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N this pleasure-sailing and wayfaring 
journey through the valley of the regal 
Thames we are in quest of the wooded 
splendours, the green and silvery 
beauties and the ever-glowing charms 
and attractions of the romantic and 
historic stream ; the sparkle of its life ; its 
famous memories, its associations with princes, 
statesmen, and poets, its legendary lore, and 
the palaces and celebrated houses that over- 
look its stream. Where should such a survey 
begin ? We have chosen RICHMOND for our 
starting place, and could have no better be- 
ginning. Looking down from Richmond Bridge 
upon the broad bosom of the river, dotted with 
hundreds of pleasure craft, gay with the ripple 
of enjoyment, and shadowed by umbrageous 
banks, we confess, it is true, that the majestic 
waters flow further by places that would in- 
terest us much. We think of Kew, with its 
-courtly associations, where the farmer -King 
lived like a country squire, famous all the 
world over for its Botanic Gardens. Syon 
House and Isleworth, too, might detain us 
with their memories of Simon de IWontfort, 
the Protector Somerset, and Lady Jane Grey. 
We know that beyond ebbs and flows the 
Thames as the mighty waterway of the 
commercial capital of the world. 

But Richmond, the " metropolis" of Wal- 
pole, has a place and character of its own. 
It still, as in his time, "flourishes exceedingly." 
Who does not exult with the true joie de vivre, 
that witnesses the gaiety of the river in the 
summer sunshine, the swift movements of 
.countless river craft and the flashing of oars, 
who hears light-hearted laughter from river 
and road ; when he sees. too. the broad waters 



reflecting 
the varied 
and glowing 
foliage that 
clothes the 
nobly con- 
toured hill .' 

Here lingers still the full aroma of the old 
Court life, with its famous beauties, its powder 
and patches, its gentlemen in satin coats, with 
wigs and clouded canes, sedan chairs going to 
and fro, and the river fetes and masquerades of 
the Richmond of Anne and the Georges. We 
think of royal splendour, of assemblies at the 
"Star and Garter," of " Maids of Honour," 
and the " Lass of Richmond Hill." From that 
hill what a prospect is unfolded ! The eye 
rests upon a picturesque and broken fore- 
ground, upon a lovely view of the placid 
Thames, dotted with green eyots, moving 
skiffs, and white swans, upon dense woods and 
green meadows, the coppices and brakes of 
mysterious Ham, the classic hill of Twickenham, 
the historic pile of Hampton Court, and the 
deep avenues of Bushey, the heights of 
Claremont and Esher, the beech-clad hills c** 
Buckinghamshire, and, far off, the "raptur'd 
eye exulting," to use the words of Thomson, 
beholds " majestic Windsor lift his princely- 
brow," begemming the purple haze. 

There is magic witchery in the association 
of names. The saying does not hold good of 
scenery ,that the country is happy that has no 
history. It is history, the haunting presence 
of great men and the memory of famous deeds, 
that invests locality with imperishable charm, 
and such spell the name of RICHMOND will 
ever exercise. It is not +he original name of 



r^- 



407 



THE THAMES HLU ST RATED. 




tne place, nevertheless. Another historic 
Richmond by the distant Swale, through 
Henry Tudor, once Earl of Richmond, who 
directed the change of name about 1500, was 
Its sponsor Medisval men knew the hill by 
the Thames as Sheen, meaning the beautiful 
(a kindred Saxon word of the German Schone), 
as many say, and as it is pleasant to believe. 
It was ever a forest land, wooded with beech 
and oak, but the judicious planting of other 
trees by successive possessors of rich domains 
has added greatly to its woodland charm. 
Edward 1. had a house at Sheen, and there 
Edward III. died almost abandoned. it is 
fabled that Richard 11. cursed the place because 
it was at Sheen that his wife, Anne of 
Bohemia, expired. If so, his curse was in- 
operative, for Henry V., liking the place 
immensely, rebuilt the palace and showered 
benefits upon the locality. RICHMOND rose 
to magnificence under the Tudors. Henry VU. 
lived there much, and rebuilt the palace, which 
had been burned. His bluff son gave splendid 
entertainments at Richmond, and they point 
to a hill in Richmond Park upon which it is 
said he waited to see the sianal rocket that 
betokened the beheading of Anne Boleyn at 
the Tower. t. 

When the covetous eye of Henry had been 
set upon the costly house, which " my Lord 
the Cardinal" had beautified so regally at 
Hampton, "to show how noble a palace a 
subject may offer to his sovereign," Henry 
gave Wolsey permission "to lie in his manor 
of Richmond at his pleasure," and the old royal 
servants, we read, grudged, m their coarse 
fashion, to see a " butcher's dog " so honoured. 



Hampton WUk. 

Here it was that Edward VI. witnessed the 
marriage of Amy Robsart to Robert Dudley, 
that Elizabeth afterwards lived, and was 
grievously offended once by a sermon on the 
infirmities of age, which reminded her too 
forcibly of her wrinkles, and that the Stuarts 
frequently "kept house." The tale, however, 
would be endless of the long succession of 
princes and nobles who have delighted in the 
woodland retreats, the hunting diversions, 
and the palace festivities of RICHMOND. It 
was after the Restoration that the Palace 
begin to fall into decay, and now, between 
the Green and the river, but a few fragments 
remain to speak of its half-legendary grandeur. 

Royal favour afterwards fell upon the 
Lodge in the Old Park, which lay between 
the Green and Kew, by the riverside. Here 
Queen Caroline, counselled by Stephen 
Duck, the butt of Swift, raised a fantastic 
hermitage, Merlin's cave, and a grotto, with a 
magnificent terrace by the river, all ruthlessly 
swept away by "Capability" Brown, under 
the orders of matter-of-fact George 111. The 
King is said to have detested his grandmother, 
and her fairyland vanished at his touch. 

But Richmond Park — the Great or New 
Park, as it once was called— is, as all the 
world knows, upon tne hill. You enter it by 
the gate near the Star and Garter — there are 
seven other public entrances — and the road 
which leads across will soon unfold most 
extensive prospects. Broad sweeps of the 
greenest pasture, broken by stretches of wood, 
where, amid ancient trees, great herds of red 
anr*. fallow deer have their taunts, are the 
foreground to a wide panorama of the heaths 
and groves of Surrey on one hand, and the 
cultivated tracts of Middlesex, with distant 
Harrow, on the other. In the midst of the 
Park lie the Pen Ponds, well storked with fish ; 
and beyond stands White Lodge, where Lord 



RICHMOND. 



5 




Tfce White Lodge. 



Sidmouth entertained Pitt, Sheridan, Scott and 
Nelson, long a favoured resort of royalty, and 
now the residence of the Duke and Duchess 
of Teck. The house will henceforward be 
remembered by Englishmen as the birthplace 
of an heir to the throne. The gentler beauties 
of Richmond Park are coy, and need to 
be wooed, for there are sweet recesses and 
woodland solitudes known to few among the 
many who visit the breezy height of Richmond 
Hill. 

Upon Richmond itself a volume might be 
written. Here the visitor will find abundant 
attractions both of nature and art, many 
splendid houses, each with a history, a host 
of associations such as I have suggested, many 
haunts of famous men. He may see the house 



where Reynolds entertained 
his friends, may visit the grave 
of Thomson, the poet of Rich- 
mond and the Thames, and 
may speculate upon the original 
of the "Lass of Richmond 
Hill " — was it Mrs. Fitzherbert ? 
— and of the swain who pro- . 
claimed his sentiments of 
fidelity in the well-known lines, 

" I'd crowns resign to call thee mine. 
Sweet lass of Richmond Hill." 

But it is time for us to hie 
away from these attractive 
scenes to others with equal 
charms. At the foot of Rich- 
mond Hill, south-westward, 
between the Park and the 
river, are Petersham meadows, with old 
Ham House, hidden among the trees, opposite 
Twickenham, and Ham Walks, the favourite 
haunt at times of Pope, Swift and Gay, along 
the bank. Who has not heard of 1 wicken- 
ham Ferry .■' It brings the visitor from the 
Middlesex side by easy approach to the 
mysterious groves of Ham. A volume might 
be written upon the history and associations 
of Ham House. " Old trees," said Leigh 
Hunt, "the most placid of rivers, Thomson 
up above you, Pope near you, Cowley 
himself not far off. 1 hope here is a nest 
of repose, both material and spiritual, of the 
most Cowleyian and Evelynian sort. 
Though that infernal old Duke of Lauderdale 
who put people to the rack, lived there in the 




I'hota., y. S. Cat/ord. 



Peiersham Church. 



Hamptctt WiVK 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 



original Ham House — he married a Dysart — 
yet even the bitter taste is taken out of the 
mouth by the sweets of these poets, and by the 
memories of the good Duke of Queensberry 
and his good Duchess (Prior's Kitty), who 
nursed their friend Gay there when he was 
ill." The house was built in 1610 for Sir 
Thomas Vavasour, and, after passing through 
various hands, came by purchase to William 
Murray, Lord Huntingtower, afterwards Earl 
of Dysart; and the "infernal old Duke" 
referred to was the Lauderdale of the Cabal, 
who married the Earl's daughter, Elizabeth, 
Countess of Dysart, widow of Sir Lionel 
Tollemache. It was here, as tradition has it, 
that the Cabal held their secret councils. The 
house yet bears the impress of Lauderdale's 
alterations, and, through all its long possession 
by the Tollemaches, Earls of Dysart, it has 
retained its old Jacobean character. An 
ancestral hush rests upon its long avenues, its 
rusted gates, its gnarled pines, its mellow 
brickwork, and the long corridors, in which 
ghosts walk in the moonshine, rustling their 
silken garments when the wind sweeps by. 

Partly through much neglect, and now 
through long inherited veneration for the eld, the 
character of the house remains unchanged. The 
dappled lawns, the old-time flower-beds, and 
the gaunt and solemn pines,the worn balustrades, 
the grass-grown paths, the famous iron gates, 
rusting between lofty urn-crowned piers, and 
the absolute stillness of the scene, carry us 
back a century or two, and only the occasional 
throbbing of a steam-tug on the river recalls 
the nineteenth century. The visitor will hear 



much of the iron gates and the legends^ 
concerning their opening ; how but once they 
have stood ajar since they were closed on 
Charles II., and perhaps another monarch 
must come ere again they swing on their 
hinges. When Horace Walpole's niece became 
Countess of Dysart, the melancholy charms of 
Ham House made him at once delighted and 
peevish. " Close to the Thames, in the centre 
of rich and verdant beauty, it is so blocked up 
and barricaded with walls, vast trees and 
gates, that you think yourself an hundred miles 
off, and an hundred years back," he wrote. 
" The old furniture is so magnificently ancient, 
dreary, and decayed, that at every step one's 
spirits sink, and all my passion for antiquity 
could not keep them up. Every minute I 
expected to see ghosts sweeping by ; ghosts I 
would not give sixpence to see — Lauderdales, 
Tollemaches, and Maitlands. ... In this 
state of pomp and tatters my nephew intends 
it shall remain, and is so religious an observer 
of the venerable rights of his house, that 
because they were never opened by his father 
but once, for the late Lord Granville, you are 
locked out and locked in, and after journeying 
all round the house, as you do round an old 
French fortified town, you are at last admitted 
through the stable yard to creep along a 
dark passage by the housekeeper's room, 
and so by a back door into the great hall. 
He seems as much afraid of water as a cat, 
for though you might enjoy the Thames from 
every window of three sides of the house, 
you may tumble into it before you guess it is 
there." 




Pholo., y. S. Cal/ord, 



Orleans House. 



lla}jip:oil ti'icJk, 



TWICKENHAM. 




C /jJ^-Ki/ffiy'/i't' //c'ft'p/ 1 



w/ cj< i:.\ ii.iM ■ 
xML i-»l 



Many changes have from time to time been 
introduced at Ham House, but it still retains 
its old character, and the " pillared dusk " of 
its long avenues and its stately gardens is well 
in keeping with the venerable structure. To- 
wards the river the house presents a great 
fa9ade of many windows, with projecting 
wings and quaint bays at each end. Above 
the ground floor level, a range of busts in 
niches adorns the structure, and the busts are 
continued along the walls which run from the 
house to the terrace and the sunk wall that 
separates the gardens from the meadows. 
The back of the house is still more weird, 
where a long avenue stretches nearly a mile 
towards Ham Common. Within, the favoured 
visitor finds a treasure-house of Jacobean art ; 
and the splendid galleried hall, paved with 
black and white marble, the stately staircase, 
thetapestriedCabal Chamber, afterwards called 
the Queen's Audience Chamber, the Blue and 
Silver Room, the Duchess of Lauderdale's suite, 
where her armchair, writing-desk, cane, and 
other articles of personal use remain, the rich 
Drawing Room, the Chapel, the Long Gallery 
lined with dim portraits, the famous Tapestry 
Room, the Library, with its rare treasures, and 
other apartments of the historic house, will 
delight and impress him with unfamiliar 
charm. 

Petersham Church stands not far away, 
quaint and attractive, with some eccentricity. 
It possesses many interesting tombs and 
memorials, among which will be discovered the 
stone of Mary and Agnes Berry, the " Elder- 
berries " of Walpole, to whom we are indebted 
for his garrulous reminiscences and much of 
his correspondence, and a memorial of Van- 
couver, the famous circumnavigator. It is a 
pleasant, sunny place between the Common 



and the river, lying low, but open to every 
breeze that blows. At Petersham manj- 
well-known men have lived, and unhappy 
Colton, author of " Lacon," the man of pithy 
wisdom not stretched wide enough, was once 
its vicar. 

Twickenham, Walpole's Bai^e, or Tivoli, 
lies opposite, stretched along the elevated 
Middlesex bank of the Thames, and for ever 
famous in our literary history. We might 
dwell long upon the memories of the writers 
and " people of quality " who have chosen 
this place for their retreat. Below Richmond 
Bridge the village of Twickenham Park stands 
upon the site of a domain associated with a long 
line of celebrated people, from Francis Bacon 
downward. Above it, in lovely grounds, is 
Cambridge House, so named from Richard 
Owen Cambridge, " the everything," who 
there entertained Reynolds, Gibbon, Johnson, 
Boswell, and other celebrities of the time. 
Marble Hill is near by, conspicuous from the 
river, a house built by George IL for Mrs. 
Howard, his mistress, Pope's " Chloe," after- 
wards Countess of Suffolk, whereof Swift said 
that " Mr. Pope was the contriver of the 
gardens. Lord Herbert the architect, and the 
Dean of St. Patrick's (himself) chief butler and 
keeper of the ice-house." Here dwelt later on 
beautiful Mrs. Fitzherbert, the illegally married 
wife of the Prince of Wales, afterwards 
George IV., and it will not be forgotten that she 
was living at Marble Hill when he was married 
to the Princess Caroline. Such was the shattered 
romance of the " Lass of Richmond Hill." 

Her home has a stately neighbour in Orleans 
House, long associated with the fortunes of the 
royal family of France, and a place that 
seemed to Defoe to make "much the brightest 
figure" in Twickenham. The imposing 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




pass 1 n 
beauty of ils 
gardens, 
where glowing flov\er-beds bestiid green 
stretclies of lawn, which are enframed by 
secluded belts of luxuriant foliage, chosen 
with a rare eye to the effects of varied 
colour, make this one of the most charming 
houses by the Thames. Built in the reign 
of Anne- by Mr. Secretary Johnstone, whom 
Pope bitterly satirizes, it passed through 
many hands before it became the chosen 
retreat of Louis Philippe, Due d'Orleans, and 
his brothers, the Due de Montpensier and the 
Comte de Beaujolais. The Duke was very 
popular in the neighbourhood, and long after- 
wards, an exiled king, he yearned for 
possession of the place once more. Having 
purchased it from Lord Kilmorey, he there 
installed his son, the Due d'Aumale, who 
greatly improved and beautified the house. 
Don Carlos, the claimant of the Spanish 
crown, afterwards made it his residence, and the 
house then became the home of the Orleans 
Club. The love of the Orleans princes for 
Twickenham attracted a host of their adherents 
to the banks of the Thames, and the heads of 
the great French houses, in former times, often 
visited these delightful scenes. York House, 
standing east of Twickenham Church — the 
birth-place of Queen Anne, and deriving its 
name from her father — will always be associated 
with the long residence thereof the late Comte 
de Paris. 

It has lately been purchased by the 
Due d'Aumale for presentation to his young 
kinsman, the Due d'Orleans. 



Hautptan IJic&. 

But the presiding genius of Twickenham is 
Pope, who has given it classic fame. The 
picturesque, if somewhat incongruous house, 
so familiar to all frequenters of the Thames, 
now known as "Pope's Villa," is not that in 
which he dwelt. He took the villa, or 
" villakin," about 1717, when the publica- 
tion of the "Iliad" had begun, and lived 
there till his death in 1744, happy between 
his writing table and his garden, and in the 
society of his many friends. It was at Twicken- 
ham that he perfected his classic and polished 
style, and thence that issued the wealth of his 
epigrammatic and scathing wit. Amid ihe 
good offices of his friends, as he tells us in the 
preface of his " Homer," he could hardly 
envy the pompous honours his original 
received after death, when he reflected on the 
enjoyment of " so many agreeable obligations, 
and easy friendships " which made the 
satisfaction of his life. The place of Pope in 
the history of landscape gardening is con- 
siderable, for it was he who broke tlirough the 
formal Dutch style, and contributed to shape 
the taste of Kent. His house was upon the 
Teddington road, and between its garden 
front and the river, whence was a charming 
view of Eel Pie Island and Ham Walks, he 
laboured upon fixed principles, applying the 
methods of pictorial art to the practical ex- 
pression of liis conception of Nature as it 
should be shaped under the gardener's hand. 
Bridgman and Kent were his helpers, with the 
great Lord Peterborough and other amateurs. 

" And he whose lightning pierc'd th' Iberian lines, 
Now forms my quincunx, and now ranks my vines; 
Or tames the genius of the stubborn plain, 
Almost as quickly as he conquer'd Spain." 

The poet's larger efforts, however, were on 
the other side of the Teddington road, where 



TEDDINGTON. 



9 



he had a garden ; and the famous grotto, which 
he spent his declining years in beautifying — 

Th' Egerian grot 
Where, nobiy-pensive, St. John sate and thought — 

was the way of communication beneath the 
road. He lived to complete his labour of love, 
and to feel "at a loss for the diversion he 
used to take in laying out and finishing 
things." One of the versifiers whose effusions 
were collected by Dodsley fondly imagined 
that, even when the sable cloak of oblivion 
should have enshrouded the names of kings 
and heroes, visitors to the Thames, "with 
awful veneration," would seek the grotto, 
but, with eager hands, and almost Trans- 
atlantic zeal, would "pilfer" some gem or 
fragment of moss, " boasting a relic from the 
cave of Pope." But, alas ! while the poet's 
memory was still in its freshest greenness, 
his creation was wasted, and his grotto 
speedily fell from the radiance of its splendour 
to the state of a dark and dismal tunnel. After 
the death of Pope, it was a private woe to 
Walpole that the Earl of Chesterfield's 
brother bought the villa, and hacked and 
hewed the groves the Poet had so care- 
fully tended. Further distress fell upon 
many when Baroness Howe, the famous 
admiral's daughter, devastated his quincunx, 
and pulled down his dwelling-place to build 
another at a little distance, which, in its turn, 
was replaced by the present house, standing 
nearer the site of the original villa. 

Horace Walpole, who loved more than any 
other place in tlie world 

" Twit'nam, the Muse's favorite seat," 

spent his life in building and adorning his 
fantastic house of Strawberry Hill. The 



. fascinating gossiper, without whose tattling 
even Twickenham itself might be dull, delighted 
in creating bit by bit his "fantastic fabric," 
his " romance in lath and plaster," his " paste- 
board walls," and "mimictowers," which were 
a quarter of a centjury in hand. England was 
searched for examples of doors, windows, and 
other details; frowning battlements looked 
down upon bay windows ; Tudor oriels 
shouldered Norman turrets ; and untramelled 
imagination was allowed free play in archi- 
tectural drollery. Within, the refectory, the 
gallery with splendid fan tracery, "taken 
from one of the side aisles of Henry Vll.'s 
chapel," the library, the Holbein chamber, the 
tribune, tne Beauclerc closet, the yellow bed- 
room, or beauty chamber, and various parlours, 
drawing-rooms and other apartments, were 
stored with a vast and curious collection of 
pictures, statuary, miniatures, enamels, rings, 
gems, snuff-boxes, works in gold, silver and 
bronze, such as lamps, candlesticks and 
daggers, and a crowd of nameless bric-a-brac 
objects. Truly, such a house and such a 
collection never existed before ; and, much as 
we may laugh at Walpole, it must be confessed 
that his fantastic taste gained a ceriain vogue, 
and contributed later to break our allegiance to 
formal classicism. At Strawberry Hill, Walpole 
was visited by countless celebrities, and the 
Hon. Mrs. Damer, to whom he left the house 
for her life, maintained the fame it had 
attracted. Afterwards it was neglected and 
its contents dispersed, but, by the care of 
Frances, Countess Waldegrave, it was restored, 
and became once again almost Walpole's 
Strawberry Hill. Between the famous houses 
of Pope and Walpole lay another, which was 
familiar to both. It was in the garden of the 




PJurU., y. S. Cal/ord, 



Teddington Lock. 



Ham^itoH U''icJi, 



lO 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Earl of Radnor, at Radnor House, that Pope 
met Warburton ; to the readers of Walpole's 
letters the house is familiar as " Mabland," for 
it was almost as fantastic as his own. it stands 
no longer as he saw it, but is one of the most 
pleasantly situated and best known mansions 
on the Thames. 

We must not linger amid the famous houses 
af the neighbourhood that overlook the river 
at Twickenham. Yet there is scarcely one 
among them about which something romantic 
or interesting could not be said. Richmond 
House, Poulet Lodge, Saville House, Meadow- 
bank, Spencer Grove, the Manor House — 
the names of these and many more awake 
interesting literary or social recollections. The 
memories of many who loved the place are 
enshrined in the quaint, curious, and very 
incongruous church, where the graves of Pope, 
Kneller, Kitty Clive, Admirals Sir Chaloner 
Ogle and Byron, and many other celebrities 
may be visited. So it is that Twickenham will 
ever live in our literary and social history, and 
we may smile to think of the dilemma of its 
historian, who, after the strictest enquiry, 
could not find that anything had been dis- 




Pnoltts., J. S. Cat/ord, 



"The. Coronation Stone. 



Kingston Bridge. 

covered, any remains of antiquity been found, 
that anything remarkable had happened, that 
any synod, parliament, or other meeting, civil 
or religious, had ever been held within its 
parochial bounds. 

Between Pope's Villa and Eel Pie Island is a 
well-known fishing deep. Thence to Hampton 
Court the way of the Thames is a long 
S-shaped curve, which has the level length of 
Ham fields within its northern semicircle, and 
Bushey Park in that to the south. AtTeddington, 
a mile south of the island, we bid farewell to 
the tidal Thames. Somewhat feebly the tide 
flows below, and the lock, well-known to all 
boatmen on the river, and the long weir, 
check it altogether. Here, then, the life of 
the locks begins. All know the deep green 
coolness in the summer time, the bubbling and 
eddying of the water when the sluices are 
drawn, the dancing of the skiffs, the shouts 
of the brown-armed oarsmen, the rippling 
laughter from pretty lips, the 
gaiety of costume, the witty 
sallies and merry rejoinders, 
all the sights and sounds of 
the locks of the Thames. 
Places more rustic and more 
garlanded with flowers, in 
quieter reaches, our upward 
journeying will bring us to; 
but the life, the spirit, and the 
brightness of the river, ere it 
ceases tobethethronginghigh- 
way of holiday-making 
London humanity, cannot be 
seen better than where the 
crowded skiffs are being urged 
forward into Teddington lock. 
There is rowdyism in the 
locks sometimes, and every 
lock means delay, but there 
is need for breaks and rests 
tf.,n^,.^ m,i. in the pulling, and it is the 



KINGSTON. 




rholc, 3. <:. Cal/ori. 



Surbiton (Kingston Regatta), 



llamptcn li'ii.i. 



locks that have made navigable the Upper 
Thames. The fishing is good at Teddington, 
though there is no great fishing deep. Of 
Teddington itself, little need be said. From an 
old village of quaint and straggling character, 
with many tine houses, of which some have 
disappeared, it has grown into a popular 
suburb in a pleasant situation upon the river. 
its old church is interesting chiefly for its 
monuments, among which that of Peg 
Woftmgton may be noticed. 

And now the river, which has lost something 
on its charm after leaving Twickenham, gains 
few character, and umbrageous stretches of 
neighbouring country appear as we approach 
the wooded beauties of Bushey. The ancient 
town of Kingston lies in the heart of a most 
charming country, on the Surrey side, a mile 
and-a-half above Teddington. The place has 
long been of high importance, and has one 
of the oldest bridges on the Thames. It is a 
pleasant town, with broad market-place, in 
the midst of which stands the Town Hall, a 
good Italian structure, erected in 1840. Near 
by, upon an inscribed basement with carved 
surrounding pillars and ornamental railing, is 
the celebrated coronation stone, from which, 
as many have averred, the place took its 
name, and whereof the chroniclers record that 
it was the regal seat at the coronation of 
Athelstan, 924; Edmund, 940; Edred, 946; 
Edgar, 959; Edward the Martyr, 975; 



Ethelred 11., 978; and Edmund 11., 1016. 
Some historians add other names. The high 
importance of the town is thus testified. 
Lying upon the old road to Portsmouth, and 
tliere being no bridge across the Thames 
between Kingston and London Bridge, the 
place had a constant stream of famous visitors, 
and was the scene of some stirring events in 
the Middle Ages. Some have contended that 
it was here— others at Cowey Stakes, higher 
up— that Cssar and his legionaries forded the 
Thames to engage the forces of Cassivelaunus. 
The town received its charter from John, and 
here Henry 111. besieged the castle— now 
altogether lost— of Gilbert Clare, Earl of 
Gloucester. The wooden bridge was probably 
often broken in times of public trouble. This 
was the case when Falconbridge sought vainly 
to pass the Thames in pursuit of Edward IV. 
in 1472. It was the case again in 1554, when 
Wyatt, finding London Bridge closed against 
him, marched to Kingston. He seized boats 
and barges, repaired the bridge, dispersed 
those who resisted his passage, and marched on 
London and to the scaffold. In the Civil Wars, 
too, Kingston was the scene of much fighting, 
being held alternately for the King and the 
Parliament. The last fight for Charles was at 
Kingston, where Lord Holland was defeated 
and captured, and Lord Francis Villiers, refus- 
ing to accept quarter, fell fighting with his 
back to a tree. These are some of the 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 



associations of the pleasant, interesting, and 
hospitable town of Kingston-upon-Thames. 

The good people of Kingston long held to 
old customs, and retained a rustic simplicity of 
manners. They delighted, as their old church- 
wardens' accounts show, in mystery-plays, and 
it was not until the end of the last century that 
their curious practice of cracking nuts through- 
out the service in church on the Sunday before 
Michaelmas day — which they called " Crack- 
nut Sunday " — was put a stop to. 

The Kingston "Ball-play" at Shrovetide, 
though degenerate, is celebrated. It is a species 
of football, once played with municipal honours, 
and the ball, which the Mayor was wont to 
start, is said to represent the head of a Danish 
chief defeated long ago by the Kingston men. 
The large cruciform church, too, built of flint, 
stone, and hard chalk, with its broad central 
tower — unworthy successor of one destroyed 
by lightning in 1703- its perpendicular nave, 
and its many interesting monuments, may well 
detain the wayfarer awhile. The bridge, of five 
principal arches, one of the handsomest on the 
Thames, over which the road passes to Hampton 
Wick, with branches thence to Twickenham and 
Hampton Court, replaced a wooden structure, 
and was opened in 1828. The Kingston regatta 
is a very popular event on the river. 

It is not surprising, in this fascinating neigh- 
bourhood, with the heaths and woods of Surrey 
on one ham", and the river and the rare beauties 
of Hampton Court Palace and Bushey Park on 
the other, that Norbiton and Surbiton should have 
become popular residential places, nor that 
Thames Ditton, by the bend of the stream , should 



be a favourite resort, full of delights, lar-famed 
among anglers. The place has two well-known 
deeps, and the reader will like to be reminded of 
Leigh Hunt's " Lines in a Punt," proclaiming 
the many things that " invite to stay at Ditton." 

" Here lawyers free from legal loils, 
And peers released from duty, 
Enjoy at once kind Nature's smiles, 
And eke the smiles of beauty." 

In this neighbourhood are supremely beautiful 
views both up and down the river, and the 
prospects from the elevations near are superb. 
Hereabout, too, is regal ground, where the 
memories of princes, prelates, and statesmen 
linger, and here the Thames unfolds some of 
its choicest beauties of meadow and wood. 
We shall pause in our journeying at the bridge 
at Hampton Court, by the hospitable "Mitre." 
The bridge, a structure that disfigures the 
stream, is the successor of others more 
picturesque, and of one more curious. Truly 
a famous resort is this for fishermen and 
boating parties, for those who love to ply the 
line and pull the oar, to lie in the summer 
sunshine where the green bank casts its 
shadow, who delight to journey by coach or 
cycle along the road, who revel in courtly 
scenes, stately pleasure chambers, long galleries 
and pillared avenues, in ancient gardens, 
and in places where venerable vines are 
fruiting, where chestnuts show their richest 
bloom, and beech-nuts and acorns lie thick 
in the autumn. All these, and many more 
who find their spell in natural beauties and 
historic memories, delight to rest from their 
journeying for awhile at Hampton Court. 




Hampton Court Bridge. 




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T has been remarked more than once 
that the right royal road to Hampton 
Court is by the way of the silent 
Thames. It was the way that Wolsey 
traversed, propelled by the strong arms 
of stout bargemen, when he went to and 
fro between Westminster and his stately palace 
newly reared, the way that ambassadors and 
courtiers came to his council ; and to-day there 
are few greater delights of the Thames than to 
reach Hampton Court by the river— to see it, 
first of all, lifting its crimsoned walls amid the 
elms, and, approaching from the bridge, to let 
its surpassing charms and marvellous interests 
successively unfold, as they have unfolded 
from Wolsey's day to ours. In those times 
the great and hospitable Cardinal walked 
apart from those who would have intruded 
upon his much-needed privacy, and was "lofty 
and sour to those that loved him not;" but, in 
these, through the gracious favour of the 
Queen, the Palace is open to every comer, 
before whom it stands as the true exemplar of 
Tudor splendour, of the pride of Stuart times, 
and of the gaiety and new ideals of William, 
Anne, and the Georges. 

This, indeed, we feel as we enter beneath 
the archway, is the home of the great cleric 
who entered before us upon his mule, who 
grasped the helm of our statecraft, and guided 
England through the tortuous channels and 
amid the hidden shallows of European diplo- 
macy, whose pride was the pride of his country, 
who worked with marvellous energy at the 



creation of the house we behold, and who gave 
up all to his grasping, heartless master, to be 
abandoned in his falling age. And so, a little 
sadly, we think at Hampton Court of Henry. 
We cannot forget that Katharine sat here 
with her handmaidens, while he dallied with 
Anne Boleyn in the garden bowers. There are 
traces at Hampton Court of her downfall, for 
her badges have been erased, save that the 
men forgot, and left, an "H" and an "A," 
intertwined with a true lover's knot, under the 
arch beneath which we pass to the sacred 
court. Then we think of Jane Seymour's 
untimely death and unquiet spirit, and of her 
infant son being here, whose nurse. Mistress 
Penn, too, they say, still walks the corridors, 
the very figure of that strange archaic effigy 
of her which lies in Hampton Church. Next we 
seem to hear the piercing shriek of Katharine 
Howard, who escapes from her rooms, and 
yet flies in agony down the Haunted Gallery 
at night to solicit the clemency of Henry, who 
sits unmoved at his prayers in the Chapel. In 
tills changing story of Hampton Court we find 
Mary spending her honeymoon with Philip of 
Spain, Elizabeth with her maidens, James I. 
ponderously debating with English and Scotch 
divines, Charles 1. escaping from the super- 
vision of Colonel Whalley, his son holding high 
state with Katharine of Braganza, William 111. 
working his changes, and Mary plying her 
needle in her bowers, George 11. making love 
to Mrs. Howard and Mary Bellenden, and here, 
too, the statesmen, soldiers, wits, and beauties 
of former times. 

So much, then, may serve to suggest how 
profound and various are the interests of 



?6 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED 




Photo., ?. ^. Cal/ord. 



Hampton Court, from the West. 



Hampton H'ick. 



Hampton Court. When Wolsey turned for 
relaxation from the cares of statecraft, he 
worked with characteristic power at the crea- 
tion of his Palace. Men skilled in every craft, 
workers in stone, brick and terra-cotta, smiths, 
glass stainers, carpenters, gardeners and wood- 
men were broughtin crowds. As Cavendish says: 

" Expertest artificers that were both farre and nere, 
To beautyfie my hovvssys I had them at my will." 

Drainage works were carried out that stood 
300 years, and water was brought in leaden 
pipes from Coombe Hill, some distance away. 
Europe was ransacked for its treasures, and 
glorious tapestries covered the walls. " One 
has to traverse 8 rooms," says Giustiniani, the 
Venetian Ambassador, " before one reaches his 
audience chamber, and they are all hung with 
tapestry, which is changed once a week." 

The west front is almost wholly his work. It 
is of brick, richly coloured and variegated, with 




Photc. 7 S. Catrord, 



The East Front. 



stone dressings, and, with its two wings, ex- 
tends some 400 feet from north to south. The 
muUioned Vk'indows, the beautiful oriel over the 
arch and perforated parapet, the embattled 
walls, pinnacles and fretted chimneys, and the 
turrets, now shorn of their leaden cupolas, 
betoken the general character of the building 
within. The medallions of Roman emperors 
in the turrets belong to a set whicii were 
specially executed for Wolsey by an Italian 
named Giovanni Maiano. Passing through the 
archway, we are in the First or Base Court, 
which has an area of 167 feet by 142 feet, and 
is a deliglitful example of the architecture of the 
time. The purple-red walls, witii interiacings 
of grey brick, are broken by charming mul- 
lioned windows, and projecting chimney stacks, 
crowned with their beautifully worked columns. 
The buildings are of two stories, except on 
the east, where there is a double-turreted 
frontage in three stages, with the oriel in the 
ClockTower, and "Anne 
Boleyn's Gateway" be- 
low, leading through to 
the Second or Clock 
Court. The noble west 
front of the Great Hall, 
with its splendid win- 
dows and curiously- 
shaped gable, rises im- 
pressively behind. The 
three - light muUioned 
windows on the north 
and south sides of this 
Court lighted the gal- 
leries which, in the 
Cardinal's time, gave 
access to his " double 
lodgings," or guest 
chambers, a large one 
and a small one being 
linked together in each 
Hamttonwick. case. Strangely do 



ibA 



HAMPTON COURT. 



these buildings contrast with 
the later structure of Wren. 
In the long galleries of his 
house, and in the green 
alleys and old Pond Garden 
on the south side, by which 
countless thousands hasten 
thoughtlessly to see the 
famous vine, it was the 
delight of the Cardinal to 
pace in retirement and con- 
templation. Thus, says 
Cavendish, in his metrical 
picture : 

" My galleries were fayre, 

both large and long, 

To walk in them when it 

lyked me best." 

These would seem indeed to 
have been the very home 
of cloistered calm, and it is 
delightful yet to feel their 
reposeful sway. Here the 
guests of Wolsey were com- 
fortably housed, and the 
corridors gave easy access 
to the Great Hall, which 
stood on the site of that 
which now rises beyond. 
We can yet conjure up the 
picture of the bustling to 
and fro when the French 
Ambassador came for the 
peace-making. " The yeo- 
men and grooms of the 
Wardrobe," says Cavendish 
" were busied in iianging of 
the chambers with costly p^wn.. 7. s. ca'/«,d. 
hangings, and furnishing 
the same with beds of silk, and other fur- 
niture apt for the same in every degree. 
Then my Lord Cardinal sent me, being gentle- 
man usher, with two other of my fellows, to 
Hampton Court, to foresee all things touching 
our rooms, to be nobly furnished accordingly. 
Then the carpenters, the joiners, the masons, 
the painters, and all other artificers necessary 
to glorify the house and feast were set at 
work. There were also fourteen score beds 
provided and furnished with all manner of 
furniture to them belonging, too long particu- 
larly here to relate." 

The domestic offices and quarters of the 
household occupied a long range of buildings 
lying on the north side of the First Court, and 
of the Great Hall, the Great Watching Cham- 
ber and the Round Kitchen Court beyond. 
Comparatively few visitors to Hampton Court 
know how picturesque in outline and rich in 
colour are the venerable ivy-grown walls of the 
buildings which flank Tennis Court Lane, and 
surround the Master Carpenter's Court and 
Fish Court on that side of the Palace. All 




Ths Great Hall, looking We:!. 



Hampton \yick. 



these chambers were well filled with good and 
merry company, we know, for Wolsey had 500 
retainers at his open table, 80 domestic and 
100 other servants, and 1 50 horses in his stable, 
as well as 60 priests, and a choir of 40, witii 
many others in his train. Some reference 
will presently be made to other of Wolsey's 
chambers in various parts of the Palace. 
It was the display of the Cardinal's mag- 
nificence that raised the spleen of Skelton, 
his bitter satirist, who demanded: "Why 
come ye not to court .'' To whyche court .'' 
To the Kynge's courte or to Hampton 
Court.?" 

But this digression leaves us standing in the 
First Court, before the Clock Tower, and Anne 
Boleyn's Gateway, which leads to the second. 
Beneath the beautiful fan-groining of the arch 
is the entrance to the Great Hall on the left. 
This noble structure forms the north side of 
the Second or Clock Court, and externally is 
very inipressive, with many buttresses, and 
grotesque lions sitting onjheir lofty pinnacles, 
as well as turrets and glorious windows, and a 



28 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Phol4. y. S. Cat/ord, 



The King's Guard Chamber. 



HaDtptoil Hick.. 



truly magnificent bay. Internally the glories 
of the Hail are shown better in the pictures 
tlian they can be described in words. The 
hammer-beam roof, with its splendid traceries 
and carved bosses, is the most elaborate in 
England, and fortunately is well lighted by the 
windows in the gables. Combined with the 
magnificent windows, filled with excellent 
modern armorial glass by Willement, and the 
glorious tapestries that line the walls, the 
effect given is very stril<ing. The eight 
huge pieces of tapestry, depicting scenes in the 
life of Abraham, are admirable examples of 
Flemish work based upon Italian designs, and 
have been attributed to Rafaelle's disciple, 
Bernard van Orley. They are enriched with 
allegorical borders, and are highly interesting 
and curious. The screen at the lower end of 
the hall, shutting off the entrance lobby, with 
the minstrels' gallery over it, is richly carved ; 
and thenoble feature of the great bay window, 
rising from floor to ceiling, and lighting the 
dais at the upper end, with forty-eight lights, 
and delicate tan-tracey and pendants at its 
head, is unsurpassed in this country. The 
length of the great chamber is io6 feet, its width 
40 feel, and its height 60 feet. 

The Hall is the work of Henry VIll., and 
VVolsey never saw it. When the covetous 
hand of the King had been set upon the glorious 
house of his minister, he set to work to alter and 



complete it. Workmen once again came from 
every quarter, and the Great Hall rose rapidly, 
with new kitchens, "chawndry," "squillery," 
"spicery," " accatry," and other offices.. 
One of the great kitchens still remains as of 
old, presenting a most picturesque appearance- 
from Tennis Court Lane, and, within, possess- 
ing still its open timber roof, its huge fireplaces,, 
18 feet broad and 7 feet high, where oxen 
were probably roasted whole, and its ancient 
jacks, spits and racks, a speaking memorial 
of the plenteous boards of former times. We- 
recall how, in Wolsey's days, for the feasting of 
the Frenchmen, " the purveyors brought and 
sent in such plenty of costly provision as ye 
would wonder at the same ; the cooks wrought, 
both night and day in divers subtleties and 
many crafty devices ; where lacked neither 
gold, silver, nor any other costly thing meet 
for the purpose." 

Behind the Hall, and entered from the dais, 
is the King's Great Watching or Presence 
Chamber, sometimes called the Withdrawing. 
Room, a splendid apartment seventy feet long, 
twenty-nine feet broad and about twenty 
feet high, which preserves its ancient aspect: 
more perfectly than any other in the Palace. 
It has an elalwrate flat ceiling of intricate- 
design with Tudor badges, windows high in 
the walls, and a noble oriel, and is lined with, 
supremely interesting early tapestry, known- 



HAMPTON COURT. 



29 




Pliotn., J. S, Cal/ord, 



The Fountain Court. 



Hampton tVUi. 



to be of Wolsey's time, all archaic and 
beautiful. Three of the pieces depicts the 
"Triumphs' of Petrarch — those of Death, 
Fame and Time — while others are allegories 
representing the Christian virtues and ihe 
"Seven Deadly Sins." The "Triumphs" 
of Chastity, Love and Divinity are wanting at 
Hampton Court, but the first of these is at 
South Kensington. These, then, are the 
rooms in which Henry held his Court, for he 
often retired to the place he had acquired by 
the Thames. He jousted in the tilt yard, 
angled in the Thames, and strolled in the 
pleasant gardens. " Anne Bouillayne's lodgy- 
nges " are mentioned as early as 1528, but 
her apartments in the south-east part of tlie 
Palace were completing when she fell. Her 
badges were removed, except under the arch- 
way, and Jane Seymour was lodged in her 
stead, and in the part of Hampton Court which 
was demolished by William 111., Edward VI. 
was born and nurtured. They say the 
uneasy spirit of his mother, clad in white, 
and carrying a taper, has been seen to issue 
from beneath the arch of Katharine of 
Aragon's Door in the Second or Clock Court 
of the Palace. 

Into that court, descending from the Hall by 
the staircase, we now enter beneath the arch- 
way. It is still the court of Wolsey and of 
Henry, though Wolsey's private rooms are 
concealed in part by the Ionic colonnade which 
Wren added incongruously on the south. Many 



alterations have indeed been carried out here, 
both in the time of William III. and again in 
1732, but there is pleasing variety about the 
whole, and the buttresses, windows, turrets, 
and pillars are full of charm. Wolsey's rooms 




Photo., y. S. Cal/ord, Hampltn Wict. 

Ceuing, Queen Anne's Drawing Room, 



30 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




PhotC:, y. S. Calford, 



The Fireplace, (^Mtf^?. Gallery. 



between the southern side of the Court and 
the gardens are privately occupied, but two of 
them still preserve his elaborate ceilings, and 
others are panelled with the beautiful linen- 
fold pattern. On the northern side of the 
Court, the pinnacled buttresses, noble windows 
and grand bay of the Great Hall are very fine, 
and the western side is noticeable for the 
excellence of the brickwork. Here are two of 
Maiano's medallions — those of Vitellius and 
Tiberius — and between them 
Cardinal's arms, supported 
with hfs motto, " Dominus 
terra-cotta, doubtless from 
The astronomical clock, which 
very remarkable, object. It 



may be seen the 
by cherubs, and 
mihi adjutor," in 
the same hand. 
is above, is a 
was placed there 



by Henry about the year 1540, and, after 
remaining in its place some 300 years, was 
temporarily removed. In 1879, however, it 
was restored, lost movements being added and 
new works being furnished, and now it pre- 
sents the very aspect it had in Henry's reign. 



The dial is enframed in a square, 
with quatrefoils at the angles 
inclosing Tudor badges. To 
describe the arrangement at 
length is impossible, and it must 
suffice to say that there are 
three discs, which show at once 
the hours, days of the month, 
motions of the sun and moon, 
and the moon's phases, and 
that the action of the clock is 
not continuous by movements 
at each second, but by jumps 
forward at intervals of fifteen 
seconds. The curious instru- 
ment has been attributed to a 
well-known maker of the time 
named Tompion, but withgreater 
probability to Nicholas Cratzer, 
a German, who made other 
clocks of like character. The 
eastern side of the Clock Court 
has a turreted frontage, with a 
dark archway in the middle,, 
which leads to the Queen's Stair- 
case and the Chapel. These 
will be referred to a little later 
on. 

It is well to remember, then, 
that in passing from the Second 
Court, through the doorway at 
the end of Wren's Colonnade, 
we leave behind us the Palace 
of the Tudors. Between these 
two architectural aspects of 
. Hampton Court there lies the 

K' — S historic period of the Stuarts, 

-^ ' the presentation of the Grand 

Re nonstrance at the Palace, the 
iiampioH Wick, uight of Charles, the actions of 
the Civil War, the sale and re- 
purchase of the place, the coming of Cromwell 
to Hampton, the Restoration, and the fall of 
James II. Charlt-s II., who took great pleasure 
in the Palace, did much to beautify it, some- 
what for the gratification of Lady Castlemaine, 
who was installed there, re-furnishing the 
rooms, and improving the tennis-court and 
gardens. But the great work of re-building the 
south-eastern angle of the Palace, where for- 
merly old apartments surrounded the Cloister 
Green Court, and another was carried out by 
Wren, under the personal orders of William 111., 
who liked the place, and determined to make 
it his residence. 

The work went on energetically, William 
and Mary living meanwhile in the Water 
Gallery, overlooking the river, he going to and 
fro on business of war and statecraft ; she 
plying her needle, and delighting in her gardens, 
tending her orange trees, of which some may 
still be seen standing in the summer time along 
the walk below the State Apartments, and 



HAMPTON COURT. 



r''^''^i^'!^^T.',^'-7:-^;;'^'^*'f'?^'?^^'^***^''' :''''" 




PHsto.. 7. 5. Cal/bru, 



The Long Water and Avenues in the Home Park. 



Ham^/sn lyic*. 



walking in lier wych-elm Bower. It may be 
said of Wren's work that it has many merits 
and many defects, but, perhaps, these latter 
may be attributed to the conditions in which 
he worked, for the final decision upon archi- 
tectural plans and structural arrangements 
rested with William. Incongruous as it appears, 
the graceful Ionic colonnade, with its coupled 
columns and its balustrade, in the Clock Court, 
is probably the most successful part ot the 
whole. Much of the charm of the new 
buildings arises from the use of red brick and 
stone, which give a certain feeling, rather 
than aspect, of harmony with the Tudor 
structure. Beyond this, and the fact that 
Wren's buildings are grouped round a court, 
they have nothing in common. The south 
front, which continues eastward the old 
range of Wolsey's Lodgings, has two terminal 
bays, slightly projecting, and a central Corin- 
thian portice raised high above the pavement, 
with the inscription " GVLIEMVS ET MaRIA. 
R. R. F." (Rex et Regina fecerunt). The 
long rows of upright windows, lunettes, and 
square windows above are a little monotonous. 
A similar arrangement is found on the east 
front, but there the central compartment 
is more imposing, though spoiled by the 
fact that the pediment is sunk below the 
balustrade. Within, the Fountain Court, 
with its cloistered calm, and glassy sheet 
reflecting the buildings that surround, has 
very distinct charm. 

Mary died ere the work was completed, and 
for some time it stood still, but William 
resumed it with customary energy, and the 
best artists of the time were called in for the 
adornment of the new structure. Verrio and 
Laguerre adorned the ceilings and plaster 
spaces as they were wont to do, Grinling 
Gibbons worked both in wood and stone. 



Gabriel Gibber and many more were employed 
in ornamental stone carving, and unrivalled 
iron-workers were engaged. The character of 
the interior is at once revealed on ascending 
the King's Great Staircase, for there, as Pope 
says : 

" On painted ceilings you devoutly stare 
Where sprawl the saints of Verrio and Laguerre." 

The description applies somewhat better to 
other work of Verrio, for here we gaze on the 
Greek Pantheon, and the Muses, with a host of 
mythological accompaniments. There is some- 




Phoio., Byrfie, 



The Chapel. 



32 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Photo., J. 5. Cat/ord, 



The South Front. 



Hampton Wick. 



thing impressive about it, but the huge work will 
not stand a moment's criticism, and we pass on 
to the Guard Chamber, which is wonderfully 
adorned with arms for decorative effect, the 
work of one Harris, who did like work at the 
Tower. The most remarkable picture in the 
room is that of Queen Elizabeth's Giant Porter, 
attributed to Zucchero, and for the rest, there 
are portraits of seamen and soldiers -of Stuart 
and later times, by Lely, Kneller, Brockman, 
and others. 

We presently gain a long vista through the 
suite of rooms, and look out over the beautiful 
private gardens, towards the river and the hills 
of Surrey. William Ill.'s Presence Chamber, 
which is next entered, , has much beautiful 
carving by Gibbons, the canopy of the King's 
throne, and on its walls, among many interest- 
ing pictures, a series by Kneller of the beauties 
of his Court. There is no purpose here of 
cataloguing the pictures, but it may be noted 
that the Second Presence Chamber, includes 
some remarkable Italian pictures, though a 
few of them of somewhat doubtful authorship, 
ar.d Vandyck's "Charles 1. on Horseback" — 
one of -several of the same subject which 
he executed. The King's Audience Chamber, 
again, has a crowd of interesting and beautiful 
pictures, including a lovely "Holy Family" 
by Palma Vecchio. The chandelier and furni- 
ture are original. Passing through the King's 
Drawing Room we reach King William Ill.'s 
State Bedroom, lined with Lely's famous 
pictures of the frail Beauties of the Court of 
Charles II., including the"most blessed picture," 
a; described by Pepys, of Lady Castlemaine. 



Verrio painted the ceiling with " Day and 
Night," and the great State Bed is that of Queen 
Charlotte, from Windsor. The ceiling of the 
King's Dressing Room was also painted by 
Verrio, but the next important room we reach 
is the Queen's or Tapestry Gallery, on the 
east front, an imposing apartment, with a 
series of splendid tapestries, from designs by 
Le Brun, lining its walls. These represent 
Incidents in the life of Alexander the Great, 
beginning with his triumphant entry into 
Babylon, and including a remarkable tableau 
over the mantel-piece of Diogenes in his tub, 
entreating Alexander to stand away from 
between him and the sun. 

Queen Anne's Bedroom has still her State 
bed, with hangings worked at Spitalfleids, 
a ceiling representing Aurora rising' from the 




Photo.. ■}. s. c Vord. yueen Mary's Bower. 'Tawpton wick 



HAMPTON COURT. 



£3 



Sea, by Sir .James Thoriiliill, 
and many beautiful pictures, 
including several by Giulio 
Romano. Queen Anne's 
Drawing Room, which is entirely 
lined with pictures by Benjamin 
West, has one of Verrio's most 
successful ceilings, representing 
Anne in the character of Justice, 
with Neptune and Britannia to 
support her crown. From the 
windows of this room a magnifi- 
cent prospect is gained of the 
gay flower-beds, trim grass- 
plats, and fountain of the public 
gardens, the Long Water, and the 
three gre.at diverging avenues. 
There is no better position for 
surveying these magnificent 
gardens, formed under the 
care of William 111. and his 
successors. Defoe says the 
King hirnself designed them. 
In the Queen's Audience 
Chamber, which is next reached, 
are very curious contemporary 
paintings of the meeting of 
Henry VIll. and Maximilian at 
Tournay, 1513; the embarka- 
tion of Henry at Dover, 1520; 
and the Field of the Cloth of 
Gold ; besides a remarkable 
picture of Henry and his family 
in the School of Holbein, and a 
very singular "Elizabeth in 
Fancy Dress," by Zucchero. 

There is not space to deal 
here with some other apart- 
ments on the east front, and 
those which surround the 
Fountain Court. Their charac- 
ter has been suggested, and catalogues of 
their pictures are easily obtained. Walking 
through them, it is not difficult to call up the 
Hampton Court of the days of Queen Anne, 
supremely dull, and wittily satirized by Pope. 
Here did British statesmen foredoom the fall 
" of foreign tyrants and of nymphs at home," 
here would "great Anna," he says, "some- 
times counsel take — and sometimes tea." 
Then, too, we may think of George 1. sally- 
ing forth from these chambers to the Hall, 
there, with stolid satisfaction, to witness the 
plays enacted at court, aroused once to a 
species of enthusiasm, appropriate enough in 
that place, by Shakespeare's Henry Vlll." 
A dull nobleman asked Steele how the King 
liked the play. " So terribly well, my Lord, 
that i was afraid I should have lost all my 
actors ! For I was not sure the King would 
not keep them to fill the posts at court that he 
saw them so fit for in the play!" Every 
whit as solemn and dull was the Palace in the 




fkala., % S. Ca(ftrd. 



The Fish Court. 



I! am t ton IVick. 



time of George 11., who was the last monarch 
to keep his court there. 

We happily leave the state apartments with 
a glance at the things of an earlier time. Near 
the head of the Queen's Staircase the visitor to 
Hampton Court now sees Wolsey's Closet, a 
characteristic old-world chamber adjoining the 
Clock Court, with a marvellously beautiful 
panelled ceiling, an old muUioned window, and 
admirable linenfold wainscoting. The Chapel, 
which lies north of the Fountain Court, pre- 
sents a strangely mixed character, but is 
generally pleasing, with its iialf-Tudor roof and 
pendants, its classic centre-piece covering the 
east window, and its oaken pews by Wren. 
It was stripped of its painted glass, its images 
and its pictures by order of Parliament in 
1645. 

More charming to many a visitor to Hampton 
Court are the gardens and groves that surround 
it than some of the State Rooms he surveys. 
The magnificent semi-circular gardens, witl> 



34 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 



the Long Water and three avenues in the 
Home Park beyond, have been alluded to. The 
great canal was formed under the personal 
direction of William III., and London and 
Wise, his gardeners, planted the lime avenues 
and arranged the terraces, though the splendid 
yews and laurels belong to the time of Charles 
IL, and were placed there by his gardener Rose,. 
At one time a very formal aspect was given 
to the scene by cutting the yews to resemble 
obelisks, but now, happily, they grow as Nature 
intended they should. The Private Gardens, 
between the Palace and the Thames are ex- 
tremely beautiful, bright in their flower beds, 
solemn and shady in their alleys, and ever 
varied and delightful. Then we find that 
strange " cradel walk, for the purplexed 
twining of the trees very observable," says 
Evelyn, "Queen Mary's Bower," of wych- 
elm, not hornbeam, marvellous in its over- 
arching. It is an avenue unique, and is about 
lOO yards long, 20 feet high and 12 broad. 
Near by is the ancient Pond Garden, with 
its sunken parallelogram, calling up even 
Tudor times, with overgrown stone edgings, 
and the bases still remaining of the grotesque 
animals which once adorned the scene On 
this side lies the vine, also, famous among all 
visitors for its thousands of purple clusters, 
and we wonder how many it has fruited since 
it was planted in 1769. The celebrated iron 
screens, which flanked the river at intervals, are 
there no more, two being reserved in the State 
Apartments, while others are at South Ken- 
sington. Perhaps never has iron been so skil- 



fully wrought as under the direction of Jean 
Tijou, the author of these, who was em- 
ployed also by Wren to make the iron gates of 
the choir at St. Paul's. The actual handicrafts- 
man was Huntingdon Shaw, "an artist in his 
way," says his epitaph, who is buried in 
Hampton Church. 

Passing then along the Broad Walk on the 
east front, and by the charming Flower Pot 
Gate, we reach the Wilderness, that delightful 
garden of flowers, beautiful trees, and sunny 
spaces. Here, too, is the famous maze, " not 
without a plan," which is the delight of thou- 
sands in the summer days. Then we pass 
through the great wrought-iron Lion Gates, 
and between the lofty pillars from which they 
are named, very notable works of the time of 
William III., out into th»" Kingston Road. 
Beyond lie the noble triple avenue of limes 
and horse-chestnuts, the Diana Fountain, and 
the deep groves of Bushey, ever lovely when 
the bright green leaf breaks in the spring, 
and the hawthorns are in blossom ; when 
the tones grow richer in June, and the 
giant chestnuts are blossoming ; or, later, 
when the foliage turns red and gold, and 
the nuts lie thick on the turf; or again 
when autumn has blown, and the matchless 
avenues lift their delicate tracery agains'" 
the sky. Hampton Court, indeed, for its 
'■•.istoric associations, its glorious buildings, its 
rare treasures of art, its lovely gardens, and its 
surpassingly beautiful woods is one of the most 
famous places in all the valley of the regal 
Thames. 




riiD'o., J. S. Cal/ord. 



The. Diana Fountain, Bushey Park. 



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TROLLING down from Hampton 
Court to our boat which lies by 
the bridge, we leave behind us a 
whole world of famous memories 
and a crowd of delightful places ; 
but it is to meet new interests and 
■other beauties, to enter again upon the living 
enjoyments of the river, marked by the laughter 
of boating parties, the long, strong pulling of 
practised oarsmen, and the placid pleasures 
of anglers in their punts, to land liere and 
Ihere to look into 3 church, or investigate the 
history of a locality, and so to fare forward 
until the towers and battlements of Windsor 
and the attractions of scholastic Eton bid us 
make longer pause. This iron girder bridge 
at Hampton Court is certainly not a thing of 
beauty, with its bare, hard lines. The first 
bridge, built in 1708, was a far more pic- 
turesque structure, we may be sure. That 
fantastic bridge of many spans opened in 1753, 
which is here depicted, was much more curious, 
its designer might have been bewitched by 
AUadin's lamp into making a copy of the 
Chinese. There is interest in the picture, 
too, as in another of old Shepperton further 
on, of another sort. It shows how boats 
were hauled up the river before the locks were 
made, and when the horses walked in the 
stream . 

The boatman sets out from the busy scene 
of Molesey Lock, where is the merry music of 
laughter as the boats go over the rollers, and 
•eager expectancy as the waters pour through 
the sluices, by many a place where he lingers, 
and to which he will often return. This is the 
favourite region for boating, with long open 
reaches and many eyots in the stream, where 
it is pleasant to lie under the banks, to explore 
the backwaters, and to picnic in the welcome 
shade. There is a gentle beauty in the river 
hence to Windsor that grows upon the visitor 



Garrick's "Temple" and Hampton Church. 

with its subtle charm of green and sedgy 
banks, trim lawns, splendid foliage, and re- 
flected over-arching sky. The district im- 
mediately hereabout is certainly not the most 
picturesque, for the banks are low, without 
striking features, though above them rise the 
distant wooded hills of Esher and Claremont, 
and the gentle sweeps which border the Ember 
and the Mole. There are, unhappily, some 
disfigurements also — the smoke stacks, venti- 
lating shafts, pumping works, and large filtering 
beds of London water companies, for it is 
from this region of the Thames that a great 
deal of water supplied to the metropolis is 
drawn. Within recent years, and even months, 
these works have been extended ; and there is 
also upon the Surrey side, on the site of what 
was once known as Molesey Hurst, a place 
notable for duels and prize fights, the grand 
stand of the Hampton Races. Further along, 
too, on the Middlesex side, behind that pleasant 
river-side house, Sunbury Court, a large area 
is given up to the Kempton Park Races. These, 
if they do not please the lovers of the Thames, 
and those who live near by, afford unbounded 
delight to a great many strangers. 

At the outset, in this up-river journey from 
Hampton Court, we meet a very famous scene 
of the Thames, where the " Grecian Temple," 
so-called, of Garrick's Villa is disclosed amid 
trees upon the bank, with the pinnacles of 
Hampton Church behind. All lovers of the 
river know the place. The house in which the 
great actor dwelt can scarcely be see n from the 
water, -for it stands on the other side of the 
road. It was the home that Garrick delighted 



so 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 



in, and that won the encomium of Johnson : 
•' Ah ! David, it is the leaving; of such places 
that makes a death-bed terrible." Garrick 
designed and laid out the grounds, and built 
the temple to receive Roubiliac's well-known 
statue of Shakespeare, which is now in the 
British Museum. Horace Walpole describes the 
gaiety of the house, the fetes and illuminated 
garden parties, and the great people he met 
there. The place should be dear to all lovers 
of the stage, and we cannot but regret that 
the purpose of the great player's widow to 
maintain it was at last defeated. Upon her 
death in 1822, when she had been a widow for 
43 years, the well-kept house was broken up, 
and its collections dispersed, but the memory 
of Garrick will long linger by the Thames. 



middle waters, or lower angling grounds, of the 
river. Tags's Island, and other eyots here- 
about, are famous resorts of anglers. Near 
Sunbury are special rearing ponds, out of which 
thousands of young fish are turned into the 
river every year, and there are excellent deeps 
where the angling is very good. The Thames 
Angling Preservation Society is a body which 
protects the fishery under the Thames Conser- 
vancy, and has water-bailiffs and watchers 
along the river. The wary angler would do 
well to make himself familiar with the regula- 
tions, and with the fence months for trout, jack, 
roach, dace, barbel, gudgeon, chub, etc., and 
to remember that the watchers may enter his 
boat, and seize any fish or spawn illegally taken, 
as well as the instruments used for their cap- 







. /\/!v:i//o-//rr ' /^r/r />/ J/aMPTON C0UR.T BfillKif: rn>/!i ///.■ . A'/zy/- ly'' .'///am/:i<J/,.„;/iJii,r'ri'^,j.iy 



Hampton Church is a familiar object to all 
who know the river — a building of somewhat 
picturesque aspect, but without much to dis- 
tinguish it, save the monuments which are 
vv thin. One of these is distinctly curious. It 
is that of Mistress Sybil Penn, who was the 
daughter of a John Hampden. She was the lady 
whose spirit walks, if old wives' tales be true, 
at Hampton Court ; the same who nursed 
Prince Edward. Her effigy is of the most 
formal, wooden character that can be con- 
trived, and there is a long epitaph, by one who 
lias " plied his pen " to praise " this Penn." 

In the churchyard at Hampton it is well to 
note also that Huntingdon Shaw is buried, the 
actual craftsman of those marvellous iron gates 
or screens, which were designed by Jean Tijou 
for William III., and at one time lined the river 
front of the gardens at Hampton Court. 

Hampton, and Sunbury beyond, may be 
described as a headquarters of fishing in the 



ture. The boatman, too, may be advised to 
ascertain his rights and privileges in regard to 
picnics and camps on the islands and banks. 
So will bad blood be spared, and nought trouble 
digestion or other pleasures of the placid Thames. 
This is not the place in which to deal at any 
length with fishing in the river, but it must be 
noted that all along the bank there are angling 
resorts at the various villages, and old hostelries 
which welcome the votaries of the gentle art. 

Sunbury, which they greatly haunt— for trout 
may be taken by the long rushing weir — lies 
about two miles beyond Hampton, a plea- 
sant old-fashioned village, straggling along the 
Middlesex bank, with old red brick dwellings, 
fine trees, and much to make it attractive. Its 
church is a plain and unpretentious structure. 
but the village, seen from the water through 
the willows, presents a very pretty picture. A 
melancholy memorial has somewhat lately been 
erected there, in the form of a drinking fountain. 



SUNBURY AND IVALTON. 



SI 




Photo., y, S. Cmt/ord, 



Sunbury Lock. 



u-1 



surmounted by a recumbent lion. It is to the 
memory of two brothers of Sunbury, who lost 
their lives in the country's service within 
a month of one another— Captain Charles 
Frederick Lendy, R.A., who died at Buluwayo 
in January, 1894, from the effects of the 
Matabele campaign, and of Captain Edward 
Augustus Lendy, D.S.O., who was killed in 
action at Waima, West Africa, in December, 
1893. The boating hereabout is excellent, and 
is conducted with every facility. 

But Sunbury is soon left behind by the 
swinging oars, and a mile and a half further 
up we tmd Walton on the Surrey shore. Here 
the Thames is full of beauties. From the 
bridge there are fascinating views both 
stream and down, with a broad 
expanse of water sweeping round 
a noble curve, green banks, and 
the woods of Oatlands Park 
clothing the gentle hill. No won- 
der, we say, the place attracted 
the pencil of Turner, whose 
picture of Walton Bridge, witn 
its wealth of water and sky, 
is filled with that luminous 
character which was all his 
own. The church of St. Mary 
is a curious structure, with an as- 
pect that is decidedly impressive 
when it is regarded from certain 
points. There is a Norman ar- 
cade within, and early portions 
dating back perhaps to the time 
when Walton-on-Thames was 
a place of importance, a walled 
town commanding a notable ford 
across the river. The church, is 
built of flint, stone, and chalk, 



Hmmfton It'ick. 

and has some Norman features, though it has 
been a great deal changed. Queen Elizabeth 
is said to be the author of certain lines which 
are cut in one of the piers — 

" Christ was the Worde and spake it : 
He took the Bread and brake it ; 
And what the Worde doth make it, 
That I believe, and take it." 

They show, with great pride, a singular 
brass, dating from 1587, to the memory of 
John Selwyn, " Keeper of her Ma'tie's Parke 
of Otelande," his wife, five sons, and six 
daughters. The keeper himself is depicted 
having sprung upon the back of a stag, to 
which he is dealing death with his knife. Here, 
too, is a very notable military memorial, with 




Walton Church. 



THE THAMES H.LUSTRATED. 




^ ../ i/cir../_//u ' /'/•/////• «/w7/.'.' ^//ii 



Walton Bridge, J 794. 



effigy, of Field Marshal Richard Boyle (Lord 
Shannon), who died in 1740, with his lady 
kneeling at the foot. This is the most remark- 
able work of Roubiliac. Yet more singular is 
that odd means of securing domestic peace 
jealously preserved in the vestry, it is a 
" brank " or " gossip's bridle," in the form of 
a circlet of iron, intended to go round the face, 
and secured by a padlock, with a thin pro- 
jecting piece which would hold down the tongue. 
This, it would appear, the Walton men were 
sometimes accustomed to use for the subjection 
of their refractory spou'^es. 

but the interests of ancient Walton are not 
exhausted. Here was President Bradshaw's 
house nearer the river, with the very panelled 
chamber in which the death-warrant was signed, 
and in which the uneasy spirit of the regicide 
walked, to the terrifying of Walton in former 



times. But of far greater antiquity were 
Cowey Stakes, just beyond Walton bridge, 
which probably marked the passage of Ca?sar 
in his second invasion of Britain, when he 
crossed the Thames on foot to subjugate Cas- 
sivellaunus, who had strongly defended the 
bank. There is the strongest evidence of those 
who frequented the river within the last century 
that a set of stakes existed in the bed crossing 
from side to side. These appear to have 
marked the ford, with the purpose of compel- 
ling the waders to cross under the eye of the 
watch set upon the bank. 

More than a dozen times between Walton 
and Chertsey, which, as the crow flies, is a 
distance of but three miles, does the wayward 
and varied Thames turn, now to the right and 
now to left, in great and sweeping curves 
that are often contained within a right angle. 



1 




PhoU., Frith. 



Halliford. 



Rtifate. 



SHEPPERTON AND IVEYBRIDGE. 



53 



Infinitely diversified are the prospects as the 
noble stream sweeps between Halliford and 
Shepperton on the Middlesex side and Wey- 
bridge on the other. The wooded slope of old 
Oatlands Park, the fir-clad heights of St. 
George's Hill, the beautiful meadows by the 
tributary Wey, the green and shadowy lanes, 
and the noble river contribute to make a series 
of most delightful pictures indeed. The region 
is one, therefore, beloved of anglers and boat- 
men. Halliford, a pleasant village, whose 
name is supposed, though doubtfully, to pre- 
serve the memory of the great ford across the 
Thames, and Shepperton just beyond it, lie 
along the pleasant road from Walton Bridge to 



a far-reaching curve on the way, we turn 
north-west with the river towards Windsor and 
Maidenhead, nor shall again depart from that 
general direction until we reach the place 
where it sweeps with a mighty curve round 
the slopes of Winter Hill from Great Marlow. 
Weybridge is a pleasant village, with extensive 
views of the lovely river scenery, splendid 
trees, shadowy lanes, and many fine old houses 
in its vicinity, interspersed with not a few that 
are new ; possessing, too, the old column 
which once stood in Seven Dials, erected on 
its green as a memorial of the Duchess of 
York. The Church was rebuilt in 1848, and 
has since been enlarged. It has a spacious 




Jfudsa^ ^ '^a 



Phoro., Frith, 



Weybridge. 



Chertsey Bridge. Shepperton is a delightfully 
quaint place still, with f:ne houses standing 
amid trees, a green framed with chestnuts and 
elms, and a pretty surrounding country. There 
is excellent fishing at the place for barbel, 
perch, roach, jack, and sometimes trout, and 
boats and punts are plentiful. The Church 
looks charming from the water, but has been a 
good deal altered since it was built in the i6th 
century, to replace an earlier structure which 
stood in the river on piles. 

Weybridge, on the Surrey side, a short mile 
above Shepperton, is the most southerly point 
in the whole course of the Thames. Nowhere 
else does the river strike so far southward as 
at the point of its confluence with the Wey. 
Hitherto we have traced it upward in a south- 
westerly direction, but now, still with many. 



aspect, and possesses some monuments of 
interest, including those of Vice-Admiral Sir 
Thomas Hopson, who broke the boom at Vigo, 
and died in 1717, and of the Duchess of York, 
who died at Oatlands Park in 1820. The 
small Catholic Church at Weybridge is also 
interesting to many as having been, until 
1876, when the remains were removed to 
Dreux, the burial place of King Louis Philippe 
and his family, where they lay "donee in 
patriam, avitos inter cineres, Deo adjuvante, 
transferantur." 

But Weybridge is mostly celebrated for Oat- 
lands Park and its famous memories. It was a 
place which Henry VIII., with his accustomed 
greed, marked more than once in the valley of 
the Thames, grasped out of the hand of its 
youthful possessor. He proceeded with feverish 



54 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




-'^"■"■^y •■m~'i* '■' ■ -.-.r. . . . ' ■■■:■'■ 



View of Sbepperton in J 752. 

energy to build there a palace which was little 
inferior to Hampton itself. The abbeys he had 
spoiled of their revenues were the quarries 
that satisfied his caprice. Chertsey, near by, 
and Bisham, by Marlow, gave up the stone 
wrought long before ; Abingdon was robbed of 
its pavements of marble and tile ; the fruit trees 
the monks of Chertsey had planted in their 
orchard, were carried to the Royal abode. 
Henry designed the palace to receive his 
new Queen, Anne of Cleves, but, before it 
could be completed, she had arrived, with hard 
and ill-favoured visage carrying disappoint- 
ment, and had given place to her successor. 
Edward VI., Elizabeth, James, and Charles I., 
were often at Oatlands, which afterwards, a dis- 
mantled fragment, came into the hands of Sir 
Edward Herbert, who fled with James II., and 
then to his brother, the Earl of Torrington. 
From him it passed to the Clintons, Earls of 
I-incoln and Dukes of Newcastle, of whom one 



enlarged the place, re- 
modelled it, formed a 
splendid lake, and built 
a grotto, with other like 
additions, which disap- 
pointed Walpole. The 
place was celebrated 
afterwards as the resi- 
dence of the Duke of 
York, and the scene of 
the hospitality of his 
Duchess. It passed later 
into private hands, and 
was converted into the 
Oatlands Park Hotel, a 
tine Italian structure, in 
beautiful grounds, with 
the great lake and the 
Thames below the ter- 
race on which it stands, 
whence there is a magnificent prospect of the 
river from Kingston to Windsor. 

Oatlands Park lies, indeed, in a beautiful 
country, with lovely woods around it, and St. 
George's Hill rising behind to an elevation of 
500 feet between the Mole and the Wey ; its 
breezy heights, with delicious air and sylvan 
scenery, varied by elms, oaks, and pines, rich 
in ferns and wild flowers, and scented by 
innumerable blossoms in the spring. A mag- 
nificent panorama may be surveyed from 
various points on the hill. There is a vast 
sweep of the valley of the Thames ; we behold 
distant Wycombe and Windsor ; Cooper's Hill 
nearer at hand ; Bushey, Hampton Court and 
Richmond Hill ; Harrow, Highgate and Hamp- 
stead. On the other side are the Kentish and 
Surrey Hills. Across the river Mole which 
flows to the Thames by many a splendid seat, 
and notably by Cobham Park, and the beauti- 
ful domain of Pain's Hill, the eye ranges to 




Phoo., J. S. Catfotd. 



Chertsey Lock. 



Bampfon Wick. 



C^ERTSEY. 



S5 



Knockholt Beeches, the Hog's Back, and many 
a hill besides. 

It is two miles up from Shepperton Lock 
to Chertsey. Pleasant old Chertsey is a 
half-rustic country town, with a flavour of 
the old, and yet a considerable aspect of 
the modern. Boatmen and anglers know it 
well, and cyclists on the road from Staines to 
Woking find refreshment in its inns. In former 
times Chertsey was a place of note, through 
the neighbourhood of its great mitred abbey, 
which was a noble monument of devoted muni- 
ficence and ecclesiastical splendour, now, save 
for a few vestiges, all swept away. It would 
appear that the abbey was founded by St. 
Erkenwald about the year 666, in the reign of 



to grow in importance through the munificence 
of the wealthy, until it reached the height of its 
splendour in the times of Edward II. and his 
successor, when Abbot John de Rutherford, 
exercising private generosity, was regarded as 
another founder of the house. 

Many famous men were buried in Chertsey 
Abbey, and, amongthem, Henry VI., whose body 
lay there until Richard III. translated it to Wind- 
sor. In the first act of " Richard III." we meet 
the open coffin of the King, with his gentlemen 
carrying halberds, and Lady Anne mourning — 

" Come now towards Chertsey with your holy load. 
Taken from Paul's to ba interred there; 
And still as you are weary of the weight, 
Rest you, whiles 1 lament King Henry's corse." 




l*Hmt., lavnt. 



Chertsey Bridge. 



King Egbert, and afterwards further endowed 
by Frithwald. This was the first monastic 
house established in Surrey. It was presided 
over by Erkenwald until he became Bishop of 
London, and was favoured by Offa, Ethelwulf 
and Alfred ; butthe Danes, coming swiftly, swept 
down upon the place, slaughtered Beocca, the 
abbot, and his monks, to the number of ninety, 
and gave the church and buildings to the flames. 
It was a fate that befel not a few abbeys in the 
times when pillaging hordes swept up the 
Thames and other river courses and ravaged 
the fairest regions of the land. But Chertsey 
Abbey was refounded by Edgar in 964 as a 
Benedictine house, which, receiving new pos- 
sessions from Edward the Confessor, continued 



This is Shakespeare's version, but, in fact, the 
body was brought from Blackfriars to Chert- 
sey by water. Remembering what splendid 
monastic piles still stand in lonely ruin else 
where, as at Rievaulx, Fountains, and Glaston- 
bury, it is difficult to understand how Chertsey 
Abbey should have been so utterly destroyed. 
Even in 1752 Stukeley marvelled at the com- 
pleteness of the work of the spoilers. "So total 
a dissolution I scarcely ever saw," he says. 
"Of that noble and splendid pile, which took 
up four acres of ground and looked like a town, 
nothing remains." The site of the Abbey, aiiJ 
the scene of its destruction, was between the 
little Abbey river and the Thames, and there 
a few fragments alone mark the position. 



S6 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




London Stone. 
The foundations have been explored, and 
some relics rescued, and there hangs among 
the peal of six bells in the parish church, one 
with an inscription, " Ora mente pia pro nobis 
Virgo Maria," which probably came from the 
abbey. The church has a memorial of one of 
Chertsey's celebrities, Charles James Fox, 
tvho revelled in the glorious prospects from the 
neighbouringSt. Anne's Hill. The poet Cowley, 
who lived his latter years and died at Chertsey 
'in 1667, had loved the place before him. It 
(vas in a half-timber house, quaint and secluded, 
tvith a window looking towards the hill, that 
he settled down, indulging the hope of meeting 
" the simplicity of the old poetical golden age," 
for he dreamt of Sidney's Arcadian shepherds, 
and pondered within himself whether he " might 
recommend no less to posterity the happiness 
and innocence of the men of Chertsey." 
His house is still in existence, bearing upon 
its wall the line of Pope — 

" Here the last accents flowed from 
Cowley's tongue." 

But. if Cowley was disap- 
pointed with the men of Chert- 
sey, viewed from the idyllic 
standpoint, he never could be 
disappointed with St. Anne's 
Hill, which rises about a mile 
north-west, famous, like all the 
hills hereabout, for the magnifi 
cent prospects it affords. Of the 
country enjoyments of Charles 
James Fox, the records of Ciiert- 
sey are full. All his biographers 
describe the enthusiastic fond- 
ness with which the famous 
statesman loved the place. It 
was a supreme delight to him 
to wander through the woods, 
to survey the river from the 
balcony, to loiter in his kitchen 



garden, or to play trap-ball on the lawn, 
when the hour came for leaving his writiuij 
table. " 1 dare say Fox is at home, sitting 
on a haycock, reading novels, and watching 
the jays steel his cherries," said General 
Fitzpatrick to a friend at a time when the 
thunders of the French Revolution were 
shaking Europe. The house in which he 
dwelt may be seen on the way to the hill. 

It is unfailingly delightful to ascend the 
wooded pathways, and rest where some charm- 
ing view is unfolded. Except that Cooper's 
Hill shuts off Windsor Castle, there is a great 
prospect over the Thames, the hills that 
enframe it westward and towards Richmond 
below, while Harrow, Hampstead and Highgate 
rise beyond. The country is delightfully varied 
and picturesque, and richly timbered. On the 
pleasant side of Surrey we have Bagshot 
Heath, St. George's Hill, with other heights 
between, and the eye wanders north-westward 
over the splendid region of Virginia Water and 
the Great Park of stately Windsor. 

Beyond the pleasant meadow-land at the foot 
of St. Anne's Hill, but on the other side of the 
river, stands quiet old Laleliam, with a notable 
ferry, Laleham House below it, a plain, square 
mansion, the seat of the Earl of Lucan, and 
Penton Hook, a famous place for trout, above. 
The broad meadows hereabout, with the river 
flowing placidly by, do not claim to be 
picturesque, but, under changing effects of light, 
and with great cloud-shadows sweeping across 
field and river, they have a characteristic at- 
tractiveness of their own. Arnold, who lived 
at Laleham for some years before he removed 
to Rugby, thought the place " very beautiful." 
He found abundant resources in the bank up to 
Staines, which, he said, "though it is perfectly 
flat, has yet a great chai m from its entire 
loneliness, there not being a house anywhere 




At Ankerwyke. 



Ox/or (L 



LALEHAM AND STAINES. 



57 




Phcr*., yri/M, 



Magna Charta Island. 



Rtigalt. 



near it ; and the river here has none of that 
stir of boats and barges upon it, which 
matces it in many places as public as the high 
road." 

Laleham itself, with its old-fashioned red- 
roofed cottages, is a pleasant place to pause at. 
There is Arnold's house, where he spent the 
years which he thought the happiest of his life, 
and which he continued to regard with affection, 
and the churchyard in which he hoped to be laid. 
The church of All Saints is a good deal patched, 
but some early features remain. Externally there 
is something quite charming in the low broad 
seventeenth-century, ivy-grown tower, with its 
green and rustic surroundings. Penton Hook, 
or, as it is often pronounced, " Penty " Hook, 
is a little higher up the river. At this point the 
stream makes a sudden sweep round a great 
horse-shoe curve, on the Surrey side, which the 
lock cuts at its base, leaving a green and 
well-wooded island between. The banks are 
green and sedgy, and the quiet waters of the 
long curve have a restful charm, not broken by 
the passage of steamboats and launches, which 
makes them pleasant to linger along. 

It is two miles and a half from Laleham to 
Staines Bridge, the grey granite structure of 
Rennie, a very pleasing and winding course, 
amid woods and fields, with rooks winging their 
way above, or skylarks trilling where the eye 
cannot follow. From the river itself we see 
little of the old town of Staines, which is now a 
thriving place, with manufactories, where the 
railway from Waterloo diverges, one line going 
by Wyrardisbury, or Wraysbury, and Datchet 
to Windsor, the other crossing the river half a 
mile below Staines Bridge to Egham and Virginia 
Water, and so forward to Wokingham and 
Reading. In ancient times — for the bridge 



over the Thames at Staines is one of the oldest 
above London Bridge — the river was spanned 
by oak from Windsor Forest, which carried a 
highly important main road from London to the 
west country. The professor of architecture at 
the Royal Academy, Thomas Sandby, built a new 
stone bridge there shortly after the year 1791, 
which, within a few weeks, began to sink irre- 
parably. Strangely enough, two successive 
iron bridges afterwards collapsed, and the hand- 
some work of Mr. Rennie was commenced in 
1829. 

But Staines itself — though a convenient rest- 
ing place for anglers and boatmen — must not 
detain us in this journeying towards Windsor. 
The church has the base of a tower which Inigo 
Jones built in 163 1 ; there is Duncroft, a fine old 
Jacobean house of many gables, standing amid 
old-fashioned gardens ; and there is London 
Stone by the river. At that stone we enter 
upon what is legally described as the Uppei 
Thames. It marks the place where aforetime 
the jurisdiction of the City of London over the 
Thames terminated, and bears the names of 
several Lord Mayors, the inscription " God 
preserve the City of London," and the record 
of the Thames Conservancy, dated 1857. 

Shortly after passing the London Stone, the 
fitting approaches to Royal Windsor begin. 
Buckinghamshire is now on the left bank, while 
the old Surrey village of Egham stretches along 
the delightful sylvan road to Virginia Water on 
the other — Virginia Water, famous for its created 
charms, for its enchanting landscapes,^ its 
winding lake, and great waterfall, its noble 
beeches, oaks and firs, its antique ruins and 
superb prospects ; scarcely less notable for those 
neighbouring monuments of unstinted muni- 
ficence, the HoUoway Sanatorium and College. 



58 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 



Of Egham we need say little ; it has attrac- 
tions that commend themselves, and is familiar 
to ail wheelmen who frequent the charming 
vicinage of the Thames. But, beyond it, below 
the verdant slopes of Cooper's Hill, our hearts 
thrill with noble memories when we think that 
this is Runnimede, this the place where long ago 
the Barons won our freedom, the basis of our 
liberty, from the niggard hand of John. There 
is no certainty, it is true, as to the actual spot 
where the famous charter was signed. Many 
hold that Magna Charta Island, in the 
river, was the historic scene, and there, in 
1834, Mr. Simon Harcourt erected a gothic 
temple, and placed a stone averring the 
fact.k/ Mr. Green assumes that John encamped 
on one bank and the Barons on the then marshy 
flat of Runnimede on the other, and that their 
delegates met in the island. 

Whatever may be the precise fact, this is 
certainly the place where the Barons imposed 
their limit upon the arbitrary exercise of the 
kingly authority. It is appropriately a fresh 
and open country, with great overarching sky, 
and water-lilies bedecking the stream. The 
island of the Charter, and Picnic Island 
beyond, where aforetime, and sometimes now, 
by permission, merry parties find enjoyment, 
cleave the river in twain ; and Cooper's 
Hill overlooks the scene. Over against Magna 
Charta Island, and a mile from old Wraysbury, 
jr Wyrardisbury, in the grounds of Ankerwyke 
House, there still stands a memorial believed 
to read back to the days of John. It is the 
great Ankerwyke yew, with hollow trunk, still 
green, nevertheless, which is glorious among 
our forest trees, and is described by Strutt, who 
figures it in his " Sylva Britannica," as being 
27 feet 8 inches in girth, three feet from the 
ground. If it witnessed the deliberations of the 
Barons, or heard the rage of King John, it was 
destined later, if tradition be believed, to be the 
confidant of the ill-starred amours of Henry 
and Anne Boleyn. 

Cooper's Hill, — which many, perhaps, know 
best by the presence on its superb brow of the 
splendid Indian Engineering College — has se- 
cured enduring literary fame. Thus says 
Pope : — 

" On Cooper's Hill eternal wreaths shall grow 
While lasts the mountain, or while Thames shall flow." 

There is a magnificent prospect from the crest, 
embracing all the points seen from St. Anne's 
Hill, extending to St. Paul's, and with the 
hoary towers of Windsor rising from their 
umbrageous surroundings some three miles 
away. Denham made it his Parnassus, extol- 
ling its charms with fervid imagination, in 1642, 
and, says Somerville — 

" Charm'd once the list'ning Dryads with his song." 

With eager strokes now the skiff is urged 
forward towards Windsor. Old Windsor and 



Datchet lie between, along the " winding 
shore," which, no doubt, gave name to the 
royal abode.. " Saxon kings kept court at Old 
Windsor ; there Harold and Tostig once ex- 
changed unbrotherly blows ; the Conqueror 
liked the place, too, because of its proximity to 
the river and Windsor Forest, where he might 
fish and hunt as he would. There is no special 
history for the village after the time of Henry 
I., and now it remains, a pretty place, with 
scattered dwellings, and many fine houses 
about it. The river, which is singularly 
beautiful, flows before the village, and the 
magnificent trees of Windsor Great Park are 
behind, with the Castle towers rising above 
them. All anglers and boatmen know that 
quaint old hostelry, the " Bells of Ousley," 
where highwaymen erewhile foregathered, 
with its embowering trees, a mile below the 
lock. 

Datchet is old and genteel, rustic some- 
what, but with villas all about it, telling much 
of the modern, and even something of the 
suburban perhaps, and with the two iron bridges 
of Victoria and Albert spanning the stream. 
We cannot think of Datchet without thinking 
of Falstaff. The " muddy ditch at Datchet 
mead," where he was "carried in a basket, 
like a barrow of butcher's offal, to be thrown 
in the Thames," and would have been 
"drowned but that the shore was shelvy and 
shallow," was indeed on the Berkshire side of 
the river, near the end of Datchet Lane. The 
" Merry Wives of Windsor " had their revenge 
on his carnal body; "A man of continual 
dissolution and thaw, it was a miracle to 'scape 
suffocation. And in the height of this bath, 
when I was more than half stewed in greese, 
like a Dutch dish, to be thrown into the Thames, 
and cooled, glowing hot, in that surge, like a 
horseshoe ; think of that — hissing hot — think 
of that. Master Brook ! " 

Above the scene of this famous exploit, the 
river grows entrancingly beautiful, for the 
towers of Windsor and the splendid trees form 
new pictures at every turn of the stream. 
Here, too, is a famous fishing region, to which 
Izaac Walton himself — sometimes in company 
with "that undervaluer of money, the late 
provost of Eton College, Sir Henry Wotton " 
— did often resort to fish for "a little trout 
called a samlet or skegger-trout, that would 
bite as fast and freely as minnows, and catch 
twenty or forty of them at a standing." The 
site of this spot dear to anglers is marked by 
the Black Pots fishing cottage. 

But we have reached a place where we may 
pause in our journeying. Historic Windsor 
has now risen before us, and the old halls of 
Eton are there tempting us to stay. They are 
places of famous memory, cherished by all 
Englishmen, and form a fitting break in our 
survey of the Thames. 




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Photo., y. S. Cal/ord. 



Windsor from the River. 



Hampton Il'ift, 




O set foot on shore at Windsor is one of 
the supreme delights of the Thames. 
If we ask ourselves what it is that 
invests a locality with excelling 
attractiveness, we answer that it is 
natural beauty, enhanced by historic 
interests, adorned with architectural and 
artistic splendour, and affording the means for 
the pleasurable exercise of mental and physical 
powers. Now all these things are found 
combined in the castle, river, and park, at 
Windsor. Where else can they be discovered 
m such degree together ? The verdant steep 
that rises from the "winding shore " is crowned 
with a range of walls, towers, and turrets, in- 
comparably grand. All that was great in our 
ancient military architecture made the encircling 
towers and walls the formidable defences they 
were ; all that was rich and splendid in the 
beautiful world of ecclesiastical art was lavished 
upon the splendid Chapel of St. George ; the 
genius and skill of ages have worked for the 
enrichment of the royal abode. 

How famous are the memories that cling to 
these ancient walls ! Our successive rulers in 
Plantagenet, Tudor, and later times have dwelt, 
as their chief residence, in this most splendid 
of our castles. Other royal castles there were, 
in earlier years, throughout the country, 
where the king's constables kept watch and 
ward in the realm, but it was Windsor on the 
Thames that was fitted to be, and that became, 
the great seat of royal power. Therefore all 
our history groups, as it were, round the regal 
hill. And it was not only the voice of kings in 
council, not only the spurring hither of knights 
and royal messengers, not only the stir of 
chivalry and of the political and fighting world 
that filled these halls and castle-wards ; for the 



memories of great men like William of Wyke 
ham, and of poets like Chaucer and Surrey- 
nay, of Shakespeare himself— of beauteous 
women and romantic deeds are here enshrined. 
Here, indeed, sceptre and sword, distaff s'.pri 
pen, have exercised their apportioned sway. 

Look out from the tower or the terraces over 
the wondrous scene that surrounds you. There 
is our noble Thames flowing downward by 
many a charming place we yet shall visit, 
through woods and emerald meadows ; there is 
famous Eton below, which we have yet to 
enter, the school where generations of states- 
men and soldiers have been moulded into 
gentlemen and what they became ; and away 
south-eastward it glides by Datchet and Runni- 
mede, when it is lost in the distant delights we 
have left behind. Look where you will, to 
Burnham, or Windsor Forest, or Richmond, 
there are woods hallowed by their memories, 
or haunted by the fairy crowd, or famous in 
romance and song ; there are impressive hills 
rising from the plain ; spires and towers each 
with a history ; distant glades and meadows, 
that we cannot but wish to explore. Descend, 
then, to the umbrageous depths of Windsor 
Great Park where legendary oaks stretch out 
their knotted arms, where elms soar loftily 
toward the sky, beeches nod their plumes over 
the sward, and the green gloom of the firs 
extends its grateful shade. You will find the 
richest of woodland pleasures, and, still as 
Shelley said — who lived near by, delighting in 
the glades — that 

" Silence and Twilight here, twin sisters, keep 
Their noonday watch." 

It is delightful to wander through the woods,. 
or lie at length beneath the trees, watching the 
herds of tripping deer, or to linger where stood 



74 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




phM.. Friih. Henry Vm.'s Gateway. 

the haunted oak of Heme, whereby they say 
Falstaff fared so hardly. Shakespeare, indeed, 
loved the verdant glades and the noble towers 
of Windsor, as he had learned, when a boy, to 
love his own woodland of Arden. They were 
fairyland to him, who knew their poetic spell. 
Let us, therefore, repeat the admonition of sweet 
Anne Page to the attendant sprites. 

" Search Windsor castle, elves, within and out : 
Strew good luck, ouphs, on every sacred room. 
That it may stand till the perpetual doom, 
In state as wholesome, as in scate 'tis fit. 
Worthy the owner, and the owner it. 
The several chairs of order look you scour 
With juice of balm, and every pr cious flower; 
Each fair instalment, coat, and several crest, 
With loyal blazon, ever more be blest ! 

Away! disperse! But, till 'tis one o'clock, 
Our dance of cuMom round about the oak 
Of Herte the hunter let us not forget." 

But, in a riverside description of the Castle, 
we remember that Windsor was 
born of the Thames, it was bet- 
ter journeying, much, in former 
times, as it is pleasanter still, by 
the river than by the road, if 
there had been no Thames there 
could have been no Windsor, 
The dominant height command- 
ing that vast country, so easily 
accessible by the water, which 
it forebade to all but the king's 
friends, and yet so well defended 
on the hill, marked it out for a 
fortress, while the dense woods, 
and the wild heath, now planted 
or cultivated — 

" A dreary desert and a gloomy waste 

To savage beasts and savage laws a 

prey — " 

were a region filled with attrac- 
tion for William the Norman, '•'•'"■■'■ ^"^ 



who " loved the tall stags as it he 
had been their father," and his 
descendants, whowere filled with 
veritable passion for the chase. 
But, long before the Normans 
came, there had been a Royal 
lodge at Windsor, not upon the 
height but at Old Windsor by 
the shore, hidden amidst the 
woods, and reached by bridle- 
paths through the forest, where 
lierds of swine ate oak and beech 
mast in the groves, and swine- 
herds and charcoal-burners were 
almost the only dwellers therein. 
Yet there had certainly been a 
fortified outlook-post on the hill 
before William raised his strong 
donjon there. The Conqueror was 
too good a soldier not to recognize 
the military importance of the 
position, and he appointed a constable to keep 
watch and ward. In his time and that of his son 
the place was as much a prison as a residence, a 
stronghold where turbulent barons might be 
clapped under bars. This was the fate of 
Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, 
who was captured out of Bam borough castle in 
1091;, and lay pining at Windsor .ong years after 
until he died Under Henry 1. the importance 
of Winchester and Gloucester as royal residences 
declined, while that of Windsor proportionately 
grew. A subterraneous way through the cha k, 
with a Norman door at each end, issuing at a 
postern in the outer fosse about 30 feet beicvv 
the upper level, goes back to those times. 
Henry II. lived much at Windsor, and built a 
good deal, soothing his embittered age with a 
gloomy picture of an eagle with four young ones 
tearing it, whereof one, which pecked at the 
e\-es, was John, the same who, out of his gate 




St. George's Chapel, West Front. 



Rtigau. 



WINDSOR. 



75 



sallied forth to Runnimede. The walls 
these kings built at Windsor have dis- 
-appeared, with the wooden structures 
within. 

More than once in those times there 
was fighting for Windsor, and the castle 
was vainly beleaguered by the barons 
in 121 7 in the struggle for the disputed 
throne of Henry 111. it was driven to 
surrender at the opening of the war, in 
1263, but was recaptured ty Prince 
Edward. Henry enlarged the buildings 
of the present Lower Ward, and erected 
a stately chapel, sumptuous chambers, 
and defensive works. The great Curfew, 
or Clewer, Tower, which dominates 
Thames Street and the way from the 
bridge, and the Garter Tower, next be- 
yond it, remain of the works of his time, 
which were continued along the Southern 
frontage of the Lower Ward. The King's 
Hall adjoined tlie Clewer Tower, where 
"the College Library now is, and beyond 
it, extending along the crest of the hill 
north of St. George's Chapel, were the 
.great kitchen and the royal lodgings. 

Henry would have done more, but that 
means were wanting, but he left what 
Matthew of Westminster, his contem- 
porary, describes as the most splendid 
palace in Europe. Edward I. and Edward 
11. lived much at Windsor, where they 
held their courts, received guests and 
envoys, sat in council, and delighted in 
tilting and tourneys. But it was Edward 
ill., who had been born at Windsor, that 
raised the castle to its magnificence, and 
gave it much of the proud character it 
holds to-day. Before his time the Domus 
Regis and the fortified works had exten- 
ded little beyond the existing Lower Ward. 
But the poetical mind and lofty spirit of Edward 
of Windsor conceived a more magnificent 
character for the royal abode. All the legendary 
lore of Arthur and his knights, who were 
fabled long before to have dwelt there, inspired 
him to the creation, not only of a noble castle, 
but of an order of knights who should evermore 
•be associated therewith. He had the genius 
and skill of William of Wykeham and many 
another able man, supported by the finest handi- 
•craft of the country to assist him. The castle 
was created anew. The chapel of Henrylll.took 
new form, and the Lower Ward was assigned to 
the great eccles'.istical foundation of the col- 
legiate chapel of bt. George, its canons, priests, 
■choristers, and poor knights. There grew about it 
arches and cloisters, a deanery, chapter-house, 
treasury, and lodgings and halls for ecclesiastics, 
.and military knights. The great Round Tower, 
now the proud central feature of the Castle, 
sprang up rapidly, to receive the round table 




I'koto., Friili. 



St. George's Chapel, the Nave. """"'■ 

of the new chivalry. About it lay the Middle 
Ward, assigned to knightly service, and the 
pages of Froissart are brilliant wiih the record of 
the stately pageants and celebrations of the 
time, of the jousts and tourneys, the hawking, 
hunting and dancing of that glorious day, in . 
which foreign princes and nobles came in crowds 
to the Castle, while once the King of France, 
with his son, and the King of Scotland, were 
there together confined. While the Lower and 
Middle Wards were thus appropriated to religion 
and knighily prowess, the Upper Ward a'AS 
created as the splendid royal dwelling. Since 
those times much has been done to change and 
further beautify Windsor Castle, but it received 
its final stamp of character from Edward 111., 
and from William of Wykeham , and others who 
directed the works. 

The feast of St. George, the patron of 
Windsor and of the new Order of the Garter, was 
the occasion of great rejoicings and stately cere- 
monies at the Castle, and successive kings held 
their courts at Windsor when the festival came 
round. Richard 11., who had Geoffrey Chaucer, 



76 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




fkoic. Frith, 



The Albert Memorial Chapel. 



the poet, for his clerk of the works, was otten 
there. It was a place where the singer might 
well be inspired with his love of romance, and 
the green beauties of nature. Another poet. 
King James 1. of Scotland, was at Windsor, in 
honourable captivity, for many years. His 
lodging was in the Devil's Tower, at the corner 
of the Upper Ward, whence, looking out "to 
see the world and folk that went forby," there 
passed 

" The fairest or freshest young flower 
That evi r I saw methought before that hour." 

This was his future queen, Jane, the daughter of 




riiflfo., I'rifk, 



Prince Cons 



Monun ent. 



the Duke of Beaufort. Still another poet was 
at Windsor later, the unfortunate Earl of Surrey, 
who, after enjoying its gaiety, was afterwards 
imprisioned there — 

" Where each sweet place returns a tasle full sour ; 
The large green courls where we were wont to hove, 
With eyes cast up unto the Maiden's Tower, 
With tasy sighs, such as folk draw in love." 

Meanwhile the Castle was developing its- 
greater glories. Edward IV., who was buried 
at Windsor with his queen, built St. George's 
Chapel, the most splendid ecclesiastical work of 
its time, running east and west through the 
midst of the Lower Ward, and en- 
riched and enlarged the collegiate 
foundation. Henry VII., who at one 
time purposed to be buried there, 
made glorious the chapel with the 
splendid groining, which makes magni- 
ficent the choir. There is not space to 
describe here the many historical in- 
cidents and the famous courtly festi- 
vals and feats of arms of which 
Windsor was the scene. Henry Vlll. , 
who there received the golden rose as 
" Defender of the Faith," completed 
tne works about St. George's Chapel, 
and built the imposing gateway named 
after him, by which the Lower Ward 
is entered, between the Salisbury 
Tower, at the south-western angle, and 
the Garter House. When danger 
threatened Edvva'-d VI. at Hampton 
Court, Somerset carried him for safety 



I^VINDSOR. 



77 



to Windsor, but the castle bears no mark of his 
time. Elizabeth did much for the castle by 
reclaiming the rugged steep and constructing 
the North Terrace, from which there is such a 
superb prospect over the Thames. She built 
also her "Gallery," where it is pleasant to 
think Shakespeare may have produced " The 
Merry Wives of Windsor," and spent much 
time at the Castle. The Stuarts were often at 
Windsor, but it was garrisoned for the Parlia- 
ment, when St. George's Chapel was stripped 
and other damage done. Charles II. erected 
his "Star" Building on the North Terrace, 
where rooms wtre adorned by Verrio, who 
even disfigured St. George's Chapel. Better 



enlargement. Sir Jeffrey Wyattville took 
charge of the work, and cont nued it unt 1 his 
death. The most conspicuous change was the 
raising of the great Round Tower to a lottier 
height, whereby, it must be confessed, the 
Castle has gained in nobility of aspect. Many 
excrescences were removed, and externally 
the Caste assumed an appearance of unifor- 
mity. Various towers were enlarged and raised, 
practically the whole of the Upper Ward was 
reconstructed, additional state rooms being 
built, and the suite of private apartments com- 
pleted. 

Such has been the brief history of the famous 
Castle to which our wandering has brought us. 




The Dean's Qoisters. 



Reieote. 



work was the extending of the Terrace along 
the east front, and the planting in the park. 

Many scenes of the Revolution of 1688 were 
enacted at Windsor, though William 111. liked 
Hampton Court better. Windsor Park, how- 
ever, owes much of its foliage to him, and in 
particular the great and far-famed Long Walk. 
Though Anne was often at Windsor, and 
employed Sir James Thornhill to carry on the 
work of Verrio, the Castle declined in royal 
favour. George 111. lived his plain and unosten- 
tatious life, which has been so often described, 
at the Queen's Lodge at Windsor, near where 
the royal stables are. 

His successor, who often retired to the 
Castle, procured a grant from Parliament for 
its restoration. It had, indeed, become neces- 
sary to remove incongruities, and make some 



Much as some changes may be regretted, the 
more recent work has lifted the royal dwelling 
from the state of neglect into which it had 
fallen, and has swept away many of its dis- 
figurements. During the reign of Queen 
Victoria this good work has been continued. 
The Castle has grown more beautiful, and it 
has received the gorgeous enrichment of the 
Albert Memorial Chapel, which will ever as- 
sociate with Windsor the memory of the late 
Prince Consort. 

We now understand the triple character of 
the Castle buildings, which extend some 1,500 
feet east and west along the crest. We have 
ascended the Castle Hill, by the Queen's 
statue, and enter beneath the arch of Henry 
VllL's Gateway. Glorious is the architectural 
character of the Lower Ward which lies before 



78 



THE THAMES H^LUSTRATED. 



us. The noble length ot St. 
George's Chapel, with its splen- 
did projecting chapels, its rich 
windows, pinnacled and tlying 
buttresses, turrets and cresting, 
is there. Below is the beautiful 
opening of the quaint Horseshoe 
Cloisters, with the Curfew 
Tower dominating the scene, 
while to the left rise tlie Garter 
and Salishuiy Towers. Further 
up rises the massive strength of 
the Round Tower. On the 
right the picturesque range of 
the Mil.tary Knights' Houses 
faces the ecclesiastical pile. 

Exceediiigly quaint are the 
Horseshoe Cloisters, where the 
lay clerks of St. George's Chapel 
reside, bu.:'t on the plan of a ,.J,^ 
fetterlock, which was a badge 
of Edward IV. There is a rarely pictures- 
que charm about these old timber and brick 
dwellings, ably restored by Sir Gilbert Scott, 
which face the west front of the chapel. 
Here is the entrance to the Curfew, or 
Clewer Tower, that strong structure of Henry 
HI., recently, like the Garter Tower, refaced 
with stone. Here the 17th and i8th century 
bells ring out joyously on festive occasions, 
and toll mournfully when sorrow touches the 
Throne. Below, there is a vaulted chamber, 
22 feet in diameter, with walls some 13 feet 
thick, deeply recessed and loop-holed. Beyond 
the fine ascent to the chapel, and by a memorial 
cross, we reach the Library Terrace, a narrow 
outlook over the battlements, with the pretty 
old town below, the river, Eton, and a splendid 
landscape of the country bordering the Thames. 
Immediately on the left is the College Library, 
with a valuable collection of classics and 





Photo., Frith, 



The Q-.-een's Audienci Chaniter. 



Rcif^att^ 



divinity, standing where was the King's Hall' 
of Henry 111., while, on the right, is the 
school in which the choristers are educated, 
with a panelled schoolroom and large dining 
hall. The Canons' Houses run further east- 
ward along the crest. Many an artist has 
found delight in depicting the quaint and 
imposing buildings that are grouped hereabout. 
But that superb monument of ecclesiastical 
art, the Chapel of St. George, now claims our 
attention. For centuries a chapel had stood on 
this spot, dedicated to St. Edward the Confes- 
sor. The founder of the Chapel of St. George 
was Edward ill., who conceived a monument 
of splendour that should be fitted for the in- 
stallation of the illustrious Order of the Garter, 
His chapel stood for a century, when the 
present imposing structure took its place 
in the time of Edward IV. It bears the impress 
of uniformity, and is, perhaps, the most per- 
fectly complete example of its 
time. Externally, the great flight 
of steps which leads to the west 
door, adds to the impressive 
effect of the lofty window, a 
splendid example of masonry 
work, filling nearly the whole, 
of the west front. 

The chapel is usually entered 
by the south door, however, 
which has the semi-octagonal 
bay-like transept, inclosing the 
Bray Chapel, on its right. This 
is the place where the organ- 
screen separates the nave from 
the choir. Turning, then, to the 
west, the extreme richness of 
the chapel is at once apparent. 
The whole conception is, in fact^ 
one of unsurpassed splendour. 
Rti^att -j-]-|g great west window, filling- 



WINDSOR 



79 



the end of the nave, with its sixteen lis^hts rising 
in five stages, suffuses the chapel with ricli 
and mellow light through its gorgeous panes of 
old stained glass. Nothing detracts from the 
harmony of the structure, for the west window 
is but part tf an elaborate desii n carried out 
in the walls, and enframing the windows and 
doors, while the columns spread out into the 
ribs and compartments of the exceedingly rich 
fan groining of the roof. 

Before proceeding to the choir it may be well 
to note the various chapels of the nave. The 
Beaufort Chapel is a bold feature at the south- 
western angle of the chapel. It was founded 
by Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester, 
1526, but is now a memorial of the late 
Duke of Kent, and contains an alabaster tomb 
designed by Sir Gilbert Scott, with effigy by 
Sir i-dgar Boehm. The old Urswick Chapel 
opposite, at the west-end of the north aisle, 
contains the elaborate monument of Princess 
Charlotte, which, unfortunately, is in the 
feeble taste of a bygone day, with a cenotaph 
of her husband, Leopold 1., King of the 
Belgians. '11.. Bray Chapel, near the south 
door, which projects with five sides of an 
octagon as the transept, form a chief feature 
oT the chapel externally. It was founded by 
Sir Reginald Bray, to whom is ascribed the 
groined roof of the choir, and who is here 
buried without monument. The corresponding 



Rutland Chapel, on the north side, contains 
some interesting memorials. 

The illustrations which accompany this work 
show, better than words can, the splendid 
character of the choir. The restoration by Sir 
Gilbert Scott has brought back the glorious 
edifice to the state its builders contemplated. 
Through the evil taste of a former time the 
mullions of the east window, which is of fifteen 
lights in three main compartments, had been 
partially removed to give place to a transparent 
painting of the Resurrection, by Benjamin 
West. Now fine modern glass, a memorial 
of the Prince Consort, fills the lights, grouping 
harmoniously with a beautiful carved reredos 
designed by Sir Gilbert Scott. The whole 
choir is exceedingly rich, with its dark carved 
oak stalls of the" Knights of the Garter, the 
banner, surcoat, helmet and sword of each 
hanging above, the stalls of the sovereign and 
princes of the blood beneath the organ gallery, 
the magnificently carved Royal Closet over the 
arch on the south side, and that near it for 
members of the household. 

Under the Royal Closet the monume.it of 
Edward IV. remains, despoiled of its adornments, 
but preserving an admirable iron screen assig- 
ned to Quentin Matsys, the celebrated smith. 
Beneath the black and white marble pavement 
is the vault containing the remains of Henry 
VIII., Jane Seymour, Charles 1. and others. 




Photo., /'rilh. 



The Throne Roooi. 



X<4pnlfc 



So 



THE THAMES HJMSTRATED 




Phafei., Frith. 



St, George's H. 



At the east end of the south side is the Lincoln 
Chapel, corresponding to the Beaufort Chapel 
at the west end, where stands the magnificent 
altar tomb of Edward, Earl of Lincoln, Lord 
High Admiral, and a statesman of Elizabeth's 
days, while opposite, on the north side, is the 
Hastings Chapel. Forbearing to describe the 
other monuments and enrichments of this com- 
pletely harmonious structure, we leave it, to 
linger a while beneath the cool and beautiful 
arches of the Dean's Cloisters, built by Edward 
111., which lie north-east of the Chapel. About 
this green space, and at the east end of the 
Chapel, remain traces of earlier work, and there 
is a passage hence to a strong postern and the 
Hundred Steps, which led down to the Eton Road. 
On that side too, are the Deanery, built by Dean 
Urswick in 1500, and the Winchester Tower. 

But, if St. George's Chapel is rich, the Albert 
Memorial Chapel, which is to the east of it, on 
the south side of the 
Dean'sCloisiers,is even 
richer still, though in a 
style quite distinct and, 
in a measure, modern. 
Here Henry VII. once 
proposed to be buried, 
here Wolsey planned, 
and here the Long 
Parliament demolished. 
From a "Tomb House " 
of George HI. and his 
lamily, the Chapel, un- 
der the inspiration of 
Queen Victoria, was 
lifted by Sir Gilbert 
Scott, with the adorn- 
ments of Baron Triqueti, 
into splendid memorial 
of the Prince Consort. 
Extraordinary richness 

-' Photo,, Frith. 



or ma erial, skill of the highest 
order, and lavish adornment of 
every appropriate kind have 
contributed to make the Chapel 
resplendent and worthy of its 
object. Here is the magnificent 
marble cenotaph of the Prince 
— who is buried at Frogmore 
— With his eftigy in armour, 
carved in white marble; here, 
t )o, the tombs and effigies of 
tie Dukes of Clarence and 
Albany. The lower walls are 
panelled in an original manner 
with subjects from Old Testa- 
ment history, in inlays of various 
marbles. The surrounding mo- 
saics and medallions (the latter 
by Miss Durant) are most-ump- 
tuous. From this panelling of 
walls and apse the ribs rise 
above into the beautiful fan tracery of the 
roof, where is incrustation of Salviati mosaics. 
The side windows illustrate heraldically the 
ancestry of the Prince Consort, and the east 
windows depict the Passion. 

We are now free to betake ourselves to the 
Round Tower — not by any means round, by 
the way — which almost fills the Middle Ward. 
It stands upon an artificial mound of much 
greater antiquity than itself, and, wirh its 
elevation of 148 feet above the quadrangle, 
is a superb position for surveying the castle 
below, and a vast panorama, it is asserted, of 
a dozen counties. Edward 111. built in haste for 
his chivalric purpose. His was a squat struc- 
ture, its height less than half its diameter, 
which is 102 teet at the broadest and 93 feet at 
the narrowest part. Wyattville raised it in- 
geniously, not burdening the old foundations 
with a new load, but building up trom within. 




Queen Elizateth's Ga'.eway. 



IVINDSOR 



Si 





Pfuta., J. S. Cat/otd. 



The East Front and Garden. 



Hampton IVick, 



SO that there may be said to be two structures, 
though both are faced with flints and indistin- 
guishable from one another. 

From this elevation we look over our glorious 
prospect of the Thames, and down to the Quad- 
rangle of the Upper Ward. On the left is the 
so-called " Norman Gate," which is really a 
work of William of Wykeham (1356-62), wiih 
the famous Library just beyond it. Then, 
further, between the Quadrangle and the 
Great North Terrace, extend the State Apart- 
ments, in the " Star Building " of Charles II., 
which are approached by this Norman Gate 
and the small court beyond it. Opposite to 
us are the Private Apartments, with the royal 
drawing, dining, reception, and throne rooms, 
which range along the East Terrace, and look 
over the beautiful sunk garden. On the right, 
are the apartments for visitors, officials, and 
others. George Ill.'s Gateway is in the middle 
of this range, leading out to the Great Park, 
the Long Walk, and to Frogmore. 

We shall not enter here upon any minute 
description of the State Apartments. There 
are guide books which explain sufficiently well 
their gorgeous character. The Vandyck Room 
isfamous for itssplendidand extensive collection 
of works of the master. Nowhere else can he be 
so well studied. There are pictures of Charles 1. 
and his family. King Charles on horseback. 
Queen Henrietta Maria, Prince Charles, Mary, 
Duchess of Richmond, Venetia, Lady Digby, 
the Second Duke of Buckingham, Vandyck 
himself, and many more. TheZucarelli Room, 
or State Drawing Room, has nine landscapes 
and religious subjects by that master. Passmg 
through the State Ante-Room, with a ceiling by 
Verrio, and fine examples of the work of 
Grinling Gibbons, the great Waterloo Chamber 
is reached. It is entirely the creation of 
Wyattville, and is adorned with imposing 
portraits of statesmen and of those who took' 
part in the great war, chiefly by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence. The Presence Chamber or Grand 
'deception Room is notable for its glorious 



Gobelin tapestries, representing the history of 
Jason and Medea. St. George's Hall, which 
Wyattville fitted for festivals of the Order of 
the Garter and State banquets, is a magnificent 
apartment, 200 feet long, 34 feet broad and 32 
feet high, its ceiling heraldically emblazoned, 
its walls hung with portraits of Stuart and later 
sovereigns, and oaken galleries for musicians 
at each end. The Guard Chamber is famous 
for its armour and antique weapons, and for 
many objects of historic interest within its 
walls. The Queen's Presence and Audience 
Chambers have ceilings by Verrio and excel- 
lent Gobelin tapestry, and upon their walls are 
hung many pictures of interest. The Queen's 
Private Apartments, are a right royal suite, but 
must not be described here. 

Leaving, then, much behind us within the 
wards and chambers of Windsor Castle — there 
are, indeed, treasures of gold and silver where- 
of we cannot speak — we betake ourselves t& 
the famous North Terrace, which extends from 
the Winchester Tower to the Brunswick Tower,, 
and is 1 ,870 feet in length, there to tike a part- ' 
ing look over the splendid country below, a.' 
prospect which embraces the Home Park, the : 
Thames, with Eton by its side, Stoke Park,.] 
Harrow, and hill upon hill fading into the far 
distance. The East Terrace and gardens have - 
other beauties. The tower on the north is that ' 
ot the Prince ^f Wales, and the Victoria Tower 
is at the other end of the range, while the 
Chester and Clarence Towers intervene. 
They relieve the monotony of the great fa9ade, 
of wh ch the windows look out on these beauti- 
ful gardens, laid out by order of George IV. 

There remains to stroll in the famous Great 
Park, with its magnificent avenue of the Long 
Walk, three miles in length, flanked by its 
doable lines of glorious elms, and termin- 
ating in the heigiit of Snow Hill, which is 
crested by Westmacott's equestrian statue of 
George 111. There are other wonderfixi 
avenues here, and glorious groups of greenery, 
as in Queen Anne's Ride and the famous 



82 



THE THAMES HLUSTRATEE 



Rhododendron Walk, where you may stroll 
for a mile through shrubs in splendid flower 
in the early summer. There are celebrated 
trees that have witnessed the forest diversions 
of ancient kings. Heme's Oak is green no 
more, but a youthful tree marks the spot. 
Thus says Shakespeare, in the " Merry Wives 
of Windsor"— 

" There is an old tale goes, that Heme the Hunter, 
Sometime a keeper here in Windsor Forest, 
Doth all the winter-time, at still midnight, 
Walk round about an oak, with great ragg'd horns; 
And there he blasts the tree, and takes the cattle; 
And makes milch-kine yield blood, and shakes a chain 

In a most hideous and dreadful manner. 

« * * « 

Marry, this is our device ; 
That Falstaff at that oak shall meet with us. 
Disguised like Heme, with huge horns on his head." 

All the park is full of legend and history. 
There are fallow deer and wild boars, with other 
game in plenty. Go where you will, whether 
to look at Cumberland Lodge, the Chapel Royal 
of All Saints, the famous grape-vine, which 
rivals that of Hampton Court, or the glades or 
depths of the forest ; or wander further to 
visit the lovely region of Virginia Water ; and 
you will say that the surroundings of Windsor 
are worthy of the royal abode. 

There is Frogmore, too, beloved of Queen 
Charlotte, and famed for the Prince Consort's 
Mausoleum ; and there is the great Home Park, 
which lies below the North Terrace of the 
Castle, flanking the river, as all lovers of the 



Thames know, with its beauteous woodland, 
and full of interesting and charming scenes. 
Here are the Royal Kennels, the aviary, and 
the dairy. As to the Royal Farms, they are 
celebrated among all agriculturalists and 
breeders. These were very largely de- 
veloped under the care and superintendence 
of the Prince Consort. There are also the Royal 
Mews near the Castle, visited by very many. 
The Royal borough itself has little to offer 
of interest except the Castle about which it 
grew. The needs and protection of the 
King drew strangers, who built about his 
walls. But Windsor has a great charm for 
all river men. It is one of those places 
where it is pleasant to break the journey- 
ing, a place moreover that presents, at 
certain seasons, particular attractions. Eton 
is its fascinating neighbour, and, between the 
river-loving Eton boys, who are famed for 
things aquatic, and the old royal borough, 
there is never-failing opportunity for enjoying 
the brightness of river-life and its beautiful 
accompaniments, as there is, in these historic 
scenes, of witnessing some of the most pro- 
foundly interesting places in our supremely 
interesting land. Windsor, too, has gathered 
new and enduring charm from having been 
the favoured residence of a queen who has 
endeared herself to all Englishmen. With 
this inspiring thought, let the river-wanderer, 
return to his skiff by the bridge. 




Windsor trom the Bridge. 



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ST. GEORGE'S CHAPEL, 

THE NAVE, LOOKING WEST 



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THE ALBERT MEMORIAL CHAPEL, 
LOOKING WEST. 



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rhoto., y. S. Catford, 



Eton from the River. 



Hainpto't If'ickt 




XCEPT that the 
Windsor bade 



ancient towers of 
us ascend the regal 
hill, we might, in our river journey- 
ing, have explored Eton first. The 
two places — the Royal Castle and 
the royal foundation — are insepar- 
bound together. In one has dwelt the 
out of the other has come, as 



ably 
Monarch 

Canning said, au uninterrupted succession of 
men qualified, more or less eminently, for the 
performance of Parliamentary and official 
duties ; men, we may say, fitted to fulfil all 
the duties of statesmanship ; empire-builders, 
like Pitt and Wellesley ; soldiers, too, of whom 
it is no great hyberbole to say that the famous 
victories of our arms have been won in the 
Eton Playing Fields. Let us, therefore, leave 
our boat at the bridge a while, and bend our 
steps towards the famous school. But, before 
doing so, we pause to note that hereabout is a 
chief centre of river life. 

Eton, itself, has set a stamp of popularity 
upon aquatic skill. No grey-beard, in these 
pleasant reaches, seems too old to handle a 
scull, no child too young to play with an oar. 
Every kind of river craft is to be seen in the 
neighbourhood of Windsor. There is that 
aristocrat of the Thames — the small private 
launch — gliding through a crowd of small craft, 
with the well-working double-sculling skiff, the 
gig, the canoe, and the lazy punt, the house-boat 
bedecked with flowers, the College eight and 
the Monarch ten-oar There are camps ashore, 
and stalwart men, and ladies in summer attire, 
bringing the touch of human charm, in these 



craft afloat. On the broad reaches infinite 
skill is shown in the continual tacking and the 
rounding of the mark-buoys with the small 
white-winged sailing craft which have become 
so popular on the Upper Thames, and nothing 
surely can be prettier than to witness \. flight 
of such craft upon the silver stream against the 
dark background of wood or greensward be- 
tween the locks. Presently our journeying 
will carry us to Maidenhead, where is the 
head-quarters of punting, that delightful 
exercise of river skill ; and even the flat- 
bottomed craft, which once depended wholly 
upon the pole, will take to themselves wings 
sometimes. 

But it is now time that we should wend our 
way towards Eton College, the place whereof 
the memory, and the toast " Floreat Etona," 
are so potent, wherever Etonians dwell through- 
out the world, to recall those enchanting scenes, 
" redolent of youth and joy, to breathe a second 
spring." The famous lines of Gray, which 
utter the affectionate thoughts of many, will 
not be forgotten here. 

" Say, Father Thames — for thou hast seen. 

Full many a sprightly race 
Disporting on thy raargent green, 

The paths of pleasure trace — 
Who foremost now delight to cleave 
With pliant arms thy glassy wave ? 
The captive linnet which enthral ? 

What idle progeny succeed 

To chase the rolling circle's speed. 
Or urge the flying ball ?" 

Of Eton itself no complete history or des- 
cription can, of course, be given here. The 



g8 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 



foundation of Henry VI. has so famous a record, 
and is, in itself, so interesting a place, that 
volumes have been devoted to it. It was 
designed by its founder to be the proudest 
memorial of his munificence, and the surest 
testimony to his zeal for religion. Fuller says 
that the king was fitted better for the cowl 
thai, the crown, and was of so easy a nature 
" that he might well have exchanged a pound 
of patience for an ounce of valour." He had 
been brought up among the studious men of 
his time, and his uncle, Humphrey, Duke of 
Gloucester, though we think of him mostly as 
a strong and turbulent politician, is to this very 
day commemorated in the solemn bidding- 
prayer of the Universitv of Oxford. We may 



never fully embodied, and it may be said that 
the Cellar, the Hall over it, the Pantry and 
the Kitchen, are the only portions of the 
College that correspond to the provisions of 
his "will." The Chapel was to have had a 
great nave, with aisles, but the choir only was 
completed, as it still stands, with some addi- 
tions at the west end, a very tine and imposing 
structure resembling some of the College 
Chapels at the Universities. 

We approach Eton College over Barne's 
Pool Bridge, after which all may be said to 
be collegiate. The way is narrow, but it 
broadens out, beyond Keate's Lane and the 
Upper School, to a green space, flanked by the 
masters' house-, and then divides, with the 




Eton College 

see how much better Henry applied the 
revenues of the Alien Priories which had been 
suppressed than did the latest Henry, those 
which fell to his rapacious hand. The purpose 
of Henry Vi. was to do for Cambridge what 
Wykeham had done for Oxford. There was 
1.0 be a " College of the Blessed Marie of Eton 
beside Wyndesore," which should be even 
superior to Wykeham's foundation. The 
monies for the endowment came chiefly from 
the revenues of the monasteries of Fecamp, 
Fontenoy,-Yvry, Saint Etienne, Caen, and the 
famous Benedictine House of Bee. The king 
took abundant pains for the glorifying of the 
structure. He laid down the minute instruc- 
tions in regard to the material employed, 
and the builders had punishment for such 
offences as "looking about," playing at their 
work or "chiding." The king's dream was 



Chapel. 

New Schools and the Fives Courts in the angle. 
The old College buildings are approached by 
the celebrated Elm Walk. The Upper School 
faces the road, and the entrance to the Quad- 
rangle, or school-yard, is through a gateway 
below. In the midst of the square is a bronze 
statue of the founder ; on the right stands the 
Chapel ; the Lower School ranges on the left, 
with the well remembered Long Chamber of 
old Etonians, now broken up into smaller 
rooms ; while the Provost's Lodgings are 
opposite. Facing us, is the great Clock Tower, 
an imposing feature of the Quadrangle, which 
resembles a like tower we saw at Hampton 
Court. Beneath its archway access is gained 
to the second Quadrangle, which is smaller, 
and has a cloister. 

The Chapel, upon the south side of the 
school-yard, is the chief feature of the College, 



ETON. 



99 




Phofs., Fritk. 



Eton College Chapel, looking East. 



Rei£are. 



and resembles, in a general way, the Chapel of 
King's College, Cambridge. In former times 
it was much disfigured, but it was somewhat 
elaborately restored between 1846 and i860. 
Not everything that was done can commend 
itself to the present day, for the " restoration " 
involved the partial destruction, completed by 
concealment, of the mural decorations above 
the stalls, which represented the highest skill, 
in that class of work, of the time of Henry VI. 
The paintings depicted many subjects from the 
" Legenda Sanctorum" and the " Gesta 
Romanorum." Fortunately, at the last moment, 
outline drawings of them were made. The 
whole effect of the Chapel is excellent ; with 
its lofty roof, its fine modern windows, its 
beautiful stalls, and many other interesting 
features. The little Chantry 
Chapel on the north side was 
erected in the reign of Henry 
VU. by Provost Lupton, and is 
a very charming example of the 
time. Over the door, in accord- 
ance with the fashion of his 
day, his rebus may be seen, in 
the shape of a wine-tun with the 
letters " Lup " upon it. The 
monuments, again, are very 
interesting, and include those of 
many Provosts and famous 
Etonians. Very beautiful also 
is the new screen of Caen 
stone, which was erected in 
memory of the Etonians who 
fell in the Afghan and South 
African campaigns. Its Tudor 
arch, which is very greatly 



enriched with mouldings, crockets and a finial, 
rises to a panelled entablature, and is flanked 
by octagonal turrets, with elaborate carvings 
and the arms of those commemorated. 

The most imposing building in the smaller 
Quadrangle, or, as Etonians call it, the Green 
Yard, is the College Hall, which, like the 
Chapel, has been restored, its east window 
depicts scenes in the life of Henry VI. ; there 
is a dais at the upper end, with enriched panel- 
ling behind it, and a carved canopy stand- 
ing out from the wall ; as in the great Hall at 
Hampton Court, there is a beautiful bay open- 
ing out from the dais, making a charming feature 
externally ; the open timber roof and the 
panelled walls are excellent, and the walls are 
hung with portraits of famous Etonians. On 




PhoiQ., Friiu 



Keate^s Lane^ Eton. 



Reigatu 



lOO 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Photo., J. .9. Cat/ord. 



Surly HalL 



Hampton tVick. 



the south side of tlie Hall is ihe Library, which 
has a noble collection of documents and 
printed books, and is very rich in Oriental 
manuscripts. 

The visitor to Eton will find abundant in- 
terest in these Quadrangles and the many 
buildings that surround them, not to be here 
further described. He will walk where famous 
men have walked before him ; he will follow 
them in their pleasures and occupations as 
boys, and he will trace the names which they 
have cut deeply in the walls. The New Build- 
ings, which stand north of the College, were 
erected about the time when the Chanel and 
Hall were restored. They are of red brick, 
with stone dressings, resembling in tiiis the 




Photo., frith. 



Cleaver 



College itself ; though Henry had designed that 
the Courts should be constructed of "hard 
stone of Kent." With their tall angle tower 
and picturesque chimneys the New Buildings 
make a picturesque group, and are airy and 
spacious within. 

Many changes have passed over Eton since 
Henry VI. induced William de Waynefleet, the 
munificent founder of Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford, to bring to Eton his five fellows and 
thirty-five scholars from Winchester. The 
Foundation now provides, besides the Provost, 
for a Vice-Provost and six other Fellows, the 
Head Master, Under Master and others, 17 
lay and other clerks, 70 King's Scholars and 
10 Choristf-rs ; and there are over 700 scholars 
known as Oppidans, many of 
whom live with the masters in 
the town. The Provosts of Eton 
have included such men as Sir 
Thomas Smith and Sir Henry 
Savile, both famous scholars of 
Elizabethan times. Sir Henry 
Wotton, whom Isaac Walton 
immortalised, Sir Francis Rous, 
who was Provost in Puritan 
days, and others not less cele- 
brated. Among Eton Scholars 
have been such men as Pitt, 
Walpole, Fox, Gray, Canning, 
Hallam, Wellington, and his 
brother the Marquis Wellesley, 
and other statesmen and soldiers 
innumerable. 

There are interesting figures. 
jt„sff too, in the list of Masters, men 



ETON. 



lOI 



well remembered, on more accounts than one. 
There was Nicholas Udall (1534), the author 
of " Roister Doister," first of modern comedies, 
of which the unique copy is now at Eton. 
Thus Tusser speaks of him in his " Five 
Hundred Points of Good Husbandry " — 

"From Powles I went, to Aeton sent, 
To learne straight wayes, the Latin phraise, 
Where fiftie-three stripes given to me, 

at once I had : 
For faut but small, or none at all, 
It came to passe, thus beat I was ; 
See, Udall, see, the mercy of thee, 
to mee, poor lad !" 

The Eton tradition of flogging was maintained 
by William Malim, and, after a milder period, 
was restored by the notorious Dr. John Keate, 
who was known to boast that he had flogged 
the whole bench of bishops. In his time 



Eton was famous even in the last century for 
its cricket, but cricket may be played any- 
where, while the water festivals of the 
College are only possible upon the Thames. 
Yet boating was not formally acknowledged 
before 1840, while now the College Boat 
Club is celebrated, and the Fourth of June 
Speech Day, when the memory of George 
111., whose birthday it was, is honoured, 
has long been a very famous day on the 
river. Then the College boats in procession 
pull up from the Brocas to Surly Hall, about 
three miles up the stream, and, after a feast 
there, return. In former times fancy dresses 
were worn on these occasions, each bout 
having its varied and distinctive uniform. 
Once the crew of trie Monarch, ten-oar, the 
leading boat, made a sensation by appearing 




Photo., y. S. Cat/erd 



Monkey Island. 



Haynplon tVick. 



rebellion was rife at Eton, and "Floreat Seditio" 
was a cry sometimes raised, but he crushed 
the outbursts with the rod. The unhappy 
youth who sought to make excuses for greater 
delinquencies by confessing to smaller ones, 
was confronted by the remark, " Then I'll flog 
you for that." There was a spirit of adven- 
ture in the school at those times which gave a 
keen zest to predatory raids into Windsor Little 
Park, where there was the double danger of being 
intercepted by an Eton master and a royal keeper. 
We shall turn now to the famous Playing 
Fields, which border the Thames, delightful in 
themselves, with their grand old elms and 
broad green stretches, and ever famous through 
Gray's verses, who loved the place — 

" Whote turf, whose shade, whose flowers amorg 
Wanders the hoary Thames along 
His silver, winding way." 



as galley slaves, chained to their oars, and on 
some occasions the eager rivalry of the boys 
has transformed the procession into a bumpini^ 
race, the disputed incidents of which have been 
known to be fought out in the High Street. 
Nowadays each boat has distinctive badges 
and decorations. The upper boats are the 
Mor^arch, ten-oar. Victory, and Prince of Wales ; 
the lower boats the Britannia, Dreadnought, 
Hibernia, St. George, Thetis, Defiance, and 
Alexandra ; and the coxwains wear the uniform 
of naval officers. It is a high festival, on which 
the Eton boy receives " his people," when the 
toast " In piam memoriam " is drunk, and the 
day ends with fireworks and rejoicings. 

There remains only to speak of that famous 
festival of Eton, which was known as Montem, 
celebrated every third year, when the scholars, 
in fancy dress and martial array, marched ad 



102 



THE THAMES U^LUSTRAIED. 




Pholo., Frith, 



Bray Church. 



montem, that is to Salt Hill, a small elevation 
about half-a-mile beyond Slough. There large 
and fashionable crowds assembled, and, after a 
ceremony, the "salting" took place, by way 
of levying contributions throughout the neigh- 
bouring country from visitors and passers- 
by. The work was done by two "Salt 
Bearers," assisted by "Scouts" and "Servi- 
tors," who originally gave a pinch of salt in 
return for the contribution, but, latterly a card 
bearing a Latin inscription. The origin of the 
custom was lost in obscurity, but it was dear 
to all Etonians, and its suppression, after the 
celebration of 1844, was a source of keen 
regret. Times, however, had changed, and 
the advent of the railway to Slough brought 




fhoio,, y. S, Ca:/ord, 



The Garden, Jesus Hospital, Bray. 



such a disagreeable company that the festival 
could no longer be held. 

But the Eton boats have gone before us to 
Surly Hall, and let us hasten to follow in their 
wake. It is a winding course of some three 
miles, and, as if to prepare us by contrast for 
the sylvan beauties of Cliveden, Cookham, 
and Henley that are to come, the Thames here 
flows between level banks, but banks possessed 
of attractions of their own. Ever as we go 
forward the hoary towers of Windsor are 
there. 

" On either side the river lie 
Long helds of barley and of rye. 
That clothe the wold and meet the sky; 
And thro' the field the road runs by 
To many towr'd Camelot." 

There is placid Clewer, that 
gave its old name to the Curfew 
Tower at Windsor, lying apart 
by a creek on the Berkshire 
side, a place famous for gentle- 
men's seats and religious insti- 
tutions, which are architectur- 
ally very beautiful. 

About us, on either bank, are 
the greenest of meadows, and in 
places great beds of reeds and 
osiers, and there are boats going 
to and fro, house-boats, too, gay 
with flowers, and boatmen en- 
camped by the shore. Regal 
swans have their nests among 
the reeds by the eyots and along 
the banks. They are a royal pos- 
session, and it once cost a year's 
imprisonment to steal a single 
egg ; but royal favour long ago 
allowed them to the Dyers' and 



IJampion IVicA 



BRAY. 



103 



the Vintners' Companies. The worK of swan- 
upping in July or August falls to the royal and 
other swan-herds. They cut the upper mandi- 
bles of the beautiful birds in a particular fashion 
to mark their ownership — a fashion a good deal 
modified since the Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to AnimaN expressed its displeasure 
at that which formerly prevailed. It is 
certainly a stirring and bustling sight, accom- 
panied by much splashing of water, when the 
swan-herds proceed to their work. 

We presently come to Boveney Lock, and, 
as the gates open, a promiscuous crowd of row 
boats, dinghies, punts, and even sometimes, 
it may be, a gondola or two, come out with 
much flourishing of boat-hooks and oars, and 
many a cry of " Look where you're going ! " 
as all go Windsor-ward. There was an ancient 
fishery at Boveney, and there is still a quaint 
little church to be visited. A very short dis- 
tance beyond the lock in our upward journey- 
ing we come to Surly Hall — that river-side 
hostelry so dear to all Etonians, and the place 
to which the College boats make their pilgrim- 
age on the great aquatic festivals of the College, 
occasions upon which great havoc, they say, is 
wrought among the ducks and green peas. The 
tables are laid out upon a meadow, where the 
birthday of King George ill., who was a prime 
favourite with the Eton boys, is kept right 
loyally. 

For a mile beyond the great curve at Surly 
Hall the course of the Thames is generally 
straight. On the Berkshire side there is Water 
Oakley, with the striking turreted mansion of 



Oakley Court, so well known to ail lovers of 
the river, which belonged to the late i,ord Otlio 
Fitzgerald. Down Place is also on this side. 
Here lived in former times Richard Tonson — 
the grandson of Pope's "Genial Jacob," that 
bookseller who lifted his trade so loftily, and 
collected about him all the leading Whig^ and 
wits of his time ; such men as Walpole, Somerset, 
Dorset, Somers, Walpole, Charles Montague, 
Vanbrugh, Congreve, Addison, Steele, and 
many more. These were the men who ate the 
mutton pies of Christopher Catt, whence came 
the Kitkat Club, and those portraits painted 
of Kitkat size which were presented to "old 
Jacob," and were hung by his grandson at 
Water Oakley by the Thames. 

We do not ascend the stream very far before 
we come to Monkey Island, which is so named, 
as oarsmen and anglers know, from pictures 
which the iandlord has been known to attribute 
to Sir Joshua, but which are really the work of 
a Frenchman named Clermont. Their author- 
ship, however, is a matter of indifference, for 
they are in no way remarkable. They adorn 
the fishing lodge which the third Duke of 
Marlborough built on the island, and decorated 
in this grotesque fashion, with classic subjects, 
such as the " Triumph of Galatea," in which 
the characters are all drawn from the monkey 
work. The place is now well known to all 
oarsmen and fishermen, who delight in the green 
beauties hereabout. These have a placid charm 
that attracted the pencil of the late lamented 
Frederick Walker, who was a real lover of the 
Thames. 




Pheto.. y, S. Cffjyfu. 



Hind's Head, and entrance to "the Churchyard, Bray. 



Uattipion ll^Uk, 



104 



THE THAMES HLUSTRAIED. 



It is but a short way from the swift flowing 
waters by Monkey Island to Bray lock, and 
beyond that to ancient and picturesque Bray. 
The fine poplars, the eel-bucks, the osier beds 
and the grey old tower of the church are well 
known to all frequenters of the Thames. At 
the ferry is the old " George " inn, from which 
the place groups most picturesquely. There 
are many who know the " Vicar of Bray" that 
have never seen Bray itself, but, when they 
do, they will think it small wonder he was 
resolved 

"That whatsoever king shall reign 
I'll be the Vicar of Bray." 

Sometimes this vicar, whose name was Simon 
Aleyn, has been made a political character, who 



within are both interesting and curious. The 
groups of old buildings about the church have 
the rare charm of quaint gables, red roofs, 
small windows, and timber framing about 
which ivy delights to cling. They form a most 
charming set of pictures, and have attracted the 
pencils of many artists. Frederick Walker was 
fascinated by that old brick quadrangle, the 
Jesus Hospital, at Bray. It stands a little back 
from the road, with a narrow garden between, 
and the quaintest of all clipped trees standing 
as sentinels there. You enter beneath an arch- 
way, over which there is a statue of William 
Goddard, a free brother of the Fishmongers' 
Company, who founded the almshouses in 
the seventeenth century. You are then in the 




Photo. J, S. Catford, 



Th; Fishery, Maidenhead. 



Hampton iVick. 



survived in comfort the various changes of 
Stuart and Hanoverian dynasties. But, in 
truth, his versatility was religious. Fuller thus 
speaks of him : " The vivacious vicar thereof, 
living under King Henry VIII., King Edward VI., 
Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, was first 
a Papist, then a Protestant, then a Papist, then 
a Protestant again. He had seen some martyrs 
burnt at Windsor, and found this fire too hot 
for his tender temper. This vicar, being taxed 
by one for being a turncoat and an inconstant 
changeling — 'Not so,' said he, 'for 1 always 
kept my principle, which is this — to live and die 
the Vicar of Bray.' " 

The church in which he served is certainly 
a very picturesque structure, mostly in the 
early Perpendicular style, but illustrating also 
the Early English and the Decorated periods. 
Its flint tower is excellent, and the monuments 



rustic quadrangle, with the quaint little dwell- 
ings all round it, clustered with honey-suckle 
and roses, while opposite to you rises the tall 
gable of the chapel, with its vane, and the tops 
of the poplars behind. Within the quadrangle 
are old-world flower and kitchen gardens, where 
you see aged men digging, many of them, as 
Walker thought, ripening for the scythe. He 
took that quadrangle, glorified it somewhat, 
raising a terrace round it, laid grass in the court, 
and put there the eloque nt figure of the mower 
sweeping down the upstanding blades, while 
ancient figures linger pathetically in this 
"Haven of Rest," which he made famous 
on his canvas. 

But the interest of Bray does not end with 
the church and the Jesus Hospital. You may 
walk across the water meadows to the moulder- 
ing manor house of Ockwells, which might 



MAIDENHEAD. 



los 




''hoto., FrtlK. 



Taplow Bridge and Maidenhead. 
have stood for the Moated Grange, where— 

" The rusted nails fell from the knots 

That held the pear to the gable-wall." 

Ockwells is comparable in its architectural 
interests as a timber building with enrichments, 
to that famous house, Ightham Mote, in Kent. 
The west side is particularly fine, with a high 
gable and beautifully carved barge-boards, and 
a five-light mullioned window over a low arched 
doorway. Its small mullioned windows and 
latticed panes are a beautiful example of timber 
architecture, and it stands a lonely — somewhat 
mournful — example of the manorial dwelling 
places of the time of Henry VII. Long ago 
Ockwells, or Ockholt, was the home of the 
Norreys family, of whom Richard de Norreys, 
was "cook" to the Queen of Henry 111., 
received a grant in 1267. The armorial glass, 
which included the arms of the abbey of 
Abingdon, and the Norreys achievements, with 
the motto " Feythfully serve," has been 
removed to a neighbouring modern abode. 

Bray, and the beautiful country which lies 
iibove it by the river, have attracted many to 
build their houses near the banks, and, as the 
•oarsman goes forward, and sees these delightful 
green lawns, where the turf islikevelvet,andthe 
flower beds are glorious, the fires of envy may, 
;Sometimes permissibly, arise in his breast. 
Pulling up the stream he very soon reaches 
ihe double-arched railway bridge, designed by 
Sir Isambard Brunei, which carries the Great 
Western line from Slough to Henley and Read- 
ing. Many a bright scene of river life may be 
witnessed hereabout on regatta days. Under 
one arch of the bridge there is a weird and 
mysterious echo, which has become rather 
famous, for, if you say "Ha!" but once, 
there will follow a peal of singular laughter. 
All travellers by the railway know the romantic 
scene that lies above the bridge, the quiet 
reach of water, the picturesque fishing cottage, 
the row of eel-bucks, the many arches of 




Kttgatt. 



Maidenhead Bridge, and the 
glowing woods and hills beyond. 
Maidenhead is a busy centre 
of life on the Thames. The 
attractions of its surroundings 
are very great. Already we 
have seen what are the pictures- 
que interests of Bray, and al' 
Thames oarsmen know hoM 
surpassingly beautiful are the 
reaches that lie above. We are 
at the threshold of what is 
universally admitted to be one 
of the most delightful districts in 
the valley of the Thames. The 
aquatic and sylvan beauties of 
Cliveden, Cookham, Hedsor, 
and Marlow would indeed be 
hard to excel ; and Maidenhead 
is an excellent place at which to rest, and from 
which to set out for the enjoyment of them. 
There everything that can conduce to the plea- 
sant and exhilarating exploration of the Upper 
Thames has its centre. Punts and every kind 
of river craft can be hired near the bridge, and 
there is excellent accommodation at the place, 
when often the riverside inns higher up are full. 
We are not likely, in these days, to meet at 
Maidenhead the scarcity that was encountered 
by James i. This is another story of a perhaps 
apocryphal Vicar of Bray. When the King 
arrived, riding ahead of his hunting party to 
bespeak food at the inn, mine host could hut 
say that the vicar and his curatp were above, 
and had ordered all that his larder contained. 
But the reverent revellers might be willing to 
admit the tired stranger to their board, and so 
it proved, though the vicar consented in some- 
what churlish fashion. But the King, with his 
Scottish wit, like Yorick, soon set the table on 
a roar, and the vicar laughed consumedly at 
his jokes. When, however, the stranger 
searched his pockets in vain, and declared that 
he had left his purse behind, the good man 
grew angry, and avowed that no hungry 
stranger should feast at his charge. But the 
curate was willing to pay for such excellent 




Photo., Fritk. 



Burnham Beeches. 



' 106 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 



company, and so, arguing, they resorted to the 
balcony, where, the royal huntsmen liaving 
arrived, went down upon one knee. The 
vicar, thereupon overwhelmed, flung himself 
down, too, and implored pardon for his churlish- 
ness. "1 shall not turn you out of your living," 
said James, "and you shall always remain 
Vicar of Bray, but 1 shall make your curate 
a canon of Windsor, whence he will always 
be able to look down on you and your vicarage." 
In July, 1647, James's unfortunate son, in the 
interval between the two Civil Wars, was 
allowed by the Parliament to meet his three 
children at Maidenhead, after long separation. 

But, otherwise, the history of the town is 
brief. There was a wooden bridge there in the 
time of Edward III., when a guild was incor 
porated to keep it in repair. There it was 
through a long January night in the year 1400 
that the Duke of Surrey, brother of Richard 11. 
held the passages against the men of Henry IV. 
to cover the retreat of his friends. The present 
handsome structure was designed by Sir 
Robert Taylor in 1772. Its surroundings are 
remarkably picturesque and beautiful, though 
modern hotels and other buildings break the 
older charm, especially on the Berkshire side 
towards Boulter's Lock. Close by the bridge 
stands Old Bridge House looking very pretty, 
with its red brick, ivy, and fine trees. 
■" Skindle's," that famous hostelry, is opposite, 
and the Guard's Club-house stands by the 
shore, with many boats lying along the edge of 



its trim lawn. There is an Angling Association) 
with its headquarters at Maidenhead, which 
cares for and preserves the fishery along these 
reaches, and turns great numbers of trout 
and other fish into the stream. 

Almost inexhaustible, as we have discovered, 
are the walks and excursions to be made from 
Maidenhead. Burnham Beeches are but four 
miles away, rearing their wild fantastic arms,: 
knotted and gnarled, from huge, hollow, moss- 
grown holes. They make, with their under- 
wood of juniper and holly, their purple heaths, 
rushy pools, and great green fern-brakes, the 
most picturesque assemblage of " old patrician 
trees " that can be imagined. "Both vale and 
hill," wrote Gray, who lived at neighbouring 
Stoke Poges, "are covered with most venerable 
beeches, and other very reverend vegetables, 
that, like most other ancient people, are always 
dreaming out their old stories to the winds." 

From Maidenhead to Boulter's Lock, where 
we shall make another pause, the distance is- 
but short. The green beauties of Raymead 
are on one hand, with the sylvan glories of 
Glen Island in the midst, while the magnificent 
hanging woods of Taplow and Cliveden are 
rising on the other. And Boulter's Lock, itself, 
on a bright Sunday afternoon, is one of the 
sights of the river. With youth at the prow 
and pleasure at the helm, in all these boats 
there is a scene of sunny gaiety and pure- 
enjoyment that truly seems to gladden the- 
heart of old Thames. 




nuf. •rith. 



Maideohead Bridge. 



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Phoio., Ifilsott, 



Cliveden Ferry. 




r will be observed by the explorer of 
the Thames, as a characteristic feature 
of the scenery, due to the configuration 
of the hills, that there is often a steep 
and wooded declivity on one side and a 
space of meadow, with distant scenery, 
on the other. In a general way it is the 
fashion of rivers either to flow through valleys 
with hills on either hand, or to crawl sluggishly 
across a plain. This is not the way of the 
Thames. We may see at Cliveden, at Marlow, 
and again at Newnham that the river seeks 
the shelter of the wooded height, from whose 
umbrageous slopes you look out to the open 
country that lies before, and there at the foot, 
as Spencer says, is 

"The christall Thamis, wont to slide 
In silver channell, downe along the lee." 

We emerge, then, from the densely wooded 
surroundings of Boulter's Lock, leaving behind 
us the long sylvan space of Glen Island, with 
the beautiful house of Sir Roger Palmer upon 
it, to traverse the splendid reach that lies along 
the foot of Cliveden Wood. This is a superb 
length of the Thames, dear, for its pictorial 
charms, alike to oarsmen, anglers, and artists, 
affording unfailing delight, whether we pull 
along the stream or linger by the romantic 
shore. Up above us, the stately mansion of 
Cliveden crowns the crest, a house which has 
passed from nobleman to nobleman, until at 
last the appreciative hands of an American 
millionaire, Mr. William Waldorf Astor, have 
caught the splendid prize. It is a place 



treasured as it should be, and about which many 
a romance might be spun. Here, we may say. 
Nature and Art have conspired to enchant the 
sojourner by the Thames ; and you may fancy 
that elves and fairies dance by moonlight in 
those delightful glades that open to the water's 
side, by the cooling spring, and that romanti- 
cally picturesque cottage among the laurels. 
The Duke of Westminster, before he sold the 
place to Mr. Astor, greatly improved the dense 
woods by cutting ways through them, so that 
there are shadowy walks among the trees 
and delightful vistas among them. The beauty 
of these hanging woods, luxuriant in their 
foliage, with the varied tints of yew, pine, and 
cypress, cannot be surpassed. The twisted 
roots of the trees emerge from the banks, and 
wild clematis and juniper cling to them, giving 
space, in grassy openings, to primroses, 
anemones, wild forget-me-nots, and unnum- 
bered other flowers of the spring and summer. 
Down by the river, too, there is varied colour- 
ing, in the cool tints of the reeds, the flags that 
have finished blossoming, and the rushes, and 
the deeper hues of the sedges. 

The luxurious fancy of George Villiers, Duke 
of Buckingham, ever to be remembered as the 
most dissolute courtier in a most dissolute age, 
planned the abode. The story will not be 
forgotten of how he killed the Earl of Shrews- 
bury in a duel, while the Countess, disguised 
as a page, held his horse. It was to Cliveden 
that they afterwards fled. Whatever fancy 
could suggest, wealth could procure, or art 



12: 



THIL THAMES ILLUSTkA TED. 




rho/o., y. .S". Ca'JPXi, 



could accomplish, was brought to the adorn- 
ment of the place, while Europe was ransacked 
to furnish the ducal abode. The character ot 
Buckingham has been immortalised by Dryden, 
Pope, and Scott Thus says Dryden :-- 

" A man so various, ihat he ^ee^n'd to be 
Not one, but all m.inkinds epitome; 
Stiff in opinion — always m the wrong — 
Was everything by slaris, but nothing long ; 
\vho, in the course of one revolving moon, 
Was chemist, hddler, statesman, and buffoon ; 
Then, all for women, paintmg, fiddling, drinking ; 
Besides a thousand freaks that died in thinkirg. ' 

But Buckingham did not long enjoy the elysiiim 
he had created. He died far away at Kirkby 
Moorside, in Yorkshire, where he lived retired 
from public life. Pope's famous lines are not 
quite consistent with fact. He died in the 
house of a tenant, in which he took shelter 



Cliveden Woods. "■""^■'"' """■ 

when overtaken by sudden illnesswhilehunting, 
and not, as we read in the " Moral Essays," 

"In the worst inn's worst room, with mat half hurg, 
'1 he floors of plaster and the walh of dung." 




Cliveden HouEe. 



" Alas ! how changed from him, 
" That life of p'.easuie and that soul ot whim ! 
Gallant and gay in Clive.'.en's proud alcove, 
'riie bower of wanton Snrew^bury and love ; 
Or just as gay at councd, in a ring 
Ol mimic statismen and their meiry king." 

When Buckingham had departed, the Earl 
of Orkney, a companion in arms of Marlborough, 
dwelt at Cliveden ; and later, again, it was the 
residence of Frederick, Prince of Wales, father 
of George HI. There it was, in his time, that 
"Rule Britannia" was first played, and 
that Thomson's Masque of "Alfred" was- 
produced. In 1743, which was the year of the 
" happy escape " of Dettingen, 
the Prince offended the people by 
having a troop of French players 
at Cliveden. " One of these," 
says Walpole, in a letter to Sir 
Horace Mann, " was lately im- 
pertinent to a countryman, who 
thrashed him ; His Royal High- 
D'rss sent angrily to know the 
cause ; the fellow replied that 
' he thought to have pleased His 
Highness in beating one of them 
who had tried to kill his father, 
and had wounded his brother.' " 
" This, " remarks Wal pole, "was 
not easy to answer." 

The house has been twice 
Kti^a;. i3|^,,-|i(;^ ai^(j y^as lastly rebuilt by 



COOKHAM. 



123 



the Duke of Sutherland from des'gns by 
Barry, .and along the great frieze of the 
imposing central block an inscription re- 
cords the fact. It is not necessary here to 
describe the features of the palatial house, 
which is a building of classic type, with mag- 
nificent apartments, richly adorned. The 
gardens, too, are extremely beautiful, and 
from the terrace there is a magnificent prospect 
over the valley of the Thames. This is a great 
region for the seats of noblemen and gentlemen. 
We shall presently be at Hedsor, the splendid 
estate of Lord Bolton, behind which lies Drop- 
more, famous for its conifers, and Woburn, 
Waddesdon Manor, Beaconsfield, Hughenden, 



house there, which was built by Sir George 
Young, and has beautiful gardens and pleasure 
grounds, is now the seat of Mr. Henry Gold. 
At this point the islands divide the river into 
four streams, which are all in their varied 
character charming and picturesque. Every 
oarsman knows the delights of e.xplorin4 these 
various recesses — if we may so call them 
— -of the Thames. The pictures will show 
better than words can describe the special 
character of this very beautiful sylvan 
scenery. The Cookhani backwater is par- 
ticularly famous, and the canal to the lock 
is the most beautiful lock-cutting on the 
river. 




Fholo.. y. S. Cal/ord, 



Entrance to the Lock, Cookhatn» 



£amplatt l^'ifJt. 



and many more such demesnes are within a 
few miles of this enchanting spot. Nearer at 
hand is Taplow Court, once the house of the 
Earl of Orkney, but now of Mr. William 
Henry Grenfell, a house which is not visible 
from the river here, but may be discerned 
upon the hill at some points lower down the 
stream. 

Passing, then, the ferry, and the cottage at 
the Springs, we find Cliveden Reach giving 
place to new and more broken scenery. 
Formosa Island, which is the largest eyot in 
the river, having an area, indeed, of about fifty 
acres, is famous for its woodland scenery, its 
stately trees which overhang the water, and 
lie charm of its flower-spangled banks. The 



At the old village of Cookham these several 
streams are conjoined. The village i not yet 
spoiled. The geese still waddle down the street, 
and the rustics gossip at the doorways of 
old cottages which line the way. In former 
times, the highwaymen made their harvest 
here, in Cookham Bushes, and it is recorded 
that the Vicar of Hurley received greater 
emoluments in consideration of the fact that 
his way lay through tliat dangerous spot, 
where his poclcets were liable to be relieved 
of their contents. There is an inn in the 
village with the very quaint sign of " Bel and 
the Dragon." The church is a place to be 
visited for its quaintness and its monuments, 
and those who love the pictorial beauties of 



124 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Pholo., Frith, 



Cookham Village. 



Rei^ate. 



the Thames may visit there the grave of 
Frederick Walker, A.R.A., whose pictures tell 
so truly of the life and scenery hereabout, 
and whose memory is perpetuated by a mural 
monument with a medallion. To many people, 
Cookham is better known than any other 
place on the river. It is an excellent centre both 
for anglers and oarsmen, and a place from which 
all the beauties and interests of Cliveden, 
Maidenhead, and Bray on one hand, and of 
Marlow, Bisham, and the beautiful country 
towards Henley on the other, may be explored. 
Hedsor, the noble seat of Lord Boston is upon 
the Buckinghamshire side, and the country 
thereabout, with hill and dale, cornland, and 
pasture, the quaint old church, the magnificent 
yews, and the stately house, is full of attraction. 
All along the riverside too, the bank is very 
beautiful, and Lord Bolton's eel-bucks are a 
very picturesque feature, though boatmen who 
seek to pass that way should ascertain their 
whereabouts. Beyond, is Odney weir, and 
then, passing Cookham Bridge, there is once 
more a change in the character of the scenery. 
The narrow wooded channels have given 
place to a broad and open reach. The water 
and woodland scenery is particularly beautiful 
at their junction. From the pleasant hills of 
Buckinghamshire the little tributary Wye joins 
the river, and the picturesque village of Bourne 
End lies upon a low height amid corn-fields, 
which look charming among the woods when 
you see them yellowing for the harvest. The 
great open reach at Bourne End is a place to 
which the thoughts of the up-river sailor are 
often turned. That he may have a weatherly 



boat, and an expert and clever crew, is his 
chief consideration throughout the year. Racing 
along and round this broad and basin-like 
water has become quite a science, and nothing 
can be prettier than to watch the white-winged 
craft rounding the buoys, or hugging the wooded 
shores as they race homeward. The Upper 
Thames Sailing Club has a handsome boat- 
house, and the Bourne End reach is the scene 
of its operations. 

The picturesque village of Little Marlow, 
with a rustic church, is a little way back from 
the bank on the Buckinghamshire side, and the 
long range of the Quarry Woods stretches 
towards Great Marlow. The curve from Cook- 
ham towards Marlow Lock is a great and 
striking one, and from the top of Winter Hill, 
round which the river sweeps, there is a truly 
magnificent view. The Quarry Woods have 
not the varied charm of Cliveden, but to some 
they are even more attractive. There is a 
wild and picturesque charm about them that 
wins upon the beholder, and they look out over 
the great sweep of the river, with its eddying 
water to the picturesque view of Great Marlow 
Church and the Suspension Bridge beyond. 

The broad, basin-like reach of the river at 
Great Marlow, breaking into foam as the water 
pours over the weir, the airy lines of the long 
and graceful bridge, the picturesque tower 
and spire of the church — to which distance 
lends enchantment — and the woods that em- 
bower it, are dear to all oarsmen and anglers 
who frequent the Thames. A very remarkable 
series of beautiful pictures is presented by the 
surroundings of Marlow. The varied banks 



GREAT MARLOIV. 



I'2S 



Pkolo., Fri.'h, 



and woods, that familiar old 
iiostelry, "The Complete 
Angler," the timber bridge 
spanning the mill stream, and 
the old mill standing by the lock, 
with many other features that 
neighbour them, all conduce to 
charming picturesque effects. 
The long line of the Quarry 
Woods forms a superb back- 
ground, as we look across from 
the weir over the eddying water 
that sweeps between. Whether 
the trees be budding in the 
Spring, or are rich in the full 
leafage of June, or turning to 
the reds and yellows of the 
Autumn, the dense masses of 
foliage which clothe the steep form an extremely 
beautiful setting for the broad waters of the 
Thames. Alike whether they glow in the sun- 
shine, or turn to shadowy purple as the evening 
falls, they are full of charm, and sometimes, in 
days of storm, the hill assumes a weird and 
impressive character, when seen across the 
water and the grey belts of reeds. The banks 
on both sides are full of primrose*;, hyacinths, 
and forget-me-nots, and it is delightful to walk 
at twilight along the bank, or to linger listlessly 
upon the stream when the moon rises over the 
darkening hi Is. 

Whether for fishing, boating, or picturesque 
wayfaring, there are few more fascinating 
places on the river than Marlow. The IWarlow 
Angling Association preserves the water, and 
tias done immense things to improve the fishing, 




Cookham Moor. 



Rets^aU. 



by turning great numbers of fish into the river, 
which in various places is consequently rich in 
trout, barbel, perch, pike, and gudgeon. This 
energetic body has also done good work in the 
past by tending to the extermination of otters, 
and we think of what old Isaac Walton -ays, 
who loved the river Thames, that " the otter 
devours much fish, and kills and spoils much 
more than he eats." For boating, the long 
and beautiful reaches from Cookham to Marlow, 
and beyond by Bisham and Hurley to Med- 
menham and Henley are excellent and full of 
variety. About Marlow, too, is a famous 
region for camping, and there can be no more 
delightful place for this than the Quarry 
Woods, which are equally attractive afioat or 
on the shore. The walks and excursions from 
this place are very numerous and picturesque. 




"Iicto., Frith, 



Hedsor, and Odney Weir. 



Itt^aU. 



126 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Photo., Fri:h, 



Hedsor Fishery, 



Reiqate. 



Cookhain and Maidenhead are within easy 
reach, Bisham and Hurley are close at hand, 
and High Wycombe and many other places of 
interest are a little back from the shore. 

Marlow is an ancient town. It belonged in 
former days to an Earl of Mercia, but after 
the Conquest, became a possession of Queen 
Matilda, and later, again, through his wife, of 
the King-Maker, who walks with such martial 
clang through our history, and was buried close 
by at Bisham. Lord Paget of Beaudesert, that 
circumspect statesman who enjoyed the favour 
and the confidence of four Sovereigns, became 
afterwards its owner, by gift from Philip and 
Mary, whose marriage he promoted. How he 
managed to steer so safely through those 
troublous times has been discovered in the 
notes which he wrote in his common-place 
book. Thus he wrote sagely for his own 
admonition : — 

" Fly the courte, 
Speke little, 
Care less. 
Devise iioth'ng. 
Never earnest ; 
In answer cold ; 
Lerne to spare ; 
Spend with measure; 
Care for home. 
Pray often, 
Live better, 
And dye well." 

The church, which we saw from a distance, 
is scarcely of a satisfactory character, but has 
latterly been a good deal improved. It was 
built before the genuine spirit of our pointed 
architecture had been revived by Pugin, one 
of whose latest works may be seen in the little 



Catholic church in the town. Neither can 
Marlow itself be said to be very picturesque, 
though it certainly has not teen altogether 
spoiled, and white stucco has not yet quite 
displaced old red brick and tiled roofs, which 
linger here and there rather mournfully, with 
gablets rising out of the perpendicular, and 
roof trees that have hollowed into curves. 
There is a house in St. Peter's Street, known 
as the Deanery, which yet retains some fine 
mullioiied windows with curvilinear Decorated 
heads. Shelley's house, too, which is in West 
Street, has a certain picturesqueness, with 
curiously curved lintels to its windows, a 
little porch, and a wooden railing separating it 
from the road. Here, Shelley was visited by 
Byron, and here he planned his " Revolt of 
Islam," which he wrote as his boat floated 
under the beech groves of Bisham, and he 
gazed up to "the vast cope of bending heaven," 
Mrs. Shelley says of his residence here : 
" During the year 1817, we were established 
at Marlow in Buckinghamshire ; Shelley's 
choice of abode was fixed chiefly by this town 
being at no great distance from London and its 
neighbourhood of the Thames." 

It was from Marlow, that Shelley dated that 
mystical poem " Marianne's Dream " which 
begins : — 

" A pale Hream came co a Lady fair, 
And said ' A boon, a boon, I pray ! 
I Know the secrets of the air ; 

And things are lost in the glare of day, 
Wnich I can make the s'eeping sre 
If they will put their trust in me.' " 

In those days, the old church stood quaintly 
by the quainter timber-framed bridge, and by 



GREAT MARLOW. 



127 



the weir and the row of 
eel-bucks. It is shown 
in an accompanying 
illustration, which de- 
picts Marlow three years 
before Shelley went 
there. The old bridge 
was not quite upon the 
site of the present sus- 
pension bridge. It cros- 
sed the stream from the 
upper corner of the weir, 
and joined the old street 
opposite, being the suc- 
cessor of earlier bridges 
which went back at 
least to Plantagenet 
times, for Edward 111. 
directed the trusty men 
of Marlow to repa r the 
bridge there in 1352. 
The existing structure 
was built in 1835, and its designer deserves 
credit for not having destroyed the beauty — 
though he necessarily removed a picturesque 
feature— of this very attractive part of the 
Thames. Marlow bridge is well known to all 
boating and fishing men ; and, all along the 
river, is associated with the famous "puppy 
pie," which was eaten beneath it by a pilfering 
but deluded bargee, who is still held up as a 
reproach to his successors. 

The views up and down the river from the 
bridge are scarcely surpassed on the Thames, 
and the walls of the picture galleries constantly 
testify to the popularity of Marlow with artists. 
it was one of the places where the late 
Frederick Walker, A.R.A., delighted to paint, 
and he may be said to have immortalised the 
landing stage at the end of the old street of 




Photo,, Frith, 



Hedsor Weir. 



Reisrate, 




Pholo.. 7. S. Cat lord. 



Bourne End from the Tow^path. 



the town, where everything has since been 
changed. His friend Mr. G. D. Leslie, R.A., 
in that delightful gossiping book " Our River," 
describes Walker's famous painting of " The 
Ferry" — a boy rowing a girl across the river. 
"There are swans on the water; the street, 
with its quaint old houses, is bathed in the 
warm glow of the afternoon sun. Against a 
wall is a group of old village gossips, each 
perfect in individuality, and keeping up a 
'feeble chirrup' as Homer describes the aged 
Trojans on the walls of Troy, ' like balm crickets 
on a sunny wall.' Children await the arrival 
of the boat ; and the action of the toy shipping 
his sculls and turning to look ahead, is simply 
perfect. On the whole this exquisite little 
drawing is perhaps the happiest and most 
beautiful rendering of the Upper Thames that 
was ever painted." 

Ancient and pictures- 
que Bisham isthe imme- 
diate neighbour of Mar- 
low, on the Berkshire 
shore. It is the place 
where we shall pause 
awhile in our journey- 
ing, before we fare for- 
ward towards Henley, 
and certainly there 
could be no moredelight- 
ful resting-place. These 
often - painted banks 
glow with the varied 
foliage of beech, oak, 
and elm, which grace 
tlie river with exceeding 
charm. The grey old 
Norman tower of Bis- 
ham Church is well 
known to all boatm.en. 

Hampion IVUk. 



128 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Great Marlow. 



Rtlgnte. 



There are few who have not rested on their 
oars to delight their eyes with the beauti- 
ful picture, of exquisite colouring, presen- 
ted by the grey walls and lovely gardens of 
Bisham Abbey. Some have gone ashore — as 
many should — to visit these attractive scenes, 
and to look at the pretty village with its shadowy 
lane and rustic cottages, of which many are 
overgrown with roses and honeysuckle. The 
trees hereabout are magnificent, enframing 
scenes that are not easily forgotten, and dis- 
closing places which it may seem almost 
pardonable to covet. 

The Abbey standing near the bank is not 
the house of the monks, although it has founda- 
tions, a pointed doorway, and a hall which 




High Street, Marlow. 



date from those times. Tudor hands took the 
fragments which had been destroyed, and 
added gables, bays, and a turreted tower, and 
their work remains one of the gems of the 
river. Bisham was originally known by the 
name of Bustleham, and, under that designa- 
tion, was granted by the Conqueror to Henry 
de Ferrars, who gave it to the Templars. This 
militant order seems to have had a preceptory 
at Bisham, of which the memory is preserved 
in the name of "Temple House," which lies 
somewhat further along the bank, and of which 
we shall presently have something to say. 
From the Templars Bisham passed to baronial 
hands, coming at last to William Mantacute, 
barl of Salisbury, who founded the Augustinian 
Priory of Bustleham in 1338. 
The few vestiges that remain 
bespeak very little of its charac- 
ter in those times, but it was 
a house of some importance, 
and became the burial-place of 
famous men. The founder, and 
his sou, who distinguished him- 
self at the Dattle ot Poictiers, 
were the first such to De interred 
there. Then came John, Earl 
of Salisbury, attainted and 
beheaded in 1400, and his son 
1 homas, who was described 
" as the mirror of all martial 
men," — ti hero who fought 
valiantly, and fell nobly, at the 
siege of Orleans in 1428. To 
Bisham, also, was brought the 
body of Richard Neville, Earl of 



BISHAM. 



129 



Salisbury and Warwick, wlio liad married 
the lieiress of Tliomas Montacute, and was 
beheaded as a Yori<ist at York in 1460. 
After the fatal day at Barnet, when the 
King-Maker and his brother Montague f^Il, 
their bodies were carried to St. Paul's, where, 
stripped to the breast, they lay exposed upon 
the pavement " to the intent that the people 
should not be abused by feigned tales, else the 
rumour should have been sowed about that the 
Earl was yet alive." From this strange scene, 
the bodies of the fallen soldiers were carried 
up the river to their quiet resting-place at 
Bisham, but none can tell where they lay^ 
Warwick's great-grandson, Edward Planta- 
genet, son of the Duke of Clarence, after being 
beheaded in 1499 for attempting to escape 



exchanged it with Sir Philip Hoby for a house 
in Kent. This Sir Philip was a brother-in-law 
of Cecil, who visited him at Bisham, and he 
was a diplomatist also, and the last ambassador 
that England sent to the Pope. Sir Philip's 
brother, Sir Thomas, succeeded him at Bisham, 
where, for the space of three years, he had 
charge, through his sisters-in-law, the Ladies 
Cecil and Bacon, of the Princess Elizabeth, it is 
believed that the beautiful bay in the great 
chamber there, and a dais, were built for her 
satisfaction. 

When the two knightly brothers were dead, 
the widow of Sir Thomas raised a splendid 
monument to them in Bisham Church. It 
may be seen to this day. They lie side by 
side under an arch, and are clad in plate 




Great Mario w in J8J4. 



from the Tower, was also buried at Bisham 
Abbey, but his monument, like those of his 
predecessors, has been wasted, and nothing 
remains to show where it stood. 

At the dissolution of the abbeys. Barlow, 
the last prior of Bisham — unlike some stouter 
men, who gave up their lives for their faith 
— hastily conformed, looked a good deal after 
the loaves and fishes, was made Bishop of 
St. David's, and, strange as it appears, was 
the father-in-law cf five other Bishops as well. 
The Abbey lands became part of those great 
possessions which Henry Vlil. conferred upon 
his fourth bride, Anne of Cleves, the lady 
whose portrait had flattered her so disastrously. 
She appears to have had little appreciation of 
Bisham, for she wearied of the place, and 



armour a good deal elaborated, and t'.ieir heads 
are supported on their left hands. This Lady 
Hoby seems to have been a very learned 
personage, for she has placed inscriptions to 
her husband and brother-in-law in three 
languages. In one of them she sets forth 
the history of the Hobys^ and appears to extol 
the zeal which she showed in erecting the tomb. 
Another of her inscriptions ends with serious 
comicality, which shows that the lady might 
yet be consoled for her loss. " Give me, O, 
God! " she exclaims, "a husband like Thomas, 
or else restore me to my husband, Thomas!" 
Without the worthy knight, or an equal 
paragon. Lady Hoby could scarce exist, and we 
may hope that she found the latter in the person 
of Cord John Russell, to whom she was married 



I30 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




rhetc.. Taunt. 



Bisbam AbWv. Tfip Kins''!; Fireplace 



in 1574. In Bisham Church, which should be 
visited for some architectural features and its 
monuments, there is a very curious monument 
to Lady Russell. She is represented kneeling, 
in the act of prayer, wearing a ruff, stomacher, 
and very remarkable head-dress with coronet, 
beneath a canopy which is supported by 
Corinthian columns. Opposite to her kneels 
another like figure, also wearing a coronet, 
upon a lower stool, and behind her, are five small 
kneeling figures, representing her children. 

^We thus see that Bisham Abbey has been 
inhabited by rather remarkable people. The 
ancient hall there, is a noble apartment, with 



an open timber roof, a three light 
lanCet window filled with ar- 
morial glass, an oaken gallery, 
a buttery hatch, and a fireplace 
which has the royal arms over 
the mantle. The panelled dining 
room is hung with excellent por- 
traits, the gem of the whole 
collection being one of Queen 
Henrietta Maria by Van Dyke, 
over the mantle-piece. Con- 
siderable interest attaches to 
the portrait of the wife of Sir 
William Hoby, which hangs in 
another part of the house. She 
wears her widow's weeds with 
coif and wimple, and her face 
and hands are deadly pale. The 
dark story goes that once, in 
exceeding exasperation, she beat 
to death her little son, William, 
because his infant hands had blotted his copy 
book. The foul deed is expiated, they say, 
by the unquiet spirit of tlie lady walking 
through the rooms of Bisham by moonlight — 
and who will aver the contrary .? — her white 
face turned to black and her black dress to 
white, while, as she painfully goes, like 
another Lady Macbeth, she washes her hands 
in a basin that is mysteriously carried, without 
apparent support, in front of her. This is a 
hard thing to believe but, as if to confound the 
incredulous, the very blotted books of the poor 
boy were discovered at Bisham secreted beneath 
the mouldering floor. 



O^/cJ. 




Pketo., Taunts 



Bisham Abbey from the River. 




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Ph/trr.. Taunt, 



Lady Place, Hurley. 



Oxjord. 




EAVING behind us ancient and delifzht- 
ful Marlow, and Bisham its beautiful 
•.leighbour, we go forward towards 
Henley, by Hurley, Medmenham, and 
Remenham, with Berkshire on one 
hand and the beech-clad county of 
Buckingham yet on the other, thouoh the 
latter will give place to Oxfordshire before we 
set foot ashore at Henley Bridge. The reaches 
of the Thames above Marlow, as below, are 
exceedingly fine, and eminently characteristic 
of the river. Too many hasten along Henley- 
ward who might linger pleasantly to explore 
the backwaters, and discover the beauties of 
the little islands which make veritable archipe- 
lagoes between Temple Lock and Medmenham. 
There are dense woods, sometimes shadowing 
the stream, sometimes retiring from tlie shore, 
rugged escarpments of chalk, fields where you 
see the plough breaking the glebe, or the corn 
ripening for the harvest, while the rooks for- 
sake the elms and wing their way across the 
river, where the swans float, kingfishers 
darting across the backwaters, and even herons 
yet sometimes seeking their prey in the 
shallows. There are stately houses, too, with 
beautiful gardens to grace the shore. 

Long ago, the Templars appear to have had 
mills for the working of copper here, and those 
which now stand for other grinding have a good 
deal that is picturesque about them, when the 
evening light bestows its mellow charm upon 
them and their surroundings. Temple House, 
on the backwater behind the lock, the seat of 



General Owen Williams, is a mansion well 
known on the Thames for the great beauty of 
the trees amid which it is embowered. The 
same may be said of Harleyford Manor, the 
seat of Sir William Clayton, a brick building 
which dates from 171 5, and is famous for the 
romantic beauty of its woods. Hereabout, 
therefore, is a delightful region for the camper, 
and the man who dwells in a tent-boat, or those 
who make merry in house-boats, for the 
neighbourhood is very pretty, and the river 
always attractive. In the early morning, to 
plunge into the crystal depths makes the blood 
run quicker, and the hue of health soon mantle 
the cheek. Sometimes, by the quiet back- 
waters, or where oarsmen are camping, you 
will catch sight of that supremely fine pictorial 
effect, the human figure by the water, and 
against a dark background of trees, if someone, 
as Thomson, the poet of the Thames says, 
should 

" Stand awhile, 
Gazing the inverted landscape, half afraid 
To meditate the blue profound below ; 
Till, disenchanted by the ruffling gale, 
Htf plunges headlong down the closing flood. 

The backwater and mill at Hurley are very 
picturesque, and it is pleasant to remember 
that, under a shadowy bank near Harleyford, 
Mr. Luke Fildes painted his well-known picture 
of riverside life, " Fair, quiet, and sweet 
rest." 

Upon the Berkshire shore, coyly retired, lies 
Hurley village, one of the most interesting 
places on the Thames. The Benedictine 



146 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 



i 




^^ — «i^ -■■^•fe^ 


^/ ^^ 


W^u..-I- -^^ 


^^■■*«HhHilmM 







i'Au.c)., H'iisoii, 



Harleyford House. 



Priory there was founded by Geoffrey de 
Mandeville in tiie reign of the Conqueror, and 
the refectory, and some part of the monastic 
quadrangle that afterwards rose, remain on the 
north side of the exceedingly quaint old 
church, once the monastic chapel, which has 
some characteristic Norman featuves. The 
village lies back a little from the river, and 
you will not see much of it unless you go 
ashore, its immediate neighbour was Lady 
Place, the fine old Elizabethan mansion of 
the Lords Lovelace of Hurley, which was 
pulled down in 1837. Some things remain to 
show what were the attractions of the house. 
There are old fish ponds, ivy-grown walls, a 
dove-cot, and other fragments yet remaining, 
and the mansion itself is here illustrated from 
engravings — one by Tombleson, from the 
river, the other, from the south-east, by 
"Suckler, from the "Gentleman's Magazine," 





Photo., U-'iison, 



Temple House and Island. 



1831. Lady Place made its mark upon history. 
Here it was that John, Lord Lovelace, one of 
the foremost supporters of William of Orange, 
plotted with his friends for the overthrow of 
the king. The arched vaults are still in exist- 
ence in which they met. The mansion was 
a place of many gables, belonging to the time 
when chimney stacks rose boldly, and had not 
been taught to steal skyward ashamedly 
behind battlements. The principal fa9ade, as 
in many great houses of Tudor and Stuart 
times, had a porch m the middle, of three 
storeys, and great projecting wings, giving 
the place somewhat the plan of a letter E. 
Lord Lovelace had been greatly distinguished 
in the time of James 11. for his magnificence, 
and, at the same time, for the audacious 
vehemence of his Whiggism, which' had 
brought him five or six times into durance. 
Lastly, he was brought before the Privy 
Council, -but could not 
; be induced to incrimin- 
ate himself. James dis- 
missedhim, bitterly say- 
ing: "MyLord,thisisnot 
the first trick you have 
played me." "Sir," he 
replied, " I have never 
played any trick to your 
Majesty, or to any other 
person. Whoever has 
accused, me of playing 
tricks to your Majesty is 
a liar !" Nevertheless, 
the fact remains that 
Lovelace was one of the 
plotters of 1688, that he 
visited William in Hol- 
land, and that Lady 



HURLEY AND MEDMENHAM. 



147 




" Lady Place " from the River. 

Place was the scene of his plotting. Thus 
Macaulay speaks of it: "His mansion, built by his 
ancestors out of the spoils of Spanish galleons 
from the Indies, rose on the ruins of a house of Our 
Lady, in that beautiful valley through which the 
Thames, not 3'et defiled by the precincts of a great 
capital, nor rising and falling with the flow and 
ebb of the sea, rolls under woods of beech round 
the gentle hills of Berkshire. Beneath the 
stately saloon, adorned with Italian pencils, 
was a subterraneous vault, in which the bones 
of ancient monks had sometimes been found. 
hi this dark chamber, some zealous and daring 
opponents of the government had held many 
midnight conferences during that anxious time 
when England was impatiently expecting the 
Protestant wind." The season for action at 
length arrived, and Lovelace set off with some 
seventyfollowersfrom Lady Place. All were well 
armed and mounted, and reached Gloucester- 
shire without difficulty, 
but they were there 
defeated by James's 
forces near Cirencester, 
and Lovelace himself 
made prisoner and sent 
to Gloucester Castle. 
It was a grievous blow 
to William, and caused 
him to complain that 
he iiad been deceived. 

Between Hurley and 
Medmenham, dense 
wooded hills rise from 
the meadows that flank 
the river, and sometimes 
shadow the stream. 
The reaches to Henley 
are favourite resorts 



with oarsmen, but the punting 
to Medmenham is indifferent, 
owing to the irregular and 
heavy character of the bed, and 
you thread the river archipe- 
lago. The distance from Hurley 
Lock to Medmenham ferry 
is less than two miles. Med- 
menham is among the prettiest 
places on the Thames, and 
the Abbey, bogus structure 
though it really is, makes a 
picturesque feature upon the 
bank. Here was a Cistercian 
House colonised, the second time 
in I2i2,by monks from Citeaux, 
whence came forth the men who 
established the great abbeys 
of Tintern, Rievaulx, Fountains, 
Furness, Netley, and many 
more. Medmenham was not 
comparable to any of those 
named, but its situation was 
such as the Cistercians always chose, for they 
settled in the quiet nooks and valleys, and by 
the pleasant streams of England; and we may 
well believe that St. Stephen Harding, when 
he turned to cultivation that hot thorn-break 
at Citeaux, often bethought him of the ripe 
corn fields of his native land, and of such places 
as we see by the Thames. In the beginning 
of the i6th century, Medmenham Abbey became 
an appanage of Bisham, which we have visited. 
Its monks lived the quiet life of the cloister, 
and it was reserved for the sham monks of the 
last century, the " Fransciscans" of Sir Francis 
Dashwood and his profligate companions, to 
awake the echoes with the sounds of their 
unholy revelry, there, devoting themselves, 
if their contemporaries speak truth, to nameless 
debauchery. John Wilkes, the scurrilous 
profligate rejected of the House of Commons, 
Dashwood, Lord le Despencer, who was 



From an Fngraxtng. 




"Lady Place" from th South-Eact. 



From an tng'< 



148 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Photo., Taitnt, 



Harleyford Weir. 



Oxfara, 



summonedfrom his profanity and liis tavern bills 
to administer the finances of the country, Bubb 
Dodington, Sir John Dashwood Kin«, and many 
more were the Mohawks who composed this 
"Hell fire Club." Their motto may still be 
seen over the door — " Fay ce que voudras;" 
and what they chose to do, they did witli all 
their might. 

in tliese milder days, the legend is taken as 
a hospitable invitation, and countless picnic 
parties through the summer make innocent 
merriment in the picturesque place. The build- 
ing itself, though a little grotesque, is very 
pretty, with its rustic surroundings, its farm- 
yard and its hayricks, and from the lawn there 
are beautiful views of the river. The village, 
too, is very charming, with its rustic cottages, 
and its old church, which still retains some 
Norman features ; and the road leads up the 
hill to a forlorn looking place to which Charles 
11. and Nell Gwynneare said to have resorted. 

The writer of this may be forgiven for recall- 
ing, in relation to Medmenham, the fact that a 
namesake of earlier times, John Leland, the 
king's antiquary, in Henry Vill.'s days, made, 
in his " Cygnea Cantio," a literary pilgrimage 
by the Thames — not faring upwards, but float- 
ing swan-wise down from Oxford to Greenwich, 
With a good deal of laudation of the king. The 
antiquary's' Boswell — longo in/ervallo— John 
Bale, who expounds " The Laboryouse Journey 



and Serche," says, " This Johan Leylande had 
a naturall hart to hys contrey ; " but his 
exceedingly learned swan is unfortunately 
prodigiously dull in its account of the Thames. 
Yet the woodland beauties of Hurley and 
Medmenham attracted the literary bird's atten- 
tion, and gave the author the opportunity of 
suggesting a somewhat fantastic derivation for 
the name of the place we speak of : — 

" Hurstelega ferax deinde sylvae 
Appiret, Mediamnis atque pulcher." 

Above Medmenham, the river is less interest- 
ing until Magpie Island is reached, about a mile 
above ihe Abbey. There is an extremely 
pretty backwater, with the picturesque boat- 
house of Culham Court, and beautiful gardens 
and woods, forming a pleasing setting for the 
house, which is very curiously raised upon a 
chalk cliff. It is an old, red brick building, in 
which the Hon. F. West, son of Earl De la Warr, 
entertained George III., and, as the story goes, 
knowing the king's predilection for hot rolls 
to breakfast from the royal purveyor in London, 
arranged relays of horsemen with the rolls 
wrapped in hot flannel, to the huge delight of 
his Majesty. From Culham Court to Henley, 
the course of the Thames is a great curve 
with somewhat flattened sides, for, while the 
places are but two miles apart, the distance by 
river is nearly four. 'Above the horse ferry, 
which is about half a mile beyond Magpie 



HAMBLEDEN AND HENLEY. 



149 



Island, the stream is sharp, and, on the other 
side, an extremely pretty backwater leads to 
the weir and mill and Hambleden. The 
chimneys and gables of picturesque Yewden — 
where are some of the quaintest clipped yews 
imaginable — are seen near the mill, at the point 
where the slender Hamble joins the Thames. 
The little place by the river is known as Mill 
End, and is the water suburb of the diminutive 
village of Hambleden, a quiet place with a 
church approached through a iych gate, where 
there may be seen the monument of Sir Cope 
and Lady d'Oyley — she was the sister of 
Quarles of the "Emblems" — with their ten 
children, all kneeling, like the curious countess 
at Bisham, the figures painted and gilded, and 
some of them carrying skulls in their hands. 

At Hambleden is Greenlands, the beautiful 
Italian mansion of the late Rt. Hon. W. H. 
Smith, M.P., and now the seat of his widow, 
Viscountess Hambleden. The gardens are 
exceedingly beautiful, and the various trees 
among the choicest upon the Thames, while 
the house looks charming amid the dark cedars 
that neighbour it. There are picturesque 
inland ponds too, and the park extends some 
distance up the slope. The place owes much 
of its character to the deceased statesman. 
In an old house here lived dame Elizabeth 
Periam — sister of the fust Lord Bacon — whose 
monument is in Henley Church. The house 



of the Thames is 
as Poplar Point, 

of the bridge, and 
visible from the 



played a part in the Civil War, being power- 
fully garrisoned for the king, and was a serious 
menace to the Parliament men, who had been 
levied and organized by Sir Bulstrode White- 
locke at Henley. 

Just above Greenlands, is Regatta Island, 
with its well known Temple. From thispointthe 
distance is not much more than a mile and a 
quarter to Henley Bridge down the famous 
regatta reach. The course 
practically straight as far 
within a quarter of a mile 
Henley Church is plainly 
island rising at the other end of the reach. 
The rural village of Remenham, with rustic 
cottages and a pretty farmhouse, is on the 
Berkshire shore, and, beyond, the hillside is 
beautifully wooded, and affords most delightful 
walks to those who sojourn at Henley. 
Opposite to Remenham stands Fawley Court, 
about a mile from Henley Bridge. .It was 
owned by Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke, and the 
existing mansion was erected by Sir Christopher 
Wren in 1684. The building is plain, not to 
be described as beautiful, but well propor- 
tioned, like all Wren's work. Within recent 
years it has been encased in red brick. Another 
well-known house upon the Regatta Reach is 
Phyllis, or Fillets, Court, which lies between 
Fawley Court and the bridge. These houses 
both played their part in the Civil War. In 




Phtf/o., Taunt, 



Medmenham Church. 



Oxford. 



ISO 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




rhoto.. Taunt, 



Medmenham from the Hill. 



Oxford. 



1643, Skippon fortified Pliyllis Court for 
the protection of Henley against the king's 
forces assembled at Greenlands. Ditches 
were dug, into which water from the Thames 
was admitted, guns were collected, and at one 
time 300 foot and a troop of horse formed the 
garrison. When the trouble was over, 
Whitelocke, who owned Phyllis Court, as 
well as Fawley, filled up the ditches, levelled 
the mounds that had been raised, and sent 
away the great guns and grenadoes. The 
Fawley Court of those times seems to have 
suffered very severely, between the Cavaliers 




on one hand and the Roundheads on the other, 
so that it became practically uninhabitable, 
and gave place afterwards to the structure 
erected by Wren. As to the old mansion of 
Phyllis Court, it was pulled down on 1788, 
though some portions remained until 1837, 
and a fine modern house stands on the site. 

Henley was long ago famous as a centre of 
agriculture, and traders resorted to it for grain 
and malt. The old bridge, which was washed 
away by a great flood in March, 1774, had a gate 
at each end and a chapel and granary in the midst, 
into this latter the grain was carried, and then 
lowered with ease into barges 
stationed below, this system 
preceeding the wharfage accom- 
modation of the place. The 
present bridge at Henley, wiiich 
was finished in 1787, at a cost 
ofZio.ooo, is certainly one of 
the most successful on the river, 
though we may not share Wal- 
pole's extravagant admiration 
of it, who declared it to be 
liner than any in the world, 
except one at Florence, which 
it surpassed in the beauty of 
its surroundings. The heads 
upon the keystones, represent- 
ing Isis and Thamesis, were 
carved by his friend, the 
Hon. Mrs. Damer, and it was 
a Miss Freeman, of Fawley 
Court, who sat for the head of 



Medmenham Abbey. 



O/ma. 



Isis. 



HENLEY. 



151 



The views up and down the river from the 
bridge are exceedingly fine, and the town 
itself has much to make it attractive. Thougli 
quiet, it is never dull. There are old- 
fashioned hostelries, and many that are new. 
The " Red Lion " by the bridge is well known 
to all coaching and boating men, and has quite 
a famous record. There it was that Shenstone, 
emulating Falstaff, and foreshadowing Wash- 
ington hving, in the "Red Horse," at 
Stratford, composed his well-known lines in 
praise of the comforts of an inn, which he 



General Dumouriez, the famous soldier of the 
Grande Armee, who died at Henley in 1823. 
The almshouses and other buildings which 
neighbour the church are not unpleasing. At 
the top of the market-place is the Town hall, 
where there are two pictures, one of Sir Godfrey 
Kneller, presented to it by Lady Kneller, who 
is buried in the church, it is not necessary 
here to say anything more about Henley itself. 
We shall turn, therefore, once again towards 
the bridge. Here there is a continual bustle 
of boats, m.aking a very gay scene in the 




--^ 



fhotu.. y. 5. Catjord, 



Hamblcdon Weir^ 



lla.tnpto)i IVtcft. 



scratched upon a window-pane. The first and 
last verses may be quoted. 

" To thee, fair Freedom ! I retire 

From flattery, cards, and dice, and din ; 
Nor art Ihou found in mansions higher 
Than the low cot or humble inn. 

" Whoe'er has travelled life's dull round. 
Where'er his stages may have been. 
May sigh to think he still has found 
His warmest welcome at an inn." 

From the "Red Lion" and the "Angel," 
which flank the bridge, the way leads up to 
the broad market-place, the church lying upon 
the right, an interesting structure, with chancel, 
nave and aisles. It is interesting rather than 
imposing, and the most curious monument it 
has is that of the Lady Periam, who has been 
cdluded to. The church also has a tablet to 



summer time. The plashing of oars and the 
jovial notes of coach horns are the sounds of the 
place, and there are stalwart men in flannels, 
and pretty girls in frills and blouses — sym- 
phonies, as someone says, in such adornments 
— giving the final charm and needful touch of 
colour to the river. 

All the world over, Henley is -famous for its 
Regatta, which is the most important of all 
aquatic festivals, and is not less a trial of skill 
between the best oarsmen of the Thames, 
both of clubs and colleges — attracting, besides, 
lovers of aquatic skill from every quarter — 
but, at the same time, a fashionable gathering 
at the close of the London season, in some ways 
comparable to Ascot. Nowhere can the life 
of the river be seen so brilliantly vivacious as 
during the Regatta at Henley. The hustling 



153 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




fholo.. Taunt, 



The Thames at Henley. 



Oxford. 



crowd of steam launches, skiffs, punts, dinghies, 
and canoes is diversified, at times, by every 
kind of imaginable craft that can be navigated 
on the river, and gondolas, and even sampans, 
and various half-barbarous boats, sometimes 
add a touch of novelty to the scene. House- 
boats Mne the banks in stations carefully 
marked out, and vie with one another in their 
schemes of colour and their floral decorations, 
and some, well known to habitues of the river, 
are looked for year by year. There is, indeed, 
a certain prejudice against these floating dwel- 
lings. Unbounded pleasure is afforded to their 
occupants, and tliey add a good deal to the 




Phcro., J. S. Cat/orA. 



" The Red Lion," Henley. 



charm of the spectacle ; but the riparian owner 
does not always relish their near neighbourhood, 
and, backed by the necessity of some- 
what clearing the course at Henley, a recent 
edict has been issued, prescribing that the gay 
people who throng the boats at the Regatta 
must be owners or genuine guests, and not 
visitors turning the boats into floating hotels. 
A little heart-burning results both from the 
stationing of the boats, and the fact that the 
owners, who add so much to fiver pleasure and 
river-side profits, paying besides a round sum to 
the Conservancy in fees, are notallowedto make 
a little hay while the sun shines at Henley. 

One great charm of the Re- 
gatta is that it brings together 
the practised oarsmen and the 
amateurs, the young who delight 
in the present, and the old who 
long ago displayed their skill 
upon the river, the college 
clubs of the Universities and 
public schools, and many from 
foreign parts who delight to ply 
the oar. 

The rise of Henley from an 
insigniflcant little meeting to the 
Royal Regatta of to-day is a not- 
able illustration of the rapid 
development of public interest 
in athletics and out-door occu- 
pations during recent years. 
The University boat race and the 
Regatta had a common origin. 
iiamttctmct. They date, practically, from 



HENLEY AND REM EN HAM. 



'53 




p 


III liiT >'3^B 

hT nf si 

III gll Jll 




M^ i' 




TWM' J^l^^ 


"~1 



/■Ao/o., 5". 5. Ca-ford, 



Henley Market Place. 



I[a„:f:cn llki. 



the year 1829, when the Oxford and Cam- 
bridge crews met on what is now the Regatta 
reach at Henley, and friends of the competitors 
and townspeople lined the bank, and gave 
themselves up to a limited degree of festivity. 
Henley Regatta, proper, cannot be said to date 
earlier than 1839, when the first Trinity boat 
from Cambridge took the Grand Challenge 
Cup for eight oars, then the solitary trophy 
of the meeting. There was, as yet, nothing 
but University rowing at Henley, but the rise 
of the London, Thames, and other rovsing 
clubs added new interest to the 
Regatta, and fresh events were 
successively added to the pro- 
gramme, while the crowds of 
boats and riverside visitors pro- 
gressively increased. 

In those days, the course was 
from Regatta island to Henley 
Bridge, the race thus being 
practically brought to the 
doors of the townspeople. The 
lawn of the old "Red Lion" 
was a favourite point of view, 
and carriages upon the bridge 
afforded an excellent prospect of 
the finish to their favoured occu- 
pants. Those who were in- 
terested in the race, however, , 
as a trial of skill, insisted that the 
turn of the river at Poplar Point 
gave great advantage to the boat 
on the inner, or Berks, station. 
Sometimes, Jiowever, when a /■''■"»■• T<;,nr. 



high wind blew from the Buckingham shore, 
the boats on that side were sheltered by the 
trees and house boats, while their opponents 
were struggling in the rough water, and in this 
way the advantage was at times neutralised. 
Something was done to equalise the chances, 
though with but moderate success, by staking 
out the course so that the boats on the Berks 
station were kept well out in the stream. 
With the regatta of 1886, a new plan ivas 
adopted, which was a good deal discussed at 
the time, the races beginning a little below 




Remenham Church. 



Ot/oni. 



154 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 



Regatta Island and ending at Poplar Point. 
The Bucks side had now gained an advantage, 
but matters were made fairly equal at the 
Regatta of 1897, by shifting the course a little 
over to the Berkshire side, and by moving the 
starting place and winning post 35 yards 
higher up the river. 

Visitors to Henley mark a vast improvement 
in the racing craft, and there is a great differ- 
ence between the old racing eight and the 
modern boat. The international character of 
the races has tended to increase, and crews 
from Yale and other American Colleges have 
been seen upon the river. Foreign and 
Colonial entries are looked for, and Dutch, 
.French, Canadian and American boats add a 
touch of pleasant rivalry to the event. A 
great change has come over the accom.pani- 
itients of the race during the last 30 years. 
The crowded boats and well filled lawns, and 
the enthusiastic plaudits of the thousands, 
offer a marked contrast to the Henley of 
former times, when a small craft was dotted 
here and there upon the river, the bridge was 
lined with carriages, and a few were gathered 
upon the banks ; when the umpire, wearing a 
tall hat, was carried in a waterman's eight, and 
the races were conducted without a staked 
course, or the help of the Thames Conservancy. 
in these days the Regatta is a picture of life 
and animation almost without a parallel. The 



wooded banks and the blue waters, with the 
fine bridge at one end, and the Temple at the 
other, which are rich in natural and artificial 
beauty, receive a new charm, of colour and 
movement resulting from the thronging boats,: 
and the gay costumes of the ladies. \ 

Henley is, indeed, a society function as much 
as a trial of skill. Keen oarsmen are sometimes 
heard to grumble that crowding boats, Gargan- 
tian lunches, fireworks, and illuminations spoil 
the aquatics of the Regatta, but, on the other 
hand, there are thousands who delight in the 
enjoyment of the meeting and the social and 
river pleasures it brings ; and oarsmen of earlier 
years are heard to regret that they cannot 
light their battles over again before the greater; 
numbers and the fair spectators of to-day. 

Its chief events may be alluded to. The 
Grand Challenge Cup for eight oars is com- 
peted for by the Oxford and Cambridge boats, 
and those of the Thames, Leander, London, and 
other clubs, as well as sometimes by foreign 
crews. The Ladies' Challenge Plate is for the 
college and schools eights of the United King- 
dom, and has Eton, Radley, and some of the 
University boats among the competitors. The 
Thames Challenge Cup for eight oars, is 
keenly contested by many boats. Other events 
are the Stewards' Challenge Cup, the Visitors' 
Challenge Cup, and the Wyfold, for four oars, 
with other pair-oar and sculling events. 




Photo., 7 aunt. 



Over Henky Bridge. 







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On the Tow^-patfi above Henley, 



O^ord, 




ilT Greenlands we turned with the 
Thames south-westward, and now 
from Henley we go forward by many 
a winding of the stream, in the same 
direction, to Caversham, whence our 
course will be shaped once more 
north-westward, until the towers and spires of 
Oxford rise before us. The southern end of the 
Chiltern Range, which stretches away througii 
Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire, is enveloped 
witiiin this great curve of the river, thougli, 
for some distance after passing Henley, the 
country tends to be flat on the Oxfordsiiireside, 
and the lovely hanging woods are on the Berk- 
shire shore. 

It is one of those places where, as we have 
remarked before, a hill on one bank confronts 
a more open country on the other. From Henley 
to Sonning is certainly one of the most attrac- 
tive and beautiful regions of the Thames. The 
natural configuration of the country is varied 
m character ; the hills are clothed with the 
richest of foliage ; and the river now opens out 
into broad lake-like reaches, and again breaks 
up amid reed or timber-grown islands, into 
delightful channels and backwaters. None 
should omit to traverse these sequestered places. 
In the exploration of them, the warning notice 
that they are private waters may sometimes 
be disregarded. ^ Bold and adventurous spirits 
have, indeed, been heard to declare, upon read- 
ing such warnings, "Oh, private water ! That's 
all right! Come on!" But let the boat- 
man remember, that, so long as the water is 



navigable, he may navigate it ; yet he will 
respect the rights of owners, and, without leave, 
will not set foot on shore, l-le will also look well 
into the water, so that obstructions which may 
exist here and there may not foul his cratt. 
This admonition is more necessary for the oars- 
man, since the punter necessarily keeps a close 
watch upon the river bed where he is unfamiliar 
with it ; and he certainly has some advantages 
in going tiirough the backwaters. 

From Henley to Sonning is also a very favourite 
resort of anglers, who find much placid enjoy- 
ment in fishing these delightful waters. They 
sometimes, it is true, wax angry with the 
oarsman, and still more with the punter, who 
l<eeps in the shallow water, and it is well for 
those upon the river to disturb the disciples of 
Isaac Walton as little as they can. The villages 
along this part of the Thames, and in the 
neighbourhood, to which anglers and boatmen 
alike resort, are delightfully picturesque. Their 
churches are interesting, too, and their inshore 
surroundings very pretty. 

There are many little eyots in the river 
above Henley, behind one of which, in a place 
known as Solomon's Hatch, the Henley people 
have a charming bathing place. Marsh Lock, 
a short mile from Henley Bridge, is a point wfell 
known to those who come down the river to 
Henley Regatta. These will not forget the 
extraordinary crowding of boats, the grinding 
of one against another, the breaking of out- 
riggers, the destruction of varnish and temper, 
at the Lock on Regatta days, nor the eager 



I70 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATEa 




PhMo., Frilh, 



Mush Mais and Bridge, 



and impetuous rush with which the boats 
escape into the freedom of the lower waters. 
There are mills on each side of the river, but 
the locl< and weir have lost a little of their 
picturesqueness. Some years ago, the tow- 
path was carried over the lock, weir, and mill- 
water by a very quaint bridge. There is 
now a long, white, wooden structure, resting 
upon short piers — notvieingwith its predecessor 
in picturesqueness — and yet, fortunately, far 
from being a disfigurement to the landscape ; 
and the mills have the characteristic charm of 
most such structures that we meet by the 
Thames. The surroundings are delightful, 
and the loci<-liouse is a pretty place, known to 




Photo, Taunt, 



Above Marsh Lock. 



all oarsmen as the headquarters selected by 
the Yale Club at Henley Regatta. 

Above the lock, the river opens out like a 
lake, with a sluggish current, and the banks 
are sedgy. Escarpments of chalk rise on the 
left, with the lovely hanging woods of Park 
Place, and there are green meadows with 
splendid poplars on the other shore, it may be 
well here, perhaps, to say something about the 
floral adornments which add so very much, 
through the changing year, to the beauty of the 
Thames. In all the quiet, still waters, the 
lovely white and yellow water-lily is found. 
The various reeds and rushes add much to the 
charm by their waving masses, and their cool 
colours. A well-known ornament 
of the banks is the flowering rush, 
\ with its great stems bearing um- 
bels of pink flowers. Early in the 
summer, the bitter-cress puts 
forth its large, white flower ; and 
another white-flowered plant is 
the water-parsnip, with large 
leaves and tall flower spikes. 
Then there is the beautiful 
sweet flag, and, with it, we 
may name the familiar yellow and 
purple loosestrife, the yellow iris, 
the water dropwort, and the 
fragrant meadow - sweet, which 
loves the glades which lie by 
the stream amid the woods. 
Among the meadow plants is the 
snow-tlake, which is like a larger 
snowdrop, and is known here- 
about as the " Loddon lily," 
from the tributary to which we 
shall presently allude. The fritil- 
iary is found frequently in these 



Oxfiri. 



IVARGRAVE. 



ijy 



parts, with many other handsome plants, such 
as the crane's-bill, the clustered bell-tlowers, 
and various growths which delight in the marshy 
places.- All these, and many more, add a great 
deal to the pleasure of those who frequent the 
Thames and its backwaters. 

With all such flowering growths the woods 
of Park Place are plenteously beautified. The 
road from Henley to Wargrave, by Twyford, is 
on that side of the river, and a more delightful 
country road through the woods it is impos- 
sible to imagine. The chalk cliffs are set back 
a little from the stream, and the space between 
..them and the river is filled with most luxuriant 
and varied vegetation. At one point the road 



Wargrave road, as we have said, runs through 
the wood, and you look over from it into the 
depths of these thickets. The house at Park 
Place, which is now the seat of Mrs. Noble, 
was built by the Duke of Hamilton, and was 
the occasional residence of members of the 
Royal Family. At the end of the last century, 
General Conway, Governor of Jersey, set 
himself to adorn it, and it was he who spanned 
the glen with the romantic bridge, laid out the 
trim lawn, and enriched the character of the 
woodland. In the taste of his time, he also 
erected mimic ruins, and even went to the 
trouble and expense of transporting from Jersey 
a so-called Dru.dical 'lemple or circle of 




rhotc. Taunts 



Wargrave from the Towing path. 



Ox/ord. 



is carried over an archway, which was built 
out of stone brought from the ruins of Reading 
Abbey, and underneath the arch the grounds 
descend to the water's edge, giving a delicious 
peep through the shadow up what is known as 
the Happy Valley. The boat-house of Park 
Place is a charming feature of the reach, 
though some have found fault with its artificial 
character. ■■ Yet it is more than a boat-house. 
It is a pretty little riverside dwelling, and 
there are few who do not feel the charm of its 
high gables — one of them crowned with a cross 
— its picturesque barge boards, and the saints 
in the niches below them, all with a back- 
ground of the most delicious foliage. The 



standing stones, which he set up at Park 
Place. The grounds have since that time been 
divided, and the house known as Templecomb 
has been erected in one part of them. 

Beyond the Druid's Temple the river i? 
divided, and, while the "main stream may be 
traced by its windings to the right, where 
there are several beautiful little islands opposite 
to the house known as Boulney Court, there 
is a long backwater on the other side, which 
does not join the stream again until just before 
we reach Wargrave, a distance of considerably 
over a milev The main stream is itself re- 
markably pretty, but the backwater should, 
by all means, be explored. It is one of the 



i/i 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Photo., Taunt, 



Wargrave Church. 



most interesting on tiie Thames. At the open- 
ing there are great masses of nodding reeds, and, 
as we go along, the trees meet overhead and in 
the reflecting water below, while hawthorn 
and sweet-brief clothe the banks, with black- 
berries, and many climbing growths, and there 
is a background of yews, poplars, and other 
trees. It is a quiet and delicious resting-place, 
where dragon-tiies hover over the water, and 
blue kingfishers dart to and fro, and where you 
may even arouse a heron sometimes. The 
bridges are remarkably pretty, and the whole 
place is so embowered and still, that you emerge 
almost with a feeling of surprise into the open 
water beyond. The sylvan beauties of the 
stately Thames itself from Boulney to Wargrave, 
by the ferry, are superb. 

Wargrave is an old and picturesque village 
upon the Berkshire shore, an extremely plea- 
sant place to sojourn at, with a hostel of " St. 
George and the Dragon," which is equally 
famous for its hospitality as its signboard. It 
has delighted some artists to exhibit their 
talents in the adornment of the signs of inns, 
but it is not often that two members of the 
Royal Academy collaborate upon a single 
board. "" Such was the case at the "George 
and the Dragon" at Wargrave. Mr. G. D. 
Leslie, R.A., who had already tried his prentice 
hand in this line at the " King Harry " at St. 
Stephen's, near St. Albans, adorned the board 



at Wargrave with a somewhat conventional St. 
George in his triumph, while Mr. J. E. 
Hodgson, R.A., depicted on the other side the 
champion, having slain the monster, quenching 
his thirst out of a great beaker of generous ale. 
It is the way with river-men to go from the 
inn to the church, and so we may go with them 
through the pleasant village to the old church 
of St. Mary, which still retains a Norman 
door on the north side, and is itself very 
picturesque, with walls of flint and stone, a 
brick tower mantled with ivy, and very charm- 
ing ^surroundings. The place is of great 
antiquity, and a font ascribed to Saxon times, 
which has been disused, is in the churchyard. 
The edifice has many interesting monumenis, 
including one of Mr. Day, the author of " Sand- 
ford and Merton," who was killed by a fall 
from his horse, not far away, and another to^ 
Lieutenant-Colonel Raymond White, of the 
Inniskilling Dragoons, which was erected by 
his brother officers in 1844. There are quaint 
old timber houses in the village, and a delight- 
ful air of rusticity pervades the place. Just 
above Wargrave, the railway from Henley to 
Twyford crosses the river on a wooden viaduct, 
which is not unpicturesque, and there, the little 
river Loddon flows into the stream. Pope, who 
has invested the tributary with a somewhat 
foolish episode concerning the nymph Lodona 
being transformed by Diana into the river 



SHIPLAKE. 



173 



i-oddon, in order to save her from 
the pursuit of Pan, speal<s of 
the river as— 

" The Loddon slow, with verdant 
alders crcwn'd." 

As a matter of fact the stream 
is iiere rather strong, and it lias 
this peculiarity, that it receives 
as a tributary a bacl<water of 
the Thames, which leaves the 
river some distance higher up. 
Tlie peculiarity is increased by 
the fact that, if you traverse 
the lower part of the Loddon and 
the baci<water — which is very 
swift, and bearsthecuriousname 
of St. Patricl<'s water — you avoid 
passing through Shiplake Lock. 
The whole place is very deeply 
wooded and grown with reeds, 
so that the entry to the back- 
water may have to be sought 
rather carefully ; and it should 
be navigated also with care. 
Shiplake Mill, which stands on the Oxfordshire 
side, is a very picturesque building, and Ship- 
lake itself a pleasant village a little away from 
the river, partly upon a chalk cliff, from which 
there is an extremely pretty view. It is a 
well-known resting place for anglers and oars- 
men, and has an interesting church, with 
cylindrical piers of an early type, and good 
arches. It has been restored and enlarged, and 
is chiefly notable for the fact that it possesses 
fine old stained windows from the Abbey of 
St. Bertin, near St. Omer. Here Lord Tennyson 
was married, as none foiget who visit the 
church. 




Photo., Tarnitf 



Rustic Bridge neir Wargrave Church. 



Ox/ot-:. 



" Oh. the woods and the meadows, 

Woods where we hid from the wet ; 
Stiles where we stay'd to be kind, 
Meadows in which we met ! " 

So he wrote in his " Marriage Morning," one 
of the pretty song-cycle, with a thought, we 
suppose, to the day at Shiplake long before. 

From Shiplake to Sonning, after passing a 
number of turns in the river, with eyots at the 
bends, we get into more open water, and so 
approach to the pleasant old village. There 
are remarkably beautiful views both up astream 
and down from the old brick bridge at Sonning. 
Looking back, we see the winding river among 
its osier beds, flowing across the open from 




Jkoio., Tauftlt 



Shiplake Lock and Mills from below. 



' Ot/tii, ' 



174 



THE THAMES HLUSTRATED. 




Pholo., Taunt, 



Shiplake Church and Farm. 



Oxford. 



Shiplake, with the wooded hills towards Henlev 
behind, while up-stream the river is again 
narrowed by islands covered with reeds and 
pollard willows, but having something of the 
appearance of a lake beyond, with the noble 
woods of Holme Park as a background. 
There are really two bridges at Sonning, con- 
necting the island with the mainland on either 
side, and the grouping of these with the church 
can scarcely be surpassed on th? river. The 
bridge is believed to have an older record than 




Photo.. Taiintt 



Interior of Ship!ake Church. 



any other on the upper Thames, and the vil- 
lage itself is a very ancient place, having been 
the seat of a bishopric as long ago as the loth 
and I ith centuries. The names of nine occu- 
pants of the See are known — Athelstan, Odo, 
Osulf, Alfstan, Alfgarh, Sigeric, Alfric, Bright- 
wold, and Heremann — which last united his 
See with the bishopric of Sherborne, and 
transferred it to the 1 itter place in the time of 
King Edward the Elder. The Bishops of 
Salisbury had a palace at Sonning, even up t") 
Tudor times, and it is on record 
that the girl wife of Richard 11.^ 
Isabella of France — tied to the vil- 
lage after his deposition, for the' 
bishop's protection. It is recorded, 
too, of this ancient^place that 
there was long ago a chapel de- 
dicated to St. Sarac, which be- 
came a famous place of pilgrim- 
age for those afflicted with mad- 
ness. Natural beauty and historic 
interest thus combine to add to 
the attractions of old Sonning. 

Across the bridge, where 
stands the old familiar "French 
Horn," lies the little knot of 
houses known as Sonning Eye. 
On this side the pleasant road 
from Henley and Shiplake passes 
on its way toCaversham Bridge. 
There are lovely wooded views 
towards the hills on the Oxford- 
shire side, and fascinating peeps 
at the sylvan scenery on the- 



Oy/j*-». 



SONNING. 



'/3 



other shorebetween the I.oddon and the Thames. 
Such points as these have interest, with 
knowledge of the boating facilities and the 
excellent jack, roach, barbel, and other fishing 
it affords in the neighbourhood of Sonning, for 
the Thames wayfarer. The village is as 
picturesque as any on the river, with quaint 
old houses of brick lifting their high gables and 
tiled roofs over the way, and climbing roses, 
honeysuckle, ivy and Virginia Creeper cluster- 
ing up to their latticed panes. Not much of the 
place can be seen from the river, but a short 
walk brings the delighted visitor to exceedingly 
pretty scenes. Small wonder, then, that many 
artists and writers have spent their leisure at 



is Christ blessing the Twelve Apostles, and on 
the other a representation of kings and queens 
crowned. The church has been restored, and has 
a modern font with a lofty cover of tabernacle 
work. There are many monuments, one of a 
Lady Lidcott (1630), who kneels like other 
deceased ladies in Thames-side churches. A 
chapel on the south side, which is now almost 
entirely tilled by the organ, contains many 
memorials of a family of the name of Barker, 
with some very curious inscriptions. In order 
to accommodate the organ, tlie monument of 
Sir Thomas Rich and his son, who died in the 
17th century, was removed by the " restorers " 
who transported it to the west end of the edifice. 




Photo , Taunt, 



The Thames, from Shiplake Court. 



Ox/orti, 



Sonning. Sketching tents and easels are always 
to be discovered by the bridge, on the banks, or 
in the street of the little village. Here, too, we 
remember that Sydney Smith was living when 
he wrote his "Peter Plymley's Letters." Theold 
church of St. Andrew — whose statue is over the 
north porch — consists of nave, chancel and 
aisles — the south aisle being of the best 
Decorated work, and the north remarkable lor 
its carved enrichments. There is a good 
chequered Perpendicular tower, in which hangs 
a peal of bells famous for their sweetness. A 
remarkable feature is an archway in the north 
chancel aisle^ot which the keystone bears the 
arms of the See of Salisbury, while on one side 



The curious in such mntters will find much of 
interest in the memorials of the church. Son- 
ning Lock is famous for its roses, and its 
deeply-wooded surroundings, and the " Thames 
Parade" — a name that gives no idea of the 
sweet river-side beauty of the place — is a de- 
light to all who sojourn at the village. 

But, beyond Sonning, and its little archi- 
pelago, and noble reach of water, as we 
fare upward, the river begins to decline in its 
interest and beauty, and it is not very long 
before the smoke of Reading enters into the 
prospect. The outlook is then not picturesque. 
Yet we, who have enjoyed so much, must not 
grlimble that we have reached the most 



176 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




rhoto., 'J aunt. 



Sonoing Charcf), from the North- West. 



Oxford, 



prosperous town in Berkshire. As Sliai<espeare 
says — 

" The sweetest honey 
Is loathesome in his own deliciousness, 
And in the taste confounds the appetite." 

And so tlie Tiiames — in order, as it were, to 
mal<e us better enjoy the beauties of Maple- 
duriiam, Pangbourne, Streatley and Goring, 
doffs his picturesque garb awhile, and bids us 




fhtU., Taunt, 



Sonning Old Bridge to Sonning Eye. 



look across the level King's Mead, where the 
sluggish Kennet, " for silver eels renown'd," 
flows ignominiously to its confluence. You 
would never think, to look at the dull outpour- 
ing of the stream, how charming is the country 
through which it flows in the historic vale of 
Newbury, and higher again in its Wiltshire 
birthplace. As to Reading itself, you cannot 
see much of it from the Thames, for the long 
embankment of the railway, 
wiiich appears to be threatening 
the river by its approach, cuts 
off a good deal of the town from 
view, though the steeple of the 
church of St. Lawrence and 
other features rise upward. 

Although we must not dwell 
on its interests here, Reading is 
not a place to be ignored by 
those who traverse the Thames. 
It is at once a fine modern town, 
famous for biscuits, agriculture, 
and garden seeds, and a place of 
high antiquity. Those astute 
seamen, the Danes — who man- 
aged to circumvent London 
Bridge — succeeded, we are told, 
in bringing their warships even 
rsfar as the mouth of the Kennet, 



Ojt/ard, 



CAVERSHAM. 



177 




111 the year 
were trans- 
Round about 



Flioio., I'autu, 

whence they started upon their campaign into 
Wessex It is a matter to which allusion will 
be made later on. Asser says that on the 
third day after their arrival, while some s'coured 
the country, others entrenched themselves in 
the angle between the Thames and the Kennet. 
It was a base of advantage for their operations, 
for they were protected on all sides, and their 
boats could bring them supplies harried from 
the fruitful valley of the Thames. Plant- 
agenet kings were often at Reading, and 
Parliament sat there when plague made 
Westminster undesirable, and, 
1625, even the law courts 
ferred to the salubrious town. 
the place a great deal of fighting 
took place in the Civil Wars, and 
Essex captured it from the king, 
though not, perhaps, to his 
ultimate advantage. The Bene- 
dictine Abbey, which had been 
founded by Henry !., and had 
suffered a good deal structurally 
alter the Reformation, was fur- 
ther battered by Parliamentary 
guns planted at Caversham, and 
now presents little more than a 
great block of almost shapeless 
masonry, with round arches of 
enormous strength.. As we have 
seen. General Ccnwav further 
despoiled the place for the build- 
ing of his bridge near Henley. 
Henry 1. and other royal per- 
sonages were buried in tlie rhot«. launi. 



Soiining Lock. 



Oifird. 

Abbey Church, where some royal weddings 
were celebrated in the Middle Ages. But 
Reading, much as it has to offer of further 
interest, must not delay our journeying. 

Caversham is its neighbour across the river 
Thames, a more attractive place, connected 
with the town by an ugly bridge of iron girders 
and pillars about whichtherearebroadmeadows, 
often flooded in the winter. The place has an 
interesting church, partly Norman, of which 
the tower rises picturesquely amid the woods 
which fringe the river. In the middle of the 
stream there is a little island upon which it ii 
said a " wager of battle " was fought between 
Robert de Monlfort and Henry de Essex, in the 




Caversham Weir and Pool. 



Ox/ord. 



178 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 



presence of Henry II. At Caversham died the 
celebrated William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke. 
In the Civil War the place was garrisoned for 
the king, but the Royal forces were driven out 
by Essex in the course of his somewhat abortive 
campaign in 1643. He planted his ordnance on 
the iiill, whence he was so far able to damage 
Reading that the wounded governor offered to 
surrender, if the garrison might march out with 
the honours of war. This was at first refused, 
and Charles and Prince Rupert— notwithstand- 
ing the defeat at Dorchester — advanced as far 
as Caversham Bridge with the purpose of raising 
the siege. There, a hotly contested battle took 
place, in which the Royalists were defeated, 
and fell back. Reading then surrendered, after 
a siege of ten days, when t!ie health of the 
soldiers in the town was broken, and mortality 
and desertion had thinned their ranks. Four 
thousand men, however, remained, who were 
allowed to march out with arms and ammLmition, 
colours flying, and drums beating; and, .though 
the fall of the town was a blow to the prestige 
of the Royalists, it relieved them of a difficulty, 
and added this large body of seasoned soldiers to 
their forces in the field. Of pleasant Caversham, 
we shall have little more to say. In the original 
mansion of Caversham Park, which is situated 
upon the hill. Lord Knowles splendidly enter- 
tained Queen Anne of Denmark in 1613, and it 
was to the same house that Charles 1., when he 
was in the hands of the Parliament, having met 



his children after a long separation at Maiden- 
head, rode with them. Here they spent a lew 
days together, owing to the courtesy of Fairfax 
and the goodwill or the army, as Clarendon 
records. The woods which surrounded the 
house suffered a good deal in subsequent 
fighting, and Evelyn deplored the destruc- 
tion. The place was afterwards the resi- 
dence of General Cadogan, wlio fought at 
Ramillies, led the van at Oudenarde, and 
broke the lines at Bouchain. The house was 
twice destroyed by fire, and was last rebuilt 
in 1850. 

The aspect of the Thames between Reading 
and Caversham, though not to be accounted 
picturesque, already gives promise, as we look 
forward, of the sylvan beauties that are to 
come, and its open character forms a useful 
break in the woodland journeying. Broad and 
eddying waters like these, with barges laden to 
the gunwale, or pleasure boats hoisting their 
sails, eel-bucks to add picturesqueness, and 
great clouds driving across the blue vault 
above, can never fail in their charm. We have 
traversed by Windsor, Cliveden, Cookham, 
Marlow, and Henley, many entrancingly 
beautiful regions of the river, and we shall 
find, as we go onward, that the Thames has 
equal charms yet in store, and places not 
less interesting and attractive for the enjoy- 
ment of those who pursue their leisurely way 
with its winding course towards O.xford. 




PHofo., Taitnt, 



The Eel-Bucks at Caversham. 



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Mapledurham Weir 




pOK some two miles above Caversham 
Bridge the Tiiames has no very 
striking features to offer us, though 
in many ways it is beautiful enough. 
On the Oxfordshire side the hill is 
steep, and well clothed with Scotch 
firs, and there are chalk cliffs here and there, 
while the railway approaches close to the 
river on the right bank, where the tow-path 
is. The line, however, plunges very soon into 
a cutting, and is no disfigurement to the river. 
The hills rise on that side, too, and, when we 
get to the " Roebuck," which is about three 
miles from Caversham Bridge, the stream 
grows narrower between the banks, in a 
romantic gorge, shadowed by a multitude of 
trees. It is the beginning of one of the loveliest 
regions of the Thames. Many contend that' 
the river from Mapledurham to Streatley is in 
the finest part of its course, and we are not 
here concerned to dispute with them. What 
no one can gainsay is that these reaches up to 
Streatley hold their own with those at Clive- 
den and Cookham, at Wargrave and Sonning, 
as at Nuneham further along. If we may 
judge the beauty of a place by the array of 
sketching tents, umbrellas,, and easels, which it 
attracts, and the number of pictures it furnishes 
to the Academy and other galleries, we must 
give the part of the river upon which we are 
about to enter a very high place indeed. 

The clear water, the far overhanging trees, 
and the noble vista, make the river up to 
.Mapledurham extremely beautiful. Mapledur- 



ham itself, on the Oxfordshire side, is 
almost a legendary place. This old Tudor 
manor-house of the Blounts stands away from 
the river, hidden among the trees, and, until 
the autumn winds have blown, you can 
scarcely see it from your boat. It is just the 
place to weave stories about, and you can 
scarcely help fancying that some ghostly 
mysteries hover about it. There are secret 
rooms and passages in it such, as were common 
in Tudor times, wlien hunted men tied for safety 
to places like this. It is a many-gabled house, 
with mullioned windows, towering chimneys, 
and a rare aspect of old-world quaintness ; 
within, a great staircase, panelled rooms, and 
walls liung with family portraits. The house 
was built in 1581, by Sir .Michael Blount, then 
Lieutenant of the Tower. In the Civil Wars, 
Sir Charles Blount defended it stoutly against 
the Parliament. The works had been super- 
vised by Sir Cuthbert Aston, governor of 
Reading, but, after standing out manfully for 
some ti7ne, Mapledurham fell before the enemy. 
The house has acquired celebrity because of 
Pope's admiration .for Teresa and Martha, the 
two daughters of Mr. Lister Blount. The 
Blounts were friends of the Popes, and the poet's 
mother wrote to him, in her curious ortho- 
graphy, " there's Mr. Blunt of Maypell Durom 
is dead." After their father's death, Teresa and 
Martha were often at Twickenham, when the 
friendship grew stronger with Pope. It is need- 
less to defend the poet in this matter.' The 
little man, with his "crazy carcass," was 



'94 



THE THAMES lEfMSTR.ITEf) 




fhcic. Taun: MapUdurham 

certainly no Lothario, and his affectation of 
devoted attachment to the two young ladies 
was merely after the manner of his artificial 
time. He quarrelled with Teresa, and it would 
be hard to grudge such pleasure as he derived 
from the bright eyes of Patty Blount. We may 
picture her still at Mapledurham, where, after 
the coronation of George I., 

" She went to p.ain-work and to purling brooks. 
Old fashion'd halls, dull Eunts, and croaking rooks; 
She went from opera, park, assembly, play, 
To morning-walks, and prayers three hours a d.iy ; 
To part her fimt; 'twi;;t leading and bohca 
To niuso, and spill her so 'tary tea." 




fHi)'0.. Taunt, 



Mapledurham Lock. 



Church. "^^'"^ 

Pope and the Blounts belonged to the same 
faith, and Mapledurham Church, which stands 
near the river, and well deserves inspection, 
is like the church at Arundel — a curious instance 
of a divided edifice. While the nave and chancel 
are given up to the Established Church, the 
Blounts claim and hold the south aisle as their 
own. It is shut off from the rest of the structure, 
and, upon the death of any member of the 
family, the Catholic burial service is held 
within it. There is a very fine monument here 
of Sir Richard Blount, in armour, and his wife, 
iilizabeth in ruff and farthingale. A pair of 
great old-fashioned iron gates 
form the entrance from the house 
to the church, while on the other 
side is an ancient avenue of 
venerable elms. 

Warren Hastings must have 
looked across tlie river from 
Purley to this sequestered old 
place with curious interest. He 
lived in the little village for some 
time before the oncoming of 
his impeachment, and when he 
was negotiating for the purchase 
of Daylesford, where he died. 
It may be remembered that, 
when he arrived in England, 
he was greatly disappointed not 
to find his wife in town, and 
that their meeting took place 
on Maidenhead Bridge. The 
mill at Mapledurham has beep 



MAPLEDURHAM. 



195 



a subject for many artists, and is, perhaps, the 
most picturesque on the whole river— so 
picturesque, indeed, with its old brick wails, 
little windows, timber gables, and tiled roof, 
and its quaint bridge and surroundings, that 
some have thought its picturesqueness artificial. 
However that may be, it is certainly remark- 
ably pretty. There is a small island above 
the weir — and a very noble weir it is, all over- 
hung by trees--which is a favourite resort of 
campers; and then the river opens out wide 
and beautiful, and Hardwicke House comes into 
view on the Oxfordshire side, at the foot of a 
great wooded hill, not coyly retiring like 
Mnpledurham, but showing you, in the most 



Whitchurch are equally pleasant places to 
linger at. The little river Pang gives its name 
to the former of them, and flows into the 
Thames near to the old "Swan" Hotel. 
The scenery at this point, over the weir 
and towards the bridge, is particularly 
beautiful, and, from the bridge itself, a very 
charming set of pictures is disclosed. Looking 
upward, there isthequaintchurch of Whitchurch 
on the right hand, with its short shingle- 
covered spire, and the old and picturesque 
mill, while the lock is in the middle, with a 
great overhanging tree, and on the left, the 
weir breaks into foam, embosomed amid the 
foliage of its barks. The church and the mill 




Mapledurham House, from the Lawn. 



inviting manner, all the charms it has to offer. 
It is a many-gabled mansion, very picturesque 
indeed, and with a terrace not unworthy of 
Haddon Hall. Here, they say, Charles I. was 
accustomed to practise his favourite game of 
bowls, and he could scarcely have chosen a 
more pleasant place for the occupation. 

Between this point and Whitchurch Bridge 
the course of the Thames is almost straight, 
and the reach exceedingly fine, with overhang- 
ing trees, chiefly on the Oxfordshire side. 
Reeds break the surface of the water, and it is 
pleasant to hear them rustling along the side of 
the boat as we pull up towards the wooden 
bridge. The twin villages of Pangbourne and 



together lie very prettily near the river, 
while the village itself struggles up the steep 
hill behind, in a charming situation with many 
a house welt known to the anglers who fre- 
quent the place. Except for its prettiness, 
and the facilities which it offers to those who 
traverse the river or linger to enjoy its angling, 
Whitchurch has little to call for note. You 
may find, indeed, in the church some Norman 
features and a few very interesting brasses 
and memorials, but the edifice has been a good 
deal restored. 

Pangbourne, on the other side of tlie river 
is a very favourite resort. All along the ban! 
hous'es have sprung up, and it is very curiou. 



I05 



77/ A" THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




SV iUlCiiUICIi 



to see how the chalk cliff at Shooter's Hill has 
been cut away to accommodate them upon the 
reach above the bridge. It must be confessed 
that something of the charm of old Pangbourne 
is destroyed by such brand - new edifices, 
though they are architecturally of very good 
character. The railway runs quite near to the 
bank on this side, hidden by the chalk cliff, 
and, between the railway and the road, the 
cliff has been scooped out in a singular fashion 




Pkoto.. launt. 



Whitchurch V.Uage. 



J->: lugt. 

to admit of the building of the houses. 
Pangbourne itself lies back a little from the 
river, but is very well known to boating men, 
and has pleasant resorts in the pretty " Swan," 
with its artistic signboard, by the river, and in 
the " George " and " Elephant," in the town. 
The church is modern, and is a building of fine 
character, its red brick tower surviving from 
1 71 8, and there are some interesting monu- 
ments within. The finest of these is that of 
Sir John Davis, who was 
knighted for his prowess in 
Spain, in the time of Elizabeth. 
He is represented in a recum- 
bent effigy, with his two wives, 
beneath an elaborate canopy, 
and with two little figures of 
children kneeling below. The 
'iiurch possesses, also, a mural 
.lion II ment of the three daughters 
of Sir John Suckling, Comp- 
troller of the Household to 
Charles 1., who was concerned 
in the army plot and in the 
attempt to bring about the 
release of Strafford from the 
..,jA-: : Tower. 
^MBH The charms of this delightful 

^^^^H| neighbourliood are by no means 
'^^^^ confined to the river. The coun- 
oxtord. try inland is very beautiful, and 



PANGBOURNE. 



197 




Pheto,. Taunt 



Pangbouine Weir, from the Lock-Hoj;e. 



Oxjord 



the road from Reading to Oxford, w hich is tire 

neiglibOLir of tlie Tliames on tire Berl<sliire 

side, is remarl<aliiy lieantiful as it jxrsses over 

tire hill by Basildon to Streatley, affording a 

glorious view of the winding river beneath the 

deep slope of Hart's Wood on the other side. 

There is, too, a romantically beautiful footpath 

from Whitchurch to Goring on the Oxfordshire 

bank. It passes along the top of the wood, 

with a "Lover's Leap" by the way, and 

varied and attractive views. The cultivation 

of osiers for commerce may be noted as a 

curious and profitable industry along this part 

of the river, and the osier farms are very 

pleasant to visit. Not long ago, 

there was an ancient dame at 

one of them, whose years were 

near live-score, but who could 

strip the rods and bind them as 

featly as any young one in the 

crowd. The rods are gathered 

from the eyots in punts, and are 

tied up and placed with their 

roots downward in a protected 

piece of water, where they shoot 

afresh, and then, in due season, 

rapid fingers strip them of their 

bark by an ingenious method, 

and they come out the long 

white rods that are the wickers 

of commerce, of market baskets 

and garden chairs, which may 

all remind us of the Upper 

Thames. 

Hart's Wood, which is chiefly 



of glorious beeches, looking magnificent in the 
autumn, resembles, in many ways, the hanging 
woods of Cliveden, and the reach of the Thames 
below it scarcely yields in beauty to the 
romantic water above Maidenhead. There is a 
flat space between the wood and the river, 
which is quite an ideal spot for camping, but 
those who wish to pitch their tents there will do 
well to make enquiries at Combe Lodge, which 
stands in a tine position among oak trees on the 
Oxfordshire side. The cliffs that emerge from 
the beech thickets add interest to Hart's Wood. 
The wood takes its name, as did a lock which 
formerly stood about the middle of the reach, 




The "Swan," Pangbourne. 



Ox/oraU 



iqH 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




View from Hart's Wood, looking down. 



Ox/oru 



from a lock-keeper named Hart, who belonged 
to a family of almost ancestral lock-keepers on 
the Thames. The reed-grown eyots in the 
Hart's Wood Reach mark the position of the 
old lock and weir. 

Between this hanging wood and the 
meadows on the Berkshire shore we pull for- 
ward to the ferry, where the towpath crosses 
to the Oxfordshire side, and to the little village 
of Gateiiampton, which the natives call 
" Gattenton." As is customary on the 
Thames, picturesque old barges lie under the 
shore tor the transport of horses and passengers. 




Photo., Taunt, 



The Upper Path, Hart's Wood. 



The hills on the Berkshire side have now 
risen from the meadows, and continue in a 
hi.i;h range all the way to the famous hill at 
Streatley. Basildon Park, the seat of Mr. 
Charles Morrison, is upon the hill, in a superb 
situation, commanding a magnificent view of 
the river. It is a house of classic character, and 
contains a very celebrated collection of pictures 
and works of art. The quaint little tlint-built 
church, which goes back to the times of the 
Edwards, looks rather solitary where it stands 
nearer the river. 

Basildon became well known in the last 
century through the residence 
there of the Fanes. Lady Fane 
built one of those curious grot- 
toes, which were so dear to the 
satin-coated gentlemen and pow- 
dered ladies of the times of Anne 
and the Georges. They look 
very melancholy, indeed, in 
these days where you can find 
tliem, despoiled of all their 
glories, and with nothing re- 
maining but the stucco that held 
them together. Pope, himself, 
as we saw at Twickenham, 
delighted in such a place. 
Curiously enough, he called 
upon those who trod its "sacred 
floor" to view "great Nature," 
and " eye the mine without a 
wish for gold " So, too, did a 






ST RE AT LEY. 



199 



poetaster of tlie name of Graves, whose 
effusion has been collected by Dodsley, find 
delights in the grotto of Lady Fane, at 
Basildon. The " grot divine, " and the 
"miracles wrought by shells," awoke his 
enthusiasm to utterance in the feeblest verse, 
from which we will not weary the reader by 
quoting. 

It is better, much, to turn from such artifi- 
cialities and inanities to the noble river which 
sweepstowardsStreailey in a ma^^nificent curve. 
A long white house, which stands where the 
grotto was, commands a glorious prospect of 
the stream in this superb part of its course. 
The gardens of the house are exceedingly 



of which lend themselves in a quite surprising 
manner to pictorial effects. The bridge itself, 
the hill, the quaint cottages, the river with its 
two mills, its eyots, and backwaters, are all 
most delightful. Fishermen know the place 
well. Here we have barbel, roach, dace, jack, 
excellent chub, and, rather rarely, perch. It 
is a delightfully lazy occupation to look down 
into the gravel of the bed by the old bridge 
piers, and watch the barbel, on a fins "Way 
morning, digging out tlie holes for the deposi 
of their spawn. From. Goring, Streatley makes 
a charming picture, with the bridge and the 
mills in the foreground ; but Goring itself we 
shall leave for a while, and be content for the 




Photo., Taunt, 



The " Swan," Streatley. 



beautiful, charmingly timbered, and have the 
most lovely walks along the water's edge. 
Before we reach that point, however, the rail- 
way, which turns to the Oxfordshire side, in 
order to avoid Streatley Hill, has crossed the 
river a little above the ferry, upon a red brick 
bridge of four arches, designed by Brunei, to 
Goring. 

Streatley Hill is a great landmark in .the 
country hereabout, with its juniper-covered 
slope and wooded crest, from which there is 
such a great prospect, both up-stream and 
down. Streatley and Goring, like Pangbourne 
and Whitchurch, are twin \-illages, connected 
by a pretty wooden bridge, the surroundings 



present to explore the delights of Streatley. 
Rushing weirs, lovely woods, and a great hill 
are its neighbours. There is health in its 
breezes, and pleasure in the occupations it 
affords. By situation, the place was long ago 
of high importance, and its name bespeaks the 
fact that one or more Roman roads passed this 
way. The road from Silchester to Oxford 
passed through Pangbourne, Basildon, and 
Streatley, by the way of the present turnpike, 
and, at the top of Streatley village, "crossed 
almost at right angles the celebrated Icknield 
Way, which can be traced through Bedfordshire 
and Buckingham, along the base of the Chil- 
terns, towards Goring, and to a ford in the 



200 



lilE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




''"'"■■ '""""■'■ Strcatley 

river, where was a sunken causeway, wlience 
it ascended the hill tiirough Streatiey, and 
passed onwards by Aidwortii on the liili, in its 
westward course. Here, then, was a Roman 
station, and tliese are not the only old roads 
which can be traced in the neighbourhood of 
Ihe village. The little place has certainly, in 
its time, given lodging to many famous men. 
The Conqueror himself, after the battle of 
Hastings, after harrying Sussex and Kent, and 
burning Southwark, marched this way to 
VVallingford, and there received the submission 
of Wiggod, Sheriff of Oxfordshire, the first 
Fnglishman of rank' to join his cause. 




Jftc/a., 7'aiiiif, 



Basildon ViUaie. 



Bridge. ''^-"'^'■ 

The " Swan " Inn by the river at Streatiey 
is a very famous Thames hostelry, and the 
" Bull " in the village scarcely less so. Streat- 
iey is, happily, not yet spoiled. Quaint old 
cottages still line the roadway, and the street 
climbs the hill under a fine spreading walnut 
tree. The little thatched dwellings, at whose 
doors the gossips discuss the news of the vil- 
lage, neighbour the "great house," which 
stands with drawn blinds, half hidden by its 
shrubbery, opposite to the walnut tree ; and 
the great masses of the chalk hill behind form 
a pleasing background to the picturesque scene. 
It is \er\' pleasant to spend a few days in this 
village, for the exploration of 
its fascinating neighbourhood. 
iNot all, perhaps, may Lie so 
fortunate as Mr. Pennell, whose 
landlady led him up almost to 
the top of the hilly road, to a 
cottage with a deep thatched 
roof, and a gable, where an angel 
with outstretched wings, and 
folded hands, kept watch, while 
the motto "Nisi Dominus frus- 
tra," in brass nails, was ham- 
mered into the door. This door 
" opened from the front garden 
into a low room, with great 
rafters across the ceiling, and a 
huge fireplace, where every 
morning o» our stay we saw our 
bacon broiled, and our bread 
toasted ; here were jugs and 
jars on the carved mantelshelf, 



STREATLEY 



20 1 



volumes of Balzac and Tourgeneff, Walt 
Whitman and George Eliot, Carlisle, and 
Thackeray, on the book-shelves ; photographs 
from Florentine pictures on the walls, brass 
pots hanging from the rafters." Such a place 
is old-fashioned Streatley — a rustic village, 
which the railway has, happily, left on one 
side. Blessings, therefore, on Streatley Hill, 
say those who love the Thames, since its 
wooded height turned the iron monster away 
from the Berkshire shore ; and may the blue 
smoke long continue to curl up from those old- 
fashioned chimneys above the thatch ! 

We shall not forget the foolish lassitude of 
Punch's Lazy Minstrel, who pulled the "Shut- 



The church is the most interesting feature 
in the village, and is most prettily situated 
amidst spreading trees, as the pictures will 
show. It was endowed as a vicarage by 
Bishop Pone, of Salisbury, and there was a small 
Dominican Priory attached to it. Many fea- 
tures of the little church are of interest, and it 
has been remarked that its details resemble 
those of Salisbury Cathedral. The tower is 
square and good, mantled with ivy, and lock- 
ing very charming from almost every point of 
view. There are some good brasses in the 
church, and other features of uiterest. 

But it is now time to climb Streatley Hill. 
It is an outlying portion of the great Berkshire 




Thato., Taunt. StfCatley, 

tlecock" beside the "Swan," and declared;— 

" I'd rather much sit here and laze 

Thau scale the hill at Streatley." 

It was a foolish resolve, and we shall 
presently assume the better part and ascend 
10 the crest ; at the same time freely admitting 
that there are abundant delights by the shore, 
and that the Lazy Minstrel found certainly 
much to his satisfaction by tlie water's side. 

" I sit atid lounge here uu the grass, - 
And watch the river trallic pass ; 
I note a dimpled, lair young lass, 

Who fi^athers low and neatly ; 
Her hands are brown, hcreyts are grey, 
And trim her nautical array — 
Alas! she sw.fily sculls away 

And leaves thi ' Swan' at Streatley." 



from the Hill. 



downs, which are a continuation ofthe Chil- 
tern system, the Thames having cloven his 
way between When we reach the top, the 
country towards Wailingford is laid out like a 
map before us. The twin villages are in the 
foreground, with the pretty bridge, and the 
mills, and the weir, with corn-fields and woods 
spread about them, and the Thames threading 
"his silver winding way" through the great 
country beyond. In clear weather, the pro- 
spect is superb, and village after village, corn- 
field after cornfield, and thicket af ler thicket, 
can be discerned, while purple hills rise far off 
in the gathering haze. Nothing can surpass 
the beauty of the scene when the fields are 



202 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 



yellowing for the harvest, and the settino; sun 
looks through his purple bars as he sinks in 
the golden west. But this is .lotall. Looking 
down the river, again, beyond the cottages, 
barns and hayricks of the village, we see the 
river \,-inding below the woods in the great 
curve towards Basildon, beneath the red brick 
bridge of Brunei. In short, whether we turn 
to the woods behind us, or to the great pro- 
spects spread out before, we find surpassing 
charms in Streatley Hill. 

The hills behind are, indeed, full of history. 
They have been the marching-ground and 
battle-ground of Saxons and Danes. There is, 
perhaps, no absolute certainty as to locality, 
but when the West Saxons turned fiercely at 
bay, and confronted the Danes, who were 
striking mercilessly from the base they had 
established at Reading, they met them upon 
these neighbouring heights. Asser, in his life 
of Alfred, gives a long account of the great 
battle of /Cscesdun. The foemen battled 
fiercely, Alfred charging "like a wild boar" 
up the slope, and the conflict raged round a 
stunted thorn, where the Danish leaders fell. 
" i have seen it with my own eyes," exclaims 
Asser. The hosts of Guthrum were driven 
back with great loss, from the hills. But the 
Danish stronghold between the Thames and 
ihe Kennet, to which allusion has been made, 
proved impregnable, and overwhelming forces 



push'ng up the river, left Alfred almost power- 
less before them. A series of defeats followed, 
and drove liim to procure the withdrawal of 
the Danes by purchase, thus gaining a breath- 
ing space to mature his decisive plans. 

It is a very pleasant thing to climb the hill 
from Streatley, and taking the road on the right, 
to leave Thurle and Moulsford Downs on the left 
hand, and walk to the point known as the King's 
Standing Hill, where Alfred, it is surmised, 
may have had his camp. Hence, along the ridge 
of the Downs, there is a broad grassy way 
over the height towards Lowbury Hill, upon 
which the Danes, perhaps, took their stand. 
There is a sense of glorious treedom upon these 
breezy hills, and health is in their invigorating 
air, and it is delightful, after a ramble upon 
them, to turn once more to quaint old Streatley, 
and to the wooded way of the Thames. 

We are about to issue, in this upward jour- 
neying, from the gorge which the Thames has 
cloven between the Chilterns and the Berkshire 
Downs. It is well to remember that many 
of the charms we have discovered in this part 
of the Thames Valley are due to the close 
embrace of the chalk hills, whose scarps peep 
out here and there along the banks. That wide 
prospect northward from Streatley Hill, gave 
indication of the new character of river scenery 
which weshall presently meet. It is a country of 
open pastures and dist.uit hills that lie beyond. 



-.:||PI|JII|P|I||I|I|||I , 








Streatley Mi!l, 



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T?tolo., Taunt, 



Goring Church, fro-Ti the Island. 



Ox/ari. 




ORING is a less picturesque place 
than Slreatley, though all through 
the summer hosts of oarsmen 
• and anglers give testimony of its 
attractions, it has a salubrious site, 
at the end of the Chiltern range, 
■and the facilities offered by the railway have 
made it a favourite place for country residents. 
That villas have sprung up to the displacement 
of much that was rustic we cannot therefore 
be astonislied; but those who resort to Goring 
are apt to say that it is a pleasant place to 
dwell in. Tnere is deligiitful old Streatley 
clustering up the opposite hill, with its charm- 
ing mill, and the pretty bridge spanning the 
river between, while in Goring itself there is 
the church to bespeak its antiquity, and charm 
the artist, and an old hostel to welcome us ; 
while Ferry Lane retains its rusticity, and 
behind spreads a lovely country of wood and 
meadow, hill and hollow. Verdant meadows 
line the bank of the river, from which the hills 
recede, and an aspect of general richness and 
fertility pervades the place. 

The church is a remarkable structure. It 
-was originally a cruciform edifice, erected 
between 1090 and iioo, but the tower alone 
remains of that early church, resting upon four 
piers, with embattlements of a later date, and 
an external newel, which is extremely pictur- 
-esque. An Augustinian convent was founded 
at Goring in the time of Henry 11., and then, 
save the tower, the whole of the older church 
-was removed, and a large conventual choir 



took its place. The tower was thus brought 
to the west end of the structure as we now see 
it, and, some existing vestiges of the nunnery 
may be found in the south wall of the church. 
The north aisle was added about the year 1200, 
the arcade being formed by piercing the 
Norman wall, and the church appears to have 
been remodelled about the year 1300. It is 
dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket, shortly after 
whose time it rose, and it contains some highly 
interesting examples of Norman and Early 
English Architecture. The chancel windows 
are modern, but good, and the low, broad 
character of the church, and the trees grouped 
about it, give it a most picturesque character. 
The bells of Goring are very celebrated. One 
bears the inscription "This bell was made 
1626," and another "Love God, 1630," but 
the third would appear to have sounded through 
the Thames Valley for nearly 6oD years. It 
bears two Lombardic lines, "Orate pro Petro 
Exoniensi episcopo " and " Ricard de VVymbis 
me fecit." The bishop thus prayed for was 
named Wyvill, and died in 1292. Why he 
should have been commemorated at Goring we 
do not precisely know, but it is surmised that 
Edmund Plantagenet, 7th Earl of Cornwall, 
who was his friend, and had possessions near 
Wallingford, may have presented the com- 
memorative bell to the church. Two other 
bells are curious also, datmg from about 1 503, 
and 1624. 

liT old times the main street led to the ferry, 
before the bridge was built in 1837. It is still 



2lS 



THE THAMES ILEllSTRAl ED. 




Goring Lock, from above. 



known as Ferry Lane, and is charmingly pictur- 
esque. Shops iiave now sprung up between 
the railway and the bridge, but the old "Miller 
of Mansfield" is there, a famous sign in this 
part of the Thames valley, where the miller 
may be seen on one side of the board enter- 
taining Henry II., who sits on a three-legged 
stool with his drinking horn, while on the other 
side of the table is the miller exclaiming, " Here, 
good fellow, 1 drink to thee." From Goring 
village we return to the long wooden bridge 
witn a charming picture of Streatley beyond 
it, the church, and mill pool, the lock and weir, 




Phott.t 7'aunt, 



Ferry Lane, Goring. 



and the old "Swan" across the bridge. There 
is excellent fishing hereabout, and the angler 
may iiave his choice, for perch, pike, dace, 
roach, gudgeon and eels are generally plentiful. 
The river is extremely pretty for a short 
distance above the bridge, and to Cleeve Lock. 
The trees grow finely and overshadow the long 
backwater, and the surroundings of the lock 
are very pretty. The mill is delightfully 
picturesque, and often painted by artists. 

But we now enter upon one of those districts 
of the Thames which have more placid and 
simple charm, where the hills are far off on 
either side, for we have left 
the Chilterns and the Downs 
behind, and long stretches of 
level meadows line the banks. 
This character of country 
extends more or less, though 
with greater woodland beauties 
as we proceed, to Walling- 
ford. It is a grand boating 
reach, upon which the trial 
eights of the Oxford University 
Boat Club are rowed. There 
is no better course upon the 
river, and, in August, at the 
time of the Goring and Streatley 
Regatta, the banks assume an 
air of unwonted gaiety, for the 
festival has a popularity, not 
indeed like that of Henley, but 
yet considerable amongst the 
practised oarsmen of the river, 
and in the evening there is a 



Ox/erd. 



ABOVE GORING. 



2ig 



veritable fair upon tlie banks, with fire\vorl<s 
to close the festivities. 

The distance between Cleeve Lock and 
Wallinj^ford is nearly six miles, and tliere are 
some who find the passage monotonous and 
uninteresting. Yet, where there are broad 
waters, green meadows, yellow cornfields, 
picturesque villages and farmsteads, banks of 
osiers, groups of trees, and a great over-arching 
sky, no place can be devoid of beauty. These 
are the characteristics of the Thames, when 
we have passed the wooded beauties of Streatley 
and Goring, until we approach Walling^ord 
Bridge. At Moulsford, the tow-path crosses 
from the Berkshire to the Oxfordshire bank, 
and every angler and oarsman upon the Upper 



go northward, is about a mile. They are 
, villages quite unspoiled, places with little old- 
fashioned cottages, and the huge barns which 
are such a well-known feature of the villages 
in Oxfordshire and Berkshire •, and you meet 
in them the farmer-men in their smocks, and 
their brown-faced womenkind, wearing the 
great picturesque sun-bonnets of the peasantry. 
Such people group charmingly with their rustic 
surroundings, and perhaps it may be said that 
hereabout— except to the oarsman — the shore 
is more attractive than the water. 

Once again, at Little Stoke, the tow-path 
crosses to the Berkshire side, at a pretty ferry. 
The huge building of the County Lunatic 
Asylum, to which the ferry would bring us, is 







Wj^SSS^HIIk 


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Pholo., Taunt, 



Cleeve Mill, from below. 



Oxford, 



Thames knows the charmingly rural village, 
with the quaint old " Beetle and Wedge " upon 
the bank. The beetle, it may be observed, is 
not the insect so named, but the heavy wooden 
mallet which drives in wedges for the cleaving 
of timber. There is an air of quite delightful 
rusticity about Moulsford, and it is extremely 
pleasant to stroll from the hostel, or from the 
lerry-boat at the bank, to the quaint little 14th 
century church of St. John the Baptist, which 
closely neighbours the stream. 

At the other side of the river is South Stoke, 
one of three sister villages which are upon the 
Oxfordshire shore, the others being Little 
Stoke and North Stoke, all upon the roud from 
Reading. The interval between each, as we 



no adornment to the scene. The railway from 
Reading to Swindon and Oxford has already- 
crossed to the Berkshire side. Above it the river 
is somewhat unattractive, as we must admit, 
until the stately trees that surround Mongewell 
House rise on the right, and add a good deal to 
the beauty of the shore. There was formerly 
a weir and lock near this point, but the weir 
was washed away in i83i, and the whole 
removed two years la:er. 

But we now reach old Wallingford, a place 
where many pause who traverse the Thames, 
and a pleasant town to sojourn in. There is 
good and solid character in its stone bridge, in 
which some very old parts still remain, but the 
structure must have been more picturesque in 



22D 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Pho'o.. Taunt. 



The "Leather Bottd," Cleeve. 



former days, when it had a chapel upon it, and 
a gatehouse at each end, and when it was 
something in the nature of a lock and a weir, 
with sluices and winces. The very curiois 
spire of the church, which is said to have been 
designed by Mr. Justice Blackstone, who 
resided at Wallingford, is not without a certain 
charm in its very oddity, and it is pleasant to 
walk up the quiet street of the old town to the 
Market Place, where is the Corn Exchange, 
with the Town Hall, resting upon a row of 
pillars, in the manner of the olden time. It is 
refreshing, too, to turn in under the archway 




PhMc, Tamil 



An old Berkshire Barn. 



of the " Lamb," the old hostelry of the place. 
This wasformerly known as the "Bell," and the 
three pretty daughters of its landlord, in the 
first half of the last century, as the belles of 
Wallingford. Their charms attracted the 
admiration of wealthy gentlemen, for one 
married William, Viscount Courtenay, the 
second, Sir John Honeywood, baronet, and the 
third another person of title. 

Wallingford stands upon the site of a Roman 
town, if not of a British camp, and extensive 
remains of early fortifications may still be 
traced there. The Danes destroyed the place 
in 1006, and Sweyn was torn 
therein loi 3. So important was 
the place at the time of the 
Norman Conquest that William 
marched thither before occupy- 
ing London, to receive the sub- 
mission of Wiggod, the West 
Saxon Thane; and he crossed at 
Wallingford to Hertfordshire, 
tlireateningto cut off Edwin and 
Morkere from their earldoms. 
Shortly afterwards the castle 
was strengthened, and the 
Empress Matilda took shelter 
there, but it is now little more 
than a crumbling ruin above the 
bridge. It was at Wallingford 
that a treaty was signed that 
put an end to the anarchy of 
Stephen's reign. At one time 
the town possessed not less than 
fourteen churches, but of these. 



WALLINGFORD. 



221 



three now only remain. ISt. Mary's is in 
the Market Place, and is worth a visit. St. 
Leanard's, at the end of Thames Street, is 
the handsomest of the three, and contains 
some good examples of Norman work. Justice 
Blackstone, author of the famous Commen- 
taries, who, in the words of Bentham, was the 
first of all institutional writers to teach juris- 
prudence to speak the language of the scholar 
and the, gentleman, is buried in St. Peter's 
Church, by the bridge — the building with the 
very curious spire. The town suffered much 
from Fairfax in the Civil Wars. 

We saw at Eton how unfortunate Tusser, 
the author of " Five Hundred Points of Good 



mdeed, to linger, and may well delight in the 
neighbouring rustic old village of Crowmarsh, 
on tiie Oxfordsiiire side, which is the prettiest 
place imaginable. There is a very ancient 
church of St. Mary Magdalene there,- built 
about the time of Stephen, who had a castle in 
the place. They can still show the door, with 
bullet marks, impressed, as is said, in the Civil 
Wars, when Fairfax laid siege to Wallingford 
Castle, though it was long before he reduced 
it to surrender and to ruin. Crowmarsh is as 
picturesque as any village hereabout, and its 
various scenes lend themselves admirably to 
pictorial effects. 

We presently reach Bensington weir, lock. 




Thoto.^ Taunts 



Moukford from the River. 



Husbandry," suffered under the scourging of 
Nicholas Udall. He app.^ars to have been not 
less unfortunate at Wallingford, for he thus 
speaks of the days he spent at school there — 

" O, painful time, for every crime ; 
What toosed eares ! Like baited beares ! 
What bobhe 1 lips ! What yerks, what nips ! 

Wnat hellish toies ! 
What robes how bare ! What colled^e fire ! 
What bred, how stale ! What pennie ale ! 
Then Wallingford, thou wert abhorred 

Of sillie boies ! " 

Evidently, he left Wallingford with no very 
pleasant impressions of the town, but that is 
not the case with the oarsman who is pulling 
upward towards Abingdon. He is tempted, 



and ferry, and the little village lying upon the 
Oxfordshire side. The weir is fine, but the 
mill a little spoiled by the somewhat too con- 
spicuous addition of steam power. Bensington, 
or, as it is commonly called, Benson, was 
formerly a place of considerable importance, 
and has yet a church of St. Helen which em- 
bodies features of antiquity. But, with the 
decline of the coaching days, Bensington lost 
its importance, and seems to be left a little 
high and dry by the tide of humanity. The 
district round it was the battle-ground of 
Mercia and Wessex, for the occupation of the 
the place gave to either party a strong position 
upon the course of the river. When Offa, in 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




«B<M|Ml4kWtM»T. $ 



Hio:i>., y. S. Cal/ord. 



WalLngford B.idge. 



Ha »it>loti IVick- 



his attempt to restore the Mercian power, had 
won back Kent by the victory of Otford, he 
turned upon the West Saxons, and marched 
upon the fragments of their kingdom in the 
district of tlie Four Towns north of the Tiiames, 
in what is now Oxford and Buckingiiam. Tlie 
forces met at Bensington, and, after a furious 
conflict, Offa remained master of the place, but 
his strengtli had been exhausted in the struggle, 
and he was driven to attempt conquests in 
Wales, and from that day the final decline 
of Mercia began. 




Fhoto., Taiml, 



Wallingford Castle, South Tower. 



At tills point, the sweet little Ewelme brook 
flows into the Thames on the Oxfordshire side, 
and you may walk along the wooded banks, a 
shady way by picturesque cottages, a distance 
of about two miles, to tlie delightful old village 
of Ewelme. The country around is flat and 
rather bare, and it is quite a surprise to come 
upon the wooded hollow. Through the cloisters 
of the old hospital, w.th their high brick and 
timber walls, red roofs, and their water well, 
you ascend to the door of the very remarkable 
Perpendicular church. The hospital was founded 
by the Duke and Duchess of 
■ Suffolk and richly endowed, and 
the south chapel and South aisle 
of the church are set apart for 
its alms-men. The church itself, 
is dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin, but this south chapel to 
St. John the Baptist. There 
are many very fine memorial 
brasses in the edifice. Between 
the chapel and the chancel is 
the alabaster tomb of Alice, 
Duchess of Suffolk, widow of 
the unfortunate duke, who was 
beheaded on the beach at 
Dover in the time of Henry VI. 
The chapel is exceedingly 
beautiful, and this monument 
its most interesting feature. 
Small figures of angels stand 
round the tomb beneath cano- 
pies most richly worked.bearing 



Ox/ord. 



EWELME. 



223 




J'hoto., Taunt, 



Crowmarsh Village. 



Oxfo li. 



shields, and the effigiy of the duchess is under 
a great canopy, with most beautiful adorn- 
ments. Angels in the attitude of prayer sup- 
port a cornice, elaborately carved with quatre- 
foils and cresting, white slender shafts rise 
above, surmounted by figures of standing 
angels. Beneath the monument of the duchess, 
and behind rich perforated tracery, reminding 
us by ragged realism, which is wanting from 
the effigy above, lies one of those grue- 
some, half skeletonised shapes, of which 
examples are in York Minster, and the church 
of Arundel, in Sussex. The 
monument of the duchess's 
father, Thomas Chaucer, and 
his wife, is on the north side. 
The memorial takes the form 
of an exquisite brass, in which 
the dead man is represented in 
complete armour, standing upon 
a unicorn, while she has a lion 
at her feet. The brass is borne 
upon a low tomb beneath the 
arch westward of the monu- 
ment of the Duchess of Suffolk. 
This tomb is panelled, and with- 
in each arch of the panelling 
there are two shields of arms. 
Chaucer, the poet, whose son 
married Maud Burghersh, 
heiress of the manor, was 
doubtless nostranger to Ewelme, 
and we may fancy that often 
here, in the good green wood, 



as he walked, he heard the wild birds sing. 
There is no more interesting church by the 
Thames than that of Ewelme, which is par- 
ticularly remarkable for its monuments, all 
maintained in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion. When Edmund, Earl of Suffolk, was 
attainted in the reign of Henry VIII., the place 
came; to the Crown, and was a royal residence 
of the Tudors. There is still a lane in the 
village known as " Queen Elizabeth's Walk." 
James 1. endowed the Regius Professorship 
of Divinity at Oxford with the rectorial tithes 




Photo., Taunt, 



Bensington Weir. 



Oxjord, 



J24 



THE THAMES HLUSTRATED. 



of Ewelme ; but, in iS/i.by Actof Parliament, 
with the intention of doing away with absentee- 
ism, the professorship and rectory were 
severed. 

About a mile from Bensington Ferry we come 
to Shillingford Bridge, which is a fine stone 
structure of many arches, in a stril<ing situa- 
tion, with high banl<s rising on the left, and 
the curious height of Sinodun Hill, with its 
well-known clump of trees, a conspicuous object. 

The. hill is a great landmark throughout this 
part of the Thames, and we do not lose sight 
of it for many miles. The little "Swan" Inn 
at Shillingford, which, itself is an insignificant 
village, is well above the river on the Berkshire 
side, and there is a remarkable view of the 



jack, perch, and chub, and just above Shilling- 
ford is a big hole noted for its barbel, while all 
along the reaches the reedy flams give capital 
shelter to the angler, just wh^re the fishes are 
most plentiful. 

But we now reach the mouth of the river 
Thame, which has risen in the eastern part of 
Chilterns, and flowed through the vale of 
Aylesbury, to pass by the ancient tower of 
Dorchester, and to wed the silver Isis, as some 
will still fancifully designate the higher Thames. 
This is a confluence of waters that has become 
celebrated in literature. There is a pleasant 
conceit of Warton, who tells us that — 

' Beauteous Isis, and her husband Thame, 
Wiih mingled waves for ever flow the same." 




Shillingford Bridge. 



river, the bridge, and the level country beyond, 
from its door. Near to Sh llingford, and some- 
what inland, is the pretty village of War- 
borough, which is worth a visit. Once more, 
at Shillingford Ferry — nearly a mile above the 
bridge — the tow-path, which has been cross ng 
from side to side all the way from Streatley, 
passes over to the Oxfordshire bank, upon 
which it continues past the mouth of the 
Thame to Day's Lock. 

On the right, as we go forward, there is a 
broad space of swampy ground, covered mostly 
with reeds, and having an aspect of great 
wildness, with Sinodun Hill on the other side, 
and there is considerable picturesqueness 
when clumps of trees and tall poplars break 
the view. The fishing here is very good for 



Drayton repented the idea, and Spenser speaks 
of the wedding, which, out of the names of 
Thame and Isis, is supposed to give us tlie 
name of Tames;s, and so of Thames. 

" The lovely bridegroom came, 
The noble Thamis, with all his goodly traine. 
And before him there went, as best became 

Hisauncient parents, namely, theauncient Than-.e;: 
But much more aged was his wile than he, 

The Ouze, whom men doe Isis rightly name ; 
Full weak and crooked creature seemed shee, 
And almost blind through eld, that scarce her way 
could see." 

So does he speak of the reedy course of tli? 
Thames, though it is now less hidden than in 
Spenser's day. But he writes in extravagant 
terms of the Thame, which, sooth to say, 
pours his water, in a pitiably insignificant 



DORCHESTER. 



225 



fashion, after winding sluggishly 
across from Dorchester, under a 
narrow towpatli bridge into tiie 
broader stream of the Tiiames. 
Rows of pollard willows mark 
the course of the meek little 
river, half a mile beyond which, 
and just before we reach Day's 
Lock, there are two little islands, 
with bridges connecting them 
with both shores, which carry 
the road from Long Wittenham 
and Little Wittenham to Dor- 
chester. Of these places, as of 
Sinodun Hill and the district 
surrounding Day's Lock, we 
shall yet have something to say, 
but, for the present, we shall be 
content to traverse the tevel 
country to ancient Dorchester. 
'1 he long length of the Abbey 
Church has for some time 
been conspicuous as we pulled 
lying away there beyond the 
'1 hame is not at all a good 
and \herefore it is better 




Photo, Taunt, 



up the river, 

flats. The 

boating stream, 

to go by the 



road to the old town, which is about a 
mile Irom the bank. On the way, we pass 
the remains of Roman entrenchments, called 
the Dyke Hills, which evidently form.ed partof a 
great camp, in just such a position as the 
Romans were accustomed to choose, within 
the fork of two rivers. Dorchester was a 
bishopric in Saxon times, and the names of 
many holders of the See are preserved. Bede 
tells us that, when Birinus was sent by Pope 
Honorius to preach the Gospel, in the reign of 
Cynegils, he converted the Gewissas. His 
preacning seems to have been mainly in the 
neighbourhood of Dorchester, for the King 
himself, having embraced the faith of Christ, 




^'noto,^ Taunt. 



Ewelme Church and Monuments. 



Ewelme Almshouse-, ani Ciurcli. "'""''■ 

was received, as he came forth from baptism, 
by King Oswald of Northumbria, who was 
present, and afterwards mirried his daughter; 
and then the two kings gave to the bishop the 
city called Dorcic, where he might there estab- 
lish his See. At Dorchester he was buried, but 
his remains were afterwards translated to Win- 
chester, where his baptism of Cynegils may 
still be seen represented upon a font in the 
Cathedral. The ecclesiastical importance of 
Dorchester afterwards somewhat waned, but 
not until its church had been invested with 
fine and imposing character. Many hands 
have worked upon it, and it is a somewhat 
composite structure, representing almost every 
period from Saxon to Tudor times, and it was 
well restored, though not completely, by 
Sir Gilbert Scott. 

As we approach the south porch, which is a 

fine stone structure, with a 

tmibered roof, we see the shaft 
of an ancient cross on the 
left, of which the head has 
been restored. The nave of the 
church is finely proportioned, 
\v!th arches rising from beauti- 
ful clustered columns, and the 
east windOiV is of unusual 
character. The chapel on the 
south side has curious features 
in carvirigs round the pillars, 
and the south aisle, with a fine 
groined roof, aid the Lady 
(chapel, are extremely beau- 
tiful. Four recumbent efiigies 
remain in the Lady Chapel, of 
which one represents a cross- 
legged knight, another, pro- 
bably, a member of the Segrave 
family, both very remarkable. 
Other curious monuments are 



226 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




ffio^o.. Taunt, 



Dorchester Church, with the Jesse Window. 



in the church, and it is a matter of great regret 
that many fine brasses have been destroyed. 
The lover of these, who comes from the cliurch 
of Ewelme to Dorchester, will be pained to wit- 
ness the work of the spoiler. But the most 
remarkable feature in tlie whole church is the 
Jesse Window, in the north aisle of the 
chancel, which is one of the very few win- 
dows of that class remaining. It represents, 
in its stone work, as well as in the i'lass 
that fills its lights, a tree of Jesse, spring- 
ing from the body of Jesse himself, and 
With stone effigies of the members of the 



royal house of David, though 
the crowning figure of Our 
Lord ,- himself has been de- 
stroyed. This very remarkable 
window dates from the 14th 
century. The font is another 
interesting feature in the 
cliurch, its leaden bowl being 
surrounded by seated figures 
of the Apostles under round 
arches. 

It was out of the See at 
Dorchester that that of Lincoln 
arose, in the year 1086. The 
Abbey of Black Canons was 
founded by Alexander, Bishop 
if Lincoln, in 1140. Its history 
\\as that of other abbeys. It was 
suppressed, and its possessions 
were squandered, but Richard 
Bewforest bought the ^ abbey 
church, which is so noble a fea- 
ture of the place, for the sum of £140, and 
presented it to the parish. The remains of 
the abbey are very few, but, in the buildings 
of the old Grammar School, which has been 
converted into a iNational School, some rude 
fragments of masonry appear to be part of the 
ancient gateway. 

Dorchester seems to be remote from the 
world, but, take it for all in all, with the pretty 
cottages of the sleepy village, and the magni- 
ficent church overshadowing them, it may 
certainly be ranked among the most interesting 
places by the Thames. 



Oxfi 




HCiii.. J aun , 



Dorchester Church and the River Thame. 



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Day's Lock, from the Hill. 




jETWEEN Day's Lock and Abingdon 
we traverse, in our upward journey- 
ing, a series of very remarkable 
curves in tiie river, which relieve 
the valley from all monotony, and, 
with the rustic villages that grace 
the banks, the quiet backwaters and old mills, 
we find a good deal that is both picturesque 
and interesting. For the boatmen there are 
pleasant reaches, for the angler quiet resorts, 
for the artist many admirable effects, for the 
historian venerable churches, scenes of vivid 
interest, and evidences of ancient occupation, 
while the geologist may trace the various 
evidences of the Kimmerdge clay and the 
greensands, and observe the unfamiliar sand- 
stone bed of the river near Clifton Lock, which 
makes navigation difficult at times of low water, 
and is not dear to the punter. ■ 

There is first a great horse-shoe curve from 
Day's Lock by Clifton Hampden, skirting the 
gentle slopes of the Wittenham Hills to Long 
Wittenham, the distance across the base being 
about a mile and a-half, but more than double 
by the river. We next come to a very sharp 
angle in the stream, which the navigation 
water avoids, and go westward for some three 
miles more, then turning northward to Abing- 
don.: Afterwards, we shall find that the 
course of the Thames then brings us eastward to 
Nuneham, which is less than a mile and a-half 
from Clifton Hampden, though from point to 
point the sinuous course of the stream involves 
for the boatman more than eight miles' welcome 



pulling. These long sweeps ana wmding 
reaches of the river add \-astly to its beauty 
and interest, giving freshness to the successive 
charms disclosed as we proceed ; and it is 
worth while to note that the great bend from 
Chfton to Nuneham is more considerable than 
the fine sweep from Teddington to Hampton 
Court, or the glorious curve from Medmenham 
to Henley. 

But it is time to turn to the various interests 
of Day's Lock. To begin with, the lock itself, 
the three islands, and the neighbouring build- 
ings, combine to form a series of most charming 
pictures, which are familiar to visitors to the 
picture galleries, for the place has been painted 
over and over again, and is almost as dear to 
the sketcher as the pretty scenes at Goring 
and Streatley. Here, indeed, the country is 
widely different. On one side are the level 
stretches towards ancient Dorchester, which 
we have visited, with the "Dyke Hills" 
between, while on the other rises the singular 
height of green Sinodun Hill, with Wittenham 
clumps on the top. Through all the country 
round the slowly rising hill, with its densely 
wooded crest, is a great and striking object, 
and a very characteristic feature of the land- 
scape. The hill usually ascended from Day's 
Lock, and on a clear day it is well worth while 
to make the climb, to survey the vast pano- 
rama around, and to examine the ancient 
evidences of fortification on the top. '*lt was 
impossible that such a height, rising from a 
level country, should not be chosen for defensive 



242 



THE THAMES HLUSTRATED. 




rjwto.. Taunt, 



Sinodun Hill, from Day's Lock. 



Oxford, 



purposes in early times. Here was a place 
whence tlie l<een eyes of Britisii outlooi<men 
could sioht danger afar, and a resort to which 
the dwellers below might flee. There can be 
little doubt that the earliest inhabitants of the 
country established themselves upon the height, 
for the district around is filled with evidences of 
ancient occupation ; though whether the great 
wide trenches which still remain upon the hill 
were the work of Britons or Romans, is not 
easy to say. They represent, in either case, 
an immense labour of early military engineers. 




Plwta., Frith, 



The Backwater, Day's Lock. 



From the top, the prospect is vast and im- 
posing, including the course of the Thames 
towards Wallingford on one hand, and to 
Abingdon on the other, until it is cut off by the 
wooded height of Nuneham, and an immense 
panorama of Oxfordshire and Berkshire, and 
many a county beyond, with meadows and 
cornfields, villages and spires innumerable, and 
the lofty point of St. Helen's, at Abingdon, chief 
among them. On a fine day, with clear 
vision, and the shadows of clouds sweep- 
ing across the landscape, the prospect from 
Sinodun Hill is really superb. 
The bridge at Day's Lock, 
by which Sinodun Hill is 
reached, leads also to the pretty 
village of Little Wittenham. It 
is such a place as most men like 
to journey through, consisting 
of a cluster of quaint old cottages 
with thatched roots, and roses 
clustering about their windows. 
There are cornfields spread 
about it, and it has huge barns 
such as are characteristic of 
Berkshire farmsteads. The 
church of St. Peter was rebuilt 
in 1863, in the Harly English 
style. The new structure is 
good, as a village church, and 
you may find in it the tomb 
of Sir William Dunch, and his 
wife, who was akin to Oliver 
Cromwell. The road from 
""s"'- Little Wittenham leads across 



LITTLE IVITTENHAM. 



Hi 




nuf.. y. J. 



Liltle Wittenham Church. 



Hampton fVu* 



the neck of the horse-shoe curve of the 
river, which has been spoken of, to the 
delightful old village of Long Wittenham — 
so called because it stretches along the road 
to Sutton Courtney. But Long Wittenham is 
adjacent to the river at a point we have 
not yet reached ; and so let us go with the 
boatmen round the great bend of the stream. 
Nothing very much attracts our attention, save 
the beauty that is inherent in green fields, 
water, and trees, until we reach the pretty 
little village of Burcott, upon the Oxfordshire 
side, not a place of any note in itself, but with 
rustic cottages, and gardens full of flowers, 
such as we often see in the 
villages hereabout. We come 
presently, then, to Clifton 
Hampden, which lies between 
the river and the road from 
Dorchester to Abingdon. At 
this point, as if to compensate 
in some way for its slight in- 
sipidity, the river assumes quite 
a new character, flowing over a 
bed of hard sandstone, which is 
plainly visible through the clear 
water, with weeds streaming 
over it, as you row across, and, 
if you be a punter, you will feel 
the hard bed with the end of 
your pole, not good holding, you 
will say, against a rather swift 
stream. From Burcott upward 
to Oxford, the river was 
deepened, and cleared of various 



obstructions, by Act of Parliament passed 
in the twenty-first year of James I. The 
cuttings at Clifton and Culham originated at 
that time, and, while they greatly facilitate the 
navigation of the river for steam launches and 
other like vessels, they leave quiet waters for 
those who have a genuine love for the stream. 
Clifton Hampden derives its name from the 
sandstone cliff upon which it stands, ■ raised 
picturesquely above the river, in a manner quite 
uncommon among Thames-side villages. Trees 
grow luxuriantly hereabout, and the cottages 
of the village, with the bright flowers in their 
windows and gardens, and the green growths 




Photo., Taunt, 



Little Wittenham Church, Interior* 



Oxj^rd. 



244 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




t'hvia., 7 aunt. 



The Cross, Long Wittenham, 



Ox/arct. 



that cluster up to their thatched and tiled roofs, 
are as pretty as any by the Thames. The church 
was ancient, but had fallen into a sore state of 
decay when it was completely restored, and in 
great part rebuilt, by the late Mr. G. H. Gibbs, 
from designs by Sir Gilbert Scott. It is one of 
the best examples of the village churches of 
that architect. You enter the church-yard, 
from which there are delightful views, both up 
and down the river, through a quaint lichgate. 
The church, which was originally an appanage 




Photo., Taunt, 



The Porch, Long Wittenham Church. 



of Dorchester Abbey, is dedicated to St. Michael 
and All Angels, and is an elaborately beautiful 
structure, particularly rich in its adornments, and 
an excellent example of the Decorative style. 
It contains a tomb, with a recumbent figure of 
the gentleman through whose liberality it was 
restored. At this point, the towpath, which 
crossed to the Berkshire side at Day's Lock, 
crosses once again to the Oxford bank, and the 
ferry at Clifton was well known on the river. 
It has been replaced by a fine brick bridge of 
six moulded and pointed arches, 
with a good parapet and piers. 
The structure has not yet lost 
its newness, but, when time 
has gently toned it, it will rank 
among the finest bridges upon 
the river. It is extremely 
pleasant to cross it from Clifton 
Hampden to the quaint old 
" Barley Mow," which is one 
of the most picturesque of river- 
side hostelries. Built of timber 
and brick, and whitewashed, it 
has a deep thatched roof with 
dormer windows, and the door is 
always open to welcome you. It 
has been so often painted that 
we scarcely need describe it. 
Modern convenience has deman- 
ded the suppression of many 
such places in the Thames 
Valley, but there are few who do 



Ox/oi-a. 



CLIFTON HAMPDEN. 



245 



not feel the rustic charm of those which yet 
survive. The " Barley Mow " owes a good 
deal to the hand of the restorer, who has been 
careful not to destroy its primitive character, 
as you will discover upon entering the panelled 
parlour, which is a good deal like the cabin 
of a ship, and an excellent place to rest in. 
Half a mile above Clifton bridge the canal 
begins by which the navigation is conducted, 
cutting off a great piece of the river, with 
a sharp zig-zag at its upper end. The long 
cutting, which is spanned by two little bridges, 
and the lock, are pretty enough, but it is well 
worth while to explore the river itself, which 
skirts at this point the ancient village of Long 



porch is of the former period, and the tower of 
the latter. The font bowl, like others here- 
about, is of lead, resting upon a stone base, 
and is adorned with a curious row of figures, 
representing a bishop giving the blessing. 

While the high road is upon the Oxfordshire 
side of the river, there is a pretty lane from 
the Berkshire village of Long Wittenham, by 
the rural hamlet of Appleford, to Sutton 
Courtney. The river itself, at this point, is a 
little monotonous- in its character, and for a 
mile and a-half the boatmen finds little to 
attract his attention, after the railway from 
Oxford has crossed on its line southward to 
Didcot junction. At Culharn,, where the river 




Photo., Taunt. 



Clifton Hampden Bridge. 



Ox/or*. 



Wittenham, already referred to. The pedestrian 
will reach the village by a pleasant walk from 
the "Barley Mow." The place is very 
ancient, as discoveries of early remains have 
testified, and as a tall and early cross and the 
curious old church of St. Mary the Virgin 
still do. Almost every style of architecture is 
represented in this venerable structure. There 
is a fine Norman arch, separating the nave from 
the chancel, with other portions surviving from 
the same period. The chancel itself is in the 
Early English style, with narrow lancet win- 
dows. To the same date belong the arches of 
the nave, and some Decorative and Perpen- 
dicular features will be discovered. The south 



is spanned by a fine old stone bridge, we reach 
another cutting, like that at Clifton, by which 
the navigation is conducted, while the oarsman 
who has leisure pulls up to Sutton Pool, which 
is deep and good for fishing, and the mill near- 
by, and leaves his boat to have a look at 
Sutton Courtney. 

For this is certainly a place worth looking at — 
one of the most picturesque on the river. It 
has a line of quaint old houses — such as we 
often see in Berkshire villages — straggling for 
something like a mile by the broad grass-grown 
roadway. They are gabled cottages, with 
thatched or tiled roofs, carved barge boards, 
and curious chimneys. Although its situation 



246 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Photo., lau?tt. 



The Bar'ey Mow, Cliflon Hampien. 



is not so picturesque, the village is, in its 
way, more cliarming even than Streatley, for 
tlie modern hand has touched it little, and it 
still presents the very aspect it bore — save 
for innovations here and there — when the 
Abbots of Abingdon rode this way. Sutton 
Courtney was closely connected with that 
lamous abbey, of which we shall presently 
visit the fragmentary ruin, and yet they show 
you the " Abbey " in the village, which seems 
to have been a cell or grange of the monks of 
Abingdon. The weir above Sutton bridges. 



and the mill there, belonged to 
the abbots, and the church of 
All Saints in the village bears 
the evidences of its monastic 
neighbours. It is a building of 
somewhat massive character, 
with a wide nave, a good tower, 
and many windows of the Per- 
pendicular period. As in a few 
other churches by the Thames 
side, there is here a parvise 
over the porch, which bears 
the arms of the Courtneys, who 
formerly possessed the place, 
and were benefactors to the 
church. The gabled manor 
house, with its great barns and 
picturesque old gateway, adds 
a good deal to the historic in- 
terest of Sutton Courtney, and 
is pictorially excellent. In this 
village, indeed, there are abundant subjects 
for the sketcher's pencil. The solitary river, 
too, left in quietude by the canal, is very 
delightful, with clear water, a strong stream, 
and an assemblage of wild pools and reed- 
grown islands a little higher up. The stone 
bridge, of many segmental arches, is par- 
ticularly good, and group well against the low 
hill-side, with the trees and cottages that 
neighbour them. 

It is at this point that the river, which has 
been pursuing a direction east and west from 



Oxford. 




Photo., '/aunt. 



Sutton Courtney. 



SUTTON COURTNEY. 



247 




Pheto., Taunt, 



Sutton Courtney Bridge. 



Oxford, 



Dorchester, with the exception of the great 
curve at the Wittenhams, turns suddenly, 
with a rapid bend, northward toward Abing- 
don, as was indicated earlier on. Just where 
the curve ends, and above the region of turbid 
and broken water, the navigation canal returns 
to the stream, and so we pull upward, with the 
little village of Culham on the Oxfordshire 
side, towards Abingdon. There is not much 
that is picturesque on this part of the river, 
though away to the right we see the deep 
woods of Nuneham, beneath which we shall 
.presently pass in our journeying towards 
Oxford. 

Old-fashioned Abingdon is a 
very good place in which to 
break the journey, for it is both 
picturesque and interesting; and 
the country round about deser- 
ves to be explored. In fact, two 
or -"three days may well be 
spent here, and the visitor will 
leave carrying pleasant recol- 
lections with him. Abingdon, 
which had been a royal resi- 
dence in very early times, is 
one of those places which have 
grown up about great religious 
houses; it took its name indeed — 
for before it had been called 
Sheovesham — from its abbey. 
Just as the strong hand of the 
baron brought aboutn>his castle 
those who shared his bounty, 
came to his call, and looked ''''°'°- '^"""• 



for his protection, so did the abbey attract to 
its neighbourhood a great many who served 
the needs of the house, who derived advantages 
from the monastic hospitality, and were given 
employment on the conventual farmi, and in 
the various establishments which were main- 
tained by the monks. In Cistercian Houses, 
the white-robed men were labourers in the 
field, cultivating with the sweat of their brow 
the "vineyard of the Lord." And with 
Benedictine monks — and Abingdon was a 
Benedictine house — the case was scarcely 
otherwise. Fortunately the Chronicle of the 
Monastery of Abingdon has been preserved, and 




The Church and Pool, Sutton Courtney. 



Oxford. 



248 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 



printed in the Rolls Series. It extends from the 
foundation of the House in the year 675 to the 
accession of Richard in 1189, and is a most 
valuable record, throwing an abundance of 
light upon social history, on the relations of 
the clergy and laity, and the state of society 
both before and after the Norman conquest. 
Abingdon was a mitred abbey, and within its 
walls Henry 1. became " Beauclerc." The 
house grew rich by many benefactions, and 
the Abbot had often a very diffkult task in 
averting spoliation at the hands of feudal neigh- 
bours and envious towns. His privilege of 
holding »a full market at Abingdon was 
particularly obnoxious to the men of Oxford 
and Wallingford, and— though it was vindicated 
at law in the time of Henry 11.— by protests 
before the king, threats to renounce their 
feudal service, and appeals to arms, they 



Let us first enter the very fine church of St. 
Helen by the river, for we are attracted thereto 
by the noble spire, with its flying buttresses. 
Within, the structure is exceedingly handsome. 
The nave is separated from the aisles by 
octagonal pillars supporting fine moulded arches 
of low pitch, and rather late date. The roof 
is elaborate, and the aisles and chapels, which 
are divided off by other arcades, have roofs 
finely panelled. The church has been well 
restored, and contains much fine wood-carving, 
including an excellent screen, and is greatly 
enriched in the chancel. There are many 
interesting monuments in the church. One 
is of John Roysse, who founded the Grammar 
School, and died in 1571, after making 
provision for a dole of bread every Sunday 
at his tomb, to 12 old people, who, as 
they received his bounty, were to cry aloud 




Photo., britk 



St. Helen's, Abingdon. 



Rei^cttt, 



attempted vainly to wrest from the house 
of Abingdon the profits it had long justly 
enjoyed. 

We were led to think of the abbey of 
Abingdon before we had set foot at the bridge. 
We have long had before us, in our journeying, 
the lofty spire of St. Helen's, which is a great 
landmark hereabout, and it is appropriate to 
remark that the church makes, with the bridge 
and its other surroundings, a series of remarkable 
pictures. The buildings of the Hospital which 
line the banks, might have come from some 
old town in Holland, and are certainly very 
quaint and curious. The bridge, too, is one of 
the most ancient on the river, and its many 
pointed arches and grass-grown walls are 
extremely picturesque. Unfortunately, the goal 
and the gasworks are too near them for the 
full contentment of the artist. 



"The Blessed Trinity upon John Roysse's 
soul have mercy !" 

The old people of Abingdon were evidently 
charitably disposed, for in the churchyard of 
St. Helen's are almshouses founded in the 
year 1707, for three poor men and as many 
women. Close by, too, is the cloistered 
building of Christ's Hospital, shadowed by a 
row of lime trees — a mediaeval foundation which 
Henry Viil. dissolved, but which, like many 
other institutions throughout the country — 
Leicester's Hospital at Warwick is a famous 
instance— was restored.by Sir John Mason in 
the time of Edward VI. The cloister of the 
hospital is very remarkable, and strikingly 
picturesque. It is enclosed by a long screen, 
with a row of small round arches, well 
moulded, and reminiscent of earlier traceries, 
above which there is a coved cornice, rising 



ABINGDON. 



249 




Plwto., Taunt, 



Abingdon Abbey. 



Oxjant, 



to the eaves, and supporting the steep tileJ 
roof. The principal porch projects, and is 
adorned with curious old paintings representing 
the works of mercy. There are other singular 
frescoes, too, in other parts of tlie structure, 
and the low-arched doorways, and the gablets 
which overhang them, are very pleasing. 
A lantern is on the top, with a weather- 
vane, for in the matter of vanes Abingdon is 
famous. This lantern lights the long common 
hall of the building, which is 
panelled with oak, and contains 
some interestmg old pictures. It 
was the later part of this hos- 
pital, built of brick, and dating 
from the year 1718, that we 
noticed by the river, as possess- 
ing an aspect of Flemish quaint- 
ness, even as if it had been 
transported from Haarlem or 
Amsterdam. 

We may now proceed from 
the interesting scenes by the 
bridge to the Market-place, 
observing various quaint old 
buildings as we proceed. In the 
style of the 17th century, the 
market-house is raised upon a 
row of stone pillars. ; It was 
built by Inigo Jones in 1667, and 
stands upon the site of the Market 



Cross which was destroyed by Waller, the 
Parliamentary general, in the Civil War. Near 
by stands the quaint old church of St. Nicholas, 
more ancient, far, than St. Helen's, with the 
gateway of the Abbey for its neighbour.-* The 
church is remarkably picturesque, being built 
of finely-coloured stone. At the west end, the 
lower stage has two blind arches of early type, 
belonging apparently to the transition between 
the Norman and the Early English, while the 




Phou.. Taunt. Tjjg Almshouses" and Christ's Hospital, Abingdon. 



250 



THE THAMES HLUSTRATED. 



midmost arcll is round, and incloses the 
entrance door. In tiie stage above has been 
a row of pointed windows, with shafts of 
Norman character to separate them. But of 
these one only is open, the others having been 
built up, and a large pointed Perpendicular 
window inserted. Above rises the broad 
square tower, of which a good deal of the 
stonework is new, and there is a curious little 
gable on the north side. Altogether, the 
structure is very interesting, though it has 
undergone a good deal of "restoration." We 
reach, at last, the Abbey with which we began. 
The gateway is close by the church of St. 
Nicholas, and is a structure of Perpendicular 
times, having a central arch of Tudor character 
with enriched spandrels, and low arches on 
each 'side, while above are two windows and 



contrast of colour between the steep tiled root 
and the grey old stonework. The walls of . 
this structure are of great thickness. 

The prior's house, the gateway, and crumb- 
ling fragments are the last remains of the 
Abbiy of Abingdon. It had existed for some 
900 years, and had grown — as its records tells 
us— into a great and" noble structure, when the 
hand of the spoiler descended upon it, and 
then what pious men had given was ruthlessly 
squandered, not being expended for any public 
good, but being swept into the Royal coffers, 
or conferred upon individuals, with an effect 
that went far to destroy public morality in the 
century that was to follow. 

But the ruins of the Abbey, the fine churches, 
and perhaps as much as any, the Hospital, pos- 
sess very picturesque charms, and should not be 



W^ 



Pa^srs, 



;:::ssssj5ttS 



■jm; 



5fwa?^ 




Photo., 'taunl. 



Abingdon Bridge, from St. Helen's Tower. 



Ch^tri, 



'#,,statue of the Virgin beneath a canopy. 
Sortie remains of the Abbey, itself, still exist, 
tliough considering the greatness of the house, 
they are very few. The church and cloisters 
have been entirely swept away. The prior's 
house is supported by pillars, from which spring 
the groining ribs. The vault thus formed 
is very fine, though the place is encumbered 
with the wares of its occupier. The entrance 
is close by the Thames backwater. Above, 
by crumbling steps, we reach the prior's 
chambers, with some early remains, including 
pointed doorways, windows, and a large 
chimney. The grouping of the roofs of 
this structure, with its curious early; chimney, 
which is crested by gables, having beneath 
them perforations for the emission of smoke, is 
remarkably picturesque, and there is a delightful 



passed unnoticed by those who traverse the 
Thames. The little river Ock, which joins 
the Thames below Abingdon Bridge, near St. 
Helen's, is a pretty stream, rising near 
Faringdon, and flowing generally parallel to 
the Thames, in its course above Oxford, 
through a pleasant country, and by interesting 
places. The rural life of Berkshire may be 
studied hereabout very advantageously, and 
much rustic lore may be learned. It was, for 
example, at Uftington, near the Ridgeway, and 
in the neighbourhood of Faringdon, that 
Wayland Smith had his forge, which is referred 
to, in the Chronicle of Abingdon, as "Welandes 
Smihthe." The district round Abingdon is, in- 
deed, interesting,picturesque, and well timbered, 
so that there are many attractions to bid tlie 
wanderer spend a day or two in the town. 







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/>/».«., J. S. Ca'/ord, 



Nuneham Woods and Cottage. 



Hatnpton IVitk. 






HFN we leave Abingdon, we feel, 
with a certain regret, that we 
are approaching the end of this 
pleasant journeying. The charms 
of the Thames are not indeed 
exhausted, for, though we have 
passed by many beautiful places in ascending 
the river from Richmond, the woods of Nuneham 
will fairly hold their own, even with the 
umbrageous steeps of Clivedon and Henley, 
From Abingdon Bridge to Oxford, the distance 
is a little over five miles, as the crow flies, but 
you will find it nearly eight in pulling up the 
stream, before you set foot at the Folly Bridge. 
Old Abingdon looks very peaceful, as we look 
back to it from the lock, with the great spire 
of St. Helen's pointing skyward, the arches of 
the old bridge spanning the stream, and the 
•clusters of houses, with red tiled roofs and 
vanes, though the gasworks, it is true, as is 
their nature, are a disfigurement. The surround- 
ings of the town have the charm that belongs 
to green meadows, with the familiar riverside 
accompaniment of pollard willows. It may be 
well here to make a final remark concerning 
the fishing of the river. Generally speaking, 
this is good from Abingdon Bridge to Nuneham. 
Near the Bridge is a sharp stream forming a 
fine scour for dace, and in Blake's Pool, chubb 
and barbel may be obtained, while, under the 
trees and by the reedy flams at Nuneham, 
there are excellent fishing swims. From Nune- 
ham to Oxford the angling is indifferent, owing 
largely to the pleasure traffic upon the stream, 



and anglers from the University generally 
make their way below Sandford. The railway 
line from Oxford to Didcot Junction crosses 
the river, by an ugly bridge, something more 
than a mile above the lock and goes due south 
to cross it once more at Appleford. For it is at 
this point that the Thames is making those 
great convolutions in which it turns almost 
upon itself, leaving, between Nuneham and 
Clifton Hampden, a veritable peninsula, with 
Abingdon opposite to its apex. 

The deep woods of Nuneham are very 
famous upon the Upper Thames, and afford 
endless delight to many picnic parties coming 
down the river from Oxford. It is scarcely 
possible to imagine anything more pleasant, 
in its way, than this dropping down the stream 
by Iffley and Sandford, to enter the shadowy 
backwater, and set foot ashore at that romantic 
thatched cottage by the little fantastic bridge, 
and then to wander through the woods which 
line the banks. Although "Capability" 
Brown has been a good deal sneered at, it 
cannot be gainsaid that the riverside walks at 
Nuneham, which he laid out, are supremely 
beautiful. The pathways have been skilfully 
contrived, and vistas cut through the foliage, 
open out from various points charming views 
both of Oxford and Abingdon, though it must 
be confessed that the chimney, at Sandford 
mill is a sad disfigurement to the landscape. 

Nuneham House, long the seat of the 
Harcourt Family, which is well-known to all 
who traverse the river up to Oxford, is not a 



266 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Nuneham B.idge and Cottages, fio.n above 



place with any great architectural pretensions, 
being indeed one of those great roomy struc- 
tures whi..h we associate with tlie days of tiie 
Georges. They are comfortable and spacious 
within, but seldom attractive without. But 
time has mellowed Nuneham a good deal, so 
that it is pleasant to look upon, as it stands 
there, embowered amid trees, and you know 
that within it is a veritable storehouse of art, 
rich in famous portraits, and filled with the 
work of the craftsman's hand. The Harcourts 
h.id been dwelling in Oxfordshire since the 




rjwCo,, Taunt, 



Nuneham House. 



time of Henry I., at Stanton Harcourt, about 
nine miles from, Nuneham, and two from- 
Bablock Hythe on the Thames, above Oxford, 
before Simon, Viscount Harcourt, first to bear 
that tiili, and Lord Chancellor, fixed his 
affections upon Nuneham. He bought the 
place for about .£17,000 in 1710, and an un- 
distinguished architect, named Leadbetter was 
employed to design the structure. The 
Harcourts, of Stanton Harcourt, had been some- 
what famous men. There was Sir Robert, of 
whom a portrait is at Nuneham, one of Raleigh's- 
ass( ciates, whose purse appears 
to have grown a little lan'< 
through his expenditure in fit- 
ting out an expedition to- 
Guiana. Then came Sir Simon 
Harcourt, slain in the Civil Wars, 
said to have been the first officer 
who fell in the conflict, thougli 
that is more than doubtful.* It 
would have gone ill with St in- 
ton Harcourt if Sir Simon's 
widow had not married the 
famous Waller, and tnus averted 
confiscation from the ancient 
abode. It was at Stanton Har- 
court that Pope was entertained, 
and the famous piece of glass 
upon which he scratched the 
record, " Finished here the fifth 
book of Homer," has been 
brought to Nuneham. w 

in the last century Nuneham. 
•"-^^ame tlie resort of many 



3if>l 



NUNEIIAM. 



2Cy 



literary men, anJ in Walpoie's letters, and 
the pages of diarists, there are many refer- 
ences to the house in those days. " Nune- 
ham," says Walpole, "is not superb, but 
so calm, riant, and comfortable, so live-at- 
able, one wakes in a morning on such a whole 
picture of beauty." Admirable portraits of 
Walpole himself, and of Milton, Rowe, Pcpe, 
Prior, and Mason are in the house. Amrn; 
other beautiful pictures are several fine examples 
of Reynolds, including a good family group of 
the Earl and Counte.-s and their son, a wonder- 
ful Duchess of Gloucester, and a portrait of 
Reynolds himself. Other portraits are by 
Velasquez, Vandyck, and Gainsborough. But 



gardens at Nuneliam were considered unrivalled, 
and they still retain some of the features that 
gave them celebrity. Among these are thi 
Rock Grotto, and the Orangery and Rosery 
which extend along the western part of the 
terrace. Some of the formal gardening is very 
characteristic. The valley of the Thames has 
always been rich in its foliage, and even in 
early times we find mention, locally, in th2 
" Chronicle of Abingdon," of oak, hazel, ash, 
b;rch, and beech, of the thorn very often, and 
occasionally of the willow, elder, apple and 
maple. To these have been added at Nuneham 
Park many trees of beautiful foliage, and conifers 
in considerable variety. 




Fhafo., Tattnt. 



Thj Carfax Conduit, Nuneham, and tie distant Taamrs. 



it is not the purpose here to catalogue the 
portraits and other pictures at Nuneham. The 
latter include works by Murillo, Salvator Rosa, 
Wouverman, Van der Velde, Ruy.^dael, and 
very many more. In addition to pictures and 
statuary, the hall is a perfect treasure-house of 
curious and interesting relics, splendid examples 
of Sevres and other wares, beautiful specimens 
of the best period of French cabinet work, and a 
crowd of objects associated with famous people. 
The house stands upon a slight elevation, 
and is surrounded by most beautiful gardens, 
to which access can be had at prescribed 
periods, and by a most glorious park, graced by 
t fine variety of trees. At one time the 



There is a beautiful shady walk to White- 
head's Oak, to which many visitors to Nuneham 
bend their steps, tor it affords very fine and 
romantic views. The distant spire of Abingdon 
peeps out from among the trees, and the prospect 
beyond is closed by the range of the Chilterns, 
which we have long left behind. Near by is 
the old water conduit, which stood once on 
Carfax, at Oxford, and still bears that name. 
When the High Street was widened in 1789, 
this conduit was presented to George Simon, 
Earl of Harcourt, by the University. It is a 
remarkable example of the decorative stone 
work of the time in which it was built, i6io>, 
and tire initials of its builder — Otho Nicholson — 



268 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




thoto., Tautttf 



Sandford, above the Lock. 



Oxford. 



are used very curiously by way of ornamenta- 
tion upon it,, witli flying supports for the 
sculptured cresting,andvane-bearino: grotesques 
at the corners. From the hill, looking north- 
ward there is a fine prospect of the towers and 
spires of Oxford, standing out finely from their 
surroundings, with the great woods of Blenheim 
as a background. 

At a short distance from the house stands 
the disused church of All Saints, which the 
second Lord Harcourt built about the year 
3674, intending it to resemble an early 
Christian structure. The vilLige of Nuneham 
Courtney, which is upon the road from Dor- 
ch«»"-~ter to Oxford, behind the park, was 




Kennington Reach. 



removed a little further from the house b}- 
Earl Harcourt, who aimed to be a rural 
philosoplier, and laid down plans for improving 
the mental and moral condition of the people. 
A new church was opened there in 1880. With 
these remarks, we must leave Nuneham Park. 
Fortunately for the enjoyment of many, 
arrangements are made by which picnic parties 
may land — under conditions and at specified 
times— at Picnic Cottage, but all these matters 
rest with the steward of the estate. We rejoin 
our skiff at the Cottage, and pull slowly along 
towards Nuneham Farm, noting the reedy flams 
along the bank, which are fine spots for jack 
and other fish. 

We find now that we are in 
a more level country, the hills 
having fallen away on the 
Oxfordshire side, and nothing 
now of any note lies between us 
and Oxford. Radley is away 
at the distance of about a mile 
on the Berkshire side, with a 
fine church in the village. Its 
well known college is plainly 
visible from the Thames, stand- 
ing upon rising ground, and 
hereabout you very often see 
the Radley oarsmen upon the 
river. The whole way, indeed, 
from Nuneham up to Oxford, 
but perhaps chiefly above Sand- 
ford Lock is the practice and 
pleasure ground of college boat- 
crews. Sandford is a little un- 
picturesque — the chimney of its 



IFFLEY. 



269 



mill very distinctly so — :ind there is an 
obelisk by the lock in memory of two Christ- 
church men who were drowned there. The 
pools are pretty, but somewhat dangerous 
for bathing. The village itself should be 
visited, for it lies in a well wooded country, 
with pretty features, hidden behind the 
churchyard. Here, is an old farmhouse of 
fine character, dating from the 17th century, 
and round about it are several examples of 
picturesque old village d>vellings. The church 
is an ancient structure, going back to Norman 
times, but chiefly remarkable for its examples 
of later periods. It has twice been extensively 



may of len see equal skill displ lyed witli t^ie 
oar, and in handling the sailing craft which 
race upon this part of tiie river. Rose Island 
is in the midst of the stream, a pleasant 
place to Lind at, with the hospitable inn 
known by the name of the " Swan " upon it. 
Beyond this point, we very soon approach to 
Iffley Lock and Mill. The mill is still delight- 
fully picturesque with its timber walls and red 
tiling, the trees that surround it, and the grey 
old tower of the church behind. It is a scene 
that has been very often painted, and thus is 
familiar even to those who have never visited 
the place, 




J^hc-t6., Tit2tnt, 



Iffley Chufcli, from tfie Soutli-west. 



Cxfiri. 



restored, so that much of its ancient character 
has been taken away. The first restoration 
was in 1652 by Lady Elizabeth Isham, as is 
recorded in a very curious tablet over the 
porch. 

" Porticus Patronae. 
" Thankes to thy Charitie, religiose Dame, 
Wych found mee old and made mee new againe." 

Old gravestones, gay flowers, and fme trees, 
with a view of the old farmstead, make a very 
charming picture at Sandford village. 

Above the lock is Kennington Reach, a 
favourite resort of boatmen, upon which you 



Our journeying has brought us to many 
interesting churches, but to none so charac- 
teristically curious as that of iffley, which is a 
most remarkable example of the enriched work 
of Norman builders. We do not find here 
merely the zigzag, or chevron, and billet mould- 
ings of the Norman style, but the zigzag many 
times multiplied, in combination with extra- 
ordinary beak mouldin^^s, and grotesque ?con- 
voluted carvings of animals in great profusion. 
The west front is the most remarkable part of 
the structure. The wall is very thick, and the 
zigzag and beak carving is carried to a wonderful 



?70 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Fholo., Taunts 



Iffley Church, from t e Sojth-east (Winter). 



fori. 



degree of e'aboration. The door is flanked by 
two narrow round-headed arches in the masonry, 
and has above it a very unusual circular win- 
dow, with a plain moulding enframing a zigzag 
ornamentation. Above this again, resting upon 
plain corbels, are three windows separated 
by twisted shafts, with triple rows of orna- 
mentation round their arched heads in the thick- 
ness of the wall through which they are pierced. 




The West Door, Iff'ey Church. 



Oxford, 



Other work of the same kind exists in various 
parts of the structure. The north and south doors 
areexceedingly rich exam pies, with the windows 
near them. The broad square tower, too, 
which rises between the nave and the chancel, 
has rounded headed windows of the b^st Norman 
type, the flat pilaster-like buttresses, which are 
characteristic of the style, and a corbel-tible, 
surmsunted by later battlements. T .ere is 
scarcely a part of this curioas structure th it 
will not repay careful examination, for perhaps 
nowhere in Hngland can such singular examples 
be found of the grotesque enrichments which 
were a feature of th.' N )rm ui style. The 
eastern portion of the church is somewhat later, 
iiaving been built about 1270 by Prior Robert 
De Iffley of Kenilworth, and has lancet windows 
of simple character, internally, the bailJin^ 
impresses one with a sense of narrowness, due 
to its length and the absence of aisles. It is 
adorned with ornamentation like that which has 
been bestowed upon thi windows and doors 
externally, and the zigzag or chevron decora- 
tions, with bunllowers and other carvings, may 
be seen upon the tower arches. The chancel 
is groined, the font venerable, an \ the whole 
of the interior exceed ngly interesting. The 
churchyard is famous for an ancient yew, and 
for a tall cross with a restored head, which 
stands on the south side of the chancel. The 
Rectory House close by is a very interesting 
structure, embodying; some PerpenJicular 
work, and groups very well with the hoary 
structure of the church. 

behind Iffley, lie Cowley and Littlem ire, the 
latter well known for its association with the 
Oxford Movement, and with the residence 



OXFORD. 



27 r 




Hfley Mill. 



OxJotJ. 



tliere of the late Cardinal Newman, who built 
1he church which now stands in the village, 
in this way Littlemore was linl<ed with a move- 
ment wh.ch profoundly affected thougiit in the 
University, and spread a wave of its influence 
tlirougiiout the country. Near the church is 
fi range of low buildings to which Mark Pattiso.i 
and otiiers came to be with Newman. 

But we are now rapidly approaching Ox- 
ford. It is not long before Christ^luircli 
Meadows are on our right ; tiie famous Ciier- 
weli, wiiich lias flowed beneatli beautitil M ig- 
-dalen Bri.'ge and lingered by Addison's Walk, 
is pouring its waters into the 
Thames ; we have almost 
reached the end of our journey- 
ing. This is the Folly Bridge — 
not worthy of Oxford, but a 
substantial structure, dat ng 
from tl-.e prosaic year 1825. The 
■Grand Pont of early builders 
was very different ; far more 
picturesque was that old struc- 
ture, with the tower known as 
*' Friar Bacon's Study " upon it. 
Lying along the bank from the 
bridge to beyond the mouth of 
the Cherwell are the college 
barges, which have become club 
houses, and are very gay with 
.ife at the time of the college 
-races. These barges were origin- 
ally those of City companies. 
Larger and more ornate struc- 
tures succeeded, but yet the 



high prow and graceful sweep of the old 
" Oriel " barge — the last City craft remain- 
ing — is not lost to the river, it may be said, 
in a true sense, that the Oxford University 
men discovered tlie river--disc(jvered, that is, 
the river in a boating sense — ant. all along the 
stream, even to Putney and Mortlake, we may 
find tlie fruit of the example of Oxford oars- 
men. The University Boat House is on the 
Berkshire shore. 

No account of Oxford itself can find a place 
in these pages. We shall not describe its 
colleges, it;, halls, and the many int.."resting 




rw.. T.HM. xjjg College Barnes, from the Fony Briige, Oxford, '''-""^* 



272 



THE THAMES ILLUSTRATED. 




Ihcio.. Taunft 



The Old "Oriel" Barge. 



places which lie within the city bounds. We 
must be content to glance at it, so to speak, 
from the river. Yet, it is not inappropriate 
to consider briefly what are the interests that 
make Oxford such a fascinating place for the 
close of a river journeying, and such a delightful 
point from which to set out upon a boating excur- 
sion. ' How Oxford rose, is not easy to tell. 
When first we know the place, it is as a fortified 
town with a strong Norman castle, lying in the 



nliJ^tof the swampy meadows 
along the Cherwell, and the 
intricate ■ network of divided 
streams into which the river is 
broken by the meadows of 
Osney, above the bridge. Then 
no stately halls or glorious 
chapels had arisen to give their 
cloistered calm ; there were, 
periiaps.few grave and reverend 
dons ; the pomp of learning 
which overawes the Freshman 
was not yet. But crowds of 
eager students clamoured for 
knowledge; you hs often with 
hungry purses, some of them 
actual beggars, all manifesting 
nevertheless, the keen thirst for 
knowledge, which was the m \rk 
of Oxford in early days. Greatly 
changed in its external aspect is 
the Oxford of the present time. 
The University has ripened 
through the centuries. There rests upon it thj 
glamour of its famous associations. Glorious 
is its architecture, as its memories are great, it 
is supremely pleasant to pace these beautiful col- 
lege quadrangles, and look into these old halls and 
chapels, to hear the bells of Magdale:i tower, and 
walk by the placid Cherwell. But to us Oxford 
has been merely a destin ition, and we leave 
our boat at the bridge knowing well that ic was 
a place of exceeding interest to journey to. 



0;(A>id. 




I'hOlO., TuilllC, 0.\/V>: 



Old Fol y Dridf.e and Fr ar Paeon's Study, 



trom an £HI^'ra-uing, 




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In ustrated 



, A Picturesque 
^ Journeying 6- 



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Rich AON d to Oxford. \ 



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John Leyland. 



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London. 
CEO. NEWNES. Ltd. Southampton ST.W.C. 
Printed bij HUDSON &1'LEARNS. London. S.L. 



CONTENTS. 



TEXT. 



PAGE 

Abinghon : Abbey, 247-S-250 ; St. Helen's Church, 
248; Christ's Hospital, 248; Market Place, 
249 247-250 

Ankerwyke House 58 

"Barley Mow" 244 

Basildon I'ark 19^ 

Bens;ngton ........ 2il 

Bisham 127 — 130 

Bisham Abbey 128 — 130 

Bisham Church 129 — 130 

lioulters Lock . 106 

Bourne End 124 

Bray 104 — 105 

Caversham 177—178 

Chertsey ........ 55 

Cherisey Abbey ....... 55 

Clifton Hampden ....... 243 

Cliveden 121 — 123 

Cliveden House 121 — 122 

Cookham . 123 

Coopers Hill 58 

Cowley ......... 270 

Crowmarsh . 2ii 

Datchet 58 

Day's I-X>ck 241 

Dorchester: Abbey Church, 225 . . . 225 — 226 
Dyke Hills 225 — 241 

Eton: Boating, 97; College and Chapel, 98; 

Customs and Traditions, 100 . . . 97 — loi 
Ewelme 222 — 223 

Fawley Court . 149 

Folly Bridge 271 

Formosa Island . . . .123 

Garrick's Temple ... ... 49 

Gatehampton. ....... 198 

(ioring : Church 217; Fishing & Boating, 218. 217 — 218 

Great Marlow 124 -127 

Greenlands . ... . . . 149 

Ham House 5 

Hambledon 149 

Hampton Church ....... 50 

Hampton Court : Interests and Origin, Plans, 
25-27 ; Trie Hall, 28 ; The King's Presence 
Chamber, 28; Wolsey's Lodgings, 29 ; Great 
Hall, 30; as Residence of William and Mary 
with iheir Alterations, 30-31 ; William Ill's 
Presence Chamber, 32 ; Queen Anne's Bedroom, 
32 ; Queen Anne's Drawing Room, 33 ; Queen's 
Audience Chamber, 33; Wolsey's Cloiet, 33; 
The Chapel, 33 ; The Gardens, 33 . 25 — 34 

Hardwicke House ....... 195 

Harleyford Manor 145 

Hart's Wood 197 

Hedsor . 124 

Henley : Boating and Regatta . 149 — 154 
Hurley 145 

Iffley 269—271 

Kenningtcu . . ■ 269 

Kingston . . , . .11 — 12 

Lady Place 146 

Laleham 57 

Littlemore 270 



page 

Little Stoke . . 219 

Little Wittenham ....... 242 

Long Wittenham 243 — 245 

Magpie Island . 148 

Maidenhead ........ 105 

Mapledurham. ...... 193 — 195 

Mapledurham House 193 

Medmenham . 147 

Medmenham Abbey 147 — 148 

Molesey Lock . . . . . , . 49 

Monkey Island ........ 103 

Moulsford . . . . . . . 219 

North Stoke . . . . . . . .219 

Nuneham ....... 265 — 268 

Nuneham House 266 

Oakley Court 103 

Oatlands Park . 53 

Old Windsor 58 

Orleans House ....... 7 

Oxford: Interests, Early and Modern, Account of 271 — 272 

Pangbourne : Church, and Inland Scenery, ig6 — 

197 195—197 

Park Place ....... 170— 171 

Petersham Church .7 

Phyllis Court 149 

Pope's Villa » 

Radley 268 

Reading 175 — '77 

Regatta l?land 149 

Richmond . Interests, Early History, Park. . 3 — 5 
Runnimede . ;8 

Sandford ........ 268 

Shepperton ........ 53 

Shillingford 224 

Shiplake 173 

Sinodun Hill 224 — 241 — 242 

Solomon's Hatch ....... 169 

Sonning 173— '75 

Staines 57 

Streatley 199 — 202 

Streatley Hill 199 

Sunbury 50 

Surley Hall 103 

Sutton Courtney 245 

Taplow Court 123 

Teddington . 10—11 

Thames Ditton 12 

Twickenliam 7 — 10 

Virginia Water 57 

Wallingford : Early History, 220; Church, 22T 

219- 221 

Walpole's House 9 

Walton 51 

Warfrave 171 — 172 

Weybridge 53 

Windsor : Origin, 73-82 ; Character, 73 ; As a 
Prison, 74 ; As a Royal Castle, 75 ; Build of the 
Castle, 76-77 ; Plan, 77; St. Gi-orge's Chapel, 
78-80; The .Mbert Memorial Chapel, 80 ; The 
Round Tower and Middle Ward, 80; The Upper 
Ward and State Apanm-.nts, 81 — 82; Frogmore, 
82 . . . .... 73—82 



FULL TAGE LLLUST%ATIONS, 



2 

13 
Id 

15 

16 

17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



35; 



From the Tdrra'-.e, Richmond Hill 

Richmond Bridge 

Richmond, looking down Stream 

The Old Palace Kew 

Richmond Park . 

Ham House, Petersham . 

Radnor Houso 

Pope's Villa, Twickenham 

Teddington Lock 

Kingston (below the Bridg 

Kingston Church 

Surbiton. Raven's Ait 

Thames Ditton . 

Hampton Court— The Gr^at Hall. looking Fast 

The Hall and Entrance to the Great Watrh ng 
Chamber, 36 ; The Second Court and Clock 
Tower, 37 ; The Sicond Court, looking S juth- 
East, 38 ; 'Wohey's Lodgings, South Front, 39 ; 
The Old "Pond Garden," 40; The Great 
Kitchen, 41 ; King William the Third's State 
bedroom, 42; Queen Anne's Bedroom, 43; 
Queen Anne s Drawing Room, 44 ; The Gar- 
dens, 45; Queen Marys Bower and South 
Front, 46 ; The Lion Gates, 47 ; The Private 
Gardens, 48 ; Old Hampton Court Bridge, 49 3'; — 49 

Molesey Lock, 60 ; Molesey Weir, 61 . . Co— 61 

Sunbuiy ..... 

Walton Bridge ...... 

Walton Bridge (from an Engraving by J. .\L W 
Turner, R.A.) ...... 

Shepperton 



62 
63 

64 
65 



Shepperton Church 66 



Chertsey Weir 

Ptnion Hook Lock 

Siaines Bridse ....... 

Tne Picnic Cottage, Ankerwyke 

The " Bells of Ousley " 

Romney Lock ........ 

Windsor — From the River, 83; The Lower Ward 
and Round Tower, 84 ; St. George's Chapel, 8s ; 
St. George's Chapel and the Deans Verger's 
House, 86; St. George's Chapel, the Ctioir, 
looking East, 87; St. George's Chapel, ihe 
Choir, looking West, 88 ; St. George's Chapel, 
the .Nave, looking West, 89 ; The Albert Memo- 
rial Chapel, lookmg East, 90; The Albert 



67 
68 

69 
70 

71 

72 



Memorial Chapel, looking West. 91 
Queen's Presence Chamber, 92; The 
sho3 Cloisters, 93 ; The " Norm .n Towei 
The Long Walk, 95 ; The C .stle, fro: 
Home Park, 96 .... 

Eton, from Romney Island 

The Quadrangle, Eton College . 

The Memorial Screen, Eton College Chapel 

The Dining Hall, Eton . , . , 

Eton College, from the Playing Fields 

Oakley Court ..... 

Bray ...... 

The Old Cottages, Bray 

Maidenhead ..... 

Raymfad, Maid'nhead 

Glen Island, Irom Boulter's Lock . 

Boulter's Lock ..... 

Above Boulter's Lock 

Burnham Beeches 

Cliveden, from the River 

Cliveden, The Springs 

Cliveden Reach 

Cliveden, Cottage and Woo !s 

Formosa Island 

Cookham Church 

Cookham Lock 

Cookham Weir 

Hedsor : The Church and Casile . 

Great Marlow : The Bridge and Weir 

Great Marlow : The Quarry Woods 

Great Marlow : The Angler's Rest 

Bisham. from the River . 

Bisham Abbey 

The .\bbey, Hurky 



The 
Horse- 

94 
ih 



83-96 
107 
loS 
109 
no 
III 
112 

i'3 

114 

"5 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 

131 

132 

133 
134 
135 
135 

137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 

143 
144 

I. '•5 



Harleyford . 156 



Harleyford Backwater . 

Medmenham, from the River 

Medmenham Abbey. 

Medmenham Vil'age . 

H imbledon Backwater . 

Hambledon, \'ews at Yewden 

Hambledon, Weir »nd Mills . 

Greenlands, Hambledon . 

Rf gatta Is'and .... 

Henley Regatta .... 

Henley Bridge and " Angel " . 

Henley Bridge .... 

The Boat-House, Pari. Place . 

Houseboats, by Shiplake Ferry . 

Wargrave Backwater 

Wartjrave ..... 

Wargrave, from the Ferry 

Wargrave Church 

Shiplake, from the Hill . 

Shiplake, from above the Island. 

Sonning Bridge .... 

Sonning Villag s .... 

Sonning, the Thames Parade . 

Caversham Clappers, and Old Bridgi 

Caversham Lock and Weir 

Caversham. from the River 

Mapledurham Mill 

Mailcdurham House . 

Hardwicke House .... 

Hardwicke House, from the River 

Whitchurch, from the Bridge. 

Pangb .urne Wharf and Whitchurch Bridge 

Pangbourne Weir Pool .... 

Pangb, urne : Shooter's Hill and Reach . 

View Irom Harts Wood 10 Streatley 

Streatley, from Gonng Church To^er 

S reatley, fiom Goring Weir . 

Streatley Church 

Streatley Bridge and Goritg Church 

Strtaley Mill 

Goring Church, from Streatley Mill 
Goring Mill and Bridge .... 

Goring Lane ...... 

King's Standing Hill and Valley of the Thames 

Cleeve M.ll 

Moulsford Ferry and " Beetle and Wedge" 
Mongewell Mill Pond .... 
Mongewell Church, from River . 
Wallingford Hridge and St. Peter's Church 
Wallingford Old Lock .... 

Wallingford Market Place . . 
View from Hill, ShiUingford 
Dorch sier Mill, River Thame 

Dorchester Abbey 

Day's Lock, from the Hill 

Sinodun Hill, showing the Earthworks 

Clilion Hampden: Bridge and Church . 

Cli ton Hampden, from the River 

Clifton Hampden Village 

Clifton Hampden Church .... 

Sutton Courtney 

Abingdon Bridge ..... 

Abingdon : St. Helen's .... 

Abingdon : St. Helen's, from the South side 

Abingdon : Christ's Hospital . 

Abingdon : St. Nicholas' Church and Abbey Gatew, 

Abinglon: The Abbey Mill 

Abingdon ; The Regatta Reach 

Nuneham : In the Woods . 

Nuneham Bridge, from the Wood . 

Radley Church from the Park . 

Kenningto.i Reach : A Sailing Race 

Iffl^yMill 

Iffley Church 

Iffley Rectory and Church . 

Iffley Church from Above: The lower part 

Oxfor.l Course . 
Oxford Eights : Tne Last Spurt for the Bump 
0<tbrd : The College Ba-^ges and Folly Bridge 
Oxford : The Frozen Thames at ihe Willows 
The Thames at Oxford : The Eights after a Race 



of 



PAGE 

157 
. 158 

i.',9- 

. 160 

161 

. 162 

163 
. 164 

165. 
. 166 

167 
. 168 

179 
. 180 

181 
. 182 

183 
. 184. 

185. 
. i8fr 

187 
. 188 

189. 
. 190 

igr 
. 192 

203. 
. 204 

205 
. 20") 

207 
. 208 

209 
. 210 

2H 
. 212 

213- 

. 214 
215 

. 216 
227 

. 228 

229 
. 230 

231 
. 232 

233 

• 234 
235 

• 236 

237 

. 238 

239 

. 240 

251 

. 252 

253 

• 254 
255 

. 256 

257 
. 258 

259 

. 260 
261 
262 

263 
264 

273 
274 
275 

276 

277 
278 
279 



ay 



the 



280 
281 
282 
^83 
284 



SMALL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Richmnnd HMl ........ 4 

The Whit-^ Lodge 5 

Petersham Church .... .5 

Orleans House ...... C 

A Perspective View of Twickenham ... 7 

Twickenham Church ...... 8 

Teddington Lock ....... 9 

Kingston Bridge ....... 10 

The Coronation Stone . . .10 

Surbiton (Kingston Regatta). . . . . 11 

Hampton Court Bridge ...... 12 

Hampton Couit. from the West, 26; The East 
Front, 26; The Great Hall, looking West, 27; 
The King's Guard Chamber, 28 ; The Fountain 
Court, 29 ; Ceiling, Queen Anne s Drawing 
Room, 29 ; The Fireplace, Queen's Gallery. 30; 
The I^ong Water and Avi nuesin the Home Park, 
31; The Chap'l, 31; The South P'ront, 32; 
Queen Miry's Bower, 32 ; '1 he Fish Court, 33 26—33 

The D ana l^'ountain, Bushey Park ... 34 

Garrick's " Temple " and Hampton Church 49 
A Perspective View of Hampton Court Bridg'; across 

the River Thames, 1753. .... 50 

Sunbury Lock . 51 

Wal on Church ....... 51 

Walton Bridge, 1794 .... .52 

Hallilord 52 

Weybridge ........ 53 

View of Shepperton in 1752 ..... 54 

Chertsey Lock, 54 ; Chertsey Bridg', 55 . 54 — 55 

London Stone ........ 56 

At Ankerwyke ....... 56 

Magna Charta Island ,...., 57 

WinHsor — From the River, 73 ; Henrv VIII.'s Gate- 
way, 74 ; St. George's Cnapel, West Front, 74 ; 
St. George's Chapel, the Nave, 75 ; The Albert 
Memorial Chapel, 76 ; Prince Consort s Monu- 
ment, 76; The Deans Cloisters, 77 ; The Old 
Song School, 78 ; The Queen's Audience 
Chamber, 78 ; The Throne Room, 79 ; St. 
George's Hall, 80 ; Queen Elizabeth's Gateway, 
80 ; East Front and Garden, 81 ; From the 

Bridge, 82 73 -82 

Eton Irom the River ...... 97 

Eton College Chapel. ...... 98 

Eton College Chapel, looking East ... (,;> 

Keate's Lane, Eton ....... 99 

Surly Hall loj 

Clewer ......... 100 

Monkey Island loi 

Bray Church . . . . ic2 

The Garden, Jesus Hospital, Bray . 102 

Hind's Head, and Entrance to the Churchyard, Bray 103 

The Fishery, Maidenhead 104 

Taplow Bridge an 1 Maidenhead .... 105 

Burnham Beeches 105 

Maidenhead Bridge ....... 106 

Cliveden Ferry, 121 ; Cliveden Woods, 122; Cliveden 

House, 122 121 — 122 

Entrance to the Lock, Cookham, 123; Cookham 

Villagf, 124; Cookham Moor, 125. . 1^3—125 
Hedsor, and Odney Weir, 125 ; Hedsor Fishery, 

126; Hedsor Weir, 127 .... 125—127 

Bourne End from the Tow-path .... 127 

Great Marlow 128 

High Street, Marlow 128 

Greit Marlow in 1814 ...... 129 

Bisham Abbey, The King's Fireplace . 130 

Bisham Abbey Irom the River .... 130 

Lady I'lace, Hurley . . . . 145 

Harleyford House 146 

Temple House and Island. ... . 146 

Lady I'lace from the River 147 

Lady Place from the South-East .... 147 

Harleyford Weir 148 

Medmenham Church ...... 149 

Medmenham fro.m the Hill ..... 150 

Medmenhnm Abbey ....... 150 

HamUedou Weir 151 



The Thames at Henley 

" The Red Lion, " Henley 

Henldy Market-place 

Kemenham Church 

Over llenlty Bridge . 

On the Tow-path above Henley 

Marsh Mills and Bridge . 

Ab )ve Mari>h Lock 

Wargrave from the Towing Path 

Waig ave Church . 

I^ustic liridg--, near Wargrave Church 

Shiplake Lock and Mills, from bslow 

Shiplake Church an I Farm 

Interior of Shiplake Church . 

The Thames tiom Shiplake Court . 

Sunning Church fiom the North- West 

Sonning Old Bridge to Sonning Eye 

Sonning Lock .... 

Cavershara Weir and Pool 

The Eel-Bucks at Caversham 

Mapledurham Weir, 193; Mapledurham Church, 
194 '• Mapledurham Lock, 194 ; Mapledurham 
Hou^e, from the Lawn, 193 . . 193 

Whitchurch Bridge 

Whitchurch Village . 

Pangb^urne Weir, from the Lock-House 

The " Swan," Pangbourne ..... 

View of Hart's Wood, looking down 

The Upper Path, Hart's Wood .... 

Tne "Swan," Sireatley 

Streatley Biidge 

Basildon Village 

Streatley from the Hill . 

Streatley Mill .... 

Goring Church from the Island 

Goring Lock from above . 

Ferry Lan?, Goring 

Cleeve Mill from below 

The "Leither Bottel," Cleeve 

An Old Berkshire Barn 

Moulsford, from the River 

Walling'ord Bridge . 

Wallingford Castle, South Tower 

Crowmarsh Village . 

Bjnsington Weir . 

Shillingford Bridge . 

Ewelme Almhouses an 1 Church 

Eweline Church and Monuments 

Dorchester Church, with the J-sse Window 

Dorchester Church and the River Thame 

Day's Lock, from the Hill . 

Sinodun Hill, from Day's Lock . . . . 

The Backwater, Day's Lock ..... 

Little Wittenham Church . , . . , 

Little Wittenham Church (interior) 

The Cross, Long Wittenham . . . . 

The Porch, Long Wittenham Church . 

Clifton Hampden Bridge . . . . , 

" The Barley Mow," Clifton Hampden 

Sutton Courtney ...... 

Sutton Courtney Bridge ..... 

The Church and Pool, Sutton Courtney 

St. Helen's Abingdon ...... 

Abingdon Abbey ...... 

The Almshouses and Christ's Hospital, Abingdon 

Abingdon Bridge, from St. Helen' Tower . 

Nuneham Woods and Cottage .... 

Nuneham Bridge, and Cottages from above 

Nuneham House . ... 

Carfax Conduit, Nuneham, and distant Thames . 

Sandford above the Lock . . . . 

Kennington Reach. ...... 

Iffley Church from the South- West. 

Ifiley Church from the South-Hast (Winter) 

The West Door, Iffley Church .... 

Iffley Mill 

The College Barges from the Folly Bridge, Oxford 

The Old " Oriel " Barge 

Old Folly Bridge and Friar Bacon s Study 



• 152 
152 

■ 153 
153 

■ 154 
169 
170 
170 

■ 171 

172 

• 173 
173 

■ 174 
174 

• 175 
176 

. 176 
177 

• 177 
178 



-195 
196 
196 

197 
197 
198 
198 
199 
200 

200 
201 
202 
217 
218 
2l8 
219 
220 
220 
221 
222 
222 
22 f 
223 
22,^ 
225 
225 
22J 
225 
241 
243 
242 
243 
243 
244 
244 
245 
246 
246 
247 
247 
248 
249 
249 
250 
265 
260 
266 
267 
26S 
268 
269 
270 
270 
271 
271 
272 
272 




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