary. 

Ross (William P.), editor. See Indian 
Journal. 



s. 



Sabin (Joseph). A | dictionary | of | 
Books relating to America, | from its 
discovery to the present time. | By 
Joseph Sabin. | Volume I[-XVII]. | 
[Three lines quotation.] | 

New-York : | Joseph Sabin, 84 Nassau 
street. | 1868[-1888]. 

17 vols. 8° ; still in course of publication and 
including thus far entries to " San Francisco." 
Contains titles of a number of works in the 
Muskhogean languages. Now edited by Mr. 
Wilberforce Eames. 

Copies seen: Congress, Eames, Geological 
Survey. 

See Field (T. W.) 

Joseph Sabin, bibliophile, born in Braunstou, 
Northamptonshire, England, December 9, 1821; 
died in Brooklyn, N. Y., JuneS, 1881. Hiafather, 
a mechanic, gave him a common-school educa- 
tion, and apprenticed him to Charles Kichards, 
a bookseller and publisher of Oxford. Subse- 
quently young Sabin opened a similar store in 
Oxford, and published " The XXXIX Articles 
of the Church of England, with Scriptural 
Proofs aud References" (1814). In 1848 he 
came to this country, and bought farms in 
Texas and near Philadelphia. In 1850 he set- 
tled in New York City, and in 1856 he went to 
Philadelphia and sold old and rare books, but 
at the beginning of the civil war he returned to 
New York and opened book shops, where he 
made a specialty of collecting rare books and 
prints. His knowledge of bibliography was 
extended, and he o''tcn traveled long distances 



Sabin (J.) — Continued. 

to secure unique volumes, crossing the ocean as 
many as twenty-five times for this purpose. 
Two of his sons became associated with Mm in 
business, and two others were proprietors of a 
similar enterprise in London. He prepared 
catalogues of many valuable libraries, that 
were sold by auction in New York after 1850, 
among which were those of Dr. Samuel F. Jarvis 
(1851), "William E. Burton (1861), Edwin Forrest 
(1863), John Allen (1564), and Thomas W. 
Fields (1875). He also sold the collection of 
William Menzies (1877). Mr. Sabin republished 
in limited editions on large paper several curi- 
ous old works of American histor3', edited and 
published for several years from 1869 "The 
American Bibliopolist : A literary register and 
monthly catalogue of old and new books," con- 
tributed to the American. Publishers' Circular, 
and undertook the publication in parts of a 
" Dictionary of books relating to America, from 
its discovery to the present time," of which 
thirteen volumes were issued, and upon which 
ho was engaged, at the time of his Aoath.—Ap- 
pleton's Cyclop, of Am. Biog, 

Salvation by Jesus Christ [Choctaw]. 
See Williams (L.S.) 

Sanford (Ezekiel). A I history | of | the 
United States | before the revolution : 
I with I some account | of | The Abo- 
rigines. I By Ezekiel Sanford. | 

Philadelphia: | published by Anthony 
Finley. | William Brown, Printer. | 
1819. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



81 



Sanibrd (E. ) — CoDtiuued. 

Title 1 1. advertUomont pp. iii-v, conteuts pp. 
vii-viii, text pp. ix-cxcii, 1-310, index pp. 321- 
342, 8°. — Coraparativo vocabulary of the Charib- 
bee, Crook, and Mokegan and Northern lan- 
gaages, with tlie Hebrew (from Boadinot's 
Star in the West), pp. xxviii-xxx. 

Copies seen : Boston Athensenm, British Mu- 
seum, Congress. 

Priced by Quaritch, Xo. 29701, 5«. Qd. ; an un- 
cut copy. Is. dd. 

Ezekiel Sanford was born in Bidgefield, 
Fairfield Co., Conn., in 1796 ; died in Columbia, 
S. C, in 1822. He was graduated at Yale in 
1815, and in 1819 published "A History of the 
United States before the Kevolution, with 
Some Account of the Aborigines " (Philadel- 
phia). Of this work Nathan Hale wrote in 
the "North American Review" in Septem- 
ber of that year: "TVe have proceeded far 
enough, we trust, to support our charge of 
gross inaccuracy in the work before us." The 
same year Mr. Sanford projected an expurgated 
edition of the British poets with biographical 
prefaces in fifty volumes, twenty -two of which 
he had published when his health failed (Phil- 
adelphia), and the remainder of the series was 
edited by Bobert Walsh, for many years TJ. S. 
consul in Paris. Sanford left in manuscript a 
satirical novel entitled '* The Humors of £uto- 
pia ''—Appleton*s Oyclop. of. Am. Biog. 

Schermerhom (John F.) Report ro- 
spepting the Indians, inhabiting the 
western parts of the United States. 
Communicated by Mr. John F. Scher- 
merhom to the secretary of the 
society for propagating the gospel 
among the Indians and others in North 
America. 

In Massachusetts Hist. Soc. Coll. second 
series, voL 2, pp. 1-45, Boston, 1814, 8^. 

Comments on the language of the Shawa- 
noes, Delawares, Miamies, Algonquins, Chick- 
asaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and various tribes 
west of the Mississippi. 

Schomburgk {Sir Robert Hermann). 
Contributions to the philological eth- 
nography of South America. By Sir 
R. H. Schomburgk. 

In Philological Soc. [of Loudon], Proc. vol. 3, 
pp. 228-237, London, 1848, %^. 

"Afilnity of words in the Guluau language 
with other languages and dialects of America, " 
including the Muscohge, pp. 233-237. 

A vocabulary of the Maiongkong 

language [South America]. By Sir 
Robert Schomburgk. 

In Philological Sac. [of London], Proc. vol.4, 
pp. 217-222, London, 1850, 8°. 

Contains the word for sun in Chocta and 
Mnskhogee. 

MUSK C 



[Schoolcraft (Henry Rowe).] A | bib- 
liographical catalogue | of | books, 
translations of the scriptures, | and 
other publications in the | Indian 
tongues I of the | Uuited States, | with 
I brief critical notices. | 

Washington : | C. Alexander, printer. 
11649. 

Half-title reverse prefatory 1 1. title as above 
reverse synopsis 1 L text pp. 5-28, 8°. — A list of 
books and tracts in Choctaw, pp. 21-23 ; in 
Creek or Muscogee, p. 23. 

Oopies seen : Congress, Eamos, National Mu- 
seum, Pilling, PowelL 

Priced by Triibner, 1836, 3t. M. At the Field 
sale a copy. No. 2071, brought $1.63; at the 
Brinley sale. No. 5630, a half-morocco, auto- 
graph copy, brought $5. 

Reprinted, with addition!*, &c. as follows : 

Literature of the Indian languages. 

A bibliographical catalogue of books, 
translations of the scriptures, and other 
publications in the ludian tongues of 
the United States, with brief critical 
notices. 

In Schoolcraft (H. R.), Indian Tribes, vol. 4, 
pp. 523-551, Philadelphia, 1854. 4°. 

Linguistics as above, pp. 514-516. 

A description of the Aboriginal 

American nomenclature, with its ety- 
mology. Alphabetically arranged. (Be- 
luga critical dictionary of Indian names 
in the history, geography, and mythol- 
ogy of the United States.) 

In Schoolcraft (H R.), Indian Tribes, vol. 3, 
pp. 510-519. vol. 4, pp. 551-564, vol. 5, pp. 570-577, 
Philadelphia, 1833, 1854, 1854, 4°. 

Principally Algonquian. Iroquoian, Muskho- 
gean, and Mexican. 

Plan of a system of geographical 

names for the United States, founded 
on the aboriginal languages. 

In Schoolcraft (H. R.), Indian Tribes, vol. 3, 
pp. 501-509, Philadelphia, 1853, 4°. 

Terms from the Algonquin, pp. 505-506.— 
Terms from the Iroqaois, p. 507.— Terms from 
the Appalachian group of languages (the 
nominative syllables and local intlectious se- 
lected under this head are chiefly from tlie 
Muscogee), pp. 507-508.— General ralsci'llane- 
ous terms, p. 509. 

Observations ou the manner of com- 
pounding words in the Indian lan- 
guages. 

In Schoolcraft (H. R.), Indian Tribes, vol. 4, 
pp. 371-385, Philadelphia, 1851, 4^ 

Many examples from the Algonquin (pp. 
372-38)), Muaogoo (pp. 380-381), Iroquois (pp. 
381-384), and Dacotah (p. 384) languages. 



82 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OP THE 



Schoolcraft (H. R.) — Continued. 

See 'Wheeler (C. H. ) 

Honry Rowe Schoolcraft was born in TVater- 
vliet, K. Y., March 29, 1793. Ho entered Vnion 
College in 1807, made his first expedition to the 
Mississippi liiver in 1817, and sevcr.al others 
afterwards. In 1822 he was appointed agent 
for Indian affairs on the northwestern frontier, 
where he married a granddaughter of Wabo- 
jeeg, an Indian war chief, and resided in that 
country until 1841. About 1830, while a mem- 
ber of the territorial legislature of Michigan, 
ho introduced the system, which was to some 
extent adopted, of forming local names from the 
Indian languages. In 1817 Congress directed 
him to procure statistics and other information 
respecting the history, condition, and prospects 
of the Indian tribes of the United States. Ho 
resided many years among the Indians and 
zealously improved his opportunities for study- 
ing their habits, customs, and languages. Ho 
died in Washington, D. C, Dec. 10, 1864. 

Schultze (Benjamin). See Fritz (J. F.) 
and Schultze (B.) 

Scott (James). See Robertson (A. E. 

W.) 

James Scott is a sou of Hotnlke Harjo, and 
grandnephew of Captain Jiniboy, who fought 
against the Serainoles in Jackson's time. He 
came to TuUahassoo in 1870, having mnde a 
beginning in a daj-school, and being young 
enough to acquire the English quite readily. 
He was ampng those sent, in 18S0, to school at 
Henderson, Tcnn. He is a highly esteemed 
member of the council, in which office he has 
served five years. He has also been, for the 
last ten years, a consistent and influential 
member of the Baptist Church.— Jfr*. Robert- 
8on. 

Scripture biography * * Choctaw. 
See 'Wright (H. B.) and Dukes (J.) 

Scripture passages : 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 



Seminole — Continued. 



See Baker (B.) 
Colbert (G.) 
Biokerson (J.H.) 
Robb (C.) 



Second book of Kings 
See Edwards (J.) 



Choctaw. 



Self - dedication 
'WiUiams(L. S.) 

Seminole : 

Geographic names 
Grammatic c o m - 

mcnts. 
Lord's prayer 
Proper names 
Proper names 
Proper names 
Proper names 
Proper names 



[Choctaw]. See 



See Hawkins (B.) 
Sketch. 

Connelly (J. M.) 
Catlin (G.) 
Indian catalogue. 
Potter (W.) 
Stanley (J.M.) 
Williams (J.L.) 



Tract 


Martin (H.) 


Vocabulary 


Casey (J.C.) 


Vocabulary 


Drake (S.G.) 


Vocabulary 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


Vocabulary 


Hoxie (W.) 


Vocabulary 


Le Baron (J. F.) 


Vocabulary 


MacCauley (C.) 


Vocabulary 


Munroe(C.K.) 


Vocabulary 


Notices. 


Vocabulary 


Sketca. 


Vocabulary 


Smith (B.) 


Vocabulary 


Williams (J. L.) 


Vocabulary 


Wilson (E. F.) 


Words 


Brinton(D.G.) 


Sentences : 




Choctaw 


See Campbell (J.) 


Choctaw 


Gallatin (A.) 


Muskoki 


Gallatin (A.) 


Sermons : 




Choctaw 


See Baker (B.) 


Choctaw 


Konquette (A.) 


Muskoki 


Fleming (J.) 



Setekapake, IV. Erkenakalke on na- 
kaftetv. 

In Our Brother in Red, vol. 6, no. 45, p. 7, 
Muskogee, Ind. T. July 14, 1888, folio. 

In the Muskoki language. 

Shea : This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to has been seen by the 
compiler in the library of Dr., J. G. Shea, 
Elizabeth, N. J. 

Shea (John Gilmary). History [ of tbo 
I Catholic Missions | among the | In 
dian tribes of the United States. | 1529- 
1854. I By John Gilmary Shea. | Author 
[&c. three lines]. | f Design.] | 

New York: | Edward Dunigan & 
Brother, | 151 Fulton -Street, near 
Broadway. | 1855. 

Engraved title, pp. 1-514, 12o.— Lord's prayer 
in Choctaw, pp. 450-451. 

Copies seen: Astor, Boston Athena&aoi, 
Eritish Museum, Congress, Trumbull. 

At the Field sale a copy. No. 2112* sold for 
$2.25 ; at the Murphy sale. No. 2264, for $3.25. 

Tlicro are copies dated 1857. (*) 

Geschichte | dcr | katolischen Mis- 

sionen | unter den | Indianer-Stammeu 
der Vereinigten Staaten. | 1529-1860. | 
von I John Gilmary Shea, | Verfassor 
[&c. two lines]. | Aus dem Englischen 
ubersetzt | von | J. Roth. | Sr. Heilig- 
keit Papst Pius IX gewidraet. | Mit 6 

• Stahlstichen. | 

Wiirtzburg. | Verlag von C. Etlinger. 
[1858.] (•) 

Pp. 1-668, 12°. Title from the author. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



83 



Shea (J. G.) — Continued. 

History | of the | Catholic missions | 

among the | Indian tribes of the United 
States, I 15294854. | By John Gilmary 
Shea, I author of [&c. three lines]. | 
[Design.] | 

New York : | T. W. Strong, | Late Ed- 
ward Dunigan & brother, | Catholic 
publishing house, | 599 Broadway. 
[1870.] 

Frontispiece, engraved title verao blank 1 1, 
printed title as above verso copyright 1 1. dedi- 
cation verso blank 1 1. contents pp. 5-13, preface 
pp. 15-17, text pp. 10-195, appi^ndix pp. 497-500, 
index pp. 507-514, 8°. —Linguistic contents as in 
edition of 1835. 

Copies seen : Congress, Powell. 

Priced by Clarke, 1886, No. C620,$2. 
Languages of the American Indians. 

In American Cyclopaedia, vol 1, pp. 407-U4, 
New York, 1873, 8o. 

Granimatic examples in various American 
languages, among them the Muskoki. 

John Dawson Gilmary Shea, author, bom in 
Now York City July 22, 1824. He was edu- 
cated at the grammar-school of Columbia Col- 
lege, of which his father was principal, studied 
law, and was admitted to the bar, bat has de- 
voted himself chiefly to literature. He edited 
the • ■ Historical Magazine " from 1859 till 18C5, 
was one of the founders and first president of 
the United States Catholic Historical Society, 
is a member or corresponding member of the 
principal historical societies in this country 
and Canada, and corresponding member of the 
Royal Academy of History, Madrid. Ho has 
received the degree of LL. D. from St. Francis 
Xavier College. New York, and St. John's Col- 
lego, Fordbam. His writings include "The 
Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi 
Valley" (New York, 1853); "History of the 
Catholic Missions Among the Indian Tribes of 
the United States " (1854 ; German translation, 
Wiirzburg, 1856); "The Fallen Bravo" (18C1); 
"Early Voyages up and down the Mississippi" 
(Albany, 1862); "Novum Belgium, an Account 
of the New Netherlands in 1643-'44" (New 
York, 1862); "The Operations of the French 
Fleet Under Count de Grasse " (1864); " The 
Lincoln Memorial" (1865); translations of 
Charlevoix's "History and General Descrip- 
tion of New France " (6 vols., 1866-72); Henne. 
pin's " Description of Louisiana " (1880); Le 
Clercq's "Establishment of the Faifch " (1881); 
and Penalosa's " Expedition " (1882); " Catho' 
lie Church in Colonial Days" (1886); "Catholic 
Hierarchy of the United States " (1886); and 
"Life and Times of Archbishop Carroll " (1888). 
He also translated De Courcy's "Catholic 
Church in the United SUtos" (1856); and 
edited the Cramoisy series of narratives and 
documents bearing on the early history of the 
French-American colonies (26 vols., 1857-'68); 
"Washington's Private Diary" (1861); Cad- 



Shea (J. G.) — Continued. 

wallader Colden's " History of the Five Indian 
Nations," edition of 1727 (1866); Alsop's 
"Iferyland " (1869); a series of grammars and 
dl^Ronaries of the Indian languages (15 vols., 
1860-'74); and "Life of Pius IX" (1875). He 
has also published " Bibliography of American 
Catholic Bibles and Testaments" (1859), cor- 
rected several of the very orroneaus Catholic 
Bibles, and revised by the Vulgate Challoner's 
original Bible of 1750 (1871), and has issued 
several prayer-books, school histories, Bible 
dictionaries, and translations. — Appleton's 
Cyclop, of Am. Biog. \i' ^ J ^ "/L- 

Shorter. The | shorter catechi.siu j of the 
I Westminster Assembly of Divines. | 
Translated into the Choctaw language. 
I Vbanumpa | isht | vtta vhleha hvt | 
Wcstminsta | ya ai itonahvt aiashvt i 
Katakism | ik falaio ikbi tok. | Chahta 
anumpa isha a toshowa hoke. j 

Park Hill, Cherokee Nation : | Mis- 
sion Press, J. Candy & E. Archer, 
printers. | 1847. 

Pp. 1-48, 24^.— Select passages of Scripture, 
pp. 43-48. 

Copies seen : American Board of Commis- 
sioners. 
Shorter. The I shorter catechism | of 
the I Westminster Assembly of Divines.) 
Translated into the Choctaw language. 
I Vbanumpa | isht vtta vhleha hvt | 
Westminsta | y» ai itvnahvt arashvt | 
Katikisma | ik falaio ikbi tok. | Chahta 
anumpa isht a toshowa hoke. | 

Richmond: | Presbyterian Committee 
of Publication. | [1850?] 

Printed cover 11. pp. 1-48, sq. 24°. 

Popies seen : TVisoonsin Historical Society. 
Sketch I of the j Seminole war, | And | 
sketches | during a campaign. | By a 
lieutenant, | of the left wing. | 

Charleston : | Dan. J. Dowling, | sold 
by J. P. Beilc and W. H. Berrett ; and 
I booksellers in the principal cities. ( 
1836. 

Title 11. dedication pp. iii-iv, half-title 1 I. 
text pp. 1-311, i p. errata, 12°.--" A vocabulary 
of the Seminole language," with grammatic 
comments, pp. 90-108. 

Copies seen : Astor, British Museum, Con- 
gress, Harvard. 

Smet {Pere Pierre Jean de). Missions de 
rOr<5gon | et Voyages | aux Montagues 
Rocheuses | aux sources { de la Colom- 
bie, de VAthabasca ot du Sascatshawin, 
en 1845-46. | [Picture with title.] i Par 
le P^re P. J. de Smet, | de la Soci<St6 de 
J^sus. I 



84 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Smet (P. J. de) — Continued. 

Gand, | impr. & litb. de V«. Vander 
Scbelden, ] ^diteur. L1818.] 

2 p. 11. pp. i-ix, 9-389, map, IG'^.— Tabl» com- 
parative, &c. pp. 373-.377, includes a few words 
of Chickasali and Mnskohgee. 

Copies seen : Bancroft, Congress, Sliea. 

The edition in English: Oregon Missions, 
New York, 1847, 16°, does not include these 
linguistics. 

Field's Essay, No. 1425, titles an edition in 
French : Paris, 1848, 12°. At the Field sale, 
a copy, No. 2158, brought $3.25. 

Peter John De Smet, missionary, born in Ter- 
monde, Belgium, December 31,1801; died in 
St. Louis, Mo., in May, 1872. He studied in 
the Episcopal Seminary of Mechlin, and while 
there he felt called to devote himself to the 
conversion of the Indians. When Bishop 
Nerinx visited Belgium in search of missiona- 
ries, De Smet, with five other students, volun- 
teered to accompany him. The Government 
gave orders to stop them, but they escaped the 
officers and sailed from Amsterdam in 1821. Af- 
ter a short stay in Philadelphia, De Smet entered 
the Jesuit novitiate at Whitemarsh, Md. Here 
betook the Jesuit habit, but after two years the 
house was dissolved, and he was about to re- 
turn to Belgium when he was invited by Bishop 
Dubourg to Florissant, where he completed bis 
education and took his vows. In 1828 he went 
to St. Louis and took part in establishing the 
University of St. Louis, in which he was after- 
ward professor. In 1838 he was sent to estab- 
lish a mission among the Pottawattamies on 
Sugar Creek. He built a chapel, and beside it 
the log huts of himself, Father Verreydt, and 
a lay brother. He erected a school, which was 
soon crowded with pupils, and in a short time 
converted most of the tribe. In 1840 he begged 
the bishop of St. Louis to permit him to labor 
among the Flatheads of the Rocky Mountains. 
When it was represented to him that there was 
no money for such an expedition, he said that 
sufficient means would assuredly come from 
Europe, and set out on April 30, 1840, from West- 
port with the annual caravan of the American 
fur company, whose destination was Green 
River. He arrived on July 14 in the camp of 
Peter Valley, where about 1,600 Indians had 
assembled to meet him. They had retained tra- 
ditions of the French missionaries of two cen- 
turies before, andDe Smet found it easy to con 
vert them. With the aid of an interpreter he 
translated the Lord's prayer, the Creed, and 
the Commandments into their language, and in 
a fortnight all the Flatheads knew these prayers 
and commandments, which were afterward ex- 
plained to them. During his journey back to 
St. Louis he was on several occasions sur- 
rounded by war parties of the Blackfcet, but as 
soon as tliey recognized his black gown and cru- 
cifix they showed the greatest veneration for 
him. He thus laid the foundation of the ex- 
traordinary influence that he afterward exer- 



Smet (P. J. de) — Couliuiied. 

cised over the Indians. In the spring of 1841 
he set out again with two other missionaries 
and three lay brothers, all expert mechanics, 
and after passing through several tribes crossed 
the Platte and met at Fort Hall a body of Flat- 
heads who had come 800 miles to escort the 
missionaries. On September 24 the party 
reached Bitterroot River, where it was decided 
to form a permanent settlement. A plan for a 
mission viUage was drawn up, a cross pldnted, 
and the mission of St. Mary's begun. The lay 
brothers built a church and residence, while De 
Smet went to Colville to obtain provisions. On 
his return the Blackfeet wariiors went on the 
winter chase, and he remained in the village 
familiarizing himself with the langDagc, into 
which he translated the catechism. He then re- 
solved to visit Fort Vancouver, hoping to find 
there the supplies necessary to make St. Mary's 
a fixed mission. On his way he visited several 
tribes and taught them the ordinary prayers 
and rudiments of religion. After a narrow es- 
cape from drowning in Columbia River he 
reached Fort Vancouver, but was deceived in 
his hope of finding supplies, and on his return 
to St. Mary's he resolved to cross the wilder- 
ness again to St. Louis. There he laid the 
condition of his mission before his superiors, 
who directed him to go to Europe and appeal 
for aid to the people of Belgium and France. 
He excited great enthusiasm for his work in 
those countries, several priests of his order 
asked permission to join him, and the sisters of 
the Congregation of Our Lady volunteered to 
undertake the instruction of the Flathead chil 
dren. He sailed from Antwerp in December, 
1843, with five Jesuits and six sisters, and 
reached Fort Vancouver in August, 1844. He 
was offered land on the Willamette River for a 
central mission and at once began to clear 
ground and erect buildings. The work ad. 
vanced so rapidly that in October the sisters, 
who had already begun their school in the oj[)en 
air, were able to enter their convent. In 1845 
he began a series of missions among the Zingo- 
menes, Sinpoils, Okenaganes, Flat bows, and 
Koctenays, which extended to the watershed 
of the Saskatchewan and Columbia, the camps 
of the wandering Assiniboins and Creeks, and 
the stations of Fort St. Anno and Bourassa. He 
visited Europe several times in search of aid 
for his missions. Indeed he calculated that bis 
ioumeys up to 1853, by laud and water, must 
have been more than five times the circumfer- 
ence of the earth. The ability and influence of 
Father De Smet were cordially acknowledged 
by the government of the United States, and 
his aid was often sought in preventing Indian 
wars. Thus, he put an end to the Sioux war, 
and in Oregon he induced thoYahamas and 
other tribes under Kamiakim to cease hostili- 
ties. He was chaplain in the expedition to 
Utah, and opened new missions among the 
tribes in that Territory. During his last visit 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



85 



Smet (P. J. de) — Continued. 

to Europe he met with a severe accident, in 
which several of his ribs were broken, and on 
his return to St. Louis he wasted slowly 
away. Father De Smet was made a knight of 
the Order of Leopold by the king of the Bel- 
gians. His best known works, which have been 
translated into English, are "The Oregon Mis- 
sions and Travels over the Rocky Mountains," 
' ' Indian Letters and Sketches, " " Western Mis- 
sions and Missionaries," and "New Indian 
Sketches."— ^Pi'^'ow's Cyclop, of Am. Biog. 
Smith (Buckingham). [Documents in 
the Spanish and two of the early 
tongues of Florida (Apalachian and 
Timuquan). 1»)9?] 

No title-page, C sheets Spanish, 2 Apala- 
chian, and I Timuquan, folio. On the fly leaf of 
one of the copies I have seen is the following 
manuscript note: "Peter Force, Esq., these 
documents (seven sheets) in the Spanish and 
two of the early tongues of Florida (Apala- 
chian and Timuquan) from his friend and obe- : 
dient servant Buckingham Smith. "Washing, 
ton City, Jan'y, 1860." On the reverse of this | 
fly-leaf is a farther note : " 1 of 50 copies. ' ' I 

A letter addressed to the king by Diego do ' 
Quiroga y Lossada, governor and captain-gen- , 
eral, dated " San Aug" do la Florida y Abril 1 
de 1683," in Spanish, 1 1.— A letter addressed 1 
to the governor by Mar9elo de S. Joseph, who 
was charged with the translation of the letter \ 
addressed to the king by the caciques of the 
Province of Apalachia, dated "S. Agustin y 
feb" 19 de 1688 a«," in Spanish, 1 l.--Fac.siraile ! 
of said letter in Apalachian, 2 11.— Translation 
of the same into Spanish, 2 11.— Letter to the 
governor, dated '* 17 de fobroro'de [I] 688 afios," , 
and signed Fran«« de Roxas, who was charged ; 
with the translation of the letter of the Timu- i 
qnaua caciques to the king, in Spanish, 1 1.— 
Facsimile of said letter in Timuquan, 11., anil 
1 blank 1.— Translation of the same into Spanish, 

n. { 

According to Dr. Briuton, the Apalachian | 

text is in a dialect closely akin to the modern i 

nitchiti. I 

Copies seen : Brinton, Congress, Lenox, Trum- i 

bull. ' 

Specimen of the Appalachian Ian- I 

guage. I 

In Historical Magazine, first series, vol. 4, { 

pp. 40-41, New York and London, 1860, nm. 4°. ' 

"A passage in Apalachina taken from an 

original letter addressed by some caciques of the ; 
country now in part comprising Middle Florida, 

to Ferdinant IV, King of Spain." Translated j 
into Spanish and English. 

Comparative vocahularies of the 

Seminole and Mikasuke tongues. Buck- 
ingham Smith. 

In Historical Magazine, first series, vol. 10, 
pp. 239-243, 288, Morrisauia,N.T., 1860, 8m.4o. 



Smith (B. ) — Continued. 

Vocabulary of the Seminole, Mikasuke, and 
Hitchiteo (the latter from Gallatin and Capt. 
Casey), pp. 239-243. -Lord's prayer in Mika- 
suke, p. 288. 

Reprinted in Beach (W. TV.), The Indian 
Miscellany, pp. 120-126, Albany, 1877, 8°. Also 
in Drake (S. G.), The aboriginal races of North 
America, pp. 763-767, New York, [1880], 8°. 

Buckingham Smith, antiquarian, bom on 
Cumberland Island, Ga., October 31, 1810 ; died 
in Now York City, January 5, 1871. Ho was 
graduated at Harvard law school in 1836, and 
practised his profession in Maine, but soon re- 
turned to his family estate in Florida, where 
he was a member of the territorial legislature. 
Ho was United States secretary of legation in 
Mexico in 1850-'52, acting as charg6 d'afiaircs 
in 1851. During his residence there he made a 
thorough study of Mexican history and antiqui- 
ties aad Indian philology, and collected many 
books and manuscripts. He was secretary of 
legation at Madrid in 1855-'58, made important 
researches in the Spanish libraries and archives 
respecting the colonial history of Florida and 
Louisiana, and rendered valuable services to 
George Bancroft, Jared Sparks, and Francis 
Parkman. He settled in Florida in 1859, be- 
came a judge, and served several terms in the 
State senate. A part of his library was bought 
by the New York Historical Society after his 
death. He edited translations of the "Narra- 
tive of Alvar Nunez Caboza de Vaca " (Wash- 
ington, B. C, 1851 ; improved ed.. New York, 
1873) ; " Tlio Letter of Hernando de Soto " and 
"Memoir of Hernando de Escalante Fonta- 
neda," of each of which 100 copies were printetl 
(Washington, 1854 ; coUecteil and published in 
Spanish under the title of " Coleccion de Varies 
Documentos para la Historia de la Florida y 
Tierras Adyacentes," Madrid, 1857); "A Gram- 
matical Sketch of the Hove Language " (Now 
York, 1801); a "Grammar of the Pima or 
N6vonic ; a language of Sonera, from a manu- 
script of the Seventeenth Century " (St. Au- 
gustine, 1802); "Doctrina Christiana e Confes- 
sionario on Lengua N6vome 6 sea la N6vomo" 
(1862); "Rudo Ensayo, tentative de una Pre- 
vencional Descripcion Geographica do la Pro- 
vincia de Sonera" (1803); "An Inquiry into the 
Authenticity of Documents concerning a Dis- 
covery of North America claimed to have been 
made by Verrazzano " (1804); and a volume of 
translations of "Narratives of the Career of 
Hernando do Soto in the conquest of Florida " 
(1806). Ho also wrote for ihe magazines con- 
cerning the early history and writers of 
Florida.— AppUton' 8 Cyclop, of Am. Biog. 

Smith {Gen. D.) Vocabulary of the 
Chickasaw language taken in 1800 hy 
Genl. D. Smith, of Tennessee, from a 
Chickasaw family who passed an even- 
ing at his house. .See his Ire [letter] 
July 6, 1800. 



86 



BIBLIOGRAMY OP THE 



Smith (Gen. D.) — Continued. 

Manascript in the library of the American 
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 

It is a copy by Duponceau, and forms no. 5 of 
a collection in a fulio blank book, of which it 
occnpies pp. 19-20; arranged in doable columns, 
English and Chickasaw, two columns of each 
to the page, and contains about 175 words. 

Smith {Rev. G. G.) Infants catechism. 
By Rov. G. G. Smith. Hecetv I [-XII]. 
In Oar JJrother in Red, vol. 6, no. 5, p. 2, 
no. 6, p. 2, no. 7, p. 2, no. 16, p. 2, no. 18, p. 1, 
no. 23, p. 6, no. 31, p. 6, no. 33, p. 3. Muskogee, 
Ind. T. October 1, 8, 15, December 17, 1887, 
January 7, February 11, April 7, 21, 1888, folio. 
In the Muskoki language. 

Smith (John). [A letter in the Muskoki 
language. ] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 2, 
Atoka, Ind. T. February, 1889, 4°. 

Signed with the above name and occnpies half 
a column. 

Smith (Bev. Wesley). [A letter in the 
Muskoki language.] 

In Indian Missionary, vol. 3, no. 7, p. 3, 
Atoka, Ind. T. July, 1887, 4". 

The letter is addressed to the editor, is dated 
• ' Leverin g Mission Manual Labor School, Mus- 
kogee, L T. June 16, 1887," and signed with the 
above name; it occupies half a column of the 
j)aper. The Levering School is some seventy 
miles from Muskogee ; Mr. Smith is connected 
with the school, but was probably at Muskogee 
when he wrote the letter. 
Smithsonian Institution. Those words following 
a title or within parentheses after a note indi- 
cate that a copy of the work referred to has 
been seen by the compiler in the library of that 
institution, Washington, D. C. 
Song, Hitchiti See Gatschet (AS.) 
Soto (Hernando de). Letter | of 1 Her- 
nando de Soto, I and | Memoir | of j Her- 
nando deEscalante Fontaneda. | Trans- 
lated from the Spanish, | hy | Bucking- 
ham Smith. I 
Washington : | 18i^4. 
Pp. 1-67, map, large 4°. — " Those translations 
are made from manuscripts in the original 
Spanish, belonging to the Historical collection 
of James Lenox, esq. One hundred copies 
printed for Geo. W. Il[igg8]. "Washington, D. 
C'— Reverse of title. 

A few Chahta words, p. 19. 
Copies seen : Astor, Congress, Shea. 
Spelling-book : 

Choctaw See Wright (A.) and By- 

iogton (C.) 
Muskoki Harrison (P.) and 

Aspberry (D. P.) 
Spelling: hook in Cbahta. See "Wright 
(A.) and Bylngton (C.) 



Sqaier ( W. L. ), editor. See Indian Jour- 
nal. 

Stanley (J. M.) Catalogue | of ] pic- 
tures, I in I Stanley & Dickermau^s | 
North American | Indian portrait gal- 
lery ; i J. M. Stanley, | artist. | 

Cincinnati: | printed at the "Daily 
Enquirer office ". 1 1846. 

Printed cover, title as above verso blank 1 1. 
pp. 3-34, 8°. — Contains a few Seminole and 
Creek personal names, with meaniugs. 

Copies seen: Bureau of Ethnology. Powell. 

Portraits | of | North Amei^n In- 
dians, I with sketches of scenery, etc.,j 
painted hy | J. M. Stanley. | Deposited 
with I the Smithsonian Institution. | 
[Design.] j 

Washington: j Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. I Decemher, 1852. 

Printed cover as above, title as above verso 
printers 1 1. preface p. 3, contents p. 4, text pp. 
5-72, index: pp. 73-76,8°. — Contains a few Semi- 
nole, Creek, and Chickasaw personal names, 
sometimes with English meanings. 

Copies seen : Eames, Geological Survey, Pill- 
ing, Powell. 

Star. The Star Vindicator. | Vol. V. 
Progress and a Higher Civilization. No. 
17. I McAlester, Choctaw Nation, Indian 
Territory, Saturday, June 8, 1878 [-Vol. 
V, No. 48, January 11^ 1879]. 

A four-page, folio, weekly newspaper, E. W. 
Folsom, editor. The only issues I have seen 
are those embraced within the above dates, 
each of which coutacins more or less matter in 
the Choctaw language. (Powell.) 

Dr. Trumbull of Hartford has three numbers 
not mentioned above, nos. 8-11 of vol. 4, March 
31 to April 14, 1877. Concerning the history of 
the paper he writes me as follows : 

"Published weekly (folio, 28 columns) by (?/ 
McPheraon & Co. ; G. McPheraon, editor; one 
or two columns in Choctaw in each nural)cr 
(" Chahta Anumpa." E. W. Folsom, editor), 

•' The Vindicator, devoted to the interests of 
the Choctaws and Chickasr^ws, a weekly paper, 
established by Dr. J. H. Moore, of New Boggy, 
Choctaw Nation, in 1872, was united with the 
Oklahoma Star, started by G. McPhersou, a^ 
McAlester, about 1877, under the name of The 
Star- Vindicator, which was published till some 
time in 1878, as I am informed by a correspond' 
ent in the Indian Territory. Of The Vindicator, 
I have seen only two or three numbers. Vol/ 
2, no. 14 (whole number 66), was printed aft 
New Boggy, Choctaw Nation, Ind. T. Oct. 18, 
1873; T.B. HeistoD, editor. It is a small folio 
of 20 columns, of which two are in the ChoctaW 
language." 



MUSKHOQEAN LANGUAGES. 



87 



Steiger(E.) Steiger's | bibliotheca glot- 
tica, I part first. | A catalogao of | 
Dictionaries, Grammars, Readers, Ex- 
positors, etc. I of mostly ] modern lan- 
guages I spoken in all parts of the 
earth, | except of | English, French, 
German, and Spanish. | First division: 
I Abenaki to Hebrew. | 

E.Steiger, | 22 & 24 Frankfort Street, 
I New York. [1874.] 

Half- tit lo on cover, titlo as above verso 
printer 1 1. notice verso blank 1 L text pp. 1-40, 
12P. The second division of the first part \<ras 
ool||M>lishe<l. Part second is on the English 
language, and part third on the German lan- 
guage.— "Works in Choctaw, p, 24. 

In his notice the compOer states : * ' This com- 
pilation must not be regarded as an attempt at 
a complete linguistic bibliography, but solely 
as a book-soller's catalogue for business pur- 
poses, with special regard to the study of phi- 
lology in America." 

Copiet seen : Eames, Pilling. 
Stidham (George Washington). See 
aatschet (A. S.) 

See Robertson (A. E. W.) 

Mr. Stidham was born in November, 1817, on 
a reservation in what is now Henry Countj** 
Ala., his father and mother being each half 
white. He spoke no English until twenty 
years of age. In 1820 he went to the Indian Ter- 
ritory, and in 1837 was made a member of the 
Creok legislature. Ho was appelated United 
States Indian interpreter in 1816 and served in 
that capacity until 1861. In 1848 he was ap- 
pointed a delegate to Washington, and has 
received a similar appointment several times 
since. In 1867 he was elected judge of the su- 
preme court of the Muskogee Nation ; resigned 
in 1871; was reelected in 1887, and is now the 
presiding officer of the court 

Story of Naaman [Choctaw]. See 

Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 
SuUivan (Napoleon Bonaparte). Sepv 
ckvnvem Mekko-hokteSalomvn mekko 
en cukoperievtc. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 2, no. 40, Muscogee 
lud. T. June 5, 1878, folio. (*) 

The visit of the Queen of Sheba to King 
Solomon ; in the Muskoki language. 

See Loughridge (R. M.) and Wins- 

lett (D.) 

See Robertson (A. E. W.) 

See Robertson (A. E. W.) and Sul- 

Uvan (N. B.) 



Sullivan (N. B.) — Continued. 

N. B. Sallivan was bom in the southern part 
of the Creek Nation, Ind. T. in 1858, and being 
left motherlt'ss in infancy, was taken care of 
by an aunt until her de<tth, and later he lived 
with a cousin. 

At the age of seventeen, having had only 
enough of school advantages to give him a 
thirst for more, and with only discouragement 
from friends, he determined to enter a boarding- 
school. Setting oflf on horseback, he applied 
first at the Asbury school, and, finding himself 
too late, returned for a fresh horse and went 
forty miles farther to the TuUabassce school, 
where he was admitted. His progress there 
was remarkahle, as was his gentlemanly and 
upright deportment. 

His father had married again and died, and 
his stepmother needing his care, he gave np 
the next school year for her. But her death re- 
leased him and he returned to school in 1877, 
and from that time had a home with his teachers, 
earning money for clothing in his vacation by 
working— a good deal of the time helping me in 
my Creek work. One of these vacations he 
spent mostly as assistant to the postmaster at 
Muscogee, making many friends. 

Just before the burning of the TuUahassee 
building, an offer came from a society In Phila- 
delphia to educate him, which he accepted, with 
the ministry in view, having previously united 
with the Presbyterian Church. He fitted for 
college at Blair Academy, Blairstown, N. J. 
and was examined and accepted for Princeton 
College, but an attack of pneumonia (brought 
on by a horse-back ride after a physician in a 
bitter night) had laid the foundation for con- 
sumption, and college had to be given up. 

He returned to the Indian Territory and 
again worked with me on the Creek Testament, 
persevering in the midst of suffering until all 
of the Testament not previously in print had 
heen gone over. 

A winter in Colorado and New Mexico gave 
renewed strength, to some extent, and he 
worked, first in Council and nest intheNuyaka 
mission school, until failing strength again 
warned him away, and after a winter of groat 
suffering he died at Albuquerque, N. M., March 
8, 1883, mourned by many friends, especially 
his teachers and the society to whom he had so 
greatly endeared himself.— Jfr«. Robertson. 

Swan {Major Caleb). Position and state 
of manners and arts in the Creek or 
Muscogee nation in 1791. 

In Schoolcraft (H. R.), Indian Tribes, vol. 5, 
pp. 251-283, Philadelphia. 1855, 4°. 

List of Creek moons, pp. 276-277. 



88 



BIBLIOGKAPHY OP THE 



T. 



Talley (Eev, A. ) [Portions of the Script- 
ures in the Choctaw language. 1833?](*) 
T?he Rev. A. Talley was one of the earliest 
of the Methodist niissioiiaries among the Choc- 
taw Indians in Mississippi and Alabama, 1828 
to 1833. He translated portions of the Script- 
ure into the Cboctaw language, which were 
)>rihted for the use of the Indians. He died in 
lS3i.— History of American Missions, p. 541. 
Teacher : 

Choctaw See Wright (A.) and 

Williams (L.S.) 
Muskoki Fleming (J.) 

Ten Kate (Dr. Herman Frederick Carvel), 
jr. Reizen en Onderzoekingen { in | 
Noord-Araerika | van ] D^ H. F. C. Ten- 
Kate J^ I Met ecu kaart en twee uits- 
laande platen. | 
Leiden, E. J. Brill. | 1885. 
Printed cover as above, half-title verso blank 
1 1. title as above verao blank 1 1. 3 other 
prel. 11. pp. 1-464, 1 p. errata, map, 2 plates, 
8°.— Kemarks on the Choctaw language, p. 40G. 
Copies seen: Bureau of Ethnology. 
Text: 

Apalachi See Apalachi. 

Apalachi Smith (B.) 

Chikasaw Kilbat (H.) 

Chikasaw Pomeroy (.J.M.) 

Chikasaw Treaty-. 

Choctaw Allen (J.) 

Choctaw Armby (C.) 

Choctaw Baker (B.) 

Choctaw Cobb (L. W.) 

Choctaw Colbert (G.) 

Choctaw Edwards (J.) 

Choctaw General. 

Choctaw Indian Champon. 

Choctaw Ittihapishi. 

Choctaw Jones (C. A.) 

Choctaw Kam-pMubbee. 

Choctaw McKinney (T.) 

Choctaw Murrow (K. L.) 

Choctaw 0-las so-chub-boe. 

Choctaw Pomeroy (J.M.) 

Choctaw Ilobb (C.) 

Choctaw Treaty. 

Choctaw United States. 

Choctaw Williams (L. S.) 

Choctaw AVright (A.) 

ChoctAw Wright (A.) and By- 

ington (C.) 
Creek Barnwell (D.) 

Creek Gatschet (A. S.) 

Creek Harjo(H.M.) 

Creek Loughridge (R. M.) 

and others. 
Hitchili Gatschet ( A. S. ) 



Text — Continued. 

Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 



Berryhill (D. L.) 
Grayson (G. W.) 
Indian Journal. 
Land (J. II.) 
Martin (H. A ) 
Mekko (C.) 
Methodist. 
Palmer (W. A.) 
Perry man (L. C.) 
Robertson (^.E.W.) 
Smith (G. G.) 
Smith (J.) 
Setekapake. 
Sullivan (N.B) 
Winslett (D.) 



Tomlin ( 7?er. J. ) A comparative vocabu- 
lary I of I forty-eight languages, | com- 
prising ! one hundred and forty-six | 
common English words, | with | their 
cognates in the other languages, | show- 
ing I their Affinities with the English 
and Hebrew, j By the | Rev. J. Tomlin, 
B. A., I Author of ** Missionary Journals 
and Letters during Eleven Years Resi- 
dence in the East ; " | [«&c. three lines]. | 

Liverpool: | Arthur No wling, 27, Bold 
Street, j 1865. 

Pp. 1-xii, 1-32 (numbered odd on versos, 
oven on rectos; recto of p. 1 and verso of p. 32 
blank), pp. xiii-xxii, 1 1. 4°.-— locludes a Choc- 
taw vocabulary (from an American mi.osion- 
ary). 

Copies seen: British Museum, Watkinson. 

Tract: 

Choctaw See Copeland (C.C.) 

Choctaw Dukes (J.) 

Choctaw Edwards (J.) 

Choctaw Murrow (J. S.) 

Choctaw Robb (C.) 

Choctaw Williams (L. S.) 

Cuoctaw Wright (A.) and By- 

ington (C.) 
Choctaw Wright (H. B.) and 

Dukes (J.) 
Creek Perryman (T. W ) 

and Robertson (A. 
E.W.) 
Martin (H.) 
Robertson (W. S.) 

and others. 
Winslett (D.) 
Martin (H.) 

Translation of the book of Jonah [Choc- 
taw]. See "Wright (A. ) and Byington 

(C.) 



Muskoki 
Muskoki 



Muskoki 
Sominole 



MUSKUOOEAN LANGUAGES. 



8'J 



Treaties 1 between the | United States 
of America | and the several | Indian 
tribes, | from 1778 to 1837: | with i a 
copious talile of contents i Compiled 
and printed by the direction, and under 
the supervision, I of the j Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs. | 

Washington, D. C. 1 published by 
Langtree and O'Sullivan. | 1837. 

Titlo vorso blank 1 1. pp. v-lxxxlli, 1-609, 8°. 

Copies seen : British Masoum, Baroau of Eth- 
nology, Congress. 

Issued, also, with titlo as follows : 

Treaties | between the | United States 
of America, | and the several | Indian 
Tribes, | from 1778 to 1837 : | with | a 
copious table of contents. | New Edi- 
tion, I carefnlly compared with the 
originals in the Department of State. 1 
Compiled and i)rinted by the direction, 
and under the snpervision, | of the | 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs. | 

Washington, D. C. | Pnblished by 
Langtree and O'Sullivan. | 1837. 

Title 1 1. preface 1 1. contents pp. v-lxxxiii, 
text pp. 1-G99, 8°. — Contains names of Indian 
chiefs, with English signification, of a nnrabor 
of American tribes, among them the following : 
Creok, pp. 32-33; Muscogee, pp. 629-630 , Choc- 
taw, p. C30. 

Copies seen: Powell. 

See, also, Indian Treaties. 

Treaty. A treaty | between | the United 
States I and the | Choctaws and Chick- 
asaws. i 

Reverse title: TTnaitot States I raicha | 
Chahta, Chikasha aiena | nan itira apisa | 
anumpa 

No imprint; pp. 1-5G, 8°, parallel columnd 
Choctaw and English. *' Done at the City of 
Washington, this tenth day of Jnly, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
sixtj'-six, and of thelndcpendenco of the United 
States of America, the ninety-first. " 
Copies seen : Brinton, Powell. 
Treaty: 

Chikasaw See Treaty. 

Choctaw Treaty. 

Choctaw United States. 

Creel- Harjo (H.M.) 

Triumphant deaths * * * Choctaw. 

See "Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 
Troublesome garden [Choctaw]. See 

Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 

Triibner. This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to has been seen by the 
compiler in the establishment of Messrs Triib- 
ner & Co., London, England. 



Triibner (Nicolas). See Ludewig (H. E.) 
TrUbner & Co. A catalogne | of | an 
extensive collection | of | valuable new 
and second-hand books, | English and 
foreign, | in | antiquities, architecture, 
books of prints, history, | natural his- 
tory, and every other branch of ancient 
I and modern literature, but more par- 
ticularly rich in | books on languages, 
on bibliography and on | North and 
South America. | On sale at the low 
prices afiSxed | by | Triibner & cc, | 
60, Paternoster Row, London. 

Colophon: Printed by F. A. Brock- 
haus, Leipzig. [1856.] 

Printed cover as above, pp. 1-159, 8°.— '• Lin- 
gnistics,*' pp. 32-83, contains titles of a few 
works in Choctaw. • 

Copies seen : Bureau of Ethnology. 

BibliothecaHispauo-Americana. | Aj 

catalogue | of | Spanish books | printed 
in I Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, the 
Antilles, | Venezuela, Columbia, Ecua- 
dor, Peru, Chili, | Uruguay, and the 
Argentine Republic; | and of | Portu- 
guese books printed in Brazil. ! Followed 
by a collection of \ works on the abori- 
ginal languages | of America, i 

On Sale at the' affixed Prices, by \ 
TrUbner & co., | 8 &. 60, Paternoster 
row, London. I 1870. j One shilling and 
sixpence. 

Title verso contents 1 1. text pp. 1-181, 1 1. 
16°.— Choctaw works, p. 170. 

Copies seen : ^ames, Pilling. 

A I catalogue | of | dictionaries and 

grammars ] of the 1 Principal Languages 
and Dialects | of the World. | For sale 
by I TrUbner & co. | 

London : | TrUbner & co., 8 & 60 
Paternoster row. 1 1872. 

Printed cover as above, title as above verso 
printers 1 1. notice reverse blank 1 1. text pp. 1- 
64,2 IL 8°.— Contains titles of a few works iu 
Choctaw, p. 12. 

Copies seen: PiUlng. 
TrUbner's | catalogue | of | diction- 
aries and grammars | of the I Principal 
Languages and Dialects of the World. | 
Second edition, | considerably enlarged 
and revised, with an alphabetical in- 
dex. I A guide for students and book- 
sellers. I [Monogram.] | 

London: | TrUbner Sl co., 57 and 59, 
Ludgate Hill. | 1882. 

Title as above 1 1. pp. iii-viil. 1-170, 80.— Con- 
tains titles of a few works in Choctaw, p. 38. 

Caoies seen: Eames, Pilling. 



90 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OP THE 



Tnunboil : This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to has been seen by the 
compiler in the librar3' of Dr. J. Hammond 
Trumbull, Hartford, Conn. 

Trumbull (Dr. J. Hammond). Tho tnio 
method of studying North American 
languages. 

In American Philolog. Ass. Proc. 18CD, pp. 
25-20, Now York, 1870, 8°. 

An abstr.ict of the following : 

On tho best method of studying tho 

North American languages. By J. 
Hammond Trumbull, of Hartford, 
Conn. 

In American Philolog. Ass. Trans. 186a-'70, 
pp. 55-79, Hartford, 1871, 8o. 

Contains examples in Choctaw. 

Issued separately, also. 

On numerals in American Indian lan- 
guages, and the Indian mode of count- 
ing. By J. Hammond Trumbull, of 
Hartford, Conn. 

In American Philolog. Ass. Trans. 1874, pp. 
41-76, Hartford, 1875, 8°. 

Creek, Choctaw, Coassati, Alabama, and 
Hitchiti numerals passim. 

Issued also as a separate pamphlet, as fol- 
lows: 

On I numerals ] in | American Indian 

languages, | and the | Indian mode of 
counting. | By J. Hammond Trumbull, 
LL. D. I (From the Transactions of the 
Am. Philological Association, 1874.) | 

Hartford, Conn. | 1875. | 

Half title on cover, title verso blank 1 1. text 
pp. 1-36, 8°. 

Copies seen: Towdl. 

Indian languages of America. 

In Johnson's New TTnivorsal Cyclopaedia, vol. 
2, pp. 1155-1161, New York, 1877, 8°. 

A generaldiscussion of tho subject, including 
examples from several Muskhogean languages, 
p. 1156. 
[ ] Catalogue | of tho | American Li- 
brary I of the late | Mr. George Brin- 
ley, I of Hartford, Conn. | Part I. | 
America in general | New France Canada 
etc. I the British colonies to 177G | New 
Enghind | [-Part IV.] 

Hartford | Press of the Case Lock- 
wood &Brainard Company 1 187'^ [-1886] 

4 parts, 8°. Compiled by Dr. J. H. Trumbull. 
The fifth and last part is in prep.iration. 

List of works in the Choctaw and Muskokoe 
languages, pt. 3, pp. 140-1 41. 

Copies seen: Congress, Eames, Pilling. 

See Pike (A.) 

See Wheeler (C. H.) 



Trumbull (J. H.) — Continued. 

James Hammond Trumbull, philologist, bom 
in Stonington, Conn., December 20, 1821. He 
entered Tale in 1838, and though, owing to ill 
health, he was not graduated with his class, 
his name was enrolled among its members in 
1850, and he was given the degree of A. M. In 
1842- *43 he assisted the Ecv. James H. Linsley 
in the preparation of catalogues of the mam- 
malia, reptiles, fishes, and shells of Connecticut. 
He settled in Hartford in 1847, and was assistant 
secretary of state in 1847-'52 and 1858-'61,and 
secretary fn 1861-'64, also state librarian in 1851. 
Soon after going to Hartford he Joined the Con- 
necticut Historical Society, was its correspond- 
ing secretary in 1849-'C3, and was elected its 
president in 1863. He has been a trustee of the 
Watkinsou free library of Hartford, and its 
librarian since 1863 ; and has been an officer of 
the "Wadsworth athenaeum since 1864. Dr. 
Trumbull was an original member of the Amer- 
ican Philological Association in 1869, and its 
president in 1874-75. Ho has been a member 
of the American Oriental Society since 1860, 
and the American Ethnological Society since 
1867, and honorary member of many State his- 
torical societies. In 1872 he was elected to the 
National Academy of Sciences. Since 1858 he 
has devoted special attention to the subject of 
the Indian languages of North America. Ho 
has prepared a dictionary and vocabulary to 
John Eliot 's Indian Bible, and is probably tho 
only American scholar that is now able to read 
that work. In 1873 he was chosen lecturer on In- 
dian languages of North America at Talc, but 
loss of health and other labors soon conipelle<l 
his resignation. The degree of LL. D. was con- 
ferred on him by Tale in 1871, by Harvard in 
1887, while Columbia gave him an L. H. D. in 
1887. He has been a large contributor of arti- 
cles to th e proceedings^f societies and to peri- 
odicals, notably on the significance of tlio word 
" Shawmut," the supposed Indian name of Bos- 
ton (I860), the significance of "Massachusetts" 
(1867), and on the Algonkiunameof "Mauitou " 
(1870). His larger memoirs include " The Colo- 
nial Records of Connecticut" (3 vols., Hart- 
ford, 1850-59) ; "Historical Notes on some Pro- 
visions of tho Connecticut Statutes " ( 18C0-'01) ; 
" The Defense of Stonington against a British 
Squadron, August, 1814'' (1861); Roger Will- 
iams's " Key into the Langnage of America " 
(Providence, 1866) ; " Thomas Lechford's Plain 
Dealings, or Newes from New England, 1612 " 
(Boston, 1867); "The Origin of McFiugal" 
(1868) ; " The Composition of Indian Geogr.aph- 
ical Names" (1870); "The Best Method of 
Studying the Indian Languages" (1871) ; " Some 
Mistaken Notions of Algonkin Grammar" 
(1871) ; " Historical Notes on the Constitntion 
of Connecticut" (1872) ; "Notes on Forty Al- 
gonkin Yersions of the Lord's Prayer " (1873); 
"On the Algonkin Verb " (1876) ; "Tho True 
Blue-Laws of Connecticut, and the False Blue* 
Laws Invented by the Rev. Samuel Peters " 
(1876) ; ' ' Indian Names of Places in and on the 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



91 



Tminbull (J. H. ) — Continued. 

Borde;^9 of Connecticut, with Interpretations " 
(1881) 1 and also edited " The Memorial History 
of Hartford County" (2 vols.. Boston, 1886). 
The catalogue of Americana belonging to 
George Brinley was made by him at the time 
of the sale of the collection, 1879-'86, and 



Trumbull (J. H.) — Continued. 

gained for bim the reputation of being perhaps 
the " most learned and acute bibltograpber in 
America." — AppUVorCs Ojfelop. of Am. Biog. 



Turner (William Wadden). 
wlg(H. E.) 



See Lude- 



U. 



United States | miclia i Ctialita iniclia 
Cbikaslia aiena | treaty anumpa | ai 
itim apesa tok. | 

Reverse title : Treaty | between | the United 
States I and the i Choctaw and Cbicliasaw In- 
dians. 

No imprint; pp. 1-19, 4° parallel columns 



United States — Continued. 

Choctaw and English. ** Done at the city of 
Washington, this fourth day of March, A. D. 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, and 
of the independence of the United States the 
eightieth." 

Copies teen: Powell, Shea. 



Vail (Engine A.) Notice | sur j les In- 
diens | de TAm^rique da uord, | orn^e 
do qaatre portraits colori^s, dcasinds 
d'apr^s I natnre, et d'ano carte, | par | 
Eugene A. Vail, | Citoyon des fitats- 
Unis d'Amdrique, monibre do pliisieiirs 
80ci^t^3 savautes. | 

Paris, I Arthus Bertrand, ^diteur, | 
libraire de la Socidt<5 de Geographic et 
de la Socidtd Royaledes Antiqnairesdii 
Nord, 1 rue Hautefeuille, 23. | 1840. 

Half-title 1 1. title 1 1, preface pp. 5-13, text pp. 
1^244, table pp. 245-246, map, plates, 8o.— Pes 
langues indiennes, pp. 40-58, contains a few ex- 
amples in Muskohgee. 

Copies seen .- Astor, Boston Athena)um, Brit- 
ish Museum, Congress, Eames, Harvard, Shea, 
Watkinson. 

At the Fischer sale Quarltch Iwusjht a copy. 
No. 1702, for U. ; another copy, No. 2871, sold for 
Is. Qd. ; at the Field sale, No. 2416, it brougbt 
$1.25; at the Squior sale, No. 1456, $1.62 ; at the 
Brhiley sale. No. 5469, $2.50 ; at the Pinart sale, 
No. 916, 1 fr. 50c. Priced by Quaritch, No. 30031 , 

as. 

ITater (Dr, Joliann Severin). Untersu- 
chungen | Uber | Amerika's Bevolkernng 
I ans dem | alten Kontiuente i doni | 
Herrn Kamraerherrn | Alexander von 
Humboldt | gewidmet | von | Jobaun 
Severin Vater | Professor und Biblio- 
tbekar. | 

Leipzig, I bei Friedricb Christiuu 
Wilhelm Vogel. | 1810. 

Pp. i-xii, 1-212, 120.-A few words in the 
hikkasah or Choktah, and Muskhog, pp. 47-55, 
195-203. 



Vater (J. S.) — Continued. 

Copies seen : Astor, British Museum, Con- 
gress, Harvard, Watkinson. 

At the Fischer sale, No. 2870, a copy was 
bought by Quarltch for Is.M, 

Linguanim totius orbis | Index | al- 

pbabeticus, | qnarum | Grammaticao, 
Lsxica, I colloctiones vocabulornm | 
recousciitur, | i)atria significatur, liis- 
toria adnmbratnr | a { Joanne Sevcrino 
Vatero, | Theol. Doct. et Profess. Biblio- 
thecario R'^g., Ord. | S. Wladimiri 
equite. | 

Berolini i In officiua libraria Fr. 
Nicolai. | MDCCCXV [1815 J. 

Second title : Litteratur | dor | Grammatikon, 
Lexica | und | Wortera.iramlungeu | aller 
Sprachen der £rde | nach | alphabetischcrOrd- 
nung der Sprachen, | mit oincr | godrangten 
ITeborsicht | des Vaterlandes, der Schicksale | 
und Yerwandtschaft derselbon | Ton | Dr. 
Johann Severin Vater, | Professor und Bibllo- 
thekar zu Konigsberg des S. "Wladimir- | Or- 
dens Hiiter. | 

Berlin 1 in der Nicolaischon Buchhandlung. 
I 1815. 

Latin title verso 1. 1, German title recto 1. 2 
verso blank, dedications 2 U. preface pp. i-iv, 
half-title 1 L text pp. 3-259, 8=>. Alphabetically 
arranged by families, double columns, German 
and Latin. — ^Notices of works in Chiklvasah, p. 
43 ; Choctaw, pp. 47-48 ; Muskohge, p. 162. 

Copies seen : Bureau of Ethnology. 

A later edition in German as follows : 

Litteratur | der | Grammatiken,Lcx- 

ika I und | Wortersammlungen | aller 
Sprachen dor Erde | von | Johann Se- 
verin Vater. | Zweite, viillig umgcar- 
beitete Ausgabo | von | B. Jtilg. | 



92 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Vater (J. S.) — Continued. 

Berlin, 1847. | In cler Nicolaiscben 
Buchbandlung. 

Printed cover, title 1 1. pp. iii-xii, 1-592, 2 11. 
8^ ; arran;;ed alphabetically by languages, with 
family and author indexes. — List of works in 
Chabta, p. 407 ; Chikasas, pp. 04, 473 ; Muskohgi, 
pp. 260, 521 ; Seminole, p. 349. 

Copies seen : Congress, Eamos, Harvard. 

At the Fischer sale, a copy, No. 1710, sold 
for Is. 

See Adelung(J. C.) and Vater (J. S.) 



Vba anumpa Lnk 
'Wright (Alfred). 
Vba anumpa Mak 

"Wright (Alfred). 
Vila i katikisnia * 
Wright r Alfred). 
Vocabnlary : 
A iabama 
Alabama 
Apalachi 
Cbikasaw 

Chikasaw 

Chikasaw 

Chikasaw 

Chikasaw 

Chikasaw 

Chikasaw 

Chikasaw 

Chikasaw 

Choct-aw 

Choctaw 

Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Clioctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
ChoctAW 
^'hoctaw 
ChocUw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 



Choctaw. See 



Choctaw. See 



Choctaw. See 



See Gatschet (A. S.) 
Pike (A.) 
Gatschot (A. S.) 
Adelung (J. C.) and 

Vater (J.S.) 
Barton (B. S.) 
Gallatin (A.) 
Gatschet (A. S.) 
Gibbs (G.) 
Halo (H.) 
Hawkins (B.) 
Robertson (A. E.W.) 
Smith (D.) 
Adam (L.) 
Adelung (J. C.) a^d 

Vater (J.S.) 
Balbi (A.) 
Barton (B.S.) 

Boargeois ( ) 

Brautz (L.) 
Byiugton (C.) 
Campbell (J.) 
Castiglioui (L.) 
Chamberlain (A. F.) 
Choctaw. 

Domencch (E.H. D.) 
Gallatin (A.) 
Gatschet (A. S.) 
Haines (E.M.) 
Halo (H.) 
Hawkins (B.) 
Holmes (A.) 
Hudson (P.) 
Latham (R.G.) 
Morgan (L. H.) 
Pitchlynn (P.P.) 
Wheeler (C.H.) 
Tomlin (J.) 
Voso (H.) 
Young (F. B.) 
Wright (Allen). 



Vocabulary — Continued. 

Creek Gatschet (A. S., 

Creek Gibbs (G.) 

Creek Grayson (G. W.) 

Creek Haines (E.M.) 

Creek Hawkins (B.) 

Creek Howitt (E.) 

Crock Morgan (L.H.) 

Creek Pike (A.) 

Creek Pope (J.) 

Creek Robertson ( A . E. W .) 

Creek Sanford (E.) 

Creek Wheeler (C. H.) 

Hitcbiti Casey (J.C.) 

Hitchiti Gallatin (A.) 

Hitcbiti Gatschet (A. S.) 

Hitchiti Gibbh (G.) 

Hitchiti Pike (A.) 

Hjtcbiti Wheeler (C. H.) 

Koassati Gatschet ( A . S. ) 

Koassati Pike (A.) 

Mikasnki Gibbs (G.) 

Mikasuki Smith (B.) 

Muskoki Adelung (J. C.) and 

Vater (J.S.) 

Muskoki Balbi (A.) 

Muskoki Barton ( B. S. ) 

Muskoki Casey (J.C.) 

Muskoki ChamberUin (A. F.) 

Muskoki Chrouielcs. 

Muskoki Drake (S.G.) 

Muskoki Gallatin ( A . ) 

Muskoki Gatschot ( A. S. ) 

Muikoki Haines (E. M.) 

Muskoki Latham (R. G.) 

Muskoki Laudonnidro (R.) 

Muskoki Muskoki. 

Muskoki Schoolcraft (H. R.) 

Seminole Casey (J.C.) 

Sominolo Drake (S. G. ) 

Seminole Gatsi^ot (A.S.) 

Seminole Hoxlo (W.) 

Seminole Le Baron (J. F.) 

Sominolo MacCauloy (C.) 

Seminole Munroo (C. K.) 

Seminole Notices. 

Seminole Sketch. 

Seminole Smith (B.) 

Seminole Williams (J. L.) 

Seminole Wilson ( E. F. ) 

Vose (Henry). Choctaw analogies. By 
Henry Vose, of Mississippi. 

In the National Int«lligencor, Washington, 
D. C. May 16, 1835. (Powell.) 

Analogy of Choctaw terms with those of the 
Hebrew, Greek, Chinese, &c. 

Voyages intdressants. See Bourgeois 

( ) 

Vpastelveke em fulletv * " Musko- 

kee. See Robertson (A. E. W.) 



MUSRHOGEAM LANGUAGES. 



93 



W. 



Waldron (Lieut. — ). See Casey (J. C. ) 
and Waldron (— ). 

"War in Florida. See Potter ( W. ) 

Watkinson : This word following a titlo or witUin 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to has been seen by the 
compiler in the Watkinson Library, Hartford, 
Conn. 

[WTieeler (Bev. Charles H. )] Etymolog- 
ical vocabulary of modem geographical 
names. 

In Webster (Noah), American dictionary of 
the English langaage, pp. 1625>1632, Spring- 
field, Mass., 1867, 4®. (Congress.) 

Explanatory inde^ of prefixes, terminations, 
and formative syllables, inclading a few ** In- 
dian," pp. 1625-1628.— A brief alphabetical list 
of geographical names, with their derivation 
and signification, derived largely from the 
Indiai) languages, and partially from Muskho- 
gean (Choctaw, Creek, Hitchiti) languages, pp. 
1629-1632. 

The introductory remarks say: "Many of 
the translations of the Indian names here given 
have been furnished, and all of them exam* 
inod, by Henry R. Schoolcraft, LL. D., and the 
Hon. J. Hammond Trumbull, whoso high repu- 
tation and well-known accuracy in whatever 
relates to the Indian languages, literature, and 
history are a sufficient guaranty for the cor- 
rectness of this portion of the vocabulary. In- 
formation in regard to certain names of the 
same class has also been obtained from the 
Kev. Edward Ballard, secretary of the Maine 
Historical Society." 

The publishers of Webster's dictionaries, 
Messrs. G. &. C. Merriam Si Co., inform mo that 
this etymological vocabulary first appeared in 
the edition of 186 J — Noah Porter's first edition. 
I have not easy access to a copy of that edition, 
and so have contented myself with titling the 
nearest to it in date which the Library of Con- 
gross possesses. The etymological vocabulary 
appears unchanged in the latest (1888) edition. 

Wilkins (Daniel). See Chamberlayne 
(J.)and'Wilkins(D.) 

Williams (George L.) See "Wright (A.) 
and Byington (C.) 

Williams (John Lee). The | territory of 
Florida : | or | sketches of the topog- 
raphy, I civil and natural history, | of | 
the country, the climate, and the In- 
dian tribes, | from | the first discovery 
to the present tfme, | with a map, 
views, &c. I By John Leo Williams. | 
New- York : i A. T. Goodrich. | 1837. 
Title 1 1. preface pp. iii-vi, text pp. 7-304, 
map, plates, 8°.— Names of chiefs and sub- 
chiefs of the Seminoles, with English signifi- 
cation, pp. 273-276.--Glos8ary [about 150 words 
of Seminole], pp. 276-278. 



WiUiams (J. L.) —Continued. 

Copies teen : Boston Athemenm, British Ma- 
scum, Congress. 

[Williams (Loring S.)] Nitvk hollo 
nitvk a isht | anumpa hoke. | [1834.] 

No title-page, pp. 1-17, 16^. Tract " On the 
Sabbath," in the Choctaw language. The date 
is mentioned in the report of the A. B. C. F. M. 
for 1831 p. 115. 

Copies seen : American Tract Society, Phil 
lips. 

— ^ Family education and government: j 
a I discourse | in the | Choctaw lan- 
guage. I By L. S. Williams. | 

Boston : | printed for the American 
Board of Commissioners for | Foreign 
Missions, by Crocker & Brewster. | 
1835. 
Pp. 1-48, 12^. 

Copies seen: American Board of Commis- 
sioners, Congress. Eamos. 

[ ] Religious tracts | in the | Choctaw 

language. | Second Edition, ; Revised. | 

Boston : | printed for the American 
Board of Commissioners for | Foreign 
Missions, by Crocker & Brewster. I 
1835. 

Title verso blank 1 1. Chahta alphabet pp. 
3-4, text in the Chahta language pp. 6-39, 16°.— 
Chisvs Kilaist * * * or salvation by Jesus 
Christ, pp. 5-12.— Himona rtta, or regeneration 
by the Holy Spirit, pp. 12-19.— Ilekostininchi, 
or repentance necessary to salvation, pp. 20- 
23.— Hot»k illi * * * or the resurrection and 
final judgment, pp. 26-G9. 

Copies seen : American Philosophical Society, 
Astor, Congress, Povrcll. 

According to Byiugton's manuscript dic- 
tionary, the first edition : 1827, 31 pp. A later 
edition as follows : 

[Religious tracts in the Choctaw 

language. 

Park Hill, Cherokee nation : Mis- 
sionary press, John Candy and John F. 
Wheeler, printers. 1845.] 

Pp. 1-28, 12°.— Salvation by Jesus Christ; 
Chisvs Kilaist Chihowa Ushi, &c., pp. 1-G.— 
Begeneration by the Holy Spirit ; himona vtta, 
pp. 7-13.— Repentance necessary to salvation; 
Ilf kostinichi, pp. 13-18.— The resurrection and 
final judgment ; Hvtvk illi homi tana he nitak 
michanana vlhpisa cbito ahe aiena isht anoli 
hoke, pp. 18-28. 
Copies seen: Boston Athcnaaum. 

Child^s Book on the Soul; in the 

Choctaw Language. 1840. (*) 

IG pp. Title from Byington's manuscript 
dictionary. 



94 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



'Williams (L. S.) -Continued. 

[ ] Ai-yimmika na kaniolimi. 

[Park Hill, Cherokee Nation : Mis- 
sion press, John Candy. and John F. 
Wheeler, printers. 1845.] 

No title-page ; pp. 1-13, 12°. Salvation by 
faitb, in the Choctaw language. 

Appended, pp. 13-20 : How do wo know there 
is a God? Chibowa bvt asha ka katiobmit 11 ' 
okostoniucbi Cbatak ob cbo. 
Copies seen : Boston Atbenseum. 

[ ] Bible Stories | with | practical il- 

Instrations and remarks { on | the fall. 
I Baibil nan aiauowa, | Rev. T. H. Gal- 
laudet t^t hoUissochi tok a, | Chahta 
im annmpa atoshowa. | Second edition 
revised. | 

Park Hill, Cherokee Nation: I Mis- 
sion Press : John Candy and John F. 
Wheeler, printers. | 1845. 

Pp. 1-24, 12°, in tbe Choctaw language. 

Copies seen: Boston AtbeDamra. 

According to Byington's manuscript diction- 
ary, tbe first edition : 1839, 23 pp. A later 
edition as follows: 

[ ] Bible stories, | with | practical il- 
lustrations I and I remarks on the fall. 
I Baibil nan aianowa, | Rev. T. Gallaa- 
det vt hoUissochi ) tok a, | Chahta im 
annmpa atoshowa. | [Device.] | 

American Tract Society, | 150 Nassau 
street, New York. | [1872.] 

Title verso blank 1 1. text in Choctaw pp. 3- 
64, 2P. Pp. 61-64 are occupied with hymns. 

Copies seen : Congress, Pilling, Powell, "Wis- 
consin Historical Society. 

[ J The I Child's Book | on | the crea- 
tion. I Vila i holisso | nana moma toba 
tok a nan anoli ka, | Rev. C. A. Good- 
rich vt holissochi tok a, | yuskololit 
Chahta im annmpa a toshowvt fohka 
Iioke. I Second edition revised. | 

Park Hill, Cherokee Nation : | Mis- 
sion Press, John Candy and John F. 
Wheeler, printers. | 1845. 

Pp. 1-14, 12°, in the Choctaw language. 

Copies seen : Boston Athenaeum. 

According to Byington, the first edition : 
1839, 14 pp. 

[ ] Chitokaka i nitak holitopa isht 

annmpa. 

[Park Hill, Cherokee Nation : Mis- 
sion press, John Candy and John F. 
Wheeler, printers. 1845.] 

No title-page ; pp. 1-4, 12^. A tract on the 
Lord's day, in the Choctaw language. 

Copies seen : Boston Athenaeam. 



Williams (L. S.) —Continued. 

[ J Haikischika | ik achukmo otvnin- 

chi. I Fraud exposed and detected. |' 
Abridged from Rev. Edward Paysou, 
D.D. 

[Park Hill, Cherokee Nation: Mis- 
sion press, John Candy and John F. 
Wheeler, printers. 1845.] 

No title-page ; pp. 1-11, 12P, in the Choctaw 
language. Byington, in his manuscript dic- 
tionary, says it contains 16 pp. Perhaps there 
is a later edition. 
Copies seen: Boston Athensenm. 

[ ] Hatak yoshuba | vhleha hvt | Chi- 

howa anukhobela ya ibbak foyuka. 
I Sinners in the hands | of an angry 
God. I A sermon by the Rev. President 
Edwards. | 

Park Hill, Cherokee Nation : Mis- 
sion Press ; | John Candy and John F. 
Wheeler, printers. 1845. 

Pp. 1-25, 12°, in the Choctaw language. Ap- 
pcnded, without title-page, pp. 26-28, is a tract 
entitled " Chihowa" [God]. 

Copies seen : Boston Athenaeum. 

[ ] I will give liberally. | By the Rev. 

William Nevins, D. D. | Na yukpa hosh 
nana ka bohli lashke. 

[Park Hill, Cherokee Nation: Mis- 
sion press, John Candy and John F. 
Wheeler, printers. 1845. ] 

Half-titie 1 1. pp. 3-16, l2o. m the Choctaw 
langaage. 

Copies seen : Boston Athenffium. 
[ ] The New Birth. A tuklant vtta. 

[Park Hill, Cherokee Nation : Mis- 
sion Press. 1845.] 

No title-page, pp. l-lp, 12° ; in the Choctaw 
language. 

Copies seen : Boston Athenaeum. 

According to Bying ton's manusciipt dictioU' 
ary, the first edition, 1827; second edition, 
1831. 
[ ] The African servant. (*) 

24 pp. 24°. In the Choctaw language. Title 
from the Forty-ninth report of the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 
1858. 

[ ] Nana a kaniohmi | Baibil a ^Qka 

kut I haiakvchi yoke. 

Half title verso blank 1 1. text pp. 3-30, 16^. 
Things made known in the Bible, in the Choc- 
taw language. The following are translations 
of the headings : 

Attributes of God— The Blb'o, bow and 
when written ;. its translation into the English 
and other languages — What tbe Bible teaches 
aboutangels— The Bible account of the crea- 
tion and fall of man— What the Bible teaches 
about the duty of public worship and aiding 



_ MUSKHOG£AN LANGUAGES. 



95 



Williams (L. S.; — Continaed. 

religioua teachers— What the Bible teaches in 
relation to the Sabbath— The goodness of God 
manifested in his works— How do yon know 
there is a God ? 
Copies seen: Powell. 

[ ] Oka homi isbko shalili nan isbt ini 

achuknia kvt ilvppak j oke. 

No title-pa;;e; pp. 1-8, IC©. Reward of 
drunkenness, in the Choctaw ktnguage. 
Copies seen : American Tract Society. 

[Religious tracts, in the Choctaw 

language] (*) 

The act of fiiith, i pp.— The world to come, 
4 pp.— Self-dedication, 4 pp. 

Title from Byington's manuscript Choctaw 
dictionary. 

See "Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 

Sco Wright (A.) and Williama (L. 

8.) 

Loring S. Williams was one of the early mis- 
sionaries to the Choctaws, probably one of the 
first band, as I find him mentioned as teacher 
in the Missionary Herald for 1821. He went to 
the now country after the removal, but retired 
from missionary work about the beginning of 
the year 1838. T am informed that he died not 
long since in Iowa. Choctaw scholars say that 
the hymns composed by him are in excellent 
Choctaw. 
Wilson ( Bev, Edward Francis). Vocabu- 
lary of tho Seminole language. [1889.] 

Manuscript, filling pp. 3-5 of a pamphlet en- 
titled "An Indian History." This pamphlet 
consists of 15 pp. 8=>, and is a circular distributed 
for gathering information, linguistic and ethno- 
logic, re;;arding any particular tribe of Indians. 
On the first page tho author says he is " trying 
to collect material with a view to publishing a 
shore popular history of some one hundred or 
so of the best known Indian tribc^s, together 
with A little insight into the vocabolar}' and 
grammatical structure of each of their lan- 
guages." Pago 2, pronunciation ; pp. 3-7, words 
and sentences, three columns, the first English, 
the second examples (two Seminole) from va- 
rious Indian languages, the third blank, for 
filling in the particular language desired ; pp. 
7-10, questions concerning language, with ex- 
amj^les; pp. 11-14, questions of history; p. 15, 
"A few particulars about the Indians." 

This Seminole vocabulary was procured by 
Mr.Wilson about January, 1889, at Carlisle, Pa., 
from Minnie Comers, an Indian pnpil. The 
original is in the collector's own possession, 
and a duplicate, kindly furnished by him, is in 
the library of the Bureau of Ethnology. 

Eev. Edward Francis "Wilson, son of the late 
Ilev. Daniel Wilson, Islington, prebendary of 
St. Paul's Cathedral, and grandson of Daniel 
Wilson, bishop of Calcutta, was born in London 
December 7, 1814, and at the age of 17 left school 
and emigrated to Canada for the purpose of 



Wilson (E. F.) — Continued. 

leading an agricultural life; but soon after bis 
aiTival he was led to take an interest in the In- 
dians, and resolved to become a missionary. 
Atter two years of preparation, much of which 
time was spect among tie Indians, ho returned 
to England, and in December, 1807, was or- 
dained deacon. Shortly thereafter it was ar- 
ranged that ho should return to Canada as a 
missionary to tho Ojibway Indians, under the 
auspices of tho Church Missionary Society, and 
in Jul 3% 18C8, ho returnt^. He has labored 
among the Indians ever since, building two 
homes -the Shingwauk Uoroe. at Sault Ste. 
Marie, and the Wawanosh Uome, two miles 
from tho former— and preparing linguistic 
works. 

Winslett (Uev. David). Wewvbome 
svkerkuco, &c. 

In Indian Journal, vol. 2, no. 27, Muscogee, 
Ind. T. March G, 1878, folio. (*) 

Temperance song, *' Tbe "Wine-cup," in the 
Muskoki language. Printed first in the Creek 
hymn-book. Mrs. Robertson has furnished the 
Bureau of Ethnology with an interliaear trans- 
lation. 

See Loughridge (R. M.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.) and TTSTins- 

lett(D.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.), Winslett 

(D.), and Land (J. H.) 

See Loughridge (R. M.), Winslett 

(D.), and Robertson (W. S.) 

See Robertson (W. S.), McKillop 

(J.), and Winslett (D.) 

See Robertson (W. S.) and Wins- 
lett (D.) 

Kev. David Winslett was born in the Creek 
Nation about the year 1830. His father was a 
white man of considerable character, and fig- 
ured largely in the transaction of business be- 
tween the United States commissioners and the 
Indians. His mother was an Indian woman of 
the Hechete town. He entered Kowetah Mis- 
sion, Creek Nation, in 1845, when about sixteen 
years of nge, and made remarkable progress in 
his studies under the Kev. R M. Loughridge. 
Afterward he pursued his studies at Tallahas- 
see Mission. About tho year 1851 he was 
chosen as a ruling elder in the Tullahassee 
church. As he spoke the English language 
correctly and understood and spoke the Mus- 
koki well, he was soon employed as Mr. Lough- 
ridge's interpreter in preaching and in trans- 
lating the Scriptures, and he is still spoken 
of as the best tho Muskokis ever had. The 
Creek Presbytery, appreciating his worth, 
took him uudcr its charge and directed his 
studies, and, on the Gth of September, 1859, or- 
dained him to the full work of the ministry and 
directed him to take charge of the Kowetah 



96 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Winslett (D.) — Coutiuuod. 

Mission and cbnrch. Tho Crook people hav- 
ing joined tho Can federate army in the late war, 
lie felt coastraiaed to go with them, and was a 
trusted and efficient officer during his short 
service. Ho was taken sick from exposure and 
returned home, and died in lSG2.—Loughridge. 

Winslett (Keriah Kouard). See Robert- 
son (A. E. W.) 

M^iss Keriah K. Winslett was one of the 
younger daughters of Bev. David Winslett, and 
was born near Tnllahassee in 1857. She inher- 
ited her father's fine talents and sunny dispo- 
sition, and early united with the Presbyterian 
Chrrch, at Tullahassee. Her education was 
received chiefly there and at the Young Ladies' 
College, Fulton, Mo., where she died, greatly la^ 
mented, after having passedhcr twentieth year. 
Her chief work in the Creek was to help mo 
in the translation of the Acts of tho Apostles. — 
Mrs. Robertson. « 

Winslett (Lewis). See Robertson (A. 

E. W.) 
Wisconsin Historical Society: These words fol- 
lowing a title or within parentheses after a note 
indicate that a copy of the work referred to has 
boon seen by the compiler ir the library of that 
society, Madison, Wis. 
Words: 

Chikobaw See Adair (J.) 

Chikasaw Gatschet ( A. S. ) 

Chikasaw Loudon (A.) 

Cliikasaw Pickett ( A . J. ) 

Chikasaw Smet (P. J.do). 

Chikasaw Vater ( J. S. ) 

Choctaw Adair (J.) 

Choctaw Brintou (D. G.) 

Choctaw Campbell (J.) 

Choctaw Chamberlayno (J.) 

and Wilkins (D.) 
Choctaw Fritz (J. F.) and 

Schultze (B.) 
Choctaw Gatschet (A. S) 

Choctaw Grasserie (R. do la). 

Choctaw Holmes (A.) 

Choctaw Latham (fv.G.) 

Choctaw Lincecum (T.) 

Choctaw Pickett (A.J.) 

Choctaw Rouquettc (D.) 

Choctaw Schomburgk (R.H.) 

C hocta w Soto ( H. do). 

Choctaw Vatcr (J. S.) 

Choctaw Yankie witch (F.) 

Crieok Bartram (W.) 

Creek Cbamberlayue (J.) 

and WUkins (D.) 
Creek Duncan (D.) 

Creek Fritz (J. F.) anil 

Scbultzo (B.) 
Creek Gatschet (A. S ) 

Creek Hawkins (B.) 

Creek Newcomb (U.) 

Creek Pickett (A. J.) 

Creek Swan (C.) 



Words — Contioued. 
Hitchiti 
Hitchiti 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Muskoki 
Sominole 



Fitch (A.) 
Gatschet (A. S.) 
Adair (J.) 
Bollaert(W.) 
Brlnton (D. G.) 
Fitch (A.) 
Latham (It.G.) 
Rockwell (E. F.) 
Schomburgk (R. fl.) 
Schoolcraft (H. R ) 
Smet (P.J. do). 
Vail (E. A.) 
Vater (J. S.) 
Brinton (D. G.) 



World to come [Choctaw]. Seo WiU- 
iams (L. S.) 

Worth of a dollar [Choctaw J. See 

Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 
[Wright(i?ev. Alfred).] Holissoholitopa, 
j j chitokaka Chisus im annmpeshl Luk, 
! Chani | itatuklo kut holissochi tok Mak 
i o, I a kashapa kut | Chahta im aunmpa 
j isht holisso hoke. | 
i Utica; | press of William Williams, 

Genesee st. | 1831. 
I Pp. 1-152, 1 1. 16°. Gospels of Luke and John 

and a few chapters of Mark in tho Clioctaw 
I language. 

Copies seen : American Tract Society, Boston 
AthenaBum, Trumbull. 

For later editions see Wright (A.) and By- 
ington (C.) 

[ ] Chahta ua-holhtina : | or | Choctaw 

arithmetic. | 

Boston : | printed for the American 
Board of Commissioners for | Foreign 
Missions, by Crocker & Brewster. | 
1835. 

Title verso blank 1 h text in tho Choctaw 
language pp. 3-72, 12°. 

Copies seen: American Board of Commission- 
ers, Boston Athenaeum, Congress, Powell. 

Byington's manuscript dictionary says: 
Second edition, 1845, 72 pp. 

[ ] FUai katikisma: | or | child's cate- 
chism in Choctaw: j being a translation 
of I Dr. Watts' second catechism for 
children. | Second Edition, | Revised. | 

Boston : | printed for the American 
Board of Commissioners for | Foreign 
Missions, by Crocker & Brewster, i 
1835. 

Title verso blank 1 1. text in Choctaw pp.3- 
IC, 12^. 

Copies seen: American Board of Commission- 
ers, Boston Athonteura, Eamcs, Pilling, Powell. 

According to Byington's manuscript Choc- 
taw Dictionary, the first edition is 1827, 12 pp. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



97 



"Wright (Alfred) — Continued. 
[ — ^] Chahta yakni 1 nan vlhpisa nishko- 
boka, I micha | anumpa ylhpisa aiena 
Jonathan Cogswell vt | Chahta anumpa 
atosholi tok. | 

Park Hill, Cherokee nation: | John 
Candy, printer. 1 1840. 

Pp. 1-40, 16°, in the Choctaw language. Pre- 
ceded by the same in English, as follows : 

The I constitation | and | laws | of the | Choc- 
taw nation. 1 

Park Hill, Cherokee nation : | John Candy, 
printer. 1 1840. 

Pp. 1-34, 1 1. 16°. 

Copies seen : Boston AthensBum. 

[ ] The I epistles | of ; John, | translated 

into the Chahta language. | Chani i ho- 
lisso Vhleha | Chahta anumpa isht ato- 
sbowa hoke. | 

Park Hill. | Mission press, John 
Candy, printer. | 1841. 

Pp. 1-27, 240. 

Copies seen : Boston Athenseam. 

Byington's manasoript dictionary says : First 
edition, 1840,27 pp. 

[ ] The 1 epistle ! of | James | translated 

into the Choctaw language. | Chemis i 
holisso hvt I Chahta anumpaisht ato- 
showa hoke. | 

Park Hill, { Mission press : John 
Candy, printer. 1 1843. 

Pp. 1-23, 24°. 

Copies seen : Boston AthenaBum. 

The Murphy copy, cat No. 2953, sold for $1. 

[ ] The books | of | Joshua, Judges, 

and Ruth, \ translated into | the Choc- 
taw language. | Choshua, nan Apesa 
Fhleha holisso, | micha Lulh holisso | 
aiena kt;t toshowvt | Chahta anumpa 
toba hoke. { 

New York : | American Bible Society, * 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1852. 

Title verso blank 1 1. half-title verso blank 1 
1. text in Choctaw pp. 5-151, 16°.— Joshua, pp. 
5-73.— Judges, pp. 75-141.— Ruth, pp. 143-151. 

Copies seen: American Bible Society, Brin- 
ton, British Museum, Congress, Barnes, Pilling, 
Powell, Trumbull. 

Priced is. by Triibner in 1856, No. 651. The 
Fischer copy, No. 2234, sold for 18#. ; the Field 
copy. No. 355, for $1. 13. Priced 20 fr. by Leclerc 
in 1878, No. 2160 ; 10 fr. by Dufoss6 in 1887, No 
24536; and 4 M. 50 Pf. by Koehler, No. 333 of cat! 
465. 

[ ] The books | of | Joshua, Judges, 

and Ruth, | translated into \ the Choc- 
taw language. | Cboshua, nan Apesa 
Vhleha holisso, | micha Lulh holisso | 
MUSK 7 



"Wright (Alfred) —Continued, 
aiena kvt toshowvt i Chahta anumpa 
toba hoke. | 

New York : i American Bible Society, 
! instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1671. 

Title verso blank 1 1. half-title verso blank 1 
L text in Choctaw pp. 5-151, 16°. — Joshua, pp. 
5-73.— .Tudges, pp. 75-141.— Ruth, pp. 143-151. 

Copies seen : Eames, Pilling, Powell, Trnm> 
bull. 

[ ] The I first and second books of 

Samuel, | and tbe | first book of Kings, | 
translated into { the Choctaw language. 
I Samuel [ holisso | ymmona, atukla 
itatuklo, I micha | Miko Vhleha, | isht 
anumpa vmmonal aiena kvt toshowvt | 
Chahta anumpa toba hoke. | 

New York : | American Bible Society, 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1852. 

Title verso blank 1 1. half title verso blank 1 
L text in Choctaw pp. 5-256, 12°.- Samuel I, 
pp. 3-92.— Sam nel ii, pp. 93-167.— Kings i, pp. 
169-256. 

Copies seen : American Bible Society, British 
Museum, Congress, Eames, Pilling, Powell, 
Trumbull, Wisconsin Historical Society. 

At the Field sale, No. 1291, a copy sold for $1. 

[ ] The I first and second books of 

Samuel, | and tbe | first book of Kings, | 
translated into | the Choctaw language. 
I Samuel 1 holisso | vmmona, atukla 
itatuklo, I micha | Miko Vhleha, | isht 
anumpa vmmona | aiena kvt toshowvt 
I Chahta anumpa toba hoke. | 

New York : | American Bible Society, 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. | 
1871. 

Title verso blanl^ 1 L half title verso blank 1 1. 
text in Choctaw pp. 6-256, 12^.— Samuel i, pp. 
3-92.— Samuel ii, pp. 93-167.— Kings i, pp. 
169-256. Appended is Edwards (J.), The 
second book of Kings, pp. 257-339. 
Copies seen : Barnes, Pilling, PowelL 

Fba anumpa Luk g | na ponaklo ho- 
lisso. I A book of questions | on the | 
gospel of Luke, | in the | Choctaw lan- 
guage ; I for the use of | bible classes 
and sabbath schools. | By Kev. Alfred 
Wright, I missionary to the Choctaws. | 
First edition, 1500 copies. | 

New York: | S. W. Benedict, 16 Spruce 
street. 1 1852. 

Outside title 1 1. title 1 L text in Choctaw pp. 
3-92, 16°. Pp. 89-92 contain hymns. Verso of 
title: Published by the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 



98 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



"Wright (Alfred) — Continued. 

Copies teen: American Board of Commission- 
ers, Congress, Eames, Powell. 

Fba anumpa Mak a | na ponaklo ho- 

lisso. I A book of questions | on the j 
gospel of Mark, | in the | Choctaw lan- 
guage; I for the use of I bible classes 
and sabbath schools. | By Rev. Alfred 
Wright, I missionary to the Choctaws. | 
First edition, 1500 copies. | 

New York: | S. W. Benedict, 16 Spruce 
street.! 1852. 

Outside title 1 L title 1 L text in Choctaw pp. 
3-76, 16«^. 

Oopietteen: American Board of Commission- 
ers, Congress, Powell. 

[ and Byington (C.)] A | spelling 

book, I written in the | Chahta lan- 
guage I with an | English translation ; | 
prepared and published under the di- 
rection of the I missionaries | in the 
Chahta nation, | with the aid of | Cap- 
tain David Folsom, interpreter. | [Three 
lines, Isaiah 33, 19. ] |- 

Cincinnati: | published by Morgan, 
Lodge and Fisher for the | Missionary 
Society. | 1825. 

Title reverse blank 1 1. advertisement pp. 
iii-iv, text pp. 5-84, 16°.— Alphabet, pp. 6-6.— 
Tables i-vi, Words of two letters, &c., pp. 7- 
12.— Pp. 13-72 missing.— Tables xl-xli, pp. 74- 
75.— Translation into C/hahta of Lord's prayer, 
p. 76. — Ten commandments, pp. 76-78. — Parable 
of thericbman and Lazaras, pp. 78-79.— John, 
chap, iii, pp. 79-83.— A hymn, pp. 83-84. 

Copies teen: TrombnU, Yale. 

[ ] A I spelling book | written in 

the I Chahta language, | with an | En- 
glish translation. | [IJesign.] | Second 
edition, revised. | 

Cincinnati: | printed by Morgan, 
Lodge and Fisher. | 1827. 

Pp. 1-160, 18°. 

Copies teen : Boston AthensBnm. 

[ ] Chahta | holisso. | 

Boston : | printed by Crocker & Brew- 
ster. I 1830. 

Pp. 1-108, 1B°. Choctaw speUing and reading 
book. 

Copies teen : American Board of Commission- 
ers, Boston AthenaBam, Trambull. 

According to Byington's manuscript diction- 
ary, the first edition, 65 pp., appeared in 1827. 

[ ] Chahta holisso | ai isht ia 

vmmona. | Third edition, | revised. | 

Boston: | printed for the American 
Board of Commissioners for | Foreign 



"Wright (A.)andBylngton(C.)-- Cont'd. 
' Missions, by Crocker and Brewster : | 
1835. 

Pp.l-72,12o. 

Copies seen : American Antiquarian Society, 
Boston AthensBum, TrumbulL 

Priced 18s. by Qaaritch, No. 30067 ; and again,, 
cat. for December, 1887, No. 76*, 14*. 

Byington's manuscript dictionary says: 
Fourth edition, 1846, 108 pp. 

[ ] Chahta holisso | ai isht ia 

vnmiona. | The | Choctaw spelling book. 
I Fifth edition, | revised and enlarged. | 

Boston : | Press of T. R. Marvin. | 
1849. 

Title verso blank 1 1. Chahta alphabet pp. 3- 
4, English alphabet p. 5, text pp. 6-107, 16^. 

Copies seen : Congress, Trambull. 

The Brinley copy, No. 5753, sold for 25 cents. 

[ ] Chahta holisso | ai isht ia 

vmmona. | The | Choctaw spelling book. 
I Sixth edition, revised. | 

Boston : | press of T. R. Marvin. | 
ia52. 

Pp. 1-107, 160. 

Copies seen : American Board of Commission- 
ers, Boston Public. 

[ ] Chahta holisso. | Ai isht ia 

vmmona. | The| Choctaw | spelling book. 
I Eighth edition. ! [Three lines quota- 
tion, in English.} I 

Richmond: j Presbyterian committee 
of publication, | [1872?] 

Title verso blank 1 1. text pp. 3-107, 16°; en- 
tirely in Choctaw, except the headings, which 
are sometimes in Choctaw, sometimes in Eng- 
lish, and sometimes in both. — Includes the ten 
commandments, pp. 97-100.— Morning prayer, 
pp. 100-101.— Evening prayer, pp. 102-104.— Day 
of judgment, pp. 104-107. 

Copies seen : Dunbar, Gatschet, PowelL 

[ ] Chahta holisso | a tukla, | or j 

the second Chahta book: | containing 
translations | of | portions of the script- 
ures, I biographical notices | of | Henry 
Oboki ah and Catharine Brown, | a cat- 
echism, I and dissertations on | religious 
subjects. I 

Cincinnati: | printed by Morgan, 
Lodge, and Fisher. | 1827. 

Pp. 1-144, 16<^, in the Choctaw language. 

Copies seen : Boston Athenseum. 

For later edition of a portion of this work, see 
the same authors' Chahta i kana, irkfra. 

[Portions of the bible ; in the 

Choctaw language. 1827.] (*) 

48 pp.^Contains: Selections firom G^enesis, 

most of the first eleven chapters. — Ist and 146th 

Psalms.— Matthew, 3d, 8th, 13th, 14th,^26th. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



99 



Wright (A. ) aud Byington (0. ) — Cont'd. 
27th, and 28th ohapters. and parts of Ist, 3d, 9th, 
17th, and 25th chapters.— John, 3d and 1 1th 
chapters and parts of 2d chapter. — The ten 
commandments. 

Title from Byington's manusoript Choctaw 
dictionary. 

Chahta vba isht taloa holisso, 

or Choctaw Hymn-book. 

Boston: Crooker and Brewster. 
1830. (•) 

108 pp. 12<'. Title from Sabin's Dictionary, 
No. 12867; he adds: Another edition was 
printed in Utica, 1831. The Missionary Herald, 
July, 1836, says: First edition, Boston, 1829, 
48 pp. 

[ ] Chahta; vba isht taloa holisso, 

I or I Choctaw hymn book, i Second Edi- 
tion, I revised and much enlarged, j 
[Seven lines Choctaw.] | 

Boston: | printed by Crocker & 
Brewster. | 47 Washington Street. 1 1833. 

Pp. i-ri, 7-162, 24^. — Supplementary, pp. 
155-162, contains ten commandments, and ex- 
tracts from the gospel of Luke. 

Copiesseen: Imerican Board of Commission- 
ers, American Tract Society, Eames, Wisconsin 
Historical Society. 

The Field copy, No. 358, sold for $1.12. 

Sabin's Dictionary, No. 12867, says: Third 
edition, Boston, 1835, 72 pp. 12°. 

[ ] Chahta; vba isht taloa holisso, 

I or i Choctaw hymn book. \ [Design.] 
Third edition, revised. ; [Seven lines 
Psalms, in Choctaw.] | 

Boston: I press of T. R. Marvin. | 
1844. 

Pp. 1-175, 24<^.— The ten commandments, pp. 
173-175. 

Copiesseen: American Board of Commission- 
ers, Astor, Boston Athenaeum, Trumbull. 

The Brinley copy. No. 5748, half-morocco, sold 
for $1.25 ; the Murphy copy, No. 2963, for $1. 

r ] Chahta | vba isht taloa holisso, 

I or I Choctaw hymn book, I Fourth edi- 
tion, I revised and enlarged. | [Seven 
lines Choctaw.] j Psalm cxvii. 1,2. | 

New York: j S. W. Benedict, 16 Spruce 
street. | 1851. 

2 U. pp. 1-248, 24^.— Psalms i, ii, &c. 2 p. U — 
Hymns, pp. 3-201.— Articles of faith, marriage 
service, &c. pp. 202-219.— English hymns, pp. 
220-237. 

Copies seen : American Board of Commission. 
ers, Congress. 

The Brinley copy. No. 5749, new, brought 
$1.75. 

[ ] Chahta j t?ba isht taloa holisso 

I or I Choctaw hymn book. I Fourth edi- 
tion, ! revised and enlarged. \ [Seven 
lines Choctaw.] j Psalm cxvii. 1, 2. | 



"Wright (A.) and Bjrington (C.) —Cont'd. 

Boston : | T. R. Marvin, 42 Congress 
street. ; 1854. 

TiUe 1 L pp. iil-v, 6-252, 24«>. Verso of title : 
"Published for the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions. "—First and 
second Psalm, in Choctaw, pp. iii-v. — Other 
passages of Scripture, in Choctaw, p. 6. — Hymns 
in Choctaw, pp. 7-205.— Articles of faith, in 
Choctaw, pp. 206-216.— Solemnization of mar- 
riage,io Choctaw.pp. 216-222. —Proverbs xxxi.in 

Choctaw, pp. 22J-223 Selected English hymns. 

pp. 224-241.— Indexes, pp. 242-262. 

Ct>piss seen : American Board of Commission- 
ers, PowelL 

[ ] Chahta vba isht taloa holisso. 

; Choctaw hymn book. ' Sixth edition. 
I [Six lines Choctaw.] i Psalm cxvii. 1, 

Boston: | press of T. R. Marvin, 42 
Congress street. 1 1858. 

Title 1 1. text pp. 3-242, hidexes pp. 243-252, 
24*". Verso of title: " Published by the Ameri- 
can Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis^ 
sions."— Choctaw hymns, pp. 3-202.— Articles of 
faith, in Choctaw, pp. 203-213. — Solemnization 
of marriage, in Choctaw, pp. 213-219. —Proverbs 
xxxi, in Choctaw, pp. 219-220.— English hymns, 
pp. 221-211.— Indexes, pp. 242-252. 

Copies seen: Boston Athensum, Brinton, 
PilLng, Powell. 

[ ] Chahta i vba isht taloa holisso. 

Choctaw hymn book. | Sixth edition. | 
[Six lines Choctaw.] | Psalm cxvii, 1, 
2.1 

Richmond: | Presbyterian committee 
of publication, i 1872. 

Title verso blank 1 1. text pp. 3-241, indexes 
pp. 242-252, 24^. The reverse of p. 199 is num- 
bered 199*, and opposite is p. 199t, the verso of 
which is 199t, followed by p. 200 on recto of fol- 
lowing leaf; pp. 201 and 202 are also the reverse 
of usual. The verso of the latter is unpaged, p. 
203 being the recto of the succeeding leaf.— 
Hymns in Choctaw, pp. 3-202.— Articles of 
faith, Ayimmika anumpa, .pp. 203-213. — Sol- 
emnization of marriage, pp. 213-219.— Ohoyo 
vlhpiesa. Proverbs xxxi, pp. 219-220.— English 
hymns, pp. 221-241. 

The translator's initials are appended to 
many of the hymns. Rev. John Edwards, of 
Wheelock, Choctaw Nation, Ind. T. has kindly 
furnished me with the following equivalents : 

A. W. Alfred Wright 

B. & P. C. Byington and P. P. Pitchlynn. 
e. B. Cyrus Byington. 

D. Capt Joseph Dakes. 

D. F. David Folsom. 

F. Rev. Pliny Fisk, first native 

Presbyterian minister. 

G. L. W. George L. Williams. 
I. F. Bev. Israel Folsom. 



100 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Wright (A. ) and Byington (C. ) — Cont'd. 
J. E. D. Rev. J. E. D wight, a native. 

K. John P. Kingsbury. 

L. S. W. Loring S. Williams. 
P. P. P. Peter P. Pitchlynn. 

Copies seen : Powell. 
Priced 3 M. by Koehler, No. 332 of cat. 465. 

[ ] TriuDiphaiit deaths I of I pions 

children. | In the Choctaw language. | 
By Missionaries of the American Board 
of Co nmissioners for | Foreign Mis- 
sions. I 

Boston: | printed for the hoard, hy 
Crocker & Brewster, j 47 Washington 
Street. | 1835. 

Title verso blank 1 1. Chahta alphabet pp. 3-1, 
text in Choctaw pp. 5-54, 24°. — Pp. 47-54 contain 
hymns in Choctaw, with English headings. 

Copies seen : American Tract Society, Boston 
Athenaeum, Pilling, Powell, Trumball. 

[ ] Chahta holisso | it im anum- 

puli. I Or the i Choctaw reader. | For the 
use of I native schools. | 

Union: | Printed for the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions. | John F. Wheeler, printer, i 
1836. 

Title verso blank 1 1. text in the Choctaw 
language pp. 3-123. contents (English and Choc- 
taw) 2 11. 16°. The headings to thd selections 
are in' English and Choctaw. 

Copies seen : Boston Athenaeum, Powell. 

[ ] Chahta i kana | or the ; Choc- 
taw friend. | Being a collection of i 
Moral and Keligious Tracts, original and 
selected | in the | Choctaw language. | 

Union: j Printed for the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions. 1 John F. Wheeler, printer. ] 
1836. 

Title verso blank 1 1. contents pp. iii-iv, text 
in Choctaw with English headings pp. 1-187, 
16o._Contain3 a number of tracts, each paged 
separately, but having a continuous pagina- 
tion oa the inner ^dge of the page. The folio w- 
hig are the titles : 

Hinili Ubokaia [Henry Obookiah],pp.l-20. 

Keti Bilaun [Catharine Brown], pp. 21-53. 

Poor Sarah, the Indian woman, pp. 37-52. 

Am I a Christian ? Yuo vt vba anampnli sia 
hoh cho ? pp. 52-57. 

The bible. Holisso holitopa isht anumpa, 
pp. 58-59. 

Explanation of the ten commandments, pp. 
61-98. 

A poison tree and sin, pp. 98-100. 

Translation of the book of Jonah, pp. 101-110. 

Story of Naaman and Gehazi, pp. 110-116. 

Patient Joe, pp. 116-119. 

Psalm 116. Anumpa holissoholitopa a kucha, 
pp. 119-120. 



'WrightCA.) andByington(C.)— Cont'd. 

The worth of a dollar, pp. 121-130. 

Providence acknowledged, pp. 130-132. 

The incorrigible sinner forewarned of his 
doom, pp. 133-144. 

He that toucheth you toncheth the apple of 
his eye, pp. 145-150. 

Do as you would be done by, pp. 150-165. 

Irreverence in the house of God, pp. 157-165. 

Pray for them which persecute you, pp. 165- 
168. 

The troublesome garden, pp. 169-186. 

Parents' neglect of their children, pp. 186-187 . 

Some of these tracts were issued at an earlier 
date than the above. See, on p. 98, the same 
authors' Cliahta holisso * * second Chahta 
book, 1827. 

Copies seen: American Board of Commis- 
sioners, Powell. 

[ ] The I gospel according to 

Matthew, ; translated into the | Choctaw 
language, j Vbanumpa | Mahlu vt holis- 
sochi tok. I Chahta anumpa isht a to- 
showa hoke. | 

Boston : 1 printed for the American 
Board of Commissioners | for Foreign 
Missions, by Crocker & Brewster. | 
1842. 

Title verso blank 1 1. Chahta alphabet 1 1. 
text in the Choctaw language pp. 5-198, 12°.— 
Matthew, pp. 5-151.— Notes on some foreign 
words introduced into the translation and some 
Choctaw words used in a new sense, pp. 152- 
167.— Questions on the gospel, pp. 168-198. 

Copies seen : American Board of Commission- 
ers, Boston Athensenm, Congress. 

[ ] The i gospel according to 

Matthew, [ translated into the | Choc- 
taw language. | Vbanumpa | Mahlu vt 
holissochi tok, j Chahta anumpa isht a 
toshowa hoke. | Second Edition. | 

Boston: j printed for the American 
Board op Isic'i Commissioners for | For- 
eign Missions, by Crocker & Brewster. | 
1845. 

Pp. 1-115, 8°, in the Choctaw language. 

Copies seen: Astor, Eames, Boston Athe- 
naeum. 

[ ] The I first three chapters 1 of 

the I Revelation | of \ John | translated 
into the Choctaw language. | Vbanum- 
peshi Ctiani a nan im otvni | tok ho- 
lisso chapta tuchina | kvt Chahta 
anumpa a to- ] showa hoke. | 

Park Hill: Mission Press: | John 
Candy, printer. | 1844. 

Pp. 1-20, 240. 

Copies seen : American Board of Commission- 
ers, Boston Athenaeum. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



101 



'Wright (A.)andBylngton(C.) — Cont'd. 

[ ] The i four gospels, j translated 

into the | Choctaw language. | Vha- 
numpa Mahlu | Vt holissochi tok, 
Chahta anumpa isht a tosh- j owa hoke. 
I Vbanumpa Mak | Vt holissochi tok, 
Chahta anampa isht a tosh- 1 owa hoke. 
I Vbanumpa Luk. | Vt holissochi tok, 
Cbabta anumpa isht a tosh- 1 owa hoke. 
I Vbanumpa Chani. | Vt holissochi tok, 
Cbabta anumpa isht a tosh- |owa hoke. | 

Boston : | printed for the American 
Board of Commissioners for | Foreign 
Missions, by Crocker & Brewster. 
1845. 

Title 1 1. Matthew pp. 1-115, Mark pp. 1-73, 
Lake pp. 1-127, John pp. 1-95, 12°; in the Choc- 
taw language. 

Copies seen: Triibner. 

[ ] The I gospel according to 

John, I translated into the | Choctaw 
language. | Fbanumpa. i Chani vt ho- 
lissochi tok; I Chahta anumpa isht a 
toshowa hoke. | 

Boston: i printed for the American 
Board of Commissioners for | Foreign 
Missions, by Crocker & Brewster. | 
1845. 

Title verso blank IL text in the Choctaw 
language pp. 3-95, 12<'. 

Copies seen : Astor, Boston Athensenm, Pow- 
eU. 

[ ] The I gospel according to 

Luke, I translated into the | Choctaw 
language. | Fbanumpa. | Luk vt bo- 
lissocbi tok, ; Chahta anumpa isht a 
toshowa hoke. | 

Boston : | printed for the American 
Board of Commissioners for | Foreign 
Missions, by Crocker & Brewster. | 
1845. 

'litle verso blank 1 1. text in the Choctaw 
language pp. 3-127, 12®. 

Copies seen : Astor, Boston Athenceum, Pow- 
ell. 

[ ] The I gospel according to 

Mark, | translated into the | Choctaw 
language, j Fbanumpa. | Mak vt ho- 
lissochi tok, I Obahta anumpa isht a 
tosbowa hoke. | 

Boston : | printed for the American 
Board op l8io'\ Commissioners for | 
Foreign Missions, by Crocker & Brew- 
ster. 1 1845. 

Title verao blank 1 1. text in the Choctaw 
language pp. 3-73, 12o. 

Copies seen : American Board of Commission- 
ers, Astor, Boston A(hen»um. Powell. 



"Wright (A.) and Bylngton (C.)— Cont'd. 

[ ] The 1 new testament | of ! our 

Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, | trans- 
lated into ; the Choctaw language. | 
Pin I chitokaka pi okchalinchi Cbisvs 
Klaist I in testament bimona, | Chahta 
anumpa atosbowa hoke. | 

New York : | American Bible Society, 
I instituted in the year MDCCCXVI. j 
1848. 

Title verso blank 1 L contents verso blank 1 
1. text in the Choctaw language pp. 5-818, 16^. 

Copies seen : American Bible Society, Amer- 
ican Board of Commissioners, Congress, Eames, 
Powell, Trumbull. 

Priced is. by Trubner in 185«, No. 652. The 
Fischer copy, No. 2235, brought 5s. At the 
Brinley sale two unused copies, No. 5751, sold 
for $1.25 each. 

I have seen copies with no change of title 
except in date, as follows: 1854 (Brinton), 1857 

. (Pilling), 1858 ( ), 1871 (Powell), 1881 (Amer- 

lean Bible Society). 

[ and 'WilUanui (L. S.)] Cbabta 

ikhananchi, [ or the | Choctaw instruc- 
tor: I containing a | brief summary of 
Old Testament history and | biography ; 
I with practical reflections, | in tbe 
Choctaw language. I By a Missionary. | 
Utica : | press of William Williams. | 
1831. 

Pp. 1-157, 16°. 

Copies seen : American Tract Society, Boston 
Athenffium. 

B^ington's manuscript Choctaw dictionary 
gives the following title, which may refer to 
the above work. 

Choctaw Teacher, containing 

an Epitome of the History of the Old 
Testament with reflections. 1831. (*) 

136 pp. 

Rev. Alfred Wright was bom in Columbia, 
Conn., March 1. 1788, and died March 31, 1853. 
He was appointed missionary to the Choctaws 
in 1820, and removed to the Indian Territory in 
October, 1832, where he organized the Wheelock 
Church in December of that year. 

I knew him but a couple of years before his 
death. From universal testimony in regard to 
him the eulogy on his tombstone is none too 
high. One marked characteristic was his dil- 
igence as a student. One who was here in 
1846-'47 told me that however late he went to 
bed at night, or however early he got up in the 
morning, he always found a light in Mr. 
Wright's study. I have at times Imagined that 
I saw spots in his work that indicated work 
with an exhausted brain. But such slips are 
rare. As a rule, his work was well done. 

Mr. Wright was a graduate of Williams Col- 
lege. A/ter spending two years at Andover 



102 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



"Wright (Alfred) — Continued. 

Theoloj^ical Seminary, he was appointed a tutor 
of Greek in his alma mater, with the prospect of 
a professorship, if he would accept. But his 
heart was set upon the foreign missionary 
work. Hemorrhage from the lungs compelled 
him to resign his tutorship and go south. Heart 
disease developed itself; on the way to the new 
country in 1832 he came near dying of it at 
Vicksburg. At Little Rock he lay sick for 
months ; but when able to sit up he and his 
wife started for this place to begin a new 
station in the wilderness. For years he 
could not eatch and saddle his own horse, nor 
could he mount from the ground, nor did he 
dare to ride except on a walk or a pace. His 
death was caused by heart trouble. — Edwards. 

["Wright (Rev. Allen).] Chikasha okla ; 
i kynstitushvn \ micha | i i nan vlhpisa. 

Chikasha okla i nan apesa yvt apesa 
I tokmakoke. | [1873?] (*) 

Literal «ran*tofton.— Chickasaw people J 
their | constitution 1 and | their 1 law. 1 

Pp. 1-350. 8°. Prefatory note signed by Al- 
len Wright. Title furnished by Mr. Wilberforce 
£ames. 

Priced 4 M. 50 Pf. by Koehler, No. 331 of cat. 
465. 

Chahta leksikon. | A | Choctaw in 

English Definition. | For the Choctaw 
academies and schools. | By | Allen 
Wright. 1 First edition— 1000 copies. | 

St. Louis : 1 Printed by the Presbyte- 
rian Publishing Company, | 207 North 
Eighth Street. ! [18S0.] 

Title verso blank I 1. preface in English p. 
3, in Choctaw p. 4, Choctaw alphabet p. 5, 
text (alphabetically arranged by Choctaw 
words) pp. 6-311, advertisements 7 unnum- 
bered pp. 12°. 

Copies seen: Brinton, Eames, Pilling, Powell. 

Priced 12 M. by Koehler, No. 986 of cat. 440, 
and again, No. 336 of cat. 465. In 1886 Clarke & 
Co. priced it $1.25, No. 6719. 

Vocabulary of the Chahta or Choc- 
taw. 

Manuscript, 10 11. 211 words, folio, in the li- 
brary of the Bureau of Ethnology. Collected 
in 1866. 

Rev. Allen Wright was a native Choctaw, 
with a little white blood, probably one-eighth or 
one-sixteenth. In his youth he lived some time 
in the family of the Rev. Cyrus Kingsbury. 
He had bsgun his education at a missionary 
day school, and continued it while with Mr. 
Kingsbury and afterwards at Spencer Acad- 
emy. From there he was sent to a college in 
Delaware, but afterwards went to Union Col. 
lege, Schenectady, N. T., where he graduated. 
Then he took a full course in Union Theologi. 
cal Seminary, New York City, and was ordained 
by the Indian Presbytery in 1856. About that 



"Wright (Allen) — Continued. 

time he was made national treasurer. At the 
close of the war he was appointed one of the 
delegation to visit Washington to negotiate a 
new treaty with the United States government. 
While absent he was elected principal chief. 
He died in 1885, aged somewhat over sixty. He 
was a man of large intelligence, good mind, an 
excellent preacher, and a very faithful laborer 
for the good of his people. No other Choctaw 
that I ever met could give such clear explana- 
tions of difficult points in the grammar of the 
Choctaw. —Edwards. 

[Wright {Mrs. Hariet Bunce) and Dukes 
(J.) J Scripture biography : | From | 
Adam to Noah. | By ; Rev. T. H. Gal- 
laudet. 1 Abridged, and translated into 
the Choctaw | language, i Alam atok ^ 
isht ia hosh Noah atok a ont vhli isht 
anumpa. Rev. T. H. Gallaudet | rt ho- 
lissochi tok rt, ik falaiot toshowrt 
Chahta anumpa toba hoke. | 

Published by the ! American Tract 
• Society, | 150 Nassau-st. New-York. 
[1851.] 

Title verso printer 1 1. text in Choctaw pp. 
3-68, 18°. 

Copies seen: American Board of Commis- 
sioners, Powell. 

[ ] Scripture biography: | The 

history of Abraham. ) By \ Rev. T. H. 
Gallaudet. \ Abridged, and translated 
into the Choctaw I language. I Eblaham 
isht anumpa i Rev. T. H. Gallaudet. | 
Ft holissochi tok vt, ik falaiot tosho- 
wvt Chahta | anumpa toba hoke. 1 

Published by the | American Tract 
Society, 1 150 Nassau- street, New-York. 
[1851.] 

Title verso blank 1 1. contenta verso blank 1 
1. text in Choctaw pp. 5-88, 18°. 

Copies seen: American Board of Commis- 
sioners, Powell. 

[ ] Scripture biography. | The 

history of Joseph. | By | Rev. T, H. 
Gallaudet. | Abridged, and translated 
into the Choctaw | language. | Chosef 
isht anumpa. 1 Rev. T. H. Gallaudet | vt 
holissochi tok vt, ik falaiot toshowvt 
Chahta j anumpa toba hoke. | 

Published by the | American Tract 
Society, | 150 Nassau-street, New-York. 
[1851.] 

Title verso blank 1 1. contents verso blank 1 
1. text in Choctaw pp. 5-42, 18°. 

Copies seen : American Board of Commis- 
sioners, Lowell. 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



103 



'Wright {Mrs, H. B.) and Dukes (J.) — 
Continued. 

[ ] Scripture biography. The 

history of Moses. | By Rev. T. H. Gal- 
laadet. j Abridged, and translated into 
the Choctaw | language. | Moses isht 
anumpa. j Rev. T. H. Gallaudet. | Vt 
holissochi tok rt, ik falaiot toshowvt 
Chahta | anumpa toba hoke. | 

Published by the j American Tract 
Society, I 150 Nassau-street, New- York. 
[1851.] 

Title vei'so printer 1 1. contents 2 11. text pp. 
7-207, 18°. In cloth binding, lettered on the 
back as a second volume : Moses isht anumpa 
Hol.n. 



Wright (Mrs, H. B.) and Dukes (J.)— 
Continued. 

Oopist teen : American Board of Commission* 
ers, American Tract Society, Eames. 

Mrs. Harriet Bnnoe Wright, daughter of Cap- 
tain Bunce, was born at Wethersfield, Conn. 
At the age of seven the family removed to 
Charleston, S. C. The date of her marriage to 
Mr. Alfred Wright I know not, probably 
about 1823. She was tall, straight, of com- 
manding presence, with superior intellectual 
powers, and good culture, fitted to grace any 
society. She was a gieat help to her husband, 
and copied his manuscript for the press. I have 
heard that she copied the Xew Testament 
three times. She died in Florida during or soon 
after the war. — Edwarda. 



Y. 



Tale: This word following a title or within 
parentheses after a note indicates that a copy 
of the work referred to has been seen by the 
compiler in the library of Tale College, New 
Haven, Conn. 

[Tankiewitch (Feodor de Miriewo).] 
CpaBnHTejbHutt (Mosapi* { Bctxi. | hsukobi* h 
Hapt^ltt, ; no a3(JyiR0My uopn^Ky \ pacnojo- 
»eHBUH. I HacTh nepeBafl | [-^eTBeprafl] A-4 

[c-e]. 

Bt. CanKTnerepOyprfi, 1790[-1791]. 

Translation: Comparative | dictibnary | of 
aU I languages and dialects, | in alphabetical 
order | arranged. | Part first [-fourth]. A-D 
[S-Thj. I At St Petersburg. 

4 vols. 4°. 

Choctaw words passim. 

"Pallas having published, in 1786 and 1789, 
the first part of the Yocabularium Catharinseum 
<a comparative vocabulary of 286 words in the 
languages of Europe and Asia), the material 
contained therein was published in the above 
edition in another form, and words of Amer- 
ican languages added. The book did not come 
up to the expectations of the government, and 
was therefore not published, so that but few 
copies of it can be found."— l/wdemflr. 

Copies seen : British Museum. 

Toung (F. B.) Notices of the Chactaw 
or Ohoktah tribe of North American In- 
dians. By F. B. Young, Esq. 



Toung (F. B.) — Continued. 

In Edinburgh Jour, of Nat. and Geog. Sci. 
vol. 2, pp. 13-17, Edinburgh, 1830, 8°. (Bureau 
of Ethnology.) 

Choctaw numerals 1-10, and a vocabulary of 
21 words, Choctaw and English, pp. 16-17. 

Youth's. The youth's | companion: | A 
juvenile monthly Magazine published, 
for i the benefit of the Puget Sound 
Catholic Indian | Missions; and set to 
type, printed and in part | written by 
the pupils of the Tulalip, Wash. Ty. | 
Indian Industrial Boarding Schools, 
under | the control of the Sisters of 
Charity. | Approved by the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop [.^gidius, of Nesqualy]. | Vol. 
I. May, 1881. No. l[-Vol. V. May, 
1886. No. 60]. 

[Tulalip Indian Reservation, Snoho- 
mish Co. W. T.] 

Edited by Rev. J. B. Boulet. Instead of 
being paged continuously, continued articles 
have a separate pagination dividing the regu- 
lar numbering. For instance, in no. 1, pp. 
11-14 (Lives of the saints) are numbered 1-4, 
and the arti cle is continued in no. 2 on pp. &-8, 
taking the place of 41-44 of the regular num- 
bering. Discontinued after May, 1886, on ac- 
count of the protracted illness of the editor. 

Lord's prayer in Choctaw, p. 87. 

Copies seen : Congress, Powell, Shea. 

Tvinmak bano See Edwards (J.) 



CHRONOLOGIC INDEX. 



1562? 


Moskoki 








Vocabulary 


Laadonnidre (R.) 


* 1715 


Creek, Choctaw 




Lord's prayer 


Chamberlayne (J.) and Wil- 
kins (D.) 


1T48 


Choctaw, Creek 




Vocabalaries 


Fritz < J. F. ) and Schultze ( B. ) 


1T75 


ChocUw, Chikasaw, 
koki 


Mas. 


Names and namerals 


Adair (J.) 


1T88' 


Choctaw 




Vocabulary 


Bourgeois < ). 


1790 


Choctaw 




Vocabulary 


Castiglioni (L.) 


1790? 


Choctaw 




Vocabulary 


Hawkins (B.) 


1790? 


Various 




Vocabulary 


Hawkins (B.) 


1790-1791 


Choctaw 




Words 


Tankiewitch (F. M.) 


1791 


Mnskoki 




(General discussion 


Bartram (W.) 


1792 


Creek 




Vocabulary 


Pope (J.) 


1792 . 


Maskoki 




General discussion 


Bartram (W.) 


1793 


Choctaw 




Vocabulary 


Castiglioni (L.) 


1793 


Maskoki 




(General discassion 


Bartram (W.) 


1793 


Maskoki 




General discassion 


Bartram (W.) 


1794 


Maskoki 




General discassion 


Bartram (W.) 


1794 


(?) 




(?) 


Bartram (W), note. 


1794-1797 


(?) 




(?) 


Bartram (W.), note. 


1797 


Maskoki, Chikasaw, 
taw 

(?) 


Choc- 


Vocabalaries 


Barton (B. S.) 


1797 




(?) 


Bartram (W.), note. 


179$ 


Maskoki, Chikasaw, 

taw 
Maskoki 


Choc- 


Vocabularies 


Barton (B. S.) 


1799 




General discussion 


Bartram (W.), note. 


ISOO 


Chikasaw 




Vocabulary 


Smith (D.) 


1801 


Maskoki 




General discussion 


Bartram (W.) 


1804 


Choctaw 




Vocabulary and namerals 


Holmes (A.) 


1804 


Choctaw 




Vocabulary and numerals 


Holmes (A.) 


1806? 


Maskoki 




Geographic names 


Muskoki. 


1806-1817 


Chikasaw, Choctaw, 


Mas- 


Gramraatic comments and 


ro- Adelung (J. C.) and Vater (J. 




koki 




cabularies 


S.) 


1808-1811 Chikasaw 




Words 


Loudon (A.) 


1810 


Chikasaw, Choctaw 




Words 


Vater (J. S.) 


1811 


(?) 




(?) 


Barton (B. S.), note. . 


1814 


Chikasaw, Choctaw, 


Creek 


General discassion 


Schermerhorn (J. F.) 


1815 


Chikasaw, Choctaw, 


Mas- 


Bibliographic 


Vater (J. S.) 


w 


koki 








1816 


Creek 




Vocabulary 


Boudinot (B.) 


1819 


Creek 




Vocabulary 


Sanford (E.) 


1820 


Chikasaw, Choctaw, 


Creek 


Namerals 


Jar vis (S. F.) 


1820? 


Creek 




Vocabulary 


Ho Witt (E.) 


1821 


Chikasaw, Choctaw, 


Creek 


Numerals 


Jarvis (S. F.) 


1822 


Seminole 




Vocabulary 


Notices. 


1822-1825 


Choctaw 




Words 


Lincecum (G.) 


1825 


Choctaw 




Spelling-book 


Wright (A.) and Byington 
(C.) 


1825 


Creek 




Proper names 


Indian treaties. 


1826 


Maskoki, Choctaw 




Vocabularies 


Balbi(A.) 


1826-1831 


(?) 




(?) 


Chateaubriand (F. A. de), 
note. 


1827 


Choctaw 




Catechism 


Wright (Alfred), note. 
105 



106 



CHRONOLOGIC INDEX TO THE 



1827 


Choctaw 


Scripture passages 


1827 


Choctaw 


Second-book 


1827 


Choctaw 


Speller and reader 


1827 


Choctaw 


Spelling-book 


1827 


Choctaw 


Tract 


1827 


Choctaw 


Tract 


1828 


Creek 


Comparisons 


1828 


Creek 


Comparisons 


1829 


Choctaw 


Hymn-book 


1830 


Choctaw 


Hymn-book 


1830 


Choctaw 


Speller and reader 


1830 


Choctaw 


Vocabulary 


1830 


Maskoki, Choctaw, 
saw 


Chika- Numerals 


1830 


Muakoki, Choctaw, 
saw 


Chika- Numerals 


1831 


Choctaw 


Hymn-book 


1831 


Choctaw 


Instructor 


1831 


Choctaw 


Luke, John, Mark 


1831 


Choctaw 


Teacher 


1831 


Choctaw 


Tract 


1831 


Choctaw 


Tract 


1833 


Choctaw 


Hymn-book 


1833? 


Choctaw 


Scripture passages 


1884 


Choctaw 


Tract 


1834 


Creek 


Proper names 


1834 


Maskoki 


Assistant 


1835 


Choctaw 


Arithmetic 


1835 


Choctaw 


Catechism 


1835 


Choctaw 


Hymn-book 


1835 


Choctaw 


Speller and reader 


1835 


Choctaw 


Tract 


1835 


Choctaw 


Tract 


'1835 


Choctaw 


Tract 


1835 


Choctaw 


Words 


1835 


Creek 


Words 


1835 


Muskoki 


Child's book 


1835 


Maskoki 


John, Matthew, Mark 


1835 


Muskoki 


Sermon 


1835 


Muskoki 


Vocabulary 


1836 


Chikasaw, Muskoki 


Words 


1836 


Choctaw 


Almanac 


1836 


Choctaw 


Almanac 


1836 


Choctaw 


'• Friend " 


1836 


Choctaw 


Numerals 


1836 


Choctaw 


Header 


1836 


Choctaw 


Tract 


1836 


Muskoki 


Teacher 


1836 


Seminole 


Proper names 


1836 


Seminole 


Vocabulary 



and Byington. 
and Byington 
and Byington 
and Byington 



Wright (A.) 

(C.) 
Wright (A.) 

(C.) 
Wright (A.) 

(C), note. 
Wright (A.) 

(C.) 
Williams (L. S.), note. 
Williams (L. S.), note. 
Chateaubriand (F. A. de). 
Chateaubriand (F. A. de). 
Wright (A.) and Byington 
- (C.) 
Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 
Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 
Young (F. B.) 
James (£.) 

James (E.) 

Wright (A) and Byington 

(C), note. 
Wright (A.) and Williams 

(L.S.) 
Wright (Alfred). 
Wright (A.) and Williams 

(L.S.) 
Dukes (J ) 

Williams (L.S.), note. 
Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 
Talley (A.) 
Williams (L.S.) 
Correspondence. 
Fleming (J.) 
Wright (Alfred). 
Wright (Alfred). 
Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C), note. 
Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 
Williams (L.S.) 
Williams (L.S.) 
Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 
Vose (H.) 
Newcomb (H.) 
Fleming (J.) 

Davis (J.) and Lykins (J.) 
Fleming (.j.) 
Chronicles. 
Mcintosh (J.) 
Byington (C.) 
Byington (C.) 
Wright (A) and Byington 

(C.) 
Drake (S. G.) 
Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 
Dukes (J.), note. 
Fleming (J.) 
Potter (W.) 
Sketch. 



MUSKHOQEAN LANGUAGES, 



107 



1836 


Various 


Various 


GaUatin (A.) 


1836-1840 Creek 


Comparisons 


Chateaubriand (F. A. de). 


1887 


Choctaw 


Numerals 


Drake (S. G.), note. 


1837 


Choctaw 


Numerals 


Drake (S.G.), note. 


1837 


Choctaw, Creek 


Bibliographic 


American Board. 


1837 


Creek, Muskoki, Choctaw 


Proper names 


Treaties. 


1837 


Creek, Muskoki, Choctaw 


Proper names 


Treaties. 


1847 


Muskoki, Choctaw, Seminole Proper names 


Catlin (G.) 


1837 


Seminole 


Vocabulary 


Wmiams(J.L.) 


183$ 


Choctaw 


Almanac 


Byington (C.) 


1838 


Creek 


Comparisons 


Chateaubriand (F. A. de). 


1838 


Muskoki, Choctaw, Seminole Proper names 


Catlin <G.) 


1839 


Choctaw 


Acts 


Byington (C.) 


1839 


Choctaw 


Bible stories 


Williams (L. S.), note. 


1839 


Choctaw 


Child's book 


Williams (L. S.), note. 


1839 


Choctaw 


Words 


Bouquette (D.) 


1840 


Choctaw 


Constitution 


Wright (Alfred). 


1840 


Choctaw 


John 1, 11, III 


Wright (Alfred), note. 


1840 


Choctaw 


Tract 


Williams (L.S.) 


1840 


Muskoki, Choctaw, Seminole Proper names 


Catlin (G.) 


1841 


Choctaw 


Church rules 


General. 


1841 


Choctaw 


Epistles 


Wright (Alfred). 


1841 


Choctaw 


John I, II, III 


Wright (Alfred). 


1841 


Choctaw 


Numerals 


Drake (S.G.) 


1842 


Choctaw 


Almanac 


Byington (C.) 


1842 


Choctaw 


Matthew 


Wright <A.) and Byington 

(C.) 


1843 


Chikasaw, Muskoki 


Words 


Mcintosh (J.) 


1843 


Choctaw 


Almanac 


Byington (C.) 


1843 


Choctaw 


James 


Wright (Alfred). 


1844 


Chikasaw, Muskoki 


Words 


Mclntotih (J.) 


1844 


Choctaw 


Hymn-book 


Wright (A.) and Bjington 
(C.) 


1844 


Choctaw 


Revelation 


Wright (A.) and Byington 
(C.) 


1844 


(?) 


(?) 


Mcintosh (J.), note. 


1844 


(?) 


(?). 


Mcintosh (J.), note. 


1845 


Choctaw^ 


Arithmetic 


Wright (Alfred), note. 


1845 


Choctaw 


Bible stories 


Williams (L. S.) 


1845 


Choctaw 


ChUd's book 


Williams (L.S.) 


1845 


Choctaw 


Four gospels 


Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 


1845 


Choctaw 


John 


Wright (A.) and Byington 
(C.) 


1845 


Choctaw 


Luke 


Wright (A.) and Byington 






^ 


(C.) 


1845 


Choctaw 


Mark 


Wright (A.) and Byington 
(C.) 


1845 


Choctaw 


Matthew 


Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 


1845 


Choctaw 


Tract 


Williams (L. S.) 


1845 


Choctaw 


Tract 


WUliam8(L.S.) 


1845 


Choctaw 


Tract 


Williams (L. S ) 


1845 


Choctaw 


Tract 


Williams (L. S.) 


1845 


Choctaw 


Tract 


WiUiams(L.S.) 


1845 


Choctaw 


Tract 


Williams (L. S.) 


1845 


Choctaw 


Tract 


WiUiam8(L.S.) 


1845 


Muskoki 


Hymn-book 


Loughridge (R.M.) 


1845 


Muskoki, Choctaw, Seminole Proper names 


Catlin (G.), not«. 


1845 


Muskoki, Choctaw, Seminole Proper names 


Catlin (G.), note. 


1846 


Choctaw 


Speller and reader 


Wright (A.) and Byington 
(€.), note. 


1846 


Creek 


Catechism 


Loughridge (R. M ) 


1846 


Musiioki, Choctaw 


Words. 


Latham (R.G.) 


1846 


Seminole, Creek 


Proper names 


Stanley (J. M.) 


1847 


Choctaw 


Catechism 


Shorter. 



108 



CHRONOLOGIC INDEX TO THE 



1847 


Muskoki 


Spelling-book 


Harrison (P.) and Aspberry 
(D.P) 


1847 


Various 


Bibliographic 


Vater(J.S.) 


1848 


Chikasaw. Muskoki 


Words 


Smet(P.J.de). 


1848 


Choctaw 


New Testament 


Wright (A.) and Bylogton 

(€.) 
Latham (R.G.) 


1848 


ChoctAw 


Words 


1848 


Choctaw, Chikasaw, Muskoki Names and numerals 


Adair (J.) 


1848 


Choctaw, Mnskoki 


Vocabulary 


Gallatin (A.) 


1848 


Creek, Semiuole 




Hawkins (B.) 


1848 


Muskoki 


Words 


Schomburgk (R. H.) 


1848 


Muskoki, Choctaw, Semiuole Proper names 


Cat! in (G.) 


1848 


Mnskoki, Choctaw, Seminole Proper names 


Catlin (G.) 


1848 


Muskoki, Choctaw, Seminole Proper names 


Catlin (G.) 


1848 


Muskoki, Choctaw, Seminole Proper names 


Catlin (G.) 


1848 


"^Muskoki, Choctaw, Seminole Proper names 


Catlin (G.), note. 


1848 


Muskoki, Choctaw, Seminole Proper names 


Cattin (G.), note. 


1848 


<?) 


(?) 


Hawkins (B.) 


1848-1851 Choctaw 


Bible verse and bibliographic 


Bagster (J.) 


1848-1851 Choctaw 


Bible verse and bibliographic 


Bagster (J.) 


1849 


Chikasaw. Mubkoki 


Words 


Mcintosh (J.) 


1849 


Choctaw 


Spelling-book 


Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 
Schoolcraft (H. R.) 


1849 


Choctaw, Creek 


, Bibliographic 


1849 


Creek 


VUlages 


DeBrahm(J.G.W.) 


1850? 


ChocUw 


Catechism 


Shorter. 


1850 


Choctaw 


Lord's prayer 


Fauvel-Gouraud (F.) 


1850 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


Words 


Schomburgk (R. H.) 


1850 


Creek 


Comparisons 


Chateaubriand (F. A. de). 


1850? 


Creek 


Comparisons 


Chateaubiiand (F. A.de). 


1850? 


Muskoki, Creek, Choctaw 


Proper names 


Catalogue. 


1851 


Choctaw 


Hymn-book 


Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 
Drake (S.G.) 


1851 


Choctaw 


Numerals 


1861 


Choctaw 


Scripture biography 


Wright (H. B.) and Dukes 

(J.) 
Wright (H. B.) and Dukes 

(J.) 
Wright "(H. B.) and Dukes 

(J.) 
Wright (H. B.) and Dukes 

(J.) 
Loughridge (R. M.) and 


1851 


Choctaw 


Scripture biography 


1851 


Choctaw 


Scripture biography 


1851 


Choctaw 


Scripture biography 


1851 


Muskoki 


Hymn-book 








Winslett (D.) 


1851 


Various 


Words 


Pickett (A. J.) 


1851 


(?) 


(?) 


Pickett (A. J.) note. 


1852 


Choctaw 


Definer 


Byington (C.) 


1852 


Choctaw 


Gospel questions 


Wright (Alfred). 


1852 


Choctaw 


Gospel questions 


Wright (Alfred). 


1852 


Choctaw 


Jushua, Judges, Ruth 


Wright (Alfred). 


1852 


Choctaw 


Numerals 


Drennen (J.) 


1852 


Choctaw 


Samuel i, ii, Kings I 


Wright (Alfred). 


1832 


Choctaw 


Spelling-book 


Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 
Casey (J. C.) 


1852 


Hitchiti 


Numerals 


1852 


Muskoki, Choctaw, Seminole Proper names 


Catlin (G.) 


1852 


Seminole, Creek, Chikasaw 


Proper names 


Stanley (J. M.) 


1853 


Apalachian 


Geographic names 


Schoolcraft (H. R.) 


1853 


Chikasaw, Muskoki 


Words 


Mcintosh (J.) note. 


1853 


Creek 


Words 


Bartram (W.) 


853-1854 


Muskhogean 


Names 


Schoolcraft (H. R.) 


1854 


Choctaw 


Hymn-book 


Wright (A.) and Byington 

(C.) 
Drake (S. G.) 


1854 


Choctaw 


Numerals 


1854 


Choctaw 


Words 


Soto (H. de). 


1854 


Choctaw, Creek 


Bibliographic 


Schoolcraft (H. R.) 



MU8KH0QEAN LANGUAGES. 



109 



1854 


Creek * 


Vocabulary 


Casey (J. C.) 


1854 


Muskoki 


Compound words 


Schoolcraft (H. K.) 


1855 


Choctaw 


Kings II 


Edwards (J.) 


1855 


Choctaw 


Lord's prayer 


Lord's. 


1865 


Choctaw 


Lord's prayer 


Shea (J. G.) 


1855 


Creek 


"Words 


Swan (C.) 


1855 


Muskoki 


Hymn-book 


Asbury (D. B.) 


1855 


Maskoki 


Matthew 


Loughridge (B. M.) 


1856 


Choctaw 


Bibliographic 


Triibner & Co. 


1856 


Choctaw 


Vocabulary 


Byington (C). 


1856 


Creek 


First reader 


Robertson (W. S.) and Wins- 
lett (D.) 


1867 


Chikasaw, Maskoki 


Words 


Mcintosh (J.) 


1867! 


Choctaw 


Treaty 


United States. 


1857 


Creek 


Comparisons 


Chateaubriand (F. A. de). 


1857 


(?) 


(?) 


Shea (J. G.), not«. 


1858 


Chikasaw, Maskoki 


Words 


Mcintosh (J.), note. 


1858 


Choctaw 


Hymn-book 


Wright (A.) and Byington 
(C.) 


1858 


Choctaw 


HjTnn-book 


Wright (A.) and Byington 
(C.) 


1858 


Creek 


Catechism 


Loughridge (R. M.) and Wins- 
lett (D.) 


1858 


Maskho^ean 


Bibliographic 


Ludewig (H. E.) 


18589 


Maskoki 


Tract • 


Robertson (W. S.) and others. 


1868 


<9) 


(?) 


Shea (J. G.) 


18599 


Apalachian 


Document 


Smith (B.) 


1859 


Chikasaw, Maskoki 


Words 


Mcintosh (J.), note. 


18599 


Choctaw 


Tract 


WiUiams (L. S.) 


1859 


Maskoki 


Hymn-book 


Loughridge (R. M.) and Wins- 
lett (D.) 


1859-1861 


(9) 


(t) 


Chateaubriand (F. A. de). 


1859-1887 


Choctaw 


Works 


Rouqnette (A.) 


i860 


Apalachian 


Text 


Smith (B.) 


1860 


Choctaw 


Bible verse 


Bagster (J.) 


1860 


Choptaw 


Numerals 


Drake (S. G.) 


1860 


Choctaw 


Vocabulary 


Domenech (E.H.D.) 


1860 


Creek, Choctaw 


Numerals 


Haldeman (S. S.) 


1860 


Maskoki 


Grammar 


(G.) 


1860 


Maskoki 


Hymn-book 


Buckuer (H. F.) and Herrod 

(G.) 


1860 


Maskoki 


John 


Buckner (H. F.) and Herrod 
(G.) 


1860 


Maskoki, Choctaw 


Words 


Latham (R. G.) 


1860-1889 


Creek 


Vocabulary 


Robertson (A. E. W.) 


1861 


Choctaw 


Bibliographic 


O'CaUaghan (E. B.) 


1861! 


Maskoki 


Verbal forms 


Pike (A.) 


18619 


Maskoki, Hitchiti 


Verbal forms 


• Pike (A.) 


18619 


Various 


Vocabularies 


Pike (A.) 


1862 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


Vocabularies 


Latham (R. G.) 


1868 


Choctaw 


Hymn 


Goode(W.H.) 


18659 


Choctaw 


Bible verse 


British 


18659 


Choctaw 


Bibliographic 


Byington (C.) 


18659 


Choctaw 


Dictionary 


Byington (C.) 


18659 


Choctaw 


Grammar 


Byington (C.) 


1865 


Choctaw 


Vocabulary 


Tomlin (J.) 


1865 


Creek 


Comparisons 


Chateaubriand (F. A. de). 


1866 


Chikasaw 


Vocabulary 


Gibbs (G.) 


1866 


Choctaw 


Vocabulary 


Wright (Allen). 


1866 


Hitchiti 


Vocabulary 


Gibbs (G.) 


1866 


Seminole, Mikasuki, Hitchiti Vocabularies 


Smith (B.) 


1867 


Choctaw 


Pentateuch 


Byington (C.) 


18679 


Choctaw 


Treaty 


Treaty. 


1867 


Choctaw, Creek, Hitchiti 


Geographic names 


Wheeler (C.H.) 


1867 


Choctaw, Maskoki 


Words 


Brinton(D.G.) 



110 



CHKONOLOGIC INDEX TO THE 



1867 


Creek 


First reader • 


Robertson (W. S.) and Wins- 
lett (D.) 


1867 


Creek 


Vocabulary 


Maskoki 


1867 


Maskhogeau 


BibUographio 


Leclerc (C.) 


1867 


Maskoki 


Matthew ^ 


Loughridge (R. M.) 


1868 


Choctaw 


Bible verse 


British. 


1868 


Maskhogean 


Proper names 


Rockwell (E. F.) 


1868 


Muskoki 


Constitution 


Perryman (S. W.) and Perry- 
man(L.C.) 


1868 


Mnskoki 


Hymn-book 


Loughridge (R.M.)and others. 


1868-1888 


Maskhogean 


Bibliographic 


Sabin (J.) 


18697 


Choctaw 


Tract 


Copeland (C. C.) 


1869 


Muakhogean 


Bibliographic 


Clarke (R.) & Co.. note. 


1870 


Choctaw 


Bibliographic 


Triibner & Co. 


1870 


Choctaw 


Charter 


Pomeroy (J. M.) 


1870 


ChocUw 


Charter 


Pomeroy (J. M.) 


1870 


Choctaw 


GramDiar 


Byington (C ) 


1870 


Choctaw 


Lord's prayer. 


Shea (J. G.) 


1870 


Choctaw 


Words 


Trumbull (J. H.) 


1870 


Creek 


First reader 


Robertsoii (W. S.) and Wins- 
lett (D.) 


1870 


Maskoki 


Grammatic treatise 


Brinton (D. G.) 


1870 


Maskoki 


Words 


Brinton (D. G.) 


1870 


Muskoki 


Words 


Brinton (D.G.) 


18T1 


Choctaw 


^ Grammar 


Byington (C.) 


1871 


Choctaw 


Joshua, Judges, Ruth 


Wright (Alfred). 


1871 


Choctaw 


Kings II 


Edwards (J.) 


1871 


Choctaw 


Relationships 


Ed wards( J. )and ByingtonfC.) 


1871 


Choctaw 


Samuel I, li, Kings I 


Wright (Alfred). 


1871 


Choctaw 


Words 


Trumbull (J. H.) 


1871 


Choctaw, Chikasaw 


Relationships 


Copeland (C. C.) 


1871 


Choctaw, Creek 


Vocabulary and relationshipa 


Morgan (L.H.) 


1871 


Creek 


Relationships 


Loughridge (B.M.) 


1871 


Creek 


Second reader 


Robertson (W. S.) and Wins- 
lett(D.) 


1871? 


Creek 


Tract 


Perryman (T. W.) and Rob- 
ertson (A.E. W.) 


1871 


Maskhogean 


Bibliographic 


Clarke (R.) & Co., note. 


1871 


Muskoki 


Grammatic treatise 


Brinton (D. G.) 


1871 


Muskoki 


Hymn-book 


Loughridge(R.M.)aDd others. 


1871 


Muskoki 


John 


Loughridge(R.M.)and others. 


1871 


Muskoki 


John 


Loughridge(R. M. ) and others. 


1871 


Muskoki, Choctaw, Seminole Proper names 


Catlin (G.) 


1872 


Choctaw 


Bible stories 


WiUiams (L. S.) 


1872 


Choctaw 


Bibliographic 


Triibner & Co. 


1872 


Choctaw 


Hymn-book 


Wright ( A. ) and Byington (C.) 


1872? 


Choctaw 


Spelling-book 


Wright (A.) and Byington (C.) 


1873? 


Chikasaw 


Constitution 


Wright (Allen). 


1873 


Creek 


Hymn 


Beadle (J. H.) 


1873 


Maskhogean 


Bibliographic 


Clarke (R.) & Co., note. 


1873 


Maskhogean 


Bibliographic 


Field (T. W.) 


1873 


Maskoki 


Grammatic comments 


Shea (J. G.) 


1873 


Muskoki, Seminole, Choctaw Words 


Brinton (D.G.) 


1873? 


Muskoki, Seminole, Choctaw TVords 


Brinton (D.G.) 


1873-1875 


Muskoki 


Periodical 


Our Monthl3'. 


1874 


Choctaw 


Bibliographic 


Steiger (E.) 


1874 


Creek 


Proper names 


Jackson ( W. H.) 


18T5? 


Chikasaw 


Vocabulary 


Robertson (A. E. W.) 


1875 


Muskhogean 


Bibliographic 


Clarke (R.) & Co., note. 


1875 


Muskhogean 


Bibliographic 


Field (T.W.) 


1875 


Muskoki 


John 


Loughridge (R.M.) and oth- 


1876 


Muskoki 


John I, II, ui 


ers. 
Robertson (W.S.) 


1875 


Muskoki 


Matthew 


Loughridge (R. M ) 


1875 


Various 


Numerals 


Trumbull (J. H.) 


1875 


Various 


Numerals 


Trumboll (J. H.) 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



Ill 



18T6? 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


Bible verse 


Bible Society. 


1876 


Muskhogean 


Bibliographic 


Clarke (R.) & Co , note. 


1876 


Muskoki 


Epistles 


Robertson (A. E. W.) 


1876-1887 


Muskoki, Choctaw 


Periodical 


Indian Journal. 


1877 


Creek 


Proper names 


Jackson (W.H) 


1877 


Creek, Choctaw, Chikasaw 


Gentes 


Morgan (L. H.) 


1877 


Maskhogean 


Bibliographic 


CUrke(R.)&Co., note. 


1877 


Muskoki 


Words 


Trumbull (J. H.) 


1877 


Seminole, Mikaeuki, HitchiU Vocabularies 


Smith (B.), note. 


1878 


Choctaw 


General discussion 


Forchhammer ( ). 


1878 


Choctaw 


Vocabulary 


Adam (L.) 


1878 


Choctaw 


Vocabulary 


Adam (L.) 


1878 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


Bibliographic 


Leclerc (C.) 


1878 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


Bibliographic 


Pick (B.) 


1878 


Creek 


Examples 


Duncan (D.) 


1878 


Creek 


Hymns *» 


Creek. 


1878 


Muskhogean 


Bibliographic 


Clarke (R.) 4& Co., note. 


1878 


Muskoki 


Article 


L»uid(J.H.) 


1878 


Muskoki 


Article 


Land (J. H.) 


1878 


Muskoki 


Article 


Robertson (A. E.W.) 


1878 


Muskoki 


Article 


Robertson (A. E. W.) 


1878 


Muskoki 


Article 


Robertson (A. E.W.) 


1878 


Muskoki 


Article 


Robertson (A. E. W.) 


1878 


Muskoki 


Bible lesson 


Sullivan (N.B.) 


1878-1879 


Choctaw 


Periodical • 


Star. 


1878-1886 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


Bibliographic 


Trumbull (J. H.) 


1879 


Choctaw 


Words 


Campbell (J.) 


1879 


Choctaw 


Words 


Campbell (J.) 


1879 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


Bible verse 


American Bible Society, note. 


1879 


Creek 


Adjectives 


Gatschet(A.S.) 


1879 


Creek 


General discussion 


Gatschet(A.S.) 


1879 


Hitchiti, Creek 


Words 


Gat«chet(A.S.) 


1879 


Muskhogean 


Bibliographic 


Clarke (R.) & Co., note. 


1879 


Muskoki 


Acta 


Robertson (A. E.W.) 


1879 


Muskoki 


Article 


Perryman (L. C.) 


1879 


Muskoki 


Article 


Perryman(L.C.) 


1879 


Muskoki 


Article 


Robertson ( A. E.W.) 


1880 


Choctew 


Geographic names 


Morgan (L.H.) 


1880 


Choctaw 


Hymn-book 


Robb (C.) 


1880 


Choctaw 


Lexicon 


Wright (AUen). 


1880 


Choctaw 


Prayer 


Folsom (I.) 


1880 


Choctaw, Creek 


Words and sentenccb 


Campbell (J.) 


1880 


Creek 


Catechism 


Loughridse (R. M.) and Wins- 
lett(D.) 


1880 


Creek 


Double consonants 


Longhridge (R. M.) 


1880 


Muskoki 


Article 


Palmer (W. A.) 


1880 


MuskoVi 


Bible verses 


Robertson (A. E.W.) 


1880 


Muskoki 


Hymn 


Robertson (A. E.W.) 


1880 


Muskoki 


Hymn 


Robertson (A. E. W.) 


1880 


Muskoki 


Letter 


Porter (J. S.) 


1880 


Muskoki 


Luke 


Robertson (A. E.W.) 


1880 


Muskoki 


Mark 


Robertson (A. E. W.) 


1880 


Muskoki 


Song book 


Robertson (A. E. W.) 


1880 


Muskoki 


Text 


Grayson (G. W.) 


1880 


Seminole, Mikasuki, Hitchiti Vocabularies 


Smith (B.), note. 


1881 


Choctaw 


General discussion 


Gatschet (A. S.) 


1881 


Creek 


Double consonants 


Robertson (A. E.W.) 


1881 


Creek 


Laws 


Perryman (L.C.) 


1881 


Creek, Choctaw 


Bibliographic 


Laurie (T.) 


1881 


Muskoki 


Article 


Perryman (L.C.) 


1881 


Muskoki 


Legend 


Grayson (G.W.) 


1881 


Muskoki 


Romans 


Robertson (A. E. W.) 


1881 


Muskoki 


Speech 


Robertson (A. E. W.) and Sul- 
Uvan (N. B.) 


1881 


Muskoki 


Speech 


Robertson (A. E. W.) and Sul- 
livan (N. B.) 



112 



CHRONOLOGIC INDEX TO THE 



1881-1886 


Choctaw 


1881-1887 


Maskhogean 


1882 


Choctaw 


1882 


Choctaw 


1882 


Choctaw. Muskoki 


1882 


Creek 


1882 


Creek 


1882 


Muskoki 


1882 


Seminole 


1883 


Choctaw, Chikasaw 


1883 


Choctaw, Chikasaw 


1883 


Creek 


1883 


Maskhogean 


1883 


Muskoki 


1883 


Muskoki, Choctaw 


1883 


Seminole 


1883-1884 


Seminole 


1883-1889 


Choctaw, Creek 


1884 


Choctaw 


1884 


Choctaw 


1884 


Choctaw 


1884 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


1884 . 


Creek 


1884 


Creek 


1884 


Muskoki 


1884 


Muskoki 


1884 


Muskoki, Choctaw 


1884-1887 


Muskhogean 


1884-1888 


Creek 


1884-1889 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


1885 


Alabama 


1886 


Choctaw 


1886 


Choctaw 


1885 


Choctaw 


1885 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


1885 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


1885 


Creek 


1885 


Creek 


1885 


Creek 


1885 


Creek 


1885 


Koassati 


1885 


Muskoki 


1885 


Muskoki 


1885 


Muskoki 


1885 


Muskoki 


1885 


Muskoki 


1885-1886 


Muskoki 


1885-1889 


Various 


1886 


Choctaw 


1886 


Choctaw 


1886 


Choctaw 


1886 


Choctaw 


1886? 


Creek 


1886 


Creek 


1886 


Creek 


1886 


Hitchiti 


1886 


Muskhogean 


1886 


Muskoki 


1886 


Muskoki 


1886 


Muskoki. Choctow.S 


1887 


Cnoctaw 



Lord's prayer 

Bibliographic 

Bibliographic 

Numerals 

Numerals 

Dictionary 

Grammar 

Geographic names 

Vocabulary 

Words 

Words 

Hymn 

Bibliographic 

Corinthians 

Bibliographic 

Vocabulary 

Lord's prayer 

Periodical 

Numerals 

Vocabulary 

Vocabulary 

Lord's prayer 

Hymn 

Hymn 

Advertisements 

Gospel songs 

Bibliographic 

Bibliographic 

Legend 

Periodical 

Vocabulary 

Periodical 

Kemarks 

Vocabulary 

Bible verse 

Bible verse 

Text 

Text 

Vocabulary 

Vocabulary 

Vocabulary 

Epistles 

Fable 

Galatians 

Psalms 

Vocabulary 

Genesis 

General discussion 

Book of Psalms 

Vocabulary 

Words 

Words 

Catechism 

Hymn 
Paradigm 
Vocabulary 
Bibliographic 
Epistles and Revelation 
Hebrews 
> Proper names 
Analogies 



Youth's. 

Leclerc (C.) 

Triibner & Co. 

Drake (S. G.) 

Miiller (F.) 

Loughridge (R. M.) 

Loughridge (R. M.) 

Gatschet (A. S.) 

Le Baron (J. F 

Hale (H.) 

Hale (H.) 

Ferryman (T. W.) and Rob- 
ertson (A.E.W.) 

Clarke (R.) & Co. 

Robertson (A. E. W.) 

Brinton (D.G.) 

Munroe (C. K.) 

Connelly (J. M.) 

Our Brother. 

Emerson (E. R.) 

Campbell (J.) 

Campbell (J.) 

Bergholtz (G. F.) 

Ferryman (T. W.) and Rob- 
ei-tson (A.E.W.) 

Robertson (A. E. W.) 

Muskoki. 

Robert8on( A.E. W.), note. 

Brinton (D.G.) 

Pott (A. F.) 

Gatschet (A. S.) 

Indian Missionary. 

Gatschet (A. S.) 

Indian Champion. 

Ten Kate (H. F. C.) 

Hudson (P.) 

American Bible Society. 

American Bible Society, note. 

Loughridge (R. M.) and 
others. 

Loughridge (R. M.) and 
others. 

Gatschet (A. S.) 

Grayson (G.W.) 

Gatschet (A. S.) 

Robertson (A.E.W.) 

Robertson (A.. E.W.) 

Robertson (A. E. W.) 

Ramsay (J. R.) 

Gatschet (A. S.) 

Ramsay (J. R.) 

Featherman (A.) 

Edwards (J.) 

Gatschet (A. S.) 

Campbell (J.) 

Campbell (J.) 

Loughridge (R. M.) aud Wins- 
lett(D.) 

Robertson (A. E.W.^ 

Gatschet (A. S.) 

Gatschet (A. S.) 

Clarke (R.) & Co. 

Robertson (A.E.W.) 

Robertson (A.E.W.) 

Catlin (G.) 

Edwards (J.) 



MUSKHOGEAN LANGUAGES. 



113 



1887 


Cboctaw 


1887 


Choctftw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


ChoctaV 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Choctow 


1887 


Choctaw 


1887 


Creek 


1887 


Hitchiti 


1887 


Muskhogean 


1887 


Muskoki 


1887 


Muakoki 


1887 


Muakoki 


1887 


Muskoki 


1887 


Muskoki 


1887 


Muskoki 


1887 


Muskoki 


1887 


Muskoki 


1887 • 


Muskoki 


1887 


Muskoki 



1887 Semioole 

1887 Seminole 

1887-1888 Muskoki 



1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
3888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 
1888 



Cliikasaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
Choctaw 
MUSK 8 



Article 

Article 

Article 

Article 

Article 

Article 

Bible Terses 

Bible verses 

Bible verses 

General discussion 

Grammar 

Letter 

Letter 

Letter 

Letter 

Lord's prayer 

Prayer 

Scripture verses 

Scripture verses 

Sermon 

Tract 

Methodist discipline 

Text and glossary 

Bibliographic 

Article 

Glossary 

Hymn 

Hymn 

Hymn-book 

Letter 

Methodist discipline 
Methodist discipline 
Methodist discipline 
New Testament 

Vocabulary 

Vocabulary 

Catechism 

Words 

Advertisement 

Article 

Article 

Article 

Article 

Article 

Articles 

Articles 

Articles 

Articles 

Articles 

Ar'ticles 

Articles 

Article 

Bible verses 

Bible verses 

Graramatic comments 

Grammatic comments 

Hymns 

Letter 

Letter 

Letter 

Letter 

Letter 

Letter 

Letter 



MoEinney (T.) 

Olassechubbee. 

Robb (C.) 

Robb (C.) 

Robb (C.) 

Kobb (C.) 

Baker (B.) 

Dickerson (J. H.) 

Dickerson (J. H.) 

Edwards (J.) 

Edwards (J.) 

Adam (W.) 

Baker (B.) 

Baker (B.) 

Hancock (S.) 

Folwm (I.) 

Baker (B ) 

Colbert (Q.) 

Colbert (G.) 

Baker (B.) 

Murrow (J. S.) 

Barnwell (D.) 

Gatschet(A. S.) 

Clarke (R.) & Co., note. 

Mekko (C.) 

Bobertson (A.E. W.) 

Pitchlynn(P.P.) 

Pitchlynn (P. P.) 

Harrison (P.) and Aspberry 

(D.P.) 
Smith (W.) 
Berryhill (D. L.) 
Berry hi 11 (D. L.) 
Berryhill (D.L.). note. 
Robertson (A. E. W.) and 

others. 
MacCauley (C.) 
MacCauley (C.) 
Smith (G. G.) 
Loudon (A.) 
Lawrence (J. B.) 
Allen (J.) 
Baker (B.) 
Ittihapishi. 
James (A. B.) 
Murrow (K. L.) 
Olassechubbee. 
Olassechubbee. 
Olassechubbee. 
Olassechubbee. 
Olassechubbee. 
Olassechubbee. 
Olassechubbee. 
Robb (C.) 
Colbert (H.) 
Edwards (J.) 
Grasserie (R. de la). 
Grasserie (R.de la). 
James (A.. B.) 
Armby (C.) 
Armby (C.) 
Baker (B.) 
Chariy (L ) 
Cobb (L. W.) 
Johnson (W.) 
Jones (C. A.) 



114 



CHRONOLOGIC INDEX. 



1888 


Choctaw . 


Letter 


Kampilubbee. 


1888 


Choctaw 


Letter 


Kampilubbee. 


1888 


Choctaw 


Tract 


Edwards (J.) 


1888 


Choctaw 


Vocabulary 


Chamberlain (A. F.) 


1888 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


Bibliographic 


Pick (B.) 


1888 


Creek 


Hymn 


Berryhill (D. L.) 


1888 


Creek 


Hymn 


BerryhUl (D. L.) 


1888 


Creek 


Hymn 


Robertson (A. E. W.> 


• 1888 


Creek 


Hymn 


Eobertson (A. E. W.> 


1888 


Creek 


Hymn 


Robertson (A. E. W.> 


1888 


Creek 


Vocabulary 


Pope (J.), note. 


1888 


Creek, Hitchiti 


legend 


GatBchet (A. S.) 


1888 


Muskoki 


Article 


Martin (H. A.) 


1888 


Muskoki 


Article 


Martin (H. A.) 


1888 


Muskoki 


Article 


Martin (H. A.) 


1888 


Muskoki 


Article 


Mekko (C.) 


1888 


Muskoki 


Article 


Methodist. 


1888 


Muskoki 


ArUcle 


Setekapake. 


1888 


Muskoki, Choctaw, SSeminole Proper names 


Catlin (G.) 


1888 


Seminole 


Vocabulary 


MacCauley (C.) 


1888 


Seminole 


Words 


Hoxie (W.) 


1888 


Various 


Various 


Haines (E.M.) 


1888-1889 


Choctaw, Creek 


Periodical 


Muskogee Phoenix. 


1889 


Chikasaw 


Vocabulary and grammatic 
comments 


Gatschet(A.S.) 


1889 


Choctaw 


Articles 


Baker (B.) 


1889 


Choctaw 


Article 


Olassecbubbee. 


1889 


Choctaw 


Bible verses 


Robb (C.) 


1889 


Choctaw 


Letter and articles 


Baker (B.), note. 


1889 


Choctaw, Muskoki 


Bible verse 


American Bible Society. 


1889? 


Muskoki 


Affinities 


Chamberlain (A. F.) 


1889 


Muskoki 


Article 


Martin (H. A.) 


1889 


Muskoki 


Article 


Martin (H. A.) 


1889 


Musk6ki 


Article 


Martin (H. A.) 


1889 


Muskoki 


Hymn-book 


Loughridge (R. M.) f 
WiDslett (D.) 


1889 


Muskoki 


Letter 


Smith (J.) 


1889 


Muskoki 


Methodist discipline 


Berryhill (D.L.) 


1889 


Muskoki 


Text 


Harjo (H.M.) 


1889 


Muskoki 


Treaty 


Harjo(H.M.) 


1889 


Seminole 


.Vocabulary 


Wilson (E. F.) 


N.d. 


Apalachi 


Documents 


Apalachi 


N.d. 


Choctaw 


Tract ^ 


Williams {L.S.) 


N.d. 


Choctaw 


. Tract 


Williams (L. S.) 


N.d. 


Choctaw 


Tract 


Williams (L.S.) 


N.d. 


Choctaw 


Vocabulary 


Choctaw. 


N.d. 


Choctaw 


Vocabulary 


Choctaw. 


N.d. 


Choctaw 


Vocabulary 


Pitchlynn (P. P.) 


N.d. 


Choctaw, Seminole 


Proper names 


Indian. 


N.d. 


Creek 


Hymn 


Beadle (J. H.), note. 


N.d. 


Muskoki 


General discussion 


Bartram (W.).note. 


N.d. 


Muskoki 


Hymn 


Muskoki. 


N.d. 


Muskoki 


Vocabulary 


Muskoki. 


N.d. 


Muskoki, Hitchiti 


Vocabulary 


Gallatin (A.) 


N.d. 


Muskoki, Hitchiti 


Words 


Fitch (A.) 


N.d. 


Seminole 


Vocabulary 


Casey (J. C.) and Wald 
( ). 



SMITHSONIAN INS'J'ITUTION 

BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY: J. W. POWELL, DIRECTOR 

ii. 



THE 



CIRCDUR, SQUARE, AND OCTAGONAL 



EARTHWORKS OF OHIO 



BY 



CYRUS THOMAS 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1889 



\ 



^•y.7AAJu<:^.> r^ .-6 <r,-» »/'> . ^^* 

V 



LIBRARY OF THE 
MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 




THIS BOOK IS DEPOSITED TEMPORARILY 
IN THE LIBRARY OF THE 

LIBRAfiY OF THE 
fEABODY MUSEUM 




, < 



\ 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

Object of the paper 7 

Numbers and measurements in ^^ Ancient Monuments" .' 7 

Liberty Township works .. , 10 

Newark works 12 

Seal Township works 14 

Resurvey of the Ohio inclosures 15 

Observatory. Circle, Newark 15 

Octagon, Newark 17 

Square, Newark 18 

Fair-ground Circle, Newark 19 

Circle of the High Bank works 20 

Octagon of the High Bank works 22 

Hopeton works 23 

Liberty Township works 25 

Banm works 26 

*' Pyramidal Mound," Baum works 27 

Remarks 32 

3 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



^ Page- 

PiATE I. Copy of plate xxv, Ancient Monuments (Newark works) 10 

^11. Fair-ground Circle, Newark, according to resurvey 12 

>4ll. Observatory Circle, Newark, according to resurvey 14 

YIV. Octagon, Newark, according to resurvey 16 

VV. Square, Newark, according to resurvey 18 

^VI. Circle at the High Bank, according to resurvey 20 

A^II. Octagon at the High Bank, according to resurvey 22 

*TIII. Square of the Hopeton works, according to resurvey 24 

V IX . Circle of the Hopeton works, according to resurvey 26 

•6c. Square, Liberty Township works, according to resurvey 28 

>/^XI. Square of the Baum works, according to resurvey 30 

Fig. 1. Copy of "Supplementary plan," plate xx, Ancient Monuments ... 9 

2. Small Circle, Liberty Township works 11 

3. A copy of fig. No. 1, plate xxi, Ancient Monuments 28 

4. Sections (A and B) of Pyramidal Mound, Baum works 29 

-5. Bon« from Pyramidal Mound, showing knife-cuts . 31 



r 



THE CIRCULAR, SQUARE, AND OCTAGONAL EARTH- 
WORKS OF OHIO. 



By Cyeus Thomas. 



OBJECT OF THE PAPER. 

The objeet ia view in submitting this paper is to give a summary 
of the results of a recent survey, by the Mound Exploring Division 
of the Bureau, of the more noted circular, square, and octagonal works 
of central and southern Ohio, and incidentally to call attention to some 
errors in the ''Ancient Monuments" of Squier and Davis in regard to 
them. As most of the errors to be noted are based on internal evi- 
dence contained in the Ancient Monuments, reference will first be made 
to them, after which the Bureau surveys of the same works will be 
given. 

NUMBERS AND MEASUREMENTS IN "ANCIENT MONUMENTS.'' 

Of the seventy-eight different works figured in chapters 1 and 2 of 
their memoir, relating to "Works of Defense" and " Sacred Inclosures," 
which include all the groups the authors claim to have examined per- 
sonally, it appears that Squier and Davis surveyed but twenty-six, or 
one-third. The descriptions and surveys by Col. Whittlesey and Mr. 
McBride were furnished to them in manuscript, and appear in print 
for the first time in Ancient Monuments. Our re-examination has 
been limited to the still existing works surveyed by them and Col. 
Whittlesey, which contain circles, squares, or octagons. 

So far as a comparison on the ground has been made (which com- 
prises nearly all the works surveyed by them and Col. Whittlesey of 
the character mentioned, not obliterated) their figures appear, to the 
eye, generally to be correctly drawn, and in this fact lies the chief value 
of their work, as their descriptions are brief and usually void of minute 
details. 

The lack of these details, the fact that their measurements are in 
most cases given in round numbers, and their omission to state whether 
these measurements were taken from the middle, the inside, or the out- 



'8 GEOMETRICAL EARTHWORKS OF OHIO, 

side of the walls, rendered it necessary to make a resurvey in order to 
substitute a critical comparison of the works, one with another, as to 
form and size. This disregard of details and the failure to give a copy 
of their *^ field-notes " in any instance (the supposed exception on page 
57 will be noticed hereafter) are somewhat surprising in view of the claim 
made of the accuracy of their surveys, and the following passage in the 
preface to their memoir : 

At the outset, as indispensable to independent judgment, all preconceived notions 
were abandoned and the work of research commenced de novo, as if nothing had 
been known or said concerning the remains to which attention was directed ; * * 
care was exercised to note down on the spot every fact which was thought to be 
ofvalueinthe solution of the problems of the origin and purposes of the remains 
under notice, and particular attention was bestowed in observing the dependencies 
•of the position, structure, and contents of the various works in respect to each other 
And the general features of the country. Indeed no exertion was spared to insure 
•entire accuracy, and the compass, line, and rule were alone relied upon in all matters 
where an approximate estimate might lead to erroneous conclusions. The ancient 
inclosures and groups of works personally examined or surveyed are upwards of one 
hundred in number. 

It is certainly strange, in view of this statement, to find all their 
measurements of lines and areas given in such round numbers as 250, 
500, 800, 900, 1,000, 1,050, and 1,080 feet, and 15, 30, and 50 acres ; and 
iiot to find in any instance (except one which will be noticed further 
on) any statement as to where the survey commenced, how it was con- 
-ducted, or what were the courses and distances run in making it. 

As is shown hereafter some of the figures among these monuments 
approach very closely to geometrical regularity, in fact present some- 
what difficult puzzles to those who claim that they were built by In- 
dians; yet these are few, and. pertain to a limited locality and to what 
may be classified as one type of works. However, the exact regularity 
in form and ^'coincidence in size,'' claimiBd by Messrs. Squier and 
Davis, applies only to some two or three circles and two or three 
squares, while some of those of which they make special mention and 
which they rely upon as furnishing evidence of the truth of their as- 
sertions in this respect, and claim to have carefully surveyed in person, 
^not only fail to make good their claim, but prove exactly the opposite. 

Turning to pi. xx, representing the ancient works in Liberty Town- 
iship, Ross County, we find, in a " supplementary plan A," a diagram 
showing the method of surveying circles, of which an explanation is 
^iven in a foot-note on page 57. In this note the authors say : 

To put at once all skepticism at rest which might otherwise arise as to the regu- 
larity of these works, it should be stated that they were all carefully surveyed by 
the authors in person. Of course no difficulty existed iu determining the perfect 
regularity of the squares. The method of procedure, in respect to the circles, was 
^s follows: Flags were raised at regular and convenient intervals, upon the embank- 
^ments, representing stations. The compass was then placed alternately at these 
stations, and the bearing of the flag next beyond ascertained. 

If the angles thus determined proved to be coincident, the regularity of the work 
was placed beyond doubt. The supplementary plan A indicates the method of sur- 



MEASUREMENTS OF SQUIER AND DAVIS. 



T^ey, the "Field Book" of which, the circle beiug 3,600 feet in circumference, and 
the stations 300 feet apart, is as follows : 



Station. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Station. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


1 i. 


o 

N.75E 

N.45E 

N. 15E. ... 
N. 15 W.... 
N.45 W... 
N.75 W.... 


Feet j 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 


7 . . 


o 

S. 75W 

S.45W 

S. 15 W 

S. 15E 

S.45E 

S. 75B 


Feet 
300 


2 


8 

9 


300 


;3 


300 


4 


10 

11 


300 


5 


3(0 


6 


12 


300 









That the whole thing may be laid before the reader, we insert here 
an exact copy of their " supplementary plan A." (See Fig. 1). 

As the authors are describing the Liberty Township works the reader 
will naturally infer that this note and supplementary plan have some 
reference to them. This, however, is a mistake, as the circumference 





1 SUPPltMtNTARY PLAN. ; 


r 





Fig. 1. Copy of " Sopplementary Plan," pi. xx, Ancient Monuments. 

^f the smaller circle is 1,000* feet less than that of the supplementary 
plan, and that of the larger one, 1,800 feet more. Nor does it refer 
to any ancient work figured or mentioned in their memoir. 

It is therefore disappointing, after the positive assurance in this foot- 
note of accuracy in the "surveys,'' and reference to a "Field Book," 
to find that the authors give as an illustration of their methods a 
purely imaginary circle, representing no survey by them, as there is no 
circular inclosure of the dimensions given, either figured or mentioned in 
their entire memoir. A single glance at the " Field Book " is, of itself, 
sufficient to convince any one who has surveyed any of these ancient 
works, or who has examined them carefully, that this is simply a hypo- 
vthetical illustration. In the first place a chord which will divide the 



10 GEOMETRICAL EARTHWORKS OF OHIO. 

• 

circumference into equal parts can be found only by first ascertaining 
the circumference ; in the second place it is not possible, even with the 
utmost care and best instruments, that the angles should be precisely 
the same and the steps exactly equal throughout, where the top of the 
circular wall is from 4 to p feet wide. 

It was probably the intention of the authors that this should be taken 
as a hypothetical illustration. But why give an imaginary "Field 
Book '' and example when they could have referred to any one of their 
own surveys ? Why do they fail to give a single illustration from their 
actual work if they placed the full confidence in it which their words 
imply ? Not only is this disappointing to the student of archaeology, 
but the illustration of their methods is not calculated to inspire confi- 
dence in the accuracy of their surveys. It is evident from the language 
of the note and the supplementary plan that the "300 feet'' refers to the 
chords and not to the arcs. As it is not presumable they had a chain or 
measuring line SOD feet long, the chord would have to be measured by 
steps, a task which, as any surveyor or mathematician knows, is far 
more difficult to accomplish than any work our authors were likely to un- 
dertake. It is therefore apparent that they have given an illustration 
which is impracticable and which is not drawn from their own work. 

Moreover, the doubts which these facts raise in our minds are not al- 
layed by a resurvey of the Liberty Township works, in connection with 
which the note and supplementary plan referred to are given. 

LIBERTY TOWNSHIP WORKS. 

For example, the smaller of the two prominent circles of the Liberty 
Township group, shown on pi. xx, to which reference has just been 
made and which they represent as a true circle, with a diameter of 800 
feet (certainly a round number where great accuracy is claimed), is in 
fact an irregular ellipse of the form shown in Fig. 2. The longer di- 
ameter, measuring to the middle of the wall, as ascertained by the sur- 
vey, is 866 feet, and the shorter 748 feet, the difference between the 
tw o being 118 feet. This survey was made precisely in the manner sug- 
gested by Messrs. Squier and Davis, save that the chords were 100 
feet each, except a gap of 313 feet where the wall is too nearly obliter- 
ated to be traced satisfactorily this gap is indicated on the plat (Fig. 
2) by dotted lines. 

The field- notes of this resurvey are given here, that the critical reader 
may have before him all the facts, so far as it is possible to put them in 
print, upon which our conclusions are based. 

Beginning at station 1 (see Fig. 2) at the end of the wall on the south 
side of the gateway leading into the large circle, the courses were run 
from station to station westward, northward, and around to the place 
of beginning.^ 

1 The measurements are always to be understood as to and along the middle of the 
walls unless otherwise noted. 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 













^'»^^^^^»>- 



" iS^ ^ 




■rrff^^^N wr^f^^aJ^^^^^tr,, 



COPY OF PLATE 



i 



LIBERTY TOWNSHIP WORKS. 



11 



The gap spoken of is in that part of the circleimmediately on the south 
side of the gateway. The stakes marking the stations were set along 
the top of the wall, as near the middle of it as possible, and 100 feet 







*'m 






<<?<<> 
%# 



^ ^ - ^£;g. 



St24 









/'><tl! 



- T-*^- 

^i^ 






Fig. 2. Small Circle, Liberty Township works, accordiuj; to re-survey. 

apart; the instraments used were a transit and a hundred-foot steel 
chain.^ 

Small circle, Liberty Township workSf Ohio. 



Station. 



Course. Distance. I 



Station. 



Course. Distance. 



From — 

1 to 2 

2 to 3 

3 to 4 

4 to 6 

5 to 6 

6 to 7 

7 to 8 

8 to 9 

9 to 10 

10 to 11 

11 to 12 

12 to 13 



S. 60 
S. 81 
S. 84 
N. 74 
N.70 
X.59 
N.42 
N.24 
N.12 
N. 5 
N.20 
N.34 





Feet. 


00 W. 


100 


35 W . 


100 


44 W . 


100 


45 W . 


100 


OOW. 


100 


16 W. 


100 


OOW . 


100 


23 W . 


100 


48 W. 


100 


47 E.. 


100 


30 E .. 


100 


24E .. 


100 



From— 

13 to 14. 

14 to 15. 

15 to 16. 

16 to 17. 

17 to 18. 

18 to 19. 

19 to 20.. 
2C to 21. 

21 to 22. 

22 to 23. 



N.53 52 E .. 
N.67 05 E.. 
N. 84 23 E . . 
S. 81 08 E . . 
S. 73 38 E .. 
S. 71 02 E .. 
S. 65 05 E . . 
S. 39 41 E . . 
S. 20 45 E .. 
S. 7 50E.. 

23 to 24 ' S. 58 W . 

24 to 1 :..] S. 32 20 W . 



Feet. 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
30 
313 



1 In order to avoid repetition it may be stated here that these instruments were 
used in all the sarveys made by the Burean assistant, Mr. James D. Middleton, which 
are mentioned in this paper. 



P 



12 GEOMETRICAL EARTHWORKS OP OHIO. 

* 

As before mentioned, Squier and Davis nowhere state whether their 
measurements are from the middle, the inside, or the outside of the 
Avails. As the walls are usually from 30 to 40 feet wide, the point of 
measurement becomes an important item where accuracy is required. 
Erom the fact that some of the ^'sections" in Col. Whittlesey's sur- 
veys go to the middle of the walls we have taken for granted, in mak. 
ing comparisons with the surveys of Messrs. Squier and Dayis, that 
this was the rule they adopted. 

While pi. XX is before us we may as well notify the reader that the 
directions are all wrong, the top being east and the left side north 5 in 
other words, the large circle is, in fact, directly south of the square 
and not east as given in the plate, the whole plat having been turned 
one-quarter round from the true position. The directions marked along 
the lines of the square should be changed, thus : N. 45° E., to S. 45^ 
E., and N. 45^ W. to N. 45° E. So far as could be ascertained from 
the fragments of the square remaining unobliterated, the walls, although 
not exactly 45^ east and west, vary from these courses only from half a 
degree to three degrees. 

The large circle is now so nearly obliterated that no further survey 
oan be made, yet judging from the figure and dimensions given in the 
plat, the authors have also made an error here. The diameter, accord- 
ing to the authors, is 1,720 feet and the area 40 acres, whereas a circle 
with this diameter will embrace an area of 53 acres. It is apparent from 
the figure that the area inclosed by this part of the works is not less 
than that of the large circle if complete. 

Nevertheless the authors remark, in speaking of these works and com- 
paring them with others of the Scioto Valley : 

These figures are not only accurate squares and perfect circles, but are, in most 
cases, of corresponding dimensions, that is to say, the sides of the squares are each 
1,080 in length, and the diameter of the large and small circles a fraction over 1,700 
and 8u0, respectively. Such were the results of surveys made at diflPerent times, the 
measurements of which correspond within a few feet. 

THE NEWARK WORKS. 

Attention is next called to the celebrated works near Newark, a plan 
of which is given by our authors on their pi. xxv, from a careful sur- 
vey made by Col. Whittlesey. As Col. Whittlesey was noted for 
his accuracy as a surveyor, the plat, as far as it remains unchanged 
since leaving his hands, is presumed to be correct, but there are indi- 
cations that some modifications have been made in it or that in this 
case Col. Whittlesey has failed to sustain his reputation for accuracy. 
At any rate there are some marked differences between the text and 
the plat. 

In order that the reader who has not a copy of the Ancient Monu- 
ments at hand may clearly understand the points made, a facsimile 
of Col. Whittlesey's plat is introduced here. (See PL I.) 



^ 



THE NEWARK WORKS. 13- 

Speaking of the structure "E,'^ the authors say 

This work is not, as lias generally been represented, a true circle ; its form is tliat 
of an ellipse, its diameters being 1,250 and 1,150 feet respectively. There are two or 
three slight irregnlarities in the outline; too trifling, however, to be indicated in the- 
plan. The area ofihfi inclosure is something over 30 acres. 

The area as indicated on the diagram is **30 acres," hence the fair 
inference to be drawn from the "something over'' in the descrii>- 
tion is that the area is a fraction over 30 acres. A short calculation will 
suffice to show that an ellipse having the diameters given above will 
inclose only 26 acres, precisely the area given to this inclosure by At- 
water,* and little more than that obtained by the resurvey. We also- 
notice, notwithstanding the authors' statement in the text above quoted, 
thatOol. Whittlesey gives, on the plat (see sections '' C, D") the shorter 
diameter as 1,200 feet, measuring to the middle of the wall on each 
side. A careful resurvey made by the agent of the Bureau makes the^ 
longest diameter 1,189 feet and the shortest 1,163 feet, showing a differ- 
ence between the extremes of 26 feet. The figure is somewhat ellip- 
tical, though not so much so as represented in Ancient Monuments. 
The curve is not exactly regular. (See PI. II.) 

The field- notes of this survey are given hereafter. 

Squier and Davis state in the text that the circular inclosure "F" 
which connects with the octagon ** is a true circle 2,880 feet, or up- 
wards of half a mile, in circumference." The area indicated on the plat 
(no mention is made of this in the text) is 20 acres, and the diameter 
given on the plat (section ^'a-b") is '< 1,050 feet." 

Now, it is evident that a circumference of 2,880 feet, the figure being 
a true circle, will have a diameter of but 917 feet, showing a difference 
between the text and the plate of 133 feet. The area of a circle of this 
size is but a slight fraction over 15 acres. 

According to the survey made by the Bureau agents, the field-note»^ 
and plat of which are given further on, the diameter from the observa- 
tory to the entrance to the octagon is 1,056 feet, and the one crossing 
this at right angles 1,050 feet, giving an area of 20 acres. Atwater,^ as 
nearly as can be ascertained from his survey, made the diameter of this 
circle 1,100 feet, which gives an area of 22 acres. 

The area of the octagon, as indicated on the plate, is ** 50 acres ;" in 
the text it is stated that it is ^* something over 50 acres." Atwater, 
whose estimates of acres are generally more correct than those of Messrs. 
Squier and Davis, says^ it contains " about 40 acres." According to 
our resurvey, the notes of which are given hereafter, this area, includ- 
ing the inner halves of the walls, is but a small fraction over 41 acres. 

In their description of the Marietta works (pi. xxvi), after alluding ta 
the earlier notices thereof, they say : 

Since that period various descriptions have appeared in print, and a number of plans- 
differing materially in their details have been published. It is of so much importance^ 

i Archseol. Americana, vol.1 (1820), p. 127 ^ /6t(f.,p. 126. 



14 GEOMETRICAL EARTHWOKKS OF OHIO. 

however, and has been the basis of so mach speculatioftftlukt it is time an accurate 
map and a careful description should be placed before the pabHo. 8adi a map and 
such a description it is here aimed to present. 

The map they give, according to a note, is drawn from a survey made 
by Col. Whittlesey, in 1837. Yet, according to their text, the area of 
the larger square is 40 acres and that of the smaller 20, while on the 
map that of the former is placed at 50 and that of the latter at 27 acres. 

Near the close of their description of these interesting works^ is this 
statement : 

The absolute identity in size between the smaller inclosure (which varies a little 
from a true square) and several of those which occur in the Scioto Valley, should not 
be overlooked in any attempt to educe the character and design of the group. That 
there is some significance in the fact is obvious. (See pis. xvi and xvii.) 

As the authors fail to give us measurements of this smaller inclosure 
by which we may judge of " this absolute identity in size," we have only 
the area as a means of comparison. There is an octagon but no square 
on pi. XVI, which represents the *'High Bank works 5'' the authors' ref- 
erence to this is, therefore, erroneous. The sides of the square on pi. 
XVII, which represents the Hopeton works, are marked 900 feet each. 
If we assume the area of the smaller Marietta square to be "27 acres," 
as indicated on the plat, the sides will be about 1,084 feet, agreeing 
very nearly with those in Paint Creek Valley, but differing widely from 
the Hopeton square, pi. xvii. If we assume the area to be *^20 acres," 
as given in the text, the sides will measure about 933 feet, but little more 
than the Hopeton square. 

In their description of the ancient works of Montgomery County ;^ 
figured as No. 1^ pi. xxix, speaking of the large inclosure, they say : 

The diameter of this circle is 100 feet greater than that of the corresponding large 
circle of the Scioto works [pi. xx], and the same proportionate increase in size is to 
be observed in the square and lower circle. 

By reference to the plates it will be seen that the diameter of the 
large circle of the Montgomery County works is 1,950 feet and that of 
the Scioto (Liberty Township) works is 1,720 feet, a difference of 230 
feet instead of 100 as stated by the authors. 

The area of the octagon at the High Bank works, pi. xvi, as indi- 
cated on the plat, is *'18 acres," while the average diameter as given 
in the text is 950 feet (which agrees, as will be shown hereafter, almost 
exactly with the result of the Bureau surveys). This gives an area 
lacking but a few rods of 21 acres. On the other hand, they give to 
the Hopeton square, 900 by 950 feet, an area of 20 acres, which is as 
nearly correct as can be stated without the introduction of fractions. 

SEAL TOWNSHIP WORKS. 

The attention of the reader is called next to the *' Seal (now Scioto) 
Township works ^' shown on pi. xxiv. The errors made by Squier 



^ Ancient Monuments, page 73. 2 Jii(i,^ page 83. 



^-2 



15 

hs of the 
rvey, are 
'erage of 
ts. The 



he circle 
rey tbey 
and tbe 
The dis- 

for the 
110 feet. 

may bo 
deration 
s of the 
, we are 
egree of 
) a great 

, relate 
Qg their 
the fig. 
correct, 
circles 
ological 



ments," 

quares, 

of the 



it Mon- 
d is yet 
e aver- 
half is 
plow; 
f years 
mt not 
jis por- 



rere on 
ned by 
tarings 



14 

however, 
map and. 
sucli a cl< 

The % 
by Gol.' 
the lar J 
map tli^ 

I^ear^ 
stateini 

The a1 

from a tt 
be overly 
there is ^ 

Astl 

by whi< 

the arei 

on pi. 3 

• erence 

XVII, A^ 

If we a 
as indi 
very n^ 
the Ho 
as give 
than tl 
In tl 
figured 

The d; 
circle of 
be obsei 

Byr 
large c 
the ScJ 
feet ini 

The 
cated < 
ill the 
exactly 
lackini 
theH< 
nearly 



The 
Towns 



SEAL TOWNSHIP WORKS. 15 

and Davis in this case are those of measurements. The lengths of the 
sides of the square, as shown by the notes of the Bureau survey, are 
854 feet east and west, and 852 north and south, being an average of 
53 feet greater than Messrs. Squier and Davis's measurements. The 
work is, however, very nearly an exact square. 

According to these authors the parallels running north to the circle 
are 100 feet apart and 475 feet long. According to the resurvey they 
are 68 feet apart, measuring to the middle line of each wall, and the 
average length 634 feet (the eastern 647, and western 621). The dis- 
tance from the square to the break of the ravine is 427 feet for the 
eastern sideband 400 for the western, the width of the ravine 110 feet. 

Some of the errors and inconsistencies we have pointed out may be 
considered of minor importance, yet when we take into consideration 
the large number of them, in the face of the repeated assertions of the 
authors that their surveys were accurately and carefully made, we are 
compelled to recognize that there has been an inexcusable degree of 
carelessness, which is calculated to depreciate their wqrk, and to a great 
extent destroys confidence in their measurements and figures. 

Notwithstanding these criticisms, which, as will be seen, relate 
almost wholly to measurements and to want of care in editing their 
memoir, the work ia of great value 5 for, as heretofore stated, the fig. 
ures of those works they personally examined are generally correct. 
In some cases, it is true, inclosures are represented as true circles 
which are not such 5 but this is a very common error In archaeological 
treatises. 

RESUEVEY OF THE OHIO INCLOSURES. 

Having pointed out some of the errors of the '^Ancient Monuments," 
in reference to the measurements and dimensions of the circles, squares, 
and octagons, we will now present the result of the resurvey of the 
works by Mr. Middleton, as agent of the Bureau. 

"observatory circle," NEWARK. 

This circle, which is marked " F " on pi. xxv of the Ancient Mon- 
uments, is situated at the extreme west of the great group, and is yet 
very distinct, being about 3 feet high at the lowest point, the aver- 
age height being between 4 and 5 feet. Most of the south half is 
yet in the original forest and has never been injured b}^ the plow ; 
but the north half has been under cultivation for a number of years 
and is considerably worn. Tbo effect of this wearing is apparent not 
only in the decrease in height, but in the increase in width of this por- 
tion, as shown by the field-notes given below. 

The chords in this survey were 100 feet each; the stations were on 
top of the wall as near the middle line as could be ascertained by 
measurement and judgment, and the stakes all set before the bearings 



^. 



IG 



GEOMETKICAL EARTHWORKS OF OHIO. 



were taken. The field-notes are as follows, beginning at station in 
the middle of the gateway leading to the octagon : " 

Survey of Observatory Circle, 



Station. 


Bearing. 

• 


Distance. 


Width of 
wall. 


Kemarks. 




o / 


Feet. 


Feet. 




to 1.. 


S. 38 20E... 


42 





Station 1 at junction of circle and soutli parallel.. 


1 to 2.. 


S. 26 20 E... 


100 


36 




2 to 3.. 


S.17 37 E... 


100 


35 




3 to 4.. 


S. 6 OOE... 


100 


38 




4 to 5.. 


S. 5 36 W.. 


100 


38 


\ 


5 to 6.. 


S. 15 00 W.. 


100 


37 




6 to 7.. 


S. 27 45 W.. 


100 


36 


Center of wall 2 feet east; that is, outward. 


7 to 8.. 


S. 35 17 W.. 


100 


34 




8 to 9.. 


8.48 40 W.. 


100 


37 




9 to 10.. 


S. 58 16 W.. 


100 


37 




10 to 11.. 


S. 69 13 W.. 


100 


37 




11 to 12.. 


S. 82 00 W.. 


100 


35 




12 to 13.. 


N. 89 13 W . 


100 


41 




13 to 14.. 


N. 76 23 W . 


100 


37 




14 to 15.. 


N.66 15 W.. 


100 


38(?) 


Width estimated, not measured. 


15 to 16.. 


N.55 56 W.. 


100 


39 




16 to 17. . 


N. 45 low.. 
N.33.33W.. 


100 
100 




("Observatory.") 


17 to 18.- 


39" 




18 to 19.. 


N.20 29 W.. 


100 


42 




19 to 20.. 


N.ll 22 W.. 


100 


43 




20 to 21.. 


N. 1 34W.. 


100 


40 




21 to 22.. 


N. 9 06E.. 


100 


39 




22 to 23.. 


N.20 64 E.. 


100 


88 




23 to 24.. 


N.31 12 E.. 


100 


39 




24 to 25.. 


N. 42 32 E.. 


100 


40 




25 to 26.. 


N.53 43E.. 


100 


42 




26 to 27.. 


N. 62 43 E.. 


100 


40 




27 to 28.. 


N.75 07E.. 


100 


44 




28 to 29.. 


N„86 23E.. 


100 


40 




^ to 30.. 


S. 82 17 E.. 


100 


44 




30 to 31,. 


S. 72 04E.. 


100 


42 




31 to 32.. 


S. 60 45E.. 


100 


45 




32 to 33.. 


S. 51 06E.. 


100 


45 




33 ix) 34.. 


S. 46 29 E . . 


20 




Junction with north parallel walL 
Middle of gateway. 


34 to 0.. 


S. 38 20 E.. 


42 




34 to 36.. 


N. 52 04 E . . 


295 




North parallel. 
South parallel. 


1 to 37.. 


N. 51 53 E.. 


293 









Check Lines. 



to 11.. 
to 17. . 
to i.. 

to 25.. 
17 to 11.. 
17 to 25.. 
25 to 11.. 



S. 18 28 W. 
S. 51 27 W. 
S. 52 00 W. 

N.85 10 W. 
S. 71 59 E.. 
N. 4 23E.. 
S. 28 03 E.. 



883 
1057 



770 

570 

728 

1024 



•' i " indicates the half-way point in the circumfer- 
ence. 



In order to bring before the eye of the reader the approximate regu- 
larity of this circular work a figure, laid off to a scale, is introduced 
here (PI. III). The solid black line of short chords marks the line of 
the survey along the top of the wall and the circular dotted line, the 
nearest approximate circle. Great care was taken in making the sur- 
vey, and the plat and calculation were found to confirm the accuracy 
claimed. 

Measuring the various diameters the maximum is found to be 1,051> 
feet and the minimum 1,050, the mean of which is 1 ,054.5 feet, but it is 
found by trial that the nearest approximate circle has a diameter of 



I THOMAS BULLETIN PL. I 







17 

y and 

letbe 
esuQi 
JOS of 
It is 
:ly an 

er iu- 
s will 



le,'' is 
imain 
forest 
•y tbe 
3SS at 

Nev- 
rmiue 

good 
r any 
3et at 



ation 
point 
m 37, 
baud 



ight of 
fall. 



^eet. 

7 to 4. 5 
B to 4. 2 
9 to 5. 8 

4 to 3. 5 

5 to 2. C 

8 to 4 
3 to 4 

8 to 3. 7 



IS are 
f the 



600 

==• PELT. 



lines 
37-b. 



IG 



were t 
the mi 



station.! 



1-i 
2- 
3.. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

7.; 

8. 
9^ 



to 

1 to 

2 to 

3 to 

4 to 

5 to 
to 

7 to 

8 to 

9 to 10 w 

10 to 11. 

11 to 12.' 

12 to 13.^ 

13 to 14., 

14 to 15. 

15 to 16. 

16 to 17. 

17 to 18. 

18 to 19. 

19 to 20. 

20 to 21. 

21 to 22. 

22 to 23. 

23 to 244 

24 to 25- 

25 to 26.' 

26 to 27^ 

27 to 28. 

28 to 29, 
120 to 80; 

30 to 31 4 

31 to 32; 

32 to 33. 

33 to 34, 

34 to 0. 
34 to 36* 

I to 37. 



to 11 

to 17 
to i 

to 25 
17 to 11 
17 to 25 
25 to U 



In 
larity 
here ( 
the s 
neare 
vey, 1 
claim 

Me 
feet i 
founO 



THE OCTAGON, NEWARJC; OHIO. 



17 



1,054 feet. The widest divergence, between the line of the survey and 
the circumference of the true circle is 4 feet. 

The aggregate length of the chords surveyed is 3,304 feet, while the 
circumference of the approximate circle is 3,311 feet ; adding to the sum 
of the chords the additional length of the arcs they subtend (0.1508 of 
a foot to each 100-foot chord), and we have a total of 3,309 feet. It is 
therefore evident that the inclosure approaches in form very nearly an 
absolute circle. 

The inference to be drawn from the fact that this and a few other in- 
closures noticed in this paper are so nearly true geometrical figures will 
be briefly discussed hereafter. * 

*' OCTAGON," NEWARK, OHIO. 

This inclosure, which is connected with the "Observatory Circle,'' is 
shown in PI. IV. The southern portions, a to 6, and h to c, remain 
almost uninjured, being still more or less covered by the original forest 
growth. The other lines of wall have been considerably worn by the 
plow, though they are still quite distinct, the height not being less at 
any point than 2J feet as shown by the figures of the field-notes. Nev- 
ertheless the wearing makes it difficult, often impossible, to determine 
with absolute certainty the middle line, though there is never any good 
reason why the survey should vary from the middle line of this or any 
other of these Ohio inclosures, distinctly traceable, more than 3 feet at 
most. 

The field-notes of the survey are as follows: Commencing at station 
!No. 36 (so numbered in the survey of the Observatory Circle) at the point 
where the northern parallel joins the Octagon ; thence to station 37, 
the point where the southern parallel joins the Octagon, thence to h and 
round to the place of beginning. 

Survey of the Octagon, 



Station. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Width of 
wall. 


Height of 
wall. 


36to37 


O 1 

S 36 32 E . . 


Feet. 
82 
580 
624.5 
625 
622 
621 
613 
621. 5 
581.5 


Feet. 

40 to 43 
37 to 48 
47 to 39 

41 to 50 
40 to 37 
47 to 43 
45 to 47 
43 to 41 


Feet. 


37 to 6 


S. 49 41 E 


5. 7 to 4. 5 


6 to c 


N.64 18E 


4. 3 to 4. 2 


<j to d 


N.39 50E 


5. 9 to 5. 8 


d to e 


N.25 28 W 


3. 4 to 3. 5 


e to/ 


N.51 32 W 


2.6 to 2.6 


/ too 


S. 65 40 W 


3. 8 to 4 


g to h 


S. 39 15 W 


4. 3 to 4 


A to37 


S. 25 40 E ^ 


3. 8 to 3. 7 









The two numbers to each course in the width and height columns are 
two measurements of each wall near the ends in the direction of the 
survey. 

The stations indicated by letters are at the intersections of the lines 
of the walls : Station a is at the intersection of the lines /i-36 and 37-&. 
118G7 2 



P 'V 



18 



GEOMETRICAL EARTHWORKS OF OHIO. 



The diameters as ascertained from the plat (in all cases to the inter- 
sections) are as follows : 



From;ito& 1,218 feet. 

From d to/ 1,213 feet. 

From 6 to/ :.. 1,708 feet. 

From a to e 1,483 feet. 



From & tod 1,219 feet. 

From/to h 1,202 feet. 

From ;i tod 1,720 feet. 

From g to c 1, 487 feet. 



The widths of the gateways are as follows, the measurements being 
from base to base : 

That at a 46 feet ; at & 23 feet ; at <? 47 feet ; at (i 26 feet ; at e 37 feet; 
at/ 12 feet; at /t 60 feet. 

The angles at the crossings of the diagonals and diameters at the 
center o are so nearly right angles as to be worthy of notice in this con- 
nection. For instance, the angles at crossing of the diagonals bf and dh 
differ but 10' from true right angles ; while those at the crossing of the 
diameters ae and eg differ but 2'. 

The inner angles at the intersection of the lines of the walls, that is 
to say the angles of the octagon, are as follows : 



Ata 155059 

Ate 155032' 

Ate 153^56' 

At^ 153035' 



At h 113059' 

Atd 114042' 

At/ 117012' 

At/j. 115005' 



The very slight differences in the courses of the opposite sides, which 
in a true figure should be parallel, should not be overlooked. 

That between ab and ef is 1° 51'; between he and fg is 1^ 22' ; be- 
tween cd and gh is 35'; between de and h 36 is 12'. 

THE SQUARE AT NEWARK. 

This is the smaller square inclosure on the east side of the Newark 
works, and in pi. xxv. Ancient Monuments, is directly east of the 
pond. It connects with the fairground circle (E on the plate) by a 
broken line of parallels. According to Col. Whittlesey's plat it varies 
considerably from a true square, being distinctly narrowed on one 
' side, but, as will be seen from the notes of the resurvey, it must 
have been very nearly square. As it is well-nigh obliterated it was 
found impossible to trace the lines throughout, hence only those parts 
are marked in the figure (see PI. V) which were satisfactorily deter- 
mined ; the uhtraced portions are represented by dotted lines. 

The following are the field-notes of the resurvey, which commenced 
near the middle of the southeastern line of wall at 1, running thence 
to 2, and so on around, following the walls to station 7, whence, as the 
wall was visible no farther, the close was made by running directly 
to station 1. 



19 



m 

> 



369.5 

920 
541 
079 



Feet. 

.. 268 
... 158 
... 500 

1 are 



> 

o 
o 

o 

JO 

o 



O 



c 

< 



o 
o 





tw 



bern 
ons, 
side 

mds 

esof 

the 

ther 

ogle 



icer- 






lern 
Ion- 
em- 
gri- 
ient 
s of 
bat 
ince 
L iD 



18 

T 

sect 

i 



T 

froii 
T 
at^ 
1 
ceil 
neo 
difE 
dial 

i; 

to s 



1 

in j 

1 

tw< 



'J 
wo 
poi 
brc 
cor 
■ sid 
ha' 
fou 
are 
mi 

r 
DC) 

to 

wa 

to 



r 



19 

Surveij of the square. 



Station. Bearing. , Distance. 



' o ' Feet. 

1 to 2 X. 47 16 E j 369.5 

2 to 3 I N. 41 .'^3 W. I 928 

3 to 6 ! S. 47 47 W 920 

6to7 Jt S. 41 47 E , 541 

7tol I N. 82 47 E ' 679 



Check lines. 

Feet. 

From 3 to 4,janction with eastern parallel 268 

From 4 to 5, j auction with western parallel 158 

From 5 to 6, western corn er 500 

Theinuer angles' as ascertained by measurement on the ground are 
as follows : 

At station 1 144 30 

At station 2 90 51 

At station 3 89 40 

At station 6 90 26 

At station 7 124 34 

Supposing the obliterated parts of the lines about the southern 
corner to have been straight continuations of the remaining portions, 
as represented in PI. Y, this angle would equal 89^ 03' ; and the side 
G to 8 would bo 939 feet, and 8 to 2 would be 951 feet. 

There are at present no indications whatever of the inner mounds 
represented on Col. Whittlesey's plat. 

As will be seen by inspecting our PI. V and referring to the notes of 
t^ie resiirvey this inclosure varies but slightly from a true square, the 
course of the opposite sides in one case differing but 31' and in the other 
but C. The greatest variation at the corners from a true right angle 
is 57'. 

The length of the diagonal from station 2 to 6 is 1,307 feet, ascer- 
tained from plat carefully drawn to a large scale. 

, FAIR-«R0¥-X» CIRCLE. 

(See PI. II.) 

This is the large circle of the Newark works situated in the southern 
extremity of the group and marked E on PI. xxv of Ancient Mon- 
uments, and has received the above name from the fact that it em- 
braces within its circuit the fair-grounds of the Licking County Agri- 
cultural Society. It is undoubtedly one of the best preserved ancient 
monuments of our country, being uninjured by the plow, and trees of 
the original forest are still standing on it. The ditch has been but 
slightly filled by the wash of the many years which have passed since 
its abandonment. The wall varies in width from 35 to 55 feet and in 



20 



GEOMETRICAL EARTHWORKS OF OHIO. 



height from 5 to 14 feet. The ditch varies iu width from 28 to 41 feet 
and in depth from 8 to 13 feet. 

The following are the notes of a survey by Mr. Middleton in 1888, 
commencing at station 1, iu the gate- way : 







Survey of the Fa 


ir-Gro\ind Circle. 

• 








stations. 


Bearings. 


Dis- 
tances. 


Width 
of em- 
bank- 
ment. 


Width 

of 
ditch. 


Stations. 

1 


Bearings. 


Dis- 
tances. 


Width 
of em- 
bank- 
ment. 


Width 

of 
ditch. 




o / 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 




o / 


'Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet 


Ito 2.. 


S.20 22E 


100 


55 




24 to 25.. 


N.27 39 E 


100 


38 


28 


2 to 3.. 


S. 1 34E 


100 


45 


41 


25 to 26.. 


N.36 32E 


100 


35 




3 to 4.. 


S. 2 55W 


100 


67 




26 to 27.. 


N.45 04E 


100 


36 




4 to 5.. 


S. 15 17W 


100 


44 


41 


27 to 28.. 


N.52 40 K 


100 


38 


35 


5 to 6.. 


S. 23 32 W 


100 


40 




28 to 29.. 


N.59 37 E 


100 


43 




6to 7.. 


S. 28 59 W 


100 


44 




29 to 30.. 


N.68 44E 


100 


46 




7 to 8.. 


S. 39 50W 


100 


45 




30 to 31.. 


N.84 15 E 


100 


43 


38 


8 to 9.. 


S. 49 25 W 


100 


42 


42 


; 31 to 32.. 


S. 85 32 E 


100 


42 




9 to 10.. 


S. 60 37 W 


100 


47 




! 32 to 33.. 


S. 77 07E 


100 


42 


36 


10 to 11.. 


S. 7125W 


100 


44 




33 to 34.. 


S. 63 22 E 


100 


38 




11 to 12.. 


S. 80 31 W 


100 


43 


38 


34 to 35.. 


S. 56 OLE 


100 


41 




12tol3.. 


K.88 50W 


100 


39 




35 to 36.. 


S. 49 30 E 


100 


40 


34 


13 to 14.. 


N.79 33W 


100 


40 




36 to 37.. 


S. 40 18E 


100 


49 




]4tol5.. 


N.74 13W 


100 


43 


37 


37 to 38.. 


S. 38 29E 


40 


53 


32 


15 to 16 


N^9 32 W 

N.52 32W 


100 
100 


38 
40 




, 38 to 1.. 
; a to b .. 


S. 20 22 E 

S. 23 25 W 


89 
838 






16 to 17.. 






17 to 18.. 


N.40 26 W 


100 


41 




a to c .. 


S. 68 38 W 


1,190 






18 to 19.. 


N.32 24W 


100 


41 


36 


, b to d.. 


N.20 45 W 


1,186 






19 to 20.. 


N.24 44 W 


100 


43 




b to c .. 




839 






20 to 21 


N.12 20W 

N. 3 20 W 

N. 7 55E 


100 
100 
100 


42 1 32 


c to d , 




837 

834 

84 






21 to 22 


39 
38 




a to d .. 








22 to 23.. 


37 to 39.. 


N.66 4iE 


53 


*32 


23 to 24.. 


N.21 25E 


100 


36 




2to50.. 


N.66 27E 


95 


48 


t33 



* N. wing. 



t S. wing. 



From the plat made according to these figures we ascertain that the 
longest diameter, namely, that running northeast and southwest, is 
1,189 feet; and the shortest — southeast and northwest — is 1,163 feet; a 
difference of 26 feet. Although not a true circle, the difference between 
the longest and shortest diameters falls much short of 100 feet, as 
stated by Messrs. Squier and Davis. 

CIRCLE OP THE HIGH BANK WORKS. (aXC. MONUMENTS, PL. XVI.) 

These works occupy a broad, unbroken level of the drift terrace, which 
has been cultivated almost annually since 1845. The walls of the cir- 
cle and octagon are still quite prominent, and are respectively 2 and 5 
feet high. (See PL VI.) 

This circle is very similar in size and other respects to the " Observa- 
tory Circle" at Kewark, and, like that, is connected with an octagon, 
though the relative sizes of the two inclosures differ in this respect, the 
octagon of the Kewark works is larger than the circle, while that of the 
High Bank works is smaller than the circle. We see in this group the 
tendency to combine circles, octagon, and parallels as at Newark, 
making it probable that the works at both points are due to one people. 
According to Messrs. Squier and Davis this circle is a '^ perfect'' one, 
the diameter being 1,050 feet, which, as will be seen by what follows, 
agrees very closely with the result of the resurvey. 



21 

ok, 
,lie 



111. 





et. 
36 
34 
35 
32 
30 
30 
32 
28 
32 
30 
34 
32 
28 
26 
32 
30 
26 
28 
30 
30 



'eet. 
746 
743 
042 



he 
)b. 

ng 
ed 
in- 
ct- 
lat 
in- 



.de 
ire 
?x- 
nd 
es, 
ihe 

QO 



2( 

at 
CO 



St) 



1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

U 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 



lo 

dj 
tl 

St 



hi 
cl 
fe 



to 
tl 

0( 

H 

te 
m 
A 
th 



CIRCLE AT HIGH BANK. 



21 



Theanotes of the resurvey, as copied from Mr. Middleton's field-book, 
are as follows, commencing in the center of the gate- way leading to the 

octagon : 

Survey of Circle of the High Bank ivories. 



Stations.' 



Ito 2.. 
2to 3.. 
3to 4.. 
4to 5.. 
5to 6.. 
6to 7.. 
7to 8.. 
8to 9.. 
9tol0.. 

10 to 11.. 

11 to 12.. 

12 to 13.. 

13 to 14.. 
14tol5.. 

15 to 16.. 

16 to 17.. 
17tol8.. 

18 to 19 . 

19 to 20.. 
20to2l.. 

21 to 22.. 

22 to 23.. 

23 to 24.. 



Bearin<;s. 



37 W 

38 W 
00 W 

80 34 W 
89 30 W 
78 18 W 
75 30 W 
30 W 

57 28 W 
45 00 W 
41 00 W 
34 14 W 
26 10 W, 

15 00 W 

7 30 W 
3 36 W 

8 OOE , 

16 35 E 
22 00 E . 
34 00 E 
40 OOE 
47 15 E 

58 80 £ 



Width 



Dis- 



Stations. 



Bearings. 



Feet. 
75 I 
75 
75 
75 
75 I 
75 
75 



75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 I 
75 I 
75 ' 
75 1 
75 I 

J^i 
7o I 

75 

75 



Feet. 
30 
30 
32 
44 
40 
32 
33 
34 
34 
34 
39 
42 
44 
44 
40 
44 
36 
40 
34 
32 
32 



34 I 



24 to 25. 

25 to 26. 

26 to 27. 
27io2S. 

28 to 29. 

29 to 30. 

30 to 31 . 

31 to 32. 

32 to 33. 

33 to 34. 

34 to 35. 

35 to 36. 

36 to 37. 

37 to 38. 

38 to 39 

39 to 40. 
40to4l. 
4t to42. 

42 to 43. 

43 to 44. 

44 to 45. 

45 to 1. 



i 

.; N. 

. N. 

.1 S. 
. S. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 

li: 

I s. 
t s. 

s. 

s. 



63 38 E . 
75 00 E . 
78 00 E , 
88 00 E . 



' Dis- 
itances. 



Feet. 
75 
75 
75 
75 



85 OOE ; 75 



77 00 E . 
64 39 E . 
61 52 E . 

42 48 E . 
40 OOE ., 
35 OOE ., 
26 00 E . , 
21 45 E.. 

4 45E . 

2 00 E . , 

30W. 

6 14W. 
19 00W. 
39 00 W., 

43 30 W. 

47 25 W., 

48 49 W. 



75 



75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
7) 
75 
75 
21.5 



Wi.ltb 

of 
wall. 



Feet. 
36 
34 
35 
32 
30 
30 
32 
28 
32 
30 
34 
32 
28 
26 
32 
30 
26 
28 



Supplementary, 

o ' Feet. I Feet. 

atob N.81 20W 744 j b toe 746 

atocN.36 28W 1,056 1 c to d 743 

atodX. 8 OOE 741 1 & to d 1,042 

a to e S. 36 00 E. Direction of entrance to Octagon. 

Plotting the figure carefully from these notes, and then drawing the 
nearest possible coincident circle, we obtain results similar to those ob- 
tained by the survey of the Observatory circle at Kewark. This is shown 
in PI. VI. In this figure the solid black line of short chords running along 
the middle of the wall marks the actual line of survey, while the dotted 
line is the nearest approximate circle, the center of which is at the in- 
tersection of the two designated diameters.^ These diameters are act- 
tually surveyed lines, and relate to the line of chords. The middle of that 
running from dtobh at the intersection 5 but the middle of that run- 
ning from a to c is about 2 feet from the intersection toward c. 

The somewhat unexpected results to which allusion has been made 
in reference to this and the Observatory circle are, first, that the figure 
is so nearly a true circle 5 and, second, that the radius is almost an ex- 
act multiple of the surveyor's chain. It is true that Messrs. Squier and 
Davis assert that this and some other inclosures are perfect circles, 
but their many errors in regard to dimensions, and our belief in the 
Indian origin of these works, led us to take this assertion cum grano 

^ The scale on the plate is 135 feet to the inch. 



\. 



^2 



GEOMETRICAL EARTHWORKS OF OHIO- 



salis. We were therefore surprised to find after a very careful survey 
the close approximation to a true circle in these cases. 

As it is impossible to show this satisfactorily in a figure on the scale 
^iveu here, the attention of the reader is called to the following facts, 
which he can verify independently by making for himself a plat on a 
larger scale from the notes given above relating to the High Bank circle. 

(1) Th^ chords forming the sides of the inclosed quadrilateral sub- 
tend equal arcs of the surveyed line ; that is to say, the distance along 
the wall from a to & is equal to that from h to c, also to that from ctod and 
from d to a; the distance in each case being 830.4 feet, or one-fourth of 
the circumference according to the survey. As these chords are respect- 
ively 744, 746, 743, and 741 feet in length, showing an extreme varia- 
tion of less than 3 feet from a medium and of but 3 feet from a ttue 
quadrant, we have an evidence of the close approximation to a true 
circle. 

(2) The extreme difference between the various diameters (except at 
the eccentric point at the southeast, between tbe gate- ways) does not 
exceed 8 feet, or a variation from the medium of 4 feet, and from that of 
the true circle of more than 5 feet. 

(3) A circle with a radius of 526 feet and center at the intersection 
of the two given diameters varies at no point from the surveyed line 
(except at the eccentric point in the southeast) more than 6 feet ; or, 
in other words, both would fall on a wall only 6 feet wide. 

It is evident, therefore, that we have here a very close approximation 
to a true circle. 

OCTAGON OF THE HIGH BANK WORKS. (See Plate VII.) 

The Octagon at this point differs from that at I^ewark chiefly in size 
and a closer approximation to a square. The variation from the usual 
form resulting from throwing the gate- way along the wall between the 
angles is readily accounted for by the fact that there is here a some- 
what abrupt depression, which is avoided by the curve given the wall. 
The field-notes of the resurvey are as follows — commencing at station 
1, in the middle of the gate- way leading to the circle : 

Survey of the Octagon of the High Bank wo7'Tc8, 



Station. 


Bearing. 


Dis- 
tance. 


Station. 


Bearing. 


Dis- 
tance. 


1 to 2 


o / 
K.60 03E 


Feet. 
448 
449 
442 
449 
340 
65 
60 


8 to 9. 

9 to 10. 
10 to 11. 
llto 1. 

5 to 12. 
12 to 10. 


/ 
N.53 37 W 


Feet. 
144 


2 to 3 


S. 43 50E 


N.42 57W 


278 


3 to 4 


S. 30 17E 


N.31 27 W 


417 


4 to 5 


S. 44 15 W 


K.43 27E 


482 


5 to 6 .. 


S.60 43W 


S. 60 43 W 


470 


6to7 


S. 70 41 W 


N.42 57 W 


453 


7 to 8 


N.86 45 W 













BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 




mm ^ 



^^ 






j %b 






Ll 

e 
s 
>. 
e 
»f 
e 

e 




.s 
•e 
e 

is 

a 
1- 
;r 

s. 

s, 
:e 



"21 

si 
tl 

^ 
•w 

la 

u 
tl 

fi 
tl 
\\ 

ti. 

qi 

ci 

tt 
ej 
tl 

ol 

(e 
Id 

to 



fc 

w 
T 
1, 



11 



4' 

5 

6; 

7' 



HOPETON WORKS. 23 

The lengths of the sides, diameters, and diagonals ascertained from a 
carefully drawn plat of large scale are as follows : 

Feet I Feet 

From 11 to 2 908 I From 1 to 5 1,008 



From 2 to 4 883 

From 4tol2 910 

From 12 to 11 868 

The inner angles are as follows : 

O / 

That at station 1 coutaiDs 163 21 

That at station 2 contains 103 53 

That at station 3 contains 166 27 

That at station 4 contains 105 28 



From3tol0 1,005 

From4toll 1,250 

From 2 to 12 1.272 



That at station 5 contains 163 32 

That at station 12 contains 103 40 

That at station 10 contains 168 30 

That at station 11 contains 105 06 



It is apparent from these figures and from the plat (Pl.VII.) that this 
inclosure is comparatively regular, the opposite angles with one excep- 
tion differing less than half a degree and the exceptional one differing 
from its opposite but 2^. 

Nevertheless the regularity is not such as would be expected from 
the use of instruments. 

The diameter as given by Messrs. Squier and Davis is 950 feet, and 
the area according to their calculation is 18 acres. According to the 
resurvey the diameter in one direction (measuring to the intersections 
of the middle lines of the walls) is 1,008 feet and in the other 1,005. 
That Messrs. Squier and Davis are to be understood as counting to the 
middle of the walls is to be inferred from the fact that the diameter of 
the circle was evidently measured in this way. Assuming they were 
correct in reference to the circle it follows, of necessity, that their meas- 
urements of the octagon are erroneous, the diameter given being 50 feet 
too short, and the area 2.6 acres too small, 20.6 acres being the true 
area. 

HOPETOX WORKS. (AXC. MOX., PL. XVII.) 

The only parts of this group we notice here are the large circle and 
the connected square. 

These works are situated on the general level of the Scioto Valley, 
desi£:nated by Squier and Davis ** the second terrace," which here stands 
about 30 feet above the river level. The walla of the circle and square 
are yet very distinct, and with the exception of a single break in the 
circle can be readily traced. In fact, the lowest point of the square is 
yet 5 feet high. The circle is more worn, the western half averaging 
about 2 feet high, while the eastern half is lower, fading out for a 
short distance near the northeast corner of the square. They are situ- 
ated close to the foot of the bluff which forms the slope to the upper 
level, here between 30 and 40 feet above that on which the work stands. 

As will be seen by reference to the plate in Ancient Monuments, 
instead of a passage-way between the circle and square, the two are 
here in direct contact, part of the circular wall forming a large portioa 
of the north line of the square. 



24 



GEOMETRICAL EARTHWORKS OF OHIO. 



Mr, Middleton's field-notes of the survey of these are as follows: 
First, the square. — The square, in this case, was station 1 at the south- 
west corner at the intersection of the two adjoining lines of wall. 

Survey of the square of the Hopeton icorks. 



station. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Bemarks. 


Ito 2... 


O ' 

N.20 17 W 


Feet. 
244 
336.5 
55.5 
324 
283 
508 
115 
207 
355 
331 
201 
340 
285 


To center first gateway. 

To the end of wall at second gateway. 

Across the second gateway. 

To intersection at northwest comer of the 

To the wall of circle. 

To the intersection at northeast corner of 

To first gateway. 

To second gateway. 

To gateway of small circle. 

To intersection at southeast comer. 

To first gateway. 

To second gateway. 

To place ot beginning. 




2to S... 
3to 4... 


N.17 low 

N. 8 00 W 




4 to 5... 


N.12 02 W 


sqaare. 


5 to 6... 


N.70 27E 


Cto 7... 


N.70 27E 


sqnare. 


7to 8... 


S. 54 OOE 


8to 9... 


S. 27 OOE 




9 to 10... 


S. 19 OOE 




10 to 11... 


S. 2 00W 




lltol2... 


S. 68 00 W 




12tol3... 


S. 71 21 W 




13 to 1... 


S. 72 25 W 











Second, the circle. — The commencement on the south side at station G 

where the circle connects with the wall of the square running frona 

station to station. 

Survey of the circle of the Hopeton works. 



6t^20.. 

6to28.. 

6 to 36.. 
20 to 28.. 
20 to 36.. 
28 to 36.. 



station 6 
to— 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Width of 
wall. 


Remarks. 


14 


o / 
N.71 53 W 


Feet. 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

100 
98 


Feet. 
42 
38 
40 
42 
44 
45 
44 
46 
42 
41 
40 
43 
40 
40 
45 
40 




15 


N.63 39W 




16 


N.55 29 W 




17 


N.41 00 W 




18 


N.25 21 W 




19 


N.12 20 W 




20 


N. 30 E 




21 .... 


N.14 52E 




22 


N.22 40 E 




23 


N.33 28E 




24 


N.47 57E 


Outside half of wall worn. 


25 


N.55 57 E 


26 ... 


N.63 45E 




27 


N.78 22E 




28 


S. 86 04E 




29 


S. 81 24 E 




30 


S. 64 05E 


36 Ttr. '' 


31 


S. 53 27E 




Outlines ohliterated. Width not ascertained:^ 


32 


S. 46 20E 


36 


33 


S. 40 15E 


Do 


34 


S. 20 16 E 


30 
30 
38 
39 


Outlines not easily traced. 
Do 


35 


S. 5 32E 


30 


S. 4 low 


Do 


37 


S. 16 48 W 


Station on end of wall 


38 


S. 31 56 W 


Wall obliterated between stations 36 and 37. 


39 


S. 42 00 W 


48 
41 
43 
40 

41 
40 


18 feet back to center of end of wall of square. 


40 


S. 57 11 W 


41 


S. 63 35 W 




42 


S. 65 31 W 


Station on end of wall at gateway. Gateway 
35 feet wide. 


43 


S. 86 11 W 


To 6 


N.84 32 W 











Check lines. 



N. 38 35 W 
N.IO 09 B. 
N.57 17 E. 
N.51 04 E. 
S. 84 09 E. 
S. 38 37 E. 



614 
968.5 
726 
723 
1,015 
711 






r 
f 



18 
lU 


I 15 



% 



w 



3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



W 

St 

St 



14. 
15 
16 
17 

18, 
19. 
20. 
21, 
23. 
23. 
24. 
25 
26. 
27. 
28, 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33, 
34 
35 
30 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 

43 



6 
6 
6 

20 
20 
28 



LIBERTY TOWNSHIP WORKS. 25 

These inclosures are drawn to a regular scale in Pis. VIII and IX. 

It is apparent from PI. VIII, which represents the square according 
to the resurvey, that the form given in Ancient Monuments, PL 
XVII, is erroneous in that it is much more regular than the facts war- 
rant. Neither side is straight, nor is there a right angle at any point. It 
is not regular in any sense, but was doubtless intended for a square. 
Measuring the direct lines from corner to corner the lengths are as fol- 
lows : That from stations 1 to 5, is 957 feet ; from 5 to 7, is 791 feet ; 
from 7 to 11, is 962 feet, and from 11 to 1, is 825 feet. Messrs. Squier 
and Davis say it is a rectangle with a length of 950 feet and a width of 
900 feet. 

The circular inclosure (PI. IX) varies considerably from a true figure, 
the east and west diameter being 1,018 feet, while that running north 
and south is only OGD feet, the difference between the two being 58 feet. 
^N^or is the curve uniform, being much sharper at some points than at 
others. 

LIBERTY TOWNSHIP WORKS. (aNC. MOX., PL. XX.) 

These works have been much injured by the plow, the large circle be- 
ing almost entirely obliterated. There is also a considerable gap in the 
small circle untraceable. The walls of the square as well as the inclosed 
mounds have been worn down until at present they are only from one 
to two feet high. 

As the smaller circle has already been described and figured and the 
field-notes of the resurvey given, no further notice will be taken of it 
here. 

The square. — This inclosure, shown in PI. X, presents quite a regular 
figure closely approximating a square. Mr. Middleton's field-notes are 
as follows, commencing at station a, the southern corner; the stations 
are at the intersections of the lines of the walls : 

Survey of the square of Liberty Towuship works. 



station. 




Bearing. 


Distance. 


a to & ... . 


o / 

N".47 14E 


Feet 
1 108 


6 to c .... 


N.42 41 W 


1, 100 


c to d 


S. 47 06 W 


1,110 


dtoe 


S. 44 HE 


535 


e to a.... 


8. 41 24E 


568 









The notes showing the position of the arm /(/ leading to the large 
circle are as follows : 

Feet. 

Froin€to/:S. 41° 24' E 521 

From f tog: N. 84° 10' W 185 

A direct line from ato d runs N. 42^ 52' W., exactly 1,100 feet. 



26 GEOMETRICAL EARTHWORKS OF OHIO. 

The survey was in fact made by triangulation ; the angles being as 

follows : 

Ata(eab) ." 88° 38' 

At h (a be) 90O 0.V 

Ate (bed) 89° 47' 

Atdicde) 860 43' 

Ateidea) 182^ 47' 

The angles at a and d^ using the direct line between them, aie as fol- 
lows : 

At a {dab) 90^06' 

At d{cd a) 90^02' 

The following are the check lines: 

Feet. 

Diagonal from a to c N. 30 40' E 1,566 

Diagonal from b to d 1, 561 

Diameter running northeast and southwest 1, 095 

Diameter extended to the direct line between a and d 1, 102 

Diameter running northwest and southeast 1, 104 

These diameters are measured from the middle of the gateways in 
the sides. 

THE BAUM WORKS. (ANC. MON., PL. XXI, NO. 1.) 

Although a complete resurvey of these works was made it is not 
thought necessary to introduce here the notes relating to any part 
except the square. We may remark, however, that the resurvey of 
the circular portion revealed no very essential variation from the figure 
given in Ancient Monuments. 

The square, most of which has long been in a pasture, is rather more 
distinct and prominent than such remains usually are, the walls being 
from 2 to 4 feet high and the gateways well marked, though no traces 
of the inclosed mounds remain. The circular portions of the works are 
mucli worn, and two sections of considerable length are so nearly obliter- 
ated that the line can not be traced through them with any certainty. 

Mr. Middleton's field-notes relating to the square are as follows, 
commencing at station a at the western corner: 

Survey of the square of the Baum works. 



Station. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Width of 
wall. 


Length 
of sides 
(whole 
length). 


€1 to & .... 


O ' 

K59 17 E 


Feet. 
651 
557 
561 
568 
.'i56 
557 
560 
557 


Feet. 
49? 
565 
50 f 
35 5 
33? 
33 i 
56? 
57 j 


Feet. 


6 to c 


N.59 17E 


1,108 


« tod 


S. 30 12 E 


1,129 


dtoe .... 


S. 30 12E 


e to/ 


S. 59 44 W 


1,113 


/ton.... 
gioh.... 
A to a 


S. 59 44 W 


N.29 56 AV 


1,117 


N.2a 56 W 









BUREAU OF ETHNOLOOY 



^ .»XTi» '• '■ 




BAUM WORKS. 



27 



For the arm leading to large circle (given only in part here) begin at 
station c at the north corner of the square, and run as follows : 

Survey of arm connecting circle and square. 



Station. 


BeariDg. 


Distance. 


Kemarks. 


ctok 


/ 
S. 30 12E 


Feet. 

102 k indicates the point where the arm 

connects with the square. 
54 • 


Jfc to 1 . . . 


S. 81 OOE ; 


1 to2 


S. 63 21 E 


50 


2 to 3 


S. 52 21E 


50l 


3 to 1 . 


S. 64 OOE 


145 ' 1 indiratAfl thn pnil nf thn rtort.ion 








of the arm shown in the figure. 



Check lines. 



htod 

gtoc 

btof .... 



N.59 27 E. 
N.14 29 E. 
S. 30 OOE. 



1.112 
].58t 
1,124 



The angles at the corners are— 



a 90^47' 

c 89^20' 



e 90^04' 

g 89° 40' 



It is apparent from these notes and PI. XI, representing this inclosure, 
that it approximates very closely a true square. The greatest variation 
at the corner from a right angle is only 47'. The average length of the 
sides is 1,117 feet, from which the extreme variation is only 12 feet, the 
difference between extremes being but 21 feet. 

As the structure and contents of the few mounds which appear to be 
connected with these works may hav^e some bearing on the question of 
the origin, age, and uses ot the circles and squares, the description will 
be given here of one connected with the Baum works just mentioned, 
which are those figured in No. 1, PL xxi (see Fig. 3 hereof), Ancient 
Monuments. The mound referred to is that designated in this figure 
as a "Square pyramidal mound." It was carefully explored by my as- 
sistant, Mr. B. L. Keynolds, whose report is as follows : 

THE ** PYRAMIDAL MOUND," BAUM WORKS. 

This mound is distant from Mr. Middleton's station No. 28 in his recent 
survey of these works N. 21^ 30' W. l.,420 feet. In the work of Messrs. 
Squier and Davis the height is given as 15 feet and diameter 125 feet. 
Its present height is 12 feet above the level of the surrounding surface, 
and its present diameter from 135 to 140 feet. This difference is due to 
the annual disturbance of its surface by plow and freshet. The same 
agencies have likewise destroyed its pyramidal form, and it resembles 
now, instead, an upturned wash basin. The mound w as composed for 
the most part of clay mottled considerably with black loam and slightly 
in some places with patches of a grayish plastic lime. Two cross trenches 
were sunk due north and south and east and west, respectively. The 



28 



GEOMETRICAL EARTHWORKS OP OHIO. 



breadth of these at the side ^as from five to six feet, but as they pen- 
etrated inwards they widened gradually so that at the center the excava- 
tion became 13 feet in diameter. Considerable lateral digging was done 
from these trenches to uncover skeletons and other indications appear- 
ing in their sides. 




^^tuxre fruncated 



N? f. 






¥ 
f ^ 




/t^^^^^*^^;!? 



SCALE 



^ ^-J^^'is— -r.-*- 1000 ft. to IndK. 
Fig. 8. Copy of Fig. Ko. 1, pi. xxi, Ancient Monuments. 

Two series of upright post molds, averaging 5 inches in diameter^ 
equidistant 10 inches, and forming a perfect circle 36 feet in diameter^ 
constitute a pre eminent feature of this mound. Within these circular 
palings the mound was penetrated systematically by thin seams of fine 
sand sagging in the center and averaging 1 foot apart, llesting upon 
the natural black loam at the bottom, timbers averaging 8 inches in 
diameter radiated from the center, and in the south and west trenchea 
were noticed to extend continuously to the posts. These timbers were 
detected, for the most part, by their burnt remains, and also by the 
molds of dark earth in the yellow clay produced by the decomposition 
of wood. Directly over these timbers was a horizontal line of decayed 
and burnt wood, but mostly decayed, averaging half an inch thicks 
The upright post molds of the lower series were very distinct, and 
measured 5 feet in vertical height In one was found a small sliver 
of what appeared to be black walnut. Several of them contained the 
burnt remains of wood, and in many of these instances the black bark 
was clinging to the sides. 



THOMAS BULLETIN PL X 



il)>llll)li|ll\lllllllll!l^ ""/ 



,C. 







■ m 



m% 




mmw 



29 

reference 
md there 



' ^tssiSz/cCoA/.y. 



), while a 
I westeju 
' which it 
structure;, 
jctly over 
r entirely 
:he upper 
ited orig- 
iscovered 
onsidera- 
diameter, 
gainst the 
^ These 
purposes. 
)ticed by 

ons were 
tions, the 
)n, being 
skeletons 
n. None 
ion above 
lay upon 
stretched 
th knees 



28 

breacUli 
et rated iri 
tiDQ becar 
from tlies< 
m^x in the 



A/.i'^ ^ 



m^, 



■^^i 






9-5.U\ i^ 






f -''<5;.J, 



■^ 



Two se 
equi-dista 
constitute 
palings tl 
sand sagg 
the natui 
diameter 
were uoti 
detected, 
molds of 
of wood, 
and burn 
The uprig 
measured 
of what n 
burnt ren 
was clinff 



M 




'.\i 



^ 



PYRAMIDAL MOUND, BAUM WORKS. 



29 



Separating this from the superstructure, as will be seen by reference 
to Fig. 4, was a thin sagging streak of burnt clay. Here and there 




Section b. 
Fig. 4. Sections A and B of Pyramidal Mound, Baum works. 

upon its surface scant traces of black wood ashes were seen, while a 
small quantity of white bone ashes lay scattered upon its western 
border. This burnt streak overlaid a thin sand seam, below which it 
seems it could not penetrate. The post molds of the superstructure;, 
consisted of a double row, the outer line being uniformly directly over 
the lower series in a vertical line, and separated from the latter entirely 
around the circle by a solid line of gravel. The two rows of the upper 
structure averaged 18 inches apart. Both might have penetrated orig- 
inally beyond the surface of the mound, since they were discovered 
between 1^ and 2 feet beneath the surface, which had been considera- 
bly plowed. Horizontal timber molds, a little smaller in diameter, 
filled in places with charcoal, could be distinctly seen lying against the 
side of each line of posts at the points shown in the figure. These 
appear to have been cross-beams or stays used for bracing purposes. 
In the eastern trench a gap 3 feet and 2 inches wide was noticed by 
the absence of post molds in both upper and lower series. 

Within the area inclosed by these posts, all the skeletons were 
interred. These lay at different depths and in different positions, the 
favorite or predominant one, at least in the upper portion, being 
just inside and alongside of the inner circle of palings. The skeletons 
unearthed were all in a remarkably good state of preservation. None 
of them could have been intrusively buried, for the stratification above 
them was not disturbed. All excepting Nos. 15, IC, and 17, lay upon 
one or another of the thin seams of sand. All except No. 6 lay stretched 
out at full length. The latter lay partly upon the side with knees 



30 GEOMETRICAL EARTHWORKS OF OHIO. 

drawn up and bead crouched down upon the ribs as though originally 
placed in a sitting posture. All except Nos. 10 and 11 had the arms 
and bands placed at the sides. The right arm of skeleton ]^o. 10 lay 
bent across the stomach. The right arm of skeleton No. 11 was bent 
so that the bands touched the chin. From both jaws of this latter 
skeleton all the teeth bad been extracted before interment. 

With skeleton No. 1 a bone implement was found at the back of the 
cranium, and an incised shell and fragments of a jar at the right side of 
it. With skeleton No. 2, which was that of a child about ten years old, 
a small clay vessel was found 5 inches behind the cranium. At the 
left band of skeleton No. 3 was a shell such as is found among the sands 
of Paint Creek. A bone implement was at the back of the cranium of 
No. 4. With skeleton No. 7 were found a lot of small semi-perforated 
shell beads and two bone implements directly back of the cranium. By 
the right side of the cranium were the perfect skull and jaws of a wolf, 
and beneath this were two perforated ornaments of shell. In the right 
band was a shell, such as is found in the creek near by, while in the 
left was a pipe fashioned from stone. 

At the right of the feet of this skeleton was the extremity of an oh- 
long ash pit, about 4 feet long and 2 feet broad, and 1 foot 10 inches in 
depth. It was filled with white ashes which were evidently those of 
hitman bones since none but human bones could be identified. In these 
a^bes and compactly filled with them was an earthen pot. It lay at the 
right of the feet of skeleton No. 7. It was lifted out of the ashes with 
great care, but the weight of its contents and its rotten condition caused 
it to break in pieces before it could be replaced upon the ground. Nu- 
merous other pieces of pottery of a similar character were found in 
these ashes, and it is not improbable, from the indications, that all the.se 
ashes were originally placed in pots before interment. A perforated 
shell dish two inches in diameter and a lump of soggy sycamore wood 
were gatliered from the ashes. Neither wood nor shell bore any signs 
of having been burnt. These ashes could not have been buried intru- 
sively since the sand layer above them was undisturbed. 

Skeleton No. 9 lay 7 feet deep and a half foot below the general 
burnt streak. It was originally covered with a wooden structure of 
some kind, for the cores of two red cedar timbers were resting length- 
wise upon the body, and the burnt remains of probably two others 
could be plainly seen on each side placed parallel to those upon the 
body. This red cedar was still sound, but the white wood which envel- 
opes the red cores seemed to be entirely in a charcoal condition. The 
indications are that these timbers were originally 1 foot above the body, 
for the earth to that extent over the whole length of the body was very 
soft. The timbers were noticed to extend slightly beyond the head 
and feet, while the bead upon which they lay was upon its right side. 
The earth above them was a mixture of clay and fine sand, and pecu- 
liarly moist. The length of this skeleton to ankle bones was C feet 



THOMAS BULLETIN PL Xi 




il 

its 

la 

wd 

be- 

ed 

ed 

lar 

en. 

in- 

di- 

les 

.of 

ost 

,2, 

OS. 



Ht- 




the 
the 
aks 
d 5 
and 
•ore 
oist 
.s a 

tof 
was 
ary- 
irnt 
iter- 
rom 
oint 
uite 
aess 
Bd a 
ery. 
ting 



,lay 
that 



3^ 

an 
be 
so 
sU 

en 

it. 

a 

lei 

of 

N« 

sb 

tu 

an 
ba 

lel 

loi 

de 

ht 

a^ 

rij 

gr 

it 

m< 

th 

as 

sb 

w< 

of 

si^ 

bu 
so 
wi 

CO 

bo 
op 
in< 
foi 
so; 
an 
Tl 
lia 



1 



PYRAMIDAL MOUND, BAUM WORKS. 31 

and 1 iuch. Two bone implements were found at its bead, and at its 
rigbt side near tbe bead were two fragments of polisbed tubes and a 
bollow point of bone whieb bore unmistakable signs of having been shaped 
with a steel Icnife (see Fig. 5). Tbese bone implements were found be- 
neath tbe right elbow of skeleton No. 10. Skeleton No. 11 corresponded 
in level and conditions to skeleton No. 9. Thetimber, however, seemed 
to have nearly all decayed, since only a few small pieces of red cedar 
could bo gathered, and scarcely any traces of black ashes could be seen. 
The earth, however, for about a foot above was very soft, and two tim- 
ber molds at this level were distinctly traceable, extending from the di- 
rection of the skeleton's side to a foot and a half beyond its feet. Bones 
of deer and bear, stag antlers, mussel shells, and many fragments of 
coarse pottery were found in the west trench 9J feet beyond the post 
molds. 

It will be observed, if reference is had to the figure, that Nos. 1, 2, 
5, and 7 are all upon the same sand layer as Nos. 4 and 6. Nos, 




Fig. 5. Bone from Pyramidal Moand. 

9, 11, and 12 also correspond in depth, but they did not, like the 
others, rest upon sand. Fragmentary human bones, disturbed by the 
plow, were found corresponding in depth to the topmost sand streaks 
shown in the diagram. Black walnut timber, measuring 4 feet and 5 
inches above the general burnt streak, was found in a decayed and 
soaked condition at the point indicated in the figure. One end bore 
the marks of having been burnt. The soil around it was mostly a moist 
dark loam mixed with patches of what has been above described as a 
grayish plastic lime. 

A foot and a half beneath the surface and a little to the southeast of 
the center, a curious double fire-bed or hearth was uncovered. It was 
about 5 feet in diameter. Uppermost was a layer of white ashes vary- 
ing from one to two inches in thickness. They were the ashes of burnt 
shell and bone, but no bone could be found suflBciently large to deter- 
mine whether or not it was human. Beneath this was burnt clay from 
4 to 5 inches thick, resting upon a layer of sand, which at this point 
was between 2 and 3 inches deep. The surface of this sand was quite 
hard. Directly beneath it came another bed of ashes of equal thickness 
with the one above, and of like composition except that it contained a 
quantity of black wood ashes and several broken pieces of pottery. 
Below this appeared burnt clay again, from 4 to G inches deep, resting 
as before ui>on a thin layer of sand. 

A hearth somewhat similar to this, but lacking its double feature, lay 
almost directly beneath this last upon the general burnt streak that 
has been heretofore described. 



52 GEOMETRICAL EARTHWORKS OF OHIO. * 

This mound is situated upon the edge of the first general bottom 
from Paint Creek, which, though protected by a huge levee, is annually 
inundated. In overflow times the smaller circle of the adjoining in- 
closure is almost entirely submerged, and the summit of the mound is 
the only land visible above a broad expanse of water. Around the 
mound, upon all sides, particularly to tbe east, are traces of former'ln- 
dian occupation. Numerous fragments of pottery, similar in texture, 
fabrication, and ornamental features to those found in the mound, be- 
strew the plowed ground. These were intermingled with the valves of 
mussel shells, pitted stones, shell disks, human bones, arrow-heads, 
pieces of perforated stbue gorgets, and innumeraWe quantities of 
<;hipped flint. Specimens of all were collected and forwarded to Wash- 
ington with the relics taken from the mound. 

REMARKS. 

As it is not our intention to attempt at this time a full discussion of 
the questions raised by the data presented in the preceding pages, we 
^hall limit our remarks chiefly to suggestions. 

The close approximation to geometrical regularity in the Observatory 
and High Bank circles, and the Newark, Liberty Township, and Baum 
squares is to be admitted beyond further question. The approach to 
regularity in the octagons at Newark and High Bank, though deserv- 
ing notice, is not soclos*. ao in the square and circular inclosures men-, 
tioned. 

The first question which presents itself in view of these facts is. 
How are we to reconcile them with the theory that the works were built 
by Indians'? 

As before stated, we shall not attempt at this time a thorough dis- 
cussion of this and other questions which arise in reference to these 
ancient works 5 nevertheless we may as well suggest some thoughts and 
note some facts which may aid in solving the problems. 

A careful study of these works and of all the data bearing upon the 
questions regarding them, will satisfy any one, not biased by a precon- 
ceived theory, that their characteristics are essentially aboriginal. In 
other words, there is nothing in them or connected with them contra- 
<lictory to the theory of their Indian origin, except it be the single fact 
that a few of them approach very nearly to true geometrical figures. 
That it was a custom among the Indians north and south to build 
circular inclosures and forts, is fully attested by history 5 it is also 
known that some of the Indian forts in the northern section were po- 
lygonal, especially those built by Iroquois tribes. There is, therefore, 
nothing in the form or arrangement that is inconsistent with Indian 
ideas and usages. On the other hand, there is nothing in their form or 
construction consistent with the idea that their conception is due to 
European influence. There are, however, indications relating to indi- 
vidual works which forbid this idea. I will mention but one of these. 






REMARKS. 33 

The Hopeton works are situated close to the foot of a bluflf which over- 
looks the whole area that they embrace. Such a location is uot con- 
sistent with European ideas of a defensive position. 

The great age that has been attributed to them is simply theory 
without any adequate facts upon which to base it. The suggestion 
that the works are found only on the older terraces, far above overflow, 
is contradicted by the evidence, for the works along Paint Creek are, in 
truth, on the valley level, and some of them are subject to overflow from 
the creek. A part of the Seip inclosure (Anc. Mon., pi. xxi, 'No. 2) is 
built in a washout from the creek, which is certainly an indication that 
its age is not very great. The facts brought out by the exploration 
of the " Pyramidal Mound " of the Baum works as heretofore given, 
are worthy of consideration in this connection as indicating the age of 
the structure. It is true that the connection of the mound with the 
inclosure is not absolutely established ; yet their relation to each other 
is such as to raise a strong presumption that they belong to the same 
age and were built by one people. The condition of the inclosures, 
where they are not injured by the plow, is not calculated to inspire the 
observer with the idea that they belong to a very remote antiquity 5 
in fact their appearance — as for example the Fair-Ground Circle — con- 
stantly impresses the idea upon the mind that they are of comparatively 
recent date. 

The discovery in the mounds of this section, presumably of the same 
age, of numerous indications of contact with Europeans, which can not 
be mentioned here, must also be allowed to have some bearing upon the 
question of the age of these works. 

That Indians can lay out true circles of moderate size will be ad- 
mitted ; that they are less able now to perform many things which ne- 
cessity formerly compelled them to practice must also be admitted. Ko 
valid reason can be presented why Indians, taught by necessity and 
practice, could not lay off by the eye and by means at hand figures 
with which they were familiar more correctly than the white man with- 
out instruments. 

11867 3 



INDEX, 



A. 

Page. 
Ancient Monuments. {See Sqaier and 

Davis.) 
Atwater, Caleb, cited on Newark works . . 13 

Asbes in mound of Baum works 30, 31 

B. 

Baum works 26-32 

Measurements 26,27 

Pyramidal mound ., 27-32 

Bone implement from 30, 31 

C. 

Cbarcoal in Baum works monnd 29 

Circle, Liberty Townsbip works 10, 11 

Newark works 15-17,19,20 

Higb Bank works 20-22 

Hopeton works 24 

F. 

Fair-ground circle, Newark 13, 19, 20 

H. 

Hearth in mound of Baum works • 31 

Higb Bank works 14,20-23 

Area 11 

Circle 20-22 

Octagon 14,22,23 

Hopeton works 14,23-25 

Square 14,24 

Circle 24 

I. 

Indian structures 32, 33 

Iroquois built circular forts 32 

L. 

Liberty Township works 8-12, 25, 20, 32 

Circle 10,11 

Measurement 25, 26 

Square 25,32 

Licking County Agricultural Society, 
works on fairgroimds of. {See Fair- 
ground works.) 

M. 

Marietta works, Squier and Davis on 13, 14 

Middleton, James D.. surveys and meas- 
urements by 11, 15, 20, 21, 24-27 

Montgomery County works 14 



N. 

Page. 

Newark works 12-14,15-20 

Area 12-14 

Observatory circle 15-17 

Octagon 17 

Square 18 

Fair-ground circle 19,20 

O. 

Observatory circle, Newark woiks 15-17 

Octagon, High Bank works 14,22,23 

Newark works 17 

P. 

Paint Creek Valley, works in 14, 30, 32, 33 

Pottery about Baum works 81, 32 

E. 

Ileynolds, H. L., report on the pyramidal 

• mound of the Baum works 27-32 

S. 

Scioto (formerly Seal) Township works . . 14, 15 

Scioto Valley, works in 12,14,23 

Seal (Scioto) Township works 14, 1 5 

Seip iuclosure, modern 33 

Skeletons in mound of Baum works 29-31 

Square, Hopeton works 14,24 

Newark 17,18,32 

Liberty Township works 25, 32 

Squier and Davis, relative accuracy 

of 7,8,12,14,15,25 

On Liberty Township works 8, 9, 12 

On Marietta works 13,14 

On Newark works 13,15-18 

On Montgomery County works 14 

On High Bank works 20, 21 

On Hopeton works 23-25 

On Liberty works 25 

On Baum works 26,27 

On Seip inclosure 33 

W. 

Whittlesey, Charles, survey of Marietta 

works by 14 

Surve y of Newark works by 12, 13, 18, 19 

35 



r- 



1 



W\i 



LIBRARY CATALOGUE SLIPS. 

Smithsonian institution. Bureau of ethnology. 
« Smithsonian institution | Bureau of ethnology : J. W. Powell, 

s director | — | Omaha and Ponka letters | by | James Owen Dor- 
I sey I [Vignette] | 

£ Washington | governnrent printing office | 1891 

8o. 127 pp. 



Dorsey (James Owen). 

Smithsonian institution | Bureau of ethnology: J. W. Powell, 
S director | — | Oraaha and Ponka letters | by | James Owen Dor- 
fc sey I [Vignette] | 

J Washington | government printing office | 1891 

I 8o. 127 pp. 

[Smithsonian inbtitution. Bureau of ethnology. ] 



I 
2 



Smithsonian institution | Bureau of ethnology : J. W. Powell, 
director | — | Omaha and Ponka letters | by | James Owen Dor- 
sey I [Vignette] | 

Washington | government printing office | 1891 

8o. 127 pp. 

[SMriHSONiAN INSTITUTION. Bureau of ethnology.] 



SMITHttONIAN INSTITUTION 

BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY, J. W. POWELL, DIKECTOR 



J/_ 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS 



BY 



JAMES OWEN DORSET 




WASHINGTON 

gOYPRJilVJENT PRINTINa OFFIOIJ 

189X 






LIBRARY OF THE 
MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 




THIS BOOK IS DEPOSITED TEMPORARILY 
IN THE LIBRARY OF THE 



LlBHARy OF 7Ht 
f£A80Dy MUSEUM 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 5 

Explanation of characters occurring in the texts 5 

Abbreviations 7 

Omaha and Ponka letters 9 

3 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 



By J. Owen Dorset. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Since 1872, it has been the good fortune of the author to record two 
hundred and thirty-eight letters (epistles) in the <})egiha, which is the 
language spoken by the Omaha and Ponka tribes of North American 
Indians. 

One hundred and sixty-one of these letters, with numerous myths, 
legends, and historical papers, appear in "Contributions to North 
American Ethnology. Vol. vi. The (pegiha language. Myths, Stories, 
and Letters;'' and it has been decided to publish the rest of the letters 
in the present form. 

It is thought that the accompanying texts will be found interesting, 
not only because of their linguistic value, but also on account of their 
sociologic references. 

EXPLANATION OF CHARACTERS OCCURRING IN THE TEXTS. 

a as in father ; German, haben. 

a+ a prolonged a; always a final sound. 

a° a nasalized a. 

a°+ a prolonged nasalized a. 

*a an initially exploded a. 

^a» a nasalized *a. 

a nearly as a in wJiat^ and o in hot; German, man sagt. 

^a an initially exploded a, as in w^s'a, snalce. 

^° a nasalized a. 

a as in hat. 

b as in he^ rub. 

c as sh in shall. 

a medial sh^ between sh and zh. Not synthetic. Occurs be- 

fore n in <|)egiha and before n and r in joiwere. 

§ as th in thin (not used in (|)egiha). A j,oiwere sound. 

6 a medial th or g (not heard in (pegiha). A xoiwere sound. 

Not synthetic. 

^ as th in then^ the. See r. 

5 



; INTRODUCTION. 

(1 as in do; German, das; French, de. Used in (fegiha. See r. 

e as in they; German, Dehnung ; French, dL 

e+ a prolonged e. 

'e an initially exploded e. 

g as in then; German, denn; French, sienne. 

'S an initially exploded ^, as in i°'6, stone; ukit'6, enemy j joint. 

g as in go; QeTmsm, geben. 

h as in he; German, haben, 

h (Dakota letter) as German ch in ach. See g. 

q (Pawnee sound) an evanescent ^, a slight " puff" after a vowel. 

i as iupiqtie, machine; German, ihn; French, Ue. 

i+ a prolonged i. 

4 an initially exploded i. 

i" a nasalized i. 

» 

i"+ a prolonged nasalized i. 

4" a nasalized *t. 

i asin|>m; German, mZZ. 

1° a nasalized i. 

j as ;2^ in azure; j as in French, Jacques. 

k as in A;icA;; German, Kind; French, quart. 

51 a medial A; (between k and ^). Modified initially; not syn- 
thetic. 

k' an exploded Jc. 

m as in miiie; German, Mutter. 

n as in nun; German, Nonne; French, ne. 

ii as ng in sing^ singer. In j^oiwere it is often used when not fol- 
lowed by a fc-mute. 

p as in pipe. 

d a medial p (between p and b). Modified initially ; not syn- 
thetic. 

p' an exploded p, 

q as German ch in ich; Hebrew, Jch. 

r as in roar. Not used in (f egiha. A synthetic sound in j^oi- 
were and Winnebago. 

s as in so. Corresponds to the j^oiwere g. 

s a medial s (between s and z). Modified initially ; not syn- 
thetic. Occurs before n. 

t as in touch. 

% a medial t (between t and d). Modified initially; not syn- 
thetic. 

t' an exploded t. 

u as in rule, or as oo in tool; German, du; French, doux. 

u+ a prolonged u. 

*u an initially exploded u. 

u^ a nasalized u; rare in <|)egiha, common in j^oiwere. 

u°+ a prolonged nasalized u. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

'u" a nasalized 'w; rare in (pegiha, common in j^oiwere. 

ti as in pull^full^ or as oo in foot; German, tmd. 

ii° a nasalized U; rare in (pegiha, common in j,oiwere. 

ii an umlaut, as in German, Uber. Common in Kansa and 

Osage 'y not used in <|)egiha. 

w as in wish; nearly as ou in French oui. 

X gh; or nearly as the Arabic ghain. The sonant of q. 

z as 2f and 8 in zones; German, Rase; French, z^le. 

dj as J* m judge (rare). 

tc as ch in churchy and c in Italian- cielo ; Spanish, achaque. 

!\o a medial ch (or tc), i. e. a sound between te and dj (tsh and dzh). 

Modified initially; not synthetic. Common in j^oiwere and 
Osage ; not used in <})egiha. 

tc' an exploded te. 

ai as in aisle. 

au as 010 in hotc, cow; German, Haus. 

Every syllable ends in a vowel, pure or nasalized. When a consonant 
appears at the end of a word or syllable, it is a sign of contraction. 

Almost every sound described in this list cm be prolonged. When 
the prolongation is merely rhetorical, it is given in the notes and omit- 
ted in the text. Prolongations in the t^xts are usually interjections. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

The following abbreviations are used in the notes and interlinear 
translations : 

F. Frank La Flfeche, jr. 

G. George Miller. 
J. Joseph La Fl^che. 
L. Louis Sanssouci. 
W. Wadjepa (Samuel Fremont), 
sub. subject, 
ob. object, 
col. collective. 

Brackets mark superfluous additions to the texts. 
Words within parentheses were omitted by the narrator, but, in most 
cases, they are needed to complete the sense. 



St. 


sitting. 


std. 


standing. 


Ig. 


long. 


reel. 


reclining. 


mv. 


moving. 


an. 


animate. 


in. 


inanimate. 


Pl. 


plnral. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 



HEQAGA SAB£ TO H. G. NICHOLS. 

Wakan'da ak4 nlaci°'ga waqpdni da'^'bai 5[!, ^a^^^ai :qi, 

Wakanda the person poor sees him when, pities him when, 

sub. 

ni^dJ^i, ec^. Ada'' nlaci'^'ga iik^^i" bi^i'" ^de ca°' Wakan'da lida'' 

helps yon There- person, common, I was but still Wakanda good 

him, said. fore Indian ordinary 

?A^ica" h^4. Wd*ihfde 'fi t6 zanf ufjia"! ^^l, uga°'ba t6'?a i(^ 3 

towards I go. Tool given the all he helps when, light to the he 

him has 

gone 

uklkiji. j^i lida" ag^i''' ka"'b^a. WikAge Wakari'da^d^ica"" 

near kin- House good I sit I desire. My friend on God's side 

dred. 

ij^je an4*a° ka°'b<^a, ki i'^wiil'^ia" ka°'b((5a. j^i b<^a°' lida'', 

his I hear I desire, and he helps me I desire. House smell good, 

name 

^^ska wab^i"* ucka"" t6 w^wacka'' tat(^, na°b4 <^i^f;ai ^i a°^a4 6 

ox I have deed the strong by means shall, two are yours if tome 

them of them you give 

cka'^'na ^i, [(fi^f^ai] a"^ize anga°'<^ai. Ada" w^wacka";aii'ga 

you wish if, [yours] we take we desire. There- means of strength 

fore 

wan'da'' wAb<^i° ka^'.'b^a. le ^f^a lida'' anA'a''. Pwi"'Aa5[a' 

both to- I have I desire. Word your good I hear. You help me 

gether them 



n 



ka'^'bi^a, kag^(ha). j} lida" ag<fi"' ka°'b((5a, nlaci'^'ga iik^<^i° 9 

I desire, O friend House good I sit I desire, Indian common 

w^^ihlde lida'' ^ij^badi sagf da'^'bai ka'''b(fa. Wakan'da?A(fica" 

tool good at the door . hard they see I desire. Towards^ God 

kag4, cub^^. * * * Ja" g^ddi" u'a"'az6 at'e 5[i'ct6 kiige 

O friend, I go to Cross shadow Idle when- box 

you. ever 

aja°' kg ^tea°'. Wakan'da <^ink^ b^d-maji t6di, w^i^ihlde; 12 

I re- the Ig. should Wakanda the one I do not go when, tool ; 

cline ob. atlea^. who ^ 

w^^e, :>^ska, (j^ska mi'^'ga, kukus6,* wajin'ga-jide, ma^'zepe, 

plow, ox, cow, hog, chicken, ax, 

ja'^'imasg, i'''^6-w^ti°, ma^^'z^ wfugdda'', ja''' ?anga fmas6, 

hand-saw, hammer, nails, crosscut saw, 

ja'^'i^inaii'ge, ja"hi°'be, na"bu^ici°, undji", wa<^Age, ni;a-i(fictfde, 15 

wagon, shoe, gloves, shirt, hat, what makes the 

ears comfortable, 

9 



10 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

q^dina'^sg, qddigasg, wamiisk-ina^^ubg, qddi^izg, can'ge-niide- 

mowingma- scythe, grist-mill, hay-fork, horse-col- 

chine, 

wd^"", :^^ska-Ilude-w^4°, ma'^'ze-ukidtcatca, uqptiji was6s'-uqp^, 

lar, ox-yoke, iron chain, dish closet, earthen dishes, 

3 nl-i^4ta°, ma'^'zun^^g, 4g^i°, uja°', i^'behi'', wamiiskg w^na^'ju 

cnps, stove, chair, bedstead, pillow, threshing machine, 



(ka"'b^a?). Ada" ja"' g^di" u'a°'az6 uda"qti uaha ka-'b^a, 

(I desire). There- cross shadow very good I follow I desire, 

fore its course 

Pwi^'^ai^a^'i 5[l'jl uga"'ba t6 pi ka^'b^a. le <^i<^l;a, kag^, 

Tou (all) help me if light the I I desire. "Word your, O friend, 

ob. reach 
there 

6 and^a"; nSu'de i°'uda°'qti-ma°'. Wakan'dajA^ica'^ h^i. A""'- 

I hare heart it is very good for me. Towards God I go. To- 

heard; 

ba^^ wabdxu ^i^l;a fe and^a"" 5[i'ji, nSri'de i'^'uda", w^aona"" 

day letter your word I hear if, heart good for me, I am thank- 

fal 

h^ga-majl. Pwi^'AaJia" 5[I'jI, w^^ihlde at'a"' et^ga". W^^ihide 

I not a little. You help me if, tool I have apt. Tool 

9 ij4je ab<^4de zanf ka°'b^a. Ca"" Wakan'da .(^in'ke^d^ica'' le 

his I have all I desire. Kow Wakanda the one towards word 

name called 

wi^a zanl a°^4*i ka'''b(fa. Maja""' wl^a ^a" gacibe b<^i°'-majT. 

my all yon give I desire. Land my the outside of lam I-not. 

tome 

Pc^dge pahan'ga ^^ta'^qti ut'al, wahl xiAgig^V' ag^i°', maja''' 

Old man before up to this died in, bone I sit in my I sit, land 

very time own 

12 ^a", Ma" i"'teqi h^ga-majl. 

the there- precious I-not a little, 
ob., fore to me 

NOTES. 

Heqaga sabS, or Bla<5k Elk, a chief of the Ponka Wacjabe gens. His 
name is the Ponka notation of the Dakota Heqaka sapa(nehaka sapa). 
He was baptized in June, 1872, taking the name of John !N'ichols. Mr. 
H. G. Nichols, of Brooklyn, N. Y., wrote to the author, expressing his 
desire to make a present to his Ponka namesake, and sending twenty- 
five dollars for that purpose. This elicited the letter from John Nichols. 

9, 5-8. j} bfa" uda^ . . . wab^i" ka'^b^a. These sentences 
are badly constructed. Judging from analogy, and also from a com- 
parison of the criticisms of three Omahas, John should have said some- 
thing like this: j} b^a"' tida^ wi*^' ka^'b^a hS, kag^ha. x^®^^ 

House smell- good one I desire O friend. Oxen 

ing 

wdb^i^ >{I, w^wacka" wad^xe et6ga^ hS. Aki^a a°^d4 cka^'na jjl, 

I have if, means of I regard apt . Both you give you wish if, 

them strength them me 

b^ize ka"'b*a (ha). Ada^ wewacka'^i^anga, etc. L. rendered this by, 

I take I wish 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTEB8. 11 

*' I wish to be strong on both sides.'' He suggested another transla- 
tion: " I wish to have them together (i. e. your two oxen and my two) for 
gaining strength.'' But G. said (1889) that the sentence refers to hav- 
ing the house as well as the oxen. 

9. 11. An unintelligible sentence is omitted here. 

9. 12. Wakanda fiiike b^a-maji tSdi, wefihide, etc. We can not 
say whether John asked everything for himself only, or for his tribe. 

10, 4. Ada" ja" gfadi", etc. L. rendered this by, "Therefore I wish 
to walk in a good shade of cross-wood (probably boards laid across to 
form a porch in front of his house)." But, judging from the context, 
and some of John's statements at various times, it is more probable that 
the reference is to the cross of Christ, and if so, the sentence must be 
translated, "Therefore I wish to follow the course of the very good 
shadow of the cross." John favored the religion "of the white man," 
as he considered it, on account of its supposed temporal benefits ! 

John Nichols probably heard some of the Dakota ministers speak of 
the " shadow of the cross," as he can speak Dakota. 

TRANSLATION. 

You say that when God sees a poor man and pities him, he helps 
him. Therefore I go towards the good God, though I was a common 
(or wild) Indian in the past. When one helps another by giving him 
all kinds of tools, and he goes to the light (they are), brothers to each 
other. I wish to dwell in a good house. I wish to hear the name of 
my friend on God's side, and I desire him to help me. (I desire) a good 
smelling house. The oxen which I have shall be strong by means of ac- 
tion (?). If you wish to give me two of yours, we desire to receive them (!). 
Therefore I wish to have them together for gaining strength (see note). 
I have heard your words well. O friend, I wish you to help me. I wish 
to dwell in a good house. I desire the wild Indians to see good tools 
by a stout door. O friend, I go to you and towards God. (Next sen- 
tence was unintelligible : something about the land.) Whenever I die 
(in) the shadow of the cross, 1 should, at least, be lying in a box {i. e., if 
he died as a Christian, he should be buried in a coffin). Before I go to- 
wards God I wish to have the following articles : plows, oxen, cows, 
hogs, chickens, axes, hand-saws, hammers, nails, cross-cut saws, wagons, 
shoes, gloves, shirts, hats, comforts, mowing-machines, scythes, a grist- 
mill, hay forks, horse collars, ox-yokes, iron chains, dish closets, earthen 
dishes, cups, stoves, chairs, bedsteads, pillows, and a threshing-machine. 
Therefore I wish to follow the course of the very good shadow of the 
cross. If ^ou all aid me, I desire to reach the light. I have heard your 
words, O friend, and they make me very glad. I go towards God. To- 
day when I heard the words in your letter, I was glad; I was very 
thankful. If you help me, I will be apt to have plenty of implements. 
J desire all the tools which I have called by name. Now I wish you to 
give me (according to) all my words towards God. I am not outside 



12 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

of my land. I am dwelling in the midst of the bones of my kindred, 
of the venerable men who dwelt here formerly and who have died in 
the land up to this very time; therefore the land is very precious to me. 



PART OF ANOTHER LETTER FROM THE SAME TO THE SAME. 



Nfaci^'ga wi^dqtci ma^'zgska' g<^^ba-na"'ba kg'di s&tSJ' 

Person just one money twenty on the five 

i''wi°'qpa^g-na°-ma''' t4 minke, ec^, and^a"". fide w^^iq^i 

I lose only I have (?) I will, you said, I heard. But brain 

3 ma°'ta^a ab<^i"'-na'' ca°'c*a°. Niaci°'ga uk^^i" !^i ^i;a <fiida°'bai 

within I have only always. Indian common house your they see you 

kept . 

lida" inahi", ei^^ga'^ tait^. Hindd, ^ga^ ang((5i°' te e<^^ga" 

good indeed, they think shall. Let us see! so we sit may they think 



tait^, ec^ te^a°'i. 

shall, you in the 
said past. 



TRANSLATION. 



I have heard that you said, '^I will expend twenty-five dollars on one 
man." And I have been keeping it within my brain continually. You 
said in the past, ''When the wild Indians see your house, they shall 
think, ' It is very good ! ' They shall think, ' Let us see ! Let us live so.'" 



UPTON HENDERSON, AN OMAHA, TO MR. LUSPEN, COX CITY, 

KANSAS (sic), 

6 Kag^ha, i°'tca" win4^a° ka°'b<^a. Wata°'*6 m^ha ta°'iwi- 

My friend, now I hear from I wish. Tanning hides winter I who 

you hides 

ki^^ minkd wle b^i°'. Ki m^ha g6 d'liba ani"' 5[i, an4*a'' 

dressed hides for I I am. And winter the pi. some 3'ou have if, I hear it 

you hides in. ob. 

• ka°'b<^a. Ki gk^a.^ wab4g<^eze nizS :5[i, uq<^6'qtci ia°'<^aki^^ 

I wish. And that (ob.) letter you re- when, very soon you send to me 

ceive it 

9 ka°b<^^ga°. 

I hope. 



TRANSLATION. 



My friend, I wish to hear from you now. I am the mau who dressed 
winter hides for you, at your request. And I wish to hear whether you 
have some winter hides. When you receive this letter, I hope that you 
will send me one very soon. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 13 

CKAXOE-YINE, A MISSOURI, TO BATTI8TE DEROIN. OCTOBER 21, 

1887. 



WIW 



k'^'h^^ wabdg(feze b(^fz6, Friday, i"'(^6qti-ma'*'. Ca°' iicka'* 

To-day letter I have re- Friday, I am very glad. And deed 

ceived it, 

i;a wabdg(^eze iifz6 :5ji, uq(f6'qtci wabag(^eze gian'ki(^d-ga. 

my letter you re- when, very soon letter canse it to be retnrn- 

ceive it ing to me. 

C(5ma "^i guA^icB/^ nuciaha-ma 6 awawak^, e4ta°i t6 and'a'' 3 

ThoEOs lodge beyond those who are that I mean them, bow they the I hear it 

below are 

ka°'b<|^a, wagazu. A(fai :q!, wAgaziiqti wabag^eze tia'^'ifakii^d 

I wish, straight. They go if, very straight letter you send hither 

to me 

ka"'b<fa, gaTi'^i cag^e ka-'b^a 6dfhi ki. Nfkaci"'ga a''4a°'t'a^6 

I wish, and then I go back I wish if that has Person ne who is 

to you occurred. jealous 

ak4 e <fe 5[i, cag<J5e ka°'b^a. Wa-c4-ka-^ii-ti wak^ga t6 6 

of me that he if, I return I wish. Wa9akarutce sick the 

goes to you 

gini a, iwimdxe cn^&d^e. Ni;a jjif, aiiA'a" ka"'b^a, t'^ 2[fct6, 

has ? I ask you I send to you. Alive if, I hear it I wish, dead even if, 

recov- 
ered 

an4'a° ka^'b^a. 

I hear it I wish. 

NOTE. 

13, 6. Wacaka^uti, the Omaha notation for the Oto Wajdka-ru-joe, 
or Watermelon, the name of an Oto man. 

TRANSLATION. 

I have received the letter to-day, Friday, and I am very glad. When 
you receive this letter (referring to) my affairs, return a letter to me 
very speedily. I refer now to those who dwell down below, in the 
lodges beyond (you?), I wish to hear just how thoy are. If they are 
going, I wish you to send me a lett^er giving an exact account of them, 
as I wish to return to you if they have gone. If the man who is jealous 
of me goes, I wish to return to you. I send to you to ask you whether 
Wa§aka-ru:^oe has recovered from the sickness. I wish to hear whether ' 
he is dead or alive. 



FRED. MERRICK, AN OMAHA, TO G. W. CLOTHER, COLUMBUS, NEBR. 

Kag^ha, a'^'bailje wabdg^eze ^i^i^a a°'ba lida'^qti, ha'^ega'^'tee 9 

My friend, to-day letter your day very good, morning 

te'di, b^fz6. A»'baf(^ b^fzg t6 i-'uda-'-qti-ma"'. ^6 ka"'b^a 

ill the, I have re- Tpday I have re- the • jt is very 'goo4 for we. This Ideeire 

Qeiv©4 itf ceived i( 



14 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

t6' ^skaiia u^Aket'a^' ka°b^^ga°-qti-ma'''; uk^t'a"^ ga'^'^a-gS. 

the oh that yoa acquire it I earnestly hope ; to acquire it desire! 

Ki mdifadi watcfcka pi k^i^a'^a ci pi ka'^'b^a. Kl ujan'ge 

And last winter creek I to the Ig. again I I wish. And road 

reach ob. in reach 

ed there the past it 

3 md^adi pi ke^a""' e udgiha pi ka'^'bifa. Ki c^^u ihe caki 

last winter I the Ifs. that following I I wish. And yonder pass- I will 

retich- ob. in its course reach ing by 

ed it the past again it that way 

t4 mifike, :^i ^hei t6'di. Gan'^ji wah4 k6 u^4ket*a° ninke'cS 

return there house your to the. And theu hides the you who are acquiring them 

to you, ob. 

caki ka^b^^ga^ Ki ^ik^ge nikaci'^'ga uawagib^a te, ec^ 

I return I hope. And your friend person I tell them the, you 

thither said 

to you [the persons to whom yon said that I should 

6 (^anka uawagib(fa ta miiike. Ki ie ^i^i%ei iia^a^^'i 2[i'ji, gi'^6- 

the ones I will tell it to them. And word your they hear when, they 

who it 

tell itl 

qtia^' tait^, udwagib^a tgdihi 3[i. Ki u(^ita° t'a"' h^gaji ^ga^, 

shall greatly re- I tell it to them by the when. And work abounds very as, 

joice, time 



ata^' aijig^icta*"' :qi, 6';a cupi et^ ha. Ki ^fcti i^dug(^e ^ta" 

when I finish for my- if, there I reach may . And you too throughout that 

self you long 

9 cka^'na ^anaji'' ka'^bi^^ga'^ wahd t6. Ca""' ni'aji ca"* ka^'bi^^ga'', 

you wish you stand I hope hides the. And yon do at any I hoi>e, 

not fail rate 

u^4ket'a°'qti ka"b^dga". Eddda" iu^a ^ingd. I"'uda"'qti 

you acquire them in I hope. What news there is Very good for 

abundance no. me 

anaji", wicti. Ki c^na, kag^ha, widaxu a'^'ba^^. Waqi°'ha 

I stand, I too. And enough, my friend, I write to to-day. Paper 

you 

12 g6 wi"' cl uq^g'qtci tia°>aki^^ ka"'b^a. Na'a-'^aki^^ 

the one again very soon you cause to come I desire. To cause him to 

pi. hither to me hear it 

in. 
ob. 

ka^'bta. 

I wish. 

NOTE. 

14, 8, eta". Used in this connection, but the following is better 
Omaha: Ki ^icti a"'ba t(6) i^aug^e waha tS cka'^'na ^andji** ka"' 

And you day the every (or hides the you wish you stand I 
too throughout) 

eb^ga*^ {ory ka°b^4ga").— (W.). Eta" refers to the time that Fred. 

hope I hope. 

Merrick would have to work for himself before going to the white man : 
<* I hope that you will need the hides that long," i. e., " until I can visit 
you.''— (G., 1889). 

TRANSLATION. 

My friend, I received your letter today, in the morning of a very 
pleasant day. I am very glad that I received it to-day. I earnestly 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 15 

hope that you may acquire this which I desire. Try to gain it ! I wish 
to come again to the stream where I was last winter. And I wish to 
follow again the course of the road which I traversed last winter. I 
will come again to your house on my way yonder. I hope to return to 
you who are acquiring hides. And I will tell your friends, the persons 
to whom you said that I should tell it. By the time that I tell them, 
they will rejoice greatly when they hear your words. As work is very 
abundant (here), when I finish mine, I may come there where you are. 
I hope that you, too, may continue to desire the hides until then. I 
hope that you may not fail but that you may acquire them in abun- 
dance! There is no news. I, too, am very well. My friend, I have 
written enough to you to-day. I wish you to send me a letter very soon. 
I desire you to let him hear it. (The person referred to in this last sen- 
tence is unknown to the author.) 



NA^ZANDAJI, AN OMAHA, TO T. M. MESSICK, KEARNEY JUNCTION, 

NEBR. 

Kagdha, ca°' wabag^eze ie djiibaqtci wfdaxii cu^t^a^e. Ca**' 

My friend, now letter word very few I write to I send to you. And 

(expect- you 

ive) 

e^a""' ni'' t6 wind'a*" ka'^'bifa, kageha. Ca**' ga""' wa(^asi4a<J5a- 

how you the I hear from I wish, luy friend. At any rate it is you who have 

are you 

baji'-qti-ja""' t6 aiigu a°(^fsi(f'.6. Wabag^eze wfdaxu cu^^a(^6, 3 

not thought of us the we we have Letter I write to I send to 

at all thought of you. you you 

ta"'wa"g^a" ^an'di ma"ni'" t^i"te. Ca"' a-^a-'^ibaha^'-qtia-'i 

nation (or city) in the you walk it may he. And we know you very well 

(wherever you are) 

te ci aiigucti we4cpaha'''qtia"'i t6. Ca"' (fikage, Spafford 

the again us too you know us very well the. And your friend, Spufford 

Woodhullj gf <|^ajfqti ega"", wa^ii git'e. Ca"' uma"'^inka 6 

Woodhull, is very sad so, woman his is And year 

dead. 

ma^6 tgdilii y^\, a"^fda"be etdga". Ca"' waha ni^'wi" g6' ct6 

winter hy the when, we see you apt. And hides you buy the pi. even 

time in. oh. 

ana'a" ka'^'bifa, ani°'i g6. Ca""' jaqtiha, a'^'pa'^ha, ea""' m^ha, 

I hear it I wish, you have the And deer hides, elk hides, or winter 

them pi. in. whether hides, 

ob. 

ca*" ^skana wdgaziiqti i^wi"'(^ana ka^'b^ega^ Maja°' 4gudi 9 

still oh that very straight you tell it to me I hope. Land where 

m^ha t'a°' >[i'ji, una'a^ ga'^'ifja-ga. Ca"' a"'pa"ha, ca"' na°'ba 

winter abound if, to hear desire. And elk hides, either two 

hides about it 

<J5ab(|5i" da^'cte, wiqtci ka"'b<fa lift. Ci ^Aqtiba na"'ba ^ab^i° 

three or, I myself desire them . Again door hides two three 



16 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

da'^'ctg, lida^qti, ka°'b(^a. Eskana waqi°'ha uq^fi'qtci tia"'- 

or, very good, I desire. Oh that paper very soon yoa 

caase to 

^aki^^ ka"b^^ga°. O'Kane 4gudi e'dedita" di"te i-wi-f ffa-gS. 

come I hope. O'Kane where there he is perhaps to tell send 

hitherto standing me hither. 



me 



3 Ca""' m^ha dskana d'liba ani""' cka"'na ka''b(f^ga''qti. Spafford 

And winter oh that some you have you wish I earnestly hope. Spafford 

hides 

WoodhuU icpaha'^'qti, juag^e a°^a°'cpaha°qti-ja"' ni°. 

Woodhull you know him I with him you know me very well you 

very well, are. 

NOTE. 

16, 2. O'Kane agiidi, etc. Three readings : 1. O'Kaae 4gudi ^andita" 
^i°te, at tchat village^ station, etc., O^Kane is (L.). 2. O'Kane ^gudi 
6dedita° ei^te (W., G.) 3. O'Kane ^giidi naji^' ta" ^i°te, where OPKane 
is standing (G.). All are correct. In the last example "ta""can be 
omitted. 

TRANSLATION. 

My friend, I write you a letter of a very few words, and send it to 
you. My friend, I wish to hear from you how you are. It is you who 
have not thought of us at all, while we have remembered you. I send 
you a letter, wherever you are in the city. We know you very well, 
and you know us very well. Yqur friend, Spafford Woodhull, is very 
sad because his wife is dead. We may see you this year, by the time 
that it is winter. I desire to hear whether you have bought any hides, 
and whether you have any on hand. I hope that you will send me a 
correct account of what kinds you have, whether deer hides, elk hides, 
or winter buffalo hides. If there is any land where winter hides abound, 
try to hear about it. I myself desire two or three elk hides. I also 
desire two or three very good deer hides. I hope that you will send 
me a letter very soon. Send and tell me where Mr. O'Kane is staying. 
I earnestly hope that you may desire to possess some winter hides. 
You know Spafford Woodhull very well, and you know me, with whom 
he is, very well. 



NA^ZANDAJI TO JOHN RATHBUN. 

Ca°' ^YSih&g^eze wfdaxu cu^ea<|^6. Ca""' waw^wimdxe 

And letter I write to you I send to you. And I ask you about 

several matters 

cu(fda^6. Ca""' uq(^6'qtci isJ'^^siki^i ka^'b^^ga", waw^wimdxe 

I send to you. And very soon you send I hope, what questions 1 

hither to me have asked you 

g wdgazuqti, JsTlaci'^'ga uk^i^i'* d^iiba m4^adi cahi; m^ha ani**' 

yery straight. , Indiau coojmon acme J^gt ^iptep reached winter yoi| 

'^ " ' * you; bides 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 17 

tat^, 4 u^f^a ag(^ii. Ki cl ani**' da°'ct6a°' ^skana i°wi°'^na 

shall that telling they re- And again yoa whether oh that yoa tell it to 

have, about turned have me 

you hither. 

ka"b(^^ga°. Kl e*a^' ^agfckaxe tat ^ska*" en^ga**, m^ha ani"*' 

I hope. Again how you shall make your you think it probable, winter yon 

own hides have 

^i'^te, wdgaziiqti ana'a*" ka"'b(|5a. Ca""' maja"' ta'^Va^-mMi, 3 

may, very straight I hear it I wish. And land in the towns, 

maja"' Kansas, agudi m^ha t^a""' 2[i'ji, i^wi'^'^ana ka°'b^a. 

land Kansas, where winter abound whether, you tell it to me I wish. 

hides 

Fort Dodge ^a°»a me'ha t'a"' ^ffji, u^dna'a^' ka°b^^ga". Nika- 

Fort Dodge at the winter abound wheth- you hear I hope. In- 

hid es er, about it 

ci°'ga uk^^i°-ma nn^ha ga-'^a-ua"'! ha. Ca"' ta^'^g 5(1 f 5(101 6 

dian the common ones winter desire usually . And to tan if pay- 

hides ment in 

kind 

ga^'i^a-na^^'i. Ki wdgaziiqti i°wi'''(^ana tf(^a^6 5[i'jT, nikaci'^'ga 

desire usually. And very straight you tell it to me you send when, person 

hither 

ca^' wata'^'^g lida^qti wab<|^i" juawag(^e cub(f(5 td minke. 

in fact tanner very good I have I with them I will go to you. 

them 

Ca^' dbae naf t6 u<J5aket'a"' t6 fcpaha'' t6, i°wi°'(^ana ka°- 9 

And hunting you the you acquired the you know the, you tell it to me I 
the large went 
animals 

b*^ga°. Ca°' a°^a"'cpaha"'-qtia°'i, ci wfcti fwidaha'^'-qti-ma°'. 

nope. And you know me very well, again I too I know you very well. 

Uma'"^inka wi"' c^^ii wata°'^6 a"^!". 

Year one yonder tanning we were. 

NOTES. 

Mr. Rathbun's post-oflBce was Wakanda, near Osborne City, Phillips 
County, Kansas. 

17, 4, maja** Kansas, i. e., ^^Kansas maja**" in ordinary speech. 

17, 6, iqici, etc., they wish to be paid in rate hides for tanning the 
other hides. They work on shares, receiving part of the raw material 
in payment. So, (jesk^ t' ewa^ai 3|i i>[ici ga^^ai, they want part of the 
beef OjS their pay for slaughtering the cattle, 

TRANSLATION. 

I write a letter and send it to ask you some questions. I hope that 
you will send me very soon a full reply. Some Indians visited you last 
winter, and on their return to us they told that you would be sure 
to have winter hides. I hope that you will tell me whether you have 
any. I wish to hear very accurately whether you have the winter 
hides, and how you think that you will do about them. I wish you to 
tell me whether winter hides abound anywhere in the towns of the 
10967 2 



18 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

State of Kansas. I liope that you may hear whether they are plenti- 
ful at Fort Dodge. The Indians usually desire the winter hides. And 
they generally wish to get raw hides as their pay tor tanning them. 
When you send and tell me just how affairs are, I will come to you with 
the Indians who are good tanners. I hope that you will tell me whether 
you acquired (any winter hides ?) when you went hunting the larger 
animals : this you would know by personal experience (rather than by 
hearsay). You know me very well, and I know you very well. We 
are they who tanned hides at your place one year. 



Ca""' wawidaxu cu^^a(^6 ie djiibaqtci ^ga*". Ca°' wabdg^eze 

And I write to yon I send to word very few. And letter 

about several you 

things 

tia^'^aki(^e (fa"" b^ize ^dega"", fe kg wdgaziiqtia'ji uqpa^6a(^6. 

you have sent the I have received it, but word the not exactly straight I have lost, 

hither to me 

3 Ga"' Inddda" ed^ce tdi"te i°wi"'^ana ka-b^^ga". Ca"' Upton 

And what what you have you tell it to me I hope. And Upton 

would said 

uawakie fe t6, edece t6 uawagfb(fa, ca°' fe t6 uwf5[a°qti ^ga*^ 

I talked to word the what the I told it to them, and word the I help you 
him you said considerably 

ta mifike i^4ug<|^e'qti ^ga^ Ca""' ma'^'zgska te' u(ffqpa^4ji tat 

I will throughout partly. And money the you shall not lose it 

6 eb^ega^ ^ictl ed(3ce t6 (fagfsi^e et^ga^ Wamuskg na^'sg' 

I think, it. xou too what you the you remem- should Wheat cut by 

said ber it {or apt). machinery 

(^icta'^'i t6'di, wag4xe ^agfcta°be et^ga^ Ma'^'zgska t6' u(^a- 

they finish when, debt (due you see your apt. Money the you ac- 

it you) own 



ket'a""' tgdfhi 5[i, wfqti b^fza-mdji ta minke, 6'qti cu^eAiki^ 

quire it by that when, I myself I will not receive it, he him- to send it to 

time self you 

9 'f^ai, Upton iji^'ifg ak(i6 ha, A'"pa"-»an'ga. Ca"', kagdha, 

has Upton his elder he is , Big Elk. And, my friend, 

prom- brother the one 

ised, 

^skana usnf t6'di, mi^ha ge d'uba uifana^a'"' ka"b(fdqti. 

oh that cold when, winter the pi. some you hear of I strongly de- 

hides in. ob. them sire it. 

Wagaziiqti i^wi'^'^ana ka^b^d-qti-ma^'. A^'pa^'hd wawdci 

Very straight you tell it to me I do really desire it. Elk hides pay 

12 a°(f!a"i 'i((!a^6 t6 tia^'ifaki^ %Si^^ t6 gisi^a-ga ha'. lusfcta" 

you promized to give the you send hither you prom- the remember it ! Telling a lie 

to me to me ised 

uwfb(|5a-m4ji. Ma'^'zeska' <^agfcta°be tat^ uwfb(^a. 

I do not tell it to Money you dee your shall T tell it 

you. own to you. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 19 

TRANSLATION. 

I write to you abont several matters, sending you a very few words. 
I have received the letter which you sent me, but I have lost the words, 
as they were not exactly straight. (Note by author. — Perhaps he means 
that the language of the writer was not clear to his mind.) I hope that 
you will tell me what you intended to say. I talked to Upton (Hen- 
derson) about the words I told him what you said. I will give you 
considerable aid in this matter, almost without intermission. I think 
that you shall not lose your money. You should remember what you 
said. When they finish harvesting the wheat, you will be apt to see 
what is due yoi^ When you gain the money, I myself will not receive 
it; but it is the elder brother of Upton, Big Elk, who has promised to. 
send it to you himself. My friend, when the cold weather comes I 
strongly desire that you may hear about some winter hides. I do 
really desire you to tell me very fully about it. Bemember the elk 
hide(s) that you promised to give me as pay, and which you said that 
you would send to me ! I do not tell you a lie. 1 tell you that you 
shall see your money. 



NA^ZANDAJl TO JAMES o'kANE, HASTINGS, NEBR. 

Ca""' waMg^ze tia'^'^aki^c^ ^a° h(^iz&, Ga^^ wahd g6 b(^uga 

And letter you send it the ob. I have And hides the pi. all 

liither to rae received in. ob. 

it. 

ka°b(^d-qti et^-ma° (fa°'ja, ca""' m^ha t6 4ta ka'^'b^a. Ca?'' 

I desire very I do that at thoagh, yet winter the beyond I desire. And 

mnch least hides all 

Kansas 6di-g^ ctea"'. M^ha gS u^dna'a" ka"'b^a. Ca"' 3 

Kansas they mnst be in some Winter the pi. you hear I wish. And 

places. hides in. od. about them 

^skana wahd g6 ga°'^a :hi, i"wi"'^a>ia"'qti ka''b^dga". Ca"' 

ob tbat bides the nl. they if, you help me con- I hope. And 

in. OD. desire siderably 

a^'ba liAvig^e wisf(|56-na"-ma"' td minke. Ca"' ni^ ^i^in^ge 

day throngbont I will be thinking of you often. And you have no sick- 



ness 



^skana wind^a" ka^b^^^ga"*. Ca''' wabdg(^eze dskana tia°'^aki^d 6 

oh that I hear it I hope. And letter oh that you Rend it 

about you hither to me 

ka^b^^ga**. Ca°' Fort Dodge e;a cti iK^dna'a'^' ka'^b^dga", 

I hope. And Fort Dodgo there too you hear I hoi>e, 

about it 

ca°' Agudi ct^cte n^kwd^sJ' ka°b^6ga°. 

in wbere soever you hear I hope, 

fact about it 

NOTE. 

19, 3, 6dige-ct6a^. Too positive an assertion. Na"zandaji did not 
know whether they were there. £dige-i°te is the better expression, 
i. e.j ''They may be in some places here and there." (W.) 



20 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

TRANSLATION. 

I have received the letter that you sent me. Though I always desire 
to possess all kinds of hides, I prefer the winter hides of bulfalos to all 
others. They must be found in some places in Kansas ! I wish you to 
find out what you can about the winter hides. And if any persons 
desire hides of any animals, I hope that you will give me considerable 
help. I will be thinking of you throughout each day. I hope that I 
may hear from you that you are well. I hope that you will send me a 
letter ; and that you will find out what you can about the hides at Fort 
Dodge, or at any other place whatever. 



TO T. H. TIBBLES FROM SEVERAL OMAHAS. AUGUST 22, 1879. 

Dyba-mdJ^^i'' said: — Kag^ha, nikaci^'ga maja°' b^iigaqti 

My friend, peison land entire 

4ta-m4c6 a°'ba^^ wisi<|^ai (3ga° wfb(faha°'i ha. Nikaci"'ga- 

ye who excel to-day I think of as I pray to you (pi.) . O ye peo- 

you (pi.) 

3 mdc6, edada" icpaha" <|^ag<J5i°'-m4c6, niaja''' <|^^^u4di edada"" 

pie, what you know you who sit, land in this (here) what 

w^teqi gS nikaci^'ga wi°' weabaha°'i ^ga°, w^ifita"" cu(|5af ha. 

hard the pi. person one knows about us as, to work for he goes 

for us in. ob. us toj'ou 

Tillies d dwake ha. le t6 dskaria <^doniza-bada", u<J5d5[a°i 

Tibbies him I mean . Word the ohjhat you (pi.) and (pi.), you help 

him take from him 

him 

6 ka"b(|5dga^ i wib(|5aha^'i ha. Ki nfkaci^'ga vk^\'' an'ga^i'^ 

I hope that I pray to . And Indian common we who 

you (pl.) move 

b^iigaqti licka'' kg-na""' weAbaha^'i dga"*, wt5<J5ita° cii(^af <|^a°'ja, 

all deed the some he knows about as, to work for he goes though, 

us us to you 

eona°' ^ igi^e ^Vk te ha'. Ada"" nikaci°'ga-m4c6, u^d5[a°i 

he only if beware he fail lest . There- O ye people, you help 

fore him 

9 tedihi 5[i, u<J5aket*a'''i 5[i'ji, dskana maja""' ^2C" i°'<J56qti aw4:5[i- 

by the when, you succeed if, oh that land the ob. I am very I work for 

time glad 

gi^fta"" anaji"* ka°b(|5(^ga". Nikaci'^'ga iicka" weabaha"'jl-md 

myself I stand I hope. Indian deed the ones who do not 

know about ua 

Tillies edada"" w^^i te glja-ma, fbaha°'ji-m4 gijai t6 ca°'aji 

Tibbies what he the those who those who do not they the improper 

tells doubt him know it doubt (act) 

him 

12 ha. (I^a'^'ja Tillies aka le eddda" ede3 t6 wdgaziiati nfka- 

Though Tibbies the word what what the very straight In- 

sub. he says 

ci^'ga iikd^i"-ma wd(^ita'' ca(|5al. 

dian the coniraon ones to work he goes 

for them to you. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 21 

Slnde-xa^xd!^ said: — Kag^ha, a'^'ba^^^ eddda" nfkaci'*'ga-ina 

My friend, to-day what the people 

waji'^'ska 4ta-ma a^'ba(^e awAsi^^^ga'' w^b^^aha"" ik minke. Ki 

wise those who to-day as I think of them I will pray to them about And 

excel several things. 

nfkaci"'ga wi"' ^d^uta" cu^^ - de edAda" i-'teqi kg ictd ^a" 3 

person one thenco he goes when what is hard for the eye the 

to yon me ob. instr. 

a^^a'^'da^bg'qti a°^a°'baha"'qti cu^t'. Kf iiikaci°'ga pahan'- 

he has really seen me he really knows about he goes And person for- 

with it me to you ^^ 

(by request). 

gadi licka'' wi'^^ctg ^ga° ^a^'ba-maji i''''tca°qtci !^a°'be licka'' 

merly deed even one so I did not see just now I see him deed 



t6. Tibbies ^ Awake. Kl, iifkaci"'ga-mAc6, ed^da"" i^'teqi k6 6 

the Tibbies him I mean And, O ye people, what hard the 

ob. him. for me 

b^-iigaqti ii(fi(^ai ^ji, ^skana <|^^onize ka^bi^^ga"" ^ga°, wfb(^aha° 

all he tells when, oh that you take it I hope as, I pray to yon 



to you from him 



cu(^^a^6. Eddda"" w^teqi g6 fbaha°Ji-ma gfjai ct^ctgwa""', i 

I send it to What are hard the (pi. those who do not they notwithstand- he 

yon. for us in. ob.) know them doubt them ing, 

weAbaha°'i ^ga" ie te ^(3onize etaf. Ki I;iga°4ai ak4 licka" 9 

he knows about as word the you will please re- And Orandfatner the deed 

us ' ceive from him. sub. 

w^teqi g6 weAbaha°'-bajf-qtia"'i, kT w4kihfdai (f^a'^'ja, dgiie 



are hard the pi. he does not know at all about us, and he oversees u.s though, behold 
for us in. od. 

f^ w^ga°^ai. Ca""' a°nf?a afiga'^'^ai ^ga"", a"<|^f^aha°'i, nika- 

to he wishes for Yet we live we wish as, we pray to you, per- 

die us. 

ci'^'ga udwa(fa:5[a^'i-mdc6. Kl licka'' (^e wab(^fta° k6';a h^i. 12 

son ye who aid us. And deed this I work at to the I go. 

various things 

T?cka° d^ai b^ize pi, licka" ^i^ai b^iigaqti b(^fze t6 pf ha. 

Deed your (pi.) I take I have deed your all I take the I have . 

reached (pi.) (act) reached 

there 

Dega"" I;fga°(|!ai akd i"'cte, "Wdqe ckAxe wlka"b^ai-mdjl ha," 

But (or Grandfather the as if, You live as white I do not wish it for 

When so) sub. people you (pi.) 

^ akd ^ga-qtia"'!. Kl nfkaci"'ga ^^^uta" (fd ^i"' a^'ba^d 15 

he is say- it is just so. And person hence he who is to-day 

ing it going 

aglsi<J5e. B(^uga wisf^^ai, nfkaci°'ga Ata-m4c6. Wa(^4cka''-bi 

I think of All I think of ye persons who are great. That you have made 

him. you, efforts 

en^ga"*! ^i°te, pi wa^acka" ka'^'a^^a'^'i^ai wfb(faha°'i cu^^a^g. 

you think perhaps, anew you make we hope I pray to you (pi.) I send it to 

efforts you. 



Na^pewa^S said: — Kag^ha, rifkaci'^'ga ^e 4ta wd^aha'^'i-ma 18 

My tViend, person this be- those who pray 

yond 
all 

awdsi^e a'^'ba^. Ki iifkaci'^'ga ^e (fi°' ^skana ie ed^ 2[I, 

I think of to-day. And person he who is oh that word what if, 



going he Myt 



22 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

b(^iigaqti ^^niza-bdda'' ^^and'a'' ka'^'a^'^^'i/jai. Kl nikafei'^'ga 

all you take and (pi.) yon listen to wehoi>e. And the (com- 

from him him and act 

accordingly 

uk^(fi''-ma ta''Va°g^a'' h^xigB,qti w^^ita"" <^af. Kl w^^iiida'^qti 

mon) Indians tribe all to work he goes And it is made very 

for us (by re- good for us 

quest). 

3 tg'di, nfkaci°'ga we^^nita^-mdc6 ui^dket^a^^'i :^, nfkaci^'ga 

when, Indian ye who work for us you succeed if, human beings 

a°^i°' etaf ha. W4oninfaci'*'gai anga°'(fai. Nfkaci"'ga-ma 

we should be . Ton (pi.) make us human we wish. The Indians 

beings 

I;fga°*al amd wdkihidai uda"", ^ska"" pahaii'ga a"^a"'^ai (f^a^'ja, 

Grandfatner the pi. they watched good. thus first we thought though, 

sub. over us 

6 an'kajl t^ga"" hS. Ddda^ aiigu^ai ^ska'' a'^^a^'ifai (^a°'ja, igiie 

it is not so apt . What our own thus we thought though, behold 

angtiq[a-Mji k^ga^qtia'"' an^gata''. figa'' tgdfhi :5[i'ji, nfaci'^'ga 

not our own the objects are we who std. So b^ the when, person 

just so time 

wa^p^g (fe-md gicka"' ^skana uwa(fa5[a'''i ka^'bi^^a^ ha. Ca"' 

those who go to the ones acting oh that you aid them I hope . And 

near them quickly 

9 nikaci^'ga an'ga^i"' ujan'ge lida'' k6 e'a''' angiiipg^ixidai 

person we who move road good the how we look all around for 

ob. it for ourselves 

^a"'ja, lida" l(fe64wa<fiaf ka-'a^^a^'^ai. Ca"' afigu<^ixidd-bi eh^ 

though, good tney cause us we hope. And that we have looked I said 

to find it all around for it 

t6, kag^ha, c^t6 licka'' ^i^a aii'gugdq(fai 6 awdke. 

the, my friend, that deed your we have facea it I mean it. 
(ob.) toward them 

12 j;e-««:ya'*M said: — Ga""', kag^ha, nikaci'^'ga d'liba (f^ama ^isf^ai 

And, my friend, person some these theyre< 

(pi. sub.) member 
you 

ha. Ki waw^^enita'' nai t6 a°^fsi(^af a^'ba^^. Uma^'^inka 

And to work at various you the we think of to-day. Year 

things for us went yon 

g^^ba-duba tedfta" waji^'a^ska' (^a^'ja, nfkacj^'ga ^ga'' iifjdpaha''- 

forty from the I had sense though, person such I have not 

(time) 

15 mdjl, ucka'' wa(^d^e^6 tS. Kl i'^'ta" wamf angii^ai t6 ki wamf 

known deed merciful the. And now blood our the and blood 

him, 

e;af t6 eddbe d^iibe-ct6 ufhajl (^a'^'ja, ca°' (f4*e4wa(fai ^ga"" 

his the also mixed at he does though, yet he pities us as 

(blood) all not follow 

waw^(fita'*'i. Kl ma'^'tanahd a°ma'''^i"i t6 wdqe amd ca°ca'*'qti 

he works at vari- And wild we walk the white the forever 

ous things for us. people pi. sub. 

18 w^ga"^ai, ki Wakan'da akd i^'ta"* waw^^ita" dgaji dga** 

they wish for and God the sub. now to do various has or> as 

us, kinds of work dered him 

for us 

waw^(j^ita"'i. Ki i^'ta" nikaci"'ga-ma ma"^!"'! k6di ma°b^i'" 

he works at vari- And now the people they walk at the I walk 

ous things for us. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 23 

ka°b<|j^ga^ awd^iwaha^'^e ha. Qi°hd dji b(^i°' (^a°ja, nika- 

I hope I pray for that on my . Skin differ- I am thoagh, per- 

own account ent 

ci"'ga qi"hA-ska'-ma maja"' ma^^i"'! ^an'di 6di ma-'bii'" ka"- 

son those who have white land they walk in the there I walk I 

skins 

b(f^ga". Ki wikdge cu^e (^i° ^skana ie ed4da° ed^ kg d 3 

hope. And my friend the one who oh that word what what the he 

has gone to you he says 

wada'^'bai e^ga"^ cu(^e. Kskana nikaci°'ga ata-macS, fe t6 

he has seen ns^ as he has gone Oh that person ye who are im- word the 

to you (by portant, 

request). 

^^nizai U(f^5[a4 ka'^b^c^ga''. I^iga°4ai b(f4da-maji. Nikaci'^'ga- 

vou take yon aid him I hope. Grand fatner I do not call him Indian- 

from him by name. 

t'^^6 b^dde: ^skana ;a"'b6qti fe gdtg a'f ka-b^^ga". Pwin'- 6 

slayer I call him oh that I see him in- word those I give T hope. He has not 

by name : deed to him 

5[a''ji t6 ^ awake. I(fadi(^a{ ama fe edaf t6 le wt^^ize ^ga° 

helped the it I mean it. Agent the pi. word what the word he takes so 

me snu. thej say from them 

aMa°'be ct6wa°'ji. Waha^'^e hdcia^Aqti b^^fzega" wib^aha"'i 

he does not even look at me. Petition at the very last as I have I pray to yon 

taken it (pl.) 

cu^^a(f6. 9 

I send it to 
yon. 

Big Elk said: — Nlkaci^'ga waw^^ita" ^e ^\^' en^qtci 

Person to work at vari- he who is on he alone 

ous things for ns his way 

Wakan'da ie t6 ana*a°. We^l^ig^a" Q\k t6 Wakan'da (^ifik^ 

Ood word the obeys it Mind his the God the one 

who 

gaqd ga"'^ajl t6, lida" t6. Ki maja"' (fa"" Wakan'da ak4 w4xai 12 

to go he does not the, good the. And land the God the made ns 

beyond wish ob. sub. 

ifan'di "Wfugdce ^a5[fckaxe," dji t6 Wakan'da ^inke. Ca°' e'a"' 

in the Yon (shall) consider yourselves did the God the at. And how 

in the way of others, not say one. 

nfkaci^'ga uk^^i" ctgwa'*', e*a"' w4qe-mdc6, Wakan'da (jjifike 

Indian common even, how ye white people, God the st. 

one 

endqtci waxai te maja"' (^an'di, *^Wiug4ce ^a:5[fckaxe taf,"4ji t6 15 

he only made us the land in tho You consider yourselves in the shall, did the 

way of others not 

Bay 

ha Wakan'da aka. Wakan'da aka edada" gaxai 16 e-na°' 

God the sub. God the sub. what ho has the it only 

made 

6da° ha. Ki ed4da" (f^at^a^'-mace', i°'cte e<|^akiga°'qtia°'i ; 

good . And what ye who have abun- as if you are just like him ; 

dance, 

dda" nlaci^'ga (fe ^i""' enAqtci fe te ^(faiid^a'' etaf. Nfaci'^'ga 18 

there- person he who he alone word tho you will please listen Person 

fore has gone to him and act ac- 

cordingly. 



24 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

u^dg(^a ail'gai^i'' waw^*ita° cu(^af. Maja"*' ^an'di Wakan'da 

safferinj; we who move to work at he has gone Laud in the Ood 

Tarions things to yoa. 
for as 

akd wdxai igs^j 6'di a^ma^^'^i"! ^a°'ja, eddda*" angu:^ihi-baji. 

the made as having, there we have walked though, what we have not sac- 

sab, ceeded at. 

3 Eddda" afigu5[ihi-b4ji ga^', ca^' nikaci^'ga uk^(fi^ an'ga^i'^ 

What we have not sac- as, yet Indian we who 

ceeded at move 

d^ita"* wackdxai. Ga""' pfaji'qti kg-na""' I;fga°*al akd liha 

work yon have made And very bad the usa- Grandfatner the to go 

(trouble) for us. ally sub. along 

the 
path 

w^ga°(^ai, dda"* nikaci'^'ga ce^i"' wada'^'bgqti cu^^, waw^^ita" 

wishes for us, there- person that one having really seen has gone to work at 

fore mv. near us to you (by various things 

you request), for us 

6 cu(^^. Nfkaci^'ga wacka°'^anga-mdc6, Wakan'da ndha'^i-mdcS, 

has gone Person ye who are strong God ye who pray to him, 

to you 
(byre- 
quest). 

uf2[a''i-ga. 

help ye him. 

Joseph La Fleche said: — Kag^ha, maja^' ^an'di United 

My mend, land in the United 

9 States 6'di iifkaci°'ga-mdc6, wibifjaha""'! ha. Nfkaci°'ga-mdc6 

States there O ye people ! I pray to you (pi.) . O ye people ! 

b^iigaqti wlb^aha""'! ha. Ca""' wabdg((*.eze if^^a^ cta'^'bai 3[i, 

all I pray to you (pi.) . And letter thisob. you see it when, 

^a*edwa(^d^ai aiiga'^'i^ai ^ga", i°^ibaxui ha. Ca""' ^^ pahan'- 

you have mercy on us we wish as, we have writ- . And this for- 

ten to you 

12 gadi maja"' ^^^andi a-ma^'^i" tg'di, ^^ga" ct6wa"" a"^a"'- 

merly land in this we walked when. * of this at all we did 

sort 

baha°-b4ji. Ga°' rnaja"' ^an'di Wakan'da aka edMa"" ct^ctS 

not know. And land in the God the sub. what soever 

a"^4te tait^, jiit^a"* wegAxai ^ga°, a°(^dte a°ma°'(^i° ^ga°, 

we eat it shall, to have he made for as, we ate we walked as, 

bodies us 

15 enAqtci weAwaji^'ska a^ina'"^i°i ha. Ki igi^e, nfkaci°'ga-mdc6, 

that alone we had sense by we walked . And behold, O ye people, 

means of 

licka" giteqi wackdxai ha. Ki w^teqi ^1, ini(fa wa^in'gai 

deed hard for you make (for) . And hard for if, refuge we have none 

one us us 

3il, I^fga"*ai 6'di angd^ai dga°, a"wa"'^ha"-na"'i. Kl fe t6 

if, Grandfatner there we go as, we pray to them usu- And word the 

ally. ob. 

18 w^^iza-b4ji-na°'i. Ki w^^iza-bdji t6 ^gi^e a°^ail'5[idaha°'i. 

they have not re- usu- And they have not the behold we know it for ourselves 
cefvedfrom us ally. taken them (or by experience). 

from us 

%i4e nikaci^'ga a'"^i"-bdji-bi e^^ga" akd. Kl nikaci"'ga 

BmoM human beings that we are not they are thinking it. And human beings 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 25 



a'^^i^-bajl e(^ega° t6, a°^an'i[idaha'''i ha, ada°, nikaci°'ga-ni4c6, 

they the, we know it for our- . there '^ ' 

thoagn it selves fore, 

^fmace-^^^ica'' cangdifai 2[I, I:^fga°(^ai wdbat'u-na'^'i : '*I-bajii-ga," 

towards you (pi.) we go to you when, Grandfather blocks our usu- Do (ye) not be 

way ally : coming, 

i ^g^a^qtia-'i. "Nfkaci"'gawika"b((!ai-m4jl," ^ ega^qtia-'i. Ca"' 3 

he it is just so. Human beings I do not \vi8h for you he it is just so. Yet 

says (to be), says 

^skana ^a*eAwa(^A(^a-bAda'^ ^4^\\i?C^&^^. nikaci°'ga uh(?awa(fd(^ai 

oh that you pity us and (pi.) from this time human beings you admit us (to be) 

onward 

afiga^'^ai. Ki ca""' nfkaci°'ga a"'^i" t6dfhi, (?skana cin'gajin'ga 

we wish. And yet human beings we are by the oh that child 

time, 

afigii^ai ct6wa°' gisfi^g-na"" ca^'ca"" ka'^'a^i^a^'i^ai, nlkaci'^'ga 6 

our even he re- usu- always we hope, human being 

members ally 

wackdxai t6dihi 5[1. Kl nfkaci°'ga udwa^i5[a"'i ^i"" endqtci 

you make us by the when. And person he helps us the mv. he only 

time one 

ticka." t6 g^xaji te ha'. (Cisf^ai ^ga" licka" t6 gaxe te hS; 

deed the he will not do it . He thinks as deed the he will do it 

of you 

**Pwifi'5[a'' t4 ama," e^^ga" ega", gdxe te ha; Ada" ^skana 9 

They will aid me, he thinks as, he will do it . there- oh that 

fore 

u^^^ia^^i ka'^'a^^^a^'^ai. ifiskana, kag^ha, Wakan'da ak4 nan'de 

you aid him we hope. Oh that, my friend, God the sub. heart 

^i^f'^a (^i(^icfba-b4da° angii a^'^a^'ai te nan'de ^\^\v^ t6 ude 

your • he pulls it and (pi.) we we speak the heart your the they 

open for yon enter 

ka"'a''^a"'^ai. Ca"' nfaci-'ga Tibbies ai ^i" fe wi"aqtci ct6wa°' 12 

we hope. And person Tibbies the one word just one even 

mv. who 
is called 

wAgazudji a^ad^jT ebi^ga". Wagaziiqti ii*f(|5ai ha, kag^ha. 

not straight he does not I think it. Yer^ straight he has told . my friend, 

mention to you 

Wagfja-b4ji-ga. Wada°bai e'ga" u^iiai. W4da"bai ^ga°, 

Donot doubt the things He has seen us as he tells it He has seen us as, 

he tells. to j'ou 

fbaha"'i (^ga", wci^ita"'!: weteqi t6 w^fsita"'! ha. Ca"' ({sa'^awa- 15 

he knows it as, he works for hard for the he works for . And you pity 

us us us 

^d^a-ba ^skana n^iy^b!^ ka"'a"(^a°'(^ai, nikaci"'ga nan'de-uda°- 

U8 and oh that you aid we hope, people ye who have good 

(pi.) . him 

mdc6. 

hearts. 

Two Crows said: — Kag^ha, nikaci'^ga uawa(^Akie n^ *4^i°- 18 

My friend, person you talked to us you wno were 

going 

ce^a""', nfkaci°'ga ^dama a'^'bai^e ^isiif^i ^ga°, wdi"(|5fbaxiii 

in the person these to-day they remera- as, we have written 

past, ber you to you about sev- 

eral things 



26 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

ha. A"^isi^6-na" ca"ca"'qtia"'i ha. "E'a°' a'-^fna'a" tsd ^da»" 

We think of U8u- always . How we can hear from ? (in bo- 

ally him liloquy), 

a"<^a'"<fg ca"'ca"qti a"'^!"! ha. Ga"' nfkaci-'ga Wakan'da 

we think always we are . And person God 

3 wanaha"-m4c6, b^iigaqti U(^f5[a°i ka°'a''<^a°'^ai. le ^^Ua kg 

you who pray about all they help We hope. Word your the 

different things, you (s.) 

^skana fusfcta^'ji ^igaxe ka^'^a'^^fa'^'ifai. Ki ^6^\x nlkaci'^'ga 

oh that not lying they make we hope. And here Indian 

(regard; you 

ukd^i" amadfta'' ju(fat*a°' wagdca" ne ^ga''. Judge Dundy i 

common from the (pi.) you had a traveling you so. Judge Dundy . he 

body go 

6 w^^ig(}!a° e:»d t6 uda" h^gaji %a" a"<fia"'ni(faf ha. fidfhi ^t, 

decision his the good very as we take refuge . That being the 

in it case, 

"W^uda" jin'ga et^a" 4ha"," a^^a^'Aai. Kl licka" kg 'l^a^g 

good for us a little apt ! (in so- we think. And deed the you 

liloquy), speak 

about 

n(3 kg wi'^'iljakdji tS (fingg'qtia^'i. Bcfugaqti icpaha^'qti ^ga° 

you the you do not the there is none at all. All you know it well as 

went speak truly 

9 n(3, (fija-bajiqtia"' etaf. I^fga°(feaf ^ink^ (ffja ct^ctgwa'"', wed- 

you I hey should not doubt you Grandfatner the st. he even if, he does 

went, at all. one doubts 

you 

baha°-b4ji ha. ^i we4cpaha"'i ^ga"" 'idwaif^acfai. Ki I;iga^<fal 

not know us . You you know us as you talk about us. And Grandfather 

<|^inke wagdq<|^a" e;4 am4 iusfcta^^g'qtia'"'!. Ki l!^lga°(faf 

the St. several his the pi. they really caused him to And Grandfather 

one sub. tell a lie. 

12 (^ink^, ''Nikaci°'ga uk^i^i^'-ma gfuda'^'qti waddxe," e^^ga" tg M. 

the St. The Indians very prosperous I have made he has thought . 

one, them, it 

Gan'5[i weg4xai (fa'^'ja, gdfti 5[i, weg4xa-baji, ^ic^^a^-na^'i 

And then he does it though, by the when, they do not do it ihey pull it nsn* 

for us time it for us, to pieces ally 

has come 
hither 

wagaq(fa° e;4 ama. Ki I;iga"(feai ^ink^ gfuda"" wegaxe-na^^'i 

servant his the pi. And Grandfather the st. good for he makes it usu- 

sub. one one for us ally 

16 ^a'^'ja, i^ddi^ai ama gdfti lida" tg i (fiz^-na°i, angu u'dg^a- 

though, agent the pi. by the good the it they nsu- we suffering 

sub. time it take it ally, 

has come 
hither 

na^' a^^^i^'i ha. Gan'5[i I^fga^(^af ^inkt3 wagibaxu (f^e^ai tg'di, 

usu- we are . And then Grandfather the st. to write differ- they when, 

ally one eut things to him send' off 

tida'^qti a^^i'^'-bi i gfbaxu ^^^^-x\^'\ ha i^Mi(fai amd, lusicta" 

very good that we are it they write they usu- . agent the pi. they tell 

it to him senate ally sub., lies 

him 

18 h^ga-b4ji ha. Gan'^p I;fga°(^af <^ifik^ lida'^qti wegdxai 'f^ai 

not a few . And then Grandfather the st. very good to do for us he 

one prom- 

ised 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 27 



te^a'^'ja, ca°' i^di^ai amd lida" weg4xa-bi e^^ga^-na*"' t^6 

though, yet agent the pi. good that they have bethinks nsU' it is 

in the past sqd. done for as it ally the 

ha. "Oda" t6 ^izd-na"i ^a"'ja, ca"' pfaii tg-na"' dhucigai," 

Good the they nsn- thoagh, yet bad the usu* tbeyxiersist 

take it ally ally in (saying) 

e^dga"-na"i td, I;lga"^f akd. Kl uda" I)fga"^ai % t6 3 

be thinks nsn- the, Grandfather the sab. And good Grandfather prom- the 

ally ised 

wegdxa-bAji-na°'i ^ga°, ucte ama naxfde-^irig^-na"i ha Caa°' 

they do not do nsu- as, remain the are disobedient nsa- . Dakota 

for us ally ones who ally 

amd. Kl gag^ga"" gS weteqi g6 I^^fga^^af na^a**' in^ga^'i^ai 

the pi. And like those the pi. hard for the pL Grandfather to hear we wish for 
sab. inob. me in. ob. it him 

^ga"", i^adi(faf amA baxii a'*wa°'ci-na'*'i. I^4di^af amd baxii 6 

as, agent the pi. to write we employ nsa- Grandfather tbe pi. to write 

sub. them ally. sub. 

a^wa'^'ci ctgwa'"' ^gi^e w^baxu - bdji-na^'i ; w^baxii-bi af 

we employ notwith- behold they do not write usu- that they have they 

them standing for us ally ; written for us say 

ct6wa°', win'ka-bdjl-na^'i ha i^ddi^af amd. I;iga°*ai wagd- 

notwlth- they do not speak nsu- . agent the pi. Grandfather serv 

standing, traly ally sub. 

iq^a"" e%{i amd na'a"' iil'ga'^^ai (^ga"", wdi°4fbaxui ha. 9 

ant his the pi. to hoar we wish for as^ we write to you 

sub. it him about several 

things 

Mazi'kide said: — Kage^ha, *(? a'^'ba g6 wagdca" ne t6' a°'ba 

My friend, tnis the days traveling you the day 

i4dug(^e 4isf(f6-na"'i ^ikdge amd. A°'cte i^ddi wagdcaiigf(^6 

throughout they think usu- your thepL As if his father he' causes his own 

(or, every) of you ally friend sub. to travel 

^ga^qtia-'i: "E'a"'and'a" et^da"," eb^dga" a"'bai*dug<^e. Eska 12 

it is just so: How I hear it apt? (in I think it day throa^out Oh that 

soliloquy). (or, every). 

wikAge ukdt'a" ka"'a"^a'"^6-na'"i. Wada-'bai ^ga" cu^^, 

my friend succeed we hope usu- He saw us as he has 

ally. gone to 

you (by 
request), 

Wakan'da wdifaha"* nfkaci°'ga-mdc6, wawiue-mac^ga°, ^skana 

God to pray vari- O ye people, lawyer ye who, oh that 

ous prayers to likewise 

u^^i[a» ka^'a^^^'^ai. Eska ini?awd^6 t6 uket'a" ka^'a'^a-'^ai. 15 

you aid we hope. Oh that capable of sus- the he acquires we hope, 

him taininglife it 

Ta^'wa^-gaxejingasaid: — Kageha, ca°' nfkaci'*'ga-ma wdb(fa- 

My friend, in fact the people I pray to 

ha° (^^a^6 ie wi°dqtci. Ca""' nfkaci"'ga eddda"" wfu^^akiaf ^, 

them I send word Just one. And person what you (pi.) speak if, * 

away to them about it 

u^U(fakfkie-mdc6, Wakan'da wd^aha^'-mdcg eddbe, wfb^aha"'i 18 

O ye who speak to one an- Gotl ye who pray various also, I pray to you 

other about it, prayers to him (pi.) 



28 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

bifjiigaqti. Nlkaci'^'ga uk^^i"" b(|5Ugaqti (^f(^iha"'i t6 ha, udwa- 

all. Indian common really all they bave prayed . O ye 

to you 

fa'^'i-mdcg. A°'ba g& wab(^ita°-na°-ma''' ctewa"', nlka- 

who aid us. Day the pi. I usaally work at differ- even if, per- 

in. ob. ent things 



i°'ga wagaca"" ^e ^i°' g^i i[i, eddda"" le uda°qti ati'"' g^i 

>n traveling he who has he when, what word very good he brings 



3 ci" 

son 

gone returns " back 

ka°'eb^^ga°-qti-na°-ma"', asi(^6-na'' ca°'ca". EdAda^ ctect6wa°' 

I am usaally earnestly hoping it, I think usn- always. Wbat soever 

of him ally 

saglqti uk^fa"" g^i ka^'a^ij^a'^'iljai, eb(^^ga°. Ki cin'gajin'ga 

very firm he acquires he we hope, I think it. And child 

returns 

6 wiwlja sagiqti maja°' (jjan'di i°'naji" ka^'bi^^ga". 

my very firmly land in the he st-ands I hope. 

for me • 

ja^i'^-na^'pajl said: — Kageha, waonfta" n^ t6 ^skana nika- 

My friend, to work at you the oh that In- 

various went 
things 

ci°'ga uk^^i" uwa^agi^ja"' lida^qti u(|iAket^a° (^^g^i ka°b^^ga^ 

. dian common you aid them very good you acquire it you re- 1 hope. 

turn hither 

9 Nikaci'^'ga waiie-mdcg ii(f^5[a''-m4c6, ^skana wacka'^'qti u^4- 

Person O ye lawyers O ye who help him, oh that making a great yon 

emrt render 

5[a"qti ka°b(^dga'' wfb<(jaha"'i ha. Nfkaci"'ga c^(^i° w^teqi ke 

him much I hope I pray to you (pl.) . Person that m v. hard for the 

aid ob. us 

Ibaha'^'i ^ga° w^(|5ita° cu(^al. 

he knows it as to work for has gone 
us to you. 

12 Wadjepasaid: — *Id*a-mAji ^a°'ja, fe b(|iuga wiwl4a, i^'ca'' ha. 

I have not though, word all my own, I agree 

spoken about it to them 

NOTES. 

22, 2, ^ai. G. thought that it should read, "a^ai," but that means, 
he goes or went of his own accord. With <* ^ai " compare the use of 
"cu^e" instead of "cu^ai,'' 21, 4, 23, 4, 24, 5, and 27, 13, confirmed 
by W. 

21, 13, ucka'* ^i;ai, etc. The idea is : I have attained to the afore- 
said stage of civilization, but the President ignores it (or, opposes it), 
acting just as if he meant to say, " I do not wish you Indians to live as 
white people!" 

22, 7-8, niaci°ga wa:^ap'6 ^e-ma, etc. W. changed it to, niaci°'ga 

people 

wa^d^ap*^ one-md gick' uwa^akial k3.^b^6gsi^h^j'^l hope that you will 

you are near you those quick you talk to I hope 

them go who them 

^eak very soon to those people near you^ to whom you go,^ But that 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 29 

hardly agrees with the context, as Na°pewa^6 was not addressing Mr. 
Tibbies but all the white people. 

23, 13. Supply " tai," after "^a^iickaxe," as in 28, 15. Waxai in 23, 13, 
refers to the Indians alone, but, in 23, 15, to all races, inclading white 
people, Indians, etc. 

23, 15-16, aji t6 M Wakanda aka. If " ajl" be retained, change " aka" 
to"^inke," ortherwise *'ajl" should be changed to "a-bajl^' before 
<'aka." 

25-27. Two Crows' words were addressed directly to Mr. Tibbies; 
but some of the speakers addressed the white people of the United 
States. 

26, 9, et passim, I^iga°^ai ^inke. Used correctly in 26, 10-11, and 
26, 16, where it is the ob. of verbs. It can be changed to " I(jiga"^ai 
aka^in 26, 12; but that requires '* e^ega"i " after it, instead of "efe- 
gaV In 26, 14, ^iiike should be " aka'' before " wegaxe-na"i ;'' and in 
26, 18, '« aka" should be used before " 4^ai.'' Had "'i^e"been used 
there ^^^inke" might stand, provided that action by request or permis- 
sion was referred to. W. said that Two Crows spoke hurriedly, when 
he used " ^inke" for " aka; '' and had he reiiected he would have used 
the latter. G. said that Two Crows used I:^iga°^ai ^inke because he did 
not see the President, but this is inconsistent with his use of " I:jiga°^ai 
aka'' in 27, 3. 

27, 4, wegaxa-bajt refers to the acts of Indian agents, not to that 
of the President. 

27, 17, wiu^akiai refers to Congress. 

Since this letter was written the author has talked with several 
Omahas, including four of the men who dictated parts of this letter. 
Judging from what they say, they have had reason to change their 
opinion of Mr. Tibbies, who has married a daughter of the late Joseph 
La Fl^che, and has been residing among the Omahas for several years. 

As the author has not returned to the Omahas since he left them in 
1880, all subsequent information respecting the tribe has been gained 
from letters and from Omahas who have visited Washington. 

TRANSLATION. 

(Duba-ma"fi^ said:)— My friends, ye persons who are the principal 
ones of the whole country, I think of you to-day, and so I petition to 
you. O ye people, O ye who understand something, a man who knows 
about us and who understands our troubles in this land has gone to 
you for the purpose of working for us. I refer to Mr. Tibbies. I hope 
and pray that you may accept his words aiad help him ! As he under- 
stands some of the ways of all of us Indians, he has gone to you to 
accomplish something lor us ; but if he works alone we fear that he 
will fail. Therefore, O ye people, if you aid him, and all of you suc- 
ceed in doing something for us, I may hope to continue to work for 
myself with much gladness in this land. It is wrong for those people 



30 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

who do not know our ways to doubt what Tibbies tells. But what Tib- 
bies says he says because he has indeed gone to you to right the wrongs 
of us Indians. 

(SInde-xa°xa^ said:)— My friend, as I think to-day of the principal 
people who are intelligent, I will petition to them. A man has gone 
hence to you, and he has gone with a full knowledge of our troubles, 
for he has seen us with his own eyes. In former days I never saw even 
one man who did such a thing; but just now I see the deed (done). 
I mean Tibbies. O ye people, I petition to you because I hope that 
when he tells you about all the things that are diflBcult for us, you will 
accept them from him. Notwithstanding those who know nothing about 
our difficulties doubt him, as he knows about us, you will please accept 
his words. The President does not have a full knowledge of our 
trouble, and though he has the oversight of us, behold, he wishes us to 
die ! But as we wish to live, we pray to you, O ye persons who help 
us! I am undertaking one thing; I am learning to do various kinds 
of work. I have accepted all your customs. But though I have done 
this, the President acts just as if he was saying, "I do not wish you 
(Indians) to live as white people!" I think of the man who is going 
hence to-day. O ye great men, I think of you all. Perhaps you think 
that you have persevered (in our behalf); I send to you to beg you to 
persevere again. 

(Na°pewa^6 said:) — My friend, to-day I think more of those who pray 
(than of any others). We hope that you may accept all the words of 
this man who is going, and that you may act accordingly. He goes to 
work for all the tribes of Indians. And when you succeed, and it is 
settled in a very satisfactory manner for us, O ye who work for us Indians, 
we ought to be human beings. We desire you to make us human beings! 
We used to think that the oversight which the President exercised 
over us Indians was a good thing, but now it is not apt to be so. We 
used to think that something was ours, but behold, we are virtually 
not their owners. If that be the case, I hope that you will do your best 
very soon to aid those who have been approximating to yon. Though 
we Indians have been looking all aroun d in search of the good road for 
ourselves, we hope that they may cause us to find the good (close at 
hand). My friend, when I said that we had looked all around for it, I 
referred to our having faced toward your methods, those good things. 

(X®'^^a»ha said :) — My friend (Tibbies), some of these Indians remem- 
ber you. We think of you to day, because you went to work at various 
things for us. Though I have had sense for forty years, I have not 
known a person who resembles him (Tibbies) in doing kind acts. And 
now, though he does not at all belong to those who have in their veins 
our Indian blood mixed with the blood of another race, yet he pities us 
and works at various things for us! The white people have always 
wished us to continue wild ; but now God has ordere i him (Tibbies) 
to do various kinds of work for us, and thus he does. And now, as I 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 31 

hope tbat I may live as the other people of the coaatry do, I pray for 
that on my own account. Though I have a different skin, I hope that 
I may live in the land as do the people with white skins. The words 
spoken by my friend who has gone to you are in accord with what he 
has seen among us. O ye chief men, I hope that you may accept the 
words and help him. I do not mention the President by that name ; 
I call him the ** Slayer of Indians !'' I wish that I could see him face 
to face and give him these words ! I refer to his not helping us. He 
accepts what words the agents say, but he does not even look at us ! 
I have taken my place at the very end of the petition, and thus I send 
to you to pray to you. 

(Big Elk said :) — The man who is now on his way (to the East) is the 
only one who has obeyed God's words. He has not wished to trans- 
gress the commandments of God : it is good. When God made us in 
this country, He did not say, "You shall regard yourselves in the way 
of others.'' God did not say this to any race of people, whether they 
were Indians or white people, such as you are. Only that which God 
made is good. And you who have an abundance of possessions, are, 
as it were, just like Him ; therefore please listen to the words of no one 
except the man who has gone hence (to you). He has gone to you to 
rectify several matters for us who are suffering. God made us in this 
country, and though we have continued in it, we have not succeeded at 
anything. Because we have not succeeded at anything you have made 
trouble for us Indians! The President desires us to go in ihe way in 
which there are usually very bad things. Therefore this man, who has 
really seen us, has gone to you to rectify several matters for us. O ye 
very strong men, O ye who pray to God, help him! 

(Joseph La Flfechesaid:) — My friends, ye people who dwell in the 
country of the United States, I petition to you ! O all ye people ! I 
petition to you. We write to you because we wish you to pity us when 
you see this letter. In former days, when we dwelt in this land, we did 
not know of anything whatever like this ! As God made various tilings 
for us to eat in this country, we continued to eat them; and we had 
sense enough for this, if for nothing else. And behold, O ye people, 
you have brought on us a great trouble ! And when we had trouble, 
and were without a refuge, we used to go to the President and petition 
to him. But he made it a rule not to accept our words. At length we 
learned this by experience. Behold, thought we, he does not regard us 
as human beings! We know for ourselves that he does not regard us 
as human beings ; therefore, O ye people, when we start to go towards 
you, the President usually blocks our way! He acts just as if he was 
saying, " I do not wish you to be human beings." Still, we wish you 
to pity us, and from this time forward to acknowledge us to be human 
beings! And we hope that by the tiuie that we are looked upon as 
human beings he may always think of our children (even if he has not 
paid aoy attention to us). The man who is aiding us can not accomplish 



32 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

this busiDess alone. He undertakes it because he thinks of you. He 
thinks, " They will aid me,'^ and so he does it. Therefore we hope that 
you will aid him. O friends, we hope that God may open your hearts, 
and that our thoughts may enter your hearts. I do not think that this 
man called Tibbies has spoken even one false word. Friends, he has 
told you nothing but the truth. Do not doubt his words ! He tells you 
'what he has seen among us. He is trying to right our wrongs, after 
seeing us and gaining a knowledge of us. O ye people with good 
hearts, we hope that you will pity us and help him ! 

(Two Grows said :) — My friend, you who were going after talking to 
us, as these men remember you to-day, we have written to you about 
several things. We are ever thinking of you. We are always think- 
ing, ''How can we hear from him?" We hope that all those who pray 
to God about different things may help you. We hope that they may 
regard your words as true ones. You have gone on a journey just as 
if you had been born here among us Indians ! We take refuge in Judge 
Dundy's decision, as it is very good. That being so, we think "It may 
be better for us !" There is no part of this matter about which you went 
to speak of which you do not speak truly ! You knew all about it 
before you went, so they ought not to doubt you at all. Even if the 
President doubts you, he does not know about us. You know about 
us, so you talk about us. The servants of the President have really 
caused him to tell a lie! The President has thought, ''I have made 
the Indians very prosperous.'^ And then, though he has done something 
for us (». 6., ordered it to be done), by the time that it gets here, it is 
not done for us, as his servants pull it to pieces ! Though the Presi- 
dent may usually do what is for our good, the agents abstract the good 
when it gets here, and we suffer. And when the agents send to the 
President a report, they report to him that we are doing very well : 
they tell great lies ! And as the President promised in the past to do 
what was good for us, he thinks that the agents have done so for us. 
The President thinks, ''Though they generally get what is good, they 
persist in saying what is bad.'' And as the agents do not carry out 
the good promises made to us by the President, the rest of the In- 
dians, the Dakotas, are disobedient. And as we desire the President 
to hear about our troubles such as these, we employ the agents to write. 
Though we employ the agents to write (to the President about these 
things), behold, they do not write for us ! Notwithstanding they say 
that they have written for us, the agents do not speak the truth. As 
we wish the President to hear about his servants, we write to you about 
these things. 

(Mazi-kide said:) — My friend, throughout all the days that you are 
traveling (for us), those who are your friends are thinking about you. 
It is just as if one would cause his father to go on a journey. We think 
throughout the day, "How can I hear from him?" We hope, "Oh 
that my friend may succeed !" He has gone to you (white people) after 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 33 

seeing us. O ye people who pray various prayers to God, aud O ye 
lawyers, we hope that you will aid him ! We hope that he uiay acquire 
something by means of which we may live ! 

(Little Village-Maker said :) — M.y friend, I send but one word as ray 
l»etition to the people. I petition to all of you, both to you who pray 
various prayers to God aud you who speak to one another about the 
business of the country (in Congress). All the Indians have really 
prayed to you, O ye who aid us! Even if I work at diflPerent things 
every day, I am earnestly longing for the return of the man who has 
gone on a journey, hoping that he may bring back some very good 
words. I am always thinking of him. I think that we (all) hope that 
he may succeed in bringing us something or other which may Ije of 
lasting benefit to us. I hope that my children may never be disturbed 
in the possession of the land. 

(^jaf i"-na"pajT said O—My friend, you went to work at various things 
for us, and I hope that by your aid to the Indians you may succeed in 
bringing back something very good. O ye lawyers who aid him, I pray 
to you. I hope that you may persevere and render him much assist- 
ance! That man who has gone (to you) knew about our troubles before 
he started ; and he has gone to you to work for us. 

(Wadjepa said:) — Though I have not spoken about (anything), all the 
words are mine, and I agree to them. 



JOHN SPRINGER TO JOHN PRIMEAU. SEPTEMBER 11, 1879. 

Kageha, a"^iiui*a"-])ajf-(jtia" >iaci. Wabag^eze wa^a*iajl. 

My friend, wo have not heant froui yuu a long Letter you havu uol 

at all ' time. j;ivoM us. 

VVa^ii wiwi|a Zuzeifte (|iina*a" ga"'^ai. Mi°'jifiga aiigujai 

Woman my 8uHette to hear wishes. Girl our 

from you 

jinga ^ifike wakega i°'tca°. Ma"tcii-naji" ania cag(|iai. Wa- 3 

small the one is sick now. Standing Bear the mv. has ^(oao I pur- 

who sub. bucittoyou. 

b^iqe pi ede naxide^iiVge ga"' ie te a"'na*a°-baji, wab^iesa 

sued I but disobedient as word the ho did not hear me, I spent more 

reached tiiuo than I 

him had intended 

ag((jf. Ki iicka" te f\'ki\i\ ca"' ag(^af. P>a"' iua"oui°' t6 

I re- And deed the failed iu al- yet went back. How you walk the 

turned together 

hither 

i^wi'^'^a f^a-ga. Ma'*tcii-na'*'ba ijiiVge Caa°'a|a ^i ga"'^ai 6 

to tell it to send Two Orizzly l>earM his son t<) tho Da- to go . wished 

mo liither. kotas 

ede, ^fc*a. I(fjadi^,ai ama u(J^i*agai. 

bat, he failed. Agent th« tub. was unwill' 

lag. 

10967 3 



34 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

NOTES. 

83, 4. For "wdb^i^sa," W. aod G. read, " wdbfi'a,'^ or, "w^bfic'a,'' 
I failed to dccamplish anything, 

33, 6. Ma"tcu-iia"ba, better known among the people of Nebraska 
as ** Yellow Smoke." 

33, 7, ^ic*a. Accented peculiarly. G. said it should be, <(;ic'd ha, the 
regular pronunciation. 

Standing Bear refused to remain any longer at Decatur, so despite 
the advice of the author, who was acting according to instructions 
from Standing Bear's friends at Omaha, he started for his old home 
on the ]^iobrara Elver. He was pursued by John Springer, an Omaha 
policeman, who tried to bring him back. Standing Bear defied him, 
showing Judge Dundy's decision. John was obliged to let him go. 

TRANSLATION. 

My friend, we have not heard from you at all for a long time. You 
have not corresponded with us. My wife Susette wishes to hear from 
you. Our younger daughter is sick now. Standing Bear has started 
back to you. I pursued him and overtook him, but he was disobedient 
and would not listen to my words; and so, after spending more time 
than •! had intended, I had to come back without him. Although his 
afiair was far from being settled, he started back to his old land. Send 
and tell me how you are. Two Grizzly Bears' son wished to visit the 
Yanktous, but he failed, as the agent was unwilling for him to go. 



TO REV. JOHN C. LOWRIE, NESV YORK, FROM TWO CROWS AND 
OTHER OMAHAS. SEPTEMBER 16, 1879. 

Kag^ha, wai°<{;ibaxui ha. Ca°' ie djubaqtci angii^ikit? 

O friend ! we write to you on . And word very few we speak to 

various subjects you 

cu^ea°'(k6 tan'gata". Ca*^' licka" pahaii'gadi *ia°'^6 tan'gata'^ 

we will send to you. And deed formerly we will speak of it 

3 ha. iJcka'^ pahafi'gadi wabag^eze a^ade %i t6 *ia"'(|56 tan'gata'' 

Deed formerly book reading house the we will speak uf it 

ha. P'cte, kag^ha, pahan'gadi wabag^eze a^ade 41 t6 wa^^'i 

. . As if, O friend, formerly book reading bouse the you gave 

it to us 

t6, we^^ckaxai ha. Ki ca^' uda"qti a°(f5a°'baha°-bajl'qtia°'i 

the, you made it for us And yet very good we did not know it at all 

6 ^a°'ja, ca°' e'di ciiVgajiiVga naji'^a^waiVkiiJ^e-na^'i. P'ta*" 

though, yet there child we caused them tQ.3tand usu- 2<row 

ally. 

wabag^eze a^ade te endqtci uda"" t^dega"' a^'^a^'baha"'! ha,; 

book reading the it only good has boon apt we know it • 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 35 

Ada" anga°'^ai h^ga-a°'^i°-b4jl wsihkg^eze d^de t6. Ga"^ 

there- we desire it jre are not a little book reading the And 

fore ob. 

"Ca"' wabag^^eze a^ade :ji t6' uda"qti cin'gajin'ga ama naji°'i 

At any book read- boose the veiy good child the pi. stand 

rate ing sab. 

aha''," a°(|5a°'^ai ha. Ki ca°' wab%(|5eze a^ade t6 ^apfqti 3 

! we think . And yet book reading the speaking it 

very well 

was^^a'' a(|5ai-de 6b^wa'*i di°te wabag(|5eze a^ade %i t6 

rapidly they when who caused it it may book reiekding hoase the 

went (the trouble) be 

^ic^i^a^^i. Ga"' i(fddi^ai ama wa4i°, cin'gajifi'ga a°'ba h^be 

was broken And agent the pi. had tnem, child day part of 

up. sub. it 

wab4g^eze a(^adewaki(|5af. Ki (jjdama cin'gajin'ga-ma pa-. 6 

book caused them to read. And these the children be- 

han'ga wabAg^eze a^ade ain4 ni^'^a amd g^dba-cade ki 

fore book read the pi. alive the*one8 sixty and 

sub. who 

6'di sAta°. le (fjapf, wabaxu ctfia'^'i. le ^pl ^aftkd edita" 

on it five. Lan- speak they even write (letters). Lan- speak they who from 

guage well, gnage well (them) 

wi°' I;lga°*af i^ska; ci edlta" wi"' wabAg^eze w^4ade 9 

one Grandfatner (his) inter- again from one book ;reaas for 

preter ; ( them ) them . 

ha. Ci edfta"" na"ba ja°^fta''i ha, ci ^ah^V" waqe ;i gaxe 

Again from two work as car- . and three white house to 

(them) penters people make 

lbaha'"i ha. Cl edita" ^Ab^i" ma^'z^gaxai ha. Ci edfta" 

they know . Agaiu from three work as blacksmiths . Again from 

(them) (them) 

wi"' u^i^ubadi wa^fta" ha. Kl i^'tca" Quaker-ma wa^i" t6 12 

on& at the grist mill works . And now the Quakers have had the 

them 

ceta"' wi'^aqtcictg waqe fa-baji: ma°'zeska t6 u*a"'^iiige'qti 

so far even only one white do not speak money the all in vain 

people the language: 

uqpa^g, edada" ct^ct^wa" i5|i>[axa-baji. Ki pahan'ga t6 lida" 



fell down what soever they did not make And before the good 

(=lost), for themselves 

by means of it. 

inalii'' t^dega"', we^ic(^^a'' c'ga'^ we^a-baji hdga-baji. iJcka" 15 

indeed was apt, but, they broke it as we are sad very. Deed 

up for us 

pahafi'ga teia"" ci 6'qtl aii>jf>[a"^af. Ki c^ska*" I^{ga°((jal aka 

before tue again that wo desire tor Aud probable (Jrrandfather the 

(past) v»ry ourselves. (or, per- , sub. 

thiug haps) 

uawagi5[a"'i e^^ga°wa^6. Ki ci' dskana, kagt^ha, uawa^agi- 

he helps us is reasonable. , And again oh that, O fHend, yon help 

5|a"'i a°(f5a°'fii. Pahan'gadi u4wa<|5agi>[a°'i dga" ci i°'tca° 18 

us wo think. Formerly you helped us as again now 

uawa4agi5[a°'i aiiga"'((jai. I°'cte ta^Va^g^a"" ^a"' wabAg^eze 

yonnelpus wod«tire« As if 'trib« tha book 



36 OMAHA AND PONKA . LETTERS. 

a^ade te igiiida" tat^ nA5[a"qti a'^da^'be eawaga^^'i, ada° 

readin;; the shall be for its good shiuin^ very we see it we are so, ther*«- 

brightly fore 

anga"'(|^a-qtia"'i. Day school t6 anga°'<(^-baji. 

we strongly desire it. Day school the we do not desire. 

NOTE. 

This letter was dictated to the author at the Presbyteriau mission 
house, twelve Omahas being preseut. 

TRANSLATION. 

O friend, we write to you on various matters. We will send to you 
to speak to you a very few words. We will speak about something 
that was done formerly. We will speak about the school-house that 
was formerly in operation. When you, O friend, gave us a school-house, 
it was as if you made it for us. And though at that time we did not 
know at all that it was a very good thing, yet we generally put the 
children there. Now we know that the sole tendency of education at 
that time was towards improvement. Therefore we are not a little 
anxious for education (for the children). We think, "The children fare 
very well when they stay at the school house!'' And yet when the 
children were learning to speak English very well, and were improving 
rapidly, from some cause or other the school-house was broken ui) ! And 
then the agents took the control, making the children study for half a 
day. Now there survive sixty-five of those who formerly learned at 
the boarding-school. They spea-k English, and they even write letters. 
Of those who speak English, one is a Government interpreter, one is a 
school teacher, two are carpenters, three know how to put up houses, 
three are blacksmiths, and one works at the grist-mill. And now, of 
those who have attended school since the Friends took control, not 
even one speaks English! The money has been expended all in vain. 
They have not made anything for themselves out of it. And what was 
in existence formerly was truly good in its tendency, but as they have 
broken it up to our disadvantage, we have been greatly displeased. 
We desire for ourselves that very thing which was here formerly. And 
it is reasonable to think that the President will aid us to get this. 
friend, we think that you will help us. As you aided us formerly, so 
we desire you to aid us now. With reference to the boarding school, 
we regard it as something that is shining very brightly, and which 
must be for the good of the people. Therefore we strongly desire it. 
We do not want the day schools. 



OMAHA AND TONKA LETTERS. 37 

HUPE(|;A to WILLIAM m'kIM HEATH. OCTOBER 1, 1879. 

I Kageha, a°'ba(^e waqi°'ha ((^a" :^a°'be. Kageha, nfkaci"'ga 

My friend, to-day paper the I have My friend, people 

Been it. 

nankacg, (3skana a'^cta^'bai ka^'bij^ega", c! \vi;a°'bai ka°b^ega°. 

ye who, oh that you see me I hope, again I see you (pi.) I hope. 

Nfkaci'''ga-mace, \vsi^'dm^^lta^i te qtawi(|iai ega" egima'' lia. 3 

O ye people. you work for your- the I love you as I do that 

selves (pi.) 

'Wamiiskg w^ga°ze g(^^ba-na°'ba iiaji, lida^qti ddxe. Wata'^'zi 

Wheat measure twenty I sowed, very good I did. Com 

wega°ze g(^^ba-(|idb(^i" uaji; nii wega^'ze g(^^ba-na"'ba; maja°'q6, 

measure thirty I po- measure twenty ; onion, 

planted; tato 

nug(|5e, ha"b(|iiil'ge, b^iiga uda°qti daxe j^f ctT wi"' a^jfdaxe, 6 

turnip, beaus, all very good I did. Huuse too one I made for 

myself, 

uda"qti, ede i°'na(|iiiVge. Kiikusi g(^eba wab^i", :^eska-mi°'ga 

very good, but it was burnt Hog ten I have cow 

for me. them, 

wi°Aqtci, mi^'xa diiba w4b^i"; zizfka wi°aqtci: cena w^(^a:5[i- 

jnstone, goose four I have then; turkey juHtoiie: enough yon make 

for yourself 

ckaxai g6 4 eskana eb(|^ega", kagelia, I'^'tca^qtci wAb^i^ 9 

by means the pi. that perhaps I think it, my Iriond, just now I have 

ofthoni in. ob. them. 

P'tca°qtci uwfb(^a ha, Edada" a°(f;a"'baha°-baji t'ga", nfka- 

Just now I tell it to What we do not know it so, In- 

yon 

ci°'ga ukti(|!i" an'ga^i". 'Ag^aqti a"'(^i". A"t'e t6 weA^ingg'qti 

dian common we who move. Suffering we are. We die the we have no means 

greatly at all 

ca"'ca" a"'(^i° a^'ba i^Awgi^e, eddda" a°(^a°'baha"-baji, ehe. 12 

I always we are day throughout, what we do not know it, I say. 

IWakan'da ama U(|^ita° g& (^iga^'zai ga""', nfpi ga°', uda" 

God the mv. work the pi. lu> has taught as, you do as, good 

(or pi.) sub. in. oh. ^ou it well 

nia"ni"'. Ki wega'^za-bajT ga"', kageha, wc^teqi ha. Wanfta 

you walk. And ho has not taught us as, my friend, it is hard Quadruped 

I for ns 

L^wajl" jiit^a" (^i"' e uawagi(|^ai. E u<(?ita" wegaxai. Hebe 15 

I matures of its own the it he has t<dd us. It work he made for us. Part 

I atcord coll,(?) 

ob. 

angiqa^i ga"', li^be aflguta^i ga"', kl wi"' a°i"'i. Kageha, 

we put on as as, part we put on as as, and one we wear My friend, 

moccasins leggins as robes. 

a^^a^'baha^'-baji 'ag*aqti a^'ij^i". Uawa>[a"'i-ga. Uawa^a5[a"'i 

we do not know it suffering we are. Help us ! You help us 

greatly 

5[!, a'^nf!^a et^ga". Uawa<(5a:>[a"'i te nfkaci^'ga uke<f5i"-ma nf:ia ig 

if, we live apt. You help us th3 Indian the common ones to live 

we^^cka^nai c^ska" ebJj^ega" ga"', uwfbifa. Afigueja ctT waqe- 

you wish for us 1 think it may be ax, 1 tell it to We, on the too O ye 

yuu. one hand 



38 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

mAc6, niaja"' pahan'ga ii(^A*a"si t& ^a^esJ^'^i^e h^ga-a'^'i^i^-b^ji. 

white land first you leaped the we pitied you we were very, 

people, in it 

Ki maja^' ^a"" uda"" cta°'bai tgdfhi 5[i, weA(|iat'anai, t'e 

And land the good you saw it by the time when, yon hated us, to 

it arrived die 

3 we^(3cka°naf. Kag^ha, ca°m^wa(|5ai-ga. Nfkaci°'ga iik^^i"-ma 

you wished for us. Hy friend, let (ye) ns alone! Indian the common one:- 

c^na 4wa^di-ga. A''wan'5[ig^fta°i wada'^'be-na"'! Uma°'ha" 

enough speak (ye> about "We work for ourselves they see us nso- Omaha 

them. ally 

afi'gata". Pahan'ga t6'di u(^ita° fi^f^ai g6 da'^'be ga°'<|5a- 

we who stand. At the first work youi the pi. to look they had 

in. ob. at 

6 ctgwa^'-bdjl. Ki i^'tca^qtci i^^ita" ^i^i?ai g6 ^e'ama da"'bai, . 

not the least de- And just now work your the pi. these they look 

sire. , in. ub. at it, 

dda° ca°in^wa(^4i-ga. Kag^ha, nikaci'^'ga iikd^i" an'gai^i'' 

there- let them alone ! My friend, Indian common we who 

fore move 

*4g(^awa(^d^ai tcdbai. Wanita d^da"", :j4qti, j(5, a'^'pa'', jatcuge, 

you make ns suffer v«ry Quadruped what deer, bnf- elk, * antelope, 

greatly. (sort), falo, 

9 ca*"' wanfta b^iiga t*a°'i ga"' w^uda'' ga"', t'ewa^d^ai. (pingai, 

in quadruped all they as good for us as, you killed them. There are 

,fact abounded none, 

an'guginai 5[!. Nfkaci°'ga-mdc6, ^atf t6 ceta°' cin'ga- 

we seek them, when. O ye people, you the so far child 

our own came 

hither 

jm'ga dhigi ida amd, can'ge mi°g4 ama maja''' (^an'di Ida amd. 

many have been horse female the pi. laud in the hare been 

born, sub. bom. 

12 Waqe wA^V ama wi"' g^dba idaw4(f!6 wa?a°'be. j^^ska mi°'ga 

White have the pi. one ten has given I have seen Cow 

people them sub. birth to them. 

maja°' wiwfja ^an'di dhigi w^da(^e wa;a"'be-na°-ma°'. Maja°' 

laud my in the many have had I have usually seen them. Laud 

young ones 

^an'di pahan'ga ti tg^di, %( (^iilgg'qti wa(^fta" naji"' ama. 

in the first had when, house none at all working they were stand- 

come ing, it is said, 

hither 

15 Ki %i ai^iihage g4xe-na°' am4. Nikaci°'ga-mace, wa^aha 

And house at the last they have usually been O ye people ! clothing 

making, it is said. 

lida'^qti wi;a°'bai. Ki edada"" fgaxe a. j^an'de ^andfta^ 

very good I have seen And what has it been ? Ground from the 

you. done by 

means of 

^iz^ amd. j^^skS-ma ci°'qti waja'''be-na''-ma°^ Kl maja°' 

it has been The cows very fat I have usually seen them. And land 

taken, they say. 

18 wf^ja ^an'di qade g6 fci"* am4- ^ag^ha, licka*" ^i^f^ai 

my in the grass the pi. they are fat by My friend, deed your 

in. ob. by means of 
it, they say. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 39 

b^iigaqti qtaa^6 b(^e. Uawa5[a" waifinVai. Waqe-m4c6, 

ftil 1 love it I KO. To help us we have none. O ye white people, 

uawa^^a"'i 5[T, a"ul;a • etc'ga". Kagdha, niu^au'da b^iiga 

yon help as if, we live apt. My friend, island all 

^skana nfaci°'ga una*a°wa^aki^ai ka°b^<?ga°. Nfaci°'ga-ina 3 

oh that people you caase them to hear I hope. The people 

abont it 

a"wa"'na'a"'i t6dfhi ^l, waqi-'ha wi"" a°'i i^a-gft. le uda-qti 

they hear about me by the when, paper one give send it Word very good 

time to me hither, 

arrives 

edabe gdxe *i i^a-ga. Ikagewi<fe6'qti a>[idaxe. Kag(5ha, 

also to make give send it I have yoa for my I make it My friend, 

it it hither. true friend for myself. 

wagaziiqti uwlb^a. (/Hikage-ma uwagi^a-ga. Kag^ha, i"'^6qti 6 

very straight I tell it to Your friends tell it to them. My fi lend, I am very 

you. (pi. ub.) glad 

wi!^a"'be ag(fi°' ega° a°'ba lida^qti uwfkie. Kageha, a°cta"'baji 

I see you I sit so d.iy very good I talk to My fiieml, you have not 

you. seen me 

ga°'ada° a°^an'da t6 uwfb^a td minke. Ma^6 g^eba-^ab^i" 

as, therefore I was born the I will tell you. Winter thirty 

kl 6'di na-'ba b^i"'. 

and on it two I am. 

NOTES. 

Mr. Heath asked this letter for publication in '^The Cincinnati Com- 
mercial.'' 

37, 19. Angueja marks a contrast between the Omabas and the white 
men. Supply a sentence^ such as, </)iej4 ctl, w4qe-mdc6, maja"' ^a° 
uda** cta"'baid^ wed^at'anai, V6 we^^cka°nai: ^^ But you^on the other 
hand^ ye tchite people^ tchen you saw that the land was good^ you hated 
us and wished us io die.^ L. wrote angu ej^. 

38, 10. Hupe^a began the dictation of the following in Omaha, but 
the author did not record it in that dialect, except the first clause [KI 
maja°' pahan'ga u^rig^i^ ^a°, And (in) the pari of this land in which you 
first dwelt] : " And we did not say that you were bad, when you were 
in the part of this land to which you first came. But if we, in turn, 
were to cross over to that land from which you came, they would send 
us back home." 

TRANSLATION. 

My friend, I have seen the letter to-day. My friends, O ye people, I 
hope that you may see me, and that I may see you. O ye people, as I love 
you because you work for yourselves, I do that (i e., I work for myself). 
I sowed twenty bushels of wlieat, and did very well. I planted thirty 
bushels of corn, twenty bushels of (Irish) potatoes, onions, turnips, beans; 
I succeeded very well with all. I also made an excellent house for myself, 
but I have lost it by fire. I have t^n hogs, one cow, four geese, and one 
turkey : I think, my friend, that just now I have all the things by means 



40 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

of which you accomplish something for yourselves. I tell it to you just 
at this time. We Indians have been ignorant. We have suffered much. 
We are always dying, throughout the day; being entirely destitute, I 
mean that we are dying in poverty because we know nothing. You 
have prospered because God taught you different kinds of work, which 
you do well. It is hard for us, my friend, because he did not teach us. 
But he has told us about the quadrupeds that mature of their own 
accord. Such is the work which he has assigned to us. We put on 
I)art (of the animals) as moccasins, part we put on as leggins, and one 
part we wear as robes. My friend, we have suffered greatly because of 
our ignorance. Help us! If you aid us, we ough t to live. I tell it to 
you because I think that you wish us wild Indians to live, as you have 
aided us. We, on the one hand, O ye white people, treated you very 
kindly when you first landed in this country. But you, on the other 
hand, when you saw that the land was good, hated us, and wished us 
to die! My friends, let us alone! Do not speak any more about the 
Indians. You see that the Oinahas work for themselves. Formerly 
they had not the least wish to look at your customs. But just now 
these (Indians) are interested in your customs, therefore let them alone! 
My friend, you have caused great sufferings to us Indians. You have 
killed various quadrupeds, deer, buff'alo, elk, antelope, in fact all the 
animals which abounded for our good. There are none to be found 
when we seek for them. (We did not say that you were bad when 
you were in the part of this land to which you first came. But if we 
in turn were to cross over to the land from which you came, they would 
send us back home.) O ye (white) people, it is said that many children 
have been born (to you) since your arrival in this country, and that 
(many?) mares have been born here. I have seen one of those (mares) 
which the white people have, that has given birth to ten (colts). I have 
seen from time to time, in my country, cows that have had many (calves). 
When they first came to this country, it is said that they continued at 
work without any houses at all. But subsequently they usually made 
houses. O ye people, I have seen you (wearing) very good clothing. 
And how has it been acquired? It has been taken from the ground. 
I have generally seen very fat cows. And they have become fat from 
eating the grass growing on m3' land. My friend, I am going to love 
all your customs. We have no one to help us. O ye white people, if 
you help us, we ought to improve. My friend, I hope that you will let 
the people in the whole world hear of (this letter). And by the time 
that the people have heard about me, give me a letter and send it hither! 
Add some very good words to it and send it to me. I regard you as a 
true friend, on my own account. My friend, I have told you a very 
straight story. Tell it to your friends! My friend, I talk to you on a 
beautiful day, just as if I sat beholding you with great joy. My friend, 
you have not seen me, so 1 will tell you when I was born. I am thirty- 
two years of age. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTEBS. 41 

TA^VVA^-OAXE-JINGA TO MI^GABU, A YANKTON. 

Pahan'ga wajiit^a" tedfta" wUa"'be ka°b(|5dde, toqi hegaji. 

Before harvest seasou from the I see you I wisheu, but, difficult very. 

Edada" b<ffjut'a°' t6 aa°'b(^a cub^^ t.6 i-'teqi hega-maji. I"'ta" 

What 1 have raised the I aban- I go to the diHiciilt 1 am very. Now 

don it you for rae 

ceta^'-na", edada" bifjut'a"' h^i'a. hil Ga"', nisfha, 3 

only 80 far, what I have raised I have not And, my child, 

finished 

can'ge a°(fa'i-na°'i-ma i'^'cena. Ga""' ^6 ha, wigf;a°be ka°'b^a 

horse the ones that you gave have been And that . 1 see you, my 1 want 

me at different times expended is it own 

for me. 

t6. Ca"" ga"' nikaci°'ga itaxa;a ama indada" wt3((jig(^a" gaxe- 

the. And at any Indian attheheatl the pi. what plau they 

rate ot the Mis- sub. muke 

souri 

na'*'! t3i"te (iskana, nisiha, fe ^ana^a" ctectgwa" i°vvi°'(|5ana 6 

usu- it may oh that, ray child, word you hear it soever you tell it to rae 

ally be 

ti(^a(^6, uq^g'qtci. Ca°' ciil'gajiiVga wa^ii cti nie ct6\va"' 

you send very soon. And child woman too pain soever 

it hither, 

^inge, eskana, nisiha, egija" wina^a"i ka°b(^(3ga°. A°'ba ata"'- 

Iiavo oh that, ray child, you do I hoar from I hope. At different 

none, * that you 

ct6\va"', nisiha, wisii^S ca^'ca'*. lllskana awagi^ja^'be ka"b(|iega", 9 

times, (W.) m; child, I think of always. Oh that I see them, my own I hope, 

you 

a'^'ba gata°' i[!. le d4da° ct(^.ct6wa° (3skana, nisiha, a''(^agi- 

day I hat far when. Word what soever oh that, my child, you write 

to me. 



cp^xu i(|5a(|iai ka^hi^4g£i^. 

your own you (pi.) I hope, 

send hither 



NOTES. 



41, 3. The hiatus denotes that a sentence was recorded in English, 
but not in the original. See translation. 

41, 8-9, a"ba ata»ct6wa", i. e., a°ba i^aug^e, every day (G.). 

41, 10. A"ba gata" jfl, i. f?., a"bata"cte, sojne day or otlier^ hereafter [(J,), 
One might say, instead, Gata"'qtihi [or^ A'^'ba gata"'qtihi) 3|I'ji, aw4^i- 
^a^'be ka"b^ega", 7 hope that I may see them at last (after so long a st^p- 
aration). Used when several years have passed without his seeing his 
(adopted) kindred (W.). 

TRANSLATION. 

I have been wishing to see you since the first part of the harvest sea- 
son, but it has been difficult. It would be very difficult for me to leave 
what I have raised, in order to go to you. I have not yet finished 
my work with what I have raised. (When my wheat is threshed and 
put in the barn, and the leaves fall,- I will come to see you and your 



42 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS 

four brothers.) My child, the horses that you have given me from time 
to time are all gone. That is the reason why I wish to visit you. My 
child, I hope that you will send and tell me very soon if you hear any 
words whatsoever respecting the plans decided upon by the Indians up 
the river [probably Spptted Tail's Tetons). I hope, my child, to hear 
from you that your children and wife are well, and that you are, too. 
My child, I think about yoo every day. I hope that I may visit my 
Yankton kindred some day or other. My chihl, I hope that you will 
write and send me some word or other. 



XE-JE-BAXE TO T. H. TIBBLES. SEPTEMBER 29, 1879. 

Kag^ha, a°'ba gS fpi et^ga". A°((jagiw4cka°i sp, 

O friend ! day the pi. good apt. You exert yourself if 

in. ob. by for me, your own, 

means 
of 

ani^'cia tat^ Pl^a"<|ja° ^A^ea^'(|5a-bi en^ga°. Plqti 

I shall live. * Again and that you have you think it. Anew 

a^aiu pitied me 

3 ^a*eaiYgi^ai-ga Waqe am4 kig(|54ha''i t6 ^ga" wfg^aha^'i, 

pity ye me! White the pi. praying to one the so I pray to you, 

people sub. another as my own, 

kinsmen 

waha""e tg^f'K^ica". 

with reference to petitioning 
for something. 

NOTES. 

Most of this letter was recorded in English ; such parts are marked 
in the accompanying translation by parentheses. 

42, 1, a°ba gg=a"ba wi", referring to a year, not a day (W.). '*Ipi^ 
refers to the material benefits hoped for, i. e., new clothing, footl for 
horses, etc., as the days rolled by he hoped to get these things (G.). 

TRANSLATION. 

(I came up to the Omaha agency to-da3\ The words which you sent me 
as you passed by on your way home make me glad. I wished to tell you 
about one thing, but you went away. My horses have no food, and so 
I am suffering. Winter is close at hand. I hope that you will let me 
know in what land I am to stay. I do not wish to transgress the com- 
mands of your friends and yourself.) My friend, as the days pass, good 
should result from them. If you persevere in my behalf, I ought to 
improve. (My pants are in holes, and the cold weather is coming.) 
You think that you have treated me kindly very often. O pity me 
again ! I petition to you as my relation, just as the white people peti- 
tion to one another. ([ Cope that you will write and show me your 
words. 1 wish to know what you have to say and advise.) 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 43 

NA^ZANDAJl TO JAMES o'kANE. 

Ca°' wabag^eze (e djiiba wfdaxu cii^ea^e. Wabag^eze 

And letter word a tew I write to I send to Letter 

yon yon 

cu(^^wi4e amede qd^a wWctgwa" tia°'^aki^Aji. Ca"'-na'' 

it is said tiiat I sent it to back even one yoa have not sent And only 

you (but I do not know again hither (to me). 

it:»u;>but 

.'i"'pa°ha jdqtiha ed4be i-^^cka^nd 'f^a^6 ^a"'cH, ca"' a"'ba 3 

flk hides deer hidea also yoa desired for you formerly, yet day 

me promised 

ii^aug^e asf46-na''-ma'*'. Ca'*' a'^'pa^ha m^ha da'^'ctg wi°a°Sva 

I brou^hout I tnink of it from And elk hides winter or which ones 

time to time. hidea 

fa^'qli ni"'wi" ka"b^^ga". Ca"' mdha g6 dtaqti ka"'b^. 

are very you buy I hope. And winter the pi. exceed- I wish, 

plentiful hides in.ob. ingly 

. . . Ca'*' uq^g'qtci, ^skana, qd^a i°wi°'*ana ka°b^^^a°. 6 

And very soon, oh that, back yon tell me I hope. 

again 

NOTES. 

43, 1. " Wabagfjeze cuf ewif e amede '^ would imply that the sender was 
drunk or otherwise, and ignorant of what he had sent in the letter (O.). 
Kead, "Wabag^eze cu*^wiki^^-na"-ma°' 6dega", q^a wi"^ct^wa" 

Letter 1 sent to you often by but (past), back even one 

special'raessenger again 

tia"'^aki^4jl ha^ (G.). This should be either, Wabdg^eze cuf^nf>6 

you have not . Letter I sent t4> 

sent to me you 

^♦le q^^a wi«*^ctSwa" tia"'*aki^4jl h^, or, Wab6.g^eze cu^ef?. am^de 

but back even one you liavo not Letter it is said that they 

a)>ain sent it to me sent to you, but 

q^fi wi»^ct6wa° tifakif^jl ha (W.). 

back even one you have not . 

again sent it hither 

43, C. The parenthetical sentence of the translation was not recorded 
in the original. 

TRANSLATION. 

I write you a few words. I have written to you, but you have not 
sent even one reply. As you promised to be on the lookout for elk 
and deer hides for me, t have been thinking of it regularly every day. 
1 hope that you may buy elk hides or winter (buffalo) hides, which- 
ever kind you find plentiful. I desire winter hides above everything. 
(Wherever you hear about them, whether in Kansas or somewhere else, 
1 hope that you may buy them.) I hope that you will reply very soon. 



44 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 



GAIIIGE, AN OMAHA, TO MACA^', A PONKA, AND HEQAKA-MANl, A 
YANKTON. NOVEMBER 10. 

tJcka" (^(3 cka"'na te t^qi h^gaji. Wi-na° ew^daxii-na^-ma''' 

Ihia youdesJro tho difti- very. I only I usually write for them 



Deed 



diffi- 
cult 



^(le gfteqi lia. Wabag^eze ^ea"'(|5ai g6 w^naq^e-na°'i, Pafi'ka 

but difficult Letter we send the pi. they couceal uau- Ponka 

for him away in. ob. from them ally, 

3 (^afika wa'i-baji-na"'i, ada° an'gabagifjai. Ki Maqpi-jide ie eijA 

tho pi. they do not usn- there- we hesitate, not And Red Cloud word his 
ob. give to them ally, fore liking to ask for the 

favor. 

t6 pi w4gazu aii4'a" ka'^'bifja, u^Akiaf tedfhi ^i. Ki ec^ c^na 

the auow etiaight I hear I desire, yon talR to when the time And you enough 

him arrives. say it 

ha. Ki Ihank'ta''wi"'-ma a''wa'"da"be taitd eb*^ga". Wa^fta" 

And the Yanktons we see them shall I think it. Work 

6 a^ijjfcta'' ga°' ^^ama nikaci°'ga wada^'be ga°'(|5ai. ^ie wAwikd, 

we have as these people to see them they wish. 7ou I mean y«iu, 

flni.sbed it 

Maca°. Nikaci°'ga juwa^l^ag^e ma°ni°' wt^gaska'^'^gki^g'qti-ga. 

Feather. People you with them you walk cause him (some one) to entertain 

them well. 

tida" waga'^'ijja ga. We's'Mafl'ga t'^^a-bi af. Ce:ja cuki^ai 



Good 



9 (ii-te 

wheth- 



desire them. 



Big Snake 



that he has they 
been killed say. 



Yonder 



a^'na^a" anga^'^ai. 

w e hear it we wish. 



one causes 

it to reach 

there again 

where 

you are 



NOTE. 

44, 8. Ceja may be followed by wabagfeze, a letter^ or that word 
can be omitted. The sentence can end with hS., the oral period. (W.) 

TRANSLATION. 



This conrse of action which you desire is a very difficult one. I have 
generally written for them, but (this) is (a) difficult thing for (one to 
undertake). The (agents) usually conceal from the Ponkas the letters 
that we send them; they do not give them the letters; therefore we hesi- 
tate about asking the favor [of the Ponka agent?]. When you shall 
have visited Red Cloud, I wish to hear a true account of his word«. 
What you have said(?) is enough. I think that we shall see the Yank- 
tons. These Indians wish to see them, as we have finished work. I 
refer to you, O Feather! Be sure to get some one of those people with 
whom you dwell (i. e.. some Yank tons) to entertain the visiting Omahas. 
And do you have an eye to their interests. It is said that Big Snake 
has been killed. We wish to hear whether a letter has been sent to 
you about it. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 45 

CYRUS PHILLIPS, AN OMAHA, TO BATTISTE DEROIN AND SON, OTO 
INTERPRETERS. NOVEMBER 11, 1879. 

Wi;a°'be ka^'bif^a. I°'tca" cub^e ka"'b((5a. (f eif'.inke, Wanfta- 

I see yoa " I wish. Now I go to yoa I wish. TUii} st. one, Li- 

waqe, cu<^^ ta^inke, 6'di cub^l^e tatc^, eb^ega". Wi;a°'be 

ou, the one who will go then I go to shall, I think it. I saw you 

to yoa, you 

ag^f te<(5a°', kag^ha, nan'de i°(^i°'uda°'qti ag(^i. Ki ^e<^Inke 3 

I came in the O friend, heart miuo was very good I came And Chis .st. one 

back past, back, 

hither 

igAq^a" ^ink^ w^da<(5 (3dega° wakega : i t6 wami qta°'-na°i, 

his wife the St. has given birth ^> she i.s sick : mouth the blood drops usu- 

one children, but ob. ally, 

Me waqe-jin'ga wabag^eze gaxe ^a" ga°'jifiga eb^l^ega" ada" 

but white man's son letter made it the he did not know I think it ihere- 

ob. how to do it fore 

agahadi cii^l^d. Eskana uq^6'(itcl wabag^eze tia°'<(5aki<(5e ka"- 6 

in addition it goes Oh that very soon letter you send hither I 

to it to you. to me 

b^^ga". Wanfta- waqe ciihi t^dfhi 5[I, Indada** ct6wa°' *f-bajii-ga 

hox>e. Lion he by the time what ever do not ye give 

reaches that. to him 

you 

ha. Ninfba a"'<(5a <^ink^6 bvl, nuda°'hanga ^\nki. Ki (5de 

! Pipe to abau- he is one leader the one And but 

don it who who. 

niniba aifji"' cu<^e ga°'*a, ede iicka" dada° <^^ckaxa-baji ka°- 9 

pipe to take it to you he wisnes, but deed what you do not for him I 

bifj^ga", Kaga. 

hope, O Third, 

son. 

NOTES. 

45, I. <fe^inke, etc. Correct, but tbere is an alternate readiug: 
(|j^aka Wauitaw^qe ak4, ca<j;e t4 aka luV, edega" S'di cnbfe tate 

Thisone Lion the sub. will be going to . but ' then I shall go to 

(the sub.) to you you 

cb^cjan ba. (G.) 

1 think 

45, 3, ^e^iiike, u 6., Augiiste La Dien, named in the letter of Lion, 
on page 49. Note the abrupt transition from the first "^e^inke" (Lion) 
to the next one (La Dieu). 

45, 8. KI ede=i"tede, denoting a reversal of his jtreviouH course: Lion 
had given up the sacred pipes, hut now he wished to take them again ! 
(G.) Both sentences may be expressed thus: Niniba a"'<(5a ^iiik^e hii, 

Pipe to abau- he is the 
don one 

nuda°'lianga ^inke ^ edega" niniba afi"' cu^^ ga"'^.ai ede iicka" 

leatler he is the but ]Mi»e to take it t4» you wishes but deed 

the afore- 
one saiil 

ddda" f^ckaxa-biijT ka»b^^ga", kaueha (W.). 

what you do not for him I hope, O I'rieud 



46 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

TRANSLATION. * 

I Wish to go now to see you. I think that I shall go to you when 
Lion does. My friends, when I visited you, I came home highly pleased. 
This man's wife has given birth to a child, and she is ill : she has fre- 
quent hemorrhages from the mouth. The white man's son [either La 
Dieu or some half-breed interpreter], in my opinion, did not know 
how to write the former letter, so this letter is sent in addition to 
that oue. I hope that you will send me a letter very soon. Do not 
give anything at all to Lion when he reaches you. He is the leader, 
as it were, of those who have abandoned the sacred pipes. And though 
he is the chief one who gave up the sacred pipes, he now wishes to take a> 
pipe to >ou (and get presents by means of it) 5 but, O Third-son, I hope 
that you will do nothing for him. 



WAKIDE TO MAWATA^NA, A YANKTON. NOVEMBER 12, 1879. 

Niaci^'ga wUa^'be ka°'b<(5aqti ha. Wab(^fta" t6 i"'ta° bificta". 

Person I see you I strongly de- . I work at dif- the now I have tiu- 

sire ferent things ishod. 

jLa^ckalia, nfaci°'ga ikAgewi(^4 nitikt^, lida^qti i°wi°'<(5ana ka°'- 

O sister's sou, person I have you for a you who very good youteliitto I 

friend are me 

3 b^a ha. Ca°' waqi^'ha g(ffaji ca"' cub<^d et^ga". Eskana 

wish . ^ And paper has not yet I go lo apt. Oh th.it 

come back you 

waqi°'ha tia°'(j^aki(j^d ka"b((jdga", wana'''q(|5i°qti. le waqpaniqti 

paper vou send it I hope, very hastily. Word very poor 

hither to me 

ega"" uwfb(j^a. Waqi'^'ha a°'ba(j^(3 ijjicta"' te dma hiajl t6 cubijje 

so I tf 11 it to * Paper to-day finished the the has not when I go 

you other reached to ^ ou 

one there 

G etega". Edada" a^idaxe ks.'^'h^a ke'^a. wana°'q(f5i°qti ciib^d 

apt. What I make fur I wish on account very hastily I will go 

for myself of the 

ta miiike. 

to you. 

TRANSLATION. 

Yon are the man whom I have a strong desire to see. I have now 
finished the various kinds of work which have occupied my time. O 
sister's son, yon whom I regard as my friend, I wish you to tell me 
something very good ! In fact, I may start to visit you before your 
letter is received here in reply to this one. I hope that you will send 
the letter to me very quickly. I tell you words that are somewhat 
poor. I may start to visit you on this day when the letter to you is 
finished, before the next day arrives. I will go to you very hastily on' 
account of my wish to do something for myself. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 47 

Ml'^MA'ir-JINGA, AN OMAHA, TO KE-NRE6e, AN OTO.* NOVEMBER 12, 

1879. 

Waqi°'ha ti^ 4<^e ede, tuiji M, ada° wawdmaxe G\i^4'a>^6. 

Paper to be wan but, it has , there- to ask about 1 send it to 

sent |)rom- not come fure several things yoa. 

hither ised, 

Ki <^e cuhi 3(I'jl, \vaqi'"ha ^a" t£ giga°(fai. tJcka" e'a"' 

And this it >vheu paper the to he wishes Deeil how 

reaches come l*orit(?). 

you hither 

ma°ni°' :^i, iia'a"' ga°'<^ai. Ca"' wa^ikegR (fag<^e te ana*a° 3 

you walk if, to hear it he wishes. And you were sick you went the I hear it 

back 

ka°'b((5a. Ca°' e'a°' nlkaci°'ga licka" e*a"' (j^iga^i te ana'a" 

I wish. And how person deed how they did lor the I hear it 

you 

ka"'b<(5a. Ca"' e*a°' ^akf <(iiita^ aiia^a" ka^'bif^a. 

I wish. And how you correctly I hear it I wish. 

reached 

home 

NOTES. 

Ke-3[re5e, or Charles Moore, au Oto, had eloped with another man's 
wife (or widow). He brought her to the Omaha lleservatio:;, where he 
remained for some time. The writer met him there. The above letter 
was sent after his return to the Otos. 

47, 1, wawemaxe. Waw6wimaxe, I ask you about several things could 
have been used. 

47, 5, e^a'* ^aki, etc. Supply "ei^te,'' perhaps^ between ^aki and 
^uta^ 

TRANSLATION. 

1 send to you to ask about several things, because the letter why3h 
was promised has not come. (The sender of this) wishes d. letter to be 
send hither when this one reaches you. He wishes to hear how you * 
are faring. I wish to hear about your going home when you were sick. 
I desire to hear the truth about your reaching home, and how the 
people treated jou. 



I-TU-TI-TA-HAl[-GAl[', AN OMAHA, TO TA-PI-KA-(J!A-WA-HUq, A 

PAWNEE. 

Ga" ca°' (^anf:^a t6 (J'.at'd t6 wi^a'^Va (j^ina'a'^ ga°'((^ai, 6 

(See note.) you live the you are the which one tojiear he wishes, 

dead about you 

<^isi^6 ca"'ca°, (fijin'ge. Ca"'-na'' ucka" (^^Ua <fisf((^6-na°'i. 

be re- always, your son. And u.sually deed your lie usually rjMiieui- 

niembers bers you. 
you 

tJda'' wani" te ga""' (fanf^a <(5ida°be ekiga^'qti ga^'ifjai, ^fna*a" 

Good yon have the so you live to see yoa Just like it he wishes, to hear 

them from yoa 



48 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

16. Wa^u jug<(^e icpaba" git'e ha. Ca""' e^a"' uqijjg'qti (ffda^be 

the. Woman liowilh \ on know is dead . And bow very soon to see you 

her her to him 

te (fifigee ha. Ca"' (J^an^a te ga"' (J5ida"be ekiga^'qti (j^ina^a" 

the there is . And ^oulive the so to bee you jusllikeit to hear 

uoue from you 

3 ga"'<f.ai. Ca°' wa'ii i^i^iv<i cin'gajifi'ga edabe e*a°' ma"<j5i"^ 

he wishes. And woman your chihlren also how they walk 

wana'a'' ga°'((5ai. (fijin'ge cu(^e. Ceta""' ani:^a ma°b(^i'''. E(j56 

to hear about he wishes. Your sou goes to So far Hive I walk. Kiu- 

them you. drtd 

^i(j^i;a cti ^ina^a"" ga'^'^ai. tJcka'' (Jii(^i:^a b(j^uga na'a°' ga°^(j^ai. 

your too to hear they wish. Deed your all to hear they wish, 

fmm you 

6 (pidsJ'he ui^ici (3ga°, ca°' ga""' waqi'^'ha cu(|^e^iki((5ai. 

To see you it is almost im- yet at any paper he sends it to you, 

possible, rate by some one. 

NOTES. 

The Omaha name of the sender is unknown. The recorded name is a 
Pawnee one. 

47, 6. Ga'^ ca'^, precedes words denoting a choice between two things, 
events, etc. (W.). The use of "Ga" ca"" here is a singular one (G.). 

47, G, ^ani{ja t^, etc. Bather, *' fan i^ja da"'ctga°' 16 fat'e da^'ct^a"' 

you live whether the you or 

are dead 

t6 wi°a"'wa 6i"te fina'a^ ga^'fai, fisifS ca"'ca^i h^, fijin'ge aka." But 



which 


may be 


to hear 


he wishes - ho re- 


always 


\ our son 


the 


of the 




about 


(voliin- meinbers 


(voliiu- 




sub 


two 




you 


tarily), you 


turily) 







one can also use the text with a single change : fina'a" ga"'f a ha, 

to hear wishes , 
from you ( by per- 
mission, 
etc. ) 

fmi^6 ca"'ca", fijiiVge (G.). G. makes no dift'erence between ''ca° 

remem- always your son 

hers (by per- 

you mission, 

etc.) 

ga"," '^ca^-na'^ ga"," and *'Ga^ ca^" Judging from analogy, ^^fijiiige 
aka," etc., must be correct, as the wish and remembrance were volun- 
tary, and not in consequence of a command or permission. 

48, 4. (fijinge cufe. The name of this ''son" was not given; but 
he was distinct from the sender of this letter. 

TRANSLATION. 

Your son always thinks of you, and he wishes to hear whether you 
are dead or alive. He generally thinks about your habits. As you 
have treated him well heretofore, he wishes to hear from you as well 
as to see you again before you die. He has lost his wife whom you 
used to know. There is no prospect of his seeing you very soon, still, 
he wishes to hear from you as well as to see you once more before yon 
die. He decires to hear how your wife and children*are Your sou 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 49 

goes to see you. I am still alive. Your kindred among the Omahas 
also wish to bear from you. They wish to hear of all your deeds. It is 
impossible to visit you just now, but a letter is sent to you at any rate. 



LION TO BATTISTE DEBOIN AND THE OTO CHIEFS. 

Ga"' wiia'^'be ka"'b(f5a ctewa"', ca°' edada" fb<^ig<^a°-mAj! 

And I 866 you I \i-iBhed Dotwithstand- yet what I did not decide on 

ins. 

niigeJi'di. Ki a^wa'^'qpani hega-maji (^ga", wi4a"'bai-maji- 

last summer. And I am j.oor I am very as, I have not seen you (pi.) 

from 

na°-nia"'. Ca"' Unia'"ha''-ma ca^e ta ama i"'tca". le wi"' 3 

time to time. And the Omahas arc goms ^o JO" now. Word one 

g^ce wi"' i°wi°'<^a. ;5ie-g<^eze nugea'di cug^ij t6'di i"wi"'<^a. 

^ou one he told it Ke}[re9e last summer he went when be told it to 

said as to roe. back me. 

follows to you 

Usnf ^i mA^e ^e wi"^ct6wa" Uma°'ha'' ama ahf-baji ta-bi 

Cold this winter this even one Omaha the pi. that they must not 

sub. reach there 

Wa(j^iitada-niAdi, e tf<(iai, wabag(fezo, ada" c'ga" ka"'b(^a. E 6 

to the Otos, he he sent letter, there so, I wish. Him 

Hjiid it. fore 

it hither, 

win'keAif^e. Macte te'di wada°'be ga°'((jai 5|I, wada°'be ga"'^ai 

I regard him as Warm when to see them they wish if, to see them they wish 

speaking truly. 

ca"'. Kl niijifiga wiwi;a Sam Allis: ^'Wat^aha ahigi ii*i"' ag<^f 

proper. And boy my own SamAilis: Clothing much 1 have carried 

back hither 

agf-i-ga ha," ecdga" wabi^ita" b(|5fcta" ^i, adicub^e ta niifike. 9 

Be thou com- ! ' as you have Iworkatdif- 1 tinish if, I will go to you for it. 

ing for it said it i'erent things 

Itean'ki^a-gft. Ca°' cdna uwfb(|5a cu(j^ea<(56. Edada" fu^a 

Put them aside for And enough I tell it to I send to What news 

me. you you. 

plaji CI 16 iida" kg' ctl -akfwa ana*a° ka"'b<(5a. Gus La JDieu 

bad again word good the too both I hear it I wish. Augusto La Dieu 

igaqfa," i"'tca° wakdga hdgajl. W(^da^6 ga"' t'd tatdga". I t6 12 

bis wife now she is sick very. She gave as she is very apt Mouth the 

birth to to die. 

a child 

wami qta"'-na"i. 

blood drops usu- 
ally. 

NOTES. 

49, 8. Sam Allis, or, Cka^oe-yifie, the brother-in-law of Battiste 
Deroin. 

49, 11. Ous La THeUj etc. See 45, 3. The usual Omaha appella- 
tion for this nufn was, Ga ca, an approximation to the pronunciation 
of his lirst name. 

10967 4 



50 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

TRANSLATION. 

I did not form any plan last summer, notwithstanding I wished to 
see you. And as I have been very poor, I have not visited you from 
time to time. But the Omahas are now going to visit you. A message 
from you, given hereafter, was told me by Ke-3[re5e, last summer when 
he was starting back to you. The letter which came said that during? 
this winter not even one of the Omahas must come to the Otos; there- 
fore I wish accordingly. I regard him as speaking the truth. If they 
wish to see the Otos when the warm weather comes, no one can object. 
As you, Sam Allis, my boy, have said: '*! have brought home a great 
quantity of clothing. Come after it,'' I will go to you when I finish the 
various kinds of work which I have on hand. Put the clothing aside 
for me. I have told you enough. I wish to hear both kinds of news, 
the bad as well as the good. Gus La Dieu's wife is now very ill. She 
gave birth to a child, and is very apt to die, as she has frequent hem- 
orrhages from the mouth. 



WAQPE-CA, AN OMAHA, TO MAWATCEPA, A YANKTON. NOVEMBER 

26, 1879. 

Kag(?ha, iu(fa djiibaqtci an4^a° ^ga° c\i^esi^& tdinke. Pan'ka 

O friend, news very few I have ae I will send it to you. Ponka 

heard 

wi°' f(l(fa-biama, W^'s'a-'^afi'ga, an4*a°. Pan'ka-ma *Ag<(5aqti 

one it is said that be has £ig Snake, I have The Fonkas nuiferin;; 

been killed, heard it. , (pl. ob.) greatly 

3 wA^i° t6 ha. Maja°' cd^n (^aiiaji" t6 uda°qti ^an4ji°. C^4a cupi 

he has had . Land yonder .you btand the very good yon stand. Yonder I 

them (=as) reached 

you 

wna°'be-na°-ma°', uda"qti wi;a°'be-na°-ma°'. Nfaci°'ga wi°' 

I used to see you regularly, very good I used to see you from time Person one 

to time. 

in^ffid^g c^;a cu(j^^, Un^ji°-ska. Cta°'be >[i, ((ja'^^6-qti-nan'-ga. 

I call him yonder has gone "White Shirt. Ton see when, have great pty for him 

uncle to you, him from time to time, 

(by request?) 



6 W4spe nia''<|ji'" %aji-ga. Mi"' f6 gua<j!ica"' kg'di wi»a"'be tai 

Soberly to walk command Moon this beyond in the I will sec 

him. 

mifike. Uqta jin'ga Icpaha"" 5[i, i°wi"'<(5ana ti(^a^6 teega" n\Yih^R 

you (pl.) Desirable small you know it if, you lell it to me you send in order 1 tell it to 
thing hither that you 

cii^ea^g. Ca^' edada" waijjfta" *ita"'i ke b^iiga and'a" ka°'b<|ja. 

I send it to And what wcirk they work the all Ihearit I desire, 

you. ob. 

9 Pahafi'gadi nikaci"'ga (^\^iv<i wa:^a"'be te iickuda" hega-buji- 

f ormerly pt'rHOu your I saw them the beue^cent "^very 

(—wheuj 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 51 

na°'i. Win^gi u^akie :^i, e^a^^'i t6 waqi°'ha uq<^6'qtci tia"'- 

nsually My uncle you talk when, how he the pai>er very soon you 

(pi.). to him ifi »en<l 

^aki(|5^ ka"b(^ega°. Wabag(j5eze (j^eaifjg na°-ma"' <(5a°'ja, wi"-^ct6- 

hither to I hope. Letters I have sent hiiu regu- though, even one 

nie larly 

wa*^ ti<^aji-na" ada" waweamaxe Gii^ek^Q. 

he has usu- there- I ask different I send to 

not sent ally fore questions you. 

hither 

TRANSLATION. 

My frieud, as I bave heard very few reports, 1 will seod them to you. 
I have lieard it said that a Pouka, Big Snake, has beeu killed. (The 
agent) has been treating the Ponkas very cruelly. You are doing well 
to stay in that laud (i e?., the Yankton Reservation). 1 used to see you 
regularly when I visited you yonder, and from time to time I saw that 
you were prospering. White Shirt, a man whom 1 call my uncle, has 
gone to you. If you see him, be very kind to him now and then. Tell 
him to walk soberly. I will see you all next month. I send to tell you 
that if you know of any small (or, trifling) thing which I would be glad 
to have, you will send and tell me. I wish to hear of all the kinds of 
work which they do. When I saw your people in former days, they 
were generally very beneficent. I hope that you will send me a letter 
very soon, and tell me how my mother's brother is when you talk to 
him. Though 1 have been sending him letters regnlarly, he has not 
replied even once, therefore I send to you to ask different questions. 



NUDA^'-AXA, A PONKA, TO T. U. TIBBLES, AND OTHERS. NOVEMBER, 

1879. 

Nlkaci°'ga uk^(fi° a*i4ie eddda" daxe te da°'jinga-na°-ma°'. 

Indian common I who what I do the I usually do not know 

move how to do it. 

^i-na""' edAda*" ekaxai 5|i, iida" ete 5[i ckdxai, 4da°, ka- 

You alone what yon (pi.) if, good ought you (pi.) there- O 

do do it, fore, 

g^ha, fe kg iida° et^ 5[i i°^^ckaxe etega" aha"" ebi^ga*" ^ga", 6 

friends, word the good ought yon make for me apt ! I ttiink it as, 

pfqti v^fb(^aha" uwfb(j^a cu^t?a(fe. Wakari'da akd, kag^ha, 

anew I pray to you I (ell it to I send it to God the sub., O friends, 

you you (s). 

waqi°'ha ska' a^'^-bajT, (fi, kag^ha, waqi°'ha skft' ^a° ^i*i. 

paper white did not give you, O friends, paper white the he 

it to me, ob. ^ave 

it to 
you. 

Ada" (fi edada" ke icpalia" lia. Ada" i°(j^eckaxe tai-^ga", 9 

There- you wliat the you know it . There- you do it for in order that, 

fore oU. fore me (pl.)i 

kageha, uwfbifa cu<(5da<fai ci, kageha. 

O friends, I tell it to I send it to a«;ain, O friends, 
you you (pi.) 



52 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

NOTE. 

As this letter was addressed to several persons the sender should 
have said etega"i in 51, 6, cu^ea^ai in 51, 7, ^i'ii in 61, 8, and icpaha"i 
in 61, 9. 

TRANSLATION. 

I, who am only an Indian, seldom know how to do anything properly. 
But what you do, my friends, ought to be good ; therefore I send to you 
to petition to you anew, as I think that you will be apt to send me words 
calculated to do good. O my friends, God did not give me learn- 
ing, but he gave it to you. Therefore you understand things. There- 
foi^, my friends, I send a^ain to tell it to you, that you may do it for me. 



dAijil^-NAVAJl AND XE-UHA^HA TO T. H. TIBBLES, NEW YORK. 
DECEMBER, 1879. 

Undji°-qude, kag^ha, w4we^^nita" naf t6. Wackafi'-ga. 

Gray Shirt, O friend, to work at diflferent you went. B© strong ! 

tbinge for us 

l^kag^&'qti a°((jfsi(fai. Wa^J^acka" ka°'a"((ja°'^ai. Ui^aket^a'^' 5[I, 

Continually we think of You make an we hope. You succeed if, 

you. . effort 

3 kag^lia, a"ni|a et^ga". Maja°' ^aii'di ^skana wabijjita'* sagf 

O friend, we live apt. Land in the oh that I work at firmly 

various things 

anaji" ka-'b^a. Ca" eddda", ca"' %i 'a"' g6 ct6wa"', h^uga. 

I stand I wish. And what, in 'house of whatever kind they all 

fact may be, 

sagfqti andji'' ka"'b^a. Kag^ha, a°'ba(f6'qtci wawidaxu 

very I stand I wish. O friend, this very day I write to you on 

firmly " different subjects 

6 cu^^a^g. Wisi<^6 ga°' wib^aha" cu<f^a^6. Eskana Wakan'da 

I send to you. I think of as I pray to you I send it Oh that God 

you to you. 

^ink^ cti udwagi5[a°'i ka^b^^ga"". (/Jlkage - ma Ana ^i°te 

the St. too he aids us I hope. Those who are your how they 

-ne friends many maybe 

wAb(^alia° a°'ba(|5^ wan'giifjg'qti. fiskana waha°'*e wiwfia <^izaf 

I pray to them to-day (to) all. Oh that special prayer my they 



receive 
it 



9 kaPh^^ga\ Ki ^izai t6di-na" ani|a etega". Wacka"' hdcia- 

I hope. And they re- only when I live apt. Making an at the 

ceive it effort very 

:^dqti ct^ct6wa°, kag^ha, ^agf*a° ka"b<^^ga°. Ijaje d'liba 

last even if, O. friend, 3'ou gain I hope. His some 

it name 

a°^i4 cu<^ea"'^ai e wafi'gi(j5e a°(f5i((jaha"'i. V^AkeVa'' ^li-na"', 

we give we send to that all we pray to you. You succeed only if, 

to you yon 

12 maja"' ^an'di bamaxe wabifta" ka°'b^a. Waqi"'ha sagf 

land in the bowing the I work at I wish. Paper firm 

head various things 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 63 

^a*^ uqf,^ ub^l^a'*' 6df-na" anf:ja etd^a'*. Wanita" nia"ni"' t6 

the 800Q I take hold then oiily I live apt. Yoa work at you walk the 

ob. of it vaiious tbiD{;8 



Wakan'da aka (^ida"be g<fi°', qta^^e te. Afigucti qta°^<(5i<^ai 

God the seeiag you he sits, he has loveil We too we love you, 



sub. you. 



nfkaci°'ga uk^ijji" an'ga^i'*. Edada" iida° we(f5^cka"nd, nf;a 3 

Indian common we who move. What good you desire for us, to live 

we^(3cka°na. fiskana nfkaci°'ga iiwa^agina - ma fe pfaii 

you desire for us. Oh that people the ones whom you have word bad 

told 

ct6wa°', a^'i-bAjl ka°b^%a". Wdbif^aha^ c^he. 

soever, they do not I hope. I pray to them I say 

give to me that. 

NOTES. 

This letter was sent in the name of, and with the consent of the fol- 
lowing Omahas: Diiba ma°'<^i", Ta>*'wa"-g4xe-jin'ga, 5jax6-^a"^ba, A"'- 
pa"-(|aii'ga, Wadj^pa, SIn'de-xa°'xa°, M i^^xd-t'a*", Qi^d-gahige, Fred. 
Merrickj Max^wa^l^., Mdzi-kide, Hidaha, Mawdda^^i", Na°'pew4^, Ba- 
za°'-nan'ge i"c'4ge, Baza"'-nan'ge jin'ga, Ha°'da°-ma"'^i°, Na^b^duba, 
Macti^'-'a'^sd, Qagd-ma^^i*^', Gia^'ze-^in'ge, WajT^'-a'^'ba, jfi'&q^B,^ II6qa- 
fa", Gihdjl, Mang4'ajl, j^nicka, Ga*i^-bajl, Ni"'daha°, Ma'^dgata, U3[i- 
da'ja"', Haii'gaqti, QMe-bdua** (younger brother of Na^pewafg), W4ci**- 
une, j^^huta^^bi (nephew of Maxewa^g), x^h^-jinga (or Badger), j^asi- 
duba, Wa^utata", Ma"*^-gahi, A'^'ba h6be, M^'awakiide (or Richard 
Rush) J Joel Bushy Ni-ugacude, x^da-6^iqaga, j^^zi hi"-sdb6, Wanukige, 
Nistu-ma^'^i", Wab^hi-jin'ga, Joseph La FUche^ Noah Sammis (or NJln'- 
de^in'ge), and the two writers. 5faxe-^.a"ba is Two Crows, A»pa"- 
(^aiiga is Big Elk. Hidaha is Matthew Tyndall. 

52, 10, ^agi'a" has the force of **u^aket'a°" in this connection. 

63, 5, Wab^aha" cehe, not exactly correct ; should be, Wiib^aha^^i 
6ga" c^he hii, I say that because I petition to them (W.). 

TRANSLATION. 

Friend Gray Shirt, you went to transact our business for us. Make 
an eifort {or^ Do your best!). We think of you constantly. We hope 
that you will persevere. Should you succeed, O friend, we shall have 
a chance to improve. I wish that I could stand firmly on the ground 
as I work at various things (i. ^., I do not wish to be disturbed and 
driven away). And I wish to feel very secure in the possession of 
everything, including our houses of various kinds. Friend, I write to 
you this very day upon different subjects. As I think of you, the let- 
ter goes to you with my petition for aid. I hope that God too ma^^ 
aid us! I do not know how many friends you have, but I petition 
to all of them to-day to aid us. I hope that they may receive my 
special petition. There is no prospect of my improving unless they 
receive it (and aid me). I hope, my friend, that after so many efforts 
on your part you may succeed, ev^eii tiiough it be on the very last 



54 ^ OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

occasion vvben you can make an attempt. We send some names to you: 
all of us petition you. 1 wish to work diligently in this land of ours, 
but it all depends upon your success. If I can soon get possession of 
a good title to this land, then, and only then, can I expect to improve. 
God is looking at you as you go about this undertaking, and he 
loves you. We Indians, too, love you. It is because you desire good 
things for us, and you wish us to live. I hope that the people whom 
you have told about us may not give me any bad message at all. I say 
that as a petition to them. 



FRED. MERRICK, AN OMAHA, TO GEORGE W. CLOTHER, COLUMBUS, 
NEBR. DECEMBER 17, 1879. 

A^^'ba^e, kag^Iia, wawldaxu. Maja"' ce4a cupi 4a(f6 

To-day, O friend, I write to you Land yonder I reach 1 proiu- 

about various you ised 

things 

te<(5a°' cupf-maji ta minke. (pa°'ja wi4iga" aka, Mi"xa-t*a°, 

in the I will not reacii you. Though my grand- the Mi"xat'a'' 

past " father sub., 

3 (iii^id tat^ ha, waha d^uba eskana uc^aket^a''' 5[I, (j^a'f ka"- 

he shall go to . hides some oh that you .acquire if, you I 

you gave 

to him 

b(^ega" 4 cu(fe ta (^liike, a"'pa"ha. Wa*u na°baqti wakegai 

hope that the one who will go elk hide. Woman first two are sick 

to you, 

ha, ada" cub^e h^i'a. Ca°' kag^ha, uq(J56'qtci waqi'^'ha aniVa" 

.T there- I go to I fail. And O Irieud, very soon paper 1 hear it 

fore yoii 

6 ka"b((j(5ga°. Ana'a'^ tgdihi ip, cn^i eka°b((ja. Wicti ka°'b<^a 

I hope. I hear it by the time that, to go 1 wish for I too desire 

to you him. 

waha t6, w^(|5i°wi" te aijji"' cu(J5eaki(fe ta miiike ed4be. Wagdxe 

hide<4 the means of the I will cause him to take it to you also. Debt 

ob., buying ob. 

(3wib(f5i° masaniha aijji"' cu(^eAki(|56 t4 miiike edabe. Waha t6 

I have for tifty cents I will cause him to take it to you also. Hides the 

you 

9 iimaka i°(|5^ckaxe ka°b(^dga". Ce nikaci°'ga d'liba cu^al. E'a'*' 

cheap you make for I hope. That person some have gone How 

me to you. 

we(^^ckaxe t6 ana'a'' ka°'b(fa hft. Waha t6 nfze af, ana^a" 

you do for them the I hear it I wish . Hides the you they I have 

ob. have say, hoard it 
received 

^a"'ja, wa'ii na"b4qti wakc^gai ega°, ciib(|5a-maji t4 mnike. 

though, woman just two are siclv as, 1 will not go to you. 

TRANSLATION. 

My friend, I write to you about various things to day. I promised 
to visit you in your country, but (now I flud that) I can not get to see 



OllABA AND t»ONKA LETTERS. 



55 



you. But my wife's father, Mi"xa-t*a", shall go to see you. And I hope 
that if you acquire some elk hides you will give them to him. Just 
two women are ill, therefore I am unable to go to you. 1 hope, my 
friend, that I may soon get a reply from you. By the time that 1 
receive it, I wish for him to start to see you. I too desire hides, and 1 
will send to you by Mi°xa-t*a^ the money for buying them, and also the 
fifty cents which I owe you. I hope that you may let me have the 
hides at a cheap price. Some persons have gone to see you. I wish to 
hear how you treat them. Though I have heard that you have received 
hides, I will not go to see you, because the two women are ill. 



NA^ZANDAJl TO T. M. MESSICK. DECEMBER 20, 1879. 

Kag^ha, wawfdaxu. Ca° le djubaqtci uwib^a cu^^a^g. 

O friend, I ^riti3 to you Well, word very feN^ I tell It to I send it to 

ai>oat something. yoa you. 

Ca° wagdxe A"'pa°-;an'ga ^i^V' t6 u^fwi5[a"'-qti-aia'''. Nfa- 

Well debt Big Elk be has it the I have aided you greatly In- 

for you respecting your own. 

ci°'ga uk^^i"^ c^((5a-baji ega°, wabag^eze tia"'((jaki<(j(^ ^a*" udwa- 

diau common they disrc- aa, letter you sent it here the I told it 

gard him • to me ob. 

gib^a. And. (|Jasi akd fbaha°'i. Ki wagaxe ^agft'a" tgdfhi 



to them. I begged. 



Doraey the 
snb. 



he knows it. 



And 



debt 



you possess 
your own 



by the 
time 



a"'pa°ha a°(^a*i 4^A^6 wabdg^eze i^^^cpaxu tia°'(j^aki^^ tg'di. 

elk hide you give yon letter you wrote to yon sent it here when. 



you give 
to me 



yon 
promised 



yon sent it here 
to me 



very. 



Oh that, 



A°'pa°-:ian'ga u^iiaki^. Ca° a°'pa°ha ka^'b^a tcabe. fiskana, 6 

Big Elk I talked to Well, elk hide 1 wish. ^. - 

him about it. 

kag^ha, tia^^^aki^^ ka°b^^ga°. 

O friend, you send it here I hope. 

tome 



TRANSLATION. 



O friend, I write to you about something. I send and tell you a very 
few words. I have done all in my power for you in trying to get the sum 
that Big Elk owes you. As they disregard an Indian, I told them that 
you had sent a letter to me (about the debt). T begged for the amount. 
Mr. Dorsey knows it. When you sent the letter to me, you said in it 
that you promised to give me an elk hide by the time that you received 
the money owing to you. I talked to Big Elk about it. I am very 
anxious to obtain an elk hide. I hope, my friend, that you will send it 
to me. 



66 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

WAQPE-CA TO KUCACA. DECKMI3EK, 1879. 

OiiVj^ajifi'ga ^i(^U'd waiVg-a^l^i" iida°qtia"'i, uwib^a cu^^acfe. 

Child your we have thein they are very I tell it to I send it to 

good, yoa yon. 

CiiVgajiri'ga ^i^f4a wafi'ga<(ji" weda^af, uda°qti iiii°'jiuga 

Child j'onr ' we hare them has h.wl a b.vby, very good girl 

3 ida^aU uwfb(f5a cu(f5ea(fe. Ga"' e'a"' ina"ni"' ei°te ca^' waqi"1ia 

she has I tell it to I send it to Well, how' you walk if, well paper 

given birth you you. 

to it, 

cu(f5ewikf(|56 ha. Nfaci^'ga wi°' ea(f56, m6gni(^&. U(faki(3. E'a°' 

I send it to you . Person one I have I have him as You talk (o How 

htm as a a mother's him. 

kinsman, brother. 

ma"(|5i''' ^i°te ana'a" ka°'b^a Ciu'gajifi'ga e;a-ma *a"'i ei"te 

he walks if I hear it I wish. Child those who how if 

are his they are 

6 awana^a" ka°'b^a. 

I hear about I wish, 

them 

NOTES. 

Kacaca, L e., Kousseau Pepin, au Omaha, staying at the Pawnee 
Agency, Indian Territory. 

56, 2. Cingajiiiga ^i^i;a waiiga^i" weda^ai. This seems to imply 
that all of Rousseau's chiUlren among the Oinahas had become mothers! 
Such was not the case. Waqpeca should have said, Ciii'gajiiYga ^i^ija 

Child your 

wi"' anga^i" ^dega" w6da*ai, one of your children whom we have kept 

one we have but (past) has a i)aby, 

has had a baby. Oiil'gajin'ga ^\^iy<i wan'ga^i°'-bi ehe aka weda^ai, 

that we have I said the 
sub. 

Your child whom we have kept, and icliom I have mentioned, has had a 
baby: said when the daughter is mentioned a second time. When 
there are more than one chihl, they can say, Oin'gajin'ga ^i^ija waii'ga- 
^i"'-bi ehe aka ama wtlda^ai (literally. The other one of your children^ 

the oth- 
er one 

i, e.) One of your children whom we have kept has had a baby (G.). 

TRANSLATION. 

I send to tell you that your children whom we have are very well. T 
send to tell you that one of them has given birth to a girl, and is doing 
very well. I have sent a letter to you by some one (because I wish to 
know) how you are. I have one man as my kinsman, as my mother's 
brother. You have talked to him. I wish to hear how he is. 1 also 
wish to hear how his children are. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 57 

MA^'TCU-NA'^BA to WIYAKOI^, YANKTON AGENCY. DECEMBER 26, 

1879. 

j^a°ck4ha, (|5a*ca°((ja(fe t6 nikaci^'ga <fi(fi|a <fea*ea"'^ai lAd^i- 

sinter's sou, you have pitie«l the people .\our have pitied me Ilcuowit 

me 

daha"'. Edada" nikaci"'ga (|bi(fi;a afigi'i tai g6 e tfi"^in'ki^ai 

for myself. What people yoar we Hh:ill give the pi. it they semi here 

back to in ob. (or me 

ka"b<(5^ga°. I°'iida'» t6'di, wig^ua^be etega", ;a°ck4ha. Nfka- 3 

1 hope. Good for when, I see you, my apt, O sister's son. Peo- 

me own 

ci"'ga (ffskig'qti (fida^'bai ewdka"b4 ddega"' a-i/si'ai. Ca"' d'Aba 

pie all in a mass they see you I have wished but we have Well, some 

for them failed. 

cahf ete'ga". Wakan'di^(^ ^ida"'be ga"'(|;ai. Ca"' Unaji"-ska' 

tiiey apt. In great ha.ste (im- to see you they wish. Well, White Shirt 

reach patfently) 

you 

c^na°ba wigi:^a°be ka°'b(f5aqti. 6 

that two I see you, my I strongly desire. 



NOTE. 

57, 4, eweka°b^, in full, eweka°b^a. 

TRANSLATION. 

O sister's son, I know by expeienco that you and your people have 
pitied me. 1 hope that your people will send word to ine what we shall 
give them in return. O sister's son, when it is for my good, I may see 
yon. I have wished for our entire nation to visit yon, but we are 
unable. Yet some of them may come to see you. They are impatient 
to see you. I have a strong desire to see you ami White Shirt. 



WHITE HORSE, AN OMAHA, TO TCEXA-APAPi, A YANKTON. JANU- 
ARY 10, 1880. 



Wi;a"'be ka°b(J5ede, b(J5f*a ha. Nisfha, i(|5adi^af aka I;iga°(f5af 

I see you I have wished, I am . O child, agent the Grandfather 

but unable sub. 

jin'ga (3*a"ba i"wi°'(|5i^agai c'ga", cub^a-majT ta mifike. Ci e*a"^ 

small he too they are unwilling as, I will not go to yoa. Again how 

for me 

en^ga" ^jK, (^uta° ifigaxe gf^a-ga, (^ijiiVge dia^ba. Ca°' ukft'S 9 

you think if, correctly to make be sendiug your son ne too. Well, foreigner 



for me back hitlier 



itAxa^a-ma ct! ca°' ed4da° fii(fa ii(|5aiia'a" 5[l'ct6, i"wi°'^ana 

those at the bead too well, what news you hear the even if, you tell it to 

of the stream report me 



58 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

tf<(ja^6 ka"b(fi%a". Ca" e'a°' ma°ni'" 5[i'ctg, <(;uta"qti and'a" 

yoa seDil I hope. Well, how you walk even if, very cor- I hear it 

it here ' rectly 

ka"'b^a. 

I wish. 

TRANSLATION. 

I wished to see yoa, but I failed. My child, the agent and the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs are unwilling for me to go, therefore I will 
not go to see you. Do you and your son send back to me a letter, stat- 
ing just what you think on the subject. I hope that you will send, and 
tell me whether you hear any news respecting those tribes higher up 
the Missouri Biver. I wish to hear just how you are. 



MAWADA^CJJI^, AN OMAHA, TO MAWATA^'NA, A YANKTON. JANUARY 

12, 1880. 

3 (fisan'ga ciii'gajin'ga na°'qti kg git'e ha. E*a°' <^an4'a° 

Your younger chilil full grown the dead to . How 50U hear it 

brother reel. ob. him 

5[i'ct6, e^a'^'qti ckaxaji te^^a^^'ja, ^ana^a'' tdga° n^i^a. cii^e^ai 

even if, just how you did not though, in you hear it in order to tell it uends it 

the past, that to you to 3'ou 

^isaii'ga akd. ^isan'ga gip6ji h^gajl, ^and'a" t^ga'* u((5i^a 

your younger the Your younger bad for very, yon hear it in order to tell i t 

brother sub. brother him that to>ou 

6 cu^^(^ai. C^nujin'ga ^a" b(^u^aqti 44'ea"'4ai, gip6jii°^in'ki^ai. 

sends it to Young man the all iiav^e pitied me, they bave caused grief 

you. coll. for my own (child). 

Ca" akiha" b<(juo^a <^mg6 6Axe ga"' ca"' na"'ji°ckg'qtci ga"' 

Well, beyond all Thavemadeit as yet just barely so 

nothing 

man'g<^e ag^i"', wa*u juaglg<^e. UwAtanga, ^dega" nand isa°- 

erect I sit, woman I with her, As soon as, but (?) I have nothing to 

my own. 



9 ^lii'ge ga°', ata*"' wi^a°'be cupl ka°'b^a 5[i, cupi td niinke. 

cheer me as, how long I see you I arrive I wish. if, I will arrive where you 

where you are. 
are 

Ca°' le ed^ce 5[i'ct6, ca"' uq^S'qtci waqi"'ha wi" tf^a<^6 :^i. 

Well, word what yoa even if, well, very soon paper one you send 11; 

say here 



and'a" ka'^'b^fa. 

I hear it I wish. 



NOTES. 



58, 4-5, cu^e^ai ^isafiga aka, voluntary action, (pisafiga gipSjI hegajl, 
involuntary action, as no one wills to be sad, hence "aka'' is not used; 
but "^isaiiga aka" is understood after "cu^e^ai" in the next line. - 

58, 6, gipgjli^^inki^ai. L. and W. said that this could not be used 
here, though a genuine Omaha expressiou. They substituted ^^gipS- 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 59 

jtaii'ki^ai,'' tJiey are sorry for me. But G. gave four readings of equal 
value; j>ip6jli"^iii'ki^ui, gipejlafi'ki^ai, u^ugig^a-i"^iii'ki^ai, the strong- 
est expression of tlie four, and gl'^iijlan'ki^ai. The differences in mean- 
ing will be explained in the (f egiha-English dictionary. W. gave gite- 
qi i^^iii'ki^ai as a syn. of gip?jl-i"^in'ki^ai. 

The following might have been said by the bereaved father : Ni:ja 
giuite ete ^\, *dgf agi^e ii (or, dha°), if^ddi, He ought to have Icept alive 
{but by not doing so) he has made his father suffer! (G.) 

68, 8. Uwatanga edega", not plain to W. But G. understood it, 
saying that the idea of the whole sentence was: "I have nothing to 
cheer me here, so send me word very soon, as I wish to visit you." 

TRANSLATION. 

The eldest child of your younger brother is dead ! Tour younger 
brother sends now to tell you about it, even though, if you have heard 
it through another source, you have not sent any message of sympathy I 
Your younger brother wishes you to know that he is in the depth of 
sorrow, so he sends this letter to you. All the young men have pitied 
me, they have condoled with me for the death of my only son. More- 
over, I have parted with everything, and ray wife and I barely sit erect, 
being destitute. But as soon as the period of mourning is over I will 
visit you (if you send for me), since I have nothing to cheer me at 
home. If you have anything to say, please send a letter very soon, as 
I wish to hear it. 



MAWADA^|;I^ TO TUHI AND MAHl'', NO HEART, NEBR. 

Cin'gaiifi'ga (^i^iyd aki<(5a wabag<(5eze gaij^a** wegaxe tf^ai. 

Child your both letter that to make it he' has 

for them began. 

(pniga," aka (Mawada-fi") ijin'^e na'-'qti kg git'e, (idega° 

Yonr the sub. (Mandnn) his hou . fully giown the dead but 

crand- reel, to hlni, 

father ob. 

(fiijifi'ge ^igaq((5a" igahi (frana^a" tai-ega" wabag<(5eze ga^a"" 3 

your son your wife (mixed, or) y»»u hear it ^ iu order letter that 

together ' that (pi.; 

with 

^igdxai. Ca""' i"'(f;a-m4ji hega-maji. Edada" i°wi"'qpa(^6 te, 

he has made Well, I am sad I am very. What I have lost it the 

to you. ob., 

^ana'a" t^ga" iiwib^a cu(^da(^ai. A^wa'^'qpani hega-maji, ca""' 

you hear it in order I tell it to I send it to I aju poor I am very, yet 

that you you (pi.), 

(dual) 

i^ictl licka^ e'a°' nia"oni''' 5[i, ana'a" ka°'b(|5a. Ca°' wabag^ze € 

you too deed how you walk if, I hear it I wish. Well, letter 

wi" tia"'^aki^^ ka"'b<(a. 

one you send here I wish, 

tome 



60 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

NOTES. 

Tuhi ami MaLi" were Iowa chiefs. Each had a son. 

69, 1, wegaxe ti^ai, should be, ewedaxe ati, I have come hither to 
make it for them (i. e., write it to them)^ fide W. ; but ew^daxu cu^a^, I 
write it to them and send it to you^ is suggested by G. It is probable 
that the sender really said, " weg4xe te *i^ai," he promised to malce it 
for them, as this, when pronounced rapidly, sounds like "wegaxe ti^ai.'^ 

69, 3, igahi. This should be cena, enough (W., G.), or, mega", like- 
tcise (G.). 

TRANSLATION. 

He promised to write a letter to both of your children. The full- 
grown son of your grandfather (Mandan) is dead, so he (the bereaved 
father) has written a letter in order that you and your wives and sons 
likewise may hear it. I am very sad. I have sent to tell you that I 
have lost something. I am very poor, still I wish to hear how you are. 
I wish you to send me a letter. 



JAMES SPRINGER, AN OMAHA, TO W. M. C. GRANT, SIBLEY, IOWA. 



Kageha, ag<(5i te ceta^' u'a°'(fifige b(f;i°'-maji. Ca'^' uda"qti 

O friend, I have the so far in vain I have not been. Well, very goo<l 

returned 
here 

ag^i t6 cin'gajiii'ga waagij^bif^i'', ca"' wfb^aha". Cu(fa-baji 

I have the child I have kept them, yet I Ihauk you. They shall not 

return- ray own, 

ed here 

3 tait^. Ca"' wabag<(5eze a(fadai, iida°qti naji^'i. Ha°^f cta"'be 

go to Well, book they read, very good they stand. Henry you see 

you. biiu 



5[i'ji, u<(5^na ka"b<|5^ga"» 

if, you tell it I hope, 

lo him 



TRANSLATION. 



My friend, I have not been idle since my return from your place. I 
reached home in safety, and I have my children with me, so I thank 
you (for your past kindness to them). They shall not go to you, as 
they are getting along very well at school here. I hope that you will 
tell Henry, should you see him. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 61 

TA^'WA^'-GAXE JIRGA TO JAMES VORE. JANUARY 27, 1880. 

Ca"' ucka^ wi"' iiikaci"'ga (Vuba sidadi wa(fita° hi dde 

Aud deed one persou uonie yeHterday to <io Home rt'ach- but 

work ed there 

i^adi<(5af <|5inkd le wi** a^f udb^a. GaiV>[i ie ke wi^i uvvfb<|5a 

agent the one word one I gave I told it Aud thou word the I give I tell it to 

who it to to him. ob. it to you 

him you 

ha cT ^i Wa^ita" t6 a"wa°'je(fa hega-iiuiji, a°<fca°'sabe hega- 3 

. again you. Work the I am tired I am very, lauffer (from it) lam 

ob. (of it) 

maji. P'ta° wab^ita" t6 cetii"' iinia"'((5irika satil" wab(fita°. 

very. Now 1 work at the ao far year live I have work«'d 

Buraething at something. 

Ta^'wa^g^J^a*" wagazii agi>[a"b((5a ga"', ta"'wa"g<(5a" aagikihide, 

Nation straight I wiah for my as, natiou 1 watched it, ray 

own own, 

ag^fta" anaji". A"*a°'cpaha" <|5anaji", edada" nfkaci"'ga niaja"' 6 

I work at I stand. You know me yon stand, what people land 

it, my own 

^an'di iWa" anaji" ka^'b((5a t6 a'^(fa"'cpaha'*'qti (fanaji". Edada" 

in the good I stand I wish the you know me very well you stand. What 

iiikaci'^'ga 4^(fiiadi'cH U(fuvviki^-na"-ina"' <fana*a^ Ki gat'a"'- 

person liere at diJfferent I have been talking to you you have And at last 

times in the past about it regularly heard. 

hi" :j[i ^skana li^fita" dada" ct^ct6wa°' ub^a"' ka''b(fega". Wi^a 9 

(future) oh that work what soever I take hold I hope. I ask a 

of it favor of 

you 

ha. Pwin'5[aii-ga ha. (pie}A cti uwf^ja" li^ga-niiijT, ki ega" 

Help me ! You on the too I have I not a little. and so 

one hand aided you 

i"win'5[an-ga. Ca"' iiikaci"'ga na"ba liifita'' te fb<jia"i, t6 eska" 

help me. Well, person two work the have had the I hope it 

their fill 
of it 

eb^l^ega'' ga"', (fana*a° tega" uwib(('.a. Uwib(|ia t6 ga°' uwib(fa 12 

may be so as, you bear it in order I tell it to I tell it to the at any I tell it 

that you. you rate to you 

ha: Caii'ge-ska Ibaha^'bi (?<(5a°ba. MA(^6 gif^dba-na^'ba ki 6'di 

White Horse Ibaha"bi he too. Winter * twenty and on it 

cade ceta°' wa(fita°i ede, i^'ta'^ uje(fai eb(f^ga°. Nlkaci"'ga 

six so far they have but, now tbey Hre I think it. Person 

worked tired 

wi"" wa^fta" ga"'^ai (3i"te gat*a°'hi° tg'di eskana iifaci^'ga 15 

one work desires if at last oh that person 

aji wa^ita"^ t6 a(fei°' ka"b(fega^ Can'ge-ska iji"'<fea(f6 ede, ..... 

an- work the be I hope. White Horse I have him for but, 

oth- has it an elder 

er * brother 

angiqta-baji. . . . Wa((5ana°'baha-na° ca°'ca°. 

he does not wish He makes us (go) in nsu- always, 

to be intimate two ways ally 

with me. 



62 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS 

TRANSLATION. 

When souie persous came yesterday to settle one matter, I told the 
agent one thing. And now I tell you. 1 am very tired of the work, I 
suffer exceedingly from it. I have now worked for five years. As I 
wish ray own nation to prosper, I have been overseeing it. I continue to 
do my own work (in that manner). You have known me; you have 
known very well that I wish to dwell and prosper in the land of the 
Indians. You have heard me talk to you about varioos kinds of people 
at this place. And I hope that at last, after waiting so long, I may 
obtain some situation or other under the agent. I ask a favor of you. 
O help me. I have aided you considerably on the one hand, and so 
you should aid me. There are two men, who, I hope, have had suffi- 
cient employment; and as you ought to know it, I tell you. I tell you 
at any rate. They are White Horse and Ibaha^bi. They have had 
their office for twenty six years, and I think that now they are weary. 
If one man has an office, I hope that the time will come at last when 
. another man can obtain it ! White Horse is my elder brother, but . . . 
he does not wish to be on friendly terms with me. He is always mak- 
ing us go in two directions by his talking. 



cIA<|^i''-na''pajI to t. h. tibbles. 



Kage^ha, u((5agaca° ne t6' ceta°' Wakan'da w^ab^aha". 

O frieud, you traveled you the so far God I have prayed to 

went about soiiie- 

tbiDg. 

Wakan'da wa^aha°-niace b(|iiigaqti (fana*a° taf. Ucka" (fi:ja 

God Ae who pray to biru all you will bear it. Deetl your 

about som'etbiDg. 

3 ii<(5uwihai, i^apaha°-majfqti, nia<(ia-na" te u((5iiwihai. Ani^a 

I follow yon I do uot know it at all, at random u-tu- tha I follow you I live 

(pi.) on account . ally (pi ) on nc'count 

of it, of it 

etcga" eb(fega° cga" ucka" ii(|iiiwiliai. 

apt I tbink it as deed I follow you (pi.) 

on account ct it. 



TRANSLATION. 

My friend, I have prayed to God about something since you went 
about the country in our behalf. May you hear it, all ye who pray to 
God! I follow you on account of your mode of life, though I do not 
know it at all, I follow yon blindly (at random) on account of it. I fol- 
low your ways because I think that I shall be apt to improve. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETrERS. 63 

MAXEWA(|JE TO JOHN PRIMEAU, A PONKA. 

Ca°' mact^ 5[i, cupi etega", kag^ha. Ca°' ie tS ^skana 

Well, warm when, I reach apt, O friend. Well, word the Oh that 

you 

ca^'ca"* (|5ag<ffce<fa°'ji ka"b<|5ega" 

always you do not break it, I hope, 

your own 

TRANSLATION. 

My friend, I may come to see you when the weather gets warm. I 
hope that you will never break your word. 



UNE-MA^Y'I^ ^^ OMAHA, TO MRS. MINNA SCHWEDHELM, WEST 
POINT, NEBR. JANUARY 29. 

Ca°' c^^u wi;a°'be pf te<(5an'di i^ae wi^a^'be pi ehe 3 

Well, yonder I see you I at the place, I spoke I see you I I said 

where reached iuthepa^^t reach 

yon are there . 

te^a°' i^duslcta" ega" ^a°'ja, ag(fi t6'di ^kita'^ha I;fga°(feai 

in the I told a lie so though, I came when jiistatthat Grandfotner 

past back here time 

aka ^i wa'l 4^1, kl nikaci°'ga (feama b^ugaqti cka^^'i. . . . 

the house promised^ to and people these all were 

sub. give them to us, active. 

tj'a°<fifi'ga-nmjl ceta"' ag^i'a ja"' ka"'b^a k6. Kl ca°' a"'ba 6 

1 am not at leisure so far I have not wowl I desire the And yet day 

finished Ig. ob. 

my work 

W4a°'be t6 i^paha°-maji'-qti-ma'''. Wa<(5fta° hegdji abij^i"'. 

I see you the I do not know at all. Word not a little I have it. 



Ca"' gi'<^ajia'ji-ga. le (|;uta°qti uwfb^a cn^ek^&. 

Yet do not be sad! Word very cor- I tell it to I send it to 

Caii'ge-md cti wa^ita"i. 

The horses too are working. 



recily you you. 

> working. 

TRANSLATION. 



When I went to see you and said that I would come to see you and 
speak to you again, 1 told a lie (but unintentionally); but as soon as I 
came home the President promised to give us houses; hence all these 
Indians have been stirring. 1 have not yet had any leisure; I have 
not yet finished my work. 1 refer to the logs which I desire (for my 
house). I do not know at all on what day 1 can see you. I have an 
abundance of work. Yet, do not be displeased ! I send to tell yoii a 
correct account (of affairs here). The horses, too, are working. 



64 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

GAHIGE TO HIS SON SILAS WOOD. NIOBRARA, NEBR. FEBRUARY 

7, 1880. 

Wacpaxu ti^a^& (fa" aiuVa" ede u*a°'(|5ifigd. (/)ita"' ta amA 

You wrote you sent the I beard it but iu vain. Those who will work 

Honiething it here ob. 

wasiiiu'dai. Ki ca"' juga wi(|tci we((5ig'(fa" te uda°qti daxe 

are slow. Ami yet bo<ly I myself plan the very good Iniadeil 

3 ^dega" b(fi*a ta niinke. (paua'a" tega" uwib<(5a cu^ea<ji6 

but I shall fail You hear it in order I tell it to I send it to 

that you j'ou. 

Ukit'6-ma wi"' ^a"'be te'cli cka"' a°wa"'se5ia" ede i"'teqi. Ca"' 

The foreign one I saw it when motion I was rapid but ditticult AYell, 

nations for me. 

lida" t6':^a wackan'-ga, Eskana iida" te i"(fesi<(56 ka"b(|;^ga°. 

good with re- make an effort. Oh that good tlie you reraem- I hope, 

gard to the ber i t for me 

6 Sindd-g(fecka e awake. Ca°' waqi^'ha Sinde-giJ^ecka e:^a 

Spotted Tail him I mean him. Well, paper Spotted Tail his 

:|a°'be :^i, i"'(fe, u'a°'(|iirige [""'^e, Uma"'ha^ ama we(|5ihlde 

I see it if, lam foruoieason lam Omaha the pi. implement 

glad, gl^d- sub. 

kg' cti fize ta ama ha, inacte tgdihi 5[T, ga°' na'an'-gft: wd4°, 

"the too will receive , warm by the tiuu* at any hear it ! liorse- 

ob. * when, rate collar, 

9 ja"ma"'^i°, we^e, wa^jii. Ni^ a"*iiVge-qti-nia°' ha. lu^a 

wagon, plow, pitchfork. Pain 1 have none whatever . News 

a"((5in'ge. ... 

I have none. 

NOTE. 

64, 9. Waj|U generally means, mi awl; but in this case it refers to 
pitchforksj which are usually called, " qad-ibaqapi," or '^qad-i^ize." 
Wa>iirja:ja, ''forked awl," is a table fork, and wajfu jiiiga, "small awl," 
a pin or needle, 

TRANSLATION. 

I have heard what you wrote and sent hither, but it is in vain. 
Those who will transact the business are delaying. I myself have 
formed a very good plan, but I shall fail. I send to tell you. Wlien I 
saw one of the foreign nations I was rapid iu my movements, but it 
was difficult for me. Persevere with regard to the good ! I hope that, 
for my sake, you will remember what is good. I refer to Spotted Tail. 
I am glad when I see a letter from him, though it is to no purpose. (It 
is said that?) the Omahas will receive various implements against the 
summer comes, including horse-collars, wagons, plows, and i>itchforks. 
Hear it at any rate (whether you inteud coming back to get your share 
or not). 1 am very well. 1 have no news. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 65 

UNE-MA"^!*' to MRS. SCHWEDHELM. FEBRUARY 9, 1880. 

A^'ba pf tat^. Uhe pfaji-md t*a°'i ^ga", ca°' a'^'ba-waqiibe 

Day I shall reach Path the bad ones abound ae, and mysterions day 

there. 

^4^ eh^be pf ka'^'b^a ctectewa'' b<(5i*a et(3ga'' ega", . . . 

this part of it I I wish even if 1 fail apt ais, 

reach 
there 

NOTE. 

This is only part of the letter. 

TRANSLATION. 

I shall reach the day (wheu I can visit you !) There are many bad 
roads at this seasou of the year, aad thoagh I wish to reach there 
before all of this week shall have passed, I shall probably fail to do so. 
Therefore (do not be displeased if I postpone my coming). 



GEORGE MILLER TO LOUIS ROY. YANKTON AGENCY, D. T., FEBRU- 
ARY 10, 1880. 

Nug^ pahan'gadi cupf tg'di i'^'tca" ci wUa'^'be ka°'b^a. 3 

Summer formerly I reached when now again I see you I wish, 

jou 

Wa^ita" ag^icta" ^[1, cub^d ka'"b<(;a. Wiji"'^6 ctt ^i8i*6-na"'i. 

Work I finish mine when, I jro to I wish. My elder to« thinks osu- 

you brother of yon ally. 

Ihan'kta°wi°' ani4 e^a°' (5i°te waqi°'ha culif 5[T, aw4na'a° 

Yankton ' tlie pi. how perhaps paper reaches when, I hear aboat 

sub. you them 

ka°'b^a. Windqtci ga" cub<(5^ t4 mifike. (pi'Xiink&'c&di^ cupi 6 

I wish. I alone at any I will go to you. To you who sit * I will 

rate reach 

td minke. 

there where 
you are. 

NOTES. 

George Miller, or A°^abi, an Omaha of the Ictasauda gens, wrote 
other letters in 1889. See later pages. Louis Koy was the son of a 
French father and a Ponka mother. 

66, 4. Wiji°^, Edward Miller, George's cousin according to civilized 
kinship systems, and a member of the same gens. 

65, 6. (pi-nink^c6di, contr.from ^Jnink^c^ and Mi. 

TRANSLATION. 

During a former summer I went to visit yon, and now again I wish 
to see yon. I wish to go to you when I finish my work. My elder 
10967 5 



66 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

brother, too, remembers you. I wish to hear how the Yanktons are 
when this letter reaches you. I will go to you by myself. I will come 
to your house. 



BIG ELK, AN OMAHA, TO REV. JAMES POWELL, CHICAGO. FEBRU- 
ARY 11, 1880. 

Kag(5ha, wisf(^6-na° ca"'ca". Ce pi t6'di edada" lida" 

O friend, 1 think usu- always. That I when what you 

of you ally reached 

there 

ma^oni'*' niiik^ wi:^a'''bai. Wakan'da wd<^aha° 6 awake. Ag^f 

yon walked you who I aaw you. God praying to it I mean it. I came 

sat nim about back 

something here 

3 ^ga" uawaki^ nikaci'^'ga-ma. Ca''' g(f^ba-c4d6qtiega'' '^i t6 

having I talked to the people (pi. ob.). Well about sixty house the 

them ob. 

udai eh^iga,", Niciide kg'di. I"'tca" a"'ba-waqiibe tg'di g«pe- 

entered I think it, Missouri R. by the. Now mysterious daj' on the just 

baqti ni ^ata'^'i, nackf 4gaqta°'i: A°'ba-h^be i:^ucpa, Mdc^a- 

teu water ' they head they dropped Half-a-day his grand- Richard 

drank, on : son, 

6 wakiide, j^e-jin'ga-wada(|iinge, MA^a-qiide, Wadji^pa ijin'ge, . . . 

Rush, Skittish Buffalo Calf, Gray Cottonwood, Wadjepa his son, 

Ki lida'^ w^a^'bai ga"', dga^ ka^'b(|5a. Agi^i tg'di dga^ gaxai 

And good I saw you (pi.) as, so I wish. I came when so they did 

back 
here 

(fdama d^iiba. Ki eondqtci Wakan'da ^ink^ a^^aii'gundji'* 

these some. And he alone God the st. we stand by (we 

• one depend on) him 

9 5[i, a°ni"':^a taf, ehd Maja""' (fan'di enaqtci gaxe ^iiik^ 

if, we will live I say. Land in the he only the one who is 

(sits) making 

a^fan'gunaji" ta-bi ^ga° wegaxai. Ki " Wi-na'^ a°si(f;6 ma"<fi"'i-ga 

that we will depend on him so he makes it And I only to remem- walk ye 

for us. her me 

hk Wf-ona" lida" t6 ab(f;i"'." Maja"' ^an'di ctgwa"' a°ma"'^i" 

! I only good the I have it. Land in the soever we walk 

12 t6 eoiia"' a°(|ia''Vacka° et^ga^i. C^iu cupf tg'di le daxe 

the it only we make an effort by apt. Yonder I reach when word I make 

means of it where you there 

are where 

yon are 

^a^'ja, djiiba daxe. Piqti wfb(faha° cu(f^a<^ai, Wakan'da 

although, few I make. Anew I pray to you I semt to you God 

(pl.), 

wa^aha°-m4c6. (jfHionaqtci oniwagdzu onai. Wauie-m4c6, 

ye who pray to him Only you you correct it you go. O ye lawyers, 

about something. 

15 c^na u(fuwinAji'*i maja""' ^an'di. Ki nlkaci'^'ga uke^^i"^ aii'ga^l^i" 

enough I depend on you land on the. And Indian common we who move 

(pl.) 

maja^' ag^kikV^ we(f(^cka"onaf ega° we^^nita'' ma°ni°'i. Ki 

Jand to have his you w jsb it for us as you work for you walk. And 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 67 

i^dug^g'qti wisi^l^ai ma°b*i"'. Kskana maja''' ^a° ag^b^i" 

coiitmnally I think of I walk. Oh that land the I have my 

you (pi.) ob. own 

i°^l°'wankdt'a°i ka"' eb4t'ga"-na° ca-'ca". NSn'de ^a" i"'uda"qti 

they acquire mine for me I hope it usn- always. Heart the very good 

ally for me 

Wakan'da ^ifike enaqtci u^iianaji" ma°b^i"'. Nfkaci"'ga uk^if^i" 3 

God the 8t. He only I depend on I walk. Indian common 

one nim 

a"ma°'^i°i t6 wag<^"'^i°i 16 we^^nice<(5a° cka'^'nai, we^a°na 

we walked the we are foolish the you abolish it for you (pi.) yon throw it 

us wish, away from us 

cka°'nai, Nfkaci'^'ga wackaxe cka^'nai. tTcka*" g4t6 nfcta" 

you (pi.) Human beings you make us you (pi.) Deed that you fin- 

" wish. ' wish. ish it 

tSdihi 5[I, nfkaci°'ga a^^ma^'i^i" ega"qtia'*' tai, roaja"' ^an'di. 6 

by the time human beings we walk just so will, land in the. 

when (or that). 

Ki wacka"' wai^ifi'gai. Wacka°':^anga'qti wackaxe dga" tai. 

And strength we have none. Very strong yon make us so wilL 

TRANSLATION. 

My friend, I am thinking of you from time to time. When I arrived 
at the place where yon are, I saw you continue at what is good. I refer 
to praying to God. After my return home, I talked to the people. I 
think that about sixty of them entered the (mission) house near the 
Missouri River. During this present week just ten have been baptized, 
and they have partaken of the Lord's supper (?). Among them are the 
grandson of Haifa-Day, Richard Rush, Skittish Buffalo Calf, Gray 
Cottonwood, and Wadjepa's son. And as I. saw that you were good, 
so I desire. Upon my return home some of these (Omahas) did so (i. e., 
they resolved to be Christians). I said, " If we depend upon Him who 
alone is God, we shall improve." He (God) has ordained for us that 
we should depend (or, stand by) the only one who accomplishes any- 
thing by means of the ground (i e., the white man !). (God says to 
us: — ) "Continue to think about Me alone! I alone have what is 
good." In whatsoever country we walk, we can persevere only by 
means of that (advice). When I was with you I made only a few 
remarks. O ye who pray to God, I send anew to petition to you. You 
alone continue to do what is right. O ye who are under the protection 
of the law, on you and the Christian people I depend for the preserva- 
tion of my title to my land. As you wish us Indians to retain our own 
land, you continue to make efforts in our behalf. 1 am thinking of 
you without intermission. I am ever hoping that they may acquire my 
own land for me. I continue with joy to depend on God alone. You 
desire to abolish for us the foolishness of our lives as Indians ; you wish 
to throw it away from us. You wish to make men of us. By the time 
that you accomplish that thing we shall walk in this country as human 
beings. But we have no strength. Please make us very strong. 



f)8 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

MA^'TCU-NA^BA to HIG^A^'xE WACJJATAI, YANKTON AGENCY, DAKOTA 

TERRITORY, 1879. 

A^wan'kega tcabe <|ia"'ja, ca""' waqi°'ha cu^^wiki^^. Pahan'- 

I am sick very thongb, yet paper I send it to you by Often, 

some one. 

gadi'cti iiikaci"'ga ega" wi"" ti^.6 lift, wi;a°'bai pi 5[i. Waw^- 

formerly Indian like one was I saw you (pi.) I when. You asked 

sent reached questions 

hither there abont 

3 ua^'xe palian'ga te zaniqti ab^i°' (Ca°' edada" iwa°xe i^& t6 

various before the all I have it. Well, what to ask a he the 

things qaestion sent 

hither 

^ dwake.). WUa°'b6qti uwib^a tai mink^ ha. A^waii'keg'a 

it I mean it. I really see you I will tell it to you (pi.) . I am sick 

(?dega°' at'^ tat^ i^a>[idaha°'-ct6wa°-m4ji, ci ani°' tat^ i^d5[i- 

but I shall die I do not know the least thing about again I shall live. I do not 

myself, 

6 daha°'-ct6wa°-maji. Ca° uct^ ama ^ida°'be ga°'4ai ^ga° cuhf 

"" they the pi. to see you they wish as they 
remain sub. shsill 



know at all about myself. Well, they the pi. to see you they wish as they 

lib. ' " 



taitd. (p4^Siuksi i'^c'dge (fanka cuhi tait^ t^^'j^? cm'gajiii'ga 

reach These old man the ones shall reach you thoogh, child 

you. who 

wiwija, Ict^-basiide, 4 pahaii'ga tat^. Angukiki^ ka°'b^ 

my own, Icta-basude, he shall be the first. We talk together I wish 

9 (fa"'ja, Ihank'ta"wi"' %i\ pm'd\ 6'di ^ana-'cta" ka^b^t^ga" : 6'di 

though, Yankton vil- in the there you stop walk- I hope: there 

lage ing 

cahi etal. Maqpf-jide, I:jiga°4ai (finkg'^^a ci >[I, in'5[i5[a-ga, 

they may reach Red Cloud, Grandfatner to the st. you if, request that my 

yon. one reach petition be * 

there granted as a favor 

to yourself. 

Uawaki^ ka°'b((5a ha. Uma^'ha"-madi iicka'' wi"' a°wa°'^-ga 

I talk to them I wish . To the Omahas deed one tell about me 

abont some- 
thing 

12 hd, 6':ja hii 5[I. Ihank'ta^vvi"' ^i ^ati >[i, uq^^ waqi°'ha 

! there they if. Yankton house you when, soon paper 

arrive come 

there 

tiafi'kic^-gft. Wina'a" ka"'b^a. £dl >ii, cuhf da"'ct6a°' 

send hither to me. I hear from I wish. In that case, they perhaps 

you reach you 

tait^ ha. 

shall 
(pl.) 

15 (To Wiyakoi°:) — xa^ckaha, a"'ba^^ a^wan'kega h^ga-mdjL 

O sister's son, to-day T am sick I am very. 

Angini 5[i, wija'^'be ta miiike, k\ aiigini-mAji 5[I, wi;a°'ba-m4ji 

1 recover if, I will see you, and I do not recover if, I will not 

tA miiike. 

see .>ou. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 69 

NOTES. 

This letter was dictated by Ma°tcu-iia°ba when all thought him dyiug. 
He was surrounded by the chiefs and his kindred when the author 
recorded his words, ^gig^a^xe-wa^atai was probably intended for the 
Dakota, Tuhmaga-wicayutapi (Tuqmaxa-witcayutapi), a person who 
has not been identified. The name probably means, Honey Eater. 
Part of the letter was addressed to the chief, Red Cloud, and the clos- 
ing sentences to the Yankton Wiyakoi". 

68, 1. PahangadlctI nikaci°ga ega° wi" ti^6 hS, wiija^bai pi ki. This 
sentence puzzled L. and F. as well as the author ; but G. has explained 
it, after transposing *'ega"'' and " wi**," supplying wab^g^eze, a letter^ 
and changing " pi'' to '* ag^i," I have returned, 

TRANSLATION. 

Though I am very ill I send you a letter by some one. Often in the 
past, when I returned home after visiting you, a letter would come 
from you, just like a person (to ask for presents for the Yanktons). I 
have ail the things about which you formerly asked questions. (Ex- 
planatory sentence addressed to the writer: Well, I refer to some things 
concerning which he sent hither to ask questions.) 1 will tell you when 
I see you face to face. I am ill, but I do not know at all whether I 
shall live or die. But as the others wish to see you, they shall reach 
yon (as they are not ill f ). These venerable men shall get to see you, 
but my child, Icta-basude, shall be the first (or leader). I wish that 
we might talk together, but I hope that you will stop (awhile?) at the 
Yankton village (Agency!); and there they (the other Omaha chiefs) 
may reach you. O Eed Cloud, when you reach Washington, ask that 
my petition be granted as a personal favor to you. I wish to talk to 
him about several matters. When the Omahas reach the Yankton vil- 
lage, tell them what you will give to me. When you come (on your way 
hither) to the Yankton lodges, send me a letter quickly. I wish to hear 
from you. In that case he (?) may reach you. 

(To Wiyakoi":) — O sister's son, I am very ill to-day. If I recover, 
I shall (go to) see you, and if I do not recover, 1 shall not (go to) see you. 



GAHIGE TO BATTISTE DEROIN, OTO AGENCY, NEBR. FEBRUARY 14, 

1880. 

Waqi°'ha ^a° sidddi tf ha. Sidddi tl t6 b<^fze ^kita'^haqtci 

Paper the yester- camo. . Yester- came the I took just at that time 

ob. day day it 

nfkag^hi waxai. Ca" edAda" fu<|^a ^ifig^. A°(fa°'na"xaf ^ga'* 

chief thev made Well, what news there is You (pi.) asked me as 

them. none. a question 

iiwib(^ai. Ca"" nikaci°'ga ama wa5[ig<(5ita°'i (^ga° waqe wAxai 3 

I tell it to Well, the people the pi. they work for as white they act 

yon (pi.) sub. themselves people 

i 



70 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTKRS. 

i°'ta". Ja"':jangJi iita'^'i ttl e awake. W^itR^ wa^f^Ana'a"- 

now. Lar;;o lo^s they work the it I mean it. Work you have usually 

at (act) ' heard about 

na°'i i^'ta'^ wa(|ilta°i. Nlkaci'^'ga ukd(fi° :j[a^'haha (fag^i°'-mact?, 

them now they work. Indian common you who ait on the borders of dif- 

ferent (tribes), 

3 wacka^'-ega^'i-gS. Juaji-na'^'i win4^a4: wanlta°-b4jl 6 dwake. 

do make (ye) an effort. Inferior uau- I have heard you do not work it I mean it. 

ally about you : 

Maja""' ^an'di w4qe am4 dkicugai, AdeC^ i^Mii^sii edAda^ ed^ 

Land in the white the pi. stand very there- a^ent what what 

people sub. thick, fore he 

says 

t6 an'guin'2|a''-na"'i. Ca° edada" si(^&w^& <fingd. A-wa^'^ita^'i 

the we usually help him. Well, what memorable there is We work 

none. 

6 tedfta^ wai"' sag! a°i°'i. Ceta^' wi;{ga° a^if^an'gundji^-bdji, 

since {or blankets firm we have So far my grand- we have not depended on 

conse- worn. father him, 

quently) 

iia°b^ t6 wacka°'anglki<^ai. l^Mi^B>l u^ikie-na°'i t6 ^ga" 

hand the we cause our own, to Agent he speaks usu- the so 

make an effort. to you ally 

gaxai-ga: ^-na" lida'' t6 eb^^ga"" ha. tJwa(|5agin4 t^ga"" uwib^a 

do ye ! it only good the I think it . You tell somethiog in order I tell It to 

to him that you 

9 cu^4b>^&, Nlkaci°'ga ^i(^ija-ma na^a°' ew^ka'^b^a. Waw^^e- 

I send it to People those who are to hear it I wish for them. You teach 

yon. your own them 

cka°'ze t^ga"" uwib^a. I(|;adi(fai ^(|^a°ba na^a°' ^ka^'b^a. 

various in order I tell it to Agent he too to hear it I wish for 

things that you. him. 

TRANSLATION. 

The letter came yesterday. Just at the time that I received it they 
made (new) chiefs. There is no news. As you (pi.) have asked me a 
question, I tell you (pi.). As the Indians work for themselves, they 
now live as white people. I refer to their logging operations. You 
have generally heard about their workiiag, but now they are working 
indeed ! O ye who dwell on the borders of different tribes of Indians, 
do make some efforts to better your condition ! I have heard about 
you those things which are generally discreditable to any one : I refer 
to your not working. The white people are very plentiful in this coun- 
try, therefore we usually help the agent when he sa^^s anything. There 
is nothing worthy of remembrance. Since we have learne^l to work 
we have worn good blankets. We have not yet depended on the Gov- 
ernment for a support; we have caused our hands to make efforts. 
Whenever the agent talks to you, do as he says. I think that that is 
the only good thing for you. I send and tell you that you may tell 
something to him. I wish your people to hear (my advice to you). I 
tell you because I wish you to teach them various things. I wish the 
agent too to hear it. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 71 

WASABE-XANGA TO NlCgA^'-CINE, AN OTO. 

Waqi°'ha cu^t?a46 ta mifike. Haqiide wai°' jide iictal 

Paper I will send it to you. Robe bUuiket red remains 

tg'di, X^'j^^^ t^'^ wfka"b^a. (/Ja*f-bajl ^l, cub^^ tk miiike 

when, xcj©ga you give I wish for you. You do not if, I will go to you 

it to nim give it to bim 

uq(f5e qti. Caii'ge ta°' R^^A'i ta"' ajiqti a"<fd4. Waqe can'ge 3 

very soon. Horse thestd. you gave thestd. entirely you gave White horse 

ob. it to me ob. different it to me. people 

one 

e'^k iictai t6'di a°^44-b4ji i°'^a-majlqti pf. 

their remain when you have not I was very sad I was 

given it to me returning 



hither. 



NOTES. 



This letter was also dictated iu Oto by Cka^oe-yine. 

71, 2. ji,e jega, t. e. Tce-re3[e, an Oto. The name means Eind quar- 
ter (res^e) of a Buffalo (toe). 

71, 3. Cafi'ge ta°, etc. Either of the following can be substituted: 
Oan'ge ta" a"^a'i 'i^a^^-de djiqti a"^4'i, You promised to give me the 

Uorse the yon you prom- very dif- you 

std.ob. gave ised, but fefent gave 

nie me, 

horse, but you have given me one that is entirely different. 2. Cau'ge ta" 

Horse the 
std. 
ob. 

a°^4*i ka"'b^a ta" a"^a*i-a'jl 6ga", djiqti a"^^'i, You did not give me 

you I wish the you did not as, very dif- you 

gave std. give to me ferent gave 

me ob. me 

horse that I desired you to give to me, but you have given me an entirely dif- 
ferent one. 

TRANSLATION. 

I will send you a letter. If a robe or red blanket is left over (after 
the distribution ?), I wish you to give it to j^ejega. If you do not give 
it to him, I will go to (see) you very soon. You gave me a different 
horse from the one which you promised to give me. I was exceedingly 
displeased as I came hither, because when there were some American 
horses remaining you did not give me one. 



NUDA^-AXA, A PONKA, TO NIxA-XAN'gA-WA^I, A KANSA. FEBRUARY 

16, 1880. 

Ga°' waqi'^'ha ((^and-na" 4a"' wi'l cu<^^a<^ai. Ca"' e'a"' 

And paper you have often tne ob. I give I send it to Well, how- 

begged it to you you (pi.). 

ma^ni"' s}! ga"' a"'ba ^d^uddi win4'a"i ka"'b^a. Kl mactd 

you walk if at any day on this I hear from I wish. And warm 

rate * you (pi.) 

tgdihi a"cta"'be ka"b(|!dga''. Ca"' lida'qti ma"b(f;i"' ^d^uddi. 

by the you see me I hope. "Well, very good I walk here, 

time it is 
reached 



72 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

Anita 5ja"' g6 eafi'giga° dga" a°dln'd6-qti-ma'*'. A'^wa^'cka"*- 

Limbs nms- the pi. I am as I wau as I have them very firm. . I am very 

clea in. ob. formerly \^ 

pn'ga-qti-ma''' ada°'. ^^a'^'ze wi°' Na°'pew4^6 ijaje a^i"' 

strong becanse. Kansas one Dangerons his name he has 

3 e^a'^'ba, waqi"'ha cu^^a^g ^a°' cuhf t6dihi 5[i, uq^g'qtci wi"' 

he too, paper I sent to him the it reaches by the time very soon one 

ob. you ' that 

a"^4'i ka"b^%a". (fci^an'ge wi"' ^at'a"' dga° asi^6-na"-ma"'. 

yon give I hoi>e. Yonr sister one yon have as I am nsnally think- 

it to me ing of her. 

O^^u wanita na^'ba a°^A*i ^ailkd awdgisl^6-na"-ma°', ji°^^ha. 

Yonder quadmi>ed two yon gave the ones I am usaally thinking of them, O elder 
where tome that brother, 

yon are 

NOTES. 

Ni()a-()auga*wa4 is the Pooka Dotation of the Kansa, NaHa-tanga- 
wak'ti, Mule-Oiverj a nickDame. 
72, 2. Na^pewa^^, the Ponka notation of the Kansa, Nti°'pewdye. 

TRANSLATION. 

I send you the letter which you have often begged of me. I wish 
on this day to hear from you ; how you are getting along. I hope to 
see you against the warm weather arrives. I am doing very well here. 
As my limbs and muscles have recovered their former condition, I am 
very sound {or hardy). For that reason 1 am very strong. I send this 
letter to you and to a Kansa named Na°pewa^. When it reaches you, 
I hope that you will send me one very soon. As you have a sister, 1 
am usually thinking of her. O elder brother, 1 am usually thinking 
about my two animals which you gave me when I was yonder where 
you are. 



DUBA-MA^CJJI^ TO MA^'E-GAHI, A PONKA, NIOBRARA, NEBR. FEBRU- 
ARY 16, 1880. 

6 Wabdg^eze wi""' g^ia°'^aki^^ ^a"" b^lzg liS, ^ag^^ t6di. 

Letter one you iiave sent back the I have re- . yon went when, 

to me ceived it back 

thither 

Maja°' itdxa^a ne t^ i°'(f6-qti-ma^'. Ki ca°' ne t^ i°'^a- 

Land towards the yon the I was very glad. And yet yon the I was 

head of the went went 

river 

maj!'-qti-ma°'. Ki a°'ba^(5 nikaci'^'ga ^^^iiike ikAged^g ^ink^ 

very sad. And to-day person this st. one I have him the st. 

for a friend one 

9 wab4g<^eze i^wi'^'^a, i°'^6-qti-raa°' ^^a'^'be t6. Uq<^6'qtci can'ge 

letter has told it to I was very glad I saw it when. very soon horse 

me, 

wi"' ab^i"', ec^. Kl 6 Awake, i°'^6 elid t6. Maja"' ^^^u ^ndji" 

one I have, you And it I meant it, I was I said the. Land here you stood 
said. glad 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 73 

tg'di lu^a ^mg{\ A"'ba-waqube dnm te^an'di a"'ba w^duba t6 

"when news there Mytiterious day other on the, in day fourth the 

is none. the past 

Uma"'ha° anid cka^^'i. jji t6 uglpi. Ki nfkaci°'ga-ma baza"' 

Omaha the pi. were Hoase the -was full. And ihe people poshing 

sub. acting. oh. the wav 

through 

ma-b^i"'. Kl ^icta-'i t6'di a"'ba-waqube ^4, nikaci-'ga 3 

I walked. And tbev fln- when mysterions day this, people 

ished 

amd ci u^^wiiiki^al b^iigaqti. Kl nfkaci°'ga amd c^ fe ^a- 

thepl. again assembled all. And people the pi. that word yon 

sub. sub. 

nd^a^-na'' k^ ^iiida'' 'i^af. Ki ukfkie g6 le uda°qti ingdxai 

heard usn- the to do good prom- And talking the pi. word very good did for me 
ally ised together in. oh. 



nfkaci'^ga amd. Ki ca°' ^skana can'ge ^ima°^"'i t6 f^agi^g 6 

people the pi. And yet oh that horse was stolen the you have 

sub. from yon (act) ? found 

your own 

t6 wa^lona t^dlhi :5ji, ^agicta°be et^ga°. Ca"' e*a"' nlkaci'^'ga 

the visible it arrives when, you see your apt. WeU, how people 

there own"^ 

it4xa;4-ma ma°^i°'i t6 wabdg^eze ^^^a° cuhf, hfze ^i, e^a"' 

those toward the they walk the letter this one reaches yon re- when, how 

head of the river you ceive it 

raa^^i"' i°wi°'^ana tii^^& ka°bt(;^ga°. Ca"' ^skana lida^qti 9 

they walk you tell it to me you send I hope. Well, oh that very good 

• it here 

ma"ni"' ka". Eddda" ct^ctSwa" lida" ani"' ka'b^^ga". WisiiQ 

you walk I What soever good you have I hope. I think 

hope(?). of you 

ma"b^i"' tdinke. Ca"' ga°'-na" eddda" fu^a c^na na"buwib^a"' 

I walk will (?). Well, still usu- what news enough I shake hands with 

ally you 

[ ? ] 

t6 ^kiga°. (pi nfkaci"'ga ukikiaf t6'di, X^-J^-ba?e waha^'^ai. 12 

the it is like it. This people they talked when, x^j^^^® prayed for a 

together special object. 

"Uq^g'qti wfgia-'b^a ag*^ tA mifike, eb^^ga"," ai. Ga-'-na" 

Very soon I leave yon, my I will go back {or home- I think, he And usu- 

own ward), said. ally 

itdxa^a eddda" u^4ne n^ t6 ^skana edada" wi"' ab<|5i°' en^ga" 

toward the what yon you the oh that what one I have it yon think 

head of sought went it 

the river 

wa^dcka" et^ga''. Ga°' c^na uwibtfia. 15 

yon make an apt. And enough I have told 

effort it to you. 

TRANSLATION. 

When you returned to your old home on the Niobrara, you sent me 
a letter, whiih I have received. 

I was very glad that you went to the land towards the head of the 
Missouri River. And yet I was very sad. And to-day, this person 
whom I regard as my friend (the writer), has told me what you have 



74 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

said, aud I was very glad to see it (your letter). You said, " I have 
soon possessed a horse.'' I refer to that when I say, " I was glad.'^ 
There was no news when you were here. 

On Wednesday of last week (?) the Omahas were acting. The house 
was filled. And I was in the crowd of people. They adjourned the 
meeting till this week, when they assembled again the entire nation. 
And the people promised to do good, according to the words which yoa 
used to hear often. And having talked together several times (?), the 
people spoke a very good word for me. 

1 hope that you may see your horses again that were stolen from you. 
I hope that you will send me a letter when you receive this one, and 
tell me what the tribes are doing that dwell on the Upper Missouri. I 
hope that you are prospering. I hope that you have various good 
things. I will continue to remember you. Well, I have sent you some 
news, and it has been like shaking hands with you. When these men 
talked together, xe-je-ba:|e prayed to them for a special object. He 
said, " I think that I will leave you very soon and go home (to my old 
land on the Niobrara).'^ Now, when you go towards the head of the 
Missouri Kiver in search of something, I hope that you will do what 
you can to acquire something which you may think I ought to have. 
I have told you enough. 



PART OP A LETTER OF GAHIGE TO HIS SON SILAS. FEBRUARY, 1880. 

Nfkaci"'ga amd :^igt(ifwag4zu ha, wdgazu M. 

People the pi. have made them- . straight 

sub. selves straight 

TRANSLATION. 

The people have acted uprightly for their own advantage, and all 
is well. 



TA^WA^-GAXE JINGA, AN OMAHA, TO MAWATA^NA, A YANKTON. 

FEBRUARY 17, 1880. 

Nfkaci°'ga-m4c6, oka'"' e^a''' ma^ni'"' ^skana wdgazuqti 

O ye people, act how you walk oh that very straight 

3 i^wi'^'il^ana i^Si^^ ka"bt(;^ga°. Ga"^' c^<|5anka, Caa'^' jin'ga 

to tell it to me yon send I hope. And those, Dakota small 

hither 

cin'gajin'ga wadAxe (j^aiikd, wa:ja°'be ksJ^'h^a. Uma^'<fcinka 

child I have made the ones I see them I wish. Tear 

them who, 

i-'^adai t6 dkiha" cl uma"'^inka wi" pi, ^de ca"' "A"'ba 

mentioned the beyond again year one I bat yet Day 

to me reached 

there. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 75 

gd^u wa^a°'be tate," ehd t6 i"'te(ii. (fa^'ja w^^ig((5a° 2ii:^4xa- 

fcliere I shall see them, I said it difficult Though plan they make 

for me. for them 

selvefl 

bdda'' i°wi°'<|5a I4ai t6dlhi :5[l'jl, cub^^ ta miiike ha. Ciii'ga- 

and(pl.) totellit they by the time that, " I will go to you . Child 

to me send 

hither 

jin'ga wiwf^a-ma iiwagi^4-ga. . . . dJisafi'ga nu:5[4<|5i" M, 3 

those who are my tell it to them. Your younger bare to the 

own brother waist 

eddda"" fcka"cka" ^ing^. Pfqti uwfb^a cu^^a^g. Pahl-sa"- 

what by means of there is Anew I tell it to I send it to Pahi-sa"- 

which he can none. you you. 

act often 

mdni i^fga" ^^a°ba, eddda"" t^a''' n!, ^skana fe wdgaziiqti 

man! his father- he too, what, he has if; oh that word very straight 

in-law 

qd^a gia'^'^^aki^^ ka^bij^^ga"". ... 6 

back you cause it to I hope, 

again be returning 

tome 

TRANSLATION. 

O ye people, I hope that you will send and tell me exactly how yon 
are, and what you are doing. I wish to see those young Dakotas whom 
I made my children (in the pipe-dance). I failed to visit them in the 
year that they named to me, and I have reached another year, but still 
it is difficult for me to say, "I will see them on that particular day." • 
But by the time that they send and tell me what decision they have 
made for themselves, I will go to (see) you. Tell my children. Your 
younger brother (Mandan) is bare to the waist. He has nothing by 
means of which he can act often (!). I send to you to tell it anew. If 
Pahi-san-mani and his father-in-law have plenty of things, I hope that 
you will send a correct report back to me. 



GEORGE MERRICK TO KE-:5IRE5e, AN OTO. 

Kag^ha, nlkacP'ga anad ^^ama wabAji°a"<|5ai. Ki le t6, 

O friend, people the pi. these (pi. have caused me to And word the 

sub. sub.) take a message. ob., 

kag^ha, uwfl3<|5a tai-^ga° uwlb<|5a td minke. Nfkaci°'ga amd 

O friend, I tell it to in order I will teJl it to you (s.). People the pi. 

you that (pi.) sub. 

^^ama le wi"' :>jind^a"i ha. U<|5uda''baf ^\, kag^ha, gfteqi. 9 

these (pi. word one have heard . They considered when, O friend, ' it was dif- 

»ub.) about them- it ficult for 

selves them. 

Ca" gfteqi h^ga-bdji ^ga*" wabAji^'a^il^af ^ga"" uwlb^a. M^ pa- 
in difficult very as they have caused as I tell it to Spring at 
fact for them me to take a you. 

message 

haii'ga t6'di ^ga°qti, kag^ha, Unia'''ha° :^fi (^an'di (J^andji^ 

the first just as O friend, Omaha village in the you stood, 

(it came). 



76 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

Mact^ t6 i^aug(f6'qti fanaji". Ki Uma-'ha" jiil'ga ^i"' e'a"' ^i"' 

Warm tlie througbunt you stood. And Otuaha small the how he 

mv. ob. -was 

ct6wa"' fcpaha"'-qti ja°', eddda"* a^i"' g6' ct6 b^iiga Icpaha". 

soever 3'oa fully understood, what be had the pi. even all yon Icnew. 

in. ob. 



3 Gfteql-bi eh^ t6 can'ge (j^ingaf. Ki nkiVQ a^wa'^'wa^A ct6 

That it is diffi- I say the horse there is And foreign whither so- 

cult for them none. nation ever 

ug^ca°-bdji, cl mA^& i^dug^6'qti ci ^ga°. Ada" nlkaci^'ga 

they have not again winter throughout again so. There- people 

traveled, fore 

amd ^f<|5aha°'i. (tati >|i'ji, nan'de wa^fqpa^i'', ci nfkaci°'ga 

the pi. they pray to You if, heart yours (is) poor, again the people 



-ma 



sub. you. come 

here 



6 Uma°'ha°-ma nan'de waqpd^i°wa^d<|5ai t6 l5[i5[uhal, ca°' 

the Omahas heart you make them poor the thev appro- in 

bend on their fact 
own account, 

Uma°'ha°-ma ^wa^a<|56'-cti-m4 nan'de waqp^^i°wa^gi^e td 

the Omahas the ones, too, whom you heart you will cause them, your kindred, 

have for kindred to be poor. 

Ca»' ^atlajl ka"' e^dga"'i. (fi^aha-'i. Ca»' ^fca"-b4ji d^indsa- 

Well, you do they hope. They pray to Well, it does not they do not 

not come you. suit you prevent 

9 b4ji ha, ^f^aha'^'i ^ga"" cdi ha. Nfkaci'''ga-ma cafi'ge-ma ^b^i"" 

you . they pray to as they . The people the horses three 

you have 

said it ' 

w4t(ii°-bAji, caii'ge-ma wat(ilta°wdki^.^-ma eondqtci w4ii°i. 

they do not have the horses the ones which they cause them only they have 

them, to work them. 

Nfkaci^'ga uk^^i" an'ga<|5i° ga""' nikaci'''ga-ma pahafi'gadlta" 

Indian common we who (use here the people from the first 

move not plain) 

12 ^ki^6 :5ji:5j4xai ^ga** jji^a'^bai. ^^i^a'^'bai t6'di wa^Ate :5[i*f, 

they made themselves as they looked at They looked at when food they 

related to one another one another. one another gave to 

one an- 
other, 

eddda'' wi° ^ji'f. Ki (J^asl^a^g t^. Aiand^a^jfqti tat^ i°^fgaxa- 

what one they And you will think You shall not obey at all we do not 

gave to of it. make for you 

one an- (=we do not 

other. reckon 

bdji. Can'ge wa^in'gai ega° ^lita^qti uwfb^a. Ca"^ w^^ig^a** 

that Horse we have none as very cor- I have told Well, plan 

yon). rectly it to you. 

15 en^ga"" t6 oA^ g^lza-ga. 

you have the oack take your 

thought it again own. 

NOTES. 

75, 10-11 . Me pahafiga tSdi ega'^q ti . . . ^anaji". The addition of ega^ti 
shows that Ke-3ire5e stayed a very long time (W.). Equivalent expres- 
sions are, M6 pahan'ga ^an'di ^ga^qti ^audji", and M.6 pahan'ga 

Spring first 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 77 

tgdita™ ^auaji^ (G.). Stress seems to be laid on the extreme leugtb of 

fi'om it you stood. 

the visit. 

76, 7, ewa^a^-ctl-ma, au unusaal form of 6wa^^-m4 ctl, from ^.wa^S. 

TRANSLATION. 

My friend, these Indians have requested me to deliver a message. 
My friend, I will tell the words to you in order to tell them to all of 
you. These Indians have heard a message concerning themselves. 
After considering the subject, my friend, they have found it difficult 
for them. In fact;, as it is very difficult for them, they have authorized 
me to speak for them, and so I tell you. At the very beginning of the 
spring, my friend, you came to the Omaha settlement, and you remained 
throughout the summer. You fully understand the situation of the 
Omaha young men. You know everything that they have. As they 
are without horses (to give away) I have said that what you propose is 
difficult for them (to perform). The people here have not traveled in 
any direction among the other tribes, and it has been so all through 
the winter. Therefore the Indians petition you (not to come). The 
Omahas fear that if you come you will be full of anxiety, and that you 
will make them full of anxiety, even those Omahas whom you have as 
your kindred. So they hope and pray that you will not come. If it 
does not please you (to stay away from us) the Omahas do not prevent 
your coming; they merely say that as a sort of petition to you. The 
Indians here do not have three horses apiece; they have only those 
[two f J horses (apiece) which they use in working. We Indians [remem- 
ber how it has been told about!] the Indians of the olden times; how 
they visited one another in consequence of their regarding themselves 
as related. When they visited one another, they exchanged food and 
whatever else, they had. You will think of that. We do not consider 
that you will disregard what has been said by me. As we have no 
horses (to give away), I have told you just how we are situated. Recon- 
sider the decision which you have reached. 



GIHijl TO CORNELIUS RICKMAN. FEBRUARY, 1880. 

le djiibaqtci virldaxe. A'^'ba^d t6 lida^qti ^ga'^ i"'^6 ^ga'^. 

Word very few I make to Today the very good as I am as, 

you. glad 

kda!^ wabdg^eze wfdaxe. Ki 4^a5[ikihfde ka"b^^ga°. Wicti 

there- letter 1 make to And yoa take care I hope. I too 

fore you. of yourself 

dga" da^ifkihfde. Kl iida"qti ma"b^i"'. Wind'a"-m4jl i-'ta" 

80 I take care of my< And very good I walk. I have not heard now 

self. from you 

a°'ba-waqube t6 cade gana. Ki ed4da"-ct(5cte Iwimaxe 

mysterious day the six that many. And whatsoever I asked you 

about 



78 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

ge^s!^' wa<|5ionaqti ka°b<|5(^ga°. Ki wadona tgdihi 5[i, wfcti 

the pi. in. very plain I hope. And plain when it shall be, I too 

ob.,in 
the past 

edAda"-ctdcte uwlb^a et^ga°. I^'ta"" waqi°'ha ^a"" wagaziiqti 

whatsoever I tell to you apt. Now paper theob. very straight 

3 widaxu cui^iai^&. lusicta'' waqi"'ha d4xa-mdji. Nlkaci'^'ga 

I write it to I send it to To tell a lie paper I do not make it. Persoft 

you you. 

wab4xuaki(^d ^iiik^ wdgazu ^ga" baxuaki<|5^. fiskana waqi'^'ha 

the one whom I have caused to straight as I have caused Oh that paper 

writ« something him to write. 

una"' tg'di, uq^g'qtci ia"'^aki*^ ka"b^^ga° waqi-'ha wi". NIka- 

yon take when, very soon yon send hitner I hope paper one. Peo- 

hold of to me 

it 

6 ci^'ga i^ii^hsi cti awdna'a" ka"'b(fja, e'a"' ^i"te. Ci ti tfidihi 5[i, 

pie your too I hear about I wish, how it may Again it by the time 

them be. has that, 

come 

wi*"' cut(i^wiki((5^ ta miiike. Waw^a^^j^amaxe te^a"' weamaxe 

one I will send to you by some one. What you asked me about in the I asked about 

past 

dega"' ^ingA-bi, ai. 

but that there they 

are none, say. 

NOTES. 

Cornelius Kickraan, a white man, lived at Spring Valley, Monona 
County, Iowa. 

Samuel White or Gihajl, the sender, could sp6ak English. He pref- 
aced the letter with these words: *'I have come home. For about 
three weeks since my return my eyes have been painful. I could not 
see. Now my eyes are well, and I am in good health (in Omaha, Ict4 
^a° angig^aska, i^'uda^). Let me know how you and all your family 
are (wak^kega, da^'ct6a°'i, whether several of thein are 8icky\ Angi- 
g^aska, mine is white agaiuy i. e., no longer red or inflamed. Primary 
reference is to the cornea, but there is a secondary reference to the 
sight 

77, 1, i°^6 ega^, ada°, etc. When "ega^" is used, '^ada°'' seems 
unnecessary. Either one can be used without the other. 

78, 7. Wawea^^amaxe, etc. The inquiry was about fish. 

TRANSLATION. 

I write a very few words to you. This is a fair day, and I am glad ; 
so I write you a letter. I hope that you will take care of yourself; I 
take care of myself. I am prospering. It has been six weeks since I 
have heard from you. I hope that whatsoever things I have asked 
you about are very easily- understood. By the time that they are so, I 
too may tell you something or other. I have now written a straight- 
forward letter to you. I have not written a lie in the letter. My aman- 
uensis (i. e., the author) is honest, so I have employed him to write. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 79 

I hope that wbeu you receive this letter you will soon reply. I wish to 
hear how your people are. By the time that your reply comes to me 
I will send another letter to you. I have iliade inquiries respecting the 
things about which you questioned me, but they say that there are 
none to be had. 



ICTA(^ABI TO MACA^ AND HEQAGA-SABfi. MARCH 1, 1880. 

Mdca"* Heq%a-sdb6 e^a^'ba, akfwa wawfdaxiii. A'^'ba^^ 

Feather Black Elk he too, both 1 write domethinj^ To-day 

to you (pi.). 

wija'^'bai ka'^'b^a, a°wan'kandi<|^e'- qti - ma""'. Nlkaci"'ga - ma 

I see you (pi.) I wish, I am very impatient for it. The people 

ca°' e^^gSi^'hAji ^a°'ja, windqtci ca""' wi^a'^'be taf eb^^ga'' 3 

well they do not think though, only I at any I see you will I think it 

it rate 

uma°'<|5inka ^6^uAdi, Niaci^'ga amddi ^anaji"* t6 i°((5i°Va°pfqti- 

year in this. People with the you stood the it was very i;ood for 

me on that account 

na"' i"'uda"'-qti pl-na^-ma"'. Ca"' edada" licka" ^mg6 ha. 

usu- very good for 1 used to be there. Well, what deed there is 

ally me none 

Ni^ a"^in'ge andji". Ca°' e'a"' (fandji" t6 winA'a"! ka"'b^a, 6 

Pain I have none I stand. Well, how you stand the I hear from I wish, 

you (pi.) 

ada'' wawfdaxui. ^^j^iga^'ha ^ikdge me^ga", ^i a°'nita"'i t6 

there- I write to yon (pi.) O grandfather your likewise, you you have the 

fore about something. friend treated me 

i'''uda''-na°-ma°'. Wi:ja"'bai-m4ji ^ga"", waqpdni i*at'e ha. 

it has been usually good I do not see you (pi.) as, poor I die from 

for me. it 

A"'ba^^ wi?a°'bai uwlkie ag(fi°' t6 ekiga"'qti a5[fdaxe. Wa- 9 

To-day I see you (pi.) I talk to I sit the just like it I make it for Pa- 

you myself. 

qi°'ha wi°' ia°'^aki^^ taf. Pc'aggqtci ak4 wak^ga t6 gini, 

per one you will send hither Very aged man the sick the has re- 

to me. sub. cov- 

ered, 

ma"^i"'i ha. 

he walks 

NOTES. 

Icta^abi is an Omaha. Maca*^ and Heqaga sabS are Ponka refugees, 
staying among the Yankton Dakota. 

79, 10. Pc'ag^^qtci, Ma"tcu-na°ba or Yellow Smoke (Cude-nazi), the 
father-in-Jaw of Icta^abi. 

TRANSLATION. 

O Feather and Black Elk, I write to you both. I wish to see you to- 
day, and I am hardly able to wait (till I can see you). The Omahas do 
not think about visiting you, but I alone think that I will see you this 
year. Whenever I visited the Yanktons I was always pleased, because 
J had jQxx for my interpreter. There is no news. I continue in good 



80 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

health. I wish to hear how you are, therefore I write to you. O grand- 
father, the way that yon and your friend have treated me has always 
been pleasant to ine. As I do not see you, I am dying from poverty. 
To-day I must content myself with talking to you instead of seeing you. 
Please send me a letter. The very aged man who was ill (Ma^tcu-na^'ba) 
has recovered, and is able to walk. 



TA^WA^'-GAXE Jimx TO MAWATA^NA. MARCH 5, 1880. 

Ca° fe wi°, negfha, aIla°'b^i^ Ca" cin'gajin'ga ^ankd 

Well word one, O mother's I am nncertain Well, chud the ones 

brother, about it. who 

wadAxe ^afikd 4 ... W^awa" ninfba udket'a'*' ka°b<|5^ga^ 

I have made the ones they Calamet pipe I acquire it I hope, 

them who 

. . . Eddda"* ct^ctewa" i"<|5^ckaxe t^ga'' ka°b<|5^ga° ^ga" wih^a- 

What soever you do for me in order I hope as I pray to 

that ^ 

ha° cu<|5(^a^6. Wi caii'ge^ajiii'ga wi'^aqtci ab^i°' ^de nujinga 

you I send it to I colt just one I hail it but boy 

you. 

t'(5 k^ ga^, nSri'de gip6ji ^ga'^, a'i, Mawada^^i''. A^inge gAxai. 

he lay as, heart bad for as, I g&ve Mandan. He parted with it on 

dead him it to him, account of the dead. 

NOTES. 

Though this letter was dictated in Omaha, most of it was recorded 
in English at that time, as shown in the translation by the parenthet- 
ical sentences. 

80, 5. A^inge gaxai, the sender gave'^wd^inge.'^ Ta^wa^-gaxe jiiiga 
gave his colt to Mandan in order that the latter could give it away 
because of the death of his son. 

TRANSLATION. 

O mother's brother, I am uncertain about one part of your letter. (I 
wish to make sure of your meaning. Do you refer only to yourself, or 
to all the Yanktons? Ask my son, Wiyakoi". O Wiyakoi"*, I hope 
that you will speak to) my adopted children in your tribe. I hope to 
acquire a calumet, such as they use in the pipe-dance. (I do not refer 
to the children for whom I have already had the calumet dance. I put 
them aside. I wish to enter the house of Mi*»xabu, and dance the 
calumet dance for his children. Speak to him in my behalf. I hope 
that you will speak to my four adopted children, Mi^xabu and others. 
Send me a reply to this letter very soon, in fact as soon as you receive 
this. O Mawata"na, I have your letter, and it is just like seeing you! 
It delights me!) I send to you to petition to you, as I hope that you 
will do something or other for me. I had just one colt, but when Man- 
dan's son lay dead, I gave the colt to the father, as he was sorrowful, 
and he gave it away on account of his dead son. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 81 

LION TO MRS. MARY CANFIELD, ASPINWALL, NEBR. MARCH, 1880. 

Xija^'ha, (^f wajT' i^Ua. cki cka"'na ^T, iida" t^. (fJag^l 

O sister's you mind your you you wish if, it will be You have 

daughter, own return good. returned 

hither 

tSdfhi licka" wi"" ckaxe fate, nfkaci°'ga-ma u^^wi" wacta°'be, 

at the deed one you shall do, the people assembled you see them, 

time 

uq^g'qti ka^b^^ga"". Kl nfkaci°'ga-ma b^ugaqti man'g^e 3 

very soon 1 hope. And the people all erect 

^andji°-da°' w4naha°' te ha. *' P'na"ha maja"' a^i^' <|5a° 

yon stand and you will pray to . My mother land she had the 

(s.) them ob. 

ag((5fza-da'^' 6'di at'(^ ka"'b((5a dda" ag^l Wdqe ^ifik^, maja"' 

I take my and there I die I wish because I have White the st. land 

own (s.) returned man one, 

here. 

uw^diaji ab^ixe (j^iiike, wagS.q^a'' ah^V^ (ikiga'*, wai"'^ita°'i. 6 

in a different the one whom I took servant I have like it, he works at vari- 

place for my htlsband, him ous things for me. 

Ki waqe (j^ink^ ta°Va°g((5a" 6'di wacka"'qti ^ka°b^a-mdji ; 

And white thest. village in making a great 1 do not wish for him ; 

man one effort 

waw^kitdta ^ga'' ma"^i°' ^ka°b<|5a-m4ji/' ec^ te ha. Ra^i, 

a deceiver so to walk I do not wish for him, yon will . Henry, 

say it 

i^ska, Waha-'^ing*^, Ibaha^'bi, wi ct^na, i"'ba''-b4jl ^a^'ja, ca"' 

interpre- Orphan, Ibaha'bi, I enongh, we do not call though, yet 

ter, to him 

^i^wajl" ckl 5[i, 

of your own you are if, 
accord coming 
hack 

NOTES. 

Though this letter was dictated in Omaha, the parenthetical sen- 
tences were recorded only in English. 

81, 7. Kl waqe ^inke, etc. Lion and tlie other Omahas knew by 
experience what they had to expect from white men who took Omaha 
wives. Such men wished to control the tribe. So Mrs. Canfield was 
asked in this letter to say to the council that she did not wish her hus- 
band to have anything to do with tribal affairs. 

TRANSLATION. 

O sister's daughter, if you, of your own accord, desire to return to 
this reservation, it will be good. At the time of your return you shall 
do one thing : I hope that you will not delay seeing all the people 
assembled. And then you should rise to your feet and petition all the 
people, thus: "I have returned because I wish to take possession of 
the tract of land which belonged to my mother, and I wish to die there. 
The white man whom I took for my husband in another land works at 
various things for me, just as if 1 had him as my servant. But I do 
10967 6 



82 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

not wish the white man to be very prominent in the tribe. I do not 
wish him to be cheating the Omahas.'' Henry Fontenelle, Louis Sans- 
souci, Waha"^inge, Ibaha^bi, and I do not invite your husband to come, 
but if you should come of your own accord (we will ask the agent to 
attend to the matter, when the question of an agent is settled by the 
Government. If you postpone action for any time, we shall be unable 
to say anything more. So I send this in haste. As soon as you get it 
reply and let us know your decision. When you send this word, my 
son Henry will come at once with a wagon to get the young pigs which 
you promised. He sends to you in this letter to ask this favor). 



THE OMAHA CHIEFS TO THE COMMISSIONER OP INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

MARCH, 18, 1880. 

Gahige said: — ]((5adi^al d:>jidaza''' wa^f ga'^'^ai. . . . 

Agent by tlieraselves to give they wish, 

to them 

Buba-ma^i" said: — ^yga.'^'ha, pahafi'gadi i<|5adi a°wan'ga^i°- 

O grandfather, formerly his we bad them 

father 

3 na"'i, kl eddda" ge vv^euda"'i et(^ga"i ge v^e^dckaxe cka"^na- 

asually, and what the pi. good for as apt the pi. you do for us you wished 

in. ob. in. ob. 

iia°'i. Ki i°'tca°qtci i^4di((5al (^ink^ i<|5dgia-majl. Ca""' i((^adi<^al 

usually. And just now agent the st. 1 do not s])eak Yet agent 

one against him. 

v^i°aqtci aiig4((5L" t6 weteqi hdga-baji. Ki ta°'wa°g((5a''' amd 

just one we have the hard for very. And gentes the pL 

him us sub. 

6 ^^aina a°'ba i^aug^e cka°' ma"<|5i'''i, ki c^nujifi'ga ta^'wa^g^** 

these day throughout acting walk, and young man gentes 

angu:jai arna edada" i(f5adi((5af ^iiik^ *i<j56 w4gaji :5ji, *a°'a ^a** 

our own the pi. what agent the st. to they com- if, reticent so 

sub. ob. speak mand us because 

al>out of sure 

failure 

a°ma°'((5i°i. Ga'^' we<|5^ckaxai ka^'a°<|5a°'^ai, ^iga'^'ha. 

we wnlR. Still you do it for us we hope, O grandfather. 

9 Two Crows 5aic?;— jLiga°'ha, wabdxu wi° i"<|5igaxaf ^^^a°, 

O grandfather, letter one we have made this ob., 

to you 

^skana nlze 5[T, uq((^6'qti qaijja a°n4'a'* ka'^'a^ij^a^'tfiai. Ki 

oh that you re- when, very soon back we hear it we hope. And 

ceive it again 



n 



w^uda^ tA-bi enega^ dga° licka" g6 vv^e^^ckaxe-na"'i. TJcka' 

that it will be for our you think as deed the pi. you have done usu- Deed 

good it in. ob. for us ally. 

12 S^ weuda'^'-qti-baji ^a°'ja, ga''' ''Wi;iga° ^ink^ wegdxai," ga°' 

the not for our highest good though, still My graud- the st. hxis done it at any 

pi. father one to us rate 
in. 
ob. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS, 83 

a-^a-'^ai ha. Kl licka" i"'tca" wi° we^^ckaxaf ha. . . . Ca"' 

we think it . And deed now one .you (pi.) have Well, 

done to ub 

iicka° g6 wi^iga"" wada"'ba-baji wegaxai ca""' weteqi na°'i 

deed the pi. my grand- he does not see us he bas done well, difficult uau- 

in. ob. father to us for us ally 

^a"'ja, i-'ta" ^eceta"' wi?iga" ind(? a°da'"b6qti dskana licka" 3 

though, now from this my grand- . face we see him indeed oh that deed 

time father 

Weteqi g6 aiigug<|5a anga°'<|5ai. 

difficult the pi. we tell him we wish, 

for us in. ob. of our own 

White Horse said: — Nfkaci°'ga naxlde-^mg6 edabe wAki- 

People disobedient also to attend 

hfdai t6 weteqi. Naxfde-^ifige >iT, edabe wa^'da'' wAkiliide- 6 

to them the difficult Disobedient when, also togethtjr to cause them 

for us. to be at- 

ki^ai te weteqi hdga-baji. . . . 

tended the trouble- very, 

to some to us 

Icta-basude said: — . . . We<j5(3nicta'' <|5a"'ja, ca°' weteqi 



You have finished though, yet trouble- 

doing it for us some to us 



t6 an^gui^'^i^a. afiga"'<|5ai. 

the we tell it to you we wish. 



NOTES. 



TLe parenthetical sentences were recorded only in English. 
The ex-agent, Howard White, requested the author to send this let- 
ter, as he declined to act after his resignation. 

TRANSLATION. 

(Gahige said:) — The Indians wish the president to give them their 
respective agents (one for the Omahas and another for the Winnebagos. 
If we wish to see our present agent, we become very tired, because he 
does not come very often from the Winnebago Agency. So we tell 
this to the Commissioner). 

(Duba-ma°^i° said:) — Grandfather, we used to have agents, and you 
generally did for us those things which were calculated to benefit us. 
But even now I do not speak a word against the agent himself; yet it 
is very hard for us Omahas to have an agent in common with the Win- 
nebagos. These Omaha gentes are busy throughout the day, and when 
our young men command us to speak to the agent about anything we 
hesitate and say nothing, because we can not see him. O grandfather, 
we hope that you will still do for us (what is beneficial for us). 

(Two Crows said:) — O grandfather, we hope that when you receive 
this letter which we have written to you, we shall very soon hear the 
reply. You have been doiug things for us occasionally as you have 
considered that they would be beneficial to us. Though they have not 
turned out to be for our highest advantage, we think, "My grandfather 



84 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

has done it for us." Just now you have done one thing for us. (We 
are two tribes, yet you make one agent answer for both of us. This 
thing which you have done for us gives us much trouble.) Still, though 
the things which my grandfather has done to us without seeing us are 
difficult for us to endure, we wish that henceforth we could see the 
Commissioner face to face and tell him the things which are trouble- 
some to us. 

(White Horse said:) — It is troublesome to us to be attended to by an 
agent who has to watch over a disobedient tribe at the same time. It 
gives us much trouble to be assigned together with those who are dis- 
obedient to the care of a single agent. (We Omahas have been work- 
ing constantly, as you wish us to act for ourselves. The agent remains 
about a month at a time at the Winnebago Agency without seeing us, 
and that is very hard for us to endure.) 

(Icta-basude said :) — If a man has two horses, one is apt to excel the 
other. If one walks straight, he thinks, '^ I hope that I will always 
know what is good for me." I am afraid of that nation, the Winne- 
bagos, and I think, grandfather, that from this time on we ought to 
have separate agents. Though you may have already made all your 
arrangements for sending a new agent for both tribes, still we wish to 
tell you how it gives us trouble. (It is hard for us to have no one to 
attend to our business; so, grandfather, I send this to you to tell you. 
I think that it would be proper for my agent to live close to us, so that 
I could go to him and speak about my affairs whenever it becomes 
necessary. I have asked a man, who is one of your race, to write this. 
But these are not his words. They are the words of the seven princi- 
pal men of the tribe.) 

(Na°pewa^6 said:— Grandfather, these men have spoken of the things 
which give them trouble. We know about the difficulty of having one 
agent for two tribes, so we ask that a business matter be attended to. 
There are many of us who would continue to improve the ground, 
and we would take the advice of a resident agent, and so we would 
progress in civilization year by year. But as it is now, that is difficult 
for us to do without an agent. You do something for us because you 
consider that it will benefit us, but I must tell you that it really injures 
us. The man beside whom I dwell is disobedient, and to have one 
agent with him will cause me to be in constant trouble. We do not 
wish to follow the bad ways of that man, the Winnebago.) 

(Fire Chief said: — Grandfather, all these men tell you what is trou- 
blesome. You have caused this. I do not accuse my agents. But I 
do wish you to make a change, giving us an agent of our own, and let- 
ting the Winnebagos have one of their own. There are other things 
hard to be endured, but now I speak only of this subject of separate 
agents. I hope that I may soon be allowed to visit my grandfather 
and speak to him face to face about this and other matters. These are 
my words, not the words of my friend whom I have asked to write this 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 85 

for me. We write this to you after the resignation of one agent, 
Howard White, and before the arrival of another agent). 

(Duba-ma"^i° said: — Grandfather, I send to you to speak about one 
subject. There is one man here whom I have caused to send news 
occasionally, il^ow that he has gone to Washington 1 have heard bad 
things about him, and 1 am afraid of him; i. e.j Charles P. ]\l organ, 
the interpreter. I hope that when he reaches you, and you receive this 
letter, you will discharge him from bis oflSce at once. The young men 
have assembled, and they have said so. They have given these words 
to us seven chiefs, so we send this to let you know what are our wishes 
and those of the tribe). 



PAHANGA-MA^(|3I^ TO HIS BROTHER, SILAS WOOD, NIOBRARA. MARCH 

29, 1880. 

^^de-gdhi IctA-basiide ^*a°ba nweigi^si ^ga°, niijinga am4 

Fire Chief Icta-basade netoo they have told aa, *boy the pi. 

it to thera sub. 

gfca"i. "Ckf te," af. Niijinga am^ ^gi^a"'i. Ca"' ga"' ^^^u 

are satis- You will be they IJoy the pi. said it to Well, at any here 

fled. comins; back, say^ sub. him. ' rate 

<^ag<fi te 'a°' (^iT\g6 ^a'^'ja, ca''' nan'de giuda^'i ^ag^f t^. 3 

you will have nothing being although, yet heart. theirs are yon will have 

returned the matter good come back. 

jLeniiga-na^'ba, Naxe^waka'"', Hiipe^a, Ha°'akipa, Maqpfya- 

Xenuga-na"ba, Naxewaka", Uupe<^a, Ha^akipa, Maqpiya- 

q4ga, Waka°'-ma°^i°', WAta^-n4ji°, I"tcan'ga-ska, jizf ^inge, 

qa^a, Waka"-ma»^i", Wata»-naji», "Weasel, jlizi-^ifige, 

Jingd-gahfge, k! Agaha nujifiga b^iiga inahi°'i. ^^Ckf te," al. 6 

Boy Chief, and besides boy all are willing. You will be they 

(them) returning say. 

C^na weddaha" ^a°'ja, ca''' niijinga ^4a"skd am4 e^^ga""! 

Enough I know about though, yet boy of the size the pi. they have 

them referred to sub. thought it 

^ga°, uwfb^a cutfi^a^g. . . . 

as, I tell it to 1 send it to 

you you. 

TRANSLATION. 

The young men are satisfied because jede-gahi and Icta-basude have 
told them. They say, <* You can return (to the Omaha Reservation)." 
The young men have said this to (Pire-Ohief and Icta-basude). Though 
your return will affect nothing in your behalf, still they will be glad for 
you to return, j^euuga-na^ba, Naxewaka'*, Hupe^a, Ha^akipa, Maqpiya- 
qaga, Waka^-ma^^i", Wata" naji", I"tcafigaska, jizi-^inge, Jiiiga-gahige, 
and all the other young men are willing, and they say, " You can return.'' 
I do not know any more about them, but I send to tell you what the 
young men, including all those of that size (!), have thought. (I am 
going away in seven days. This is the last letter that I will send you 
before I leave.) 



86 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

ACAWAGE, A PONKA CHIEF, TO SOME PONKAS AT CARLISLE, PA. 

DECEMBER, 1880. 

Nujinga nank4ce, wi;a°'be cub^^ tai miiike. E'a*^' ^^xxkyi^ 

Boy ye who are. I see you I will go to you (pi.). How you stand 

t6 ga"' fwidaha"' taf minke. Ecl4da" nfta°i g6 nfpi :^I, 

the at any I will know about you. "What you work the pi. yo\ido if, 

rate at in. ob. well 

fwidaha"' ka^'bfa-qti-ma'". $f wa^^ig^ita"! t6 ^iuda"'i ^tai 

I know about I have a strong desire. You you work for your- the it ought to be good 

you selves for you 

khvC eb((j^ga°. Kl nfpi :ji, a°'qti(^a^i4^ga° tal. Ki uif^ita'' 

! I think it. And you do if, you will think highly of your- And work 

it well selves. 

w4qe a*i°'i g6 4^akipa-na"' tai. Ca"' wi^a'^'be et^ga", Kag^. 

white tney the pi. you meet rega- will. Well, I see you apt, O Fourth- 

pe^^ple have it in. ob. (them) lany son. 

Cub^^ ka-'b^a. Wi»a"'be ka"'b^a. Waqi"'ha ^a" nlze ip, ^ga"- 

I go to you I wish. I see you I wish. Paper the you when, just 

ob. receive 
it 

qti waqi°'ha wi"*' uq^g'qtci ^^*uAdi tia'^'^aki^d ka^bij^^ga**. 

so paper • one very soon to this place you send it I hope. 

here to me 

NOTE. 

This letter and the next three were dictated by the Ponka deleg^a- 
tion when in Washington, prior to the departure of the writer (with 
the Ponka Commission appointed by President Hayes) to the Indian 
Territory and Nebraska. The four members of the Commission were 
Generals Crook and Miles, and Messrs. Stickney, of Washington, and 
Walter Allen, of Boston. 

TRANSLATION. 

O you boys, I will go to see you. At any rate, I will know how yon 
are. I have a strong desire to know whether you are doing your work 
well. I think that if you work for yourselves it ought to be advan- 
tageous to you I And if you do it well, you can think highly of your- 
selves. You ought to undertake the different occupations of the white 
people. O fourth-son, I may see you. I wish to go to you. I wish to 
see you. When you receive this letter, I hope that you will send me 
very soon a letter just like it to this place. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 87 

PRANK LA FLECHE, SR., TO HIS DAUGHTER 8USANNE. DECEMBER, 

1880. 

I;fga°4af akddi na"ba"' e'di afigdhii, angiiankiaf Ki 

Grandfatiier to the twice there we reached we talked to him. And 

sub. here. 

eddda" ailgdxai t6 ceta"' wagazudji. EdAda° wi"" u4wagi((^af 

what we hare the so far is not straight. What one they have told 

done it to us 

dde, wiii'kai 5[I, ca°'ca" ^ij nt^iVde ^iuda° etdga". Ki Monday 3 

but, they speak if, always if, heart good for apt. And Monday 

truly you 

tg'di eddda" wdgazua-'^g taf. Cl 6'di wdba-i. Ca"' cin'ga- 

on what we will make it straight. Again there they have And child- 

called ns. 

jin'ga ^aiikd cti wi°' ni(^ da'^'cte t'a"*' :5[i, waz^<|56 liwaw^ci 

ren the ones too one pain perhaps has it if, doctor pay for many 

who 

wa^d'i taf. figi^e a"^a°'^ana°'p6 tai. Ki cdna fe t6 cu^d- 6 

yon give will. Beware you fear me on ac- lest. And enough word the I send 
to them count of it 

wiki<|5(5. Na°p^^ihi :5[i, li^izg tg'di wagAxe ^izd-gS. A°'ba 

to yoo. Yon hungry if, issue of at the debt take it. Day 

rations 

CBxigAg^e tait^ i^4paha°-maji. Ata°' wAgazu i^Apaha" t6- 

we shall start back to I do not know it. When straight I know it by 

yon 

dfhi 5[i, cu^(5a46 t4 miilke. £skana lida^qti wigf^a^'baf 9 

the when, I will send it to you. Oh that very good I see you (pi.) 

time my own 

ka'^bi^e^ga". 

1 hope. 

TRANSLATION. 

We have gone twice to the White House, where we spoke to the 
President. What we have done is not yet settled. They have told us 
one thing, and if they speak truly, and it continues, it ought to make you 
rejoice. We may reach a satisfactory conclusion on Monday next. On 
that day have we been invited (to go again to see the President). If 
one of the* children becomes ill, employ the doctor and pay him. Do 
not wait to consult me! I have written you enough. Should you be 
hungry, get food on credit, which you can repay at the time of. the issue 
of rations. I do not know on what day we shall start back to you. 
When I receive positive information on this point I will send you a 
letter. I hope to see you all in good health when I reach home. 



88 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTEH8. 

MA^TCfj-HI^-QTI, A PONKA, TO HIS WIFE Ml''- AK AND A. DECEMBER, 

1880. 

l!jfga"(fai akddi na^ba""' angdhii. Ceta"' wagazuaji. W%azu 

Grandfather to tlie twice we reached i;o far it is not straight. Straight 

sab. there. 

t6dfhi 5[i, iida^ et^ga" Aha" eh^iga!^, Wandg^e (JjaiikA ^skana 

bjr the that, good apt ! I think it. Domestic ani- the ones oh that 

time mals 

3 i^^iii'kihfdai ka"b<j5^ga" niijiilga ama isan'ga wiwf!ja am4. 

they attend to I hope hoy the (pi) his yonnger my own the (pi.) 

mine sub. brother sub. 

Ciii'gajiii'ga wi°' ni^ da^'ctg t*a"' 5{i, waz^^Jjg uwaw^ci 

Child one pain even he has it if, doctor pay 

wa(fA*i taf. ^gi^e a°<j5a"'<j5ana^'pe tai. tf!^^u4di (Jjink^ ceta**' 

yon will give it Beware lest yon fear me on account In this place the one so far 

to them of it who 

6 agf;a"b6'-ct6wa"-iDdji. Na-ona"' a"^i'". I'"tca" wd*i". Agi akd 

I have not even looked at him, Feet slipping we are. Now they have The one a* ho 

my own. us. is coming 

back 

akfwa uAwagfb^a. Jj^'^^he tat ^ska° e^^ga"i. Ga"^' ^icta^'i 

both 1 have told it to I shall see him they think it probable. And they finish 

them. it 

tgdihi 5[i, wAgazu ^and'a^i et^ga^i, c^nujin'ga-mAc6. tJda" 

by the time straight yoa hear it apt, O ye young men. Good 

that 

9 da"'qti dga° Iijfga^Aaf akA w^<|5adai. \VAgazu4ji <^ga° c^he 

beyond so Grandfatner the mentioned Not straight as I have 

measure sub. to us. thought 

so 

ceta°' wdgazu t6 a°((5a"'balia°-baji. Ki a^'ba cag((5^ t6 cti 

so far straight the we do not know about it. And day I go the too 

homeward 



i^4paha°-mAji. 

I do not know it. • 



NOTES. 



88, 3, Diijinga ama isanga wiwi^a aiDa, an anusnal expression : 
nujinga ama wisanga ama might have been used. See letter of Maca"- 
ska, on a subsequent page. 

88, 5. (pe^uacli ^inke, Oa^u, one of his children at Carlisle, Pa. 

88, G. Agi aka akiwa, probably Inspector Haworth and tfie agent, 
who returned to the Ponkas in Ir.dian Territory in January, 1881. 

TRANSLATION. 

We have gone twice to the President's House. Our business has not 
yet been settled. When it is settled I think that it may be good ! I 
hope that the young men, my younger brothers, will attend to my stock 
in my absence. If one of the children becomes ill, employ the doctor 
and pay him ! Beware lest you refuse through fear of me! I have not 
yet even looked at the one who is here, my relation. We had to pass 
by him without stopping. The officials are keeping us at present (and 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 89 

we have no chance to see any one else). I have told it to both of those 
who are coming back (t). They think that I shall see him. O ye young 
men, yon may hear it correctly by the time that they complete the affair. 
The President mentioned to us something tliat was good beyond meas- 
ure. I have said above that it was not yet settled; we do not know all 
about it. Nor do I know on what day I shall start homeward to you. 



MA^TC6-HI^-QTI TO CACJJU, AT CARLISLE, PA. DECEMBER, 1880. 



n/ 



^^^u ati ha, I;fga"^ai »ii t6'di. Wi»a°'be ka°'b^a-qti-ma^ 

Here I have . Grandfather vil- to the. I see you I stroDgly desire 

come lage 

here 

^de, wina^'ona** atf. Iijiga^ial akd wi!ja°'be ka'^'b^a >[i, 3 

bat, I passed by you I came Grandfather the I see you I wish if, 

here. sub. 

udwagib^^ 2[i, fnahi° :5rf, wi?a°'be et^ga° ha. ^iji°'46 akd 

I tell it to him if, be is will- if, I see you apt . Your elaer the 

ing brother sub. 

cti ^ga" ^Ha^'cka akd cti wan'gi^e angdtii. E'a'^' an^ffg^iwa- 

too so your sister's the too all we have How we correct it for 

son sub. come here. 

gdzu ang4tii eddda" a"^ita° angdtii a°<j5icta" t6dfhi 3ji, a°^i- 6 

our- we have what we work at we have we com- it arrives when, we see 

selves come here come here plete it there 

da"be et^ga°i ha. Wdcka°-^gan-ga cehe. Wdqe amd 

yon apt Do make an effort I think White the 

and say people pi. sub. 

that. 

^iga"'zai t6 uda° ^iga^'zai e wi*"' nfpi 5[i'ji, wa^iqpania'ji 

have taught the good they have that one you do if, yon not poor 

you taught yon well 

et^g^a" ha. A'"ba wi"' wi^a^'ba-mdjl t6' i"'teqi'-qti-na"-ma'" 9 

apt . Day one I do not see you the it is usually very trouble- 

(=as) some to me 

^a^'ja, ca"' ^gi4e (Jjani^'ija n^ k6'!»a eddda" uda° wi°', i^^6- 

though, yet behold you live you on ac- what good one, you can 

go count of 

w&^& wi° giixe^Jjiki^af :^i 4kihfda-ga. Endqtci lida" ebi^ga". 

find it one they cause you to if attend to it. It only good I tnink it. 

make it 

Nlkaci'^'ga uk^^i" a"ma°'<j5i° ke<j5a°' ^ing^; wdqe ama!jd<j5ica° 12 

Indian common we walked along (as a there is white on the side of the 

road) in the past none; people pi. sub. 

a"nia°'^i°i i w^^ig^Jja" e?4 kg wiafi'guhaf. Ki ^6 ha, w4qe 

we walk it plan their the we follow them. And that . white 

ob. is it people 

amd eddda" ((^iga^'zai :^i, nfpi 5[i, w^ona°a°^ki(|i^ tat^ Ka- 

tho pi. what they teach if, you do if. you shall cause me to be O 

Rub. yon it well thankful. 

g^ha, wdni'' nink^ ciii'gajin'ga wiwi^a ^skana ^a'^i"<j5i°'4aki<j5d 15 

friend, you who keep them child my own oh that you purposely cause 

him, my own, to be 
pitied 



90 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

ka^b^Jj^ga"". Wih^slm'', ^igAq<^sJ' ^\nk&' cti akiwaqti wib((5aha"'i 

I hope. I pray to you, your -wife the one too both, indeed I pray to you 

who . (pi.) 

c^he. A"'ba ^^^uadi I;iga"*ai edi ati, ?f e%a t6. Ki e'a''' 

I think On this day Grandfather there I have house his the And how 

and say come, ob. 

that. 

3 ni° kg agf^a'^be ka"'b<|5a. ^'tTda^qti naji"' dha°" eb^^ga" 5[I, 

you the I see him, my I wish. Very good he stands ! 1 think it if, 

are own 

i-'^gqti-ma"' etdga". 

I am very glad apt 

NOTES. 

89, 7. Wacka^-egan-gS,, cehe. EatLer, Wa^dcka^ t6ga° c^he, I say 

you persevere in or- I say 
der that that 
(which 
I think), 

that in order to incite you to persevere. (G.) 

89, 10. ca^ egi^e fani"4a, etc. Auotber reading is as follows: ca^' 
^gi^e u(la»^ wi»' i^a^6wd^6-oa°' LS. KI eddda" wi°' gdxe^iki^ai ^i, 4ki- 
hldagS;, yet you can he finding something good very often (i. e., jou can 
be learning something else). And do you attend to what they cause you 
to do. (G.) 

90, 3, agi^a^be. EatLer, wigi:ja°be, I see you, my own^ if ni" (you 
are) be retained. But as this seems to be addressed to Captain Pratt, 
it would be better to read, "Klf e*a°' ^i'^te agii^a^be ka^'b^a, J tci«^ to see 
(my kinsman and learn) how he ts." — Author. 

TRANSLATION. 

I have come hither to Washington. I have a strong desire to see 
you, but I passed you in coming (and I could not stop). As I wish to 
see you, if I tell the Commissioner and he is willing, I may see you. 
All of us have come, including your elder brother and ^^our sister's son. 
We may see you after completing the work for which we came, that is, 
the straightening of our affairs in some manner. I say what I think 
in order to urge you to persevere. If you do well one of the goo'l 
things which the white people teach you, you may become rich. 
Though it generally gives me much trouble not to see you for a single 
day, yet when they cause you to do one good thing, one thing which 
you can find, for the sake of your improvement, attend to it! I think 
that alone is good. There is no chance for us to continue to live as 
Indians, as we have been doing in the past: we walk towards the white 
people, and we follow them in carying out their plans. That is it: you 
shall make me thankful to you if you do something well when the 
white people teach it to you. O friend, you who have the control of 
the Indian children (Capt. Pratt), I hope that you will cause my child 
to be treated kindly. I have said what I think because I petition to 
you and your wife too. On this day I have come to Washington, and 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 91 

I have come to tlie bouse of the President. I wish to see yon and 
observe how you are. If I think, " He is doing very well!" I shall have 
good cause for joy. 



MA^TCU-NIXA TO MRS. AMOS ROSS. JANUARY, 1881. 

dlisan'ga t'e t6' ^iha''' xag^ 5[ig*4t'e ^^. Na, (busi 

Your younger is the your weeping she kills her- she Why! Lucy 

brother dead (=as) mother self by crying, go***. (Alas!) 

Ajudfki e^a"'ba, ^igi;a°ba-b4ji gfteqi h^ga-baji. (t^aka 

Angeiiqne she too, she does not see you it is very difficult for her to This one 

(pi. obj . ) , her own bear. 

Sam akd wa^ii wi° uda"qti g^a°'i, cifi'gajin'ga t'a°'i, nujinga. 

Sam the woman one very good he mar- child he has, boy. 

sub. ried her, 

^isaii'ga t'e t6' can'ge wi^a lida^qti wi° ^ingea^g. ^iha"' 

Your younger is the horse my Tery good one I have given Your 

brother dead (=a8) away. mother 

waqpdnia'ji lida^qti judg<fe. 

not poor very good I am with 

her. 

NOTES. 

Dictated at Ponka Agency, Indian Territory, by the husband of Ujan- 
gedabi. The latter was the mother of Lucy Gayton (now the wife of 
Eev. Amos Ross), a ward of the writer in 1872-'73. Mrs. Ross is with 
her husband, who is a Santee Dakota, and also a missionary to the 
Dakotas at Pine Ridge Agency. 

91, I. (f isanga, McClellan Oaytotij who died in 1880. Aju^iki, Ange- 
lique^ was the youngest of the three. She died when she was eighteen, 
in 1884. 

91, 3. Sam, Md'a-jin'ga, Little Cottonwood^ or Sam Oayton^ was the 
half brother (by the same mother) of Lucy, Mac, and Angelique. 

The last two sentences were not recorded in Ponka. 

TRANSLATION. 

Your mother is going to cry herself to death, as she has heard of the 
death of your younger brother. Alas! Lucy and Angelique ! she is in 
sore trouble because she can not see you. Sam has married a fine 
woman, and they have a child, a boy. When I heard that your younger 
brother was dead, I gave away one of my best horses. I live with your 
mother very comfortably, as we are not poor. (Send your two pictures 
to your mother very soon. I wish your husband to send me a red Oat- 
linite pipe by mail.) 



92 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

MACA^-SKA TO SEDA^-SABE. 

Maja°' <j5(?^ii aiigdti t6'di, uq^g'qtci ^ag^^. Uma^'^inka 

Land here we came when, very soon you started Season 

back. 

wi"' Q'%a ^andji" '\(^^^. "Maja"' lida" ct^ct6 andji" si, 

one there you stand yon spoke Land good soever I stand if, 

of it. 

3 ca"' m^ tS'di ati tk miiike Atf tgdihi 5(1, maja"*' ^a° ub*d 

yet spring when I will have come I have by the time land the I tell 

hither. come that, cv. ob. abontit 

hither 

ati td mifike," ec^. C^nujin'ga (Jji^fi^a-ma ^^ama ni^ ct6 ^ingaf. 

I will have come you Young men those who are these pain even they have 

hither said. yours (sub.) none. 

Wa'u ^i^Ua cti w4^ixa-b4ji. Ni^ t^a°'i tgdihi i}!, nfija ewd- 

Woman your too she has not taken Pain it by the time alive I have 

(another) husband. abounds that, 

6 ka°b^4-qti-ma"' et^ga"". Wi°^ct6wa" cin'gajin'ga uiqpa^a-bdji 

a strong desire for them apt (?). Even one children they did not lose 

him 

^iji°'A6 ama cti akfwa. A°'ba(|^^ (f^isaii'ga ak4 j^je-hi'^'-t'a" 

your elder the too both. To-day your younger the j6je-hi"'-fa* 

brother (pi. sub.) brother (sub.) 

wa<j5ita"i. . Ga°'* jiiga wiqti miiik^ i°'teqi, i^an'ge wiwf^a t'e 

he works (at And body I-very I-who difficult his sister my died 

various for me, 

things). 

9 nug^adi. Cin'gajin'ga wiwija cti t'd. Wa'u wiwf^a cti t'^. 

last summer. Child my too died. Woman my too died. 

Ada" i"'ta° t6 nid ct6wa°' ^\ngi wa'u cti AjX ab^i"'. Wisi^^ 

There- now the pain soever there is woman too an- I have I think of 

fore none other her. you 

t6 i°'teqi h(3ga-m4ji-na°-ma°'. A"((54si<|ia((5^ga° ^d^i'^c^, waqi°'ha 

the troubles not a little with reference to me, You remember me you who paper 

me usually. somewhat move, 

12 m""^ (^Siki^^ga'' ete 5[i. I°'ta° cag^Jjd-mdji tat^ 6di hi, wandce 

you send it to me ought. Now I shall not start to the there it has policeman 

place where you are reached, 

u^he, nia'^'zeska waw^ci ingdxai. Waw^ci ingdxai te'di I;iga°- 

I follow money pay they have Pay they made when Grand- 

it, made for me. for me 

*ai akd caii'ge wi° a°'li. ^atf wika°b^-dde, caiige iia^Viki^- 

rath- the horse one he gave You I wished for you, horse I put aside for 

er sub. it to me. come but, you, 

15 ^de, ma°<|5a"'i, Ada" wictt waqi'^'ha cti wfcJaxa-mAji, dakihida- 

but, it was stolen, there- I too paper too I did not make for I paid no atten- 

fore you, 

mdji. Ta^Va'^g^Jja" amddi waakihide. Wa'ii wi° ag(|^a°' ehd 

tion to Nation among I attend to them. Woman one I married I 

it. them her said 

(Jjink^, A°'pa°-:|aii'ga igiqi^sJ" jinga ^iiik^, 4 agij^a'"', ^ ab^i*"'. 

the one Big Elk his wife small the one her I have her I have 

who, who, maiTiedher, her. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 93 

NOTES. 

Dictated at Ponka Agency, Ind. T., in Janaary, 1881. Sent to 
another Ponka, Seda°-8ab6 or Ma°tcu dafji", then at the Old Ponka Res- 
ervation, in Dakota, on the Niobrara River. The style is not that of 
the usual Ponka, e. g., itange wiwi^^a t'e (92, 8), instead of wi^ange 
iH'e; cingajinga wiwi^a ctl t'e (92, 9), instead of cingajinga ctl i°t'e; 
wa'u wi;a ctl t'e (92, 9), instead of wa'u ctl i°t'e ; though both forms 
are used,^^ O., an Omaha. 

92, 2. Maja" uda" ctecte, etc. The words of Seda°-6ab6, who had 
promised to return to the Indian Territory within a year and tell his 
people about the land on the Niobrara. Maja°' (fa°' dda" andji" ct6ct6- 

Land the good I stand notwith- 

wa"' ca^' m6 t6dihi j^I, ati td minke. Ati tfidihi i[ij maja**' fja" 

stand- yet spring by the when, I will have come. I have by the when, land the 
ins: time that come time that 

ub^d ati t^ minke. (G.) 

I tell I will have come, 
about 
it 

92, 11. A"f5asi^a^ega** ^afji'^ce, etc. Two readings of equal value 
given by G.: A^^dsifja^ga" ^4^i»c6 i°te waqi'^'ha ia"'^aki^ga° et6 j^!, 

You remember me yoa who per- paper you send to me a ought, 

somewhat move haps . little 

and, A°^dsi^d^e ^df i°c6 6i»te, waqi^'ha ia"'^aki^6 et6 j^! ("^ga'*'' being 

You remember you who per- paper you send to ought somewhat 

me move haps, me (or, a little) 

omitted). 

TRANSLATION. 

You started back to the Old Agency very soon after we reached this 
land. You spoke of remaining there a year. You said, '* Even if I 
continue to prosper in that land, I will return hither next spring and 
tell about that land.'' These young men, who were your associates, are 
well. Your wife, whom you left here, has not taken another husband. 
Should there be much sickness here, I will do what I can to enable 
them (your wife and other relations f ) to live. Neither one of your two 
elder brothers has lost even a child. Your younger brother, ^jeje-hi"- 
t'a°, is working to-day. I myself have had trouble: my sister died 
last summer. Then my child and my wife died. Therefore, now, that 
there is no sickness (here), 1 have another wife. When I think of you 
I am continually in great trouble. You who continue to think of me 
should send me a letter. The time has now come when I can not go to 
see you, as 1 have joined the agency police force. For this work I 
receive pay in money. When they paid me the money the Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs gave me a horse. I have wished you to come 
to this place, and so I reserved the horse for you, but it was stolen. 
Therefore I did not send you a letter. I paid no attention to it. I am 
l>aying attention to the affairs of the tribe. (I have been wishing to 
send you a letter, and now a man has come who can write for me. 
Send me a letter quickly, as soon as you receive this, and let me know 



94 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

how you are, O brother-in-law, Black Elk. I remember you, too, O 
Black Elk. I have no relations. I remember you always, and also 
your wife. Send me a red Catlinite pipe very soon. When you visit 
my Dakota relations, let me know whether they give you any horses.) 
The woman whom I said that I have married is the younger wife of 
(the late) Big Elk. I married her. I have her. 



MA'^TCU-HI^-QTI to XENUGA-SABfi, AT PONKA AGENCY, IND. T. 

JANUARY, 1881. 

Maja°' kg weahidg'qti ^^^u atf, Niciide ke aa'^'b^a atf. 

Land the at a great distance here I have Missoari the I aban- 1 have 

(Ig.obj come, River (Ig. ob.) donedit oome 

l8a"'yati maja"' e^ai kg'^a. Edada" *ita"'i t6 ata"' <(;icta°' ^li'jl, 

Santee land their at the. What they work the how thev fin- if, 

long ish it 

3 caki td miiike 4ha°, eh^iga.^ ^^^'"ja, ni^ at'a°' t^ga^-na'^-ma"', 

I will reach you again ! (in so- I think it though, pain I have apt at in- I use, 
liloquy) tervals 

a^waii'kega tk minke Aha°, eb^e^ga" ag(j^i°'. Ciii'gajin'ga ^anka 

I shall be sick ! (in so- I think it I sit. Children the ones 

liloquy) who 

ni^ t'a" 5[i'ji, wawdci t6 donizaji et^de. Ceta'''-na° pf-maji 

pain they if, pay the you should not have So far I have not 

have grasped it lightly. reached 

there 

6 ha, b^^ ^an'di ada*" w4gazuaji ca°t^ waqi°'ha ^a° cu^e4^6. 

I go (the land) there- not straight while yet paper tho I send it to 

to which fore {or, at cv. obj. you. 

present so) 

NOTES. 

Ma'^tcu-hi'^-qti and Oahie^a were the two Ponkas appointed, with 
Peter Primeau, the interpreter, as an embassy to Standing Bear and 
the other Ponkas at Niobrara. They were sent to urge them to return 
to the rest of the tribe. The proposal was rejected. Ma°tcu-hi^-qti 
was sick after sending this letter. 

94, 5, aonizaj! etede (Ponka) =anizajl etede {or^ etega", Omaha — 6.). 
This means the very opposite of its literal rendering. Compare, wa^aha 
pgjiqti, very bad clothing (said in praise of good clothing), wa^ate pia- 
jiajiqtci, ^^/ood very-not-badj^ very good food (said of food that is bad). 

TRANSLATION. 

After traveling a great distance I have reached here, near the Santee 
Keservation, having left the Missouri Eiver. I have thought, "When 
the business to which they are attending is transacted, I will return to 
you;'' but now I am thinking, "I am inclined to be ill (or, I have fre- 
quent indications of coming illness). I shall be ill." When the chil- 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 9,0 

dreu were ill, you should have given a large payment to the Indian 
doctor. I have not yet been to the place of my destination, therefore 
I send a letter to you before the business is settled. 



CAHIE^A TO CANGE-Q(fA. JANUARY, 1881. 

(pnein'ge ni^ t'a°' ^i% ca"' pi esa 5[i'jl dkihide mak'a^' 

Yonr sister pain she if, yet again lasting if, attending medicine 

has longer to it 

than was 
anticipated 

'fwaki<j5a-ga, waqe waz^^& uf(|ia-ga. Gasani lia^'ega'^'tce >[i, 

caase them to give white doctor tell it to him. To-morrow morning when, 

to her, man 

mi-'da^be s4ta" cade da'-'ctga"', Ma-tcu-ndji" ija-'be et^ga". 

hour five six or, Standing Bear I see him apt. 

Ki 6'di (fiadi ma"'z6 u^ti° t^ga" !ja°'be tat^ eb(|^^ga°, Petdxa. 

And there your iron I hit it as I see him shall I think, Live Coal, 

lather for him 

NOTES. 

Cahie^a was a Yankton by birth. He married a Ponka woman and 
was adopted into the tribe. His son Cange q^a (Edward Jones) was 
one of the author's scholars in 1872-'73. This letter was sent to Ponka 
Agency, Ind. T. 

75, 1, mak'a"', usually pronounced maka°'. 

75, 4. Petdxa, in Eiggs's notation Petaga, probably a brother of 
Cahie^a. The name is equivalent to the Ponka " ^jede-zi." 

TRANSLATION. 

Should your sister become ill and the illness last much longer than 
the first symptoms indicate, let them attend to her and give her medi- 
cine, besides telling the white doctor to prescribe for her. I may see 
Standing Bear tomorrow morning at five or six o'clock. After that I 
will telegraph to your other father, Live Coal, whom I think that I 
shall visit. 



MA^TCU-HrQTI TO A^PA^-SKA, OMAHA AGENCY, NEBR. JANUARY, 

1881. 

A°'ba(^^ wi!ja"'be ka"b<|i^ga°-(iti-ma''' ^de wina^'ona"* pi. Isa""'- 

To day I &ee you I have a strong inclination bat I missed you I was San- 

aa I walked coming 
this way. 

yati maja"' kg'di ati ha. Ki 6 gA^s. Mact^ rnaja"' ke'^^a 6 

tee land at the I have . And that at that Warm land to the 

Ig. obj. come unseen 

place 

h^e >[i, ed4da" wi** wegaska°'(ji6 a'^'cf^agAji. Mactd rnaja"' (fa"" 

I go if, what one to test it you com- Warm land the 

mandedme. [=Indian Territory.] cv. 

obj. 



96 OMAHA AND PONEA LETTEBS. 

u^aca" ha Me {""tea" bifcta". Ada" 6'di ag^i"' td minke. 

I traversed . bat now I have fin- There- there I sit I will, 

it iahed it. fore 

Na'aii'-ga. Niaci'^'ga ama b^uga dgi^^^'i, Ma*" Ma°tcu-n4ji'' 

Hear thou it ! People the pi. all they have there- Standing Bear 

sub. said it to him, fore 

3 <|5iiik6'di b^^. ^^ama niaci°'ga amd wai^fAuta*" amddi 6'di 

to the St. an. I go. These persons the pi. they pall things among there 

obj. sub. straight those who 

doit 

ma°b4i'", a"'*!" a<^af. Kl e'a"' gdxe t4-aka t6' Ma"tcu-ndji° 

I walk, having they go. And how i>erhaps he will do it St-anding Bear 

me (speaker is uncertain) 

akd 6'di pi t6'di. Kl 6 i^dpaha" ka"'b^a b^^. Kl niaci"'ga 

the there I when. And that I know it I wish I go. And people 

sub. reach (Indians) 

him 

6 Pan'ka am4 ^a^d^i^e tcdbe, and'a"", juga ^iqtci. Ga" eddda^ 

Ponkas the pi.- they (?) very, I heard it, body your very And what 

sub. pitied you self. 

we^^ckaxe te((5a"' gisf^Jjai ^ga"* <j5a'^((5i((56-na°'i : 4 g4t6 uwfb^ 

you did for us in the they re- as they have asually that that I tell you 

past member it pitied yoa : thing 

ka°'b^a-qti ga""' uwib^Jja. Ki ^4^\x usnl kg'di ma°b<j5i°' te^Jjan'di 

I wish very so I tell yoa. And here cold in the I walked in the past 

9 a^wa'^'qpani-na^-ma"' a^cta'^'be-na'^'i ha. I°'tca° Mact^ rnaja"' 

I was asually poor you saw me regu- . Now Warm land 

larly 

kg'^a pi t6'di a°wa°'qpani-mdji miiik^ dha"", eh^4ga^. x^ska 

to the I at the I am not poor I who sit ! (in I think. Cows 

reached past thought) (oxen) 

there time 

dhigi wdb((5i" ha. Can'ge ctl dhigi wab(^i° ha, maja°' ^a^' 

many I have Horse too many I have . land the 

them them 

12 cH iida"qti ab(fi°', ?i t6' ctl sagiqti ab^i"'. Waqi^'ha ^a" 

too very good I have it, house the too very firm I have it. Paper the 

tall 
obj. 

i°^dna-na° ^a°'ja, wi*f-m4ji; a^'ba^d wi'f ha. Ga*"' wi^a'^^be 

you begged of though, I did not give to-day I give . And I see ^j 

me usually it to you ; it to you 

^kiga"qtia°'', na°buwib<|ia"' ^ga"qti c^he ha. 

ju&t like it, I shake your hand just so I said 

that 



NOTES. 

This letter was apparently written in order to influence the Omahas 
to join the Ponkas in the Indian Territory. 

After dictating the above, Ma"tcu-hi°qti added the following, recorded 
only in English : " Look out for us on Friday or Saturday, as we go down 
(on the cars) by Sloan Station, Iowa. Come over the Missouri Eiver. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 



97 



if possible. I am here with my brother-in-law Cheyenne and Mahi°- 
sk3» (White Eock, or Peter Primeau), the captain of the Ponka police 
force," 

TRANSLATION, 

I am very desirous to see you to-day, but I passed you in coming 
hither. I have come to (the border of) the Santee Eeservation. When 
I was going to the Indian Territory you commanded me to test one 
thing. I traveled all over the Indian Territory (before accomplishing 
it), but now I have completed it. Therefore I will dwell there. Hear 
it ! All the people (on the Ponka Reservation in the Indian Territory) 
have said it to him (Standing Bear), therefore I am going to (the place 
where) Standing Bear (dwells). I have accompanied these persons 
who are rectifying our affairs ; they are taking me with them. When 
I reach Standing Bear, perhaps he will come to some decision. I go 
because I wish to know it. The Ponka people, as I have heard, have 
been very kind to you personally. They have generally been kind to 
you because they remember what you did for them in the past. I tell 
you because I have a strong desire to tell you that. When I used to 
spend the winters here, I was usually poor, and you saw me in that 
condition. But now, since I have been living in the Indian Territory, 
I think, ^^I am not poor!" I have many horses and cattle. I have a 
very good farm and a well-built house. You have been asking me to 
write to you, but I have not done so heretofore. I send you a letter 
to-day. I think that it is just as if I saw you and shook hands with you. 



CAHIE^A TO HE-SA^-(|JINKE. SAME DAY. 

Gata'^'adi (^ana°' ^i'^te wigfka"b^a'-qti-na"-ma''' ha. 

At last yon may be grown I am generally very anxious to bavo 

yon, my own 



Wand- 

Domestic 
ani- 



g^e i°(^i°'kida 'd^in'ge. Wisf^6-na'*-ma°' ha. C^^u Umdha 



mal to watcb over I bave none. I am usually tbinking 

mine for me of you 

mddi ma°ni"' t6 wai^iqpa^i"" iwii[uhe. 

bas you walk tbe you are poor I apprebend 

it for you. 

Pan'kaija ^6 2[i, uiiihe f~ga. 

to tbe Ponkas goes if, foIlowiDg be com- 
bim iug. 



Yonder 



among tbe 
Oma- 



E'be 

Wbo 



Umdha 

Omaba 



Wl" 

one 



NOTE. 



He-sa°-^inke was probably related to Oahie^a. 

TRAfJSLATION. 

As you are probably grown by this time, I am very anxious to have 
you with me again. I have nobody to attend to my domestic animals. 
10967 7 



98 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

I am generally thinking of you. I am afraid that you will become poor 
if you. remain with the Omahas. If any Omaha goes to the Ponkas, 
accompany him. 



PETER PRIMEAU TO AGENT W. W. WHITING, PONKA AGENCY, IND. T. 

Udgaca" pi t6' eddda" a°'^gdji Ni, ega'^qti d4xe ka°'b^a. 

I travel I was when what you com- ii, just so I do I wish, 

coming manded me 

Nikaci'^'ga am4 cti ^gi^a^^'i Ada"" pi ha. U(|juag^6'qti wisi^S 

People the pi. too they paid there- I was . Without intermis- Iremem- 

suD. it to him fore coming sion ber yoa 

3 ma°b*i°'. Captain Martin cti asf^6 ma^bii"". fiskana a'^^d- 

I walk. Captain Martin too I remem- I walk. Oh that you re- 

ber him 

81^4^6 ka-b^^a". Ma"tcii - ndji" 4ita"'i t6 I»%a"*af ^inkd 

member I hope. Standing Bear they work the Grandfather the one 

me who 

eddda" gaxai t6 waii'gi^Jjg'qti wdgaziiqti i^paha" ka^'b^, 

what they do the all very straight- very I know it I wish, 

straight apt 



6 dda"" nfkagahi na"'ba juawag^e ma°b4i''^ Ki wdgazu etdga' 

there- chief two * I with them I walk. And straight apt 

fore 

dha'', eb^^ga". C^na ^gipe. Ki dji dgipe t^. Wa*u wiwf;a 

! (in I think. Enough I have And an- I say it will. Woman my 

thought), said it. other 

commissary tg'di eddda" ga°'^ai -^i, (Jja'f ka°b<j5ega°, i^^^cpaxu 

commissary at the what she desires if, you give I hoi>e, you write for 

to her me 

9 ka"b^^ga°, wl. Joe Sherman u^^wi° a^Jji"' akd cti u^^ona 

I hope, I. Joe Sherman collected he has the too you tell it 

sub. to hun 

ka°b<j5^ga°: wa^ii wiwi!ja eddda" ga^'^ai 2[i, 'f ka^'eb^.dga''. 

I hope : woman my what she desires when, he I hope that. 

gives 
to her 

Wata'^'zi d'liba Joe Sherman wa'ii wiwl^a 'i ka^'eb^^ga". 

Corn some Joe Sherman woman my he I hope that. 

gives 
to her 

12 j,eniiga-ska asf^6-iia''-ma°' : ul4a-ga. Wanace t6 dkihidfi- 

white Buffalo Bull I usually think of him : tell him. Policeman the he gives it 

Us.fuU 

qtia""' t^. GasAni Ma°tcu-naji° :^a°'be tk minke. 

atten- let. To-morrow Standing Bear I see him I will, 

tion 

TRANSLATION. 

I desire to do just as yoa commanded me when I started on my 
journey. I came hither because the Indians, too, said so. I continue 
to think of you without the slightest intermission. I also continue to 
think of Captain Martin. I hope that you (two) will remember me. I 
continue with the two chiefs (Cheyenne and Hairy Bear) because I wish 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 99 

to have a full knowledge of everything that the President does in set- 
tling the difficulty with (ovj case of) Standing Bear. I think "It is 
apt to end well!" I have said enough on this point. I will speak of 
something else* When my wife desires any article from the commis- 
sary, I hope that you will give it to her and charge it to my account. 
I also hope that you will give instructions to that effect to Joe Sher- 
man, the keeper of the commissary. I hope that Joe Sherman will give 
some corn to my wife. Tell x^i^^^^'Sl^^ that I am always thinking 
about him. He should be paying strict attention to the police force (in 
my absence). I will see Standing Bear to-morrow. 



XAXANGA-NAJI^ JINGA TO STANDING BEAR. 

Ca""' a'^'ba^^, ji°^^ha, fe wi°aqtci wawldaxu cu^a^g. 

Well, to-day, elder brother, word jost ooe I write some- I send it to 

thing to yoa yoa. 

Md^di Ma"'akibana'" amd cakf 5il, ki i"^^cka°ndqtia'"i 

Last winter Ha*'akibana<" the mv. he when, to yon had a strong^esire 

sab. reached reach forme 

yoa again home yon- 

der 

i^gsJ" i'*wi'''^a agfii. Ha. A°'ba^(3 wawldaxu cu^da^g. Kl 3 

as to tell me he had If To-day I write some- I send it to To 

comeback. thing to yoa you. reach 

home 
yonder 

i"^^cka"n4qti ^I, ii"^^ha, a^'nize cka'^'na ka^b^^ga'^. Ca'^ 

you hare a strong if, elder brother, yon re- you wish I hope. Well, 

desire for me ceive me 

Pan'ka amd nikagdhi amd ^^ama, ii^^^ha, ucka"* i'''uda°qti 

Ponka the pL chief the pL these. elder brother, deed not very good 

sub. sub. 

mdji ^ga^ Awdirig^ita" ^ga°, ji'^A^ha, wAqe sunk i°wifi'5[a°- 6 

forme some- I work for myself as, elder orotber, white the pi. have helped me 

what. people sub. 

qtia"'i. Kl nfkagdhi amd ^6 ha, ji"^.^ha, gfteqi t6. I"'uda''- 

greatly. And chief the pi. thev elder brother, diflScaft the. Not good 

sub. are the for one 

ones 

mdji, eh^ t6. Pafi'ka aind cag^^ amd a°(|5a°'baha°qtia°'i 

for me, I said the. Ponkas the pi. those who have gone they know foil well 

it sab. homeward to you aboat me 

licka" t6. Nlkaci'^'ga na°b4 ni"* di"te, ama ^ag^^, kl dma 9 

deed the. Men two you perhaps, the one you started and the 

are homeward other 

W6's'a-?an'ga ^^^u t'^6 ha. j^i ag^Jji'"' t6 si-ugajdde g^^ba- 

Big Snake here he died House I sit the stride twen- 

na'^'ba qal t6. Aci ^^a'^be pf 2(1, mi"'q6 kg ^a^'be-na'^-ma"' 

ty he was the. Out of going oat- I ar- when, grave the Ig. I see it regularly, 
buried doors side again rive ob. 

Cifi'gajin'ga-ma ^^-ma windqtci u'a'^'^Jjingg'qti ga""' ^a'^awa- 12 

CliilJlren (pi. ob.) these I alone for nothing at aU at any I pity them, 

(pi. ob.) rate 



100 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

gi<j5d-na°-ma'''. Awdgi^a'^'be ha. Ciii'gajiii'ga (f^^ama uda°qti 

my kiudied, asnally. I look after them, . Children these very good 

my own 

ma"<f!i"'i, wakdga-bAji ma"^!"'!. Ca"' a"'ba((!d ga°', wisi^ ga", 

they walk, they are not sick they walk. Well, to-day at any Iremem- as, 

rate, beryou 



n/ 



3 wawfdaxu cu<j5^a^6. Ca°' Ma°tcu-:jailga niigeddi t'e. Ca' 

I write to yon I send it to Well, Big Bear last summer died. Well, 

aboat something yon. 

endqti uqp4^6, ucte amd ni4-^mgi uda°qti ma°(|5i°'i. Ca""', 

only he has fallen, the rest without pain very good they walk. Well, 

ji°^^ha, c^ama nfkaci°'ga ikdgewa(|ia^6-ma, ^skana wacka*"' 

elder those persons those whom you regard as oh that persevering 

brother, friends. 

6 jiiwa^Jjagig^e ka'^b^^ga". . . . Cange-hi°-zi cti an^'a"" ka"^ 

you be with them, I hope. Yellow fiorse too I hear him I 

your own 



b((5^ga°. ... Indd qaga aka cag^d *f^ai ^de, lidnite ha. ... 

hope. Face rough the to go back he but, I forbade 

sub. to you promised him 

Pahaii'gadi cag^Jj^ 'ik^^ 5[T, cag<|5d-m4ji. Ciii'gajin'ga i°Va- 

Formerly to go back I when, I did not go back Child sick 



Formerly to go I 

to you promised to you. 

9 kega ^ga"", cag<j54-m4ji. 

forme as, I did not go back 

to you. 

NOTES. 

When the author was at the Kaw Agency, Ind. T., jar^anga-naji" 
jiiiga (one of his former scholars in 1871, at the old agency in Dakota) 
visited the Kaws or Kansas. He dictated the above letter January 2, 
1883. Standing Bear was then on the old reservation in Dakota, about 
three miles from Niobrara, Nebr. jja^Si^ng^n^ji^ jinga is now called 
j^enuga-zi. See the second letter after this and note on page 105. 

99, 7, giteqi t6. jj3i%2LUgB,'naji''jmg^ said that the chiefs were opposed 
to progress in the tribe. 

100, 3. Ma"tcu-(janga, Big Grizzly Bear, or Tim Potter, a chief of the 
Wajaje gens. Taught by the author in the afternoon school at the 
Ponka Mission, Dak. T., 1871. Subsequently employed by him. He 
could read English very well, giving the proper accents and intonations. 

TRANSLATION. 

O elder brother, I write to you to-day about one subject. Last winter 
Ma°akibana" went to see you, and on his return to our agency he told 
me that you were very desirous for me to return to the old reservation. 
So I to you write to-day. O elder brother, if you are very anxious for me 
to rejoin you there, I hope that you wish to receive me (as one of the 
tribe). O elder brother, these Ponka chiefs are not exactly kind to me. 
Elder brother, the white people have been aiding me as much as they 
could, because I work for myself. But, elder brother, it is the chiefs 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 



101 



who make the trouble. I liave said that they have not been kind to 
me. The Ponkas who started back to the old land, knew full well 
about my troubles to which I now refer. Of you two men, one has 
gone back, that is yourself; the other one, Big Snake, died here. Be 
was buried twenty yards from my house. Whenever I go out of doors 
I behold his grave. Only I have been kind to these his (orphan) chil- 
dren, from time to time, though I have given them nothing. I have 
had the oversight of them. These children continue to prosper, and 
they are in good health. I send you a letter today because I remem- 
ber you. Big Grizzly Bear died last summer. He is the only one who 
has been lost; the others continue well and prosperous. O elder 
brother, I hope that you and those Indians with you will unite in per- 
severing. ... I also hope to hear from Yellow Horse. . . . Kough 
Face spoke of going- to join you, but I forbade him. ... I did not 
start to (join) you formerly, when I spoke of doing so. I did not start 
because my child was sick. 



HEHAKA MANI TO <IA(|jI^-NA^PAJl. 1878. 

ja^Jji^'-na^pdji: Kag^ha, waqi"'ha wi°' a°^4^i 2[i, w^ig^a!^ 

FeArs not the sight O friend, letter one you gave Tvhen, plan 

of a Pawnee : me 

wi"' uda°qti wi"' i°<f^na ^de, i^'ta" w^^ig^a" (fingg'qtia" me 

one very good one you begged but, now plan none at all (?) 

of me 

(sic) ka°'b((5a ^ga*" eddda"" edelia-mdji tatd ha. W^^Jjig^a" 

I hope (?) what I say I not shall . Plan 

something 

pfaji ^iiigee ha, w^^Jjig^a" uda°-ona° ca"'ca° a"(^i°'i ha. Gan'^ji 

bad there is . plan good only always we are - And then 

none 

eddda" licka'^ e^ wA^sk^ i°te i(f4paha°-m4j! ha, kag^ha. 

what deed that you mean it per- I know it I not . O friend. 



A^fa'^'ijia'ifi'gai te^a°' i°'ta° w^ig^'d"" wi"' i'^i^^ckaxai ^i°te 

You (pi.) ignored me what in now plan one you make for me per- 

the past haps 

^lita^ i°wi"'^aona ka°'b<^a ha. Gafi'5[i iwi4n'ga-b4da° (^i 

straight you tell me I wish . And then I ignored you and (pi.) you 

(pl.) 

a^^a'^'ilia^iYgai ^ga° w^\g(^sJ' wi"' lida"* an4*a° ka°'b(^a ha. 

you (pl.) ignored me as plan one good I hear it I wish 

Hehdka Mani. 

Elk Walks. 

NOTES. 

HeHaka-mani's mother was an Omaha. He is the chief of a Yankton 
gens. When the author met him at the Omaha Agency in 1878, he 
found that Hehaka-mani could read and write his native tongue, the 



102 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

Yankton dialect of the Dakota. In the course of an hour HeKaka- 
mani learned the additional characters required for writing Omaha, 
and after his return home he sent the accompanying Omaha letter, 
written in detached syllables. Being a Yankton, he is used to writing 
"k'' before ''d,'' so in writing Omaha he retained the "k'' (instead of 
using "g'') before "fj^ (=dh). 

101, 2, me, not intelligible to the author. 

101, 3, ka°b^a ega"*, probably intended for "ka'*b^ga^^ 

TRANSLATION. 

To ja^i'^-na'^pajl : O friend, when you wrote to me you requested me 
to come to a very good decision; but now I do not wish to form any 
plan whatever, and so I shall say nothing. We are not contemplating 
any plan that will be bad (for you), we are always planning what is 
good. But, my friend, I do not know to what course of action you 
refer in your letter. You ignored me formerly, and now that you come 
to a decision in my behalf, I wish you to tell me just what it is. And 
as I ignored you Omahas, and 3'ou Omahas ignored me in the past, I 
wish to hear one good plan that you have made. 

(Signed) Walking Elk. 



XENUGA-ZI TO THE ACTING COMMISSIONER OP INDIAN AFFAIRS 

(r. V. belt). 
I^fga'^iai jm'ga nfkaci^'ga uk^^i" w^^gionig^Jja" niiik^, ca^' 

(jrrandfatner small Indian you decide for them, you who at any 

yonr own (sit). rate 

a-'ba^d ga" le na'-'ba na'a"'wiki^^ te. Nfkaci-'ga wi"' 

this day so (?) word two I cause you to hear will. Person one 

3 ikdged^g ha'. Mr. Dorsey wa^fta"an'ki^ 'i^6 ga"' i»'ba" 

I hare him for Mr. Dorsey to cause me to work prom- as called 

a fHend ised me 

^ga^ atf ha. Kl pi tatS'di nlkaci°'ga amd una^'cta"^ depot 

as I have . 'And when I was about Indian the pi. stopping^ place depot 

come to start hither sub. 

tg'di dhigfqti a"*a"'wa"he ati Pan'ka amd. Ki le wi°' uwi- 

at the very many following close they Pooka the pL And word one I tell 
behind me came sub. 

6 b^ te, ai Pail'ka amL N4, 1?fga"^f ^inkg'di d t6 ie wi"' 

you shall, said Ponka the pi. (Intj.) Grand- to the st. you when word one 

' sub. See £either ob. reach 

herej (?) there 

u^^na te ha'. Maja°' <j5a° ^^^a" !j^ska uwa'a^^si-na^'i ^dega" 

you tell shall . Land the this cattle they often leap (on it) bot (or, as 

to him place place in the past) 

(Ob.) 

w^teqi tcdbai. Ki na°' kiige g^^ba-sdta° a"^a'*'^i'*wi°'i maja"' 

difficult itisTery. And only box sixty we have bought it land 

for us with 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 103 

^°, aiigu^ai maja''' ^\ Kl ja^^fnafige-^a^'sagi maja"" ^a"" dnan- 

the it is ours land the And wagon swift land the mns 

place place place 

(Ob.), (ob.). (ob.) 

gai. Ug*ddi" t6 sf g^^bahlwi" an'gua'^'*ii: ktige wi"^' ki 6'di 

on. Width the foot one hundred we lent them: (f) box one and there 

ob. 

g^^bahfwi'' d^^'^ba wa'fi ha, tiwaw^ci. Kl wdqe 4ji amd Okla- 3 

hundred seven were pay to the And white dif- the pi. Okla- 

given to tribe. people ferent sab. 

OS 

Jioma e%&is^ :j^8ka-m4 wa'i'"' agfi t6 Pan'ka maja'^'adi libaqpd^ai 

homa from the cattle carrying were the Ponka on the land they posh them 

(in the retam- and make 

oars) ing them fall 

fe-md. Maja°' ^a*" pfaji h^gaii, ijiga'^'ha, wegdxai. Maja*"' 

the dead Land the bad exceed- O grandfather, they have Land 

ones. inglyi made it for as. 

^" b^iiga waqwi"'. Ki nd i^di^af wi"' wan'ga^i". Kl 6 

the whole offensive. And See agent one we have them. And 

here! (?) 

aii'gua^wan'gi^ai : **Dadfha, maja''' ^a° pfajl h^gaji wdxai," 

we told it to them : O father, land the ob. bad very made as, 

a°^a°'i ^a^'ja i^di^af akd iidwagi5[a"' ct6wa°-bdji. Ada" 

we said thoagh agent the sab. helped us at least not. There- 

fore 

nfkaci'^'ga aiYga^i" aiigiikikiaf ^a'^, '*I:jfga°4af Commissioner 9 

people who mv. we talked to- as, Grandfather Commissioner 

getber 

^ink^ uf^a ct^cte uda° ha," a'^^a'^'i ^ga°, ma"'z6ska u^^wi^aii- 

the St. to tell at any good we said as, money we col- 

ob. him rate(?) 

ki^al, g^^bahlwi" na°'ba u^^wi^aiiki^al. Kl fhua°'^i(^a-bdjl 

lected, hundred two we collected. And not consalting you 



^ida^'be tal t6 glteqi ^ga" uwfb^a te, ai, ^^ga** atf • 5[1. 12 

to see yon will the difiScalt as I tell you shall, they thus I have when, 

for one said, come 

Ma°'z6ska fnaiige t6 aiigu^ai ha. fiskana nfkaci^'ga na'^bd- 

Money "for roll- the is ours . Oh that person two 

ing" col. ob. 

qtci tf ka°b^^ga°, uAwagi5[a"' ka"*' eb^^ga". Maja°' ^a°, 

just come I hope, to help us I hope. Land the 

hither place 

(ob.) 

^iga'^'ha, ;^ska amd uwd'a"si-na'^ ca^'ca'^i ha, dda° ^& i°wiii'- 15 

O grand- cattle the pi. they are always leaping (on it) there- to speak we wish 

father, sub. fore about it 

ga"^al ha nfkaci"'ga b^iiga. fiskana w^agi^iwagdzu ka°'a°- 

them people all. Oh that to straighten our affairs we 

^ for us 

^a'^'^ai. . . . Eddda** ed^ce ^a'^wa^d^g fnig^a"' ^i ^skana 

hope. What you say you pity us you decide when Oh that 

something 

uq^g'qtci ma°'z6 u^dti'^-da"' Pan'ka ^iikdja uwa^agind ^^^a^6 18 

very soon iron yon hit it when Ponka to them you tell them you send 

ka"' eb^^ga". (WfcH lua'-'ze udti'-da"' udwagfb^a ^^a^g t^ 

I hope. I too iron I hit it when I tell them I will 



10.4 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

minke.) (Pafi'ka ma^'z^ska' t6 'ia^6 ka"'b^a.) Hau. le wi"', 

send. Ponka money the I speak I wish. H Word one, 

abont 

^^iga'^ha, Aji ci uwfbia td minke. Paii'ka nikagdhi amd, 

O grand- dif- again I will tell yon. Ponka chief thepL 

father, ferent sob., 

3 ^iga'^'ha, ^^^u atfi t6. Ki liwa^aki^ ga"* g^wa^gece: ''Maja°' 

O grand- here they (past And you talked and yon said a? follows Land 

father, came sign). to them to them: 

u^dg*i» ^a"' 6'di ^g^i" tait^. Wa^g^ita^'i-g^. j^f 5[i5[d- 

you sit in the there yon (pi.) shall sit. Work for yourselves. House make 

place 
(Ob.) 

xai-ga," ec^ t6. "jlI ^a5[fg^asal t6 5[i5[dxai-ga. figi^e 

for your- you (past House yon cut for your- when make for your- At 

selves, said sign). selves with axes selves. length 

6 waw^ci nfze tait^," ec^ t6. ^^Ki wanAg(^e can'ge wacka°':^anga 

pay you shall receive, you (past And domestic ani- horse strong 

said sign). mal 

wani'^-mdce, :^an'de ^i:}ubai-ga. j^an'de w^ga'^ze wi°' ma'^zfiska 

you who have them, ground work it fine. Ground measure one money 

na°'ba f4i*dwa taf," ec^ t6. *'W^ga°ze g^^ba nf:}ub6 5[i, 

two shall be reckoned for you (past Measure ten yon work if, 

you, said sign). . fine 

9 g^^ba-na°'ba nfze taf," ec4 t6. Ki nfkaci°'ga mitik^, ^4 

twenty you shall receive, you (past And person I who am, this 

said sign). 

mink^, :^iga°'ha, a^wa^'cka'^ijan'ga h^ga-mdji. Can'ge ja"* na°'ba 

1 who am, O grand- I was strong I was very. Horse wood two 

father. (=8pAu) 

wAbi^i'^ 4da° a^wa'^'cka'^i^an'ga h^ga-m4ji, eh^ t6. Wi-na" 

I had them there- I was strong I was very, I said (past I alone 

fore . sign). 

12 pahan'ga :^f t6 agficta", sf g^dba-na'^'ba ki 6'di diiba uhd 

first house the I finished foot twenty and there four length 

std. ob. mine 

t6, ug^4di° t6 ag^i°'-cdde. Hau. j^an'de ^a" w^ga^'ze ag^i"'- 

the, width the sixteen. ^ Ground the measure six- 

part (ob.) 

cAde wfqtci ci a5[fg(^4ub6 pahaii'ga. Ki i^adi^ai ak4 a"da"'- 

teen I myself again I made it fine first. And agent the saw 

for myself sub. 

15 bai t6 qta'^'^S hdga-baji, a°wa°'sisfge, af, wa^fta*" uda", al 

mo when he liked exceedingly, I was active, he work good, he 

me said, said. 

I^Adi^iii ak4 fe wi"' ^gi^a°: ''Little Warrior ^i wi°' ^4- 

Agent the word one said to (me): Little Warrior house one you» 

sub. 

ckaxe taf. Nfcta" 5[t, ma-'zgska ag^i"' sdta" nfze te ha'," af. 

make for shall. You fin- when, money fifteen you re- shall . he 

him ish it coive it said. 

18 Ega" cl fe wi"' ^gijia" pf t6. "Maja"' ^a°' w(^ga"ze g^dba 

So again word one he said to I when. Lan^ the measure ten 

(me) reach- part 

ed there (ob.) 

^dni:»ub6 te ha'," af. Ga"' daxe gefa"' ci b^fcta" ha. 

you make please . he And I made the tilings again I finished 

line for him said. in the past 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 105 

Ma"'z6ska g^^ba-na"'ba ci a"'fi. Ki cl' dgi^e fe wi°' ^gi^a" 

Money twenty again he Ard again at word one be said to 

gave length (me) 

tome. 

i^Adi^ai ak4 : ^^Macdonald iiiaja"' w^ga°ze g^ba i°^^ni- 

agent the sab. : Maodonald land measure ten yon make 

»ub6 te ha'," ai akd i^di^l akd. fi'di pf ^ga" ddxe ha. 3 

fine for please . was saying agent the snb. There I as I made it 

me reached 

Bikicta" 3[I, caii'ge akd uj^^a-bdjl ca°'akd wacka°';afigal. 

I finished when, horse the col. were not weary then, bat were strong. 

snb. would be so 

later 

Cafi'ge akd wacka'^'^ailga uct6'-qti ga°' w^ga^ze sdta'' wfqtci 

Horse the col. strong remained ex- as measure five I myself 

sub. ceedingly 

i^^ig^fg^a" a^iidaxe. Hau, I?fga"*af-a ! Ag^i-'-sdta" btlcta" 6 

deciding for myself I made for Ho, O thou whom they Fifteen I finished 

myself. call grandfather ! 

ga"' 6'di pf ^ga" i^di^af akd "Ma°'z6ska t6' qd^a g*da^6 

as there I as agent the sub. Money the back to I have 

arrived ob. the 8ta^^ sent back 

ing place 

b^icta°-qti-ma°V' af. Pafl'ka akA Macdonald ak4 cafi'ge 

I have already finished, he Ponka the sub. Macdonald the snb. horse 

said. 

waweci ew^na-na°-ma°'. **I;fga°^ai akd i^ddi^af ^^°ba 9 

pay I asked for them often. President the snb. agent he too 

waweci w^na-ga," i°^iii'ge-na°'i. Ki cafi'ge wa^ita°aw4- 

pay ask from them, he said to me often. And horse those that I caused 

ki^e-ma diiba wi"' ct6wa°' gaskf i'^'t'e, t'^agi^^, dda° nan'de 

to work four ono even mine nearly died from I killed my there- heart 

shortness of breath, own fore 

i°'^a-majl ca"'ca', ga"' uwfb^a a-'ba^d. * 12 

I am sski always, so I tell you this day. 

NOTES. 

Xenuga-zi, or Yellow Baffalo-ball, was known in 1871 as xa:|anga- 
naji** jinga, or Standing Buffalo, jr. See Oontr. N. A. Ethn., Vol. vi, 
pt. ii, pp. 609, 613, 633, and 639. In the spring of 1889 j^enuga-zi came 
to Washington to assist the author in revising his Ponka linguistic 
material. The two letters dictated by this Indian are peculiar on ac- 
count of the number of English words which have been adopted. 

This text consists of the address made to Acting Commissioner Belt 
a few days after it was dictated in the original to the autho^. 

103, 4-5, ubaqpa^ai tV-ma. They make the dead cattle "fall to the 
ground from the floor of the car.'' 

103, 6, n4. A peculiar u^e, as this word fs generally an interjection, 
fie! bosh! bother! 

103, 6. Wanga^i'^ used where aiiga^i" would have been expected ; so 
angui"^ai might have been used instead of angua^wangifai (a peculiar 



106 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

form of angaaugif ai), as there was only one agent addressed by the 

Indians. 
103, 19. Wicti ma'^zg uati'^-da^, etc. xenuga-zi's first plan omitted by 

his request from the translation sent to Mr. Belt. The next paren- 
thetical remark was intended for the author alone. 

104, 2. Paiika nikagahi ama . . . fef u atii t6. This refers to the 
visit of the delegation to Washington in December, 1880. 

106, 9, ewena-na°-man. Another use of the pi. for the sing, (ena- 
na"-ma°). 

TRANSLATION. 

"Little Grandfather,'^ you who govern the Indians, I will speak to 
you to-day about two subjects. I have come to this place because my 
friend, Mr. Dorsey, sent for me to come and work with him (or, sent 
for me and promised to employ me). When I was at the railroad 
station at Ponca, Ind. T., just before I started hither, very many of 
the Ponkas followed me that far, and they said that I should have an 
interview with you. Said they, "When you reach Washington you 
shall speak to the President about one matter." 

The cattle have been trespassing on our reservation from time to 
time, and that is hard for tis to endure. We bought our present res- 
ervation for fifty thousand dollars, and it is ours. We sold to the rail- 
road company the right of way through our reservation, consisting of 
a tract one hundred feet wide, for one thousand seven hundred dollars. 
Other white people, not railroad officials, when returning with the 
stock cars frbm Oklahoma, shove out the carcasses of the dead cattle 
upon the Ponka land. (They drag them here and there over a large 
extent of territory, leaving them to decay, and making all the land 
smell and covering it with bones, without giving us any damages. 
Besides this, cattle are brought to the reservation, where they are sold 
to different persons who take them away in various directions, going 
at random over our fields and pastures. Thus are our-crops injured, 
and we can not cut hay.) 

We begged the agent to help us about this, but he has done nothing. 
Therefore we Indians consulted together and said, "It is proper to tell 
this to the President and the Commissioner.'' So we collected among 
ourselves two hundred dollars to pay the traveling expenses of some 
of our men to and from Washington. But since it is difficult to see you 
without obtaining your consent, they said that I should tell you when 
I came, as#I now have done. The money to pay the railroad fare is 
our own. 

1 hope that you will help us, and that you will allow at least two to 
come and speak about these matters. 

The cattle are continually trespassing on our land, therefore all of 
our people wish to speak about it. We hope that our affairs may be 
rectified for us. ... If you have something to say in reply, 1 hope 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 107 

that you will decide to pity us, and that you will very soon telegraph to 
the PoDkas what you have to tell them. (I too will seud a telegram in 
order to tell them.) (I wish to speak about the Ponka money.) 

Grandfather, I will tell you about a different matter. Grandfather, 
the Ponka chiefs came hither. You had an interview with them, and 
you said to them: "You shall remain in the land where you dwell. 
Work for yourselves. Make houses for yourselves. Pell the trees and 
build your own houses. Subsequently you shall receive pay for so 
doing. And those of you who have strong horses should break the 
prairie. For this work you shall be paid at the rate of two dollars an 
acre. If you cultivate ten acres you shall receive twenty dollars.^ 

And this person, 1 myself, Grandfather, was very strong. When I 
say that I was strong, I refer to my having at that time two span of 
horses. I was the first Ponka to finish his house; it was twenty-four 
feet long and sixteen feet wide. 

I was the first one to cultivate the ground, and I broke sixteen acres. 
The agent saw me and he liked me. He said that I was active and 
the work was good. So the agent made a proposition to me: "Make a 
house for Little Warrior, and when you finish it you shall receive fifteen 
dollars.'' I did this, and he made another proposition : "Cultivate ten 
acres for him.'' I did as I had been told, and I received twenty dollars. 
Again the agent made a proposition to me : "Cultivate ten acres for 
Macdonald." I went to the place and did as I had been requested. 
When I had finished my horses were not yet weary, as they were strong 
ones. As the horses bad a great quantity of their strength left, I cul- 
tivated five additional acres without consulting the agent. 

O Grandfather, I finished fifteen acres. Then I went to the agent, 
who said, " I have already sent the money back to Washington." After 
this I often asked Macdonald for pay for my horses, and he always 
replied, "-A.sk the President and agemt for the pay." Now, one of my 
four work horses died from exhaustion ; I killed my own horse in this 
way, therefore I have been sad ever since (because I have failed to get 
™y pay)? and so I tell it to you to-day. 



XENUGA-ZI TO MACDONALD. MAY 16, 1889. 

xiga^'ha, wabdg^eze tia'^'^ki^^ ^a" b^fz6. Ciil'gajifi'ga 

Qgrandfather, letter you sent hither the I have re- ChUd 

to me ob. ceived it. 

w^iwfja ^nkd ni^ ^iiigg'-qti ec^ lina, i°'^6-qti-ma'''. Kl 

my the ones pain have none at yoa yon tell I am very glad. And 

who all say about 

them, 

pf tate'di le wi""' ^gice: awdeka" te, ec^, I;fga°4af ^inkg'di. 3 

when I was word one you said I do my best will, you Grandfather, at the st. ob, 
about to start to (me) : said, 



108 OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. 

Ki ada" nikaci°'ga na°'ba ^^^afika, Ddsi Frank ^^""ba 

And there- person two these, Dorsey Frank he too 

fore 

wacka''' h^gaii judwag^e. Hau. Ijfga''<kai akd Commissioner 

persevering exceed* I am with them. If Grandfather the Commissioner 

ingly snb. 

3 akd udwaki^. Eddda"" Pan'ka maja''' w^teqi ge^a°' udwa- 

the I talked with What Ponka land difficalt for the objects I told to 

sub. them (or they * us in the past 

talked with us.) 

gfb^a. Ca""' wa^cta^be nlkagahi-ma ^Ida'^be ga^^d-qti-a^^'i, 

them. And yon see them (?) the chiefs to see you they have a strong 

desire, 

eh^ udwagfb^. Ca°' le dhigl-qti I;lga°*al 4ink^ udkie. 

I said I told to them. And word very many Grandfatner tne St oh. I talked 

to him. 

6 Ca°, maja"' (fan'di j^ska ctl uwd'a^si-na'^i ^ga"" ge b^iiga-qti 

And, land in the cattle too they leap often as the pi. all 

in. ob. 

udwagfb^a. I;iga°Aal akd Commissioner akd ^gi^a^^'i: Cag^^ 

I told to them. Grandfather the Commissioner the said it to I start 

snb. sub. (me): back to you 

t6dlhi 5[!, iifkaci^'ga judg^e^* cakl td minke, I;iga°^ai jin'ga 

by the time man I with him I will reacli there again Grandfather small 

that ^ where you are, 

9 wi"*'. Ca"" nfkaci°'ga-mdce, w^^ig^a*" g^xe g^i°'i-ga, u^uda'^be 

one. And O ye people, plan making sit ye, considerinj; 

g^i"'i-ga! W^Aig^a"' und g^i»'i-ga! "I^fga-^ai jin'ga cuhf 

sit ye! Flan seeking sit ye! Grandfather small reaches 

you 

tedlhi 5[i, eddda"" w^teqi ge^a"' b^iigaqti u^^na taf," ai 

by the time what hard for us the objects, all you tell to will, said 

that, in the past, him 

12 Commissioner akd. Ca""' Commissioner akd nlkaci'^'ga i'^'u- 

Commissioner the sub. And Commissioner the sub. person very 

da"'qti-a'"i, a^'^g-qtci-a-'i a''wan'kie-na'"i. Ca"' a"'ba dnaqtci 

good to me, very gently talked to me regularly. And day about how 

^ga° 5[! c! Commissioner ^ink6':}a b^^ td minke, cl udkie 

many when again Commissioner to the st. ob. I will go, again I will 

15 td minke. Ca°' nfkaci^'ga A^^i"" Ddsi i''win'5[a° h^gajl 

talk to him. And person this mv. Dorsey helped me exceed- 

ob. ingly 

ega""', cl uq^g'qtci :^a^'be td miiike I*fga°Aai jin'ga *ink^. 

■ as, again very soon I will see him Grandfatner small tne st. ob. 



Wabdg^eze cuhf t6dihi 5[i, i^ddi^af ^ifik^ da'^'be ^ka°b^a, 

Letter reaches by the time agent the st. ob. to see it I wish for 
you that, him. 

18 Edihi jp, wdgazu u^d tai. Pafi'ka b^dga cti na'a"' ew^- 

In that event, straight he tell will. Ponka all too to hear it I wish 



ka°b^. 

for them. 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS, 109 

NOTES. 

107, 1, wabag^eze, used in this letter instead of the regular Ponka 
equivalent, "wabaxu.'^ ''Wabagfeze'^ is the Omaha word. 

108, 1. Dasi, instead of '^^asi," the latter being the form used by the 
Oraabas and the Ponkas up to 1880. Frank, used instead of "Sasu." 

108, 2. Oommissioner, instead of '* I(jiga°^ai jinga." 

108, 2-3. I:jiga"f ai . . . aka uawakie: a seeming inconsistency, requir- 
ing a change to "I:jiga°fai finke, Commissioner finke, uawakie (or, 

Grandfather the at. Commissioner the at. I calked 

ob. ob. them 

uakie),'' or, *'l!}iga°^ai aka . . . a^wan'kiai.'* 

I talked to Grandfather the he {or, they) 

to him, sab. talked to me. 

108, 4, wa^dcta'^be, a case of << hapax legomenon." The author has not 
yet found a verb, '' wacta"'be ," in the 3d sing. ; but there is " wacta^'be," 
you see them, from wada"/be. 

108, 7, egif a"i. j^enugazi does not quote the decision of the Oommis- 
sioner, but he gives the substance of what he said, in the next sentence, 
followed by advice to the tribe. 

TRANSLATION. 

O father-in-law, I have received your letter. I am very glad because 
you have told me that my children are in good health. When I was 
about to start to this place you made one request. You said that I 
ought to exert myself in behalf of the tribe when I reached Washing- 
ton. For that reason I have been doing all in my power, and these 
two men, Frank La Fleche and Mr. Dorsey, have been aidiug me. 1 
have had an interview with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. I 
told him about the troubles in the Ponka land. I also told him that 
the chiefs had a strong desire to visit him in Washington (?). In 
fact, I spoke a great many words to the Commissioner. I told him 
about all the trouble that had been given us by the cattle trespass- 
ing on our land. The Commissioner said what he would have done. 
When I start back to you I shall be accompanied by an inspector. 

ye people, be making some plan before the arrival of the inspector. 
Be considering what shall be done. For the Commissioner says, '* When 
the inspector reaches your land, you shall tell him about all of your 
difi&culties." The Commissioner is a man with whom I am pleased, for 
he always talked very gently to me. After some days I will call again 
on the Commissioner, in order to talk with him once more before my 
departure. As this man, Mr. Dorsey, has been aiding me considerably, 

1 shall see the Commissioner very soon. When this letter reaches you, 
I wish the agent to see it. In that event it will be told correctly. I 
also wish all the Ponkas to hear it. 



110 OMAHA AND PONK A LETTERS. 

GEORGE MILLER TO HIS WIFE. SEPTEMBER 27, 1889. 

P'uda'^'-qti-ma'*'. Ni^ a'^'Aingg-qti-ma"'. Ca"^' ^fcti ^gija^'i 

(I find) it very good for Pain I have none at all. And you too you do so 

me. (pi.) 

n/ 



ka"^' eb^^ga*" ha, wan'gi^6'-qti, ^iddi ct6wa°' ^i^lau ct6wa' 

T hope . all, your even your elder even 

tJather brother 

3 ^ga'*! ka'^' eb(^dga°. Pahan'ga at£ t6'di ^ga'' waqi'^'ha wi'^' 

they I hope. Before I came when so paper one 

are so to this 

house 

cug^dwiki^^. Waqi'^'ha ct6wa°' tia'^'^aki^ji. Cin'gajin'ga-ma 

I sent back to you Paper even yon have not sent The children (pi. ob.) 

by some one. hither to me. 

a^'ba i^aug(^6'-qti awdgisf^6-iia"-ma°', awdgind^a'^ ka^'b^a, 

day throughout I am even thinking of them, I hear about them, I wish, 

my own, , my own, 

6 ca"^' e'a'*'! i°t^. Cin'gajin'ga-ma ^-i ga"^' udgaca'^' edada'' 

that how they may be. The children (pi. ob.) they as I travel what 

is are the 

ones 

ct^ct6wa° udwagik^t'a" ka°' eb^^ga" ga"^' uagaca'^'. Ci ^Icti 

soever I acquire for them, I hope. as I travel. Again you too 

my own, 

e'a"' ebi^ga" t6 en^ga" ka"' eb^^ga". Ca"' wia^'b^a pi t6 ^fteqi 

how I tnink it the you think I hope. Now I left you I was the hard 

it coming for you 

hither 

l> t6 i^apaha'^-qti-ma''' ^a°'ja, ca"" i6 ie uwfb^a ge sf^-ga. Ca°' 

the I know it very well though, yet this word I tell you the remember. And 

pi. in. 
ob. 

^ninu u^f3[a"i t6 nan'de i'-^i-'uda-'-qti pf ^a^'ja, i'-'tca" eVi 

your he helped when heart very good for mine • I was though, now how he 

elder you coming 

brother • hither 

^i"te i"wi°'*ana t^. Ca"' Uma'"ha"-md ctl e'a»'i ^i°te awd- 

maybe you tell me please. And the Omaha (pi. ob.) too how they may be I hear 

12 na*a° ka'^'bi^a. Mi"^ (k4 c^na 5[i, ca"' ma'^'zgska sAta° ctdcte 

about I wish. Moon tnis enough when, at any money five about (?) 

them rate 

cug^^wiki(^^ ta miiike. Wackan'-ga ha'. Awatdga" lida*^ 

I send home to you will I who. Do your best ! In what manner good 

et^ga" ^ga° g4xe ga"'^a-ga ha'. Wahaba kg ^isAjl ct^ct6wa" 

apt so to do desire thou ! Ears ot corn the not even if 

ob. pulled off 

15 e'a"' ^ingd. Ki. ca"' u^fsa" ^at'a"' -^I'dt^ d'liba ^is^waki^d-gS. 

what there is And at any to help you have if some cause fhem to pull off. 

is the none. rat« you 

matter 



(jpa'^'ja ^f wanfta'^qtia'ji ka'^b^t^ga". Ciii'gajin'ga-ma wd^gi 

Though you yon do not work I hope. The children (pi. ob.) you attend 

hard to them, 

kihfde ka°' eb^^ga". Wahaba kg we^i°wi° jiiaji ct^ctSwa" 

your I hope. Ears of corn the to sell inferior notwithstand- 



ob. ing, 



OMAHA AND PONKA LETTERS. Ill 

ca''' ga°' ^Iteqi 5[I, w^^i^win'-gS. Ma"'z6ska ^iz^ tS wasnin'de 

s